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Shearman Smirke 





Shearman Smirke 







Shearman Smirke 




I -■- /■ /' - 




G. A. A. . . G. A. AiTKBN. 

J. G. A. . . J. G. Aloeb. 

J. A-N. . . . The Rev. John Anderson. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Archbold. 

J. A. A. . . The Rev. Canon Atkinson. 

R. B-L. . . . RiCHABD Bagwell. 

H. F. B. . . H. F. Bakeb. 

Q. F. R. B. . G. F. Russell Barker. 

M. B Miss Bateson. 

B. B The Rev. Ronald Batne. 

T. B Thomas Batne. 

T. H. B. . . Professor T. Hudson Beabe. 

H. L. B. . . The Rev. Canon Leigh Bennett. 

Q. C. B. . . G. C. BoASE. 

Q. S. B. . . G. S. Boulgbb. 

A. R. B. . . The Rev. A. R. Buckland. 

E. I. C. . . E. Irving Cablylb. 

E. C-E. . . . Ernest Clabkb, F.S.A. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clbrke. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.SA. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Oourtnbt. 

L. C Lionbl Cust, F.S.A. 

H. D Henry Davbt. 

J. CD. . . J. C. Dibdin. 

B. L. D. . . Thb Rbv. B. Lanoton Douglas. 
J. A. D. . . J. A. DoTLi. 

B. D Bobbbt Dunlop. 

C. L. F, « 
C. H. F. . 
B. G. . . . 

A. G. . . . 
R. E. G. . 
J. C H. . 
J. A. H. . 

C. A. H. . 

D. B. H. . 
P. J. H. . 
T. F. H. . 
W. H.. . . 
W. H. H. 
T. B. J. . 

C. L. k. . 
J K 

J. K. L. . 
G. S. L. . 

E. L. . . . 
0. L. ... 
R. H. L. . 
E. M. L. . 
J. E. L. • 
J. H. L. . 
M. MaoD. 
J. B. M. . 

. C. Litton Falkiner. 

. C. H. Firth. 

. Richard Garnett, LL.D., C.B. 

. The Rev. Alezandeb Gobdon. 

. B. E. Gbaves. 

. J. Cuthbebt Hadden. 

. J. A. Hamilton. 

. C. Alexandre Harbis. 

. D. Bebbt Habt, M.D. 

. P. J. Habtoo. 

. T. F. Hendebson. 

. The Rev. William Hunt. 

. The Rev.-W. H. Hutton, B.D. 

. The Rev. T. B. Johnstone. 

. Chables Kent. 


. Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 

. Pbofessob J. K. Laughton. 

. G. S. Latabd. 

. Miss Elizabeth Lee. 

. Sidney Lee. 

. R. H. Legge. 

. Colonel E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 

. John Edwabd Lloyd. 

. The Rev. J. H. Lupton, D.D. 

. M. MacDonaoh. 

. J. R. Macdonald. 


List of Writers. 

^. M. ... Sheriff Mackay, Q.C. 

E. C. M. . . E. C. Mabchant. 
L. M. M. . . Miss Middleton. 
A. H. M. . . A. H. Millar. 
H. CM... H. C. Moore. 

N. M NoBMAN Moors, M.D. 

J. B. M. . . J. Bass Mullinoeb. 

A. N Albert Nicholson. 

Q. Le G. N. Q. Le Qrts Noroatb. 

D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOOHDB. 

P. M. 0*D.. F. M. 0*DoNOOHUE. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. Pollard. 

B. P Miss Bertha Porter. 

F. Y. P. . . Professor F. York Powell. 
D'A. P. . . . D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 

F. B Fraseb Bae. 

F. S The Rev. Francis Sanders. 

T. S Thomas Seccombe. 

W. A. S. . . W. A. Shaw. 

H. F. S. . . The Bev. H. Fleetwood Shep- 


' J. W. S. . 

Ej. b. s. . 

C. F. S. . 

. G. W. S. . 

G. S-H. . . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-t. . . 
U. B. T. . 

D. Ll. T.. 

A. B. U. . 

B. H. V. . 

A. W. W. 
W. W. W. 

C. W-H. . 
S. W. . . . 
W. B. W. 
H. T. W.. 

B. B. W. . 
W. W. . . 

J. W. Sherer, C.S.I. 

Miss Eva Blantyre Simpson. 

Miss C. Fell SMirk. 

The Bev. G. W. Sprott, D.D. 

George Stronach. 

C. W. Sutton. 
James Tait. 

H. B. Tedder, F.S.A. 

D. Lleufer Thomas. 

A. B. Urquhart, M.D. 

Colonel B. H. Vetch, B.E., 

Principal A. W. Ward, LL.D. 

Surgeon-Captain W. W. Webb. 

Charles Welch, F.S.A. 

Stephen Wheeler. 

W. R. Williams. 

Sir Henry Tbueman Wood. 

b. b. woodwabd. 

Wabwick Wboth, F.S.A. 






LIAM (1767-1861), physician and medical 
-writer, bom at Harwich in January 1767, 
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh on 12 Sept. 
1807 (with a dissertation on pneumonia), and 
was admitted a licentiate of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians, London, on 11 April 1808. 
lie commenced practice as a physician in 
London, but soon removed to Maidstone, 
whence he returned to the metropolis in 1813. 
He practised for many years in Northampton 
Square, Clerkenwell, and subsequently, until 
bis death, at 17 Canonbury Villas, Islmgton. 
He was physician to the London Dispensary 
from 1813 to 1824, to the Infirmary for 
Children in the Waterloo Road from 1816, 
and to the West London Infirmary and 
Lying-in Institution in Villiers Street from 
1821. He was the senior member of the 
medical staff when the last-named institution 
became the Charing Cross Hospital, a position 
which he retained in the new hospital until 
1862. To the Charing Cross Hospital school 
of medicine he rendered important services 
by his annual lectures on the theory and 
practice of medicine. His ' Introductory 
Lecture ' was published in 1834. In 1852 
he became consulting physician, and retired 
from practice. For several years he filled 
the office of treasurer to the Medical Society 
of London, in 1824 was president of the 
Rociety, and in 1834 published an oration 
delivered before it. He died on 21 Nov. 1861 , 
at the age of ninety-four, and was buried at 
Highgate cemetery. 

In 1799 he was one of the staff of a perio- 
dical called * The New Medical and Physical 
Journal, or Annals of Medicine, Natural 
History, and Chemistry,' and from 1810 to 
1812 he was editor. Ite continued his con- 
nection with the publication until 1815. He 


wrote articles on * Epilepsy,* * Vaccination,' 
and ' Circulation,' in the ' Medical Reports,' 
1824, and published: 1. 'An Essay on the 
Nature, Causes, and Treatment of Water on 
the Brain,' London, 1825. 2. * Observations 
illustrative of the History and Treatment of 
Chronic Debility, the Prolific Source of Indi- 
gestion, Spasmodic Diseases, and various 
r^'ervous Affections,' 1824, 8vo. 

[Lancet, 1861 ; Medical Times and Gazette, 
1861; Monk's Coll. of Phys.; Churchiir* 
Medical Directory; Catalogue of Brit. Mus. 
Library.] W. W. W. 

SHEBBEARE, JOHN (1709-1788),. 
political writer, bom in 1709, was the eldest 
son of an attorney and corn-factor of Bide- 
ford, Devonshire. A hundred and village in. 
South Devon, where the family had owned 
land, bears their name. Shebbeare was 
educated at the free school, Exeter, under 
Zachariah Mudge [q. v.^, and there, it i» 
said, * gave evidence of his future eminence 
in misanthropy and literature.' In his six- 
teenth year he was apprenticed to a surgeon ^ 
and afterwards set up for himself. Having,, 
however, lampooned both his master and tht> 
membersof the Exetercorporation,he in 1730 
removed to Bristol, where he later entered 
into partnership with a chemist. In 1740 he- 
pubhshed * A new Analysis of the Bristol 
Waters ; together with the Cause of Diabetes 
and Hectic, and their Cure, as it results 
from those Waters,' which was reissued in 

In 1752 he went to Paris, where he claimed 
to have obtained a medical degree, and to- 
have been elected member of the Academy 
of Sciences. But he found his pen more 
j remunerative than his practice. Settling 
in London, he began his career as a political 




writer in 1764, with * The Marriage Act/ a 
novel, dedicated to John, duke of Bedford, 
one of the chief opponents of Lord Hard- 
wicke*8 reform. The author was imprisoned 
for his reflections on the legislature, but his 
book was reissued in 1755 as 'Matrimony,' 
and reappeared in 1766. Shebbeare followed 
up his success in 1756 by an attack on 
the Duke of Newcastle in the form of 

* Letters on the English Nation, by Batista 
Angeloni, a Jesuit resident in London,' of 
which he professed to be the translator only. 
This political satire, modelled on Boling- 
broke s writings against Walpole, alone en- 
titled Shebbeare (in the opinion of Boswell) 
to a respectable name in literature. Mean- 
while he attacked the ministry directly in 
the * Monitor * and the * Con-test,* as well as 
in a series of outspoken pamphlets entitled 

* Letters to the People of England,' having, 
it was said, determined to write himself into 
a post or into the pillory (Walpole, Mem, 
George II, p. 153). 

At the close of 1757, after Pitt's dismissal, 
Shebbeare issued his sixth letter, ' in which 
is shown that the present grandeur of France 
and calamities of this nation are owing to 
the influence of Hanover on the councils of 
England.* On 12 Jan. 1758 a general war- 
rant was issued against the autlior, printer, 
and publisher. On 23 Jan. all copies of a 
seventh * Letter * were seized and suppressed. 
On 17 June Shebbeare was tried for libel on 
an information laid against him by the attor- 
ney-general, Pratt, who on this occasion 
admitted the right of the jury to judge of 
the law. During the trial, as Walpole 
laments, Mansfield laid it down that satires 
on dead kings were punishable. In summing 
up he declared that the 'Letter* nearly 
approached high treason. On 28 Nov. Sheb- 
beare was sentenced to a fine and three 
years* imprisonment, besides having to find 
security tor good behaviour for seven years. 
He was also to stand in the pillory at Char- 
ing Cross on 5 Dec. Owing to the friendship 
of Beardmore, the under-sherifF, he was 
allowed to stand upright between the upper 
and lower boards of the pillory, while an 
Irish chairman held an umbrella over his 
head. At the end of an hour he retired 
amidst the cheers of the crowd, who had been 
invited by printed bills- to come and see' the 
British champion.* Beardmore was after- 
wards punished for his conduct (cf. Churchill's 

* The Author,* quoted in Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. xi. 91). An anonymous squib ap- 

¥ eared under the title 'Memoirs of the 
'illory; being a consolatory Epistle to 
Dr. Shebbeare.* While in prison Shebbeare 
received Bubscriptions for a history of Eng- 

land, and actually composed one volume, 
which was not published. W^hen attacked 
on the subject in a letter in the ' Public 
Advertiser* of 10 Aug. 1774 he excused 
bimself chiefly on the ground of debt« in- 
curred in consequence of a lawsuit acuinst 
Francis Gwyn, who had been concernea with 
him in the publication of an edition of Claren- 
don's ' History of the Reign of Charles II.' 
The book, for which Shebbeare wrote a strong 
tory introduction, was suppressed by an in- 
, junction in chancery at tne instance of the 
j Duchess of Queensberry, and, though Sheb- 
beare recovered expenses from Gwyn, half 
the sum went in costs. Notwithstanding his 
position, he refused to avail himself of the 
Insolvent Act. On his release he advocated 
peace with France, and attacked Wilkes. On 
29 Feb. 17(J4 a memorial signed by several 
members of parliament was presented to 
(leorgeGrenville in his favour, and Shebbeare 
was granted a pension of 200/. a year. 
The king, in reply to Sir John Philips, who 
made the application, is said to have spoken 
of Shebbeare * in very favourable terms.' 
Almon's statement that a pension of 400/. 
had been previously granted by Bute seems 
doubtful (cf. Grenville Papers, ii. 271 ). Hence- 
forth Shebbeare became a steady advocate 
of the measures of the court, and even as- 
sailed his old favourite, Pitt. 

His most elaboratelv written work was 
* The History of the Excellence and Decline 
of the Institutions, Religion, Laws, Manners, 
and Genius of the Sumatrans, and of the 
Restoration thereof in the reign of Amurath 
the Third,* 2 vols. 1763. It is a skilful ex- 
posure of the weak points in whig policy and 
administration, followed by a panegyric on 
George III and his ministers. In style it is 
a colourable imitation of Bolingbroke. 

On 3 Aug. 1764 Walpole sent Lord Hert- 
ford a pam])hlet written by Shebbeare under 
Grenville's direction, adding the remark, * We 
do not ransack Newgate and the pillory for 
writers.' He speaks of him as engaged with 
Carteret Webbe, solicitor to the treasury, in 
writing against Pratt, the lord chief justice, 
in a paper called * The Moderator ' (Mem. 
George III, ed. Barker, i. 262). In 1766 
Shebbeare offered to John Beard [q. v.], the 
manager of Covent Garden, a play he had 
written in early life, and its non-production 
led to the publication of the correspondence 
between them (1767). In 1768 he wrote for 
three months the reviews of books in the 
' Political Register.* In 1770 Shebbeare pub- 
lished an * Eighth Letter to the People of 
England.* He defended the American policy 
of George III against Price and Burke in 
the * Public Advertiser * and elsewhere. The 



former he ' abused daily in the papers ' (W al- 
POLE, Last Journals, 19 March 1777). 

In 1774, in reflecting on some speeches 
lately delivered by Thomas Townshend 
(afterwards Lord Sydney) and Councillor 
Lee, he took occasion to cast aspersions 
on the character and reputation of Wil- 
liam III, Algernon Sidney, and other whig 
heroes, as viewed in the light of the recently 
published * Memorials' of Sir John Dalrymple 
(1726-1810) [q. v.] An answer appeared as 
an appendix to a 'Letter to Dr. Johnson on 
his late Political Publications,' 1775, by a 
* Doctor of Laws ' (H u^h Baillie). Despite a 
protest made by Fox in the House of Com- 
mons on 16 Feb. 1774 {Pari Hist. xvii. 
1058), the names of Johnson and Shebbeare 
were usually coupled in whig pasquinades. 
It was said that the king had pensioned 
both a He-bear and a She-bear (Boswell, 
Johnsm, ed. Hill, iv. 113). In 1776 Wilkes 
flpoke of them as the * two famous doctors ' 
who were *the state hirelings called pen- 
sioners,' and whose names ^ disgraced the civil 
list ' (Pari, Hist, xix. 1 1 8). Mason the poet, 
writing under the pseudonym * Malcolm Mac- 
^^gor,' in 1777 addressed a scathing * epistle ' 
to Shebbeare, as 

The same abusive, base, abandoned thing 
When pilloried or pensioned by a king 

(cf. W^ALPOLB, Letters, vi. 453). Nor did 
Shebbeare's own political iriends altogether 
spare him. His sudden transition from pillory 
to pension was glanced at in * Humphry 
Clinker,' and he is the * Ferret ' of Smollett's 
'Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves.' Sheb- 
beare seems to have shared Johnson's dislike 
to Scotsmen. He criticised adversely Smol- 
lett's * History,* and assailed the * Scotch 
gentlemen criticks ' of the * Critical Review,' 
then conducted by Smollett (see the Occa- 
sional Critic, 1767). In the revised edition 
of the ' History,* however, the passage re- 
lating to Shebbeare's prosecution in 1758 is 
curiously laudatory (Hume and Smollett's 
Hist, of Engl., 1855, x. 186). Hogarth, also 
one of George Ill's pensioners, introduced 
Shebbeare as one of the figures in his third 
Election print. Frances Bumey met him in 
1774 at the house of Catherine Reid, a 
Scottish portrait-painter, and has recorded a 
specimen of his conversation in her ' Early 
Diary.' It was marked by extraordinary 
coarseness, and consisted chiefly of abuse of 
women and Scotsmen, whom he declared to 
be *the two greatest evils upon earth.' The 
last production by Shebbeare was * The Pole 
Cat, or C. Jennings, the Renegade School- 
master . . . Detected,' 1783, 8vo. 

Shebbeare died on 1 Aug. 1788 in Eaton 

Street, Pimlico. He married young and un- 
happily. His son John, bom in 1737, matri- 
culated at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, on 28 Oct. 
1758, and graduated B.C.L. in 1765. After 
having been incumbent of Caston, Norfolk, 
he died rector of East Homdon,. Essex, on 
7 Feb. 1794 (Foster, Alumni O.von.) He 
wrote *The Ornaments of Churches con- 
sidered, with particular view to the late 
Decoration of St. Margaret's, Westminster ' 
(Nichols, Lit. Anecd, viii. 457). 

Shebbeare's writings generally are vigorous 
and well informed, and in scurnlity go little, 
if at all, beyond those of the chief polemical 
writers of the day. Walpole admitted that 
his pen was * not without force,* and Boswell, 
who was introduced to him by General Ogle- 
thorpe, thought 'his knowledge and abilities 
mucn above the class of ordinary writers.' 
Besides the works mentioned, he published: 

1 . * A Love Epistle in Verse found at Paris,* 
1753, 4to ; reissued in 1756. 2. * Lydia, or 
Filial Piety : a novel,* 4 vols. 12mo, 1765 ; 
2nd edit. 2 vols. 1769 ; another edit. 1786. 
3. ' Authentic Narrative of the Oppressions 
of the Islanders of Jersey, to which is pre- 
fixed a succinct History of the Military 
Actions, Constitution, &c., of that Island,* 
2 vols. 8vo, 1771. 4. * Address to the Privy 
Council pointing out an effectual remedy to 
the Complaints of the Islanders of Jersey,' 
1772, 8vo. 5. * Tyranny of the Magistrates 
of Jersey . . . demonstrated from Records of 
their Courts,* 1772, 8vo. 6. * Answer to the 
Printed Speech of Edmund Burke, esq. . . . 
in the House of Commons, April 19, 1774,* 
1776, 8vo. 7. ' Essay on the Origin, Pro- 
cess, and Establishment of National Society ; 
in which the principles of Government . . . 
contained in Dr. Price's observations are 
examined and refuted ; together with a jus- 
tification of the Legislature in reducing 
America to obedience by force; to which is 
added an appendix on the excellent and 
admirable in Mr. Burke's speech of 22 March 
1775,* 1776, 8vo. 

Also the following medical works : 1 . * The 
Practice of Physick, founded on principles 
in Physiology and Pathology hitherto un- 
applied in Physical Enquiries ' (undated). 

2. * Candid Enquiry into the Merits of 
Dr. Cadogan's Dissertation on the Gout; 
with appendix containing a certain Cure for 
Gout,' 1V72, 8vo. 

The full list given in the * European Ma- 
gazine' numbers thirty-five pieces. Wadd 
(*NugaB Chirurgicte') wronglv attributes to 
Shebbeare Charles Johnstone s * Chrysal, or 
the Adventures of a Guinea.' *The Me- 
moirs of a Lady of Quality ' ("see Vaxe, Frajt- 
CBs, Viscountess Vane], wnich Smollettin- 




troduced into 'PBregrine Pickle," lidB also 
been erroneoHBly assigned to him, 

Ilia portrait, engraved by Bromlev for the 
* European Magazine,' depicts him in a fez 
end loose coat. 

[Sec European Mag>izine, ITRS, ii. 83-7, 167, 
lex (works). 241-S, -iSS-fi (character of Clnron- 
don.'n-jv first puliliahed '); Gent. Mag. I78S, 

E7fi3; Lowndea'a Bibliagr. Mannili Allibone's 
ict. of fCngl. Lit. ; Adswct to the Queriea cna- 
hinnd ID iL Lotter to Dr. 3behbenr«, &c. ; Bo!- 
well*! JohnH.n. ed. Hill, iii. 315. iv. 1 1 2-1 3. 2U, 
aiHii.; Almon'x Anecdotes, i. 373, 376 ; Wnlpoles 
lotleri. ed. Cunningliam, iii. 61, 74, if. 262; 
Hetnoir* nt (icorgu II, pp. lS3-i, and of 
flHirgf! Ill (Darker), i. Ill ii. 2na ; Early Diar>- 
nf Vrancinllumey, cd. A. It. Kills, i. 276-0; 
C'lnninghnm'n UisL of Engl. r. 3110-04 ; 
i:\M\mi-nn »"«r, liicl.; Wrigiifs Ungknd under 
tba House "f Il'inoTvr, i. 2<j4, 373.] 

O. Lr Q. N. 

IHWt), wjrlruil-imintiT nnd pntgident of llie 
lU,yn\ Acnd-niy, iHirti in Dublin on 20 Di-c. 
(7*m, wmi Uji> yoiinjp'r mirviving son of 
.Martin Klii«-,nini^r<')uiritinl)iihlin,anaMarv, 
rlaiiKhlerof Jr.ljti \k\i„t rif Dublin, hiflwite. 
Itin urHddfAlb'ir, OiKirK'i Sliiie uf Cagtli'bnr, 
!••). Mii.V'i, tcl'inifi'd 111 an old Irjuli catbo- 
liu rnrriity ilniiiiliig to bu Ibo same stock as 
llui ramify 'if ll'Sbua. HJieu lost bis mother 
in liiH early infancy, nnd, ait bis father (who 
diud in If Mt) wan alllicted by blindiipM, hu 
von bniUKbf up cbiollybj biN mntprani aunt, 
Mrn. .McKvoy (aflurwrinls Mr*. Dillon). He 
niudvud nclaxmcal i.ilucntion in Dublin; but, 
iliii]ilHyiiiK a dlroiiK inclination to drawing, 
ho wiiH oTlowvd to unli-r as a pupil in Ihu 
drawing ai-adi^my of lbi< Itnynl Dublin So- 
ciulr, under ItoUirt l.iiciiiH West, whiiro bis 
rajifd jirogTusa insurii^l liim permission lo 
adopt painting as a profossion. On leaving 
Weiit's sclinol br- set up for himself as a imr- 
trait-painttir, beginning in crayoiiH, and after- 
wards in oil', and oblainud Homo employ- 
nont in fashionable circles at Dublin. lie 
nlso had a predilection for tlio stage, which 
lio mointainid tbroughoiit rife. In 17^0 ho 
was induced by (iilbert Charles Stuart [fi- v.], 
tbe American port ra it-painter, to go and seelc 
liis fortune in Lcmdon, where lie arrivod on 
SOJuneof tbatyear. Though furnished with 
recommendations to Diirke, Sir Josbua Itey- 
nolds, Opie, and other notable people, Shee 
met with little success in London, and was 
reducedtomabingengravers' copies for Maok- 
lin the publisher. On the advent, boweyer, in 
Louden of his cousin, Sir Oeorge Shee, a rich 

Indian nabob, and also with the assistance 
of Alexander Pops [q. v.], the actor, Shee ob- 
tained a second and more succtissful intro- 
duction to Burke, which led to another 
interview with Reynolds, and to Shea 
being entered as a student in the Royal 
Academy lu March 1790. From this time 
bia career was one of steady progress in his 
art, that of portrait-painting, to which be 
almost entirety devoted himself. The quality 
of his work was quickly recognised, and he 
was elected an associate of the Roval Aca- 
demy on 3Nov. !79H,anda full acaSemician 
on 10 Feb. 1800. His sitters were dmwn 
from the royal family and every rank of 
society, and bia education and literary ac- 
complishments obtained him an entry into 
the most select circles of culture and fashion. 
In 180-J he yisited Paris, where his know- 
ledge of tbe French language was of great 
use to him. In 180.J Shee published a poem 
entitled'Khymes on Art, orthe Remonstrance 
of aPttinterVwliich reached three editions, 
nnd in 1809 a sequel to it, entitled ' Ele- 
ments in Art,' a poem in six cantos, in which 
his very conservative views upon painting 
are set forth. In 1807 he was largely con- 
cerned in the foundation of the British 
Institution. Among his acquaintances was 
Ijord Byron, who in his ' English Bards and 
Scotch Iteviewera ' paid a tribute (perhaps in 
a satirical yei:i) to Shee in tbe lines : 

And hero Ict Shsa and gsnius find a placp, 
Wliote pen and pencil yield nn pqual prnce ; 
Ti> guido whose hand, tbe Biatararts combine, 
Ami trace ths poet's, as the painter's lino ;-~ 
Whosie magic touch can bid the canvas glow. 
And pour tli<' sasy rhyme's harmonious How, 
While honours, doubly merited, attend 
The poets rival, but the pajnler's friend. 

During the firsthalf of his life Shoe's fame 
was overshadowed by that of his mora 
brilliant rival. Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.H, A, 
Although Sbee's numerous portraits lack t ho 
grace and vigour of Lawrence's, they ore 
often more solidly painted and more e#ti- 
mablc as worksof art, beingimpressive rather 
than interesting. On thedeathof Lawronca 

David Wilkie, but Shee was elected by a 
large majority of votes to be president of 
tbe Itoyal Academy, for which, besides his 
sound qualities as a painter, his digniRed 
demeanour and bis social and literary gifts 
rendered him well fitted, lie received the 
honour of knighthood shortly after. During 
his tenure of office tbe academy was removed 
from the apartment? which had been granted 
to it by the king in Somerset House to what 



proved to be a temporary residence in Trafal- 
gar Square. Frequent attacks of a very vio- 
lent nature were made during this time m the 
press and in parliament upon the Royal Aca- 
demy and its administration, throughout 
.which Shee acted with great dignity and de- 
termination as defender and spokesman in 
support of the academy and its privileges. 
Although Shee cannot be said to have as- 
sisted the progress of art, the Koyal Academy 
owes to him a great debt for his conduct as 
president, both in internal as well as external 
affairs. Among other services to the aca- 
demy Shee introduced the practice of giving 
a written discourse to the students at the 
biennial distribution of medals, and of in- 
viting distinguished guests to attend this 
ceremony. When, at the age of seventy-six, 
in 184*5 he resigned the presidential chair, a 
unanimous address was presented to him by 
the academicians and associates to continue 
in office, which he felt unable to refuse. He 
continued therefore to hold the office until 
his death at Brighton on 19 Aug. 1850. A 
public funeral in St. Paul's Cathedral was 
desired by the royal academicians, but at 
Shee's own request he was buried in the 
cemetery at Brighton. Shee married, on 
19 Dec. 1796, at Paddington church, Mary 
{d, 1846), eldest daughter of James Power 
of Youffhal, by whom he left- three sons and 
three daughters. His wife received, on 
30 Sept. 1845, a civil list pension of 200/. 
which was settled jointly on her death on 
her three daughters. 

In addition to the poem mentioned above 
Sheepublished' Commemoration of Reynolds, 
and other Poems' (1814) and two novels — 
* Oldcourt. ' (1829) and ' Cecil Hyde ' (1834). 
In 1823 Shee completed a tragedy entitled 
^ Alasco,* based on the partition of Poland, 
which was accepted by Charles Kemble and 
put in rehearsal at Co vent Garden Theatre ; 
but, to everybody's surprise, the play was pro- 
hibited in the following year by the exammer 
of plays, George Colman the younger [a. v.] 
The inoffensive play was published in 1824. 

Among the learned ana cultured societies 
of which Shee was a member were the Royal 
Society and the Society of Dilettanti. He 
was elected a member of the latter on 4 July 
1830, when he succeeded Sir Thomas Law- 
rence as painter to the society. In that 
capacity he painted the portrait of John B. 
Sawney Morritt [q. v.], in his robes as arch- 
master of the ceremonies to the society, which 
may be regarded ns one of his best works. 
In the National Gallerv there is a portrait 
by Shee of William Thomas Lewes the 
comedian as the Marouis in the * Midnight 
Hoar/ painted in 1791; and in the National 

Portrait Gallery portraits of Lord-chief- 
justice Denman, Thomas Morton the dra- 
matist. General Sir Thomas Picton, and 
Lieutenant-general William Popham. 

[Life of Sir Martin Archer Shee, by his son ; 
Sandby's Hist, of the Koyal Academy; Red-» 
grave's Diet, of Artists.] L. C. 

SHEE, Sir WILLIAM (1804-1868), 
j udge, born at Finchley , Middlesex, on 24 June 
1804, was the eldest son of Joseph Shee of 
Thomastown, co. Kilkenny, and oi Laurence 
Pountney Place in the city of London, mer- 
chant, by his wife Teresa, daughter of John 
Darell of Scotney Castle, Kent. He was 
sent at a very early age to a French school 
at Somers Town, kept by the Abb6 Carron, 
the friend and earl v counsellor of Lamennais. 
Thence he went m 1818 to St. Cuthbert's 
College, Ushaw, near Durham, where his 
cousin Nicholas (afterwards Cardinal) Wise- 
man was then a student. He subsequently 
attended lectures at the university of Edin- 
burgh, and became a member of the Specula- 
tive Society. He was admitted a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 31 May 1823, and studied 
law in the chambers of Mr. Chitty, the well- 
known special pleader. On 19 June 1828 
he was called to the bar, where he gradually 
acquired an extensive practice. He led 
with great power and success the Maidstone 
sessions, and on taking the coif * obtained a 
considerable lead upon the home circuit' 
(Ballantixb, SoTne Experiences of a Bar'» 
rister's Zt/<?, 1882, p. 171). He took the 
degree of serjeant-at-law on 19 Feb. 1840, 
received a patent of precedence in Trinity 
vacation 1845, and was appointed queen^ 
Serjeant in 1857. 

Shee was a moderate and consistent liberal 
throughout his life. Soon after his call to 
the bar he distinguished himself by an elo- 
quent speech in favour of catholic emancipa- 
tion, at the great protestant meeting held 
on Pennenden Heath, near Maidstone, on 
24 Nov. 1828. He unsuccessfully contested 
the borough of Marylebone at the general 
election in July 1847. In July 1852 he ob- 
tained a seat in the House of Commons for 
the county of Kilkenny, which he continued 
to represent until the dissolution of parlia- 
ment in March 1857. Shee spoke m the 
house for the first time on 12 Nov. 1852, 
during the debate on the report on the ad- 
dress (Par/. Debates^ 3rd ser. cxxiii. 139-41). 
In the absence of William Sharman Craw- 
ford [q. v.] from parliament, Shee took charge 
of the Tenant Right Bill, which he reintro- 
duced on 25 Nov. 1852 (ib pp. 529, 530). 
On 7 Dec. following he made a long and ex- 
haustive speech on Napier's Tenants* Im- 

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>#« ifi/ ft ly.'t:*''^r ot' ri.- l:»-:.imsof tL-i- Prelates, 
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wilh fi Noliri' exjihinatory of the principal 
nlli>rritiMiir4iiiadi> hy iheni in the Statute Law 
imw ill I'nrri* n-lnlinj^' to Merchant Shipping, 
hiiiii|r 11 Suppli-nient to the ninth edition of 
AliliiiM iMi till' lirtw nf Merchant Ships anc^ 
MiHiiinMi,' I iimilnn. Isr, |,Svo. 8. * The Tenants 
I inprt i\ i'UH'HI M ( ^^nlpen^4at i<m (Ireland ) I^ill, 
I .iHiiliiii, Ishri, Svo. i». • A IVojKxsal for Kel* 
^liiu* iMpmlity in Induud.nudforacharita) 


Sfltlemitnt of tlie Iri^li Church Queation, 
Dublin, 18.i7, Svo. 10. ' Papers and letters 
OD SubjectH of Liturary, UiHturical, and Poli- 
tical Interest, and Speeches at Public Aleet- 
in^, in Parliament, andat the Bar,'TDl.i.,LoD' 
don,1862,8TO,privatelyprinted. 11, 'Papers, 
l^etten, and Speeches In the UouBe of Com- 
mona on the Irish Land QueEtian, wilh a 
■.Satnmary of its Parliameotary History from 
the General Election of iS52 to the close of 
the Session of 1863,' London, 1803, Svo. 
This is practically the secund volume of 
8bee's ' Papers and Letters,' but though ' vol. 
ii.' appean on the original cbth cover, it is 
abseDt from the title-page. 

GeoesbDikbllShee (1^43-1894), eldest 
Bon of the above, bom on 12 July 1843, was 
ed ucAted atTrinityHall, Cambrid ge, wh ere h a 
graduated LL.B. in 1860. He waa admitted 
to the Middle Temple on 6 Nov. lSfi-2, and 
■was called to the bar on 30 Ajiril 1867. He 
joined the Bnuth-*astern circuit, became dis- 
IrJct probate registrar for East Suffolk, and 
in July 1883 was appointed recordi;r of 
Jlylhe. lie BiarrieJ. on 14 Oct. 1873, Jane, 
eldest daughter of Harry Inncs of Thomas- 
town, and diud at Landguard Lodge, Felix- 
Gtowe, on 15 Dec. lt^94. Hewas the author 
of ' A Hemonstrance,' Dublin, 1886, Svo, 
'which wu addressed to Sir Charles Oavan 
Duffy, in reply to his attack on Sir W.Shee, 
in a book entitled ' The League of the North 
and South.' 

[Authonlies ia text; R. B. O'BricD'a Fnrl. 
ITlst. of ths Irish Land Qneetion. 1880, pp. 91- 
102; T, P. O'Connor's Parnell Movement, 188B, 
pp. 188-64; Ewald's Life nnd Lftlem of Sir 
Jaiiiea Nspier, 1882, pp. 70-82 ; Sir C. G, DnlTy's 
Lengup of North and Soutb, 1B86 ; Foss's Judges 
of bneltnd. iaS4, ix. 266-6; Sarjcant Kobin- 
eon'ii Bench and Bar ReniioisceDues, 18111, p. 63 ; 
'Wills'* Irish Nation. 187S, W. *8-» ; Lmr Mag. 
BtidRfvieir.Dew Mr. 1.304-29; Solieiiora'Juumal 
ttnd Reporter, viii. 131-2. S4T, xii. 344-fi ; Lav 
JaurDal.iii. 139; Joamnl oF jDrispradpnee. lii. 
232-4 ; Law Timw. 22 Fob. 1868 pp. 303, 317- 
R18, 22 D«i3.1894 p. 102; lUaslmted London 
News,2Jaa. 1804 (with portrait). S9 Feb. I8BS; 
Annna) ilegiBlpr, 1868, pU ii. pp. 171-2: Wnl- 
ford's Connty Families, 1804, p. SIS; Foster's 
Htn at the Bar, 1885 : Offlcinl Return of Liata 
of M.P.'b, ii. 428 : McColmant's Pari. Poll Book, 
1 879. pp. 132, 170, 23B; Haydn's Book of Dig- 
nities, 1800; Lincoln'* Inn Hesistera; Brit, 
Mnin. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

8HEEHAK, JOHN (1813-1882), rais- 
Ci^llaneous wriler, was the son of an hotel- 
keeper at Celbridge, co. Ktldare, where he 
was bora in 1812 <he states that he was 
eighteen yearsold in 1830). He was sent to 
the Jesuit college at Clongoweswood, where 
Fiaacis Svlvester JUahony [q. t.], better 

r Sheehan 

known as ■ Father l'rout,'waB bis tutor for a 
time. About l>^2i) he entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, but did not graduate. In 1830 
he joined the Comet Club, which was formed 
by a party of young Irishmen* including 
Samuel Lover [q. v.], Joseph Stirting Coyne 
[q. v.], Robert Knox, subsequently editor of 
the ' MorninK Post,' and Maurice O Connell, 
son of ' The Liberator.' The club hod literary 
aims. At Grstitstnemberspreparedandissued 
pampbletsattackingthetithesystem; the first, 
' The Parson's Horn Book,' which appeared 
in two parts, with etchings by Lover, met 
with eWraordinory success. According to 
Sheehan ( Genf. Mag. 1874), it had a greater 
circulation and caused more sensation than 
any book issued in Ireland since the day.^i 
of Swift. The club then issued the ' Comet,' 
a satirical weekly paper directed agtiinst the 
established church in Ireland, the 6rst 
number appearing on 1 May 1831. Sheebnn 
was appointed sun-editor. In a fewweeks it 
had reached a circulation of many thousand 
copies, and until its cessation at the end of 
1838 exercised considerable influence. The 
government in the autumn of 1833 ordered 
the arrest of Thomas Browne, the editor, 
and Sheehan for libel. They were defended 
by Daniel O'Connell and Robert Holmes, 
but were euch sentenced to twelve montlis' 
imprisonment and to pay a £ne of 100/. 
The fine was, however, remitted, and the 
term of incarceration was only partly served 
(cf. Sheehan's articles on the 'Comet' in 
Gent. Mag. 1874-5). 

Sheehan, on his release, studied for the 
Irish bar, to which he was called in 1835. 
He shortly afterwards came to London, 
where he was admitted a member of the 
English bar, and for a time went the home 
circuit. But he quickly abandoned bis pro- 
fession, took to journalism, and in 1836 and 
the following year was in I'aris and &Iadrid 
as ropreseutalivo of the 'Constitutional 'news- 
paper. He next became parliamentary re- 
porter of the ' Morning Herald,' contributing 
poems and sketches meanwhile to ' Bentley's 
Kliscetlany' and other magazines. In 1802 
he was proprietor and editor of the ' Inde- 
pendent' of London and Cambridge, Sub- 
sequently in 'Temple Bar' and elsewhere 
he often wrote under the signatures of ' The 
Irish Whiskey-Drinker' and 'The Knight 
of Innishowen." ThMkeray knew Sheehan 
well, and he is believed to be the original of 
Captain Shandon in ' I'endennis,' while two 
other Irish friends, William John O'Connell 
and Andrew Archdeckne, suggested Costigan. 
ad i'oker respectively. 
Shortly after 1868 Sheebnn married the 
idow of Colonel Shubrick, a wealthy 




Anglo-Indian officer, and spent some years 
in travelling about the continent. lie even- 
tually retired to the Charterhouse, where 
Le died on 29 May 1882. 

Sheehan's chief literary work is included 
in Doran's edition of the * Bentley Ballads * 
(18«58), and in his own enlarged edition of 
the same work (1869). 

[Jerrold's Final Keliques of Father Prout; 
O'DoDOghue's Life of William Carleton ; 0*ChI- 
Inghan's Green Book; Grent. Ma(;. 1874-5; 
O'Dcnoghue'a Poets of Ireland.] D. J. O'D. 

SHEEHY. NICHOLAS (1728-1766), 
Irish pr'.esty bom at Fethard, Tipperary, in 
1728, was educated in France. On his 
return to Tipperary he became parish priest 
of Clogheen. There he acted as a staunch 
adherent of the party hostile to English 
rule. He openly condemned the collec- 
tion of church rates, and was especially 
zealous in the defence of prisoners charged 
with political offences. Ilis parish was a 
centre of the Whiteboy organisation, and 
there can be no doubt that he had a full 
knowledge of their schemes, and lent his 
assistance to many of their undertakings. 
More than once he was unsuccessfully pro- 
secuted under the Registration Act. In 
1764, however, matters came to a crisis. 
An informer named Bridge disappeared in a 
manner which left little doubt that he had 
been murdered. Soon after some troopers 
conveying a prisoner to Clonmel gaol 
were attacked near Sheehy's house. lie 
was charged with high treason, but he es- 
caped those sent to arrest him. and a re- 
ward of 300/. was offered for his capture. 
He agreed to surrender, provided he might 
be tried in Dublin and not in Clonmel. The 
condition was accepted, and at his trial in 
1766 the evidence broke down ; he proved 
an alibi, and was acquitted. He was, how- 
ever, immediately rearrested and, with his 
cousin Edmund, charged with complicity 
in Bridge's murder. In violation of the 
spirit of the government pledges, he was 
sent to Clonmel to be tried. There, in spite 
of the fact that the informer's body nad 
never been discovered, he and his brother 
were found guilty, and were executed on 
15 March 1700. There were serious flaws 
in the evidence against Sheehy, though a 
general complicity in Whiteboy proceedings 
was proved. In a letter to Major Joseph 
Sirr fsee under Sirr, Henry Charles], who 
had befriended him, Sheehy admitted his 
knowledge of Bridge's murder, but asserted 
his innocence of the crime. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, p. 
473 ; Froude's English in Ireland, ii. 32 ; Ma»- 

grnve's Memoir:! of the Kebellions in Ireland, 
i. 37. ii. App. i. ; Amyas Grriffith's Miscellaneous 
Tracts, pp. 56, 71 ; Curry's Review of the Civil 
Wars in Ireland, ii. 274; Irish Parliamentary 
Debates, vii. 342 ; Mr. O'Leary's Defence. 1787 ; 
Maddens United Iriuhmen, 1858, i. 29-88.] 

E.1. C. 

SHEEPSHANKS, JOHX (1787-1863), 
art amateur and public benefactor, was bom 
in 1787 at Leeds, of which city his father, 
Joseph Sheepshanks, was a wealthy cloth- 
manufacturer. His mother was Ann Wilson 
of a Westmoreland family. Kichard Sheep- 
shanks [q. v.], the well-known astronomer, 
was his younger brother. Until middle age 
he was a partner in his father's firm of York 
& Sheepshanks. 

While engaged in business he developed 
a taste for picture collecting, at first acquir- 
ing copies of the Italian masters, but he 
soon resolved to form a representative collec- 
tion of modem pictures by British artists. 
At the time there were practically only 
two others collecting on similar lines, John 

gift. It consisted of 233 pictures in oil, 
besides 289 drawings and sketches, many of 
the latter being developments at various 
stages up to elaborate completion of the 
painter's early ideas. Among artists repre- 
sented are Turner, Stothard, Landseer, 
Linnell, Mulready, Constable, Leslie, Ko- 
berts, Stanfield, VVilkie, Creswick, Bonning- 
ton, Crome, and Nasmyth. The deed of 
gift was framed with a view to rendering 
the pictures a source of education to the 
rising generation of artists, and, with this 
end in view, they were housed in the South 
Kensington Museum, where they are acces- 
sible to students and the public. In a 
truly altruistic spirit he stated that it was 
not his desire that his collection should 
' be kept apart or bear his name as such ; ' and 
there is a notable proviso that * so soon as 
arrangements can be properly made,' the 
collection shall be open on Sunday after- 
noons. This provision was first carried out 
in 1896. 

On retiring from business Sheepshanks 
settled in London, moving to Hastings about 
1833, and then to Blackheath, where he 
devoted himself to horticulture, becoming a 
fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society. 
Later he built himself a house in Rutland 
Gate, in which the last years of his life were 
spent. He was of a retiring and unosten- 
tatious disposition, but his house was the 
resort of men famous in art and literature. 
He died unmarried on 5 Oct. 1863. 



His portrait was painted four times: by 
Jackson, as a young man ; by A. Geddes, 
now at Winsley Hurst, near liipley, York- 
shire; and twice by W. Mulready, R.A. 
One of Mulready*8 portraits is at South 
Kensin^on, and the other in the possession 
of a nephew, the Kev. Thomas Sheepshanks 
of Harrogate. 

[OiRcial catalogues of National Gallery of 
Art at South Kensington; Art Journal, 1863 
p. 241, 1857 p- 239 ; thanks are aUo due to the 
fieT. Thomas Sheepshanks.] G-. S. L. 

1855), astronomer, was the fourth son and 
sixthi child of Joseph Sheepshanks, a cloth 
manufacturer in Leeds, Yorkshire, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of Richard Wilson of 
Kendal, and was bom at Leeds on 30 July 
1794. John Sheepshanks [q. y.] was his 
brother. Educatea at Richmond school in 
the same county under James Tate, whose 
intimate friend he became, he formed, with 
William Whewell, Adam Sedgwick, Connop 
Thirlwall, and others, the brilliant group 
known later at Cambridge as the ' Northern 
Lights.' Sheepshanks entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1812, graduated as tenth 
wrangler in 1816, and proceeded M.A. in 
1819. He was elected fellow of his college 
in 1817, and, never marrying, retained the 
fellowship till his death. He was called to 
the bar in 1825, took orders in the church of 
England in 182iB, but practised neither pro- 
fession, the comparative atfluence in which 
his father's death left him permitting him to 
follow instead his scientific vocation. He 
joined the Astronomical Society on 14 Jan. 
1825, and, as its secretary from 1829 on- 
wards, edited for many years and greatly 
improved its * Monthly Notices.' In 1830 the 
Royal Society admitted him to membership, 
and two years later elected him to its council. 
He took part in 1828 in Sir George Airy's 
pendulum-operations in Dolcoathmine, Corn- 
wall, rendered abortive bysubterranean floods, 
and about the same time actively promot-ed 
the establishment of the Cambridge observa- 
tory. Appointed in 1831 a commissioner for 
revising borough boundaries under the Re- 
form Act, he visited and determined most of 
those between the Thames and Humber. His 
advice in favour of suppressing the imperfect 
edition of Stephen Groombridge's * Circum- 
polar Catalogue ' was acted on oy the admi- 
ralty in 1833 ; and he was entrusted with the 
reduction of the astronomical observations 
made by Lieutenant Murphy during General 
Chesney's survey of the Euphrates valley in 

Sheepshanks took a prominent part in the 

South equatoreal case as scientific adviser on 
the side of Edward Troughton [q. v.] The 
hostile relations between him and Sir James 
South [q. v.], which began with disputes at 
the council board of the Astronomical So- 
ciety, were thereby embittered ; and Charles 
Babbage [q. v.], another of his foes, wrote a 
chapter on ' The Intrigues of Science * in his 
'Exposition of 1851, consisting mainly of 
a violent attack upon him and Sir George 
Airy, both of whom he suspected of having 
adversely influenced the government as re- 
gards his calculating machine. South then 
published in the ' Mechanics' Magazine ' for 
24 Jan. 1852 a maliciously embellished ac- 
count of a smuggling transaction by which 
Sheepshanks had introduced in 1823 from 
Paris to London a Jecker's circle with 
Trough ton's name engraved upon it. Bab- 
bage sent copies to the Royal Society and 
the Royal Astronomical Society, * as a sort of 
impeachment,' and even brought the matter 
before the board of visitors of the Royal 
Observatory, to which Sheepshanks belonged. 
He defended himself, admitting and regret- 
ting the fraud upon the custom-house, but 
denying the alleged aggravating circum- 
stances, in a lengtuy and abusive * Letter in 
Reply to the Calumnies of Mr. Babbage' 
(1854). This was one of several * piquant 
pamphlets ' which * remain to illustrate the 
science of our century, and will furnish 
ample materials to the future collector of 
our literary curiosities ' (Ue Morgan). An- 
other dealt with the award of the * Neptune 
medal;' a third, in 1845, with the aflkirs of 
the Liverpool observatory. * When asked 
why he allowed himself to enter into such 
disputes, he would reply that he was just 
the person for it ; that he had leisure, cou- 
rage, and contempt for opinion when he knew 
he was right' (De Morgan in Examiner^ 
8 Sept. 1855J. 

SheepshanKS was a member of the royal 
commissions on weights and measures in 
1838 and 1843, and was entrusted in 1844, 
after the death of Francis Baily [q. v.], 
with the reconstruction of the standard of 
length. The work, for which he accepted 
no payment, occupied eleven laborious years. 
It was carried on in a cellar beneath the 
Astronomical Society's rooms in Somerset 
House, and involved the registration of nearly 
ninety thousand micrometrical reading^. In 
order to insure their accuracy he constructed 
his own standard thermometers by a process 
communicated to the Royal Astronomical 
Society in June 1851 {Monthly Notice/ty xi, 
233). His succinct account of the whole 
series of operations was embodied in the 
report of tne commissioners presented to 




pnrliamf;nt in l'r.>4: anri rh-v-s-^rv ir-^ribr-'i a? 
hy r^ i r < f HI jrye A i ry y>^!''^rr r hr li' . v al S ^^ :♦- ' y r*- 
on H Jiinr- \<,7 (Phil. Tra/iM. cxlvil. »^i-fc*J . 
Th^tir pfsiilt wa.* of tir't-clii** exc*rll»rnii»?, anii 
tli« nnw -randaH. wiTh c»-rrain aii:hor!i»wi 
C'»pi*i^, wa?« iHTfalia^rd by a bill whicii r^rc^rivrr'i 
tli»* royal a^."*»rnt on .'5<J July Ir-VJ. 

Slietrp-ihank.^ pi>rst;nred in IS'"* t> the 
IJoval Ob'*«rvaforv. Cfre»fnwich. an tLrht- 
foot eoiiatort'al. wirh an obj»=rct-i:Ii-*j*. bv 
Caii'^Iioix, of nearly s»-ven inch»r« aprrtare. 
In tiie same year he det*?nnin«rd rh»r l-inai- 
tiidfjs of Antwerp and Bru*5*rU \M^7noires 
fl^ rAr/if/. dejt Srif:nctiJf^ t. xvi., BruX'.llrrs, 
181.3), and in H44 those of Valt^nria. Kinz-^- 
town, and Liverpo*-^!, collectinj? tV»r the pur- 
pos#.» an array of the be.«t chrrmometers. < .»n 
inAtrumrtnt-s h*? spared no i&xp*^iise: he wa.* 
an adept, in th»rir history and theory, experi- 
inentinfj^ more than he observed with tht- m : 
and htt contributed to the ' Pennv CVclo- 
prt'dia' a number of wlmirable articles on 
this branch of astronomy. Many now fami- 
liar improvf-menta were of his devisinz". and 
he originated an effective and easy method of 
drivinff an oquatoreal by clockwork. He 
reaided frf»m 1824 to 1841 at Wobum Place, 
Londf)n, thenceforward at Kcadin^. A small 
ol)8ervatory was attached to each house. 

On 20 July 18^>5 he was struck with para- 
IvRisy and di^d on 4 Aug. at lieading, aged 
(U. His character jiresented a curious 
mixture of merits and defects. He was a 
thorr)Ugh friend and an unsparing oppo- 
nent. He had a keen wit, and hissatirecut 
to the bone; yet it was inspired by no real 
tniilignity. Augustus de Morgan, one of his 
rloHcst intimates, described him as ' a man 
of hardly middle statunt, of rapid and some- 
whiit indistinct utterance, of very decided 
opinion u|K)n the matter in discussion, and 
iippfinMitly of a sarcastic turn of thought 
find a pi(|uant turn of i)hra8e.' But in de- 
fending what he conHidered worth fighting 
f(ir, * I III* tone of ilighty sarcasm disappeared, 
II nd an iMirn«'Ml deportmi^nt took its place.' 
Th«« * nidirul parson,* as another of his asso- 
riiiW"* cnllrd him, wa« excellent company. 
A fbiNKintl M(di(dar of no mean quality, he 
WHH aJHo vrrsi'd in Knglish literature, and 
ilopnly n-nd in military tactics. A portrait 
i»r fiiin ill iMirly lilo was painted by John 
.lacliMMU <177M IH-Ml) |q. v. 1, and a monu- 
in(*iit.F<urMioui)ti*d with abuHl by J(din Henry 
I''i»li'V |q. v.l, waH rHM'trd to Imh nn«mory in 
tin* eliapid of Trinity (Ndlpgi', (.''ambridge. 

Hi** Hint or, An Ml Siii:i:phii.\nks (1780- 
1H7H), li\iMl wilh him from the timo he left 
rolb«gi», iinti wai hiM solo hfiress. In lSo8 
utii* prf^MtMited UMHNV. 1o the university of 
(^amlintigi« for thi» p^unoti(m of rewnrcli iu 

to S|>ain in a diplomatic capacity. On his 
return in lt>6^ he became intimate with 

i.'«?rjnomy.t-rr»r»tr:a! ma^rnetism. and meteo- 
T^A- -ry a: thr /r-sr-rrar-.-ry. as well as for the 
:':;*iniiiitit:n of an exhibit ii>n in aatronomv 
bMirinz her br?rh»-r's name: to which muni- 
nc»rnt iiir she add--: in Ir^iU 2.0OJ/. for the 
purchase oi a transit circlrf. T-) the Koyal 
Aatron-jmical >-'Ci»rty *!:•- made, in l^sj?, a 
d.-.r.ari.-n of .She^p-jhanks's extensive and 
valuihic Ojilecri-jn of instruments, and was 
elect rrd in ret am t'» honorary membership 
on 14 F»rb. I'i^i'l. She ilied at Reading on 
^ F«rb. 1^'^j, a^e^i ^. 

'Moarhlv N-.f ces Ri-v. Artr. SDcietr. xvi. 90, 
xv:i:. Do. xxxvii. 1*3: Proceedings Roy. Soc. 
v;i. 612 : Mem-jir of Augustus de >Iorg:io 
1)7 Sophia de Morj:in: Ann. Ree. 1855, p. 2u8 ; 
Taylor's Lte«i.s Worthies, pp. 239, 457: Eoiriish 
Cyclcfie-i^a (Kniirht;.] A. M. C. 

"sheeres. Sir HENRY (</.1710k mili- 
tary enpneer and author, was son of Henry 
Shetrres of Deptford. a captain in the navv 
{Uarl, S'jc. Fiihl. viii. 516). In 16«6 he 
accompanied Edward Montagu, first earl of 
Sandwich ~q. v.~. the English ambassador, 

a dipb 

36.^ ht 
Tepys, Tvho to«)k a strong liking for him, but 
his attachment cooled owing to the advances 
which Sheeres, who was something of a poet, 
made to Penys's wife. Sheeres left England 
for Tangier in May 1669, and resided in that 
colony as engineer for fourteen years (cf. 
A tthort Account of the Pmgress of the Mole 
at Tangier). He superintended the blowing 
up of the Mole in l<>^i5, when the place was 
abandoned (IIij*t. MSS. Comm, 11th Rep. 
App. V. 102). He hastened to England m 
10^ in order to defend, at court, George 
Legge, baron Dartmouth [<j. v.], the admiral 
at Tangier, against accusations of pecula- 
tion. Aided by Pepys, he was successful in 
this task, and thereby permanently esta- 
blished himself in Dartmouth's favour (i6. 
pp. 112-14). In D385 he took part in the 
campaign ag^ainst Monmouth as an officer of 
artillery, and was present at the battle of 
»Sedgmoor (ib, pp. 126, 128). In July he was 
knighted for his services (LrTTRKLL, Brief 
Itelation, 1857, i. 3o5), and about the same 
time was made surveyor of the ordnance. 
Sir Henrj' preserved his loyalty to James 
during the revolution of 1688, but illness 
prevented him taking an active share in the 
contest (Ui»t, MtSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. v. 
202, 2;3.S, 2,S6, 247). He followed the ex- 
amjde of his patron, Dartmouth, in peace- 
fully submitting to the new rulers when 
their authority was established. But he re- 
tained his devotion to James, and was twice 
nm»sted on suspicion of conspiring on his 
behalf, in June 1600 and in March 1695-0. 




On 30 March 1700 he was chosen by the com- 
mons as one of the trustees to regulate Wil- 
liam*s Irish grants, which parliament had 
resumed, and in March following was sum- 
moned from Ireland by the peers to explain 
the proceedings of the commission to their 
lordships {Journals of the House of Commons^ 
xiii. 307 ; Journals of the House of Lords, xvi. 
622, 640, 645 ; Luttrell, Brief Relatim, ii. 
a4, iv. 24, 628, v. 28). He died on 21 AprQ 

Sheeres, who was a member of the Royal 
Society, was the author of: 1. * A Transla- 
tion of Polybius,* 1693, 8vo. 2. * An Essay 
on the Certainty and Causes of the Earth's 
Motion,' 1698, 4to. 8. * A Discourse on the 
Mediterranean Sea and the Streights of 
Gibraltar,* 1703, 8vo. He also edited two 
pamphlets by Sir Walter Ralegh, *A Dis- 
course on Seaports,' 1700, and 'An Essay on 
AVays and Means to maintain the Honour 
of England,' 1 701 ; and was part author of 
a translation of Lucian, published in 1711. 
A poem of his was prenxed to Southern's 
'Oronooko,' 1096. Several manuscripts by 
Sheeres, together with a correspondence with 
Pepys during his stay at Tangier, are among 
the liawlinson MSS. at the Bodleian (CoxE, 
Catalogue qf Bodleian MSS., pt. v. index, s.v. 
Sheres) ; and a manuscript work by him, 
entitled 'A Discourse touching the Decay 
of our Naval Discipline,' dated 1694, is in the 
collection of the Duke of Leeds. 

[Pepyg's Diary, ed. Braybrooko, index; 
Hastea's Kent, ed. Drake, i. 37 ; Pointer's 
ChroD. Hist, of England, 1714, p. 674 ; Help to 
History, 1711, i. 114; Thomson's Hist, of the 
Royal Society, App. p. xxvii ; Barnet*s Own 
Time. 1823, i. 142.] E. I. C. 

BOTD, John Baser, 1736-1821.] 

SHEFFIELD, EDMDND, first Earl of 
MuLeRAVE (1664P-1646), only son of John, 
second baron Sheffield of Butterwick, Lin- 
colnshire [see under Sheffield, Sir Robert, 
ad fin.], by Douglas, daughter of William 
Howardi first baron Howard of Effingham, 
was bom about 1564, and succeeded to 
his father on 10 Dec. 1668 (Doyle, Offir- 
cial Baronage, ii. 641 ; Complete Peerage, oy 
G. E. C, T. 417). In 1673 his mother 
secretly married the Earl of Leicester [see 
Dudley, Robert], and Sheffield seems to 
have been for a time Dudley's ward (Hat- 
field MSS, ii. 200). In 1682 he was one of 
the lords whom Queen Elizabeth ordered to 
accompany the Duke of Anjou to Antwerp 
{Qimden Annals, 1682). In 1686 he served 
ms a volunteer under Leicester in the Nether- 
lands (Motley, United Netherlands, ed. 1869, 

i. a46 ; Stowb, Chronicle, p. 711). In 1688 
he commanded the White Bear, one of the 
queen's ships, in the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada, lloward knighted him on 26 July 
1588, and in a letter to Walsingham com- 
mends him as not only gallant but discreet ' 
(Laughton, Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 
i. 210, ii. 322). For these services Elizabeth 
granted SheMeld in 1691 the manor of M ni- 
gra ve in Yorkshire, which was part of the 
forfeited estate of Sir Francis Bigod {Hat- 
field MSS, iv. 105). On 21 April 1593 
Sheffield was elected a knight of the Grarter 
('Doyle). About 1694 he was a candidate 
tor the wardenship of the west marches, 
and in 1696 he applied to Cecil for the post 
of lord president of the north. Suspicions 
of his religion caused by the fact that he 
had married a catholic were said to be the 
cause of his ill-success ( CaL State Papers, 
Dom. 1681-90 p. 146, 1695-7 p. 140, 1680- 
1626 p. 366). Yet he seems to have been 
suspected very unjustly, and a letter from 
the north in 1699 praises his zeal in appre- 
hending priests. 'He will undertake any 
service against the papists, for God hath 
called him to a very zealous profession of 
religion' (Cartwright, Chapters of York" 
shire History, p. 174 ; cf. Laughton, i. 66). 
On 13 Jan. 1698-9 Sheffield was appointed 
governor of Brill (Collins, Sidney Papers^ 
li. 71-80 ; Egerton Papers, p. 270). 

Under James I he obtained the object ot 
his ambition, and became lord-lieutenant of 
Yorkshire (1 Aug. 1603) and president of 
the council of the north (19 Sept. 1603). 
These two posts he held till 1619, when he 
resigned his presidency to Lord Scrope. 
This resignation was probably not a volun- 
tary one, for Sheffield havmg executed a 
catholic priest without the king's leave, 
James promised the Spanish ambassador 
that he should be removed (Doyle, ii. 641 ; 
Gardiner, History of England, iii. 137 : 
Court and Times of James I, ii. 136). An 
accusation of arbitrary conduct was also 
brought against him, but without result ( 6V7/. 
State Papers,J)om. 1603-10, pp. 24, 631 , 577). 

From 1616 to his death Sheffield was 
vice-admiral of the county of York. He 
also interested himself in colonisation, and 
was a member of the councils of the Virginia 
Company (23 May 1609), and of the Wew 
England Company (3 Nov. 1620). In the 
latter capacity he was one of the signers of 
the first Plymouth patent on 1 June 1621 
(Brown, Genesis of the United States, ii. 

At the coronation of Charles I Sheffield 
was raised to the dignity of Earl of Mulgrave 
(6 Feb. 1626). Nevertheless he ultimately 



|.'<1 thu 


Iii}«i)rned the ix-ti- 
liimi.f:.W.ViliI. l^fl^l.allar.Ml;tlJr^ideol■tlle 
IHirtiiiiiK'ni iliiriiu; (lie civil war, Tlie cau-fs 
iif Miil:iravi>'H o'liJiii't are nWurv. Ke 
ii]i|>>'iir< I.i luivf Ui'in'iiti'IerablvgooilttTiDS 
mill niii-kiii(;)iam and lM»i\i'al. .'itaie 
i;,,.,-f^. 1N.IU. Ui-^:-S.ii. AW: L.»rD. iro.*jt, 
m, '-'I, Jl'l, iiiiT hail MHiii- (frii'VitDL-e apiinst 
Sirntlonl, [.r.-lialily urisirjr nut nf finuncinl 
■ ti^|iiiii-* \<',i/. Sfafe P-ijvrt, Wna. ItKi-i, 
|.. -.W.': l..;:h- J..Hri.ih. iv. IIWl. Jflll- 
urriti''< ii)p' jtn'Vonti'il liim takinjr an actire 
I'.irl III till' wttr; all Iiiii ^mily inllueiic^ 
nils I'xi'rliil f^>r (lie (uirUnmi'iir. 'Thiii ronr 
lu' iiiiil ('f a Kuirfax uitila Slu'iricIJ,' rfinarkV 
I iii'n>|>«i<i'r ol'tliiMiiuo. 'ihM tlivtv is not 

.il'i-iiiiiT ><rtli><M< HiRh-:' in Kiiirlanil but 

iii:ho-<1 t'xv tlf M-Tikv «f tli^ pnrlia- 

\ II .. ; \ /ii.V,;i> ■i.-.r. LMSi'pt. llMil. 

VliitiCtm.'i i-.l;iii's Ivitic mi>«lV!iiluatiii 
.1 1 1..- I.1I.K'- .(iiariirs. hf »:i» o'l-lipJ ttf 

k r,.r 111* I'Wii MihsJ!.- 

. IH-l 


, |.--l 

1 /.■■■./.' 

,■,.1^ f,.r 

'i>l Sa, 


.sw.,M l:>in, 
1,1 ...111, .t.'lin. 
1, «s^M^.l .xitl 

,».l r>;.IWv,an.l 

I ..,i„s -.1.1 -r 

I,.. »4. V<U..I M 

tUfivle"«OIIiciiil liiPinagB, rol. ii.- G K C"« 
CunipliJle Pwrrif><>; a lifo of Mulgrara in giTun 
in Al«an.]er l(ni»n'ii Gpncsis of (he United 
SlatM. 1890,rol.ii.:«»venilo('Mulstmvo'sIi:tte™ 
are [.riiited in the Fairlin Ccrrrspon.leuce ; liU 
in»tniction« hs president oftho north iire printod 
in I'poiheru'B Oinstitudonal Documetits; other 
autljoritiesnaniwtin ihenniclB.] C. H F, 
' SHEFFIELD, EHMlXn, second Eabl 
OF MrwmvB (1611Mfi58), born about 
lell.waallieeTnndsoii of Edmund .MiiIgniTf, 
first earlof Mulftrave 'q. v.l iJis tatbBr.Sir 
John Sheffield, who was drowned in 10I4, 
married tirizel, dnii(rhti.'r of Sir Edmund 
Andi-raon, chief justice of common pleas 
'q, V." Muljmivewasnppointfd bv the par- 
liament victf-adniiral of Vorksbtre,'in »ucce«- 
sioB to hi» prondfather (13 Nov. 164U1, and 
■ a year later one of thw commiasi oners for tint 
navyandcu«oms(17Dec. 1647) (CWmon*' 
J-iumah, ir. 7il ; Lord^ JournaU, ix. 582). 
In August l(i47 be eigTied the engagement 
til Mand by Fuirfai and the army lor the 
n-storation of the freedom of parliament 
( KcsiiwoRTH, vii, 755). On 14 Feb. 161» 
he wa* elected a member of Ibe council of 
state (if the Commonwealth, but declined to 
aivept the pcwt from diEBuiiiraction at the 
execution of the kin/r and (he abolition of 
the II<>iise of \A>tAe yCummon'' Jiittrnalr, Vi. 
140. 14dl. When Cromirell became I'rotee- 
ti^r, MuUrave was less scriipulotis, and on 
;U) June lti54 t.xik his place in OromweU'a 
c^'uneil. at which lie was for some ycara a 
nvular attendant (i'al. State Paper*, Dom. 
IiLM. p. i.'ttl. In December 1657 the l>ni- 
tector Mimmoned him to his new Hoiine ot 
l.oi>i«. but Mulfrrave never took his Beat 
I (iiiliwix. Ili'taiv "f thr Vummonvmlti, ir. 
47(1. 475^. He di«l on L>3 Aug. ItiW (.Wer- 
.-hi-jW lUiticw. -M Au(r.-l» Sept. 16.5S). 
.\ letter fi»ni MuliTTare to Fairfax ii 

(rinli^l in the ' Fairfax CorreRpondence ' (iii. 
:t!i\ and two addressed to Tnnrloe amonji 
the •Thnrl.v IMpers' (iv, 523, vi. 716). 
1lii>t>iiit5ab>'>u1 iliealumworks in Yorkshire, 
aitd hi* dicpiite with his prand father's widow 
aU^it llie jirojH'rly of the first carl, are fre- 
.lurntlv'il in the 'Journals' of the 
.VN.<. « '-"<'".. "'li H-'ll^- IT- -*• -~' 30. 82). 

Multrniw marriitltliMbeth, daughter of 
I. i,mi'U''ranfiel.i.lirstearIi>f Middlesex [q. v.], 
An>t«*<i siii'Y^Hleil hr his son John, after- 
»»nl* fit»t duk*(if Buckingham and Xoi- 
«,»v,h\ 1^, V.' 
I \>a\1** ""MBrfal IWootiUp. roL ii. ; Dug- 
" wiiw^ " MM C- U- F- 

rIELI^ GEORGE (1839-1892), 
K flf • dnqicr ai Wigton in Cum- 
ihen on I J"'- 1839. 




His uncle, George Sheffield, had heen student 
at the Royal Academy, and had considerable 
local reputation as a portrait-painter. From 
him ana from Henry Hoodless, also a Wigton 
resident, Sheffield obtained help in his 
youthful studies. While still very young 
ne removed with his father to Warrington, 
where he received his first art teaching in 
company with Mr. Luke Fildes, R. A., in the 
art school of that town. At first he adopted 
the sea as a profession, but after a few years* 
experience of this life he settled at Man- 
chester, studying in the school of art and be- 
coming a pattern-designer. He soon turned 
his attention to landscape-painting, and from 
that time practised every variety of that art, 
painting with great facility, truth, and beauty, 
seascapes, coast scenes, and landscapes. He 
workea in both oil and watercolour, and 
produced some fine works in both mediums, 
but undoubtedly his forte was the use of 
monochrome. His drawings in sepia and 
black and whit« are unrivalled in their 
variety and delicate beauty of atmospheric 
effect. He worked with great 8p3ea, and 
produced a vast number 01 drawings. In 
1869 he was elected an associate of the Man- 
chester Academy and a full member in 1871. 
From 1868 he was a regular exhibitor at all 
the Manchester and other local exhibitions, 
and between 1872 and 1890 he showed six 
pictures at the Royal Academy and eleven 
at other London exhibitions. iVearly all his 
best pictures are in the collections of Mr. 
Robert H. Edmondson and other Lancashire 
connoisseurs. There are in the Manchester 
City Art Gallery two works by Sheffield — an 
oil painting, ' A Hundred Years Ago,' and a 
water-colour, * The Trough of the Sea ' — but 
neither shows him at his best. There is an 
excellent portrait of Sheffield in * Momus ' (a 
Manchester periodical) for 26 Aug. 1880. 
Sheffield died in Manchester, 2 Oct. 1892. 
His wife predeceased him ; eight children 
survived him. 

pi^est Cumberland Times ; Manchester Even- 
ing Nev8, 3 Oct. 1892; Manchester Guardian, 
4 Oct. 1892 ; information from K. H. Edmond- 
•on, esq., and personal knowledge.] A. N. 

SHEFFIELD, JOHN, third Earl of 
MrLGRAVE, afterwards first Duke of Buck- 
nreHAX and Normanbt (1648-1721), bom 
on 7 April 1648 ( UUt. MSS. Comm, 7th Rep. 
y, 487), and baptbed on 12 April at St. Mar- 
tin-in-the-Fields, was the only son of Ed- 
mund Sheffield, second earl of Mulgravef^.v.], 
hy his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Lionel 
C&anfield, first earl of Middlesex [q. v.] In 
1058 he succeeded his father as third earl of 
MoJgniTe. In 1666 he sensed as a volunteer 

against the Dutch in the fleet commanded 
by Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albe- 
marle ; on 13 June 1667 he was appointed 
captain of a troop of horse, and in February 
1673 he became gentleman of the bedcham- 
ber to the king (CaL State Papers, Dom. 
1667, p. 183). In the second Dutch war he 
was present as a volunteer at the sea-fight 
in Southwold Bay, and in 1673 received the 
command of the Captain, the best second- 
rate ship in the navy. On 23 Dec. 1673 he 
was appointed colonel of the * Old Holland ' 
regiment of foot, and on 23 April following 
was elected a knight of the order of the 
Garter. After serving a campaign with 
the French army under Turenne, he was 
appointed in 1680 to command an expedi- 
tion for the relief of Tangier, at that time be- 
sieged by the Moors (Luttrell, Brief i?e- 
lation, 1867, i. 46, 47, 61 ; Egerton MS, 6752, 
f. 407). Having been opposed by Monmouth 
in his pretensions to the first troop of horse- 
guards, he skilfully fomented the jealousy 
between him and tlie Duke of York, and suc- 
ceeded in producing an open rupture. On 
the disgrace of Monmouth in 1679, he ob- 
tained through James's friendship several of 
the preferments of which Monmouth was 
deprived (Luttrell, i. 27). In 1682 he in- 
curred Charles H's displeasure by courting 
the Princess Anne, and was banished from 
court and deprived of all his places (i6.i.236). 
He succeeded in making his peace within 
two years, and on 26 Jan. 1683-4 was reap- 
pointed colonel of the Holland regiment. 

On the accession of James he came into 
high favour. He was appointed a privy 
councillor on 24 July 1686, and was created 
lord-chamberlain on 20 Oct. On 22 Nov. 
1686 he succeeded Rochester on the recon- 
stituted court of high commission. About 
the same time he wrote an answer to Hali- 
fax's * Character of a Trimmer/ which obtained 
more approbation than it deser\'ed. After 
the revolution he excused himself for accept- 
ing the appointment by pleading that he 
was unaware of the illegality of the court. 
In 1687 James removed a large number of 
the lord-lieutenants because they refused to 
carry out his policy by advancing Roman 
catholics and nonconformists in their respec- 
tive counties, and Mulgrave succeeded the 
Duke of Somerset in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. Although Mulgrave did not hesi- 
tate to associate himself with James's most 
unpopular measures, he did not carry his 
compliance in religion further than attend- 
ing the king at mass and insinuating that 
he had a strong inclination towards Ro- 

Upon William's landing in England Mul- 

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f-.- r:.'^ -"^> .r.- ■ -!ir j-lz-L? :'1 :.!«* -^c'-ij f'-irty. 
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( .r.n fly -'ipj»'.rf«'l, fthd Ot-or;/*?. wi::i wrh m h-* co 3i=:-^n;.M''r-ii alt^rr 

.M I '')fti- *''')n\ry in pr/»- hi'* r»rfiirn to p-j-.v^r, *'- T-'SS'-i thrZlrrlvr* Vt?n' 

r ,.. .f»,| './ til" «■« Mt'irrtMp «Tithij.s.ia-fic af tLe ir:-=^e:T -r-f the allinnoe 
]/•,•■; r,„tf,t V»li I.'' p. pp. r.s/o//v» MSs, No. ili' rf. 4ln. 4*^. No. Jl»:J 
,. i^'ii I.- . h'.^wl » Mtill «'. 'A'M,W.i'4, 4^<J. No. i:?4 if. W». ISS. iMfiK 
■ ., »'» ^-ipprirt Mm- (/'I- On th»f owrthroT*' of th»* whi;: ministry 

] . )... rriii'l" H privy : ftiK'liinjfliam was nne •'•f the first zvinstated. 

. n ..I ;/fHi/ II v''ir, In S*'pr«'mUT 1710 h»fwa5 made lord St ewanl 

, UI-, ••■• III-! fill'iiir-i of tliM hoiisfhoUl and a privv councillor, and 

\ •.(.I M —(lie liiinr nn I li . I lUM* following he was app-iuntetl lord 

.♦ ■ '.rfiriinliv On ' pn-Mid*rnt nf th« council (Boter, JRphfn nf 

• ilr' r 'il.ifff rtititi .ifinf, 17«{o, p[i. 470, ol4; CoxE, Life of 

Marihoroiiffh, ill. L'U, 211). On the death 
III' AiiiiM ho was onn of the lords justices of 
( iri>iit. Hriliiin appointed to carry on the ad- 
III ihlMt ration, hut on the arrival of Georgi> he 
wilt ri'inovfd Imm all his posts. He died on 
"1 I'nh. I7*J() 1 at Huckinf^ham House, St. 
JiiiiH'HN l*nrk, which he had built in 17()3on 
hi hi I KoniliMl hy the crown. He was buried 
ill Wi'MiiiiinstrV Ahb«'V, in the vault at the 
iiial Miiil ill' \\\\\K Htmry^B chapel (Chester, 
tu'>/t4ttr o/ St, l\'ifr\ Westminster^ p. iJO:? ; 
fVii<r« ff»fi/ Qnen'vSf 4tli ser. i. 316, 447). 
1 1 U will, ilatiMl t) .\u^. 1710, was prove<l on 
>i« IMiiivh I /'Jj . It was printed in 17iH),and 
In imiiiIiiIiii«iI in fho hit «T«*ditions of his works. 
lli>HiiiM>ii*il, llFNi.on IS March 1686, Ursula, 
t|iiM||lihir iiHil iMthnirt'H^ of (teorfre Stawel of 
rnlliiMnhMiM, SiUMprmM, and widow of Kd- 
H Hill I Sini\ ny, limt rnrl of Couway ; she died 

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Sheffield is Sheffield 

on 13 Aug. 1697. I£e married, secondly, on 'Account of the devolution' and the 'Feast 
12 March 1699, Eatherine, daughter of Fulke of the Gods/ returning the mutilated copies. 
(Tpeville, fifth lord Brooke, and widow of Another edition 'without castrations' was 
Wriothesley Baptist Noel, second earl of issued in 1726, 8vo; hut in the so-called 
Gainsborough. On her death, on 7 Feb. second edition of 1729, 8vo, the object ion- 
1 763-4, he married his third wife, Catharine, able papers were again omitted. They were 
illegitimate daughter of James II by Catha- restored in the enlarged edition of 1740, 8vo, 
rine Sedley [q. v.], formerly wife of James and retained in the fourth, issued in 1753, 
Annesle^, thim earl of Anglesey, from whom 8vo. The two suspected essays were pub- 
she obtamed a divorce. By her he had three lished separately at The Hague in 1726, 
sons, of whom Edmund survived, and sue- under the title of ' Buckingham llestored.' 
ceeded him as second duke of Buckingham ; Sheffield was also the author of a manu* 
he died unmarried on 30 Oct. 1735, when script pamphlet, not included in his works, 
all his titles became extinct. entitled ' Humanum est Errare, or False 
Sheffield was the author of several poems Steps on both Sides,' a criticism on the con- 
and prose pieces. The best known of the duct of James and William at the time of 
former are his * Essay on Poetry,* which re- the revolution. A copy is in the British 
ceived praise from Dryden and Pope, and his Museum (Add. MS. 27382, f. 77). 
'Essay on Satire.' There is some doubt as Thefirst duke*s portrait, painted by Kneller 
to the authorship of the latter poem, and and engraved by G. Vertue, is prefixed to 
liochester, who attributed it to Dryden, the collected edition of his works. The same 
caused the latter to be chastised on account portrait was also engraved by Isaac Beckett 
of it. But there seems no sufficient ground and by John Smith (Smith, Mezzotinto Po}^ 
for disputing Sheffield's authorship, though traits^ pp. 44, 1202, 1203). 
Dryden may afterwards have revised the [Buckingham's Works, ed. 1753; A Chamcter 
poem (Notes and Queries, I. ii. 422, 462, iii. of John Sheffield, Duke of Buckinirham, 1729 ; 
146, 162 ; Dktdex, Works, ed. Scott, 1821, Johnson's Lives of the Poets, od. Cunningham, 
XV. 201). Sheffield was a munificent patron ii. 191 ; Swift's Works, 1824, index, s v. 'Buck- 
of Dryden, who dedicated to him his tragedy ingham ;' Pope's Works, ed. Elwin. index, s.r. 
of * Aurengzebe' and his translation of the ^Buckingham;' Dunton's Life and Errors, p. 422; 
*^-Eneis*(i5 v. 174, ix 304 xiv 127). He Macky'sCharj^cters of the Court of Great Britain, 
was also the friend of Pope '; but Swift, not- ^]33. p 20 ;Walpole'8 Royal and Noble Authors, 

withstanding his politics, had an aversion for 5^^?^,^'^^- ^^ ' ^- ?* ^- "/^^.""S^^' "\? • ^°^'* ! 

!»:«, RKoffioM'a .I,«af ^^l^^r.A;^ar^ ft»-f woa Official Barouage. 1. 268 ; Jesse s Memoirs of 

Dalton's Army Lists, 
Macaulay's Hist, of Eng- 

Caesar' and 'Marcus Brutus,' and rewrote in L^tPM^^nfiQ 1 "^ ' ftp 

accordance with his own theories of dramatic 

propriety, introducing several love scenes SHEPFTELD, JOHN (1054.^-1726), 

and omitting most of the citizen's parts nonconformist divine, was born at Ibstock, 

(Genest, History of the Drama and Stage, Leicestershire, about 1654. His father, 

iii, 89 ; * Duke of Buckingham's Zweitheilung William Sheffield, M. A., of Trinity College, 

und^arbeitungdesShakespeareschen Julius Cambridge, was rector oif Ibstock from 1644 

Caesar 'in Jahrbiich. d. deutschen Shakespeare- to 1602, sustained a discussion with Samuel, 

Gesellscherft, 1889, xxiv. 27-71). father of Titus Gates [q. v.], and died at Kib- 

Several of Sheffield's prose works are valu- worth, Leicestershire, in 1673. Sheffield, 

able historically, particularly his 'Account after passing through Kib worth grammar 

of the Revolution ; ' but his statements have school, was put to trade ; but his bent was to 

to be received with caution when he is per- the ministry,forwhich he studied under John 

sonally concerned. Immediately after his Shuttlewood [q. v.], following his tutor from 

death Edmund Curll [q.v.] endeavoured to one hiding-place to another. Gn 27 Sept. 

publish hia life with a pirated edition of his 1682 he was ordained by Shuttlewood and 

works, but he was restrained by the order of three other ejected ministers. He began his 

the upper house. In 1 722 Pope edited a col- ministry as chaplain to Mrs. Palmer at Temple 

lected edition of his works at the request of Hall, Leicestershire, where a small meeting- 

his widow { Worki of John Sheffield, Earl of house was built for him, and another at 

Jlft((7rat^,^c., London, 1723, 4to). A license Atherst one, Warwickshire (both, probably, 

WM granted Pope by government, but after- in 1689). In 1697 he succeeded Xathaniel 

wards, having heard that some of Sheffield's Vincent [(J. v.] as pastor of the presbyterian 

works were Jacobite in tendency, the autho- congregation in St. Thomas Street, South. 

ritie* sent for the impression, and cut out the wark. He was a friend of Locke, who ad- 




mired his exegetical powers. In thetSalters' 
Hall debates of 1719 [see Bradbury, Tho- 
mas, and Peirce, James] he went with the 
non-subscribers. He died on 24 Jan. 172G, 
aged 72. lie published a tract on salvation 
and a sermon (1705). His sonAVilliam was 
dissenting minister at Buckingham, Windsor 
(171o-26^ and Haverhill, Essex. 

JoHX Sheffield {Jl. 16i:^-7), M.A., of 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, was probably related 
to the above. He obtained ^1643) the se- 
questered rectory of St. Swithm, London, to 
which in 1660 Richard Owen [q. v.] was 
restored. He retired to Enfield, and in 1665 
took the oath prescribed by the Five Miles 
Act {Beliquue BcuteriaruBf 1696, iii. 13). 
He published : 1. * A Good Conscience the 
Strongest Hold,' 1650, 8vo. 2. * The Rising 
Sun oi' Righteousness,* 1654, 12mo. 3. * The 
Hvpocrite^s Ladder,' 1658, 8vo. 4. * The Sin- 
fulness of Evil Thoughts,' 1659, 8vo. 5. * A 
Discourse of Excuses,' 1672 (Calamy). 

[Funeral Sermon by Edmund Ciilamy, 1 726 ; 
Oilamy's Account, 1713, pp. 38 sq., 421 sq.; 
Calamy 's Continuation, 1727, i. 68; Walkers 
Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 173 ; Wilson's 
DiHsenting Churches of London, 1814, iv. 307 sq.; 
James's Hist. Litig. Prf8*>. Chapels and Cha- 
rities, 1867, pp. 65U, 651, 660, 670.] A. G. 

SHEFFIELD, Sir ROBERT {d. 1518), 
speaker of the House of Commons, was son 
of Sir Robert Sheflield, by Genette, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Alexander Lownde of 
Butterwick, Lincolnshire. His father seems 
to have been living on liONov. 1486, as he is 
on that date described as liobert Sheffield, 
junior (but cf. Cal. of Inquis. post nwrtem^ 
lii. 4:?2, where Robert Sheffield is entered as 
dying in 2 Ric. IH). He was a commander 
at the battle of Stoke, and was knighted 
after the fight. He also held the office of 
recorder of London, from which we know that 
he was a barrister. Bernard Andreas men- 
tions that he resigned the recordership in 
April 1508. He was speaker of the House 
of Commons in 1510 and 1512. In the 
second volume of the * Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII' there is a curious account of 
his examination on 13 Feb. 1518 on a charge 
of harbouring murderers. He died between 
8 Aug. and 9 Dec. 1518, and was buried in 
the Augustiniun church, London. His will 
is in * Testamtmta Vetusta * (p. 555). He 
married, first, Helen, daughter and heiress 
of Sir John Delves of Doddington, Cheshire; 
and, secondly, a wife whose christian name 
was Anne. Leland says of Sir Rob^^rt: 
* He set up highly the name of the ShefTeldes 
by marriage of the daughter and sole Heyre 
of one Delves, to whom was beside descendid 
the Landes of Gibthorp and Babington. 

This Sheffeld recorder began to build stately 
at liutterwik, as it apperith by a great Towr 
of Brike.' His son by his first wife, also Sir 
Robert Sheffield (r/. 15iU),was father, by a 
first wife, Jane, daughter of Sir George 
Stanley (d, 1497), lord Strange of Knock vn, 

Edmuxd Sheffield, first Babon Shef- 
field ( 1521-1549). The latter was at first in 
wardship to Lord Rochford, but on 2 Jan. 
1538 he pass<Kl under the control of the Earl 
of Oxford. He was sent up to Cromwell, and 
l>ecame one of his gentlemen ; but he seems to 
have been an unruly youth, and in July 15^38 
was in prison, whence he wrote an unduti- 
ful letter, apparently to the Earl of Oxford, 
his father-in-law, and a curious * scholastical 
letter ' to Cromwell (Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII.xiu. i. 1409, 1410). He was soon 
released, and was of sufficient importance to 
be designed for a barony by Henry V 111*8 will 
(Acts^ of the Priiy Council, 1547-50, pp. 16, 
18, 35). He was accordingly created Baron 
Sheffield of Butterwick on 18 Feb. 1547. 
Going, however, with Northampton to quell 
Ket*s rebellion, he was slain at Norwicli in 
August 1549. A curious and realistic * Epy- 
taphe of the Lorde Sheftelde's Death '^ 'is 
contaimnl in the rare * Eglogs, E])ytaphes, 
and Sonnetes' by Bamabe Googe [q. v.] 
* Great his skill in music,' wrote Fuller, * who 
wrote a book of sonnetts according to the 
Italian fashion.' Bale and others mention 
the sonnets, but they do not seem to have 
been preserved (cf Warton, English Pi)etry^ 
iii. 342; Walpole, Itoy aland Noble Authors, 
i. 277). He left by his wife Anne, daughter 
of John de Vere, fifteenth earl of Oxford, a 
son John Sheffield, second baron (rf. 1568), 
to whom the king by patent granted his own 
marriage, and who was by Douglas, daugh- 
ter of William, first baron Howard of Effing- 
ham [q. v.], father of Edmund Sheffield, third 
baron Sheffield and first earl of M nigra vo 
[q. v.] Portraits of the two Sir Roberts 
and 01 Edmund Sheffield are reproduced in 
Grace's 'History of the Family of Grace.* 

[Stonehouse's Hifit. of the Islo of Axholme, 
p. 268; Metcalfe's Visitation of Lincoln, 1592, 
p. 64; Manning's Speakers of the House of 
Commons, p. 156; Leland's Itin. iv. 18; Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII ; Grace's Hist, of tho 
Family of Grace ; Testamenta Vetusta ; Metcalfe's 
Knights, p. 30 ; Dep.-Keepcr of Publ. ReconU, 
9th Rep. App. ii. ; Wriothesloy's Chron. i. 187, 
ii. 19; Machyn's Diary, p. 370; Acts of Privy 
Council, 1547-50, p. 298; Baines's Lanaishire, 
V. 88.] W. A. J. A. 

SHEIL, Sir JUSTIN (1803-1871). 
general and diplomatist, son of Edward 
Sheil, and brotLer of liichard Lalor Shell 





. v.], was bom at Belle vue House, near 
aterford, on 2 Dec. 1803. Educated at 
Stonjhurst, he was nominated to an East 
India cadetship. On arriving in India he 
was posted as ensign to the 3rd Bengal in- 
fantry (4 March 1820). Exchanged to the 
35th Bengal infantry, of which he became 
adj utant , he was present at the siege of Bhurt- 
pore ( 1826). Becoming a captain on 1 3 April 
1830, he was on 4 July 1833 appointed second 
in command of the disciplmed troops in 
Persia under Major Pasmore, who had spe- 
cially recommended him to Lord W. Ben- 
tinck for this service. 'He is. sensible and 
well-informed,' Pasmore wrote, * and his 
temper is mild and conciliatory.* On 16 Feb. 
1836 he was appointed secretary to the Bri- 
tish legation in Persia, and in 1844 he suc- 
ceeded Sir John McNeill [q. v.] as envoy and 
minister at the shah*8 court. That position 
he held till his retirement in 1854. He had 
been promoted to the rank of major on 

17 Feb. 1841, and became a major-general 
in 1859. In 1848 he was created a C.B., and 
in 1855 a E.C.B. He died in London on 

18 April 1871. He married a daughter of 
Stephen Woulfe, chief baron of the Irish 
excnecjuer. Lady Sheil died in 1869. 

Besides contributing notes on * Koords, 
Turkomans, Nestorians, Khiva,' &c., to a 
book called ' Glimpses of Life and Manners 
in Persia * ^London, 1856), written by his 
wife, he published in vol. viii. of the * Royal 
Geographical Society's Journal ' * Notes of a 
Journey from Kurdistan to Suleimaniyeh in 
1830,' and ' Itinerary from Tehran to Aiamut 
in May 1837.' 

[Times, 20 April 1871 ; Military Records at 
the lodia Office.] S. £. W. 

1851), dramatist and politician, bom on 
17 Aug. 1791 at Drumdowney, co. Kil- 
kenny, was the eldest son of Edward Sheil 
and Catherine MacCarthy of Spring House, 
CO. Tipperary. Shortly before he was bom, 
his father, who had acquired a fair fortune 
in trade with Snain, purchased the estate of 
Bellevue, near Waterford. Educated at first 
under the superintendence of an old French 
Bbb6, Richaru was, when eleven years of 
age, sent to a school at Kensington kept by 
a M. de Broglie, also a French 6migrL A 
year or two later (October 1804) he was re- 
moved to Stonyhurst College, where he re- 
mained till 15 Nov. 1807, when he entered 
Trinity College, Dublin. The bankruptcy 
of his father a year later threatened to put 
an end to his academic career, but by the 
generosity of a connection of his mother he 
was enabled to complete his studies there, 


and to prepare himself for the bar. He gra- 
duated B.A. in July 1811, and in November 
entered Lincoln's Inn. During his residence 
in London he lived with his uncle, Richard 
Sheil. Ambitious, despite his defective utter- 
ance, of becoming a great orator, Sheil had 
as a graduate made a not altogether un- 
successful appearance on the platform at an 
aggregate meeting of catholics in Dublin, 
and snortly after his return to Ireland he 
spoke before the catholic board on 3 Dec. 
1813 in opposition to a motion reprobating 
securities as a condition of emancipation. 
His speech commanded O'Connell's praise. 
His call to the bar was delayed by his reluc- 
tance to draw on the attenuated resources of 
his family, and, in the hope of earning money 
for himself, he turned during the winter to the 
composition of a tragic drama. The subject 
of * Adelaide, or the Emigrants,' was drawn 
from an incident connected with the emigra- 
tion of the noblesse during the French revo- 
lution ; but, with the exception of some pas- 
sages of considerable poetic beauty, the play 
is too stilted and artificial in situation and 
diction to command much interest. The prin- 
cipal character was avowedly written to suit 
Mias O'Neill [see Becheb, Eliza, Lady], and, 
being accepted by her, was performed with 
considerable success at the Crow Street 
Theatre on 19 Feb. 1814. A subsequent per- 
formance at Covent Garden on 23 May 1816 
fell rather flat. 

Sheil was called to the bar in Hilary term 
1814. But in the absence of briefs the time 
hung heavily on him, and he devoted him- 
self to the production of another tragedy, 
* The Apostate.' In the interval he married 
Miss O'Halloran, and, his play having been 
accepted for production at Covent Garden, 
he and his wile repaired to London to wit- 
ness its representation on 3 May 1817, with 
Young, Kemble, Macready, and O'Neill in 
the principal parts. Founded on the suf- 
ferings of the Moors in Spain, the play was 
a complete success, and showed m every 
respect a marked improvement on his first 
effort. It ran through the season, and 
brought its author 400/., in addition to 
300/. that Murray paid for the copyright. Its 
success tempted him to a further effort, and 
the tragedy of * Bellamira, or the Fall of 
Tunis,' performed at Covent Garden with 
the same cast in the spring of 1818, drew 
from Leigh Hunt a not unfriendly notice in 
the * Examiner.' Murray purchased the 
copyright for 100/., and from the theatre he 
received 300/. as his share in the profits. 
His next adventure, * Evadne,' produced on 
10 Feb. 1819, owed its origin to an attempt 
to adapt Shirley's * Traitor ' to the require- 





m*Tit^ of thff mo«l»;m ifta^r^. Ft- it, tho'i^h 
ji?}I»;'l an a'laiifation (Tio-JSE, I nr. rod not ion 
to ShifUy, in Al^rm.'iid rjerini >. jr haa litrl^r 
♦rx/^'-pt. rh^i plot in C'lnmon with the ohl*-r 
pU'iv. The play w«.s* S!i aril's mo-^t aiicc-^^.-ful 
drnmatic '-tfort. For the copyrii'ht h»; r^:- 
CMv»T'l from Murray a hiindrefl puin»=*a.«, 
and hl.-i fthar'j from th^.* th^-atre amounted to 
4^/J^. In H«ptftm>*«rr lie vi.sited I'ari.-*, wIiHr»' 
h'; mad»; th»; acquaintance of Talma. Of 
hi^ !mpn-*»ions of the ffreat actor he •'ubs**?- 
rjri*:nrly jrav*? an int^Testinjr account in tlie 
' N"w Monthly Ma^'azine ' (July l!<22). His 
i\t'X\ Ira^fe/ly, * The Ilui^uenot,' was adver- 
U^*:t\ for production at Covent Oardenin the 
Aprin{( or iHJfJ ; but the marriajre of Miss 
O'Nfrill caused it, preatly to his disappr^int- 
ni»'nt, to b*j postp^^med till \y*i'2'2, when it 
failed from inarlequate pr»-paration. II is 
*H»TiouH drama* of * Monfoni, performed for 
the firht time on '5 May 18i0, proved hardly 
more Hucc«j.MMfuI, and aft»T three or four re- 
pn^HMfit at iouM was withdrawn. He was more 
fortunate in the ansistance he rendered John 
\'ii\\\\m '(\. V.I in M)amon and Pythias;' but 
tfie KK)/, which he took as his share in 
\\\*' ]irofits l*«d to a disarrreement and es- 
tnin((ement rif many years between them. 

Noiwit.liMandiii^ his reputation as a dra- 
tnfilie writer and hi.^ assiduous attendance at 
ihir Four (/ourts, SheiTH j>ropres8 at the bar 
WHH HJow. For this his adoption of the un- 
jKipular HJde on the vetr> question was un- 
dou!)ledly hirjr<'ly reisprmsible, and his irri- 
tation at the di>lay in conceding emancipa- 
tiiFU, owinjf, as he rej^arded it, to O'Connell's 
fill uonHn!fuHalto(;onciIiatttpn.)testant opinion 
in lliM matter of wcMirities, was intensified 
wb'-n thf> latter, in his annual address to 
t)u' (tat holies of Ireland on 1 Jan. 18:^1, ad- 
vised a Huspensirui of the emnnci])ation agi- 
tnli'iii in fuvour of parliamentary reform. 
Shi'il, whr) Haw his own prospects of ad- 
vinicfnicnt recediiijf indefinitely, rushed into 
thi' fray with an an^^ry counterblast, wherein, 
i\A h«' Miiid, he truslrd to * 1mi able to supply 
nnv iib»<rM(M^ of coniparalive ])erHonaI imj)or- 
tiirirf iip(»M my ]Mir1 by the wei^dit of arpu- 
iMi'Ul iiml of furl.* O'Connell replied to his 
' iiiiiibii' rhn])s(HliHl * in a strain of minified 
bunt rr nn«l wnitli. In the end Sheil returned 
In lhi« conipli'tion »»f his new tra«r»'dy, an 
niln|>liilion of MassinpTs * Fatjil Dowry.' 
Thr phiy wa« subsfqu»»ntly ]x»rformed at 
Mrury Lane in the winter of \^'2V and met 
with a eonlial rereption, but its withdrawal 
alter llu» iirst ni^ia in eimsequenee of Mac- 
ii»a«lv*M illnrss dnm|>ed the interest felt in 
its repmduetion three months later. The 
vLiiton'<^'"Or«* IV lo Ireland in the summer 
followed by the app(.nutmeut of 

Iy>rrl Wrll»rfley as viceroy, help»*d, if it did 
nothin;: mor»?, t<"> etfect a rec«:»nciliation among 
the catholics themsr-lvt;^, and at a meeting 
on 7 Jan. \^'2'2 Sh^ril seconded an address 
moTed by O'C'onn'rll cousratulating the new 
viceroy and the country on his app(3intment. 
But the hoptra they had both formed of a 
more liberal administration under Welles- 
ley's auspices were disappointed ; and a year 
later, on \'2 Mav lSil3, the Catholic Asso- 
ciation came into existence. In the mean- 
while there appeared the first of those well- 
known * Sketches of the Irish I.?ar ' which 
Sheil, in conjunction with his friend W. H. 
Curran, contributed to the *New Monthly 
Magazine.* The series extended over several 
years, and, the articles being unsigned, the 
credit of their authorship was at the time 
generally but incorrectly ascribed to Sheil 
alone. Those which properly belonged to 
him, with others of a more general or politi- 
cal character, were after his death repub- 
lished under the title * Sketches Legal and 
Political,' and afford in a pleasant way con- 
siderable information regarding the chief 
actors and events of his time. 

Convinced at last that nothing but ex- 
treme pressure would extort emancipation 
from parliament, Sheil joined heartily in 
O^Connell's agitation, and was one of the 
first to whom the latt-er expounded hia 
scheme of a catholic rent. A petition to 
both houses of parliament drawn up by him, 
setting forth the manifold abuses in the ad- 
ministration of justice in Ireland, and 
adopted at a meeting of the association on 
14 June 18L'3, was presented by Brougham, 
and in the course of the discussion that en- 
sued Peel sarcastically described the lan- 
guage of it * as being more in the declamatory 
style of a condemned tragedy than of a grave 
representation to the l^^gislature.' Sheil 
retorted with a reference to Peels * plebeian 

Early in 1825 O'Connell, Sheil, O'Gorman, 
and others, proceeded to London to protest 
atj^ainst a bill that had been introduced for 
the suppression of the Catholic Association. 
Their efibrts wore unavailing, but their visit 
was not without a beneficial influence in 
]>romoting the progress of a catholic relief 
bill, which passed its third reading in the 
commons on 10 Mav, but was lost in the 
lonls owing to the opposition of the Duke 
of York. Of thf'ir journey to London and 
their reception by the chiefs of the whig 
party Sheil, after his return to Ireland, 
published a graphic account in the *Xew 
Monthly Magazine.' But his own examina- 
tion before the committees of both houses 
contrasted unfavourably with O'Connell's ; for 


tbe exdusire principles tliat governed the 
conduct of tbe Irisli adaiinistrBtion, Le re- 
sorted to wliat he railed a ' rhetorical arti- 
&cef wLich, being proved to be without jus- 
tiflcation, drew great odium on liim and nn 
the can«e. The suppression of the Catholic 
Association, ao far Fro m putting an end to ths 
agitation, only changed its modiu operandi, 
and under O'Connell's direction the system 
of aimultaneouB meetings throughout the 
country proved far more effective in slimu- 
laling the demand foremancipatiou than the 
old weeUy meetings at Dublin. In preparing 
the ground for tbe new system no one worked 
harder than Sbeil. He waa present and apoke 
lU nearly all the principal gatberingii during 
tbe fiummcr — at tbe aggregate meeting at 
Dublin on 13 Jnly, when the new association 
for purposes of public and private charily 
was started ; on the 20tb at Wexford, on 
Ihe 20th at Waterford, on 4 Aug. at Kil- 
kenny, on the S6lh at the new association, 
when a suggestion of his was adopted for 
lUe formation of a register of the names and 
addresses of all the parish priests in Irt'land. 
The amount of labour which theae meetings 
implied for faim can only be properly esti- 
mated when one remembers that he never 
trusted himself to speak extempore, and tiiat 
the repugnance he felt to repeat himself ren- 
dered the preparation of each speech a mutter 
of long and careful consideration. 

In F^pt«mber he visited Paris, and having 
made tbe acquaintance of the proprietor of 
' L'Eioile,' he endeavoured, not unsuccees- 
fuUy, tn promote tbe cause of his co-reli- 
gioniets by contributing to it a number of 
articles on tbe situation in Ireland. Extracts 
from these articli's appeared in the London 
[lajers, and, coming Irom abroad, they oh- 
inined a ereater degree of consideration than 
they would have done had their authorship 
lieen known. Owing to the widespread com- 
mercial depression in England in 1325 there 
was a practical cessation of agitation that 
vear in Ireland. But at the general election 
III the summer of 1826 the defeat of Lord 
George Beresford at Waterford by the popu- 
lar candidate, Villiers Stuart, exerted a pro- 
found influence on the situation, which was 
intensified when a similar result occurred in 
Louth, where Shiel acted as counsel for the 

E •polar candidate. Tbe victory of the 
iberto despised forty-ehilliog freeholders 
wa« in many coses dearly bought, and Shell 
was indefatigable in trying to promote the 
new order of liberators founded by O'Con- 
neil in their behalf. A speech which he de- 
liveredat the asMcintion en 19 Jan. 1B27 on 
the recently published 'Memoirs of Wolfe 

Tone' was made aprete.xt by the gOTemment 
to punish him for an insulting reference in 
a previous speech to the Duke of York. 
On 19 Feb. he and Michael Staunton, the 
proprietor of the ' Morning Register,' were 
indicted, the one for having uttered, the 
other for having published, a seditious libel. 
Before the ease was tried tbe death of Lord 
Liverpool placed Canning in office, and on 
his refusal to prosecute, a nolle jiroiegui was 
entered by the crown. After Canning^ death 
(8 Aug, 1823) Sbeil advocated apolicy of con- 
fidence in Lord Anglesey's government, and 
even ailer the formation of tbe new admini- 
stration under tbe Duke of Wellington he 
was averse to O'Connell's proposal to pledge 
the Catholic association to oppose the return 
of every supporter of the new cabinet. But 
this motion bein^ carried, he rcsisled an 
attempt to rescind It in gratitude for Welling- 
ton's assent to the repeal of the Test Act ; 
and later in 18:i8, when Vesey Fitzgerald, 
tbe newly appointed president of the board 
of trade, who had voted against the repeal 
of the Test Act at every stage, sought re- 
election for CO. Clare, he vehemently ureed 
tbe association to oppose his return, fiia 
advice was productive of consequences not 
foreseen by him, and with the election of 
O'Connell the question of emancipation en- 
tered on its final stage. A counter agitation 
sprang up among proteslanta in both Ireland 
and England. With a view to stemming it, 
Sbeil, by purchasing a small freehold in the 
county, qualified himself to speak at a meet- 
ing of the gentry and freeholders of Kent 
at Pencnden Heath on 'ii Oct. convened to 

tetition against further relaxation of tlie 
iws against the catholics. The tone of his 
speech and the courage with which he faced a, 
hoatilecrowd were warmly commended, and 
before he left England a public dinner was 
given in his honour at the London Tavern on 
3 Nov. Buttbeeontroversy.wbichbodraged 
for more than a quarter of a century, drew 
atlosltoaclose. OnSFeb. 1829 the speech 
from the throne held out a prospect of im- 
mediate relief, and a week later S'heil moved 
the dissolution of the Catholic association. 

To him it was a grateful termination of o 
disagreeable business, for be had none of 
O'Connell's disinterested devotion to tbe 
cause. His position as a barrister was now 
assured, and visions of a silk gown and a 
scat in parliament hovei«d alternately before 
his vision. In February 1830 he accepted a 
retainer to act as counsel far Lord George 
Beresford in bis efftjrt to recover tbe repre- 
sentation of county Waterford, but his oppo- 
nents, who drew no distinction between his 
professional and political interests, stigma- 

Sheil 20 Sheil 

ti:!«d him as *a decoy duck' for the catholic sation, and, a committee havin^f been ap- 

voters. Six months later he was admitted p<.unted to investigate the matter, he was a 

to the inner bur, bein^ one of the first cath'> few days afterwards honourably acquitted 

lies to obtain that coveted distinction. of the charpe. 

His first wife died in 1S2l\ and on 20 July | The attack strengthened his hold on the 

18.*i0 he married Mrs. Anastasia Power, the sympathies of the house, and, quitting Irish 

daughter and Cf»lieires8 of John Lalor, esq., topics, he delivered an admirable speech on 

of Crenagh, co. Tipperarj*. II is wife's fortune the eastern questi<m on 17 March 18fU. His 

rendered him independent of his profession, success stimuhited his interest in subjects of 

and lie accepted an invitation to stand for foreign policy, and believing that (VConneir* 

county Louth at the general election of crushing defeat on repeal, coupled "with the 

that year; but he was ignominiously beaten, prospect of a more impartial administration 

Karly, however, in th»» following year he was, under Thomas Drummond ^q. v.], had finally 

throughtheinfiuenceofthe Marquis of Angle- Si'ttled that question, he began to realise 

sey, returned M.P. for the borough of Mil- G rattan's pn)phecy of becoming more *a 

liorne Port in Dorset. He took his seat on gentleman of the empire at large * than the 

8 March, and on the iMst delivered his representative of an Irish constituency. He 

maiden speech on the second reading of the stdl, it is true, continued to vote and act 

Keform Bill. It hardly realised the expt?c- with the national party on such subjects as 

tations of his friends. Thenceforth he sedu- tithes and the revenues of the church, and 

lously sought to win the ear of the house, his speech on the Irish Municipal Corpora- 

As a rule he continued to refrain from t ions Bill on 23 Feb. 1836, in reply to Jjord 

extempore speaking, and for this reason his Stanley, was one of the most em>ctive he 

8|>eeches read well ; but they are artificial delivered. But the prospect of holding office, 

in the last degree. The art of saying a to which his share m bringing about the so- 

ing the session he advocoted the application the appointment of Lord Londonderry as 

of a i)oor-law system t»» Ireland, and sup- ■ ambassador to the court of Kussia ; but in 
porteaO'Conneli's endeavours to procure the j 1837, during the debates to which the re- 
assimilatir)n of the Irish Ileform Bill to that verses of the British legion in Spain gave 
of England. rise, he strongly supported the ministerial 

Meanwhile in Ireland, under the unequal | i)olicy. At the general election consequent 
administration of the law, the demand for on the death of William IV, he was again 

a repeal of the union gained ground daily. 
With much reluctance Sheil took the pledge 
to support repeal, and was accordingly re- 
turntKl unoppose<l for co. Tipperary to the 

returned at the head of the poll for county 
Tipperary, and shortly afterwards accepted 
the commissionership of Greenwich Hospi- 
tal. On the reconstruction of the ministry 

first reformed parliament (January 1833). j a year later he exchanged the commissioner- 

But, however lax his views seem to have been ahip for the vice-presidency of the board of 
^.. *.!... :_ *.! !• 1 v. 1 . . ^x. , .. * oj.(j John 

the Irish 
government in April 1839 was, O'Gonnell de- 
clared, * admirable, argumentative, and bril- 
liant.' But he had drifted out of touch with 

on the main question of repeal, his denuncia- ' trade. His speech supporting L 
tion of the Suppression of Disturbances Bill llusseH's motion of confidence in 
on L>S Feb. 1833— that first-fruits of the re- 
formed parliament of wliich so much had 
been expected — was couched in no uncertain 

language. I'nfortunately, so far as he was ' his constituents, and at the general election 
concerned, the matter did'not terminate with ; in 1841, following the collapse of the Mel- 
the po-sHug of the bill. For a statement bourne administration, he relused to risk the 
having some time afterwards appeared in the expense of a contested election, and sought 
papers that, during the progress of the bill, I a safer seat as M.P. for the borough of Dun- 
a certain Irish member, who vottnl against garvan. During the ensuing session he spoke 
every (-lauHcofit, had privately urged govern- | effectively in opposition to the Com Bill and 
inent n(»t to bate one jot of it, as otherwise ' the income t,ax,and in 1843 he gained much 
it wtiuld Ui imiWHsible for any man to live credit with the dissenters by his scathing 
in Ireland, the matter was brought directly criticism of the sectarian spint in which the 
U'fnrvxht'. house by < )'(\)nnell, and, in answer bill for the regulation of factories was con- 
to rejM'ttted inquiries, Lord Althorp admitted ceived, and with the radicals by the support 
that the Ntati>nient refern'd to Sheil. Start- he lent to Grote's ballot proposals. At the 
ing to Lib feet, he solemnly denied theaccu- 'monstertrials'inDublin early in the follow- 

Sjear he acted as counsel for John O'Con- 
I [q. T.], and delivered perhaps the most 
brilliant of his forensic speeches. To the 
provincial, or, as it n'os nicknamed, the 'God- 
leaa' CollHgea Bill of l&io lie gave a qualiKed 
support, but expressed regret (hat Trinity 
CulleKe bad not rather reaped the benefit in 
tbe foundatioa of new professorships and 
fellowships to which catholics aa well as 
protestanls might be admitted. 

In tbe followiog autumn f IB-lii) the pre- 
carious state of his sou's health induced Slieil 
to try the effect of a winter's realdence in 
Madeiia. But the change proved unavail- 
ing, and, after bis son's death, he resided 
there till the news of the expected collapse 
of Peel's administration a few months later 
recalled bim to England in time to take 
part ID the critical discussion on tbe Irish 
Arms Bill. Un the accession of Ivird John 
Russell to power in 1846 he was appointed 
master of tbe mint. The post hardly rea- 
lised hia expectations, and the conscious- 
ness of utter helplessness in face of the 
crisis of famine through which Ireland was 
passing caused liim to take a less promi- 
nent part than formerly in parliamentary 
aflairs. In Ireland, where his silence was 
attributed to the indifference engendered by 
office, he was described in words which he 
himself had applied to repeal as ' a splendid 
phanr^iu.' His re-election for Dungarvan 
at the general election in 1849 was opposed 
by tones and repealers alike, and he was 
returned with a greatly diminished majority. 
Even in bis capacity aa master of the mint 
bn did not escape criticism, and tbe omission 
of the legend ' Defeneatrii P'idei Uei Gratia' 
on the florin issued in I60O was sharply com- 
mented on by tbe press and in parliament. 
He accepted the responsibility for tbe orois- 
aion, but disclumed having been actuated 
bv sectarian motives. Towards tbe close of 
tfie session, however, he accepted tbe post 
oflered him of minister at the court of Tos- 
canr, and, having paid a farewell visit to 
Ireland in November, be arrived at Florence 
about tbe middle of January 1861. On 
Sunday, 25 May, be was seized by gout in 
its most aggravated form, and succumbed 
after an hour's suffering. His body was re- 
moved to Ireland on board a British warship, 
■nd interred at Long Urchard, co. Tipperary. 

[TorreiH McCullneh's Memoln of Richard 
IjdoT Shnil. IH-'i4. -with engniTed portrait (the 
only FaithrnI likeoess BitanI) from a bust by 
C. M:'<orB. H.R.I.A. ; O'Kraffe's Lifo and Times 
of O'Connell ; FiRpatrick'a Ouronpondenoe of 
DuiirlO'CoDncU: Pari. Debates 1831-SapnBBiiu; 
Wiltt's Irish NblIoh i Webb's Compfpilluni of 
' hKography] R, D. 

SHEILS, ROBERT {d. ITM), Dr. John- 
is. [SeeSK.ELs.] 

DER ( 1000 ?-! 700), Scottish uovenanter, 
son of James Shields or Sheilds, was horn 
at Ilaughbead, parish of Eckford, Roxbui^h- 
shire, shout 1600. He entered at Edinburgh 
Universityat a very earlyage,Bnd graduated 
M.A. on 7 April 1675, writing his surname 
' Shells,' He later wrote it ' Sheilds ; ' it ia 
nsuall^printed 'Shields.' He began tbe study 
of divinity under Lawrence Charteria [q. v. J, 
but hie aversion to prelacy led him, with 
others, to migrate in 1679 to Holland. He 
studied theology at Utrecht, entering in 1680 
as ' Sheill.' Returning to Scotland, he thence 
made his way to London, where he is said to 
have acted as amouuensis to John Owen, D.U. 
[q. v.] On the persuasion of Nicholas Blaikie, 
minister of the Scottish church at Founders' 
Hall, Lothbury, he was licensed as preacher 
by Scottish presbyterians in London, declin- 
ing as a covenanter the oath of allegiance. 
Strict measures being taken shortly after 
(1684) for tbe enforcttnent of the oath, 
Sheilds was so zealous in proclaiming its 
sinfulness that hia licensers threatened to 
withdraw their license. He appears to have 
bound himself by the ' Apologetical Declara- 
tion ' issued by James Kenwick [q. v.] in 
November 1684. 

On Sunday, U Jan. 1685, he was appre- 
hended, with seven others [see Fkisbb, 
James, 1700-1769], by Ihecitv marshal at a 
conventicle in Embroiderers Hall, Gutter 
Lane, Cheapside, and brought before the lord 
mayor, who took bail for his appearance at 
the Guildhall on the 14th. He attended on 
that day, but being out of court when bis 
name was called, bis ball was forfeited. Duly 
appearing on the 20th, lie declined to give 
any general account of his opinions, and was 
committed (by his own account, decoyed) 
to Newgate till tbe nest quarter sessions 
(23Feb.) KingCbarlesIIdiedintheinterval. 
Without trial in England, Sheilds and his 
friends were remitted to Scotland on 6 March, 
arriving at Leith by the yacht Kitchen on 
13 March. Sheilds was e.iamined by the 
Scottish privy council on 14 March, and by 
tbe lords Justices on 23 and 25 March, hut 
persisted in ' declining direct answers.' At 
length, on 36 March,under threat of torture, 
he was drawn to what he calls a 'fatal fall.* 
He signed a paper renouncing all previous 
engagements ' in so far as they declare war 
against the king.' This was accepted as 
satisfactory, hut he was still detained in 
prison, A letter to bis friend John Balfour 
of Kinloch, eipresaing regret for his com- 




Tiliance, Ml inroth*- hands of th»t authorities. 
rh*ry fiM-'Ht th«? two archbishops. Arthur 
J{o>.s ^q. v.] and Ahrxan-lt-r Caimcross "o. v.', 
with Amlrvw Hruc»-, bi*hop of Dunkeld, to 
confcT with him. i U\ (J Au^r- ho was aprain 
before thf lords justictr*, and renewed his 
renunciation, adding' t!ie words * if so be 
piich things are there inverted/ A few days 
later he was :*ent to the Bass Kock, whence 
hf encajHid in woman's clothes, apparently at 
the end of Novemb^T lOSC. 

IFe made his way at once to Ken wick, 
whom he found on C Drc. 1*5>»5 at a lield 
convent icb* at ICarl.ston Wood, parish of 
IV^rgue, K irkcudbrightsliire. i )n 2'2 Dec, at 
a general ni^^etin^^ at' Jtenwick's followers, 
he publicly con fes-^ed the jruilt of * ownincT 
the Ho-called authority of James VII.* His 
*Hind J>jt J^oosH* is a vindication of Ren- 
wick's position on historical grounds. Jle 
w<'nt to ilnlland ( W)"^7) to get it printed, 
but returned to Scotland, leaving it at press. 
After lienwick*s execution (17 Feb. 1<W8) 
S he i Iris pursuitd his policy of fitdd meetings, 
Tireaching on a famou«< occasion at Distinct- 
liorn Hill, parish of (ialston, Ayrshire. He 
c*Tt.uinly appro v»*d of the Cameronian insur- 
p-cl ion, under Daniel Ker of K»^rsland, at the 
end nf thr* year, when the incumbents of 
churches in tin; west were forcibly driven 
frrim their charges. II« was present at the 
gutluTingat the cross of Douglas, Lanark- 
nhire, where th^se proceedings were publicly 
vindicated; giving out a psalm, he explained 
that it was th** same as had been sung by 
llobert lirucM ( l.V)l-H;;',l ) q. v.] at the cross 
of Ivlinbiirgh.rm the dispersion of the armada. 
< )n :{ March lOKl), with Thomas Lining and 
VVilliam iJoyd, he took part in a solemn re- 
n«!wing r>f thf covenants by a vast concourse 
ofpi'oph; ftt Horlan<l Hill,' parish of Lesma- 
liJigDW, Ijinark'thire. 

Ou \\u'. nn-eting oft.h«» first general assem- 
bly undiT the presbvtt'rian settlement, Jjin- 
nig, Shi'ilds, and Hoyd presented two papers, 
I hi' first asking for n-dress of grievances, the 
H«'coiid( an aft ert bought , according to Sheilds) 
l)n)posing terms (»f submission. The paper 
of grii!vanci's Xho. ass»«mbly n^ceived, but de- 
cliiw 1 to have publicly read, as tiuiding *to 
kindlf conti?ntions.' the submission, dated 
*J'2 Oct. hJJH), was accepted on !>o Oct., and 
till' three siguatorii's were received into fel- 
lowship, with an admoniti(m *to walk or- time coming.' Sheilds was appointed . 
on 1 Feb. h;S)l chaplain to the Cameronian i 
ri'gimcnt (L>(ith foot), raised in 1089 bv James, '■ 
earl of Angus (1(>7I U\[)'2) [see under Dou- I 
iJi.AH, Jamfj*. secon<l Maruuis op Douglas.] 
4 Feb. MWM ho was called to the 
charge in the parish of St. Andrews, 

but not admitted till 15 Sept. 1097. On 
1*1 Julj lrjJ*9 he was authorised by the com- 
mission of the general assembly to proceed, 
with three other ministers and a number of 
colonists, to Darien, this being the second 
ex])edition in pursuance of the ill-fated 
scheme of William Paterson (16.>8-1719) 
jl. v." They sailed in the Kising Sun, and 
reached Darien late in November 1099. 

The quarrels and ill-conduct of the colo- 
nists disheartened Sheilds. He made some 
expeditions inland, running considerable 
hazards. At length, with Francis Borland, 
he crossed over to Jamaica, but had scarcely 
arrived there before he was seized with ma- 
lignant ie\er. He died on 14 June 1 700 in 
the house of Isabel Murray at Fort Royal, 
Jamaica. His ' library,* left at St. Andrews, 
was valued at 1/.: he left property valued 
at n.4s:3/. Uh. lOd. 

Sheilds was a little man, of ruddy visage, 
hot-headed and impulsive. The * Scotch 
Presbyterian Elonuence* (1092) represents 
him as recommen(ling, in a sermon at Abet- 
deen, * a pint of hope, three pints of faith, 
and nine pints of hot, hot, hot burning zeal' 
(p. 140). The same writer describes his 
* Hind Let Loose 'as 'the great oracle and 
idol of the true covenanters* (p. 58). The 
title of this work is of course biblical, yet 
not only the title, but the illustration ( p. 658) 
of * run a muck,' was suggested by Dryden'? 
'The Hind and the Panther' (published 
April 10S7). Its ferocity of tone is exhi- 
bited in the defence of the murder of Arch- 
bishop Shar|) and in the charge openly made 
against James II of poisoning his brother. 
The strength of the book is its spirited and 
luminous exposition of the doctrine that the 
monarch * at his highest elevation ' is a * pub- 
lick servant.* In this respect it is justly 
claimed by his party as an able forecast of 
modern political principles. 

Sheilds published : 1. * A Hind Let Loose, 
or an Historical lieprescntationof the Testi- 
monies of the Church of Scotland ... by a 
Lover of True Liberty,' 1087, 8vo (no printer 
orplace of publication) ; reprinted Fdinourgh, 

1 744, ^vo ; epitomised as * A History of the 
Scotch Presbytery,' 1(591, 4to. 2. 'AnElegie 
upon the Death of ... J. I ten wick,' 1(^, 
l2mo (anon.) 3. * Some Notes ... of a Lec- 
ture preached at Distinckorn Hill,* [1688], 
4to. 4. * The llenovation of the Covenant 
ot Boreland,* [1(>89], 4to. 5. * A Short Me- 
morial of the Suilerings ... of the Presby- 
terians in Scotland,' lt)90, 4to (anon.); re- 
printed as* The Scots Inquisition,' Edinburgh, 

1745, 8vo. (J. * An Account ... of the late 
. . . Submission to the Assembly,' Edinburgh, 
1691, 4to. Posthumous wqre : 7. ' Cliurchr 




Communion enquired into; or a Treatise 
against Separation from this National Church 
of Scotland,' [Edinburgh], 1706, 4to (edited 
by Lining, who has been suspected, without 
reason, of modifying it in the interest of 
union); reprinted as 'An Enquiry into 
Churcn-Communion,' 2nd edit, ffdinburgh, 
1747, 8vo. 8. * A True and Faithful Rela- 
tion of . . . Sufferings,' 1715, 4to. 9. *The 
Life and Death of . . . James Renwick,' Edin- 
burgh, 1724, 8vo ; reprinted, Glasgow, 1806, 
8vo ; and in ' Biographia Presbyteriana,' 
Edinburgh, 1827, 16mo, vol. ii. 7. * The 
Perpetoal Obligation of our Covenants Mn 
K. Ward's ' Explanation ... of the Solemn 
League,' 1737, 8vo. 8. Two sermons and a 
lecture in Howie's * Collection,' Glas^w, 
1779,8vo; reprinted as 'Sermons . . . in Times 
of Persecution,' Edinburgh, 1880, 8vo (edited 
by James Kerr). 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Srot. 1879, ii. 
395 sq. ; Sheild's Works ; Borland's Memoirs of 
Dnrien, 1719; Crookshank's Hi8t.of the Church 
of Scotland, 1749, ii. 363 seq.; Wilson's Dis- 
eenting Churches of London, 1810, iii. 126; Acts 
of General Assembly, 1842, pp. 224 wq., 291 
»eq.; Darien Papers (Bannatyne Club), 1849, 
pp. 247 seq. ; Catalogue of Edinburgh Graduates, 
1 8o8, p. 107 ; Howie'd Scots Worthies (Buchanan), 
1862, p. 642 seq. ; Album Studiosorum (Utrecht), 
1886. p. 74.] A.G. 

SHELBURNE, Earl oy. [See Petty, 
^ViLLiAM, first MAR<iUis OF Lansdowne, 

SHELDON, EDWARD (1699-1687), 
translator, younger son of Edward Sheldon, 
esq., of Beoley, Worcestershire, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Markham, 
esq., of OUerton, was bom at Beoley on 
23 April 1599. He became a gentleman 
commoner of Gloucester Hall, Oxford, about 
1613, and was admitted a student of 6ray*s 
Inn, London, 1 March 1619-20 (Foster, 
Gray's Inn Admission Registerj p. 158). He 
matriculated as a member of University 
College, ()iford, 19 Nov. 1621 ( Oxford Unto, 
Meg, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 401). Alter travelling 
on the continent for several years he settled 
on his patrimony at Stratton, near Cirences- 
ter, which eventually he lost or was com- 
pelled to leave on account of his attachment 
to the catholic religion and the cause of 
Charles I. He died at his house in St. 
James's Street, Westminster, on 27 March 
1687, and was buried under the chapel at 
Somerset House. 

He married Mary (or Margaret), daughter 
of Lionel Wake of Antwerp, and of Peding- 
ton, Northamptonshire, and had several 
children. One was Lionel Sheldon, D.D., a 

Benedictine monk, and chaplain to Anne, 
duchess of York (he died in 1678) ; another, 
Dominick Sheldon, was a colonel of horse 
in the army of James II in Ireland ; a 
younger son, Ralph, equerry to James U^ 
died in 1723, aged 90 ; And a daughter Mary 
married Sir Samuel Tuke [q. v.] 

He translated from the French : 1. ' Tl^e 
Holy Life of Mons'. Renty, late Nobleman 
of France, & sometimes Councellor to 
King Lewis the IS'**,* London, 1668, 8vo, 
* mangled by an Irish priest when it went to 
press ; * reprinted, with corrections, 1683. 
The author was Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Jure. 
2. * The Rule of Catholick Faith,' by 
Fran9ois Veron, D.D., Paris {cere London), 
1660; reprinted 1672. 3. * Christian Thoughts 
for every Day in the Month,' London, 1680, 
12mo. 4. *The Counsels of Wisdom,* by 
Nicholas Fouquet, marquis de Belle Isle. 

His nephew, Ralph Sheldon (1623-1684), 
antiquary, eldest son of William Sheldon of 
Beoley, Worcestershire, by Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William, second lord Petre, was born 
at Beoley on 1 Aug. 1623. He was a 
munificent patron of learned men, was skilled 
in the history and antiquities of his county, 
and spared no expense in forming a fine 
library at his manor-house of Weston in the 
parish of Long Compton, Warwickshire. He 
left his friend Antony h Wood a legacy of 
40/. He purchased and bequeathed to the Uolr 
lege of Arms the genealogical manuscripts of 
Augustine Vincent, Windsor herald, and he 
allowed John Vincent, Augustine*8 son, an 
annual pension. In his visits to Rome he 
collected choice books, coins, and medals. In 
reward for the sutler ings which he and his 
father had undergone in the civil wars, he was 
nominated by Charles II a member of the 
contemplated Order of the Royal Oak. He 
endurea considerable persecution on account 
of his adherence to the catholic faith, and on 
22 Nov. 1678 the high sheriff and under- 
sheriff of Warwickshire came to his house at 
Weston with a warrant to imprison him 
either in Warwick gaol or in London. How- 
ever, he was a man * of such remarkable in- 
tegrity, charity, and hospitality, as gained 
him the universal esteem of all the gentle- 
men of the county ; insomuch that he usually 
went by the name of the Great Sheldon' 
(Nash, Worcestershire, i. 68). He died at 
Weston, sine prole, on 24 June 1684. He 
married Henrietta Maria Savage, daughter 
of Thomas, first earl Rivers. She died on 
13 June 1663. 

He drew up ' A Catalogue of the Nobility, 
of England since the Norman Conquest, ac- 
cording to theire severall Creations by every 
particular King,' with the arms finely em- 



bluoned ; a folio manuBcript sold at the dis- 
penion of Sir Thomue Phillippi's collection 
in June 1893, lol 281. -ManT of Sheldon's 
iiiAaUBCri[itd are preserved in the College of 

[Catbo'ie Mi«ellany. 1828, vi. 73; Fo!ej» 
RecorJi. v. 46,819,850; KostocB Alumni «iun. 
IdOO-lTM. iv. 1342; Nuiti's WorccBtershire, i. 
He; Wood's Athene OioD.wl.Blisa,iT.2US,nnd 
Life, p. In; fur the nrphew, see Britloa's 
Memoir of Aubrey, p. 67 ; Chnmbfrs's Woroes- 
tenbire Biognpliy, p. SOS ; FoW'a Records, r. 
efiU (pedigree) ; Hampec'a UDgdiile, pp. 434, 
45S ; Niroliu's Memoir of A. Vincent, pp. 02-9 ; 
Bibl. PhiUippica, 1803, p. 67; Wuod's Life, 
1818. p. 26U.] T. C. 

SHELDON, GILBERT (1698-1677), 
1 archbishop oECunlurbury, bom al Ashbourne, 
' Derbyshire, on ItlJulj 1698, was youngest 
•on of Koger Sheldon of Stanton, SlalTord- 
ahire. ThefatJier,iilthoughof ancient family, 
wa» a 'meniiil servant '(Wood, jl(Am«0.roii. 
iv. 854) of Gilbert Talbot, aeventh earl of 
1 Shrewsbury. He matriculated at Osford on 
1 Julv 1614, graduated B.A. from Trinity 
, 1S20. In 1619 he was incorporated at CUm- 
I bridge. In 1 (122 he was elected fellow of All 
Soub', from wUicU college he took the degree 
of B.U. onll Nov. 1628. and D.D. on 35 June 
16»1 {Rrff. Univ. 0.r/urd, Oxford Hist. Soc, 
ii, 334, iii. 368). In 1622 be was ordained, 
and shortly afterwards he became domestic 
chaplain to Thomaa, lord Coventrr, the lord 
keener [q. v.] On aO Feb. 1632 he was in- 
stalled prebendary of Gloucester, in 1633 be 
became vicar of Hackney, in 1636 rector both 
of Oddin^on, Oxford, and Ickford, Buck- 
inghamshire (of the latter the crown was 
jBtron), and in 1639 rector of Newington, 
Oxford. He had early been introduced fay 
the lord keeper to the king, who appointed 
bim bis chaplain and 'demgned' bim to be 
master of the Savoy and dean iif Wtstmin- 
ist«r, 'but the change of the times and rebel- 
lion tbat followed hindered hissetllementin 

. In bis earlier years he appears to have 
fbeenopposedtothe'Arminian parly (Wood, 
Antialu, 1623), and in 1636 he was protni- 
nenl in resisting, though unsuccessfully, 
Laud'sappointment of Jeremy Taylor to a fel- 
lowship at All Souls' (seeBuBROws, Worthies 
}■■ of All &u/»', pp. 142 sqq.) But be was at 
f' least as early as 1635 a slroag anti-purilan 
Wat. State Papers, Dom. 16-26 April 1635). 
I He was soon well known to the leaders of 
^church and stale, and was the friend of both 
' Falkland and Hyde. The latter (Clares- 
Z>OS, Life, p. So) eays of bim at this time 
that his ' learning, gravity, and prudence had 

in that time . . . raised him to such a n 
tation that be then was looked upon & 
equal to any preferment the cburcb could 
yield ... and Sir Francis Wenman li — '■' 
often say when the Doctor resorted t 

-be ij^l 

Great Tew], as he frequently did, that 
Sheldon was bom and bred to be archbishop 
of Canterbury.' In March 1620 be was 
elected warden of All Souls' on the death 
Dr, Astley. lie had already made tbe 
quaiutance of Laud, and he occasionally 
responded with him (Laud, Workt,\\. 
620) on college business, on _ 

ing the university iib. vol. r. passim), and on 
tbe conversion of Chillingworth from Roman 
Catholicism. In 1634 and 1610 he ivas pro- . 
vice-chancellor. In 1638 he was appotoled 

College, on the report of which several drastic 
relbrms wore inaugurated (Bbodrice, .Ifr- 
mori'aU of Mertoa Colleae, pp. "8 sqq. ; Laitd, 
Worlu, V. 546 sqq.) lie heartily approved 
Hyde's conduct in parliament. On 6 Nov. 
1640 he wrote to him, ' If any good success 
happen in parliament, they must thank men 
of your temper and prudence for it' {Cal. of 
Clarendon Stale Papert, i. 209). After the 
war began he was from time to time in at- 
tendance on the king. He was summoned to 
take part in tbe negotiations for the treaty 
of ITxbridge in February 1B44, and Clarendon 
states that he there argued so earnestly In 
favour of the church as to draw on bim the 
envjj and resentment of tbeparliamentarians, 
which they made bim afterwards sufficiently 
feel. It was on 1 3 .\pril 1 646, when be was in 
attendance on Charles in Oxford, that the 
king wrote the vow to restore all church 
lands and lay impropriations held by the 
crown if be should be restored to his 'Just 
kiuffly rights.' This was entrusted t<i Snel- 
don 8 keeping and preserved by him ' thirteen 
years underground {Le^eve, Lives of BitAojit 
since the Refurmation, p[>. 178-9). Sheldon 
was with the king again in 1647 ot New- 
market, and later In the Isle of Wight. 

Many letters during the years before the 
king's death show him in constant commu- 
nication with the leaders of the royalist part y, 
especially with Hyde (ifi.), who made him 
oneof the trustees of his papers. On30March 
1648 ha was ejected from the wardenship of 
All Souls' hv the parliamentary visitors, 
after a stout fight against their pretensions. 
He had been member of a delegacy which 
had resisted them at their first coming in 
1647. On 12 April 1648 the visitors signed 
an order for his commitment to custody for 
refusal to surrender his lodgingn, and he waa 
removed by force. In prison at Oxford tl 




was ' great resort of persons to him ' (Wood, 
AtmaU), and he was ordered to be removed 
to Wallingford Castle with Dr. Henry Ham- 
mond [a. v.], but the governor refused to 
receive Uiem. He was set free at the end ot 
1648, on condition that he did not come 
within five miles of Oxford or the Isle of 
Wight, where the king then was (Walkeb, 
Sufferings of the Clergy; BuBROWS, Register 
of the Visitors of the University of Oxford, 
Camd. Soc. ; Wood, Annals), 

He retired to Sneltson in Derbyshire, and 
remained there or stayed with friends in Staf- 
fordshire and Nottinghamshire till the He- 
storation. He was constant in subscribing 
V and in collecting for the poor clergy and for 
Charles II in exile. He corresponded with 
Jeremy Taylor, whom he largely supported, 
and with Ilyde, to whom he severely criti- 
cised the conduct of the exiled court {Cla- 
rendon State Papers f iii. 736). On the death of 
Palmer, whom the visitors had made warden 
of All Souls* in his stead, on 4 March 1659, he 
was (quietly reinstated. Already he had been 
mentioned for one of the vacant bishoprics, 
when it had been proposed to consecrate 
secretly in 1666, (JuW 1655, ib, iii. 60, letter 
of Dr. Duncombe to Hyde). 

