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Watson Whewell 






Watson Whewell 




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H. E. D. 

B. Thb Bbv. H. G. D. Blakistom. 

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F. Thb Bev. W. G. D. Fletcher. 

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F.B.S., D.C.L. 

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A. G. . . 

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. . J. A. HkHILTOM. 

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W. P. C. . . W. p. CouRTRET. I W. H.. . . . The Bet. WniUM Hour. 

L. C Lionel Cust. P.8JL , W. H. H. . The Rev. W. H. Hdttos, B.D. 

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A. W. W. . A. W, Wi»». LLJ>., LittJ). 
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WATSON. ANTHONY (rf. 1 60r,), Wahop 
cif Ubit^lifwivr, WD* the loti of Kilwanl Wnl- 
son of Thi>Tie Tliewlas in Durham. He 
mniriruUtfil at (.'tirUt'>ColWK«, Cntiibml|{i<, 
in (Vt.-il»r IfiBT, proceeded B.A. in 1571-1'. 
was 60oa nfYprwanls elt'cted n fellow, one) 
comtDftioed W.A. in TV75. He wn" inror- 
ponteU at OxTonl on t> Julj 1677, graduated 
n.D. at Csmbridfre iu HiS'2, imd wucrcatcd 
1>.D. in July I&9(J. 

In 16SI lie was inftituled to llie rectory 
of Cbcun in Sumy on iIiet pn'senliLtion i>f 
Joiin Luniky, fini. baron Liunlvy (uf lli<.> 
Bccund creation) [q, t.], and w«a lici^aed to 
pruneb by llii.- uupvoriiity iu tlie f»lluwinf[ 
ywir. (-)n IB April I .'1)0 Jin was jirviwiHted 
lo lb« dfftnvry uf Brisiol, and on 'Ja July 
iri92 wRM inntnlli-il rli»n<^rni>r of lli0 chiirr:n 
of Wells, receiving also the pn-bend of 
\Ver]raoTi?Sri-gnd» in tlml «eo. In th«»iine 

Star he became reclor of Stoirinjrtrin in 
luwx OB I'Ord Luuiley'fl pr<»enlal ion. 
Aboti 1 1 ij&fi lif W8* appi.ii n tod qmi-n'fl al moner 
in thf y\iic« of Kichurd FIvU'hL-r ('/. 1-106) 
fd. V.J. bisliop of London, who had incurred 
Elt>aDt.'tti'« diApIeasuFB bya second niArriage. 
On lo Aut;. ld9B bn wtu conwrrated 
biebopof C^climU-r, iasuccoeiiinnlDThoniaa 
BicltlrY ['J. T-l (Stutpb, 7y»- o/' Whilg^, 
\^'i, ti. 361). I[e had lic<>n8« to hold in 
commvndam, with hia bishopric, his other 
pnefi^rmentf*, but re»iffn<:-d his clianct-llorship 
of Wells ta \WQ, and hli dL-anery uf Bristol 
about tb« cloH- of 1597. \^'ataoQ alt«ndMt ' 
tlicd«Rthbedor KliaboibO'A. ii.4061. He, 
iraa continued in bin ottice of lord almoner | 
by Jane* I, and took part in the conferenc^e , 
witJith«pnritftiuiit Ilaiiqit on Court inJanu- 
W7 IflOS 4 iSrun-K. AnnaU, Xm*, iv. M2). 
On fi !>«.■. liioa Watson attended tho con- 
Bpimtor fleoTge Brooke ^q. ▼.] on the scaffold 


(HiRCH, O/urttmd Taiua<^Jame*I,\.Sff-&^ 

lludii^, uiiinarriwd, at Ch«Bai on 10 Se|iit. 

1600, andwoa liuried in thF>pamh church on 
19 By hi» wilt, dated (J Sept. 1003, 
he TnadR bf^ui'.iln to th« library and sub> 
sixBrt of Christ's C'olk'^, A k>lter from 
him to Sir Juliu* CKtar is preaerved in lli« 
Britiab Museum in Addit. m. ViWT, {. I0L 

Kiiopcr'B Athvnw Cantabr. it 110; Wood'i 
BDie Oxon. od. BlisR. ii. tl4I; L« N«V6'« 
l-'n*ti Kcflca. Ao^Hcanst; lAcadowaa HS. 9M, 
It. '0, US ', Manninghan's UiKFy (Camden Soc). 
ISG8, p. 46: ChnmhcrUin'a I^tiars (Garadvn 
."^c). ISftl, p, 13S; Kichaln'i IVigMMfa of 
Jiiium 1, Tul. i. panim; CaidwU's Hiat. of 
Conferanfoa, 1810, pp. 101, l«9, 217.] K I. C. 

WATSON. Sir BKOOK (1735-1807), 
lirst baronet, merchant iitid flflicial, born at 
J'lytnoulb ou 7 Feb. 17^, vraa only Mn of 
.lo'ni WnlHuniif Kinu7*t<>n-itpon-Hu]l,by hia 
Br'cond wife. Snroh .SchofitOu. He yvan loft 
an nqihnn in 17-11. Hh wvnt lo sea, and had 
hia log taktin of!' by a ithnrk at Havana when 
hewasfonrtef-n. Ileserred as a commisHary 
undor C^iloniO Bobcrt .Monckcon [q-r.] at tha 
•iegc of Uosua^Jour in 17.'>A, and under Wolfe 
at theaiegoof Louiaboiirf in 17&8. In 17B» 
be Etittk-d in Londuu as a mercbanl. Ua 
look a h-adiiifT port in 1 770 in tfae forrantion 
of the corps of light-honm volunteers which 
belp«'d to itnppi>»» lli« riotn in thti riilluwing 
year. In I "82 hfl was appointed>aty^ 
general to tbo artay in Canndu, under Sir (iuy 
CnrIvlon[i.v.],btiiretumi.>iil to Knglandwhe* 
pt-aeu was made in 1783. A pension of C00£. 
|>er annum was granted to hiawire. Hewaa 
elt-ctvd M .P. for I he cil v uf Ixindun on d April 
I7i^, and held the utat till I7U.'{. IU was 
also choson Ma director of tho Bank of Eng- 
land. In 178^^1 b« became aldnrman of the 
Cordwainera' ward and sheriff. Hewuchoir* 





m&D of the H(ni»t! nf Commons' cDtumitTci.! 
on the nvenoy bill in 17S8. 

On 2 Msrcn 179She wnn apiioinlifd com- 
misMry-graenl to Uie Diike of Yorlc'e* rtnny 
in I'lftndeni, aatl restsned his a«at in pnrlia- 
micot. lie eorT«d with the armT till it rty. 
tiiru«d to Bnglnnd in 17SI<'^. Mauy of tii^ 
Ifltterti arc to ho fount! in the war officii 
reron! ofiu-t-. Lord IjTerpooI apoke of Uini 
06 'one of the must Uououroblo men cror 
linown' ( WrUittfftan tir*i'nlekeii, Siippl»^ 
mimlarv, is. 428). 

Wat*on wiut 'jli'cted loni mayor of Loadoa 
in Novt-mUir ITflfi. His jutrofotlico wm a 
trouhlcd one. At a commoDhall ou IJ April 
171)7 a rcMltition Wit5 broug'ht fi>m-nrd ' to 
invcaUgatu tho rv«\ i>auK of ilie awful and 
alarming stott- of |iublic affairs.' Ul' rulwl 
thli) out uf ordvr. and clottud u hi'it^-d dia- 
ouMiori by hcriiig lliu mace taken u]>. At 
another ball, oa 11 May, he vae c^neun-d, 
■nd a nwolut.ion wa,< pawwd dniniincin;! tti^ 
nainiatry for hn7infr{>lungndthnci)unrry intn 
an UQaecesaary aad unjust wnj; but he had 
many wipporttr*. 

On ^1 Mucli 17i)8 he waa appoinUid 
rnmmiiiaarj" jtmn ml to tho forcea in Groat 
BtUaiu. and on Due. IHOn ho was luade 
a barouet, wilU remainder to Itis n«pli«'w». 
He difld at East SbL-tm, Surrey, on 2 Oct. 
1807, and was b(iri>;d at .Moriliiki;. tic mar< ' 
ried, in 1700, Helen, dauirhter of ('olin 
Ciunpbell. a ffvldamith uf KdiuburErh, but hu 
hud no cliildri^n, and wiit .tnc("i''«d«i] in ihe 
baronetcy by his gro&t-ii«|iii)>w, William Kay. 

I0«lt. Mac. 1807. H. 9«7; Wrlch's Modfi-ii 
Hi^Lof tliB CitT i>f London; IlRth.-i]n'ii Ttaronot* 
a([e.lW)5, V. .'H'O.] K. M. L. 

WATSON. CHAKLES \17I*-]7r.7), 
rcar-udjuLriLl, burn in 1714, was son of Dr. 
John Watsou, prtibt^ndarj- i>r W.-*tniin»tw 
{d. 1724). Wu6 tnnternid graudfcllKir wan 
was mother ( by hi^r firft mnrriagi') uf Admi- 
ral Sir Charles Wajj^r [t\. v.], and dauitliter 
of Willinm Cofxluon, prrsnmably Goodsonn 
[q. V.J, ihir pai'lianitfutary admiral. WaltiOu 
enteivd the navy in \7'2>^ as a >'0'tuiitver per 
ardor on bounl ihu lEomnL-y, with Captiiin 
Charlea nmwn fq. r.]; in ihf t-nd uf 1730 
be joinod tlm Biaefnrd with Captain Curtia 
Barnctt [i}. v.], and pa«0)>d bie i;.\aminati<>u 
on 31 .Inn. 17s*-S, .\* the ni^phew of tli« 
fimt lord of th(> adtaim.l(y, he pas^d rapidly 
tbrough the gubordinat o ininkb.and nn 1 4 Fub. 
1787-*t »M paBt«d to tho (i/irland, a 20-piin 
fri(;i(** attached to the fiee^t iti tlie Mfdit«r- 
ranuan under ihu cummund of Rear-admiral 
XichoUs lladdock [q. y.^ In 1741 liu vm 

moved by lladdnck into f.hi- Plymouth ol 
60 guns, and In Noremher 171:!,byMatbvws, ' 
into the Dra^im, which he c'>mmundi.-d, 
though wilKiiit particular dial inct ion, in the 
actionolf Toulon on II I'Vb. V, i'A~A {Srirra- 
tior nfth« ProcfcxUiii/* <\fKi» if<{jrft^'K FUrt 
in thf .ifftitterraittan .... byn.SeaOflice'r, 

f. 60), On hia return to England early in 
74D he waH app'iinU'd to ihv .\dvicu, and 
fmm her to tht- I'ritirt^sA Lnuisa, which he 
LMUjmiindcd in the following yLiir in ibv cri- 
ciigftni.'nt* off Capr FiniNl«m! on 3 May, and 
m tht! Bay nf Hijtcay on It Oct. ave /ixMS,^ 
Gkobsb, Louo; flxVu;. EiiWAa"ti, LoKn:,in^ 
both of which, under a capabh- commander, ■ 
he showed that he was <.]uiti> i^ady to (ij;ht| 
if only heunderflood what hewoa t'> do. laj 
January I"i7-S he wai* app>jinlvd lo thoJ 
l.ion, in which in March he waa aont out as 
commander-in-chief on the Nowfuundhuid 
and North .Xint'nuAn alation, with a brood 

yi>nnnnl as an efltJihliahe'l commixlorK. Ortl 
i Mny hv WHH nri'moti-d to be rtwr-admiral < 
of ihp blui*, and in I-VbriiarT 1754 was ap-j 

?iiiuted commander-in-chief in thi> Ka«t 

He Aoiled ahonly afterwarfa in the Kent, ' 
with three other ohips of ibr lino, and toTi 
the dm year wuh un lliu t'oromandel ooast,] 
kuupin^u vratoh I'U thel-wnch. In Xovpm»j 
bor 17^5 ho went round to Bombay, wht:ncaj 
in February 175*J, in company with thai 
ymlikI* of iiiK ilamhar marine under Com-| 
undo re (Slrt William .famei; '^q.v.j and a b"dy 
(if troop" commnntii'd hv Lieiitenanl-coloacl 
ttobpM. ClivR (afltTwardsLord (.'live) 'u. v.],J 
he went to GliBfiah, tlw ilrorffhold of thai 
jnratu .\nj^a. On iho K<>a fan'thtilAtterieaj 
were very formidable, but Walton, fnrring 
hia waT into the harbour, wai> able M la' 
them in the rear, whilt' the troopa cat i 
tho retreat of I he gnrriion, which sorrcndemdl 
ufler an obetinalc bul iuuflvctive re«istane»i 
for IwMity-frtor houw. The power of thai 
piratea waa hrokfn. ond their accumulalcd) 
sturva and treaiun* fi>Il into Ihe handa of' 
th.' cnploT*. ."Vfter rwfitling hia shipa at 
Bomlwiy, Watson tiailed for St. Oavid'it in 
the end of April, and at Madras had uewn* 
of the irii^*dy of the black hole of Calcutta. , 
In conaiiltation with Olivp, then (rovomiW 
of St. David'ft, it wa« det«rmiiied to puniatt 
Suraj udHowlah. lly the middle of October 
the prniarations -were completed, and Wat- 
Kon i>iuIihI frir ttui Hiif^li, carrying with him 
Olivfi and hia small armr. On 4 June he 
had been promoted lo the rank of vie 

AlteT mauy delays he arrived in the n% 
on 15 Dpc. ; on the 29rh the trails of Kudm 
Budgti w«rv breached, and during the nighti , 



the place wu stormed br the soldiers in a 
mob,' following the lead of two or three 
druoken sailors. At Calcutta the fort was 
taken by a combined detachment of seamen 
aad solaieTS. Hngli was taken a few days 
later, and some five hundred seamen were 
added to Clive's little army for the defence 
<rf Calcutta. On 9 Feb. 1757 the nawab 
concluded a treaty with the English, but 
ehortly afterwards he was won by French 
intrigues to support them in the war of 
which the news bad just arrived. Watson 
determined nevertheless to reduce Chander- 
nagore, which was done on 23 March after a 
destructive cannonade from the ahips and the 
shore batteries. The nawab, tr|i8tmg to the 
support of the French, became very insolent ; 
but his own servants conspired against him. 
His minister, Mir Jaflier, entered into nego- 
tiations with Cliva and Watson, and it was 
agreed that Sur^ ud Dowlab should be de- 
posed, and that Mir Jaffier should succeed 
aim. The intermediary now made a very 
exaggeratedclaim for reward, and wasquieti^ 
only by a clause in bis favour introduced into 
a fictitious agreement. Watson refused to be 
« party to the fraud, and, though bia name 
was written to it by Glive or by Olive's order, 
it doesnot appear that becver knew anything 
about it. In the military operations which 
followed, Watson reinforcea dive's email 
force by a party of fifty sailors, who acted 
as artillerymen, and had an important share 
in the brilliant victory of Plassey on 22 June. 
In this Watson was not personally con- 
cerned. His health, severely tried by the 
climate, broke down, and he ^iedon 16 Aug. 
1757. A monument to his memory was 
erected in Westminster Abbey, at the cost 
of the East India Company. He married, 
in 1741, Bebecca, eldest daughter of John 
Francis Duller of Morval, Cornwall, and bad 
issue two daughters and one son, Charles, 
bom in 1761, on whom in 1760 a baronetcy 
was conferred. 

His portrait, by Thomas Hudson, has been 
engraved by Edward Fisher. 

[Charoock's Biogr. N«v. iv. 407; Beatson's 
Naral and Mil. Memoirs ; Ives's Historical 
Narrative ; Passing Certificate and Commission 
and WarraDt Books in the Public Record Office ; 
English Cyclopajdia. 'Biography,' v. 551-2; 
Foster's Baronetage.] J, K. L. 

historian and translator, a native of Durham, 
was educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he proceeded B.A. in 1565-6 
(CoopEE, Athena; Cantctbr. i. 434). For some 
time he resided withThomasGawdy (recorder 
of Norwich, afterwards a knight and a judge 
of the queen's bench) at his residence, Qawuy 

Hall, in Harleeton, Norfolk. It was during 
this period that he appears to have composed 
his translation of Polybius, for the printing 
of which a license was granted by the Sta- 
tioners' Company to Thomas Ilackett in 
1665 ; but no copy of an impression bearins 
that date is known to exist. He commenced 
M.A. in 1669, and his name occurs in the 
list of the opponents of the new statutes of 
the university in 1572 (Laub, On'gmal Docu- 
merits, p. 359). It is supposed that be was in 
holy onlers, and that he died before 12 June 
1581, when the Stationers' Company licensed 
to Henry Carre ' a lamentation for the death 
of Mr. Chriatofer Watson, mynister,' A 
Christopher Watson was appointed rector of 
Bircham Xewton, Norfolk, in 1578, and also 
resigned the rectory of Beechamwell in the 
same county before 1683 (Blomefield, vii. 
294, X. 291). 

Watson published : 1. 'The Hystories of 
the most famous and worthy Cronographer 
Polvbius : Discoursing of tlie warres betwixt 
theliomanes and Cart haginien sea, a riche and 
goodly Worke, conteining halsome counsels 
and wonderfull devises against the incoro- 
brances of fickle Fortune. Englished by 
C. W. Whereunto is annexed an Abstracte, 
compendiously coarcted out of the life and 
worthy acts perpetrate by our puissant Prince 
King Henry the fift,' lx)ndon, 1668, 8vo, 
dedicated to Thomas Gawdy. 2. ' Cat^ 
chisme,' London, 1579, 8vo. A tract of four 
leaves, without title-page or pagination, en- 
titled ' Briefe Principles of Religion for the 
Exercise of Youth: done by C. "\\.' (London, 
1581, Svo), is aMignPil lo Watson in the Musi^um Catalogue. He also made 
some valuable collections on the historv of 
Durham, which are extant in Cottonian MS. 
Vitell. C. ix. ff. 61 sqq. 

[■.4.ddit.MS.5883,f.81 ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. 
(Herbert), pp.742, 895, 1338; Briiggemann's 
English Editions of Greek nnd Latin Authors, 
p. 241 ; Arbor's Registers of the Stationers' 
Company; Cat. of Cottonian MSS. p. 425; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 755.] T. C. 

WATSON, DAVID (1710-1756), trans- 
lator of Horace, is believed to have been 
born in Brechin, Forfarshire, in 1710. He 
is said to have studied at St. Leonard's Col- 
lege, St. Andrews, and the title-pages of 
his books describe him as A.M. of tnat col- 
lege; but the university records from 1790 
onwards do not contain his name either as 
student or graduate. Nor is there any offi- 
cial evidence of the popular statements that 
Watson was ' professor of philosophy ' in 
.St. Leonard's and lost his chair in 1747, 
when the colleges of St. Leonard's and 
St. Salvator'a were united. The professors 



oCboth eoll^gMia 1747 SNin to be accounted 
for. «nd not oos of thtrm in nnmeil WktiMn. 
WkkteTcrbfl ms, and liowAoevtr educated, 
tbeR is no doabt of his scholanbip, and a 
Bnetieally' contvinporaiy naniwcritit Dor«, 
iBNTibed on the copv of hU Horace in 
St. Aodi«m Lniremty library, aecms to 
Imto » little unccriniiity resnrding his re- 
|Nrt«d disir|Mtion. lie ended hU career in 
tl» oeif^bDurbood of London in 1703, and 
hilt nipliincbolj rrconi Hmm*]* urith tbr trndi- 
ticm thiit he woa buried at tbe expeneo of 
the mrish in wbJcb be d>pd. 

Vi ntj>iin pnbliahcd in 1741 , In Titq TolumeA 
octaro.the ' Works of Horact-transIatediDto 
EnAli>h Prow, with flu? oriffitiiil l.iitin/ Ac; 
Sndedii. 174": 3nl edit. ITTO. Tlus is a 
ttonnnumt of tcbolarship and literani' skill, 
nol ofilygivioff acriticul tvxt und&8EHM:iiillv 
Httnu-tive TenuoD, but Mmtxidvitig Dougliuft 
catalo^e of noarly five hundred editions of 
Horac*, and IVmtlnv'n vnrimi* n-iidingii. 
lU popularity was inatantanpoiii), although 
Bobolarv protested a^inst thi- pnitt'ntation uf 
Homc« m pros* (NicHO!.'^ Anf^r- 
d»te», I. I'll It.) lievised «ditions were pre- 
pared bTSamiidl Patrick, T7iX), ami William 
CrHclefi, 17ftJ. Watson itlso piiblisbud in 
]7n2 ' A Clear and L'ompendloiia HLst-ory of 
ibu Godd and Ooddoasus awl tbvirCi>nti>ini>0' 

[AndvrMD'a Scottish Nation; Irving'* Emi- 
ntoit ScoUmim ; information from Mr. J. Slait- 
laod AtiiIcr*on, u»ivc?r>ii]r libmrino, St. Aa- 
dreirai Alllbona'* iJini. of £ngli«h AnthorB: 
LownJuo'K Bibliugraplier'N Miioual, k.t. 'Ilont* 
tiu..-] T. B. 

WATSON, DA VID{l7I.'t?-17fH),nn.jop- 

fiincnd, royal enf^nccr»,waBbom aliout 1 / 1'). 
lis tlrsit commission caimol bw iraced. He 
wnnat Uibraltarin I7II1, andnin:J2Junt!l7;i3 
ibo ttrgimi'^t of .loLii IjH-.tlic, i.-nUi wtrl of 
liothu's. In tbu Bunitncr of 174:^ hf arcom- 
IMLnitsl liiii n-ffimrnl to Klnnil'T*, and pnjifled 
lhl^ wintpr at Ghent. On account of bia 
knou'ledgtf of fortiticalion and field «n|{ine<?r- 
ing, and of bis dkill a» a (Iraiightsman, \w 
Wfts ^Lvcn on tf'I Uec. tbc local warrant uf 
engineer in ordinary, and AttAcbed to the ord- 
nance train under Colonel Tliumaii Pattiaon.. 
He took part in the battli> of Dullinfjon on 
27 June 1743, and aMin wintered at (Ihent. 
On 10 Sfnrtii 1744 WaUton was placed on 
the natabliRbment of the enffin«^>rH m a 5ub- 
emffinwT, and that y«ac ho lay with th« 
ordnance train for the txiMC part inAcliru at 
Oatond. He was actively employed in the 
eampaifpiof 1 745, took part in the battle of 
FoatcDoj OD U Miy, and was promotud 

on the Slit of that month to be csptua in 
the 'ly^ frmi, th« EaH of Paamant'* n^ 
n)«ni. He did pwid service at the aiece of 
Ortend, which capitnlatod to tb» Frmicfa on 
l-*t Aiir. I'nditr tbo termfl of thi* capitu- 
lation a» rejoined the Duke of Cumberland's 
ormy, but ho was rt-cnllod lo Knglaud in thfr 
autumn to aid in crushing the Stumrt rebel- 
On 4 Not. Watson went north nad wi* 

? resent at the siege and recapture ontSDee. 
74S of Carlisle, and at tbt< luiltle uf Fal- 
kirk on 17 .Tun. 174(1. For biit Mtrvices ha 
wa* promoted on the next day to b© lieu- 
tenant -colontd in the army. lie took part 
in thf! btiHli^ of Oiilloden'on Itf April 1.46, 
and remained in the highlands to design 
and aiipt-rintend the creation of aomebarru^ 
at InviTiHiaid, belwi^en Loch Katrine and 
Loch Lomond. He designed in April 1747 
a new magazine for Kdiimurgh Csstle. His 
(ItwigiiA for all Ibwt! works are in the Uritikb 
Mufteuui. On 3 Jan. 174S Walaun wa« pro.* 
muli-d to be engiiieMMJXtraordinary on lb»^ 

In 1747 Wotson submitted n achenio 
for a Bum-T of N'orrb ilrirnin. Thf adran- 
ta;re of such an underCtLking was particu- 
birly eviiV'iit at thai tirm-, nm! Icil- king 
directed that it tthould be pnict-tided with at 
once. Wat»ou wan appointed auperinten- 
dent, with tbL'titlcofdepiitr-quarl^nnaster- 
gvueml in Scotland, antl a brigade of 
engineers was sent to act under bis orders. 
VXitb ibu vxocutiou of this survey, or ox- 
tended railitnry reconnaissance, was com- 
bined an enlargement of Marshal Wade's 
f don of connecting thr bigblttndA and lnw> 
ands, and apenin;r up the eoiiutry by nieana 
of good mads. Watson laid nnt tb-.- ilirec- 
tions of the difli-rent trucks, and mid apeciJit 
ettention to the main roads. lie formed a 
camp near Fort Augustus as a cr-ntrct for \ 
the troopt! employod u|>on tbc works, who 
were despatched thence to outlying stations. 
Ho coutinuud tbis work fur wvi-ral years, 
rnuipli-ting it with bridgi-s, cuWerts, and 
clianneU ; and the troops emplnyed. proud of 
their labour in no iinjiorlunt a public work, 
en^pted Riemorijtifl by the wayside bearing; 
records of lliu dates and names of tb« t«f^* 
inenf« employed. 

WaTBon WW assisted, both inthisworkani] 
the survey, hv two very able vonne men, his 
nephew I)nvid Dandos (l73.Vl8:iO) [q. v.] 
a-ud William Hoy < irM-17'J0> [q. v.] Boy 

i'oined him in 1^4(1, and Dunda« six years 
fttisr. Watson carried out in 1748, in addi- 
tion to his other work, improvements *o tha 
defenct'8 of tbo castlvK of llmt'inar and Cor- 
S^T^- Four plana by him of these castke 




<(lat«l 25 April 17^8) are amonii the w«r 
office recordj. On 31 I>ec. 17M Wolson 
WM protnoled tu bv vajjumT iu unliuarj. 
In 1761 be completed hi* Rnat >un-aj; &nd 
tlio ori^iiul pntnictiumt o( lbs north part of 
it, ia ei)thtyfoiir roIlN, nmlcif tlte imuthpart 

Hin ten rolU, with ritrious oopiea of ihc! sur- 
^ty to n rr<1iic««I scaU, are ia tba British 
■iiseuni. Ther>> uIm ue iirvwrved KTenil 
invrcator pn^vctions of North Rrilain, od 
irbioh map« mre indicated the pcmta in the 
bigbUnds which vran occupivil or propQt«d 
for occupttion by th« reguUr troops. The 
^^MviMOti and iMmpli^tian of the survey vtux 
^^MDotAUiDlaied ia ir.Vi, but. pmvi'nltnl by iUn 
^^^ntbroaVof war. The iuney was tveniiially 
reducwl by Watsoii mid Uoy, i-ngrnvi-d in u 

Rtgle ah«et, and publtflhcd ns * The King's 
An alartD of tnTMion cauM'd tito r«ca]1 of 
alson and his as«i«iant8 t4 Englaiul to 
ikc militaryrcconnaiaaanceaof tbofte pitrla 
•j< th« country most exposed to »ai:h attack. 
IVataoD made a recoiinaiuauct> of ihe coun- 
try between Guildford and Caiicrrbun' in 
DM«oab<*r 1766, and early in 17'>(I of the 
oounlry between Darcbe^«r ami Sulishiiry, 
Ktid alw birtwwii rilguceslt>r atid iVmbroke. 
In March 17>V). nn an nddn>fi9 of thi> HauM 
of Commnns, Wateun def>igiied worlis for 
thf d«f«noe of Milford I lav«n. ri>> vim ex- 
amined by a committcts of the Tlouac' of 
Commons, and bis projects weri.« recom- 
nipndml to be ptit in hand to allay public 
alarm. Nothing, howijver, was dorw, and 
some jcars later othc^r prouoaala by General 
William Hkinm-r iITOO-l'sOl 'q. v.; wcrv 

Srefern-d- AN'ulson's.'iiirvwof Milfoniriuvtm, 
ntt>d 3 Mun.'h 17-»^ h in tW; Uritiab Mu«!uta 
(King'H Ltbrarv). 

On 'JS May VV'ataon waa appatnted qiior- 
trrraaslf-r-j^ttn^riil iif lb*- force* for Scotland, 
with tits rank of colomd of foot ( tintl. Gai, 
12 176fi). On 14 May 1757, when the 
ttng-int^n irerr morf^ni«.-d, ho becamo a 
captain of roral engim'vni. 

On ^1 Atrhl 17-58 ^^'a(ll>^ waa given the 
colont-lcy 01 lbe<^3rdfoul,nud wovappointvd 

aaartermaBlcr^iieral in ihf c mjo'mt ffXp«- 
ilion, under the Duke of Alarlbnroii^h, 
l^nl Anwin, and Aiinnral Hont*, nhicb 
sailed from Spithend for rhe French coaats 
un 1 June. 1 1? landed with the troope in 
Cancal«' Ray, msar 8t. Malo, nuii«tM on the 
JiilluwinK day in th« destruction of shipping 
and ma^aiineS of naval Atofes in (ho suburbs, 
embarked again on the llth, und, ntlvr in- 
effective vtiLtA to Havre and Cherbourg, 
letumKd to I'ortsmuuth. 

Watson then join<^ thi; allied army on thi 
lUunu nnder Piince Ferdinand of Bruns- 

I wick. He was appointed quartunnaft*ir- 
grmeril on the Btan of !x>nl (iirorge Sack- 

. riUe, commanding ttu- Briiiidi coniingvnt, 
and in that capacity took part in all ibe 
operations of ttie cninpaigiia of 17&d and 
I7fiil ill which the I!nti»h wer^ engaged, 
l>u 31 Julv 17M) ht' nvonnotlred the country 
botirwii the allied camp and ftlinden Heath, 
extending bis reconnaiwanco bi'yond the 
village of Haleii. He distinguished hintelf 
at thr; buttle of Minden on I Aug., and on 
the followitig day wa« (hauki'd m gvotfil 
orders fi>r hia bravery and aUe Mrrice. He 
was promotod to be D»gor-geDeral on 26 June 
l7oit, but Iti* jircnnotion waa not gaaetled 
until 1-5 Sept. Mlnwing. 

(In 23 Ocl. 17<IU Watson was trnnefem'd 
frmn the rolont'lry of tht; fi^lnl foot to that 
ofthi-SKtbrwt. lie diodm London OD "Not. 
176), whik' holding the appoiutmcatof ijoar- 
tennaKter-genenil to the ft>re«s. Hi* por- 
Tmir, painted by .\. Soldi, is in the National 
Portrait GsIIitv, Edinburgh. 

