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THE increased interest manifested in relation to all matters affecting 
the East, and the great attention now given to the study of compara 
tive religion, seem to indicate that the time has come when an attempt 
should be made to place before the English-speaking people of the 
world a systematic exposition of the doctrines of the Muslim Faith. 
The present work is intended to bupply this want, by giving, in a tabu 
lated form, a concise account of the doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and 
customs, together with the technical and theological terms, of thu 
Muhammadan religion. 

Although compiled by a clergyman who has had the privilege of 
heing engaged in missionary work afc Peshawar tor a period of twenty 
years, this "DICTIONARY OF ISLAM" is not intended to be a contro 
versial attack on the religions system of Muhammad, but rather an 
exposition of its principles and teachings. 

Divided, as the Muslim world is, into numerous sects, it has been 
found impossible to take into consideration all the minor differences 
which exist amongst them. The Dictionary is, for the most part, an 
exposition of the opinions of the Sunni sect, with explanations of the 
chief points on which the Shi?h and Wahhabi schools of thought differ 
from it. Very special attention has been given to the views of the 
Wahhabis, as it is the Author * conviction that they represent the 
earliest teachings of the Muslim .Faith as they came from Muhammad 
and his immediate successors. When it is remembered that, according 
to Mr. Wilfrid Blunt s estimate, the Shiah sect only numbers some 
ten milliom out of the one hundred and seventy-five millions of Mu- 
hammadans in the ^world, it will be seen that, in compiling a Dic- 
tionarv of Muhammadanism, the Shiah tenets must of necessity occupy 
a secondary place in the study of the religion. Still, upon all 
important questions of theology and jurisprudence, these difference* 
have been noticed. 

The piesrnt book does not profess to be a .Biographical Dic 
tionary. The tfrcul work of ll>n Khailikan, translated into MnHioh by 


Slaiie, supplies this. But short biographical notices of persons con 
nected with the early history of Islam have been given, inasmuch as 
many of these persons are connected with religious dogmas and cere 
monies ; the martyrdom of Husain, for instance, as being the foundation 
of the Muharram ceremonies ; Abu Hanifah, as connected with a 
school of jurisprudence ; and the Khalifah Umar as the real founder of 
the religious and political power of Islam. In the biographical notice 
of Muhammad, the Author has expressed his deep obligations to SIR 
WILLIAM MUIR S great work, the Life of Mahomet. 

It is impossible for anyone to write upon the subject of Muham- 
madanism without being largely indebted, not only to Sir William 
Muir s books, but also to the works of the late MR. LANE, the author 
of Modern Egyptians, new editions of which have been edited by MR. 
STANLEY LANE POOLE. Numerous quotations from these volumes will 
be found in the present work. 

But whilst the Author has not hesitated in this compilation to 
avail himself of the above and similar works, he has, during a long 
residence amongst Muhauimadaii peoples, been able to consult very 
numerous Arabic and Persian works in their originals, and to obtain 
the assistance of very able Muhammadan native scholars of all schools 
of thought in Islam. 

He is specially indebted to DR. F. STEINGASS, of the Univer 
sity of Munich, the author of the English- Arabic and Arabic-English 
Dictionaries, for a careful revision of the whole work The interesting 
article on WRITING is from the pen of this distinguished scholar, as 
well as some valuable criticisms on the composition of the QUR AN, and 
a biographical sketch of the Khalifah Umar. 

Orientalists may, perhaps, be surprised to find that SIKHISM has 
been treated as a sect of Islam, but the Compiler has been favoured with 
a very able and scholarly article <a the subject by Mr. F. PINCOTT, 
M.K.A.S., in which he shows that the " religion of Nanak was really 
intended as a compromise between Hinduism and Muhammadanism, if 
it may not even be spoken of as the religion of a Muhanimadan 
sect/ the publication of which in the present work seemed to be 
most desirable, 

At the commencement of the publication of the work, the Author 
received very valuable assistance from the REV. E. A. P. SHIRREFF, 
M.A., Principal of the Lahore Divinity College, as well as from other 
friends, which he must gratefully acknowledge. 

Amongst the numerous suggestions which the Author received for 


the compilation of this Dictionary, was one from a well-known Arabic 
scholar, to the effect that the value of the work would be enhanced 
if the quotations from the Qur an, and from the Traditions, were given 
in their original Arabic. This, however, seemed incompatible with 
the general design of the book. The whole structure of the work is 
intended to be such as will make it available to English scholars unac 
quainted with the Arabic language; and, consequently, most of the 
information given will be found under English words rather than under 
their Arabic equivalents. For example, for information regarding the 
attributes of the Divine Being, the reader must refer to the English 
Goo, and not to the Arabic ALLAH; for all the ritual and laws 
regarding the liturgical service, to the English PRAYER, and not to 
the Arabic SALAT; for the marriage laws and ceremonies, to the Eng 
lish MARRIAGE, and not to the Arabic MKAH. It is hoped that, in this 
way, the information given will be available to those who are entirely 
unacquainted with Oriental languages, or, indeed, with Eastern life. 

The quotations from the Qur an have been given chiefly from 
Palmer s and Rodwell s translations; and those in the Qur anic narra 
tive of Biblical characters (MOSES for example) have been taken from 
MR. STANLEY LANK POOLE S edition of Lane s Selections. But, when 
needful, entirely new translations of quotations from the Qur an have 
been given. 

The " DICTIONARY OF ISLAM" has been compiled with very con 
siderable study and labour, in the hope that it will be useful to many ; 
-to the Government official called to administer justice to Muslim 
peoples ; to the Christian missionary engaged in controversy with Mus 
lim scholars; to the Oriental traveller seeking hospitality amongst 
Muslim peoples ; to the student of comparative religion anxious to 
learn the true teachings of Islam; to all, indeed, who care to know 
what are those leading principles of thought which move aud guide one 
hundred and seventy-five millions of the great human family, forty 
millions of whom are under the rule of Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Impress of India. 

July 23rrf, 1885. 










a, i, n< at the beginning of a word. 




A.s in English. 



A soft dentaJ, like the Italian t. 




\ r ery nearly the sound of th in thing. 




As in English. 




A strong aspirate. 




Cluttural, like the Scotch ch in loch. 



Soft dental. 




A sound between dh and z. 










> As in English- 










A strongly articulated s\ in Central Asia 


aa sw. 




Something like the foreign pronunciation 

of the tic in that , in Central Asia and 

India, z or ?.w. 




A strongly articulated palatal t. 



A strongly articulated z. 


A guttural, the pronunciation of which 


must be learnt by ear. 



A strong guttural gii. 



As in English. 




Like ck in stuck 













)As in English. 



















V As in Italian. 






Pronounced as a, i, u, preceded by a yery 

slight aspiration. 


AAKON. Arabic Harun 
The account given of Aaron in the Qur an 
be found in tho article on Moses. In Surah 
xix. 29, tho Virgin Mary i* addres*d as tho 
Sister of Aaron." [MARY, MO C ES.J 

ABAD (J^). Eternity; without 
end, as distinguished fromAzal 
without beginning. 

ABASA (LT^). "Ho frowned." 
Tke title of the Lxxxth chapter of the Qur an. 
It is said that a blind man, named Abdu Hah 
ibn Umm Maktum, once interrupled Muham 
mad in conversation with certain -chiefs of 
Quraisb. The Prophet, however, took no 
notice of him, but frowned and turned away : 
mid in the first verso of this Surah, he is 
represented as reproved by God for having 
done so : " Ho frowned and turned his back, 
for that the blind man came unto him." 

ABBAS (<j-W*). The son of Abdu 
VMutialib, and consequently the paternal 
uncle of Muhammad. The most celebrated 
of the "Companions," and the founder of the 
Abbaside dynasty, which held the Khali fato 
for a period of 509 year3, namely, from A.I>. 
749 to A.D. 1258. He died in A.H. 82. His 
son Ibn- Abbas was also a celebrated autho 
rity on Islamic traction? an ! la\v. fins 

ABBASJDES. Arabic al-< Abbdsiyah 
(dU~\**J\). The name of a dynasty" ot 
Khalifahs descended from al- Abbas, the son 
.>f Abdu l-Mutt;alib, and a paternal uncle of 
Muhammad. On account of their descent 
from so near a relation of the Prophet, the 
Abbasides had, ever since the introduction of 
Islam, been very high in esteem amongst the 
Arabs, and had at an early period begun to 
excite the jealousy of the Urnaiyade Khalifahs. 
who after the defeat of All occupied the 
throne of the Arabian Empire. Tho Abbas- 

idea had for some time asserted their c aims 
to the Khalifate, and in A.D. 746 they com 
menced open hostilities. In 749 the Abbaside 
Kballifah Abu V Abbas, surnatned as-Saffah, 
"the blood-shedder," was recognied as Kha- 
lifah at al-Kufah, and Marwan II., the last of 
the Cmaiyado Khalifahs, was defeated and 
e lain. 

Thirty-seven Khalifahs of the Abbaside dy 
nasty reigned over the Muhainmadan empire, 
extending over the period from A.H. 182 (A.D 
749-50) to A.H. 656 (A.D. 1258). 

The names of the Abbasido Khalifahs are --- 
Abu l- Abbas as-Safiah (A.D. 719;, al-Mansur 
(A.I). 754). al-Mahdi (A.D. 770), al-Hadl (A.D. 
785), Harun ar Rashid (A.D. 786), al-Amin 
(A.D. 809), al-Ma inim (A.D. 813). al-Mu tasim 
(A.D. 833), al-Wasiq (A.H. 842),al-Mutawakkil 
(A.D. 847 ; , al-Muntasir (A,D. 861), al-Mujjta in 
(A.D. 862), al-Mu tazz (A.D. SGfi), al-Mulitad) 
(A.D. 86>, al-Mu tamid (A.D. 870), al-Mu ta/.id 
(A.D. 892)) al-Muktafi (A.D. 902), al-Muqtadir 
(A.D. 908). al-Qahir (A.D. 932), ar-Razi (A.D 
934), al-Mnttaqi (A.D 940), al-Mustaqfl (A n 
044), al-Muti (A.D. 945), at-Tfii (A.D. 974) 
al-Qadir (A.D. 994), al-Qaim (A.D. 1031), al 
Muqtadi (A.D. 1075). al-Mustazhir (A.D. 1094), 
al-Mustarshid (A.D. 1118), ar-Riishid (A.C 
1135), al-Muqtafl (A.D. 1136), al-Mutanji.l 
(A.D. 1160), al-Mustazi (A.D. 1170), an-Naen 
(A.D. 1180), as-Zahir (A.D. 1225), al-MustanMr 
I A.D. 1226), al-Musta sim (A.D. 1242 to A.D. 

In the reign ot ai-.Muata sim HQiaku,grand- 
aon of Jinglz Khan, entered Persia and 
became Sultan A.D. 1256. In 1258 he took 
Baghdad and put the KJhalifah al-Musta siiu to 
death. [KHALIFAIL] 

ABDAL (J^\). " .Substituies, 
pi. of Badal. Certain persons by whom, it is 
said, Gcd continues the -world in existence. 
Their number is seventy, of whom forty 
reside in Syria, and thirty elsewhere. ^Vhon 
one dies another takes his place, being* so 



appointed by God. It i* one of the signs of 
the last day that the Abddl will come from 
Syria. (Mishkat, xxiii, c, 3.) No one pre 
tends to be able to identify these eminent 
persons hi the world. God alone knows who 
they are, and where they are. 

ABDU LLAH (AUU**). The father 
of Muhammad, He was the youngest son of 
*Ahdu 1-Muttalib. During the pregnancy of 
his wife Aminah, he set out on a mercantile 
expedition to Gaza in the south of Palestine, 
and on his way back he sickened and died at 
al-Madlnah, before the birth of his son Mu 
hammad (Kdtibul-Wdqidi, p, 18; Muir s 
Life of Mahomet, vol. i. p. 11.) 

J^t- ^i) One of Muhammad s secre 
taries. It is related that, when Muhammad 
instructed Abdu Hah to write down the 
words (Surah xxiii. 12-14), " We (God) have 
created man from an extract of clay . . . 
then we produced it another creation," Abdu 
llah exclaimed, " And blessed be God, 
the best of creators"; and Muhammad told 
him to write that down also. Whereupon 
Abdu llah boasted that he had been inspired 
with a sentence which the Prophet had ac 
knowledged to be part of the Qur an. It is of 
him that it is written in the Qur an, Surah vi. 
93, "Who is more unjxist than he who devises 
against God a lie, or says, I am inspired, 
when he i not inspired at all." 

ABDU L-MUTTALIBts-lUttjuc). 

Muhammad s grandfather and his guardian 
for two years. He died, aged 82, A.D. 578. 
His sons were Abdu "llah (Muhammad s 
father), al-Haris az-Zuhair, Abu Tulib, Abu 
Lahab, a 1- Abbas, and Hamza. 


(^^\ joUNjifrc). The celebrated 
founder of the Qadiriyah order of darweshes, 
surnamed PIr-Dastagir. He died and was 
buried at Baghdad, A.H. 501. 


(^2* ^ ^j^cwjttjk**). One of the Com 
panions who embraced Islam at a very early 
period, and -was one of those who fled to 
Ethiopia. He also accompanied Muhammad 
in all his battles, and received twenty wounds 
at Uhud, He died A.H. 32, aged 72 or 75. 
and was buried at Baql u i-Gharqad. the 
graveyard of al -Madman. 

ABFL. Arabic Hdbll ( rfU), Heb. 

an Hebel In the Qur an " the two 
eons of Adam " are called Ildbil wtt Qdbll, 
and the following is the account given of 
them in that book (Surah v. 80-35), together 
with the remarks of the commentators in 
italics (as rendered in Mr. Lane s Selections, 
2nded., p. 53), " Recite unto them the history 
of the two sons of Adam, namely, Abel 
and Cain, with truth. When they offered 
[their] offering to God (AbeTs being a ram, and 
Cain s being produce of the earth), and it was 
accepted from one of them (Mar is , from Abel; 


for Jire descended from heaven, and devoured 
his offering), and it was not accepted from the 
other, Cain was enrauedj but he concealed his 
envy until Adam performed a pilgrimage, when 
he said unto his brother^ I will assuredly slay 
thee. Abel said. Wherefore? Cain answered^ 
Recause of the acceptance of thine offering to 
tht exclusion of mine. Abel replied, God only 
accepteth from the pious. If thou stretch 
forth to me thy hand to slay me, I will not 
stretch forth to thee my hand to slay thee ; 
for I fear God, the Lord of the worlds. I 
de.sire that thou shouldst bear the sin [which 
thou intendest to commit] against me, by 
slaying me, and thy sin which thou hast com 
mitted before, and bou wilt be of the compa 
nions of the fire. And that is the recompense 
of the offenders. But his soul suffered him to 
slay his brother so he slew him; and he 
became of [the number of] those who suffer 
loss. And he knew not. iv/iat to do with kirn ; 
for he was the first dead person upon the face of 
the- earth of the sons of Adam. So he, carried 
him upon his baek. And God sent a raven, 
which scratched up the earth with its biU 
and ita talons and raised it over a dead raven 
that was with it. until it hid it, to show him 
how he should hide the corpse of his brother. 
He said, O my disgrace! Am I unable to be 
like this raven, and to hide the corpse of my 
brother? And he became of [the number 
of] the repentant. And he digged [a grave] 
for him and hid him. On account of this 
ivhich Cain did We commanded the children 
of Israel that he who sljould slay a soul (not 
for the latter s having slain a soiil or committed 
wickedness in the earth, such as infidelity, or 
adultery, or intercepting the way^ and tht /ike) 
[should be regarded] as though he had slain 
all mankind ; and he who saveth it alive, by 
abstaining from slaying it. as though he had 
saved alive all mankind." 

" The occasion of their making this offer 
ing is thus related, according to the common 
tradition in the East. Each of them being 
boru with a twin-sister, when they were 
grown up, Adam, by God s direction, ordered 
Cain to marry Abel s twin-sister, and Abel to 
marry Cain s ; (for it being the common 
opinion that marriages ought not to be had 
in the nearest degrees of consangtiinity, since 
they must necessarily marry their sisters, it 
seemed reasonable to suppose they ought to 
take those of the remoter degree ;) but this 
Cain refusing to agree to, because his own 
sister w,as the handsomest, Adam ordered 
them to make their offerings to God, thereby 
referring the dispute to His determination. 
The commentators say Cain s offering was a 
sheaf of the very worst of his orn, but 
Abel s a fat lamb of the best of hi* flock." 
Sale s Koran, I., p. 122. 

<ABID O>U). "A worshipper [of 
God]." A term generally used for a devout 
person. The word frequently occurs in the 
Qur an; e.g. Surah ii. 132: "The baptism 
{sibghah} of God! And who is better than 
God at baptizing ? We are the worshippers 
( abidun) of God." The word aibghah is trans- 


latdd by Professor Palmer"dye and "dyeing," 
but Sale, following the Muslim commentators, 
al-Baizuwi. Jalalu d dm, and llu.sainl, who 
say it refers to tho Christian rite, translates it 
"baptism." Of hers say that it means. ///mA 
or din. the religion of God, with an ndapta- 
tation to which mankind are created. See 
Lane s Lexicon, f BAPTISM.] 

ABIQ (&\). A runaway slave. 

ABJAD (^). Tho name oil an 

arithmetical arrangement of the alphabet, the 
letters of which have different powers from 
one to one thousand. It is in the order of 
the alphabet as used by the Jews a far as 
400, the six remaining letters feeing added 
by the Arabians. The letters spell the 

nbjad hauowfiz hulti halaman 
sa j as r/aras/iat stik/iaz zaziyh 
The author of the Arabic Lexicon. nl-Qdmux, 
.says that tho first .six words are the names 
of celebrated kings of Madyan (Midian), and 
that the last two words were added by the 
Arabians. Some say they arc the names of 
the eight sons of the inventor of the Arabic 
character, Muramir ihn Murra. 

The following is a list of the letters with 
their English equivalents, and the power of 
each in numbers : 










































































ABLUTION. Arabic, wazu\ wuzu 
(fj*j) Persian, G&rfa** (u^-^j. Ablu 
tion is described by Muhammad as "the half of 
faith and the key of prayer " (Mixlikat. iii. 3c). 
and is founded on tho authority of the Qur an, 
surah v. 8, " Believers! when yo prepare 
yourselves for prayer, wash your faces and 
hands up to the elbows, and wipe ycur heads 
and your feet to the ankles." 

These ablutions arc absolutely necessary as 
n preparation for tho recital of" tho liturgical 
form of prayer, and are performed as follows: 
The worshipper, having tucked up his sleeves 
n little higher than his elbows, washes his 
hands three times ; then he rinses his mouth 
three times, throwing the water into it with 
his right hand. After this, he, with his right 
hand, throws -water up his nostrils, snuffing 
it np at the eame time, and then blow.s it out, 

compressing his nostrils with the thumb and 
finger of the left, hand thia being also per 
formed three times. He then washes his 
face throo tim-s. throwing up the water with 
both hands. Ho noxt- washes his n.;ht hand 
and arm, a.- high us the elbow, as many times, 
causing tho water to ran along his arm from 
the palm of the hand to the elbow. an;l in 
the same manner he washes too loft. Then 
he draws his wetted right hard over the 
upper part of his head, raising his turban 
or cap with his loft. It" he has a beard, he 
then comb!? it with the wetted fingers of his 
right hand, holding his hand with the palm 
forwards, and passing the lingers through his 
board from the throat upwards. He then 
puts the tips of his fore-h ngcrs into his ears 
an 1 twists them round, passing his thumbs at 
the same time round the back of tho ears 
from tho bottom upwards. Next, he wipes 
his neck with the back of the fingers of both 
hands, making the ends of his liners meet 
behind his neck, and then drawing them for 
ward. Lastly, he washes his feet, as high as 
the ankles, and passes his fingers between the 
toes. During this ceremony, which is gene 
rally performed in less than three minutes, 
the intending worshipper usually recites some 
pious ejaculations or prayers. For example : 
Before, eornmenf. ing the wazff: "I am 
going to purify myself from all bodily un- 
cleanness, preparatory to commencing prayer, 
that holy act of duty, which will draw my 
soul near to tho throne of the Most High. 
In tha name of God. tho Great and Mighty. 
Praise bo to God who has given us grace to 
be Muslims. Islam is a truth and intidelity 
a falsehood." 

When washing the nostrils : - ; my God, if 
I am pleasing in Thy sight, perfume ine with 
the odours of Paradise. 1 

When washing the right hand : " O my 
God, on the day of judgment, place the book 
of my actions in my right hand, and examine 
my account with favour/ 

When washing the left hand : " my God, 
place not at the resurrection the book of my 
actions in my left hand. 

The Shiya Is, acting moro in accordance 
with the text of the Qur an quoted above, 
only wipe, or rub (maxah) the feet, instead of 
washing them, as do the Sunnis. 

The ablution need not be performed before 
each of the five stated periods of prayer, 
when the person is conscious of having 
avoided every kind of impurity since tho last 
performance of the ablution. Tho private 
parts of the body must also bo purified when 
necessary. When water cannot be procured, 
or would be. injurious to health, the ablution 
may be performed with dust or sand. This 
ceremony is called Tni/ammum (</.( .) Tho 
washing of tho whoie bodv is neces?nr>/ after 
certain periods of impurity. [GHUSJ,.] The 
brushing of the teeth is also a religious duly. 
[MIMWAK.] The b?ncfits of ablution are. 
highly o;iioHt.-d in the sayings of >irr -iru-nad, 
He who p-.-rforrnr, the wa . ;ly 

will extract all in from his body, even tho.. 
it may ho lurking under his linger nails." " Tti 



the day 01 resurrection people shall eorne 
with bright faces,, handa and fe>r and there 
will be jewels in every place where the waters 
of the waziZ have reached. (Mtshkvt. iii. I.) 



In all the principal mosques there are 
tanks, or -wells, which supply water for the 
purposes of Legal purification. [PTIKIFICATION.] 

ABORTION. Arabic Isqd. There 

is- no mention of the subject in the Qur an, 
but according to the Fatdwi Alamgiri (TO!. 
iv. p. 238), it is forbidden after the child ia 
formed in the womb. Muhammad is related 
to have ordered prayers to be said over an 
abortion, when supplication should be made 
for the father and mother, -for forgiveness 
and mercy. (Mishkdt, v. c. 2.) 

ABRAHAM. Arabic Ibrahim 
Cf**W)* One of the six great pro 
phets to whom God delivered special laws. 
The "Friend of God," Khalilu ilah, to whom 
were revealed twenty portions (xahifah) of 

Abraham is very frequently mentioned in 
the Qur an, together with Ishmacl and Isaac. 

The following are Mr. Lane s selections (giving 
in italic;* the remarks of Muslim commenta 
tors) .- 

" JRernember when Abraham said to his 
father Azar (this ivns the swiKunf of Terafi), 
Dost thou take images as deities ? Verily I 
see thee and thy people to be in a manifest 
error. (And thus, as We shotved him (he error 
of his father and his people, did We show 
Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the 
earth, and [We did so] that he might be of [the 
number of] those who firmly believe.) And 
when the night overshadowed him, he saw a 
star (it is t>ai<I that it was Venus), [and] he said 
unto his people, who were astrologers, This is 
my Lord, according to your assertion. But 
when it set. he said, I like not those that set. 
to take them as Lords, since it is not meet for u. 
Lord to experience alteration and change of 
placet, as they are of the nature of accidents 
Yet this had no effect upon them. And whea 
he saw the moon rising, he said unto them 
This is my Lord. But -when it set, he said., 
Verily if my Lord direct me not (if He ran- 
firm me not in the right way\ 1 shall assur e tU; 
be of the erring people. This was a hint to 
his people that they were in error ; but it had no 
effect upon them. And when he saw the sun 
rising, be said, This is my Lord. This is 
greater than the, star and the moon. But when 
it set. and the proof had been rendered ntore 
strong to them, yet they desisted not, be said 
my people, verily I am clear of the [things] 
which ye associate with God; namely the 
images and the heavenly bodies. So they naiii 
unto him, What dost thou worship? fft. 
answered, Verily I direct iriy face unto Him 
who hath created the heavens and the earth, 
following the right religion, and 1 am Dot of 
the polytlieists. And his people argued with 
him ; [but] he said, Do ye argue with tne 
respecting God, when Pie hath directed we, 
and I fear not what ye associate with Him 
unless my Lord will that aught displeauHg 
should befall me? My Lord comprebendetti 
everything by His knowledge. Will ye hot- 
therefore consider? And wherefore -should 
I fear what ye have associated with God 
when ye fear not for your having ussooiated 
with God that of which He hath not sent 
down unto you a proof ? Then which of thr 
two parties is the more worthy of safety I , 
Are we, or you f If ye know wha is the mor 
worthy of it, f of tow him.- God saith, Th"e> 
who have. believed, and not mixed their belief 
with injustice (that is, polytheism}, for theso 
shall bo safety from punishment, and they ar* 
rightly directed." (Surah vi. 74-82,") 

" Relate unto tfiem, in the book (that is, the 
Qm an^. f he history of Abraham. Verily, he 
was a person of great veracity, a prophet. 
When he said unto his father Azar, who wor 
shipped idols, O my father, wherefore" dost 
tliou v/orfihip that which hearefh not, nor 
seeth, nor averteth from thee aught, whether 
of advantage, or of injury? O my father 
verily fja degree] of knowledge hath come 
itmo me, that hath not come unfco- tbes : 
therefore follow me: [ will direct the into a 
right way. O my lather, serve not the devil, 


by obeying him in serving idols ; for the devil j 
is very rebellious unto the Compassionate. 
my father, verily I fear that a punishment will 
betid* thee from the Compassionate, if thou 
repent not, and that thou wilt be unto the 
devil an aider, and a companion in hell-fire. 
He replied, Art thou a rejector of my Gods, 
A braham, and dost thou revile them f If 
thou abstain not, I will assuredly assail theo j 
with stones or with ill words ; therefore beware 
]f me, and leave me for a long time. Abra- 
Htm said, Peace from me be on theo ! I will 
isk pardon for thee of my Lord ; for He 
<s gracious unto mo : and I will separate 
nyself from you and from what ye invoke, 
ustead of God ; and I will call upon my 
Lord : perhaps I shall not be unsuccessful in 
calling upon my Lord, as ttt are in calling 
upon idols. And when he had separated him 
self from them, and from what they wor 
shipped instead of God, by goiny to the F/ofy 
Land. We gave him two sons, that he might 
cheer himself thereby, namely, Isaac and Jacob : 
and each [of themj We made a prophet; and 
We bestowed upon them (namely, the three). 
of our mercy, wealth and children ; and We 
caused them to receive high commendation." 
(Surah six. 42-51.) 

" We gave unto Abraham his direction for 
merly, before he had attained to manhood; and 
We know him to be worthy of it. When he 
said unto his father and his people, What are 
these images, to the worship of which ye are 
devoted? they answered, We found our 
fathers worshipping them, and we have fol 
lowed their example. He said unto them. 
Verily ye and your fathers have been in a 
manifest error. They said, Hast thou come 
unto us, with tmth in saying this, or art thou 
of those who jest? He answered, Nay, your 
Lord (the being who de&rveth to be worshipped") 
: the Lord of the heavens and the earth, 
who created them, not after the similitude of 
anything pre-existing ; and I am of those who 
bear witness thereof. And, by God, I will 
assuredly, devise a plot against your idols 
after ye shall have retired, turning your 
backs. So, after they k<id gone to their place 
of assembly , on a day when they held a festival. 
he break them in pieces with <w vuce, except 
the chief of them, upon to/iose i.^k he hung the 
axe; that they might return unto it (namely 
*he chief) and ace what he had done with the 
<)ther*. They said, after thty had returned 
and seen what he had done, Who hath done 
this unto our gods ? Verily he is. of the 
unjust. And some of them, said, We heard a 
young man mention them reproachfully: he 
is called Abraham. They said, Then bring 
him before the eyes of the people, that they 
ma;* hour witness against him of his havinfi 
done it They said unto kirn, wftfn he had 
been brought, Hast thou done this untu our 
gods, O Abraham ? He answered, Nay, this 
their chief did it : and ask ye luein, if they 
[can} speak. And they returned unto them 
selves, upon reflection, and said unto them 
selves. Verily ye are the unjust, in worship 
ping that which spealceth nut. Then they re 
verted to their obstinacy, and said. Verily 


thou knowest that these gpeuk iioc : then 
wherefore dost thou order us to ask them ? He 
said, Do ye then worship, instead of God, 
that which doth not pro lit you at all, nor 
injure you if ye worship it not ? Fie on you, 
and on that which ye worship instead of God I 
Do yo not then understand? They said, 
Burn ye him, and avenge your gods, if ye 
will do so. So they collected ahundance of fire 
wood for him, and seljire to it ; and they bound 
AbruhtUH, and put him into an engine, and cust 
him into the fire. But, tauth God, We said, O 
fire, be thou cold, and a security unto Abra 
ham ! So nouy/it of him was burned save his 
bowls: the heat of thejire ceased, but its light 
remained.; and by God s saying, Security. 
Abraham was saved from dying ly reason of 
it* cold. And they intended against him a 
plot ; but he caused them to be the sufferers. 
And we delivered him and Lot, the son of hi* 
brother Haran, fro pi El- Erdq, [bringing 
them] tmto the land which We blessed for tho 
peoples, by the abundance of t tft rivers and 
trees, namely. Syria. Abraham took up his abode 
in Palestine, and Lot in JZl-Mutefikeh, be 
tween which is u day s journey. And when 
Abraham had asked a son, We gave unt j him 
Isaac, and Jacob as an additional gift, be 
yond what he had aslced, bdny a 4cw * son ; and 
all of them We made righteous persons o.nd 
prophets. And We made them models of reli 
gion who directed inen by Our command uttfo 
Our religion ; and We commanded them by 
inspiration to do good works and to perform 
prayer and to give the appointed alms ; jud 
they served Us. And unto Lot We gave 
judgment and knowledge; and We delivered 
him from the city which committed filthy 
actions ; for they were a people of evil, 
shameful doers , and We admitted him into 
our mercy; for he was [onej of the righteous. 
(Surah xxi. 62-75.) 

" Hast thou not considered him who disputed 
with Abraham concerning his Lord, because 
God had given him the kingdom? And ke 
was Nimrod. When Abraham said, (upon his 
*ayinq unto him. Who is thy Loi-d, unto whom 
ihou /nvitest us ?). My Lord is He who givetb 
life and causeth to die, ho replied. I give 
life and cause to die* And he MMMMMM! tw f> 
men, and slew one of them., and left the other 
So when he saw that fie understood not. Abra 
ham said, And verily God bringeth the MIH 
irom the east : now do thou bring it from the 
west. And he tvhc disbelieved was con 
founded ; and God directeth not tho oh" ending 
people." (Surah ii. 260.; 

** And Our messengers caine formerly unto 
Abraham with good tidings of Itaac and 
Jacob, who should be after him. They said, 
Peace. He replied. Peace be on you And he 
tarried not, but brought a roasted ralf. Aad 
when he saw mat their hands touched it not. 
he disliked them and conceived a foar oi 
them. They said, Fear not : for we avo sent 
unto the people of Lot, tluii toeintty dentroy 
fJi in. And hi* wvf Sarah was standing 
serving them, and she laughed, rejoicing at til- 
tidings of their destruction. And we Rftve he . 
good tidings of Isaac; and after lean". Jacob 


She said, Alas ! shall I bear a child when I 
am an old woman of nine and ninety years, 
and when this my husband is art old man of 
a hundred or a hundred and twenty years ? 
Verily this ("would be] u wonderful thing. 
They said, Dost thou wonder at the com 
mand of God? The mercy of God and His 
blessings be on you, O people of the house (of 
Abraham)] for He is - praise worthy, glorious. 
And when the terror bad departed from 
Abraham, and the good tidings had come 
unto him, he disputed with Us (tJiat is, with 
Our messengers ) respecting the people of 
Lot; for Abraham was gentle, compassionate, 
repentant. And he said unto them, Will ye 
destroy a city wherein aw three, hundred be 
lievers? They answered, No. He said, And 
will ye destroy a city wherein are two 
hundred believers c ! They answered. No. He 
said, And will ye destroy n, city wherein are 
forty believers ? They answ ered, No. He said, 
And will ye destroy a city wherein are fourteen 
believers? They answered, No. He, said, And 
tell me, if there- be, in it one believer t They 
answered, No. He said, Verily in it is Lot. 
They replied, We know best who is in it. And 
when their dispute had become tedious, they 
said, O Abraham, abstain from this disputa 
tion ; for the command of thy Lord hath come 
for their destruction, and a punishment not [to 
ba] averted is coming upon them." fSurah >zi. 

" And when Our decree for the destruction of 
the people of Lot came [to bo executed], We 
turned them {that is, their cities) upside- 
down ; for Gabriel raised them to heaven, and 
let them fall upside-down to the earth ; and 
We rained upon them stones ot" baked clay, 
sent one after another, marked with thy Lord, 
each with the name, of him upon whom it should 
be cast : and they [are] not far distant from 
the offenders ; that is, the stones are not, or the 
cities of the people of Lot were not, far distant 
from the people of Mekkeh." (Surah xi. 84.) 

" And [Abraham] said [after his escape 
from Nimrod], Verily I am going unto my 
Lord, who will direct me unto the place 
whither He hath commanded me to go, namely, 
Syria. And when he had arrived at the Holy 
La.nd, he said, O my Lord, give me a son 
[who shall be one] of the righteous. Where 
upon We gave him the glad tidings of a mild 
youth. And when he had attained to the 
age when he could work with him (as some 
say, seven years ; and some, thirteen), he said, 

my child, verily I have seen in a dream that 

1 should sacrifice theo (and the dreams of pro 
phets are true ; and their actions, by the com 
mand of God) therefore consider what thou 
seest advisable for me to do. He replied, O 
my father, do what thou art commanded: 
thou shalt find me. if God please, [of tlie 
number] of the patient. And when they had 
resigned themselves, and he had laid him 
down on his temple, in [the -valley of] Mind, 
and had drawn the knife across his throat (but 
it produced no effect, by reason of an obstacle 
interposed by the divine power), We called unto 
him, Abraham, thou hast verified the 
vision. Verily thus do We reward the well- 


doers. Verily this was the manifest trial. 
And We ransomed him ivhoni he had been com 
manded to sacrifice (and he was Ishmael or 
Isaac ; for there are two opinions) with an 
excellent victim, a ram from Paradise, the 
same that Abel had offered: Gabriel (on whom 
be peace I ) brought it, and the lord Abraham 
sacrificed it, saying, God is most great / And 
We left this salutation [to be bestowed] on 
him. by the latter generations, Peace [be] on 
Abraham ! Thus do We reward the well 
doers : for he was of Our believing servants." 
(Surah xxxvii. 97-111.) 

" Remember when Abraham said, O my Lord, 
show me how Thou will raise to life the 
dead. He said, Hast thou not believed ? He 
answered, Yea: but / have asked Thc.e that 
my heart may be at ease. Ho replied. Then 
take four birds and draw them towards thee, 
and cut (hem in pieces and mingle together their 
flesh and their feathers ; then place \ipon each 
mountain of thy land a portion of them, then 
call them unto ihee. : they shall come unto 
thee quickly; and know thou that God is 
mighty [and] wise. And he took a peacock 
and a vulture and a raven and a. cock, and did 
with them as hatli been described, and kept their 
heads with him. and called them ; whereupon 
tkc portions flew about, one to another, until 
they became complete : then they came to their 
heads." (Surah ii. 262.) 

" Remember, when his Lord had tried Abra 
ham by [certain] words, commands and prohi 
bitions, and he fulfilled them, God said unto 
him, I constitute thee a model of religion unto 
men. Ho replied. And of my offspring con 
stitute models of religion. [God] said, My 
covenant doth not apply to the offenders, the 
unbelievers among them. And when We ap 
pointed the house (that is, the JCa l ba/t} to be 
a place for the resort of men, and a .place of 
security (a man would meet the slayer of his 
father there and he would not provoke him [to 
revenge],) and [said], Take, O men, the sta 
tion of Abraham (the stone upon ivhich he stood 
at the time of building the House) as a 
place of prayer, that ye. inay perform, behind it 
the prayers of the two rafruhs [which are or 
dained to be performed after the ceremony] 
of the circuiting [of the Ka bah], And We 
commanded Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], 
Purify my House (rid it of the idols) for 
those who shall compass [it], and those who 
shall abide there, and those who shall bow down 
and prostrate themselves. And when Abra 
ham said, O my Lord, make this place a 
secure territory (and God hath answered his 
prayer, and made it a. sacred place, wherein the 
blood of man is not shed, nor is any one op 
pressed in it, nor is its game hunted [or shot], 
nor are its plants cut or pulled up), and supply 
its inhabitants with fruits (which hath been 
done by the transporting of at- faif from Syria 
thither, when it [that is, the territory of 
Makkah] was desert, without soivn land or 
water, such of them as shall believe in God 
and the last day. He mentioned them pecu 
liarly in the prayer agreeably with the saying 
of God, My covenant doth not apply to the 
offenders. God replied, And J mu supply 



him who disbelieveth : I will make him to 
enjoy a supply of food in this ivorld, a little 
while : then I will force him, in the. world to 
come, to the punishment of the fire ; and evil 
shall be the transit." (Surah ii. 118-120.) 

" And remember when Abraham was raising 
the foundations of the House (that I .v, build 
ing it), together with Ishmael, and they said. 
our Lord, accept of us our building; for 
Thou art the Hearer of what is said, the 
Knower of what is done. O our Lord, also 
make us resigned unto Thee, and make from 
among our offspring a people resigned unto 
Thee, and show us our rites (the ordinances 
of our worship, or our pilgrimage}., and be pro 
pitious towards us ; for Thou art the Very 
Propitious, the Merciful. (They begged Him 
to be propitious to them, notwithstanding their 
honesty, from a motive of humility, and by way 
of instruction to their offspring.) O our Lord, 
also send unto them (that is, the. people, of the 
House) an apostle from among them (and God 
hath answered their prayer by sending Muham 
mad), who shall recite unto them Thy signs 
(the Qur dn), and shall teach them the book 
(the Qur dn), and the knowlege that it con- 
taineth, and shall purify them from polytheism ; 
for Thou art the Mighty, the Wise. And 
who will be averse from the religion of 
Abraham but he who makath his soul foolish, 
who is ignorant that it is God s creation, and 
that the worship of Him is incumbent on it ; or 
who lightly csieemeth it and appfieth it to vile 
purposes ; when We have chosen him in this 
world a* o.n apostle and a friend, and ho shall be 
in the world to come one of the righteous for 
whom are high ranks ? And remember when 
his Lord said unto him, Resign thyself: he 
replied, I resign myself unto the Lord of the 
worlds. And Abraham commanded his chil 
dren to follow it (namely, the religion) ; and 
Jacob, his children ; saying, O my children, 
verily God hath chosen for you the religion 
ofal-Islnni; therefore die not without your 
being Muslims. It was a prohibition from 
abandoning Islatn and a command to persevere 
therein unto death." (Surah ii. 121-126.) 

" When the Jews said, Abraham ivas a Jew, 
uinl we are. of his religion, and the Christians 
said the. like, [tho following] was revealed: 
O people of the Scripture, wherefore do ye 
argue respecting Abrabain. asserting that he 
was of your religion, when the Pentateuch and 
the Gospel were not sent down but after him 
a long time? Do ye not then understand the. 
falsify of your saying / So ye. O people, have 
argued respecting that of which ye have 
knowledge, concerning Moses and Jesus, find 
have asserted that ye are of their religion : 
then wherefore do ye argue respecting that 
of vvhich ye have no knowledge, concerning 
Abraham? But God knoweth his case, and 
ye know if not. Abraham was not a Jew nor 
a Christian : but he was orthodox, a Muslim 
[or one resigned], a Unitarian, and he was not 
of the polytheists." (Surah iii. f>8-60.) 

Arabic Ibuq (jM). An absconded 
male or female slave is called Abig, but an 

infant slave who leaves his home is termed 
?//, a word which is also used for an adult 
slave who has strayed. The apprehension of 
a fugitive slave is a laudable act, and the 
person who seizes him should bring him be 
fore the magistrate and receive a reward of 
forty dirhams. (Hamilton s Hiduyuh, vol. ii 
p. 278.) 

ABSTINENCE. Arabic Tagwd 
. Is very frequently enjoined in 
the Qur an. The word generally applies to 
abstinence from idolatry in the first instance, 
but it is used to express a life of piety. An 
excessive abstinence and a life of asceticism 
are condemned in the Qur an, and tho Chris 
tians are charged with the invention of the 
monastic life. (Surah Ivii. 27.) As for th* 
monastic /iff, they invented it themselves." 


Muhammad ibn Isma IIal-Bukhjiri,the author 
of the well-known collection of traditions re 
ceived by the Sunnis. [BUKHARI.] 



(u~rt e ^^ AlN.x*fty\). [MALIK.] 


( ^^\ tf A-^). Known as Imam 
Muhammad. Born at Wasit, a city in Arabian 
Iraq, A.H. 132. He studied under the great 
Imam Abu Hani f ah. and had also studied 
under Imam Malik for three years. He is cele 
brated as one of the disciples of the Iniiim 
Abu Hamfah, from whom he occasionally 
differs, as ia seen in the Hidayah. HP died 
at Rai, in Khurasan, where his tomb is still 
to bo seen, A.H. 181). 

ABU BA.KR (/> jt). Of the 

origin of his name, thore are various explana 
tions. Some think that it means the father 
of the maiden," and that he received this 
title because he wa.s the father of Ayishah, 
whom Muhammad married when she was only 
nine years old. His original name was Abdu 
1-Ka bah (which the Prophet changed into 
Abdu Hah) Ibn Abi Quhufah. He was the 
first Khalifah, oi successor of Muhammad. 
[SHTAH.J Muhammadan writers praise him 
for the purity of his life, and call him as- 
Siddiq, the Veracious. He only reigned two 
years, and died August 22nd, A.D. 034. 

ABU DA tjD (^U ,.1). Sulaiman 

Ibn al-Ash as al-Sijistani ; born at al-Basrab 
A.H. 202, and died A.n. 275. Tho compiler of 
one of the six correct books of Sunni tradi 
tions, called the Sunnan Abi Dd ud, which con 
tains 4,008 traditions, said to have been care 
fully collated from 500,000. [TRADITIONS.] 

ABU HANlFAfI (0UN &**. yt). 

Abu Hamfah an-Nu man ia the great Sunni 
Imam and jurisconsult, and the founder of 



the Hanifi sect His father, Sabit, was a 
lk dealer in the city of al Kufah, and 
it is said his grandfather, Buta, was a nativ* 
of -Kabul. He was bom at al-Kuf*h, A.H. 80 
(A.D. TOO), and died at Baghdad, A.K. 150. Ifc 
is regarded as the great oracle of Suntu juris 
prudence, and his doctrines, with those ol his 
disciplea, the Imam Abu Yusuf and the Imam 
Muhammad, are generally received through 
oat Turkey, Tartary, and Hindustan. It it. 
related that Imam Malik said that the Imam Hanifah was such a logician that, if he 
vrere to assert a wooden pillar waa made of 
, he would prove it by argument. 

ABU HUfcAIRAH (S^yfc #\). One 
uf the most constant attendants of Muham 
mad, who from his peculiar intimacy has 
related more traditions of ths sayings and 
doings of the Prophet than any other indi 
vidual. His real name is doubtful, but he 
was nicknamed Abu Hurairah en account of 
his fondness for a kitten. He embraced Islam 
in the year of the expedition to Khaibar, A.H. 
7. and died in al-Madinah, A.H. 57 or 59, 
iged 78. 

ABtT JAHL (J*. $\). An im- 
placable adversary of Muhammad. His real 
name was Ainr ibn Hishuin, but he was BUT- 
named, by the Muslims, Abu Jahl, or the 
Father of Folly." He is supposed to be 
alluded to in the Qur an, Sfirah xxii. 8.~ 
" There is a ma^ who disputetb concerning 
God without eituor knowledge or direction." 
He was a boastful and debauched man, and 
wa* killed in the battle of Badr 

ABU LAHAB (^oJ #\). One of 
iK j sous of Abi Muttalib, and an uncle tr, 
M uham?nad. He was a most bilter enemy tc, 
t he Pi phet, and opposed the establishment 
of Tslion to the utmoat of his power. Hi- 
name. was Abdu 1- Uzza, but he was surnamea 
by Muhammad, Abu Lahab, The Father of 
the Flame." When Muhammad received the 
command to admonish his relations, he called- 
thein all together, and told them he was a 
warner sent unto them before a -grievous 
chastisement. Abu Lahab rejected his mis 
sion, and cried out, * Mayest thou perish 1 
Hast ihou called us together for this ? " and 
took up a stone to cast at him ; whereupon the 
cxitb Surah of the Qur an was produced : 

" Lee the hands of Abu Lahab perish, and 

let himself perish ! 
His wealth and his gains shall avail him 


Burned shall he be at a fiery flame, 
And his wife laden with fire wood, 
On her nock a rope of palm fibre." 

Abu Lahab is said to have died of grief and 
vexation at the defeat which his friends had 
received at the battle of Badr, surviving that 
misfortune only seven days. His body was 
left unburied for several days. 

2aid and Abu Lahab are the only relatives j 
or friends of Muhammad mentioned by name 
in the 


AL.HUJZAIL (j>.^ ^ ^ j>^ ^>. 

Celebrated as the Imani Zufar, and as a con 
temporary and intimate friend of the great 
\.ruam Abu Hanifah. Ho died at al-Baarah, 
A.H. 158 

ABU L-QASIM (,*-UK #\). " The 

father of Qasira." One of the names of Mo 
hammad, assumed on the birth of his son 
Qasiin, who died in infancy [MUHAMMAD.] 


bidden by the Muslim "law, and the offender 
must be punished according to the discretion 
of the Qazi. Abu Hanifah says : " If a person 
abuse a Musaknan by calling him an ass or 
u kog, punishment is not incurred, because 
these expressions are in no respect defama 
tory of the person to whom they are used, 
jt being evident that he is neither an ass 
nor a bog. But soroe allege that in our 
times chastisement is inflicted, since, in the 
modern acceptation, calling a man an ass 
or a hog is held to be abuse. Others, again, 
allege that it in esteemed only to be- abuse 
when the person of whom it is said occupies a 
dignified position." According to Abft Hanifah, 
the greatest mirnbor of stripes that can be 
inflicted for abusive language is thirty-nine. 
(Hamilton s Hidayak, vol. ii. 78.) 

Muhammad is related, to have said. 
" Abusing a Muslim is disobedience to God, 
and it is infidelity for anyone to join such an 
one in religious warfare." (Mishkdt, xxii. 2.) 

ABU TALIB (^VL f\). Muham 
mad s uncle and guardian ; the father of 
All. He is believed to have died aa he hau 
lived, an unbeliever in the Prophet s mission: 
but for forty years he had been his faithful 
friend and guardian. He died in the third 
year before the Hi j rah. 


AL- JAR RAH One of the Companions, who 
was with the Prophet in all his wars, and 
distinguished himself at the battle of Uhtid. 
He was highly esteemed by Muhammad, who 
made him one of the Asharah al-Mubash- 
sharah, or ten patriarchs of the Muslim faith. 
He died A.H. 18, aged 58. 

ABCT YUSUF (oL-,> y t). Known 

also as Ya qub ibn. Ibrahim Born at Bagh 
dad, A.H. 118, Studied under the Lnarn Abu 
Hanifah, and is celebrated, together with the 
Imam Muhammad and the Imam Zufar, as 
disciples of the great Imam ; from whose 
opinions, however, the three disciples not un- 
frequently differ, as will be seen upon refer 
ence to the Hiddyah. He died A.H. 182. 

AD (>Ve). A tribe located -to the 
south of Arabia, to .which the prophet Hud ia 
said to have been sent. See Qur an, vii. 63: 

"And to Ad we sent our brother Hud, 
my people, said he, worship God : ye 
have no other god than Him : Will ye not 
then fea. Him? 

"Said tlie ""believing chiefs among bia 


Vt certainly perceive that thon art 
f mind ; and wo surely docm Ihce 
an impostor. 

He said, * O my people ! it. is not unsound- 
ness of mind in mo, but I am an Apostle 
from the Lord of the Worlds. 

4{< The messages ot my Lord do J announce 
to you, und I am your faithful counsellor. 

" Marvel ye that a waitiing hath come to 
you from your Lord through ono of yourselves 
that He may warn you ? Remember how he 
hath made you the successors of the people 
of Noah, and increased you in tnllness of 
stature. Remember then the favours of God. 
that it may haply be well with you. 

" They said, Art thou come to us in order 
that we may worship one God alone, and 
leave what our fathers worshipped? Then 
bring that upon us with which thou threat- 
eneat us, if thou be a man >f truth/ 

"He said. Vei.geance and wrath shall sud 
denly light on you from your Lord. Do ye 
dispute with me about names that you and 
your fathers have given your idols, and for 
which God hath sent you down no warranty ? 
Wait ye then, and I too will wait with you. 

And w delivered him, and those who 
were on his side, by our mercy, and we cut 
off, to the last man, those who had treated 
our signs as lies, and who were not believers." 

Also, Surah Ixxxix. 5 : if Hast thou not seen 
how thy Lord dealt with Ad at Iram. 
adorned with pillars, whose like haye not 
been reared in these lands." [HUD, IKAM.] 

ADA* (p\3\). Payment ; satisfac 
tion completing (prayers, Sc.). 

ADAM. Arabic, Adam (^). The 
first man. Reckoned by Muslim writers as the 
first .prophet, to whom ten portions of scrip 
ture (s-ahifah) are said to have been revealed. 
Re. is f ist: nguished by the title of $afiyu llab, 
or, the " chosen one of God. * He is mentioned 
in .the }ur iin in the following Surahs, which 
*re taken from Mr. Lane s Selections (new 
edition, by Mr. Stanley Lane-Pocle ; Triibner, 
1879), with the commentary in italics : 

u Remember, Muhammad, when thy Lord 
said unto the angels, I am aboxit to place in 
the earth a vicegerent to act for me in the 
execution of my ordinances therein, namely, 
Adam, they said, Wilt Thou place in it one 
who will corrupt in it by disobediences, and 
will shed blood (as did the. sons of El-Junh, 
who were in it; where ore, when they acted 
corruptly, God sent to them the angels, who 
drove them away to the islands and the moun 
tains ), when we [on the contrary] celebrate 
the divine perfection, occupying ourselves with 
Thy praise, and extol Thy holiness? There 
fore we. are more worthy of the vicegerency. 
God replied, Verily I know that which ye 
know not, as to the affair of appointing Adam 
vicegerent, and that among his posteiity will be 
the obedient and the rebellious, :tnd the- just will 
be manifest among them. And he, created 
Adam from the surface of the earth, tnkinu a 
handful of every colour that it comprised^ which 
VMS kneaded with various water* ;, and he com- 


ptetely formed it, and breathed into it ike soul ,- 
so it became an animated sentient btiny. And 
he taught Adam the names of all things, in- 
/using the knowledge of them into hts heart. 
Then He showed them (namely, the ikmys) to 
*be angels, and said, Declare unto roe the 
names of these things, if ye say truth in y&w 
assertion that I will not create any more knov) 
ing than ye, and that ye are more worthy of the 
Mcegerency. They replied, [ We evio] Thy 
perfection 1 We have no knowledge excepting 
what Thou hast taught ue ; for -Thou art the 
Knowing, the Wise. -,God said, Adam, tell 
them their names. And when he had told 
them their names, God said, Did I not say 
unto you that I know the secrets of the 
heavens and the earth, and know what ye 
reveal of your words, saying, Wilt thou place 
in it, etc., and what ye did conceal of your 
words, saying, He will not create any more 
generous towards Him than we, -nor a^y inert-, 
knowing ? " (Surah ii. 28-31.) 

: We created you ; that is, your father Adam : 
then We formed you; we formed him, and you 
in him: then We said unto the angola, Pro 
strate yourselves unto Adam,/>y way of salu 
tation ; whereupon they prostrated them 
selves, except Iblees, the father of the jinn^ 
who was amid the angds : lie was not of those 
who prostrated themselves. God said, What 
hath hindered theo from prostrating thyself, 
when I commanded thee ? He answered, J 
;im better than he : Thou hast created rue of 
tire, and Thou hast created him Of earth. 
[God] said, Then descend thoa from it ; thai 
is, from Paradise ; or, as some, say, front tk& 
heavens; for it is not fit for thee that thou 
behave thyself proudly therein : so go thou 
forth : verily thou shall be of the contempt 
ible. He replied, Grant me respite until th 
day when they (that is, mankind) shall be 
raised from the dead* He t>id, Thou shall 
be of those [-who are] respited : and, in another 
verse [in xv. 38> it is said], until the day of 
the known period ; that is, until theperiod of the 
jirst blast [of the trumpet]. [And the davilj 
said, Now, as Thou hast led me into error, I 
will surely lay wait for them (that is, for the 
sons of Adam) in Thy right way, the way that 
leadeth to The-- : then I will surely come upon 
them, from before them, and from behind 
them, and from their right hands, and from 
their left, and hinder them from pursuing the 
way (but, faith Ibn Abbas, he cannot come 
upon them above, test he should intervene be 
tween the servant and God s mercy], and Thou 
ahalt not find the great nxunbcr cf them 
grateful, or believing. [God] said, Go forth 
from it, despised and driven away from, 
mercy. Whosoever of them (that is, of man 
kind) shall follow thee, I will surely fill . 
uell with you ail : with thee, and thy off 
spring i and toith men. (Surah vii. 10-17.) 

" And we said, Adam, dwell thou and 
thy wife (Houuio [or Eve], whom God created 
fron a rib of his left side) in the garden, and 
eat ye therefrom plentifully, wherever ye 
will ; bu approach v.e not this tree, to eat 
thereof ; (and it was whea\,or the grape-vine, 
or son.e other tree;) for if ye no xo t ye will bo 



of the number o/*the offenders. But the devil. 
Iblees, caused them to slip from it, that is 
from the garden, by Ms saying unto them, Shall 
I show you the way to the tree of eternity ? 
And he sware to them by God that he was one 
of the faithful advisers to them ; so they ate 
of it. and He ejected thorn from from that 
state of delight in which they were. And We 
said, Descend ye to the earth, ye two with the 
offspring that ye comprise [yet unborn] , one 
of you (that is, of your offering) an enemy 
to another , and there shall be for you, in the 
earth, a place of abode, and a provision, of 
its vegetable produce, for a time, until the. 
period of the expiration of your terms of life. 
And Adam learned, from his Lord, words, 
which ic ere these; Lord, we have acted 
unjustly to oar own souls, and if Thou do not 
forgive us, and be merciful unto us, we shall 
surely be. of those who suffer loss. And he 
prayed in these words ; and He became pro 
pitious towards him, accepting hi* repentance ; 
for He is the Very Propitious, the Merciful. 
We said, Descend ye from it (from the garden} 
altogether; and if there come unto you from 
Me a direction (a book and an apostle), those 
who follow my direction, there shall come no 
fear on them, nor shall thej r grieve in the 
world to come ; for they shall enter paradise : 
but they who disbelieve and accuse our signs 
of falsehood, these shall be the companions 
of the fire: they shall remain therein for 
ever." (Surah ii. 33-37.) 

The Muhammadans say, that when they 
were cast down from Paradise [which is in 
the seventh heaven}, Adam fell on the isle of 
Ceylon, or Sarandib, and Eve near Jiddah 
(the port of Makkah) in Arabia ; and that, 
after a separation of two hundred years, 
Adam was, en his repentance, conducted by 
the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Mak 
kah, where he found and knew his -wife, the 
mountain being then named fArafat; and that 
ho afterwards retired with her to Ceylon. 

ADAB (v>^\). Discipline of the 
mind and manners ; good education and good 
breeding ; politeness ; deportment ; a mode 
of conduct or behaviour. A very long section 
of the Traditions is devoted to the sayings 
of Muhammad regarding rules of conduct, 
and is found in the Mishkdtu 1-MasabiJ.t under 
the title Bdbu l-Adab (book xxii. M.atthew s 
Mishkdt). It includes (1) Salutations, f2) 
Asking permission to enter houses, (3) Shak 
ing hands and embracing, (4) Rising up, (5) 
Sitting, sleeping and walking, (6) Sneezing 
and yawning, (7) Laughing, (8) Names, (9) 
Poetry and eloquence, (10) Backbiting and 
abuse, (11) Promises, (12) Joking, (13) Boast 
ing and party spirit. The traditional sayings 
on these subjects will be found under their 
respective titles, flmu t-Adab is the science 
of Philology. 

ADIYAT (*^U). "Swift horses." 
The title of the 100th Surah of the Quran, the 
second verse of which is, "By the swift 
chargers and those who strike fire with their 


hoofs." Professor Palmer translates it 
" snorting chargers." 


Sj9U^). "The prayers handed down 

by tradition." Those prayers which were 
said by Muhammad, in addition to the regular 
liturgical prayers. They are found in diffe 
rent sections of the traditions or<idi&. 

ADL (J^). Justice. Appointing 
what is just; equalising; making of the 
same weight. Ransom. The word occurs 
twelve times in the Qur an, e.g.. Surah iv. 128, 
4 Ye are not able, it may bo, to act equitably 
to your wives, even though ye covet it." 
Surah ii. 44, " Fear the day whereid no soxil 
shall pay any random for another soul." Surah 
ii. 123, <; And fear the day when no soul shall 
pay any ransom for a soul, nor shall an equi 
valent bc received therefrom, nor any inter 
cession avail ; and they shall not be helped." 
Surah ii. 282. Write it down/az M/u/fy . . . 
then let his agent dictate Jaithjully.* Surah v. 
105, " Let there be a testimony between you 
when any one of you is at the point of death 
at the time he makes his will two equitable 
persons from amongst you." Surah vi. 69, 
"And though it (soul) compensate, with the 
fullest compensation it would not be accepted." 
Surah v. 115, " The words of thy Lord are 
fulfilled in truth unAjmtiw" Surah xvi., 78, 
" Is he to be held uqual with him who bids 
what is just, and who is on the right way?" 
Surah xvi. 92, - Verily God bids you do 
justice." Surah xlix. 8, ; * Make peace with 
them with equity and be.yw.s-f." Surah Ixxxii. 
8, 4< Thy generous Lord, who created theo and 
moulded thee and disposed thee ariyht" 

AL- ADL (JJN). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It signi 
fies "the Just." It does not occur in the 
Qur an as an attribute of the Divine Being, 
but it is in the list of attributes given in the 
Traditions. (Mishkdt., book x.) 

ADN (o^)- The garden of Eden. 
Jannata Adn. The. garden of perpetual 
abode. The term is used both for the garden 
of Eden, in which our first parents dwelt, 
and also for a place in celestial bliss. [JAW- 


ADOPTION. Arabic Tabannl 
(or**)- An adopted son, or daughter, 
of known descent, has no right to inherit 
from his. or her, adoptive parents and their 
relatives, the filiation of this > description 
being neither recommended nor recognised by 
Muhammadan law. Such son or daughter is, 
however, entitled to what may be given under 
a valid deed in gift or will. In this particular 
the Muhammadan agrees with the English, 
and the Hindu with the Roman law. (Tagare 
Law Lectures, 1873, p. 124.) 

ADORATION. The acts and 
postures by which the Muslims express 
adoration at the time of prayer are similar to 
those tised by the ancient Jews (vide Smith s 
Dictionary of the Bible, in loco), and consist of 


Ruku". or the inclination of the body, the 
hands being placed on the knees ; and Sujud, 
or prostration upon the earth, the forehead 
touching the ground. [PKAYEK.] The ador<v 
tion of the black stone at Makkah forms 
an important feature in the ceremonies of the 
pilgrimage. [IIAJJ.J 

ADULTERY. Arabic zmff (*V*j). 

The term zinff includes both adultery and 
fornication, but there is a difference iu the 
punishment for these offences. [FOHKICATTON.] 

Adultery is established before a Qazi, either 
by proof or confession. To establish it upon 
proof, four witnesses are required. (Qur an, 
Surah iv, 1.) When witnesses come forward, it 
is necessary that they should be examined 
particularly concerning the nature of the 
offence. When the witnesses shall have borne 
testimony completely, declaring that " they 
have seen the parties in the vetu act of carnal 
conjunction," the Qaxi passes sentence. 

A confession of adultery must be made by 
the person who has committed the sin, at 
four different times, although, according to the 
Imam ash-Shan 4 !, one confession is sufficient. 
Some of the doctors hold that if a person 
retract his confession, his retraction must be 
credited, and he must be forthwith released. 

At the commencement of Muhammad s mis 
sion, women found guilty of adultery and for- 
nioation were punished by being literally 
immured Suratu n-nisa (iv.) 19, " Shut them 
up within their houses till death release 
them, or God make some way for them." 
This, however, was cancelled, and lapidation 
was substituted as the punishment for adul 
tery, and 100 stripes nnd one year s banish 
ment for fornication. 

When an adulterer is to be stoned to death, 
he should be carried to some ban-en place, 
and the lapidation should be executed, first 
by the witnesses, then by the Qazi, and after 
wards by the by-standers. When a woman 
is stoned, a hole or excavation should be dug 
to receive her, as deep an her waist, because 
Muhammad ordered such a hole to be dug 
for (Xhandia. 

It is lawful for a husband to slay his wife 
and her pramvur, if he shall find them in 
the very act. If a supreme ruler, such as 
a Khaiifah, commit adultery, he is not subject 
to such punishment 

The state of marriage which subjects a 
whoremonger to lapidation, requires that ho 
be fret (i.e. not a slave), a Muslim, and one 
who has consummated a lawful marriage. 

It will be seen that Muhammadan law is 
almot-t identical with the divine law of the Jews 
with regard to adultery (Deut. xxiii. 22, Lev . 
xix. 20): but the Mosaic penalty applied as 
well to the betrothed as to the married 

4 AFtr 


daughter-in-law, granddaughter-in-law. Nor 
can any man marry any who stand in any of 
these relationships from fosterage. The mar 
riage of two sisters at the same time is for 
bidden, but the marriage of a deceased wife s 
sister is allowed. Marriage with a deceased 
brother s wife is very common in Muslim 
countries, such marriages being held to be a 
very honourable means of providing for a 
brother s widow. The marriage of cousins i 
also considered most desirable, as being the 
means of keeping families and tribes together. 
The passage of the Qur an on the subject of 
affinity, is as follows (Surah v. 27) : 

" Marry not women whom your fathers 
have married : for this is a shame, and hate 
ful, and an evil way : though what is past 
(i.e. in times of ignorance) may be allowed. 

* Forbidden to you are your mothers, and 
your daughters, and your sisters, and your 
aunts, both on the father and nlother s 
side, and your nieces on the brother and 
sister s side, and your foster-mothers, and 
your foster-sisters, and the mothers of your 
wives, and your step -daughters who are your 
wards, born of your wives to whom ye have 
gone in: (but if ye have not gone in unlo 
them, it shall be no sin in you to marry 
them ;) and the wives of your sons who pro 
ceed out of your loins ; and ye may not have 
fcwo sisters ; except where it is already done. 
Verily, God is Indulgent, Merciful ! 

" Forbidden to you also are married women, 
except those who are hi your hands as 
slaves : This is the law of God for you. And 
it is allowed you, beside this, to seek out 
wives by means of your ealth, with wmodest 
conduct, and without fornication. And give 
those with whom ye have cohabited their 
dowry. This is the law. But it shall be no 
crime in you to make agreements over and 
above the law. Verily, God is Knowing, 

AFFINITY. Arabic Qarabah 

The prohibited degrees (hurmalt) with regard 
to marriages are as follows : Mother, 
daughter, paternal aunt, maternal aunt, bro 
ther s or sister s daughter, grandmother, 
granddaughter, mother-in-law, step-mother, 

AFFLICTION. Arabic fruen 
ghamm (^). The benefits of affliction 

are frequently expressed in both the Qu ran 
and Traditions. For example : Surah ii. 150, 
" We will try you with something of fear, and 
hunger, and loss, of wealth, and souls and 
fruit ; but give good tidings to the patient who. 
when there falls on them a calamity, say, 
Verily we are God s and veriiy to Him we 
return. " This formula is always used by 
Muhammadans in any danger or sudden cala 
mity, especially in the presence of death. 

In the traditions (see Mishkatu l-Masdbih), 
Muhammad is related to have said, " A 
Muslim ia like nnto standing green corn, 
which sometimes stands erect, but is some 
times cast down by the wind." * No affliction 
Lefals a servant of God but on account of the 
sins which he commits," 

AFSUN (ar-^). The Persian 
term for Da icak or exorcism. [EXOIICISM.] 

AFU (y^). Lit. " erasing, cancel 
ling." The word is generally used in Muhain* 
inadan books for pardon and forgiveness. It 



occurs eight times in the Qur an, e.g Surah 
ii. 286, " Lord, make us not to carry what we 
have not strength for, but forgive tis and par 
don us and have mercy on ug." Surah iv 
46, " Verily God/>ardon* and forgives. 

At^Afu is one of the ninety-nine special 
names of God. It means " one who erases or 
cancels;", "The Eraser (of sins.)-" See Qur an, 
Surah iv. 51. 

AGENT. Arabic roakil (J^ ; ). One 
legally appointed to act for another. For the 
Muhaminadan law regarding the appointment 
cf agents to transact business, or to negotiate 
marriages, see Hamilton s JHiddyak, vol. iii. 
p. 1; Baillie s Digest; Banifi Code, p. 75; 
Imdmlyah Code, p. 29. The author of the 
Hidayah says, u It is lawful for a person to 
appoint another his agent for the settlement, 
in his behalf, of every contract which he 
might lawfully have concluded himself, such 
as sale, marriage, and so forth ; " and he then 
proceeds to lay down rules for guidance in 
such matters at great length. A woman who 
remains in privacy and is not accustomed to 
go into Court, ought, according to the saying 
of Abu Bakf, to appoint an agent and not 
appear herself. A slave or a minor may be 
appointed agent for a free man. 

AL-AHAD O% " The One." A 
title given to God. [NAMES OF GOD.] 

AHADIYAE (&^). Unity, con- 
oord. Al-Akadiyah is a term used by Sufi 
mystics to express a condition of the mind. 
completely absorbed in a meditation on the 
Divine Unity. (See Abdu r-Razzaq s Dic 
tionary of ike Technical Terms of the Sufis, 
Sprenger a edition.) 

AHQAF (t-As^) The name of a 
tract of land in Sihr in Yaman, The title of 
the XLVith Surah of the Qur an. 

AHLU L-BAlT(c^Vj^) "The 
people of the house." A term used in t>-(- 
Qur an (Surah xxxiii. 33), and in the Hadj$ 
(Mithlcdt, xxiv. 21), for Muhammad s house 

J*\). A 


visionary person ; a libertine? 

" The people of the book." A term used 
in the Qur an for Jews and Christians, as be 
lievers in a revealed religion. Some sects of 
the Shi ahs include the Majusi (Magi) nnder 
this term. 

AHMAD (.x**^). The name under 
^vhich Muhammad prof esses that Jesus Christ 
foretold his coming. Vide Qur an, Surah Ixi. 
, "And remember when Jesus the son of 
Mary said, children of IsraeU of a truth I 
am God s /Vpostle to you to confirm the law 
which was given before me, and to announce 
an spostle that shall corne after nae, whose 
name shall be Ahmad. " Muhammad had, no 
doubt, heard that Our Lord had promised a 
Paraclfetos (TrapaK\rjTO<z), John xvi. 7. This 
title, understood by him, probably froin the 


similarity of sound, as equivalent to Periclytoa 
(a-epf/fAwro<), he applied to himself with 
reference to his own name Muhammad, the 
praised or gltnifitd one. Muir thinks that in 
somo imperfect Arabic translation of lh 
Gospel of St. John, the word rapaKAijros 
may have been translated Ahmad, or praised. 
(Lift of Mahomet, vol. i 17.) 

AHZAB OT^;. " Confederates." 
The title of the xxxmrd Surah of the Qur an. 
which is said to have been written when 
al-Madinah was besieged by a confederation of 
the Jewish tribes with the Arabs of Rfakkah. 
A.H. 6. 

AIYtTB (vjtf). [JOB.] 

AJAL (v>^) The appointed time 

of death, said to be ordained by God from 
the first. Qur an, Surah xxxv. 44, "He 
respites them until the appointed time. 
When their appointed time comes, verily God 
looks upon His servants." [DEATH.] 

A JlE 0*^). A terra used in Mu- 
hammadan law for a person hired for service. 

AJNABI (xs*^). A foreigner; 

any person not of Arabia. 


(&^A ^ usJJ). The last Wednesday 
of the month of Safar. I* is observed as a 
feast in commemoration of Muhammad s 
having experienced some mitigation of his 
last illness, and having bathed. It was the 
last time he performed the legal bathing, for 
he died on the twelfth day of the next 
month. In some parts of. Islam it is cus 
tomary, in th early moming of this day to 
write verses of the Qur an, known as the 
Seven Satuvfin (q.v.), and then wash off the ink 
and drink it &B a charm against evil. It is 
not observed by the Wahbabls. nor is its ob 
servance universal in Islam. 

AKHLAQ (o^). $he plural of 
Khulq. Natures, dispositions, habits, manners. 
The general term for books on morality, 
e.g. Akhldq-i-Jalali, Akhldq-i-Muhsini^ the 
name of a dissertation on Ethics by Husain 
Wa iz Kashifl, A,H. 910, which has been trans 
lated into English by the Rev. II G. Keene 
(W. H. Allen & C5o.), 

AKHtJND (^^T). A maulawi ; a 

teacher. A title of respect given to eminent 
j religious teachers. One of the most cele 
brated Muhaminadan teachers of modern 
tim*9 was the " Akhund of Swat," who died 
A.D. 1875. This great religious leader resided 
in the village of Sai<}u, in the district of 
Swat, on the north-west frontier of India 

AKHUNDZADAH (ao\j^). The 
son of an Akhund. A title of respect given 
to the sons or descendants of celebrated reh 
giquf? teachers. [AKHUNP.] 

AL (j^). Lit. "offspring, or pos 
terity." Used in Muslim works for th* off 
! spring 01 Muhammad 


AL-A LA (J^). "The Most 
High." The title of the Lxxxvnth Sarah of 
the Qur an, in the second verse of which 
the word occurn : " The name of thy Lord th 
Jlfost Hiyh is celebrated. " 

4 ALAM (,U). A standard or 
ensign. A term used for the flags and stan 
dards paraded during the Muhanam. [MU- 


ALAM (^). TIu; universe; 
world ; condition, state of being. 
Alamu l-arwdb . The world of spirits. 
1 Alamu l-^alg . The world thin life. 
Alamu f-bdqi . The future ."state. 
Alamu l-cfzamnh . The highest heaven. 
Alamu sh-shdhaduh The visible world. 

Alamu l-ykaib . The invisible world. 
Alamu Y-i o"M/ . The rational world 

The four mystic stages of the Sufis are 

Alamu n-ndsut . The present world. 
Alamu l-malafcut . The statu of uugHs. 

Alamu l-jabarut . The stain >( puwt-T 

Wainn l-ldhut . The state of absorption 

into the Divinity. 


ALAM AT (*Ufcp). The greater 
signs of the resurrection. [ ALAMATU s 


(iu-jJt d>U^). - The signs of Pro 
phecy." A term used for the supposed mi 
racles and other proofs of the mission of 
Muhammad. The title of a chapter in the 
Traditions. (Mishkdt. xxi. c. vi.) 

icUN). "The* signs of the hour," 
t>. the signs of the tiuio of the Resurrection 
and of the Dav of Judgment. The title of a, 
section of the Traditions. (Al-tshkvi, xxiii. 

ALAQ G^ic). "Congealed blood/ 
The titlo of the xcvrth Surah, the first five 
v arses of which are generally allovrec} to be 
the earliest portion of the Qur an. 

AL-FATYDAK (U^). "The City." 
A name sometimes used in the Hadis for 

ALCHEMY, Araliic Klmiyu, 
(fttj^). According let the Kathfu 
z-zunitn, in loco, learned Muslims are not 
agreed as to the existence of this occult 
science, nor are they of one opinion as to itft 
lawfulness, even if it should exist. 


Mentioned in the mur iin aa Zu /-Qarnain, i.e. 
Ho of the two UoniR with which he i* 
represented on his coins. (Surah xviii. 62.) 
He seems to have been regarded by Muham 
mad as> one invested -with a divine commis 
sion: "Verily \v^ y*tiMi5hed his power 
upon earth "; but commentators are not agreed 
whether to ansiarn to him tfa position of a 
Prophet. L zu Vt 

AL-HAMD (Wt). "Praise." A 
title given to the first Surah, so caik-d tocnuse 
its first word is Al-hamd. This chapter is 
also called FaJiftfi/i, whitn uirni is used by 
modern Muslims ior the Surak wuen it is said 
for the benefit of (he dead, At-ltumd being 
its moreuMual titlr [rATiUAn | 

AL-HAMDV -LrLLAH (*iS j^*J\). 
* Prise belongs to God." An ejaculation which 
is called Takmid. and which occurs at the com- 
/noneemont of the first, ol.aptnr of (ho Qur an. 
It is used as an cjar n/atioii of thanksgiving 
" Thank Ood 1 " It is veiy often recited with 
the addition of RuM*i l- alfimin. " Lord of the 
Uai verse. 5 * [TAHMU>.J 

Ai.- ALI (J*l\). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It moarifl 
44 The Exalted One. 

ALI (<J^). The son of Abu 

r falib, and a couain-^orman to Muhammad. 
who adopted him as his son. He married 
F&umah, the daughter of Muhammad. Arid 
hid by her three sonSj Ha van, Husain!, ;ino 
Muhastiin. He was the fourth Khalifah, and 
reiifued fj om A.H. 85 to / +0. lie was 
struck with a ppi.soned sword by Ibn Mttljam, 
at al-Kufah, and diod after three daya. 
aged fifty-nine years. The Fhrahs hold that, 
on the death of Muhammad, Ah was entitled 
to the Khalifate, and the respective claims of 
Abu Bakr, Umar.and Usnian on the pne hand. 
and of Ali on the other, gave rise to the 
Shi ah schism. Ali is surnamed by the Arabs 
Asadu lldh, and by the Persians Sker-i- 
Kihuda, i.e. " The Lion cf <!nd." ffBI*Aa.1 

ALIF. The letter Alif (\) ia a 
monogram frequently placed at the head of 
letters, prescriptions, &c. It is the initial 
letter of the word Allah f&l)\, "God." 

ALIF LAM MIM Th<> Arabic 
letters ^N, corresponding to A L M t 
which occur at the commencement of *ix 
Surah*, namely Suratu 1-Baqaruh (n.). Suratu 
Ali Iinrai; (in.;, ^uratu l- Ankabut (xxil.), 
Surntu *r-Rum (xxx.), Suratu Luqmiin (xxu.), 
and Suratu V-^jjdaL (\xxxii.j. Muhammad 
uever explained the meaning of myste 
rious letters, rmd consequently ihcy aro a 
fruitful scarce of perplexity to learned com 
ineutators. JaliUu d-din gives an exhaustive 
summary of the different views in hin Ilyan 
(p. 470). Some suppose they rtand for the 
words Alldit, "Aod"; Lutif, "gracious"; 
Afajld, glorious/ Others say they stand for 
Ana lluhu a /awu, "I m the God who knoweth. 
Others maintain that they wore not meant to 
be understood, and that they weiv inserted 
by the Diritie command without explanation, 
in order to remind the reader that there wer<* 
mysteries which his intellect would never 

ALU IMRAN (01,4* JT). "The 
family of -Inn-fin." The title of the third 
chapter of the Qur an, 

ALIM C^^), pi. ulamd . A learner 



man. The term usually includes all religious 
teachers, such as Imams, Muftis. Qazis, and 
Maulawles ; and in Turkey it denotes the poli 
tical party led by the religious teachers. 

AL- ALIM >W\. One of the 

ninety-nine special names of God. It fre 
quently occurs in the Qur an, and means " The 
Wise One." 

ALLAH (*itt). [GOD.] 


God is great," or " God is most great. 1 An 
ejaculation which is called the Takb v, . It- 
occurs frequently in the liturgical forms, 
and is used when .slaying an animal for food. 


ALMSGIVING. The word gene- 
rally used for alms is Sadaqah, or that which 
manifests righteousness ; the word zakdt, or 
purification,- being specially restricted to the 
legal alms. [ZAKAT.] Scidaqdtu l-Fitr are 
the offerings given on the Lesser Festival. 
The duty of almsgiving is very frequently en 
joined in the Qur an, e.g. Surah ii. 274-5. 
What ye expend of good (i.e. of well- 
gotten wealth), it shall be paid to you 
again, acd ve shall not be wronged. (Give 
your alms) unto the poor who are straitened 
in God s way and cannot traverse the earth. 

. . Those who expend their wealth by night 
and by day, secretly and openly, they shall 
have their hire with their Lord." 

The following are some of the sayings of 
Muhammad on the subject of almsgiving, as 
they occur in the Traditions : " The upper 
hand is better than the lower one. The 
upper hand is the giver of alms, and the 
lower hand is the poor beggar." " The best 
of alms are those given by a man of small 
means, who gives of that which he has earned 
by labour, and gives as much as he is able." 
Begin by giving alms to your own relatives." 
Doing justice between two people is alms; 
assisting a man on his beast is elms ; good 
words are alms." "A camel lent out for 
milk is alms ; a cup of milk every morning and 
evening is alms." Your smiling in your 
brother s face is alms ; assisting the blind is 
alms." " God says. Be thou liberal, thou child 
of Adam, that I may bo liberal to thee." (S*f 
Mishkdt; Matthew s edition, vol. i. p. 429.) 

ALWAH (cV^ r 1 - of 

tables" (of the Law). Mentioned in the 
Qur an, Surah vii. 142, * We wrote for him 
(Moses) upon the Tables (al-Ah*a&) a monition 
concerning every matter." 

Muslim divines are not agreed a.s to th<- 
n umber either of the tables, or of thy Com 
mandments. The commentators JaUUaln say 
they were either seven or tn. [TEN COM- 


AMAL-NlMAH (*~i J*e).. The 

Persian" word for Scihtfatu 7-- i .vuz , or record 
of actions kept by the recording angels. 


AMAN (c?^). Protection given 


by a Muslim conqueror to those who pay 
Jizyah, or poll tax. [JIHAD.] 

AMB1YA (*Wt), pi. of Nate. 

"Prophets." The title of the xxist Surah. 

AMIN (a**. Hebrew 

expression of assent used at the conclusion of 
prayers, very much as in our Christian wor 
ship. It is always used at the conclusion of 
the Suratu 1-Fatihah, or first chapter of the 
Qur an. 

A 7/iMi," Faithful/ Af-Amin is the title which 
it is said was given to Muhammad when 
a youth, on account of hi? fair and honour 
able bearing, which won th; confidence of the 

Amtnu l-Baft, one who wishes to perform 
the piJgritm) ge to Makkah. 

AMIN AH (**^). Muhammad s 

mother. She was the wife of Abdullah, and 
the daughter of Wahb ibn Abdi Manaf. 
She died and was buried at al-Abwa, a place- 
midway between Makkah uud al-Madloah, 

before her .son claimed the position of a Pro 

AMIR 0*^), Anglice, Emir, " A 
ruler; a commander; a. chief: n nobloman." 
It includes the various high offices in a Muslim 
state; the Imam, or fthaltfah, bt-iui; styled 
A mint *l~Umarff, the ruler of rulers; and 
A tnirii V Mu mimn. the commander of the 

AMIRU L-HAJJ (jWt^). The 

hief of (he pilgrimage." The otrlcer in charge 
of the piigrima to Mukkah. [ITAJ.I.] 

AMTRU L-MU MiNlN ( ^\ 
( j^pA\). <k The Commander of the 

Believers." A title which was first given Lo 
Abdu llali ibn Jabsii after his exm-;<liuon to 
Nuk.hlah, and which was afterwards assutadd 
by the Khali fa he (first by s Umar) and the 
Sultan* of Turkey. [KHAUFJJ&] 

AMR IBN A L- ASt (^*^* ^ ;**). 

One of the Companions,- celebrated for his 
conquest of Syria-, Palest ine mul Egypt, in the 
reigns ot Abu Bakr and Umar. He died 
(accordux to an NaWawT) A.K. 13. 

AMULETS. ^ Arabic ffama tt 
(JIW-), fi anything- suspended " ; 
7a*trfj. " A relume ; ffiiab. k< a rover. 

Amulets, ahhovi^h of heathen origin, are 
-ery Common in Mtthftmmadan countries. The 
following are used as aumiets : (1) a small 
Qur an, encased in silk or leather, and as- 
peuded from the shoulder; (2) a chapter or 
Verse of the Qvtr an written on paj-er and 
folded in leather or velvet ; (?>) some of th 
names of God, or the numerical power (see 
ATM AD) of those names; (4) the namfts of pro 
phets, celebrated saints, or the numerical power 
of the same ; (5) the Muhammadan creed, 
engraven on stone or silver. The chapters 
of th Qur an generally selected for Amulets 
are: Surahs i., vi., xviii., xxxvi., xliv., ly,. 


ixvii.. lx\v;ii. Five verses known as the 
Ayuiu 7-//7/Z, or " verses of protection." are 
a .too frequently inscribed on Amulets. Thej 
|V Sfirahs ii. 256 ; xii. 64; xiii. 12; xv. 17: 
xxvvii 7. [AYATU L-IUFZ.] 

These charms are fastened on the arm or 
leg, OS- Husp^mU d round the neck, as a pro- 
to. tkx: a^iinsr. evil.. They are also put on 
houses sr;d animals, and, in fact, upon any 
thing from which evil is to he averted. 
Strict ly : according to the principles ot Islam, 
only thfi names of GM!, or vorsnt from the 
Quran, ^ould be U6.ul for amulets. Informa 
tion rei jnlnsg the formation of magic squares 
and a m u lots will bj found in the article, on 

f X "-ci;?n3. f EXORCISM, OA WAH.] 





AL-AN AM < r WM). "The Cattle." 

The litle of the vitb Surah, in verse 1X7 of 
which some superstitious customs of the 
Meccans. as tc certain cattle, are incidentally 

ANANIYAH iMUV). From ana, 
" I." "Egotism Al-ananiyoh is a term used 
by thft Sufis to express the existence of man. 


The last of the Companions 
of Muhammad, and the founder of the sect of 
the Malikts He died at el-Basrah. A..H. i).S. 
aged 108. 

AL-ANFAL (JVtfM). " The Spoils." 
The title of the viuth Surah which was 
pCCAStooed by * dispute regarding the spoils 
takf-nat the battle of Bn.dr, between the young 
men who had fought and the old men who 
had staved with the ensigns. 

ANGEL. Arabic nial ak or malak 
sXL. ) . Persian Firishta k (&**.* ) . 
t; It is lielieved," says Majah. " that the 
anguls are of a simple substance (created of 
light), endowed with life, and ^per-cl,. :md 
reason ; nnd that the dinY-rence het-.voen h- iu. 
the Jinn, and Shait- ms is a diiTen--iife. of 
riK i-ios. Know, he adds, "that tho .-ui^Is 
are sanctified from carnal desire and ihc dij- 
turbance of anger : thoy disobey not God in 
what He hath commanded them, but do v/h.v 
they are commanded. Tln^ir food is the colc- 
brating of His glory : their drink, the pro 
claiming of His holiness ; their conversation, 
the commemoration of God, Whose nam<- be 
exalted; their pleasure, Bi- worship, and 
they are created in different forms mid with 
different powers." (Arabian Nig/its. Lane < 
edition, \otos to tho Introduction, p. 27.; 

Foot of uhfMii are archangels, or, HP iJi-^, 
are called in /Vrabie, Kfirublijiin (Cherubim), 
namely, Jab, all, or Ji.t>ri/\ (Gabriel), the 
angel of revelations; Mikail* or Mikal, 
(Michael), the patron of the Israelites : 
Isrd/l/. the angel who will sound the trumpet 
at the- last day; and Izrall, or . AzratL 
the angel of death. Angels are said tu be 
inferior in dignity to human prophets, be 
cause- all the angelx were commanded to 
prostrate themselves before A- tam (Sui-ah ii. 
32). Every believer is attended by two record 
ing angels, called the Kiramu l-kdtibin, one of 
whom records his good actions, and tne other 
his evil actions. There are also two angels, 
called Mnnkar and Naklr, who examine all 
the dead in their graves. Tho chief angel who 
has charge of hell is called Malik, and his 
subordinates are named Zahani yah , or guards. 
A more extended account; of these angels will 
be found under their particular titles. 

The angels intercede for man : >fc The 
angels celebrate the praise of their Lord, and 
ask forgiveness for the dwellers on earth, 
(Surah xiii. 3.J They also act as guardian 
angels : ik Each hath a succession of angels 
before him and behind him, who watch over 
him by God s l>het. ? (Surah xiii. 12.) "Is 
it not enough lor you that your Lord aideth 
you with three thousand angels sent down 
(from on high)?" (Surah iii. 20.) "He 
is the supreme over His servants, and sendeth 
forth guardians who watch over you, until, 
when death overtaketh any one of you, our 
messengers receive him and* fail not." (Surah 
fi. 61.) 

There are eight angels who support the 
throne of God, " And the angels shall be on 
its sides, and over them on that day eight 
shall bear up the throne of thy Lord." (Surah 
Ixix. 17.) Nineteen have charge of hell. 
" Over it are nineteen. None but angels have 
we made guardians of the fire." (Surwh Hxiv 
30, 31.) 

The names of the guardian angels given in 
the book on Exorcism (da u ah), entitled the 
Jawdhirv l-Khamsah, are Isrilfll, Jibni il, Kal- 
ku il, Darda il, Durbu Il, Raftma il, Sharka Il. 
Tankafil, Ismail, Sarakika Il, Kharura IK 
Tatall, Ruvall, Hulall, Hamwukil, Itrall, 



l, -Ainrirtl, Awa fl, Mika !!, Mahkall, 
Harta il, Ata il, Nnrai), NukhaU UXOR- 


ANIMALS. Arabic Hayawfln 
{0V*). According to the Qur an, 
Surah x*r*. 44, " God hath created overy 
Animal of water." " An idea," says Rodwell, 
** perhaps derived from Gen. i. 20, 21." 

It \s believed that at the Resurrection the 
irrational animals will be restored t Hfe, that 
they may be brought to judgment, a t\ then be 
fitraihilated. See^ Qur an, Surah vl 38,. * No 
kiwi of beast is there on the earth, nor fowl 
that tiieth with its wings, but is a comuannitv 
like von : nothing have We passed over in thu 
book (of the Eternal decrees; : then unto their 
Lord anal)- t.hey be gathered." 

AL-*ANKABQT (^y***^;. "The 

Spider The title of the xxixth Surah, 
in which there -is a passing- reference tp 
this insect in the 4(Hh verse: "The like 
ness for those who take to themselves guar 
dians besides God is the likeness of the spider 
who buildeth her a house; bat truly the 
frailest of all houses surely is the house of 
the spider 

At-AJN$K ( jUS\). "The Helpers," 
term used for the dariy converts of al- 
Madinah , but when all tbo citizens of al- 
Madinah were ostensibly converted ta Islam, 
they were all named Jntfdr, while those 
Muslims wno accompanied the Prophet from 
M akkahto al-Madinah were called Muk&jir&H, 
or exiles. (Mnir s Life of Mahomet., vol iii. 
p. 2fi.) [MUHAMMAD.] 



Arabic irtiddd (^^). According to 
Muslim law, a male apostate, or Murtadd, is 
liable to be put to death if he continue o bsti- 
nate in his error ; a female apostate is not 
subject to capital punishment, but she may 
be kept in confinement until she recant. 
(Hamilton s Bidayah, vol. ii. p. 227.) If 
either the husband or wife apostatize from 
the faitb bf Islam, a divorce takes place ipso 
fertto ; the wife is entitled, to her whole dower, 
but no sentence of .divorce is necessary. If 
the husband and wife both apostatize together, 
their marriage is generally allowed to con 
tinue, although the Imam Zufar says it is 
annulled. But if, after their joint apostasy, 
either husband: or wife were singly to return 
to Islam, then* the marriage would be dis T 
solved. (Hamilton s ttidayah, vol. ii. p. 188.) 

According to Abfi Hanifah, a male apostate 
is disabled froth selling or otherwise dispos 
ing of his property. But , Abu Yusuf and 
Tmatn Muhammad differ from their master 
upon this point, and consider a male apostate 
to be as competent to exercise every right as 
if h- were still in the faith. (Iliddyah, vol. 
ii; p. 235 

If a hoy under age apostatize, he is not 
to -be put to death, but to be im^risoned.^ufttil 
he come to lull age, when, if he continue m 

the state of unbelief, he most be put tfo aeath. 
Neither lunatics nor drtmkards are held to 
be responsible for their apostasy from Islam, 
(Hidayah, vol. ii. 246.) If a person upon com 
putsion become an apostate, his wife is not 
divorced, nor are his lands forfeited. If a 
person become a Musalman upon compul 
sion, and afterwards apostatize, he is not to 
be put to death. (Uiddyaki vol. in. 467.) 

The will of a male apostate is not valid, but 
that of a it-male apostate ia valid. (Hidayah, 
vol. iv. 637.) 

Ikrimah relates that some apostates, were 
brought totheKhalifah Ali,and he burnt them 
alive , biit Ibn Abbas heard of it, and said 
that the Khalifah had not acted rightly, for 
the Prophet had said, " Punish not with God 8 
punishment (i.e. fire), but whosoever changes 
his religion, kill him with the sword/ (Sahiku 

APOSTLE. Arabic rasul 
/lawdri (t^)*-). The term rasiil 
(apostle or messenger) is applied to Muham 
mad, that of hawari being used in tho Qur an 
(Surah iii. 4, 5; Surah iv. Ill, 112 ; Surah Jxi, 
14) for the Apostles of Jesus. The word 
fiiiwari seems to be derived from the ^thiopic 
Iioru, ~ to go " ; hawaryd, * apostlie " ; although, al-Baizawi. the commentator, it is 
derived from hawra, "to le white/ inSyriac, 
fteuiai^ and was given to the disciples of Jt^sus, 
be aays, on account of their purity of life and 
sincerity, or because they were respectable 
men and wore white garments. In the Tra 
ditions (Miskkdt, book i. c. vi. part 2) kaweri 
is use<i for the followers of all the prophets. 

AL- AQABAH (M*N). A sheltered 

glen near Mina ? . celebrated aa, the sc<sno of the 
two pledges, the first nd second pledge of 
al- Aqabh. The first pledge was made by ten 
men of the tribe of Khawaj and ten of Aus f 
when thoy plighted their faith TO Muhammad 
thus : " We will not worship any but one 
God ; we will not steal ; nor commit adul 
tery ; nor kill our children ; nor wiU we 
Hlamier our neighbour ; and we will obey the 
Prophet of God. The date assigned to this 
pledge by Sir W. Mnir is April .21, A.I>. 621. 
Tbe second pledge was a few mouths nfter- 
wards, when seT^nty-thrde men and two 
women came forward, one by one. and took 
an oath of fealty to the Prophet. Muhammad 
named twelve of the chief of these men,- and 
said : " Moses chose from auaongt-t his people 
twelve leaders. Ye shall be sureties for tho 
rest, eveu as were the Apostles of Jesus : and 
t am surety for my people. And the people 
answered, Awin, So be it." fMuirs Life of 
Mahomet, vol. ii. pp. 216, 282.) 

** A successor or 

deputy. ;< One who comes last." Al- aqib is 
a title giveri to Muhammad as being styled 
" the last of the prophets.* 

AQILAH (fl*te). The relatives 

who pay the expiatory mulct for man 
slaughter, or any other legal fine. They must 


be relatives descended from one common 
father. (Hamilton s fficfnyah, vol. iv. pages 
449, 452; Baillio s Law of Sale, p. 214.) 

AQlQAH (&Ufc).- A custom 

observed by the Arabs on the birth of a 
child ; namely, leaving the hair on tho 
infant s head until the seventh day, -when it in 
shaved, and animals are sacrificed, namely, 
two sheep for a boy and one for a girl. (Mish- 
Jrfit, xviii. c. 3 ) It is enjoined by Muhammadan 
law, and observed in all parts of Isliim. 

AEABIA. Silcldu l- Arab (^ 
*r>,**\), Jazlratu I- 1 Arab (vyd\ *;*>*) > 
Ardbisttin (yV^^ys). The peninsula 
bearing, amongst the Arabs, these names is 
the country situated on the east of tho Red 
Sea, and extending as far as the Persian fiuJf. 

The word probably signifies a " ban-en 
place, " desert" (Heb. PQIV)- 

T T 

Ptolemy divides Arabia into three part?, 

Arabia Petraoa, Arabia Felix, and Arabia 
Deserta ; but Arabian geographers divide it 
into TiJirirnnh, al~Hijaz, an-Najd, al- Ariiz, 
and il-Y<unan. 

The 7-aces which have peopled Arabia are 
divided into three sections, al- Arabu l-Bai- 
d(th, (fl-^Arabtt f l- e Aribah, and al- Arabu 7- 

I. Al- Arabu 1-Bd idaJi, are the old "lost 
Arabs," of whom tradition has preserved the 
names of several tribes, as well as some me 
morable particulars regarding their extinction. 
This may well be called the fabulous period ol 
Arabian history : but. as it has the sanction of 
the Qur an, it would be sacrilege in a Muslim 
to doubt its authenticity. According to 
this account, tue most famous of the extinct 
tribes wen; those of Ad, Samiid, Jadls, and 
Tasm, all descended in the third or fourth 
genei-ation from Shem. Ad, the father of his 
tribe, settled, according to tradition, in the 
Great Desert of al-Ahqaf soon nfter the con 
fusion of tongues. Shaddud his son succeeded 
him in the government, and greatly expended, 
his dominions. He performed many fabulous 
exploits; among others, he erected a magnifi 
cent city in the desert of Adari, which had 
been begun by his father, and adorned it with 
a sumptuous palace and delightful gardens, 
in imitation of the celestial paradise, in order 
to inspire hit* subjects with a superstitious 
veneration for him as a god. This superb 
structure was built with bricks of gold and 
silver alternately disposed. The roof was of 
gold, inlaid with precious stones and pearls. 
The trees and shrubs were of the same pre 
cious materials. The fruits and flowers were 
rubies, and on the branches were perched 
birds of similar metals, the hollow parts of 
which were loaded with every specier, of the 
richest perfumes, so that every breeze that 
blew came charged with fragrance from th<> 
bills of these golden images. To this para 
dise lie gave the name of Iram (see Qur an. 
Surah Ixxxix. 6). On the completion o* all 
this grandeur, Shaddad set out with a splendid 
retinue to admire its beauties. But heaven 



would not suffer his pride and impiety to go 
unpunished ; for, when within a day s journey 
of the place, they we re all destroyed by a 
terrible noise from the clouds, As a monumei.t 
of Divine justice, the city, we are assured, 
still stands in the desert, though invisible. 
Southey, in his Thalaba, has viewed this and 
many of the other fables and superstitions of 
the Arabs with tho eye of a poet, a pb; ; o- 
opher, and an antiquary. According to at- 
Tabari, this legendary palace was discovered 
in the time of Mu awiyah, the first Khali f ah of 
Damascus, by a person in search of a st- >y 
camel. A fanciful tradition adds, that the 
Angel of death, on being asked whether, in 
the discharge of his duties, an instance hd 
ever occurred in which he had felt some com 
passion towards his wretched victims, ad 
mitted that only twice had his sympathi^i 
been awak^n^d -once towards a shipwrecked 
infant, which had been exposed on a solitary 
plank to struggle for existence with the winds 
and waves, and which he spared ; and the 
second Htno in cutting off the unhappy Shad- 
dad at the moment when almost within view 
of the glorious fabric which he had erected 
at so much expense. No sooner had the 
angel spoken, than n voice from heaven 
was heard to declare that the helpless 
innocent on the plank was no other than 
Shaddad himself ; and that his punishment 
was a just retribution for his ingratitude 
to a merciful and kind Providence, which 
had not only saved his life, but raised him 
to unrivalled wealth and splendour. The 
whole fable seems to be a confused tradition 
of Belus and the ancient Babylon; or, rather, 
as the name would import, of Benhadad, men 
tioned in Scripture as one of the most famous 
of the Syrian kings, who, we are told, was 
worshipped by his subjects. 

Of the Adites and their succeeding princes, 
nothing certain is known, except that they 
were dispersed or destroyed in the course of 
few centuries by the sovereigns of al-Yaman. 
The tribe of Samud first settled in Arabia 
Felix, and on their expulsion they repaired 
to al-IIijr, on the confines of Syria. Like the 
Adites, they are reported to have been of a 
most gigantic stature, the tallest being a hun 
dred cubits high and the least sixty : and such 
was their muscular power, that, with a stamp 
of the foot in the driest soil, they could plant 
themselves knee-deep in the earth. They 
dwelt, the Qur an informs us, " in the caves of 
the rocks, and cut the mountains into houses, 
which remain to tbip day." In this is 
easy to discover the Thnraudeni of Diodorus, 
Pliny, and Ptolemy. 

The tribes of Tasm and Jadfs settled be 
tween Makkah and al-Mad!nah, and occupied 
the whole level country of al-Yaman, living 
promiscuously under the same government. 
Their history is buried in darkness ; and when 
the Arabs wish to denote anything of dubious 
; authority, they call it a fable of T.aBjn. 

The extinction of these tribes, accord 
j ing to the Quran, was miraculous, and a 
! signal example of Divine vengeance. The 
1 posterity of Ad and Ramfld hnd abandonee! 




the worship of the trne God, arid lapsed into -j 
incorrigible idolatry. They had, been chastised i 
with .a threu years * drought, but their hearts 
remained hardened. To the former was sent 
the Prophet Hud, to reclaim them and preach 
the unity of the Godhead. " O m-y people! 
exclaimed the prophet, ask pardon of your 
Lord j then turn unto Him with, penitence, 
(and) HQ will send down the heavens upon 
you with. copious rains, and with strength in 
addition to your strength will Ho- iuerease r 
you." Few believed, and the overthrow of 
the idolaters was effected by a hot and suf 
focating wind, that blew seven nights and 
oight days without intermission, accompanied 
with a terrible earthquake, by which their 
idols were broken to, pieces, and their houses 
thrown to the ground. (See Qur au; Surah vii.. 
68, xi. 63.) Luqinan,. ^ho, according to 80 me, 
was a famous king of the * Adi tea, and who 
Hved to the age of seven eagles, escaped, with 
about sixty others, the common calamity. 
These few survivors gave rise to tribe 
called the Latter Ad ; but on account of tlieir 
crimes they were transformed, as the Qur an 
states, into asses or monkeys. Hud returned 
to Hazramaut, and was buried in the neigh 
bourhood, where a .small town, Qabr Hud. 
still bcar.s his naisi". Among the Arabs, -Ad 
expresses the same remote age that Saturn or 
Ogyges did among the Greeks ; anything of 
extreme antiquity is v,nid to be * 4 as old as 
King Ad." 

The idolatrous tribe of Samud had the 
prophet Salih sent to them, whom IVHerbelot 
makes the son of Arphaxad. while Bocnart 
and Sale suppose him to be Peleg, the 
brother of Joktan. His preaching had little 
effect. The fate of the -Adit es, instead of 
being a warning, set them to dig caverns 
in the rocks, whore they hoped to escape the 
vengeance of winds and . tempests. Others 
demanded a sign from the prophet in token of 
his mission. As a condition of then belief, 
they challenged him to a trial of power, 
similar to what took place between Elijah 
and the -priests of Baal, a,nd promised to 
follow the deity that .should gain the. triumph. 
From a certain rook a camel big with young 
was to come forth in their presence. The 
idolaters wor.e foiled ; for on Salih s pointing 
to the spot, a she-camel was produced, with a 
young one ready woancd. This miracle 
wrought eoriviction in a few ; but the rest, far 
from believing, hamstrung the mother, killed 
her miraculous progeny, and divided the 
tiesh among them. This act of impiety sealed 
their doom. * And a violent tempest overtook 
the wicked, and they .were found prostrate on 
their breasts in their abodes." Qur an, 
Surah vii. 71, xi. 64.) 

The tribes of Jadls and Tusm owe then- 
extinction to. a different cause. A certain 
Jespot, a Tasmite, but sovereign of both tribes, 
had rendered himself detested by a voluptuous 
j;iw claiming for himself a priority of right 
over all the bride * jf the .fadlsites. This 
insult w;n not lu b* % toforated. A conspira<y 
was I oniHvt. i le fcmg and his chiefs were 
t<) .MI mtprtarninont. The avengers 


had privately hidden their swords in the 
sand, and m the moment of mirth and fes 
tivity they foil upon the tyrant and his 
retinue, and finally extirpated the groater 
rJart of liis subjects. 

3J. The pure Arabs are those who claim 
to be descended from Joktan or whom 
the present Arabs regard as their principal 
founder. The members of this genuine 
stock are styled al- Arahw VAribsvh, tbc 
genuine Arabs. According to their genealogy 
of this patriarch, his descendants formed two 
distinct branches. Ya rub, one of his sons 
founded the kingdonrof nl-Yoman, and Jxu-hum 
that of al-Hijax. These two are the only aons 
spoken of by the Arabsi Their names do not 
uccur in Scripture ; but it has been conjec 
tured that they were the Jerah and Hadorain 
mentioned by-Mcsofi as among ihe thirteen 
planters of Arabia (Gen. x. 1 G). 

In the division of their nation into tribe* 
the Arabs resemble the Jews. From an early 
era they have regained the distinction of sepa 
rate, and independent families. This partit ion 
was adverse to the consolidation of power or 
political influence, but it furnishes onr chief 
guide into the dark abyss of their antiquities. 
The posterity of Ya rub spread and nmlti 
plied into innumerable clans. >%>w ctessi<n 
rendered now subdi visions necessary. In the 
genealogical tables of Sale, Gagnier. ami 
Saiyid Ahmad Khan, arc enuincr;ited nearly 
three-score tribes of genuine Arabs, many of 
whom became celebrated long before the time 
of Muhammad, and some of them retain their. 
names even at the present day. 

III. The Aralu i-Mtut&ribah, tlie mixed 
Arabs, claim to be descended from Islimael 
and the daughter of al-Muzaz, King of 
al-Hij?iJ5, whom be took to wife, and was of the 
ninth generation from Jurhum, the founder of 
that kingdom. Of the Jurhumites. till the 
time of Ishmael, little is recorded, except the 
names of their princes or chiefs, and that 
they had possession ,of the territory of ! Hijn/ 
But as Muljamuiad traces his descent to this 
alliance, the Arabs have been moro than 
asxially careful to preserve and adorn hi.s 
genealogy. The want of a pure ancestry is, 
in thei" estimation, more than- compensated 
by the dignity of so sacred a connexion ; for 
they boast as much an. the Jews of being 
reckoned the children of Abraham. This 
circumstance will account for .the preference 
with which they uniformly regard this branch 
of their pedigree, and for the many -romantic 
legends thev have grafted upon it. It is not 
improbable that the old giants and idolaters 
suffered an imaginary extinction to make way 
for a more favoured race, ami that Divine 
chastisements always overtook those who 
dared to invade their cou.secratod terri- 

The Scripture account of the expulsion und 
Icstiny of tins venei-ated progenitor of the 
Arabs is brief, but simple :tnd affecting. 
Isum-iM*! Avasj the ^n of Abraham by Hagar, 
in Egyptian al^ve. When fourteen years of 
ige, hq was ..supplan^d in the hopes and 
affections of his father by the birth of Isaac. 




through whom the promise* were to descend ; 
This event made it nec-essary to remove the I 
unhappy fcnjale and her child, who were 
accordingly ent forth to seek their fortune 
in some of the surrounding unoccupied dis- 
A small snpply of provision*, *nd 
of water on her shoulder, \vj .ill she 
carried from the teut of her muster Direct 
ing her steps towards her native country, she 
wandered with the lad in the wilderness of 
Beer-feheba, which was destitute of springs. 
Here her utotk failed, and it seemed irupos 
Sible to avoid perishing by hunger or thirst. 
She resigned herself to her melancholy pro 
spects, but the feelings of the mother were 
more acute than th agonies of want and 
despair. Unable to witness her sons death 
she laid him under onr- of the shrubs. 
took an affecting leave ol him. and retired 
to a distance. - And he went, wl sat 
her down over against him. u good way ff 
a.s it were M bow-^i,nt ; for she said. Let 
we not nee the death of the child. And she 
sat ovor against him. ;<nrl liftod tip her voice 
and *ept. (f-M-.n. xxi lllj At this moment 
au angel directed her to a well of water 
close at hand. a discovery to which they 
owed the preservation of their live*:. A pro 
mise formerly given was ivrvwed. that 
sh mael wa* to become a great nation that 
he was to be a wild man his hand against 
every man, ami every man s hand against him. 
The travellers continued their journey to Ihc 
wilderness of P:ran. and there took up their 
residence. In due time the lad grew to man 
hood, and greatly distinguished himself as an 
archer, and his mother took him n wile out of 
her own land. Here the sacred narrative 
breaks off abruptly, the main object of Moses 
being to follow the histojfy of Abraham s 
descendants through the line of Isaac. The 
Arabs, in their version of Ishmael s history, 
have mixed a great deal of romance with the 
narrative of Scripture. They assort thnt 
al-lliji? the district where he settled, and 
that Makkali, then an arid wilderness, was the 
identical spui whore his life was providentially 
saved, and where Hiigar died and was buried. 
The well pointed <mt by the wngel. they be- 
lievo to be Die famous Zani?ani. of which all 
pious Muslims drink to Ibis day. They 
make n allusion to his alliance with the 
Egyptian woman, by whom ho had twelve 
sons (Oen. xxv. 12-18), the chiefs of as many 
nations, and (be possessors of separate towns; 
but us polygamy was common in his age aud 
country, it is not improbable he may have 
bad more wivus than one 

It was, *ay they, to commemorate the 
miraculous preservation of Ishirmcl that (od 
commanded Abraham to build the Ka -bah. 
and his son to furnish the necessary 

Mul.amniiiduii give tlie following 
ncvuiiut of Ishmael and bis descendants : 
liibmael was < onstituted the prince and first 
high priest of Makknh. awl. during half a 
ceniury hf preached lo the incrediilras Arbs 
At his deaili, which happened lorty eight 
years after ih of A Urn him. :md >n \\w l-)7th 

of his age. he was Juried in (he lomb ol his 
mother Hagar. Between the erection uf the 
Ka bah nd the birth of Iheir Prophet, the 
Arabs reckon about 2,740 years. IshrnaeJ 
was Micceedvii in th< ro^al niwi iaf:erdotal 
oAicc by his -ldost son Nebai. nlthongh the 
pedi^ivc of Muhammad is lr*l from Kedar. 
a yoongfli brother. Hut his t/imily did not 
lonf enjoy thi loub|p authority , lor, in pro 
gress of time, the J-urhuinitc* sei^od the go 
vernment and Ihe guart|i:inship of the temple, 
which they maintained itbont 300 years 
These last, again, having corrupted rhf true 
wofih)p, were assailed, as a punishment of 
their crimes, first by the scimitars of the 
UhnjHclilcs. who drove their from Makknh, 
nd then by divers uittlanicB. by which 
the whole race linally perished. Before 
quitting Makkah. however, they committed 
every kind of sacrilege and indignity. They 
tilled up the Zamzain \vell, after having 
thrown into it the treasures and sacred 
utensils of the temple, the black ttone, the 
swords and cuirasses of Qala ah. the two 
golden gazelles presented hy one of the 
kings of Arabia, the sacred image of the ram 
substituted : for Isaac, and all the precious 
mo*;ible$, forming at once the object and 
the workmanship of a superstitious dovo- 
tiou. F<>r sever J centuries the posterity 
of IshmaH kept possession of the &ut>rcme 

Thtf follow ing HJ the li5t ol chiefs who 
are said to have ruled (he Hijaz. and to have 
been the lineal ance*tor9of Muhammad, as far 
as *Atinan : 

A.D. 534 -Abdu Hah, the father of Muhammad. 
505 -Abdu 1 Mu Ma lib 
47*2 Hashim 
439 Abd Mttu-tf 
106 Qus.iiy. 
373 KiWb, 
340 Murrah. 
Ji07 Kaab. 
27 1 Luw/iiy. 
241 Ghalib. 
208 Fihr or (>ui jUh. 
I7"> Mnlik. 
142 an-Na?r. 
100 Kinannh. 

7<"> Kb u / mm a) < 

43 Mutrikah. 

10 al-Ya s. 
B.C 23 

56 Ni/.ar. 

80 Ma add. 
122 -Adum 

The period between Ishmael and Adnun is 
variously estimated, some reckoning forty, 
others only seven. gnei :Uions. The authority 
of Abu l-Fidii, who makes it ten, is that gene 
rally (allowed by tlit* Arabs, beiiiK founded on 
a tradition of one of Muhammad s wives. 
Making every allowance, however, lor pwfi i 
arehal longevity, even forty generations aro 
insulliripui to extend over a spar* at nearly 
A500 yeraiH. From Adnan In WuharjoiH 
the ^enealovy is coiisiderofl certain, -ompre- 
hending twenty-one genera I IOIIK, and nearly 



160 different tribes, all branching off from 
the same parent stem. 

(See Abu l-Fida; Gagnier s Vie de Maho 
met ; Pocock, SfiKcim. Arab. Hist. ; Saiyid 
Ahmad Khan s Essays; Sale s Koran, Prelim* 
Die ; Crichton s Hist. Arabia.} 

ARABIC. Lisdnu-l- Arah ; Lu- 
qhatu l- ( Arab. The classical language of 
Arabia is held to be the language of the 
Qur an, and of the Traditions of Muhammad, 
md by reason of its incomparable excellence 
is called &j&\ cd-lurjhah, or "the language." 
( See Qur an, Surah xvi. 105, " They say, Surely 
<i person teacheth him [i.e. Muhammad]. But 
the tongue of him at whom they hint is 
foreign, while this [i.e. the Qur an] is plain 

This classical language is often termed, by 
the Arabians themselves, the language of 
Ma add, and the language of Muzar, and is 
a compound of many sister dialects, very 
often differing among themslelve*, which 
were spoken throughout the whole of the 
Peninsula before the religion of Muhammad 
incited the nation to spread its conquering 
armies over foreign countries. Before that 
period, feuds among the tribes, throughout 
the whole extent of their territory, had pre 
vented the blending of their dialects into one 
uniform language ; but this effect of disunion 
was counteracted in a great measure by the 
institution of the sacred months, in which all 
acts of hostility were most strictly interdicted, 
and by the annual pilgrimage, and the yearly 
fair held at Ukaz, at which the poets of the 
various tribes contended for the meed of 
general admiration. 

Qatadah says that the Quraish tribe used to 
cull what was most excellent in the dialects 
of Arabia, so that their dialect became the 
best of all. This assertion, however, is .not 
altogether correct, for many of the children 
of the tribe of Quraish, in the time of Muham 
mad, were sent into the desert to be there 
nursed, in order to acquire the utmost 
chasteness of speech. Muhammad himself 
was sent to be brought up among the tribe of 
Sa d ibn Bakr ibn Hawuziu, descendants of 
Muzar, but not in the lino of Quraish ; and he 
is said to have urged the facts of his being a 
Quraish, and having also grown up among 
the tribe of Sa d, as the grounds of his 
claim to be the most chaste in speech of the 
Arabs. Certain it is that the language of 
Ma add was characterised by the highest degree 
of perfection, copiousness, and uniformity, in 
the time of Muhammad, although it after 
wards declined. 

The language of the Qur an is universally 
acknowledged to be the most perfect form of 
Arabic Speech. At the same time we must 
not forget that the acknowledged claims of the 
Qur an to be the direct utterance of the 
Divinity have made it impossible for any 
Muslim to criticise the work, and it has be 
come the Standard by which other literary 
compositions have to be judged, (See Lane s 
Introduction to his Arabic Dictionary, am 
Palmer s Qur dn.) 



Arabic lexicon is that which is generally 
ascribed to al-Khalil, and entitled Kitiibu l 
Ain. The following are the most celebrated 
Arabic dictionaries composed after the l Ain. 
The Jamharah, by IbnDuraid, died A.H. 321. 
The Tahzlb, by al-Azhari, died A.II. 370. 
The Afvfttg, by the $ahib Ibn Abbfid, died 
A.H. 385. 

The Mujuial, by Ibn Faris ; died A.TT. 395. 
The Sifrak, by al-Jauharl, died A.H. 398. 
The Jd/iii l , by al-Qazzaz. died A.H. 412. 
The Mu ab, by Abu Ghalib, died A.H. 436. 
The Mufrkam, by Ibn Sldah, died A.H. 458. 
The Asds, by a?-Zamakhshari, died A.H. 

The Afuffhrib, by al-Mutarrm, died A.H. 

The Ubdb, by aS-Sagham, died A.H. 600. 
The Lisdnu l- Arab,by Ibn Mukarram,died 
A.H. 711. 

The Tah-zibu t-Taf&ib, by Mahmud at- 
Tanukhi, died A.H. 723. 

The Afi$bdh, by Ahmad ibn Muhammad 
al-Faiyumi, compiled A.H. 734. 

The Afurjhni l-Labib, by Ibn Hisham, died 
A.H. 761. 

The Qdmm, by al-Fairuzabadi, died A.H. 

The Sifrdtt (says Mr. Lane in his Preface 
to his Dictionary), is among the books of 
lexicology like the gahih of Al-BMarl 
amongst the books of traditions; fo.rthe point 
on which turns the title to reliance is not the 
copiousness of the collection, but the condi 
tion of genuineness and correctness. 

Two well-known dictionaries, compiled in 
modern times in Hindustan, are the Gftiydsu 7- 
Luyhat. by Maulawi G_hiyaSu d-din of Rain- 
pur, and the Afuntaha. l- Arab, by Abdu r- 
Rahlm ibn Abdu 1-Karim of Saflp.ur. These 
are both Arabic and Persian lexicons. 

The Arabic-Latin dictionary of Jacob 
Golius, waa printed at Leyden, A.D. 1653; 
that of Freytag at Halle, A.D. 1830-35. 

The Arabic-English and English-Arabic 
dictionaries extant are 

Richardson s Persian- Arabic-English, A.D. 

Richardson s English-Persian-Arabic, A.D. 

Francis Jehnson s Persian-Arabic-English, 
A.D. 1852. 

Catafago s Arabic-English and English- 
Arabic, new edition, 1873. 

Lane s Arabic-English, A.D. 1863 to 1882, 

Dr. Badger s English-Aribic, A.D. 1881. 
Dr. Steihgass s English- Arabic, A.D. 1882. 

(u>\j&\). (1) The 

partition between heaven and hell, described 
in the Qur an, Surah vii. 44, Betwixt the two 
(heaven and hell) there is a partition ; and on 
al- A raf are men who know all by their marks ; 
and they shall cry out to the inhabitants of 
Paradise, Peace be upon you i (but) they 
have not (yet) entered it, although they so 
desire. And when their sight is turned towards 
the dwellers in the Fire, they say, O our Lord, 


place us not with the unjust people. " Accord 
ing to Sale, al-A rafia derived from the verb 
ara/bt, \vhi<-h signifies u to distinguish between 
things, or to p&rt them"; though some com 
mentators give another reason for the imposi 
tion of this name, because, say they, those who 
stand on this partition will know and distinguish 
the blessed from the damned hv their respec 
tive marks or characteristics : and others say 
the word properly intends anything that is 
eleoated, as such a wall of separation must 
be supposed to be. Some imagine- it to 
bo a sort of limbo for the patriarchs and pro 
phets, or for the martyrs and those who have 
been most eminent for sanctity. Others 
place here those whose good and evil works 
are so equal that they exactly counterpoise 
each other, and therefore deserve neither 
reward nor punishment ; and these, say they, 
will on the last da 3 be admitted into Paradise, 
after they shall have performed an act of 
adoration, which will be imputed to them us 
a merit, and will make the scale of their good 
works to preponderate. Others suppose this 
intermediate space will be a receptacle for 
those who hare gone to war, without their 
parents leave, and therein suffered mar 
tyrdom ; being excluded from Paradise for 
their disobedience, and escaping hell because; 
they are martyrs. (2) The title of Surah vii. 
(3) A term used by Sixfi mystics to express 
a condition of the mind and soul when medi 
tating on the existence of God in all things. 

ARAFAH (&/0- The vigil of the 
Idu 1-Azha, or Feast of Sacrifice", when the 
pilgrims proceed to Mount Arafat. [ IDU 

ARAFAT (*>U,ft), or Am/ah. 

The " Mount of Recognition," situated twelve 
jnilesi from Maltkah; the place where tho 
pilgrims stay on the ninth day of the pil 
grimage, and recite the mid- day and after 
noon prayers, and hear the Khutbah or 
Sermon. Hence it is a name giyen to the 
ninth day of the month Zu 1-Hijjah. Upon 
the origin of the name given to this mountain, 
Burton says, " The Holy Hill owes its name 
to the following legond : When our first 
parents forfeited heaven for eating wheat, 
which deprived them of their primeval purity, 
they were cast do\vn upon earth. The ser 
pent descended upon Ispahan, the peacock at 
Gabul ; Satan at Bilbays (others say Senrnan 
or Seistan), Eve upon Arafat, and Adam at 
Ceylon (Sarandib). The latter, determining 
to seek his wife, began a journey, to which 
the earth owes its present mottled appear 
ance. Wherever our first father placed his 
foot, which was large, a town afterwards 
arose ; and between the strides will always 
be country. Wandering for many years, he 
came to the Mountain of Mercy, where our 
common mother was continually calling upon 
his name, and their recognition of each other 
gave the place the name of Arafuh." 

ARAZI GJ*^). Lit. "lands"; the 
sale of lands. Tombs are not included in the 
sale of lands. A place or atation for casting 



the harvest is not considered to bo amongst 
the rights and advantages of land, and there 
fore does not enter into the sale of it. 
(Baillie s Law of Sale, pages 54, 55.) 


ARCHITECTURE. The term Sara 
cenic is usually applied by English writers to 
Muhammadan architecture. But though the 
style may be traced to the Arabians, they 
cannot themselves be considered the inventors 
of it. They had, in fact, no distinctive style 
of their own when they made their rapid con 
quests, but adapted existing styles of archi 
tecture to meet the religious and national 
feelings of the Muslims. 

Muhammad built a mosque at al-Madinah, 
but it was an exceedingly simple structure, 
and he left no directions in the Qur un or in 
the Traditions on the subject. 

The typical varieties of the earlier Muham- 
madan architecture are those which appeared 
in Spain and in Egypt ; its later form 
appeared in Constantinople. The oldest 
Specimen of Saracenic architecture in Spain is 
the mosque of Cordova, which MOW serves as 
the cathedral of tho city. It was commenced 
by the Khalifah Abdu r-Rahmtn, 78(> A..D. 


with the avowed intention that it should bo 
the finest mosque in the world, and Byzantine 
architects are said to have been specially 
invited to superintend its construction. 

The earliest of the Muhainmedan buildings 
in Egypt, of which any portions still remain, is 
the Mosqua of <Amr at old Cairo, begun 
about A.D. 642, but greatly altered or rebuilt 
about sixty years later. 