At the Kestoration he met Charles at 
Canterbury, was made dean of the Chapel 
Koyal,and was from the first high in favour. 
' You are the only person about his Majesty 
that I have confidence in,* wrote the aged 
Brian Duppa, bishop of Salisbury, to him on 
11 Aug. 1660, *and I persuade myself that 
as none hath his ear more, so none b likely 
to prevail on his heart more, and there was 
never more need of it * ( Tanner MSS, in 
Bodl. Libr. vol. xl. f. 17). On 9 Oct. 1660 

^ |he was elected bishop of London in the place 
of Juxon. He was confirmed on 23 Oct. and 
consecrated on 28 Oct. in Henry VII's chapel. 
He was also made master of the Savoy and 

^ sworn of the privy council. The Savoy con- 
ference was held at his lodging in the Savoy, 
and was opened by him with a direction that 
' nothing should be done till all the puritan 
objections had been formulated and con- 
siaered.* During the conference he appeared 
rarely and did not dispute, but was under- 
stood * to have a principal hand in disposing ' 
(see Calamt, Abridgment of R. Baxters 
Life, and Burnet). He is said to have been 
^ strongly in favour of the enforcement of the 

"S uniformity laws (Samuel Parker, History 
of his Own Time, p. 28), and his papers con- 
tain many letters from statesmen, justices, 
and bishops on this point {Sheldon Papers, 
especially the letters from English, Scots, 
and Irish bishops ; ' Dolben Papers,' especially 
letters from Clarendon, in Dolben Hist, MSS, 

1626-1721, pp. 104-13, 116, 119, 120-7). A 
commission was issued to him to consecrate 
the new Scots bishops, * so that it be not pre- 
judicial to the privileges of the church of 
Scotland * {Cal, State Papers, Dom. 30 Nov. 
1661) ; and he practically exercised the 
powers of the archbishopric, owing to Juxon*s 
age and infirmities. On the primate*s death 
he was elected his successor (congi d^Hire, 
6 June 1663. election 11 Aug., confirmation ' 
31 A ug., restoration of temporalities 9 Sept. ; 
Lb Neve, Lives of Bishops since the Reformat 
tion, p. 182, corrected by Cal, State Papers, 

From this date his political activity in- 
creased. The state papers contain many 
references to his appomtment as arbiter in 
difficult cases of petitions presented through 
bim, and to investigations entrusted to his 
hands by the king, especially in connection 
with the navy. One of his first acts was 
to arrange with Clarendon that the clergy 
should no longer tax themselves in convoca- 
tion (Cal. State Papers; Sheldon MSS.) 
He was elected chancellor of the university . 
of Oxford in 1667 on the resignation of/ 
Clarendon on 20 Dec, but was never in- 
stalled, and resigned on 31 July 1669 (Wood, 
Life and Times, ed. Clark, ii. 124, 166). He 
built at Oxford, entirely at his own expense, 
the theatre (known as ' The Sheldon ian ') for 
the performance of the * Act, or Encaenia.' 
It was opened on 9 July 1669. The total 
cost was 12,339/. 4/r. 4td. (details in Bodl. MS, 
898 and Wood, Ltfe and Times, ed. Clark^, 
and 2,000/. was spent also on ' buying lanas 
whose revenue might support the fabrick' 

iib, iii. 72). Wren, who was the architect, told 
Svelyn that the cost was 25,000/. (Evelyn, 
Journal, i.419]. Sheldon had long taken par- i ^ 
ticular care of the antiquities of the univer- ' 
sity. During the Commonwealth he saved • 
the university copy of the Laudian statutes r* 
(' Authenticus Liber Statutorum ') and pre- 
sented it to Clarendon when he was chan- 
cellor, who restored it. He paid particular 
attention to Anthony a Wooa {Life, ii. 167), 
and gave him ' great encouragement to pro- 
ceed in his studies ' (ti&. p. 243). His rela- 
tions with the university throughout appear . 
to have been liberal and judicious both asr- 
visitor and as chancellor (see Brodrick,' 
Memorials of Merton College; Burrows, 
Worthies of All Souls'). In spite of his 
severity against dissenters and his share in ^ . 
the passing of the Corporation Act, he seems 
to have at times promoted, and frequently 
protected, nonconforming divines (s€^ Over- 
ton, Life in the English Church, 1660-1714, 
p. 347). Though he was long one of the 
most prominent of the king*s advisers, he 




did not hesitate to reprove CliatlKS for Uis I 
ftdult«rr and to refuBB liim the holy com- 
nanioa on thut account (Bdbnet, i. 438). 
lu lti(i7 his n-m on St ranees are Bud lo have j 
cost hun CbarW» favour. 

lie was no leas aai>iduouB in the discharge 
of the epiritiMl duties of his otiice. Hispapvrs 
sbow kiin diligent in reproving bishops for 
Deglect of duly, in encouraging the deserving, 
and in investigating all cases of hardship ur 
acaodaL During the plague he remained at 
Lambcth'all the time of the greatest danger, 
and with his ditftisivc charity prtserved great 
numbers alive that would have perished in 
their ueojHities ; and by his afiecting letters 
to all the bishops procured great suma to be 
returned out of all partsof his province' I Lk 
Nbte, as abore, p. liiS). He was equally 
urgent in collecliug Tor the rebuilding of <St. 
Paul's, giving himself over 4,000/. before and 
after the fire. In supervision of the work of 
tlia English churi-'h beyond the seas he 

'^ showed a special activity ; one of his last 

■ acts was to interest himself in provision for 

^ tlie ipiritual needs of :Maryland (Ca/. fstate 

! t'apen. Colonial Ser., .America and the West 
Indie*, passim); and in Scotland and Ireland 
he was the sCroiiffcst supporter of the epi- 
ncopalian establifiliment (see the volume 
iiodieian MS. add. c 306), being con- 
stantly ioformed of the 'forward humour of 
our plianaiicks' and the sad condition of 'the 
poor orthodox clergy* (see IiettJic from the 
Archbishop of Glasgow, 24 Aug. 1667 ti.) 
^During the whole of his life he was eitra- 

''I ordinarily generous, and it is stated that he 
gave to 'public pious uses, jn acta of muni- 
licence and charity,' 72,000/. (KENHBrr, 
Caie of hnpmpriatioiUif. 257). He died at 
.y Lambeth on 9 Nov. 1677, and was buried at 

^ Croydon, where be hod cbietly resided during 
the last years of his life. A monument was 
erected to his memory in Croydon parish 
church by his nephew, Sir Joseph Sheldon 
(lord mayor of London in 16/8). He was 

ShelJon woe placed at the head of the 
English church at a very critical time, for 
the Restoration settlement affected all her 
future history. If he did nothing to mini- 
mise the diU'erencea between her and the 
protestant sects, he certainly confirmed her 

J in the course which she had pursued since 

S the Refonnfttion. Characteristic of this posi- 
' tion lathe impetus which he gave tothepre- 
eervatlon of the meman>' of Archbishop I>uud 
(seeLATiD,Jf'ocA*,iii. 122; WiiASTos.l'rerace 
to the Hutory vf the Treiiblea and Trial). 

llf his character con lemporariea give very 
di Sere nt judgments, lie was no doubt a high 
tory of the school of Clarendon, and thus was 

of him ae seeming ' not to have a deep si 
of religion, if any at all,' and as speaking of it 
' most commonly as of an engine of govern- 
ment and a. matter of policy.' But it must 
be remembered that he was the warm friend 
of Clarendon, Falkland. Sanderson, Ham- 
mond, and Juicon, the spiritual counsellor oft" 
Charles I, and the honest adviser of his ton. 
His chaplain, Samuel Parker (J640-166«l 
[(J. v.], describes him as a man of undoubted 
piety 1 ' but though he was very assiduous at 
prayers, yet he did not set so great a value on 
them as others did, nor regsra so much wor- 
ship as the use of worship, placing the chief 
(Hiint of religion in the practice of a good lifft'T 
And he would say to the 'young noblemep ' 
and gentlemen who by their parents' com- 
mands resorted daily to him, "Let it be your 
principal care to become honest men . . . 
no piety will be of any advantage to your- ., 
selves or anybody else unless you are boneei 
and moral men." ' Of his high practiusl 
ability thereia no doubt; even Burnet spetdi^ 
of him as ' very dexterous,' and of * a grest 
quicJtness of apprehension and a very true 
judgment.' Ecclesiastically ho belonged tp _^ 
the school of Andrewes and Laud, ' holding 
fast the true orthodox profession of the 
cathohque faith of Christ . . . being a true 
member of His catholique church within the 
commuulou of a living part thereof, the pre- 
sent church of England' (Will, in Codrington 
Library, All SouU' Collie, Oxford). 

Ills only published work is a sermon 
preached before the king at Whitehall on 
^8 June 1660 (for his manuscript remains at 
Lambeth see Wood, Atifiia O.rwi. ed. Bliss, 
iv. 8o8). Several portraits of him exist, 
notably one in the hall of All Souls' ColJega. 
Oxford, which represents him as a thin man 
with a high colour and small dark moustache. 
There are engravings by Loggan and Vertua. 

[Much of the authority for the life of Shel- 
don in detail is stilt in manascript, notably the 
ClarDDtlun Stale Papers in the Bodleian, and Un 
Shflldou Papers and Dolhen Papsrs prosMvcii 
in thf same library. Of print«^ sources tJ. 
most imporlnnl are meulioned in tho ir\ 
The most complete vindioalion based on m^u:. 
script eridence, ia ihat of Profe«BOr Burrr"- 
Worthiesof All Souls'.] W. H. H. 

SHELDON, JOHN (1752-1808), ana- 
tomist, was born in London on 6 July 1753, 
and WHS apprenticed to Henry Watson, who 
was elected In 1706 the first professor of 
anatomy at the Surgeons' Company. Shel- 
don studied and taught anatomynt Watson's 
private museum in Tottenham Court Road, 
wldcU was afterwards wrecked by a mob. 




He received his diploma at the Surgeons' 
Company on 2 Nov. 1775. He lectured on 
anmtomy at Great Windmill Street school 
under William Hunter (1718-1783) [q.v.], 
•nd in 1777 he opened a private theatre in 
GvMt Queen Street, where he spent his time 
in ecientific researches and in teaching ana- 
tooiT. He was surgeon to the General 
Medical Asylum in Welbeck Street, and on 
18 July 1782 he was appointed professor of 
anatomy to the Royal Academy in succession 
to William Hunter. He was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society on 29 April 1784, and 
on SO April 1786 he became surgeon to the 
IVestminater Hospital, a post he resigned two 
jeais later. His health broke down in 1788, 
nnd he removed to Exeter, his house in Great 
Queen Street being taken and his teaching 
continued by James Wilson [q. v.] Sheldon 
^nras elected surgeon to the Devon and Exeter 
Hospital on 2o July 1797. 

Sheldon spent much time in studying the 
lymphatic system, and but for his ill-health 
his results would probably have surpassed 
thoaeobtained by William Cumberland Uruik- 
shank [a. v. J lie also devoted much atten- 
tion to tne art of embalming. Both tliis and 
hie work upon the lymphatics were due to 
William Hunter's inspiration, and Sheldon 
'WBB engaged upon both at the time of his 
death. He believed that he had discovered 
an easy method of catching whales ^ith 
poisoned harpoons, and he made a voyage to 
Greenland to test its efficacy. It is said 
that he waathe first Englishman to make an 
ascent in a balloon, and his ascent from 
Chelsea in 1784 was the subject of a carica- 
ture by Paul Sand by. He died at his cottage 
on the river Exe on 8 Oct. 1808. 

A life-sixe three-quarter-length portrait, 
by A. W. Devis ( 1763-1822), is in the con- 
servator's room at the Royal College of Sur- 
geons in Lincoln's Inn Fields. It is tra- 
ditionally reported that Rowlandson intro- 
duced a portrait of Sheldon into his picture 
of ' The Dissecting Room.' 

His works were: 1. *The History of the 
Absorbent System,' London, 4to, 1784. The 
first part only was u^sued. It is stated 
at the end of the volume that ' the French 
and German editions of this part are in great 
forwardness and will soon be published,' and 
that many of the plates for tne second part 
are engraved. The book is an excellent 

5iece 01 scientific work, and is dedicated to Sir 
oseph Banks. 2. * An Essay on the Fracture 
of the Patella or Kncepan . . . with Obser- 
vations on the Fracture of the Olecranon,' 
London, 8vo, 1789 ; a new edit. London, 8vo, 
1819. Sheldon also edited Lieberkiihn's 
' Quatuor Dissertationes,' London, 1782. 

[Hallett's Catalogue of Portraits and Busts 
in the Royal College of Surgeons of England ; 
Gent. Mag. 1808, ii. 957 ; information from the 
manuscript records of the Surgeons' Company, 
kindly given by the secretary of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons of England.] D*A. P. 


Jesuit. [See Elliot.] 

v/SHELDON, RICHARD (d. 1642?), di- 
vine, was probably descended from a branch 
of the catholic family of Sheldon of Beoley in 
Worcestershire. Destined for the priesthood, 
he was sent during the pontificate of Cle- 
ment VIII to the English Jesuit College at 
Rome. Having attained great proficiency 
there, he returned to England, visiting Spain 
on his way. About 1610 he was imprisoned 
as a Jesuit. Always holding moderate views, 
he published in 161 1 a treatise entitled 'The 
Lawfulness of the Oath of Allegiance.' Soon 
aften^'^ards, on his professing himself a pro- 
testant, he was released. He was imme- 
diately employed by King James, together 
with William Warmington, another convert, 
to write a book against Vorstius (Cor/. State 
Papers, 1611-18, p. 119). Subsequently he 
published several works against Catholicism 
on his own account. 

For a time Sheldon enjoyed the kind's 
favour. He was appointed a royal chaplaii), 
and received the honorary degree of D.I), 
from Cambridge University. The negotia- 
tions for the Spanish match, however, in- 
clined James to tolerance, and Sheldons 
zeal against his old faith became distasteful. 
In 1022 he preached a sermon against those 
bearing the mark of the beast, for which he 
received a severe reprimand (IlarL MS. 389, 
f. 228). He never regained the royal favour, 
though he endeavoured to propitiate Charles 
bv writing in defence of the roval preroga- 
tive {Cal. State Papers, 1640-1, p. 374). 
He died in obscurity soon after 1641. 

Besides several sermons, he published : 
1. * Motives of R. S. for his Renunciation of 
Communion with the Bishop of Rome,' Lon- 
don, 1612,4to. 2. * A Survey of the Miracles 
of the Church of Rome,' London, 1616, 4to. 
3. * Man's Last End, or the Glorious Vision 
and Fruition of God,' l^ndon, 1634, 4to. 

[Foley's Records of the English Province, vii. 
1016 ; Gardiner's Hist, of England, iv. 346.] 

E. J. C. 

M.D., a native of Norwich, was descended 
from an old Norfolk familv, a member of 
which, John Sheldrake, was mavor of 
Thetford in 1632, while William Shildrake 
was rector of Barton in Charles Il's reign. 
Timothy was author of: 1. >The Causes of 




Heat and Cold in all Climates, as read to the 
Koyal Society/ 1766, 8vo, * printed for and 
sold by the Author at the Black Bo^ in the 
Strand/ pp. 42. 2. * The Gardener's Best 
Companion in a Greenhouse, or Tables show- 
ing the greatest Heat and Cold of all 
Countries . . . measured upon the Thermo- 
meter/ London, 1756, folio, a quadruple 
folding folio-sheet, dedicated to Sir Hans 
Sloane, and stated to have the approval of 
Philip ]Miller [q. v.] 3. 'Botaniuum Medi- 
cinale; an Herbal of Medicinal Plants on 
the College of Physicians* List, with names 
in nine languages [and] 120 copper-plates, 
*< from the exquisite drawings ot the late 
ingenious T. Sheldrake,'*' London, 1759, 
fofio. This work was issued at 3/. plain, 
and at 6/. coloured. Most of the plates are 
engraved by C. H. Hemerich. liie 'Gar- 
dener's Best Companion ' is added to it. A 
pamphlet on * Norwich Gothic Cross * (with 
*a very good plate*), by the same author, is 
advertised in ' The Causes of Heat and Cold * 
(cf. Blomfield, Nor/ulkf iv. 235). 

Sheldrake was doubtless related to the 
Timothy Sheldrake *of the Strand, truss- 
maker to the East India Company and the 
Westminster Hospital,* who between 1783 
and 1806 published several medical pam- 
phlets on distortion oT the spine, club-foot, 
and rupture. 

[Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 
1816, and the works above mentioned.] 

G. S. B. 

SHELFORD, LEONARD (1795-1864), 
legal author, second son of Leonard Shelford, 
B.D., fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, and rector of North Tuddenham, 
Norfolk, by his wife Ellen, daughter of 
William Grigson of West Wretham, Nor- 
folk, was bom on 26 July 1795. He was in- 
tended for a solicitor, and served his articles 
with William llepton of Aylsham, Norfolk, 
whence he went to the othce of Boodle & 
Co., London. But resolving to become a 
barrister, he entered at the Middle Temple, 
and was called to the bar in 1827. For up- 
wards of forty years he occupied chambers 
in the Temple, living the life of a recluse, 
and compiling lejjal works which not only 
obtained a large circulation in England, but 
were also in several instances reprinted in 
America, without the author s consent. He 
died, unmarried, on 17 March 1864. 

He was the author of: 1. * Law concern- 
ing Lunatics, Idiots/ &c., London, 1833, 8vo ; 
Philadelphia, 1833 ; 2nd edit London, 1847, 
8vo. 2. * Real Property Statutes/ London, 
1834,. 12mo; 9th Mit., by T^tt^inon, 
1808, Bvo. 8. 'OmmI Hi^^^llt of 

5 and 6 William IV/ London, 1835, 12mo; 
3rd edit., * Law of Highways,* 1862, 12mo. 
4. * Law of Mortmain and Charitable Uses 
and Trusts,* London, 1836, 8vo; Philadelphia, 
1842, 8vo. 5. * The Act for the Commuta- 
tion of Tithes/ London, 1836, 12mo ; 3rd 
edit. 1842, 12mo ; supplement, 1848. 6. ' Law 
of WiUs,' London, 1838, 12mo. 7. * Law of 
Marriage, Divorce, and Registration/ Lon- 
don, 1841, 8vo; Philadelphia, 1841, Bvo. 
8. * Law of Railways/ London, 1845, 12mo; 
ed. by M. L. Bennett, 2 vols., Burlington, 
U.S.A., 1855, 8vo ; 4th edit., by W. C. Glen, 
London, 1869, 8vo. 9. * Bankrupt Law 
Consolidation Act/ London, 1849, 12mo; 
3rd edit., 1862, 12mo. 10. 'Statutes for 
amending the IVactice in Chancery/ Lon- 
don, 1852, 12mo. 11. *Law of Copyholds/ 
London, 1853, 12mo ; supplement, 1858. 
12. *Law relating to the Probate, Legacy, 
and Succession Duties/ London, 1855, li'mo; 
2nd edit., 1861, 12mo. 13. 'Statutes for 
the Relief of Insolvent Debtors,* London, 
1856, 12mo ; 3rd edit., 1862, 12mo. 14. * Pro- 
ceedings in the County Courts relating to 
Probates and Administrations,* London, 
1858, 8vo. 16. *Law of Joint-Stock Com- 
panies/ London, 1863, 12mo ; 3rd edit., by 
D. Pitcairn and F. L. Latham, 1870, Bvo. 
Shelford also prepared a second edition of 
Broom*s 'Practice of the County Courts/ 
1857, Bvo; and a fifth edition of George 
Crabb's * Conveyancer's Assistant,* 1860, Bvo. 

[Law Mag. May 1864, p. 196 ; Gent. Mag. 
1864, i. 642, 671 ; AUibone's Diet, of Authors.] 

E. I. C. 

SHELLEY, GEORGE (1666 P-1 736?), 
calligrapher, bom about 1666, received his 
education at Christ^s Hospital, London, and 
in 1708 was living at the *Hand and Pen' 
in Warwick Lane, where he kept a school, 
lie became * a celebrated and shining orna- 
ment in the commonwealth of English 
calligraphy.* In 1714 he was writing- 
master at Chri8t*s Hospital, and he held that 
appointment for twenty years. He died in 
straitened circumstances about 1736. 

His works are: 1. * The Penman's Maga- 
zine/ London, 1705, fol. ; it contains thirty- 
two plates engrraved by Joseph Nutting, 
and is adorned with about one hundred open 
figures and fancies * performed ' by Shelley 
' after the originals of the late incomparable 
Mr. John Seddon.* 2. ' Natural Writing in 
all the Hands, with Variety of Ornament/ 
London, [1708] oblong fol. It contains 
twenty-six plates and a fine portrait en- 
graved by George Bickham. 3. * l^nna 
Volans; done after y« English, French & 
Dutch Way/ London, [1710 P] oblong foL 




It contains fifteen plates. 4. ' Sentences 
and Maxims ... in Prose and Verse . . . 
containing a Select and Curious Collection 
of Copies of all sorts, put into Alphabetical 
Order,' London, 1712, 8vo; 3rd ed. 1761. 
/^. ' Seven Plates of Round-hand, Italian, 
and Print, dated 1712, in Bickham's "Pen- 
man*s Companion." ' 6. * The Second Part 
of Natural Writing, containing the Breakes 
of Letters and their Dependance on each 
other. . . . The whole making a compleat 
Body of Penmanship,' London, [1714] 
oblong 4to; it contains thirty-four plates, 
and a smaller portrait of Shelley engraved 
by Bickham from a painting by B. Lens. 

[Mik»ey*s Origin and Progre^ of Letters, 
ii. 131; Kvan8*» Cat. of Engraved Portraits, Nos. 
9498, 9499 ; Brumle/s Cat. of En^rraved Por- 
traits, p. 802 ; Noble s Contin. of Grander, ii. 
360.1 T. C. 

CR AFT (1797-1861), authoress, second wife 
of Percy Bysshe Shelley, the poet [q. v.], was 
bom in the Polygon, Somers Town, on 30 Aug. 
1797, and was the only daughter of William 
Godwin the elder [q.v. J and Mary Wollstone- 
craft Godwin [q. v J Orphaned of her mother 
a few days after her birth, she was left to the 
care of her father, who, bewildered by the 
charge, soon began to look for some one to 
share it with him. After sundry rebuff's he 
at last found the needed person (December 
1801) in his next-door neighbour, Mrs. Clair- 
mont, a widow with a son and daughter — * a 
clever, bustling, second-rate woman, glib of 
tongue and pen^ with a temper undisci- 
plined and uncontrolled; not oad-hearted, 
but with a complete absence of all the finer 
sensibilities ' (Mabshall). She inspired no 
remarkable affection, even in her own chil- 
dren, and Mary was thrown for sympathy 
upon the companionship of her father, whose 
real tenderness was disguised by his frigid 
manner. It was natural that, as she grew 
up, she should learn to idolise her own 
mother, whose memory became a religion to 
her. • There seems to have been nothing pecu- 
liar in her education. * Neither Mrs. God- 
win nor I,' Godwin had written,* have leisure 
enough for reducing modern theories of edu- 
eation to practice ; ' but she must have imbibed 
ideas and aspirations from the numerous 
highly intellectual visitors to her father*s 
shabby but honoured household. At the age 
of fifteen she is described by Godwin as 
'singularly bold, somewhat imperious, and 
active of mind. Her desire of knowledge 
is great, and her perseverance in everything 
ahe undertakes almost invincible.' From 
June to November 1812, and again from 
June 1813 to March 1814, she resided at 

Dundee with friends, the Baxters, whose 
son was employed with her foster-brother, 
Charles Clairmont, in Constable's publishing 
house at Edinburgh. The day of her return 
was 30 March, and on 5 May, so far as can 
be ascertained from Godwin's diar\', she first 
made acquaintance with Shelley, whom she 
had only once seen before, in November 1812. 
Shelley was then in the throes of his breach 
with Harriet. Mary, remitted from beloved 
friends to an uncongenial stepmother, was 
doubtless on her part pining for sympathy. 
By 8 June, to judge by Hogg's record of the 
meeting between them whicn he witnessed, 
they had become affectionate friends ; but it 
was not until 28 July that they left England 
together, accompanied by Jane Clairmont 
[see Shelley, Perct Bysshej. 

The poet learnt of the death of his first 
wife in the middle of December 1816, and he 
married Mary Godwin about a fortnight later. 
For the next eight years her history is almost 
absorbed in that 01 her. illustrious husband. 
They were seldom apart, and her devotion 
to him was complete. Some differences were 
unavoidable between persons in many re- 
spects so diversely organised. Endowed with 
a remarkably clear, penetrating, and positive 
intellect, she could not always foil ow Shel ley's 
flights, and was too honest to affect feelings 
which she did not really entertain. Possess- 
ing in full measure the defects of her quali- 
ties, she had not the insight to discern the 
prophetic character of Shelley's genius ; and, 
although she admired his poetr}', her inner 
sympathy was not sufficiently warm to con- 
sole him for the indifierence of the world. 
Expressions of disappointment occur occa- 
sionally both in his verse and his prose. He 
was probably thinking of himself when he 
wrote : * Some of us have loved an Antigone 
in a previous stage of existence, and can 
find no full content in any mortal tie.' There 
were incidents, too, on tis side to test both 
her patience and her affection. "With every 
deduction on these accounts, the union was 
nevertheless in the main a happy one. Mary 
undoubtedly received more than she gave. 
Nothing but an absolute magnetising of her 
brain by Shelley's can account for her hav- 
ing risen so far above her usual self as in 
'Frankenstein.' The phenomenon might have 
been repeated but for the crushing blow of 
the death of her boy William in 1819. From 
this time the keynote of her existence was 
melancholy. Her father's pecuniary troubles, 
and the tone he chose to take with reference 
to them, also preyed upon her spirits, inso- 
much that Shelley was obliged at last to in- 
tercept his letters. With all this ehe was 
happier than she knew, and after Shelley's 

doBlh (he eiclairaB, with tra^c conviction, 

of thit wiiest, best, and most 
■piril*, how To'id, bare, and drear is the 
of life ! ' Trelawny was hi-rinvoiirile among 
Lit liiiaband's circle; but Byroa, much aa 
ho r.imle her Buifer in many ways, oIki en- 
di-aml himself to her. Sb« Bssociated hitn 
with Hwitierlaud, where she copied the ihinl 
canto of ' Childe Harold ' forhim. She liked 
lloKK and loved Leigh Hunt, but Peacock 
WON uncongenial to her. 

Jlary Shelley was b hard student during 
her liu-tbond's lifetime. Slie n-nd inceBsanlly 
without any neglect of d(im>'-slic duties, ao- 
iiig Latin, French, and Ilnlinn. Ofthetwoi 
roniniices which she produced during thial 
period, ' Frankenstein ' is deservedly by furi 
ihu more famoua. Frankenstein'g monster, 
tlioiigh physicallv an abortion, is iotellec-i 
Itially the ancegtor of a numerous family.l 
The story, -which was commenced in 1616 in 
rivalry wilhBjTon's fragmentary ' Vampyre,' 
was publiahed in 181B. ■ Valperga," an 'his- 
loricnl romance of the fourteenth century, 
begun in 1820, was printed in the mrin^r of 
1822, and publiahed in 1 823, after undergoing 
considerable revision from Godwin. 

After ber husband's death in 1822 her 
dinriea for years to come are full of involun- 
tnry lamentations. Byron's migration to 
Ounoa drew the Hunt circle after him, and 
there she apent the winter (1822-S), tried 
by the discomfort of Leigh Hunt's disorderly 
household, the waning kindness of Byron, 
who, by her own stalemont, had at first been 
most helpful and consolatory, and teniporarj 
mis understandings with Hunt himself. These 
ordeals lessened the pain of leaving Italy. 
Cvronand l*Bacock,9helley'seiocutor8, con- 
curred with Godwin in deeming her presence 
ill i'lngland necessary, Byron, although he 
had handsomely renounced his jirospeetive 
claim toalegacynnder Shelley's will, showed 
no disposition to provide travelling expenses. 
Trelawny nccordinglv depleted liis own purse 
for the purpose, and in June 1623 she left 
for London with her three-year-old child. 
On the way she had the satisfaction of see- 
ing a drama founded on ' Frankenstein ' per^ 
formed with applause at Paris. She found 
her native land a dismal exchange for Italy, 
but was for a time much soothed Ijy the 
society of Mrs. Williams. Sir Timothy 
Hhi-lley had oflered to provide for her son 
niHin condition of her resigning the charge 
of him, which she of c<iur8e rejected with 
indignation. After a time terms were made; 
but her smaU allowance was still depen- 
dent upon Sir Timothy's pleasure, and was 

withdrawn for a while when the i 

Kpers named her ns the authoress of ' The 
isi Man,' which had been published anony- 
mously. ' The name annoyed Sir Timothy.' 
In the same year (^1820), however, ibe death 
of Shelley's son by Harriet made little 
Percy a person of consequence aa heir to 
the baronetcy, and her position improved. 

■The Lost Man,'publislied in 1826, tbougl] 
a remarkable book, is inno wayapocnlvpric, 
and wants tbe tremendous scenes which the 
Bubject'might have suggested.tbe destruction 
of the human race being effected solely by 
pestilence. Passages, however, are eiceed- 
ingly eloquent, and the portrait of Shelley 
as Adrian, drawn by one who knew him so 
well, has singular interest. Neither ber his- 
torical novel, ' I'erkin Warbeck ' (1830), nor 
her latest Action, ' Falkner ' ( 1837), has much 
claim to remembrance: but ' Lodore' (1835) 
is remarkable for being, as Professor Dowden 
was the iiraC to discern, a veiled autobio- 
graphy. The whole story of the hero's and 
heroine's priTations in London is a remini- 
scence of the winter of 1813. Harriet 
Shelley appears much idealised as Cornelia, 
and her aialer's baneful influence over her is 
impersonated in the figure of a mother-in- 
law. Lady Santerre. By it Lodore is driven 
to America, as Shelley to the continent. 
Emilia Viviani is also portrayed, probably 
with accuracy. 

Mrs. Shelley contributed for many years 
Ui tbe annuals, then in their full bloom, and 
her graceful tales were collected and pub- 
lished in 1891 as a volume of the ' Treasure- 
bouse of Teles by Great Authors.' One of 
these tales, ' Tbe Pole,' was written by Claire 
Clairmont, but made presentable by Mary'a 
revision. In 18.31 she was engaged in polish- 
ing the style of Trelawny's' Adventures of a 
Younger Son,' and negotiating with pub- 
lishers on account of the erratic author, then 
far away, who gave her nearly as much 
trouble as Londor had given Julius Hate 
under aimilar circumstances. He must have 
offered her marriage, for she writes: 'My 
name will never be Trelawny. I am not so 
young as I wis when you first knew me, but 
I am OS proud. I must have the entire afi'ec- 
lion, devotion, and above all the solicitous 

Protection of any one who would win me. 
ou belong to womenkind in general, and 
Mary Shelley will never he yours.' This 
probably accounts for Trelawny's deprecia- 
tion of Mary Shelley in the second edition 
of his 'Memoirs,' so diltarent from the cor- 
dial tone of the first edition. 

In I83ti Mary lost her father and her nld 
and attached friends, tbe Gisbomes. Sh-^ 
wasat the time writing the lives of Petrarch, 




Boccaccio, Macliiavelli, and other Italian 
men of letters for Lardner^s * Cabinet Cyclo- 
pscdia/ and severely pressed by her exertions 
to frive her son an education at Harrow, 
whither she had removed for the purpose. 
Sir Timothy did not see his way to assist, 
but, throuprh his attorney, ' trusted and hoped 
vou may find it practicable to give him a 
ffood education out of the 300/. a year.* The 
thing was done ; Percy Florence proceeded 
from Harrow to Cambridge, but the struggle 
ruined Marv Shelley's health, and left her, 
exhausted by effort and * torn to pieces by 
memory,* very unfit to discharge the task 
which (levolveil upon her of editing Shelley*s 
works when the obstacles to publication 
were removed in 1838. The poems never- 
theless appeared in four volumes in 1839, 
with notes, slight in comparison with what 
they might have been, but still invaluable. 
The prose remains were published in the 
following year, and, notwithstanding the 
number of pirated editions, both publications 
proved profitable. A further piece of good 
fortune signalised 1840, when Sir Timothy 
relented to the extent of settling 400/. a 
year upon his grandson on occasion of his 
attaining his majority and taking his degree. 
Mrs. Shellev was now able to seek rest and 
change on the continent, and eagerly availed 
herself of the opportunity. In 1840 and 
lH41 she and her son travelled in Germany, 
and in 1842 and 1843 in It^ly. Her impres- 
sions were recorded in * Rambles in Germany 
and Italy,* published in two volumes in 1844 
and dedicated to Samuel Rogers, who, like 
Moore, had always shown himself a sym- 
pathising friend. The German part of the 
book contains little of especial interest, but 
the Italian part is full of admirable remarks 
on Italian art and manners. 

In 1844 Sir Timothy Shelley's death placed 
Mary in a position oi comparative afiluence. 
The first act of her and her son was to carry 
out Shelley's intentions bv settling an an- 
nuity of 120/. upon Leigh 'Hunt. She next 
endeavoured to write Shelley*s life ; but her 
health and spirits were unequal to so tr>'ing 
a task, and nothing was written but a frag- 
ment printed at the beginning of Hogg*8 
biography. She died in Chester Sfiuare, 
London, on 1 Feb. 1851, and was interred in 
the churchvard at Bournemouth, near the 
residence of her son, in the tomb where he 
also is buried, and to which the remains of her 
father and mother were subsequently brought. 

Personally, Mary Shelley was remarkable 
for her high forehead, piercing eyes, and pale 
complexion. She gained in beauty as she 
grew in years ; and her bust strikingly brings 
out the resemblance, which Thornton Hunt 

noticed, to the bust of Clvtie. A fine portrait 
by Rothwell, painted in 1841, is engraved as 
the frontispiece to Mrs. Marshall's biogrraphy. 

[Everything of importance relat'ng to Mary 
Shelley may be found in the biography by Airs, 
i Julian Marshall, 1889, written with great sym- 
pathy and dilig;onee from the family documents. 
Mrs. W. M. Rossetti's memoir in the Eminent 
Women Series is on a much smaller scale. She 
is copiously treate I of by all biographers of 
Shelley, especially by Professor Dowden, and in 
the Shelley Memorials.] R. G. 

1822), poet, was born at Field Place, Warn- 
ham, near Horsham, on 4 Aug. 1792, and 
was the eldest son of Timothy, afterwards 
Sir Timothy Shelley, hart., and of his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Pilfold. The 
family, an ofishoot of the Shelleys of Michel- 
grove, had been transplanted for a time to 
America, in the person of Percy's great-grand- 
father Timothy, whose son Bysshe, return- 
ing at an early age, made the fortune of his 
house by two successive runaway matches, 
the first with Mary Catherine, daughter of 
the Rev. Theobald Michell of Horsham. 
Percy's father (b, 1753) was the offspring of 
this marriage. Bysshe Shelley, who is de- 
scribed as handsome, enterprising, and not 
over-scrupulous, dignified in appearance and 
manners, but addicted to inferior company, 
survived his grandson's birth by twenty-two 
years. He was a warm supporter of the Duke 
of Norfolk's interest in the county, and, upon 
the brief return of the whigs to office in 1806, 
was rewarded with a baronetcy, *the whim,' 
according to a local rhymer, *of his son 
Tim.' Timothy Shelley's character is fairly 
given by Professor Dowden : * He had a 
better heart than his father, and not so clear 
a head. A kindly, pompous, capricious, 
well-meaning, ill-doing, wrong-headed man.' 
His letters evince singular confusion, both 
of thought and expression. The accounts of 
Shelley's mother are somewhat contradic- 
tory, except as regards the beauty which all 
her children derived from her, and the facility 
of composition which became the special 
inheritance of Percy. It is important to re- 
mark that the family was not, as sometimes 
assumed, tory, but pronouncedly whig, and 
that Shelley would grow up with an addic- 
tion to libertv in the abstract and with no 
special aversion to the revolution. 

Shelley received his first instruction from 
the Rev. Thomas Edwards of Horsham. At 
ten he was transferred to Sion House aca- 
demy, Brentford, kept by the Rev. Dr. 
Greenlaw, a bad midale-class school, which 
nevertheless profoundly influenced him in 
two ways. The persecutions which the shy, 




sensitive boy iiiid^TWt'nt from his school- 
fellows insjiired him with tlu* horror of op- 
pression and iniluniitable spirit of resistance 
which actuated his whole life ; and the 
scientific instruction he received, thouirh 
little more than a pretence in itself, awoke 
a passionate ilesiire to j^enetrate the secrets 
of nature. It miy almost be said that 
science was to Shelley what abstract thought 
was to Coleridge, and that the main pecu- 
liarity of the genius of each resulted from 
the thirst for discovery becoming engrafted 
upon a temj^rament originally most un- 
scientifically prone to the romantic and mar- 
Aellous. Eton, whither Shelley went at the 
age of twelve, repeated the experience of 
ISitm House on a larger scale. Here, again, 
his tonnent was the persecution of his 
schoolfellows, and his consolation scientific 
research conducted agreeably to his own 
notions. He dest roved an old willow with 
I u burning-glass, und, endeavouring to raise 
the devil, succeeded so far as to raise a tutor. 
Many other tales of his residence at Eton 
are probably legendary, but there is no doubt 
of the inlluence exerted upon him by the Ix'ue- 
volent physician James Lind (17.')()-1817) 
[q. v.", whom he has celebrated as the hermit 
in • Tfie Revolt of Islam.* He was nicknamed 
' Mad Shelley,' or ' Shfelley the Atheist,' and 
he was known among his schoolfellows for a 
habit of * cursing his father and the king.* 
He was no inapt scholar, and his progress in 
the classics eventually made him acquainted 
with Pliny's* Natural History,' the first two 
books of which exercised a strong influence 
upon his theological opniions. His literary 
instincts also awoke; and while at Eton (at 
th(* age of sixti?en) he not only wrote but 
publislied his romance of *Zastrozzi,* a boy's 
crude imitation of Mrs. liadclilTe's style. 
Somewhat later he comiwsed another ro- 
mance in the same manner, * St. Irvyne, or 
the Uosicrucian,' which was also pntlished 
(^in 1810); joined his cousin, Thomas Medwin 

Sq.v.1, in writing a poem on the * Wandering 
lew, which found no publisher at the time, 
but eventually appeared in * Eraser's Maga- 
zine;' and in conjunction, as is probable, 
either with his sister Elizabeth or with his 
cousin, Harriet ('irf»ve — to whom he was, or 
thought himself, attached- -published in 1810 
* ( )riginal I'oetry by Victor and Gazire,' which 
he withdrew on discovering that his coadju- 
tor had criblied wholesale from Matthew 
Ori'gory Lewis. A hundred copies are said 
to have been put into circulation, but not 
one has ever come to light. Another early 
poem, *A Poetical View of the Existing 
State of Things,' published anonymously 
while he was at Oxford, has also disappeared. 

Shelley matriculated at University Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 10 April 1810, andf com- 
menced residence at the Michaelmas term 
following. ( )xford might have been a happy 
residence for hiin had he not brought along 
with him not only the passion for research 
into whatever the university did not de- 
sire him to learn, and the pantheism, mis- 
called by himself and others atheism, wliich 
he had imbibed from Pliny, but also a spirit 
of aggressive propaganda. Of this he atter- 
wards cured himself, but at the time it was 
certain to involve him in collision with 
authorities whom he had indeed no great 
reason to respect, but of whose real responsi- 
bility for his behaviour he took no proper 
account. This trait was no doubt encouraged 
by the intimacy he contracted with Thomas 
JeflVrson Hogg [q. v.], a man of highly 
original character entirely dissimilar to his 
own, whose sketch of him during the Ox- 
ford period is the most vivid, and probably 
the most accurate, portrait of the youthful 
Shelley (cf. C. K. Siiarpe, L&tters, i. 37, 
444). Hogg's sarcastic humour encouraged, 
if it did not prompt, Shelle}' to such danger- 
ous frt>aks as composing and circulating, in 
conjunction with his friend, a pamphlet of 
burlesque verses gravely attributed to Mar- 
garet Nicholson [q. v.], a mad woman who 
had attempted to kill the king (Posthinnmin 
FraymenU of Mnvtjaret "Sirhol^ony Oxford, 
1810); and afterwards submitting a printed 
syllabus of arguments, supposed to demon- 
strate * The Necessity of Atheism,* to the 
bishops and heads of colleges. The authori- 
ties summoned Shelley before them on the 
morning of 25 March 1811, and, upon his re- 
fusal to answer interrogatories, delivered to 
him a sentence of expulsion, which had been 
signed and sealed in anticipation. Hogg's 
generous protest brought a similar sentence 
upon himself. 

Shelley's expulsion was rather favourable 
than otherwise to the development of his 
genius, but involved him in the greatest 
misfortune of his life, his imprudent mar- 
riage. Excluded from home, he took rot^ms 
in Londcm at lo Poland Street, and fre- 
quented the hospitals, with the idea of ulti- 
mately becoming a physician. WTiile in 
town he renewed the slight acquaintance he 
had already formed with Harriet West brook,, 
the daughter of an hotel-keeper retired from 
business, and a fellow pupil of Shelley*8 
sisters at a school in Clapham. A school- 
girl verging on sixteen, she thought herself 
persecuted; Shelley sympathised, and inter- 
fered sutliciently to give her some appa- 
rent claim upon him : and when in Julv he 
retired to his cousin's country house at Cwm 




Elan in Radnorshire, letter after letter came 
from Harriet complaining of the oppressions 
hhe underwent, and threatening to commit 
Huicide. Shelley hastened back to town, saw 
her, commiserated her appearance, and under 
the influence of compassion and embittered 
feeling at his own renunciation by Harriet 
(irove, who had nyected him before his ex- 
pulsion from Oxford, committed the weakest 
action of his life in engaging to marry her. 
They fled northward, and were wedded in 
Kdinburgh on 28 Aug. 1811. It seems un- 
likely that Harrietts father should have had 
any violent objection to his daughter marw-- 
ing the eventual heir to a baronetcy ; and it 
is no unreasonable conjecture that the trans- 
action was, in fact, arrangfid by Harriet's 
family. If so, however, Harriet was cer- 
tainly an innocent tool. Pleasing in appear- 
ance, fairly well educated, good-mannered 
ami good-humoured as she was, an ordinarv 
man might have promised himself muck 
happiness with her; and indet*d, until the 
affection which she originally felt for Shelley 
had become indiflerence, the marriage might 
have {Missed for fortunate. His own feelings 
when it was contracted, and for some time 
afterwards, are portrayed in his letters to Miss 
liitchener, a Sussex schoolmistress, then the 
object of his ardent intellectual admiration. 
Shellev's varied adventures for the next 
three years' are unimportant in comparison 
with the ]>henomenon in the background, 
the silent growth of his mind. In the winter 
of lHll-12 he lived chiefly at Keswick, 
where he met with the kindest reception 
from Southey, w^here ho opened his momen- 
tous correspondence with Godwin, whose 
* Political Justice* had deeply impressed him, 
and whence, in February, he departed on the 
roa'tt quixotic of his undertakings, an expedi- 
tion to re<lre88 the wrongs of Ireland. He 
spoke at meetings, wrote *An Address to 
the Irish People * (1812) and * Proposals for 
an Association for the Kegeneration of Ire- 
land/ and in April departed for "Wales, leav- 
ing thingH as tie had found them. About 
this time he adopted the vegetarian system 
of diet, to which he adhered with more or 
less constancy when in England, but seems 
to have generally discarded when abroad. 
He spent the early summer at his old haunt 
of Cwm Elan, and bv the end of June was 
settled at hynmouth m North Devon, where 
he wrote his powerful remonstrance with 
Lord Ellenborough on the condemnation 
of Daniel Isaac Eaton for publishing the 
third part of Paine*8 * Age of IJeason * (Barn- 
staple, 1^*12, 8vo). He excited the attention 
of government by sending a revolutionary 
•Declaration of Rights^ [Dublin, 1(<12|,, 

VOJL Lll. 

and his poem * The Devil's Walk' (a broad- 
sheet, of which the only known copy is in 
the Public Kecord Ollice) to sea in boxes and 
bottles. Finding it advisable to disappear, 
he took refuge at Tanyrallt, a house near 
Tremadoc in S'orth "Wales, where his land- 
lord, Mr. Madocks, M.P. for Boston, was 
constructing the embankment which, at i^ 
great sacrifice of natural picturesqueness, has 
redeemed from the sea the estuary of the 
Glaslyn. The work was battered by storms, 
and its financial situation was precarious. 
Shelley hurried up to London to raise money 
on its behalf, and there made the personal 
acquaintance of Godwin, who had previously 
come down to visit him at Lyn mouth, anil 
* found onlv that he was not to be found.* 
His residence at Tanyrallt was terminated 
by a mysterious occurrence in the following- 
February, which he represented as the attacK 
of an assassin, but which was in all proba- 
bility an hallucination. He sought refuge in 
Ireland with his family, which had for some 
time included Harriet's elder sister Eliza, an 
addition pernicious to his domestic ])eace. 
Leaving her at Killamey * with plenty of , 
books but no money,' Shelley and Harriet 
travelled up to London, where on 28 June 
181'^, their daughter lantlie (after wards Mrs. . 
Esdaile, d. lfc*76) was bom. Bv the end of 
July they had taken a house at Bracknell in 
Berkshire, near Windsor Forest. * Queen 
Mab,' principally written, as would seem, in . 
1812, was privately printed about this time 
(* Queen Mab : A Philosophical Poem,' Lon- 
don, 1813, 8vo), with notes that might very 
well have been spared, including *a vindi- 
cation of natural diet' (the * Vindication' 
was separately printed London, 1813, 8vo^ 
but is excessively rare). It remained un- 
known until a piratical reproduction of it in 
1821 (which Shelley vainly endeavoured to 

■ suppress by an injunction) excited attention, 
and it obtained a celebrity long denied to his 
maturer and more truly poetical writings. 
It is indeed admirably adapted to serve as 
a freethinking and socialistic gospel, l)eing 
couched in a strain of rhetoric so exalted as 

j to pass easily for poetry. Early in 1814 he 
published anonymously an ironical * Refuta- 
tion of Deism ' in a dialogue (London, 8vo), 
Eerhaps the rarest of his writings; it was, 
owever, reprinted in 1815 in the* Theologi- 
cal Inquirer.' 

Shellev was now on the eve of the great 
crisis of Iiis life, his sepnration from Harriet. 
So late as September I813he s]HMiks of tlu'ir 

I *close-woven happiness.' But radical incon.- 
patibility of temperament had already laid 
the foundation of an estrangi-ment. Hogg, 
writing of January 1814, says: * Th»» giod 


clley ji Shelley 

- • IK---.::: .:-::.;• V:.- s!:-:.ii:.l 

-. '.--. -'.: - ■ ;--;;-:.:l;.r-;v-'.lrni. l.iit in- 

■■\--^-. .-.r 

,--.-'-L.- >-■:'.'.-■; li^ J-.!^<fJ with I[U 

:. vt^tt-:.-. :r. i;, ■!>:< ar iinyrat*, 

^- . - ;:: — •z-:'..z.]..\. wrT-r. ^■■■.■E pivvwl 

i:;:r. -:,,:: r l..:if--;\.!:."; -Marj: i-spict-J 

:-.:.-•-'•'..: T.-'l-i : -.:>:: r:.-.:r Krum t-im- br 

: -x-i }■:■' 

•. •!.■; %l'..;r.« f ::.r IJ:. Icr woTer-oarriiije. 

:-. T,-. 7 a:V.:.-^r .-.v^r^ ^..-rJ-i in a Utll^ 

1 ;...!-; :::-■ 

- :.;.rr.:.-.- ■T...1I:- rl■.■!■:i:^:^ W^!;*T..ur; 

V rl*- r; u:. '; ] ■.;' '..-U i i:: j?ir ■ Tnvsitly n»- 

r- 1 .;,;-':..■'. w.:L .1 i-j.jraiirr ciEiter.tari-. In- 
■■• M7. C:. .7-.- , I^i.^ KIvnL.a ■;.^. ls*4. m-o'i. 

y.:-.:R i 

■T Ti.- 7-x.;!-..!-r '. ihr v-ir. .1 irjn^ 

v \l:r-.-:- ;aT..- l-lrL ■ C]^■.•i^■, Dv«,!.*. k »>» 


V 1.vS:."::-v.i.-^.tv;ti:j;-_'. 

il nil.'. ft::f\VvT:'-r-- ^s vrr'.-all inimiiiil.aDil 

! \..^\i.-- \.:A r-t- b r t-,r- p ^;- Vi-. .V: ;:U U-.;iQnicir of ]?1.) 

-.I...--:.; il f. U- s:.v::-.T'-u:r..:rM ■■kafi.vojr.MrHirnowiui 

y.,!-;, ..i iw-jhtv t . ih -'.!-..::i -..f L> jrjn iiaJlirr. Tbe new 

li'-T 'ir nm!- tii- Immih:. Sir T:x>;5iy. tinJiiut iLat h\t son 

!j:ivv 'iMii;. Yrl !ir Cjuld K -w tnc'imb^'r iL- e-:u;«. tlioticlit it 

t!ii- iir-ciiiiTuiii^v \k!\ 10 C'.'mv m ivraii n'i;k liim. No ri-ul 

n.. ]!■: si-rui- Tt r>'L-unc:iiaiiim was cTi^r^l. Imt SLelli-v re- 

i'u iji!:!lr, "rr-iiv: cnwd l.omj/, a vrar. -1' V. nut .>f wLith Iw 

i,..r-<.Mi:viiT,it..a ^-:tl.-.l on lUrri..!. a tour in tli.i 

■.. «:i* r.;tiiiirri^l i:n.-kn,l.lie lo -k a li.>u.=-.- at nishi>it- 

'■•<i i:r.-l.inl,ilms i-at-.<-I.w..l)T Wiii.UjT ^■..^^■=■t. (.Viisiimi'ii-iii 

Htiy ■•v':nr. ll:it I'-i'.-m'.'J to thrt'm-.'n tVir n lime but [>a^»t'd 

tl'i*:r III- iii<--;iit!ir an-uy. Tiie iV'.-liiii; thu« rii^nderod com- 

viiri'l I'lKiiliiiLC in MinyA wilb tlir »>l.-iunitr nf tlitt toKit 

ati-ni'ifHurri-'* s-c^nt-rv to \m\Af; ■AliinMr." tlie tint poem 

'I .^Ia^y a niunili in whffli be i» truly liim^lf. where the pre- 

-"'it n^tiili'iii 'if I'rTitiiiii'iit af impi'iidiiie disMlution and 

«li.i i+'.r wiMi..^ 'till- iLsire of the iu>fth fur the »i«r" ore 

tilt iii>ili>-r.'^ w-^r-.' .''Iiuiliiu'i'd forth in nn obi^i'Uiv hut leaje^tic 

.-, ati'l tliu i-ri-i.-' !ill-:.''>r\'. It wa^publishrdin l>^l(U-.\lu>tor, 

- )II-iiiil;.'.d -t.-ji 1. 1 the Spirit of S.JitudL-.'l^iidon.r'val. with 

^■1 iriiiir wil h li>-r ^^^me iiiin-ir }ii>f nii^, also in a jniwly Shellei'an 

lit |{;iih tnwHrU lt>.-y. Ihirliij^ llii; winter Shi'lloypumu.'d the 

ily -iivi-b'T vTtnr, Miidynfiire^k literatim- in conjuuction with 

■,v rn.* I'l hiiv.- his tVii^niU ILu^ aiul Tbumiu Li>ve I'enrock 

'lilt 11 .liilr, tiii'l ~(|. V.', who hod beeii introdun'd to him hr 

><'<']iih.'in,']ii>rilv lli'^ir' common publisher Ilookbaui. Itotti 

Ii'mIh iind s.jlttH- WL-nt exoUh'iit cWHCnI]<(>h«Ura,but Sbelle>- 

ijii'riil i:iirrci|iiiii- iilniii! ufthe thri'i: could us-MDiilate the inuer 

uiili .Mary Oml- .-jiirit of (irt'etv. nud ihese studin* were must 

: willi tEii'uiJani' riivriiiruli!"' to hisdi'velupmeiit. .Vt tliistiiUB 

tiT liy h.T fir-i rlawHJ! lbelriim|uillity of«oul which, thoiifih 

ri'* jjrcjiiiir.i [jir, n <iin;lv tried by Morni^ froniwithiit and with- 
out, Itxnitiiil inrin' and more throughout the 
rr-inairi'lerof bill life. Henceforth he no longi'r 
a»>]>jre(l tn entvr iier^iially intu political a^i- 
tiiti'm, mill was cmleut to work upon the 
wurld by his wriliuifi. Abjut tbu time, 


too, was most probably written the beautiful 
if inconclusive * Es s ay on Chr istianity/ first 
printt*(l in * Shelley Memorials ' (1869), which 
shows so remarkable a progress from the pre- 
judice and unreason of the notes to ' Queen 

In May 1816 this repose was interrupted 
by a hasty flight to the continent, precipi- 
Xiiivil in all probability by the unbearable 
nnnovance ot Godwin's affairs. Godwin's 
])fcuniary embarrassments had led him to 
iwifie his opinion of Shelley's conduct. He 
imi)ortuned Shelley for money, which Shelley 
waii for a time only too ready to supply; 
but patience failed at last, and, weary of per- 
petual contest, he withdrew from the scene 
with more expedition than dignity. The influ- 
ence of Jane, or, as she now called herself, 
Claire Clairmont, no doubt also contributed 
to their departure, although both Shelley 
iind Mary were ignorant of the liaison with 
lU-nm wLich made her anxious to join him in 
Switzerland. Shelley now met Byron there 
for the first time, and little as their charac- 
ters had in common, similarity of fortune and 
atlinity of genius made them friends. *The 
most gentle, the most amiable, and the least 
worhlly-minded person I eyer met,* said 
lU-nm afterwards. * I have seen nothing 
like him, and never shall again, I am cer- 
tain.' They travelled together, and Byron's 
jK>otry, to its great advantage, was dee])ly 
influenced by his new friendship. Shelley 
composed his *Mont Blanc,* and Mary con- 
ceived and partly wrote" her 'Frankenstein.' 
Ket liming to England in the autumn, they 
established themselves at Bath, prior to occu- 
]>ying the house which, probably at Peacock's 
recommendation, they had taken at Great 
Mario w, where two stunning blows fell upon 
them. The melancholy death of Fanny God- 
win, Mary's half-sister [see Godwin, Wil- 
liam, the younger, and Godwin, Mbs. Mary 
Wollston'ecraftJ, was succeeded by the 
di smal t raffedy of Harriet Shelley. Learning 
that she had quitted her father's house, 
Shelley was having every search made for 
her, when, on 10 Dec. 1816, her body was 
taken from the Serpentine, where it had been 
for t hree or four weeks. She was apparently 
in an advanced state of pregnancy (cf. Times , 
12 Dec. 1816 ; the verdjct at the inquest on 
'Harriet Smith' was 'Found drowned'). 
The circumstances immediately occasioning 
her death are too obscure to be investigated 
with profit. Shelley certainly had no share 
in them, but his relations with her were 
no doubt present to his mind when he after- 
wards spoke of himself as * a prey to the 
n»proache8 of memory.' He liastened, never- 
theless! to perform the obvious duty of giving 



his union with Mary a legal sanction (they 
were married on 30 Dec. at St. Mildred's, in 
the city of London), and next endeavoured 
to obtain his two children by Harriet (lanthe 
and Charles Bysshe) from her relatives. The 
case went before the court of chancery, and, 
bv a memorable decision of Lord Eldon, on 
2^ March 1817, was decided against Shelley. 
Early in this year (1817) appeared Shelley's 
* Proposal for putting lieform to the Vote 
throughout the Kingdom. By the Hermit 
of Marlow,' London, 8vo ; and, under a like 
pseudonym, he issued in the same year * An 
Address to the People on the Death of the 
Princess Charlotte ' (London, 1843,8vo ; being 
a reprint of the lost edition of 1817). 

A son, William, had been born to Shelley 
and Marv Godwin in January 1816, and Sep- 
tember l817 saw the birth of a daughter, 
Clara. The household was further augmented 
by the company of Claire and her child 
Allcgra, the fruit of her amour with Byron, 
whicli had ended in mutual disgust and bitter 
recrimination. Peacock was a near neighbour, 
but a closer friend was Leigh Hunt, whom 
Shelley had come to know upon his return 
from Switzerland, and whose delicate atten- 
tions had soothed the miseries of the pre- 
ceding winter. Shelley gave him 1,400/. 
to relieve his difficulties — a noble action, if 
it had not been performed at the expense of 
others who had juster claims upon him.' He 
made the acquaintance of Keats through 
Leigh Hunt, but it did not become intimacy. 
Coleridge he never met, to the loss of both, 
Godwin renewed his importunities for pe- 
cuniary help, which, after a long display of 
patience and ma^animity on Shelley s part, 
ended in complete estrangement. Notning 
gives a higher idea of the energy of Shelley's 
mind than that, amid all these troubles, the 
most ambitious of his poems should have 
been written within six months. * The 
llevolt of Islam' (London, 1818, 8vo) — ori- 
ginally called *Laon and Cythna' (a few 
copies were printed under this title in 1817), 
and wisely altered before publication — may 
be described as a poet's impassioned vision 
of the French revolution and the succeeding ^ 
reaction. Compared with the later *lVo- 
metheus L'nbound' it is the product of a 
mighty ferment, as the other poem is of the 
calm ensuing upon it. The music of its 
Spenserian stanza is unsuq)assed in the lan- 
guage ; and although the middle part is 
somewhat tedious, Shelley never excelled the 
openinpf and the close — (Vthna's education 
and bridal, the picture of the fallen tyrant, 
the tremendous scenes of ])estilence and 
famine; above all, porhaps, the dedication 
to Marv. It was written partly on a high 

d2 - 

Shelley 3^ Shelley 

Bunt in Hi-thjim Wuod, partly as hf. ^Liiled or Floivnon, wIk-f*' Lin yoiinyrpsr :?4)n, .afterward* 
anchort^lin hU ^>oat amid the Thames is lets Sir IVrcv Florence Slitdley. wa.^ b<:>rn in 
and miniarur^ waferfalU. ltd publication X')veml>;r. Tin.' irrearer part of* Prometheus 
occa.siom.ii a birt^^r attack in the 'Quarterly/ L'nbi;)un«i ' had bet-nvi-rittenat Rome. and im- 
and drew Hnthu-MaiJtio t'njm Profes*)r mediatrlyattfrwar'ia he turned to the tragedy 
"VVilson, wririntf umJer the induence of De of B«.-:irriL'H tlVnoi, wh«)fie ountenance, or 
Quinc»;y; liut itwa.-* otherwine recei veil with nipuird oountenance, had fascinated him in 
the inditFen-ncr; whi(?h, flu^in^' Shelley's lile- Guitlo'^ pi^rtrait in th»* Colonna ]>alace at 
tim»*, the public, includinir his own friends, R^me. iVirh pie«:ed w^re publisheii in the 
almost invariably manitV-sted towanis his course of I'^lO-i'U (' The Cenoi: a Tragedy 
works. in tive Acts,' Leirhom, l'?ll>, Svo ; i?ud edit. 

\Vh»;n not writinff *The Revolt of Islam* I^nd-ia, l^nl. .^v); •'Pn)metheus rnbound, 
Shelley wjm much enjajreil in relieving the a lyrical linima in four acts, with other 
diflfrp^s of thr.' cottajifers in his nei52:hb«:>ur- P«>ems.' Londim, 1>:^U, >vo). The * Pmme- 
hfxxl, and wan publi.^hinpr hU political tracts theus' is a ditUvrambic of sublime exul- 
under the siu'^nature of 'The Ilermit of Mjix- tati^m on the reileniption of humanity, and 
low.' I5y the lj».»«rinnin«;r of l^l.S he had be- an assembla^re i.if all that lan^jujige ha.** of 
come res»tle«s, and indeed the motives foremi- gorsre^Du^neaa and verse of melody ; the dic- 
gration were weighty as well as numerous, tion and passion o( the ' Cenci ' are tonetl 
<>f one he did not think — the great benefit down to their sombre theme, as ditferent from 
which hif* genius was destined to receive by the * l*rometheus' as the atrocity of its chief 
tran-tplantaf ion to a land of romantic beauty male character is fmrn the transcendent 
and classical association. He left England on heroism of the suti'^rin^y demi-god. But 
11 March, and arrived at Turin on 31 March both, the tragedy no less than the mytho- 
]H^^<. lie remained in Italy till his death. . logical drama, are etlusions of lyrical emo- 

The incident-* of Shelley's life in Italy titm. and precisely correspond to the state of 
were mainly intellectual. After spending feeling which produced th^m. 
the Hpring of 1818 at Como and Milan, and The * Ode t") the West Wind,' perhaps the 
the ftummer at tlie }»atlis of Lucca, where he grandest of Shelley's lyrics, was written at 
translaterl Plato's * Sym|x)sium,' and finished Florence in Uctober 1819, alxtut which time 
' Rosalind and IL-h-n' (commenced the year ' he also produc-*d 'Peter Bell the Third,' 
Iwfore at Marh>wr, he went to Venice on a parody of Wonlswortli, evincing more 
the unwelcome errand of delivering Claire's-! genuine if more disL'riminating ndmiratioa 
daughter to Imt fatiier, Byron. Here hi4 than many panegyrics. 'The Masque of 
own daughter (.'lara dietl of a disorder in- Anarchy,* a p'^em provoked by the indigna- 
duced by the climate. Ryron lent him a tion at the * Manchester massacre ' of August 
villa at IvHte, where he began * Pnjmetheus' 1819, was another composition of this period. 
I inbound,' and wr«»te the * Lines on the | It did not appear until 1832. * Peter Bell 
Kuganenn Hills,' publinhed, along with *Ro- I the Third' remained in manuscript until 
Halind and Helen' and a few other poems, ! 1839. At the close of 1819 Shelley removed 
in the following year. He also wrote about to Pisa, which was in the main his domicile 
this time '.lulian and Maddal o, 'inspired by , for the rest of his life. He had 1>ecome 
his visits to Myron at Venice. Venice and . greatly interested in a project of his friends, 
Byron Mt mid out vividly in the j)oem against., the Gisbornes, for a steamboat l>etwceii 
a bneligroiitid of utter obscurity. In No- I Genoa and Leghorn. TheundertAkingproved 
vember he set out for Rome, and Wgan upon 1 premature, but produced (July 1820) that 
the journey till' serii-M of descriptive letters | incomparable union of high and familiar 
to I'lMMrocli, which ])lac»'s him at the head of | j>oetry, the * Kpistle to Maria Gisbome.' 
Kngli"*h ••pist<»logniphers in this department, 
riie nui-iters of a splendid pros«» style rarely 


The year 1820 also produced the dazzling 
* Witch of Atlas' and the humorous bur- 
rnrry this iulo their familiar corresi)ondence, lesque on Queen Caroline's trial, * 8wellfoot 
but Shelh'v's prose writings and his letters ! the Tyrant ' (MKdipus Tyrannus, or Swell- 

nri» "f n |M<re. I»ereinber was spent at foot the Tyrant: a Tragedy in two Acts. 
Naph*-*. where piiiuful circumstances im- i Transhited from the originaf Doric/ London^ 

wluMi I lie «h'nlU of hiH intant son ^Miliam uon, i^iti, ^vo). Hut the year was chiefly 
dro\*« liiui to Li*gliorn, and 8ubsLM|ueaU|io remarkable for its lyrics, ranging from the 





» V 

* Sensitive Plant* and the *Skvlark* down 
to the eight lines for which Landor, ever 
hyperbolical in nraise and dispraise, would 
have bartered the whole of Beaumont and 
Fletcher. The year was uneventful until 
near its end, when Shelley made the ac- 
quaintance of the lovelv Emilia Viviani, a 
voung Italian ladv who had been imprisoned 
in a convent with a view to extorting her 
consent to an obnoxious marriage. The first 
draft of his ' Epipsychidion ' existed some 
time before Shelley met Emilia, but his 
meeting with her supplied the needful im- 
pulse to perfect and complete that piece of 
radiant mysticism and rapturous melody 
( 100 copies, London, 1821, Svo). It attests 
the growing influence of Plato whose * Ban- 
quet* he had already translated. That influ- 
ence is even more apparent in another com- 
position of 1821, the 'Defence of Poetry,* 
written in answer to Peacock, almost con- 
ti*mporaneously with * Epipsychidion.' Two 
additional parts were contemplated, but 
never written, and the essay remained in 
manuscript until the publication of Shelley's 
prose vrri tings in 1840. Before long a further 
incentive to composition was supplied by the 
death of Keats, whose memory inspired 
•Adonais* (Pisa, 1821, 4to), not the most 
magnificent of Shelley's poems, but perhaps 
the one of most sustained magnificence. The 
concluding stanzas more fully than any other. 
passage in his writings embody his uUimate 
speculative conclusions, substantially iden-J 
tical with Spinoza's, whose 'Tractatus' he ' 
be^n to translate about the same time. The 
chief external incident of the year ( 182 1 ) was 
Shellev's visit to Bvron at Kavenna, for the 

seeing Byron's and Claire Clairmont's 
daughter, the little Allegra, before Byron re- 
moved to Pisa. The relations between Byron 
and Claire, who now taught Lady Mount- 
cashell's daughters in Florence, were a con- 
tinual source of friction. Shelley's conduct 
towards both parties was unexceptionable, 
and showed what progress he had made in 
calm j udgment and self-control. Shelley had 
refused any further contributions to God- 
win, but the latter's demands continued, and 
Shelley permitted Mary to send to her father 
the money she receiveid for her new novel, 

* Valperga.' 

Byron's residence at Pisa, with all its 
drawbacks, enlivened and diversified Shel- 
ley's life, which was further cheered by the 
society of the gentle and generous Edward 
Elliker Williams fq. v.] and of his wife Jane, 
the subject of Shelley's * "With a Guitar' and 
other exquisite lyrics. In the autumn of 
1821 thp tidings of the Greek insurrection 
prompted his ' Hellas ' (London, 1822, 8vo), 

an imitation in ])lan, though not in diction, of 
the * Persje'of .Eschylua, containing some of 
his noblest lyrical writing. The indifierence 
of the public seems to have discouraged him 
from prolonged efibrts to whicli he was not 
constrained, as he was in this instance, by 
some overmastering impulse. The tragedy 
on Charles I, which he began to write early 
in 1822, made little progrei<s ; but his powers 
as a translator appeared iit their best in the 
scenes from* Faust' and Calderon's * Magico 
Prodigioso ' which he rendered somewhat 
later as the basis of papers for the * Liberal.' 
His appearance and conversation at this time- 
are vividlv described bv Edwr.rd John Tre- 
lawny [q. v.], a new addition to the Pisan 
circle. In April the Shellevs and Williamses 
removed to Lerici, near Spezzia. Tlie wild 
scenery and primitive people were most 
congenial to Shelley, who declared him- 
self ready to say with Faust to the ])a8sing 
hour, 'Verweile doch, du hist so schtin.' 
"While sailing, studying, listening to Mrs. 
"Williams's music, and writing his 'Triumph 
of Life' as his boat rocked in the moon- 
light, he heard of the Leigh Hunts' arrival 
at Pisa, and hastened to meet them. Having 
made them as comfortable as Bvron's moodi- 
nessand Mrs. Hunt's apparently mortal sick- 
ness permitted, Shelley saib'd for Spezzia 
from Leghorn on 8 July l!^22, accompanied 
by Williams. Scarcely had tliey embarked 
,when the face of sky and sea darkened omi- 
nously. Trelawny watched the little vessel 
sailing in the company of many others, and 
graphically describes how all were ))lotted 
from view by the squall, and how, when this 
had passed off, all reappeared except Shelley's, 
which was never seen again until months 
afterwards she was dredged up from the 
bottom of the sea. Some thouglit that she 
had been accidentally or designeilly run down 
in the squall, but many circumstances mili- 
tate against this theory. Shelley's body, 
best recognised by the volumes of Sophocles 
and Keats in the pockets, was cast ashore 
near Viareggio on 18 July, and, after having 
been buried for some time in the sand, was 
on 16 Aug., in the presence of Byron. Hunt, 
and Trelawny, cremated, to allow of the in- 
terment of the ashes in the protestant ceme- 
tery at Kome. This took ]»lace on 7 Dec. 
immediately under the pyramid of Caiu? Ces- 
tius. Leigh Hunt wrote the Latin epitaph, 
with the famous Cor Cord ium, and Trelawny 
added three English lines from * The Tem- 
jiest.' The heart, which woiild not burn, and 
had been snatched from tin? fianies by Tre- 
lawny, was given to Mary Shelley, and is in 
ultimi yiomi di P. B. Shelley, Florence, 18U2). 

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hi' in fji' \i'.' ov.n :ir.:'. -r-i'v. In 1"»l* ;.r. ; 
ISU \«-ry i:r. I ■•:•.'*• "t i-- i-* f h> • i'r"!".'. 
Work -i ' u jj i^r r: r ' • ! . T ! . ».• IVj rs: ' • 7 ;: 1 !i ^ w ! r ! . t '.. ■?-• 
of r'o!»'r:'];:e Jiiil K-at«. .1:1 1 w.ih :i :::vai ir 
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htacl'-' Vf till aii:i.-rjt:f? ♦•■iiti-ni havir.^r li--:i 
Tfumvutl in ^nm" uii"\j»laiiK'l Tnai:r.vr. Wr>. 
Slu-Il'-y |Mi]ili-h«"i wJia* was thtn si;.p:>>-l 
t'» \tt* a #l»-fj!iitiv«' '."li'l'iii ill t'lur v il..!i:»r*. 
fnrh']n-i\ with M-c-r-zjiMr-il ii'it*.'? an-l soni'.* 
\«-ry lic:i lit i fill lyrics Av!ii<'h lja«l r»'!nain-il in 
iniiii<io';rI{it. An Anifrican ♦•dition nf tlii?, 
wiili u iii<-nioir I»y J. Un^sell L/iwt-ll, aj)- 
]M'Hn'«! Ml liu'ton in \ >*'>') ^ .'{ vul-s. ll^im. A 
r'»ll«'Mi'*n ti\' lii- Intt^-r* and mi*c»rllan'toud 
]irMhi' wrilinyw follo\v«-rl in 1*^40. Tli»* l»'tt»'rs, 
i»iil*liilii«l in i^'rJ with a ]in'fac«.' hy Kolicrt 
jJro\vnin;:,nr»' niM-tly faljric.'itions bvft p'Tis^n 
rlaiinin^i to biMi natural .>:oii nf Itvron. Manv 
ninx.1. ini|)4irt.ant ari'lli ion-.liowfVi'fJiavi; bffn 
nnuli; to tiioH* imUi-lni*! in I^IO. In }f<f*'2 
till* pn-MMit. wril<T, ns the r»>ult of an «jx- 
uTiiinaliondf Sht<lIi'y*rtiniinUHcriptK, ])iiMiftli('<{ 
u niinilriT ol' rrat^niiMitH in yhtm* nnd pniac, 
Homn fif fxtri'nii* iiitf'n*Ht, under tlio titif? 
' ItidicM of Sli<>lli*v/ Tlu'Hi*. OH widl firt many 
of lliii iii!wlutturacnntiniml1y coming toli^ht, 
liAVu bi«fiii inconiomtiHl into mnru nici^nt rdi- 
tioM of Hhollttv II writinn. Tho nnl yriTunt. 
•dition Tirtiuuljr eompbto ii Mr. Tluxton 
Itemn'a ia dgnt Tdumatv eonUiniifltoilk 

I._ — ""1 1 <'\ 1 *7S. and 
- z. "^V . -i-^rry « Anieri- 

- i-i-rTT 1^::. cni'Mf-ra- 
.i ~T '.'.-^r^ r.T :'.n 1 MI<s 

- '.r-1 rr:::-: *r!^»lv 
- r* - * . i" . : n* : r.: ■ ' rrxnrli, 

-1 . :._-*.in ir-r l-i-iniinj: 

'.- j-i'"- '"rr-i: :*•'.:»' I by, 

'■- T ?-^>. : 'a---'.: m-»noir, 

1- 1- . - T . ^ • - :' 7 1 A . }^^y >ki» 

- :r-- n" -^rr-r P.iroli- 

:_r ■ ■:..-i T .>:".'il»'y s 

-■ '. T- ■*.:.-:"• V Li" »l;ni::li- 

:rs- - r. r'.irtr- r»yssh»». the 
* -7.. 7. TT.-h Hirrif* \W>t- 
'. r..- -:r^>-* L::n. and upon 
"^.7 rzirl.y S'.: ■-■••y in H44 

*s ■■■nlv sur- 

7 ..r **--..-- l"*!. '-'.>•» ' . Tr.i* :r. -St iTt^mU* 
..'- . ". Ti ■- ::.•,:■..-■ f r.'r.rr.: r ••: n:«wt of 

- - :■."' - 7'* r v.- .: .'..*:-- t-^zlI ■ :" many of his 

- .-i"- * -r. : * . :-•. 1.*'.:::.- r.:*. diril in IVtvni- 
■ - 7 '. '^-^ •- ! 1- :::"-77:^ :. iJ Jm-- 1 --1 **, Jam*. 

. . . j". . - • 7 :" T .. -.11 . - « ; ■ b r ::. -.r.- 1 \vM- • w of t hf 
11 ::.C"-..7'.- * :» " -7: >:. J V.n. wh-» survive* 
:.i:u : ''■ ::. : ..■ ::: .tt. .■.'-. ]i..\[:\z provoil chihl- 
"->-.:'■.•■ I \7 v.-'cv \:\ :\\\s\ u] m IMward, 
? :: :*>'.>'.'. V- v .::j-7 br :Lv7 John.and is 
7. '.vr-:' V. i tv S:7!'* b7'i: l>^rr!nrh*j«. 

T'.:.* •. \.'--iv- Vr :;•*:!* -n^-v which hurriod 
S'-rll-.v i:.: ■ ::::i:'.v hat'v and uni • 1st iti able 
*'-j*, w;i-i. i> :n rt m.ral p.Miit «'f view, a 
i.-7'. v.> :nt:7:::i*y, ViUT failure t"» enntrd im- 
pul*" 5i-fn:s T't Ii:\ve U.»vn a conditi'^n of hi* 
irr'ain»''s ar.l 0:' hi* i!;tluenoe ^m mankind. 
lie t'.»'ik l^l^:'.:l^<as by sitomi. His poetical 
pr.«ductivrnv>s w.uild have bet-n admirable 
as t!ie result of a lon*r life; as the Wi»rk in 
the main of little more than five yt-ars, it i* 
ont* of the :rri*atest marvels in the historv of 
tht.> human mind. Had it been as unfn]ual 
in matter as hrvden, in manner as Words- 
worth, it would still have been wonderful ; 
but, apart from oci'asional obscurities in 
meaning and lapses in frrammar, it \a m 
perfect in form as in substance, and equable 
in m^-rit to a decree unapproached by any 
of his conti'inporaries. Tlie lucidity anil 
MVinmi'try of the minor lyrics, in ]iarticulaT, 
rival anythinf^ in antiquity, and surjiass the 
1j(Mt modttrii examples by their greater appa- 
rent Rpontanuity, the result in fact of the 
moHt HtrfMiuouH revision. 

In ]H.'}5 Stuart Mill ably compared and 
Rontraiited him with Wordsworth ; and the 
ilneHt ]mHWiff*) in his ' Pauline* (1833) is the 

utburst uf J jro lining's passionate admiration. 

Shelley 39 Shelley 

Attt»r many vicissitudes, opinion seems to be | of Sir Kobert Dudley, styled duke of North- 
n^reeinp to recognise ^Slu•lleya8 the supreme j umberland and earl of Warwick [q. v.~, and 
lyrist, all of wlmse poems, whatever their i of Antonio Leisman in the Florentine lii- 
oatwarcl form, slioulu be viewed from the ' tratti de* Pittori. The preternatural keen- 
lyrical standpoint. This is a just judgment, n^ss of his senses is well attested, and con- 
for even the apparently austere and nietho- tributedtothe illusions which play so large a 
<lical * Cenci * is as truly born of a passionate j)art in his history. Of late years two spleu- 
lyrical impulse as any of his songs. Despite did monuments have been erected to Shelley 
lii"« limitations, no modem poet, unless it be by the piety of his son and daughter-in-law ; 
'Wordsworth, has so deeply influenced Eng- one is m Christchurch minster, Hampshire ; 
lish poetry. the other, designed by Mr. Onslow Ford, 

The splendour of his prose style, while U.A., is at University College, Oxford, 
exalting his character for imagination, has rThe principal authorities for Shelley's life 
8.-emed mcompatible with homely wisdom. ' ^^^^ i^^^fo^c ,^i^ l^ig ^,,^„ writings, especially his 
lu reality his essays and correspondence are correspondence, aind in the second place tho bio- 
nnt more distinguished by fine insight into graphics grounded upon personal intimacy. Of 
high matters than by sound common-sense i these five may be named : 1. The life by Thomas 
in ordinary things. No contemporary, per- Jefferson Hogjx( 1858), left unfinished or at least 
ha]!-*, so habitually conveys the impression not wholly pubiishe^l, but coming down to the eve 
of a man in advance of his time. Ilis ca- of the separation from Harriet in 1814 ; see art. 
pacity for calm discussion appears to ad- Hooo, Thomas Jkffkrson. '2. reacock"s pipers 
vantagi.Minder the most provoking circum- »" Fraser's Mag^izine, 1855-60; disappoiuting 
stanct-s, as in his correspondence with God- ^'^'^ ^^eir coUiuess and in some poiuis much 
xvin,Booth,andSouthey: As a critic, Shelley •■ "^'^^^^^^J^; but supplying inaoy valuable facts. 
d.»os not possess .Coleridge's subtletv and nml .„riched^.th,ui appendix ot even luo^e^^^^^ 

. ^. *^ , . , 'ffS^f ., . / ... . able letters. 3. Medwinsc>helley rapersflSJS) 

I^netration, but has a gift for the intuitive ^^^^ j^ife ( 1847), as full of mistakes as of misl 
recognition of excellence which occasionally ; p^j^^s, but not to bo wholly overlooked. 4. Tre- 

oarries him too far in enthusiasm, but at 
all events insures him against the petty and 

lawny *8 liast Days of Shelley and Byron (1858, 
and reprinted with additions), relating to only 

6elf-interested jealousies from which none of ; the last six months of Shelley's life, but un- 
his contemporaries, except Scott and Keats, rivalled for vivacity of portraiture. 6. Mrs. 
can be considered exempt. This delight in Shelley's notes to her edition of her husband's 
the work of others, even more than his own | poems (1839); very imperfect, but very precious. 
jKX'tical power, renders him matchless as a j Among later works the only ones entitleil to 
translator. Of his lyrics, those which have I authority are those based upon documents, and 
been most frequentlv set to mu'iic are : « I of these there are only two. Lady Shelley's 
•rise from dreams of thee,' *The Cloud,V ^he^ey Memorials (1859). and IVotVssor^ 
* Tlie fountains mingle with the river,' * One ; i^^" « ^'%, °* Shelley (1886 ; abridged edition. 
w««l U f ,»r. nff »n Wnnorl » nnri * ^Tu^\n xxrli.n \8^6). Thc latter Will uo doubt long remain 

the 8tan<mrd biography. Three of Slielleys 

word is too often profaned,' and * Music when 
soft voices die.' 

Only two genuine portraits of Shelley are 
extant, and neither is satisfactory. The 

editors, Mr. W. M. Kossetti, Miss 3Iathildo 
Blind, and Mr. G. E. Woodberry, have prefixwl 
memoirs to their editions, evincing great dili- 

eurlier, a miniature, was taken when he was g^nce, and very useful as charts of the subject. 
only thirteen or fourteen, and is authenti- The biographies unassociated with the works. 

cate<l by its strong and undesigned resem- 
blance to miniatures of the Pilfold family. 
The later portrait, painted by Miss Curran 
At Kome in 1819, was left in a flat and un- 
finished state. * I was on the'point of burn- 

by Middleton (1858). Jcaffreson (Tho Real 
Siicllev, 1885), Symonds (1878), Barnett Smith 
(1877), William Sharp (1887), Denis F. Mac- 
Carthy (Sliellev's Ejiriy Life, 1872), II. S. Salt 
(Shelley Primer. 1887). Rabbe (French, 1887). 

ing it before I left Italy,' the artist told Mrs. ■ Druskowitz (German, 1884), and others, are in- 
Shelley ; * I luckily saved it just as the fire teresting as showing the varying opinions enter- 
was scorching.' there is a general agree- tained about Shelley by persons of very ditterent 
nent among the descriptions of personal ac- <lff«P / intelligence and fairness^ Much valu- 
.. ii„ *.au^i*14.u«.*ii able information may be aenve<l from the lives 
quamtance ; all agm3 as to the slight but tall ^^ contemporaries acquainted with Shelley, espe- 
and sinewy frame, the abundant brown hair ^j,^j, Leigh Hunt's li.rd Bvron and his ( '..ntem- 
the fair but somewhat tanned and freckled poniries. Kegnn Paul's Life of Godwin, and 
complexion, the dark blue eyes, with their Moore's Life of Byron. Among the many es<avs 
habitual expression of rapt wonder, and the „pon Shelley those by Walter Itipehot in his 
general appearance of extreme youth. Re- Estimates of some Englishmen and Scotchmen, 
semblances, by no means merely fanciful, by Thornton Hunt (Atlantic Monthly, t863), 
have been found with the portraits of Xovalis, , by Professor Spencer Bay nes (Edinburgh Review, 

ISTO.and b^rMacuulay in hiseKBTon BnnjAii 
poncis high intetesL uf varied kinds. Tlia mon 
practical liomnye Eo lii* (r>-niu> is Mr. F. S. Ellin'i 
gigantic Lexickl Concoidancg (.1892, 4Io) to hU 
poelicnl wrilingB.] ■ H. O. 

1689f), last grand prior ofthe inighta of St. 
John in Eii):) and, born iLbout 1313. was second 

n of Sir William Shelley [q. v.], and his 
■wife Alice, dauifbter of Sir fii'iirj' Belknap 
of Beckley, Susaes. Like vsrious other 
inembera of the famitr, he became a knight 
of St John, and about 1535 was sent 
Abroad to complete hh education. In August 
of that year he carrifd letters from Thomas 
Starkey [q. v.] lo (Sir) Richard Morison 
^, V,], who was then ut Ilome, and in lo3d 
Snelleywasat Venice. But,growing'weariar 
of this schnlnstical life than he can expreas,' 
lie set out early in May l.igg for Constanli- 
nople in the train nf the Venetian amhasaa- 
dor. The journey was overland, and oc- 
cupied four months; the ambassador died 
«n the way, and Shelley remained at Con- 
slantinople under the protection of the 
French ambassador. Shelley claimed to be 
the firet Englishman to visit Constantinople 
aincc its capture by the Turks (Oa-Iedkbr, 
JUlUn and I'aperi, XIT. i. 910, ii. 273). 
During his absence the order of St, John 

diplomatic missions. Early in ir>49 hi 
sent to the kini^ of France, and in October 
1560 Sir John Miison[q.v.lBug(restcd his des- 
patch as special comniissioner lo the same 
monarch, ' being fully qualified by liis 
knowledge of the language and previous 
eiperience.' In Octnber-Nove'mber 1551 he 
escorted Mary nf Guise [q. v.] through Eng- 
land on her relurn from France tn Scot- 
land. In June lo5S he was o^sin abroad, 
and on 11 July looS he was sent to Brussels 
with despatches to Charles V, announcing 
the Jeath of Edward VI and succession of 
QueSn Jane {Et/erfun MS. 2790, f. Ui). He 
waited, however, to see how events would 
turn out in England, and on the accession 
of Mary returned without delivering his des- 
patches, In January 1553-4 he was at Vienna 
OS envoy to the king ofthe Romans, and in 
May 1555 he received a pa'sport and letters 
to the king of Fortuaiil and to the reftent of 
Spain written in iiiitipi|iH(iou of the birth of 
aehild to .Mary. In January iri:,6-7 he was 
sent bv Mnrv to the Duchess of I'urma. regent 
of the'Netherlandu, lo invit-e her lo England. 
Uennwhile Mary hod resolved to restore 
the order of St. John in England, and Shelley 
was actively employed in making tlie neces- 
sary arrangements. Ontliu re-eitaUIshment 

ofthe order in April 1557 Shelley was mad f 
turcopolier, an ol&ce second in dignity ti> 
that of grandprior, which waa conferred on 
Sir Thomas Tiesbam (d. 1506) [q. yj He 
was also given the commanderiea of Halston 
and Slebecb. In the autumn of 1558 He 
was sent to Malta, but fell ill at firussils, 
where he heard of Mary's death. He was 
deterred from returning to England by tba 
violence of the prolestanl outbreaks in De- 
cember. The following year be was sent on 
an embassy to the king of the Romans, and 
then made liis way to Spain, where Philip 
gave him a pynaion. The efforts made by 
the English ambassador at Madrid to induce 
him to return to England were in vain, but 
Shelley protested lus complete loyaltv to 
the queen. As the relations between Eng- 
land and S|iain grew strained, SL«lley left 
for Alalta, but at Genoa was recalled by 
Philip to go as his ambaaaador to Persia. Hn 
did not start on this mission, but in October 
1502 was gent by Philip to coDgmlulate the 
new king of the Romans on his eleclion. In 
July 1505 be set out for Malta, which was 
then closelybesieged by the Turks, but j^iit no 
further than Napleiiiand did not reach .Malts 
until the Turks had retired. On Tresham"s 
death in 1566 Shelley became grand jirior of 
the kniirhts of St. John, but did not assumx 
the title out of deference to Elizabetk's 
wishis. The office of turcopoUer, hitheTio 
cnnfineil exclusively to Englishmen, was 
annexed to the grand-mast«rship. About 
16ti9 Shelley left Malta, being unable to 
agree with Pet«r de Monte, who in the 
previous year had succeeded .^ohn de la 
Valetta as grand master of the order. He 
established himself at Venice on the invita- 
tion of the seignory, and there sought to 
ingratiate himself with the English govern- 
ment by sending secret intelligence of Jesuit 
and other intrigues against Eiitnheth. He 
nlso made himself useful by looking after 
English commercial interests, anil in 1583, 
in answer lo his repeated requests, he was 
irranted leave to return to England with 
liberty to praciiae bis religion (cf. Hallau, 
Cojut. Iliat. i. 141). But he was still under 
suspicion ; he had held communications with 
William Parry (rf. 1585) [q. v.] at Venice ; 
most of bis relatives in England were recu- 
sants, and his nephew Richard was impli- 
cated in treawinaUe proceedings, for which 
he was examined by the council (Xafisi/. MSS. 
xlv. IT, 176-9). Shelley remained at Venice, 
where ho was treoted with distinction (Rr&- 
CELLi. Jrf Impreft IllMlri, Venice, 1580, pp. 
478-182); he died there about 1589. 

Very many of his letters are amon? the 
I Ilarteiun and l^ansdowoe 9i 

Shelley 41 Shelley 

British Museum. A selection of these was self, were dissatisfied with the treatment 
published in 1774, 4to, to illustrate two there accorded to watercolour art, in found- 
medals of Shellejr preserved in the king's ing the Watercolour Society (afterwards 
collection (now m the British Museum); known as the* Old' society), of which he 
these were engraved by Basire, and pub- held the treasurership until 1807. Shelley 
lisbed as frontispiece to the volume (cf. Gent, died at his house in George Street on 22 Dec. 
Mag. 178o, ii. 713). Two of his letters to 1808. The British and South Kensington 
Henry VIII, complaining of his treatment Museums possess good examples of his work. 
of the order, were stolen from the British [R^g^^.^ Hist, of the Old Watercolour So- 
Museum sc.on after 1848 {^otc8 and Queries, ^iety ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters iind Kugmvers 
1st ser. vni. 190). According to his own (ed. Armstrong) ; exhibition catilogues.] 
account, he also wrote a treatise in answer j.\ yi^ o*D. 
to a book by Nicholas Sanders [q. v.], which qxtitt t t?v «« ,.« n^*,«„„o avti t r wr 

• . •'• .1 1 '- * 1 "i 1* ollJCiljJjJlil or DE UONCHES, WHjLIAM 

came into the popes hands, and brought /, \\rT^.,\ »u ro \t'.,i,.wn 

1.. • . • ' *^ T* 1 *. * («. 1 loo."'), author. See >N illiam. | 

him into suspicion. It does not seem to ^ " ^ -" 

Lave been printed. SHELLEY, Sir WILLIAM (1480?- 

[LiDsd. MSS. XX. 43. xxxv. 42, xxxviii. 41, 1549.^), judge, born about 1480, was the 

44»45, 47. 49, xl. 9, xlii. 18-20, xliii. 36. xlv. eldest son of Sir John Shellev {d. 3 Jan. 

5,76. li. 10. cxr. 5-9; Hurl. MSS. 286, arts. lo2G) and his wife Elizabeth \</. 31 July 

34, 39. 40, 6164. art. 1, 6990. art. 7, 6992 art. 1513), daughter and heir of John de Michel- 

4, 6903 arts. 14, 15. 23 ; Letters of Sir Kichard grove in the parish of Clapham, Sussex (re- 

Sholley, 1774; Lcttew ami Pa{»cr8 of Henry productions of monument al brasses in --lrf</iV. 

Arch«ologicil Collections, passim; Strv'pc's uncorroborated family tradition assigns im- 

WorkP, jHisHim ; Granger's Biogr. Hist. iv. 362- portant diplomatic and other positions to 

363; Doiid's Church Hist. ii. 57 ; Abb6 VertDt's various early members of the family. The 

. 1 I'll* oi n 

8 Sussex Worthies ; lIorstieM's Hist, of Conches who is said to have been a profes- 
; Hisf. of tlie Kapo of Bramber; Gent, sor at Paris and to have died about Uoofsee 


Mjig. 1785 ii. 713. 872. 1852 i. 517; Notes and William]. A John and a Thomas Shetley 
Queries, 1st ser. viii. 192, xi. 179, 2nd wr. xii. y^ere executed in 1400 bv llenrvlV for their 
470. 3rd ser. i. 19, 59.] A. F. P., adherence to the cause 'of HicWd II, and 
SHELLEY, SAMUEL (1750-1808), their brother Sir William was ancestor of 
miniature-painter, was born in Whitechapel the judge. His son Sir John, who was M.P. 
in 1750, and mainlv self-educated. He first for live between 1415 and 14:^.*5, married 
exhibited with the Incorporated Society in Beatrice daughter of Sir John Hawkwood 
1773, sending some fancy heads, and in [5. v.], the famous soldier. Of the judge's 
1774 contributed miniatures to the lloyal six brothers, one, John, became a km jtrht of 
Academy. Shelley became one of the most the order of St. John, and was killed in de- 
charming and fashionable miniaturists of fending Rhodes against the Turks in 1522; 
his time, ranking with Cosway, Smart, from another, Edward, who is variously 
and Collins ; he also painted in water- given as second, third, or fourth son, came 
colours fancy figures and compositions from the baronets of Castle Goring, Sussex (created 
Shakespeart*, Tasso, and other poets, which 1806), and Percy Bysshe Shelley, the poet, 
are gracefully designed and harmoniously The youngest brother, John Shelley, died in 
coloured, if is works of this class, as well 1554. The settlement of an e:»tate which he 
as his miniatures, were largely engraved by purchased on the dissolution of Sion mo- 
Bartolozzi, W. Nutter, Crtrt)line "Watson, and nastery led to the important lawsuit known 
others. AH the plates in C. Taylor's as * Shelley's case,' and the decision known 
* Cabinet of Genius.' 1787, were designed by as the *rulo in Shelley's case' (see Coke, 
him. Shelley resided in Covent Garden fnjm HeportSf i. 94 ; Chitty, Etjuity Iude.\\ 4tli ed. 
1780 to 1794, when he established himself \\.6'i07-(iSlS: American and I^m/ 1 i^h Enrycl, 
at 6 George Street, Hanover S^iuare. lie o/'Zatit, xxii. 498-524 ; STi:vuE^,('ommentf 
continued to exhibit at the acaaemy until 12th ed. i. 323-5; IIayks, Ohaercationf un 
1804, when he joined with W. F. Wells, Stitjgeftion$ for aboUshiny the Kule in Shelley » 
K. HiUs, and W. H. Pyne, who, like him- Case, 1829). 


Although the eldest son, William wu sent 
tolhcIiuii-rTeinplenot to malieftiirafeHsioD 
of law but in oruer to understand hia own 
alTsirB, and according to his son it was mucU 
BgaiiKt hill will th«t he was toade first ser- 
JHSnl, and then judge, by Henry VIll (Sir 
iticiUKD SiiELLET, Letters, p. 15). I''rotn 
ihi! be^ning of Henry's reifpi he appears on 
commusions of the peace Ibr Sussex tind 
other counties; in 1517 he wna Butiimn 
rt!uler in the Inner Tumple, and about the 
Mmu time became one of the judges of the 
•heriiTs court in London. In l5-'0 he was 
appointed recorder of that cilj, and in May 
\h2l was placed on the special commission 
of over and terminer to tind an indictment 
•gainst I'^lward l^tnlTord, duko of Diicking- 
bam [q. v.] In the same tuhf he look the 
dfgtw of the coif. In 1623 he is erro- 
HMUsly Raid In have boon returned to parlia- 
ment for I»ndi>rt (Fibs; but cf. Off'. Het. 
i. 3U9). In \'i-i7 bn was raised lo the bench 

i.aOB). In I'Jl 
aa judge of the 


I demand from WoUey the 
rk House, afterwards White- 
ball. Konn afterward B he entertained 
llmry VIII at Michelgrove, He was sum- 
mnniHl to parlinment on D Aug. 1539, and 
anin on -ll April irjJSfi. He was hostile to 
till' Iti-runnation, and lb ^aid to hare sufienid 
from Cromwell's antipathy; but his nnme 
appears in most of the important stale trials 
of tlie period — in that of the Charterhnuse 
monks and Fisher (l'i3S), of Weston, Nonit>, 
IjotA Itochford, and Anne IJoleyn (Mav 
IKW), and Hir GeoflTey Pole, Sir Edward 
Neville, and Sir Nicholas Carew (1538-0). 
In 1547 he was consulted by Henry VTirB 
vxecutors about the provisions of his will. 
He died between 3 Nov, 1548 and 10 May 

Shelley married Alice (rf. 1536 ?), daugh- 
ter of Sir Henry lielknnp, grent-gmndsnn 
of Sir Hobert de Jkolbiap [q. v.] of Knelle 
in the parish of Becklev, Sussex. Br her be 
hud four sons: John (d. 15 Dec. 1550) was" 
father of William (not to be confused with 
William Shelley of Hertford, also a prisoner 
in the Tower la l&tHO), who was attainted 
15 Dec. 158:J for complicity inCharles Paget 's 
treasons, but not executed, and died 15 Asril 
1597, being succeeded by his son John, 
created a luLronet in 1611 ; the second son 
of the judge was Sir Richard Shelley [q-v.l; 
the third, Sir James, was, like Sir Ricuard, 
a distinguished and widely travelled knight 
of St. John (cf. A'o/m and Queries, 1st ser. 
viii. 19-2, X. 20U2) ; the fourth, -Sir Edward, 
a master of the household of Henry VIII, 
treasurer of the council of the north, and 
captain of Berwick, was killed at Pinkie on 

la Shelton 

I 10 Sept. 1647 (cf. Addit. MSS. 32647 ffll 
70,32848 f. 12,32653f. 161 ; OlroH. o/Cfl7«i' 

' p. 176, &c.; LH.Sem.of Edirard VI,\{.<'.. 
Club,pp.ccc; Cal. HaviiUon PaprrK.far&hu 

[TToss's Judges of Eugliuid; Lower's Suf?' v 
Worthies ; IiBltcr» and Papers of Hean Vni, nl, 
Bre»eriindGairdner,pasiiim; Actsof the Pn»» 
Council, ed. DsBent ; Ityniar's Fodern, oriK. ol. 
vol. xiv. passim; Letters of Sir It. Shelley. 
1774; Cavendish's WuUey, p. 155; Siuaa 
Archtcol. ColleciioDB, passim ; The Shellej' 
Pedigree (sopiratoly pablished. ftl»g in Mis«11, 
Cienealiig. el UeralJ. new ser. iii. 422-7, and in 
Pref. to Bu»too Formars Prose Works of 
Shelley) ; Collins's Bxronets. i. SO-B ; Btny'- 
Susaoi Genealogies: Burke's Peerapn na ! 
Baronetage; UDrnlleld'HLencB ; Holluwaj's II i--' 
□fRve.I8t7; Oent. Mag. 1T8S ii. 713, 18.^^ < 
617.] A. F. P. 

SHELTON, JOHN (d. 1845), colonel, 
was commissioned as ensign in the 9th foot 
on SI Nov. 1805, became lieutenant on 
Sa Aug. 1807, and captain on 17 June 1^13. 
He served with his regiment in Portugal in. 
'. 1803, being present at llolifa, Vimiaro, and 
Coruna ; in tba Walcheren expedition nf 
1809 ; and again in the Peninsula in 1812- 
181.^. He wns at the siege and capture uf 
Baddoi, at Salamanca, Burgos, Vittorin, and 
San Sebastian, where be lost his right arm. 
In ISUhe served in Canada. In 1817 Le 
exehanged into the 44th foot, which went tn 
India in IS'22, and was employed in Arrocan 
during the first Burmese war. He became 
regimental major on C Feb. 1825, and lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 10 Sept. 1827. For the 
next thirteen years he commanded the 41lb 
in India, respected but not liked by the olli- 
cers and men, for he was linrsh and imperious, 
' not a pleasant man on parade.' At the end 
of 1840 he was put in chaise of n brigade, 
consisting of bis own and two notive regi- 
ments, to relieve a part of the force in 
Afghanistan. He reached Jellalabad with his 
bripide in January 1841, made a punitive es- 

EBdition into the Nntian valley in February, 
ad to retumlhroughtheKhybertii the Indus 
in May to open the road for Shah Snoinh's 
family, and at length arrived at Cabul on 

Shelton wns encamped at Suah Sung, two 
miles east of the city, when the Afghan out- 
break began, on 2 Nov. 1S41, with the 
murder of Sir Alexander Bumes [q. v.] He 
was ordered to occupy the Balla-Hissar (the 
citadel of Cohul) with part of his brigade, 
with a view to reinforciug the shah's troops : 
but when be had been there a week he was 
summoned to the cantonments to assist 
Generiil Elphinstone and infuse some vigour 
into the defence [see Elprisbtoke, WJL 

Shelton 43 Shelton 

:\MOEOK(iK Keith]. l?y that tim»^.(0 Nov.) Pollock [q-y.] and Sir William Xott [(^ v.] 
:f coiniuissaritit fort on which the troojis . had rrocciinied Cabiil. 

' ^K?nded for tlu*lr supj»lifs had Imm.'u lo^t. ' Rol'ore that time Klpliinstone, who was 
"' ^'.' cantonments were commanded hv thy i aUo detaint?d bv Akliur Khan, was dead. 
'ijficent liilU ; tlieir })oiindary was of no de- . No one survived but Slielton, upon whom 
•••n«ve strength, and wa^ nearly two miles the indignation roused by such a disaster 
■'»n;r. There was only one liriti.sli rej^iment, could fasten. Ho was not popular, and he 
• h^ 4-(th,and this, like the n>t of the troops, met with hard measure. On -0 Jan. IM'S he 
nnJ lost heart. Kl]>hin8tone, infirm and un- was brought before a court-martial at Loodi- 

'tiible, asked the advice of every r)ne, but 
A'uuld delegate authr)rity to no one. Mac- 
• lii^kten, the envoy, enerjfotic and self-con- 
'iJeiit, had much to sav to the militarv mea- 
■ires, and Shelton found him^iclf char^eil tr) 
■■.irry out operations of which he disapproved 

ana on four charj^^'s : ( 1 ) r>r'lering prepara- 
tions to be made for retreat without authority ; 
( 2 ) using disrespectful language to tht? gt*ne- 
ral within hearing of the troops; (li) enter- 
ing into clandt»stin(» corri'sj)ondence with Ak- 
barKhan to obtain forage fi)r his own horses 

it her the principle or tli(> details. 1 lis own | while the envoy's negotiation-^ were going 
■ inyielding tem[)er was ill suited to such a ' on: (1) suffering himself to betaken pri>on«:r 
;»i.'<ition. at .lugdulluk by want of due precaution. 

On the 10th he led an attack upon the He was uccjuitted on all charges except the 
I Cikabashee fort, which lay within fnur hun- I third, and t lie court held that that matter 
ilrL'd yards of the north-i-ast angle of the had been disposed of and duly censured at 
'MHtonments. He had twic^ to rally his j the time. They added the opinion that he 
Tiii'R before the fort was taken, and the 4-lth ' had given proof * of very considerable ex- 
iiad nearly one hundrt/d men killed or i ertion in his arduous jiosition, of personal 
wounded. On the 13tli he was sent out to gallantry of the highost kind, and of noble 
dislodge the Afghans from the ]>elimeni devotion as a soldier.' 

h 11 Is, where they had placed two guns half Jle returned to Kngland and resumed 
a mile north of the cantonments. The ' command of the 44th, which had been ])rac- 
Afghans were drivi-n off and the guns I tically raised afresh at the de]»ot. He had 
Iprought in; but the hills were soon re- , become colonel in t lie army tm l*.*i Nov. li*'41, 
occupied, and a frosh sortie made ten days ' and had had tin' local rank of major-gen»»ral 
afterwards with eleven hundred men proved in India. On if) May iJ^lo, wh«n the regi- 
n discreditable fail urL>. The enemy gathered ment was cjuartered in Richmond barracks, 
in great numbers; their matchlocks had a Dublin, his horse bolted with him and fell, 
longer range than the British muskets ; the ' inflicting such injurif-s on him that he died 
troops refused to charge when caUed u])on, ' three days afterwards. He left considerable 
and at length fled back to the cantonments. ])roperty which ])as>e<l to his nephew, 

Ilefore the middle of November Shelton ' Lieutenant William S!i»jlton of his old regi- 
had come to i\w. conclusion that the force | nient, the Otli. Hm received no medals or 
could not maintain itself through the winter, decoratitwis for his many campaigns. 
(Mther in the cantonments or in the Jhilla- | [Carter's Hooorilscf t Ik- 4ith Regiment ; (Jt-nt. 
Ilissar, and thnt it ought to ret nmt on .Telia- ' Mig. 184o, ii. 107 ; Stoo'iudei s Memorials of 
labad before snow ftill. On the 24th Klphin- Af^haniMan Appi-n-lix vii.; Eyi*o's Kibul 
Ftone advised Macnaghten to negotiate ; but Insnrnction of 1811 2 (cilit i')M of 1 S79) ; Kavr's 
it was not until 11 I)»v., when only one | "^^'Jl^ in Af^'hnnislnn; Naviil and Military (fH/t-it.-, 
day's provisions remained, that Macna*ght(?n ^^ -M***'! «^"d 17 Juiir 1813 ] K. M. L. 

met the Afghan chiefs in conference. He I SHELTON. SHELDON, or SHILTON, 
was treacherously shot by Akbar Khan on Sir l{rClIAUl) (//. ltJ47), solicitor-general, 
the 23nl, and on <» Jan. the retreat began ' was tlie eMer of the two sons of .Fohn 
[see MAO'AGiiTEy, Sir William Hay.] Shelton {d. KJOl ), a mere»'r, of Hirmingham, 

In the continuous fighting of the next ■ by his wife l^arbani, daughter and heir of 
five days Shelton*s stubborn courage was Francis Stanh*y rif Wt-st Uromwich. Ht) 
conspicuous, and he did all that could b.» ' studierl law at the Tuner Temj;le, and had 
done in a hopeless case. But at .Tiigdulluk . th»' good fortune to be employed by the 
on the 11th he was culled upon to aecom- ; Duke of Buckingham on his private atfairs!. 
nanvElphinstone to a conference with Akbar Buckingham made him one of his council. 
Khan, and to remain with the latter as a I ami was probably th»' nu-ans uf Shelt«in's 
hostage for the evacuation of .lellalabad. ■ ap])ointment as o rj-adt^r at the Inner 
He thus escaped the final cat astro]»he. He '1 em pie in \i\'2\. To th** sam«.» influence he 

was well treated, and was released with the 
other prisoners on '21 Sept. when Sir Cieorge 

owe<l his si'lection a^ sr)licitr)r-gener;il in 
October KlJo; he was kni^ihtt-d bv Charles I 

S Helton 


nt. HamptOD Court on llie 3Ut. lie was 
elecled to parliament for Bridgnnrtb on 
17 Jon. I6ii5-6, and for Guildford on 
a Feb. sitting for the former cotftitunncy ; 
but in tile commons his Incb of dubatinff 
power and m>ner«l iiicoiniwience reudereH 
liim no malch for Coke and the opposition 
Iftwypw (ef. Gardisbb. vi. 210, 243, 268, 
vii. 44, 866). In Xovembur 1625 he was 
placed on & conimisaion to compound with 
recusants. Un 6 March 1627-8 he was 
re-elected for Bridgnorth, and in 163B wns 
Bppoint«dtreMunjrof the Inner Temple. In 
Fiibruary 1628-9 he defended Moulacu's 
appointment as hishop of Chichester, and in 
iWumber 1633 was placed on a commission 
to exercise ecclesiastjcnl jurisdiction in Eng- 
land and Wales. In Octolier 1634, being, ac- 
cording 1o Clarendon, 'an old, illiterate, use- 
leis person,' Shelton was forced to resign, and 
was succeeded by Sir Edward (afterwards 
Luril) Littleton [q. v.] lie retired to his 
manor of West Bromwich, whli'h he acfiuired 
frora bU cousin William Stanley in 1(!26, 
nnd lived there unmnlested during the civil 
w&r. He died in December 1647, and was 
buried at West Bromwich on the 7lh. By 
his wife Lettice (rf. 1642), daughter of Sir 
Hobart Fisher of I'ackington, Warwickshire, 
he had no i<sue, and West BromwJch passed 
to John, son of Shelton's brother Robert. 

[CaI, 8tnt4i Pnpprs, Dom. ia25-3« ps«slm; 
Oiirdiiier'a lliit. of EtwUnd. toIb. »i. tIi. ; 
ClaNnd'in'sItsbollinn, T. 201; Dngdale's Oriftin. 
JurldlctnlBs. pp. IBS. 171. iLod ChroniM Series. 

BIOTi Uetcstfe's Buok of Kniglita; Off. Ret. 
cmbors of Prirlinmenl; Shiiiv's SmfTordshire. 
II. 127; WilUli's Wiibt Brumwich. pp. 13, 14, 
anil pmligrce ad Sn.; 9iinms's liibliothrca 
Staffoniiensis.] A. F. P. 

SHELTON, THOMAS (J. 1612). first 
pOHsihIv be identical with the Thomas Shel- 
don wllo was fourth son of William Sheldon 
of Broudway, Worcestershire (a kinsman of 
Edward Sheldon fi]. v.] of Besley (cf. Nasii, 
Worreiter/tAirr, j. 145). One Thomas Shel- 
don, described as a gentleman of Worces- 
tershire, matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, ut the nge of fifteen, on 23 Nov. 
1581, and wag refused the degree of B.A, 
when he supplicated for it ou 10 Feb. 15&4-5 
(0.if. Univ. Jhy. Ox!. Hist. Soc. II. i. 2^7, 
ii, 106), Shelton seetns to have entered the 
service of Theophilus Howard, lord Howard 
of Walden, afterwards second earl of Sutlblk 
fq.v.] Acquiring a knowledge of Spanish, 
lie during 100", at the requeat ' of a very 
cleere friend that was desirous to understand 
subject." translated '[the first part of] 
■ I of Don-Quixote, out of the 

the llisi 

Spanish tongue, into the English.' Tbe 
task only occupied him forty days. Thu 
first part of Cerrantes's novel orinnatly ap- 
peared at Madrid ear!^ in 1605. Shellua 
used a reprint of tbe original Spanish, which 
was issued at Brussels by lEoger Velpiiu 
in leor. But after his frUud had glanced 
at his rendering Sheldon cast it aside, wberu 
it lay ' long time neglected in a comer.' At 
the end of four or five years, ' at the entres'r 
of friends, be was content to let it com.' ' 
light,' on condition that 'some one or o(i. 
would peruse and amend the errors escaj « . 
his many nftairs hindering him from uiii- - 
going that labour.' On 19 Jan. 1611-lL' :' 
work, whether with or without anoili' r 
revision, was licensed for publication to 1!' 
ward Blount and William Barret, under im 
title of ' The deiigbtfull history of the witi n^ 
knight, Don yuisbote.' Shelton aigne-i the 
dedication to Lord Howard of Waldi:'". 
describing himself as ' hia honour's uio-t 
afi'eclionate servitor.' 

The book at once achieved tbe jiopulur : 
that Cervantes's work has always retain*.' il ' 
this country. References to episodes in 1 '■ 
Quiiote's storv were soon frequent in F,r _- 
lish literature. As early as 1613 Rol~ : 
Anton concluded his 'Moriomacbia'wil)i . . 
allusion to the 'little dangerous Comliii; 
between 'Don Quishotte and the Bnrli''-, 
about Marabrinoesinchaunted Helmet.' Beuii* 
tnoiit and Fletcher's ' Knight of the Buming 
Pestle,' which burlesqued in Cervantes's spirit 
the extravagances of hemic romance, wai 
also published in im<], but the publisliti' 
asfterted that it was written a year befow 
Shelton'a translation appeared. That Did- 
cinea appealed lo public taste is proved by 
the puiilication of a ballad on her history iii 
1615. A lost play, entitled 'Cardenio,'wfiich 
was acted at court on 8 June 1013, was, as 
its title proves, a dramatised version of on 

SisiHle in Cervantes's novel, Ilumphri-y 
oz-eley entered the piece on the ' Statioti'.r"' 
RegialBc'in 1653 aa the work of Fletcheraiil 
Shnkespeare, hut no copy is extant lo pru'o 
or disprove the allegation. There is ao 
other evidence that Shakespeare was ac- 
quainted with Shelton's achievement. 

Very few copies of the original edition of 
Shelton's translation of the first pari, sur- 
vive. A perfect copv, construcleil from 
two leespemct copies, belongs to Mr. Henrv 
Yates Tuompaon ; other good copiei 
the British Sluseum, in tf '" 
College, Cambridge, and Ii 
Mr. Leonard Courtney ( cf. Timr-n, November 
18ft6), and one was formerly in Lord Ash- 
bumbam's collection. 

In the summer of 1614 Felipe Roberto of 

:e library of Clare 




*arragona published a volume impudently 
lUrporting to be a second part of Cervantes's 
lorel. The author gave himself the bur- 
Boqae pseudonym of the ' Licenciado Alonzo 
fcmandez de Avellnneda, natural de la 
rilla de Tordesillas/ The deceit prospered ; 
Arellaneda * was generally identifiea with 
^arvantes himself, and Edward Blount, one 
»f the publishers of Shelton*s translation of 
h» first part of Cervantes's genuine work, 
iblAined a license on 5 Dec. 1615 from tbe 
Stationers* Company to publish an English 
lendering of the spurious sequel. But this 
leheme went no further. A Iready, on 5 Nov. 
>f the same year, Cervantes had obtained at 
llftdrid authority to publish his own con- 
(inuation of 'Don Quixote,' and this was in 
Jie hands of readers in the closing days of 
the year. Early in 1610 the Spanish text 
RTSS reprinted at Brussels, and an English 
translation of that version was soon pro- 
jaeted by Blount. This was published in 
L02O with a dedication addressed by the 
publisher to George Yilliers, then Marquis 
of Buckingham. No mention of Shelton's 
name is made in any part of the volume, but 
internal evidence places it to the credit of 
the translator of the first part. With the 
Koond part was published a new edition of 
the first, and the two were often bound up 
together. The second edition of the first 
baa little of the bibliographical value that 
ftttaehes to the first edition. The chief 
Biarks of distinction between the two are 
that while the first has 549 pages of text, 
the second has 572, and each page of the 
ffarst is enclosed in black lines, which are 
ftbsent from the second. 

Shelton*8 complete translation was re- 
itsaed in a folio volume in 1652 and in 1675, 
ind in four 12mo volumes in 1725 and 1731. 
[n 1054 Edmund Qayton [q. v.] based upon 
Shelton's text his entertaining ' Pleasant 
Notes on Don Quixote.' A luxurious reprint, 
with admirable introductions by Mr. «fames 
Fitzmaurice Kelly, appeared in 1896 in the 
leries of Tudor translations edited by Mr. 
W. E. Henley. 

Though Shelton's version bears manv 
traces of haste, and he often seizes with 
carious efiect the English word that is 
nearest the sound of the Spanish in defiance 
of its literal meaning, he reproduces in 
robust phraseology the spirit of his original, 
ind realises Cervautes*s manner more nearly 
than any successor. Subsequent English 
versions of * Don Quixote,' all of which owed 
lomething to Shelton's efibrt, were published 
by John Phillips (1631-1700) [q. v.] in 
1687 ; by Peter Anthony Motteux [q, v.] in 
1712; in 1742 by Charles Jervas, who un- 

justlv charged Shelton with translating from 
the Italian version of Lorenzo Franciosiiii 
(Venice, 1622) ; by Tobias Smollett in 17oo ; 
by A. J. Duffield in 1881 ; by John Ormsby 
in 1885 ; and by Mr. H. E. \Vatts in 1888. 

[Fitzmaurice Kelly's Introductions to his re- 
print of Shelton 8 translation, 1896, vols. i. and 
iii.; the English version of Don Quixote, tranf- 
Irtted respectively by A. J. Duffield, John Orms- 
by, and H. E. Watts. Care must be taken to 
distinguish the tmnslator of Don Quixote from 
Thomas Shelton [q. v.], the puritan stenographer, 
some of whose publi&itions hare been wrongly 
assigned to the translator.] 8. L. 

SHELTON, THOMAS (1601-1650?), 
stenographer, descended from an old Norfolk 
family, was born in 1601. It is probable that he 
began life as a writing-master, and that ho 
was teaching and studying shorthand before 
he was nineteen, for in 1649 he speaks of 
having had more than thirty years* study and 
practice of the art. He produced his first 
book, called * Short Writing, the most exact 
method,* in 1626, but no copy of this is 
known to exist. In 1630 he brought out 
the second edition enlarged, which was 

* sould at the professors house in Cheapeside, 
ouer against Bowe church.* He is styled 

* author and professor of the said art.' An- 
other edition was published in London in 
1636. In February 1637-8 he published his 
most popular work, called * Tachygraphy. 
The most exact and compendious methode of 
Shorthand Swift Writing that hath ever yet 
beene published by any. . . . Approved by 
both Unyversities. It was republished in 
1642, and in the same year Shelton brought 
out a catechism or * Tutor to Tachygraphy,* 
the author's residence being then in Old 
Fish Street. A facsimile reprint of this 
booklet was published in 1889 by R. McCaskie. 
In 1645 he was teaching his * Tachvgraphy ' 
at * the professors house, in the Poultry, near 
the Church.* Editions of this work con- 
tinued to be published down to 1710. 

Shelton, wlio was a zealous puritan, pub- 
lished in 1640* ACenturieof Similies,* and in 
the same year he was cited to appear before 
the court of high commission, but the offence 
with which he was charged is not specified. 
In 1649 his second system of stenography 
appeared under the title of * Zeiglographia, 
or a New Art of Short Writing never before 
published, more easie, exact, short, and speedie 
than any heretofore. Invented and composed 
by Thomas Shelton, being his last thirty 
years study.* It is remarkable that tlie 
alphabet differs from the tachygraphy of 164 1 
in every respect excepting the letters y, r, i\ 
and 2. It IS, in fact, an entirely original 
system. On its appearance Shelton was still 




livinjif in tlit* Poultry, nnil there lie probaMv 
died in or Wfore OctoIxT UtoO. The book 
continued to be published down to ltW7. 

Many 8ubsof|uent writers copied Shelton 
or published udajjtations of his l) 
system of * tachvirraphy/ wliicli was exten- 
sively used and liiLdily popular. Old docu- 
ments between ItilO and 1 700, having short- 
hand signs on them, may often Vh* deciphered 
liy Sh»*lton's characters, though the practice 
of adding arbitrary signs sometimes proves a 
stumbling-block. It was in this system 
that Pepys wrote his celebrated ' Diary,' and 
not, as frequently stated, in the system erro- 
ne<)usly attributed to .ItTemiah llich ^q. v.", 
(IJailey, On the Cipher of Pcpys's iJiary, 
Manchester, 187(>). 

An adaptation of the system to the Latin 
language a])])eared under the title of * Tachy- 
graphia, sive exactissima et compendiosis- 
sima breviter scrib«'ndi methodus, London, 
10(50, 16mo. This adaptation was described 
and illustrated in Gaspar Schott's 'Technica 
Curiosa,* published at Nuremberg in lO^Jo. 
It was 6li;'htlv modified bv Charles Alovsius 
iiamsay "4. v. , who published it in France 
as his own. 

About H300 there appeared in London, in 
04mo, * The whole book of Psalms in meeter 
according to that most exact lij* compendious 
method r)f short writing composed by Thomas 
Shelton (being his former hand) approved by 
both vniversities «5' learnt by many thou- 
sands.* It is uncertain whether Shelton*s 
or iiich's Psalms were published first. They 
appeared nearly together ; both were en- 
graved by T. Cross ; and the size of each is 
2}f K H inches. 

Portraits of Shelton are prefixed to the 
* Tachygraphy,' to the Latin edition of that 
work, and to the < Hook of Psalms* (Grangeii, 
Jiioffi\ Hist, ofEwjhind^ 5th ed. iii. 19»'>, iv. 70). 

[T. Sholton, T:«chygpaphcr, by Alexander 
Trnniaiiio Wrifrht (1800); Byrom's Journal, i. 
(W), 1();>, ii. l.j : Kaulnninn'H (rraramatik der 
ShMn>;:tra]>liio; (iil)J)s's Historical Account of 
('f>rniK«n<liuuH and Swift Writing, p. 45 ; Gil>J'on's 
I'libl. of Short hdiid ; .foiirnaliht, 18 and 25 March 
1HH7; Lcvy'H J I JHi. of Shorthand; Lewis's* Hist, 
of Short han<l ; I*ock null's Shortliund Celebrities 
of the ra>t (1S87); Ilookwvirs Shorthand In- 
s'nu'tion and J*r{i«'tii'o (Washington, 1893); 
Cal. Stato PapiTs, Doni. (lOKh, Prcf. p. xxiv ; 
Zt'iliig's ( i'r.scliiohlc dor ("] 

T. C. 

SHELVOCKE, (iKOllCiE (fl, 1000- 
17l^S), privateer, enteriMl the navy, according 
to his own ac(*ount, some time before* 1(590 
( Vnifiitfo, \'c., p. lit)). Jle is said to have 
M'rve«l und»'r IWmi])ow. From 1707 to 171.*J 
be was purser of the Alonck {^Pat/book of the 

Monok), He says in his 'Voyage' that he 
was a lieutenant in the navy, and this is 
confirmed bv the nnfriendlv narrative of his 
shipmate, \\ illiam Betagh, himself also an 
ex-i)urser in the navy. Ao passing certifi- 
cate, however, can now be found, nor does 
his name appear in any existing list of lieu- 
tenants. Betagh says that in 171S, being 
destitute and on the point of starvation, he 
applied to a London merchant, whom he 
liad formerly known, for relief, and that this 
merchant not only relieved him, but olFered 
him the chief command of a couple of ships 
which were being fitted out to cruise against 
the Spaniards with a commission from the 
emperor. AVhen, shortly afterwards, war 
was declared by England, the owners deter- 
mined that their ships should sail under 
English colours ; and as Shelvocke, by his 
disreganl of orders and extravagant dealings 
at Ostend, had forfeited the confidence of 
the owners, they removed him from the 
chief commnnd of the expedition, appnuting 
one John Clipperton in his room, and to be 
captain of thii Success, the larger ship, and 
Shelvocke, subordinate to Clipperton, to be 
captain of the smaller ship, the Ir>peed well of 
twenty-four guns and 100 men. The arrange- 
ment was ill-judged, for Shelvocke seems to 
have been as unfit for the second as for the 
first post ; and conceiving a grudge against 
CUpperton, to have determined from the 
first that he would not work with liim. The 
two ships sailed together from Plymouth on 
13 Feb. 1718-19, but taking advantage of a 
gale of wind a few days later, Shelvocke 
separated from his consort, and by his delays 
in going to the appointed rendezvous at the 
Grand Canary, and afterwards at Juan 
Fernandez, did not fall in with her again for 
nearly two years. This, as a matter of fact, 
is substantiated by his own account. Betagh, 
who was engaged as * captain of marines ' on 
board the Speedwell, with a special order 
from the owners that he was to mess 
with the captain, describes Shelvocke as 
behaving at this time and through the whole 
voyage in a rude unofiicer-1 ike manner, more 
becoming a pirate than the captain of even 
a private ship of war. He was, he says, 
often drunk, quarrelsome, and abusive ; and 
meeting with a Portuguese ship near the 
coast of Brazil, ho hoisted an ambiguous 
ensign which made her captain believe he 
was a pirate, and extorted from him, as 
ransom, a large sum of money and a ctm- 
siderable quantity of valuable merchandise. 
At St. Catherine's, on the coast of Brazil, 
he waited for a couple of months, apparently 
to make sure of not falling in with the 
Success, which was, indeed, already past the 




Straits of Magellan ; but, according to his 
own account, detained by tho mutinous 
temper of his crew, the most unruly set of 
rascals he had known in his thirty years* 
service as * an officer/ whom he only suc- 
ceeded in bringing to order by the assis- 
tance of M. de la Jonqui6re, the future 
antagonist of Anson, but at this time on his 
way home from the Pacific in command of 
a French ship which had been in the Spanish 
service. The story, as told by Shelvocke, is 
utterly incredible, and is said by Betagh to 
be absolutely untrue. 

In going round Cape Horn the Speedwell 
was driven as far south as latitude 61° 30', 
and, the weather continuing very bad, an 
incident occurred which has been embalmed 
in literature by Coleridge in the 'Ancient 
Mariner.' Shelvocke*s account of it is: 'We 
all observed that we had not had the sight 
of one fish of any kind since we were come 
to the southward of the Straits of Le Maire, 
nor one sea-bird, except a disconsolate black 
albatross, who accompanied us for several 
days, hovering about us as if he had lost 
himself, till ifatley, my second captain . . . 
imagining from his colour that it might be 
some ill-omen, after some fruitless attempts, 
at length shot the albatross, not doubting, 
perhaps, that we should have a fair wind 
aft«r it' (Shelvocke, pp. 72-3). Neither 
fair wind nor the poetic calm, however, 
followed. It was upwards of six weeks 
from the death of the albatross before they 
sighted the coast of Chili in latitude 47** 28' 
south, and during the whole time * we had 
continual contrary winds and uncomfortable 
weather.* Wordsworth, who had recently 
been reading Shelvocke's * Voyage,* suggested 
the albatross incident to Coleridge in No- 
vember 1797. 

After dallying on the coast for a couple 
of months, Shelvocke at last went to Juan 
Fernandez, to find that Clipperton, after 
long waiting, had left it three months before. 
He now went down the coast capturing 
several small prizes, and among others a 
vessel of a hundred tons burden, * laden with 
cormorants' dung which the Spaniards call 
Guana, which is brought from the island of 
Iquique to cultivate tne Agi or cod-pepper 
in the vale of Arica* (tb. pp. 164, 171 ; Be- 
tagh, pp. 101). After sacking and burning 
Payta, and learning that two or three 
Spanish ships of war were on the coast, from 
which on two dilferent occasions he had a 
narrow escape, Shelvocke resolved to go back 
to Juan Fernandez and wait for a more 
favourable opportunity. lie anchored there 
on 1 ] May, but a fortnight later, in a fresh 
wind and heavy swell, the cable parted and 

the ship was thrown on shore, where she 
became a complete wreck. That this was 
not attended with much loss of life would 
seem to have been due to Shelvocke's pre- 
sence of mind and good seamanship at a 
very critical time. The provisions were for 
the most part saved ; but such treasure as 
had been collected was reported to be lost, 
being possibly secreted by Shelvocke, with 
the exception of eleven hundred dollars, 
which were divided among the crew as theirs 
by right of having saved them. 

From the remains of the Speedwell they 
were able to build and rig a small vessel of 
about twenty tons, in which, on 6 Oct. 1720, 
they sailed m)m Juan Fernandez, and after 
a couple of unsuccessful attempts to seize 
some larger ship, they captured the Jesu 
Maria of two hundred tons burden, which 
the Spaniards offered to ransom for sixteen 
thousand dollars. Under the circumstances, 
however, the ship was of more value than 
any ransom, and the Spaniards were dis- 
missed in the little bark which was given 
to them. Shelvocke and his crew then went 
north, and at the Isle of Quibo fell in with 
the Success, from which they had separated 
in the chops of the Channel nearly two 
years before. Clipperton was much dis- 
pleased with Shelvocke's conduct, and 
wished to suspend him from the command, 
but was obliged to forbear as it seemed 
doubtful whetner, after the loss of the Speed- 
well, he had any authority over him. He 
called him, however, to account for the 
owners* property, and having examined his 
statement, refused to associate with him 
unless he and his crew delivered up the 
money which they had, illegally as he main- 
tained, divided among them. As they re- 
fused to do this, the ships separated the next 
day, Clipperton very unwillingly supplying 
the Jesu Maria with a couple of guns and 
some stores of which she was in need. The 
Success shortly afterwards went to China, 
and, being found unseaworthy, was sold at 
Macao. Clipperton and his men then 
divided their booty, which, after putting on 
one side the owners* moiety of 0,000/., gave 
419 dollars to each able seaman, and 6,285 
dollars, being fifteen shares, to Clipperton. 
The 6,000/. was put on board a homeward- 
bound Portuguese ship, which was accident- 
ally burnt at Rio de Janeiro, and not more 
than 1,800/. was saved for the owners. 
Clipperton went home in a merchant ship, 
but died in Ireland a few days after his 

Shelvocke, meantime, at Sonsonate, cap- 
tured a fine ship of three hundred tons, 
named the Santa Familia; and when in- 




fnrni«''l by tlio ^'^ovt.Tnor that peace Imd ))ef»n 
coiiclu'lrfl, h«; liurriedly put to sea with liis 
prizf. On lo May 17:^1 he captured another 
hliip naiii''(l La Coiicepcion, ln(h*n with stor»»s, 
una IiavinfT on lK)ar<l more than a liundred 
tliou.-and dnUars in coin. Accordinj^ to 
Slp-lvock'f's aci'ixint, he chased with her be- 
ran«i»' h«' wanted a pilot, thn Concej)cion 
fip'd on liini as soon as he lioisted P^nplish 
(•olr»iir.-i, and !i«' was obliged to fijjlit in self- 
deffiiCi: ; and a <h*claration to tins eft'ect ho 
r'>nipell»'d th«' ofHeers and passengers to sign 
bffup; hf allnwi'd them to depart in their 
hhip, from whirh \w lirst n-moved all that 
wji'- valuabh' t«) the Santa Familia. lie 
now thoii;:ht it tinnf to return to England, 
find, g"ing north to California, filled up with 
wat^T at a place he rails INierto Seguro, 
whi-n- In* noted that the soil was richly auri- 
fi-rou*^, and conjtfctured that very probably 
* thin rountrv abounds in metals of all sorts* 
( I'oi/fo/r, I}. \()\ ). It is not a little curious 
that in'^ aci'.dunt of this disordcTly, semi- 
piratical voya^*' nn^ntion should have been 
niadi* of the gold <»f California and the guano 
of l*«;rn a hundrrd and twenty or a hundred 
and thirty y<'ars before their modem dis- 
<:ov«'ry. i 'n \x Aug. 1 7:^1 thn Santa Familia 
Hilled for China, and on 11 Nov. anchored at 
.Macao. 'I'lu-nc** she went uj) the river to 
\N'hampf»a, where, aft»rr paying harbour 
dn«'«» to the amount — as statj^i — of:?,()00/., 
the -hip was sold for 7(K)/. There can be 
no doubt that it was a fraudulent arrange- 
ment between Shelvocke and the Chinese 
nlUcials. Ac(ronling to the accounts kept 
by the steward, tlnj prize-money was then 
<livided among the crew, each abh? seaman 
receiving 1 ,k*^7 dollars and Shelvocke 1 1,»3l*5; 
in addititm to which 10,OM2 were not ac- 
counted for, nor yet Sludvocke's share of the 
1\()JK)/. said to have b<;en paid as harbour 
dues. Altogifther, it was said, Shelvocke 
ma<le not less than 7,CKK)/. out of the voyage. 
He n-turned to JCngland in the Cadogan, 
Kast Indiaman, and landed at Dover on 
.'JOJuly 1 7'2'2. ( )n arriving in liondon he was 
arresti'd on two charges of piracy; first for 
plunderiuL^ the Portuguese ship on the coast 
of lirazil. and,s«;condly, for seizing the Santa 
Familia. The capture of the Concepcion 
do«.*s not siM;m to have been mentioned ; and 
on the actiial charges he was acquitted for 
want of legal evidi-nce. ] le was also charged 
by the owners with di'frauding them, but 
found means to escape from tin.' king's bench 
prison and to lly the country. In 172t) he 
publishi'tl * A A'oyage rr>und the AVorld, by 
the AVav of the Oreat South Sea, performed 
" the years I71i»^ j20, !?1, 2l> . . .' (London, 
2ud edit. 1757), an interesting and 

amusing narrative, but not to be implicitly 
trusted. In 1728 IWtagh published *A 
Voyage round the World, being an Account 
of a remarkable Enterprise begun in the year 
1719 .. .* which puts a very diff.-rent colour 
on many incidents of the voyage, and in 
many respects appears more worthy of credit. 
It is, however, written with much ill-will, 
and its statements as to Shelvocke*s conduct 
must be received with caution. According 
to it, Shelvocke was still in hiding abroad in 

A son, George, who accompanied his father 
on the vovage, translated in 1729 Simieno- 
wicz's ' Great Art of Artillery,' fol. ; in 17.*^) 
contributed to the * Universal History,* fol.: 
and in 17o7 edited aneweditionof his fathers 
voyage. From 1742 until his death in 17<)0 
he was secretarv to the general post office 
{Gent. Mat/. 17(50, p. 154). 