IW&r Offic« Kf^cords; Royal Kngineen IU. 
corJa; Goot. Ung. 17tl: CoDaoUy Papers; 
]*ort«t's UiMory uf tha Corps of Koyal El- 
gitiprm; Meddon'R Caia[ogu« Qf nianaNtnpt maps 
mid {'bin* in tho BritiRb MuMum ; Cutt'a Anaitls 
of 1 hr* of I bp Hightmnth Ceaturv ; Wright's 
J.ifaofO.noml Wolfo.] It II. V. 

WATSON, fiEOROE (1723P-I773), 
divine, bt'ni iu 1723 or 1724, was the son of 
llnni|tbn'y Wal«on of Ijondcin, Hemntricii* 
luted from Tniveraitv College, Oiford, oii 
14 Miircb 17:M>-.JU, graduating 1743 
and >t..^. in 1740. Ik-wa-tek-clt-dtoftKhnlar- 
and was chosen on ;f7 Oet, 1717 to a fellow- 
ship ou tlif same foundation, which he r*— 
signed on 20 March 1764. While at fnl- 
versity College he was the tutor and ftiuiid 
of (ieorgi- ilomi- (i[.v.], aAirwards liinlmp 
of Norwich. Although little known to liin 
contempomrii?)), he pooseased Folid learning 
anda^oundjiidinnent. Such eminent divineft 
as Home and William Jonea of Naylnnd, 
who aIm knew him at Oxford, ^cok of his 
nttninnu'ntsin high (erui^i. 1 le held the theo 
logical opinions of John Ilntchinson {It(74- 
173") [(]. v.], to which he introduci-d JonuH 
and Home. Watson dim! on !(t .VpHI 1773. 
He was the author of: 1, 'ClmBt the Light 
of the World,' Oxford, I750,8vo. 2. * A Sea- 
•onable -Admonition t-o the Church of Eng- 
land,' 0.xford, 175'^, Svo. 3. ' Aaron's luter- 
cPMton and Komh's Itcbolliou Conaidert-d,' 
Oxford [1766]. Svo. J.'ThoUoclrini-oftho 
Ever BleMed Trinity,' London, 1760, 8vo. 
These four ftermons were reprinted by John 
.MatUiew Gutch [q. v.] in iB'tO, iiniler tUi; 
title • Wat«on Itedivirus' (Oxford^ Sto). 



Watson » 

[Jooes't Li(« of Uone. I'Vfi. pp- 3£-ao: 
Hona'e UiKoaraM, 1803, ii. 119, ir. 370 - .Ngtcs 
BildQnwira, 2iid ivr. titi. 399, ix. 14, x. 154, xl. 
SIT, xii. 334; KoatcKs AJnmtii Oxori. UlA- 
I6W; W«,tt> Biblitrthwai Britnnnica; aeul. 
Mag. 1778 p. 203. laSl ii. 694.] £. I. C. 

WATSON. i;i'.(>ROE (17B7-lfi37), poi- 
tnit-{Mint<>r itnri firtt pn-jiii]oiitortl]» i^Hoy&I) 
Scottisli Aciu!»?niv, con of John Wftt^Mii and 
FruicM Voiwhoi Ellioit, hin wifi^ was bom 
at bis father's esiate, OTermaiiis, Berwick- 
shire, in 1767. lit- rectfivotl bi* early ctlu- 
catitiii ill Hdiiiburcb, and got «ome iiittiuc- 
tiun ill paiiitiu^: from Ale:i(iD(li-r Na^Di^rtli 
[q. v.], but vfh^n ai|;bt{KD yv*r* of ago he 
wpnl lu Loniliin vrilli aii intrixluclion to 
Sir JoHhua Reynolds [q. v.], wha received «» n jtapil. Aftttr two y^r» api^nt in 
Sir Jfishua'ii .itndio, he r<-!tiinied to I-Min- 
burgb, aod e&tithli)-bed bimsi^ll' nc « pitriniit- 
paiater. In \^0f' bo was auociatM Trith 
otJior pajotera in fHarlinfr a Bocicty of arti»t«, 
which, boweter, only laMvd a f«w years. 
Ho exhibited frvijuctitly ai ibo HoytA Aca- 
demj and the Uritiab Lostitution, and (ibont 
1815 wsK invited to London lx> jmint » nutn- 
her of {inrt.milH, irnrludirig tiiofti' of llii- dean 
of CanteHjiiry and B«njiiinin'\Vii»l. Iiil^iK, 
in spitv of niurli opjiOKiliim fi'otii l.lie Rnval 
Inaritnlinn, iho Scotliidi Amduuiy was 
founded, and Watson, vrho bad bwa luvai- 
doni of 111.' pn-vioiiM wjcietj, wi« «]«cted 
t« Ihn flain« nlfiro in the new ntie, the uUi- 
mate siicce" of which i* larp-ly du.- t" hi« 
tact atirl ability. Hi^> continufil [in.-^id>-iit 
until bis dt^th, which took place in F^iii- 
burgb on 24 Auj?. 1^7, n few months bo- 
fore Uio aciidvuiy rw.'»jiviid its ro^a! cbacl'Ci. 

It i^ said that he * Inng mainlninpd an 
houourablv rivalry with Itavbuni ' >uu UiE- 
Bmir, K:r IIcTer], but, all]ioU|;ii his gnAp 
orebiinict ct was decided, his I'secutivu power 
coniitdrtrabI>>, Hnd hi» ivork bHlirngK lo ii fitiv 
oonveution, liiji portrait un- lacki^ tlit- qiiuli- 
ti«8 which eivu that of ih*^ olh^r eiidiirinfr 
Ultl;rt'«^ lie i« ri'pr<«>!ii.tfil in tlio Noiional 
Oallery of l!!cotIa>id by nortrnitH of two 
brother artiatA, Itonjamin nest and Alox- 
andi-r Skirving; and in tht.' .Souttiiihrurlrait 
Oalli^n' by a nuiubrr uf pottruita, including 
ono of liim^elf, and one of William SmulUc, 
which t">mr cimiid^fr hm brsi pii-cn of work. 
Shorily after hh ri^tiirn from hia firat. vitir 
to I^iridon \w married ICclKCca, dnutflitcr 
of William l^m»Ilif, printer and naturolint, 
who, with five children, siirvired liira. 

Their son, William SmdliL- Wnt8on(170t»- 
1674), yttts bam in KJiiiburfj-li iu IT'M, aud, 
like hid father and hi.'>coiHiii,^Jtr John Wat- 
aOD Oordoa [q. v.], becami' a purLraii-piuntvr. 
He was a pupil uf bia fiitb«r'«, atudied at 



the Trust^M' Academy, and from 181S, for 
Gveyears, in tbfl schools oftlmltoadoti llenml 
Academy, and worked for a year witb Sir 
David Wilkif [q. v.], while ttat artiat was 
patnliii); ' Thi! 1 «nny Wa-ddini,' ' and oUier 
pictureti. Returning to Gdinburgli, b« nftde 
a good connect ioa as n pottrBil-paint«r, be> 
came on« of th« foiindipra of xhv ScoItiA 
Academy, and fornearly fiAy yvanexbibit'ei] 
with unlailiu);n.fpiloTily. IIosoMyconfinad 
himaelf to portraiture ; "Thv OriiitboU<Ki«t* 
ia only one of a cla^ of portraits faDcinillj 
uoini-^l; and whiluhi^ uiciun.'awereMteeiDiea 
admii'tttli! likeut-^MBu hv hi* cont»m]nninm, 
lliay have little altmction m worha of nri. 

Ilcdiedin ICdinhurgh on ti Nov. 1c>i4. IIu 

was a devotctl i^udpnt of natural hisloi?, 

, particularly ornitbolu^^', and fonaed on ez- 

1 icnflive collection of npffimeii.t, which be bc- 

I <]ucatbed to Edinhmt;!! L'nivtrsily. 

I [Aiidrnoo'i Scuttish Niktion, 187^; ScoT^ 

niun, 7 Nuv. IS71: SetlRnvofi. DryaaV, and 

. Ora.TC!i' Uii^td. ; Cata of ^oltixh Natiimnl nnd 

Portmit Oalloritm ; HarTryV No(c» on tllfr 

Itovul S.-Jttieh Afflidemv,) J. L. C. 

WATSON. HKNUY 0737-17^61, 
colonel, chief enginwr Jlr-nsa], won of m 
proxii-rat Ilulbouuh, IjincolnBliine, was bom 
Iben^ iu 17^17. ICdiiL-ated at >I<>HrE. Itirka' 
achool at riosberlon, near 8paldine, he tsirl 
, diiplavT'd a genius ft>r niatbRmutici). Thiig 
I wnii broniqht In tlit-nniic«"f Thiitiiii»A\'bich- 
I cot of liarpi'swcH, one uf tho m<;mV-r# of 
imrliitim-tiL for I.inroInAbire, who had bim 
examined hy thi; mtiatcrof nrift|;Kliool,aDd, 
on recviviuj; n very favoiiruhle rvport, pro- 
cuTvi n iiominnfton for him to the Royal 
Military Academy at Wwdwicb, aa well as 
an etuign'it commi&sion on 'Si Dec 176^ 
jn itie '>i'iid fuot, Abvrcrumby'a regimeni 
Thence lie was iranaferred a» iieuU^nanl 
I'-l S"pL._ 1757 lo tUu SOlh foal, Stud 

As eiirly ii£ 1753 Walsan contribati-d 
tht'tiiaticiil piijitirii to ibe ' Lfldiea Diary,' 
cciiidnrtfld hy I'rofvgiior Tliiimoj Simpson 
[q. v.l, who WHS not only his inatriictor at 
the Ho^ni Military .\cademy. "Woolwich, but 
I bis intimatt- IVieuu. Siuipihiii vnlvrtainudM 
high an opinion of his abilities that nn bis 
death in l.UO Id- Urfl hta unllnishcd xoathe- 
matical trealides to \^ Al.ion, with a rv<i(ut>Kt 
that Lu would ruvi&o th<em for piihlicatinti, 
milking any atl<-ratioiut or additions wlucb 
be toight consider doaimble. Watson «ubs6- 
quently twbavvd gvncroualy to Simpeoa'a 
widow, bur be failed to eftrry out the pub- 
lication of bis pupers. and wua in oonw- 
queno*' aitiwliod l)yCh«rli?sIIutton[q. v.J in 
bis 'Life of SlnipMu,' ptufUud ta *SabKC * 
Kxeroiaea,' t79± ^M 




i, ' 



ell as I 
17Sfr a 
nl OD^^I 

I ma- ^n 




Watson received a commisBion as sub- 
engineer and lie utenant, after pasa i aa thro ugh 
Woolwich academy, on 17 March 1759. In 
1761 he went in the expedition to Belleisle 
under Commodore Keppel and General 
Hodgson. He arrived on 7 April, and took 
part in the siege and capture of the place, 
which capitulated on 7 June. On 93 Feb. of 
the following year he was transferred to the 
97th foot, James Forrester's regiment, and in 
March he went as sub-engineer with the ex- 
pedition under Admiral bir George I'ocock \ 
and the Earl of Albemarle to Havaaa,ftrriTed ' 
on 5 June, and took part in the siege with 
some distinction ; the place capitulated on 
14 Aug., and Watson was thanked by the 
commander of the forces, and afterwards by 
theking. On 4 Feb. 1763 he was promoted 
to a company in the lOlth foot, and the same 
year he was recommended by Lord Ciive to 
go to India. 

He went to Calcutta in 17&4, and on 1 May 
was appointed field-engineer with the rank 
of captun and commander of the troops in 
Bengal. He was sworn into the East India 
Company's service on 9 May. I^ord Clive 
returned to India in May 1765, and ap- 
pointed Watson chief engineer of Bengal, 
to which were added Behar and Orlssa. 
AVatson was employed upon the Fort Wil- 
liam defences, and constructed works at 
BudgeBudge and Melancholy Point. lie was 
impressed with the necessity of dock accom- 
modation at Calcutta, and obtained a prant 
of land upon which to build wet and dry 
docks, and lay out a marine yard for tittinj; 
out ships of war and mercliantmen. TLe 
designs were approved, and the works were 
carried on for some years with vigour; but 
the board of directors stopped tliem for 
want of funds before they were finished. 
Watson laid out a very larj^e amount of 
his own money on them, but was umible to 
obtain any compt-nsation, although he sent 
Mr. Creassey, the suiierintendent of the 
works, expressly to England to reiiresent 
the case. He then constructed two ships, 
the Nonsuch, thirty-six guns, and Surprise, 
thirty-two. They wtre built by George 
Louch with native shipwrights undi;r Iiis 
personal direction, and were iiitemted to prey 
upon the Spanish commerce off the Philip- 
pine Islands; but he shared the ill-favour 
into which his patron Clive had fallen : the 
application made by hia ngent for letters of 
marque was refused, and Watson employed 
the ships in commerce. 

Watson was promoted to bo lieutenant- 
colonel on 19 Jan. 1775, after his return to 
England. In 1776 he published a transla- 
tion of Enler's 'Compleat Theory of the Con- 

struction and Properties of Vessels ' (lion- 
don, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1790). He enriched it 
with many additions of his own, and the 
English edition has this superiority over the 
French — that it contains a supplement 
which Euler sent the translator in manu- 
script just aa he had finished the translation 
of the published French work. Watson 
appUed the principles laid down in the con- 
struction of the vessels he built in India, 
which proved the fastest vessels then built. 

In 1780 Wtttson was recalled to India, 
and took with him the mathematician Reu- 
ben Barrow, who had been assistant to Maa- 
kelyne at the royal observatory, and to 
whose care had been committed the cele* 
brated Schiehallion experiments and obser- 

Finding his health impaired bv climate 
and hard service, Watson resigned the ser- 
vice on 16 Jan. 1786, and emlHirked in the 
spring; but his health &iled, and he landed 
at Dover, only to die on 17 Sept. 1780. 
He was buried in a vault of St. Mary's 
Church, Dover, on the 22nd. An engraved 
portrait is mentioned by Evans (^Vat. i. 

Watfon married in India, and his wife 
accompanied him to England. Having 
omitted to alter a will made before mar- 
riage, hia considerable fortune went to a 
natural daufihter living under the care of 
Mrs. Richardson of Holbeach. She married 
Charles Schreiber. 

[India Offica Rocords; War Office Records; 
Royikl Engini.'erit' Records; European Magazine, 
1787, wliii'li contains a portrait of Wiitson; 
Gent. M:<K. 1786, 1810. and 1833; Notes and 
Queries, 1st pur. i, itiui iii.] I!. H. V. 

(1804-lSNl), botanist, was bom on 9 May 
1804 at Park Hill, Firbeck, Yorkshire. His 
father, Holland Watson, was nephew of John 
Watson (172o 17WI) [q. v.] His mother, 
Harriett,danghter of Richard Powell of Hea- 
ton-Xorria, iii'ar Stockport, was descended 
from the lust I.nrd Folliott of Hallyshannon. 
In 1810 the family removed to Congleton, 
Cheshire, and voung W'atson was sent first 
to Coofrleton grammar schwl, where he had 
the rt'putatiun of a dunce, and was then 
placed uniler the Ifev. J. Bell at Alderley. 
l>r. Stanley (afterwards bishop of Norwich) 
was then rector of Alderley, and first en- 
couraged a love of botany in the boy, while 
Watson often jirotected the frail, delicate 
Arthur Stanley (afterwards dean of "West- 
minster), who was one of his schoolfellows 
though eleven years his junior. A perma- 
nent injury to tho joint of one of his knees 




prevented WiitA^in from enU'riri)^ the annr, i 
iUid<Hil<Mtvi]is9chw>lm li^21 be wataniclrd 
to MefltFH. JaclcMu, si>1icUorA,of MAOchootor. 
Having, iucliimtioa for tbe law, : 
null ioQt^ritiaii; a Hioall estalu in Dcrbysliiri'i ' 
from u ininibL-ruf liiii inuthfr's fmiiily when 
1mi wBh nljiiul Iwetily-lH'o, Un dttciduil on t-i»- 
lering ihn iioivcrflity of Eclinbiir|rli. Uf hud 
nt tills tinii<, tlirou^jli ibi' acijuniiitniiCM uf « 
Dr. CAim^mn, become deeply inlen»t(Ml in 
phrenolo^*, und on going tu Kdinbiir^li in 
1828 ftUcn<l4>(l the medicnl cli'iaftAi but, 
tiicm^b be rcmaiDed fui four seKsioDS, bu 
look no deforce, Ik-sidM plirwncilojfy, bi; 
dflvotrd Litntidf to umitbolouiy. eutomolo^, 
uid Ijotanv. In 18itl-:2 bv wils i-Iitrtcd 
aeoi'irjiTL-f^iduiilurtliu Koybl Mi)dicnl!:^}ci^ty 
of KdiiiUirjitU, and in \Slil ^'aiued tbe pro- 
feMor'n j(ulj tnedal for a batsnica! vtm,y. 
TiiusubJL-cl of ibis cxay, llie gooi^phioal 
distribution of |iliints, wna uUimar«Ir to ln:- 
come Uie main Mtudy of liia lifi^, and iii 1834 . 
heaeiil>hi« co11"ctJoti itf iasi>ct» to JnMrpti 
fnow Sir Joscpb) llonkpr. In 183S. aAer i 
liTing for some mnntbi) with s brolher-in- 
Iflw, Captain Wakefield. ni;ArB«rnMJiplr,hK 
|)urcba«ed tboAcnall bi>uM> at Tbumett I)iltoa 
where ho paucd tlio ^«mllindl^r of bis life. | 
Uu bfcaiau a fulluw of thu Linitean t^ocietv . 
in IKU. 

Whilf! al Edinbur^li hu bad utiulu tlic ac- ' 
qtuintaticti of [Jeorgp t'otnb.' [q. v.l and 
Andrew C'^mlie 'i\. v.], aud of Dr. B|iuralieim, 
and in Its'tr ht> obtuned i'rom Geoi);e Combe 
iliccopyripblof ihe 'Phrenological Joumal,' 
«f which lie acted as editor from that time 
nDtil IKIU. ibougb hJa namci did not appt-ur 
Bu it until Jaatury 1899. H\» two phruiio- 
loiical works— 'Statistica of Phrenology: 
lK.'in|f a SktitoU of tlu< iV)f{n*»s aud i'rusi.>al 
Stair uf that Sc-ii-ncr in thf Hriliith Inliuidfi,' 
and ' An ExamiRation of Mr. SuotlV uUacIt 
upon Mr. Oi'orgL' Combe' — liad h'l.n piilj- 
U*h<>d in IS.'tfi ; buT, nUhriLigh always re- 
mainiog convinced of the truth of piirsno- 
lo^ical pnnciplLt, bu f".-!! compj-lied lowitb- 
iraw from any active pare m prouiulgatiiii; 
thenj oirin^; to the oncnce given lo inon.- 
zuuluus advucatva by hiA poiutlii^ out iuipor- 
f«Ctgou» in tbi^ir evidmce*, deGnilioui>, and 
nveetigationf (T. S. Vnivtui'^tStrii-tureaon 
HU Cbndturt of Mi: Itrirrit WnlM-m, Itydi-, 
1840, Bvo). In 1*42 he BCcomnonied'thfl 
Styx ail botviiBL in > oiirvt'y uC tW Az^iruK, 
paying; Iiia own espt-na<«, cnltooting for thn^e 
monlbs in four oflho lai]gvr islands, and in- 
Crodiicinf; MV«ral Azorcan s^y:iAS new to 
Eiigli^U ^rdens. This was bia only «xcur> 
Aion beyond lh«bouiid»of Biitain. In 1870 
be cofitribuU'd the botatiical part to Uod- 
anau'a ' Natural llialory of iLe Afchip«la^o.' 

In 1814 WatAon irae mainly inAtrumenial 
in drawing up the * London Catalogue of 
Itritieh I'iant»,' 'publithinl under the direc- 
tion of the Botanical Socieiy of lyondon,' 
and, Ibouffb the second nnd third oditions of 
that Bulboritative liMt bear aUo the natott of 
(I. v.. l>pnnMK, and the fourth and liflb that 
of J. T. S\ine (aftprwardii Boswullj, 'NValJMin 
n'uja mainly roxpunsiblc fgr vach ri-c<<n»ion 
down to the seventh, that of 1^74. Al- 
thoU{i;h be had ulrtady aci|»ired aln)o§t a 
KHn|K-/>n ri'pwtfltion as an authority on pfso- 
gmpliical boIan\', he was in 1816 an un- 
GticocMfiiL caudidnt'L' fur a cliair of biitany 
in the newly i>»tiibli3bt?d tjiwenVColItigisiu 
Ireland. The hrst volume of his niaffoinzi 
opLiif, 'CybrK; JtrilunniL'u.'appunn-d in 1847, 
tlw tiuccecdtn)! volnuiea heiui* iaaut^d in 1S4U, 
ISliit, and 1860, and a supplement in 181)0. 
A * Compundiuui of (be Cybete Urituuuica' * 
was published in Ir^il), and a uupplement 
dated 1^72 was printed at Thames DittOQ. 
It. wax his own notiim (i> app'ly tbr lerm 
' Cybele' to a treatise on plant distribution 
as a imralM to rht- l«rm ' Flora,' \ong med 
for aescriptiTe works; and in this work hfi 
groups ilritisb plants according to tb«ir 
stationa or ' habitali,' t^cir horiaonul di«* 
tribution in 18 provinces— baied upon river 
drainage and dividfd into 38 sub-prorinces, 
and 112 vici'-couni les — their vertical nuig« 
ac(.*ording to altitudr iind t«mp<^>raturo, 
reckoning 1" F. to every SIXi feet of altitude, 
(heir historical origin us ' natives, colonists, 
deniecDS, or alirna,' and tWir tyriu of distri- 
bution, as Oritish, linglish, Atlantic, Gei^ 
manic, S>cotch, or Highland, In this last 
MTii'»erconcluttionean.-#ull nearly identical 
was reached almost sirauiianeotisly on more 
ueolugical reasotiiug by PrDfcBsor Edward 
I Forbea [ij. v.] Cautiuiii and unspeculative 
to an extnjmo degne, Wataou early formed 
, very dytinilv otiinioni- lu" to tlmwant of fixity 
in fipeciea ; anil an article ' On tin' Th«-ory nf 
ftogteaeive IK'velopement ' contributed by 
him to tho ' HiytoWirt 'in 1R4^» wa.* re- 
printed in the concluding volume of the 
' C'ybalv.'witiin fuller statement of his views 
in ihti light of Ihu 'Urig-Iu of !;|ioeie«.' Dar- 
win in that work acknowletlgej ■ deep obli- 
gation 'tn Wat(-on 'forossistanre of all kinds,' 
and ia Ial«r '^ditionH dt-votnl connidKrabla 
apaea to bia crLticisms. I'he series of Wat- 
son's guographival wnrkv was coinplttttfd by 
'Topographical Motony' (IK7.'M), which, 
like nioiil of his oilier works, was originally 
only printed for privattf distribution. Yjki\v 
in (lis car«<>r he announced (Nkvillc Wood. 
Naturaliit, 1839, iv. 'im) that h« pubbf.hed 
' all hie works with a eenainlv of jieciiaiiiry 
loM, and that he would decline to receive 



mneiit fur any trticleseiit tn a periodicat.' 
m»59 A kwm ot>nlrovpr*i»U»r., he "ft*ii 
wrote Diorepiingently than Un iniitiKli-d icf. 
JoMmai of Sotatt^, ISilsl, p. 8U). Keen anil 
actircBAnpoUticisn, andnii iineonpromisiug 
deinocral, lio pubU«ii<.><I in I^U^, tin* year of 
ruTolutiou, A pampblot entitliHl ' I'ublL' 
Opiniun. ur Safe U(.-vol(inou thruuf^h SulF- 
rppTi^M^titBt iou,' in which he rec.iminwnJi-il a 
natioaal aAsuciatiuu lu tiku pleliiscttee on 
anv iiiihlic ou«stion. 
I \\ aldOB died untnarriet] at 'i*hiim<>« Ditton 

\ fin37 July 1881. Alitliutiraphic pjrirait of 
^Hliimia llfSdby .l.iinfram>i- lUfrhi-, ii>?ci>ni- 
^^BKnitfs a memoir oC lilm iii Nuvilk- WDod'a 
^^V^'atursltst ' for that yiMir, and a phntogrnph 
^^b( ititi) ill lulur life, thu moniuirhy Mr. Jolin 
^^fOilbtrt llaker, in tin* 'Juitniitl of llntaiiy' 
for I8HI. IIUBrilish hurbariiim, which Ii<i 
at <>Ba timt- lirmlv ititciidi^d to dtiiiilntv, i« 
preserred RepAratefynt Ki'w, and hia ^(>neral 
ooUwtion at Owt-nn Colk'fti-, Msiichv^ivr. 

B«3ide«b(Mifca already mt'iitionMland forty* 
nine paperB OB critical species of planls, 
byhritijam, aod f(eo;;raptiicul distribution 
en»lited lo hiui in the Knval S^tviol y'a ' Cuts- I 
logne' (vi.SW), viii. V2&2\, Watsoua chief I 
workiaro: 1. 'OutliniMnf thcCiouc^niphlcal 
ilributtoii rif Kritiiih I'UnlV t'Uinuurgli, | 
3, 6ya, of which h*- Mnsidsred ' ICptturltH 
ihd Dislributiatiof BritiKhPUtitfi. ciliieRy 
couui-i'tiiin with Liitititdf, i''I*^vatiorl, and 
liuat?/ Lon'Utn, ll%15, l'2iaa, aa n second 
itirHi, and ' The (!^0|{rapliical Dii^lrihiilion i 
British Hlanta/nfwhii^li only pan i. (l/>n- 1 
don, 18il8, ^vo), inciuding ICantiriculac^iv, 
Nymphseacoir, and Papavcracerc, wiw cror , 
piitilmhed, a.* a thir<l. ti. ' 'Vbv- nvw Itolanut'i 
^^Aiuidf to ihc Localitii's of the Uamr Plimt* 
^HM Briiain.' l^ndun. 183->-7. '^ toL». 8vo; 
^^^iMted tn Sir W. J. llooki^r. :t. 'Topo- , 

^^ISficnniK. . . uf llrili»h I'tants tmcnl Ihroiifjh 
' the 1 12 Caumiefi and Vicfi-Oouiitiefl/Tham*;! 
j nillon. 1873-i, 2 vols. 8vo. of which only a 
hiindn!dor>pi<'-*'wer0 printed: Mcotid vdilinn, , 
corn'ctedand enlaTf(vi),»dit«d bv J. ti. Dakcc , 
ftnd W. W. Xcwbould, London, 1^3. | 

[Noii-illo Wo™]*§ Namnilift, 183U. ir. 2ei;; 
and rDROioir l>y J. C). Bakar, nprinti'd from Lho ; 
Jiitimal of l!ut«ny in thaswond odilioo of Wat- 
son'* TvpoKraphienI Bolaay, 1883. J O. ,S. B. 

^_^ WATSON, .TAStES (d. ]7l»ii), Scottisli 
^^■nntor, and ibi ptih)i«hi-r of the famoua 
^^HChoicu Collection of Comic niitl Hi^rimin 
^^■Botbith Vouaif' was the eon of a merchant 
^^Hi AbBfdeen wbu bad adranctsl mimny to 
two Dutch printers to e«t up a printing 
vatabluiiment in l-Minburfrli. Failing lo 
aake their bueiaeBS remunerative, they made 

o(-er tb(>ir printing bonne to th« e1d4>r Wat- 
i«nn, who, havitij; cmvwl repajinpnt of a »am 
of monfiy h'nl tn Charlt-A ll wh>^n in oxile, 
iihtaineil in^l*»a<! the Rift of beinR »"]v printor 
of almanac* tu Scotland, and wni! also maile 
printer to hi* niaji-dty's family and tivutvhntd, 
wilhasiLtary of luu^aycar. nedit-dininB?. 
Thtt eoQ B'.'t up as a priutvr in 1005 in 
Worriiton Clo.w, on tbo north nidi' of tbe 
llij^h Strvft, whpnci>, in 1007, he i^tnored to 

EircMii.'W!<i in rraii^'nC'low, iTpnofite I he Cross, 
ung anerwardii knnwn og the King's Print- 
ing-hnii>t«. In 1700 lie was impn»oned in 
thtt Tolbonth for prinEinjif a pamplilot on 
' Scolland'fi fJriovance rv^rurdin^ Uartun,' but 
was T^1fA»eil by iht- moti, who ou I June 
forced an cutrance into Iho prison hr hiirn- 
jn)f and bnttcrinff down tb« Uoont. In 17()0 
liM bugnn lu publish tlK> 'Edinburgh Cia- 
ifilte.' und ht? wa» also thi- printer of ihe 
' Edinhur;rh Conrant,'whi«h was first ii^nacii 
(iif I'Vh. I"!).'*) n» a tri-wodlily pnper. In 
1700 be opent^d a bookseller's abojinirxt door 
to the Ilvd Lion and oppoeit« lui; Lucken- 
bonths, which faced St. G ilea's Chtircli. 

On thi> expiry of the patent of king's 
printor rfinfi-rfed on Andrew Andi-rson, and 
thfu hflJ by biit widow, \Vsl.*ou t-ntf^ri'd into 
negutia'ioiis with Itobert Kairbuirit and John 
Bo^kutt [i|. v.] (({ui^lu'b jirinter for fCngland) 
to apply lor tlio patent in Fairbaini'» luime, 
each to have oue-third of tht? intent. Tbn 
apidlcntion wae euecvseful, the palpnl bt'ing 
olitainod in Ang^utt 1711. (Jn FntrbRirn 
becoming printer to the IVlender, in 1715. 
Mr*. .\ud<jrs'm, nlotijjc with BMki^tt, appliod 
lor a new gift, on the ground that tho lat« 

SBti?nt waa void ; hut thu court of twtioil 
ecidftil in Watson'^ favour, and on appeal 
to llie lords iia judgment wa« confirm'^. 
]ii 1713 Wat«oo i«jued a ' JIiAtory of I'nini- 
ing'— tnaiiilv tranflntud from th» French of 
J. de k Cullle, I'aris KWO—with a ' pub. 
lialivi's pri-facw lo the printota in ScoLlnnd,' 
c-'iul Hilling niriittiN partirulnr* ri'garding 
W&lBiin'd own bm-inea^ In Wnuly and ac- 
cnrncy of worl(niun>>hip Wataon <)ii!te sur- 
pa.taed bin Kdinburgh conli'Ri]iornri<i*, tho 
most important eiaroplc of his art being his 
folio bib!>', I7:*l^ But Ihe book by w-hicb 
be will be Iong<^frt and most worthily n'mom- 
buft'd JB liis 'Oboiiw djlliscLioti of Comic 
and Serious Sl:otci^h pLH<mE,' issued in thrM 
parts (170(1, 1709, I7II), and containing 
manv charficlerirtic examples of thcT oldrr 
' mal(«n>,' an widl as vaiious contemporary 
broiidjiides. It properly innugiiriili>« thr- nv 
vivdl of thp Scots vernacular poetry, whicb. 
through lUim^ay and Fvrguaon, wns to cnU 
mioate in Hums; end it was tha mui; 
source, with I{am»ay's'EFergT«en,'uf III 




acqumuiUiu-o with tUo oldvr S&ittuli pouts. 
Vrttlxoit dteJ on 2'2 July 1722. In tbt* 
olutuury notico of his widow, then Mrs. 
HKriril, n-lio Jinl un 20 July 1731, \l i* 
fltjitf^d that, hy Watson, her prorinu-t hiia- 
bwad, tho hod a very OMisidersble estate. 