On the capture of Constantinople, St. Sophia 
was converted by the Muslim conquerors into 
their chief Mosque, and made their architec 
tural model. The older Saracenic style, as 
seen at Cordova and old Cairo, continued to 
be the basis of tho new, bxit it was modified 
throughout by Byzantine influence. In Persia 



\v.e may clearly trae in Mnhammndan bniW 
the older Persian type, And in India 


the Saracenic architects showed the same 
pliancy in adopting the styles of the various 
peoples amongst whom they settled. It thus 
happens (says Fergusson, in his History of 
Indian Architecture), that we have at least 
twelve or fifteen different styles f Muhanv 
madan architecture in Central Asia and in 


almost to apparent uisoeunry*, but owing to 
the style of the fmtwHishnier.t. this lightness 


A Mi-iking and distinctive feature in early 
Muhamraadan architecture- is the horse- shoe 
arch, which in time gives way to n rasped or 
scalloped arch, strictly so termed, the outline 
being produced by intersecting semi arches. 
Another variety of Saracenic arch is the cir 
cular-headed and stilted form. The pillars arc 
commonly of exceedingly slender proportions, 


oi particular forms Kinds to heighten the 
general luxuriance Some have imagined that 
Hits element of slenderness in regard to 
pillars indicates a tent, origin rtf the style. 
This tout -like character has been further kept 
up by roncwvr cfihugs and cupolas, embla- 
. .cmed with painting anil gilding 1 . LVeorationH 
couiposed of journal ojul human figures, 
interdicted by Mubaminadun law 
ate not found in Saracenic arcbilecfuir 
but their geometrical patterns exhibit sin 
gular bennty and complexity, inexhaustible 
variety uf r oniluu^li ms, aiifl a w wilder fnl 
degree ul hainioinous intricacy, arising out of 
very simple elements. Lattice or open trellis 


work is another fertile source of tin bell ish 
ment, and is similar to the tracery met with 
in Gothic buildings. Another characteristic 
of Saracenic style is that of the dome. For 
the most part domes occur in iiio*<|iies and 
tombs, and ar< of Byva ntine origin. Minarets 
are also ? special feature in Muhftiuinadan 
mosques, and contribute much to (Le pu>- 
turesqueness of these buildings. They are 


found in Tno~qnes ol the Uter Sftraeenic si.ylc. 
(See Fen?tiisson s Indian and Eastern Arckitt.c- 


. Mr Owen Jnf"> i Athtunbrfi AW*Y. Tfer- 

AKlYAH (*i/0. A \md of sale 
permitted in Islam, namely, wh on a persoi- 
computer what quantity of fruit there its on a 
tree and .-oils it before it is plucked. (Mi*h- 
ktit. xii e. \,) 

AKlYAH (*. (1) A loan, for 

ttio u. j " of anything of which f&irz c?mnor i>c 
made: .//. the. loan of a horse \R -Art.)-i/>: 
the loan of money is (^atz. (2) A #ift. of 
vl ifh th - fol lowing is an example: A person 
rrmk"s -,\ ^ift to another of the tbttes , t > 
palm-tree m his ^arrli-n; but having after 
wards somo doubt of the propriety of that 
person coining laily to hi, garden v II.M-, 
his family xisualiy :iv, and being. ;it the 
aamo time unwilling li> depart t roaj his 
promist, v to r-tr:iot his Kift, he f/ivos 
some ol tli- rlatc^ h ; ;t have already boon 
pulled in lieu of thone upon the tree. 
(BaiUio s IMW of .S/.-A . p SOO ) 

AR.K, ISOAH S ( C y tUi). It i^ 
mentioned i; th. !i-tory of the Delude, as 
recorded in the \>ui ;in. in tw> places- Suruh 
xi. 3i>, -Bnildthe >!:< under oni ,-< j>i>d after 
our revelation," and hin.ih \\iii 27. There 
is also supp.)H*ri to IT an allusion to ti. ;ul 
in Surjih xxxvi. -U . " And a i^n t: *hm i- 
that \v(j bare the,iv nifAprii^ in the l:iden ship. 

AI-ltii/uNvi s;i/s that Noah -./;s tw> years 
linilding the ark. Mwhicli \\.- JifX* ctii>it - 1< n 
5() vitlf, aii<l 30 brand. Mod which va.s made 
of Indian pi r. tie-tree ; that it consi.stt-d < \ 
three storeys, flu- loAvcst for 
for men and \\ouicii (who v"io M. 
from eacli ether), ind the hi^li ^t. \<. < tjird 

The afk is said t< linvp rested on Iho tiiouu- 
tain al-Ji<li. fN>\H.] 



Hcbrew worJ for "Ark" is pnfi (i.e. 
a chest, a rpff?r), Cbalcl. 

Arabic ^y^ , tyV;. See Qur an. Sura), 
ii. 24 ik, Tic liffn of his (Saul s) kuiL dojn is 
that there shall come unto you the ark 
(J dbut)- iu it Minll be srcnnty (or the Shechi 
nah, sakimik, Heb. n^^Dtt? 


Lord, find the rei:< s of what th<> 1 imily 
of Moses :nd the family o( Aaron left ; the 
angels shall bear it." J Ullu d din say 1 ; 
tbift ark contained the inKi>?eH tf the prophets, 
and *> *ent down from heavrn to Adorn, 
and at k:j^ lh came to the Israelites, who put 
great confidence tLevnin, nd continually car 
ried it in jront of their army (ill it w^ taken 
by the Ani 1ckitOK But ni occasion tho 
angels bron,,ht it tnrk in thei s^^ht < f all *hr 
people, pl.<fil it at il.t feet of Saul 
(TaJut)* wrho was tJ n-nj-n unanintouslv 
rereivod as Kin^. 

ARMS, Tho Sale oi. I he salo ol 

;ntnoui or warlike stores to rebels, or in their 
camp, is forbidden, because soiling arms into 
flic hands of rebels is :n ;>.ssistncc to defec 
tion. But it i* not forbiddfn to sell the mate 
rials for making arms to such persons 
fRftmihott fl tlniiifjdti. vfl ii i 1 5. ) 

AIuSII (^^*;^ / ). ( i .) A loiral term 

for eoitipensatiou. (2.) Amulet ; r. lino ; pa-- 
ticularly thai which is piid for shedding o1 
blood. (3.) A gill Tor conciliating the favour 
of a judge; a bribe. (4.) Whatever ;t pur 
chaser rccencs from a seller after <li<*cnve.r- 
iufcT ti fault in ;I;P itrticln 

AESH (v>;*)- i he term n.s^-j , r 
th" Qur an for the throne of God. Surah ix. 
lJJi, k ITp is the Lord of the smyhty rhrnf." 
Hus^ini, the eprnnieut!t<(r, sjys the throne 
has o,0(X> pillars, and the distance bftwrn 
.^ch pillar is 3,000,000 mile? 

; ASABAH (i**\ \ legal term 
for male rebtliv^s by the tathei s side 


ASAF (uA<5^). Tin* wnzir or priin< 
miniRter < [ Solomon. Alluded to in the 
Qnr fm, Surah xxvil. 40, as "He with whom 
WUH knowledge of the scripture >fnhti J 
in.idan oommeutjitur* say be "*<> the on of 

ASAK (y^). lie 1 latin g ; handing 

douii by tradition. Generally ued for 
H uli- related hy one of the (^onn>anions. as 
ditin^uisiied frmn one ftf the Projhet s own. 


c_fij>yiJ^). Tht? sacrod relic. A liair 

of either the beard or rtuist;i hi->s ,.f M lbiiin- 
ina-l, 01 a frot-print of Hie iM .-.pliet. )r," of 
these *;<T.:HI relic:- (n h*ir of his benri; is 
<%iiibitol in tli^ i,TCil ir.csiiiie at DeJhi, 
another in :i inosque in CaSliinerc. 

ASHAB (^W^ pi. oi NflAi/> 
Tho C!nmp:iniotif> nr As^ocifltenof 


The term .used for a single companion is 
vahabi. Concerning the title of " Companion," 
there is considerable controversy as to the 
persons to whom it can be applied. Sa id 
ibn al-Musaiyab reckoned none a . " Com 
panion," but those who had been a year or 
more with Muhammad, and had gone on a 
warlike expedition with him. Some say that 
everyone who had attained puberty, had em 
braced Islam, and had seen the Prophet, was 
a lt Companion," even though he had attended 
Muhammad but an hour. Others, however, 
affirm that none could be a " Companion " 
unless Muhammad chose him and he chose 
Muhammad, and he adhered to the Prophet 
at all , times. The general opinion is that 
every one who embraced Islam, saw the Pro 
phet, and accompanied him, even for a short 
time, was a " Companion." 

It is related that the Prophet marched to 
Makkah with 10,000 Muslims, to Huuam with 
12,000, and that 40,000 accompanied him on 
the farewell pilgrimage. The number of the 
" Companions " at bis death is said to have 
been 144,000. 

In point of merit, the refugees (Muhdjrrwi) 
are more worthy than the auxiliaries (,4no?-) ; 
but by way of precedence, the auxiliaries are 
more worthy than the later refugees. 

The " Companions " have been arranged in 
thirteen classes, which are given by Abu 1-Fida 
as follows: 1. Those who first embraced 
Islam, such as Khadijah, AH, Zaid. and Abu 
Bakr, and those who did not delay till he had 
established bis mission. II. The Companions 
who believed in him after his mission had 
been fully established, amongst whom was 
Umar. III. Those who fled to Abyssinia. 
IV. The first Companions of Aqabah. who 
proceeded the Auxiliaries. V. The second 
Companions of Aqabah. VI. The third Com 
panions of < Aqabah, who were seventy. VII. 
The refugees who went to the Prophet after 
his flight, when he was at Quba, before the 
erection of the temple. VIII. The soldiers of 
the great battle of Badr, IX. Those who 
joined Islam between Badr and Hudaibiyah. 
X. Those who took the oath of fealty under 
the acacia tree at Hudaibiyah. XI. Those who 
joined after the treaty of Hudaibiyah, but 
before the conquest. XII. Those that embraced 
Islam on the day of conquest. XIII. Those 
who were children in the time of the Pro 
phet, and had seen him. 

Muhammad frequently commended the 
" Companions," and spoke of their excellences 
and virtues, a chapter in the Traditions being 
devoted to this subject, (3/zx//X;a?, xxiv. o. 
xiii.) He i related to have said, "My com 
panions are like stars by which roads are 
found, for which ever companion vou follow 
vou will find the right road." 


" The Companions of the Elephant." A term 
%ised in the Chapter of the Elephant, or the 
CVth Surah : ! Hast thou not seen how thy 
Lord dealt with the companions of t/ie elephant ? 
Did He not cause their stratagem to miscarry ? 


And He sent against them birds in flocks, 
small stones did they hurl down upon them, 
and he made them like stubble eaten down! " 
This refers to the army of Abrahah, tho 
Christian king of Abyssinia and Arabia Felix, 
said to have been lost, in the year of Muham 
mad s birth, in an expedition against Makkah 
for the purpose of destroying the Ka hah. This 
army was cut off by wmall-pox, and there is no 
doubt, as the Arabic word for small-pox also 
means " small stones," in reference to the 
hard gravelly feeling of the pustules, what is 
the true interpretation of the fourth verse of 
this Surah, which, like many other poetical 
passages in the Qur an, has formed the start 
ing point for the most puerile and extravagant 

ASHABU L-KAHF (u&\ s^W^). 

" The Companions of the Cave," i.e. the Seven 
Sleepers, mentioned in the Suratu 1-kahf, or 
Chapter xviii. of the Qur an. The story, as 
told by early Christian writers, is given by 
Gibbon {Rise and Fall, Chapter xxxi.). When 
the Emperor Decius persecuted the Christians, 
seven noble youths of Ephesus are said to 
have concealed themselves in a cave in the 
side of a mountain, where they were doomed 
to perish by the tyrant, who gave orders that 
the entrance should be firmly secured with a 
pile of huge stones. They immediately fell 
into a deep slumber, which was miraculously, 
prolonged, without injuring the powers of life, 
during a period of 187 years. This popular 
tale, which Muhammad must have heard 
when he drove his camels to the fairs of 
Syria, is introduced into the Qur an as a 
divine revelation. 

J&uW). " The sitters on the bench " 
of the temple at Makkah. They are thus de 
scribed by Abu 1-Fidft: "They were poor 
strangers, without friends or place of abode, 
who claimed the promises of the Apostle of 
God and implored his protection. Thus the 
porch of the temple became their mansion, 
and thence they obtained their name. When 
Muhammad went to meals, he used to call 
some of them to partake with him ; and he 
selected others to eat with his companions. 

(Sj-i~* &yi.*). " The ten who received 
glad tidings." Ten of the most distinguished of 
Muhammad s followers, whose certain entrance 
into Paradise he is said to have foretold. 
They are Abu Bakr, Utnar, Usman, All, 
Talhah, az-Zubair, Abdu r-Rahman, Sa d-ibn- 
Abu-Waqqas. Sa id ibn Zaid, AM Ubaidah 
ion al-Jarrah. (Mishkdt, book xxiv. c. xx., part 
ii.) Muhammad declared it presumption for 
anyone to count upon an entrance into 
heaven with absolute certainty, but he made 
an exception in favour of these ten distin 
guished persons. 

Ai,-ASH ABlYAH (fytdR). A sect 

formed by Abu r i-Hasan Ali ibn Isina il 
al-Ash arf. born A.H. 280 (A.T>, 873-4). 


They hold that the attributes of God are 
dintmot from His essence, yet in such a 
way as to forbid any comparison being 
made between God and His creatures. They 
say they are not " 4 a/i uor ghair: not of Hi s 
essence, nor distinct from it: i.e. they cannot 
be compared with any other things. They 
also hold that God lias one eternal will, 
from which proceed all things, the good 
and tbo evil, the useful aud the hurtful. The 
destiny of man was written on the eternal 
table before the world was created, So far 
they go with the Sifatis, but in order to 
preserve the moral responsibility of man. they 
say that he has power to convert will into 
action. But this power cannot create any 
thing new, for then God s sovereignty would 
beimpaired; MO they say that God in His pro 
vidence so orders matters that whenever " a 
man desire* to do a certain thing, good or 
bad, the action corresponding to the desire is, 
there and then, created by God, and, as it 
vyere, fitted onto the desire." Thus it seems 
as if it came naturally from the >vill of the 
roan, whereas it does not. This action l 
called Kasb (acquisition), because it is acquired 
by a special creative act of God. It is an 
act directed to the obtaining of profit or th- 
removing of injury: the term is therefore in 
applicable to the Deity. Abu Bahr al-Bakil 
l&ni, a disciple of al-Ash ari, says: * The 
essence or substance of the action is the 
effect of the power of God, but its being an 
action of obedience, such as prayer, or an 
action of disobedience, such as fornication, 
are qualities of the action, which proceed 
from the power of man. 71 The Imam Al- 
Haramain (A.H. 419-478) held "that the 
actions of men were effected by the power 
which God has created in man." " Abu Ishaq 
tl-Isfarayini says: "That which maketh im 
pression, or hath influence on action, is a 
30inpound -if the power of God and the power 
)f man." They also believe that the .word of 
Sod is eternal, though they acknowledge that 
/he vocal sounds used in the Qur an, which are 
,he manifestation of that word, are created. 
iThey say, in short, that the Qur an contains 
!) the eternal word which existed m the 
issenoe of God before time was ; and (2) the 
fford which consists of sounds and combiua- 
ions of letters. This last they call the created 

Thus Al-Ash ari traversed the main posi- 
lokf of the Muta/ilites, denying tha!. man can, 
>y the aid ot his reason alone, rise to the 
cnowledge 01 good and evil. He must exer- 
:ise no judgment, but accept all that is re 
vealed. He has no right to apply the moral 
aws which affect mei, to the actions of God. 
t cannot be asserted by the human reason 
hat the good will be rewarded or the bad 
mniehed in a fnture world. Man must always 
ipproach God us a slave, in whom there is no 
ight or knowledge to jtidg; of th^ actions of 
he Supreme. Whether God will ar-cept th 
>enifent sfnner or not cannot be sserti, for 
In ip an absolute So-vpr^ign, above iill law. 
Sale, from , kn KhnUtin ; /)<> \fn 
for die Prflrfrnkv in /slrim, .- .m H. 


1865 ; Zurijesckichte Abu /-J/ttsan al-ash ttriffi, 
von W. Spitta, 1876 : De Strijd over het JJoyum 
in den lxtdm tot op El-aah ari, door Dr. M. Th. 
Hoiusina, Leiden, 1875 ; and Expose <ie In 
Ktfonne de I I slam is me, by M. A. F. Mehren 
Leiden, 1878.) 

ASHtTBA <V U )- Lit. "the 
tenth." A voluntary fast day, observed on the 
tenth of the month of Muharram. It is related 
that Muhammad observed it, and said it was 
a da y _ rea P ec ted by Jews and Christians. 
{Afi&nkat, vii. c. vii. 1.) 

It is the only day of Muharram observed 
by theSunnl Muslims, being the day on which 
it i said God created Adaiu and Eve. heaven 
and hell, the tablet of decree, the pen, life, 
tiud death. It is kept by the Sunnisas a fast. 

ASIYAH (l**\). The wife of 

Pharaoh. Ouo of the four perfect wornetj 
(the Virgin Mary, Khadijnh, and Fafcimah, 
being the other three). See Mishkdtu l-Ma- 
stibih, xxiv. c. 22. She is mentioned in the 
Qur an (Surah Ixvi. 11): " And God striketh 
ont a parable for those who believe : the wife 
of Pharaoh, wiieii she said, f My Lord, build 
for mo a house with Tlieo in Paradise, and 
snve tpp from Pharaoh and his works, and 
save me from the unjust people." 

ASL CJ^). Cause, first principle, 
foundation. Aal-wnfar*, "cause and effect." 
" fundamental and derivative principle." 

ASMA U LLAH (&U\ -U-^). [QOD, 


ASB (>c). The afternoon 

prayer. [FKAYEiis.J The title of the cutrd 
Suz^ah uf the Qur un. 

ASS. According to the Imam 
Abfi Hunifjih, the assiaan unclean animal, and 
its flesh aud milk are unlawful; nor is zakat to 
be given on an ass. (Hamilton s Hidd^ah, 
vol. i. Iti, iv. 74, 8ti.) 

ASTROLOGY. , Arabic Ilmu n~ 

nujiiin. Qatitdah says, referring to the Qur an, 
that God has created stars for three uses : 
(1) as an ornament to the houvena (Surah 
Ixvii. 5); (2) to stone the Dovil with (Surah 
Ixvii. 5) ; and (3) to direct travellers through 
the forests and -on the sea (Surah xv. 16). 
Muhammad condemns those who vtuJy the 
stars for any other purpose (Mi.skkdt. xxi. 
c. iii. pi. in.), and consequently the science of 
Astrology i-j not considered lawful in Islam. 

ASWAD (^S\). An impostor 
who, in the time uf Muhammad,, claimed 
!he prophetic, Hi.s name was Aihalah 
ibn iva b, aqd he belongd to the tnbe 
of Aua, of which, he WHH an iunuential chir-f 
He was suriinmed 7 t u l-Hiimir. or J he 
of th^ Ass," * because he used 

r, or, "He 

* Put p.notbcr 
with the veil. 1 


fiequertly to sy. The mastei ol the ass 
is coming unto ine," and pretendeu to receive 
his revelations from two angels, named ^uhaik 
and Shuraik: Being- a good hand at legeide- 
rn.un, and Having a smooth tongue, he gained 
mightily on the multitude by the strange 
(eats winch he shewed them, and the elo- 
qun(;*> of his discourse. By these means ho 
greatly increased his power, and having mnde 
himself master of ^^ajran an<t the territory of 
Ta if, on the deaiii of Barthtm. the governor 
of Yam an for Muhammad, he seurd that pro 
vince also, killing Shahr, the son cf HtUftifcn, 
and lakim? to wife his widow A/ad whose 
father he had also slain. The new*; beiuy 
brought to Muhamni.-id, lie sent to his fj-ieuds 
and te the tribe of IJatndaiK a party of whoui 
conspiring with Qais ibn Aijii Ya.ghi.ith, who 
bore As wad a gmd$e, and with Fir fur. and 
Aswad s \vife, broke by night into his house, 
where Firuz surprise A him and out of) his 
head While dying, it is said that he roared 
Jike a bull. t which his guards came to the 
chamber cloo but were sent away by his 
wile, who told them that the prophet was 
on y Agitated by the divine inspiration. This 
was done h very night before Muhammad 
died. The next morning the conspirators 
caused the following proclamation to \M- viz. " I bear witness that Muhammad 
is the Apostle of God, and that Aihalu is a 
liar " ; and letters *ere immediately sent 
away to Muh-iinmad, with an account of 
what had been done; but a messenger from 
heaven outstripped thrm. and acquainted the 
prophet with the news, which he imparted to 
his Crintpaiuons a little before his, dealh, the 
letters thi>mselv* hot arriving till Abii Bakr 
was chosen Khalif It is sairt that Muha-in- 
mad on his occasion told those who attended 
him that before the Day of Judgment thirty 
more impostors, besides Musailimah and As- 
wad, should appear. The whole time from 
the beginning of Aswad s rebellion to hif, 
death was four months. 


ATIRAH (fy^). The sacrifice 
offered by the idolatrous Arabs in the month 
of Rajab. It was allowed by the Prophet :\i 
tho commencement of. his mission, but wan 
afterwards abolished. Afiskkdt, book iv. c. "><>. 
" Let there bo no Fara* nor ; Atiruh." 

,AT-TAHIYAT (^>W^5^). Ln. "the 
|>feetingn." A part of the atatoi prayers. 
recited after the r J J >ji:l>lriji /- (& Hit, aftrr 
every two rak ahs. It is recited whilet ihp 
worshipper kneels upon the ground. His left 
foot bent under him, he sit^ upon it, ami 
places his hands upon his knees nnrl says: 
" The adorations (i.e. af-tfthiyatu of the 
tongue are for (rod, and also of the body and 
of alms-giving. Peace be on t-hee. Prophet, 
with the mercy of God and IJis blessing. 
Poa-co be upon ns. and upon God s righteous 
servants." (Mishkiii, iv., o. -svi.-^ [VHAVKK.] 


AULlYA (*^),. pi. of vefc. 

" Favourites of God." The expression occurs 
in the Quran in the following verse. " Ar nwt 
the tavourites of God those on whom no rear 
shall tsome, nor shall they be pu to griel ? " 
(Surah x. 63). 

AUTAD (^ ? V>- Llt - "pyps or 
pillars." A term used by the :>lis for the 
four Saints, by whom the four corners oi the 
world are K atd to he supported. 

A UZU BILLAH (&\* VO- An- 
clhor mime for the Ta anwwz, or the prayct 
in the <laily liturgy : " 1 seek refuge with God 
the cursed Satan/ 


JMuhsiinmadan law, as in the Jewish, the 
punishment for wilful murder Mi left to the 
next of kin ; but in the Jewish cor\e 
the avenger of Mood was compelled to tnk 
the life of the murderer, whilst in t ho Muslim 
fade be nuiy accept compensation? vide 
Qur jiu. Sin ah it. 173, *() believers! rot-itiaiion 

) for blood-shedding is pies<-i-il.ed to 
you: top free man for the fj-eo. and the slave 
for the rlave, und the woman for Ihp woman ; 
but be to whom Ins brotlu-r .shrill make any 
remission is to he dealt with cipiitably ; and 
a payment should be made to him vyiih 
liberality. This is a r<-l:i*;;tion (/.. ol tiie 
strict (iV fax td/i oMfi) from vour I>ord. and a 
mercy." [IJIHAS.] 

AYAH (^A). LU *-a sign, or 
miiMfle." The torui us,ed for our of the 
smaller portions of vh j r* ha piers of the l v >urVin, 
which we call verses. J he munber of verses 
i;i often set down after the title of the chapter, 
but the verses are not marked in the text as 
they are in our English Bibtas. The number 
of verses in the <^ur an is variously estimated. 
but they :tre generally said to bf aboxt six 
thousand two hundred. [QI:U AS.J 


J*,), pi. of ayn, iu the sense of 
"tho essence" of a thin^;. The established 
essences. A term used by the 8ufi mystics 
io express fitfuri-s ornhlematjc of the names 
9 1 God. f Abdu r-Ray./3q .s Uictiotmry of Tfniai of the Sufis. Sprenger a 

AYATU L-FATH (^ ^). Lit. 

The verse of victory." The fifty-ninth 
verse of the Siiratu I-AnTtUi (vi.) of the 
Qur an. Iho powers of this v<rse are said to 
be so great, that if a person constantly recile 
it he will obtain his ctosires. It is generally 
recited with this objoct forty times altor each 
season of prayer. It is as follows : * And with 
Him are the keys of the secret things ; none 
knoweth them but He ; and He knoweth what 
ever is on the land and iu the sea ; and no 
leaf falleth but He knowcth it ; neither Is there 
a grain in the darknesses of the earth- nor a 
green thing nor a dry thing, but it is noted in 
a clear book." 



AYATU h-HF*? rU*rt V ) The 
verses of protection " Certain verses of 
the Qur an whir-h arc usually insaihfd on 
arnulots They are: Surah li ? >0. "And 
tfae preservation of both (heaven SUM! earlhj is 
no burden unto Hun. Surah xn. l4, " f.iol 
is the best proteetor." $iir<h xni. U. " Th^y 
uuard him ly th<; command of G->d Siunh 
xv. \!. " Wt> guard him from ovi.>ry devil 
driven away by stones" Surah XX.VVH. 7, 
_\ protection agiMnsi ev-iy rebellious devil." 


"The vfM M.- uf i hi-. throne." Veise V5fj of 
the M n-atu, or chap. u. of the 
QniYm. It is i I ,-itod Midiknl. book iv , 
c. xix.. pail in that -All hfard Muham 
mad say in h ))ii)pil. (hat person who 
repeats the i /v/ii V-A t.c.s/ ,ifter every prayer, 
nothing !; (vents hi^n r-nl<?.iing into Paradise 
but life; and whoever .savs it when Jie goes to 
his bed-chamber, God \villkeep him in -.rifely, 
together with his house rnni the house of hH 
riei. Tjie verso is as follow* :--- God ! 
There is no God hut He ; the Living, the 
Abiding. Neither slumber si/,tli Him, ur 
sleep. To Rim helongeth whatsoever is in 
heaven and whatsoever is in (>a7 t)j. Wh<.> 1^5 
he that can intercede with lliin but by lli.s 
own permission? If- 1 knoweth what )inlli 
bft d before then , and wh it shall h^ .-ii>fr 
^hern : yet nought "f Hi i.uu\v;^!!t;c do ih<>y 
iomprehend, save what He wilieth. His 
THUONK rcaohotir ov^er the heavens ;md the 
oarth. and the upholding of butr. burdeneth 
Hiin not: IUK! lie i--- the Hi^rii. tii-.; Great." 

" The rerse of inheritances." Thu twelfth 
verse of the Siirattt n-nis-i. or fourth ohaptwr 
ol the C^ur an. It relates to inheritance, and 
is the foundation of the Muslim law on the 
subject. It is wivnn in the urtiele on Inhe 
ritunce. ( iNHtitrrANCE.] 


" Th: leidiusf names." Tlu; seven principal 
uwmes or titles of fJod. nninely : 

-4/-//u^f/ . . The Living. 

Al vt/irn . . The Krunviug. 

Ai Murul . . 1 he Puj poser. 
Al^u l The Powerful. 

4^- Stint- . The Hearer. 

At-I3ajir llu Pt>rr. 

Al MutaJcufHn I he Speak er. 

AYISHAIJ (SA.U). The daughter 

of Alju I akr, and fhe fivotiiite wif of Mu 
Ifimad, to wliuui .she was married whi ii 
onl.y iiiue yiari of a^o. She survived hei 
husbuntmatiy years, raid died at al-Mndinah, 
A.H. ,5S (A.I>. (>/8), gcd fJixty-seven, ant) 
ohtaiufd tie title of I7i/fl*< l-MtfmiiriH, " The 
Mothor of the JBelievers." 


, pi of 


days oi the bright itights," menJionrd <n tl r 
(book vii. e- 7, part 3), as days on 

whiih Muhammad did not cut. whether liult 
i<r or mnrchino. They are the I3tb. 14th, 
ind l5th nights of th month. (See Lane s 
IJir.t.. p. 284 , 


day of rest after the day of sacrilire et the 


Tho season of bttrriHce at the 



^ r ijd\). The three days after the 

feast oi sacrifice at Mina during the Pilgrim 
age. &o called brcauso the flesh of the 
victims is then third, or because they are not 
slain until after *uu-rise. MA ,;. )! 1.01:1. MACK.] 

AYY1M (^.V). A legal term for 

a woman having no husband, whether she be 
H virgin 01 a wid<*. 

4 A Z A U U L-Q AJJR ( ; -al\ -r>\^) . 

The punishment of the grave." That, -ill 
persons, whether believers or not, undergo 
some punishment in their graves, is a funda 
mental articl ? of the .Muslim belief. These 
punishments nro described in the following 
Hit lis <jn the fiuthonty of Abu Hnrairah ; 

" The Prophet uf God said. When a corpse 
is placed in its grave, two biack angels couti 
to it. v.-iiii blue eyes. The name of the one is 
Mimkur and of tlte other Nakir, and they inter 
rogate the dead person concerning the Prophf! 
of God. ff ho bo a .Muslim, he will bear 
witness to Ix- Unity "? Ucd und the miss-ion 
of Muhammad. The angels will then say, 
We knew thou wouldst say HO*; and the 
vrav( will thei> expand seventy times seventy 
yards in lejigth, and seventy times s-jventy in 
breadth. A light will then be given for the 
grave, and il will be .said, Sleep. 1 Thn the 
dead person will say, Shall 1 return to my 
brethren and inform th*mi of this? Then 
the angels will sayj Sleep like the bride 
#rooin, till God .shall raise thee up from the 
grave on the Day of Resurrection. 1 But if 
the eorpse be that <>f /in unbeliever, it will 
he askocf. What .sayest thou about tho 
Prophet " and lift will reply, I know 
him not. And then the ungels will say. 
We knew thou wonldst say o. Then the 
ground will be ordered to close in npon him, 
and it will break his sides, and turn his right 
Hide to bi* loft, and he will etiffer perpetual 
punishment till <h)d raise him therelrorn." 
In another tradition, recorded by Ana, it is 
said, " TLe wicked will be struck with a 
rod (witruqak}) and they will roar out> and 
theii cries will be heard by all JMu mals flint 
may he near tin: grave . \r--pt ing man and tho 
genii." (Miitiktlt, hool< I. c. v,). 

All Muhaniinadau doc^yrs of the orthodox 
schools (whether we apply the U-rm orthodox 
to Sun/nor Shr a li) believe in the literal mtei 
pre^otiun of these punishments in the. grave, 
whit H are said to tnke place 33 iwon as the 
party has left the grave-yard. A 



perusal of the varicms traditions on the sub 
ject must convince any unprejudiced mind 
that Muhajnmacl intended to teach a literal 
interpretation of his sayings on this subject. 
It is related that on one occasion, when the 
Prophet was riding through a grave-yard, his 
male, hearing the groans of the dead, tried to 
throw his master. On that occasion, Muham 
mad aaid, "If I were not afraid that you 
would leave off burying, I would ask (rod to 
give you the power of hearing what 1 hear." 
Shaikh Abdu 1-Haqq, in his commentary on 
the Mishkat, says, "The accounts which are 
here given of the punishment of the grave, 
are undoubtedly true, and they are not either 
imaginary or figurative." (Mishkdt* book i., 
chap. v. ; gee Persian edition with Abdu 1- 
Haqq g commentary.) 

AZAL (Jj\). Eternity with re 
spect to the past, &,<* distinguished from abad 
(J^V)> eternity without end, 

AZAN (0^). Lit. " announcement." 
The call or summons to public prayers pro 
claimed by the Mu azzin (or crier) in small 
mosques from the side of the building or a.*. 
the deor, and in large mosques from the 

It is in Arabic aS follows : 


Allahu akbar! Allahu nlcbar ! 
akbar! Allah ti akbar ! Ashhaffu an la it aha 
ilia ltdfi ! Ashhadu an Id ilaha ilia llah I Ash- 
fiai/u anna Mubaminadan rasutu-(la/t ! Ash- 
hafia anna Afuhammadan rastilu-Udh ! Hayya 
ala f-saldli ! Uayija ala $-?aldti ! flayya i 
ala IJbLdl.i! ffayya ala 1-fa.ldh! Allafiu I 
akbtrr I AlWw akbar J Hi iidhct ilia Uah ! 

Which is translated : 

"God is most great! God is most great ! 
God is most great 1 God is most great ! I 
testify that there is no god but God! I tes 
tify that there is no god but God ! I testily 
that Mahammad is the Apostle of God! I 
testify that Muhammad is the Apostle .of God I 
Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to 
salvation! Gome to salvation! God is most- 
great ! God is most great ! There is no god 
but God!" 

In the Az&n in the early morning, after the 
words, " Come to salvation 1 * is added flLJ\ 

. r ^\ & * ty-N - r ^\ v+ V 

As-saldtv khcnrun mina n-naumif Af-saLdtu 
/jatrri mina n-navmi! "Prayer is better 
than sleep ! Prayer is better than sleep ! * 

The Shi ahs make a slight alteration in the 
Azan, by adding the words, * 

khairi l- vmaLi { ffayya l ald kfctiri i- l ainali 
Come to the best of works ! Come to the 

best of works!" and by repeating the last 
sentence of the Azan, " There is no god bui 
God," twice instead of ouce, as in the Suuin 

When the Azan is recited, it is usual for 
men of piety and religious feeling to respond 
to each call, as, for example, when the 
Mu azzin cries : 

"Allahu akbar! Aliahu akbar! Allah u 
akbar ! Allahu akbar ! " 

Those who hear it repeat : 

- Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar! Allahu 
akbar i Allahu akbar!" 

The Mu azzin says 

" I testify that there is no god bxit God ; I 
testify that there is no God but God." 

They reply 

"I testify that there is no God but God ; 
I testify that there is no god but God." 

Mu azzin. "I testify that Muhammad is 
the Apostle of God." 

Reply. " I testify that Muhammad is the 
Apostle of God." 

Mu azzin. "Come to prayer." 

Reply. ; I have no power nor strength but 
from God the most High and" Great." 

-Mu aazin. " Come to salvation." 

Reply. What God will cth will be: what 
He willeth noi, willeth not be." 

The recital of the Azan must be iliaeued to 
with great reverence. If a person be walk 
ing at the time, he should stand still; if re 
clining; sii up. Mr. Lane., in his Modern 
Egyptians, sys. Most of the Mu axziAS of 
Cairo have harmonious and sonorous voices, 
which they strain to the utmost pitch ; yet 
there is a simple and solemn melody in their 
chants wtiich is vry striking, particularly in 
the stillness of the night." But Va mbery re 
marks that " the Turkisliinees most caieiully 
avoid all tune arid melody. The manner in 
which the Azan is cried in the west is here 
(in Bokhara) declared sinful, and the beautiful 
melancholy notes which, in the silent hour 
of a moonlit evening, are heard from the 
slender minarets on the Bosphorus fascinat 
ing every hearer, would be listened to by the 
Bokhariot with feelings only of detestation." 

The summons to prayer was at lirst the 
simple cry, " Gome to public prayer." After 
the Qiblah was changed, Muhammad be 
thought himself of a more formal call. Some 
suggested the Jewish trumpet, others the 
Christian bell ; but neither was grateful to the 
Prophet s ear. The Azan, or call to prayer 
was then established. Tradition claims for 
it * supernatural origin, thus : While the 
matter was under discussion. Abdu Huh, & 
Khazrajite, dreamed that he met a man clad 
in green raiment, carrying a bell. Abdu Halt, 
sought to buy it, saying that it would do well 
for bringing together the assembly of the 
faithful. "I will show thee a better way," 
replied the stranger; "let a crier cry aloud, 
God is most great, &c." Waking from 
sleep, Abd u llah proceeded to Muljamrnad, and 
told him his dream. (Muir, from Katibu Y- 
W&tifa) Hishami recites the story as if 
Abdu llah had actually met the man. 

Bingham, in his Antiquities (vol. ii.. book 


viii. ohap. vii.), relates that, in the monastery 
ot virgins which Paula, the famous Roman 
lady, set up and governed at Jerusalem, the 
signal for prayer was given by one going 
about and singing Hallelujah 1 " for that 
was their call to church, as St. Jerome 
informs us. 

Tb" AZRII is proclaimed before the stated 
times of prayer, either by one of the congre 
gation, or by the Mu azzin or crier, who is paid 
for the purpose. He must stand with his face 
towards Makkah, -with the points of his fore 
fingers in his ears, and recite ihn formula 
which has been jfiven above 

It must uut bo recited by an unclean 
person, a drunkard, a madman, or a woman, 

AZAR Ojl). Terah, the father 
of Abraham. Surah, vi. 74, "And when 
AbrahTm said to his father Azxr, Takest thou 
images as gods ? " 

" The Eastern authors unanimously a^roe 
that ho was a statuary, or carver of idols; 
and he is represented as the first who made 
images of clay, pictures only haying been 
in u.j* before, ainl taught that they were to be 
adored as gods. However, we are told his 
employment was a very honourable one, and 
that he was a great lord, and in high favour 
with Nimrod, whos^ son-in-law he was, be 
cause he made his idols for him, and was 


excellent in his art. Some of the llabbios say 
Terah was a priest and chief of the order." 


AL-AZARLQAH (to,l>Jt). A sect of 

heretics founded by Nafi* ibii al-Azraq. who 
say that All was tin iufidol, and that his 
assassin was ri^ht in killing him. ( See ash- 
StaArattani, ed. Cnretou, p. A<* . Haarbruecker s 
translation, I., p. 133- 

AL- AZBl (U*d\;. The slit-eared; 

one oi Muhammad s favourite: camels. 


One of the 
ninety- nine special names of God. "The 
great One." 

AZtMAH (***>*). An incanta 

AL AZIZ (j>)*>\)~ One of the 
ninety-nine special names ol God, It fre 
quently occurs in the Qur an. It me;uis " the 
powerful, or the mighty One " 

AZEA It, (J*fy)*;. The angel of 
Death. Mentioned in the Qur an under the 
title of Maluku Y-3fa;/f, Surah xxxii. 11, " Thu 
angel of death who is chaiged with you shall 
cause you to die." I MA&AHU L-MAUT.] 


"RABEf,. Arabic J?V> Ba.KL Men- 
tioned once in the Quran, Surah ii. 96: 
" Sorcery did they teach to men, and what 
had been revealed to the two angels Harut and 
Marut at Babil." Babel is regarded by the 
Muslims as the fountain-head of the science of 
matric. They suppose Harut and Marut to be 
two angels who, in consequence of their want 
of compassion for the frailties ot mankind, 
were .sent down to earth to be tempted. They 
bof h .sinned, and, being permitted to choose 
whether they would be punished now or here 
after, chose the former, and are still sus 
pended by the feet at Babel in a rocky pit, 
and are the great teachers of magic. (Lane s 
Thousand and One Niyli x, ch. iii. note 14.) 
Vide Tafvir-i- Azizl in loco 


Lit. " The door of doors." A term used by the 
Sufis for repentance. ( Abdu r-Razzaq s 
Dictionary of Fi fi 


" The Gate of Peace." The gateway in the 
Sacred mosque at Makkah through which 
Muhammad entPrrd when be was elected by 
the Qnraish to decide the question as to 
which section of the tribe should lift the 
Black Stone into its place. It was originally 

called the Bab Ban! Shaibah. " the Gate of 
the Bauu Shaibah," th* family of Shaibab. ibu 
Usman, to whom Muhammad gave the key 
of the Ka bah. Burkhardt says that there are 
now two gateways called by this name. 
Bnrton says, " The Babu VSalain resembles in 
ity isolation a triumphal arch, and is built of 
cut stono." (Burton s PHyi image, vol. ii. 
p. 174. See Muir s Life, of Afuhome.t, pp. 
28, 29.) 

BABU f N-NISA, (UJt ^\>). "The 

Womon s Gate." In later yoars, a Muhammad 
added to the number of his wives, he provided 
for each a room or house on the same .side of 
the mosque at al-Madinah. From these he 
had a private entrance into tho mosque, ufled 
only by himself, and the eastern gate still 
bears in its name, Babu n-Nisa r , the aiemory 
of the arrangement. (Muir s Life of Maho~ 
met, iii. p. 20.) 

BACKBITING. Anything secretly 
whispered of un absent person which is 1 cal 
culated to injure him, and which is true, is 
called d /i bn/i, a false accusatioii being ex* 
pressed by JSuktun. Abu Hurairah says, 
" The qucstiou was put to the Prophet, Do 
yon know what Imekbitmg is ? and he replied, 
It is saying anything: bad of a Muslim. It 
was then said, But what is it if it is true ? 




And lie said, If it is true it is Ghibah, and if 
it is a false accusation, it is fjuhtan (i.e. 
slander}. " (Mishkat, x*ii. c. T.) 

The foJlowing are sayings of Muhammad on 
the subject: "The best of God s servants 
are those who when you meet them speak, of 
God. The worst of God s servants are thos^ 
who carry tales about, to do mischief and 
separate friends, and seek out the defects of 
good people/ " He who wears two faces in this 
world shall have two tongues of fire in the day 
of the "Resurrection." "It is unworthy of a 
believer to injure people s reputations, or to 
curse anyone, or to abuse anyone, or to talk 
vainly." "The best atonement you can make 
for backbiting is to say, God pardon me 
and him (whom I have injured). " Mishkdr, 
xxti. c. x. 

BADAWl (cSr**)- A name given 
to the Bedouin Arabs, or the Arabs of the 
desert. Btdnuin is only a corruption of the 
plural of this word, which is derived from 
jU(i(1w~.t3dth yah< " a desert." 

AL-BADI* (*J^) is one of the 
nincty-nino special names of God. It means 
"Ho f ho originates." It occurs in the Qur im, 
Surah ii. 1 1 1, " He is the wonderful originator 
of the heavens and the earth; when He 
decreeth a matter, Ho doth but say to it, 
Be/ and it is." 

BAPR, The battle of. Arabic. 
ChazA-atu l-Batlr. The first battle of Budr 
v:s tVnght. in the month uf Rimazan, A.K. 
2 (March, A.D. G24), between Muhammad 
ind the Q.uraiah. Many of the principal men 
<if the Quraish were slain, including Abu 
xlflbl, whose head was brought to the Pro 
phet, ud wln-ii it was cast at his feet, he 
exclsitnrd, tk It is more acceptable to me than 
the choices; eatnel of /VrablH/ After the, 
Vmtlle "yarf <ver. sonic of the prisoners were 
cruelly rnurdpvcd. Tihvsam says the losses of 
the Quraish at Utidr v. ere seventy killed and 
seventy prisoners. Tin s victory at Bad* con 
solidated the power of Muhammad, and it is 
Vcji ?iidci by Muslim historians as one of the 
most important events of history. Au account 
of this celebrated battle will h* found in the 
article oti Mv\itiu)in>uL 

The second battle of Bndr was a bloodless 
victory, and look place in the month /u I- 
Qa dah. 4. ( April A u &V6). 

BAMJRA (V^.) A Nf-stoiian 
monk whom Muhammad met when he was 
journeying back frtm Syria to M^kkah, and 
wbo is said to have perceived by various 
Jiiyns that he was a prophet. Hi* Christian 
name is supposed to have \>vu\\ Serums (QL- 

Sprenget- thinks that Bahiirfi remained wiih 
; iitihami7jail. anri it has been suggested that 
there is an allusion to this monk in the 
Qur an, Surah xvi. 105 : u We know th*t 
they say, It is only a man who teacheth 
him. " Husain tlie comniontator say6 on this 
passage that the Prophel was in the habit of 

going every everting to a Christian to har 

the Taurat and Injtl. 7q/ir-?-7/MJafni; 

Sale, p. 223 , Muir s Life of 

\ p. 72.) 

BAH1RA H (V-.) . ( 1 .) A sTift 

she-t{oat or ewe, which had given birth to a 
tenth young one. C2.} A. she-camel, the 
mother of which bad brought forth ten 
females consecutively before her. 

In tli<*&6 and similar rases, the pagan 
Arabs observed certain religious ceremonies, 
sticb ns slitting the animal s ear. A c., all of 
which are forbidden in the Quran : t God 
hath not ordained any Bahlrah." (Surah v, 



(* , pi. fa buttf ). A sale; 
commercial -loaling; harter. Bur .or sale, in 
the langttagc cf thu law. .signifies an exchange 
of proportv for properly with the mutual con 
sent of parties. For \be rules cowerriing 
sales and barter, see Hamilton s Hidayah, 
vol. ii. 3GO ; Bail lie"? Afuhtirfitnttdaii Law of 
Sale. , T!ie fatdwd Atumgiri. 

ISale, in its ordinary acceptation, is a 
transfer of property in consideration of a 
price in money. The word has a more com 
prehensive meaning in the Muhammadan 
law, and is applied to every exchange of pro 
perty lor property with mutual consent. It, 
therefore, includes barter as well as sale, and 
also loan, when the articles lent are intended 
to be consumed, ftad replaced to the lender by 
-a Similar quantity of the same kind. This 
transaction, which is truly an exchange of 
property for property, is termed ifurr, in the 
Muhariunndan law. 

Between baiter and salo thore is rto essen 
tial distinction in usi. systems of law. and 
the joint subject mav in general be consider 
ably simplified by bring ireatc-fl of. solely as a 
sale. A course b*s been adopted in the 
Muharmnatlati law, which obliges the reader 
to fix his attention on both sides of the con 
tract. This mny nt first appear to him to be 
an unnecessary complication uf the subject, 
but when he becomes acquainted with the 
deftnitkm of price, and the rules for the pro 
hibition of excess in the exchange of a largo 
class of commodities, wbieh apply to every 
form of the contract, be will probably be of 
opinion that to treat of the subject in any 
other w.iy would be attended with at least 
equal difficulties 

J. ijf. ui hi point which sfcrns to require hia 
attention is the meaning of the word " pro 
perty " as it occurs in the definition ot sale. 
original term (*/), which has been thus 
translated, is defined by Muhammadan 
lawyers to be - that which can be taken 
possession of and secured." This definition 
seems to imply that it is tangible or corpo 
real, and things or substances are accordingly 
the proper subjects of sale. Mere rights are 
not jflfil, and cannot therefore be lawfully sold 
apart from the corporeal things with whicb* 
they rmy happen to bo connected. Of suuli 
rights one of tbc most important is the right 




ol a creditor to exact payment of a debt, 
which is not a proper subject of sale. Jn 
uiher worde, debts cannot, by t.h Muham- 
madnn law. any more than by tho common 
UWB of England and Scotland, be lawfully 

Things are commonly divided into niove- 
able and immoveable. the latter compre 
hending: land and things permanently attached 
to it. Hut HIP distinction id not of much im 
portance in the Muhammadan lr\v. as the 
transfer of land is in nowise distinguished 
from that of other kinds of property. 

A more important division of things is that 
into mifili and knmini. The former are things 
which, when th*y happen to perish, are to bo 
replaced by on equal quantity of something 
similar to them; and th latter are thing." 
which, in the same circumstances, are to be 
replaced by their value. These two classe? 
have been aptly styled "similars" and " dis- 
simiiars " by Mr. Hamilton, in hie translation 
of the Hiddyuh. Similars are things which 
are usually sold or exchanged by weight, or 
by measurement of capacity, that is, by dry 
or liquid measure; and dissimilnrs are things 
which are not sold or exchanged in either of 
these ways. Articles which are nearly alike, 
and are commonly sold or exchanged by 
number or tale, are classed with the first 
division of t >ings. and may be termed " simi 
lars of tale " ; while .articles which differ mate 
rially from each other, yet are still usually 
9old or exchanged by number, belong to th> 
second division, md may be called dissimi 
lars of tale." Dirhams and dinars, the onlj 
reined money known to the old Arabs, are 
included among similars of weight. 

Similars of weight and capacity are dis 
tinguished in the Muhammad an law from all 
other descriptions of property in a very re 
markable wjiy. Wheti one article of weight 
is sold or exchanged for another article of 
weight, or one of measure is sold or ex 
changed for another of measure. th^ delivery 
of both must be immediate from hand to hand, 
and any delay of delivery in one of them is 
unlawful and jrohibited. Where, again, the 
articles exchanged are also of the same kind, 
ns when wheat is sold for wheat, or gilver for 
.silrer, there must not only be reciprocal and 
immediate delivery of both before the separa 
tion of the parties, but also absolute equality 
of weight or measure, according as the articles 
are weighable or measurable, and any excess 
on either side is also unlawful ami prohibited. 
These two prohibitions constitute in brief the 
doctrine of reha, cr * usury," which is a marked 
characteristic of the Muhammadan law of aalo. 
The word reha proporly signifies excess," 
and there are no terms in the Muhnminadan 
law which corresponds to tho words " interest " 
and " usury," i the sense attached to them 
in the English language ; but it was expressly 
prohibited by Muhammad to his followers to 
derive any advantage from loans, and that 
particular kind of advantage which is called 
by u interest, and consists in the receiving 
back from the borrower a larger quantity 
than w* actually lent to him, was effectually 

prevented by the two rules nbovu mentioned 
Those, hke some other principles <>[ Muhnin- 
madan hiw, are applied with a rigoui and 
minuteness that may to us seem incommen 
surate with their importance, but are easily 
accounted for when we know that ihy are 
believed to be of divine origin 

Similars of weight and capacity havo a 
common feature of resemblance, which dis 
tinguishes them in their own nature from 
other commodities, and marks -with further 
peculiarity their treatment in the Muham 
madan law. They are aggregates of minate 
parts, which are either exactly alike, or so 
nearly resemble each other, that the differ 
ence between them maybe safely dif regarded. 
For this reason they are usually dealt Vilh in 
bulk, regard being had only to the whole of a 
stipulated quantity, and not to the individual 
parts of which it is composed. When sold 
in this manner they are said to be indeter 
minate. They may, however, be rendered 
specific in several ways. Actual delivery, or 
production vfith distinct reference at the tirao 
of contract, seems to be sufficient lor that 
purpose in all cases. hut something short 
of this would suffice for iili similars but 
money. Thus, flour, or am kind of grain, 
may be rendered specific by being enclosed 
ia a sack ; or oil, or any liquid, by beinif put 
into casks or jars ; and though the vessels 
are not actually produced at the time of con 
tract, their contents may U<* sufficiently par 
ticularised by description of the vessels and 
iheir locality. Money is not susceptible of 
being thus particularised, and dirimms and 
dinars are frequently referred to in the fol 
lowing pages as things which cannot be ren 
dered specific by description, or specification, 
as it is more literally termed. Henco. money 
is said to be always indeterminate. Other 
similars, including similars of tale, are some 
times specific and sometimes indeterminate. 
Dissimilars. including those >tf tale^ are always 

" When similars are sold indeterminately, 
! the purchaser has no right to any wpooitic 
portion of them until it be separated from ; 
general mass, and marked or identified us 
the subjert of the contract. From, the 
luomwfit of offer till actual deliver} , he has 
nothing to roly upon but the seller s obliga 
tion, which may, therefore, be considered the 
direct subject of the contract, iinnilars taken 
indeterminately are accordingly termed dayn, 
or " obligations," in the Muhammadan law. 
When taken specifically, they are cla-ssed 
with dissimilar^, under the general name of 
j ayn. The literal meaning of this term is 
: substance or thing "; but when opposed to 
! dayn it means something determinate or spe- 
i cific. The subject of traffic may thus be 
j divided into two classes, specific and indeter- 
minate ; or. if we substitute for the latter tho 
word " obligation," and omit the word " spe 
cific as unnecessary when not opposed to 
indeterminate. " these classes may, according 
to the view of Muhammadan lawyers, be 
described as things and obligations. 

There IK some degree of presumption in using 



BA1 1 

a word in any other than its ordinary accepta 
tion; and it is not without hesitation .that (Mr. 
Baillie says?) I have ventured to employ the 
werd " obligation " t o signify indeterminate 
things. My reasons for doing so are these : first 
it expresses the exact meaning of the Arabic 
word dayn, and yet distinguishes this use of 
it from another sense, in which it is also 
employed in the Muhammadan. law ; second, 
it preserves consistency iu the law. Thus, it 
will be found hereafter that the effect of sale 
is said to be to induce a right in the buyer to 
the thing sold, end in. the seller to the price, 
end that this effect follows the contract im 
mediately before reciprocal possession by the 
contracting parties. Now, it is obvious that 
this is impossible with regard to things that 
are indeterminate, if tho things tnemselves are 
considered the subject of the contract , and cases 
are mentioned where it is expressly stated that 
there is no transfer of property to the purchaser, 
when similars of weight of capacity are sold 
without being distinctly specified, until actual 
possession take place. The difficulty, dis 
appears if we consider not the thing itself 
but the obligation to render it to be the sub 
ject of contract ; for a right to the obligation 
passes immediately to the purchaser, and the 
seller may be compelled to perform it. If we 
now revert to the division of things into simi 
lars and dissimilare, money which, it has 
been remarked, is always indeterminate is 
therefore an obligation ; diesimilara, which 
are always specific, ?.ve never obligations ; 
and other similars, except money, being some 
times specific and sometimes indeterminate, 
are at one time obligations, and at another 
time things or substances. 

Before proceeding farther it is necessary to 
advert more particularly to the. other sense in 
which the word dayn is frequently employed 
in the. Mubammadan law. It means strictly 
* obligation," as already observed; but the 
obligation may be either that of the contract 
ing party himself, or of another. lu the 
farmer sense deyn is not only a proper sub 
ject of tragic, but forms the sole Subject oi 
one important kind of sale, hereafter to be 
noticed. But when dayn is used to signify 
the obligation of another than the contracting 
party, it .is not a proper subject of traffic. 
and, as already observed, oannot be lawfully 
sold. In the following pages dayn has been 
always translated by the word " debt " when it 
signifies the obligation of a third party, and 
generally by the word "obligation," when it sig 
nifies the engagement, of the contracting party 
himself, though when the things represented by 
the obligation are more prominently brought 
forward, it has sometimes been found neces 
sary to substitute the expression, "indeter 
minate things." 

Though barter and sale for P price, are con- 
ftmnded under one general nurne in the Mn- 
hammadau law, it is sometimes necessary to 
consider one of the things exchanged as more 
strictly the subject of sale, or thing sold, and 
the other as the price- In this view the former 
is termed mabl*. and the latter $aman. \ 
or " price," is defined to be dayn ft \ 

zimmak, or, literally, an " obligation in respon 
sibility." From which, unless the expression 
is a mere pleonasm, it would appear that the 
word dayn is sometimes used abstractly, and 
in a sense distinct from the idea of liability. 
That idea, however, is necessary to constitute 
price ; for though cloth, when properly de 
scribed, may, by reason of its divisibility and 
the similarity of its parts, be sometimes 
assumed to perform the function of price in a 
contract of sale, it is only when >t is not im 
mediately delivered, but is to remain for some 
time on the "responsibility of he contracting 
party, that it can be adopted for that pur 

It is n general principle of the Muham- 
niaiaa law of sale, founded on a declaration 
of the Prophet, that credit cannot bo opposed 
to> credit, that is. that both the things ex 
changed cannot be allowed to remain on tho 
responsibility of the parties. Hence, it is 
only with regard to one of them that any 
stipulation for delay iu its delivery is lawful 
Price, from its definition above given, admits 
of being left on responsibility, and accord 
ingly a stipulation for delay in the payment 
of tiie price is quite lawful and valid. It 
follows that a stipulation for delay in the 
delivery of the things sold cannot be lawful. 
And thid is the case, with the exception 
of one particular kind of sale, hereafter 
to be noticed, in which the thing sold is 
always indeterminate*, aud the price is paid 
in advance. It may, therefore, be said of all 
specific things when tha subject of sale, that 
a stipulation for delay in their delivery is 
illegal, and would invalidate a sale. The 
object of this rule may have been to prevent 
any change oi the thing sold before delivery, 
aud the disputes which might ia consequence 
ariao between the parties. But if they were 
allowed to seleot whichever they pleased of 
the articles exchanged to stand for the price, 
and the other for the thing sold, without any 
regard to their qualities, the object of the 
last-mentioned rule, whatever it may have 
been, might be defeated. This seems to have 
led to another arrangement of things into 
different classes, according to their capacities 
for supporting the functions of price or of 
the thing sold in a contract of Bale. The first 
class compre heeds d irhams and dinars, which 
are always price. The second class comprises 
the whole division of dissimilars (with the 
single exception of cloth) which are always 
the thing sold, or subject of sale, in a con 
tract. The third class couiprises, first, all 
similars of capacity ; second, all similars of 
weight, except dirhanis and dinars and, 
third, all similars of tale. The whole of this 
class is capable of supporting both functions, 
and is sometimes the thing sold, and some 
times the price. The fourth class comprises 
clpth, and the copper coin called fttttts. 

Sale implies a reciprocal vesting of the 
price in the seller find of the thing sold in 
the purchaser. This, as already remarked, is 
called its legal-effect, and sale may be divided 
into different stage;; or degrees of complete 
ness, according as this effect is immediate, 


suspended, invalid, or obligatory. Thus, salt? 
must ilrst of &11 be duly constituted or con 
tracted. After that, there may still be some 
bar to its operation, which occasions a sus 
pension 01 its effect. This generally arises 
from a defect of power in the seller, who may 
not be fully competent to art for himself, or 
may have insufficient authority, or no autho 
rity whatever, over the subject of sale. Tn 
this class of sales the effect is dependent on 
the assent or ratification of some other person 
than the party actually contracting. ^ut 
whether the effect of a sale be immediate or 
suspended, there may be some taint of ille 
gality in the mode of constituting it, or in its 
subject, or there may be other circumstances 
connected with it, which render it invalid. 
The Causes of illegality are many and 
various. But even though a sale should be 
unimpeachable on the previous gronnds, that 
is, though it should be duly constituted, 
operative or immediate in its effect, and free 
from any ground of illegality, still it may 
not be absolutely binding on the parties. 
This brings us to another remarkable pecu 
liarity of the Muhammadan law, viz. the 
doctrine of option, or right of cancellation. 
The Prophet himself recommended one of his 
followers to reserve a locus penitentix, or 
option, for three days in all his purchases. 
This has led to the option by stipulation, 
which may be reserved by either of the 
parties. But besides this, the purchaser has 
an option without any stipulation, with 
regard to things which he has purchased 
witnout. seeing, and also on account of defects 
in the thing sold The greatest of all defects 
ia a want of title or right in the seller. The 
two last options to the purchase constitute 
a complete warranty of title and against all 
defects on the part of the seller, in which 
respect the Muhammadan more nearly re 
sembles the Scotch than the English law of 

There are many different kinds of sale. 
Twenty or more have been enumerated in tha 
Nikayah. of which eight are mentioned and 
explained. Four of these, which have refer 
ence to the thing sold, may require some 
nonce in this place. The first, called Mu- 
qayazahi is described as a sale of things for 
things, and correspondb nearly with barter; 

BAI ( 


but the word " thing " (-ayri) v 


to obligations, and muqayazah is therefore 
properly an exchange of specific for specific 
things. So that if the goods exchanged were 
on both sides or on either side indeterminate, 
the transaction would not, T think, be a. 
mitqdyazah, though still barter. The second i 
sale Is called far/, and is defined to be an 
exchange of obligations for obligations. The 
usual objects oi ihis contract ane dirhams and 
dinars, which being obligations, the defini 
tion is generally correct. But an exchange of 
money for bullion, or bullion for bullion, i also 
a surf, and every sale of an obligation for an 
obligation is not a $arf, so that the definition 
is redundant as well as defective. It is essen 
tial to the legality of this kind of sale, that 
both the things exchanged should be delivered 

and taken possession of before the separation 
of the parties, and that when they are of the 
.same kind, as silver for silver, or gold for 
gold, they should also be exactly equal by 
weight. These rules are necessary for the 
avoidance of reba, or " usury," as already ex 
plained ; and the whole of forf, which is 
treated of at a length quite disproportionate 
to its importance, may be considered a a 
continued illustration of the doctrine of re 61. 
The third kind of sale is salam. It has been 
already observed that there can be no lawful 
stipulation for a postponement of the deliv^y 
of the thing sold, except under one particular 
form or sale. The form alluded to is salcnn. 
This word means, literally, an advance"; 
and in a $alam sale the price is immediately 
advanced for the goods to be delivered at a 
future fixed time. It is only things of the 
class of similars that can be sold in this way. 
and as they must necessarily be indetermi 
nate, the proper subject of sale is an obliga 
tion ; while, on the other hand, as the price 
must be actually paid or delivered at the 
time of the contract, before the separation of 
the parties, and must, therefore, even in the 
case of its being money, be produced, and in 
consequence be particularised or specific, a 
salam sale is strictly and properly the sale of 
an obligation for a thing, as defined above. 
Until actual payment or delivery of the price, 
however, it retains its character of an obliga 
tion, and for this reason the price and the 
goods are both termed " debts," and are 
adduced in the same chapter as examples of 
the principle that the sale of a debt, that is, 
of the money or goods which a person is 
under engagement to pay or deliver, before 
possession, is invalid. The last of the sales 
referred to is the ordinary exchange of goods 
for money, which being an obligation, the 
transaction is defined to be the sale of things 
for obligations. 

There is another transaction which comes 
within the definition of sale, and has been 
already noticed, but may be further adverted 
to in this place. It is that which is called 
Q,arz in the Arabic, and " loan " in the "English 
language. The borrower acquires an abso 
lute right of property in the things lent, and 
comes under an engagement to return an 
equal quantity of things of the same kind. 
The transaction is "therefore necessarily 
limited to similars, whether of weight, capa 
city, or tale, and the things lent and repaid 
being of the same kind, the two rules already 
mentioned for the prevention of re&a, or 
" usnry," must be strictly observed. Hence 
it follows that any stipulation on the part of 
the borrower for delay or forbearance by the 
lender, or any stipulation by the lender for 
interest to be paid by the borrower are alike 

Notwithstanding the stringency of the rules 
for preventing usury, or the taking any inter 
est on the loan of money, methods were found 
for evading them and still keeping within the 
letter ,.f the law. It had always been con 
sidered lawful to take a pledge to secure the 
repayment of a debt. Pledges were ordi- 




narily of movable property ; when given as 
security for a debt, and the pledge happened 
to perish in the hands of the pawnee, the debt 
was held to be released to tho extent of the 
value of the pledge. Land, though scarcely 
liable to this incident, was sometimes made 
the subject of pledge, and devices were 
adopted for enabling the lender to derive 
some advantage from its possession while in 
in the state of pledge. But the moderate 
advantage to be derived in this way does not 
seem to have contented the money-lenders, 
who in all ages and countries have been of a 
grasping disposition, and the expedient of a 
sale with a condition for redemption was 
adopted, which very closely resembles an 
English mortgage. In the latter, the condi 
tion is usually expressed in one of two ways, 
viz. either that the sale shall become void, 
or that the lender shall resell to the seller, on 
payment of principal and interest at an 
assigned term. The first of these forms 
would be inconsistent with the nature of sale 
under the Muhammadan law, but a sale with 
a covenant by the lender to reconvey to the 
seller on repayment of the loan seeins to 
have been in use probably long before the 
form was adopted in Europe. It is probable 
that a term was fixed within which the re 
payment should be made. If repayment 
were made .at the assigned term, the lender 
was obliged to reconvey ; but if not, the pro 
perty would remain his own, and the differ 
ence between its Value and the price or sum 
lent might have been made an ample compen 
sation for the loss of interest. This forni of 
sale, which was called Bavu l-wctfa, seems to 
have been strictly legal according to the most 
approved authorities, though held to be what 
the law call.3 abominable, as a device for 
obtaining what it prohibits. 

In constituting sale there is no material 
difference between the Muhummadan and 
other systems of law. The offer and accept 
ance, which are expressed or implied in all 
cases, must be so connected as to obviate any 
doubt. of the one being intended to apply to 
the other. For this purpose the Muham 
madan law requires that both shall be inter 
changed at the same meeting of the parties, 
and that no other business shall be suffered 
to intervene between an offer and its accept 
ance. A very slight interruption is sufficient 
to break the continuity of a negotiation, and 
to terminate the meeting in a technical sense, 
though the parties should still remain in per 
sonal communication. An acceptance after 
the interruption of an offer, made before it 
would be insufficient to constitute a sale. 
This has led to distinctions of the meeting 
which may appear unnecessarily minute to a 
reader unacquainted with the manners, of 
Eastern countries, where the people are often 
very dilatory in their bargains, interspersing 
them with conversation on indifferent topics. 
It is only when a meeting has. reference to the 
act of contracting that its meaning is thus 
liable to be restricted ; for -when the word 
occurs in other parts pf the law, as,, for 
instance, when it is said of a $<jrf contract 

that the things exchanged must be taken pos 
session of at the meeting, the whole period 
that the parties may remain together is to be 
understood. As personal communication may 
be inconvenient in some cases, and impossible 
in others, the integrity of the meeting is held 
to be sufficiently preserved when a party who 
receives an offer by message or letter declares 
his acceptance of it on receiving the cotmnti- 
nication and apprehending its contents. 

When a sale is lawfully contracted, the 
property in the things exchanged passes im 
mediately from a.nd to the parties respec 
tively. In a legil sale, delivery and possession 
are not necessary for this purpose. Until 
possession is taken, however, the purchaser is 
not liable for accidental loss, and the seller 
has a Hen for the price on the thing sold. 
Delivery by one party is in general tanta 
mount to possession taken by the other. It 
is, therefore, sometimes of great importance 
to ascertain when there is a sufficient deli 
very : and many cases, real or imaginary, on 
the subject, are inserted in the Fatdwd 
Alamglrit It sometimes happens that a 
person purchases a thing of which he is 
already in possession, and it then becomes 
important to determine in what cases his 
previous possession is convertible into a pos 
session under the purchase. Unless so con 
verted, it would be held that there is no 
delivery under the sale, and the seller would 
of course retain his lien and remain liable for 
accidental loss, 

Though possession is not necessary to com 
plete the transfer of property under a legal 
sale, the case is different where the contract 
is illegal ; for here property does not pass till 
possession is taken. , The sale, however, 
though so far effectual, is still invalid, and 
liable to be set aside by a judge, at the 
instance of either of the parties, without any 
reference to the fact of the person complain 
ing being able to come before him with what 
in legal phraseology is termed clean hands. 
A Muhammadan judge is obliged by his law 
to interfere for the sake cf the law itself, or, 
as- it is more Rolemnly termed, for the right 
of God, which ii is the duty of the judge to 
vindicate, though by so doing he may afford 
assistance to a party who personally may 
Have no. just claim to his -interference. (TO* 
M uhammadan L&w of Sale, according to the 
Haneffee Cod .from the Fatawu Atamgiri by 
Neil B. E. Baillie. Smith, Elder & Co"., 

BAIL. Arabic &\** kafdlah. Bail 
is of two descriptions : Kafdtah bi- n-nqfs, or 
" security for the person "; Kafdlah bi- l-mdl t OT 
" security for property." In the English courts 
in India, bail tor the person is termed 
ffdzir-zamani,&nd bail for property Zainatiah.. 
or " security. 1 Bail for the person is lawful 
except in cases of punishnfent (ffudud) and 
retaliation (Qifds^. (Hiddyah, vol. ii. p, 576.) 

AL-BA IS (**Wtt). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of Ged. It means 


HP who awakes " : " The Awakener " ( in 
tho Day of Resurrection^. 

BAITU L-IJAMD (*++)\ <**). 

" The House of Praise." An expression which 
occurs in the Traditions (Mishkat v. 7). 
When the soul of a child is taken, God says, 
" Build a house foi my servant in Paradise 
and call it a house of praise," 

BAITU L HARAM ( r w\ <^~>). 

" The Sacred House " A name given to the 
Mecca n mosque. [MASJLDU L-HARAM.] 

BAITU L-HIKMAH (*+<<J\ ^). 

Lit. " The House of Wisdom." A term used 
by Sufis for the heart of the sincere seekers 
after (od. ( Abdu r-Razzaq s Dictionary of 
Sufi Terms.) 

BAITU L-LAH (W >*). "The 

House of God." A name given to the Mecca n 
mosque. [MAS JIDU L-HARAM. J 

BAITU L-MAL (JUH ^,). Lit. 

" The House of Property." The public trea 
sury of a Muslim state, which the ruler is not 
allowed to use for his personal expenses, but 
only for the public good 

The sources of income are : (I) Zakdt, or 
the legal tax raised upon land, personal pro 
perty, and merchandise, which, after deduct 
ing the expense of collecting, should be ex 
pended in the support of the poor and destitute. 
(2) The fifth of all spoils and booty taken 
in war. (3) The produce of mines find of 
treaaure-trove (4) Property for which there 
is no owner. (5) The Jizyak, or tax levied 
on unbelievers. (HUda-vah^ Arabic ed . vol i. 
p. 452.) 

jjwutt). Lit. " The Inhabited House." 
A house in the seventh heaven; visited by 
Muhammad during the Mi raj or night- 
journey. It is said to be immediately over 
the sacred temple at Mnkkah. 


"The House of Instruction." A term (used in 
a tradition given by Abu Hurairah) for a 
Jewish school. (Mishkal, xvii. c. xi.) In 


&**&). "The Holy House." A 
name given to the temple at Jerusalem. 

BAITU L.QUDS (^afiJl o~*). 

Lit. " The House of Holiness." A term used 
by the $ufis for the heart of the true seeker 
"after God when it is absorbed in meditation. 
( Afcciu r-Razzaq s Dictionary of Sufi Terms.} 

BAI U L- WAFA (.UjH *). The 

word wafa means the performance of a pro 
mise, and the Bui u I- Wafu. is a sale with a 
promise to be performed. It is, in fact, a 
pledge in the hands of the pawnee, who is 
not^its propritoj . nor is he free to make use 
of it wiiuout th& pernaissior. of Ilia owner. 


There are different opinions about th legality 
of this form of sale, but it is now the common 
form of mortgage in use in India, where it ia 
usually styled Bai* li-l-wafd. (See Baillie s 
Muhammadan Law of Sale, p. 303.) 

al-BAIYINAH (&JV). Lit. " The 
Evidence." A title given to the xcvurth 
Surah of the Qur an, in which the word 

BA<L(J*0,Heb.^jnn> i.e. "Lord." 

The chief deity worshipped by the Syro- 
Phcenician nations. It is known to the 
Muhammndans as an idol worshipped in the 
days of the Prophet Elisha. (See Ghiydgu V- 

BALAAM. There is said to be an 
allusion to Balaam in the Qur an, Surah vii. 
174, " Recite to them the story of him to 
whom we gave our signs, and he departed 
therefrom, and Satan followed him, and he 
was of these who were beguiled." 

The commentary of the Jalaiain says that 
he -was a learned man amongst the Israelites, 
who was requested by the Canaanites to 
curse Moses at the time when he was about to 
attack the Jabbdrun or " giants," a tribe of the 
Canaanites. Balaam at first retused to do so 
but at last yielded, when Vcaiuable presents 
were made to him. (See Tufs iru V-./a/a/ain, 
p. 142.) 

BALAD (^?)- I M- ^ n j country, 
district, or town, regarded as an habitation. 
Al-BaJad,the sacred territory of Makkah. A 
title given to the xcth Surah, in which tho 
word occurs. 

BALIGH (JV*). "Of years of legal 
maturity; adult." [PUBKRTY.] 

BANISHMENT. Arabic v-^ 

Taykrib. Expatriation for fornication Is 
enjoined by Mubammadan law, according to 
the Imam ash-Shan" *I, although} I is not allowed 
by the other doctors of the law, and it is also 
a punishment inflicted upon highway robbers. 

BANKRUPT. There is no pro 
vision in the Muhammadan law for declaring 
a person bankrupt, and BO placing him beyond 
the reach of his creditors ; but the Qazi can 
declare a debtor insolvent, and free him from 
the obligation of zakdt and almsgiving. 

BANOISRA IL (JJ} r \f*). "The 
Children of Israel." A title of the xvnth 
Surah or chapter of the Qur an, called .-Jso 
Suratu I-Afi rdj. 

The plural of ibn 
Sons ; posterity ; 


(Heb. Q^3 

tribe." The word is more familiar to English 
readers in its inflected form Bani. The tribes 
whose names occur frequently in tho early 
history of Islam* and are mentioned in the 
Traditions, are the Banu-Qur^is/t, Burtu n- 
2Vq/; ar, />in/ - Quraizah, B .tnu Ki tdnah 



Banu- Amir, Banu - Asad, Banu - Fazdrali, 
Banu-Lihyun^ Banu-Tamim* BanH-Uinaiyah. 
Banu-Zahrah, and Banu-Israd. 

BAPTISM. The only allusion to 
baptism in the Qur aJi is found in Surah ii. 
132: "(We have) the baptism of Clod, and who 
is better to baptise than Uod?" The word 
here translated baptism is $ibp/iah.. lit. 
"dye," which, the commentates kl-Jalalain 
and al-B&izawi say, may, by compai (son, refer 
to Christian baptisiri, " for," says al-Baizawi, 
" the Nasara (Christians) were in the habit of 
dipping their offspring in a yellow water which 
they called al-Ma /nudn/ah arid said it purified 
them arid confirmed them as Christians" (Sec 
Tafslru I Jalafain and 1 ctfsiru l-JlaizduJi, in 



. of the 

ninety-nine special names of God. It means 
" He who remains ; " " The Everlasting One." 

The title of the second Surah of the Quran, 
occasioned by the story of the red heifer 
mentioned in verse 63, "When. Moses said to 
his people,, Clod oommrmdeth you to Sacrifice 
a oo w." 

or for shortness al-Baqi (~i?j\). The 
buryiug-ground at ai-Mdinau,which Muham 
mad used to frequent at uigut to pray for for 
giveness for the dead. (W&hkdt, iv. c. 28.) 

BARA AH (fc>V)- " Immunity, or 
security." A. title given to the ixth Chapter 
of the Qur an, called also Siirota t Taubuh, 
" The Chapter of Repentance." Tt is remark 
able as being the only .Surah without the 
introductory form, "In the name of Ciod, the 
Merciful, the Compassionate. Various reason;-: 
are assigned for this omission. .Some com 
mentators say that the prayer of mercy is not 
placed at the head of a chapter which speaks 
chietly of God s wrath 

BARAH-I-WAFAT (^U. 6 ; V). 

Btirah (Urdu) twelve," and Wafut. The 
twelfth day of the month Rabtoi 1-Awwai, 
observed in commemoration of Muhammad s 

It seems to be a day instituted by the Mu- 
hammadans of India, and is not observed 
universally amongst the Muslims of all coun 
tries. On this day Fdtihahs are recited for 
Muhammad s soul, and both in private houses 
and mosques portions of the Traditions and 
other works in praise of the Prophet s excel 
lences are read, 

The Wahhabis do not observe this day, as 
it is believed to he an innovation, not having 
been kept by the early Muslims. 

*-*Ac). One of the Companions who 
accompanied Muhammad at the battle of the 
Ditch, and in most of his subsequent engage 
ments He assisted in conquering the district 

of Rai, A.H. 22, and was with the Khali lah 
All at the battle of the Camel, A.H, 36." 

ALBART (c^UI). "The Maker." 
One of the ninety-nine special names of God. 
It occurs in the Qur an, Surah lix. 24 : " He is 
God the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner 
His are the excellent names." 

BAK1QAH (^). Lit. "Refulgence, 
lightning." A term used by the Sufis for that 
enlightenment of the so.ul, which at first comes 
to the true Muslim as an earnest of greater 
enlightenment. ( A,bdu r-Razzaq s Dictionary 
nf Sufi 7Wa.) 

BARNABAS, the Gospel of. The 

Mubammadans assert that a gospel of Bar 
nabas existed in Ajabic, and it is believed by 
some thai Muhammad obtained his account 
of Christianity from this spurious gospel. 

" Of this gospel the MoriscoeB in Africa 
have a translation in Spanish, and there is in 
ttie library of Prince Eugene of Savoy a 
manuscript of some antiquity, containing an 
Italian translation of the same gospel, made. 
it is supposed, for the use of renegades. This 
book appears te be no original forgery of the 
Muhamiuadans, though they have no doubt 
interpolated aud altered it since, the better to 
serve their purpose; and in particular, 
iu.sUad of the Paraclete or Comforter (St. 
.John xiv. 16,26 xv. 2t> . xvi 7). they have 
in this apocryphal gospel inserted the word 
Periclyte, that 13, " the famous or illustrious," 
by which they pretend their prophet was 
foretold by name, that being the signification 
of Muhammarl m Arabic; aud this they say 
to justify that passage in the Qur an (Surah 
HL) where Jesus is formally asserted to have 
foretold b^s coiniug, under bis other name of 
Ahmad, which is derived from the sucae root 
as Muharnmau, and of the haute import. 
From these or some other forgeries of the 
same stamp, it is that Muhammadans quote 
several passages of which there are not the footsteps in the New Testament" 

After Mr. Sale had written the extract 
whicL wu have quoted, he inspected a Spanish 
translation of the Italian copy ot this apocry 
phal gospel, of which he gives the following 

account/: - 

fi The book is a moderate quarlo. in Spanish, 
written in a very legible hand, but a little 
damaged towards the latter end. It contains 
two hundred and twenty-two chapters of un 
equal length, and four hundred aud twenty 
pages ; and is said, in the front, to be trans 
lated from the Italian by an Aragoman 
Moslem named Mostafa de Aranda. There is 
a preface prefixed to it, wherein the discoverer 
of the original AIS., who was a Christian 
monk called Fra Marino, tells up that, having 
accidentally met with a writing of Irena&us 
(among others), -wherein he speaks against 
St Paul, alleging for his authority the gospel 
of St. Barnabas, he became exceedingly desi 
rous to find this gospel and that God, of his 
mercy, having made him very intimate with 
Pope Sixtns V., one clay, as they were toge 



tber in that Pope s library, his Holiness fell 
asleep, and he> to employ himself, reaching 
down a book to read, the first be laid his 
band on proved to be the very gospel he 
wanted ; overjoyed at the discovery, be 
scrupled not to hide his jirixe in his sleeve, 
and on the Pope s awaking, look leave oi~ him, 
carrying with him that celestial treasure, by 
reading of which lie boram a convert to 

" This Gospel of Barnabas contains a com 
plete history of Jesus Christ, from His birth 
to His ascension, and most of the circum 
stances of the four real gospels are to be 
found therein, but many of them tnrnod, and 
some artfully enough, to favour the Muham- 
madan system. From the design of the 
whole, and the frequent interpolation, 6 ! of 
stories and p.i^ag^, wherein Muhammad is 
spoken of and foretold by name, a-> the mes 
senger of God, and this great prophet who 
was to perfect the dispensation of Jesus, it 
appears to b> a most bare-faced forgery. One 
particular 1 observe therein induces me to 
believe it, to have been dressed up by a rene 
gade Christian, slightly instructed in hi.-? DOW 
religion, and not educated as a Muhaimnadan 
(unless the fault be imputed to the Spanish, 
or, perhaps, the Italian translator, and to the 
original compiler). T mean Ihu giving to 
Muhammad the title of Messiah, and that not, 
once or twice only, but in several places ; 
whereas, the titleof Messiah, or, as the Arabs 
write it, al-Masih, i.e. Christ, is appropriated 
to Jesus in the QurYw, and is constantly 
applied by the Muhanwiadans to him, and 
never to their own Prophet. The passages 
produced from, the Italian MS. by M. de la 
Monnoye are to be seen m this Spanish ver 
sion almost word for word." 

The Rev. Joseph White, D.I)., in his Bamp* 
ton Lectures of 1784, gives a translation of 
those chapters in this spurious Gospel of Bar 
nabas, which relate to the supposed cruci 
fixion of Judas in the place of our Lord, 
and which wo insert : 

"Judas came near to the people with whom 
Jegus wan, ,ir,d when He heard the noise He 
entered iuto the house where the disciples 
slept. And God. seeing the fear and danger 
Of Hi .servant, ordered Gabriel and Michael 
and Rafail and Azrail to carry Him out of the 

" And they came in all haste, and bare Him 
out of the window which looks towards the 
south. And they placed Him in the third 
heaven, where He will remain blessing God, 
in the company of angels, till near the end of 
the world." (Chapter 216.) 

" And- Judas the traitor entered before the 
rest into the place from which Jesus had just 
been taken up. And the disciples were 
sleeping. And the Wonderful God acted 
wonderfully, changing Judas into tho same 
figure and speech with Jesus. 

We believing that it was He. said to him. 
Master, whom seekest thou? And he said to 
them, smiling, Ye have forgotten yourselves, 
since ye do not know Judas Iscanot 

"At this time the soldiery entered; and 

seeing Judas &n like in every respect to Jesus 
laid hands upon him," &r>. (Chapter 217.) 

" In whifih (Chap. 218) i related the passion 
of Jmlas the traitor. 

" The soldiers afterwards took Jndn<? and 
bound bun, notwithstanding he said with 
truth to them that he was not Jesus. Anl 
soldiers mocked him saj ing, Sir, do not be 
afraid ; for we are come to make thoe King 
of Israel : and we have bound thee, because 
we know thou hast refused the kingdom. And 
Judas said, Ye have lost your senses. 

" I came to show you Jesus, that ye mi.-jht. 
take Him and yo Lave bound me. who nm 
your guide. The soldiers lost, their patience, 
hearing this, and they began to go with him, 
Striking and bnrtetmg him, till they reached 
Jerusalem." &c. <\ (Chapter 218.) 

"They carried him to Mount Calvary, 
where they executed criminals, and crucified 
him, <*t Hoping him asked for the greater 
ignominy. Then he did notning but cry out. 
O my God, why hast thou forsaken me, that 
T should die unjustly, when the real male 
factor bfUih escaped ? I say in truth that he 
was so like in person, figure, and gesture to 
Jesus, that as many an knew Him. believe.! 
firmly that it was He, except Peter, loi 
which reason many left his doctrine, believing 
that it had been false : as He had said that 
He should noi die till the end .if the world. 

" But those who stood firm were oppressed 
with grief, seeing him die whom they under 
stood to be Jesus : not recollecting what He 
had told them. And in company witn His 
mother, they were present at his death, weep 
ing continually. And by moans of Joseph 
Abartmatbaaji (szV), they obtained from the 
president the body of Judas. And they took 
him down iiom the cross, burying him 
with much lamentation in the new sepulchre 
of Joseph ; having wrapped him up in linen 
and precious ointment^. (Chapter 219.) 

They all returned, each man to his 
house: and he wh.-t writeth, with James and 
John, -" int with the mother of Jesus to 
Nazareth. And the disciples, who did not 
Tear God with truth, went by night and stole 
th body of Judas, and hid it ; spreading a 
report tlial He (i.t. Jesus) had risen again, 
from whence sprung great confusion among 
the people. 

" And the High Priest commanded, under 
pain of anathema, that no one should talk of 
him : and on this account raised a great per 
secution, banishing some, tormenting others, 
and even stoning some to death : because it 
was not in the power of anyone to be silent 
011 this subject. And then came news to 
Nazareth, that Jesus had risen again. And 
he that writeth desired the mother of Jesus 
to leave off her lamentation. And Mary 
said, Let us go to Jerusalem, to sec ii it is 
truth. If I oe Him I shall die content. 
(Chapter 220). 

: The Virgin returned to Jerusalem with 
him that writeth, and James and Joiin, the 
same day that the decree of the High Priest 
came out 

And as she feared God, though She knrw 



the command was unjust, she entreated those 
who talked with her not to speak of her Son. 
Who can ay, how we -were then .affected? 
God, who knows the heart of rnfcn, knows 
that between the grief for the death of Jadas, 
whom we understood to be Jesus, and the 
pleasure of acting him risen again, we almost 
expired. And the angels who were the 
guardians of Mary went up to heaven the 
third day, and told Jesus what virus passing. 
And He, moved with compassion for His 
mother, entreated of God that He might be 
seen by His disciples. And the Compas 
sionate God ordered His four favourite angels 
to place Him within His own house, and to 
guard Him three days ; that they and they 
only might see Him. who believed in His doc- 
tiine. Jesus descended, surrounded with 
light, into the house of His mother, where 
were the two sisters, Martha and Mary, and 
Lazarus, and he that writeth, and Jqhn and 
Jaruos, and Peter. And when they saw Him, 
they fell with their faces on the earth as if 
dead. And Jesus lifted them up, saying, 
Fear not, for I am your Master. Lament not 
henceforth, for I am alive. They were asto 
nished at seeing Jesus, because they thoxight 
Him dead. And Mary weeping said, Tell me, 
my Son, why, if God gave Thee power to raise 
up the dead, did He consent that Thou 
shouldest die, with so much reproach and 
shame to Thy relations and friends, and so 
much hurt to Thy doctrine, leaving us all in 
desolation? Jesus replied, embracing His 
mother, Believe me. for 1 toll thee the truth, 
I have not been dead; for God has reserved 
Me for the end of the world, tn saying this 
He desired the angel s to manifest themselves, 
and to tell how He had passed through every 
thing. At the instant they appeared like four 
suns ; and all present prostrated themselves 
on the ground, overcome by the presence of 
the Hflgels. Aud Jesus gave to all of them 
something to cover themselves with, that they 
migLt be able to hear the angels speak. 

And Jesus said to His. mother. These are 
the Ministers of God. Gabriel knows His 
secrets : Michael fights with His enemies ; 
Asr-iiicl will cite all to judgment-; and Azrael 
receives the souls. Aud the holy ai.gels 
told how they had, by the command, of God, 
taken up Jesus, and transformed Judas, that 
be might suiter the punishment which he 
wished to bring on Jesus. And he that 
writeth said, Is it lawful for me to ask of 
Thee, in the same manner as when thou wast 
in the world? A.ud Jesus answered. Speak. 
Barnabas, what thout wishest. 

" And he said, 1 wish that Thou wouldeet 
left me how God, being &o compassionate, 
could afflict as so much, in giving us to 
understand that Thou wast he that suffered, 
for >e> hive been very /tear dying ? And 
T ho . boii;, s prophet, why did He suffer 
The* lo f/.U undar disgrace, by (apparently) 
placing T hv t <>ti r cross, and between two 
robbeic ? J^ru.r. uu.,weved, Believe Me, Bar 
nabas, let tue tault b<.- over so small God 
chastiseth it -with much punishment. And as 
my tnotber and faithful dibciples loved roe 


with * little earthly love, God chastised that 
love by this grief ; that He might not chastise 
ft in the other world. And though I was 
innocent, yet as they called Me God, and His 
Son, that the devils might not mock Me on 
the Day of Judgment, He has chosen that I 
should be mocked in this world. 

"And this mocking shall last till the holy 
Messenger of God (i.e. Muhammad) shall 
come, who shall undeceive all believers. 
And then He said, Jnst art Thou, God 1 and 
to Thee only bolongeth the honour and glory, 
with worship, for ever." (Chapter 221.) 

And then He said, Barnabas, that thou 
by all means write my gospel, relating every 
thing which has happened in the world con 
cerm ng Me ; and let it be done exactly; in 
order that the faithful may be undeceived, 
knowing the truth. He that writeth said, 
Master, I will do it as Thou commandest me, 
God willing: but I did not see ail that hap 
pened with Judas. Jesus answered, Here 
stand Peter and John, who saw it, and will 
relate it to thee. 

"And He told James and John to call the 
seven apostles who were absent, and Nico- 
demus, and Joseph Abarhcatheas (sic), and 
some of the seventy-two disciples. When they 
were come, they did eat with Him; and on 
the third day He commaridedthem all to go to 
the mount of Olives with His mother : because 
He was to return to heaven. All the apostles 
and disciples went, except twenty-five of the 
seventy-two, who had Bed to Damascus with 
fear. And exactly at Ynid-day, while they 
were a"ll in prayer, Jesus came with many 
angels (blessing God), with so much bright 
ness that they all bent their faces to the 
ground. And Jesus raised them up, saying, 
Fear not your Master, who comes to take 
leave of you; and to recommend you to God 
our Lord, by the -mercies received from His 
bounty: and be He with you! 

" And upon this He disappeared with 
the angels ; all of us remaining amazed at the 
great brightness in which he left us." 
(Chapter 222). 

AL-BARR (^\). One of the ninety- 
nine special names of God. In its ordinaVy 
sense it means " pious," or " good." As 
applied to God, it means " The Beneficent 


BARZAKH (ej^). (1) A thing 

that intervenes between any two things; a 
bar; an obstruction- or a thing that makes a 
separation between two things. In which 
sense it is used in the Qu ran in tavo places. 
Surah xxv. 55, " He hath put an interspace 
between them (i.e. the two seas), and a barrier, 
which it is forbidden them to pass." Surah 
IT. 20, "Yet between them (the two seas) is a 
barrier." , 

(2) The interval between tbe presort life 
and that which is to come. See Qur an, 
Surah xxiii. 99, "And say, My Lord, I seek 
refuge with Thee from the meltings of the 
devils, aadlaeek reiuge with Thee from their 




presence. Until when death comes to any 
one of them, he says, My Lord ! send me 
buck (to life), if haply I may do right in that 
which I have left. Not so ! A mere word that 
he sp: j afcs ! But behind them there is barzakh 
(a bar), until the day when they shall be 
raised. Am? when the trumpet shall be 
blown, there shall be no relation between 
them on that day, nor shall they beg of each 
other then." Upon this verse the commentator 
Bi/<iwi aavs : " Kurzakk is an intervening state 
, (#<? //, a ban-ier ) between death and the Day 
of Judgment, and whoever dies enters it." The 
commentator Husain remarks : " Barzabh is 
a partition (warn*) between the living and the 
Day of Judgment, namely, the grave in which 
they will remain until the resurrection." The 
commentators al-Jalalain speak of it as a 
hajiz, or intervening stnte between death 
and judgment. Abdu r-Raz/aq in his Dic 
tionary of Technical Terms of the, Sufis 
(Spronger s Edition), gives a similar defini~ 

The word is employed by Mnhammadan 
writers in at least two senses, some using it for 
the place of the dead, the grave, and others 
for the state of departed souls between death 
and judgment. 

The condition of believers iu the grave is held 
to be one of undisturbed rest, but that of unbe 
lievers one of torment : for Muhammad is 
related to have said, " There are appointed 
for the grave of the ut believer ninety-nine 
serpents to bite him until the Day of Resur 
rection." (Mishkat,\. c. 5, p. 12.) The word 
seems generally used in the sense of 
Hades, for every person who dies is said to 
enter al-Barzakh. 

BA S (^-**). Lit. " Raising." (1) 
The Day of Resurrection. (2) The office of 
a messenger or prophet. 

BASE MONEY. The sale of one 
pure dirh-am and two base ones in exchange for 
two pure dirhams and one base one is lawful. 
By two base ones (ghalatain), are to be 
understood such as pass amongst merchants 
bat are rejected at the public treasury. 
(fliddyah, vol. ii. 560.) 

al-BA?lR.Go-*H). One of the 

ninety-nine special names of God. It fre 
quently occurs in the Qur an. and moans 
" The All-seeing One." 

BASIRAH (S,--?). Lit. " Penetra 
tion." The sight of the heart as distinguished 
from the sight of the eye (Ba*drah or Ba?ar). 
A term used by theologians to express that 
enlightenment of the heart whereby the 
spiritual man can understand spiritual things 
with an much certainty as the natural man 
can see objects with the sight of the eye.* 
The word occurs twice in the Qnr an, Surah 
xii. 108, " This is my way ; I cry unto God, 
routing on clear evidence. ," Surah Ixxv. 14, 
" A man shall be evident* against himself. 

AL-BASIT (kAj31). One of the 

-aine gpociul names of God. tt means 

" He who spreads, or stretches out," and 
occurs in the Qur an, Surah xiii. 15. Af 
applied to God, it means, " He who disrmnfcnft 
riches," Ac, 

BASTARD (\*$\ jJj waladn- z-mnii). 

An illegitimate child has, according to Mu- 
haimnadan law, no legal father, and conse 
quently the* law does riot allow the father to 
interfsro with his illegitimate child, even for 
the purposes of education. He cannot inherit 
the property of his father, but he is acknow 
ledged as the rightful heir of his mother 
(Baillie s Digest, p. 432). The evidence of a 
bastard is valid, because ha is innocent with 
respect to the immorality of his parents ; but 
the Imam Malik maintains that bis testimony 
is not to be accepted with respect to a charge 
of whoredom. (Flidayak, vol. ii, 692.) 

BATHING, The Arabic term for 
ordinary bathing is (J A) gliasl, and 
that ior the religious purification of the whole 
body ghitsf. In all large mosques, and in most 
respectable dwellings in Muhammadan coun 
tries, there are bnt ring-rooms erected, both 
for the ordinary purposes of bathing and 
for the religious purification. An account 
of the legal purification will be found in the 
artiolo GHUSK. Although purifications and 
bathing form so essential a part of the Muslim 
religion, cleanliness does not distinguish 
Muhammadanp, who are generally in this 
respect a striking contrast to their Hindu 
fellow subjects in India; According to the 
saying of Muhammad, decency should be 
Observed in bathing, and the clothes from the 
waist downwards should not be taken off at 
such times. (Mish/cat, iL c. iv.) 

BATIL (JW 7 ). That which is false 
in doctrine. 

AL-BATIN (^Wtt). (1) One of the 

ninety-nine special names of God. It means 
" that which ia hidden or concealed," " The 
Hidden One," or " He that knows hidden 
things." (2) A term used in theology 
for that which is hidden in its ji^aning, in 
contradistinction to that which is evident. 

BATlTL (J~?). Lit. "Aahoot or 
offset of a palm-tree cut off from its mother 
tree ; "a virgin " (as cut off or withheld from 
men). The term al-Bntul is applied to 
Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, because 
she was separated from the other women of 
her age by her excellences. Heb. nSVrQ 

BA tTg (*ysV,). A Syriac word, 
NrWl (* * "P etition prayer"), 

which, in the dictionary at-Qdmun, is said to 
mean the Christian Easter ; and also prayers 
for rain, or the Istisqn of the Christians. 
(Majmu t- Bihar, p. 101.) 

BAZAQ or BAIQ (u-M- ^ pro 
hibited liquor. The juice of the grape boiled 




until a quantity leas than two-thirds evapo 

BEARD. Arabic &J lihyah or 
&J zaqan. The beard is regarded 
by Muslims as the badge of the dignity of 
manhood. The Prophet is related to have 
said, "Do tbe opposite of the polytheists and 
let your beard grow long." (Mish/cdt, xx, iv.) 
And the growing of a beard is said to be 
Fitrah, or one of those customs which have 
been observed by every Prophet. [FITRAH.] 

BEAUTY, Female: " The maiden, 

whose loveliness inspires the most impas 
sioned expression in Arabic poetry and prose, 
is celebrated for her slender figure : she is 
like the cane among plant?, and is elegant as 
the twig of the oriental wiliow. Her face is 
like the full moon, presenting the strongest 
contrast to the colour of her hair, which (to 
preserve the nature of the simile just em 
ployed) is of the deepest hue of night, aud 
descends to the middle of her back. A rosy 
blush overspreads the centre of each cheek ; 
and a mole is considered an additional charm. 
Tho Arabs, indeed, are particularly extrava 
gant in their admiration of this natural beauty- 
spot, which, according to its place, is com 
pared to a globule of ambergris upon a dish 
of alabaster, or upon the surface of a ruby. 
The eyes of the Arab beauty are intensely 
black, large, and long, of the form of an 
almond ; they are full of brilliancy : but this 
is softened by a lid slightly depressed, and by 
long silken lashes, giving a tender and languid 
expression, which is full of enchantment, and 
scarcely to be improved by tbe adventitious 
aid of the black border of the kuhl , for this 
the lovely maiden adds rather for the sake of 
fashion than necessity, having what the Arabs 
term natural kuhl The eye- brows are thin 
and arched, the forehead is wide, and fair as 
ivory ; the nose straight, the mouth small ; 
tbe lips are of a brilliant red, and the teeth 
; like pearls set in coral." The forms of the 
bosom are compared to two pomegranate? ; 
the waist is slender ; the hips are wide and 
large ; the feet and hands small ; the fingers 
tapering, and their extremities dyed with the 
deep orange-red tint imparted by Hie ^o.ives 
of hi rind. 

The following is the most complete analysis 
of Arabian beauty, given by an unknown 
author, quoted by Al-Ishaqi :- - 

" Four things in a woman should be hlftr.k. : 
the hair of the head, the eye-browy, the eye 
lashes, and the dark part of the eyes : four 
white : the complexion of the skin, tLo white 
of the eyes, the teeth, and the legs ; four red: 
the tongue, the lips, the middle of the checks, 
and the gumz; four round: the head, the 
neck, the fore-anna, and the ankles ; four 
lony . the back, the fingers, the arms, and the 
legs : four wide : the forehead, the eyes, the 
bosom, and the hips - } four /?;ie : the eye-brows. 
the nose, the lips, and the fingers ; four thick: 
the lower part of the back, the thighs, the 
calves of the legs, and the knees ; four smalt: 
the ears, the breasts, the hands, and the feet." 
(Lane s Arabian Niyhts, vol. i. p. 25.) 

BEGrOINGr. It is not lawful for 

any person possessing sufficient food for a 
day and night to beg (Durru l-Mukhtar, p. 
108), and it is related that the Prophet said : 
" Acts of begging are scratches and wounds 
with which a man wounds his own face." "It 
is better for a man to take a rope and bring 
in a bundle of sticks to sell than to beg." 
" A man who continues to beg will appear in 
the Day of Judgment without any flesh on 
his face." (Mishkdt, Book vi. chap, v.) 

BEINGS. According to Muham- 
madan belief, there are three different species 
of created intelligent beings : (1) Angels 
(SfalffMa&y, who are said to be created of 
light; (2) Genii (Jinn), who are created of 
fire; (3) Mankind (Insan). created of earth. 
These intelligent beings are called Zauru Y- 
Uqfil, or " Rational beings," whilst unintelli 
gent beings " are called Ghair Zawl V- UquL 
ffoytauani-Ndtiq ia also a term used for 
rational beings (who can speak), and 
Haynwdni- Ajam for all irrational creatures. 

BELIEVERS. The terms used 

for believers are Mu min, pi. Mu minun.: and 
Muslim, pi. Muslimun. The difference ex 
pressed in these two words ia explained in tbe 
Traditions, in a Hadi$ given in the Sahih of 
Muslim (p. 27), where it is recorded by TJmar, 
as having been taught by Muhammad, that a 
Mu"min is one who baa iman, or " faith ;" 
Faith being a sincere belief in God, His 
angels, His inspired books, Hi.s prophets, the 
Day of Resurrection, and the predestination 
of good and evil; and that a Muslim is one 
who is resigned and obedient to the will of 
God, and bears witness that there is no god 
but God, and that Muhammad is His Apostle, 
and is steadfast in prayer, and gives, 
or legal alms," and fasts in the month of 
Raraazan, and makes a pilgrimage to the 
Temple (Bait) at Makkah, if he have tbe 

The rewards in store for the believer are 
as follows fsee Suralu "l-Baqarah, Surah ii. 

" They who have believed and donj the 
things that be right, they shall be the inmates 
of Paradise, therein to abide for ever.* 

Swat n-Nisd, Surah iv. 60 

;t Those who have believed, and done the 
things that are right, we will bring them into 
gardens neath which the rivers flow therein 
to abide eternally ; therein shall they have 
wives of stainless purity: and we will bring 
them into shadowing shades." 

&tiratu l-A^rdf, Surnh vii. 40:- 

" Those who have believed and done the 
things which are right, (we will lay on no one 
a burden beyond his power) these shall be 
inmates of Paradise : for ever shuJl they abide 
therein ; 

"And will we remove whatever rancour was 
in their bosoms : rivers shall roll at their feet ; 
and they shall say, Praise be to God who 
hath guided u>- hither! We t^d not been 
guided had not God guided ns! Of a surety 




the Apostles of our Lord came to us with 
truth. 1 And a voice shall cry to them, This 
is Paradise, of which, as the meed of your 
work;*, ye are made fieirs. 

" And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to 
the inmates oi the Fire, "Now have we found 
what our Lord promised us to be true. Have 
yc too found what your Lord promised you to 
be true? And they shall answer, Yea. 
And a Herald shall proclaim between them : 
The curse of God be upou the evil doers, 

"Who turn men aside from the way of 
God, and seek to make it crooked, and who 
believe not in the life to come ! 

" And between them shall be a partition ; 
and on rhu well al-A raf, shall he men who 
will know all, by their token.*, and they shall 
cry to the inmates of Paradise, Peace be on 
you ! but they shall noi yet eater it, although 
they long to do so. 

" And when their eyes are turned towards 
the iumates of the Fire, they shall say, 
our Lord ! place us not with the offending 

" And they who are upon al-A raf shall cry 
to those whom they shall know by their 
tokens, Your amassings -and your pride have 
availed you nothing. 

" Are these they on whom ye sware God 
would not bestow mercy 1 / Enter yc into 
Paradise ! where no fear shall be upon you. 
neither shall ye put to grief. 

" And the inmates of the fire shall cry to 
the jnmates of Paradise Pour upon us some 
water, or of the refreshments God hath given 
you? They shall they, -Truly God hath 
forbidden both to unbelievers." 

For a further descriptions of the Muham- 
madan future state the reader is referred to 
the article PARADISE, which deals more 
directly with the sensual character of the 
he.iYen supposed to be in store for the 
believer in the mission of Muhammad. 

The following is description i-f the 
believer which is given in the C^ur an. Surattt 
i-Afu-nrin .n, the xxinrd Surah, v. 1 : 
" Happy now the Believers, 

Who humble themselves in their prayer. 

And who keep aloof from V3in words. 

And -wh" ure doers of alms-deeds (zakrit), 

And who restrain their appetites, 

(Save with their wives, or the slaves whom 
their right hands possess ; for in that case 
they shall be free from blame : 

But they whose desires reach further than 
this are transgressors :) 

And who tend well their trusts and their 

And wno keep them strictly to their 
prayers : 

These <diall be tne heritors, who shall in 
herit Paradise, to abide therein for ever." 


sizmdhfth) is commended by Muhammad as 
one of the evidences of faith. (Mishkdt. Book 
i. c. i. part 3.) 

Amr ibn Abarauh reUtes : "I came to 
the Prophet and said. O Prophet, what in 
Islam ? And he said, It is purity ol speech 
and hospitality. I t en said, And what >* 
faith ? And he said, Patience and bene- 

BENJAMIN. Heb. \^\^ Arabic 

^W-4 Binydmin. The youngest 
of the children of Jacob. He is not men 
tioncd by name in the Qur an, but he is 
referred to in Surnh xii. 69, "And when they 
entered in unto Joseph, he took his brother 
(< .e. Benjamin) to stay with him. He said 
Verily I am thy brother, then take not that 
ill which they have been doing. And when 
he had equipped them with their equipment, 
he placed the drinking-cup in his brother s 
pack," &c. [ JOSEPH. J 

BEQUESTS. Arabic &~cj wasiyah, 
pi. wasut/d. A bequest or will can be made 
j verbally, although it is held to be better to 
execute it in writing. Two lawful witnesses 
are necessary to establish either a verbal 
bequest or a written will. A bequest in favour 
of a stranger to the amount of one-third of 
the whole property, is valid, but a bequest to 
any amount beyond that is invalid, unless 
the heirs give their consent. If a person 
make a bequest in favour of another from 
whom he has received a mortal wound, it is 
J not valid, and if a legatee slay his testator the 
] bequest in his favour is void. A bequest 
j made to part of the heirs ia not valid unlese 
the other heirs give their consent. The 
bequest of a Muslim in favour of an unbe 
liever, or of an unbeliever in favour of a 
Muslim, is valid. If a person be involved in 
debt, legacies bequeathed by him are not 
lawful. A bequest in favour of a child yet 
unborn is valid, provided the frotus happen to 
be less than six months old at the tim ^f th 
making of the will 

If a testator deny his bequest, and the 
legatee produce witnesses tc prove it, it is 
generally held not to be a retractation of it. If 
a person on his death-bed emancipate a slave, 
it takes effect after his death 

If a person wili that " the pilgrimage in- 

| cumbent ou him be performed on his behalf 

j after his death, his heirs must depute a 

person for the purpose, aud supply him with 

the necessary expenses. (Hamilton s Hidayah. 

vol. i?. 466.) 

BESTIALITY is said by Muslim 
jurists to be the result of the most vitiated 
appetite and the utmost depravity of senti 
ment. But if a man commit it, he does not 
incur the Hndd, or stated punishment, as the 
act is not considered to haye the properties 
of whoredom ; the offender is to be punished 
by a discretionary correction (TV sir). Ac 
cording to Muslim law, the beast should be 
killed, and if it be of an eatable species, it 
; should be burnt. (Hidayah, voL U- 27.) 
j 06o-. According to the Mosaic code, a man 
I guilty of this crime was surely to be put to 
i death. (Ex. xviii. 19.) 





BFAH (***>). A Christian church. 
The word occurs in a tradition in the Mishkat 
(iv. c. tJi. 2), and is translated by Abdu 1- 
Haqq " Kallsah." [CfiUJftCH.] 

BID 4 AH (*CAJ). A novelty or in 
novation in religion ; "heresy ; schism. 

BIER. Arabic *jW jindzah and 
januzah. The same word is used for the 
"corpse/ the bier, and the funeral. In most 
Muhamniftdan, countries the ordinary charpoy, 
or -bedstead," is used for the bier, which, in 
the case of a female, is covered with a canopy. 

BIHISHT .(-*). The Persian 

word for the celestial regions. [PARADISE, 



" The countries of Islam." A term used in 
Muhaniraadan law for Muslim countries. It- 
is synonymous -with the term Darn 1-Islam. 

BTLAL ( j&O- The first Mu azzin 
or caller to prayer appointed by Muhammad. 
He was an Abyssinian slave who had been 
ransomed by A*bu Bakr. He was tall, dark, 
and gaunt, with negro features and bushy 
hair. Muhammad honoured and distinguished 
him as the "first fruits of Abyssinia." He 
survived the Prophet. 

BILQlS (v^A). The Queen of 

S?.bV, who visited Solomon and became one 
01 his .-queens. An account of her. as it is 
given in the Quran, will be found in the 
story of King- Solomon, [SOLOMON,] . 

BINT LAB0N (^ **). " The 

daughter of a milk-giver." A female camel 
two years old: so called because the mother 
is then suckling another foal. The proper 
age for a camel given in zakut. or " legal 
alms, 4 for camels from thirty-six m number 
up to forty-five. 

BINT MAKHlZ (Jte* ^). 

"The daughter of a pregnant, " A female 
camel passed one year; so called because 
the mother is again pregnant. This is the 
proper age for a camel given in zakat, Of 
" alms," for camels from twenty-five in number 
up to thirty-five. 

MAD. Although the Qur an may be said to 
be the key- stone to tbe biography of Muham 
mad, yet it contains but comparatively few 
references to the personal history of the Pro 
phet. The Traditions, or Ahadis, form the 
chief material for all biographical histories. 
[TRAWTIOM.] The first who attempted to 
compile an account of Muhammad in the 
form of a history, was az-Z\thrI, who died 
A.M. 124, and whose work, no longer extant, 
ie mentioned by Ibn Khailikan. The earliest 
biographical writei-8 whose works are extant 
5re Ibn Ishaq, A.H 151; Al-WaqidT,. -A.H. 


207; Ibn Hisham, A.H. 2l8; Al-Bukhar! 
(history), A.H. 256; At-Tabari, A.H. 310. 
Amongst more recent biographies, the most 
noted are those by Tbnu 1-Asir, A.H. 630. and 
Isma il Abu l-tkla , A.H. 732. Abu 1-tlda s 
work was translated, into Latin by John 
Gagnier, Professor of Arabic at Oxford, A.D. 
1723, and into English by the lie v. W. Murray, 
Episcopal clergymen at Duffus in Scotland, 
and published (without date) at Elgin. The 
first life of Muhammad published in English 
is that by Dean Prideaux, which first ap 
peared in 1723. and afterwards passed through 
several editions. Dr. Sprenger commenced a 
life of Muhammad in English, and printed the 
first part at Allahabad, India, A.D. 1851 ; but 
it was never completed. - The learner! author 
afterwards published the .whole of his work 
in German, at Berlin, 1869. The only com 
plete life of Muhammad in English which has 
any pretension to original research, is the 
well-known fjife of Mahomet , by Sir William 
Muir, LL.D. (First Edition, four rols., Londe n, 
1858-61 ; Second Edition, one vol., London 

BIOGRAPHY, A Dictionary of 


Biography ie called 
-- " - 

a smdv 

r-rijal-(iit. " Tber-Names.of .Men"). - The most 
celebrated of these is, amongst Muslims, thai 
by Ibn Khallikan, which h&$ .always been 
considered a work of the highest importance 
for the civil and literary history of thft Mu- 
hammadan people. Ibn Khailikan died AH. 
681 (A.D. 1282), but hirf dictionary received 
numerous additions from subsequent writers. 
It has been translated into English by Mac- 
Guckin De Slane (Paris, 1843). 

BIRDS. It is commonly believed 
by the Muhamma dans that all kinds of birds, 
and many, if not all, beasts, have a language 
by which they communicate their thoughts to 
eaqh other, and in the Qur an (Surah xxvii. 
16) it -is stated that King Solomon was taught 
the language of birds. 

BI R ZAMZAM ( r yj />). The 
well of Zamzarn [ZAM-ZAM.] 

BI R MA CNAH (^*>- A ). The 

well of Ma unah. A celebrated spot four 
marches from Makkah, where a party of 
Muhammad s followers were slain by the 
Banii Amir and Banu Sulaim. Be professed 
to have received a special message from 
heaven regarding these martyrs, whioh runs 
I thus : w Acquaint our people that we have 
met our Lord. He is well pleased with us, 
and we are well pleased with Him." It is a 
remarkable verse, as having for Some reason 
or other been cancelled, and removed from 
the Qur an. (Muir s Life of Mahomet, vol. 
iii. p. 207.) 

BIRTH, Evidence of. According 

to the Imam Abu Hamfah, if a married woman 
should claim to be the mother of a child, her 
claim is not to bo valid unless the birth of 
of the child is attested by the testimony of 
one woman. But in the case of * father, mas- 




tyuch as the claim of parentage is a matter 
which relates purely to himself, Ids testimonj^ 
alone is to be accepted. 

The testimony of the midwife alone is suf 
ficient with respect to birth, but with regard 
to i)areniayt , it is established by the fact of 
the mother of the child beincr the wife of the 

If tlie woman be in her idduh P DDAH} 
from a complete divorce, the testimony of the 
midwife is not sufficient with respect to birth, 
but the evidence of two men, or of one man 
and two women, is requisite. (Hamilton s 
Hidnyak, vol. iii. p. 134.) 

It is also ruled that it is not lawful for a 
person to give evidence to anything which he 
has not seen, except in the cases of birth, 
deufh, and nxn riaye. (Vol. ii. 076.) 

BI SHAR< (ft* ^>)- Lit- "With- 

put the law." A teun :.j:pHed to those 
mystics who totally disregard tbe teaching of 
the Qur au. .Antinom-ans. i son.j 

BISMTLLAH (S$\ r ~>). Lit. " In 
the name of God." An ejaculation frequently 
usuu at the commencement of my under 
taking. There are two forms of the Bis- 
millah : 

1. Bi- smi Ift ili r-rahmani Y-raAiw, i.e. 
"In the name of God. the Compassionate, the 
Merciful." This is used at the commencement 
of meals, putting ou new clothes, beginning 
any new work, and at the commencement of 
books. It occurs at the head of every chapter 
or surah in the Qur au, with the exception of 
the ixth (i.e. the Suratu l-Barffah). 

2. Bi- smi llahi llaiii t-oJcbar, i-c. "In the 
name of God. God the Most Great." Used at the 
time of slaughtering of animals, at the com 
mencement of a battle, &c., the attribute of 
mercy being omitted on such occasions. 

The formula Bi-srni //a/a r-rahmani V- 
rah un is of Jewish origin. It was in the first 
instance taught to the Quraish hy Umaiyah 
of Ta if, the poet, who wus a contemporary 
but somewhat older than, Muhammad, and 
who, during his mercantile journeys into 
Arabia TVtr-w.i and Syria, had made himself 
acquainted with the sacred books and doc 
trines of Juws and Christians. (Kitabit V- 
Agtiam. lo, Delhi ; quoted by RodwelL) 

BIZ A AH (<kU>). A share in a 
mercantile adventure. Property entrusted to 
another to be employed in trade. 



BLASPHEMY. Arabic ^ kufr. 
Lit. " to hide " (the truth). It includes a denial 
of any of the essential principles of Islam. 

A Muslim convicted of blasphyrv is sen 
tenced to death in Ivluhamnjadan countries. 

BLEEDING. Arabic <^W- hljd- 
iituh. The two greor cm-es recommended ~T 
Muhammad w<j e blooci-ifumg and 

honey; and ho taught that it was unlucky to 
ho bled on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday, 
the most lucky day" being Tuesday, and the 
m>Jt,t lucky date the seventeenth of the 
month. (JUiikfeSt t xx - c - !) 

BLIND, The. Arabic A ma, pU 
C/myaji. It is not incumbent upon a blind 
man to engage in Jihad, or a religious war. 
And, according to the Imam AbuHanifah, the 
evidence of a blind person is not admissible, 
but the Imam Zufar maintains that such 
evidence is lawful when it aiYocts a matter in 
which hearsay prevails- Salea and purchases 
made by a blind person are lawful. (Hamil 
ton s ffidayak, vol. ii., pp. 141, 402, GB2.) 

BLOOD. The sale of blood is 
unlawful. (Hamilton s ffidaya/t, vol. iL 
p. 428.) 

BLOOD, The Avenger of. 
BLOOD, Issue of. [ISTIHAZAH.] 
BOASTING. Arabic 6^ uu mw/iZ- 

t/iarah. Muhammad is related to have said, 
" I swear by God, a tribe must desist from 
boasting of their forefathers: for they are 
nothing more than coals from holl-iire (i.e. 
they were idolaters) ; and if you do not -leave 
oft boasting, verily you will be move hateful 
in the sight of God than a black-beetle. Man 
kind are all the 0ons of Adam, and Adam was 
of the earth" (Mishfcdt, xxii. c. 13.) 


BOOKS, Stealing. The hand of a 

thief is not to be cut off for stealing a book. 
whatever be the subject of -which it treats, 
because the object of the theft can only be the 
contents of the book, and not the book itself. 
But \ft, it is to be observed, the hand is 
to be cut oil for stealing if an account book, 
because hi this oase it is evident that too 
object of the theft is not the contents of the 
book, b\it rbe paper and material of which 
the book is made. (HanoJiton s Hiduyuh t vol. 
ii. 1*2.) 


&U^ khjyCLnah. The punishment of 
amputation of the band is not inflicted for a 
breach of trust. Atd if a guest steal the pro 
perty of hifl host whilst he is staying in his 
house, the hand is not cut oft. Branch of 
trust in Muslim law being a less offence than 
ordinary theft, the puuisbmfnt for broach 
of trust is left to the discretion of the judge. 
(Hamilton s Ridayah, vol. ii. pp. 93-10;:.) 

BRIBERY (Arabic V ; riahwnh) 

is not mentioned in the < A ur ar.. In the fratawa 
Al crmgiri \*Q is stated ii,,v presents to magis 
trates are of various kinds; for exampU: it a 
present be made in order to establish a friend 
ship, it is luwtul ;but if it tip given to iutfaence 
the decision of the judge in the donor s 
favour, it is unlawful. Ifc is also said, if a 
present be made to a judge from a flense of 

44 BU AS 

fear, it is lawful to give it, but unlawful to 
accept it. (Hamilton s Hidayafi, vol. iii 
p. 332.} 

BU AS, Battle of. Arabic *A*> vp- 
Harb Bu df. A battle fought between the 
Banu Khazraj and Banu Aus, about six 
years before the flight of Muhammad from 

BUHTAN (<^#). A false accu 
sation ; calumny. 

The word occurs twice in the Qar an : 

Surah iv. 112 : ki Whoso commits a fault or 
sin, and throws it upon one who is innocent, 
he hath to bear calumny (buhtdn) and mani 
fests in.". 

Surah xxiv. 15; "And why did ye not say 
when ye heard it. * It is not for us to speak of 
this ? Celebrated be Thy praises, this, is a 
mighty calumny (buktdn)" [BACKBITING.] 

Heb. nm he we P f " 


Weeping and lamentation for the dead. Immode 
rate weeping and lamentation over the graves 
of the dead is clearly forbidden by Muham 
mad, who is related to have said, Whatever 
is from the eyes (i e. tears), and whatever is 
from the heart (i.e. sorrow), are from God ; 
but what is from the hands and tongue is 
from the devil. Keep youraelvea, O women, 
from wailing, which is the noise of the devii. 1 
(Misltkdt, v. c. vii.) The custom of wailing at 
the tombs of the dead is, however, common in 
all Muhammadan countries. (See Arabian 
Niyhts, Lane s Modtrn Egyptians, Shaw s 
Travela in Barbary.) BURIAU] 


BURAQ (JVV Lit ; "The bright 
one." The animal upon which Muhammad is 
said to have performed the nocturnal journey, 
called Mi -raj. He was a white animal, be 
tween the size of a mule and an ass, having 
two wings. (Majma u l-Bihar, p. 89.) Mu 
hammad s conception of this mysterious animal 
is not unlike the Assyrian gryphon, of which 
Mr. Layard gives a sketch. [MI KAJ.] 

A short 

title given to the well-known collection of 
Sunni traditions by Abu * Abdu llah Muham 
mad ibn Isma il ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah 
al-Ju fi al-Bukhari, who was born at Bukhara, 
A.H. 194 (A.D. 810), and died at the village of 
Kbartang near Samarqand* A.H. 256 (A.D. 
870). His compilation comprises upwards of 
7,000 traditions of the acts and sayings of the 
Prophet, selected from a mass of 600,000. His 
book is called the ffafrih of al-Bukhdri, and 
is said to have been the result of sixteen 
years labour. It is said that he was so 
anxious to record only trustworthy traditions 
that he performed a prostration in worship 
before the Almighty before he recorded each 


** Nebuchadnezzar." It is thought by Jalalu 
d-din that there is a reference to his army 
taking Jerusalem in the Qur an, Surah xvii. 8, 
And when the threat for the last (crime) 
came (to be inflicted, we sent an enemy) to 
barm your faces, and to enter the temple as 
they entered it the first time." The author 
of the Qamus says that Bukkt is " son," and 
an idol," i.e. " the son of 

BULAS (u-ty). Despair/ The 

name of one of the chambers of hell, where 
the proud will drink of the yellow water of 
the infernal regions. (hKshka,t t xxii. c 20.) 


(Layard ii. 459). 

BURGLARY i& punished as an 
ordinary theft, namely by the amputation of 
the hand, but it is one of the niceties of Mu 
hammadan law, according to the Hanafi code, 
that if a thief break through the wall of the 
house, and enter therein, and take the pro 
perty, and deliver it to an accomplice standing 
at the entrance of the breach, amputation of 
the hand is not incurred by either of the 
parties, because the thief who entered the 
house did not carry out the property. 
(Hidayah, vol. ii. 103.) 


Jinazah or JandxaJi). The term Jandzah is used 
both for the bier and for the Muhammadan 
funeral service. The burial service is founded 
upon the practice of Muhammad, and varies 
but little in different countries, although the 
ceremonies connected with the funeral proces* 
fiion are diversified. In Egypt and Bukjjara, for 
instance, the male relations. and friends of the 
deceased precede the corpse, whilst the female 
mourners follow behind. In India and Afghan 
istan, women do not usually attend funerals, 
and the friends and relatives of the deceased 
walk behind the bier. There is a tradition 
amongst some Muhammadans that no one 
should precede the corpse, as the angels go 
before. Funeral processions in Afghanistan 
are usually very simple In their arrange 
ments, and are said to be more in accordance 
with the practice . of the Prophet, than 
those of Egypt and Turkey., It is considered 
a very meritorious act to carry the bier, and 
four from among the near relations, every now 
and then relieved by an equal number, carry 
it on their shoulders. Unlike our Christian 
custom of walking slowly to the grave, the 
Muhammadans carry their dead quickly to 
the place of interment; for Muhammad is 
related to have said, that it is good to carry 
the dead quickly to the grave, to cause the 
righteous person to arrive soon at happiness, 




and if he be a bad man, it is well to put 
wickedness away from one s shoulders. Fu 
nerals should always be attended on foot ; for 
it is said that Muhammad on one occasion 
rebuked his people for following on horse 
back. "Have you no shame?" said he, 
" since God s angels go on foot, and you go upon 
the backs of quadrupeds ? " It is a highly 
meritorious act to attend a funeral, whether 
it be that of a Muslim, a Jew, or a Christian. 
There are, however, two traditions which 
appear to mark a change of feeling on the 
part of the Prophet of Arabia towards the 
Jews and Christians. " A bier passed by the 
Prophet, and he stood up ; and it was said to 
the Prophet, this is the bier of a Jew. It is 
the holder of a soul, he replied, from which 
we should take warning and fear. " This 
rule is said to have been abrogated, for, 4< on one 
one occasion the Prophet sitting on the road 
when a bier passed, and the Prophet disliked 
that the bier of a Jew should be higher than 
his head, and he therefore stood up." (Misk- 
Jcdt, \ c. v.) Notwithstanding these con 
tradictory traditions, we believe that in all 
countries Muharamadans are wont to pay great 
respect to the funerals of both Jews and 

The Muhammadan funeral service is not 
recited in the graveyard, it being too polluted 
a place for so sacred an office; but either in 
a mosque, or in some open ppaco near the 
dwelling of the deceased person or the grave 
yard. The owner of the corpse, i.e. the 
nearest relative, is the proper person to 
recite the service; but it is usually said by 
the family Imam, or theQazi. 

The following is the order of the service: 
Some one present calls out, 
" Here begin the prayers for the dead." 
Then those present arrange themselves in 
three, five, or seven rows opposite the corpse, 
with their faces Qi blah -wards (i.e. towards 
Makkah). The Imam stands in front of the 
ranks opposite the head (the Shi ahs stand 
opposite the loins of a man) of the corpse, if 
it be that of male, or the waist, if it be that 
of a female. 

The whole company having taken up 
the Qiyam, or standing position, the Imam 
recites the Niyah, 

44 1 purpose to perform prayers to God for 
this dead person, consisting of four Takbirs" 
Then placing his hands to the lobes of his 
ears, lie says the first Takblr. 

" God is great 1 " 

Then folding hi hands, the right hand 
placed upon the left, below the navel, he 
reoites the Subftdn : 

" Holiness to Thee, God, 
And to Thee, be praise. 
Great is Thy Name. 
Great is Thy Greatness. 
Great ie Thy Praise. 
There is no deity but Thee. 1 
Then follows the second Takbir : 

God is great ! " 
Then the Dttrud : 

"OGod, have mercy on Muhammad and 
apon his descendants, AS Thou didst bestow 

mercy, and peace, and blessing, and com pas 
sion, and great kindness upon Abraham and 
upon his descendants. 