[All the accounts of the voyag*=i are based on 
Sjielvooke's own narrative, and on IJet-igh's. 
Condensed accr)unts are given by Harris, Kerr, 
and others ; the best is in Burn«.7's Voyages and 
Discoveries in the South Sea, iv. 520-A3.1 

J. K. L. 

SHENSTONE, W ILLI A M (1 7 1 4-1 7a-5), 
poet, born on 13 Nov. 1714, was baptised on 

Dec. at Halesowen, Worcestershire. His 
father, Thomas, son of William Shenstone 
of Lappal, born in 16^6, was churchwarden 
of Halesowen in 1723, and died in June 
1724. His mother, who died in June 1732, 
aged 3J), was Ann, eldest daughter and co- 
lujir of William Penn of Harlx)rough Hall, 

1 lagley. Shenstone had one brot her, Tliomaa 
(1722-1751), who was brought up as an 
attorney, but never practised. Tlie entries 
of the family in the Tlalesowen registers date 
back to the reign of Elizabeth (Gkazebrook, 
Family of She n fit one. the Poety ISDO). 

Shenstone*s first teacher was an old dame, 
Sarah Lloyd, whom he afterwards celebrated 
in the * Schoolmistress,' and he soon acquired 
a great love for books. He was next sent to 
the Halesowen grammar schord, and then to 
Mr. Crami)ton at Solihull. In May 1732 he 
matriculated from Pembroke College, Ox fonl, 
where he was a contemporary of Dr. John- 
son. About the same time, on the death of his 
mother, Thomas Dolman, rector of Brwme, 
near Kidderminster, who had married Shen- 
st one's aunt, Mary Penn, became his guar- 
dian. When ni neheen he wrote a mock- 
heroic poem, * The Diamond,' and in 1737 he 
printed at Oxford, for private circulation, a 
small anonvmous volume of * Poems on vari- 
ous Occasions, written for the entertainment 
of the author, and printed for the amusement 
of a few friends prejudiced in his favour.' 
This volume, which Shenstone after^vaitls 




trie<l to suppress, contains the first draft of 
the * Schoolmistress.* At Oxford he studied 
poetry in the company of his friends, Richard 
Jaffo [q. v.l Richard Graves [q. v.], and 
AVliistler. He took no degree, hut kept his 
name on the college hooks until 1742 (Nash, 
Worcestershire f i. 628 seq.) 
In 1741 Shenstone puhiished anonymously 

* The Judgment of Hercules,' written in the 
preceding year; and in 1742 he brought out, 
al#o anonymously, a revised version of the 

* Schoolmistress,* which was now described 
as * written at college, 1736.* In this form 
the poem had twenty-eight stanzas, two of 
which were afterwards omitted; the com- 
pleted poem has thirty-five stanzas (D'IsRAELi, 
Curiosities of Literature, pp. 3o5-6). lie 
published no more poems, except in the ' Col- 
lection of Poems * issued by Robert Dodsley 
[(J. v.] In the first and third volumes respec- 
tively of that 'Collection* (1748J were re- 
printed the * Schoolmistress 'and the ' Choice 
of Hercules;* the fourth volume (1755) con- 
tained the * Pastoral Ballad,* &c.; while in 
the fifth volume (1758) the first forty-eight 
pages were devoted to verses written by Shen- 
stone between 1730 and 1750, some of which 
would not have appeared had not Shenstone 
been ill at the time ofpublication. A lengthy 
correspondence with Dodsley is in the Bntish 
Museum TAddit. MS. 28959). 

Meanwhile Shenstone lived for a time 
with a relative who was tenant of the Lea- 
sowes, a property bought by Shenstone's 
grandfather. In 1745, on the death of his 
ffunnlian, he took that estate into his own 
hands, and began what was really his life*s 

Shenstone holds an important place in the his- 
tory of English landscape-gardening. With 
his income of 300/. a year, he spent far more 
than was wise in laying out his grounds, and 
was often troubled by depression and disap- 
pointments. In 1749 he wrote : * I lead the 
unhappy life of seeing nothing in the creation 
so idle as myself.' Horace Walpole wrote 
of him: ' Poor man ! he wanted to have all 
the world talk of him for the pretty place he 
had made, and which he seems to have made 
only that it might be talked of (Letters, v. 
169); and Gray said that his ' whole philo- 
sophy consisted in living against his will in 
retirement, and in a place which his taste 
had adorned, but which he only enjoyed when 
people of note came to see and commend it * 
( W orks, 1884, iii.344; cf^rfrfi^.VA 28958). 
In 1755 he told Graves that he was 'cloyed 
with leisure' (Addit MS, 21508, f. 38). 
For many years he corresponded regularly 


with Lady Luxborou^h, Lord Bolingbroke's 
sister; his letters are m the British Museum 
(Addit. MS. 28958), and Lady Lux- 
borough's letters to him were published in 
1775 ; but the correspondence is, in Wal- 
pole's words, * insipidity itself ^(Letters, vi. 
285, vii. 24^. Many others of Shenstone's 
letters are m the * Select Letters ' collected 
' his friend the actor, Thomas Hull [q. v.] 

fvols. 1778). Among his other friends were 
illiam Somer\ille, Joseph Spence (Nichols, 
Lit. Anecd. ii. 376), James Grainier, who ad- 
dressed to him the second book ot the * Sugar 
Cane ' (XiCH0L8,ii7. Illustr. vii. 232), and Dr. 
Thomas (afterwards bishop) Percy. The 
correspondence with Percy, in the British 
Museum (Addit. MS. 2822n, shows that 
Percy frequently consulted Shenstone while 
compiling the 'Reliques of Ancient Eng- 
lish Poetry.* 

At the beginning of 1763 Shenstone was 
hoping to receive a pension, for which appli- 
cation had been made to Lord Bute by Lord 
Loughborough, and he paid a visit to Lord 
Stamford at £nville in connection with this 
matter; but on his return he caught a chill, 
which developed into putrid fever, * hastened 
by his anxieties,' and ne died, unmarried, ou 
11 Feb. He was buried on the 15th by the 
side of his brother, in Halesowen church- 
yard, and an urn was erected to his memory 
in the church. By his will {RC.C. 91, 
Caesar), made a few days before his death, 
he left the Leasowes and other lands to his 
cousin, John Ilodgetts of Birmingham, for 
life, and then to his cousin, Edward Cooke 
of Edinburgh, and his heirs for ever, with 
power to sell, preferably to his friends, espe- 
cially the Hon. John Grey, youngest son of 
Lord Stamford. To his cousin, John Shen- 
stone, and his heirs he left his estate at Quin- 
ton, Halesowen, and ahouse in Birmingham ; 
and his servant, Mary Cutler, received an 
annuity of 30/. The executors were Dods- 
ley, Graves, and John Ilodgetts. 

Portraits of Shenstone are prefixed to his 
* Poems ' and to Graves's * Recollect ions.' He 
was a large, heavy, fat man, shy and reserved 
with strangers (Autobiography of Dr, A, 
Carlyle, p. 370). Dodsley says he was a man 
of great tenderness and generosity, but not 
easily appeased if offended ; he was careless 
in his expenditure, and negligent in his dress, 
wearing his grey hair in a manner then un- 

According to Percy, Shenstone had a 
choice collection of poems preparing for the 
press at the time of his death. His writings 
were collected by Dodsley and published m 
three volumes in 1764-9, the last volume 
consisting of letters which Shenstone, 

Shenton ' 50 Shepard 

curiuiisly enough, thoutrht to be * some of Huntsman/ after C. Landseer, 1840; *The 

my r/ipfs-(ra'urref' and the second of prose Clemency of Ooeur de Lion/ after K. Cro*se, 

* Kfj^ays on Men, ^Fanners, and Things.' j 1857; and * A Labour of Love/ after J. K. 

J »iMJ>h-y contributed a hingthy 'Description | Dicksee, 1863; the last he was unable to 

of the Leasowes* and a character ot the finish on account of the failure of his eve- 

poet. I sight. He also executed for the Art rnion 

Walpohf called Shen-jtone * that water- a set of outlines of incidents in English 

gTu»*l bard/ and 8aid he * was labouring all ^ histori',from designs by various artists, issued 

his lif»' to write a i»erfect song, and, in my ■ in 1847. Shenton was one of the last sur- 

opinion at least, never once succeeded* {Let- ' vivors of the able band of engravers in the 

/^rj», vii. '>4, viii. 509). Most of his verse is pure line manner who flourished during the 

artiticial and unreal, and has rightly bt-en for- first half of this century. He died sud<J^nly 

gottjjn, but what remains is of permanent ' at Camden Town on 15 Sept. 1806. 

inti.-n^iit. He is best known by the * School- Hexrt Chawxer Shextox (1825-1646), a burle.>que imitation of Spenser, his eldest son, studied in the schools of the 

which wa^hi^rhly praised by Johnson and by Koval Academy and at Rome, and was 

Ciold.smith( WiyrA-*,ed. Cunningham, iii. 4156); trained as a sculptor by AVilliam Behnes 

but many will value equally, in its way, the [q. v.] He exhibited at the Roval Academy 

n«.'atly turned ' Pastoral Ballad, in four parts/ in 1843 a group of Christ and Afary ; in 1844 

written in 174*3, which is supposed to refer at the Westminster Hall competition, a 

to the author's disapijointment in love, or the colossal group of * The Burial of the Princes 

gt-ntly satirical * IVogress of Taste/ showing in the Tower; ' and in 1845, also at AVest- 

* how great a misfortune it is for a man of minster Hall, a statue of Craumer. These 

small L'.*.tate to liave much taste.* Bums were works of the highest promise, and 

warmly eulogiftcd Shcnstone*s elegies, which gained much admiration; but the artist's 

arv aUo to some extent autobiographical, ' career was cut short, aft^r a brief illness, on 

tliiju^h it is dillicult to say how far they are 7 Feb. 1846. 

sincere. ' I His brother, Wiluam Kerxot Shextox 

[Johns ns Lives of the Puets; Graves's Re- (1836-1877), bom in June 1836, also became 
cr.;l..t:ions of some Particulars in the Life of the a sculptor and exhibited medallion portraits 
late Williiim Shen^tone, Ksq. (which corrects at the Royal Academy from 1857 to 1871. 
jMh::-.on's account at «ome pointh); BfjswcU's He for a time taught drawing and modelling 

Ixvii. 102, Ixxi. o93.1xxiii. 613, 724, Ixxiv. 802, SHEPARD. 'See also ShephaRD, SheP- 

Ixxxi, II. 50.5, Irxxvii. I. 2'.>7 ; Ward's English HEARD, SuEPHERD, ShePPARD, and Shep- 

Poti<. Ani'ini^ tho British Ma««."um MS3. is a pERD." 

n .t.! oMk of S!:en<tone's ' Remarks on Paradise qx^W APn TPIOM AQ / Iftai ^RJQ^ 

I>5<t.l73HAddit. M.S. 28964).] G. A. A. SHEFARD, THOMAS (IwH-l 649), 

puritan divine, son of >> lUiam Shepard, 

SHENTON, HEXK Y CHAWXEIl grocer. was bom at Towcester, Xorthampton- 

( lH»-J-l>t;0). rngravt-r. was bnni at Win- shire,on oNov.ltXW.and, afteraprelimmanr 

ohf -tor in ISJ^.and became a pupil i.if Charles education in the free school there, proceeded 

Warrt- n jj. v.], one of who.-e daughters he to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he 

uiarrifd. He was at first employed upon was admitted a pensioner on 10 Feb. 1619- 

sTuall biK'k illustration-, frum dosigns by 1020. He graduated B. A. in 1623. and com- hard. Twins. We?tall. Corbould, and menced M.A. in lt)27. During his residence 

tvhtTS. some of wliich hf inhibited with the in the university he adopted rigid puritan 

S.K'i.'ty of Rriiish Artists between IS^o and principles. For a time ne resided in the 

1 *^:»i\ SubstHjuently he executed some irood family of Thomas AVeld, minister of Tarling, 

iilat.s on a lariTtTsoalo. includinir'TheStray "Essex, and after 1627 became minister or 

K it Tt-n.* after W. Collins. and 'The HormitV lecturer at Earles-Colne, where he staved 

Et»an of a Biie/after Mulready. Shentons and Laud forbade the further exercise of 
be^t -known ^latvs are the three published Shepard's ministry- in the diocese of London. 
^tte Art L uiou of London : * The Tired . Shepard next became minister or lecturer at 




Towcester. Subsecjuently he was appointed 
chaplain to Sir Kichara Darly, knight, qF 
Butter Crambe, in the North Kiding of York- 
shire, lie afterwards received a call to the 
juinistry at Ileddon, Northumberland ; but, 
as he refused to subscribe to the Thirty-nine 
articles, he was silenced by Archbishop Neile. 

In order to escape further persecution he 
went to New England, landing at Boston 
on 3 Oct. 1635. lie was ordained pastor of 
a congregation at Newtown, afterwards called 
Cambrioge, in February 1635-6. He took 
an active part in founding Harvard College, 
and its location at Cambridge was due to 
him. He likewise interested nimself in the 
establishment of the Indian mission. He 
died at Boston on 25 Aue. 1649. He is 
described as * a poor, weak, pide-complexioned 
man.' He was thrice married: first, in 
1632, to Margaret Touteville {d, 1636), a 
relative of his patron, Sir Bichard Darly; 
secondly, in October 1637, to Joanna {d, 
2 April 1646), eldest daughter of his early 
friend, T. Hooker; and thirdly, on 8 Sept. 
1647, to Margaret Boradel. 

As a writer Shepard holds high rank 
among puritan divines. His works are: 
1. 'The Sincere Convert; discovering the 
paucity of True Believers, and the great diffi- 
culty of Saving Conversion,' London, 1641, 
12mo, and 1643, 8vo ; 5th edit. Liondon, 1650, 
8vo, again, 165d> 1672 ; Edinburgh, 1714, 
12mo; Glasgow, 1734, 12mo; London, 1831, 
12mo. This work was translated into the 
American Indian tongue by John Eliot and 
Grindal Rawson, Cambridge (New England), 
1089, 12mo. 2. ♦The Sound Beleever. Or 
a Treatise of Evangelicall Conversion,' Lon- 
don, 1645, 8vo ; Ecunburgh, 1645, 8vo ; Lon- 
don, 1049,1653,1671, 8vo; Aberdeen, 1730, 
12mo; Boston, 1736, 12mo. John Eliot 
(1604-1690) [q. v.], in a letter to the Hon. 
Kobert Boyle, recommended that this treatise 
also should be translated into Indian at the 
expense of the Society for Propagating the 
Gospel (Birch, Life of Boyle, p. 449). 
3. ' New Englands Lamentation for Old En^- 
lands present Errours and Divisions, and their 
feared future Desolations, if not timely pre- 
vented, occasioned by the increase of Ana- 
baptists, Rigid Separatists, Antinomians, and 
Familists,' London, 1645, 4to. 4. ' The clear 
Sun-Shine of the Gospel breaking forth upon 
the Indians in New England; or an his- 
torical! narration of Gk)ds wonderful workings 
upon sundry of the Indians,' London, 1648, 
4to, reprinted in the 'Collections of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society,' 3rd ser. 
iv. 24 (1834), and also in Sabin's reprints. 
New York, 1865, 4to. 5. 'Certain Select 
Cases resolved, specially tending to the right 

— » 

' ordering of the Heart,* London, 1648 12mo 
and 1660 8vo ; Boston, 1747, 8vo. 6. * Theses 
SabbaticsB ; or the Doctrine of the Sabbath,' 
London, 1649 4to, 1650 8vo, 1655 4to. 

The following were published posthu- 
mously : 7. ' A Treatise of Liturgies, Power 
of the Keys, and of matter of the visible 
Church, in answer to Mr. J. Ball,' London, 
1653 [1652], 4to. 8. ' Subjection to Christ,' 
London, 1652, 8vo. 9. 'The Parable of the^ 
Ten Virgins opened and applied,' edited \^ 
Shepard^ son Thomas (see below) and J. 
Mitchell, London, 1660 and 1695, fol., 2 vols. ; 
Glasgow, 1796, 8vo, 2 vols.; Falkirk, 1797, 
8vo ; Aberdeen, 1853, 8vo. 10. ' The Indiane 
Primer' [by John Eliot, in English and the 
Massachusetts-Indian lan^age on opposite 
pages, the English compiled by Shepard], 
Boston (Mass.), 1720, 12mo. 11. 'The First 
Principles of the Oracles of God,' Boston, 
1747, 8vo. 12. 'Meditations and Spiritual 
Experiences,' Boston, 1747, 8 vo; Edinburgh, 
1749, 8vo; Glasgow, 1847, 12mo. 13. ' My 
Birth and Life, from the original Manu- 
script,' first published by the Rev. Nehemiah 
Adams, at Boston in 1832, and reprinted by 
Alexander Young in his ' Chronicles of the 
First Planters of Massachusetts Bav,' Boston, 
1846. His collected works, published in 
3 vols. Boston, 1853, 8vo, contain also : 
14. * The Saint^s Jewel, showing how to apply 
the Promise.' 15. ' Inefiectuai Hearing the 
Word.' 16. 'The Church Membership of 
Children and their Right to Baptism.' A 
manuscript volume of 8hepard*s works is in 
the library of the ' New England Historical 
and Genealogical Society^' Boston. 

Of his children, Thomas Suepabs (1635- 
1677), bom in London on 5 April 1635, 
graduated at Harvard in 1653, was ordained 
pastor of the church in Charlestown on 
13 April 1659, and died at Cambridge (Mass.) 
on 22 Dec. 1677. He published ' Eye-salve ; 
or A Watchword from Christ unto his 
Churches, esp. those within Mass., to take 
heed of Apostacy, May 15, 1672,' Cambridge, 
1673, 4to. 

[A Life of Shepard, by John A. Albro, which 
appeared originally at Boston in 1847, is pre- 
fixed to his collected works, 1853, and is re- 
printed in the Lives of the Chief Fathers of 
New England, vol. iv. (Boston, 1870) ; see also 
Addit. MSS. 5851 p. 48. 5858 p. 257, 5880 f. 89 ; 
Cat. of Boston Athenaeum ; Kennett's Register, 
p. 102; Mather's Hist, of New England, iii. 84 
(chap, v.); pref. to Shepard's Subjection to 
Christ, 1652 ; Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd scr. xi. 348 ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] T. C. 

1320?), chronicler, was a monk of the Cister- 
cian house of Crokesden, Stafibrdshire. He 


>;\:^^^virJ 5- Shepherd 

■.,::: - : -■..■ :.. :;r.< f ^r. : J. Law, who, liowt'Ver, did iiol obtain 

. ^ ." i; _..- -: rv A \-rv :a.r sliJirv uf the tuition fet-a till 

N.^ I ..-• :^ •. . • l'..r Mrir.w!.:le SLvpherd bad devotfd liini>tlf 

:. .i:.. ...- ^.. .:.. - -. -^ t. i.*T :: my, lU' was elected PI umiiiii |«ri.H 

:'■ ?> r :" is: r r.omy at Cainbridjre in 1 7<H •.ami 

• •-.;. - - ' .J. F :i *^ ir. 17»"-i. In ir***^ lie was ainmintetl 

* V v; r--*:rr :' rLT-clirinii.'.* to Lis majesty , ilnulii- 

".r^s- .w.-.j : -. thr infliienc*? of .luhn Mnnt- 

.- V!Cl^ \'\ ' » •*: '." ■ \^-ii . -vj-:. : -r.-. carl ■■!" Sandwich 'q. v. ~, whose 

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wark, and Westminster,' 1819 ; Wilkinson^s 

* Londina Illustrata/ 1808 ; Ireland's ' His- 
tory of the County of Kent/ 1829-30; 'The 
Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain ; * 
and * Beauties of England and Wales/ He 
also drew some of the illustrations to the 

* European Magazine.' The Grace collection 
of London topography, now in the British 
Museum, contains many of his drawings. 

Geor3e Sidney Suephebd (d, 1868), his 
son, practised watercolour-painting in the 
same style, but his works were more artistic 
in treatment ; they were mainly topographi- 
cal views, but also included rustic subjects 
and still life. He exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and Suffolk Street from 1830* to 
1837, and with the New Watercolour 
Society, of which he was elected a member 
in ]^<33, from that year until his death in 

Thomas IIcsxeb Shephebd {Jl, 1825- 
1840), probably a brother of George Sidney 
Shepherd, painted exclusively views of streets 
and old buildings in London and other cities, 
which he executed with great truth and accu- 
racy. He drew the whole of the illustrations 
for the following topographical works: 'Me- 
tropolitan Improvements, or London in the 
Nineteenth Century,' 1827; * London and 
its Environs in the Nineteenth Century,' 
1829 ; * Modem Athens displayed, or Edin- 
burgh in the Nineteenth Century,' 1829; 

* Views of Bath and Bristol,' 1829-31; 
' London Interiors, with their Costumes and 
Ceremonies,* 1841-3; and *A Picturesque 
Tour on the Regent's Canal.* Shepherd was 
largely employed by Frederick Crace fq. v.] 
in making watercolour views of old build- 
ings in London previous to their demolition, 
and some hundreds of these are in the Crace 
collection in the British Museum. 

[Redgmve's Diet, of Artists ; Unirersal Cat. 
of Books on Art ; exhibition catalogues.] 

F. M. OD. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN (/. 1550), musician, 
bom probably about 1521, was in 1542 ap- 
pointed instructor of the choristers and or- 
ganist at Magdalen College, Oxford. He 
resigned in 1543, but resumed the post in 
1545. In 1547 he was paid 8/. as teacher of 
the boys for one year, and other sums for 
repairing the organ and providing various 
church furniture, vestments, and books. He 
then rei«igned again ; but in 1548 he supplied 
twelve music-books, for which he was paid 5*. 
From 1549 to 1551 he was fellow of the col- 
lepre. I le probably then entered Edward Vl's 
Chapel Koyal (cf. Hawkins, Hist, of Music). 
On 21 April 1554 Shepherd supplicated for 
the degree of Mus. Doc. Oxon., * naving been 

a student in music for the space of twenty 
years ; ' but his petition was apparently not 

S anted. He reappears in the records of 
agdalen College for 1555, but in a very un- 
favourable light. He had dragged a boy * in 
vinculis ' from Malmesbury to Oxford, pro- 
bably for impressment as a chorister, and was 
publicly reprimanded bv the vice-president 
on 2 and 15 June. The last reference 1o 
him is on the following 15 Dec, when he 
was paid 20s. for some songs. 

In the manuscript written by Thomas Mul- 
liner [q. v.], the musician is described as 

* Master Sheppard of the queenes chappell ; * 
but he is not mentioned in the cheque-book 
(Camden Society^ s Publicatio?is,lS72)f which 
begins in 1561. He was probably still alive 
in 1563, as an anthem by him, * O Lord of 
Hosts,* is included in the appendix to the 
four-voiced setting of the * Psalter ' published 
by John Day in that year. Another anthem 
by him, * Submit yourselves one to another,' 
was printed in Day's * Certayne notes . . . 
to be sung at the morning, communion, and 
evening praier' (1560), and * Morning and 
Evening Prayer, and Communion set forth in 
four parts ' (1565). Tallis's * I give you a new 
commandment,' from the same publications, 
has also been erroneously ascribed to Shep- 
herd, and was reprinted with his name in 
the 'Parish Choir' (1847). In Barnard's 
'Selected Church Musick' (1641) is another 
anthem in two sections, ' Haste Thee * and 
'But let all,' by Shepherd; and in some 
seventeenth-century choir-books at Durham 

Sne of which set is now in the British 
useum as Addit. MS. 30479) he is credited 
with the fine anthem still in use, 'O Lord, 
the Maker of all things,' which Barnard as- 
cribed to William Mundv* but Aldrich and 
Boyce to King Henry VlII, from whose 

* Prymer ' the words were taken. 

A large number of unpublished works by 
Shepherd are preserved in cathedral choir- 
books and in manuscripts at Buckingham 
Palace, the British Museum, the Royal Col- 
lege, and Christ Church, Oxford. They are 
mostly to Latin words, and are nearly all 
vocal. But there is a song with lute accom- 
paniment in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 4900 ; 
a pa van and a galliard for the lute in the 
Christ Church MSS., and some short organ 
' Versus' in Mulliner's book are purely in- 
strumental. Addit. MS. 29246 contains 
works by Shepherd arranged for the lute. 

Shepherd's most important works are four 
masses preserved in Addit. MSS. 17802-5, 
with four alleluias and ten motets. One of 
the masses is constructed on a secular tune, 

* Western wind, why dost thou blow ?' which 
has been also used for masses by Tye and 



TKVHrner in tlie stme set of part-books. As 
thete Are the onlj known iiutanctts of masses 
by Engli(^h composeri upon a secular theme, 
it i» probable tliat they were composed at 
the same time and in friendly emulntion. 
Another mms, ' Csntote,' ik in the part- books 
at the music school, Oxford. All these 
masses begin with the 'Oloria,' and contain 
no ' Kvrin elfiiRon.' A wparsle ' Kyrie' by 
flhophmi in A.l'lit. MSS. 30180^ is called 
by Itie i'ipvi-l ' ll"' tifJi sijuge in England.' 
Addji..M--<.l.-,li,iU".':;.-;i,und313()0 contain 
AnKliniiuliEiiLjli IIJII-.H- by SbEjiherd. Tlipre 
are lliirly-iiiiiL' Liilm umlets and an anibem 
by Slicplienl at Christ Churcb. Several others 
are in Ikldwin's manuscript at Buckingham 
Palaci', amon)[ them an anthem 'Steven lirst 
nfbir C'hrint,' a very weak production, which 
Hawkins unrnrtunately selectm) for publica- 
liiin in his ' ilialory of Music' Burney 
naluruUy ubjw:led to such a misrepresBntu- 
tion of 81iuiilierd'e powers. But the worst 
fiiiiltfl whicii Bumey adduced in the com- 
position prove upon collation with Bald- 
win'! manunoript to be due to a misprint in 
Iljiwkin". Hiinicy by way of reparation 
priuli'il III) ' I'NiiriiiiiliT;' by Shepherd, from 
thL- Cliri-i I'luinli |nir(-bnoks, and on the 

sin.-ritfili .pf It pr 1 i| Shepherd the best 

(virii|M--.i I III il.rin \ 1 U'm reign (cf. Ahdeos, 
Oi-ic/if/dr .1..- M,L,ih, L'd. Kade, iii. 458, 4fiO, 
who, hijwitvi^r, did not notice that ' Shep- 
tutrd,' a* Hawkins spelt thu name, wns the 
samo n» Shepherd), The appendix to Haw- 
kins's ' HistoiY ' contains a short but charm- 
ing ' Poynlu ' uy Shepherd, from the MuUiner 

Morlrjy [Plainf ami Eatie Introdiwtion to 
J'ractirnll Miuirh', 1507, p. 151) reckons 
Bhupherd with Favrfnx, TaTerner, W. 
Mondy, Tyy. Tnllis, Why to, and Uyrd, fts the 
' famous liiigliahrai'n nothing inferior to the 
best masters on tha continent.' Shepherd, 
who was probably bom after lo20, must, 
liowi}V(<r,berM'koned among the Klizsbethan 
mthoi" thmi the pre-ltoformation musicians, 
And was hardly eijual to several composers 
of tho mom advanced period. 

[Bloinm's Rsiiiiiters of Usgdalon CnlloKe, 
wl. ii. ; Wood's Fasti 0«ini»nsci, col. 708 ; Haw- 
kins's Hin'ory of Hufic, c. 70, tI3, and apprn- 
dis ; Vurnsy's Qsnsral History of Music, ii. SSfi, 
AST, iii. 4-0 : Ororc^ Dietiiuuiry of Mutii< and 
Mualoians. ii. 4SS. iii. 371, tM; WeiU's I)e- 
seriptive Cslalogasof th* Music Losn RxhiUlJaD 
of ISSS, p. 180; Dnvsy's History of English 
Music. PP' 135. U8. 100; MSS. imd works 
qnot«l.] H. D. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN (1 759-1805). divine, 
son of liicliar.l Shephnrd of Oodertliwaite. 
Cumberland, was born in I'JJOat Iteckenuet 

in Cumberland, lln received his educ 
at Arthuiet, near Lonslown, and in No- 
vember 1777 matriculated at Queen's College, 
Oxford. He graduated B.A. in I'Hil uud 
M,A. in 1787. In 1782 be took deacon's 
orders, in 1783 was ordained priest, and 
early in 1786 obtained the curacy of Pad- 
dington, London. Through his exertions the 
church was rebuilt between 1786 and 1791. 
In 1797 he hroudit out the Gist volume of 
his ' Critical and PmcticHl Elucidation of (he 
Book of Common Prayer.' The first edition 
was exhausted before the second volume was 
ready forthe press. A second edition of the 
firsivolumewesprepared and issued with the 
first edition of the second in 1798. In 1799 
Bishop Beilby Porteus [q. v.] conferred on 
him the perpetual curacy of Pattiswick in 
Essex. He died at Stiated on 2 May 1805. 
In 1783 he married Frances, niece of his 
euardian, John Benson of Egremont, Cum- 
berland. At the time of his death he was 
engaged on a third volume of his * Elucida- 
tion, hut it was never published. A fifth 
edition of the first volume and a fourth 
of the second appeared in 1830. 

[Meaioir by Eliza Sbepb^rd in the 3rd edition 
of vol. i. of tho Elucidation; Foator's Alomni 
Ozon. (later serifs); Oenc. Mag. ISOl), i. 491.] 
E.I. C. 

SHEPHERD, LUKE («. 1548-1654), 
poet, bom at Colchester in Essex, is called 
by Bale and others ' Opilio/a latinised form 
of bis surname. Bala considered his poetry, 
which was chiefly of a satirical churocter, 
not inferior to Skeltnn's {Seriplomm Illut- 
trium Mitjorix Britnnni/f Cafahgnt, ed. 1557- 
1559,p.lOD). Hemay withgreatprobability 
be identified with a certain ' Doctor Luke.' a 
physician of Colman Street, and a friend of 
Edward Underbill [q, v.] and other early re- 
formers. According to Strype, Luke was 
imprisoned in the Fleet in Ilenry \nir* 
reign for some of his pamphlet* (J3y/e»««ficn/ 
Memorials, 1822, n. i. 181-3). In 1548 he 
published a poem entitled ' John Bon and 
the Mast I'erson,' printed by John Day, an 
extremely powerful satire directed egalnst 
the real presence. It was reprinted in fac- 
simile, by .7. Smecton, in 1807 from the only 
copy extnnt, formerly in the {Ktssession of 
Richard Forater. and in 18iV2 it was edited 
for the Percy Society by William Henry 
Block (£<iW^£>i;;uiVi^fry, vol. XXI.) It is 
in the form of a conversation (in 164 rhym- 
ing lines) ' more resembling the religious 
plays of John Bale than the poetry of Sfcel- 
ton.' Sir John Gresham, lord msvor of 
London in 1347-8, was much incensed bj 
the accounts given him of the book, and d 




tmuined to iinprison John Daj the printer, 
Imt ftfler pemsiag & copjr, which Underhitl 
■howed him, became to the conclusion that 
it ITU ' bothe pylhia and meir,' and suf- 
fcred Da J to depart unpuniBhed. Luke, 
luwerer, appears to have been incarcerated 
in the Fleet for a eecond time, in the reign 
of M&rf , on account of this book. He was 
tha author of several other anonymous con- 
troversial pamphlets, and, according to War- 
ton, of a translation of some psafms, pub- 
lished about 1554 (//«(. Englith Pottry, iii. 

[Black's lalrodnctioD; Nichols's NarriLlireB of 
the Rcfonnatiun (Csmt). Soc. Fubl. 1859). pp. 
lTl-8, 32S-0 ; Holinnhed'a Chronicle, U%1, iii. 
1168; Br7<l;M'a C«nsuni Literaria, v. 277-80; 
Ama's Typogr. itntiq. ed. Herbert. 1786. i. 
819-20; Kitson's Biblioeraphia Poetics, 1802, 
p. 3S0.] E. I. C. 

1609), versitivr and theohigian, horn about 
1732, son of Henry Shepherd (d. 17W), vicar 
of Marebain-le-Fen, Lin coin si lire, matricu- 
Iat«d from Corpus Ohristi College, Oxford, 
on 1 Dec. 1749,at theage of seventeen. He 
gmduated n..\. 1753, M.A. 1767, B.D. 1705, 
andU.l). 17&8, and was elected probationary 
fellow in 17IS0. Ills first inten- 
tion was to follow a military life, but he 
took orders in the (English churcli. After 
residing for many years at Oxford, he became 
chaplain to Thomas Thurlow [q. v.], sue- I 
cessii'ely bishop of Lincoln and Durham, by - 
whose nomination he was installed on 
26 July 17H3 in the archdeaconry of Bed- I 
ford. In 1788 he' was Bampton lecturer at 
Oxford, publishing his lectures os ' Ground 
and Credibility of the Cliristian Religion,' , 
1788. ' Additional Discnursea' thereto were 
published by liim in 179*2, and three were 
republished by his son in 1&18, with the title 
' Salvation is of the Jews.' By the gift of 
Lord -chancel lor Thurlow he was iustitiited 
in 1793 to the rectory of Wetherden and 
llelminghem in Suffolk, and held these 
pivfunnents until his death at Wetherden, 
on 3 Jan. 1809, in his seventy-eighth year. 
He had been elected F.K.S. on 10 May 

The numerous works of Shepherd included, 
in addition to sermons and charges: 1. ' Ude 
to i»ve ' (anon.), 1756; this was afterwards 
reiiMued under the title of ' The Philologist. 

(an™.), 1750; 2nd fid. 1768. 3. 'Odes, De- 
scriptive and Allegorical' (anon.), 1761. 
4. 'The Nuptials, a didactic Poem in three 
books' (anon.), 1761. 5. 'Hector, a dra- 
matic Poem" (anon.), 1770. 6. 'Bianca.a 

Tragedy,' 1772 (roost of the above wera 
reprinted in 'Miscellanies,' 2 vols. 1776). 

7. ' Reflections on Materialism, addressed to 
Priestley; by Philalethes Rusticans,' 1779. 

8. ' Eiamination of the Socinian Exposition 
of the Prefatory Verses of St, John's Gospel,' 
1781. 9. 'Essay on Education, in a Letter 
to William Jones,' 1782. 10. ' Polyxnus'a 
Stratagems of War,' translated from the 
original Greek, 1793; this had lain in his 
desk for more than thirty years, when Lord 
Cumwallisadvisedits publication. 11. 'Notes 
on the Gospel and Epistles of St. John,' 
1790 : new ed. 1841, edited by his son. 
12. 'ThenewBoethius; or of the Consola- 
tion of Christianity,' 1806. 13. ' Religious 
Union perfective, and the support of Civil 
Union ' (anon.). 1807. 14. ' NoFaise Alarm, 
or a Sequel to Religious Union,' 1808. 

[Foster's Alumni Oion. 1716-1886 ; KIchole's 
Lit. Ane(!dolfs, ii. 328-9, 361 ; Gent. Mng. 180«, 
i. Bl-2; Halkettund Lnlng's Anon. Lit. pp. 11180, 
1761, 1802-3, 2109, 218M, 2194.] W. P. C. 


(1842-189f)), bihliographor, horn ot Chelsea 
early in 1842, was a voungcr son of Samuel 
Shepherd, F.S.A. Ills grandfather, Richard 
Heme Shepherd (1775-I8.WJ, was from 1818 
to 1849 a well-known 'revivalist ' preacher 
at Che Ranelagh Chapel, Chelsea, and pub- 
lished, besides sermons and devotional works, 
a volume of meditative verse entitled 'Ga- 
therings of Pifty Years ' (1843). 

The younger Richard was educated largely 
at home, developed a taste for literature, and 
published at the age of sixteen a copy of 
verses entitled 'Annus Morions' (1858). In 
1861 he issued an essay on. ' The School of 
Pantagruel,' in which ho traced ' Panta- 
gruelism ' in England from Rochester to 
Sterne. Subsequently he edited booksellers' 
editions of the classics, including Blake's 
' Poems ' (1808 and 1874>, SJietlev's ' Poems' 
(1871), Lamb's ' Poetry for Children' (1872 
and I878i. Chapman's 'Works' (1874), 
Lamb's 'Works' (1875), Ebenczer Jones's 
'Poems' (1879), Poe's 'Works' (1884), 
Dickens's 'Speeches' (1884), Dickens's 'Plays 
and Poems '(1885), and Shelley's 'Prose 
Works' (1888). In 1860 he puhlished 
'Translations from lleuudelaire ' ireissued 
1877, 12mo1; in 1873 he printed, with notes, 
Coleridge's forgotten tragedv " Oaorio,'nnd in 
1875 ' The Lover's Tale ' (of 1833) and other 
early nncollected poems of Tennyson (un- 
earthed from albums aud periodicals'). Fifty 
copies were privately printed in 1875, but 
the volume was suppressed by injunction in 
the court of chancery. In 1878 he published 
Mrs. E. Barrett Browning's ' Earlier Poems ' 

without the Msent of the writ«r'sliviiig repre- 
aentAlivn, nrho warmlv resented his action. 
In tbA like character of literary chifibnnier, 
be prepan^ editioiu in the same yeu of ihe 
* Jurtmilia' of IjOugftHow and Moore : and 
'Sultan Storlc,' a Toliime of Juvenile pieces 
by Thackeraj, in 1887. In 1878 there ap- 
peared an agreeable pasticcio of biographical 
and biblii^raphical goasi|i in his ' Walton- 
iana.' Next year he obtained 150/. damnHfs 
from the' Atlienieum' newspaper for an 'in- 
jurious review ' of las revised edition of 
LsmVa ■ Poelrr for Children.' In 1881 he 
issued a dull ' Memoir of Thntnas Cnrlyle.' 
some p&ssiige« in which had to be cancelled. 
Meanwhile hecloMlystudied modern bihli 

S870), Diekena (1880, revised 
ersy (1881, remeil 1887 and 
appeoded M • Sultan Stork '1, Carlyle (1881), 
Mr. A. C. Swinburne (1883 and 18871, 
and Tennyson (issued posthumously in 1696, 
being an expansion of ' Tennysoniana,' 1860 
and 1879). He died in London on 15 July 
1895. At the time of his death he waspre- 
pariuB a bibliography of Coleridge for 'Notes 
and Queries,' to which he was a frequent 

[Uemnir of the Rev. R. H. Sbepherd. ny bis 
■nns. ISj4 (with portmil); Shepherd's Biblio- 
graphy of ToonysoD. 189S (prefelory DOte) ; 
T{m«.30 July 1895; Athenaeum, 187S. 1879, 
ISSl.nna ISSJ ii. 333.] T. S. 

1840), lawyer, bom on 8 April 1760, was 
the son of ajeweller in London, a friend of 
Oarrick, and a dabbler in poetry. An epi- 
gram bv the father is quoted in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine,' 1 805, i. 110. The boy was 
at the Merchant Taylors' school from 1773 
to 1774, and was then at a school at Chis- 
wick, probably that of Dr. William Hose. 
In July 1776 he was entered at the Inner 
Temple, where he became pupil of Serjeant 
Charlea Runtiington [q. v,], who married his 
sister in 1777. On 23 Nov. 1781 he was 
called to the bar. 

Shepherd went the home circuit, and soon 
acquired a considerable practice both on 
circuit and in the court of common pleas. 
Lord MansBeld complimented him, Buller 
gave him sound advice, and Kenyon re- 
marked ' he had no rubbish in his head.' 
With Erskine he spent many long vacations 
in travel. About 1790 he began to sulTer 
from deafness, and this infirmity increused : 
as years passed away. In 1703 he declined 
the dignity of king's counsel, hut he was 
created aerjeant-at-l aw in Easier term 1796, 
and in the following Trinity term became ! 

king's aeijeant. On the death of Si-:jeant 
Cockell ho rose to be king's aucitrnt ser- 

The Prince of Wales made Shepherd hi* 
solicitor-geneTal in June 1812, and about 
Christmas 1813 he was appointed solicitor- 
general to the crown. He was knighted on 
11 May 1814, and in the spring of 1817 
was made attorney-general. Trom 11 April 
1813 to June 1819 be sat in parliament for 
Dorchester. In the House of Commons he 
brought in the foreirn enlistment bill, and 
the bill abolishing ' tlie wager of battle and 
the right of appeal in felony.' In the law 
courts his chief cases were Ibe prosecution 
in June 1817 of James Watson |176(!-1838) 
[q. T.] for high treason at the Spa Fields 
meeting in the previous December {State 
Trials, xxiii. 36-56), and that of Richard 
Carlile [a. v.] for publishing I'aJne's ' Age of 


\t Shepherd was a sound 
', wlio but Ic ' " ' - • ■ - - 
have filled to _ 
highest positions in his profess 
fused the two offices of chief justice ofthe 
kiiig's bench and of the common pleas, which 
became vacant in the long vacation of 1818, 
as he had made up his mind ' never to ac- 
cept a judicial olface involving the trial of 
prisoners.' The objection did not apply to 
the post of lord chief baron of the court of 
exchequer in Scotland, which he held from 
June 1810 to February 1830. He was raised 
to the privy council on 23 July 1810. 

Shepherd became very popular in Edin- 
burgh society, and was on terms of clcee in- 
timacy with Sir Walter Scott, who praises 
' the neatness and precision, closeness and 
truth ' of his conversation, the perfect good 
humour and suavity of his manner, ' with a 
little warmth of temper on suitable occa- 
sions.' Scott never saw a man bo patient 
under such a distressing malady. Tll-heallh 
forced Shepherd to resign his post in 1830, 
when he retired, to the deep regret of Edin- 
burgh society, to a cottage at Streatley in 
Berkshire, where he owned a small property. 
For the lost three years of his life he was 
blind. He died on 3 Nov. 1340, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Streatley, where 
a monument was erected to bis memory. 
Lord Campbell praises his knowledge of Eng- 
lish literature. He and his friend William 
Adam, lord chief commissioner of the jury 
court, presented in 1834 to the Bannatyne 
Club, of which thev were members, a volume 
ofthe 'Ragman Roll9'(1291-U'96). lie was 
also a member of the Blair-Adam Club, of 
which William Adam and Sir Walter Scott 
were leaders, and joiued in the dub'a n 




excursions ; but his alarm at the Scotch *cra^ 
and precipices ' once drew from Scott a tirade 
against cockneyism. A portrait of him was 
published on 24 April 1812 by J. D. Mont- 
ague of Southwark. 

He married, in 1783, a Miss White, whom 
Scott pronounced ' fine and fidgety/ She died 
at Hyde Park Terrace, London, on 24 March 
1833, aged 74. Their son, Henry John Shep- 
henl (1783 P-1855), bencher of Lincoln's Inn 
(K.C. 1834), recorder of Abingdon, and com- 
missioner of bankrupts, was author of 'A 
Summary of the Law relating to the Elec- 
tion of Members of Parliament,' 1826 ; 3rd 
edit. 1830; and of * Pedro of Castile,' a poem, 
1838. He died at Caversham, near Oxford, 
on 21 May 1846 (Gent Mag, 1865, ii. 108). 
He married, on 11 April 1808, Lady Maiy 
(1777-1847), second daughter of Neil Prim- 
rose, third earl of Rosebery. She was author 
of three philosophical treatises. The niece 
of Sir Samuel was the first wife of his inti- 
mate friend John Singleton Copley (after- 
wards Lord Lyndhurst) [q. v.] 

[Law Mag. XXV. 289-310 (by H. J. Shepherd, 
a few copies struck off separately) ; Gent Mag. 
1833 i. 378, 1841 i. 315; Scott's Letters, ii. 
350; Scott's Journal, i. 51, 57-8, ii. 336; 
Lockhart's Scott, t. 22-3, 80-1, vi. 167-8, 
323, vii. 127, 208; Robinson's Merchant Tay- 
lors' School, ii. 137; Woolrych's Serjeants, ii. 
813-49; Martin's Lyndhurst, p. 155; Camp- 
bcll's Lord Chancellors, viii. 16; Campbell's! 
Chief Justices, iii. 89, 289 ; Life of Lord Camp- 
boll , i. 1 99 ; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (1813), 
ii. 406.] W. P. C. 

SHEPHERD, WILLIAM (1768-1847), 
dissenting minister and politician, was bom 
in Liverpool on 11 Oct. 1768. His father, 
a respectable tradesman, took an active part 
in the political life of that town, of which 
he was a freeman, and died in 1772. His 
mother, Elizabeth {d, 1787), was daughter 
of Benjamin Mather, dissenting minister at 
Over Darwen. Under the supervision of his 
uncle, Tatlock Mather {d, 1785), minister of 
a presbyterian (unitarian) congregation at 
Bainford, near Prescot, William was suc- 
cessively educated at Ilolden's academy near 
Rainford from 1776 to 1782, by the Rev. 
Philip Holland [q. v.] from 1782 to 1785, at 
the dissenting academy at Daventry from 
1785 to 178S under Dr. Thomas Belsham 
[q. v.l and at the New College, Hackney, 
from 1788 to 1790 under Belsham, Kippis, 
and IVice. On the completion of his aca- 
demic course in 1790 he became tutor to the 
sons of the Rev. John Yates of Toxteth Park , 
chapel, Liverpool, and while thus engaged 
made the acquaintance of William Roscoe ' 
[q.v.], who greatly influenced his tastes and . 

character. In 1791 he became minister of 
the presbyterian (unitarian) chnpel at Gate- 
acre, near Liverpool, and on marrying next 
year Frances, daughter of Robert Nicholson, 
merchant of Liverpool, moved to the old par- 
sonage, *Tbe Nook,* Gateacre. There he 
opened a school, which he long carried on 
with great success . An enthusiast for civil 
and religious liberty, he in May 1794 went 
to London to visit his friend and college com- 
panion at Hackney, Jeremiah Joyce [q. v.], 
who had been committed to the Tower on a 
treasonable charge. When the Rev. Gilbert 
Wakefield [q. v.] was sentenced in 1799 to 
two years' imprisonment. Shepherd took 
charge of his son and eldest daughter, besides 
visiting Wakefield in Dorchester gaol. On 
27 May 1796 he was enrolled a burgess of 
Liverpool, and took an active part in muni- 
cipal affairs in the advanced liberal interest. 
He was an eloquent speaker, and several of 
his speeches were printed. 

Meanwhile Shepherd devoted himself to 
literary work. His interest in Italian 
literature, aroused by his friendship with 
William Roscoe, led to his publication in 
1802 of a 'Life of Poggio Bracciolini/ Lon- 
don, 4to (2nd ed. 8vo, Liverpool, 1837), and 
he edited for private circulation, from the 
manuscript in the Royal Library at Paris, 
* P. Bracciolini . . . Dialogus an seni sit uxor 
ducenda,* 4to (Liverpool, 1807 ). The * Life,* 
which was received with general approba- 
tion, was translated into French, German, 
and Italian, and on 10 July 1834 the senate 
of the university of Edinburgh conferred on 
him the degree of LL.D. On 17 Nov. 1829 his 
wife died, and the management of his house- 
hold passed to his adopted child, Hannah, 
the youngest daughter of his old friend, Jere- 
miah Joyce. He died at * The Nook,' Gate- 
acre, 21 July 1847, and was buried in the 
yard of the chapel. A marble tablet in the 
chapel, with inscription by tlie first Lord 
Brougham, was erected in 1850, and is sur- 
mounted by a bust in marble, the work of 
Isaac Jackson of Liverpool. His fine library 
was sold in Liverpool in December 1848. 

Of the numerous portraits of Dr. Shepherd, 
the best is that by T. H. Illidge, whicn now 
hangs in the Art Gallery of Liverpool. 
There are other portraits by Cornelius Hen- 
derson (at Brougham Hall, ISU) and by 
Moses Haughton (watercolour), in the 
possession of the Rev. George Eyre Evans of 
Whitchurch. A fourth has bi-en twice en- 
graved, by Robert William Sievier, and by 
Thomson for the notice of SliepluTd in the 
'Imperial Magazine 'for April 1*^21. A fine 
miniature on ivory of ShepluTj as a young 
man is in the Manchester College, Oxford. A 


Sheppard 58 Sheppard 

Ku-t p'^irrai*. l.:--.iL2r:. hr a 1 irti-r. Lid •.Lll-iren** talw^i and some poems by her. 

a U%-^ -jilr. T^h-i i* said t- Lave sometimes employed the 

Ap^ir iVim ^fi- ':rorr:^ no'.ic-d. pi mp :.!-:.<. p^tr'idonym of K. B-r^r. a French renderuig 

ar.'i — rrr.r-r.-. >:;-{■ r.^.-'iS ci.:-: p-blu-a*: jcs of h-rro'^'n surname. 

^■-re: 1. • Kv^r>- Mar. Li^-iTim I'lr-or..* li'm). 'A/.i-o-r', Di::. ii. 2..:5. The articles in iho 

Li^rrj.v/.. i:'.*l. 1'. *TL- Div^ 11:=- A:l..--.i- M.-.thlj. June and October 1862, 

T'.rv 'jI J-',\in liill ar.l I'ro'i.-r J^^aarLar./ in p..::-;iin n f-:w i^w'ls. ba: are absurdly eulogistic 

* lAVrrypfA yhrciry.' l-Io. -i. 'Pari* in it :«jr.e.' " E. L. 
l-'jii and 1-14.' '*v:j. I^^nijn. 1SI4: 'Jzid rd. 

r. ..Ix^ni^.n, I-U. 4. • .Systematic Eiuca- SHEPPARD, SiR FLEETWOOD 

OfTi, ^rit*»ri in cor.i'incrion wi:h J. Joyce i l»J-'i4-U3'.»'*», p'jet and courtier, bom 1 Jan. 

ar.'i L. C;»rp. nrrr, rvo. Lon Lm. l^lo: i'nd 1^^53-4 and bapti^Ki .^n iHJ Jan., was second 

'"^l. "vo, I^jn'iin. l-ir : :Jrd r;d-ixvirhplatesi s^^^n of William Sheppard, esq., of Great 

*J V ,!-. rvo, I^-^nlon. l-iM. 'j. * Th»? Fatal Kollri^ht. near Chippinj Norton, Oxford- 

ElTwr-! of Ji'rii.'ionilnroWriince/ >vo. Liver- phirt^, by Maria lor Mary), dauffhtt^r of Sir 

y/^tlf l"]*'}. *i. • P'>rms original anil trans- FI ►ret wood Dorm-^r of Grange, Buck in gham- 

laTrd,' 1 'Jmn, Lon'ion, 1 -I'V. shire. His father ' the son of William Shep- 

^^r^,J,^.-,M.r;:^i^^.f .Sb-:.erd.rriTat,.Iv pard and I»or.Drhy,Mster of Sir John Osborne, 

pr ;/.: :; Im;. ri.^. MH_^ I8Jl. p. 378 : Alhlone's r.-m^nibrancer ol the exchequer) was in 1044 

l) -r.. ^f L:-.. r-fur.: : inf ,r:..H-i-.n intbr. bar..'..* of * -^l^i" hy one ot the kmsrs soldiers, as the 

tf..: -.vrlN r, ;.i, t:.- .-.*•. r.-ph- a:.] A. N. pan^h register— or MfW/*#jAi/^ as the * Alumni 

Oxonienses* — has it ; he was buried at IloU- 

SHEPPARD, ELIZ.VHETII SARA rislit on :> Oct. l^U 4. leaving his wife with 

( 1 <'^)-\*yrJ. I. iiovfli***. duuirhter of a clerirv- sev^n children. She died in January 1047. 

ifinn of th»f rhunh of Kn^Mand who was on Fl»'etwo'4 matriculated at Oxford on 

hii rnotii*-r*a .-id»r of J'-wi-h d^;sc^:nt, wasbom 19 Xov. 1*>>0, and entereil as a commoner 

H' iilufkh'.ath in I'rW. Her father soon at Magdalen Hall; but soon after migrated 

d;»vl.w;Thoiir I'-fivintrprovi-ion for his family, to Christ Chun*h, where he was nominated 

\i*:T motb^jr ^ip-ned a nclnKil. An accim- to a studentship, probably through the in- 

IiIhIjM linj:!ji-t in Kre'.'k, Latin, Hebrew, terest of the Ciimarvon family, to whom he 

•*r»:noh, und German, lOlizabeth was also a was dnubly related: his mother's brother, 

rMpjible mii-icinn, and taiiTrht music in her Peter Dormer, married his fnthers sister, 

niofherV -rliool. At tlie a;re of sixteen she Ann Sheppard, on 17 May 1<>37. 

\t*-'jM\ li*-r novi;l, *Cliarl"?» Auchester.' She He graduated B.A. on 10 May 1654, and 

f*eiit. tlie mfiiiu*cript to IVninmiu Disraeli, M.A. on 11 June 1(>)7, and, declining to take 

who forwjird*'! it to hi.s publisher, and wrote orders, entered as a student at Gray's Inn 

to tbi; nurhor, * No LTeut^-r ly^ok will ever be on 14 Oct. l<>*)7. He did not apparently 

written upon mu.-ic, niid it will one day be lenve (.)xford until after the Restoration, 

reco^jni^ed >iii the ini.'i^ii nil live classic of that Then, according to Wood, he * retired to 

rJivine art.' It was piibli^lied in ISoo in London, hanged on the court, became a 

tlip'e volume!., wit li a (ledicationtf» the author debauchee and an at heist, a grand companion 

of * r* mtariui Fleminir.' No name ajqiears with fCharles Sackville" Lord Buckhurst 

on th" titl'j-piige. The story is crude, and 'afterwards P2arl of Dorset, q. v.], Henry 

Di-'rM»;li'M eulM;ri?,tic proj>liecy was not ful- Savile, and others.' He satirised in verse 

lillir'l. Miw- >bej,j»ard modelled herself on contemporary follies, and soon acquired con- 

Di-r.'iell, ;jnd, like him, portrayed real cha- siderable reputation as a critic and a wit. 

rieti-r^ in h«T novels. Jn *riiarles Auchester* In 1*178 Thomas Rymer [q. y." addressed to 

Senipha»'l i- snj»posed to represent Men- him in the form of a letter his critical essay 

rb-l-i-fihn. .\notlier novel, * Counterparts, on * The Tragedies of the Last Ages.' 
OP til" CroKs of Love,' publislied in three' To Lord Buckhurst, whose acquaintance 

volumes in I '^.'i J, was dedicated to Mrs. he probably first made about 1064, Sheppard 

D -raeli. A s'-eond edition aj)peared in 1^<jO. seems to have owed such success in life as 

M inH Sheppanl di»d at Brixton on 13 March he achieved. It is doubtful if his virtue was 

I'^'I-. superior to his patron's. A satirical Latin 

Oilier work-4 by her are: 1. * ^ly First epitajjh (6Vw^ Mwf. 1778) describes Sliep- 

Seav»n,' by I'M'sitrice lieynolds, edited by the panl as an ardent votary of Apollo, Bacchus, 

nmhor of * Charles Aufdiester,' Isoo; :>nd and Venus. Wood tells us that Dorset often 

edit. IhC,!. i>. *The Double Coronet,' L* yols. ^ accompanied Sheppard on visits tohisbn^ther 

l^.V;. :j. ' IJumour: a Novel,' .'i vols. IHoN. at Great Rollright. In 1674 Dorset esta- 

4. •.Mmost a Heroine,' Is.VJ. Allibone also Wished his protegA at Copt Hall, where he 
mentions 'Round the Fire' (a collection of. passed much time thenceforth. Buckhurst 


introduced Sheppard to Killiffrew, Henry 
Savile, Bab May, Hochester, Mulgrave, and 
most of Charles 11*8 profligate courtiers. 
When Dorset went to Paris to visit Henry 
Saviloythe English ambassador there, in IGSl, 
Sheppard went with him ; Wood addjs, ' They 
enjoyed themselves in talking blasphemy and 
atheism, in drinking, and perhaps in what is 

More interesting acquaintances which 
Sheppard made while associated with Dorset 
were Nell Gwyn, for a time his patron's 
mistress [see Gwyn, Elexnor], and Matthew 
Prior, then a mere lad. After Nell Gwyn 
had become Charles II's mistress, and had 
borne the king a first son, Charles Beauclerk 
fa. v.], Sheppard was appointed her steward. 
lie seems to have managed all her financial 
business, and the large fortune which she 
ac(|uired at court was doubtless for a time 
in his charge. Subsequently he seems to 
have become tutor to her son Charles, when 
Earl of Burford. 

There seems little doubt that Sheppard 
first recognised Prior's promise when he 
visited the Kummers, the tavern kept by 
Prior's uncle, and noticed the future poet 
serving behind the bar. It was when Dorset 
one day called for Sheppard at the tavern, 
that the latter pointed out young Matthew 
to his patron and roused Dorset's interest in 
the lau, according to the well-known story. 
Prior in his * First Epistle ' to Sheppard, 
which is dated 1689, although probably 
written in 1688, attests this version of the 
facts. Prior reminds Sheppard : 

Now as you took me up when little, 
(rrtvo me my learning and my vittle; 
Asked for me, from my Lord, things fitting, 
Kind as I'd been your own begetting, 
CoDfirm what formerly you've given. 
Nor leave me now at six and seven. 

In May 1689 Prior sent Sheppard a second 
amusing epistle, in which he longs to get 
back to town, * when fate and you think fit.' 
In the next year Prior came back, and by 
Shepj>ard's good offices was soon appointed 
secretary to Lord Dursley (afterwards the 
Earl of Berkeley). 

Sheppard was a ffrata persona at Charles 
Il's court. lie seems to have been in receipt of 
an income of 200/. a year, perhaps on account 
of the services he rendered to Nell Gwyn and 
her son. But the payment was irregularly 
made. His name only figures twice in the 
accounts of Charles II's secret-service money 

With the king's brother James he was no 
favourite, and on James*s accession to the 
throne Sheppard retired from court to Copt 



Hall, where he wrote a satirical * Expla- 
nation of King James*s Declaration,' which 
was reprinted in 1693. With the revo- 
lution fortune a^ain smiled on Sheppard. 
Dorset was appointed lord chamberlain in 
1689, and in the following year Sheppard 
became one of the gentleman ushers to 
William III, with a lodging at Whitehall. 
A disastrous fire took place there in ISIay 
1693. On 25 April 1694 Sheppard was 
appointed usher of the black rou, on the 
death of Sir Philip Duppa, and was knighted 
on the following day (Luttrell). Sir 
Philip Carteret claimed the reversion of the 
office, and presented a patent from Charles 
II assigning it to him. A lawsuit followed, 
but in the end Sheppard kept the place. 
Bliss seems to think {Life of Wood) that 
Sheppard had himself — for a consideration — 
procured this patent for Carteret, and quotes 
m support of the conjecture a remark of 
Swift ; ' Old courtiers will tell you twenty 
stories of Killigrew, Fleetwood Sheppard, 
and others who would often sell places that 
were never in being, and dispose of others a 
good pennyworth before they were vacant.' 
XVhen, in 1696, the House of Commons 
presented an address to the king, Shep- 
pard as black rod, by his majesty's com- 
mand, took all the members to the king*s 
cellar, where they drank the king's health 

Sheppard died unmarried at Copt Hall on 
25 Aug. 1698 (Luttrell), and was buried 
at Great Rollright on 6 Sept. I^etters of 
administration were granted to his brother 
Dormer on 6 Oct. He had already in 1691 
written his epitaph inside Lord Dorset's 
Prayer Book at Copt Hall, but it did not 
see the light until nearly a century after- 

Sheppard remained to the end a patron of 
the poets. * All who write would fain please 
Sheppard,' says the author of * Poems in 
Burlesque 'in 1693. His own poetic com- 
positions, which Rochester credited with 
* fiuent style and coherent thought,' consist 
of fugitive verses on passing events, and were 
published in contemporary miscellanies. 
They have not been collected independently. 
His longest and wittiest piece, * The Calendar 
Reformed ; or, a pleasant Dialogue between 
Pluto and the Saints in the Elysian Fields, 
after Lucian's Manner; written by Sir Fl. 

Sh rd, in the year 1687,' as well as some 

satirical lines * Upon an old affected Court 
Lady,' may be found in * State Poems,' Lon- 
don 1704; 'The Countess of Dorset's Peti- 
tion for Chocolate ' is in ^ A New Miscellany 
of Original Poems,' London, 1701. 

The Margaret Sheppard who was gover- 



ness to an English merchant's family in 
Stockholm, and wrote under the signature 
of * Leonora ' two * moving ' letters to the 
editor of the 'Spectator' (Nos. 140, 163, 
anno 1711), is stated to have been a col- 
lateral descendant of Sir Fleetwood • of 
facetious memory' (cf. Chalmers, British 
Essayists, 1823, vol. v. p. Ixvi ; Say Papers, 
ap. 3fonthfy Repository, 1809, pp. 303 sq.) 

[Rollright Registers ; Athene Oxon. ; Alamni 
Oxon. ; Luttrell's Brief Narration ; Hatton Corre- 
spondence; Pepys's Diary; Priors Poems; 
work:} cited in text. There api>ears in the 
Annual Register (Septcmb«»r 1768, p. 175) the 
erroneous statement : * There is now living, at 
his sent in Ensex, Sir Fleet woo^i Sheppard (a 
friend of the late celebrated Mr. Prior), who is 
in perfect health, thoughal the age of 1 20 years *]. 

H. F. S. 

SHEPPABJ), JOHN (1702-1724), cri- 
minal, known as Jack Sheppard, son of 
Thomas Sheppard, an honest carpenter of 
SpitalBelds (whose father and grandfather 
had likewise been carpenters), was born at 
Stepney in December 1702. His father died 
early in 1703, leaving several children. An 
elder brother, Thomas, went to sea, but took 
to thieving in 1723, and was transported in 
July 1724. John, brought up in the work- 
house of Bishopsgate, seems to have begun 
life as a cane-chair mender, but, being ill- 
used, deserted his master. He was befriended 
by Mr. Kneebone, a wooUendraper, who 
had employed his father. Kneebone, whose 
attentions he acknowledged b^ robbing at a 
later date, taught him to write and cipher, 
and apprenticed him to Owen Wood, a car- 
penter of Wych Street. At the Black Lion 
in Drury Lane, hard by, Sheppard fell into 
bad company, making the acquaintance of 
a loose woman, Bess Lyon or * Edgeworth 
Bess,* who, with another girl, known as Poll 
Maggott, incited him to most of his crimes. 
The first larceny recorded against him was 
the theft of two silver spoons from the 

* Rummer Tavern,' Charing Cross, celebrated 
in Hogarth's picture of * Xight.' A further 
robbery of a bale of fustian came to the ears 
of his master, whom he left in September 
1723 for a lodging in May Fair, at the 
western extremity of Piccadilly. Thence 
he subsequently removed with * Edgeworth 
Bess ' to Parson's Green. At the close of 
1723 he was brought up as a runaway ap- 
prentice on a warrant to St. Clement's 
Koundhouse, but his old master Owen Wood 
procured his release. Thenceforth, Sheppard 
avows, ' I fell to robbing almost every one 
that stood in mv way.' His chief ally was 

* Blueskin ' (Joseph Blake). In ADril'l724, 
owing to the treachery of hi^tauer Tho- 


mas and another associate, he was com- 
mitted to St. Giles's Roundhouse, but he 
skilfully made his escape. Like adventures, 
distinguished by unparalleled coolness and 
impudence, followea in quick succession. 
On Whit Monday, 25 May 1724, he broke 
out of New Prison, where he was awaiting 
trial on a charge of stealing a gentleman's 
watch. His escape involved getting rid of 
his irons, cutting through a double grille of 
oaken and iron b&rs, descending twenty-five 
feet by means of a sheet and blanket, and 
then scaling a wall of twenty-two feet, which 
he surmounted with a companion on his 
back. In June and July scarce a day passed 
without a theft, a highway robbery, or a 
burglary. L'nluckily for himself, Sheppard 
had either offended or alarmed Jonathan 
Wild [q. v.], who was not only the largest 
broker of stolen goods in London, but was 
also informer-in-chief against thieves. Wild 
effected his capture in Rosemary Lane on 
23 July. 

Sheppard was tried at the Old Bailey on 
14 Aug. and condemned to death, but, owing 
to the absence of the court at Windsor, his 
warrant was not signed until the end of the 
month. On 31 Aug., with the help of a file, 
supplied by the ingenuity of Poll Maggot and 
' Edgeworth Bess, he managed to escape from 
the condemned hold (cf. Weekly Journal, 
5 Sept. 1724), and, after a short excursion into 
Northamptonshire, returned to his accus- 
tomed haunts and practices. Though well 
known in the neighbourhood of Wych Street, 
no one dared lay hands on him ' for fear of 
pistols.* Eventually, on 10 Sept., Sheppard 
and a friend Page were seized near Fincliley 
Common by a posse of armed men, led by 
Austin, one of the turnkeys through whose 
hands he had lately slipped. In spite of the 
heavy shackles with which he was now 
laden, he manacred to secrete a small file 
(found in his Biole on 12 Sept.) and a com- 
plete set of tools (found in the rushes of his 
chair on 16 Sept.) He was consequently 
removed to a stronger part of the prison, 
known as the *■ Castle,' and chained with two 

Sonderous iron staples to the floor. On Sun- 
ay, 13 Sept., * a vast concourse * flocked to 
see him in > ewgate, the chapel being crowded. 
On 16 Sept. his keepers, having carefully in- 
spected his irons at 2 p.m., left him for the 
remainder of the day. Sheppard thereupon 
effected his last and'most remarkable escape. 
After freeing himself of his manacles and 
snapping the chains that held him to the 
floor, he removed a stout iron bar from the 
chimney, up which he climbed. Aftpr forcing 
the heavily bolted doors of many atrong 
rooms by an almost incredible exertion (U 



CIrength and ingenuity, lie found himself 
upon tlie upper leads, but it v/aa necessary 
for btm to Ktrace his steps to his call and 
wcuK bis lilanket before he could let him- 
•«lf down the twtiity feet which inter- 
vened between him and the adjoining roof 
of a turner's house. This he entered bj a 
garret window, and tbence slipped unob- 
■ecved into the purlieus of SmitnGeld (cf. 
Griffiths, Chronhlfi of Newgate, p. 1H6). 
Passing down Cray's Inn Lane into the fields, 
he spent two or three days in an old house 
by Tottenbam Court. On the Monday, five 
iditya after the escape, he went to a cellar 
by Charing Cross, where all were ' dis- 
coursing' about. Sheppard.' He was well sup- 
plied with money, which had been advanced 
To him on account of his dying speech. lie 
next broke into a pawnbroker's in Drury 
Li8ne and decked himself nut in smart clothes, 
knd drove in a coach, with the windows 
down, past Newgate. On Friday be treated 
liis mother to three quarterns of brandy at 
the cheers Tavern, May pole Alley, near 
Clare Market, and then drunk himself silly, 
in which stale he was captured and taken 
back to Newgate. The turnkeva found com- 
penaation for the obloquy to which his escapes 
had exposed tl ' ' " " ■^ ■ ' ' 
to all visitors. 

Jay until 16 Nov., when hi 
Tyburn was witnessed by over two hundred 
thousand people. A riotwhich broke out in re- 
ftard to tne disposal of the corpse had to 
"be quelled by the military with nied baj-o- 
nels. Jle was buried in the old churchyard 
of St. Martin'a-in-the-Fielde (where the 
National Oallery now stands). His coflin 
■was discovered by some workmen in 18(16 
neit to that of the philanthropist, George 
Herlot (TiBMa, 18 Oct. l§flfi). 

The journals celebrated him in prose and 
Terse, and the ' British Journal ' (4 Dec.) had 
k dialogue between 'John Sheppard and 
Julius UEESar.' Chapmen rang Ins exploits 
down arery Street, and divines exhorted their 
flocks to emulate him, in a spiritual sense, by 
mounting the chimney of hope to the leads 
of divine meditation. The ' Uarleauin Shep- 
pard,' by John Thurmond (London, 1725, 8vo), 
■was produced at Drury Lane in December 
17^'! : and the ' Prison Breaker,' written for 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in lT2o (London, 8vo), 
■was altered for Bartholomew Fair as the 
*QuaterB'Opera'ini:28 (Gekest, x. 157). 
In more recent times, as a hero of burlesque, 
* Jack ' has found exponents in such actresses 
«■ 3Irs. Keeley and Miis Nellie Farren. A 
more lasting fame was conferred by Hacri- 
■on Ainaworth'a ably written romance of 
' Jack Sheppard ' (it first appeared in ' Bent- 

ley's Magazine' in 1&40), which was illus- 
trated by some of Cruiksbank's best cuts. 

The proclamation for Sheppard's apprehen- 
sion after his second escape describes him 
' as about twenty-two, five feet 4 inches in 
height, very slender, of a pale compleikion, 
with on impediment in his speech.' Whila 
in his cell, Sheppard sat to the first portrait- 
painter of the day, Sir James Thornhill. The 
rsrtrail, a three-quarter length, dated 5 Nov. 
724, depicts him, a mere boy, sitting in hia 
cell with handcuffs; in the print-room of the 
Britiah Museum is a facsimile of Thornhill'a 
sketch, which was mezzotinted by G. White, 
and has been frequently^ reproduced (cf. 
^anB.Meiintinto PortraiU,'[e>'ia). An en- 
graving, by Hawkins and Simpson, represeutfl 
him in the New Prison, and an anonymous 
' True Effigies ' shows ' the exact manner of 
his confinement in the Castle Room, New- 

The freebooter is Co be distinguished from 
B contemporary 'beardless villain,' or rather 
craxy youth, named James Shepherd or Shep- 
perd (1087-1718), who in January 1717-18, 
having been 'a great frequenter of Jacobita 
conventicles,' committed to paper and sent 
to a nonjuriug minister, John Leake, a ' de' 
sign for Btniting the usurper [i.e. George II 
in his palace.' Leake in alarm communicated 
the letter's contents to Alderman Sir John 
Fryer, and Shejiherd was committed to New- 
gate, tried for high treason before the recorder, 
and (with misplaced severity in the case 
of one who was clearly half insane) hanged 
on 17 March 171S, on the same day with 
the Marchese Paleoiti. A nonjuring priest; 
named Orme gave him absolution at Tyburn 
(Olumisox, iii. (i54, 600; DoBiN, Jacobite 
Lundon, vol. i. ; Hut. Reg. 1718, passim). 

(' A NBrrallvB of all tha Bobberies, EBCapes. 
&c., of John Sheppnid . . . written by himsolf 
iluriog bis Codfinement in the Middle Stnne 
Kooin, 172*, witharUtoCBprBieDtinellieMiio- 
nfr of his Escape from ths Candemuuil Hold in 
Kowgatc, CBTeffllly compiled from Sheppard'a 
dying atHtemeots,' IS attributed to Daniel Defoe. 
Eight editions appeared withiu tha yanr, tho 
■ Via el Vols du fnmeux Jenn Slieppnrd.' Am- 
sterdam. I72fi, being tnlEen from tha Mith. A 
rival conjpilalion was The Anlhanlic Memoirs of 
John Sheppard. 1721, which furmod the biisis of 
a Qernmn account, Leipzig. IZG-'i. and of many 
subsequent llres. one of which dntps fnim Syd- 
ney, New South Wales, 1845. A lliird ■ History 
of the remBrkiible life of John Shepparrl.' Oc- 
tober 1724, may, like tha ' Narmlivei' have lieen 
by Defoe ; bat it is perbapi safpr to attribute it 
to 'line uf Applebee'i faithful garret teers,' such 
ai Wngstaff; the aetiDi; ordinary uf Xeugatr, 
By prearronpement with tha publisher, Shep- 
pard, shortly before his death, suninioned Apple- 



bea to the cnrt nod delivorett him a pac1:et. 
These nnmitives mnstbecacefallvcheckod by the 
roiiUiinporBry iieiTspaperi, eapecialtj the British 
Joiimul,29AuK.,12IJept.,and2lNov. lyn. See 
niso Celebrated Ttinls, 1825, iii. 376-89; Tjlmrn 
Chronicle, vol. ii.; Sawgnte G«l(n(kr,«d. Knnpp 
nnd B.ildwin; Hist. Keg. iT2t (Chroa. Diary), 
pp. 45. 47, 48 ; Mulcolm's Losdoii Anccdotei ; 
Villeltx'a AddsIi of Newgnte, i. 253 ; Qriffilhi'i 
Chronicles of Nowgitte ; Ocanger's Biogr. Hist, 
and Wonderful Museum : Citnlfield'i Fortmita uf 

erapby,' -Londnn, 1848, 12ino. 7. 'The 
Foreign S.icred Lyre,' London, 1S57, 8vo. 
a 'The Christian Harp,' London, 1858, 

[Memoir in T.G. Dooke's editinn of Thoughtt 
prcjinrative to privalo Dprotion,' London, 18B1, 
8co ; Kylnn<l's Life and Letters of Foster, pa*- 
aini; Irftters in a Jotimoy to France, tie.; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 8th ed.. p. 1834; fora 
letter to Byron and the reply, Moore's Byron, it. 
letter 469.] E. I. C. 

tives, ed. Aitkon. p. xvj, Introduecion ; Thom- 
bufj's Old and New I-ondon, ii. 468 ; Wlientlcy 
iind Cunningham's London ; Thame's Environs, 
p. 21 a ; Extracts relating ro SL Se^iulchre's (Brit, 
Mns.^; Biogr. Dram. tS12, ii. 2tl3 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn ; Brit. Mas. Cat.] T. S. 

SHEPPABD, JOHN (1785-1879), re- 
ligious writer, born on 15 Oct. 1785 at Frome, 
Somerset, where the family liad resided since 
the Itextoration, was sun of John Sheppard 
by Lis wife Mary Kelson, daughter of John 
Banger of Piddletown, Dorset. Ha left 
school in 1800 to enter the woollen trade, in 
which most of the family were engaged. In 
1800, after his father's death, he and his 
mother joined the anabaptists, a body to 
ivhichmany of his relatives belonged. With 
John Foster (1770-]&t3) [q, v.], baptist mini- 
ster in Fromefrora 1804, Sheppard developed 
a lasting intimacy. The death of his uncle, 
Walter Sheppard, who made him his hetr, 
enabled him to relinouish business. Deter- 
mining to essay medicine, be matriculated 
at tldinburgh University towards the close 
nf 181^, but was soon diverted to the study 
of philosophy and Hebrew. During two 
ypars' residence at Edinburgh be formed 
friendships with Thomas Chalmers [q . v. ] and 
with Pinkerton the antiquary. In 181(1 and 
1817 he made tours through France, Italy, 
Switierland, and Germany, and studied for i 
some months at Oottiugen. In 1823 Shep- I 
pard published bis 'Thoughts preparative or ' 
]>i!rauaaive to I'rivata Devotion,' which went 
through five editionsiii as many years. From 
that period until his death he devoted him- < 
self to religious authorship, to lay preaching, ' 
and foreign travel. lie died at Frome on 
ao April 1879, and was buried in the dissen- 
lera' cemetery. He was twice married. 

His works include: 1. 'Athaliah,' trana- 
latedfrom Itacine, 1815, 12mo. 2. ' Letters 
tin a Tour in France,' London, 1817, 8vo. 
3. ' An Autumn Dream,'poem, London, 1837, 
8vo; 2nd edit. 1841. 4. ' Cursory View of 
the State of Iteligion in France, l,ondon, 
l838,12mo. 5. 'On Dreams,' London, 1847, 
12mo. 6. ' On Trees, their Uses and Bio- 


KICHOL.AS (d. 1587), master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, was a native of West- 
moreland. He was admitted scholar of his 
college, 4 July 1649, and fellow 25 March 
1558; being, however, ejected in the fol- 
lowing year, he did not commence M.A. 
until 1568. In 15<il he was elected a minor 
fellow of Trinity College in the same uni- 
versity; in 1502 he was elected a senior 
fellow, and successively filled the offices of 
senior bursar (1502-3) and vice-master 
(1564-8) on the same foundation. On 
14 Nov. 1561 he was appointed one of the 
university preachors. lie proceeded B.D. in 
1568, and was admitted masterof St. John's 
17 Dec, 1669. His abilities seem to have 
been small, Hoker (writing early in the 
eighteenth century) observed that there had 
been ' less said of this master than of anr 
: other since the foundation of the college ' 
He was admitted archdeacon of ts'ortbamp- 
ton in 1571 ; but hia tenure of the master- 
ship was terminated by something like expul- 
sion from the college in 1574. ISarker states 
that there was a tradition in the college that 
' Shepperd ' ' had put the seal to some grants 
or leases for his own emolument.' Subse- 
quent proceedings and articles preferred 
against nim appear to point to non-residence 
as the only charge that was Bubalantiat^d, 
According to Strype, he was brought into 
the mastership by the party which sup- 
ported Whitgin, and Baker states that 'the 
beneian psalters wore discontinued' during 
his rule. Strype {Annalt, ii. 304-6) ad- 
duces evidence which implies that at a later 
time he favoured the puritan party. He 
died in 1587. 

TBaker's Hist, of St. John's College; Boket 
MS. ixvi. 26; Registers of Trinity College.] 
J. B.M. 

SHEPPARD, ROBERT Ot 1730-1740), 
engraver, worked for the booksellers durin|( 
the second quarter of the last century. H« 
engraved most of the portraits of sovereigna 
and statesmen in Itapin'i ' History of Eng^ 
land,' 1732-7, fol. ; as well as the portrait of 




Edward Kidder prefixed to his ' Receipts/ 
1 740. There is a set of six large but wretchedly 
executed copies of Audran*s plates of the 
battles of Alexander, three of which are the 
work of Sheppard. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of A rtists ; Dod's manuscript 
Hiist. of EngraTors in Brit. Mus. (Addit. MS. 
33404).] F. M. O'D. 

author, was the son of Ilarman Sheppard, 
physician, who died on 12 July 1639, aged 90, 
by his wife Petronilla, who died on 10 Sept. 
1650. He was related to Sir Christopher 
Clapham of Beamish in Yorkshire, to wliom 
he dedicated several of his books. He com- 
menced his literary career about 1606 as 
amanuensis to Ben Jonson, but wrote nothing 
himself till a later period. He took holy 
orders, and, like his connections the Clap- 
hams, was an ardent royalist. He twice 
suffered imprisonment for his opinions, once 
in 1660 in Whittington College (Cal. State 
Pavers, Dom. 1649-60 p. 629, 1650^ p. 143) 
and again for fourteen months in Newgate. 
His wife's name was Mary. 

He was the author of: 1. 'The Farmers 
Farmed,' London, 1646, 4to. 2. « The False 
Alarm,' London, 1646, 4to. 3. * The Year 
of Jubilee,' London, 1046, 4to. 4. <The 
Times displayed in Six Sestyads,' London, 
1646, 4to. 6. ' The Committee Man Curried,' 
London, 1647, 4to (two short farces almost 
entirely made up of plagiarisms from Sir 
John Suckling). 0. * Ghrand Pluto's Projrress 
through Great Britain,' 1647 (liilly's Cata- 
logue, 1844). 7. * The Loves of Amandus 
and Sophronia,* London, 1660, 8vo. 8. * Epi- 
grams, London, 1661, 8vo. 9. * The Joviall 
Crew,' London, 1651, 4to. 10. 'Discoveries, 
or an Explication of some Enigmatic Verities. 
Also a Seraphick Rhapsodie on the Passion 
of Jesus Christ,' London, 1662. 11. ' Parlia- 
ment Routed,' London, 1663. Hazlitt {Hand' 
book) also ascribes to him the preface to Cap- 
tain Hobson's * Fallacy of Infant Baptism Dis- 
covered,' London, 1646, 4to, together with 
• God and Mammon,' 1646, 4to,* The Weepers,' 
London, 1662, 4to, and a ballad, ' St. George 
for England,* London, 1660. All these pieces 
and Nos. 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9 are in the British 
Museum. Some lines by Sheppard preface 
Thomas Manly's ' Veni, Vidi, Vici,' LDndon, 
1662, 8vo, and he left in manuscript (now in 
the Bodleian Library) * The Fairy King.' 

[Aathor 8 works ; Corser's Collectanea Anglo- 
Poetica, v. 5, 232 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum. i. 
104 ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. iii. 245, vi. 104 ; 
Bakers Biogr. Dram. i. 654, ii. 115; Chpsters 
London Marriage Licenses, ed. Foster, p. 1582.1 

E. I. C. 

1660), portrait-painter, was an artist of some 
merit, who appears to have followed the 
fortunes of Thomas Killigrew (1612-1683) 
[q. v.], the poet and dramatist, for there are 
numerous versions of a portrait of Killigrew, 
which is stated to have been painted by 
Sheppard in 1660 at Venice. One of these 
is in the possession of the Duke of Bedford 
at Woburn Abbey ; another is in that of the 
Earl of Kimberley. This portrait was finely 
engraved by William Faithome the elder 
[q.v.] Sheppard appears to have returned 
to London at the Kestoration, and to have 
lived near the Royal Exchange. It is stated 
that he eventually retired to live in York- 
shire. The artist, Francis Barlow [q. v.], was 
his pupil. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painting, ed. Wornum ; Fagan's Cata- 
logue of Faithome's Engravings.] L. C. 

SHEPPARD, WILLIAM (j/. 1675?), 
le^al writer, bom at Horsley in Gloucester- 
shire, was educated for the law and enjoyed 
a large country practice. About 1663 hft 
was invited to London by Cromwell, and 
made one of the clerks of the upper bench. 
In 1656 he became a serjeant-at-law, and 
was nominated with three others to prepare 
the charters granted to town corporations 
(Cal, State Papers, Dom. 1665-6, p. 370). 
In November 1667 he petitioned Cromwell 
that his salary of 300/. a year might be in- 
creased, representing that he had suffered by 
abandoning hiscountry practice. He obtained 
an addition of 100/. a year {ib, 1667, pp. 
178, 183). In September 1669 he was ap- 
pointed a puisne justice of the County Pala- 
tine. On the Restoration he was deprived of 
his offices and fell into obscurity. He appears 
to have been alive so late as 1675. He had 
six children: John, a clergyman ( ^/umTti 
Oxon, early ser.), Elizabeth, Sarah, Samuel, 
Anne, Dorothy (^Gloucestershire Notes and 
Queries f ii. 608). 

lie wrote: 1. 'The office and duties of 
Constables, or tythingmen . . . and other 
lay ministers. Whereunto are adjoined the 
several offices of church ministers and church 
wardens,' London, 1641, 8vo; 4th ed. 1657. 
2. * Tlie Court Keeper's Guide,' London, 
1641, 8vo; 7th ed. by William Browne, 
1685. 3. * A Catechism,' London, 1649, 8vo. 
4. * Four Last Things,' 1649, 4to. 6. ' Guide 
to Justices of the Peace,' 1649, 8vo ; 6th ed. 
1669. 6. *The Faithful Counsellor,' Lon- 
don, 1651-4. 7. * England's Balme,' London, 

1651, 12mo. 8. ' The People's Privilege and 
Duty guarded against the Pulpit,' London, 

1652. 9. ' A Collection of Choice Declara- 




- ~t\' 1«VV;. •'V.'. 10. 'Justice of the Peace 

• Vi -v.». H- • Hpitoiiie of tilt* Common 
l^'.^'^XAur-'' Law?,' bindon, 105<>, fol. 
''.\'<\r\r\ of the County Judicatories/ 
- '^ ,n 1«'.''«'. l<'>u»'>- lt». *OtHce of Country 
''*.••%• of IVactV London, l().')5-«, 8vo. 
'--" "c-.Tic-niin^ Sincerity and Hypocrisy,* 
"•.■■-1 li'..>, f^vo. 1«. M.)f Corporations, 

^..^.■. V,,] . :?nd ed. London, 1674, 8vo. 
:"' "". oSoe '^f the Clerk of the Market,* Lon- 
"■^ itiri. 1-mo. 22. * The Practical Coun- 
l. in tiie Law,' London, 1671, fol. 

-•Ann A?surancop,' 1641, 4to, which he is 
^ 'i"i , Ijjiy,. found in manuscript in Sir John 
!?■•": ;'*;aVs library. The eighth edition of this 

• -^v; Ky f;. G. Atherley, was published in 
^<.>t' Sli«1>pnrd wrote a Recond part, pub- 

■^" '1 with the first, under the title, * Law 

:/^\.nim'^« Assurances,* 1650, fol. 

''■.*rke's Bibl. Leg. ; Allibyne's Diet, of 

<HFPPEY, JOHN DE (rf. 1300), bishop of 

K vS^lor, was a native of Kent, and being 

wTtiHl nnder the patronage of Haymo 

*f*T bishop of Rochester, became a Pene- 

£^^^^ monk at that city, and was sent to 

««»»«y , fed- 

!f?'^v"nt of Christ Church, Canterbury, 
^^^**l for his interest on behalf of one of 
^rmonks studying at Oxford (Litttrcp. 
*** rtVwiVJt, ii. 27). In March 1333 
%^wt«*»" * elected prior of Rochester 
^^^L!^ AnuUaiiacra/x.^V:\), In 1345 
V^*^\^^/u* ft mis-lion to Spain to negotiate 
S* *^. between the Prince of Wales and 


*^mondtttion from the king, hoped to 
'??i thB bishopric; but the rope refused 
"^^ " llowever, in 

TTQS papally 

the bishopr 
5^pt Heath" 

provided to the vacant see on 22 Oct. He was 
cons«.*crate«l on 10 March 13'>3 at St. Mary 
Overy, Southwark, by William Edendon, 
bishop of Winchester. Sheppey was a trier 
of petitions in the parliament of April 13o4 
{Hot, PnrL ii. 2">4), and treasurer of Eng- 
land 13.50-8. He died on 19 Oct. 1360 
at his manor of La Place, near Lambeth. 
He was buried at Rochester Cathedral, where 
he had endowed a chantry. His effigy was 
discovered at Rochester in 1825. 

Sheppey was a man of learning who had 
studied at Paris as well as at Oxford, and 
apparently had a great repute as a preacher. 
He wrote : 1. * Sermons,* in 3 vols. In the 
New College MS. 92 there are a number of 
his sermons, preached at Rochester and else- 
where between 1 :336 and 1353. 2. ' Fabulfie.* 
These form the third volume of his sermons, 
and are for the most part abridged from 
those of Odo of Cheriton [q. v.] They have 
been printed from Merton College MS. 248 
by M. Hervieux in his * Fabulist es Latins,* 
iv. 417-50. Sheppey is also credited by 
Tanner with two short legal tracts, * De 
Ordine Cognitionum' and * De .Tudiciis;' 
but these may more probably be ascribed to 
another ,Tohn de Sheppev, who was dean of 
Lincoln 13S8 to 1412 \Wood, JIht. and 
Antiq. i. 534; Le Neve, Fasti, ii. 33). 

[Wharton's Anglia Sacr.i, i. 45, 366, 371, 376, 
378; AValsingham's Historia Anglicana, i. 286; 
Lo Nevo's Fasti Ecd. Angl. ii. 563; Tanner's 
IJibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 666; Arohaeologia, xxr. 
122-6 ; Hervieux's Les Fabulibtes Latins, iv. 
160-70.] C. L. K. 

(150J)?-1542), hebraist, born at Sugworth, 
in the parish of Radley, Berkshire, about 
1509, was admitted a probationer fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1528, gra- 
duated B.A. on 3 Dec. 1529, and M.A. in 
1533 (Wood, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 81). 
He was Greek reader in his college, and 
was appointed Hebrew professor of the uni- 
versitv about 1538, in succession to Robert 
Wakefeld. In April 1542 he obtained per- 
mission from the university to expouna in 
the public schools the book of Genesis in the 
Hebrew language, 'provided that he lec- 
tured in a pious and catholic manner.* He 
died at Agmondesham, Buckinghamshire, in 
July 1542. AVhen his death became known 
at Oxford many learned men composed Greek 
and Latin verses to his memory, and pasted 
them on the doors of St. Mary's Church. 
These verses, togi'ther with some of Shep- 
reve*sown compi'isit ions, were collected with 
a view to their publication, under the editor- 
ship of George Etheridge, but they never 
appeared in print. Wood says Shepreve was 




' one of the skilfullest linguists (his age being 
considered) that ever was in Oxon . . . and 
was thought to surpass Origen in memory. 
So excellent a poet also he was that his 
equal scarce coula be found, it having been an 
ordinary matter with him to compose one 
hundred very good verses every day at vacant 
hours.' Several authors, including John Le- 
land {Encomiay 1589, pp. 81-2) and Dr. John 
White, have celebratea his memory in their 
books of poems. 

He was the author of: 1. 'Summa et 
Synopsis Novi Testamenti distichis ducentis 
sexagmta comprehensa,* published by John 
Parkhurst at Strasburg about 1556, 8vo ; re- 
printed London, 1560, Oxford, 1586, 8vo, 
the last edition being revised by Dr. Laurence 
Ilumfrey. The verses are also reprinted in 
• Gemma Fabri,* London, 1598. xhey were 
composed for the purpose of giving mne- 
monical aid to students of divinity. 2. ' Hip- 
polytus Ovidians PhsBdne respondens,' 
published at Oxford about 1584 by George 
Etheridge, a phvsician who had been one of 
Shepreve's pupils. The original manuscript 
is in the library of Coipus Christi, Oxfora, 
No. 266. 3. ' Vita et Epicedion Johannis 
Claymondi Prsesidis Coll. Corp. Chr.,' manu- 
script in the library of that college. There 
is another copy in Wood*s collection, 8492, 
and a transcnpt among Rawlinson's manu- 
scripts. Misc. 335, both in the Bodleian. 
This poem is important as being the main 
authority for Claymond's life (see Fowler, 
Hist Corpus Christi Co//, pp. 79, 83, 84, 86, 
88, 370). 4. ' S. Basilius, Episc. Caesariensis. 
In Esaiam Prophetam commentariorum 
tomus prior,' translated into Latin from the 
original Greek (Birch MSS. in Brit. Mus. 
No. 4355). 5. 'Oratio in laudem Hen- 
rici Vni,' manuscript in the Royal Library, 
Brit. Mus. 16 A 2. In the same volume 
there are two orations by Shepreve, in Hebrew, 
on the same subject. 6. * Ciarmen de Christi 
Corpore.* He is also credited with a trans- 
lation into Latin of the ' Hecuba' of Euri- 
pides, and a translation into English of 
Seneca's * Hercules Furens.' 

[Addit. MS. 24491 p. 364; Bal(% De Scrip- 
toribus, is. 30; Foster's Alamni Ozon. early 
ser. ir. 1346; Lehmd's Cygoia Cantio (1646); 
Lelnnd's Encomia, 1689, p. 81 ; Fits, De Anglin 
Scriptoribus, p. 730 ; Reg. Univ. Oxon. i. 164, 
348 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 667 ; White's Dia- 
cosio-Martyrion. 1663, fr.86,89 ; Wood's Athens 
Oxon. (Bliss), i. 106. 134 ; Wood's Hist, et Antiq. 
Univ. Oxon. ii. 233.1 T. C. 

LIAM (1540-1598), in Latin, Scepreus, 
catholic divine, nephew of John Shepreve 
[q. T.], was bom near Abingdon, Berkshire, 


in 1540, and was admitted a scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 10 Feb. 
1554-5. He became a probationer of the 
college in November 1558, and was admitted 
B.A. 19 Feb. 1559-60. Being a zealous 
catholic he withdrew to the continent, 
and eventually settled in Rome, where he 
was ' exhibited to * by Cardinal Gabriele 
Paleotti, archbishop of Bologna, in whose 
family he lived for several years. He appears 
to have had the degree of D.D. conierred 
upon him at Rome, wnere ' he was accounted 
the most skilful person in divers tongues of 
his time, and the worthy ornament of the 
English exiles.' He died at Rome, 'in 
»dibu8 S. Severiani,' in 1598. 

His works are: 1. ' Connexio literalis 
Psalmorum in officio B. V. Marise et corro- 
boratio ex variis linguis et patribus, vna cum 
mysticis sensibus,' Rome, 1596. 2. ' Argu- 
menta in Novum Testamentum,' published 
by John Shaw in his * Biblii Summula,' 1621. 
A 'Carmen in Novum Testamentum* by 
Shepreve was published in 'Ad Lectorem 
Gemma Fabri, 1598. He left in manu- 
script: 1. 'Miscellanea celebrium senten- 
tiarum Sacrss Scriptune.* 2. ' Commentarii 
in Epist. D. Pauli ad Rom. ex Latino, Gro^co, 
Syriaco, ^thiopico.' 3. ' Notse in omnes 
Epistolas D. Pauli et canonicas, de dif- 
ferentiis textus Latini h Graeco et Syriaco,* 
vol. i. 4. ' Expositio locorum difficilium in 
officio B. MarisB.' 

[Bodl. Cat. iii. 388; Dodd^s Church Hist. ii. 
133 ; Douay Diaries, pp. 342. 360, 375, 439; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1.500-1714. iv. 1346; 
Oxford Univ. Reg. i. 241; Piu^, De Anglije 
Scriptoribns, p. 869 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 667 ; 
Wood's Annals (Gutch), ii. 146; Wood's Afhena& 
Oxon. (Bliss), i. 668, Fasti, i. 156 ; Cat. of Early 
Printed Books.] T. C. 

(1817-1893), South African statesman, the 
son of the Rev. William Shepstone, wha 
emigrated to the Cape in 1820, and his wife 
Elizabeth Brookes, was bom at Westbury, 
near Bristol, on 8 Jan. 1817. He was edu- 
cated chiefly at the Cape, at the native mis- 
sions to which his father devoted himself, 
and he early acquired a great proficiency in 
the native dialects. On 8 Jan. 1835 he 
became headquarters interpreter of the 
Kaffir languages at Capetown, and served 
on the expedition against the Kaffirs on the 
govemor*s staff; at the conclusion of the 
campaign he was made clerk to the agent 
for the native tribes on the frontier. In 
1838 he accompanied the expedition under 
Major Charteris which accomplished the 
first temporary occupation of Natal ; and in 
the following year he became the British resi- 


• ^ 

6-: Sherard 


:L:ri .L j'lr-^erniLri'iJ.burir on '2S Jant* 1893, 
Lii. \ru? ii.*rifi ill lilt? cliurch of Englaud 

ji.'.i.:r_ Lrr*..": :.-T '-t lj." •- :r :•-?.. :.3'i .1. Mi-:r-: kiirV jtrwi-r over the natives was 

, -'^* \» -- ::.:..*- :-l: •:. L-f -.:»•. ri« •: * ijt ixw^r r t n.ij-.rrL*, Luci Lr ositni i: with zreat wi&dom. 

!• '. ivr* I:. Mlt. L r' . L- -■:-.-■"'••- L li.-r- 7:i--« :-u_iT*i Lin. tbrir * father.' op, from his 

u-:.:.: . •.Lu..>^..'i :. u.'. ur .:v.."-L^:.:-r ^vT- r^?-:.' '."iwrs* in Luniinr, •Somsteu/ He 

1. T : >\;:.. -: .■;.-•. : "iJt j:-:i • v i.- i.:-.\: .l tl^rch matters, and for years 

i-:*"» :' ^-.r i"»*.: :.:!>.:. .": - " . i-ii'.'iir— ]'.!■■: l Trij- •: l^ir-ii z Cj-lrns-o. 

' ., y !•_'. >'.' ij- ■.-•.■z.n-r j..-.-J_ L-?rT«- •: m-ti-- ■Lt-n-Lrr-vi. on IoNot. ISSS, Maria 

l'"ir* Palmer, commissan- 

I- ."L ~^T'^ *L .> '"■ V 1:- ;_ 

■ ■ ^^^ 

h:. ■...:.:. .: >i.:i.l vi.- rt: nurl ui.I :i- f::.Tri-"- lt Ci.T»^::'Wn. lie had six sons and 

K-.'}»-. ::!.•:. >. ul J. : t r:.:ii- -. : -. -^li^rr-l. ""L-:- - Lr-r i:i.uc:.Trr*. L>f the f.rmer. one was 

h: rr. Li-.-.l::.-. >-.r:::^'^ : • i-:.*.-r i.f l ""? Lili s.. ■■- l: I>4-LiLlwaiia: another, Theophilus, 

b :.i- •.:.>.! f :l-. -i-.-. --.v l-4r.>^i-'. r > lL^.^^t : ■ lU ^wazi natives: the eldest, 

t v. .? I:. ::..? -.• t- :..-_ L- -^ w-l :_z_- Xr. H. C. "^ir-ifi -ne, ha* been secretary for 

h- .: u r.T :,^ -:.: ■_:... =.:r. ::--^.•_J ±: .l,'. :.:.-. vr tfi^-r* :n Natai since 1S84. 
llv :i.:..:.:i. !.viv..r .~ :• tl-.t f :■.-_-.:. -r.j ■ v - \r.:r«« ^riJunf 1893: Colonial Office 

i;:.:.v- . ..-• -^s u'^L . r,>.--rl L'.'.-zZL-.'y ' ' 1-^ .^^:: : .:.:. r=.a::-i: from Mr. II. C. Shqi- 

h^i.-'-r:. c.\...i>^'..z . 11.' :. l..T-ai.f :. -.1- «.• ... - C. A. H. 

^V':/^ 'l;^?.":^:.; '*" ,-^^"- QHZRj^j). j.VMES » 1666-1738), phy- 

j:. l^rl' "**!.-•,.-: :.-. -.Vi* ^rr.: Ir.:: 7...'. :'.ir.l > c-:: ^-i :• tan.ft.son of George Sheraril or 

• . J .... ,.' .. -^ .^. / ,^ . . . -.._ Mrr^ ..'i :f Bu*htiV in Leice5teP:fliire, and 

^\it^ : •-•• ..r a l- i ::.- : rwk.r.j i::i . '•.'.L.z.r-i 2C .rv. l:* srorTiJ wiiV. was bom on 1 July 

}..-' ir->v ; • tirr-: IJr.:-.::. sii: -: 1 -j a* l"'*'- W/.l.Am Sherard "q.v." was his brother. 

>:•..;■>: :;. w::. :•: N;;: ., C-:-tx-;»v. V:...v^-.i ..-:rrl.l'>i' he was apprenticed to Charles 

l^iriv w. ::. h: Ivi Lr 'v^s *];.:^::v ^^r- W^-:?. ir. spi^lbrfary. who was curator of 

: . Kri^Lrii : ■ c ::>r w.:L -.Ir >..:rr:-»rv f :Lr^al irardf ns at Chelsea. Sherard 

K..T. ■ :i4;i.-:i n^ I iia'ivv v ./v. In>:'L. .:- :er Wr.:?'* cuilance devoted himself to 

a;::ii'ii.rv^.dri:.'L:;i ri T ■ rr '>■-:.: N:."^: tvtir.v: 1:1: b- at the same time workwl 

* ..I.., 4 A.c.t..' a4^...A^ »4* ..*..*- .* . .- - purchased 

t!i.' y\S wiTh's-k.^k'-'iii" waV prxv-^iiiij! •-:" Ev:ni.-Ton and Settle in Leicestershire, but 

r. T. -.vriv . wus r-*tl-.s, and the Tniisva;i: '.v cLirrfv n.-sided at Eltham in Kent, whera 

i;M»-^w.r.';r«troiiU-\vi-hthvirnativ.*n-ij:.- he pursued the cultivation of valuable and 

b'.ur^. In Januarv l**:: Sh-p>tone. with a rar-.' plants and his garden became noti^d as 

hiiiiill pr-unal Mail* and tw»..ntv-five poliv.^e- one mI" the finest in England. A curious 

jji. u. !'ii|.; iiitotli.; Transvaal, and on l^ Ai»ril oat:iWue of his collection was published by 

.l.r.lar.'l it Hrltish territorv. He was ap IKllenius in 1732 as*Hortu8 Elthamensis, 

].n:ii\i'\ thii Ji-lniini-trat.»r of tli«* new pro- sive Plantarum Kariorumquas in Horto suo 

viijc: - ,. uiid»-r llKKfJEia, IIexky Howard Elthami in Cantio collegit vir omatissimus 

.M<ii.\M,i X, fiiiirtli Kakl of Carnarvon-". et pr;istantis.<iinus Jac. Sherard, M.D., Keg. 

Sli'fjr^ton'r'.H airtion in n^L'ard to the Tnin?- Soc. et Coll. Med. Lond. Soc. Catalogus ■ (cf. 

V a:j I liii- iiai 11 rally, in t ln^ li;;ht of JiubsiMjuent NiCHOL-*, Illustrations^ i. 403, for some inte- 

iviii!-, Ui'w tin; is.jlm'ct of spv»;re criticism; . restiiiir letters from Sherard to Richardson). 

■ ■• Ilia. 1. . . I T t^.t.-l 

ii' nil I III |HihlirHcr\ ici*. IiidcjM'ndi'iiC't* u , r, 

lini I h hii/rniiiiiy was rr.hiori'd to the Trans- ' of Physicians of London. His administra- 
\aiil j.iah- hy tlic Mii^^lifjli gi»v»Tnm»*nl in ' t ion of the trust led the university of Oxfonl 
IN.^I. H.i niutiinjiMl to rr'.id** in Natal, j to conf»*r ujKjn him the degree of doctor of 
jii^ lilllr piiii ill iMiblic aflairH. In lH?*4, nuMlioine, by diploma dated 2 July 1731, and 
■"—tTP, Im was MrliM'trd to n'pliu'i' C('t«'- thii College of Physicians to admit him on 
ill fill' •i.iv.'ni^.iity of Zuliilaiid. He .'U) S.'pt. 1732 to their fellowship without 
iMwt'd «l«MiiliMl«i|iposiiion to theercction I examination and without the payment of 




fees. lie died on 12 Feb. 1738, and was 
buried in the church of Evington, near 
Leicester. A marble tablet, with Latin in- 
scription, was placed by his widow in the 
chancel of the church. He left a fortune of 
1<jO,000/. He married Susanna, daughter of 
Iltchard Lockwood, but had no issue. His 
wife died on 27 Nov. 1741. 

Sherard was singularly acccomplished. In 
addition to being an excellent botanist, he 
waM an accomplished amateur musician and 
violinist. He composed twenty -four sonatas, 
twelve for the violin, violoncello, and bass, 
extended for the harpsichord. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ; Foster's Alamni 
Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1796, ii. 810; Seniles 
Iklemories Bot Garden, Chelsea ; Journ. i3ot. 
1874, p. 133; Nichols's Lit. ADecd. iii. 651; 
Britten and Boulger's Brit, and Irish Botanists.] 

W. W. W. 

SHERARD, WILLIAM (1659-1728), 
botanist, eldest son of George J^herwood or 
Sherard, gentleman, by Mary, his second 
wife, was boni at Bushby, Leicestershire, 
on 27 Feb. 1669. AVilliam, whose surname 
usually appears as Sherard, was educated at 
Merchant Taylors* school, and on 11 June 
1677 was elected to St. John's College, Ox- 
ford, where he graduated B.C.L. on 11 Dec. 
168S, and became a fellow. He proceeded 
D.C.L. on 23 June 1694. 

Meanwliile he had begun a series of pro- 
longed foreign tours, with permission of the 
college, which granted him leave of absence 
from 1085 for three periods of live years each. 
Between 1686 and 1688 he studied botany 
in Paris under Toumefort, and in the summer 
of 1688 spent some time at Leyden with Paul 
Hermann. Subsequently he visited Geneva, 
Rome, and Naples, and he also examined 
plants in Cornwall and Jersey. He supplied 
lists of the plants that he saw to Ray. Ihose 
which he observed in Cornwall and Jersey 
lOiy published in his 'Svnopsis methodica 
Stirpmm Britannicarum, 1690; while his 
list of noteworthy plants seen in Geneva, 
Rome, and Naples, appears in Kay's ' Stirpium 
Europicarum . . . Sylloge,' 1694. 

After a visit to England in the winter 
of 1689-90 he became tutor to Sir Arthur 
Rawdon, then nineteen years old, and from 
the summer of 1690 till the spring of 1694 
lived chiefly at Moira, co. Down. Later in 
1 6m he made a tour on the continent as tutor 
to Charles, viscount Townsend. In February 
1605 he was busy editing Hermann's manu- 
scripts for the benefit of the widow, and 
about the middle of the year he started on a 
journey through France and Italy with 
NVriothosley, eldest son of William, lord 
RussfU [q. v.], returning probably in De- 

cember 1699. It was on this journey that 
ho appears to have first contemplated a con- 
tinuation of Bauhin's * Pinax,' a project to 
which he devoted all his spare time during 
the rest of his life. 

Between the autumn of 1700 and the 
spring of 1702 he was at Badminton, acting 
as tutor to Henry, second duke of Beaufort. 
The surroundings were uncongenial, but he 
found consolation in botanical work for Ray 
and others. About June 1702 he was ap- 
pointed a 'commissioner for the sick and 
wounded, and for the exchange of prisoners ; ' 
but next year he became consul for the Tur- 
key Company at Smyrna, and set out in 
July. Owing to his continued absence his 
fellowship was declared void on 21 April 
1703. At Smyrna he pursued antiquarian 
researches as well as botanical studies. In 
1705, in company with Dr. Antonio Picenini, 
he visited the seven churches of Asia Minor, 
and copied many inscriptions. In 1709 and 
again m 1716, when he was accompanied 
by Dr. Samuel Lisle [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Norwich, he made other journeys in Asia 
Minor, transcribing inscriptions, which, with 
copies of the Monumenta Teia and the Sigean 
inscription, he sent to England. Many of 
these were published by Edmund ChisliuU 

. v.] in his * Antiquitates Asiaticae' (1728). 

is manuscript copies of others are in the 
British Museum. 

In 1711 Sherard purchased a country 
house at Sedi-Keui, seven miles out of 
Smyrna. The same year he undertook a bo- 
tanical excursion to llalicamassus. Sherard 
quitted Smyrna late in 1716, or early the fol- 
lowing year, and returned at Christmas 1717 
to Loncfon. In 1 718 he was elected a fellow 
of the Hoyal Society, and he served on its 
council the two following years. He had 
amassed a considerable ^rtune, but until 
1724 lived chiefly at a small house in Barking 
Alley, working at his collections. In 1724 
he, with his sister, took a larger house on 
Tower Hill. He made further excursions 
on the continent in 1721, 1723, and 1727, 
visiting Boerhaave in Holland, and bringing 
John James Dillenius [q. v.] back with nim 
in August 1721 to assist in the * Pinax.' For 
some years a quarrel with Sir Hans Sloane 
[q. v.J, with the result that Sloane's her- 
barium was closed to Sherard, retarded the 
progress of that work, but a reconciliation 
took place in December 1727. 

Sherard died in I^ondon on 11 Aug. 1728, 
and was buried at Eltham, where his brother 
James [q. v.] had a residence, on the 19th of 
that month. He bequeathed 3,000/. to found 
a chair for botany at Oxford, nominating 
Dillenius as the first professor. His natural 





Listory books, drawings, and psiu tings, with 
the manuBcript of his ' I'ioax,' were letl to 
the Ubrsry of the ' Physio Garden' at Ox- 
ford, the rest of hie library to St. John's 

Sherwl occupied a Iiigh position tiniong 
the botADiBts of his time, and his intercourBe 
with the lending men in the science was inti- 
mate and frequent. He poaseased a good 
knowledge foe the time of crj-pto^moua 
plants. He was generous in distributing 
seeds and dried pUfiCa,Bnd was an unfailing 
patron of deaerving naturalists ; but while 
aiding others in their works, be wrote little 
himself. Only one work, ajid that pub- 
lished under initials, came from his pen, viz., 
' Scbola Botanica, sive catalogue plaotarum 
(juos ab aliquot anuis in Horto Regio Pa- 
risienaiBtudiosisindigitaTit . . .J. P.Tourue- 
fort . . . ut et P. Hermanni . . . Paradisi Ba- 
tavi ProdromuB, in quo plantie . . . recen- 
aentur. Edente in lucem S.W.A. [i.e 
Sherardo Wilhelmo Anglo],' 12mo, Amster- 
dam, 1689. lie contributed papers to the 
Itoyal Society ( PAiV. r™™. 1 700-2 1 ) on ' the 
way of making- several China varnishes;' on 
' the strai^e Effects of the Indian Vamish, 
wrote by Dr. J. del Papa ; ' on ' a new Island 
raised near Sant' Erini ; ' and on ' the Poyson 
Tree in New England.' 

II e edited the manuscript and wrote e 
preface for Paul Hermann's ' Paradisus I3a- 
tavus,' 4to, Leyden, 1698; he also assisted 
Vaillant with his ' Botanicon Porisiense,' and 
liay with the concluding volume of the 
' Historis Flantarum,' in which w 
eluded his ' Observations' on the Ri 
volumes. Sherard's manuscript, endorsed 
by Itay, is preserved in the botanical depart- 
ment at the Natural History Museum ; while 
the third edition of Kay's ' Synopsis ' 
published bv Dillenius under Sherard' 
spection. To Catesby be supplied the n: 
of the plants in his ' Natural History of 
Carolina,' besides giving pecuniary assistance. 
He likewise helped the Sicilian botanist, 
Faolo Boccone. Vaillant, Pontedera, and 
Dillenius each named dilTerent plants Shr^ 
rardia in his honour, and Dillenius'a appel- 
lation was adojited by Linnsus, 

[Jonm. Bot. 1874, pp. 129 sq. (with notes and 
inannacripts kindly lent by the nnlhor of that 
article, B. D. JackRonJ,- Gent. Mag. 17BS, ii. 
fill; Pullpney's Hist, and Biogr. Sketehes, 
ii. HI; Nicholses lUnstr. Lit. i. 339, tc. ; 
Nichols's LiL Anecd. i. 272. 380, iii. 8S2-1: 
WiirtjQ'a Dissert ations on Virgil, pp. xl-xli ; 
ChiBhall's Aatiq. Asial. pref.; Wood's Alhente 
Own. IT. 713; Wilson'a Hist, of Merchant Tay- 
lors'School ; Boceone's Mubcd di Fisnte. pref.] 
E. B. W. I 

furniture maker and designer, was bom at 
Stockton-upoD-Teea in 1761, and learnt the 
trade of cabinet-making. He received uo 
regular education, but showed from the first 
natural artistic learning, and taught him- 
self drawing and geometry. He was a 
zealous baptist, and hrat come before the 
public as author of a religious work, 'A 
Scriptural Illustration of the Doctrine of Ite- 

feneration,' which appeared at Stockton in 
7B2, 12mo. He was styled on the title-page 
'Thomas Sheraton, junior,' and described 
himself as a mechanic. His interest in 
theology never diminished. 

As a practical cabinet-maker he does not 
seem to have attained much success: but 
as a designer of furniture he developed a 
skill and originality which placed him in 
the first rank of tectmical artists. Kemov- 
ing to Soho, London, about 1790, he began 
the publication of a series of manuals of 
furniture design to which the taste of his 
countrymen stiil stands deeply indebted. His 
first publication was a collec'lion of eighty- 
four large folio plates entitled ' Designs (or 
Fiimilure,' n.d. In 1781 he produced ' The 
Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer's Drawing- 
Book ' (with ' Accompaniment ' and ' Ap- 
pendix' within the two following J'ears), 
4to, with 111 plates; the second edition 
(1793-6) had 119 plates; the third edition 
(1802) was 'revised and the whole embel- 
lished with 122 elegant copper-plat«3.' This 
last edition is rare. A reprint, undated, was 
lately issued bv Mr. B. T. Batsford. In 1803 
he published ' The Cabinet Diclionary.or Ex- 
plsuation of all Terms used in the Cabinet, 
Chair, and Upholstery Branches,' 1 vol. in 
15part8, Neityearhebegaatheiasueof 'The 
Cabinet-maker and Artist's Encyclopedia' 
(fol.), which was to be completed in 125 num- 
bers, but he lived to publish only thirty. 

In London Sheraton apparently wholly 
occupied himself with his literary and artistic 
publications. All were published bv sub- 
scription, and he travell^ as far as Ireland 
in search of subscribers, who included, be- 
sides persons of rank, the leading cabinet- 
makers of the countn'. None of his pub- 
lishing ventures proved financially successful, 
and, though his designs were regarded in his 
own day with ' superstitious admiration,' he 
lived in poverty. He eked out an income by 
teaching drawing. To the last he occasionally 
preached in baptist chapels, In 17!^4 an 
essay by him, entitled ' Spiritual Subjection 
toOivil Government,' wos appended to Adam 
Callander's 'Thoughts on the Peaceable and 
Spiritual Nature of Christ's Kingdom ; ' tha 
essay was reprinted separately next year. 




In 1805 Sheraton published a * Discourse on 
the Character of God as Love/ He died in 
Broad Street, Soho, on 22 Oct. 1806, leaving 
a family in distressed circumstances. 

Sheraton was the apostle of the severer 
taste in English cabinet-making which fol- 
lowed upon the rococo leanings of his great 
predecessor, Thomas Chippendale [q. v.], who, 
under the influence of the brothers John and 
Robert Adam, had refined and simplified the 
methods of his predecessors. In the cabinets, 
chairs, writing-tables, and occasional pieces 
made from Sheraton's designs, the square 
tapering le^r^, severe lines, and quiet ornament 
take the place of the cabriole leg or carved \ 
ornament which characterised earlier Eng- \ 
Itah cabinet-work. Sheraton trusted almost 
entirely for decoration to roarqucterie. A 
characteristic feature of his cabinets was 
the swan-necked pediment surmounting the 
cornice, being a revival of an ornament 
fashionable during Queen Anne*s reign 
(Litchfield, Illustrated History of Furni- 
ture, pp. 195-7). The South Kensington 
Museum possesses two mahogany chairs 
carved by Sheraton (Pollen, Ancient and 
Modem Furniture^ clvi. 90). 

The central doctrines of all his work and 
writing are that ornamentation must sub- 
serve utility, that the lines of construction, 
if sound, connote beauty, and that a suc- 
cessful simplicity is harder and more worthy 
of attainment than the highest development 
of Louis-Quinze superfluity. That his prin- 
ciples were not the outcome of a mere vague 
intuition is evidenced by the admirable 
treatises on geometry, architecture, and per- 
spective with which he introduces his monu- 
mental 'Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer*s 
Drawing-book.' Unfortunately in his later 
yean, under the influence of the ' Empire ' 
style, which cameinto vogue after the French 
revolution, he was untrue to his own con- 
victions, and, in response to popular demand, 
designed some articles of furniture of blatant 
and vulgar symbolism. 

[Qent. Mag. 1806. ii. 1082; Heaton's Furni- 
ture and Decoration in England daring the 
Eighteenth Century (with facsimile reproduc- 
tions of Shfraton's designs^ 1892, ful. i. i. 20-1 ; 
Memoirs of Adam BlHck ; Magazine of Art, 1883, 

S, 190; Prefaces to Sheraton's Drawing-book; 
uaritch'sOen. Cat. of Books ; information kindly 
supplied by Mr. B. T. Batsfurd.] G. S. L. 

BERT ( U40i'-lo36), bishop of Chichester, a 
native of Hampshire, was bom about 1440, 
if Le Neve*8 statement that he was ninetv- 
six at the time of his death is correct. lie 
is said to have been educated at Winchester I 
College (but cf. KiRBT)and at Oxford, where : 

he graduated M. A. before 1469. On 17 March 
in that year he was appointed prebendary of 
Mora in St. Paul's Catliedral, and in 1474 
he was fellow of New College, Oxford. He 
was also master of St. Cross Hospital, near 
Winchester, and on 14 Dec. 1486 was ap- 
pointed treasurer of Hereford Cathedral (Lb 
Aeve, i. 489). On 1 May 1488 he received 
the prebend of Langford Manor in Lincoln 
Cathedral, which he exchanged for Milton 
Manor in the same cathedral on 27 Nov. 
1493, but again exchanged to Langford on 
29 Aug. 1494. On 26 Aug. 1489 he was 
given tlie prebend of Wildland in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and he also held a canonry at 
Wells, which he resigned in 1493. On 
2 Nov. in that year he was made prebendary 
of Holywell or Finsbury in St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral, and in 1496 he became archdeacon 
of Buckinghamshire (13 Feb.), of Hunting- 
don and of Taunton (16 Dec.) In July of 
the same year he was sent as envoy to the 
pope with the intimation of Henry VII's 
willingness to join the holy league, which 
aimed at keeping the French out of Italy 
(Kymer, xii. 639^ ; in his letter to the Duke 
of Milan requesting a free passage for Sher- 
borne, Henry describes him as his secretary 
{CaL Venetian State Papers, i. 091, 712, 
722). In 1498 ho was appointed to levy 
fines on those of the clergy who had abetted 
Perkin Warbeck, and in the following year 
he was made dean of St. Paul's. In August 
1500 he was employed in examining adhe- 
rents of WarbecK {ib. xii. 766). He was 
apparently ambassador at Home in 1502, and 
while there was instructed to go to the 
pope with the Spanish ambassador, announce 
Wmce Arthur's death, and request a dispen- 
sation for the marriage of Prince Henry 
with Catherine of Arragon {Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, iv. 5467). On 4 May 
1503 he was appointed commissioner to treat 
with Scotland concerning Margaret's dow^ry, 
and in 1504 was sent to Julius II to con- 
gratulate him on his election as pope. 

Earlv in 1505 Sherborne was made bishop 
of St. fiavid's by a papal bull which he him- 
self forged (Letters and Papers of Henry VII, 
ed. Gairdner, i. 246, ii. 169, 835, 337) ; the 
temporalities were restored on 12 April, and 
when the forgery was discovered Henry VII 
wrote to the pope asking that Sherborne 
might be leniently treated (ih,) He does 
not seem to have been punished, and on 
18 Sept. 1508 he was papally provided to 
the see of Chichester, the temporalities being 
restored on 1 3 Dec. On 23 J ul v L> 1 8 he met 
Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio fq. v.] at Deal 
on his arrival in England to urge Henry VIII 
to join in a crusade against the Turks. In 



Mbj 15J3 he accnmpunied Thomas Gnj, 
second marquis of Dorset [q. v.], to Calais to 
meet Charles V and conduct him to London. 
In April loS.-i hi! was commiaaioned by 
"Wolsey to visit the Premonstralensian 
moaosteryat Digham and examine into tlio 
Bcsndalfl there. In the eame year he sent 
"Woleey hooka for hia new college at Oxford, 
of which he was in other ways a henefuctor 
(LetUr* and J'irpert, iv. 1708. 2040). lu 
September 1538 he again met Campeggio on 
his arrival to try the divorce of Catherine of 
Arragon. He acquiesced in the lieforma- 
tion, hut probably with Becrot reluctance. 
He signed the letter of the lords npirituHl 
and temporal to Clement VH on 13 July 
]5d0beggint{ him to grautllenry'sdeairefora 
divorce, and pointing out the evils of delay. 
In 1033 accusations against him were laid 
before Cromwell, but he was able to clear 
himself,Bnd on L>0 Feb. 1534-5 he renounced 
the Jurisdiction of the pope. On Sunday 
13 June following he preaclied ' the Word 
of God' in his cathedral, promulgating the 
king's commands as tn his supremacy of the 
church, but asked to be relieved of further 
proceedings in the matter, owing to a|i;e and 
feeble health. He was examined by Hichard 
Laylon [q. v.], the visitor of the monas- 
teriea, onl Oct. loSo; and early in June 
1530 resigned his bishopric, to which Henry 
wished to appoint Uichard Sampson [q. v.] 
He died in the following August. His will, 
dated 2 Aug., wos proved on 24 Kov. At 
Chichester he kept a slate second only in 
magnificence to that of Henry and Wolsey, 
and he left property worth nearly 1,500/. 
He founded the prebends ofBursnlis,EKCeit, 
Bargham.andWyndhnm.tobeheld by a/umn» 
of ^ew College or Winchester College (cf. 
Laud, Wiirkt, V. 486-6). He also founded 
about 1520 ft grammar school at Kolleaton, 
Staffordshire (Shaw, Staffordehire, i. 34). 

[Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hnrdj, vols, i and ii. 
passini; Lotlers and Papers of Hi'nry VII, 
CaraplBll's llnteciala, and Andreas's Uist. (Rolls 
Ser.); Lellen) and I'apers of Uenry VIII, ad. 
Brewer and Gairdncr, 160»-36, paesim ; 
HTmor'a Ficdera, vols. lii. and liii. ; Laasd 
MS. 979, ff. 14B-8 : Godwin, De I'riesulibufl, ed. 
RLchntdson ; Wood'n Athenjs Oion. ii. 74B ■ 
Dodd'B Church Hist. i. 1R4 ; Bumet'a Hist. Rcf. 
ed. Pocoot ; Churton'B Foundcra of Braaenose 
pp. 27, 361 ; Fo.ler's Aliimai Oion. 1500-1714; 
Gent. Mng. 18.^3, ii. 289.] A. F. P. 

(1704-1830), general, bom in 1764, was third 
son of William Coape, J.P. of Famah in 
Duffield, Derbyshire, and Arnold, Notting- 

hamshire, who had taken the name of Sher- 
brooke on his marriage in 1766 to 
of the three coheiresses of Henry Sherbrooke 
of Oiton, Nottinghamshire. Hewascommis- 
sioned as ensign iu the 4tb foot on 7 Dpc. 
lT80,andhecamelleutenant an22Dec. 17(^1. 

! regim 

handed in the course of that yet 
33 June I7&4 he became captain in the 33rd 
foot, then stalioned in Nova Scotia. Tha 
incident known as the Wynyard ghost oc- 
curred while Sherbrooke was quartered in 
Cape Breton in 1784-5. lie and Lieutenant 
Wynyard saw, or supposed themselves to 
see, a figure psss through the room in wliich 
they were silting, and Wynyard recognised 
it as his brother, who (as he afterwards 
learned) died in England at that time. A 
singular feature of the case was that it was 
Sherbrooke, not Wynyard, that first aaw, and 
called attention to, the figure (Maktik, ii. 
594 ; cf. Stanhopr, Omvertafi'ms toith Wel- 
/inp(on, p. 256). The 33rd returned to Eng- 
land in 17e^>. On 30 Sept. 1793— the date on 
which Arthur Wellealey became its lieu- 
tenant-colonel — Sherbrooke was promoted 

rank on 24 May 1794. In julv the regiment 
landed at Ostend to join the tluke of York's 
army in the Netherlands. It served in tha 
latter part of the campaign of 17tP4,and in tha 
winter retreat from llomnd to Brcmeo. 

In April 1796 it went to the Cape, and 
thence to India, where it took part in the 
Mysore war of 1799. At the battle of 
Malavelly Sherbrooke was in command of 
the pickets, which were first engaged. At 
the storming of Seringapatam he commanded 
theright column of assault. He was knocked 
down by a spent ball as he mounted the 
breach, but quickly recovered, and Baird 
said in bis report: 'If where all behaved 
nobly it is proper to mention individual 
merit, I know no man so justly entitled to 
praise as Colonel Sherbrooke.' 

His health suffered so much in India that 
in January 1800 he had to go home, and in 
1B02 ha was placed on half-pay. He had 
become colonel in the army on 1 Jan. 1798, 
and on 9 July 1803 he ^vas appointed to the 
command of the 4th reserve battalion in the 
eastern counties. On 1 Jan. 1805 he was 
promoted major-general, and in June he was 
sent to Sicily, where he was given command 
of the troops at Messina. In May 1607 he 
went to Egypt to negotiate with the Beyi, 
after the failure of Fraser's expedition. Dur- 
ing the first half of 1808 he was in temporary 
command of all the British troopa in Sidlj. 




The increasing strength of the French in 
8^>uthem Italy made his duties arduous, and 
Bunbury says that few officers could have 
discharged them with belter judgment and 
with more unwearied activity and zeal, and 
that none of the British commanders battled 
so completely the intrigues of the court of 
Palermo. He describes Snerbrooke as' a short, 
square, hardy little man, with a counte- 
nance that told at once the determined forti- 
tude of his nature * {Narrative of iome Fas- 
satfes in the Great War), 

Hb temporary command having come to 
an end by the arrival of Sir J. Stuart, he 
went home in June. He had been made 
colonel of the Sicilian regiment on 5 Feb. 
1807, and was transferred to the 68th foot in 
May 1809. In January 1809 he was sent 
out with four thousand men to garrison 
Cadiz, but on arrival there he received orders 
to go to Lisbon, where he landed with his 
troops on 12 March. Finding that Beresford, 
who was three years his junior, had been 
appointed to command theJPortuguese army 
with the local rank of lieutenant-general, he 
asked for and obtained the same local rank. 

He was second in command to Wellesley 
in the campaign of 1809. At the passage of 
the Douro nis division (the 1st) crossed the 
river opposite Oporto, and helped to drive 
the French out of the town. At Talavera 
it was in the centre of the British line, and 
brilliantly repulsed the attack made upon 
it by Lapisse^s division of Victor's corps. 
But one brigade, the guards, following tlie 
enemy too far, and taken in flank as well as in 
front by the French artillery, suffered heavily. 
The division fell back in some confusion, and 
the British centre might have been pierced 
if it had not been for tne timely advance and 
steady bearing of the 48th. In Wellesley*8 
despatch, as well as in his general orders, the 
manner in which Sherbrooke led liis divi- 
sion to the bayonet charge was particularly 
mentioned ; and it was notified by the com- 
mander-in-chief (in general orders of 18 Aug.) 
that his conduct had entitled him to the 
king*8 marked approbation. He was made 
K.B. on 16 Sept., and received the Talavera 
medal. Wellington long afterwards told Lord 
Stanhope, ' Sherbrooke was a very good 
officer, but the most passionate man, I think, 
I ever knew;' and ne mentioned as an in- 
stance, that in his own presence at Oporto 
his interpreter so irritated Sherbrooke that 
he could hardly keep his hands off him. A 
fortnight before Talavera Wellesley wrote 
to Sherbrooke to impress upon him that he 
must not abuse commissariat officers, how- 
ever much he might think they deserved it 
(cf. Staithope, Chnvergations, p. 256). 

Sherbrooke's health, never strong, now 
broke down, and he returned to England 
in May 1810. He became lieutenant-general 
on 4 June 1811, and on 19 Aug. he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. 
The declaration of war by the United States 
on 18 June 1812 made it necessary for him 
to take measures for the defence of the colony, 
and he did this with so much vigour and 
judgment that, when peace had been con- 
cluded, 1,000/. was voted to him for the 
purchase of plate. In September 1814 he 
commanded the military portion of an ex- 
pedition up the Penobscot, which was carried 
out most successfully in ten days, and did 
something to counterbalance the British 
failure at Plattsburg. An American brigade 
capitulated, and the port of Maine, which lies 
between the Penobscot and New Brunswick, 
was for the time being made a British pos- 
session. A portrait of bherbrooke was placed 
in the provmce building at Halifax at the 
end of his term of office, and a township still 
bears his name. 

On 29 Jan. 1816 he was appointed captain- 
general and governor-in- chief of Canada, but 
he was not sworn in at Quebec till 12 July. 
The struggle then goina on between the 
dominant minority and the French catholic 
majority made the post far from enviable ; 
but he succeeded in winning the personal 
esteem of the colonists. The strain of the 
situation, however, told on his highly strung 
temperament ; on 6 Feb. 1 818 he had a para- 
lytic stroke, which caused him to send home 
his resignation, andheleft Quebec on 12 Aug. 
He spent the rest of his life in retirement 
at Calverton, Nottinghamshire, and died 
there on 14 Feb. 1830. He was buried at 
Oxton. He had been transferred from the 
colonelcy of the 68th to that of the 38rd 
regiment on 1 Jan. 1813, received the G.C.B. 
on 2 Jan. 1815, and was promoted general 
on 27 Mav 1825. On 24 Aug. 1811 he mar- 
ried Kathenne, daughter of the Rev. Regi- 
nald Pyndar, rector of Madresfield, Worces- 
tershire. She died without issue on 15 May 
1856. Her sister and coheiress was the 
mother of Robert Lowe, afterwards Viscount 
Sherbrooke [q. v.], whose great-grandmother, 
on the father s side, was sister of Sir J. C. 
Sherbrooke's mother. 

There is a portrait of Sherbrooke at Oxton 
Hall, and a miniature, taken in 1796, repro- 
duced as a frontispiece to Martinis 'Memoir.' 

[Sfartin's Memoir, appended to Life and 
Letters of Viscount Sherl)rooke; Gent. Mag. 
1830, i. 658; Hook's Life of Sir D. Baird, i. 
211 ; U. S. Magazine, 1830, i. 619 ; Wellinpton 
Despatches, Supplementary, vi. 261, 321 ; Mur- 
doch's Hist, of Nora Scotia. ] £. M. L. 




SHERBURNE, Sir EDWARD ( 1618- ' 
1702 ), poet, 8on of Sir Edward Sherburne 
(1578-1^1 ), wftA great-grandson of Ricbinl 
Sherburne of Haighton, a son of Sir Richard 
Sherburne (d. 1513) of Stonyhurst, where 
the elder branch of the family remained until 
its extinction in 1717. The poet's father, 
Sir Edward, son of Henry Sherburne (d. 
151)8) of Oxford, by a second wife, moved 
from Oxford to London, where he acted 
•uccesaively as agent to Sir Dudley Carleton 
(afterwards Viscount Dorchester ), as secre- 
tary (from 1617 to 1621) of Bacon, lord 
keeper, as secretary of the East India Com- I 
pany from 1621, and as clerk of the ordnance 
of the Tower of London from 1626. Dying in ! 
December 1641, he was buried in the Tower I 
chapftl. By his wife Frances, second daugh- 
ter of John Stanley of Roydon Hall, Essex, 
he had seven sons and one daughter. One 
0on, John, published a translation of some 
of Ovid's * Epistles ' (1^39). Another son, 
Henry, an ardent royalist, was during the 
civil wars controller to the army of Ralph, 
lord Hopton, and, proceeding to Oxford, 
drew an exact ichnography of the citv in 
which the king wrote the names of the l>as- 
tions (engraved in Wood's Hist, et Antiq. 
1674, i. •^64); he was made chief engineer 
on Sir Charlf^s Lloyd's death, and waskilled 
by some mutinous soldiers on 12 June 1646, 
bating buried next day in the church of St. 