[Pri>raTO 10 the Kcpriot of tho Choice Colla- 
tion. ]8flt) , UwH Mnnii>rial for ihc PiMo So- 
deliea, Pro^iiPB t(>WalBoit'« HinUiry of VrutUa^f: 
PicloKW uid Edmonda'* Si>Uri7 of l>rintlut in 
SMdMid.] T. V. II. 

WATSON, JAMES (1739P47ftO). eo- 
gmver. wu born in Ireland in, or tnoni pro- 
Mblr before, 17-10. ■.ud came v/hm yDuii)^ to 
London, whcrp he is »ti]>po«>rrJ ly have tcwn a 
|)upil i)f Jmjni*« Mtuunlrl! i|. v.) Hi- biTJirao 
on." of the lending raoExntint-cnjmiTerB of his 
time-, and produced tnntiy uict-Uunt pistes 
fnjin |iictiirr]i hy Itryniildit, ()ainHbomit{;h, 
Cotes, Catherine I^sttd. Vun Dyck, Metxu, 
Schnlkcn, KuWns.anrf (Hht»r», ll« i-ngmvfd 
nboiil iiftT porljaitA after Rf-ynolds, iltdod^ 
the fint^st 01 which are those of the UitchcM 
of Ciimhcrlnnil ; the DttchcMofMancIiwtflT, 
with her ioti; Counitw* y]»cnc<.!r and her 
daughter; Itikrhuni, loiintess of foventry: 
Anutf iV-lnviil, Ludv Stunh'<p)?, and NcQr 
(Vilrien. WntsiMi published ftomn of hm 
worl<a hinu>i>lf ut his hiiiiMj in LiitW (Juet>ti 
Anni* Slr»«el, Porllani} Chapid ; bul tim ui«- 
jority were done for Saver, Hoyddl, nnt) 
other prinlspllers. lie sxnihitoil onar''^i"(r' 
with thi> IncorpTirntMl .Hncioty of .\rlirt« 
between 17fl2 luid 177*i, and di'.'d io l-'iixroy 
Strw-I, London, on fO Mnv 1700. 

CinousL Watcos (1701 P -18U). dnotrfi- 
t«r of .Inme* WhIaoii. was bnni in l-nndon 
in 1760 fir l"(il, a-ad Pludi'Ml undtir her 
father. Khe wiirkiMl in thw ulipplti in^hiv! 
with much nkill and refinnmt^nt, and her 
pInU-H nn- numerous. In ITl^-l slie engravwl 
a porfrait nf IVinfi! Willinm of filoncpiNT. 
uftflf HnynohU, and in 178.5 a pair of Hmidl 
plitt»A of the I'ri nccMcs 8ophiu and Mury, 
after Ilopniu'r, which clw dtMliuilud U* the 
qiievn. (1(1(1 was then appointed enfpraTer to 
ht-r innjfffly. Of hvr olhur works, the bi-iit 
are iht- puMMitaofSir Juiohs Ilmritand tliw 
Hon. ^Iri!. Stanhope, butli aft^^^r IteTnold."; 
CHlliiTiii" tl, afliT lt»*«i-lin; no'l William 
Wonlli-t r, tiftfTi i. Smart ; S. Conprr's npnlnl 
[Kirtrnll <if Milton; 'Tbw iTarri.-ip' of -St. 
rntherine.' aft.^r fVimytfio, and tht* plai '-a io 
Hnyltrv's ' Life of lioniney.' For Uoydella 
Shulii-'pt-nre MiM Wntaon cnffrorett tho 
'Heath of Cnnlinid Ikaufort,* afit-r Ui;y- 
&o1t]», and n iiceno from the ' Tetnpe^l,' 
after Wliwilk'jy. She also vxi-cul*--d a sot, of 
aqunlintfl of (hn ' Pnt)rrrH» of Fmiiial') Virlim 
tad Frmalfi T>i6sipatinn,' from deaigiu hy 

Maria Cvaway. Sbn wu much piitn>Dist>d 
bv ihe Uonjau of Bute, aaTeml of whiii-- 
pEctrires she engniTod. She diinl at Piinlico 
on 10 Jiin<^ 1)^14. 

[ RiHtn^Hrii'B Dici.of AitiaCa ; Qrarw'a Diet, 
of AriiBfj. i;6tt-03; J. Chttlon«r Smilha Briti»ll 
M<axotii!U> IVtrCmicti; I<o blaiiE'a Monnol ilo 
1' .Amateur d'RalAuuMM; Qont. 3la({. 16U. i. 700.1 

F. M. O'D. 

WATSON, JAMES (l-66?-1838), 
SpL-ncmn ositAlor. born about 17S6, waa 
[Mohably a Scola^man, and may have been 
tht' pttrson of thnt nuioe Vi'ho in 17.S7 pub- 
liohi-d at Kdiitburgh u ' IJi».si:rtutin Inau^u- 
ralih M>?dic;a iIh Auifuorrhea.' He aftt'rwnrdn 
cam? to London, and wiu^ olTieiaUy dt-Mributl 
in IS17 AJ» SLirijimMi, lati- of ]llooai»biiry,' ^ 
wlicro he lived in TTyde Slreot with hh aon. 
who bore the Nunv natao and ie aiioilarly 
dencribed. Hit innv, however, havf beea 
only a idu^miiit and apoihocmrr, as bv is 
fillwi in liiu i>bitunr>* notioi'; ami in any 
COM ho coiihl have had little pnctioR, as he 
wnain very poor circnmstancws. " rir." Wat- 
mn and hie son James early {.-onnr^ct hI theni- 
wlvijJi with ihf ' k^cietim of Spencean I'hil- 
antbropists' founded in 1^14 by Thomas 
EvuuK, ■ lnc»'Uinkvr, Io carrv c>ii the de- 
i*inn* of Thomas Snence f q. v.*] Tboy hold 
thai privait^ owni-rblup of loail was uiichrit- 
liaii, atiil mlvwatwl ' parochial piirtnersbip.' 
Tlu'v moi. weekly at on.- or oilier of four 
I^jndoii tftTpme, t he chief of which was tlie 
Cock in flrafion Stn-^'t. .Soho. In »pite of 
the alaruiat r«p':)rts "f tti« stecret commitlvea 
of tho two liou8>-s of pai'liampnt id 1817, the 
Speauvuns wun.- ^ i-ry nunulo»i> 04 a body, and 
not oitlv m-ver ha4 proiineinl broiicbet;, bnt, 
V Eruna inM Francia I'lacu (1771 IfWJ 
[i|.v.],at Mi>liinn nmnlji-red more llinii fifty 
peruniR. The peace of 1B15 was followed' 
nyRTi-Hl dirtrpji" iind iIiM-ontonl. amnntr iht* 
Ulmnrin^p'ipuljition, iiml of thiiiHouie of tho 
Spencwino, includinn rhe Watsons (bthwi 
and aou ) and Arthur Tbiit lewno^l f >i. v.], cOO- J 
Miltiicd tbenueWcv i^xponenid. They wew] 
joined by a nan nainivl Castl«, a fiffuro or 
doll makiT.aiid a commiltcu w»a fonned co&- j 
xinting iif ihein«f 1v«H and I wo others, opera- ] 
liTCAtiAmedlV'fitonand Hooper. Thuy net 
indn-ysloitrl'Inre, ti>'«r IVtltrLane. Oaathr, 
ii flftpma highly piobjihie, airted tliroiishout 
as an aifenl pro'-'rotet"' for thi; p)vi'nimi*tit_ 
AccorJing Io his rtory. he jilnick iip an ac- 
qiiainlatKc with the others iit a ?["-ncriiiii 
meelinff in the autumn of l^ltt, and wenti 
about with Wat!<OD p^-I>imnc a revolution 
which was to follow uuI'Iil- meetiuj^ in 8pfl 
Fields. Thisllewoou was lo be Ihe bend, 
oud tlw otItiT Hvn, ^netaLt under bim, Wst> 
aon rba elder bein^ eeoond in command. i 





Attempta were mode to rouse the discon- 
tented trorkmen, aod espedally the 'navU 
g&tOTE'ia Paddington, and some eSbrta were 
mmde to seduce the soldiers. Watson himself 
prepared combustibles for blowing up the 
caTalry buracks in Portman Square. Two 
hundred and fifty pikes were made. The 
streets were to be barricaded and the Tower 
and the Bank seized. On 10 Nov. 1816 a 
meeting of distressed operatives was held in 
Spa Fields, Islington, at which all the con- 
spirators were present. Henry Hunt [q. v.] 
addressed them. A petition was prepared 
which he was to present to the prince regent, 
and a further meeting was to be called to re- 
ceive the answer to it. It was proposed that 
this should take place after the assembling of 
parliament in the following February ; but 
young Watson opposed this, and it was 
agreed that the second meeting should be 
held on 2 Deo. Placards were printed 
and posted in London summoning workmen 
to attend, and declaring that there were 
'four million in distress.' Hunt's petition 
was not received, and he himself contrived to 
be late for the meeting on 2 Dec. The elder 
Watson' opened the meeting on that day. 
He spoke from a waggon, and concluded, 
' Ever since the Norman conquest kings and 
lords have been deluding you . . . but this 
must last no longer.' Ilis son succeeded in 
a much more violent strain, with allusions 
to African slaves and Wat Tyler and a per- 
sonal attack upon the regent. Finally ex- 
claiming: 'If they will not give us what 
we want, shall we not take it ? ' he seizud | 
a tricolour and called on the people to 
follow him. The mob then went through 
Clerkenwell and Smitbiield to Snow Hill. . 
A gunsmith's shop in Skinner Street was ■ 
plundered, and young Watson wounded 
with a pistol a customer who was in it 
named Piatt. He was arref<tcd, but escaped , 
after having lain concealed for some months 
in a house in Bayham Street belonging to 
bia father's friend, Henry HoU, an actor. 

Meanwhile the mob was met at the lioyal 
Exchange by the lord mayor and a lew 
police, who succeeded in taking their flag . 
from them. Part of them then weut through 
the Minories, where they rifled another gun- 
smith's shop, towards the Tower. Thistle- 
wood and the elder AVatson called to the 
soldiers on guard to surrender. Soon after- 
wards, when a few soldiers showed tliem- i 
selves, thtf people were easily dispersed. The 
same evening Watson and Thistlewood were , 
arrested at Highgate on suspicion of being 
fisotpads. They were armed, and made »ome 
resistance. Next day they were committed 
to the Tower, with Preston and Hooper. A 

plan of the Tower and of the contemplated 
operations was found at Watson's new 
lodgings at Dean Street, Fetter Lane, as well 
88 a list of a ' committee of public safety/ 
which contained the names of Sir Francis 
Burdett, Lord Cochrane, Major Cartwright, 
Hunt, and other radicals. On 29 April 1817 
a true bill was found by the grand jury of 
Middlesex against the prisoners, who were 
charged with high treason. On 17 May they 
were arraigned and assigned counsel. The 
younger Watson was included in the indict- 
I ment, and a reward of 500/. was offered for 
I his apprehension. The trial began on 9 June 
before the court of king's bench, presided 
over by Lord EUenborougb. Watson was 
tried tirst. The proceedings against him 
lasted a whole week. For the crown the 
chief law officers. Sir Samuel Shepherd and 
Sir Robert Gilford (afterwards first Baron 
Gifford) [q. v.], appeared; (Sir) Charles 
Wetherellfq. v.] and Serjeant John Singleton 
Copley (afterwards Lord Lyndhurst) [q. v.] 
defended Watson. Castle the informer was 
easily discredited. Orator Hunt, the chief 
witness for the defence, testified to the com- 
parative moderation of the elder Watson, 
who briefly disclaimed having hnd any in- 
tention whatever against 'the form of go- 
vernment established by king, lords, and 
commons.' In spite of an able reply bj' the 
solicitor-general, and the summing up of 
Ellenborough in favour of the prosecution, 
the jury brought in a verdict of 'not guilty.' 
The prosecution of the remaining prisoners 
I was then dropped. Legal authorities held 
that had Watson and his associiites been in- 
dicted merely for riot, thi^y must have been 
I convicted; but the guvi'mmout, it was 
thought, desired something on which they 
could ground the repressive measures which 
they soon afterwards passed. In Place'ft 
opinion, which nppeiirs to be borne out by 
other con.*ideratiiins, the mob were 'a cou- 
lemptible set of fools and miscreants, whom 
twenty constables could have dispersed.' 
Watson was 'a balf-crnzy creature,' and his 
son ' a wild, profligate f'tllow as crazy as his 
fatlier.' The elder was, he adds, a man of 
loose liabits and wretchedly poor, lie con- 
tinued his life as an agitator (' Memoirs of 
U, P. Ward,' quoted in Walpot.e's Mint, nf 
Eii'jland, ii. 37). He was not personally 
implicated in the Cato Street conspiracy, 
though his son was. Some time afterwards, 
however, he went to .\merica, where he died 
in poor circumstances at New York on 
12 Feb. 1838. 

Samuel Bamford [q- v.], who met him 
soon after the trial, describes Watson jis 
having somewhat of a polish in his gait and 




nittiuier, and K c«rt(un rmrn-^ubnity and 
tieatn«^ In liin dn>w. WttUon and his 
frititid I'rwtoi] were in lliimford's opinion 
two of tbo moHl inftuL-ntinl luadi-rs of the* 
IjOndiiii op«Tntiv« reforment of the da.\, 
tbniigh the fint hail u Imttrr he&rl limn 
livad. Tlw vfiiii!'''' Walwiii di«d two v4-«n 
heiciff: IjiH father. 

[Addit.MS, 37801) iptpura i>rFr(i.n(-is PldM-l ; 
Tritvl of James WnUnn, tihen in Shorth&nd ty 
"W, U. Uurnoj-. 2 voU. ]8I7 (r.'prinU«i in Smto 
TriiiJs, 181". pp. 1-0*4); Ftiirburn'« olliiun nf 
tLhi>Trl4 (with portnvii); Shurthiiud Notes by 
H OvnilcoiAi of tliv B»r, piiliLiiihiHl l>y W, Iiavis, 
Clnrkcnirtill (wttli (lortxtiu, IS] ') ; Pintlai'M 
Buljllr* of TrenKin, or 3tiiio TrinU iiiLftPitc. 1617 
(itmiKlcAromiiit in vcTai'J.OotjlMiti'sPdlirimlRiy- 
girtM, 18 0,-t. IHIT; Romilly'. VUry, 'i Dw. 
1810, 17 Juno 1817: CfimpbeirH Lircs uT tbv 
Ohftncellors, viii, IT-HO. aiH Liw? of the Chief 
JiuliMa, i>i. 2'iO-'J ; Wnlpi >I«-'b llitt. of Kitgliind 
from IRIA. new edit. vol. i. ch. t.; Ann. lleg. 
]838. A|jpfiid. to ChroD. pp. 20l>-l ; NutM an.l 
CJnariPB. Jtk atr. x\i. K9. 8th »f>r. i. 3fi. ii. 
iSi ('lie rtfcreac' tn Sjarigts Club Pnpan !> 
illusory); lUmford** I'amii^M in Ihn Life of t, 
Radti-,il, ihI. liiiiDckUy, ii. 3(t-7 ; UadilmrB 
JhlumDirti. ISfll, p. 6».] O. L« 0. N. 

WATSON, .TAMES (17^1-1874). r«di- 
cbI piiWiifhrr, vr«» bom nt Sfnlion, Yrtrkithiri>, 
on 21 Sept. I7yy. His father died wlieTi he 
wo« borely u year «ld. 11 is inolber, ' a 
8uiidiky ttcliool tvQclier,' tniif;bt blui tu ruad 
and writi-. AUmt 1811 «b(- relumed tft 
dumi'slip servicM in tht family of a cIiTfry- 
Tnnii vfhi} had pniil for .lamt-Va «c!iiH>liiig ftir 
n few quarters. 'Hie boy becaitK^ iiinler-gar- 
dener, iitBble-EiE>Ip, and boHst^-*e^vR^t, and 
acqiiire-d a Atron^ to*to for n^adinf; orcr tbi* 
kitchen Bre iu wint^'revt^niiigv. About 1817 
ib(! parMo's haiiHi>boId waft broken ap. arid 
Watswi (icft'inpunifd lii« ttioilii.T to L«edf>, 
where he btH-aun- a Mar^bitiiflemaii- Two 
jt>nr» Inter ho was ctmvnrtL'd lo frwlhouijht 
and mdical iiiRi bv public rv'idiii|{sfnim Cob- 
bett and Kirhanl Ofirlilfi '(\. w] For the 
inwt fi'w years he (oukannclivf part in di*- 
s(>ininarint;ftdvAn(>i'd liroratniy-and in)^ITin|3^ 
up tt aub«c!riplii>ii on b{.'half of Curldi-. The 
Jnlti>r being eontencei] in l-HiJl to thr«re 
years' impmouiciHJiil for blnfp1ii:iiiy, Wuiaon 
■went up to Londun in September 181*L' lo 
Mrvd M^ A voliintp«r a«§i8tanl in bi« Water 
Lane boukahop. In Jnniiiiry 182.1 Carltle'e 
wifo, hsTinif completed her term of iniprieon- 
ment, tonli « nt^w shop at '.">! Strand, 
whither Watson removed, Btill in rhe capa- 
city of BiiU<9niaD. The occwpatioii was a 
jwriloii* one, aiifl, diMpiie all th<-pr«catttions 
taken, Eslesman aftur salesman waa arrested. 
This fall- overtocrk ^^'ataoQ at tbe end of 

February 1 823. He wb« charged wit. 
' malicioufily ' s«Uinj[ a copy of Paltsw'i 
'Principkaof Naiani' to a police af^ot, and, 
having made an eloquent apeech in his own 
defence. n-a> tunt to Coldbnih Fields J>ri*0u 
for o vear. Tla-re be Kod Ilumo, OibboDf 
an^ iloabeim'a ' ICcclesiaAii^l liistory,* and 
waa strongly conlirm*Ml in hit nnti-chriettiut 
nnil republican opinioaa. During 182t> h» 
leameu the art of a eoranasitor, and wta^J 
amuloyvd in printing CnrliU-V ' i!t>]iiib1icaj>,'J^H 
onu for name time in conducting Iii^ bufit-^^^ 
ne«. In itie ial«rvaU of work be snOerwi 
privorion, (ind in I82il wm etniek down by 
cboleni. Upon his recovery he became a 
conTrrt to tlie co^peratirc scb«m» of Ilo> 
berC Owen, atid iu I^!2?J he waj* storekeeper 
of thf ' First Co-operalivu Trading AMOcia- 
tion'in London ni ICcd Lion Stgiinro. In 
1^1 b« H(*t up a« a printer and publUher, 
and next year waa arrested and nsrrowly 
cacapud iutprieonmunt for oivanifiing' a pro- 
ceMion and a fe&tt on tin- day tin- itotern- 
ment bad ordainet] ' a gtinvrul fnf t ' on 
account of tliB ravages of the cholfm. In 
Febniarr 18S3 he n-ae summoned at Row- 
Street for telling Oethering Ion's 'Poor 
Man*« Guardian,' and wo« sent^nccnl to si 
months' imprison ment at ClerkenweU. lii 
championship of the right to free expreesi 
of opinion had won bimadmirvrv.anuono 
lUe<M>,JulinnIItblwrt,Mp(vn hiiidt-uih inJanii- 
an-ltf^l.Iel't him -loU^'Uinea^, with which sum 
'W atnon prompt Iv4tnliirg>>d bin print ii)R plant. 
lie inad<i a hula start by printing the life 
and work)) of Tem Paine, and tbeae volumes 
were follnwi-d by MirotmiKra * Sv-it*m of 
Nature ' and Volney's ' Uuins.' L&ter he 
printed Byron's ' Cain ' and ' Vision of Judg- 
ment,' Hhelley'ii ' (Jueen Slob' and ' Masquo 
of Anarchy,* and Clark on the ' Miraclea of 
Cliri»1.' All theso wvn< printud, vorroclttd* 
folded, and Sf^wed by \\ atnon bimaelf, and 
issued at omt shilling or leMt p«r volume. 
Hi* Khdp n>-jir ItiinliiU Fii'lcU (whvuc-e ho 
removed first to th^ City ItnaH, and in 1S43 
lo 6 Piiul's Alley) was well known to all ths 
leading radical:) of the day. and liw had 
'pleasant and informing words for all w1l9 
sought his wares.' Ho married on tt Jun 
1^14, and two months later waa arrtcUid 
and imprisoned for six months for haTin|ip 
cirt^ulatiid Hetberingtnn's unslampcO papeTi 
tUn ironic^allv enlltU-d ' Conwrvativt?. II4 
had little (?«rlier come under the observ 
tion of tla> government as a Ivudvr in ttia 
areat meeting of trade unions (in April) ia 
favour of the action nf the Dorchester: 
labourer* [ace Waslxt, Titovis]. lie bore 
impriaonment with resignation ; * 1 love pri- 
vacy 'he wrote to his wife. This waa bia 




IasI ioiprisoument, though b« coittinti«d 
vriiliniti. uit«nniMioa to iMue books upon 
the froTifmment * Index.' 

in June MUti he yvn* on tlie Mmuittn! 
feppointcd io draw up ilw RRcessarr kills 
etnbodyinf; th« charti't il«>innn'l«. tfiil ha 
inu op]K>si><l to the iinwiih) violence t:xhibiteil 
by the agitators, an«l, on the olh«r hfttiil, to 
tne ondtures tniule to whi^ partisans whom 
be comutmtly d«DOutK«d for th^r wlRsh- 
naM. lie renuiDM constant in d«VDtioii to 
cbuCiat 'principliM ' — ' tbi> charier. t)ie 
whol« charier, and nothing but the chartor' 
— and lie was bitterly advL-nw to ' [icddlinff 
■way the peujd^V birthright for niiv meitA of 
coniUv pottage.' In IHJ8 he wna on" of 
the conveoen of the first public inwf tnt' to 
coflgraitilale the French niioii thf rfvnlutinn 
of tlint yf-ar. In the year previous he had 
(pven hi» adhewncv to the ' I'fflplcft' Tnt«m«- 
naiiunal l^tf^iie' Foundtnl by Mazuni, of 
whom be wtu au admiring (liend and ennv- 

A rrugnl, M-vrn-, aii'l M'lf-ilAiiyiiiu lirer, a 
thin, ha^arrl, ihonghcful man, with an in- 
tellwtitsl face and n gt^yf y^t ^■•nllt! mnn- 
ncr, WatRon was an nncoramon tT|w of ICng- 
liiih tradestaan. Jle lost con*i(tonib)y ovwr 
his publi-hin^, his obirct hcinjr prn'tirahle 
n'ading for uneducated people rather thau 
neraonu gain. At Ihe aamc timu he enrvA 
for the corre«tne*« and dewnt apponninre of 
hi« bouli*, evun the cheapest. "They were 
hia children, he had none other.* An un- 
elampeil and n^Moliiti'ly frve prvM beoimo 
lh« iirartical filqect of hi« later years. 

About 1^70 an.tii'ly about the hi-nllh of 
bi« wifr, IClnmor I!v«rl(!y, indiiceil a iH^rious 
declini' of his onii powers. He died at 
Burns CollfpB, Hamillnn Itosd, l.uwt^r Xorw 
ivood, on 29 Nov. 1H7-1, and wrj* biirit^d in 
Norwood cemetery, where a grey granite 
obcliA rr^ted by fncni1iiicomRUMBorato«his 
' bra%'e effort* lo aecurw the rights of free 
speech.' Among his comrades in the moit 
actint period of his life wen* Huiirv llvther^ 
iiigton [q.v.], Williatu iyiveli fii-v.^.Thomfts 
li\ aUey [q. tA Thomas HUiigs^ Uuiicombo 
[q. r.', and Mr. Thomas Cooper. 

A photographic portrait is prefixed to the 
appreciative ' Jfemoir ' by AV. J. Linton, 

f Jnmca Wataoii : a Hamolr, l)jr W. J. LiDton. 
pnvatclyprinled, IBSO: l.iaton'vMcimorifs, I9ft8, 
panim; A Itcport of tho Trial "f James Wutsun 
at the ri«rkenwell .SeMiuns IIooiw, 34 April 
IS33 ; WaIU-'» l.ifii gf l-'mneb PI«co, 188B. pp. 
•J72, 291. 365 ; Vi'booUr's Biogr. Dlci. of Fryc- 
tbinkcn, 1889. pp. 331)-1 : Stnntons lUfcriDn 
anil INfunnRtu ; Qmmmnj^'ii Himt. of Chiirtium ; 
HolyoiikVs Uh of R. Crtrlilu, 18*8. aiiJ Siity 
Ywui of as AgiUtlor'a Life. it. 101, 266.] T, ti. 

WATSON, JUIIN (lOiO ir>«i4), hUhop 
ofWinchester, was bom in lo:!0 at Iteng*-, 

worth. W'lLi reenter* bin.', and was educated i 
Oxford, where he gradiuited H.A. in Jui 
1&39, and was dooted fellow of All Soolaf 
in IMO. Me prociwdvfl M.A. on '25 Jana 
1<'>J4, nnd for a time practi.xc^d medicinr, 
ffraiiiinling M-O, at Oxford on y" July LJ7&. 
ilaTing tBKen holy ordt-r*. he hccnme known 
as a reformer under Kdward \ I, and oil 
20 Nov. Ui/>l the council proonrcd bis ftp- 

j pointmeiit to the aeeoud prvWnd in Wiu- 
cheettT Cathedra] {Jtofftl MSS. cxxir. f. 

I 1')^): hv wiLH admitti'd on 14 Dec. (Lu 

I Nkve, iii. iU>. Jle seitma li> havt> rutaine 
his prebend during Stary's rei^, and niitU 
to if in IIJM th« n^lorii-« of Keleliall, Ilert-' 
fordwhire, and Winchfifld, llnnip.thin- ; on 
7 Feb. 1557-H be was cuUati>d to the chaa- 
c^llnrfthip of St. Paul's Cathedral. His reli- 
gious views were obviously of an accommo- 
dating nature, and ho received further 
prefurment when Eliiaboth's depriraliuns 
crmted numeruiis vacancies. On ICt Nov, 
lu^iiJ liv wa» made archdeacon of Surrey, 
and as such aat in tlii? cunvocalion of Itiw; 
ho subscrihud the tircteles of religion passed 
in that aKSt-inbly and voted witli the majo- 
rity ajaitiai the six artictei^ designed to re- 
duTO tlie ritniil of I be church to iliti levtl of 
tlu' ppoiestant communions obrond (SmvrK, 
Attnah, I. i. 488, !W,, r>}-j). l'o«sib]y he 
WHS the John Wiitfon whn was prebendary 
of Lincoln from 1 "ifiO tft lfl74. In lotW bou 
became rt-elor of South Warn borough, Fiantl 
sliirV', and roon afterwards master of ^ht' 
ho!<pitnl of St. Cn>»s, \\'inchestvr. lie was 
appointed dean of Wincbesler in lf>7fl. In 
UjSO he was exct-'utor to ItoWrt Home 
( ir,Ui:-'-lG80) 'a. V.J, of Winchester, 
and succeeded mm u that see, being elected 

' on 20 June, confirmed on lit Sept,, end i-oa- 
secratftd on the 18th, According to Slrype, 
AVatson's reinissneas encouraged the irrowth 
of recusancy in his diocese. lie died on 
I'y Jan. lfi83-4. and was bum-d on 17 Feb. 
in his nathedml. By his will il^mtil. Mt 
9K, f. 49), dated :;3 Oct. LV^S nnd provo 
and other benefactions to scholars at Oxford 

' and thrixtDrat KvMi>ltaiu. He also left BUtDS 

I t'O his nuTnemud hrothera and ^iotcrii and 
their uliildrvn, and Sir Francis ^^'alsing1lun 
was 'chief overseer' of the will. By liaker, 
fleay, and others Walacrn is credited witli 
the autbor.'thip of 'Absalom,' Strajfedy 
written by lliomas Watson (1513-158J) 
[q. T.], bishop of Lincoln. 

Both bisboiM are confused by StTypo am) 
BuniPt with JoHX W*TS()s(rf, 1&30),mBEter 

I of Christ's College, Cambridge, who wa« 

fiMlliOiltli, n cittx^n 
df LMutoBtUid iHf iMirnii of Willtnin Tyn- 
'i[i^T.1 H*«<u nrlniiii-'d follow of I'eter- 
I'i^ Msy 11)01, mtymI iui prudor in 

UOLjndww muJi; umv«niir proMber in 
an, AfUr tntvillititf in (tiil^- lift WAS on 
M Kar, lAIQ ulmitt^'r n-ruir of KUivarth, 
OtaliUfpUiiT*, hwifffiiiiK liio MIowMhi]) at 
FriMhaoMon fl Dmi. In IAI7 Iwrndiinod 
tt.V., uid WM fltvonl miutnr of (^1inML'« 
Cvlk^, Hr vrrrd ni riee-ehuneeUor tn 
IM<4'10; on 30 Aj'fil lAlRl l)« wa« invti- 
litl^ Tfclur of Ht. liiMry'», MViltiutli (Uek- 
>BWi, .Vftr. tup. p. Slfi), udii OTi IT i^pt. 
(<ltii«rnji[ was o^lialoi) to NorwxH prebend 
in KouiWiill ('ntli'dnil. lie wnx also ft 
ffimii aiul orri-ciHHxliini of Kriuiaiii«, nnd 
rltapUin to lli-nrr V'lll. Havu learned in 
•elylMttn divinity, ■»(! in ia:f9irw one of 
tliM 'livirui* •'■li-i-i<Hlloan«wcrfnrOnititiridire 
I'niv'Taiiv lltfnr}'* ijii"»i'>ii* at>uul liis di- 
riiTi-f. IlK died lH-fitrt< 12 Mav li'i^tlt (Lb 
».! t:, Frufi. p^Kim ; I^ttrr* and l^oju-rt of 
Uenru I'lJl, tolii. i»-T. ; Kvi'mx, l^amiHs, 
p. UA ; OopBU, /llAra« Gik£sA/-. i. 39-40). 