" Thou art praised, and Thou art great 1 
"0 God, bless Muhammad and bis de 
scendants, as Thou didst bless and didst have 
compassion and great kindness upon Abrn- 
ham and upon his descendants." 
Then follows the third Takblr : - 

" God is great I " 

After which the following prayer (Z)u o) is 
recited : 

O God, forgive our living and oar dead 
and those of us who are present, and those 
who are absent, and our children, and our full 
grown persons, our men and our women. 
God, those whom Thou dost keep alive 
amongst us, keep alive in Islam, and those 
whom Thou causest to die, let them die in 
the Faith." 

Then follows the fourth Takbir : 

" God is great ! " 

Turning the head round to the right, he 
says : 

" Peace and mercy be to Thee." 
Turning the head round to the left, he 
gays : 

"Peace and mercy be to Thee." 
The Takblr ia recited by the Imam aloud, 
but the Subhan, the Saldm, the Durud, and 
the Du d, are recited by the Imam and the 
people in a low voice. 

The people then seat themselves on the 
ground, and raise their hands in silent prayer 
. in behalf of the deceased s soul, and after 
wards addressing the relatives they say, " It 
is the decree of God." To which the chief 
mourner replies, " I am pleased with the will 
of God." He then gives permission to the 
people to retire by saying, " There is permis 
sion to depart." 

Those who wish to return to their houses 
do so at this time, and the rest proceed to 
the grave. The corpse is then placed on its 
back in the grave, with the head to the north 
and feet to the south, the face being turned 
towards Makkah. The persons who place 
the corpse in the grave repeat the following 
sentence : " We commit thee to earth in the 
name of God and in the religion of the Pro 

The bands of the shroud having been 
loosed, the recess, which is called the lahd, is 
closed in with tmburnt bricks and the grave 
filled in with earth. [GRAVE.] In some 
countries it is usual to recite verse 57 of the 
xxth Surah of the Qur an as the clods of 
earth are thrown into the grave; but this 
practice is objected to by the Wahhabis, and 
by many learned divines. The verse is as 
follows : 

"From it (the earth) have We (God) 
created you. and unto it will We return you. 
and out of it will We bring you forth the 
second time." 

After the burial, the people offer a fatihah 
(ie. the first chapter of the Qur an j in the 
name of the deceased, and again when they 
have proceeded about forty paces from the 
grave they offer another fuhhah ; for at this 



juncture, it is said, the two angels Munkir 
and Nakir examine the deceased as to his 
this, food is distributed to beggars and reli 
gious mendicants as a propitiatory offering to 
God, in the name of the deceased person. 

If the grave be for the body of a woman, it 
should be to the height of a man s chest, if for 
a man, to the height of the- waist. At the 
bottom of the grave the recess is made on the 
side to receive the corpse, which is called 
the Id/rid or lahd. The dead are seldom 
interred in coffins, although they are not pro 

To build toijabs with stones or burnt bricks, 
or to write a verse of the Qur an upon them, 
is forbidden in the Hadis ; but large stone 
and brick tombs are common to all Muham- 
tnadan countries, and very frequently they 
bear inscriptions. 

On the third day after the burial of the dead, 
it is usual for the relatives to visit the grave, 
and to recite selections from the Qur an. 
Those who can afford to pay Maulavis, 
employ these learned men to. recite the whole 
ol the Qur an at the graves of their deceased 
relatives ; and, the Qur an is divided into 
sections to admit of its being recited by the 
several Maulavis ai. once. During the days 
of mourning the relatives abstain from wear 
ing any article of dress of a bright colour, 
arid their soiled garments remain unchanged. 
A. funeral procession in Egypt is graphic 
ally described by Mr. Lane in his Modern 
Egyptians. We give the account as it con 
trasts strikingly with the simple processions 
of Sunni Muhammadans in India. 

" The first persons are about six or more 
poor men. called ; Yamanlyah," 1 mostly blind, 
who proceed two and two, or three and three, 
together. Walking at a moderate pace, or 
rather slowly, they chant incessantly, in a 
melancholy tone, the profession of faith 
( There is no deity but God ; Muhammad is 
Ood s Apostle; God favour aod preserve him ! ). 
They are followed by some male relations 
aud friends of the deceased, and, in many 
cases, by two Or more persons of some sect 
of <3arweshes, hearing the flags of their order. 
This is a general custom at the tuneral of a 
darwesh, Next follow three or four or more 
schoolboys ; one of them carries a tnushqf 
(or copy of the Qur an.), or a volume consist- 
ng of one of the thirty sections of the Qur an, 
placed upon a kind of desk formed of palm- 
;itioks, and covered over, generally with, an 
fltubroidered kerchief. These boys chant, in a 
higher and livelier voice than the Yamamyah, 
usually some words of a poem called the 
Hashriya-h, descriptive of the events of the 
last day, the judgment, &c. The school 
boys immediately precede the bier, which 
is borne head-foremost. Three or four 
fronds of the deceased usually carry 
it for a short distance: then three -or four 
ji^pi Trends bear it a little further; and 
fhea these are in liky nr-nner relieved. Casual 
passengers, also, oftea take part in this ser 
vice, vruidi is e a itemed highly meritorious. 
:.IJT. bier wrJI. the female mourner? . 


sometimes a group of more than a dozen, or 
twenty; with their hair dishevelled, though 
generally concealed by the head- veil ; crying 
and shrieking, as before described ; and often, 
the hired mourners accompany them, cele 
brating the praises of the deceased. A.nong 
the women, the relations and domestics of the 
deceased are distinguished by a strip of linen 
or cotton stuff or muslin, generally blee, 
bound round the head, and tied in u single 
knot behind: the ends hanging down a few 
inches. Each of these also carries a hand 
kerchief, usually dyad blue, which she some 
times holds over her shoulders, and at other 
times twirls. with both hands over, her head, 
or before her face. The cries of the women, 
the lively chanting of the youths, and cue 
deep tones uttered by the Yamamyah. com 
pose a strange discord. 

" The funeral procession of a man of wealth, 
or of a person of the middle classes, is some 
times preceded by three or four or more 
cam els $ bearing bread and water to give to 
the poor at the tomb, and is composed of a 
more numerous and varied assemblage of 
persons. The foremost of these are the 
Yainanlyah, who chant the profession of the 
faith, a,s described above. They are generally 
followed by some male friends of the deceased, 
and some learned and devout persons who 
have been invited to attend the funeral. Next 
follows a group of four or more faqihs, chant 
ing the Suratu l-An am (the vith chapter of 
the Qur an); and sometimes, another group, 
chanting the Surat Ya-sln (the xxxvith 
chapter) ; another, chanting the Suratu 1- 
Kahf (the xvrirth chapter); and another 
chanting the Suratu d-Dukhan (the xiivtk 
chapter). These are followed by some mun- 
shids, singing the Burdah ; and these by 
certain persons called Ashabu *l-Ahzab, ? who 
are members of religious orders founded by. 
celebrated shaikhs. There are generally four 
or more of the order of the Hizbu VSadat, a 
similar group of the Hizbu sh-Shazilj, and 
another of the Hizbi\ "sh-Sha rawi ; each group 
chants a. particular form of prayer. After 
them are generally borne two or more half- 
furled flags, the banners of one or other of 
the principal orders of darweshes. Then 
follow the schooi-boys, the bier, and the 
female mourners, as in the procession before 
described, and, perhaps, the led horses of the 
bearers, if these be men of rank. A buffalo, 
to be sacrificed at the tomb, wjhere its flesJh 
is to be distributed to the poor, sometimes 
close3 the procession, 

" The funeral of a devout shaikh, or of one 
of the great Ulama, is still moxe numerously 
attended, and the bier of such a person is riot 
covered with a shawl. A wall is further 
honoured in his funeral by a remarkable 
custom. Women follow his bier, but, instead 
of wailing, as they would .after the corpse of 
an ordinary mortal, they rend the air with the 
shiill and quavering cries of joy called 
zaghari.t ; and if these cries are di.-seou unuir"! 
but for a minute, tho bearers of the l>r pro 
test that they cannot proceed, that <-. super 
natural power riv{.- tbt-rr. to the .^xl on 




which they viand. Very often, it is said, a 
wall * impels the hearers of bis corpse to a 
particular spot. The following anecdote, 
describing an ingenious mode of puzzling a 
dead saint in a case of tin.- kind, was related 
to me by one of my friends. Sorn* men were 
lately bearing the corpse of a waif to a tomb 
prepared for it in .the great cemetery on the 
north of the metropolis, but on arriving at the 
gate called Babu- n-Nasr, which leads to the 
cemetery, they found thernsewos unable to 
proceed further, from the cuiso above-men 
tioned. It seems. said one of the bearers, 
4 that the shaikh, is determined not to be 
buried in the cemetery of Babu n-Nnsr, and 
what shall we do? They- were all much 
perplexed, but being as obstinate as the saint 
hinrsolf, they did not immediately yield to hia 
caprice. Retreating a few paces, and then 
advancing with a quick step, they thought by 
such an impetus to force the corpse through 
the gateway ; but their efforts were unsuccess 
ful ; and the same experiment they repeated in 
rain several times. They then placed the 
bier on the ground to rest and consult; and 
one of them, beckoning away his comrades to 
a distance beyond the hearing of the dead 
saint, aaid to them, Let us take up the bier 
again, and turn it round several tfmes till the 
shaikh becomes giddy ; he then will not know 
in what direction wo are going, and wo may 
take him easily through the gate. This they 
did ; the saint was puzzled as they expeofeq, 
and-quietly buried in the place which he had 
so striven to avoid. 

" In the funerals of females and boys, the 
bier is usually only preceded by the Tainani* 
yah, chanting.the profession of the faith, and 
by some male relations of the deceased ; and 
followed by the female mourners ; unless the 
deceased were of a family of wealth, or of 
considerable station in the world ; in which 
case, the funeral procession is distinguished 
by some additional display. I shall give a 
short description of one of the most genteel arid 
decorous funerals of this kind that 1 have 
witnessed : it was that uf a young, unmarried 
lady. Two men, each bearing .1. largo, furled, 
green Hag, headed the prcctssiun. preceding 
the Yatnaniyab, who chanted in in unusually 
low unci solemn manner. These faqlrs, who 
were in number about eight, were followed by 
a group of fakihs. chanting a chapter of the 
QiTj-V>>i. Next .ifier the latter was a man 
bearing a large, biancb of Nnbq (or lote- 
tree\ an rmbJerji of the deceased. On each 
side of IMUJ walked a person bearing a tall 
fit. iff or cane, to the Wp of which were at 
tached Severn 1 hoops ornamented with strips 
of various coloured paper. These were fol 
lowed !>y fvo Turkish soldiers, side by sido. 
one bearing, on a small round tray, a gilt 
silver qumqum of rose-wsiter, and the 
other bearing, on a similar tray, a mibkbarah 
of gilt silver, in which some odoriferous sub 
stance (as benzoin, or frankincense ) was 
purning. These dilTuned the odour of 
thriv content:; on the way, and were after 
wards utfetj to perfume the sepulchral vault. 
Passengers -.veie occasionally sprinkled 

with the rose-water. Next followH fn.i 
men, each of whom bore, upon a urn* II fn-y, 
several sma-11 lighted taper. >[ wax, >tuok In 
lumps of p;iste of 4 hinn2. Tin* b:er AT. 
covered with rich shawlj, and it* sh^li d MM. 
decorated with handsome orfioirnr. ,n of the 
head, having, besides the saia, * qi 
almas (a long ornam-nt r,f g.Jd a l <! M- 
inonds worn over the forehead), and, nj>on its 
fiat top, a rich diamond qurs. T!, (. * *i-i- 
the jewels of the deceased, or \v-iv. p-;rh*| -s. 
as is of Ion the case, borrow^? for !i.- 
sion. The fmale in-jurners, fnumiM ;i!,ei:t 
se^en or ^i^jht. clad in the usual ru.-nr ; 
the ladies of Kg-ypt (with the U 
covering, V.cj. followed the hit>r, not oti foot 
as is tho common custom in funeuU ;i rliis 
country, but mounted on hJ^h-Sftddle 
and only the last two or three of 1 
wailing ; these being, probably, hir>d niui" n^-r 
In another funeral-procession of n female, t)i. 
daughter of a Turk of high rank, tho Ynma- 
nfyah were followed by six slaves, walking 
two by two. The tirst two slaves bon- c.-ct. 
a silver qumqum of rose-water, which they 
sprinkled on the passengers; and one of ihein 
honoured me so profusely as to v/(>t my 
dress very uncomfortably; after which, he 
poured a small quantity into my hands ; an^ 3 
I wetted my face with it, according to custom. 
Each of the next two bore a silver niibkjjiraii., 
with perfume: and the other two carried a 
silver Tizqi (or hanging censer), with burning 
charcoal of frankincense. The jewels on the 
shahid of the bier were of a gostly description. 
Eleven ladies, mounted >n high-saddled agues, 
together with several naddabuhs, followed. 


is no express injunction, in either the Qur an 
or the Traditions, regarding the burning of 
dead bodies, although the burning of the 
living is strictly forbidden. For Muhammad 
fiiiid, "Punish not with God s punishment 
(which is fire), tor it is not fit. for anyone to 
punish with tire but God." (AfisJtltirt. xiv 
c. v. part 1.) 

The teaching of the Traditions te a 
dead body is as^fully conscious of pain as o 
living body, for Ayishah said, that IhePropLet 
said, " Tim breaking of the bont-.s of a corpse 
is the same as doing it in life." (Mis tknt, v. 
c. vi. part 2.) 

It is, therefore, pretty clearly established 
that cremation of the dead k* strictly forbidden 
by the Muhamiuadnn religion. There is, 
however, nothing to confirm the hnpr- ssion 
that the burning of a corpse in any way pre 
vents its soul entering parndi&e. 

BURNING TO DEATH is strictlj 

fOfbidden by Muslim law. Ikrimah relates 
that some apostates from Islam w*r< brought 
to thfr KJjalifah All, and he burnt them ; and 
when Ibn 4 Abb3s heard of it, he said. " IhfJ 
they bntn brought to me, I would not h;>ve 
burnt them : for the Prophet said, Punish 
not with God s punishment. Verily it i.^ n< t 
fit for anyone to punish with fire but (iod. " 
. xiv. c. v. part 1.) 



BURQA (*)?) The veil or cover 
ing used for the seclusion of women when 
walking abroad. [VEILING OP WOMEN.] 

BURtJJ (ej,0- Lit - "Towers," 

which some interpret as real towers wherem 
the angels 1 keep watch. A term used for the 
twelve signs of the zodiac. [SIGNS OF THE 
ZODIAC.] Al-Buruj is the title of the Lxxxvth 
Surah of the Qur an. 


is said by commentators that God taught 
mankind to bury their ead when " God sent 
a crow to scratch the earth, to show him 
(Cain) how he might hide his brother s body." 
(Quran, Surah v. 34 ; Tafsir-i- Husaini , in 
loco.) The custom of burying their dead is 
universal in Islam. The ceremonies con 
nected with funerals will be found in the 
article on Burial. [BURIAL.] 


magbarat or maqoarah, " The place of graves." 
Persian Qabr-gah, or Qabristdn. They are 
sometimes spoken of by religious Muslims as 
Marqad, a "cemetery" or " sleeping- place," 
but the name has not obtained a general 


application to buriai-grounds in the East as it 
has in the West. They are generally situated 
outside the city, the graves being covered 
with pebbles, and distinguished by headjstones, 
those on the graves of men being with a 
tarban-like head. The graves are dug from 
north to south. The grave-yards are usually 
much neglected. The Wahhabis hold it to 
j be a meritorious act, in accordance with the 
j injunctions of the Prophet, to neglect the 
graves of the dead, the erection of brick tombs 
being forbidden. (Hidayah, Arabic ed., vol. i. 
p. 90) A grave-yard does not become public 
property until the proprietor formally makes 
a gift or bequest of it. (Hidayah* vol ii. f 
p. 357.) 

BUSHRA ( v5r ^). " Good news ; " 

"the gospel." A word used in the Traditions 
for the publication of Islam. (MishkatjVtiv. 
c i.) " Accept good news, O ye sons of 
Tamhn," which -Abdu 1-Haqq says means 
" embrace Islam." 

[BAI .J 


BU3URG (c%) Lit. " great." A 
I Persian word used in the East for a saintly 
person, an old man, or a person of rank. 


CJ2SAR. The Arabic and Persian 
form of the Latin Caesar in Qaisar. The 
word occurs in the traditions of the Sahihu /- 
Muslim (vol. ii. p. 99 j, where it is applied to 
the Emperor Heraclius, who received a letter 
from Muhammad inviting him to Islam, when 
he was at Edessa on his way to Jerusalem, 
August, A.D. 628. The origin of the title is 
uncertain. Spartianus, in hia life of Aelius 
verus (c. ii.), mentions four different opinions 
respecting its origin: (I) That the word sig 
nified an elephant in the language of the Moors, 
and was given as a surname to one of the Julii 
because he had killed an elephant ; or (2) That 
it was given to one of the Julii because he had 
been cut (ca^sus) out of his mother s womb 
after her death ; or (3) Because he had been 
born with a great quantity of hair (ixiesaries) 
on his head ; or (4) Because he had azure- 
coloured (caesii) eyes. Of these opinions the 
second is the one adopted by the Arabic- 
Persian Dictionary the Ghiyasu l-Lughdt. 

The first of the Julian family who occurs 
in history as having obtained the surname of 
Cfesar is Sex. Julius Gcesar, praetor in B.C. 
208. It was first assumed aa an imperial 
title by Augustus as the adopted sou of the 
dictator, and was by Augustus handed down 
to his adopted son Tiberius. It continued to 
be used by Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, as 
members, either by adoption or female 
descent, of Caesar s family ; but though the 
family became extinct with Nero, succeeding 
emperors still retained it as part of their 

titles, and it was 1h practice to prefix it to 
their own name, as, for instance, /mperator 
C<Ksar Domitianus Auyuslus. The title waa 
superseded in the Greek Empire under 
Alexis Commenus by that of Sebastocrator 
In. the west, it was conferred on Charles the 
Great, and was borne by those who succeeded 
him on the imperial throne. Although this 
dignity came to an end with the resignation 
of Francis II. in 1306, the title Kaiser is still 
assumed by the Emperors of Austria and 
Germany, and more recently by the Queen of 
England as Qftifor-i-HoM^ or Empress of 

CAIN. Arabic J?Vs Qabil (Qabil). 
The account. of Cain and Abel as given in the 
Qur an, Surah v. 30. will be found in the 
article ABEL. The Commentators say that 
the occasion of making the offering wa.s as 
follows : Each of them being born with a twin 
sister, Adam by God s direction ordered Cain 
to marry Abel s twin sister, and Abel to marry 
Cain s, but that Cain refused. They were then 
ordered to submit the question by making a 
sacrifice, and Cain offered a sheaf of the very 
worst of his corn, whilst Abel offered the best 
futted lamb of his flock. (Tafsiru l-Baizaun, 
in toco.) 

CALEB. Arabic Kdlab. The son 
i ;f Jephunneh (JYufannah). He is not men- 
i rioned in the Qur an, but hia name occurs ia 
j the Tafsiru, l-Baizdwi, m Surah iv. 13 

CALF, GOLDJHJN, The, which, the 

Israelites worshipped, is mentioned live times 
in the Qur an. Surahs ii. 48, 88; iv, 152; 
vii. 146 ; xx. 90. In Surnh xx. 90, the person 
who made it is said to )>e as Samiri [MOSES.] 


CALUMNY is expressed by the 

word Qhibak, which means anything whis 
pered to the detriment of an absent person, 
although it be true. Bullion , expressing a 
false accusation. It ie stricaly forbidden in 
both the Qur an and H&dls. [GHIBAH.] 

CAMEL. Arabic IJnl In the 
Qur an (Surah Ixxxriii, 17), the institution of 
camels to ride upon is mentioned as an 
example of God s wisdom and kindness : " Do 
(hey not look then at the camel how she is 
created." A& a proof of the great usefulness 
of the o&mel to tlie Arabian, and of the 
manner in which its very existence has in 
fluenced his language, it is remarkable that 
in almost every page of the Arabic Dic 
tionary Qamiis (as also in Richardson s 
edition), there, is some reference to a camel. 

Camels are a lawful sacrifice on the great 
festivals and on other occasions. And al 
though it is lawful to slay & camel by &xkh, 
or by merely cutting its throat, the most 
eligible method, according to Muslim law, in 
to slay a camel by nahr, or by spearing it in 
the hollow of the throat near the breast bone. 
because, says Abu Qanifah, it is According to 
the sunnah, or practice of Muhammad, and also 
because Lu that pant of the throat three blood 
vessels of a camel are combined Hamil 
ton s ffidtyah, voL iv. p. 72.) There is zakdt, 
or legal alms, on camels. [ZAKAT.] Muham- 
mndon law rules that the person who leads a 
string of camels is responsible for anything 
jiy one of the camels may injure or tread 
down. (Ibid., iv. 379.) 

CANAAN. Arabic Knfun. Ac- 
cording to al-Jal/Uain and al-Bukiwi, the 
commentators. Canaan was the unbelieving 
son of Noah, but, according to the Qja.tav 
dictionary, the grandson, who was drowned 
in the flood, and whose case is recorded in 
the Qur an (Surah xi. 44). He is $aid to be 
a son of Noah s wife Wa ilah, who was an in- 
fidf 1. " And the Ark moved on them amid 
waves like mountains: and Noah called to 
hie sou for he was apart * Embark with us, 
my child I and be not with the unbelievers/ 
He said, * I will betake me to a mountain thai* 
shall secure me frojc the water. He said, 
None nhali be seeme this day from the 
decree of God, save him en whom He shall 
nave mercy/ And a wave passed between 
them, and ho was among the drowned." 

CAPTIVES. Asir, pi. Uttdro, and 

t/taro \ With respect to captives, the Imam, 
of leader of the army, has it in his choice to 
slay them, " because the Prophet put cap 
tives to death, and also because shying them 
terminates wickedness " ; or, he may if he 
clioose. make them filaves. It is not lawhil 


for the Imam to send captives back to th-;i 
home and country, because that would be to 
strengthen the cause of infidelity against 
Islam. If thf-y become Muslims after their 
capture, they must not bo put to death, but 
they may be sold after their conversion. A 
converted captive must not be suffered to 
return to his country, and it is not lawful to 
release a captive gratuitously. The only 
method of dividing plunder which consists of 
slaves, is by selling them at tho end of the 
expedition and then dividing the money. 
(Hidayak, ii. 160.) fvLmxr.] 

CARAVAN. Persian Kdrwa* 

Arabic QflfilaJi. As the roads in the ER.AI 
are often unsafe and lead through dreary 
wastes, merchants and travellers associate 
together for mutual defence and comfort. 
Those companies are called both Jcarwan 
and f/djilafi. The party is always under the 
direction of a paid director, who is railed 
Karwan- or Qafi la h- #<!*/. If ai caravan u 
attacked on the road, the Muhammadan law 
allows the punishment of cruoifixion for the 
offence. (Hidaynh^ vol. ii. 131.) But it is a 
curious provision of the Muslim law that if 
some of the travellers in a caravan commit, 
a robbery upon others of the same caravan, 
punishment (re of amputation) ii not in- 
cnrred by them. (Vol ji. 137.) 

CAKRION (Arabic Matiahj is for- 
bidden hi the Qur en, Surah il 80. " That 
which dicth of itself* and blood, and iwine s 
flesh, aud thai over which any other name 
than that of God hath been invoked, is for 
bidden. But he who shall partake of them 
by constraint . without lust or wilf ulntss, no 
sin shall be upon him." 

CASTING LOTS. Zalam, or 

casting lots by shooting arrows, was an 
ancient Arabic oust en , winch is forbidden by 
Muhammad in bis Qnr an, Surah v. 4 ; but 
gv^ah, or casting lots, in its ordinary sense, 
ia not forbidden, for A.yishah relates that 
when the Prophet went on a journey, he used 
to cast lots as to which wife he should take 
with him. (Mishk&t Babv Y-(jofam.) 

CATS. Arabic Sirrah. Accord 
ing to a Had is of Abu Qtxtadah, who was one, 
of the Companions, Mohammad said, " Cats 
are not impure, they keep watch around us." 
He used water from which a cat had drunk 
for his purifications, aud his wife Ayishah 
ate from a vessel from which a oat had eatan. 
(AfzsMft, book iii., c. 10, pt. 2.) 

CATTLE. Arabic An am. They 
are said in the Qur an to be the gift of God . 
Sdrah xL 79, " God it is who hath made for 
you cattle, that ye may ride on some and eat 

Cuttle kept for the purpose of labour, such 
as carrying burthens, drawing ploughs, &o., 
are not subject to zukat, neither is there zakai 
on oaitlf who are left to forage for ono half 
year or more. (Hidayak, i. 18.) 

Al-An am is the title of the sixth Surah of 
the Qur an. 




CAVE, The Companions of the 
(Arabic- Ashabu l-lcdkf). or.the Seven Sleepers 
of Ephesus, form the subject of one of the 
chapters of the Qur an, Surah xviii. 6. 

CELIBACY ( Arabic Paula])), 
although not absolutely condemned by Mu 
hammad, is held to be a lower form of lifo to 
that of marriage. It is related that Usrmwi 
ibn Maz un wished to lead a celebate life, and 
the Prophet forbade him, for, said ho, " When 
a Muslim marries he perfects his religion." 
it, book xii. c. xx.) 

CEYLON. Arabir; SaranJib. r i he 

Commentators say tint when Adam and Eve 
were cast out of Paiftdisd, Adain fell on the j 
island of Ceylon, and Eve near Jidda h iu I 
Arabia, and that after separation of 200 j 
years, Adam was, on his repentance, con- 
ducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain 
near Makkali, where be found am! knew his 
wife, the mountain being named Arafali : and 
that afterv;ards he retired with her to Ceylon, 
when they continued to propagate their 
species. (D Herbelot. Bihl. Orient., p. 55.) 

CHASTITY. " Neither thoir (the 
Muslims ) tenets nor their practice will in 
any respect hear to come into competition 
with Christian, or even with Jewish morality 
.... For instance, wo cull the Muslims 
chaste because they abstained from indis 
criminate profligacy, and kept carefully 
within the bounds prescribed .13 licit by 
their Prophet. Bat those bounds, besides the 
utmost freedom of divorce atid change of 
wives, admitted an illimitable licence of co 
habitation with all that the right hand of 
the believer might possess, or, in other 
words, with any possible number of damsels 
he might choose to purchase, or receive in 
gift, or take captive in war." (MxuYs Life of 
Mahomet, vol. i. 272. [CONCUBINAGE, SLATES. 


CHARITY, as fa implies tenderness 
and affection, is expressed by h,uhb, or Inahab- 
bah ; as it denotes almsgiving, it is fadayah. 
He who is liberal and charitable to the poor 
is called muhibbu l-fuqara 1 . 

CHEEUBIM. Arabic KarMi, pj. 
Karubln ; Lit. " Those who aro near." Heb. 

D^LV^3- 1h fl wor ^ karubln is used by the 
commentator al-Baizawi, for the angels men 
tioned in the Qur an, Surah xl. 70: "Those 
around it (the throne of God; celebrate the 
praise of their Lord, and believe in Him and 
ask pardon tor those who believe." AI-BaizawI 
says the Karubin are tho highest rank, and 
the first created angels. Husain savs there 
are 70.000 ranks of them round the throne of 
God. (Tafxtru Y-/fcnt*MPi, Ta/siru Hufioin, 
in loco.} 

CHESS. Arabic Shatranj. Ac 
cording to the Hidayah, </& is an abomi 
nation to play at chess, dfco. or any other 


game, for if anything be etake.2 it ia 
gambling (w a **? ?), which is expressly for r 
bidden in the Qur an; or if, on the other 
hand, nothing be hazarded, it is useless and 
vain. Besides, the Prophet has declared all 
the entertainments 0f a Muslim to bo vain 
except, threr. : the breaking 1 in of his harse, tho 
drawing of his bow, and playing and amusing 
himself with his vrives. Several of the 
learned, however, deem tho game at chess 
lawful as having a tendency to quicken the 
understanding. This in the opinion of ash- 
S/wfi L If n man play ut chess for a, stake, it 
destroys the integrity of bis character, but if 
he do not play for a stake, tna intdgritv of hi* 
character is not affe^.tad. (Hamilton s- Uida- 
yah, \oLiv. p 122. "} 

CHILDREN.. Arabic Avl&d. 

Thc?e aro no special injunctions in the 
Qur an rfcgarding the customs to be ob 
served at the birth of an infant (eireuinci- 
sion not being even once mentioned in that 
book), nor with reference to the train 
ing and instruction of the young: but tho 
subject is frequently raf erred to in the Tra 
ditions and in Muhammadn books on Ethics 
Muhamrnadang have so largely incorporated 
the customs of the Hindus in India with their 
own, especially those observed at the births of 
children, that it is sometimes difficult to dis 
tinguish those which are special characteris 
tics of Islam ; many of tho customs recorded 
in Herklot s Mtutabnati*) for example, being 
;nerely those common to Hindus as well as 
Muhauimadan.?. We shall, however, endea 
vour to describe those ^which are generally 
admitted to have some authority in the pre- 
copts of the Muslim religion. 

(1.) At tlte birth of a child, after he has 
been properly washed with water and bound 
in swaddling clothes, ho is carried by the mid 
wife to the assembly of male relatives and 
friends, who have met on the occasion, when 
-the chief Maulawl, or some person present, 
recites the Azan, or summons to prayer 
[AZAN], in the infant s right ear, and the 
Iqdrnan., which is the Aziin with the addition 
of the words, " We aro standing up for 
prayers" [IQAMAH], in the left ear ; a custom 
which is founded on the example of the Pro 
phet, who is related to have done so at tho 
birth of his grandson Hasan (Mishkvt, book 
xviii. c. iv. 2). The Maulawl then chews n 
little date fruit and inserts it into the infant s 
mouth, a custom also founded upon the ex 
ample of Muhammad. (Mishkat, book xviii. 
c. iv. 1.) "this ceremony being over, alms are 
distributed, and fdti/iah* are recited for -the 
health and prosperity of the child. According 
to the traditions, the amount of silver given 
in ahm should be .of the same weight as 
the hair on the infant s head tho child s 
head being shaved for this purpose. (Mish- 
kdt, ibid., part 2.) The friends and neigh 
bours then visit the home, and bring presents, 
and pay congratulatory compliments? on .the 
joyful occasion. 

(2.) The naminq of the child should, accord 
ing to the Traditions (Mishkat, i&iW.), be 




on ihe jevcnth day ; the clnld being 
either nurncd after somP meruber of the 
family, or flftr some saint vpnfimlecl by ihe 
fnmily, Of sfcme iijimr suggest od by the an 
Apinovis hour, tho planet, Oi lln Sl$n of th 
todiac. [ExcucCiaM.j 

(:.) On this, the tuveuih day, it observed 
Abw iho Ceremony of .rlg/ /c A, established by 
Muhnimnad himself (fidbu I AtjlqnJt in 
Arabic Ed. S* l.dh of Abu Daud. VDl. li. p 30) 
U ronsists of a saeritica to God; 11 the name 
of th frhild. of two he-gouts for a boy, and 
one he goat for a girl. The goa-t$ must bo 
not Above a year oW, and without apot or 
bJernuh. Tht? animal is dre^f-d and cooked, 
miri whilst luw friends eat of it they oiler the 
following prayer: "0 God! I olfer to the;* 
instead of my own offspring, lifr for life, 
blood, for blood. head for head, bont for bone, 
bair fpr h<-iir, .sVin for skin. In the uame cf 
thr ;rr*at God, I do sacrifice, this goat 1 " 

(4.) I ho mother is purified ou tlie forlitf/i 
liny, when shs is at libcity to go about us 
usual, and it is on this day that the infant is 
generally placed in the swinging cradle pecu 
liar tc> eastern households. It is a day nf 
some rojoicir rtmongsi. the members of the 

(5.) As soon as the ehilO is a bir to talk, or 
when lie has attained the ago of four years, 
four taor.ihd, and four days, ho is taught -the 
*w/JaA;*thAft is, to ror-ite the inscription 
which occurs at the commenf enu nt of tlu 
(^ur au : Bi- smi l/dhi V-m/tJ<?/</ r-ruftttn." 
li\ the iiMne of God the Mprfu-il. the <ha- 
fciouK. AiU r this ceremony, t>:<^ <"Likl is sout 
to school and taught the alpha ftt. amd to 
r*c-ile certain chapters of the (^xir iui by rote. 

(6.) Aocorrting to tho opinion of Sunni 
doc-turs, the drettmcvnon of the bilcl .shoul> t 
take plac-e in hi.s seventh year ; tho opera- 
lion beui generally performed by iho barber. 
[ciKOL HCiSiON.] The child is not re-quired tn 
observe all tho eufetwnrf of the Muslim law 
uutil he has arrivod at puberty [>UBKRTI~J ; 
but it is )ield jneuinbeut on parents and 
guardians to teach him tho prayers an soon 
as ho bun been circumcised. 

(7.) The time when the child has finished 
le.citiny the whole of the Quran, once tbrouh, 
is also r*^ arded afi an important epoch in the 
life of a child. On this occasion the scholar 
make* hi* obeisance to his lutor and presents 
nirn vitn tray* of a^octineats, a suit of 
clutue*, and money. 

As \\o have already remarked, tho mat ruc 
tion of youth is a frequent subject of 
discussion in books of Muslim Etltrcs. 
The following, which is taken from the 
Akhldq-i-Jaldli, is an interesting (specimen 
of Muhammadan ideas on the subject : 
The first requisite- i*. to employ a proper 
nurse of a -well-balanced ten, pertinent, for 
the qusilitie.s, both temperament a r and spiri 
tual, of tho nurse are commutiirated to the 
infant. Next, since we are recommended by 
the Traditions to give the name on the seventh 
day (after birth), the precept had better be 
conformed to. In delaying it, however, there 
is this advantage, that time is given for a 

deliberate selection of an appropriate naroe. 
>\>r, if -wo give the child an ill-ansorted ono. 
hia -whole life IH embittered in c.onaequoncr 
ifoucu caution iu deter)nin|ng thnnamo is one 
of the parent s obligations towards hi off 

11 we would prevent the child s acquiring 
culpable habits, we must apply ourselves to 
educate him as soon 5s weaned, l^or though 
men havo a capacity for perfection, the ion 
Jency to vice is naturally implant:d in the soul. 
The first requisite is to restrain him abso 
lutely from all acquaintance with thore ex 
cesses which arc characterised as vice. For 
the mind of children is like a clear tablet, 
equally open to any inscription. Next to that, 
he should be taught the institutes of religion 
and mien of, propriety, and, according as hi 
power and "capacity may admit, confined to 
their pract ice, aud reprehended and restrained 
from their noglccU . Thus, at the uge of 
seven, we are told by the Traditions to enjoin 
him merely to say his prayers ; at the age of 
ton, if he omits them, to admoiiish him by 
blows. By praising the good und censuring 
the bad, we should render -him emulous, of 
riglrt and apprehensive of wrong. We should 
commend him \vhcn he performs a creditable 
action, arid intimidate him -when he commits 
a reprehenuible one; and yet we should avoid, 
if possible, subjecting him to positive cen 
sure, imputing it rather to oversight, lest he 
grow audacious. If he keep bis fault u 
*ecvet, we are not to rend away the disguise : 
but if he do so repeatedly, we must robuko 
him severely in private, aggravating tho 
heinousneKS of such a practice, and intimmat- 
ing,hiru from its repetition. \Ve must beware, 
however, oi too much frequency of detection 
:iud reproof, for fear of his grow ing. u Red to 
censuio, and rontnieting a habit of reckless 
ness; nod thus, according to the proverb, 
Men grow pager for that which is withheld, 
feeling a tendency to repeat the offence. For 
these rasons> -we should prefer to work by 
enhancing tho attraction of virtue. 

On ineul. drink, and line clothing, he must 
be taught to look with contempt, and deeply 
impressed wivh tlw conviction that it is the 
practice of women only to priz.e the colour 
ing antl AgurinK of dress : that men ought to 
hold themsolvos Above it The proprieties or 
meal-taking are those in which he should be 
earliest instructed, as far as he can acquit 
them. Ho should bo made to understand that 
the proper end of eating is health and not 
gratification; that food and drink are a sort 
of medicine for the cure of hunger and thirst . 
and just as niedk inrj aro only to be taken m 
tho measure of need, according aa sickness 
may require their influence, food and drink 
mo only to be used in quantity authcient to 
satisfy hunger and remove thirst. He should 
be forbidden to vary his diet, and taught to 
prefer limiting himself to a single dish. His 
appetite i-hould also be checked that he may 
be HHtisfied with meals at the stated hours. him not be a lover of delicacies. He 
should now and then be kept on dry brelid 
only, in order that in limo of need ho may be 



able to subgigt- o that. Habits like these arc 
better than riches. Let his principal meal be 
made in the evening rather than the morning, 
or he will be overpowered by drowsiness and 
lassitude during the day. Flesh let him have 
sparingly, or he will grow heavy and dull. 
Sweetmeats and other such aperient food 
should be forbidden him, as likewise all 
liquid at the time of meals. Incumbent as it 
is on all men to eschew strong driuks, there 
are obvious reasons why it is superlatively so 
on boys, impairing them both in mind and 
body, and leading to anger, rashness, auda 
city, and levity, qualitiea which such a prac 
tice is sure to confirm. Parties of this nature 
he should not be allowed unnecessarily to 
frequent, nor to liHten to reprehensible conver 
sation. His food should not be given to him 
till he hati despatched his tasks, unless suf 
fering from positive exhaustion. He must be 
forbidden to conceal any of his actions, lest 
he grow bold in impropriety ; for, manifestly, 
the motive to concealment can be no other 
than an idea that they are culpable. Sleep 
ing in the day and sleeping overmuch at night 
should be prohibited. Soft clothing and ali 
the uses of luxury, such as cool retreats ju 
the liot season, and fires and fur in the cold, 
he should be taught to abstain from; he 
should be inured to exci Cise, foot- walking, 
horse -riding, and all other appropriate accom 

Next, let him learn the proprieties of con 
versation and behaviour. Let him not he 
tricked out with trimmings of the hair and 
womanly attention to dress, nor be presented 
with ring s till the propar time for wearing 
them. Let him be forbidden to boast to Lip 
coinpajxious of his ancestry or worldly advan 
tages,. Let him be restrained from speaking 
untruths or from swearing in. any ease, whether 
ci ue or false ; for an oath is wrongful in any 
one, and repugnant to the letter of the Tradi 
tions, saving when required by the interest 
of the public. And even though oaths may 
be requisite to men/to- boys they never can 
bo so. Let him ho trained to silence, to 
speaking only when addressed, to listening in 
tbe presence of his elders, and expressing 
himself correctly. 

For LH instructor he should have a man of 
principle and intelligence, well acquainted 
with the discipline of morals*, fond of cleanli 
ness, noted for stateliness, dignity, and huma 
nity, well acquainted with the dispositions of 
kings, with the etiquette of dining in their 
company, and with the terms of intercourse 
with all classes of mankind. It is desir 
able that others of his kind, and especially 
sons of noblemen, whose manners have 
always a distinguished elegance, should be 
at school with him, so that in their society 
he may escape lassitude, learn demeanour, 
and exert himself with emulation in his 
studies.- If the instructor correct him with 
blows, he must be forbidden to cry, for that 
is the practice of slaves and imbeciles. On 
the other hand, the instructor must be care 
ful not to resort to blows, except he its wit 
ness of an offence openly committed. When 


compelled to inflict them, it is desirable ii 
the outset to make them sxnaU in number and 
great iupain ; otherwise the warning is not so 
efficacious, and he may grow audacious 
enough to repeat the .offeuce. 

Let him be encouraged to liberality, and 
taught to look with contempt on the perish 
able things of this world ; for more ilfcmnoB 
from the love of mouoy than from the simoom 
of the, desert or the serpont of the field. The 
Imam al-Ghazzall, in commenting 011 the text, 
ft Preserye me and them from idolatry," says 
that by idols is here meant gold and silver ; 
and Abraham s prayer is that he and hia 
descendants may be kept far removed front 
the worship of gold and silver, and from 
fixing their affections on them ; becauso the 
love of these was the root of till evil. In his 
leisure hours he may be allowed to play, 
provided it does not lead to excess of fatigue 
or the commission of anything wrong. 

When the discerning power begins to pre 
ponderate, it should be explained to him that 
the original object of worldly possessions ifi 
the maintenance of health ; so that the body 
may be made to last the period requisite to 
the spirit s qualifying itself for the life 
eternal. Then, if he is to belong to the 
scientific classes, let hiin be instructed in. the 
sciences Let him l>e employed (as soen arf 
disengaged from studying the essentials of the 
religion) in acquiring the sciences. The best 
course is to ascertain, by examination of the 
youth s character for what science or art he 
is best qualified and to employ him accord 
ingly ; for, agreeably to the proverb, "All 
facilities are not created to the same person "; 
eveiyone is not qualified lor every profess- 
sion, but each for a particular one. 

This, indeed, is the expression of a prin 
ciple by which the fortunes of man and. of the 
world are regulated. With the old philoso 
phers it was a practice to Inspect the horo 
scope of nativity, and to devote the child to 
that profession, which appeared from the 
planetary positions to be suitable to his 
nature. When a person is adapted to a pro 
fession, be can acquire it with little pains ; 
and when unadapted, the utmost he can do is 
but to waste his time and defer his esta 
blishment in life. When a profession bears 
an incongruity with his nature, and means 
and appliances are tmpropitioua, we should 
not urge him to puisne it, but exchange it for 
some other, prodded that there ift no hope at 
all of succeeding with the first ; otherwise it 
may lead to his perplexity. In the prosecu 
tion of every profession, let him adopt a 
system which will call into play the ardour 
of his nature, assist him in preserving health, 
and prevent obtusity and lassitude. 

As soon as ho is perfect in a profession, 
let him be required to gain his livelihood 
thereby ; in order that, from an experience 
of its advantages, he may strive to master 
it completely, and make full progress in 
the minutiae of its principles. Aiid for this 
livelihood he must be trained to look to 
that hononrable emolument which charac 
terises the well-connected. He must not 


depend on the provision afforded by Lie 
Either. For it generally happens, wheu the 
sons of the wealthy, by the pride of their 
parents opulence, are debarred from acquir 
ing a profession, that they sink by the vicis- 
aitudes of fortune into utter insignificance. 
Therefore, when he has so far mastered his 
profession as to earn a livelihood, it is expe 
dient to provide him with a connort, and let 
him depend on his separate earning. Tho 
King* of Fars, forbearing to bring thoiv sous 
up surrounded by domestics and retinue, sent 
them off to a distance, in order to habituate 
them to a life of hardship. The Dilernite 
chiefs had the same practice. A person bred 
upon the opposite principle can hardly be 
brought to good, especially if at all ad 
vanced in ; like hard wood which is 
with difficulty straightened. And this was 
the ansv;ir Socrates gave, when asked why 
his intimacies lay chiefly among tho young. 

In training daughters to that which befit* 
them, domestic ministration, rigid seclusion, 
chastity, modesty, and the other qualities 
already appropriated to women no care can 
be too groat. They should be made emulous 
of acquiring the virtues of their sex, but must 
be altogether forbidden to read and write. 
When they reach the marriageable age, no 
time should be lost in marrying them to 
proper mates. (See Ak}ildq-i-Jaldli, Thomp 
son s ed.) 

of a thief is not to be out off for stealing a 
free-born child, although there be ornaments 
upon it, because a freo person is not property, 
and the ornaments are only appendages ; and 
also because the thief may plead that he took 
the child up when it was crying, with a. view 
to appease it. and to deliver it to the nurse. 
But Abu Yusuf does not agree with IJanifah. ; 
for he says where the value of the ornaments 
amounts to ten dirma, amputation is incurred. 
Amputation is also inflicted for stealing an 
infant slave, because a slave is property, 
although Abu Yusuf says it is not. (JJida 
yaJi, ii. 91.) 

CHOSEOES. Arabic Khusraw. 
The King of Persia to whom Muhammad 
sent a letter inviting him to Islam. He is 
Said to be Nausherwan. (See Ghiya#u V- 
Lughat in loco; refer also to Mutr s Life of 
Mahomet, vol. ii. 54 n.) 


TIANS. Arabic, Na$rdniyah, " Christianity"; 
the terms used for Christians being N&frdn, 
pi. Nasaru, or Jtatm. 

Christianity seems to have been widely dif 
fused in A rabia at tho time of Muhammad, 
According to Cauasic de Perceval, who quotes 
from Arabic writers, Christianity existed 
amongst the Baiiii Taghlfb of Mesopotamia, 
the Bauii Abdu 1-Qais, the Banu HSria of 
Najran, the Banu Ghassan of Syria, and 
other tribes between al-Madinah and al- 



The historian Philostorge;, {Uist. Eccl. 
lib. 1, o. 8) tells us that a monk named Theo- 
philus, who was an Indian bishop, was seat 
by the Emperor Constance, A.D 42; to the 
Himyarite King of Yaman, and obtained per 
mission to build three Christian churchc* for 
those who professed Christianity ; one ut 
Zafar, another at A<Un, and a third at Hur- 
muz on the Persian Gulf. According to the 
same author, the Christian religion was in 
troduced into Najran in the fifth contury. A 
bishop sent by the Patriarch of Alexandria 
was established in the city of Zaf or, and we are 
told by Muslim authors, quoted by C&ussin de 
Perceval, that a Christian church was built, at 
$an a which was the wonder of the age, the 
Roman Emperor and the Viceroy of Abyssinia 
f uriiishing the materials and workmen for the- 
building. Thtt Arabs of Yaman were ordered b v 
the ruler of Abyssinia to perform a pilgrimage 
to this new ehurch instead of to the Ka bah ; 
an edict which is said to have been restate*! 
and to have given rise to tho M War of the Ele 
phant," when Abrahah, the Viceroy of Egypt, 
took an oath that he would destroy "the 
Mecoan teinpie, and marched at the head of 
an army of Abyssinians, mounted on an 
elephant. This M War of the Elephant" 
marks tho period of Muhammad s birth. 

The Christianity of this period ia described 
by Mosheiui as " expiring under a motley and 
enormous heap of superatitious inventions, 
with neither the courage nor the force to raise 
her bead or display h<-v national charms to 
a darkened and deluded world." Doubtless 
much of the success of Islam in its earlier 
stage was due to the state of degradation into 
which the Christian Church had fallen. The 
bitter dissensions of the Greeks, Nestorians. 
Eutyohians, and Monophyeites are matters oi 
history, and must have held up the religion o( 
Jesus to the ridicule of the heathen world. 
The controversies regarding the nature and 
person of our Divine Lord had begotten <i 
sect of Tritheists, led by a Syrian philoso 
pher named John Philoponus of Alexandria, 
and are sufficient to account for Muhammad s 
conception of the Blessed Trinity . The wor 
ship of the Virgin Mary bad also given rise to 
a religious controversy between the Antiduo- 
Mariauites and the Oollyridians ; the former 
holding that the Virgin was not immaculate, 
and the latter raising her to & position of a 
goddess. Under the circumstances it is not 
surprising to find that tho uiina of the Arabian 
reformer turned away from Christianity aud 
endeavoured to construct a religion on the 
lines of Judaism. [JUDAISM.] 

Al-Bai?awi aud other Muslim commenta 
tors, admit that Muhammad received Chris 
tian instruction from learned Christians. 
named Jubra and Yasara (al-Baizawi on 
Surah xvi. 105), and that ou this account the 
Quraish said, " It is only some mortal that 
teaches him I " For the Traditions relate 
that Muhammad used to stop and listen to 
theao two Christians as thoy read aloud the 
Books of Moses (Taurat) and the New Testa 
ment (InjiZ). But it IB remarkable that Mu- 


hammad should, after all, have obtained such 
a cursory knowledge of Christianity. For 
from the text of the Qur an (extracts of 
which are subjoined), it is evident that he wan 
under the impression that the Sacrament of 
Baptism was Sibgkuh, or the dyeing of the 
Christians clothes ;. and if the Chapter of tho 
Table refers to the Sacrament of the Lord s 
Supper (which is uncertain), it was " a table 
seut out of heaven that it may be a recurring 
festival/ The doctrine of the Trinity is sup 
posed to be a Tritheism of God, Jesus Christ, 
and the Virgin Mary; and a proof against 
the Divinity of Christ is urged from the. fact 
that He and His mcther "both ate food." 
Tlie crucifixion is denied, and Mary the 
mother of Jesus is confounded with Mary the 
sister of Aaron. Such mistakes and omissions 
coutd only arise from a most imperfect, ac 
quaintance with the ordinary institutions and 
beliefs of the Christian communities, wilb 
"whom Muhammad must have been brought 
in contact. The gentler tone and spirit of 
the Christians seems to have won the sym 
pathy of Muhammad, and his expressions 
regarding them are less severe than with 
reference to the Jews ; but the abstruse cha 
racter of their creed, as shown in their end 
less schisms regarding the nature of the 
Trinity and the person of Christ, and the 
idolatrous character of their worship, s still 
seen in the ancient Syrian and Coptic 
cli arches, led him to turn from Christianity 
to Judaism as a model whereby to effect the 
reformation of a degraded and idolatrous 
jjeople like the ancienjj; Arabians. The 
Jewish and Mosaic character of Muhammad s 
svstem will be treated of in another place. 

The following selections from the Qur un 
will show the actual teaching Of that book 
regarding Christianity. In the whole of the 
Qur an there is not a single quotation from 
tho New Testament, and it is noticeable that 
nearly all the allusions to Christianity are 
contained in Meccan Surahs ; Surah ii. being 
according to Jalalu d-din Suyuti, one of the 
earliest chapters given at Makkah, and 
Surah v. the last. 

Surah v. #5 :*~ 

Of all inert thou wilt certainly find the 
/ows, and those who join other gods with 
God, to bo tho most intense in hatred of those 
who believe; and thou shalt certainly find 
those to bo nearest in affection to them who 
say, We are Christians. This, because 
there are amongst them priests ((jisslsun^) 
and monks, and because they are not 

Surah ii. 59 : 

" Verily, they who believe (Muslims), and 
they who follow the Jewish" religion, and the 
Christians, and the Sabeites whoever of 
these belioveth in God and the last day, and 
doeth that which is right, shall have their 
reward with their Lord: fear shall not 
come upon thorn, neither shall they be 

(The same vert,* occurs again in Kurtih v. 


Surah ii. 105 :- 

Andtney say, None but Jews or Chris 
tiana shall enter Paradise: This; is their 
wish. SAK : Give your proofs if .ye speak 
the truth. But they who set their face 
with resignation Godward, and do what is 
right, their reward is with their Lord ; no 
fear shall como on them, neither shall they 
be grieved. Moreover, the Jews say, ^ The 
Christians leaa on naught : On naught 
lean the Jews, say the Christians. Yet 
both are readers of tho Book. So with like 
words say they who have in> knowledge. 
But on the resurrection day, God shall 
judge between them as to that in which 
they differ. And who comm uteth a gu-utor 
wrong ihitn he who JiinrU-mh God s name 
from being remembered in His temples 
and who hastetii to ruin them? Such men 
cannot enter them but with fear. Theirs 
is shame in thi.s world, and a severe tor 
ment in the next. The East and tho West 
is God s: thei-efore, whichever way ye turn. 
there is the face of Cod. Truly God is 
immense and knoweth all. And they say, 
God hath a son : No I Praise be to 
Him 1 But Jli.s. whatever i^ in the Heaven* 
and the Earth I All obeyeth Hun, sole 
maker of the Heavens and of tho Earth ! 
And when Ho decreeth a thing, He only 
saith to it. ( Be, and it is. And they who 
have no knowledge say, * Unless God speak 
to us, or thou shew us a sign ....! So, 
with like words, said those who wcro 
before them : their hearts aru alike. 
Clear sighs have we already shown for 
those who have firm faith. Vorily, with 
the Truth have we sent thee, a bearer 
of good tidings and a warner: and of the 
people of Hell thou shalt not bo questioned. 
But until thou follow their religion, neither 
Jews nor Christians will bo .s;iiisiit>rl with 
thee. SAIT: Verily, guidance oi God,--- 
that is the guidance ! And if, after 
k the Knowledge, which hath reached 
thee, thou follow their desires, thou shall 
tind neither helper nor protector against 

Surah iv. 150 : 

" Nay, but God hath scaled them up for 
their unbelief, so that but foA\ believe 
A.nd for their unbelief, and for thoir 
having . spoken against Mary a grievous, 
calumny .and for their saying, * Verily we 
have slain the Messiah (J/iwU), Jesus ( /so) 
the son of Mary, an Apostle of Gad. Yel 
they slew him not, and they crucified him not, 
but they had only his likeness.. And they who 
differed about him were in doubt concerning 1 
him. No sure knowledge bad they about 
him, but followed only an . opinion, anJ 
they did not really slay him, but God took 
him up to Himself. And God is Mighty, 

Surah ii. 130 : 

" They say, moreover, < Become Jews or 
Christians that ye may ha ye the true 
guidance. . SAI : Nay 1 the religion of 
Abraham, the sound in faith, and not 
one of those -who join gods with God I 


Say yo: Wo beliovo in God and that 
which hath been sent down to us, and 
that which hath been -sent down to Abra 
ham and Ishinael and Isaac aiid Jacob and 
tbo tribes: and that which hath been 
trivou to Moses and to Jesus, aud that 
which was. given to the prophets from their 
Lord. No difference do .wo make between 
any of them : and to God are wo resigned 
(Muslims). If, therefore, they boliove oven 
JM ye believe, then have thoy true guid 
ance ,* but if they turn back, then do they 
cut themselves otT from you : and God will 
suffice to protect thee against them, for Hi 
JH the Hearer, the Knower. The Baptism 
of God, and who is better to baptize than 
God ? And Him do wo serve." 

Surah v. 75 :- 

" They surely are Infidels who say, God 
i the third of throe : for there is no God 
but one God : and if thoy refrain not from 
rtiat they-, say. a grievous chastisement 
fthall light on such of them as aro .Infidels. 
Will thoy not, therefore, be turned unto 
God, and ask pardon of Him? since God 
is Forgiving, Merciful! Tho Messiah, Son 
of Mary, is but aji Apofitlo ; other Apostles 
have flourished before him ; and his mother 
was a, just person: they both ate food. 
Behold! how we make clear to them the 
signs ! then behold how they turn aside I 
SAT: Will ye worship, beside God, that 
whiclf can neither hurt nor help? But 
God! He only Heareth, Knovreth. SAY: 
people of the Book I outstep not bound? 
of truth in your religion; neither follow 
the desires of those who have already 
gone astray, and who have caused many to 
go astray, and have themselves gone astray 
from the evennoss of the way. Those 
among the childrou of Israel who believed 
not were cursed by the tongue of I>avid, 
nd of Jesus, Son of Mary. Thia, because 
they were rebellious, and became transgres 
sors : they forbade not one another the 
iniquity which they wrought! detestable 
are their actions 1 " 

Surah v. 18 : 

"And of those who say, We aro Chris- 
tiahs, hav-e we accepted the covenant. But 
they too have forgotten a part of what they 
were taught ; wherefore we have stirred up 
enmity and hatred among them that shall 
last till the day of the Resurrection ; and in 
the end will God tell them of their doings. 
people of the Scriptures I now is our 
Apostle come to you to clear up 1 to you 
much that ye concealed of those Soriptnres, 
and to pasB over many things. No\\ hath 
a light and a clear Book come to you from 
God, by which God will guide him who 
shall follow after His good pleasure to 
paths of peace, and will bring them put of 
the darkness to the light, by His wijl: and 
to the straight path will He guide them. 
Infidels now are they who say. Verily 
God is al-Masih Ibn Maryara (the, Messiah, 
uen of Mary) ! SAT: And who could aught 
obtain from God, if He choso to destroy 
ulrMasih Ibn Mary urn, and bis mother, and 



all who are on the earth together? For 
with God is the sovereignty of the Hca 
vens and of the Earth, and of all that in 
between them 1 He. createth what He will ; 
and over all things is God potent. Say 
tho Jews and Christians, Sons are we 
of God nnd His beloved. SAT : Why then 
doth Ha chastise you for your sins Y Nay! 
yo are l/ut a part of the men whom He 
hath created I " 

Surah v. 58 : 

"0 Believers! take, not tho JoWs K or 
Christians as friends. They are but otoo 
another s friends. If any one of you takoth 
them for his friends, he surely is one of 
them! God will not guide the evil-doers-. 
So shalt thou bee the diseased At heart 
speed away to them, an,d say, We fear lent 
a change of fortune befall us. But haply 
God will of Himself bring about some vic 
tory or event of Hia- own ordering : then soon 
will they ropent them of their secret imagin 

Surah xxii. 18 : 

" Aa to those who believe, and the Jews, 
and the Su belles, and the Christians, and. the 
Magians, and those who join other gods with 
God, of a truth, God shall decide between 
them on the day of resurrection: for God is 
witness of all thing.- " 

Surah v. 1,12: 

" Remember when the Apo&tlos said 
Josus, Son of Mary ! is Thy Lord able to send 
down a furnished TABLE to us out -of 
Heaven ? He eaid Fear God if ye be 
believers. Thev said We desire to eat 
therefrom, and to have our hearts uN*un-i ; 
and to know that thou hust indeed ^pokm 
truth to us, and to be witnesses tuoreor 
Jesus, Son of Mary, said-~-*O God, our 
Lord ! send down a table to us out >of Hea 
ven, that it may become a recurring festival 
to us, to the first of us and to the lust oi us,- 
and a sign from Thee ; and do Thou nourish 
us, for Thou art the bet of nourishers. 
And God said Verily, I will cause it to 
descend unto you ; but whoever .among yo;i 
after that shall disbelieve, I will surely 
chastise him with a chastisement wherewith 
I will not chastise any other creature. 
And when God shall aay-^- O Jesus, Son 
of Mary, hast Thyu said unto mankind 
" Take me and my mother as two Gods, 
beside God ? " He shall say Glory be unto 
Thee ! it is not for me to say that which J 
know to be not the truth; had 1 said thn , 
verily Thou wouldest have known it : Thou 
knowost what is in me, but 1 knov. not v,h;.t 
fe in Thee; for Thou well knowest things 
unseen I " 

Surah xix. 35 r- 

"This is JpfniF,.the son of Mary; this is a 
statement of the truth concerning which they 
doubt. It boNoometh not God to boget a 
son. Glory be to Him ! when Ho decroeth 
a thing, He only naith to it, Be, and it i. 
And verily, God is my Lord uud your 
Lord ; adore Him then. This is the right 
way. But Tho Scots have fallen to variance 
among themselves about Jews : bat \voo. 


because of the assembly -of a great day, to 
those who believe not I " 

The only New, Testament samta mentioned 
by uame in the Qur an, are John the Baptist, 
Zacharifls, and the Virgin Mary. 

In the Mishkdtu kMasobtft, there are re 
corded in the traditional sayings of Muham- 
mml, about six apparent plagiarisms from the 
New Testament; but whether the/ are the 
plagiarisms of Muhammad himself or of those 
who profess to record his sayings, it is impos 
sible to tell : 

Abu Hurairah says the Prophet said, " Of. 
the seven persons whom God, in the last day, 
will draw to Himself, will be a man who has 
given alms and concealed it, so that his left 
hand knoweth uot what the. right hand 
doetfu* (Book i. c, viii, pt. 1 ; oorap 
Matt, vi a) 

Again : " God accepts not the prayers of 
those who pray in long robes." (Book i 
c. ix. pt. 2 ; comp. Matt. xii. 38.J 

Again : {f The doors of the celestial regions 
shall not open to them (the wicked) until :i 
camel pasfc through the eye of a. needle. " 
(Book v. c. iii. pt. 8; comp. Mark x. 

Abu ITmamab relates that the Prophet 
said, "Blessed be Him who bath seen roc. 
And blessed be hint who Imth not seen me 
and yet hath believed." (Book xxiv. c. xxvi. 
pt. 8 ; comp. John xx. 20.) 

Mn ai mates that the Prophet said, " Do 
.unto all men as you would they should do 
unto you, and reject for others what vou 
would reject for yourself." (Book i. o. i. 
pt. 8 ; Matt. vii. 12.) 

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet 
said, " Verily God will say in the day of re 
surrection, O ye sons of men 1 I was sick and 
ye did not visit me. And the sons of men 
will say, O Thou defender, b <-./ r-ould we 
visit Thee, for Thou art the Lord of the 
nuf verge, and art free from sickness ? And 
God will say, O ye sons of men, did you not 
know that such a one of my servants was 
sick and ye did not visit him," 4rc. &c. 
(Book v. o. L pt. 1 ; comp. Matt. xxv. 

Although it would be difficult to prove it 
froiu the text of the Qur an, the general 
belief of Muhamuiadans is that Christiana 
are not in a state of salvation, and Laga, or 
the "blazing fire $ " mentioned in Surah ikx, 
15, is, according to the Imam al-Baghawi, 
reserved for them. 

The condition of a Christian m a Muslim 
state is that of a minimi, or one who pays 
tribute to a Muhammadan governor, for 
which he enjoys protection. He is allowed 
to repair any old church which may have 
been in existence at the time the country was 
subdued by Islam, but he is not allowed to 
erect new ones ; for," says Ab& Hanifah, 
* the construction of churches or synagogues 
iu Muslim territory is unlawful, being for 
bidden in the Traditions." It also behoves 
the Iiuam to make distinction between Mus 
lims and Zzmmis (i.e. Christians, Jews, and 
others paying tribute). It is therefore not 


allowable for them to ride upon horses or 
use armour, or to wear the same dresses 
as Muslims." The reason for this, says 
Abu Hanifah, "is that Muhammadans are 
to be held in honour and jSimnut are 

The wives also of Zimmis are to be kept 
apart from those of Muslims on the public 
roads and baths. And it is also ordered 
that a mark should be placed on their 
doors, in order that when Muslim beggar. 1 ? 
come to them they should not pray fo 
them ! 

The learned have ruled that a JZimn ; 
should not be allowed to ride at all, except 
in cases of necessity, and if he be thus of 
necessity allowed to ride, he should dismount 
when he meets a Muslim- (Htdayah, vol. ii. 

A judge when he administers an oatb 
to a Christian, must direct him to say : 
" I swear by God who eeitt the Gospel to 

It is a singular ruling of the Muhamnrndau 
law that a claim of parentage made by a 
Christian i? preferable to a claim of bonaage 
advanced by a Muslim. Abu Hanifah sayB 
if a boy be in tna possession of two men, the 
one ti Muslim and the other a Christian, and 
the Christian assert, that the boy it hie sou, 
and the Muslim assert that he is his slave, 
he must be decreed to be the son of the 
Christian and free, because although Islam is 
the superior religion, there can be no balance 
between the claim of offspring and the cJnim 
of bondage. (Idem* vol. iv. 133.) 

Sir William Muir, referring to Muhammad s 
reception of the Banu Hanifah and other 
Christian tribes, A.H. 9, says, On the depar. 
ture of the embassy the Prophet gave 
them a vessel with some water in it running 
over from his own ablutions, and said to 
them, When ye reach your country break 
down your church, sprinkle its site with thip 
water, and build a Masjid in its place/ These 
command* they carried into effect, and aban 
doned Christianity without compunction. 
To another Christian tribe he prohibited the 
practice of baptism; so that although the 
adults continued to be nominally Christian, 
their children grew up with no provision but 
that of the Qur an. . ... It is no wonder 
that Christianity, thus insulted and trampled 
under foot, languished and soon disappeared 
from the peninsula." (Life of Mahomet, vol. 
iv. 219.) 

CHURCHES. Arabic Bta h and 
Karitsah, which -terms include equally 
churches and synagogues. The construction 
of churches or synagogues fji Muslim terri 
tory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the 
Traditions ; but as for places of worship which 
belonged to tho Jews or Christians before 
the country was conquered by the Muham 
madan power, they are at liberty to repair 
them, because the buildings cannot endure 
for ever, cud, as the Imam of the Muslim 
army has left these people to the exercise of 
their own religion, it is a necessary inference 


that ho has engaged not to prevent them 
from building or repairing their churches or 
synagogue*. If. however, they attempt to 
remove these, and to build them in a place 
different from their former situation, the 
Imam must prevent them, since this is an 
actual construction. Monasteries and her 
mitages are under the same law. Places of 
prayer within their dwellings are allowed to 
be constructed, because they are merely an 
appurtenance to a private habitation. What 
is here said is held to be the rule with 
regard to citiea, but not with respect to vil 
lages, because as the " tokens of Islam " (i.e. 
prayer, festivals, Ac.) appear in cities, zimmis 
(i.e. thoee paying tax for protection) "should 
not be permitted to exhibit the tokens of 
their infidelity in tno face of Islam. But as 
the tokens of Islam do not appear in vil- 
lt, os, the erection of churches and syna 
gogues is not prohibited there. But the Imrim 
Abu Hanifah held that this exemption merely 
applied to the village of Kusa, where the 
greater part uf the inhabitants were zimmis. 
He adds that in the country of Arabia. Jews 
and Christians are prohibited from construct 
ing synagogues and churches, either in cities 
or vil!ageK, according to the saying of the 
Prophet, " Two religions cannbt exist in the 
country of Arabia." (HidayaJi, book is. c. viii.) 
If a Jew or a Christian, being in sound 
health, build a church or a synagogue and 
then die, such building is an inheritance, and 
descends to the heirs of the founder. Accord 
ing to Abu HanifAh, it is i\ pious appropria 
tion ; but, his two disciples hold such erections 
to be sinful, and only to be considered as or 
dinary property. If a Jew or a Christian will 
that his house after his death shall be con 
verted into either a synagogue or church, the 
bequest is valid. (Hidayah, book lii. c. vi.) 

The following tradition related by Talaq 
ibn All tyfishkat, iv. c. viii. 2) exhibits" Mu 
hammad ** determination to destroy Christian 
churches : " We told the Prophet that there 
was a church on our ground ; and we re 
quested the favour of his giving us the water 
which remained after ho had performed wazu. 
And the Prophet called for water, performed 
wazu and washed out his mouth ; after which 
he poured the water for us into a vessel and 
ordered us to return, saying, When you 
arrive, destroy your church (Arabic ii A), 
and pour this water on the spot, and build a 
moaque there." 

CIRCUMCISION. Arabic Khitdn, 

khitanah, or khatnah. Circumcision is not 
once alluded to in tho Qur ftn. The omission 
is remarkable, and Muslim writers do not 
attempt Any explanation of it. It is held to 
be tttffiuzA, or founded upon the customs of 
the Prophet (Fatdwu Alamgirl, voL iv. 
p. 237), and dating its institution from the 
time of Abraham. There is no authentic 
account of the circumcision of Muhammad, 
but it is asserted by some writers that he was 
born circumcised. This, however, is denied by 
the most eminent scholars. (Haddu i-Makhtar, 
vol. y. p. 835.) 



In the Sahlhu LBukhari, p. 931, a short 
chapter is devoted to the subject of khilan, 
or " circumcision," in which there are three 
traditions : 

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said 
one of the observances of FUrah is circumci 

Abu Hnrairah relates that the Prophet 
said that Abraham was circumcised when he 
was eighty years old. 

Said ibn Jubair relates that it was asked 
of Ibn Abbas, " How old were you when the 
Prophet died ? " He said, " I was circumcised 
in the days when it occurred." And Jnbair 
says they did not circumcise in those days 
until men were full grown. 

It in recommended to be performed upon a 
boy between tho ages of seven and twelve, but 
it in lawful to circumcise a child seven days 
after bis birth. In the case of a convert to 
Idam from some other creed, to whom the 
operation may be an occasion of great suffer 
ing, it can be dispensed with, although it is 
considered expedient and proper for all new 
converts to be circumcised. In all cases an 
adult is expected to circumcise himself, as it 
is a shame for an adult person to uncoter 
himself to another. 

The circumcision of females is also allowed, 
and is commonly practised in Arabia. (JPa- 
tdwa AUirngirii vol. iv. p. 237.) 

The barber is generally the person em 
ployed for the circumcision of boys, and the 
operation as practised by Muhnmmadans in 
India is performed in the following mauuer. 
A bit of stick is used as a probe, and carried 
round and round between the gl&ns and pre 
puce, to ascertain the exact extent of tha 
fraenum, and that no unnatural adhesions 
exist. The fox^skinis then drawn fo /wards 
and a pair of forceps, consisting oi a couple 
of pieces of split bamboo, five or six inches 
long and a quarter of an inch thick, tied 
firmly together at one end with a string to 
the extent of an inch, applied from above in 
an oblique direction, so as to exclude about 
an inch and a half of the prepuce above and 
three-quarters of an inch below. The for 
ceps severely grasping it, causes a good deal 
of pain, but this state of suffering does not 
continue long, since the next thing to be done 
is the removal, which is done by one stroke 
of the razor drawn directly downwards. The 
haemorrhage which follows is inconsiderable 
and easily stopped by the application of 
burnt rags and ashes. 

According to several Muhammad an doctors, 
there were seventeen of the prophets bom in 
a circumcised state, namely, Zakariya, Shis, 
Idris. Yusuf, Hanzalah, Isa, Musa, Adam, 
N T uh, Shu aib, Sam, Luf;, Salih, Sulaiman, 
Yahyn, Hud, and Muhammad. (Durru V- 
Mukhtdr, p. 619.) 


MALS. All quadrupeds that seize their 
prey with their teeth, and all birds which 
seize it with their talons, are unlawful 
(frardm), the Prophet having prohibited man 
kind from eating them. 



Hyon. !S And foxes, being both included 
jnder tho class of animals df prey, are un- 
Irtwlul. (This is tho doctrine of Abu Hanifah, 
but ash-Shall j holds that they are lawful ) 
BlepbviTits and weasels are also animals ot 
prey. Pelie-am and kites are nbommable 
(tnatcruh), because they devour tlesd. bodies. 

Crowd which feed or* grain are /nv/iiiJi, or 
indifferent, but cavrion crows and invent) are 
unlawful. Abu Hauifah says the magpie to 
indifferent (mubtijf,^ but tho Imam Yusrif snys 
il is . iboxuiuable (iufiferu/i). 

Crocodiles and otters and wftsps, ?vnd. in 
general, all insects are makrul or abomin 
able. The ass and the mule ajv both unlaw 
ful. According to Abu Hanilalx and Malik, 
Horse-fleah \a unlawful,, but ash-Shafi i says 
it JH indifferent. The ileslt ol hares is also 

No animal that live in the water, except 
fidb. is lawful. Cut Malik allows them. 

Fishes dying vf themselves ate \mlawfut. 
and so are all animals who are not plain by 
%0.f>uh. (, vol. iv. p. 74.) [XABAH.] 

It must be observed that iu Muhammadan 
law animals are either lialuL " lawful," or 
muftd^ inditi oreni," or mohuft, "aborain- 
ablb " (.(?, -which ia condemned but still is 
lawfi^l), or haram, "uuiu^ful." 

CLERGY. The Christian clergy 
axe saoijtioned ia bho Qiu <>n v.ith fxprossions 
rti comparative piaise. Sirrah v. 86: * Thon 
wilt surely iind that the strongest ai ermi ty 
a^:tii>st those who believe are Uu* J \vs. nnd 
the idolaters ; and thou wilt find those to be 
nearest in affection to them who say * We 
arc Ohristiiiaa : that ift because them arc 
unoii^st them priests (gisst*iri) and uiowk - 
and b< j cauf>e they are not proud." 

The Muhamiaudane have no class of people 
occupying the precise position of priests or 
clergy, Although the Imums. or leaders of 
prayers in the public Assembly, are persons of 
learning appointed by the congregation. In 
Central Asia, it is usual to set apart a learned 
man (-well skilled in theology) b^ Ijinding the 
turhaii round his head, the aet being per 
formed by a leading 1 inaul.iwi ot scholui 

In Turkey and the western portion of 
Islam, those who are qualified to give an 
(/pinion in religious matters, and to take the 
lead in guiding tho people in spiritual affairs, 
are rlied "ulamff (pi. of l alim}. a teiw \\hich 
has, n Hindustan and Central Asia. <i^uuieci 
the form of mavltteui, a word derived froin 
maula, " lord." 

The recognised offices in Islam correspond 
ing to that of a priest or religious teacher, 
are, Imam, Muftl t and Q?t. Imam (in addi 
tion to 1 its being used for the Khalifh, or 
Caliph, in the Traditions), is the person who 
leads the public prayers, an office answering 
to the Latin This official is ap 
pointed either by the congregation, or "by the 
parish or section of the town or village, who 
frequent the mosque in which be lend* the 
prayers. Mufti is the legal adviser, who 
decides difficult religious questions, and 
assists the Q,dzi, or judge. Quziia the judge 


and the administrator of the law The 
appointments of Mufti and Qrizi Jtro in 
the hanus of the Muslim j/overnment ol the 
olacc, ll is usual for the QU/.J 10 taka 
the lead in prayers at funerals, svhiH tlvs 
1m am of tha parish, generally performs the 
iituh t or reli^ioas service at mn triages 


These offices are not necessarily hereditary, 
buf it is usual in Muhammadan couiitrip^ 
for them to pass from father to HOO. In 
India at tho present time there are farnilifia 
who retain the titles of Mufti and Qt<, 
althougi) the duties connected with those 
oJEcoK sre no longer performed by thorn. 

CAUTION (Arabic ffatar) is 
enjoined by Muhammad^ who is related to 
have said. A Muslim is not bitten twice at 
the* same hole. He is no perfect man who 
has not fallen into trouble, forthrroKno skil 
ful physician but experience." k * When a man 
has spoken,. antl has then looked first to bis 
right and then lo his left, whal ht Las buid 
is sacred to those present and they must 
not disclose it to oluer.s." (Afishkat^ xxii 
c. xviii.) 


Anhir. a collector of tJie tenths; ond Aim 
mulasadfiit/, a collector of aims. 

The Khalifah is to allow ilVe officer em - 

jiJoyed in tho collection of the -fakni. as much 

ovit oC it :rt *;s in proportion to his labour, and 

*viH remunerate liiin&elf and iiis Hssibla/its. 

Hitfoyab, voi u p. 54.) 


Li the Qur jm it is staled that God gave 
Moses certain monitions on labtes (.of stone), 
and also that be gave him nine elect bigus 
(See Surah vii. 1*?. aiwi Surah xvii. 103.) 
These two statements have perplexed the 
commentators y*rry nincli, and every efi oi t is 
made by them to vecencile the nine. sgns 
with the Te.n Coin/mmd merits, althoagii il is 
evident from the Quran itself, thai t be nine 
clear signs refer to the miraolos of Mosev. 

According to ibet Tr^rliHons, t\& Prophet 
himself was a Jitlle confused in the mailer, 
and nifty to some extent h responsible for the 
mistakes of tbc PonuncutiiloHonlii& book, tor 
it is refated < Mishkot, book i. p. it. pi i?) thai 
a Jew came to the Prophet and asked him 
about the nine(&ic / wonders which appeared 
by the hands of Moses. The Propliet Said. 
44 Do not associate anyilinig with God do not 
steal, do not commit adultery, do not kill do 
hot take an innocent before the king to 
fee killed, do not practise magic, do not take 
interest, do not accuse an innocent woman of 
adultery, do not run away in battle, ancl 
especially for you, O Jews, not to work on 
the Sabbath." Abdu l-Haqq remark* on 
this tradition tha 1 the Jew asked about the 
nine (*t c) miracles (ox plagues) of Egypt, and 
the Prophel gave him the Tea Command 



A. comparison of the Tun Commandment i 
ivea by the groat Jewish law-giver with those 
recorded in tho above tradition and iu tlv 
vith Surah of tho Qur an. verse 152, will show 
how imperfectly the Arabian Prophet 
acquainted with tho Old Testament serif - 

The eomiaentatofe l.Iusain, who wrote ft>n 
hundred vear.-, aero, saya tho following VCIS^.H 
ia the Suratu l-An am (\ \.} n>v thoc Ten 
Coinmindincnis which in ever* >iiRpon?atir>n 
are inrumh-nnt on mankind. ml ranr.ot be 
al to^ai ed t leaning undoubtedly tho Ten 
Oomnunuments ^iven to Mosos; 

" SAT ( orris, I will rohearso what your Jjord 
hath iriudv) youH ) that ye nssigu 
not aa^ht to Hjm t>s partner: (2) and that vo 
lie o-A (o yourperonts: (:j) and thftt ye slay 
not your children, because of poverty; for 
them and for you will wo pro% ide? (1) and 
that ye come not ne*ii to pollutions, outward 
or inward (fi) and Hiat ^re slay not :niyinr. 
whom God h forbidden you, unless fo- 
a just cause This hath he enjoined on 
you, to the iirtent that ye mny understand. 
(6) And come not nigh to the substance of 
the orphan, but to improve it. until be <*ooie 
of ago : (7) and ux* a full measure. and i 
just balance : We will not ta,k a *onl beyond 
its ability. (8) And when ye give judgment, 
observe justice, even though it IHJ the affair 
of a kinsman, (9) and fnlfil the covenant of 
Gcd. This hath God enjoiied you for your 
monition And, Hhis ia my right wny. 
Follow itthen : CIO) and follow notofA<r paths 
leat ya be MtMrtd from His path. This 
hftth He enjoiued you .thnt vo may fear Him." 

FUL. Arabic .\mi-rn I- Ma? mini n 
#*\). A title given ky tho 

in the first instance to trw first Kba- 
lifah, j\;)Ci Bukr. and afterwards retained by 
s\ioce?di)ig .Xhalifah?, It is assumed by 
airaot?t any Mubjnmarlan ruler in the pro 

<6PV a jv. 


(fyr\- Commerce and merchandise 
are aid in tho Qor an to be of God." Surnh 
xvii. 68: "It IK yonr l^ord who drives the 
ahipa for vou in tho sea that yo may seek 
fter T)lntv from HJLO ; verily He is ever mer 
ciful to you. And ivhert- distress touches you 
m the sea, those whom- ye call up.on, except 
Him, stray away from yoa; but whjsn Up has 
brought you safe to shore, ye also turn "away 
(from God) ; for man is evi-r nn^mtefiil." 

Zakui is dye on m<jrchandiBO of evory 
tern i>tion f in proportion to 5 yer cent. 


COMPULSION. Arabic Dcrdh 
Muharainado.D lar makes 
for persons acting under ccmpul- 
whan tho person who compels has it in 
his power to execute what bo orders, be be 

a king or a thief. (Hiddyah, v,>L iii. p. J 3 .") 
K.q. a person foiled into :i f..ntrart \\\-.\\ d... 
solve it. A .Mn-hm may hiwfuliv oat fo<>: 
which is prohibited if ho be com;. oiled to .10 
so, being threatened with los>- of lifv or limb. 
Nor is ,-i Mu-:lim guii*y . sin wh / declares 
himHe!f .-n ;iiilj,>li". ,r whcu iho losr- c-i a limb 
or oi in " ;s u:ronto:i.>tl. \c.-jrcuuj? to tu- 
liuiim Abu ll;i:rf,i!i, i: a Muslim ho oiapftl!e.i 
t;) divorro his wife, tlve divorce is valid; bui 
n-ith him the .then thrf 1 Imams are not 
ngrood in tills rr-liniy. 

CONCUBINE. Ar.ibic Svrriyah 
(&i|-), pi. &.ifui-i. The 3fuhaniind!an 
r -ii^iun ;^peii!i to j^ive ahn.tst 
license to < unuubiijaje. provided ihe 
be a sln je. ajid nat a free Muslim 

Those female s Lives must he 
tAkeiv rnptive m war, -(2) or purchased by 
ironi-y. 3^ or ihe descendsnts of sla^c%. 
liven married womeu. if tKrn in war, are, 
according to n Jnjutiction of the Qur nn 
Sur^h i?. 28, entirely at- the disposal of th(* 
Mu-diiii conqueror. "(Un awfulJ to yon it** 
married women, exr.spt such a your rijbt 
hand possess -.i.t. taken in waivov^pui-ohnseri 
slaves)." T hi? institution oi concubinage Is 
founded upon the exfa|.lc of Muhammad 
himself, who took 5;hnah thf Jewess as l-,is 
concubine fri- ihs l.-^ilt- wuii tb* Enn. 
Quraizah (A.H. . r >;, ; ; nc: ahi< Mmi* tLti Coyi. 
vho was sent him as 3 slavp by tbe irvoi nov 
of Egypt. 

Should H concubine bear her macfer a 
child, the MnliamuiHUan law ruJeS ihai cho 
and her otf spring trre ivso fac u ire*; For a 
further treatment of .this pubject, see arti le 
on I.A vbs. 

Amongst the Shi ahs, the temporary mar 
riage callod Mwah exhibit^tbe wor6t form 
of concnbrnagp.. [MTJT AU.] 

It i mtpr^sifng to compare tlio condition 
cf the concnbiac uud^r Muslim law jrd 
the Mosaic. Under the lav of Mnsos. a 
cubitu" would generally ho cltLor a 
girl bouglit of her father, or a Gentile cip iv t - 
taken iu war. ISo that .whjUt tbe 
madan law forbids concubinage ivlth a. fee 
woman, tho Mosaic law panniUecJ it and UgtR- 
lated for it. See Exodus xxi. ; I; -j JJIAII 
sell his daughter to be a maid-servant, rru 
shall not go out as men-servants do. If the 
pleae not her master who hath betrothed h*r 
to himself, then nball lie let her ne redacmod ; 
to sell her unto a strange nntionho sha.ll hare 
no pnwer,seoinrhc hath den It -rtec<?it fully with 

With regard to femaJe Hlavc.ei takou iu -.vai, 
ihe Mocaic Uw ruled. I^mt. xxi, 10: Wj,,. n 
tiiou jost to war . i^iinst tbinr- jnoniies. 
and the Lord thy ^Ood hath deliviv-a tneci 
into thine hands, and UIOM hum taken them 
captive, and secst a beautiful woman, and 
hast a desire unto her, ch-r. tuou wouidst 
havr her to thy wife: theu tuau fhalt brinj; 
her to thino nome, *<. . And it shall V 
if thou have nodelix* - f- her, then thou -* . 
let her go whither she wiH out thon li.->J 
not neli her."6 < 




of people in a mosque is called Jam ak 
e term also ^S use( * "* Afghan 


istan for the mosque itself. 

There are special rewards for those Mu- 
hanimadans who assemble together for the 
stated prayers; for Muhammad has said, 
M The prayers which are said in a congrega 
tion increase the rewards of the worshipper 
twenty-seven degrees." " Say your prayers 
in a congregation, far a wolf does not eat the 
sheep except one has strayed from rhe flock." 
(Miskkat, book iv. ch. xxiv.) 

The Sunni style themselves Ahlu Sunnah 
wa Jam ah, i.e. " the people of the traditions 
and of the congregation," in contradistinction 
to the ShI ahs, who do not worship in a con 
gregation unless the Imam, or leader, be H 
man entirely free from sin. [IMAM.] 

The word jam ah is. also used for an 
assembly of people collected to decide a quee-. 
tion of law or theology, the yia being their 
decision, more frequently called ijmd u V- 

CONSCIENCE. There is no word 
in the Qur an which exactly expresses 
the Christian conception of conscience. The 
word nqfs (jj~&)> which, according to Arabic 
lexicons, expresses very much the same idea 
as the Hebrew ifiv ne P hS ^ " life 

spirit, breath" (Job xii.-21), seems to be used 
in the Qur an to convey the meaning of con 
science, although English translators render 
it " soul." Muslim theologians say there are 
four kinds of .consciences spoken of in the 
Qur an : (1) Na/s tawwamah, the " self- 
accusing soul or conscience " (Surah Ixxv. 3). 
(2) Nafs ammdrah, the " soul or conscience 
prone to evil" (Surah xii. 53). (8) Nafs 
mvtma innah, the "peaceful soul or con 
science " (Surah Ixxxix. 12). (4) Nafs mul- 
harnmah, the " soul or conscience in which 
is breathed both bad and good" (Surah 
Ixxxiv. 27.) 

It occurs also in the sense of conscience in 
the Traditions (Mishkat, book i. cb. i. pt. 3) : 
" When anything pricks your soul (nafs} for 
sake it," Abdu 1-Haqq, in his Persian com 
mentary on the Mishkdt) renders it by zdt, 
but the English word conscience would seem 
to express the precise idea. In Persian Mu- 
hammadan works, as well as in common con 
versation, the word nafs ia now used in its 
evil sense, of desire or^ passion, but it must 
be evident that this is not its Q ar anie men n- 
ing. The word JUJ simmah, which in later 
Arabic, together with p*** zamir, is used 
to express conscience, has in the only pas 
sage where it occurs in the Qur an a decidedly 
different meaning, e.g. Surah ix. 8, 10, where 
it means clieutship. Sale and Bodwell both 
translate it " faith," but Palmer more accu 
rately renders it " ties of elientship." 


ing instructions are given in the Qur an re 
garding talking and conversation. Surah 


xxxi. 17, "Be moderate hi thy walk, and 
lower thy voice ; verily the most disagreeable 
of voices is the voice of asses.* Surah ii. 
77, " Speak to men kindly." In the Tradi 
tions, Ibn Mfcs ud relates that Muhammad 
said, May those people go to the fire of hell 
who speak much." 

On the subject of conversation, Faqir Jani 
Muhammad As ad, the author of the cele 
brated ethical work entitled the Akhl&k-i- 
Jaldli, p. 288, days: 

"He should not talk much, for it is a sign 
of levity in feeling and weakness in judgment, 
and tends to lower him in point of considera 
tion and position. We are told that the Pro 
phet used to observe the strictest medium in 
his language ; so much so, that, in the most 
protracted interviews, you might have counted 
the words he uttered. Buzurg Jauiihr uerd 
to say, When you see a person talking much 
without occasion, be sure he is out of bis 
senses. Let him not give yent to expres 
sions till he has determined in his own mind 
what he is going to say. When anyone is 
relating a story, however well known to the 
listener, the. latter is not to intimate his ac 
quaintance with it till the narrative ie con 
cluded. A question put to others he must 
not himseli reply to ; if put to a body of 
which he is a member, let him not prevent 
the others; and if another ifi engaged in 
answering what himself could answer better, 
let him keep silence till the other s statement 
is completed, and then give his own, but in 
such sort its not to annoy the former speaker. 
Let him not commence his reply till the 
querist/s sentence is concluded. Conversa 
tions and discussions which do not concern 
him, although held in his presence, he is not 
to interfere in; and if people conceal what 
they are saying, he must not attempt furtively 
to overhear. To his elders he should apeak 
with judgment, pitching his Voice at a medium 
between high and low. Should any abstruse 
topic present itself, he should give it per 
spicuity by comparison. Prolixity he should 
never aim at, when not absolutely required ; 
on the contrary j let it be his endeavour to 
compress all he has to say. Neither should he 
employ unusual terms 01* far-fetched figures. 
He should beware of obscenity and bad lan 
guage ; or if be icust needs refer to an inde 
cent subject, let him be content witb allusion 
by metaphor. Of all things, let him keep 
clear of a taste for indelicacy, which tends to 
lower his breeding, degrade bis respectability, 
and bring him into general disagreement and 
dislike. Let his language upon every occa 
sion correspond with the exigency of his posi 
tion ; and if accompanied by gesticulation of 
the hand or eye or eyebrow, let it be only of 
that graceful sort which his situation calis 
for. Let him never, for right or wrong, en 
gage in disputes with others of the company ; 
least of all with the elders or the triflers of 
it : and when embarked in such dispute, let 
him be rigidly observant of the rules of 

"Let him not deal in profound observation 
beyond the intellect of those he is addressing 




but adapt his discourse to the judgment of his 
hearers. Thus even the Prophet has declared , 
We of the prophetic order are enjoined to ad 
dress men in the measure of their understand 
ings : and Jesus (hlessed be he) said, * Use not 
wisdom with the unwise to their annoyance 
(St. Matthew vii. 6 ?). In all his conversation 
let him adhere to the ways of courtesy. 
Nver let him mimic anyone s geutures, 
actions, or words, nor give utterance to the 
language of menace. 

" When addressing a great person, let him 
begin with something ominous of good, as the 
pennanonce of his fortune, felicity, and so 

" From all back -biting, carping, slander, 
and falsehood, whether heard or spoken, let 
him hold it essential to keep clear; nay, even 
from any partnership with those addicted to 
such practices. Let him listen more than he 
speaks. It was the answer of a wise man to 
those who asked him why he did so, 
* Because, said he, God has given me two 
ears and only one tongue ; which was as 
much as to say, Hear twice as much as you 
speak. " 


M ADAN RELIGION. According to the author 
of the Hiddyah (vol. ii. 170), if a hostile in 
fidel embrace Islam in a hostile country, his 
person is his own, and he is not made a slave, 
not- can hi? children be enslaved. His pro 
perty is alto his own. But it is not so in the 
case of one who has been lirst conquered and 
then embraces Islam, for hie own person and 
hi children become slaves, and his wives are 
at the mercy of the victorious Muslim, whilst 
bin lands also become the property of the 

COVENANT. The word in the 
Qur Sn and the Traditions for God s Cove 
nant with His people is Misag. Muham 
mad taught, both in the Qur an and in the 
Traditions, that in the beginning God called 
all the souls of mankind together aud took a, 
promise (uKZ ditzA) and n covenant (mtfag) from 

The account of this transaction is given as 
follows in the Qur an, Surah vii. 171 : 

"Thy Lord brought forth their descendants 
from -the reins of the sons of Adam and took 
them to witness against themselves, Am I 
not. said He, your Lord ? They said, * Yes, 
we witness it. This we did, lest ye should 
say on the Day of Resurrection, Truly, of 
this were we heedless, because uninformed. 

" Or lest ye should say, k Our fathers, 
indeed, aforetime joined other gods with our 
God , and we are their seed after them : wilt 
thou destroy us for the doings of vain 
men ? " 

But the story as told in the Traditions is 
more graphic : 

" Ubai ibu Ka b relates, in explanation of 
the verse in the Suratu 1-A raf (verse 171) : 
When God created (the spirits of) the sons 
of Adam, he collected them together and 
made them of different tribes, and of different 

appearances, and gave them powers of speech. 
Then they began to speak, and God took 
from them a promise (u>a r/<rA),and a covenant 
(mi<7), and said, Am I not thy Lord? 
They all answered and said, < Thoa art, 
Then God said, Swear by the seven hea 
vens and the seven earths, and by Adam your 
father, that you will not say in the resurrec 
tion, We did not understand this. Know ye 
therefore that there is no Deity bat Me, and 
there is no God but Me. Do not associate 
anything with Me. I will verily send to you 
yonr own apostles who shall remind you of 
this Promise and of this Covenant, and I will 
send to you your own books.* The sons of 
Adam then replied, 4 We are witnesses that 
Thou ait our Lord (Rabb), and our God 
(Allah). Thore is no Lord but Thee and no 
God but Thee. Then they confessed this 
and made it known to Adam. Then Adam 
looked at them and beheld that there were 
amongst them those that were rich and poor, 
handsome and ugly, and he said, Lord 
why didst Thou not make them all alike ? 
And the Lord said, Truly I milled it thus in 
order that some of my servants may be 
thankful. Then Adam saw amongst his pos 
terity, prophets, like unto lamps, and upon 
these lamps there yrere lights, and they were 
appointed by special covenants of prophecy 
(nabuvoaJi) and of apostleship (raA<z/a/i). 
And thus it is written in the Qur an (Surah 
xxxiii. 7), Remember we have entered into 
covenant with the Prophets, with thee Mu 
hammad, and with Noah, and with Abraham, 
and with Musa, and with Jesus the Son of 
Mary, and we made with them a covenant. 
Aud (continues Ubai) Jesus was amongst the 
spirits." (Mishkai, Arabic Ed. Babu 1-Qadr.) 


88 no injunction in either the Qur an or Tra 
ditions as to a man covering his bead during 
prayers, although it is generally held to be 
more modest and correct for him to do so. 

With reference to women, the law in impe 
rative, for Ayishah relates that Muhammad 
said, " God accepts not the prayer of an adult 
woman unless she cover her head/ (Afishkat, 
iv. c. ix.) 


TURES. Muhanxmadans charge the Jews 
and Christians with having altered their 
sacred books. The word used by Muham- 
madan writers for this supposed corruption of 
the sacred Scriptures of the Jews and Chris 
tians is Tahrlf. 

The Imam Fakhru d-din Rozi, in bis com 
mentary, Tafsir-i-Kabir, explains Tabrif to 
mean " to change, alter, or turn aside any 
thing from the truth." Muslim divines say 
there are two kinds of ta^rlj\ namely, tak- 
rif-i-ma nawi, a corruption of the meaning ; 
and tahrif-i-laf$ii a corruption of the words. 

Muhammadan controversialists, when they 
become acquainted with the nature of the 
contents of the sacred books of the Jews and 
Christians, and of the impossibility of recon 
ciling the contents of the Qur ao with those of 



the sacred Scripture*, charge the Christians 
witb the t(t!irif*i-hrfzi They Bay the 
Christians have expanded tVm word akmad 
from the prophecies, and have imortod the 
expression "Son of God." and the story ol 
the- crucifixion, death, and resurrection of our 
blessed Lord. This view, however, is not the 
one held by the most celebrated of the Mns- 
lira communtatorfl. 

The Imam Muhammad IsmaMJ al -Bukhari 
fp. 1127, lino 7). records that -A.bhaK said 
that "the word Talirif (corniptioto) signifies 
to change* a thing from its original nature; 
ard that thero is no man who could c.tjrrupt 
a single word of what proceeded from Gof ! , 
e that tho Jews aud Christians could cornir i. 
only by misrepresenting the wettning of the 
words of Gorl." 

Tbn Mazar and Ibn AM ttariro stale, in the 
commentary known as the fafslr , Dvrr-i- 
Ma*$it.T* Uiat they have it on tho aiithpnty of 
ibn Miuiiynh. thai the Jawraf (i.e. the hook ; 
of MOPCS), arid the /it pi (is. the Gospels), are 
in the $sm. .e .state <">f purity in which they wore 
sent down from boa .von, find thai no nltera- 
fious had boon in Ihew- hut that the 
Jews we ro wont to deceive the people by un 
sound arguments, and by wresting the sense 
of Scripture. 

Shah Wfthyu Hah, in bi.s commentary, th 
/Vu?v 7 -Knhi. . and also Ibn Abbas, support 
the sanjft view. 

This appe ua to ** Hie correcl interpret u 
tion of the various ver es ol the tjur an 
charging the Jovs \yth having corrupted (he 
uaeamng of the sacred Scriptures. 

For example, Siiratu fniran fiii ), 72: 
4 There are certainly some ot tfoera who veJ 
the. Scriptures pervorsely, that ye may think 
what they read te be really in the Scriptures 
yet it is not iri the Scriptures ; and they say 
this 15? from Ood, but it. is not from God : and 
fchey spert.k that which is false concerning dad 
against their own knowledge." 

Tbe Iirani Fakhjru d-d in. in his commen 
tary on this verso, and TO any others of the 
same character V hi ell oc ur iu the Qur an, 
ays it refers to a iahnf-t-ma -nair^ and that 
it. does not in can that the Jws altered thp 
text, but merely lh;t : they made, alterations 
in the course of reading 

But whilst all the old commentators who 
most probably had never seen a copy of tho 
sacred books of the Jews and Christians, only 
charge them with a fafirif-t ma naiof, all 
modern controversialists amongst the Mo- 
hftinumdnns contend for a tafirl/*t-lafzS, as 
beinff tlie only solution of the difficulty. . 

la dealing- with such opponents, the Chris 
tian divine wiJl avail himself of tbe Following 
arguments : 

1. The Qur on does not charge the Jews 
ailid Christians with corrupting the text of 
that racred buoks ) and man y > learned Mus- 
lirn comrneMl/riorM admit that eurb is not the 

fc 2. The Qar au asserts that rbo lioly Scrip 
tures of the Jews and Christians existed in 
the dys of Muhamyiad, Who invan aJjly 
speaks of them with reverence Dd re&jtecl. 


3 There now exist manulsoripiti oitue OW 
ond ^ew Testaments of ri earlier date than 
tha/t of Muhammad (A.I>. Gl/ "S2.) 

4. There are versions of the Old and New 
Testament now exl,ant, which existed heforo 
Muhammad ; for .example, the t?opM;agin;, the 
Latin Vulerate. the Syriao. tbi> Coptic, flnd 
the Armoiiiao versions. 

5. ThoHoxTTpUi, or Octapla of Origen. vhich 
dates foul ceoturiefl before Atfuhainmad, giTOf 
various vei sion^ of the Old Testament Scvip- 
turos in paralloj :<dumns. 

*?. The Syrian < hristians o^ St. Thorn})*, : f 
Ma hi bar and Travancom, in the south of 
India, who were separated from th.o west-ei-n 
vvorld for centuries, possess tho aamo Scrip 

7. In tho works ( of Justin Martyr^, who 
lived fignj A i>. 103 lo 167, there are nume 
rous quotations from our sn-cred books, whicb, 
prove that thay wore p\flcIy.Uia ft? 
these we have now -The samo irttiy ho said 
of othor early Christian writers. 

Mubairwmdan controvorsin lists of the pre 
sent day urge that the numerous readings 
v.-hich exist in the Christian books are 4 proof 
that they have been corruptec). But those do 
not affect, in the least, the main points at 
issue between tho Christian arnl ihc Muslim. 
The Divine Sonsbip of Christ, the Fathor- 
hood of God, the GvuciGxion. Death, and Re- 
stir reel Jon of Christ and the Atonement, are 
all clearly stated in almost every book of the 
Now Twstarnnnt, whilst t.hoy are rejected by. 
tho Quran. 

Tho most plausible- of modern objections 
urged by Muslim divines is, that the Chris 
tians have /o.v/ the /?/>/ which, was sent down 
from heaven to Jesus ; untl that th New Tes 
tament contains merely the Hod^, or Suhnaii 
the t radii ions handed down by Matthew, 
Marli. Luke, John. Paul, and others ft is, 
of course, a mere assertion, unsupported by 
any proot . but it appears to b a line of 
argument which conunouds ilself to many 
modern Mustims. 

CREATION. Arabic Khalquk. The 

following are the allusions to the Creation which 
occur in the Qar an, Surah J. 37-. "Of ol*d We 
(God^ ct* ald tho bqaveua and the earth and all 
that is between them in six days, and no wea 
riness touched Us.** Surah xli 8 5 "Uo.^ 
indeed tiiebelieve in Him who in two days 
created the earth ? DP yeassign Him equals? 
The Lord of tho World is fie. And ]le bin It 
placed 011 the arth the iirm mountains- which 
tower above it, and tie hath blessed it, ami 
distributed its noufUhments throughout it 
(for the cravings of all are alike), in (our 
days. Then lie applied HimsHf to the 
heaver, which wa but srnoko and to it and 
to (he earth He said. "Curne ye, in obedience 
or against your will?" and they both said, 
u We come obedient." And He completed] 
them as seven heavens in two days, and iw 
each heaven madp known its office; anil W<ji 
furnished the lower heaven with lights and 
guardian angels. This is the disposUloa ofj 
the AJmig-hly, the all knowing one " 



xvl. 3. * He created the heavens and tho 
earth U set forth his trulh, hi-^U In Him be 
exalted above Hio^o l; Ihey join with Him! 
Man hath He vrcated out >l n noist germ . yet 
lo! man is an op*u CM v liter. And th0 oafttM I 
for you hath He n-oatod them, A,c. . . . 
Shall He who h.iili created be a* he who 
hath not creatod ? Will ye not consider t T 
Suiah xiii 2: " It is Cod who Inth reared the 
heavens without pillnrs, iliou canst behold . 
then seated Himself upon Jis throne, and 
imposed Jaws on (he sun xnrl moon , each 
travel loth to its appointath & > o\\. He ordereth 
all things. He, muketh His signs cleat. 
Haply ye will have firm taith in a, meeting 
with your Lord. And He it is who bath out 
stretched the earth, and placed on it the firm 
mountains, and rivers; and of everv fruit He 
hath placed on it two kinds. He causeth the 
mght to enshroud the -day" Surah xxxv 
I? God created you of dust then of tltt* 
germs ot life tbcn made you two setes. 1 

According to the Traditions (Afixhteuf, xxiv 
r. i. pt. 3) T God created tho e^rth on Satur 
day, the hills on Sunday, ihc trees on Monday, 
all unpleasant things on Tuesday, the Ivjrht 
on Wednesday; thp boasts on Thursday and 
Adam, who was the J-ist of Creation, was 
created after the time of afternoon praveraori 

CREED. Thp Mnhammadan Creed, 

or* Kulitnulu . $/> shaAadaft (shortly Kali*nqk) is 
the well known formula : - 

i testify that there is no doity but 
God, and Muhammad iv Ibe Apostle ot 
God " 

ft is the belief of Mnluiiniuathus that the 
first part of this creed, which is called the 
mafi wa t jfW, namely. Thorn to no deity but 
God," has heen tho expression of belief of 
every prophet sinco the dva >f Adam, and 
thai the second portion has boon ehangod 
according lo tho dispensation ; for o:< mple. 
lhat in the days of Moses it would be 
There is no deity Out God, nad Moses is 
the Converser with Ood." in tbo Christian 
dispensation it wa^ : "TVicro is no deity 
but Ood, and Je.sus is I he Spirit of 

Jabir relates that Muhammad aaid ** the 
keys of Paradise are bearing witness that 
there is no deity but God. 

The recital of the Kahmah* or Creed, is 
the first of five pilbirs of practica 1 religion in 
Islam; and when anyone is con verted to 
Isiitm he is .required to repeat this formula. 
and the following are the conditions required 
of every Muslim with reference to it : 

1. That it shall be repeated aloud, at 
least once in a life- time. 

2. That tho meaning of it ehall be fully 

3. That it shalj be believed in " by tho 

4. That it shall be professed until death 

5. That it shall be recited correctly 

6 That it shall be always professod and 
declared without hesitation 
CSfcaM*/ 7- Wk 



CRESCENT. The figuro of the 
cresoenl is the Turkish symbol, and hence it 
ha* hof,n regarded by Europeans - the spe 
cial emblem of tho Muhammad an religion, 
although it is unknown to the Muhmnmadans 
of tho East Thiei ligure, however, did not 
originate with tho Turks, bnt it was the 
symbol of sovereignty in the city of Bvzun- 
tium previous to the Muslim conquest, ns 
may J)C seen from the medals (truck in 
honour of Anguslus Trajan and others. The 
crescent has been the symbol of three dif 
ferent orders of knighthood; tho first of 
which was instituted by Charles .1.. King^f 
Naples A.D. 12tftt: tho second in 144S by 
Rent: ot Anjou : the third by Sultan Selim 
in 1801 It must have been adoptod by Mu 
h/immadan* fot first time upon the over 
throw of the Byzaatine Empire by Muhammad 
JI , .ind it is nuvr y;enev^Hy used by (he 
Turks s the insignia of their creed 

CROCODILE. Arabic Tim*A 

The flesh of a crocodile i? .unlawful for food 
to a Muhaminadan. (Hamilton s Hniayah 
iv 7-1, 

CROSS, The. Arabic As-SaM>. The 

poi an dories the cracifixion of our blessed 
Lord (cRUCtnxioNj. and it is related by al- 
Wftcjidi thuf MuharnmAcl had such a rcpug 
nance to the focm of the crosn tha( he broke 
everything; brought into his house wich thai 
figure upon it. (Muir, iii .61.) According to 
Abu Hufainih, Tho Prophet Pui<I. " fswoai by 
hortveu, it is near, when Jos UK the Son of M:ny 
will descend from heavun upon your people -i 
just kjnj^, and Ho will break lite rrov.v, and kill 
the swino. (A/4feii ( The Imam 
Abn Y^usnf says tlwt. if a cross or a crucifix is 
stolen from H church, Amputation (the punish 
ment lor theft y is not incurred ; but if it is 
slolen from a private dwelling it is rbefl. 
( Hauiiltoa s ffttlayu/i, vol. ii. \>. OO.^) 


of tho Lord Jesus Christ is dcniod by the 
teaching of the Q.ur an. pfCVMCBBD*.] Tt is 
a punishment saactioned by the Muhamraa- 
clau religion for highway robbers. (Hauiil 
ton s Hicfaija/i.\ol ii. UJl.) 

CKUEL.TY. A striking instance 

of the cruelty of Muhammad s cbarrrtor 
occurs in a tradition given in tho fjafilfiu /, 
Bukhitrl (p. 1019). Anas relates, "Some 
of tho people of the tribe of fjkl came to the 
Prophet and embraced Islam ; hut the air of 
al-Madiriyli did not ugfe with Iheui, and thc/j 
wanted to U>ave the place. And the Prophet 
ordered them to go where t lie camels gtven in 
alms were .-is^euibled. and to drink their mlk 
wln ch they did, and recovered from their 
sickness. But *fter this they became apo 
states, and renounced Islam and stole fh<* 
camels. Then the Prophet sent gome people 
after I hem, and they were seized and brought 



back to al-Madinah. Then the Prophet 
ordered their hands and their feet to be cut 
off as a punishment for theft, and their eyes 
to be pulled out. But the Prophet did not 
stop the bleeding, and they died." And in 
another it reads, " The Prophet ordered hot 
irons "to be drawn across their eyes, and then 
to be cast on the plain of al-Madanab ; and 
when they asked for water it was not given 
them, and they died." 

Sir William. Muir (vol. iv. p. 307) says : 
}< Magnanimity or moderation are nowhere 
discernible as features in the conduct of Mu 
hammad towards such of his enemies as 
failed to tender a timeiy allegiance. Over 
the bodies of the- Quraish who fell at Badr he 
exulted with savage satisfaction ; and several 


prisoners, accused of no crane but of scepti 
cism and political opposition, were deliberately 
executed at his command. The Prince- of 
Khaibar, after being subjected to inhuman 
torture for the purpose of discovering the 
treasures of his tribe , was, with his cousin, 
put to death on the pretext of having trea 
cherously concealed them, and his wife was 
led away captive to the tent of the con 
queror. Sentence of exile was enforced by 
Muhammad with rigorous severity on two 
whole Jewish tribea at a 1-Madfnah; and of a 
third, likewise his neighbours, the women and 
children were sold into distant captivity, 
while the men, amounting to several hundreds, 
were butchered in cold blood before his 



Lit. "The Reptile of the Earth." "A monster 
who shall arise in the last day, and shall cry 
unto the people of the earth that mankind 
have not believed in the revelations of God 
(vide Qur an, Surah xxvii. 84) : " And when 
sentence falls upon them we will bring forth 
a beast out of the earth, that shall speak to 
them and say, * Men of our signs would not 
be sure. 1 " According to the Traditions he 
will be, the third sign of the coming resurrec 
tion, and will come forth from the mountain 
of Sufah. (Mishkdt, xxiii, c. iv.) Both Sale 
and Rodwell have confounded the Oabbatu 
1-Arz with Al-Jasaasah, the spy, mentioned 
in a tradition by Fatfmah (Mish/edt, xxiii. 
c. iv.), and which is held to be a demon now 
in existence. [AL-JASSASAH.] For a descrip 
tion of the Dabbah, see the article on the 


DABUE Gr*>). "The West 
wind. A term used by the Sufis to ex 
press the lust of the flesh, and its overwhelm 
ing power in the heart of man. (Abdu r- 
Razzaq s Dictionary of Sufi Terms.) 

DAHHA (Uj). Plural of the 
Persian *J, ten. The ten days of the 
Muharram, during which public mourning for 
AH and his sons is observed by Shl ah 
Muhaminadans. (Wilson s Glossary of Indian 

Ap-DAHB ( vft>jM), "A long space 
of time." A title given to the Lxxvith 
chapter of the Qur an ; called also Sflratu 1- 
Insan, " The Chapter of Man." The title is 
taken from the first verse of the chapter: 
" Did not there pass over man a long apace of 

DAHKl (vsy* )- One who believes 
in the eternity of matter, and asserts that 
the duration of this world is from eternity, 
and denies the Day of Resurrection and Jndg- 

ment ; an Atheist. ( Qhiydgu 1-LugAat, in 

DAIN (et^). A debt contracted 
with some definite term fixed for repayment, 
as distinguished from qarz, which is used for 
a loan given without any fixed term for re 
payment. [DEBT.] 

DAJJAL (JWv>). Lit. "false, 

lying." The name given in the ElaAIs to 
oertain religious impostors who shall appear 
in the world ; a term equivalent to our use 
of the word Antichrist. Muhammad is related 
to have said there would be about thirty. 

The Maaihu d-Dajjdl, or "the lying 
Christ," it is said, will be the last of the 
DajjdlS) for an account ot whom refer to 
article on MASIHU D-DAJJAL. 

DALlL ( J^). " An argument ; a 
proof." Dalll burhdni, " a convincing argu 
ment,** Daltl qapi, " a decisive proof." 

DAMASCUS. Arabic Dimashq 
According to Jalalu d-dm Suyiiti, Damas 
cus is the second sacred city in Syria, 
Jerusalem being the first; and some have 
thought it must be the "Irani of the 
columns" mentioned in the Qur an, Sftrah 
Ixxxix. 6, although this is not the view of 
most Muslim writers. [IRAM.] Damascus is 
not mentioned in the Qur an. With regard to 
the date of the erection of the city, Muham- 
rnadan historians differ. Some say it was 
built by a slave named Dimashq, who be 
longed to Abraham, having been given to 
the patriarch by Nimrod ; others say Di 
mashq was a slave belonging to Alexander the 
Great, and that the city was built in his 

Damascus was taken by Khalid in the 
reign of the Khalifah Umar, A.H. 18. and it 
became the capital of the Umaiyade Khalifahs 
under Mu awiyah, A.H. 41, and remained the 
chief city of Islam until the fall of that 



dynasty, A.II 132, when the Abbflflsides moved 
their capital first te al KufaJi and then to 

The great mosque at Damascus was erected 
by Abdu I Malik ibn M*rwn, rbe fifth Kha 
lifab ol the Umaiyades. It was commenced 
A.H. 86 and finished in ten year*, being 
erected on the rain* of an ancient Greek 
temple nnd ot a tihrj^tiai- church. 

The account, as given by .Talaio d -din 
8uytifi< in his Ifistury of the Temple of Jwit- 
sulem, * curious and interesting. ^Mowing that 
for a time the Muslims and Christians wor 
shipped in the same building together. 

Here fin Dam&aeus) all the servants of 
God joined, ana built a Church to worship 
Hod in. Some say. however, mat this church 
was built by the Greeks : for *Abdu llilh Ibn 
Abbas, having marched against Damascus and 
besieged it. demolished the wall*, after he had 
entered the city by storm. Then there fell 
down a stone, haying certain letters inscribed 
thereon in th Greek language. They there 
fore sent to bring a certain monk who could 
read Greek ; but he said, Bring me in pitch 
the impression of the letters on the stone, 
which he found to be as follows : Woe unto 
chee, mother of shame! Piou is he who 
inflicts upon thee with usury the ill which 
God designs for thee in retribution. Woe unto 
thee from five eyes, who shall destroy thy wall 
after four thousand years/ Now", Abdu llah s 
entire name was Abdu llah Ibn All Ibn Abdi 
ilah Ibn Abbas Ibn Abdu 1-Muqallib. 

" Again, the historian Ibn Isahii- says r 
When God hud granted unto the Muslim:* 
the possession, as conquerors of the whole of 
Syria, He gtanted them among other cities 
thai of Damascus with its dependencies. Thus 
God sent dewn His meroy upon them, and the 
commnnder-in-ohief of the army (besieging 
Dan.ascus), who was cither Abu TJbaidah or, 
as aonu say, Khalid Tbn al-Walid. wrote a 
treaty 01 capitulation and articles of sur 
render By these he settled and appointed 
founeeu churches to remain in the hands of 
the Muslim*. The chnrch of -which we havr 
spoken above wa* left open and free for 
future consideration. This was on the plon 
that Khwlid had entered the city at the 
sword s point by the eastern gfcto; but th.v 
the Christians at tlir yamo time were allows! 
to surrender by Abu Uhaidah; who ontei*d 
at the .vtstcr gate, openod under articles. 
This cnused dissension; but at length it was 
agreed that half the place should be regarded 
as having capitulated .ind half as stormed. 

" The .Muslims therefore . < ok .this church. 
and Abu Ubaidab made it into n mosque 
He* was afterwards appointed Emu of Syria. 
and wae the n rt who prayed here, nil the 
company of Companions praying after him 
in the open area, now called the Companions 
Tower; but -t\\* wall must then bnve been 
cut through, hard by the leaning tower, if 
the Companions leally prayed in the blessed 
precinct. At first the Christians and Mus 
lims entered by the .same jjate, which was 
the gate of Adoration and Prayer, over 
against the Qiblah, where tbe great tower now 

3 finds. Afterwards the Christians changed 
and went into their church bv the gate facm 
the west : f be Muslims takim? the rifht-hmtd 
mosque. But tbe Christians were not uf- 
ferred to chant aloud, or recite their books 
or strike their bells (or clappers), m order 
to honour the Companions with reverence nnd 
fear. Aiso, Mu awiyah built in his lav? a 
house for the Amir, right ooposjfw ho 
mosque. Here he built a giemi cbauol. 
This palace was noted for Us perfection. 
Here Mu itvriyuli dwelt forty years: nor did 
this state of things change from V.H. K to 
A.H. bt>. Rut Al-Walid Ibu Abdu 1-Mulik 
began to think of destroying tho churches. 
and of adding c ome to thoae already in the 
hands of the Muslims, so as w construct one 
great mosque ; and this because Borne of th-i 
Muslims were sore troubled by hearing the 
recitations of the Christians from tho Gospel 
and their uplifted voices in prayer. He de 
signed, therefore, to remore them from th< 
Miife lhns and to annex tbio t*pui 10 tiie other, 
so as to make one great mosqu^. Thereiure 
he called for the Christians, und asked them 
whether they would depart from those places 
which wore in their hands, receiving in ex 
change greater portions in lieu thereof ; and 
ftlso retaining four charchos not mentioned in 
thp creac} the Church of Maria, the (jhxirch 
of ihe Crucified, just -within the eastern gate, 
the ohur ch Tallu 1-Habu, an(i the Church of 
the Glorious Mother, occupied previously lv 
the burnishers. This, however, they vehe 
mently refused to do. Thereupon tho Khali - 
fan said, Bring me then the treaty which 
you pos*e*s since the time of the <iora- 
punionti. Tney brought it, tbereiore, and it 
was read in al-Walid s presence : when, io ! 
tbe Church of Thomas, outside tne ^ar*j ^f 
Thomas, hard by tbe riror, did not enter inVo 
tbe treaty, and was oti of thufo culled the 
greater of churchos left upon (tot future 
disposal). -There, he said, this will I 
destroy and convert it into a mosque. They 
said, Nay, let it alone, O commander of th*> 
Faithful, even although not mentioned amon^ 
the churches, for wo are content that you t;ikf 
the chapel of the church/ To this *ree- 
ment, then, he held them, and received iroiu 
them the Qnbbah (or chapel vault, dome) 01 
the chnrch. Then he summoned workmen 
able to pull clown, and assembled all the 
amirs, chiefs, and great men. But the Chris 
tian bishops and priests coining, said, 
commander of tho Faithful, wo find in our 
books that whosoever shall demolish this 
church will go md. Then said the Khali- 
fab, And I am very willing to be mad with 
God s inspiration : therefore no one flill 
demolish it before me. Then he ascended 
the western tower, which hnd two spirei. 
and contained a moiwstic cell. Here ho 
found a monk, whom he ordered to dencend. 
The monk making difficult.^*, and linger 
ing, nl-Walid took bim bv <be t>ck f hi* 
neck. anl ceased not pushing him until 
he hnd thrown bim down stairs. Then be 
ascended to the most lofty spot in the^h ir"H 
above the great altar, cali**<l the Ahar if 




the Martyrs. Hero he <eLsed iho ends of 
his sash, which was of ft bright yellow colour, 
and fixed Ihora into his bell. Taking, then, 
an ate into his hand, he struck against the 
very topmost stone, and brought it down. 
Then ho, called the amirs, and de.sired them 
to pull down the building as quickly as pos 
sible. Hereupon all the Muslims shoaled, 
God is great ! three times ; also the Chris 
tians loudly cried out \vith their v/ailing and 
woe upon the steps of ./airuri, where they 
had assembled. Al-Walid therefore desired 
the commander Of his guard to inflict blows 
upon them until they should depart, which he 
did. The Muslims then demolished all that 
the Christians had built in the great square 
here altars and buildings and cloisters 
until the whole square was one flat surfaco. 
He then resolved to build a spiendid pile, un 
rivalled for boamy of architecture, which 
none could hereafter surpass. Al-Walid 
therefore commissioned the most eminent 
architects and mathematicians to bxxild the 
mosque, according to the model they most 
preferred. His brother chiefly moved and 
stirred him up to this undertaking, next 
to him presided Snla-iman *Abdu I- Malik.. It 
is said that d,J-Wa!M sent to the . king of 
Greece to demand stone masons and ot-hor 
workmen, for tno purpose of building this 
mosque in the way bo desired, Bonding-, word, 
that if the king refused, he would overrun 
his territory with his anny, and reduce to 
utter ruin every church in h \s domin ions, even 
the Church of the Holy City, and the Church 
of Edessa, and utterly destroy every vestige 
of the Greeks still remaining The king of 
Greece, sent, therefore, numerous workmen, 
with a ^ letter, expressing himself thus: * If 
thy father k no wet h what tlioudoest, and per 
mits it, tneri truly 1 accuse him of disgraceful 
couduet, and blame him more than thee. 11 
he understandcth it not, but thou only art 
conscious, then i Maine thee above him. 
Wnen tho letter came 10 al-Watotl, be \vished 
I o reply unto h and assembled several per 
sons for consultation. One oi those was a 
well-known poet. \vho said, ; I will answer 
him, O Commander of the Faithful ! out of 
the Book of God. So said ai-Walid. Where, 
then, is that answer? He replied this verse, 
David and Salomon lo i they assume, a 
right to tne corn-field, a right to the place 
where the people are shearing their sheep. 
Also, we are witnesses of their decree; for Solo 
mon hath given us to understand it, and both 
(David and Solomon; ha ve come to us :t v judffep 
and learned men. Al-Walid, by this reply, 
caused great surprise to the king of Greece. 
A-i-Firsuk alludes to this in these verses : 

" I have made a separation between the 
Christian* and their churrhes, and between the 
people who shine and those who are in dark 
ness. " 

. "1 neglected for a season thus to apportion 
their happiness, 1 being u procrastinating vin 
dicator of their grievances." 

** Thy Lord hath made thee to resolve 
upon removing their churches from those 
mosques wherein good words are recited." 


" Whilst they were together in one place 
! some were praying and prostrating themselves 
on their faces, slightly separated from others 
who, behold ) were adoring God and idols. 1 

How shall the people of the Cross unite to 
ring- their belb. when the reading of top 
Qiir ari is perpetually intermingled? 