Edward, the noct, bom on 18 Sept. 1618, 
at GoldAmith's Rents, Cripplegate, London, 
was first educated at the neighbouring school 
of Thomas Famaby [q. v.T, and afterwards 
under (Miarles Alleyn, author of the ' His- 
torie of Henry the Seventh,' 1638. On 
Alleyn's dimth in 1640 he travelled in 
Franco, but was recalled home by the news 
of the illness of his father, who died in De- 
C(*nib<(r KUl, He succeeded his father as 
cli'rk of the ordnance, having obtained the 
revorsion of the office in 1637-8. On the 
outbreak of the civil war, being a royalist 
and Roman catholic, he was deprived of his 
placo by ordiT of the House of Lords on 
17 Aug. 1642, and was for some months 
in the custcMiy of the usher of the black rod. 
On his n'h'ast! in October he went to Not- 
tingham and jr)iu<*d the kinp, who made him 
commiHHary-g<*neral of artillorv. In that 
capacity he was pn^sont at the battle of 
Edgohill. He attended the king to Oxford, 
where ho and his youngi»r brother, Ilenrj', 
were both cn^ntod M.A. on 20 Dec. 164*2. 
On the surrender of Oxford, in June 1616, ho 
removed to London and lived in the Middle 
Temple with Thomae Povevv^^er relative. 
He WM now ateid t(M|^|B| by the 

seizure of his estate and personal property, 
including his valuable librar}', wliicn, ac- 
cording to Wood (Fasti, ii. 30), *was great 
and choice, and accounted one of the moet 
considerable belonging to any gent, in or near 
London.' He seems to have been befriended 
at this time bv his kinsman, Thomas Stanley 
[q. v.], the poet and scholar, and was inti- 
mate with James Shirley the dramatist. His 
leisure he devoted to a study of the classics. 
In DU8 he first appeared before the public 
as an author. In that year he published 
two books: 'Medea, a Tragedie, written in 
Latine, by Lucius Annsus Seneca, Eng- 
lished [in verse] by E. S. ; ' and * Seneca s 
Answer to Lucilius hisQutere: AVhyGood 
Men suffer Misfortunes, seeing there is a 
Divine Providence,' translated mto English 
verse. The latter was dedicated to Charles I, 
who was then in captivity in the Isle of 
Wight. In 16*52 Sherburne was appointed 
by Sir George Savile (afterwards Marquis 
of Halifax) to take charge of his affairs, 
and in 1654 he became travelling tutor to 
Savile*6 kinsman. Sir John Coventry, with 
whom he visited France, Italy, Hungary, 
Germany, and the Low Countries, returning 
in October 1659. At the Restoration he was 
superseded in his place at the ordnance, but 
restored to office on petition, although the 
emoluments of the office, which he now 
shared with Francb Xicholls, were greatly 
diminished. In Februanr 1666 his salary 
was increased by 100/. It is evident from 
the numerous references in the state 
papers that he was a diligent public ser- 
vant. In a petition for compensation in 
1661 he claimed that he ' kept the train of 
ordnance together, to serve as a troop in the 
field in the decline of the late king's cause* 
and preserved the ordnance records, so that 
it is now restored to its primitive order and 
constitution' {CaL State PajyerSy Dom. 
1661-2, p. 229). He was the principal 
author of the * Rules, Orders, and Instruc- 
tions ' ffiven to the office of ordnance in 
1683, wnich, with few alterations, continued 
in use as long as the office existed. About 
the time of the * popish plot ' some ineffectual 
attempts were made to remove him from 
office on the ground that he was a Roman 
catholic. The king supported him, and con- 
ferred on him the honour of knighthood on 
6 Jan. 1682. At the revolution he quitted 
the public service, as he could not talce the 
oaths, and lived a retired and studious life. 
His reduced circumstances induced him in 
1(^ to present petitions to the king and to 
Henry Sidney, earl of Romney [q. v.], master- 
general of the ordnance, for a pension, but 
without result. It is probable that hie kins- 

Sherburne 73 Sherer 

man, Sir Nicholas Sherburne of Stonyhiirst, Fasti Oxen. (Blii-s), ii. 30 ; Biogr. Brit. 1763, 

provided for his necessities in his later years, vi. 3070; Gent. Mag. June 1796, p. 462; 

He died unmarried on 4 Nov. 1702, and Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. xxriL 453 ; Dodd's 

was buried in the chapel of the Tower of Church Hist. iii. 453; Fleming's Memoir in 

London. A memorial tablet, erected by his r^P'''"^^*;. Sherburne's Poems. 1819 ; Woods 

a Comment thereon, with several other i.iterature, and Grny's Index to Hazlitt s Col- 
Poems and Translations/ London, 1661, 8vo; lections; Phillips's Theatrum Pootarum. 1675. 
reprinted in Chalmers's 'English Poets,* is dedicated to Sherburn and Stanley ; Cnl. State 
IWlO, vi. 601, and again in 1819, with Papers, Dom. 1659-60 to 1665-6; Corresp. of 
memoir &c. by S. Fleminff, 12mo. The Scientific Men (Rignud). 1841.] C. W. S. 
volume was dedicated by Sherburne to his SHERER, MOYLE (1789-1869), tra- 
friend, Thomas Stanley, and contains most veller and author, youngest son of Joseph 
of his extant original verse, which at times Sherer, esq., of Southampton, was born in 
reminds the reader of Waller, but is very that city on 18 Feb. 1789. He was lineally 
unequal. His melodious translations from descended, through his grandmother, from 
Horace show him at his best. 2. *The theMoylesof Bake in Cornwall. At twelve 
Sphere of Marcus Manilius made an English years of age he was sent to Winchester Col- 
l*oem, with annotations and an astronomical lege, but left on obtaining a commission in 
appendix,' London, 1675, folio, dedicated to the 34th, now called the Border regiment. 
Charles II. The elaborate appendix con- In 1809 his corps was ordered to I^ortugal, 
tains among other things a * Cfatalogue of and was soon engaged in the war in the 
Astronomers, Ancient and Modem,* which Peninsula. The regiment took part in the 
is valuable for its notices of contemporary engagements of Albuera, Arroyo dosMolinos, 
writers. The work is noticed with com- and Vittoria. In the summer of 1813, when 
mendation in the * Philosophical Transac- Soult was endeavouring to force the English 
tions,* No. 110 (abridgment, ii. 185). He back from the Pyrenees, Sherer was taken 
contemplated another work on Manilius, but prisoner at the pass of Maya, and was re- 
handed over his collection of papers to ; moved to France, where he remained for 
Dr. Richard Bentley. 3. * Troades, or the two years, living chiefly at Bayonne. 
Koyal Captives : a Trajjedy, from Seneca,' In 1818 the 34th went out to Madras, and 
1679, 8vo. 4. 'Francis Blondel's Com- from that presidency Sherer sent home the 
parison of Pindar and Homer,' englished by ' manuscript of his first book, * Sketches of 
E. S., London, 1696, 8vo. 5. * The Tragedies 1 India.' It was published in 1821, and went 
of L. Annreus Seneca the I^hilosopher, ! through four editions. Its author returned 
Medea,Phiedra and Hippolytus, and Troades, | to England in 1823 by the lied Sea, and, en- 
or the Royal Captive,' translated into ' couraged by his previous success as an author, 

T^nrrliali voihia with nnnrkf Af inna tt\ tvYiinli ' nmn^imA^ k^ot l-^AAAkllAA^-^Akno ^kf •'Ka 1>AninaiilA ' 

to Richard Francis Sherburne, son of Sir of his pioneering experience of an overland 
Nicholas of Stonyhurst. There is added route. In 1825 Sherer turned to romance, 

* The Rape of Helen, out of the Greek of 
Coluthus/ originally printed in the volume 
of 1651. Sherburne contended that these 
three tragedies were all that survive of 
Seneca's plays. 

He also wrote commendatory verses to 
Allevn's * Henry VII,' 1638; to his 
brother John Sherburne's translation of 
Ovid's 'Heroical Epistles,' 1639; to W. 
Cartwright's * Comedies,' 1651 ; and Thomas 
Stanley the younger's translation of ' C. 
^Elianus his rarious History,' 1665. 

[Art. by Mr. J. Brander Hatt in Stonyhurf>t 
Magazine, March 1885, ii. 61 seq. ; Wood's 

and wrote * The Story of a Life,' in 2 vols., 
which passed through three editions. In the 
same year a visit to the continent produced 
a volume entitled ' A liamble in Germany ' 
(1826). While in India, Sherer had im- 
bibed evangelical religious views, and , anxious 
to promote them among his comrades in the 
army, published in 1827 a little treatise 
named 'Religio Militis.' But in 1829 he 
returned to fiction, and brought out his 
* Tales of the Wars of our Times,' in 2 vols. 
This work proved less successful than some 
of its predecessors. Of a * Life of Welling- 
ton/ which he contributed to Dr. Lard- 




ner's 'Cabinet Library,' 1830-2, the first 
volume passed through three editions, and 
the second through four. In 1837 he pub- 
lished his final essaj in fiction, a tale of the 
civil war of Charles Fs reign, entitled * The 
Broken Font ' (2 vols.) It was somewhat 
coldly received. In 1838 he issued his latest 
publication, a volume of extracts from his 
earlier works, named * Imagery of Foreign 

Though warmly attached to his profession, 
Sherer had little taste for garrison life, and 
retiring from the army about 1836, took 
up his abode at Claverton Farm, near Bath. 
A brevet majority was all that rewarded 
his long service. For many years, though 
changing his residence, he clung to the same 
neighbourhood. Subsequently a nervous 
disease required that he should be placed 
in medical hands. He never completely re- 
covered, but survived to the winter of 1869. 
He was buried in Brisling^on churchyard. 

[Private information.] J. W. S. 

SHERFIELD, HENRY (d. 1634), puri- 
tan, probably resided in early life at Wal- 
hampton in Hampshire. He chose the law 
as his profession, and entered at Lincoln's 
Inn. He was reader in 1623, and from 1622 
to his death served as one of the governors 
(DuGDALE, Oriff. Jurid. pp. 255, 264 et seq.) 
Shortly before 1614 he received the appoint- 
ment of recorder of Southampton, and he was 
elected to represent the borough in parlia- 
ment in 1614 and 1621. In January 1623-4 
he was chosen as member of parliament by 
both Southampton and Salisbury. In March 
of the same year he became recorder of Salis- 
bury, and he elected to sit for that city. He 
retained his seat until the dissolution of 
1629. He first rendered himself conspicuous 
by his attacks on Buckingham (Oar/. State 
Papers, Dom. 1627-8, p. 23). He embittered 
the situation in 1629 by calling attention, on 
7 Feb., to the fact that Richard Neile [q.v.l, 
bishop of Winchester, had inserted words 
into the pardons of Richard Montagu [q. v.] 
and others which freed them from the penal- 
ties of erroneous and unorthodox opinions. 
The dissolution of parliament on 2 March 
1629 alone prevented the institution of pro- 
ceedings against Neile. 

Sherfield's stepson, Walter Long, was 
among the seven members arrested after the 
dissolution, and Sherfield was one of the 
counsel employed in his defence (ib, 1628-9, 
p. 556). But he himself was soon to be 
Drought to account. He had returned to his 
home at Winterbonme Earla in Wiltshire, 
and resumed tlie datiee of his office of re- 

churchman of ordinary opinions. He had 
been accustomed to kneel for the commu- 
nion, and to punish separatists. But the 
revival of ritualism under Laud discomposed 
him. In the parish church of St. £dmund*s, 
of whose vestry he was a member, there 
existed a painted window in which God the 
Father was portrayed as a little old man in 
a red and blue cloak, measuring the sun and 
moon with a pair of compasses. To this win- 
dow some of the people were accustomed to 
bow. In February 1630 Sherfield obtained 
leave of the vestry to remove the painting 
and replace it by plain glass. Davenant, 
bishop of Salisbury, forbade the church- 
wardens to carry out the order. After some 
delay Sherfield, in defiance of this decree, 
went into the church b^ himself, and dashed 
his stick through the window. In February 
1632-3 he was summoned to answer for his 
conduct before the Star-chamber. He was 
unanimously adjudged in fault, but thero 
was considerable difierence as to the fitting 
penalty. Laud was on the side of severity, 
and so, naturalh' enough, was Neile. The 
sentence finally fixed was a fine of 500/. and 
a public acknowledgment of his fault to 
Davenant. Sherfield made the acknowledg- 
ment on 8 April 1633, but he died in January 
1634,beforepaying his fine. His house at Win- 
terbonme Earls had been burned in March 
1633, and his loss was estimated at 2,000/. 
{ib. 1631-3 p. 588, 1633-4 p. 542). About 
1616 he married Rebecca, daughter of Christo- 
pher Bailey of Southwick, North Wiltshire, 
and widow of Walter Long of Whaddon, 
Wiltshire. He left one daughter (i^. p. 651 ). 

[Q*rdiner*8 Hist of England, vii. 49, 254 ; 
Nicholas's Notes; State Trials, iii. 619; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1631-3 and 1633-4, pa^sirr ; 
Prynne*8 CHnterburips Doome, 1646, pp. 102, 
491,494; Butlers Hudibras. ed. Grey, 1810, 
ii.l47; Earl of iStraffoni's Letter«, ed. Knowler, 
1789, i. 206; Official Ret. Members of Pari.; 
Aubrey's Topographical Collections for Wilt- 
shire, p. 347 ; Hoare's Wiltshire, ri. 871.] 

E. I. C. 

RIETTA (1779-1851), novelist, wife of Tom 
Sheridan, and daughter-in-law of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan [q.v.], was second daughter 
of Colonel James Callander (afterwards Sir 

James Campbell, 1 745-1 83:> [qv.])* ^7^^ 
third wife, Lady Elizabeth Helena (rf. 1851), 
youngest daughter of Alexander Macdonnell, 
fifth earl of Antrim. Miss Callander^ one of 
the beauties of her day, was married in 1805 
to Tom Sheridan, the younger Bon of R B. 
Sheridan, and by him she was mother of ' the 
three beauties,' the Hon. Mrs. Norton, Lady 
Dufferin, and the Duchess of Somerset. The 




only extant account of Mm. Tom Sheridan*s 
character is contained in a letter written from 
Inverary Castle bv Matthew Gregory Lewis 
[q. v.] to his mother : ' Mrs. T. Hheridan is 
very pretty, Tery sensible, amiable, and 
gentle; indeed so gentle that Tom insists 
upon it, that her extreme quietness and tran- 
quillity is a defect in her character. Above 
all, he accuses her of such an extreme appre- 
hension of giving trouble (he says) it amounts 
to absolute affectation * ( Life of M, G, Lewisy 
ii. 5-6). She accompanied her husband in 
1813 to the Cape of Good Hope, where, while 
serving the office of colonial treasurer, he died 
of consumption on 12 Sept. 1817. She re- 
ceived a small pension, and rooms at Hampton 
Court Palace were given to her bv the prince 
regent. There she reared and etiucated her 
four sons and three daughters. After her 
children were grown up, Frances Kemble 
wrote in *l{ecords of a Girlhood:' 'Mrs. 
Sheridan, the mother of the Graces, [is] more 
beautiful than anybody but her daughters.' 
She published three novels which pleased the 
public. The first was ' Carwell, or Crime and 
Sorrow* (London, 1830, ]2mo), which was 
designed to expose the inequitable sentences 
pronounced upon those who had been guilty 
of forgery. The second was ' Aims and Ends,' 
1833 ; and the third, * Oonagh Lvnch,' 1833. 
Soon after publication ' Carwell was turned 
into French and published in Paris. She died 
on 9 June 1851 , at 39 Grosvenor Place, in the 
house of her daughter, Lady Dutferin. 

[Gent. Mng, 1851, zxzri. 207; Memoir of 
Lady Dofforin ; Memoirs of Sir James Camp- 
bell, written by himself.] F. R. 

(1750-1806), author and politician, second 
son of Thomas Sheridan (1719-1788) [q. v.], 
wa^ bom in June 1750 at 12 Dorset Street, 
Dublin. He was chiefly educated at home 
by his father. When seven years old he 
attended Samuel Whyte's school for a few 
weeks after it was opened, along with his 
younger brother, Richard BrinsTey [^q. v.], 
and his sister Alicia, who were aged six and 
four respectively. Several other children 
were sent to the school for a short time in 
order, aa Miss Lefanu writes, ' to promote 
the success of the undertaking ' {Memoir8 of 
Mrs. Frances Sheridan, p. 83). His father 
destined him to be a model orator and to 
exemplify his method of teaching elocution, 
and his mother informed a friend in Dublin 
how her son, when a boy of twelve, * exhi- 
bited himself as a little orator' {Memoirs 
of Hiekard Brinsley Sheridan, ed. Watkins, 
i. 161). In May 1772 he was appointed 
iecretaxy to the British envoy in bweden, 

remaining there about three years. lie 
wrote * A History of the late Revolution 
in Sweden' (London, 1778, 8vo), in which 
he g^ve a narrative of his experience as an 
eve-witness. The book attracted some atten- 
tion, and a French translation of it appeared 
in 1783 in London (Brunet, vi. 1560). 

After keeping tern s a*^^ Lincoln's Inn and 
in Dublin, he was called to the Irish bar in 
1780, being then a member of the Irish par- 
liament, to which he was returned for Bel- 
turbet in 1776. At the general election in 
1783 he was returned for the borough of 
Rathcormack. When his brother, Richard 
Brinsle^, became uiider-secretary for foreign 
aflairs in the second Rockingham admini- 
stration, he procured for Charles Francis the 
office of secretary at war in Dublin, the 
appointment being made on 6 June 1782. 
lie held this office till 1789, when he retired, 
and on 8 Aug. in that year the kin^ gave 
him a pension of 1,000/., being the equivalent 
of his salary when in office. 

Sheridan did not make his mark as a 
speaker during the quarter of a century that 
he was a member ot parliament in Ireland. 
He wrote several pamphlets which fell flat, 
though the matter and purport had much to 
commend them to public notice. * Observa- 
tions,' published at Dublin in 1779, related 
to the right of Ireland to legislate for herself 
in opposition to the doctrine enunciated by 
Sir William Blackst one that, when the sove- 
rei^ legislative power named in an act of 
parliament any of the dominions subordinate 
to it, such dominion was bound by the act. 
An * £^Say on the true Principles of Civil 
Liberty and Free Government' was pub- 
lished in 1793. 

Though pensioned on his retirement from 
office, at tne early age of thirtv-nine, She- 
ridan did not rest satisfied till Lis wife was 
provided for by the country, and a pension 
of 300/. was granted to her by kings letter 
on 23 Nov. 1796. He spent the last ten 
years of his life in futile experiments in 
chemistry and mechanics, and attempts to 
discover perpetual motion. He visited Lon- 
don to reaa papers on his researches and 
fancied discoveries before learned societies, 
but he made no converts and found no en- 
couragement. His health was not good, 
despite the sobriety of his life, and he died 
at Tunbridge Wells on 24 June 1806. Ho 
married, in the spring of 1783, Letitia 
Christiana, daughter of Theophilus Bolton 
of Moles worth Street, Dublin. She sur\ived 
him with several children. 

[Gent Mag. 1806. p. 679. Several of the facts 
in this notice havo b«Hn supplied by the repre- 
sentatives of the Sheridan fumih'.] F. R. 




(1 754-1 792), vocalist and first wife of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan [q. v.], was second child 
and eldest daughter ot Thomas Linley (1732- 
1795) [q. v.], composer and teacher of music, 
and his wife Mary. She was bom on 7 Sept. 
1754 at 6 Pierrepont Street, Bath. Her re- 
markably fine voice was so carefully culti- 
vated by herself and trained by her father 
that she was ranked first among the vocalists 
of her day. After sinking before the kinp 
and queen at Buckingham House, in April 
1773, the king told Linley * that he never in 
his life heard so fine a voice as his daughter's, 
nor one so well instructed * {Biography of 
Sheridan, i. 262). Her beauty was not less 
note wort hy . John AV ilkes de-scri bed her when 
young as * the most modest, pleasing, and 
delicate flower I have seen for a long time ' 
(Memoirs, ed. Almon, iv. 97). In her later 
years she was placed by Horace Walpole ' 
above all living beauties; Frances Bumey 
chronicles in her diary that * the elegance of 
Mrs. Sheridan's beauty is unequalled by any 
I ever saw, except Mrs. Crewe ; * while the 
bishop of Meath styled her * the connecting 
link between woman and angel.' She sat to ' 
Sir Joshua Reynolds for his * St. Cecilia * 
and for the Virgin in his * Nativity.' 

She sang at the concerts given by her father 
in Bath, Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, and 
London, and she took the principal parts in 
the oratorios which were performed under his 
direct ion. The charm of her voice and person 
attracted some persons whose advances were 
obnox ious to her. One was an elderly bachelor 
named Long ; another was Major Mathews, 
who is said to have been married. A growing 
aversion to appearing in public, coupled with 
a longing to escape from the distasteful ad- 
dresses of Major Mathews, led Miss Linley, 
at the end of March 1772, to secretlv escape 
from Bath, escorted by Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan [q. v.], with the intention of board- 
ing in a convent at Lille. The father of 
Sheridan and the father of Miss Linley were 
both averse to their marriage, and did their 
utmost to hinder it, but the pair became man 
and wife on 13 April 1773 [for fuller details 
see under Sueridan, Richabd Brinsley]. 

After her marriage Mrs. Sheridan declined 
to sing in public. A special exception was 
made for tne personal gratification of Lord 
North, the prime minister, at his installa- 
tion as chancellor of the university of Ox- 
ford, when she sang in the oratorio 'The 
Prodigal's Son.' On that occasion North 
said to Sheridan that he ought to have a 
degree oonferrad upon him uxwU cautd 
(M00Bl^ Duvy, 6 Jan. 1898). Mm. Sheridaa 
Iwifi iMid7,hoiraT«r| to mug ftt priyate 

gatherings of her friends or acquaintance. 
The lapse ofvears did not lessen the charm of 
her voice, ifer sister-in-law, Elizabeth Sheri- 
dan, wrote in her 'Journal' in 1788: *Mrs. 
Sheridan*s voice I think as perfect as ever I 
remember it. That same peculiar tone that I 
believe is hardly to be equalled in the world, 
as every one is struck with it in the same 
way' (Rae, Biography of Sheridan ^ ii. 34). 

She was of great service to her husband 
when he became manager of Drury Lane 
Theatre, keeping the accounts for a time, 
reading the manuscripts of plays by new 
hands, and writing verses for some ot those 
which were put on the stage. She was a 
zealous politician; she appeared on the hus- 
tings when Fox was a candidate for par- 
liament in 1790, and she canvassed for iiim 
at that election and at others. Many of the 
documents containing the facts upon which 
Sheridan based his speeches concerning the 
begums of Oude were put in order and copied 
by his wife. An unpublished letter, which 
she sent to Mrs. Stratford Canning, contains 
the information that the reply of the Prince 
of Wales to the proposal of the govern- 
ment to make him regent with limitations, 
which Sheridan wrote, was copied by her, 
the copy bein^ signed by the prince and laid 
before the cabmet. 

Mrs. Sheridan was always delicate, and in 
1792 she fell into a rapid consumption, dying 
at Hot Wells, Bristol, on 28 June in that 
year. Though a clever versifier, she never 
published anything in her own name, her 
verses and prose writings being preserved in 
a volume which she gave before her death 
to Mrs. Stratford Canning. Some have been 
printed by Moore in his * Memoirs,' and by 
the present writer in his * Biography of 
Sheridan.' A long letter, purporting to be 
from her pen, appeared in tne ' Gentlpman*8 
Magazine for October 1816, but this waa 
shown to be a forgery in the * Athenaeum ' 
for 20 Jan. 1895. No other woman of her 
time possessed in larger measure than Mrs. 
Sheridan beauty, talent, and virtue. She 
passed unscathed through terrible tempta- 
tions. The Duke of Clarence * persecuted ' 
her, to use the word which she wrote to 
Mrs. Canning, with his attentions, and she 
was perhaps the only lady for whom he ever 
sighed in vain. Her devotion to her husband 
was not the least admirable of her traits, and 
Sheridan derived from her some of the in- 
spiration which made him a great dramatist. 

[Memoir of Lady Dufferin, by the Marquess 
of Dufferin and Ava, 1804; Sheridan: a Bio- 
giapby. by Mr. Eraser Rae. Several dates in 
the above notice are taken from the Linlej 
family Bible.] F. R. 




1766), novelist and dramatist, wife of Thomas 
Sheridan (171»-1788) [q. v.J, was born in 
Dublin in 1724, her father being the Rev. Dr. 
Philip Chamberlaine(son of Sir Oliver Cham- 
berlaine, bart.), prebendary of Rathmichael, 
archdeacon of Glendalough, and rector of St. 
NicholasWithout. Her mother was Anastasia 
Whyte. Frances was the youngest of five 
children, three of whom were boys, and her 
mot her died soon after her birth. Dr. Cham- 
berlaine disapproved of his daughter being 
taught to read and write; but her eldest 
brother, Walter, who was in holy orders, gave 
her private instruction, with the result that, 
at the age of fifteen, she wrote a romance in 
two volumes called ' Eugenia and Adelaide,' 
which was published alter her death, and 
adapted for the stage as a comic opera by 
Alicia, her elder daughter. She wrote two 
sermons also, which, her granddaughter says, 
' were long in the possession of the family, 
and were reckoned to display considerable 
ability ' (Lefanu, Memoirs, p. 9). 

On the occasion of the Kelly riot in Dublin 
in 1745, Frances Chamberlaine espoused the 
side of Thomas Sheridan (1719-1788), ma- 
nager of the theatre where Kelly had begun 
the disturbance : early in 1746, she wrote some 
verses entitled * The Owls : a Fable,' which 
appeared in ' Faulkner*s Journal,' and she also 
wrote a pamphlet, both the verse and prose 
lauding Sheridan's conduct. Sheridan made 
her acquaintance, gained her afifection, and 
became her husband in 1747. At 12 Dorset 
Street, Dublin she gave birth to Charles 
Francis Sheridan [q. v.], to Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan [q.v.], and to Alicia, afterwards 
Mrs. Lefanu [see under Lefanu, PhilipJ. 

Owing to misfortunes in Dublin, the mttriid 
pair moved in 1754 to London, where Sheri- 
dan was introduced to many' men of letters, 
Samuel Richardson being one. Richardson 
read Mrs. Sheridan's unpublished novel, and 
advised her to write another. In 1756 she 

g laced the manuscript of * Memoirs of Miss 
idney Bidulph, extracted from her own 
Journal,' in his hands. Being pleased with 
the novel, he arranffed for its publication, 
and it appeared on 12 March 1761 without 
the author's name, and with a dedication to 
Richardson (London, 3 vols. 12mo). Its re- 
ception was unexpectedly warm; stem critics 
like Dr. Johnson read and praised it, the 
reviewers commended it highly, and states- 
man like Lord North and Charles James 
Fox were as emphatic in their praise. In 
the year after its publication an adaptation 
of ' Sidney Bidulph ' was made in French 
by the Abb6 Prevost and published under 
the title * M^moires pour 8er\'ir k Thistoire de 

la Vertu. Extraits du Journal d'une Dame.' 
A German translation also appeared in 1762. 
At a later date a translation of the first and 
second parts was made in French by lieu 6 

A comedy called * The Discovery '("London, 
1763, 8vo) was the next of her worKS. She 
read it to Garrick, who put it on the stage 
of Drury Lane, and tooK the part of Sir 
Anthony Branville. The first performance 
took place on 3 Feb. 1763, her husband filling 
one of the leading parts, and the success 
was so marked that it was played seventeen 
nights to full houses. On 10 Dec. in the 
same year *The Dupe' (1764, 8vo),a second 
comedy from her pen, was represented at 
Drury Lane. It was acted three times, and 
witharawn in consequence of a cabal, as Mrs. 
Sheridan and her friends maintained, but 
really because it was neither well conceived 
nor well written. 

She accompanied her husband to France 
in September 1764, her two daughters and 
elder son being of the party. The family 
settled at Blois, where Mrs. Sheridan wrote 
the second part of * Sidney Bidulph ' (Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 1767, 12mo), and a comedy called 

* A Journey to Bath.' The comedy was sub- 
mitted to uarrick, and he declined to accept 
it, greatly to Mrs. Sheridan's disappointment. 
One character in it lives under another name 
and an improved form, Mrs. Twyfort in * A 
Journey to Bath ' being the prototype of Mrs. 
Malaprop in ' The Rivals.' After an unsuc- 
cessful attempt at a tragedy, she next wrote 

* The History of Nourjahad,' an oriental tale 
with a good moral, which was published in 
the year after her death, passed through 
several editions and translations, and was 
dramatised by Sophia Lee |^q. v.t (Ix)ndon, 
1788, 8vo). Mrs. Sheridan diedat JBlois after 
a short .illness on 26 Sept. 1766. 

[Mm.Lefnnu 8 Memoirs of Mrs. Frances Sheri- 
dan, 1824.] F. R. 

wards successively Mbs. Blackwood, Lady 
DuFFEBiN, and Countess op Giffoed (1807- 
1867), song- writer, was the eldest daughter 
of Tom Sheridan (younger son of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan) and his wife, Caroline 
Henrietta, bom Callander [see Shebidan, 
Caboune Henrietta]. She was taken by 
her father and mother in 1813 to the Cape of 
Good Hope, whence, after her father's death 
on 12 Sept. 1817, she returned home with her 
mother in the Albion transport. The vessel 
called at St. Helena, and Miss Sheridan saw 
Bonaparte walking in the garden at Long- 
wood. The remainder of her girlish days 
I were spent in the apartments in Hampton 




Court Palace wliich the ]»rince regent per- 
mitted her mother to occupy. She was only 
seventeen when Commiinder IVice Black- 
wood met her at a ball, fell in love with 
her, proposed, and was accepted. lie was 
tlie youngest of three sons of Hans, lord 
Dufferin, by his marria;ro with Mehetabel 
Temple ; and, owing to the death of his two 
brothers, he was heir to the title and estate* 
in Ireland of Baron DulFerin and Clande- 
boye. His parents were opposed to the 
match, as Blackwood h:id notliing but his 
]my, and his bride nothing but her charms of 
person and mind. Hence, wlien the marriage 
Hervice was ended at St. George's, Hanover 
Sjuare, on 4 July 1825, the young couple 
started for Italy, and took up their abode in 
P'lorence, where their only child, the present 
Marquess of Dutferin and Ava, was born on 
21 June 1826. 

After two years' residt*nco in Italy, Com- 
mander Blacltwood and liis wife returned 
with their son to England, and lived in a 
small cottage at Thames Ditton. When 
visiting her sisters in liondon, Mrs. Black- 
wood was introduced to the world of wit 
and fashion in which her sisters moved, and 
there she made the acquaintance of the 
Miss Berrys, Samuel Eojrers, Henry Taylor, 
Brougham, Lockhart, Sydney Smith, and 
Benjamin Disraeli, the last of whom told 
Lord lionald Gower in later years that slie 
was * his chief admiration.' Mrs. Black- 
wood desired to make tlie elder Disraeli's 
acquaintance. One day Benjamin brought 
his father to Mrs. Norton's drawing-room, 
and said to Mrs. Blackwood, in his somewhat 
pompous voice, * I have bnuight you my 
father. I have become reconciled to mv 
father on two conditions : the first was that 
he should come to see i/ou; the second that 
he should pay my debts ' {Memoir of Lady 
Dufferin ^ p. o9). 

iler husband succeeded his father as Baron 
Dutferin and Clandeboye in the peerage of 
Ireland in November f83J;>, and he died on 
21 July 1841, on board ship, oil* Belfast, 
aged 47, owing to an overdose of moq»hia, 
taken inadvertently. His widow dedicated 
herself to supervising h»*r son's education till 
he came of age, and afterwards she accom- 
panied him on his travels. A trip up the 
Nile in his company led to the publication, 
from her pen, in l>().*^, of ' Lispings from Low 
Latitudes; or Extracts from the Journal 
of the H(m. Impulsia (iushington.' Lady 
Dufferin also wrote a play called * Finesse ; 
or a Busy Day in M»*ssina,' wliicli was first 
performed at the Ha v market Theatre in 
1803. The acting of Buckstone and Alfred 
contributed to a highly successful 

run. She neither acknowledged the author^ 
ship, nor was she present at a single repre- 
sentation. Her songs and verses were pub- 
lished anonymously, the first dating from 
her girlhood. Both her sister (Mrs. Norton) 
and she were under twenty-one when a i)ub- 
lisher paid them 100/. for a collection of 
their songs. Some of her sweetest verses 
were addressed to her son on his birthdavs: 
and these were published in 1894, along with 
other things from her pen, of which the 
chief are * The Charming Woman,' written 
in 183.1; < The Irish Emigrant,' 1846; 'The 
Fine Young English Gentleman,' and an 
essay on * Keys.' 

When George Hay, styled Earl of Giffonl 
(son and heir of the Marquis of Tweeddale), 
was on his deathbed. Lady Duiferin went 
through the ceremony of marriage with him 
at his earnest request ; she had refused to 
become his wife when he was full of health. 
This ceremony took place on 13 Oct. 18(52, 
and he died on 22 Dec. Her own death 
took place at Duft'erin Lodge, Ilighgate, oa 
13 June 1867. 

[Memoir of I^ady DufTerin written by the 
Marqness of Dufferin and Ava, and prefixed to 
the col leered edition of her Songs, Poems, and 
Verses, 1894.] F. R. 


( 1751-181 H), statesman and dramatist, born 
30 Oct. 1751 at 12 Dorset Street, Dublin, 
was grandson of Thomas Sheridan (1687- 
1738) [q.v.], and son of Thomas Sheridan 
(1719-1788) [q. v.] He received the rudi- 
ments of learning from his father, and from 
the age of seven till eight and a half attended 
a school in Dublin kept by Samuel Whyte. 
Then he rejoined his parents, who had mi- 
grated to London, and lie never revisited his 
native city. In 1702 he was sent to Harrow 
school, where he remained till 1768, two years 
after his mother's death. Subsequently a pri- 
vate tutor, Lewis Ker, directed his studies in 
his father's house in London, while Angelo 
instructed him in fencing and horsemanship. 
At the end of 1770 Sheridan's fatlier 
settled in Bath and taught elocution. His 
children became acquainted with those of 
Thomas Linley (1732-1795) [q. v.], a com- 
poser and teacher of music, who had given 
Sheridan's mother lessons in singing. One of 
Sheridan's friends at Harrow was Nathaniel 
Brassey Ilalhed fo. v.], who went to Oxford 
from Harrow, tv ith him Sheridan carried 
on a correspondence from Bath. They pro- 
jected a literary periodical called * Heman's 
^liscellanv/ of which the first number was 
written but not published ; and they pre- 
pared a metrical version of the epistles of 
Aristicnctus, which appeared in 1771 , and 




in a second edition in 1773. Ilalhed trans- 
lated the epistles, and Sheridan revised and 
e<lited them. Another volume of transla- 
tions from the same author which Sheridan 
undertook never saw the lifht. A farce 
called * Ixion' was written by Ilalhed, recast 
by Sheridan, and renamed 'Jupiter/ It was 
otTered toGarrick andFoote, but not accepted 
bv eit her. Sheridan wrote two sets of verses, 
which appeared in the * Bath Chronicle' dur- 
ing 1771 ; the title of one set was * Clio's 
l*rotest, or the Picture Varnished ; ' of the 
other, * The Kidotto of Bath/ which was re- 
printed and had a larf^e sale. 

Sheridan's letters to Ilalhed have not been 
preserved ; those from Ilalhed contain many 
references to Miss Linley, who sang in 
oratorios at Oxford, and for whom Halhed 
expressed great admiration, althoughhe failed 
to excite a corresponding feeling in her. 
Desiring to escape from the persecution of 
Major Mathews, an unworthy admirer. Miss 
Linley appealed to Sheridan to escort her to 
France, wnere she hoped to find refuge and 
repose in a convent. The scheme had the 
approval and support of Sheridan's sisters. 
At the end of March 1772 Sheridan, Miss 
Linley, and a lady's maid left Bath for Lon- 
don, where Mr. Ewart, a friend of Mr. 
Sheridan, gave them a passage to Dunkirk 
in one of nis vessels. Sheridan's vounger 
sister, Elizabeth, who was in Miss Linley's 
confidence as well as her brother's, gives the 
following account of what followed : * After 
quitting Dunkirk, Mr. Sheridan was more 
explicit with Miss Linley as to his views in 
accompanying her to France. He told her 
that he could not be content to leave her in 
a convent unless she consented to a previous 
marriage, which had all along been the object 
of his hopes ; and she must be aware tnat, 
after the step she had taken, she could not 
appear in Efngland but as his wife. Miss 
l^inley, who really preferred him greatly to 
any person, was not difficult to persuade, 
an^ at a village not far from Calais the mar- 
riage ceremony was performed by a priest 
who was known to oe often employed on 
such occasions.' This marriage, if contracted 
OS described, was valid ; but neither of the 
parties to it regarded the ceremony as more 
binding than a betrothal. Her own feelings 
were subsequently expressed in a letter to 
him : * You are sensible when I left Bath I 
had not an idea of you but as a friend. It 
was not your person that gained my affec- 
tion. No, it was that delicacy, that tender 
compassion, that interest which you seemed 
to take in my welfare, that were the motives 
which induced rae to love you' (Biography 
of JShendan, i. 25o). 

The lady's father followed the fugitives 
and took his daughter back to Bath. Mean- 
while Mathews had published a letter de- 
nouncing Sheridan 'as a liar and a treacherous 
scoundrel,' and on their meeting in London a 
duel with swords ended with the disarming of 
Mathews, who was compelled to beg his life 
and to publish an apology in the ' Bath 
Chronicle.' On 2 Julv 1772 a second duel 
was fought, in which Sheridan was seriously 
wounded. After his recovery, as his father 
and Mr. Linley both objected to his marrying 
Miss Linley, he was sent to Walt ham Abbey 
in Essex on 27 Aug. in order that he might 
continue his studies undisturbed. He re- 
mained at Waltham Abbey till April 1773, 
reading hard and writing many letters to his 
friends, of whom the chief was Thomas Qren- 
ville (1765-1846) [q. v.] He wrote to him : 

* I keep regular hours, use a great deal of ex- 
ercise, and study very hard. There is a very 
ingenious man here with whom, besides, I 
spend two hours every evening in mathe- 
maticks, mensuration, astronomy.' Charles 
Brinsley, the son of Sheridan by his second 
marriage, has recorded that his father left 
behind him *six copybooks, each filled with 
notes and references to mathematics, care- 
fully written by Mr. S. at an early age;' that 
is, probably at Waltham Abbey. He told bis 
friend Grenville : * I am determined to gain 
all the knowledge that I can bring within my 
reach. I will make myself as much master 
as I can of French and Italian.' Yet his 
inclination was for the bar, and he was en- 
tered at the Middle Temple on 6 April 1 773. 

On the 13th of the same month he at length 
married Miss Linley, with her father's con- 
sent. His own father looked upon the union, 
and wrote about it, as a disgrace. The voung 
couple went to live at East Bumham. In the 
winter of 1773 they lived with Stephen 
Storace [q. v.] in London, and in the spring 
of 1774 took a house in Orchard Street. 
Sheridan wrote much at this period, a scheme 
for a training school for children of the 
nobility and comments on Chesterfield's 

* Letters ' being among the subjects he treated ; 
but he published nothing with his name. On 
17 Nov. 1774 he informed his father-in-law 
that a comedy by him would be in rehearsal 
at Covent Garden Theatre in a few days. 
This comedv was * The Rivals,' and it was 

ferformedforthe first time on 17 Jan. 1775^ 
t failed, was withdrawn, and then performed 
in a revised version on 28 Jan. From that 
date it has remained one of the most popu- 
lar among modem comedies. A farce, * St. 
Patrick's Day, or the Scheming Lieutenant,' 
was written for the benefit of Mr. Clinch, 
who had made his mark in the * Rivals ' as 




Sir Lucius O'Trigger, and it was pkjed on 

2 May. It vae fuvournbl; received, and re- 
peated several times at Covent Garden. A 
comic opera, 'The Duenna,' was represanti^d 
ht Covent Garden on 21 Nov. 1775 and on 
Bavantj-four other nights during the season, 
a success which was tlian unprecedeoled. 

By the end of 1776 Sheridan had become 
a favourite with playgoers. Before the end 
of the next year be was maiiaaer of Drury 
Lane Thnatre in succession to Garcick, hav- 
injt entered into partnership with Mr. Linley 
and Dr. Ford, and become the proprietor of 
Oarrick's share in the theatre, for which 
Garrick received 3B,(XX)/. Two years later 
the share of l^cy, the partner of Garrick, 
by the new proprietors. Mr. BranderMalhews 
has (lointed out, in hisintroduction to Sheri- 
dan's 'Comedies' (pp. SO, 31), that the 
money was cbiafiy raised on mortgage ; that 
when Sheridan bau(;ht one-seventu of the 
shores in 1776 he only hod to find 1,300/. in 
cosh ; and that when he became Che jiro- 
prietor in 1778 of the half of the shares, 
this sum was returned to him. 

Drury Lane Theatre was opened under 
Sheridan's management on 21 Sept. 1776. 
A prelude written for the occasion by Colman , 
containing a neat compliment to Oarrich, was 
then perfonned. On 16 Jan. 1777 Slieridan 

K7e ' The Itivals ' for the first time at Drury 
ne,ttnd on 24 Feb.' A Trip to Scarborough,' 
which he Lad adapted from Vanbrugh'a ' Re- 
lapse;' but be achieved hia crowning triumph 
OS a dramatist on 8 Mav in that year, when 
' The School for Scandal was put on the stage. 
The play narrowly escaped suppression. 
Sheridan told the House of Commoits on 

3 Dec. 1793 that a license for its performance 
had been refused, and that it was onlv through 
his personal influence with Lord Ilertfonl, 
the lord chamberlain, that the license was 
granted tile dav before that fixed for the 
performance. On 2t) Oct. 177fl Sheridan's 
iarce, ■ The Critic,' and, on 24 May 1799, hia 
patriotic melodrama, ' Pizarro," were pro- 
duced at Drury Lane. With ' PiBarro ' his 
career as a dramatist ended. 

Sheridan had meaawhilc become as great 
a favourite in society and in parliament as 
among playgoers. In March 1777 he was 
elected a memherof the Literary Club on the 
motion of Dr. Johnson, and he lived to be one 
of ihe oldest of the thirty-five members. 
Having made the acquaintance of Charles 
James Fox, he joined him iu his efforts for 
political reform, and desired to enter parlia- 
ment as bis supporter. He failed in his can- 
didature for Honiton,but he was returned for 
Stafford on 12 Sept. 1780. A letter in liis 

favourfrom the Duchess of Devon shire proved 
of great service, t'n thepropositionof Fiti- 
patrick, he was elected a member of Brooks's 
Club on 2 Nov. 1780. Two years before, ha 
had been twice proposed by Fox sad rejected, 
the Srst time on 28 Nov. the second on 
His first speech in parliament was made on 
20 Nov. 1780, in defenceof a charge of bribery 
which Whitworth, his defeated opponent at 
Stafford, bad brought against bim, and the 
speech was both well received and successful 
in its object. The allegation that he had 
failed was circulated for the first time by 
Moore forty-five years after the speech was 
delivered (cf. Feaseb RiE, JSiugraphy, i 
359). He bpcame a frequent apeaki 


among dra- 

18 deemed Boeffecti ve by the repre- 

among parliamentory o 
matic writers. His opi>i 
America w 

sentatives of congress that a thank-ofiering 
of20,000;. wasmadetohim. Hewiselyand 
gracefullydeclined to accept the gift (Moore, 
Diary, i. 212, 213). In 1782 his marked 
abilities received more practical recognition. 
Lord Rockingham, who then became premier 
for the second time, appointed him under- 
secretary for foreign affairs. After the death 
of Rockingham on 1 July, Shelbume was 
appointed prime minister. Sheridan, with 
other colleagues in the Rockingham admini- 
stration, raftsed toserveundor bim. But he 
returned to office on 21 Feb. 1783 as secretary 
to the treasury when the coalition ministry, 
with the Duke of Portland as figure-head, 
was formed. The ministry was dismissed by 
the king on the 18th of the following De- 
cember. During the brief intcri'al, Sheridan 
addressed the house twenty-six times on 
matters concerning the treasury. 

Sheridan made the personal acquaintance 
of the Prince of Wales ot Devonshire House 
soon after he entered parliament, and thence- 
forth acted as his confidential adviser. He 
gave advice and drafted documents for the 
prince in 1788, when the king was suffering 
from mental disorder, and it was proposed to 
appoint the prince as regent subject to certain 
restrictions. With Fox and Lord Lough- 
borough be injudiciously upheld the right of 
the prince to assume the regency without the 
sanction of parliament. Itwasarranged that, 
should the king not recover and siiould a 
whig administration be formed by the regent, 
the office of treasurer of the navy would be 
assigned to Sheridan; but the king^s re- 
coveryrendered the plan nugatory. Sheridan 
was conspicuous in the proceedings against 
Warren Hastings [q. v,] He attended 
the committee which examined witnesses Ja 




connection with charges whereupon to frame 
an impeachment, and when the articles were 
aettleu it fell to him to obtain the assent of 
the house to the one relating to the begums 
or princesses of Oude. The speech in which 
he Drought the matter before the house on 
7 Feb. 1787 occupied five hours and forty 
minutes in delivery, and was one of the most 
memorable in the annals of parliament. 
^Tien he sat down * the whole house — the 
members, peers, and strangers — involuntarily 
joined in a tumult of applause, and adopted 
a mode of expressing t neir approbation, new 
and irregular in that house, by loudly and 
repeateoly clapping their hands' {Parlia- 
mtntary Hist. xxv. 294). Pitt moved the 
adjournment of the debate on the ground that 
the minds of members were too agitated to 
discuss the question with coolness and 

C'icially. No full report of the speech has 
Q preserved ; the best appeared in the 
'London Chronicle' for 8 Feb. 1787. The 
excitement which Sheridan had aroused in 
the House of Commons spread throughout the 
nation. Sheridan began his speech as a 
manager of the impeachment in Westminster 
Hall on 8 June 1788. The event was the 
topic of the day. Fiftv pounds were cheer- 
fully given for a seat, llis speech lasted, not, 
as Macaulay wrote, * two days,' but for several 
hours on Tuesday the 3rd, Friday the 6th, 
Tuesday the 10th, and Friday the 13th of 
June. Gibbon asserted that Sheridan sank 
back into Burke*s arms after uttering the con- 
cluding words, * My lords, I have done.' 
Macaulay repeated this storjr with embel- 
lishments, writing that ' Shendan contrived, 
with a knowledge of stage effect which his 
father might have envied, to sink back, as 
if exhausted, into the arms of Burke, who 
hugged him with the energy of generous ad- 
miration' {Collected Works, vi. 633). Sir 
Gilbert Elliot, one of the managers who sat 
beside Sheridan, wrote to his wife, ' Burke 
caught him in his arms as he sat down. . . . 
I have myself enjoyed that embrace on such 
an occasion, and know its value ' (Life and 
Lettergf i. 219). Sheridan paid Gibbon a 
graceful compliment by speaking of ' his 
luminous page.' Moore is responsible for the 
fiction that Sheridan afterwards said he 
meant * voluminous.' Dudley Long told Gib- 
bon that Sheridan had spoken about his 
* voluminous pages ' (Sib Gilbert Elliot, 
Life and Letters, i. 219). 

The trial of Hastings lasted till 1794, 
and Sheridan was constant in attendance. 
On 14 May in that year he replied to the 
arguments of Plumer and Law, counsel for 
Hastings, relative to his charge concerning 
the bourns, and the speech wnich he then 


delivered was described by Professor Smyth, 
who heard it, as an extraordinary rhetorical 
triumph {Memoir of Mr. Sheridan y^^j^.^l-^). 
While the trial was in progress Sheridan 
suffered much domestic affliction. His father 
died at Margate on 14 Aug. 1788. Sheridan 
thereupon took charge of his sister Elizabeth, 
and, on her marriage with Henry Lefanu, pro- 
vided for her maintenance. His wife died at 
Hot Wells on 28 June 1792. He remarried 
on 27 April 1795, his second wife being 
Esther Jane, eldest daughter of Newton Ogle, 
dean of Winchester. 

He was unremitting in the discharge of his 
parliamentary duties, and he gave special 
attention to finance, saying to Pitt, on 
11 March 1793, that he did not require to 
watch with vigilance all matters relating to 
the public income and outlay, as ' he had 
uniformly acted on that principle upon all 
revenue questions.' He laboured to abate 
the rigour of the game laws and to repress 
the practice of gaming. Whenever a ques- 
tion relating to social improvement ana pro- 
g^ss was before the house he gave his sup- 
port to it, and when, in 1787, the convention 
of Scottish royal boroughs had failed in 
getting a sympathiser with their grievances, 
they enlisted nim in their service, and they 
thanked him in after days for his earnestness 
in their cause, which he twelve times upheld 
in the house. What he had vainlv urged 
between 1787 and 1794 was effected for the 
Scottish bui^esses in 1833 in a reformed 
parliament. The parliamentary reform which 
rendered this improvement possible had been 
advocated by Sheridan, and, when others 
despaired of its attainment, he wrote, on 
21 May 1782, to Thomas Grenville : « We 
were bullied outrageously about our poor 
parliamentary reform ; but it will do at last 
m spite of you all' {Courts and Cabinets of 
George III, i. 28). 

when the revolution in France tried 
men's souls in Great Britain and made 
many friends of progress recant in a panic 
the convictions of their wiser years, Sheridan 
stood firm with Fox in maintaining the right 
of the French to form their own government, 
and upheld, with him, the duty of this 
country to recognise and treat with any 
government which exercised authority 
there. The Earl of Momington (afterwards 
Marquis Wellesley) made an elaborate ap- 
peal to the house on 21 Jan. 1794 to prose- 
cute the war with France till the French 
should have discarded their republican prin- 
ciples. The reply on this occasion was one 
01 Sheridan's nnest debating speeches, and 
a most able argument agamst illegitimate 
interference with the domestic concerns of 





France. lie was quite as ready, however, to 
oppose the French when they began to pro- 
pagate their principles by the sword. The 
fleets at Portsmouth and the Nore mutinied 
in May and June 1797, partly at the instiga- 
tion of French agents. Then Sheridan gave 
warm support and good advice to the govern- 
ment, and largely contributed to the removal 
of the danger which menaced the country. 
Dundas said on behalf of the ministry 
that 'the country was highly indebted to 
Sheridan for his fair and manlv conduct' 
{Parliamentary Hist, xxxvi. 804). When 
invasion was threatened in 1803 by Bona- 

5 arte, he urged unconditional resistance, and 
eclared in the house on 10 Aug. that 
no peace ought to be made so long as a 
foreign soldier trod British soil. Moreover 
he urged the house to encourage the volun- 
teers who had assembled in defence of their 
homes, while he set the example by acting 
as lieutenant-colonel of the St. James's 
volunteer corps. The revolt of the Spaniards 
against the French invaders was lauded by 
him, and he was earnest in urging the 
government to send Sir Arthur Wellesley 
(afterwards Duke of Wellington) to repre- 
sent ' the enthusiasm of England ' in the 
cause of Spain struggling against the yoke 
of Bonaparte. His last speecn in parliament, 
which was delivered on ^1 June 1812, ended 
with a heart-stirring appeal to persevere in 
opposing the tyranny to which Bonaparte 
was subjecting Europe, and with the asser- 
tion that, if the British nation were to share 
the fate of others, the historian might record 
that, when after spending all her treasure 
and her choicest blood the nation fell, there 
fell with her * all the best securities for the 
charities of human life, for the power and 
honour, the fame, the glory, and the liberties 
of herself and the whole civilised world.' 

Sheridan was conspicuous and energetic 
among the opponents of the union between 
Great Britain and Ireland. He said on 
23 Jan. 1799, when the subject was formally 
brought before the house, * My country has 
claims upon me which I am not more proud 
to acknowledge than ready to liquidate to 
the full measure of my ability.' He held 
that the bargain concluded in 1782 between 
the two countries was final, and also that, 
if a new arrangement were to be made, it 
should be based on ' the manifest, fair, and 
free consent and approbation of the parlia- 
ments of the two countries.' Twenty-five 
members of parliament followed his lead. 
Mr. Lecky affirms that he fought *a hope- 
less battle in opposition with conspicuous 
earnestness and courage ' {History of Eny- 
land in Eighteenth Century, viii. 366). 

After the union was carried and Adding- 
ton had succeeded Pitt as prime minister, it 
was in Sheridan*s power, as it may have 
been previously, to ent^r the House of Lords 
by changing the party to which he had be- 
longed since entering political life, but he 
then declined, as he phrased it, ' to hide his 
head in a coronet ' (Memoir of Lady Duf- 
ferin^ hj her son, p. 17). He sometimes 
dined with Addington when he was premier, 
and Addington records that one night She- 
ridan said to him, 'My visits to you may 
possibly be misunderstood by my friends; 
but I hope you know, Mr. Addington, that I 
have an unpurchasable mind' {Life of Lord 
Sidmouth, n, 105). When Pitt died in 1806 
and the ministry of 'all the talents' was 
formed, Sheridan held the office in it of 
treasurer of the navy, with the rank of privy 
councillor. After Fox's death in the same 
year he succeeded him as member for West- 
minster ; but he was not called, as he had 
a right to anticipate he would have been, to 
lead the whig party in the commons. 

He was rejected for Westminster at the 
general election in 1807, and found a seat 
at Ilchester which he held till 1812. He 
had been proposed in 1807 as a candidate 
for the county of Wexford without his know- 
ledge, and his election seemed assured, as the 
electors expressed their readiness to TOte for 
* the great Sheridan.' Mr. Colclough, who 
proposed him as a fellow candidate, was 
challenged by Mr. Alcock, one of his oppo- 
nents, to fight a duel, and was shot through 
the heart. The supporters of both Colclough 
and Sheridan consequently held aloof from 
the poll, and Mr. Alcock and Colonel Ram 
were declared to have been duly elected 
( Personal Sketches of his Own Ttnies, by Sir 
Jonah Barrington, i. 302, 805). Sheridan 
endeavoured m 1812 to be returned again 
for Stafford ; but the younger generation of 
burgesses was as little disposed as the elder 
to vote for any candidate unless he paid eadi 
of them the accustomed fee of five guineas, 
and, as Sheridan had not the money, he lost 
the election. 

As a dramatic writer Sheridan had no 
equal among his contemporaries, and as 
manager and chief proprietor of Drury Lane 
Theatre he maintained the popularity of 
the theatre and obtained from it an average 
income of 10,000/. In 1791 the theatre was 

Sronounced unsafe, and it had to be pulled 
own and rebuilt, and the new house was 
much larger than the old one. The esti- 
mated cost was 150,000/. ; this was ex- 
ceeded, however, by 75,000/. While the 
theatre was rebuilding, the company played 
at the theatre in the Haymarket, and the 




expenses there exceeded the receipts. The 
first performance in the new building took 
place on 21 April 1794. "With mistaken 
chivalry Sheridan rashly undertook to de- 
fray out of his own pocket the liabilities 
which had been incurred owing to the 
expenses exceeding the estimate. Whatever 
prospect he may have had of achieving this 
chivalrous but quixotic undertaking was 
dashed to the ground on 24 Feb. 1809, 
when the new theatre was destroyed by fire. 
AVhen the news reached the House of 
Commons that the theatre was burning, the 
unusual compliment was paid him by Lord 
Temple and Mr. Ponsonby of moving the ad- 
journment of the debate ' in consequence of 
the extent of the calamity which the event 
just communicated to the house would 
bring upon a respectable individual, a member 
of tfiit house.' While grateful for the kind- 
ness displaced towards himself, he objected 
to the motion on the ground that * whatever 
might be the extent of the individual 
calamity, he did not consider it of a nature 
to interrupt their proceedings.' Two years 
later the house displayed a like feeling of 
admiration and sympathy. It was then 
proposed to authorise the building of 
another theatre, and Sheridan contended 
that the proprietors of the Drury Lane 
patent ought to be the persons entrusted 
with this privilege. His conduct with 
regard to Vrury Lane Theatre was eulo- 
gised hy political opponents as well as 
by political friends. General Tarleton calling 
upon the house * to consider the immortal 
works of Mr. Sheridan and the stoical philo- 
sophy with which in that house he had 
witnessed the destruction of his property. 
Surely some indulgence was due to such 
merit ' {Pari. Debates, xix. 1142, 1145). 

None of the many effective speeches which 
Sheridan delivered m the house did him more 
honour, or has given him more deserved 
credit, than those relating to the liberty of 
the public ^ress at a time when the press 
had fewer friends among statesmen than at 
present. He was magnanimous in uphold- 
ing the liberty of unfettered printing, because, 
as he declared to Sir Richard Phillips, his 
life had been made miserable by calumnies 
in the newspapers. The greater his mag- 
nanimity and statesmanship, then, in de- 
claring, as he did in the House of Commons 
on 4 April 1798, ' that the press should be 
unfettered, that its freedom should be, as 
indeed it was, commensurate with the freedom 
of the people and the well-being of a virtuous 
State ; on that account he thought that even 
one hundred libels had better be ushered into 
the world than one prosecution be instituted 

which might endanger the liberty of the 
press of this country.' At a later day he 
condemned the conduct of the benchers of 
Lincoln's Inn, and shamed them into rescind- 
ing a regulation which they had passed for 
excluding from the bar any member of the 
inn who contributed to newspapers. 

His monetanr affairs, after the burning of 
Drury Lane Theatre in 1809, were greatly 
involved, and the sums owing to him were 
withheld while his creditors clamoured for 
payment. A committee, presided over by 
Mr. Whitbread, for rebuilding the theatre 
gave him shares for much of the amount due 
to him, but by retaining 12,000/. in cash 
hindered him from being returned to parlia- 
ment for Stafford, and caused him to be 
arrested for debt in August 1813, when he 
became an inmate of a sponging-house in 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, till Whit- 
bread handed over the sum required. It 
was not known till after Whitbread's self- 
inflicted death, on 6 July 1815, that a disease 
of the brain was the explanation of some 
actions which would have been otherwise 
inexplicable. Sheridan's own health had 
been impaired several years before his life 
ended. He had long suffered from insomnia ; 
in his later years varicose veins in his legs 
gave him much pain and made walking diffi- 
cult. He had always been a jovial com- 
panion, and few who enjoyed his society 
could have surmised that in private he was 
subject to fits of depression which made life 
a burden. In common with his contem- 
poraries he frequently drank wine to excess, 
yet without drinking as much as many others, 
a small quantity affecting him more seriously. 
Sir Gilbert Elliot records that at a dinner in 
1788 Sheridan drank much wine,but that Grey 
drank far more. Sheridan preferred claret 
till his later and darker years, and then 
brandy had a baneful fascination for him. 
Nevertheless, he weaned himself from the 
bad habit, and he became very temperate 
latterly, drinking nothing but water. 

Mental worries about the health of his 
elder son Tom, who went to the Cape of 
Good Hope in 1813, without being cured 
there of consumption, and about the means 
wherewith to satisfy the demands of inexo- 
rable creditors, to which an abscess in the 
throat added a physical torment, compelled 
him to take to his bed in the spring of 1816. 
He was then occupying the house at 17 Savile 
Row. A writ was served upon him when 
he could no longer leave the nouse, and the 
sheriff's officer consented to remain there, 
and, by sodoing,hindered other creditors from 
giving further annoyance. It was incorrectly 
announced in the newspapers that Sheridan 





was in dire poverty, and offers of assistance 
were made ; but these were declined because 
tliey were not required. Several years after- 
wards a story was circulated by Croker, on 
the authority of George IV, to the effect that 
Sheridan's last hours upon earth were those 
of a neglected pauper. The story is the 
reverse of the truth. Charles Brinsley, the 
son of Sheridan by his second marriage, wrote 
from Fulham Palace, on Sunday, 7 July 1816, 
where his mother and he were staying, to 
his half-brother at the Cape, eight davs 
after their father s death, that * you will be 
soothed by learning that our father*s death 
was unaccompanied by suffering, that he 
almost slumbered into death, and that the 
reports which you may have seen in the 
newspapers of the privations and the want of 
comforts which he endured are unfounded ; 
that he had every attention and comfort that 
could make a deathbed easy.' Mrs. Park- 
hurst, who was acquainted with the Sheri- 
dans, wrote to Dublin from London to Mrs. 
Lefnnu, his elder sister, a fortnight after his 
death : * Mr. Sheridan wanted neither medical 
aid, the attention of true affection, the con- 
solations of piety, nor the exertions of friend- 
ship. He had three of the first physicians 
of London every day; his wife, his son, and 
his brother-in-law were constantly with him ; 
the bishop of London (Howley, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury) saw him many 
times, and (Lord) Lauderdale did allhe could 
for the regulation of his affairs.' 

The funeral was arranged by Lord Lauder- 
dale and Peter Moore [q. v.], member for 
Coventrv, both being Sheridan's old and at- 
tached friends, and the coffin was taken, for 
the sake of convenience, to Peter Moore's 
house in Great George Street. The remains 
were laid in Westminster Abbey, and the 
funeral was on a far grander scale than those 
of Pitt and Fox, the flower of the nobility 
uniting with the most notable men of letters 
and learning in paying the last homage to 
Sheridan. The Duke of Wellington and his 
brother, the Marquis Wellesley, who were 
absent, expressed m writing their regret that 
their absence was unavoidable. 

As a dramatist Sheridan carried the comedy 
of manners in this country to its highest 
pitch, and his popularity as a writer for the 
stage is exceeded by that of Shakespeare 
alone. As an orator ne impressed the Ilouse 
of Commons more deeply than almost any 
predecessor, and as a politician in a venal 
age he preserved his independence and 
purity, lie left debts which were trifling 
compared with those of Pitt, and which, 
unlite those of Pitt, were defrayed by his 
family. He never receiyed a pension, though 

he was as much entitled to one as Burke. 
The Prince of Wales induced him to accept 
the office of receiver of the duchy of Corn- 
wall, with a salary of about 800/., and this 
he enjoyed for the last few years of his life. 
His widow and his son by her inherited a 
property in land which he had bought, and 
which sufficed to maintain them during the 
remainder of their lives. 

Throughout life Sheridan was the victim 
of misrepresentation. Ho declared to Sir 
Richard Phillips in his closing years that 
his life 'had been miserable by calumnies.' 
To these words, taken from a manuscript by 
Sir Richard supplied to Moore, but sup- 
pressed, may be added the following from a 
manuscript which Sheridan left behind him : 
' It is a fact that 1 have scarcely ever in my life 
contradicted any one calumny against me . . . 
I have since on reflection ceased to approve 
my own conduct in these respects. Were 
I to lead my life over again, 1 should act 
otherwise.' After his death many stories 
about him have been circulated and ac- 
cepted as genuine, though they are counter- 
terfeit. They begin when he was seven 
years old, and end when he was in his coffin; 
the first being that his mother told Samuel 
Whyte he was an * impenetrable dunce,' a 
statement for which not a shadow of proof 
has been given ; and the last that he was 
arrested for debt when laid out for burial, a 
statement which is as ridiculous and un- 
authentic as the other. The story is often 
told of his hoaxing the House of Commons, 
and many correspondents of 'Notes and 
Queries ' have exercised their ingenuity in 
describing the kind of spurious or imitation 
Greek which he is assumed to have used, 
the truth being that he once corrected Lord 
Belgrave, who misapplied a passage of De- 
mosthenes, which he had quoted in the ori- 
ginal. He is finely characterised in a few 
words written by Idrs. Parkhurst in the letter 
from which a quotation has been made above: 
* lie took away with him a thousand chari- 
table actions, a heart in which there was no 
hard part, a spirit free frt)m envy and malice, 
and he is gone in the undiminished bright- 
ness of his talent, gone before pity nad 
withered admiration.' On the morning after 
his death the 'Times' eulogised him as a 
member of the legislature in terms which 
could not bo justly applied to many of his 
colleagues and contemporaries: 'Throughout 
a period fruitful of able men and trying 
circumstances [he was regarded] as the most 
popular specimen in the British senate of 
political consistency, intrepidity, and honour.* 

Sheridan's portrait was painted more than 
once by Sir Joshua Keynolda. The finest 



example belonged to H. N. Pjm., esq., of 
Bmsled; nnotlier portrait b? Sir Joshua WAB 
pupraved by W. Read. Both these are repro- 
ducvdiii Mr.IJae's'Biogrsphy.'ti^therwith 
m pencil sketch Bttribtitedto the eama artut. 
The portrait by John Russell, R.A,,ia nt the 
Xaiional Portrait Gailerj, and a drawing of 
Shfridnn in old age was engnived by the 
anirit (ieorge Clint. Jnhi) Hoppner painted 
lh« second Mre. Sheridan wittt her infant 
ton Charlfi. 

A collected edition of Sheridan's plays 
appeared at Dublin in \792-3, and in London 
1794. l)f many later editions, one waa 
edited by Moore in two volumes 0821), and 
to another (1840) Leigh Hunt contributed a 
bio<rniphical notice. Sheridan's speeches 
were wlited ■ bv a constitutional friend' in 
irsie (fi volO, and witha life in 1816 (5 vols,; 
2nd edit. 184l>, StoK). Hisspeechcs in the 
trial of Wnrren Hastings, reprinted from the 
Verbatim shorthand report of the proceedings, 
were edited by E. A. Bond, London, 1869-tH. 

Sheridan's only son, 'Tkomas Skebidah 
(1775-1817J, usually called Tom, was bom 
on 17 March 1775, and died, as colonial Irea-- 
surer, at the Cape of Good Hone, on 12 Sept. 
lal7. lie was very accnmpiished and a skil- 
ful versiUcrj & poem on the lose of the Sal- 
danha was printed and praised. He entered 
the army and was for a time aide-de-camp 
to Lord Moira. In November 1805 he mai^ 
ried, with his father's approval, Caroline 
Henrietta Callander, by whom he had four 
sons and three daugbters. His wife is sepa- 
rately noticed. The eldest son, Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan (d. 1888), married in leSo 
Marcia Maria, only eurvivingchild and heiress 
■of Lie lit. -general Sir ColquUoun Grant [q. t.] 
of Frampton Court, Dorset, and sat in parlia- 
ment as member for Shaftesbury from 1846 
to 186:i, and for Dorchester from 1862 to 
18138. His son, Algernon Thomas Brinsley 
Sheridan of Frampton Court, owns many of 
his great -grand father's papers. 

Tom Sheridan's three daughters were noted 
for their great beauty and talent. All were 
mnrrii'd ; the eldest became Lady DuSerin, 
■ud afterwards Countess of GiSbrd [see 
Skebidan, Helbx Sbuna]; the second ne- 
came the Honourable Caroline Norton [(I. v.], 
and afterwards Lady Stirling-Maxwell of 
Keir; and the youngest became Lady Sey- 
mour, and afterwards Duchess of Somerset 
[see Sethovb, Edwa&!> Adouhcs], 

fllie faets ooni-pmiDg Sheridan, as well an 
niBDj of carrent Gctioni, ar« set forth in detail 
in tba work by tiiB writer of this notice entitled 
Sb'ridun : a Biography, LcndoD, 189S. Other 
work* in which nmny of the flctioni are set 
forth as facu are Memoira of Sheridan i>j Dr. 

Watkin9(l 8te)and also byThom«JIoure (1825), 
and LivBB of the Sheridans by Mr. Percy Fiti- 
geraid (1887). Sheridan's Life and Time. Ly an 
UdogenHrinn (1859, 2 vols.) codCuins several 
grains of fact; but many of the sreneB den-ribsd 
are inventions. His name was William Eitrle. 
ProfeagorSmylhof Cambridge printed for privalo 
cirCQlfllion in 1840 a Memoir of Mr. Slitridan, 
which comaina a few useful foots and mnny mis 
etalemente. Jlrs. Olipbant wrote liis lifi, in the 
Knglish Menof Letters series (lS83),«ndrep.-«lBd 
many of the anfuunded stories of priceding 
writers. A Life of Sheridan, by L. C. SandofB, 
in the Great Writara eeries, has Ihs ndvantago 
of a biMiographj, by Mr. Joho P. Andenioii of 
iho British Museiuu, of all iLe works by and 
about Sheridan. F. H. 

SHEBID AN, THOMAS (/.1601-1688), 
Jacobite and author, horn in 11(46, at the vil- 
lage of St. John's, near Trim in Meatli, was 
the fourth son of Dennis Sheridan, and a 

lege, Dublin, on 17 Jan. 16t!0-I, graduated 
B.A. in lt»4,and waselecteda felbwin 1667 
( Cat. of Graduates, p. 514). Being destined 
for the law, he entered the Middle Templeon 
•>9 June 1670, but soon after obtained the 
position of collector of the customs in Cork, 
whichproved extremely lucrative. On 6 Aug. 
1677 he received from the univerpily of Ox- 
ford the honorary degree of D.C.L. (Fostbb, 
.^/umniOaon.l60n-1714). On 6Feb.l'179ha 
waaalsoelectedafellowof the Royal Society 
(TaoJisotr, Hut.qfRoyaiSoc.,A-pp. p. .tivii). 
fiecomine acquainted with James, duke of 
York,and receiving several favours from him, 
he showed his gratitude by visiting him at 
Brussels in 1679 during his retirement. 
Being known as an adherent of James, he 
was accused of participation in ihe ' popish 

flot ' and committed to prison in IfiBO. On 
5 Dec. ho was examined before the House 
of Commons, but, having explained that he 
was a member of the church of England 
and bad taken the oaths eleven times, he 
was merely remanded to the cuslodv of the 
sergeant-at-arms, and was i^et at liberty on 
the dissolution of parliament (Joiimalii 'if the 
/f«?i«>o/Gnninon«,ix. 670-81, fiS7, 702). In 
1687 James II appointed Sheridan chief 
secretary and commissioner of the revenue 
in Ireland, and he proceeded thither, bearing 
the king's letter for Clarendon's reCBll. But 
Tyrconnel, who succeeded as lieutenant- 
general, wishing to have another per^ton as 
secretary, procured Sheridan's removal from 
his poHts. The latter appealed lo the king, 
with what result is doubtful ; but he accom- 
panied James into exile in I(i8C and was 
appointed his private secretary. The date 

Sheridan 86 Sheridan 

of his death is unknown. He is said to have Sheridan, fourth and youngest son of the 

married a natural daughter of James II. He Ilev. Dennis Sheridan, who assisted Bishop 

left two children : a daughter, who married Bedell in translating the hible into Erse (-4;>- 

Colonel Guillaume, aide-de-camp of "\Vil- pendix to Life of Bedelly by T. W. Jones, p. 

liam III ; and a son, Thomas Sheridan the 210). Thomas Sheridan (^. 1601-1688) 

younger {d, 1746), who was appointed about [q. v.], the Jacobite, and William Sheridan 

1739 tutor to l^iiice Charles Edward (the *q. v. J, bishop of Kilmore, were his uncles, 

young Pretender) ; he accompanied the young On 18 Oct. 1707 he entered Trinity College, 

chevalier to Scotland in 1745, and was Dublin, as a pensioner, his uncle, the bishop, 

knighted bj him. He was one of the * seven helping with funds. He graduated B. A. m 

men of Moidart ' who landed with the prince 1711, and M.A. in 1714 ; in 1724 he became 

and was present at thebattle of Falkirk, which B.D. and in 1726 D.D. Shortly after gradua- 

he described in a letter dated 21 Jan. 1746 ting he married Elizabeth, the only cnild of 

(' Copia d* una Lettera del Cavalier Sheridan Charles MacFadden of Quiica Ilouse, co. 

to Mr. D. O'Brien, scritta da Bannochbum/ Cavan, and this Iiouse became his on Mac- 

Koma, 1746 ; Jesse, Memoirs of the Preten- Fadden's death. The property was originally 

dersj 1858, pp. 102, 241, 268). After the in the possession of the Sheridans, and was 

battle of Culloden he escaped on 4 May from forfeited for theiradhering to Jame« II, while 

Arisaig in Inverness-shire on board a French Charles MacFadden acquired it for his services 

man-of-war. He proceeded to Uome, where to King "William. 

he died before the end of the year {Gent, Sheridan, on his marriage, opened a school 

Mag, 1746, pp. 264, 608). in King's Mint House, Capel Street, which 

Besides * Mr. Sheridan's Speech after his was attended by sons of the best families in 
Examination before the late House of Com- Dublin, and from which he derived an income 
mons' (London, 1681, fol.) the elder Sheridan of 1,000/. Swift made Sheridan's acquaint^ 
published* A Discourse on the Rise and Power ance in 1713, on arriving in Dublin to take 
of Barliaments ' (1677, 8vo); reprinted in 1870 possession of the deanery of St. I^atrick's. 
by Saxe Bannister, London, 8vo, under the They became constant companions. A room 
title 'Some Kevelations in Irish History.' in the deanery was reser\'ed for Sheridan, 
This work is of especial interest, both on ac- while Swift often lived for months together 
count of the light it throws on Irish political at Quiica, where he planned the * Drapier's 
life, and because of the singularly bold and Letters,' wrote a part of * Gulliver's Travels,' 
enlightened manner in which the author pro- and edited * The Intelligencer ' in concert with 
poses to meet the dilHculties of administra- his friend. When Sheridan was incapaci- 
tion by a system of conciliation and tolera- tated by illness from being present in his 
tion. Sheridan was also the author of a school. Swift took his place. When Carteret 
manuscript * History of his Own Times,' now was lord-lieutenant. Swift appealed to him on 
in the royal library at "Windsor, and he is said Sheridan's behalf, and in response he ap- 
to have translated * A Survey of Princes,' by pointed him, in 1725, to be one of his chap- 
Jean Louis Guez, Sieur de Balzac, London, tains and to a living in the county of Cork. 
1703, 4to (manuscript note on title-page of Before he was inducted, however, Sheridan 
copy in British Museum). preached a sermon at Cork on the text * Suf- 

[Notes kindly supplied by FraserRae, esq., and ^^ient unto the day is the evil thereof,' a 

by Richard Bagwell, epq.: Sheridan's Works; sermon which he had often preached before 

Praser Rae*8 Sheridan : a Biography, 1896 ; Fitz- without complaint. On this occasion Sunday 

gerald'e Lives of the Sheridans, 1886, i. 424-8 ; fell on 1 Aug., the birthday of Queen Anne. 

Lang's Pickle the Spy, pp. 31, 90; Bannister's Richard Tiglie, a whig and courtier, heard 

Preface to Powers of Parliament ; L. T.'s Short it ; he thought that the sermon confirmed 

Account of Mr. Sheridan's Cas^, London, 1681 ; the prevailing notion that the preacher was 

"^ ■"' «..-r« ,-rx.. - , _ - . - - icii^i this to the 

Sheridan's name 
chaplains and forbade his 

Librarv — - 

MSS.^Arr8Vfri39 b.j E. L C." " 7^^^ *^^® manorof Drumlane,co. Cavan, yield- 

ing 250/. a year. 
- SHERIDAN, THOMAS (1687-1738), Dr. Sheridan was offered the head-master- 
Bchoolmaster, and friend of Swift, was bom at ship of the royal school at Armagh, but elected 
Cavan in 1087, and was the son of James to remain in Dublin, at the advice of Iub 




friends, who afterwards aided in the esta- 
blishment of a school which emptied his own. 
In consequence, he felt obliged to leave the 
cit J and exchange his living at Dunbojne for 
the free school at Cavan. In 1738 he disposed 
of this school and went to stay with Swift at 
St. Patrick's deanery, where he had a serious 
illness, and was tola after his recovery that 
his presence was no longer welcome. lie 
had, it is true, alienated Swift by being faith- 
ful to a promise made in earlier years to 
inform him when he showed signs of avarice. 
Having noted many instances, he gave Swift 
the paper on which he had written them. 
After perusal he asked Dr. Sheridan, 'Did 
you never read " Gil Bias " ? ' Not long 
afterwards Sheridan died suddenly at the 
dinner-table in the house of a former pupil 
at Itathfamham on 10 Oct. 1738. By his 
wife, Elizabeth MacFadden of Ulster, he had 
issue James, Richard, Thomas (1719-1788) 
[q . v.], and a daughter, who was the ancestress 
of Sheridan Knowles. 

Sheridan wrote much and published little. 
Translations of the * Satyrs of Persius * (1728, 
8vo) and * Satires of rfuvenal' (1739, 8vo), 
both of which had several editions, and the 
'Philoctetes' of Sophocles (1726) were the 
most noteworthy of his productions. His son 
Thomas prepared a volume of his writings 
for publication in England, the contents 
being a translation of ' Pastor Fido,' poetical 
pieces on divers subjects, and a choice col- 
lection of apophthegms, bons mots, and jests. 
The public would not subscribe for the work, 
whicli did not appear, while the manuscript 
itself was lost or destroved. Swift said that 
Sheridan ' shone in his proper element at 
the head of a school ; in a letter to Alderman 
Barber he characterised him as * the best scho- 
lar in these kingdoms.' Sir Walter Scott, in 
his 'Memoir of Swift,' writes about *the 
good-natured, light-hearted, and ingenious 
Sheridan.* Not a day passed that he did not 
make a rebus, an anagram, or a madrigal. 
Idle, poor, and gay, he managed his own 
affairs badly, and he justly wrote of himself, 
' I am famous for giving the best advice and 
following the worst.' 

[DispnrHginfi; statements, mingled with a few 
facts, about Sheridan are to be found in the Earl 
of Orrery's Remarks on Swift's Life and Writings. 
Many letters from and to him are contained in 
Swift's Works, edited by Walter Scott ; and au- 
thentic ptirtioulars of his lifa are given in the first 
chapter of the first volume of the Biography of 
Sheridan by the author of this notice.] F. R. 

SHERIDAN, THOMAS (1719-1788), 
actor and ' orthoepist,' fatlier of Richard 
lirinslev Sheridan [q. v.], was the third son 
of Thomas Sheridan (1687-1738) [q. v.]. 

Swift's friend, and had Swift for godfather 
(Sheridan, Life of Swift, p. 382). Accord- 
ing to Chalmers he was bom at Quilca 
(Dictionan/f xxvii. 468), while Watkins 
gives his birthplace as King's Mint House, 
Capel Street, Dublin, adding that he was 
baptised in * the parish churcn of St. Mary ' 
{Memoirs of Sheridan^ i. 34). There is no 
record of his baptism in St. Mary's. His 
father sent him to Westminster school, where 
he became a king's scholar, but his father's 
lack of means compelled the boy's return 
to Dublin. Through the influence of Dr. 
Sheridan's friends in Trinity College, young 
Thomas, to use Swift's phrase, ' was chosen 
of the foundation ' on 20 May 1736. He was 
elected a scholar in 1738, and took his B.A. 
degree in 1739. 

Sheridan wished his son Thomas to be- 
come a schoolmaster, but the young man 
preferred to go on the stage, for which, while 
an undergraduate, he had written a farce 
called * Captain O'Blunder, or the Brave Irish- 
man.' lie appeared as Richard III at the 
Theatre Royal in Smock Alley in January 
1743, and his success determined his voca- 
tion. In the following year he obtained an 
engagement at Drury Lane Theatre. After 
his return to Dublin he became manager of 
the Theatre Royal, which he made a more 
reputable place of resort than it had been. 
His reforms were unwelcome to many play- 
goers. A young man from Galway named 
Kelly,being intoxicated, insulted the actresses 
one evening, and threatened Sheridan with 
his vengeance when reprimanded for his 
conduct. Whot is called the Kelly riot 
ensued, with the result that Kelly was sent 
to prison and fined 600/., and that Sheridan 
magnanimously sued for, and succeeded in 
obtaining, his release and the remission of 
the fine. Miss Frances Chamberlaino wrote 
verses and a pamphlet in Sheridan's praise, 
and on his discovering their authorship Sheri- 
dan made the lady*s acquaintance and married 
her in 1747 [see Siieridan, Mrs. Frances]. 
On 2 March 1 764 he was the victim of another 
outbreak of popular fury, because he had for- 
bidden West Digges [q. v.] to repeat some 
lines from Miller s tragedy of * Mahomet the 
Impostor,' in which Digges played Alcanor. 

Sheridan now let the theatre for two 
years, started for England, and appeared at 
Covent Garden Theatre. Many critics praised 
his acting, and Churchill ranked him, in 
the * Rosciad,' next to (Tarrick as a tragedian. 
In 1 760 he was again manager of the Theatre 
Royal in Dublin ; but a new theatre built for 
Spranger Barry being opened and attracting 
playgoers to the detriment of his own, 
Sheridan finally determined to seek in £ng- 




land a new Lome and a new mode of liveli- 
hood as a teacher of and lecturer on elocu- 
tion. He lectured on elocution with great 
success in London, lyrist ol, Bath, Oxford, 
Camhridge, and Kdinhurgh. His house in 
Henrietta Street, Co vent Garden, became 
the resort of eminent men ; he acquired 
such an influence with Wedderburn as to 
persuade him to move the Karl of Bute to 
bestow a pension of 300/. upon Dr. John- 
son; and when he undertooK to prepare a 
pronouncing dictionary, the Earl oi Bute 
procured a pension for him of '2001. Dr. 
Johnson, who had been on intimate terms 
with Sheridan, considered this grant of a 
pension an atiront to himself, and talked 
about giving up his accjuaintance. They 
ceased to meet. Sheridan's revenge was to 
write of Johnson that had * gigantic fame 
in these davs of little men.' Johnson's con- 
tempt for his rival found notable expression. 

* Why, sir,' he said to Boswell, * Sherry is 
dull, naturally dull ; but it must have taken 
him a great deal of pains to become wliat 
we now see him. Such an excess of stupidity 
is not in nature.' On 28 Nov. 1758 the uni- 
versity of Oxford * incorporated ' him as 
master of arts, and that of Cambridge did 
likewise on 16 March 1769. He was made 
an honorary freeman of the city of Edinburgh 
on 8 July 1761. He conferred on Home, the 
author of * Douglas,' the honour of a gold 
medal, specially struck, * for having enriched 
the stage with a perfect tragedy.' In 1763 
he acted at Drury Lane in his wife's comedy, 

* The Discovery.' 

He went to Blois in 1764 with his wife, 
elder son, and two daughters, partly for the 
sake of his health, but chiefly, as he wrote 
to Samuel Whyte, to * bid defiance to his 
merciless creditors.' lie returned home after 
his wife's death in 1766, residing first in 
London and next in Bath, visiting Dublin 
at intervals, where his appearance on the 
stage attracted playgoers. Later in life he 
gave readings in London, Henderson being 
his colleague, and Henderson's rendering of 
'John Gilpin' pleasing the public even more 
than tliat of Drvden's * Alexander's Feast/ 
upon tlie delivery of wliich he plumed him- 
self. He died at Margate on 14 Aug. 1788. 
Having directed in his will that his remains 
were to be interred in the parish next to 
that in which lie died, he was buried in the 
centre aisle of St. Peter's Church in the Isle 
of Thanet. His younger daughter, Eliza- 
beth, who was then unmarried, tended him 
in his later years, and was present at his 
deathbed, as was his eminent younger son, 
Kichard Brinsley, who defrayed the expenses 
of his last illness and his funeral. His 

second son, Charles Francis, is, like liichard 
Brinsley, separately noticed. 

Thomas Sheridan was a voluminous but 
not a popular writer. 11 is chief works were : 
1. 'British Education, or the Source of the 
Disorders of Great Britain,' 17o6. 2. *A 
Dissertation on . . . Difficulties ... in 
Learning the English Tongue, with a Scheme 
for an English Grammar and Dictionarj-,' 
1762, 4to. 3. *A Course of Lectures on 
Elocution, with two Dissertations and some 
Tracts,' 1763. 4. * A Plan of Education for 
the young Nobility and Gentry,' 1769. 
6. * Lectures on the Art of Reading,* 1775. 
6. *A General Dictionary of the English 
Language,' 2 vols. London, 1780, 4to ; a 
revised and enlarged edition appeared in 
1789, and was frequently reissued as * A 
Complete Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, both with regard to Sound and 
Meaning.' 7. *The Works of Swift, with 
Life,' in 18 vols. 8vo, 1784. 

[The facts in Thomas Sheridan's life are set 
forth in the first chapter of the Biography of 
R. B. Sheridan, by the writer of this notice. See 
also BosweU's Johnson, ed. G. B. Bill; Biker's 
Biogr. Draroatiea ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ; Allibonc's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. ; Webb's Compend. of Irish Biography.] 

F. R. 

SHERIDAN, WILLIAM (1636-1711), 
bishop of Kilmore, who was born at Togher 
in 1636 near Kilmore, co. Cavan, belonged to 
a native Irish clan in that district. His 
younger brother, Thomas Sheridan (Jl. 1661- 
1688), is separately noticed ; another brother, 
Patrick, died bishop of Cloy ne in 1682. His 
father, Dennis Sheridan or O'Sheridan, was 
brought up as a prot«stant in the house of 
John Hill, dean of Kilmore, was ordained by 
Bishop William Bedell [q. v.] on 10 June 
1634, and at once collated by him to the 
vicarage of Killasher. He lived in a house 
of Beaell's about a mile from Kilmore, and 
married an Enj^lishwoman named Foster. 
When the rebellion of 1641 broke out, Dennis 
Sheridan did many good services to the dis- 
tressed English, and his Celtic origin secured 
him a certain toleration among the insurgents, 
80 that he was allowed to retain his house. 
There he sheltered the wives of Bedell's sons, 
there the bishop himself died, and from thence 
his body was carried to Kilmore. Sheridan 
saved some of BedelFs treasures, including 
the Irish Old Testament in manuscript, after- 
wards printed at the expense of Robert Bo^^ 
[q. v.] Ileame says (Collectionay ii. 80) Sheri- 
aan was the translator, but this is an error. 
On 20 Sept. 1645 Sheridan was presented by 
the crown to the lapsed Ticarages of Drung 
and Laragh in the diocese of Kilmore. 




'William Sheridan, who was partly edu- 
cated by his father, was BedelFs godson, and 
the bishop left him 40s, in his will. On 
15 May 1652 he entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, and became D.D. in 1682. Under 
Charles II, Sheridan was chaplain to Lord- 
chancellor Eustace, whose funeral sermon he 
preached. He was afterwards chaplain to 
the Duke of Ormonde, became rector of 
Athenrv in 1667, and on 25 Aug. 1669 was 
made aean of Down. He was consecrated 
bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh in Christ- 
church, Dublin, on 19 Feb. 1681-2. 

After the accession of William III, Sheri- 
dan absented himself from his see to avoid 
taking the oath of allegiance, and, following 
the precedent in the case of the crown, this 
was held to create a vacancy. The succes- 
sion was offered to llobert Iluntington [q. v.] 
early in 1692, but he refused it with more 
decLtiion than Beveridge had shown in Ken's 
case. The see was filled in 1693. Sheridan 
went to London, and lived thenceforth among 
the non-jurors there. He was in poor cir- 
cumstances, and subscriptions were made for 
him from time to time among the Irish pre- 
lates. King, bishop of Derry (afterwards 
archbishop of Dublin), interested himself in 
the matter, and many particulars are given 
by Mant (Irish Chwch Hist, vol. ii.) A 
project, originating with Henry Dodwell, 
to procure him a regular allowance out of 
the income of Kilmore may have been frus- 
trated by the poverty of that see. In 1704 
King spoke of Sheridan as * exceedingly poor 
and crazy.* He published man^ sermons 
both before and after his deprivation, of 
which Cotton gives a list. On 1 Oct. 1711, 
says Heame, ' died the liight Reverend and 
truly conscientious Dr. Sheridan, the de- 
prived ^ishop of Kilmore in Ireland' (^Col- 
iectitms, iii. 240). 

By his wife ilarj (O'Keilly) he had a son 
I>onald. His portrait, engraved by William 
Sherwin fq. v.], was prefixed to his * Ser- 
mons,' 1704, 8vo. 

[Bedeirs Life by his Son, ed. Wharton Jones 
(CHmden Sec.) ; Clogy's Life of Bedell ; Hist. 
MsS. Comm. 2nd Rep. App.; Dublin University 
Hamzine, November 1 852 ; Ware's Irish fiishopM, 
ed. Harris; Cotton's Fasti EcclcsisB Hibernicse.] 

K. B-L. 

founder of Rugby school, the son of respec- 
table parents resident in Rugby, appears to 
have been bom in that town, although 
Brownsover, a village in the neighbourhood, 
has also been assignecias the place of his birth. 
He removed to London, where he became a 
grocer. He lived near Newgate, on the site 
of what is at present 24 Newgate Street, and 

was connected with the household of the 
Princess (afterwards queen) Elizabeth, thougli 
possiblv only through his trade. He was a 
stauncn adherent of that princess, and when 
she came to the throne Sheriff was made an 
esquire and received a grant of arms. He 
was appointed the second warden of the 
Grocers Company of London in 1566, and 
died on 20 Oct. of the following year. By 
his will he expressed a desire to be buried at 
Rugby, but, notwithstanding, he seems to 
have been interred in the graveyard of Christ 
Church, Newgate. He had a wife named 
Elizabeth, who 8ur\'ived him, but he left no 
children. In his will, which was proved at 
London on 31 Oct. 15(i8, besides severol 
other bequests to his native town, he left 
for the foundation and endowment of a school 
at Rugby the rent of his parsonage and farm 
at Brownsover, with aft his property at 
J^**fiity> *^tl one third of his Middlesex estate ; 
together with 50/. for building purposes, and 
100/. to be invested in land for the site of 
the school, and to provide for the mainte- 
nance of its headmaster, and the building of 
four almshouses. The school beems to have 
been founded immediately after Sheriff's 
death, but it was deprived of the revenues 
of the Middlesex property until 1614 by the 
fraudulent conduct of one of Sheriff*8 trus- 
tees. The school did not obtain full posses- 
sion of the Brownsover estate until 1653, 
from which time the rapid increase in the 
value of the endowment assured its pro- 

[Colvile's Warwickshire Worthies, p. 683 ; 
Goulburn's Book of Rugliy School, p. 3; Nichols's 
Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, i. 118, 127; 
Carlisle's Grammar Schools, ii. 662; Nicolns's 
Hist, of Rugby, p. 89; Hist, of the Public 
Schools, Rugby, p. 4 ; Foxes Actes and Monu- 
ments, iii. 951, ed. 1641.] E. I. C. 

1678), royalist divine, born in 1602, was son 
of William Sheringham of Guestwick, Nor- 
folk. He was educated at Norwich under 
Mr. Brings, and on 15 March 1618-19 was 
admitted a pensioner of Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1622-3 
(Venn, Admissions to Oonville and Caius 
College^ p. 140). He was elected a fellow of 
his college, commenced M.A. in 1626, and 
w^as incorporated in that degree at Oxford 
on 15 July 1628. In 1634 he was presented 
to the rectory of Patesley, Norfolk (Blome- 
FIELD, Norfolk, X. 28). lie became one of 
the proctors of the university of Cambridge 
in 1644, but shortly aftenvards was ejected 
from his fellowship at Caius on account of 
his adherence to the king's cause. There- 
upon he retired to London, and, going subse- 




quently to Holland, be taught Hebrew and 
Arabic at Kotterdum and in other towns. 
On the king's return in 1060 he was restored 
to his fellowship, and led a studious and 
retired life, being esteemed * a most excellent 
linguist, as also admirably well versed in 
the original antiquities of the English nation.' 
He died suddenly in his rooms at Caius 
College, and was buried in the neighbouring 
parish of St. Michael on 2 May 1678. 

Hearne describes him as ' a learned man, 
and endowed with an accurate judgment ;' 
but Dr. Percy more truly observes that * it 
is the great fault of Sheringham not to know 
how to distinguish what is true and credible 
from what is improbable and fabulous in the 
old Northern Chronicles.' 

His works are: 1. * Joma. Codex Talmud i- 
cus, in quo agjtur de Sacrificiis, cfleterisque 
Ministcnis Diei Expiationis. . . ex Hebneo 
sermone in Latinum versus et commentariis 
il lust rat us,' I^ondon, 1648, 4to, Franeker, 
1696, 8vo. 2. * The Kings Supremacy as- 
serted, or a Remonstrance of the Kings Kight 
against the Pretended Parliament. Printed 
formerly in Holland and now reprinted,' 
London, 1060, 4to ; 3rd edit, enlarged, Lon- 
don, 1682, 4to. 3. * De Anglorura Gentis 
Origine Disceptatio. Qua eorum migrationes, 
variffi sedes, et ex parte res gestae, h con- 
fusione Linguurum, et dispersione Gentium, 
usque ad adventum eorum in Britanniam 
investigantur,' Cambridge, 1670, 8vo. 

[Addit. MS. 5880, f. 20 ; Bowes's Cat. of 
CHmbridgo Books, pp. 48, 101 ; Carter's Cam- 
bri'ige, pp. 129. 138; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714, iv^. 1348; Kenuett's Kogister, p. 
21(9; Lelaiid's ItiuerHrv, 1741. i. 122, 123; Le 
Neve's Fiisti ; Lowndes'i* IJiM. Man. ; Nicolson's 
Enp:l. HistoricMl Library, 1730, p. 272; Percy's 
pretHcc (p. viii) to Mullet'8 Northern Antiquities, 
1770; Walker's SufferingH, ii. 146; Wilkins's 
pFffice to Tenner's WWA. Brit. p. vii; Wood's 
rasli Oxon. (Bliss), i. 445.] T. C. 

Sir WILLIAM (149oP-ir>53), vice-treasurer 
of the mint at Bristol. [See Sharington.] 

SHERLEY. [See also Sihrlet.] 


(1638-1678), physician, son of Sir Thomas 
Slierley of Wiston, SuSs<»x, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Sir George Bluudell of Carding- 
ton, Bedfordshire, was born in tlie parish of 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, and baptised on 
15 Oct. 1(538. Sir Thomas Shirley [q. v " 
the adventurer, was his grandfather. lie 
lived with his father in Magdalen College 
while Oxford was garrisoned by the king's 
troops, and was educated at Magdalen school. 

He afterwards went to France, studied physic, 
and obtained the degree of M.D. On hid 
return he acquired a good practice, and was 
appointed physician in ordinary to Charles II. 
lie was heir to his father*8 estate at Wiston, 
worth nearly 3,000/. a year; but it had been 
granted during the civil war to Sir John Fagge, 
and, although Sherley had recourse to law, tne 
case was decided against him in chancery. 
He appealed to the House of Lords, but. Sir 
John Fagge being the member for Steyning 
in the House of Commons, the house main- 
tained that he was entitled to exemption 
from lawsuits during session, and Sherley 
was ordered into the custody of the serjeant- 
at-arms on 12 May 1676 for bringing an 
appeal in the lords against a member of the 
lower house. The matter occasioned a dis- 
pute between the two houses, who were al- 
readv embroiled over the case of Skinner and 
the East India Company. The difference 
was only terminated by the king proroguing 
parliament {Journals 0/ House o/Lords, vols, 
xii., xiii. passim ; Jouimals of House ofOrtn- 
monSy ix. 337 &c.). Disappointed by his ill 
success, Sherley sank into a morbid condi- 
tion, and died on 6 Aug. 1078. He was 
buried in the vault of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, 

He was twice married : first to Hannah, 
daughter of John liarfieet of Fleet in Kent, 
by whom he had two daughters, Anne and 
Margaret. He married, secondlv, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Captain Richard Baskett of Apps, 
Isle of Wight, on 6 June 16(^7, by whom he 
had Thomas, Richard, and Elizabeth (Ches- 
ter, Londo7i Marriatje Licenses^ ed. Foster, 
p. 1219). 

He was the author of 'A Fhilosophical 
Essay, declaring the probable cause whence 
stones are produced in the outer world,' 1672, 
12mo; and of the following translations: 
1. Molimbrochius's * Cwhlearia Curiosa,' 
1076, 8vo. 2. ' A Treatise of the Gout' by 
Mayeme Turquet, 1676, 8vo. 3. * Medicinal 
Councels' by Mayeme Turquet, 1677, 8vo. 
4. *The Curious Distillatory,' from the 
Latin of Johann Sigismund Elsholtz, 1677, 

[Shirley's Stemmata Shirleiana, p. 291 ; 
Chalmers's Bio^. Diet, xxvii. 482 ; Dodd's Church 
llist. iii. 280 ; Notes and Queries, 5th scr. i. 294, 
477; Hallam's Constitutional History, 1854, iii. 
25; Hist. MRS. Comm. 8th Rep. pp. 137. 162. 
9th Rep. ii. 56-7 ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 22263. 
ff. 24-6.] E. L C. 

SHERLOCK, ^lARTIN {d. 1797), tra- 
veller, born about 1750, was a member, it is 
supposed, of the Kilkenny family of Sher- 
lock. He was admitted of Trinity College, 
Dublin, ou 1 Nov. 1763, but does not appear 




to have taken a def^ree. About 1777 he be- 
came chaplain to Frederick Augustus Her- 
vey, fotirUi earl of Bristol fq.v.], and bishop 
of Deny, and it may have been partly in his 
suite that he travelled extensively in Central 
Europe and Italy. His egotistic and gene- 
rally entertaining letters are dated from The 
Hague, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, Rome, 
Naples, and Femey, where he visited Voltaire. 
His correspondence was published at Geneva 
in 1779 as 'Lettres d*un Voyageur Anglois.' 
The Prussians were described by Sherlock as 
the Macedonians of Germanv, but Frederick 
the Great, who read the book, took this in a 
sense complimentary to himself, and gave 
the author an interview at Potsdam on 
20 Julv 1779. An English translation by 
John buncombe fq. v.] appeared at London 
in 1780, and a German at Leipzig in the 
same year. A second series, entitled ' Nou- 
velles Lettres,* appeared in 1780 (Paris and 
London), and of tliis an English translation 
was published at London in 1781. The later 
Beries contain impressions of Italy, Geneva, 
Lausanne, Strassburg, several French towns, 
and Paris, which he asserts that no traveller 
ever left w^ithout regret of some kind or 
another. Both volumes were well reviewed, 
but had much less success in England than 
abroad. In a section of the last book of his 

* I^ife of Frederick,* to which he gives the 
sub-title 'A Reverend Mr. Sherlock sees 
Voltaire, and even dines with him,' Carlyle 
quotes largely from Sherlock's 'letters,* 
which he calls a ' flashy yet opaque dance of 
Will-o -Wisps.' Simultaneously with the 
' Lettres ' Sherlock published at N aples (with 
some assistance from an Italian friend), his 

* Consiglio ad un Giovane Poeta ' (1779, 8vo ; 
2nd ed. Rome, n.d.), which was answered by 
Bassi in ' Observations sur les Podtes Italiens/ 
the English writer having compared the tragic 
poets of Italy with Shakespeare, with little 
advantage to the former. A portion of the 
' Consiglio ' was translated into French as 
' Fragment sur Shakspeare, tir6 des conseils 
k un leune poete' (Paris, 1780; an English 
translation was made from the French, Lon- 
don, 1786; this was republished, together 
with the two series of * Letters,' in transla- 
tion, London, 1802, 8vo). Sherlock was a 
good scholar, and a happy admixture of 
erudition and taste was shown in the only 
work which he originally published in Eng- 
lish, a volume of thirty short essays, entitled 
' Letters on Several Subjects' (1781, 8vo), in 
which he reverts to many of the topics raised 
in his previous volumes, and has more to say 
on Shakespeare, Richardson, Frederick the 
Great, Voltaire, and *Mr. Sherlock.' He 
ranked English literature as a whole below 

the French, but contended that in Shake- 
speare, Newton, and Richardson, England 
had produced three greater names than anv 
other country. His former works liad afl 
been dedicated to the Earl of Bristol, and 
this was dedicated to the countess. Sherlock 
hoped through this influence to get some 
diplomatic post, and he was spoken of in 
1781 as secretary to the embassy at Vienna. 
He was seen during this season in the salons 
of Mrs. Montagu and Lady Lucan; and 
Horace Walpole, whose curiosity was piqued 
by an Irishman's * writ in jr bad French and 
Italian when he could write good English,' 
classified him as a man of abundant parts 
but no judgment. Disappointed of other pre- 
ferment, Sherlock was appointed surrogate 
of Killala and Achonry on 9 Oct. 1781, and 
he obtained through his friend Dr. Perry, 
bishop of Killala, the united vicarages of 
Castlecomer and Kilglass (13 Nov. 1782). 
These were worth 200/. a year, but, writing 
to a friend in London, he begged him to 
double the amount in making the announce- 
ment in the newspapers ; * the world is very 
apt (God bless it) to value a man's writings 
according to his rank and fortune.' Subse- 
quentlv, in March 1788, he was appointed by 
Dr. John Law to the rectory and vicarage of 
Skreen, and on 28 Oct. in the same year he 
was collated to the archdeaconry of Killala. 
He died in Ireland, where he regarded him- 
self as banished, in 17U7. 

[Sherlock's Letters, ed. 1802; Cottons Fasti 
Ecclrg. Hib. iv. 87 ; Querard s La France 
Littcntire, ix. 124; Btibeau's Vovageurs en 
Frnnce ; Ballantyne's Voltaire in hngland ; 
Walpole's Corresp. ed Cunningham, vii. oil, 
viii. 158, 202; Nioholt's Lit. Anecd. viii. 67 sq. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1800, ii. 812 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

T. S. 

SHERLOCK,rAUL (1595-1040), Jesuit, 
was bom at or near Waterford in August 
1595. His name is latinised as Sherlogus. 
He went to S{)ain in early youth, and was 
educated at the Irish College at Salamanca. 
At seventeen he sought admission into the 
Society of Jesus, taking the fourth vow in 
the end, and was for twenty years superior 
of the Irish College at Salamanca and Com- 
postella. His profound patristic learning 
appeared in the controversies which en- 
gaged him for years, and he taught scholast ic 
theology and divinity with success. Sher- 
lock injured his health by flagellation and 
hair-shirts, and esjH^ciallv by fasting and 
praying in honour of the Virgin. Some Imj- 
lieved that he received direct communication 
from heaven while praying and writing. He 
died at Salamanca on 9 Aug. 1040, having 
never returned to Ireland. 




Sherlock vras thought much of in France 
and Spain, and testimonials from many 
leamect men are printed with his works. 
One of these pane^rists, a French Bene- 
dictine, exclaims m Latin iambics that 
Sherlock had given many variegated (mu- 
nenulatas) and embroidered (vermicellatas) 
gifts to his bride, the church ; and he also 
sings his praises in Hebrew and Greek. 

Ilis principal work is a vast disquisition 
on ecclesiastical history, with the Song of 
Solomon as a text, which appeared in three 
folios between 1634 and 1640 (*Anteloquia 
Ethica et Ilistorica in Canticum Canticorum,* 
Lyons, 1634, fol. ; Venice, 1639 ; * much aug- 
mented,' Lj-ons, 1040, fol. ; * Commentarium 
in duo priora capita Cantici Canticorum,' 
Lyons, 1637, fol. ; * Commentarium in reliqua 
capita Cantici Canticorum,' Lyons, 1640, fol.) 
Ho also wrote, under the pseudonym of 
Paulus Leonardus, ^Kesponsio ad Expostu- 
lationes recent ium quorundam Theologorum 
contra Scientiam Mcdiam,' Lyons, 1644, 4to; 
and ' Antiquitatum Ilebraicarum Dioptra,* 
Lyons, l()ol, fol. 

[Sot veil i (South weirs) Scriptores Societatis 
Jesus, Rome, 1676, whence Harris derived all 
bis information in his edition of Ware's Writers 
of Ireland.] B. B-l. 

SHERLOCK, KICHARD (1612-1089), 
divine, was born at Oxton, a township in 
the Chesliire peninsula ofWirral,on 11 Nov. 
1612, and was baptised at Woodchurch on the 
15th of that month. His father, William, a 
small veoman, died while Richard was still 
young, but his mother gave him a learned 
education. lie was first sent to Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, whence he was removed, to 
save expenst», to Trinity College, Dublin. 
There he graduated M.A. in 1633. Having 
ent^ired holy orders, he became minister of 
several small united parishes in Ireland, 
where he remained till the breaking out of 
the rebellion of 1641. Upon the Marquis of 
Ormonde*s truce with the rebels (16 Sept. 
1643), Sherlock returned to England as chap- 
lain of one of the regiments sent by the marquis 
to aid the king in his struggle withparliament. 
He was present at the battle of Nantwich on 
2o Jan. 1644, in which Fairfax completely 
defeated Byron and captured many prisoners 
(Gardiner, Civil War, i. 29o). Amon^ these 
was Sherlock, who, on regaining his liberty, 
made his way to Oxford, where he became 
chaplain to the governor of the garrison, 
and also a chaplain of New College. In 
consideration ot several sermons tuat he 
preached, either at court or before the Ox- 
ford parliament, the degree of B.D. was con- 
ferred upon him in 1646. Expelled from 

Oxford by the parliamentary visitors about 
1648, he became curate of the neighbouring 
village of Cassington, where he dwelt in the 
same house as the mother of Anthony a 
Wood, and made the acquaintance of the 
future antiquary, then a youth of seventeen 
(Wood, Life and Times, i. 151). On being 
ejected from Cassington in 1652, Sherlock 
liecame chaplain to Sir Robert Bindloss, a 
royalist baronet residing at Borwick Hall, 
near Lancaster. Here lie remained some 
years, courageously remonstrating with his 
patron when he gave scandal by his conduct, 
vet preserving his attachment to the end. 
NVhile at Borwick, Sherlock entered into 
controversy with Richard Hubberthome, a 
well-known quaker, publishing in 1654 a 
book entitled * The Quaker's W^ilde Questions 
objected against the Ministers of the Gospel.' 
In or about 1658 Sherlock was introduced 
by Sir R. Bindloss to Charles Stanlev, eighth 
earl of Derby, who appointed him Lis chap- 
lain at Lathom. At the Restoration he was 
placed by the earl on a commission for the 
settlement of all matters ecclosiastical and 
civil in the Isle of Man. He fulfilled his part 
of this task 'to the entire satisfaction of the 
lord and people of that island,' and returned 
to Latham. In 1660 he was nominated to the 
rich rectory of W^inwick in Lancashire, but, 
through a dispute as to the patronage, he did 
not get full possession of it till H56'J. Here 
he remained for the rest of his life, * so con- 
stantly resident that, in an incumbency of 
nearly thirty years, he was scarcely absent 
from his benefice as many weeks ; so constant 
a preacher that, though he entertained three 
curates in his own houses, he rarely devolved 
that duty upon any of them ; such a lover of 
monarchy that he never shaved his beard 
after the murder of Charles I ; so frugal in his 
personal habits that the stipend of one of his 
curates would have provided for^iim ; and 
so charitable that, out of one of the best 
benefices in England, he scarcely left behind 
him one year's income, and that for the 
most part to pious uses.' He exhibited so 
much zeal for the church of England that he 
was * accounted by precise persons popishly 
affected.' His fidelity to the Anglican 
church is clearly evidenced by his works. 
Remaining unmarried, his rectory became a 
kind of training-school for young clergy- 
men, among whom was his own nephew, 
Thomas Wibon [q. v.], afterwards bishop of 
Sodor and Man. Sherlock, who proceeded 
D.D. at DubUn in 1660, died at WTnwick on 
20 June 1689, and was buried in his parish 
church. In his will he left bequests to the 
poor of several of the parishes with which 
he had been connected. 




A portrait of Sherlock is preserved at 
Winwick. An engraving from it, by Vander- 
gucht, is inserted in some editions of ' The 
Practical Christian.* 

II is works are: 1. * The Quaker's Wilde 
Questions objected against the Ministers 
of the Oospel, and many Sacred Gifts 
and Offices of Religion, with brief answers 
thereunto. Together with a Discourse of 
the Holy Spirit his impressions and work- 
ings on the Souls of Men,* 1654. This book 
was reprinted and enlarged in 1656, with 
two additional discourses on divine revela- 
tion, mediate and immediate, and on error, 
heresie, and schism. This work was animad- 
verted on by George Fox in *The Great 
Mvstery of the Great Whore unfolded,' 
1659. 2. ' The Princinles of the Holy Ca- 
tholick Religion, or the Catechism of the 
Church of England Paraphrast, written for 
the use of Borwick Half,* 1656 ; this work 
was often reprinted. 3. ' Mercurius Chris- 
tian us : the Practical Christian, a Treatise 
explaining the duty of Self-examination,* 
1673. This, Sherlock's principal work, was 
(rreatly enlarged in subsequent editions. 
To the sixth edition, which appeared in 
1712, was prefixed a ' Life ' of the author by 
Bishop W^ilson. The four parts into which 
the work was divided were sometimes pub- 
lished separately. 4. 'Several Short but 
Seasonable Discourses touching Common and 
IVivate Prayer, relating to the Publick 
( >ffices of the Church,' 1684. This includes 
' The Irregularity of a IVivate Prajer in a 
Publick Congregation,* first published in 

[Life of Sherlock by Wilson ; Wood's Fasti ; 
Whitaker's Richmondsbire, ii. 311-13; Keble's 
Life of Wilson ; Beaumont's Winwick ; Wood- 
church Registers ; faneral sermon by the Rer. T. 
Crane.] F. S. 

SHERLOCK, THOMAS (1678-1761), 
bishop of London, eldest son of Dr. William 
Sherlock (1640-1707) [q. v.], dean of St. 
Paul's, was bom in 167d. He was sent to 
school at Eton,where Lord Townshend, Henry 
Pelham, and Robert Walpole were among his 
friends, and he wasathletic as well as studious 
(cf. Pope, Dundad, * the plunging prelate.* 
supposed to refer to his powers as a swimmer 
so Warton*8 note, ed. 1797, on authority ot 
Walpole). He entered St. Catharine*s Col- 
lege (then Hall), Cambridge, in 1693, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1697, M.A. in 1701, and D.D. 
in 1714. He was two years Junior to Hoadly 
in the same college, and it is said that their 
long rivalry began at Cambridge. Sherlock 
was electea fellow of his college on 12 Aug. 
1698, and was ordained in 1701 by Bishop 
Patrick, On 28 Nov. 1704 he was appointed 

master of the Temple, on his father's re- 

Tation of the office (see Hearne, Diary, 
Doble, i. 79, 359). He was extraor- 
dinarily popular in this post, which he held 
till 1753. His reputation as a preacher dated 
from this appointment. His voice was gruff 
rather than melodious, but he spoke * with 
such strength and vehemence, that he never 
failed to ta^Ke possession of his whole audience 
and secure their attention * (Dr. Nicholls in 
his Funeral Sermon), In 1707 he married 
Miss Judith Fontaine, ' a lady of good family 
in Yorkshire,* who is described as * a truly 
respectable woman* (Cumberland, Memoirs^ 
i. 180). In 1711 he was made chaplain to 
Queen Anne (Hearne, Biary/iix, 111), in 
1713 prebendary of St. Paul's (Lb Neve, 
Fasti, ii. 450). On the election of Sir Wil- 
liam Dawes to the archbishopric of York in 
1714, Sherlock was unanimously elected 
master of St. Catharine's Hall. He then took 
the degree of D.D., ' commencing * on Monday, 
5 July, in a disputation witli Waterland 
(Thoresby, Diary ; cf. W^ordsworth, Uni- 
versity Life in theEighteenth Century, p. 260). 
In the same year he became vice-chancellor 
of his university. He devoted himself at 
once to arranging the university archives, 
and embodied the results in a manuscript 
volume. He also vindicated the rights of 
the university against Beutley Ttlien arch- 
deacon of Ely), who nicknamea him * Al- 
beroni.' He was supposed to have connived 
at Jacobitism in Cambridge, but was probably 
no more than a * Hanoverian Tory ; * and it 
was during his year of office tliat George I 
presented to the university the library of 
Bishop Moore. He presented a * loyal address 
to George I on the anticipated invasion of 
James Stewart,* and is said to liave preached 
a sermon at the Temple on the Sunday after 
the battle of Preston strongly in favour of 
the Hanoverian line, which tne benchers said 
should have been delivered the Sunday 
before (cf. Noble, Contin. of Granger, i.91). 
In the next year (7 June 1716) he preached 
before the House of Commons at the thanks- 
giving, asserting the unrighteousness of re- 
sistance to constituted authority. In No- 
vember 1715 he obtained, through Towns- 
hend's influence, the deanery of Chichester 
TLe Neve, J'a^ff, i. 258), where he rebuilt the 
dean's house. On 10 July 1719 lie was in- 
stalled as canon of Norwich, a 8tull which had 
been annexed by Queen Anne to the master- 
ship of St. Catharine's Hall, but which he was 
unable to obtain possession of without liti- 

fation, as he was already a prebendary of St. 
^auVs. In the same year he resigned the 
mastership of St. Catharine's Hall. 
Before this he had become engaged in the 




famous Bangorian controversy. He was 
chairman of the committee appointed in 
1717 by the lower house of the convocation 
oF Canterbury to report on floadly's * Nature 
of the Kingdom or Uhurch of Christ/ but the 
convocation was dissolved before the report 
was presented to the upper house. He t^en 
pubhshed * Ilemarks on the Bishop of Ban- 
gor's Treatment of the Clergy and Convoca- 
tion ' (London, 1717, anonymous), as well 
as ' Some Considerations ' (same year), and 
several pamphlets. In 1718 he published a 
* Vindication of the Corporation and Test 
Acts,' also against Hoadlv, which is said to 
have lost him the king's favour ; and he was 
struck off the list of royal chaplains. He is 
stated in his later years to have regretted 
the part he took in the controversy, and to 
have refused to allow the pamphlets he wrote 
to be reprinted. Bishop Newton {Autobio- 
graphy^ p. 130) strongly denies this, on the 
evidence of those who lived with him during 
the last years of his life. 

In 1724 he entered on controversy with 
the deists in six sermons, published as ' The 
Use and Interest of Prophecy * (1725), which 
ran through many editions. On the death 
of George I he came once more into favour 
at court, and on 4 Feb. 1727-8 he was con- 
secrated bishop of Bangor. He was a fami- 
liar friend of Lord Hervey (cf Hervey, 
MenioirSf passim) as well as of Walpole, and 
Queen CHiroline was his constant patroness. 
He was also almoner to the Prince of Wales. 
In 1729 he published anonymonsly his most 
famous book, * The Tryal of the Witnesses 
of the Ilesurrection of Jesus.' A sequel, 
which was attributed to him, came out in 
1740, and in the same year a new edition 
of tlie work on prophecy, with important 
revision (see Oent, Mag, iii. 175). 

In the meantime Sherlock had become a 
prominent figure in politics, his knowledge 
of law being of much assistance to him in 
the House of Lords. He generally sup- 
ported the ministry of Walpole and the 
power of the crown, opposing the pension 
bill and supporting the Quakers* tithe bill 
(against Bishop Gibson of London), on which 
he wrote the * Country l^arson's Plea ' 
(Hervey, Memoirs, ii. 88). In 1 734 he was 
translated to Salisbury (royal assent 21 Oct., 
confirmation 8 Nov.), and he retired to his 
diocese by the advice of Queen Caroline (cf. 
Hkrvey, Memoirs, ii. 106, 108). He de- 
fended Walpole in 1741, when the Prince 
of Wales's party were attacking him and his 
advice to prorogue parliament (Pope, Works, 
ed. Elwin and Courthope, iv. 336,449). He 
was offered the seeoflork in 1743 (Walpole 
to Mann, Letters of Walpole^ i. 237), and in 

the same year became lord almoner (Joxes, 
Fasti EccL Sarisberie?ms, p. 118). In 1747 he 
appears to have refused the archbishopric of 
Canterbury on the ground of ill-health. 
Walpole had long opposed its offer to him 
{IIbr\by, Me7noirs; \V klvole, Letters). But 
in 1748 he succeeded Gibson as bishop of 
London (nomination 12 Oct., confirmed 
1 Dec.) In the next year he was violently 
attacked by Dr. Middleton on the subject of 
his book on prophecy (cf. Walpole, Letters, 
ii. 217), and was engaged in a controversy 
concerning the patronage of St. George's, 
Hanover Square, with the archbishop of 

After tlie earthquakes of 1750 Sherlock 
published a * Pastoral Letter,' of which ' ten 
thousand were sold in two days and fifty 
thousand have been subscribed for since the 
first two editions' (Walpole, ii. 201). A 
tract on the * Observance of Qood Friday ' 
also had a large sale. In 1751 he opposed 
the restrictions on the regent's power (ib, ii. 
251). In 1753 an attack of paralysis afFected 
his limbs and his speech, but he continued 
to write, publishing a charge in 1759 and 
four volumes of his sermons in 1758, a fifth 
volume appearing after his death. He lived 
till 1761 * m the last stage of bodily decay ' 
(Memoirs of Richard Cumberland, i. 180) ; 
but ' he never parted with the administra- 
tion of things out of his own hands, but re- 
quired an exact account of everything that 
was transacted ' {Selections from Gent. Mag. 
iv. 13, from the Funeral Sermon by Dr. 

He died childless on 18 July 1761, and 
was buried in the parish churchyard of 
Fulham. He left large benefactions to re- 
ligious societies, and his library, with 7,000/. 
for binding, to the university of Cambridge. 
An anonymous portrait of Sherlock belongs 
to St. Catharine's CoUe^, Cambridge (cf. 
Cat. of Second Ijoan Fxhibitvm, No. 238). A 
portrait by Van loo, painted in 1740, was en- 
graved by McArdell, Ravenet, and others 
(cf. Bromley, Portraits, p. 356). 

An ambitious and popular man, Sherlock 
was an industrious and efficient bishop. He 
cultivated kindly relations with the dissen- 
ters (cf. letter to Doddridge in Gent. Mag. 
1816, ii. 483), and was in favour of com- 
prehension (see Abbey and Overton, Eng- 
lish Church in the Eighteenth Century, ed. 
1887, pp. 178-9; but cf. Wesley's ' Life of 
Fletcher of Madeley,' Works, xi. 290). He 
pleaded after the '45 for justice to the Scots 
episcopalian clergy. His works were 'not 
less esteemed among catholics than among 
protestants,' and several were translated into 




[Besides those referred to in the text, bis 
Paoeral Sermoo, by Dr. NicboUs, master of the 
Temple, and Memoir by J. S. Hughes, B.D., in 
Dirines of the Charch of England Series, vol. i. ; 
Gudwin*8 Catalogue of the Bishops of England 
(manuscript notes in the Bodleian copy) ; Watt's 
Bibliotheca Britannica, Snppl. p. 234.1 

W. H. H. 

1707), dean of St. PauFs, was born in 
Soutnwark about 1641. From Eton he pro- 
ceeded to Peterhouse, Cambridge, entering 
on 19 May 1657, and graduating B.A. 1660, 
M.A. 1663. After taking orders, he was 
some years without preferment ; South twits 
him with having been a conventicle preacher. 
But on 3 Aug. 1669 he was collated to the 
rectory of St. George's, Botolph Lane, Lower 
Thames Street, London, and soon made his 
mark as a preacher. His first publicat ion , on 
' The Knowledge of Jesus Chnst, and Union 
with Him ' (1674), attracted much atten- 
tion, opening the first of the man;^ paper 
wars wnich Sherlock was not slow either to 
provoke or to maintain. He had no sympathy 
with the mystical side of puritan theology, 
treatod its phraseolo^ with ridicule, and 
attacked John Owen, D.D. [q. v.], who had 
affirmed that divine mercy was known only 
through Christ. Owen replied ; and Sher- 
lock's ridicule was resisted by other non- 
conformists, especially Thomas Danson 
Eq. v.] (* Debate between Satan and Sher- 
ock*), and Vincent Alsop [q. v.], whose 
* Anti-soizo ' brought against Sherlock the 
groundless charge of Socinianism, and es* 
tablished Alsop's reputation as a master of 
broad and effective sarcasm. In 1680 
Sherlock commenced D.D. ; he was collated 
on 3 Nov. 1681 to the prebend of St. Pancras 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, was lecturer at St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-West, and was made master 
of the Temple in 1685. 

Previous to this last appointment he had 
written on ' the protestant resolution of 
faith ' (1683), maintaining that since the age 
of the apostles the church has had no in- 
fallible guide but the scriptures ; and had 
coupled with this his ' Case of Resistance ' 
(1684), in which, on scriptural grounds, he 
contends for the divine right of kings and 
the duty of passive obedience. His pam- 
phlet was auxiliary to the 'Jovian' (1683) 
of George Hickes fq. v.], written in answer 
to the 'Julian the Apostate' (1682) of 
Samuel Johnson (1649-1703) [q. v.] 
Throughout the reig^ of James II Sherlock, 
though writing stronglv against popery, up- 
held the doctrine of passive obedience. 
Yet he declined to read James's declaration 
(11 April 1687) for liberty of conscience [see 

Fowler, Edward, D.D.], and was in fear of 
being displaced from the mastership of the 
temple. He asked John Howe (1630- 170o) 
[q. v.] what he would do if offered the 
preferment, and was comforted by Howe's 
assurance that he would take the place, but 
hand the emolument to Sherlock. At the 
revolution he opposed alterations in the 
prayer-book to gain dissenters, went with 
the nonjurors, and fipfures in the list ap- 
pended to Kettlewell's 'Life.' Macaulay 
reckons him their ' foremost man.' He was 
zealous in inducing others to refuse the oath 
to William and Mary ; his pamphlet issued 
on the eve of the convention was regarded 
as a clerical manifesto ; but he entirely mis- 
calculated the strength of his party. Lath- 
bury seems in error in saying that he was 
actually deprived. 

On the day fixed for the suspension of 
nonjurors (1 Aug. 1689) he desisted from 

E reaching, but resumed at St. Dunstan's on 
Feb. 1690 (the day following that fixed for 
deprivation), acting on legal advice, having 
the permission of his superiors, and praying 
for William and Mary as de facto in' au- 
thority. At length, in August 1090, he took 
the oath. Calamy, founding perhaps on a 
contemporary ballad, gives it as a common 
report that * the convincing argument * was 
the battle of the Boyne (1 July). Popular 
satire ascribed his compliance to the influence 
of his wife. A bookseller, * seeing him hand- 
ing her along St. Paul's churchyard,* re- 
marked, * There goes Dr. Sherlock, with his 
reasons for taking the oaths at his fingers' 
end.' The same sentiment was expressed in 
satirical pamphlets and verse lampoons [see 
Shower, Sir Bartholomew]. Sherlock's 
own account, as given in the preface to his 
* Case of Allegiance ' (1091 ; licensed 17 Oct. 
1690), is that his eyes were opened by the 
doctrine laid down in canon xxviii. of 
' Bishop Overall's Convocation Book,' pub- 
lished by Sancroft in the nonjuring interest 
in January 1090 [see Overall, John, D.D.] 
His point was that this canon showed that 
the Anglican church recognised a government 
de facto. Lathbury is probably right in 
saying that Sherlock was * looking about for 
a reason' which would give colour to his 
change of attitude, and, as John Wagstafle 
[q. v.] puts it, * caught hold of a twig.' 

As a nonjuror, Sherlock had published 
his ' Practical Discourse concerning Death' 
(1689), the most popular of his writings 
(translated into French and Welsh). Be- 
fore transferring his allegiance he had 
thrown himself into the Socinian contro- 
versy, with an ardour kindled perhaps by 
the recollection of the old charge against 




liim. His further promotion was not long 
deferred; on 15 June 1601 lie was installed 
in the deanery of St. Paul's, succeeding 

The Socinian argument, of which nothing 
had been heard Hince the death (1062) of 
John Biddle [q. v.], was revived in 1687 by 
the publication of a * Brief History* of the 
unitarians, as they now designated themselves 
[see Nye, Stepuen]. There followed (1689) 
a sheet of * Brief ISotes* on the Athanasian 
creed [see Firmix, Thomas]. These two 
publications occasioned Sherlock's * Vindica- 
tion ' (1600) of the doctrine of the Trinity. 
Shortly afterwards (11 Aug. 1690) the subject 
was taken up by Dr. John Wallis [q. v.] 
If the Socinians gained any advantage in 
the controversy, it was from Sherlock they 
got it. Wallis, a survivor of the divines 
of the Westminster assembly, knew what 
he was about. Sherlock was bent on 
displaying the powers of a masterful writer. 
The Socinians were not alone in accu- 
sing his * Vindication' of tritheism. This 
book had the singular effect of making a 
Socinian of William Manning [q. y.\ and 
an Arian of Thomas Emlyn [q. v.J His 
position was attacked, with a matchless 
mixture of irony and invective, by Robert 
South [q. v.] A jeu ttefprit^ * The Battle 
Royal ^ (1604 ?), ascribed to William Pittis 
[see under Pittis, Thomas], was translated 
into Latin at Cambridge. Sherlock's doc- 
trine, as preached at Oxford by Joseph Bing- 
ham [q. v.], was condemned by the hebdo- 
madal council (25 Nov. 1695), as * falsa, 
impia et hweretica.* Sherlock defended him- 
self in an * Examination ' (1696) of the 
decree. On 3 Feb. 1690 William HI ad- 
dressed to the hierarchy * Directions,' drawn 
up by Tenison, prohibiting the use of * all 
new terms ' relating to the Trinity. In his 
* IVesent State of the Socinian Controversy ' 
(1698, but most of it printed 1696) Sherlock 
virtually recedes from the positions im- 
pugned. South said of him, * There is hardly 
any one subject that he has wrote upon 
( that of poperj' only excepted) but he has 
wrote for and against it too.' 

In 1698 he succeeded William Holder 

Sq. v.] as rector of Thcrfield, Hertfordshire. 
3esiaes writing on practical topics, he con- 
tinued to employ his vigorous pen against 
dissenters, and on the incarnation (1706) 
against Edward Fowler, D.D. [q. v.] He died 
at Hampstead on 19 June 1<07, aged 66, 
and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. Two 
portraits, engraved by P. Sluyter and R. 
White, are mentioned by Bromley. He leffc 
two sons and two daughters ; his eldest soni 
ThomaSi is separately noticed. 

He published, besides numerous single 
sermons and pamphlets in defence of some 
of them: 1. *A Discourse concerning the 
Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' 1674, 8vo. 2. *A 
Defence and Continuation of the Discourse/ 
1 675, 8vo. 3. * A Discourse about Church- 
Unity: being a Defence of Dr. Stillingfleet 
... in Answer to . . . Owen and . . . 
Baxter,' 1681, 8vo (anon.) 4. *A Con- 
tinuation,' 1682, 8vo (anon.) 5. < The Pro- 
testant Resolution of Faith,' 1683, 4to. 
6. * A Resolution of . . . Cases of Conscience 
which respect Church Communion,' 1683, 4to; 
1694, 4to. 7. * A Letter ... in Answer to 
. . . Three Letters . . . about Church CJom- 
munion,' 1083, 4to. 8. * The Case of Resist- 
ance to the Supreme Powers,* 1(J84, 8vo. 
9. * A Vindication of the Rights of Eccle- 
siastical Authority,' 1685, 8vo (against 
Daniel Whitbv, D.D.) 10. * A Papist not 
misrepresentecl by Protestants,' 1686, 4to. 
11.* An Answer . . . being a Vindication,' 

1686, 4to (anon.) 12. * An Answer to the 
Amicable Accommodation/ 1686, 4to. 13. * A 
Discourse concerning a Judge in Contro- 
versies,' 1680, 4to (anon.) 14. * A Protestant 
of the Church of England no Donatist,' 1686, 
4to. 16. * An Answer to a . . . Dialogue 
between a . . . Catholick Convert and a 
Protestant,' 1687, 4to. 16. * An Answer to 
the Request of I'rot est ants,' 1687, 4to. 
17. *A Short Summary of . . . Contro- 
versies between . . . England and . . . Rome,* 

1687, 4to. 18. ' The Pillar and Ground of 
the Truth,' 1687, 4to (anon.) 19. ' A Brief 
Discourse concerning the Notes of the 
Church,' 1688, 4to. 20. ' The Protestant Re- 
solved,' 1688, 4to. 21. *A Vindication of 
some Protestant Principles,* 1688, 4to. 22. 'A 
Preservative against Popery,' 1688, 4to, two 
parts. 23. * A Vindication of the Preserva- 
tive,' 1688, 4to. 24. * Observations upon 
Mr. Johnson's Remarks,' 1689, 4to. 25. ' A 
Letter to a Member of the Convention,' 1688, 
4to (reprinted in Somers's * Tracts,' 1809, x.) 
20. * Proposals for Terms of Union between 
the Church . . . and Dissenters,' 1689, 4to. 

27. * A Vindication of the Doctrine of the 
Trinity,' 1690, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1694, 4to. 

28. * The Case of Allegiance due to Sovereign 
Powers,' 1691, 4to; six editions same year. 

29. 'The Case of Allegiance . . . further 
considered,' 1691, 4to. 30. 'Their I'lesent 
Majestic Government . . . settled/ 1691, 
4to. 31. 'Answer to a Letter upon . . . 
Josephus,' 1692, 4to. 32. *A Letter to a 
Friend, concerning a French Invasion,' 1692, 
4to. 33. < A Second Letter,' 1092, 4 to (both 
translated into Dutch). 34. ' An Apolo^nr 
for writing against the Socinians,' 169o, 
4to (in reply to Edward Wetenhdl [q. t.]). 




85. 'A Defence of the . . . Apology/ 1694, 
4to. 36. * A Defence of Dr. Sberlock*8 No- 
tions of a Trinity/ 1694, 4to (against South). 
37. * A Letter to a Friend . . . about . . . 
Alterations in the Liturgy/ [1694?], 4to. 
3d. ' A Modest Examination ... of the late 
Decree of the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford/ 
Ibl^), 4to. 39. 'The Distinction between 
Real and Nominal Trinitarians Examined/ 
1696, 4to. 40. *The Present State of the 
Socinian Controversy/ 1698, 4to. 41. * A 
Vindication in Answer to Nathaniel Taylor/ 
1 702, 4to (defends No. 6). 42. ' The Pretended 
Expedient/ 1702, 4to. 43. *The Scripture 
Proofs of our Saviour's Divinity/ 1706, 8vo. 
His 'Sermons' were collected in two 
volumes, Svo; 4th edit. 1755; several of 
his protestant tracts are reprinted in Bishop 
Gibson's ' Preservative/ 1738. 

[Biogr. Brit.; Calamy's Abridgment, 1713, 
pp. 485 seq. ; Kettlewell's Life, 1718, App. 
p. xziii ; Birch's Life of Tillot«on, 1753, pp. 256, 
sq. ; Toolmio's Historical View, 1814, pp. 173 
tsq. ; Lathbury's Hist, of Nonjurors, 1845, pp. 
116 sq. ; Lathbury's Hist, of Conroeation, 1853, 
pp. 356 fiq. ; Wallace's Antitrinitan'an Bio- 
graphy, 1850, i. 214 sq.; Macaulay's History 
of England ; Hunt's Keligioos Thought in Eng- 
land, 1871. ii. 35 sq.] A. G. 

1806), portrait-painter and engraver, is said 
to have been the son of a prize-fighter, and 
to have been bom at Dublin. In 1759 he 
was a student in the St. Martin's Lane 
academy in London, and in that year ob- 
tained a premium from the Society of Arts. 
He at first studied engraving, and was a 
pupil of J. P. Le Bas at Pans. There he 
engraved a large plate of 'The Grange/ after 
J. Pillement, published in 1761 ; he also en- 
graved the portrait heads for Smollett's 'His- 
tory of England.' Subsequently Sherlock 
took to painting portraits on a small scale, 
both in oil and watercolours, and minia- 
tures. He was a fellow of the Incorporated 
Society of Artists, and their director inl774, 
exhibiting with them from 1764 to 1777. 
From 1 802 to 1806 he exhibited small portraits 
at the Royal Academy. He also practised 
as a picture-cleaner, and was a skillea copyist. 