■o art. !I4. nnd Dft2 «rta. 34. 9 1 : 
f. J'M. nnd O-JAL f. SI i Le 
S"*!! ■ i'"'i, 11 jiBJ-djr. [Mnimi BIrjfpii'i Worlw 
(UeiMinil ludcx); UtirnvL'* UinI, of ihsKervrma- 
li-.(i M l'..(*>'k , Wowl'* Alh«n» Otcm. ii. 8'2A ; 
n.i.rx.ii. N -..'1. (I .T.'7; FiilUr'i Worthm; 
Hint. [irv<l Anti<|<iiriii*of Wiiii-h*ai»r. 1773. 1.61; 
Cbmmi'b Liiro* u/ ihr llia)i(j|i9 nf Wi»i;tir«t«r. ii. 
»2-A; II«Dn«My'a Not. lUp tVvt IHtifl. Gm'b 
Kllut>fftlM(iL'Ura7.litl)8; ILtt. DmoLi. 

7tl>;]'lMj''«lt('>tfr.'-')"n<>> '>f ' I'rntna, 

ii. 2«7i Pnetrr'i Alumni (u.. i,„.iul714i 
KotM ■nJ Qurrica, lit vcr. W, \1o.'\ A. t'. P. 

WATSON, JOHN' (l7ar,-irt«J), oati- 
i]ii«r>-, *.m of l>'ffh \V«Hon uf I.rmt' llAnd- 
Ipy in lliB jiariab nf IVi-stbiiry, I'lipitiiiv, by 
tiis vite lu'ilpr, duii^htcr of John Vatos of 
Swrnluii, IiSUCMliiri', wu* l»Tn at Lyinu 
Ilaiidlo)- on as M*ri>h ]7L''*>, and f(lucBtt.-d 
tliu gramninr scliooU uf Ecvli'd. Wiirnn, 

id Manrlu'wliT, ivlifim- hi' ]imci''?d«'rl In 
UrtMno-w' ('olleft!, Oxf'ird. IIb mntriRiiliiod 
on a April 174:;, nnd i^cluat>?d B.A. in 
I74f>, nnd M,A. in I7l«. C)n -27 Jiinr 174(i 
lie wuvlecti'd to u Chpshire fellowship of 
Ilia cr>l)eg>;, itnd iu tliv following UweratMr 
took holy orders nnd entered on llio cunwy 
of lt»n«orn, Chi>ihiri>, but removed three 
motith» aOvrwanla to Ardwieit, Maneheater. 
wht'Tv he wft« n\tn tiHor to lh« wins of 
Sumiii'l lEiivli. from 17-'>0 to ^':'^4 he wt» 
<unitt* of lialifan, Vorknliin-, and in Septem- 
ber of the liiltiT vfiar km presentivl to the 
pvipvliuil curacy of Uippondmt in Ualifftx 

<)n 17 Ab 
to tiu> rectory- of 
wfaiob lie ruurood on S . 

17dOb« wu tndnetcd 
17, Ltncwhwhit^ 

promoted to toe mlonble nctorr of 9tadi- 
port, Choshtre. Tt u believed tnnt he owad 
Uiis preferment to \tviBg 's fiuroe vhig <rf' 

the piut mtam lloadlaian patii-rn.' llt^ was 

ele«t«d l-.S.A. in 17uO, and contribute ns 
papeM on linmui and other anticjuituv to 
* Archii<otogii.' ]Il§ two important 
weni 'Till- Ilivtorr and Antiquitiea 

Parinb of Halifax,^ 177.1, 410, a tectt 

lion of which vu commencMl in 1440 t^ 
F. A. I>}Tland, hut Icit imfiaiahicd; ana 
'Mvmoinof the Ancient Earls of Wamo 
and 8iirr<*v and their ile»ceudani ■,' Wu^ 
rington, 1^82. i valt. 4to. Tha Utter, n 
beautifully printed and tiliutrated book, wmt 
a v»iu ntt»mpt hi proTi? that WotMo'i 
pation. Sir (!«oiyi' Wiinwn, -wo* entitled to 
lliu litfldom of Warenne and Surr^v. 
earlier editions, limited to aiz and fift' 
cnpteA rPKtppcrivtrly, were printod in 
and 1779. lie nlt>o ]jublislti!d four jiom- 
pdlt'ta lietwet'O l7ol aud 17W,oneof th 
criticising the ' aUnrditiiv' of thi- Morav: 
hjmn-bnok. fie made exteniive uiiui u»c. 
coUectiona relating (0 local hletonr, 
Uirly of Chethire, which are Ktill 
and haw hevn found of fjttst tuIup by 
Oftucriid, Karwaknr, nnd nlher iiiuiquaries. 
Gilbert. WakeSeld, who woa Wati>iin'»cuTat« 
8l Stuckp-irl and taarriL>d bis nieco, dniicriba 
him oa one of the httnli,vt xtudents he e 
know, and a tuo&l agrvrahle raan^ 'by 
mean* dextitiitv of poetical fausy, 
written some good snnir!>, and urns 
nf n most copious collection of bont m 
faceliotu atoriM, &e. copied out vith an* 
commoa accuracy and neaUtcsa.* In the 
' I'aiatint'Xoto-l>ook'('-^*)««n»ODOiintof 
■ vi«it paid to Watson in 1760 by Tbi 

Kl to 


Barritt [q. v-1 

at Stockport on 1 4 Jtorch 1 76 
Qc wax twice married : fintl,tin 1 Jimv IToj 
to Susanna, diu^bter of Samuel Allon, vie 
of SaiKlbiurh,Cfni*hire; secondly, on 11 Ji 
17(1]. to .\iin, duugbter of,Jnme« Jaenuesi 
Lrcd», He Ifft one son by the first wifo, 
a son and <lflufchtl^r br the second. ^ 

(jond port raits of Watnon uo giren in bit 
' rialifai ■ and ' Warren and Surrey.' Tlw 
latter i» niimKluced in Eanrakera 

[Wutaon'H linlifax. p. &23 ; Stnith'a Hanoha 
tor School Rwiat«r (Cbellutm Soq.), 1.12; 
•rokcr'a Saat Choshirr. i. 3»; : J. G. Xichola 
the Herald and Uenealogiat, 1871 ; ChAlm* 
iJioRT. DicL xxxi. 230 ; HoginbotJiani's 
port : WakeBolds Momuin, 180t. t. IA9.) 

c. w. s. 




1803), artist, bom at Sedbe^h, Yorkahire, 
<m 20 May 1832, was the son of DawBon 
Wataon, solicitor, and grandson of Jolm 
"Watson of Berwick Hall, Lancashire. He 
iFaa educated at Sedbergh grammar school 
under the Rev. John Harrison Evans. Hie 
Artistic talent was manifested in early life, 
and he left Sedbergh in 1847, at the age of 
fifteen, in order to oecome a student at the 
Manchester School of Art. In 1851 he 
went to London and pursued his studies 
under A. D. Cooper and at the Ro^al Aca^ 
4emy, returning to Manchester in 1852. 
His first exhibited work was the ' Wounded 
Cavalier,' shown at Manchester Royal Insti- 
Cutionin I80I. His 'Painter's Studio,' con- 
taining portraits of himself and Mr. Cooper 
and family, was painted in 1852. In 1856 
some of his figure subjects were purchased 
by John Miller of Liverpool, and attracted 
the attention of Ford Madox Itrown, who in- 
vited him to exhibit at his house in Loudon. 
He joined the Letherbrow Club at Manches- 
ter in 1857, and between that time and the 
end of 1869 contributed twelve papers and 
many delightful pen-and-ink drawings to the 
manuacript volumes of the club. One of these 
volumes being shown to Itoutledge, the pub- 
lisher, led to Watson being asked to make 
a series of drawings for illustrations to Bun- 
yan's * Pilgrim's Progress.' He then, in 
1B60, settl^ in London, and the book was 
brought oat at the end of the same year and 
was a great success. It was followed by 
illustrations to ' Robinson Crusoe,' 'Arabian 
Nights,' and many other bonks as well as 
periodicals (cf. Gleeson White, Enr/luh 
IUuttraii<m : the Sixties, 1897). 

Watson was elected an associate of the 
Society of Painters in M'atercolours in 1S64, 
and a member in 1869. In 1865 he removed 
to Milford in Surrey, near his brother-in-law, 
Birket Foster, for whose house he designed 
the furniture and decorations. His picture 
'The Poisoned Cup' was painted in 1866, 
and gained the medal at the Vienna Exhi- 
bition in 1873. In 1867 his painting of ' The 
Parting ' gained the Hey wood prize at Man- 
chester. It is engraved in the ' Art Jour- 
nal,' 1876. An sSmirable etching, his first 
Attempt in this art, was published in the 
' PortibUo,' 1873. 

In April 1871 he got up an amateur per- 
formance of ' Twelfth Night ' at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, in aid of a fund for the sufferers 
by the war in France. For this he designed 
And cnt out fifty dresses, and himself acted 
the part of the clown. In the following 
year be made aix^-five watercolour draw- 
ings of dresses for Charles Calvert's produc- 

tion of ' Henry V ' at the Prince's Theatre, 

In 1873 he painted ' A Stolen Marriage,' 
that afterwaros gained the prixe of 100/. at 
the Westminster Aquarium. He was elected 
a member of the Royal Watercolour Society 
of Belgium in 1876, and sent three pictures 
to their exhibition in 1877. In the latter 
year a collection of his works, 158 in num- 
ber, was shown at the Brasenose Club, Man- 
chester, and he was entertained by the club 
at a complimentary dinner. 

Between 1859 and 1892 he contributed 
372 works to London exhibitions. Henry 
Boddington of Manchester possesses a large 
collection of his works. 

His last years were spent at Conway, 
North A\'ales, where he died on 3 Jan. 1892, 
and was buried in Conway cemetery. He 
married, at Giggleswick, on 22 Nov, 18.58, 
his cousin, Jane Dawson Edmondson, daugh- 
ter of Christopher Dawson, solicitor, of Settle, 
Yorkshire, and left two daughters and a son. 

[CatalogQe of Exhibition at the Brasenose 
Club, Manchester, 1877, with portrait; Memoir 
by W, E. A, Axon id Papers of the MancheHler 
Literary Club, 1892; Magazine of Art, 1892, 
p. 179 (portniit) ; Graves's Diet, of Artisls ; 
Uritish Museum Cutalogue; Letherbrow Club 
Papers (manuscript), vols, iv-vi., kindly lent 
' by Mr. Thomas Letherbrow; Diirbyshirii'M Archi- 
tect's Experiences, 1897, p. 236.] C. W, S. 

WATSON, JOHN FORBES(1827-1892), 
physician and writer on India, born in Scot- 
land in 1827, was the son of an Aberdeen- 
shire farmer. He was educated at the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, where he graduated 
M.A. in March 1847, and M.U, on 5 Aug. 
1847. After completing hia medical studies 
at Guy's Hospital, London, and at Paris, 
ht> was appointed assistant surgeon in the 
Bombay army medical service in August 
1850. He sened with the artillery at Ah- 
raednuggur and with the Scinde horse at 
Khangur, now Jacobadad, nnd wus ufter- 
wards appointed assistant surgeon to the 
Jamsetjee Hospital and lecturer on physio- 
logy at the Grant Medical College, whure for 
a time he also acted as professor of medicine 
and lecturer on clinical medicine. Return- 
ing to England on sick leave in 1853, he 
si>L>iit some time at the School of Mines in 
Jermyn Street, and in investigating the 
sanitary application of charcoal, on which he 
published a pamphlet in 1855. He was then 
appointed by the court of directors to con- 
duct an investigation into the nutritive value 

I of the food grains of India, the result of 
which formed the basis of public dietaries in 
India. In 1858 he was nominated by the 

I secretary of state reporter on the products of 

Id4U viA diriTfnr of the Iiwlia MoMam, m^ 
pabl—li wbicb ba Iwld till (he iruulW- 
cttM to Scnitb KandflKton of tbe India Mu- 
•HUB «t iIm «nd of 1870. 

Id coniiMtloa with hit (Ifptrtroenl bv mU- 
tdklwd * pboCofr«|tliie bnneh, in which 
nuDHfou* illiuiroiion* w«tb t^SHMitpil ilv- 
|)irtitij{ ludiaii lift! and *crju>ry, utd luye 
naiw if th* conniry in rclifff. Tlwy ■wvn 
umhI to illiutrair mil nnlv lii* mrn work*, 
tmi alM) tbo«e nf ni her t!iiiini*iit writKn. In 
1*^4 \\)it*on iiiltmiltwl t'l ttorprnmHiit ■ 
popo«l for lh« HUbliihmoiil of »n Iniliui 
■liwUBUtlUbni7,Iofr»tli«r Mini li Kit Indian 
hiMtlnia in a central (Hiaifion, wh>'r« mmli- 
datM for llui civil •nn-ico might |titn>ue 
orimtal ■tiiduM. Hi* ulra for nci Itnperia) 
niutfum for India and llir- ml'iriivN was Hiip- 
porlxl hy tlw Jtoval (.''ilonial lriNtiliil>-. and 
II amiiIm] mtl«rianv in lhr< Haint.H'.liinpiit 
of ibu (niwrial Inalituti] at S'juili KunxiRg- 
ton. Ha NniWMnt»d [ndia at ihft interna- 
linnal vxhiiiiliniM Imlfl nt London in 1962, 
al J'arii in InriT.andat Viriina in 1H7.'{, and 
at llin Htxitti KonainKlun anntial nliibitionn 
fr'^nt IN7U lu IHTi. Itu rvliti.'d fruiu the 
India OHlpoin iHHtJ.aMd di"d at rjiiwrN'tr- 
ytimnl r.n '.11 July 1«1I2. H" wa« (di-rt'-d a 
fi'llfiH iiftlit' Iiitmmn Horii'ty in I'^flO, 

WaUmi wu (hii niilhiirof': 1. ' The Titi- 
lilo Mnniifartiirfi and tbn PMtnm<<f of tho 
I'i.-iiil.-')riadin;ix.mloa.lHHtI.fol. 2. ' Iiideit 
(it lUi- Nnliviiaiid Hflii'titiHi' Nannvvof Imliun 
and iithirr KaiidTn h^monilr I*liuitH nnil Pro- 
ilurif,' I^Ki'l'm, lH*lM,H»o. a. ' Inli'TiintionsI 
Kitiitiiii'in'/I^iidoii, tKr:t,Hv<i. HonKidrvnr 
up cotati»iii»* for llii> Indiiin ilnpnrlmftit* nl 
Mvial of ilio inli'maiionni r^liiltitiono. mid 
Willi .l'>lin Williiim Kayi* rvlifd Mimdon's 
Tuvlor'ii ' IVxitdc uf India,' Ijondaii, 18U6- 
UU, *ol». 4io. 

fJoiinial ')f (liHi Noe.or ArL>, 13 AuR. 1892; 
M'li iiii'l W'lmrii iif iKo Tim*. tSffI ; AHibunD'i 
Ificl. of K. I. C. 

WAT80N, JOHN rtKl.BV <180l-18&4), 
ttiithor and innnler»>r, baptivnd nt Crnyford 
cliiirch on ilO Ih-c. 181*1. is atatt-d lo htvf 
Ih'i-m (hu HOii (if Liiiii1)lu |inn.-iitn in Hcollnnd. 
Mm waa ivliidaNil nt llrxt bv )il» gnugdfallier, 
Atul then nt Trinitv <'"lli'>[i', I>ii!]|in, wIipto 
liK (rrail'inl'-d II, A- m 1 WJf*, Winn i>rn' of ibu 
iTolil niiNlalliata in rlaMira, and jir'tcocilcd 
M.A. in lftl4. On 30 Matvh 18.11 ho nA.>) 
a<]niiMnl ad etauifm at Hvforx). No iras 
tirdmu'sl dvocon in 1830 by tb« btahop of 
I'Uv, aiid nriMt itL IH40 bv th« biahop of 
lla'th and Wi-lli, an>) fn^m 1839 to 1841 ba 
•ttrvml tbx L'lirni^y of t>anffport in Som^net. 

Walwin coiitiimod liriirUiMicaL«iadiu.anil 
through lifo dovoled hi* Iviautv to literary 

panmU. FromldUbaluUtbcpoBt 

j msAer of tbe fraprietatr gnamBr aehool 
StocWvll. I aoborb of undao* raonTinx a 
'fixed aaUiyofaOOif. pcruiniun, uiilaca|ii- 
' tation fee when the acboiar* ciCMdid n eer- 
t«in nnmber. Tlie Bcbool wvb for aoiiw nan 
proappToias, but a wrioiia dt<cUoe ia iu 
poputarily indueed tbe gorertmni to removv 
liiin frvm iti masBdvnwnt it Chmtmaa I 
Il« lived Irom imS at S» St. Mart 
ICoad, Slockwull, and there, iu a fit of pa«* 
Dion, b>^ kilini liin wifv on H ftct. IS71, Sbe 
WEA an Irialiwnman namod Anne Am- 
ftnMifT.towhoin he was married at St. Marit's 
rhnrch, Dublin, in Jamtarr l84-'i. ThrM 
days after the mard«r he aitmipted to 
commit auicidi' by laliiiu pniaaic arid. " 
was trird for murder anu found guilijr, 
r«coiDOieiided to mercy, and tbv wvuu 
waa conmuted to penal efiritude for 
A volume of iMyrliolagical otitdivs oo 
married life was nuhtiahMl at Berlin in i§7 
one of bin remarliif nt B'lw Sin.>et wa& * t» 
oUm apmper debere norult doliitori/ 
Lowp (anerwanls Ix>rd Sherbrookt'') divid 
the cabinet on the f^uMtic^u wlu-ttier I 
waa ^ood or bad Latin (FaiRnti.r. Sat 
Iti-amtr^ll.y. 41 >. Wataon died at Parhhu 

K~»on in tbi' ImIc of Wight on <3 July 1 
■ waa buried in Cariabrooke c^-mi-tfry. 

Walson |iiibLi)tbud anuotatud edition;) of 
th«i ' t'roiuvtlieiis Vinctus' of .KBchyltta, 
8alliiftt'fl 'Catiline' and'Juginirtha;' and hi* 
odiiibuKorrupe'sreuderiD^Dftbe 'Iliad 'and 
'{ldyM«?y,' wjtii notm, a(ip<>aTvd in Bolin's 
' [lluEtrutud Library." Several volnrar") of 
TraiiKlnti'iiiM by liiin, romprphfiiding t:^|lu»t. 
Lucri'tiiin, Xt>miphon,(juinctilian, CnmeliuD 
Ni'lvM, Vflleius PHtercuImi. and PUIe of 
C»(v>^^ wt-rc iiifliidcd in Bobn'a 'Claatiml 
Librarj-.' His lerBion of XyiiophoiiV * Aoa- 
Haiia' and ' ^Icmorabilta'of Socralf^ ia No.7i^ 
of Si r J olin Lubbock's ' hundred books.' Hi« 
original works coi9pn*i-d: 1. 'npolofry: a 
Pown in Sevi-n Books,' Ig*4. i. * Life of 
George Fox,' l«Kl. a. ' Lif,- of Richard I'or- 
aon,' 1861. 4. 'Sir William Wallace, the 
Wc-otlifch Hero,' IWtl . 5. ' Sons of Strcntftb, 
Wisdom, nnd Pnlirnce: .'>Ainson, .Solomon, 
Job.' 1801 . 6. • Life of Bishop Warburton/ 
1SB8. 7. 'ReaariDing Power in AnimalaJ 
1^7. 8. ■ Biof[niphi«i> of John Wtlkee and 
Williaii] Cobben; 1870. 

In October 1871 Watson had ready for 
Ibu press several work«, including a complete 
history of thu pope* to the iTeformation, 
whtcb would have H\hd two octavo volumes. 
The BoIe work of his own cotnpo^tir ion wfaich 
ia known to havf> bronjibt him any profit 
was the memoir of Wartiurton, from which 
bv derived something undtr JM. 




[Hen of the Timo, 7th ed. 1868; Fost«r'i 
Ainmni Oxon. ; Timoa, It, 12, snd 13 Jan. 1872, 
11 July, 20, 26 Oct. 2, 16 Nov. 1884.1 

W. P. C. 

■WATSON, JOSEPH (1765?-18i'9), 
teacher of the deaf and dumb, bom iu 1765 or 
at the end of 1764, was educated at Hackney 
in the school of Thomau Hraidwood [q. v.l 
Under the influence of his master he resolvea 
in 1784 'to embrace the instruction of the 
-deaf and dumb as a profession.' On the 
foundation of the asylum for the deaf and 
dumb in Kent Road, through the efforts of 
John Townsend [q. v.], \\'atson assisted by 
counsel and advice, and on its completion 
'was appointed headmaster. He continued 
in this ofHce for the remainder of his life, 
rendering important services by his personal 
instruction and by bis writings on the sub- 
ject. The well-known Frencn teacher the 
ftbb6 Sicard was much interested in his me- 
thods, and for some time corresponded with 
him concerning the management of the Kent 
Itoad asylum. His system was founded 
on timt of Thomas Braidwood, witli some 
developments and improvements. He died 
at the asylum on 23 Nov. 18i?9, and was 
buried at Bermondsey. He was the author 
of: 1. ' Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb ; 
or a View of the Means by which they 
may be Taught to Speak and Undorstand 
a. Language,' London, 1810, 2 vols. 8vo. 
2. 'A First Heading Book for Duaf and 
Dumb Children,' London, 18i'6,12mo. 3. 'A 
Selection of Verbs and Adjectives, with 
some other Parts of Speech,' London, 1826, 

His son, Alexander Watson (181.5?- 
1866), bom in 1815 or the beginning of 1816, 
-wa.^ educated at Corpus Ohristi College, Cam- 
bridge, graduating B. A. in 1837 and AI. A. in 
1840. Proceeding to Durham University,be 
passed as a licentiate of theology. He was 
ordained aa curate of St Andrew's, Ancoata, 
Manchester ; in 1840 he took charge of St. 
John's, Cheltenham, where he established ex- 
cellentschooIsiandinl8."il became vicar of St. 
ilary Church-with-Co Hi n swell, Devonshire. 
Kemoving to the rectory of Bridestow and 
Sourton in 1856, he borrowed money which 
led to the sequestration of the living and to 
his quitting it at the end of two years for 
the incumbency of Bedford Chapel, Blooms- 
bury, London. Being involved in a chancery 
suit concerning the chapel, he became in- 
solvent. During 1863-4 he assisted John 
Charles Chambers at St. Marv's, Soho, and 
in 1864 took charge of Middleton-ou-the- 
Wolds, near Beverley. He died at Middleton 
on 1 Feb. 1865. 

His writings are numerous, but of ephe- 


meral interest. The most important are: 
1. 'Sermons on Doctrine, Discipline, and 
Practice,' London, 1843, 8vo. 2. ' The De- 
vout Churchman, or Daily Meditations,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 2 vols. 12mo. Watson also took 
part in editing 'Practical Sermons by Digni- 
taries and other Clergymen of the United 
Church of England and Ireland,' 1846-0, 
8 vols., and was sole editor of ' Sermons for 
Sundays, Festivals, and Fasts,' Ist eer.^ 
London, 184.% 1 vol. 8vo; 2nd ser. 1846, 
3 vols. ; 3rd ser. 1847, 1 vol. (Gent. Mafj. 
1865,1.518; Gjwrdtan, 15 Feb. 1865). 

[Gent. Mag. 1822 i. 305, 1830 i. 183; Pantheon 
of the Ago, 1828.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, JOSHUA (1771-18.W)), phil- 
anthropist, was bom on Tower Hill in the 
city ot London on Ascension day, 9 May 
1771. His forefathers were of the hardy 
and independent race of northern "states- 
men;' but his fatliiT, John Watson, had 
come on foot from Cumberland to London 
in early youth to try his fortunes, and esta- 
blished himself successfully as a wine mer- 
chant on Tower Hill. His mother, Dorothy, 
bom Robson, cousin to the artist, George 
Fennel Kobson [q. v.l, was also a native of 
the north of England. John and Dorothy 
Watson had two sons — John James (1767- 
1839), who was afterwards rector of Hack- 
ney for forty years and archdeacon of St, 
Albnns ; and Joshua, who followed his father's 
business. The two brothers were throughout 
life linked together by the closest ties. At 
ten years of age Joshua was placed under 
the tuition of Mr. Crawford at Newington 
Butts, and at the age of thirteen was sent 
to a commercial school kept by Mr. Eaton 
in the city. In 1786 he was taken into bis 
father's counting-house, which was at that 
time removed from Tower Hill to Mincing 
Lane ; and in 1792, when be came of age, 
was admitted a partner. In 1 797 ho married 
Mary, the daughter of Thomas Sikes, a banker 
in Mansion House Street. Her uncte, Charles 
Daubeny [q. v.] (afterwards archdeacon of 
Salisbury), and her brother, Thomas Sikes, 
vicar of Guilsborough, who had been at Ox- 
ford with Joshua's elder brot her, were among 
the leading churchmen of the day; and 
JoRhua from his early years was brought into 
contact with other members of the high- 
church party, of which he afterwards became 
the virtual leader. Among bis early friends 
and advisers were William Stevens [q.v.], the 
disciple and biographer of William Jones of 
Nayland [a, v.], and founder of the club of 
' Nobody's Friends,' of which Joshua Watson 
was an original member ; Jonathan Boucher 
[q. v.], who became in 1785 vicar of Epsom, 





iKiltd of nnlnnnco a ]iUo uf Port Rojal with 
its fnKificiitiiiiu, nnd hiinseir returned to 
England in t)ip iiutiimn of 1744. Il<> «iu( 
promoted to Ix! (■a|)iniii-licnU'nttm in Harri- 
son*! foot on 'Ji Dm?. ITi't. 

On 30 April 1746 Watson joined tlie eon- 
joint irxpvdiiioii tiud«r Adiuirkl Htchard L«- 
iflock lI-v.j and Lieutenant -gL-nersl St. CUir 
for Xurtb Amcri<.*a. Its doBtinstioo, how- 
v\t>T, \rtut cluinged for the ooajit of DriUanjr. 
and he took part in 1 li<! s'lep} of i'ort L'Urient 
from 2(1 to 'J7 S«pl., and iho attack on 
(juilx'ron and capiuru of forti lloiiat and 
llvvdie, afccr which Im rsturaed to Eik|;latid 
witli ttiti ct]xrditiuii. IIl- trna promoivd on 
2 Jan. 17 !'> !«> bu tiub-director of enrtneera, 
and appointed diinl'oni'iiiei.T in tli<- Modn'ay 
division, whicti includol (tmri'M-nd and 
'lllbury, S!iei>rin>ns, llarwicb, and Land- 
^lard forta. Tht-nj ia a ]]]an in th« war 
ollioi' drawn hv WatMoii, dutnl I7!>'.i, lihow- 
injf th*) (.'lilTniid town of Harwich and iJif 
i'ncri>acljini'i)t9 uf tlie msk sincv 171At; and 
aunihuf, dnti-d I'M, of n pmnoAcd breah- 
wsltirai Harwich ClilTi aUo a plan of Sbver- 
neaa and i(» viciuily, indicatinj^ tlte botiti' 
dariiM of pttblii; laodV 

On 17 Vice. 1754 Wat-eon was promoted 
to ho dinictor of iti{pnt^«», and wn» K«ni tn 
Aniut{>oliH Iluval as chief en((in^^r »f Nova 
Seotia and of i\io ai-ii U'ltucnts in Newfound- 
land. HiJi Ma^r ill North America at 
this timi* woa short, aa b*.' was i>]>foialljr 
iwlreted fur ecrvicu on the wvm coast uf 
Africa, wh<Ti' bv arri^rd bi'fi>n' IK-ci-mlx-r 
ITM. An addrusa :o tU« kinjr had be«n 
carried in Ihf* lloiut^ of t'onnm^n* im the 
defenreless etate of the Itriti^li posseiuiions 
on the woat (Mn«t of Africa, and AVatwn 
Tititvd the military iitntionji along lhr> fSnld 
Coant at Wliydah, JaiD4^«'s Island, Accra, 
PrnmnraTn, TantiimquiTry, Winnoliab, An- 
naninUM*, :5econtii->.% Uixcove, an<l Cape Coast 
Castle. He n>tumcd to England in the 
Bunuoer of 1750, when bin rvport* and plans 
wt>T« approved and tlie llou^e of Common* 
rotpd money to carry uul htjs pronis->]a. 

In Uctober ami NovKmlHT 17oii Watson 
examined Kye harbour and reported un the 
meafiures necessary to improve it ; and to- 
wards ih« ond of ihn year apsin sailed for 
Annapolis Uoyal to r>^ume bis appointment 
as chx-f ctij^nccr in Nora .Scotia and N«w- 
foundtsnd. On H May 1757 he was com- 
miuioned, on th<.* rror^aniMlion of the en- i 
gineets, as li«(iteiifint-c<tl<int-l of royal ttngi- ' 
ae«ni. He dieii suddenly in the summer of | 
1757 from thu odt-cts of poison admiiiislerpd 
in hi* ci)ir«-, it was believed, by a black 
ftimale ^rvant. 

Wat»on*s widow, Siisan, was granted s 

pension of 40/. a year from 1 Jan. 17SS ia 
considemtion of her biubuid's aervioas. 

[War Offie* Raeords; Boyal £iifinaet» B*- 
(vra«: Kane's List of OlSerts or the Royal 
Arlillsrv : rarler'a IliatDry of ibe t'orji* wf 
UdTbI tngioMffi; ConnoUy Papers ; Gi)nt..tlag. 
i;U; Cusl's Aunalsof the Wars] K, U, V. 