* I resolved then to remove tbern, just /t 
did those wise men when they decreed taetn- 
solves a right to the seed-field and the 

"When al-WalTd resolved to buikl the 
chapel which is in the midst of the cloister, 
called the Vulture s Chapel (a name given 
to it by the country -people, because the por 
tioos on each side look like two wings), he dug 
deep at the four corners of the intended 
chapel, until the <?arne to sweet and limpid 
water. Here they first placed the foundation 
of. the wall of the vineyard. Upon Ibis they 
built with stouo, nd when the four cerners 
were oi sufficient height, they then buit! 
thereon the chapel ; butfil fell down again 
Then said al-Walid to some one of the mathe 
maticians, who well knew the plan of the 
Vultures Chapel, -1 wish you to bmld this 
chapel: for the injunction of God hath been 
givpn aie. and I am confident that no ono but 
tlivsolf may build it. He therefore built the 
four corners, and covered them with wir-ker, 
and disappeared for a whole year. al-Walid 
not knowing where he was. Aiter a year. 
al-Wa .ul du^ down to the four corner foun 
dations Then he (/^. the architect 1 ) said 
* Do not be in a hurry, O commander of the 
Faithful ! Then he found the mathemati 
cian, who had a man s head with him. He 
caine to the four corners, and uncovered the 
wicker work, and lo ! all that had been buill 
above ilr> eattb had fallen down, until they 
wc/o on a level with the earth. So he said 
From this (work have 1 come). Then he 
proceeded to build, and firmly fixed and sup 
ported a beautiful fabric 

Some person also saul al-Walid wished to 
ocmstrnct a brilliant chapel of pure gold, 
whereby the rank of the mosque might he 
magnified. Hereupon the superintendent said 
unto him. You cannot effect this. Upon 
which ai-Wallfl struck him fifty, blows with a 
whip, sayiug, Am i then incapable of effect 
ing this? Tho man replied, -Certainly 
Then he said, 1 will 1 , then, fihd onfc a way to 
know the truth, firing forth all the gold 
thou hast ; which he did: and al-Walid 
melted it. and into-. one large brick 
which contained one thousand pieces of gold 
[>ai the man said, * O Commander of the 
Faithful! we shall require se many thousand 
bricks of this sort if t.hoo dc-st possess them : 
noi Will this suilice for our work. Al-Waikd 
i seeing that he was true and just, presented 
him with fifty dinars^ and whoft aJ-Walid 
roofod the great precinct, lie. adorned the 
roof, as well as the whole extent of the pave 
ment, with a surface of gold. Some of al- 
Walid s family also said unto him, They twho 
come after thee will emulate th?e in rendering 
t he outer roof ot this mosque more commodious 
every year. Upon this al- Walfd ordered all the 



lead ol the country to he collected together, in 
order to construct therewith an exterior out 
ward covering, answering lo the interior, 
which should be light upon the roof, and on 
the sido-posts that supported the roof. So 
I hoy collected lead throughout all Syria and 
many other countries ; and whilst they were 
returning, they wt*t with a certain woman 
who possessed ,a wei^ut of lead a weight of 
many talents. Tho.y began lo chaffer with 
I. bo woman for it. but she reinsert to sell it, 
except, for its vfceight in silver. So they 
wrote to the Commander of the FaiMiful, in 
forming him of this, who replied, -Buy it 
from her, even lor its weight in silver. When, 
then, they offered thia mn unto her, she 
said, Now that you have agreed to my pro 
posal, and arc satisfied to give the weight in 
silver. J giv the weight as an offering unto 
Ood, (o setve for the roof of the mosrruc. 
Hereupon they marked one corner of the 
weight with the impression of a seal. This 
is God s. Some say the woman was au 
Israelite ; some say that they sought for 
lead in open flitches or holes, and came to a 
Stone .sepulchre, within which wa* a leaden 
SHpulchrr, whence thy brought forth a dead 
body, and laid jt on the ground. Whilst drag 
ging it out, the head fell to the ground, and 
the neck being broken . much blood flowed 
forth from the- mouth, whfch terrified them 
80 much, that they rapidly tied away. This 
i is said to have been the burial-place of King 
Saul. Also, the guardian of the mosque came 
I unto al-Walid and said, O Commander of 
1 the Faithful! men say that al-Walid hath ex 
pended the money of the treasury unjustly. 
Hereupon al-Walid dosired that all the 
people should be summoned to prayer. When 
I all were assembled. al-Waiitt mounted tho 
I pulpit, and said. * Such and such reports have 
j reached me. Thou he said, *0 Uniar Ibn 
al -Mnhajir ! stand up and produce the money 
of the treasury. Now it was carried upon 
tnules. Therefore, pieces of hide being placed, 
in the midst, beneath the chapel, he poured 
out a 11 the gold and silver, to such a height, 
that those who stood ou either side could not 
[see one another. Scales berug then brought 
lout, the whole was weighed, when it was 
found that the amount would suflice for the 
j public use for three years To come even if 
I nothing were added to the amount Then all 
line people j-ejoiced, praising ami glorifying. 
God for this. Then aid tho Khalifah, 6 
(people of Damascus ! you boa^t among men 
lol" four things : of your air, of your water, of 
Ivuur cheerfulness, and of your gracefulness. 
IWoiJd that you would add to these a, fifth, and 
Jbecotne of the number of those who praise 
jGoil, and are liberal in his service. Would 
^tbat thus changing, you would become thank 
ful suppliants. 

In the Qiblah ot iuis mosque were 
( three golden scimitars, enamelled in lapis 
lazuli. Upon each scimitar was engraved 
^he following sentence, In the name 
[of God, the Morcttul and Compassionate I 
I There is no god but God. ,He is the ever- 
living the seJf-bub.sisting Being, who never 

slumbers nor sloop.*. There is no god but 
God. llo has o partner. We will never 
adore any but our Lord, the one God. Our 
faith is Islam, and our Prophet is Muhammad. 
This mosque was built, and the churches 
which stjood on the site of the chapel were 
demolished, by order of the servant of God, 
tho Commander of the Fait hi ul, nl-Walid Ibn 
Abdu 1-Malik Ibu Ma-rwan, in the month 
2 ii 1-Qa-dab, A.H. 86. Upon another tablet 
was inscribed, tho whole of the first chapter 
of the Qur au. Here also were depicted tho 
stars, then the morning twilight, t/hcn the 
spiral course of the sun, then the way 
of living which obtained after the arrival 
of the Faithful at Damascus. Alsoj it is said, 
that all the Uoor or this mosque was divided 
into small slabs, and that tho stone (carving) 
of the walls extended, to tho utmost pin 
nacle. Above was a great golden vine, and 
above this were splendid enamelled knobs of 
green, red, blue, and white, whereby wore 
figured and expressed all countries and 
regions, especially the Ka-bah, above tho 
tower; also all the countries to the right and 
left (of Makk:ib), aud all the most beautiful 
shrubs and trees of evury region, famous 
either for their fruits or flowers The roof 
had cornices of gold. Here was suspend od 
a chain oi gold aud silver, which branched off 
into seven separate light*. In the tower of 
the Companions w<jre two stone-r-beryl 
Tsome $a.y they were tho jewels called pearls); 
they were called l The Little Ones. When 
the candles were put out, they inflamed the 
eyes by tbeifr brilliant light. In the time of 
alAmmlbn ar Rashid, Sulaimnn, captain of 
(be guard, vvas sent by thai Kjbalifah to Da- 
mascus. to steal those stones aud bring them 
to him ; which he did When al-Ma mun dis 
covered this, he sent ; hen> to Damascus, as a 
proof of his brother s misconduct. They 
afterwards again vanished, and in thcii place 
is a glass vessel In this mosque all tho 
gates, from the dome (gallery) uuto the en- 
tianc. are open, and have no bars or locks. 
Ovor each is a loose curtaiu. In like manner 
there is a curtain upon all the walls at far as 
1 he-bases of the golden vin, above which are 
the enamelled knobs. The capitals of the 
pillars were thickly covered with dead gild 
ing. Here were also small galleries, to look 
down from, enclosed on the four sidos of tne 
skirting wall. Al-Walid also built tho 
I northern minaret, now called the Bride 
groom s Tower. As to the western gallory, 
that existed many ages before, in oacb 
comer of this was a cell, raised upon very 
lolly walls, and used by tho Greeks as an 
observatory The two northern of those fell, 
and ihe I wo opposite remained. In the year 
740, part of the eastern had been burnt. It 
then fell down, but was built up anew out of 
the Christians money, because they had me- 
dilated the d-jstructiou (of it) by firo. It then 
was restored after a most beautiful plan. 
This is the tower (but God knows) upon 
which Jesus sou of Maria will alight, for Mu 
hammad s reported to have said, 1 &aw 
Jesus 3on of Maria come forth from near the 



white minaret, east of the mosque, placmg 
his hjinds upon the wings of two ngel3, 
firmly bound to him. Upen him was the 
JUtrine glory (the He was marked 
by the red tinge of baptism. This is the 
mark, of original sin Jesus (it is also said) 
shall come forth from the White Tower by 
the eastern gate, ami shall enter the mosque. 
Then shall the word come forth for Jesus to 
fight with \miclm8t at the corner of the 
city, as long a.s it shall please God. Now, 
when this mosque (the slaves mosque) was 
completed, there was not to be found upon 
the face of the earth a building more beau 
tiful, more splendid, more graceful, than this. 
Chi whatever side, or area, or place, the spec 
tator looked, be still thought thatside or spot 
the most preferable for beauty. In this 
mosque were certain talismans, plac.ed therein 
Since the time of the reeks ; so that no veno 
mous or stinging creature could by any means 
obtain entrance into this enclosure, neither 
yerpent, scorpion, beetle, nor spider. They 
say, also, that neither sparrows nor pigeons 
built their nests there, nor was anything to be 
found there which could annoy people. Most, 
or all, of those talismans were burnt by the 
lire that consumed the mosque, which fire 
took place in the night of Sha -biui, A.H. 461. 
Al-Walid J reqnently prayed in the mosque. 
One night (it is related) he said to his 
people, * 1 wish to pray to-night in the 
mosque; let no one remain there whilst I 
pray therein. So when he came unto the 
gate of the Two Moments, he desired the 
gate to be opened, and entering in, he saw a 
man standing between the gate of the Two 
Moments and the gate of St. George, praying. 
Ho was rather nearer to the gate of St. 
George than to the other. So the Khalifab 
said anto his people, Did not charge you 
that no one should remain whilst I was pray 
ing- in the mosque? Then one of them said. 
() Commander of the Faithful! this is St 
Cieorge.who prays every night in the mosque/ 
Again, one prayer in this mosque equals 
thirty thousand prayers, 

* Again- A certain man, going out of the 
gate of the mosque which is near the Jairun, 
met Ka b the scribe, wlio said, Whither 
hound? He replied, To the Baitu l-Mu- 
qaddas, therein to pray/ Then said Ka b, *J 
will show you a spot wherein whosoever 
prayeth shall receive tho same blessings as if 
he prayed in the Baitu l-Muqaddas. The 
man, therefore, went with him. Then Ka b 
showed him the space between the little 
gate from whence you go to Abyssinia, that 
is, the space covered by the arch of the 
(yate, containing about one bandied yards, 
to the west and said, Whoso prayeth within 
those two points chali be regarded as praying 
within the Baitu l-Muqaddas. Now, th its spot 
is said to he a spot fit to be sought by pilgrim*. 
Here, it is asserted is the head of Joiin, Bon 
of Zacharias (Peace be with him , ). For al- 
Walid ibn Muslim being desired to show 
where John s head wavS to be found, pointed 
with his hand to the plastered pillar the 
fourth from the east corner Zaid Ibn Wakad 


says, * At the time it was proposed to build 
the mosque of Damascus 1 saw the head of 
John, son of Zachariaa, bronght forth from 
underneath one of the corners ol the chapel. 
The hair of the head was unchanged. lit 
says in another place, Being nominated by 
*l-Walkl superintendent of the building, we 
found a caye, of which discovery we informed 
al-Walld H* came, therefore, unto us at 
night, with a wax taper in his hand. Upon 
descending we found an. elaborately carved 
little shrine, three within three (j .e. within 
the first a second, within the second a third). 
Within, this last was a sarcophagus, and 
within this a casket; within which was the 
head of John, son of Zacharias. Over the 
casket was written, * Here is the head of John, 
sou of Zacharias. Peace he with him I " By 
al-Walid s command we restored the head to 
the spot whence it had been taJceiu The 
pillars which are above this spot are inclined 
obliquely to tho others to distinguish the 
place. There is also over it a pillar with a 
head in plaster. He asserts again, that 
when the happy event occurred of the con 
quest of Damascus, a certain person went up 
the stairs -which led to the church, then 
standing where tho mosque now stands. 
Here the blood of John, son of Zaoharias was 
seen to flow in torrents and to boil up, nor 
did the blood sink down and become still 
until that seventy thousand had been slam 
over him. The spot where the head was 
found is now called al-Sakasak fperhaos, the 
Nail of the Narrow Cave), 

" In the days of Uxuar, the Christians re 
quested that he wouJd confirm their claim to 
the right of meeting in those places which al- 
Walid had taken from them and converted 
into mosques. They, therefore, claimed the 
whole inner area as their own from Omar. 
The latter thought it right to restore them 
what al-Walid had taken from them, but 
upon examination he found that the churches 
without the suburbs were not comprehended 
in the articles of surrender by the Compa 
nions, such, for example, as the great Church 
of the Monastery of Observants or Carmelites, 
the Church of the Convent behind the Church 
of St. Thomas, and ail the churches of the 
neighbouring villages. Uuaar therefore gave 
them the choice, either to restore them the 
churches they demanded, .demolishing in that 
case all the other churches, or to leave those 
churches unmolested, and to receive from 
them a full consent to the free use of the open 
space by the Muslims. To this latter pro 
posal they, after three days deliberation, 
agreed; and proper writings were drawn 
up on both sides. They gave the Muslims a 
deed of grant, and "Uinar gave them full 
security, and assurance of protection. Nothing 
was to be compared to this mosque. It 
is said to be one of the strongholds of 
Paradise, and that no inhabitant of Damascus 
would long for Paradise looks upon 
his beautiful mosque. Al-Ma mun came to 
Damascus, in company with his brother al- 
Mu tasim, and the Qiizi Yahya Ibn Aksam. 
Whilst viewing the mosque he said, * What is 




the most wondrous sight here ? His brother 
said, These offerings and pledges. Tho Qa^I 
Said, The marble and the columns. Then said 
al-Mu rmm, The moat wondrous thing to me 
ii!, whether any other could he built at all like 
this. " (Hist. Temple of Jerusalem, by Ja.lalu 
d-din, translated by Reynolds, p. 407.J 

D A N C I JN G . Arabic Raqs 
Dancing is generally held to be unlawful, 
although it does not appear to he forbidden 
in either the Qur an or the Traditions, but 
according to al Bukhara (Arabic od., p. I35j f 
the Prophet expressly permitted it on the 
day of the great festival. Those who hold it 
to be unlawful quote the following verse from 
the Qur an, SuraJbi xvii. 39, " Walk not proudly 
on the earth," as a prohibition, although it 
does not seem to refer to the subject. 

The Sufis make dancing a religiouH 
exercise, but the Sunni Muslims consider it 
unlawful. (Htddyalu s-Sd il. p, 107.) 

DANIEL. Arabic D&niyaJ,. A 
prophet celebrated amongst Muhammadans 
as an interpreter of, dreams. He is not men 
tioned in either the Qnr an or the Traditions, 
bat in the (fascist , l-Ambiya, p. 231, it is 
stated that in the reign of Rufchtu Naf$ar 
(Nebuchadnezzer) he vraH imprisoned ; and 
when he was in prison, the king had a dream 
which he had forgotten, and hearing that 
Daniel was an interpreter of dreams, he- sent 
for him. When Daniel was in the presence 
of the King, he refused to prostrate, saying, 
it was lawful to prostrate alone to the Lord 
Almighty. For this he nearly lost his lift), 
but was spared to interpret the king s dream, 
which was as follows " He saw a great idol, 
the head of which was of gold, ahove the 
oavel of silver, below the navel of copper, the 
legs of iron, and the feet of clay. And Sud 
denly a stone fell from heaven upon the idol. 
ind ground it to powder, and mixed all the 
substances, so that the wind blew them in all 
directions ; but the stone grew gradually, and 
to such an extent that it covered the whole 
earth." The interpretation of it, as given by 
Daniel is said to be this : The idol rep resented 
different nations : the gold was the kin^dou; 
of Mebuciuuinaczar, the silver the kingdom 
of his son, the copper I; he Romans, the iron 
the Persians, and the clay the tribe Zauzan. 
from which tho kings of Persia and "Rome 
should be descended: the great stone beir^ 
a religion \viiich shcuid apread itself o>er the 
whole cartb in the last day. 

DAll (,U). "A house, dwelling, 
habitation, land, country." A word which i.v 
used, in various combinations, e.g. :-- 

ad-Ddr . The abode the city of 

til-Mad mah. 
ad-Duruin . The two abodes- -thla 

world and the next. 
Dam l-adab . A sent of learning: H 

university. l-baqd . The abode which re- 

maiaeth heaven 
Ddru V /ana The abode which pusseth 

away oarth. 

V-(/Aarwr . The abode of delusion -- 

the world. 
Dnru {-Awn . The vale of tears the 

Ddru l-iblilff . The abode of temptation 

the world 
Ddru l-khildfak The seat of the Imam or 

Khahfah capital 
Duru I kulub A library. 
Dart/ t-khuUt The Lome of eternity- 
arf- Darn Vna ww The bleased abode PJ 


Ddf\i l-gaztV . The Qaei s court. 
Ddru ah-shffa A hospital. 
Ddru V*urr The abode of joy Para 


Dtirv -z-zarl) . A mint. 
Ddru tf-fiyd/ah A banqueting-roorn. 


DARGAH (^). A royai court 
(Persian). In India it is a tenn used for a 
Muhammadan ahrine or tomb of some reputed 
holy person, and which is the object of pil 
grimage and adoration. (Wilson s Glossary of 
Indian Terms. ,) 

BAE.U L-BAWAR (_>^ ^u). 
Lit. The abode of perdition/* A term used 
for hell in the Qur an, Surah xiv. 33: "And 
have made their people to alight at the abode 
of perdition? 

DARU L-HARB (^r-*^ ^) 
"The land of warfare.* According to the 
Dictionary Ck\yd*v. l-Lughdt. Ddru l-hdrb 
is cc a country belonging to infidels which ha? 
not been subdued by Islam." According tc 
the Qdmus, it is ** a country in which peace 
has not neen proclaimed between Muslims 
aud unbelievers/ 

In the Fo-tuwa Alumyiri, vol. ii. p. 854, it is 
written that; a Ddru, l-harb becomes a Ddru 
l-Jddm on one condition, namely, the promul 
gation of the edicts of Islam. The Imam 
Muhammad, in bis hook called theZiyddah, 
says a Ddrv I- 1 slain again becomes a Daru I- 
fiarb, according to Abu. Hanifah, on three 
conditions, namely (1) That Ihe edicts of t.hc 
unbelievers lie promulgated, and the edicts ol 
l.slam be suppressed ; (2} That the country in 
question bo adjoining a Ddru l-harb and no 
other Muslim couutry lie between .them 
(that i. when the duty of Jihad or religious 
war becomes moumbent on them, and they 
have not the po*er to cany it on). (3) That no 
protection (//id) remains for either a Muslim 
or H zimnri: viz. that cirnc/rtu l-awwal, or tKa,t 
lirs l protection which was given them wlienthc 
country was first conquered by Islam. The 
Imams Yusuf and Muhammad both say that 
when the edicts of unbelievers are promul 
gated in a country, it is suPUcient to consti 
tute it a Ddru I-fiurb. 

In the Raddu. L-Miikhtur, vol. iii. p. 391, it 
is stated, u If thr edicts of Islam remain in 
force, together with the edicts of the be 
lievers, thon the country cannot be said to be 



a Dnru l-karh? The important question as 
to whether a. country in the position of Hin 
dustan may l).e considered a Ddru t- 1st am or 
a Daru 7 -harb has b een fully discussed by 
Or W. W. Hunter, of the Bengal Civil .Ser 
vice, in his work entitled. Indian JtJusvl/nanfi, 
which is the result of careful inquiry as to 
the necessary conditions of a Jihad, or a 
Crescent ade instituted at the time of the 
excitement which existed in India in 
I8?0-71,iu consequence of a Wahhabi con 
spiracy for the overthrow of Christian rule in 
that country. The whole matter, according 
lo the Sunru Wusulinans, hinges upon the 
question whether India is Oarv l-harb. " a 
land of warfare." or Daru I -Islam."* land 
of Islam," 

The Muh.cs belonging lo the Manifi and 
Shafi i sects at Makkah decided that, " as long 
as even syrae of the peculiar observances of 
Islam prevail in a country, it is Daru Y-Ys/n/w." 

The decision of the Mufti yf the Mliliki seel 
was very similar, being to the following effect : 
" A country does not becotno Ddru /-/<#>// 
as soon as it passes into the hands of the 
infidels. but when all or tnost of the injunc 
tions of Islam disappear therefrom. 1 

Tno Uw doctors of North India decided 
that, the absence of protection and liberty 
to Musulmans is essential in a Jihdd, or reli 
gions war, and also that there should be a 
probability of victory to the armies of Isiuin." 

The Shi* ah decision on the subject was as 
follows: ;< A Jihad is lawful only when the 
armies of Islam are led by the rightful Imain. 
when arms and ammunitions of war and ex 
perienced warriors are ready, when it is 
aguinu the enemies of God. when ho who 
makes war is in possession of his reason, and 
when he has secured the permission of his 
paronU, and has sufficient money to meet the 
expenses of his journey." 

Tb Sunnis and ShT ahs alike believe in 
the eventual triumph of Islam, when the 
whole world shall become followers of the 
Prophet of Arabia : but whilst the Surmis 
are. of course, ready to xindertako thf. 
accomplish tne*it of (Jus g-reat end. whenever 
I here is a probability of victory to the Mu- 
sulmatis," the Shi ahs, true to the one great 
principle of their sect, must wait until the 
appearance ot a righiiul Imam. 

DARU Ci-ISLAM (VJu .iW fa. 
" Land of Islam." According lo the tiurJdu Y- 
Mukhfdr, vol. iiji-r.p. 391. it is a conntry 
in which Vhe edaeU of Islam arc fully pro 

In a state brought under Muslims, all those 
who do riot embrace the failh are placed 
under. certain disabilities. They r,an worship 
Qo<j according to their own customs. j/n>#/f//?rf 
they are not idolater* ; bxit it musf be done 
without any ostentation, and. whilst -cliuTiches 
and synagogues may be repaired.vo new place 
of worship can be erected " The construction 
of churches., or synagogues, m Muslim \frri~ 
tory i unlawful, this being forbidden in the 
Traditions ; but if places of worship bclqng- 
ing to Jews, or Christian^ be dsti-oyeil. w 


fall into decay, they are at liberty to repair 
them, because buildings oannot endure for 

Idol temples must be destroyed, and 
idolatry suppressed by force in all countries 
ruled according, to Strict Muslim law. . (/7- 
dayati, vol. ii p. 219.) 

For furlher particulars, see article IXARU 


" TJie abode that abideth." Au oxpression 
which occurs in the Qur an. Surah xl. 42: "0 
my people I this present life i& only a passing 
joy, bul the life to come is ike mansion that 


* The abode of pence," An expression which 
occurs in the Qnr Sn, Surah vi. 127: -For 
them is a. dvwltiny of peace with their Lord I 
and in recompense for tVteir works, shall IJe 
be their proloclcv." 


" The seat of government." A term given to 
the capital of a province, or a Muslim state 

DARU S-SAWAB (^ytt ; U). 
" The house of recompense" A name given 
to the Jannatu A.dn. or Garden of Eden, by. 
the commentator al-Baizawi. 


A Persian word for a religious mendicant. A 
dervesh. It is derived from the word dni\ 
a door": Hi v>ne who goes Jrom door to 
door. Amongst religious Muhanimadans. the 
darvesb is called a Ja^ir, which i^ (he word 
generally used for religJoas mendicant orders 
in Arabic books. The subject is, theiofoi e, 
considered in tho article, on J:AQIIJ. 

DACGHT.I2U8. Arabic 
pi. Banat; Heb. Bath (j^). In 

the law of inheritance, the position of a 
daughter is socured by a verse in the Qur an, 
Surah "iv. 12 : - With regard to your children. 
God has commanded you to give the sons the 
portion of two daughters, and if there be 
daughters, more than two, then Ihey shall 
have two-thirds of that which their father 
hath left, but if she be an only daughter she 
shall have fchettaif." 

The Siriyiffuh explains t ho above as 

" Daughters begotten by the deceased take 
in three eases: half goes to one only, and two- 
thirds to two or more: and. if there be a 
sou. the male has the share of two females, 
and he makes them i esiduaries. Tho son s 
tUrnghtcrs are like the daughters begotten 
by the deceased : and they may be in six 
cases: half goes to one only, and two-thirds 
to two or moi-e, on failure of daughters be 
gotten by the deceased ; with a single daugh 
ter of the deceased, they have a sixth, com 
plcting (with the daughter s half) two- thirds : 
but, with two daughters of the deceased, they 
have uo share of the inheritance. unle& there 
be. in an equal degree with, or in a lower 



degree than them, a boy. who makes them 
residixaries. As t> 1lie remainder between 
them, the male has the portion of iwo 
females; and all of v tho sons daughters nrr; 
excluded by the son himself, 

" If man l?av three son s daughters, 
some of thm in lower degrees than others, 
nnd three daughters of the son of another 
son, some of them in lower degree than others, 
and three daughters of the son s son of 
another son. some of thorn in tower degrees 
than others, as in the following table, this is 
called the case of 

Third set. 

First set. Second set. 

Son. Bon. 

Son, daughter Sou. 

Son. daughter. Son, daughter 

Son.. daughter. Son, daughter Son. daughter. 
Sou, daughter Son, daughter. 
Son, daughter. 

"Here the eldest of the first line has none 
eqnal in degree frith her the middle one of 
the first line ia equalled in degree by the 
eldest of the second, and the youngest- of the 
first line is equalled by the middle one of 
the second, and by the eldest of the tliiid line; 
the youngest of the second line is equalled 
by the middle one of the third lino, and the 
youngest of the third sot has no equal in 
degree. When thou hast comprehended this, 
then we say: the eldest of the first line !:HS a 
moiety; the middle one af the first I m- ban 
a sixth, together with her equal in degree, to 
make up two-thirds ; and those in lower 
degrees never take anything*, unless there be 
a son with them, who makes them resirhia- 
rios, both her who is equal to him in degree. 
and her who is above him, but who is not 
entitled to a fhare; tho^c belo\v him are ex 
cluded." (Ramsay s ed. As-StruJu/a//.) 

The age of puberty, or majority, of a 
daughter is established by Hie usual si-rns 01 
womanhood ; but in the absence of these signs. 
according to Abu Hanifah. she is not of age 
until she is eighteen. But the two I m a in 5, 
Muhnmmad and yfisuf. fix the age ar fifteen. 
and with this opinion the main *h-SljatiM 

With regunJ tj d daughter s freedom in ?; 
niarmge contrarl. Shaikh -Abdu l-Har^. m 
his commentary on the Traditions (vol. iii, 
p. tO- 1 )), says, "All the learned doctor are 
ngrerd thar ji virgin daughter, until she has 
arrived at the age of puberty, is entirely a! 
the disposal of her father or lawful guardian, 
but that in theeveni of a woman having been 
left H wjdow ufior she has attained I he age 
of pubertv, she 19 entirely at liberty o marry 
whom she Jikes " There s, however, h* says 
fioaio difference of opiaion ast Lc I he free 
dom of a girl who has not been married and 
has am oet I at tin- aye of puberty. Abu 
Hnnitiili mles that she is entirely froe t rom 
the control of her guardian with regard t-o her 
marriage. but ash-Shati f rules otherwise. 
Again, as regards a widow who is not of 
as?e. Abu Hanifah says she cannot marry 
Mithout her guardian s permission but ash- 
Shafi i says she is fre 

{ According to tlio teaching of the Prophet 
" a virgin d^uptter gives hr consent TO ma 
riago by *i fence . He alio taught that a 
womart ripe in years shall have her consent 
yaked. and if f,Ue remain silent her silence is 
consent, bin if she do not consent, she .shall 
not be forced." But ibis tradition is also to 
be compared with another, in which he said, 
There i* no marringo without ihc permission 
of the guardians. (Mifhkat. xiii. c. iv. pt. 2 ) 
Honce the difTerence between the learned 
doctors on this subject. 

The author of the AMHt/-j-JatiiJt says it IH 
not advisable to teach girls to read and write 
and this us the general feeling amongst 
Miibammadans in all pam of the world, 
although it is considered right to enable 
them to recite IhoQur un and the liturgical 

The father or guardian is to be blamed who 
does not marry his daughter at an eaily age. 
for Muhammad is related to have said " It 
is written In the Beok of Moses, that who 
soever does not marry his daughter when Hh0 
I hath reached the age of twelve years is re 
sponsible for any sin she may commit." 

The ancient Arabs utfed to call the nngnh 
tliP: M lAUghturs of Ood." ;ind objected ttron^ly 
ns the Badawis do in the present day. to 
female otTspring, and they used lo/bnry their 
infant daughters a livu. Theae pr^cvkws Mu- 
hammad reprobates in the QUI- HQ. Surah xvi. 
59: ** And they ascribe daughters unlo H d ! 
Glory be to Him! But they desiro Ihem nol 
for themselves. For when the birth of a 
daughter i* auuouneecj to any one of them 
dark shadows setili- on his fac. e.and he is sad; 
ho hidolh him from the people bccaueo of 
the ill tidings. Shall be keep it with disgrace, 
or burv it in the dust ? Aro nol their judg 
ments wrong ? 

Mr. HoUw^ll remariia on this verse : "1 hua 
Kat)binistn teaches that to be a woman is a 
groHl degradation. The Tnodern Jow says in 
biH Daily l^-ttyers. fol. . r ,. <;, - v 13iessedai-tlhou, 
(> Lord our O<jd ? King of tbn Univei^ ! wlio 
hath not made unr- a \\uujan" 

DUMAtl (**,*}. A lorrifitfd town 

held by theChrist-irtii d.iof Ukaidar, who was 
defeated ly the Muslim general Klmlid. and 
by him converted to Muhftmmadamsm, A.M. 9 
I .nl the mercenary character of TJkaidar s 
conversion led him to revolt afti r Muham 
mad s death XMuir s Life of Muhm/tet. vol 
iv. p. 191.) 

DA V I D . Arabic Dawvd, or 

Duuuil. A king of Israel and a 1 i-ophet 
to whom God revealed the Zabifr, or Book 
of Psalms. [ZABUH.] Ho bn& no special 
title or Ifalimnfi, as all Muslims are agreed 
that he was not a law-giver or the founder 
of a dispensation. The account of him in 
the Qur an is exceedingly meagre. It is 
given ns follows, with the commentator - 
remarks traslald in italic* by Mr. Lane : 

An<l God gave him (DttvtJ) the kingship 
over tin r/if/c/rcfi of [fratt, aud wisdom, after 
the death of Samuel and Sau/, and they 


[namely these two gifts] had not been given 
together to any one before him ; and He taught, 
him what He pleased, as the art of making 
coats of mail, and the language of birds And 
were it not for God s repelling men, one by 
another, surely the earth had becom* corrupt j 
by the predominance of the pofytfai*t* and the 
slaughter of the Muslims "W ike ruin of the 
places of worship: but God is beneucent to 
the peoples, and hath repelled some by others* 
(Surah ii. 227.) 

" Hath the story of the two opposing parties 
come onto thee, when they ascended over the 
walls of the orutory of David^ having been pre 
vented going in unto him by the door, because of 
his being engaged in devotion? . When they 
went in unto David, and he wag frigM*ned at 
them, they euid. Fear not: we are two oppos 
ing parties, .ft is said that they were two 
parties of more than one each \ and it is said 
that they- were two individuals, c/tiyela, ivho 
varne as ttao litigants, to admoniah DavirL ivho 
had ninety -nine vrives, and had desired the wife 
of a person why had none but her, and married 
her and taken her as his wife. [One of them 
said.J One of us hath wronged the other ; 
therefore judge between us with arufch, and 
be not unjust, but direct? us into the righ*-- 
way. Vorily this my brother in religion liar 
nine -and -ninety ewes, and I had owe ewe ; anc 
he said, Make me her keeper. And he over 
came me in the dispute. And the other con 
fessed him to have spoken truth. [David] 
said, Verily he hath wronged thee in demand 
ing thy ewe to add her to his. ewes ; and verily 
many associates wrong one another except 
those who believe and do righteous deeds : 
and few indeed are they. -And Lhe two angel& 
said, ascending in their [proper or assumed] 
forms to heaven* The man hath passed sentence 
aycinst himself. So David was admonished. 
And David perceived that We had tried him 
by his tne of that woman ; wherefore he asked \ 
pardon of his Lord, and fell down bowing 
himself (or prostrating himself}, and repented. 
So We forgave him that ; and verily for him 
[was ord tuned] a high rank with Us (that is. 
an increase of good fortune in this world), and 
[there shall be for him]) an excellent retreat i 
in the >w>rld to come." (Surah xxxviii. 20-^24.) 

" We compelled the 7nounUin,s to glorify 
Us, with David, and the birds also, on his com 
manding them to do so, when he experienced 
languor ; and We did this. And We taught 
birn the art, of making coats of mail (for 
before his time plates of metal were used) for 
you oniony mankind in general, that they 
might defend you from your suffering in 
warring with your Will ye then, 
people of Mecca, be thankful for Afy 
favours, believing the apostles r" Surah xxi. 
79, 80.} 

Sale observes that Yahyathe commentator, 
most rationally understands hereby the divine 
revelations which David received from God, 
and not the art of making coats of mail, 
The fause of his applying himself to this. art 
is thus related in the Miriiiu z-Zaman : He 
used to go forth in disguise : and when he 
found any people who knew him not. he ap 


preached them and aaked them respecting 
the conduct of David, and they praised him 
and prayed for him ; but one day, as he was 
asking questions respecting tiiniseif as usual, 
God sent to him an angel in th form of a 
human being, who said. " An excellent man 
were David if he did aot take from th*- public 
treasury." Whereupon the heart of Oavid 
was contracts, and he begged ot God to 
render him independent : so He made iron soft 
to him, and it became in hia bands as thread : 
and he used to sell a coat of mail for fou 
thousand [pieces of rnoney whether gold o 
silver is not said], and with part of this he 
obtained food for himself, and pail he gave in 
alms, .and with part he fed his family- Hen^e 
an excellent coat of mail fs often (failed by 
the Arabs " Dawudi." i.e. " Davidean." (See 
Lane s translation of Th* Thousand and One 
Nights, chap. yiii. note 5.) 

David, it is said, divided his time regularly, 
setting apart one day for the service of God, 
another day for rendering justice to his 
people, another day for preaching to them, 
and another day for his own affairs. 

.DA WA (^^). A claim in a law 
suit. A claim or demand. (See Hamilton s 
Hidayah, vol. iii. p. 63.) 

DA< WAH (V*>). Lit. " A call, in- 
vocation (i.e. of God s help)." A term used to 
express a system of incantation which >s held 
to be lawful by orthodox Muhamma.dans ; 
wnilst sihr, " magic," and Kahdnah. * fortune - 
celling," are said to be unlawful, the Pro 
phet baviug forbidden both. 

From the Muslim books Jt appears chat 
Muhammad is believed to nave sanctioned the 
use of spells and incan^tionK. so iong as the 
words n.sed were only those of the names ot 
God, or of the good angels, and of the good 
genii ; although the more strict amongst 
them (the Wahhabis, for example,) would say 
that only an invocation of God Himself was 
lawful teaching which appears to be more 
in accordance with that of Muhammad, who 
is related to have said. " There is nothing 
wrong in using spells so long as you do not 
associate anything with God." (Mishlciit. xxi. 
c. i.) It is therefore clearly lawful to use 
charms and amulets on which tne name of 
God only is inscribed, and to invoke the help 
of God by any ceremony, provided no one is 
associated with Him. 

The science of da^wah has, rum.-**-:, ^een 
very much elaborated, and in many respects 
its teachers seem to have departed from the 
original teaching of their Prophet on the sub 

In India, the moat popular work on da wak 
is the Jawdhint t-Khamsah, by Shaikh Abu 
U-Muwayyid of Gujerat. A.n. 9o6, in which he 
says the science is used for the following 
purposes. (1) To establish friendship or 
enmity between two persons. (2) To cause 
the cure, or the sickness and death, of a per 
son. (3) To secure the accomplishment of 
one s wishes, both temporal and spiritual, 
(4) To obtain defeat or victory in battle. 


Thin book is largely made up of Hindu 
customs which, in India, have become part of 
Muhamuiadanism ; but we shall endeavour 
to confine ourselves to a consideration of 
those sections -which exhibit the so-called 
science as it exists in its relation to Islam. 

In order to explain this occult science, we 
shall consider it under the following divisions: 

1. The qualifications necessary for the JwiY, 
or the person who practices it. 

2. The tablos required by the teacher, and 
their uses. 

3. An explanation of the terms nifdb t xakat, * 
ushr. qtifl, daur, bazl, khatm, and sari u Y- 

ijdoa/i, and their uses. 

4. The methoda employed for commanding 
the presence of the genii. 

I. When anyone enters upon the study of the 
science, he must begin by paying the utmost 
attention to cleanliness. No dog, or cat, or 
any stranger, is allowed to enter his dwelling- 
place, and he must purify his house by burn 
ing wood-aloes, pastiles, and other sweet- 
scented perfnmes. He must take the utmost 
care his body is in no way defiled, and he 
nnist bathe and perform the legal ablutions 
constantly. A most important preparation 
for the exercise of the art is a forty-days fast 
(chillu}, when he must sleep on a mat spread 
on the ground, sleep as little as possible, and 
not enter into general conversation. Exor 
cists not unfrequently repair to some cave or 
retired spot in order to undergo complete 

The diet of the exorcist must depend upon 



the kind of asma, or names of God he intends 
to recite. If they are the asmau l-jaidliyak, 
or " terrible attributes " of the Almighty, then 
he must refrain froui.tlie use of meat, fish, 
egg^ honey, and musk. If they are the 
uxma u l-JamUfyakt or " amiaile attributes, 
he must abstain from butter, curds, vinegar, 
salt, and ambergrise. If he intends to recite 
both attributes, ho must then abstain from 
such things as garlic, onions, and assafoetida. 

It is also of the utmost importance that the 
exorcist should eat things which are lawful, 
always speak the truth, and not cherish a 
proud or haughty spirit. He should be care 
ful not to make a display of his powers before 
the world, but treasure up in his bosom the 
knowledge of his acquirements. It is con 
sidered very dangerous to his own life for a 
novice to practice the science of exorcism. 

II. Previous to reciting any of the names 
or attributes of God for the establishment of 
friendship or enmity in behalf of any person, 
it is necessary to ascertain the initials of his 
or her name in the Arabic alphabet, which 
letters are considered by exorcists to be con 
nected with the twelve signs of the zodiac, 
the seven planets, and tho four elements. 
The following tables, which are taken from the 
Javjdhiru l-Khamsah, occur, in a similar form, 
in all books on exorcism, give the above com 
binations, together with the nature of the per 
fume to bo burnt, and the names of the presid 
ing genius and guardian angel. These tables 
may be considered the key to the whole 
science of exorcism. 

Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abjad [ABJAD], 
with their respective number. 

1 1 

2 V 

3 e 

4 o 

5 4 

The J^peoial Attributes or Names 
of God. 





./ami . 




The Number 01 the Attribute. 






Tiie Meaning 01 the Attiibute. 






The Glass of the Attribute. 



Terrible & 



The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements. (Arba ah <And?ir.) 



Water. Earth. 


The Perfume of the Letter. 

Black Aloes 



Red Sandal. 


The Signs of the Zodiac. 





If omul. 

The Planets. 
i Kuwakib.) 






The Genii- (Jmn.) 

Qayupush.j Danush. 

. Nulush. 



The Guardian Angels. (M uvntklrit.} 









Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abjod [AB.TU/], 
with theii respective number 

6 ) 

7 3 


9 1 


10 ^ 

The Special Attributes or Names 
of God. . 








The Number of the Attribute. 






The Meaning of the Attribute. 






The Class of the Attribute 



^ornbiut fl. 



The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements. 
(Arba l ah <And$ir.) 






The Perfume of the Letter. 






The Signs of the Zodiac. 






The Planets. 
(Kctwdkib ) 

1 Uif md. 






The Genii. (Jinn.) 






The Guardian Angel. 


Sharka il. 


Tshma Tl. 

Saraklka il. 

Letter? of the Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abjad [ABJAD]. 
with their respective number 

20 csJ 

30 j 

40 p 

.-.o o 


The Special Attributes or Names 
of God. 









The Number of the Attribute. 






The Meaning of the Attribute. 






The Class of the Attribute. 






The Quality, "Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements, 
("Arba uh Mna.vz r.) 






The Perfume of the Letter. 

White rose 



Hyacii th 

kind R of 

The Signs of the Zodiac 





I Aon. 



Arche . 

The Planets. 

( K(t,ii (ikib.) 







The Genii. (Jinn.} 





Fa y" sh. 

The Guardian Angels. 
( Mutuakkil * 

Kharura il. 

Tata il. 

Buya ii. 

1 Hula il. 





Letters of the Alphabet ursngfltl 
according to the Abftul [ABJAD], 
with their respective number. 


80 ^ 

00 ^ 

100 j 

200 } 

The Special Attribute* or Nmc* 
of God. 










The Number of the Attribute 






The Meaning of iho Attribute. 






The Class of the Attribute. 



Terii ble. 



The Quality, Vie-, ov Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements. 
(Arba k ah Anusir ) 






The Perfume of the Letter 






The Signs of the Zodiar. 
( Bur il j.) 







The Planets. 






Von us 



The Genii. 






The Guardian Angels. 

Luma il 

Surhma il. 


Itra il 


Letters of the. Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abjud [ABJAD], 
with their respective number 

300 Jh 

4(X) ^-j 

500 i, 

000 t 

The Special Attributes or Names 
of God. 







The Number of the Attribute. 





Tbe Moaning of the Attribute. 





The Class of Lh? Attribute. 





The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
! the Letter. 





1 The Elements. 
{Arb*ah Aiiatir.) 





The Pcriucne of the Letter. 

White Aloes. 


White Aloes 


The Signs of the Zodiac. 
( Buritj.) 

A grab. 

Watering Pot. 



The Planets. 






The Genii. (Jinn.) 





The GuarJiutj Angels. 

Amra iL 



Mfka il. 




Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
acco rding to the Abjad [ABJAD], 
with their respective number. 

700 j 

800 ^6 

900 t 

1000 ^ 

The Special Attributes or Names 
of God. 





rs -i 



,The Number of the Attribute. 





The Meaning of the Attribute. 





The Class of the Attribute. 





The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 





The Elements. 
(Arba cth Andfir. ) 





The Perfume of the Letter. 





The Signs of the Zodiac. 






The Planets. 



l Utarid. 



The Genii. 





The Guardian Angel. 


Ata iL 

Nura IL 

Nukha fl, 

The sex of the signs of the Zodiac (buruf) has been determined as in the following table. 
Between males and females exists friendship;, between males and hermaphrodites sometimes 
friendship sometimes enmity; between females and hermaphrodites the most inveterate 
enmity : - 


. Burj-i-Savr. Twins . 

. Burj-i-Afizdn. Virgin 
, Burj-i-Saratcin. Goats . 
Pot . 



. Bwrj-i-Hamal. 

Bull . 


. Burj-i-A&ad. 

Scales . 


. Burj-i- Aqrab. 

Crab . 

Fish . 

. Burj-i-Hut. 
. Burj-i-Qaus. 

Burj-i- Sumbulah . 
Bwj i-Jady. 


Astrologists have determined the relative dispositions of the planets (kawaklb) to be as 
follows : V 









> Friendship. 



Jup iter 





\ Mixed Friendship and 
> Enmity or Indiffer- 
) enee. 











C Enmity. 


The four elements (arba ah anusir) stand in relation to each other as follows : 


Water and Water. 
Fire and Firo. 

art.h and Earth. 
Air and Air. 

V Friendship. 

Fire and Air. 

Air and Water. 

) Mixed Friendship and 
) or Indifference. 


Fire and Water. 
Fire and Earth. 

Earth and Water. 

I Enmity 

As an illustration of the use of these tables, 
two persons, Akram and Rahimah, conteiu- 
plato a matrimonial alliance, and wish to 
know if it will bo a happy union or other 

The exorcist must first ascertain if the 
elements (iwlaftth andsir). the BIJTOS of the 
zodiac (buruj ), Jtnd the planets (Icfiwakib) , are 
amicably or inimitably disposed to each other 
in the cases of these two individuals, and also 
if there is a combination expressed in the ism 
or name of God connected with their initial 

In the present instance the initial letter of 
Akram is alif, and that of Rahimah, rd, and 
a reference to the foregoing tables will pro 
duce the following results : 

Akram. Rahimah. 

Initial letter. 

Alif V. 


The quality of 

the letter. 



The element. 



The attribute. 



Tho quality of 

the attribute. 



The planet. 



The sign of the 


The ram. 

The virgin. 

The perfume. 

Black aloes. 

Rose water. 

The genius. 



The angel. 



In considering this case, the exorcist will 
observe that there is a combination in the 
attributes of God, both belonging to the asmtfu 
Ljaldliya/i, or terrible attributes- There is also 
a combination in the quality of the letters, 
both implying friendship. Their respective 
planets, Saturn and Mercury, show a combi 
nation of either mixed friendship and enmity, 
or, perhaps, indifference. The sign of the 
zodiac, the ram being a male, and that of the 
virgin a hermaphrodite, show a possible alter 
nation of friendship and enmity between the 
parties. Tho elements, fire and earth, being 
opposed, imply enmity. It therefore appear* 
that there will be nothing agfcinfitthesetwoper- 
Sona, Akram and Rahimah forming a matrimo 
nial alliance, and that they may reasonably ex 
pect as much happiness from their union as 
usually falU to the lot of the Human race. 
Should the good offices of the exorcist be re 

quested, he will, by incantation, according 1 to 
the table given, appeal to the Almighty a.s 
Allah and Rabb, all in the aid o( the ^.snii 
Qayupush and Rahuah, and of the guardian 
angels, Israfil and Amwakil. The perfume* he 
will burn in his numerous will be black 
aloes a.nd roso-water, and so bring about a 
speedy increase in the happiness of the per 
sons of Akram and Rahimah ! 

III. As we have ; lrady explained, the in 
cantations used by exoroists consist in tho 
recital of either the names or attributes of 
God, or of certain formulae which are given ir 
books on the subject. In tho Jauiahiru /- 
KkamsaJif there were many forms of incanta 
tion, but wo select the following one to illus 
trate the subject : 

Sutbhtinaku / Id ildha illd onto, ! fiabba- 
atin ! wa wdri&ahu, ! wa rdziqaJiu ! ioa 
rdfamahu ! 

Glory be to Thee ! There is no deity but 
Thee! Tho Lord of All I and the Inheritor 
thereof I and the Provider therefor ! and the 
Merciful thereon 1 

This incantation consists of forty-four 
letters, exclusive of vowel points, as is shown 
by tho following table : 














































DA* W All 









La in 








"H am x ul i 







































In reciting such an invocation, units are 
reckoned as hundreds, ten s as thousaad-s, hun 
dreds as tens of thousands, and thousands as 
hundreds of thousands. 
In the above formula 

Its ni?db, or fixed estate, is tho 
number of letters (i.e. 46) put 
into thousands = . . . 4,500 
Its zakdtf or alms, in tho half ol 
the nifdb added to itself, 
4,500 and 2,250= C,75.t> 

Its Mft-A?-, or tithes, is half of the 
above half added to the nfikai^ 
6,750 and 1,125= 7,875 

Cts qitfl, or lock, is hall of 1,125- 568 
I ts daur, or circle, is obtained by 
adding to its qufl the sum of 
the ushr and theii doubling 

r he. total : 




Its bitzi t or gtft, io the h*ed 

number , 
In khatm, oi seal, is the fixed 

It a sari u l-ijdbak, or speedy 

answer, is the fixed number 





After the exorcist has recited tho formula 
tho above number of times, he should, in 
order to make a reply more certam, treble 
the ni$db, making it 135,000, and then add 
2,613, the value of the combined number of 
letters, making n total of 187,613 recitals. 
Tho number of these recitals should be divided 
as nearly as possible in equal parts for each 
day s reading, provided it be completed within 
forty days. By a rehearsal of these, says our 
author, the mind of the exorcist becomes com 
pletely transported, and, whether ustaep or 
awake, he finds himself accompanied by 
spirits and genii (jinn) to the highest heavens 
nd the lowest depths of earth. These spirits 
then reveal to him hidden mysteries, and 
render souls and spirits obedient to the will 
of the exorcist. 

IV. If the exorcist wish to command the, 
presence of genii in behalf of a certain person, 
it is generally supposed to be effected in tho 
folio win* manner. He must, first of ail, shut 
himself up in a room and fast for forty days, 
lie should besmear the chamber with reicf 
ochre, and, having purified himself, should sil 
on a small carpet, and proceed to call the 
genius or demon. He must, however, firsl 
Knd out what special genii are required to 
effect his purpose. If, for example, he is 
about to call in the aid of these spirits in be 
half of a person named Bahrain (tU$>) he will 
find out, first, the special genii presiding over 
the name, the letters of -which are, omitting 
the vowel points, B H R A M Upon refer 
ence to the table it will be seen tbat they are 
Danush, Hush, Rahush. Qayupiish, and Maj- 
bush. He must then ilud out what are the 
special names of God indicated by these 
letters, which we Una in the fcabloarea/-/>Yjf/, 
" the Eternal," al-Had~i, - the Guide," ar-lfabb 
"the Lord," Allah, "God," al-Maltt, " the 
King," He must then ascertain the power of 
the letters, indicating the number of times for 
the recital, which will be thus j 

B, 2 equal to 200 

H. 5 500 

R, 200 20,000 

A. 1 100 

M, 40 ., 4,000 


* 1.800 

The exorcist should then, in order to call 
in Ute help oi the genii, recite the following 
formula, not fewer than 24,800 times: 

YS Dannshu! for the sake of the Eternal 

Ya Hiishu ! for the sake of the Guide 1 

Ya Rahushu! for the sake of the Lord ! 

Va Qayupushu 1 for the sake of Allah ! 

Ya Majbusbu ! for the sake of the King I 

The exorcist will perform this recital with 
his face turned towards the house of the 
object he wishes to Affect, and bum the per 
fumes indicated according to the tatle for th 
letters of Bauram u name. 

There are very many other methods of 
performine this exorcism, but the foregoing 
will sn/lice is A specimen of tho kind of set 
( MAG re. J 


DAY. The Muhammadan day 

commences at<vin-*ot; our Thursday oven- 
ing, for example- be i\x tho beginning of the 
Muslim Friday. The Arabic Ywtm denotes 
th;< day of hours, and X<r/</\ tho 
day in coMtvmli-itiuc-tiori to the night (fail). 
The day-- i f tho week aro as follows : 

Y futnu I tiluifl. liri-.t -d;iy. >iun!:iy. 

YcNUitU l-isnttin. secoili; ilay. M":;il i\. 

Yt/t/wu ..-.saA/.syF, third day, Tue>ri;iy. 

Yuumit 7- nrha\ fourth day, Wednesday. 

Yavrnu V-A Art/w/x, Thursday. 

Yuuinu l-j ini-uh. Day ->f Assembly, Friday. 

\<tumu s-sabt, Sabbath -day, Saturday. 

Of tin- days of the week, Monday, Wednes 
day, Thursday, and KrMay, are estceuied 
good nnd -luspi -i. us : the others evil. 
(Qaniin-i-/y,/di/i, p. 40;-5.) Friday is the spe 
cial day appointed by Muhammad for meet 
ing in the chief mosque for public worship. 



PEATH. Arabic Maut; Wa/Oi. 
It is distinctly taught 1-1 the Qur iui that 
tho horn- of -loath is fixed for every living 

Surah xvi. 03 : "If God were to punish men 
for their wrong-doing, Hu \vould not leave on 
the earth n singlo living creature ; but He 
respites thorn until a stated time : and when 
their time comes they cannot delay it an 
hour, nor ran they hasten it." 

Surah iii. 182: -Every poul must taste 
death, and ye shall ouiy be paid your hire on 
the day of resurrection." 

Surah L 17 : " The agony of death shall 
oomc in truth, that is what thon didst shun." 

In the Traditions, Muhammad has taught 
that it is sinful to wish for cleat, 11 : - Wish not 
for death, not even if thoxi art a doer of good 
works, for poradventure thou mayest increase 
them with an increase of life. N or even if 
thon art a pinner 1 , for with increase of life 
thou inayest obtain God s pardon." 

One day the Prophet said: ""Whosoever 
loves to meet God, God will love to mo>. t him. 
and whoever dislikes to meet God. God ^"U 
dislike to meet him." Then ^Ayishah said. 
" Truly we all dislike death and consider it & 
great affliction." The Prophet rcplii.-d, " Thou 
dost not understand me. When deutu 
near a bolievcr, then God gives him n spirit of 
resignation, and so it is that there is nothing 
which a believer likes so much as d<"ith. 

Al-Bara ibn Azib, ono of tho Companions, 
says : 

" I came, out with the Prophet at the 
tunerai of one -f iho assistants, and we arrived 
just .it the grave, before thoy hud. interred 
Uie body, anc 1 the Prophet sat down, c.nd we 
sat around aim with our heads down, and 
were so silent, thai you might sav that birds 
were sitting upon our heads. And thoro was 
a stick in .lie Prophet s hand with which he 
kept striking the ground. Then he raised his 
Dead ind said twice QJ thrice to his compa- I 
nions, Seek the protection of God froru the 



punishments of the gi.ive. After that In- 
said: Verily, when ; Muslim separat.-th 
from the world aud bringeth his soul to futu 
rity, angels descend to him from tho i-elostml 
regions, whose faces aro white. You might 
.say thoir faces aro the sun, and they have .< 
shroud of tho shrouds of paradise, and pe> 
fumes therefrom. So thoy sit apart from the 
deceased, as far as the eyes can Ree. After 
which the Angel of Death (Mnhiku l-Mfittt) 
comes to tho deceased and sits at his head, 
and says, O pure soul, come forth to God s 
pardon and pleasure. 1 Then the soul comes 
out, issuing like water from a bag, and the 
Angol of Death takos it ; and when he takes 
it, tho angels do not allow it to remain in his 
hands for the twinkling of an eye. But when 
the Ansfel of Death has taken the soul .f a 
servant of God, he resigns it to hit* assistants, 
in whose hands is a shroud, and they put It 
into the shroud and with the perfumes, when 
a fragrance issues from tho >-oul like tho smell 
of tho best musk that is to be found on tho 
face of tho earth. Thou the angels carry it 
upwards, and they do not pass by any con 
course of angels who do not say, WiiaL i 
1 Iiis pure RouJ, and who is owner of it ? " An- 
they say, " Such a one, the son of such a ^>ne 
<-alling him by the best names by whi -h in- 
was known in the world, till they reach tho 
lowest region of heaven with him. And tho 
angels ask the door to be opened for him, 
which is done. Then angel.s follow it through 
ea" h heaven, tho angel of one region, to thoso 
oi the next, and so on till it roaches the 
seventh heaven, when God says, Write lh< 
name of My servant in Illiyun, and i - eturr; 
him towards the eartn, that is, to his bodv 
which is buried in the earth, benause I hav>; 
created man from earth and return him to it, 
and will hrmg him out from it again as I 
brought him out at iirst." Then tho SQU!S ar- 
returned into their bodies, when two angels 
[MI NK.AK ana NAKIK] come to the dead man 
and cause him to sit up, ana say to him, 
Who is thy Lord ? " Ho replies, - r My Lo. d 
is God." Then they say, " What is thy reli 
gion? He says, "Islam." Then iney say, 
What is this mau who is sent to you ? " (i.?. 
the Prophet). He says, " He is the Prophet 
of God." Then they say, "What is your proof 
of his mission,;" He says, * i read tiie book 
of God, and believed in it, and 1 proved it to 
be true." Then a voice ealN mit from tho 
culc.stial region.- , * AIv servant hath spoken 
trur>, therefore thro., for him a bed from 
Paradise, and dress him in clothes from Para 
dise, and open a door for him towards Para 
dise. Then peace and perfumes come for 
him from Paradise, and his grave is enlarged 
for him as far as the eye can bee. Then a 
man with a beautiful face comes to itin.i, 
elegantly dressed, aud perfumed, and he says, 
Be joyful in that which hath made thee, so. 
this is the day which was promised thee. 
Then the dead person says to him, ; " Who art 
thou, for thy face is perfectly beautiful ? : Aru. 
the man replies, "I am thy good deeds." 
Then the dead person cries out, "O Lord, 
hasten the resurrection for my s.ike ! " 



" But, continued the Prophet, * when an 
infidel dies, and is about to pass from the 
world and bring his soul to futurity, black- 
faced angels come down to him and with 
them sackcloths. Then they sit from the 
dead as far, as the eye can see, after which 
the Angel of Death conies in order to sit at 
his head, and says. " impure soul ! come 
forth to the wrath of God." Then the soul is 
disturbed in the infidel s body. Then the 
Angel of Death draws it out as a hot spit is 
drawn out of wet wool 

"* Then the Angel of Death takes the soul 
of the infidel, and having taken it, the angels 
do not allow It to remain with him the twink 
ling of an eye, but they take it in the sack- 
oloth, and a disagreeable smell issues from 
the soul, like that of the most fetid carcass 
that can be met with upon the face of the 
earth. Then the angels carry it upwards and 
do not pass by any assembly of angels who 
do not ask whose filthy soul is this. They 
answer such an one, the son of such an one, 
and they mention him by the worst names 
that he bore in the world, till they arrive 
with it at the lowest heaven, and call the door 
to be opened, but it cannot be done. Then 
the Prophet repeated this verse : The doors of 
the celestial regions shall not bte opened for them, 
nor shall they enter into paradise till a camel 
passes through the eye of a needle. 1 Then God 
says, * Write his history in Sijjm, which is the 
lowest earth ; then his soul is thrown down 
with violence. Afterwards the Prophet re 
peated this verse : Unite no partner with 
God, for wjtoever unite th tjods with God is like 
that which fatteth from high, and the birds 
snatch it away, or the wind wafleih it to a dis 
tant place. Then his soul is replaced in his 
body, and two angels [MUHKAR and XAKIR] 
come to him and set him up, and say, Who 
is thy Lord ? He says, Alas ! alas ! I do 
not know. Then they say, What is thy 
religion ? He says, Alas ! alas ! I do 
not know.* And they say to him, What is 
the condition of the man who is sent down to 
you ? He says, * Alas ! alas ! I do not know. 1 
Then a voice conies from above, saying, He 
lieth ; therefore spread a bed of fire for him 
and open a door for him towards hell. Then 
the heat and hot winds of hell come to him, 
and his grave is made tight upon him, so as to 
squeeze his ribs. And a man with a hideous 
countenance comes to him shockingly dressed, 
of a vile smell, and ho says, * Be joyful in 
that which maketh thee miserable ; this is 
the day that was promised thee. Then the 
dead man says, Who art thou ? Thy face 
is hideous, and brings wickedness. He says, 
I am thy impure actions. Then the dead 
person says, Lord, delay the resurrection 
on my account! " 

The ceremonies attendiug the death of a 
Muslim are described as follows by Jafir 
Sharif in Herklot s Qanun-i-Jsldrn, as fol 

Four or live days previous to a sick man s 
approaching his dissolution, he makes his will 
in favour of his son or any other person, in the 
presence of two or more -witnesses, and either 


delivers it to others or retains it by him. In 
it he likewise appoints his executor. When 
about to expire, any learned reader of the 
Qur an is pent for, and requested to repeat 
with a loud voice the Surah Ya Sin (or chap, 
xxxvi.), in order that the spirit of the man, 
by the hearing of its sound, may experience 
an easy concentration. It is said that when 
the spirit was commanded to enter the body 
of Adam, the soul having looked into it once, 
observed that it was a bad and dark place, 
and unworthy of its. presence! Then the 
Just and Most Holy God illuminated the body 
of Adam with " lamps of light," and com 
manded the spirit to re-enter. It went in a 
second time, beheld tbe light, and saw the 
whole dwelling, and said, " There is no pleas 
ing sound here for me to listen to," It is 
generally understood from the best works of 
the mystics of the East, that it was owing to 
this circumstance that the Almighty created 
music. The holy spirit, on hearing the sound 
of this music became so delighted that it 
entered Adam s body. Commentators on the 
Qur an, expositors of the Traditions and 
divines have written, that that sound re 
sembled that produced by the repeating of 
the Suratu Ya Sin ; it is therefore advisable 
to read at the hour of death this chapter 
for tranquillizing the soul 

The Kalirnatu sh-shahadah [CREED] is 
also read with an audible voico by those 
present. They do not require the patient 
to read it himself, as at such a time he is 
in a distressing situation, and not in a fit 
state of mind to repeat tho Kalimah. 

Most people lie insensible, and cannot even 
speak, but the pious retain their mental facul 
ties and converse till the very last. The fol 
lowing is a moat serious religious rule amongst 
us, viz. that if a person desire the patient to 
repeat the Kaliruah, and the sick man ex 
pire without being able to do so, his faith is 
considered dubious; whilst the man who 
directed him so to do thereby incurs guilt. 
It is therefore best that the sitters-by read 
it, in anticipation of the hope that the sick 
man, by hearing the sound of it, may bring 
it to his recollection, and repe&t it either aloud 
or in his own mind. In general, when a per 
son is on tho point of death, they pour &har- 
hat, made of sugar and water, down his throat, 
to facilitate the exit of the vital spark, and 
some procure the holy water of the Kainzam 
well at Makkah. The moment the spirit has 
fled, the mouth is closed; because, if left 
open, it would present a disagreeable spec 
tacle. The two great toes are brought in 
contact and fastened together with a thin slip 
of cloth, to prevent the legs remaining apart 
They burn perfumes near the corpse. Should 
the individual have died in the evening, the 
shrouding and burial take place before mid 
night ; if he die at a, later hour, or should 
the articles required not be procurable at 
that late hour, he is buried early on the fol 
lowing morning. Tho sooner the sepulchral 
rites are performed the better, for it is not 
proper to keep a corpse long in the house, 
and for this reason the Prophet said that 


if he way a good man, the sooner he is buried 
the more quickly n# will reach heaven ; if a 
bad man, he should be speedily buried, in 
order that his unhappy lot may pqt fall upon 
others in the house ; as also that the relatives 
of the deceased may not, by holding the 
corpse, weep too much or go without food. 
There are male and female washers, whose 
province it is to wash and shroud the corpse 
for payment. Sometimes, however, the rela 
tives do it themselves. In undertaking the 
operation of washing, they dig a hole iu the 
earth to receive tho water used in the pro 
cess, and preveut its spreading over a large 
surface, aa some men and women consider it 
bad to tread on such water. Then they place 
the corpse on a bed, country-cot, plank or 
straw. Some women, who are particular in 
these matters, are afraid eVen to venture near 
the place where the body has been washed . 
Having stripped the corpse and laid it on its 
back, with its head to the east and feet to the j 
west, tbey cover it with a cloth reaching, if it 
be a man, from the navel to the calve* of the 
legs, if a woman, extending from the cheat to 
the feet and wash it with warm or ^ith cold 
water. Th/ raiae the body gently ind rub 
the abdomen four or five times, thon pour 
plenty of water, and -wash oF P. 11 the dirt and 
filth "with soap, <feo., by means of flocks of 
cotton or cloth ; after which, laying the body 
on the sides, they waeh them ; then the back, 
and thereat of the body ; but gently, because, 
life having but just departed, the body IK 
gtill warm and not insensible to pain. After 
this they wash and clean it well, so that no 
offensive smell may remain. They never 
throw water into the nostrils or mouth, but 
clean them with wicks of cloth or cotton. 
After that they perform wttxu for him, i.e. 
they wash his mouth, the two upper xtremi- 
ties up to the elbows, make numaf.i [MASAH] 
on his head, and throw water on bis feet ; 
these latter constituting the four parts of the 
wufii ceremony [ABLUTIONS], They then put 
some camphor witb water into a now large 
earthen pot, and with a new earthen pot 
they take out water and pour it three times, 
first from the head to the feet, then from the 
right shoulder to the feet, lastly from the left 
shoulder to the feet. Every time that a pot 
of water is poured the Kalimatv. itti^hahadah 
is repeated, either by the person washing or 
another. Having bathed the body and wiped 
it dry with a new piece of cloth, they put on 
the sbroud. The shroud consists of three 
pieces of cloth, if for a man, and five if for a 

Those for men comprise. 1st, a lungl, or 
tzar, reaching from the navel down to the 
knees or ankle-joints ; 2nd, a qamis, or 
kurta, or fl//; its length i* from the neck to 
the knees or ankles; 3rd, a lifa/ah, or sheet, 
from above the head to below the feet. 
Women have two additional pieces of cloth : 
one a sinah-band, or breast-band, extending 
from the arm-pits to above tho ankle- joints : 
the other a damni, which encircles the bead 
once and has its two ends dangling on each 
side, The manner ol shrouding is as follows 



having placed the shrouds on a new mat and 
fumigated them with the amoko of perfumes, 
the lifafah is spread first on the mat, over it 
the Itaigi or tzar, and above that the qami$ ; 
and on the latter the *inah-b>tnd, if it be a 
woman ; the damni is kept separate and tied 
on afterwards. The corpse must be care- 
t ully brought bjr itself from the place where 
it was bathed, and laid in the shrouds. Sur- 
mah is to be applied to the eyes with a tent 
made of paper rolled up, with a ring, or with 
a pice, and camphor to seven places, viz. on 
the forehead, including thenoso, on tbe palms 
of the bauds, on the knees "nd great toes, 
after which the different shrouds arts to be 
properly put on one after another as they lay. 
The colour of the shroud is to be white; no 
other is admissible It is of no consequence, 
htmevtr, if a coloured clotu is spread 
over the bior; which., after the funeral, or 
after the fortieth day, is given away to the 
fagir who resides in the bury ing-ground, or 
to any other person, in- charity. Previous to 
shrouding the body, they tear shreds from 
the cloths for the purpose of tying them on ; 
and after shrouding the body, they tie 9ne 
band above the head, a second below the feet, 
and a third about tho ohest, leaving about six 
or seven fingers 5 breadth of cloth above the 
head and below the feet, to admit of the ends 
being fastened. Should the relict of the 
deceased be present, they undo the cloth of 
the head and show her Ma face, and get her, 
in presence of two witnesses, to remit the 
dowry which he had settled upon her ; but it 
is preferable that she remit it while he is still 
alive. Should the wife, owing to journeying, 
be at a distance from him, she is to remit it 
on receiving the intelligence of his demise. 

Should his mother be present, she likewise 
says, " The milk with which I suckled thee I 
freely bestow on thee"; but this is merely a 
ctastom in India ; it is neither enjoined in 
books of theology nor by tho law of Islam. 
Then they place ou the corpse a flower -sheet 
or merely wreaths of flowers. [GRAVE, 


Miihammadiiii law admits of the evidence of 
death jivon m a court of justice being merely 
fry report 01 hearsay. The reason of this is 
that death is an event of such a nature a6 to 
admit, tho privacy only of a few. But some 
ha^e advanced that, in cases of death, the 
information of one man or woman is auf- 
Rcient, u because death. IB not seen by many, 
9ino, as it occasions horror, the sight of it is 

If a person say he was present at the burial 
of another, this amounts to the same as an 
actual sight of his death, (Hidayah, vol. iv. 
p, 673.) 

DEBT. In Muhammadan law 

there are two words used for debt, Dain 
((i**^)* or mone y borrowed with some fixed 
term of payment, and qurz (^^). or money 
lent without any definite understanding as to 





its repayment. Imprisonment, for debt is 
allowed. (Hidayah, vol. j i. p. 624.) 

Upon the decease of a debtor, the }w 
deroands that after the payment of the 
funeral expenses, his just debts must be paio 
before payment of legacies. 

To engage in a JihSd or religious war, is 
sajd by Muhammad to remit every sin except 
that of being in debt. [.MHAD, I>A*N, 

DECOKUM, or modesty of demea 
nour between the b^x^s, is srri^tly enjoined in 
Muslim law, and a special chapter is devoted 
to it in the Dw ru l~A!uk/ttor and oth . r works 
O"n law. 

A man is not allowed to look a* K. v/oman 
except at her hands *nd face nor is he ullov/ed 
bo touch her. Bataphysician is permitted to 
oxerciBe the rl-uH^ of his i>roi>ssio;i without 

A. judL Q "in the exercise of his olac^ may 
look in the face of a woman, awl v,-itnessc3 
ire uttder 1ht> sain*) necessity. 

DECREES OF COD, Tho. Arabic 
Barter or Taq&r. [pjiEucstm \TTON.J 

D?tfT/S v7ritt.en r/Cfds ave, ae- 
cording to Mtthammadan lav. or tbr?6 kinds: 
I. Mit9tabl/t+i-martMm, or re^-uUr docum*nrs, 
f;uch fiS are executed on paper, and h^-v* 1 
regular title, superscription, &c.. wbioh. are 
equivalent to oral, declarator whether th? 
person be nreJenl: -^r absant. "If. Muatobln -i- 
(jhoir-i-i iPrsuM. or irregii.U .v documents. 
such 33 ire not .<ritir-.ii on pnpw. bnt, u.pon a 
wall or th^ l-3f of a ires, or upon paper with 
out any title or ftuperscriptidn or signature 
IU. Chair- f-jHiisfr/bli-, writings which are 
not documents in any sense, such as are de 
lineated in the air or in the water by Hi* 
motions of n <imnb person. 

DFPENDANT. Arabic mvdda a 

upon him." 

The author of the Hidayah (vol. iii. p. 63> 
says a defendant is a person who, if he shouH 
wish to avoid the litigoiion. :s cunrelUble to 
sustain it S om? l-.nve defined e plaintiff, wit . 1 
respect to any .irficle of property, io he j 
7>:sO i ^vlio, from his bein<? disseized of fh : 
Said arVulp, hs co I ight to it but by ir-c 
establi-^unepJ.. ot proof; arU de;cnda;n io 
be a pel-son who has a p!ea cf n^h" ?o that 
article frora his seizing or posae^sion j/ it. 

The Imam Muhammad h;is ssid a 
defendant is a person who denies. This is 
correct ; hut it require;-, 3 skill and ki"nr ledge 
if jurisprudence to distinguish the J<-.ii9v iri 
n suit, as the reality and not the appaarance 
is efficient, and it frequently happens thnt a 
j.erson is iu appearance the plaintiff., whilst ;r 
raality he is ^he defendant. Thus, 9 trustee, 
when he .jnys no tho owijor of the deposit, " I 
hsiva restorcii t-o jro a vo ir (TepoaJt," appftuni 
) be j>la ; ;iti(t, inaswmch fs ho pk^i - h ?- 
utrn of ih-? deposit; \^ n\ re.ility hr> is >,he 
.atVndnnt, iirr-ij ^v ri-*nie6 the ob%fiin of 
"t3poii3ibility, and hence his asstition, COTO- 
buirtl< ii by an o^tir ; must l>c credited. 

T) E L I B E K A T I O N (Arabic 
ta anni ^^} is enjoined "by Mu 
hammad in the Traditions. We is related to 
have said, Deliberation in yoor ender- 
takings is pleasing to God; and hurry \fajalah) 
is pleasing to the devil." "Deliberation is 
bast in everything except in the things con 
cerning eternity." 

DELUGE, The. Arabic Tufa/i 
(cgtftjk). The story of the deluge is 
iven by Muhammad in his Quran: to the 
Arabians as a " secret history* revealed to 
then ;Surah xi. 51). The following are the 
allusioos to it in the Qiir Hn: 
Surah Ixix 11 : 

(< Wlie the Flood rase high, we bar* yo in 
the Ark, 

"That we might ;ike thai event a warn 
ing to you, ru tl .fit- ihe let airing ear might 
retain it." 

Stirah liv. 9 :~ 

"Before them the peuulo of Noth treated 
the truth a* -j li^, jr j*rvait did tiiey charge 
with falsehood, and s^id, ^Ddmoniac ! aud /he 
vas rejecled. 

"Th^n cric-d IIP to his Lord, * Verily, they 
prevail against me ; com* tliou therefore to 
my succour. 

" So we opened the gates of Heaven with 
water which fell in torrents. 

" And we caused the eartb ^o break tottli 
with springs, and thoir waters met by 

And we bare him on a vessel made with 
planks and nails. 

" Under our eyes it floated on : a recom- 
penGO fo him who had b^r-n rejected with un 

And we left jt a sign: but, is there any 
one who receives the warning ? 

ic And how great was my v^n^eance and toy 
menace ! " 

Surali <i. S3: 

" And it was revealed unto Noah : Verily, 
none of thy people shall believe, savo they 
who have bolieved already : ih"refere be not 
thou grieved at their doings- 

"But boild tho Ark ar>.-ir eur eye !jd 
Hfter our revelation : and pi* :c not with me 
for the evil doers, foi I u^v re to be 

" So he built the Ai-k ;. and whenever I he 
chiefs of his people pn >(! U^v theyriaughed 
him to scorn: said he, 4 Tb0Ufh ye laugh at 
us, we truly slio.ll laugii at yott, sver as ye 
Idugh at us ; and in the eud y shni) know 

" On whom a punishment uhall come in&t 
^hall shame him; and on whera shall light a 
lasting punishment/ 

"Tftiis was ft until our sentence came te 
pass, and th& earth s surface boiled up. We 
seid. Carry into it one pair of every kind, and 
thy family, except him on whom sentence 
bath before been passed, and those who have 
believed. Bnt there believed not with him 
*xcept a few. 

* And he said, Embark ye therein. In 
the name of CM be its coarse and its riding 




at anchor 1 Truly my Lord ia right Gra 
cious, Merciful 

And the Ark moved on with them amid 
waves like mountains: and Noah c;illd to 
his on for he was apart Embark with 
us, O my child! and be not with the un 

* He said, I will betake me to a mountain 
that shall secure me from the water. H* 
*aid, * None shall b* secure this day fit>m th 
decree of God, KA TO him on whom He shall 
have mercy. And a wavo passud between 
them, and M WHS among the drowued. 

"Audit was said, 6 Earth. sw.liow v.p 
thy water ; and cease, Heaven I And the 
wator abated, and the decree WAS fulfilled, 
and the Ark rested upon al-.Judl; and it w:x.s 
K-H, A vaunt ! ye tribe of the wicked ! 

" And Noah, called on hi* Lord and aid, 
U Lord! verily my son 13 >f my family : and 
!< rorniso is true, and Ihou art the most 
jut of judges.* 

H said, Noah 1 verily, lie ia not of thy 
family: in this thon aotest not aright. Ask 
JMI of me tiutt- whereof thou kuo\vest nought : 
1 wtuu thee that thou becomanot of tho igno 

He said. * To thee verily, uiy Lord, do I 
repair lest I ask that of thee w heroin I have 
no knowledge: unless iiiou /orgivo roe and 
be merciful to me I shall be one of the 

* Ifc wns SAJd to him. vj rfunU 1 fbhark with 
peace from Us, and with blessings ou thoe 
and on peopled from those who are with theo ; 
but as for part, we will suffer them to enjoy 
theniiclvcf:, but afterwards they shall suffer 
a grievous uuni^tneut from uto beiuflictod. 

* This is a secret history which -we reveal 
to theo. Thou didst not know them, thou nor 
thy people before this." 


DEPORTMENT. Arabi? t1mu 
l-mu d&fiuruk (iij4Aji*J\ ^4c). Persian 
nishffsf u Iwrkkasi. Tho Traditionists take 
some uin to explain the precise manner in 
which their jfoophel walked, sat, slept, and 
rose, but their .accounts are not always uni 
form and consistent. For example, \\hibit 
All bad relates that he saw tho Prophet 
I ueping on his back with one leg over the 
other. JuKir Bays the Prophet distinctly for- 
Kj io it. 

Modesty of deportment is enjoined in the 
) r un. .Surah xvii. 3ft: Walk not proudly 
on MIA fartt-," whicb tlie commentators say 
in">u that tiisbt>!iever 14 not to ty^s his head 
of his ?n.:c n3 ho walks. Surah ixv. 04: 

The ser/^nta of th^ Merciful Ono are thot>< 
v/Jio v.>... i,;, on tho earth lowly, and wh*n 
tJ- ignorflni . i dress thtui say, * Peace I" 

Pfu|7i ! I MubatniTjad Art }. t n> author 
of the c*>i-bratcd ethical work, ttw ^(li^ /-i- 
fo fi gives the .following advice an regards 
general <Jii>ortiniit: 

M should not hurry ;<a he >vlk^, lor 
that ).< a sign of levity ; neither should ho be 
unreasonably tardy, for that is a token of dul- 

ness. Let hiui neither stalk like the uver- 
bnaring, nor u^ttute himself in the way of 
woman ftnd eunuchs; but constantly observe 
the middle course. Let him avoid going 
often hack wards and forwards, for that be- 
tokons bewilderment ; and holding his head 
downwards, for that indicates a mind over 
come by sorrow and anxiety. In riding, no 
less, the same medium ia to be observed. 
Whon ho sits, let him not extend his feet, nor 
put one upon another. Ho must nevor knee] 
except in deference to his king, his preceptor. 
,nd his father, or other such person. Let 
him not rest his head on his knoe or his baud, 
for that is a mark of dejeotiou and indolence. 
Neither let him hold his neok awry, nor in 
dulge in foolish tricks, suoh as playing with 
his lingers or other joints. Let him avoid 
! wlsting round or stretching himself. In spit 
ting and blowing his nose, let him be oareful 
that no one sees or hears him ; that he blow 
it not towards the Qibiah,nor upon his hand. 
his skirt, or sieave-lappet. 

" Wheq he enters an assembly, let him sit 
neither lower nor higher than his proper sta 
tion. If he be himsHlf the head of the party, 
he can sit as he likes, for his place must be 
the highest where fer it may be. If he haa 
inadvertently taken a wrong place, let him 
exchange it for his own as soon as he dis 
covers his mistake: should his own be occu 
pied, he inu^t return without ititurbing others 
or annoying himself 

** In the presence 01 his male Or female 
domestics, let him never bare anything but 
his hands and his face: the parts from his 
knee to his navel let him never expose nt all ; 
neither in public nor private, oxcopt on occa 
sions of necessity for ^ablution and the like, 
( Vide Gen. ix. 20 : Lev", xvii, G, xx. 11 ; Deut. 
xxii. 30.) 

" Jle must not sleep in the presence of other 
persons, or lie on his back, particularly as 
the habit of snoring is thereby encouraged. 

" Should sleep overpower him in the midst 
of a party, let him get up, if possible, or else 
dispel tho drowsiness by relating some story, 
entering* on some debate, and the like. But 
if he is with a set of persons who sleep them 
selves, let him eithor bear them company or 
leave them. 

" The upshot of the whole is this : Let him 
so behave as not to incommode or disgust 
others ; and should any of these observances 
appear troublesome, let him reflect, that to 
be formed to their contraries would be still 
more odious and still more unpleasant than 
any pains which their acquirement may cost 
him." Afchlaq-i-Jatdli, Thompson s Transla 
tion, p. 292.) 

DEPOSIT (Arabic 

), pi. wadai ), in the kn^u:tu of 
the law, signifies a thing entrusted to the 
care of another. The proprietor of the thiij; 
is called mudi , or depositor; the person en 
trusted with it \s-muda ,or trustee, and the 
property deposited is wadi uh, which lite 
rally means the leaving of a tUntf wit r 


According to the Hidayufi, the following 
are thfe rules of Islam regarding deposits. 

A trustee is not responsible for deposit 
unless he transgress with respect to it. If 
therefore it be lost whilst it ia in his care, and. 
the loss has not been occasioned by any fault 
of his, the trustee has not to make good the 
loss, because the Prophet said, "on honest 
trustee is not responsible" 

A trustee may aieo keep the deposit him 
self or he may entrust it to another, provided 
the person is a member of his own family, 
but if he gives it to a stranger he renders 
himself responsible. 

If the deposit is demanded by the depo 
sitor, and the trustee neglects to give it up, 
it is a transgression, and the trustee becomes 

If the trustee mix the deposit (as of grain, 
il, Ac.) with his own property, iu such a 
manner that the property cannot be separated, 
the depositor can claim to share equally in 
the whole property. But if the mixture be 
the result of accident, the proprietor becomes 
a proportionate sharer in the whole. 

If the trustee deny the deposit upon de 
mand, he is responsible in case of the loss of 
it. But not if the denial be made to a 
stranger, because (says Abu Yusui)the denial 
may be made for the sake of preserving it. 

In the case of a deposit by two persons, 
the trustee cannot deliver to either his share, 
except it be in the presence of the other. And 
when two persons receive a divisible article in 
trust, each must keep one half, although these 
restrictions are not regarded when they are 
held to be inconvenient, or contrary to custom., 

DEVIL, The. The devil is believed 
to be descended from Jaun, the progenitor of 
the evil genii. He is said to have been named 
Azazil, and to have possessed authority over 
the animal and spirit kingdom. But when God 
created Adam, the devil refused to prostrate 
before him, and he was therefore expelled 
from Eden. The sentence of death was then 
pronounced upon Satan ; but upon seeking a, 
respite, he obtained it until 4ho Day of 
Judgment, when he will be destroyed. (Vide, 
Qur an, Surah vii. 13.) According to the 
Qu ran, the devil was created of fire, whilst 
Adam was created of clay. There are two 
words used in the Qur an to denote this great 
spirit of efil: (l; Shaitdn 

aii Arabic word derived from skatn,^ opposi 
tion," ... " one who ppposes ; (2) Iblis 
(u-sM, Sta/?oXos) "devil," from balas, a 
wicked or profligate person," i.e. the wicked 
one." The former expression occurs in the 
Qur an -fifty-two times, and the latter only 
nine, whilst in some verses (e.g. Surah ii. 32- 
84) the two words Shaitdn and Iblis occur 
for the same personality. According to the 
Afajma u I -Bikdr, shaitdn denotes one who is 
far from the truth, and iblls one who is with 
out hope 

The folio wing is the teaching of Muhammad 
n the Traditions concerning the machinations 
of the devil (Mishkat, book i c. iii.): 


" * Verily, the devil enters into man as the 
blood into his body. 

" * There is not one amongst you but has an 
angel and a devil appointed over him. The 
Companions said, * Do you include yourself in 
this ? He said, Yes, for me also ; but God 
has given me victory over the devil, and he 
does not direct me except in what is good. 

" There is not one of the children of Adam, 
except Mary and her son (Jesus), but is 
touched by the devil at the time of its birth, 
hence the child makes a loud noise from the 

" Devil rests his throne upon the waters, 
and sends his armies to excite contention and 
strife amongst mankind ; and . those in his 
armies who are nearest to him in power and 
rank, are those who do the most mischiof, 
One of them returns to the devil and says, 
* I have done so and so and be says, You 
have done nothing ; after that another comes, 
and says. *ldid not quit him till I made a 
division between him and his wife ; then the 
devi! appoints him a place near himself, and 
says, You are a good assistant. 

" The devil sticks close to the sons of 
Adam, and an angel also ; the business of the 
dovil is to do evil, and that of the angel to 
teach him the truth : ami he who meets with 
truth and goodness in his mind, let him know 
it proceeds from God, and let him praise God ; 
and he who finds the other, let him seek for 
an asylum from the devil in God. 

" Then the Prophet read this verse of the 
Qur an : The devil threatens you with 
poverty ii ye bestow hi charity ; and orders 
you to pursue avarice ; but God promises you 
grace and abundance from charity/ 

" Daman said , O Prophet of God! indeed 
the devil intrudes himself between me and 
nay prayers, and my reading perplexes me. 
Then the Prophet said, * This is a demon 
called Khanzab, who casts doubt into prayer : 
whon you are aware of it, take protection 
with God, and spit over your left arm three 
times. Us.maYJ said, Be it so ; and all 
donbt and perplexity waa dispelled." 

DEVIL, The Machinations of the. 

DIBAOHAH <X*Wo). "Tanning.* 

According to the Traditions, tho skins of 
animals are unclean until they are tanned. 
Muhammad said, " Take nothing for any 
animals that shall have died until you tan 
their skins. * And again, " Tanning purifies. 
(Mishkdt, book iii. c. xi. 2.) 


DIN ((^o). The Arabic word for 

" religion." It is used especially for the reli 
gion of the Prophets and their inspired books, 
but it ie also used for idolatrous religion. 

DINAR G^)-. Greek 
A gold coin of one misqdf weight, or ninety- 
six barley grains, worth about ten shillings 




According to Mr. Hussey (Ancient Weights, 
p. 142^, the average weight of the* Roman 
denarii, at the end of tht Commonwealth was 
sixty grains, whilst the English shilling con 
tains eighty grains. Mr, Lane, in his Arabic 
dictionary, says, "its weight is soventy-one 
barley-corns and a half, nearly, reckoning the 
daniq as eight grains of wheat and two-fifths ; 

but if it bo said that tha daniq is eight grains 1 
of wheat, then the dinar is sixty- eight grains 
of wheat and four-seventhe. It is the same 
as the minqdi" The dinar is only mentioned 
once in the Qur an, Surah ii. 66 : " And borne of 
them if thoxi entrust them with a dinar , he 
will not give it back." It frequently occurs 
in books of law. 



him (Joseph) for a mean price, dirhams 
counted out, and they parted with him 

DIEEAH (Sjj). Vulg. durrah. 
A scourgo made either of a flat piece of 
leather or of twisted thongs, and used by the 
public censor of morals and religion, called 
the muhiasib. This scourgo is inflicted either 
tor the omisuion of the daily prayer, or for 
the corrimittaJ of sina, which are punishable 
by, the law with the infliction of stripes, such 
as fornication, scandal, and drunkenness. It is 
related that the Khalifah Uxnar punished his 
son with tho dirrah for drunkenness, and that 
he died from its effects. ( Tarikh-i- Khaniis< 
vol. ii. p. 262.) 

The word used in the Qur an and Hadis foi* 
this scourge is jatdaft. and in theological 
works, saut ; but dirrah is now the word 
generally used amongst modern Muslims. 

A silver coin, the shape of which resembled 
that of a date stone. During the caliphate of 
Umar, it was changed into a cirenlar form ; 
and in the time of Zubair, it was impressed 
with the words Allah, " God," barakah " bless 
ing." Hajjaj stamped upon it. the chapter of 
the Qur an called IkhUa (cxii.), and others 
say he imprinted it with his own name. 
Various accounts are given of their weights ; 
some Raying that they were of ten, or nine, or 
aix, or five misqdis , whilst others give the 
weights of twenty, twelve, and ten qirdts, 
asserting at the eame time that Urnar had 
taken a dirham of each kind, and formed a 
coin of fourteen qirdts, being the third part 
of the aggregate sum. (Blochmann s Aln-i- 
Akbari, p. 36.) 

The dirham, although it is frequently men 
tioned in books of law, only occurs once in 
the Qur an, Surah xii. 20, "And they sold 

* s - 


DITCH, Battle of the. Arabic 
Qhuawatu l-Khandaq (j^*3^ ^). 
The defence of al-Madinah against the Banu 
Quraizah, A.H. 5, when a trench was dug by 
the advice of Salman, and the army of al- 

Madinah was posted within it. After a 
month s siege, the enemy retired, and the 
almost bloodless victory is ascribed by Mu- 
bammad in the Qur in to the interposition of 
Providence. Surah xxxiii. 0: "Remember 
God s favours to yov when hosts came to you 


and we sent against them a wind and hosts (of 
angels), that ye could not see, but God know 
what ye were doing." fMmr s Life f>f Maho- 
met, vol. iii. p. 258.) 

DIVINATION. Kahanah, or for- 
telling future events, is unlawful in Islam. 

Mu awiyah ibn Hakim relates : * I said to 
the Prophet, O Messenger of God, we used 
to do some things in tbe time of ignorance of 
which we are, not sure now. For example, 
we used to consult diviners about future 
events? The Prophet said, Now that you 
have embraced Islam you must not consult 
them. Then I said, f And we used to take 
bad omens ? The Prophet said, - If from a 
bad omen you are thrown into perplexity, let 
it not hinder you from doing tho -work you 
had intended to do.* Then I said, And we 
used to draw lines on the ground ? And the 
Prophet said, * There was one of the Prophets 
who used to draw lines on the ground, there- 
ford if you can draw a lino like him it iv 
good, otherwise it is vain. " 

*Ayishah Bays "the people asked tho Pro 
phet about diviners, whether they spoke true 
or not. And he said, You must not believe 
anything they say. The people then said, 
But, Prophet ! they sometimes tell what 
is true? The Prophet replied, Because 
one of the genfi steals away the truth and 
carries it into the diviner s ear; and the 
diviners mix a hundred lies to one truth. " 

DIVORCE. Arabic i_ 
In its primitive sense the word I llu-q meau< 
dismission, but in law it sigrJues a r^leas*-; 
from the marriage tie. 

Tbe Muhammadau law vi divorce \\> 
founded upon express injunctions contained 
in the Qur an, as well as in the Traditions. 
and its rules occupy a very largo section in 
all Muhammadan works on jurisprudence. 

I. The teaching of the Quran on the subject 
is as follows : 

Surah ii. 226 : 

" They who intend to abstain from tbeir 
wives shall wait four months; but if they go 
back from their purpose, then verily God is 
Gracious, Merciful : 

** And if they resolve on a divorce, then 
verily God is He who Hearst h, Knowcth. 

" Tbe divorced shall wait the result, until 
they have had their courses thrice, nor ought 
they to conceal what God halh created in 
their wombs, if they believe in God and the 
last day; and it will bo more jusi in their 
husbands to bring them back when in this 
state, if they desire what is right. And it is 
lor the women to act as they (the husbands) 
act by them, in all fairness ; but the men are 
a step above them. God is Mighty, Wise. 

" may give sentence of divorce to your 
wives twice: Keep them honourably, or put 
them away with kindness. But it is not al i v/od 
you to appropriate to yourselves nught of 
what ye have given to them, unless both fear 
that they cannot keop within the bounds set 
up by God. And if ye fear that they can- 


not observe the ordinances of God. no 
shall attach to either of you for what the 
wife shall herself give for her redemption. 
These are uie bounds of God: therefore over 
step thorn not ; for whoever ovorsteppeth the 
bounds of God, they are evil doers. 

But if the husband give sentence of divorce 

to her a third time, it is not lawful for him to 

take her again, until she shall have manned 

another husband ; and if he also divorc? her 

then shall no blame attach to them if they 

I return to each other, thinking that they can 

I keep within the bounds fixed by God. And 

these are the bounds of GK>d; Ha rnaketh 

them clear to those who have knowledge. 

" But when ye divorce womeu, and the tim* 
for sending them away is come, either retain 
them with generosity, or put them away with 
generosity : but retain them not by constraint 
so as to be unjust towards them. He who 
doth so, doth in fact injure himself. And 
make not the signs of God a jest ; but remem 
ber God s favour towards you, and the Book 
and the Wisdom which He hath sent down 
to you for your warning, and fear God, and 
know that God s knowledge embracoth every 

" And when ye divoroo your wives, and 
they have waited tho prescribed time, hinder 
them not from marrying the husbands when 
they have agreed among themselves in an 
honourable way. This warning is for him 
among you who believeth in God an^ in tbe 
last day. This is most pure for yon, and most 
decent. God fcnoweth, but ye know r;c*. 

" Mothers, when divorced, shall yiv& suck 
to their children two full years, if tho futher 
desire that the suckling bo computed; and 
such maintenance and clothing a a is fair for 
them, shall devolve oo the father. No per 
son shall be charged beyond hi* tnsaua. A 
mother shall not be pressed unfairly for her 
child, nor a father for his child : Ai>d the 
same with the father s heir. But if they 
choose to wean the child by consent it ml by 
bargain, it shall be no fault in thorn. And if 
ye choose to have a nurse for year children, 
it shall be no fault in you, in case ye p^y 
what ye promised her according to that \vbich 
is fair. Fear God, and know thai God sooth 
>vhat ye do. 

14 It shall be no crirric in. yon if ya divorce 
your wives so long as ye have not consum 
mated the marriage, nor settled any doAvry on 
them. And provide what is needful for them 
he who is in ample circumstances accord 
ing to his means, and he who is straitenod, 
according to his means with fairness: Thfc 
is binding ou those who do what is right 

" But if ye divorce them before conr.wM- 
matiow, and have already settled a dowry <j\\ 
them, *;<: shult yioe them haJf of what ya <i iv; 
settled, unless they make a release, or !ia 
inako a, release in >fhose hand is the mamaga 
tie. But if ye rnako.a release, it- will be 
nearer to piety." 

Surah L\v. 1.- 

"0 Prophet! when ye drvorco women. 


ilivcree them at their special tin?es. And 
rtokor fhosotimea exactly, and fear God your 
Lord. Put them not forth from their houses, 
nor nHow thorn to depart, unless they have 
comM tterJ proven adultery. This is the 
precept ol* God ; and whoso transgvesseth 
the precept i God, assuredly imperilleth hi.s 
own self. Thou knowest not whether, after 
this, God my not cause something new to 
occur whicfc niffv briny you together <taain> 

"And -when they have reached their set 
rime, then cipher keep them frith kindness, or 
u kindness part fror; tiif 1 . A;>d take up 



right witnesses froru j-ji.-cr:-. vju. and bear 
witness as unto God. Tkin in a caution for 
him who believeth hi God :md in the latter 
day. And whoso feareth God, to him will He 
grant a prosperous issne, and will provide for 
nim whence he reckoned not upon it. 

"And for him who pnlteth his trust in 
Him will God be all-sufficient. God truly will 
attain his purpose. For everything hath (aocl 
assigned a period. 

" As to such of your wives as iiave no nope 
of the recurrence of their times, if ye have 
doubts in regard to them, then reckon throo 
months, and let the same be the term of 
those who have not yet had them. And as 
to those who are with child, their period shall 
be until they are delivered of their burden. 
God will make His command easy to Him who 
feareth Him. 

" Lodge the divorced wLorevor ye i < J ge, r>i - 
cording to your means ; and distress then 
not by putting them to straits. Ami if l;h*y 
ore pregnant, then be at aha^t-s for !hem U!i 
they ara delivoroc of l.heir bn-dan : 
they suckle your children, ihor p<-y ihtia 
theii hire nnd consult amour; -,vs. and 
act generously : And if herein yc meet vi(h 
obstacles, then let nnothcr femnla suckle for 
him. r 

II. The teaching of* Muhamm^tiJ, nn f 
general Subject vf Diuotcc is tt^rw-J in - ! ^ 
Tradition* M follows : 

Tho thing wLjch ; i lav. di 1 oiu dtnjilztd by 
God it. divoi ..v. 

" Th v/omnn v/h:; asks bor iiusl>and to 
divor --.? l;-:r without a cauP^ tb \nf\\ of 
} > arhdi k - i^ /orbidden her." 

" j he./e are thre-3 thiugo \ -i.ol*. whethor 
\x ..? in joke or in earnest. H nil f>o consi 
dered serious and effectu !. n. . T-*: riage. 
divorce, and taking a wife back. 

"Every diverce is lawful except : i ui.H- 
man s." * 

u Cui scd be the second husband who makes 
the wife (divorced) lawful for ht first hus 
band, and cursed be the first husband for 
whom she is made lawful"- (Mishkat, xiii. 

IIL Sunrii Muh.<anniadan Doctors are not 
agreed as to the Mornl S^ttu.f ofJ)ivorr.e. 

The Imam ash-Slu~Prl. rttfernng ro the 
three kinds of divorce (\viii<* ; j will be after 
wards explained), says: " TVc-y HTP onexcep- 
iionftblo and legal because Jiv. re-? is m itself 
* lawful act, whonco it ii tiui certain laws 

uave been instituted respecting it; and this 
legality prevents any idea of danger b:in;r 
annexed to it. But, on the other hand, i! ^ 
Imam Abu Hanlfah and his disciples say 
that divorce is in itself a dangerous and dig- 
approved procedure, ns it dissolves marriage^ 
an institution which involves many circum 
stances both of a spiritual as well as of a 
tomporaj nature. Nor is its propriety t all 
admitted, but on the ground of urgency of 
release from an unsuitable wife. And in reply 
to ash-Shafi i, they say that the /eoWzVy .if 
divorce does not preept its being considered 
dangerous, because it involves matters of both 
a spiritual and temporal character. 

The author of the tfharfiu 7- WiqayaJi. \.. \ ( ,, 
Mays : * Divorce Is au abominable transac 
tion in the sight of God, therefore suh an 
act should only take place from necessity, 
and it is best to only "ik tho one sentence 
of divorce (i.*?. taldfju /.-{ittstui). 

IV. The Su/mi Law of Divorce : Divorcf 
may be given either in the present time, or 
may be referred to some future period. It 
may bo pronounced by the husband either 
before or after the comnniTuation of the mar 
riage. It may be either givr^i i n writing or 

The words by which divorce can be given 
ire of two kinds: -Snrl/i, or "express," as 
when the husband says, Thou ><.::.* divorced " 
and kinayah, or "metaphorical," as when he 
says, " Thou art free; thou art cut oft; veil 
yourself I Arise ! seek for a mate," <Src. &c. 

Divorce is divided into ^alaqu n-sunnfth, or 
tuat which is according to the Qur ari and the 
Traditions, and //<% Y-6adi , cu- a novel or 
heterodox divorce, which, altriongh it iscon- 
"idored lawful, is not considered religion*. 

Tataqn s-suwwh is either tbe fiftfan^ or * the 
most laudable," or hnsftrt, the * laudable " me 
thod, falaqu l-afisan, or the most laudable 
method of divorce, is when the husband once 
expressly pronounces to his enjoyed but nn- 
pregnant wife the sentence, " Thou ai-t di 
vorced ! " when she is in j?w/ir or a state of 
purity, during which bo has b;i<i go carnal 
connection with h<?r, and then leuv^s her to 
complete tlio prescribed idduh, or * 4 period of 
three months." Until the oxpir.ition of the 
>iddaki the divorce is ievoo:tbl, but after the 
period is complete, it is irreversible, and if 
the husband wishes to take his \\if<? back, 
they must go through the ceremony of tuar- 
riage. But it must be 1 observed that afier 
the taldqu l-ahsan, the woman is not, aa hi 
the other kinds of divorce, compelled to marry 
another man, and be divorced before she can 
return (-. her former husband. All that is 
required is ;. rd-inarriago. The author of the 
Hiddyah aays this modu of divorce is called 
u/tsan, or " most laudable," becjtufie it was 
usually adopted by the Companions of the 
Prophet, and also because it loaves it in the 
nov^r ot- the iiusband to take his wife back, 
and s! t thus remains a lawful subject for re- 
marri*. e o \\ >.<\\. Some European writers on 
MuhHirmadunism have overlooked this fact 
in condemning the Muslim sys *in of If /oiv<\ 

The (tfCtfftft^oMni, or"lav!<?ble 


is when the husband repudiates an enjoyed 
wife by three sentences of divorce, either ex 
press or metaphorical, giving one sentence in 
each tuhr, or "period of purity." Imam 
Malik condemns this kind of divorce, and 
says it is irregular. But Abft Hanlfah holds 
it to be hasan, or " good." 

The taldqv V-6arfi , or " irregular form of 
divorce," is when the husband repudiates his 
wife by three sentences, either express or 
metaphorical, given them one at a timer 
" Thou art divorced I Thou art divorced 1 
Thou art divorced ! w Or, " Thou art free I 
Thou art free! Thou art free!" Even 
holding up three fingers, or dropping three 
stones, is held to be a sufficiently implied 
divorce to take legal effect. The Muslim 
who thus divorces his wife Is hold, in the 
Hidayah, to be ac offender against the law, 
but the divorce, however irregular, takes 
legal affect. 

In both these kinds of divorce, badi 1 and 
bason^ the divorce is revocable (Vq?**) after the 
first and second sentences , but it is irrevocable 
(bffiri) after the third sentence. After both 
fyasan and badi 1 divorces, the divorced wife 
cannot, under any circumstances, return to 
her husband until she has been married, and 
enjoyed, and divorced by another husband. 
Muhammadan doctors say the law has insti 
tuted this (somewhat disgraceful) arrange 
ment in order to prevent divorces other than 
laldqu l-afysan. 

A husband may divorce his wife without 
any misbehaviour on her part, or without 
assigning any cause. The divorce of every 
husband is effective if he be of a sound un 
derstanding and of mature age ; but that of 
a boy. or . lunatic, or one talking in his sleep, 
is not effective* 

If & man pronounce a divorce whilst in a 
state of inebriety from drinking fermented 
liquor, such as wine, the divorce takes place. 
Repudiation by any husband who is sane and 
adult, ia effective, whether he be free or a 
slave, willing, or acting: under compulsion ; 
and even though it were uttered in sport or 
jest, or by a mere slip of the tongue, 
instead of some other word. (Fatatoa-- Alam- 
<7tr?, voL i. p. *97.) 

A sick man may divorce hia wife, even 
though, he be on his death-bed. 

An agent or agents may be appointed by a 
husband to divorce bis wife. 

In addition to the will and caprice of the 
husband, there are also certain conditions 
which require a divorce. 

The following are causes for divorce, but 
generally require to be ratified by a decree 
from the Qa$i or " judge n : 

(1.) Mb. That Is, when the husband has 
been by any cause deprived of hie organ of 
generation. This condition is called majbub. 
In this case the wife can obtain instant divorce 
if the defect occurred before marriage. Cases 
of evident madness and leprosy are treated in 
the same way. Divorce can be obtained at 

(2.) //muzA, or "impotence." (This in 
cludes ratq, " vulva i /npervia cceunti " ; and 


qarn t u vulva anteriore parte enascena.**) In 
cases of impotency in either husband or wife, 
a year of probation can be granted by the 

(3.) Inequality of race or tribe, A woman 
cannot be compelled to marry a man who be 
longs to an inferior tribe, and, in case of such 
a marriage, the elders of the superior tribe 
can demand a divorce ; but if the divorce is 
not demanded, the marriage contract remains. 

(4.) Insufficient dower. If the stipulated 
dowry is not given when demanded, divorce 
takes place. 

(5.) Refusal of Isld?n. If one of the par 
ties embrace Islam, the judge mast offer it 
to the other three distinct times, and if he or 
she refuse, to embrace the faith, divorce takes 

(6.) Za n, or - imprecation." That is, 
when a husband charges his -wife with adul 
tery, the charge is investigated, l-ut if there 
is no proof, and the man swears his wife is 
guilty, and the wife swears she is innocent, a 
divorce must be decreed. 

(7.) Tiff, or "vow." When a husband 
makes a vow not to have carnal intercourse 
with bis wife for no less than four months, 
and keeps the vow inviolate, an irreversible 
divorce takes place. 

(8.) .Reason of property. If a husband be 
come the proprietor of his wife (a slave), or 
the wife the proprietor of her husband (a 
slave), divorce takes place. 

(&) An invalid marriage of any kind, arising 
from incomplete ?ufcdh. or "marriage cere 
mony," or from affinity, or from consanguinity. 

(10.) Difference of country For example, 
if a husband flee from a ddru f l-fazrb, or " land 
of enmity," i.e. " a non-Muslim country," to a 
darn I- Islam, or "country of Islam," and his 
wife refuse to perform hijrah (flight) and to 
accompany him, she is divorced. 

(11.) Apostasy from Islam. The author of 
the Raddu l-Mukhtdr (vol. ii. p. 643) says : 
" When a man or woman apostatises from 
Islam, then an immediate dissolution (faskk) 
of the marriage takes plaoe, whether the 
apostasy be of the man or of the woman, 
without a decree from the Qdzi." And again, 
(p. 645), " If both husband and wife aposta 
tise at the same timo, their marriage bond 
remains ; and if at any future time the parties 
again return to Islam, no re-marriage ia < 
necessary to constitute them man and wife; 
but if one of the parties should apostatise 
before the other, a dissolution of the marriage 
takes place ipso facto." 

Mr. J. B. S. Boyle, of Lahore, says : " As , 
relevant to this subject, I give a quotation 
from Mr. Currie a excellent work on the [ 
Indian Criminal Codas, p. 445. The question j 
is as to the effect of apostasy from Islam npon 
the marriage relation, and whether sexnal 
intercourse with the apostate renders a per- j 
son liable to be convicted for adultery under j 
Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code. A. and 
B., Mahommejdans, married under the Ma-! 
fiommedan law, are converted to Christianity 
The wife, B., is first converted, but continues j 
to lr?e with her husband ; subsequently the 


husband, A., is converted. Subsequent to 
the conversion of B., A. and B., still living to 
gether as husband and wife, both professing 
Christianity, B. has sexual intercourse with 
C. Will a conviction hold against C. under 
Section 497 ? Both Macnaghten and Baillie 
say the marriage becomes dissolved by apos 
tasy of either party, and Grady, in his version 
of Hamilton s Hidayah> p. 66, says : " If 
either husband jor wife apostatize from the 
faith, a separation takes place, without 
divorce ; according to Abu Hanee/a and Abu 
Yoosuf. Imam Mahonuned alleges if the 
apostasy is on the part of the husband. 

M Apostasy annuls marriage in Haneefa s 
opinion, and in apostasy separation takes 
place without any decree of the magistrate. 
Cases -which might decide this point have 
been lately tried both at Lucknow and Allah 
abad : at the fbrmer place in rn Afxul Hoztin v. 
Had(?. Bc.yvm, and at the latter Zuburdust 
Khan v. Wife. But from certain remarks to 
be found in the judgment of the High Court, 
N. W. R, the Cvmrts of Oudh and N. W. P., 
appear to differ on the moat essential point. 
The point before tho Ondh Court was (Hadee 
Begum s plea) that her marriage contract was 
dissolved by reason of her own apostasy, a 
sufficient answer to a suit brought; by her 
Mahommadan husband for restitution o! con 
jugal rights ; i.e. Does the apostasy of a Ma 
hommedan wife dissolve a marriage contract 
against tho express wish of a Mahommedan 
husband in dar-ool-harb (laud of war)? for 
India, it is contended, is not, under its present 
administration, dar- or>l-Ielam (land of safety). 
The Oudh Court held (admitting that apos 
tasy by the husband dissolved the marriage 
and freed the wif) that apostasy by the wife 
did not free her if her husband stied for resti 
tution of conjugal rights. They argued that 
apostasy by the wife, without the wish of the 
husband, could not be entertained; in fact, 
that as regards her husband s volition, the 
apostasy could not exist, and would not be 
recognised. That a suit for restitution of 
conjugal rights before the competent court of 
the time, seemed to thorn to be equivalent of 
the suit before the Cazee (Judge). The Oudh 
judges, in the absence of distinct precedent, 
say they fell back on the customs of the 
people amongst whom they lived. The Ondh 
Court evidently considered there was an 
essential difference between apostasy of a 
man and apostasy of a woman, of the hus 
band or tho wife ; also between apostasy to a 
faith in a book and apostasy to the idol wor 
ship Mahommed and his followers renounce. 
Dos such an essential difference exist ? The 
point before the High Court N. W. P. was : 
Can a Mihommcdan professing Christianity 
subsequent to his marriage with a MuSsnl- 
mani, according to the Mahommed an law, 
obtain a decree for dissolution of that mar 
riage under Act IV. of 1869, bis wife having 
subsequently to him professed Christianity, 
and they under their new faith having lived 
together as man and wife ? or whether the 
wife s contention is sound, that her marriage 
was cancelled by her husband s apostasy? 


They held the apostasy of the husband dis 
solved the marriage tie. Thia the Oudh 
Court admits, but the point before the 
Oudh Oourt waa not before tht High 
Court, N T . W. P. ; nevertheless from comments 
made by the High Conrt, N. W. P., on the 
Oudh decision, they evidently did not agree 
with the finding ooine to by the latter Court, 
on, the point before it. 

" Now, Mr. Carrie asks in the above extract, 
does such an essential difference exist be 
tween apostasy to a book that is, to ulcitube* 
faith and apostasy to idol worship ? Answer 
ing this question necessitates a few remarks 
upon the judgments above mentioned. Ac 
cording to Mahommedan law, a man may 
lawfully marry a kitabeeah, but marriage 
with a Pagan or polytheist is unlawful. But 
the principle in Mahommedan law is, that 
wt >n one of the parties turns to a state of 
religion that would render the marriage con 
tract illegal if it were still to be entered into, 
what was legal before is made void. A Ma 
hommedan woman, becoming a kitaltetih, 
does not render the marriagB void, for there 
is nothing to render the marriage contract 
illegal if it were still to be entered into ; but 
if the Mahommedan woman becomes an idol 
atress, the marriage is void, for the woman 
has turned to a state of religion that would 
render the marriage contract illegal if it were 
still to be entered into : a Mahommedan woman, 
becoming a Christian, consequently, would not 
be separated from her husband, because she 
belongs to the religion of the book, that is, 
a kitatec faith. If a Iritabeeah becomes an 
idolatress, the marriage is dissolved, but if 
she change from one religion to another, and 
still remain a kita&eenh, the marriige is not 
vitiated. So far the Oudh Court is correct in 
its decision, that the Mahommedan wife s con 
version to Christianity did not render the mar 
riage null and void, but that a suit for resti 
tution of conjugal rights would lie; and 
taking tho case of C. having sexual inter- 
course with B. the wife of A. converted to 
Christianity, a conviction under Section 497, 
Indian Penal Code, would hold good. But 
with all deference, I do not think that tbo 
Oudh Court is correct when it states that 
apostasy by the wife without the wish of the 
husband could not be entertained; in fact, 
that as regards her husband s volition, the 
apostasy could not exist, and would not be 

" So far as regards a woman s apostatising 
to a kttabee faith, this holds good ; but if a 
woman turus to Pagauisui, ipso facto the mar 
riage is void, and does not depend upon tho 
volition of the husband (having regard to tho 
principle Vre have adverted to above), so that 
the husband under such circxunstances could 
not maintain a suit for conjugal rights, nor 
would a conviction hold good C., 
under Section 497, Indian Penal Code for 
sexual intercourse with B.. the wife of A., who 
has apostatised to Paganism. The decisions 
of the two Courts, however, seem correct, on 
tho principles of Mahommednu law, as to the 
effect of a hnsband apostatising from Islam. 





By Mahommedan law, a marriage by a female 
Moslem with a man not of th Mahommedan 
faith is unlawful: applying the principle 
quoted before, the man haying turned to a 
state of religion that wotild render the eon- 
tract illegal if it were still to be entered into, 
the marriage ib void. The apostasy of the 
husband dissolves the marriage tie; conse 
quently there does exist an essential dif 
ference between apostasy of a man and of a 
woman, of the apostasy of the husband or the 
wife; also bplv. pt. u apostasy to a faith in & 
book, that is, a revealed religion Laving a 
book of fafth, and apostasy to the idol wor 
ship Mahoinmed and his followers renounce. 
Th l.i \v- allow A Jj. person the right to cease to 
be a Mahownedan in the fullest sense of the 
word, :inii to become a Christian, and to 
claim for himself and hia descendants all the 
right s and obligations of a British subject." 
(Hogq v. . (irW riicai/1 &c.. 2, Hydds /feporff, 
3. Manual of Lawn relating to Mvh<inwui- 
dans and their Relations of Life, ) 

V. In addition to the forma of divorce 
already explained, there are three others of a 
peculiar nature, called khula\ mubant ah, ami 

The form of divorce known as khitla*. is when, 
a husband aud wife disagreeing, or for any other 
cause, the wife, on payment of a compensation 
or ransom to her husband, is permitted by 
the law to obtain from him a release from the 
marriage tie. The khuld is generally effected 
by the husband giving hack tho dower or par! 
thereof. When the aversion is on the part of 
(he husband, it is generally held that he 
Should grant Iris wife s request without com 
pensation; but this is purely a matter of con 
science, and not of law. 

Mitbdra dh is a divorce which if. effected by 
a mutual release. 

jfttSr, from ?ttAr, "back," is a kind of 
divorce which is effected by a husband liken 
ing his wife to any part or member of the 
body of any of his kinswomen within the pro 
hibited degree. As for example, if ho were 
to 8ay to his wife, "Thou art to me iike tho 
back of my mother;" The motive uf tho 
husband in saying so must bo examined, and 
if it appear that he meant divorce, his wife is 
not lawful to him until he have made expia 
tion by freeing a slave, or by fasting two 
months, or by feeding sixty poor men. (See 
Qnr an, Surah Iviii. 4.) 

f For the Sunn! Law of Divorce, see the 
Hid&iiah and its Commentary, the Kifnyah ; 
Dnmt I Mvkhtar and its Commentary, the 
Rnddit r-MukJjt(ir\ the Fatdwa-i- Alamgiri 
Hamilton s English Edition, Hidayah ; Taf/ore 
Luw Lectures, 1873.) 

VL The Ski ak law of Divorce differ* only 
in a Tew- particulars from that of the Sunnis. 
A ccording to Shl ah law, a man must be an 
adult of understanding, of free hoiee and 
will, and of design and intention, when he 
divorces his wife. A marked contrast to the 
licence and liberty allowed by the SunnI 
law. Nor can the Shfah divorce be effected 
in any language of a metaphorical kind. It 
must be express and be pronounced in Arabic 

^if the husband understand that language), 
and it must be spoken and not written. A 
divorce amongst the Shi ahs does not take 
effect if given implicatively or ambiguously, 
whether intended or not. It is also absolutely 
necessary that the sentence should be pro 
nounced by the husband in the presence of 
two just persons as witnesses, who shall hear 
and testify to tU0 wording of the divorce. 

(For tho Shi ah law of divorce, see Shir*atu 
Wffinn; Tafrriru l-Ahkam; Mafatlh , Mr. 
Neil Baillie s Digest, of Muhammadcui Laui; 
Imaminit Code : Tugore Law Lectures, 187/f..) 

VII Compared with the Mosaic Law. 
When compared with the Mosaic law, it will 
bo soon that by the latter, divorce was only 
sanctioned when there was " some uncleanne^>s " 
in the wife, and that whilst in Islam a husband 
can take back his divorced wife, in the law of 
God it was not permitted. See Dout. xxiv. 1-4. 

" When a man hath taken a wife, and mar 
ried her, and it come to pass that she find no 
favour in his eyes, because he hath found 
some uncleanness in her ; then lot him write 
her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her 
hand, and . -end her out of his house. 

" And when she is departed out of his house, 
she may go and be another man s wife. 

"And (/ the latter husband hate her, and 
write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it 
in her hand, and serideth her out of his 
house : or if tho latter husband die, which 
took h. v to he. his wife ; 

" Her former husband, which sent her 
a. way, m;.y not take her again to be his wife, 
sifter that she is defiled; for that is abomina 
tion before the Lord ; and thou shalt not 
cause the land to sin, which tho Lord thy 
God.giveth thee for an inheritance." 

The ground of divorce in the Mosaic law 
was " some un cleanness in her." There were 
two interpretations of this by the Jewish 
doctors of the period of the New Testament. 
Tire School of Shammai seemed to limit it to 
a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst 
that .of Hillcl extended it to trifling causes. 
Our Lord appears to have regarded all tho 
lesser causes than fornication aft standing on. 
too weak a ground. 

Matt. v. 32: "But I say unto you, that 
whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for 
the cause of fornication, causeth her to com 
mit adultery : and! whosoever shall marry her 
that is divorced committeth adultery." 

It will be seen that Muhammad adopted 
the teaching of the School of Hillel, omitting 
the bill of divorcement, which was enjoined in 
Deut. xxiv. 3, thereby placing the woman 
entirely afc the will and caprice of her husband. 

Burkhardt tells us of an Arab, forty-five 
years old, who had had fifty wives, so 
that he must have divorced two wives and 
married two fresh ones on the average every 
year. We have cases of Muhammad s own 
" Companions " not much better. This is the 
natural and legitimate effect of the law. 

Sir William Muir (Life of Mahomet, vol iii. 
P- 305) says : The idea of conjugal unity i 
utterly unknown to Mahometans, except 
ing when the Christian example is fey.chanco 




followed; and even there, the continuance of 
the bond is purely dependent an the will of 
the husband. ... I believe the moral* of 
Hindu society, where polygamy is less encou 
raged. to be sounder, in a very marked 
degree, than that of Mahometan-society. 1 

PIWA N (oV)- ( l ) In Muhiim- 

tnadan law, the word signifies an account- or 
record book, and also the bags in which the 
Qazi s records are kept. (2) It is also a 
^ourt of juKtioe, a royal court. (3) Also a 
ninister of state; the chief oflieer in a Mu 

laioinadfui state ; a finance minister. (4) In 
British courts a law-suit is called diiodni, when 
it refers to a civil suit, in contradistinction to 
aujduri, or " criminal suit." (5) A colloe- 

ion of odes is called a diwan, e.y. Diwan-i- 
i*, " the Poems of llafi&. 

, . 

DIYAH (*>>). A pecuniary com 
pensation for any offence upon the person. 

DOGS (Arabic kalb, pi. kiltib-, Heb. 

are uno can animals; for according to 

a tradition by Abu Hurairah, Muhammad said 
that when a dog drinks in a vessel, it must 
be washed seven times, ami that the first clean 
sing should bo with earth. (Mishkat, book 
iiL c. ii. pt. 1.) 

"Most people bolievethat \vl*en a dog howls 
near a bouse it forebodes death, for it is 
said, a dog can distinguish the awful form of 
Azra il, the Angel of Death." (Burton s 
Arabia, vol. i. p. 290.) 

Ibn *Umr says that dogs used to come into 
the Masjid at Makkah in the time of the 
Prophet, but tho Companions never purified 
the mosque when the dog was dry. 

TiiB.Imam Abu Yuauf holds that the sale 
of a dog that bites is unlawful, whilst the Imam 
ash-Shafi I has said that the sale of a dog 
is absolutely illegal, because the Prophet said 
the wages of whoredom and the price of a dog 
are forbidden. Abu Hanifah holds that dos 
which are trained to hunt or watch may be 
lawfully sold. ^Hamilton s Hidaynh* vol. H. 
p. 548.) 

It is lawful to hunt with a trained dog 
and the sign of a dog being trained is that he 
catches game three times without killing it. 
The dog must be lot slip with the ejaeulation : 
Bismillabi l/dhi Akbar ! "In the name of God, 
the great flodl" when all game seized by him 
becomes lawful food. This custom is fo\indod 
upo-n a verso ia- the Qur an, Surah v. 6 : 
u Lawful for you are all good things and what 
ye have taught beasts of prey to catch, train 
ing them like dogs;. ye teach them as God 
taught you. And mention the name of God 
over it." 

Rules for hunting with dogs will be found 
in Hamilton s Hidoyah t vol. iv. p. 170. 

DOG STAR. Sirius, or the dog 

star, was an object of worship amongst the 
aucient Arabs, and is mentioned in the Qur an, 
under the name of ash-Sht ra, Surah, liii. 50: 
" He (God) is the Lord of the Dog Star." 

DOWER. Arabic, inahr 
Heb. (^pflb) Dower is considered by 

some lawyers to be an effect of^ the marriage 
contract, imposed on the husband by the law 
as a mark of respect for the subject of the 
contract the wife; while others consider 
that it is in exchange for thn usufruct of the 
wife, and its payment is necessary, as upon 
the provision of a support to the wlf depends 
the permanency of the matrimonial connec 
tion. Thus, it is indispensable a fortiori, so 
much so, that if it were not mentioned in the 
marriage contract, it would be still incumbent 
on the husband, as the law will presume it by 
virtue of the contract itself, and award it 
upon demand being made by the wife. In 
such case, the amount of dowor wi!l be to the 
extent of the dowers of the women of her 
rank and of tho ladies of her father s family. 
Special beauty or accomplishments may, how 
ever, be pleaded for. recovering a larger 
award than the customary dower, wheie the 
amount of dower is not mentioned in the con 
tract. There is no limit to the amount of 
dower; it may be to a very large amount, 
considering the position and circumstance ( f 
the bridegroom, but its minimum is never less 
than ten dirhams so where it ia fixed at a 
lesser amount, the law will augment it up to 
ten dirhams. The dower need not mToriably 
be in currency, or even in metal ; everything, 
except carrion, blood, wine, and hog. Also 
the bridegroom s own labour, if he i a free 
man, being hold by the law to bo a good dower. 
Dower is generally divided into two parts, 
termed jau f oj[/al t " prompt/ and miiujjal) 
"deferred." The mu ajjnl portion is exigible 
on entering into the Contra ct, while the / <//- 
jal part of the dower is payable xipon dissolu 
tion of the contract. Although the first part 
is payable, and is sometimes paid, at the 
time the contract is entered into* yet it has 
been the general practice- (nt least in India) 
to leave it unpaid, and so like an on -demand 
obligation it remains due at all times thrf 
vrife s right to thd same not being extinguished 
by lapse of time; The wife $ (or her guar 
dian s) object in leaving the exigible part of 
the dower unrealised, seems to be that there 
may always exint a valid guarantee for the 
good treatment of her by her husband. The 
women of the respectable* classes reserve their 
right arid power to demand their exigible 
dowers till such time as occasion should re 
quire the exercise thereof. The custom of 
fixing heavy dowers, generally hyond th 
hnsbrmd s means, especially in India, seems 
to be based upon the intention of checking 
the husband from Ill-treating his wife, and, 
above all, from his marrying another woman, 
as also from wrongfully or causelessly di 
vorcing the former. For in the owe of divorce 
the woman can demand the tall payment of 
the dower. In the evont of the death of the 
husband, the payment of the dower has tn* 
ftft claim- on the estate after funeral ex 
penses ; the law regarding it as a just debt: 
(Ttrgore Law Lectures, 1873, p* 841; Htddyak, 
vol. i. p. 122.) 



DREAMS. Arabic h 
mandm (f^-) ; rwwa fy#). The term 
used for ft bad dream is Wm, and for an ordi 
nary dream tnaudm, ruya being used to express 
.i heavenly vision. [RUYA.] 

According to the traditions, the Prophet is 
related to have said, " A. good dream is of -God s 
favour and a ba.d dream is of the devil ; there 
fore, when any of you dreams a dream which 
ie such a& he is pleased with, then he must not 
(ell it to any but a beloved friend ; and when 
he dreams a bad dream, then let hiifa seek 
protection from God both from its evil and 
from the wickedness of Satan ; and let him 
a pit three times over his left shoulder, and 
not mention the dream to anyone; then, 
verily, no evil shall come nigh him." " The 
truest dream is tho one which you have about 
day-break." " Good dreams are one of the 
parts of prophecy." (Mis/ikrit) xxi. o. iv.) 

DRESS. Arabic libas 
Decent apparel at the time of public worship 
is enjoined in the Qur an, Svirab vii. 29: * O 
children of Adam ! wear your goodly apparel 
when ye repair to any mosque." Excess in 
apparel and extravagance in drees are re 
proved, Surah vii. 25: * We (God) have sent 
down raiment to hide your nakedness, and 
splendid garments ; but the raiment of piety, 
this is the best." 