His son, William P. Sherlock (^. 1800- 
1820), also practised as an artist. From 1801 
to 1810 he exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
sending a few portraits, but principally water- 
colour landscapes in the style of Richard 
Wilson, to whom his works have sometimes 
been attributed. He drew most of the illus- 
trations to Dickinson's ' Antiquities of Not- 
tinghamshire/ 1801-0, and tne portrait of 
the author prefixed to that work was en- 
graved from a miniature by him. In 1811 


and the following years he published a series 
of soft ground-etchings from his own water- 
colour drawings, ana those of David Cox, 
S. Prout, T. Girtin, and other leading water- 
colour artists of the day. A series of draw- 
ings in watercolour by W. P. Sherlock, re- 
E resenting views in the immediate neigh- 
ourhood of London, is preserved in the 
print-room at the British Museum. They 
are not only of great historical interest, but 
also show him to have been an artist of re- 
markable merit. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1893 ; Pye*8 Patrjnage of British 
Art.] L. C. 

SHERMAN, EDWARD n776-1866), 
coach-proprietor, was born in lierkshire in 
1776. Coming to London on foot in 1793, he 
obtained employment at twelve shillings a 
week. He eventually saved monev, and about 
1 814 became proprietor of the Bull and Mouth 
Hotel, Aldersgate Street, London. In 1830 
he rebuilt the house, at a cost of 60,000/., 
and renamed it the Queen's Hotel. (It has 
since been absorbed in the General Post 
Office.) At the same time Sherman became 
one of the largest coach-proprietors in Eng- 
land, keeping about seventeen hundred horses 
at work m various parts of the country, and 
doing a business the annual return of which 
has been estimated at more than half a 
million of money. In 1830 the celebrated 
Wonder coach did the 168 miles between 
London and Shrewsburv in fifteen hours and 
three-quarters, while the Manchester Tele- 
graph accomplished its Journey of 186 miles in 
eigoteen hours and fifteen minutes. When 
railways were introduced he gradually gave 
up coaching, and, establishing wagons for the 
conveyance of heavy goods, became one of the 
most extensive carriers in the kingdom. He 
was also a promoter, and then a airector, of 
the Thames, the first steam-packet plying 
between London and Margate, 1814. He 
was well known in the city, where he dealt 
largelv in stocks and shares. He died at 
the Manor House, Chiswick, Middlesex, on 
14 Sept. 1866. 

[City Press, 29 Sept. 1866, p. 6 ; Thornbury's 
Old and New London, 1889, ii. 219-20; Tris- 
tram's Coaching Days, 1888, pp. 139, 337-9; 
Duke of Beaufort's Driving, Badminton Library, 
1889, pp. 213, 219.] G. C. B. 

SHERMAN, JAMES (1796-1862), di*. 
sent ing divine, son of an ofiicer in the East 
India Uompany, was bom in Banner Street, 
St. Luke^s, London, on 21 Feb. 1796. After 
some education from dissenting ministers, 
he spent three years and a half as apprentice 
to an ivory-turner, but the employment im- 
paired his health, and he entered, on 6 Nov. 





1815, the Countess of Huntinffdon's college 
at Cbeshunt. He preached his first sermou 
in London in Ilare Court chapel, Aldersgate 
Street, in 1817, and on 20 Nov. 1818 he was 
ordained to the ministry in Sion Chapel, 
Whitechapel. After preaching for some time 
in the Countess of Iluntingdon's chapel at 
Bath, he was appointed permanent mmister 
of her chapel at Bristol, where he made the 
acquaintance of Hannah More and of Mrs. 
Schimmelpenninck [q. v.] In April 1821 he 
removed to Castle Street chapel, Heading. 
In August 1836 he became the congrega- 
tional minister of Surrey Chapel, Black- 
friars, London, in succession to Rowland 
Hill [q. v.], with whom he had been on 
friendlv terms for many years. The num- 
bers of the congregation, which had much 
declined, again rose under his ministry. He 
retired from Surrey Chapel in May 18o4, 
owing to failing health. He then took 
charge of a new congregational chiwch at 
Blackheath, Kent, which he opened on 

11 July 1854 ; but his strength was gone, 
and, after a visit to Egypt, he returned to 

12 Paragon, Blackheath, where he died on 
15 Feb. 1802. He was buried in Abney 
Park cemetery on 22 Feb. In his memory 
a bursary for poor students was founded by 
his friends at Cheshunt College. He mar- 
ried first, on 10 Jan. 1822, Miss Grant of 
Bristol, who died on 1 Jan. 1834, and 
secondly, on 3 March 1835, Martha, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Tucker of Enfield ; she died 
on 18 Mav 1848 {The Pastor's Wife, a me- 
morial of Mrs. Sherman, by J. Sherman, 1 848). 

Sherman was a popular preacher, and was 
reckoned in power of persuasion only second 
to Whitefield. Through the forty years of 
his ministry crowds attended whenever he 
preached. Even in his failing years at Black- 
heath he soon attracted a thousand hearers. 
The conversions under his ministration were 
numerous ; a sermon which he preached in 
Surrey Chapel in 1837 caused eighty-four 
persons to join his church. Among his pub- 
lished works were: 1. *A Guide to Ac- 
quaintance with God,' 1826; 17th edit. 
1835. 2. * A Plea for the Lord's Day,' 1830 
(twenty editions were published within a 
brief period). 3. ' A Scripture Calendar for 
reading the Old Testament once and the 
?sew Testament and l^salms twice during 
the Year,' 1836. 4. « Memoir of W. Allen, 
F.R.S./ 1851. 5. 'xMemorial of the Kev. 
11. Hill,* 1851. 

[Congregational Year Bock, 1863. pp. 263-6; 
AUom's Memoir of J. Sherman, 1863 (with por- 
trait) ; Pen and Ink Sketches of Poets, Preachers, 
and Politicians. 1846, pp. 228-32 ; Metropoli- 
tan Pulpit, 1839, ii. 206-20.] G. 0. 6. 

SHERMAN, JOHN (rf. 1071), historian 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, was a native 
of Dedham in the county of Essex. He was 
educated at Queens' College, and, 25 Oct. 
1660, was elected to a fellowship at Jesus 
College. In the following year he was pre- 
sented to the university livmgof Wilmesloe 
in the diocese of Chester. The Act of Indem- 
nity, however, enabled the former incumbent 
to retain the living, and Sherman was conse- 
quently never instituted. In 1662 his college 
presented him to the rectory of Harlton m 
Cambridgeshire, and in the same year he was 
elected president of the society. In 1663 he 
appears as one of the syndics for restoring 
the library at Lambeth, and in the following 
year as one of the twelve university 

Sreachers. In 1665 he was admitted to the 
egree of D.D. by royal mandate. In 1670 
he was appointed archdeacon of Salisbury. 
He died in London, 27 March 1671, and was 
buried in Jesus College chapel. His * Historia 
Collegii Jesu Cantabrigijc,' giving an account 
of the college from its foundation, and also 
of the earlier foundation of the nunnery of 
St. Hhadegund, which stood on the same 
site, has been printed (very inaccurately) 
by J. O. Hall i well ( London, 'l 840). It goes 
no further than the mastership of Edmund 
Boldero [q. v.], to whom Sherman dedicates 
his compilation. 

[Additional notes to the original manuscript 
of the Historia in possession of the authorities 
of Jesus College; Baker MS. xxv. 323.] 

J. B. M. 

(1826-1880), missionary, was bom at Hal- 
stead, Essex, on 26 Sept. 1826. He was 
articled to a surgeon at (;olchester, but after^ 
wards studied at University College, Lon- 
don, graduating B. A. in 1848, LL.B. in 1849, 
and M.A. in 1850 at London University. He 
then offered his services to the London Mis- 
sionary Society. He was ordained on 7 Dec. 
1852, and shortly after proceeded to Benares, 
where he took charge of the congregational 
mission. To familiarise himself with native 
life, he made repeated tours through the 
North- West Provinces. In 1856 he married 
the daughter of Dr. Robert Cotton Mather 
[q. v.], and in November of the same year he 
removed to Mirzapore to take charge of 
Mather's station during his absence. On the 
outbreak of the Indian mutiny Sherring sent 
his wife to Benares for safety, but she there 
experienced far graver perils than at Mirza- 
nore, where the sepoys remained faithfuL 
Returning to Benares in 1861, Sherring re- 
mained there until 1866, when he sailed for 
England with his family. In 1869 he re- 




turned alone, but in 1875 he was forced to 
vUit the Nilffiri Hills to recruit his health, 
and afterwaras to pay a second visit to Eng- 
land. He returned to fienares in 1878/and di^ 
of cholera on 10 Aug, 1880. He left issue. 
He was the author of: 1. 'The Indian 
Church during the Great Rebellion/ edited 
by Mather, London, 1859, 8vo. 2. ' Journal 
oiF Missionary Tours during 1861-2,' Mirza- 
pore, 1862, 8vo. 3. * The Ancient Citjr of the 
Hindoos : an Account of Benares/ Ltondon, 

1868, 8vo. 4. 'The Bhar Tribe,' Benareb, 

1869, 8vo. 6. * Hindoo Tribes and Castes/ 
1H72-81, 3 vols. 4to. 6. 'The History of 
I'rotestant Missions in India,' London, 1875, 
8vo ; 2nd edit, bv E. Storrow, London, 1884, 
8vo. 7. 'The llindoo Pilgrims: a Poem/ 
Tendon, 1878, 8vo. 8. 'The Life and Labours 
of the Rev. William Smith,' Benares, 
1679, 8vo. 

[Anthor*8 works; Bliss's Encyclopaedia of 
Mi!«sions, ii. 328 ; Congregational Year Book, 
188J,p. 390] E. L C. 

(Jl, 1550), author, was bom about 1506 in 
the neighbourhood of London. In 1522 he 
became a demy of Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, and graduated B.A. on 21 June 1527 
and M.A. on 10 March 1531. Whether he 
was a fellow is uncertain, but in 1534 he 
was appointed headmaster of Magdalen Col- 
ic*^ school. He held this post until 1540,. 
when he was succeeded by Goodall. Subse- 
C]uently he established himself in the neigh- 
bourhood of London, and devoted himself to 
literary work both in the shape of original 
writings and of translations. He died shortly 
after 1555. 

He was the author of: 1. * A very fruit- 
full Exposition upon the Syxte Chapter of 
Saynte John. Written in Latin by . . . John 
Brencius and translated by Richard Shirrye/ 
London, 1550, 8vo. 2. 'A Treatise of 
Schemes and Tropes gathered out of the best 
Grammarians ana Oratours. . . . Whereunto 
i» added a declamation . . . written fyrst in 
Latin by Erasmus/ London, n.d.l6mo; 1550, 
8vo. 3'. 'St. Basill the Great his letter to 
Gregory Nazaanzen translated by Richard 
Sherrie/ London, n.d. 8vo. 4. * A Treatise of 
the Figures of Grammer [«c] and Rhetorike,' 
London, 1555, 8vo. 

Richard Sherry has sometimes been iden- 
tified with John Sherry (rf. 1551), who 
was in 1541 archdeacon of Lewes and rector 
of Chailey in Sussex ; he became precentor 
of St. Paul's, London, in 1543, and died in 
1551 (Le Neve, Fasti Eccles, AnyL ed. 
Hardy, ii. 350; WoOD, Athena O.von, ed. 
Bliss, i. 189). 

[Bloxum's Magdalen College Register, iii. 88, 
iv. 61 ; Bale's Scriptt. Mag. Brit. p. 107 ; War- 
ton's Hist, of Engl. Poetry, ed. 1840, iii. 281 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq., ed. Herbert, pp. 624, 625, 676, 
677, 810] E. L C. 

SHERWEN, JOHN (1749-1826), nhy- 
sician and archaeologist, is said to have been 
bom in Cumberland in 1749, and to have 
been related to the family of Curwen. He 
was a pupil at St. Thomas's Hospital, Lon- 
don, and passed as a surgeon. In 1769 he 
wasat Acheen in Sumatra, the voyage thither 
from Falmouth having taken iive mouths, 
and he was afterwards at Calcutta and in 
the Bay of Bengal. At this time he was in 
the service of the East India Company. In 
1771 he returned to England and practised 
as a surgeon at Enfield in Middlesex, where 
he was friendly with Kichard Gough, and 
frequently contributed to the medical jour- 
nals. The titles of several of his papers are in- 
serted in Watt's * BibliothecaBritannica,' and 
a silver medal for his contributions was given 
him by the Medical Society in March 1788. 

Sherwen was admitted M.D. of Aberdeen 
University on 14 Feb. 1798 (Anderson, 
Aberdeen Graduates, 1893, p. 143), and on 
4 May 1802 he became an extra-licentiate 
of the College of Physicians in London. In 
1802 he paid a visit to Paris. His first wife 
was Douglas, posthumous daughter of Duncan 
Campbell of Salt Spring, Jamaica. She visited 
Bath for her health, and died there on 16 June 
1804, when a monument to her memory was 
erected in Bath Abbey. A year or two later 
Sherwen settled permanently in Bath, occu- 
rpying 1 8 Great Stanhope Street, and obtaining 
some medical practice. He had made a 
patient study of the early English writers, 
and his library contained some rare volumes 
of Elizabethan literature. From 1808 to 
1813 he was a frequent contributor to the 
* Gentleman's Magazine,' mainly on the au- 
thenticity of the *liowley' poems, of the 
genuineness of which he was a keen advo- 
cate. He assisted Britton in his work on 
Bath Abbey (Preface, p. xii), and Britton 
dedicated to him the view of the abbey church 
from the south side (p. 60). Though he 
retained his house at Bath he made frequent 
trips to Enfield, and died there on 2 Sept. 
1826. He married, on 12 Nov. 1807, Lvdia 
Ann (1773-1851), daughter of the llev. 
Mr. Dannett, of Liverpool. 

Sherwen published m 1809 his * Introduc- 
tion to an Examination of some part of the 
Internal Evidence respecting the Antiquity 
and Authenticity of certain Publications,' by 
Rowley or Chatterton. The copy at the 
British Museum was corrected by him for a 





further issue, but it did not reach a new edi- 
tion ; and the promised second part of his 
* Examination ' was never published. One 
fair copy of his full observations on this con- 
troversv is in the British Museum Addi- 
tional SiSS. 6388 and 6389 ; another is in 
the Bath Institution. Two quarto volumes 
of his annotations on Shakespeare are in that 
institution, and at the British Museum 
there are several books on the Chatterton con- 
troversy, with many manuscript notes by him. 
Sherwen was also author of * Cursory Re- 
marks on the Marine Scurvy* (anon.), 1782, 
and ^ Observations on the Diseased and Con- 
tracted Urinary Bladder,' 1 79i). The * Medi- 
cal Spectator * ( vols. i. ii. and small part of 
iii. dated 1794) is attributed to him. 

[Old Age in Bath, Dr. John Sherwen and 
Dr. Thomas Cogan, by H. J. Hunter, 1873 ; 
Monkland's Bath Literature, p. 48 ; Hunk's Col- 
lege of Physicians, iii. 5-6 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
vi. 311, ix. 160; Gent. Mag. 1780 p. 127, 1788 
i. 358, 1804 i. 601, 1807 ii. 1074, 1851 i. 571 ; 
Bath and Bristol Mag. iii. 422; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. iii. 15.] W. P. C. 

1790), draughtsman and engraver, was bom 
about 1751 at East Dean, Sussex, where his 
father, a labourer, was employed in cutting 
wooden bolts for ships ; he himself followed 
the same callingon the estate of William Mit- 
ford, near Petworth, until 1769, when that 
gentleman, having discovered his artistic 
talent, sent one of his drawings to the Society 
of Arts, where it was awarded a silver medal. 
He was then enabled to go to London, where 
he studied painting under John Astley [q. v.], 
and engraving under Bartolozzi, with whom 
he remained until 1774. He was also admitted 
to the schools of the Royal Academy, and in 
1772 gained the gold medal for an historical 
pict lire. Sher win's first published plate, the 
Madonna, after Sassoferrato, dated 1775, 
was executed in stipple, and he afterwards 
occasionally employed the same method; but 
most of his plates are in pure line. Between 
1774 and 1784 he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy fancy subjects and portraits, taste- 
fully drawn in blacK and rea chalk, which 
attracted notice and brought him much 
fashionable patronage ; but though a facile 
and dexterous draughtsman he had little 
power of original composition, and his more 
ambitious designs are weak and mannered. 
From them he engraved many plates, of 
which the best known is the 'Finding of 
Moses,' published in 1789; in this there is 
no attempt at serious historic treatment, 
the subject being only a device for grouping 
together the portraits of the leading beauties 
of the day, the princess royal personating 

Pharaoh's daughter, and the Duchesses of 
Rutland and Devonshire, Lady Duncannon, 
Lady Jersey, Mrs. Townley Ward, and 
other ladies her attendants. During the 
progress of this work Sher win's studio was 
thronged by ladies of fashion, who eagerly 
competed for the honour of appearing in it. 
His other original plates include * The 
Happy Village ' and * The Deserted Village,' 
a pair, 1787 ; * A View of Gibraltar, with 
the Spanish Battering Ships on Fire,* 1784; 

* The House of Peers on the 7th April 1778, 
when the Earl of Chatham was taken ill;* and 

* The Installation Dinner at the Institution 
of the Order of St. Patrick in 1783 ; * the 
last two were left unfinished at his death, 
and completed by others. He also designed 
and engraved some pretty admission tickets 
for concerts and public functions, and in 
1782 published a pair of portraits of Mrs. 
Siddons and Mrs. Hartley, which he exe- 
cuted directly on the copper without any 
previous drawings. But it was as an en- 
graver from pictures by the great masters 
that Sherwin justly earned distinction, and 
his plates of this class rank with those by 
the best of his contemporaries. The most 
important are : ' Christ bearing his Cross ' 
and * Christ appearing to the Magdalen,' 
from the paintings by Guido at Magdalen 
and All Souls', Oxford; the * Holy Family,' 
after N. Poussin ; portrait of the Duchess of 
Rutland, after Revnolds; 'Death of Lord 
Robert Manners,* after Stothard ; portrait of 
the Marquis of Buckingham, after Gains- 
borough; and (his finest work) 'The Fortune- 
teller, after Reynolds. His portraits of 
Lord Chatham, Captain Cook, Bishop Lowth, 
Sir J. lieynolds, and W. Woollett are also 
of fine quality. On the death of Woollett 
in 1785 Sherwin succeeded him as engraver 
to the king, and he was also appointed en- 
graver to the Prince of Wales. Sherwin's 
career was marred by his extravagant and 
vicious habits, which destroyed his constitu- 
tion and kept him in constant pecuniary 
difficulties ; eventually he was compelled to 
seek refuge from his creditors in the house 
of Wilkinson the printseller in Comhill, and 
he died at a small alehouse in Oxford Road, 
London, on 20 Sept. 1790, at the age of 
thirty-nine. A portrait of Sherwin, from a 
drawing by himself, was published in 1794. 

His brother, Charles Shebwin (^.1780), 
worked chiefly as his assistant, but engraved 
independently the portrait of Captain W. 
Dam pier, from the picture by Murray, now in 
the National Portrait Gallery; also portraits 
of Viscount Folkestone, after Gainsborough, 
and George Cleghom, M.D.| and a few of 
the plates to < B^*8 British Library/ 




^R<»dgraYe*8 Diet, of Artists ; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engrarers, ed. Stanley; Diiyes's 
Sketches of Modern Artists ; Smith's NoUekens 
and hit Times ; Dodd's manuscript Hist, of £n- 
gmyers in Brit. Mtw. (Addit. MS. 33404) ; Gent. 
Mag. 1790. ji. 866.] F. M. O'D. 

SHERWIN, RALPH (1560-1581), Ro- 
man catholic divine, bom at Radesley, near 
I^ansford, Derbyshire, in 1550, was educated 
at Lxeter College, Oxford, where he gra- 
duated B.A. on 22 Nov. 1571, and M.A. on 
2 July 1574. He was made senior of the 
act celebrated in the latter year, * being then 
accounted an acute philosopher and an excel- 
lent Grascian and Hebrician* (yfooD^ Athence 
Oxon, ed. Bliss, i. 478). He left the univer- 
sity in 1575, and, proceeding to the English 
College at Douay, was ordained priest on 
23 March 1576-7 (Hecords of the English 
Catholics f i. 8). Afterwards he proceeded to 
Rome, and his name stands as r^o. 1 in the 
diary of the English College in that city on 
23 April 1579. He left it on 18 April 1580 
for the English mission, in company with 
other priests, including Robert Parsons [q.v.] 
and Edmund Campion [q. v.], the first Jesuits 
who came to this country. After exercising 
liLs priestly functions in London for a short 
time, he was arrested, and committed prisoner 
to the Marshalsea, being subsequently re- 
moved to the Tower, where he was several 
times examined and twice racked. He was 
a close prisoner for nearly a year, and during 
that time held several conferences with pro- 
testant ministers, sometimes in private, and 
at other t imes in public audience. In Novem- 
ber 1581 he was arraigned before the queen's 
bench, with several other ecclesiastics, and 
charged with having conspired to procure the 
queen's deposition and death, and to promote 
rebellion at home and invasion of the realm 
from abroad. He was condemned to death, 
and executed at Tyburn, with Campion and 
Alexander Brian, on 1 Dec. 1581 (Stow, 
Annates, 1614, p. 694). He was beatined by 
Leo Xril on 29 Dec. 1886 {Tablet^ 15 Jan. 
1887, pp. 81,82). 

Peter White wrote * A Discouerie of the 
Jesuiticall opinion of Justification, guilefully 
vttered by Sherwyne at the time of his Exe- 
cution,' Ix)ndon, 1582, 8vo. To Sherwin has 
been erroneously attributed * An Account ot 
the Disputations in Wisbech Castle between 
William Fulke of Cambridge and certain 
Roman Priests who were Prisoners there,' a 
manuscript formerly in the possession of Rich- 
ard Stanihurst (Dodd, Church Hist. ii. 131). 

[Soon after his execution there appeared A 
true report of the death and martyrdome of M. 
Campion, Jesuite, & M. Sherwin & M. Bryan, 
preistes. . . . Observid and written by a Catho- 

like preist which was present thereat [Douay? 
1582], 8vo; another account wjis published by 
A[nthony] M[unday] [q. v.], London, 1582, Svo. 
See also Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), ii. 
1171; Aquepontanus [Bridgewater] Concert. 
Eccl. Cdthol. hb. ii. f. 87 6 ; Catholic Spectator. 
1824, i. 229; Challoner's Missionary Priests; 
Foley's Records, vi. 785; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1A00-I714,iv. 1349; Historia del Glorioso Mar- 
tirio di dii-iotto Sacerdoti (Macerata, 1585) ; 
Lansdowne MS. 982, f. 25 ; Oxford Univ. Reg. 
i. 282; Pits, De Angliae Scriptoribus, p. 778; 
Records of the English Catholics, i. 440. ii. 477 ; 
Stanton's Menology, p. 577 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit, 
p. 667.] T. C. 

SHERWIN,RALPH (1 799-1 830), actor, 
born in April 1799 at Bishop Auckland in 
Durham, received the rudiments of educa- 
tion in his birthplace, and subsequently at 
a school in Wilton, presumably Wilton-le- 
Wear. During five years he studied medi- 
cine in Loudon and Edinburgh. His first 
appearance on the stage was made in York 
iA July 1818, under Mansell. In the York 
company he remained two years, acting in 
Leeds, Hull, and Sheffield. He then went 
to Birmingham, under Bunn, losing his ward- 
robe when the theatre was burned down. At 
Brighton, under Brunton, he played low 
comedy and old men, subsequently rejoining 
Bunn at Leicester, and reappearing in the 
newly erected theatre in Birmingham. On 
11 Feb. 1823, as Sherwin from York, he ap- 
peared at Drury Lane, playing Dandie Din- 
mont in ' Guy Mannering ' to the Dominie 
Sampson of Liston. Engaged for three years, 
he acted Robin in * No Song no Supper,' Pad- 
dock in * My Spouse and 1,' Diggorv Delph 
in * Family Jars,' and other parts, lie was, 
on 12 Feb. 1825, the original Shock, a very 
poor shepherd, in Joseph Lunn's adaptation, 
* The Shepherd of Derwent Vale, or the Inno- 
cent Culprit ; ' on 31 May Sam Sharpset in 
the * Slave ' to Macreadv's Gambia, and on 
29 June Russet in the * Jealous Wife.' Few 
opportunities were, however, given him, and 
at the end of the three years he seems not to 
have been re-engaged. Irregular habits were 
the reputed cause of his dismissal. He then 
took to driving a stage-coach, which he 
upset, returning for a short time to the 
stage. Sherwin had a fine face and figure, 
expressive features, and a voice smooth and 
powerful. He was a good mimic, could 
sketch likenesses with remarkable fidelitv, 
and was an efficient representative of York- 
shire characters. His talent was, however, 
impaired by indulgence. He died in 1830, 
in Durham, at his father's house. 

[Bioffraphy of the British Stai?e, 1824 ; Gent. 
Mn^. 1830, ii. 376; Genest's Account of the 
English Stage.] J. K. 




SHERWIN, WILLIAM (1G07-1687?), 
divine, born in 1607, was appointed to the 
sequestered livinpf of Wallington, Hertford- 
ehire, shortly before October 1646. In that 
month the sequestered minister, John Bowles, 
was summoned before the committee for 

Elundered ministers for assaultini^ Sherwin. 
iherwin also acted as lecturer or assistant 
to Josias Bird at Baldock. He was either 
silenced at Wallington in 1660 or ejected in 
1662. He died at Fowlmere, Cambridge, in 
the house of his son-in-law, aged about 80. 
Sherwin married, on 11 Sept. 1637, Dorothea 
Swan, described as * generosa.' His son, 
William Sherwin (/. 1670-1710) [q. v.], the 
engraver, prefixed an engraved portrait of his 
father to several of his works. 

Most of Sherwin*s works are anonymous, 
and they were sometimes reprinted with 
titles differing from the originals. He 
wrote : 1. * A Covenant to walk with 
God. . . . Solemnly entered into by certain 
persons resolving to live according to and in 
the power of the life of Christ in them,' 
Lonaon, 1646, 12mo. 2. * IlpoSpo/xor,* Lon- 
don, 1665, 4to. 3. * ElpTjviK6v/ London, 1 665, 
4to. 4. * Aoyos TTcpl Aoyov, or the Word 
written concerning the Word Everlasting,' 
London, 1670, 4to. 5. * *l€po-ixrfrn6iro\ii, or 
the Holy, the Great, the Beloved New Jeru- 
salem . . . made manifest,* London, 1670 (?), 
4to. 6. * 'KKKkTja-idtrrrjff or the first and last 
preacher of the Everlasting Gospel,' &c.,' 
London, 1671, 4to. 7. ' XXf«9 [sic] evay- 
ytXiov rov /iuo-rucoC, or a key of the doctrines,' 
&c., 1672 ; contains a reprint of fourteen 
separate tracts of Sherwin's dating 1671-4. 
8. * OlKovfjL€tnj fjL€X\ov(ra : the world to come, 
or the doctrine of the Kingdom of God,' 
1671-4, 4to ; a general reprint of several 
treatises, like No. 7. 9. 'The doctrine of 
Christ's glorious Kingdom now shortly ap- 
proaching,' 1672, 4tO. 10. * 'Efai/arrrao-iff, 
or the Saints rising ... at the first blessed 
resurrection,' &c., London, 1674, 4to. 
11. * Xpovoi a7roicara(rTa(r€0)9 jravrtoVf or the 
times of restitution of all things,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1675, 8vo. 12. * Ei'ayytXiov alavioVf or 
the Saints first revealed and covenanted 
mercies,' &c., London, 1676, 4to. 

[Addit. MS. 15669, ff. 186, 365; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 201 ; Calamy's Ac- 
count, p. 361 ; Urwick 8 Nonconformitv in Herts, 
pp. 568-9.] W. A. S. 

SHERWIN, WILLIAM (/f. 1670-1710), 
engraver, son of William Sherwin (1607- 
1687 ?) fq. v.l, the nonconformist divine, was 
born at Wallington, Hertfordshire, of which 
place his father was rector, about 1645. Be- 
tween 1670 and 1711 he engraved in the line 

manner a number of portraits, of which the 
best have considerable merit, and all are in- 
teresting on account of their scarcity and their 
subjects. These comprise large plates of 
Charles II, Queen Catnerine, Prince Rupert, 
Lord Gerard of Brandon, the Duchess of 
Cleveland, and Slingsby Bethell : and various 
small ones prefixed to books. He engraved 
the title to Reynolds's * Triumphes of God's 
Revenge against Murder,' 1670, several of 
the plates in Sandford*s 'History of the 
Coronation of James II,' 1687, and the por- 
traits of Dr. William Sermon [q. v.], prefixed 
to his works. Sherwin was one of the first 
workers in mezzotint, being instructed in 
the practice by Prince Rupert, to whom 
he dedicated a pair of large portraits of 
Charles II and his queen engraved in that 
method ; the former of these bears the date 
1 669, the earliest found on an English mezzo- 
tint. Among his other mezzotint plat&s are 
portraits of the Duke of Albemarle, Eliza- 
beth Cavendish, duchess of Albemarle, Adrian 
Beverland, and several royal personages. 
Sherwin seems to have worked mainly from 
his own drawings. On his print of his father, 
dated 1672, he styles himself engraver to the 
king by patent. He married Elizabeth Pride, 
great-niece and ward of George Monck, duke of 
Albemarle, whose heir-at-law she eventually 
became, and there exists a pedigree of the 
Moncks of Potheridge engraved by Sherwin 
expressly to show his wife's claim to that 
position. He is supposed to have died about 

[Strutt's Diet of Engravers ; Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painting, ed. Dallaway and Womura ; 
J. Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits ; 
Dodd's manuscript Hist, of Engravers in Brit. 
Museum (Add. MS. 33404).] P. M. O'D. 

SHERWOOD. [See also SiaRWOoD.] 


1851 ), authoress, bom at Stanford, Worcester- 
shire, on 6 May 1775, was the elder daughter 
and second child of George Butt, D.D. [g. v.], 
by his wife Martha, daughter of Henry- 

Mary, a beautiful child, was educated at 
home, and subjected to a rigorous discipline. 
In 1790 she was sent to the abbey school at 
Reading, under the direction of M. and Mme. 
St.-Quentin. The school, which was after- 
wards removed to London, numbered among 
its pupils Mary Russell Mitford and L. £. 
Landon. As a schoolgirl Mary Butt acquired 
a good knowledge of Latin, and composed 
many stories and play«. Her first published 
tale, 'The Traditions,' appeared in 1794 ; the 
proceeds were destined to assist an old friend. 

After Dr. Butt's death, on 29 Sept. 1795, 




hU widow and children settled at Bridgnorth, 
where Mary wrote two tales — 'Margarita/ 
sold in 1798 for 40/., and * Susan Gray,' sold 
for 10/. They were printed in 1802. The 
latter, which claims to he the first hook espe- 
cially written to inculcate religious principles 
in tlie poor, was a great success, and was 
pirated in every faslxion until 1816, when 
the copyright was returned to the author. 
Mary occupied herself in works of charity 
and Sunday-school teaching until her mar- 
riage, on 30 June 1803, to her cousin. Captain 
Henry Sherwood, of the 53rd foot. The next 
vear he was made paymaster of his raiment. 
Their first child, M^ry Henrietta, was bom in 
1804 at Morpethy where the regiment was 
quartered. It was soon afterwards ordered 
to India, whither Mrs. Sherwood, leaving 
her daughter behind, accompanied her hus- 
band. The voyage was long, and they 
narrowly escaped capture by French ships. 
In India Mrs. Sherwood continued her cha- 
ritable works, devoting herself more par- 
ticularly to the pious care and education of 
soldiers orphans. It was owing primarily 
to her influence that the first orphan home, 
the precursor of the Lawrence Asylum and 
similar institutions, was opened at Kidderpur, 
near Calcutta. Some account of her en- 
deavours is given in her work on ' Indian 
Orphans' (mrwick, 1836). At Cawnpore 
Mrs. Sherwood made the acquaintance of 
Daniel Corrie [q. v.j, afterwards bishop of 
Madras, and of the mfssionary, Henry Martyn 

S. v.], and wrote * The Indian Pilgrim,* an 
legory adapted to native experience, from 
Bunyan*s 'Pilgrim's Progress,' which was 
published in England in 1815. It was trans- 
lated into Hindustani. About 1814 Mrs. 
Sherwood composed * The Infant's Progress,' 
and shortly afterwards she composed the 
short tale of * Little Henry and his Bearer,' 
the popularity of which has been compared 
to that of * Uncle Tom's Cabin.' It was 
translated into French in 1820, and there 
are probably a hundred editions between 
that date and 1884, including translations 
into Hindustani, Chinese, Cingalese, and 
German. It was first published anonymously, 
having been sold to a publisher for 5/. 

Subsequently the Snerwoods returned to 
England and settled, with a family of five 
children and three adopted orphans, at Wick, 
between Worcester ana Malvern. Mrs. Sher- 
wood visited Worcester prison with Mrs. 
Frv, and in London made the acquaintance of 
E J ward Irving. Soon, with her whole family, 
she studied Hebrew with a view to a type dic- 
tionary of the prophetic books of the Bible. 
Her husband spent ten years on a Hebrew 
and English concordance and upon Mrs. 

Sherwood's dictionary, which was finished 
a few months before her death, but was not 

The Sherwoods travelled on the continent 
between 1830 and 1832, and in June 1832 
they went from Holland in the same vessel 
as Sir Walter Scott, then returning home 
in a moribund condition. In 1848 their son- 
in-law. Dr. Streeten, died,and Mrs.Sherwood 
removed to Twickenham. Her husband died 
there on 6 Dec. 1849, and she followed him 
to the grave on 22 Sept. 1851. Of eight 
children, one son and two daughters, Mrs. 
Dawes and Sophia (Mrs. Streeten, after- 
wards Mrs. Kelly), survived her. 

Mrs. Sherwood wrote over ninety-five 
stories and tracts, all of a strongly evange- 
lical tone, and mainly addressed to ^oung 
people. A selection of her short stories for 
children was published as * The Juvenile 
Library 'in 1891. Her most notable pro- 
duction is * The History of the Fairchild 
Family, or the Child's Manual, being a col- 
lection of Stories calculated to show the im- 
portance and effects of a religious education.' 
The first part appeared in 1818, and between 
that date and 1842 it passed through fourteen 
editions. In 1842 appeared a second part, and 
in 1847 a third, in which Mrs.Sherwood was 
assisted by her daughter, Mrs. Streeten, who 
aided her in much of her literary work be- 
tween 1835 and 1851. Numerous editions 
followed down to 1889. Most children of 
the English middle-class bom in the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century may be said 
to have been brought up on the ^ Fairchild 
Family.' In spite of its pietistic rigour and 
in spite of much that is trite and prosy, the 
work displays an insight into child nature 
which preserves its interest (cf. New Review^ 
April 1896, pp. 392-403). 

Among Mrs. Sherwood's longer stories were 
* The Monk of Cimi6s,' * The Nun,' * Henry 
Marten,' and * The Lady of the Manor.' The 
last is * a series of conversations on the subject 
of confirmation, intended for the use of the 
middle and higher ranks of young females.' 
It fills four volumes, and was published 
hetween 1825 and 1829 (4th ed. 7 vols. 1842) 
(cf. Quarterly Review^ No. Ixxii. p. 25). Se- 
veral of her books were translated into Hin- 
dustani, French, German, and Italian. They 
were all popular in America, and an edition 
of Mrs. Sherwood's works was published in 
sixteen volumes at New York in 1855 (with 
a portrait engraved by M. Osborne). 

[The chief aathority is Mrs. Kelly's Life of 
Mrs. Sherwood, 1854 (with a portrait showing 
a handsome and benign countenftnce), which 
emlx)die8int€reBting Hutobiographical fragmt^nts 
by Mrs. Sherwood; Gent. Mug. 1851, ii. 548; 

Sherwood 104 Shield 

Illustr. LundoD News, October 1851 ; Living 
Age, November 1854; Sherer's Aonia Cliilde; 
AUibones Diet. ii. 2084.] E. L. 

SHERWOOD, ROBERT (fi, 1632), lexi- 

he carried on a disputation with Jeremiah 
Ives [q. v.] in the market-place at Croydon. 
On 4 March 1683, Horselydown meeting 
having been closed by the magistrates' order, 

cographer, born in Norfolk, entered Corpus the quakers assembled in the street, where- 
Christi College, Cambridge, on 4 July 1622, l upon Shewen and some others were commit ted 

and graduated B.A. in 1626. lie subse- I to Tooley Street counter as rioter.*. He re- 
quently removed to London, where he set moved to Enfield in 1686, and died there 

lie possessed 
French language , 

by writing a French-English dictionary to . to build a new meeting-house at Enfield, on 
be appnded to the new edition of the Eng- condition of receiving interest for her life. 
lish-French dictionary of Randle Cotgrave I Shewen's publications include: 1. *The 
[q.v.] Sherwood also published * The French Universality of the Light . . . asserted,' 
Tutour,' London, 1634, 8vo. It is asserted | 1674, 4to: this refers to the Crovdon address 
that he translated Jobn Bede's 'Right and of Ives. 2. 'William Penn and the Quaker 
Prerogative of Kings ' from the French in | in Unity, the Anabaptist mistaken and in 
1612, but the date of publication appears to ' Enmity,' 1674, 4to, also in answer to Ives, 
be rather too early to warrant the ascription , 3. * The True Christian's Faith and Expe- 
of the book to him. ! rience briefly declared,' 1676, 8vo; reprinted 

[Notes and Queries. 3M ser. iii. 167; Cole's S^^^^"^ ^^'^^ ^T^\^^ Y^'^ '^^T\T'^'' 

Athen« Cantabrigienscs in AdJ. MS. 5880.] ^ ' ^9 ; a new edit, l^ndon 1806, 12mo ; 

E. I. C. another edit. 1840 ; translated into German, 

a-rr-w-oxTTi^/^T^ -i^TT T T A >r / , 1 4 r. -»x w»th * A Few Words concerning Conscience,' 

SHERWpop» ^> ^^^i^^^. C*^- l-*®:)' 1676-8, 12mo ; extracts from it published bv 

bishop of Meath, was an Englishman who the Friends' Tract Association, Tendon, IB-'A 

was papally provided to the bishopric of i2mo. 4. * A Few Words concerning Con- 

Meathinl460. In 1464 he had a quarrel science,' 1675, sm. 8vo. 6. * A Small Treatise 

with the deputy, Thomas FitzGerald, eighth concerning Evil Thoughts and Imaginations,' 

earl of Desmond [q. v.], some of whose fol- 1^79, 8vo ; reprinted (with 4) 1684, 12mo ; 

lowers were said to have been murdered at also London, 1861, 12mo. 6. 'Counsel to 

the instigation of the bishop. Desmond and ^j^^ Christian Traveller, London, 1683, 8vo ; 

Sherwood both went to England to lay the reprinted 1764, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1769, 8vo; 

matter before the km^, and the former was 4^^ edit, revised and corrected, to which is 

for the time successful The bishop is said ^dded *A Treatise concerning Thoughts,' 

to have inspired the opposition which led ^^blin, 1771, 12mo; reprinted in America, 

to Desmonds attaindj?r and execution on j^em, 1793, 8vo, 6th edit. Dublin, 1827. 

14 I-eb. 1408 In 14/0 Sherwood was ap- 7^ *a Brief Testimony for Religion. . . . 

pointed deputy for George, duke of Clarence, Presented to the consideration of all, but 

?''S*ll?.'"r^ ^''^*^^^ much opposition, and ^^re especially those that may be chosen 

in 14// he was removed from oflice. He Members of Parliament, that tLey mav see 

7.^, ou ''"'^*'",^^.^^i^"^^JI'^»,^''^°' ^i',^*^ cause to concur with the Kings Graiious 

1481 . Sherwood died at Dublin on 3 Dec. Declaration for Liberty of Conscience,' 1688, 

1482, and was buried at Newtown Abbey, 4^q 

near Trim. [Whitings Persecution Exposed, p. 239; 

I. 694 ; BesMe's 
Ball's London 

. T x.i^uxAo ^u.o«^tu|^o, Yv -•"• -""• 301 1 Hilde- 

p. 423 (Rolls Ser.); Ware's Works, ii. loO. ed. burn's Issues of the Pennsylvania Prow, i. 38 ; 
Hams; Cotton's Frtsti Eccl. Hib. iii. 114; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, ii. 567 ; Richard 
Leiand's History of Ireland, ii. 52, 62-3; Gil- Davies's Autobiography. 7th ed. 1844, p. 24; 
bert's Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 380, 399, 407.] Registers at Devonshire House.] C. F. S. 

C. L. K. SHIELD, WILLIAM (1748-18l>9), 

SHEWEN, WILLIAM (1631 P- 1695), musical composer, was bom at Swalwell 

Quaker, was born probably in Bermondsey, in the parish of W" hickham, co. Durham, on 

London, about 1631. In '1654 the quakers 5 March 1748. From his father, William 

were meetinjf in the parlour of his house, in Shield, a music-master, he learned the ele- 

a yard at the sign of the Two Brewers in ments of music. On his father's death in 

Bermondsey Street. Here he carried on his 1767 he was apprenticed to a boat-builder 

business of pin-maker. On 24 April 1674 named Edward Davison of South Shields; 




but he continued hia musical studies under 
Charles Avison, organist of St. Nicholas, 
Newcastle, for whom he frequently played 
the violin at concerts. After one of these 
concerts he was introduced to Giardini, who 
ultimately persuaded him to become a pro- 
fessional musician. On the completion of 
his apprent iceship he removed to Scarborough, 
where, though the instrumentality of John 
Cunningham [q. v.], the poet and actor, he 
was appointed leader of the band at the 
theatre and conductor of the concerts during 
t he season. Uere, too, he met with his earliest 
success as a composer, by setting a number 
of poems by Cunningham to music, and, at 
the request of the bishop of Durham, he 
composed the music for the consecration of 
St. John's Church, Sunderland, on 6 April 
1769. On the death of Avison in 1770 his 
son engaged Shield as leader at the Durham 
theatre and of the Newcastle concerts. Next 
season he accepted Giardini^s offer of the 
post of second violin at the Italian opera in ' 
jjondon. He was promoted to principal | 
viola in the following year, held that post 
for eighteen years, and became a member of 
all the best metropolitan orchestras. 

His first operatic venture was the music 
to the * Flitch of Bacon,' a comic opera by 
Henry Bate (afterwards the Kev. Sir Henry 
Bate Dudley [q. v.] ). It was produced by ! 
Colman at the Hay market theatre in 1778, 
and its success led to Shield's being appointed 
composer at Co vent Garden. In 1785 his 
dedication ode for the Phoenix Lodge of free- 
masons at Sunderland was produced with 
great success. During Haydn s visit to Eng- 
land in 1 79 1 Shield was much in his com- 
pany, and used to say that he thus learnt 
more in four days than in any four years 
of his life. In Aug^t 1792 he resigned his 
office at Covent Garden owing to a financial 
disagreement, and went to France and Italy 
with Joseph Kitson [q.v.], the antiquary; 
but on his return a few months later he was 
immediately reinstated. He ultimately re- 
sided in 1797, and dissolved all connection 
with the theatre ten years later. In 1793 
he, Incledon, Bannister the elder, and others, 
formed the once famous 'Glee Club;' he 
was also an original member of the Philhar- 
monic Society. In 1817, on the death of Sir 
AVilliam Parsons, he became master of musi- 
cians in ordinary to the king. Shield died 
at 31 Bemers Street, London, on 25 Jan. 
1829, and was buried on 4 Feb. in the south 
cloister of Westminster Abbey, in the same 
grave as Solomon and Clementi. He left 
his tine Stainer viola to the king, who, how- 
ever, insisted on paving Shield s widow (born 
Ann Stokes) its full value. On 19 Oct. 1891 

a memorial cross was erected by public sub- 
scription to Shield in Whickham churchyard, 
and on 25 Jan. in the next year a memorial 
slab was placed over his grave in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. His portrait, painted by Opie, 
was mezzotinted by Dunkarton. 

Shield excelled as a melodist, and a large 
number of his songs and his dramatic pieces, 
which chiefly contain songs, were very popu- 
lar. His concerted music was of inferior 

He wrote music for upwards of thirty- 
dramatic pieces (for a list of which, with 
dates and places of production, see Harmoni- 
coTif viii. 52), of which * Kosina * (1783) was 
one of the most popular ; for this he received 
40/. His songs are very numerous, and in- 
clude * The Wolf,' 'The Thorn,' ' The Are- 
thusa,' * O bring me wine,' and * Oxfordshire 
Nancy bewitched ' (written at Garrick's re- 
quest). His theoretical works, ' An Intro- 
auction to Harmony ' (London, 4to, 1800), 
and * Rudiments of Thorough-bass ' (London, 
4to, 1815), were much used in their day. 
He also wrote: 1. * A Cento of Ballads, 
Glees,' &c., London, fol. 1809. 2. * Collec- 
tion of six Canzonets and an Elegy,' London, 
n.d. 3. * Collection of Favourite Songs.' 
4. * Trios and Duos for Strings.' 

[Life (Newcastle 1891). by Mr. John Robin- 
son, who promoted the schemf^ for ereoting the 
uicmoriHls to Shield ; Parish Register of Wliick- 
ham, Durham ; Chester's Register of "Wesimin- 
8ter Abbey ; Dean Stanley's Westminster Abbey; 
Burial Book of Westminster Abbey ; Quarterly 
Mus. Mag. and Rev. x. 273 ; Harmon icun, vii. 
49 ; Musical Times, 1891, p. 654 ; Annual Biojzr. 
and Obit. 1830, pp. 86-103; Georgian Era, iv. 
267 ; Parke*8 Mas. Memoirs, vol. i. passim, ii, 
275 et seq.] R. H. L. 

1700). [See Sheilds.] 

ROBERT (d. 1753), compiler, of humble 
origin, was bom in Roxburghshire about the 
end of the seventeenth century, and came to 
London as a journeyman printer. Though 
he lacked education, he had * a very acute 
understanding' and a retentive memory. 
Johnson, to whom he was further recom- 
mended by his devout Jacobitism, employed 
him as an amanuensis upon the ' Dictionary,' 
along with Peyton, Alexander Macl)ean 
[q. v.], and three others. At the conclusion 
01 that work Shiels w^as recommended to 
Griffiths and emploved upon the * Lives of 
the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland to the 
timeof Dean Swift ' (London, o vols. Hvo, 
1763), to which the name of 'Mr. Cibljer' 
was attached. The compilation was based 




upon Langbaine and Jacobs, with the aid of 
Coxeter's notes, and contains little original 
matter. Any research displayed was due 
to Shiels, but the whole work was revised 
by Theophilus Gibber [q. v.] The later 
volumes are ascribed on the title-page to 
Cibber * and other hands/ Johnson was in 
error in attributing the whole credit of the 
work to his former assistant. Apart from 
his compUations, Shiels wrote a didactic 
poem on * Marriage ' in blank verse (London, 

* at the Dunciad in Ludgate Street,* 1748, 
4to), and another piece in praise of Johnson's 

* Irene,* called * The Power of Beauty ' 
(printed in Pearch's 'Collection,* i. 186). 
Above even Dr. Johnson Shiels venerated 
his countryman, James Thomson, upon whose 
death he published an elegy of some merit — 

* Musidorus* (London, 1748, 4to). But his 
admiration for the poet seems to have been 
rather more fatuous than discriminatini^, if 
Johnson may be believed. * I once read him,* 
says the latter, * a long passage of Thomson. 
" Is not this very fine r *' I said. " Splen- 
did r* exclaimed Shiels. " Well, sir, I nave 
omitted every other line.** * Shiels died of 
consumption in May's Buildings, London, on 
!?7 Dec. 1753. * His life was virtuous,* says 
the doctor, * and his end pious.* 

[Gent. Mag. 1753, p. 590; Nichols's Lit. 
Anocd. V. 308; Johnson's Lives of the Poets, ed, 
Cunningham, ii. 329; Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
e<l. Hill, iii. 30, and ed. Croker.p. 504; Monthly 
Rev. May 1792; D'Israeii's Curiosities of Lit. 
1834, iii. 375 ; Morel's Vie de James Thomson, 
1896. p. 176 ; Cibber's Lives of the Poets (with 
maauscrint notes in British Museum).] T. S. 

SHILLETO, RICHARD (1809-1876), 
classical scholar, son of John Shilleto of 
Ulleshelf, Yorkshire, was born on 26 Nov. 
1809. lie was educated first at Repton and 
then at Shrewsbury school, under Dr. Butler, 
and subsequently at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, whore he was admitted a scholar on 
12 Feb. 1828. lie graduated B.A. as second 
classic, w^as bracketed * wooden spoon' in 
1832, and proceeded M.A. in 1835. An 
early marriage prevented him from obtaining 
a fellowship at Trinity. He took orders, and 
remained at Cambridge as a private coach. 
He examined in the classical tripos in 1839 
and 1840, was for some years lecturer at 
Trinity, and lectured at King's College up to 
the time of his death. 

For some thirty years Shilleto devoted his 
best energies to coaching. He did the work 
that the colleges ought to have done, and 
taught all the best scholars that Cambridge 
produced. At length in 1867 he was elected 
fellow of Peterhouse, being the first fellow 
elected under a statute of the college that 

permitted the election of eminent scholars 
though married. He was appointed assistant 
tutor, dean, and prtelector of Peterhouse. 
He then relinquished his private coaching. 
He died at his nouse in Bateman Street on 
24 Sept. 1876, leaving a w^idow and nume- 
rous lamily (Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vL 

Shilleto was justly pronounced the greatest 
Greek scholar in England since the death 
of G^aisford. His knowledge of Greek prose 
diction was consummate, but he left few pub- 
lished proofs of his remarkable attainments. 
An admirable edition by him of Demo- 
8thenes*s ' De Falsa Legatione ' appeared in 
1844 (other editions 1853, 1864, 1874), and 
he wrote various * Adversaria * to classical 
authors, such as Thucyd ides. Hyper ides, and 
Aristotle, part of which, with a mass of ex- 
cellent composition, still remains unpub- 
lished. He long cherished a scheme of 
editing the whole of Thucyd ides, but ho 
only completed the first book (1872) and 
part of the second ; and even what he did 
IS scarcely worthy of his great powers. 

Shilleto sustained a polemic against Cobet 
with credit, and his pamphlet, entitled 
*Thucydides or Grote,' published in 1851, 
though it was not in the best taste, brought 
a charge against G rote's claims to exactness 
from whicu the historian's reputation was 
only partially vindicated. He contributed 
some translations to Kennedy's ' Sabrinie 
Corolla ' and ^ Arundines Cami.' He sent 
some * Conjectures on Thucydides * to the 
first number of the * Journal of Philology,' 
1868, and three papers read in 1875 and 1876 
before the Cambridge Philological Society 
were published posthumously in the same 
journal (vol. vii. 1877). He made numerous 
contributions to * Notes and Queries ' under 
the anagram ' Charles Thiriold.' His skits in 
Latin, Greek, or English were the current 
topic of every Cambridge combination-room. 
Some pieces that appear over his initials were 
partly the work ot pupils. 

His son, Abthur Richard Shilleto 
(1848-1894), born on 18 June 1848, and edu- 
cated at Harrow, graduated B.A. as scholar 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1871, and 
M.A. in 1875. Ordained deacon in that year 
and priest in 1872, he served curacies at 
Lamboume, Essex (1871-3), Holy Trinity, 
Hoxton (1874-6), and Haigh, Lancashire 
(1876). In 1877 he was appointed second 
master at King Edward VFs grammar school 
at Stratford-on-Avon, and from 1879 to 1882 
he was master of Ulverston school. He was 
curate of Satterthwaite, J^ncashire, from 
1881 to 1883, and of Lower Slaughter, Glou- 
cestershire, from 1883 to 1885. He died, 




aft«r many years' suffering from mental dis- 
ease, on 19 Jan. 1894. He translated for 
Bohn*8 * Classical Library * * Pausanias ' (2 vols. 
1886), and Plutarch's * Morals ' (1888), and 
for Bohn*s * Standard Library ' ' Josephus ' 
(5 vols. 1889-90). He also prepared notes 
for an edition of Burton*s 'Anatomy of Melan- 
choly/ which was published in 1893, with 
an introduction by jfr. A. H. Bullen. He 
was a frequent contributor to * Notes and 
Queries ' under the anagram ' Erato Hills.' 

[PerBonal knowledge ; private information ; 
Obitnary by B. H. KeDDody in Journal of Philo- 
logy, 1877, pp. 163-8; Athenseam, 1851 p. 804, 
1876 p. 434 ; Times, 25 Sept. 1876; Cambridge 
Chronicle, 30 Sept. 1876.] E. C. M. 

SHILLIBEER, GEORGE (1797-1866), 
promoter of omnibuses, was bom in Totten- 
ham Court Road in 1797. He entered the 
navy, but did not remain long in the service, 
quitting it as midshipman. He then went 
to a firm in Long Acre to be taught coach- 
building, and after a time started business 
on his own account in Paris. In 1825 M. 
Lafitte, the banker and promoter of omni- 
buses in Paris, commissioned Shillibeer to 
build two omnibuses on an improved plan. 
While building these vehicles Shillibeer re- 
solved to introduce omnibuses into London. 
He sold his Paris business, proceeded to 
England, and on 3 April 1829 announced in 
a printed memorial to John Thornton, chair- 
man of the board of stamps, that he was 
building two omnibuses to run on the Pad- 
dington road. The word ' omnibus,' which 
had been in use in France for a few years, 
was in this document emploved in England 
for the first time. On Saturday, 4 July 1 829, 
Shillibeer*s two omnibuses first plied for hire 
in London. They ran from the Yorkshire 
Stingo, Paddington, along the New Road to 
the Bank of England, the fare being one 
shilling. Each omnibus was drawn by 
three bays, harnessed abreast, and carried 
twenty-two passengers, all inside. In less 
than nine months Shillibeer had twelve 
omnibuses running in various parts of Lon- 
don. In 1832 William Morton, a Southwell 
innkeeper, entered into partnership with 
Shillibeer. The partnership was dissolved 
by mutual consent in January 1834, Morton 
taking the New Road omnibuses as his 
share. He mismanaged them, sold them at a 
considerable loss, gave way to drink, and 
committed suicide. At the inquest Shilli- 
beer was accused of having defrauded Mor- 
ton over the partnership, but the charge was 
proved to be unfounded. In 1833 omnibus 
drivers and conductors were compelled by 
act of parliament to take out licenses. 
Shillibeer was ofiered the position of assist- 

ant registrar of licenses, but declined it, as 
he had been led to expect the registrarship. 
At the commencement of 1834 he relin- 
quished his metropolitan business and com- 
menced running omnibuses from London to 
Greenwich and Woolwich, placing twenty 
vehicles on the road. The following year 
the Greenwich railway was opened, and 
Shillibeer soon felt the effects of such for- 
midable competition. He fell in arrears with 
his payments to the stamp and taxes otiice, 
which seized his vehicles until the debt 
was paid. This incident was frequently re- 
peated, and at length Shillibeer was ruined. 
In 1840 the lords of treasury inquired into 
Shillibeer's case, and, after convincing them- 
selves that he had been treated unjustly, 
promised him a public appointment and a 
grant of 6,000/. But a change of govern- 
ment rendered these prom ises nugatory. After 
his failure Shillibeer*s pecuniary interest in 
omnibuses ceased. Subseauently his enter- 
prise was developed by others; in January 
1866 the London General Omnibus Com- 
pany was formed, and thenceforth omnibuses 
were one of the chief means of locomotion in 
London and the large towns of Great Britain. 
Shillibeer became in his later years an under- 
taker in the City Road ; he invented a patent 
funeral coach, and considerably reduced the 
price of funerals. ] le gave evidence before 
the board of health on the question of extra- 
mural sepulture. He died at Brighton on 
22 Aug. 1866. 

[Private information : Ludgato Magazine, 
February 1897; Mayhew's London Labour and 
the London Poor ] H. C. M. 

SHILLING, ANDREW (d. 1621), com- 
mander in the East India Company, was 
originally a petty officer in the royal navy. 
From this position he gradually raised him- 
self to the niglier ranks of the service, and 
on 30 May 1603 he became for life one of 
the six chief masters of the navv ( Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1003-10, p. 11). " In 1617 he 
obtained leave from the admiraltv to take 
part in the fifth expedition undertaken by 
the East India Company, and he sailed from 
Gravesend on 4 Feb. as master of the Gift, 
one of a squadron of five, under the com- 
mand of Martin Pring. On the voyage out 
he captured a Portuguese vessel from Mo- 
zambique laden with a cargo of elephants* 
teeth (Purchas his PiU/rimes, i. 632). At 
Surat lie was placed in command of the 
Angel, a vessel formerly belonging to the 
Dutch, and in it he conveved home Sir Tho- 
mas Roe [q. v.] He arrived in England 
in the autumn of 1618. The company im- 
mediately obtained leave from the Duke 


1 08 


of Buckingham to employ him on another 
voyage. On '2o Feb. 1619 Shilling sailed 
from Tilbury on board the London as chief 
commander of a squadron of four vessels. 
They first proceeded to Surat ; thence Shil- 
ling despatched two of his fleet — the Hart 
and the Eagle — to the Persian Gulf, and 
followed them with his own vessel and the 
lloebuck. On the way he captured a Portu- 
guese ship laden with a cargo of horses, and 
soon after met his other vessels returning, who 
re]>orted the l*ortuguese to be very strong. 
Shilling, however, resolved to attack them, 
and on 19 Dec. 1620 engaged them near Jask 
on the coast of Persia. The first conflict was 
unfavourable to the English ; but on Christ- 
mas day the battle was renewed, and, though, 
owing to a calm, the London and the Hart 
were alone able to come into action, they com- 
pletely defeated the Portuguese and com- 
pelled them to fly. Shilling, however, was 
mortally wounded, and died seven days later 
on 1 Jan. 1021. 

[Cdl. State Papers, Colonial, passim ; Rela- 
tion of that Worthy Seaflght in the PeraiHn 
Gulph, with the Death of Captain Andrew Shil- 
ling?, London, 1622, 4to (Brit. Mus.); Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. A pp. p. 306.] E. I. C. 

SHILLITOE, THOMAS (1754-1836), 

2iiaker, son of Richard Shillitoe, librarian of 
tray's Inn (appointed 1750), was born in 
Holbom in May 1754. His parents soon 
after moved to Whitechapel, and in 1766 
took the Three Tuns Inn at Islington, where 
Shillitoe acted as potboy. He was then ap- 
prenticed to a grocer, and at Wapping and 
Portsmouth saw much dissipated life. On re- 
turning to London he attended the Foundling 
chapel, and later joined the quakers, procuring 
a situation with one of the Lombard Street 
quaker banking firms. At twenty-four he left 
them, conscientiously objecting to their issue 
of lottery tickets. He now began to preach, 
and learned shoemakiug. Settling at Tot- 
tenham, he by 1805 earned enough to bring 
in 100/. a year, retired from business, mar- 
ried (September 1807), and became an itine- 
rant preacher. He frequently walked thirty 
miles a day, always without a coat, although 
sometimes in a linen smock, so as to work 
out his board at the farmhouses he visited. 
For the last fifty years of his life he was a 
vegetarian and teetotaler. 

After many times travelling over Great 
Britain and Ireland, he set out in 1820 for 
the continent, visiting the principal towns 
of Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, 
Germany, Switzerland, and France. In every 
country he went first to the palace and to the 
prison, and was heard alike by kings, queens, 

princes, archbishops, and stadtholders. His 
message to those in authority chiefly con- 
cernea the observance of Sunday and legis- 
lation for temperance and morality. He was 
ignorant of any foreign language, and trusted 
to Providence for interpreters. His narra- 
tive of adventures is full of naivete. 

Shillitoe returned to England in April 
1823, and the following year visited the bishop 
and police magistrates of London, privy coun- 
cillors, and the home secretary, about Sun- 
day observance. He had an interview with 
George IV at Windsor, and then went to 
Hamburg, saw the Duke of Cumberland at 
Hanover, the crown prince of Prussia at 
Berlin, the king at Charlottenburg, the king 
of Denmark at Copenhagen, and passed the 
winter in St. Petersburg. There he had two 
inter\'iewswith the Emperor Alexander, who 
discussed with him the position of the serfs 
and the substitution of tne treadmill for the 
knout. Having returned to England and 
settled his wife at Tottenham, in July 1626 
he sailed for New York. He was then se venty- 
tw^o, his wife eight years older. In America 
he tried to heal the schism between the body 
of quakers and seceders calling themselves 

He returned in 1829, and occupied himself 
in temperance work. In May 1833 he gave 
the presidential address to the British and 
Foreign Temperance Societv in Exeter Hall. 
He was conducted by Sir Ilerbert Taylor to 
an interview with William IV and Queen 
Adelaide in September of the same year. 
Shillitoe died on 12 June 1836, a^ed 82, and 
was buried at Tottenham. His widow, Mary 
(born Pace), died at Ilit^hin in 1838, aged 
92. The eldest son, Richard, a surgeon, of 
56 Jewry Street, Aldgate, was the father of 
Richard Rickman Shillitoe, and of Buxton 
Shillitoe, both well-known doctors. A bust 
of Shillitoe is at Devonshire House, Bishops- 
gate Street. 

He wrote : 1. * A Caution and "Warning,* 
1797 and 1798. 2. * An Address to Rulers 
of this Nation,* 1808, 8vo. 3. * An Address 
to Friends,* 1820. 4. * Aflectionate Address 
to the King and his Government,* 1832. 
5. 'Journal, 1st and 2nd edit. London, 
1839, 8vo : reprinted as vol. iii. of Evans's 
* Friends* Library,* Philadelphia, 1839, imp. 
8vo. Several of his addresses on the conti- 
nent were translated into German. 

[Journals above mentioned ; Life by W. Tal- 
lack, 1867; Smith'a Catalogue, ii. 571-3; in- 
formation from librarian of Gray*8 Inn ; Robin- 
son's Hist, of Tuttenhara, ii. 254 ; Friends Biogr. 
Cat. pp. 6 1 6-29 ; Life of William Allen, ii. 395. 
iii. 23d; Patriot, 27 June 1836, p. 248; Regis- 
ters^ Devonshire Hou8e.1 C. F. S. 




ldl5), general, and governor of Grenada, 
West Indies, was the son of Kichard Shipley 
of Stamford, Lincolnshire, and of Copt Iiall, 
Loton, Bedfordshire, a captain of cavalry, 
by his wife Jane, daughter of Ilobert Rud- 
yerd, of Wonnley , Hertfordshire. The latter 
was great-erandson and representative of Sir 
Benjamin Rudyerd [n. v.J of West Wood- 
hay, Berkshire. Charles Snipley was bom at 
Copt Hall on 18 Feb. 1766. On the death 
of nis mother*s only brother, Captain Benja- 
min Rudyerd of the Coldstream guards (who 
was aide-de-camp to Lord Stair at the battle 
of DetCingen, and whose various accomplish- 
ments are celebrated by Smollett in the 
* Memoirs of a Lady of Quality ' as those of 

Mr.' R ), his mother became sole heiress of 

the families of Maddox and Rudyerd, but, ow- 
ing to the extravagance of his father, Charles 
Shipley inherited little besides his pedigree. 

On 1 April 1771, after passing through 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, 
Shipley received a commission as ensign and 

Eractitioner engineer. In the following year 
e went to Minorca. On 4 March 1776 he 
was promoted to be lieutenant and sub-engi- 
neer. He returned to England in 1778, and 
was stationed at Gravesend as engineer on 
the staff under Colonel Debbieg, the com- 
manding royal engineer of the Chatham or 
Thames district. 

From 1780 to 1783 he served in the Lee- 
ward Islands, and in 1788 he again went to 
the West Indies and was stationed at An- 
tig'ia. Early in 1792 he returned to England 
to be tried by court-martial for disobedience 
to regulations in that he employed his own 
negroes in Antigua on government fortifica- 
tion work. The court sat at the Horse Guards 
from 23 Feb. to 1 March, found Shipley guilty, 
and sentenced him to be suspended from rank 
and pay for twelve months, at the same time 
stating that they fully reco^ised that Ship- 
ley *s ^parture from regulations did not pro- 
ceed from any corrupt or interested motive. 
On 16 Aujg. 1793 Shipley was promoted 
to be captain. At the solicitation of Sir 
John Vau^han, commander-in-chief in the 
West Indies, he again applied to be sent 
thither, and embarked in >iovember with his 
family in the government storeship Woodley. 
After leaving Plymouth severe storms com- 
pelled them to put into Gibraltar and Cadiz 
for some weeks, and when at length they 
arrived within a few miles of Barbados, 
they were captured by the French corvette 
Perdrix. The prisoners were confined in 
hulks at Guadeloupe, and suffered great hard- 
ships ; but Shipley*s wife was set free, and 
eventually managed to extort the liberation 

of her husband from the French republican 
general, Victor Hugues. Her fortitude was 
highly praised by the Duke of Clarence, after- 
wards William IV, to whom Shipley sent an 
account of his release. 

On 6 May 1795 Shipley was promoted to 
be major in the army. In May 1790 he sent 
home reports on the defences of Martinique 
and of Prince Rupert's Head, Dominica. 
On 20 Oct. he was appointed commanding 
royal engineer of the Windward and Lee- 
ward Islands. In February 1797 he ac- 
companied Sir Ralph Abercromby as com- 
manding royal engineer of his expedition to 
Trinidad, when the Spaniards surrendered 
the island on the 17th. He also accompanied 
Abercromby as commanding royal engineer, 
and took part in the unsuccessful attack on 
Porto Rico in the following month. On 
11 Sept. 1798 he was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the royal engineers. 

In 1799 Shipley was sent by Lieutenant- 
general (afterwards Sir) Thomas Trigge in 
the Amphitrite to examine the coasts in the 
neighbourhood of the Surinam river with 
a view to a landing-place for a military force 
to attack Surinam. Trigge, in his despatch 
dated Paramaribo, 22 Aug. 1799, states that 
Shipley executed this service with great zeal 
and judgment. Surinam surrendered on 
20 Aug., but was soon retaken. Shipley also 
took part, during March, in the capture of 
the islands of St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, 
St. Thomas, and of Santa Cruz. On 21 and 
22 June 1803 he commanded a detachment 
of infantry at the capture of St. Lucia. In 
April 1804 an expedition was sent under 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Charles 
Green, temporarily commanding in chief in 
the Leeward Islands, against Dutch Guiana. 
Shipley accompanied it as commanding royal 
engineer, and, having landed with Lieutenant 
Arnold of the royal engineers and a small 
party, reconnoitred the defences of Surinam, 
which was again captured. Green, in his 
despatch to I^rd Camden, dated 13 May 1804, 
Paramaribo, admitted obligations to Snipley, 
as commanding engineer, 'far beyond my 
power to express.* 

On 13 July 1805 Shipley was accordingly 
promoted colonel in the royal engineers, and 
on 12 June 1806 brigadier-general to the 
forces serving in the West Indies. In this 
year, under orders from the board of ord- 
nance, he made the circuit of the coast of 
Jamaica, and explored the interior by cross- 
ing the island in various directions with a 
view to a survey. In 1807 he accompanied 
the expedition from Barbados against the 
Danish West India islands under General 
Bowyer and Rear-admiral Sir Alexander 




Cochrane. Thev arrived before St. Thomas 
on 21 Dec, when Shipley wns sent ashore to 
demand from the governor, von Scholten, the 
surrender of St. Thomas and St. John, which 
capitulated next day. On 23 Dec. the expe- 
dition sailed for Santa Cruz, and Shipley 
was again sent on shore to negotiate terms. 
The governor would only capitulate if some 
of his officers could be allowed to inspect the 
British ships and troops, and, having done 
this, could satisfy his honour that the l^ritish 
force was so strong that resistance would be 
hopeless. Shipley agreed, the inspection was 
inude, and the island capitulated on 25 Dec. 

On 22 March 1808 Shipley was knighted, 
and in the same year he sent home proposals 
for strengthening the defences of the island 
of St. Thomas. In January 1809 he took 
part in the expedition against Martinique 
under lieutenant-general Sir George Beck- 
with. lie landed on 30 Jan. and commenced 
operations against Pigeon Island, in which he 
was admirably supported by Captain (after- 
wards Sir)(TeorgeCockburn(1772-1853)rq. v.] 
of II. M.S. Pomp6e and his bluejackets. The 
night after the batteries opened fire the enemy 
were obliged to capitulate, and Pigeon Island 
fell to the British on 4 Feb., to be followed 
by Fort Bourbon and Fort Koyal, and on 
23 Feb. by the whole island of Martinique. 
Shipley received the thanks of both houses 
of parliament for his conduct. 

In February 1810 he commanded the se- 
cond division of the army in the successful 
operations against Guadeloupe. Brigadier- 
general Ilarcourt, in his despatch of 7 Feb., 
expressed his indebtedness to Shipley during 
the operations, and especially in the action of 
3 Feb. at Ridge Beaupaire, St. Louis, in front 
of Bellair. 

Shipley was promoted to be major-general 
on 4 June 1811. On 27 Feb. 1813 he was 
appointed governor of the island of Grenada, 
in succession to Lieutenant-general Frederick 
Ma it land. 

After the return of Na]>oleon Bonaparte 
from Elba, a naval and military expedition, 
under Admiral Sir Philip Durham and Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir James Leith [q. v.], was 
sent to secure the French West India islands 
on behalf of the king of France, from whom 
they had revolted, and in June 1815 Mar- 
tinique and Marie Galante were reoccupied 
without trouble. Guadeloupe, however, held 
out for Bonaparte, and did not yield without 
severe figliting. The attack was made by 
the British on 8 and 9 Aug. 1815, and Ship- 
ley commanded the first brigade. The enemy 
were defeated at all points. Negotiations 
followed, and on 10 Aug. Guadeloupe sur- 

rendered. Both naval and military com- 
manders in their despatches expressed the 
higliest praise of the * distinguished and in- 
defatigable engineer,' Sir Charles Shipley. 
Shipley received, by the command of the 
prince regent, a medal for Martinique with 
a clasp for Guadeloupe, accompanied by a 
letter from the Duke of York, then com- 

In July 1815 Shipley declined promotion 
out of the corps of royal engineers, to which 
he had belonged all his service, and of which 
he was senior regimental colonel. He pre- 
ferred to wait for his battalion. Ever careless 
of personal exposure, excessive fatigue at the 
attack on Guadeloupe brought on an illness 
which ended in his death at his seat of 
government at Grenada on 30 Nov. 1815. 
lie was buried in the church of St. Georges, 
Grenada, amid the regret of all classes. 

Shipley married at Gravesend,in May 1780, 
Mary, daughter of James Teale, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Dr. Italph Blomer, pre- 
bendary of Canterbury. Lady Shipley died 
at Boulogne (where slie was assigned a resi- 
dence by Louis XVIII in consideration of 
her husband's services in the French West 
Indies) on 6 Aug. 1820, and was buried in 
the English burial-ground there ; her remains 
were removed and reinterred in the cloisters 
of Canterbury Cathedral. Their youngest 
daughter, Elizabeth Cole (d. 1828), married 
in 1809 Henry David Erskine, twelfth earl of 

Shipley was a skilful engineer and a 
thorough soldier. His administration of the 
government of Grenada was both mild and 
just, and he completely dispelled those party 
feuds to which small colonies are prone. 

A portrait was painted by Eckstein and 
engraved by Cook. 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Koyal En- 
gineers Records; London Gazette; Memoir in 
Jerdnn's National Portrait Galler?, vol. ir. 
1833 ; Field of Mars, 2 vols. 4to, 1801 ; United 
Service Journal, 1835; Gent. Mag. 1780-1816, 
vols, l.-lxxxiv. ; ConoUy Papers ; Patrician, iv. 
368-9; Evans's Cat. o*f Engraved British Por- 
traits ; Debrett's Peerage.] R, H. V. 

artist. [See under Hare-Natlor,Frakces.] 

SHIPLEY, JONATHAN (1714-1788), 
bishop of St. Asaph, bom in 1714, was son of 
Jonatlian Shipley (d, 1749), a native of Leeds, 
who resided in after life at Walbrook, and 
was a citizen and stationer of London. His 
mother, Martha (d, 1757), was a member of a 
family named Davies, owners of Twyford 
House, near Winchester. The Twyford pro- 
perty came to the bishop at the death, in 1705, 




of his mother*8 brother, "William Daviea. 
AVilliam Shipley [q. v.] was the bishop's 
brother (cf. Jackson, St. George^s Churchy 
Doncaster^ p. 116). 

Jonathan was educated at Reading, and 
proceeded to St. John's College, Oxford 
( 1 731 ), but migrated to Christ Church before 
he graduated B.A. in 173(). He contributed 
an English piece to the Oxford poems on the 
death of Queen Caroline, his verses being 
con^dered the best in the volume. Soon 
after proceeding M.A. in 1738 he took holy 
orders. He became tutor in the family of 
Charles Mordaunt, third earl of Peterborough, 
and married, about 1743, Anna Maria (d, 
1803), the earl's niece, daughter of Hon. 
<ieorge Mordaunt, and one of Queen Caro- 
line's maids of honour. In this year also 
ho was institut-ed to the rectories of Sil- 
chester and Sherborne St. John, Hampshire, 
and was made prebendary of Winchester by 
Bishop Hoadly. He accompanied the Duke 
of Cumberland as chaplain-general of the 
army in the campaign of Fontenoy (1745). 
In 1748, when he proceeded D.D. at Oxford, 
he was made canon of Christ Church, but 
retained his previous preferments. In 1760 
he became dean of AV mchester, and was in- 
stituted to the rectory of Chilbolton, Hamp- 
shire (Chilbolton Register, 13 June), holding 
it by dispensation with Sherborne and Sil- 
chester. Early in 1 769 he was consecrated 
])i8hop of Llandatf, with which the living of 
Bedwas was united, and later in the same 
vear he was translated to the see of St. Asaph. 
^Thereupon he resigned all previous preter- 
ments except Chilbolton. 

The inner history of his elevation to the 
bench cannot be traced. His consecration 
to one see and his translation to another 
within a single year (1769) suggest that he 
was then high in favour with the king and 
his subservient minister, the Duke of Graf- 
ton. But in a sermon preached next year 
l>efore the House of Lords he endorsed 
the whig doctrine as to the foundation of 
royal supremacy, and soon showed signs of 
difference with *his friends and even the 
respectable minister who raised him.' He 
avowedly joined the opposition, * to whom 
he was a perfect stranger' (Works, ii. 61), 
owing to the king'spolicy towardsthe Ameri- 
VAW colonies. In his attitude to this question, 
he was lai^ely influenced by a deepening 
friendship with Benjamin Franklin, who had 
enjoyed * the sweet air of Twyford ' as early 
as 177 1 . Hinchlitfe, bishop of Peterborough, 
was the only other member of the episcopal 
bench who sympathised with his views. In 
1773 Shipley preached before the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel a sermon 

containing a warm eulogy of the American 
colonies. Franklin, in commenting on it, 
avers that public opinion considered it to 
have been written * m compliment to him- 
self,' and that the bishop by his bold state- 
ment, * in the mere hope of doing good,' had 
* hazarded the displeasure of the court ' and 
' the prospect of future preferment ' ( Works, 
viii. 40). In 1774, after voting against the 
alteration of the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, proposed as a punishment for the 
tea-ship riots at Boston, Shipley published a 
speech which for some reason he had not 
delivered. It was considered a masterpiece 
at the time. * I look upon North America,' 
he said, * as the only great nursery of freemen 
left on the face of the earth.' In the debate 
of 1778, memorable for the last speech of 
Chatham, Shipley voted with the Duke of 
Ilichmond against the continuance of the 
war. The policy of Lord Bockingham, alike 
in opposition and in otlice, had Shipley's 
warm support. When peace was at length 
in sight, Franklin wrote to the bishop : ' The 
cause of liberty and America has been 
greatly obliged to you. I hope you will live 
long to see that country flourish under its 
new constitution ' ( Works, ix. 229). On his 
way from Paris to America Franklin met 
'the good bishop' and his family at Ports- 
mouth, and gave them his miniat ure. Three 
years later, when Catherine Shipley an- 
nounced to him her father's death, he replied 
with tender sympathy: had the * counsels 
of his sermon ana speech been attended to, 
how much bloodshed might have been pre- 
vented' and ' disgrace to the nation avoided ! ' 

It is not only in regard to American inde- 
pendence that Shipley stood out in solitary 
and far-sighted opposition. Alone of the 
bishops he declared in a stinging speech 
(1779) for the repeal of all the laws against 
protestant dissenters, characterising the en- 
actments as 'the disgrace of the National 
Church.' He would have nothing to say to 
the confession of faith which was proposed 
as a condition of relaxation. It would turn 
the law into a * new penal law itself.' Tolera- 
tion was not properly a quest ion for the church, 
but for the stxite. * And allow me to say,' he 
added, * with all respect to this right reverend 
bench, that we are not the men to whose 
decision I would commit it.' 

In June 1782 Franklin expressed the hope 
that Shipley would be promoted, as Bockin^- 
ham was then in power. Horace Walpole 
deemed him the likeliest man for Salisbury 
{Letters, viii. 238). But the see was given 
to Shute Barrington. On 19 March 1783 
Comwallis, archbishop of Canterbury, died, 
and the coalition ministry, which was im- 




minent, might possibly have recommended 
Shipley as primate. But on the very eve of 
its formation the king gave the archbishopric 
to Moore (Wraxall, MemoirSy ii. 815-16). 

According to a family tradition, he might 
have been primate if he would have aban- 
doned his opposition to the war. But 
his charges of 1778 and 1782 render it 
hardly possible that his promotion could 
have been sanctioned by the king. * l*rinces/ 
he says, * are the trustees, not the proprietors 
of their people.* He pleads for shorter par- 
liaments, disfranchisement of small boroughs, 
* safeguards against that encroaching power 
from which neither we nor our fathers have 
been sufficiently able to secure ourselves.* 
Shipley died on 6 Dec. 1788, at Chilbolton, 
at tne age of seventy-eight, and was buried 
at Twyiord, where nis monument, with a 
medallion by NoUekens, still exists. 

The bishop's son William Davies is noticed 
separately. His eldest daughter Anna Maria, 
married Sir William Jones [q. v.], the orien- 
talist, while Georgiana married Francis 
Ilare-Xaylor [q. v.], and was mother of 
Julius and of Augustus Hare. 

Shipley mixed mainly in political society. 
Burke was one of his intimate friends, and, 
through his daughter Georgiana's genius for 
painting, Sir Joshua Reynolds was another. 

According to a contemporary eulogy, 
Shipley *wa8 what a bishop ought to be,* 
but the contemporary ideal of episcopal duty 
was low. Slightly improving on the example 
of his * friend and patron * Hoadly, who never 
visited his diocese of Bangor, Shipley resided 
about a month in the year at St. Asaph, 
the palace being in a poor condition (Bishop 
Short's manuscripts at St. Asaph). The rest 
of the year was divided between London, 
Chilbolton, and Twyford. His four charges 
betrayed no religious fervour, but they gave 
dignified expression to a liberality of poli- 
tical sentiment which lends his career great 
historical interest. 

There is a portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
in the possession of Mrs. Conway Shipley at 
Twyford, of which there is a replica at 
Bodrhyddan, near St. Asaph. Two copies 
of it, made by his daughter Georgiana under 
the eye of Sir Joshua Reynolds, are in the 
possession of Mr. Augustus J. C. Hare. 

[Works, 2 vols. 1792 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; 
Browne Willis's Survey of St. Asaph ; Hare's 
Memorials of a Quiet Life ; Sparks's Works of 
Benjamin Franklin.] H. L. B. 

SHIPLEY, WILLIAM (1714-1803), 
originator of the * Society of Arts,* the son 
of Jonathan Shipley (<?. 1749)*ofWalbrook, 
Middlesex, gent.,* byhis wife Martha (Davies), 
was bom at Maidstone, Kent, in 1714. His 

' brother. Bishop Jonathan Shipley, is sepa- 
' rately noticed. Having acted lor some years 
as a drawing-master at Northampton, he 
migrated to London about 1750, and set 
up a drawing-school near Fountain Court in 
the Strand (at the cast comer of Beaufort 
Buildings), which was known first as * Ship- 
ley *8 Academy* and afterwards as * Acker- 
mann^s Repository of Arts.* The school 
proved highly successful, and among Shipley's 
pupils were Richard Cosway, William Pars, 
and Francis Wheatley. From Shipley's 
school, moreover, germinated the * Society 
for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufac- 
tures, and Commerce.* Shipley projected the 
society in 1753, and his plan was carried into 
effect by a few noblemen and gentlemen, 
among them Lords Folkestone and Romney, 
Drs. Isaac Maddox and Stephen Hales, ami 
Thomas Baker, the naturalist, who convened 
their first public meeting at Rawthmell's 
coffee-house, on the north side of Henrietta 
Street, on 22 March 1754. A 'plan' of 
Shipley's devising was published in 1755 in 
folio, where the aims of tne societyare stated, 
' to promote the arts, manufactures, and com- 
merce of this kingdom by giving honorary or 
pecuniary rewards, as may be best adapted 
to the case, for the communication to the 
society, and through the society to the public, 
of all such useful inventions, discoveries, and 
improvements as tend to that purpose.' In 
the application of science to practical objects 
it took up ground not occupied by the Royal 
Society, and soon met with enthusiastic 
support. Its success prompted the inception 
of the Royal Academy of Arts, and a pre- 
liminary exhibition of pictures was hela in 
the society's rooms in 1 760. Next year, how- 
ever, most of the artists seceded, and the 
80ciety*s picture exhibitions dwindled and 
died. In 1761 the machinery which gained 
the premiums of the society was exhibited, 
and the event formed the germ of the in- 
dustrial exhibitions of modem times. The 
society moved from the comer of Beaufort 
Buildmgs to its present quarters in John 
Street, Adelphi, in 1774. A fresh start was 
made on a new career in 1847, when it ob- 
tained a charter and the presidency of the 
prince consort. The society took an im- 
portant part in the promotion of the great 
mtemational exhibitions (1851 and 1862), 
the photographic society took its rise from 
an exhibition held under its auspices in 
1852, and it has more recently developed an 
Indian section (1869), a foreign and colonial 
section (1874), and an appUed-art section 

Shipley was elected a 'perpetual member' 
of the society in February 1755, and was 




presented with a gold medal by the society 
in 1758. But it is probable that he was less 
interested in the society as its sphere gra- 
dually became more technical and industrial. 
At any rate, he resigned his post as registrar 
of the* society in 1760, and he seems to have 
retired to Maidstone about 1768, and there, 
under the auspices of Lord Romney, to have 
founded a local institution, ' the Kentish So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge,* 
ou the lines of the Society of Arts. In 1783 
the society was instrumental in improving 
the sanitation of Maidstone gaol, and so 
iftfectually rooting out the gaol fever, which 
had committed terrible ravages in the county. 
In the following year the grand jury pub- 
licly thanked Shipley and hia coadjutors for 
their humane exertions (cf. J. M. Russell, 
nut. of Maidstone , 1881). Shiplev died at 
Manchester, aged 89, on 28 liec. 1803 
{European Mag. 1804, i. 78). A monument 
was erected to his memory in the north-west 
comer of All Saints' churchyard, Maidstone. 
A line oil portrait by Richard Cosway is in 
the rooms of the Society of Arts, and a por- 
trait , drawn and engraved by William Ilincks, 
was prefixed to the Society's 'Transactions* 
(vol. iv. 1780). There is a mezzotint by 
Faber of a painting by Shipley of a man 
blowing a lighted torch. 

[Roget's Hist, of the * Old Watercolour' Soc. 
i. 138, 360: Foster's Alumni Oxen. s. v. * Shipley, 
Jonatbiin : ' Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Painters and Engravers; Thombury 
and Walford'8 Old and New London, iii. 133; 
AVheatlev and Cunningham's Ix)ndon; Penny 
Cyclopseilia, s v. ' Society ; * Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
V. 275; Rowles's Hist, of Maidstone. 1809, 
p. 85 ; Soc. of Arts Journal, 18 Aug. 1882 
(paper by Mr. H. B. Wheatley).] T. S. 

1826), dean of St. Asaph, bom 6 Oct. 1745, 
nt Midgeham, Berkshire, was son of Dr. 
Jonathan Shipley [q. v.], bishop of St. 
Asaph, and nephew of William Shipley 
[q. V.I lie was educated at Westminster 
and Winchester successively, and matricu- 
lated 21 Dec. 1763, at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1769 and M.A. 
in 1771. Though liberal-minded churchmen, 
both father and son were great pluralists, 
and the former immediately ailer being mad6 
bishop of St. Asaph appointed his son vicar 
of Ysgeifiog, 19 Marcn 1770. He was also 
made vicar of Wrexham 6 Feb. 1771, sinecure 
rector of Liang wm 11 April 1772, which he 
exchanged first for Corwen (1774-82), and 
subsequently for Llanarmon yn lal (1782- 
1826), having meanwhile been also made 
chancellor of the diocese in 1773 and dean 
of St. Asaph 27 May 1774, all of which pre- 


ferments, subject to the two exchanges men- 
tioned, he held until his death. While he 
was dean the fabric of the cathedral at St. 
Asaph was repaired, the choir rebuilt (1780), 
and a reredos erected (1810). 

Shipley appears to have early imbibed his 
father s principles of political freedom. In 
1782 William (afterwards Sir William) 
Jones [q. v.], published a political tract of 
pronouncedly liberal tone, entitled * The l*rin- 
ciples of Government, in a Dialogue between 
a Gentleman and a Farmer.' Shipley, whose 
eldest sister had long been engaged to Jones 
and was married to him in April 1783, 
brought it to the notice of a county com- 
mittee for Flint (a branch of one of the 
reforming associations of the day), who made 
it the subject of a vote of approbation. He 
also gave instructions for having it trans- 
lated into Welsh (though he had not yet 
read it himself), but on hearing that its con- 
tents might be misinterpreted, he resolved 
to proceed no further in the business. The 
tory party in the county, led by the sheriff, 
the Hon. Thomas Fitzmaurice, violently at- 
tacked him for his abandoned project at a 
county meeting on 7 Jan. 1783, whereupon 
Shipley caused a few copies of the tract to 
be reprinted at W^rexham, adding a brief 
preface in his own defence. At the instiga- 
tion of the sheritl' — the treasury having de- 
clined to prosecute — Shipley was indicted at 
the Wrexham great sessions in April 1783 
for publishing a seditious libel, and the case 
came on for hearing on 1 Sept. before Lloyd 
Kenyon and Daines Barrington. In March 
1784 it was removed by certiorari to the 
king's bench, and then remitted for trial at 
Shrewsbury, where it was finally heard before 
Mr. Justice Buller on 6 Aug. 1784. Biiller 
directed that the jury was merely to find the 
publication and the truth of the innuendoes 
as laid; whether the words constituted a 
libel or not was for the court. Erskine, who 
had appeared for the dean from the first, 
vigorously resisted this view, and the verdict 
given was * Guilty of publishing, but whether 
a libel or not the jury do not find.' 

In Michaelmas term Erskine, in an elo- 
quent speech, argued for a new trial, which 
Lord Mansfield refused. Having down to 
this point fought the case chiefly on the lines 
of vmdicating the rights of juries, Erskine 
now moved the court for arrest of judgment 
on the ground that no part of the publication 
was really criminal, a view which the court 
accepted, and the dean was at lencrth dis- 
charged from the prosecution, which had 
lasted nearly two years. The news was re- 
ceived with great rejoicings, and bonfires 
were lit and houses illuminated as the dean 



nrocpt'iled first on a visit to his fallier at 
Twyfnrtl, ni!ar Wincliestur, and subsequently 
throitp;h ijhren'Bburj,WrcxlLam, and llulLiia 
to hiB rexidence near St. Asaph. 

The interest which thu triol evoked, 
coupled with the power of Erskine'd elo' 
quencp, waa the means of somewhat tardily 
inducing the House of Commons to trunsfcr 
the decision of what i^ libellous from judge 
to jur>- hy Fox's Libel Act, of 17d-2 (32 
Geo, III, c, 60), a meusure which completed 
the freudom of thu press in this country. 

Wliipley'a (ictions were, however, closely 
"watched by the tory party in Flintshire fur 
many years alYcrwards, and a vogue proposal 
to recommence proceedin|{H af^inst him is 
mentioned in November 17i)6 in a letter od- 
dressed to Lord Kenyon by Thomas Pennant, 
-who communicates some spiteful stories of 
the dwtn, charging him not only with ' pro- 
fligacy,' ' impudence,' and ' incorrigibility,' 
hm also with breaches of the peace (Kenyon 
JISS., quoted in Bije-GoncM for 1890-6, pp. 
4tW, 489). 

TliHdeanissaid(6'en(.il/ ii. 
p. G4:>) to have written a preface to the edition 
of his father's works published in liOi!, 
whi?n he took occasion to vindicate the 

British government, but this preface does 
nut appear in the ordinary copies of the 
work. He is also said to have assisted his 
sister in collecting the letters and other lite- 
rary remains of Sir William Jones(NiCHOL8, 
jAtrrary I/luatratiom, iii. 155), which were 
published in 1709. 

Siiiuley died at his residence, Bodrhyddan, 
near St.' Asaph, on 7 Moy lam He was 
buried at Khuddlan, where there is a tablet 
to his memory, and a lifc-siza statuo of him 
by Teriiouth, provided by public subscription 
iu till- diocese, at the coat of tVMl., was also 
placed in St. Asapli's Cathedral, lie mar- 
ried, :*8 April 1777, Penelope Yonge, elder 
daughter and coheiress of Ellis Yonge of 
Itym lorcyn, near Wrexham (as to this 
family see 'Fodei, Je'uiU, i. 629), and next 
of kin of Sir John Conway, last baronet of 
Bmlrhyddnii, whose maternal great-grand- 
daugliter she was (UrnKB, E.rtm<-t BuronH- 
O'/eaud iMii'led Gfntri/ja.v. 'Coawaj '), She 
died on 5 Nov, 1789, leaving issue five sons 
and three daughters, lite eldest son being 
Lieutenant-colonel William Shipley (1779- 
1820), whig M.P. for Flint boroughs from 
]W)7to 1812 (TArLon, HUtoHc Noticei of 
Fliiit.w I'-l-176; Williams, i-nr/. HUt. 
of Wales, p. 93), whose son, on the death of 
the dean in 1826, assumed the name of Con- 
way, which is still borne by bis descendants, 

the present owners of Bodrhyddan. The 
eldest doughter, Penelope, was mnrrled to Dr. 
Pelham AVarren fq. v,1 ; the second, Anna 
Maria, to Colonel Charles A. Dasliwood ; and 
the third, Amelia, waa married in April 1$0» 
to Reginald Heber \t\. v.] It was while on ■ 
a visit to his father-iii-law that Heher com- 
posed, at the old vicarage. Wrexham, his 
popularhymn ' From Greenland's icy mouu- 

The dean's third son, CoNWAT Shiplet 
(1783-1808), entered the navy in 1793, and 
in 1801, when in command of the corvette 
liippomenes, captured a French privateer, 
L'Egyptienne, of much greater tonnage. He 
was consequently posted, and commanded 
the Kymphe frigate in the expedition to the 
Tagus under Sir Charles Cotton [<(. v.] He 
was killed in a cutting-out expedition on the 
Tagus in April 1808. A monument was 
erected on the river-bnnk by his fellow- 
officers (cf. Gent. Mag. 1808, i. 467, 555). 
' [A full memoir appi?areil in the Oentleman's 
Mngsiino, vol. xcvi, pt. ii. pp, 641-3 (cf. pt. i. 
6i&): see n\m Foster's Alumni Oion. Snd ser. 
p. 1289 ; Willia'B Survay of St. Asaph, 2nd ed. i. 
182 ;D. R. ThDnas'sHist. oCSt.Aeupb, rp. SOB. 
2U ; P. B. Ironside Bai's Cathedral Ch.ireh of 
St. Asaph, pp, 14, SO: A. N. Pnlmer's Hist, of 
the Pnnah Cbntrli ft Wrexham, pp. 45. 67. 67- 
70 ; Lifeof neeinuld his widow, i. 264. 
For n full ncCDUDt of the trial, ssa Hotrell's StJile 
Triiila, xii. 847-1046, and Gnrney's Vtrbntira 
Ropcrta of the Arguments at Wrexham, aad of 
the Trial at ShrewHbnrj: Brsliino's Speeches, 
i. 137-393 ; Ersliiae Mny's Coaslitntional Hi^ 
tory, 2ad ed. ii, 112.1 D- Lt. T. 

SHIPMAN, THOMAS (163^-1680), 
royalist poet, eldest son of William Ship- 
man (1603-1658), an ardent royalist with a 
small estate in Nottinghamshire, by his 
second wife, Sara, daughter of alderman 
Parker of Nottingham, was bom at Scar- 
rJnglon, nenr Kewnrk. Hnd bnptised thtrc in 
November 1632. Hewas educated at Slea- 
ford school and at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted 1 May 1651 
(Mayor, Se;/. p. 100). 

Though a careful economist, he was no 
stranger to Ijondon life, and associated with 
such wits as Denliam, Uldham, and Sir 
Fleetwood Sheppard. A more intimate 
friend, thepoet and painter, Thomas Flat man 
[q. v.], in an epistle prefixed to Shipman'a 
verses, praises the writer's ingenuity and his 
wit in saving a small estate amid ' the 
calamities of the last rebellion.' During his 
' quiet recess ' Shipman produced the poems 
contained in ' Carolina,' some of whicn sag- 




politics. Shipman, who was a captain of 
trained bands for his county, died at Scar- 
rinj^on, and was buried there on 15 Oct. 
MM), lie married Margaret, daughter of 
John TratTord, who brought him an estate at 
]iulcote and survived him until about 1606. 
Their third son, William, settled at Mans- 
fi^^ld, and was high sheriff of Nottingham- 
shire in 1730. 

Shipman was the author of: 1. * Henry 
tho Tnird of France, stabbed by a Fryer, 
with the Fall of Guise,* a rhymed tragfody (a 
very pedestrian effort, given at the Theatre 
Uoyal in August 1678, and printed, London, 
lfi78, 4to). 2. * Carolina, or Loyal Poems * 
(Lnndon,1683,8vo), posthumously puhlished, 
with Flatman's address ; it contains, among 
a>X)ut two hundred poems, a long piece on the 
Restoration, 'The Hero' (1678), addressed 
to Monmouth, some grateful acknowledg- 
ments to the writer's good friend, Abraham 
Cowl»\v, a eulogy on Dugdale's * Baronage,' 
* The Olde-English Gentleman,' and many 
verses to his * poetical friend,' AVilliam, third 
lord Bvron. 

[Go<lfrey*g Thomiw Shipman, 1890 (brief 
memoir, with carefal genealogy) ; and the same 
writer's Four Nottinghamshire Dramatibts, 
1895; Thoroton*8 Antiquities of Nottingham- 
shire; Genost's Hist, of Stagv^ i. 229; Baker's 
Biopr. Dramatica; Hunter's Chorus Vatum 
(Add. Ma 24492, f. 173); Athenaeum, 27 March 
lRo8; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x\. 456.4th 
ser. xi. 177, 6th ser. vii. 232 ; Shipman's Caro- 
lina (with manuscript note) in British Museum.] 

T. S. 

SHIPP, JOHN (1784-1834), soldier and 
author, younger son of Thomas Shipp, a 
marine, and his wife Lietitia, was born at 
Saxmundham in Suffolk in March 1 784. His 
mother died in poor circumstances in 1789, 
his elder brother was lost at sea, and John 
became an inmate of the parish poorhouse ; 
he was apprenticed by trie overseers to a 
neighbouring farmer, a savage taskmaster, 
from whom he was glad to escape by enlist- 
ment as a boy in the 22nd (Cheshire) regi- 
ment of foot, at Colchester, on 17 Jan. 1797. 
Through the kindness of his captain he picked 
up some education, and, after service in the 
(Jliannel Islands and the Cape, sailed for India, 
where, having risen to be a sergeant in the 
grenadier company, he served against the 
Mahrattas unaer Lord Lake [see Lake, 
GEiLiBD, first Viscount]. He was one of the 
stormers at the capture of Deig on 24 Dec. 
1804, and thrice led the forlorn hope of the 
storming column in the unsuccessful assaults 
on Bhurtpore (January-February 1805). He 
was severely wounded, but his daring was 
rewarded by Lord Lake with an ensigncy in 

the 65th foot. On 10 March in the same 
year he was gazetted lieutenant in the 76th 
foot. Returning home after two and a half 
years* further service, he found himself con- 
strained to sell out on 19 March 1808 in 
order to obtain a sum (about 250/.) where- 
with to pay his debts. After a short in- 
terval he found himself in London without 
a shilling, and took the resolution of again 
enlisting in the ranks. He returned to India 
as a private in the 24th light dragoons, and 
rose by 1812 to the position of regimental 
sergeant-major. In May 1815 the Earl of 
Moira [see Hastings, Francis Rawdon-, first 
Makqvis of Hastings and second Earl of 
Moira] reappointed him to an ensigncy in 
the 87th Prince's own Irish (now Uoyal Irish 
fusiliers), lately arrived in India from Mau- 
ritius. Shipp had thus performed the unique 

; feat of twice winning a commission from the 
ranks before he was thirty-two. 

Shipp distinguished himself greatly by his 
brave rv in the second campaign of the 

I Ghoorka war, notably in a single combat 
with one of the enemy's sirdars near Muck- 
wan pore. He was on the staff of the left 
division of the ^ grand army * under the Mar- 

3uis of Hastings in the Mahratta and Pin- 
aree war (1817-18), and was promoted 

I lieutenant on 6 July 1821. He seems to 
have been highly popular in his regiment for 
his gallantry in the field; but during 1822, 
while quartered at Calcutta, he was inveigled 

■ into a series of turf speculations which proved 
highly disastrous. Shipp was imprudent 
enough to reflect in writing upon the be- 
haviour of a superior officer in regard to these 
transactions, and was discharged from the 
service by a court-martial held at Fort "Wil- 
liam on 14-27 July 1823. He was, however, 
recommended to mercy, * in consideration of 
his past services and wounds, and the high 
character that he had borne as an officer 
and a gentleman.* On selling out, on 3 Nov. 
1825, the East India Company granted him 
a pension of 50/., upon which he settled 
near Ealing in Middlesex. Shipp now turned 
his hand to relating some of his experi- 
ences in an unpretentious volume, entitled 
'Memoirs of the Extraordinary Military 
Career of John Shipp' (London, 1829, 12mo; 
later editions, 1830, 1840, 1843, and 1890), 
a successful work and a curiosity in auto- 
biography, in which the writer wisely ab- 
stained from any recriminations. Two years 
later he issued * Flojrging and its Suhstitute : 
a Voice from the Hanks/ in the form of a 
letter to Sir Francis Burdett, being a power- 
ful indictment of the detestable barbarities 
of the * cat,* which, as the author maintained, 
'flogged one devil out and fifty devils in.* 




Burdett Bent tli« writer a sum of !iOl., and 
most of his suggestions have long since been 

Adopted bvtlie: 
Shipp was olfered 
Stepney division o 
"' r Cliarlcs Uow 

authorities. In 1830 
inspectorship in the 
itropolitan police by 
e was shortly after- 
'ards appointed superintendent of the night 
watch at Liverpool, and in 18;53was elected 
master of the workhouse at Liverpool, where 
lie was highly esteemed. He died at Liver- 
pool, in easy circumstances, on 27 Feb. 1834. 
Shipp waa twice married, and leO: a widow 
with children. A whole-length portrait by 
Wageman, representing bim leading his troop 
into tbe fort of Iluttrass in 1817, was en- 
graved by Holl, and was reproduced for tbe 
'Memoir*' (IfttK)): another portrait was en- 
graved by W. T. Fry after John Buchanan. 
Jtesides the works mentioned, Shipp pub- 
lished: 1. 'The Military Bijou,ortheContenta 
ofa8oIdier'8Knapsack,'lo31,iamo. '2. 'The 
Eastern StoryTeller: a Collection of Indian 
Tale8,'183i,limo. 3. 'TheSoldier'sFriend,' 

1833, 12mo. He was also tbe author of two 
roelodranifts, ' The Shepherdess of Aranville, 
or Father and Daii^^hter,' and 'The Maniac 
of ibePyrenuees'lBrentford, 1826 and 1829). 

[Shipp's Memoirs, 1890 (with eicellent intro- 
durlion by H. Manners Chichester) ; Gent. Mag. ' 

1834, ii. 538-42; Georgian Em. ii. 143; Gor- 
ton's Biogr. Diet.: Picton's MemoriaU of Liver- 
p<Kil; London Monthly Review, cxviii. 283.] 

T. S. 
1841), rear-admiral, bom 3 Mortrh 1771, 
youngest son, by hia wife, Margaret Walkin- 
shaw, of .\le<iander Shippard, a purser in the 
navy, who was with Nelson in liie \''anguard 
in 1708, and received a medal fur the battla 
of the Nile, entered the navy in 1796 on 
board (he I rresiMible, bearing the broadpen- 
nant of Sir Andrew Snane Ilatnond. From 
17f*8to 17112 be successively served in the 
Scipio, Bellerophon, and Vengeance— all in 
the Channel. In 1702 be went out to New- 
foundland in the Assistance, and on 23 Oct. 
1793 was proniotc<l to be lieutenant in com- 
mand of the I'lacentia tender. In 1796 and 
1796 he was serving in the Camel storeship 
in tbe Meiliterranean ; in 1797 be took com- 
mand of the Monarcb,andcut out vessels ofT 
theTexe!; Bnhse([uently, down to 1801, he 
was in tbe Montagu, for tbe moat part in the 
Mediterranean, but afterwards in the WesC 
Indies. In 1801-2 he was in tbe Monarch 
in tbe North Sea, and in 18U3 commanded 
the Admiral Mitchell cutter attached to the 
fleet under Lord Keith for the guard of the 
Narrow Seas. On 21 Aug. 1803 be landed 
OeOTEM Cftdoadal, the Ch« 
KnUB) betvaen Dieppoand Ti 

ir he landed 
e place. On 
he advanced 
I inshore and 
Df six sloops, 
; and, after 

16 Jan. in the following ye 
Qeneral Picbegru at the sat 
31 Oct. 1803, being with 
squadron off Boulogne, he ra 
engaged a gun brig 1: ' 
gome of which were 
action of two hours and a half,diiringwbich 
(he squadron was prevented by the contrary 
wind from giving him assistance, be drove 
the brig and one of (he sloops on shore. 
Consequent on Keith's report of this spirited 
affair, Shippard received a sword of honour 
from the patriotic fund at Lloyd's, and was 
promoted (o the rank of commander on 
SMarchl804. He waslaterappoinled to the 
Hornet in the West Indies. Inl805hecom- 
manded the Surinam in the Medllerranean, 
and on 22 Jan. 1806 was advanced tn post 
rank. In May 1807 he was appointed to tbe 
B»n(erer of 22 guns, which, by ' the negli- 
gence and very culpable conduct ' of the 
lieutenant of the middle watch, and by ' the 
culpable neglect ' of the master, was lost in 
the St. Lawrence on the night of 2S Oct. 
1808. It appeared on (he court-martial that 
the weather being bitterly cold tbe lieu- 
tenant of the watch, with the pilot's appren- 
tice, the midshipman, and the quartermaster, 
went down to tbe gun-room to drink grog. 
Tbe lieutenant was dismissed tbe service, 
and the conrt found that Shippard had made 
every possible exertion to save the ebip, and 
afterwards to preserve the stores, lie was 
acquitted of all blame, and was shortly after- 
wards appointed to the Namur, flagship of 
Vice-admiral Thomas Wells at the Nore. 
In 1812-13 be commanded the Asia in tbe 
North Sea. He had no further service, but 
became rear-admiral on 28 June 1838, re- 
ceived a iH^nsion for meritorious service, and 
died at Malta on 4 April 1841. Shippard 
married Jane, daughter of Admiral Sir John 
Knight, K.C.B., and left issue. Sir Sidney 
Shippard, K.C.M.Q,, formerly administrator 
of Bechuaniiland, is his eldest grandson. 

Shippard's elder brother, Wiluam Ship- 
PABD (1764-1856^, entered the navy no 
board the Medea in 1778. He was on the 
Nonsuch in the West Indies in 1782, and 
served in the battle of 9 April. In August 
1797 be wa^ at the blockade of Cadii,under 
Lord St. A'incent, and in the subsequent 
battle, wbih; in 1801 he served at the battle 
of Copenhagen. He was advanced to post 
rank in 1K16, and died without issue on 
6 July 196«. 

[lafurniutioa from Sir Sidney Shippard ; Mar- 
shall's Itiiy. Nav. Biogr. v. (SuppL pL i ) 106; 
O'Ujrnes Kftv. Biogr. Diet. p. 1063; Sarrio* 
" ' Ihv Public Baeord Offles ; London 

Nur. ISOS i Nav UtM.} J. K. L. 




SHIPPEN, WILLIAM (1673-1 743), par- 
liamentary Jacobite, bom in 1673, was the 
second son of Dr. William Shippen, and grand- 
son of * William Shippen, gent.,' of Stockport, 
Cheshire, who died in 1681. Dr. Shippen, the 
father, bom in 1635, matriculated from Uni- 
versity College, Oxford, as a servitor in 1653, 
subsequently became a fellow of his college 
and a prcxitor of the university (1606), and 
was preferred successively to Prestbury 
(ltj67), Kirkheaton (1670), Aldford (1076), 
and finally, in February 1678, to the rectory of 
Stockport, where he died on 29 Sept. 1693. 
His younger brother Edward (1639-1712) 
emigrated to Boston in 1668, turned quaker, 
became first mayor of Philadelphia (1701), 
and died on 2 Oct. 1712, leaving great wealth 
and numerous issue, from whom the Shippen 
family in America descend (cf. Kobgrdeau 
Buchanan, i^i/i/>«7i Genealogy, Washington, 
Jb77; Appleton, Cychpadia, v. 512). 

The younger William was educated at 
Stockport grammar school under Roger Dale, 
and at Westminster, where he was elected 
a queen*s scholar in 1688; he matriculated 
from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1091, 
graduated IVA. in 1694, and then entered 
the Middle Temple. In 1707 he entered par- 
liament as member for Bramber in Sussex, 
by the interest of Lord Plymouth, whose 
iK>n, Dixie Windsor, was his brother-in-law. 
lie represented this borough until 1713, when 
he was returned for Saltash. In 1 714 he was 
elected for Newton in Lancashire, through 
the interest of Peter I^gh (into whose family 
his brother had married), and he retained 
this seat for the rest of his life. He com- 
menced his political career by two dreary 
satires in verse against the whigs, entitled 
• Faction Displayed ' ( in which the whig lords 
are portrayea under the names of the leaders 
in Catiline's conspiracy) and * Moderation 
Displayed' (1708), both of which were re- 
printed in * A Collection of the Best En^i^lish 
Poetry ' (London, 2 vols. 1717, 8vo). When 
the tory parliament met in 1710 he was 
known as a prominent member of the * Oc- 
tober Club.' In 1711 he was elected one of 
the commissioners to investigate the Duke 
of Marlborough's alleged peculations, and he 
warmly supported the Occasional Conformity 
Bill and the Schism Bill, while in August 
1714 he boldly opposed the offer of a reward 
for the apprehension of the Pretender. 

L^pon the accession of George I, he loyally 
defended his old leader, Harley (January 
1710), and in April spoke against the Sep- 
tennial Bill, on the ground that long parlia- 
ments * would grow either formidable or con- 
temptible.* His speech was printed, and 
deserves attention as marking an era in tory 

strategy ; Shippen frankly invoking a demo- 
cratic sanction in politics and showing him- 
self willing to relax rigid tory dogmas in 
order to gain popular sympathy. Similar 
tactics were employed in 1738, when Shippen 
attacked standing armies as instruments of 
oppression, and defended the tories as the true 
upholdersof revolution principles in a typical 
outburst of party rhetoric. Early in 1718 
Shippen opposed the Mutiny Bill, and he used 
every opportunity, with some small measure 
of success, to move the reduction of votes for 
military purposes. In December of this year, 
after opposing the reception of the king's 
message, asking for a grant of money to 
provide against a Swedish invasion, ho dis- 
cussed the king's speech and the measures 
recommended in it with a freedom which 
was then entirely novel. The speech, he 
maintained, was to be treated wholly as a 
concoction of the ministers. The solicitor- 
general, Lechmere, moved that words in 
which he drew attention to the king's igno- 
rance of *our language and constitution' be 
taken down, and Shippen be sent to the 
Tower. Shippen would not retract, and, in 
spite of the attempts to shield him made by 
Walpole (now in opposition) and others, he 
was sent to the Tower by a vote of 175 to 
81 (4 Dec.) The intrepidity he showed was 
so popular as to elicit three anonymous offers 
of gifts of 1,000/. each, which he declined 
with appropriate dignity. 0|ie of the would- 
be donors was the Prince of Wales. Shippen's 
speech was printed, and deemed worthy of 
a confutation by Steele in his ^Guardian.' 
Sheffield celebrated his incorruptibility in his 
*Poem on the Election of a Poet Laureate.* 
He was released at the close of the session 
rcf. Gent, Maff. 1812, ii. 411). 

Henceforth Shippen was a leader of the 
Jacobite souires in the house, a party which 
was ridiculed with some effect in Gibber's 
'Nonjuror.' His reputation, as Stanhope 
^yS) grew much more from his coiu*age, his 
incorruptibility, his good humour, and frank- 
ness of purpose than from any superior elo- 
quence or talent. 

In 1720, during the South Sea crisis, he 
opposed Walpole's measure for the restora- 
tion of public credit as too lenient ; his plan, 
he said, was a mere palliative, designed to 
evade the public demand for vengeance. He 
moved for a list of South Sea directors to be 
submitted to the house, and so exasperated 
Craggs that he expressed readiness to give 
any man satisfaction where and when he 
pleased. By such manceu\Te9, though his 
following scarcely ever exceeded fifty, he fre- 
quently got the upper hand in debate, and 
his co-operation was eagerly courted by the 




wbifT opposition. But liis probity was best 
displayed in 1727 when, singlehanded, be 
opposed the settlement of the civil list, urging 
its reduction by 200,000/. annually, in a 
speech of great frankness, lie spoke of the 
'frequent journeyings to Hanover* and the 
'bottomless pit of secret service;' but no 
member could be found to second his motion. 
From this time Sliippen's energy greatly de- 
clined as a leader of opposition, though in 
1728 he inveighed against Admiral Hosier's 
expedition, and in February 1733 opposed 
Walpole's excise scheme as * destructive to 
the liberties and the trade of the nation.* 
His Jacobitism, too, was getting otiose ; and 
when Lord Barry more came over in 1740 on 
a secret embassy, he was advised that Shippen 
was much too timid and ineflective a con- 
spirator to be consulted. In December 1 741 , 
when the cabal against Walpole culminated 
in the moving of an address to George II to 
remove that minister from his presence and 
counsels, Shippen unexpectedly seceded from 
the opposition, and was followed by thirty- 
four of his * friends.' He explained that he 
regarded the mot ion merely as a scheme for 
turningoutoneill-afFected minister and bring- 
ing in another; and subsequently proposed 
as an amendment that his majesty should 
be entreated not to engage the kingdom in 
war for the saft^ty of his foreign dominions. 
He and Walpole had a mutual regard. 
'Robin and I,' he said, *are two honest men: 
he is for King George and I for King James, 
but those men in long cravats* [Sandys, 
Kushout, Pulteney, and their foUowingl only 
desire places under either one or the other.* 
Shippen was no doubt right in judging that 
he would lose rather than gain by Walpole's 
ejection in their favour. This was Shippen's 
last prominent appearance in the house, where 
as * honest Shippen ' (so Pope called him) he 
had long been conspicuous. Though not a 
tirst-rate speaker — for he had a low voice, and, 
according to Horace Walpole, constantly 
spoke * with his glove before his mouth * — he 
became animated when, as was usual with 
him, his speech was reaching the point (ex- 
pressed in some smart and etiective phrase) 
which he desired to enforce. Though he 
affected to take orders from Home, and 
regularly corresponded with Atterbury {on 
whose account his house in >>'orfolk Street 
was searched in 1723), Shippen seems to 
haTo been little regarded by the real leaders 
of the Jacobite party. He is chiefly interest- 
ing as a pioneer of constitutional oppositiou. 
The main purpose of the forlorn hope which 
he led was to naraM the ^Tenunent. Wal- 
pole's contemptuous lenity was doubtless 
qghfefy axpUioid by the member — *— — '- 

to Shippen in 1728: 'All your stuff about 
serving high church and monarchy is absurd, 
and your principle is self-contradictory and 
felo-de-se. For were it possible for your 
endeavours to succeed, and to bring about 
what your friends traitorously desire, your 
beloved church and monarchy would be 
destroyed. The event would unavoidably 

be popery and slavery * (^An Epistle to W. 

S. yE'iq., by aMemher of Parliament, 1728, 


Shippen died in Norfolk Street, Strand, 
on 1 May 1743, and was buried on 7 May 
in St. Andrew's, Holbom. He married, 
about 1695, a sister of his schoolfellow, 
Ik^rtram Stote, daughter and coheir of Sir 
Kichard Stote,knt., of Joemund Hall, North- 
umberland, serjeant-at-law. With her he 
had a fortune of 70,(XX)/, He had a private 
fortune of 400/. a year, upon which he mainly 
subsisted at his London house, where he was 
fond of exercising a modest hospitality to 
persons of distinction. His wife, wlio had 
a house at Richmond, is said to have been 
incurably mean and suspicious. She sur- 
vived her husband until 22 Aug. 1747, and 
died intestate, whereujwn her property re- 
verted to her sister, Mrs. Dixie Windsor. 
Shippen, having no issue, left what property 
he had to dispose of to be divided between 
his brothers llobert and John. A rough 
portrait of Shippen was lithographed for 
Harding*s * Biographical Mirrour * (iii. 88). 

The politician's next and eldest surviving 
brother, Kobert Shippen (1675-1745), was 
sent from Stockport grammar school to Ox- 
ford, where he matriculated from Merton Col- 
lege on (> April 1C93. He thence graduated 
B.A. in 109G, but subsequently removed to 
Brasenose, where he was elected fellow. Hav- 
ing acted as tutor for some years and grad uated 
M.A. (4 July 1699), he was elected professor 
of music at Gresham College on 4 Dec. 1705, 
and in the following year. In 1710 
he was elected principal of Brasenose Col- 
lege and created D.D. In the same year he 
married Frances (d. 1728), daughter of 
Richard Legh of Lyme, and widow of Sir 
Gilbert Gierke, knt., of Chilcote, and there- 
upon (3 Oct. 1710) resigned his professor- 
ship at Gresham College in favour of his 
elder brother, Edward (1671-1724), who was 
also an (Jxford man, and had graduated from 
Brasenose M.A. in 1693, and M.D. in 109*J. 
Kobert Shippen's presentation in 1716 to the 
rectory of Whitechapel elicited a tract en- 
titled 'The Spiritual Intruder Unmasked,' 
in deprecation of hia 'high-flying' views. 
Thomas Ileame, though he sympathised 
with him politically, stigmatised Shippen as 
sly, wheealing, and worldly ; and he attri- 

Shipton 119 Shipton 

butea his election at Brasenose to the anxiety to befall the kingdom. Most of her predic- 
of the fellows to secure an ignorant head, who tions related to the city of York and its 
would not require them to put off their ha- neighbourhood, but some of them were in- 
bit ual sloth (C'o//tfc^i*07W,ed.Doble,iii. passim), terpreted to mean the approach of the civil 
When in London he resided in Goodman's wars, and one to foretell the iire of London 
Fields. He was vice-chancellor of his uni- in 1666. Thestory of Wolsey's relations with 
versity 1718-22, and, dying in l74o, was * Mother Shipton ' is unconfirmed by con- 
buried in the chapel at Brasenose, where he temporary evidence. The pamphlet, which 
is commemorated by an epitaph (by Dr. bore on tlie title-page an alleged portrait of 
Frewin) and a bust (cf. Ward, Gresham the prophetess, was probably compiled in 
Pntfessorsj p. 234; Chalmers, Hist, of the York, and may have embodied some local 
Unie. of Oxford^ i. 255). William's youngest traditions respecting a reputed witch named 
brother, John, became a Spanish merchant, Shipton. But later local historians, while 
was English consul at Lisbon 1710-20, noticing her widespread reputation, adduce 
died unmarried, and was buried at St. An- no corroborative testimony from local sources 
drew's, llolborn, on 24 Sept. 1747. (cf. Drake, Ehoracum^ p. 450 ; Hargrove, 
[Earwakers East Cheshire, i. 394, 410; Or- Ktinreshorough \ Notes and Queries, Ath ser. 
inerod'« Cheshire, vol. iii.; Beyer's Queen Anne, ii. 83-4). In all essentials the narrative of 
1735, pp. 530, 631 ; Wentworth's Diary, pp. 457, 1641 was doubtless a fiction to which cur- 
639 ; Lftdy Cowper's Diary, p. 160 ; Hervey's rent political excitement and some plausi- 

H. Walpole and his Contemporaries, i. 304 sq. ; ^>^»« "^.m tu« iii«. uumiciuu«. yj..^ irac-i, ui 

Coxes JVIeinoirsofWalpole, 1808, vol.iii.passim; which only the title survives, supplied ^ A 

Coxe's Marlborough, vol. iii. ; Stanhope's Hist, -^^^e Coppy of Mother bhiptons Last Pro- 

of England, i. 126, 297. ii. 123. 139, iii. 30, 72, phesies : as they were taken from one Joans 

95. 114; Co.k'a Hist, of Party, vol. ii. passim; Waller in 1625, who diedin March last 1641, 

Torrens's Hifct. of Cabinets, i. 156-74, 367; Qeor- being 94 yeares of age, of whom Mother 

gian Em, i. 633 ; Webh's Alumni We»tmon. Shipton had " prophesied that she would live 

J., o. Prophesies' (1645), quoted eighteen pro- 
SHIPTON, Mother, reputed prophetess, phecies which had already been identified 
is, in all likelihood, a wholly mythical per- with * Mother Shi pton's ' shadowy name, and 
sonage. No reference to her of earlier date show^ed that sixteen had been duly fulfilled, 
than 1641 is extant. In that year there was while the fulfilment of the remaining two 
published an anonymous tract entitled * The was confidently anticipated. All ranks of 
Projhecie of Mother Shipton in the Raigne society admitted the prophetess's foresight, 
of King Henry 8th, foretelling the death of Pepys relates that when Prince Kupert 
Cardinall Wolsey, the liord Percy, and heard, while sailing up the Thames, on 
others, as also what should happen in insuing 20 Oct. 1666, of the outbreak of the fire of 
Times * (London, 4to). According to this London, * all he said was, now Shipton's 
doubtful authority, Wolsey, after his nomi- prophecy was out' (l^Eris, Diary, qH.W heat- 
nation to the archbishopric of York, learnt ley, vi. 30). 

that* Mother Shipton' had prophesied that Richard Head [q.v.] is responsible for a 

he should never visit the city of York, and further extension of * Mothtir Shipton's ' 

in consequence sent three friends, the Duke fame. In 1667 he published what purported 

of Suffolk, Lords Percy and Darcy, to to be a full account of her * Life and Death.' 

threaten her with punishment unless she re- He represented her as the daughter of the 

canted her prophecy. But the old woman devil. According to Head, her hideous 

stood firm, hospitably entertained the en- aspect and power of prophesying disaster. 

Toys, and at their invitation foretold in of which he invented numerous instances, 

somewhat mysterious phraseology their own fully attested her paternity. Head's ima- 

future fortunes and many events that were ginary biography, which was often repub- 



wfti reprinted by lUwia Pearson 
3 further dvvt'laped in an anony- 
irgfl and Wonderful liiatory of 

near Knaresboroiigii, and n'os boplUed by 
the ibbot of Deverley as Ursula Sonthiel ; 
at twenty-four she married Toby Shiplon, a 
carpenter of Skipton, and, after enjoying a 
wide reputation bb a neeromancer and pro- 
phetess, died Ht OUftoa in 1561. An undated 
play of the perind by Thomas Thomson, 
called ' Mother Shipton her Life," nssifrned 
to her thoiw relations with the devil with 
which earlier -B-ritera credited her mother, 
but the dramatist eked out his comedy by 
thefts from Masstnger's ' City Madam ' and 
Middleton's ' Chaste Maid of Cheapsido ; ' it 
-n-as acted for nine days, appanntly in 1666. 
In 1069 the editor of ' Fmgmenla Pronheliea, 
or the Hemnins of Geoi^e Wither, wrote 
with contempt of Mother Shipton's ' ossured 
reputation. Steeie.inlhe' Spectator," No. 17, 
described the old woman who was the chief 
toast of his imaginary ' Uglv Club' as ' (he 
verv counterpart of Mother Shipton.* 

rnnumerable cbapbooks, chiefly published 
in the north of England, have since repeated 
'Mother Shipton's* prophecies in various 
forms, and * Mother Shi pton's Fortune-telling 
Book' aiill maintains its authority with thu 
credulous. In 1862 Charles H.ndlev re- 
printed in a garbled version the 1687cditioD 
of Head's life, and introduced some Terses 
the composition of which he referred to 
1448, foretelling the invention of the steam- 
engine and the electric telegraph, and the 
end of the world in 1881. These verses 
attmctnl wide attention, but in 1673 Ilind- 
ley confessed (o having forged them (.Vo/m 
an/f Queri>f, 4th ser. li. 3.i5). 

Besidealheso-calledporlraits— ofahideoQS 
oldwoman— which figure in the seventeenth- 
centurj- tnicis and in the later adaptalions, 
many other spurious memorials of ' Mother 
Shipton' are extant. A sculptured stone, 
whivli was long supposed to mark her gjave 
at a spot belween Clifton snd Shipton, 
Yorkshire, is really a mutilated effigy of a 
knifcht in armour, doubtless taken from a 
tumb in the niMghbouringSt. Mary's Abbey; 
it is now in the museum of the Yorkshire 
I'hiloBOphical Society at York. Another 
stone called 'Old Mother Shipton's tomb,' 
which stands on'the high road at Williton, 
near iho mansioD of Orchard Wyndham in 
SumiTHt-t, lias Wn prov«'d l" be a modem 
(nipy I'f a lloiuun tablet wLifli wan figl 
in Ootduu's * IlinwrariHui 
*" M\ IBTI'J. ■ 

the prophetess in a clinriol drawn by a rein- 
deer is engraved in the ' Wonderful Maga- 
zine,' 1793 (vol. ii.) A fine moth (Euclidia 
Mi) has been popularly called the 'Mother 
Shipton' moth, from the resemblance of the 
marks on its winga to an old woman's profile 
with hooked nose and uptumpd chin. 

[Aulhoritiei cited ia Icif ; Mother Shipton's 
Hod NixonV Prophecies, with an introduction by 
S. Baker, Londoo, 1797: Harrison's Mother 
Shipton Inveitignt«J. 1881; Koles and Queries. 
4th ser. p««im; Mollier Sliipton, Manchester, 
ISB3 ; JoaniiLl of British Archaological Aamc. 
xix. SOS ; Haititt's Handbook.] S. L. 

SHIPTON, JOHN (168(Hr48),Bu^eon, 
son of James Shipton, a druggist, living in 
Hatton Garden, was apprenticed on 2 Feb. 
1696 for seven years to William Pleahill, 
paying 20/. Tie sened his time and was 
duly admitted to (he freedom of the Barber- 
Sui^eons' Company on 7 March ]"03. He 
served the office of steward of anatomy in 
1704, ond on 1 June 1731 he was fined 
rather than serve as eleward of the ladies' 
feast. He WBS elected an examiner in the 
company on 3" Aug. 1734, and on 17 Aug. 
1738 he became a member of its court of 
assistants. He then paid a fine of 30/. to 
avoid serving the offices of warden and mas- 
ter, to which he would have l>een elected in 
due course. He lived for nanv years in 
Brooke Street, Holbom, where lie enjoyed 
a lucrative practice. He was called into 
consultation by John lUnby (1703-1773) 
[q. v.], when Caroline, the queen of Geoi^ II, 
was mortally ill of a strangulated hernia. 
He sided in this consultation with Ranby 
against Busier, who was in favour of an 
immediate operation. Lord Hervey says of 
him that he was ' one of the most eminent 
and able of the whole profession.' He died 
on 17 Sept. 1748, 

[Reeonls prsserved at the Barbers' Hall by 
the kind pemi»ioD at tlie ninst«r, Mr. fidney 
Young. F.S.A.; Lord Ucrvej'a Memoira """ 

. ao7.1 

D'A. P. 

SHIPTON, WILLIAM (/. 1659), poet, 
perhaps identical with William^ Shipton of 
Magdalene C-oUege, Cambridge, 'who gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1060 and M.A. in 1664, was 
the author of a collection of poetry and prose 
puhlished by Charles 'Tfus, at the sign of the 
Three Bibles, London Bridge, in 1659, under 
the title of ' Dia : a poem ' ( Brit. Mus.) The 
introductory portion extends to thiny pages, 
coropriciog a dedication ■ to the Truly Noble 
Edward Trotter Esquire,* and commendatory 
'eraes by 'Jo, Cooke, Gent., Auln Clar.,'aud 
"' ' i Shipton. Besidua a seriea of 
praise of bis raislreaa Dia, the 
elegies on ThomM Shipton 




(who was drowned), on Lord Sheffield, and 
poems on * Gunpowder Treason,' and on Ho- 
oert AVilfion (a noted musician), and a prose 
essay entitled * Cupid made to see and Love 
made lovely/ His poems are full of extra- 
vagant and complex metaphors, and his 
prose is even more fantastic. 

[Corset's Collectanea, v. 237 ; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Mantml, ir. 2384; Hunters Chorus Vatum( Add. 
MS. 24488), ii. 366; Grad. Cant. 1659-1823, 
p. 419.] E. LC. 

SHIRBURN, ROBERT (1440.^-1536), 
bishop of Chichester. [See Shebborne.] 

TI ION Y ( 1 565-1636 ?), ambassador to Persia, 
bom in 1505, was second son of Sir Thomas 
Shirley the elder (1542-1612) of Wiston in 
Sussex, and was brother of Sir Thomas Shir- 
ley [f^. v.] and of Hobert Shirley [q. v. J Matri- 
culating from Ilart Hall, Oxford, m 1579, 
Anthony graduated B.A. in 1581, and in 
November of the same year was elected pro- 
bat ioner-fellow of All Souls* College ; he was 
a kinsman, through his mother, of Archbishop 
Chichele, the founder. * Having acquired,' he 
wrote, * those learnings which were fit for a 
gentleman*s ornament,' he soon left the uni- 
versity in order to en^^e in military service. 
The college granted him leave of absence. He 
took part in the wars in the Low Countries, 
under l^obert Dudley, earl of Leicester, in 
1586, and was present at the skirmish near 
Zutphen in which Sir Philip Sidney was 
fatally wounded. In August 1591 he joined 
the Earl of Essex in his expedition to Nor- 
mandy in support of Henry of Navarre, and 
became an enthusiastic disciple of his com- 
mander, the Earl of Essex. lie ' desired ' (he 
wrote) to make the earl 'the pattern of his 
civil life, and from him to draw a worthy 
model of all his actions.' Essex readily ac- 
cepted his homage. Henry IV was likewise 
so well satisfied with his services that he 
conferred upon him the knighthood of the 
order of St. Michael. On returning to Eng- 
land early in 1593 the news of his acceptance 
of this honour, without the queen's permission, 
excited her wrath. He was imprisoned in the 
Fleet and rigorously examined by Chief-justice 
Puckering and Lord Buckhurst, but was re- 
leased on retiring from the order. He was, 
however, commonly known thenceforth by the 
t it le of Sir Anthony. Soon afterwards he mar- 
ried Frances, daughter of Sir John Vernon 
of Hodnet, Shropshire, by Elizabeth, sister 
of Walter Devereux, first earl of Essex. She 
was thus first cousin of the Earl of Essex, 
Sir Anthony's patron. The union proved 
unhappy. ' Lea by the strange fortune of 
his marriage to undertake any course that 

might occupy his mind from thinking on her 
vainest words,' he organised, during 1595, 
with the aid of Essex and his father, a buc- 
caneering expedition. He intended to attack 
the Portuguese settlement on the island of 
Sao Thom6, in the Gulf of Guinea, about 
three hundred miles south of the mouth of 
the Niger. After much delay, chiefly occa- 
sioned by Essex's unwillingness or inability 
to procure for Shirley as wide powers as he 
desired, the expedition,con8i8tingof six ships, 
left Plymouth on 21 May 1596. After water- 
ing at the Canary Isles, Shirley passed south 
to the Cape Verde Isles, where he seized the 
town of Santiago and held it for * two days 
and nights with two hundred and eighty men, 
whereof eighty were wounded in the service 
against three thousand Portugals.' A few 
days were spent in the neighbouring volcanic 
island of Fogo, but Shirlev thereupon aban- 
doned the journey to Sfto 'Thcm^, and, cross- 
ing the Atlantic, made for the island of Domi- 
nica, where * excellent hot baths refreshed 
his men.' Thence he moved south to the 
island of Margarita, off Venezuela, and, pass- 
ing along the coast, reached the little island 
of Santa Marta, near the mouth of the Mag- 
dalena in Columbia. There one of his ships 
forsook him. Turning north, he landed m 
Jamaica on 29 Jan. 1596-7, marched six 
miles inland without resistance, and was 
much impressed by the fertility of the island. 
Sailing north again, he intended to put in 
at Newfoundland and thence to make for the 
Straits of Magellan and return by way of the 
Pacific and Indian Oceans. But at Havana, 
on 13 May 1597, his companions mutinied, 
and one ship alone remained to him. After 
sufi'enng many hardships he reached New- 
foundland on 15 June, and arrived in London 
next month. Hakluyt published in his * Voy- 
ages and Discoveries '(1598) * A True Relation 
of the Vovage undertaken by Sir Anthony 
Sherley, ^nt., in anno 1696, intended for the 
Isle df San Tom^, but performed to St. Jago, 
Dominica, Marguerita, along the coast of 
Tierra firma, to the Isle of Jamaica, the Bay 
of the Honduras, 30 Leagues up Rio Dolce, 
and homewarde bv Newfoundland, with the 
memorable exploytes atchieved in all this 

Shirley came ' home alive but poor,' wrote 
Sir Hobert Cecil. His passion for adventure 
was unexhausted, and he eagerly accepted 
the invitation of the Earl of Essex to accom- 
pany him on the * Islands voyage 'during the 
summer of 1597. lie returned with the fleet 
at the end of October 1597, after much fruit- 
less cruising. Craving more remunerative 
occupation, he accepted in the winter of 

1598-9 Essex's invitation to conduct a small 




company of English volunteers to Ferrara 
to assist Don Cesare d*Et-tc, the late duke's 
illegitimate son, in an attempt to possess 
himself of the duchy to which the pope 
laid claim. Sliirley left England with his 
brother Kobert and some twenty-five gentle- 
men adventurers, and never returned. On 
reaching Venice, he learnt that the dispute 
respecting Ferrara had been settled by Don 
Ceaare's submission to the pope. Shirley 
reported to Essex the posture of affairs, and, 
according to his own narrative, received in- 
structions to make his way to Persia with the 
twofold object of persuading the Persian king 
to ally himself with the Christian princes of 
Europe against the Turks, and to promote 
commercial intercourse between England and 
the east. The enterprise was without official 
sanction. The English government were not 
consulted, and they viewed his mission with 
suspicion. When Shirley subsequently sought 
])ermission to return to England, it was 
peremptorily refused, and English ambas- 
sadors abroad were warned to repudiate his 

Shirley and his brother Robert left Venice 
with their twenty-five English followers on 
29 May 1599. At Constantinople Shirley 
raised four hundred pounds from the Englisli 
merchants, and at Aleppo five hundred 
pounds, * wherewith he charged Essex by 
bills' (Cha-MBEIUAIN, Letters teinp. EUz., 
Camden Soc.) From Aleppo he proceeded 
down the Euphrates to Babylon, and, pass- 
ing into Persia to Ispahan by way of Kom, 
met the shah Abbas the Great at Kazveen. 
The two favourite wives of Shah Abbas were 
Christians, and they procured for Shirley a 
very promising reception. He won, too, the 
regard of Aly-verd Beg, the chief of the 
army, and the rank of mirza, or prince, was 
conferred upon him. A firman was issued 
to him, granting for ever to all Christian 
merchants freedom from customs, religious 
liberty, and the right to trade in all parts of 
the shah's dominions, but no immediate 
advantage was taken of the concession (cf. 
CuRZoN, Persia J ii. 538). After five months' 
stay in the country, theshah accepted Shirley's 
oft'er to return to Europe as his envoy and 
invite the princes to ally themselves with 
I^ersia against the Turks. A six months' 
journey, two months of which were spent 
on the Caspian Sea, brought him and a Per- 
sian nobleman, with six or seven other at- 
tendants, to Moscow. But the tsar, Boris 
Godunow, treated him with contempt, and 
the Persian nobleman openly quarrelled 
"with him ■• to their reepective precedence. 
Burbr te 1600 ha took ship at St. Archangel 
.^JfmgOB AB was 

received in the autumn of 1600 by the 
Emperor Kudolf II, whose offers of titles 
of honour he declined. In April 1601 he 
arrived at Home, having visited Nuremberg, 
Augsburg, Munich, Innsbruck, and Trent 
on the way. Frequent displays of zeal for 
Koman Catholicism secured him a good re- 
ception at the Vatican. But he outstayed 
his welcome. His appeals for permission to 
revisit England were ignored, and, retiring 
to Venice in March 1002, he opened a cni-re- 
spondence with the king of Spain and his 

The English government, whose foreign 
agents managed to intercept many of his 
letters, deemed his proceedings dangerous and 
treasonable. At the same time he was ho])e- 
lessly involved in pecuniary difficulties. Early 
in April 1603 he was arrested by order of the 
Venetian signory, either as an insolvent debtor 
or as a conspirator against a friendly power, 
and he was interned *in a certain obscure 
island near unto Scio.* On the accession of 
James I his appeals to the English govern- 
ment were considered more favourablv. 
Owing to their representations he appears 
to have been released, and on 8 Feb. l6()ii-4 
he was granted a license from the English 
government * to remain beyond the sea some 
time longer.' The curious document recom- 
mended him to the consideration of * the 
princes and strangers by whom he might 

{)a8S.' In order to improve his ])osition at 
lome he communicated to Sir Robert Cecil, 
while still at Venice, details of alleged plots 
that were being hatched abroad against the 
English government, and wrote him des- 
patches on the afi'airs of Persia. 