WATSON. Sir LEWIS, first lUitov 

, Roi'KiKOUAM tl5!M~LtVAl). bapti»i-d in 

< Hnckiiigbaui church on 14 July I.jM, waa 

j the elder son of Sir Ednard Watson (<f. 

I lMan:hl»I&.lf;).byl>i-w>feAiiii<-(./. imi), 

daiifrlit^r of Kenelin Digby of Stoke Dry, 

Kutlaud. The family of Wstsoii was iiiiA 

t'4tablislM>d in Itockingltam CmiU' attouL 

1584, under Kdward Wat^n («/. 1.1el4), 

l.ewis's grandfather, Ijewis mat riculated 

from MagdaU-ii ColU>^, U&ford, on 'J\ May 

I5!H), and in ltX)l wuh entered as a sttideitt 

at the Middle Temple. On 19 Aug. [00$ 

he wan knighted bv Jame* I. He wiu at 

that time a constant attendant at court, 

wlKTe he formwl a f>»t fri^'nilBhip with 

I Clcor^" \'illi<Ta taftrrwardn Duke of Iluck- 

ingham ), and 6ome years later bwaine his 

. »ec(irity for a lar^ sum of money. On 

19tj*'pi. liJIl b« r«c«iTed lioense to tmvvl 

^I.Cal. Statt Vaprr*, Dom. HilU18. p. 7o). 

In ltVl4 he was returned to juirliament fur 

Lincoln, a lioroiigh for which he also sat in 

the parUamcnta eiunmoned in 1621 and IdS-l, 

On 21 July 1619 be reiTii'<>d Kockingbaat 

Catftlc in fre siiuple. having previously hdd 

it on knight's service. On 'I'd June \iii\ he 

was ctmIcmI a bantmit, and on Mi Keb. 

llt:!7-8 was included amoo^ those to whom 

an order of the T^nvy council wa« aiMn-^Kii^d. 

dirMrting tbem to prepare commiwionfl of 

nmniul law and of oyer and tsnninw for 

iho countr of Northampton (lA. 1637^ 

p. :>ti7). ia^ l<;3i>-3 he tiUed tlie ofGc« of 

sheriff of Northamptonshire; in IKU he 

obtained the ma^lorvhip of the royal buck- 

hounds; and in lliUb he became verdeirer of 

ttockiiiTfaam and Brisetodi. 

On lh« ontbrsak oflhe civil war Sir Lewis 
fiided with the kins, though his zeal does 
not seem to haT<> been v^ry ardent, as bt 
was tiummonn) before thi^ council by a 
warrant dated 11 Sepl.ltiMO as a d«lin<iuent 
for failiufr ' to show a horse ' at the muster 
at Huntmgdoa (t&. ItiJO p. 010, ItUO 1 
pp. 4o, tio). Oefore Uockiusliam Castb; could 
tve«ive a royal nrrison. it w%» tKuxA, on 
19 March 1612-3 by Thomas Urey. baron 
Groy of Qroby [q. v.], who placvd in it 
a parliamenlsry fi>rc4-. In May ItU.l 8ir 
)>'wie himself was arre^tixl by the royalist 
colonel Henry Uastinos (afterward* Lord 
IxHighboroDgh) fq. v.j on tlie charae of 
neglecting to bcdd Hockingham for the King, 








* -K 

^, da 

luid wu inpriMmed in BuIvoirCiwtleL He 
cimrvd ItimMlT with Cluirlps, and took op 
hta r«»idffiurfl at Oxford. On "Jfl Jnn. )(144— i 
ho waii crt-'atfxl Ilaron Kockinghnra of Knclc- 
ingiiam. Attt-r Ih.- minvndir of Oxfonl lie 
ComiKiunded for lii* d-'liiwiui-nor for rtSMOl. 
{(.'<fl. "/ Pmr. of C'lmmit tr^ /'.<>■ ('iiini'"ii»ii- 
inj/. ]>li. 1-13-^ 7), IIo cli«(louo Jftn. Ilio^ 3, 
nndwaaliiirii'dinliockingliaineljiircli. Ituck- 
ingham ■wa* twico married: first, in IGOO, 
to ("*lJnTiiii;, dnuKtilur of IVrwgriiie BiTtw, 
lord \\"illoughb_v dn Krtrjibi- [<|. v.l Shi* di«d 
in cliildlH"d on'lSFeb. lOlO. lie married, 
•ecoiidly. ou 3 Oct. Ifil'O, UU-anor. dnufihter 
of Sir fitv>rf(^ Mann<>r« of lladdon Hall. 
nBrbvsliirf. Slie diM on liSOet. ]fi;y, and 
HTU buried at Kookirit'liam on 11 N'jv. By 
tirrlufliiid one surviving son, I'^dwurd, »4!C4nd 
baron l'»>ckin^liiim, and nix daiighlt-»>. The 
»ecoud baroiiV third »on, Thomas, wa* ^nd- 
manjuia of Kockiu^ham [ij. r.j 

rWJM'ei Rockingham Cutle ivni! the WntS!Mi», 
IMl; G. a C[..ka3-nay. I'(wrfi8».] 

K. I. C. 


WAITK (]8l>i-lKl->, sculptor, was boFD at 

Ilawksdale Hall tit tlii' valli-y of the Caldew, 

oearCarltste, on 11 Juii. I^OJ. M\» fntiicr, 

TllOmU WaUon. « imall unlive landowner 

to the ssme valley, made monfy in the 

Wiwt Indies, and on Iiia iiiarrMi|:v, 'I Ajiril 

1796, with Slnrr, daughter of .Muti^nre 

Lewthwa«e of CiirliaJe, «i'ttled at UawIiB- 

dal« u a farmer. Mtusrare u-iu their M-cond 

(ID. llu was L-ducated at ihe school fit the 

eiffhltoiirtn)^ lilhign of Houghton Head. 

M' hik' at »hool he ran-ed wootl and enj^raritl 

on mclal, making, it m said, his owii tools. 

"Itt developed a keen de^iro ti follow art as 

pnifeiwion. Rut hia parents in.titted on 

lieling him in I.^SI to Sfnjor Mounsty, a 

licilor of Carlisle. Kortiumndy hi* mu»1«rt 

'hohatl the only poodcoUetlion of pictiin-* 

I Carlisle, g^v; him cvtTV encouragvment 

istndyart. llisillu<«lrati(ini«io» wm-ih liy« 

local writer. KoIktI Anderson^q. v. |, brought 

lim into n<t1i<!e, and hr ijiurklr nlliiined con- 

kidL-ruble nkill no o drau^ht.'.man. flii the 

L-alhof hi'fnthfron '2s Dec, 1 ■*:;3 he adopted 

,e profe^ion of a .wulptor, nnd wrnt to Lon- 

un. TheTt< he made the aetiiiainiaiiou of 

xman, who ro*ommend>r'l Lnu to enter 

oachoolsof tbelloyal AiMdi.-my. Hewnt 

ta ft 11111*11 model of an Italian Hbuphxriliv)! 

and wu imiDediAloly udmitlod. lie wan 

a sltort time articled to l!oh<Tt William 

lievier [q.T.], but, on the advice of Flaxman, 

p went abroad to study in It aly. There he 

ved among the French andliennan Miidcnt.* 

Uume. ilio rvnatile t«Ivat^h« WM able 

to etch, carve, deaign iar cameos, or pnxluca 
wftturcoloiirdmwinirs— eoAilyeoahlfJ him to 
mt*Al. hiH very oli^ht nxpetiniM. Il« afle^ 
vrarda riml^d Naple.iand Pompeii, returning 
to London in l-^JM. lie rvviflited Carlisle, 
wht're he excciit«-(l a bust of the nuiiirflliH 
J<ilio ileyshum [^'|.v.J, ahown at the Carlisle 
Exhibition in IsiiP, and hu wo« also renre- 
seiin-il iht-re by thrwdkvtchwin wntercolouc 
and oil of ^cenea from Anderson's ' Cumber- 
laud ilallitd^,' a btui of Major Hodgson, 4tld 
a 1 welve-inch ti^iire of Clytit? in marble, a 
cnmmisaian from liis friend O. U. Mounsoy. 
!Iv swCtitid down in London, and for a timo 
had a amnll Rliidii) near the Hntiiih Mit- 
M-um, where be produced somt< highly poeti- 
cal work*. 

About 1833 (Sir) I-'rancU Le^tt Chau- 
trey [q. r.J engaord him aa a modeller, buC 
quickly [larivd with bim raihor than comply 
with Ilia reoueiit for an iucrease of lialniy. 
Ho afturworda worked fur ISelinvt! and ItailL'j. 
In 1814 he eEhibileil at the l^)yul Academy 
K Bmall bnt exceedingly cle\er bas-relief 
of 'IH'fith and .Sleep heiirin^r ofT thn llodv of 
.Sflrpc-don,' which was ongmved hy Affred 
Itolien I'reebairn by the anuglytilic. pn>oc»s. 
Only a few oopii* wore rst'Citt^-il, and tJioM 
were preMiiitcu to tVlendii. A copy of thi« 
work in plaster was in the Inlemalionol Ex- 
hibition of \^*yi. Onu of hiM IU06L cbarui- 
inir uTid tioelic works is the baa-relief in 
marble, ' Literature," exhibited ut the lloja] 
Academy iu \^^ ; it forcuti part of ibu 
motiumcnt to his <dd friend Allan ('uuning- 
liam. At len^U. thruugli the good ollices 
i>r .\llrin Cunninghaiti. heohtaiiii^J tliecom> 
misMion from I.nnl Eldon for a colossal 
group of the brother) Lord Kidun and Lord 
Stowfll. After much cftrwfiil slndy he had 
completed the moiiels, and was bufiily en- 
gaged on tbc marble, when fatnl iUncjM nt- 
tuc)ct>d Lim, iiud it wna only after biK death 
that it was compli'ted by hia assistant and 
friend, Oeortrc Nelisou. YhU group is intho 
lihrarj- of Inirrraity College, Otford, It ia 
a iioblo moMumein, and along with his t-quullv 
»nc<;>w«ful veatf^'l figiin! of Flivxmati, which 
was begun in IM'i and waa also completed 
by Nelson, received from the commJwuonera 
of the fircal Jixhibiiioii of 1851 a vt'\t» 
medal. Tlw Fluxman portrait was placed 
on the stiiircn&L' learliiiji TO The Flaxman gal- 
lery of Univi^rniiy C-oUege, London. In \q\7 
Walsnii exhibited for the last time at the 
Itoyal Academy. It wa« u model for n bof- 
n-lii'f 7 ft. 9 in. hy !t ft., a linn design con- 
taining eleven figures, and reprBscnling I>r. 
.\rchibald C«mpr<>n teoclinjf the wnunded oa 
tlicflfltl of Cidlodftn. Thia monumant wua 
coned in Caen alone, and was erected in the 





Savoy Cluipel ; it «ru intftvtuBatdv de> 
WrofaA by ttiv in 1!%l. Tbe ongiiul cast, 
hownvr, wadHuld witli ^^''ntflOD'9 effects and 
wM parcKft^'cl by Mo«sn. Kelson of C&rliole. 

WatKin iliocl at lus n«idenc«, Vi Upper 
tiloueester i'Uux. Dorset Si^uarc, on '2t* Oct. 
Id47,ta(l wiu buriod in Iliglifcmto cemetery. 
'There is a mccbUion of \\ at^ton by (feorfr» 
Nvtwit in tli« tranK-jpt of Carlialo Catlicdnl. 
Hii w&H u mux of quirt wnvK niid iu»ia>iifi- 
isnl appvoraace, witb no fmndx to pu^ bla 
claim* lu nottcu, «ot) irben nt Usi hi]> ability, 
Ano ta9t«, and knovledgo of work raised ' 
him to fame and fortane, tb« disease which 
bad bf«n aggruvAli-d by the many anxieties | 
iu biii cuvt-r proTi^-d fatal to him. 

iJunn^ liiti !&»[ illne&>t Wnlsuii cbubi^ 
tho»c of his uiodelit chat biM;-^n»id(>rvd inferior 
work to be deatnm^d. Ilia eloclrotypes, 
which wi-ru pruiiDUDRDd by bis coott'Oi- 
purariM (o Im mizhr of th« bwt xrork of the 
time, he bi>qiu>at!ii?d to bia friend Sir Charles 
l/pck HMtlakf- ^q. v.l 

Tbf principal worSa expcated by Wuaaa, 
and not alrcudy inenttoatd, wure tho b«»- 
relief on .MiixliayVballof coium(;FC4.<,Tbroad- 
De«dle SiTvet, London; ibv tunliiL- of queen 
I'^liaaWtb in the lluyal ExLlmiii(«; two 
ligurui, ■ I Ivhv ' and • Iri»,' fur IJurrj'd lU-vr 
l^lt^a fi>r Marquiji of )jii:iJidimiie'« »e»l 
at Uowuod I lilt) nkL'tchiU! wi'n* cxliibib.'d nt 
thv HmvuI Acaduioy m 1847); full-Iunflb 
OoloAoal fltatUM of Major Ak<lioii)jy and 
William, varl of Lou^doli'. both in Car- 
lisle; a terra-cotta idUHrrlipvn, 'Little 
Children, coiui> unto He,' erected over a 
doorway nl IJltlc HuIIbiiiI Houiw; and one 
of the lour baa-relii^fH of tb^i Ni^l^on tnonu- 
munt, ' T!m! IJattlw of Si. Vinceut.' 

AfTi;r Ilia dt^ath k mt of lifliKTn drnwini^s 
be Iind eKecuted an illustrations to iIj4 povm 
OD 'Human t.ifi;' by his friend .'Samuel 
Bogera [<j. v.] was HtliugrapK-d by WiUiam 
Doc^ of Carlialc. Uuc of iIb carloom, 
'11iiluuthro)>y,' wa§ cntfiwud oil wood by 
W. J. Linlim us an illu->tmti>m to tlin 'I.ito 
and Works of Waison ' br llpnr>' Lonadule 
{p. 19B(. Mm i-\liihil.5d Uirwi-t'u It^i-H nnd 
1847 nint'tiH'n uia^a at th» Hoyal Acadtttny. 
and tw'iiL<v at itie dufiblk .Siret;t Uallery. 

[Ijcia«dal«'s Lifa of WoImmi ; Art Journal. 
1»M, pt37: Royal Acadany Cat.; Orares's 
I>ict.of ArliKa.) A.N. 

IB.'JO), LotiiiiiBt, was Iforn at Hull in 1701, 
huxaf; btptiiu^d at Holy Trinity Cbnrch on 
VQ \ng. m ttint year. Educated at the 
^nunmar fcbool nndtr .T-vst'iih Miini^r ^q.v.], 
and occupied In early JilV in trade, hu wa* 
*o onthunajilic atuJent of botany, vulom»- 

loKy, clirmistry, and minentloer, and a tdtil- 
fuT lunds^cape-painffr. In IKI^ fae took an 
nctir«> part in tbe establishment of tb» Hull 
botanic (^nrden. In hia ' Dendrolojipa Bri- 
laoaica' hv alludes tp. xii) to bia 'own 
endeavours to furnish tbc in«titurio& with 
many iudigLMions plants, wbich I eolWctcd 
at confiiderabli? expi>n.*e and Ubour, l»y Ira- 
vi'Tsin^ tbL> whole Eaei Ridinff ... in sty 
f^, with pn>prr apparatus fur cutting up 
roots, collectins seeua, tte. of thu rarer sof1«, 
wbo3>e babitatsliad iHMin rvndxrod fkiniliar lo 
mf fnim iiiimvn>u8 previoiiii berbori.satioiu).* 
Iu 18:^4 and tbe following year he issued, in 
twenty-fi^ir |Mrta, hi« 'Llc:ndrolo)fia Rrilati* 
nica; or Tree« and Shrub« that will li\-e in 
tb« Opt-n Air of Bnt'iin lhroU|fbout the 
yrar.' This wuric, wliicb I^udon dif»cribea 
{ArUirettnn /irifrtmnuiun, u. IfvMt as 'the 
m<et scitMitific work devoted I'sclusi^'vly to 
tives which has hithnrlo lircu publishi'd iu 
Kngland,' was completed in two octavo 
volumes, printed in ilull and published tn 
l^ndon it] l>3A. It routiiin« aa introduc- 
tion todescript if ebotoiiy, occupy ingscventy- 
twu psffL^s and iri'vxiii'lU-nt oolourwl plali^ 
of exi'tic trees ottU shrulj^.i-och acvomjianied 
br a page of teclmicriil description. Wnlson 
dwid at Cuttiii^ham, noar Ilull, on 1 .Si.'pt. 
1890. lie wtm elroied a fellow of the Lra- 
nean 3<wieiy in l&i4. 

[R. W. OrUaa'a SkcUhM of Hnll Auihon. 
iSifi-l a. S. B. 

WATSON. niCILVRD (1613-1685). 

royali»t diviue.cooiroversialisl and povl.soa 
of Williani \^'atA•ln.raprchant, waa bom in 
Lb« parish of St. KuthariiK Crvts London, in 
ItilS, and IB said to hnvf Ntudii>d fur 6ve 
yean in the .Merchant Taylors' wbool under 
^l^. Augur (Vrxy, Ai/iritM.tioni to Gnnritlw 
and Cit»Hs VotUr/e, p. ] 7t>)^ ihoRgh his name 
does not occur in the ' Itegistcn {sd. Robin- 
W.I1. li^Sl. Oil 22 IVc. 102ft be wm sd- 
initt^ a sizar of Uonville and Caius Ooltcm^ 
Cainbridi^f. IIi' proci?rtled B.A. in 1RS2, 
cotnuK-ueed M.A. m 1(^)1}, luid wat ek-cted n 
juniorft'Ilowofhis college in tiept ember lOaO. 
From 10^0 to 1^42 he was Imianulin' of tbe 
IVfHx ^Taniiuar M^bool at Cambridge. Ho 
held thu rollegs offices of leirturer in rhetoric 
ill 16:11), (ir<-«k Iwtumrin lt]42, nnd Hi-'bra'W 
lecinrcr in 1643. Keiiig a tealoas defender 
of the dutrch of Kngbind, lie preached il 
sermon ' toiuliiujiechinm' (t'ambridge, lt>42, 
4io> at 8t. Mary's, the university cburcb, in 
Iti42, and, u this v;ta highly offensive to 
the presbyterians, he was ejected fh)m his 
fcllowsbt]) and hin school. Afterwarda, * to 
avoid (heir barbaritie:;,' be withdraw fio 
i'Vanoe, and was patronised at l^uis liy Sir 






RichBid Browne, clerk of bis inajesty's 
couacil, and for some months he officiated 
in that gentleman's oratory or chapel, where 
he frequently argued with the opposite party 
concerning the visibility of their church 
(Kennbtt, Bfguter and Chronkk, p. 2:i9). 
Sabaequently he became chaplain to Ralph, 
lord Hopton, in whose service hi continued 
until that nobleman's death in 1 652, being 
then ' accounted one of the prime sutTerers 
of the English clergy beyond the seas.' He 
oftem-ards resided at Caen. 

At the Restoration he was re-elected frl- 
low of CaiuB College, and he demanded his 
original seniority, 30/. a year as compensa- 
tion for his sequestered fellowship from 
1644, and SI. a. year for the rent of his 
rooms firom the same date. The college re- 
fused to grantthis demand, but allowed him 
10/. a year ' for the present.' Lator, on 
6 July 166S, he was allowed the value of his 
fellowship for the two years and a half dur- 
ing which it was vacant after his ejection, 
and some allowance was made for rent of 
his rooms ' out of respect to his deserts and 
sufferings' (Vesk, Biogr. Hist, of Oonville 
and Ctum Coll. 1897, i. 286). On 29 April 
1662 Watson, who at that time was one of 
the chaplains to James, duke of York, was 
created by diploma D.D. of the university of 
Oxford, in September 1062 be was presented 
to the rectory of Pewsey, AV'iltshire. He 
was collated to the prebend of Warminster 
Ecclesia in the church of Sarum on 29 March 
1666^ was appointed master of the ho^ital 
at Heytesbury, Wiltshire, in 1671 ; and on 
19 Dec, 1671 he wa.** installed in the pre- 
bend of Bitten in the church of Sarum 
<Le Nete, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 058, 659). 
Ha died on 13 Jan. 1684 5. Wood says he 
was ' a good scholar, but vain and conceited.' 
Besides sermons and several copies of I^tin 
verse, Watson published : 1. ' Hegicidium Ju- 
daicum; or a discourse about the Jewes 
crucifying . . . their King. With an ap- 
pendix . . . upon the late murder of ... , 
Charles the First, delivered in a sermon [on 
John xix. 14, 16] at the Ilagui', before His 1 
Majestie of Great Britaine ' [Charles II], 
The Hague, 1649, 4to. 2. ' ^kKoXovSos, or a 
1 second fuire warning to take heed of the 
IScotish Discipline, in vindication of the 
first (which the . . . Bishop of London 
Derrie published ann. 1649) against a 
schismatical and seditious reviewer, Il[obert] 
B[Billie of] G[la8gow],' The Hague, I60I, 
2 ptfl. 4to. 3. ' Historical! Collections of 
Eccleeiastick Affairs in Scotland, and Politic 
related to them.'London, 1657, 12mo. 4. 'The 
Pan^yrike, and the Storme, two poetike 
libells by Ed. Waller, vasaall to the Usurper, 

answered [in Terse] by more &ythfull aab- 
jects to his sacred Ma*' K. Charles II ' (anon.), 
tine loco, 1669, 4to. 6. 'The Royal \'otanB 
laying downe Sword and Shield, to take vp 
Prayer and Patience ; the devout practice of 
his Sacred Maiesty K. Charles I in his Soli- 
tvdes &, Sufferings. In part metrically para- 
phrased,' Caen, 1660, 8vo. 6. 'Discipline: 
(1) .A.fair Warning to take heed of the same, 
by Dr. Bramhall, &.c. ; (2) A Re\'iew of Dr. 
Bramhall ... his fair Warning, &c. ; (3) A 
second fair Warning, in vindication of the ' 
first against the seditious Reviewer,' The 
Hague, 1661, 4to. 7. ' Effata Regalia: 
Aphorisms divine, moral, politic, scatter'd 
in the Books, Speeches, Letters, &e., of 
KingCharles the First,' London, 1661, 12mo. 
8. ' Epistolaris Diatribe, una de Fide Katio- 
nali, altera de Oratia Salutari ; his subnexa 
est, De voluntate etiam ab ultimo dictamine 
intellectuB liberata, Dissertatio,' London, 
1661, 8vo. 9. An English trnnslatipn of 
' The Anciont Liberty of the Britannick 
Church, by Isaac Basire,' London, 1061, 8vo. 
To this he added ' Three Chapters concern- 
ing the Priviledges of the Britannick Church, 
selected out of a Latin Manuscript, en t it u led 
Catholicon Romanus Pacificus. \\'ritten by 
y. J. Barnes, of the Order of St. Benedict.' 
Bosire's Latin work ' Diatriba de Antiqua 
Ecelesiarum Britannicarum Antiquitate' 
was published at Bruges (1656, 8vo) under 
the editorship of Watson. 10. ' Ludio Pano- 
neticus ; Orationes olim habits Cantabrigito, 
in solemni Professione Filiorum, Artium 
Candidal or It m,' published with the college 
and univiTsity exercises of Anuila Cruso, 
London, 1665, 8vo. 11. 'A fuller Answer 
to Elimas tho Sorcerer ; or to the most ma- 
terial part (of a feign'd memoriall) towards 
the discovery of the Popish plot, with 
modest reflections upon a pretended declara- 
tion fof the late Dutchess) [^of York] for 
changing her religion, published by H. 
Maimbourg, &c. In a letter addressed to 
Mr. Thomas Jones' [theautiiorof 'Elvmas'], 
London, 1683, fol. 12. ' The right re'verend 
Dr. John Cosln, late Lord Bishop of Dur- 
ham, his Opinion (when Dean of Peter- 
borough and in exile) for communicating 
rather with Geneva than Rome : Also what 
slender authority, if any, the English 
Psalms, in rhime and metre, have ever had 
for the publick Use they have obtained in 
our Churches, and a short historical deduc- 
tion of the original design and sacrilegious 
progress of metrical psalms,' JjOndon, 1684, 
8vo; reprinted with a different title-page, 


He also edited E. Dunoon's treatiao 'Da 
adoratione Dei versus altare,' 1660, 12mo. 






«.itU. i;.^.-.-it (.'«Li CMtir'aCNiDliridg*. pp. 

'n*. IM, 1*7; FiivtaKaAlttaini Mioii. l&OO-ITU, 
ft MU> Kmmm'i R«Rl*ur. pp. S3S, 230. 371. 
4M.C7I< a*7i 1/rvntlai* UiU. M<ia. (Bebn): 
IHMspMpm. Ihm. Cat. |I, toI. ilviii. it.fW; 
ITAlfor'* H«ibrin(« of lli« Cltno- '■■ t'*^ = 
W^Mif* AUmwOiod. (llt'M) ill. «9. CI 1, It. 63. 

WATBON. lUCHAni) (1737-18Irt), 
hmltftf f4 l.l*i)il«fr, voiirif^fT Kon of Thomas 
WwNm (l')7:;-17'''.4), wax Irini in Aitnuot 
1797 (bsptiiMMl 2/i HniiL.) ut llnvi-ntliam. 
WMtflvirrlan-l, vhtfiv liu fnlbcr, n clLTgy- 
HUH, WW mii'twr < IWtl-l7<l7f of llin ffrnm- 
■•THihniJ. Am'mit In* htlirr'!! |ni]iilH wiih 
KpliruiN Cliftinlfnni ''|. v.' WotioD R'>t his 
w:h'i'>liii)t ftl lliioTiliMin : not from hin 
f*t)j<'r, wbo Iiu'I ri*«ii{iirri lii-rnm lii*! birth. 
On 'A N'lV, 17AI lio WDM ikIiiiiMcI h Hirur i^f 
Tn ml y < V.ll«'|[».,< :*iiihri Jir.- ; 3(XJ/., lufl liim hy 
ki» fallKT, |iri>viil(til Tut Ilia iittli'iitioii. Tilt- 
'Uda wnntf'il iloi;!!!!!!^ mid L'onrw inoitli-^l 

at' in wliicli III* I'nrn" ii]p ivi-i'<* I'~>ti^ r Int- 
On ftl Omltrtil^n. Hf> "nrly HIihIc ft ^mi\ 
ImpTMalon hy a citi'Vi'r crit i<<t»iii 'if mi mxti- 
mant in (.Urln* nn tlin ■ AttribiUNi,' and 

eioed ■ *cli'iUr*liip nii '2 Mny 17^7, n your 
totu tho UKiial linjt', winriiriif th'^ i>rNiRiul 
favmir rrf llm lUMtiT. ItoluTt Hmilli (IDH)- 
I7(IM) [<}. V.', Ilu^ruiltiikti-il It.A. ill Juiiiiftry 
17M( lU) mdoikI vrranKK<r. \\\n fSfiminii- 
lion i-ntidwl bim i') tliu flmt plwo, bul ' llie 
tdlli about' tlio iiijtmtirf Hono liim proved 
'mors Mirvio" tluin if ho ' liJid Uim made 
aminr wnuiHkr.' (tri 1 Oct. ]7(;0 In? wm 
■loctiid fulldw. In IT'i- b-j priTCvcOL-d M.A,. 
waa tnado iiiiMlcriiliir (III (>i'l.) with Joint 
Jebb ['J.V.], aD<l lu'liiwi William I'uley \t\-i-\ 
at a pinrh by i»iiKt("('i>ll 'I'f ins'-rlinn of & 
*non' in hii« jiiropow'd tliF-Jiiii, ' /Kn-miUui 
pwnnrum cnntrndicil liiviitiii atlribiilis.' 

On tlio drntb of John llndli-y [q. r.] in 
17(M WalKin wn^ imanimouHly flttcU-^l pro- 
i'lMnrof cbcmialry by tht> Aonate cm ID Nor. 
Ilia uwD HtHtotnuiit is (tint bi- knew nolluuK 
of clii'nii»try, ' had ni:vtT read a itylliiWt^ on 
ibt! Biibji^l, nor ewn & sinplu I'Xiwrimt'Ut ;' 
but' \w wiw ' tiri'd with Diittin'inalicM ftiid 
natural pliilfwopliy,' nnil wnntHl ' to try ' his 
'fttretifftli in o new pumiiil.' IIq sent to 
Parik tnr 'nn operator ' lllnDman), ' biiriiMd ' 
iuouwlf in lii« Ubomtory. and in foiirltwn 
■UMihl (during Trbicli lit.- had shattfiMl his 
workshop bv an ox]i1u>si<iiri bf|[iiii il [.'uunfL- 
of ehemieal lettiiren whicli wen; liiryvlv 
•Itctidtfd. At iirst anltwanl n» nn e:(peri- 
BWiteT, he aoon nllniin-d il<'xl)mlj', ami hi* 
atinQaIcouraMufL-liGinistryI>>(-iiin\>(al traded 
crowdi^l a»KiiHiM.^e». Jlw printed, but didnot 
publiflh, his ' loBtitutioQum I'licmicamm . . . 

Pvs Nvt«ll urgic*.' Ckmbridgv, 17^ Bt« 

(r«print<->d in Chemical Euay, VoL u.), •» 
A t4?\t-buok fur port of his courw, sad • oob- 
tnbiilion to l-lit; woric <if eiring 'a. scioilific 
form ' to chriini.nry. His in^enioaa mgiaoir, 
'IDtjMTimentN and Observations on Tftriooa 

1>hRnoin(;na attttndin^ the •ottttiotu of saba,' 
iroitf^bl litm u unosimous election (? F«b^ 
17<!t>)a«fi.'ltoR'ofthelioyal Society, and wa* 
Irauslsted from the 'Triia<iictioa»' (U.-?^) 
into Fn-nfli. luJiine and July 177:J hedis- 
cnr(>a'd that a tkt'rtnomctvT ^atu a higher 
itiilic-ation whrn Lh» bulb woa patntc<d with 
Inilinn inh. Th» Aenms the origin of the 
black-bulb I hermometer. Tbv introdoctioB 
of pint ilium, wronf^lyoAcribf^ to him, belongs 
lo Willtuut Itrownri^g [t). v.] 