According to the Hidayah (vol. iv. p. 92), a 
dress of silk is not lawful for men, but 
women are permitted to wear it. Men are 
prohibited from wearing gold ornaments, and 
also ornaments of silver, otherwise than a. 
silver signet ring. The custom of keeping 
handkerchiefs in the hand, except for neces 
sary use, is also forbidden. 

The following art some of the sayings of 
the Prophet with regard to dress, as recorded 
in the Traditions. Mishkat, xx. c. i. : * God 
will not look at him on the Day of Resurrec 
tion who shall wear long garments from 
pride.* " Whoever wears a silken -garment 
in this world shall not wear it in the next." 
M God will not have compassion upon him 
who wears Inng trousers (i.e. below the 
ankle) from pride/ "It is lawful for the 
women of my people to wear silks and #old 
ornaments, but it is unlawful for tJie men." 
" Wear white clothes, because they are the 
cleanest, and the most agreeable ; and bury 
your dead in white clothes." 

According to the Traditions, the dress of 
Muhammad was exceedingly simple. It fs 
said he used to wear only two garments, the 
izor, or " under garment * which hung down 
three or four inches below his knees, and a 
mantle thrown over his shoulders. These 
two robes, with the turban, and whit*> cotton 
drawers, completed tho Prophet s wardrobe. 
His dress was generally of white, but ht also 
wore green, red, and yellow, and sometimes a 
black woollen dress. It is said by some tra 
ditioniats that in the taking of Makkah he 
wore a black turban. The end of his turban 
used to bang between his shoulders. And he 
used to. wrap it many times round his head. 


It is said, "the edge of it appeared below 
like the soiled clothes of an oil dealer." 

He was especially fond of white-striped 
yamaul cloth.* He once prayed in a silken 
dress, but he cast it aside afterwards, saying. 
"it doth not become the faithful to wear 
silk." He once prayed in a spotted mautle, 
but the spots diverted hia attention, and the 
garment was never again worn. 

His sleeves, unlike those of the Eastern 
choga or kkaftdn, ended at the wrist, and he 
never wore long robes reaching to his ankles. 

At first, he wore a gold ring with the stone 
inwards en his right hand, but it distracted 
his attention when preaching, and he changed 
it for a silver one. His shoes, which were 
often old and cobbled, were of the Hazrauaaut 
pattern, with two thongs. And he was in the 
habit of praying with bis shoes on. [SHOEH.] 

The example of Muhammad has doubtless 
in Aliened the customs ol bis followers in the 
matter of dress, the fashion of which has re 
mained almost ihe same in eastern Muharo- 
madan countries centuries ; for although 
there are varieties of dress in Eastern as well 
as in European countries, still there are one, 
or two characteristics of dress which are 
common to all oriental nations which have 
embraced Islam, namely, the turban folded 
round the head, the white cotton drawers, or 
full trousers, tied round the waist by a run 
ning string ; the qatms, or " shirt," the hh&f- 
tan, or " coat," and the lunyi, or " scarf." The 
qamif is the same a the kttoneth of the He 
brews, and the \Hrwv ot the Greeks, a kind of 
long shirt with short sleeves, the ends of 
which extend over the trousers or drawers, 
reaching belov, the knees. The Caftan 

answers to the iJcbrc v, * wi7 (I Sam. 

xviii 4), a tunic worn as an outer garment. 
The Jewish -J^j Jbeged, or fl/ftfe? simlah, 

: v T : 

must have been similar, to the quadrangular 
piece of cloth still worn as a scarf in Central 
Asia, and called a fungi, and similar to the 
t al><T of the Egyptians. It is worn in various 
ways, eilher wrapped round the body, or worn 
over the shoulders, and sometimes folded as 
a covering for the head. 

The dress of Muhammadans in Egypt is 
very minutely described by Mr. Lan* in his 
Mortem Egyptians^ vol. i. p. 36, 

The dress of tbfe men of the middle and 
higher classes of Egypt consists of the iol- 
i;;wng articles. First a pair of full drawers 
of linen or cotton tied round the body by a 
running string or band, the ends of which are 
embroidered with coloured silks, though, con 
cealed by the outer dress The ^drawers 
descend a little below the knees 0r to the 
ankles ; but mny of the Araos wilV not wear 
long drawers, because prohibited by the Pro 
phet. Next is worn a qamis or l< shirt," with 
very full sleeves, reaching to the wrist ; it is 
made of linen of a loose open texture, or of 
cotton stuff, or of muslin, or silk, or of a 
mixture of silk and cotton in strips- but 
all white. Over this, in winter, or in cool 
weather, most persons wear a sudeyree, which 


is a short vest of cloth, or of striped coloured 
silk, or cotton, without sleeves. Over the 
shirt and the audeyref, or the former alone, is 
worn a Jong vest of striped silk or cotton 
(called kaftan) descending to the anklea, with 
long sleeves, extending a few inches beyond 
the fingers ends, hut divided from a point a 
little above the wrist, or about the middle of 
ttie lore-arm, so that the band is generally ex 
posed, though it tnay be concealed by the 
sleeve when necessary, for it is customary to 
cover the hands in the pre-sonce of a person of 
high rank. Round this vest is wound the 
girdle, which is 9 coloured shawl, or a lon# 
piece of white-figured muslin. 

The ordinary outer robe is a long oloth 
coat, of any colour, called by the Turks 
jubbah, but by th- Egyptians gibbeh, the 
alecves of which reach not quite to the wriat. 
Some persons also wear a btneesh, which is a 
robe of cloth wfth long sleeves, like those of 
the faiftdn, but more ample : it is properly a 
robe of ceremony, and should be worn over 
tho other cloth coat, but many pe/sons vear 
it instead of the gibbeh. 

Another rob*}* called /orayeeyM, nearly re 
sembles the bentesh, it haa very long sleeves, 
b\it these are not slit, and it is chiefly worn 
by men of the learned professions. In cold 01- 
cool weather, a kind of black woollen cloak, 
called abayeh, is commonly woru. Sometimes 
this is drawn over the head. 

In winter, also, many persons wrap a muelin 
or other shawl (such as they ose for a tur 
ban) about the head and shoulders. The 
head-dress consists, first, of a small clone- 
fitting cotton cap, which ia often changed; 
next a tarboosh, which is a red cloth cap. also 
fitting close to the head with a tassel of dark- 
blue silk at the crown ; lastly, a long piece 
of white muslin, generallf figured, or a kash- 
mere shawl, which is wound round the 1a,r- 
boosh. Thus is formed the turban. The 



oold weather wear woollen or cotton aueka, 
The shoes are of thick rod morocoo, pointed, 
and turning up at the toes. Some persons 
also wear inuer shoes of soft yellow morocco, 
and with soles of the same ; the outer shoes 
are taken off on stepping- upon a carpet or 
mat, but not the inner ; for this reason the 
former are often worn turned down at the 

The costume of tb.e men of the lower 
orders is very simple. These, if not of the 
very poorest class, wear a pair of drawers, 
and a long and full shirt or gown of blue 
linen or cotton, or of brown woollen stuff, 
open from the neck nearly to the waist, and 
having wide sleeves. Over this aorne wear a 
white or red woollen girdle ; for which ser 
vants often substitute a broad red belt of 
woollen stuff or of leather, generally contain 
ing a receptacle for money. TheJr turban is 
generally composed of a white, red, or yellow 


kashmere shawl is seldom worn except in cool 
weather. Some persons wear two or three 
tarbooshes one over another. .\ shereef (or 
descendant of the Prophet) wears a green 
turban, or is privileged to do so, but no other 
peraon; and it i not common far any but a 
shereei to wear a bright green dress. Stock 
ings are not in use, but somo fow persona in 


woollen shawl, or of a piece of coarse cotton 
or muslin wound round a tarboosh, under 
which is a white or brown felt cap bat many 
are so poor, as to have jio other cap than the 
laitw, no turban, nor even drawers nor shoes, 
but only the blue or brown shirt, or merely A 
few rags, while many, on the other hand, wear 
a sudtyiee under the blue shirt, and some, par 
ticularly servants in the houses of great men. 
wear a white shirt, a sudeyree, and a. kaftan, 
or gibbeh, or both, and the blue shirt ovr 
all. The full hiees us of this shirt are surae- 
times drawn up by means of a cord, which 



passes round each shoulder and crosses be 
hind, where it is tied in a knot. This custom 
is adopted by servants (particularly grooms), 
who have cords of crimson or dark blue silk 
for this purpose. 

In cold weather, many persons of the lower 
classes wear an abayah, like that before de 
scribed, but coarser and sometimes (instead 
of being black) having broad stripes, brown 
*nd white, or blue ftnd -white, but the latter 
rarely. Another kind of cloak, more full than 
the abayeh, of black or deep blue woollen 
stuff, Is also very commonly worn, it is called 
diffeeyoh. The shoes are of red or yellow 
rnorocco, or of sheep-skin. Those of the 
groom are of dark red morocco. Those of the 
door-keeper and the water-carrier of a private 
house, generally yellow. 

The Muslims are distinguished by the 
colours of their turbans from the Copts and 
-the Jews, who (as well as other subjects of 
the Turkish Sultan who are not Muslims) 
wear black, blue, gray, or light brown tur 
bans, and generally dull-coloured dresses. 

The distinction of sects, families, dynasties, 
tc., among the Muslim Arabs by the colour 
of the turban and other articles of dress, is of 
very early origin. There are not many dif 
ferent forms of turbans now worn in Egypt ; 
that worn by most of the servants is pecu 
liarly formal, consisting of several spiral 
twists one above another like the threads of 
a screw. The kind common among the 
middle and higher classes of the tradesmen 
and other citizens of the metropolis and large 
towns is also very f, but less so than 
that just before alluded to. 

The Turkish turban worn in Egypt is of a 
more elegant fashion. The Syrian is distin- 
tinguished by its width. The Ulama and men 
of religion and letters in general used to wear, 
as some do still, one particularly wide and 
formal called a inukleh. The turban is much 
respected. In the houses of the more wealthy 
classes, there is usually a chair on which it 
is placed at night. This is often sent with 
the furniture pf a bride as it is common for 
a lady to havo one xipon which to place her 
head-dress. It is never used for any other 

The dress of the women of the middle and 
higher orders is. handsome and elegant. 
Their shirt is vjary full, likfe that of the men, 
but shorter, not reaching to the knees ; it is 
,i!so, generally, of the same kind of material 
as the men s shirt, or of coloured crape, 
sometimes black. A pair of very wide trou 
sers (called s/n/j/n) of a coloured striped 
stuff, of silk and cottonj or of printed or 
plain white muslin, is tied round the hms 
under the shirt, with a dikkeh ; its lower ex 
tremities are drawn up and tied just- below 
the knee with running strings, but it is suf 
ficiently long to hang down to the feet, or 
almost to the, ground, when attached in this 
manner. Over the shirt and shintiyan is worn 
H long vest (called ye/e&), of the ?<aine mate 
rial as the latter; it nearly resembles the 
kaftart of the men, but is more tight to the 
nody and arms; the sleeves atso are longer, 

and It is made to bution down tba front from 
the bosom to a little below the girdle, instead 
of lapping over ; it is open, likewise on each 
side, from the height of the hip downwards. 

In general, the^yelek is cut in such a man 
ner as to leave half of the bosom uncovered, 
except by the shirt, but many ladies have it 
made more ample at that part, and according 
to the most approved fashion it should be of 
sufficient length to reach to the ground, or 
should exceed that length by two or three 

i inches or more. A short vest (called anteree) 
reaching only a little below the waist, and 
exactly resembling -a yelek of which the 
lower part has been cut off, is sometimes 
worn instead of the latter. A square shawl, 

or an embroidered kerchief, doubled diago- 

i nally, is put loosely round the waist as a 
girdle, the two comers that are folded to 
gether hanging down behind ; or sometime* 
the lady s girdle is folded after the ordinary 
Turkish fashion, like that of the men, but 
more loosely. 

Over the yelek is worn a gibbeh of cloth or 
velvet or silk, usually embroidered with gold 
or with coloured silk ; it differs in form from 
the glbbeh of the men. chiefly in being not so 
wide, particularly in the fore part, and is of 
the same length as the yelek. Instead of tm s, 
a jacket (called saltahj, generally of cloth or 
velvet, and embroidered in the same manner 
as the gibbeh, is often worn. 

The head-dress consists of a takeeyeh and 

| tarboosh, with a square kerchief (called 
faroodeeyeh*) of printed or painted muslin or 
one of crape, wound tightly round, composing 
what is called a rab.tah. Two or more such 
kerchiefs were commonly used a short time 
since, and still are sometimes to form the ladies 


turban, but always wound in a high fiat 
shape, very different from that of the turban 
of the men. A kind of crown, called fairs, 
find other ornaments,are attached to the ladies 
head-dress. A long piece of white rnualin, 
embroidered at each end with coloured 8 ilk a 




and gold, or of coloured crape ornamented 
with gold thread, <fec., and spangte*, rests 
upon the head, and hangs down behind, 
nearly or quite to the ground ; this is called 
tarha/i, it is the head- veil; the face- veil 1 
shall presently describe. The hair, except 
over the forehead and temples, is divided into 
numerous braids or plaits, generally from 
eleven to twenty-five in number, but always 
of an uneven number; these hang own the 
back. To each braid of hair are usually 
added throe black silk cords with liltlo orna 
ments of gold, Ac., attached to tbum. Over 
the forehead the huir is cut rather short, Init 
t\vo full locks hang down on each side of thi? 
face ; these arc often curled in ringlets and 
sometimes plaited. 

Few of the ladies of Egypt wear stockings 
of socks, but many of them wear mezz (or 
inner shoes) of yellow or red morocco, some 
times embroidered vrith gold. Over these, 
whenever they step off the matted or carpeted 
part of the floor, they put on baboog (or 
slippers) of yellow morocco, with high-pointed 
toes, or use high wooden clogs cr pattons- 
generally from four to nine inches in height, 
and usually ornamented with mother-of-pearl 
or silver, drc. 

The riding or walking attire is called tez- 
yttreh. Whenever a Jady loaves the bouse, 
she wears, in addition to what has been ibove 

gown: it it* of silk, generally of pink or 
rose or yiolnt colour. Next is put on the 
burka or face-veil, whic"h is a long strip of 
white muslin, concealing the whole of the face 
except the eyes, and reaching nearly to the 
feet. It is suspended at the top by n narrow 
band, which passes up the forehead, and 
which is sewed, as are. also the two upper 
corners of the veil, to a band that is tiod round 
the head. The lady then covers herself witb 
a habarah, which, for a married lady, is com 
posed of two breadths of glossy, black silk, 
each ell-wide, and three yards long ; these 
are sewed together, at or near the selvages 
(according to the height of the peraon) the 
seam running horizontally, with respect to the 
manner hi which it is worn ; a piece of narrow 
black ribbon is sewed inside the upper part, 
about six inches from the edge, to tie round 


described, first, a large, loose gown (called 
tob or seble/i), the sleeves of which are nearly 
equal In width to the whole length of the 


the head. But some of them imitate thp 
Turkish ladies of Egypt in holding the front 
pnrt so as to conceal all but that portion of 
the veil that is above the hands. The un 
married ladies wear a habarab of white silk, 
or a shawl. Some females of the middle 
classes, who cannot afford to purchase a ha- 
barah, wear instead of it an eezdr (rrar), 
which is a piece of white calico, of the same 
form and size as the former, and is worn in 
th same manner. On the feet are worn short 
i boots or socks (called khuff), of yellow mo- 
rocco, and over these the baboog. The dress 
of a large proportion o( those women of the 
lower orders who are not of the poorest class, 
consists of a pair of trousers or drawer* 


(similar inform to the shintiyan of the ladiea, 
but generally ol plain -white cotton or linen), 
a blu* linen or cotton shirt (n ot quite so full 
as that of the men), reaching to the feet, a 
burka of a kind of coarse black crape, and a 
dark blue tarhah of muslin or linen. Some 
wear, over the long shirt, or instead of the 
latter, a linen tob, of the same form as that 
of the ladiea ; and within the long shirt, some 
wear a short white shirt : and some, a sudey- 
ree also, or an anteree. The sleeves of the 
tob are often ttirned up over the head ; either 
to prevent their being incommodious, or to 
supply the place of a tarhah. In addition to 
these articles of dress, many women who are 
not of the very poor classes wear, us a cover 
ing, a kind of plaid, similar in form to the 
habarah composed of two pieces of cotton, 
woven in small chequers of blue and white, 
or cross stripes, with a mixture of red at each 
end It is called milaych] in general it is 


worn in the same manner aa the habarah, but 
sometimes like the tarhah. The tipper part 
of the black burka is often ornamented with 
false pearls, small gold coins, and other little 
fiat ornaments of the same metal (called bark); 
sometimes with a coral bead, and a gold coin 
beneath ; also with some coins of base silver 
and more commonly with a pair of chain 
tassels of brass OT silver (called oyoon) 
attained to the corners. A square black silk 
kerchief (called asbeh), with a border of red 
and yellow, is bound rouud the head, doubted 
diagonally, and tied with a single knot behind ; 
or, instead of this, the tarboosh and faroodee- 


yeh are worn, though by very few women of 
the lower classes* 

The best kind of shoes worn by the 
females of the lower orders are of red 
morocco, turned up, but generally round, at , 
the toes. The burka and shoea are most 
common in Cairo, and are also worn by many 
of the women throughout lower Egypt ; but 
in Upper Egypt, the burka. ia very seldom 
seen, and shoes are scarcely less uncommon 
To supply the place of the former, when necca- ; 
sary, a portion of the tarhah is drawn before \ 
the face, so as to conceal nearly all the coun 
tenance except one eye. 

Many of the women of the lower orders, 
even in the metropolis, never conceal their 

Throughout the greater p&rt of Egypt, the 
most common dress of the women merely con 
sists of the blue shirt or tob and tarhah. In 
the southern parts of Upper Egypt chiefly 
above Akhmeetn, most of the women envelop 
themselves in a large piece of dark-brown 
woollen stuff (called a hulaleeyek), wrapping it 
round the body and attaching the upper parts 
together over each shoulder, and a piece of 
the same they use as a tarhah. This dull 
dress, though picturesque, is almost as dis 
guising as the blue tinge which women in 
these parts of Egypt impart to their lips. 
Most of the women of the lower orders wear 
a variety of trumpery ornaments, such as , 
ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets, &c., arid some 
times a nose-ring. 

The women of Egypt deem it more incum 
bent upon them to cover the upper and back 
part of the head than the face, and more 
requisite to conceal the face than moat other 
parts of the person. I have often seen 
women but hilf covered with miserable rags, 
and several times females in the prime of 
womanhood, and others in more advanced 
age, with nothing on the body but a narrow 
strip of rag bound round the hips. 

Mr. Burckhart, in his Notes on the Bedouins 
and Wahabys (p. 47), thus describes the dreas 
of the Badawls of the desert : 

In summer the men wear a coarse cotton 
shirt, over which the wealthy put a kambar, 
or "long gown," as it is worn in Turkish 
towns, of silk or cotton staff. Most of them, 
however, do not wear the kombar, but simply ! 
wear over their shirt a woollen mantle. 
There are different sorts of mantles, one very 
thin, light, and white vooilen, manufactured 
at Baghdad, and called mtsoumy. A coaraer 
and heavier kind, striped white and brown 
(worn over the meeoumy), is called abba. 
The Baghdad abbas are most esteemed, those 
made at Hainan, with short wide sleeves, are 
called bvush. (In the northern parts of 
Syria, every kind of woollen mantle, whether 
white, black, or striped white and brown, or 
white and blue, are called meshlakk^ I have 
not seen any black abbas among the Aeneaes, 
but frequently among the sheikhs of Ahl el 
Shemal, sometimes interwoven with gold, and 
worth as much as ten pounds sterling. The 
Aenezes do not wear drawers; they walk and 
ride usually barefooted, even the richest of 


them, although they generally esteem yellow 
boats and red shoes. All the Bedouins wear 
on the head, instead of the red Turkish cap, 
a turban, or square kerchief, of cotton or 
cotton and silk mixed ; the turban it* called 
keffit ; this thy fold about the head so that 
one cornor falls backward, and two other 
corners hang over the foro part of the shoul 
ders ; with these two corners they cover their 
faces to protect them from the SUITS rays> or 
hoi wind, or rain, or to conceal their features 
if they wish to be unknown. The keffie is 
yellow or yellow mixed with green. Over the 
keffic the Aenezes tie, instead of & turban, a 
corcr round the bead ; this cord is of camel s 
hair, and called akal Some tie a handker 
chief about the head, and Jt is- then called 
shuife, A few rich sheikh* wear shawls on 
their heads of Damascus or Baghdad manu 
facture, RtripM red and white* they some 
times alao use red caps or taklf (called in 
Syria tttrbouth\ and under those thoy wear a 
smaller cap of camel s hair called maaraka 
(in Syria arkye, where it is generally made of 
rino cotton stuff). 




The Aenezes are distinguished at first sight 
from all the Syrian Bedouins by the long 
tressoe of their hair. They never shave 
their black hair, but cherish it from infancy, 
till they can twist it in tresses, that hang 
over the cheeks down to the breast : these 

tresses, are called keroun. Some few Aen*xs 
wear girdles of leather, others tie a cord or 
a piece of rag over the ehirt Men and women 
wear from infancy a leather girdle around the 
naked waist, it consists of four or five thongs 
twisted together into a cord aa thick as one s 
finger. I hear-] that the women tie their 
thongs separated from each other, round the 
waist. Both metn and women adorn the 
girdles wi*h pieces of ribands or amulets. The 
Aenezes called it hhakou ; the AW el Shemal 
call it bernm. In summer the boys, until the 
age of seven or eight years, go stark naked; 
but I never saw any young girl in that state, 
although it was mentioned that in the interior 
of the desert the girls, at that early age, were 
not more encumbered by clothing than thoir 
little brothers. In wintor, the Bedouins wear 
ovr tho shirt a pelisse, made of several sheep 
skins stitched together; many wear these 
skins even in summer, because experience has 
taught them that Ihe more warmly a perscm 
is clothed, tho less he suffers from the <mn. 
The Arabs endure tho inclemency of the 
rainy season in a wonderful manner. While 
everything around thorn suffers from the 
cold, they sleep barefooted in an open ent, 
where tho fire is not kept up beyond mid 
night. Yet in the middle of summer an Arab 
Bleeps wrapt in his mantle upon tho burning 
Sand, and exposed to the rays of an intensely 
hot sun. The ladies dress is a wide cotton 
ge on of u dark colour, blue, brown, or black , 
on their hoads they wear A kerchief called 
xhaitber or mekroune, the young females having 
it of a red colour, the old of black. All the 
Ranalla ladios wear black silk kerchiefs, two 
yards square, called shale kns ; these are made 
at Damascus. Silver rings are much worn 
by the Aeneze ladies, both in the ears and 
noses; the ear rings they call terkie (pi U- 
raky), the small nose-rings shedre, the larger 
(some of which are tbreo inches and a half in 
diameter), khezain. All the women puncture 
their lips and dye them blue ; this kind of 
tattooing they call bertoum. and apply it like 
wise in spotting their temples and foreheads. 
The Serhhan women puncture their cheeks 
breasts, and arms, and the A rumour women 
their ankles. Several men also adorn their 
arms in the same manner. The Bedouin 
ladies half cover their faces with a dark- 
coloured veil, called nekye, which is so tied 
as to conceal the chin and mouth. The 
Egyptian women s veil (berkoa) is used by 
the Kebly Arabs. Round their wrists th 
Aenezo ladies wear glass bracelets of various 
colours ; the rich also hare silver bracelets 
and some wear silver chains about the neck 
Both in summer and wintor the men and 
women go barefooted 

Captain Burton, in his account of Zanzibar, 
(rol. i. p. 382), says : 

The Arab s head-dresa is a himmeh 01 ko- 
fiyyah (red fez), a Surat calotte (ajiyyah), or 
a white skull-cap, worn under a turban 
(kiUmba) of Oman silk and cotton religiously 
mixed. Usually it is of fine blue and white 
cotton check, embroidered and fringed with 
broad red border, with the and* hanging in 




unequal lengths over ore shoulder. The 
eoitiure is highly picturesque. The ruling 
family and grandees, however, have modified 
its vulgar folds, wearing it peaked in front, 
aucl some w nat resembling a tiara. The essen 
tial body-clothing, and the auocedaneum for 
trousers is an iiur (nyuo yakv Chini), or loin 
cloth, tucked in at the waist, six to seven fet 
long by two to three broad. The colours are 
brickdust and white, or blue and white, with 
a silk border striped red. black, and yellow. 
The very poor wear a dirty bit of cotton 
girdled by a hakatt or kunddvi, a rope of 
plaited thongs ; the rich prefer a fine embroi 
dered stuff from Om an, supported at the waist 
by a silver chain. None but the western 
Arabs admit the innovation of drawers (surit- 
wali). The Jama or upper garment is a collar- 
less coat, of the best broad-cloth, leek-green 
or some tender colour being preferred. It is 
secured over the left breast by a silken loop, 
and the straight wide sleeves are gaily lined. 
The kizhdo is a kind of waistcoat, covering 
only the bust; some wear it with sleeves, 
others without. Thedishdashes (in Kisawa- 
hili Khanzu), a narrow-sleeved shirt buttoned 
at the throat, and extending to midshin, is 
made of calico (baftah)., American drill and 
other stuffs called doriyah. tarabuzun, and 
jamdani. Sailors are known by khuzerangi, 
a coarse cotton, stained dingy red-yellow, 
with henna or pomegranate rind, and rank 
with ware (bastard saffron) and. shark s oil. 

Respectable men guard the stomach with a 
hizdm, generally a Cashmere or Bombay 
shawl ; others wear sashes of the dust- 
coloured raw silk, manufactured in Oman. 
The outer garment for chilly weather is the 
long tight-sleeved Persian jubbeh, jokhah, or 
caftan, of European broad-cloth. Most men 
shave their beads, and the Shafeis trim or 
entirely remove the moustache^. 

The palms are reddened with henna, which 
is either brought from El Hejaz, or gathered 
in the plantations. The only ring is a plain 
cornelian seal and the sole other ornament is- 
a talisman (hirz, in Kisawahili Hirizi). The 
eyes aro blackened with kohl, or antimony of 
El Sham here, not . Syria, but the region 
about Meccah and the mouth crimsoned by 
betel, looks as if a tooth had just been knocked 

Dr. Eugene Schuylor. in his work on Turk 
estan (vol. i. p. 122), says : 

The dress of the Central Asiatic is very 
simple. He wears, loose baggy trousers, 
Qsually made of coarse white cotton stuff- 
fastened tightly round the waist, with a cord 
and tassel ; this is a necessary article of dress, 
and is never or rarely taken off, at all events 
not in the presence of another. Frequently, 
when men are at work, this is the only gar 
ment, and in- that case it is gradually turned 
up under the cord, or rolled up on the legs, 
so that the person is almost naked. Over 
this is orn a long shirt, either white or of 
some light-coloured print, reaching almost to 
the feet, aud with a very nai-row aperture for 
the neck, which renders it somewhat difficult 
to pat the head through, The sleeve? are 

long and loose. Beyond this there is nothing 
more but what is called the chapan, varying 
in number according to the weather, or the 
whim of the person. The chapan is a loose 
gown, cut very sloping in the neck, with 
strings to tie it together in front ; and inor 
dinately large sleeves, made with an immense 
gore, and about twice as long as is necessary ; 
exceedingly inconvenient, but useful to con 
ceal the hands, as Asiatic politeness dictates. 
In summer, these are usually made of Rus 
sian prints, or of the native alatcha, a striped 
cotton material, or of silk, either striped or 
with most gorgeous eastern patterns, in bright 
colours, especially rd,. yellow, and green. T 
have sometime* seen men with as many as 
four or five of these gowns, even in anramer 
they say that it keeps out the heat. In 
winter, one gown will frequently be made of 
cloth, and lined with line lamb-skin or fur. 
The usual girdle is a large handkerchief, or a 


miiall shawl; at times, a long scarf wound 
several times tightly ronnd the waist. The 
Jews in places tinder native rule are allowed 
no girdle, but a bit of rope or cord, as a mark 
of ignominy. From the girdle hang the acces 
sory knives and peveral small bags and 
pouches, often prettily embroidered, for 
combs, money, &c On the head there is a 
skujl-cap ; these in Tashkent are always em 
broidered with silk; in BukharA they are 
usually worked with silk, or worsted in cross- 
stitch in gay patterns. The turban, called 
tchilprtch. or " forty turns," is very long ; and 
if the wearer has any pretence to elegance, It 
should be of fine thin material, which is 
chiefly imported from England. It requires 
considerable experience to wind one properly 
round the head, so that the folds will be well 
made arid the appearance fashionable. One 
extremity is left to fall over the left shoulder, 
but is usually, except at prayer time, tucked 
in over the top. Should this end be on the 
right shoulder, it is said to be in the Afghan 
style.. The majority of turbans are white 
particularly sd in Ta fchkerit, though white i* 


especially the colour of the mullahs and roli- 
jfious people, whose learning is judged by the 
size of their turbans. In general, merchants 
nrefer blue, striped, or chequered material. 



At hoiot the met* usually go barefooted, 
but on going out wear either a ?ort of slipper." 
with pointed toes and very small high heeds. 
or loof? soft boots, the Sole arid upper being 
made of the same material. In the street, 
one must in addition pnt on either a slipper or 
golosh, or wear riding-boots made of bright 
green horso hide, with turned-up pointed 
toes and very small high beels. 

The dress of the women, in .shape rmd 
fashion, differs but little from that of the 
men, as they wear similar trousers and shirts, 
though, in addition, they have long gowns, 
usually of bright-coloured silk, \vhich, extend 
from the neck to tho ground. They wtr 
an innumerable quantity of necklaces, and 
little amulet^, pcudautp in their hair, and 
ear-rings, and occasionally even * nosc-ricg. 
This is by no moane so ugly as Is gtupposeJ : a 
pretty girl with a torquoisering in one nostril 
is not at all unsightly On the contrary, there 
is something piquant, m it. Usually, when 
outside of the houses, all respectable women 
wear a heavy black voil, reaching to their 
waists, made of woven horse-hair, and over 
that is thrown a d. irk blue, or green k/ialutt, 
the sleeves of which, tied together at the 
ands, dangle behind. The theory of this dull 
dress is, that the women desire to escape ob 
servation, and certainly for that purpose they 
have devised h* most ugly and unseemly 


costume that could he imagined. They are, 
hov/f v*-r, veiy inquisitive, rind occasionally in 
bye-streets one is able to get a good glance 
at them before they pull down then* veils 

The d/vss of the citizens of Persta has been 
often dftscnbttd, both by ancient and modern 
traveller-. That of the men has changed 
/ery materially within the last cnntury. The 
tuvhan, a.s a head-dress, is now worn by none 
but the Arabian inhabitants of that country. 
The Persians wear u Jong cap covered with 
lamb s wool, the appearance of which 1$ 
sometimes improved by being encircled with 
a cashmere shawl. The inhabitants of the 
principal towns are fond of dressing richly 
Their upper garments are either made of 
chmU, silk, ov cloth and are often trimmed 
with gold or silver Uce ; they also wenr bio 
cade , and in winter their clothas ar linec 
with, furs, of which they import a great 
vanity. Ft H not :uM>mary for any peison, 
except the king to wear jewels ; hut. nothing 
can exceed the proiusion which he displays 
of those ornaments j and bid subjects ee eru 
peculiarly proud of this part of royal magni 
ficence. They assert that when the monarch 
is dressed in his most splendid rohes, and is 
seated in the sun, that the eye cannot gaze on 
the darling- brilliancy of his attire. 

DRINKABLES. Arabic asknbah 
(L^A.1) There is a chapter in the 
Traditions devoted to this subject, and en 
titled Babu l-Ashriltah. The example of Mu 
hammad in bis habit ot drinking, having in 
fluenced the Eastern world in its habits, the 
following traditions are noticeable. Anae 
Says tf the. Prophet ha.-", forbidden drinkiogf 
water standing, and that he used to take 
breath three times in drinking; nd would say 
drinking in this way cools the stomach, 
qneuohes the thivst and gives health and 
vigour to the body. 

Ibn A.bbai< says the .Prophet forbade 
drinking water from the mouth of & leather 

Umra Salimah says "the* .Prophet, said, 
He who drinks out of a silver cup drinks of 
bell firf " (&**&& h.u.w rix c iii.) 


are /ourdriukuig vessule which Muslims were 
forbidden by their Prophet to drink out of 
jbk. i ,c.i )/iantoni. a "green vessel "; 
large gourd hollowed out: naqir.a. 
cup made from the hollowed root of a tree : 
muzctjftat, a vessel covered with pitch, or with 
a glutinouo Bubsrancc. These four kinds of 
vessels seem to have been used for fJHnkmg 
wine, hence the prohibition 

When a dug drinks irom a vessel used by 
man, it should he washed seven t<i.cs 
(Mishfc-it, book iii. c i*. pt. i.) 

DROWNING. Arabic j 
(&f) I* i* * strange anomaly in 
Muhaiiinmdan law. according to the teaching 
of Abu Hani fab, that if person cause the 
death of another by immersing him under 
w&ter until he die, the offence does not 



amount to murder, and retaliation (gt>a#)is not 
inourred. The arguments of the learned divine 
are as follows : First, water is analogous to 
a small stick or rod, as is seldom or ever 
used in murder. Now, it is said in the Tradi 
tions that .death produced by a rod is only 
manslaughter, and as in that a fine is merely 
incurred, so here likewise. Secondly, retalia* 
tion requires the observance of a perfect 
equality ; but between drowning and wound 
ing there is no equality, the former being 
short of the latter with regard to damaging 
the body. [MUBDEB.] 

denotes the state of a person who has taken in 
toxicating liquor, whilst svkr (^L) implies a 
state of drunkenness. Wine of any kind being 
strictly forbidden by the Muslim law, no dis 
tinction is made in the punishment of a wine- 
drinker and a drunkard. If a Muslim drink 
wine, and two witnesses testify to his having 
done so, or if his breath smell of wine, or if 
he shall himself confess to having taken wine, 
or if he be found in a state of intoxication, he 
shall be beaten with eighty stripes, or, in the 
case of a slave, with forty stripes. (Hiddyah, 
vol. ii. p. 67 ; Mtshkat, bk. xv. c iv.) [KHAMR.] 

DRTTZES. A heretical mystic sect 
of Muhammadans, which arose about the be 
ginning of the eleventh century in the moun 
tains of Syria. They are now chiefly found 
in the districts of Lebanon, and in the neigh 
bourhood of Damascus. They were founded 
by al-Haklm, the fanatical Khalifah of the 
Fafcimite race, who reigned at Cairo, assisted 
by two Persians named Hamzah and al-Darazi, 
from the latter of whom the sect derives its 

De Sacy, in his Expose de la Religion des 
Druzes, gives the following summary of their 

"To acknowledge only one God, without 
seeking to penetrate the nature of His being 
and of His attributes ; to confess that He can 
neither be comprehended by the senses nor 
defined by words ; to believe that the Divinity 
has shown itself to men at different epochs, 
under a human form, without participating in 
any of the weaknesses and imperfections of 
humanity ; that it has shown itself at last, at 
the commencement of the fifth age of the 
Hejira, under the figure of Hakim Arur 
Allah ; that that was the last of His mani 
festations, after which there is none other to 
be expected ; that Hakim disappeared in the 
year 411 of the Hejira, to try the faith of His 
servants, to give room for the apostasy of 
hypocrites, and of those who had only em 
braced the true religion frdm the hope of 
worldly rewards; that in a short time he 
would appear again, full of glory and of 
majesty, to triumph over all his enemies, to 
extend His empire over all the earth, and to 
make His faithful worshippers happy for 
ever ; to believe that Universal Intelligence is 
the first of God s creatures, the only direct 
production of Bis omnipotence; that it has 
appeared upon the earth at the epoch of each 


of the manifestations of the Divinity, and has 
finally appeared since the time of Hakim 
under the figure of Hamza, son of Ahmad ; 
that it is by His ministry that all the other 
creatures have been produced ; that Hamza 
only possesses the knowledge of all truth, 
that he is the prime minister of the true reli 
gion, and that he communicates, directly or 
indirectly, with the other ministers and with 
the faithful, but in different proportions, the 
knowledge and the grace which he receives 
directly from the Divinity, and of which he is 
the sole channel ; that he only has immediate 
access to God, and acts as a mediator tc the 
other worshippers of the Supreme Being; 
acknowledging that Hamza is he to whom 
Hakim will confide his sword, to make his 
religion triumph, to conquer all his rivals, 
and to distribute rewards and punishments 
according to the merits of each one ; to know 
the other ministers of religion, and tho rank 
which belongs to each of them ; to give to 
each the obedience and submission which is 
their due ; to confess that every soul has 
been created by the Universal Intelligence; 
that the number of men is always the same ; 
and that souls pass successively into different 
bodies ; that they are raised by their attach 
ment to truth to a superior degree of excel 
lence, or are degraded by neglecting or giving 
up religious meditation ; to practise the seven 
commandments which the religion of Hamza 
imposes upon its followers, and which prin 
cipally exacts from them the observance of 
truth, charity towards their brethren, the 
renunciation of their former religion, the most 
entire resignation and submission to the will 
of God; to confess that all preceding reli 
gions have only been types more or less per 
fect of true religion, that all their ceremonial 
observances are only allegories, and that the 
manifestation of true religion requires the 
abrogation of every other creed. Such is 
the abridgment of the religious system taught 
in the books of the Druses, of which Haitian 
is the author, and whose followers are called 

There is a very full and correct account of 
the religious belief of the Druzos in the .Jfr- 
searches into ike Religions of Syria, by the 
Rev. J. Wortabet, M.D. In this work Dr 
Wortabet gives the following Catechism of 
the Druzes, which expresses their belief with 
regard to Christianity : 

" Q. What do ye say concerning the goapel 
which the Christians hold ? 

" A. That it is true ; for it is the sayings 
Of the Lord Christ, who was Salman el Pha- 
riay during the life of Mohammed, and who ia 
Hamzeh the son of AH not the false Christ 
who was born of Mary, for he was the son of 

" Q. Where was the true Christ when the 
false Christ was with the disciples ? 

" A. He was among the disciples. He uttered 
tho truths of the gospel and taught Christ, 
the son of Joseph, the institutes of the Chris 
tian religion ; but when Jesus disobeyed the 
fcrtie Christ , he put hatred into the hearts of 
the Jews, so that they crucified him. 




44 What became of him after the crucifixion ? 

A. They put him into a grave, and the 
trne Ohriet came and stole him, and gave out 
the report among men that Christ had risen 
out of the dead. 

" Q. Why did he act in this manner? 

" A. That he might establish the Christian 
religion, and confirm its followers in what he 
had taught them. 

" Q. Why did he act in such a manner as to 
establish error ? 

" A. So that the Unitarians should be con 
cealed in the religion of Jesoa and none of 
them might be known. 

Q. Who was it that came from the grave 
and entered among the disciples when the 
doers were shut ? 

" A. The living Christ, who is immortal, 
even Haxnzeh, the eon and slave of our Lord. 

" Q. Who brought the gospel to light, and 
preached it? 

" A. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.* 

"Q. Why did not the Christians acknow 
ledge the unity of God ? 

" A. Because God had not so decreed. 

** Q. Why does God permit the introduction 
of evil and infidelity ? 

11 A. Because He chooses to mislead some 
from, and to guide others, to the truth. 

Q. If infidelity and error proceed from 
Him, why does he punish those who follow 
them ? 

" A, Because when He deceived them, they 
did not obey Hi?". 

" Q. How can a deluded man obey, when 
he is ignorant of the true state of the daae ? 

A. We are not bound to answer thia 
question, for God is not accountable to his 
creatures for his dealings with them." 

DU A (A*j). "Prayer." The word 
du ff is generally used for supplication, as dis 
tinguished from falat, or the liturgical form 
of prayer, e.g. Qur an, Surah xiv. 42 : "0 my 
Lord ! make me and aay posterity to be con 
stant in prayer (salaf). O our Lordl and 
accept my supplication (rfu cf). [PBAYERS.J 

DU AM-MA Stm (*-* * L - 0U )- 

Lit. "Recorded prayer." A term used for 
prayers which were offered up by the Pro 
phet, and have been handed down in the 

DU A U L-QUNtJT (*yuW .V0j), 

called also the Qunutu V- Witr, " The prayer 
said standing. 1 A form of prayer recited after 
the qarffah in the night prayer. Recited by 
some sects in the early morning. It is found 
in the Traditions. It is as follows : 

" O God, we seek help from Thee, and for 
giveness of sins. 

" We believe in Thee and trust in Thae. 

* We praise Thee. We thank Thee. We 
are not unthankful. 

" We expel, and we depart from him who 
does not obey Thee. 

We serve Thee only, and to Theo do we 

" We seek Thee, we prostrate ourselves and 
we serve Theo. 

14 We hopo for Thy morcy. We fear Thy 

"Surely Thy Judgments arc upon the 

DUALISM. Professor Palmer, 
following the remarks ol cl-Baizawi the 
commentator, says there ie a protest against 
the dnalistic doctrine that Light and Dark 
ness were two co-eternal principles, in the 
Qur an, Surah vi. 1: "Praised be God who 
created the heavens and the earth, and brought 
into being the Darkness and the Light." 
(Palmer s Qur an, vol. i. p. lift ; al-Bai?w? m 


Smoke." The title of the xuvth chapter of 
the Qur an, in which the -words occur (dfch 
verse) : " Expect thou the day when the 
heaven shall bring a palpable smoke." 

DULDUL (Jd*>). The name of 
the Prophet s mule which he gave to AIL 

DUMB, The. Arabic abkam (f&\\ 

pL buhn, 

The intelligible signs of a dumb person 
suffice to verify bis bequests and render them 
valid ; he may also execute a marriage con 
tract, or give a divorce, or execute a sale or 
purchase, or sue or incur punishment by signs, 
but he cannot sue in a case of qi ?a?, or reta 
liation for murder. This rule does not apply 
to a person who has been deprived of speech, 
but merely to one who has been born dumb 
(Hidayah, vol. iv. p. 568.) A dumb person can 
also acknowledge and deny the faith by a sign, 

*U*JV). Lit. The pearl of light." A 

term used by Sufi mystics to express the 
dqlu l-awvcal, the first intelligence which 
God is said to have created at the beginning 
of the animate world. ( Abdn V-Razzaq s 
Dictionary ef$*fl Terms.) 

DTOtTD (^o ; a Persian word. 
Arabic a$-Salat (V- 9 ^). A benedic 
tion , imploring mercy. A part of the stated 
prayer, recited immediately after the Tashah- 
hud. whilst in the same posture. It is as fol 
lows : " God, have mercy on Muhammad and 
on his descendants, as Thou didst have mercy 
on Abraham and on his descendants ! Tbou 
art to be praised, and Thou art great 1 O 
God, bless Muhammad and his descendants aa 
Thou didst bless Abraham and his descen 
dants. Thou art to be praised and Thou art 
great." The merits of this form of prayer 
are said to be very great ; for, according to 
Anas, the Prophet said, " He who recites it 
will have blessings on his head ten times, ten 
sins will be forgiven, and he will be exalted 
ten steps." (Mishkdt, book iv. c. xvii.) 

DtfZAKE ()r>)- The Persian 
word for. hell. [HELL.] 

DYER. According to the Iinam 
Abu Hanifah, a dyer of cloth is at liberty to 



detain it until he receive his hire for dyeing 11 ; 
and if the cloth perish in his hands whilst it 
is detained, be is not responsible. (Siddya/i, 
vol. iii. 320.) 

DYING, The. Very special in 
structions are given in Muslim books as to 
the treatment of the dying. In the Burnt Y- 
Mukhtdr (p. 88), the friends of the dyiug are 
recommended, if possible, to turn the head ef 
the dying person towards Makkah ; but if this 
be not convenient, hie feet should be placed 


in that direction and his head slightly raiaed. 
The Kalimatu sh~$hahddah should then be 
recited, and the Surah Ya-SIn (xxxvi.) and 
Snratu V-Ra d (xiii.) should be read from 
the Qur an. When the spirit has departed 
from the body, the mouth Should b tied up 
and the eyes closed and the arms straight 
ened, and the body should be perfumed, and 
no unclean person should be suffered to 
approach the corpse. Immediate steps should 
then be taken for the washing of the corpse 



the East it is the universal custom of Mu- 
hainmadan women to wear cat-rings, and they 
are not unfrequently worn by young men and 
children. Gold ear-rings are, however, for 
bidden in the Traditions : for Abu Htt.raira.h 
relates that the Prophet said, " Whoever 
wishes to pat into the ear or the nose of a 
friend a ring of hell fire, let him put in the ear 
or the nose of his friend a gold ring . . 
let your ornament be of silver." And Asm* 
bint Yazld relates the same tradition. (Mi*fi- 
kdl, book xx. c, 11, part 2.) 


EARTH, The. Arabic arz 

Muhammad taught his followers that just as 
there are seven heaven^ [HEAVEH] one above 
another, so there are seven earths one beneath 
another, the distance between each of these 
regions being five hundred years journey. 
(Mishkat, book xxiv. c. i. part 3.) 

In the (Jur an the earth is said to be stretched 
out like a carpet or bed (Sftrah ii. 20 j xiii. 8 ; 
Ixxviii. 6), which expression the ancient com 
mentators understood to imply that the earth 
was a vst plane, but circular ; and (Surab 
xxxix. 67) to be but a handful in the sight 
of God, which in the last day shall be changed 
into another earth (Surah xiv. 49). 

The earth is believed by Mtthammadan 

writers to >e surrounded by a great ,sea 
called crl Btfhi n 7- M wAit, or the circumambient 
ocean, which is bounded by the mountains of 
Qaf. The extent of the earth is said to be 
equal to a journey of five hundred years; 
two hundred years jonrney being allotted to 
the sea, two hundred to the uninhabited 
desert, fcighty to the country of Gog and 
Magog ( Ya/uj wet Afitjuf) and the rest to the 
civilised world. Certain tsrrce tncoymia in the 
midst of the mountains of Qaf are said to be 
inhabited by the jinn, or genii. According to 
i some. Makkfth (or Jerusalem according to 
others) is situated in.the centre of the earth. 
On the Mnfiit is tho Arshtt l-Ibhs, or " Throne 
of Satan." The western portion of the Muhit 
is often called the z-jhtlmat, or ** Sea 
of Darkness." and in the south-west corner 
of tha earth is the Fountain of Life of which 
al-Khizr drank, and in. virtue of which he 
still lives, and will live till the Day of Judg 
ment. The mountains of Qaf which bound 
the great sea Mnhit, form a circular barrier 
round the whole earth, and are said to be of 
green chrysolite, the colour of which the Pro 
phet said imparts a greenish tinb to the sky. 
The general opinion is that the mountains of 
Qaf bound our earth, but some say there are 
countries beyond, each country being a thou 
sand years journey* 

The seven earths, which are five hundred 
years journey from each other, are situated 
one beneath the other, and each of these 
seven regions has its special occupants. 
The occupants of the first are men, genii, 
and animal*; the second is occupied by the 
suffocating wind which destroyed the infldel 
tribe of Ad (Surah Ixix. 6); the - third is 
filled withjfche stones of hell, mentioned in the 
Qur iin (Surah ii. 22 ; Ixvi. 6) as " the fuel of 
which is men and stones " ; the fourth by the 
sulphur of hell ; the fifth by the serpents of 
hell ; the sixth by the scorpions of hell, which 
are in size and colour like black mules, and 
have tails like spears ; and the seventh by 
ttw devil and his angels. Our earth is said 
to be supported on the shoulders of an angel, 
who stands upon a rock of ruby, which rock 
is supported on a huge bull with four thou- 




and eyes, and the saint number of ears, 
noses, mouths, tongues, and feet; between 
every ono of each is a distance of five hun 
dred years journey. The name of thus bull 
is Rujuta, who is supported by an enormoufi 
fish, the name of which is BaJiamut, 

The above is but brief outline of the 
Mnhammadan belief as regard* the earth * 
formation; but the statements of Mnham 
madan commentators are so wild on the 
subject, that it seems quite useless to quoti 
th*m as authorities, for they Contradict each 
other in endless variety. 

EARTHQUAKE, The. Arabic 
a-Zal*alah (jW> The title of the 
xcfxth Surah of the Qur an, iu which it is 
Staled that HH earthquake will take place at 
the commencement of tho sign* of the last 

" When the Earth with her quaking ghal 

" And the Earth shall cant forth her bur 

And man shall say. What aileth her? 

On Uiat day shall *he tell out ber 

* BecauBc thy Loid shall have hi spired her. 

- On that day shall men come forward in 
thronr* to behold their works, 

** And whosoever sh&ll have wrought HE 
.ttom s weight of good shall behold it, 

" And whosoever shall hare wrought an 
tom s weight of evil shall behold it. 1 

EATING, According to the Tra 
ditions, Muhammad ;inp havo been enjoined 
by their Prophet to eat jn God fl nama, to 

return thanks, to eat with their right band, 
and with their shoes off, and to Hck the 
plate when the meal is finished. The follow 
ing we some of Muhammad s precepts on the 

"The Devil has povror over that food 
which is eaten without remembering God," 

"Repeat the name of God. Eat with the 
tight hand and oat from before vou." 

11 When a man comes into a house at meal 
time, and remembers the name of God, the 
devil sys to his followers, There is no place 
here for you and me to-night, nor is there any 
aupper for us." 

" When anyone eattf he mutt not wash his 
fingers until he has fir$i licked them,* 

"Whoever eats a difth and licks it after 
wards, the dish intercedes vith God for 

" When victuals aro placed before you, oat 
them with your shoes off, because taking; off 
your shoes will ease your feet. 1 ( AbcJn II- 
Haqq adds, "and do it ont, of respect to the 

" Whoever eate from a plate and licks it 
afterwards, the dish says to him, May God 
free you from hell as you have freed me 
from the devils licking me. 1 " 

Qatadah says that Anas said : " The 
Prophet did not eat off a table, as is the 
manner of proud men. who do it to avoid 
bending their backs." (Minhlc&t, Arabic ed. 
Baku T-Apimak.) 

The following directions are given for cat- 
ing, by Faqir Muhammad; As ad, the author 
of the A^hlaq-i-JaldlL (Thompson s English 
TranElatiou, p. 294): 

" First of all. ho should wash h i# hands 



mouth, and nose. Before beginning he should 
say, < In the name of God (BismiUSX) ? and 
after ending he must say, Glory to God 
(Al-kamduliltdK). He is not to be in a hurry 
to begin, unless he is the master of the feast ; 
he must not dirty his hands, or clothes, or 
the table-linen ; he must not eat with more 
than three fingers, nor open his mouth wide ; 
not take large mouthfuls, nor swallow them 
hastily, nor yet keep them too long mi- 
swallowed. He must not suck his fingers in 
the course of eating ; but after he has eaten, 
he may, or rather ought, as there is scripture 
warrant for it. 

" Let him not look from dish to dish, nor 
smell the food, nor pick and choose it. If 
there should be one dish better than the rest, 
let him not be greedy on his own account, but 
let him offer It; to others. He must not spill 
the grease npon his fingers, or so as to wet 
his broad and salt He must not eye his com 
rades in the midst of hie mouthfuls. Let him 
eat from what is next him, unless of fruit, 
which it is allowable to eat from every quarter. 
What he has onoe put into his mouth (such 
as bones, &c.), he must not replace upon his 
bread, nor upon the table-cloth; if a bone 
has found its way there, let him remove it 
unseen. Let him beware of revolting ges 
tures, and of letting anything drop from his 
mouth into the cup. Let him so behave, 
that, if anyone should wish to eat the relicts of 
his repast, there may be nothing to revolt him. 


11 Whero he is [a guest, he must stay his 
hand sooner than the master of the feast; 
and whenever the rest discontinue eating, he 
must act in concert with them, except he be 
in his own house, or some other where he 
constitutes part of the family. Where he is 
himself the host, he must not continue eat 
ing when the rest have stayed their hands, -so 
that something may be left for anyone who 
chances to fancy it. 

" If he has occasion to drink in the course 
of his meal, let him do it softly, that no noise 
in his throat or mouth may be audible to 
others. He must not pick his teeth in the 
view of the company, nor swallow what his 
tongue may extract from between them ; and 
so of what may be extracted by the tooth* 
pick, let him throw it aside so as to disgust 
no one. 

" When the time comes for washing his 
hands, let him be exceedingly careful in 
cleansing his nails and fingers. Similar 
must be his particularity hi washing his 
lips, mouth, and nostrils. He must not void 
his rheum into the basin ; even the water in 
which his mouth has been rinsed, let him 
cover with his hand as he throws it 

"Neither must he take the turn from 
others in washing his hands, saving when he 
is master of the entertainment, and then he 
should be the first to wash." 



CHRISTIAN& In Muhammadan countries, 
where the people have not bean brought in 
contact with Hindus, with caste prejudices, 
Muslims never hesitate to eat with Jews and 
Christians, provided the drink and victuals 
are such as are lawful in Islam. Since the 
British occupation of India, the question has 
often been raised, and few Muhammadans will 
eat with Englishmen, Syud Ahmad Khan, 

C.S.L, has. written a book, in which he proves 
that it is lawful for Muhammadans to eat with 
both Christians and Jews, and his arguments 
would seem to be in accordance with the 
teaching of the Qur an. Surah v. 7 : " Law 
ful for you to-day are the good things, and 
the food of thd people of the Book (i.e. Jews 
and Christians) is lawful for you, and your 
food is lawful for them." 

Al-BaizawI, commenting on this verse, 




says t " This verse includes all kinds of food, 
that which is slain lawfully (zabh} or not, and 
this verse is of common application to all 
the people of the Book, whether Jews or 
Christians. But on one occasion Khali/ah 
All did not observe its injunctions with re 
gard to the Banu Taghlib. a Christian tribe, 
because ho said these people wore not Chris 
tians, for they had not embraced anything of 
Christianity excapt wine-drinking. And he 
does not include amongst the people of the 
book, the Majusis, although he included the 
Majusis with the people of the Book when 
he took the poll-tax from them, according to 
a tradition which Muhammad gave regarding 
the Majfisis, viz. Treat the Majusis as you 
would treat the people of the Book, but do 
not marry with thorn, nor eat what they 
slay." (Tafsrru l-Baizdwl, p 216.) 

The commentators, al-Kamalan, say the 
only question raised was that of animals 
slain by. Jews and Christians, and the learned 
are all agreed that animals glain by them are 
lawful. (Tafsvm l~Jalalain wa l-Kamdlain, 
p. 98.) 

The following Hadla is given in the $ahih 
Muslim on the subject : Abu Sa labah related, 
" I said, Prophet of God I Verily we live in 
a land belonging to the people of the Book 
(i.e. Jews or Christians) ; is it lawful, for us 
to eat out of their dishes? The Prophet 
replied, The order for dishes is thie : if you 
can get other dishes, then eat of them ; but if 
ye cannot, then wash those of the people of 
the Book and eat from them." 

The Imam Nawawi, the commentator on 
the Sahih Muslim, says Abu Da ud has 
given this Hadis in a somewhat different 
form to that hi the text. He says : * Abfl 
Sa labah relates, we were passing through 
tho country of the people of the Book (i.e. 
Christians), and they were cooking pigs 
flesh in their dishes, and drinking wine from 
their vessels." " For * (continues Nawawi), 
<* the learned are all agreed that it ia lawful 
to cat with Jews and Christians unless their 
vessels are polluted with wine or pork, in 
which case they must be washed before they 
are used." (#& Muslim wa Sharhu Na- 
w/aici, p. 146.) 

ECLIPSE. The Arabic k&usuf 
(*jj <t) is used to denote either an 
oolipse of the sun or of the moon (vide Mish- 
kdt. book rv. o. li.) j but it is more specially 
applied to an eclipse of the moon ; and kusuf 
(*jU~) for an eclipse of the sun (vide 
Richardson s Dictionary). Special prayers, 
consisting of two rak ahs, are enjoined in the 
Traditions (Misfikdt, book iv. c. li.) at the 
time of an eclipse of either the sun or 

Abdu lleh ibn Abbas says : There waa 
an, eclipse of the sun in the time of the Pro 
phet, and he recited prayers^ and the people 
recited after him ; and he stood up for a long 
time, as long as anyone would be repeating the 
Chapter of the Cow (i.e. Surah ii.). Then he 
performed a long ruku 4 after which he raised 

up his head and stood a long time, which 
was under the first standing ; after which be 
did the second ruku , which was the same as 
the first in point of time; then he raised bit* 
head up from the second ruku ; and per 
formed two prostrations, as is customary 
Then he stood up a long time, in .the second 
rak ah, and this was shorter than the first 
standing, in the first rak ah ; after which he 
did a long ruku in the second rak aH, and 
this was under the first ruku , in the first 
rak ah. After this, he raised up his bead, 
and stood a long time ; and this was shorter 
than th first, in the second rak ah 
Then he did a long ruku 1 ; and this was 
not so great as the first, in the second 
rak ah. Then ho rose up, and performed two 
prostrations ; and after repeating the creed, 
and giving the salam. he concluded his 
prayers. And the sun was bright. And the 
Prophet said, * Verily, the sun and moon are 
two signs, amongst those which prove the 
existence of God, and are not eclipsed on 
account of the life or death of any person; 
and when ye see this, remember God. The 
Companions said, * Prophet ! We saw you 
about to take something in the place where 
i you stood in prayer, after which we saw you 
draw back a little. And the Prophet said, 
"J saw Paradise, and gathered a bunch of 
grapes from it; and if I had taken it and 
given it to yon, verily you would have eaten 
of it as long as the world lasts. I also saw 
hell, and never saw such a horrid sight till this 
day ; and 1 saw that they wore mostly women 
there. And the Companions said, O Pro 
phet, why are most of the people of hell 
women ? * He said, * On account ef their 
infidelity : not on account of their dis 
obedience to God, but that they are ungrate 
ful to their husbands, and hide the good 
things done them ; and if you do good to one 
of them perpetually, after that, if they see 
the least fault in you, they will say, I never 
saw you perform a good work. " (Afishkdt, 
book iv. c. iL) 

EDEN. Arabic Adn (<$J*), which 
al-Baizawi says means " a fixed abode." The 
Hebrew *W is generally understood by 

Hebrew scholars to mean " pleasure " or 

The word Adn is net used in the Qur an 
for the residence of our first parents.the term 
used being a^/awnoA, a the garden " : although 
tho Muslim Commentators are agreed in 
calling it the Jannatu Ada, or "Garden of 
Eden/ The expressions. Jannutu Adn. " the 
Garden of Eden" and Janndtn /4fo, "the 
Gardens of Eden," occur ten times in the 
Qur an, but hi each case they are used for 
the fourth heaven, or stage, of celestial bliss. 


According to the Qur an, it seems clear 
that Jannatu *Adn is coruridered to be a 
place in heaven, and not a terrestrial para 
dise, and hence a difficulty arises as to the 
locality of that Eden from which Adam fell 
Is it the same place as the fourth abode of 




celestial bliss ? or, was it a garden situated in 
some part of earth? Al-Baizawi says that 
some people have thought this Eden was 
Situated in the country of the Philistines, or 
between Faris and Kirman. But, he adds, 
tha Garden o Eden is the Dam *-ctieft, or 
<f tbe House of Recompense," which IP a 
stage in the paradise of the heavens ; and 
that when Adam aud Eve were cast out oJ 
Paradise, Adain fell on the isle of Ceylon, or 
Sarandib, and Eve near Jiddah in Arabia; 
and after a separation of 200 years, Adam 
was. on his repentance, conducted hy th f 
Angel Gabriel to a mountain near Makkah, 
^hers he knew his wife Eve, the mountain 
being thence named A.rafa.h. (i.e. " the place 
of recognition); and that he afterwards j 
retired with her to Ceylon, where they con 
tinner! to propagate their species. 

Muhammad Tahir (Majma u t-Bthor, p. j 
225), in remarking upon the fact that in the 
Traditions the rivers Jaihftn and Jaihan are 
said to he rivers in "the garden 1 (al-Jan 
7i aft), says the terras are figurative, and mean 
that the faith extended to those regions and 
made them rivers of paradise. And in 
another place (/</ew, p. 164) the same antbor 
says the four rivers Satkdn (Jaxartes), 
Jcttfitin (JThen), Fvrdt (Euphrates), and iVz/ 
(Nile), are the rivers of Ptradiao, and that 
the rivers Saihan and Jaihan are not tho 
saraa as Jaihnn and Jaihan, hut that these 
fear rivers already mentioned originally came 
from Paradise to this earth of ours. 

EDUCATION. Education without 
religion is to the Muharamaclan mind an 
anconaly. la all books of Tradition.* there 
are sections specially devoted to the con 
sideration of knowledge, but only so far as 
ir, relates to a knowlfihe of God. and of 
" God s Book: (See Satii/lu l- Bukhdn . Babu Y 
( /n) Tbe people v?ho read tbe " Book of 
God " are, &ccoi-ding to tbe sayings <;f the 
Prophet, described as " assembling together 
in mosques, with light anrl contforfc descend 
ing upon them ? fcha grace of God covering 
them, and tbe angels of God encompassing 
them round a.bout." The chief aim. and 
object of education in Islfm) is, therefore, to 
obtain a knowledge of the religion ot Mu- 
hamroad, and anything beyond this is con 
sidered superfluous, and even dangerous. 
Amongst Muhammadan religious leaders 
there have always* been two classes those 
vrho aifect the ascetic and strictly religious 
life of mortification, such as the Sufi mystics 
and the Faqirs [FAQIK] ; and those who, by a 
careful study of the Qnr an, the Traditions, 
and the numerous works on divinity, have 
attained to a high reputation for scholarship, 
and fi-Te known in Turkey as trie *Ulamd\ or 
" learned, * and in India, as Maulawls. 

Amongst Muhaimu&cUnp generally, a know 
ledge of science and variotis branches of 
s ocular learning is considered dangerous to 
the faitb, and it is, discouraged by the reli 
gious, although some assert that Muhammad 
has encouragp:! learning of all kinds in the 
Qur au, by tbe following verse, Surah ii. 272 ;~ 


" He giveth wisdom to whoia He will, and 
He to whom wisdom is given hath had much < 
good given him. 

Mr. Liana, in his Modern Egyptians, says: 
f The parents seldom devote much of their ; 
time or attention to the intellectual education 
of their children^ generally contenting tlietn- 1 
selves with instilling into their youm; mir-iiUa 
lev-? prineipier. of religion, and then Bttbimttiifl 
r.hem, if they can afford to do .so, to the in4 
sti uotion of a school. As early as possible,] 
the child is tough* to say, 1 testify that \ 
tberd is no deity but God. and I testify that 
Miilwtmiiad is God s Apostte- He receives: 
also lessons of "religious pride, and learns to] 
hate the Christians, and all other sects buti 
his own. as thoroughly afi does the Muslim in] 
advanced a^e 

In connection with till mosques of Impofl 
.iince. in all parts of Islaro whether Tur-| 
key, ISgy pi, Persia, or India, there ar<> rn-.ill 
schools, either for the education of children, 
or For the training of students of divinity., 
The child who attend? these se.minn.ries is 
first taughb his alph&het, which he Jeainaj 
froni a small board, on which tho letters are] 
written by the teacher. He then becomes) 
acquainted with the numerical value of t-aciH 
letter. [ABJAD.] After this ho learne toj 
writs down the ninety-nine names of God, ancM 
other simple words taken from the Qur arus 
[frOn. j When he has mastered the spoiling! 
of words, hf proceeds to learn the first 1 
chapter of the Qur an, then the last chapter, 
and gi*a dually reads through the whol^j 
Quran i: Arabic, which he usually does with-; 
out understanding a word of it. Haviagj 
finished the Qur an. which is considered an 
incumbent religious duty, the pupil is in 
structed in the elements of grammar. andJ 
perhaps a iew simple rules of arithmetics 
To this iri added a knowledge of one Hindu 
stani, or Peraiau book. The ability ir read 
a single PerpiJin book like the GvUntini QV\ 
7? j . ; .v?f, is eoasidsred in Centra! Asia to be^ 
the sign of a liberal education. The ordi-i 
iiary schoolmaster ia generally a man oft 
little learning, the learned Maulawi usually.! 
devotuig himself to the str.cly of divinity, i 
and not to the education of tha young. 

Amongst students of divinit} , who are ealleeM 
talabar.n (sing, tittib) */~ z/i, or " seekers after^ 
knowledge," the usual course of study is as 
follows; a&-$arf> graaanaatical inflection; an 
nahw, syntax ; at- mantiq, logic : al-budb, arith 
metic ; al-jabr we t-mugobaloJi, algebra ; afc 
mrvna ton i-baydn* rhetoric and versification ; 
al~Jiqn* jurisprudence; <zl- aqffid, scholastic^ 
theology ; ot-tafulr^ commentaries on the* 
Qur an ; l ilmu l-u$vl, treatises on exegesis, 
and the principles and rules of interpretation 
of the laws of Islam , ai~ahadis, the traditions 
and ooraicentaries thereon. These are usually 
regarded as different branches of learning, 
and it ia not often that a, Manila wl, or Alim^ 
attains to the knowledge of each section. For 
example, a scholar will be celebrated an 
being wall educated in al-ahddis, but he may 
be weak ir> cd-jiqh. The teacher, when in 
structing his v pupils, seatfi himself nn the 




jjronnd witb his hearers ail seated round him 
ji & ring-. Instruction in mosques IB usually 
pi veil in the early morning-, after the morning 
prayer, and continues some thr&0 01 foui 
n.ours. It is again renewed for a short time 
jiftfr the mid-day prayer. 
i Stuflonls in rcogques are generally sup 
ported by the people of the pariah, (each 
mosque baring its section or parish), who 
pa,n be called upon for food for all the in 
InatPtt of a mosque every morning and even 
ing. Not ^infrequently mosques are endowed 
Uith laud, cr rents of shops and houses, for 
phe payment of professors. Mr. Lane speaks 
pf A mogquo in Cairo, which had an eucJ.jw- 
menk for the support of three hundred blind 
(tudents. The great mosque (iLAzhar, in 
3airo, sx the largest and mo*t influential seat 
yf learning in Islam. Tji 1875 when the 

present witter visaed c, it hnci ->x many art 
5,000 tudents gathered from all putt. of 
the Mtibammadan world. 

In India almost every mosque of impor 
tance has its class ot students of divinity, but 
they are nob established for the purposes of 
general education, but for the training of 
Students of divinity whc -will in time become 
the Imams of mosques. Some of tho Mania- 
vrla are men held in great reputation n? 
Arabic scholars, bat they are, a<J a rule, very 
deficient in general knowledge and informa 
tion. Whether we look to India, or Persia., or 
Egypt, or Turkey, tha attitude of Muhii ji- 
mftdanisru is undouotedly one JH dirr.c 
gotiismto the spread of secular education. 

Much hna been made by some writers of 
the liberal patronage extended to literature 
and b cienre by Abdu r-Hahmiw and his suc- 


Khalifabs of Oarrlova ifi the Middle 
Ages, But ihoTD wa3 nothing original, or 
ic, in the literature ihii* patronised, for 
as Processor Uerberweg veniatks in hie His 
tory of Philosophy, " the whole philosophy of 
the Arabians was a form of Aristotelianistn 
tempered wore or less with Nee-Platonic con 
ceptions." The philosophical works of the 
Greeks and their works of medical and phy 
sical science, ware translated from Greek 
into .Arabic by Syrian Ohrifitians, and not by 
Arabian Muslims. Muharnmadany cannot be 
altogether credited with these Ijterary under 

Al-Maqqarl, in his History of the Dynasties 
of Spain., has an interesting notice of educa 
tion, in that country, in which ho -wvites : 

" Respecting the state of science amonp: the 
Andalnsians (Spaniards), we must own in 
juatioe that the people of that country were 
the most ardent lovers of knowledge, as well 
as those who best know how to appreciate 
and distinguish A learned man and an igpo- 
rant oce ; indeed, science was so rnurh es 
teemed hy them, lhat whoever had not been 
endowed by God with the necessary qualifica 
tions to acquire it, Hid everything- in his 
power to distinguish hirnsiolf. and eonces.1 
from the peoplo his want of instruction ; for 
an ignorant man was at all times looked 
upon as an ohject of the gre&test contempt, 
while the learned man, on the contrary, was 
not only respected by all, nobles and plebeians, 
but wae trusted and consulted on overy ooc&- 



sion ; his name was in every mouth, his 
power and influence had no limits, and he was 
preferred and distinguished in all the occa 
sions of life. 

" Owing to this, rich men in Cordova, how 
ever illiterate thoy might be, encouraged 
letters, rewarded With the greatest munifi 
cence writers and poets, and spared neither 
trouble nor expense in forming large collec 
tions of hooks ; so that, independently of the 
famous library founded by the Khalifah al- 
Hokim, and which is said by writers worthy 
<rf credit to have contained no less than fpqr 
hundred thousand volumes, there were in 
the capital many other libraries in the hands 
of wealthy individuals, where the studious 
could dive into the fathomless sea of know 
ledge, and bring up its inestimable pearls. 
Cordova was indeed, in the opinion of every 
author, the city in Andalus where most 
books were to be found, and its inhabitants 
were renownad for their passion for forming 
libraries. To such an extent did this rage 
for collection increase, says Ibn Sa*Id, that 
any man in power, or holding a situation 
under Government, considered himself obliged 
to have a library of his own, and would spare 
no trouble or expense in collecting books, 
merely in order that people might say, Such 
a one has a very fine library, or, he possesses 
unique copy of such a book, or, he hag a 
copy of such a work in the hand- writing of 
such a one." 

EGGS. According to the Imam 
Abu Hanlfah, if a person purchase eggs and 
after opening them discover them to be of 
bad quality and unfit for use, he is entitled 
to a complete restitution of the price from 
the seller. (Hidayah, yoL ii. p. 415,) 

E&YPT. Arabic MIST (y). The 
land of Egypt is mentioned several timas in 
the Qur an in connection with the history of 
Joseph and Moses. In the year A.H, 7 (A.I>. 
628), Muhammad sent an embassy to al-Mu- 
qauqis, the Roman Governor of Egypt, who 
received the embassy kindly and presented 
the Prophet with two female Coptic slaves* 

ELEMENTS. Arabic al- Andsiru 
l-arba ah (3-*^ j-Uatt), " The four 
elements M of fire (nar), air (hawa), water (ma*), 
and earth (arz), from which all creation 
mineral, animal, and vegetable is produced. 

The respective properties of these elements 
are said to be as follows : Fire, hot and dry ; 
air, hot and cold ; water, cold and wet ; 
earth , cold and dry. A knowledge of the 
properties of the four elements is required in 
the so-called science of Da wah. [DA WAH,] 

ELEPHANT, The year of. Arabic 
<2w% >l-m (J*d\ r U). The year in 
which Muhammad was born. Being the 
year in which Abrahatu 1- Ashram, an Abys 
sinian Christian and Viceroy of the King of 
San a. in Yaman marched with a large army 
and a number of elephants upon Makkah, 
with the intention of destroying the Ka bah. 
He was defeated and his army destroyed in 


so sudden a manner, as to give rise to the 
bgend embodied in the cvth Surah of the 
Qur an, which is known as the Chapter of the 

Professor Palmer says it is conjectured 
that small-pox broke out amongst the army. 

ELIJAH. Arabic Hyw 
Ilyiisin ((j^J^\) ; Heb. 

Testament, HXwxs. A prophet men* 

tioned In tho following verses in the Qur an : 
Surah xxxvii. I23> ".Verily Ilya* (jEUias) 
was of the Apostles ; and when he said to his 
people, \Vm ye not fear, Do ye call upon 
Ba i and leave tae best of Creators, God 
your Lord, and the Lord of your fathers in the 
old time? But they .called him a liar; 
verily, they shall surely be arraigned, save 
God s sincere servants. And we left him 
amongst posterity. Peace upon Hyasln 
(Ellas) verily, thus do we reward those who 
do well ; verily he was of otir servants who 

Surah vi 85 :" And Zachariah and John, 
and Jesus, and Ilyas, all righteous ones." 

Al-Baizawi s&ys, * It has been said that this 
Ilyae, is the same as Idris, prefather of Noah. 
whilst others say he was the son of Yasin 
and descended from Aaron, the brother of 

ELISHA. Arabic al- Yastf 
Heb. - Elisha is mentioned 

twice in the Qur an, under the name al- 

Surah xxxviii. 48: "And remember 
Ishmael and Elisha, and jgu *l-kin, for each 
was righteous." 

Sfirah vi 85, 86 : " And Zachaiiah, and John, 
and Jesus, and Elias, all righteousness ; and 
Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot, each 
havo We preferred above the worlds." 

The Commentators give no account of him 
except that he was the son of Ukktub> 
although the Bible says he was the son of 
Shaphat. Husain says he was Ibtiu l-ty uz 
(the son of the old woman). 

ELOQUENCE. The Arabic word 
al-Baydn (0WH)i which is defined in 
the Qmydjtu l-Lugk/ah. as speaking fluently 
and eloquently, occurs once in the Qur an, 
Surah Iv. 3: **Ke created man: he hath 
taught him distinct speech." The word also 
occurs in the Traditions, and it is remarkable 
that although the Qur an is written in rhythm, 
and in a grandiloquent style, that in the Tra 
ditions the Prophet seems to affect to despise 
eloquence, as will be seen from the folio whig 
Ahadi$ : Ibn Umar says the Prophet said, 
" May they go to hell who amplify their words." 
Abu Umamah relates that the Prophet said, 
" Eloquence (al-baydn) is a kind of magic.* 
Ibn Mas ud relates that the Prophet said, 
" Vain talking and embellishing^ (bay an) are 
two branches of hypocrisy." Amr ibn al- 
AsJ relates that the Prophet said, "I have 




baa/i ordered to speak little, and verily it 
is beat to speak little." (AfMJfcaf, book 
xxii. o. ix.) 

Arabic Pttiq (^^}. The emancipa 
tion of slavea is recommended by the Pro 
phet) but the recommendation applies exclu- 
sirely to slaves who are of the Muslim faith. 
He is related to have said : " Whoever frees 
a Muslim slave God will redeem that person 
from hell-fire member for member." (Mish- 
kat, book xiii c. xix.) It is therefore laud 
able hi a man to release his slave or for a 
woman to free her bond- woman, in order that 
they may secure freedom in the next world. 
(JRidayah, vol. i p. 420.) 


orthodox Muhammadan state, only those 
persons who have embraced the Muslim 
faith are enfranchised ; all others are called 
upon to pay a poll tax (jizyah), for which 
they obtain security (amdnj. Those residents 
in a Muslim country who are not Muham- 
xuadans are expected to wear a distinctive 
dress and to reside in a special part of the 
village or town in which they live. Slaves 
who may embrace the Muslim faith do not 
become ipso facto enfranchised, unlesa their 
master be an unbeliever, in which case their 
becoming Muslims secures their emancipation. 
JBfmrust or persons not Muslims in a Muslim 
state, cannot give evidence against a Muslim. 
(See Durru l-Mukhtdr, in loco.) 



eater suddenly or abruptly into any person s 
home or apartment, is reckoned a great inci 
vility in aU eastern countries. With Muham- 
madans it is a religious duty to give notioe 
before you enter a house. The custom is 
founded upon an express injunction in the 
Qur an, Surah xxiv. 57-61 :- 

" O ye who believe ! let your slaves and 
those of you who have not come of age, aak 
leave of you, three times a day, ere they come 
into your presence; before the morning 
prayer, and when ye lay aside your garments 
at mid-day, and after the evening prayer. 
These are your three times of privacy. No 
blame shall attach to you or to them, t/ after 
these times, when ye go your rounds of at 
tendance on one another, they come in without 
permission. Thus doth God make clear to 
you His signs : and God is Knowing. Wise I 

" And when your children come of age, let 
them ask leave to come into your presence, 
as they who wore before them asked it. 
Thus doth God make clear to you his signs : 
and God is Knowing, Wise. 

* As to women who are past childbearing, 
and have no hope of marriage, no blame shall 
attach to them if they lay aside their outer 
garments, but so as not to shew their orna 
ments. Yet if they abstain from this, it will 
be better for them : and God Heareth, 

"No crime shall it be in the blind, or in the 

lame, or in the sick, to eat at your table* : or 
in yourselves, if ye eat in your own houses, or 
hi the houses of your fathers, or of your 
mothers, or of your brothers, or of your 
sisters, or of your uncles on the father s side, 
or of your aunts on the father s side, or oi 
your uncles on the mother s side, or of your 
aunts on the mother s side, or in those of 
which ye possess the keys, or hi the house of 
your friend. No blame shall attach to you 
whether ye eat together or apart. 

"And when ye enter houses, salute one 
another with a good and blessed greeting as 
from God. Thus doth God make dear to you 
His signs, that haply ye may comprehend 

The following are the traditions given in 
the Mishkat on the subject (book xxiL c. 11.) : 
Muhammad is related to have said. " Do not 
permit anyone to enter your home unless he 
gives a salam first" Abdu 11ah ibn Mas^ud 
says the Prophet said, " The signal for your 
pormission to enter is that you lift np the 
curtain and enter until I prevent you." Abdu 
Hah ibn finer says, " Whenever the Prophet 
came to the door of a house, he would not 
stand in front of it, but on the side of the 
door, and say, The poace of God be with 
you. " <Aj|a ibn Yasar says the Prophet told 
him to ask leave to enter even tho room of his 

ENVY. Arabic flasad (Ju->). 
The word occurs twice in the Qur an. 

Surah ii. 108 : Many of those who have 
the Book would fain turn you again into un 
believers, even after ye have once believed, 
and that through envy. 1 

Surah cxiii. : " I seek refuge ..... from 
the evil of the envious when he envies." 

EPHESUS, The Seven Sleepers of. 

ESOP. The Luqman of the Qur an 

is generally supposed by European Writers to 
be Escp. Sale is of opinion that Maximus 
Planudes borrowed the greater part of his lif a 
of Esop from the traditions he met with in 
the East concerning Luqmac. [&CQBUK.] 


The Muhammadan religion teaches that all 
Muslims (i.e. those who havo embraced the 
religion of their Prophet) will be ultimately 
saved, although they will suffer for their 
actual sins in -a purgatorial hell But those 
who have not embraced Islam will suffer a 
never-ending torment in ** the fire" (<m-ndr> 

Surah ii. 37 : " Those who misbelieve and 
call our signs lies, they are the fellows of 
hell, they shall dweD therein for ever" 

Surah xi. 108, 109 : " And as for those who 
are wretched -why in the tire shall they groan 
and *ob! to dwell" therein for ever (J&atidunj 
as long as the heat 6ns and the earth endur*. 

Al-Baizawi says the expression " as long as 
the heavens and the earth endure," is an 
Arabic idiom expressing that which is 



Ibn AraM (died A.D, 6S8), in his book 
Ftisa$a l-ffik&m, says the word khatidiv the 
verses quoted above does not imply etc.r;-iK.l 
duration, bat <> period, or age. of long dura 
tion. Ai-Bftiiiwi, th commentator, also 
admits that the literal meaning of the word 
only expresses a period of extended dura 
tion , but the JalS,lan and Husaiu both con 
tend that its meaning is that of abadl^ or 
" never ending," in which no being will be 
annihilated, and which no one can over 

It is also to be observed that this vjord 
Itfutlid is that used for the eternity of bliss of 
those in Paradise , ~ 

$iitrrth xi. 110; "As for those who are glad 
why in Paradise ! to dwell therein for ever " 


SUPPER, ft J B 3 singular omission in tjse 
Qur an, that there ig no direct allusion to this 
Christian institution. 

Both Sale and ftodweH think lliii, there is 
a reference to sb in. tfaa following passages in 
the Qur an, Surah v 112-114- ~ 

" Remember when the Apjptie& !aid : 
Jesus, Son of Mary, is thy Lord able to send 
down % table (nuFidah, a table. especially one 
covered with victaalfn to us out of heaven ? 
He said, Fear God if ye be believers, They 
iaid We desire to eat therefrom, toid tc 
have our hearts assured ; and *.o kuovr that 
bhou "haif t indeed Spoken truth to xis. and \vt 
be witnesses thereof Jes.nSj Son of Mary, 
said God oar Lord! send down, a table 
to us out of heaven, that it may become a, re 
curring festive i to us., to the first of us. and 
to the last of us, and a sign from Thee : and 
do Thou. nourish us, for Thon art the best of 
nourishers. " 

MuiUiin commentators are not agreed as !/> 
the meaning of tuese verses, but none of then 
suggest the institution of th Lord s Snpjper 
as n explanation.. The interpretations are 
as confuted as the -revelatunu 

According to the Inaam .al-Baghwi f *Am- 
mar ibn Yasir said that the Prophet said It 
was Jle&h and bread which was sent dowi 
from heaVen; hui> bRcnuse ths Christians to 
whom it was. Heist were unfaithful, it was 
taken away, aisd they hftf-ntrie pigs ana 
monkeys ! 

Ibn A.bbns saya taat, after a thirty days 
fast, a table was sent down with seven io&ves 
and seven Bshes, and the -wliole company of 
disciples ate and vvei-a filled (St. Matt. arv. 
34). The ooniVijcntatftrs al-Jalalan alao 
give tries?* two explaratioi:s5. and the SRCTH- 
menb of the I/ord s Sapper is never ones sug 
gested by any Mns]rra doctor in explanation 
of the above verses 

EUNUCH. Arabic &hflji (cs**-)- 
Although in ali partjs of the East, it is usual 
for -wealthy Muhammad axis to keep an esta 
blishment of eunuchs to guard the female 
members of ihe household, it has been strictly 
forbidden by Muhammad for any. of his fol- 
luvrcrs to make themselves smeh, ot to make 


others. Us.mau ibn Martin caaie to imn and 
said, " Prophet I permit me to become a. 
eunuch." Bnt Muhammad said, " Bb is not 
of my people who makes another aeusoofe or 
becomes so himself. The manner in which 
my people become eunuchs is to exorcise 
fasting," (Mfskkdt, book iv. c. viii.) 

EVE. Arabic 


_ EVIDENCE. Arabic Kk*k&dal 
(fo\o6). The law of evidence i& very 
clearly laid down in ai! MahJnuui&&U) books 
of law, especially in tho tftdeyak, and the 
JJurru, l-MiiKJktar, and ii is interesting to 
observe the difference between tbs Uw of 
evidence as provided for in the law of Mopes, 
and that iaM down in Muhaminadan bseks. 
In the PenUtteuch two witnesses at least 
were required to aatafolisb, any charge (Nmn. 
XXXY 30), and the witness vrho withheld the 
truth was censurod (Lev, v. 1), svhilst slan 
derous reports and officious witnesses were 
disco uragod (Ex, xxiii. 1; l/ev. xix. 16), and 
i$lse witnesses were punished with, the punish - 
jaent due to tho o .So nee they sought to esta 
blish fDent. xix. 16). According to Josephus. 
vyomen and slaves were not admitted to give 
evidence. (Ant. iv, e, B, H. 1^) 

The Bunni U>v f as explaiaea by the H 
of the ffiddydh (vol. iii. p. 664), is in 
respects tho same as the Jewish Anil i< 

It in the duty .0.- v^iiut?tse^ to i>ea^ it^u 
tnony, and it is not lawful for 1 them to conceal 
it, when the party concerned demands it from 
them, Beoa use it is written in tfc5 (^ur jin. 
clurab. ii. 282, if Let not, witnesses withho!^ 
their e-videtice \vhen ifc is demanded of them," 
And again-, * Oonceal aot/ your testimony., 
for whoever concottle its fcestiifeMny i an 

The requisition of the party is a condition, 
bec.auiie the delivery of evidence is the right 
ot" the party requiring it, and therefore re:-its 
upon his re^xiisiti.011 of it. as is tho case with 
respect to all other rigiity. 

In case? Inducing corporal punishment, 
witnesses are at liberty eii,Ker to give or 
withhold their testimony as they please, 
because in .such case they are 
tweeu two laudable actions; twunely, the 
estftbliabment of the pnnisbineilt, and the 
preservation of tho criminal s character, f jae 
concealment of vice ia, moreover, prefet able: 
because the prophet said to a person that had 
borne testimony. * Verily, it would Lave been 
better for yotti if you had concealed it": and 
also because he else where said, Whoever 
conceals the rices of ids brother Muslim > shall 
have ti veil drawn over his own crimes in both 
worlds by God" Besides, it ha been incul- 
lated both by the Prophet and his Compa 
nions HS commendable to assist iu the pre 
vention of corporal pruiiEhmentj and this i,s 
in evident argument for fche concealment of 
.<uch evidence as tends to establish it. It is 
iuciunhent, however, in the case of theft, tc* 
bear ovt to the proptriij) by te.tiiytRg 




that " a certain person took such property," 
in order to preserve the right of the pro 
prietor; but the word taken muat be used 
instead of stolen, to the ond that the crime 
may bo kor>fc concealed; besides, if the word 
stolen wero ufltd, the thief would be rendered 
liable to amputnticm; and as, where amputa 
tion is incurred, there is no responsibility foi 
the property, the proprietors right would l>e 

The evidence required in a case of whore 
dom is inAiof four men, as has been ruled in 
the Quran (Surah xxiv. JJ; and the testi- 
naony of a woman iu such a. case i.s not ad 
initted, because ar-Zuhrl snys, "in tho time 
of the Prophet and his two immediate suc 
cessors, it was an invariable rule to exclude 
tfc evidence of women in all cases inducing 
punish meut or retaliation," and also because 
the testimony ot women involves a degree o* 
doubt, as it is merely a Substitute for evi- 
deoce, beius accepted only where the testi 
mony of mon cannot he had : and therefore 
L is not admitted in any "matter liable tv 
<irop from the existence of a doubt. 

The evidence required in other criminal 
cases is that of two inon, according to the 
text of the Qur an ; and the testimony of 
women is not admitted, on the strength of 
tile tradition of az-Zuhrl above quoted. In 
all other cases the evidence required Js that 
ei two men, or of one man and two women, 
whether the caae relate to property or to 
other rights, such a* mitrrtay9 t divorce. 
agency, creditor ship, or the like. Ash-Shafi I 
has said that Ih^ evidence of one man and 
two women cannot be admitted, excepting in 
crvses that relate to property, or its depen 
dencies, such as hire, MtT, and so forth ; 
because the evidence of women fs originally 
inadmissible on account of their defect of 
understanding their want of memory and 
incapacity of governing, whence it is that 
their evidence is not admitted in criminal 

The evidence of one woman is admitted in 
cases of hirth (as where one woman, fo:~ 
instance, declares that a cerUin woman 
brought forth a certain- child). In the same 
manner also, the evidence, of one woman is 
autiicieiit with respect to virginity, or with 
respect to the defects of that part >( a. 
woman v. hich is concealed from man. The 
principle of the law in tlnse cases is derived 
from a traditional saying of the Prophet : 
The evidence of women is valid with 
respect to such, things a* it is not fitting for 
man to behold.." Aph-Shafi i holds the evi 
dence of four women to bo a necessary cou 
ditiou in such cases, 

Th* evidence of a woman with rospcct to 
istikldl (tbft noise made by a child at it? 
birth), is not admlttnblo, in the opinion of 
Abu Hannah, so far as relates to th osta- 
blishinent of -,he right oi heritage in tho 
child ; because this noise is of . nature- to b^ 
known or discovered by men; but is admis 
sible st> far as relates to the nc^6B>;itv of 
reading funeral prave^-s ovr,- the child : 
because these praters aro merely a matter of 

religion: in consequence of her evidence, 
therefore, the funeral prayers are to he 
repeated over it The two disciples, Mu 
hammad and Abu Yusut, maintain that the 
evidence of a woman is sufficient to establish 
the right of heritage altfo , because the noise 
in quastiou being made <tt the birth, none but 
wonum can oe auppo.-ed to be present when 
it is made. The evidence of a woman there 
fore, to this noise, is the same as her evidence 
to a living birth ; and as the evidence of 
women in the one case is also is 
it tn trie ut/h*-r 

in an ngiitfl whether of property or other 
wise, the probity of the witness, and the use 
nf the word ashhadu, " 1 bear witness," is 
absolutely requisite, even in the case of the 
evidence of womnn with re.spect to birth a,rd 
the like. If. therefore, a witness should s cj y 
"I know," or 1 know with certainty/ with 
out making use of the word aihhadu, in th d 
case his evidence cannot, be Admitted. With 
respect to the probity o r the witness, it is in 
dispensable, because it is written in the 
Qur an, Sfirah Ixv, 2, Take the evidence of 
two just- men": and also because the probify 
of the witnesses induces a probability of the 

If tho defendant throw a reproach on th 
witnesses, it i<* in that case incumbent en the 
Qaai to institute an enquiry into their chi- 
racter ; because, in the same manner as it is 
probable that a Muslim abstains from falst 
hood us being a thing prohibited in the reli 
gion he professes, so also is it probable tha f 
one. Muslim will not unjustly reproach 

It is not lawful tor a person to give evi 
dence to such things ap he has not actually 
seen, excepting in the oases of birth. <ieath 
mairiage, and cohabitation. 

But if a person, in any of tho above cases, 
^ive,* ovHeru-e 7"rom creditable hearsay, it i? 
requisite that he give it in an wtsolut* 
mauner, by aaying. for instance, " 1 b?ar tes 
timony that A. is the. sru of B," and not, " I 
bear testimony so and so, becauss. I havu 
heard it" foi in !H:ir u^st; th O-\z\ cannot 
accept it 

The te -.i-imony of any per9<m who is pro- 
pertytbrf is to say, a slave, male or female 
is not admissible; because testimony is of 
an authoritative nature ; and a a slave has 
no authority over bis own person, it follow-, 
that he can have no authority over other* , u 

The testimony of . porson that has been 
punished for slander i maflmissible, becaupe 
it is said in tho Qur an, Surah xxiv. 4, 
But a.- to those who acc\i.s married per 
?ous of whoredom, and T>roduce not four wit 
nesses of the fact, scourge them with four 
score stripes, iind receive not their tostimony 
for over; for such are infamous prevari 
cators, excepting tbosa who fthall after 
wards repent." 

If an inf,del who ha^ wutiVrod puaicliment 
{or sliinder should afterwards bec( rn< (. 
Mn^lim, his evidence is then adiu ssible ; for 
although, on afCvu^.t of Uie puaiehnient, 



he had lost the degree in which he was before 
qualified to give evidence (that is, in ail 
matters that related to his own sect), yet by 
his conversion to the Muslim faith he 
acquires a new competency ia regard to 
evidence (namely, competency to give evi 
dence relative to Muslims), which he did not 
possess before, and which is not affected by 
any matter that happened prior to the cir 
cumstance which gave birth to it. 

Testimony in favour of a son or grandson, 
or in favour of a father or grandfather, is not 
admissible, because the Prophet has so or 
dained. Besides, as there is a kind of com 
munion of benefits between these degrees of 
kindred, it follows that their testimony in 
matters relative to each other is in some 
degree a testimony in favour of themselves, 
and is therefore liable to suspicion. 

So also the Prophet has said, " We are 
not to credit the evidence of a wife concern 
ing her husband, or of a husband concerning 
his wife ; or of a slave concerning his master ; 
or of a master concerning his slave; or, 
lastly, of a hirer concerning his hireling." 

The testimony of one partner in favour of 
another, in a matter relative to their joint 
property, ie not admissible; because it is in 
some degree in favour of himself. The tes 
timony, however, of partners, in favour of 
each other, in matters not relating to their 
joint property, is admissible, because in it 
there is no room for suspicion. The testi 
mony of a person who has committed a great 
crime, such as induces punishment, is not 
admissible, because in consequence of such 
crime he is unjust. The testimony of a 
person who goes naked into the public bath 
is inadmissible, because of his committing a 
prohibited action in the exposure of his 

The testimony of a person who receives 
usury is inadmissible; and so, also, of one 
who plays for a stake at dice or cheas. The 
evidence of a person guilty of base and low 
actions, such as making water or eating his 
victuals on the high road, is not admissible ; 
because where a man is not refrained, by a 
sense of shame, from such actions as these, 
he exposes himself to a suspicion that he 
will not refrain from falsehood. 

The evidence of a person who openly 
inveighs against the Companions of the Pro 
phet and their disciples is not admissible, 
because of his apparent want of integrity. 
It is otherwise, however, where a person 
conceals his sentiments in regard to them, 
becanae in such case the want of integrity is 
not apparent. 

The testimony of swnmw with respect to 
each other is admissible, notwithstanding 
they be of different religions. 

The Imam &bu Hanifah ie of opinion that 
a false witness must be stigmatised, but not 
chastised with blows. The two disciples are 
of opinion that he iimst be scourged and oon- 
fined; and this also ia the opinion of ash- 
Shafl I. 

The mode of stigmatising a false witness is 
this: If the witness be a sojourn? in any 


public street or market-place, let him be 
sent to that street or market place; or, if 
otherwise, let him be sent to his own tribe or 
kindred, after the evening prayers (as they 
are generally assembled in greater numbers 
at that time than any other); and let the 
stigmatiser inform the people that the Qazi 
salutes them, and inform*? them that he has 
detected this person in giving false evidence ; 
that they must, therefore, beware of him 
themselves, and likewise desire others to be 
ware of him. 

If witnesses retract their testimony prior 
to the Qaai passing any decree, it becomes 
void; if, on the contrary, the Q&zi pass a 
decree, and the witnesses afterwards retract 
their testimony, the decree is not thereby 
rendered void. 

The retraction of evidence is not valid, 
unless it be made in the presence of the 

EVIL EYE. I ? abatu l- Ain (*M 
Mohammad was a believer in 
baneful influence of an evil eye. Asme? 
bint Umais relates that she said, O Pro 
phet, the family of Jafar are affected by the 
baneful influences of an evil eye ; may I use 
spells for them or sot?" The Prophet said, 
Yes, for if there were anything in the world! 
which would overcome fate, it would be 
an evil eye." (JftsA&d*, book xad. c. i. 
part 2.) 

EXECUTION. The Mufcamma- 
dan mode of execution is as follows : Thtij 
executioner (jalldtf) seizes the condemned 
culprit by the right hand, while with a sharp 
sword or axe he aims a blow at the back of 
the neck, and the head is detached at the 
first stroke. This mode of execution is still,, 
or was till lately, practised in Muharoniadaw 
states hi India. 

if a Qazi say, I have sentenced such a 
person to be stoned, or to have his hand cut 
off, or to be killed, do you therefore do it : it 
is lawful for that person to whom the Qazi 
has given the order to carry it out. 

And according to Abu Hanifah, if the Qazi 
order the executioner to cut off the right 
hand, and the executioner wilfully cut off thi 
left, he is not liable to punishment. Bui 
other doctors do not agree with him. 

EXECUTOR. Arabic Wasi 
a term also used for the testator 
oMl l ala l wastycLk (2J\ <J 
An executor having accepted fcis appointment 
in the presence of the testator, is not after 
wards at liberty to withdraw, and any aci 
indicative of his having accepted the positio 
of executor binds him to fulfil his duties. 

A Muslim may not appoint a slave, or 
reprobate (fesig) or an infidel as his executoi 
and in the event of his doing so, the Qaa 
must nominate a proper substitute. But 1 
none of the testator s heirs have attain* 
their majority, a slave may be appointed a 
executor until they are of age. 

If joint executors have beeu .appointed an 



one of them die, the QSzI must appoint a. 
substitute in dffice. 

In the cases of infants or absent heirs, the 
executor is entitled to possess himself pro 
tern, of their property, but be cannot trade 
with his ward s portion. 

If a person die without appointing an 
executor, the next of kin administers the 
estate, and it is HM arrangement of Muslim 
law that his father is his executor and not 
his eldest son. ((Hidayah, vol. iv. p. 554.) 


EXISTENCES. The Arabic word 
wvjud {*>)*)), expresses a substance, 
or esseuce, or existence. According to Mu- 
hammfldan writers (see uA*ya$u r l-Ln$hah ). 
existences . are of three kinds : Wajibu 7- 
wujitJ, "a necessary existence," <.</. Almighty 
God : wiunkinu /-u-/rf, " a possible exist 
ence," K.<J. the humnn kind $ mumtani u 7 
wvjvd, " an impossible existence," c,.y. a 
partner \vith the Divine Being. 

These terms are used by Muhammadan 
acholarb when discussing the doctrine of the 
EtArna.1 Trinity with Christian Evangeli 

EXPIATION. The doctrine of 

expiation or atonement for neglected duties. 
sins of omission and commission, is distin 
guished in the Muslim religion from the doc 
trine of sucriflco ; sacrifices being strictly 
confined to the Idu l-A /iha , or Feast of 
Sacrifice in tho month of pilgrimage 

Thor* are two words employed in the 
tyur an to express the doctrine of expiation : 
kajfarak (Sjltf). from kafr, "to hide"; and 
ftdyaJt (IJki), froui Jidff, " to exchange, or 


(1) Kaffctrah occurs in the following 
/erse ; 

Surah v. 4-9: 

41 And therein (Ex. xxi. 23) have m enacted 
for them, Life for life, an eye for eye. and 
nose /or fiosfl, and ear fop ear, nnd tooth for 
tooth, and for wounds retaliation: Whoso 
sbatl compromise it us alms shall have there 
in the erpiation of his sin; and whoso will 
not Judgo by what God hath sent down sucl 
are ihe transgressor " 

Surah v. 91 : 

ff (Jod will not puuish y^u fora mistake;) 
-word " your oaths: but he will punish yon 
in regard to an oath taken seriously. Its ex 
piation shall be to faed ten poor persons with 
such middling food as ye feed your own 
families with, or to clothe them ; or to set 
;rec a cjiptive. Bot ho who cannot tind 
means, shall fast three days. Thin is tb> 
erpiativn of your oatlis \vber- ye shit 11 have 
sworn. ^ 

Surah v. OG : 

" believers ! kill no gomo A mie ye are on 
pilgrimage. Whosoever among you shall 
purposely kill it. shall compensate for it in 
domestic animals of equal value (according 
to the judgment of two iust persons among 

you), to OH urought is n rTcring to the 
Ka*bah ; or in expiation th<TO >f shall feed thn 
poor; or as the equivalent of tfliis s hall f^s 
that he may taste tho Hi consequence of Ins 
deed. God forgivc>b wliat is past; but vlio 
ever doctb it a^ain, God will tAke vetr- *;inre 
on him; for God is mightv nnd v?i\e*Hnr > * is 

(2) Ft if yah oceura in tbo following versos : 

Surah ii. 180:- 

4i But lie amongst you v?ht> 13 ill, or on K 
journey, then let him fast another number uf 
days; and those who are fU to fast aud do not, 
the expiation of this shall be tho mainten M-CO 
Of a poor man. And he who of his ivwn 
accord performeth a good work, shall d"riv, 
good from it : and good shall it be for you ^ 
fast if ye knew it." 

Stairfthiv 192: 

Accomplish the pilffrinuga and Visitation 
of the holy places In honyur of God : and (I 
ye be hemmed in by toes, send whatever oft er* 
mg shall be 1ho eafiest : ai;d shavo not your 
beads until the orriiifi: lench tho place of 
sacrifice. But whoever nmonw yen is sick, or 
hath an ailment of th* bead, must erjtiatc 
by fasting, or alms, or n offering " 

Surah Ivii. 13 : 

On that day the hypocrites, both mn and 
women, shall say to tiio*o who believe, 
Tarry for s, that we rnny kindle our li^rht 
at yours/ It shall be said, Return ye back, 
and seek light for yourgalvos. But between 
them she-H be set a wall witb a gateway, wilbiu 
which shall be the Morry, otrtl in front, witli- 
out it, the Torment. Tbey shal) ery to them, 
Wore we not with you? They shall r.y, 
Yes I bu* ye led your. -elves into temptation 
and ye delayed, and yd doubted, a ad -be 
good things jo .n sved deceived you, till the 
doom of God arrived: abd the deceiyer de 
ceived you in regard to God.* 

"On thai df>y. rh?refore, no cjcpiution eimll 
be ^aken fvntr you or frofr, thos^ who be 
lieve not : yo ir abode Ihe Are I Tli is shall 
be your master: and wiHched the journey 
thither ! " 

(3) In. theological books th* ^rtrrn kaffvrati*. 
z-tufiuli. the atonement forpif.p," is used for 
tbtodntiei of ui-ayer. fasting. alm^;Vinjr, anc ; 
oilgrimage. There is also a popul*; snyingthu 
tiuiirttti l-yubur is kufiuraln i-ztmilb. i.e. fh 
visiting of shrinks oi the saints is on atone 
ment for sins. 

Theologians define iue terms tM/faroktoA 
fidtjuh as ox pressing thai ex.piation which is 
<ln a fo God. whilst //>/"/ and qifaf are that 
vhich is Hio to m:in. [KINKS, hACRiKiOES.J 

For that expiation which is mado by free 
ing A alavc, tho word, taltr n i^ used, a wore 
which Implies setting a alavc free for GodL 
sake, although word doe? no: in any S.>D. 
menu a ransom or atonement for sin. Jt 
occurs in tbc Qur an, SDrah iv. 94, " NMioso- 
over kilU a believer by mistke let bin 
r neck (i.e. a. Muslim slave). 

EXTR A. VAGA JSTCE. Arabic L <lf 
Aj^} An extravagant pfirsoa or 




Srodigal is musrif, or mu&assir, and is oon- 
emned in the Qur an: 
Surah xvii. 28, 29 : " Waste not wastefnlly, 
for the wasteful were ever the brothers of 
ibe devil and the devil is ever ungrateful to 
his Lord," 

Surah vii. 29 : " O sons of men, take your 
ornaments to every mosque ; and eat and 
drink, but be not extravagant, for He loves 
not the extravagant." 

EYES, Arabic l Ayn (<^**) ; pi: 
Uyun, A yun, A yan. " If a pelrson strike 
another in the eye, so as to force the member 
with its vessels oat of the socket, there is no 
retaliation in this case, it being impossible to 
preserve a perfect equality in extracting an 
eye. But if tbe eye reiaain in its place, and 
the sight be destroyed, retaliation is to be 
inflicted, as in this case equality may be 
effected by extinguishing the sight of the 
offender s corresponding eye with a hot iron." 
(Bidayak, iv. 294.) 

There is fc tradition by Mslik that the diyah 
or "fine" for blinding one eye is fifteen camels/ 
(Mishkat. book xiv. 167.) [EVIL EYE.] 

EZEKIEL. Arabic Hizqll. Not 
rofmtioned by name, but there is generally 
supposed to be an allusion to Ezekial s vision 
of the dry bones (Ezek. xxxvii. 1) in the 
Qur an, Surah ii. 244 : 

" Dost thou not look at those who left 
their homes by thousands, for fear of death ; 
and God said to them Die, and He then 
quickened them again? " 

Al-Baizawi says that a number of Israelites 
fled from their villages either to join in a 
religious war, or for fear of the plague, and 
were fltruck dead, but Ezekiel raised them 
to life fgain. 

The Karnalan say he is perhaps the same 
as g 1-Kifl [zv ! 

LZBA. Arabic l lfmir. The son 
of Sharahya , the scribe. Mentioned only 


once by name in the Qnr &n, Surah is. 
30 : 

" The Jews say Uzair (Ezra) is a son of 

Al-Baiza/wI says that daring the Babylonish 
captivity the taurat (the law) was lost,, and 
that as there was no one who remembered 
the law whon tLo Jtsws returned from cap 
tivity, God raised up Ezra from the dead, 
although he had been buried a hundred 
years. And fchnt when the JOWP aw him thus 
raised from the dead, they said he must be 
the son of God. 

This story is supposed to have been ren- 
vealed in the Qur an, Surah it 261 : 

" [Hast thou not considered] him who 
passed by a city (which was Jerusalem), 
riding upon an ass, and having with him a 
basket of figs and a vessel of the juice of grapes 
and he was Uzair, and it was falling down 
upon its roofs, Nebuchadnezzar having ruined 
it ? He said, wondering at the power of God, 
How will God. quicken this after its death ? 
And God caused him to die for a hundred 
j years. Then He r&ieed Win to life : and He 
said unto At w, How long hast thou tarried 
here ? He answered I have tarried a day, or 
part of a day. For he slept in the first part of 
the aay, and was deprived of his /i/e, and was 
reanimated at sunset. He said Nay, thou 
hast tarried a hundred years : but look at 
thy food and thy drink : they have not be 
come changed by time: and look at thine 
ass. And he beheld it dead, and UK bones white 
and shining. We have done this that thou 
mayt&t know, and that We may make thye a 
sign of the refturrecti m unto men. And look 
at the bones of thine ass, how We will raise 
them ; then We will clothe them with flesh. 
#o he looked at them, and they had become put 
together, and were clothed with Jlesh, and life 
u>as breathed into ft, and it braytd. There 
fore when it had been made manifest to him 
he said, I know that God is able to accom 
plish everything." 

FAI (^i). Booty obtained from 
infidels. According: to Muhammad ibn Tahir, 
/a* 5 is booty taken from a country which snb- 
twts to Islam without resistance, as distin 
guished from gjianimah, or plunder. The 
Khallfah Umar said it was the special pri 
vilege oitihe Prophet to take booty as well as 
y>< undo privilege not permitted to any other 

Anf ibn Malik says the Prophet used to 
divide booty on tho same day he took it, and 
would give two shares to a man with a wife, 
and only one share to a man without one. 
(JlM/Uwt, book xvii. c. xii.) 


FAI?-I-AQDA3 (y-Jll oM, Per 
sian) Communications of divine 
grace made to angels and prophets and other 
superior intelligences. 

AL-FAJR (^t), The Daybreak." 

The title of the i.xxxixth Surah of the 
Qur an, in the first verse of which the word 

FA L ( j^). A good omen, as dis~ 

tinguished from tiyarah, " a bad omen." 

Muhammad is related to have said, "Do 
not put faith in a bad omen, but rather take 
a good one." The people asked, " What is a 
good omen ? w And he replied, " Any good 
word which any of you may hear." 

Ibn Abbas says, "The Prophet used to 
take good omens by men s names, but he 
would not take bswi omens." 

Qaij an ibn Qabisah says, " The Prophet 
forbade taking omens from the running of 
animals, the flight of birds, and from throw 
ing pebbles, which were done by the idoiators 
of Arabia." (Mishkat, book xxi. e. ii.) 

It is, however, very commonly practised 


amongst the Muhamuiadan^ of India. For 
example, if & portion stait out on an impor 
tant journey, and he meet a woman first, he 
will lake it ap a bad oraen, and if he meet a 
ma a he Tvill regard it * a <;ood ono. 

Ai-FALAQ (OM-*-K), "The Day- 
break." The title of the cxruth Surah of the 
QurVin. The word sigrdnes cleaving, and de 
notes the breaking forth o( the light from the 

FALL Th* (of Adam). IB known 

amongst Rfutilitn writers as zalfafu Adam, 
" the ftjli," or *// / ot Adam. The terra zallnh, 
" slip" or "error." bein# applied to pro- 
pbettf, but not zuuib, " a sin." vhich they say 
Prophets do riot oornrait. 

The following is the account, of Adam s 
lt stij)" ae given in tbeQur au, Siimh ii. 33: 

" And yr* said, O Adam ! dwell rhou and/ 
thy wife in tlto Garden, and eat yo plentifully 
therefrom -wherever ya Hit: bat lo this tree 
come cot nig-h, lest yo become of ~.h trans 

"Bat I?atan made thorn slip (azaJJtihunw^ 
from it, and caused their banishment (rom 
tiit ptactf in which they were. And we said, 
4 Got ye down, the one of ,vou an ouerny to the 
others and ihere shall be for you in th* 
eartli & dwelling-place, and a provision for a 
time. * 

gftiMb vH 18-24: 

a And,O Adam! dwell thou and thy Wife 
Jn Para d is*?. t,nH ^at ye whence ye will, bat f-o 
this tree approach not, lest ye become of thd 
auju->t, doers. 

** Then Satan whispered them to show 
them their nakedness, which had "been" bidden 
from them boih. And he said, This ireo 
bath yonr Tjord forbidden you, only tost fe 
ftiionfd become angels, or lest ye sbonJd be 
come immortals. 1 

" And be hware to them both, Verily 1 
aui vaito you one who connuellath aright/ 

" So he bt-guilcd them by deceits, and 
when thoy hnd Ueicd of the trf^j. their naked 
ness appe fired u> them, and they began to 
sew together upon thuraselvee tbo leaves of 
the g-arden. And their Lord culled to them, 
* Did I not forbid you thin tvoe, and did i not 
.say to you, M Verily. Satan is your declared 
enemy " ? 

" They suid. " our Lord I With ourselves 
Ua? we dealt unjustly: if thon forgive us 
not and have pity on ns, wo shall surely be 
vf tboRe who perish. 

He Si/id- Get y down, the one of yon an 
enemy to the other ; and oa earth dhall be 
youi dwplHng, and your provision for a 

Ho aid, On it shall ye live, and on it 
shall y* diw, and from it shal] ye be taken 
forth. *" 

Sutah xx. 114-120 ; 

14 And of old We made a covenant with 
Adam ; but he forgat if; and we lound no 
flrmtibfld vf}iurpo*t in him. 

* And when We said to the angels, Fall 
down and worship Adain, they worshipped 
all. eavo EMi, who refused , and We said. 



O Adam I this truly is a foe to thoe and to 
thy wife. Let him not therefore drive you 
out of the garden, and ye become wretched ; 

" For to thee is it granted that thou shall 
not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be 
naked ; 

* And that thou ebalt not thirst therein, 
neither shalt thou parch with heat ; 

"But Satan whispered him: said he, O 
Adam ! shall I shew thee the tree of Eternity, 
aud the Kingdom that faileth cot ? 

"And they both ate thereof, and their 
nakedness appeared to them, aud they began 
to sew of the leave* of the Garden to cover 
them, and Adam disobeyed his Lord and 
weut astruy 

* Afterwards his Lord chose him for him 
self, And \* as turned towards him, and guided 

The Muslim Commentators are much per- 
ploxftd as to the scene of the fail of Adam. 
Prom the text of the Qur an it would appear 
that the Paradise spoken of was in heaven 
and not on earth ; and the tradition, that uhen 
Adam was cast forth he fell on the island of 
Ceylon, weuld support thi view. But al- 
Baizawi says some say the Garden of Eden 
was situated either in the country of the 
Philistines or in Paris, and that Adam was 
cast out of it and sent m the direction of 
Hindustan. But this view he rejects, ind 
maintains that the Garden of Eden was in the 
heavens, and that the iall occurred before 
Adam and Eve inhabited this earth of ours. 

The Muhurninadan commentators are silent 
as to the erTects of Adam s fall upon the 
human race. 


Abu HanifaK is of npinMn that * false wit 
ness mn*t be publioiy stigmatised, bnt not 
ch stilted with blows: but the Imams ixsh- 
Shttfi-i, Fusuf, and Muhammad are of opinion 
that he should be scourged and imprisoned. 

In the Law of Moses, a false witness was 
published with the punishment of the offence 
it sought to establish. Deut. . Ilk " Thou 
shalt do onto him as he had thought to do 
unto his hrrthor." [EVIDENCE.] 

FAN A f>Ui). Extinction. The 

last stage in the $ufiistic journey, [su- 


FAQIH (Mi). A Muharnmadan 

lawyer or theologian. The term is still re 
tained in Spanish as alfaqui. [FIQH.] 

FAQIE (ytf). Persian darw&h. 
The Arabic word/sr^ir signifies " poor"; but 
it is need in the sense of being in need of 
mercy, and poor iu the sight of God, rather 
than in need of worldly assistance. Darwesh 
is a Persian word, derived from dar, " a 
door," i.e. those who beg from door to door. 
The terms are generally used for those wno 
lead a religious life. Religious faqirs are 
divided into two great classes, the ba *Ar 
(with ihe Uw), or those who govern their 
conduct according to the principle^ of Islam ; 

TAQ.I n 

a.ti. I the bes/tar 1 (without, the tav*;, or those 
who Jofpot rule their lives according to the 
principles of any religions creed, although 
they caU themselves Musulmans. The for 
mer are called */*, or travellers on the 

orders who perform the zikrs, described ic 
the article /.IKK, 

The AJajgub fakirs are totally absorbed in 
religious reverie. The Azad shave their 
boards, whiskers. moustach ios. eye-brows, and 
eye-lashes, and lead lives of Celibacy. 

Tho Azad and Maf*u& faqirs can scarcely 
be said to bfc Muhammadans, as they do not 
say the regular prayers or observe tho ordi 
nances of Islam, so that a description of their 
various sects does not fall. within the limits of 
this wofk. The Salik faqirs arc divided hito 
very numerous orders ; bur their chief differ 
ence consists in their sifs ilah. or chain of 
succession, f^otu their great teachers, the 
j<jhalTfnhs Abu Bakr and Ali. who ar said 
to have bean the- founders b/ the religious 
order of faqirs. 

It is impossible to become acquainted with 
all the rules and ceremonies of the numerous 
Oi-dars of /aqiis; for, like those of the Free 
masons a ad other secret societies, they are 
not divulged to the uninitiated. 

The doctrines of the darwesh. orders aro 
those of the Sufi mystics, and their religious 
ceremonies consist of exercises called zikrs, or 
" recitals." [ZIKR, SUPIISM.] 

M. D Ohsson, in his celebrated work on tht? 
Ottomnn Empire, traces the origin of the 
order of faqira to the time erf Muhammad 
himself :--r- 

" In the first year of the Hijrah, forty-five 
citizens of Makkalt jDined themselves to as 
many others of ai-M sJ.dmab.. They took an 
Oath of fidelity to the doctrines of their Pro 
phet, and formed a sect or fraternity, the 
obfect of which was to establish among 
themselves a community of property, and to 
perform every day certain religious practices 
in a. spirit of penitence and mortification. To 
distinguish themselves froiti other Muham- 
rnadans, they took the name of SufiS. 
[ftUFiisn.] This name, which later -was at 
tributed to the ruoat seahous partisans of 
Islam, is the same still in use to indicate! any 
Musuhnan who retires from the world to 
study, to lead a life of pious contemplation, 
and to follow the most painful exercises of an 
t Xggerated devotion. To the name of SufJ 
thay addedSalso that of faqlr, because their 
maxim was to renounce the goods of the 
Mrlh, and to liVe in an entire abnegation of 
all worldly enjoyments, following thereby the 
words of ^the Prophet, al-faqru fokhri, or 
Poverty is my. pride, Following their ex 
ample, Abu Bakr and AIT established, even 
during the life-time of the Prophet and under 
hi3 own eyes, religious orders, over which 
each presided, with Zikra or -peculiar reli 
gious exereises, established by them sepa 
rately, and 2. vow taken by each of the volun 
tary (Hsclpiefc forming them On his decease. 


Abu Bakr made over his office of president to 
one Sabnanu 1-Farisi, and AH to al-Hasanu 
l-Basrr,.and each of these charges were con 
secrated under the title KhaFIfah, or suc 
cessor. The two first successors followed 
the example of the Khalifahs of Islam, and 
transmitted it to their successors, and these 
in turn to others, the, most aged and vener 
able <jf their fraternity. Some among them, 
led byihe delirium of the imagination, wan 
dered" away from the primitive rules of their 
society, and converted, from time to time, 
these fraternities into a multitude of religious 

" They were doubtlessly emboldened in 
this enterprise by that of a reeluse who, in 
the thirty-seventh year of the Hijrah (A..D 
657; termed the fivst order of anchorets ot 
the greatest austerity, named [Jwais al-Karnm, 
a native of Karu, in Yaman, -who one day 
aunoum c-d that the archangel Gabriel had 
appeared to hito in a dream, and in the 
aamw of the Eternal God commanded him to 
withdraw from the world, and to give hirnsel/ 
up to a life of contemplation and penitence. 
This visionary pretended also to have received 
from that heavenly visitor the plan of his 
future conduct, and tho rules of his institu 
tion. These consisted in a continual absti 
nence, in retirement from society, in an aban 
donment of the pleasures of innocent nature, 
and in the redul of an infinity of prayers 
day and night (gilcrs). Uwais even added to 
these practices. He went so far as to draw 
out his teeth, In honour, It is said, of the 
Prophet, vho httd lost two of his own in the 
celebrated battle of Uhud. He required h>~ 
disciples to make the same sacrifice ~H> 
pretended that all those who w<m|d be espe 
cially favoured by heaven, and really called 
to the exercises of bis Order, should lose 
their teeth in a supernal aval tn-iinj^r; that an 
angel .should draw out thoip teeth whilst in 
the midst of a doep sleep ; and that on awaken 
ing they should find them by their bednjcle, 
The experiences of such a vocation wero 
doubtless too severe to attract many prose 
lytes to the order ; it only enjoyed, a certain 
degree of attraction for fan&tic.s ;rad credu- 
lousjj- ignorant people during the first days 
of Islam. Since then it ha? remained in 
Yaman, -where it originated, and v/hore its 
partisans wore always bat few m number." 

It was aboufc A.H. 4U (A..U. 766), that the 
Shaikh^. Alwan, a tnyatic renowned for his 
.eligbus fervour, founded the first regular 
Dfdef of faqns, now Known as the Alwaniffafi, 
with its special rules and religious exercises, 
although- similar associations of men without, 
strict rules bad existed from the days of Abu 
Bakr, the firet Kjjallfah. And although 
thei is the formal declaration of Muham 
mad. " Let there be no unonasticism in Islam," 
still the inclinations of Eastern races to a 
solitary and a contemplative life, carried it 
evD against th<? positive opposition of ortho 
dox Islam, and now there is scarcely a 
maulavn o? learned man of reputation in 
lalau> vfho is not a member of some religious 


&ach century gave birth to new orders, 
named after their respective found?rs, but in 
the present day there is no means of ascer 
taining the actual numbftr of these associa- 



tjoi.s of mystic Muslims. M, D OhssoM, lu 
the work already quoted^ gives a list of 
thirty-two orders, out it is by no means com 


Name of the 


Place of the 
Founder s Shriue 




A. I.. 


Aiwa my ah . . 

Shaikh. Alwan . . . 

Jcddiih . 




Adfiamiyah . 

Ibrahim ibn Adhaui 

Damascus . . 




Bastamiyali . 

Bayazid Baatami 

Jftbal BaBtam 





Sirri Ssqati . . 






Abdu I-Qfulir Jilani 

Baghdad . . . 




Rufaiv- ih . . 

Saiyid Ahmad Rufai . 


51 B 



Suhrwardi) .h 

Shihabu d-Din 





Kabrawiyal . 

N nitrin *d-l)in . , 

Khawaziin . . . 





Abu *l-l?a9an . 





Maulawiyah . 

Jalalu d Din Ruini . 

Conyah . . . 




Bada.wiyftfa . . 

ibn UFitan Ahmad 

Tanta, Egypt 





Pir M .ihammad 

Qrisri Arifan 





Sadu d-Din . . 






Haji ttakhtasb . 

Kir Sber 





IJinar Khalwati . 






Zuinu M-Din 

Kufah . 





Abdu M-Ghani . 

AdriHtiuple . 





Haji Bfthrarni . . 

Ancrora . 




Ashrofiyah . 

Ashraf fiami . , 

Oh in Iznie 




Bakriyah . . 

Aba Bakv Wnfai 

Aleppo . . -. 




Sunbuliyah . 

Sunbul Yusuf Bulawi 





G u) alia ni yah . 

Ibrahim Gul.sbani 





i;>hii Bashiyah 

Santns i d-Din . . 





Umra Sunaniyan . 

Shaikh Umn. Sunan 





Jalwatiyah . 

Pir Uftadi . . . 

Bvoosa . 




Asharjiyah . 

Hasaou T d-Diu . 





Shiimsiyah . 

Siiamsu d-Din 

Madinah . . 




Suii^.n IJrumtyah . 

Alitu Saaan Uiumi . , 

Alwali . 





Mutiamtnad Niyaz . 





M.uradiyah . 

Murd Shami . . . 






Nuru d-Din . . , 






.Tamaht d-Din . 




Throe of those orders, the Bastainiynh, th 
Naqshbandlyah. and tho Bakhtashiyuh, de 


from the original ordui etblishcd by 
the first KJialifah, AbQ Bakr. Tbo fourth 


The Naqshbandlyah, who are the follo 
of Khwajnh Pir Muhammad Naqshband, 

KhalTfah. c Air. gave birth to all the others. 
Each order has its tiitilok^ or chain c>f suc 
cession, froiu one of tlieae two great 


M. v^ry numerous order. They usually per 
form the Zikr-j-ftjKifi, or silent dflv.otiimfl. 
clescribod in the account of ZIKR. 

The first duty of the members of this 
Order is to recite, daily, particular prayers, 
called the khdtiin Mtatvjayan ; once, at least, 
the fsliyhjur (Prayer for Forgiveness) ; seven 
times the *aiamat; heven timed the FatthoJt 
([tret chapter of the Qur itn); nine time.s the 
chapter of the Qur un called Inshirdh (Chapter 
xciv.); lastly, tlie IM/us (Chapter cxii.). 
To these arc added the ceremonies culled 
Zikr. [/.IKE.] 