In the spring of 1605 he removed to Prague, 
and. after some negotiation with the Emperor 
Budolf II, was employed by the imperial 
government on a mission to Morocco. The 
journey seems to have been undertaken 
with a view to a general report on the state 
of the country (cf. A . , . discourse of Muletf 
Ilamets ruing to the three Kingdomes of 
MoruecoSf Fes^ and Sus . . . The Adventures 
of Sir A. S. . . . in those countries^ by Ro.C, 
London, 1609, 4to). After four months' stay 
at Safi, he was received at Morocco in great 
state, and remained there five months. He 
advised the king on domestic politics, and 
urged an expedition against the Turks in 
Algiers and Tunis. He advanced money for 
the release of some Portuguese prisoners, and 
on leaving the country in the autumn of 
1606 he sailed with his Portuguese prot^g^s 
to Lisbon, where he sought to reimburse 
himself for the money he had laid out on 
their ransom. On 7 Sept. 1606 he wrote to 
Lord SaUsborj of his recent adventures. 




Unable, howevf r, to recover at Lisbon any 
mont»y, he made his way to the Spanish court 
at Madrid. There he was held * in great 
reputation and credit/ lie was promised 
admission to the order of San lago, and a 
formal commission was given to him as 
general or admiral of an * armado ' destined 
to attack the Turks and Moors in the Levant, 
anil to hamper the Dutch trade there. In 
pursuit of this project, Shirley, in July 1607, 
arrived at Naples, where he was admitted to 
the council of state and war; but he found 
time to pay a brief visit at Prague to the 
Km|>eror Uudolf, who created him a count of 
the empire after he had recounte<l his expe- 
riencej* in Morocco. In the spring of KKKS 
lie visited various towns of Italy, collecting 
stores in his capacity ot 'admiral of the 
Levant seas,' and on returning to Madrid 
was granted by the king fifteen thousand 
ducuts 'towards his charge* as a mark of 
approval of his activity. In 1609 Shirley set 
out from Sicilv in command of a fleet for an 
attack on the 'Turks and Moors in the Medi- 
terranean, but the only practical outcome of 
his ostentatious preparations, which were 
regarded with outspoken suspicion by English 
ol>8ervers, was a futile descent on the island 
of Mitylene. Ilia failure was followed by 
his dismissal from his command, and he 
never recovered the blow. 

Completely discredited, and in direst 
poverty, he made his way in 1611 from 
><aples to Madrid, where lie met and quar- 
relled with his brother Robert. In pity of 
his misfortunes, the king of Spain allowed 
him a pension of three thousand ducats a 
year; but the greater portion was allotted to 
the payment of his heavy debts, and the 
residue' barely kept him from starving. He 
tried to ingratiate himself with the Jesuits, 
and sank to concocting impracticable plots 
against his enemies. In 1611 he began to 
compile, and in 1613 he contrived to publish 
in I-«ondon, a tedious account of his early 
adventures in Persia. In 1619 Sir Francis 
Cottington, the English ambassador at Ma- 
drid, reported of Sir Anthony : * The poor 
man comes sometimes to my house, and is 
as full of vanity aa ever he was, making 
himself believe that he shall one day be a 
great prince, when for the present he wants 
shoes to wear.* lie remained at Madrid in 
beggary till his death. He sometimes called 
himself the Conde de Leste, and was con- 
stantly obtruding new and impracticable 
projects on the notice of the council of state. 
Wadsworth, in his * English and Spanish 
Pilgrim/ 1626, stated that among the English 
fugitives at the court of Spain * the first and 
foremoet was Sir Anthony Sherley, who 

stiles himself Earl of the sacred Roman 
Empire, and hath from his Catholic Majesty 
a pension of 2,000 ducats per annum, all of 
which in respect of his prodigality is as much 
as nothing. This Sir Anthony Sherley is a 
great plotter and projector in matters of 
state, and undertakes by sea stratagems, to 
invade and ruinate his own country, a just 
treatise of whose actions would take up a 
whole volume.* He died after 1035. Ho 
left no issue. 

Shirlev published in 1013: 1. /Sir An- 
thony Slierley : his Relation of his Travels 
into Persia, the Dangers and Distresses which 
befel him in his Passage . . . his magnifi- 
cent Entertainment in Persia, his honour- 
able Imployment there hence as Ambassa- 
dour to the Princes of Christondome, the 
cause of his disappointment therein, with 
his Advice to Ins brother. Sir Robert 
Sherley; also a true relation of the great 
Magnificence ... of Abas, now King of 
Persia,* London, 1013. It is a dull book, 
abounding in vapid moralising. The origi- 
nal manuscript is in the Bodleian Library 
(Ashmole 829). A Dutch translation appears 
in P. van der Aa's * Xaaukeurige Versaraeling 
der . . . Zee- en Laud Rey sen' (1707); vol. 

A rare engraving (in an oval) by ^^gidius 
Sadeler is dated 1012, and is sometimes pre- 
fixed to copies of Sir Anthony's * Travels * 
(1613). Another rare print has some Latin 
elegiacs below the portrait. A marble bust 
is at All Souls* College, Oxford. The half- 
length portrait dated 1588, belonging to Sir 
Thomas Western, bart., of Rivenhall, Essex, 
which has usually been described as a picture 
of Sir Anthony, is really a portrait of his 
brother-in-law, Sir John Shurley. 

[Most of the information accessible about Sir 
Anthony and his two brothers is collected in 
The Three Brothers: or the TravoU; and Ad- 
ventures of Sir Anthony, Sir Robert, and Sir 
Thomas Sherley, in Persia, Russia. Turkey, and 
Spain, &e., 'with portraits, London, 182o; in 
The Sherley Brothers, by one of the sume House 
(Evelyn Philip Shirley). Roxburghe Club, 1848; 
and in E. P. Shirley'H Stemnuita Shirleiana, 
London, 1841 (new edit. 187i<). A brief sum- 
mary of Sir Anthony'sC'ireer appears in Burrowss 
Worthies of All Souls', and some of his letters to 
Essex and Cecil are calendared with th«' Hatfield 
MSS. and among the State Papers. At least 
five more or less full accounts of vShirley's adven- 
tures in Persia are extant. Th*^ first, A True 
Report of Sir A. Shiorlie's Journey . . . by two 
Gentlemen who followed him the whole time of 
his travail, was published in 16tl(); a second, 
'New and large discourse.' by Willi «m Parry 
[q. r."!. appejired in 1601 ; a third. * Three Eng- 
lish Brothers . . . Sir Anthony Sherley his Em- 

Shirley "4 Shirley 

bissHge to the Christian Princes,* l»y Anthony Ardennc, * a man of ancient pedigree himself, 

Nixon [q. v.], in 1607 (a very inaccurate com- who knew everyhody else's, 

pilation) : a fourth, Shirley's own ReLition of In ls37 Shirley sened as high sheriff for 

his travels, appeared in 1613; and a fifth, by {]^q county of Monaghan, and in 1867 he 

GeorK** Mauwariug, an attendant, was first f^n^^ ^jjg g^me position for Warwickshire, 

printed in piirt in John Cartwnght's Preacher's j^ ^y^^ parliament from 1841 to 1847 he was 

Trsivels. I.Hll, and at greater length m the member for Monaghan, and from 3 Dec. 1S.!>3 

Retn,spect,ve Kev.ew (vol ii.) and fully in T^^ ^^ ^,^^ dissolution in 1865 he representetl 

Three Hrothers, in 182o. Shirley sown storv is ., ., v • • c w^ -if- t> * 

epiromi>ed in Purohas his Pilgrimes. 16>o. pt*. ii. ^^^ southern division of ^\ arwickshire. But 

yixon-H iintru^.tworthy reconi was dramatised ^^ ^^[j took part m the debates and 

in pHle>trian fashion l,y John Dav, William threw his energies into the study of archaeo- 

Ilovrlev, and G^-orge Wilkins. who' published log}'- He was elected F.S.A. on 1>1> March 

their plav as 'Travailes of the Three English IStiO, admitted corresponding member of the 

IJr.thers Sir Thomas, Sir Anthony, Mr. Robert New England Historic and Genealogical 

Shirley, as it is now play'd by her Mrtjesties Society on :?00ct. 1880, and created honorary 

Servaunt',* London, 1607. It is reprinted in LL.D.of Dublin in 1881. He was also a 

Mr. A. H. Bullen's eiiition of Day's Works; trustee of Kugbv school and of the National 

a ctipy has been found with a dedicsUion to ' the Portrait Gallerv. After a laborious life he 

inrire fnends to the familie of the Sherleys ' (cf. jj^d of an apoplectic fit at Eatington Park, 

•Note8 and Queries,' 3rd ser. yiii. 203). See ^^.^^ Stratfordnm-Avon, on 19 Sept. 1882, 

aUo Malcolm h Trarels m Persia, and Colliers ^^^ ^^^ j^^^^-^^ j^ ^y^^ f^^^jj^ ^^^^^ ^^ K^^. 

ie married, at Ilanley 
e, on 4 Aug. 1842, 
eldest daughter of Sir 

1882 ), archjeologist, born in South Audley supported by her donations and influence the 

Street, London, on '22 Jan. 1812, was the school of Irish lace, which was established 

eldest son of Evelyn ,Tohn Shirley {d. 31 Dec. at Carrickmacross, near Lough Fea. They 

18o<>) of Eatington or Ettington Park, War- had issue a son and three daughter**. Shir- 

wickshire (the repivsentative of a younger ley's portrait was painted by T. C. Thompson 

branch of the earls of Ferrers^, who marne<l in 18.*ii> ; that of his wife and their youngest 

at St.(io«>rge*s, Hanover Si^uare, London, on dauffhter was painted bv Cat terson Smith in 
10 Aug. lslO,Eliza(r/.18o9),onlydaughterof . 1868. 

Arthur StanhoiH>. The lx\v was sent at the Shirley's works comprised : 1. * Stemmata 

agt» of t'ight to a preparatory school at Twy- Shirleiana: or the Annals of the Shirley 

lord, near Winchester, wiu? afterwanls placed Family,' privately printed, 1841 (a liundred 

undtTa ]>rivatetutornear0.xford,andiul826 copies^. It soon became very scarce. A 

wont tn Eton. He matriculated as a gentle- second edit i<m, corrected and enlarged, 1873. 

mttn-i.v>ininonor fn>m Magdalen College, 0.v- 2. * Some Accountof the Territory of Famey,' 

fonl,on ITilK't. ISIU^ graduated B. A. in 1834 1845: this was afterwards embodied in his 

and .M..V. in lS;i7. 'History of Monaghan.' 3. 'The Sherley 

Sliirlry possfsstnl pn>]H»rty at Lough Fea Bnnhers: Sir Thomas, Sir Anthony, and 

in Monnghiin, Lowor Eatington or Ettington Sir Kobert,' printed for the Koxburghe Club, 

in \V«rwii«Kshin», and Houndshill on the 1848. 4. *Orijrinal Letters and Papers on the 

bordtM-s o( NN'on'estersliin*. The management Church in Ireland during Edwara VI, Mary, 

ofhislrisliestnte i'tdescrilHHlbvW.S.Trench, and Elizabeth.' 18oL 5. 'The Noble and 

his MgtMit for two years fnnn Mar\*h 1843, in Gentle Men of England, or Notes on their 

liii* Intok of • Uealities of Irish Life' (^oth tnlit. Arras and Dt^scents,' 1859; 2nd edit. 1860; 

pp. (13 \K\). \\ Katingt«m Park homadeiH^n- 3nl edit. 188i>. He is said to have made 

Hiderable alterntioni*, whieh wortMHMwplottHl i\dUvtions for a similar work on Ireland, 

in lStl2, and tfrtthoriHl logtMhor a lihraryaml i\, 'Ijough Fea.* privately printed, 1859: 

many VNlunhitt pie(iiri«M, ,\l li\mgh Fihi ho 2nd etlit. 186V\ 7. * Some Account of Eng^ 

otdlttVliMJ a lilirnrv of Untkii ndatinir to lr^»- lisU IWr Parks, with Notes on the Man- 

Uiul. Ho imvi«l)iHl much on I ho c^mtinont, agvmont of IVer.* 1867. 8. * Lower Eating- 

Rnd waa all hi« liAl % lovvr of hintor^r and ton, its Manor House and Church,' privately 

•ntiquUjTi lb WM 9\m mi MilhiwiaM for print^nL 18<%). 9. * Catalogue of the Library 

korUouitUIIN Lttfd HHOOnaMt^M inf rwlurod at U>ugh Fea, in illustration of the History 
UM ^MhliV* WdMP llw nMMgMfjk I tad Antiquities of Ireland/ pri\-ate!jprinted, 




1872. 10. *Ettington versus Eatinffton/ 

1873. 11. * History of the County of Mona- 
>rhan/ 1879: issued in five parts between 
1 877 and 1879. 12. * Ilanley and the House 
of Lechmere/ 1883; a posthumous work. 
Shirley was aUo the author of the following 
tracts: 13. *The Church in Ireland/ by 
Spos, 1808. 14. 'The Reformation in Ire- 
land/ by Spes, 1868. 15. * Why is the 
Church m Ireland to be Robbed P * by Spes, 
1808. 1(5. * Historical Sketch of the Endow- 
ments of the Church in Ireland/ 1869. 
17. * On Revision: a Letter to the Primate/ 
1872; 2nd edit. 1873. 18. *0n Tenant- 
right/ 1874. 

The introduction and index to Thomas 
Dineley's * Observations on a Voyage through 
Ireland in 1681/ which was printed at Dub- 
lin in 1870, were supplied by Shirley, and the 
cuts, in facsimile of Dineley's drawings, were 
executed at his expense. He wrote the in- 
troduction to William Reader's translation 
of * The Domesday Book for W^arwick,* 2nd 
4*dit. 1879, and he contributed a memoir of 
Chief-justice Heath to the * Miscellanies ' of 
the Philobiblon Society, vol. i. The ' Trans- 
actions * of the chief archaeological societies 
contained articles from his pen, and to 

* Notes and Queries * he was a constant con- 
tributor from its foundation. 

[Foster 8 Alumni Oxon. ; Stemmata Shirleiana, 
cd. 1873, p. 231 ; New England Ref?. xxxvii. 
97-8; Academy, 7 Oct. 1882, pp. 260-1. by 
E. C. Waters; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. x. 
113; Garden, 7 Oct. 1882, p. 326; Foster's 
PeerHg»», sub 'Ferrers;* Times, 28 Aug. 1894 
p. 1,29 Aug. p. 8; Guardian, 12 Sept. 1894, 
p. 1378.] W. P. C. 

SHIRLEY, HENRY (d. 1 627), dramatist, 
was the second son of Sir Thomas Shirley 
the younger [q. v.] of Wiston in Sussex and 
his first wife, Frances Vavasour (Shirlbt, 
SUmmaia Shirleiana^ 1873). The conjectures 
of Tiemey {Hist of the Castle and Town of 
Arundel, i. 67), of Wood (Athena Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 740), and of Mr. Fleay (English 
Drama, ii. 248), that he was either brother, 
father, or near kinsman of James Shirley [q. v.] 
the dramatist, are contradicted by the au- 
thenticated pedigree of the Shirleys of Wis- 
ton, where it is stated that Henry sine sobole 
oocisusest. Nothing further is known of I lenry 
Shirley's life except it« tragic close. On the 
Friday before 31 Oct. 1627 he presented him- 
self at the lodging in Chancery Lane of Sir 
Edward Bishop, then a member of parliament, 

* to demand of him an annuity of 40/., which 
the said Sir Edward Bishop was to give him.' 
Shirley, who had no weapon about him, was 
run through by Sir Edward Bishop with his 
•word. Bishop escaped, remained for some 

time in hiding, and was sentenced to be 
burned in the hand, but was pardoned on 
21 Oct. 1028 (cf. Birch, Transcripts, Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 4177). The notoriety 
attaching to the tragic incident is shown by 
the reference to it in Prynne's * Histriomastix ' 
(1633, p. 554, in the margin), where, as an ex- 
ample of ' the sudden and untimely ends of 
all those ancient play-poets,' is mentioned the 

case of ' Sherlv, slaine suddenly by Sir 

Edward Bishop, whiles bee was drunke, as 
most report' (iVo^e* and Queries, Ist ser. xii. 

None of the plays attributed to Henry 
Shirley have been preserved, with the ex- 
ception of * The Martyr'd Souldier,' printed 
in 1638, * as it was sundry Times Acted with 
a generall applause at the Private house in 
Drury Lane, and at other publicke Theaters.' 
It is designated an 'old' play in the 'Lines 
to the Reader' (conveyed from Thomas 1 ley- 
wood's *Tho Roy all King and the Loyall 
Subject') appended to it on publication (re- 
printed in vol. i. of Mr. A. II. BuUen's * Old 
English Plays,' 1882). It is a far from attrac- 
tive specimen of the miracle-play run to seed, 
but some of its passages are instinct with life, 
while the work as a whole conveys the im- 
pression that the author lacked the schooling 
of a professional playwright. Four other plays 
by Henry Shirley were entered on the * Sta- 
tioners' Registers ' (9 Sept. 1653^, but are not 
known to have been publisheu — viz. ' The 
Spanish Duke of Lerma,' * The Duke of Guise,' 

* The Dumb Bawd,' and * Giraldo, the Con- 
stant Lover.' Some verses of his, apparently 
Hudibrastic in theme as well as in metre, are 
preserved among the Ashmolean MSS. in 
the Bodleian (vol. xxxviii. No. 88). In 
John Davies of Hereford's * Scourge of Folly ' 
(161 1) is an epigram (numbered 163; Dayies's 
Works, ed. Grosart, ii. 27) on the author's 

* right worthy friend and truly generous 
gentleman, Henry Shirly, Esquire,' of which 
the point is the uselessness of painting the 


[Authorities cited.] A. W. W. 

SHIRLEY, Sib HORATIO (18a-)-1879), 
general, bom on 8 Dec. 1805, was fifth son of 
Evelyn Shirley of Eatington Park, War- 
wickshire, by his wife, Phyllis Byam, only 
daughter of Charlton WoUaston of Horton, 
Dorset. His father's eldest brother, Evelyn 
John Shirley, was father of Evelyn Philip 
Shirley [q. v.] Horatio entered Rugby in May 
1820, ana afterwards proceeded to Trinity 
College, Oxford, matriculating on 10 May 
1823. In 1825 he entered the army, became 
lieutenant in 1826, was promoted captain in 
1833, and major in 1841; was nominated 

Shirley 126 Shirley 

M' 'I 'T!ir'- ...■:?,; ri ■'*:^. an. I «':tz^'rt^•^l IJpif/rfnnjft 1039, (lotliratod in Sir CharlL'S 

.■■■- "- i " ■:• ^^'M •■■■'• :i ! ^-"i;. IL* 'i.rviMl Shirlev, Inrt., and AVilliam Dawnport. e»<j.) 

^^ : '► ^: iM ■ »:• yir'r^ ' :;.• rr!in»':in \v:ir. In ItUH Shirley, (Vsifrnatinjr himself as B.A., 

' •• . ".. ■» ■ •: =.• a:' t'-i <t' \'u:i\ Mid IniiL^r- printed his earliest poem, ' Ecchn, or the In- 

•"•■■ '^ - ■•,:m.t". A: riie >i*'Lre ot' tbrtnnute Lovers/ No copy is extant under 

^ • -! •:'<■; ■■ ^■"' ^-tivHu 'liiL-T ''t' rhe that title, but it is Iwilieved to be idi*ntical 

!■• N -I ■■ i.-T's-x* ■:! -li'.' .|ii{irr:es «m with his poem* Xarcissns, or the St?ll-Iv)\er,' 

Mi.i ■ ■• :■'• . ..:.' \:'.^ •■ ::i:ts'':i'.' d bv L.^rd and published in IGKJwith the motto * H;pc 

III «■• ' ^ -. . 'i> -«rv.'^.* [n rhe dim' (• Narcissus ' is a palpable, and indeed 

.1- : ^ I -:■!»*■; ji -* Spr. lie w.ii almost confessed, imitaticm of * Venus and 

•• ■■' i ■'• ' ••' -M,;- ,1 ■:?:.'. H' \v:is Adonis'). In lUll), ag-ain as B.A.,headded 

1'. • i » ' *« ■» ' >.'-.i III- I Iv.Cl*. in in manuscript to the 'Lacrvma? Cant abrici- 

I •■ ' !■■ ■ ^- ' ;- ■:■. ••■ •: 'i' I:-ri:i\. in »* * on the death of Queen Anne a * drop 

! •■ ' '* • • ■- • I . .' ■ii::--.:*''-i«ri!. '^f water' (four lines), and an * Kpitaphium ' 

• . ; ■ •. ..«•.. I :•!!•:-,!. li'« i :•'•!. <r».'printed by Dyce, vi. oM—jlo). Soon 

I \;' •; ■^.■'•. i; 'i.> 'i«Mi>e afterwards Shirley took orders and qualitied 

I i .. i» ■.. : • ■ X. .. t'^r pn.' ferment by proceedini^ M.A. Wood 

\\ .. . \i .. . "J •». ^: ) Tttii's. >iiys that he * became a minister of God's 

I . \. . ■' ■• • ^. . . • ■'■«.• .'. T \'nl won! in or near St. Albans in Hertfordshire.' 

t . ■ '\ ...,»«' I — !-a. ill Fr'V.u Itil^o-o he held the master.'ihip of 

■ '. • -;v" - \ ''\n. tMwunlVrs grammar school in that borough 

' ■ '■ » ^ s , ; . X, li • vN". -. s {.^ ].vTTi:T.TircK, IL'rffordshirr, l^lo'i. 4Hfi. 

' ' ■. . V. . S"»\ havincr. accordiui^' to Wood, previously 

;m 1^ J \ \ ' \ M ' "< ' 'I*' ■' «• . i-i- • v.!i;ir ired his reli^non for that of Kome ' anil 

II. ■ • ; M . . II I ■ >» V :■. ■ '•; ri '^l - ' h.:': hU livinp.* Jlis voluminous writings 

• I . . . »i . . K S ■ i", >u«.:Hjr that he was during the remainder 

I . .. . ■ . x.i ;' ^t. 'f Ills life a conscientious and fervent llo- 

u-. . \\ »., I .. ■■■\''. i:;;!: mi:i catholic. From the gloritication of the 

. M . , \\ • ' N\ . ' . • . ' '■ -a* lVM»vliotine order in * The Grateful Servant* 

.:.•.■■.. ■• .'•i- i».s-- . u-- iii. so. i^K it has been concluded that 

I "i . •' I. % X -xi-*-!: v::7i''y's c»?nfessor belonged to this onler. 

.1 .. "i I » > ... \ '.\ ,■"* X v- S". Allans was a Benedictine monastery. 

'.» ■*• '. >'■".-'.'.' V afrerwanls wrote a tragedy called 

,. » . . >i. ;■ •*. '>:. A*J'an>,'»'ntered in * Stationers' Register,* 

111 . , »».'i I ■: « . X.- XK ' '4 t\<'\ lii:^v\ but not known to have been 

\ .■ .. '» . ..«..,'• » •• ' V- v:.-..l v.o. however, FLElT,7l//////>^D/Yf/f^rtr, 

I. .... ,v . s ^ I • •■ "Jtl . If the Matthias Shirley, son of 

1 ■. I . ' '. . ..••:•■»•■' .'■!:< >*::rlev, baptised on 20 Feb. 1(524, was 

\ ^ ' '• .' i ' . •■. X *• -i .•*..•.<: son »<»'e th»» reft^rence by Collier to 

: '. . , .. . '^ %* .s »,- :' ; T* ;;\<:er of St. Giles', Cripplegate, cited 

... .. ;..■■'. ! X' . \. .>. ' .N ■> •-\ 11. NTKR. Vk'ru* Vatuniy Addit. MS. 

I. I , ■. . ' M . » 'i • %% .X ■;i:v\ r»ri:. Mas.), an early marriage may 

. .. '. . » , ; . >.. ■ .4\;' v'nyis.! its part in tlu» crisis of his life. 

^ .. ■ ; .. , ' I \ '.»*\ '■ l: «r N*:"ory» lt»2'i Shirley abandoned the 

\\ I , ■ t 4 ..«.•»' 'xv x v*. .•'..*< :o '.ife an.l move<l to I-iondon, where, 

I , . .:.».. I . ". . . , ^ w i* .. '. ."i.v^.-.-rj to Wo.vl, he lived in Grav's Inn, 

.,., \\y .. ' » . I 's * '' \-- '*• .!v.'. '<.: i:p for a play-maker.' The prologue 

I.. I .1 ... ^ ... ;. ■ I.. ; I I. . X.' X : » V..S ld.-iv. licensed on 4 Feb. 1625-0 

...1, . I. I.. , .-. ..I. '.x'. • ' .' :iv,;,r ; he title of 'Love Tricks, with Com- 

1,1 I. 1. ., \.\ \ \.^ : .'»'.. /,^^\'\ p't". ;•:::>/ hi>wover,depn»cates any intention 

1,1 I II. 1.1 I. .M ,. t * 5. . 1*-'. .".; tV.o ^virt of the author 

• ■•liiil ■ *»i.»l. .ill III ii.»»iv i^..4 '■. * x\ >^" . , , to swt-nr Iiimself a factor for the scene ; 

.,1,m,. lUU.i.i;uN..V.xxVM,v ,,v.ii,.ijrt„no«nct^Mhe piece as 

., , , I .. . I ..» .,„, 1 ho tirst fruit*; of a Muse, that before this 

, , I .^ NrViT Minted audience, 

V I u^ 111 I I'll I,, i.iiudi w\ \'\\\wx \mi\er- 

M\\ \l ^'aOm\u»o W\\\ \mo of hi^ ivn- Uul the rapid succ<>ssion of the plays which 

^v\\M'^'« •*»*«'- \\H:^'n»"W'*^ JUwiuiO V rf h«:W IoUowih! betwetm 1«20 nnd 1042 shows him 

l\v\^\ \ \\ \\V^ lyftt'VVMiVil"* ii'leviNsl lo lo have speeddy recognised that he had 

^ • *\rtiN kWw\Hi* voeivi -^ih^iH V\ SUirU'> *wd found his vocation. The beginnings of his 
V^ttwK^^<% ^V \VVh^Vi\^« \\h^H>i V*^^||i£|^'^'' ^ ^ playwright coincided with the 




acci'ssion of Charles I. Shirley says (Pro- 
lojriit» to The MauVs JRet^nf/e) that he * never 
at!'ect*»d the ways of flattery; some say I 
liave lost my preferment by not practisinjf 
that Court sin/ On the other hand, there 
ca» l)e no doubt that, like other bearers of 
bis name who 8ufl[*ered heavily in the days of 
the Commonwealth, he entertained strong 
feelinps of personal loyalty towards the king 
and tlie roval family (see his jovial cavalier 
Tines r>yn the Prince's Birth, 1630). These 
feelings may naturally have been enhanced by 
the T>ersonal interest taken in at least one 
of his productions by Charles I (cf. The 
Oampxter. Wood states that he met with es- 
pecial respect and encouragement from Queen 
Henrietta Maria, who * made him hersorvant.' 
This tallies with the well-known fact that in 
the dedication to * A Bird in a Cage' (printed 
1638) he attacked Prynne, then in the Tower 
awaiting his sentence for having published 

* Histriomastix' (November 1632); and in 
the * Commendatory Verses ' prefixed to Ford's 

* Love's Sacrifice,' printed in the same year, 
he made another violent onslaught on the 
•voluminously ignorant' adversary of the 
stage (of. Genest, ix. 347). In the next 
year (1634) Shirley supplied the text of the 
masque entitled *The Triumph of Peace,' 
presented at Whitehall on a scale of un- 
exampled magnificence by the gentlemen of 
the four Inns of Court in response to a hint 
from high quarters that such a demonstration 
would be welcome as a reply to Prynne (see 
the description prefixed to the masque by 
Shirlev: cf. Whitelocke's Memorial of 
the English Affairs, ed. 1853, i. 6:i-62 ; 
Str\fford'8 Letters and Despatches, ed. 
Knowles, 1740. i. 177, and p. 207). During 
this period of his literary life Shirley seems 
to have enjoyed the favour of various persons 
of rank, as well as the goodwill of many of 
his fellow-dramatists and poets, amongwhom 
Massinger, Ford, Ilabington, Randolph, May, 
and Stapylton wrote commendatory verses 
on one or more of his plays. He is said to 
have been a friend of Izaak Walton, but this 
may have been after his visit, or visits, to 
Ireland. For, apparently as early as 1636, he 
Itetook himself to Dublin, where John Ogilby 
[q. V.J had in 1635 opened in Werburgh Street 
the first public theatre ever built in Ireland 
{WnciicociL, An Historical View of the Irish 
Stape, 1 788, i. 1 1). The date of Shirley's first 
visit to Ireland is thought by Mr. Fleay (Eng- 
lish Drama, iL p. 285) to be assignable to 1636, 
as shown by the pretty (though outspoken) 
lines addressed by him to Lady Brishop] and 
her Bister the L^dy Dia[na] Cur8|on or Cur- 
lon] * on his departure,' taken in conjunction 
wltn the fiict that the London theatres were 

closed on account of the plague from May 
1636 to February 1637, and then again to 
October of the latter year (Fleay, History (f 
I the Stage, p. 363). According to a letter from 
I Octavius Gilchrist in Wilson's * History of 
Merchant Taylors' School ' (ii. 673, cited ap. 
Dyce, vol. i. ]). xxxiv w.), Shirley wont 
to Ireland under the patronage of George 
Fitzgerald, sixteenth earl of Kildaro [q. v.], 
to whom he dedicated his play of the * Royal 
Master,' and by whose influence this play was 
acted in the castle before the lord-deputy ( it 
was also acted at Ogilby *s new theatre). Al- 
though the dedication merely states that he 
was encouraged when * a stranger ' in Ire- 
land by Kildare*s patronage, it is by no 
means impossible that he made this young 
nobleman's acquaintance in England, vvhere 
he had been educated. From the same dedi- 
cation we further gather that at the time 
when it was written — in 1638, or possibly 
in 1637 — Shirley's * affairs in England' were 
* hastening his departure ' from Ireland ; but 
if he revisited England, he must speedily have 
gone back to Dublin. His permanent return 
to England Mr. Fleay (English Drama, ii. 
240-1) considers to be fixed by the mention 
of it in the dedication to * The Opportunity,' 
which was published in England after 
25 March KVIO. If so, it preceded by a few 
weeks or davs the return of Strafford 
(3 April), to whose recovery from the serious 
illness, which greatly increased after his 
arrival in London (see Strafford, Letters 
and Despatches, vol. ii. Appendix, p. 431), 
Shirley must refer in his verses * To the Earl 
of Strafford upon his Recovery.' In 1653 
i Shirley dedicated 'The Court Secret' to 
Strafford's son and heir, William. 

Three, or possibly four, of Shirley's plays 
were produced in Dublin. In the prolocfue 
to the * Imposture' (licensed 10 Nov. 1640) 
he speaks of himself as having been 

Stranger long to the English scene, 

for which he now activelv recommenced 
writing. The tragedy which (in the dedica- 
tion) he claimed to be* the best of his flock* — 
viz. *The Cardinal' — was licensed on 25 Nov. 
1641; it was followed bv * The Sisters,' 
licensed 26 April 1042, in the prologue to 
which he exclaims desolately that * London 
has gone to York;' the next, *The Court 
Secret,- is stated in the title-page of the edi- 
tion of 1653 to have been never acted, *but 
Prepared for the scene at the Black-friers.' In 
eptember 1642 stage-plays were suppressed 
by the first ordinance of the parliament. 

According to Wood, Shirley was * here- 
upon forced to leave I^ndon, and so, conse- 
quently, his wife [Frances] and children, 




wlio were afterwards put to their shifts.* 
Wood further states that Shirley was at this 
time invited bv the Earl (afterwards Mar- 
quis and Duke) of Newcastle * to take his 
fortune in the wars; for that count had en- 
gaged him so much by his generous liberality 
towards him that he thought lie could not 
do a worthier act than to serve him, and so, 
consequently, his prince/ Shirley had in 
ims dedicated to Newcastle * The Traitor,' 
ajplay inferior among his tragedies only to 

* The Cardinal/ Wood*8 assertion that Shir- 
ley did much to assist Newcastle * in the com- 
posure of certain plays which the latter after- 
wards published derives a slender support 
from the fact that the song in Newcastle's 

* Country Captain,* *Come, let us throw the 
dice,' was printed among Shirley's * l*oems ' 
as a sort of rebus (see Dyce, Shirley, vi. 439, 
and cf. Cavendish, William 1592-1676). 
There is no mention of Shirley in the * Life ' 
of Newcastle by his duchess ; but the lines 

* To Odelia ' (ap. Dyce, vi. 408) certainly 
imply that Shirley took a personal part in 
the * war ' in which Newcastle was concerned 
from November 1642 till July 1644, when 
(after Marston ^loor) he quitted England. 

On the decline of the king's fortunes, says 
Wood, Shirley* retired obscurely to London, 
where, among other of his noted friends, he 
found Thomas Stanley (1626-1678) [5. v.]» 
who exhibited to him * (cf. the Dedication to 
The Brothers f printed 1652). This accom- 
plislied scholar appears to have at this time 
resided in the Middle Temple. His kinsman, 
Edward (afterwards Sir Edward) Sherburne, 
is likewise stated to have been on friendly 
terms with Shirley. Thus encouraged, the 
latter published in 1646 a small volume of 
*Poems,'chiefly no doubt juvenile productions, 
and including * Narcissus, or the Self-Lover,' 
together with * The Triumph of Beauty,* * as 
presented by soraeyoung gentlemen for whom 
It was intendtnl as a private recreation.* He 
also furnished a preface * To the Keader * to 
a series of ten hitherto unprinted dramas by 
Beaumont and Fletcher, referring in it to 

* this tragical ago, in which the theatre has 
been eo much outacted,' and inviting the 
reader to * congratulate his own happiness 
that in this silence of the stage be lias a 
liberty to read these inimitable plays.' To 
the same volume he contributed some loyal 
lines predicting the king*8 recovery of his 
throne. Subsequently he wrote commenda- 
tory verses to the * Poems * of Thomas Stanley 
and of Edmund Prest wieb (1651 ), to Ogilby*8 

< Fables of .<£8op ' (1651), and to other pub- 
lications (cf. Flbat, EngUgh Drama, ii. 235- 
2d6). The tnuiiilAtkm of Bonarelli's pastoral, 

< PhaUNCanm ' (ia66)|hMb6eiLattribttted 

to him on no better evidence than that of 
the initials * J. S.' on the title-page. 

Wood states that in the course of these 
years he resumed * his old trade of teaching 
school,* and, residing chiefly in Whitefriars, 
thereby * not only gained a comfortable sub- 
sistence, but educated many ingenious youths, 
wlio afterwards proved most eminent in 
divers faculties.' One of these was Thomas 
Dingley or Dineley [q-v.] the antiquary. 
Shirley's usher at Whitefriars is said by 
Wood to have been a Scotsman of the 
name of David Whitford, who taught Ogilby 
enough Greek to enable him to publish a 
translation of Homer. Shirlev's labours as 
a schoolmaster led to the publication in 1649 
of his * Via ad Latinam Linguam com- 
planata* (dedicated to W^illiam Herbert, 

* IVmbroke's ' grand-nephew), to which was 
attached a set of rules composed ' for the 
greater delight and benefit of readers,' in 
both English and Latin verse. This trea- 
tise, which Shirley*8 literary friends hailed 
by a collection of commendatory verses, 
was followed in 1656 by the * Rudiments of 
Grammar,* with rules in English verse, re- 
issued in 1660 in an enlarged edition under 
the title of * Manductio, or a Leading of 
Children by the Hand through the Prin- 
ciples of Grammar.* It was republished 
under the title of 'An Essay towards an 
Universal and Rational Grammar,' bv Jenkin 
J. Phillipps, in 1726. 

But the theatre still attracted him. In 
1653 he had published * Six New Playes,' of 
which five had been performed before the 
troubles ; and the esteem in which he was 
still held as a dramatist is shown by the no- 
table lines prefixed by * Hall* to one of these, 
*The Cardinal* (cited ap. Genest, ix. 541). 
On 26 March of the same year his masque of 

* Cupid and Death* was performed as a private 
entertainment presented to the Portuguese 
ambassador. In 1655 he printed two more 
plays, and in 1659 a small volume contain- 
ing, together with * The Contention of Ajax 
and Ulysses * (as privately performed, per- 
haps at an earlier date), the * moral of 

* Ilonoria and Mammon.* But in the preface 
to the latter he deprecatingly added that this 
was * likely to be the last ' production of his 
put forth Pressed in dramatic ornament/ 
since he had resolved that ' nothing of this 
nature * should henceforth ' engage his pen 
or invention.' The changes brought about 
bv the Restoration failed to divert- him from 
t&is resolution, although some of his plays 
were during his lifetime revived with more 
or less success (two of these were seen by 
Pepys— *The Traitor* repeatedly — between 
1660 and 1666). No sneer could have been 




miire unjaat than that of the ribold ' SeMion 
■of the Poets' {BeePoeiiuonS/ateAffairiied. 
IWi", p. 20S), implying that after the Re- 
atoralann Shirk; engaged in futile attempts 
to ttiual the performances of younger men ; 
^rliilti nothing is known as to the truth or 
falsehood of the assertion in the game ' poem,' 
that ho ' owned' a plsy printed under the 
name of Edward Howard (/. 1609) [q. v.] 

blliflejr waH one of the most prominent of 
the group of literary surrivora of the Com- 
monwealth period whom Mnseon {Li/e 0/ 
Alilfvn, 1K80, vi. -293) aptly calls the ' sexa- 
f^enarians,' and his reputation probably gained 
rather than suSferedrrom hia consciouaneas 
of the fact. The circumstance mentioned bv 
LoDgbsine that he left behind him several 
plavH in manuscript does not necessarily indi- 
cate that they were of late composition. But 
though he showed wisdom in confining bis 
publicBlionB at all eventa to the sphere of hie 
daily labours, it prored unfortunate for his 
more immediate reputation that be remained 
in such close association with the book- 
making Ogilby. AccordingtoWood.Shirlev 
drudged for liim in his translations of both 
• Iliad' (18aO) and ' Odyssey," as well as of 

rrls of Virgil {enlarged in 161)7 and 1658 
im the original edition of 1649), and wrote 
annotations for his use. No aeknowledgment 
of this assistance, if it were given, was 
made by Ogilby, although, in return for 
Shirley's commendatory lines in his ' .^op,' 
he wrote some on Shirley's 'Via ad Latinam 

ToWood again is owing all theinformation 
extant Bs to Shirley's end. Duringtha great 
fire of London in September 1666 be and 
his wife were driven from their habitation 
near Fleet Slreet (i.e. Whitefriare) into the 
pariah of St. Giles, then actually in the fields, 
where less than two months afterwards they 
died on the same day, ' being in a manner 
overcome with Bfrrigbtment.a,dLfieonsolations, 
and other miaeries occasion'd by that fire 
and their losses.' They were buried in St. 
Giles's churchyard on29 Oct. From Shirley's 
-will at Doctors' Commons it appears that be 
left behind him three sons and a married 
daughter; another daughter, 'Lawrinda,' 
married to Edward Fountain, predeceased 
lim (UcMTEB, CAorim Vatum, u.».) One of 
liis SODS, according to Wood, was afterwards 
lutler at Fumiv^'s Inn. The miscellaneous 
■writer, John Shirley, who flourished during 
the laat two decades of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, mar be another son [see under Shiblbi, 
Jons, 1(548-1079]. 

Shirley'a portrait in the Bodleian Library, 
frbich is engraved as the frontispiece of Dyce's 
edition of hie ' Works,' re|ireMUiU him ae of 
TOU Ut. 

a nither full habit of 

dark complex 

After Shirley's death several more of his 

e'ayfi were revived on the London stage, 
epys saw five of these, and Langhaine, 
who speaks of Shirley in ItlSl as ' one of 
such Incomparable parts that be was the 
Chief of the Second-rale I'oets,' mentions 
having seen four of his plays in his own 
' remembrance.' In Edward Phillips's 'Thea- 
trum Poetarum'(lfi75), Shirley is mentioned 
with respect, and said to be accounted ' little 
inferior to Fletcher himself.' But in 1682 
Dryden, in his ' JIac Flecknoe,' not only 
loosely coupled Shirley with Heywood as 
'prophets of tautology,' but recklessly asso- 
ciated their names with that of a dramatist 
of an altogether inferior type, as well as with 
that of Ogilby: 

Much Hoywooii, Shirley, Ogilby there lay. 
Uut loads of Sbndvell almost cbok'd the way. 
Oldham, in the 'Satire' where he introduces 
Spenser as dissuading from the practice of 
poetry, which must have been written soon 
after the publication of ' Mac Flecknoe,' lees 
contemptuously speaks of Shirley's works as 
'moulding' with Sylvester's in Uuck Lane 
shops. A third satirist of the period, lloliert 
Gould [n-v.], who is stated to have stolen 
from Shirley the plot of a play to which 
D'Urfey wrote prologue and epilogue, in- 
geniously combined his recognition of these 
debts by saluting Shirley as 

The Brands] of the ancient stage, 
Shirley, the Very D'Urfey ot his nge. 
Pope, ha^pily,8eemstobaveforgotten Shirley, 
pernaps intentionally, for the sake of their 
common creed. Although some of his plays 
were from time to time adapted by later 
bands, the revival of hia reputation as a dra- 
matist was probably due, in the first instance, 
to Richard Farmer [q. v.J, and after him to 
Charles Lamb, who in hia ' Specimens ' speaks 
of Shirley as * the last of a great race, all of 
whom spoke nearly the same language, and 
bad a set of moral feelinga and actions in 
common.' The editorial labours of GifTord 
and Dyce definitively restored him to the 

51 ace thus indicated in the history of our 
mmalic literature. 

The fertility of Shirley as a dramatist and 
the deference paid by him to hia great pre- 
decessors have obscured his claims to recog- 
nition as a dramatic poet of rare original 
power. Chance, however, is partly respon- 
sible for the preservation of bis plays in 
a number relatively so large ; and it is to 
his honour that, besides being fond of remi- 
niscences of Shakespeare f see Ward, EnyAV* 
DraiTialic Lileralarr, ii. Sll n.), be should 




have hailed Jonson as ' an acknowledged 
master' (see dedication of *The Grateful 
Servant'), and have so enthusiastically ex- 
tolled the merits of Beaumont and Metcher, 
of some * sketches' by whom an unauthen- 
ticated tradition (cf. Hitchcock, u.s. p. 12) 
declares him to have been possessed. Fletcher, 
and still more perha])s Webster and Mas- 
singer, greatly intiuenced him ; but in the in- 
vention of his plots, both tragic and comic, he 
seems frequently to have been original ; while 
Langbaine is within the mark m asserting 
that * whatever he borrows from novels loses 
nothing in his hands.* Kemarkably alive 
to the danger of distracting the spectator's 
interest from the main plot of the action of 
a play, he displayed in tragic as well as in 
comic actions a curious presentiment of the 
modern theatrical principle that everything 
depends on the success of one great scene 
(la schie a /aire). His tragedies of 'The 
Traitor' and * The Cardinal,* his tragi-comedy 
of * The lloyal Master,' and his comedy of 
* The Gamester,' may be instanced as signal 
examples of his constructive skill. His ex- 
cellence seems to lie less in the depiction of 
comic than in that of serious scenes and 
characters; but, as is shown in all his comedies 
from the earliest onwards, but more es- 
pecially by his * Hyde Park ' and by the less 
attractive comedy of * The Ball,' in which he 
collaborated with Chapman, he was an acute 
observer and at times a humorous delineator 
of the vagaries of contemporary manners, 
whether in town or country. Nor should it 
remain unnoticed that, whether he tells a 
story of passion or depicts a phase of folly, 
Shirley, while anything but severe in thought j 
or strait-laced in expression, on the whole, 
though not uniformly, shows himself averse ' 
to licentiousness for its own sake, and con- 
scious of the respect which a dramatic poet 
owes both to himself and to his true public. 
But what chiefly entitles Shirley to hold 
the place to which he has been restored 
among our great dramatists is the spirit of 
poetry which adorns and elevates so many 
of his plays. He was one of the last of our 
seventeenth-century playwrights who inter- 
spersed their dialogue with passages of poetic 
boauty, at once ap])ropriate to the sentiment 
of the situation and capable of carrying their 
audience to a higher imaginative level. Nor 
was ho merely the last of the group; few mem- 
bers of it, besides Shakespeare himself, have 
surpassed Shirley in the exercise of the rare 
power of ennobling his dramatic diction by 
images which, while they * would surpass 
the life,' spring without eflfort from the in- 
finitude of the suggestions oflered by it to [ 
creative fancy. 

The chief non-dramatic contributions of 
Shirley have been cited above, together with 
the dates of publication. Dyce, in vol. vi. 
of his edition of Shirley's * Works,* supple- 
mented the poetical pieces previously printed 
by the hitherto unprinted poems which 
proved part of a manuscript collection of 
* Verses and Poems by James Shirley * pre- 
served in the Bodleian. The following is a 
list of his dramatic works, arranged in what 
seems to be their probable chronological order 
of composition: 1. * Love Tricks with Comple- 
ments, comedy, licensed 10 Feb. l6'2o; 
printed as 'The Schoole of Complement,' 
1031, 1637, and 1667 (the year in which it 
was seen on the stage by Pepys, 5 Aug.) Out 
of this was taken Kirkman s droll, 'Jenkins' 
Love -Course and l*erambulation,* printed 
1673 in * The Wits, or Sport upon Sport.* 
2. * The Maid's Revenge,' tragedy, licensed 
9 Feb. 1626, printed 1639. The plot of this 
elfective early work is taken from John 
Reynolds's 'Triumphs of God's Revenge 
against Murder ' (of which the first instal- 
ment was printed in 1621), bk. ii. hist. 7 
(cf. Genest, ii. 74, as to Gould's dramatic 
version of the same story, 1696). 3. 'The 
Wedding,* comedy, licensed 9 Feb. 1626 
(see the clue as to date ingeniously pointed 
out by Fleat, English Drama, ii. 23ti), 
printed 1629 and 1633. 4. ' The Brothers,' 
comedy, licensed 4 Nov. 1626, printed as one 
of * Six New Plays ' by Shirley, 1 653. Fleay 
supposes the play licensed in 1620 to have 
been ' Dick of Devonshire,' and that printed 
in 1653 to have been a diiferent play. See, 
however, A. H. BuUen's Introduction to 
'Dick of Devonshire,* printed in vol. ii. of 
'Old English Plays' (1883), and attributed 
by him, with much probability, to Thomas 
lieywood. 5. * The Witty Fair One,' comedy, 
licensed 3 Oct. 1628, printed 1633. Revived 
on the stage 1667. 6. ' The Grateful Ser- 
vant,' comedy, licensed under the title of 
' The Faithful Servant,' 3 Nov. 1629 ; printed 
16^10, 1637, and 1660 (P). Not less than 
eleven sets of commendatory verses, includ- 
ing one by Massinger, accompanied the 
publication of this play. It was revived on 
the stage in 1667. 7. **The Traitor,' tragedy, 
licensed 4 May 1631, printed 1685, with 
a dedication to Newcastle. It was re- 
vived on the Restoration, and seen not less 
than four times by Pepys ; on being again 
revived it was printed, with a dedica- 
tion stating it to have been originally written 
by the Jesuit Antony Rivers [jr|. v.], but this 
statement, supported by Motteux, is dis-t 
credited. It was again revived in 1718, 
with alterations by Christopher Bullock 
[q. v.], and it furnished the basis of Ri-« 




chard Lalor Shell's ' Evadne, or the Statue' 
(acted at Coyent Garden in 1829). The 
story of Lorenzo de' Medici constitutes the 
plot of Alfred de Musset's ' Lorenzaccio.' 

8. 'IjOTe's Cruelty' (tragedy), licensed 
14 Nov. 1631; revived in 1667, when Pepys 
Miw it, and printed in the same year. 

9. 'The Changes, or Love in a Maze,' 
comedy, licensed 10 Jan. 1632, and printed 
in the same year. Pepys saw it five times 
after iu revival in 1662, 10. *Hyde Park,' 
comedy, licensed 20 April 1632, printed 
16.')7; revived after the Restoration, when 
Pepvs saw it, with the horses on the stage, 
11 July 1668. 11. *A Contention for 
Honour and Riches,' a masque, entered on 
the 'Stationers' Register* in 1632, and 
printed 1033. This masque, which is founded 
on the 'Decameron' (v. 8), was reprinted 
in a revised and enlarged form by Shirley in 
16'>9, under the title of 'Honoria and 
Mammon.' 12. 'The Ball,' comedy, licensed 
10 Nov. 1632 as by Chapman and Shirley, 
and prints 1639. There is no reason for 
supposing that Chapman had a material 
share in the composition of this comedy. 
Sir Ilenr^ Herbert found fault with the 
introduction of actual court personages into 
this play, and the passages in question were 

frobably omitted before publication ; Mr. 
leay thinks that they were replaced by 
other passages written by Chapman; he 
also points out that a passa^ in 'The Lady 
of Pleasure ' (act i. sc. 1), m which Shirley 
confesses that the author of ' The Ball ' was 
' bribed ' to suppress certain vivacities in it, 
implies that he contemplated a second part 
of that comedy. 13. ' The Arcadia,' pastoral, 
printe'd 161'i< It was never licensed for 
performance, but seems (see act iii. sc. 1) 
to have been first acted in honour of the 
king's birthday (19 Nov.) This clue has 
led Mr. Fleay to the conclusion that the 
play was produced in 1632 ; Carew, lie 
thinks, wrote the lyrics in it. Genest (iv. 
396) states that Shirley's ' Arcadia ' was 
reprinted about the time of the production 
of Macnamara Morgan's ' Philoclea ' (January 
1754), which, however, professes to be inde- 
pendent of it. 14. ' The Beauties,' licensed 
21 Jan. 1633, but renamed 'The Bird iu a 
Cage,' in order to point the reference to 
1 Vynne, then in prison, to whom the farcical 
comedy so named is dedicated (there can 
hanlly be a doubt that this theorv of Mr. 
Fleay's is correct ; no ' Bird in a Cage was ever 
licensed ; and in this play, act iii. sc. 3, the 
court beauties resolve to play an interlude 
and to ' engage the person of the princess in 
the action? See also act i. sc. 1). 'The 
Bird in a Cage ' was revived on the stage in 

1786 (Genest, vi. 399). 15. 'The Young 
Admiral,' romantic comedy, licensed 3 July 

1633, being specially commended by Sir 
Henry Herbert in his office-book as 'free 
from oaths, prophaneness, or obsceanes,' and 
fit to serve ' for a patteme to other poetts, 
not only for the bettring of maners and 
language, but for the improvement of the 
quality,' i.e. the actors, ' which hath re- 
ceivea some brushings of late.' It was 
acted on the following 19 Nov. (the king's 
birthdav) and printed in 1037. It was acted 
before Charles II on 20 Nov. 1662 (Evelyn, 
Diary ^ s.d.) 10. 'The Gamester,' comedy, 
licensed 11 Nov. 1633, and acted 6 Feb. 

1634. Herbert says that it wus made by 
Shirley * out of a plot of the king's,' given 
to the poet by Herbert, and that the king 
'said it was tlie best play he had seen for 
seven year' (the plot seems in part based 
on a novel bv Celio Malespini, or on one by 
the Queen of Navarre, i. 8). Posterity wouli 
seem to have been much of Charles's mind, 
for this clever, though in other respects far 
from faultless, comedy has been repeatedly 
adapted for the stage by later writers. 
Among these are Charles Johnson ('The 
Wife's Relief, or the Husband's Cure,' 1711), 
Garrick ('The Gamesters,' with a notable 
prologue, 1758 and 1773), and John Poole 
('The Wife's Stratagem,' 1827). 17. 'The 
Triumph of Peace,' masque, performed at 
Whitehall 3 Feb., and repeated in Merchant 
Taylors' Hall 11 Feb. 1634; printed in the 
same year in three editions, besides an ana- 
grammatical list of masquers separately pub- 
lished. 18. '.The Example,' comedy, licensed 
1634, printed 1637; revised after the Re- 
storation (see Genest, i. 340). 19. 'The 
Opportunity,' comedy, licensed 29 Nov. 16J34, 
entered in ' Stationers' Register ' April 1639, 
printed 1640. This comedy of ' errors ' was 
revived after the Restoration (Genest, u.s. 
p. 339). One of Kirkman s drolls (1073), 
' A Prince in Conceit,' was taken from this 
play. 20. * The Coronation,' comedy, licensed 
6 teb. 1636, was printed as by Fletcher in 
1640, but was explicitly claimed by Shirley 
as his own, and as ' falsely ascribed to Jo. 
Fletcher ' in a list of his pieces appended to 
* The Cardinal,' when printed among * Six 
New Plays ' in 1663. It was, however, in- 
cluded in the second (1679) folio of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, and in several subse- 
quent editions of their works. Fletcher's 
hand may possibly have contributed an oc- 
casional touch to an early sketch of this 
work (he died in 1625), but there is no 
evidence on which ShirW can be denied 
the credit of its many beauties of diction. 

I Mr. Fleay points out that the first line of 





the prologue (spoken by a woman) implies 
that the title of the play had been changed. 
21. * The Lady of Pleasure/ comedy, licensed 
15 Oct. 1635, and seen acted 8 Dec. of the 
same year by Sir Humphrey Mildmay (see 
the entry of his manuscript diary, ap. Collier, 
ii. 5), printed 1637. This remarkably lively, 
but under another aspect by no means praise- 
worthy, comedy suggested part of the plot, 
and part of the text, of Taverner*s success- 
ful play, 'The Artful Husband,' 1717 (cf. 
Genest, ii. 609). 22. ' The Duke's Mistress,' 
tragedy, licensed 18 Jan. and acted 22 Feb. 
1636 ; printed 1638. 

All the above-mentioned plays were pro- 
duced in London, for the most part at * the 
private house,* i.e. the Cockpit in Drury 
Lane. The following four were produced at 
Dublin. 23. *St. Patrick for Ireland,' 
tragedy, in which the miracle-play elements 
occupy a quite subordinate place, acted at 
Dublin some time between 1636 and 1640, 
and printed in 1040 ; reprinted in Chetwood's 
' Selection of Old Plays,' Dublin, 1651. The 
title-page of the 1640 quarto describes its 
contents as the * First Part ' of the play, and 
tbe promise of a ' Second Part ' (not known 
to have been fulfilled) is held out in both 
prologue and epilogue. 24. ' The Constant 
3laid,' comedy, doubtless acted in Dublin 
during the same period as the preceding play, 
with which it was printed m 1640. Re- 
printed in 1661 under the title of * Love will 
nnde out the Way,' by J. B. ; but the same 
impression was again put forth in 1667 with 
the correct title of *The Constant Maid, 
or Love will finde out the Way,* by J. S. 
25. 'The Royal Master,' tragedy, licensed 
23 April 1638, and printed in the same year, 
* as previously acted,* both in Ogilby's new 
theatre and at the Castle before the lord- 
deputy. The dedication, announcing Shirley 's 
intention of leaving for England, inclines 
Mr. Fleay to think that this play was 
written in the spring of 1637. He conjec- 
tures that the address * To the Irish Gent 
. . .' (supposed by Dyce to have been a pro- 
logue to a lost play, ' The Irish Gentleman') 
was intended as a prologue to * The Royal 
Master,' but the evidence is insufficient. 
The publication of this play was accompanied 
by ten sets of commendatory verses ; the 
pathetic mot\f of the story of Domitilla is 
the same as that of Alfred de Musset's 
charming play, * Carmosine,' and of George 
Eliot's tender little poem, * How Lisa loved 
the King.' 26. *The Doubtful Heir,' ro- 
mantic comedy, produced at Dublin under 
the title of 'Rosania, or Love's Victory' 
(see the 'Prologue' spoken in the Dublin 
tli6tttre| printed in Shirley's < Poems/ 1646). 

Licensed 1 June 1640 as ' Rosania,' and acted 
at the Globe (see the curious * Prologue at 
the Globe to the Doubtful Heir, which should 
have been presented at the Black Friers,' 
printed ib. 1646 : 

Our author did not calculate this play 
For this meridian 

but for a more select audience). Shirley re- 
printed it as one of the ' Six New Plays,' 
1654, ' as it was acted in the private house 
at the Black Friers.' 

The next two plays are thought by 
Mr. Fleay to have been likewise act«d in 
Ireland. 27. 'The Gentleman of Venice,' 
romantic comedy, licensed 30 Oct. 1639, and 
act€d at Salisbury Court (printed 1655). 
28. * The Politician,' tragedy (which suggests 
reminiscences of ' Hamlet ' ), acted at Salis- 
bury Court, and published with the pre- 
cedmg play in 1655. Dyce supposed, with 
much probability, that this may is iden- 
tical with the 'Politique Father,' licensed 
26 May 1641, which, nowever, Mr. Fleay 
supposes to have been the same play as the 

* Brothers.' 

The following plays were produced in 
London, after Shirley's final return horn. 
Dublin. 29. 'The Imposture,' romantic 
comedy, licensed 10 Nov. 1640, printed as 
one of the ' Six New Plays,' 1658. 30. ' The 
Humorous Courtier,' comedy, acted at the 
Cockpit (date unknown) and printed in 1640. 
Mr. Fleay thinks this to be the same play as 
the 'Duke,' licensed 7 May 1631 as by 
Shirley, but not extant under that name, 
and as the ' Conceited Duke,' mentioned by 
Beeston in 1639. 31. 'The Triumph of 
Beauty,' printed 1646 as 'performed at a 
private recreation,' is a dramatic entertain- 
ment on the familiar theme of Peele's 
' Arraignment of Paris,' introducing a very 
palpable imitation of the comic portion of 

* A Midsummer Night's Dream,* a shepherd 
named ' Bottle ' doing duty for Bottom the 
Weaver. Mr. Fleay {^ngUsh Drama, ii. 
244-5) advances an elaborate hypothesis, 
that this entertainment was written about 
1640 as a satire on Thomas Heywood and 
his ' Mayor's Pageants.* The date of its per- 
formance remains conjectural. 32. 'The 
Cardinal,' tragedy, licensed 26 Nov. 1641, 
printed 1663 as one of the ' Six New Plays.* 
This powerful tragedy, which Shirley was 
probably justified in regarding as his master- 
niece, and to the composition of which 
Webster's 'Duchess of Malfy' can hardly 
have been a stranger, was revived after the 
Restoration, and seen by Pepys in 1662. 
83. < The Sisters,* comedy, licensed 26 April 
1642, and printed 1663 with the 



pUv. 'L 

a Match nell mode 

c comedj, written for perfoi 
but not acted, before the civil wars ; printed 
in the -Six New Plays' (1653). It waa re- 
vivtd after the Itefitoralioii(G£i>B3T, i. 301). 
35. 'Cupid and Death,' masque, acted before 
the Portuguese ambassador, printed in 16>i3 
and tai9. 3(J. 'The Contention of Ajax and 
Ulvesi's,' a dramatic entertainment, printed 
in 16.)!J as privately acted. Mr. Fleay thinks 
that it was composed about the same time as 
'The Triumph of Beauty' (c. ISIO), Itcon- 
tsina the famous dii^, commencing ' The 
gloriea of our mortal state,' the recital of 
which is said to have terrified Oliver Crom- 
1T>?1I. It was aOerwards printed as Butler's 
in a volume of ' Posthumous Works.' 

To these may be added another dramatic 
entertainment or masque, ' Ilonoria and Mam- 
mon,' printed with the last-named, an enlarge- 
ment of ' The Contention of Honour and 
Kiches.' In addition to the above, Fletcher's 
'Night Walker' was licensed on 11 May 
1633, as 'corrected ' by Shirley, and acted in 
1034. It remained, however, to all intents 
and purposes Fletcher's (see Flg&t, Englalt 
Droiiui, i. 197). The case is not quit*! the 
aame with Chapman's ' Chabot, Admiral of 
France,' licensed on 39 April 163(i, and 
printed in 1639 as by Chapman and Shirley. 
Dut although Shirley may have made some 
not immaterial additions to this fine tragedy, 
which Chapman may have left incomplete at 
hia death in 1634, there can be liitla doubt 
but that in substance it is to be reckoned 
among Chapman's works, to some of the 
most characteristic of which it exhibits an 
undoubted affinity. 

Unless the hypotheses already noticed as 
to 'The Duke '(licensed on 17 May 1631), , 
*nd as to ' The Beauties ' (licensed on 21 Jan. 
1643), bo accepted, these must be regarded ' 
as lost plays of Shirley's. Other lost plays, 
if they were actually written, are the tra- 

on the 'Stationers' Register' in 1639. To 
him have also been attributed the tragedy 
' Audromana, or the Merchant's Wife ' (1060, 
founded on Sidney's 'Arcadia'), apparently 
for no better reason than that it purported 
to be written by 'J. S.,' and tne tragic 
comedy, ' The Double Falsehood,' which in 
172H Theobald, on the strength of its being 
■imilarly ascribed to 'Sh.,' published as a 
work of Shakespeare revised by himself, 
but of which no copy has been preserved in 
its original form. Farmer's supposition that 
this was one of the plays which Langhaine i 

stated Shirley to have left behind him in 
manuscript commended itself to the judg- 
ment of Dyce. Finally, Mr. A. II. Bullen 
somewhat doubtfully assigns to Shirley the 
disagreeable comedy ' Captain Underwit,' 
reprmted bv him in vol. ii. of his ' Old Eng- 
lish Plays' (1883); internal evidynce fixes 
the date between 1640 and 1642. 

[The Dramatic Works and Poems of Jumea 
Shirley, with notes by William (iilfuc.l, and utl- 
ditional notes, and some ai^ount of Shirley «od 
hia Writings, by Aleiander Djce, 6 vols. 1833. 
Our knowlsdge of Shirley's persoiiul life rests 
almost enlLMlj on Woods fti'cuunt of him in 
Athenaj Oxoniansea, ed. Blisi, 1817, iii. 737-44. 
See ulso : Qenest's Account of the Kn^lish Stage, 
ii. S 1 1-63, et al. ; LirngbaiDp's Aetount of tbo 
English Dramatick Poets, If9l, pp. 474-85; 
The Lives of the Poets of Gre«t liriuin and 
Ireland, by Mr. Cibljar and other hands. 17fi3, 
ii. 26-32 ; T. G, floay'a Biogmphienl Chronicle 
of the English Dram*, 1801, ii. 2S3-47 ; A. W. 
Ward's History of English DmmBllc Literature, 
1875. ii. 309-37. A »erj interesting assay on 
Shirley appeared in the Quarterly Reriew. vol. 
xlix., April and July 1833.] A. W. W. 

said to have been the son of a squire who 
had travelled widely in foreign countries. 
He has not been identified with any 
of the numerous Shirleys recorded in the 
'Stemmata Shirleiaaa' (cf. pp. 39^0), hut 
he was ' a groat traveller in divers coun- 
tries,' and on the monumental brass to hia 
memory in St. Bart hoi omew-t he-Less both 
he and his wife are pictured in the habit 
of pilgrims. lie speaks of hia own ' symple 
understondynge,' and, according to I'rofussor 
Skeat, he was 'an amateur rather than a 
professional scribe;' but Itichard Sellyng 
[q. v.] sent Shirley his poem to revise (Harl. 
MS. 7333, t. 36). In 1+40 he wos living 
' att the full noble, honourable, and renomed 
cit£ of London' 'in hia great and last age' 
(Addit. MS. 6467, f 97). He died on 21 Oct. 
1466, and was buried with his wife Mar- 
garet — by whom he hod eight sons and four 
daughters — in the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew-the-Less, London, where an inscription 
to bis memory is preserved by Stow {Surrey, 
ed. Strype, 1720, bk. iii. pp. 232-3). 

Shirley translated from the Latin into 
English: 1. 'A full lamentable Cronycle of 
the dethe and false murdure of James 
Stewarde, lat« kyn?e of Scotya, naught long 
agone prisoner ynEnglande jd the tymesnf 
the kynges Ilenrye the fift and Heiirye tie 
nixte ; ' the manuscript belon);ed to Italph 
Thoresbv (Bbrsabd, Cat. MS. Anglite, p. 
2dO, No' 759l', art. 6) ; it passed from him 



:>h> (W'ooti, At Arn ..._. ,_....„ ,. 

f A.lJir. MS. A third Jons Suirlet (JI. lftSO-1702), 

more nrobablv distinct 
)it. ed. Bliss, iii. l*>n). 

r, said, on rery doubtful 
n of Jami^s Sliirl^ fq. v 

MS 1 



- MS. 


•\ lU 



1 I 

.-' .\I. 


ini-:ct;llHneous n 
oL-f Siv.ti-^h 

?. l-l^, «nJ the dramatist (Hu.vter, Ciorui' Tafi'm, 
l''.xh. The iii. 4i!IJ). wiitheauthorof: l.'AnAbridg- 
• •s-r trac*- mt^nr of the History of Onv, Esrl of Wnr- 
=-.* Miril>i:n' wick,' London, ItW'l, 4tn. IJrit. Mus. a.'Thfl 
:hT FriCi-U of History oflteynard tlieJ'ox: in Ihtiiic Terse,' 
■tf>ri S^'r*- Ljniloii, HM*r, 8to. 3. 'EcHi-jiastical His- 
r lV;n,.vs*.:r. t.>rvK].itomL«wl,'London,l(i.S:.',*vo. 4.'Tlw 
Laria. Honour of Chivnlir,' London, 1(VS3, 4(o. 

ruv was vh 5. •TlwIlliiMriousriistorvofWomen.'Lnn- 
'.liiCrr. I.rl- don.lti.'l^, l:imo. 6. ' ATnieAccount of llie 
i-s* of ^'_r;r Enteqiriseoftlieronfederatcl'rinces against 
r him*!-'.!. «T^ the Tiirka and Hito^rian Itehcls,' ]>»ndnn, 
. r;!:,;l. A •'.::. lliNJ, 4to. 7. 'The Accompli slind Lmly"» 
,', Trin. C.'Il, liich Closet of liarities,' London, lor, 
S;-3MS. ■■>? l-'mo. (-. 'The Triumph of Wit,' Looa-in, 
.■r;:T:'^i: the l'i?ri. Svo; 6th edit. 1724, 12mo. ». 'An 
-i.'".-.i"0"r:i!ie' Abridgment of thp History of Amadi? of 
;y,'::-.r' • K' ^m- t !aul.' London, 1 TOL', l^iino. 10. ' Ori'at 
,T .'f Ar.vlid.i." Britain's Glory : nn HbridRmont of the " Ilis- 
;r.:',' •Twth,* tiTv of King Arthur,'" I.rfindon, 4to. 
i*:r-i**i.^ the ri,,»n.Wi, EiU. Mumuil, ii. 2387; Om/s 
,v "t 'v-if^-a^nl ir..i-i loHailitt; Foslera Alumni Oxon. l.Vl'o- 

-=:■ = ■•"-■'• 1714.] E.LC. 

^.« i, II.:. SHIRLEY, LAl'REXCE, fourth T.ket. 
'..•U ys. o.U. Fi:i:BEiwtl7-'0-17l50),bornou]HAuff.iri'0, 
i'-_''»: *:,-'»'* wa* the eldest son of the JIoii. I^uren«) 
Shirley, by his wife Anne, fourth daiigUt'er 
of Sir Walter Clarftef, bart. His father wna 
y.'uniest son of Itobert Shirley, first rarl 
Venvre, Walter Shirley [q. v.] wnaayounper 
lirtither. Laurence matriculated at Oxford 
from Christ Church on 28 April 1737, bnt 
left the tuiiversity withont taking a depree, 
[■.•.•i.*o:iiT. .'1 i.i'nil.'n, H.- succoeded to the title o-h fourth carl on 
>>t'St.lto;o:|ih. .V'.iii'cs- lli>< death of hisuncleHcnrvin August 174-% 
tS. U<' m.iiri.'u'.nli'd and look his seat in tbe ifonae of T./Ords on 
t>\i'.>i\!, on 17 M-iivh -'I Oct. {oUovring {Joumah of the Jloiue "/ 
;ir lu liM>r, tirsdiiaied /^-rrf*, .tivi. 510). Sospeechof his is to Iw 
mid M .\. >>it '.*.'' Ni>v. fiinnd in the ' Parliamentary History,' lint he 
,1 :in t.i;\f 'iHi.t. Siiiii enteral a protest against the war in Flanders 
« |<t\i|>ni i.iunri f<<l1>>w. on '2 May 174R, and another ogainiit the bill 
iiiiii.iriil I'.'iiilu'oi U>fori' fiir the abolition of heritable iuriBdictions 
I.H.I ,'\, 11,1 n-- In Scotland on 21 May 1747 (ItOOBBs, Pnt- 

-■ '-'- "^r r,onfo, 1876,11.46-51). 

I . I . . :., . .. .,.:';i his behaTiour occasionally 

; .1.. l:., .-- i;. . ,,ii. ;;:,-■. Ferrers Bcema to have been quite 

i-ripuble of managing his own affairs. He 
married, on 16 Sept. 1762, Mary, youngest 
daughter of Amos Meredith, and grand- 
lUujjhti^r of Sir William Meredith, but., of 
lli'iibury, Cheshire. She obtained an act of 
SMjiiiniiion from him for cruelly on 20 Jnna 
17 Ad, when the Ferrera estates wei« vetted 
" ' k oertaio Jolm JohsMm, her haa- 

yrha lud be«n in the lernM 

.-.:-n::-.. w.- 


.'. »Jr.. -.:.-«. ■:t.A 

1»>1IN I 

U•^> l.C!> 

uf tlin ValinHt mid 
ijIi, Ki„ with hi* 




of the Shirleys for many years, being subse- 
quently appointt^d receiver of the rents. 
Though on friendly terms with Johnson pre- 
viously, Ferrers appears to have contracted 
a great dislike to him after his appointment 
as receiver. Failing to turn him out of a 
farm of which the trustees of the Ferrers 
estates had recently granted him a lease, 
Ferrers, on 18 Jan. 1760, deliberately shot 
him with a pistol at his house at Staunton 
liarrold in Leicestershire, having previously 
locked the door of the room in wliich they 
were conversing. Johnson died from the effects 
of the wound on the following day. On the 
same day Ferrers was arrested and taken to 
a public-house at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, where 
he was kept until the 21st, when he was 
fiont to I^icester gaol. On 14 Feb. he was 
carried before the House of Lords, and, on 
the proceedings at the coroner's inquest being 
read, was committed to the Tower, lie was 
tried bv his peers in Westminster Hall on 
lit April and on the following days. Lord- 
keeper Henley presided as lord high steward, 
while Pratt, the attorney-general, Yorke the 
solicitor-general, and George Perrott (after- 
wards a baron of the exchequer) were coun- 
8*^1 for the crown. Ferrers pleaded not 
guilty, and set up the plea of ' occasional in- 
sanity of mind. Though he called many 
witnesses, includmg two of his brothers, he 
completely failed to prove that he was not 
responsible for his actions, and he was unani- 
mously found guilty of murder. 

Ferrers was sentenced to be hanged on 
21 April, but was subsequently respited 
nntil 5 May. While in the Tower he was 
frequently visited by his first cousin Selina 
Hastings, the famous Countess of Huntingdon 
[n. V.I On 6 May Ferrers, dressed in a suit 
of light clothes embroidered with silver, was 
driven in his own landau, drawn by six 
horses, from the Tower to the gallows at 
Tyburn, where he was hanged in the presence 
of an enormous crowd. He is said to have 
been * the first sufferer by the new drop just 
then introduced in the place of the barbarous 
cart, ladder, and memneval three-cornered 
gibbet ' (All the Year Roundy new ser. vii. 
180; see Walpole, Letters, ia57-9, iii. 304, 
310). There appears to be no foundation for 
t!ie oft- repeated statement that Ferrers was 
hanged with a silken cord instead of a 
hempen rope. The cord of silk which he 
wished to be used on this occasion is said to 
have formed part of a sing^ar collection of 
historic ropM belonging to an eccentric mem- 
ber of the Humane Society (Hatward, Bio- 
graphical and Critical Esfays, 1873, ii. 29). 
The bodjy after being duly ' dissected and 
•nrntomised * at the Surgeons' Hall, was pri- 

vately buried under the belfry of the church 
of St. Pancras. On 3 June 1782 the remains 
were disinterred and removed to Staunton 
Harrold. Ferrers left by his will 1,000/. 
each to his four natural daughters, GO/, a 
year to their mother, Mrs. Clifford, and 
1,300/. to the daughters of the murdered 
Johnson. Lady Ferrers married, secondly, 
on 28 March 1769, Lord Frederick Campbell, 
lord clerk register of Scotland, third son of 
John, fourth duke of Argyll, and was acci- 
dentally burnt to death at Combe Bank, 
Sundridge, Kent, in July 1807. There is a 
largo print of the execution of Ferrers at 
the Salt Library at Stafford. An engraving 
of Ferrers * as he lay in his coilin in Sur- 
geons' Hall,' with his hat and halter at his 
feet, is prefixed to the ' Memoirs ' of his life, 
published by J. Coote in 1760 (London, 8vo). 
There being no issue of his marriage, Ferrers 
was succeeded by his brother, 

Washington Shibley, fifth EarlFjjrrebs 
(1722-1778), bom on 26 May 1722, who en- 
tered the navy at an early age. He was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant on G Jan. 1741, 
first lieutenant on 9 Jan. 1746, and post- 
captain on 19 April 1746. He took his 8ent 
in the House of Lords on 19 May 1760 
(Journal of the Houne of LonU, xxix. 690). 
He was elected a fellow of the Itoyal Society 
on 14 Dec. 1761 for his observations on the 
transit of Venus and 'other useful dis- 
coveries tending to the improvement of ma- 
thematical knowledge ' (Collins, Peerage of 
England, 1812, iv. 103). The king, by letters 
patent dated 6 Dec. 1763, confirmed by a 
private act of parliament passed in March 
1771, regranted to him such estates as had 
been forfeited by the fourth earl. He was 
further appointed rear-admiral of the white 
on 31 March 1775, vice-admiral of the blue 
on 7 Dec. 1775, and vice-admiral of the 
white on 29 Jan. 1778. He died at (.'hartley 
in Staffordshire on 2 Oct. 1778, aged 56, and 
was buried at Staunton Harrold. Ferrers 
sold the family estates at Astwell, Brails- 
ford, and Shirley, and out of the proceeds of 
these sales rebuilt the house at Staunton 
Harrold in the Palladian style. lx*aving no 
issue by his wife Anne, daughter of John 
Elliot of Plymouth, who died at Hampton 
Court on 26 March 1791, aged i\H, he was 
succeeded in the earldom by his brother 
Robert, from whom the present earl is de- 

Portraits of the fourth and fifth earls are 
reproduced in Doyle's *01ficial Baronage' 
(1886, i. 742). 

[Authorities quoted in text; IloweH's State 
Trials, 1816, xix. 885-980; Burkes Celebratwl 
Trials connected with the Aristocracy, 18-19, pp. 



193-.aa;; W^lforci's KumiliL-s, 
1890, pp. 6i'-fl3 ; CfHilij"!;']! Liii^rar/ wrd Miit- 
CBllaDBuiiB Memoin', 1829, i. 8-9; Lil'e And 
Times lit Seliim, O.iiiiti.'wt of Huiitiiig.lon. 1839. 
1.401-3; Temjile l!«r, liii. 316-33; (ient.Miig. 
175-2 p. 432, 17S0 pp. -14, tOU. liil, 198. IDS, 20il, 
23J-B. 246, 247, 1778 p. 495, 1791 i. 382, 1807 
ii. 783; Annual RB^iBler, I7G(I, ii, 38-47; 
R. E. C.'i Completu Peeraeo. iii. 337-8; Iturki-'a 
Peenjgo. lir., 18Ufl, Jip. 54, /i54-6; 


1. 171n 

, 2iid ser. 

. 369, C 

[. 398. 34D, 43S. i. iS.] 

a. F. E. B. 

commonly culled SiH I'fvuKBt Shirley or 
Cm-KT SiilKLBT (1581 P-lfi28'), envoy in tile 
twrviceoftbe shah ofreraia, bom about liiSl, 
wusyouiipestsonof SirTbomnaSiiirlty 'Ihe 
eldi'r' of \Vi»toii, and wns brother of Sir 
Tbomafl Shirley [ij. t,] and of Sir Antbony 
Shirley 'fj. v.] IIp nccompanied his brother 
Ambn'ii'- "I! til- •^h..rl]v.. .^TptHiition to Fer- 

rarn ill l-.'i- ' ■' t,-, J'ersia. When, 

atll... 1 ■■ ■■' ' \ -I'Miiv left Persia on 
hi? "1!-- - '•( Europe, Uob«rt 

rem^iiii' <l I" Lii I v li 1i ir. i- ] English attendants, 
as the RiiH^i iirih..'iili;ili Abbas". The reports 
that were circulated in Ii)n({tiind as to ihu 
favours sliowerpd on Hobort and his fellow 
Christians In- the shah warn i^catly exnjfpo- 
ratcd (i;f. Sixost, 7'Arfe Brolhrrt, 1007). 
Hobtfrt fu'ems to have employed himself use- 
fully in imiirovinglhi? disci pi me ofthe I'-—'-" 

1 the 11 

artillery. Ilut the ahah was nigsardly 
allowances, and on '2'i May 1(105 Robert 
wrote from TftbreKZ to his brother Anthony 
that be was rcHohed torjuit the country if he 

veeuithat the failureof .Vnthony'e despatches 
to reach the Persian court greatly imperilled 
hia own position there. Tie wasesteemed, he 
wrote, 'u common liar," llefore 1 1«)7 be mar- 
ried Teresin, daughter of Ismael Khan, a Cir- 
ca.'wian of noble birth and of Christian faith, 
who was related to one of the Circassian 
wires of ehali Abliaa. 

Owing to Sir Anthony's long silence, the 
shah in 1007 determined to send a second 
embassy lo James I and lo the Cbristinn 1 
princes of Europe, to iiivile their aid in a 
crusade against the Turks and to promote i 
commercial relationn. liobert was selected . 
M hia ™voy. He left I'prsia witli his wife 
on 12 Feb. IfiOi-S, 'well accompanied and 
furnished.' At Cracow 8 igismiind III, king ' 
of Poland, entertained him handsomely (cf I 
Thojias SIibdletoh, Sir S. SAerley itrtt I 
ambauadiiur . . . to SigUmond the third, I 

IfWJ, dedicaU-d to Kobf^rt'sbrfil her Thomas; 
reprinted in HaHeian AlUtcllaiiy, v.) In 
Juno 1609 the Emperor lludolf ll rweiv.-d 
him at I'rapue, and not only kniffhted him 
(2 June), but created bim a count palatine 
of the empire. King James, to whom he at 
once annoiincedhisnrriTal in Europe, recom- 
mended him lo complete his mission on the 
continent before repairing toEn^jland. Ac- 
cordingly, leaving his wife at I'rague, Jtnbert 
proceeded to Florence, where the grand duke 
gave him a gold cbain valued at eight 
hundred crowns, and on 27 Sept. 1809 
be made liis entry into Rome, wearing in 
his turban a crucifi.v of gold (he alwaya 
dressed in Persian costume). The popa 
(Paul V) received him in audience on 
the 29th (Italian tract, Bologna, 1009), 
and, according to Purchas (iii. 1806). ereati^ 
him count of the sacred Tialace of the Latemn 
and his chainbPTkin. At the same time he 
was granted the power of lecilimntir<ing 
bostanls (Abbot to Sir Thomas Itoe, 20 Jan. 
1G18). At MiUn he had a brief meeting 
with his brother Anthony, but soon left to 

fursue his diplomatic adventures in Spain. 
lerenchedBan/elona 'with his great turban' 
early in December ICCfO, and was at Alcala 
next month. The Spanish court did not 
show him much courtesy, but a tedious 
commercial negotiation, which came to little, 
detained him at Madrid for more than a 
year. The English ambassador. Sir Francis 
Cottinglon, whom he frequently visited, re- 
ported that he was a man of ' wise and dis- 
creet carriage ' and ' both modest and more- 
over brave in bis speech, diet, and o.vpenses.' 
Id February 161 1 he welcomed hia brother 
Anthony, who was sufleringextremeporerty, 
to his house at Madrid, and next month 
his wife arrived. In the summer he left for 
England, and in August he was staying with 
his father at the family seat of Wiston. On 
1 Oct. James I received him graciously at 
Hampton Court. Four merchants of the 
I,evant Company were appointed to attend 
him, 4/. a day was allowed him for hia diet, 
and GO/, a quarter for bouse rent ; but the 
Levant merchants were unwilling tocounte- 
nance any mercantile treaty with Persia, on 
the ground that it would hamper their rain- 
able trade with Turker. On 4 Xor 1611 
Itnbert flrni.nincedti,nenry,prince.jf\V(d"S 
the binh of a son — hia only child — and re- 
quested him to stand godfather. Theboywaa 
accordingly baptised in the name of Henry. 
On 13 Jan. 1612-13 Robert left Londonon 
his return jnurney to Persia. He went by 
sea. Guadal was reached in September 1613, 
and he narrowly escaped a plot of the Portu- 
guese settlers there to blow up hia lodginga 




with grunpnwder. When the ' j^reat mogul ' 
(the Emperor Jehan^r) learned of the 
cowardly attempt on his life, he summoned 
him to idurat, where a hospitable reception 
was accorded him during a sojourn extend- 
ing over more than a year. At length in 
June 1015 he arrived at Ispahan. There he 
and all his companions were the victims of 
A conspiracy to poison them. He and his 
wife alone recovered. At the end of the year 
he was fortunately ordered to Europe to 
negotiate anew on the shah^s behalf. After 
a ten months' stay at Goa, he landed at Lis^ 
foon in the summer of 1617, when the king 
of Spain invited him to Madrid. There the 
Spanish government made him the liberal 
allowance of fifteen hundred ducats a month, 
in addition to provision for house-rent and 
a coach. Although his diplomatic labours 
progressed slowly, he stayed on till the spring 
of 1622, in the full enjoyment of court favour. 
Subsequently he paid a visit to Gregory XV 
at Itome, and Vandyck painted his own and 
Lis wife's portrait. In January 1624 he 
arrived a^m in England. While staying 
with his sister. Lady Crofts, at Saxham, Suf- 
folk, he visited James I at Newmarket 
(27 Jan.) and presented his letters of cre- 
dence (in Persian). Contrary to Persian 
etiquette, he removed his turban in the 
king's presence. During the rest of 
the year he resided at a house provided 
for nim by the government on Tower 
Hill, and persistently urged on the Eng- 
lish ministers his project for opening up 
trade between Persia and England. In 1625 
another envoy from the shah arrived in 
London in the person of a Persian nobleman, 
named Najdi lieg. With the newcomer 
Shirley engaged in a furious quarrel, and the 
English government, unable to reconcile the 
two envoys, recommended that they should 
both return to Persia, in the company of 
an English agent. Sir Dodmore Cotton (cf. 
FiXBT, Philfhrenis, 1056). They set forth in 
separate ships, at the earnest petition of 
Robert Shirley's wife, in March 1627. The 
Persian Gulf was reached on 29 Nov. 1627, 
and soon afterwards Sliirley's rival, Najdi 
Beg, acknowledged himself in the wrong 
by committing suicide. Shirley was well 
received on his way to the shah's court at 
Kazyeen,whichhereachedearly in June 1628. 
There the king's favourite, Mahomet Ali Beg, 
complained that his diplomatic performances 
• were frivolous and counterfeit,' and an- 
nounced that the shah had no further use for 
his services. Shirley took this rebuff to 
heart, and died on 13 July 1628, within six 
wet^ks of his arrival in Kazveen. lie was 
buried by his friends, under the threshold of 

his own house in that city (Sir Thomas 
Herbert, Trai^h, pp. 170, 202-4). Ac- 
cording to Sir Thomas Herbert-, who was at 
Kazveen during Shirley's last days, the shah 
lamented his death, saying that Mie had 
done more for him than any of his native 

Shirley's widow retired to Borne, where 
she was held in esteem on account of her 
devotion to the catholic faith. In 16*58 she 
caused her husband's remains to be reint erred 
there in the church of Santa Maria della 
Scala. She seems to have resided in the 
convent attached to the church, and dying in 
1668 to have been buried in the tomb which 
she prepared for her husband. To her and 
Sir Robert's only son, Henry, Lady Shirley 
(his grandmother) left 40/. a year in 1623, 
making at the same time a bequest to a young 
Persian companion, William Narerbeg. 
Henry Shirley was alive in England in 1626, 
but died there soon afterguards. 

Vandyck's portraits of Bobert and his 
wife, painted at Bome in 1622, are at Pet^ 
worth, and that of Sir Bobert is engraved 
in Nichols's* Leicestershire.' Hollar engraved 
a different portrait of Lady Teresia assigned 
to VandycK. A portrait (apparently by a 
Dutch painter) of Kobert in his characteristic 
turban and eastern costume, with a Persian 
inscription to the right of the head, is, with 
another of his wife, at Ettington. A rare 
print of a third portrait of Bobert. is embel- 
lished by a miniature representation of Shir- 
ley's reception at Bome in 1601). A fourth 
painting belongs to Earl Ferrers. Others 
are said to be at the convent of Santa Maria 
della Scala at Bome. A miniat ure by Oliver 
of Sir Bobert was at Strawberry Hill, and 
one of Lady Teresia is at Windsor Castle. 

[Shirley's Stemmata Shirleiana, 1873, pp. 279- 
287 ; authorities cited in toxt and under art. 
Shiblkt, Sib Aicthony. A popsiping and eulo- 
gistic account of Robert Shirley's Circassian wife 
— * Teresa Comitissa ex Persia * — is given in 
Nicius Erythrffius' Pinacotheca Tertia(now edit. 
1712, pp. 797-807).] S. L. 

SHIRLEY, Sib BOBEBT (1629-1656), 
fourth baronet, royalist, bom in 1629, 
was the second son of Sir Henry Shirley, 
second baronet, of Eatington in \Varwick- 
shire, and of Staunton Harrold in Leicester- 
shire. His grandfather. Sir George Shirley, 
was created a baronet in 1611 on the insti- 
tution of the order. His mother Dorothy 
was the second daughter of Bobert Devereux, 
second earl of Essex [(j. v.l Although the 
Shirley family had remained catholic, Bobert 
was eaucated by his mother in the protestant 
faith. On 12 Aug. 1645 he was admitted a 

Sriir.ey 155 Shirley 

f. . V ...jii r.-T ::•' r: .^ '---r. :. Hrrr. SHIRLEY or SHERLEY, Sir THU- 
^-vv. ',.-. :^--: I.'-yrr' / A \.?f...'^ ..■■..* . MA^ < lolU-l(>30r), adventurer, bom in 

I-. * .-: : M..'.-.-^- fri-'. z :ir I-tl:!-. :: Lis 1>'4. was eldest son of Sir Thomas Shirloy, 
K.--.*.. ■.-. ^.." ' ■-ir.-r '•i-rlrj. Ir * :M-rr-i- : :o • :L- ilier.* of Wiston, Sussex, who marrit^d, 
f'r.r ^^:>^■:V:■ 1- i-:-:.i:r- --iTr:ir-Tij".L-'-:p in 155v», Anne (^r/. 1023), daughter of Sir 
M ;. -! '-^':.■r. •-..: K-.T- :*E-s-x. Alz: .^s: ::l.- Th-sias Kempe of OUantighein Wye, Kent, 
r/i"':. i*'ly. r .r.'.-ir.- :> :Lr iivio^ of L:? .Sir Anthony Shirley [q. v.] and l{ob»»rt 
^:iir'!.in »irrl fizi.V.y. hrr marrir'i Katherlne, Shirley q. v." were his younger brothers. 
d«'i/ht*-r '.!" lIriri*j.Lr';y< ►kvov-.r of Ukr-Vt-r. The founder of the Wiston branch of the 
Ht.ill'ipl liin-. " family, lialph Shirley or Sherley (//. 1510), 

Oji It S«-|iT. 1 <i U't lii> moth*.-r's fathvr, the sheriii'of Surrey and Sussex in 1504, was son, 
Dull ot r.-.-«"X,<li*:d int f.-.- tale, and Shirli-y sue- bv a second marriage, of llalph Shirley of 
ri.i-|,.,| t.,, iL inoii'ly of liis estates, including Eltrington (d. 14(>l>). 

riiMitliy in St siMonlsliire, property at New- SiK Tho3Ias Shiblet (1542-1012) of 
t'i\<\ Im-iumIit-I aiu', t hi; tenements in London Wiston, the father of the subject of the pre- 
ii'limiiiiiir I'.H r\ Mouse, ji rent-charge of 300/. sent notice, was great-grandson of Rnlph 
liMiii I III' ( 'iirih:;!iii rst Jitrs, and lialft he barony Shirley of "NViston and son of William Shir- 
• i) I iiinliiiii) ill Muniiglmn. Thereupon he lev ('/. lool>. He is said to have abandoned 
ii>iiri>i| In ilii" i'.Miulry and took up arms for the lioman catholic faith, to which the elder 
III.- liiH): III lh.« wiuttT of 1047 8 he was branch of the family and his own sons ad- 
iii lUi.M.I em. I « I''*! ill 'd in St. .John's College. ! hered. Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. 
Ml. I ili.i iN.rimon ol Charles I he was in- ■ patronised him. He was elected M.P. for 
i..i<...l til pl.»! . I',<r M l^'storation of the mon- Sussex in 1572, and again in 15i)2, while he 
.i,,.in *»u I M.n U»*»Oa warrant was issued sat for Steyning in 1584, 1601, and 1B03. 
I'.i 1..^ , .■miniti.'d t.» the Tower, l)Ut he was Ho was knighteil at live on 12 Aug. 1573, 
4 I » . .t III \y » 't'l •• %Mi liuilingtwo si»curities i and served as slieritV of Sussex and Surrey 
(.« mkk« ^\-- N:.:V /*.:;v.«. Pom. K550, ! in 1578. He r^'built the house at Wiston. 
|. . . .;..» I U.' ^ .'Mi .Mi\, d. ju»'\\ itlistanding, to , In 1585-0 he accompanied Leicester to the 
..4. ... Ill V .' i-j«'; u- .". ;u:iin>: the C\immon- | Low Countries with a troop of liis own 
,, .'.. 4 V \ .1 '". /*■/■'*, i'atuvh'u Soc. ii. raising, and was on 1 Feb. 1587 appointed 
.1-1 Vi.ii- w ..' J.-,»\v"A'il »t his dwelling ' trensurer-at-war to the English army serv- 
i.4 l»' HI yi . . N. /'•■;. ^. iViu, li»50 7, ing in the Low Countries. In that capacity 
y i iv" lit I v\ K ;i--,ii\i'.>'i»i" I'.u oonduot he he involved himsidf inextricably in debt to 
.1 . 1....1 i;:i: H ^.iitifud n\ the T*»wer. the crown. In 1588 his goo<]s* at Wiston 
i I. I I. .1 .1 .'11 -*^ Nov. [y''*C\ :ind was were seized by the sheriff. In 1591 thequetm 
I...I. I I., ii. ii!i. ill' v.'m'ui-I v»r i''.i.' v'h'.irv'h at appointed a commission to inquire into his 
. , ..lui .11 M i:.''!. w'i.^'i lio l'.;i I ivbuiU. Hy ivcuniary position. Efforts to si»cure, by 
I.. »,ll Ii '.1'. U\HV. U'l '.Ik M>l'.i'»i'p'TSx>!\s I.onlBurghley'8 influence, the con trollership 
i. II. .1 I ■. i". . .■ 1 •> i'' \ U' r'i;i!lov'» L r»y of the royal household failed, and in March 
1,1 ,» ,1. I\ ii!i -A, \v!! ' 'i d^'M InvVi. li'r., l-V.Hut was reported that* he owed the qmvn 
t, 1, 1. 1 111. iSl.:iu ' ..'.r^.'Ms: S.'\iiivnir. mori* than he was worth,' and that his in- 
i). iinli I'.n.'in'. . >: \\.i: I'.wi'.o d'.od >o iiiii ; di<oretions had cost him the loss of goo<l 
....I i; .'.I ii. -. \i=:.Ii 1 noiui :nid !!iN' Uirv'ti triends. His distresses proved incurable. On 
I .. , ml iw.'.Liiuh:.:.- K.ji!u:'Uv'. w!i » 15 March 1603-4, the day of James I's 

I ,1 r. i, 1 \ 1 1' il»'.'.. ..iV-.'.l bii-vu o!" KiM- formal entry into London, he was arrested 

I .. It III I 'i.^'i '.. . .ml I* »'\''liv, ^^vvii.l wile t'v^r liebt, while M.P. for Steyning, on the 

III .1. . \ . I ..Ml v<i ^uI'mi-.v "i l>i'vl.»\>'i'.ri', ivtition of a goldsmith, and was sent to the 

r ..II k.i .111 u- U'l' vi .i:id hi-iwii-.' :i:v ar l'*tv!. Parliament raised the question of 

■ I.. ..11 III I'll ii »«i "'ir U.»l.'!-i is iiT-vib-iUvl priv'.lrjje, and the obduracy of tlie warden 

I \.. Ills. I. Iw iv^il'^ ip,Mi'.il;^oi hi'n \\o-.v of t)ie Fhvt in releasing Shirley caused 

I- •tii.liii IM' .11 I'u' M.- ira-;'.' ol T'Ae^ miu'h public excitement (Owi?«<;7?VJoi/niflf/j«: 

I" III .j. ,loio riu!o iiv :iUv» p.»rtiMii> ,'f SrtuuiSi;. liac^n, iii. 173-6). For Shirley 

b'Ui liu>liaiiil .iiiil wiio bili-U'iuih ht is chiiuu'xl the distinction of first suggesting 

punm't hiMi-^o ai S',ulliu!\ iulVrb)- to Jam-.'s I the cri»at ion of the rankof baronets 

v.^»*i*^it'V. ^Yf*«lWlfl/rt, p. 256). He died in 

mi.'ihulou.:*. p \r.: K\<^'.\\\\'.iT- '^^'^^ iHviiniar>- distress in October 161i>, 

WiMtin, N y k'>k\: Ni.'lioNx Hi>i. ol a»d was burit^ in the church at Wiston, 

hill' III ;i;i. Piii^aiU'-W.uviix-k^'iiw when* a ra«nuiment to his memory still 

Hull M^ 4o:;5. t. :^». limrW- stands. Thn^L^ sons— a far-famed Meash of 

Fi * ^ ' * * . » ;si>, 4 7 a, ti»t> ; Slave lovs U i>t . bret hrt»n/ in Fuller's phrase — with six daugh- 

UMuii, illiii^^^l49. ] i:* 1. C. tors, survireil him. 




The son Thomas, with his younger brother, 
Anthony, matriculated from Hart Hall, Ox- 
ford, in 1579, but left the university without 
taking a degree. In 1585 he accompanied his 
father and brother to the Low Countries, and 
on returning home saw some military service 
in Ireland, where he was knighted by the lord 
deputy. Sir William Fitzwilliam, on 26 Oct. 
15J:i9. Subsequently he visited the court, 
but in the summer of 1591 he greatly im- 
perilled his prospects by a secret marriage 
with Frances, daughter of Henry Vavasour 
of Coppenthorp, of a younger branch of the 
Vavasours of Ilazlewood, Yorkshire. "When 
the news of the marriage reached the queen*s 
ears, she promptly committed Shirley to the 
Marshalsea (September). He remained in 
prison till the spring of 1592. In 1593 he 
sen'cd again in the Low Countries, now 
holding the rank of * captain.^ Meanwhile his 
father's pecuniary ditticulties were increas- 
ing, and they involved him, too, in hopeless 
embarrassment. AVith a view to securing a 
means of livelihood, he resolved to fit out 
a privateering expedition to attack Spanish 
merchandise. Alter handing over his com- 
pany at Flushing to Sir Thomas Vavasour, 
his wife's kinsman, he in the summer of 1598 
made a vovage in the Channel, and seized four 

* hulks' of Liibeck, the freight of which was 
reputed to be Spanish. In Itiol he was elected 
M.P. for both Bramber and Hastings, but 
sat for the latter place. In 1002 he renewed 
his privateering adventures, and pillaged 

* two po<»r hamlets of two dozen houses in 
I'ortugal.* At the end of 1602 he equipped 
two ships on a more ambitious quest in the 
Levant. He designed to striKe a blow 
against the Turks. At Florence the Duke 
of Tuscany gave him every encouragement, 
but an imprudent descent on the island of 
Zea, on 15 Jan. 1602-3, led to his capture 
by the Turks. He was transferred to Negro- 
pont on 20 March, and on 25 July 1C03 he 
was carried a close prisoner to Constant inople. | 
News of his misfortunes reached England, 
and James I appealed to the government of 
the sultan to release him. The English am- 
bassador to the Porte, Henry Lello, used 
every effort on his behalf, and at length, on 
Dec. 1605, after eleven hundred dollars 
had been paid to his gaolers, he was set free. 
IJetiring to Naples, he was described by 
Toby Mathew,on 8 Aug. 1606, as living there 

* like a gallant.' At the end of the same 
year he returned to England. 

In September 1607 he was imprisoned in 
the Tower on a charge of illegal interference 
with the operations of the Levant Company. 
He had 'overbusied himself,' it was said, 
' with the traffic of Constantinople, to have 

brought it to Venice and to the Florentine 
territories.' In A ugust 1611 he was confined 
in the king's bench as an insolvent debtor. 
The death of his father next year, and his 
second marriage ^n 2 Dec. 1617, at Deptford) 
with a widow, Judith Taylor, daughter of 
William Bennet of London, by whom he had 
a large family, greatly increased his diflicul- 
ties. Wiston, which had fallen into ruins, 
was sold, but he continued to sit in parlia- 
ment as M.P. for Steyning in 1614, 1615, 
and 1620. Sir Thomas is said to have subse- 
quently retired to the Isle of Wight, and to 
have died there about 1630. By liis first wife, 
Frances Vavasour, ho had three sons and 
four daughters. Ilenrv [q. v.l the second son, 
was the dramatist, 'the only surviving son 
Thomas was baptised at West Clandon, 
Surrey, on 30 June 1597, was knighted in 
1645 by Charles I at Oxford, was alive in 
1664, and was fat her of Thomas Sherley [q.v.l, 
the physician, By his second wife, Judith 
Taylor, Sir Thomas had five sons and six 

Shirley left in manuscript a * Discours of 
the Turkes,' which is now at Lambeth. 

[Stemmata Shirleiana, 1873, pp. 248-72 ; The 
Shirley Brothers, by One of the same House (i.e. 
Evelyn Philip Shirley, for Roxburghe Club, 
1848); Nixon's Three Brothers, 1CU7, with the 
play of John Dny, George Wilkins, and Willinm 
Kowley, which recounts Shirley's adventures in 
Turkey ; other authorities cited in text and 
under Shiulby, Siu Anthont.] S. L. 

SHIRLEY, WALTER (172r>-1786), 
hymn-writer, fourth son of the Hon. Lau- 
rence Shirley and Anne, daughter of Sir 
Walter Claries, hart., was bom at Staunton 
llarrold, Leicestershire, on 2S Sept. 1725. 
His father was voungest son of Kobert Shir- 
ley, first Earl Verrers. Laurence Shirley, 
fourth earl [(j. v.], was his elder brother, and 
Selina Hastings, countess of Huntingdon 
[q. v.], was his first cousin. In 1742 Walter 
matriculated from New College, Oxford, 
graduating B.A. in 1740, and the same year 
became rector of Loughrea, co. Galway. 
His family connection with the Countess of 
Huntingdon brought him into intimate touch 
with the revivalist movements of the time. 
He became friendly with the Wesleys and 
Whitefield, and from about 1 7o8 was one of 
the most loval friends thev had within the 

W ft* 

pale of the church, to which he adhered to the 
end. The practice of the day permitted him 
to be frequently absent from Loughrea, and 
he was a familiar speaker at English and Irish 
revivalist meetinp^s. Southey remarks that 
his intentions in his advocacv of Weslev were 
better than his judgment, for he belon^jed to 
the narrowest and most dogmatic section of 

tlie movement. Tl'is work aa a revivalist 
preacher brought him repeatedly into conflict 
with his bishop and fellow ciBrgy. The 
Vishap of Cloufert censured him in June 
lT78nnd advised him Co drophialuetliodi^m, 
wliila some clergyniBn petitioned the arch- 
biahop to reprimand him for preaching in 
Plunkett Street Chapel, Dublin. 

In the famous metbodist controverev on 
justification by faith provoked by Wesley's 
Arminianigm and tlie proceedings at the 
conference of 1770, Shirley look an active 
part on the Oalviuist sidit with his cousin, 
the Countess of Huntingdon, as whose chap- 
lain he acted for a time, and Au^stus Top- 
lady. A circular issued by him inviting 
the cleiity and laity to oppoae Wesley drew 
from John William Fletcher [q. v.] of Made- 
ley the well-known ' Checks to Antino- 
tnionism,' and Shirley's infiuence was rather 
to embitter the dispute than to settle it. 
William Roraaioe [q. v.], Henry Venn [q. v.], 
and John Berridgu [q. v,] were among his 
closest associates. In bis later years he 
aulfared from dropsy, and of this he died on 
r April 1786: he was buried in St. Mary's 
Church, Dublin. He married, on 11 Aug. 
1763, Henrietta Maria, eldest daughter of 
John PhillipH of Dublin, and by her had two 
sons and three daughters. His elder son, 
Walter.wasfutherofWalter Augustus Shir- 
ley [q. v.] His portrait hangs in the library 
of Cheshuiit College, in the foundation of 
which he took an interest. 

His published works are: 1. 'Gospel Re- 
pentance,' 1760, Dublin. 2. 'Twelve Ser- 
mons,' with an ' Dde on the Judgment Day.' 
1761, Dublin ; reprinted with additional 
ode« to 'Truth' and ' Liberty,' 1764, London. 
But his best known contributions to religious 
literature are his hymns. In 1774 he as- 
sisted the Countess of Huntingdon in revis- 
ing the hymns used in her cliapels, and the 
collection included some of his own work. 
He is author of the missionary hymn, ' Oo, 
destined vessel, heavenly freighted, gn!' 
written on the departure of some mission- 
aries for America in 1772; of 'Flow fast, my 
tears, the cause is great;' 'Source of light 
and power divine,'and others still 

[Stemtnala Shirleiana, pp. 1S6. &". : Fo-ter's 
Alumni Oioq. ITlS-lSRfl; Soothej'a Life of 
Wesley, ii. S71, &c.: Lifo of the Countess of 
Haatingdon, ii. 29 1 , Ac. ; Julian's Diptionurv of 
Eymnology, p. 1053.] J. R. M. 

{17D7-1847), bishop of Sodot and Man, bom 
on 30 May 1797 at Weslport, Ireland, where 
his ^ther held a curacy, waa only son of 

Walter Shirley, by his wife Alicia, daughM 
of Sir £dward Kewenham [q. v,] HLs grand- 
father was AValter Shirley [q. v.] At the 
age of nine Shirley was nlaced under the care 
of the I!«v, Legh Richmond [q. v.]; but as 
he seemed to be making little progress under 
his tutor he was soon removed to a school 
at Linton in Essex. He became a scholar of 
WinchesterColI^ein 1809. andsisyenrs later 
was elected to a scbolarsliip at New College, 
Oiford, of which society he became a fellow 
in 1818. Immediately after his ordination 
on 7 Aug. 1820 he took chaise of the parish 
of Woodford, one of the livings held by 
his father. In 1831 he became curate of 
Parwich in Derbyshire, and in 1832 he was 
appointed assistant lecturer of Ashbourne 
and curate of Allow. In the latter vear he 
was awarded the pri»e for the English essay 
at Oxford, the subject beinR 'the Study of 
Moral Evidence.' He acted as chaplain at 
Rome in the winter of 1826-7, and during 
his residence there he became intimately ac- 
quainted with the Bunsens and Thomas 
Erskine, as well as with Eastlake and Wilkie, 
In the autumn of 1827 he was married at 
I'aris to Maria, daughter of William Wad- 
dington, and at the same time his father 
resigned the living of Shirley in his favour. 
He took possession of his new home in 
January 1828. After nine years' residence 
at Shirley he accepted the living of Whiaton, 
near Rotherham. which he held cinjointly 
with Shirley. He gave up the former curs 
two years later, when lie was appointed to 
the incumbency of Brailsfnrd, a parish ad- 
joining that of Shirley. He was made arch- 
deacon of Derby by the bishop of Lichfield 
on 21 Dec. 1840. In November 1&46 he was 
appointed bishop of Sodor and Man by Lord 
John Russell; but in consequence of a serious 
illness he was not consecrated until 10 Jan. 
J847. He had been elected Bampton lec- 
turer for that year, but lived only long enough 
to deliver two of the lectures of his course. 
He died at Bishop's Court, Isle of Man, on 
21 April 1847. Ilia only son, Walter Wad- 
dington Shirley, is ae^rately noticed. 

Shirtey was reared in the straitest sect of 
the evangelicals, and, though in middle life 
his views were somewhat modified by the 
influence of Hunsen and Arnold, he con- 
tinued faithful in the main to the teaching 
of his early years. His kindly disposition 
prevented bim from running, as so many did 
at that time, to extremes of partisanship. In 
18211 he alienated some of his friends by his 
outspoken advocacy of catholic emancipation, 
as in later years he estranged others by re- 
fusing to support violent measures against 
the traotariana. In politics Shirley was a 




eoDStitutional whig. A man of wide reading, 
poMCJoed of a keen sense of humour, he 
emted great influence over young men. He 
kalped to mould the character of two distin- 
ffttuhed statesmen, his pupil, Stafford H. 
Koithcote (afterwards Larl of Iddesleigh), 
and his nephew, W. H. Waddington, the 
Fkench minister, who was accustomed to 
apetk of Bishop Shirley as his * second father.' 
In addition to the Oxford prize essay 
already mentioned, Bishop Shirley published 
• A Charge to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry 
of Derby/ 1846. The two Bampton lectures 
that he had delivered, together with two 
others which he had completed before death 
oreitook him, were published in 1847 under 
the title of *The Supremacy of the Uoly 

[Fester's Alumni Oxen. 171^-1886; Letters 
and Memoir of the Lite Walter Augustus Shirley, 
D.D.. edited by Thomas Hill, B.D. ; E. P. Shir- 
ley's Stemmata Shirleiano, 1873; iufurmation 
kindly supplied by the warden of New College, 
OjElbrd.] R. L. D. 

(1 828-1 866)y ecclesiastical historian and 
divine, the only son of Walter Augustus 
Shirley [q. v.l, bishop of Sodor and Man, 
was bom at Snirley, Derbyshire, on 24 July 
1828. lie was educated at liuj^rby under Dr. 
Arnold. His most intimate friend at school 
and throughout his life was his cousin, 
William Henry Waddington, who after- 
wards won for himself a high position in 
French politics. In J une 184(5 Shirley matri- 
culated at University College, Oxford, but 
in the following year he migrated to Wad- 
ham College, where he had gained a scholar- 
ship. He obtained a first class in the honour 
school of mathematics in I80I, and in 1852 
was elected a fellow of his college. He was 
compelled to vacate hia fellowship three 

J ears later, in consequence of his entrance on 
is mother's death into possession of a small 
landed property. From 1855 to 1863 he was 
tutor and mathematical lecturer of Wad- 
ham. It was during this period that he 
began to devote his best energies to his- 
torical study. Patient in research, possess- 
ing to an extraordinary degree the rare 
quality of fair-mindedness, the master of a 
clear and dignified style, he came to be 
regarded by many competent judges, both 
in England and in Germany, as one of the 
most brilliant of the new school of Oxford 
historians. In 1858 his edition of * Fasciculi 
Zizaniorum Magistri Johannis Wyclif ' was 
published in the Rolls Series, llis admi- 
rable introduction attracted the attention of 
historical students (but cf. Athentmnif 1858, 

ii. 415, 454), and he commenced the prepara- 
tion of a life of Wiclif which he did not live 
to complete. In 1805, however, he published 
a * Catalogue of the Original Works of John 
Wiclif,* Oxford, 8vo. In 1862 he editedfor the 
Rolls Series * Royal and other Historical let- 
ters illustrative of the Reign of Henry III.' 

During this period his theological views 
underwent considerable change. Having 
been in his early days a disciple of Arnold, 
he ultimately came to regard * undogmatic 
Christianity' as a contradiction in terms. 
Finally, in May 1863, he preached in the 
university church a closely reasoned sermon — 
which created a profound impression at the 
time of its delivery and has often been quoted 
since — wherein he sought to demonstrate the 
unreasonableness of Arnold's teaching. Two 
or three months after the delivery of this 
sermon he was made regius professor of eccle- 
siastical history and canon of Christ Church. 
His scrupulous fairness in controversy, his 
freedom from party spirit, the mingled 
strength and simplicity of his character, had 
won for him the esteem of men of widely 
divergent views, and his appointment to the 
professorship met with general approval. He 
was one of the pioneers of the university 
extension movement, and played a prominent 
part in the early history of the founding of 
Keble College. His promising career was 
cut short at the age of thirty-eight. He died 
on 20 Nov. 1866. By his wife Philippa, 
daughter of Samuel Knight, esq., of Imping- 
ton, Cambridgeshire, whom he married on 
4 July 1855, Shirley had issue three daugh- 
ters and two sons, of whom the elder, Walter 
Knight, is heir-presumptive to the earldom 
of t errers. 

The theological position which Shirley 
occupied at the time of his death was still a 
provisional one. He always regarded as 
*the most treacherous of all fallacies the 
assumption that the general position, moral 
or intellectual, which a man has taken up 
can never require to be reconsidered.' In ad- 
dition to the works already mentioned, he pub- 
lished a lecture on 'Scholasticism,' delivered 
before the university of Oxford, 1866. After 
his death a small volume bv him, entitled 
* Some Account of the Church in the Apo- 
stolic Age,' was published by the Clarendon 

[Gardiner's Registers of Wad ham College, 
1719-1871; Foster 8 Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Archdeacon Hill's Letters and Memoir of W. A. 
Shirley, D.D., Bishop of Sodor and Man; Burke's 
Peerage ; unpublished letters of Mudiimo Buosen, 
W. H. Waddington, Canon J. C. Kobertson. 
Dr. Buddensieg of Dresden, and others ; private 
information.] R. L. D. 


colouinl governor, bom at Preston in Sussex 
in 1H»4, vaa the son of William Shirlfj, 
merchfuit of the clly of London, and a. 
member of the Sliirley family of Preston 
in SuESex, by Elizabeth, dauKhter and heiress 
of John Oodman of Otebnll, in the game 
county. William was bred to the Uw, and 
tintered at the Middle Temple. In 1731 he 
eini((r«ted to Boston with a leltar of inlro- 
duction from the Dule of Newcastle to Bel- 
cher, the governor of tlaasachusetts. He at 
once became a slrenuouB jilace-biioter ; vre 
find traces among the state papers of hie 
^evking the post of colWtor of customs at 
Rhode Island, a like office nt Boston, Ihe 
ailotney-generalship of New York, and clf rk 
of ibe court of common pleas in Boston. His 
wife came to London and persistently pteBsed 
Shirley's suit, and we tiad 8hirley himself 
writing letters which, if not deliberately in- 
tended to outt Buli^ber from his governorship, 
at least discredited bim and tended to bring 
about that result, In October 1740 Shirley 
took a leading part in raising troops to bo 
employed in Lord Cathcart.'s expedition 
against Carthogena, and in the same year he 
WflS nominated either by tbe governor, or 
more probably by the assembly of Masss' 
cbusetia, loact as commissioner in aboundary 
dispute with Rhode Island. While be was 
thus engaged the news came of Belcher's 
anpersesaion and Shirley's np^iointment to 
the governorship. His commission passed 
the prii-v council on 8 May 1741. His 
tenure of office was marked at the very out- 
set by ineffectual altemnts to restrain the 
issue of paper money and to secure for him- 
self a filed salary. He was, however, per- 
sonally popular, and ibe refusal of the salary 
was tempered by a liberal grant. 

The great event of Shirley's governorship 
was the capture of I-ouisburg. This enter- 
priBo WBB proposed by him to tbe assembly 
of Massachusetts under a pledge of strict 
secrecy. At first the assembly refused to 
entertain the scheme. Finally it was carried 
bv a single vote. The New England colo- 
nies, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and 
Hhode Island, joined ill the enterprise. Shir- 
ley's attempts to secure help from Pennsyl- 
vania and New York failed. Probably every 
prudent strategist would have deemed the 
sebeme a wholly foolhardy one. Louisburg 
was a strong ])lace, regularly garrisoned. 
The New England troops were raw militia, 
with no military experience beyond frontier 
skirmishes ; commander and men alike were 
wholly untrained to siegework. Butdaring 
nnd good fortune wrouglit together, and on 
17 June 1745 Louisburg surrendered. Id 

one respect tbe capture was of great s( 
to the colony. The mother countrv paid th« ' 
expensBB of the siege. Thus a supply of 
specie wa« introduced into Masaitcbusetti ; 
the paper of the colony was redeemed, ami 
Shirley was freed from what bad proved a 
serious embarrassment to his predecessors. 

Shirley bad looked on the attack upon 
Louisburg only as a step towards a complete 
conquest of Canada, and success at once 
raised bis hopes. Instigated by him, the 
English ministry approv^ of an expedition 
against Canada, and a force of over eight 
thousand men was raised, principally from 
the northern colonies. Slassachusetta sent 
B contii>(|ent of three thousand £re hundred. 
The British force which was to have co-ope- 
rated wa«, howe%'er, detained either by bad 
weather or by the blundering of the ministry, 
I and nothing came of the attempt. In 1748 
tbe dispute between the governor and the 
assembly as to a fixed salary revived, but 
not, as it would seem, in an acute form. In 
the next year Shirley went home on leave, 
and was sent to Pans to negotiate with a 
commissioner of the French government 
about tbe boundary line between Canada 
and New England. 

Shirleylost his first wife, Frances, daughter 
ofFrancisItarker, in September 1746, and be 
now married a young Frenchwoman, tbe 
daughter of his landlord. His marriage, 
however, did not abate his antipathy to 
France. In 1753heretUTOed toBoston,and 
was at once employed in conciliating tbe 
natives on tbe Canadian frontier, and in press- 
ing ou the British government the need for 
vigorous operations. He so far succeeded \ 
tl^t in 1766 comprehensive operations were I 
undertaken for expelling the FVench from all 
territory in North America to which England ' 
laid claim. Shiriey himself was inveBted 
with the command of a force directed against 
Niagara. Sickness, lack of supplies, and 
storms which mode Lake Oneida impassable, 
frustrated the expedition. Shirley's son 
John, who accompanied him died, and another 
son was killed with Bruddock. Shirley's 
enthusiasm for the war was, however, un- 
abated, and by Braddock'a death he became 
commander-in-chief of the British forces in 
America. In December 1765 he held a 
council of war at New York, and s compre- 
hensive scheme of onerat ions against Canada 
was settled. But Shirley had excited the 
displeasure of certain New York politicians, 
and by their contrivance he was superseded 
in hla military command. With all hia 
zeal it can hardly be said that his military 
experience was such as to justify his reten- 
tion at ■ time of such importance. ' 




much to Shirlej*8 honour that though no 
longer in supreme command, he strove 
lojally and energetically to further the 
operations against Canada. But in 1756 
Ijord Loudon, then commander-in-chief, 
holding Shirley responsible for the loss of 
Oswego, summarily and discourteously 
ordered him to England, and in the following 
year he was removed from his governorship. 
Shirley's conduct was vindicated in a pam- 

8 Wet published in 17o8 as * The Conduct of 
lajor-general Shirley, late General of his 
Majesty's forces in North America, briefly 

Shirley was meagrely compensated by the 
governorship of the Bahamas. In 1770 he 
resigned tluit post, and went to live as a 
private citizen at Koxbury in Massachusetts, 
where he built a mansion for himself with 
bricks imported from England at a vast 
expense, and where he died on 24 March 
17/1 ; he was buried in the King s Chapel, 
Boston. Shirley's schemes may Iiave been 
at times in advance of his executive abilities 
and his resources. But he saw more dis- 
tinctly than any other colonial statesman of 
his day that the issue in America between 
France and Qreat Britain was one which 
allowed of no compromise, and that in his 
own words ' Delenda est Canada.' lie began 
as a place-hunter, but his after career was 
free mm all tincture of intrigue or self- 
•eeking, and he proved himself a strenuous 

A portrait bv Thomas Hudson was engraved 
by J. McArdell (J. C. Smith, Mezzotinto 
Portraits, p. 896) ; it forms a frontispiece to 
* Memorials of the History of Boston, vol. ii., 
and is reproduced in \Vinsor*s ' Hist, of 
America' (v. 142). Besides inspiring the 
'Vindication 'of his conduct, mentioned above, 
Shirley was author of ' A Letter to . . . the 
Dukeof Newcastle, with a journal of the siege 
of Louisbourg' (London, 1746, 8vo), The 
plays which have been attributed to him (in 
Appleton's and Allibonb's Dictionaries) 
were the work of William Shirley (Jl, 1776) 

Of Shirley's four sons by his first wife, 
SiB Thomas Shiklet (1769-1800) was the 
only one who sur\'ived his parents. He was 
bom in the Bahamas, entered the armv and 
rose rapidly. In 1781 he was appointed 
governor of the I^eeward Islands ana colonel 
of the 91st foot ; and in 1798 he was advanced 
to the rank of general, having been created a 
baronet on 27 June 1780. He died at Bath 
on 1 1 Feb. 1 800, and on the death of his 
son. Sir William Warden Shirley, second 
baronet, on 26 Feb. I8I0, the ancient Sussex 
family of Shirley became extinct in the male 

line (Sussex Archceolog. Coll. xix. 61-70; 
Gent. Mag. 1800, i. 28(5). 

[Colonial State Papers; Hutchinson's History 
of Miis^achusetts ; Parkman's Half-Ontury of 
Conflict ; Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe; Shir- 
ley's Stemmata Shirleiana, ] 873, p. 322.] 
J. A. D. 

SHIRLEY, W^ILLIAM (^.1739-1780), 
dramatist, was a merchant who for many 
years was engaged in business in Portugal. 
in 1753 he had a violent dispute with the 
English consul at Lisbon, which resulted in 
his being ordered by the Portuguese govern- 
ment to quit the country within fi\& days. 
From that time he resided in London, though 
he occasionally went abroad, and even re- 
visited Portugal, where he narrowly escaped 
with his life in the great earthquake of 1766. 
He was esteemed an authority on affairs of 
trade and international commerce. He wrote 
several letters in the * Daily Gazetteer,' 
signed * Lusitanicus,' on the relations of Por- 
tugal and Great Britain, and was the author 
of some observations on the currency, 
printed in Sir William Browne's * Proposal 
on our Coin' (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. iii. 328); 
and of * Observations on a Pamphlet lately 
published concerning a Portuguese Con- 
spiracy,' London, 1759, 8vo. 

Shirlejr devoted some of his leisure to 
lighter literary work, and wrote many plavs ; 
but his dramatic talent was small. Ais 
earliest play was a tragedy called 'The 
Parricide,' which appeared at Co vent Garden 
on 17 Jan. 1739. A preconcerted riot on 
the first night assured its failure. After 
another fiasco, he wrote "* Edward the Black 
Prince,' which appeared at Drury Lane on 
6 Jan. 1750; Garrick took the part of Ed- 
ward, but Barry, in that of Lord Ribemont, 
a French nobleman, gained for the piece 
what measure of success it attained. Shirley 
soon after quarrelled with Garrick, and re- 
venged himself in 1758 by printing a pam- 
phlet entitled * Brief Remarks on the original 
and present State of the Drama,' with a 
humorous dialogue called * Hecate's Pro- 
phecy,' in which Garrick was castigated under 
the name of Roscius. 

He also published : 1. * King Pepin's Cam- 
paign,' a burlesque opera, London, 1755, 
8vo ; acted at Druiy Lane on 15 April 1745. 
2. * Electra,' a tragedy, London, 1765, 4to ; pro- 
hibited by the lord chamberlain. 8. * The Birth 
of Hercules,' a masque, lx)ndon, 1765, 4to. 

The following plays by him were not 
printed: 1. * The Roman Sacrifice/ a tragedy, 
acted at Drury Lane on 18 Dec. 1777. 2. 'The 
Roman Victim,' a tragedy. 3. * Alcibiades,' a 
tragedy. 4. * Henry II,' in two parts, histo- 
rical tragedies. 5. * The Fall of Carthage,' 


Shirreff »- 

hbtorical tragedy. 6. 'AU Miatnken," a 
comtidj. 7. * The Good EDiJ^lishman,' n bur- 
lesque opera. 8. 'Pashiouable Frieodsbip,' U 
burlesque opera. 9. "Tba Shepherd's Court- 
ship,' a musical putoral. 

[Aul-hor's Works : Baker's Biogr. Dram. i. 668 ; 
Daries's Memoirs of Garrick, i. 277; Gi-nesi's 
Hist, uf the Stage, iii. ir. t. ri. x. pnaaim ; l)a'\]j 
AdTerlber, 17Jtt. No, SH6.] E. I. C. 


(1814-181)7), pioneer in the cause of womeii's 
education, elder daufrhter of Rear-admiral 
■William Uenrj- Shirreff (1785-1 817) and his 
wife, EiUabetli Anne, eldest daughter of the 
In youth MissShirreffandbervouneer sister, 
Maria, who earlj became the wife of Mr. 
William Grey, perceived the want in Eng- 
land of an inlelLgent system of education 
IbrgirU. But tbeycontrired to educate I liem- 
aelves thoroughly, becoming good linguists 
and acquiring a good knowledge of history. 
Miss Shirreff resided for eome years at Gi- 
braltar, where her father held a government 
appointment. In 1835 or 1836 appeared 
' Letters from Spain and Barbarr,' written, 
like all her early literary work, in collabo- 
ration with her sister, ^i^s. Grey. In 1841 
they jiublished a novel entitled 'Passion 
and Principle,' and in 1850 ' Thoughts on 
Self-Culture, addressed to Women,' in two 
volumes (second edition 1852). The purpose 
of the latter work was to show the value of 
self-training to women. Mias ShirrelTs first 
independent work was 'Intellectual Educa- 
tion, and its Influence on the Character and 
Happiness of Women,' published in 1853 
(2nd ed. 1862). 

Wholly devoting herself to the improre- 
ment of women's education. Miss SUirrelf 
warmly supported the establishment of Gir- 
ton College, which commenced work at 
Hitchin in the Michaelmas term of 1869, 
and during the Lent and Easter terms of 
1870 she neld the post of honorary mis- 
Iress. On accepting it she became a member 
of the executive committee, on which she 
sat until her death. Li 1871 she helped her 
sistCT' Mrs. Grey to found the National Union 
for improving the Education of Women of 
all Classes. The society owed its origin to 
the revelations of the schoob inquiry com- 
mission, which proved the inadequate pro- 
vision of good schools for girls above the ele- 
mentary school class and of efficient womim 
teachers. The main objects of the union were 
to provide Batisfactory schools and tiained 
teachers. Princess Louise was president, and 
Miss Shirreff acted as honorary secretuiy. 
She was alsojoint-editor with Mr. George U. 


Bartley, M.P., of the journal of the umop,, 
until its cessation in 1683. Lady Stan ley of 1 
Alderlcv, Lord Aberdare,Sir Douglas Gallon. 
Joseph t*ayne [q. v.], and Mr. C, S, Koundell 
supported the scheme, and there grew out of 
it in 1872 the Girls' Public Day School Com- 
pany. Miss Shirreff was one of the original 
members of the council, and remained an 
active worker ou it until within afewmonlhs 
of her death, when she was elected a viiv- 
president. The success of the schools fully 
justified the anticipations of the pioneers. 

By way of fulfilling its second purpose of 
providing means of training for higher-grade 
women teachers, the union began modestly 
with evening lectures in subjects — science, 
for example — not then usually included in a 
woman's education. In 1877, however, the 
Teacher's Training and Registration Society 
was incorporated, and a college for training 
women teachers was opened. William liagers 
[q. v.], rector of Bisbopsgale, put a house at 
tliedisposal of the snciety.and provided prac- 
tice in teaching for the studentsat the middle- 
class girls' school, Bisbopsgate. The college 
thus oatablished prospered ; it is now called 
the Maria Grey Training College, ef^er Miss 
Shirreff's sister, and ranks as the first institu- 
tion of the kind in this country. Thus the 
objects for which the union had been formed 
were realised, and it was dissolved in 1883. 

Miss Shirreff was also greatly interested 
in the education of little children, and waa 
among the first to advocate the introduction 
of Froehel's system Into this country. On 
the initiative of Miss Doreck, Miss ShirrelT. 
and her sister, the society known as the 
Froehel Society, with Miss Doreck as pre- 
sident, began work in October 1876. On 
Miss Doreck's death, which took place soon 
afterwards. Miss Shirrefi' was elected presi- 
dent, and held the office for life. She 
constantly read at the society's annual and 
monthly meetings papers in which she ex- 
pounded the theory of kindergarten teaching, 
and set fortli its practical advantages. She 
impressed the public with the necessity for 
the proper training of kindergarten teachers, 
and took active interest in the examinations 
instituted by the Froehel Society. Her last 
paper waa read to the annual meeting in 
Slarch 1893, and was a sketch of the life of 
Baroness Marenholti von Billow, a firm 
adherent of Froehel. Miss Shirrefl^s unfail- 
ing generosity helped the society through 
some of its early difficulties. Many of her 
lectures and addresses were afterwunla pub- . 
lished in pamphlet form. 

Miss Shirreff died, after some years' i 
health, on '20 March 1897, at 41 Stanhof 
Gardens, Queen's Gate, London, wliera s 


li>d resided with her Bister, Mra. Gn-y, 
1S84. She was buried in Hrompton cemetery 
OD 24 March. The change in public opinion 
with regnrd to women's eilucRtion and 
■women's work einee 1869 is largely due to 
her public-spirited action. 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, and many pamphlets on educational 
Bubject*, Miss Smrreli' wrote r 1, ' Hrinciples 
of llie Kinder^rteu Svatem,' 1 876 ; new ed. 
18S0. 2. 'The Work o'r the National Union," 
1872. 3. "FriedrichFroebehaSketchofhis 
Life," 1877, 8vo. 4. "The Kindergarten at 
Home,' 1881; Snded. 1890. 