Tbe ohcini!itry chftir was iinendowot). mad 
I III- univiTxiiy provided nothing but a lectors 
riK^m. Tlirou^h the interest of his coll«{^ 
friend, John I.uthir, willi L'hiirl'i' Wot»OD- 
Wentwtirlb, .secmd uinnjiUA of Kuchiugbom 
\t\. V,]. and hia own peraigtenoj with Ntw- 
caal le, Wat mm oblaint^l from th* crown (July 
I7(i'i> « «iipi-nd of KXW, during; \a& tantiw 
of tliB chair, refusing to hnvw it K"tl!i,'«l on hint 
for lifu. Besides cliemifllry he studied ona- 
vomv nnd iiractised dissection. 

TluMleiithir>()ct. lT7l>of Tbnmaaltuthcp- 
forth [ti-v.j left vBcatit thu r^'gius vhuir of 
diviuily, whiib 'hud long bii-u l!w Bcerct 
object' of AVatson's ambition. Ut* vfu^ 
hovrovvr, not 4UKtilii.-d for candidal un>, 
hnving no degree in divinity. 'I(t hard 
trareUing and eoiue udruilneM' he obtainvd 
the king'* n)nii<lnli<, and was created U.I). 
on 11 Orr., tlie ilny befon.' the «xatDiuaiiu& 
of the wiiididntea. He wan unaiunioiialy 
tlectwl (31 Ocl.Xand I'ultTcd iJ]jon nllice on 
1 1 Nov. Tbe rector>' of Somershaiu, Htin- 
tingdonshire, went with tlii- rbair. 

Al (be cud of (lie year he printed 'an 
ossftv,' alri'sdy in tbe press, 'On lbe.^iibJM!t« 
of Ohi'mistrv and their gtfuorul dirt«ions.* 
1771 , Bvo, followed by bis ' I'lan. of Cheniciil 
Lecture^.' 1771, ^vo, inti^nding tbi:se as t«k- 
ing leave of iLe urientr. Hisi ' Gasay' was 
dracrihtHl in the 'Joiininl Kncyclop^wjuft* 
«" indebted to DTIolbach's ' Sy»teme de la 
Nature' (17701, a worlt wbirh Watson had 
never seen. For some ycura he kept hi»- 
resolution to abandon chemistry; but' in. 
: 1781 hfl publifibuJ a tint vulutne of 'Che- 
' micol E«*avs,' foUutved at intervals by fourl 
j others. The first two volumei! wort! tnsA-i 
lated intoOvrmanby F. .V.Galliicli, I^ipiig, ■ 
j 1782, r*vo. In the preface to the fourth vo- 
lume (9 Feb. l"tM3), be iinnouwj** that, he 
bad 'destroyed sll ' bis 'chemical manu- 
wrripts,' iutimating that this was ' k sacnftes 
to other people's notions ' of the propcr< 




p&tion of a dignitary of the churcli. The I 
'Chemical Esears' reached a seventh edi- I 
tinn in 1800. The moat notable essays are | 
( 1 ) On ' the IWrees of Heat at which Water . 
. . , Boils' (1/81^, describing an experi- 
ment on the boiling of water in a closed 
flask nearly free from air, which has become 
classical; (2) 'On Pit-coal' (1781 ),suree8t- I 
ing the condensing of the volatile products 
from coke-ovens, an operation vrhich has 
recently become of ^reat industrial im- j 
portance; (3) on 'the smelting of Lead 
Ore' (1782), su^estin^ the condensation of 
lead fume, and of the sulphurous acid pro- , 
duced in the roasting of sulphide ores; 
(4) ' On Zinc' (1786). In 1787 government ' 
consulted him about improvements in ffun- 
vowder ; his advice is said to have resulted 
in a saving of 100,000/. a year, 

On entering upon the duties of the divinity 
chair, Watson frankly admits that he ' knew 
as much of divinity as could reasonably be 
expected of a man whose course of studies had 
been directed to, and whose time had been 
iiilly occupied in, other pursuits.' Neglecting 
systematic and historical theology, he de- 
voted himself to biblical stiidiex, recognising 
DO authority but the Now Testament. Ilia 
professorship connected him ofticiBlIy with 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel ; he refused to contribute to it, believ- 
ing its agents ' more zealous in proselytising 
dissenters to episcopacy than in converting 
heathens to Christianity' (Letter to Mawres, 
1 1 Oct. 1777), To the agitation for relief of 
the clerCT from Bubscription, promoted by 
Francis Blackbuma (1705-1787) [q. v.] and 
Francis Stone [q. vX he did not give his 
name. He printed, however, ' A Ijetter . . . 
by a Christian A\Tiig ' (1772, 8vo), demurring 
to the expediency of exacting any subscrip- 
tion beyond a declaration of belief in the 
acriptures, and placed a copy in the hands 
of every member of the House of Commons 
on 5 Feb. 1772, the day before the debate 
ou the clerical petition. ' A Second Lt-tter 
... by a Christian Whig' (1772. 8vo), deal- 
ing with the subscription at graduation, was 
inscribed to Sir George Savite [q, v.l, the 
advocate of the clerical petition, whom^Vat- 
aon did not personally know. The two letters 
were not acknowledged aa his till 1815. 
Apart from expediency,hedefended the riffht 
of every church to require uniformity of doc- 
trinal profession, in ' A Brief State of the 
Principles of Church Authority '(1773, 8vo, 
anon.) This hi repeated as a charge at 
Llandaffin June 1813. He felt more confi- 
dence in his views when he found they were 
those of Benjamin Hoadly (167&^17(J1) 

At the end of 1773 he was presented to 
'a sinecure rectory ' in the diocese of St. 
Asaph, which he exchanged early in 1774 
for a prebend at Ely, owing both pieces of 

freferment to the good offices of Augustua 
lenrj- Fiteroy, third duke of Grafton [q. v.J, 
then chancellor of the university. His uni- 
versity sermon on 29 May 1776, on *The 
Principles of the Ilevolution Vindicated' 
(Cambridge, 1776, 4tO! several editions), 
gave lasting otlence at court, and interfered, 
Watson thought, with his just promotion. 
John Dunning (afterwards first Baron Ash- 
burton) [(J. v.l said ' it contained just such 
treason as ouglit to be preached once a month 
at St. James's,' Several pamphlets appeared 
in reply, AVatson was told the sermon pre- 
vented his appointment as provost of Trinity 
College, Dublin, but this is chronologically 
impossible [see Helt-Hutchissos, Joiis, 

Laterin the year he published his 'Apology 
for Chrifitianity . , . tetters ... to Edward 
Gibbon' (1776, 12mo), the result of 'a 
month's work in the long vacation,' under- 
taken to meet the challenge of Sir Robert 
Graham (1744-1836) [q. v.] He sent Gibbon 
a copy before publication ; courteous letters 
(2 and 4 Nov,) passed between them, and in 
Gibbon's ' Vindication ' (January 1779) Wat- 
son is mentioned with marked respect, as 
'the most candid of adversaries.' Ah a popu- 
lar antidote to Gibbon's fifteenth chapter, the 
'Apology' was widely welcomed, and has 
been constantly reprinted. 

On 18 Oct. 17(9 he was collated arch- 
deacon of Ely, by his bishop, Edmund Keeno 
[q. v.], and in August Keene gave him the 
rectory of Northwold, Norfolk (Colk's mnnii- 
scripl' Atienef Cnntnhr. Add. JIS. 5883, 
p. 171), In February 1 781 Charles Manners, 
fourth dukeof ltuthmd[q. v.], who had bufii 
his pupil, and whose party he had aided in 
the Cambridgeshire election of 1780, pre- 
sented him to the valuable rectory of Knap- 
toft, Leicestershire, lit' then resigned North- 
wold. A fever which attacked him in 1781 
was attended with complications which left 
his health i)ermancntly impaired. In July 
1782 the see of Llandutf was vacant by the 
translation of Shnte IJurringlnn [q.v.] Graf- 
ton and liutland made interest with "William 
Petty (then Lonl Shelbume, afterwards first 
Marquis of Lansdowne) [q. v.], and Watson 
wns appointed. He wns consecrated on 
20 Oct. 1782, Owing to the meapreness of 
the revenues of the see, he was allowed to 
retain his other prefermentsfexcept the arch- 
deaconry) ; ho reckoned his whole emolu- 
ments at 2,200/. a year. 

He at once drew up proposals for a redis- 


tribation uf dinrdi rarvnuw, wttb 
oqualirinK «piaoopaI aeuI improving nun- 
culsl inooous. The ccbeiBe wm pcmtMl 
(>inv>?Dib?r 1783>, nnc!, itf^irut Sl»ilDam«'* 
odvier, piiblish'MJ lu ' A ].(-it4T to Areh- 
biiliop ComwaUis on tbe Church R«r(^ue8 ' 
(1788, 4<o>. Bxc-pt IVilbr Port*ii* [{\. v.\ 
BO bUbop adiDQwlAl^ed ico receipt. Jljchsrd 
CmBberTuid (1732-lHll) [q.v.\ who had 
wrillon bgfur* nniiiat Wslmn, attacked ibe 
• LetWr," m dfl others; \\ iHiam Cooke 
(I'H-ITW) [q. v.] WM ooi! of tlio fi'w who 
npurovM lb« plan. Walitntt n-turntxl to the 
nubiecL in u i-|Htich (34) May) in tht< IIousi! 
of Ijurd*. 

To pmTQot<> bihlienl Atndr. >VAUnn edit(>d 
' A Colli-ction of Theological Tmcis ' (Cano- 
bndgt, }7^<!',,^i vol*. 8vo: Snd ■flit. 1791), 
witliii[lL-<Jicattuiito(he<]ur«D. IJftbe twenty- 
four worhn hL<r*.' rcj>fiiiU<i],sonip uf llw most 
iaipofUiiit are br ilifMnniif^ diviues, <j«or^ 
l)«l»On 'q. V.\ f'HUiiiiol (Chandler, NathaoicJ 
LardnurJq.v.T, and John Tiiyl«r(I<»4-I7»il) 
[q. V.': (Ill llm death of hm frwud Lullier 
(II /mi. 17^f() ho cutne in for an esuto 
trbirli n'Alwwl 'JO.'^W. Afu*r mi illnt-iM anil 
a vUit lo llfith, under mt-diral adrirn he 
appoititixl i~G Muy l't<7) lliomu KipKna 
[q.T.j as his d^-niity in ilie divioity chKir,An3 
took luave of llie unirersily. 

In 1788 hf* joined hi* old adioolfbllow Wil- 
liam I'rwtton (li. I78f>), tlivn bishop of Ferns 
and l^i^hliu, in rwlorin;; (h« llwvrabam 
achoolhoUA'.-, in«oribin(^ it to the memories of 
il» founder and hi« father. l''i.\iiig \u» r^ 
flidraCfi ill ^VeHtmorelflnd, tirHt at OoXJAro 
Tower, tlicn ar. Culgnrth I'ark. vrboro ha 
built a hoiiwr (I7'^0), he devotod liini*elf to 
QXtvudvL' ulantatioiifi and impravcmt'nt of 
wtmtK Iun<iK. The Soirii-lj' of Art.i awiinlcd 
Itim a pretDiutn foe hi^ paper on wasio lands 
tpuhliuird in Itunlwrii OrHH|;i<'a! K«ii»j-«, 
IBOf), vol. v.) Amirhfr paper Ipublidlied in 
lHO'')'>hlainpil th'-TBiir before t lie i^ld lotdal 
of the board ')f iipriciilturf. Wordsworth 
But>en>d ul his ' vi-ui'tuWe miinufuctorj'.' He 
was otivn in l^^ndon. and rixitcd Ma diocoae 
tjivttmally, but fninkly rv«o(ds his various 
effotta to obtnin translation to abetter. Ilia 
'Considamlions on tU« ICxpodicncy of Ro- 
Yimng thn Litur^fr ajiJ Arlii-lea ' (1790,Hvti) 
van anonytnoufi, but acknowledeed in iM<>. 

Hy far tU" most pujiulur of liis writings 
WAA IiU'Apolog}- for the Rible . . . U-t- 
tvra . . . to llioniiu PkiDe' (179U, IStno). 
Thia ia usuallj dcacribed a« an answer to 
PfflincV ' Aav of lleason* (170J), which 
^VnljUHi bad not sct-n. It i«directL^da)fain6t 
i>Hine'8 ' SMond Part ' (17iUi), and uspMriallv 
aoaiuM Paiuo's tre«lmentofacripturv, which 
Watvou tboi^ht unwonhy of bis paweru. 

The * Apolofc; ' was aasierljr rvad in Amerieft 
aa wtdl aa in lliid countn-. In udditioa tO 
very ntunnooE nvrinle il haa b>_'<.'n abridged 
(Ifi^O, 8vo> b* Francu Wrao^haiii |^q- f.], 
and tmn^lalrd into French (1>'^1!0, 1-iuol hy, 
T,.oiiig Th«odor« Wntouillac. Po»tbuuioa* 
fmffmentA of Paim^'s 'An»iv«r* wore pub- 
liabed in New York (l)^10-^4)> and in part 
FPpnntfd in London in 1n37. 

In hi* '.\ddT«t> to thu Pvoitlo uf Qmt 
Brilain ' ( 17UU, f^ro. 'M Jan.) Watson m^ 
that thv ptvgTV4f» of ovvnt « had rvDdi.Ted th* 
vigoroua proaecutiun of the war itK-vitaUa, 
and apjproTpd I^tl'st^lpo«itioo of the incoae- 
taz. Tlw ' Addrww*' w.-nt thnm^h f<7urteea 
4>ditinn!<, he.*idee pirated repriniA, and wag 
wididy diBtnbut«<r br the (rnvemmeDt. ' 
lUply "(Kilw) hy(;,'tli.-rt AVakcfltld fq. v. 
led to \Vake[lcld's irini and imprLsonmuni 
M'atson, who hitd )'T('hiuit,'>-d courtpnut nolc^ 
with WalietlvM, aftinus tliat hi) ' I'xk hjioa 
paitui to prafeut thia |iiiM«cutton.' He li>ok' 
no Doticu of the taunt that he hud chan^< 
his prioniil*!*, anti followed uii tlic tonir. .ifj 

I iho 'Addrcra' in a charpo (Junu 171>iJ 
htirU-r)iy. Hix Hiwwb in t!ip Ior(U(l] Apri_ 
KIK)), advocalinfT (he iininn will) In^brndf' 

I waaattadivd byI^j«minFlowerr<(.^.\who 
w«A fined and impriaoDcd for • bi'i-Mch (At 
prifilejcv. Wataon had not K<en the atiac 
and wa.4 on hi* way to Caljirarth when thm 
houw! took action. 

While occupied in political and ecoDonue 
qunstion», Watson kept in viow tJio intereats 
of practical ivLiKi>ui. To Wilberforcv, whom 
he supported in his oH'orts against tht' wlara 
trade, Iw ct»ii[DiiiiicEt«d (J April li^OO) a 
K-bfjDC for twenty m*w churfln.-!* Ui Ijun' 
with free sitting Whin I'rejlinphaUw-n'i 
' AVlnift ... of the ('hriatiao Itvlijpon 
(IHOI, ^.vof WHS iftDued at the quaeii'a 
with nishiiu I'orteUK a4 editor, he wrote 
Tirafton (23 Oct.), ' I have not my r.J 
to \fam from a Lutheron divin*.' He _ 
liAhrd in IMM a traft in favour of Roman 
calh'dic vti]aiic:i|>aliun, and wroto (27 MArcb 
liSO<'>) 10 remove the scruplaa of ahuly about 
inurrjiiii; into the Urvek church. The de- 
fence of revi-ahil ndtgion was his frcquant 
topic both in the putpit and through iheprcM. 
Ill 18fl.'> Sir \\ ftll«r ScoUwn* hi>> piiMt at 
Col^nli. Rawniley affirms that rix>kflf^t- 
inff was merrily pursued then? by the bisboi ' 
ROBS. In f)ctobi.'r IWW Wai.*n« hoil a itVigi 
paralytic attack, followed in 'April 1810 ' 
another, which cripuk-d his rtflit band. 

ririn^ of coiiipluting a projected iHTiea 
olo^cal eawya, in IHll he 'treaiwd' 
'divinity aa' lia 'twDnty-fin< years 
treated ' bia ' chemical jmprra.' Aft«T ~ 
bcr 1813 his health rapidly declined. 




died at Cal^rth Park on 4 July 1816, and 
was buried in Windermere church, where 
is s tablet to his memory. His portrait, by 
George Komney [q. t.], was engraved by 
William Thomas Fry[q. v.] ; the code of the 
bat and the poae of the figure give a military 
air t-o his refined and resolnte countenance. 
Another portrait painted bv Reynolds belongs 
to the family (Cat. Gwlph Rrhib. No. 186). 
He married at Lancaster (21 Dec. 1773) 
Dorothy (d. 11 April 1831, aged 81), eldest 
daugbterofEdwara Wilson of jballamTower, 
Westmoreland, and had six children. His 
son Richard was LL.B. (1813) of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and prebendary of Llan- 
daff (1813) and Wells (1815). 

Watson's versatility and power of applica- 
tion were alike remarkable. W'hat he did 
he did well, up to a certain point, and then 
turned to something else. His scientific 
"work was sound and ingenious, if not bril- 
liant, and careful and clear in its exposition 
of current %'iew8. He never turned to his- 
tory, though he accepted membership (1B07) 
in the 'Massachusetts Historical bociety.' 
lie was an admirable letter-writer, courtly, 
pointed, and cautious. Besides the works 
above mentioned he published: 1. 'Visita- 
tion Articles for the Diocese of Llandaff,' 
1784, 4to. 2. ' Sermons . . . and Tracts,' 
1788,8vo(cIiie6yreprint8). 3. 'Thoughts on 
the intended Invasion,' 1803, 8vo. 4. ' Mis- 
cellaneous Tracts,' 1815, 2 voK 8vo (in- 
cludes sermons, chaises, political and eco- 
nomic tracts, chiefly reprints). He contri- 
buted to the ' I'hiloMophical Tran.sactions ' 
and to the 'Transactions' of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, of which 
he was elected an honorary member tm 
16 Dec. 1782; these papers arc Included in 
the 'Chemical Essays,' 

[Anecdotes of the Life. . .written I'j liim- 
eclf . . .revised in 1SI4, publishetl by hi» Kun 
Richard, 1817 (poitrftit), 2nd edit. 1818. 2vol3., 
and criticised in A Critical Examination, 
1818 (partly rcprioted from the Courier), and 
in the Quarterly Review, Oetober 1817, liiin- 
bargh Review, Juno 1818 ; London Ri^vicw, Oc- 
tober 1782, p. 277; British Public Chiiriictera, 
1798, p. 261 ; [Muthias's] Pursuits of Literiiturf, 
1798, p. 181 ; cf. Mathiits'e Heroic Epistle, 1780 ; 
Wakefield's Memoirs, 1804, 1. 356, 609, li. 118; 
Meadlej's Memoirs of Paley, 1809, p. 18; 
ThomBOn'sHist.ofthe Royal Soc. 1812; Nichols's 
Lit. Anccd. 1814 viii. 140, 1815 ix. 68G ; I)ii>- 
grnphical Diet, of Living Anthors, 1816, p. 375 ; 
Gent. Mai;. September 1816, p. 274 ; AnnaU of 
Philosophy (ThomsoD), April 1317, p. ^-^7 ; 
Annual Bioer, 1817; Beloe's Seiagenarinn, 1817, 
i. 49 ; Wordjworth's Description of the Lukes, 
1820, p. 73 ; Rutfs Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, 
U.372; Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. Anglic. (Hardy), 

' 1854, I 107, 353, ii. 256, 268 ; Romilly'a Ora- 
dnnti Cantabr. 1866; Atkinson's Worthieu of 
Westmoreland, 1856, i. 185; De Qnincey'a 
Literary Reminiscences (Manon), ii. 195; Percy's 
Metaltni^y, pMsim; Hunt's Religious Thought 
in England, IS73, iii. 361 ; Fitsjarocs Stephen's 
Hone Sabbalics, 1892, iii. 208; Bavnaley's 
Literary AssociatioiiB of the Engiiah lAkes, 
1894, ii. 76; Paine's Wridnga (Conwsy), 1896, 
iv. 258 ; extract from parish register of Hever- 
sham, per the Rev. T. M. Gilbert; icfomiation 
from the university registry, Cumbridge, per 
C. S. Kenny, LL.D. ; miuuten of Mnnehesler 
Liteniry and Philosophical Soc. ; infurmation 
respecting Watson's chemical work kindly fur- 
nished by P. J. Iliirtog, esq.] A. G. 


' WATSON, EICHAUD (1781-1833), 
I methodist divine, seventh of eighteen chil- 
! dren of Thomas (rf. 27 Nov. 1812, aged 70) 
: and Ann Watson, was bom at IJarton-upon- 
i llumber, Lincolnshire, on 22 Fob. 1781. 
' His father was a saddler and a Calvinistic 
dissenter. Richard had a good education, 
bcgiunirg Latin in lus seventh year under 
Matthew Barnett, curate of St. Peter's, 
Burton, and entering Lincoln grammar 
school in 1791. In 179o lie was apprenticed 
' to WilliamBescoby, a joinorat Lincoln. Ho 
was precocious in stature (six feet two in- 
ches ), in range of rending, and in power of 
j address. Having spoken at a prayer meet- 
I ingon 10 Feb. 1796, the day of his grand- 
! mother's death, he preached his first sermon 
■ at Boothby, near Lincoln, on 23 Feb., being 
just fifleun years old. .\pplying at the 
: quarttT ses.sions in Lincoln for registration 
, under the Toleration Act, he was refused as 
; an mjjirenl ice, but obtained repistrntion on 
, repiiiring to Newark for the purpose. Bes- 
coby now voluntarily surrendend the ap- 
prent iceship indenture, and Watson removed 
to Newark iis assistant to Thomai Cooper, 
then stationed there a.s Wesleyan preacher. 
At the conferi'iice of 179B ho was received 
on trial, and at that of 1801 he was received 
into full connexion as a travelliufr minister, 
luivinp meantime been stalioned at Ashby- 
de-ln-Zouche, Castle Doningtoii, and Derby, 
and published 'An Apologj- for the Metho- 
dists' (1800). Shortly after his full admis- 
sion, resenting nn unfounded report of his 
becoming un Arian, ho witlidrew from the 
Wesleyan coniie-vion and from preaching. 
He tried secular business for a short time, 
but without success. 
I His marriage with the daughter of a local 
! preacher in the methodist ' new connexion' 
, 'see KiLiiAii, .\i.b.\axdkr] led him into 
that body ; in 1803 he was taken on proba- 
tion, and in 1807 fully admitted to its 
ministry and appointed secretary of its con- 




fereriM, Imving beta u«islant Mcrctsty from 
WXy, U* was ftali'}iied lit Htuckpon, and 
friim ISOftnt l.iriTtMM»I. [ler.i he did some 
liturnrv work for Thornnfl Knjf. a Livvrp'ol 

SubliRfier, inpliiiiini,' a tiopiilor gtiidf, ' Tlie 
tmtiffcr in Liv.T|>r)ol (,1W"; litli imI. 
IH3l>)- i^" hvcnm» (liH«8ti»lieil willi tW 
<liM.-i|iliim of tli« ' new conm-xion.' anil later 
iu I he vwiir hi! n-«i({M>;ii liin minisirv, nnd 
reliiriKtJ ae 11 lay mi--mbi>r to lliv WeKl'-ynn 
'\xMly. Kuyu vii^ii{ccil liim m vdilor of t tiv 
' l<tvrr|M>ol CoiiniT,' iMi4bli«lird nii a wccVly 
cooBcrrutive nnftn on Juii. \>^iS, llii- fir«l 
pnlilicnl [ww-r jmliliitliuJ in I.ivi*ri>ool ; the 
■hilitv )■>> diii[ilikyfil le<l to !uR uniclcs buin^ 
VQpiii^ liy n lv«din(r I^mJon dnily, aii<l 
bmiffht him oflVrs nf nimilnr work iu 
Loudon. .labex Hunting [i|. v.] end trthiTB 
limed him in regime liio minifitrv, nnd Uj rbe 
wl-«li'.vnn c;oMf«iwnn« of IH12 he was rvin- 
«tatc>l ill hiH foTuier |)uailioii and jitftlloncd 
■t Wii1[<>ii''ld. wlioui-u in 1814 lie was triinft- 
ferrod t« Mull. 

Th.' lariiT lialf of 1813 witJlffRMtl tin; 
bpjfiniiii'K^ "t ti ffTcnt dfvtdopiin'nt in Wi*s- 
Icynn H'nl for frtri-ifn miwioJic. The innvt-- 
ment wiut inepit^d by Mil- project ufThoitum 
Goiui ['i- T.I (or the evftiiji>?Ufl(iiif>Ti of India. 
Local luiMionary societit'ii were forinyd for 
niiiinn fandf. Into tKi» new iiini'omnit, 
af^er fome little h>-^it»1 Ion, Watson threw 
biiDaoir with greai vigour. IJedriew up n 
plan of a (p^niTal Wralovan inii'i'iimury 
•ocicly, which woi •pi>'pii.h1 by the confer- 
ence, and has sinco been n?pTiiiU>d in the 
Hic«v»»ivv n<porlB uf iho fjcii'ly- '11>« fame 
of his pulpit powiT n-als rouinly on the 
MiecvM of his »)>|h.>bUi on jtrtiiit <ii'uaai<>ii», iu 
di^eniiifT inLrn-nL in thit W i*»li-yun mt*- 
eiooB, and in Bliniulaciii|r L^OurtK for their 
iupport. In ISlt! he wiit n-m^ivcd tn Lon- 
don, nnd mndeoiieof two jii'ni'riilitL'crL'larif^a 
to ihfl We^levnii miwions, hi* Ijeinjj Ihi" 
dopartmrtit of linme corr<'9[iondenee, wilh 
Hi|ion"i«i'>n of r*'i>ort* and publications. For 
eloren years from this point hi« life if 
idviitiGiid wilb rbe dia-otion of luiMioEiary 
fint«r])rl«t.-. In If*21 he was made a resident 
uiiasionury sucrwlary in Loudon ; be held 
tbu nllice till \ii'2T, liaving bf'iii pivtiideul c>f 
conferenm diiriiig the previous y«-ar. and 
Tisilvd Sc'illnnd and Ireliind in thiil eajm- 
cily. In \t*'27 he was appointed to Man- I 
obester, succeeding Jubez uimiing; ho re- 
tiirnwl to l^nnd^tn in I.**:?!:!, and in IS.Sd bo 
was appointed a ivsidcnt secretary to 
the mi^ionary socii^ly. 

Meanwhile hi» liu'niry nclivitr wa« con- ' 
«'id«rtLhle. In 1H18 h« piibhiihe^ a tn^atiae , 
on the ' KtcmnL S'umkip'in confutation of 
BDIDQ npiciions recently advanced in Adam 1 

Otrke'a ' Comtnentary.' This firat bros^d 
bim inio nutp aa a ibvoltwiaa. lo 1890 uv 
wttfl selecled by tin* eoiift-n'-nc* to ivnian. 
a revii'w of Soutbey'a ' Life of Wesley,' 
which, though ttm- n* a hiriffrsfiliy, shoir^ 
no understanding of the motiviM of thft 
fuimdcT of methodi«m, and litlle of tk» 
principb^H and di»>ciplini: of the inethodi^t 
societies. Watson produced a gravo and 
cntislic refutation under the title * Obs<erTa- 
tioiw on Mr. Sijiitbwv'* •' Life of Wesley."' 
The coatroveny escit4!d an interest beyond 
ibu relifjious world, the- priucv regent rv- 
murliiug, ' Mr. Wataoii bai (be ad\nn 
over my launwte.' WatsonV ' Theolog iral 
IiiHtitnto*' (1n:*:;-23, »ix i>art«; new v4, 
1877, 4 Tola. IJmoi, tbe fnni of nine- yean/. 
Inboiir, deservedly ranks among ilw abl 
r\poAilion.4 of liiti .-Vrminian sy«t*in (cf. 
llACi:j>HAt'u, Uitt. 0/ Di^tn'ne*, iit. 25^'). 
IIi« 'Biblical and Theological Llitliouarv 
tl'^I) io It careful and intelligent c^Jmpif^- 
I ion. on a plan moivcomprvheoi.ivelhaH had 
prcviouj;U bven attempted in Kn;;Ii>f^li. 111 
•Lifeof'lhB Krv. .lohn We. W ' iliiHl\ 
nTittan Ml tli« nxiui'st of the eonferentvi,, 
contninN fn-»b and important mailer; an 
(Hliiinn in Fmrndi, with iwlditi<in», wa» pnb- 
liitbed jit Jersey t l^JS, -' vols. **vo). Tti» 
'Siipplemenr ' ( I8S1 ) lo Ihr Wt-»W«n bymii' 
booH waa maialv of his election, with eoail 
assistance fnim1'homasJaok*oa( 178^1873! 

From bis intimate knowledge of t 
miwion Held lie early became interested ia 
the elnvery qnu^tioa. Tbu r««olutiuos la 
favour of t<mannpatina adopted by thi- mis> 
fiiouary ootuinitti.'e |lt^2->J uid tliot« adopt 
hv confiTn^Qw (IHSO) wen- draflrd by fiim, 
lie wiiB nut,however,fnr imiiiediole omanci 
patioM. One of tli" I«j^t productions nf hi 
j>en waa an able letter on tb« suhjecl ad' 
drt-Aswl (Heceraber ]S\i-2) to Sir f'hoaiai 
Fowell Biislfln [i|. v.] A ittrong inc-thodist. 
aud an able upbolderofliie coniiexioniildif- 
ciplino against the iodcpendvut tendimcim 
iiianifi.-«ied in \><'2S, \Vut»uii cuuatanlly 
wrol« of iho Anglican co'iimunion a* ' lliA 
mother of us all, wna deeply alladied 
ibe .\n{i;lic)LiL itrnrer-btHjk, and was anxio 
lo krep raeinndism in friendly rclatioi 
with tln! ftitnbU^hnieDt. 