For those recitals they meet together once 
a week: Ordinarily, this is on Thursdny, 
and after the fifth prayer of tho day, so 
that it occurs after niht fall. In c.-i^h C ty, 
suburb, or quarter, the tmvmbfcrs of this 
association, divided into ditT<vent bodies, 
assemble u.1 the bou^e of Mieir respsctiv^ pir 
or sliaikh., where, seated, they perform their 



pious exercises with the most perfect gra- 
tity. The shaikh, or any other brother in 
his stead, chants the prayers which constitute 
the association, and the assembly respond ia 
chorus, Hu (He)," or " Allah 1 " In some 
cities, the Naqshbandivah have especial 
halls, consecrated wholly to this purpose, 
and then the shaikh only is distinguished 
from the other brethren by a special turban. 

The Bakhtashiyah was founded by 9 
native of Bokhara, and is celebrated us 
being the ordor which eventually gave birth 
to the fanatical order of Janissaries. The 
symbol of their order is the mystic gtrdlo, 
which they put off and on seven times, 

1. * I tie up greediness, and unbind gene 

2. " I tie up anger, and unbind meekness.* 

3. * I tie up avarice, and unbind piety." 

4. I tie up ignorance, and unbind the foai 
of God." 

5. " I tie up passion, and unbind the love 
of God." 

6. " T tie up hunger, and unbind (spiritual) 

7. " I tie up Satanism and unbind Divine- 

The Maulawiyah are the incut popular reli 
gious order of faqlrs iu the Turkish empire, 


They are called by Europeans, who witness 
their aikrs and various religious perform 
ances "at Constantinople and Cairo, the 
* dancing/ or " whirling " They 
were founded by the Maulawl Jalalu d-din 
ar-Rumi, the renowned author of the Afa&nawi. 
a book much read in Peria, and, indeed, in 
all parts of Islam, 

They have service at their takyah, or " con- 
Tent/ every Wednesday and Sunday at two 
o clock. There are about twenty performers, 

with high round felt capt and brown marities 
At a given signal they all fall flat on their 
faces, and rise and walk slowly rouud and 
round with their arms folded, bowing and 
turning slov?Jy several timea. Tbvy then ehel 


off their mantles and appear in long bell- 
shaped petticoats and jackets, and then begin 
to spin, revolving, dancing and turning with 
extraordinary veloefty [ZIKR.] 


The Qadiriyah sprang from the celebrated 
Saiyid <Abdu 1-Qadir, sumamed Pir-i-Dasia 
gir, whose shrine is at Bagdad. They preo- 
tise both the Zikr-i-Jall and the gUtr-i- 
Khafi. Most of the Sumii Maulawis on the 
north-west frontier of India are members of 
this order. In Egypt it is most popular among 

The Chishtiyah are followers of Mu mu d- < 
din Banda Nawaz, eurnamed the Givi ; 
dafdz, or the " long-ringletted*" His shfin j 
is at Oalburgak. 

The Shl ahs generally become faqirs of this \ 
order. They are partial to vocal music, fo?* j 
the founder of the order remarked that 


singing watt the food and support of the soul 
They perform the Zikr-i-Jali, described in 
the article on ZIK.IL 

The Jalallyah were founded by Saiyid 
Jal&!u d-dln, of Bukhara. They are met 
with in Central Asia,. Religious mendicants 
are often of this order. 

The SuhrwardTyah are a popular order in 
Afghanistan, and comprise a number of learned 
men. They are the followers of Shihabu d- 
dm of Suhrward of al- Iraq. These are th 
most noted orders of ba shar* faqirs. 

The be sAar* faqirs are very numerous. 

The most popular order in India is that 
of the Murdiriyah. founded by Zinda 
Shah Murdar, of Sy ia, whose shrine is at 
Makanpur, in Oudh. From these have sprung 
the Malang faqirs, who crdwd the bazaars of 
India. They wear their hair matted and tied 
in a knot. 7 he Rufanyah order is also a nume 
rous one in some parts of India. They prac 
tise the most severe discipline, and mortify 
themselves by boating their bodies. They are 
known in Turkey and Egypt as the * Howl- 
ing Darweshes.* 

Another well-known order of darwoshes is- 
tbe Qalandarlyah, or" Wandering Darweshes," 
founded by Qalandar Yusuf al-AndalusT, a 




native of Spain. He wnsfor a time a member 
of the BakJitawhTs ; but having been dismissed 
from the ordr, ho establish cJ one of his own, 
with the obligation of perpetual travelling. 
The Qslamlpr faqir is a prominent character 
In Eastern romance. 

Bach order is established on different prin 
ciples, and has its mlos and statutes and 
peculiar devotions. These characteristics ex - 
tend even to the garments worn by their fol- 
lowora. Each order has, in fact, a particular 

dress, and amongst the greater part of them 
this is chosen so as to mark a difference in 
that of the shaikh from that of the ordinary 
members. It is perceived principally in the tur 
bans, the shape of the coat, the colours, and tho 
nature of the stuff of which the dresses are 
made. The shaikhs wear robes of green or 
white cloth ; and any of those who in winter 
line them with fur, use that kind called petit 
gris and zibaline martin. Few darweslies use 

cloth for their dress. Black or white felt dresses 
called abd\ such as are made in some of the 
cities of Anatolia, are the most usual Those 


CAIRO. (From a Photograph.) 

who wear black felt are the Jalwattia and 
the Qadiris. The latter have adopted it for 
their boots, and muslin for their turbans. 



Souie, such as the Maulawi* and the BakrTs, 
wear tall caps called kutahs, made also of felt : 
and others, such as the Rufaus, use short 
caps called Taqfyah. ^ o wn ieh is added a 
coarse cloth. Tho head-dress of almost all 
the clarwesbes is called try, which signifies 
a "crown." These turbans are of different 
forms, either from the manner in which the 
muslin is folded, or by the euk of the cloth 
which covers tho top of the head. The cloth 

AN EGYPTIAN FAKIK. (From Photograph. ) 

is in several gores. Some nave four, as the 
Adharais ; some six. as the Qadhis and 
the Sa dls : the Guishanis have eight : the 
Bakhtashis twelve ; and the Jalwatis eighteen. 

><N EGYPTIAN FAQIK. (From a, Photograph.) 

The darweshes carry about with them one 
or other of the following articles t a small 


crooked stick or iron, which the devote* 
places under his arm-pit or forehead, to leai 
upon when he meditates, or an iron or Imisj 
bnr on which there is d little artificial hand 
wherewith to scratch his unwashed body, i 
bag made of lamb-skin, a kashkul or beg 
gar s wallet. 

Generally, all the darweshes allow theii 
beards nod mustaebios togrow. Some of th< 
orders the Qadiris, Rufa Ts, Khalwatis, Gui- 
shanis, Jalwatis, and the Nuru d-dlnJs still 
wear long hair, in memory of the usage of th< 
Prophet and several of bis disciples. Some 
allow their hair to fall over their ehculders 
others tie it up and put it under their turban, 
Whilst private Musulmans are in the habii 
of holding rosaries of beads as a pastime, the 
darweshes do the same, only in a spirit oi 
religion and piety. These rosaries hav< 
thirty- three, sixty-six, or ninety-nine beads, 
which is the number of the attributes of the 
Divinity [GOD]. Some havo them always ic 
their hands, others in their girdles ; and al 
are required to recite, several times during 
the day, the particular prayers of their order, 

The individual who desires to enter an 
order is received in an assembly of the fra 
ternity, presided over by the shaikh, \ho 
touches his hand and breathes in hia ear 
three times the words, " La ilaha ilia Hah " 
(" There is no god but God "), commanding 
him to repeat them 101, 151, or 301 tiroes 
eacli day. This ceremony is called the 
Talgin. The recipient, faithful to the orders 
of his chief, obligates himself to spend his 
time in perfect retirement^ and to report to 
the shaikh the visions or dreams which bu 
may have during the course of his novitiate. 
These dreams, besides characterising the 
sanctity of his vocation, and his spiritual 
advancement in the order, serve likewise as 
so many supernatural means to direct the 
sheikh regarding the periods when he may 
again breathe in the ear of the neophyte the 
second words of the initiation, * Yd Allah t n 
("O God! "), and successively all the others 
to the last, " Yd Qahhdr ! " ( avengeful 
God J "). The full complement of this exer 
cise is called ChiHek, or " forty days," a 
period sometimes, even longer, according to 
the dispositions, more or less favourable, of 
the candidate. Arrived at the last grade of 
his novitiate, he is then supposed to have 
fully ended hia career, called TakmiJu- V 
Suful, and acquired tho degree of perfec 
tion for his solemn admission into the corps 
to which he has devoted himself. Duringf 
all his novitiate, the recipient bears the name 
of Muriel, or " Disciple," and the shaikh who 
directs him in this pretended celestial career 
cakes the title- of MtinsJritf, or " Spiritual 

The founder of the Alwania laid out thai 
first rules of this novitiate ; they were sub- 
seqnentiy perfected by the institution of the 
Qsi.diria, and more ao by the Khalwatis. 
The darweshes of these two last societies are* 
distinguished in some countries by the deco- 1 
ration of their turban, on the top of which 


<ire embroidered the words " LeT rlahn ilia 
lloh " (There is no god but God). 

The tests of tho novice among- the Maula- 
wis se&m to be still more severe, and the 
reception of these dervishes is attended with 
ceremonies peculiar to their order. The 
aspirant is 7-equired to labour in the convent 
Or toJcyah 1,001 successive days in the lowest 
gr&de, on which account he is called tho 
knrru kdnk (jackal). If be fails in this 
service oul/ one day, oi is absent one 
night, he is obliged to recommence his. novi 
tiate. The chief of the kitchen, or </s/i/V- 
AasAf, one of the moV notable of the dar- 
weshes, p^|5ents him to the shaikh, wbo^ 
seated in an angle of the .sofa, receiva hiru 
aivuH 4 general assembly of all the darwesbos 
of tho convent. The candidate kissea the 
hand of tb shaiklj, and takes a seat before 
him on a mat, which covers the fleor of the 
ball., The chief of the kitchen places bis 
right baud on the neck, and his loft hand oo 
the forehead of the novice, whilst the shaikh. 
takes off hir. cap and holds it ovr his beftd, 
reciting th*? following Pers mn rUsUch* th* com 
position of tho founder of the order : 

>; It is true greatness and felicHy to close 
the heart to s*li human passions; the aban 
donment of the vanities of this world is the 
bappy effect of the victorious strength given 
by the grace of our Holy Prophet." 

These verses are followed by the exor 
dium of the Takbir, Afahu okbor God is 
ijreat." after \\hich the shaikh covers the 
bend of the new davwesh, who now rise?: and 
places himself wi&b th<? AshjibashI in the 
middle of the hall, whej O they assume the 
nost humble posture, their hands crossed 
upon the breast, the left ~foot over tho - rigrbt 
root, find- tho head inclined towards thaleft 
ihonMer. The shaikh address^ thes* words 
rp \\\f* liead of the kitchen: 

" May the services of this riarwesh. thy 
Brother, he Mgro^ab e to the throne of l) 
EteKml, iii-d ;n th- -ryes of cur PTr fthe 
fouivler of tbe ord< j r); may hi^ satisfaction,- 
lis felicity, und his glery o^row in this nest 
>f the humble, in the rt-ll of the poor; 
let us ercla. iii ff" in h 011011 f o\lr 



They answer "// /" ;nid the accepted 
novice, dri sinsr from his place, 
band of the shaikh, who at this 
undresses to him soinn jjutcrn*>J exhortmions 
on the Rubjeut of the duties of his HPW condi- 
rion. :iud closes by ordering all tho darweshes 
jf tha meeting to recop.nise und embrace their 
new brother. 

The following 13 said to bt? the usual 
method of admitting a liuhftanuubUB to the 
order of a ba <hof faqiv in India. JUviri^ 
fn-fct performed the legal ftbhitions, the murid 
[disciplel <f?nts himself before the uiurshit.! 
[Spiritual guide). The tnurshid then takes 
the murid s right hand, and requires of him 
\ confession of sm according to the following 
form ; 

" I toriv<nS4 >! the great God than 
Whom there is no other deity, the Eternal, 
the Everlasting, thr. Living One: I turh to 

Him for repentance, and beg His grace and 

Thfs, or a similar form oF vtrpomancp, is 
repeated several times. The tnund then 
repeat^ after the rnurshid : 

" I beg- for the favour of Ood and of the 
Prophet, -and I take for my, guide to God 
ouch H one (here naming the murshid) not to 
change or to separate from him. God is our 
witness. By the great God There i& no 
deity but God. Amen " 

The murshid end t.he murid then recite 
the first chapter of the Qur an, and the uiurfd 
concludes the ceremony by kissing the 

After the initiatory rite, (he murid under 
a series of instructions, including- tho 
ij itr.?, which be la required to repeat dcily. 
The murid frequently visits his murshid and 
sometimes the murshids ptoceeJ on a circuit 
of visitation to their disciples. The place 
where these holy men" sit dcwi: to instruct 
tha people is ever aftrverus h^ld <;acrod, a 
small flag is hoisted on a tree, and it is fenced 
in. Hurh places ar-? called " taki/ n i, and nrQ 
profccted and kept tree fnnry pollution by 
soioe fa ilr *-ngegecl for the purpose. 

Another account of Ih? admission of a 
murtdyor disciple." into the order of Qnrli- 
rfyah faqirs. is given by Tawakfcul Reg inthe 

Having been, mtroftuceti 07 Akhund 
Mulla Mubamroad to SbaiKh Mulia Sbah, my 
heart, tb.ruugh freqneot intercourse with 
him, ws filled with such a burning- desire 
to arrive at a true knowledge of the mystics] 
science, that 1 found no sleep by nigh I, nor 
rest by day. When the initiation commenced. 
T paa-s^d the whole night, without sleep, and 
repeated innumerflb!- 1 tims the Siirato M- 
IMilas :- 

Say : He is Ood aon ; 
Gotl the etornl : 
He brgetteth non, nnd He Is not be 

gotten : 
Arid the i " > like unto Hiru. 

"all ti? ii.y 

" Who?ot*r repeats this Suii . t on hunriif-u 
tiroes oat; 3ccot p i;-:n nil his ^u\vs. I :lc,si:-cd 
thai; tho shaikh should bostow on ino hia 
lovt. No ^oonei h-id i linisj-j-u my task. 
rh>in the heirt of t^e shaikh heoamw full of 
sympathy forme. On the following night f 
was conducted to his presence. During tb* 
"whole of that ni^ht he OODfefelltnutoa his 
ttiouehts on me, whilst 1 3v mys,.->lf up ;> 
inward meditation Three niglits passtui i < 
tin s way. (>n the fourth ipht tho shaikji 
Mid: I*t Mulla SanghTm and Saiih Brg, 
who ere very susceptible to ecstatic Q0M>- 
!i "r.s. apply their spiritual Rnerg-ios to Ta- 
wakkul bp-2f. 

f - Thoy d d so, whilst I passed fbe whole 
night in meditation, wit.n my face turned to 
ward Makkah. As th morn ino Jrevs- near, 
a little liftht came into my mmd, out I could 
not, di;1inuish form or c olour. After the 
morning- prayers, T was taken to the fhaikt 
who hado me nforn; him of my uienta! 
3l?te I repliod that I had seen a light witb 




my inward eye. On hearing this, the shaikh 
became animated and said : 4 Thy heart is 
dark, but the time is come when I will show 
myself clearly to thee. He then ordered 
me to sit down in front of him, and to im 
press his features on my mind. Then having 
blindfolded me, he ordered me to concentrate 
all my thoughts upon him. I did so, and in 
an instant, by the spiritual help of the shaikh, 
my. heart opened. He asked me what I saw. 
I said that I saw another Tawakkul Beg and 
another Mulla Shah. The bandage was then 
removed, and I saw the shaikh in front of 
me. Again they covered my face, and 
again I saw him with my inward eye. 
Astonished, I cried: *0 master i whether I 
look with iny bodily eye, or with my spiritual 
sight, it is always you I see. I then saw a 
dazzling figure approach me. The shaikh 
told me to say to the apparition, What is 
your name? In my spirit I put the ques 
tion, and the figure answered to my heart : 
<I<am *Abdu 1-Qadir al-Jilani, I hare already 
aided thee, thy heart is opened. Much 
affected, I vowed that in honour of the saint, 
I would repeat the whole Qur an every Friday 

" Mulla Shah then said : The spiritual 
world has been shown to Ihee in all its 
beauty. I then rendered perfect obedience 
to the shaikh. The following day I saw the 
Prophet, the chief Companions, and legions of 
saints and angels. After three months I en 
tered the cheerless region in wbk-h the 
figures appeared no more. During the whole 
of this time the shaikh continued to explain 
to me the mystery of the doctrine of the 
Unity and of the knowlege of God ; but as 
yet he did not show me the absolute reality. 
It was not until a year had passed that I 
arrived at the truo conception of unity* Then 
in words such, as these I told the shaikh of 
my inspiration, * I iook upon the body as 
only dust and water, 1 regard neither my 
heart nor my soul, alas 1 that hi separation 
from Thee (God) so much of my life has 
passed. Thou ivert 1 and I knew it not. 
The shaikh wa* delighted, and said that the 
truth of the union with God was now clearly 
revealed to ine. Then addressing those who 
were present, he said : 

a Tawakkul Beg learnt from me the doc 
trine of the Unity, his inward eye has been 
opened, the spheres of colours and of images 
have been shown to him. At length, he 
entered the colourless region. He has now 
attained to the Unity ; doubt and scepticism 
henceforth have no power over him. No one 
sees the Unity with the outward eye, till the 
inward eye gain* strength and power. " 

Each institution imposes on its darweshes 
the obligation to recite certain passages at 
different times of the day in private, as well 
as in common with others. Several 
also practices which are peculiar to them 
selves, and which consist in dances, or rather 
religious circular movements. In each con 
vent there is a room consecrated to these 
exercises. Nothing is simpler than its con 
struction; it contains no ornaments of any 

nature ; the Huddle of the room, turned to 
wards Makkah, contains a nicho or mifyrdb, in 
front of which is a small carpet, mostly made 
of the skin of a sheep, on which the shaikji of 
the community reclines ; over the niche the 
name of the founder of the order is written. 
In some halls this inscription is surmounted 
by 7 two others one containing the Confession 
of Faith, and the other the words " Bismil- 
lah," &c. (" In the name of God, the most 
Clement and Merciful.") In others are seen 
on the wall to the right and the left of the 
niche tablets, on which are written in large 
letters the name of God (Allah), that of Mu- 
hainiuad, and those of the four first Khalif ahs. 
At others are seen the names of al-Hasan 
and al-Husain, grandsons of the Prophet, 
and some verses of the Qur an, or others of a 
moral character. 

The exercises which are followed in these 
halls are of various kinds, a description of 
which is given in the account of ZIKB. 

The more zealous faqirs devote themselves 
to the most austere acts, and shut themselves 
up in their cells, so as to give themselves up 
for whole hours to prayer and meditation; 
the others pass very often a whole night in 
pronouncing the words Hit and Allah^ or 
rather the phrase. La ildha ilia, V/aA. So as 
to drive away sleep from their eyes, some of 
them stand for whole nights in very uncom 
fortable positions. They sit with their feet 
m the ground, the two hands resting upon 
their knees : they fasten themselves in this 
attitude by a band of leather passed over 
theii neck and legs. Others tie their hair 
with a cord to the ceiling, and call this usage 
Chillehi There are some, also, who devote 
themselves to an absolute retirement from 
the world, and to the most rigid abstinence, 
living only on bread and water for twelve 
days successively, in honour of the twelve 
Imams of Ihe race of AH. This retirement is 
called Khalwah. They pretend that the 
shaikh Arnr Ehalwatf was the first to fol 
low it, and that he often practised it. They 
add that one day, having left his retirement, 
he heard a celestial voice saying, "O Ainr 
Khalwati, why dost thou abandon us ? and 
that, faithful to this oracle, he felt himself 
obliged to consecrate the rest of his days to 
works of penitence, and even to institute an 
order under the name of Khalwatis, a name 
signifying " living in retirement." For this 
reason, darwesbes of this order consider it 
their duty, more than any others, to live in 
solitude and abstinence. The more devoted, 
among them observe sometimes a painful 
fast of forty days consecutively, called by 
them al-artyaun (forty). Amongst them all 
their object is the expiation of their skis, the 
sanctification of their lives, and the glorifica 
tion of Islam ; the prosperity of the state, and 
the general salvation of the Muhammadan 
people. The most ancient and the greatest 
of the orders, such as the Alwanis the Ad- 
hamis, the Qadins, the Kufa is, the Naqiih- 
bandia, the Khalwatis, &c., are considered as 
the cardinal orders ; for which reason thev 
call themselves the /$&, or " Originate, " 


They give to the others the names of the j 
Fwru , or " Branches." signifying thereby 
secondary ones, to designate tbeir filiation 
or emanation from the drat. The order of 
the Naqshbandis and Khalwatis hold, how 
ever, the first rank in the temporal line ; the 
one on account of the conformity of its sta 
tutes to the principles of the ten first con 
fraternities, and to the lustre which causes 
the grandees and principal citizens of the 
empire to incorporate themselves in it ; and 
the other, because of its being the source of 
the mother society which gave birth to many 
others, In the spiritual line, the order of 
the Qadiris, Maulawis, Bakhtashis, Rufa is, 
and the Sa dis, are the most distinguished, 
especially the three nrst, on account of the 
eminent sanctity of their founders, of the mul 
titude of the miracles attributed to them, and 
of the superabundance of the merit which is 
deemed especially attached to them. 

Although all of tbem are considered as 
mendicant orders, no darweeh is allowed to 
beg, especially in public. The only exception 
is among the Bakhtashis, who deem it meri 
torious to live by alms ; and many of these 
visit not only private houses, but even the 
streets, public squares, bureaux, and public 
houses, for the purpose of recommending 
themselves to the charity of their brethren. 

They only express their requests by the 
words " Skayid Uttdh? a corruption from 
tt Shayun li-Uah? which means, " Something 
for the love of God." Many of these make it 
a rule to live only by the labour of their 
hands, in imitation of Haji Bakhtaeh. their 
founder; and, like him, they make spoons. 
ladles, graters, and other utensils, of wood or 
marble. It is these, also, who fashion the 
pieces of marble, white or veined, which are 
used as collars or buckles for the belts of 
all the darweahes of their order, and the 
kcuhJculs, or shell cups, in which they are 
obliged to ask alms. 

Although in no wise bound by any oaths, 
all being free to change their community, and 
even to return to the world, and there to 
adopt any occupation which may please their 
fancy, it is rarely that anyone makes use of 
this liberty. Each one regards it as a sacred 
duty to end his days in the dress of his order. 
To this spint of poverty and perseverance, in 
which they are sp exemplary, must be added 
that of perfect submission to their superior. 
This latter is elevated by the deep humility 
which accompanies all thejr conduct, not 
only in the interior of the cloisters, but even 
in private life. One never meets them any 
where but "with head bent and the most 
respectful countenance. They never salute 
anyone, particularly the Maulawis, and the 
Bakhtashis, except by the exclamation, " Ya 
Hu I " The words At bi- Uah, " thanks to God," 
frequently are used in their conversation : and 
the more devout or enthusiastic speak only 
of dreams, visions, celestial spirits, super 
natural objects, Ac. 

They are seldom exposed to the trouble 
and vexations of ambition, because the mo. n 
ancient danreahea are those whc may aspire 



to the grade of skuii&h, or superior of the 
convent. The shaikh* are named by their 
respective generals, called the Raisu 1- 
Mnsha ikh (chief of shaijchs). Those of the 
Maulawfo have the distinctive title of Che- 
leby Efendi. All reside in the same cities 
which contain the ashes of the founders of 
their orders, called by the name of Astaneh 
signifying ; the court." They are aabordi- 
nate to the Mufti of the capital, who exer 
cises absolute jurisdiction over the^n. In the 
Turkish Empire the Shaikjm l-Islam bas the 
right of removing all the generals of the Ca 
rious orders, even those of the Qadiris, the 
Maulawis, and of the Bakhtashis. although 
the dignity be hereditary in their lamiJy, on 
account of their all throe being sprung from 
the blood of tbu same founders of their 
orders. The Mu/t i has likewise the right to 
confirm the shaikhs who may Ue noinijiated 
by any of the* gouerals of the orders. 

(3eo The Denrighf.s or Oriental Spiritualism, 
by John P. Brown ; Malcolm s Persia ; Lane s 
Modern Egyptians : D Ohsson s Ottoman Jm- 
pire ; Ubicini s Letters on Turkey : Herkk>tt s 
Mu*almaau\ Tazkiratv l-Auliyd. by Shaikh 
Farldu d-Din aP 

FAQR (/>). The life of a Faqir 

or an ascetic. 

FAR A (&*). The first-born of 

either camels, sheep, or goats, which the 
Arab pagans used to offer to idols. This 
was allowed by the Prophet at the com 
mencement of his mission, but afterwards 
abolished. (Mishkdt, book iv. c. 50.) 

FARl IZ (o^V), pi. of Fwrlzah. 

" Inheritances. " A term used for the law of 
inheritance, or flmu t-Farffiz. Farizah means 
literally an ordinance of God, and this, branch 
of Muslim law is so called because it is esta 
blished fully in the Qur an, Surah iv. [IKHK- 

FAJRAQ (j/). Lit. " Separation." 

Faraq-i- Avowal is a term used by Sufi 
mystics to express that state of mind in which 
the soul is drawn away from a contempla 
tion of God by a contemplation of his crea 
tion ; and faraq-i-?ani (the second separa 
tion) is when the soul is constantly contem 
plating the stability of the creation with the 
eternity of the Creator. ( Abdu r-Razzaq s 
Dictionary of Sufi Terms.} 

FARAQLlT (WjVi) The Arabic 
rendering of the Greek irapaxA7/ros, u Para 
clete." Muhammadan writers assert that it 
is the original of the word translated A.(unad 
in the following verse in the Qur an. Surah 
Ixi. v. 6: 

"And call to mind when Jesus, son of. 
Mary, said : O children of Israel I Verily I 
am an Apostle of God unto you, attesting the 
Taurdt revealed before me, and giving good 
tidings of a Prophet that shall come after 
whose name is Ahmad." 

Aijmad is another derivative of the root to 
which Muhammad belongs, signifying, like it, 


"the Praised." It is not improbable that in 
some imperfect copies of St. John xvi. ? 
Tra,pdi<\r)To<; may. have been rendered TTC/H- 
K-A.VTO9, which in some early Arabic, transla 
tion of the Gospel may have been translated 
Ahmad, Li the Majma u l-Bibor, a wort 
written three hundred years a?o, the word 
faraqlit is said to me&A distinguisher b- 
tween truth and error The word also occurs 
sovrera! times in the -well-known ShT ah work, 
the Hat/ (tit Y-Qw//76 (#ife Merrick l transla 
tion, page 80). The author says, * ; It i* well 
known that his (The Prophet s) name in th* 
Taurar is Afiiaaawad, In the gospels (Injil) 
Tabtab, and in Lne Psaims (ZobSr) Warnk- 
teet" And sgah (p 308), "God said to 
Jesns, Son of my handmaid . . . verii\ 
1 will send the chosen of prophets, Ahioad. 
whom I Ijaye Selected of all my creatures. 
even Feffafatf my friend and servant. 


FAESAKH (cV>- Persian Far- 
sang. A land measure which recurs in M- 
hemaiadsn books of law, ft is a league ot 
18.000 feet, pr three and a half miles in 

FAKWA.H (V)- An Arab of the 
nu JuEflm and Governor of Amman, who 
1*3 represented by tradition (upon imperfect 
evidence) as one of the early martyrs of 
Ularn. Having be*>n converted to Islam, the 
Roman authorities crucified him, (Muir fl 
Liff of Mahomet, vol. ii. p. 103.) 

FAR? (</y)- Thai, which is obli 
gatory A term u;oc for those rules and or- 
dinauees of religion which ar* said to have 
been established and enjoined by C.Jod Him 
self, cs distinguished from tbose which are 
established upon Hie praeept or practice cf 
the Prophet, u no) w>p*h a r e filled sunnah. 

FAJ?Z KIFA l (<jJ\tf u*^. A 

command which is imyoratlve (jurx) upon. 
&il .Muslims, Lvt which if one person in eight 
or ten performs it., it is sullieiem (kifa i), or 
Equivalent to ail having performed it. 

Thy are generally heitl to be ftv<^ in num 
ber : (i) To rotui-i . salutation : (2) To jifc.ii- 
the sick and inquire after their welfare; fS) 
Te follow a bier on fW to the grave : (4) To 
accept an ujviisition to dinner; (5) Replying 
to 4 sneeze. [SNBBZIHG.] 

They are also said to ho six or seven m 
number, whn there are added one or two 
of the following: (1) To give advice when 
aeked tor it; (I) To help a Muslim tc 
verif/ hh; (3) To assist a person in 
distress. A.bdu 1 -Haqq says this last injunc 
tion applies to all cases, wbelber tihat of 
Muslim or an infidei. (Mishko.t, book v. cM 
part I.) 

FARZU *L-*AJN ((^ yifi). An 

injunction or ordinance the obligation of 
which extends to every Muslim, as prayer, 
fd sting 1 , Af. 

FA SID (ou*\i). A seditious or re 
bellious person 

FASJQ (<>* J. A term usea ju 

Muhamniaclan lav* for a reprobate person 
who neglects docornm in his dress and beha 
viour. The acceptance of sueh a person s evi 
dence is not admissible. He is not regarded 
as a Muslim citizen, although ho may profess 

FASTING. Arabic Saum ( f y)\ 
Persian Rozah ( 6 jj>). Fasting was 
highly commended by Muhammad as ait 
fttonomeut for in. The following are the 
fast5 founded upon the example of the Pro 
phet and observed by devout Muslims; 

(1) The thirty-days of the mouth of JRama- 
zan. This mouth s fast is regarded as a 
divine institution, being enjoined in the 
Qur an ( Surah ii. 180) and is therefore corn 
pulsory. [RAMAZAN.] 

(2) The day l Askurd\ The tenth day of 
the month Muharram. This is a voluntary 
fast, but it is pretty generally observed by all 
Muslims, for Abu Qatadah relates that the 
Prophet said he hoped that the fast of 
Asijura would cover the sins of the cotuing 
year. (Mis/Jcdt, book vii .eh. vii. pt. 1.) 

(3) The six days following the Ida V-J^ jr. 
Abu Aiyiib relates thai the Prophet said, 
" The person who fasts the month of Rama- 
Kan, and follows it up -with six days of the 
month of Shawwal, will, obtain the rewards of 
a continued fas*," (Mishk&ti book v. ch. vii. 
pt, 1.) 

(4) The Monday and Tharsday of every 
week are recommeVided as fast days, as dis 
tinguished from the Christian fast of Wed 
nesday. Abu Hurairah relates that tbe Pro 
phet said, " The actions of God s servants 
are represented at the throne of Gcd on 
Mondays and Thursdays." (Mishkat, book 
vii. ch. vii. pt. 2.) These days are only 
observed by strictly religious Muslims. 

(5) The month of Sba ban. vAyishah re 
lates that " the Prtjphet o&ed Sometimes to 
fast part of this month find SOmetunea the 
whole." \Mishkat, book vii. ch. vii. pt. ].). 
ft 3s seldom observed in the present day. 

(6) The 13th, I4(h, .tad 15tli of each 
month. These days arc* termed ai-vayanw. V- 
biz, i.e. the bright doy^, and were observed by 
Muhammad himself as fasts. (Mhhkat, hook 
vii. ch. vii. pt. 2) These nre generally ob 
served by devout Muslims- 

(7) Fasting" alternate days, which Muhurn- 
road Sflid w^S th fast observed bj r David. 
King of Israel. ( ftfisJfkat, book vii. cb. vii. 
pt. l .) 

In the Traditions, fasting is commended by 
Muhammad in the following words : 

" Every good act lhat a man does shall 

eceive frotn ten to fjeven hundred rewards, 

.nit th rewards of fasting arc beyeud hounds, 

for fasting- is for GoJ alone, and Ho will give 

its rewards.* 

" HP who faats abandons the cravings of 
his appetites for God s sake." 

u There ai-e two pleasures in fasting-, one 
when the person who fasts breaks it, and the 
other in the next world when he meets his 


Lord. The very smell oi tbo mouth of 
keeper of a fast is rnors agreeable to God 
than tho smell of musk." 

" Fasting- is a shield." 

:i Wiaeo any ot you fast utter no bad worri*, 
nor raise ytxir voice in strife. If anyone 
ah use one who 13 lasting, let him refrain from 
replying; let him say that he IE keeping a 
fast," (Mtshkcit. book vii. cli. i. pt. 1.) 


AL-FATH (es*H), "The victory. 1 
The title of the XLvmth Surah of the Quran, 
in the first verse of which t.he word occurs. 
(t Verily We (God) have given thee an obvious 
victory, tbdt Ood may pardon thee thy for 
mer .in d later sm. 1 

Professor Palmer say a " Soqj* of thr com 
mentators take this to mean sins committed 
by Muhammad before .his call and after it. 
Others rofei* tha word to the Unison with tho 
Coptic handmaiden Mary, and to bis mar 
riage with Za J nab, the \vife of his adopted son 
Zaid." N T one of the commentators we have 
consulted, including al-Bai2awI, al-Jalalan, 
al-K&malan, and Husain, give the last; in 
terpretation, They all say it refers to his 
sins before and after his.ctfil lo the Apostle- 

FATHER. In the tktnm law of 
inheritance, a father is a sharer in the pro 
perty of his son or son s son, taking one-sixth, 
but *if his son dio unmarried and without 
issue, the father is the residuary and takes 
the whole. 

According to the law of <fi$a? or reta^ia- 
tion, if a father take the life of hie son. he is 
hot to be slain, for the Prophet has said, 
"Retaliation musJ. not be erecuted upon tbe 
parent for his offspring"; and Aba Hanlfnh 
adds, "because as the parent is the efficient 
cause of his child s existence, it is not proper 
that th* child should require or be the occasion 
of tli? father s dentJj "; whence it is that a son 
is forbidden to shoot his father, when in tht: 
trmy of the enemy, or to throw a. atone at 
hitti, if suffering lopidutiou for adultery. 

In tho law of evidence, the testimony of d 
father for or ogainst his child IR not admitted 
in a court of law. 

AL-FATIHAH (*-uM). Lit. "The 

opening one." The first chapter of the 
Qur an, called also the Surcrtu l-Ham<f< or 
th^ "Chapter of Praise." It is h*ld in great 
veneration by Muhammadanr,, find .* used by 
them very much as the Faternffster is recited 
by Roman Gatholies. It is related over sick 
persons as a means of healing flnd also 
fecited as an intercessien for the souls of tho 
departed, anrl orcur.s in each ruk ah of tho 
daily prayer. Muhan(id is related to lutve 
said it was the greatest Surah in the Qur nn. 
and to have called it the Qur anu l- Ai tm, or 
the " exalted reading." It is also entitled 
th:-. Satfrf-Mavtm or Jhe "seven rv.itaK" 
as it contains Seven verses; also fJinmu / 
Quran, the < Mother of the Qur ftn." Accord- 



ing- to a saying of the Prophet, the fiitihah 
wa3 revealed twice; once at Makkah and 
once at al-Madinah. The Amln is always said 
at the conclusion of this prayer. 

The following transliteration of the AraMc 
of the Fatihah into English characters may 
give some idea of the rhybbm in which the 
Qur an is written : 

Al-tuimrhi fi~ /lahi fobbi l- atamin. 

Ar-rahmani r-rahlm. 

MLaliki yaumi 4-din. 

fiiako na bvdu, wa-iuaka nasfa in. 

ihdina $-$irata I-w 

Strata. Ua$wa arfamta 

Grhatri l-magfifutti *alaihim t wait z- 

Which iu translated by llodwoll in his English 
Qur an as follows: 

u Praise be to Ood, Lord of all the world 3 : 
The Compassionate, the Merciful ! 
King on the E>ay of Judgment ! 
Thoe do we worship, and to Thee do we 

cry for help ! 

Guide Thou us on the right path ! 
The path of fhose to whom Thou art 

gracious I 

Not of those with whom Thou art ah 
gered, nor of those who go astray." 

FATIMAK (W,U). A daughter 
of Muhammad, by his.iirat wife KhadTjah. 
She married Ali Vhe cousin of Muhammad, by 
whom she h:id three sons,al-fiasan, al- Husain, 
and al-Mnhshi; the latter died in infancy. 
From the two former are descended the pos 
terity of the Prophet, known as Saiyids. 
FRtimah died six months after her father. 
She is spoken of by the Prophet, ns one of the 
four perfect women, and is called r/-/fe#/?/, or 
"the Virgin," by whi^b is meant one -who hart 
renoonced the World, also Fdtimatu z- 
zuhrff, or <f the beautiful Fatimah." 

There are three women of the name of 
Fatimah mentioned in rhe Traditions: (I) 
Patimah, the daughter of Muhammad ; (2) 
The mother of All; (3) The daughter of 
Ham/a.h. the uncle of Muhammad. 

AL-FATIMI Y A H (4^UI\). The 
Fatimides." A dynasty of Khalifahs who 
tigno<l over Egypt and North Africa- froru 
A.D. 903 to A.O. U7T. They obtained Jhe 
parne frotn the pretensions of thp founder of 
their dynasty Abu Muhammad Ubaidu 
Mali, who asserted that ho was a SMvid, 
and descended from Fatiunah, the daughtor 
of che Prophet and s AIT. His opponents de 
clared he was the grandson of a Jew of the 
Magiau religion. 

There were in all fourteen KhalTfah.n ot 
this dynasty : 

1. *Ul>aidn lf<i/i, the first Faliniide rvuali- 
fah, was born A.D. 882. Ha*. IMS? inourrcd the 
displeasure of al-Muktftfi, the reigning Abab- 
sidt? Khallfah. ne was obliged to wander 
through various parls of Africa, till through 
forltmate cirrnmstanres he waa raised in 
A.O. 910 from a dungeon in Segelmessa to 
soveroign power. He assumed the title of 
al-Mahdl. or "the Director of the Faithful. 1 



[MAHDI.] He subdued the Amirs in the 
north of Africa, who had become independent 
of the Abassides, and estabiiched Ms autho 
rity from the Atlantic to the borders of 
Egypt. He founded Mahadi on the site of 
the ancient Aphrodisium, a town on the coast 
of Africa, about a hundred miles south of 
Tunis, and made it his capital. He became 
the author of a great schism among the Mu- 
hamniadans by disowning the authority of 
the Abassides, and assuming the titles of 
Khalif ah and Amiru 1-Mu minm, " Prince of 
the Faithful." His fleets ravaged the coasts 
of Italy and Sicily, and his armies frequently 
invaded Egypt, but without any permanent 

(2) Al-Qa im succeeded hia father in A.D. 
933. During his reign, an impostor, Abu 
Yazid, originally an Ethiopian slave, advanced 
certain peculiar doctrines in religion, which 
he was enabled to propagate over the whole 
of the north of Africa, and was so successful 
in his military expeditions as to deprive al- 
Qa im of all his dominions, and confine him to 
his capital, Mahadi. which he was besieging 
when al-Qa hn died. 

(3) Al-Man$ur succeeded his father in 
A.D. 946, when the kingdom was in a 
state of the greatest confusion. By his valour 
and prudence he regained the greater part of 
the dominions of his grandfather Ubaidu 
Rah, defeated the usurper Abu Y azid, and laid 
the foundation of that power which enabled his 
son al-Mu izz to conquer Egypt. 

(4) Al-Mu izz (A.D. 955) was the most 
powerful of the Fatimide Khalif a hb. He was 
successful in a naval war with Spain, and 
took the island of Sicily; but his most cele 
brated conquest was that of Egypt, which 
was subdued in A.D. 972. Two years after 
wards he removed his court to Egypt, and 
founded Cairo. The name of the Abasside 
Khalif ah was omitted in the Friday prayers, 
and his own substituted in its place ; from 
which time the great schism of the Fatimide 
and Abasside Khalifahs is more frequently 
dated than from the assumption of the title 
by Ubaidu llah. The armies of al-Mu izz 
conquered the whole of Palestine and Syria as 
far as Damascus. 

( 6) Ate Aziz (A.D. 978). The dominions re 
cently acquired by al-Mu izz were secured to 
the Fatimide Khalif aha by the wise govern 
ment of his son, al- Aziz, who took several 
towns in Syria. He married a Christian 
woman, whose brothers he made patriarchs 
of Alexandria and Jerusalem. 

(6) Ai-H&fdm was only eleven years of age 
when he succeeded his father in A.D. 996. 
He is distinguished even among Oriental 
despots by his cruelty and folly. His tyranny 
caused frequent insurrections in Cairo. He 
persecuted the Jews and Christians, and 
burnt their places of worship. By his order 
the Church of the Resurrection at Jerusalem 
was destroyed (A.D. 1009). His persecutions 
of the Christiana induced them to appeal to 
their brethren in the West, and was one of 
the causes that Jed to the crusades. He 
carried his folly so far as to seek to become 


the founder of a new religion, and to assert 
that ne was the express image of God. lit 
was assassinated in A.X> 1021, and was suc 
ceeded by his sou. 

(7) A%-tihir (A.D. 1021) was not so cruel* 
as his father, but was addicted to pleasure 
and resigned all tlie cares of government tc 
his Vizirs. IB his reign the power of th^ 
Fatimide Khalifahs began to decline. Thew 
possessed nothing but the external show ol< 
royalty ; secluded in the harem, they were 
the slaves of. their vizirs whom they could 
not remove, and dared not disobey. In addi 
tion to the evils of misgovernment, Egypt 
was afflicted in the reign of az-Zahir with 
one of the moat dreadful famines that evei 
visited the country. 

(8) Al-Mu8tan?ir (A.D. 1037) was only nin* 
years old when he succeeded his father. The* 
Turks invaded Syria and Palestine in hie 
reign, took Damascus and Jerusalem (1076), , 
where the princes of the house of Ortok, e 
Turkish family, established an independent 
kingdom. They advanced to the Nile with 
the intention of conquering Egypt, but were* 

(9) Al-Musta l ti (A.D. 1094), the second aou^ 
of al-Mufltansir, was seated on the throne by 
the all-powerful Vizir Afzal, in whoso hancU 
the entire power rested during the whole ei 
al-Musta li s reign. The invasion of ABM 
Minor by the Crusaders in 1097 appeared tc 
Afzal a favourable opportunity for the reco 
very of Jerusalem. Refusing to assist th* 
Turks against the Crusaders, he marched 
against Jerusalem, took it (1098), and de 
prived the Ortok princes of the sovereigntj 
which they had exercised for twenty years 
His possession of Jerusalem WHS, however, o 
very short duration, for it was ttfken in tht 
following year (1099) by the Crusaders 
Anxious to recover his loss, be led an hn 
mense army in the same year against Jena 
salem, but was entirely defeated by the Cm 
saders near Ascalon. 

(10) Al-Amir (A.JD. 1101). 

(11) Al-Hafiz (A.D. 1129). 
) Az-Zafir (A.D. 1149). 

13) A.l-Fiz (A.D. 1164). 

During these reigns the power of the Fati 
mides rapidly decayed. 

(14) Ate Azid (A.D. 1160) was the last 
Khalifah of the Fatimide dynasty At tht 
commencement of his reign Egypt wai 
divided into two factions, the respectiv< 
chiefs of wbich, Dargham and Shawir, dia- 
puted for the dignity of Vizir. Shawir im 
plored the assistance of Nuru d-dln, who sen 
an army into Egypt under the command o 
Shirkuh, by means of which his rival wai 
crushed. But becoming jealous of Nuru d 
din s power in Egypt, he solicited the aid ol 
Amauri, King of Jerusalem, who marcaec 
into Egypt and expelled Shirkuh from th< 
country. Nuru d-din soon sent anothei 
army into Egypt under the same commander 
who was accompanied by his nephew, tht 
celebrated Salahu d-din (Saladin). Shlrkul 
was again unsuccessful, and was obliged tc 
retreat. The ambition of Amauri affordec 


shortly afterwards a more favourable oppor 
tunity for the reduction of Egypt. Amauri, 
after driving Shirkuh out of the country, 
meditated the design of reducing it to his own 
authority. Shawir, alarmed at the success 
oi Amauri, entreated the assistance of Nuru 
d-dln, who sent Shirkuh for the third time at 
the head of a numerous army. He repulsed 
the Christians, and afterwards put the trea 
cherous Vizir to death. Shirkuh succeeded 
to his dignity, but dying shortly after, Sala- 
din obtained the post of Vizir. As Nuru M- 
din was attached to the interests of the 
Abassides, he gave orders for the proclama 
tion of al-Mustahdi, the Abasside Khallfah, 
and for depriving the Fatimides of the Khali- 
fate. Azid, who was then on a sick-bed, 
died a few days afterwards. [KHAUFAH.] 

FATQ(J^). Lit. l; Opening." A 
term used by Sufi mystics to explain the 
eternity of matter, together with its develop 
ment in creation. ( Abdu r-ttazzaq s Diet. 
of Sufi Terms. ) 

FATE AH (M). Lit. "Languor," 

or "Intermission. (1) The interval between 
the supposed revelation of the icvith Surah 
of the Qur an and the Lxxrnh and xcmrd 
Surahs. It ie during this period that the 
powers of inspiration of the Prophet are said 
to have been suspended, and it was then that 
he contemplated suicide by intending to cast 
himself from Mount Hira . The accounts of 
this interval are confused and contradictory, 
and various are the periods assigned to it, 
viz. from seven month? to seven years. 
I (2) The term is also used for the time 
which elapses between the disappearance of 
<! a prophet and tho appearance of another. 
^ ( Gkiydfu l-Ltighak in loco. ) 
f (3) A term used by Sufi mystics for a de- 
islension in spiritual life. ( Abdu r-Razzaq s 
. of Sufi Term!,.) 



, "The Opener " 

[of that which is difficult. 
I One of the ninety-nine names or attributes 
Li God. it occurs in the Qur an, Surah 
kxxxiv., "For He is the opener who knows." 

J FATWA (^r*)- A religious or 
Judicial sentence pronounced by the Khallfah 
Jor by a Mufti, or Qazi. It is generally 
Jwjitten. The following ie a fatwa delivered 
Jby the present Mufti of the Hanafi sect at 
JMakkah in reply to the question as to 
j whether India is a Ddru /-Islam. Fatwas are 
generally written in a similar form to this, 
but in Arabic :- 

" All praises are due to the Almighty, who 
v is Lord of all the creation ! 
O Almighty, increase my knowledge ! 
As long as even some of the peculiar 
observances of Islam prevail in it it 
is the Daru 1-Islam. 
The Almighty is Omniscient, Pure and 


This is the Fatwd passed by one who 
hopes for the secret favour of tht Al- 

mighty, who praises God, and prays for 
blessings and peace on his Prophet. 



present Mufti of Makkah (the 


May God favour him and his father." 

FAFJDAR (jWj*). An officer of 

the Moghul Government who was invested 
with the charge of the police, and jurisdiction 
in all criminal matters. A criminal judge. 
Faujdari is a term now used in British courts 
for a criminal suit as opposed to diwanl, or 

FATJTCT L-HAJJ (&J\ ,). The 

end of the Pilgrimage. [PILGRIMAGE.] 

FAL (JA*). Lit. "That which 
remains over and above : redundant." A 
word used in the Qur an for God s grace or 
kindness. Surah ii. 244: "God is Lord of 
grace to men, but most men give no thanks." 
The Christian idea of divine grace, as in the 
New Testament, seems to be better expressed 
by fayz-i-aqdas. 

FAJZCTLI (J^). Lit. "That 

which is in excess.* A term used in Muham- 
tnadan law for anything unauthorised, e.g. 
bai -i-fazu/i, is an unauthorised sale. Niktih- 
i-fay.vl". is an unauthorised marriage, when 
the contracts are made by an unauthorised 

FEAST DAYS. Arabic id (^) ; 

dual *iddn ; plural a-ydd. The two great 
festivals of the Muhammadans are, the /</ 
V-Fitr, and the 7<fo l-Azjid. The other fes 
tivals which are celebrated as days of Ire- 
joicing are, lhe^Skab-i-Bardt, or the fifteenth 
day of Sha ban ; the NaU Moz, or New Year 5 * 
day; the AJchir-i-Chahdr Shamba, or the 
last Wednesday of the month of Safar; the 
Laylatu y r-Raghffib, or the first Friday in 
the month of the month Rajab ; the Maulud, 
or the birthday of Muhammad. 

An account of these feasts is given under 
their respective titles. 


existed amongst the ancient Arabians, was 
condemned by Muhammad. Vide Qur an : 

Surah xvi. 60: "For when the birth of a 
daughter is announced to any one of them, 
dark shadows settle on his face, and he in 
sad. He hideth himself from the people be 
cause of the bad news : shall he keep it with 
disgrace or buiy it in the dust ? Are not 
their judgments wrong. 

Surah xvii. 83 : " Kill not your children for 
foar of want : for them and for you will We 
(God) provide." 

Surah Ixxxi. 8 : " . . . And when the dam 
sel that had been buried alive shall be asked 
(at the Day pf Judgment) for what crime she 
was put to death." 

FID YAH (*i*). A ransom. From 
Jidff, "to ransom," to exchange." An expia- 




tlon for sin, or for duties unperformed. Tiw 
word occurs three tiraee in the Qur an t 

Surah ii. 180: "For those who are able to 
keep it (the fast) and ypt break it, there shall 
be as an expiation th* n;aiutenan<e of a pool- 

Surah ii. J92: " Perform the pilgrimage 
and the visitation of the holy places. . . . Bgl 
whoever among yon is sick, or hath an nil. 
ttriflnt of the head, most trpiafe by fasting, or 
alms, or a sacrifice. 

Sarah I vii. .14: "On that day (the Day of 
Jadgment) ao expiation shall be Uken from 
you (i.e. the hypocrites) or from those who 
do not believe ; your abode is Ibe fire." 

T b ; e other word used in .the Qur an for the 
same idea is kaffarah. fKAfpARAR, EXPIA 

FIG. Arabic at-Tin (^\). The 
title of the x.cvth Surah of the Qur an, so 
called because Muhammad makes the Al 
mighty swear by that fruit in the first verse. 
Al-Baiawi says God swears by tigs because 
of their great use. They are most excellent, 
because they can be eaten at once, having no 
stones, they are easy of digestion, arid help 
to carry off the pbiegin, and grflvl .in the 
kidneys* or bladder, and remove obstructions 
of the liver, and also *m-e piles wid gout. 
(Tftfslru l-Baizaivi. in foc/,\. 

JB IJAR (jM). Lit. ; That which 
s unlawful. A fcenn fHvftfi fcfrft itt*riefl of sacri 
legious wars carrier on between the Quroish 
anrt the B;vnu HawSzin, when Mnham*n>id 
was o- youth, about A.D. 580-590. (Muir, 
vol. ii. 8.) 

AT.-FJLL (J*a\)\ The title of the 

cvth Surah of the ^.ur au. as it gives an 
account of the AsMbu /-/"*/, ov - People of 
the Elephant/ } ELEPHANT.] 

FINES. Arabic Diyah (M- A 

term, which, in its strictest sense, rctsans a 
sum exacted for any offence upon the pel-sou, 
in consideration lor the olairfi of qisos, or 
retaliation; not being insisted upon. (This 
does not apply to wilful murder.) A full and 
complete Hue ia that levied upon a person for 
manslaughter, vvbich consists of either onfi 
hundred ten) a. it. camels or ten thousand dir- 
hama (silver^), or one thousaud dinars (goldj. 

The fine for slayiog a ^voraan is half that 
for claying a man, * because tb^ rank of a 
woman it, Lower than that of a man, so alsr 
her faculties and uses ! " The fine for slay 
ing a zinrmi (be he a J^w, Christian, <w ido 
later) is the same as for slaying a Muslim. 

A complete fine is also levied for the 
destruction of a nose, or a tongue, or a virile 
member, and also, if a person tear out the 
beard, or the hair of tuc scalp, or the whiskers, 
or both eyebrows, so that they never grow 
again." because the beauty of the countenance 
is thereby effaced." 

A complete fine, is due tor any fellow parts, 
as for two eyefi, tvrp lips, &c.. and one half the 
line for one- single member. 

For oach finger, a tenth of the complete 

line is. due. and as every 

joints, a Uiird of the fine for the whole ? due 

fur each joint,. 

Tb.e fine fo?- a tooth is a twentieth of the 
complete fine. 

A half fine is due for mer^lv destroying 1 the 
nf,f. of a limb, but if a person strike another ia 
any way so as to completely destroy the beauty 
of his person, a complete fine must be paid. 
Wounds on the face, viz. irons the crown of 
the head to the chin, are specially treated. 
and are termed sftijoj. Of sfn jaj, or u face 
wounds, * there are ten : (1) hfirifah, or such 
as draw no blood a mere serat^h; (?) ddmi- 
yah, a scratch wh)"ch draws blood, without 
causing it to ilow, f3) riamlyah, a scratch 
which causes blood to ilow ; (4) baz^oh t a out 
through the skin ; (5) mvialahimah,. a cut 
to the flesh ; (6) simhaq, a wound reaching 
into Hie pericranium; (7) miizihah, a wound lays bare the hone; (d) hnshimah, a 
fracture of the skull; (9) muvitkitah. a frac 
ture which Causes the removal of part of 
the sknll: (10) omrno-h^ a wound extending 
to the brain. 

FOT n airmifdi wound, a third of the rom 
p)ete iin^ is due. Khteeo ca.nels are due for 
a, munakifah, fcen for a hdshimah, five for a 
nr~>iilifjh. and so on. 

All other wounds on other parts of r.he 
body may b^ aiijusied for according to the 
above scale, but are left to tha decision of 
tne jud^e. 

Kor further information o?i the subject see 
* Babu 1-Diyah in tha iturru l-MukMar, or 
the tJififtyah, or the fatawa, Alamyiri, or the 

FIQH. (^a*j. TIe <logmfltic theo 
logy of the Muslims. Worsts on Muhammad a u 
law-, whether civil or religious. The books most 
read by the SunnTs are the Hidayoh, written 
by a learned man named Ali ibn Abl Bakr, 
A.H. 593. part of which has been .translated 
by the late Colonel, Charles Hamiltdn; the 
Dam l- 

l-JMukhtSr, by Ala u d-din, A.M. 
i.ho Sharhu I- \Vi(/ai/a/i. by Ubaidu llab ibn 
Mas-iid, A.M. 745; the Raddu V Mvhttt by 
Saiyid Muhammad Ainin ibn Abidi d-d7n, 
and the Fat Jam Alan/i/iri Amongst the 
Imaimyah School, or Bhi-fths, the principal 
works are Kitabu sh-Sharai , by Abu 1- 
Haaah All (A.H. 326); the Aluqni* fT / Fiyk, 
by Abu Ja-far (A.H. 360); the^ Shara-fit *l- 
Islam, by Siiailvh Najmu d-JTn (A.H. 679); 
and she J ainru l> ( Abhdsi, by Baha u d-dln 
(A.M. 1031). 

FlEASAH (^*yj, or farSsak. A 
ufl t^rr/i for the enlighterunent of the heart, 
A penefcraiiou into the seorets of t)ie tm- 
known. .titan \l-firvsok< " The acieuce ol 




In Muhamraadan law " a wife." 



y.^). The highest 

stage of celestial bliss. Ti j .\RADi8.J 


FIRE. Arabic nar (ft). (1) The 
term cm nar, the fire," is generally uaed in 
the.Qur an and the Traditions for "hell." 
$) In the Quran (Surah xxxvii. 25* ; the 
power of GoU is declared ad Ix ing able to 
give fire out of a green tree." On which 
il Bai/:i.wi say.* " the Uoual way of getting 
ire is by rubbing two pieces oi ^o^d tug- 
iJier one "f which ij markh and the olher 
afar, and they produce iiro, although both 
ihe dtkks are grem (X) The burning io 
ieath. of human beings is condemned by 
MuliumDia 1, who atiid JLet no one puiush 
A-ith th<> punishment of lire but God." 

FIRSTBORN. Although, the 

Arabian legislator followed the Mosaic Jaw 
n ao many of lu legal jnacinioms he 
aa* Carefully avoided j*uy legislation as to 
he righu of primogeniture although it formed 
iuch a markrd feature in tiia Pentateuch, in 
.Ahich tho first-born of man and wero 
Iie votf.d to God. aifcu were redeemed with a 
. In the Muslim law of inheritance all 
:he sons ahare HqucJly, whiUi in ihe Mosaic 
iyw vac eldest sou received a viouUV portion 
>f the jjitiujr s iuherit&ncc ^Doxu. xxi. 17.^ 

In cae3 of chief ahip, or monarchy the 
jjle:st &on usually iniioiii.*, biu ii rests eix- 
ireiv upi>n his iitnessj for the position. Very 
,>Iien ;ho aidcit ou is passed by and a 
rounder br^th tr aeloci.<>l as rulei This was 
Uao tho case uruoitghi the Jows when Solo 
tton .iucjx?d<>.d 1m father i the KinKdon; 
[I Kings i 30, ii. 25>; 

Tho "uriou., fact thai Muk^muiM mad n< 
)ro\isiuii ior these righu of primogejuture, 
liave arisen irora hii havis.p, hai no sou 
J survive him 

FISH ArabK samak (*&+*). (1) 
fish which, ujing ot ihriuaeives. iloat upon 
the surface of *Jhe water, are abominated, 
to Ai>u Hauifah. Ash bhauu 
Mahk saj- they aro inaiiicreat -\bu 
iiv-s Uiut !\h Hhioh are killed 
>y acciaerit are kwful. but such a* dif 
af lli(Jtisulve3 without any accident are un- 
awful. There are, howovor. uiuereta opiuioi^ 
o which die u/ heat ur 

In the law of sale, it U not lawful to 
sell fish which u not \i.t cutr^hl. nor is it 
.awful to aoll iish which the vendor muj 
caught and afterwards thrown into u 

\Vhibi tbo destruction of nil animals. 
ia ouo. is forbidden during the 
, fishing in UIM afjn ju* permitted by 
the Qu ran. Surah \. J7 . " Lawful for yon i* 
the Kauie of the sea/ 



F1TAJM (&*)-. pi. oi yrfW*. 

; siriica ; coiunwtions. 

term specially tor Uiose wara and 
commotion* which snail procude Uie Ik-sur 
reclioix. A chapter is devoted to the subject 
in all the booke oi traditions, (bee ^a/^Ai/ V 

\\ill bv; Khalilnhs aiier me that will not go 
the atxaigLt rv>ad in which 1 have gone, nor 
will follow my but m those time* 
tlicie -\\ili bd the hearts of devils in the bodies 
oi ia,n. jliuuifcth tlicu .;aju ;o him, **0 
Plophvt. niiat shall 1 do u J livi- to sec 
tho^e d?.j s ? And llw Prophot said, " 01y 
him who haa the- ru^o ovor you, c?en though 
he flog your back and tuLo ^ our money." 
Sui*:\.i.h. in a tradition /iVorfied in at-Tir- 
and Abu JJa ud , huud that Muh<imn,ad 
Ihut the suc^.^iion vouldtac t or thirty 
and tiiat tho ">four rightly dirrjcted 
" relgued exactly that time: Abu 
liakr, two yoar* ; Umar. tent Uaman. 
twelve: and Ali <JT M 

, A mover of leader 4>f s^cUtioja is cailpd 
uayltl or rebel. 

FIT RAH (*>*) Lit "Xature." 

Oextain ancle* ui uractices 01* the prophets 
bofor* vbf jii .w 01 .Muuiiu;.iul uhic u have 
utnjxjui* fcT iUi I-i. by him. 

4 A\ijhah rulatco that tho Prophet satd : 

There are ton ^ualuies of tho prophets 

! clipping the mustacluos. so that they do not 

I oiit ir the inouth not cutting or .shaving the 

board, cleansing Ihe ;eeth (i.e. miwak], 

cleansing tho no&triis wiiii water at the 

usual ablutions, cutting the uails, cleaning 

Ihe linger joinU, [julling out iho hairs undor 

the arm pits, shaving the hair of ihe privates 

vu.shing with water alter passing urine, and 

cloansing th^ raouUt. with wator t the lirae 

of hutiiiion " ^S -e Sahitiu Muslim.; 

The nu^e 5 5 io be washed out wivn water 
becanae it I . supposed that the devil resides 
in the nose during the night , See MishxJi.) 
There is a <iiapter in (hi? Ai-uta of the 
P-xrsees. containing inruoctioiis aa to the 
paling of ihe nails o/ tb/- hand A and feet. 


ISLAM. (l j ShaliAduh. or bearing mtuc^ 
that there is no deity but God ; ^2^ .Siu. Jf, r 
ihe observance of the five stated periods of 
prayer : (Oy Zakal, K lvir t fle ^K 31 ^" 

a year ; ^4) Suum, faatinjf durrn^ the wi.oie oi 
o montn of liamazaii; 


BuJcharl f p 1045: Sahzhu Muslim p 3o8.y 
Muhammad is related to ha v- ->H4<J The: 

Uio montn of liamazaii; o, t&j* the pil- 
grimajre to >Iakkub once in. a Uie-time 
They arc ui.^ caUod the uve fuuudauons of 
j)rontc, aj distuiguisb^d from the six foun- 
d&tioixi of fuilti [ISLAM IMtAN ] 


KXOWLEI>GE, which. an. witL God alone are 
said to be found in the la^l v ry> of the Stiruh 
Lu<jmiui i xxxist, 34" of tbr Quran "God . 
rtith Him is ^J j the Knowledge of the Hour; 
V 2) and He end. Ji dowu rain. ; V 3j and He 
kuora\eui what is in the wombs; (4) but n; 
soul kuj-%. ih what ahall bo on the laurrow j 
(b) noithor kuo-weiJti any soul in -what Und h 
shall joe. Vriiy God is knowui.or a -id in 
formed of nil" 

FIVE SENSES, Ihe. Arabic a/- 

t. ((Jut-tnia k (&+*& u*\*<J\). 
to Muba;nrnadan welters, there aie 
xternal uWnr"> ions^s. and live- ! 



(bdtini) senses. The former being those five 
faculties known amongst. European writers as 
seeing (bafirak). hearing (sdmtfah), smelling 
(shdrAmah ), taste (foV<?oA), touch (Ldmisah). 
The latter : common sense (biss-i-mvshtctrok^ 
the imaginative faculty (guwat-t-khaudC), the 
thinking faculty (t/uwat-i-rnuta^arnfah) , the in 
stinctive faculty (guwat-t-wdAimak), the re 
tentive faculty 

FOOD. Arabic ta am (^),. pi. 
atiimak. The injunctions contained in the 
Qur an (Surah ii. 167) respecting food are as 
follows : " O ye -who believe ! eat of the good 
things with which we have supplied you, and 
give God thanks if ye are His worshippers. 
Only that which dieth of itself, and blood, and 
swine s flesh, and that over which any other 
name than that of God hath been invoked, 
hath God forbidden you. But he who shall 
partake of them by constraint, without desire, 
or of necessity, then no sin shall bo upon him 
Verily God is forgiving and merciful." 
Surah v. 92. t " O Believers I wine (kkamr) and 
games of chance, and statues, and divining - 
arrows are only an abomination of Satan e 
work ! Avoid them that ye may prosper." 

The other injunctions concerning food art- 
found in the Traditions ?vnd sayings of Ma 

No animal, except fish rulocusts, is lawful 
food unless it be slaught r*3 according to the 
Muhamiuadan law, nan-^iy, bj r drawing th? 
knife across the throat a/l c :. : ting the wind 
pipe, the carotid arteries, ari<; the gullet, re 
peating at the same tiiae tte words " JBfsmi 
lldhii akbarf ?... " In the name of 
God, God is great." A. dean animal, so slaugh 
tered, becomes lawful food for Muslims, 
whether slaughtered by Jews, Christians, or 
Mubammadans, but animals slaughtered by 
either an idolater, or an apostate from Islam, 
is not lawful, or the slaying ui animals, is of 
two kinds. Jkhtiydrl^ or "of choice, aod 
Iztirari) or of necessity. The former being 
tne slaughtering of animals La the name 
of God, the latter being the slaughter effected 
by a wound, us in shooting birds or animals, 
in whieh case the words Bfsmi lidhi, Alidhu 
akbar must be said at the time of the dis 
charge of the arroTr from the bow or the 
shot from the gtm 

According to tho Hidayah* ail quadrupeds 
that eize their prey with their teeth, and all 
birds which seize it with their talons are un 
lawful, because the Prophet has prohibited 
mankind from fcatiu^ them. Hyenas, foxes, 
elephants, weasels, pelicans, kites, carrion 
crown, yavenb, crocodiles, otters, asses, 
mules, wasps, and in general all insects, are 
forbidden. But there is seme doubt as to the 
lawfulness of horses flash. Fishes dying ot 
themselves *ie also forbidde. 

The prohibition of wine in the Q.ur an under 
the word kharrrr is held tn exclude all things 
which havy an. intoxicating tendency, such as 
opium, chars, bhang ; and tobacco. 

A Muslim can have no religious scruples 
to oat with a Christian, aa long as the food 


eaten i? of a lawful kiiid. Saiyid Ahmad i 
Khan Bahadar C.S.I., has vmUen a treatise 
proving that Itfuliammadons can eat with the 
AMr^"Kitd b i namely, Jews or Christians. The 
Muhammad ans of lndia.,)whilflt they -will eat; 
food cooked by idolatrous Hindus, reiuse to 
touch that cooked either by Natirs or Eure 
pean Christians ; and they often refuse to 
allow Christians to draw water from the 
public wells, although Hindus are permitted 
to do BO. Such objections arise solely from 
jealousy of race, and an unfriendly feeling 
towards the ruling power. In Afghanistan i 
and Persia, no such objections exist : and no 
doubt much evil has been caused by Govern- 1 
ment allowing Hindustani Muslims to ereate 
a religious custom which has no foundation 
whatever, except that of national hatred to 
their English conquerors. [BATIKS.] 


tioned in the Qur an, Surah ii, 33 : ** And we 
(God) said, <0 Adam, dwell them and thy wife 
in Paradise and eat therefrom amply as you 
wish j hut do not draw near this tree (shaja- 
rafi }." 

Ctfueeroiug mi* iree, the Commentators 
ha^-e various opinions. Husain says some 
say^ it was a fig tree, or a vine, but most 
people think it was a grain of -wheat 
irom a wheat stalk. [ADAM, FALL.] 


Enjoined in the Quran in the following 
words (Surah xlii. .38) : " Let the recompense 
of evil be only a like evil but he who for- 
giveth and maketh peace, shall find his 
reward for it from God ; verily He loveth not 
those who act unjustly. And there shall be 
no way open (i.e. no blame) against those 
who, after being wronged, avenge themselves. 
-. . . . Whoso beareth -wrongs and forgiveth~ 
this is a boiuiden duty." 

FORNICATION. Arabic zina (fy) f 
The -word zinff includes both fornication witb 
an unmarried person, and adultery with a 
married person. [ADULTERY.] 

The sin of fornication must be established, 
as in the case of adultery, either by proofs or 
by confession. 

To establish it by proof, tour witnesses are 
required, and if any person bring an accusa 
tion against a -woman of chaste reputation 
and fail to establish it, he must be punished 
with eighty stripes. [QAZF.] 

When a person for conscience sake con-i 
fosses the sin of fornication, the confession 
mast be repeated four times at four different 
appearances before a qazi, and the person con 
fessing must be very exaot and particular as 
to the circumstances, so that there can be noj 
mistake. A self -accused person may alaoj 
retra-ct the confession at any period before, orf 
during, the inflation of the punishmeut. and 
the retractation must be accept f-n 

The punishment for fornication is one hun~] 
dred stripes (or fifty 1 or a slave). Thei 


scourging to be inflicted upon a man fltp,nd- 
ing and upon a woman sitting; and the 
woman ir not to be stripped. It should be 
done with moderation, with a, strap or whip, 
I whit fi has no knots upon it, and tht3 stripos 
i should be given not all upon the &:ui:o par* 
I of the body. [DIB.RAH.] 

in some countries banishment is added to 
the punishment of scourging tor fornication, 
especially if the sin is often repeated, so ae to 
i constitute common prostitution. 

The law is founded upon the following 
i vre in the Qur an, Surah xxiv. 2-5 : 

Tne whore and the whoremonger scourge 
eacti or them wjtb a.n hundred stripes ; aud 
l&f. iK>h compassion keep you irom carrying wit 
tno sentence of God, if ye believe in God and 
the laat day; And let Homo of the faithful 
witness their chastisement, 

The whoremonger shall not marry otfter 
than .<?. whore or an i<iolalrosn ; and the whore 
shaii not marry other than a whoremonger 
or an idolater. Suoh af fiances are forbidden 
to the faithful, 

" They who defame virtuous women, and 
bring not four witnesses, scourge them with 
i fourscore stripen, and receive ye not their tes 
timony for ever, for th^na a^e t6rveree 
I persons 

> n Save those wbn afterwards repent and 
live virtuously: tor truly God is Lenient, 
Merciful J " 

The Muhammadan law ttirfcj-/) from JtTv ink 
law witia regard to fornication : set Exodus 
xxii. 16, 17 : ** If a man entice a maid that 
is not betrothed, and lie v/ith her. be shall 
surely anaow her to be his wife. If her lather 
utterlv refuse to give her unto him, he shall 
pay tnoney according to the dowry of virgins " 
Bent xxii. 25-29: " 11 a damsel that is a 
i virgin bo betrothed unto 3. husband, and a man 
find her in tb* city and lie with her. then ye 
shall bring them out unto ttin *te 01 the city, 
and ye shall stone them with stones that they 
die: v>i* damsel because she cried not, being 
in the city, *nd the man because he hath 
humbleo. hia neighbour s wife ; BO shalt thou 
put away evij from among you. But if a man 
find a betrothed damsel in the field, and the 
roan force her and lie with her, then the man 
only that lay with her shall die. But unto 
the ciamsei shalt tbon do nothing: there is in 
tne darns*! no sin worthy of death. ... If a 
man find a dacisel that is a virgin, which is 
not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie 
with her, and they be found, then the man 
that lay with her shall give unto the dwu- 
wel 8 father fifty shekels of silver, and Bhe 
sh&ll bw his wife: because he hath humbled 
her, be may no1 put her away all his 

kah&nah (&\y Mu aAviyab ibn 
Bakam relates thai he asked the Prophet if 
it were right to consult fortuuu- tellers about 
future events, and he replied. ^ Siuea you 
have embraced Islam, you must not consult 
them [MAOIC.J 


h FOSTERAGE. Arabic razd ah. 
rizd ah (^U ; ). According to Abu 
Hamfah, the period of fosterage is thirty 
months ; but the two disciples, Yusut and Mu 
hammad, hold it tf, be two years, whilet 
Zufar maintains that it is throe years. Fos 
terage with respact to the prohibitions 
attached to it ia of two kinds ; first, where 
a woman takes u strange child to nurse, by 
"which all future matrimonial connection 
between that child and t,h* woman, or. her 
relations within .the prohibited degrees, is 
rendered illegal ; secondly, where a woman 
nurses two children, male and female, upon 
the same milk, which prohibits any jature 
matrimonial connection between them. For 
further particulars on this subject, see Ha 
milton s JFfiddyah, vol. i. page 187. 

FOUNDLING. Arabic tagit (M). 
L^t. " That wbk h is picked up." The per 
son vho finds the child is called the mul- 
taqit. Tho taking up of a foundling is said 
to be a laudable and generous act, end where 
the finder sees that the chiid a life is iu peril, 
it is an incumbent religious duty. (Uiddyab, 
vol. ii p. 252.) 

The maintenance of a toxmdling in>i 
I rota the pubh o treasury, but the finder if 
not to demand anything for hi? trouble and 
expense, but after the finding of the child 
has been reported to the magistrate, the child 
i* legally placed under the care of the mul- 
taqit, and supported by the state. A found- is declared to bo free, and not a slave. 
ana unless he be found on the land or pro 
perty of a Jew or Christian, he is declared 
a Muslim. But If the child be found on the 
property of a Jew or CLriatian, he will be de- 
elared a- Jew or Christian as the case may 
be. The rnuitaffif, cannot contract the found 
ling in marriage -without the sanction of the 
magistrate, but ho may send him to school 
and in eveiy respect see to his education and 
training without consulting the magistrate. 

FBLDAY. Arabic J urn? ah, (W>). 

Tho Day of Assembly," The Muhammadan 
Sabbath, on which they assemble in the Jdmt- 
Maajid. or chief mohque, and recite two 
rik abi. of prayers and listen to the oration, 
oi- khutbah at the time of mid-day prayer 
Muhammad claims in the Traditions to hve 
established Friday RS a day of worship by 
divine command. He says, "Friday was or 
dered && a di vine day of worship both for the 
Jew a od Christian, but they have actad con 
trary to thtt command The Jew .fixed 
Saturday and the Christian fixed Sunday." 

According to the name traditions, Friday is 
" the best day on which the sun rises, 
the day on which Adam was taken into 
Paradise and turned out of it, the day on 
which he repented and on which he died. It 
wiH also be the Day of Resurrection." 

There is also a certain hour on Friday 
(known only to God) on which a Muslim 
obtains all the good ho asks of the Almighty. 
Muhammad prayed that God may put a seal 
on the heart of every Muslim who through 



negligence onuia prajerfbr tnrec successive 
Fridays. Muhammad sai-i . 

" Ulioev^r bathes on Kri lai &ua comes io 
truycrs in the begnuung und comes on fuof 
and set* near the Jmaia and listens to the 
khuibah, and says nothing playful, but sita 
iilcnt, evnry j>iep he touk will gel the rewards 
of u "whole year a voxs-hippia^ and regards of 
one year s fast and one vtrar * prayings at 

There aro ihr^e description* 01 people 
present on Friday, on? oi ;hem *ho comes 
W-he masjid talking iritlin^K, and thia la 
vhui !: tfotb instead of rewards; ani there is 
a man who is pros^m lor m&ku<^ f>uuulica 
lions, and ho asks God. and i! lie >vilU lie 
$ivt% him, if no;, refuses; the third a man 
^io :uu,u<i3 to hear the kl^utbah and is 
silciiL aud do^s not incommode aurone, and 
thia Friday covers hi* sins till the next, and 
three dav. a longer ; for God say.*. Whoever doth 
on* 1 good act will receive U:n in return. 
(Misfikdi. book iv. c. xliii-y [KHUTBAU ] 

FRIENDSHIP with Jews and 
Christians is condemned in the v^ur an, Surah 
v. 56 " ye who believe lake not the Jews 
an-J Christians for your friend* ^or patrons) 
they are the friends oi each other; but 
whoso amongst you takes thutn ior Irienia 
vorilj he ia o them, and, voriiy. Ootl ^ruid...- 
not an unjust people" 


4 G^ribosl in. the Qur an as evidences of Oodo 
love ua.l care for his creatures. 

Surah vi 14*2: 

44 lie it is vvho produccth tf&ruons of iae 
viiio tvollised oud uatrelhsod, and the paim 
troes, aud thi- corri of various food, and olhed, 
and pomegranates, like and unlikf.- t Eat. jf 
thair fruit when they bear iruit. and pay liie 
due thcreoi on the day o/ its ingatheriu^ 
and bo noi prodigrJ, for God lovtih not the 

Surah xili. 3: ~ 

" And Rf- it is who hath outstrf tched the 
earth, and placed on it the iirm mountains., 
and rivers : and of wvery fruit Tie hath placed 
on it tvo kmds Jle causeth the night to 
enshroud tho day Verily in this are signs 
for those who xaueev. 

** And on ilio earth hard by each othi are 
its various portions: gardens of . grapes and 
com, and palm tieea single or clustered. 
Though watured by tho same water, yet 
so axe make v.. more excelleni as food than 
other. Verily in all ibis are signs for those 
who understand / 

FUGITIVES. (1) A fugitive slave, 
eitfcor male or female, is caUed obiq (v5* 0- ! 
The capture of a fugitive slave is a laudable j 

I * 


, and thr captor is entitled to a renard of 
brty iiirharas. <2 X A fugitive en account of 
religion is called mukdjir ( ft- 1 -**). Hpftciai 
blessings are prc tnif-ed t j.hos" who flee their 
country on account of thrir orm^ Muslims. 

Surah Jv. 101 : * Who:;ot vor iir<!R in ihe 
wav ui (iovi aii.iil i:nd in ihe earth a 3pa^iotiu 

Surah xxii.&7: "Those who flee in God * 
way and then are Uain or die, God will pro- 
vMt Uicjjni viih a godly providicTi.* [SDAVEa 

FULS (cr^J. An idol (or an idol 

drvid^o bon\5cn the profession of idolairy 
and Christianity. Di-svroyed b^ Aii b> order 
of Muiiammau, A.H. 630. iMuir* voi iv. p. 

FUNEKAL. Arabic janazak (^^J 

FUR AT (^ *). Tlie rirer 

Euphrates, said to be one of the rivers of 
Edeii. [EOEN : j 

AL-FURQAN (fi)\i/J\) (1) Th>. title 
of the xxvth Surah of the Qur an. (2) One 
of the titles of the Qur an (Surah ii. 181 j i 
iu. 2 5 xxv. 1). (3) The titl^ given to the 
Taurat revealed to Moses (Surah ii 50 ; x*i | 
49> ^4j The ric;ory on the day of the battle j 
of iiadr (Surah viil. 42; (5) A term used by 
Sufi myaiics for a dwtiu^uishing- between 
truth and error- 

M-jhammadan kxieograp&era aro \uiani- 
mous in iutvrpretating the vrord furqan to 
aiean xhut v/hich dUtinguiahes between good j 
and evil, lawful and unlawful . The Jev?8 use 
ihf word ptrck, or pirka, from the same roolj 
to den jle a section or portion of acriplure. 

FUSSILAT (c^Ui). Lit. Were 

nxnde plahi. A titi of th; xi.iat Surah 
tlie Qur an from the word occurring in the 
second verse. The Surah is abo known as 
the Hdmltn as-Sajdali to distlnguah it irom the 
Surah juuaind, -\yhuhis aUo called as-Sajdak.-, 
or * Adoration. 1 

FUTURE LIFE The immortality 
of the soul and the i*eality of a future hfo are 
very distinctive doctrines tif tlie religion of 
Muhamm&d, and very nuiceroua are tho 
references to it in the Qur an The whole 
sysieci of I&lain is based upon the belief in 
the future ezisteu^e of the soul of man. A 
description of the special character of this 
future life vfill be found in the article on 


The terms generally used to express a 
future life arc Darn 7 Ak&iral, Dam l-Baq$ 
Daru l-Uqba, 




tiABR -.V 5 ) 

U A b K I E L . Arabic Jibrail 
(^V*)- Iii the Qur an Jibril t.J*r* ) 
Ilf Angelic bei& who is supposed to have 
be-r. tlio medium of the rrvfiiarbn of the 
Qur in to .Muhammad He is ineuuoncd 
)iUy twice hi th< Qur on b% name auravu i- 
Baqarali ii. 91 "-Whoso u lur; eiiejny of 
J^-bricl for he hath by God s leavt> caused 
to deoond on thy heart the confirmation of 
previous revelations, &c. And again in 
.Sura u VTahrim Ixvi.-j: Go.! is hia Pro- 
ttv:tor, and Gabriel." He is, however, sup 
posed to be spoken ol m Surahs ii. HI, 254; 
v 109 ; xvt 1<M, a.s - the Hol\ Spiril, Rinu 
l-Qudu* ; in Surah xxvi 193, "as the Faith- 
rul Spirit," ur-RuitU l-Ain*s* . and in I m. 5, as 
"one terrible in power. ShaJidu V <jmr-a. 

Tlie accounv of Gabrioi s first appearance 
to Muhammad is related as follow* by Abu 
1-Fida ** Muhamnittd was wont to retire to 
Mcrunt Hird for a- month every year, ^hen 
the yoar of bi; mission came, he went to 
Mount Hira in the mouth of Ratnazan for tb* 
jmi Dofle of sojotutuiig there, having his 
family with him and thore he abode ixntil 
the night arrived ui which God was pleased 
to bkso him Gabriel came to him, and said 
to .him. Reeuo! And he replied, What 
shall I incite ? And he said, Reciv- thou. 
in the name of thy .Lord who rrtwued. Created 
man from elotaof blood. Recite thou ! Fpr 
the Lord ia most Beneucenl. Who hath 
taught vhe u3^ of the pen. Hath taught 
man that *hich ho knoweth not. - After 
thU the Prophet vent to the middle of 
the mountain, and ht^rd a voice front heavou 
which daid, Thuu art tlie Mesaeu^er of God 
and 1 din Gabriel. He continued standing in 
his place to contemplate Gabriel until bo 
withdrew n [QUBA^ . j 

Sir William Muir says ; H is clear that at 
a later p\riod at least, if not from the first, 
Mahomet confounded Gabriel with the Holy 
Ghost The idea may have amen from some 
aucL misapprultpjiaion as the following. Mary 
conceived Jesas by l.he power of the Holy 
Ghost, which overshadowed her. But it wta 
Oabrwl who visited Mary to announce the 
ooocoptioii of the Saviour. The llolj Ghost 
A&S therefore another name for Gabriel. "We 
need hardl\ -wonder at this ignorance when 
Mahomet swm to have belioved that 
Christians held Mary lo be the Uiird person 

With reference to the verse quoted above, 
from the Suiatu l-Baqar.)h, Sale says the 
Commentators say that the Jews asked what 
angel it wan that brought the Our an to Mu- 
hanin>ad, and on being toid that it was 
Gabriel, they replied that he was their 
enemy and the messenger of wrath and hxhr- 
mem; but that if it b*i bean Michael they 

would have believed on him, because tfaitt 
angel was their fricud, and the messenger of 
peace and plenty 

It is also important to observe that the 
only distinct (LMortion of Gabriel being the 
medium of divine revelation, occurs in a 
Mad. um all Sur-ih 

Gabriel io called iuMusUm books ar-y u/iM V- 
/! *<///<, v The Supreme Spirit " ; <v-Raliu V- Mu~ 
karrum. * T he Honoured Spirit ", Ruhu l~riq<i 
The Spirit of casting into"; Ruhu Y-Q/</<W 
-The Holy Spirit"; and ar -JRubu I- Ami*. 
* The Faith lu I Spirit. 

GAMBLING (Arabic wiawtr, 
j L* forbidden in tlu 

Surah ii. 216 : " They wiii ask thae con 
cerning wine, and games of chance. Say both 
is a great sin,, and advantage also, to men, 
but their sin is greater tiiau their adv*.u 

Surah v. 93 : " UniT would Satan sow 
hatred und strife amontf you. by witic- aud 
games of chance, and turn you asiio from 
the remembrance of God, and from prayer . 
Wiliyo not, therefore, abstain from taeti- . 

The evidence of a gambler 13 not admis 
sible in >t MnhutTUTKidan court of taw. bccauio 
^ajuiii^ Is o t^reai crime. (//ictav uv< * 
p. 6H8" 

O A liDE~L>l . Arabic jannak \ &* ) ; 
Heb. , pi Q">2^ ^- u T ^ e Q ar aa tJCie 

of our first parenis is cill<x1 
Al-jannak. the uard^W and nol ./r.w/// 
Adn, or the Garden of Kdeu. Janwtn 
Atln being the fourth stage of celestial bliss. 
A/-/anndi. " the yardens." is a term frequantly 
uaod in the Qur ar for the state of heavenU 
jov , and the utagca of paraduse, which ar? 
eight, are known as (lj The Burden oi 
eternity. (2) The dw-ftLLn^ of pu?co. (3) The 
dwelling which abideth, (i y The yai<len ol 
Edon- (5^ Thp garden of refuge. (&) Thr 
garden of delight, (7) The garden of liiiyii- 
(8) 1 ho Qurdfh of Paradise- TPARADIME.! 

GENII. Arabic jinn (c^ 
jdnn (0^). Muhammad was a 
believer in the existence of good and evil 
genii and haa left a record of bis belief in the 
LX&imd Chapter cf his vjnran, entitled the 
^urutu "Jinn. It opena Lhus : 

hAY J t hath been reveaiea to rae that i. 
company of JIM N listened and said, Verily. 
we have heard a marvoUoue diRcours 
(Qur an) ; 

"It guideih to the trutii; wherefore we 
believed in it. and we wili not henceforth join 
uny being witb our Lord ; 

"And He, may the majesty of our Lord 
be exalted I iiath taker, no spoaae neither 
hdth he any offspring 



" But the foolish among us hath spoken of 
God thEt which is unjust : 

" And vee verily , thought that no one 
amongst men or jinn would have uttered a 
ie against God. 

There are indeed people among tr^n who 
have sought for refuge unto people among 
jiun : but they only ir, created their folly : 

"And they thought as ye think, that God 
would not raise any from the dead. 

" And tho Heavens did we essay, but 
found them filled with a mighty garrison, and 
with flaming darts; 

" And we sat on some of the seats to listen, 
hut whoever listeneth findeth an ambush 
ready for him of flaming darts." 

The following exhaustive account of the 
M">iamtnadan belief on the subject is taken 
from the writings of the late Mr. Lane (the 
learned author of the Modern Egyptian* and 
of Notes on the Arabian JVipitp), but slightly 
aJtered to meet the requirements of the pre 
sent work. 

According to a tradition from the Prophet, 
this apecies consists of five orders, namely, 
Jann (who are the least powerful of all), Jinn ? 
Shaitans (or devils), Ifrite, and Marids. Tho 
laat, it is added, are the most powerful ; and 
the Jann are transformed Jinn, like as certain 
apes and swine were transformed men. It 
must, however, be remarked that the terms 
Jinn and Jann are generally used indiscrimi 
nately as names of the whole speoies, wbotbur 
good or bad, and that the former term is the 
more common. Also, that Shai^an is com 
monly used to signify any evil genius. An 
Ifrii is a powerful evil genius ; a Marid* an 
tfvil genius of the most powerful class, Th? 
Jinn (but, generally speaking, evil ones) arc 
called by the Persians Deves, the moat 
powerful ovil Jinn, Naraha (which signifies 
"males/ though they are said to be males 
and females); the good Jinn, Ptrw?, though 
this term is commonly applied to females. 
In * tradition from the Prophet, it \ said, 
u The Jann were created of a smokeless fire. * 
Tho word which aignifiefl * a smokeless fire 
has been misunderstood by some as meaning 
"the flame of fire."" Al-Jaukarl (in the SikaK) 
renders it rightly ; and says that of this fire 
was the Shaitan or Iblis created. Al Jann 
\K sometimes used as & name ior Iblis, as in 
the following verse cf the Qur an ( Surah xv. 
27) : " And the Jann [the father of the Jinn, 
i,6. Tblis] we had created before [i.e, before 
the creation of Adam] of the fire of the 
SamDm [i.e. <:! th-i fire without ssnoke]." 
Jann also signifies " a serpent," as in other 
piu-aagas of the Qur an, and is used in the 
same book as synonymous with Jinn. In the 
last senee it is generally believed to be used 
in the tradition quoted in the eomoienceiaem 
of this paragraph. There are several appa 
rently contradictory traditions from the Pro- 
paet, v?hieh are reconciled by what has been 
above stated ; in one it is said that Iblis was 
be father of all the Jann and Shai$axz. ; Jana 
being here synonymous with Jinn ; in another, 
that Jann was the father of all the Jinn, here 
Jann being used u* * name for /6#*. 


<lt is held," says al-Qaawjm. "that the 
Jinn are aerial animals, with transparent 
bodies, which can assume various forms. 
People differ in opinion respecting these 
beings ; some consider the Jinn and Shaijtana 
a unruly men, hut these pereons are of the 
Mu tazllahs fa sect of Muslim treethitikenjjj 
and some hold that God, who&e name be 
exalted, created the angels of the light of 
fire, and the Jinn of its flame [but this if* at 
variance with the general opinion], and the 
Shaitana of its ftroke [which is also at, 
variance with t-tte common opinion] ; a-nd that 
[all] t-iaese kinds of beings are [usually j in 
visible to men, but that they assmne what 
forms they please, and when thtor form be 
conioe, condensed they are visible. This last 
remark illustrates several* descriptions of 
gonii in the Arabian Nights, where the form 
oi the monster is at first undefined, or 
tike an enormous pillar, and then gradually 
assumes a human shape and less gigantic 

It is said that God created the Jann (01 
Jinn] two- thousano years before Adam [or. 
according to some writers, much earlier"!, and 
that there are believers and infidels and every 
sect among them, as among utejj. Some say 
tha.t a prophet named Yusuf was eiit lo tho 
Jinn; others, that they had only preachers or 
admonisherH ; others, again, t/hat seventy 
apostles were sent, before Muhammad, to 
Jinn and men conjointly. Jt is commonly 
believed that the preadamite Jinn were co- 
versed by forty (or, according to soice, 
seventy-two) kings, to each of whom the 
Arab writer* give the name of Sulaiman (or 
Solomon); and that they derive their appel 
lation from the last cf these, who was called 
Jarm ibn Jann, and who, some say, built the 
Pyramids of Egypt. 

The following account ol tee preadanme 
Jinn is given by al-Qazwini: 

"It ia related in histories that a raos of 
Jinn in ancient times, before the creation of 
Adam, inhabited the earth, and covered it, 
the land and the sea. and the plains* and tha 
mountains ; and the favours of God were mul 
tiplied upon them, and they hed government, 
and prophecy, and religion and law ; but they 
transgressed and offended, and opposed, their 
prophets, and made wickedness to abound in 
the earth i wnereupou God, whose name be 
exalted, sent against thorn an army of angels, 
who took possession of thw earth, and di ove 
away the Jinn to the regions of the islands, 
and made many of them prisoners; am > 
those who were made prisoners was Azazii 
(afterwards called Iblis, from his despair), 
and a nlaughter was madr among them. At 
that time, Azazii was yuung ; he grew up 
among the angels [and probably for that 
reason was called one of them]* and became 
learned in their knowledge, and assumed tho 
government of them ; ad his da^s -were pro 
longed until he became their chief ; and thus 
it continued foi a long time, until the affair 
between him and Adam happened, as God, 
whose name be exalted, hath said, When we 
said unto the Angels. Worship, ve Adam, and 


falTI worshipped except Iblls, [who] was 
[one] of the Jinn. (Surah 1. 40)." 

Iblis. we are told by another authority, 
was sent as a governor upon the earth, and 
judged among the Jinn a thousand years, 
after which he ascended into heaven, and re 
mained employed in worship until the crea 
tion of Adam. The name of Iblis \vaa origi 
nally, according to some, Azazil (as before 
mentioned), and according to others, al-Haris ; 
his patronymic is Abu Munnah or Abu I- 
fihirnr. It is disputed whether he was. of 
the angels or of the Jinn. There aro three 
opinions on this point : (1) That ha was of the 
angeia, from a tradition from Ibn Abbas ; 
(2) That be was of the Shamans (or evil 
Jinn), as it is said in tb Qur Sn, "Except 
Ibl ia [who] was [one] of the Jinn " ; this was 
the opinion of al-Hasanu l~.Ba$rf, and is that 
.commonly held : (3) That he -was neither of 
the angels nor of the Jinn, but created alone 
of fire. Ibn Abbas founds his opinion on 
tne same text from which al-Hasanu 1-Basri 
derives his : " When we said unto the angels, 
worship ye Adam, and [all] worshipped ex 
cept Iblis, [who] was [one] of the Jinn 
(before quoted) ; which he explains by say 
ing" that the most noble and honourable 
among the angels are called " the Jinn," be- 
causo they are veiled from the eys of the 
other angels on account oi tbeir superiority ; 
and that Iblis was one of these Jinn. He 
adds, that he had the government of the 
lowest heaven and of the earth, and was 
called the Ta us (lit. "Peacock") of tho 
angels ; and that there was not a spot in the 
lowest heaven but he had prostrated himself 
upon it ; but when the Jinn rebelled upon the 
earth, Gk>d sent a troop of angels, who drove 
them to the islands and mountains ; and Ibils 
being elated with pride, ad refusing to pro 
strate himself before Adam, God transformed 
him into a Shaitan. But this reasoning is 
opposed by other verses, iut which Iblla is 
represented as saying, " Thou hast created 
me of fire, and has created him [Adam] of 
earth." It is therefore argued, " If ho were 
created originally of fire, how was he area ted 
of light ? for the angels were [all] created of 
light." The former verse may bo explained 
by the tradition that Iblis, having been taken 
captive, was exalted among the angels; or, 
perhaps, there is an ellipsis after tho word 
" Angls " : for it might be inferred that the 
command given to the Angels was also (and 
a fortiori^ to be oibeyed by the Jinn. 

According to a tradition, Ibiis and all the 
Shaiaus are distinguished from the other 
Jinn by a longer existence. " The Shaitans." 
it is added, " are the children of Iblis, and 
die not but with him; whereas the [other") 
Jinn die before him. though they may live 
many centuries. But this is not altogether 
accordant with the popular belief : Iblis and 
many other evil Jinn are to survive mankind, 
bat they are to die bofore the general resur 
rection, as also even the angels, tho last of 
whom will be the Angel of Death, Izrfi il. 
Yet not all the evil Jinn are to live thus long. 
Many of them are killed by shooting stars, 



hurled at them frem heaven ; wherefore, the 
Arabs, whim they see a shooting star (shiha.b), 
often exclaim, May God transfix, the enemy 
of the faith ! Many also are killed by other 
Jinn, and somo even by men. The fire of 
which the Jinn is created circulates iu hia 
veins, in place of blood ; therefore, when he 
receives a mortal wound, this fire, .issuing 
from hifl veins, generally consumes him to 

The Jinn, it has been already shown, iu-v 
peaceable. They also eat and drink, and 
propagate their species, sometimes in conjunc 
tion with human beings ; in which latter caso. 
the offspring partakes of the nature of both 
parents. In all those respects they differ 
from the angel a. Among the evil Jinn nre 
distinguished the five sone of their chief, 
lblu ; namely, r f ir, who brings about calami 
ties, losses, and injuries ; al-ASvar, who *i\- 
couravres debauchery: Sut, who suggests lies : 
DM ai. who causes hatred between man and 
wife ; and Zalotnbfir, who presides over places 
of traffic. 

The most common forms and habitations 
or places of resort of ibe Jinn must now be 
described. The following traditions from the 
Prophet, are to the purpose : 

The Jinn are of various shapea, having the 
forms of serpents, scorpions, liout*, wolves, 
jackals, &c. The Jinn are of three kinds 
one on the land, one on the sea, and one in 
the air. The Jinn consist of forty troops, 
each troop consisting of six hundred thou 
sand. The Jinn are of three kinds one have 
wings and fly ; another are snakes and dots 
and the third move about from place to place 
like men. Domestic snakes arc* asserted to 
be Jinn on the same authority. 

The Prophet ordered his followers to kill 
serpents and scorpions if they intruded at 
preyers ; but on other occasions, he seeuis to 
have required b rst to admonish them to 
depart, and then s if thoy remained, to kill 
them. The Doctors, however, ditfer in opinion 
whether all kinds oj snakes or serpents 
should be admouisbod first; or whether any 
should : for the Prophet, say they, took a 
covenant of tho Jinn [probably after the 
above-mentioned command], that they should 
not enter the houses of the faithful; there 
fore, it is argued, if they enter, they break 
their covenant, and it D6Oomd8 lawful to kill 
them without previous admonishment. Yet 
it is related that Ayishah, ono of tho Pro 
phet s wives, having killed a nerpent in her 
chamber, wag alarmed by a dream, and fear 
ing that it might have been a Muslim Jinm, as 
it did not enter her chamber, when she was 
undressed, gave in alms, as an expiation, 
twelve thousand dirhama (about 300), the 
price of the blood of a Muslim. 

The Jinn are said to appear to mankind 
most commonly in the shapes of serpents, 
dogs, cats, or human beings. Iu the last 
case they are sometimes of the stature of 
men, and sometimes of a size enormously 
gigantic. If good, they are generally resplen- 
dently handsome ; it evil, horribly hideous. 
They become invisible at pleasure (by a rapid 



extension or rarefaction of the particles 
which compose them), or suddenly uiiuppear 
ia th< oarth or air. or through n so JJd wall. 
Vianv Muslims in the present day protest 
to liavft secu and held intercourse with 

The Zaubrrah which is a, whirlwind that 
f the sand or dust in the form oi a 
piJLu- of prodigious height, often seen sweep 
ing across the doserts. and jitlds, is believed 
to be caused by tho flight oi an ovil genii 
To defend themselves from a Jiim thu 
"riding in the whirlwind, the Arabs often 
eselaim, - Iron,! iron! (Iladld! ffctdid!} 
or, "Ironl thou unlucky! (Hadid! yd 
Afoskumf). as th^ Jinn are suppOKed to have 
a great dread of that metal ; or they exclaim. 
Uod is most great 1 " (Alldhu akbar /) A 
similar superstition prevails with respect to 
the waterspout at sea. 

It is believed that the .chief abode of the 
Jinn is in the mountains oi Qaf, which are 
supposed to encompass the -whole of our 
I j.rth. But they are also believed to pervade 
ho solid hx>dy of our earth, and the firma 
ment and to choose, as their principal places 
of resort, 01 of occasional abode, oaths, 
VfHils. the latrina. ovens, ruined houses, 
inarket-plao -.. the juncture? of roads, the sea, 
nnd rivers. 

The Arabs, therefore, when they pour 
water, ifcc., on the ground, or enter bath, or 
let down a bucket into a well, or visit the 
latrina, and on various other occasions*, say, 
u Permission ! " or " Permission, ve blessed ! " 
(l^n \ or tzn yd MulMfraJcitn The evil 

spirits Cor evil genii\ it is said, had liberty to 
enter any of the seven heavens tiii the birth 
of Jesu.*, when they were excluded from throe 
of them. On the birth of Muhammad, they 
were forbidden the other four They con 
tinue, however* to ascend to the confines of 
the lowest heaven, and there listening to tho 
conversation of the angels respecting things 
decreed by God. obtain. .knowledge of futurity, 
which they sometimes impart to men, who 
by means of talismans or certain invocations 
make them to serve the purposes oi magical 

What the Prophet said of Iblis in the fol 
lowing tradition, applies also to the evil Jinn 
over whom ho presides : His chief abode 
[among men] ia the bath; his chief places of . 
rosort are tho markets and junctures oi roads ; 
his food is whatever i killed without the 
name of God being pronounced over it ; his 
Irink. whatever is intoxicating ; his MURK/HI, 
the nmmar (a musical pipe), i.e. any musical 
instrument) : his Qnr an. poetry ; his written 
character, the marks made iu geomancy j 
his speech. fttia**hood ; his .snares are 

That particular genii presided over par 
ticular places, was the opinion of the early 
Arabs. It is said iu the Qur an (Siiran 
Ixxii. 6), " And there were ceitain men who 
sought .refuge with certain of the Jinn. " In 
the commentary of tha Jalalun, I rind the 
following remark on these words : " When 
they halted on th*ir journey, in a place of 


fear, each man said, I seek refuge with the 
ierd of this place, from the miachisl of bis 
foolish onei ! " In illustration of ibis, 1 may 
insert the following tradition, translated from 
ai-Qazwini "It is related by a certain 
narrator of traditions, that he d*-; cendud 4nto 
a valley with his shep, and a wolf carried 
off a ewe from among \hem; and, 
and raised his voice, and cried. P inhabitant 
of the valley I whereupon he heard ; voice 
saying, wolf, restore to Mm his sheep i 
and the wolf came with the ewe, and left her, 
and departed." The same opinion is held by 
the modem Arabs, though probably they do 
not use such on invocation. 

A similar superstition, a relic of ancient 
Egyptian credulity, still prevails among the 
people of Cairo It is believed that each 
quarter of this rity ha* its pecnliar guardian 
genius, or AgathuUscniun. which has the form 
of a serpent 

It has already, beun mentioned th&t sumo oi 
the Jinn are Muslirna, and others infidels The 
good acquit themselves of tho imperative 
duties of religion, namely, prayers, alms 
giving, lasting during the month of Rama- 
/.oil, and pilgrimage to Makkah ami Mount 
Arafat, but in the performance of ihcae 
duties they are generally invisible to human 

No man. it is said ever obtained &ur& ab 
solute power over Ihe Jinn as Sulaiman ibn 
Da ud (Solomon, the son of David). This lie 
did by virtue of a most- wonderful talisman. 
which is said to have come down to him from 
heaven It was a sealing ring, upou which 
was engraved u the most x rea l name " uf God 
[AL rsMu i A-ZAM ], and was partly composed 
of brass and partly of iron. With tho br&sabe 
stamped hjs written commands to tho good 
Jinn , with the iron (for a reason before men 
tioned) those to the evil Jinn or devils 
Over both orders he had unlimited power, as 
well its over the birds and the winds, and, as 
is generally said, he wild beasts. His wazir, 
Asaf tho sou of Barkhiyah, is also i-Mid to 
have been acquainted with the most great 
name." by uttering which the greatest mira- 
clca may be performed, even that oi raising 
the dead. By virtue oi tbi* name, enpraved 
on his ring. Sulaiman compelled tho Jjnn to 
assist in building the temple oi Jerusalem, 
and in various other works. Maity of the 
evil genii be converted to the true faith, and 
many others of this class, who remained 
obstinate in infidelity, ho.couiiut-d in 
He is said to have been monarch of 
whole earth. Hence, perhaps, the name of 
Sulaiman is given to the universal monarchr 
ol the preadamite Jinn; unless the story oi 
his own universal dominion originated from 
confounding him with those j-uigs of the 

The injuries relalod to have been inhictet 
upon human beiiu/s by evil genii ;<ro ot vArionn 
kinds. Genii aie auid to havo oftf-n carried 
otf be?mtiful women, whom they tt,ivo forcibly 
kept as then wives o> voncubincs. Maiicioua or 
disturbed genii are assort* off on to station 
themselvea on Ihe oofi. o*- at the v?iiidowp 


of houses, and lo throw down bricks and 
stones on persons passing by. When, they 
take possession ul an. uninhabited house, 
they 3eldom fail to persecute terribly any 
person who ^0^3 to reside in it. They ar< 
also very apt to pilfer provisions. <frc. Many 
learned and devout persons, to secure their 
property from such depredations, repent the 
words. " Jn the name of God, the Compas 
sionate, the Merciful ! " on locking tho doora 
of thoir houses, rooms, or closets, and on, 
covering the bread -banket, or anything con 
taining food. During the month of Ramazun. 
the evil genii are believed to bo confined in 
prison; anJ. th/roforo, on tho. last night of 
that month, with the samo view, women 
Hornet hues repeat the words above mentioned, 
and sprinkle alt upon tho floors of the apart 
ments of thoir houses. 

To complete this sketch of Arabian myth 
ology* an account must b^ added of several 
creatures generally b?lk> v od to be of inferior 
orders of th5 Jinn. One of is tli< 
(iliuK which is commonly regarded as a kind 
of Shaitan, or evil genii, that eats anen. ft ml 
.-: also described by some, as a Jinn, or an 
enchanter, v. U-> assumes various forma. The 
Gituls :u< *aid to appear in the forms of 
various animals, and of human beings, and in 
many monstrous shapes : to haunt burial 
grounds and otner secjueaturcd spots ; to iocl 
upon dead Human bodies; and to kill ami 
devour anv human creature who has the 
misfortune to fall in their way; ..ueuce tho 
term * Ghul " is applied to any cannibal. 

An opinion quoted by a oetobrated author 
respecting the CJaul is, that it in a demoniacal 
animal, which passes a solitary existence in 
I he deserts, resembling both man and brute; 
that it appears lo a person travelling alone 
in the night and in solitary places, and, bein^ 
supposed by him to be itself a- traveller, 
lures him out oi bis way. Another opinion 
stated by him is this: that, -when the Shai- 
tans attempt to hear words by stealth [from 
the confines of tho lowest heaven] . they are 
struck by shooting tars. and somo are burnt : 
.some falling into a sea, or rather a large 
nver (bukr ). become converted into croco 
diles : and some, falling upon the land, be 
come GJiuls. The same author adds tho -fol 
lowing tradition : " The (ihul is any Jinn 
that is opposed to travol*, Hamming various 
forms and uppearam 1 * * ; ,-ud affirms that 
iovcral ot in- Companions, of thu Prophet 
saw Ghula in their travels; and thai Uniar 
among thorn .->Hw . (J uitl while on a journey 
to Syria, before lalaui, and struck it with hi-, 

It appears that " Ghul is. properly speak 
ing, a name wlv given io a female demon of 
the kind ftbovfl d*.iciibi.<i ; the male is called 
rQutrub." it j s sttij that these beinyn. and 
tho Qtiaddar, or (fharror, and other .similar 
creatures, which will presently l>e mentioned, 
fire the offspring of Iblia and of a. wife whom 
God created for him of the fire of the Sniuum 
(which here signifies, as in an instance 
bt f ore mentioned, a. smokeless tiro"); and 
that they sprang from an exg. The feinal e 



(rhui, it is addjct, appears io men iu the 
deserts, m various lorrn. i, couvcrbos with 
ihciu. and souintluie^ prostitutes hrsolf to 

Tlie Si : lat. or Si-la , is another demoniacal 
oreaturo. described by aomo [or rather, by 
most authors] as oi tho Jinn. It is said that 
it is mostly found in forests ; and that when 
it captures a man, it makes him lance, and 
plays with him as the cat plays with th j 
mouse. A man of Isfahan assorted that 
many bwngs of this kind abounded in his 
touutry ; that sometime tho wolf v*ouUi 
hunt ono of them by night, aii l uevour it, and 
that, when it had seized it, the .Si bV would 
;ry out, " Come to my help, for the wolf do- 
vourt-th inel" or it would cry. "Who will 
liberate me? I have a hundred dinars, ami 
ho shall receive them ! " Bui th<* poopU> 
kuowiuK Uiat it was the cry of the Si ! , n^ 
one woul J liberate it; and so the woi 
vvuitid eat it. 

An island in ihe sea of C iiiii4t(alu 
" tho island of the Si hV," by 
from its being said to be inhabited by the 
demons so named ; thoy are described as 
creature* of hideous forms, supposed to be 
Hhaitons, tho offspring of kuman beincjii arid 
Jinn, who eat men. 

The Ghaddar i another overture of t siiui- 
lar natuio, described as being found in th- 
borders ot al-Yauian, and sometimoa in Tiha- 
mah, and in the upper parts of Kgypt. It ia 
said that it entices a man lo it, and either 
tortures him in a manner not to be described, 
vr merely terrifies him, and leaves him. 

Tho Dalhan i.s also a demoniacal being, in 
habiting the islands of the seas, having tho 
form oi a man. uu.l riding on au ostrich. It 
eats the flesh of men whom th sea casts on 
tho shore from wrecks, Some say that ^. 
l)alhan once attacked a ship on the :;.-:i . ..; > 
desired to take the crew j but they conteiuio-H 
with it ; whereupon it uttered n cry whiol. 
caxiaod them to fall ou their faces, and it 
took them. 

The Shiqq is another demoniacal creature, 
imving tiic form ot half a human being (like 
a man divided longitudinally , : auJ it i bo- 
lie ved that the Xasnus is tho oiTjprinx oi a 
Shiqq and of a human being. The 
appears to travellers ; sxncl it was a 
this kind who killed, and was kilted by A 1- 
tjamah, the son of bafwan. the son of UiRti- 
vah, of whoin it is well known that he waa 
killed by a Jinn. So ays al-QazwIni 

The Nasnas (ai>ovo mentioned) as described 
as resembling half a human being ; having 
half a head, half a body, one arm, and out 
lo^, with which it hops with much .isrihty ; as 
bo in,* found ai (lie woods of :u- Vaman. aud 
being endowed with speech ; " but God, 1 il ii 
added. - i.-i all knowing." it is said that it ij 
found in H&zramaui as wcllasal-Yamun : arm 
that one was brought aliveto al- MuuvwakkiL It 
resembled a man in form, excepting that il h;:-; 
but half a face, which was in its breast, and 
a tail like that of a sheep. The people cf 
liazramaut, it is added, eat it ; and its flush 
ia sweet. It is only generated iu. their countn- 




A maw vhc v.-ent thre asserted that he saw 
a captured Nasnaw, which cried out formerly, 
conjuring him by God and by hims^f. 

A raoe of people whose head ia in tne 
breast, is described as inhabiting an island 
called Jabah ^supposed to* bo Java), in the 
sea of Hind, or India. A kind of Nasnas is 
also described as inhabiting the island of Kaij, 
in the sea of China, .and bavin? wings like 
those of the bat, 

The Hatif is a being thai is heard, but not 
.seen , arid is often mentioned by Arab writers,. 
It is generally the communicator, of some 
intelligence* in tho "way of advice, or direction, 
or warning. (See .Lane s Modern Egyptians ; 
Lake s Note* on the Arabian 

GENTILES. Arabic Umnu 
from mm, "a mother"); pi. ummtyun, lit. 
"Ignorant as new-bovn babes." Hebrew 
D^il- According to fcl-Bai/.ftwi, all the 
peotyle of the earth viio do not !K>,s3esf a 
divine Book. In the Qur an, the term is spe 
cially applied to -the idolaters of Arabia. 

Surah ixii. 2: "He (God) it is who sent 
unto the Gentiles a Prophet, amongst them to 
recite to them His signs, and to purify them, 
and to teach them the Book, the wisdom, 
although they wre before in obvions error." 



desert." A name given to the open plain 
near .1-Madinah-. 

(JitABN (<$**). 
in sales. 

Fraud or deceit 

A species of 
demon said to be found on the borders of 
al-Yaman. [GJENIL] 

(iHABIR (>tJ*). A festival .of 

the ShI abs on the 18th of the month of Zu 1- 
Hijjah. when three images? of dough filled 
with honey are made to represent Abu Baki , 
Umar, and *Usman, which are stuck with 
knives, and the honey is sipped as typical of 
the blood of the usurping Khallfahs. The 
festival is named from Qhadlr^ " a pool, * and 
the festival commemorates, it is said, Muham 
mad having declared All his successor at 
Qhatftr JKkum, watering place midway 
between Makkah and al-Madmah. 

OHAJB (s-**). Lit. " Secret," 
The terms rhaibu l-Huwwah, " Secret es 
sence," and al- Ghaibv l-Mutfaq, " the absolute 
unknowable," are used by ufl mystics to 
express the nature of God. ( Abdu r-Raz- 
zaq s Diet, of Svfl Terms.} 

QHAIRAH (S^i). ".Jealousy." 

Muhammad is related to have said, ** There 
is a kind of jealousy (gZtatraA) which Ged 
likes, and there is a kind of jealousy which 
he abominates. The jealousy which God 
likes is when a man has suspicion that his wife 
or iblave girl comes and sits by a stranger ; 
the jealousy which God abominates is when 
without cause, a man harbours in his heart a 


bad opinion of his wife." (Misklcat, book 
xiii. e. XT. pt 2.) 

QBAIR-I-MAHDI (^j^yfe). Lit. 

Without Mahdi. M A smali sect who believe 
that the Imam Mahdl will not reappear. They 
say that one Saiyid Muhammad of Jeypore 
was the real Mahdi* the twelfth Imam, anc 
that he has now gene nevev more to return 
T hey venerate him as highly as they do thft 
rophet, and consider all other Muslims to 
he unbelievers. On the night called Lailatu 
1-Qadr, in the month of Ramazan, they meet 
and repeat two rak ah prayers. After that act 
of devotiou is over, they say: "God is Al 
mighty, Muhammad is our Prophet, the 
Qur n arul Mahdl are just and true. Imam 
MahdT is oome and gone. Whosoever disbe 
lievea this is an infidel." They are a TJ jj 
fanatical eect. (See Qanun-i-fslam^) 

GHAMAEAT (*V^), plural o) 
gtemrak, u abyss." A word used to express 
the agoniet; of death. It occurs in the Quran, 
Surah vi. 98: fi But couldst thoti see when 
the ungodly aift in the floods of (hath (gka 
mardtu l-inaut}, and the angels reach forth 
their hands, saying, Yield up your souls : 
this day shall ye be recompensed with a hu 
miliating punishment. " 

"Tbe Tnde- 

One." One of the ninety-nine special 
or attributes of God, expressing the 
superiority of the Almighty over the neoes- 
siiias and requirements ol mankind. The 
word occurs in the Qur an, Surah Ix. 6, and 
is translated by Palmer, * He is rich." 

CfHASB (s ^). " Using by force; 


Gha$b, in its literal sense, means the for 
cibly taking a thing from another. In the 
language of the law it signifies ibe t: king of 
the property oi another which is valuable 
and Kacred, without the consent ot the pro 
prietor, in such a manner as to destroy the 
proprietor s possession of it, whence it is 
that usurpation is established by exacting 
service from the slave of another, or by put 
ting a burden upon the quadruped of another, 
but aot by sitting upon tho oarpfit of 
another ; because by the use of the slave 
of another, and by loading the quadruped of 
another, the possession of the proprietor is 
destroyed, whereas by sitting upon the car 
pet of another the possession of the pro 
prietor is not destroyed It is to be observed 
that, if any person knowingly and wilfully 
usurp the property of another, he is held in 
law to be an offfcnder, and becomes respon 
sible for a compensation. Jf ? on the con 
trary, , he should not have made the usurpa 
tion knowingly and wilfully (as where a per 
son destroys property on the supposition of 
its belonging to himself, and it afterwards 
proves the right of another), he is in that 
ease also liable for a compensation, because 
a compensation is the right of men ; but he is 
not an offender, as his erroneous offence is 
cancelled. (Hidayah. vol iii. p 622.) 




Ooverinp, Overwhelming." A name gjvon to 
the LxxAvmth Surah of the Qur an. the word 
oomrriug in th" first verse for tho Day ol 
Judgment : " Has there come to thee tho 
story 01 the overwke/mtng ? " 

OJJASIL (J-Vi). A washer 01 
the dead." An official Is generally appointed 
for this purpose by the Imam of the parish. 

A tribe of 

Arabo inhabiting the western side of rhe 
Syrian Jescrt m the time of Muhammad. 
(Sec Muir r, Life of Mahdmet. vol. i. D. 

CiJiAl JL .i AJS (^ULt). An Arabian 

tribe descent! from Qais. 

OTTATTs /vA>/). Lit. "One to whom 
Wi r -m\ err tor help." A media to.-. A title 
givHii 1.0 a >^"^nTTjnadan saint. k<nu uold 
it to bu tut hii ,*:tia T , r.rder of sauotity, whilst 
others regard it as necouu in rank to that of 
fb*tb> According to the GJuya#u t-Luyhah 
it is an inferior rank of sanvtiry t^o thai 
ot .Jitt.. 

" wrath." A word used 

Qur an for the wrath of God! . Surxh iv 

96: "God *ha!l !>o angry with him. 

(o^)- One who tifftus ui 

the ojiuse of IJain. A hero : <i warrior. One 
wiio ftlayu mi model. It is also litta of 
distinct i U conferred ry Muslim ruJers upoti 
general a nuri warriors of renown. In the 
Turkish Empire the title of Qhazl implies 
ometuing similar to our "Field Marshal." 
Pbo Prophet is related to have said,- "God is 
Nponsor for him who go^ forth to fight iu 
the road of God, for His satisfaction and tor 
that of His Prophet. Ue shall, if he be 
not killed, return to hi: >iome with plunder 
and rewards. And if he die, his reward is 
paradise." (Mishkdt, bouk xvii. c. 1.) 

QHAZWAH (50-*). A miiitarv 

force when it is lead by eithei an Apcstle 
SasuT) i.i an Imam. A sinaU force com- 
i/iand rj cl by one of the Imam s hentenants i M 
-artyah, ui- brigade. (See Qhiyd$n l-Lughah,, 
n loco. } 


Hamid Muhammad ibn Mnh^uimaa ibn 
Ahmaa ai-Qhazzali, i a ^velJ -nown Sunni 
doctor suriiHjiifou tfayatu (-Islam ( u the proof 
of Islam "). lie was u native of Tiis. nd for 
sometime a proiessor in the college at Nai- 
sapiu. jjorn A.H. 450 (A.D. 1058), died A.fl. 
505 (A.n. 1111). at Tus. His -exposition 
on tho nature of God will be fonrd in tho 
article oof. His great theological work is 
the Jfyy&u Ulumi d-Din. 

OBIBAH . (At*-*). " Sia^oor ; 
calumny." Anything whispered of an absem 
person to his detriment, although it be true. 
(Bufitatt expressing a false accusation., 1 
GMbah is conuemn^n in thi Qur an 

xJix.. 12) : "O beik veis, avoid ir^u-Di sus 
picions, or some suspicuis arc .<. crime ; 
uoither let one of you traduce (gJvla t -~ Another 
in his absenee." A chapter i<* U>vovrt to 
the condemnation of backbit Jr^g .n<i valumny 
in the Traditions (mde. Miskka.t y ixv.K xxii. 
oh. x.) 

(>*-*) An Arahiau 
trfbo in the time of Muhammad wno inha^ 
bited a tract of country in the vicinity of al- 
Madinah. They were descendants of Abu 
Zarri 1-Glxifari. 


Covering." \ dimness in the eye. 4 -word 
used in tho Qur an for spiritual fauwuittett. 
Surah ii. ti : " Their hearts and thoir ears 
hath G.jJ bealed up. and over their eyes in a 

c.r> wring. " 

The water,, 
blood, and matter, supposed by Muhamma 
dans o run down the. skin and flesh of tne 
damm.a in hell. See Qur an, Surah Ixlx. 36 : 
"No frinnd ahail he havo here mac day, 
nor fco>{ 

(Jj*). A man-devouring 
of the woods. A species of Jinn 

[f, KKi!.] 

QHULAM (<&*), pi. ifcilrtwh. * 
boy uuder ago. A term used in modern 
Muslim for a slave, the legal word being 
abd. It occurs iu ,ne Quran for a son. 
Surah iii. 42 : " She (Mary) said, * How can 
I have a son when a man hM r >. r<>Mohod 

1BULAT (*). LiL "The Zea. 
Juts. 7 A title given to a leading seot of tho 
Shi ^Lt* WHO, through then bxcessive zeal for 
the Imams, have raised them auov* the 
degree of human being* 

UJJDLtJL r,!^). Detraudmg o 4 

p\\rloinu^ tti^ pan of tho lawful plunder in 
a jikt-d nr religious war. Forbidden in the 
Qur an. Surah iii. 155: " Exit he who shaU 
defrmid, shall come forth with his defraud- 
in?r on ih<* day of the resurrection : then shall 
rwory *uui be paid what it hath merited, and 
I t hev fnall not be treated with injustice.* 1 

QjbiUKAB (s^V 5 ;. Lit. " A crow." 
Gf&trdbu I Buin: "The ci ov/ ot s;parition. >> 
A term used by the JjJufl mystics for a certain 
state of separation from God. cAOUu r- 
Razzaq s Diet, of Sufi Terms.) 

QHUERAH (V*). A fine ot hve 

hundred dirhams. A slave of that value. It 

is the fine lor a person striking a Avoman 

so as to occasion t> miscameg* (Hidaitah, 
vol. iv. p. 552.) 

(JHUSL (LMO . a^ distiuguishea 
irom yhasl (washing) is tnt, religious act of 
bathing the whole body alter a legal im* 
purity. It is founded upon the express in 
junction of the Qur an, Surah v. 9 : * If ye art. 
polluted then purify yourselv 

Alnd the 



Traditions most minutely relate the occasions 
on which the Prophet performed the cere 
mony of rjlusl, or bathing. Tho Muslim 
teachers of oil. sects are unanimous in pre 
scribing the washing of the whole body aiter 
the following acts, which render the body 
jtmaby ox impure : (1) ffat/z. menses; (2) 
nifds. puerperimn: (8) jimc , coitus; (ij 
ihtilam. pollutio nocturna. It is absolutely 
necessary that every, part of the body should 
be cashed, for All relates that the Prophet 
said. <* He who leaves but one hair unwashed 
on his body, will be punished in hell accord 
ingly." (Mishkdt, book ii. c. viii.) 

<fflUSL MASNUN foyu^ 

Lit. " "Washings which are Sunnah." 

Such washings are founded upon the Sun- 
jiah, or precept and practice of Muhammad, 
although, they are ubt supposed to bo of 
divine institution. They are four in number : 
(1) Upon the admission of a convert to 
Islam : (2) Before the Friday prayers and o.n 
tlie great festivals: (3) After washing, the 
dead; (4) After blood-letting. (See Sakihj 
/-Bukhari, p. 39. Ttibu l-Ghusl.) Akrimab 
relates that people came from al- Iraq and 
asked Ibn Abbas if he believed that bathing 
011 Fridays was a divine institution, and Ibn 
Abbas replied, u No, but bathing is a great 
purifier, and I will tell you how the custom 
of bathing began. The people were engaged 
in daily labour and wore blankets, and the 
people sweated to such a degree ns to cause 
a bad smell, so the Prophet said. . O mon ! 
bathe ye on Fridays and put some scent on 
your clothes. 1 " (Matthew s Mishkat. vol i. 
p l&O. from the Hadia of Abu Da ud.^ 

GIANTS. There is but one allu 
sion to giants in the Qur an, namely, to the 
tribe "Ad. who are spoken of as men " with 
lofty statures" (Surah Ixxxix. 6J, and the 
commentator. Shah -Abdu l-A/iz of Delhi, 
says they were men of not Jess than twelve 
yards in stature According to a tradition in 
tho Kitdbu *k-Shafah by the Qa/1 Ayaz 
(p, 65), Adam was sixty yards in height. 
In the Ghtydsu l-Lughaii, a giant named Uj 
is mentioned, who was born in the ilays of 
Adarn and lived until the time of Moses, a 
period of 3,500 years, and that he was so 
high, that the flood in the days of Noah only 
reached to hjs waist. There are traditions 
and stories of giants whoso graves; p-dst unto 
the present day, throughout t-ho whole of 
Asia Opposite the Church Mission House at 
Peshawur in a gravr nino yards long, which 
is held in great reverence, by both Muharii- 
madans and Hindus. De la Belle, in his 
Travels in Persia, vol ii, . 8i). mentions 
several which exist in Persia Giant graves in 
Hindustan are numerous. 