[Timea.24 March 1807 ; JournnlorEdaratlon, 
April 18S7: privuteinrurmiitioii.] £. L. 

turned at. his father's death, and succeeded 
t<i the lease of the farm at Cnptainhead, 
Iladdinjfton. In 1703 he was chosen, to- 
Rether with two other East Lothian fanners, 
Rennie and Brown, to survey the West 
Hiding of Yorkshire for the county agricul- 
tural reports of the board of (^frioulture. 
This survey wax drawn up in such a manner 
as to give satisfaction even to William Mar- 
fhail, who criticised so severely most of the 
board's county reports (MiRSiutT^ Htpine, 
i. aSl). Un' his return home Shirreff at- 
tempted several improvements, including a 
Threshing-machine, worked by wind, and a 
bone-raill. He made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to introduce into Scotland the use of 
bone-dust as manure. In 1901 he received 
a premium from the board of agriculture for 
an e^ssay on the ' Best Mode of cropping Old 
Pasture Grounds.' Shortly afterwards he 
contributed to the I-ondon Society of Arts 
an account of the n<iier plantations upon his 
farm at Captninhesd. After subletting his 
farm, he resided at Craigside, Abbey Hill, 
Hnd other places in and around Edinburgh, 
«'riling a good deal on u^icultural topics. 
During the last years of his life he resided 
in the country, m charge of the estates of 
various noblemen. He died 2 Xov. 1818, 
and was inteired in the ' burial-ground of his 
ancestors at Preatonhirk, East Lothian.* 
Besides his ' Survey of Yorkshire,' which 

and ShetUnd Islands (1804), Shirrelf 
pamphlets and articles in the ' Farmer'. 
Megaxine' and 'Scots Monthly Magaxine 
on such topics as ' The Curled Disease ii 
Potatoes,' ' Introduclion of Exotic Heiths, 
and ' 3Iethod of Stackiiw Turnips to pre- 
serve them through the Wi ' ' 

E. C-t 

SHIKREF3, ANDREW (1763-1807?), 
Scottish poet, eon of David Shirrefs, car- 

? enter, was born in Aberdeen on 'J Feb, 
762. Two of hia brothers attained some 
distinction in Aberdeen. Jameswas minister 
of St. Nicholas Church fi-om 1778 to 1814, 
and Alexander was sheriff-clerk-depule and 
latterly president of the Society of Advo- 
cates. Andrew was educated at the grammar 
school, entered Marischal College in 1779, 
and graduated M.A. in 1783. Becoming e, 
cripple, he abandoned the intenlloa of fol- 
lowing a learned profession, and began busi- 
ness in Aberdpen as a bookseller and book- 
binder. In May 1787 he joined with others 
in starting the short-lived ' Aberdeen 
Chronicle ' (not to be confounded with tha 
paper of the same name started in I606),and 
became proprietor and joint editor of the 
'Caledonian Magazine.' The latter ceased 
in 1790, and he wentto Edinburgh asa book- 
seller and printer. Inl798heleftforIxindon, 
after which it is impossible to traca him. 
The date of bis death is given as 1807, 
but this cannot be confirmed ; and from his 
not appearing with his other brothers in 
the will of nis first cousin Alexander, a 
Jamaica planter, who died in 18U1, it might 
be inferred that he was dead before that 

Shirrefs corresponded with John Skinner 
and James Beattie ; and Bums in the notes 
of his northern tour mentions having seen 
him, and describes him as * a little decrepid 
body with some abilities.' He was best 
known as the author of ' Jamie and Bcsa," n 
pastoral 6ve-act comedy, avowedly in imi- 
tation of Ramsay's ' Gentle Shepherd." It 
was performed in Aberdeen in 1787, and in 
Edinburgh, for the author's benefit, in 1796, 
when he appeared and sang his own sonc, 
* A cogie o villand a piekleaitmeal' Inglis 
(Dramatic )i''riter» of Scotland) mentions a 
short piece, 'The Sons of Britannia,' said to 
have been acted in Edinburgh in 1796, but 
it does not seem to have been printed. In 
1790 Shirrefs published ' Poems, chiefly in 
the Scottish Dialect' (Edinburgh, printed 
for the author), which contains his portrait 
by Beugo. 

[WillintnWnlkor'a Birds of Bot-Ac«ird, 1887; 
lAJng aiul Stenliouse's wlltioa of Jr>hn>on'ii 
Musical MuBBum, iv. 479, 626; Parorliial Hb- 
giatarsof Aberdeon.] J. C, H. 

SHIfiWOOD. [See also Sheewood.] 



SHIRWOOD, JOHN {d. 1494), bishop of 
Diirhum, was educated at UaiversitjCoUege, 
Oxford, Drake Morris aaserta that he was 
■Lt Cambriijge also, but he has probably con- 
fused him with a contempontTj of the same 
name {Addit MS. 5857, f. t'79; Boabe, Oj^ 
ford Vnip. Reg. i. 9). He graduuted M.A. 
on 7 lUarch 1150, and then proceeded to the 
university at Paris. Thence he passed into 
Italy to perfect himself in UrouU. After 
some stay at Itome be returned to England, 
liringing with him copies of a number of 
Creek aiithora. In 1400 he -was appointed 
obiincollor of Exeter ; he became arclideacon 
■of Richmond in 1465, and prebendary of 
Jlasliam in the diocese of York in 1471. He 
-was BO highly esteemed as a lawyer bv Ed- 
■ward IV that he was employed as the king's 
advocate at Home in matters pertaining to 
the crown (Cal. Jiut. Fat. in Turri Londin. 
p. S2S). Kewas appointed bisliop of Durham 
in 14H:(, on the death of William Dudley, 
hut did not receive the temporalities of the 
see until lOAug. 1485. On the death of Ed- 
ward IV he attached himself to tlie party 
of Kichard Ill.who woa popular in the north, 
Diid at his coronntion walked on one side of 
rhe new king, while Robert Stillington [q. v.], 
bisliop of Bath, walked on the other (Antig. 
Jirelti'. Urit. p. 26:f). Kichard wrote aeveral 
letlers to the papal court, requesting that 
the (lues levied on Sbirwood's see might be 
ohated because the bishop woa obliged to 
maintain numerous garrisons against the 
Scota. He also solicited a cardluara cap for 
Shirwood, but bis death put an end to the 
negotiations (HtH£r, Fwdera, xii. 314, 2lt>, 

y-iii, 2L>4,2r.i?,a72). 

Henry VII eichided Shirwood from any 
ehare in liis confidence. But in 14ti7, after 
the battle of Stoke, he was directed by a 
royal commission to inquire into the causes 
of the rebellion (ib. j>. a28j Stow, p, 472). 

At the time of W arbeck'a conspiracy the 
bishop appears to have been on the continent, 
and It is probable that h^ went with otliera 
to further the interests of the house of York 
with (he court of Burgundy. From Bur- 
f^undy he proceudMl to Itome, where he died 
on 13 Jan. 1493-4, and was buried in the 
English College. As soon as his death was 
known in England the kin^, besides taking 
pnsseosion of the temporahties of the sec, 
Bi'ized on all his private possessions. His 
library of Greek authors was, however, ke]it 
intact at Hisliop Auckland, where it was 
discovered by Cuthbert Tunstal [q. v,] in the 
following century. 

Onlyone work by Shirwood is eitant, the 
• Liber de Ludo Arithmomachia," " 
4tO. It ooututts the descripti 

gular game played on a ' tabula,' slightly 
resembling a chess-board, which he sajswas 
taught him at Calais by George Neville 
[q. v.], archbishop of York. There is a copy 
ol the book in uie Greuville library in ihu 
British Museum. Shirwood is said by Ice- 
land (o hare been a poet of considerabli? 

[Lelnnil's Comment, ds Soriptt. Brit. p. 262 ; 
Surlees'B Hist, of Uarham, vol. i. p. ii ; Uuichia- 
sod'b Uiat. of Durham, i. 365; Godwin's Cut. 
of Knglish Bishops, p. 868; lo Kevo's Faill 
EccIbh. ADgl. iii. 140. iH-i, 292 : Letlrrs and 
PuperB of iliobard III and Binry VII. ed. 
Gairdiicr (Rolls Scr.),i. ua ; Addit. MS. S830, 
f. 128-] E. I. C. 

SHIRWOOD, ROREIIT (/. ir.20), he- 
braist, was born at Coventry in Warwick- 
shire. He entered the university of Oxford, 

Hebrew and Greek. No confirmation of the 
statement that he obtained the d^ree of 
D.D. there can be found in the register. He 
possessed a considerable reputation abroad, 
and visited several foreign universities, among 
others that of Louvain, where, in 1^10, he 
filled for a month the place of the Hebren- 
lecturer, Robert Wakefield [q. v.], who had 
temporarily vacated bis post. While he was 
abroad Shirwood wrote an exegeticul work, 
entitled ' Ecclesiastes Justine od veritatem 
Hebroicam recognitus, cum nonnuUis anno- 
tationibus Chaldaicia et quorumdam Ilabbi- 
norum senlentiis,' Antwerp, 1523, 4to, which 
he dedicated to John Webbc, prior of the 
monastery of the Benedictines in Coventry. 
He also published several sermons. 

[Wood's Athean Oxon. i. £8 ; IJale's SoriptorM 
BritanniiE. eenl. 11, p. 73 ; Pits, Da Rcij. Aagl, 
p. 7UG; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 213; Andr^as'a 
Fasti Aeademioi LovanisDiis, 1650, p. 384: Oo)> 
lin Review, 1806, it. MO.] E. I. C. 

schoolmun, held the prebend of Ailesbury, 
Lincoln, in 1245, and was treasurer of that 
church in 1268 and 126" (Lb Neve, Fauli 
E<xl. Awjl. ii. 88, 9.1). Roger Bacon, in the 
preface to his ' Opus Tertium,' challeDges a 
comparison between bis own writings and 
those of Albertus Magnus and Shmvood, 
to whom Ive refers as the moat celebrated of 
Christian scholars, describing Shirwood as 
even greater than Albert, and without equal 
in common philosophy {Optra Inedita, p. 
14, Rolls Ser.) Shirwood, who was pre- 
sumably an CJxford scholar, is credited with : 
1. ' Saper Sententiss,' which Lelaud saw in 
the Dominican Library at Exeter. 2. ' Di»- 
tiactiones Theologicw.' 3. ' Conciones.' L^ 




land confuses Shir wood with William, arch- 
deacon of Durham, whose benefactions were 
the beginning of University College, Oxford. 

[Leland 8 Comment, de Scriptt. Brit ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.-Hib. pp. 668-9; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

SHOBERL, FREDERIC (1776-1863), 
author, was bom in London in 1775, and 
educated at the Moravian school at Fulneck, 
near Leeds. Having settled in London, he 
became, with Henry Colbum [a. v.], the 
originator and co-proprietor of the * New 
Monthlv Magazine, wnich began on 1 Feb. 
1814. For some time he acted as editor, and 
contributed original articles and reviews. He 
was long associated with Rudolph Ackermann 

Sq. v.], whose * Repository of Arts* he edited 
ri>m the third to tne seventy-second number 
(March 1809 to December 1828). He con- 
ducted Ackermann's English annual, 'The 
Forget-me-not,' from it« first issue in Novem- 
ber 1822 till its twelfth in 1834. He also 
edited Ackennann*s * Juvenile Forget-me-not ' 
fn»m 1828 to 1832 (five volumes). From 
27 June 1818 to 27 Nov. 1819 he was printer 
and publisher of the * Cornwall Gazette, Fal- 
mouth Packet, and Plvmouth Journal,* a con- 
servative paper issued at Truro. He died at 
Thistle Grove, Brompton, London, on 6 March 
1863, and was buried in Kensal Green ceme- 
tery on 12 March. By his wife Theodosia, 
who died on 18 Dec. 1838, he had two sons : 
William, who was first an assistant to H. 
Colbum, and then a publisher at 20 Great 
Marlborough Street ; and Frederic, who was 
printer to IVmce Albert, at 61 Rupert Street, 
and died on 22 March 1852, aged 48. 

The best known of his original works were : 
1. • A History of the University of Oxford,* 
1814. 2. 'Narrative of Events which oc- 
curred in and near Leipzig before, during, 
and subsequently to the Engagements in 
1813 and 1814;* 10th edit. 1814. 3. 'A His- 
tory of the University of Cambridge,* 1815. 
4. * An Historical Account of the House of 
Saxony,' 1816. 6. * Picturesque Tour from 
Genoa to Milan,' 1820. 6. 'Present State of 
Christianity and of Missionary Establish- 
ments,' 1828, founded on a work by J. H. D. 
Zschokke. 7. * Natural History of Quadru- 
peils,' 1834. 8. ' The Public Building of West- 
minster described,' 1836; 2nd edit. 1838. 
9. * Prince Albert and the House of Saxony,' 
1840. 10. 'Persecutionsof Popery,*2 vols.1844. 
With J. Nightingale ana others he con- 
tinued Brayley and Britton's 'Beauties of 
England and Wales,* andhecompiled vol. xi v., 
containing Suffolk, Surrey, and Sussex, 1813. 
With M. Retzsch he brought out ' Gallerie zu 
Shake8peare*8 dramatischen Werken/ 1828. 

He edited ' The World in Miniature,* 1827, 
43 vols., and 'Excursions in Normandy, 
2 vols. 1841, and executed a large number of 
translations from, among others, Klopstock, 
Kotzebue, Alfred de Vigny, Thiers (the 
French revolution), and Chateaubriand. 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 
315; Qent. Mag. 1853 i. 446, May 1852 p. 532; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 1869-81, pp. 
352, 646, 1229; Timperley's Cjclopsedia of Lite- 
rary Anecd. 1842, pp. 933, 954 ; Allibone's Eng- 
lish Lit. 1871, ii. 2089; Athenaeum, 12 March 
1853. p. 324.] a. C. B. 

SHORE. JANE Crf. 1527.^), mistress of 
Edward IV, is stated (Bell, Huntingdon 
PeeragCj p. 24 ; Idfe and Character of Jane 
Shoret 1714, p. 4) to have been the only child 
of Thomas Wainstead, * a mercer of a good 
figure and reputation in Cheapside, Lon- 
don.* She was bom in London and * honestl v 
brought up.* Her father chose for her hus- 
band William Shore (Gairdner, Richard III, 
g. 90), a goldsmith who resided in Lombard 
treet, and was, to quote the cautious words 
of Jane's anonymous biographer, * a man of 
a very fair character both for religion and 
morals.* Possibly he was related to Richard 
Shore, who was an alderman in 1505. It is 
said that Lord Hastings, who may liave met 
her owing to her father's business lying much 
at court, tried to induce her to become his 
mistress ; and that he even schemed to carry 
her off by night, but was defeated in his design 
by the repentance of a maid who was his ac- 
complice (Bell, Huntingdon Peerage, p. 25). 

Jane appears to liave become mistress to 
Edward Iv about 1470; over him she exer- 
cised the greatest influence. * For,*says More, 
the best authority, * a proper wit had she, and 
could both rede well and "WTite, mery in com- 
pany, redy and quick of aunswer, neither 
mute nor ful of bable, sometime taunting 
without displesure and not without disport.* 
Edward delighted in her merry disposition 
(Hall, Chronicle, p. 363). According to 
More, the king's * favour, to sai the trout h 
(for sinne it wer to belie the devil), she neuer 
abused to any man's hurt, but to many a 
man*s comfort and relief; where the king toke 
displeasure she would mitigate and appease 
his mind ; where men w^ere out of fauer, she 
wold bring them in his grace.* There is an 
ancient tradition, that it was Jane's inter- 
vention that saved Eton and King's Colleges 
from destruction (cf. Maxwell-Lyte, Hist, 
of Eton College, p. 80). 

On the death of Edward IV Jane's troubles 
began. Mr. Gairdner's theory {Richard III, 

. 87) that she was employed as a go-between 

y Hastings and the queen is very reasonable. 
VVe know that soon after Edward's death she 





WHS thi; miiitresa of Thomas Gruy, Hrnt mar- 
nuis of Dorset [q. v.], sonof CJileeQ Eliiabelb 
\\'ooilvillH hv lier first Imsbund (Sir Cleimjots 
Markliam in E«sl. Hist. Her. vi. 28^, and 
Richard's proclamBtion of 23 f)ct. 1483 j 
Q«iBi>?<KR, p. 172). llicbard I[I accused 
' Shore's wife.' amnnff otbere, of sorcery on 
ISJuni; 14(^3, when Hastinga woa condemned 
to death, and she was imprisoned in the 
Tower (SIoBE. Rirhnrd III, p. 47 ; Horace 
Walpolb's ' Historic Doubts ' in Works, ii. 
] »7, 173-4 ; Gatkdneh, p. 87V Her goods, 
wliich were of great value, were seized. The 
husband. Shore, is supposed to have gone 
abroad at this time, or to have died (Gairb- 
NBB, p. 80). To complete her ruin Kicbard 
brouslil her as n harlot before tlie bishop of 
London's court, and she was forced to do 
penance, 'fFoing' before the cro^e in procession 
upon a Sonday with a taper in her hand.' 
More states that she made a great impreaaion 
by her benutv- A picture of her in this plight 
was said by Xoble to be in the possession of 
the Hastings family. It was engraved for 
Bell's 'Huntingdon Peerage,' and is repro- 
duced 'with a more correct bacliground ' in 
llrayley's • Graphic Illiislrator,' p. 54. At 
length iuearc'TBted in Ludgale, Jane there 
fa.^inatt^d no less a personage than Ricbard'a 
own solicitor, Thomas Lvnom, much to bis 
The king 

bishopof Lincoln (probably in 1484), 
had heard that Lynom ' hath made coi 
matrimony wilh her, as it is said, and inten- 
deth, to our great marvel, to proceed to the 
elTect of the same.' Richard none the less 
agreed to the match if the bridegroom could 
not be dissuaded (Oairdner, liichard III, 
p. tlO). I'resumably bewasdissuaded,sjadall 
wo know of Jane afterwards i^ that she fell 
into poverty, and died either in 162(lor 1.527. 
More evidently knew her in her later days. 
A tradition states that she strewed flowers at 
Henry VH's funeral. 

There arc two portraits of Jane Shore at 
Eton Colli'gi". (Inn represents a naked figure 
near a bath ; the other is a bust, and has been 
engraved by Fabcr ; it was apparently a copy 
of this that Noble saw near Coventry. At 
King's College, Cambridge, in the dining- 
room of the provost's loilge, there ia a curious 
picture of her naked bust. This, an oil point- 
ing on a panel, was in the old lodge in 1660, 
and as ' Jane Shoar's picture' is mentioned 
in an inventory taken on 34 Jan. of that year 
fair. J. W. Clark in Com. Camhr. Antiq. Soc. 
iv, 300 and 310). Sir George Scharf [q. v.] 
thought that it rcnlly represented Diana of 
Poitiers. It was etched by the Rev. Michael 
Tjaon, follow of Corpus Ohristi College, Cam- 


bridge. In Harding'a'Illustrations of Shake' 
apeare ' there are two enfjTBvings bv Barto- 
lo»i, one of which is said to he fVoin the 
oiiginal at Dr. Peckard's of Magdalene Col' 
lege, which was once in the possession of 
DeanCoiet. Noble also says, ijuoting A nbrev's 
notes, that Ludy Soutlicot, sister of Sir John 
Suckling, had at her house in Bishopsgale 

Shore, an original." Thn 
notes to Dmyloa's poetic memorial of her 
suggest that there was yet another portrait- 
It would be rash to assume that nny ofthescl 
pictures are contemporary. Of Jane Shore's 
beauty More wrote: 'Proper she was and 
faire : nothing in her body that you wold 
have changed, but ifyou would have wished 
her higher, thus say tbei that knew her in 
her youth.' There is no foundation for the 
story that Jane Shore gave her name to Shore- 
ditch. That appellation existed long before 

[Wheatlej'B edition ofPerey'sReliqnes.ii. 261, 
where thBinfurmntion isaummedup: Roiliurghe 
Mallads. vol. i. ; CollaoUon of Oid Bnll*ls. i. HA, 
153;CorMr's Anglo-Poet. ii. 300, iii. 360; Oran- 
gflr'sBiogr. Hist.i.86: SiiteaandQuerips.Tthser. 
vii.217: Waipolo'ii Works, ii. 137; Bell's Hunt- 
ingdon Peerage, pp. 26-30; Hatl's ChroniclB. p. 
363 ; Smith's Cat. of Brit. Meuotinls, i. 29.^1 ; 
Dfp.-Kwpar of Public Rocordi, 9th Rep. App, 
p.3l;BroR)ley'BCnC.ofli:iiirFBTedPnrtrniis p.^il; 
Mark Noble in Bravley's Graphic Illustrntor. p. 
'(9». ; Rjmer's F(E<!em, iii.2lll; RnmSRy's Inn- 
cnsterandYork,ii.488,S06; Mom's Richard 1 M, 
ed. Lnmliy. and mora full i in Work*, ed. I^i;; 
Folydore Ventil's Aogl. HisL ed. Ifilfi. p. A3H; 
Johnson's Live, of th.. Foots, p. 217; Cla'k^'j 
Vratiffia Anglicsna, pp. 360, £c. The Leg-ud of 
Shore H Wife, by Thomas Churchyard [q. r.\ win 
first printed in the 1AG3 edition of Baldwin'* 
MiiTouro for MagistralM, and reprintfd with 
additions in Churchyard's Challenge, t.^H3: ia 
1693 also appeared Bawlie Diahononrrd, by 
Anthony Chute. Drayton's poem in hia Enj^lisb 
Heroical Epistles was published in 1597, and ou 
28 Aug. 1599 was liccnsnl the - History of the 
Life Hnd Death of Mnslar Shore and Jann Shore 
hisWife.asitwasliitelyactedbythsRt.Hon. IhB 
Erie of Derby his Scn-«nt« ' { Abhkb, StatinHti 
Reij. iii. 147). The ballad in Percy's Reliqute has 
becnattribntiKltoThomssDeloney [q.v.l It wM 
entered to William White, tlJimelSOS.hnt Mr. 
Chappelt thinks Bo copy of it can be dated earlier 
than the protectorate It is printed in the Col- 
lection ot Old Ballads of 1723, where then is also 
a burlesque son; aboat Edtnml IT and Jane 
Shore. In the Roxburghe Ballads it is rumished 
vilh a SGCond part, supposed to l« by another 
author. On 3 FuIi. 1714 Rowe'stmgody of Jane 
Shore vae prodiv-eil, Janv's part being taken by 
Mrs. Oldtield. Notes and BagK<Mions for this 
W. A. J. A. 




SHORE, JOHN, first Babon Teign- 
iiouTH (1751-1834), born in St. James's 
Street, Piccadilly, on 8 Oct. 1751, was the 
elder son of Tbomas Shore of Melton Place, 
near Homford, sometime supercargo to the 
East India Company, by his wife Dorothy, 
daughter of Captain Shepherd of the East 
India Company s naval service. At the age 
of fourteen young Shore was sent to Harrow, 
where he was placed in the fifth form, and 
had Ilalhed, Sheridan, and Francis, lord 
Kaw<lon (afterwards marquis of Hastings), 
among his contemporaries. In his seven- 
teenth year Shore was removed to a com- 
mercial school at Hoxton for the purpose of 
learning bookkeeping, and towards the close 
of 1 768 he sailed for India as a writer in the 
Kast India Company's service. Soon after 
his arrival in Calcutta in May 1769, he was 
appointed to the secret political department, 
in which he remained for about twelve 
montlis. In September 1770 he was nomi- 
nated assistant to the board of revenue at 
Moorshedabad. Owing to the indolence of 
the chief of his department, and the absence 
of the second in command on a special mis- 
sion. Shore at the age of nineteen suddenly 
found himself invested with the civil and 
fiscal jurisdiction of a large district. In spite, 
however, of his laborious official work, he 
found time to devote himself to the study 
of oriental languages. In 1772 Shore pro- 
ceeded to Hajeshalie as first assistant to the 
resident of that province. In the following 
year he acted temporarily as Persian trans- 
lator and secretary to the board at Moorshe- 
dabad. In June 1775 he was appointed a 
member of the revenue council at Calcutta. 
He continued to hold that post until the dis- 
solution of the council at the close of 1780. 
Though he revised one of the bitter philippics 
launched by Francis against Hastings, and 
is said to have written one of the memorials 
Against the supreme court and Sir Elijah 
Impey, he was appointed bjr the governor- 
general to a seat in the committee 01 revenue 
at Calcutta, which took the place of the pro- 
vincial council. Shore quickly gained the 
confidence and regard of Hastings by his un- 
ceasing attention to his duties. Besides 
Fuperintending the collection of the revenues, 
he devoted much of his time to the adjudica- 
tion of exchequer cases. He acted as revenue 
commissioner in Dacca and Behar, and drew 
up plans for judicial and financial reforms. 
Deploring the lavish profusion of the go- 
vernor-general. Shore communicated his 
views of the financial situation to John 
(afterwards Sir John) Macpherson, who, in- 
stead of privately imparting them to Hast- 
ings, inserted them as a minute on the records 

of the supreme council. In consequence of 
this br()acu of confidence Shore resigned his 
seat at the board. In January 1785 he re- 
turned to England in the company of Hast- 
ings, who during the voyage composed a para- 
phrase of one of Horace's odes which he 
addressed to Shore {European Mag, 178(3, i. 
453-4). While in England Shore married, 
on 14 Feb. 178(^, Charlotte, only daughter of 
James Cornish, a medical practitioner at 

Having been appointed by the court of 
directors to a seat in the supreme council, 
Shore returned to India, and on 21 Jan. 
1787 took his seat as a member of the 
government of Bengal. His knowledge of 
the judicial and fiscal afiairs of Bengal was 
both extensive and profound, and many of 
the reforms instituted by Cornwallis were 
attributable to his influence in the council. 
In the summer of 1789 Shore completed the 
decennial settlement of tiie revenues of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. His minute of 
18 June 1789, which extends to 562 para- 
graphs, still remains the text book on the 
subject of the Bengal zamindari system 
(ParL Papers, 1812, vii. 169-220; Seton- 
Karr, Comwallufy 1890, p. 28). Though 
Shore recommended caution and further 
inquiry, and protested against fixity, his 
decision in favour of the proprietary rights 
of the zamindars was hastily ratified by 
Cornwallis and formed the basis of the much 
discussed permanent settlement. In Decem- 
ber 1789 Shore embarked for England, where 
he arrived in April 1790. He is said to 
have refused the offer of a baronetcy on the 
ground of * the incompatibility of poverty 
and titles ' {Memoir, i. 204-5). On 2 June 
1790 he was examined as a witness in 
the trial of Warren Hastings with regard 
to the transactions of the committee of 
revenue at Calcutta, and testified to his 
friend's popularity among the natives (Printed 
Minutes of Evidence, pp. 1276-86). 

Shore was appointed by the court of 
directors governor-general of India in suc- 
cession to Cornwallis on 19 Sept. 1792, and 
was created a baronet on 2 Oct. follow- 
ing. Burke protested vainly against the 
appointment of ' a principal actor and party 
in certain offences charged against Mr. 
Hastings' {Memoir, i. 226), and Shore 
embarked for India at the end of the month. 
On 10 March 1793 he arrived at Calcutta, 
where he remained without official employ- 
ment or responsibility until the departure of 
Cornwallis. He succeeded to the govern- 
ment on 28 Oct. 1793. The period of Shore's 
rule as governor-general was comparatively 
uneventful. He implicitly obeyed t he pacific 




injunctions of parliament and the East India 
Company, and pursued a thoroughly unam- 
bitious and equitable policy. Being more 
anxious to extend the trade than the terri- 
tories of the company, his policy was attacked 
by the jingoes oi that period as temporising 
and timid. That there was some truth in 
this cannot be denied. He acquiesced in 
the successful invasion by the Mahrattas of 
the dominions of the nizam ; he permitted 
the growth of a French subsidiary force in 
the service of more than one native power ; 
he thwarted Lord Hobart's etlbrts for ex- 
tending the sphere of British influence ; he 
allowed the growth and aggressions of the 
Sikh states in northern India ; and he looked 
on passively while Tippoo was preparing for 
war. The only answer to these charges is that 
Shore faithfully obeyed his instructions, and 
nothing more could be expected of him. 
Though ho showed great weakness in deal- 
ing with the mutiny of the otticers of the 
Bengal army, he displayed courage of a very 
high order in settling the question of the 
Oude succession. His substitution of Saadut 
Ali for Vizier Ali met with universal approval 
in India, and the court of directors recorded 
that * in circumstances of great delicacy and 
embarrassment Sir John Shore had conducted 
himself with great temper, ability, and firm- 
ness.' As a reward for his services Shore 
■was created Baron Teignmouth in the peer- 
age of Ireland by letters patent executed at 
Dublin on 3 March 1798. llesigning the 
government into the hands of Sir Alured 
Clarke [q. v.], he left India in March 1798, 
and on his return to England received the 
thanks of the court of directors * for his dis- 
tinguished merit and attention in the ad- 
ministration of every branch of the company's 
service during the period in which he held 
the office of governor-general.' On 4 April 
1807 he was appointed a member of the 
board of control, an office to which no salary 
was attached, and four days afterwards was 
sworn a member of the privy council (London 
Gazette, 1807, pp. 4l'2,449). He occasionally 
transacted business at the board of control, 
or at the Cockpit, where as a privy councillor 
he sometimes decided Indian appeals with 
Sir \Villiam Grant and Sir Jolin Nicholl. 
But he soon lost all interest in Indian aflairs, 
and occupied the greater part of his time in 
religious and philanthropic matters, though 
he nominally remainecl a member of the 
board until I^ebruaiy 1828. 

He never took his seat in the Irish House 
of Lordi, nor was he elected a npresenta- 
tive peer after the union. He was twice 
OTamined baAn iSbm Honaa of Commons on 


1806-7, No. 240-41), and on 30 March 1813 
lib, 1812-13, vii. 9-20). In consequence 
of the order of the House of Commons for 
Teignmouth's attendance on the first occa- 
sion, the House of Lords on 19 July 1806 
passed a resolution maintaining the privilege 
of peerage as apart from the privilege of 
parliament ( Journals of the House of Lords, 
xlv. 812). This resolution, however, was not 
communicated to the commons, and on the 
second occasion the order of the commons 
for Teignmouth's attendance was not ques- 
tioned by the lords (Diary and Corr.of Dtrd 
Colchester, 1861, ii. 69, 442; May, Par/. 
Practice, 1893, pp. 403-4). 

Shore became a prominent member of the 
evangelical party known as the Clnpham 
sect, which included the Thorntons, Charles 
Grant, John Venn, Zachary Macaulav, and 
AVilliam Wilberforce. From 1802 to 1808 
he lived at Clapham. In the latter year he 
removed to London, where he pa.«ised the 
remainder of his days. Shore was elected 
the first president of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society on 14 May 1804, and held that 
' office until the end of his life. He took an 
active part in the various controversies to 
which that institution gave rise, and gave 
his decision in favour of the exclusion of the 
apocryphal books from all editions of the 
Bible issued by the society. lie died at 
his house in Portman Square on 14 Feb. 
1834, aged &1, and wasbuned in Marylelxme 
parish church, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

Teignmouth had * three sons and six 
daughters by his wife, who died on 13 July 
18tU. He was succeeded in the title by his 
eldest son, Charles John Shore, who repre- 
sented Marylebone in the House of Commons 
from March 1838 to June 1841, and died on 
18 Sept. 1885. 

Teignmouth was a hard-working and use- 
ful administrator. His talents were mode- 
rate, and his religious views were strong ; 
but of his ' integrity, humanity, and honour 
it is impossible to speak too highly ' (Lobd 
Macaula Y, Edinb. iiev. Ixxx. 227 ). 

Teignmouth was elected president of the 
Royal Society of Literature, but declined the 
j office in favour of Bishop Burgess. Hewasthe 
intimate friend of Sir William Jones (1746- 
1794) [q. v.], whom he succeeded as presi- 
dent of the Asiatic Society of Bengal on 
22 May 1794, when he delivered an address 
on the * Literary History ' of bis predecessor 
(London, 1796, 8vo), which has been fre- 
quently reprinted, and has been translated 
into Italian. Three of his contributions to 
the society are printed in 'Asiatick Re- 
hes* (ii. 307-22, 388-7, iv. 831- 




350). lie translated in three manuscript 
volumes the Persian version of an abridg- 
ment of the ' Jog Bashurst/ but afterwards 
destroyed them in consequence of the little 
encouragement which his translations of 
IVrtiian versions of Hindoo authors received. 
lie wrote a number of articles for the 
' Christian Observer/ and the earlier annual 
reports of the Bible Society were wholly 
written by him. He was also the author of 
some mediocre verse. 

He published : 1. ' Memoirs of the Life, 
Writings, and Correspondence of Sir William 
Jones/ London, 1804, 4to. This passed 
through several editions, and formed vols. i. 
and ii. of *The Works of Sir William Jones/ 
which were edited by Lady Jones (London, 
1807, 8vo, 13 vols.) 2. * Considerations on 
the Practicability, Policy, and Obligation of 
communicating to the Natives of India the 
Knowledge of Christianity. With Observa- 
tions on the "I^fatory Ifemarks" to a pam- 
phlet published by Major Scott Waring. By 
a latellesident in Bengal/ London, 1808, 8vo. 
S. * A Letter to the Rev. Christopher Words- 
worth, D.D., in reply to his Strictures on 
the British and Foreign Bible Society/ Ix)n- 
don, 1810, 8vo. 4. * Thoughts on the Provi- 
dence of God,* London, 1834, 8vo (anon.) 

A portrait of Teignmouth was painted by 
Arthur William Devis [q. v.] 

[Memoir of tbo Life and Correspondenco of 
John, Lord Teignmouth, by his son Charles, 
second Baron Teigamouth (with portrait), 1843; 
Christian Observer, xxxiv. 261-300; the 
Bible Society Montlily Reporter, 1891, pp. 71-7, 
lOS-ll, 124-7; Correspondence of Charles, 
MarquesH ComMrallis, 1859; Sir W. W. Hun- 
ter s Ben mHnu8cript Records, 1894, i. 11- 
139; Sir John Malcolm's Political Hibtory of 
India, 1826, i. 117-193, vol. ii. App. pp. 
xlir-lxri ; Mill and Wilson's History of India, 
1840, i. 242 n., v. 468-640, vi. I-7O; Thorn- 
ton's History of the British Empire in India, 
1858, pp. 218-19, 223-30; Marshmun's History 
of India, 1867, ii. 30-6, 61-70; Edinlmrjrh Re- 
view, Ixxx. 283-291 ; Athenseum 1843, pp. 
564-6 ; Monthly Review, July 1843, pp. 336-9 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1834 i. 552-3, 1843 ii. 339-56; 
Annual Register, 1834, App. to Chron. p. 212 ; 
Burke's Peerage, 1896, p. 1401 ; Dodwell and 
Miles's Bengal Civil Servants. 1839, p. xvii; 
India List, 1896, pp. 119, 121 ; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities, 1890 ; Butler's Lists of Harrow School, 
1849 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

1895), poetess and miscellaneous writer, horn 
at Potton, Bedfordshire, in February 1824, 
was the youngest of the three daughters of 

Thomas Shokb ( 1793-18(53), whose wife, 
Margaret Anne, was daughter of the Rev. H. 
Twopeny. He was himself son of the Rev. 

T. W. Shore of Otterton, Devonshire, and 
nephew of John Shore, first lord Teignmouth 
[q. v.] ; while his mother, Juliana Praed, was 
aunt of Winthrop Mackworth Praed [q. v.] 
After a short career as a schoolmaster at 
Bury St. Edmunds, and a sojourn at Potton, 
Bedfordshire, he settled at Everton, where he 
received private pupils, some of whom attained 
distinction in after life — notably, Charles 
John, earl Canning [q. v.1, George Francis 
Robert, third lord Harris [q. v.], and Gran- 
ville George Leveson-Gower, second earl 
Granville [q. v.] He also served as curate in 
the neighbouring parish of Cockayne Hatley. 
He was the author of manv classical and 
theological works, but, holding somewhat 
advanced views on religion, declined pre- 
ferment in the church. In 1863 he pub- 
lished ' The Churchman and the Freethinker, 
or a Friendly Address to the Orthodox,' a 
pamphlet which attracted notice. 

His three daughters were all endowed with 
^at literary gifts and enthusiasm for learn- 
ing. The eldest, Maroabet Emily Shore 
(1819-1839), born at Bury St. Edmunds on 
Christmas day 1819, wTote much poetry and 
fiction as w^ell as treatises on ancient and 
natural history, but died of consumption at 
Madeira on 7 July 1839, before completing 
her twentieth year. A selection from her 
'Journal,' published by her sisters in 1891, 
gives a lively and fascinating account of her 
life and studies. 

Louisa Shore was associated with her sister 
Arabella (who survives) in many literary 
productions. The two sisters produced in 
1855 a volume of poems entitled *War 
Lyrics ; ' * Gemma of the Isles, a Lyrical 
Poem,' in 1859 ; * Fra Dolcino, and other 
Poems,* in 1871 ; and * Elegies and Memo- 
rials,' in 1890. The principal poems in these 
volumes were the work of Louisa, notably 
a fine elegy in the last volume on the death of 
their sister Margaret Emily and on the more re- 
cent loss of their brother, Mackworth Charles 
Shore, at sea in 1860. She published sepa- 
rately in 1 861 * Hannibal: a Poem in two parts.' 
A selection of her unpublished poems was 
edited, after her death, by her sister in 1896, 
with an appreciative notice by Mr. Frederic 
Harrison, and a reissue of some of her dramas 
and poems appeared in 1897. All her work 
was vigorous and of lofty purpose. She and 
her sister were early and enthusiastic advo- 
cates of the cause of women. An article by 
Miss Shore in the * M'est minster Review' 
for April 1874, printed soon after as a 
pamphlet (and since reprinted ), contains the 
gist of the whole subsequent movement in 
this direction at a time when it was imper- 
fectly understood. Miss Shore resided for 




the latter part of her life with her sister 
Arabella at Orchard Poyle, near Taplow, 
Buckinghamshire. She died at Wimbledon 
in May 1895, and was cremated in Brook- 
wood cemetery at Woking. 

[Memoir prefixed to posthumous Poems, 1896 ; 
Journal of Emily Shore; priN'ate information , 
and personal knowledge.] L. G. 

JOHN DE {(L 1345), a baron of the ex- 
chequer and doctor of civil and canon law, 
was possibly a son of Benedict de Shoreditch, 
who received from Edward I a grant of 
houses in the parish of St. Olave in the 
London Jewry, formerly belonging to a Jew 
called Jorum Makerel (Foss; Ahbrev, Hot, 
Oriy. i. 74). He appears as an advocate in 
the court of arches in the reign of Edward II, 
who in 1324 appointed him an envoy to the 
king of France, and whom he was about to 
accompany to France in 1325 (Walsingham, 
i. 175 ; Foedera, ii. 559, 606). He was made 
chief clerk of the common bench with a 
salary of a hundred marks a year, and re- 
ceived from the king the manor of Passen- 
ham in Northamptonshire ; but in the early 
years of Edward III Queen Isabella put him 
out of his office and despoiled him of a great 
part of his manor. He complained of these 
losses in the parliament of November 1330, 
and the king promised him compensation 
i^Rot. Pari ii. 41). On 20 Sent. 1329, being 
styled one of the king's clerts, though not 
apparently in orders, he was appointed to 
treat with France, and was engaged on that 
business until 1331, receiving 20/. for his 
expenses beyond sea in 1332 {Fwdera, ii. 
772 sqq. 836), in which year he was engaged 
on the marriage of the king's sister Eleanor 
to the Count of Gueldres. In 1334 he appears 
as a knight, was probably at that time a 
memberof the king's council, and on 26 March 


concerning a proposed marriage for the 
king's daughter Joan [see under Edward III], 
and on 10 Nov. 1336 was appointed second 
baron of the exchequer {Cat. Rot, Pat, 
p. 126), but seems to have held the ofBce not 
very long, for his name does not appear in 
the list of 1342 (F088). Other public busi- 
ness was committed to him by the king, and 
he is said to have defended Edward's 
assumption of title and anns of the king of 
Fiance in answer tO| and apparently in the 
prewnoe of, Philip VI in 1889 (Geof- 
niT u BiuBy p. 66). In 1848 he was 
irith otbtn to Clement VI at Avignon 

of England remonstrating against the abuse 
of papal provisions, and, when the pope said 
that ne had only appointed two foreigners to 
English benefices, answered, ' Holy rather, 
you have provided the cardinal of P6rigord 
to the deanery of York, and the king and all 
the nobles of England reckon him a capital 
enemy of the king and kingdom.' The pope 
seems to have been taken aback, and the 
cardinals were much moved and distresskyd 
at his boldness. He obtained license from 
the pope to depart, left Avignon in baste lest 
he should be stopped, and went to Bordeaux 
on other business for the king. In December 
he was appointed to hear all complaints and 
appeals in Aauitaine that might be made to 
Edward as king of France. On 10 July 
1345 he was smothered secretlv by four of 
bis servants in his house near \Vare in Hert- 
fordshire. Ilis murderers were arrested, con- 
fessed their gu il t , and were drawn,hanged , and 
beheaded on the 18th in London, their heads 
being fixed on stakes above Newgate. A 
Nicholas de Shordych occurs as a commis- 
sioner of array for Middlesex in 13o2. 

tFoes's Judges, iii. 606 ; Rymer's Foedera, 
. ii. passim, Kecord ed.; Murimuth, pp. 143, 
149, 171. 229-30 (Rolls Ser.)] W. H. 

SHORT, AUGUSTUS (1802-1883), first 
bishop of Adelaide, Australia, third son of 
Charles Short, barrister, of the Middle Temple, 
was born on 11 June 1802. In 1809 he 
entered Westminster school, where his early 
davs were the * most wretched * in his life, 
though relieved by the kindness of Charles 
Thomas I-«ongley [q. v.], afterwards arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. He was withdrawn 
for a time to a school at Langley Broom, 
near Slough, but returned to Westminster 
in 1811. lie passed to Chnst Church, Ox- 
ford, in May 1820, where he was placed 
under his cousin, Thomas Vowler Short 
[q. v.], and took a first-class in classics 
in 1823. He graduated B.A. in 1824 and 
M.A. in 1826. Short was at first occupied in 
private tuition, but he was ordained deacon 
at Oxford in 1826, and priest in 1827, and 
was licenseil to the curacy of Culham, Ox- 
fordshire. He resigned in 1820, on becoming 
tutor and lecturer at Christ Church : he 
was appointed librarian and censor in 1833, 
and in 1843 was select preacher to the uni- 
versity. In 1835 he accepted the living of 
Ravensthorpe, Northamptonshire, and mar- 
ried Millicent Phillips. The parish had been 
neglected, but Short rapidly organised it on 
a satisfactory basis. lie had many friends 
among the tract arians, and wrot« a defence 
of 'T?act XC.;' but he voted for the con- 
demnation of W. G. Ward's ' Ideal of a Chris- 




ti&n Church.' In 1846 he delivered at Ox- 
ford the Bampton lecture on *The Wit- 
ness of the Spirit with our Spirit/ In 1847 
the colonial sees of Capetown, Melhoume, 
Adelaide, and Newcastle were founded, and 
Short was offered the choice of Adelaide and 
Newcastle. He chose the former, and was 
consecrated and created D.D. of Oxford on 
16 June 1847. He sailed in September, and 
reached his diocese in December. There 
were on his arrival but five clergy in South 
Australia, and the bishop's difficulties were 
further increased in 1851 by the discontinu- 
ance of the vote for maintenance of public 
worship. The young diocese was thus cast 
entirely upon its own resources. But Short 
visited England in 1853, found that the 
diocese could be organised with a constitu- 
tion of its own, and proceeded to set its 
atfairs in order. In this he was completely 
sucr,essful, and showed himself a very capable 
administrator. He did his best to meet the 
needs of scattered communities in the bush, 
was keenly interested in work for the 
aborigines, did much for the organisation 
of education in the colon v, and secured the 
building of Adelaide Catiiedral. He came 
to England for the Lambeth conference 
of 1878. Short was attacked by heart 
disease in 1881, and resigned the see. He 
left Australia in 1882, amid general ex- 
pressions of respect, and took up his residence 
m London ; but his malady returned, and he 
died on 5 Oct. 1883. He published a volume 
of sermons in 1838, besides his Bampton lec- 
tures in 1846. 

His eldest brother, Charles William 
Short (1799-1857), bom in 1799, joined the 
Coldstream guards as ensign in 1814, was pre- 
sent with his regiment at Quatre Bras and in 
the defence of Hougomont at Waterloo, and 
served in the army of occupation. In 1837 
he left the army as captain and lieutenant- 
colonel, and entered mercantile pursuits. 
In 1852 he went to live at Odiham in Hamp- 
shire, where, as in London, he was conspi- 
cuous for his religious and philanthropic 
activity. He published treatises on the duties 
of the soldier, which had a wide circulation. 
He died at Odiham on 19 Jan. 1857. 

[F. T. Whittington's Augustus Short, First 
Bifhop of A'lelaide, 1888; Times, 8 Oct. 1883 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1857, i. 304; Welch's Alumni West- ' 
mon. p. 486; Fosters Alumni Oxon. 1715- 1 
1886 ; Mennell's Australasian Biography.] 

A. K. B. ' 

SHORT, JAMES (1710-1768), optician, ! 
was the son of William Short, a joiner in I 
Edinburgh, where he was born on 10 June , 
1710. At the age of ten, both parents having 
died, he was placed in Heriot*s Hospital, ] 

and, after two years, his talents caused him 
to be sent to the Edinburgh high school. 
Here he gained distinction in classics, en- 
tered the university of Edinburgh in 172f5, 
and in due course graduated M.A. His rela- 
tives aspiring to the ministry for him, he 
proceedea to the divinity hall, and qualified 
in 1731 for a preacher in the church of Scot- 
land. Attendance at the mathematical lec- 
tures of Colin Maclaurin [q. v.], however, 
diverted his purpose, never strong. Maclaurin 
noticed his abilities, permitted him in 1732 
to use his college rooms for an o])tical work- 
shop, and in 1734 informed James Jurin 
[q. v.] : * Mr. Short, who had begun with 
making glass specula, is now employing him- 
self to improve the metallic. By taking care 
of the figure he is enabled to give them larger 
apertures than others have done ; and upon 
the whole, they surpass in perfection all that 
I have seen of other workmen.* 

Short had cleared 500/. by the business 
when, in 1736, Queen Caroline (1683-1737) 
[q. v.] summoned him to London to give 
lessons in mathematics to William Augus- 
tus, duke of Cumberland (1721-1765) [q.v.] 
While in London he etiected some improve- 
ments in his methods, which he vigorously 
carried out on his return to Edinburgh, late 
in the same year. On 24 March 1737 he 
was elected a fellow of the Roval Societv of 
London, and in 1739 made a survey of the 
Orkneys for James Douglas, fourteenth earl 
of Morton [q. v.] He then finally settled 
in London, but frequently revisited Edin- 
burgh, for the last time in 1766. He died of 
intestinal mortification at Xewington Butts, 
London, on 14 June 1768, leaving a fortune 
of 20,000/. 

Short was the first to give to specula a true 
parabolic figure, and the lasting quality of 
the polish which he imparted to them is 
proved by the good condition of some which 
still survive. But, through jealousy of his 
inventions, he had his tools destroyed before 
his death. The Gregorian form of construc- 
tion was almost exclusively employed by 
him ; a Cassegrain, owned at one time by 
Alexander Aubert [q. v.], formed a well- 
known exception. Ills most celebrated instru- 
ment was a Gregorian of eighteen inches 
aperture, completed in 1752 for the king of 
Spain. The ])rice paid was 1,200/. He made 
besides several reflectors of twelve-feet focus, 
for one of which he received from Lord 
Thomas Spencer in 1743 six hundred guineas. 
A nine-inch Newtonian bv him at Green- 
wich was remarkable for being no more than 
eight diameters, or six feet long. It, how- 
ever, compared unfavourably in performance 
with William Herschel's seven-loot. 




Short made numerous communications to 
the Koyal Society between 1736 and 1763. 
Several related to his observations of auroras, 
eclipses, and occultations; others were of 
greater interest. For an hour near sun- 
rise on 23 Oct. 1740 he viewed Venus at- 
tended by a satellite showing an identical 
phase (Phil. Trans, xli. 646). The illusion 
18 diihcult to explain. On 7 Dec. 1749 he 
describeil a kind of equatoreal instrument, of 
which he had constructed three, one bought 
bv Count Bentinck for the prince of Orange 
{ib. xlvi. 241). He observed the transit of 
Mercury on May 1758 (ib. xlviii. 192), and 
the transit of \ en us on 6 June 1761 at 
Savile House, by the command of the Duke 
of York, who, with several other members of 
the royal family, was present on the occa- 
sion (ib. lii. 178). From a discussion of 
observations of the same occurrence made in 
various parts of Europe and at the Cape of 
Good Iiope, Short deduced a solar parallax 
of 8"*6o, long accepted as authoritative (ib. 
lii. 61 1 , liii. 3(X)). I le. moreover, determined 
the uirt*en*nce of longitude between the ob- 
servatories of Greenwich and Paris by obser- 
vations of four transits of Mercury (ib. liii. 
158). A sealed paper delivered by him to 
the lioyal Society on 30 April 1752 was 
oi>ened after his death and read publicly on 
25 Jan. 1770. It described a method of 
working object-lenses to a truly spherical 
form (ih. lix. 507). His workshop was in 
Surrey Street, Strand. Besides being versed 
in mathematics and optics, he was a good 
general scholar. 

[I>or(l Kiichan in Trans. Antiqimrinn Society 
of Soolland, 1792, vol. i.; Phil. Trans, abridged 
(llulton), xi. 649, Chain here's Biogr. Dict.of Emi- 
nent iScotsnicn (Thomsf>n) ; Irvinu:'8 Book of 
Scotsmen ; Thomson's Hist, of the Koyal Society ; 
(ient. Mair. 17<)8, p. .'}(»3 ; Kit^'hiner's Practical 
Olwjcrvations on Telescopes, 1818. pp.30, 39-4G, 
incliviiiig 11 table of Short's Gn-gonaua from the 
NrtutioarAlmamic for 1787 ; W«tt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Hulton'b Phil, and Math. Diet. ii. 497.] 

A. M. C. 

SHORT, THOMAS, M.D. ( 1 635-l()85), 
physician, son of the Kev. AVilliam Short, 
was born at East on, Suffolk, in 10.*i5. lie 
was sent to the grammar school of Bury St. 
PMmunds, and thence to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he was admitted a sizar 
on 25 Feb. 1(540-50. aged U (Mayor, Ad- 
miMionSy i. 94). He graduated B.A. in 
1653, and was created M.D. bv royal man- 
data on 26 June 1608. He settled in London 
and was admitted a candidate at the College 
of Physicians in December 1068, but was not 
elected a fellow till 26 July 1676. He had 
joined the chnieh of Roaei and, in accor- 

dance with an order of the House of Lords 
for the ejection of Homan catholics, was 
summoned to attend a meeting of the College 
of Physicians on 14 April 1079. He did 
so, but the feeling of the college was against 
intolerant proceedings; a quorum was not pre- 
sent, and no steps were taken. He attained 
considerable practice, and Thomas Sydenham 
[q. V.I, who had met him in consultation, 
tound his * genius disposed for the practice of 
physick ' ( Works, ed. Pechey, 1729, p. 3:39), 
and praises both his learning and sagacity. 
Sydenham prefixed to *A Treatise of the 
Gout and Dropsy * a letter to Short- in which 
occurs a famous passage on posthumous 
fame which Fielding quoted in * Tom Jones.* 
Short died on 28 Sept. lOSo, and is buried 
in St. James's Chapel, London. Bishop Bur- 
net, who thought that Charles II died of 
poison, also believed that Short was poisonwl 
by his co-religionists for asserting that the 
king was poisoned (Own Time, i. 609). Rich- 
ard Lower (1031-1091) [q. v.] and Walter 
Xeedham [q. v.] seem to have been unable 
to resist an opportunity of imposing upon 
the whig historian's credulity. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 377; Burnet's His- 
tory of his own Time, London, 1724; 'A Pin- 
darick elpcy ... on the universally lamt-nteil 
He'^th of I)r. Short,' 1685, fol.; Dodd's CInircU 
History, vul. iii.] N. M. 

SHORT, THOMAS (1090 .^-1 772), physi- 
cian, was born about 1690 in the south of 
Scotland, and, after graduating in medicine, 
settled in practice at Sheffield. In 1713 one 
William Steel communicated tohim the secret 
of making cerated glass of antimony a cure 
for dysentery, which he afterwards pub- 
lished. He made several journeys to visit 
the mineral springs of Yorkshire and of other 

i)art8 of England. He published in 172o * A 
National IJiscourse on the Inward Uses of 
Water,' and in 1730 'A Dissertation upon 
Tea.' In 1750 he published * New Obser- 
vations on the Bills of Mortality,' in which 
he adds something to the remarks of Graunt 
and Sir William Petty [q. v.], and treats 
the whole subject in relation to a book pub- 
lisiied anonymously by him the year before, 
*A General Chronological History of thw 
Air,' in two volumes, dedicated to fir. Mead. 
He spent eighteen years on these works. 
In 1750 he also issued * Discourses on Tea, 
Sugar, Milk, made Wines. Spirits, Punch, 
Tobacco/ &c., and in 1751 * Aledicina Bri- 
tannica,' an interesting and lucid herbal for 
the use of general readers. His * Treatise 
on the different Sorts of cold Mineral 
Waters in England' appeu^?d in 1766, and 
is an original work showing caxeful obsei^ 



Tation. A furtbcr > Discourse on Milk' ap- 
peared in 1760, uid in 1767 he pubH8ht>d 
*A Comparative Histoiy of the Increase 
BDcl Deereitse of Mankind, in whicli he advo- 
cates enrlj mairiaireH, denounceB alcohol ' aa a 
Sivftian poison,' and collects mitch historical 
and medical information. All hia hooks were 
piibli«be<l in I^udon. lie died in 1773. 

(Worku: Indfi Cut. Lihr. of the Kurp^on- 
gpiicrnl'i Office. Washington; Wntt's Bilil. Brit. 
J). 8J3 (eiring llUia ot uiLoor works).] N. M. 

ICTl'), b uccug«i vet t bishop of Sodnr and Man 
■n'l of St. Asapli, was the eldest son of 
William Short, nrclideacon of Cornwall, by 
l^lizabeth Ilodghinson. He was bom en 
11> S«pt. 1790 at Dawlisb, Devonshire, where 
Ilia father was then curate. After spending a 
yvAT al Kxifter grammar scbool ^ort waa 
N'nt (o Wert minster scbool in 1&03, whence 
]itt paasKd with a sTiidentsibip to Christ 
Church, Oxford, in lt09. He took a first- 
cIsM inclawicB and in matbi'matics in 1812, 
and in the following year was ordained 
deacon bj the bishop of Oxford. He gra- 
duated H.A,1813,M, A. 1815, n,D.182J,().l>. 
1K)7. In IdUShortbecameperpetualcurate 
of Orajlon, Oxfordshire, but he speedily re- 
Kigned thin cure in order to diKharge more 
fully the duties of « college tutorship. Cir- 
cumtilancrfi, however, led uim to become in 
laid tlie incumbent of Con-ley, Oxfordshire 1 
in 1 W3 of StockleiRh Pom eroy, Devonshire ; 
nnd in 1826 of Kingsworthy, Hampshire. 
In 1K21 he waa Whitehall preacher. At 
Christ Church he became successirely tutor 
and censor (18l6-29),librarian (1823), cate- 
chist and Bnsby lecturer (182.)), and "in 
IU23 he served as proctor, lie worked hard 
to improve the examinationsystemat Oxford, 
but the changKS he sought were not effected 
until after he had ceased to reside. Though 
Short left Christ Church before the Oxford 
movement really began, be was intimate with 
uost of its leaders. Puaev.o favourite pupil, 
always acknowledged liis influence, and 
■Short held a first place in his afiecliou and 
respect to the last hour of hia life ' (LtDSoir, 
Zifeo/PuKy.i.-Ii). Short examined New- 
man for his degree, and Keblo be numbered 
among bis close friends. It was in 1629 
that Short went to realde at Kingswortby, 
but in 1831 ho accepted an ofF^r from LonJ- 
cUancellor Brougham of the rectory of St, 
Oeorgc'a, Bloontsbury. Short made an indus- 
Briou? and useful town incumbent. He waa 
ID 1^7 appointed deputy-clerk of the closet 
to the queen, and four years later bishop 
of Sodor and Man. During an episcopate of 
fire years Short mainly reaiaed in the diocese, 

visiting the parishes, promoting tlie better 
education of candidates for holy orders, and 
generally raising tbe tone of bis diocese. In 
1846 he 'was translaled. on Lord John Rus- 
sell's recommeDdalion,to the see of St. Asapb. 
Here he for many years spent on the nepda 
of the diocese one half of bin episcopal in- 
come. Short resigned the see in 1870, and 
died on 13 April 1872. He married, in 
1833, Mary (Davies), widow of John Cony- 
beare. In addition to many tracts and single 
sermons. Short published 'Twenty Sermons 
on the Fundamental Truths of Chris tianitv," 
Oxford, 1829; 'Sketch of the History of the 
Church of England,' Oxford, 1832; 'Sadoc 
and Miriam ' (anon.), London, 1832 ; atid 
' Letters to an Aged Mother' (anon.), Lou- 
don, 1611. 

[MBinoir prefixed to 9th edition of his Hlet. 
of the Church of England; Foster's Alumni 
Oxen. 1715-1886.] A. R. It. 

8H0RTALL, SEBASTIAN (d. 1639), 
titular abbot of Bective in co. Meatli, was 
bom at Kilkenny. He became a Cistercian 
monk at Nucale in Gaticia, and worked at 
philosophy in tbe seminary of St. Claudius 
there, and afterwards in tbe monaster^' of 
Mons Itamorum, where Henriquez. the fite- 
niry liistoriait of the Cistercian order, waa 
tbenstudyingtheology. ilenriquei describes 
Sbortall, whom be classes among Spanish 
writers, as keen-spirited, vehement in dispu- 
tation, and efficacious in argument, and as 
one of the beat poet* the order had produced. 
Shorlall wrote with ease in all tbe Latiu 
metres. Many of his poems circulated in 
manuscript, but none appear to have been 

Sinted. Tbe names of a few are given by 
enriquez and reproduced by Harris. 

Sbortall, being sent on a mission to bia 
native country, was csptured by the Moors 
at sea. Having been redeemed, he made hia 
wav to Ireland, and died titular abbot of 
Dective in co. Meath on 3 Dec. 1C39. 

[TlenriijueE's Phicnix Iteviriscens, ItFUSeels, 
1826; Ware's Wiileri of Irsland, ed. IlHrris.] 
R. B-L. 

writer on New Zealand, bom at Courtiands, 
Devonshire, in 1812, was third son of Thomoa 
George Shortland [q. v.] of Courtiands, nnd 
brother of Willouebbv Shortland [a. v.], 
and of Peter Fredericb Shortland [q. vTl 
He was educated at Exeter grammar school 
and at Pembroke College, Cambridge, where 
be graduated B.A. in 1835 and M,A. in 18.%. 
He then studied medicine, and wait admitted 
an extra-licentiate of tbe Koval College of 
Physicians in 1839. In 1841 he went out, 
apparently Pt his brother's suggestion, to New 




Zealand, where on 28 June 1841 he was 
appointed private secretary to Governor Hob- 
son. On 5 Aug. 1842 he was appointed pro- 
tector of aborigines. On 10 Aug. 184^ he 
landed at llakaroa on Banks' Peninsula, to 
act as interpreter to Colonel Godfrey's court 
of inquiry into the land claims of the French 
compunv which was then endeavouring to 
establish itself at that point. After the court 
was closed he took a census of the natives of 
the peninsula. He reported on various land 
claims on 18 March 1844. This is merely a 
sample of the quiet work which he did among 
the natives for many years. About I80I he 
returned for a time to England, and resided 
chiefly at IMymouth, where in 1863 he dated 
the preface to his first book. He was again 
in England in 1 860, when he became M.R.C.P. 
He practised medicine for many years in 
New Zealand, and subsequently resided for 
some time at Pamell. In October 1889 he 
finally returned to England, and died at Ply- 
mouth on 5 July 1893. 

His name is chiefly identified with the 
relations between the English and the 
Maoris in the earlier days of settlement. 
He was a profound Maori scholar. His 
chief works are : 1. * The Southern Districts 
of New Zealand,' London, 1861. 2. * Tradi- 
tions and Superstitions of the New Zea- 
landers,' London 1864. 8. ' Maori Religion 
and Mythology,' London, 1882. Apparently 
he also published in New Zealand, * How to 
learn Maori.' 

[Auckland Weekly Nowp, 19 Aug. 1893 ; his 
own works; official records.] C. A. H. 

SHORTLAND, JOHN ^(1769-1810), 
captain in the navy, bom in 1769, was elder 
son of Commander John Shortland (1736- 
1803), and was elder brother of Thomas 
George Shortland [q. v.] He entered the nayy 
in 1 781 under his father, then employed in 
transport service to and from North America. 
He was afterwards in the Surprise, and from 
1783 to 1787 in the Latona frigate in the 
West Indies. On his return to England in 
1787 he joined the Sirius wnth Captain John 
Hunter '^1738-1821) [q. v.], and in her went 
out to New South Wales, made the yoyag^ 
to the Cape of Good Hope, and was wrecked 
at Norfolk Island, whence he returned to 
England in company with Hunter in April 
1792. On 10 Oct. 1793 he was promoted to 
be lieutenant of the Arrogant, and in 1795 
was selected by Hunter to be first lieutenant 
of the lleliance, in which he was going out 
as governor of New South Wales. As 
Hunters duties detained him on shore, 
Shortland was thus in acting command of 
the ship, in which he made several yoyages 

to the Cape of Good Hope, Tahiti, and 
New Zealand. He returned to England 
with Hunter in 1801, and having been pro- 
moted to be commander on 1 Jan. 1801, was 
appointed transport agent for the expedition 
to Egypt. In the following year he com- 
manded the Dolphin, from which he was 
moved to the Trompeuse, going out to the 
Guinea coast, where he was promoted, on a 
death vacancy, to be captain of the Squirrel. 
On his return to England his commission as 
captain was confirmed, to date from 6 Aug. 
1805. He was then sent out to the Halifax 
station, where, in February 1809, he was 
transferred to the Junon. In September he 
sailed for the West Indies, being then a 
hundred men short of complement, and on 
13 Dec. fell in with four large frigates sailing 
under Spanish colours. They proved able to 
answer the private signals, and Shortland con- 
sequently stood towards them to gain intelli- 
gence of the enemy. But when the Junon 
was well within gunshot, they struck the 
Spanish colours, hoisted French, and poured 
in their broadsides. Notwithstanding the 
tremendous odds against him, Shortland de- 
fended his ship with the utmost gallantry, 
till he was carried below most dangerously 
wounded; the Junon, which had lost ninety 
men killed and wounded, was then boarded 
and taken possession of, but she was such a 
complete wreck that she was cleared out and 
set on fire. Shortland had both legs shattered 
and his left arm ; he had also a severe wound 
in the side, and others less serious. His 
mangled body was taken on board one of the 
French frigates, and was afterwards sent, 
thirteen miles in a canoe under a blazing sun, 
to the hospital at Guadeloupe, where he died 
on 21 Jan. 1810, and where he was buried 
with military honours. He was unmarried. 

[Naval Chron. xxiv. 1 ; James's Naval Hist, 
(ed. 1860), V. 47 ; Troude's Bntailles Navales de 
U France, iv. 78 ; Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

(1815-1888), vice-admiral, bom in 1815, son 
of Captain Thomas George Shortland Fq. v.], 
entered the Royal Naval College at I^orts- 
mouth in January 1827, and, having passed 
through the course with distinction, servtHi 
afloat till 1834, when, on 4 Dec., he passed his 
examination. In 1836-8 he was a mate of the 
Rattlesnake in Australian waters, and, on 
the settlement of Melbourne, made a survey 
of Port Phillip, which was approved by the 
governor of the colony. On returning to 
England in 1838 he obtained leave of absence, 
matriculated at Cambridge as a member of 
Pembroke College, and in 1642 graduated as 
seventh wrangler. He then applied to join 




the Excellent with the view of competing 
for the commission at that time offered as a 
prize to young officers passing through a 
course of gunnery and mathematics ; hut as 
the advent of a seventh wrangler seemed 
likely to kill all competition^ the admiralty 
promoted him at once, on 1 April 1842. He 
was then appointed to the Columbia steamer 
for surveying duties on the coast of North 
America. As lieutenant, as commander 
(20 Jan. 1848), and as captain (I Jan. 1859), 
he continued on the same station till 1865, 
making a complete survey of the coast of 
Nova Scotia, including the Bay of Fundy, 
on the completion of which ho received the 
special thanks of the admiralty. He was 
tu«*n appointed to the Hydra for surveying 
KTvice m the Mediterranean, but in 1867 
was sent out to the East Indies to take a line 
of sound incTS from Aden to Bombay. The 
Hydra was paid off in 1868, and Shortland, 
at* the reqnest of the admiralty, wrote * A 
Sounding Voyage of H.M.8. Hydra* (8vo, 
180S), a work' highly esteemed both in Eng- 
land and the United States. On attaining 
the age of fifty-five in 1870, he was placed 
on the retired list. He then qualified as a 
barrister and was called to the bar, from 
Lincoln's Inn, on 27 Jan. 1873. He became 
a rear-admiral on 21 Sept. 1876, and a vice- 
admiral on 3 Jan. 1881. He died at Ply- 
mouth on IH Oct. 1888. He married in 1848 
Emily, daughter of Captain Thomas Jones, 
74th regiment, and left issue. lie was the 
author of * A Short Account of the Laws 
which govern H. M. Navy' (18S6), and of 

* Nautical Surveying * (8vo, 1890), published 
by his widow and children, mucli of the 
matter of which had already appeared in 

• Naval Science,' 1873-4-6. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; obituaiy notice 
in Timen, 19 Oct. 18H8, which is reprinted in the 
It^^ioning of the 'Ndutical Surveying;' Navy 
List!).] J. K. L. 

(1771-1827), captain in the navy, younger 
brother of Captain John Shortland Tq. v.], 
was bom at Portsea on 10 May 1771. In 
January 1786 he entered the navy on board 
the Irresistible, then flying the broad pennant 
of Sir Andrew Snape Hamond in the Channel. 
In March 1787 he was moved to the Alex- 
ander, one of the little souadron going out 
to New South Wales with Commodore Arthur 
Phillip [q. v.], and served in her till her re- 
turn to England in May 1789. He was then 
employed in the Channel and North Sea, 
anu on 19 Nov. 1790 was promoted to be 
lieutenant of the Speedy sloop. In January 
1 793 he was appointed to the Nemesis frigate, 

which accompanied the fleet under Lord 
Hood to the Mediterranean. In September 
1794 he was moved into the Komney, with 
Sir Charles Hamilton [q. v.l whom, in April 
1795, he followed to the Melpomene. On 
the night of 3-4 Aug. 1798 he commanded 
the boats of the frigate in cutting out the 
Aventurier armed brig from under the bat- 
teries in the bay of Corr6jou, on the north 
coast of Brittany — a gallant exploit, for which 
he was promoted to the rank of commander 
on 20 April 1799, and appointed to the Vol- 
tigeur sloop on the Newfoundland station. 
In the summer of 1801 he was appointed 
temporarily to the 80-gun ship l)onegal, 
then in dock at Plymouth, and, as a reward 
for his extraordinary exertions in fitting her 
for sea, was made acting captain of the 
D6daigneuse frigate, in which rank and 
command he was confirmed on 1 March 
1802. He then took the ship out to the 
East Indies, but was compelled by ill-heulth 
to return to England in the spring of 1803. 
He was afterwards for a short time captain 
of the Britannia, and of the Caesar, bearing 
the flag of Sir Kichard John Strachan [q. v.] 
In the summer of 1806 he joined the Canopus, 
as flag-captain to Sir Thomas Louis fq. v.], 
and commanded that ship when she fed the 
squadron of Sir John Thomas Duckworth 
[q. v.] through the Dardanelles in February 
and March 1807. After the death of Louis, 
Shortland continued for some months in 
command of the Canopus, but in September 
1807 was moved into the Queen, still in the 
Mediterranean, and remained in her till the 
end of 1808. In 1809 he commanded the 
Valiant in the expedition to the Scheldt ; in 
1810-11 the Iris trigate, oft' Cadiz and in the 
West Indies; and in 1812-13 the Koval 
Oak as flag-captain to Lord Amelius Beau- 
clerk [q. v.] In November I8l3 he was 
appointed agent for prisoners-of-war at Dart- 
moor; from April 1816 to April 1819 he was 
captain-superintendent of the ordinary at 
Plymouth : and for the next three years was 
comptroller-general of the preventive boat 
service. On 14 July 1825 he was appointed 
resident commissioner at Jamaica, where he 
died towards the end of 1827. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Peter Tonkin of Ply- 
mouth, and bv her had a large family. Three 
of his sons, Edward, Peter Frederick, and 
Willoughby, are separately noticed. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nar. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii.) 482 ; 
Navy Lists ; Service Book in the PuMic Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

1869), acting governor of New Zealand, bom 
in 1804, was the son of Captain Thomas George 




Short land [a, v.] Edward Short land fq. v.] 
and Peter J^rederick Shortland [q. v. J were 
his brothers. Willouffhby was educated at 
the Royal Naval College, and entered the 
service on 9 Jan. 1818. Being gazetted a 
lieutenant on 18 Aug. 1828, he served in the 
Galatea, 42 guns, and in the following year 
in the Hanger, 28 guns, on the Jamaica 
station. On 21 March 1831 he took the com- 
mand of the Skipjack, a schooner of 5 guns, 
and in her remained in the West Indies 
until June 1833. In 1839 he accompanied 
Captain William Hobson, the first governor 
of New Zealand, to that colony, which had 
not then been annexed by England. Land- 
ing at Auckland on 29 Jan. 1840, the British 
sovereignty was proclaimed, and Lieutenant 
Shortland appointed colonial secretary. lie 
proceeded to Port Nicholson, Wellington, 
and the English living there very willfngly 
acknowledged Queen Victoria's authority 
and Shortlaud's nomination as their police 
magistrate. On the death of Captain Hob- 
son on 10 Sept. 1842, the lieutenant ad- 
ministered the government of New Zealand 
until the arrival of Captain Robert Fitzroy 
on 31 Dec. 1843. During Shortland's tem- 
porary government the massacre of the white 
men bv the Maoris at Wairau took place 
on 17 J^une 1843, and in his despatches to 
the home government he expressed his dis- 
approval of the conduct of the settlers, to 
which he attributed the massacre. This 
action made him unpopular, and, when a 
report of his nomination as governor of New 
Zealand was circulated, a petition was sent 
from Auckland praying that he might not 
be appointed. 

On 31 Dec. 1843 he resigned the colonial 
secretaryship, and in 1845 became president 
of the island of Nevis in the Leeward Islands. 
Removing from Nevis, he was governor of 
Tobago from 10 Jan. 1854 until 1850, and 
then, returning to England, resided on his 
property, Courtlands,Charleton, Kingsbridge, 
IX'vonshire, until his death there on 7 Oct. 
1869. On 1 July 1864 he had been gazetted 
a retired commander in the navv. He 
married, in 1842, Isabella Kate Johnston, 
daughter of Robert A. Fitzgerald of Geral- 
dine, co. Limerick. 

[Gisborne's New Zealand Rulern, 1886, pp. 
33-C; MonneH's Australian Biogr. 1892, p. 410; 
O'Byrno's Naval Biogr. 1849, p. 1005 ; Rusden's 
Hist, of New Zealand, 1883, i. 313-48.] 

ih C. B. 

SHORTON, ROBERT (d. 153^5), arch- 
deacon of Bath, was one of the earliest 
scholars of Jesus College, Cambridge. He 
graduated M.A. in 1503, and was elected 
fellow of Pembroke Hall on 24 Nov. 1505. 

In 1507 ho was chosen to preach before the 
university, and in 1509 graduated B.D., and 
was selected to read the divinity lecture in- 
stituted by Lord-chief-justice William Hus- 
sey [q. v.] On 9 April 151 1 he was appoint^ 
the first master of St. John*s College, newly 
founded by Margaret, the mother of 
Henry VII. The mastership was worth 
only 20/. a year. Shorton proved invaluable 
to the new college. During the whole of 
his term of office the erection of the buildings 
was proceeding, and, being an excellent man 
of business as well as a scholar, he super- 
intended the progress of the work. He 
resigned his office before 1517. He was 
already dean of the chapel to Wolsey, who 
befriended him. Through Wolsey's influence 
he received an ample share of ecclesiastical 
preferment. On 1 Nov. 1617 he obtained 
the prebend of Donnington in the diocese of 
York, which on 7 May 1523 he exchanged 
for that of Fridaythorpe in the same see. 
In October 1518 he was chosen master of 
Pembroke Hall, and in the same vear was 
appointed rector of Sedgefield in burham. 
On 7 May 1522 he was appointed rector of 
Stackpole in Pembrokeshire, and on 14 April 
1523 ho received the prebend of Ix>uth in 
the church of Lincoln. About this time he 
proved of great service to Wolsey in select- 
ing scholars at Cambridge to be invited to 
join Wolsey's new college at Oxford. He 
received the honorar\' degree of D.D. from 
Oxford in 1525. On 8 April 1527 he was 
installed canon of Windsor. He was also 
Queen Catherine's almoner, and, as a staunch 
catholic, adhered to Queen Catherine when 
the divorce question arose. He w^as one of 
the few clergymen who supported the queen's 
cause in convocation. In 1529 Catherine 
appointed him master of the college of Stoke- 
by-Clare in Sussex. In 15Ji4 he resigned the 
mastership of Pembroke Hall, perhaps in- 
fluenced in part by the growth ot protestant 
tendencies. He became archdeacon of Bath 
in 1535, and, dying on 17 Oct. of the same 
year, was buried at Stoke-by-Clare. By his 
will he left a hundred marks to St. John's 
College, twenty to St. Catharine's Hall, 
twenty to Peterhouse, and to Pembroke Hall 
a sum of money with which was bought 
Beaulieu's farm at Whittlesford in Cam- 
bridgeshire. He had previously endowed 
these colleges with other gifts of land. II is 
portrait hangs in the combinatiou-room at 
Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

[Baker's Hist, of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, ed. Mayor, index; Cole MSS. zix. 216, 
xlix,46; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 71 ; Willis's 
Architectural History of Cambridge, ed. Clsfk, i. 
66, ii. 347-9 ; Brewer's Letters ftnd Fkpen of 

Shovell 159 Shovell 

H««nry VIII, iii. 460, 973, ir. 696, 885, 1886, | Herbert; in September 1680 to the Sapphire 
2033,vni.366; Hawes'8FraiDlin|^ham,e(l.Loder, I again; and in April 1()81 to the James 

p. 224 ; MA«Ur8*8 Hist. C.C.C.C. App. p. 29 ; 
lUkfr • Prfifaoe to Fishers Sermon at the Funeral 
of Mantaret, mother of Henry VII, p. 35 ; Kdu- 
CHtion Report, p. 486 ; FiJdes's WoUey p. 374, 
OiUectioDs pp. 203, 213, 216 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
B»ikfr MSi4. xx. 266; Univ. and Coll. Boc. i. 
112. 136,143. 176.] E. I. C. 

1707), admiral of the fleet, was baptised at 
C^ockthorpe in Norfolk on 25 Nov. 1650. His 
father, John Shovell (1625-1654) of Cock- 
thorpe, a man of some property, was the 
younger son of Nathaniel Shovell, * gentle- 
man,* buried atBinham, nearAVell8,in 1636, 
and probably the same Nathaniel who was 
baptised at St. Saviour's, Norwich, in 1601, 
•on of John Shovell, sheriff of Norwich 

galley — always in the Mediterranean, en- 
gaged in almost constant cruising against 
the Barbary pirates, and capturing or assist- 
ing in the capture of several of their ships, 
two of whicli, the Golden Horse and Half 
Moon, were bought into the service, and 
appeared in the navy lists for several years 
afterwards. He api>ear8 to have continued 
in the James galley till his return to Eng- 
land in November 1686. In 1()87 he was 
appointed to the Anne, a 70-gun ship, from 
which in the following spring he was moved 
into the Dover of 48 guns, one of the fleet 
afterwards assembled under Lord Dartmouth 
to preventthe landing of the Prince of Orange 
[see Legge, George, Lord Dartmouth]. 
Shovell had no difficulty in transferring his 

1000-7. The family appears to have been I allegiance to the new king, and in the next 
settled from early in the preceding century at j vear commanded the Edgar in the battle of 
Norwich ' » » r^,. 

a citizen 
was the 

Cley, by his wife Lucy, eldest daughter of was then appointed to the command of a 
Thomas Clowdisley of Cley. The neigh- ' squadron in the Irish Sea, and in the spring 
bouring registers for the seventeenth century | ot 1090, still on the same service, was pro- 
contain numerous entries of births, mar- | moted to be rear-admiral of the blue. Wlien 
riages, or deaths of Shovells and Clowdis- , the French fleet under Tourville came into 
leys ; and during the latter part of the seven- | the Channel and fought the battle of Beachy 
te**nth and the early part of the eighteenth . Head, Shovell brought his squadron to Ply- 
c«'ntury there were many men of these names mouth, where, being joined by Henry Killi- 
serving in the navy, for the most part in a | grew {d. 1712) [q. v. J, they had a force the 
subordinate rank. . threat of which was able to some extent to 

Clowdisley Shovell first went to sea in control the movements of the French. To- 
1004, under the care of his countryman, wards the close of the year he co-operated 
and probably kinsman, Sir Christopher , with General Kirke in the reduction of Dun- 
Myngs [q. v.]; and, after Mjmgs's death, ' cannon Castle, and in the following January 
closely followed the fortunes of another : was with the squadron under Sir (ieorge 
countryman, also probablv a kinsman, Sir . liooke that convoyed the king to Holland. 
John Narbrough [q. v.] I'hat he was with ■ On his return he joined the grand fleet under 
Narbrough in his" voyage to the South Sea ' Admiral Kussell; and though detached in the 
and the battle of Solebay is probable but | autumn, and again in the spring of 1692, to 
uncertain. The story of his swimming under convoy the king from and to Holland, was 
the enemy's fire, with despatches in his i with it in May, when, as rear-admiral of the 
mouth, though vouched for by family tradi- red squadron, he had a very important share 
tion, cannot be localised or dated. It is in the battle of Barfleur, and by breaking 
said to have happened while he was still a through the French line commenced the 

he went out to the Mediterranean, and fol- the fleet after the death of Kichard Carter 
lowed Narbrough to the Harwich in 1675. [q. v.], it would have fallen to him in due 
i »n 14 Jan. 1075-6 he commanded the boats course to command at the destruction of the 
of the squadron at the burning of the ships French ships which took refuge in the bay 
in the port of Tripoli, and on 3 May 1677 of La Hogue. Unfortunately he was pre- 
was appointed by Narbrough captain of the vented by a sudden and sharp indisposition, 
Sapphire, from which, in April 1679, he was and the duty fell to the lot of Sir George 
moved by Herbert to the Phoenix ; in May , Kooke fq- v.^ 

1079 back again to the Sapphire by Nar- In 1691 he was nominated major of the 
brough ; in July 1680 to the Nonsuch by ! first regiment of marines ; in 1692 he was 

S hovel 1 



made luHitenant -colonel, and in ltJ98 colonel 
of the second ro;jiment of marines — appoint- 
ments which his constant service at sea 
shows to have l)een honorary, or rather 
lucrative sinecures. lie was also appointed, 
on 20 April ItUKJ, extra commissioner of the 
navy, and in March 1(599 comptroller of the 
victualling, an otlice which ho held till 
25 Dec. 1704. 

Un the supersession of Russell, in the 
autumn of 1(592, the command of the fleet 
was put into commission, and Delavall, Killi- 
grew, and Shovell were appointed * joint 
admirals.* After the disaster to the Smyrna 
convoy [see Kooke, Sir (tkokoe] the joint 
admirals were at once superseded; but in the 
foUowingyearShovell was vice-admiral of the 
red under Lord Berkeley in the abortive ex- 
jwdition toCamaret Bay, and after Berkeley's 
return was in command of the squadron off 
Dunkirk. In 1(595 he was again second in 
command under Berkeley in the attack on St. 
Malo and Dunkirk, ani wrote to Berkeley 
strongly condemning the * machine ships,' 
which he considered * an invention to swell 
the projectors' accounts* [see Berkklky, 
John, third Lord Berkeley; Benbow, 
John, 1(553-1702]. In April 1696 he com- 
manded the squadron which covered the 
bombardment of Calais. In October he was 
promoted to be admiral of the blue, and dur- 
ing the rest of the war commanded the fleet 
in the Channel and otf Brest. In 1698 he was 
returned to parliament as member for Ro- 
chester, whicli he continued to represent in 
successive parliaments till his death. 

In 1699, and again in 1701, he commanded 
a squadron for the guard of the Channel. 
On the accession of Queen Anne he was 
promoted to be admiral of the white, and in 
October 1702 joined the main fleet under 
Sir George Rooke, four days after the attack 
on the combined French-Spanish fleet at i 
Vigo. He was then left by Rooke to bring I 
home the treasure and prizes, a service of 
some dilficulty, considering the disabled state 
of many of the ships. In 1703 he com- 
manded a squadron in the Mediterranean, 
and in 1704 was sent out with a large rein- 
forcement to the fleet under Sir George 
Rooke, whom he joined off Cape St. Mary 
on 17 June, and afterwards took part in 
the capture of Gibraltar and in the 
action off Malaga on 13 Aug., where he com- 
manded the van of the English line. In 
September he returned to England with 
Rooke, and on 26 Dec. was appointed rear- 
admiral of England. On 13 Jan. 1704-5 he 
was appointed admiral and commander-in- 
chief of the fleet, to wear the union flag at 
the main; and on I May I70o was ap- 

pointed, by special commission, commander- 
in-chief of the fleet, jointly with the Earl of 
Peterborough [see MoRDAUXT, Charles, third 
Earl of Peterborough]. The fleet sailed 
frem St. Helen's in the end of May, and 
after a delay of six weeks in the Tagus went 
on to Barcelona, where, on Peterborough's 
landing, the conduct of the fleet was left 
entirely to Shovell, by whose voice, it would 
appear, the council of war was mainly de- 
ciaed to continue the siege, and who, by 
landing guns and seamen to work them, 
largely contributed to the ultimate success. 
After this Shovell with the greater part of 
the fleet returned to England, where he re- 
mained during most of the following year, 
although his commission as joint commander- 
in-chief was renewed on 10 March. It was 
not till September that he sailed for Lisbon, 
where on 7 Nov. ho was appointed sole com- 
mander-in-chief, and a few days later was 
ordered to carry large reinforcements for the 
army under the Earl of Galway round to Ali- 

Bv the middle of March 1 707 he was back 
at Lisbon, but sailed again in the end of 
April, with orders to co-operate with the 
Duke of Savoy in a contemplated attack on 
Toulon. By the end of June he had arrived 
off Nice and Antibes, and, in consultation 
with the Duke of Savoy, undertook to drive 
the enemy out of the works which they had 
constructed to guard the line of the Var, 
but which were open in the rear to the fire 
of the ships. This was eftectively done with- 
out loss, and the passage for the army opened 
to Toulon, where they arrived on 15 July. 
The French had meantime been making 
every eftbrt for the defence of the place, and 
the force with the allies proved utterly in- 
suflicient. On 10 Aug. they raised the siege 
and retired into Piedmont, the only gain 
being the destruction of the enemy's ships of 
war, most of which the French sank to pre- 
vent their being set on fire, and the lai^r 
part of them when raised were found to be 
not worth repairing. Eight such ships, of 
from sixty to ninety guns, are named by 
Brun, and two others as having been de- 
stroyed by fire. So far as England was 
concerned the result was decisive, for the 
French Mediterranean fleet had ceased to 
exist ; and Shovell, having covered the re* 
treat of the allies till they had recrossed the 
Var, sailed for England. 

On 22 Oct. the fleet came into the sound- 
ings. The weather was cloudy, there had 
been a succession of strong westerly winds, 
and the fleet was set to the north by the action 
of the current, then not understood, but since 
known by the name of Rennell, who first 



called attention to it (see Kksjjell, Jaues; 
I.AUSHTON, Phyiical Geography, p. 21!). 
During tlie night thej found tbemBelv^a 
unexpectedly aniotig the rocks iif the Scilly 
Islands. JVIoat of tho ships eac4iped with great 
dilficulty, Tlie Associati on, carrying Shove U's 
flag'.gtruck on theBishopandClerli and broke 
up. Tffo other ahipa, the Engle and Homney, 
were lost at the same time. The body of 
ShoTeil, still living, was thrown on ehore in 
Portliellick Cove, but a woman, who was 
the first to find it, coveting an emerald ring 
on one of the fingers, extinguished the 
flickering life. Near thirty years after, on 
ber deatli-bed, she confessed the crime and 
delivered up to theclergyman the ring, which 
thus came into the possession of Shovell's old 
friend, the Earl of Berkeley, to one of whose 
descendants it now belongs. The body was 
uftenvards taken on board the Salisbury, 
and curried to Plymouth, where it was em- 
bulmed by Dr. James Vonge [q. v.], then in 
prlvati! practice at Plymouth I i'unffe'ii MS. 
Journal, by the kindness of the family) : it 
was then sent to London, and buried, at the 
cust of the government, in Westminster 
Abbey, where an elaborate monument in very 
questionable test* was erected to Shovell s 

He married, in 1691, Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Iliil, and widow of Sir John Nar- 
brough, and left issue two daughters, of 
whom the elder, Elizabeth, married Sir 
liobert Marsham, created Lord Itomney in 
1711), and had by him several children. She 
married, secondly, John, earl of Ilyndford, 
for manv years the English minister at the 
court ol'Frederiok the Great. The younger 
daughter, Anne, married the Uon. llobert 
ManseJl ; and, secondly, John Blackwood, 
by whom she left issue. 

A portrait, by Michael Bahl (full-length), 
is in the National Portrait Gallery ; another, 
bj Dahl (half-length), is in the Fa'inted Hall, 
Greenwich ; a third, by Dahl, belongs to Mrs. 
Mart in -Leake : another, by an unknown 
artist, ia in the town-hall of Kochester. 
Shovell's christian name has been spelt in at 
least tiwenty-five different ways. He himself 
usually wrote Clow', hut occasionally at full 
length, Clowdisley Of Cloudisley. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. ii. !3; Campbell's 
Lives of the Admirals, iii. 3B2 ; Naval Chronicle, 
XX. 130. miii. 177 ; Hist, of RocheaUir (1817, 
8vo). p. 211 : Nichol's Herald and Qenealoeis;, 
ill. 31. ia\; Burcbett'l Transactions at Sda; 
Lediard's Naral Histcry; Bayer's Idfe of Queen 
Anne; Edre's Hisl.of Uis Royal Marine Forces; 
Ducketl's yaviil CommisBionars ; Hiatflryof tha 
Sitge of Tonlon, translated from the French, 
170S, 12(na: Bmn's Gaerres Maritimes de la 
». Vnoet: Port de Toulon; J. H. Cuoko's Sliip- 

TOL. m. 

wreck of Sir Clondesley Shovpll in the Setlly 
Islnnris (Glancwter. 1S83); Commission and 
Warrant Books in Pnblic Hecocd Offica; Notes 
nnH (tneries, passim, bnt especially 6th ser. i. 
518, and 8th ser. vii. 41. The myslery whifh 
baa so long clandeJ the family hiF^tory of Shovell 
has been cleared away only within Ihe la*t few 
years hy the reaeirphei among Ihe Norfolk re- 
sislers of the Hon. R. Miirsham-Townahend and 
Mr. F. Owen Fisher, who have kindly fiacrd 
their DOl.'S iit the sorrico of the present writet.] 
.T. K. L. 
(16."i8 irol), recorder of London, horn in 
Northgato Street, Eiet-er, on 14 Dec. 1658, 
was tlnrd son of William Shower, merchant, 
of E.teter, by his wife Dorcas, daughter of 
John Anthony. John Shower [q. v.] was 
his brother. Educated in his native city, 
Bartholomew came to iiondon early in 1675, 
entered the Middle Temple on 9 Sept. 1676, 
WHS called to the bar on 21 May 1080, and 
rapidly became distinguished as a pleader. 
In 16S3 he attained some prominence as an 
uncompromising adherent of the court party 
by publishing ' An Antidote against Poison : 
compoEeJ of^sorae remarks upon the Paper 
printed by the direction of the Lady Russell, 
and mentioned to have been delivered bv the 
Lord Russell to the Sheriffs at the Place of 
Execution,' which be followed up in the same 
year hy 'The Magistracy and Government of 
England Vindicated' against the partisans of 
Ijord HuBselL In 1684 tie moved from the 
Temple into Chancery Lane, and neit year 
wns apiioint-ed deputy recorder under Sir 
John Holt [q. yj^ Shower was knighted 
by James IT at Wliitehall on 13 May 1687, 
and was made recorder of London in place 
ofSifJ.Tateon6Feb.1688. Hewiwmade 
bencher of his inn. on S5 May in this year, 
and render three years later, He signalised 
himself by his speech for Ihe crown against 
the seven bishops in June 16SS, and but for 
the reaction that almost- immediately fol- 
lowed he might have disputed James's favour 
with Jeffreys. Asit was, however, he was re- 
placed as recorderby Sir George Treby^q. v.] 
in November 1688, After the revolution he 
became a rancorous opponent of the court, 
and a political follower upon most issues of 
Sir Edward Seymour [q. v.] In 1095 be dis- 
puted the validity of a commitment by se- 
cretary of Btat« for high treason in the case 
of the king p. Thomas Kendall and Richard 
Roc. In 1696 he was counsel for the defence 
of .■Ambrose Rookwood and Peter Cook, both 
chargedwith high treason; ofCookandSnatt, 
the nonjuring parsons who gave absolution 
on the scaffold to Sir William Parkyns [qj.] ; 
and in November he defended Sir John Fen- 
wick, sfronglydeprecatiiig the proceedings by 




bill of attainder, on the ground that if he were 
acquitted his client would still be liable to 
proceedings under the common law. In 1698 
he was retained on behalf of the * Old * East 
India Company, and successfully screened his 
political leader, Seymour, from the imputa- 
tion of bribery. In June 1699 he success- 
fully defended* Charles Duncombe against a 
charge of falsely endorsing exchequer bills, 
and four months later lie was elected treasurer 
of the Middle Temple. Next month (No- 
vember 1699) he was counsel for Sir Edward 
Seymour against Captain Kirke, who had 
killed the baronet's heir, Conway Seymour, 
in a duel. In 1701 he was ready with advice 
as to the best means of proceeding against 
the leading Kentish petitioners. He was 
taken ill suddenly at the Temple Church on 
2 Dec. 1701, and two davs later he died of 
pleurisy at his house in I'emple Lane. Ilis 
remains were taken to Pinner Hill, where 
he had recently acquired a seat, and buried 
in the chancel of Pinner church, where there 
is a slab to Shower's memory (Ltsoxs, En- 
vironSf ii. 587) ; but, says Le Neve, * he had 
no right to the arms he was buried with, 
nor any other, as I guess* {^Pedigrees of the 
Knights, p. 41 1 ). Shower states that he was 
married in Bread Street in 1682 by Samuel 
Johnson, the author of * Julian the Apostate,* 
but his wife's name is not recorded. With 
advancing years Shower's jacobitism grew 
more robust. He wrote a bitter squib upon 
the opportunism of William Sherlock, en- 
titled * The Master of the Temple as bad a 
Lawyer as the Dean of St. Paul's is a Divine' 
(1696, 4to), and he corresponded in sympa- 
thetic terms with George Hickes [q. v.] the 
nonjuror. He was stigmatised in the fourth 
canto of Garth's * Dispensary ' as 

Vagellius, one reputed long 
For strength of lungs and pliancy of tongue. 

The Iteports printed as Shower's are : 
1 . * Cases in Parliament resolved and ad- 
judged upon Petitions and Writs of Error' 
(1694-8), 1698, fol.; 3rd edit. 1740, fol. (see 
Brtdgman, lA^yal Bibliogr. p. 303). 2. * Re- 
ports of Cases in King's Bench from 30 Car. II 
to 6 William III' (1678-95), London, 1708 
and 1720, 2 vols. fol. ; 2nd edit. 1794,2 vols. 
8 vo, London. Hardwicke, Holt, and Abinger 
have characterised these reports as of no 
authority. They were in fact printed from 
*a foul copy' which fell into the printer's 
Lands. Shower's abridged and corrected 
manuscript, containing ' many good cases 
touching the customs of London, never 
printed, fell into the hands of Edward Um- 
freville (who annotated it), and is now in 
the British Museum (^Lansdovme MS, llOo). 

At the end of the volume are some curious 
autobiographical notes in Shower's own hand, 
constituting the main authority for the facts 
of his life. 

[Luttrell's Brief Hist. Narration, vols. v. and 
vi. ; Boyor's William HI, p. 70 ; Howeirs State 
Trials, vols. ix. xii. xiii. ; Lysons's Environs of 
London, ii. 586-7,* Nichols's Lit. Aoccd. i. 151, 
ii. 414; Macaulay's Hist, of England, ii. 69'i; 
Wallace's Eeporters, 1855, p. 243; Marvin's 
Ix^gal Bibliography, p. 646; Brooke's Bibl. Leg. 
p. 219; CrtinphelTs Lord Chancellors, iv. 136; 
AUibone's Diet, of English Lit.; Notes from the 
librarian of the Middle Temple.] T. S. 

SHOWER, JOHN (1057-1715), noncon- 
formist divine, elder brother of Sir Bartholo- 
mew Shower [q. v.], was bom at Exeter, and 
baptised on 18 May 1657. His father, Wil- 
liam, a wealthy merchant, died alK>ut 1661, 
leaving a widow (Dorcas, daughter of John 
Anthony) and four sons. Shower was edu- 
cated in turn at Exeter, at Taunton, and at 
the Newington Green academy, his mother 
removing with him to London. In 1677, before 
he was twenty, he began to preach, on the 
advice of Morton and Thomas Manton ^q. v.] 
Next year, in consequence of the alleged 
* popish plot,' a merchant's lecture was begun 
in tlie large room of a coffee-house in Ex- 
change Alley. Four young preachers were 
chosen as evening lecturers, among them 
being Shower and Theophilus Dorrington 
[q. v.] Shower was ordained on 24 Dec. 
1679 by five ejected ministers, headed by 
Richard Adams (16l>6?-1693) [q. v.] He 
at once became (still retaining liis lecture- 
ship) assistant to Vincent Alsop [q. v.] in 
Tothill Street, Westminster, ana held this 
ost till 1683, when Sir Samuel Bamardiston 
q^ v.] sent him abroad with two other young 
ministers as companions of his nephew, ' 
Samuel Bamardiston. They made the grand 
tour, visiting France, Switzerland, Italy, and 
the Rhine. At Amsterdam, in July 1084, 
they parted, Shower remaining in Holland 
till 1686. Returning to London, he resumed 
his lecture at Exchange Alley, but the ex- 
treme pressure to which nonconformists 
were then subjected led him to return to 
Holland in the same year. He joined John 
IIowe(ia30-1705)[q. v.] at Utrecht. At 
the end of 1687 he became evening lecturer 
in the English presbyterian church at Rot- 
terdam, of which Joseph Hill (1625-1707) 
[q. v.] was one of the pastors. He returned 
to London on receiving a call (19 Jan. 1690- 
1691 ) to succeed Daniel Williams [q. v.] as 
assistant to Howe at Silver Street. jUere he 
was very popular, and soon received a call to 
the pastorate of the presbyterian congregi- 
tion at Curriers' Hall, London Wall, which 


' Shower 



he accepted on 8 May 1691. In this charge 
be remained till death, having been * married ' 
to his flock by Matthew Mead [q. v.], as 
ralumy puts it. Twice he removed the 
conjrrogation to larger meeting-houses, viz. 
lit Jewin Street (1692) and Old Jewry 
[ 1701 ), having successively as assistants 
Timothy llogers (1658-1728) [q. v.] and 
Joif^ph iJennet. 

Shower was a member of a club of ministers 
which, for some years from 1692, held 
weekly meetings at the house of Dr. Upton 
in Warwick Lane, Calamy being the leading 
f^pirit. He succeeded (1697) Samuel Annesley 
[q. v.] as one of the Tuesday lecturers at 
Salters* Uall. He was an emotional preacher, 
and very apt on special occasions. A fever, 
in Mav 1706, left his health permanently 
impaired. John Fox (1093-1763) [q. v.1, who 
visit*fd him in 1712, was impressed by his 
• state and pride.' On 14 Sept. 1713 he had a 
paralytic stroke at Epping. He was able to 
preach again, but retired from active duty on 
27 March 1715. He died at Stoke Newmg- 
ton on 28 June 1715, and was buried at 
Ilighgate. His funeral sermon was preached 
on 10 July by William Tong [q. v.] His 
portrait is in Dr. Williams's library, and has 
been six times engraved. He married, first, 
24 Sept. 1687, at Utrecht, Elizabeth 


Falkener (d. 1691), niece of Thomas Papillon 
[q. v.] ; secondly, on 29 Dec. 1692, Con- 
fttance White (rf. 18 July 1701), by whom 
three children survived hun. 

He published twenty-one single sermons, 
including funeral sermons for Anne Bar- 
nardiston (1682), Richard Walter (1692), 
Queen Mary (iG&o),^ Nathaniel Old field 
(1696), Jane Papillon (1698), Nathaniel 
Taylor (1702), Nenemiah Grew [q. v.], and 
an ' exhortation ' at the ordination of Thomas 
Bradbury [q. v.]; also 1. * Practical Refiec- 
t ions on the late Earthquakes in Jamaica/ 
1693, 12mo. 2. 'The Day of Grace . . . 
Four Sermons,' 1694, 12mo. 3. 'Family 
Ileligion, in Three Letters,' 1694, 12mo. 
4. * Some Account of the . . . Life , . . of Mr. 
Henry Gearing,' 1694, 12mo. 5. 'The 
Mourners Companion,' 1699, 12mo (2 parts). 
«. * God's Thoughts and Ways,' 1699, 8vo. 
7. * Heaven and Hell,' 1700, 8vo, 8. 'Sacra- 
mental Discourses,' 1702, 8vo (2 parts). 
9. ' Serious Reflections on Time and Eternity,' 
/)th ed. 1707, 12mo. 

[Life and Funeral Sermon by Tong, 1716 ; 
Middleton's Biographia Evangelica, 1786, iv. 
214 sq.; Protestant Dissenter's Magazine, 1797 
pp. 41 sq., 1799 pp. 212 oq.. 254 sq., 429 sq. ; 
S'oble'd Continuation of Granger, 1806, i. 129; 
^Vil'<^ll'^l Di^Benting Chnrches of London, 1808 
ii. aOS sq., 1810 iii. 39 sq., 1814 iv. 66 ; Monthly 

Repository, 1821, pp. 133, 222; C;ilamy*s Own 
Life, 1830, i. 139, 324, ii. 37, 340; Pike's 
Ancient Meeting Houses, 1870, pp. 102 sq. ; 
Collection of Several Pieces of Mr. John Toland, 
1726, ii. 356 ; Swifts Works (Scott), xi. 201 sq.] 

A. G. 

SHRAPNEL, HENRY (1761-1842), 
inventor of the Shrapnel shell, youngest son 
of a family of nine children of Zachariah 
Shrapnel, esq. (5. 22 Dec. 1724, d. 5 May 
1796) of Midnay Manor House, Bradford-on- 
Avon, Wiltshire, and of his wife, Lydia (Need- 
ham), was born on 3 June 1 761. His brothers 
dying without issue, he became the head of 
the family. He received a commission as 
second lieutenant in the royal artillery on 
9 July 1779. He went to Newfoundland in 
1780, and was promoted first lieutenant on 
3 Dec. 1781. He returned to England in 1784, 
when he began, at his own expense, to make 
experiments and to investigate the problems 
connected with hollow spherical projectiles 
filled with bullets and bursting charges, and 
with their dischar^ from the heavy and light 
ordnance of the time — investigations which 
ultimately led to his great invention of the 
shell called after his name. In 1787 he went 
to Gibraltar, and remained there until 1791, 
when he was sent to the West Indies, and 
was stationed successively at Barbados, St. 
Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, Antigua, and 
St. Kitts. 

Shrapnel was promoted after his return 
to England to he captain-lieutenant on 
15 Aug. 1793. He served in the army of the 
Duke of York in Flanders, and was wounded 
at the siege of Dunkirk in September. It is 
recorded that at the retreat from Dunkirk 
Shrapnel made two suggestions which were 
successfully adopted: one was to lock the 
wheels of all the gun-carriages and skid 
them over the sands ; the other was making 
decoy fires at night away from the British 
position, whereby the enemy expended his 
ammunition on them uselessly while the 
British were departing. He was promoted 
to be captain on 3 Oct. 1795, brevet-major 
on 29 April 1802, major in the royal artil- 
lery on 1 Nov. 1803, and regimental lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 20 July 1804. During all 
this period he devoted not only his leisure 
time but all the money which he could spare 
to his inventions, and in 1803 he had at- 
tained such great success that his case-shot 
or shell was recommended by the board of 
ordnance for adoption into the service. In 
1804 Shrapnel was appointed first assistant- 
inspector of artillery, and was for many years 
engaged at the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich 
in developing and perfecting this and other 
inventions connected with ordnance. 




In la(M Slirapn^'l shell was employed 
till! attack ou fMitinam, and favourably re- 
ported on. Its aftiT progress, although fre- 
Suently Ktanlcd by clefects of manufactun;, 
le imperfi-ction Of the fuse, and Che difficul- 
ties incidenlul to all coaaiderable novelties 
in artillery, wua neverthelesa steady and 
triumphant. This destructive shell, which 
in every country goes by the name of the 
inventor, is in more extended ui 
highly thought of. If passible, in the preaent 
dav than ever. The testimony that Shrap- 
nel received to tLe value of his shell ivas 
ample. The lluko of WelUngton wrote tc 
Sir John Sinclair on 13 Oct. 180d lo testify 
to the great benefit which the army lately 
under his command had derived from the use 
of ShrapiicrscaAe-flhotiotwoactionswlthlbe 
enemy; be considered it most desirable that 
the use of thu invention sliould not: be made 
public, and, as therefore Shrapnel would be 
deprived of the fume and honour which be 
might otherwise have enjoyed, be should be 
Amply rewarded ' for bis ingenuity and the 
ecieuce which be lias proved he possesses by 
tbu preat iKTleclion to which he Las brought 
this invention.' In the following year Wel- 
lington wrote to Shrapnel on It! June from 
Abrautes, to tell bim that hie shell had had 
the best effect in producing the defeat of the 
enemy at Vimieia on -21 Aug. 18D8. Sir 
\Villiam Ilobe fi). v.], who commanded the 
artillery in tb') Peninsula, wrote to Shrapnel 
from Torres Vedraa on the same date that 
the artillery had Ijeen 'complimented both 
by the French and all our own general 
officers, in a way Iiiphly flattering to us, . . . 
It |~l he shell] is admirable to the wbolo army 
and its effects dreadful. . . . I told Sir Arthur 
Wellesley I meant to write to you. His 
answer was ; " You may soy auvthing vou 
please; you cannot say too much. Admiral 
Sir Sydney Smith in 1S13 was so enthusiastic 
about these shells (hot he begged Sbrspoel, 
in case tbe hoard of ordnance would not send 
him enough of them, Lo let him know how 
be might get them at his private e.xpense, and 
soon after he orderod a supply of two hundred 
privfltelyfromCarron. SirQeorge Wood, who 
commanded the brigadeof artillery at Water- 
loo, wrote toShrapnel from Waterloo village, 
on 31 June I8l.'i, that had it not been for his 
Hhells it was very doubtful whether any 
effort of the British could have recovered the 
farmhouse of La IlayeSainto, 'and hence on 
this simple circumstance hinges entirely the 
turn of tbe battle.' This was the general 
testimony to the value of the invention, ' 
at a later date cummanderai^^e field, ~ 

a« Lord Keane, Sir V 

bert Sale, Sir George 


.Sir IlariT Smith, and others, ■ 
Shrapnel 9 death u 

p ider 
expressing tbs 
which they faeldthi^ 
shells. - 

Shrapnel was priimoted to be colonel in 
tbe army on 4 .Tune 1813 and regiment*! 
colonel on 20 Dec. 1814. On 10 Sept. 1813 
he addressed the board of ordnance on tbu 
subject of some reward being made to him, 
and pointed out that for twenty-eight yeari 
he bad been unremitting in bis exertions to 
bring hisinventiontotbe great excellence sod 
repute it badattained, and that it had cort him 
several tliousand pounds from his private 
purse, The boards reply was simply that 
they had ' no funds at their disposal for the 
reward of merit.' In 1814, however, ihe 
treasury granted him a pension of 1,200/. a 
year for life for his ser^-ices, in addition to 
any other pay to which he was entitled in 
the ordinary course. The government un- 
doubtedly meant to act justly, but, unfoN 
tunately, the niggardly interpretation of the 

LE of the grant by toe public 
charged with these 
atrued it in such a ^ 
bave been better ofl'if it bad ni 
Thus the grant was interpreted to include 
all his Improvements in artillery besides the 
shell ; further, in consequence of Sbrapnel 
bein^ already provided for by this sjircial 
pension, he was passed over in promotion to 
the commandant ship of a battalion. 

Sbrapnel was pMmoted to be major-gene- 
ral on I^ Aug. 1819, and retired from active 
employment on 20 July 182-J. lie became* 
colonel-commandant of tbe royal artilteiy 
on 6 March 1827, and waa promoted tobs 
lieutenant-general on 10 Jan. 1837. A short 
time after this promotion Shrapnel was tb« 
guest of William IV at Brighton, when the 
king personally acknowledged hia high sense 
of Shrapnel's senicea, and signified a desin 
to bestow upon him some honour. Sbrapnel 
would appear to have intimated a desire for 
some honour which would descend lo bis son, 
as Sir Herbert Taylor wrote to bim from 
Windsor Castle on :.'3 April 1837 expressing 
the king's readiness to confer a baronetcy 
upon the inventor; but William died aoon 
after, and nothing further was done. Shrapnel 
died at his residence, I'eartree House, South- 
ampton, on 13 March 1843, a disappointed 
man ; he was buried in the family vault in 
tbe chancel of Bradford church, \Villabire. 

In addition to tbe invention of shell*. 
Shrapnel compiled r.inge tables, invented th« 
tangent slldt-, improved the constnic- 
"mortars andhowitzersby the int^odtl^• 
il ic chambers ; he also constructed 
ippearing mounting for two pieeea 

■utiny of 01 petidit ure con- 
iray that Shrapnel would 
if It bad never been made. 



■oil of 

ordnHni^e, so armn^ed thnt 

e gun lowereil it under cover wIiIIb it 

lugbl tbe other up ready to fire ; he im- 

tid email arms and ammiuution, and in- 

Bbrapnd raBiried, on .J Mny 1810, at St. 

ly'a Cliurch, lambetb, Esther Squirea 

1780, d. 18a-2) of that parish. They had 

- BODS and two daughtera. The eldest aor 

Lry Needham Scrope {*. 26 July 1812, o 

June 1896), edupaled at Cambridffe Uni 

raity, waa a capt4iin in the Srd dragoon 

lorda, and wua afterwarda liarrBch-moster 

Ireland, Bermuda, Uallfa.^, and Montreal. 

"".ei his retiroment from tbe service about 

16, he pressed his father's claims for re- 

.hc government and on both houses 

parliament, but without success, aud he 

ia went to Canada and settled at Orillia 

OntBrio. He married, on 19 Aug. 1835, 

St. Mary's Church, Dover, Louisa Sorah 

»Re {&. 1816, d. leSU), by whom he had 

m children i six are now living in British 

;h America ; the eldest, Edward Scrope 

tpnel, is an artist in Toronto. 

A portrait of Shrapnel, painted in oils by 

^.Arrowsmithin 181 1, hangs in thereading- 

n of the Royal Artillery Institution at 


[ [War Office Rworda ; Roynl Artillfry Re- 

■ I ; Oont. Mag. 1 H42 : Pate'i.i Office Iteforda ; 

tedlapa Royal Aniller; Inililuliaa, vul. v., 

I Shrapnel of Ihe Faht ; Petition of 

laTj Kredham Sompe Shriipnel to the HaUHe 

P^Lorda, 18B8. 8to. nndtothe Uoou of Commons 

* ; prirnlo sources; Letters of Culoael Sir 

„ istus Simon Frasor. written duriag the 

■nimtilaraiidWatfTtaD Campaigns. 8to, 1859 ; 

Vcllington Dri^tclies ; Knoe's List of Officsrs 

Vthe Umti Rtagiment of Arlillerj, 1899, 4ta; 

locHD sUist. 01 1 he Roval Artillery ; Royal Mili- 

uwy fa'^odnr, 1820. vol. iii,] It. H, V. 

SHREWSBURY, Ditke of, [See TiL- 
eut, CiuELBS, ]{jti0-1718.] 

DE.Mo.vTCoiiERT,rf.l093?; IIi'OhofMoht- 
«o)icBY, d. 1098; Bblleme, Robert ok,^. 
1098; T*r.BOT,Joas,firfit Earl, 1390-14.13; 
Talbot, Jony, second Earl, 1413-1460; 
T»LBOT, Oeorqb, fourth E-*Kt, !469!'-1641 ;, Fr.*scis, fifth Eabl, lorxj-lfrtiO; 
T«LBOT, Georqe, BLilh Earl, 1527NI590; 
T*LBi>i, Gilbert, seventh Eael, 1552- 


SHEEWSBURY. Cofntess of. [See 
Talbot, Er.iZABtTrn, 1518 .*-Hi08.] 

bisbip of Bath and Wells. [See IUlph.] 

hagiologist. [j-'ee Robert,] 

SHRUBSOLE, WILLIAM tl739-ir97), 

arithor of ' Christian Memoirs,' was bom at 
8audwidi, Kent, on 7 April 1729. In 
February 1743 he was apprenticed to George 
Cook, a shipwright at Slieemess, whose 
daughter he married in ]7Ji7. He led an 
irregularlifeforsame lime, but, Ijeingarouaed 
by a work of Isaac Ambrose, he grew re- 
ligious, and in 1752 was asked to conduct 
the devotiaas of a small body which met at 
Sheemess ou Sunday aftemoous. In 1763 
this body erected a meeting-house, and 
Shrubsole frequently acted as their minister. 
About 1767 he undertook regular public 
preaching in Sheemeas and other towns in 
Kent. In 1773 he was appointed master- 
maat maker at Woolwich (I fowl and Hill 
spoke of him familiarly as 'the mastmnker'), 
but later in the year received promotion at 
Sheemess. In 17H4, hia ministrations jirov- 
iag very successful, a new chapel was built 
for him at Sheemess, which was enlarged in 
1787. In 1793 he had a paralvtic stroke, 
and a co-pa«tor was appointed, 'fhough his 
ministry was gratuitous, he declined further 
promotion in the dockyard, on the ground 
that it might interfere with his preaching 
engagcmenta. Hediedat Sheernesson 7Feb. 

Shrubsole is remembered as the author ot 
'Christian Memoirs' (K.ocbester, 177<t), a 
curious allegorical work in the stvle of 
Bunyan. The book was written, aa Shrub- 
sole exolains, lo divert his mind after being 
bitten oy a mad dog in 1773, A second 
edition (1790) contained an elegy written ii 
1771 on the death of White&eld ; and a third 
edition (1807) was edited by his son, with a 
'life' of the author. Shruhaole's other works 
include: 'The Plain Christian Shepherd's 
Defence of his Flock, being fi Lettprs in sup- 
port of Infant Baptism,' 1794; a pamphlet 
entitled ' A I'lea In favour of the Shipwrighia 
belonging to Ihe Royal Dockyard,' 1770; and 
several pamphletsond letters on the religious 

■ntroversies of the day. 

HiseldeHtaon,WiLUA»i Shbitbso le ( 1 759- 
1829}, bom at Sheemess on 21 Nov. 1759, 
became a shipwright in Sheemess dockyard, 
and subsequently clerk to one of the olhcers. 
In 1785 he went to London as a clerk in the 
Bonk ot England, where he ultimately be- 
came 'secretary to the committee of treasury.' 
He died at Highbury on 23 Aug. 1829, and 
was buried in Bunbill Fields, Skrubsola 
took a special interest in religious and philan- 
thropic societies, and was one of the first 
secretaries of the London Missionary Society. 
He had some poetical gifts, and contributed 
hymns to various religious publications from 
1 1 75 to 1813, His best known hymn, ' Arm 




of the Li>ri! ! awake, awahi.',' first published ! 
in ' Missionnrr llrmiu,' 1795, is attributed I 
in some works to Lis fattier, but tlie testi- 
mony of the loiins'-r Shnibsole's daiijfhter ! 
is ctinclusivi! in his favour. Anolhir hymn, ' 
' Briffht as thn aun'a meridian blaie,' waa ' 
written in 1 7'X, for the first nnniverearv meet- \ 
ing of thi' ]^udi>n Missionary Socittv. lie ' 
-n-aanot eonni-ded inany way with William ' 
Shrubsnle q. v. ', tlie composer (Momorial ' 
notice by his daugliter, Mrs. Cuniitfe, with j 
jiortrait. iii ^Idliisos's Fathrrt and Founder' ! 
of the Lomlun Munonarif Sueiefy; Jl'LUS's 
hicliiinanf iif llymnulngy's. 

[Chriatiun Memuirx. 3p1 edit., ns hIjotc; ! 
HurUon'H Fathprs and Fiiuiiders of llio Lun.lun 
jUissionuTT SftCicty; Millers Our Hymns, tiicir 
Aucliors nnd Origin, which, hua-ever. erra in tbc 
matter of liie hvmns; Oeut. Mug. 17?". J't. i. ' 
173. 250.] J. C. H. 

18(Xi), coniwisiT, younjrest son of Thomas 
ShruWk', furrier, wa.'A bom at Canterbury, 
and bniitiseJ on 13 Jan. 17G0. lie was a 
chorister in tho cathedral from 1770 to 1777, 
and orKiLnL-l at I)an)rgr Cathedral from 178:^ 
to 1784, when he was dismissed for frequent- 
ing 'conventicles.' He became organist of ; 
S]ia Fielda Chapel, London, and held that 
jKwt till his death on IS.Ian. 1806. lie was 
a successful teacher in London, nnd amonf; 
his pupils were William Ruiisell (1777-1613) 
fq. v.], orjranist of the Foundling Chapel, and 
llenjamin .lat-ob 'q. v.] of Surrey Clianel. 
Tho 17H1 ' Jlusicul Directory' describes him 
OS au alto singer, and in that capacity lie 
is said to have aung at Drury Lane and 
"WestminstiT Abbey. Shrubadle composed 
the famous hynin-tune known as ' Miles 
Lane,' set t" tiio hyran by Edward Perronet ; 
[see under I'ekronet, Viscest], 'All hail ! 
the power of Jesua' N'ame.' Ha became 
intimate with Perronet at Canterbury, and i 
Porronet, besides making him one of bis ' 
executors, left liim a substantial share of his 

frop^rty. Shrubsole is buried at Bunhill 
'iolds, Ijondiin, and the first strain of 
' Miles l<ai)o ' is cut on his tombstone. 

[Piirr's Church of England Psnlmody; Love's 
Seottiah ChuTL-li Music; Musical Opinion. March 
1806 ; Quiver, May ISOS. where there is a fac- 
simile rcproilnrtion of 'Miles Lane' as it first 
appeared in the Oi>spol Magazine, November 
1779; nolo bv Mr. F. G. Edwards; reeonis of 
Bangor Catliedral.] J. C, H. 

(1802-186S), entomologist, bom in 1802, was 
the eldest eon of Johann I^eonhardt Schuck- 
ardt of Frankfort-on-t he-Main, who settled 
in England in 1787 (married in 1793) and 

became proprietor of the Old Ship lintel it 
Brighton. William was well educated, and 
was apprenticed to Messm. Italdwin, Ctad- 
dock, & Joy, publishers, of Paternoster l^^■■: 
lodging at lir-^t with his maternal uncle, 
William Bernard Cooke [q. v.], the line- 
engraver, of Soho Square. But fiis devotinit 
to readinjr led to neglect of hi.? duties, and 
he was dismissed. His father then sent him 
to a German firm of booksellers, it is belieV'Ki 
at Iieipzijr. Subsequently on relumin;; t<> 
Brij^hton he attempteil literary work.and be- 
came sub-editor of a local papier. Ilia leisure 
he devoted to entomolojjy, and soon became 
ei:pert in the study. On 2 April I&Vj he 
was appointed librarian to the Koval Socielv, 
and held the post until 9Xov.ltM3. Throuifli 
the influence of William Wilson fJaunriers 
ri|. v.], the entomologist, he obtained in x\\v 
Ibllowing year the post of editor of 'Lloyd's 
List,' which office he held till his retiremeai 
in 1861. He died at the Oval lload, Ken- 
nington.onlONov.lPW. Shuckard married, 
about 18:J9, the dauphter of 3lr. Martin of 
Ilorsted Keynes, Sussex. 

Shuckard was author of: 1.' Esssayonlbe 
Indigenous Fosnorial Hymenontera,' l^vo, 
London, 1837. 2. 'Elements of British Ku- 
tomology,' 8vo, London. 18^. 3. 'The 
British Coleoptera,' with drawings bv W.J. 
Sprj-, 8vo, London, IfMO. 4. 'Ontlie His- 
tory and Natural Arrangement of Insects,' 
written in conjunction with W, Swaim^m, 
8vo, Ijondon (Lardner's ' Cabinet OvcloDicdia,' 
vol. i.>, 1840. C. ' Cotalogue of the Manu- 
script Letters in the posaession of the Rovnl 
Society,' 8vo, London, 1840. 6. ' Brit■i^h 
Bees,' 8vo, London, 1866, He also trans- 
Inted and edited, with notes and plates, 'A 
Manual of Entomology,' from the Oerman 
ofC. II. C. Burmeister, 8vo, London, 1P:W; 
Tischendorf 'b ' Travels in the East ' in 1847, 
and Bechstein's ' Chamber Birds ' in l''!'*, 
which went through many editions. Some 
sixteen papers on enfomolo^cal subjects by 
him appeared in various scientific loumals 
between 1836 and 1842. 

[Entomalogisl,, iv. ISO; informntion kiadly 
supplipd bv hia son, Mr. O. C. Shuckard, and bv 
Mr. n. Harrison, .isstsl. Sec. Roy. Soc. ; lirii". 
Mas Cat.; Hoy. Soc Cat.] B. B. W. 


(lr,!»6-16.56), rovalist, bom in 1596, was 
second son of John Shuckburgh of Shuek- 

I hurgh in Warwickshire, and of bis wife 
Margery, eldest daughter of RichanI Middle- 
more of Edgbaston in "Warwickahire. 

I Richard matriculated from Lincoln College, 
Oxford, on S3 April 1615, and graduated 

I B.A. on 3 May of the ume ynr (fiifttri 


167 Shuckburgh-Evelyn 

Vnictrsity Register, 11. ii. 336, iii. 335). His 
elder brother dying without heirs in 1626, 
Kichard succeeded nis father in the family 
estates in March 1631. In 1640 he was 
chosen to represent the county of Warwick 
in the Long parliament. But the proceed- 
ings of that body were little to his taste, and 
liis vehement loyalty drew down on him the 
displeasure of the parliamentarians. He was 
interrogated by order of the commons, and 
on 21 Sept. 1(142 the serjeant-at-arms was 
directed to take him in custody on account 
of his unsatisfactory answers ( Commons Jour- 
nalSf ii. 776). To avoid imprisonment he 
withdrew to his Warwickshire estates. On 
liis march to Edgecot Charles I met Shuck- 
burgh hunting on 22 Oct. 1642, and enlisted 
liis 8upi)ort. Shuckburgh was present at 
Edgehill on the following day and was 
knighted. He did not, however, accompany 
Charles in his retreat, but fortified himself 
«)n the top of Shuckburgh hill. The place 
was attacked and stormed after a stout re- 
Ritftance, and Sir Kichard, desperately 
wounded, was carried a prisoner to Kenil- 
worth Castle. For taking arms for the 
king ho was expelled by parliament on 
14 Jan. 1644 {ib. lii. 366 ; CaL State Papers, 
Dora. 1649-50, pp. 444-5). His petition to 
compound for his delinquency, 28 April 1646, 
met with no response (CaL Comm. for Com- 
poundiTUfy p. 1218). He remained in prison 
for several years, and obtained his release 
only by sacrificing many of his estates. 
The remainder of his life he passed in retire- 
ment, interesting himself in history and an- 
tiquities. Thomas Fuller dedicated to him 
the third section of the fifth book of his 
* Church Historj'.' He died in London on 
13 June 1666, and was buried in Shuck- 
burgh mortuary chapel, where his monu- 
ment may still be seen. 

He was thrice married, but only by his 
third wife had he any children. On 30 Nov. 
1627 he married Mary Crompton, a widow, 
daughter of llalphSneyd of Kevle in Stafibrd, 
who died on 5 Sept. 1629. lie married, on 
10 Dec. 1630, his second wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Robert Lee of Billeslee in 
War^vickshire. By Grace, his third wife, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Holte of Aston, hart., 
he had six sons — John, who succeeded to the 
estates and was created a baronet in 1660 ; 
Kichard, George, Charles, and two who died 
young. By her he had also four daughters. 
Sir Kichard*s third wife sim'ived him and 
married John Keating [q. v.], chief justice 
of the common pleas in Ireland. She died 
in 10< /. 

[Duydale'* Warwickshire, i. 289, 309; Col- 
vile'* Warwickshire Worthies, p. 689 ; Diary of 

Richard Symonds (Camden Soc), p. 191 ; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714; Xotos and 
Queries, Ist ser. i. 338 ; Misc. Oeneal. 2nd ser. 
iii. 353.] E. I. C. 

1604) sixth baronet, mathematician, bom on 
23 Aug. 1751, was the eldest son of Uichard 
Shuckburgh n7L>8-1772) of Limerick, by his 
wife Sarah, daughter of John Ilayward of 
Plumstead, Kent, captain K.N., and widow 
of Edward Bate. Sir Kichard Shuckburgh 
[q. v.], whose son John was created a baronet 
on 26 June 1660, was his great-great-grand- 

George entered Rugby school in 1760, 
and matriculated from Balliol College, 
Oxford, on 22 April 1768, graduating B.A. 
in 1772. On quitting the university he 
devoted three years to travel in France and 
Italy, occupying himself with scienti6c in- 
vestigations. On the death of his uncle, Sir 
Charles Shuckburgh, fifth baronet, on 10 Aug. 
1773, he succeeded to the baronetcy and 
family estates at Shuckburgh, Warwickshire. 
On 27 Sept. 1780 he was returned to parlia- 
ment for the county of Warwick, and re- 
tained his seat until his death (Official He- 
turns 0/ Members 0/ Parliament f ii. 169, 182, 
195, 208, 222). 

Shuckburgh was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 22 Dec. 1774, and on 
4 Uec. 1777 a fellow of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. In 1777 and 1778 he communi- 
cated to the Royal Society the results of 
investigations made by him and Major- 
general W^illiam Roy (1726-1790) [q. v.] 
in Savoy concerning the measurement of the 
height of mountains by the barometer. His 
treatise was published with the title * Obser- 
vations made in Savoy to ascertain the 
Height of Mountains bv the Barometer,' 
London, 1777, 4to. In 1798 Shuckburgh 
communicated to the Royal Society the re- 
sult of experiments made with a view to 
determine the relation bt^tween'the English 
yard and some invariable standard. Shuck- 
burgh's results have since been found to be 
correct within '00746 of an inch. To record 
his conclusions he employed Troughton to 
construct for him a brass bar on which the 
length of five feet was engraved, divided 
into tenths <Jf an inch. The scale is now 
in the possession of the Royal Society. He 
made similar investigations regarding the 
measures of capacity and weight, details of 
which were also given in his paper. Most 
of his experiments were carried out in an 
observatory which he caused to be con- 
structed for his use at Shuckburgh. 
Shuckburgh died at Shuckburgh on 




11 Aug. 1804. He wus twice married : first, 
on 3 July 1782, to Sarah Johanna, younger 
daughter and coheir of John Darker of 
Gay ton, Northamptonshire. She died on 
10 April 1783, leaving no children. He 
married, secondly, on C Oct. 1785, Julia 
Annabella, daughter and heir of James 
Evelyn of Felbridge, Surrey. On the death 
of his father-in-law in 1793 he assumed the 
additional surname of Evelyn. By his wife, 
who died on 14 Sept. 1797]^ he had a daugh- 
ter, Julia Evelyn Medley Shuckburgh- 
Evelyn, who was married to Charles Cecil 
Cope Jenkins, third earl of Liverpool [q. v.] 
The baronetcy descended to Sir George's 
brother. Sir Stewkeley Shuckburgh (1757- 

Besides the work and papers already men- 
tioned, Shuckburgh was the author of * An 
Account of the Equatoreal Instrument ' 
[London ? 1793 ?], 4to [see Kamsden, Jesse], 
and of further contributions to the * Trans- 
actions 'of the Royal Society. 

[English Cyclopaedia, Biography, v. 488 ; Col- 
vile's Worthies of Warwickshire, p. 691 ; Kegis- 
tpr of Rugby School, 1675-1849, p. 39 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. (Inter ser.) ; Gent. Mag. 1804, 
ii. 793 ; The Beauties of England and Wales, 
1814, XV. 96; Miscell. Geneal. et Herald. (2nd 
ser.), iii. 279, 280, 357; Nit-hols's Literary Anec- 
d'.tes, ii. 638, iii. 623, viii. 16; Thomson's Hist, 
of Royal Soc. App. p. Iv; Hutton's Philoso- 
phical and Mathematical Dictionary, 1815."| 

E. I. C. 

SHUCKFORD, SAMUEL (rf. 17o4), 
historian, son of Samuel Shuckford of Pal- 
grave, Suffolk, gent., was bom at Norwich 
about 1694, and educated at the grammar 
schools of Norwich and Botesdale, Suffolk. 
From 1712 to 1719 he was scholar of Caius 
College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1716 
and M.A. in 1720, and sul>8equently obtain- 
ing the Lambeth degree of D.D. (Graduati 
Cantabr. 1823). He was ordained deacon 
on 16 June 1717, and priest on 28 Oct. 1718. 
In 1722 he was presented to the rectory of 
Shelton, Norfolk, which he resigned in 1740 
( J^LOMEFiELD, Uuit, of Norfolk^ v. 272). He 
held with it the living of Ilardwick, and was 
also vicar of Seething and Mundham, Nor- 
folk, lie was instituted to the tenth prebend 
in the cathedral church of Canterbury on 
21 March 1737-8 (Le Neve, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, i. 59). Subsequently he obtained the 
living of All Saints, Lombard Street, London ; 
and it is said that he was one of George II's 
chaplains, lie died on 14 July 1 754, and was 
buried in Canterbury Cathedral. 

He was author of: 1. * The Sacred and 
I^rofane History of the AVorld, connected 
from the creation of the world to the disso- 

lution of the Assjrrian empire at the death 
of Sardanapalus, and to the declension of the 
kingdom of Judah and Israel, under the 
reigns of Ahaz and Pekah,' 2 vols. 1728, 8vo. 
This work was intended to serve as an in- 
troduction to Prideaux's * Connection ; ' it 
was reprinted, 3 vols., London, 1731-40; 
4 vols. J^ondon, 1743 seq. ; London, 1 754, 8vo ; 
4 vols. 1808, 8vo, edited by Adam Clarke; 
new edition, with *The Creation and Fall 
of Man,' 2 vols. Oxford, 1810, 8vo; and 
another edition of both works with notes 
and analyses, by James Talboys Wheeler 
[q. v.], 2 vols. London, 1858, 8vo. 2. 'The 
Creation and FaU of Man,' London, 1753, 

. * A Connection of Sacred and Profane 
History, from the death of Joshua to the 
decline of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah 
(intended to complete the works of Shuck- 
ford and Prideaux), by the Rev. Michael 
Russell, LL.D., Episcopal minister,' appeared 
in 3 vols. London, 1827, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1754, p. 340; Jones's Life of 
Bishop Home, 1795, p. 113; Malcolm's Lon- 
dinium RecHvivum, i. 58 ; Nichols's Illuslr. Lit. 
viii. 588 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 287. 335 ; 
information kindly supplied by Dr. John Venn, 
F.R.S., of Caius College, Cambridge.] T. C. 

Shuldham (1717P-1798), admiral, bom 
about 1717, second son of the Rev. Samuel 
Shuldham, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Daniel Molyneux of Ballymulvy, co. Long- 
ford, entered the navy in 1732 as captain's 
servant on board the Cornwall, with Captain 
George Forbes (afterwards Earl of Granard 
and governor of CO. Longford). He afterwards 
served in the Solebay with Captain Charles 
Fanshawe, and for upwards of four years in 
the Falkland with Fitzroy Henry Lee [q.v.] 
He passed his examination on 25 Jan. 1738- 
1739, being then described on his certificate 
as * near twenty-two.* According to the state- 
ment in Chamock, he was not seventeen. 
On 31 Aug. 1739 he waa promoted to be lieu- 
tenant of the Tilbury, one of the ships which 
went out to the West Indies with SirChalo- 
ner Ogle [q. v.], and took part in the unsuc- 
cessful attack on Cartagena in 1741. In 
1742 he was first lieutenant of her when, on 
21 Sept., she was set on fire in a drunken 
squabble between a marine and the purser's 
boy and burnt, with a large proportion of 
the ship's company. Shuldham, w^ith the 
captain and other officers, was tried by court- 
martial on 15 Oct., but was acquitted of all 
blame. On 12 May 1740 he was promoted 
to be captain of the Sheemess frigate, then 
employed on the coast of Scotland ; in De- 




cember 1748 he was appointed to the Queen- 
boruugh, and in March 1749 to the Unicorn. 
In October 1754 he was appointed to the 
Seaford, from which, in March 1755, he was 
moved to the Warwick of sixty guns, going 
out to the West Indies, where, near Mar- 
tinique on 11 March 1756, she fell in with a 
French 74-gun ship and two frigates, which 
overpowered and captured her. War had 
not then been declared, but hostilities had 
be(*n going on for several months, as Shuld- 
ham very well knew, and the story that he 
mistook the enemy's ships of war for mer- 
chantmen would be but little to his credit 
if there was any reason to suppose it true. 
lie, with the crew of the Warwick, was sent 
to France, kept a prisoner at large at Poitiers 
for nearly two years, and returned to Eng- 
land in a cartel on 10 March 1758. A court- 
martial acquitted him of all blame for the 
los;s of the ship, and on 1*5 July 1758 he was 
appointed to the Panther, in which he joined 
Commodore Moore in the West Indies and 
took part in the reduction of Guadeloupe 
and its dependent islands, March to May 
1750 fsee Mooke, Sir John, 1718-1779J. 
In July he was moved by Moore into the 
liaisonnuble, which was lost on a reef of 
rocks at Fort Koyal off Martinique as she 
was standing in to engage a battery on 
8 Jan. 176i*, when the island was attacked 
and reduced by Uear-admiral Rodney. In 
April liodney appointed Shuldham to the 
Marlborough, from which a few days later 
lie was moved by Sir George Pocock to the 
liochester, and again by Rodney after a few 
weeks to the Foudroyant, in which he re- 
t urned to England at the neace. In Decem- 
ber 1766 he was appointed to the Cornwall 
T Hardship at Plymouth, and in November 
770 to the Royal Oak, then commissioned 
in consequence of the expected rupture with 
Spain. On 14 Feb. 1772 he was appointed 
commodore and commander-in-chief on the 
Newfoundland station, which office he held 
for three years, and on 31 March 1775 he 
was promoted to be rear-admiral of the 
white. At the general election in the fol- 
lowing autumn he was returned to the 
House of Commons as member for Fowey, 
and on 29 Sept. was appointed commander- 
in-chief on the coast ot North America from 
the river St. Lawrence to Cape Florida. He 
went out with his flag in the 50-gun ship 
Chatham, arriving at Boston on 30 Dec. 
after a passage of sixty-one days, having 
lx*en promoted, on 7 Dec. while on the way 
out, to be vice-admiral of the blue. His 
work was limited to covering the operations 
of the troops, and preventing the colonial 
trade. In June 1776 he was superseded by 

Lord Howe, and on 31 July was created 
a peer of Ireland by the title of lUron 
Shuldham. Early in 1777 he returned to 
England, and from 1778 to 1783 was port- 
admiral at Plymouth. He was promoted on 
24 Sept. 1787 to be admiral of the blue, and 
on 1 Feb. 1793 to be admiral of the white. He 
died at Lisbon in the autumn of 1798. He 
left no issue, and the title became extinct. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. v. 605 ; Naval Chro- 
nicle (with a portrait after Damce), xxiii. 441 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1798, ii. 909 ; Commission and 
Warrant iTooks and official letters in the Public 
Record Office,] J. K. L. 