In nrenchinar Wat*i>n'i» style wa? lofly, 
refiueJ, and pellucid. Wiibout declauation 
h6 pmditccd overwhi'I tning eflfecls by ahxilutA 
eloquence. Ilts delivery wait cotntnandinf 
and deliberate, with rare action. Ilix ftunv 
lur^-lv reelH on lliu four roluaKUoffiermont 
includtHi ill hii* works. II>f was also c«! 
brated aa a platform spuuker. 

lie wu« in ailing healtb from 183<$, H 





oa 8 Jan. l^SS, and was buried intbegrave- 
jard behind City Road Chapel, LondoD. I 
Funeral seirnoos were preached by Bunting i 
jxt City Koad, and by Robert Alder at Bristol. ] 
Hia portrait was one of the most character- 
istic works of John Jackson (1778-1831) 
[a. v.], and was engraved by T. A. Dean ; it 
^tveslbim an ascetic look, partly due to the 
emaciation of illness ; the features are fine, 
and the forehead high. He married (1801) 
Mary Henshaw of Castle Donington, who 
survived him with a son Thomas and a 
<laughter Marv, who married James Dixon 

Watson's 'Works' were edited, with 
' Life,' by Thomas Jackson (1834-7, 12 vols. 
8vo; reprinted 1847,13 vols. 8vo). A vo- 
lume of ' Sermons and Outlines' (I860, 8vo) ' 
contains an essay on his character and ' 
writings by J. Dixon, and a ' Biographical 
Sketch' by "\V, Willan. Besides sermons 
and the works noted above moy be men- ; 
tionetl: 1, 'A Defence of the Wealeyan 
ifethodist Missions in the West Indies,' 
1817,8vo. 2. 'Conversationsforthe Young,' 
18.30, 12mo; Sthed. 1851, 8vo. Posthumous j 
was 3. 'An Exposition of . . ■ St. Matthew ' 
and St. Mark, and of . . . detached parts , 
of . . . Scripture,' 1833, 8vo ; edited by 
Thomas Jackson, being part of a projected ! 
iiommentary on the New Testament ; this 
and the ' Biblical and Theolofjical Dictionary ' 
<1831, 8vo) are not included in the ' Works.' 
He wrote many reviews in the mcthodist 
magazines. ' 

[funernl Sermon by Alder, 1833; ilenioriiils 
by Bunting, 1833; Life l>y JackF^on, 1834; 
>Sketi;h by Willan (1865) ; TransiictioHH of the 
Hist, Soo, of I^nciuthire and Cheshire, 1861, p. 
136; SicvfDson's City Hoad Chaptl (18721, p. 
664 ; Sutton'H List of Lancashire Authors, 1876, 
J). 67; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 1802, 
p. 728; iDforoiatton from the editor of the 
Liverpool Courier.] A. G. 

WATSON, ROBERT (Jl. 1555), pro- 
testant, was bom in the city of Norwich. 
L'nder Edward VI he attained considerable 
fame as a civilian, and became steward to 
Archbishop Cranmer, On the accession of 
Jlarr he was deprived of his post and re- 
turned to Norwicn. There he was arrested 
for his opinions, and, after a month's im- 
prisonment, sent to London to appear before 
the council, by whom he was sent back to 
be confined in the bishop's palace. After an 
imprisonment of a year and four months he 
was examined on his views concerning the 
jeucharist. He was set at liberty through 
thegoodoffices of John Barret (d. 1563) J^q.v.], 
«n declaring that he held the doctrme of 
Xransubatantiation aa far as it was expounded 

in scripture and understood by the catholic 
church and the fathers. John Christopher- 
son [q. v.], the dean of Norwich, regarding 
this profession as eqiiivoeal, endeavoured 
again to lay hands on liim, but he succeeded 
in escaping to the continent. While in exile 
he published an account of his trial and his 
controversy with his examiners, entitled 
'^tiologia Roberti Wntsoni Angli,' 1556, 
8vo. The preface is dated 1 Nov. 1555, but 
the place of publication is unknown. 

[W.irson's /Ktiologia; Strype's MemoriaJa of 
Cranmer, 1812, pp. 450, 610.J E. I. C. 

WATSON, ROBERT (Jl. 1581-1605), 
almanac-maker, matriculated as a sizar of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, on 22 Nov. 
1581, and proceeded B.A. from Clare Hall 
in 1.584-5, He had returned to Queens' 
College by 1589, in which year ho was 
licensed by the university to practise physic. 
He pursued his profession at Braintree in 
Essex, and combined the study of medicine 
with that of astrology. He published for 
several years an nlmnnac containing a fore- 
cast for the year, Tlie earliest extant ap- 
peared in 1695, entitled ' Watsonn. 1595. 
A new Almanacke and Prognostication for 
. . . 1595, . . , By Robert Watson. Im- 
printed at London by Richarde Watkins 
and James Robertes,' 8vo. There is a copy 
at Lambeth; copies in the British Museum 
are dated respectively 1598 and 1605, the 
latter copy being among the Bagford papers, 

[Cooper's Athente Cnntabr. Hi. 310; Omy's 
Index to JIazlitt'a Collections.] E. J. C. 

WATSON, ROBEHT (1730 ?-1781), his- 
torian, tion of an apothecary and brewer in 
St. Andrews, was born there about 1730. 
After studying at St. Andrews, Glasgow, 
and Edinburgh, he was licensed as a pivacher 
of the Uotipel ; but having failed to obtain a 
presentation to one of the churches in St. 
Andrews, he was shortly afterward.^ ap- 
pointed professor of logic in St. Salvator's 
College, of which he was promoted to be 
principal in 1777. The same year he was 
also presented by George III to the church 
and pariah of St. Leonard, In 1777 he 
published, at London, in two volumes quarto, 
a ' History of Philip II of Spain [J548- 
1598],' which was praised by Horace Wal- 
pole, and hod a great temporary popularity, 
being translated into French, German, and 
Dutch, and reaching a seventh edition by 
1812 ; the work was subseouently superseded 
by that of the American nistorian Prescotf, 
At the time of his death, on 31 March 1781, 
he was engaged on a ' History of the Reign 
of Philip HI, King of Spain [1598-1621],' 
which was completed by Dr. Wdliam Thom- 

■on, uid ptibluhM in 1783 tlMidon. 4bo; 
reviBediHlitJon 1808 and If^SP; French trau»- 
l.itirm ll^mV Thin r«miiinsUKofitl u lilliiig 
a (ran between l^pesrott onci Coso. 

W nt*:in rHBTTi'-d, wn "29 .lunn i7'i7, M«i^ 

garut Sluiw, by whom h» left fire daiigliTtrs. 

I ('hnlmen'S Bic^. Diet.; OonoUy'a Eminent 

M«» or Pifr ; Andenton'H Scoilish N-ttiun ; ilcw 

8eoU'< Fiirti Ewle*. ScotiMoie. ii. 400.] 

IT V n 
WATSOX. UORERT (i:-iff-I8.'W), ncf- 
witliin.T, waH U>rn nL Klgiii, th« tint, il 
wooiM flecm, of two Robert Wnlsuns bnp- 
lisod thvTQ — X hinir'ii «(iii uii i^fl Jtirui 174(1, 
«iicl a incrchnnt'fl on 7 Aag. I7fi!>. Cerrainly 
Uie laiKT cnuld iixpt huTu hvm. ' intitnnlii 
with WnBliin^ton,' nnA bren lamod by n 
wuund iu ihi- American war of irirlt-pendcnc', 
'which R*vt! hiin.on Uisrirlin-nicnt. thiimnk 
of ft colonol, And Mm-: land, wliiirli h" nuld 
■uon (iftiT." IMuruinj; In Scotland fruni 
Ami^rJL-a.thc hirtr"«Bon pnidutH'-d M.I).. And 
tbon BfttUil in Londgu. Hewaswcrptarv to 
Ijord (K'urge Gordon at the ttmr of tlif riots 
of 1780, and waa aflvrwurdii ^p.-sideiil yftlw 
ruviiluliiinary f 'orrt'-jionding Sociely, Ho 
wa.-* aT^l^■7te■:l for conspirucy lu 171*6, lay two 
Venn and tliri-o ntontu* in Nvwpili;, ami wait 
tried al thit Old HsiU'V, but aniuitted. A 
rcwanl of IWU. V'intf nfriTpd for hi« n-iijiprt— 
hvnaion, hp * t-smpfj hv livinj: in diFjfuiof! in 
« lord'f Loiui.- in l^onuon, and gut awny )>y 
wliicli ho vaa ntjurly tukcn ou )tu»picioii '>r 
bt'in;; ThnmoM Hunly.' In October 175*8 the 
• Miinireiir' aanouiitid Iiis arrival at Niinoy 
aa 1 hnl of • I-ord \\ nlixin [«r\ firossain libre ; ' 
•nd, poiiiL' on to Paris, bo iseuwl ati addrvsa 
to tLi- Hntisb pyripb-. jidvocnting n pi-inTiiI 
rising and thi.' ri'ri>]itiou of tho Frnnch oe 
cIvliTvrvrt. Lodging ivith Xnpolenn'ti forest- 
keeper, h* was introdiict'd to thi^consnl, and 
g«T« hiui lcs»'.>ns in ICnglish ; Napoleon madp 
liriii pTiijcijial fif th« n-fttorwd ScoIj* ColK'pi*, 
ift-ith tbnw thoiiKund frunL'eu y>.'iir. Hv held 
the jOTrt "ii yarw, rttid il mitnt have hoi-n 
during Ih^.^ jwriod lliat, in ISO?, he pn*id«d 
Ht ibv St. I'mfriclii" hnri<jUMt to the irJNbmeu 
iu Paris, [lo next wntto lioiotr topidtivatc 
cotf^n und indipn in tho Pontine innmhcs, 
And so pin the \if)Zi' of a handr^d thousand 
fnui» ufTurod by Napoloon on the import«- 
liou (jf these article? lo Franw bi'ing prr- 
Ytmlcd by thu Kn^sb government. The 
Mcltr<n)>' miscarried, and the • ChevalifrWat- 
aon' had a^in to tuni l^nidKT of KnglisU. 
Onu of bis ptipiU hntwuen 1810 and iHltl 
■WM the Oermnn painter Profpssor Vopel 
Ton Vogelebeiu, wfin di^c-ribiat him aa 'a 
Httlft lune nnn of fthoiil «ixty years of a^,' 
Bod who painted thv smull portrait of bim 

now ID the RooltiaL Portnit Gallery at. 
Rdinbiin;h. At Itotne in 1817 lie pnivlisBsd 
for 22/. IU*. fmm no attorncr who hnd b«<>n 
onniideatial ogoni to Cardinal York two 
loada of manasoripls, rolatintr chieliy to 
lwi> Jntrnbitft rebellion*. Tht'.«c. iho • Slu. 
Paper*,' were, however, seized by the Va 
and finally dclirL-ml to thti princu nf^nS' 
Watfton's own siaK-meat that bo got 3,100£, 
from the Bniflisb miuistry is at leaat qou- 
liotiable. In 18'2'i he wrute to an El^ 
friend uflk'm); a loan of 100/., and deacribinf^ 
hinuwlfaa just returned from Orpece. and aa 
nrMWWMr'd of a raloHblv tollwtiMn— Qne*n 
Morr's misaal, ^rarsHnl NoVb hoton, Xapo- 
l*ori*B Waterloo carria^, Jtc, On 19 Xov, 
IK'tf^ Ihi strangled btmself in n London 
tovem by twisting his neckck>tb with a 
pokoT as with a loum)qiii>t. It iwos deposed 
nt tli>> inquest, that \m body bore ninataea 
old wounds, and a Colonel Mftc«rone I04tifi«<i 
to thi' Iriilli of his stntetncula to tho tavem- 
ki^por on thvi:*ve of his '^uicidu. He u said 
to have marrieil in 1798 (Wilia, u-idow of 
tbDBiMli Lord It'Uo, and sietvr of James 
.lohn*t.mi- (1711»-lH00r-) "o.v.j, tho Oh*»m- 
lier de John-Motie ; but lUiilo bred toraarnr 
n nwcoad wife, %^'attioii, liowi>%ier, appesn 
to buTft ht-en comu>f twl by marriu^ with 
.Tnhn^tone, wbo»» maniiBcriptB he Hold in 
1.4^ r« Mf««r8. Longmans [ton nit. Juiix- 

Wautnn'n chief work 'm a 'lAfe of 
Gtrorge^lordou, with a Plitlostiphicol Kei-iHW 
of Uis PolitSrol riiiidut-I ' | T^omlnn, 179ft, 
8vo\ He alita edited in 179H the * Political 
WdrUs' of Fletcher of Sallniin, with nnt«n 
and a memnir: and in lr'21 the f*h''vaiirr 
JoliHstone's '.Mf moire of thi:' Hvb-'llion of 
1746,' Hisnnswcr to RurkcR' Ueflfot ions ' 
ia unidenlilli^, and h^ in^iuii! never to bow 
cxccuK'd his prono5<^d tmnslotion of the • ! 
Jtiro llv(fni' or(n'<n'go Itiielisnan, wlioin 
styles * tlitj father of ]iurf nipublieauixni.' 

[Bishop A. P- FoHjr* of Broebiu iu I'r 
ings 8ofl. AntiqaariM of fkoU, Deccmb»r l8aj 
pp. 92t-]U.lHUt(>) chiefly nn inforiantionaupplti 
by Pmfrswor Vonfol ron Vgimtltwin ; 'A WV 
daTU«'r,' liy Andrew I^ng. in Illnstrated Londn 
News. I y March Iflsa, with portrait ; 
Tiiblo Book (1827). i. 739-45 ; Pwey Fit 
Life and Tiinos of WiUlom IV (ISM),'!. 
AlfEvr'n Hnfilislimen in Uia Fnoeli TtcralTilii: 
I8h!), PC- 27Ua.) F. If, O. 

18IKI), captain It.N., eldest son of Capiaui] 
Joshua Rowky Watson (irTi-I(SlO), w« 
bom in 1809. He •'uteretl ihc navy in No- 
vember 1821, and was pmmoted to the rank 
of nontenant on 7 Oct. 18:20. He afterwiinli 
aerviiKl un the coast of Portugal and 

n-iHW I 





North American station, till in November 
1837 he was appointed to the Calliope fr^ate, 
with Captain (afterwarda Sir Thomas) Her- 
bert (1793-1861) [q. v.] After two years on 
the coast of Brazil the Calliope was sent to 
China, where ahe was actively employed dur- 
inff the first Chinese war. On ti May 1841 
WatBon was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander, and was moved with Herbert to the 
Blenheim ; and while in her was repeatedly 
engaged with the enemy, either in command 
of boats or landing parties. On 23 Dec. 1842 
he was advanced to post rank, and the next 
day, 24 Dec., was nominated a C.B. From 
Fehruary 1846 to October 1849 he com- 
manded the Brilliant, a email fri^te, on the 
Cape of Good Hope station ; and in Decem- 
ber 1852 was appointed to the Imp£rieuse, a 
new 60-gun steam frigate, then, and for 
some years later, conait^red one of the finest 
rtiipe m the navy. In 1&.>1 she was sent up 
the Baltic in advance of the fleet, Watson 
being senior officer of the squadron of small 
Tessels appointed to watch the breaking up 
of the ice, and to see that no Russian ships 
of war got to sea. It was an arduous ser- 
vice well performed. The Imptrieuse con- 
tinued with the flying squadron in theBaltic 
during the cam})aigns of 1854 and 1855. 
After the peace she was sent to the North 
American station, and returned to England 
and was paid off early in 1857. In June 
1869 Watson was appointed captain-super- 
intendent of Sheemess dockyard, where he 
died on 5 July 1860. He wan married and 
left is-sue ; his son. Captain Burn^ea Watson, 
R.N., is now (1P99) superintendent of Pem- 
broke Dockyard. 

[O'Bymo's Nhv. Biogr. Diet.; Navy Lints; 
Gent. Mag. 1860, ii. 217.] J. K. L. 

WATSON, SAMUEL (1603-1715), 
sculptor, was bom at Ileanor, Derbysliire, 
in December 1663. He executed some of 
the fine wood-carvings at Chatsworth, com- 
monly attributed to Orinling Gibbons ^q. v.] 
The dead game over the chimneypiece ia 
the great chamber is by hia hand, and for 
this and other decorations in the same cham- 
ber in lime-tree wood, all completed in 16W3, 
he received 133/. 7». The trophy contain- 
ing the celebrated pen over the door in the 
south-west comer room is likewise his work. 
He also carved the arms in the pediment of 
the west front in 1704 ; the stone carvings 
in the north front, finished in 1707, and 
other decorations both in wood and stone. 
Walpole says that ' Gibbons had several 
disciples and workmen . . . Watson assisted 
chiefly at Chatsworth, where the boys and 
many of the ornameats in the chapel were 

executed by him ' {Anecdotta, ed. Womum, 
p. 557^. But it seems clear, since he made 
out his own bill for the above-mentioned 
works, that be executed them on his own 
account. He died at Ileanor on 31 March 
[Redgrave's Diet, of Artiste] C. B, 

WATSON, THOMAS (1513-1584), 
bishop of Lincoln, was bom in 1513 in the 
diocese of Durham, it is said at Nun Stinton, 
near Sedgefield. He was educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, proceeding B.A. 
in 1633-4 and M.A. in 1637. He is con- 
fused by Strype and others with John Wat- 
son (d. 1630), master of Christ's College, 
Cambridge [see under Watsos, Joiix, 1520- 
1584], About 1535 Watson was elected 
fellow of St. John's College, where he was 
for several years dean and preacher. There, 
writes Koger Ascbam [q. v.], Watson was 
one of the scholars who ' put so XhtAv help- 
ing hands, as that universille and till stu- 
dents there, as long as learning shall last, 
shall be bound unto iham^ {Scholemnafer, 
od. Mayor, p. 198). Besides .\scham, Wat- 
son had as friends and cnntemporaries Cheke, 
John Hedman,8ir Thomas Smith, and others 
who led the revival of Greek learning at 
Cambridge. They would frequently discuss 
Aristotle 8 Toetics' and IloriicVs '.:Vra 
Poctica' while Watson was writing his 
tragedy of ' Absalom.' Watson's fastidious 
scholarship would not allow him to publish 
it because in one or two verses he had used 
an anapaest ini<tead of an iambus, though 
Ascham declared that ' Absalom' and George 
Buchanan's 'Jephtha' wfre the only two 
English tragedies that could stand ' tlie true 
touch of Aristotle's preccpt.i' (ili. p. 207). 
Watson's play is snid to have remained in 
manuscript at I'ensiiiirst, but it is not men- 
tioned in the bistorit'al manuscriplu com- 
mission's report on the papers preserved 
there (.'ird liep. App. pp. '2'2i sqq^) ; it hos 
erroneously been assigned by ^Ir. r'leay and 
others to John Watson [([. v.], bishop of 
Winchester, and has also led to Thomas's 
confusion with Thomas Watson [q. v.], the 
poet (e.g. Gaiiriki. Harvkv, h orkv, ed. 
Grosart, i. '2-2, L'3, 112, :il8, ii. WJ, 171, 290, 
where the references i. Ill", 218, ii. 83, :?CK) 
are to the poet; and Nask, if'orlg, ed. Gro- 
sart, ii. Co, 73, iii. 187, where the last refe- 
rence also is to the poot). 

In I-VIS Watson proceeded B.D., and in 
1.545 Stephen Gardmer [q. v.], bishop of 
WincheatiT, appointed him his chaplain 
and rector of V\ yke licgis in Dorset ; he is 
also said to have been presented to the 
vicarage of Buckminster, Leicestershire, in 




1&I7. lie smIousIj kbetted Gardin«r in hU 
.jwith iheeouncila^t'iitA AUthnritrto 
tlrii^OU' ch*nfr«9 ^unng IC«lTrn.rcl Vis 
ItyfUnd ia Atit) io hflv« bi-an the mcditim 
of ootiiiiiiiiciiit'rn tM.-tw<.-i>n tliv council and 
Oonliuur. liu ib binut'lf staU-d Ui Lavu been 
unpriaoiwd in tbuFbet in 16<i7 for pn.'a<:liiii^ 
at WindiMl«r k|rain*1. two rvfonw-rM, wbn 
tlvfreupon ri)tii)i1siD«d to Somerset imd i^'ir 
William Cnctl, and Io litivi- l)t*nn liU^nilnd 
with OardintfT on Jan. ]'tl7-8: bill thon 
ia no nxviril of bin inipriaonmeiit Iwfnrw 
4 Doc, I.V1O, wh'-ii lie wa* HUtnmoin-d Ijrfore 
tk« priiy council, He wm in ilie FK-et 
priwiii in lh« fullowiiiit your, whi:-u bt- wns 
oailfil (10 ft wiint'ct nt Uardtiior'« trial, a.tid 
«xamin>-<] n* towhi'tlifr the bishop bnd. in 
Ilia MTinoii at St. I'sulV on 'Ji) Juii« I'AS, 
maintaiDfid Lbu autUoriLv of tUx council or 
nai ; he avoided otl'<mcn by deidurinfc that his 
liad U'l-n too far otl' Io ln-ar whnt (Iiirdiinjr 
Mlu\ I /.it. /{^M. n/ IHtrn/ti I'/, p. cviii). In 
tbu vauiv _y«ar b« aMiiUj-d OarJiner in pa- 
parintf hit ' Confiitniio ravillatioiuim,' n 
aecfmd anxwer lo C'mnmor, which was pub- 
liahnl at I'ahA in l'i-V_*. I.>ti niic occoaion 
during thu n^ii^n AVat^on'.i lire ia aaid lo 
have b«>n wivod by Juijii JIOLinb ^tj. v.], Q 
•t:r\'it'r> to which ll'Jtieb uppcalLtl in vain 
vrlx'n brought bvforu Watnon and [{niini^r 
in Sliiry'a rei^fn. On 3 l>ec. Utol Walaon 
v,ti» pruMiit at iL privattf diacucciuii at 9tr 
Uictiard Moriaoii'i hotiaeoR the qucdtion of 
thi! teal prinencL' ; ht5 nrRumrnt i« pruMrn-pd 
in Oiirptw I'hriati iTollrsc, Cunibridgn ( MH. 
103. \>. '250). and is nhridgyjd in Strvpv's' Life 
<irCli.;ke' tup. 77-80). 

On Marys acc»8Nio» Wataon bftcamo on** 
of the chief catholic coiitroreriiali*t9, Hn 
%Atiff. 1S53 he woa aidccK^d to piv-nch at 
Pftul'a Crow, wlieii, to pa'vcnt a ivcnn\'noo 
of Ihi- diaturbancci at Oilbprt Dounio'a sor- 
mon on the pnivious Suiiduy, uiuti) of thu 
privy council and il strong giianl wtsre pr*- 
«vnt. Acrordliijr lo a contcmpomry oHt 
boatiU' ni-wnU'tliT, ' bij< wrnum wh-h neitlior 
eltMpK'nl nnr odifyiiiK • . . for ha meddled 
not with the Gospel, nor with Ibv Ktii«lb.>, 
nor no part of Srnptun;' (Williani l>alby in 
UarLMS. '-iTi'A, t. 111, where the writer iiro- 
coeilii to roport * four or llvu of tho: <A\\at 
poiiila of hia sermon;' Machin, pp, 41, 
SS:!-3; Grtt/friiirt Vhrtitt. p. Ml; \VsiOTIIl»- 
IXT, Chrtm. ii. '1Q\ Chrwi. Qunm Jarw, p. 
VA). WiiLnon'* atirvicea aa a preacher were, 
liowuver, ronstautlv in rcqueal, and he al- 
wavB drew laq^> audicnct** (.MaCKIX, pp. 
12a 131, I.-IS. 166"). On It) .May 1.554 John 
Oawood publi»b(;d at London Wataon's 
*Twoo ootabli^ SonDon.<< made thn ihirde 
end f;fl« Fridays ia Lent hut past before 

the Queueo hi)[hne« conoMninm ihe . _ 

treaeuce of Chriatoe botlTiuid bloodo in tl 
llewted SacraiB«nte.' Itidley wrote aop 
annotat ion* on thrrac ■enaone, which bo mi 
10 Uradford (IIbaumrd, Work*, ti. iKkT-iij 
ItlULcr, Wark*^ pp. 638—40); and Kob 
fnwb-y [u.v.|iu \W» publisbi-d 'A Sen 
Open of the Subtyle hopbbtrie of Tbn 
H atwa . . . which hu uaed in bys i\ 
Sermona . . . ujxm the n>atl prmpiicw,' 1 
don, 4lo. Crowley prints \^'atson's wrmoii 
|MMsas» by paaaaj^, with an answer lo ei 
(cf- Sthtpb, iaw. Mem. tit. i. llo ifflj 
When, ia January IW7-«*, conrocatiou 
t(>miini-i] on the iiublication of a aeritia 1 
expositions of catuolic doetriiio 8om«wl 
fiiniilur to tlm ' liomiltea ' of lo47, H'l 
revi.-'od thu wrmona ho hadpn.-achml at ooti 
in the pr^«ii)UH yi'ar and publtaluKl them 
' Ilolsoino and Cutholyku doctrync conce 
inj;« llio Sfvfn HacTomonts of Cbrrsti 
Churclm . . . sf^t fortlw in the maner 
S!i"r[ Svrroons.' Tfjo roytJ license to He 
hen Calf V, th.^ iirint^r, was datt<d JtO Apr 
I5r.« ( r^iid. MS. yw, f. aOl'.l, and the Qn 
edition api>i>«rt'd in JiiiieT'iilowini;: a sefon 
edition followed on 10 I'vh. l-ViS i\ and 
Ihird (dvacribed 111 thn ' Uriti^ Miuuu 
Catali^uv'aa lbu tirst) in ihu sumo mantl 
They were repriuled by Fatbar T. E. Brii 
gvii in 1S76 <1>ondon. hvo). 

M««ttwliilv. on Jo 8upt. l-j->3, Watson wi 
commiMiABed by Uardiot-r, as cbano-llor 
Oanibridj^e L'nivcnity, to inquire into tl 
religicwi r-iindilion of tho collugtw (SntTfl 
I'ttrker, 1. r<J-3], and threo davR later 
wail iidinitted master of St, John's, L«vi 
l^avin^ fliil bi'vond aeas; he wa.^ create 
I).I>. HI the following year. In the convi 
ration that mrt at St. PauI's on 23 Oc 
lo'),'! \Vnl9on stn^niiouxly ti))b<.-ld the llomai 
catholic inl(!r])rotatiDn of the real prttacne 
nt^iuFt James lladdon [q. v.] and othe 
(part of the dijipiitalioii ia pre*Brv«d in liar 
AfS 41^2. IT. 38 will- : cf. PiiiLi-or, HV<v, 
IBS ; Disojj, //iV. iv. 7ft '•qn-) On Ik Xoi 
hu WAS pneeentcd to the douiiery nf Dnrhan 
iiiftitcceMiDn to I'obert ]lome( 1610?- If 
ft|.v.J In.\prillMlhc'wa«MntloOrfor[llfl| 
uieputo with C'ranuicr, Itidtey, and Lilimer^l 
ana on tbo I4tb was incorporated ll.D. in 
that univoraity. Ili* alao look pert in tha 
iirorciidiu^fl againftt ] looper and Kogvra, at 
le said to have ur^-d Gardiner to arrast D 
Edwin Sanih's [q. v.j, ai^erwanU arcbbibhod 
of York. He n>Hitrn«d iJie m8.5lership of S 
John's in May irKi4, and on -JS Aug. l-'«.1 
wflj presented to the rftctorv of Bechin^wal 
All I^ainta (IliiiER, xv. 44jy On 7 !>« 
IfiWi Mary isaiied ft lic^'n-ii:- for fiUin); up tl 
s«c of Lincoln, rendered vacant by ihu mc 



■ Watson 

latioQ oT John Whim (Uill-1504) [q.T.] to 
WioctiMivr ; Wilson via elected, ud on 
Um 34th of th« same mootb was (mu)t«l tbe 
lamponlitiM of the nee. Thr pApiil ball nf 
coniinnation wu dated 21 March Mt'iO 7, 
hat the hUbop was not ronixvraied until 
15 Augiiat. In the iiitt-rvul Wat!K)o wu 
OAC of thr drlf'Saten anpoinliHl hv CunlinjJ 
I'ole to vUit Ciunhriup- I'liiirentlviii Js- 
Duarj loTiO-T; the viKiiution wu di^nced 
br tlie triul mnd condeuinationflahpreticsof 
tb» dnul Buc«T ami Fn^iii*, and by the «x> 
Ikumatirm and biimingof tlielr hodi'-s ( l^iHD, 
IX-cuinentt, l91'(< ; CoofBIt, Annala of C'mn- 

\Wtvon is raid (Gib, Sit'mieUian Ctrrpy, 
I«w. p. 30) to hore bren llm firtit RiilTctnT 
for i\di^iQn under KUtubclh, uid to hare 
bi?»*n confined to his liouse for ]m-arhin|{ an 
iocftutinus «frniuii nt Quwn 3Iary"s funeral ; 
but \Vat«fiu in hvTV cunfusijd with John 
Wliilf, hishop of Winehesler. WotNom wm 
abumt ihroufrh ill-health froni tht> parlia- 
Toent which met in J«niiari' liV>8-9, but he 
look a ur^itnincini part in the di'bntc on roll- 
n lirldin tht! choir of WmtminMer Abbey 
thf tnominii of .1 April. The eonfercnctf 
ik« ilimn livrvuse Sir Nicholas Uacon, nLo 
ded, in^iKT^d that tlii? Roman cetboUcs 
Sbniild bppin the diM^uwioii. Tbey refusod, 
and *th«- two pood bishofM ^\V«t*on and 
MTiite"!. infiatned with ardent seal forOod, 
nid most boldlr that " they would not con- 
•cnl nor pytr cfiaoge their oninion froiD any 
foar," Thfv wre nn^wered that this waa , 
(bo will of the quMiit and that tbey would 
i» punish^ for their diaoIxHiience' (Coi. 
Staff Pnp*n; ^Vnetian, 1&58-W. No. fiS). 
Tlifj w(?r<> at nncv nrrvsttd and Kent to the 
Tmwct (M»rins-, I}ian/,p. 102; W'RiornBu 
i.rr. ('Aran. ii. 1+4; ^^tin'eh Lettrrn, i, 13; 
Aftji P.C. TJi. ;»; State Papn-*, Doia. ElU, 


Camden's alory, n-nwtpd by Strype and 
others, that tlw two bisliopa ihrtNiti^ed to 
cxcummtmirnto Elizabeth, uas beett diapUted 
by Koinnn catholic biMorians. The incident 
on whirb it is probablv ba^cd a niporttHl by 
Iho \'enp| tan ambaaMulor. White ' aaid " the 
Di'w method of olficiattnt; wtw luiriitiral and 
srhi'mat ic." Then iber r)!p1iiri!''i9> thrquc^n 
iMrrvticul and whiMnutic?" And thus in 
anger thrr sent him bock to tho Tower' 
{<•«/. State Papers, \'enetian, 1/Mlft-W), No. 
83V I" Jun* Watwo waa released, and 
allowed ten daysUi decide whecht-r be would 
lal, ((... ,„-w nath of rapr«inacy. lie re- 
fi n rh<i Stith waj deprived of the 

hi- Lincoln (MiCHi.f, p. 201 ; Ca/. 