GIDEON. In the an there is 
evidently a confusion in one passage between 
the story .of Saul as told herein, and tho 
account of Gideon given in 11 i c Old Testament, 
as the following extracts wiil ihow :-- 

"And when Saul mavchoci forth with his 
forces, he said, * God will you by a river : 


He who drinketh of it shall not be of my 
band ; but he who shall not taste it, drinking 
a drink out of the hand excepted, shall be of 
my band. And, except a few of them, they 
drank of it. And when they had passed it, 
he and those who believed with him, the 
former said, * We have no strength this day 
against Goliath (Jalut) and his forces : But 
they who held it as certain that they must 
meet Gorl, said, How oft, by God s will, hath 
a small host vanquished a numerdus. host ! 
and God is with the steadfastly enduring. " 
(Surah ii. 250.) 

Which compare with Judges vii. 5 : 
" So they brought down the people unto 
the water 3 and the Lord said unto Gideon, 
Every one that lappeth of the water with his 
tongue, as a dog lappeth, him shalt thou set 
by himsolf ; likewise every one that boweth 
down upon his knees to drink. . . . Tho Lorfl 
said. By the three hundred men that lapped will 
I save you, and deliver the Midianites into thine 
hand " 

GIFTS. Arabic hibah (A-A), pi. 
hibdt. A deed oJ gift. The term hibah in 
the language of Muslim law means a transfer 
of property made immediately and without 
exchange, He who makes the gift is called 
the wdhib, or donor; the thing given, mauhub 
and the person to whom it is given is mauhub 

Muhammad sanctioned the retraction of a 
gift when he said, "A donor preserves his 
right to his gift, so long as he does not obtain 
a return for it." Although there is another 
tradition which gays: "Let not a donor re 
tract his gifi : but let a father if he pleases 
retract his gift to his son." Ash-Shafi i 
maintains that it is not lawful to retract a 
gift, except it be from a father to a son. All 
the doctors are agreed th- ft to retract a gift 
is an abomination, f or Muhamuiad said : " The 
retraction of a gift is like oating one s spittle," 
The general opinion is that a gift to a 
stranger may be retracted, but not a gift to 
a kinsman. A retracted gift, by the mutual 
consent of the parties, should be effected by 

j a decree of the Qa?ii, or judge. (Hiddyah, 

; vol. iii. p. 21)0.) 

GIRDLE. Arabic nitiiq (d*>)- 

; Amongst the Bakhtashis and .several other 
I orders of faqirK. investiture with a girdle is 
the ign of incorporation into the order. Tho say that Adarn was the first to 
wear the* girdle worn by them, and after bin, 
fifteen other prophets wore it in succession. 
viz. Seth, Noah, Shu aib, Job, Joseph, Abra 
ham, Husha% YushaS Jirjis, Jonas, Salih. 
Zakariah, al-Khizr, Ilyas, and Jesus. (Brown s 
Dervishes, p. 145. ) 

GNOSTICS. The singular cor 
respondence between the allusions to the cru* 
cifixion in the Coran, and the wild specula 
tions of the early heretics, have led to the 
conjecture that Mahomet acquired his notions 
of Christianity from a Gnostic source. Bui 
Gnosticism had disappeared from Egypt 




before the sixth ceuwory, and there is no 
reason for supposing that it had at any time 
gained footing in Arabia. Besides, there is 
no afiinity between, thesupernaturalism of the 
Gnostics and Docetse, and the rationalism of 
the Goran. According to the former, tho 
Deity must be removed far from the gross 
contact of evil matter ; and the- /Eon Christ, 
which alighted upon Jesus at His baptism, 
must ascend to its native regions before the 
crucifixion. With Mahoinet,on the contrary, 
Jesus Christ was a more man wonderfully 
born, indeed but still an ordinary man, a 
servant of tho Almighty, as others had been 
before him. But although there is uo ground 
for believing that Gnostic doctrines were 
taught to Mahomet, yet some of the strange 
fancies of those heretics, preserved in Syrian 
tradition, may have come to the ears of his 
informants (the chief of whom, even on 
Christian topics, sown to have been Jews, 
unable probably to distinguish heretical fablr 
from Christian doctrine), and htivo been by 
them adopted as a likely and convenient 
mode of explaining away that which formed 
the groat barrier between Jews and Chris 
tians." (Muir s Life oj Ma/iot/mt. now ed. 
p. 101. j 

GOD. The name of the Creator of 
the Universe in the Qur an is Allah, which is 
the title given to the Supreme Being by Mu- 
hammadans of every race and language. 

Allah is supposed to be derived from ildh 
a deity or god, with the addition of the deli 
nito article al- -Ai-iJuk, "the God " or, ac 
cording to some authorities, it is from Idh, z>. 
A/-/ah< tho secret one/ But Abu Ham fah 
says that just a.; tho essence of <*od is un 
changeable, so i.- His name. *\u>\ that Alt ill 
has f;v.>: 11 llio j,:mi<j of tL( Ktcnuu Beu:,.;. 

(>Si:o (Jh>i/ -:.-..l<. I L-i. jlt<th.*) 

AlliiJ, nuy be a". Ar;ibio rendering of the 
Hebrew *?$ i-.L and the unused root 

u/, * to l>e strong." or from p 


gular l-.-.i ,u of Q^n /ft- It ^ expressed in 

Persian and Hindustani by the word Khiull. 
derived from the Persian Mnul, self; the 
self -existing one. 

Another word very frequently used for tho 
Almighty in the Qnr an is Hubh* which i 
generally translated in Knglish versions of tho 
Qur an, Lyrd." It t.ccms : stand in tlu 
relative position of lLo Jehovah of tho Old 
Testament and tho Kvpios of the New Testa 
ment. Tho word is understood by Muslims 
to mean * the sustaincr," but it is probably 

derived from the Hebrew 

stronghold," or from its root rab. which, ac- 
coi-ding to Gescnius- means " n multitude," or 
anything of size or importance. 

Tho title Alhih IH called the Isinu z-ZaL 
r, the essential name of God. all other titles. 
moluding Rabb. bcii^; considered Axmii u V 
titfat, or iittiibutes " of the Diviuo Bein^r. 
Those attribute are called al- 

cr tho "oxcelleut namu*." iae oxpres^on 

icc-urs in the Qur an (Surah vii. 179), "But 

God a are excellent, name*, cull on Him 

thereby. This verse is commented upon in 
tho Traditions, and Abu Hurairah s;>\ ; 
Muhammad said, "Verily, them ore ninety - 

nine names of God, and whoever reciu-s tli. .< 
shall enter into Paradise. 

In the same tradition these names (ur 

attributes) &re given as follows: 

1. Ar-Rtihman . The Merciful. 

2. Ar-Rubwi . . The Cornpasuiunati 

3. Al-Mnlik . . The King. 

4. Ai-Qyddus. . Tht. Holy. 

5. Ax-tialaii> . . The Peace. 

fi. Ai-Mu min . The Faithful. 

7. Al-Mnhaimin . Tlie Protector. 

S. Al- -Aziz . . Tho Mighty, 

i). Al-Jabbnr . . Tho Repairer. 

10. Al-MutukaMir . The Great. 

11. Al-Kkdliy . The Creator. 

12. Al-Bdri . . Tho Maker. 

13. AI-Mu$awtvir . The Fashioner. 
11. AL-(^hfiff i u- . The Forgiver. 
15. Af-Qfihnar . Tho Dominant 
JG. Al-Wakkib . The Uestowor. 
17. Ar-Rautxmq . Tho Provider. 
18 Al-Fatfa/t . The Opener. 
1U .ll- Atim . . The Knower. 

20. Al-Qflbiz . . The Kestraincr. 

21. Al-tdsit . . The Spreader. 
"22. M-KhaJif . . The Abaser. 
2:1 Ar-Effi . . Th,- Exalter. 
2-1. A/-Mifisr; . . Tin- Hoiiourer. 
25. AI-Muzil . . r l*h. Destroyer. 
20. As-ffani- . . Tho llearer. 

27. Al Ba$lr . . The Seer. 

28. .U-Hdki.n. . The Ruler 

29. Al- Adl . . The Just. 

30. Al-JMti/ . . Thi Subtle. 

31. Al-Kha(nr . . Tho Aware. 
82. Al-tfafo* . . The Clement. 
3^. Al- : Azln, . . Tho (fraud. 
31. Al-GhajT r . The Forgiving. 
35 4*&-te*i . Tin? Grateful. 
3C. Al. Ali . . The Exulted. 
37. .ii-Kabir . Tho (.treat. 

:W. Al-Haflz . . The Guardian. 

30. ALMvqii . . The ;-trengthon ; f 

40. Al-Haslb . . The Ueckoner. 

41. M-Jalil . . The Maje,ti-. 

42. Al-Kanni . . Th : Jeneroua 

43. Ar-/taf/ib . , The Watcher. 

44. At-Mujib . . The Approver. 

45. Al- \Viisi* . . The Comprehensive. 
40. Al ILiLlm . . The Wise. 

47. Al- \Vndnd . The Loving. 

48. Al-Majtd . . The Olori-jus. 

49. Al-Bai$ . . The Raiser. 

50. Ash-ft/M/iid . The Witness. 

51. Al-JIuqq . . The Truth. 
;>2. A/- Wukil . . The Advocate. 

53. Al- fawi . . The Strong. 

54. Al Matin . . The Finn. 

55. Al Wall .. . The Patron. 
60. Al Hamid . . Th. Laudable. 

57. Al Muhsi . . The Counter. 

58. Al-Mubdt . . Tho Beginner. 

59. Al-Mu Kl . . The Restorer. 

60. Al-JMnhi/i . . The Quickoner. 



61. Al-Mumit . 

62. Al-gaiy . 

63. Al-Qaiyum, 

64. Al-Wajid . 

65. Al-Mojld . 

66. ALWabid - 

67. Ab-Samad 

68. Al-Qadir 

69. Al-Muqtadir 

70. Al-Muqaddim 

71. Ai- 

72. Al-Awwal. 

73. Al-Akhir . 

74. Az-gdhir . 
76. Al-Batin . 

76. Al- Wati . 

77. Al-Muta ati 

78. Al-Barr . 

79. At-Tauwdb 

The Killer. 
The Living. 
The Subsisting. 
The Finder. 
The Glorious. 
The One. 
The Eternal 
The Powerful. 
Th* Prevailing, 
The Bringing for 


The Def error. 
Tn First. 
The Las* 
The Evident. 
The Hidden. 
Tne tiovwaor. 
Tho Exalted. 
The Righteous. 
The Accepter of 


80. Al-Muntagim . The Avenger. 

81. AlsAftw . . The Pardoner. 

82. Ar-Ra nf . . The Kind. 

88. MaLiku 1-MuUc . The Ruler ol the 

84. Zu l-Jaldti wa /- The Lord of Majesty 

Ikram . . and Liberality. 

85. Ai-Muqnt - - Tii Equitable. 

86. Al-Jdmi* . . The Collector. 

87. Al- Qhani . . The Independent. 

88. At-Mughri . The Enrichu 

89. Al-Mu>ti . . The Giver. 

90. Al-Mdni< . . The Withholder. 

91. Az-Zarr . The Distrebser. 

92. An~Ndfs . . Tli<j Profiler. 

93. Am-Niir The Light. 

94. Al-Hadi . . The Guide. 

95. Al-Ba,di* . . The Incomparable. 

96. Al-Baqi . The Enduring. 

97. Al- Wdrig . . The Inheritor. 

98. Ar-Ra*kid . . The Director. 

99. A$-$abur . . The PatieTif. 

The list either begins or closes with Allah, 
thus completing the number of one hundred 
names, which are usually recited on a rosary 
in the ceremony of Zikr [ZIKB], as well as at 
all lei&iue moments, by devout Muslims. The 
Wahhabis do not use a rosary but count 
the names on their fingers, which they say 
was the cuivo f <i the Prophet, for from the 
Traditions it appears that Muhammad dm 
not use a rosary. 

According to the Traditions (Miahkdt, book 
x, c. i.). the Almighty has an " exalted 
name " known aw the Ismu l-A z&m, which 
Muhammad is related to have said was 
either in the Suratu l-JJaqarah, the second 
chapter of the Qur an, 158th verse, or in the 
Suratu Alt Imrdn, the thi- f chapter, first 
verse. The names of God -Ahich occur in 
these two Tdrses are ar-Rahman, "the Mv 1 
ciful," ar-Rahim^ " The GuUipassionate," /- 
Ilaiy, " the Living," and al-Qaiyum, " the 
Subsisting." There is, however, another tra 
dition, from which it would appear that the 
name may be either al-Abad^ " the One," or 
a$-Samad, "the Eternal." 

Abdu 1-Haqq, in his remarks on 
traditions, says that it is generally held, ac- 


Cording to a tradition bj ayisnari. t>>at thin 
great name is known only to the prophet* 
and other saintly portions. Tne compiler oi 
the Kitdb t t-Ta rtfdt eays it is none othew 
than t.b uamo of Allah. 

The Prophet having said that wnoevei 
cabs upon. God by this name shall obtain all 
his desires (Mishkdt; book x. o. i. pt. 2). the 
various sects of faqirs arid mystics t^oul 
much time in endeavouru\<? to ascertain what 
the name reallj is [DA WAH], and \>ht. ipoisotf 
who is able to assert that he has obtained! 
this secret knowledge possesses great im 
fluence ovei the minds of the superstitious. 

Tuere can be little doubt that the discus 
sion regarding this exalted name has arisen 
from the circuiartiance that Mvihainmaci b-J 
eame awaxo of the fact that tho uwa uevep 
reciteu tiio great name of Jehovah, nnd spon 
of it as "the great and terrible name." " ^e 
peculiar name " of God. 

Ihe attributes of God y.-. oppressed m tli* 
nmety-nine names, are divided into th 
"l-jfilallyah, or the glorioua attribute^ 
- - 

the asmffu l-jantdllyafi. or thft tei-rible attri^ 
butoe. Such jfmc.s as ar-Makrm, " the Mr- 
ciful," al-Karim, " the Kind," and al 
" tho Forgiver," belonging to the tonner ; ana 
ai-Qav>i. "the Strong," al- Muntaqim, "the 
AYer^ti," nnd al-Qddir, "the Powerful," to 
the latter. 

In praying to God it is prxal for the .wor 
shipper to address the Almighty by tha| 
name or attribute which he wishes to 
t<\ For tsjkKXnpie, if praying for paron, 
will address God as either al- Afuw, "th 
lard oner/ or nt-Td>nvdb, * the Receiver oi 

A belief in me existence oi God, His Unity* 
Hi* Absolute Power, and in the other essen 
tial attributes of an Eternal and Almighty 
Being, i the m^st important part of the 
Muslim religion, ana is .supposed to be 
pressed in the two clauses of the well-knowa 
formula : - 

iJ ildha li-Ld. l-lahu. 

There is no deity But Allah. 

The first- clause, " There is no deity," id 

known as the Nafl, or that which is rejected, 

and the second clause, " But Allah," as the 

J$bdt. or that which is established, the 

termiVrt/ Z wa-I$bdt being applied to the first 

swo clauses of the Muslim s Kctlimak, on 

The teaching of Muhammad in his Qur an 
HB to the nature of God, twins such an im 
portant consideration m an exposition ol 
Iftlaia, that no apology io needed for full and 
lengthy quotations from that book on tho 

The following verses are arranged 10 
chronological order according to Jaldlu d* 
din as-Suyutfs list : 

Suratu l-Ikhld$. Chapter cxui. 
(One of the earliest chapters of the 
Qur an ) 

41 Say, He is Goa, one i v#od] 

" God, the Eternal. 




" He begottetb not nor is begotten, 
" And there is none equal unto Him." 
Suratu l-A ( raf. Ohaptm vii. 62. 

(Given at al-Madihah.) 
"Verily your Lord is God. who crontud the 
eavens H"rt the earth in six days: tauu He 
scendea the throne. HH cauaeth the night 
o cover th day it fMloweth it swiftly: and 
Te created the sun and the moon and the 
,tars. uiadt subject utterly to His command. 
>o not the whole creation and command be- 
ongtoHim? Blessed be God, the Lord of 
j -he Worlds/ 

buratu Marram. Uliaptor xix. 91-96, 

(Given at Makkah.) 

: "They Kay. * The Compassionate hath 
gotten offspring -. To have dono an impious 
i .hing. 

! "It wanteth little but that" th heavens be 
fe.-euv thereat, and that the earth cleave 
asunder, and that th> mountains fall down in 
I pieces. 

I " For that they have attributed offspring 
fito the Compassionate, when it beseemeth not 
I the Compassionate to get offspring. 
j " There is none of all that are in the hea- 
||vens and the earth but he shall come unto 
the Compassionate as a servant. He hath 
known them and numbered them with an 
fcfTflc/ numbering- 

And each of them shall come unto Him 
Ion the day of resurrection, aloue. 
I " Verily those who hav believed and have 
done the things that are right, on them, the 
Compassionate will bestow [His] love. 
Suratit. V-T/z /r. Chapter xv. 16-25. 

(Given at Makkah.) 

" We (God) have placed in heaven the ttvvuc 
igns of the Zodiac, and adorned them for the 
beholds-* >itk the constellations ; 

" And Wx have guarded them (by means of 
shooting stars) f^om every accursed devil. 

Excepting uini who listened by btealth, 
whom a manifest shooting star pursueth. 

We have also spread forth the earth, and 
thrown thereon firm mountains, and We have 
xsed to spring fo^h in it every kind [of 
aori thing] \veighed. 

* And We have provided ior yovi therein 
neeesaaiies of life, and for him whom ye do 

And tbfiro is not a thing but the store 
houses thcreoi are with Us and We send it 
not down save in determined quantities. 

We als-., =wnd tho fertilizing winds, and 
We send down wave^ from heaven, and give 
you to drink thereof : and y ar not the 
storerj? of it. 

And verily We givo life and death, and 
Wo are the heirs of nil the creation. 

We also know those who have gone 
Before you, and We know tnose who follow 
f or [you]. 

And veriK hv Lord will MMO&bfotiMn 
together: for iJeis Wise. Knowing ." 
Suratu V-^n dm. Chapter vi. 59-64 

rGivenat Makknb.) 

" With Him are the keys of the hidden 
things : none knoweth them but He : and He 
knoweth whatsoever is on the land and in 

the sea, and there i alleth not a leaf but H 
knoweth it, nor a grain in the dark parts of 
the earth, nor a moist thing nor a drv thing, 
but [it is noted] in a distinct writing 

" And it is He who taketh your souia at 
night, and knowoth what ye have gauiua m 
the itay ; then He reviveth you th?rin, that 
an .-.,.;. lintel time may be fulfilled. Then 
unto Him shall ye return: theu ^" He 
declare unto yo-u what ye have done 

" And He is the Supreme over His sc-^vanU, 
and He sendeth watchers over you, until 
when death Cometh unto any one of you, Our 
messengers take his sonl. and they fail 

" Then are uey returned unto God their 
Lord, the Triiu. Doth not judgment hnloiig 
to Him i And He 1s the most quick ,;f 

" SAT, Who dclivereth yov from the uarK- 
nessos of toe land and of the tp*. when ye 
supplicate Him numbly and in secret, saying, 
( If Thou deliver an from then*. ~u,nger8 t we 
will assni-odly be of [the muiioor of] the 
thankful ? 

"SAY, God delivereth you from Lhem and 
from every affliction." 

Tb., 95-10^ : 

"Verily God the gram to com? 
forth, and the dato-Rtono : He brinteth forth 
the living iruiu the dead, and He bringeth 
forth tbe dead from the living : This is God ; 
then wherefore are ye turned away ? 

He causeth l-Le dawn to Appear, and hath 
ordained the night for rest, and the aun and 
the juootj for reckoning time: this is the 
appointment of the Mighty, the Wise 

"And it is lie who hath ordained for you 
the stars, that ye may be guided bv theuj JH 
the darkness of the land and of the "n : We 
nave clearly shown the sitrns of O.n ^ower 
unto the people who know 

" And it is He who hath prou uetta you 
from one soul, and ih*r<> is a place of rest and 
of storing : We have clearly shown the signs 
to the people who understand. 

A*H it ir He who hath sent down water 
from heaven, and We have produced thereby 
the germs of everything, and We have caused 
the green thing to come forth therefrom, from 
which We draw forth grains massed; and 
from the palm-tree, from its fruit- branch, 
clusters of datos heaped together : and ear- 
dens of grapes, and the olive and the pome 
granate, like one another and not like. Look 
s-e at their fruits when i/ney bear tmit, and 
their ripening. Verily therein are signs unto 
the people who believe. 

* Yet they, have set up the Jinn as partners 
of God. though He hath, created them, and 
without knowledge txavo they falsely attri- 
imtfd t< Hi in sons and daughters. Extolled 
be Hiw purity, and high be He exalted above 
thflt which they attribute [to Him] 1 

" He is the Author of the heaveii and the 
earth. How then snould Ho have offspring, 
when He hath no consort, and hath created 
everything and knowetb everything ? 

This is God your Lord. There is no God 
but He, the Creator of everything : therefore 




worship ye Him; and He is guardian over 

* The eyes see Him not. but Ho seeth the 
yea : and He is the Gracious, the Knowing. * 
* Suratu Earn Ixraif. Chapter Ixvii. 1-4. 
(Given at Makkah.) 

" Blessed be He in whose hand is the domi 
nion and who is all powerful ; 

"Who hath created death and life, that 
lie may prove you, winch of you [will be] 
best in works : and He is the Mighty, the 
Very-Forgiving : -.,. 

Who hath created seven heavens, one 
above another. Thou seest qot any fault in 
the creation of th* Compassionate. But lift 
up the eyes again to hmren. TJost thou see 
any fissures ? 

"Then lift up the eyes again twice; the 
.sight shall return unto thee dull and dim," 

uratu L Ankabul. Chapter xxix. 40-43. 
(Given at Makkah. j, 

u The likeness of those who take to them 
selves Tutelars instead. of God is UK the like 
ness of the spider, which uiaketh for herseli 
i dwelling; and the frailest of dwellings 
surely is the dwelling of the spider ! If they 
know ! 

ki Verily God -kuoweth whatever thing the/ 
invoke in His stead ; and He is the Mitrhty. 
the Wise, 

" And these parables we propound unto 
men ; but none understand them except the 

God hath created the heavens and th > 
earth in truth: verily therein i.sawgn untu 
the believers." 

Suratu l-Baqara/t. Chapter ii. 157-1CO. 

(Given at al-Madinah.) 
And your God is One God : there is no 
god but He, the Compassionate, the Merciful. 

Verily in the creation of the heavens uu<l 
vhe f arth, and the varying of night and day 
und the ship.s that course upon the sea laifai 
v ith what is profitable to mankind, and th<? 
water that God hath sent down from heaven, 
quickening the earth thereby after its death, 
and scattering about it all kinds of beasts; 
and in the changing of the winds, and the 
clouds that are compelled to do service be 
tween heaven and earth, are aisms unto a 
people who understand, 

" Yet among men are those who take to 
l hem,se}ves, beside God, idols, which they 
love us with the lovo of Gyii . but those who 
have boiieved are more loving towards God 
than the** iowa-rd* their idols" 

Ih,, MO; 

Qy<l Ibeio ia no God but Ke, the 
Uyer-iiivmg, the Ever-Bub^tmg. Slumber 
aoizoth -Him not, nor sloop. To Him be 
longeth whatsoever is iu the* lleuvtvus nnd 
vbataoeYor is in the Earth. Who i* he that 
<kall intercede with Him, unless by If is por- 
iftission? He knoweth what [hath been] 
before them ;uid what [shnll hj after them, 
and they Khali not compass aught of Hia 
knowledge save what Hu willeth, ilU Throne 
convpreJbtwdotb tho Heaven;* and (ho Karth; 
and the care of them burdeneth Him not 
Aod He is the High, the Great, 

Ali Imran, Chapter m. 2a. 
(Given at al-Madinah ) 

" Say, God, to wnom belongeth dominion, 
Thou givest domini9n to whom Thou wilt, 
and from whom Thou wilt Thou takest it 
away ; Thou exaltest whom Thou wilt, and 
whom Thou wilt Thou humblest. In Thy hand 
is good. Verily Thou art all-powerful. 

" Thou causes! the night to pass into the 
day, and Thoxi causest the day to pass into 
the night ; and Thou bringest forth the living 
from the dead, and Thou bringest forth the 
dead from the living ; and Thou givest sus 
tenance to whom Thou wilt without mea 

Suratu r-Rtfd. Chapter xiii. 13. 
("Given at al-Madmah. ; 

It is He who -inaketh the lightning to 
appear unto you, [causing] four and hope of 
ruin, and formoth the pregnant clouds. 

" And the thunder prociaimeth His per- 
foctiooi with Hi--i praise : and [likewise] the 
anfrels, in fear of Him. And Ho aendeth the 
thunderbolts, and striketh with them whom 
He pleaseth, whilst they dispute concerning 
God ; for He is mighty in power." 

Suratu ii-NincT. Chapter iv. 51. 
(Given af al-Madinah.) 

" Verily God will not forgive the associat 
ing with Him [any other being as a srod], but 
will lorgive other sins unto v/hom He 
pleaseth: tmd whoso associatoth [anatherj j 
with God bath wrought a great wickedness." 

The following is an interpretation of the ^ 
Muslim belief in the existence and nature of ] 
God by the famous scholastic divine, the 
Imam al Gha/zali, in his book entitled al- j 
Maqsadu V asna, an extract trom which i 
Ocklcy has translated from PocccIS* Specinwi 
Hisiarice Arabum : 

"Praise be to GodthoCroa.tor aijd Restorer 
of all things ; who dooa whatsoever Ho 
pleases, who is master of the glorious throne 
and mighty force, and directs tis sincere aer- 5 
van Is iuto the right way and the straight 
path . who favoureth them, who . have once ] 
borne testimony to the unity, by preserving j 
their confessions from the darkness of doubt 
and hesitation ; who directs them to follow 
Ills chosen apostle, upon whom be the bless 
ing and ponce of God ; and to go after Hia 
most honourable companions, to whom he I 
hath vouchsafed His assistance and direction 
which is revealed to them in His essence and j 
operations by the excellencies of His atlri- j 
butes, to the knowledge whereoi no maul 
attains but ho that hath been taught by hear- j 
ing. To these, aa touching His essence, He J 
makcUi known that He in one. and hath no 1 
partner j singular, without anything like j 
Him ; uniform^ having no contrary; separate, 
having no equal. Ho is ancient, having no 
first ; eternal, having no beginning ; 
inif for ever, having no emJ ; font-inning 
eternity, without any termination. He per- 
si* u, without oeaaing l j be ; remains with* 
oul failing, and never did cease, nor over shall 
cease to be described by glorious attributes, 
uOr is subject to any decree ao as to be de 
termined by any precise Limits or set 




but is the First and the Last, and is within 
and without. 

"(What Qod is not.) He, glorified be His 
name, is not a body endued with form, uor a 
substance circumscribed with limits or deter 
mined by tno&Hure ; neither does He resemblo 
bodies, as they are capable of being measured 
or divided. Neither is He a substance, neither 
do imbstauces exist in Him ; neither is He an 
accident, uor do accidents exist in Him. 
Neither is he like to. anything that exists, 
neither is anything 1 like to Him; nor is h 
determinate in quantity nor comprehended by 
bounds, nor circumscribed by the difference* 
of situation, nor contained in the heavens. 
He sits npon the throne, after that manner 
which He Himself hath described, and in that 
.tame sense which He Himself means, which 
is a sitting far removed from any notion of 
contact, or resting upon, or local situation; 
but both the throne itself, and whatsoever is 
upon it, ore sustained by the goodness of bin 
power, and are subject to the grasp of His 
hand. But He is above the throne, and above 
all things, even to the utmost ends of the 
earth ; but so above as at the game time not 
to be a whit nearer the throne and the 
heaven; since He is exalted by (infinite) 
degrees above the throne no less than He in 
exalted above the earth, and at the same 
time is near to everything that hath a being ; 
nay, nearer to man than their jugular veins, 
and is witness to everything : though His 
nearness is not like the riearneas of bodies, 
as neither is Hie essence h&e the essence of 
bodies. Neither dotb He exiaf; in anything, 
neither doth anything exist in Him ; but He 
is too high to be contained in ony place/, and 
too holy to be determined by time : for He 
was before tiin and place were created, and 
Is now after the same maiiuer as He always 
was. He is also distinct from the creatures 
by His attributes, neither is there anything 
besides Himself iu His essence, nor is His 
essence in any other besides Him. He is too 
holy to be subject to change, or any local 
motion; neither do any accidents dwell rn 
Him, nor any contingencies befall Him ; but 
He abides through all generations with His 
glorious attributes, free from all danger \:\ 
dissolution. As to the attribute fi perfec 
tion, He wants no addition of Hid perfection. 
As to being, Ho is known to exist Vy U - rt 
apprehension of the understanding : and H* 
is seen as He is by an ocular intuition, v^nirh 
will be vouchsafed oat of His uterc? and 
grace to the holy in the eteraai mansion, com 
pleting their joy by the vision of His glorious 

" (Hit power.) He, praised be His nemo, 
is living, powerful, mighty, omnipotent, not 
liable to any defect or impoteuce; ueitbor 
slumbering nor sleeping, nor bedng obnoxious 
to decay or death. To Him belongs the 
kingdom, and the power, aud the might. 
His is the dominion, and the excellency, aud 
the creation, and the command thereof. The 
heavens are folded up in His right hand, and 
all creatures are couched within His grasp. 
His excellency consists in Hi* creating and 

producing, and His unity in. communicating 
existence and a beginning of being. He 
created men and their works, and measured 
out their maintenance and their determined 
times. Nothing that is possible can escape 
His grasp, nor can the vicissitudes of things 
elude his power. The effects of his might 
are innumerable, aud the objects of his know 
ledge infinite. 

(//t.y knowledge.) He, praised be Hifl 
name, knows all things that can be under 
stood, and comprehends whatsoever comes to 
pass, from the extremities ot the earth to the 
highest heavens. Even the weight of a pis 
mire could not escape Him either in earth or 
heaven; but He would perceive the creeping 
of the black pismire in the dark night upot 
the hard stone, and discern the motion of ac 
atom in the open air. He knows what i* 
secret and conceals it, and views the Mmcep 
tions of the minds, and the motions ot 
the thoughts, and the inmost recesses of 
secrets, by a knowledge ancient and eternal, 
that never ceased to be His attribute IVOTO 
eternal eternity, and not by any new know, 
ledge, snperadded to His essence, either in 
hering or adventitious. 

* (// tut//.) He, praised be His name, 
doth will thoso things to be that are, aud dis 
poses of all accidents. Nothing passes in th^ 
empire, nor the kingdom, neither little nor 
much, nor small nor great, nor good nor evil, 
nor profitable cor hurtful, nor faith nor in 
fidelity, nor knowledge no. ignorance, nor 
prosperity nor adversity, nor increase nor de- 
civ.ase, nor obedience nor rebellion, but by 
His determinate counsel and decree, aud His 
definite sentence and will. Nor doth the 
wink of him that seeth, nor the subtlety of 
htm that thinketh, exceed the bounds of His 
will ; but it is He who gave all things their 
beginning ; He is the creator and restorer, the 
sole operator of what He pleases ; there is no 
reversing His decree nor delaying what He 
hath determined, nor is there any refuge to 
man from his rebellion against Him, but only 
His help and mercy ; nor hath any man any 
power to perform any duty towards Him, but 
through His love and wilL Though men, 
gmiii, angels and devils, should conspire to 
gether either to put ono single atom in 
motion, or cause it to cease its motion, with 
out His will and approbation, they would not 
he able to do it. His will subsists in His 
essence amongst the rest oi His attributes, 
and was from eternity one of His eternal 
Attributes, by which He willed from eternity 
i-hr existence of those things that He had 
decreed, which were produced in their proper 
season according to His eternal will, without 
any iff ore or after, and in agreement both 
with His knowledge and will, and not by me 
thodising of thoughts, nor waiting for a time, for which reason xio one thing 
is in Him a hindrance from another. 

(Hi* hearing and fight.) And He, praised 
be His name, is hearing and seeing, and 
heareth and seeth. No audible object, how 
still soever, escapeth His hearing ; nor is any 
thing; visible so small as to escape his sight 




for distance is no hindrance to His hearing, 
nor darkness to His sight. He sees without 
pupil or eye-lid, and hears -without any pas 
sage or ear, even as He knoweth without a 
heart, and performs Hib actions without the 
assistance of auy corporeal limb, and creates 
without any instrument, for His attributes 
(or properties) are not like those of men, any 
more than His essence is like theirs. 

" (His word.} Furthermore, He doth apeak, 
command, -forbid, promise, and threaten by an 
eternal, ancient word, subsisting in His 
essence. Neither is it like to the word of the 
creatures, nor doth it consist in a voice 
arising from the commotion of the air and the 
collision of bodies, nor letters which are sepa 
rated by the joining together of the lips or 
the motion of the tongue. The Qur an, the 
Law, the Gospel, and the Psalter, are bopks 
sent down by Him to His apostles, and the 
Qur an, indeed, is read with tongues, written 
in books, and kept in hearts : yet as subsist 
ing. in the essence of God, it doth not become 
liable to separation and division whilst it is 
transferred into the hearts and the papers. 
Thus Moses also heard the Word of God 
without voice or letter, even as the saints be 
hold the essence of God without substance 
or accident. And since these are his attri 
butes, He liveth and knoweth. is powerful 
and willeth and operateth, and seeth aud 
speaketh, by life and knowledge, and will and 
hearing, and sight and word, not by His 
simple essence. 

" (His works.} He, praised be His name, 
exists after such a manner that nothing be 
sides Him hath any being but what it> pro 
duced by His operation, and floweth froin His 
jastice after the best, most excellent, most 
perfect, and most just model. He is, more 
over, wise in His works, and just in His 
decrees, But His justice is not to be com 
pared with the justice of men. For a man 
may be supposed to act unjustly by invading 
the possession of another ; but no injustice 
can be conceived by God, inasmuch as there 
is nothing that belongs to any other besides 
Himself, so that wrong is not iniputable to 
Him as meddling with things not appertaining 
to Him. All things, Himself only except ed, 
genii, men, the devil, angels, heaven, earth, 
animals, plants, substance, accident, intel 
ligible, sensible, were all created originally by 
Him. He created them by His power out of 
mere privation, and brought them into light, 
when as yet they were nothing at all, but He 
alone existing from eternity, neither was 
there any other with Him. Now He created 
all things in the beginning for the manifesta 
tion of His power, and His will, and the con 
firmation of His word, which was true from 
all oteriiity. Not that He stood in need of 
them, nor wanted them; but He manifestly 
declared His glory in creating und producing, 
and commanding, without being 1 under any 
obligation, nor out of necessity. I/oving kind - 
ness, the showing favour end gvace, and 
beneficence, belong to Him; whereas it is in 
His power to pour forth, upon men a variety 
of torment* , and aiftict them with various 


kinds of sorrows and diseases, which, if He 
were to do, His justice could not be arraigned, 
nor would he be chargeable with injustice. 
Yet he rewards those that woi ship Him for 
their obedience on account of his promise und 
beneficence, not of their merit nor of necessity, 
since there is nothing which He can be tied 
to perform ; nor can any injustice be sup 
posed in Him, nor can He be under, any obli 
gation to any person whatsoever. That His 
creatures, however, should be bound to servo 
Him, ariseth from His having declared by the 
tongues of the prophets that it was due to 
Him from them. The worship of Him is not 
simply the dictate of the understanding, but 
He sent messengers to carry to men His com 
mands, and promises, and threats, whose 
veracity He proved by manifest miracles, 
whereby men are obliged to give credit to 
them in those things that they relate." 

Included iu the attributes of God as given 
in His ninety nine titles or names, there are 
the Haft ft/dl, or Seven Attributes ; Muham 
mad al-Barq&wl has expressed them as 
follows : 

(1) Haydt, or Life. God Most High is 
alone to be adored. He has neither associate 
nor equal He is* free from the Lei perfections 
of humanity. He is neither begotten nor 
does He beget. He is invisible. He is with 
out figure, form, colour or part. His exist 
ence has neither beginning nor end. He ii 
immutable. If He so wills, He can annihilate 
the world in a moment of time and, if it seem* 
good to Him, recreate it hi an instant, 
Nothing is di fftcuit to Him , whether it he the < 
creation of a fly or that of the s.ftven heavens 
He receives neither profit nor loss from what 
ever may happen. If all the lufidels became 
believers and all the irreligious pious, He 
would gain no advantage. On the othei 
hand, if all Believers became infidels. He 
would suffer no loss. 

(2) <llm, or Knowledge. He has knowledge 
of all things hidden or manifest, whether if* 
heaven or on earth. He knows the nnoibei 
of the leaves of the trees, of the grains o 
wheat and of sand. Events past and future 
are known to Him. He knows what enters 
into the heart of man and what He utters 
with His mouth. He alone, except those tc 
whom He has revealed them, knows the in 
visible things. He is free from forgetf illness 
negligence and error. His knowledge 
eternal : it is not posterior to His essence. 

(3) Qudrah, or Power, He is Almighty 
If He wills, He can raise the dead, maki 
stones talk, trees walk, annihilate the heaveue 
and the earth, and recreate of gold or o 
silver thousands. similar to those destroyed 
He can transport a man in a moment of turn* 
from the east to the west, or from the weal t< 
the east or to the seventh heaven. His 
power is eternal a priori and a posteriori. 

is not posterior to His essence. 

(4) IrddaJi. or Will. He can do what H 
wills, and whatever He wills comes to pass 
He is not obliged to act. Everything, good oj 
evil, in this world exists by His will. He will 
the faith of the believer and the piety of th< 


religious. If He -were to change His will 
there would be neither a true believer nor a 
pious rn^n. He willeth also the unbelief of 
the unbeliever and the irreligion of the wicked 
and, without that will, ttiere would neither 
be unbelief nor irreligion. All we do we do by 
His will: what He willeth not does not come 
to pass. If one should ask why God does 
not will that all men should believe, we 
answer : " We have no right to enquire about 
what God wills and does. He is perfectly 
free to will and to do what He pleases." In 
creating unbelievers, in willing that they 
nhould remain in that state; in making ser 
pents, scorpions and pigs : in willing, in short, 
all that is evil. God has wise ends in view 
which it is not necessary that we should 
know. We znuefc acknowledge that the. will 
of .God in eternal and that it is not posterior 
to His essence. 

(5) >Sa* , or Hearing. He hears all sounds 
whether low or loud. He hears without an 
car, for His attributes are not like those of 

(6) Bdsar. or Seeing. He sees all things, 
even the ateps of black ant on a black-stone 
in a dark night ; yet He has no eye as men 

(7) Kaldm, or Speech. He speaks, but not 
with a tongue as men do. He speaks to some 
of His servants without the intervention of 
another, even as He spoke to Moses, and 
to Muhaimnad on the night of the ascension 
to heaven. He speaks to others by the instru 
mentality of Gabriel, and this is the usual way 
in which He communicates His will to the 
prophets. It follows from this that the 
Qur an is the word of God , and is eternal and 
uncreated. (Sale s Faith of Islam.") 

With regard to the Muhammadan belief in 
the Supreme Being, Mr. Palgrave, the well- 
tnown Oriental traveller, thus expresses 
himself : 

" There is no god but God," are words 
simply tantamount in English to the nega 
tion of any deity save one alone ; and thus 
much they certainly mean in Arabic, but 
the imply much more also. Their full sense 
is, not only to deny absolutely and unre 
servedly all plurality, whether of nature or of 
person, in the Supreme Being, not only to 
establish the unity of the Unbegetting andUn- 
begot, in all its simple and uhcommunicable 
Oneness ; but besides this, the words in Arabic 
And among Arabs imply that this one Su 
preme Being is also the only Agent, the only 
Force, the only act existing throughout the 
universe, and leave to all beings else, matter 
or spirit, instinct or intelligence, physical or 
unora.1, nothing but pure unconditional passive- 
ness, alike in movement or in quiescence, in 
action or in capacity. The sole power; the 
eolo motor, movement, energy, and deed, is 
God ; the rest is downright inertia and mere 
instrumentality, from the highest, archangel 
down to the simplest atom of creation. Hence, 
in this one sentence, is summed up a system 
which, for want of a better name, I may be 
permitted to call the Pantheism of Force, or 
of Act, thus exclusively assigned to God, Who 



absorbs it all, exercises it all, and to Whom 
alone it can be ascribed, whether for preser 
ving or for destroying, for relative evil or for 
equally relative good. I say relative, be 
cause it is clear that in such a theology, no 
place is left for absolute good or evil, reason 
or extravagance, all is abridged in the auto 
cratical will of the One great Agent: tic 
vofo, sic jubeo, stet pro ratiom volunta* : or, 
more signiBcantly still, in Arabic- Kema 
yesk&o (ka-md yasha. v) % <as He wills it, to 
quote the constantly recurring expression ot 
the Goran. 

" Thus immeasnreably and eternally exalted 
above, and dissimilar from, all creatures, 
which lie levelled before Him on one common 
plane of instrumentality and inertness, God is 
One in the totality of omnipotent and omni 
present action, which acknowledges no rule, 
standard, or limit, save His owu sole and 
absolute will. He communicates nothing to 
His creatures, for their seeming power and 
act ever remain His alone, and in return He 
receives nothing from them; for whatever 
they may bd, that they are in Him, by Him, 
and from Him only. And, secondly, no supe 
riority, no distinctiou, no pro -eminence, can be 
lawfully claimed by one creature over its 
fellow, in the utter equalisation of their un 
exceptional servitude and abasement ; all are 
alike tools of the one solitary Force which 
employs them to crush or to benefit, to truth 
or to error, to honour or shame, to happiness 
or misery, quite independently of their indi 
vidual fitness, deserts, or advantage, and 
simply because He wills it, and as He 
wills it. 

" One might at first sight think that this 
tremendous Autocrat, this uncontrolled and 
unsympathising Power, would be far above any 
thing like passions, desires, or inclinations. Yet 
such is not the case, for He has with respect 
to His creatures on main feeling and source 
of action, namely, jealousy of them, lest- they 
shculd perchance attribute to themselves 
something of what is His alone, and thus en 
croach on His ail-engrossing kingdom. Hence 
He is ever more prone to punish than to 
reward, to iniiict pain than to bestow plea 
sure, to ruin ^than to build. It is His sin 
gular satisfaction to let created beings conti 
nually feel that they are nothing else th&n 
His slaves, His tools, and contemptible tools 
also, that thus they may the better ac 
knowledge His superiority, and know His 
power to be above their power, His cunning 
above their cunning, His will above their 
will, His pride above their pride ; or rather, 
that there is no power, cunning, will, or pride, 
save His own. 

" But He Himself, sterile in His inacces 
sible height, neither loving nor enjoying aught 
save His own and self -measured decree, with 
out son, companion, or counsellor, is no less 
barren of Himself than for His creatures, and 
His own barrenness and lone egoism in Him 
self is the cause and rule of His indifferent 
and unregardmg despotism around. The 
first note is the key of the whole tune, and 
the primal idea of God runs through and 




modifies the whole system and creed that 
centres in Him. 

" That the notion here given of the Deifcy, 
monstrous and blasphemous as it may appear, 
is exactly and literally that which the Goran, 
conveys or intends to convey, I at present take 
for granted. But that it indeed is so, no one 
who baa attentively perused and thought over 
the Arabic text (for mere cursory reading, 
especially in a translation, will not suffice), 
can hesitate to allow. In fact, every phrase 
of the preceding sentences, every touch in this 
odious portrait, has been taken, to thp best of 
my ability, word for word, or at least mean 
ing for meaning, from the Book. the truest 
mirror of the mind and scope of its writer. 

"And that such was m reality Maho 
met s mind and idea, is fully confirmed by 
the witness-tongue of contemporary -tradition. 
Of this we have many authentic samples : the 
Saheek ($aAiA), the Commentary of Beydauri* 
(al*Baiz<iwi), the Mislikat ul Mosabih and 
fifty similar xvorks, afford ample testin ony on 
this point. But for the benefit of my readers 
in general, all of whom may not huve drunk 
equally deep at the fountain-heads of Islamic 
dogma, I will subjoin a specimen, known 
perhaps to many Orientalists, yet too charac 
teristic to be here omitted, a repetition of 
which I have endured times out of number 
from admiring and approving Wahhabis in 

"* Accordingly, when God so runs the 
tradition : I had better said, the blasphemy 
resolved to create the human race, He took 
into His hands a mass of earth, the same 
whence all mankind were to ho formed, and 
in which they after a manner pre-existed; anc t 
having then divided the <}tod into two equa 
portions, He threw the one half into hell, 
saying, These to eternal fire, and I car/-, 
not"; and projected the other half into hea 
ven, adding, "and thereto Paradise, I care 
not." (See MishkHtu Jfo*iM$ Babut l- 

Commentary would here be superfluous, 
But in this w e have before us the adequate 
idea of predestination, or, to give it a truer 
name, pre-damnatiou, held and taught in the 
school of the Goran. Paradise and hell are 
at once totally independent, of love or hatred 
on the part of the Deity, and of merits or de 
merits, of good or evil conduct, on the part 
of the creature ; and, in the corresponding 
theory, rightly so, since tho very actions 
which we call good or ill-deserving, right or 
wrong, wicked or virtuous, are m their ss- 
aence all one and of one, and accordingly 
merit neither praise nor blame, -punishment 
nor recompense, except and sirapH r<.f*,ev fclie 
arbitrary value which the all-regulating will 
of the great despot may choose to assign cr 
impute to fcham. In a word, He burns one in 
dividual through ail eternity amid red-hot 
chains and seas of molten fire, and seats 
another in the plenary enjoyment of an ever 
lasting brothel between forty celestial concu 
bines, just and equally for His own good 
pleasure, and because He wills it. 

" Men are thus all en one common level, 

here and hereafter, in their physical, social, 
and moral light the level of slaves to one 
sole Master, of tools to one universal Agent. 
But the equalising process does not stop 
here : beasts, birds, fishes, insects, all parti 
cipate of the same honour or debasement ; all 
are, like man, the slaves of God, the tools 
and automata of His will ; and hence .Ma 
homet is simply logical find self -consistent 
when in the Goran he informs his followers, 
that birds, beasts, and the rest are * nations 
like themselves, nor does any intrinsic dis 
tinction exist between them and the human 
, pecies. except what accidental diversity the 
4 King, the Proud One, the Mighty, the Giant/ 
&c. f as he styles his God, may have been 
pleased to make, just as He willed it, and so 
long as He may will it. 

"However, should any one think himself 
aggrieved by such association, he may con 
sole himself by reflecting that, on the other 
hand, angels, archangels, genii, devils, and 
whatever other spiritual beings may exist, 
are no less on his level also ; and that if he 
himself be no better than a camel, he is, how 
ever, no worse than Gabriel or any seraph. 
And then, over all and above all, t There is 
no god but God. " (Central and JKastern 
Arabia., vol i. p. 365.) 

Ydjiij wa Mdjuj, also spelt Ma juj 

wa Ya j&j (***"V> $J**0 -A- barbarous 
people of Central Asia,, perhaps the Turko 
mans, who are in the Qnr an represented as 
doing evil in the land in the days of gu 1- 
Qarnain (or Alexander). See Surah xviii. 

" they said, Zu 1-Qarnain ! verily Gog 
and Magog waste this land ; shall we then pay 
theo tribute, so thou build a rampart between 
us and them ? 

* Ho said, Better than yov.r tribute is the 
might wherewith my Lord* hath strengthened 
mo ; but help me strenuously, and I will set a 
burner between you and them 

" Bring me blocks of iron, - until v/hen it 
filled the space between the uin ntain sides 

* Ply/ said he, * your bellows, - until when he 
had made it red with heat (fire), he said, 

Bring me molten brass that I may pom* upon 

And Gog and Magog were not able fco 
scale it, neither were they able to dig 
through it. 

" This, said he, is a mercy from my 
Lord. * 

They are also apuken of in Surah auu. 95, 
96, as a people who shall appear in the last 
days : 

" There is a ban on e?ery city which we 
shall have destroyed, that they shall not 

(i Until a way is opened for Gog and Ma 
gog, and they shall hasten from every higrh 

Al-BaizawI says Yajuj and Majiij are two 
tribes descended from Japheth the son of 
Noah, and some say Yajuj belong to the 
Turks and Majuj to the Jile. (Comp 


Ezekiel xxxviii. 2 ; xxxix. 1 ; R*Y. xvi. 14 ; 
xx. 8.) 

GOLD. Arabic zahab (s-^) ; Heb. 

^nt* The zakat imposed upon gold is upon 
twenty mi^ah one-half misqal. and upon 
every four mis.qals in excess, one qirai;, because 
the alms upon gold is owe fortieth of the whole. 
This is due upon all gold, whether it be in coin 
or in ornaments. But ash-ShalH says it is 
not due upon the ornaments of women or the 
rings of men. (Hidayah, vol. L p. 27.) 

The sale of gold is only lawful when it is 
exactly equal in point of weight, for Muham 
mad said, " Sell gold for gold, from hand to 
hand, at an equal rate according to weight, 
for any inequality in point of weight is usury." 
(Idem, vol. ii. 552.) 

" It is not lawful for a man or woman to eat 
or drink out of gold or silver vessels. " ( Idem , 
vol. vi. 86.) 

GOLIATH. Arabic Jdlut O>yW). 

The giant whom King David slew. Men 
tioned in the Qur an, Surah ii. 261 : " And 
when they went forth to battle against Jaiut 
and his army, they said, * Lord, give us 
patience, and strengthen our feat, and help us 
against the infidels ! Therefore they dis 
comfited them by the will of God, and David 
slew Jalut." 

The commentators have not ventured to 
give any account of Jalut. 

GOMORRAH. Arabic Ghamurali 
Not mentioned by name in 
Qur an ; but Sadum wa Qhenaurdh are un 
derstood to be the "overturned cities" re 
ferred to iii Surahs ix. 71, Ixix. 9. 

GOOD WORKS. Arabic a-s-SaH- 
fait (vaWA * \\). According to the 
teaching of the Qur an, good works without 
faith will not .save Yrom the torments o/ 

Surah xviii. 10&-6 : u Shall we tell you who 
are they that have lost their labour most : 
whose efforts in the present life have been 
mistaken, and who deejned that what they 
did was right ? They are those who believed 
not in the sign* of the Lord, or that they 
should ever meet Him. Vain, therefore, are 
their works : and no weight will we allow 
them on the day of Resurrection." 

Faith in the above is belief in the mission 
of Muhammad : all Muslims being considered 
in a state oi grace, no matter what their actions 
may be. With reference to the good deeds of 
Muslims, the following is the teaching of 
Muhammad, as recorded in the Traditions 
(Mithkdt, book x. chap, iii.): 

"Whon a man is brought to Isiani and h.e 
performs it well, God covers all his former 
sins, and he gets ten rewards for every good 
act, up to seven honored, and even more than 
that, whereas the reward of misdeeds is as 
one to one, unless God passes that over like 

" There are three persons whope actioa* 
are not written ; one a person asleep until he 
awak.cs ; the second a boy not arrived at 



puberty ; the third, a madman until he re 
covers his reason." 

" Verily, God recordeth both tne good tif-eds 
and the evil ducds. He who .has proposed to 
do evil und did not do it, for hire Got re 
cordeth one perfectly gocu. deed. And h> -ho 
intended to do good and put. his intentions 
into practice, /or him God recordetU from ten 
to seven hundred good deeds (according to 
their merits). And he who intended to do 
evil but did it not, Goa recordeth one good 
act, ; out be who intendeth to do evil and doeth 
it, for him God recordetb. one evil dred." 

"Verily, the condition of that person who 
does evil and after that ;M-OCJ deeds, is like the 
condition of a mar< with tight armour on, 
:vhich has troubled him. He does oue good 
deed and the rings 01 the armour become 
open. Ho does another good deed, and the 
armour falls from bis body," 

"Verily there was a man amongst those 
who were before you to whom the angel of 
death came to take his eonl, and he was 
asked * Have you done any good act? He 
said i* answer, I do not reiueuiner that I 
nave done aay good. It was said to him, 
* Look well ixitu yourself, and consider if you 
have done any good work. He sa)d, 1 do 
not f5ad any good in myself, except that I 
used to buy and sell in the \vut id And used to 
claim my right from tho rich, but allowed 
them their leisure to pay me when they liked, 
and I forgave the poor. Theu ^od brought 
that man into paradise," 

" An adalt jrsas was i orgiven, who passed 
by a dog at a well,, and the dog was holding 
out his tonguo from thirst, which was near 
killing him. Ths woman drew oft her boot 
and tied it to the end of her voil, and drew 
water for the dtg, and gav* hin.- to drink, and 
she was forgiven on account oi tUat act. It 
was asked tho Prophet, * Verily, are there le- 
WATila for our doing good to quadrupeds, and 
giving them water to drink ? He said, There 
are rewards for benefiting every .\nimal 
having a moist liver. " 

" Youv smiling in your brother * face is 
alms : r.rid your exhorting mankind to vir 
tuous deed"? ;fc altoa ; and your prohibiting 
the iorbiiMea ie alms ; and your showing men 
the road when they lose it is alms ; and your 
assisting the blicd is alms ; and your removing 
stones, thorns, .%nd bones, whioh are inconve 
nient to man is alms; and your pouring 
water from your bucket into that of your 
brother is ihas for you. * 

GOSHAH-NT.&HIN (c^ *+?) 

Lit. ;i Or<e who it/ m u corner." A Pi nai 
term for a devout ftr-son who in reti 
?tgages m the contemplation of the Deity 

GOSPEL. Arabic Jnjll (J^)- 
A term applied to the whole of the New Tes 
tament scriptures. [NEW TBSTAMKKT.] 

GRANDFATHER. Arabic jadd 
(j^>. If a father die without appoint 
ing vn < xc-< utor, the grandfather represents 



the father And in making contracts of mar 
riage, the grandfather has precedence of an 
executor, although the executor takes prece 
dence in managing the property. (Hidayah, 
vol. iv. p. 555.) In case of the father being 
poor, it is the duty of the grandfather to act 
for his grandchild in the distribution of alms, 
&f, (Idem, vol. ii. p 244.) 

GRANDMOTHER. tw&Acjaddah 
(5.x?.). If the mother of an infant 
die, the right histanaJi, or guardianship, rests 
with the maternal grandmother in preference 
to the paternal; but if she be not living, the 
paternal grandmother has the right prior to 
any other relation. The paternal grandmother 
is also entitled to a sixth of the effects of a 
child of her son, it tho child s mother be dead, 
as being the mother s share. (Hidduah. voL i. 
p. 386.) 

GRAVE. Arabic qabr (>5) ; Heb. 
""Op* ^ke graves of Muhaminadans 
are so dug as to allow the body to lie with its 
face towards Makkab ; consequently in India 
they are dug from north to south. It is usual 
to dig a grave the depth equal to the height of 
the breast of a middle-sized man, and to make 
a recess at the bottom, which is called lafad, in 
which the body is placed. The body having 
been placed in this recess, it is closed with 
unburat bricks, and the grave is filled with 
earth and a moand raised over it. 

The Traditions of Muhammad, as well as 
the works of Muslim doctors, all teach that 
a dead body is conscious of pain, and there 
fore great care is taken to prevent any pres 
sure upon the body. 

*Amir relates that his father Sa d ibn Abi 
Waqqas said, on his death-bed, "Make a 
lakd for me towards Makkah, and put nnburnt 
bricks upon my grave, as was done in the 
case of the Prophet (Sftfrihu Muslim, p. 21 11 

Sufyan at-Tammar relates that he " saw the 
Prophet s grave, and the top of it was like a 
camel s back/ (Safafiu V- BMdrl.) 

Ibn Abbas says " a red cloth was placed 
upon the Prophet s grave." (Misttkat, book 
v. c. vi.) 

Jabir says " the Prophet prohibited build 
ing with mortar on graves, and also placing 
inscriptions upon them." (AlishJcdt, book r. 
c. vi.) But notwithstanding this tradition 
(which is acted upon by the Wahhabis), 
nmsonry tombs are most common in all pails 
of Islam, and form some of the moet striking 
specimens of Muhammadan architecture. 

GRAVE, The Punishments of the. 

GREEKS. Arabic ar-Kum G>jN),. 
by which is meant the Byzantine or Eastern 
Empire. In the xxxth chapter of the Qur an. 
entitled the Suratu V-JSi, or the % " Chapter 
of the Greeks," there is a reference to the 
defeat of the Byzantine power by the Per 
sians with a supposed prophecy of future sue* 
cesses. The chapter begins thus : 

"Alif, Lam. MIm. THE GREEKS have 
been defeated 


" In a land hard by : But after their defeat 
thev shall defeat their foes, 

" In a few years. First and last is. the 
affair with God. And on that day shall the 
faithful rejoice 

%< In the aid of their God : He aidetb whom 
He will : and He is the Mighty, the Merciful. 

" It is the promise of God : To his promise 
God will not be untrue: but most men know 
if not." 

Following al-Baiziiwi, the Jalalan, and 
other commentators, Sale remarks that 
The accomplishment of the propbecy con 
tained in this passage, which is very famoua 
among the Muhammadans, being insisted on 
by their doctors as a convincing proof that 
the Qur an really came down from heaven, it 
may be excusable to be a little particular. 

The passage is said to have been revealed 
on occasion of a great victory obtained by the 
Persians over the Greeks, the news whereof 
coming to Makkab, the infidels became 
strangely elated, and began to abuse Muham 
mad and his followers, imagining that this 
success of the Persians, who, like themselves, 
were idolaters, and supposed to have no 
scriptures, against the Christians, who pre 
tended as well as Muhammad to worship one 
God, and to have -divine scriptures, waa an 
earu.est of their o *n future successes against 
the Prophet, and those of hi a religion, to 
check which vain hopes it was foretold in the 
words of the text, that how improbable soever 
it might seem, yet the scale should be turned, 
in a few years, and the vanquished Greeks 
prevail at, remarkably against the Persians. 
That this prophecy was exactly fulfilled, the 
commentators fail nut to observe, though 
they do not exactly agree in the Recounts 
they give of its accomplishment, the number 
of years between the two actions being not 
precisely determined. Some place the vic 
tory gained by the Persians in the fifth year 
before the Hijra h, and their defeat by the 
Greeks in the second year after it, when the 
battle of Badr was fought ; others place the 
former irf the third or fourth year before 
the Hijrah, and the latter in the end of the 
sixth or beginning of the seventh year after it, 
when the expedition of al-Hudaibiyah was 
undertaken. The date of the victory gained 
by the Greeks in the first of these accounts, 
interferes with a story which the commenta 
tors tell, of a wager laid by Abu Bakr with 
Ubaiy ibn Khalf, who turned this prophecy 
into ridicule. Abu Bakr* at first laid ten 
young camels that the Persians should re 
ceive an overthrow within three years, but on 
his acquainting Muhammad with what he had 
done, that Prophet told him that the word 
ferf , made use of in this passage, signified no 
determinate number of years, but any number 
from three to nine (though some suppose the 
tenth year is included), and therefore advised 
him to prolong the time and to raise the 
wager, which he accordingly proposed to 
Ubaiy, and they agreed that the time assigned 
shoxxld be nine years and the wager a hun 
dred camels. Before the time was elapsed, 
Ubaiy died of a wound received at Uhud, in 




the third yea -of the Hijiah; but tbe event 
TttjFterwards showing that Abu Bakv had won, 
h received the camels of Ubay s heirs, and 
breught them in triumph to Mohammitd. 
History informs its- that the successes of 
jKh.osru Parvix, King of Persia, who carried 
tor a terrible war agHinst. the Creek empire, 
to revenge tbe death of Maurice, his father- 
in-law, slain by Phoctis, were 7017 great, and 
|pontrmied in an uuinlx-.rrnpted course for two- 
iftiid-twenty years. Particularly in the year 
lof Christ 6*15. about the beginning of the 
sixth year before the Hi] rah. the Persians, 
Having the preceding year conquered Syria, 
made themselves masters of Palestine and 
took Jerusalem, which seem* to be that signal 
advantage gained over the Greeks mentioned 
in this passagej as agreeing best with the 
terms hero used, and most likely to alarm the 
Arabs by reason of theii vicinity to the scene 
ol action : and there was so little probability 
at that time, of thr Greeks being able to re 
trieve their losses much less to distress the 
Persians, l.hat in the i ollowing years the 
anas of t,he latter made still farther and 
more considerable progresses, and at length 
they 1, tid siege to Constantinople itself. But 
in the year 625, in which the fourth year of 
the Hijrah began, abut ten years after the 
taking of Jerusalem, the Greeks, when it was 
least expected, gained a remarkable victory 
over the Persians, and not only obliged them 
to quit the territories of the empire, by car 
rying .he war into their own country, but 
drore them to the last extremity, ynd spoiled 
the capital city al-Madayin; Heraclius en. 
joying thenceforward a continued aeries of 
good fortune, to the deposition and death of 
Kbosru, (Sale s Koran, in loco.) 

GROVE, The. Arabic Aikak (**$). 
The AftwbtL l-Ai/eak, or " the people of the 
Grove," are mentioned four times in tbt 
Qur*an, Surahs xv. 78, xxvi. 176. xxviii. 21 , 
1 13, as being a tribe or cl*ss of people who 
treated the prophets as liars. The following 
particulars regarding them are given in Surah 
xxvi. 170: 

" The people of tbe grove of Mady an treated 
the Apostles as liars. 

** When Shu aib tbeir brother said to them, 
Will ys not fear God ? 

" I truly am your trustworthy Apostle. 

"Fear God. then, and obey me : 

" No reward ask I of you for this : my re 
ward is of (;he Lord of the Worlds alone." 

GUARDIANSHIP. Guardianship 
over a minor is of two kinds: loitoijah 
(&&) or guardianship of the property and 
education aud Marriage of the ward, and 
hizanak, (&^), or guardianship over the 
rearing and bringing up of the child. 

Guardians are either 30 by natural right or 
by testament, or by appointment by a judge. 

The guardianship of a minor for tho ma 
nagement and preservation of his property 
devolves 6rst on his or her fathor, then on 
the father s executor, next on the paternal 
grandfather, then on bis executor, then on 

the executors of such executors, next on the 
ruling power or his representative, the Qa?i, 
or judge. In default of a father, father s 
father, and tbeir executors, ax above, all of 
whom are termed near guardians, it rests in 
the Qazi to appoint a guardian ot an infant s 
property. The otbev paternal kinsmen who 
are rfimed remote kindred, and the mother 
suocecu. according to proximity, to the guar 
dianship of an infant for the purpose of edu 
cation and marriage j they have no right to 
bt* guardians of his property, unless ap 
pointed to be so by the ruling authority, or in 
the original proprietor s will, proved by com 
petent witnesses. The mother s right of 
guardianship is, however, forfeited upon her 
being rorn^rvied to a stranger, but regained 
vmeu she is divorced by him, and has again 
become a widow. 

In default of the mother as well as of the 
paternal kindred cf a minor, his maternal 
relations are, according co proximity, entitled 
to g-uardianship for the purposes of educa 
tion and marriage, and not for the manage 
ment of bis property, unless so appointed in 
the late, owner s will or by the Qazi. 

The general rule is that a guardian, execu 
tor, or nnyone who has the care of the person 
and property of a minor, can enter into a 
contract which is or likely to be advantageous 
and not injurious to his ward. 

A guardian may sell or purchase moveables 
on account of his ward, either for an equiva 
lent or at such a. rate as to occaaion an incon 
siderable loss, but not at sucb a rnto &s to 
make the loss great and apparent, (ffidayaft 
vol, iv. p. 553.) 

A guardian Is allowed to borrow money for 
tbe support atvd education of his ward, eyen 
by pawning 1 the minor s property ; the debt so 
contracted must be paid out of his (the. 
minor fl ) estate, or by him when he comes of 

It is not lawful. for a guardian to pledgr 
into his own hands goods belonging to h< 
ward on account of a debt due to hin or into 
the hands of hie child being an infant, ot 
into the hands of his slave bein a merchant 
ynd. free from debt. (Hid&yak* vol. iv. p. 

A father can pswn the goods of his infant 
child into his own hands lor a debt due from 
the child, or into the hands of another of his 
children being an infant. 

A father may also pav, ii on account of his 
own debt the goods belonging to. his minor 
son. who on coming of age will redeem the 
^oods discharging the debt, and h\vc a claim 
on the father for the sum. 

The contract of pawn entered irit.o by a 
father wvth respect to his minor child s good 
cinuot be annulled by to minor, even if it 
were not for bis own debt or for lus own 

The mother is, of all the persons, tbe best 
entitled to the custody (hitdna/i) of her infant 
child during marriago and after separation 
from her husband, unless she be an apostaN?, 
or wicked. - or unworthy to be trusted. 
i vol. i. p. 728.) 




Next the mother s mother how high soever 
}$ cutif/ied to the custody (frizdnak) of a 
child; failing her by death, or marriagi- 
to a stranger, the full sister is entitled ; 
failing her by death or marriage to a 
stranger, the half-sister by the mother. On 
failure of her in the same way the daughter 
of the full sister, then the daughter of the 
halt-sister by the mother. Next the maternal 
aunt in the same way, and then the paternal 
aunts also in like jnaunev. (Fatdwd-i~*J[tain- 
giri, vol. i. p. 728.) 

An wnm~i-u)alaa (or n, female slave who has 
home a child to her master), when emanci 
pated, obtains the right of taking her child. 
(Hidayah, vol. i p. 889.) 

When it is necessary to remove a boy from 
the custody of women, or there is no woman 
of his own people to take charge of him, he 
is to be given up to his agnate male rela 
tives (a?aiaA). Of these the father is the 
first, then the paternal grandfather, how- 
high soever, then the full brother, then the 
half-brother by the father, then the son of the 
full brother, then the sou of the half-brother 
by the father, then the full paternal uncle, 
then the half paternal uncle by the father, 
then the sons of paternal uncles in the same 
order. But though a boy may be given up to 
the sou of his paternal unele, a giri should 
not be entrusted to him 

No male has any right to the custody of a 
female child, but one who is within the pro 
hibited degrees of relationship to her ; and an 
*ajdbah who is profligate has no right to her 
custody. (Fatawd-i- Alamym, vol. i p. 729.) 

A female s custody of a boy terminates 
when be is seven years old, and of a girl at 
her puberty. 

Male custody of a boy continues till pu 
berty, of a female not only till puberty, but till 
she can be safely left to herself and trusted 
to take care or* herself. 

When a, female has neither father nor 
grandfather nor any of her afdbah to take 
charge of her, or the asdbah is pro tiig ate, it 
is the duty of the judge to take cognizance of 
her condition; and if she can be trusted to- 
take care of herself, he should allow her to 
live alone, whether she be a -virgin or a s ntyi- 
<iah, and if not, he should place her with some 
female aroin, or trustee, in whom he has con 
fidence ; for* he is the superintendent of all 
Muslims. ^FatdwU t "Alamgtn, vol. i. p. 780.) 

When a mother refuses to take charge of a 
child without hire, it maybe committed to 

A boy or girl having passed the period of 
hizdna-h, has no option to be with one parent 
in preference to the other, but must neces 
sarily thenceforth remain in charge of the 
father. (Hiddyah, vol. L p. 389.) 

Be/ore the completion of iddah, or disso 
lution of marriage, the proper place of $? ?<z 
nak is that where the husband and wife live, 
and the former cannot take away the child 
out of the custody of the latter. After com- 
pletion of her gY/daA, and separation from her 
husband, a woman can take her child to the 
place of her nativity, provided the marriage 
had been contracted there, or it is so iieai 
from the place of separation or husband s 
residence, that if the husband should leave 
fche la bter iu the mox ning to visit the child, 
he can. return to his residence before night. 
There is also no objection to her removing 
with the child from a village t6 the city or 
chief town of the district, the same being ad 
vantageous to the child, and in no respect 
injurious to the father. If the child s mother 
be dead, and its hizanak or custody has 
passed to the maternal grandfather, she can 
not remove the child to her own city, though 
the marriage had taken place there. Other 
women than the grandmother are like her in 
respect to the place of hizdnah. 

When an umm t -walnd\in been emancipated, 
she has no right to take her child from the 
city iii whicb the father is residing. 

^Hiddyah, vol. i. ; Fatdwd-i- AlamginiVol. L; 
Durrv l-Mukhidr t p. 846: Jami v. V-Jftetfz; 
Tagttre Lecture*, 1879; Bailie s Digest, p. 

Arabic xaif 



OTRZ G^). (1) The Persian 
word for the mtraqahj or iron mace, where 
with the iafidel dead are smitten in tlieir 
graves by the angels Munkar and Nakir. 

2) An iron mace pointed at one end and 
having a knob at the other covered with 
spikes, and used by the Gurz Mar, or Rula! 
faqirs, for striking against thoir breasts in 
their devotional exercises. 
p. 291.) 


HABA (A*). "Dust," especially 

the finer particles which fly about and are 
only conspicuous in the sun s rays. 

A term used by the ufi mystics for those 
portions of matter (hayula) which God has 
distributed in creation. (*Abdu r-Razzaq s 
Diet of Sufi Terms.) 


" Habib the Carpenter," whose story is told 
in the Qur an (Surah xxxvl 12), as follows : 

"Set forth to them the instance of the 
people of the city (i.e. of Aatioch) wbr-n the 
Sent Ones csme to it. 

" When we sent two (i.e. John and Jude) 


unto the.ij and tuey charged them both with 
hupo6ture--therefoTe with a. thiid (i.e. Siinon we strengthened them : and they s-aid. 
* Verily wt? are the Srnt unto yon of God? 

l( They said., * Yc HIT. only men like us : 
Nought l-aih tJie God of Mn>- v ,-^-ni a own. 
I Ye do nothing but lie/ 

"They 7aid, Our Lord knoweth that we 

I aic .;ureiy scut unto you; 

" f To proclaim a clear jnessage is our only 

I 1 duty. 

u They f?aid, Of a truth we augur ill trout 
1 you; if yr desjst not we will surely stone you, 
I and a grievous punlvhment will surely befall 
I yon r rom us. 

e; They said, Your augury of ill is with 
I yourselves. Will ye be warned? Nay, ye 
I are an erring- people. 

** Then from the end or the city a man (?;e. 
. Hahlb, Hu 1 (Mi-pcntcr) came running 1 He 
I said < my people! follow the Sent Ones ; 

u Follow those who ask net of you a re- 
Jl compe.nce uitd who aro rlgbtly guided. 

*** And v. hy sliould I not worship Him who 
} made me, and to whom ye shall .be brought 
I back ? 

" Shall I Ukegods beside Him? if t.Ve 
God of mercy be pleased to afdict me, thou- 
r interceKSi on will not avert from me aught, 
I nor will they deliver. 

ct * Truly then should I be in a t error 
"Veriiy. in your Lovii have 1 believed j 
I tlierefo" ^ hear me. 5 

-It wai said to him. Enter thovt into 
1 Paradise " (j,v. after they had stoned him to 
H dfialh). And he said, *0h that my pfop lc 
i knew 

" How gracious God h atlt been to me and 
1 that He hatli made me one of //ft honoured 
: ones" 

"But no army sent we down out of hoavfit; 
I if ter his ./eJc//jnor were we .then sending down 
|! or// -angels 

u There wa, but one shout from. Gabriel, 
p and lo ! they wore extinct. 

" Oil! the misery that rests upon my ser- 
I rants ! No apostle cometh to them but they 
t laugh him to seorn." 

Al-Baizawi, the oommentatorj a&yi- the 

i people of the City of Antioch were idobiers, 

i and that Jesus sent two of his disciples, Yahya 

I and Y"\5nas( John and Jude)to preach to them. 

i Aud when they nr rived, they met Habih, the 

I carpenter, to whom they made Icnowti th*ir 

I miHsi on. Habib said, ** What, signs can yc 

show that ye are sent of God ? ;> And the di.s- 

i siples replied, u "We can heal the sick and 

give sight to thoso who are born blind, and 

i cure, the leprosy." Then Habib brought his 

sick sou to them and they laid their bunds 

upon him and he was healed. And Habrb 

believed on Jesus, and lie made known the 

gospel to tho people of the city. Many of the 

people vhen came to the disciples* and were 

also he.alsd. The news then reached the ear 

of the governor of the city, and he. sent for 

the two disoiples and they preached, to him. 

He replied, " Is your God different from our 

God?" They s;- id "Yes, He it is who 

made thee and ih v gods.* The governor then 



| .;<!!( them a\vay and out them in prison 
j When they were in prison, Tesussent Suam uu 
(Si uioii Peter), and he came secretly and made 
friends with the servants of rhe governor, and 
in u rm; gained access to the governor s pre 
sence, a.nd performed H, miracle in the pre 
sence of the governor by .raising a child vrhe 
j had been dead seven days. The child when 
! raised from the dead, said he had seen Jesus 
Christ. i:i heaven, and that he had interceded 
for tho three disciplss u prison. The 
governor believed and many others with 
him. Those whe did not believe raised a- dls 
turbancc in the. city, and Hablb the carpenter 
exhorted Umn to believe. For this hp w 
*t oned, and, having died, entered into Paradise. 
rUbib s tonib is still seen at Antioch.and is 
visited by Mnhamrruidang as a shrino. 

HABTL ( J***). [ABEL.] 

HABVVAH (V*). The posture of 

sitting with the legs rmd thigha contractor 
towards the belly the back bent forwards, 
and supported lit that position by the arm.": 
crossed over the kneea. Muslims are for- 
bidden to sit in this posture during the re 
cital of the Khutbah on Fridays {M.inhkat 
!>ook iv. p. 45, pt. 2> as it inclines to drowsiness 

HA DAS MA?JO.). State of an un 
clean person, of on? .viio has not performed 
the usual abluiious bofot >, prayev. 

HADD (*), pi. ftudud. In its pri 
mitive sense hadd signifies " obstruction," 
whent H a porter or gate-keeper is called 
hadddd or " obstructer," from his office of 
prohibiting people from entering. In Jaw it the punishments, the limits of which 
havo, been defined by Muhammad either in the 
Quran or in the fjtadlg. These punish in cuts 
are (1) Tor adultery, stoning j (2) For forntna- 
iion, a itundred stripes ; (8) For ike false 
accusation of a married person with adultery 
(or Q<U/), eighty stripes j (4) For apostasy, 
deaih; ;5) For drinking win?,, eighty stripe* . 
(6) For thfftt the cutting off of the rigbt hand ; 
?) Foi- highway : lor simple robbery or 
the Highway, the loss of hands audinet; foi 
robbery with murder, death, either by tin 
word or by crucifixion. (ffidayaJt. voL ii. 
p. 1. [PUNISHMENT.] 

Aj>HADlD (J^*J\). "Iron." The 

title of the Juvuth Surah of the Qur an in 

which the word occurs (verse 26): " Wig sent 

J own iron, in which are both keen violence and 

dvtuitage to men," 

HADIS (*>W). What happens 
for the Rrat time; new, fresh. That which 
is born in time as opposed to qadi-m, or that 
which is without a beginning, as God. 

HAI/IS (*j8u**), pi. ahadis. [TRA- 


HADIS QUDS! (^-tfu^). A 

divine saying. A t.*rm used tor a kadis whicn 
rcJotes A revelation from God in the language 
of the Prophet. An example is found in the 
Mishk&t (book f. c. i. pt. I ) : " Abu Hurairah 
said, l The Prophet of God related tbes-e words 





of God, "The sons oi Adam vex me, and 
abuse the age, whereas I am The AGE 
itself : In my hands are all events : I have 
made the day and night/"" 

HADIYAH (^JUD). A present or 
offering made to persons of consequence, 
kmgs or rulers. 

HADY (e^)- Cattle sacrificed at 

Makkab during the Pilgrimage, as distin 
guished from animals sacrificed on the Great 
Festival, which are called uzfcya/i. These 
animals are branded and sent off with Strings 
round their nocks, as offerings to the sacred 
temple. They may be bullocks, or camels, or 
sheep, or goats. (Mishkdt, book XL c. viii.) 

HAFIg (ItfW). Lit. "A guardian " 

or protector. (1) One of the names of God, 
id-Hafi? : , (2) A governor, e.g. Hdfizu I -Bait; 
the guardian of the Makkan temple. (3) One 
who has committed the whole of the Qur an 
to memory. 

Usman relates that the Prophet said: 
" The best person amongst you is tie wbo^Jms 
learnt the Quv an and teaches it, (Mistikdt* 
book vil. c. i.) In the east it is usual for 
blind men to commit the Qur aa to memory, 
and to thus obtain the honourable distinction 
of Ha-fa. 

HAFSAH (XH. One of Muham 

mad s wives. She was the daughter of Umar. 
and the widow 6f Khunaia, an early convert 
to Islam. She married Muhammad about six 
months after her former husband s death. 
During the lifetime of the Prophet she was a 
person of considerable influence in his coun 
sels, being the daughter of Umar. She sur 
vived Muhammad some years, and ha.s re 
corded several traditions of his sayings. 

HAGAE. Arabic Hajar O^*). 
The slave wife of Abraham and the mother 
of Ishmael. Al*Baizawi says that Hajar was 
the slave girl of Sarah, the wife of Abraham, 
and she admitted her to Abraham, and from 
her was born Ishmael. Sarah became jealous 
of Hajar (because, she had a son), and she 
demanded of Abraham that he should put 
both the mothor and. child away, and he sent 
them away in the directioa of Makkah, and 
at Makkan God produced for them the spring 
Zamzam [ZAMZAM] When the tribe of Jur- 
hum .jaw that there was water in that place, 
they said to Hajar. " If you will share with 
ne the water of this spring, we will share with 
you the milk of our herds," and from that 
time MakkaJh. became a place of importance. 
(Tafoini 1-BaizdwL p. 424.) 

HAIR, Arabic sha r, eha ar (/*>), 

The sale of auman hair is unlawful in the 
same manner as the use of it for auy purpose 
ia unlawful. Being a part of the human 
body, it is necessary to preserve it from dis 
grace, to which an exposure of it to sale 
necessarily subjects it. It is related in the 
traditions that God ha;* cursed women who use 
false hair. (Hidayah, voL ii. p. 439.) [MEAD 1 

HA rrlYAH (*WU). A sect of 
Muslims founded by Ahmad ibn Ha it, who 
said there were two Gods, one whose exis 
tence is from eternity (qadbn), i.e. Allah, 
and tho other who is created in time (mufod- 
daa), i.e. a) -Ma slh, (Christ), and that it ia he 
who will judge the world in the last day. 
And he. maintained that this is the meaning 
of the words which occur in the traditions : 
" God created taan in bis own image." (Kitdlni 
l-Ta rifdt, in loco.) 

HAIWAN (0^). The animal 
creation : which in divided into haiwdn ndtiq^ 
or rational beings ; and haiwan sdkit, or 
irrationat beinga. FANIMALS, BEINGS.] 

Ai-HAIY (&J\) } Hob. TT, " The 

Living One." One of the ninety nine attributes 
of God. The term frequently occurs in the 
Qur an. 

HA*I?AH (^?v^) A menstruoug 



(o^jjty. Lit. " The Black Stone." 
The famous black atone which forms part of 
the sharp angle of the Ka bah in the temple 
at Makkah. Mr. Burkhardt says, It is au| 
irregxxlar oval, about seven inched in dia 
meter, with an undulating surface, composed; 
of about a dozen smaller stones of different 
si^es and shapes, well joined together with a 
small quantity of cement, and perfectly well 
smoothed ; it looks as if the whole bad been 
broken into as many pieces by a violent bfow, 
and then united again. It is very difficult to 
determine accurately the qualify of this 
stone, which has been worn to its present 
surface by the millions of touches and kisses 
it has received. It appeared to me like a 
lava, containing several small extraneous par 
ticles of a whitish and of a yellow substance. 
Its colour is now a deep reddish brown ap 
proaching to black. It is surrounded on alt 
aides by a border composed of a substance 
which I took to be a close cement of pitch 
and gravel of a similar, but not quite the 
same, brownish colour. This border servei 
to support its detached pieci-H ; it is two ori 
three inches in breadth, aud ripes a little 
above the surfac.e of the stone. Both the 
border and the stone itself are encircled by A 
silver band, broader below than above, and on 
the two sides, with a considerable swelling 
below, as if n- part of the atone were hidden 
under it. The* lower pare of the border it 
studded with silver nails." 

Captain Burton remarks, " The colour ap 
peared to me black and metallic, and the 
contre of the stone was sunk about twoinchei 
below the metallic circle. Round the sides 
was a reddish brown cement, almost level 
with the metal, and sloping down to the] 
middle of the stone. The band is now a 
massive arch of gold or silver gilt. I found 
the aperture in which the stone is, one span 
and three fingers broad.* 

According to Ibn AbbaS, Muhammad said 




the black stone came down from Paradise, 
and at the time of its descent it was whiter 
.than milk, but that the sins of the children of 
Adam have caused it to be black, by their 
tonching it. That on the Day of Resvrrrec- 
tiou, when it will have two eyes, by which it 
iwill soe and know all those who touched it 
and kissed it, and when it will have a tongue 
to speak, it will give evidence in favour of 
ithose who touched and kissed it. 
i Maxhnug Tyrius, who wrote in the second 
century, *ays " The Arabians pay homage to I 
know oot what god, which they represent by 
o quadrangular stone, ? alluding to the Ka bah 
! or temple which contains the black stone. 
The Guebnrs or Ancient, Persians, assert 
ithat the Black Stone was amongst the 
ijmges and relics left by Mahabad and his 
kuccoKSors in the Ka bah, and that it was an 
jemblem of Saturn. It is probably an aero- 
Jlite. and owes its reputation, like many others, 
(to its fall from the sky. Itp existence as an 
lobject oi adoration in an iconoclastic religious 
System, can only be accounted for by Muham- 
imad s attempt to conciliate t>he idolaters of 
;! Arabia. 

$ A complete list of the falls of aerolites and 
meteoric stones through the atmosphere, is 
roublishwd in the Edinburgh Philosophical 
Mourned, from a v/ork by Chladni in Gorman, 
tin which the subject is ably and f uily treated. 


A M I """^ 


HAJB (s-^^). A le^ai term iu 
[the Muhamraadan lav/ of inheritance, signify 
ing the catting off of au heir from his portion. 

HAJI (^U), also hajj. A person 
who has performed the hajj, or pilgrimage to 
Makkab. It is retained as a title of honour by 
those who have performed the pilgrim age ,e.^. 
ffdji Qdsim, i.e. * Qasim the Pilgrim." [HA.TJ.] 

HAJJ (g^). Lit. "Betting out," 
tending towards." The pilgrimage to Mak- 
kah performed in the month of gu 1-Hijjab. 
or the twelfth month of the Miihanxmadan 
year. It is tho fifth pillar of Muhammadan 
practical religion, and an incumbent religious 
duty, founded upon express injunctions in 
the Qur au. According to Muhammad it is a 
divine institution, and has the following autho 
rity in the Qur an for its due observance : 

(It is noticeable that all the verses in the 
Qur an with regard to the pilgrimage are in the 
later SuraJis, wlien they are arranged in their 
chronntogical order.) 

Surah xxii. 28 : 

And proclaim to the peoples a PILGRIM- 
AGE (bajj). Let them come to thee on foot 
and on every fleet cainel, arriving by every 
deep defile ; 

" That they may bear witness of its bene- 
fitfl to them, and may make mention of God s 
name oa the appointed days (i.e. the ten first 
days of gu 1-Hijjah), over the brute beasts 
with which He hath supplied them for sus 
tenance : Therefore eat thereof yourselves, 
and feed the oeedy, the poor: 

u Then let them bring tho neglect of their 
persons to a close, ana let them pay their 
vows, and circuit the ancient HOUSP. 

This do. And he that reepecteth the 
sacred ordinances of God, this will be host 
for him with his Lord." 
Surah ii. 153 : 

** Verily, us-$afe and al-Marwah are among 
the signs of God -. whoever then m&keth a pil 
grimage (bajf) to the temple, or visiteth it, 
shall not be to blame if he go round about 
them both. And as for Lim who of his own 
accord doeth what is good God is Grateful, 
Idem, 102: 

k( Accomplish the pilgrimage (/y/) and 
the visitation ( ( uwah) tor God : and if ye be 
hemmed in by foes, send whatever sacrifice 
shall be the easiest, and shave not your heads 
until the offering reach the place of sacrifice. 
But whoever among you ia sick or bar. an 
ailment of the head, must expiate by fasting, 
alms, or an offering. 

" Aud when ye are safe from foot, he who 
contents himself with the visitation Qrtmnth) 
until the pilgrimage (bajf), shall bring what 
ever offering shall be the easiest. But he 
who findeth nothing to offer, shall fast three 
days in the pilgrimage itaelf, and seven days 
when yc return : they shall be ten days in 
all. This is binding on him whose family 
bhall not be present at the sacred Mbsquo (al- 
tyajsjidv 4 I-hardni). And fear God, and know 
that God is terrible in punishing. 

" Lei tho pilgrimage be made in tho months 
already known (?.;. Sh.iwwal, 2u 1-Qa dah, 
and Zfi 1-]ijjah) : whoever therefore under- 
taketb. the pilgrimage therein, let him not 
know a woman, uor transgress, nor wrangle 
in the pjlgrijiiage. The good which ye do, 
God knoweth it. And provide for your 
journey / but the best provision is the fear of 
God : fear me, then, men of understanding ! 
" It shall be no crime in you if ye seek an 
increase from your Lord (i.e. to trade) : and 
when ye pass swiftly on from Arafat, then 
rwueinber God near the holy temple (at-Ma$- 
jidtt l-bardm) ; and remember ftiin, because 
He hath guided you who before this wore of 
those who wcut astray : 

" Theu pass on quickly whore the people 
quickly pass (i.e. from Araiat), and ask par 
don of God, for God is Forgiving, Merciful. 

*And when ye have finished your holy 
rites > remember God as ye remember your 
own fathers, or with a yet more intense re 
membrance I Some men there are who say, 
our Lord ! give ns our portion in this 




world : but such shall have no portion in the 
next life : 

" And some say, our Lord ! give us 
good in this world and good in the next, and 
keep us from the torment of the fire. 

" They shall hare the lot which they have 
merited : and God is swift to reckon. 

" Bear God in mind during the stated days : 
but if any haste away in two days (i..e. after" #;"), it shaJJ bu no fault in him : And it 
any tarry longer, it shall be no fault in him, 
it he fear God. Fear God, then, and know 
that to Him shall ye be gathered." 

Surah iii.90: 

"The first temple that was founded for 
mankind, was that in Bakkah (i.e. Makkah) 
Blessed, and a guidance to human beings, 

" In it are evident signs, even the standing- 
place of Abraham (Maqunm Ibrahim): and he 
who entereth it is safe. And the pilgrimage 
to the temple, is a service due to God from 
those who are able to journey thither." 

Surah v. 2. 

" Believers ! violate neither the rites of 
God, nor the sacred month, nor che offering, 
nor its ornaments, (i.e. on the necks of ani 
mals), nor those vrho press on to the sacred 
bouse (al-Baitv 1-Hara-iri), s.eeking favour 
h cm their Lord and his good pleasure in them." 

The performance of the pilgrim age is in 
cumbent upon srery Muslim, oc.ce in his life- 
timo, if he be &rz adult, free, sane, "well in 
health, and ha* suincient money for the e,x- 
penses of the journey and for tho support of 
his family during his absence. 

If a woman perform the pilgrimage she 
must do it in company with her husband, or 
& near relative (marram). If she can obtain 
the protection of a near relative and has i.ho 
necessary expenses for the journey, it is not 
lawful for her husband to prevent her perform 
ing the pilgrimage. This mafiram is a near re 
lative whom it is not lawful for her to marry, 

The Imam ash-Shan I denies the necessity 
of such attendance, stating that the y.uran 
makes no such restriction. His objection is, 
however,, met by a Tradition. " A certain 
man came to the Prophet and said : My wife 
is about to make the hajj, but 1 am called Lo 
go on a -warlike expedition. The Prophet 
said: r Turn away from the wax aad accom 
pany thy wife in the hajj " 

.For a lawful hajj there are three actions 
which uesfane. and five which are wajib : all 
this rest are sunnah or inusialidbb. Thofarz 
are: to wear no other garment except the 
ifyrqm-; to stand in Arafat ; to make the 
fciwaf, or circuit round the Ka f bah. 

The wajib duties are : to etay in al-Muzdali- 
fah ; to run between Mount as-Safaand Mount 
al-Marwah ; to perform the Ramyu r-Rijam, 
or the casting of the pebbles ; if the pilgrims 
are non-Mecca.ns, to make an extra tawaf\ to 
shave the head after the pilgrimage is over. 

The hajj must be made at the appointed 
season. Surah ii. 193: "Let tho pilgrimage 
be ruade in the mouths already known." 
These months are Shawwal, Zu l-Qa dah^and 
the first ten days of Zu 1-Hijjah. The actual 
hajj must be in the month Zii 1-Hijjah, but 

the preparations for, and the niyah^ or in 
tention of the hajj can be made in the two 
preceding months. The umrah, or ordinary 
visitation PUMRAH], can be done at any 
time of the year except on the ninth and 
four succeeding days of Zu l-Hijjah. On 
each of the various roads leading to Mak 
kah, there are at a distance of about five 
or six miles from the city stages called 
Mlqat. The following are the names. On 
the Madinah road, the stage is Called Zii 1- 
Hallfah ; on the Iraq road, Zatu Arq ; on the 
Syrian road, Hujfah ; on the Najd road, 
Qarn ; on the Yaman road, Yalamlain. 


The following is the orthodox way of per 
forming, the pilgrimage, founded upon the ex 
ample of the Prophet himself. (See Sabfyu *<- 
Bukhari, Kitabu l-Manasik, p. 205.) 

Upon the pilgrim s arrival at tho last 
stage near Makkak, he bathes himself, and 
performs two rak ah prayers, and then divest 
ing himself of his clothes, he assumes the 
pilgrim s sacred robe, which is called ikmm. 
This garment consists of two seamless wrap 
pers, one being wrapped round the waist, and 
the other thrown loosely over the shoulder, 
the head being left uncovered. Sandals may 
also be worn, but not shoes or boots. After 
he has assumed the pilgrim s garb, he must 
not anoint hiy head, shave any part of his 
body, paro his nails, nor wear any other gar 
ment than tho ihrdin. The pilgrim having now 
entered upon the hajj, faces Makkah, and 
makes the riiyah (intention), and says : " O 
God, I purpose to make the hajj ; make this 
service oa-sy to me and accept it from me." 
He then proceeds on his journey to the sacred 
city apd on Ms way, as well as at different 
periods in the pilgrimage, he recites, or sings 
with o. loud voice, the pilgrim s song, called 
the Talbiyah. (a word signifying waiting or 


standing for orders). In Arabic it runs thus 
j (as given in tne Sahifa l-Bukhdri, p. 210) : 
" Labbaika ! A Udhuinma ! Labbaika ! 
Labbaika 1 La Shdrika laka ! Labbaika ! 
Tnna l-faamda wa n-ni ( mata laka, wa I- 
mulku laka ! 

Ld shdrikn laka ! " 

Which, following the Persian commentator, 

Abdu 1-Haqq, may be translated as follows : 

I stand up for Thy service, O God ! I 

stand up! 
I stand tip ! There is no partner with 

Thee ! I stand up ! 

Verily Thine is the Praise, the Blessing 
and the Kingdom ! 

There is no partner with Thee ! " 
Immediately on his arrival at Makkah ha 
performs legal ablutions in the Masjidu 1- 
haram, and then kissos the black stone (al- 
Hajaru l-asvrad). He then encompasses the 
Ka bah seven times ; three times at a quick 
step or run, and four times at a alow pace. 
These acta are called the tawafo&& are per- 
f 02 mod by commencing on the ri^bt and 
leaving the Ka bah on the left. Each time 
as the pilgrim passes round the Ka bah, he 
touches the Ruknu 1-YamanI, or the Yamani 
corner, and kisses the sacred black stone. He 
then proceeds to the Ma qamu Ibrahim (the 
place of Abraham), where he recites the 119th 
verse of the nnd Surah of the Qur an, " Take 
yo the station of Abraham for a place of 
prayer," and performs two rak ah prayers, 
after which he returns to the black stone and 
kisses it. He then goes to the gate of the 
temple leading to Mount as-$afa, and from it 
aocends the hill, reciting the 163rd verse of 
tha iird Surah of the Qur an, "Verily as-Safa 
and al-Marwah are the signs of, God." Having 
arrived at the summit of the mount, turning 
towards the Ka bah. he recites the following : 
" There is EC deity but only God ! God is 
great! There .- no deity but God alone! 
HP hath performed His promise, and hath 
aided His servant and put to flight the 
hosts of infidels by Himself alone ! " 

These words are recited thrice. He then 
ruriH from the top of Mount as-afa to the sum- 
.> Mount al-Marwah seven times, repeating 
Uie aforesaid prayers on the top of each hilL 
This i* the sixth day, the evening of which 
is spent, at Makkah, where he again, encom 
passes the Ka bah. 

Upon the seventh day he listens to the 
khutbah, or oration, in the great mosque, in 
which are set forth the excellences of the 
pih/rimage and the necessary duties required 
of al 1 true Muslims on the following days. 

On the eighth day, which is caflnd Tarwi- 
yah, he proceeds with his fellow pilgrims to 
Mina, where he stays and performs the usual 
services of the Muslim ritual, and remains 
the night. 

The next day (the ninth), after morning 
prayer, ho proceeds to Mount Arafat, where 
he recites the usual prayers and listed to 
another khutbah. He then leaves for al-Mus:- 
dalifah, a place midway between Mina and 
Arafat, where he should arrive for the sun 
set prayer. 



The next day, the tenth, is the Yaamv n 
Nahr, or the "Day of Sacrifice," known all 
through the Muslim world and celebrated as 
the /<&. l-Azfrd. Early in the morning, the 
pilgrims having said their prayers at Muzda- 
lifah, then proceed in a body to three pillars 
in Mina, the first of which i* called the 
Shailanu l-Kabir, or Great Devil. The 
pilgrim casts seven stones at each of 
those pillars, the ceremony being Called the 
Ramyu r-R?jdm, or casting of stones. Hold 
ing the rajin, or pebble between the thumb 
and fore- finger of the right hand, the pilgrim 
throws it at a distance of not less than fifteen 
feet, and says " In the name of God, the 
Almighty, I do this, and in hatred of the 
devil and his sbarne." The remaining six 
stone3 are thrown in the same way. It "is 
said that this ceremony has heeu performed 
ever since the days of Abraham. The pil 
grim then returns to Mina and performs the 
nacrifice of the Idu /-Azlid. The victim may 
be a sheep, or a goat, or a cow, or a camel, 
according to the means of the pilgrim. 

Placing its head towards the Ka bah, its 
fore-legs being bandaged together, the pil 
grim stands on the light side of his victim 
and plunges the knife into its throat with 
great force, and cries with a loud voice, 
"Alldhu Akbar!" "God is great! God, 
accept this sacrifice from me ! 

This ceremony concludes the pilgrimage, 
and the bdji or pilgrim then gets himself 
shaved and his nails pared, and the ihrdin 
or pilgrim garment is removed. Although 
the pilgrimage is over, he should still rest at 
Makkah the three following days, which are 
known as the Ayydmu t-Tashrlq^ or the days 
of drying up of the blood of the sacrifice. 
Three well-earned days of rest after the 
peripatetic performance of t^e last four days. 

Before he leaves Makkah he should once 
more perform the circuits round the Ka baL 
and throw stones at the Satanic pillars at 
Mina, seven times. He should also drink of 
the water of the xamzam well. 

Most Muslims then go to al-Madinah, and 
make their salutations at the sbrino of Mu 
hammad. This i& regarded as an incumbent 
duty by all except, the Wahhabid, who hold 
that to make the visitation of the Prophet s 
tomb a religious ceremony i;> shirk, or aaso- 
ciatiug the creature with God. 

From the time the pilgrim has assumed 
the ihrarri until he takes it oQ, he must abstain 
from worldly affairs and devote hunself. entirely 
to the duties of tho hajj. He ia not allowed 
to hunt, though he may catch fish if he can. 
"O Believers, kill 110 game while ye are on 
pilgrimage." (Surah v. 96.) The Prophet 
also fcfjid : " He who shows the p 3,ce where 
game is to be found, is equally *s bad art the 
man who kills it." The haji must not scratch 
himself, lest vermin be destroyed, or a hair be 
uprooted. Should he feel uncomfortable, he 
must rub himself with the open paim of his 
hand. The face *ud head must be left un 
covered, the Lair on he h*ad and beard un 
washed and uncut, "Shave, not your heads 
until the offering reach the place of sacrifice." 

158 HAJJ 

(Surah ii. 192.) On arriving at an elevated 
place, on descending a valley, on meeting any 
one, on entering th6 city of Makkah or the 
sacred temple, the haji should continually 
repeat the word " Ldbbaika, Labbaika " ; and 
whenever he sees tho Ka bah he should recite 
the Takbir, " God is great 1 " and the Ta fiJi 
" There is no deity but God 1 " 

The pilgrimage known as the hajj, as has 
been already stated, can only bo made on the 
appointed days of the month of gu 1-Hijjah. 
A visit at an other time is called tho Umrah. 

If the pilgrim arrives as late 
the ninth day, aad is in time to spend that 
day, he can still perform the pilgrimage legally. 

The pilgrimage cannot be performed by 
proxy by Sunni Muslims, but is allowed by 
the Shl ahs, and it is by both considered a 
meritorious act to pay the expenses of one 
who cannot afford to perform it. But if a 
Muhammadan on his death-bed bequeath a 
sum of money to be paid to a certain person 
to perform the pilgrimage, it is considered to 
satisfy the claims of the Muslim law. If a 
Muslim have the means of performing the 
pilgrimage, and omit to do so, its omission is 
equal to a kabirab, or mortal sin. 

According to the saying of the Prophet 
(Miskkdt, book xi. ch. 1), the merits of a pil 
grimage to Makkah are very great : 

" He who makes a pilgrimage for God s 
Bake, and does not talk loosely, nor act 
wickedly, shall return as pure from sin as the 
day on which he was born. 5 " Verily, they 
(the hajj and the umrah) put away poverty 
and sin like the fires of a forge removes 
dross. The reward of a pilgrimage is para 
dise." " When you see & pilgrim, solute and 
embrace him, and request bim to ask pardon 
of God for you, for his own sins have been 
forgiven and his supplications will be 

For a philological and technical explana 
tion of the following terms which occur in 
thia account of tho Ijajj, refer to the words 
as they occur in this dictionary : AB&FAH, 

The Muslim who has performed the pil 
grimage is called a haji, which title he retains, 
e.g. Haji Qa^im, the Pilgrim Qusim, 

Only five Englishmen are known to have 
visited Makkah, and to have witnessed the 
ceremonies of the pilgrimage : Joseph Pitts, 
of Exeter, A.I>. 1678; John Lewis Burck- 
hardt, A.TX IS 14 : Lieutenant Richard Bui-ton, 
of the Bombay Army, A.D. 1853; Mr. H. 
Bieknoll, A.D. 1862 ; Mr. T. F. Keane, 1880. 
The narratives of each of these " pilgrims " 
have been published. The first account in 
English of the. visit of a European to Makfab, 
is that of Lodovico Bartema, a gentleman of 
Rome, who visited Makkah in 1503. His 
narrative was published in Willes and Eden s 
Decades, A.D. 1555, 

Professor Palmer ( a Introduction " to the 


Qur an,p. liii.) says : " The ceremonies of the 
pilgrimage could not be entirely done away 
with. The universal reverence of the Arab 
for the Kaabah was too favourable and 
obvious a means for uniting all the tribes 
into one confederation with one common pur 
pose in view. The traditions of Abraham the 
father of their race, and the founder of Mu 
hammad s own religion, as he always declared 
it to be, no doubt gave the ancient temple a 
peculiar sanctity in the Prophet s eyes, and 
although he first settled upon Jerusalem as 
his qtblah) he afterwards reverted to the 
Knabah itself. Here, then, Muhammad found 
a shrine, to which, as well as at which, devo 
tion had been paid from time immemorial; 
it was one thing which the scattered Arabian 
nation had in common the one thing which 
gave them even tho shadow of a national 
feeling ; and to have dreamed of abolishing 
it, or even of diminishing the honours paid to 
it, would have been madness and ruin to Ms 
enterprise. He therefore did the next best 
thing, he cleared it of idols and dedicated it 
to the service of God." 

Mr. Stanley Lane Poole (Introduction to 
Lane s Selections, p. Ixxxiv.) remarks : 

" This same pilgrimage is often urged as 
a sign of Mohammad s tendency to supersti 
tion and even idolatry. It is asked how the 
destroyer of idols could have reconc led his 
conscience to the circuits of the Ka/bah and 
the veneration of the black stone covered 
with adoriug: kisses. The rites of the pil 
grimage cannot certainly be defended agauist 
the charge of superstition: but it is easy to 
see why Mohammad enjoined them. They 
were hallowed to him by the memories of 
his ancestors, who had beon the guardians of 
the sacred temple, and by the traditional re 
verence of all his people; and besides this tie 
of association, which in itself was enough to 
make it impossible for him to do away with 
the ritee, Mohammad perceived that the wor 
ship in the Ka bah would prove of real 
value to his religion. He swept away the 
more idolatrous and immoral part of the 
ceremonies, but he retained the pilgrimage 
to Mekka .and the old veneration of the 
temple for reasons of which it is impossible 
to dispute the wisdom He well knew the 
consolidating- effect of forming a centre to 
which his followers should gather ; and hence 
he reasserted the sanctity of the black stone 
that came down from heaven ; he ordained 
that everywhere throughout the world the 
Muslim should pray looking towards the Ka 
bah, and he enjoined him to make the pil 
grimage thither. Mekka is to the Muslim 
what Jerusalem is to the Jew. It bears with 
it all the influence of centuries of associations 
It carries the Muslim back to the cradle of 
his faith, the childhood of his prophet ; it re 
minds bim of the struggle between the old 
faith and the new, of the overthrow of the 
idols, and the establishment of the worship of 
the One God. And, most of all, it bide him 
remember that all his brother Muslims ?.ro 
worshipping towards the same sacx*ed spot, 
that he k one of a great company of be- 




lievers, united by one faith, filled with the 
same hopes, reverencing the same tiling, wor 
shipping tho same God. Mohammad showed 
liia knowledge of the roligioas emotions in 
man when he preserved the sanctity of tho 
temple of Islam," 

Tho Alakkan pilgrimage admits of no other 
explanation than this, that the Prophet of 
Arabia found it expedient to compromise with 
Arabian idolatry. And hence we find the 
superstition and silly easterns of the Hajj 
grafted on to a religion which professes to be 
both monotheistic in its principle, and icono 
clastic in its practices. 

A careful and critical study of Islnm will, 
we think, convince any candid mind that at first 
Muhammad intended to construct his religion 
on the linos of the Old Testament. Abraham, 
the true Muslim, was his prototype, Moses 
his law-giver, and Jerusalem his Qibfah. But 
circumstances were ever wont to change not 
only the Prophet s revelations, but also hi,s 
moral standai-ds. Makkp.h became the Qib- 
lah : and the spectacle of the Muslim world 
bowing in the direction of a black stone, 
whilst they worship the one God. marks 
Islam, with its Makkau pilgrimage, as a reli 
gion of compromise, 

Apologists of Islam have endeavoured to 

shield Muhammad from the solemn charge of 
having " forged the name of God," but we 
know of nothing which can justify the act of 
giving the stupid and unmeaning ceremonies 
of the pilgrimage all the force and solemnity 
of a divino enactment. 

Tho Wahhftbis, the Puritans of Islam, re 
gard the circumambulatiou of the Prophet s 
tomb as superstitious (as shirk, or associating 
something with God, in tact), but how can 
they justify the foolish ceremonies of thc- 
hajj ? If reverence for the Prophet * tomb if, 
shirk, what are the runnings at ae-Safa and 
al-Marwah, the atonings of the pillars, and the- 
kissings of the black stone? No Muslim 
has evor yet attempted to give a spiritual 
explanation of the ceremonies of tho Makkau 
pilgrimage, for in attempting to do so he 
would be charged with the heresy of tthirfc ! 

Mr. W. S. Blunb in his Future of Islam, 
has given some interesting statistics regard 
ing the pilgrimage to Makkah in the year 
1880, which he obtained during a residence at 
Cairo, Damascus, and Jiddah. The figures, 
he says, are taken principally from an official 
record kept for some years past at Jiddah, and 
checked as far as European subjects are 
concerned, Ly reference to the consular 
agents residing there. 


Nationality of Pilgrims. 

Arriving by 

Arriving by 

Total of Mnssul- 
man population 

Ottoman subjects including pilgrims from 

Syria and Irak, but not from Egypt or 

Arabia proper 








Mogrebbms ("people of the West"), that 

is to say. Arabic-speaking Muasalmans 
from the Barbary States. Tripoli, Tunis. 

Algiers, and Morocco. These are always 

classed together and are. pot easily distin 

guishable from each other . 



Arabs from Yemen 



., Oman and Hadramuut 



Nejd, Assir, and Hasa, most of 

them Wahhabites . 



Hejaz, of these perhaps 10.000 

Meccane .... 



Negroes from Soudan . ... 


10,000,000 (?) 

,, Zanzibar ..... 



Malabari from the Cape of Good Hope . 


Persians ....... 




Indians (British subjects) . 
Malays, chiefly from Java and Dutch subjects 



Chinese ....... 



Mongols from the Khanates, included in the 

Ottoman Haj 


Lazis, Circassians, Tartars, Ac. (Russian 

subjects), included in the Ottoman Haj 



Independent Afghans and Beluchis, included 

in the Indian and Persian Haje . 



Total of pilgrims present at Arafat 


Total Census of Islam 





The last or farewell pilgrimage performed by 
Mubp.mtnad, and which is taken as the model 
of an orthodox hajj. It is called the Hajjv, 
l-Akhar t OT Greater Pilgrimage, in the Qur an, 
Surah ix. 3. (See Mishkat, book xi. ch. lii., 
and Muir a Life of ?rfalioJnet,} It is supposed 
to have commenced February 23 r A.D. 632. 

HAJJ MABEtTR O^r* &*> A n 

approved or accepted pilgiimage (frfishkUt, 
book xi. en. i. pt 2). A pilgrirnmage to 
Makkah pcrf orp^ol .icrording to the condi 

tions Of Mils ?!*. I ,* 

HAJtAM . (^). An arbitrator 
appointed by a qazT to settle disputes. It is 
not lawful to appoint either a slave or an 
unbeliever or a slanderer, or an infant, as au 
arbitrator, (ffid&vak, vol. ii. p 638.) 

According to the Quran, Surah iv. 39, 
domestic quarrels should be settled by an 
arbitrator : if ye fear a breach between the 
two (i.e. husband and wife) then appoint an 
arbitrator from his people, ?.nd an arbitrator 
from her people.* 

Al-Hakam, the Ahitrator, is one of the 
ninety-nine attributes of God, although it is 
not so etn ployed in the Qur sn. 

HAKIM (>*W). A just ruler/* 

The term Ahkamu l-Hdkimin, " the Most Just 
of Rulers, is used i or God, Qur an, Surah 
xcv. 8 j also, Khairu J l-Hdkirnln^ i.e.. " Best of 
Rulers," Surah vii. 86. 

HAKIM (,&), pL hukemti ; Heb. 
Lit. " A wise person." (1) A 

philosopher. (2) A doctor of medicine. ^3) 
Al-Hakim, v The Wise One." One of the 
ninety-nine attributes of God It frequently 
occurs in the Qur an, e.g. Sfirah ii. 123 : " Thott 
art the Mighty and the Wise ! " 

HAL (J^)* A state, or condition. 
A term used by the Sufi mystics for those 
thoughts and conditions which come upon the 
heart of man without his intention or desire, 
such as sorrow, or fear, or pleasure, or desire, 
or lust. If these conditions are stable and in- 
transient, they are called molkah or maqam 
but if they are transient and fleeting, they 
are called hdl, (Abdu r-Razzaq s Dictionary 
of Sufi Terms.} 

A state of ecstasy induced by continued 
contemplation of God. It is considered a 
divine gift and a sure prognostication of 
speedily arriving at The Truth." 

Professor Palmer says (Oriental Mysti 
cism, p. 66), " This assiduous contemplation 
of startling metaphysical theories is exceed 
ingly attractive to an Oriental mind, and not 
unfrequently- produces a state of mental 
excitement akin to the phenomena observed 
during the recent religious revivals. Such 
ecstatic state IB considered a sure prognosti 
cation of direct illumination of the heart by 
God, and constitutes the 6fth stage (in the 
mystic journey) called hdl or ecstasy." 

HALAL (J2W). Lit. " That which 
is untied or loosed. * That vrhich is lawful, 


as distinguished from /.laram, or that which is 

AL-HALTM ^). " The Clement." 

One of the ninety-nine attribute* of Got!. ^ It 
occurs in the Qar an, ,.17. Surah ii. 225 : " God 
is forgiving and clement" 

IIAMA IL" (J*W). Lit "Things 

suspended * An amulet or charm [AWDLUT.] 

HAMALAH (8u-*). Compensa- 
tion fonnanslaugbtcr or murder, called also 
diuah. [DIYAH.] 


JJyJV). Lit. " Those who bear the 
throns." Certain angels mentioned in ttit 
Q.ur aa, ISurah xl. 7 : " Those who bear the 
throne (i.e. the Hamalatti *!- and those 
around it (i.e. the Karubm) celebrate the 
praise of their Lord, and believe in Him, ami 
ask pardon for those who believe/ 1 

Al Bagh&wI. the commentator, says they 
are eight angels of the highest rank. They 
are sc tall that their feet stand on Uie lowest 
strata of the earth and their beads reach 
the. highest heavens, the ujniverse does not 
reach up t-o fcheir Rvels> and it is a journey 
of seven hundred years troi/i their ears to 
their shoulders. (Al Bat/hawi, Bombay 
edition, vol. ii, p. 23.) 

HAMAN (<.jU*.Ub), The prime 
minister of Pharaoh. Mentioned ui fhe an in three different chapters. 

Surah xxviiL 7: "For sinners were Pha 
raoh and Haman." 

Surah xxix. 38 j " Korah (Qaruii) and Pha- 
r.ioh and Haman S with proofs of his mission 
did Moses coma to them and they behaved 
proudly on tho earth." 

Surah xi 88: 

| "And Pharaoh said, Hainau, build for 
me a tower that I may reach the avenues; 

" The avenues of the heavens, and may 
mount to the God of Moses, for 1 verily deem 
him a liar.* " 

Some European critics think that Muliani- 
mad has here made Haman the favourite of 
Ahasuerus and the enemy of the Jews, the 
vizier of Pharaoh. The Rabbins make this 
vizier to have been Korah, J ethro, or Balaam. 
(Midr. Jalkut on Ex. ch. 1, Sect. 162-168.) 

In tho Mishkat (book iv. ch. i. pt. 3), there 
is a tradition that Muhammad said he who 
neglects prayers will be in hell with Korah, 
Pharaoh, Ham an, and Ubaiy ibn Khali (an in 
fidel whem Muhammad slew with his own 
hand at the battle of Uhud.J 

AL-HAMD (*+*&}> the " Praise." 

A title of the first chapter of r.he Qur an* 
According to Kitabu l-Ta/rifat, "praise" 
(hamd) of God is of three kinds : 

(1) Al-hamdu l-Qauli, the praise of GoA 
with the tongue, with those attributes 
which He has made known Himself, (2) Ai> 
ham<Jlu l-Fi t li,the praise of God with the bodj 
according to tho will of God. (3) Al-kamd& 
l-Hali,ihe praise of God with the heart aiul 




AL-HAMID Om^H). "The Laud- 

able." The One worthy of praise. One of 
the ninety-nine attributes of God. It fre 
quently occurs in the Qur an, e.g. Surah xi. 
76, " Verily He is to be. praised" 

HA MlM (<** U). Seven Surahs 
of the Qur an begin with the letters A, f m, 
and are called al-Hawamlm. They are the 
XL, XLI, xiii, xuir, XLIV, XLV, and XLVI. 
Various opinions are held by Muhammadan 
commentators as to the meaning of these 
mysterious letters. Jalalu d-din as-Suyufcl 
in his ft<idn> says these letters are simply 
initial letters, the meaning of which is known 
only to God, but Ibn Abbas says the 
letters ^ , aad ^ in, stand for jUl^M ar- 
Jfahmdn, "the Merciful." one of the attributes 
of God. 

Mr. Rodwell, in his Introduction to the 
Koran, says, " Posaibly the letters Ha, Mim, 
which are prefixed to nunnrous successive 
Suras were private marks, or initial letters, 
attached by their proprietor to the copies 
furnished to Said when effecting his recension 
of the text under Othman. In the same way, 
the letters prefixed to other Suras may be 
monograms, or abbreviations, or initial letters 
of the names of the persons to whom the 
copies of the respective Suras belonged." 

HAMBAU L-ASAD (jU3\ y*). 

A village or small town, the scene of one of 
Muhammad s expeditions against theQuraish. 
Baring reached this spot he kindled five 
hundred fires to make the Quraish believe 
that the pursuing force was very large, and, 
contenting himself with this demonstration, 
he returned to al-Madinah, from which it was 
about 60 miles. According to Burton, it is 
the modern Wasitab. 

" At Hnmra al Asad, Mahomet made pri 
soner one of the enemy, the poet Abu Ozza, 
who had loitered behind the rest. He had 
been taken prisoner at Bedr, and, having five 
daughters dependent on him, had been freely 
released, on the promise that he would not 
again bear arms in tho war against the, 
Prophet. He now sought for mercy : 
Mahomet ! be prayed, * forgive me of thy 
grace. Nay, verily, said the Prophet * a 
believer may not be twice bitten from the 
(same hole. Thou shalt never return to 
Mecca, stroke thy beard and say, I have 
again deceived Mahomet. Lead him forth to 
execution 1 So saying, he motioned to ft 
bystander, who with his sword struck ofi the 
captive s head." (Muir s Life of Afdkomtt, 
new ed. p. 276.) 

HAMZAH (S>4~). Muhammad B 
uncle, who embraced Islam and hec&tne one 
of its bravest champions. He was at the 
battle of Uhud and slew Usman, one of the 
leaders of the Quraisli, but waa soon after 
wards himself killed by a wild negro named 
Wahshi, and his dead body shamefully muti 
lated. At his death Muhammad is recorded 
to have gaid that Hamzah was u the lion of 
God and of His Apostle/ The warlike deeds 

of Hamzah are recorded in Persian poetry, in 
which he is celebrated as Amir Hnmzah. 

HAMZIYAH (%*^). A sect of 

Muslims founded by Hamzah ibn Adrak, who 
say that the children (infants) of infidels will 
be consigned to the Fire of Hell, the general 
belief of Muhammadans being that they will 
have a special place in al-A raf. (Kitdbu t- 
Trtrifat, in loco.) 

HAN AFT (j**.), HANtl I (o*~-). 

A member of the sect of SunnTs founded by 
the Imam Abu Hanlfah. [ABU HANIFAH.] 


HANBAL1 (Ji^). A member of 
the Hanbali sect of Sunuu Muslims. [IBN 

HAND. Arabic yad (Ju->), pi. 
ayddi. Heb. T- 

(1) It is a rule wtfch Muslims to honour the 
right hand above the left ; to use the right 
hand for all honourable purposes, and the 
left for actions which, though necessary, are 
unclean. The hands must be washed before 
prayers [ABLUTIONS] and before meala. 

(2) The expreftsionyorfu lldh, the " hand of 
God," occurs in the Qur an : 

Surah v. 69 . " The Jews say, God s hand 
is fettered ; their hands are fettered, for they 
are cursed." 

Surah xlviii. 10 : God s hand is above 
their hands," 

There ia a controversy between the ortho 
dox Sunnis and the Wahhabis regarding the 
expression, " God a hand." The former main 
taining that it is a figurative expression for 
the power of God. the latter holding that it is 
literal ; but that it is impossible to say in what 
sense or manner God has a hand ; for as 
the essence of God is not known, how can the 
manner of His existence be understood ? 

of keeping a handkerchief in the hand, as ia 
frequently practised, is said to be abominable 
(makruk}. Many, however, hold that it is al 
lowable, if done from motives of necessity, 
This, says Abu Hanifah, is approved ; for the 
practice is abominable only when it is done 
ostentatiously. (Hiddyah, vol. ; p. 95.) 

HANIF CU^Jta.), pi. Hunafd\ Lit. 

" One who is inclined/ (1) Anyone sincere 
in his inclination to Islam. (2) One orthodox 
in the faith (3) One who is of the religion 
of Abraham. (See Mdjma u l-Bihar, in loco.) 

The word occurs ten times in the Qur an. 

I. Six times for the religion of Abra 

Surah li. 129: They say, Be ye Jews or 
Christians *o shall ye be guided I Say : Not 
so ! but the faith of Abraham, the Hani/, 
he was not of the idolaters." 

Surah iii. 60 : " Abraham was not a Jew 
nor yet a Christian, but he was a Hanif re 
signed, and not of the idolaters." 

/dero, 89: " Follow the faith of Abraham, 
a Jfanif t who was not of the idolaters." 




Surnh vi. 162 Tho faith ot Abraham. 
the Hunlf. he was not of the idolaters." 

$drah svi. 121 : Verily Abraham was tvn 
Imam a tlanif. ani -was not of the idolaters." 

Surah vi. 79: (Abraham said) "1 have 
turned my iace to Him who criginatcd the 
heaven and the earth as a Hanif and I am 
not of the idolaters. >r 

II AVur times /or OJQO sound iii the 

SiiraJQ x. 105 : " Make steadfast thy face io 
the religion as a Hanlj . and be not at. 

Sijrah xjdi. 32 : * ; Avoid speakjuy falsely 
being Hanifs to (jod;. not associating aught 
with Him." 

Surah xoTiii, \ : < -Being sincere in religion 
unto Jliiu. us llmifs, atvl to be atcadffcsl \\\ 

gurah xxx 29: "Set iliy face steadfast 
low a I d* the religion, as a. Hanif.* 

III.-- The term was also applied in the 
eariy stages of Islam, and before Mohammad 
claimed tho position of an inspired prophov, to 
those who had endeavoured to search for the 
truth among the mass of con dieting dogmas 
and superstitions af tho religions luai rxisted 
in Arabia. Aocongst these Hamfs. were \Yo- 
rgqaju. the Prophet s cousin, and Zaid ibu 
Atni, surnamea tho Enquirer. 1 hey wore 
knowji as Uaoifs. a word which originally 
meant 4i inchning enc s steps toward any 
thing," and therefore signified either a con 
vert or a pervert. Muhammad appears train 
the above verses (-when chronologically 
arranged), to have first used U for the reli 
gion oi Abraham, but altervvards for any 
sincf re professor of Islam. 

1IAQIQAII (*M0. " Truth; sin- 

(I) The essence of a thiog as meaning 1 that 
by being- -which a thing 1 is what it ii. As 
when \ve say tliat a rational animal is the 
haqiqal of a huffiAtt being, (See Kilatiu t~ 

("2) A Avord or phrase used in itn projxn 
cr oi i^nial secae, as opposed to that ^, hich is 
figurative. A speech without trope OY 


(U) 1 he sixtii stage in tht* mystic jouruey 
of the $ufi, wKen ho is supposed to receive 
a re\ (\Luiou of the true nature of the Ood- 
huad, and to have arrived at * the Truth 

MADIYAH (*o^fe^J\ ^s^V). * Tie 
essence of Muhauuniid, the Nar i- 
i, 01 the Light uf Muhainmad, 
which is "believed to have boon created before 
al things. (Kiiii lj t- TariKi. in k>cu., 

Th \Vahhabii do not beUeve in th<j pre- 
exift ence of their Prophet, and the ductrine 
is most, probably an invention of the Sufi 
mystics in the otriy stages oi Islan^. 