(d, 1026), controversial writer, matriculated 
as a sizar of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, in 
November 1661 , and graduated H.A. in 1564— 
1565, M.A. in 1508, and B.D. in 1580. In 
1576 he was appointed by the queen vicar of 
Giggleswick in Yorkshire, perhaps through 
the influence of George Clittord, tnird earl of 
Cumberland [q. v.] lie was nominated on 
24 Nov. 1599 a member of the commission 
for the suppression of schism within the pro- 
vince of York(RYMER,i'a'(iera,xvi. 387). He 
died at Giggleswick in 1626, leaving five sons 
— Nathaniel, Josias [q. v.], Robert, Thomas, 
and Timothy — who were all ordained mini- 
sters of the English church. Nathaniel, who 
was educated at Christ^s College, Cambridge, 
was well known as a preacher ; on 24 Feb. 
1613-14 he became rector of St. Mary Mores, 
London, and on 30 March 1618 he was trans- 
ferred to St. Mildred, Poultry, where he died 
in 1638 (Newcourt, JReperforium, i. 404, 
502 ; Lloyd, Mtmoires, 16(:8, p. 295). 

The elder Shute was the author of : L * A 
Compendious Forme and Summe of Christian 
Doctrine, called the Testimonie of a True 
Faith, meete for well disposed Families,* 
London, 1577 and 1579, under the initials 
C. S. ; republished with Shutte's name on the 
title-page, 1581, 8vo, and in 1584, when it 
was dedicated to * George Cliflbrd, Earl of 
Cumberland.' 2. * A verie Godlie and neces- 
sary Sermon preached before the yong Coun- 
tesse of Cumberland in the North, the 
24 of November 1577. By Christopher Shutt. 
Imprinted at London by Christopher Barker.' 

It is not improbable that Shutte was also 
the author of* A Brief Resolution of a right 
Religion. Written by C. S.,' London, 1590 ; a 
work directed against Roman Catholicism, 
much in the same strain as the * Testimony 
of a True Faith.' 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 285 ; AVhitakcr's 
History of Craven, pp. 166, 168, 169; Ames's 
Typogr Antiq. ed. Herbert, p. 1115; Cut. of 
Early Printed Books in the British Museum ; 
Bodleian (.'at.] K. I. C. 




SHUTE, JOHN {fl. lor>0-ir>70), archi- 
tect and limner, published in 15(53 a work 
entitled * The First and Chief Groundes of 
Architecture, used in all the Auncient and 
Famous Monvments, with a farther and 
more ample Discourse upon the same, than 
hitherto hath been set out by any other,' 
with a dedication to Queen Elizabeth (cf. 
Abber, Tratf script, i. 210). In the intro- 
duction to this work 8hut« describes himself 
as * painter and architect,' and says that he 
bad been in the service of John Dudley, 
duke of Xorthumberland, who had sent 
him to Italy in looO, and maintained him 
in his studies under the best architects. 
That Shute was also a limner or miniature- 
painter of repute is shown by Ileydock in 
nis translation of Lomazzo's * Art of Paint- 
ing * (lo98), where it is stated that * limning, 
much used in former times in church-books, 
as also in drawiup^ by the life in small 
models, of late years by some of our country- 
men as Shoote, Betts, &c., but brought to 
the rare perfection we have seen, by the most 
ingenious, painful, and skilful master Nicho- 
las Hilliard/ &c. Although Shute was one 
of the earliest native artists, and held in 
esteem by his contemporaries, no work of his 
can be authenticated. 

[Wftlpole's Anecdotes of Painting; authorities 
mentioned in the text.] L. C. 

SHUTE, JOnX {Jl. 1562-1573), trans- 
lator, who would appear to have seen some 
militarv service abroad, was author of 1 .* Two 
very notable Commentaries, the one of the 
originall of the Turcks and Empire of the 
house of Ottomanno, written by Andre we 
Cambini ; and thother of the warres of the 
Turcke against George Scanderbeg, prince of 
Epiro, and of the great victories obteyned by 
the sayd George. . . translated outeof Italian,* 
London, by Powland Hall for Ilumfrey Toye, 
1562, b. 1.; dedicated to the *high Admi- 
rall,' Sir Edward Fynes. There is a long 
preface by the translator on discipline and 
soldiery. Cambini's commentary was pub- 
lished in 1520. Shute says that he does not 
know the author of the history of Scanderbeg. 
2. * The firste parte of the Christian In- 
struction, and gererall Somme of the Doc- 
trine, conteyned in the holy Scriptures. 
. . . Translated into Englishe by John Shute, 
according to the late Copy set forth by 
th'author, Maister l*eter Viret,' London, by 
John Day, 1565. Four of Viret's * Dialogues' 
are translated. There is a long preface by 
Shute and a dedication to the Earl of 
Leicester, which apologises because ' a simple 
soldier, better practised abrode in martiall 
matters than fumised at home with the cun- 

ning of the scoole,' attempts to translate 
theology. 3. * A Christian Instruction, con- 
teyning the Law and the Gospell. Also a 
Sumraarie of the Principall poyntes of the 
Christian fayth and Religion, and of the 
abuses and errors contrary to the same. 
Done in certayne Dialogues in french by M. 
Peter Viret, sometime minister of the word 
of (iod at Nymes in Province. Translated, 
London,' by Abraham Veale, 1573. This is 
a continuation of No. 2. It is dedicated 
by * John Shoute, from London, 4 January,' to 
Elizabeth, countess of Lincoln, and contains 
an epistle to the Christian reader by Shute. 
The statement that Shute * published on Deza 
and some other theological tracts on the 
Sacraments' is probably an inaccurate re- 
ference to 2 and 3. He is to be distinguished 
from John Shute, architect and limner. 

[Arber's Transcript, i. 178; Ameses Typofrr. 
Antiq. ed. Dibdin, iv. 102, 361 ; Brit. Museum 
Libr. Cat.] R. B. 

SHUTE, afterwards SHUTE-BAR- 
RINGTON, JOHN, first ViscorxT Bar- 
RiNOTON (1678-1734). [See Barbinotox.j 

1643), archdeacon of Colchester, son of 
Christopher Shute [q. v.], vicar of Giggle5- 
wick, Yorkshire, was bom there in 1588. 
After being educated at the grammar school 
in the village, he proceeded to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
1605, and M.A. 1609. He was instituted 
on 29 Nov. 1611, on the presentation of 
James I, to the rectory of St. Mary Wool- 
noth, Lombard Street, where his eloquent 
and learned preaching was muchappreciat**d 
by the royalist party. He remained there for 
thirty-three years. Fuller says * he was the 
most precious jewel shewn in Lombard Stret^t / 
then the location of goldsmiths and jewellers, 
as now of bankers. From about June 1632 
Shute acted as chaplain to the East India 
Company, preached thanksgiving and other 
sermons for them at St. Helen a, and pro- 
tested against the reduction of mariners* 
i wages (C'fl/. State Papers, Colonial, Ea<«t 
Indies, and Persia, 1630-4, pp. 267, 419, 457, 
468, 471 , 549, 552). Shute was appointed by 
Charles I to the archdeaconry of Colchester 
on 15 April 1642, and was chosen on 14 June 
1643 by the houses of parliament a member 
of the Westminster assembly of divines, but 
died on 13 June 1643, before the first sitting. 
He was buried in St. Mary Woolnoth on 
the 14th (Brooke and Hallbn. Tran9cript 
of the Registers of St. Mary Woolnoth, p. 
222). Fuller, quoting * Persecutio Undecima/ 
1648, 4to, a civil war tract, says he was ' mo- 
lested and vext to death by the rebels, and 




denied a funeral sermon bv Dr. lioldswortli 
as he wished.' One was, however, preached 
bv Ephraim Udall [q. v.] Shute married, on 
:i'o April 1614, at St. Mary Woolnotli, 
ElizaU?th Glanvild(Glanville) of that parish 
{HegisterSf p. 189), out had no issue. 

Shute was a skilled Hebrew scholar. His 
manuscripts, left in the hands of liis brother, 
Timothy Shute of Exeter [see under Shute, 
Christopher], were published posthu- 
mously, viz. : 1. * Divine Cordial Is delivered 
in Ten Sermons/ London, 1644, 4to, edited 
by William Reynolds. "J. * Judgement and 
Mercy, or the Plague of Frogges inflicted re- 
moved,* in nine sermons, to which is added 
his funeral sermon, London, 1045, 4to. 
3. * Sarah and llagar, xix Sermons on Gene- 
sis xvi.,' London, 1619, fol., published by 
PMward Sparke [q. v.] To this his portrait, 
engraved by William Marshall, is prefixed. 

[*The Pions Life and Death of Mr. Josiah 
Shute, who left us on the 22nd June' [1643], 
was published shortly after, and was followed 
by 'Elegiiicall Comnjenioration,' London, 1643, 
4to, written to correct the errors it contniued, 
especially in the date of Shute's death, which is 
ditfercntly given by every authority. See also 
Lloy«i'8 Memoires, pp. 294-aOO ; Fuller's Wor- 
thies, X. 260 ; Walker's Sufferings, pt. ii. p. 
49; Granger's Biogr. Hist. ii. 167; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 343; Mjisson's Life of Milton, 
ii. 616 ; Newcourt's Rep. Eccles. i. 92 ; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. iii. 219, 6th ser. x. 250, 394; 
Stowc MS. 76, f. 344 ; Linsdowne MS. 986, f. 
53 ; information from the registrar of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge; Peck'a Desiderata, 
p. 629; Catalogue of Dr. Williams's Librurv.] 

0, F. S. 

SHUTE, ROBERT (d. 1690),judge,sonof 
Christopher Shute of Oakington, Cambridge- 
shire, is said to have been born in Gar- 
grave, Yorkshire, and to have been educated 
at Christ's College, Cambridge (Cooper, 
Athenee, ii. 92). lie left without a degree 
and began to study law at Barnard's Inn; 
thence he removed in 1550 to (j ray's Inn, 
where in 1552 he was called to the bar. In 
1558 he was elected recorder of Cambridge. 
During Elizabeth's visit to Cambridge he 
made an oration before her on 4 Aug. 1564 ; 
a brief extract in Latin is printed in Nichols's 
* Progresses' (iii, 28). In 1568 he was 
reader at Gray's Inn (Duodale, Oruj. Jurid. 
p. 294), and on 18 April 1572 he was elected 
member of parliament for Cambridge i^Off. 
Ji^t. i. 408). In 1576 he was treasurer of 
Gray's Inn. In 1577 he was made serjeant- 
at-law, and in the same year double reader 
at Gray's Inn (Duodale, CAron. Ser. p. 95, 
and Oriff, Jurid, p. 294). He was raised to 
the bench as second baron of the exchequer 

on 1 June 1579, when Elizabeth directed that 
he should not be deprived of his recordership 
on that account. * He must have acquired 
a considerable reputation in the law, as he is 
the first Serjeant who was raised to the bench 
of the exchequer as a puisne baron ' (Foss). 
Hitherto puisne barons had held an inferior 
grade to the judges of the two other benches, 
but in Shute s patent it was ordered * that 
he shall be reputed and bo of the same 
order, rank, estimation, dignity, and pre- 
eminence, to all intents and purposes, as any 
puisne judge of either of the two other 
courts.' On 8 Feb. 1585-6 he was consti- 
tuted judge of the queen's Ix'nch. He died 
in April 1590, having married Thomasine, 
daughter of Christopher Burgoyno of Long 
Stanton, Cambridgeshire. From his eldest 
son, Francis, was descended John Shute, 
afterwards Shute Barrington, first Viscount 
Barrington [see Barringtox]. 

His fourth son, Robert Shute (d. 1621), 
was admitted a member of Grav's Inn on 
21 Nov. 1600 (Foster, Jiet/. n.' 100), but 
seems to have lived a disreputable life. He 
attached himself to the future Duke of 
Buckingham, and by his influence was in 
1616 appointed clerk of the court of common 
pleas (Gardiner, iii. 34-5; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom.) On the death of Richard 
Martin (1570-1018) [q. v.] Shnto became 
court candidate for the recordership of Lon- 
don, * but could not succeed, having been 
outlawed seventeen times' (lA. 1611-18, p. 
591). On 29 Dec. 1620 he was returned to 
parliament for St. Albans. The recorder- 
ship becoming again vacant on Heath's np- 
pointment as solicitor-general, Shute was 
elected on 20 Jan. 1620-1, the king remark- 
ing that, although tliere was formerly some 
colour for the objections against him, * there 
was none now, besides which he hath since 
been reader in that society [Gray's Inn], 
whereby he hath given public satisfaction of 
his worth and ability in his profession' 
(Overall, liemembrancia, pp. 294, 303). 
He died a few davs later, before 10 F'eb. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; Dugdale's Orig. 
Jurid. and Chron. S«»r. ; Offic. Ret. of Members 
of Pari. ; Moraut's Kssex, ii. 23 ; Lodge's Irish 
Peerage, v. 200-1 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges; 
Cooper's Aihenae Cantabr. ii. 92, and authorities 
there quoted.] A. F. P. 

SHUTE, SAMUEL (1662-1742), colo- 
nial governor, bom in 1662, was son of Ben- 
jamin Shute of London, mid his wife Patience, 
daughter of Joseph Caryl fq. v.] In his 
bovhood he was the pupil of Charles Morton 
(1627-1698) [q. v.], who afVerwnnls settled 
in Massachusetts, and took a leading part in 
the proceedings against Andros. Shute joined 




II ..1- lihv 
I7:;;i SI, 

< |.rinil- 



.■,>l.-.l hy 

■ - t'i'.-. .-'.J • ^r^i^;■iw:-h *•:■=- ■iiipliiy ■■? Immour, r.vik 

..-.-, -I »t •! Lis i* ir. api?»at;.>-. ir.'l !■■(£ him behind 

■iL r.ary. TL* ':.-r "o-r.-r* ■^f '.Ir ■h-ir>-. wh-^r- L»r l>ec3m'e 

• 1(1 ':.-: ',£■* kr.i'ira -i* " < '-jmioal N-<!.* After sp.m-? prac- 

.f •h.-iv,r-ra-ir ';->? wjrb (Siiintrv cmpanie*. and l!ie cuf- 

Irnp.riar.* i^- !"iEiry iii-n-rROS -if f- vert t and privation, 

!■; ■-■!.':? Land iveT wLk-h lip *'jt«ii'ipntlv nia-ie merrv. be 

-v-t-in ..fp'n- pl«v«l ..n - Juiy IZU tatrsM- in ''Iti- 

i'<-rf-rin2 wi'h chard III' at riiapnian'* th-^tiv. lEiditDond. 

•' r^fii":'! On l.'i April 174-1, fi>ri'hopioaii'-i Wnpfif. bi- 

li- R'rt-mpl- I'j [day-^d at linrdrna*' Mastrr'j-hutfr, 

rronii'T : tli'rj- rli>:' rfcliwItKiy in Cibbi-r's 'Schinjlh-iy.' with 

ijiIilifrtili'Hi of tlif indccuwif announcetneni after hi* name 

jiiaht Hum t'f lliat hu had n^viT appeared on the stacu be- 

' lli<- Iti<linn«. foiv. Un -'i June at Dnirj Lanp, for the 

I l'< liiy iiii|i'iri b';n"fit of .MorjjTin, thi* performnm-e was re- 

iild drliiitifi-' iif pfBtM. (In -J-'i Anfr.he nlavedal Hlohrannd 

li t)i-' >;idiiiiiii1 ih.' diurnfiiTs of ]>onalbone and Cheutley. 

t. Tli'' n-Hiilr In June ir4<i (iarrick, aAerhiii return from 

llini Slinlii'it Tndnnd, (rave fix perfonnances at Covpul 

l.-i| by nil iiri- fJanl.-ii, and ' Master ' Shiiter played on the 

li.' iK-xriilily, l-'lihOririi^ in 'llanih-l,' and nii tlie -'7th the 

iiii-1 iiiiiii'i|Hi- Third Witcli in ' Maclwlh." In 1740- 7 he was 

\i'iir« hitiT. I at (iocHlinan's Fields with what (ieaeat ealU 

mti- Kiiili'd (II ' an infericir conipanv,' including IjHe, I'affet, 

bii«iii...s. bill .MrH.IIii11iira,and.MrK.1tiitler. Herehewaa 

I- dillinill ii'H Bii-n in n rniiiid of comic chanitttera, including- 

II. Ill I7J7 Tniiilandiu'IxivcforlvnTe.'Periwiiikleiii'A 
lhed.ailM.f:ll..ld ytroke f,.r a Wife,' Mom. to Herein 




(fie) in the farce of the 'Anatomist/ Prigg 
in the * Iloyal Merchant/ Squire Richard in 
tlie * Provoked HiLshand/ Clearaccount in 
*Twin Rivals/ Ahel in 'Committee/ Filch in 

* Beggar's Opera/ the Captain in * Othello/ 
Syringe in the * Relapse/ Aspin in * Woman's a 
Riddle/ Rossano in* Fair Penitent /Frihble in 
*Miss in her Teens;' and on 6 March 1747 
an original part in the ' Battle of Poitiers, 
or the English Prince/ a tragedy by Mrs. 
Hoper. This frequent change of cha- 
racter involved much arduous work. On 
22 April he appeared under Foote at the 
Ilaymarket in the * Diversions of the Morn- 
ing/ and in the autumn obtained a regular 
engagement under Garrick and Lacy at Drury 
Lane, at which house he played on 2 Nov. 
"William in * As you like it/ appearing sub- 
sequently as Taylor in the * Provoked Wife/ 
Valet in the * Suspicious Husband/ Trap- 
land, Diego in * She would and she would 
not ;' and on 23 Nov. 1747 an original 
part in 'George Dandin/ an anonymous 
translation from Moli^re. At the Hay- 
roarket he was in March or April 1749 the 
original Sir Gregory Gazette in Foote's 
' Knights.' On 7 Oct. in the ' Little French 
Lawyer/ reduced to a farce, he reappeared 
at Drury Lane, where he remained until 
1753. A full range of comic characters was 
assigned him, including Lord Froth in the 

* Double Dealer,' Clincher Jun. in the ' Con- 
stant Couple,' Sly in * Love's Last Shift,' 
the Puritan in 'Duke and no Duke/ Sir 
Philip Modelove in 'A Bold Stroke for a 
Wife,' Stephano in Dry den's 'Tempest,' 
Jeremy in ' Love for Love/ Caper in ' Friend- 
ship in Fashion,' Verges, Launcelot in ' Mer- 
chant of Venice/ Gibbet in the 'Beaux's 
Stratagem/ Flash in 'Miss in her Teens/ 
Kate Matchlock in the * Funeral,' Shallow 
in ' Merrv Wives of Windsor,' Corin, and 
afterwaras Adam, in 'As you like it,' the 
Old Man in ' Lethe/ Drunken Servant in 
the * Pilgrim/ Recruit in ' Recruiting Officer,' 
Petulant in the ' Way of the World,' Tipkin 
in ' Tender Husband/ Strut in ' Double 
Gallant,' Clown in ' Twelfth Night/ Ana- 
nias in 'Alchemist/ Starved Cook, and 
afterwards Ramilie, in * Miser/ Petit in 
' Inconstant,' Sir Albany Odelove in ' Bayesin 
l^etticoats,' Lory in ' Relapse,' Foresight in 

* Love for Love,^ Daniel in ' Oroonoko, Secu- 
rity in ' Eastward IIo/ Master Stephen in 
'Every Man in his Ilumour/ Cockade in 
' Man of Taste,' Squire Badger in ' Don 
Quixote in England/ Lord Sands in 
' Henry VIII,' Phelim in ' Double Disappoint- 
ment/ Sir Amorous La Foole in ' Silent Wo- 
man/ Mustapha in 'Don Sebastian/ Scrub 
iu ' Beaux' Stratagem,' and Fribble in ' Miss 

in her Teens.' His original parts while 
with Garrick at Drury Lane were a charac- 
ter unnamed in a pantomime called ' Queen 
Mab ' on 20 Dec. 1750, IVdro in Edward 
Moore's ' Gil Bias' on 2 Feb. 1751, and Lord 
Dupe in Foote's 'Taste' on 11 Jan. 1752. 
Abundant opportunities had been afforded 
him, but, though he gained some con- 
sideration, Shuter never rose high in public 
favour until his performance of Master 
Stephen in ' Every Man in his Humour ' on 
29 Nov. 1751 . Of this Davies says that ' he 
entered most naturally into the follies of a 
young ignorant fellow, who tliinks smoking 
tobacco fashionable, and swearing a strange 
kind of oath the highest proofs of humour 
and taste ' (Dram. misc. lii. 60). The re- 
putation he thus obtained he aujfmented in 
Scrub. In 1753 Shuter quitted Drury Lane, 
never to return, and on 17 Sept. made, as 
Lovegold in the ' Miser,' what is erroneously 
called ' his first appearance ' at Covent Gar- 
den, with which he was henceforth to be asso- 
ciated, and where, with an occasional visit in 
the summer to the Ilaymarket or to Ireland, 
he remained for the rest of his stage life. 

From this time a higher class of parts 
was assigned him, and his name appears 
during his first season to characters such as 
Trim in the 'Funeral/ Trappanti in 'She 
would and she would not. Sir Wilful 
Witwou'd in the ' Way of the World/ 
Touchstone, Brass in 'Confederacy/ Cor- 
baccio in ' Volpone/ Old Mirabel in * Incon- 
stant,' the Lying Valet, Autolicus in the 
' Sheep Shearing '(Macnamara Morgan'sadap- 
tation of the 'Winter's Tale'), Richard III 
(a surprising experiment), Fluellin, and 
Slender. From innumerable parts subse- 
quently played may be chosen as represen- 
tative First Gravedigger in ' Hamlet,' Ben 
in * Love for Love/ Falstaff, Mercutio, Bayes, 
Fondlewife, Lady Pentweazle in * Taste/ 
Beau Clincher, the Humorous Ijieutenant, 
Petruchio, Teague in ' Committee/ Marplot, 
Sir John Brute, Major Oakly, Polonius, Gar- 
diner in ' Henry VllI/ Obediah Trim, Shy- 
lock, and Dogberry. His original parts were 
numerous, and included the best old men of 
Sheridan and Goldsmith. In tlie summers 
of 1761 and 1763 he was in Ireland, where, 
however, he seems to have played no new 
part. The following are the chief parts in 
which he was seen at Covent Garden : Papil- 
lion in Foote's 'Liar' on 12 Jan. 17(12, Jus- 
tice Woodcock in Bickerstaffe's * Love in a 
Village' on 8 Dec, Sir Philip I'igure in 
Murphy's ' No one's Enemv but his own ' on 
9 Jan. 1764, Drugget in ' What w must all 
come to ' (same date), Sir Harrv Svi-amore 
in ' Maid of the Mill ' on 31 Jaii. 1 765, Sir 

> 7 1* 

• ^1 



* r • - - . - 

" • .. - • - - *t *-, 

•• . .-•.■ .. •'••.■. : .- • - .±r',.±.'.^ ~ 
1 ..* 1.-. . ' "7. i.-. : .- ./^ :- .1 7 - :2J.- H :".! ? 

- rL~ " Lur. T') hi? otforts after *pnice' 
ri- j:-r v.An : L:* 'Irink'mg Tale Wilkinson 


L ■ . 1 



1 r 

* . ^ ■« . . ~ ". ..T TI T*"^ .\ ^'i . L "_ 1 "*" ^ " .»■■' m .' .X 
••._•- ^v -_.- • ^ :,_. r-.' A" ■-• !. "^l-" ."-' 
^^ '1 . v.- 1" T !' "..-■'"■ •-''.'.' .7 ■ '. yi 12. '.". 

t - -.' •riri-r. -i*'.':- '.".'• 1.- -vii -_- 
' •:.;:: i^'Jr s^-r. ■ - i' r - . !. - "v ^ '7 1 r.-l 
( p' . < T .r. * L! :.-. ir. i • .' . •..-- •. ; ' . l-r Jiz. 

1""-' ^^" "T" 

.. ■■* ^- "?■'■..■• "—r r. •-" *^ --'-rv. in J "^-t- 
;•-,.■.-.•.--.- ■ ' T "z, - -'= 1^ 1 ::.''■" 

177 J «T v-m r A- :■ r^ :: in • ^V:^^ ::: -li- 
Kij:.-; hv Mr^. 'rri-^-:.-. In • -!.- ^- : ^ 
r ,..;.. . .rr' "r. 1-' ^riro!: 1 77-'. **>. :*' r 
t.:-- ■ 11 ir :■*:!-■. - : .- :\-r.7-. .x * * i' ;-.- 
!!-• ■ .r. -'.U.K.:. L- "tv*^ >> ^. ; - -r. Bd::" 1-. 
a .1 '.:; ','■. Iniin ■? * Mar. ■ :'D :-.:—-* ■ r. .".1 J iC, 
177; ». 1-irj. <»:; J l--,^.,r: K-::y^ • 1;.^- 
mir.'-' '.r'rtri II ir.'i.'^'.v.ii ^.rFI-.'' .■TStrar.*-— 
wfiy-i. « >r. 1 7 Jar.. 177.' 1.- y\ ivr-l l.i* ii<* an I 
^r-,.;i*.-if .-■rij'in.'tl pirt. >ir Ar.*'. r*_v Ah >■!';: r 
ir. *!i-: • liiv.:;-.' <.)n l'.» Mav 177''. t-'r i.i* 
ti'. }.•; rr..*.i" "wha' aj>;ar- t » hav- >— rn Li> 
l;i-" ?xj.p'-;irarif>; as FaUrar: in *!:- * Fir*: P^r: 
of K!ri/ Ifv-nrr.- IV." Tlir S'-as-'n clo*-^l on 
1 J WJ-. ari'! -in 1 X-jv. f.jUowins Sl,ii>r 
r!!*'l. H'; '.va-. biri'-vi in St. Paul's. Co vtut 

i r-Lrrif'/. 1-. nsji'irred to have pr."iniVimce<l 
Sh**«r f}.«; /r'-at.-^r comic p«:'n ins \u} haJ rver 
>-»-*n, .'irj'i in hi"* U:<«r part.*, such as the Miser, 
I;i]-*;i:r, Ornh.Jn-tic*.' \Vo'-K]cock,andMa3tor 
Sfipli'-n^ I," w;l^ ftlniO'»t bnyond praise. 
riiiirl*- IilUIin -ivs of hi- Corbaccio that 
iir-t ifj/ fi«!V*'r w«:fif, Ivrvoiifl it. and that nothing 
<ni '• iri li co'ild .-.urpaAi his Midas. The writer 
of * 'I h*-ntriral \U' ><jrrii]i\iy " (177:2). who was 
intiiriJjt'- witli hi in, .'•|>«:ak.>* of him as preatly 
irifh'litf^d to natup', and continues: * With j 
f«lp»nu' f'-JitiiP'.-, u i^'culiar turn of counte- ! 
iii'incr find natural pa^i.^ ion for humour, he has 
ill*! hMjipin<\-..s of dispo*in|( and altering the 
inu %r'l»'.s of his face into a variety of laugh- 
ubl»* shapi's, which, though they may liorder 
<in iir'imnn'., an*, how»;vcr, on the whole irre- 
hiHtilih' * ( ii. I.'}). On th*.; other hand he was 
iin»*fjMal and v«^rv iuflolcnl. lie often left 
out jM»rtIons of his p<irt,and Churchill taxed 
hini with r«?ckl«'ss 'gagging.' Thnughhis voice 
laclif'd vfiri«'ty, it was (•Jipal)h» f»f very comic 
inflection, and he had a happy knack in sing- 
ing. In his late years lie was not a shadow 
of himself, lie became a devoted follower 
ofjim^ljield, and a liberal contributor to the 
lie also took to the bottle and 

•?_:■-- L j 1 rlie r^putatiim of a wit, and 

(-rv. -i.: -Lir.,-' b»?vond the reach of hi* 

■M-nrazi ni. A" th*? same time he could 

- i;. ; :-: -vr'-rr a:i * orJ-^r * to the theatre, and 

: ■ .1 : •:t>!i 'i::r..;aL:y r».'ad his TMirt. Many 

-*'7.-i 5:rvlv- c^nc-rning him. When 

L'l- 1 •:- t^ ■• mical in mixed company, he 

-i. 1 • E^. i. I ■■■.■:L'-»t aiy to-d's dress. I'll g'> 

L- 1 :'-:oL i".* I-.ivinj the company, never 

" Tr.irz. •_■ I: ::.Wn I :«r having holes in his 

-" -.JLir,^?. 1- - Li 1 h*:? would rather have 

•'v-r.-y ii.i-.-i rhan one dam, adding *A 

1. *.- :- "ir .•.:■:: l-ur of a day, but a dam is 

rTTiT-.ri.MV i :■ v-rty.' Travelling in the 

:: r:L r' E::.r*. .::I. h^ found a pistol held to 

iii^ LraJ v.-'r'.', :i .l-mand for his money or 

L.i* I::'--. * >[ :r.-:^y I * said l^huter with an idiotic 

s'-.r-i.:: • .Ii Li: 1. sir I thev never trust m»» 

w::li ar.y. f-r N uncle hen*/ pointing to a 

sT^r.^Trr 0' ■ir.rvrf-iting sleep, 'always pays 

rr E-r. rumjiik-i*s and all, your honour.' 

C:;r*ir.j i!i- waj". the highwayman awoke 

thrpr.tvnJv i *I(i:ub*^rer. takinsj ever}' shilling 

he had in hi> pocket, while Shuter lost 


His ]>>rtrair a? Soapin is in the Mathews 
cnllect!"u iu rht' Garrick Club; another por- 
trait bv Z>danv encfraved bv Finlavson. 
'B.ois cir-.-l : Gr:ne^t*s Account of the Kaglisii 
.*^:.i2e : l^oranV Annals of the Stage, od. 
lyjwe: I).iv;f»"> I>ramatiok Miscellanios ; Clark 
Rus.<el:'s Representative Actors; Dibdin's His- 
tory of the J>t.i£:L- ; Boaden's Memoirs of Mrs. 
Siddons. and Lire of Mrs. Jon.ian ; O'Keeffes Ke- 
c«ill?ctio:i9 ; Garrick Corrosp<^ndence ; Dramatic 
Mirror: Thespian Diet.; Georgian Era; 'The 
Dramatic Hi^tc^ry of Master Edward, Miss Ann, 
Mr. Llwhudd\rhyild, and others, the extraorvii- 
uaries of the.«>e times. Collected from Zaphanid's 
original papers, illustrated with copper-platos, 
Li^utlon. 1743' [should be 1763], 12ino. a scarce 
work by G. .V. Stevens [ij, v.], in feeble iniira- 
tion of Sterne's style, was aimed particularly at 
Shnter acd Nancy Dawson; it was several times 
reprinted (Brit. Mus. Cat. 1785 and 1786\] 

J. K. 

nonconformist tutor, was bom at W'ymes- 
wold, Leicestershire, on 3 Jan. 1631-2." H»» 
was educated at a grammar school, and, 
having been approved by the Wirksworth 
classis, was oridained on 26 April 16M as 
minister of Ilavenstone, Leicestershire, a 
rectorj' which he seems to have held with the 
perpetual curacy of Hugglescote, being 
ejected from both in 1662. He removed to 
the borders of Xorthamptonshire.and became 
a persistent preacher at conventiclea in both 
count ics,changinghb residence several timea 



to avoid arrest. In JaDuaiy 1669 lie was 
committed to Leicester gaol by William 
Srilmte, a county maf^istrate, on tbe charge 
of nni attendine his narisli church, hut waa 
w;l free on 24 Feb. He waa a-jnin Brreated 
in 1670 at TheddinfFworth, Leicestcrsliire ; in 
Ifii-' (though ha held a license under the in- 
dulgence of tbat year); and in 1674, while 
residing at Lubbenham, heicesteraliire. On 
tliesi! occ^aaions Le escaped with heavy fines. 
Ilia main assailant was Quartermaster 
Charles Gibbons, who was drowned at Lut- 
terworth in December 1075. 

Notwithstanding his troubles, Shuttle- 
wood contrived to conduct an academy for 
the education of nonconformist mini5ters,and 
lias bt-en claimed as tUo pioneer in this enter- 
jirise ; but it is not proved or probable that he 
anticipated liichardFranklandrq. v.],whose 
ncadeioy was opened in March 1670. There 
in noadiL-quBtelistof Shuttlewood's students, 
but their number was considerable. Amons 

borne with his brothers, and became so ex- 
cellent a violinist Ibat ho took part in the 
concerts of Thomas Britton [q. v.], and led 
those established about 1728 at the Swan 
Tavern, Cornhill. Inl724he succeeded Hart 
OS organist to St. Michael's, Cornbill. Shortly 
afterwards Shuttleworth heldasimilarpostat 
the Temple church, to which crowds were at- 
tracted to hear bis hour's perfori 
tbe close of tbe evening nervicc. 
finger' (Hiwkiss) and facility c 
were better suited, eccoriling (o some experts, 
to harpsichord-playing (cf. Boyce, Cathedral 
Mutic, i. 2), Wbuttleworth was an indus- 

r of violin : 

i of 

them wereMattbewClarkeIheyounfter[q.v.], 

Emiyn [q. v.], Joshua Oldfield, D,li. 

[i|. v.], and Jolm Shellield [q. v,] lie bad 


yet E 

few books, and them chiefly of 
The chief seat of his academy and of his 
preaching was Sulby, nn extra-parochial dis- 
trict near Welford, Northamptonshire. He 
died at Crt^aton, Northamptonshire, on 
17 March 1688-9, and was buried in the 
jurish churchyard, where his tombstone bore 
a Latin inscription. lie married, on 26 April 
16.'»2, Eliiabeth (d. 3 July 1705, aged 70), 
(laughter of Humphrey Carter of Draycot, 
DerbysLire. His only son, John Shuttlewood 
<]6(St-1737), independent minister at Mill 
Vard, Goodman's Fields, London, left issue, 
of whom Hannah married, in 1744, Thomas 
Gibbons [q. v.] 

[OiIamy'iiAccmint, 171.1, pp. 423 sq.; Calamys 
Contiuoation. 1727, ii.fiST; Memoirs of Kmlyn, 
1743. p. vi; Prtitftttant Diiaenter's Miigftzinc, 
I7S5. p. 1DU; Pulmer'a NoncoDfoniiiBt'B Me- 
luoriiil, 1802, ii. 396 sq.. 477 (account by 
fribbuna from Shuttlevood's pnpera) : Toalmin's 
IliiXaric&l Virw, 1814, pp. 230. 6X6: Jamie's 
lliMorv of Litigation trspecling PresbytorJBD 
CbapcU, 1807. p. 691.] A. 0. 

I'HILLIl'S KAV- (1804-1877), founder o( 
the English system of pt^tular education. 
[See Kai-Shvtilewortu.J 


(11575 :'-17iH ). oriranist, son of Thomas Shut- 
tleworth of Spital fields, teacherof music, and 
a transcriber of Corelli's works when they 
were in great demand in England, was born 
in London about 1675. He practiced at 

which is pnnted, with the exccpti 
concertos adapted fromCorelli. Hu retained 
his appointmenlfl until his death on 2 May 
1734. He was survived by a widow and two 

' daughters. 

I [Hawkins's History of Music, pp. S7o, 791. 
BOS, 82D; Diet, of Mnsicinna, ii. 43 J : Gsorcinn 

I Er«, iv. S43; Oruve'a Diet. iii. J3<l. i. 2J7 ; 

I Adminialrntion grant, Archiieaconry of London, 

■ 2i May 1734; Gent. Mag. 1734, p. 2T4.] 

I L. M. M. 

LAS (1782-184:^), bishop of Chichester, was 
second son of Humphrey Shuttleworth, who 
was vicar of Kirkham, Lancashire, from 1771 
to 18 12, and of i'res ton in the same county from 
1784 to 1809, and wrote some tracts against 
the papal pretensions. Philip, born at Kirk- 
ham on ft Feb. 1782, was educated at the 
I'reston grammar school, and ut Winchester 
College, which he entered in 17i)(i. He matri- 
culated at New College, Oxford, on 94 Dec. 
1800, and graduated n..A. in 1800, M.A. in 
1811, and B.D. and D.U. in 1822. In 1803 
he won the Chancellor's Latin-vt'rse prise, 
the subject being ' ISyiantium.' Soon after 
graduating he became tutor to the Hon. 
Algernon Herbert, and at a subsequent dato 
to Lord Holland's son, afterwards General 
Fox. Hewastutorand fellow of NewCollege 
until 1822, and proctor of the university in 
1620. In 1822 he was unanimously chosen 
warden of New College. In that position he 
was not at first successful in the manage- 
ment of young men. He viewed with im- 
patience tbe consequences of the la.tity of the 
previous administration, and his efi'orts to 
improve matters were hampered by his iin- 
conciliatory manner. Still, be was popular 
in the university, and no person of eminence 
ever came to Oxford without dining with him 
(Davidbos and Besham, Ufr <.fA. C. Tail, 
i. 40). He held strong whig views, which 
were toned down in later life, and was a vigo- 
rou." opponent of the tractarian movement, 
lie was a good preacher, and acquired the 




rapnteiion of ft oonnil theoloKian u well oa 
that of ■ wit kdJ scholar. He wrote ocm- 
■tionkl rerw, iome of which appears in the 
■ Gentleman'* Mn^xine,' 18(11 lii. 345, ^'2), 
and in M™. Oordon'e ' Life of William Buck- 
land,' 1891. Ilia playful 'Specimen of a 
Oeolngical Leclure i^ given in Daabenv's 
'Fagitive Poems conm«l«d with Natural 
Hiaiory and I'bvtical Science,' 1369. 

On ID Nov. 1824 be waa presented by 
I»nl Holland to the rectory of Fox]e>-, 
Wilnhire, and in Seplemb.-T 1940 was ap- 
pointed binhoti of Clii cheater,' with the general 
approval of all Uifonl men' (Cut, BfrnlUr- 
tloM ^ Oxford, p. 208). lie died at hia 
pnlaca at Chichester on 7 Jnn. 1842. Pusej 
thought lie Mw in the earl; removal of his 
episcopal opponent a 'token of God's preseaee 
in the church of England.' A portrait of 
Shuttleworth bv 11. Smith is deseribetl by 
Evana (Cat. ^nyr. Portr. No. 2128.5); 
another is (tiven in llie'Cburch Maguiae' 
for May 1841. 

He married nt Ilambleton, Bucking-bain- 
•hire, in 1823, Emma Martba, daufthter of 
George Welch of High Leek in Tun.ital 

Krinh.Loncnshire. By her he bad (with five 
ugbters) a son, Philip Ugbtred, nbo died 
a student of Christ Church, Oxford, on 
27 Nov. 16*8. 

Bhuttlewortfa published, beaidos separate 
Mirmons: 1. 'Sermons on someoftheleading 
PrincipleBof Chri8tiaiiUT,'2 vols,, 1827-34; 
3rd edit. 1840. 2. ' A Paraphrastic Trans- 
lation of the Apostolic Epistles, with Notea,' 
I829i Slh edit. 1864. 3. ' The Consistency 
of the Whole Scliecoe of Kevelstion with 
itself, and with Human itesaon,' 1832. 4. 
' Not Tradition but Scripture,' 1838, opposed 
to the Oxford tract*. Newman thought, it 
' verv superficial, retailing old objections, but 
specious, and perhaps mischievous ' (J. II. 
5. ' Three Sermons before the University of 
Oxford,' 1840. 

[Ovnt. Mng. 1842 i. 209, ISSt ii. S4S, 342, 
A42; ShuttleworTh Accounts, il. 380 (Chetham CrtX^sRoTOllMtionsnfOiford, 18B8,p.298: 
La Neve's F>isti( Hardy), i, 2S4; Faster'a Alumni 
Osoo, ; AUibono'a Diet, of Authors ; Protbero's 
Lifpof A. P. Stanly, 1893, i. 131 ; Liddon'a Life 
of Van)j, i. 19a. li. 291; FoattT'it Uncaahire 
Podipreoa ; Notoa and QueriBS, 6th s«r. lii, 302, 
338. 373; Kirby'a Winchwiter ScholnrB. 1888. 
p, 38B : Bodlriftn Libr. Cat.] C, W. S. 

(1810-1874), botanist and conchologisi, bom 
at Dftwiish, Devonahire, in February 1810, 
wna eldest aon of James Shuttleworth (d. 
184(1) of Barton Lodgo, Preston, I<uncAsbire, 
by his iiral wife, Anna Maria, daughter of 

the Hon. and l{«v. Rlclianj Henn- Roper, 
dean of Clones. His mother diM of eoo- 
Huraption a few weeks afler hia biTtb. Hi* 
father married again in 1815, and settled in 
I Switzerland, subsequently (in 1831) « *lli»y 
the JJartoQ property. Shuttleworth, wb» 
was chiefly brought up by his mother*! rela- 
tives, was sent to school at Geneva, first ondrr 
Ilerr Tiipfer, and afterwards under the bota- 
nist Serinp;, keeper of the De Candidle Her- 
barium, frvm whom be imbibed his lore i>f 
natural history, e^pedally of bntanv. Ilr 
studied plants a^iduouslyon the mountain) 
uearGeneva. Inhisei^hteenlbyearhe wect 
tn G ermany , pajai ngawinteratSaie- Weimar, 
wheTe he enjoyed the court life and came to 
know Goethe. He spent some time at Frank- 
furt and Heidelberg, whence bis father recalled 
him to Soleure; there the family were then 
living, fearing he might become too 'burscbi- 
kos.' Shuttleworth maintained bis devotion 
to botany, and made aconsiderable collection 
in the Jura during the summer of 18:30. 
From the autumn of that Tear until the end 
of 1839 he studied in the medical faculty of 
the university of Edinburgh, walking the 
ho^ital during the first outbreak of cholera, 
making a vacation tour in the bigblands, and 
helping bis elder stepbrother Blake on his 
estate at Renville in the west of Ireland 
during the famine of 1831 and 1832. On 
1 1 Jan. 1833 be was appointed to a captaincy 
in the Duke of Lancaster's own regiment by 
the lord-lieutenant of the county ( Whittle, 
Pretton, 1837, ii. 235), hut, returning to 
Soleure in the following winter, be married 
and settled at Berne. Here be collected on 
the Grimsel and the Oberland, and worked 
particularly at Red Snow and other fresh- 
water algd", until weakness of the eyes eom- 
pelltKl him to abandon the microscope. In 
1835 be purchased the eitenaive heronrium 
and library of Joseph August Scbultes of 
Zurich, the botanical collaborator of Johan 
Jacob Roemer. Between 1840 and I8~>0 he 
became intimate with Jean de Cbnrpentier 
of Bex, a zealous botanist who had taken to 
conchology. Charpentier temporarily in- 
lired Shuttleworth with his own leal for 
B new subject. Shuttleworth spent money 
freely on his researches, sending, at his ex- 
>, tbe collector Dlauner of Beme to 
ca, the Canaries, and ultimately to 
Porto Rico, where be died of consumption. 
Rugel, a very active collector in North 
America, and other travellers in Mexico, 
Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil were also largely 
ipporled by Shuttleworth, who bought iheiif 
illeetions of ahelU, plants, seeds, &c. "The 
plants he partly worked out, thus forming a 
ery extensive and valuable annotated hop- h 




Murium. Shuttleworth usually wintered in 
;he south, owing to his tendency to gout, 
lad, despite fre<|uent disablement, ransacked 
iie ricli botanical hunting-ground of Var 
md AI{>es>Marit imes. This resulted in a her- 
tNuium, formed jointly by several friends, 
BOW in the possession of M. Edmond Iluet 
It Pamiers ( Ari^ge), and in a * Catalogue des 
Plmntes de IVovence/ which was published 
bij M. A. Iluet at Pamiers in 1889. Many 
jf h'w botanical discoveries were in part due 
to his constant comparison of French with 
Italian types, while liis letters to his friends 
Kleissner, Godet, Outhnick, and others, and 
the notes in his herbarium evince the cri- 
tical caution which made him apt in botany, 
w in conchology, to insist on minute dif- 
ferences. In 18(50 his only son Henry, a 
promising student of medicine at Cambridge 
tnd London, died, aged 22, at his summer 
residence, Frohberg, near Berne. Over- 
•rhelmed with grief, Shuttleworth removed 
to Hyeres, and gave up scientific work. He 
iied on 19 April 1874. Shuttleworth mar- 
ried, in 18.*tt, Susette, daughter of the Count 
ie Sury of Soleure, and had two children, 
his son Henry, and a daughter who died at 
the age of seven. 

Shuttleworth joined the Botanical Society 
3f EUiin burgh as an original member in 183o, 
became a fellow of the Linnean Society 
in 1856, and was also an associate of the 
Zoological Society and of the Lyceum of 
New Y'ork. The university of Basle con- 
ferred a doctor's degree upon him for his 
ser\'ices to science, and Meissner commemo- 
rated him in the genus Shuttleworthia, now 
merged in Verbena. His collection of shells, 
considered by Mousson (J<mmal de Conchy- 
lioloffie^ xxiii. 90) one of the most remark- 
able in Kuroi)e, was presented after his death 
to the State Museum at Berne, and his her- 
barium of more than 1/K),000 specimens of 
flowering pi ants and twenty thousand crypto- 
gams was added to the British Museum col- 
lection. An account of the various collections 
comprised in this herbarium appears in the 
otKcial report of the department of botany 
in the museum for 1877 {Journal of Botany y 
1878, pp, 179-80). 

Besides an * Account of a Botanical Ex- 
cursion in the Alps of Valais' in * Jardine's 
Magnzine of Zoology and Botany for 1836* 
(vol.ii.),the Uoyal Society's Catalogue enume- 
rates eighteen papers by Shuttleworth, be- 
ginning with a (lescription in German of 
some North American species of Valerianella 
in * Flora/ vol. xx. (1837), including several 
contributions, mostly malacological, to the 
* Mittheilungen d. Naturf. Gesellschaft' of 
Berne, and ending with an ' Essai critique 


sur quelques esp5ces du genre Cyclostoma' 
in the 'Journal do Conchyliologie' for 1856 
(vol. i.) Some of these papers deal with the 
land and fresh-water shells of Corsica, the 
Canaries, and the West Indies; others with 
the formation of loess. He also published 
separately: 1. * Nouvelles observations sur 
la matiere coloriante de la neige rouge,* 
Geneva, 1840 ; and 2. * Notitiie Malaco- 
logicaB,*Heft i., Berne, 1856, dedicated to Jean 
de Charpentier, and consisting of an intro- 
duction on classification and nomenclature 
(pp. 1-29), and a monograph of five little 
known genera of land-shells (pp. 30-90), 
most of the species being described as new, 
with nine lithographic plates, eight of which 
are unsigned, and presumably by the author, 
the last by A. Hutter. The second part of 
this work, which is written in German, was 
issued in 1878, and consists of fifteen plates, 
coloured by Shuttleworth, put on stone by 
Hutter, with descriptions by Shuttleworth, 
edited with synonymy by Dr. Paul Fischer, 
with a preface by Professor T. Studer and a 
* Nekrolog von R. J. Shuttleworth,* by Shut- 
tlewortVs friend Guthnick, director of the 
Berne Botanical Garden. 

[Foster's Laneashiro Pedigrees, 1873 ; Whit- 
tles Account of Preston, 1837. ii. 235 ; obituary 
prefixed to Shuttleworth's Notitiae MnlacolopicaB, 
Berne, 1878.] G. S. B. 

SIBBALD, JAMES, D.D. (1590.«^- 
1650.^), Scottish rovalist divine, was of an 
ancient family in the Meams. His birth, 
about 1590, may be inferred from his being 
on ordination trials with the presbytery of 
Deer on 28 Oct. 1613. He was educated at 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he be- 
came a regent, and prelected on philosophy. 
In 1626 he was admitted to the first charge 
in St. Nicholas' Church, Aberdeen. Ho 
graduated B.D. at Marischal College on 
U Oct. 1630, and before 1637 received the 
degree of D.D. from the two universities of 
Marischal College and King's College. 

His first appearance in ecclesiastical politics 
is in connection with the unifying schemes 
of John Durie (1596-1680) [q. v.J By ad- 
vice of Archbishop Spot is wood, Durie had 
written to Aberdeen divines, seeking their 
opinion on the points of dispute between 
the Lutherans ana the Beformed. On 20 Feb. 
1637 Sibbald and five other Aberdeen doctors, 
headed by John Forbes (1693-1(V48), gave 
it as their judgment that Lutherans and Re- 
formed agreed in those points on which 
the ancient church had been of one opinion. 
The harmonising attempt was approved by 
Robert Baillie, D.D. [q. v.] ; by Samuel 
Rutherford [q. v.] it was denounced as a 

laJ th*t the 'Ih 

:.-. :>■-.■ ir. : p>Lrr. »=i ia iii ii.>p I hid a 

iJ'im;- amoo? otbtrs ( LocKHiBT, Xemoirr, 
1 Sir. i. 4«). ' 

li.ihiog with much enterprue, uid wu «iic< 




ressful in bringing out engravings, especially 
col« nire<l mezzotints. In 1 785 he estubjished 
the * Edinburgh Magazine, or Literary Miscel- 
lany/ the first serious rival of the * Scots 
Magazine.' He was the editor, and wrote 
many articles, especially on Scottish anti- 
quities. From 1786, when Burns first called 
u{>on him in Edinburgh, Sibbald was a gene- 
rous friend to the poet, and his paper on the 

* Kilmarnock ' edition of Burns in the * Edin- 
burgh Magazine' for October 1786 was the 
first serious review the young poet had. In 
order to devote himself more to literature and 
the magazine, Sibbald gave up the bookselling 
business to Messrs. Lawrie & Symington, and 
after 1792 his name disappeared from the 
imprint of the periodical, which thenceforth 
bore that of Lawrie & Symington, but was 
still carried on for his benefit. The circula- 
tinn wafl between six hundred and seven hun- 
dred copies. In 1803 it was merged in the 

* Scots Magazine.' A newspaper, *The Edin- 
burgh Herald,' was started by him in July 
1793, but did not last long. Ho was the 
editor, and wrote leading articles, at that time 
a novelty in Scotland. 

in July 1793 Sibbald agreed to convey the 
circulating library to Lawrie for ten years 
from 1794 for a rent of 200/. per annum, 
subject to a deduction for purchases of new 
bt^oics. Sibbald soon afterwards went to 
London and was lost sight of by his relatives. 
Ilia brother William, a merchant at Leith, 
having managed to communicate with him, 
received this reply : * My lodging is in Soho, 
and my business is so so.' In 1797 he re- 
tumtHl to Edinburgh and produced *The 
Vocal Magazine, a selection of the most 
esteemed English, Scots, and Irish airs, 
ancient and modern, adapted for the harpsi- 
chord or violin.' Next year he published a 
book written during his residence in London, 
* llecord of the Public Ministry of Jesus 
Christ, comprehending all that is related by 
the four evangelists in one regular narrative, 
with preliminary observations.' Sibbald's 
view was that the public ministrations of 
our Lord only occupied a period of about 
tw€»lve months. In 1799 he entered into a 
fresh agreement with Lawrie, who took a 
lease of the circulating library for twenty- 
one years from 1800 at an annual payment 
of one hundred guineas, and engaged to pur- 
chase all the new books himself. The library 
did not prosper, and Lawrie ^ave it up to 
Sibbsild, who retained it until his death, when 
his brother and executor, William, tried to 
continue it, but without much success, under 
tlie care of Stevenson the bookseller ; upon 
Stevenson's death it was sold to Alexander 
Mackay, who much improved it and carried 

it on for many years. At one time the library 
contained thirty-eight thousand volumes. 

For a long time Sibbald had been occupied 
upon the work by which he is best known : 
* Chronicle of Scottish Poetry from the Thir- 
teenth Century to the Union of the Crowns, 
to which is added a glossary,' Edinburgh, 

1802, 4 vols. 8vo. The first"^ three volumes 
consist of a chronological series of extracts 
from the writings of the Scottish poets, with 
biographical and critical notices ; the fourth 
volume is devoted to the glossary. In a re- 
view of the work Sir Walter Scott says : * The 
chronicle itself contains little that may not be 
found in tlie libraries of most antiquaries; but 
all such libraries will in future be imperfect 
without this glossary' (Edinburgh Iteview, 
October 1803, p. 210). Sibbald also printed 
fifty copies, for private circulation, of * Ane 
Pleasant Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis, be Sir 
David Lindsay,' Edinburgh, 1802, 8vo. 

Sibbald died in Leith Walk on 8 April 

1803. He was of an eccentric but benevo- 
lent disposition, and a member of many con- 
vivial clubs. Kay etched two portraits of 
him — one representing him walking up the 
High Street, the other in a group of print 
collectors {Series of Original Portraits, Xo. 
162). A portrait, by Sir Henry llaebum, is 
in the Scottish National Gallery. 

[Chambers and Thomson's Biogr. Diet, of 
Eminent Scotsmen, 1866, iv. 259-61; Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation, iii. 453-4 ; Scots Mag. 
May 1803, p. 362; Allibone's Diet. ii. 1870, 
2093 ; notes kindly sent by General James Grant 
Wilson of New York.] H. R. T. 

SIBBALD, Sir ROBERT (1641-1722), 
physician and antiquarv, was the fifth child 
and third son of David Sibbald, third brother 
of Sir David Sibbald, knight-baronet of Ran- 
keillour, Fifeshire, and keeper of the great 
seal under the chancellorship of the Earl of 
Kinnoull, by Margaret I^yd, elde.^t daughter 
of Robert Boyd of Kippis, advocate. He 
was bom in Edinburgh on 15 April 1641, 
according to his own statement in his *Auto- 
biography,* 'in a house near to the head of 
Blackfriars Wynd upon the left side.* Since 
his * older brothers and sisters had died 
hectic,* he was, on the advice of his uncle. 
Dr. George Sibbald of Gibleston, suckled for 
two years, and to this circumstance he as- 
cribed both the preservation of his life and 
his robust health. At an early age he showed 
great aptitude for study. In 16^ his parents 
being tnen resident in Fife, he was sent to 
the burgh school of Cupar. Next year they 
removed to Dundee, and during the siege of 
that town by Monck, Sibbald narrowly es- 
caped with his life, and his father was 






BBveri'Iy wounded. During the pillage of 
tlie town the family were robbed of nearly 
cvervtliing they possessed, and bad to return 
to Fife on foot. He was next wnt to the 
high school of Bdiiiburgb, and thence to the 
university, where he remained five years. 
Partly through the influeoce of Leigbton, who 
was then princijml, he became possessed of 
' strong inclinations to a serious and good 
life,' 'sbnnned the playsaud divertissements' 
the other students followed, and rend much 
* in his study, for which 'his fellows gave him 
'the name of "Diogenes in dolo."' For a 
time he studied theology, and cherished some 
intention of entering the church; but be- 
cause he 'preferred a quiet life,' where he 
'might not be engaged m Tactions of church 
or slate,' he finsify fixed upon medicine, and 
that he might also ' see the world &nd know 
men,' he resolved to prosecute the study of it 
(ibrMd. In 1660 ho went to Leydeo, where 
he remained a year and a half, and in 1601 
took the degree gf M.D., his dissertation on 
the occasion being published under the title 
'De VariisTabisSpeciebus.' FromLeyden he 
went to Paris, and, during a sojourn there of 
nine months, made the acquaintance of Quido 
and Fatin. Ue then proceeded to Angers, 
and. after taking his doctor's degree there on 
13 June l(Hi2,went to London, where he re- 
mainedthreemonths. InOctoberhe returned 
to Edinburgh and began the practice of medi- 
cine, with the determination to pass quietly 
through the world, and content himself with 
' a moderate fortune.' 

With a view to investigat ing what materia 
inedica in the way of herbs Scotland was 
capable of producmg, Sibbald, along with 
Dr. Andrew Balfour, resolved, about 1667, 
to institute a botanical garden in Edinburgh, 
and for this purpose they obtained a piece of 
ground belonging to Ilolyrood House— ' of 
some forty feet every way' — which they 
stocked with about eight or nine hundred 
plants. The scheme, having attracted the 
attention of the other physicians in the city, 
aoon obtained more general support, and from 
the town council they secured the lease of 
the garden belonging to Trinity Hospital, 
with adjacent grounds. Sibbald was also 
chiefly instrumental in founding the Royal 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh, for which 
a charter was obtained on 2 Nov. 1681. On 
30 Sept. 1682 he was appoiuted physician to 
Charles II, and on 30 Der. of the same year 
geographer of Scotland. This latter appoint- 
ment he obtained through the Earl of Perth, 
at whose instance and hy whose hi^lphe had 
for some time begun to make collections for a, 
geographical and statistical account of Scot- 
knu, with a description of the natural history 

of the liingdom. 'This,' he says, 'was t 
cause of great pains and very much expenu 
to me in buying ail the books and manuccripts 
I could gather for that use, and procuring in- 
formation from all parts of the counlrj-, even 
the remote isles.' He also employed on as- 
sistant, John Adair, to whom he ' paid a 
guinea for each double of the maps hemade,' 
andwho was further subsidised by the gentry 
and the public. The most elaborate work of 
Sibbald, referring to the natural history of 
Scotland, washis'Scotialllustrata; give Pm- 
dromus Ilistoriaj Naturalis; in quo reglonis 
nalura, ineolarum ingenia et mores, morbi 
iisque medendi methodus, et medicina indi- 
gona,accurBte explicantur,' Edinburgh, lOW. 
The work was severely attacked by Dr. Pit- 
caime in 1696; and many of his strictures 
are deserved, for much of its information 
wsf based on the communications of igno- 
rant and credulous correspondents. Sibbahl 
replied in 1710 in a pamphlet entitled ' Vin- 
dicire Scotire Illustratic, sive Prodromi Xatu- 
ralis Historiie Scotis, contra Prodromastigcs, 
sub larva lilwlli de Icgibus bistorise natu- 
ralis, latenles,' Although commanded by the 
king to publish the natural history of the 
country, ^Sibbald, according to bis own ac- 
count, received nothing for his pains but a 
payment of a hundred guineas from JamesV II 
as his physician, on 5 March 16S5. 

In December 168i Sibbald was elected 
president of the Iloyal College of Physicians, 
Edinburgh, and in March 1685 he was ap- 
pointed by the town council of Edinburgh 
the first professor of medicine in the univer- 
sity. The same year occurred what he terms 
the ' ditScultest passage of my life,' when. 
through intercourse with his patron, the 
Earl of Perth, and the perusal of the lives 
of certain saintly catholics, he r*^olved to 
become a convert to cathoiicism. la con- 
Be(|uence of his change of faith bis bouse in 
Carrubers Close was broken into by a fanatic 
mob, who swore they would ' rathillet ' (i.e. 
assassinate) him, and probably would have 
done so had he not made his escape by a 
back j^ard. Unable to continue bis practice 
in Edinburgh, he went for a time to London, 
where, on 29 March 1686, he was elected a, 
member of the College of Physicians. But 
either because he found London uncongenial, 
or because, aa he states, his personal con- 
tact with the Jesuits there, and the know- 
ledge of the evil influence they exercised 
over the mind of the kin^, caused a strong 
reaction, his religious views underwent a 
sudden change : ' I repented of my rashness,' 
he says, ' and resolved to come home and 
return to the church I was bom in.' 

lu 1697 Sibbald presented his natur 




history collection to the university of Edin- 
bur)(h, with a catalo^e (which was printed 
at the expense of the university) entitled 
•Auctarium Musaei Balfouriani e Musseo 
Sibbaldino.* He died in August 1722, and 
in the same year was printed at Edinburgh 

* A Catalogue of the Library of the late 
learned and ingenious Sir Robert Sibbald of 
Kippis, Doctor of Medicine, to be sold by 
auction/ The library was sold on 5 Feb. 
1723, n large number of his books and manu- 
scripts being purchased for the Advocates' 
I^ibrary, Edinburgh. An engraving of his 

S)rtrait, from the original picture in the 
oyal College of Physicians, is prefixed to 
his * Remains,' 1837. 

Sibbald is perhaps best known for his 

* History Ancient and Modem of the Sheriff- 
d<>m of Fife and Kinross,' Edinburgh, 1710; 
Cupar, Fifeshire, 1803. Belonging to a Fife 
family, he had a very special interest in, as 
well as an intimate acquaintance with, the 
shire. But he was the author of many 
other geographical and antiquarian works 
displaying wide and varied knowledge, and 
several of them still of interest from the 
contemporary information they contain. The 

Srincipal are . 1. * Nuncius Scoto-Britannus, 
e Descriptione Scotiffi AntiqusB et Modernoe,' 
Edinburgh, 1683. 2. ' An Account of the 
Scottish Atlas,' 1683. 3. * Phalainologia 
Nova, sive Observationes de rarioribus 
quibusdam Balsenis in Scotiie littus nuper 
ejectis,' Edinburgh, 1692; London, 1773. 
4. * An Essay* c<mceming the Thule of the 
Ancients/ Edinburgh, 1693. 5. *Rogatu 
Joannis Sletzeri rei tormentariae in Scotia 
l*nefecti Theatrum celebriorum urbium, 
arcium,templorum,et monasteriorumScotieB, 
li ngua Lat inn scripsi, quod in linguam nostram 
versum edidit, cum Iconibus,' London, 1H93 
[cf. Slezkb, John]. 6. 'Additions to Cam- 
den's *» Britannia,** ' 1695. 7. \ Introductio 
ad Ilistoriam Rerum a Romanis gestarum, 
in oil Boreal is Britanniad parte, quae ultra 
murum Picticum est; in qua veterum in 
hac plaga incolarum nomina et sedes ex- 
plicantur,' &c., Edinburgh, 1696. 8. 'Pro- 
vision for the Poor in the time of Dearth and 
Scarcitv/ Edinburgh, 1699. 9. ' Georgii Sib- 
baldi, M.D., Domini de Giblistone, regulse 
bene et salubriter vivendi, partim prosa par- 
tim metro expresses nunc primum ex MSS. 
Autogrnphisauthoris in lucem editae et notis 
illustratae per R. S. M. D. ex fratre Davide 
nepc.tem,' Edinburgh, 1701. 10. * The 
Liberty and Independence of the Kingdom 
an<l Church in Scotland asserted from An- 
cient Records,' Edinburgh, 1703. 11. 'An 
Answer to the Second Letter to the Lord 
Bishop of Carlisle, wherein the Scots An- 

cient Possessions in Britain is asserted,' &c., 
Edinburgh, 1704. 12. 'DeGestis Gulielmi 
VallEB Herois Scoti Collectanea varia,' Edin- 
burgh, 170o. 13. * In Hippocratis Legem, et 
in ejus Epistolam ad Thessalum filium, Com- 
mentarii,^ Edinburgh, 1706. 14. * Historical 
Inquiries concerning the Roman Monuments 
in the North Part of Britain called J^cotland,' 
1707 ; a similar work in Latin, entitled 'Mis- 
cellanea qusedam eruditae Antiquitatis quae 
ad borealem Britannite majoris partem 
pertinent; in quibus loci quidam histori- 
corum Romanorum, variaque monumenta 
antiqua illustrantur,' Edinburgh, 1710. 
16. ' The History, Ancient and Modem, of 
the Sheriflxloms of Linlithgow and Stirling; 
with an account of the Natural Products of 
the Land and Water, in two Books,' Edin- 
burgh, 1710. 16. 'An Account of the Writers 
Ancient and Modem, printed and Manu- 
scripts not printed, which treat of the de- 
scription of rf orth Britain, called Scotland, 
as it was of old, and is now at present, with 
a Catalogue of the Mapps and I'rospects and 
Figures of the Ancient Monuments thereof, 
in two parts,' Edinburgh, 1710. 17. 'De- 
scription of the Islands of Orkney and Zet- 
land with the Maps of them,' Edinburgh, 
1711. 18. ' Commentarius in Julii Agri- 
colas Expeditiones 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, in vita ejus, 
per Cornelium Tacitum generum ejus, de- 
scriptas,' &c., Edinburgh, 1711. 19. ' Portus, 
Colonioe, et Castella Romana, ad Bodo- 
triam et ad Taum ; or Conjectures concerning 
the Roman Ports, Colonies, and Forte in the 
Friths of Forth and Tay,' Edinburgh, 1711. 
20. ' Specimen Glossarii de populis et locis 
Britannia) borealis, in explicatione locorum 
quorundam dithcilium apud scriptores 
veteres,' Edinburgh, 1711. 21 . ' Series remm 
a Romanis post avocatum Agricolam in Bri- 
tannia boreali gestamm,' Edinburgh, 1711. 

Sibbald was also the author of several 
scientific papers in ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ;' and various of his essays read before 
the Royal Society on Scottish antiquities 
were published in a volume in 1739 under 
the title ' A Collection of several Treatises 
in folio conceming Scotland.' There also 
appeared at Edinburgh in 1837 ' Remains of 
Sir Robert Sibbald, Knt., M.D., containing 
his Autobiography, Memoirs of the Royal 
College of Physicians, Portion of his Literary 
Correspondence, and account of his manu- 

[Remains ut supra; Life and Account of his 
writings prefixed to his History of Fife ; Bower's 
History of the University of Edinbnrgh ; Grant's 
History of the University of Edinburgh ; A. H. 
Millar's Fife, Pictorial and Historical. 1895.1 

T. F. H. 



SIBBAIJ), WILLIAM {d. 1650),inyBlist-, 
of ScottUb family, may bv identical with 
'William Sibbald who entered King's Col- 
lege, l(>34,andgrudiinied Af.A. 
in IBSd {Farti Aberdonentn, Spalding Club, 
pp. 463, 51 1 ). In early life: he attached him- 
.self to James Graliani, fifth earl and firet 
marquis of Montrose [q. v.l, from whom he 
received many favoure. He served under 
MontioM in ibe caiise of the covenanters. 
On 30 June 1640 Sibbald was cDtniBt«d with 
tlie charge of the house of AJrlie, which 
Montrose had just taken from James Ogilvv, 
aecond earl of Airlie [q. v.] Within n week, 
however, the EarlofAr(rvll ordered Sibbald 
to deliver the place to him, and rosed it to 
the ffround. When Montrose became a 
royaLst, Sibbald adopted the saine cause, and 
in 1644 accompanied Montrose in his secret 
journey to Scotland. They left Carlisle on 
18 Au|[., accompanied only by Sir William 
Hollo [q. v.], Montrose being disguised as Sib- 
bald'a groom. Holding the commission of 
lieutenant-colonel, lie accompanied the mar- 
quis on bis highland campaign. At the 
close of the year, however, when Ai^U 
brought Montrose to bay at Pyvie Castle, 
Sibbald, perhaps despairing of the cause, 
deserted to the enemy. (Ju hearing this, 
Montrose, who was on the point of marching 
towards Bsdenoch, baited his troops and 
remained Btationnry for several days in order 
to discredit any information as to his plana 
that Sibbald might furnish to his opponents. 
Whatever were Sibbald's motives for his 
desertion, he soon returned to bis old alle- 
giance, and t«adi]v obtained pardon foe his 
pusillanimity. After the battle of Philip- 
haugh (September 1645) besought refuge in 
Holland. In 1649 he crossed to Scotland, 
bearing letters from Montrose to Prince Uu- 
pert, James Butler, marquis (afterwards 
duke) of Ormonde [q. v.], and Sir George 
Monro [q. v.] He was also charged to foment 
the discontent which the Act of Classes bad 
roused among the lowland gentry. But soon 
after landing be was arrested at Musaelbur^b. 
On bis examination he refused at first to give 
information, but, being tortured, be is said to 
have confessed to a plot to seize Edinburgh 
Castle. He was beheaded, with Hay of Dal- 
getty, on 7 June 1660 at the Merest Cross, 
Edinburgh. Hehadcomposedadyingspeech, 
but did not deliver it. After talking a little 
' to the disorderly rabble about him,' aays 
one author, ' he march 'd to the block with 
such on heroick gesture as if he had been 
to act a gallant in a play ' {Muntrose Rediv. 
pp. 175, 167). 

tGardinfr's Civil Wiir. ii. 134; Gnrdmer's 
Commonweal Ih, i. 233, 280; Lnat Speech of 

Sibbald ; WiBhun's Memoirs of Moi>tri»r, eii. 
ISig, p. 493 : Wisbart'* Deeds of Montrosr. cd. 
MDrdn'b and Simpson, pp. 19, SO. 141 : Tomer's 
Memoir^ p. 92; Acta of Scoltith Pari. vol. Ti. 

K. ii. pp. 66-1, 572, 6T3t Ornymund to Brienue, 
arl. MS. ifiai. f. 515.] E. ]. C. 

n.D. (1577-1635), puritan divine, eldest «on 
of Paul Siba, wheelwright, by his wife 
Johan, was bom at Tostock, "Suiiblk, in 
15T7. Sibbes waa educated at the griuomnr 
school of Bury St Edmonds, and by help 
of John Knewaluba [q. v.], rector of'Cock- 
iifld, and otiiers, he was sent to St, JoIidb 
College, Cambridge, where he was admitted 
in 15tf5. He was elected scholnr of big col- 
leKe, commenced B..\. 1S99, was admitted ' 
fellow 3 April 1601, and proceeded M.A. 
1C02, Ilia permoneut religious convictions 
he owed to the preaching of Paul Baynes 
[q. v.], lecturer (1603-6) at St. Andrew's 
tUB Great, Cambridge. In 1608 ho was ap- 
pointed taxator, and, having taken orders, 
was made one of the college preachers on 
2.5 April 1609. He commenced B.D. in 
1610, and was appointed lecturer at Holy 
Trinity, Cambridge. In consequence of his . 
purita'nism he was deprived in 1615 of both 
professorship and lectureship by tho high 
commission. On 5 Feb. 1817, llirough the 
influence of Sir Henry Yelverton [q. v.], he 
was chosen preacher at Gray's Inn, where he 
had a remarkable auditory. William Oouge, 
D.D. \a. v.], who often heard him, told 
Sumuel Clarke (15R9-1683) [q. v.J that 'he 
sometimes had a little stammering in the 
lime of his preaching, but then his judicious 
hearers alwaies expected some rare and ex- 
cellent notion from him.' In 1626, on the 
death of John Rills, D.D,, he was elected 
master of St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridec, 
still retaining his post at Gray's Inn, ' Tlie 
wheel of St.. Katharine,' says Fuller, 'hav- 
ing stood still (not to say gone backwardl 
for some years, he left it replenished with 
scholars, beautified with buildings, better en- 
dowed with revenues.' He waa one of the 
twelve feoffees under the short-lived schema 
(1630-33) for fostering a puritan ministry 
by buying up impropriations. As earlv as 
I6S0 he bad become a correspondent of 
James Usher or Ussher [q. v.]. who by letter 
(10 Jan. 1627) made him the offer of thepro- 
vostship of Trinity College, Dublin. Sibbes 
declined the prospect. The overture was re- 
newed (19 Jlarch)byArchbishop Abbot, but 
nothing came of it, though there is ground 
for Orosart's inference tliat Sibbes viaited 
Dublin. In 1627 he proceeded D.D. He 
joined in the petition (2 March 1628) prtK 
moted by John Davenport [q. v.] o. 

Sibbes 183 Sibbes 

of the distressed protestants in the pnlntinato, 
and incurred the reprimand of the high 
oommiifsion. That he wan not anxious to 

linesse \). 10. * A Glance of Heaven/ 1038 
12mo (ed. by Lazarus Seaman [q. v.j). 
11. *Yea and Amen/ 16:38, ll>rao (ed. T. 
provoke a conllict with the authorities is Goodwin and P. Nye). 12. * The Christian's 
•liown by his promoting, on the ground that Portion/ l()3*^,12mo (same editors). 13. * Km- 

Lambeth House would be obey'd,' the elec- 

manuel, God with us/ 1<)38, 4to. 14. ' I)i- 

tion to a fellowship at St. Catharine's Hall of vine Meditations and Holy Contemplations/ 
John Ellis (1(M)(5P-1(J81) [q. v.], whom 1038, Hvo. 15.*TheSpiritualJubilee,M038, 
Calamy calls a * bell ringer * to Laud [see 
KxowLKS, John, 1000 ?-108.r. On 1 Nov. 
1633 he was presented by the crown to the 
perpetual curacy of Holy Trinity, Cam- 
Driuge, on the resignation of Thomas Good- 
win, l).l). [q. v.], whom he is said to have 
'Weaned from Arminianism. 

Sibbes died unmarried at Grav's Inn on 

4to. 10. * The Bride's Longing for her liride- 
Groomes Second Coming/ 1 038, 12m o (fune- 
ral sermon for Sir Thomas Crew [q. v.]). 

17. *Beames of Divine Light/ 1038-9, 4to 
(twenty-one sermons, ed. John Sedgwick). 

18. * Bowels Opened; or a Discovery of the 
neere and deere l-iove . . . between Christ 
and the Church/ 1639, 4to (modern editions 

5 July 1035. His name he writes in all drop the first title). 19. * A Breathing after 
three forms set at the head of this article, i God,' 1(539, 12mo. 20. * Christs Exaltation,' 
His portrait has been four times engraved 1039, 12mo. 21. ' The Beturning Backslider/ 
(cf. Bromlet). An excellent engraving in 1039, 4to. 22. * Violence Victorious/ 1039, 
Clarke's * Lives ' shows a strong and pleasant 8vo. 23. * The Hidden Life/ 1039, 4to. 
countenance, with large aquiline nose, mou- 24. * The Christian's End/ 1039, 4to. 25. * The 
stache, and peaked beard ; he wears a ruff Excellencie of the Gospel above the liaw,' 
and a double skull-cap. His memory was 1(539, 12mo. 20. * An Ex])osition of the 
cherished by many who were not puritans ; Third Chapter ... to the Philippians,' ie;)9, 
Francis Quarles has verses on his works ; 4to. 27. * Evangelicall Sacrifices/ llUO, 4to 
Izaak Walton wrote this couplet in his copy (nineteen sermons, ed. John Sedgwick), 
of 'The Keturning Backslider :' 28. * A Consolatory Letter to an Attiicted 

Of this blest man let this just praise be given, Conscience/ 1041 , 4to (portrait). 29. * The 
Heaven was in him before he was in heaven, ('lorious teast of the Gospel, 10.>0, 4to (ed. 

Arthur Jackson). 30. * Alx?arned Commen- 
Ile published: 1. 'The Saint's Cordials/ tary . . . upon the First Chapter of the 
1629, fol. UW7, fol. ; this contains ten ser- Second. . . Corinthians/ 10o5, fol. (sermons 
mons by Sibbes, with fifteen others ; a volume at Gray's Inn, ed. Thomas Manton). 31. * A 
with same title, 10i38, folio, contains eigh- Heavenly Conference between Christ and 
teen sermons, all by Sibbes; it has been Mary/ 1050, -It o. 32. * A Miracle of Miracles/ 
abridged by N. Batson as * The Saint's Assu- 1050, 4to. 33. * Antidotum contra Naufra- 
rance/ 1809, 12mo, and *The Saints Ark' gium Fidei/ 1057, 12mo (university sermon 
[18101 8vo. 2. * The Bruised Keede and at Cambridge, 9 Oct. 1027). 
Smoaking Flax/ 1030, 12mo (it is often said He contributed verses to 'Epicedia in 
that to this book Bichard Baxter owed his Obitum Gul. Whitakeri/1010,andto*I)uci8 
religious impressions; it confirmed impres- Eboracensis Fascice/ 1033. He prefaced 
aions already made hj a work of Kobert works by J. Ball, P. Baynes, U. Capel, E. 
Parsons [q. V.1, the Jesuit, as revised by Ed- Culvervvell, and 11. Scudder ; edited T. Ga- 
mund BunnyTq. Y.J ; Job Orton's copy ' cost takers * Christian Constancy/ 1024; and, 

Churches Visitation/ 1034, 8vo. 5. *The 8vo, and 1812, 8vo, 3 vols, (with memoir); 
Soules Conflict . . . and Victory over it and by A. B. Grosart, LL.D., Edinburgh, 
aelfe/ 163o, 8vo. Posthumous were: 0. * Two 1802-3, 8vo, vols, (with memoir). Several 

at Gray's Inn). 
Aime/ 1637, 1: 

1637, 12mo(ed. ^^ ^ 

9. 'Light from Heaven: Discovering the of Thurston, edited by Mayor, from *^ Baker's 

Fountaine Opened/ 1038, 4to (ed. by John manuscript for Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 

Sedgn^'ick; also, same date, with title 'The l Dec. 1856; BrooVs Lives of the Puritans, 

Fountaine Opened, or the Mysterie of God- 1813, ii. 416 sq.; Memoir by Grosart, 1862; 

BakBT-B Hist, of Hi. John'. College (Mnyor). 
IHSV, i. 392, 33*. ii. G2 J ; Iteliquiat Bnitrrunn. 
1S9S, i, 3 wq. : CaUmy'* Accouat, 1713. pp. enS 
Beq.; Ontuger's Bit^niphifal UiBt. of EnjcUnd, 
1T7». ii- ITfii Darling's Cjclopicdia BiUio- 
^HphtcB, I8S4. p. 1736.] A. Q. 

SIBERCH, JOHN ( ff. 15:21-15: 

t Oambridge, haa wmetimes 

S), tba 
first priiiter at Cambridge, has wmetimes 
been identified with .lohaon Svber or Sibert, 
who printed lit Lyons bet ween 148:? ftud 1498; 
but it is more probable that be came to Eng' 
land from Coit^ne. Ho s«t up tbo first 
printing'pressHt Cambridge ia 1521, In which 
jeac and in l^i22 he printed tbere nine or 
more books. The house in which lie lived 
was between the Qate of Ilumililj and the 
GaW of Virtue, within the precincta of Gon- 
vilU- and Caiua College, nnu it bore the sign 
of the 'Arms Hagia, Siberch styled him- 
self 'primiis utriuaque lingiife in Anglia im- 
pressar,' and it was on the title-page of bis 
' Augustinua' that Qreek type was first used 
in England. He was probably the boohselier 
named as on old friend by Erasmus in a let- 
ter written from Bnsle on Ohri Htmas day 1 525 
to Robert Aldrich of Cambridge, afterwards 
bishop of Carlisle: 'Saluta mihi uelorea 
iiodales . . . Gerardum, Nicolaum, et loannem 
Siburgiim bibliopolas.' The art of printing 
was not a^in exercised at Cambridge uatil 
Thomas Thomas was appointed university 
printer in 1583. 

The books known to have been printed by 
Sibercli are, in order of date, as fallows: 
1 . The ' Grat io ' addressed to Cardinal 
Wolsey at Cambridge by I>r. Henry Bullock, 
1621. Four copies of this, the first btiok 
printed at Cambridge, are known, viz. at the 
British Museum, Bodleian Library, Ijimboth 
Palace, and Archbishop Slarshs Library, 
Dublin. 'J. St. Augustine's ■ l^ernio de 
miseria ac brevitate hujus mortalis vitw,' 
1G21, of which the only extant copy is in the 
Bodleian Library. 3. Luciau's 'Opusculum 
n>pl 6,^6Sar; 1521, edited by Dr. Bullock, 
with the addition of hia above-mentioned 
oration to Wuisey. Two copies are in the 
British Museum, and a third is at St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 4, Archbishop Bald- 
win's 'Sermo de altaris sacramento,' 1521 
(Bodleian, Cambridge Univ. Libr. 4e.) 
5. Erasmus' ' De conscrlbendis epistolia,' 
lfi21 (Brit. Mus., St. John's Coll., Cam- 
bridge, &c.) 6. Galen's ' De temperament is,' 
translated by Tliomos Linucre, 1521 (Brit, 
Mus., Bodleian, Sic.) 7. Bishop Fisher's 
'Contio,' delivered on the dav of the public 
burning of the writinifs of Slarlin Luther, 
tTanslated into Latin by Richard Pace, 1521 
[1522]. Two copies are in the Bodleian 
Library, and another ia in the Allhorp col- 

lection. 8. PapiriuaGeminus' 'Hermatfac 
1522(Brit.Mu8., St. John'sColl., Cambridge ' 
£c,) 9, Two leaves onlv of an unknown 

edition of William Lily's '' De oeto oratirnii? 
partium const ructione,* discovert>d in the 
fibrarr of Wustminatur Abbey. Facaimila 
reproductions have been publiihed of Kos. 
1, 2, 6, and 8. 

[Bibliogmphical Introdactioa by HeiiC7 Bnul- 
ahaw prefiied to the focsimiln edilion of Bul- 
lock's Oratio, ISSS ; Ames's Typogr. Anriq.. M. 
UerbcTt, 1786-90, ii. U10-l;i; Uiblioj-rajiiii-ni. 
1S95-7. ii. W (art. ' Eaglish Pruviacinl Prrisi^,' 
by W. H. Allnutl).] B. K. Ii. 

BIBLEY, GEORGE (183J-189I), civil 
engineer, bom on 12 Aug. 1824, wr« son of 
Robert Sibley, one of the first members of the 
Institution of Civil Engineeim. From 1831 to 
1338 he received his education at Uulversity 
College school, London. After servii^ an 
apprenticeship with his father in London, 
he obtained employment in 1845 as aaaistant 
engineer on the Bristol and Exeter railway 
under Isambard Kingdom Brunei [q. v.], and 
afterwards under Charles Iluttnn Gregon*. 
In 1(^1, through James Meadows liendcl 
[q. v.], he received the appointment of assis- 
tant engineer on tbe Enet India railway, 
and was placed in chaise of the Chander- 
nagore district. His promotion was rapid. 
In August 18,~)3 he was placed in charge of 
the Beerbboom district as resident engineer, 
and in this position designed the two lar^e^ 
brick arch-bridges in India, those over the 
Adjai and More. In Uecember of the same 
vear he was made a district engineer. About 
1867 he was appointed deputy chief engineer 
under Tumbull, and in 1859 chief engineer 
of the North-West Provinces division, (.)b 
the death of Samuel Power he became, iu 
April 1868. chief engineer of the whole line 
and a memberof the t>oard of agency. Dur- 
ing his service in the Nortb-SVest Sibley 
completed tbe Allahabad Jumna bridge, then 
the largest railway bridge in tbe world, con- 
structed the Delhi Jumna bridge, and de- 
signed all the works at Delhi connected with 
the railway. 

In 1869 he was involved in a conjroversv 
with the Indian government, which hail 
issued a notification implying that the civil 
engineers received commissions from others 
than their employers. The accusation does 
not appear to have been justifiable, and 
Sibley, with tbe other engineers, addressed 
a strong remonstrance to the government. 

In January 1875 Sibley left India on fur- 
lough, and shortly after retired. In con- 
sideration of bis services he was maile a 
companion of the order of the Indian Em- 
pire. He resided in Etigland in a house 



Si borne 

which he built on the summit of Whitehill, 
iMir Caterbam in Surrey , devotingr his time 
1^ Uterary and scientific pursuits. He died 
•C beart disease on 25 Oct. 1891 , leaving a 
iOBtiderable legacy for the purpose of found- 
hgjmgineering scholarships and encouraging 
' students at the university of Cal- 
Like his father, Sibley was a mem- 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 
A brother, Septimus Sibley (1831-1893), 
(liyaician, was for many years resident sur- 
§wm of Middlesex College Hospital, and 
WM the first general practitioner elected to 
tke council of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
He published * A History and Description of 
tlie Cholera Epidemic in London in 1854,' 
Incides several papers in the ^ Medico-Chirur- 
gical Transactions ' (British MedicalJoumalf 
S5 March 1893). 

[Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of 
Oiril Engineers, 1891-2, pt. ii. ; Times, 28 Oct. 
1891.] E. I. C. 

SIBLY, EBEXEZER {d 1800), astro- 
loger, was the son of a mechanic and 
brother of Manoah Sibly [q. v.] He early 
devoted himself to medicine and more espe- 
cially to astrology. He studied surgery in 
LfOndon, and on 20 April 1792 graduated 
M.D. from King's College, Aberdeen. In 
1790 he was residing in Ipswich, and dis- 
tinguished himself at the general election 
by his exertions on behalf of Sir John Had ley 
I>'Oyly, the whig member. Sibly died in 
London about the beginning of 1800. 

He was the author of : 1 . * Uranoscopia, 
or the Pure Language of the Starp,* London, 
8vo. 2. * A New and Complete Illustration 
of the Celestial Science of Astrology,' Lon- 
don, 1787, 4to; 12th ed. 1817. This work 
contains a collection of nativities with short 
memoirs of, among others, several of his pre- 
decessors in the science of astrology. 3. * Key 
to Physic and the Occult Science' of Astro- 
log^-,' London, 4to. n. d. 4. * The Medical 
Mirror, or a Treatise on the Impregnation 
of the Human Female,' London, 1790, 8vo. 
He also edited Culpepper's * English Phy- 
sician and Complete Herbal,' London, 1806, 
4to. A manuscript of his, in the possession 
of Mr. Fraser Rae, contains the horoscopes 
of l*itt, Fox, and Sheridan (Athenemm, 
4 July 189(5). ^ 

[Lowndes 8 Bibliogmplier s Manunl, ed. Bohn ; 
King's College Officers aud Graduates, ed. An- 
d^r?.on, p. 138; Urit. Mus. Addit. MS. 19166 
f. 396.] K 1. C. 

SIBLY, MANOAH (17o7-1840), Swe- 
ien»>orgian, brother of Ebenezer Sibly [q. v.l, 
was bom at Bristol on "20 Aug. 1757. At a 
very early age he showed exceptional ability 

and power of application. On the death of 
his mother, when he was eleven, his father 
took him from school, and he thenceforth 
pursued his studies unaided. Before he was 
twenty he was able to teach Hebrew, Greek, 
Latin, and Sy riac, as well as shorthand, and 
published * A Critical Essay * on the Hebrew 
text of Jer. xxxiii. 16. On 7 May 1780 he 
married an orphan named Sarah, two years 
older than himself, and opened a bookshop. 
The business was chiefly managed by his 
wife, while Sibly himself set up a school, 
studied books on alchemy and astronomy, 
and for a time was employed as a shorthand 
reporter in the law courts. In 1787 he em- 
braced the tenets of the Swedenborgians, 
and soon became known among them as a 
preacher. He accepted the charge of a con- 
gregation in 1790, and, after several migra- 
tions, a permanent place of worship was 
built for him in Friars Street, near Ludgate 
Hill, in 1803. In 1797 he obtained a situa- 
tion in the Bank of England, which gave 
him increased leisure for his ministerial 
duties. In 1815 he became principal of the 
chancery office at the Bank, and remained in 
that position until within a few months of 
his death. He died on 16 Dec. 1840, and 
was buried in Bunhill Fields. Bv his wife 
Sarah, who died in 1829, he had eleven 
children, but only two daughters survived 

Sibly, who had a large share in preparing 
the liturgy of the New church, was the author 
of: 1. * Twelve Sermons,' London, 1790, 8vo. 

2. * Hymns and Spiritual Songs,' 1802, 12mo. 

3. * A Defence of the New Church,* Ix)ndon, 
1815, 12mo. 3. * A Supplement to Placidus 
de Titis,' I^jndon, 1 790, 4to. He translated : 
1. Placidns de Titis's * Astronomy and Ele- 
mentary Philosophy,' 1789, 8vo. 2. Placidus 
de Titis's * Collection of Thirty Remarkable 
Nativities,' 1789, 8vo. He also revised 
Whalley's translation of Ptolemy's^ Quadri- 
partitus,' London, 1786, 4to. 

[Intellectual Repository and New Jerusalem 
Magazine, 1841, pp. 40, 140, 238: Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. vii. 260 ; Biogr. Diet, of Living 
Authors, 1816, p. 316.] E. I. 0. 


(1797-1849), historian of the Waterloo cam- 
paign, was the son of Captain Benjamin 
Siborn of the 9th or Norfolk regiment of 
foot, who was wounded at the battle of 
Nivelle in the Peninsular war, and died while 
serving with his regiment at St. Vincent 
in the West Indies on 14 July 1810. Wil- 
liam Sibome was born on 15 Oct. 1797, 
was partly educated at the lloyal Military 
College, Sandhurst, and received a com- 
mission as ensign in the 9th foot on 9 Sept. 




1813. lie joined the second battalion at 
Canterbury, accompanied it to Chatham in 
February 1815, and to Sheemess in the 
summer. In Auj^ust he was one of those 
drafted to join the army of the Duke of 
Wellington. (.)n 17 Aug. they landed at 
Ostend, and marched to Paris, where they 
arrived on 5 Sept. and encamped near St. 
Denis. Siborne was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant in his regiment on 8 Nov. 1815, and 
about that date he accompanied it to Bou- 
logne as part of the Dritish army of occu- 
pation of Fnince. In February 1817 the 
regiment was reduced to one battalion, and 
Siborne found himself placed on half-pay. 
He was brought back to full pay as a lieu- 
tenant in the 47th or Lancashire regiment 
on 11 Nov. 1824. 

In March 1820 Siborne was appointed 
assihtant military secrt'tary to Lieutenant- 
general Sir George Murray (1772-1 846) [(j. v.], 
commanding the forces in Ireland, and held 
the same appointment with Murniy's succes- 
sors, Sir John Byng, Sir K. Hussny, and Sir 
E«l ward Blakeney — unt il 1843. He was pro- 
moted to be captain unattached on 81 Jan. 
1840, and on the same date was placed upon 
half-pay, although he continued to hold the 
staff appointment of military secretary in 

In 1822 Siborne published * Instructions 
for Civil and Military Surveyors in Topo- 
graphical l*lan-drawing, founded upon the 
system of John George Lehman,* London, 
4to: and in 1827 *A Practical Treatise on 
Topographical Surveying and Drawing, con- 
taining a simple and easy Mode of Surveying 
the Detail of any portion of Country, to which 
are added Instructions in Topographical 
Modelling,' London, 8vo. The book was 
dedicated to his chief, Sir (jeorge Murray. 

In \^iM) Siborne was commissioned bv the 
commander-in-chief to undertake the con- 
struction of a model of the iield of Waterloo. 
He accordingly lived for eight months at the 
farm of La Have Sainte on the field of battle, 
and made an accurate survey of the whole 
ground, upon which he based the construc- 
tion of the model. The executicm of this 
work occupied some years, as Siborne de- 
voted to it only such leisure time as his pro- 
fessional duties permitted. Siborne con- 
sulted surviving ollicers who had taken part 
in the campaign. In 1833 the progress of 
the work was interrupted by the refusal of 
the new ministry to allot funds for it. 
Sibonie was thus thrown upon his own 
resources. He c(m tinned the work until its 
completion in 1838, at a cost of nearly 
3,000/. The model was publicly exhibited 
in London and in other places, but the 

receipts barely covered the expenses of exhi- 
bition, and Siborne never recovered the cost 
of its construction. It is now the property 
of the Itoyal United Service Institution. 
Siborne also constructed a smaller model on 
a larger scale of a portion of the field of 
battle. A * Guide to Captain Sibome's New 
Waterloo Model * was published, London, 
n. d. 

Having amassed a verj' large amount of 
information from surviving otlicers on the 
subject, not only of the battle but of the 
whole campaign, Siborne in 1844 published 
his 'History of the War in France and 
Belgium in 1815, containing Minute Details 
of the Battles of Quatre-Bras, Ligny, Wavre, 
and Waterloo,' in two octavo volumes, with 
folio atlas, London. The work reached a 
fourth edition in 1894 (Arber's * War Li- 
brary '), and is still a text-book on the subject. 

On Nov. 1844 Siborne was appointed 
secretary and adjutant of the Koyal jlilitary 
Asvlum at Chelsea, and died there while 
holding the appointment on 9 Jan. 1849. 
lit* was buried at Brompton cemetery. 

Siborne married, in 1824, Helen, daughter 
of Colonel Aitken of Todhall, near Cupar, 
Fifeshire, by whom he had two sons and two 
daughters. The second son. Major-general 
Herbert Taylor Siborne, born 18 Oct. 1820, 
edited in 1891, with explanatory notes, 
* Waterloo Letters: a Selection from Original 
and hitherto Unpublished Letters bearing 
on the Operations of the l(5th, 17th, and 
18th June 1815, by Officers who served in 
the Campaign.' It is a selection from the 
letters which his father received concerning 
the battle and campaign of Waterloo. The 
whole of the letters are now the property of 
the British Museum. 

A miniature portrait of Siborne dressed 
in uniform, painted by Samuel Lover, 
B.H.A., and taken about 1833, is in the 
possession of his daughter Clara, Mrs. Earl. 

[War Office Records ; Royal Ilospital, Dublin, 
Records ; private sources; works quoted in text.] 

R. H. V. 

SIBSON, FRANCIS, M.D. (1814-1870). 
physician, third son of Francis and Jane 
Sibson, was bom 21 May 1814, in the parish 
of Cross Canon by, Cumberland. Thomas 
Sibson [q. v.] was his younger brother. His 
parents moved to Edinburgh in 1819, and he 
was baptised there on the same day with his 
four brothers in 1819. After school education 
he was in 1828 apprenticed to John Lizars 
[q. v.], surgeon, and on 21 Dec. 1831 he 
received his diploma from the Royal Colle^ 
of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He served in 
the wards formed for the treatment of cholera 




iiatients in 1832 and 18:Vi at Leith, New- 
uaven, and Edinburgh. lie then settled in 
general practice at Cockermouth, but soon 
left and continued his studies at Guy's Hos- 
pital, whore he beciimc a friend and pupil of 
Thomas llodjfkin [q. v.] In 1835 he was 
appointed resident surgeon and apothecary 
to the Nottingham General Hospital, and 
held the office for thirteen years. In 1840 
he camu to know of Charles Waterton, who 
iK^ciime a lifelong friend (cf. Waterton, 
Autobv)</raphy), In the same year he 
published his first medical work in the 

* Medical Gazette,* a paper on * A Flexible 
Stethoscope.' In 1844 he published a paper 
on the subject with which his name is now 
chiefly associattnl, ' On Changes induced in 
the Situation and Structure of the Internal 
i >rgan» under varying Circumstances of 
Health and Disease.' It attracted much at- 
tention and added to his increasing reputa- 
tion. In 184(5 he published in the * Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' a paper on the 

* Mechanism of Respiration, in 1847 obser- 
vations on the * Fever of Nottingham,' in 
1848 notes on ether, chloroform, and nar- 
cotic poisons, and afterwards a second paper 
H)n the Blowhole of the Porpoise.' lie 
joined the l^ovincial Medical and Surgi- 
cal .Association in 1843, continued to be an 
active member when it became the British 
Medical Association, and delivered before 
it at Newcastle- on -Tyne an address on 
the treatment of rheumatism and gout. He 
treated rheumatic fever by absolute rest in 
bed, without administering any drug, and 
applied a similar method to cfout with the 
addition of prescriptions of iociide of potas- 
sium and iron, and, in the acute stage, of 

Sibson left Nottingham in 1848, graduated 
M.B. and M.D. in the university of London 
in that year, obtaining honours at both exa- 
minations. In 1849 he became a member 
of the College of I'hysicians, and was elected 
a fellow in 1853. He was elected F.R.S. in 
1849. He took a house in Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square, began practice as a physi- 
cian, and there gavein the winterof 184y-50a 
course of demonstrations of visceral anatomy 
which was well attended. He was appointed 
physician to St. Mary's Hospital when that 
institution was opened in 1851, and when its 
medical school was formed he became one of 
:he lecturers on the principles and practice 
:)f medicine. In 18W he delivered the Gul- 
itonian lectures at the College of Physicians, 
ind afterwards the Croonian and Lumleian 
ectures. He was one of the curators of its 
nuseum, and in 1874 was elected a censor. 
[n 1805 he was elected a member of the 1 

senate of the university of London. He 
attended its meetings regularly, and opposed 
the admission of women to its degrees. Be- 
tween 1856 and 1869 he published in 
sections his folio * Medical Anatomy, or 
Illustrations of the relative Position and 
Movements of the Internal Organs,' illus- 
trated by coloured plates, a laborious and 
useful work of reference. He enjoyed a con- 
siderable practice as a physician until his 
sudden death at Geneva on 7 Sept. 1876, 
while on his holiday. He was buried in 
Acton churchyard. 

He married, in 1858, Sarah Mary, daughter 
of I^eter Aim6 Ouvry, but had no offspring. 
Sibson was a man of continuous industry, 
and his numerous papers contain elaborate 
series of observations. All those of per- 
manent importance, including several con- 
tributed to the * System of Medicine ' of Sir 
John Russell Reynolds [_q. v.], were reprinted 
in 1881 in four volumes, as the * Collected 
Works of Francis Sibson,* edited by Dr. Wil- 
liam Miller Ord. He was fond of works of 
art, especially admired Ilaxman, and had a 
fine collection of old Wedgwood ware. In 
his holidays he enjoyed mountain-climbing, 
and was a member of the Alpine Club. 

[Memoir by Dr. W. ^\. Ord, prefixed to Col- 
lected Works, 1881 ; per»ouiil knowledge.] 

N. M. 

SIBSON, THOMAS (1817-1844), artist, 
son of Francis and Jane Sibson, and younger 
brother of Francis Sibson, M.D. [q. v.], was 
born in the parish of Cross Canon by, Cum- 
berland, in March 1817, and commenced life 
in the counting-house of an uncle at Man- 
chester. But, resolving to devote himself to 
art, he came to London in 1838, and in that 
year published a pair of etchings, entitled 
* The Anatomy of Happiness ; ' these were 
followed by a series of plates of scenes in 
Charles Dickens's works, the dramatic power 
and humour of which were as remarkable as 
their artistic skill, and he subsequently de- 
signed many of the illustrations to Samuel 
Carter Hall's ' Book of Ballads,' the Abbots- 
ford edition of the Waverley novels, and 
other fine publications. Being eager to 
qualify himself for more serious work by 
studying in the best school of historical 
painting, Sibson went to Munich in Sep- 
tember 1842 and placed himself under Kaul- 
bach, who formea a very high opinion of his 
talents; but he was constitutionally con- 
sumptive, and was compelled by failing 
health to return home early in 1844. In the 
autumn he sailed for the Mediterranean, in- 
tending to winter in the south, but died at 
Malta on 28 Nov. 1844. An album containing 


1 88 


the whole of the sketches and studies made 
by Sibson before his visit to Munich, which 
passed at his death into thepossession of his 
friend, William Bell Scott [q. v.], was pur- 
chased at the sale of the latter*8 collections 
in 1890 by Mr W. J. Linton, and by him 
presented to the British Museum. 

[Art Union, 1845, p. 37 ; Autobiography of 
W. B. Scott, 1892.] F. M. O'D. 

WALDO (1783-18i35), colonel of militia and 
politician, second son of Colonel Humphry 
Waldo Sibthorp (1744-1 815), of an old family 
long connected with Lincoln, by Susannah, 
daughter of Richard Ellison of Thome in 
Yorkshire, and Sudbrooke Holme in Lincoln- 
shire, was born on 14 Feb. 1783. Dr. Hum- 
phry Sibthorp (1718-1797) was his grand- 
father [see under Sibthorp, John], and 
Richard Waldo Sibthorp [q. v.] was his 

Charles entered the army at an early age, 
was a captain, first in the Scots Greys, and 
then in the 4th dragoon guards, and serA^ed 
■with the latter regiment in the Peninsular 
war. On the death of his eldest brother, 
Coningsby, in 1822, he succeeded to the 
family estates, and was elected, in 1826, 
member of parliament for I^incoln, a borough 
wliich had been represented before him suc- 
cessively by his brother, his father, his great- 
uncle, and the latter's father. He was colonel 
of the South Lincoln militia, as his father and 
great-uncle had been before him, and was a 
deputy-lieutenant and a magistrate for the 
county. Except for a brief inter\'al in 1833 
and 1834, when Sir Edward Bulwer ousted 
him by a small majority. Colonel Sibthorp 
continued until his death to be re-elected for 
Lincoln, on personal rather than on political 
grounds, and often without opposition. 

In parliament he belonged to the ultra- 
tory and ultra-protestant party, and was the 
«»ml)odinn'nt of old-fashioned prejudice. 
Partly by his uncompromising opinions, 
iMirtly by his blunt expressions, and partly 
l)y iin ecVentricity that did less than justice 
t.(» luH real abilities, he made himself for 
nwuiy VfMirM rather a notorious than a re- 
uporiod llgiire in political life. His appear- 
nuro wiiH extraordinary and was frequently 
oarioiH uhmI, imd his dress attracted attention. 
\\\n dolivory waH rambling and uncouth 
(FlTKIvvTHIi'K, Corrritpofidetice ofO'ConneUj 
ii. |St)K nii« np««olu»H w«^ro frequently witty 
ntul iviUinhinl, \\m\fA\ \w hod received little 
nwUr udttottion, but they were too often 
JUi*l wA ttolittt n»e RWBLL, John, 

law question (e.g. Hansard, Ixxxiii. 310). 
He opposed in all their stages the Catholic 
Emancipation Bill and the Reform Bill, and 
was one of the last opponents of free trade. 
The * Chandos ' clause of the Reform Bill, 
which gave the vote to 50/. occupiers in 
coimties, really originated with him, and his 
annoyance was great when it was actually 
moved by Lord Chandos instead of by him- 
self. The provision (§ 36) in the act to make 
better provision for the residence of the clergy 
(1 and 2 Vict. c. 100), which enabled widows 
of deceased incumbents to retain possession 
of the parsonage-house for two months after 
the incumbent s death, also was strongly sup- 
ported by him. He opposed the ministerial 
proposal for a grant of 60,000/. per annum to 
Prince Albert on 27 Jan. 1840, largely from 
dislike of foreign influences, and it was his 
amendment for its reduction to 30,000/. 
which, with the support of Peel, was 
eventually carried. He denounced the ex- 
hibition of 1851 for the same reason, and was 
unwearied in his opposition to the expansion 
of the Roman catholic church in England. 
His feelings on this subject were intensified 
by the conversion of his brother Richard 
Waldo to the church of Rome in 1841. 

Sibthorp died at his house in Eaton Square, 
London, on 14 Dec. 1855, and was buried at 
Can wick, near Lincoln. He married, in 1812, 
Maria, daughter and coheiress of Ponsonby 
Tottenham of Clifton and of county Wex- 
ford, long M.P. for Fethard in the Irish par- 
liament, by whom he had four sons; the 
eldest, Gervaise Tottenham Waldo Sibthorp 
(1815-1861), was M. P. for Lincoln. 

[Gent. Mag. 1856, i. 84 : Martin's Life of the 
Prince Cousort, i. 69 ; Memoirs of an Ex- 
Mi nister. Lord Mftlmesbury, i. Ill, 258 ; Time*, 
17 Dec. 1855 ; McCarthy's History of Oar Own 
Times, ii. 109 ; Fraser s Mag. xxxvi. 462. 

J. A. H. 

1632), pamphleteer, was bom in England. 
He was made third justice of the King's 
bench in Ireland on 11 May 1607, and was 
knighted on 3 May 1618. He held office 
until his death late in 1G32. 

Sibthorp was author of: 1. * A Friendly 
Advertisement to the Pretended Catholickes 
of Ireland : Declaring for their satisfaction 
that both the King*s Supremacies, and the 
Faith whereof his Majestie is the Defender, 
are consonant to the doctrine delivered in 
the holy Scriptures and writings of the an- 
cient Fathers.' There was appended an 
epistle to like effect, written to the author 
by James Uasher (1580-1656) [q. v.], Dublin, 
^622, 4to. 2. ' A Reply to an Answer which 
Adversary made to two chapters 




contained in the first part of that book which 
is entitled a Friendly Advertisement to the 
Pretende<l Catholickes of Ireland,' Dublin, 
162."i, 4to. 3. * A Surreplication to the lie- 
joinder of a I'oplsh Adversary/ Dublin, 1627, 

[Ware's Writers of Ireland, ed. Harris, p. 
33(> ; LoMrndes's Bibh'ognipher's Manual, ed. 
Bohn, p. 2393 ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, p. 
679 ; Morrin 8 Cal. Patent Rolls, Ireland, 
Charles I, pp. 6, 200. 653 ; Metcalfe's Book of 
Knights, p. 213: Lascelles's Liber Munerum 
HibfPD'np, ii. 33 ; Cal. State Papers, Irish, 1606- 
162o. passim ; Cal. Carew MS8.] E. I. C. 

SIBTHORP, JOHN (1758-1796), bo- 
tanist, bom at Oxford on 28 Oct. 1758, was 
youngest son of Humphry Sibthorp (1713- 
i7J>7) by his second wife, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter and heiress of John Qibbes of Instow, 
Devonshire. Humphry Sibthorp, younger 
aon of John Sibthorp of Canwick Hall, Lin- 
colnshire, was fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, from 1734 to 1741 ; graduated M.B. 
in 1743 and M.D. in 1745; and in 1747 
succeeded John James Dillenius [q. v.] as 
Sherardian professor of botany at Oxford. 
During his thirty -six years' occupancy of the 
chair he is said to have delivered only one 
lecture, and that not a successful one ; but 
be was a correspondent of Linna3us, who 
dedicated to him the genus Sibthorpia 
(Bloxam, Magd, Coll. Reg. vi. 228; Dbuce, 
Flora of Oxfordshire y p. 385). 

John Sibthorp was educated at Magdalen 
College school and Lincoln grammar school, 
and in 1 773 matriculated from Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1777 and 
M.A. in 1780. Having been elected Radcliffe 
travelling fellow of University College, he 
went to the university of Edinburgh to study 
medicine. Oxford 
in 1783, he went to continue his studies at 
Montpellier, where he made the acquaintance 
of Broussonet, and was elected a member of 
the Academy of Sciences. His uncle dying 
at this time, his father, on succeeding to 
the Canwick property, resigned the bhe- 
rardian professorsnip to his son. Sibthorp 
accordingly returned to Enj^land in 1784, 
and unsuccessfully bid against his friend 
James Edward (afterwards Sir James Ed- 
ward) Smith [q. v.] for the collections of 
Linmeus, hoping to add them to those at 
Oxford. In the same year he gpraduated 
M.D. at Oxford ; but, leaving George Shaw 
[q. v.] to act as deputy-professor, he returned 
to the continent to make arrangements for 
& botanicalexpedition to Greece, with a view 
to determining the plants named by Diosco- 
He went first to Gottingen, where he re- 

ceived a doctor's degree, and then to Vienna, 
where he examined the celebrated illustrated 
codex of Dioscorides, made the acquaintance 
of the Jacquins, father and son, and secured 
the services of Ferdinand Bauer as artist. 
Leaving Vienna in March 1780, they pro- 
ceeded by Trieste, Venice, Bologna, Flo- 
rence, and Rome, to Naples, whence they 
sailed in May, touchintr at Messina anS 
Milos, to Crete. There they spent much of 
the summer ; and, after visiting several other 
islands, Athens and Smyrna, they went by 
land to Bursa, the Bithynian Olympus, and 
Constantinople. During the winter Sib- 
thorp studied modern Greek and the birds 
and fishes of the district. In March 1787 he 
sailed, with Captain Emery and John Haw- 
kins (afterwards his executor), for Cyprus, 
touching at Mitylene, Scio, Cos, Rhodes, and 
various points on the Asiatic coast on the 
way. He devoted five weeks to the study of 
the fauna and flora of Cyprus, carefully noting 
the stations, uses, and vernacular names of 
the species. The disturbed state of Greece, 
the immediate prospect of a Russian war, 
the rebellion of the pashas, and an outbreak 
of the plague at Larissa, rendered a land 
journey through Greece impossible ; but Sib- 
thorp revisited Athens in June 1787, crossed 
over to Negropont, ascended Delphi, visited 
Mount Athos in August, and, proceeding 
thence by Thessalonica and Corinth, left 
Patras in September, and reached England 
in December. 

In 1788 the year of the foundation of the 
Linnean Society, of which Sibthorp was an 
original member. Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. James 
Edward Smith, and Dryander spent a week 
at Oxford examining his collections. Bauer 
was at the time engaged in drawing the 
animals collected in Greece. 

Sibthorp next devoted himself to the 
preparation of a flora of Oxfordshire, and 
in 1794 published his 'Flora Oxoniensis' 
(Oxford, 8vo), which enumerates twelve 
hundred species from the county, all observed 
by himself (Druce, op. cit. p. 387). In 1793 
Sibthoro's chair and the botanical chair at 
Cambriage were both made regius professor- 

in March 1794 Sibthorp once more started 
for Greece, taking Francis Borone with him 
as assistant. He reached Constantinople suf- 
fering from a bilious fever, and was there 
joined by his friend Hawkins from Crete. 
They revisited Bithjmia, climbed Olympus, 
and at Fan&r made the acquaintance' of Dr. 
Dimitri Argyrami,an aged botanist who had 
known the Danish traveller Forskall. In 
September they went to the Troad, Imbros, 
Lemnos, and Mount Athos, where they were 



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ii'iit'd to subscribtrs, ibe price of each being 
:i 10 guineas. Thctt were in all OSrtplatH, 
which were engraved by James Sowcrbv. A 
rsisjiw of forty more copies at (HI. encfi vu 
published by Bo!in in lS4.'j-(i, under tky 
supervision of Ur. Dattbeny. 

(liem. Mag. 1805, ii.93S(i'pltJiph):ChaImOTt'i 
Ei-BT. Diot. ; English Cveloi)itdi* : Rees'iCwIiv 
t^ifJiji, articlB bv Sir J. E. Smitli; 
II!ii«nn;ii,os, Ti,'83S; Allibjnoa Diet, of En;, 
lisli Ul] G. S. B. 

I lr;iJ-1^7y), divin-r. him nt Caiiwick Hill. 
a::iT Lint-oln, on 4 (.>ct. 170J. wii# fifth and 
y.>un2nai son "f Colonel Humphry Wnlln 
:>ibLh)rp, M.P. for Lincoln, by his vrifi; 
:^uc:iDTuh, daughter of Kichnrd E]]iaon.<^«]., 
of rfudhnx^ke Holme, Lincolnshire. Colonel 
Charles de Laet Waldo Sibthorp \<i. \.~ vtu* 
Li) brother. After a iireliminsry Imiuinpin 
a private school at ICItham, Kent, ho -k-ss 
»^Dt to Westminster nchool, which ho entered 
oTi 55 March li^or (IUkkeii and STEXSisa, 
»'-'eir.i.ittfr ScAoul It^utfr.p. ilffl. He 
matri^mtated from I'nirersitv Col^e, Ox- 
fiM. oa le Dec. mi9, and in I^^IO he was 
•.■!-.'Ct*l to a demysliip at Marplnlen Colleire. 
A'tracted from vouth hvihe Roman catholic 
fil-h, he in l>ctober terin 1811 went to Wol- 
v-'rhampt'in, where he spent two dnvs with 
BUh..ip Jlilner. with the intention of enter- 
inj: the Koman ■communion, but he wa^ 
bro'Jzht back, under police surveillance and 
ehaneerv order, bv his elder hnither. lie 
^'culuat^sin.A. in'l>i|3, received .'Uiplican 
nrlers in 1S15, and was appointed cnrafe of 
Wa'tdin^on and Ilarmston, Lincolnshire. 
There he ' preached with all the enlhusia«m 
of a Whltefield.' He commenced M.A. in 
l-'lrt, and afterwards became curate to Jolm 
Scott, incumbent of St. Mary's Church, llnll. 
In l^lShe wad elected a fellow of M^rdalen 
College, Oxford, and in ISlBbecnme vicar of 
Tattivsall, Lincolnshire. He proceeded R.D. 

in. lii-J^, In 1 R^a he look the Hiarge of Perry 
proprietary chapel, St. Pancnw, London, and 
was subsequently evening lecturer at St. 
John's Chapel, Bedford Row [see Xoel, B ip- 
nsr Wkiothblet]. At this period he was 
tveo^ised as one of the leaders of the London 
' evangelicals.' 

In 1829 he gave up bis connection with 
London chapels and went to reside on his 
fellowship at Magdalen College. From 1S30 
to ISII he was incumbent of St. James's 
Ghureh, Byde, lala of Wight. On resigning 
' " ' D leceived into the Iwman 

at St. libTf'a College, Oa- 





Catholicism were at that pt^ritKl t-xTrvinrly 
rare, ami his defection excitt^l widesprvai 
B-itonishraent, amountin^r almost to ilismaT. 
Sihthorp ^tuditnl divinity at Oscott iV»r a 
few months, was ordained priest on -1 May 
1jS4l\ and was then attached to the cath»>dr»:l 
chiin-h of St. Chad, Birmin^rham, though h»? 
huhs»Miuenl ly settled down in a 'several 
hous*.* at Kdjjbaston. Dissatisfied with his 
p>sition, and mentally disquieted, h*.* Ivlt 
Edirhiistrm in June \t<iS, and purchast^ a 
cottasje nnar St. Helen's, Isle of Wi^rht. 
wh»*re he continued to exercise his priest- 
ho<»d nntil l)ctob»>r. Then he returned tn 
the communion of the established church. 
After three years of retirement at Winchester 
he made a fruitless request to Bishop Sum- 
ii«T that he miffht be reinstated as an An- 
glican clergyman. Settling at Lincoln in 
1H47, he establislied a liberally endowed St. 
Anne'.s bed«»-house, and in lt^57 he was re- 
admitted to discharge the functions of the 
Anglican ministry*. lie resigned the chap- 
luin-wardenshipof St. Anne's at the close of 
1M«J4, and on 25 Jan. 18(V) he resumed the 
privil»»ge of sayinjr mass in the private chapel 
of Cardinal \\'iseman (Morris, Dr. WtJte- 
tnan^jf lytst IUnes«, p. :i8). In December 
IfrOo ho was attached to the cathedral of 
St. Barnabas, Nottingham. He frequently 
preached there, but, * though now a Koman 
catholic priest, his feelings, his language, his 
peneral teaching, were, in some verv impor- 
tant resjHJcts, still evangelical' (towLER, 
Life rf Sihthorp, p. 177). He was placed on 
tlie list of retired priests in December 1874, 
died at Nottingham on 10 April 1870, and 
was buried in Lincoln cemetery, where, in 
accordance with his express desire, the Kng- 
lii»h 8er>'ice was read over his grave. 

Sibthoqt was unquestionably pious and 
sincere, but he coula never be satisfied that 
be was * in the right way ' as regards church 

In addition to several single sermons he 
publislu^d : 1. ' I'salms and Hymns, selected 
and adapted for public worship,' Ryde, 1831, 
bvo. 2. * Pulpit KecoUections ; being notes 
of I^ectures on the Book of Jonah,' Ix>ndon, 
1834 and 1835, 8yo. 3. « The Book of Gene- 
sis, with brief explanatoxy and practical ob- 
seirat ions,* London, 1 835, fol. 4. * The Family 
LituT^; being a course of Morning and 
Evening Prayers for a Family,' London, 
1836, 8vo. 5. ' Some Answer to the Inquiry, 
** Why are you become a Catholic ? " ' Lon- 
don (four editioiui\ 1842, 8vo. 6. 'A 
Further Aniwer to the Inquiry, '' Why have 
yon beeome a Gatholie P ^ ' London, 1842, 
8f0. Hut and the preceding work elicited 
fron W. JkAmot^ T. Dikes, A. P. 

Blik^n-T, K. H. H-r>.:.-: . 1'. M^A:.. .- i 
W. Pil^rr. 7. -T r — ^.v '•: -:.- \\\- 

Cm B « « ■ ■ « ^^ • « 

osiniur.iTn: :r. L-.rm-: :: ::-..■: :».-:->^. 1 

Saoramrn: •:•: :'-v 1. rl"^ ^ tttt r H.v 

Euciiirist, anclt-r-i^y ,?.".•.-: •Lv Miss." L-:r.- 

d.-»n t :wn e I::: ■r.> . 1 ^i-i. 4v ?. '^. * A:. « 'r:.^'.- 

of FarLiIy 1 *r\ ■: : ; r. : r. r-. '.'u' V. 11 j 1 » :::- >: . .* 

Liiurry.* P.y E. M..' 1^"\ -^v . \*, • 1».- '.y; Winj a frw >I TT::rr Mt .;>r.* ::::>. 

for the use of Ca:':: .liv- CLri-'isTis.' N.::l!:^- 

ham. l>7t*. fv>: L :: in. 1^71*. Sv?. 

'Richard W;4*do S ' ■":: ry : ;\ VI :jri: r.j, \v 
the Kev. J. F>"8rltr. M.A . \. r. "or.. :>^ ■, Sv >. 
withphoTojrrij';::? p- r:r-.:: : Loni r. ^r. \ I*::* '.-n 
Orthodox J urr.:i: (.!>;■: xv. 157. 5i-f>. 1^4:^ 
xvi. 5o : Men of :V.e ri::.e. 1S79: N :::ri:h:i".i 
(lUiirdiiin. 12 Arril l>7i*. v. o. ci '.. 0; T;illr*, 
19 Avril 1S:9: Tirr-e-. 2 Feb. ISL^i. p. 1". c*^:<, 
1 and 2 : <iUArd:an. 1S7^. i. o24. oo'3: Urowno's 
Anmtls of the Tr.icMnan Moremenr. p. t^l ; 
F>»ter*s Alumni Oion. ni xiem s«^r. iv. 1295; 
Bloxam's M.^d. Coll. Reirister, rii. 200-46.] 

T. C. 

BERT, D.l>. (7. irH>iM, rovalist divine, wa.s 
according to Bliss, the s«^n of John Syl>- 
thorpe. a Northamptonshire clei^-man. lie 
was admitte<l at Trinitv Colleire, Cambridire, 
on 6 Mav 1614, commenced B.A. lt»l.Vlt\ 
was electe<l a fellow in 1(3 1^. proceedtil 
M.A. in 1010, and was incorporated M.A. at 
O.xford on 1:3 Julv 1(519. On 11 Mav 1(>19, 
on the presentation of Robert Lambe, LL.1>., 
he was instituted to the vicarape of St. 
Sepulchre, Northampton, and on f^ April 16i?2 
he was instituttnl tothe vicarjicreof Brackley, 
Northamptonshire, which he ser\-ed by a 
curate, lie was a member of th»^ convocation 
of l(52i). lie became B.I), of Cambridge in 
10:^7, according to Foster; but it is certain 
that he was D.D. after 18 Mav ll^'lo and 
before 22 Feb. 1626-7. 

Sybthorpe made his reputation by an as- 
size sermon (Romans xiii. 5), preached at 
Northampton on the last-named date, and 
urging a cheerful response to the royal de- 
mand (made in the previous September) for 
a general loan. He had this excuse for 
touching the topic, that at Northampton on 
12 Jan. a royal commission had asked the 
opinion of local divines as to the lawfulness 
of the loan. The case for the loan itself 
was not ill put in the sermon ; but among 
obiter dicta, Sybthorpe affirmed (p. 13) that 
* if princes commana anything which sub- 
jects may not performe, because it is agninst 
the laws of God, or of nature, or impossible, 
yet subjects are bound to undcrgoe the 
punishment without either resistance or 
railing and reviling ; and so to yeeld a pas- 
sive obedience, where they cannot exhibit an 




nrti\M out*/ Tht* fit*rmon "wa* pre>entt*d to 
rliarlt's r, will) iit'Wt it bv William Miirrav 
(nt't»Twar«ls tirst earl of Dvsart '11. v. ) to 
An*libishi)]i Al)b«>t for licence. Abbot said 
thi** was* chaplain's work, and what King 
.lames * never put him to/ In a day or two 
lie returned it to Murray, with objections to 
fixe pa<s:iires. Charles himself furnished 
nn^wen* to thrive of the objections, admitted 
lh:it the fourth pa:?saire must be mended, and 
5:r»u*k out the fifth passage, refiecting 
a*r:i'.:>T an el»v:ive monarchy, namely, * the 
p-.-.'.vV* .^f lV*i.mi:i have jM>wer to depose 
:V.' -.r K-.:;o^ ' Abb-^: raise A ei^rht more ob- 
^v;..*r.<, t>* ^V.-oh Lwii furnished an^swers. 
*N •: .*.■•■"' r.;: :"..•::: sat^fict-^ry, Abb«)t re- 
t".««'.* ": * >>r.*<' :V.v v.r:v.>n. Ijiid then c-^n- 
x-,x-.-.^ • - <'-iv-.r^v M •r.T.T'^r.i* •]. v.~. bish »p of 
V -*..-. v.. :f txa". t^ :y.::ianil to revi»rw the 
*■■:•-■. -.-. hn.h ,*l;-v:; -ns, in onivrt with f"»ur 
.•■'.- 1'. V ..-yiv. !c,r..i report as to whether it 
r'. •:>• r.v ^.:'x It- ]^iibli>hHd. Montaigne's 
i> «t ":'. ■■.. \\ .^rrrti. vliiuved it to Svld»*n, who 
V- ■v.«fiVi'0. * \( thn: Kn>k werr true, there is 
r-^ n./,.yr, j^r.d t//uyn in Kngland,' and advised 
VV'Mr.^i ;o bt i; alone, for * if ever the tide^td.he would In? hang'd for jiublishing 
u ' A few m iuor correct ions wer* made, and 
0^.^ 'i.vni'Mi. litvnsed by Montaigne on 8 May, 
\x:^a published with the title * Ajiostolike 
OK^.biMiee.' »^e., h\'27j 4to, having dedica- 
n.^u4 t»> the king and to * the church and com- 
<»».*u-\veMle t>f Kngland.' It made a griNit 
snv. but was eclipsed in August by the still 
enouiivr Nernions of lloger Maiiwaring[(j. v.] 
SxbtlxM'pe was made chaplain-iri-(»rdiiiary to 
I be l»«nu. and, to prevent any danger to liim 
^^^»^u \\\H sermon, he was inchuled (^4 Jan. 
h» MM in the pardon granted to Man waring. 
\\\\ 'M Sept. HI29 he was instituted to the 
^vetiuv ol Hurt on Latimer, Nortiiampton- 
4ilnn\ Mud resigned St. Sepulchre's. 

hi \&J\) he supported a charge brought 

i»,«.tMn'»t John Williams, bisho]) of Lincoln, 

Ouounh bis registrar, of favouring puritans in 

l^mt'nter. Williams brought him Ijefore 

I bit Shir-chamber in 10*3.*}, but nothing came 

ill ii. Wlujn John Towers was promoted 

i\suu lh«« deanery to the bishopric <>f Peter- 

b.n.UHh, he wrote (30 Dec. 1033) to Sir 

.li.bu Lambe [q. v.], expressing a hope that 

Mviiiborpi' might succeed him as dean. With 

Lhiu1m« lii» was a commissary (from l()35)for 

' m^Uition of Peterborough diocese, and 

I^Hkus in putting down ]iuritan ])rac- 

^^^K 1037 lie came thus into conflict, 

^^^HtuccessfuUy, with Miles Durkitt, 

^^^HHtttishall, N^orthamptonshire [see 

iKiTT, William]. l-.ater in the 

he compelled Francis Hish worth, 

^en of All Saints, Northampton, 

to rail in the communion>tab1e and pliu% 
it altarwise. It is a curious comment on his 
* obedience' .sermon that, in lt>39, when 
George Plowright, constable of Burton, had 
been summoned for the kin^r's forces, Svb- 
thorpe made strenuous appeals for his exemp- 
tion, writing that he had * done good service 
against the English puritans,* and ou?bt not 
to be sent to perish among Scottish ones. 
As a county ma;ifistrate he was active in 
1040 against persons charged with spreading: 
seditious rumours. He joined the king at 
Oxford in 1643, escaping * in his clarks 
habit ; ' often preached l>efore the court, and 
in 1646 had a university licence to preach in 
any part of England. His livings of Brackley 
and Burton were sequestered in 1647. At 
the Restoration he recovered them ; and, 
dying in April 1602, was buried in the chancel 
at Burton Latimer on 25 April. lie married 
a sister of Sir John Lambe (cf. manuscript 
State Pajfertf Dom., Charles I, vol. «537 No. 
32. and vol. ti'-iS Xo. 144). Woofl assigns 
to him * A Counterplea to an Apostate's 
Pardon/ 1618, 4to (sermon, Jeremiah v. 7, 
not seen). His name is spelled in various 
ways, but he prints it Sybthorpe. 

Wood confuses him with Kobert Sibthorp 
(d, 1649 », a native of Essex, admitted D.D. 
from Lincoln College, Oxford, on 2 June 
1624, bishop of Kilfenora, 1638-42, and of 
Limerick, lt>42-9. Strafford spoke of him 
as an honest and able man. He died at 
Dublin in April 1649, and was buried at St. 
Werburgh's Church ; after his death the see 
remained vacant until the Kestoration 
(Cotton, Fa^ti Eccles. Ilib, i. 38o). 

[Sybthorpe's Sermon, 1627; Wood's Athen* 
Oxon. ed Bliss, iii. 550 sq. ; Wood's Fasti, el. 
Bliss, i. 391 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1892, iv. 
1 3o6 ; Lloyd's Memoires, 1 668, pp. 277 sq. ; Rush- 
worth's Historical Collections Abridge<l, 1703, 
pp. 272, 218 sq., 418 sq.; Walkers Sufferings 
of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 60; Cal. StAte Tapers, 
Dom. 1625-41 (constant references).] A. G. 

(rf. 1610), governor of Virginia, wa« possibly 
connected with the Suffolk family of Sickle- 
more, which was originally settled at Bram- 
ford, near Ipswich. In early life he changed 
his name to Hatcliffe. In 1605 a Captain 
Katcliffe, who may have been identical with 
John Sicklemore, served in the English auxi- 
liary force employed in the Netherlands under 

Sir ilorace Vere [a. v.], and was taken prisoner 
in October at the battle of Mulheim with Sir 
Henry Gary [q. v.] and Captain Pigott 

On 20 Dec. 1606 he sailed from London in 
command of the Discovery, a pinnace of 
20 tons, in company wit-h Captain Gluristopher 



Newport [q, t.] in the Susan Constant, 100 
tons, and Captain Gosnold in the God-Speed, 
40 tons, to found the colony of Virsinia. 
The^ sailed bjr the Canaries and the West 
Indies, the usual route; but after leavingthe 
Virgia Islands they sighted no land for three 
dajg, which so disheartened RatcliSe that be 
advised rotuming home again. Soon after 
ther came upon land near the Chesapeake, 
mod founded a settlement at Jamestown 
( f'irffiniaand Fiiyini'ola,m.10,ll). Acoun- 
cil was formed with Sicklemore as a member, 
■nd chose Sir Edward Marift'Wingfield[q.v.] 
KB goTemor on 23 Maj 1607. But the earlv 
fortunes of the colony were disastrous, and, 
this being imputed to the governor's short- 
comings, B party in the council, headed hy 
Sicklemore and (he famous John Smith 
1607, and cbose Sicklemore in his stead. 
The distresses of the new settlers were 
•carcely lessened by the change, and Sickle- 
more, who had hardly recovered from a 
eeT^re illness broueht on by the chan^ of 
climate, proposed that he should go to Eng- 
land to procure fresh supplies. The prmect, 
Lowever, was not carried out. To difficul- 
lies with the natives were added internal 
(disputes. Smith and Sicklemore had acted 
in concert against Winglield; hut when 
their common purpose was attained they 
immediately quarrelled with each other. 
JIat ters were going badly for Smith, who was 
iienlenced to bo hanged, when the arrival of 
Kewport (2 Jan. 1008), who had swled to 
£nglund for fresb supplies, smoothed matters 
over. Although Smith asserts that Sickle- 
more was deposed from the presidency, he 
seems to have held office for his full term 
until 10 Sept. 1608. The misfortunes of his 
year of rule, in spite of Smith's invectives, 
do not appear to nave been due to any mis- 
goremment on his part, but rather to the 
'Colonists' incapacity for organisation. In 
DocemlwrlBOS Sicklemore returned to Eng- 
land with Newport, being sent home, occoru- 
ing to Smith, ' lest the company should cut 
his throat.' This statement is improbable; 
for in IftOO he sailed again for Jamestown in 
the Diamond, in componv with Sir Thomas 
Uafes and Newport in the Sea Adventure, 
and with Captain Martin in the Falcon. The 
f^ea Adventure was driven out of her course 
lod wrecked oo the Bermudas, and Sickle- 
nore, on his arrival at Jamestown, being 
tenior officer on the remaining vessels, look 
ipon himself to arrest Smith, who had con- 
;entrBted all the authority of Kovernor and 
v>uncil in his own person, ana to send him 
borne to answer for hie conduct (Itatclitfe to 
Salisbury, Cat Slate Pajiert, Colonial Ser. 

1574-1660, p. 8). Eorly in 1810 Sicklemore 
was murdered, with twenty-five of bis men, 
in the most treacherous manner while trading 
with Powhatan, the Indian chief. It ispos- 
sible he was morried, as Dorothy, widow of 
John ItatcUfie, who had been dead two years, 
is slated to have married George Warburton 
in February 1612 (CUESIBB, Marnatfe Xi- 
cm»ti, p. 1410). 

ISmiths Worts, od. Aiber; Brown's Geseeis 
of tbe UnitL-d Sutes, p. 977 ; WingflHld's Dia- 
eourse of Virgiaia ; Spalmaa's Rulatiou of Vir- 
ginia.] E. I. C. 


id. I'trd), divine, becume rector of Wood- 
[>rd in Essex on 5 July |.'>30. He proceeded 
B.A, from Cardinal College(afterwardsCbrisc 
Church), Oiford, on 10 March