According to the hnarn ^astu Jbini (Mu- 
nalub-i-laduniya. vol. i p 12). at ia reiated bv 
Jahiribn "Audi Huh ai-Apsari ttitit the Pro 
phet said " The iirst thing created waa the 
ught of your Pjohpet, which was created 


from the light of God. This light of ttiine 
roajned about wherever God willed, and when 
the Almighty resotyed to make the world, ho 
divided this light of Muhammad into four 
portions; from the first he created the Pen 
(0/uM); from the second, iho Tablet (laahj 
from the third, the highoat heaven and the 
throne of God ( k ursA) ; the fourth portion was 
divided uuo four sections ; from th^ lirst were 
created the Uaatalutu l- Ank, ox the eight 
angola who .support the throne of God ; from 
the .second, the hursi, or lower throne of Godj 
from the third, tho angob; :*nd the fourth, 
beitiy divided into four sulxiividions, from it 
wei*y civatod (1) the firmaments or seven hea- 
vtnat, (2) ihi earth, (3) the seven paradisos 
and seven hells, (4) and again from a (otirth. 
sectioii wore created (I) the ight of the 
eyes, (2) tho light of the rniud, (S) the light 
oi the love oi tho Unity of pod, (4) the re 
niaining- -portion of creation." 

The author of the Hayutu l-Qitiub, a iihi-ah 
book of traditiom (St Alerriek s transialion, 
p. 4) ; says the tradationa respecting the crea 
tions from this I^ght of Muhammad aix- nume 
rous and discordant, but that the di^i-epan 
ciea may possibly jic reconciled by -referring 
the diverse dates to different eras in the pro 
cess of creation " Tfie holy light of Mu. 
hummad." ho says "dwelt under the empy 
rean seventy tiirc thousand years, and the^ 
resided seventy thousand years in Paa a 
di&c. Afterwards it rested another period cl 
seventy tiioxisand years under the celestial 
U\>e called Sidrutu / Mitntahu, and, emi 
grating ironi het\on to heaven, am red ut 
lungtb in tho lowest of thuse colestiaj. man- 
sioiib, where it remained until the Moat High 
willed the creation, of Adam." 

(A very Curious account of. the abaurd bo 
Uef of the Shi ahs on this subject will Uc 
found in Mr. Meniek a oditioii of iho Hiyjis. 
l-Qnlub; Bostou, I860.) 

HAQIQ1 (^M-). "Literal/ as 

opposed to that which is mftjazt or. i!gurs- 

i;IAQQ (^.). "Truth, juslico." 

A ierm used in theology for that whicU-is 
tine,ey. The word of God; religion. In law 
it implies that which is due. A thing decreed ; 
a claim. By the Sufi mystics U is aiway^ 
used for the Divine Essence j God. 

Al-Haqq* " The Truth/ One of theniaety- 
aino attributes of God. 

Lit. "The 

aureiy fuipciiding. v The title of the i.xixth 
Surah of the ^ux an, in which the word 
occurs in the opeflini< verse : u The mevit- 
i *ble ! (aL-Haqy tttu!\. What is the mevit- 
ablo? " The word is understood by all com 
rncntators to mean the Day of Resurrection 
and Judgment It does not cccur in nv 
other portion of the Qur an. 

HAQQTJ L- ; ABD (***& &Sj. " Tho 
right of tho .slave (oi God^." In kw the right. 
of- an. injured individual to demand redress 
and justice. 




flAQQU LLAH flUI &>.). "The 

right of God." In Jaw, the retributive chas 
tisement which it is the duty of a magistrate 
to intlict for crime and offences Against mora- 
l(iy and religion. In theology it moans 
prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage, and other 
religions duties. 

HAQQU L-YAQlN (&*a<*\ &*). 

" A conviction of tho truth." A term used 
by the $ufl mystics for a state in which the 
seeker after truth has in thought and reflec 
tion a positive evidence of lus extinction and 
of his being incorporated in the Essence of 
Qod. [YAQIN.] 

HAQQU N-NAS (^-Ul\ ^). "The 

right of men." A term hi law implying <b 
same as Haqqu l- Abd. 

IJARAM r^), pi, Jfuram. 4i That 
which is sacred. (1) Al-flaram. ihe aacr>d 
precincts of Makkah or al-Madinah. .(2) 
2/ara/w, the apartments of women in a Mu 
hammad an household. f~n \niM.l (3) II arum. 

y). Lit. "prohibited." 

That which is unlawful. The word is used 
in both a good and a bad sense. e.g. Baitu >l 
hardn}. tho sacred house; and J\f-dlu l-hara/tt, 
unlawful possessions. Ibnu. t-hardm, an ille 
gitimate sou ; Shahru l-/iar4m, a sacred 

A thing is said to be hardm when it is for 
bidden, as opposed to that which is fatal, or 
lawful. A pilgrim is said to be hardm as soon 
as he has put on. the pilgrim s garb. 

Jfardmu lldfi Id ajf a in is a form of oath 
that a man will not lo a thing. 

jLo^). The sacred boundary of al - 
MadiuaH within which certain acts are un 
lawful which arc lawful elsewhere, v The 
Imam Abu Hanifah says that although it is 
respectful to tho position oi the sacred city, as 
tho birth pkiro of the Prophet, not to bear 
arms, or kill, or out grass, &c., still it b not, 
as in tho case of Makkah, an incumbent reli 
gious duty. According to n. tradition by <Ali 
ihn Abi Talib (Mahkdt, book xi. ch. xvi.), 
the- JfudufJu V-/7r</;, or sacred limits of H! 
Aludioah are from Jabal Air to Saur. Ac 
cording to Burton, the diameter of tho rlar.-m j 
Ls froiu ten tc ; twelve miles. (El Medina it , 
a/id Meccah, voL i. p. :iC2.) 


The sacred boundary of Makkah within which 
certain acts are unlawful which are lawful 
elsewhere. It is not lawful to carry arms, or 
to fight within its limits. Its thorns must | 
not be broken, nor its game molested, nor j 
must anything be taken up which has fallen ! 
.on the ground, unless it is done to restore it 
Lo it owner. Tts fresh grass or even its ! 
dry gras must not be cut ; except the bog 
rush (tztchir ), because it is used for black 
smith s fires and for thatching houses. (A 
tradition bv Ibn Abbas. Mithkaf. book xi. 

ch. xv. pt. 1). Abdu i-Hnqq says that when 
Abraham. " the friend of God," placed the 
black stoiio at the time of the building of the 
Ka bah, its oast, west, north, and south 
quarters became bright with light, and that 
wherever the brightness extopdVd itself be 
came the lladiidu l-J/urain, or tho limits of 
the sacred city. Thoso h miU are marked by 
manors or pillars on ail sidca, cxi-t?pt on the 
Jiddah and Jairanah roads, regarding wliich 
there is some dispute*, as to the exact dis 


HA RES. Arabic arnab, pi. ardnib. 
Heb. niTjW. The flesh of the hare 
is UwJoL for the Prophet ate it, ami com 
manded his companions to do so (Uidttyah, 
vol. iv. p. 75). A difference of opinion has in 
all ages existed as to the value of the bare 
as an article of food. The Greeks and 
Romans ate it in spito of an opinion that pre 
vailed that it was not wholesome. In tho 
law of Moses, it is specified amongst tho un 
clean animals fLev. xi. 6 ; Dout xjv. 7). The 
Parseos do not oat hare s iiesh, nor do tho 

HARF (^). (1) An extremity, 
verge, or border. (2) A letter of tho alpha 
bet. (3J A paxticle in grammar. (4) A 
dialect ot Arabia, or a. mode of expression 
peculiar to certain Arabs. The Qur An is 
said to have been revcaied in seven dialects 
(sab-ul ahruf}. [QURAN.] (5) A term used by 
tho Sufi mystics for the particle of any true 


word used especially in Turkey, Egyjit, and 
Syria, for the female apartments of *a Mu- 
hammadan household. In Persia, Afghan 
istan, and India, the terms haraitujah, mahult- 
sardi and zandnuh are used for the same place. 
The seclusion of women being enjoined in 
the Qnr an (Surah xxxiii 65), in all Muham- 
madan countries it is the rule for respectable 
vomeii to remain sccJudod at homo, and not 
Lo travel abroad unveiled, nor to associate 
with men otliej than their husbands or such 
male relatives as are forbidden in marriage 
by reason of consanguinity. In consequence 
of theso injunctions, which have all the iorce 
of a divine enactment, the female portion of 
a Muhammadan family always resides in 
iipartments which are in an inclosed court 
yard and excluded from pubb c view. This 
inclosure is called the Acrri/w, and sometimes 
haram, or in Persian zandmih-, from xafl, a 
* woman " ). Mr. Lane in his Modem Kgyp- 
tians, has given a full account of the Egyptian 
hnjum. We are indebted to Mrs. Meer Ali 
for the following very graphic and interesting 
description of a Muhammadan zananah or 
harim in Lucknow. 

Mrs. Meer Ali was an English lady who 
married a Muhainmadan gentleman, and re- 

ided amongst the people of Lucknow for 
twelve years. Upon the death of her hu- 

barid, she retnrne-l to England, and 

164 HABIM 

her Observations on the Musalmans of India, 
whieh was dedicated, with permission, to 
Queen Adelaide. 

" The habitable buildings of a native Mu- 
hammadan home are raised a few steps from 
the court ; a line of pillars forms the front of 
the building, which has no upper rooms ; the 
roof is flat, and the sides aid back without 
windows, or any aperture through which air 
can be received. The sides and back are 
merely high walls, forming an enclosure, a-nd 
the only air is admitted from the fronts of 
the dwelling-place facing the court-yard. The 
apartments are divided into long halls, the 
extreme corners haying small rooms or dark 
closets purposely built for the repository of 
valuables or stores ; doors are fixed, to these 
closets, which are the only places I have seen 
with them in a zananah or mahall (house or 
palace occupied by females) ; the floor is either 
at beaten earth, bricks, or atones: boarded 
floors are not yet introduced. As they have 
neither doors nor windows to the halls, warmth 
o* privacy is secured by means of thick wadded 
curtains, made tt> fit ech opening between the 
pillars. Some zananaks have two rows of 
pillars in the halls with wadded curtains to 
each, thus forming two distinct halls, as 
occasion may serve, or greater warmth be 
required ; this is a convenient arrangement 
where the establishment of servants, slaves, 
&c. is extensive. 

" The wadded curtains are called pardahs ; 
these are sometimes made of woollen cloth, 
but more generally of coarse calico, of two 
colours, in patchwork style, striped, van- 
dyked, or in some other ingeniously contrived 
and ornamented way, according to their indi 
vidual taste. 

" Besides the pardahs, tho openings between 
the pillars have blinds neatly made of fine 
bamboo strips, woven together with coloured 
cords ; theso are called chicks. Many of them 
are painted green , others are more gaudy, 
both in colour and variety of patterns. These 
blinds constitute a real comfort to everyone 
in India, as they admit air when let down, 
and at the same tiiue shut out flies and other 
annoying insects ; besides which, the extreme 
glare is shaded by them a desirable object 
to foreigners in particular. 

" The floors of the halls are first matted 
with the coarse date-leaf matting of the 
country, over which are spread shajjranjis 
(thick cotton carpets, peculiarly the manu 
facture of the Upper Provinces of India, woven 
in stripes of blue and white, or shades of 
blue) j a white oalieo carpet covers the shafc- 
raaji on which the females take their seat 

" The bedsteads of the family are placed, 
during the day, in lines at the back of the 
halls, to be moved at pleasure to any chosen 
spot for the night s repose; often into tb 
open court-yard, for the benefit of the pure 
air. They are all formed on one principle, 
differing only in size and quality ; they stand 
about half a yard from the floor, the legs 
round and broad at bottom, narrowing as 
they rise towards the frame, which is laced 
over with a thick cotton tape, made for the 


purpose, and plaited in ehecquers, and thus 
rendered soft, or rather elastic, and very 
pleasant to recline upon. The legs of these 
bedsteads ar in some instances gold and 
silver gilt, or pure silver ; ethers have enamel 
pakitinga on fine wood; the inferior grade* 
have them merely of wood painted plain and 
varnished. The servauts bedsteads are of the 
common mango- wood without ornament, the 
lacing of these for the sacking being of elastic 
string manufactured from the fibre of the 

" Such are the bedsteads of every class of 
people. They seldom have mattresses : a 
white quilt is spread on the lacing, over 
which ti calico sheet, tied at each corner of 
the bedstead with cords and tassels ; several 
thin flat pillows of beaten cotton for the 
head ; a muslin sheet for warm weather, and 
a well wadded razai (coverlid) for winter is 
all these children of Nature deem esaentia.1 to 
their comfort in the way of sleeping-. They 
have no idea of night-dresses ; the name suit 
that adorns a lady, is retained both night and 
day, until a change be needed. The single 
ai-ticle exchanged at night is the dupatja (a 
small shawl for the head), and that only 
when it happens to be of silver tissue or em 
broidery, for which a muslin or calico sheet 
is substituted. 

The very highest circles have the same 
habits in common with the meanest, but 
those who can afford shawls of Cashmere, 
prefer them for sleeping in, when the cold 
weather renders them bearahle Blankets 
are never used except by the poorest pea 
santry, who wear them in lieu of better gar 
ments night and day in the winter season; 
they are always black, the natural colour of 
the wool. The quilts of the higher orders 
are generally made of silk of the "brightest 
hues, well wadded, and lined with dyed mus 
lin of assimilating colour ; they are usually 
bound with broad silver ribands, and some 
times bordered with gold brocaded trim 
mings. The middling classes, have fine 
chintz quilts, and the servants and slaves 
coarse ones of the same material ; but all are 
on the same plan, whether for a queen or the 
meanest of her slaves, differing only in the 
quality of the material, The mistress of the 
house is easily distinguished by her se&t of 
honour in the hall of a zarsanah, a Tnasnadnoi 
being allowed to any other person but the 
lady of the mansion. The maenad carpet is 
spread on the floor, if possible near to a 
pillar about the centre of the hall, and is 
made of many varieties of fabric gold cloth, 
quilled silk, brocaded silk, velvet, fine chintz, 
or whatever n>ay suit the lady s taste, cir 
cumetances, or convenience. It is about two 
yards square, and generally bordered or 
fringed, OE which is placed the all-important 
masnad This article may be understood by 
those who have seen a lace-maker s pillow in 
England, excepting only that the masnad is 
about twenty times the size of that useful 
little article in the hands of our industrious 
villagers. The masnad IB covered with gold 
cloth, ailk, ^elvet, or calico, with square pil- 


Iowa to correspond, for the elbows, the 
knees, Ac. This is the seat of honour, to be 
invited to share which, with the lady-owner, 
is a mark of favour to an equal or inferior : 
when, a superior pays a visit of honour, the 
prided seat is usually surrendered to her, mid 
the lady of the house takes her place most 
humbly* on the very edge of her own carpet. 
Looking-glasses or ornamental furniture are 
very rarely to be seen in the zananah, even of 
the very richest females. Chairs and eofas 
are produced when English visitors are ex 
pected ; but the ladies of Hindustan prefer 
the usual mode Of sitting and lounging on the 
carpet; and as or tables, I suppose not one 
gentlewoman of the whole country has ever 
been seated at one ; and very few, perhaps, 
have any idea of their useful purposes, all 
their meals being served on the floor, where 
dastarkhwans (table-cloths we should call 
them) are spread, but neither knives, forks, 
spoona, glasses, nor napkins, ao essential to 
the comfortable enjoyment of a meal amongst 
Europeans. But those who never knew such 
comforts have no desire for the indulgence, 
nor taste to appreciate them. 

On the several occasions, amongst native 
society, of assembling in large parties, as at 
births and marriages, the halls, although ex 
tensive, would be inadequate to accommodate 
the whole party. They then have awnings of 
white calico, neatly nounced with mnslin, 
supported on poles fixed in the court-yard, 
and connecting the open space with the great 
hall, by wooden platforms which are brought 
to a line with the building, and covered with 
sha^ranji, and white carpets to correspond 
with the floor-furniture of the hall ; and here 
the ladies sit by day and sleep by right very 
comfortably, without feeling any great incon 
venience from the absence of their bedsteads, 
vrhich could never be arranged for the accom 
modation of so large an assemblage nor is it 
ever expected, 

M The usually barren look of these almost 
unfurnished hails, is on such occasions quite 
changed, when the ladies are assembled in 
their various dresses ; the brilliant display 
of jewels, the glittering drapery of their 
aress, the various expressions of countenance, 
and different figures, the multitude of female 
attendants and slaves, the children of all 
ages and sixes hi their variously ornamental 
dressed, are subjects to attract both the eye 
and the mind of an observing visitor ; and the 
hall, which when empty appeared desolate 
and comfortless, thus filled, leaves nothing 
wanting to render the scene attractive. 

" The buzz of human voices, the happy 
playfulness of the children, the chaste sing 
ing of the domnlx fill up the animated pic 
ture. I have sometimes passed an hour or 
two in witnessing their innocent amusements, 
without any feeling of regret for the brief 
sacrifice of time I had made. I am free to 
confess, however, that I have returned to my 
tranquil home with increased delight after 
having witnessed the bustle of a zananah 
assembly. At first I pitied the apparent 
monotony of their lives but this feeling has 



worn away by intimacy with the people, who 
are thus precluded from mixing generally 
with the world. They ai*e happy in their 
confinement ; and never having felt the 
iweets of liberty, would not know how to 
use the boon if it were to be granted them. 
As the bird from the nest immured in a cage 
is both cheerful nd contented, so are these 
females. They have not, it is true, many 
intellectual resources, but they have natu 
rally good understandings, and having learned 
their duty they strive to fulfil it. So far 
as I have had any opportunity of making 
personal observations on their general cha 
racter, they appear to me obedient wives, 
dutiful daughters, affectionate mothers, kind 
mistresses, sincere friends, and liberal bene 
factresses to the distressed poor. These are 
their moral qualifications, and in their reli 
gious duties, they are zealous in performing 
the several ordinances which they have been 
instructed by their parents Or husbands to 
observe. If there be any merit in obeying- the 
injunctions of their law-giver, those whom I 
have known most ultimately, deserve praise 
since they are faithful in that they profess.* 
" To ladies accustomed from infancy to con 
finement, this kind of life is by no means irk 
some : they have their employments and their 
amusements, and though these are not exactly 
to Our taste, nor suited to our mode of educa 
tion, they are not. the less relished by those 
for whom they were invented. They perhaps 
wonder equally at some of our modes of dis 
sipating time, and fancy we might spend it 
more profitably. Be that as it may, the 
Muslim ladies, with whom "I have been long 
intimate, appear to me always happy, con 
tented, and satisfied with the seclusion to 
which they were born ; they desire no other, 
and I have ceased to regret they cannot be 
made partakers of that freedom of inter 
course with the world we deem so essential 
to our happiness, since their health suffers 
nothing frora that confinement, by which they 
are preserved from a variety of snares and 
temptations : besides which, they would deeui 
it disgraceful in the higbeet degree to mix 
indiscriminately with men who are not rela 
tions. They are educated from infancy for 
retirement, and they can have no wish that 
the custom should be changed, which keeps 
them apart from the society of men who are 
not very nearly related to them. Female 
society is unlimited, and that they enjoy 
without restraint. 

" Those females who rank above peasants 
or inferior servants, are disposed from prin 
ciple to keep themselves strictly from obser 
vation; all wbo have any regard for the 
character or the honour of thejr house, se 
clude themselves from the eye of strangers, 
carefully instructing their young daughters 
to a rigid observance of their own prudent 
example. Little girls, when four years old, 
are kept strictly behind the pardah (lit. 
"curtain"), and when they move abroad it 
is always in covered conveyances, and under 
the guardianship of a faithful female domestic, 
who is equally tenacious as the mother to 




preserve the young lady s reputation unble 
mished by concealing her from the gazo of 

"The ladies of zananah. life are not re 
stricted from the society of their own BOX; 
they are, as t have before remarked, extra 
vagantly fond of company, and equally as 
hospitable when entertained. To be alone is 
a trial to which they are seldom exposed, 
every lady having companions amongst her 
dependants ; and according to her means the 
number in her establishment is regulated. 
Some ladies of rank have from two to ten 
companions, independent of slaves and domes 
tics : and there are some of the royal family 
at Lucknow who entertain in their service 
fwo or three hundred female dependants, of 
all classes. A well-filled zananah is a mark 
of gentility ; and even the poorest lady in the 
country will retain a number of slaves and 
domestics, if she cannot afford companions ; 
besides which they are miserable without 
society, the habit of associating with numbers 
having grown up with infancy to maturity : 
to be alone, is considered, with women .thus 
situated, a real calamity. 

" On occasions of assembling in large par 
lies, each lady takes with her a companion 
besides two or three slaves to attend upon 
"her, no one expecting to be served by the 
servants of the house at which they are 
visiting. This swells the numbers to be pro 
vided for ; and as the visit is always for threo 
days and three nights (except on */rfs. when 
the visit is confined to onet day), some fore 
thought must be exercised by the lady of the 
house, that all may be accommodated in 
such^a manner an may secure to her the re 
putation of hospitality. 

"The kitchen and offices to tho zananah. 
1 have remarked, occupy one side of the quad 
rangle ; they face the great or centre hall 
appropriated to the assembly. These kit 
chens, however, are sufficiently distant to 
prevent any great annoyancefrom the smoke 
-I say smoke, because chimneys have not 
yet been introduced into the kitchens of the 

" The lire-places aro all on tho ground, 
something resembling stoves, each admitting 
one saucepan, the Asiatic style of cooking 
requiring no other contrivance. Roast or 
boUed joints are nevnr seen at the dinner of a 
native; a leg of mutton or sirloin of beef 
would place the hostess under all sorts of 
difficulties, where knives and forks are not 
understood to be amongst the useful appen 
dages of a meal. The varieties of their dishes 
are countless, but stews and curries are the 
chief ; all the others are mere varieties. The 
only thing inr the shape of roast meats are 
small lean cutlets bruised, seasoned and ce 
mented with pounded poppy seed. Several 
being fastened together on skewers, they 
are grilled or roasted over a charcoal fire 
spread on the ground, and then called kabdbt 
which wore 4 ^niplies roast meat. 

** The kitchen of a zananah would be ins 
adequate to the business of cooking for a 
large assembly; the most choice dishes only 

(for the highly-favoured guests), are cookoc 
by the. servants of the establishment Th 
needed abuudanfce required in entertaining i, 
large party is provided by a" regular bazin 
cook, several of whom establish tbomsoivet 
in native cities, or wherever there is a Mus 
lim population. Orders being previous!} 
given, the morning and evening dinners are 
punctually forwarded at the appointed hours 
in covered trays, each tray having portions of 
the several good things ordered, so that there 
is no confusion in serving put the feast on its 
arrival at the mansion. The food thus pre 
pared by the bazar cook (jidnbai, he is 
called),: is plain boiled rice, sweet rice, kklr 
(rice-milk), mutanjan (rice sweetened with 
the addition of preserved fruits, raisins, <fec., 
coloured with saffron), solans (curries) ofi 
many varieties, some cooked with vege 
tables, others with unripe fruits with on 
without meat; pufdos of many sorts, kabdbs, 
preserves, pickles, chatnis, and many other > 
things too tedious to admit of detail. 

" The broad in general use amongst natives < 
is chiefly unleavened: nothing in the likeness 
of English bread is to be seen at their meals ; 
and many object to its being fermented with 
the intoxicating toddy (extracted from a tree), i 
Most of the native broad is baked on iron 
plates over a charcoal fire. They have many i 
varieties, both plain and /ich, and some of i 
the latter resembles our pastry, both in>! 
quality and flavour. 

" The dinners, 1 have said, are brought into 
the zananah, ready dished in the native- 
earthenware, on trays ; and as they neither 
use spoons nor lorks, there is no great delay 
in setting out the rneal where nothing is re 
quired for display or effect, beyond the ex 
cellent quality of the food and its being well 
cooked. In a large assembly all cannot dine 
at tho dastarkhwdn of the lady hostess, even 
if privileged by their rank ; they are, there 
fore, accommodated in groups of ten, fifteen, 
or more, as may be convenient: each lady 
haying her companion at the meal, and her 
slaves to brush off the intruding flies with 
a chauri, to hand water, or to fetch or carry 
any article of delicacy from or to a neighbour* 
ing group. The slaves and servants dine in 
parties after their ladies have .finished, in 
any retired corner of the court-yard - always 
avoiding as much as possible the presence of 
their superiors. 

" Before anyone touches Ihe meal, water is 
carried round for each lady co wash the hand 
and rinso the mouth. It is deemed unclean 
to eat without this form of ablution, and the 
person neglecting it would be held unholy. 
This done, the lady turns to her meal, saying. 
" Bismillah ! " (In the namo or to the praise 
of Godl), and with the right hand conveys 
the food to her mouth (the left hand is never 
used at meals) ; and although, they partake 
of every variety of food placed before them i 
with no other aid than their fingers, yet the j 
mechanical habit is so perfect, that they 
iittither drop a grain of rice, soil the dross, nor 
retain any of the food on their fingers. The 
custom must always be offensive to 9 foreign 


eye, and the habit none wculd wish to copy; 
vel everyone "who witnoasca must admire 
the neat way in which eating is accomplished 
by theae really 4 Children of Nature/ 

" The repast concluded, the lolu (vessel 
with water;, and the la jyan (to receive the 
water in ai tor rinsing the hands and mouth), 
are passed round. To every person^ who. 
having announced by the Ash -Shukru lillah ! 
(All thank* to God \) that she has finished, 
the attendants presetu first the powdered 
peas, called t>esan, which answers tho pur 
pose of soap in removing grease, &c. jfrom the 
fingers --and then the water in due course. 
Soap has not even yet been brought into 
fashion by the natives, except by the washer 
men ; 1 have often been sui-prised that thoy 
have not found the use of soap a necessary 
article in the nursery, where the only sub 
stitute I huvo ^een U the powdered pea. 

Lotas and iaggsuw are articles in use 
with ^11 classes of p<x>plo ; they mnat bo poor 
indeed who do not .bonst of one, at least, in 
their family. They are always of metal, 
either braas, er copper lacuuered over, or 
zinc ; hi aomo cases as with the nobility, 
silver and even gold are cnovevted iulo these 
useful anises oi native comfort. 

China or glass i* comparatively but little 
used : water is their only beverage, and ibis 
is preferred, in tho Absence of metal basins, 
out of the comtnou red earthen katora (cop 
shaped like a vase). 

China disheo, bowU, and basins, are used 
for serving many of the savoury articles of 
food in : but it is as caramon in the privacy 
f the palace, as well as in the huts of the 
peasantry, to see many choice things intro 
duced at meals served up in the rude red 
earthen plaitf-r ; many of the delicacies of 
A&iuac cookery being esteemed more palat 
able from the earthen flavour of tho new 
vessel in which it io served. 

China tea-sets are veiy rarely found in 
tho Knnimah, tea being used by the -natives 
more at a medicine than a refreshment, ex 
cept by such gentlemen UK have frequent 
intercourse with tho " >?ahib Log " (English 
gentry), among whom thoy acquire a taste 
for this delightful beverage. The iadios, 
however, must nave a severe cold to induce 
them to partake o) the beverage even as a 
remedy, but by no meana as a luxury. I 
imagined that the inhabitants of u zananah 
were badly deficient- in actual comforts, when 
J found, upon my iirat arrival in India, that 
there were no preparations for breakfast 
going forward . everyone seemed engaged in 
pan eating, and smoking tho huqqah, but no 
break! UK t after the morning uamaz. 1 was, 
however, soon satisfied that they i elt no sort 
of privation, I*B the early meal so common in 
Europe bus never been introduced in Eastern 
circles. Their first meal is agoou substantial 
dinner, at ten, eleven, or twelve o clock , after 
\*hiuh follows pan and the huqqah; io this 
succeed a a sletip of two or three hours, pro 
viding it does not impede tho duty of prayer 
--the pioutf. I oujrht to remark, would give up 
every indulgence which would prevent the 



discharge of this duty. Tho second meal 
follows in twelve hours from the iirst, and 
consists of tn. same substantial fare 5 after 
which thoy usually sleep again the 
dawn of day is near at hand 

" The /ivy^a/t (pipe) is :iluj<jst in ^c-ueraiu3C 
with females It is a common practice with 
ihe lady of tho house to prenout the huqquii 
she is smoking i-j hu 1 favoured guest. Tnia 
mark of attention i- always to bo duly ap 
preciated ; but such is tho deference paid to 
parents, that a son can ravely be persuaded 
by an indulgent father or mother to smoke a 
huqqah in their revered presence ; this praia- 
worthy feeling originates liot in fear, but rcul 
genuine respect. Tbe parents entertain for 
their son the most tender regard; and the 
father makes him both his companion and 
his Irieud ; yet tho most familiar t/nJcarmonts 
do not lessen tho feeling of rovcronce a good 
son entertains for his father. This is om> 
among Ihe many samples of patriarchal life, 
and which I can never witness in real life, 
without feeling respect for the persons who 
follow up tue patterns 1 have been taught 
to venerate in our Holy Scripture 

Tbc huqqah (pipe) as an indulgence or a 
privilege, is agr at detinerof etiquette. In the 
presence of tho king or reigning nawab. no 
subject, however high he may rank in blood 
or ruyftl favour, can presume to smoke. In 
native courts, on ritatc occasions, hnqqalm are 
presented only to the Governor- General, the 
Coxnmander-in.f hiof, or the Resident at his 
court, who are considered equal in rank, and 
therefore entitled to the privilege of smoking 
with him ; and they cannot consistently resist 
the intended honour. Should they dislike 
smoking, a hint is readily understood by tho 
huqqah bardar to bring the huqqah, cliarged 
with tho materials, with put the addition of 
nre. Applications of the munhndl (mouth 
piece) to tho mouth, indicates a sense of the. 
honour conferred." {Observations on the Alu- 
satmdns of fndta, voL i. p, 304.) 

HAEIS (*&^). A surname which 

frequently occurs amongst " the Companions.^ 
In the Tnqrlbii t~Ta*&ib t there are not fewer 
that sixty-five persons of this name, of whom 
short biogra]>hical notes are given. 

Haris ibn Naufal ibn nl-Haris ihn Abdi 1- 
Muttalib. was a Companion of .some conse 
quence; he lived close to the house of tho 
Prophet, and had frequently to make room 
ab tho Prophet s Llarim extended itself 

Hails ibn Hieham ibn al-Mughirah. i.v 
another Companion, who lived at Makkah. 

IFaris sou of Suwaid ibu Sainit, tho poet, 
was executed at 

A sect of 

Muslims founded by Abu 1-liaris, who in 
! opposition to tho sc-et Abaziyah, said it was 
; not correct to say tho acts ol men were not 
, ih* acts of Go l. (Kitdbu t-T< loco.) 

HARUN (^y^)- [ \ARON. ^ 
HAK.UT WA MAR0T (^ ^ J; U 
5) U). Two aii^cii inuationed in 



the Qar an. They are said to be two angels 
who, in bonsequence 6f their compassion for 
the frailties of mankind, were sent down to 
earth to be tempted. They both sinned, and 
being permitted to choose whether they wou Id 
he ptmiahed now or hereafter, chose the 
former, and are still suspended by the feet 
at Babel in a rocky pit, where they are great 
teachers of magic. 

The account of these two angols in the 
Qor an, is given in Surah ii. 96 : 

"They (the Jews) followed what the devils 
taught hi the reign of Solomon: not that Solo 
mon was unbelieving, but the devils were un 
believing. Sorcery did they teach to men, 
and what had been revealed to the two 
angols, Harut and Marut, at Babel. Yet no 
man did these two teach until they had said, 
We are only a temptation. Be not then an 
unbeliever. From these two did men learn 
bow to cause .division between man and wife: 
but unless by leave of God, no man did they 
harm thereby. They learned, indeed, what 
would harm and not profit them ; and yet 
they knew that he who bought that art should 
have no part in the life to come ! And vile 
the price for which they have sold themselves, 
if they had but known it 1 " 

HASAD (J^). "Envy, malevo 
lence, malice." It occurs twice in the Qur an. 

Surah ii. 103 : " Many of the people of the 
Book (i.e. Jews and Christians) desire to 
bring you back to unbelief after ye have be 
lieved, out of seljish envy, even after the truth 
hath been clearly shewn them." 

Surah cxiii. 5 : " I seek refuge .... from 
the enoy of the envious when he envies." 

AL-HASAN (y *N). The fifth 

Khalifah. The eldest son of Fatinaab, the 
daughter of Muhammad,, by her husband the 
Khalifah AH, Bom A.H, 3. Died A.H. 49. 
H* succeeded his father All as KhalJfah 
A.H. 41, and reigned about six months. He 
resigned the Caliphate in favour of Mu a- 
wiyah. and was eventually poisoned by his 
wife Ja dah, who was suborned to commit 
the deed by Yazid, the son of Mu awiyah, by 
a promise of marrying herj which promise he 
did not keep. Al-Hasan had twenty children, 
fifteen sons and five daughters, from whom 
are descended one aeotion of the great family 
of Saiyids, or Xiords, the descendants of the 
Prophet. The history of al-Hasan, together with 
the tragical death of his brother ai-Husain, 
form the plot of the miracle play of the Mu- 

HASHIM (,%-ALjfc). The great 
grandfather of Muhammad. Born, according 
to M. C. de Perceval, A.D. 464. Sprenger 
places his birth in A,D. 442. He married Sal- 
mah, by whoia he had a son, Abdu 1-Mutta- 
lib the father of Abdu llah, who was the 
father of Muhammad. The authol 1 of the 
Qdmus says Hashim s original name WAS 
Amr, but he was surnamed Hashim on 
account of his hospitality in distributing 
bread (hashm, to break bread) to the pilgrims 


H ASHR 0^) . Lit. " Going fort 
from one place, and assembling in another 
Hence the word is used hi the Qur an in t* 
senses, viz. an emigration and an assembl 
e.g. Surah lix. 2 : "It was He who drove fort 
from their homes those people of the boo 
(i.e. Jews) who misbelieved, at the first em 
gration." (Hence al-Hashr is the title of it 
Lixth Surah of the Qur an > Surah xxvi 
17 : " And his hosts of the jinn and men a 
birds were ass&nblecf for Solomon.* 

The term Yaumv l-H&shr is therefo: 
used for the Day of Resurrection, or the d 
when the dead sHall migrate from the: 
graves and assemble for judgment. It occui 
in this sense in the Qur an, Surah 1. 42 : 

" Verily we cause to live, and we cause t 
die. To us shall all return. 

" On the day when the earth shall swiftl 
cleave asunder over the dead, will this gath& 
ing be easy to Us. 

AL-HASIB (n.... ..,.. ft). "Th 

Reckoner," in the Day of Judgment. One < 
the ninety-nine attributes of God. The titl 
occurs in the Qur an three times. 

Surah iv. 7: "God sufficeth for takin 

Idem, 88 1 * God of all things takes a 

Surah xxxiiL 39 : " God is good enough a 
reckoning up." 

HASSAN (oL-^-e.) The son o 
Sab it. A celebrated poet hi the time of Mv 
hammad, who einbraced Islam. He is sai 
to have lived 120 years, 60 of which wei 
passed in idolatry and (TO in Islam. 
It ia related in the Traditions that the Pr( 
phet on the day of battle with the Ban 
Quraigah; cried out, "0 Hassan ibn Sabi 
abuse the infidels in your verse, for veri 
Gabriel helps you ! " (Mishkat> book xxl 
ch. ix. pt. 1.) {[POETRY.] 


An early convert to Islam, and one of tl 
most trusted of Muhammad s followers. 1 
distinguished himgelf at the taking of Makka 


" A complete year." A term used in Muhaxc 
madan law for the period property must be i 
possession before zakat is required of ij 
(Hiddyah. vol. i. p, 2.) 

HAUZU L-EAUAB (/y3\ ^\ 

A pond or river in Paradise. According 1 1 
Muhammad s sayings in the Tradition I 
! (Afishkat, book xxiii. ch. xii.), it is more thai 
a month s journey in circumference, its water I 
are whiter than snow and sweeter than hone I 
niix*id with, milk, and those who drink of ;] 
shall never thirst. The word lcau$ar OCCUM 
once in the Qur an, namely in Surah cviiij 
which derives therefrom its title, and wher] 
its translation and meaning is doubtful 
" Verily, we have given thee al-Kau$a,r" All 
Baizawi, the commentator, says it eithe 
means that whioh is good or abundant; oj 
the pond al-Kau&ar which ia mentioned m tW 


HAWA OH*) " Desire, love ; 
hankering after A term used by the $ufi 
inystios for lust, or unholy desire, flawd-i- 
Naftdni, the lust of the flesh " ; Ahl~i-Hpv)d, 
" a sceptic, an unbeliever. 


Assaults, shocks." A term used by the 
Sufi mystics for those thoughts of the heart 
which enter it without desire or intention. 
( Abdu Y-Razzaq s Diet, of Sufi Terms.) 

HAWAJIS ((>V). "Thoughts/ 
A term used by the Sufi mystics for the 
worldly thoughts of the heart. ( Abda V- 
Bazzaq s Diet, of Sufi Terms.) 

JJAWALAE (*V). A legal term 

signifying the removal or transfer of a debt 
by way of security or corroboration from that 
of the original debtor to that person to whom 
it is transferred. (Hidayah, roL ii. p. 606.) 

HAWAMlM (^V*)- A- tiiie S ivetl 

to the seven chapters of the Qnr n which 
begin with the letters 5 Ha * Mim, namely > 
XL, Surata 1-Mu min ; XLI, Suratu Fusailat ; 
XLII, Suratn sh-Shur XLIU, Suratu 1-Zukh- 
ruf; XLIV, Suratu d,an; xiv, Suratu 
1- Jasjyah ; XLVI, Suratu 1-Ahqaf . 

For an explanation of the letters H M at 
the commencement of these Surahs, see 


It is related in the Traditions that a man 
said to the Prophet, " I am old, and my 
memory is imperfect, and my tongue is stiff ;" 
and the Prophat replied , " Then repeat three 
of the Surahs beginning with H& Mim." 
(Mishkat, book viii. ch. i, pt, 3.) 

HAWABI (w5;V)- T he word used 

in the Qur an (Surahs iii. 45 ; Ixi. 14) 
for the Apostlea of Jesus. Al-Baizawi, the 
Mnhammadan commentator, says it is derived 
from fruwar, " to be white," and was given to 
the disciples of Jesus, either on account of 
their purity of life and sincerity ; or because 
they were respectable men and wore white 
. garments. In the Traditions (Mishkat, book i. 
ch. vi. pt. 1") it is used for the followers of 
all tbe Prophets. The word ta&y be derived 
from the JEthiopic hworyra, " to go, to be 


(kv-wsH^j^). [FIVE SENSES.] 

HAWAZIN (<-sy). A great and 
warlike tribe of Arabia in the days of Mu 
hammad, who dwelt between Makkah and 
aJj-Ta if. Muhammad defeated them at the 
battle of Hunain, A.H. 8. a victory which in 
the Qnr an, Sarah ix. 26, is ascribed to an 
gelic aid. (See Muir s Life of Mahomet, new 
ed. p. 432.) 

HAWIYAH U. A division of 

hell The bottomless pit for the hypocrites. 
Qur an, Sfcal ci. 6, " But as for him whoso 
balance is light, his dwelling shall be 
Bauoiyah " 


HAWK, The. Arabic ba z (jVj), saqr 
(/). It is lawful to hunt with 
hawks provided they are trained. A hawk is 
held to ho trained whoa she obeys the voice 
of her master. [UUNTING.] 

HAYA (oL~). Shame, pudency, 

modesty." The word does not occur in the 
Qur au, but in the Traditions it is said, "Alluhu 
hayiyun," i.e. " God acts with modesty." By 
which is understood that God hates that which 
is immodest or shameless. Muhammad is re 
lated to have said, " Modesty (fay a ) brings 
nothing but good." (Mishkdt, book xxii. 
ch. xix.) 

HAYAT (Sj**). Life." The 

word frequently occurs in the Qur an, e.g. 
Surah xviii. 44, " Wealth and children are an 
adornment of the life of this world." Surah 
ii. 25, " For you in retaliation is there life, O 
ye possessors of mind ! " 

Al-Haydtu d-dunyd, "the worldly life," is a 
term used in the Qur an for those things in 
this world which prevent from attaining to 
the eternal life of the next world. 

Surah ii, 80: " Those who have bought 
this worldly life with the future, the torment 
shall not be lightened from them nor shall 
they be helped." 

HAYtfLA (Jr*-*)- "Matter." 

The first principle of everything material. 
It does not occur in cither the Qur an or the 

HAYZ (oW-^). Menses. [MEN 

HAZAE ()**) According to 

Arabic lexicons, the word means vigilance or 
a cautious fear, but it only occurs twice in 
the Qur an. and in both instances it implies 

Surah ii. 18: "They put their fingers in 
their ears at the thunder-clap for fear of 
death." (Jfazara V.Af*w#.) Jden, 244: 
" Doet thou not look at those who left their 
homes by thotfffclidf ./tor/fear of death," 

According to the 

itdbu t-Ta*rifat, al-hazardtv l-Kfiamsu 7- 
Ilahiyah, or " the five divine existences," is a 
term used by the Sufi mystics for the follow 

t. Hazrcttu l~ghaibi 7-tftM|taf, That ex 
istence which 5s absolutely unknown, i.e. 

2. ffaxrutu sH-Bhahadati V-mut/aqah, Those 
celosthhl -(ajrani) and terrestrial (ajsam) ex 
istences which are evident to the senses. 

i}. ffaxratu Calami f l anvah That existence 
whiob. consist* of the spiritual -world of angels 
and spirits. 

4. fiazrutu l alatni V*msfo/, That existence, 
which is "tli"! unseen world, where there TB the 
true likeness of everything whioh exist* on 
the earth. 

6. Hazratu l-jamtah, The collective exis 
tence of the four already mentioned. 






Bail for tbe person, which, according to the 
Iraam Abu Hanlfah, is lawfuL Bail for pro 
perty is called nidi zaminl. 

HAZRAH (V^) J&&. " Presence." 

This title of respect has no equivalent in 
English, as it is employed in a variety of ac 
ceptations. Applied to an officer of rank, it 
would mean -your honour " ; .to a clergyman, 
" your reverence " ; to a king, " your majesty. 1 
When applied to the names of prophets, 
apostles, or saints, it expresses the sacrednesa 
of his office and character, i.e. our Saviour is 
called flazratu ( l$a, .and the Virgin Mary, 
ffazratu Mwyam. The word is much used 
in Persian theological works. It is seldom 
used in this sense in Arabic books, ffazratu 
Y/tfA, " the presence of God," is an Arabic 
term in prayer. 

HEAD. Arabic ra*,ra (<j*\)). Heb.. 

CJfcO. The author of the Raddu Z- 
Muhtdr, vol. i. p. 670, says : " It is abominable 
(makruli) to say the prayers with the head 
uncovered, if it be done from laziness, but it 
is of no consequence if a MusUui say INK 
prayers with his head uncovered from a sense 
of humility and nnworthiness. But still it is 
better not to uncover the head, for humility 
is a matter connected with the heart." 

Amongst Muhammadans it is considered a 
sign of disrespect to receive a visitor with 
the head uncovered ; consequently on the 
approach of a visitor the turban or cap is 
immediately placed on the head. 

There is no general custom as to shaving 
the head or otherwise. In Afghanistan, Mu- 
htttamadani generally shave the bead, but the 
Baluchi* and many other Muslim tribes wear 
long hair, 

The Egyptians. ; have all the rest of the 
hair, or leave only a small tuft (called 
gk&tkak) upcn the crown of the head. Mr. 
Lane says : This custom (which is almost 
universal among them) \& said to have ori 
ginated in the fear that if tbe 31uslim should 
fall into the hands of an infidel, and be slain, 
the latter might cut off the head of his 
victim, and finding no hair by which to hold 
it, put his impure hand into the mouth, in 
order to carry it, for the beard might not be 
sufficiently long ; but was probably adopted 
from the Turks, for it is generally neglected 
by the BadawTs, and the custom of shaving 
the head is of late origin among the Arabs in 
general, and practised for the sake of cleanli 

HEAVEN. Arabic Samtf 
Persian A*muu (t)U-\) ; Heb. 
which expresses the firmament as distin 
guished from Firdaus. or Paradise, the abodes 
of blisa. [PARADISE.] In the Qur an it is 
stated that there are seven paths, or stages, 
in heaven. Surah xxiii. 17 : " And we have 
created above you seven paths, nor are we 
heedless of the creation." By which the com 
mentators understand that they are paths of 
the angels and of the celestial bodies. The 

creation (A the heaven is declared to be for; 
God s glory and not for His pastime. Surah; 
xxi. 16 : " We created not the heaven and the 
earth, and that which is between them, by 
way of sport/ 

It is the general belief at the last day 
the heavens will fall, but that they are now 
upheld by God s power. Surah xxii. 64 : " Ho 
holds up the heaven from falling on the earth 
save at His bidding." 

According to the traditions (Mixhkat< book 
xxiv. ch. \ii._), Munainmad during the mi raj, 
or night journey, passed through these seven 
heavens, and they are stated to be as fol 
lows : (1) That which is of pure virgin silver 
and which is Adam s residence; (2) of pure 
gold, which is John the Baptist s and Jesus ; 
(3) of pearls, which is Joseph s ; (4) of 
white gold, which is Enoch s ; (5) of silver 
which is Aaron s ; , (6) of ruby and garnet, 
which is Moses ; (7) which is Abraham s. 
These accounts are, however, most confused ; 
for in some books and according to popular 
tradition; the fourth and not the second 
heaven is assigned to Jesus. 

This view is in harmony with the seven 
spheres of Ptolemy, the first of which is that* 
of the moon, the second Mercury, the third 
Venus, the fourth the Sun, the fifth Mars, the. 
sixth Jupiter, the seventh Saturn; each ol 
which orbs was supposed by the ancients to 
revolve round the earth in its proper sphereJ 
Muhammad aaid the distance between each! 
heavenly region ia five hundred years journoj J 
(Mishkdt, book xxiv. ch. i. pt. 3). 

The Rabbis spoke of two heavens (cf.l 
Deut. x. 14), " The heaven and the heaven of < 
heavens," or seven (OTTO, avpavavs ovsrtvfs 
apiOfjioixTL KOT fTravuftacriv, C/tf*., Alex. 
Strom., iv. 7, 63). "Rescb Lakiseh dixit 
Heptem esse coolos, quorum nomina sunt, 
1. velum ; 2. expansum; 3. nubes ; 4. habita- 
culum ; 5. habitatip ; 6. sedes fixa ; 7. Araboth. 
(See Wetstein. ad. 2 Cor. xii. 2). St. Paul s 
expression, " ecus rpirov ovpavov," 2 Cor. 
xii. 2, has led to somo discussion, for Grotius 
says the Jews divided the heaven into three 
parts. (1) Nubiferum, the atmosphere; (2)| 
Attriferum, the firmament ; and (3) Einpy- 
reum, the abodo of God. But the statement, 
however, does not seem to be supported by 
any known llabbiuic authority. 


HEIRS. Arabic wdris [INHERITANCE.] 

HELL. The place of torment is 
most frequently spoken of. in the Qur an and 
Traditions as an~Ndr, " the fire," but the 
\\ordJuhvnnajn occurs about thirty times. It 
is said to have seven portals or divisions. 
Surah xv. 44: "Verily, hell (juhamicnn) is 
promised to all together (who follow Satan). 
It has seven portals, and at every door there is 
a separate party of them/ 
The Persian word used for. hell in books of 
theology is dozakh. 




The seven divisions of hell are given by 
14 nslim commentators at* follows : 

1. Jahannam (p*&*), yecwa, the purga- 
ibrial hell for all Muhammadans. For accord- 
ng to the Qur an, all Muslims will pass 
through the regions of heH. Surah xix. 72 : 
There is not one of you who will not go 
lown to it (hell), that is settled and decided 
ay thy Lord." 

3. Laza (^^). Surah xpvii. 5 : " For Lazd, 
ragging by the scalp, shall claim him who 
urned his back and went away, and amassed 

3. Al-HutamaJi (<UlO\). Surah civ. 4: 
"Nay I for verily he shall be flung into 

il-Hutainah ; 

And who shall teach thee what al-Huta- 

" It is God s kindled fire, 

" Which shall mount above the hearts of 
\e damned; 

" It shall verily rise over them like a 

"On outstretched columns." 

4. -Sa tr ( 7**). Surah iv. 11 : " Those who 
our the property of orphans unjustly, only 

levonr into their bellies fire, and they broil in 
a ir." 
(The word occurs in fourteen other places.) 

5. Saqar (y*-). Surah liv. 47: "The 
ers are in error and excitement. On the 

,y when they shall be dragged into the fire 
n their faces f Taste ye the touch of saqar 1 " 

Surah lxxi\. 44 1 "What drove you intp 
aqar f " 

6. Al-Jaf,um (f+*^\). Surah ii. 113: 
Thou shalt noj be questioned as to the fel- 

ows of al-Jahlm " (Ashdbu l-Jahim). 
(The word occurs in twenty other places). 

7. Huwiyah (*Jj^*) Surah ci. 8: "As 
or him whose balance is light, his dwelling 
tiall be Hdwiyah." 

The Muhammadan commentators, with that 
tter reckkstmess which so characterizes 
leir writings, distribute these seven stations 
follows (see al-Bayhatvi, ul-B<n~dwl, and 
thers) : (1 ) Jahannam, the purgatorial hell 
or Muslims. (2) Laid, a blazing fire for 
hristians. (3) Al-Hutamah, an intense fire 
or the Jewa. (4) Sa-ir, a flaming fire for tho 
abians. (5) Saqar, a scorching fire for the 
lagi. (6) Al-Jahlm, a huge hot fire for ido- 
terH. (7) Hdwiyah, bottomless pit for the 
ypocritos. A reference to the Qur an will 
rove that there is not the least reason for 
ssigning these regions to their respective 
enants beyond the sentence already quoted : 
At each portal a separate party." 

The teaching of the Q.ur dn (which is chiefly 
onfineJ to those Surahs which, chronologi- 
ally arranged, are the earliest), is as fol- 

Surah Ixxiv. 26-84 (generally held, to be the 
econd Surah compoed by Muhammad, and 
elating to al-Walid Ibn al-Mughirah, a person 
f note amongst the. jinbelieving Makkans) : 

" We will Kurely cast him into Saqar. 

And who shall teach thee what Saqar is ? 

" It leaveth nought, it spareth nought, 

"Blackening the skin. 

" Over it are nineteen angels. 

" None but angels have we made guardians 
of the fire (ushdbu -?) : nor have we made 
this to be their number but to perplex the 
unbelievers and that they who possess the 
Scriptures may be certain of the Truth, and 
that they who believe may increase their 
faith ; 

And that they to whom the Scriptures 
have been given, and the believers, may not 
doubt ; 

" And that the infirm of heart and tho 
unbelievers may say, What meaneth God by 
this parable? 

" Thus God misleadeth whom He will, and 
whom lie will He doth guide aright : aiyl none 
knoweth the armies of thy Lord but Himself : 
and this is no other than a warning to man 

Surah Ixxxviii. 1-7: 

" Hath the tidings of the day that shall 
overshadow reached thee ? 

" Downcast on that day shall be the coun 
tenances of some, 

" Travailing and worn, 

" Burnt at the scorching fire, 

" Made to drink from a fountain fiercely 

" No food shall they have but the fruit of 
zari (a bitter thorn), 

Which shall not fatten nor appease then 
hunger. " 

Surah Ixxviii. 21-30 : 

" Hell (Jahannam) truly shall be a place 
of snares, 

" The home of transgressors, 

" To abide therein ages ; 

" No coolness shall they taste therein noi 
any drink, 

"Save boiling water and running soros ; 

" Meet rocompence ! 

"For they looked not forward to their 
account ; 

"And they gave the lie to our signs 
charging them with falsehood ; 

" But we noted and wrote down all : 

" Taste this then : and we will give you 
increase of nought but torment. " 

The above are all Madinah Surahs com 
posed in the earlier stage of Muhammad s 
mission. The allusions to hell in the Mak- 
kan Surahs are brief and are in every case 
directed against unbelievers in the Prophet a 
mission, and not against sin ; e.g. Surah ix. 
6D, " God hath promised to the hypocrites 
(i.e. dissemblers as far as Islam was concerned}, 
men and women, and unto the unbelievers 
hell-fire to dwell therein for ever." 

The teaching of Mu/iammad in the Tradi 
tions is much more specific, but it is impos 
sible to assign a date for these traditions, 
even assuming them to bo authentic. They 
are given on the authority of ai-Bukhurl and 
Muslim (MishJcdt, book xxiii. ch. xv.): 

" The fire of the world is one part of 
seventy parts of hell fire. It was said. O 
Prophet of God 1 verily the fire of the world 
would be sufficient for punishing * The Pro- 



phet replied, Hell-fire has been made more 
than the fire of the world by sixty-nine parts, 
every part of "which i like the fire of the 

" Verily, the easiest of the infernale in 
punishment, is he who shall have both his 
shoes and thongs of them of fire, by which 
the brains of his head b oil, like the boiling 
of a copper furnace ; and he will not suppose 
that anyone is more severely punished than 
himself; whilst verily, he is tbo least so." 

"On the Day of Resurrection, the most 
luxurious of the world will be brought, and 
dipped once into the fire ; after that it 
will be said, O child of Adam, did you 
ever see any good, or did comfort ever pass 
by you in the world ? He will say, I swear 
by God I never saw any good, nor did com 
fort ever come near me. And a man of the 
severest distresses and troubles in the world 
will be brought into paradise ; and it will be 
said to him, O son of Adam, did you ever 
see any trouble, and did distress ever como to 
you in the world ? And he will say, I swear 
by God, O my Lord, I never suffered troubles 
in the world, nor did I ever see hardship. " 

" There, are some of the infernals that will 
be taken by the fire up to their ankles, and 
some up to their knees, and some up to their 
waist, and some up to their necks." 

" Hell-fire burnt a thousand year* so that 
it became rod, and burnt another thousand 
years till it became white ; after that it burnt 
a thousand years till it became black ; then 
bell fire is black and dark, and never has any 

"Verily, hot water will be poured upon 
the heads of the infernals, and will pene 
trate into their bellies, and will cut to pieces 
everything within them ; so that they will 
come out at their feet : and this is the mean 
ing of the word qf God, * Boiling water shall 
be poured on their heads, and everything in 
their bellies shall be dissolved thereby, after 
that, they will be made as they were." 

" The infernals shall be drenched with 
yellow water, draught after draught, and it 
will be brought to their mouths and they will 
be disgusted at it ; and when very near, it 
will scorch their faces, and when they drink 
it it will tear their entrails to pieces. God 
says, < They who must dwell for ever in hell- 
fire, will have the boiling water given them 
to drink which shall burst their bowels ; and 
God will say, If the infidels complain of 
thirst, they shall be assisted with water like 
molten copper, which will fry their faces ; it 
will be a shocking beverage. " 

For most of these circumstances relating to 
hell and the state of the damned, Muhammad 
was in -all probability indebted to the Jews and, 
in part, to the Magians, both of whom agree 
in making seven distinct apartments in hell. 
(Niskmat hayim, f. 32 / Gemar. Antbin, 
f. 19; Zokar. a>d, Exod. xzvi. 8, <fec. and 
Hyde de R&1. Vet. Pers., p. 245), though they 
vary in other particulars. 

The former place an angel as a guard 
over each of these infernal apartments, and 
suppose he will intercede for tho miserable 


wretches there imprisoned, who will openly 
acknowledge the justice of God in their con 
demnation. (Midvash, Yalkut Slicmuni, pt. 11, 
f. 116.) They also teach that the wicked 
will suffer a diversity of punishments, and 
that by intolerabl cold (Zohar. ad. Exod- 
jpi>.) as well as heat, and that their faces 
shall become black (Yaikut Shemuni, ubi 
sup. f. 86) ; and believe those of their own 
religion shall also be punished in hell here 
after according to their crimes (for they hold 
that few or none will be found exactly righ 
teous as to deserve no punishment at all,) 
but will soon bo delivered thence, when they 
shall be sufficiently purged from their sins 
by their father Abraham, or at the interces 
sion of him or some other of the prophets, 
(Nisktnat hayim , f. 82 ; Gemar. Aruoin, f. 19.) 

The Magians allow btit one angel to pre 
side over all the seven hells, who is named 
by them Vanand Yaz&d, and, as they teach, 
assigns punishments proportionate to each 
person s crimes, restraining also the tyranny 
and excessive cruelty of the devil, who would, 
if left to himself, torment the damned be 
yond their sentence, (ffyde, de Re4. Vet. p. 182.) Those of this religion do also 
mention and describe various kinds of tor 
ments -wherewith the wicked will be punished 
in the next life ; among which, though they 
reckon extreme cold to be one, yet they do 
not admit fire, out of respect, as it seems, to 
that element, which they take to be the re 
presentation of the divine nature, and there 
fore they rather choose to describe the 
damned souls as suffering by other kinds of 
punishment, such as an intolerable stink, the 
stinging and biting of serpents and wild 
beasts, the cutting and tearing of the flesh 
by the devils, excessive hunger and thirst, 
and the like. (See Eundem, ibid., p. 399; 
Sale s Pre. Dis.) 

The author of the SJiar]j.u, l-Mvwdqif, 
p. 586, also says : " It is agreed amongst all 
orthodox Muslims that all unbelievers, with 
out exception, will be consigned to the fire for 
ever, and that they will never be free from 
torment." " But," he adds. " there are cer 
tain heretics, who call themselves Muslims, 
who deny the eternity of the torment? the 
fire. For, they say, it is an essential property 
of all things fleshly that they come to an end. 
And, moreover, it is not possible for a thing 
to exist which goes on burning for ever. But 
to this we reply that God is all powerful 
and can do as He likes." 

The sect called as-Samamiyah, founded by 
Samamah ibn Ashras an-Numairl, eay : " The 
Jews, and Christians, and Majtisi, and Zana- 
diqah, will, after the Day of Judgment, 
return to dust, juat as the animals and the 
little children of unbelievers do." (S/uirftu 7- 
Muwaqif) p. 638.) 

The same writer says (p. 687) : " Besides 
those who are unbelievers, all those (Muslims) 
who are sinners and have committed great 
sins (kaba ir), will go to hell; but they will 
not remain there always, for it has been said 
in the Qur fin (Surah xcix, 7), " He who does 
an atom of good shall see its reward." 




With reference to the verso in the Qur an, 
rhich distinctly states that ail Muslims 
shall enter hell (Surah xix. 78, " There is 
lot one of you that shall -not go down to it "), 
al-Kamalan, the commentators, say, that ac 
cording to extant traditions, all Muslims will 
enter hell, bat it will be cool and pleasant to 
those who have not committed great sins ; 
, according to some writers, they will 
frimpiy pass along the bridge Sirdt, which is 
>ver tho infernal regions. 


HERACLIUS. Arabic Hiraql 
J*r*). The Roman Emperor to whom 
Muhammad sent an embassy with a letter in 
viting him to Islam, A.H. 7, A.D. 628 

In the autumn of this year (A..D. G 28), He 
raclius fulfilled his vow of thanksgiving for the 
wonderful success which had crowned his arms 
in Persia) ; he performed on foot the pilgri 
mage from Edeesa to Jerusalem, whore the 
true cross, recovered from the Persians, was 
with solemnity and pomp restored to the 
Holy Sepulchre. While preparing for this 
ourney, or during the journey itaelf, an un- 
:outh despatch in the Arabic character was 
aid before Heraclius* It was forwarded by 
.he Governor of Bcstra, into whose hands it 
had been delivered by an Arab chief. The 
jpistle was addressed to the Emperor him 
self, from Mahomet the Apostle of God, the 

e impression of whose seal could be de- 
jiphered at the foot. In strange and simple 
accents like those of the Prophets of old, it 
summoned Heraclius to acknowledge tho mis 
sion of Mahomet, to oast aside the idolatrous^ 
worship of Jesus and his Mother, and to re- 
urn to the Catholic faith of the one only 
Jed. The letter was probably cast aside, or 
>r9served, it may be, as ti strange curiosity, 
;ho effusion of some harmless fanatic." 
Muir s Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 383.) 
Tradition, of course, has another story. 
Now the Emperor was al this time at 
lims, performing a pedestrian journey, in 
Tilfilmont of the vow which ho had made, 
hat, if the Romans overcame the Persians, he 
would travel on foot from Constantinople to 
Aolia (Jerusalem). So having read the 
etter, he commanded his chief men to meet 
lim in the royal camp at Hims. And thus 

addressed them : Ye chiefs of Rome ! 
[)o you desire safety and guidance, so that 
your kingdom shall be firmly established, 
md that ye may follow the commands of 
Jesus, Son of Mary ? And what, O King 1 
shall secure us this ? Even that ye follow 
-tie Arabian Prophet/ said Heraclius, Where- 
npon they all started aside like wild asses of 
;he desert, each raising his cross and waving 
t aloft in the air. Whereupon Heraclius. 
despairing of their conversion, and unwilling 
,o lose his kingdom, desisted, saying that he 
lad only wished to test their constancy and 
aith, and that ho waa now satisfied by this 
display of firmness and devotion. The cour 
iers bowed their beads, and so the Prophet s 
despatch was rejected." (Katibu V- Wdqidi. 

p. 50, quoted by Muir, in & note to the above 

The letter written by Muhammad to Hera 
clius is, according to a tradition by Ibn 
Abbas, as follows : 

" In the name of God the Merciful, the 
Compassionate. This letter is from Muham 
mad the Messenger of God, to Hiraql, chief of 
ar-Rum. Peace be upon whosoever has gone 
on the straight road! After this, I say, 
verily I call thee to Islam. Embrace Isliim 
that ye may obtain peace. Embrace Islam 
and God will give thee a double reward If 
ye reject Islam, then on thee shall rest the 
sins of thy subjects and followers. O ye 
people of the Book (i.e. Christians) come 
to a creed which is laid down plainly between 
us and you, that we will not serve other 
than God, nor associate aught with Him, nor 
take each other for lords rather than God. 
But if they tarn back, then say, * Bear wit 
ness that we are Muslims. " (Qur an, iii. 57.) 
(See Sahihu Muslim, p. 98.) 

The Shl*ah traditions give the above letter 
almost verbatim. (See Menick s Hayafu /- 
Quliib, p. 89.) 

; Not long after, another despatch, bearing 
the same seal, and couched in similar tanas, 
reached the court of Heraeliu*. It was ad 
dressed to Harith "VTL, Prince of the Bani 
Ghass&E, who forwarded it to tho Emperor, 
with an address from himself, soliciting per 
mission to chastise the audacious impostor. 
But Heraclius regarding the ominous voice 
from Arabia boneath hia notice, forbade the 
expedition, and desired that Hatith should 
be in attendance at Jerusalem, to swell the 
imperial train at the approaching visitation 
of the temple. Little did the Emperor 
imagine that the kingdom which, unperceived. 
by the world, this obscure Pretender wag 
founding in Arabia* would in a few short 
years wrest from his grasp that Holy City 
and the fair provinces which, with so* much 
toil and so rauch gloiy, he had just recovered 
from the Persians ! * (Muir s Lift of Afako- 
met,p. 884.) 

(For the Shi ah account of the embassy to 
Heraclius, see Merrick s tfccrito Y-Qtto, 
p. 88.) 


Khunsa) is a person who is possessed of 
the organs of generation of both man and 
woman, and for whose spiritual existence the 
Muhammadan law legislates (vide Hiddyah, 
vol. iv. p. 669). For example, it is a rule, 
with respect to equivocal hermaphrodites, 
that they are required to observe all the 
more comprehensive points of the spiritual 
law, but not those concerning the propriety 
of ^vhich, in regard to them, any doubi exists 
In public prayer thoy must, take tbeir station 
between the men and tho women, but in other 
respects observe the customs of women. 
(Idem, p. 561.) 

HIBAH (*A). A legal term in 

Muhammadan law, which signifies a deed of 
gift, a transfer of property, made immediately 
and without any exchange. [GIFTS ] 



HID AD (*>\JL_^). "Mourning." 
The stale of a widow who abstains from 
scents, ornaments, &c., on account of the 
death* of her husband. Hiddd must be ob 
served for a period of four months and ten 
days. (Hiddyah, voLi. p. 370.) 

HID AYAH (*tj*). Lit. "Quid- 
ance." The title of a well known book on 
Sunnl law, and frequently quoted in the pre 
sent work. There are many Muhammadan 
works entitled al-Hiddyah, but this is called 
Hiddyah /iY-/H?, or "a guidance in parti 
cular points. -It was composed by the 
Shaikh Burhanu d-dm All, who was born at 
Marghlnan in Transoxania about A.H. 530 
(A.D. 1135), pod died A.H. 593. 

There is ati English translation of the 
Biddyak (omitting the chapters on Prayer 
and Porification), by Charles Hamilton, four 
volsl, London-, A.D. 1791. 

HIFZU L- AHD (J**N M*). Lit. 

"The guarding of the covenant." A term 
used by the Sufi mystics for remaining firm 
in that state in which God has brought them. 
( Abdu J r-Razzaq s DicL of Sufi Terms.) 

qat u t-tariq (&W j*k*). Persian 
rahzani. Highway robbery is a very heinous 
offence according to Muhammadan law, the 
punishment of which has been fixed by tho 
Qur an (Surah v., 37): " The recompense of 
those who war against God and His apbstle, 
and go about to enact violence on the earth, 
is that* they be slain or crucified, or have 
their alternate hands and feet out off, or be 
banished the land." According to the Hidd 
yah, highway robbers are of four kinds, viz. 
(] ) Those who are seized before they have 
.robbed or" murdered any person, or put any 
person in fear. These are to be imprisoned 
by the magistrate until their repentance is 
evident. (2) Those who have robbed but have 
not murdered. These are t.o have their right 
havw and left foot struck off. (3) Those who 
hmve ccirimitted murder but have not robbed. 
These are punished with death. (4) Those 
who have committed both robbery and mur 
der. These are punished according to the 
option of the magistrate. If he please, he 
can first cut off a hand and foot, and then 
put them to death by the sword, or by cruci 
fixion; or he may kill them at once without 
inflicting amputation. If any one among a 
band of robbers be guilty of murder, the 
punishment of death must be inflicted upon 
the whole band, 

HIJAB (v^.). A partition or 

curtain. Veiling or concealing. 

(1) A term used for the seclusion of women 
enjoined in the Quran, Surah xxxiii. 53 : 
* And when ye ask them (the Prophet s 
wives) for an article, ask them from behind 
a curtain : that is purer for your hearts and 
for theirs." 

(2). A ,term used by the Sufi mystics for 
that which obscures the light of God in the 
soul of man. ( Abdu r-Razzaq s Diet, of 
Sufi Terms.} 


HIJAZ ( jW-). Lit. " A barrier ,or 
anything similar by which two things are sepa 
rated." The name al-ffijazis given to that tract 
of country which separates Najd from Taha- 
mah, and is an irregular parallelogram about 
250 miles long and 150 miles wide. It may be 
considered the holy land of the Muhainma- 
dans, for within its limits are the sacred cities 
of al-Madinah and Makkah, and most of its. 
places are someway connected with the his 
tory of Muhammad. It is a barren district 
consisting of sandy plains towards the shore 
and rocky hills in the interior; and so desti 
tute of provisions as to depend, even for the 
necessaries of life, on the supplies of other 
countries. Among its fertile spots is Wadi * 
Fatimah, which is well watered, and produces 
grain and vegetables. Sajrah abounds in date 
trees. At-Ta if, seventy-two miles from Mak 
kah, is celebrated for its gardens, and the 
neighbourhood of al-Madmah has cultivated 
fields. The towns on the coast are Jiddah 
and Yambu , the former being considered the 
port of Makkah, from which it is distant 
about fifty-five miles, and the latter that of 
al-Madinah. Al-Hijaz, is bounded eastward by 
a lofty range of mountains, which,near at-T. a if f 
take the name of Jabalu 1-Qura. The scenery 
there is occasionally beautiful and pictu 
resque ; the small rivulets that descend from 
the rocks afford nourishment to the plains 
below, which are clothed with verdure and 
shady trees. The vicinity of Makfcah is bleak 
and bare; for several miles it is surrounded 
with thousands of hills all nearly of one 
height ; their dark and naked peaks rise one 
behind another, appearing at a distance like 
cocks of hay. The most celebrated of these 
are as-Safa, Arafah and al-Marwah, which 
have always been connected with the religious 
rites of the Muhammadan pilgrimage. 

HIJE (;^)- In its primitive sense 

means interdiction or prevention. 

(1) In the language of tb.6 law it signifies 
an interdiction of action with respect to a 
particular person, who is either an infant, an 
idiot, or a slave. (Htddyah,\ol. iii. p. 468.) 

(2) Al-Hijr is a territory in the. province of 
al-Hijaz between al-Madinah and Syria, where 
the tribe of Samud dwelt. It is the title of 
the xvth Surah of the Qur an, in the 80th 
verse of which the word occurs : K The inha 
bitants of al-Hijr likewise accused the mes 
senger of God of imposture." 

HLJRAH (S^*). Lit. migration." 

(I) The departure of Muhammad from Mak 
kah. (2) The Muslim era. (3) The aat of 
a Muslim leaving a country under infidel 
rule. (4) Fleeing from sin. 

The date of Muhammad s flight from Mak 
kah was the fourth day of the first month of 
Rabi , which by the calculation of M. Caus- 
sin de Perceval was June 20th, A.D. 622. 
The Hijrah, or the era of the " Hegira," was 
instituted seventeen years later by the Khalifab 
Umar, which dates from the first day of the 
first lunar month of the year, viz. Muharram, 
which day in the year when the era was esta 
blished fell on Thursday the 15tii of July 


A.D. 622. But although Uraar instituted the 
official era, according to at-Tabarl, the cus 
tom of referring to events as happening 
oefore or after the Hijrah originated with 
Muhammad himself. 

Professor H. H, Wilson in his Glossary of 
Terms gives the following method of ascer 
taining the Muhammadan and Christian 
years : 

Multiply the flijrah year by 2,977, the diffe 
rence between 100 solar and as many lunar 
Muhainmadau years ; divide the product by 
100, and deduct the quotient from the Hijrah 
year; add to the result 021,569 (the decimal 
being the equivalent of the 16th July, plus 
! 12 days for the change of -the Kalendar) ; and 
j the quotient will be the Christian year from 
1 the date at which the Muhammadan year 
1 begins; thus, Hij. 1269 x 2-977 = 3777-8, which 
i; divided by 100 = 37-778 and 1209-37-778 = 
j 1281-222; this + 621-669 - 1852-791, the 
i decimals corresponding to 9 months and 
15 days, i.e. the 15th of October, which 
is the commencement of the Hij. year 1269. 
ii The reverse formula, for finding the corre- 
u spending Hijrah year to a given Christian 
i| year, is thus laid down : Subtract 622 from 
, the oiyi-ent year; multiply Uie result by 
1 1-0^07 ; cut off two decimals and add -46 ; 
the sum will be the year, which, when it has 
a surplus decimal, requires the addition of 
1: thus, 1852-622 = 1230; 1230x1-0307 = 
1267 -761 ; 1267-76 + -40^ 1268-22 ; add there- 
Xcre 1, and we have the et^uivalent Hijrah year 

The Persian era of Yezdogird commenced 
on June 16th, A.D. 632, or ten years later 
than the Hijrah. 

HIKMAH (&-+-.*). Al-hikmah, 
"the wisdom," is a term used by the Sufi 
mystics to express a knowledge of the 
essence, attributes, specialities, and results 
of things as they exist and are seen, with tho 
study of their cause, effects, and uses. This- 
ia said to be the wisdom mentioned in the 
Qur an, Surah ii. 272: "Ho (God) bringeth 
the wisdom (al-hikmuh} unto whom He wil- 

The $iifls say there are four kinds of 
wisdom expressed in the term al-tiikmuh : 

(1) Al-hikmatu f-Afantitqah, " spoken wis 
dom," which is made known in the Qur an. 
or in the Tariqah " the Path * (i.e. the Sufi 

(2) Al-hikmutu l-imtxkutuh, " unspoken 
wisdom. 5 Such as understood ouly by Sufi 
mysties, and not by the natural man. 

(3) Al-hikmatu 1-majhulah. unknown wis 
dom," or those acts of the Creator the wisdom 
of which is unknown to the creature, such as 
the imliction^ of pain upon the e features of 
God, the death of infants, or the eternal fire 
of hell. Things which wo believe, but which 
we do not understand. 

(4) Al-biktnalu l-jdmi oh, * collective wis 
dom," or the knowledge of the truth (kagq), 
and acting upon it, and the perception of 
error (6a/i7) and the rejection of it. ( Abdu 
r-Razzaq s Diet, of Su/l Terms.) 

HIRE 176 

HILAL (JS^). The new inoon. 
A term used for the first three days of the 

HILF (<-Ala*). An oath ; a vow. 
An affidavit. Hilfndinnh, a written solemn 
declaration, ffa/if, one who takes an oath. 

HILFU L-FUZtfL (Jjj*n u^). 

A confederacy formed by the descendants of 
Hashim,. Zuhrah, and Taim, in the house of 
Abdu Hah ibn Jud an at Makkah, for the 
suppression of violence and injustice at the 
restoration of peace after the Sacrilegious 
| war. Muhammad was then a youth, and Sir 
I William Muir says this confederacy " aroused 
an enthusiasm in the mind of Mahomet, 
which the exploit* of the sacrilegious war 
failed to kindle." 

HILM (^). Being mild, gentle, 
clement. Restraining oneself at a time when 
the spirit is roused to anger. Delaying in 
punishing a tyrant. (Kitdbu t-Ta rl/dt.) 
Hence a.l-IIalim, the Clement, is one of the 
attributes of God. 

HIMA G^). Lit. " guarded, for- 
bidden." A portion of land reserved by the 
ruler of a country as a grazing ground. (See 
Mi&hkdt, book xii. ch. i. pt. i.) " Know ye 
that every prince has a grazing ground which 
is forbidden to the people, and know ye the 
grazing place (hima) is the thing forbidden 
by Him to men. 

HIMMAH OUA). "Resolution. 
strength, ability." A term used by the Suf- 
mystics for a determination of the "heart to 
incline itself entirely to God. ( Abdu r 
Hazzaq s Diet, of Suf i Termx.) 

HINJSTA 0^). The Lawsonia 
y or Eastern privet, used for dyeing- 
the hands and feet on festive occasions, 
[MARRIAGE.] Muhammad enjoined the use 
of hinna , and approved of women staining 
their hands and feet with it. He also dyed 
his owji beard with it, and recommended" its 
use for this purpose (Mmhkut, book xx. c. 4..) 
It has therefore become a religious custom. 
and \s-sunnuh. 

HIQQAH (&^). A female camel 
turned three years. The pmger age for a 
camel to be given iu zalcdt, or legal alms, for 
camels from forty-six to sixty in number. 

H1RA (.y.). The name of a 
mountain near Makkah, said to have boon 
the scene of the first revelation given to 
Muhammad. [MUHAMMAD. ] 

H1RAQL (Jiy*). Herachus the 
Roman Emperor, to whom MuhammAd sout 
an embassy, A.H. 7, A.I. 028. 

HIKE. The Arabic tenn ijarah 
} which means the use and en 
joyment of property for a time, includes hire 

176 HIBE 

rental, and lease. The hirer is termed o;Vr, 
or mu jir. The person who receives the rent 
ia the musta jir. 

The following are some of the chief points 
in the Sunn! law vrith regard to ijarah, and 
for further particulars the reader mast refer 
in English to Hamilton s Hiddyah, v.ol. iii. 
p 312, or in Arabic to such works as the 
Dvrru l-Mukhtar, FatdwH i- Alamgiri, and the 
Maddu l~Muhidr.m which works it is treated 
in the Bdbu l-Ijarah. 

A contract of hire, or rental, or lease, is 
not ralid unless both the usufruct and the 
hire be particularly known and specified, 
because there is a traditional saying of the 
Prophet, " If a pei-son hire another let him 
first inform him of the wages he is to 

A workman is not entitled to anything 
until his work is finished, but the article 
wrought upon may be detained until the 
workman be paid his full wages, and the 
workman is not responsible for any loss or 
damage in the article during such detention. 
If a person hire another to carry a letter to 
al-Baarah and bring back an answer, and he 
accordingly go to al-Baarah and there find 
the person dead to whom the letter was ad 
dressed, and come back, and return the 
letter, he is not entitled to any wages what 
ever I This strange ruling is according to 
Abu Hanifah and two of his disciples, but 
the Imam Muhammad says the messenger 
fcught to be paid. 

It is lewful to /(ire a house or shop for the 
purpbs of residence, although no mention bo 
made of the business to bft followed in it. and 
the lessee is at liberty to carry on any busi 
ness he pleases, unless it be injurious to the 
building. For example, a blacksmith or a 
fuller must not reside in the house, unless it 
is previously so agreed, since the exercise of 
thoae trades would shake the building. 

It is lawful to hire or lease land for the 
purposes of cultivation, and in this case the 
hirer is entitled to th us of the road lead 
ing to the land, and likewise the water (i.e. 
his turn of water) although no mention of 
these be made in the contract 

A lease of land is not valid unless mention 
is made of the article to be raised on it. not 
only with a view to cultivation, but also for 
other purposes, suchf as building, and so 
forth, Or the leasr of the land may make 
declaration to the effect ; " 1 Jet the land on 
this occasion, that the lessee shall raise on 
it whatever he pleases, 

II a person hire unoccupied laad for tho 
purposes of building or planting, it is lawful,, 
but on the term of the lease expiring it is 
incumbent on the lessee to remove his build 
ings and trees, and to restore the land to the 
lessor in such a state as may leave him no 
claim upon it, because houses or trees have 
no specific limit of existence, and if they were 
left on the land it might be injurious to the 
proprietor. But it is otherwise when the 
land is hired or leased for tbe purpose of 
tillage, and the term oi the lease expires at 
a time when the grain is yet unripe. In this 


case, the grain must ba suffered to remain 
upon the ground at a proportionate rent, 
until it is fit for reaping. 

The hire of an aninial is lawful, either for 
carriage, or for riding, or for any use to 
which animals are applied. And if a person 
hire an animal to carry a burden, and the 
person who" lets it to hire specify the nature 
and quantity of the article with which the 
hirer ia to load the animal, the hirer is at 
liberty to load the animal with an equal : 
quantity of any article not triore troublesome j) 
or prejudicial in tbe carriage than wheat, 
such as barley, &c. The hirer is not at j 
liberty to load the animal with a more pre- i 
indicia! article than wheat (unless stipulated ; 
beforehand), such as salt or iron. For a 
hired animal perishing from ill-usage, the 
hirer is responsible. 

(For the sayings of Muhammad on the nub" 
ject of hire and leases, refer to the Miskkdt, 
tabu Z-Ijdrah.) 

HIES (u*^). "Avarice, greed,! 
eagerness." Derivatives of tht> word occur 
three times in the Qnr an. Sura h ii. 90: 
" Thou wilt Snd them (the Jews) the greediest 
of men foi- life." Surah iv. 128 : " And je may 
not have it at all in your power to treat your 
wives with equal justice, even though you be 
anxious to do so," Surah xii. 104 : And yet 
most men, though thou ardently desire sf, will 
not believe.** 

HISS (u^-). u "Understanding j 

sense." Hiss hdtin, internal sense : hiss $dhtr,\ 
external sense; hiss mwhfariie, common sense. 

HIZANAH (&U^). Al-htzdnah it 

the right of a mother to the custody of her ! 
children. " The mother ia of all persons the 
best entitled to the custody of her infant 
children during the connubial relationship as 
wall as after its dissolution/ (Fatawa-i- Atam* 
girl* vol. i. p. 728.) 

When the children are no longer dependent 
on the mother s care, the father ha* a right 
to educate and take charge of them, and is 
entitled to the guardianship of their person in 
preference to the mother. Among the Ha- 
nafiK, the mothw is entitled to the custody of 
her daughter until she arrives at puberty ; ; 
but according to tbe other three Sunn? sects, 
the custody continues nil I she is married. 

There is difference of opinion as to the 
extent of the period of the mother s custody \ 
over her male children. The Hanafls limit it 1 
to the child s seventh year, but the Shaft Is j 
and Malakis allow the boy the option of re 
maining under his mother s guardian/ship 
until he has arrived at puberty. Among the 
Shi ahs, the mother is entitled to the custody j 
of her children until they are weaned, a 1 
period limited to two years. After the child 
is weaned, its custody, if a male, devolves on 
the father, if a female, on the mother. The 
mother s custody of the girl continues to the 
seventh year. 

The right of hizdna/i ia lost by the mother 
if she is married to a stranger, or if she mis- 




HORSES. Arabic faras 

iail ( J**>), pi. khuyul. Muhammad s 

ffeetion for horses was very great, a,s was 

natural to an Arabian. Anas says there was 

lothing the Prophet was so fond of as women 

nd horses. Abu Qatadah relates that Mu- 

lamniad said : " The best horses are black 

with white foreheads and having a white 

pper. lip." But Abu Wahhab says the Pro- 

ahet considered a bay horse with white fore- 

tead, white fore and hind legs the best. An 

nstance of the way in which the traditionists 

ometimes contradict each other I ( AlisJJcut. 

book xvii. c. ii.) 

In the Hidayah (Arabic edition, vol. Mi. 
432) it is said that horses are of four 
:inds : (1) Birzaun. Burzun, a heavy draught 
orse brought from foreign countries. (2} 
Atiq, a first blood horse of Arabia. (3) 
5Tq;?n, a half-bred horse wnose mother is an 
Arab and father a foreigner. (4) A half -bred 

Conducts heraelf, or if ehe changes her domi- j 
file so as to prevent the father or tutor from ( 
Dxercising the necessary supervision over the j 

Apostasy is also a bar to the exorcise of 
the right of hizdnah. A woman, consequently, 
who apostatizes from Islam, whether before 
or after the right vests in her, is disentitled 
from exercising or claiming the right of 
kizdnafi in respect to a Muslim child. 

The custody of illegitimate children ap 
pertains exclusively to the mother and her 
relations. (Personal Lato of Mvhanunadan* . j 
by Synd Amir Ali, p. 214.) [QUARDIAK- | 


HOLY* SPIRIT. Arabic Ruhu I- \ 
Quds (y-Jtft c^)- The Holy Spirit is j 
nentioued three times in the Qur an. In the 
jfiralu *n-Nahl (xvith, 104), as the inspiring 
igent of the Qur an : " Say, The Holy Spirit 
^Drought it down from thy Lord in truth." 
Vnd twice in the Suratu 1-Baqarah (mid, 
U and 254), as the divine power which aided 
he Lord .fesus : " and We strengthened him by 
[j he Holy Spirit " (in both verses). 
) The Jalalan. al-Baizawi, and the Muslim 
commentators in general, say this Holy Spirit 
wan the angel Gabriel who sanctified Jesus, nnd 
constantly aided Him. and who also brought 
the Qur an down from heaven and revealed 
It to Muhammad. 

I For a further consideration of the subject, 
nee SPIRIT. 

HONEY. Arabic <udl ( J~*). In 

he Qur an it is specially mentioned as the 
<if t of God. rfiirah xvi. 70: "Thy Lord in- 
pired the bee. Take to houses in the moun- I 
ains, and in the trees, and in the hives they 
mild. Then eat from every fruit and walk 
a the beaten paths of thy Lord/ There 
eometh forth from her body a draught 
varying in hue, in which is a cure for 

horse whose father is an Arab and whose 
mother is a foreigner. 

In taking a share of plunder, a horseman 
is entitled to a double share, but ho is not 
entitled to any more if he keep more horses 
than one. 

HOSPITALITY. Arabic ziydfah 
(&W*). It is related that Muhammad 

said : 

" Whoever believes in God and in the Day 
of Resurrection must respect his guest." 

" If a Muslim be the guest of a peoplo and 
he spends the whole night without being en 
tertained, it shall be lawful for every Muslim 
present to take money and grain necessary 
for the entertainment of the man." 

" It is according to my practice that the 
host shall come out with his guest to the 
door of his house." (Mishkdt, book xix. 
oh. ii.) 

Hospitality is enjoined its the Qur an. 
Surah iv. 40 : " Show kindness to your 
parents, and to yonr kindred, and to orphans, 
and to the poor, and to yonr neighbour who 
is akin and to your neighbour who is a 
stranger, and the companion who is strange, 
and to the, son of the road. 

HOUR, The. Arabic 
(cLJ\). A term frequently used ID 
the Qttr an for the Day of Judgment. 

iSurah vi. 81 : " When t/te hour comes sud 
denly upon them. 

Surah vii. 186 : " They will adk you about 
the hour for what time it is fixed." 

Surah xv. 85: "Verily the hour ia surely 

Surah xvi. 7i : ki Nor is the matter of M 
hour aught but as the twinkling of an eye, or 
nigher still." 

Surah xxii. 1: "Vsrily the earthquake of 
tl,*e hour is a mighty thing." 

Surah liv. 46 : " Nay the hour is their pro 
mised time J and the hour ia most aevere and 


terms " Hours of Prayer " and " Canonical 
Hours," being used in the Christian Church 
(see Johnfton g Engl. Cafions and Canons of 
Cuthbert, ch. 15), we shall consider undw 
this title the stated periods of MuTiammadan 
prayer. [FRAYBB.] They are five : (1) fcgr 
(^i), daybreak ; (2) %uhr ( j6^), when the 
sun begins to decline at midday , (3) Asr 
(y**) t midway between zuhr and mayfaib; 
(4^ Maghrib \^^), evening; (6) <Ishd 
(oWLfi), when the night has closed in. Ac- 
cording to the Traditions (Mishkdt, book 
jcxiv. ch. vii. pt. 1). Muhammad professed to 
have received his instructions to say prayer 
five times a day during the Mi raj, or the 
celebrated night journey to heaven. He said, 
God first ordered him to pray fifty times a 
day, but that Moses advised him to get the 
Almighty to reduce the number of canonical 
hours to ftve, he himself having tried fifty 




times for his own people with very ill 

tt is remarkable that there is but one 
passage in the Qur an, in which the stated 
hours of prayer are enjoined, and tkat ii 
jnetiiiona only four and not five periods 
Suratu r-Rum, xxx. 16, 17 : " Glorify God when 
it is AveaiBj? (TJWM*?), and at morning (fubft), - 
and to Him be praise in the heavens and in 
the avth, and at afternoon ( s o*Ai), and at 
noon-tick ($ukr). n But al-Jalalan, the eom- 
meiuators say all a*e agreed that the term, 
"when it is matff" (evening or night), in 
cludes both auhset and after sunset, and 
therefore both the nutghrib and i*Aa prayers 
are* in eluded. 

Three hours of prayer wara obeeived b^ 
thw Jews, David says, "Eveniog morning. 
and at noon will I pray." (P<*. lv. 17.) 
Daniel " kneeled upon his knees three 
times u day." These three hours of the 
Je?re seena to have been continued by the 
Apostles (see Acts iii. 1), and were transmitted 
to the early church in succeeding agoa, for 
Tertullian speaks of "those common hours 
which mark the divisions of the day, the 
third, sixth, and ninth, which we observe 

_ I 


in scripture to be more solemn than the 
rest." (/> Orat., c. 25.) And Clement of 
Alexandria says, " If same fix stated hours 
of prayer, as the third, sixth, and ninth, the 
man of knowledge prays to God throughout 
his whole life.* 1 (Stem. 1. viL c. 7, sect. 40.) 
Jerome says, " There are three times in which 
the knees are bent to God. Tradition assigns 
the third, the aixtb, and the ninth hour." 
(Com. X Daw., c. vi. 10.) 

In the third century there seems to have 
been Jive stated periods of prayer, for Basil 
of Cappadocia speaks of five hours as suit 
able for monks, namely, the morning, the 
third hour, the sixth, the ninth, and the 
evening.- (jRegulcefusiu* Tract. Hegp. ad Qtt., 
37, sections 3--6.) 

It is therefore probable that Muhammad 
obtained his idea of five stated periods of 
prayer daring his two journeys to Syria. 
But he changed the time, as will be seen 
from the table annexed, which was drawn up 
by Mr. Laae at Cairo, and shows the times of 
Muhammad an prayer with the apparent 
European time of sunset, in or near the lati 
tude of Cairo at the commencement of each 
zodiacal month : 









"; " 

7 4 j.f, 
|6 58 
<? 31 
6 4 
5 37 
5 15 
6 4 

Jtoe. 1 


1 -i t-. 


July 22 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 23 
Oct. 23 
Nov. 22 

Hay 21 
ApL 20 


Tiyi OA 




c * 


1 34 
1 30 
1 22 
1 18 
1 18 
1 22 
1 24 

8 6 
8 30 
9 24 
10 24 
11 18 
11 59 
12 15 

4 56 
5 7 
5 29 
5 66 
*> 28 
o 5S 

8 13 
8 43 
9 4 
9 24 
9 35 
f> 41 
9 43 

N.B. Tke time of noon, according to Muhammad an reckoning, OH any particular day, sub 
tracted from twelve, gives the apparent time of sunset on that day according to European 

"bvy&t; dar ( 


Arabic bait 

*), pt di-wlr. d<~tr ; 

In the time of Muhammad 
the houses of the Arabs were made of 
a framework of jarld, or palm-sticks, co 
vered o^er with a cloth of caxiibfa hair, or 
t curtain of a similar stuff, forming the door. 
Those of the better class were made of walls 
of unbaked bricks, and date-leaf roofs plas 
tered over with inud and clay. Of this <**- 
floriptioa were the abodes of Mnhair.i; ";>, 
family. (Burton. YO! i. p. 438.) 

Sir "William Muir, translating fi-oia vhe 
accouat given by the secretary of al-Waqidi 
{Life of Mahomet, now ed., p. 646), says: 

Abdaliftli ib i Yazfd relates, that he saw 
the bouse in rcbieh the wives of the .Prophet 
dwelt at tlw -iixna Trhen Qmar ibn fAbd) ftl* 
taeti g-feraer ol Medina (about A.H. 

100) demolished them. They were built oft 
ttnfeaiBt brick u and. had separate apartments 
made of palm branches, daubed (or built up) 
with x-iua ; ho comtted nine houses, each 
having se^.tritte apartments in the space from 
the of Aye^ha,and the gate of Mahomet 
to the house of Aema, daughter of Hoseiu. 
Observing the dwelling-place of Omm Sahna, 
he questioned her grandson concerning it; 
and be told him that when the Prophet w 
absent on the expedition to Duma, Ora 
Sainm built up an addition to her house wi 
a wall of unburnt bricks. When Mahomet 
returned, he went in to her, and asked what 
new building this was. She replied, I pur- 
poaed, O Prophet, to shut out the glances of 
men thereby I Mahomet answered, * O Oruic 
Salrna J verily the most unprofitable thing 
that eateta up the wealth of a believer is 
building/ A citizen of Medina present s*t 


the time, confirmed this account, and added 
that the curtains f Anglo -Indies, pur das) of 
the doors were of black Lair cloth. He was 
present, he said, when ths despatch of the 
Caliph Abd al Malik (A.H. 86-88) was read 
aloud, commanding that these houses should 
be brought within the area of the Mosque, 
and he never witnessed sorer woeping than 
there was amongst the people that day. One 
exclaimed, I wish, by the Lord! that they 
would leave these houses alone thus as they 
are ; then would those that spring up here 
after in Medina, and strangers from the ends 
of the earth, come and see what kind of 
building sufficed for the Prophet s o^n abode, 
and the sight thereof would deter men from 
extravagance and prida 

" There were four houses of ucbnrnt bricks, 
the apartments being of palm-brnches ; and 





























five houses made of palm-branches built up 
with mud and without any separate apart 
ments. Each was three Arabian yards in 
length. Some say that they had leather cur 
tains for the doors. One could reach the roof 
with the hand. The house of Hftritha was 
next to that of Mahomet. Now, whenever 
Mahomet took to himself a new wife, he 
added another house to the row, and Haritha 
was obliged successively to remove his house 
and build on the space beyond. A)) last this 
was repeatfld so often, that the Prophet said 
to those about him, Verily, it shaineth me 
to turn Hftritha over and over again out of 
his house. " 

The houses of the rural poor in all parts of 
Islam, in Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Arabia. 
Persia, Afghanistan, and India, are usually 
bulit either of mud or of unburnt bricks. In 
mounUinoas parts of Aghanistan they are 
built of stones (collected from the bed* of 
rivers) and tnnd. They are generally one 
storey high, and of one apartment in which 
the cattle are also housed. The roofs 
are flat and are formed of mud and straw 
laid upon branches of trees and rafters. The 
windows are small apertures, high up in the 
wall*, and sometimea grated with wood. 


There are no chimneys, but m the centre of 
the roof there is an opening to emit the smoke, 
the fire being lighted on the ground in the 
centre of the room. In front of the house 
there is an inclosure, either of thorns or a 
mud wall, which secures privacy to the 
dwelling. A separate building, called in Asia 
a hujrah, or guest chamber, is provided for 
male visitors or guests ; this chamber being 
common property of the section of the vil 
lage, except in the case of chiefs or wealthy 
land-owners, who keep b^ujrahs of their own. 
In towns the houses of the inferior kind do 
not differ much from those in the villages, 
except that there is sometimes an upper 
storey. In some parts of Afghanistan and 
Persia, it becomes necessary for each house 
holder to protect his dwelling, in which case 
a watoh tower, of mud, )s erected close tc th 



The injunctions of Muhammad regarding 
the seclusion of women have very greatly in 
fluenced the plan and arrangement of Muham- 
raadan dwelling-houses of the better class 
throughout the world, all respectable houses 
being so constructed as to seclude the female 
apartments from public view. In cities such 
as Cairo, Damascus, Delhi, Peshawur, and 
Cabul, the prevailing plan of dwelling-houses 
is an entrance through a blank wall, whose 
mean appearance is usually relieved by a 
handsome door-way and a few latticed win 
dows. A respectable house usually consists 


rate q&a/i described by Mr. Lane in his 
Modern Egyptians, vol. i. p. 39, which is either 
j on the ground or upper tioor. Within tho 
j first enclosure will be the stables for horses 
and cattle, and in its centre a raised dais 
as seats for servants and attendants. It 
should be noticed that thare are no special 
bed-rooms in Eastern houses. Male visitors 
and friends will sleep in the verandahs of tho 
outer court, or on the diwan in the upper 

The harim or women s apartments in the 
inner court is entered by a small door. It is 



of two courts, the first being that used by the 
male visitors and guests, and the inner court 
is*, tho barim or zananah reserved for the 
female members of the family. Facing the 
outer court ,will be an upper chamber,- or 
bald kfranah as it is called hi Persian, the 
VTTcpuJoVf or Upper room of the New Testa 
ment, in which there will be a diwdn, or 
raised seat or eofa, upon which tho inmates 
can sit, eat, or eleep. This is the oisual re- 
Oeptkm room In Asia, this balu khanah 
seems to take the place of the more elabo- 


CAIRO. (Lane.) 

a quadrangle with verandahs on each of the 
four sides, formed by a row of pillars, the 
apertures of which are usually closed by/ 
sliding shutters^ Tho back of the rooms 
being without windows, the only ah- being 
admitted from the front of . the dwelling 
place. The apartments are divided into long 
rooms, usually four, the extreme corners 
having small closets purposely built as store- 
rooms. On festive occasions these verandah 
rooms \yiH be spread with handsome carpets, 
carpets and pillows being almost the only fur- 




nituro of an Eastern dwelling, chairs being 
a modern invention. The roofs of these rooms 
are flat, and as the top is fenced in with a 
barrier some four feet high, the female mem 
bers of the household sleep on the top of the 
house in the hot weather. [HAKIM.] 

In no point do Oriental habits differ more 
from European than in the nse of the roof. 
Its Hat .surface, hi fine weather the usual 
place of resort, is made useful for various 
hausehold purposes, as drying corn, hanging 
tip linen, and drying fruit. 

Li the centre of the inner court or hariin. 
there is usually a well, so that the female do 
mestics are not obliged to leave the seclusion of 
the harini for water-carrying. In a largo court, 
of a wealthy person, there is usually a raised 
dais of either stone or wood, on which car 
pets are spread, and on which the ladios sit 
or recline. In the better class of dwellings, 
there are numerous courtyards, and special 
ones are devoted to winter and summer uses. 
la Peabawur, most respectable houses have 
on underground room, called a taJji khdnah, 
where the inmates in the hot weather sleep at 
mid-day. These rooms are exceedingly cool 
[ , and pleasant on hot sultry days. 

Over the entrance door of a Muhammadan 
i dwelling it is usual to put an inscription, 
i either of the Kalimah, or Creed, or of some 
I verse of the Qur an. 

We have only attempted to describe. 
I briefly, the ordinary dwelling-houses of Mu- 
j . hammadanb, which are common to all parts 
I of the Eastern world ; but in large wealthy 
I cities, such as Damascus, Cairo, Delhi, and 
i Lucknow, there are very handsome houses, 
i which would require a longer description 
I than our space admits 6f. For Mrs. Meer 
1 Ali s account of a Muhammadan harrm or 
. zanauah, sec IIARIM 

HOUSES, Permission to enter. 
I Arabic iaii zdn (Q\SX~\). To enter 
I suddenly or abruptly into any person s 
I house or apartments, is reckoned a great 
I incivility in the East, and the law on this sub- 
I ject is very distinctly laid down in both the 
I Qur an and the Traditions. 
Surah xxiv, 27-29 > 

" ye who believe 1 enter not into other 

I houses than your own, until ye have asked 

I leave, and have saluted its inmates. This 

will be best for you : haply ye will bear this 

I in mind. 

" And if ye find no one therein, then enter 

I it not till leave bo given you ; and if it be 

I said to you, * Go ye back, then go ye back. 

\ This will be more blameless in you, and God 

knoweth what ye do. 

" There shall be no hartn in your entering 
houses in which no one d \\elloth, for the 
supply of your needs : and God knoweth 
wha,t ye do openly and what ye hide." 

The trailitionistn record numerous injunc 
tions of Muhammad on the subject. A man 
asked the prophet, "Mast I ask leave to 
go in to see my mother?" He said, " Yen." 
Then the man said, Bat I stay iu the same with her ! " The Prophet said : " But 
you must usk pennission even if you stay in 
the samo house/ Thnn the man said, ""But 
I wait upon her ! " The Prophet said : " What ! 
\vouM you like to see her naked ? You must 
ask permission." 

The Khalifah -Umar .said it was according 
to thp teaching of the Prophet that rf you 
salam thr*o times and get no reply, you must 
then go away from the house. 

Abu Hura irah says that the Prophet said : 
When anyone .sends to call you then you 
can return with the messenger and enter the 
house without pel-mission." (Mishkat, book 
xxii. ch. ii. pt. 2.) 

HIT, HUWA (y). The personal 

pronoun of tho third person, singular, mas 
culine, HE, i.e. God, or He is. It occurs in 
the Qur an in this sense, Surah iii. 1, &\ 

y& 3\ <ri\ 3 Alldhu id iidha ilia #,-, God, 

there is no god but HE," which sentence is 
called the nafy wa isbdt (or that which is re 
jected, there is no god r and that which is 
affirmed, " but He. The word is often used 
by Sufi myptics in this form : ^ U yfc U *> \j 
Jb ^\ yfc V* ^Jjo JJ yd hu. yd hu, yd man Id 
ya lamu md hu illd hu, " Ho (who is). He 
(who is), O He whom no one knows what He 
Himself is but Himself." Some commentators 
have supposed the word f]u to stand for the 
exalted name of God, the Ismu l-a zam, which 
Muslim doctors say is only known to God. 

HUBAL or HOBAL (J**). The 

great image which stood over tho well or 
hollow within tho Ka bah. In the cavity be 
neath were preserved the offerings and other 
treasures of the temple. (At-faburt, p: 6, 
quoted by Muir,) Tho idol was destroyed by 
Muhammad at his final conquest of Makkah, 
A.H. 8, A.]). 030. " Mounted on (his camel) Al 
Caswa, ho proceeded to the Kaabah, reve 
rently saluted with his staff the sacred stono 
and made tho seven circuits of the temple. 
Then pointing with, the staff one by one to the 
numerous idols placed, around, he commanded 
that they should be hewn down. The great 
image of Hobal, reared as the tutelary deity 
of Mecca, hi front of the Kaabah, shared the 
common fate. Truth hath come, exclaimed 
.Mahomet, in words of the Goran, as it fell 
with a crash to the ground, and falsehood 
hath vanished; for falsehood is evanescent."* 
(Surah xvii. 83). See Muir, Life of Mahomet, 
new ed. p. 422. It is remarkable that there 
is no distinct allusion to the idol in the whole 
of the Qur an 

HUBS G^"*^). Any Request for 

j pious purposes. A tonu used in Shfsh law 
for wnqf. Anything devoted to tho service 
of God. (See Baillie s Jindtwca Cndc, 

P. 2 ,-r.) 

H"Ql> (>*)*) A prophet said to 
have 1 tjon sent to the tribe of Ad. Al- 




Bai?awi says he was, according to some, the 
son of Abdn llah, the son of Rabah, the son 
of Khalud, the son of Ad, the son of <Ans 
the 8on of Iram, the son of Sam, son of Noah, 
or, according to others, Hud was the son of 
Shalah, son of Arfakhshad, son of Sam, son 
of Noah. D Herbelot thinks he must be the 
Jleber of the Bible (Judges iv. 1.) 

The following are the accounts given of 
Jbini in the Qur an, Surah vii 63-70 : 

" And to Ad we sent their brother Hud. 
O nay people, said ho, worship God: ye have 
no other God than Him: will ye not then 
fear Him ? Said the unbelieving chiefs among 
his peopie, We certainly perceive that thon 
art unsound of mind, and verily we deem 
thee an impostor. He replied, O my people ! 
there is no unsotmdness of mind in me, but I 
am an apostle from the Lord of the worlds. 
The messages of my Lord do I announce to 
you, and I am your faithful counsellor. Mar 
vel ye that a warning b^th come to you from 
your Lord through one of yourselves that 
He may wars you? But remember when He 
made you . the stteoessora of the people of 
Noah, and increase 1 you mtullness of stature. 
Remember then ine favours of God ; happily 
it shall be well with you. They said, Art 
thou come to us in order that tve may wor 
ship one God only, and desert what our 
fathers worshipped ? Then bring that upon 
us with which thou threatenest its, if thou be 
a man of ta*uth.* He replied, Vengeance 
and wrath shall suddenly light on you from 
your Lord- Do ye dispute with me about 
names that you and your fathers have given 
those idols, -and for which God hath sent yon 
down no warranty ? Wait ye then, and I too 
will wait with you. And We delivered 
him and those who were on his aide by our 
mercy, and we cut off to the last man those 
who had treated our signs as lies and who 
were not believers." 

Surah xi, 52-68: 

"And unto Ad We sent their brother Hfid. 
He said, * my people, worship God. Ye 
have no God beside Hun. Lo, ye are only 
devisers of a lie, my people 1 T ask of 
you no recompense for this ; verily my recom 
pense is with Him only who bath made me. 
Will ye not then understand ? And my 
people! ask pardon of yc.ur Lord; then 
turn unto Him with penitence ! He will send 
down the heavens upon you with copious 
rains. And with strength in addition to your 
strength will He increase you ; but turn not 
back with deeds of evil. They replied, O 
Hud, thou hast not brought us proofs of thy 
mission, and we are not the persons to aban 
don our goda at thy word, and we believe 
th&e not. We can only say that some of our 
gods have smitten thee with evil, He said, 
Now take I God to witness, and do ye also 
witness, that I am innocent of that which ye 
associate (in worship with God) beside him 
self. Conspire then against me altogether 
and delay me not; Lo, I trust in God, my 
Lord and yours No moving creature is there. 
which He holdeth not by its forelock. Right, 

truly, is the way in which tay Lord goeth. So 
if ye turn back, then 1 have already declared 
to you that wherewith I was to you, and 
my Lord will put another people in your 
place, nor shall ye at all injure Him ; verily, 
my Lord keepeth watch over all things. 
And when our doom came to be inflicted, We 
rescued Hud and those who had like faith 
with him, by our Special mercy ; and We 
rescued them from the rigorous chastise 
ment. And these men of Ad gainsaid the 
signs of their Lord, and rebelled against His 
messengers and followed the bidding of every 
proud contumacious person ; followed there 
fore were they in this world by a curse ; and 
in the day of the Resurrection it shall be said 
to them, Did not, verily, the people of Ad 
disbelieve their Lord ? Was it not said, 
Away with Ad, the people of Hud ? * " 

Surah xxvL 123-139 : 

" The people of Ad treated the Sent Ones 
as liars. When their brother Hud said to 
them, Will ye not fear God? I truly am 
your apostle, worthy of all credit ; fear God 
then and obey me. I ask of you no reward 
for this, for my reward i of the Lord of the 
worlds alone. Build ye a landmark on every 
height, in pastime ? And raise ye structures 
to be your lasting abodes? And when, ye pul 
forth your power, do ye put it forth with 
harshness ? Fear ye God, then, and obey me ; 
and fear ye Hun who hath plentoously be 
stowed oxt you, ye well know what ? Plen- 
teously bestowed on you flocks and children, 
and gardens and fountains. Indeed, I fear 
for you the punishment of a great day/ They 
said, It is the same to tts whether thou warn 
or warn us not j verily this is but a creation 
[tale] of the ancients, and we are not they 
who shall be punished, So they charged 
him with imposture and We destroyed them. 
Verily in this was a sign : yet most of them 
believed not." 

AL-rjKJDAIBIYAH (***#). Ai- 

Hudaibiyah, a well on an open space on the 
verge of the Haram or sacred territory, which 
encircles Makkah. Celebrated as the scene of 
a truce between Muhammad and the Quraish 
known as the truce, of al-Hudaibiyah, when the 
Prophet agreed not to enter Makkah that 
year, but to defer his visit until the next, 
when they should not enter it with any wea 
pons save those of the traveller, namely, to 
each a sheathed sword. (Muir, from Kdtibu 
/- Waqidi.) 

The treaty is referred to in the Qur an as 
" a victory," in the XLvmth Surah, 1st verae : 
" We have given they an obvious victory." A 
chapter which is said to have been revealed 
on this occasion and to have foretold the 
final taking of Makkah, which happened two 
years afterwards. (8ea at-Baizawl, ta 

HUJJAH (***). An argument ; 

a proof." The word occurs in the Qur an. 

Surah ii. 145 : " Turn your faces towards it 
(the Ka bab.) that men may Kave no 




(against you, save only those of them who. arc 

Surah vi 84: "These are our arguments 
which we gavo to Abraham against bis , 

Surah vi. 150 : " God s is the perfect argu- 
(hujjatu l-baliyJiaJi). 

ALQ (^\ j* &JH VO- Lit. 

" The demonstration of truth upon the crea 
ture." A term used by the Sufi mystics for 
the Insdnu Y-fcami/, or the * perfect man; 
as Adam was when he proceeded from the hand 
of his Maker, and when he became a demon 
stration of God s wisdom and power before 

I the angels of heaven. As is stated in the 
Qur an, Surah ii. 20: "Thy Lord said lam 

I about to place a vicegerent (^Ao/f/oA) in the 
earth. (Abdn Y-Razzaq s Diet, of $&f\ 

HUJBAH (^). The "chamber " 
in which Muhammad died and was buried, 
which was originally the apartment allotted 
to *Ayishah, the Prophet s favourite wife. It 
is situated behind the Masjidu n-Nabi, or 
Prophet s mosque, at al-Madumh, and is an 
irregular square of fifty-five feet, separated 
from the mosque by a passage of a bo at 
26 feet. Inside the Hujrah are supposed to 
be the three tombs of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, 
and Umar, facing the south, surrounded by 
stone walls, without any aperture, or, as 
others say, by strong planking. Whatever 
this material may be, it is hung outside with 
a curtain, somewhat like a four-post bed. 
The outer railing is separated by a darker 
passage from the inner, and is of iron filagree, 
painted green and gold. This fence, wbich 
connects the columns, forbids passage to all 
men. It has four gates, the Babu l-Muwa- 
jihoh (the Front Gate), the Babu Fafcimah 
(the date of Fatfmah), the Babu ah-Sbam 
(the Syrian Gate), and the Babu VTaubah 
(the Gate of Repentance). The Syrian Gate 
is the only one which is not kept closed, and 
is the passage which admits the officers in 
charge of the place. On the south prn side of 
the fence there are three STUM! v/in-lows 
about a foot square, which nro sud to l>o 
about three cubits from the head of the Pro 
phet s tomb. Above the Hnjr -reen 

dome, surmounted by a large yilfc crtncwnt, 
springing from a series of globes. Within 
the building are the tombs of Muhammad 
Abu Bakr, and Umar, with a space reserved 
for the grave of our Lord Jeaus Christ, whom 
Muslims say will again visit the earth, and 
die and be buried at al-Madinah. The grave 
of Fafcimah, the Prophet** daughter, is sup 
posed to be in a separate part of the build 
ing, although some say she was buried in 
Baqi. The Prophet s body is said to be 
stretched . full length on the right side, with 
the right palm supporting the right cheek, 
the face fronting Makkah, Close behind him 
ia placed Abu Bakr, whose face fronts Mn- 
Ijiamtoad s shoulder, and then Umar, who 

occupies the same position with respect to 
his predecessor. " Amongst Christian his 
torians there was a popular .story to the 
effect that Muhammadans believed the coffin 
of their Prophet to be suspended in the air, 
which has no foundation whatever in Muslim 
literature, and Niobuhr thinks the story must 
have arisen from the rude pictures Hold to 
strangers. Captain Burton gives the an 
nexed plan of the building. 

1. Muhammad. 

2. Abu Bakr. 

3. Umar. 

4. The space for the tomb of Jesus 
6. Fafcimah. 

It is related tnai Muhammad prayed that 
God would not allow his followers to make 
his tomb an object of idolatrous adoration, 
and consequently the adoration paid to the 
tomb at al-Madinah has been condemned by 
the Wahhabis and other Muslim reformers. 

In A.D. 1804, when al-Madinah was taken 
by the WahhttbJs, their chief, Sa ud, stripped 
the tomb of ail its valuables, and proclaimed 
that all prayers and exclamations addressed 
to it were idolatrous. (See Burton s Pitgri- 
maqe, vol. ii; Burckhardt s Arabia and 

The garden annexed to the tomb is caller} 
ar-JRcvfofi* which is a title also given by 
some writers to the tomb itself. 

Abft Da ud relates that al-Qasim the grand 
son of >bfi Bakr came to Aytsbah and said, 
"0 Mother, lift up. the curtain of the Pro 
phet s tomb and of his two friends, Abf Bakx* 
and Umar. ond she uncovered the graves, 
which were neither high nor low, but about 
one span in height, and were covered with 
red gravel. (Afithkdt, book v. ch. vi. pt. 2.) 

A L. H U J TJ R A T (^Ij-^-^Jt). 

Chambers." The title of the xuxth Surah 
of the Qar an, in which the word occurs. 

HUKM (^), pi. ahkam. " Order ; 
command ; rule ; sentence ; judgment, of 
God, or of the prophets, or of a ruler or 
judge." It occurs in different senses in the 
Qar an, e.g. : 

Surah u i. 73 : " It beseemeth net a man, 
that God should give him the Scriptures and 
the Judgment and the Prophecy, and that 




then he should say to his followers, Bo ye 
worshippers of me, as well as of God ; but 
rather, Be ye perfect in things pertaining to 
God, since ye know the Scriptures and have 
studied deep. " 

(Both Sale and Rodwell translate the word 
al-liuLm, " the wisdom," but Palmer renders 
it more correctly, " the judgment.") 

Surah xii. 40 : " Judgment is God s alone : 
He bids you worship only Him." 

Surah xxi. 79 : " To each (David and Solo 
mon) we gave judgment and knowledge." 

Al-Iiukmu sh-Sfiar l l, " the injunction of the 
law," is a terra used for a command of God, 
which relates to the lifo and conduct of an 
adult Muslim. (Kitdbu t-Ta i rlfdi i in loco.) 

HTJLtfL (J^). Lit. " descend 

ing : alighting ; transmigration." A Sufi 
term for the indwelling light in the soul of 


is no trace in the Qur ftn or Traditions of the 
immolation of human beings to the Deity as a 
religious rite. But M. C. de Percival (vol. ii. 
p. 101) mentions a Ghassanide prince who was 
sacrificed to Venus by Munzir, King of Hira . 
Infanticide Was common in ancient Arabia, 
but it seems to have been done cither, as 
amongst the Rajputs of India, from a feeling 
of disappointment at the birth of female 
children, or to avoid the expense arid 
trouble of rearing them. The latter seems 
to have been the ordinary reason ; foi- we 
read in the Qur an, Surah xvii. 38 : "Kill 
not your children for fear of poverty." 

AL-HUMAZAH (V*tt). " The 

slanderer." The title of the civth Surah df 
the Qur an, so called because it commences 
with the words : " Woe unto every slanderer" 
The passage is said to have been revealed 
against al-Akhnas ibn Shariq , who had been 
guilty of slandering the Prophet. 

HUNAIN (c^~). The name of a 
valley about three miles to the north-east of 
Makkah, where in the eighth year of the 
IJijrah a battle took place between Muham 
mad and the Banu Hawazin, when the latter 
were defeated. In the Qur an, the victory of 
Hunain is ascribed to angelic assistance. 

Surah ix. 25: "Verily God hath assisted 
you in many battle-fields and on the day of 

HUNTING. Arabic said 
Heb. -rig. There are special rules 

laid down n Muslim law with regard to hunt 
ing. (See Hamilton s Hidayah t vol. ivi p. 170.) 

It is lawfiil to hunt with a trained dog. or a 
panther (Arabic fahd, Persian yuz, which is 
an animal of the lynx species, hooded Mid 
trained like a hawk), or a hawk, or a 

The sign of a dog being trained is Ms 
catching game three times without eating it. 

A hawk is trained when she attends to the 
call of her master. If the dog or panther 
eat any part of the game it is unlawful, but 
if a hawk eat of it, it ia lawful ; out 
if the dog merely eat the blood and not the 
flesh, it is lawful. If a hunter take game 
alive which his dog has wounded, he must 
slay it according to the law of Zabh, namely, 
by cutting its throat, with the head turned 
Makkah-wards, and reciting, " In the name of 
the Great God I " The law is the same with 
respect to game shot by an arrow. 

If a sportsman let fly an arrow (or fire a 
gun) at game, he must repeat the invocation, 
" In the name of the Great God I " 

And then the flesh becomes lawful if the 
game is killed by the shot. But if only 
wounded, the animal must be slain with the 
invocation. Game hit by an arrow which has 
not a sharp point is unlawful, and so is that 
killed by throwing pebbles. 

Oatne killed by a Magian, or an apostate, 
or a worshipper of images is not lawful, 
because they are not allowed to perform 
zabfr. But that slam by a Christian or a Jew 
is lawful. 

Hunting is not allowed on the pilgrimage 
nor within the limits of the sacred cities of 
Makkah and al-Madlnah. 

<AdI ibn Hatim (Mishkat, book xviii. ch. i.) 
gives the following tradition on the subject of 
hunting : 

" The Prophet said to me, When you send 
your dog in pursuit of game, repeat the name 
of God, as at slaying an animal ; then if your 
dog holds the game for you, and you find it 
alive, then slay it ; but if you find your 
dog has killed it, and not eaten of it, then eat 
it ; but if the dog has eaten any of it, do not 
you eat it, for then the dog has kept it for 
himself. Then if you find another dog along 
Avith yours, and the game is killed, do not 
eat of it ; for verily you cannot know which 
of the dogs killed it ; and if the other dog 
killed it, it might so be that when he was let 
loose after the game, the name of God might 
not have been repeated. And when you 
shoot an arrow at game, repeat the name of 
God, the same as in slaying an animal ; then 
if you lose sight of the game, and on finding 
it perceive nothing but the impression of 
your own arrow, then eat it if you wish ; but 
if you find the game drowned, do not eat of 
it, although the mark of your arrow should 
be in it. " 

HUE (jyv), the -plural of haura. 
.The women of Paradise described in the 
Qur an, e.g. Surah Iv. 66-78 j 

" Therein shall be the damsels with retiring 
glances, whom nor man nor djinn hath 
touched before them : 

" Which then of the bounties of your Lord 
will ye twain deny? 

< Like jacynths and pearls: 

Which, <fec. 

" Shall the reward of good be aught but 

" Which, <fcc. 


"And bosido theso shall be two other 
gardens : 

Which, &c. 

" Of SL dark green : 

Whicb, <tc. 

" With gushing fountains m each : 

Which, <fcc. 

" la each fruits and the palm and the 
pomegranate : 

Which, &c. 

" Tn each, the fair, the beauteous ones : 

"Whicb, &c. 

" With large dark eyeballs, kept closo in 
their pavilions : 

Which, Ac. 

ki Whom man hath never touched, nor any 
djinn : 

Which, &c. 

" Their spouses on soft green cushions and 
on beautiful carpets shall recline: 

" Which, &c. 

k Blessed be tho name of thy Juord, full of 
roajesty and glory-" 



The second 
eon of Fatiinah, the daughter of Muhammad, 
by bor husband All, tht? fourth Khalifa b. 
A brother to al-ffaaan, the fifth Khalifah. 
According to the Shi ahs, ho was the third 
Khalifab. He was bora A.H. 4, and died t 
Karbala A.H. til, being cruelly .atom in hi 
conflict with YazTd, tho seventh Khali f ah, 
according to the Sunnis. 

The martyrdom of al-Husairi is celebrated 
by the Shi ahs every year during the first ton 
dayg of the Muharram [MUHAKRAMJ ; nn 
account of his tragic death is therefore 
necessary for understanding; tho intensity of 
feeling with which tho a^t^ea and incidents 
of the last days of the "Irnam HuKain are 
enacted in the " Miracle Play," a translation 
of which has bef-n given in English by Sir 
Lewis Pelly. Tho following account is 
taken from the Preface to this work, p. xi 
segq. - 

Shortly after (Uo accession of Yo/acl 
(Yassid). Hus.ain received at Mecca secret 
messages from the people of Cufa (ftl-Kiifah). 
entreating him to place him/Job? at tho htad 
of the anny of the faithful in Babylonia, 
Yezid, however, had full intimation ot the 
intended revolt, and lone before Uusuin nukl 
reach Cufa, tho too essj governor of that 
city had been replaced by Obaidallah {Ubai 
du llah ibit Ziyud^, the resolute ruier of Bus 
bur. ih (al- Basrah), who by his rapid measures 
di. sconce rlod tho plans of the cojispiratorw, nnU 
drove them to ft premature outbreak, und tht- 
Mnrrondor of their leader Mabliin. Tbo latter 
foresaw ihft ruiu which be had brousrht on 
liuiain ar<J shod bitter tearH ou tbat account 
when captured. Bis bead was etruc-k off find 
icnl to Yezid. On Husain arrivina: t the 
confines of Babylonia, he was met by liarro 
(al Hurt), \vbo had been sent out by Qbaidal- 
lah with a body of horaenlen to intercept 
1 us approach. Uusain, adtlrts^int? them, Us 
erted his title to Jbe Califate, and invited 
them to eabmit to him. Harro replied, We | 
are coinuunded as soon j.s we meet vou to 

bring you directly to Cufa into the pros<-nco 
of Obuidallah. the son of tfiyaa. llmain 
answea-od, [ would Hoonor di than submit 
to that, nnd gave the word to hi mcr. to 
ride on; hut ifaiTo wheeled about arid inter 
cepted them. At tho namo time, ilarro said, 
1 havu no commission to tigat v/itu von. but 
I am coramaTide.l not to pirt with you until 
T have condurtcd you into >ofa ; but he 
bnd-> Husain to uhooso any road into that 
city that did not go directly back to Mecca. 
and ^ do you, Baid ho, write to Yezid or 
Obaldaliah, and L will vrite to )baidallab, 
and perhaps it may please God I may mm 
with something that may bring rae off \vith 
out my home? forced to an extremity on your 
account. Thn ho rntmarod Iii0 forcD a little 
10 ullo\y llu/jaiu TO lead iho way towards 
Cufa, and Hnain took tho i.oad that lends by 
Adib and Cadisia. Tliis was on Thursdny 
iho Ifc of MohTT^rum ( Muharram"), A.H. (il 
(,v.f>. <>80j. When night came on, lie scill coo- 
tiimcd his march all throi^h the nightr, As 
he rode on ho nodded a little, and WKluue 
again, said. Men travel by night, and Lh* 
destinies travel toward them ; this I know 
to be a message of death. 

"In the morning, after prayers were ovor, 
be jnended his pace, and a 1 ? he rode un there 
came up a horseman, who took no notice cf 
him, but saluted Uarro. and delivered to 
him ?v letter, giving orders from Obaidal 
lah to lead Husain and his men into place 
where was neither tcwn nor fortifications, 
<md there leave them till the Svrian fo^ea 
should surround them. 

" This was on Friday tle 2ad of Mohurraui 
The day after. Amer ( Umar ibn Sa id) carac 
upon them with four thousand rnon, who 
were on their march to Dailam. They hod 
Ixjcu onoamped without tbo waits of Cufa. 
and when Obaidallab heard of IJusain s 
coming, IK? commanded Amer to defer his 
maroU to Daiiam and go against Husain. 
But one and all d-)ssu;<dod him licware 
that you go nut against Hnsain, and rebel 
against your Lord, and out off mercy from 
you, for \ou had better be depi ived of the 
dominion of the whole world