*■ ', f.j.rrj; Simuncaa i. 7y, SJ, Vanetian 
15r>--.Ht, S». i)l). He woa •{,'aiucoiiiiiutled 

T6t. IX, 

! tu thu Towar on ^ May 1600. In May 
1663 he was bmnf^I befam the eeclMiaaticaJ 
' commUaioDert, but remained steadfast io 
hLs refuMl to take the oatli. On G Sept. 
foUowint: he was handed over to the custody 
of (irindal, bi»hop of I /indon, because of the 
plague, aud a month latLTWBHtrannf'.-rnMl to 
the keepinff of Cose, thu bishop of Ely. (hi 
9 Jan. fritM-S he wiu oncu ui>>ru com'mitled 
to thn Tower {Acts P. V. rii. !«!>. On 
6 July 1<'J74, being tht-n in the Marsbalsea, 
on l^ivin^ a bond not t>> ' iodiicv any ono to 
any opinion or act to be done contrary' to 
thv laws established in the rvnini for caoses 
nf TCligion,' hi: was irannfBrred to tho cuft- 
todv of his brother John Wiitsou. n citicen 
of London iLrmttt. .\ta: O.W. f. iHfJ . Act* 
P. V. viii. L>ft4l. Tlirt'e ytars IbI^t the 
council accused him of ahusiuf^ bia liberty 
by MuflVrinfT i^vil-diaposed pcr^ns to Tvaort 
to hitu, aud b> uvrvurltn^ them in religion, 
which confirms hods statement that," white 
Bishop Watson lived, be was consulti'd aod 
rugaraetl ju the cliirf aupenorof the Engliah 
cstbulic elergy, and. aa uu-afihUconGiieinent 
wriiihl pi-rmit, exerciM-d tbt; fum^ioiia of his 
character.* He wnsaccordin^lr, on I'^'July, 
committed to the custody of thi> bi*hop of 
"WincliMiiT, being allowed liis own Itotnan 
catholic attendant, " uppon consideraoiou 
that it is less dainf^r to K-tt onr ntrcidy 
corrupled then a sound poreoii to altcnd 
upp-oj) hira ' {til. K. US). In .Iiuiuary l/i78-», 
at the bis bopof Winchester's re<)Uu6l,WatKOtt 
wax triiniifiTrvd to tlivki-cping of l|j« lualiop 
of Kochester, He now entered inio comj- 
spondente with Douni, and thi*. coiipU-d with 
tnv invasion of the jeauit.i and miseionary 

rrivsU, led to sererer roeasiirea against him. 
n Aujrust 15S0 he VM committinl to cloM 
ki-epiiia; at \Vi«bot,;h UiiHile, where biii re- 
maiiiiTig ddys were embitl«rcd by the (juarrel 
betwiNin thu jiwuits aud noculars which d<N 
T«lopvd into the famoua archpriest contro- 
vrrsr. Wntaon died nt Wi*iiecli C'aellc on 
27 ^■pt. 1-584, and mat buried in Wistrixih 
pnriflh church. 

Watson was perhaps, after Tunslall and 
Polo, the greaU^t of Queen Mary's biahopa. 
I>e Feria described bim in 1559 as *more 
spirited and learned than all the w»u' (lod- 
wiu and Strypv rvfer to him a> * an austere, 
or ratlmr a sour and churlish man.' The 
atisterity may hi' tjiken for granted, but the 
glofii \» dill? to iwU^iiiu." aiilipatliy. jVtchaiB 
snoke warmly of \S'Btiu3n's rHt-ndship for 
him, and boru high toxtimony to htH ncholar* 
•hip. Besides the works aheady mentioned, 
Watson is credited with a translation of the 
first book of t bo ' I tdyiiwT,' which i,i now loat, 
and a nitdering of a aermon of St, Cypriaa 



wlucli is mtant ta Cambridge Uoivvniiy 
Librarr M8. KK. 1. S, uU 17, uil in linker 
MS. xii. 107. A trcntifii! irnLillinl ' (.'urtiTiwt 
£xper)nientH ami Mi«liciriis«," •■xlaiil in llril. 
Mm. AMit. MS. Gl>, an. I, is ascribed in an 
mlmoct coutemporary hand to ^VatDoii, mid 
hU'Disputntion^' at London in lC•^3nnd at 
Oxford m 1 V>1 are p™ited in Fose's ' Aot« 
uat\ MonamDnts.' The collections on tlio 
liisbopt) of DiirliuiD, nMi^ned to dim by Taa- 
ni>r and txtanl in Oottotiian MS, Vit«Uius 
C. ix., arc roallj- by Clirielyi'bvr NVutMO [] 
[An elnborat* lifo of Wiiisijti U pnjfis*d liy 
the Iter.T. E. Briilgctt to hi* rrjinnt nf "'dt^ftti's 
Utflwtneabd C'lUii'lvk' Dndnne, lS7r>,.-tnil ik 
■spaitdod in Bridfnii and Ktiox':< St->rr of iliu 
fXtlifilic Hiwfftrehy ilfpn»«l l.y Kli/nWih, IHSW, 
pp. 120-207. 8«e »l>o nutboHtira citod in text 
and in Coopor'a Alhenn Cantiibr. i. 491 ; a fo' 
luMiliniinl >'i)cu are coutain«d in th« reoMttly 

iil-liiJiixl AcUnf Uio Privy Council, IMR-Sl; 

!a). StaU) Papors, Sininnui, vol. i., Venetian, 
1JiS8^0; Dixon':) Hi«t. of the Ctinrch; and 
OW" Ktiiu.l)etlui(i ClBiny. 1898.1 A. K P. 

poet, ae-cBoa to fidve tiwn bom in London 
about IflSr. Accordina to Anllionyii Wood 
fa*i itpi^nt »ovav part of hi* yoiiili ht Oxford, 
but his collo):\' tliere luLtnnt be-on idenlitied. 
Tl)(?n.- wHH >x Tliomea Wat«ou, of a good 
SVoro'stfrsliin- fiimilv, wlio nuitriculat«d 
fniia Si. Mary Hall oil it^ May 1680, aptd 19 
{Oxford f/niu. Rtp. Uxf. Hint. Soc. II. ii. 63), 
but Ilia identity wilb itiv povl «vvu)* doubt- 
ful. At. thii iiuivfr*ity. according to Wood, 
lio ooRupitMl bimiHc-U', ' nut in lu^ic and phllo- 
iphy, US b» ntiglit to liavn done, but in tbe 
|0ptli and pleasant atudies of poetr>- and 
■oe, vhurvbv he ohtiiiniMlan noti'xirablH 
UBOtlf^ tho (rtudenls inlhoBH facullies.' 
Theclasvica formed !ii<! cliii.'f iilmly. sud be 
became a elouicnl scholar of notAhIi« nlluin- 
mOEta. But be l^^ft tbe^ uniyeraity Hi'lihout 

• d^^e, and, ml^atinf; to [xtnrlon, nd- 
dreeaed bimielf to tliu law. Ho i) faid to 
bare joini'-il an inn of court, and be usually 
deflcribefi (limself in Lis publications as ' L*iu- 
din«nHi» JurU Sfmliiwm' (or'I, \'. Stud.'), 
but his rnnn.Trion witlt tbp legal prafeasion 
aeeuis to bave bwn nominal. Ili.'< main 
intoftv*!^ in lifp wi^ru litcmrj', In his early 
days bo w 0.4 not, be t<>lh U", 'minded ever 
to'havc ••mbolden''*! hinifl-^lf so for ba to 
iliruiit in foot amon^t our English poets.' 
But lie designed n seriM of ori^nal DO«R>s 
and LrauaUlion;^ in Latin voree, an<l ciosely 
studied Italian and French poetry. For the 
gmtiOeatioa of him^df niid a few nynapa- 
tbelic frieuda ho turned J'etrarcli'n Mmnela 
into l.atiu, nod be wrotu a Lut'iii poem Cftlk'd 

* lie lienwdio Aiijuri.i-' Other of hi» early 

l^tin verses dealt with * Tli« Love AbuMS 
of Jnppil«r.' Tbc«o piece* wott only circn- 
Inted in tDanuacripl. None wen MAl to 
j)r«aa, and tbey hare disai 

In lo@l ^Valsoll vi^lwl I'arU, and 
aptitude fur Latin verfut itained hiui 
too admiration of one Stephen Broal 
a jurist and Latin pool of i..(ilo|^e, who 
also TiaiCing Parin. In Paiis, too, he 
to have met Sir Fmnein Walsta^ham, who 
wot there on a diplomatic mission in the 
sumnw of lom. W«leiTij;ham showed an 
iDterMt in 'Wat«on"« literary endearoti 
and after his doath Waiiwu r<^calle4 how 
'tunea' dt-lif^btod thu ears of Sir Fran 
white both werv sujuiiminf^ on the ha 
of th« Sfini;. IWore ^^'alHMI tdit !■' 
Broelmann addnaaed to him some La 
wlv^iac*, uri^nfi; bim to publiab hi» 1 
work. Thn result wa.i Waison'a fiwt publ 
cation, a t>tttin trantlntign of Sophocl 
'Antigone.' It wiw liocnsed bytbi'Sintioni' 
Company Co John Wolfe on 31 July \.lt 
(COLLIRR, Extracts from Rtg, o/Statio'tri 
Com^t>/,ii. U9, od. 1849). Th« titlooftb 

fublubed book runs: 'fiophoclis AntijtoDe. 
ntorprutu Thoma Wat^ono, ]. V. siudioco, 
Huic adduntur tJontpit! (|iuedam, ex •■ 
TTa{fa>dtn-'a<-tij(i<3riuiittG: >Vpofiteaa,tot 
Tbiinata S.-TiCentiM r»f«rtii«inia; 
Thoma Ws(Jinnx> .\nlhore. I>ondini 
cudebat loliaonus Wolfiue, 158].' Tlu? 
dicAlion wax addremed to I'hilip Howa' 
aarl of Arundid. There are commondat 
v«w«hy Philip Harrison. CbrUtopher.' 
ann, and '^ViIliatn CHnidi''n the nutiqua: 
The 'Pooipse' at the end of the vol 
w«rt' allceoricnl description? of virtues 
vices of WaitoD*«owii invention. Tin* t\ 
* Tb«uuita ' went akklfulexercise* in diSe 
kinds of Latin vurMsuch as iambics, 
phics, aiiapEPJtic dimotcrs, and chariaml 
UKlvpiiideuu metre. 

Tlionirforl li WniMn identifittd 1i! 
witli th*j nroffssidu of letters, allhou^ 
alwuj* :itViicl(il somelhin); iif hiit ori 
attitudeof agitiitlemanamal^iir. He 
H prominent Iikur- in the lilerarr sooii 
London. In John Lyiy, th« anthor 

fihues/ and in Deorgi.* I'eele. the 
ic found ivurm admirers and devote<1 
U^ once Miippcd with Na«h iit thu K 
iiead in t'lieuit^ide, and lauglted with 
satirist over dabriel fLirvuy's p^an' 
Ue contribviii-d eoinmuiKlnt-iry vi^rMMtot 
books iMued in la(^:J: English verses bv him 
In ballad metre prefuced (.iwrgo A\ het- 
etone's' Heptaniemn,' and a denutiichun np- 
L)«ared in Cnri^topherOcklaode's * .\nuloruni 
Pro-lia.' He »iill mainiained clo»e relation* 
with ii^ir Francis ^^'aIfiingham, 



:iooe rciaiioos 
, and camv to | 




Blew*. ' 

•IHTI^ 111- 

koow bis Mm-iO'lfew, Sir I'hiUp 8idw>,\ , and 
ollwir itMmben of ih« Alsi««iiiaii'A bmily ; 
but bU pKtrona »piill; grt^rc in numb'^r, and 
oltiTuatiilT inctuiltfil iiiniit v( thw tavn vt cul- 
ture at Elt»bt^Eli'ri court. 

WiUvon* ■■ " ■ " '!'"« in Engliab vvtw — 
tbftl. 'wiu pti jnrulily- wftslicenacd 

fcr tbe pnȣ : t..^;.<.lCawoud oa ttl Marcb | 
158?, undvf tli>> tiil>> of ' \\'at«oii'fl L*ik»«ii>n«, 
inaBift»UBi{i> tbo ime irrazj of l'>ve.* It na^ ' 
fiooD «n«rwBr(U puMiftlieJ a.^ ''Kkatomtii- 
BlA.or PuiionBUiCiiitunuuf Louk, I>iTidi-d 
into two part*: wlierwtf, thelir.1 npivAM-ih , 
the AatboursAuneranctiinLouc; tbi- tntttT, 
hi* toQg fiintwvll (ti Ij}uv uiul ull lii« tv- 
nmue, CntnpoBed hv Thnniaa WaiMit, Clcti- 
tlaUMi; an') publ»l>mlnt tb^' n.-i|UvM ufcer- 
lainc G'^iirlenK^ bis v^rv fVend^-')' (blnck . 
lMl«r>, Lontlon, 4to fl^*^]. A. wrt-xx ccpy 
9f tbp nrvTuliini^ism theBritiah ^EitNeiim: 
In ' : r rfi.-ctr.i]>if5arc tiiown tcl'. IfiitA 
I '.\ \X llrilwfll arf> two popieA, 

-' -iniWbvr imporfect. Ocorgv . 
., -.^-.iiil itDperr^c: copy with i»- 
msnuAcript uoti'^t "f cutrly dale, I 
tnember of tbc l\iniwull>!i frtmily. i 
i 'ibii Mitfurd Iq. T.~ii<:quiml : bo | 

: III \\u: '(iiintlumnn'i Ala^iunr ' | 
i. I'.tl). In tUy HarlcUn .MS. 3l';7 
- >->«>(jjhl of till! Iiiinilmi! povras iiri> trnn- i 
Bcnlml in a inxit.'ontb-crntiir\' hand under 
(he lill", 'A L/>()kiii« jfliiMo f'jr Lovt'n?.' 
^^ jt.iin's '' ¥.mTOfijra0u\ was dfilicntod Irt 
'u. iJiLtl ofOifonl. JoluiLyly coiitribulvd 
a jir-bu- i^pisi U- tif (•omincndttliou ' to tbe aii- : 
(hoar bi^ fntrud,' and umun)! writers of lauda- 
;■ iivT. AtbrWy.Slntlhi'nr Kin'diiii, 

i- ■ IWl". Tbtre ir » pri'liminary 

'\ .iLiuiii, but tbi.- |aH>mH l)iHl 
< :bii niitlior rall.« tboiii ft>>n' 
fi)jblf>en lines (iiisti^tid of 
IKH'tn is ti!rm«d a ' luiuioii,' 
i liya proAO notp trxplniuin;; 
I I lettm;! forlb llm literal 

:>t tiiiu I'hnxi^bout I bu prusv 
- is referred to in tbe tbird 
;< r- I , ull doubllmwcaiurfnim Ilia 

. m II jM-n. 1 in' ciulxiral'- aftfftrntuJi i-ritH^" 
1 . r,t:nii= th.' impri.'^sion piven intenioUy by 
v^lvKn, fhut ihfv r«llirct no 
, and an* mcri'ly dexterous 
•( clnssirAl nr cno«u>m Trfncb 
jxv^mi' TIk- -wiiltb of \VB:»n>n'» 
■ Tttd from llic; fnet lliai 
arc, itccordiii^ to bis 
riug^i fnim Pwtraruh; 
nodi-ll' AquilaU-Wi'^ 
J>"||, iJiir ■ ii-ii Injiu SlnxiEa, nnttther 
[Tilriiii port, anil from Konsant ; tlin-*.' 
Ir<ii:i llif Italiai) puet A^ni'du Fin-nsiiida 

(Uf>-1-I54e'); two caeli fmm tlit Fnmc 
po«t Kt.ienun Fonradrl, hnown ajt Fotva> 
tiUuH UM4 S1&T>1), lliGi Italian Girolaaio 
I'nmliotfcu ( ^. It'iit^t, and .'3'^ww Sylriusj 
■vrkilo many paraphnM puaacoi from sutuL 
nutbon w {iitnotig ihv Orwka) SophoolcSj 
Th<.-«cHtiifi, .A pntloniim of IthotlM (author of 
thv vyic ' Aruonanliua'): or (among the 
liAtiti^) Virjfil, Tibiillns, Oviil, Iloract', I'ro- 
wrtiiia, .Svneca, l'Iia>, Lucan, Martial, an<1 
\ nli-riii« l'liit;cii<i ; iir ^auiong ofli<>r tuod«ni 
Italian.'^) Aii^<-lo Pnlixianu 1 1 l-^t 1494 > anil 
IbtpttMtu HttntuamiAt U4S-l.>!(i l: or (amoiij_ 
olb'jr modomFr('ncbnii-n)1iurriL<-iiiH St.'piniM'' 
of Sntiuiiir, in'ritirr of Lnliii f!cl<)|;iu-fi aflvr 
tb(> manner of Virgil and MantuaniiA i,1.i:b, 
Li/f if SAaAi^fiearr, p. \(Xi n, 1). 

In I'^fcl WatAon pavo new proof of hii at 
precinlinn of linliao Iiteniturw and bis apli- 
ludp for I.nliii Ti?r»* br piibliiihiiiji ii tmn^ 
lation (if Ta»;o*ti pimioral druniu 'Aminta* 
in Latin l>exain<^(*?rs, Tli>r title mu ; 
* AinvntAM Tbomn> Watsotii Londiut-niia 
I. \'. .SEiidiosi. Kxcudebat li^iiricua Maivh|J 
I'xaasi^atioiK' Tbomic M&r?b,' 1on% 16iuo.| 
Tlii» wa« dvJicaiod to ibu Elizabutbail 
courtier ilenry N(w-1, yvha was (><pmliy wolf" 
known ae a oiR'ndllirift and a mu>iciuu ~(«q 
iiudnr Norr^ Sir AshhewI Td tin.' knidv 
[Mitnm ^Vataandedictitodapliitnsiipliir trn- 
ti>»- in Ijitiii pivi*' (111 Illy nrl of m^-raory va- 
litlcd *Conap>-ndiiiiu Mt-morine Localise' of 
this work nil inn>crfect copy — witlwut oulo- 
pboii and cndinjif with tlic first page of th« 
tifloinitb L-baptcr bilongc'd to Iu'M.T,aud is 
now in Mr, Lllirisi ie-M iller's library at Brit- 
vrvM: ntt ulbur copy lioa beeu tne.' with. 
NkI! y<''>r Wat A)n pnlili-ibiHl a itrirond Latii 
translurionfroin tbt' (irvuk, 'Coliitbus: Rup 
til* IU'I«iMr, Tiio, WutioiiiH I^ndineniiis,' 
l^ndt>n, 1'>H(!, Jin. 'Hiik waa dodicat*!)! to 
till* I>itkt> of NortlioRilM.'r)and, Thn'o yoara 
Intt-r Watson conlribntoii a *HMastichon' 
loHibert Lirwnf'uromimce* ("ice roiiis Amor' 

Mvauwhilo, In 1-Vi7, "Wateuu had tb« 
nioTlilication of witOHiwiDK thw piihliratiuu 
of an unuathorised Enptiidi tranelatiuo of 
hi* Latin remun of TiuuicrH * Aminta.' Tb« 
Knfflisb tninslalor, Abmhata Fraunce [(), T.l 
maa« no mention of \VBt«on, Frniinces 
work proTpd moTvi populur tluiu Walwirii, 
and bt> printed it fur a fourth tiwe in ir>'.)), 
lofi'.-lliiT wilh a e<«-00nd orijnnal Kti(;liHb 
trunslaiion by him&olf of Ibe Italian [wui ; 
Fratinc^'s volunto of 151)1 borv the genera] 
lilU- of "The Countexs of I'cmbrokc'fi Ivy- 
chun;U,' There for thi* limt tium Fruiin<^p 
luudo, in a imifntorv aontrncc. a lardy and 
iiii'owplKle atknortfeilffiu'-nt of lii« tU'Iit to 
WaiMiti: ' I havu Aomowhat altered S. Tae- 





ftoes Italian iikI M. WaUons Lstine " Amyn- 
tts " to mike them both on^ l^nglish.' Nnah, 
in his preface toGrecnc's ' Memiplioii' ( 1 liSQ), 
howevur, bigbly coinrm-titlud ' tliB uxcellent 
traimliition of Master ThomM Wntmn's 
migued "AmyutHs"' by ' iiwmiI Muter 
FnMtof' InldlWsome Latin odi^s by Wat- 
KHi wen prefixed 1o ^'•llan>I's ' Tuk< <if 'I'wu 
SwamtM,^ with an Eni^lish tranxUlioii by 

M'atson won deeply int«r«st«>d in music, 
ftnd wo-i on icnna olintimacywitbtbe cbief 
QiiLoiciaiu of Uie day- In IMHI theiv ap- 
peared a book of iDusir cnlli'd 'Tbo Gr»t st>tt 
of Ituliim 3Iadn|^lls Kiigltilie<l, not to ibe 
iM-nur of (he ori){!nal diltiL', hut after the 
afl'ection of tlia Noatu. Ity Tbomas \Vat^ 
BOB, t)i<ntl<.<ruan. Ttierv am aUo beem iu- 
Mrt^d two t>xot^llent Hadri^iIU □■f Marter 
Williatn Byrd, compOMd anur iLk Italinii 
voine, ut toe raqiiest of the aard Thomas 
Watson.* London, ir^ (Bril. Miw. i Hutb 
Libr. ; BritwellV The Tolume ih dirided 
into six partai eaob with n st^pnrate tille-psKe, 
li^tfed retfpcctively, ' Siitk-ritis/ ■ Modin*,' 
' Tenor,* ■ Contru-Teoor,' ' Baasiis,' and ' Jwx- 
lua.' Ilefore each part is plact-d a dedica- 
tion in IfStin ologiacs by n'nitxin 10 tbe 
Earl of 1-^ex, as well as a Latin eulo^- 
in the nme metro on tli« culcbralud Italian 
oompuwir LucJt Mart-nxin, wttonn miuuc was 
Tery IrtotIv repri'sented in the book. The 
words of Wntson'i- madri^lii am aomuwhat 
balling ; tb*'T luive not lioen reprinteil. 
Another proof of Watson's musical interests 
•pp«ant in a imi-in hy him liwiiled 'A 
Orfttificni.ion unto Mr. John CiL'e for his 
loamed Iloolce luti^ly mado in tho prayex 
of iluMclt.' Accordiiipto Mr. W. (!. IlmJitt 
theM veraes were fir»« printed in bnwidside 
form in I0K6 (in which yuar Dr. JolinC'a«o's 
* Ptuiee of Moiicku ' was publithtKl) a« ' A 
SoDif in Commendation of thi! author of the 
PratsQ of Muaickw. S*-t by W. livrd.' Tba 
•orliMt fomi in which they now wem 
•ooe«ih1e ia in a manuHcript volume tnuis- 
CCiImkI by John I.illiibl, foriwrly in I [(•iirn'*'t< 
TKWeMion, now among Dr. Kawlinson'ji cnl- 
lection ill the Bodleian maniiacripl»< flawlin- 
■on, i'oet. 14'?: reprinted in Iiriti»\ Ilittiii'- 
grapKer, W. &JU, ed. I8li, and in Arbeu), 

It waa in IJ5iK) that Wati^in'n patron, 8ir 
Fnnins W'ulsiDffbaiu, diMl. Hu lami^-nted 
hi* daath in a Latin etof{y in hexametem. 
This waji dt'dicatud to Sir Krancie's L'DUHts, 
TbomaK WalMnghum, under the ttHe, ' Mtc 
IibcBii.4 Thome Wai/^om five, Eclof;a jn 
Ob'tiitB Honomu<«iini \'iri, Domini Fmnfisci 
Wal^iDghnmi' (London, l/iOO, 4to, Brit. 
Mus,) Mindful of tba niArch that Fraunco 
bad stolen oa blm ta regard to bia * Amjutas/ 


Watson publishi'd an KngUsh translation 
bia new ij^y under the t itie of ' An Egl 
upon tbe Death of the Bi^t Honorable 
l^mnciv Walain^ibara, lat« pHuvipall ^- 
tario to her Muesiie, and of oer 
llunoiirablu I'riviu Couucell. Written 
in latinc hy Thoinnn Wat»oii, (irnllt 
and now by bimselfe tmnslat«d in Kn^li 
don, 1&fX),-lto). ' T interpret myiwlf,' W 
ROQ iofonned his readers, ' l^t Meli~ 
in;lishbyanotbi-r manMaboi 
Dbould lee«4» toy name in his cbaunffe as my 
.\mTntaH did.' The Kngtlah versiau wai 
dedicated to Walsingham's daugbtur Fraoeeti 
widow of Sir Philip Sidney. 

W'&tcon Beema in bis lost vBani to ha' 
been *impIoyed by Williiun ('ornwalli* I 
of Sir Thomas Comwallis [q. t.], romprroi: 
of Qneen Mary's hoiiM'hold, and uncle of 
Sir William Pomwallis (d. lICll ^) [(i, t,J 
author of tbe ' Essayec'). AValson af 
to hare given tuition in literaiuiM; to 
Uom Comwalljs's eon, and to have bevn 
aifeclionute terms with his pupil (cf. 
Ma<t. If^'X i. 491). \U nuirned ike vu 
of another «if William Cornwallis's retaine 
Tboiniia Swift, At tht' close of Waif 
lifv IiiH bnithnr-in-lnw and colli^agut- Sv 
endeavoured to win the affDCtiona of lIiB 
maater's daughlirr. Wnt«on enconraffed tb« 
intrifttii- ami indured hix pupil to further j 
After WaisonV death the facts came to 
knowli-dp- of the ladv's fathrr, who, fill 
witli indif^iacion, laid them before L 
Burahley (lo March loHJi). William (.^in-' 
wallis charged '\>'n.t8on witli having forjied 
Mime of tbe encouriigioj; letters that bi« soa 
and danjthterwereroprestfnti'dtobare written 
to Swift. WbIsuii, Comwallis declar 
' could devise twenty fictions and knavi 
ill a play w'"* wiu his duilv practyst 
hi* living' (.^Ir. Hnh<^rt Hall in AU 
2» Auj. I(*e0). Xo dramatic work 
Watson aurrivps, njutrt, from bis ' 
of Sopboclea' 'Antigone' and of Ta 
pastoral drama, although Mt>re« reckons hinr 
with VixXv., Marlowe, and Hhakcspenre ua 
among ' the best for tragedie.' 

The poet swms to be identical with tba 
'Thuuiiia WalAOii, gcut, who wn» buried in 
thu church of ftl. Hartholoinew the lean ' on 
•^ Sept. 16&3 (CoLUBli, B&lioffrapl 
C'ltnltyw, ii, 490). 

Two ToluBses of 'Watson's rerso app 
noslhumously. Dn 10 Nov, l&ii'i VV lUiam 
Ponsonhy obtaineil a license for an original 
pastoml poem ia Latin by Watson, entitled 
'.\mint*'^ Oaudlia. .\iithoPft Thoma 
aoiio, Londinensi, iuna Studloao. \A>t 
Impeasis Gulibolmi I'oiuoubci, 169^.' 

eau ' on , 




vu dedii«KHi to Mary, couDtMS of Pem- 
faroktf, Sir Philip Sitlney'ii nUter, by a writer 
signing himself ' C M." wlio deeply lamt-nl^d 
Watsnn'E kcl'hI duatli. fht) initiul« luivo 
Ifwn vrrr doiilitfully inl<ri'r.'lt-il *.* Oliriftt<v 
flher Mnrlowe, Tbe pwm ie in IieiatDctvnt, 
and is divid*^ into fivn ' i-pwlolw,' 

JIiiaIIv l)i«rf> appeared a serial nf sixty 
gonnetn in reeiilnr ni«>tn> in Enjflinh iindrr 
the title of 'Till* Tears nf Kancii*, or Ij07b 
I>tH)aiD«d,' LAudon, for VVillinm FWley, 
lAQS. John DanlvT obtainud a licvnse for 
llw publication on 1 L Au^. 1.595. The only 
kniin-n copy is in the Britwell Library, but 
ii wants two iHTaacoataioingL-i^hi aonneu 
(Noe. 0-lH). 

WtttHon is rppreaented in moat of the 
poetical tni>'CeIlnnit<« of tb» fnd of lh>^ xix- 
tv«ntli cciniin," and ^rly years of the seren- 
Uenth century- In tbe ' I'haenix N«t' 
(I'SHS) tbcr« arc thrw pnrVirtiirtSy nnpnb- 
luhed poems by 'T. W., gent,' of wbicb the 
first i»an English rendering of a paunffc from 
"WaiAdri'ii ' AmyntM.' In * Knglanda Ueli- 
poii ' (100(1) an five poHnis, of which only 
one was now; thia was e>uperscrilMHl 'Tho 
niniph'^ nif9tini( tlinir May tjUM'ne, enter- 
t«ine hrr with this dittie.* In another poi'tU 
ealcolleclion, Davison's' Pot-l icnl liimiwodii",' 
itlOi^, I'-n po<'inJi areqiititMl from the ' 'E«o- 
ro^fru^ui.* \S''alHQnV name figures amonu I h« 
authors whow works Rr>> ijunli-d in HcK!.-n- 
hatn's ' IV-I vt>dl^re,ortht! (iarJen of i he Muaes ' 
(ltKX>>. A simdar book of poi^ticwl quota- 
tions, known a«'EaglaDd'ePams««iia*( 1600), 
irivM twelvH exiracta from Watson, all frum 
th* ' 'ExnTD^iruAo. 

W'alson'e viiree lacks pnssion, but io the 
acc^utnpliabed work of a cullivat«d and well- 
read Hcholur. Ae a Uttinist be statidi fir«t 
among c'>nti-n>|iorHrie*. It is a4a snnnetO«r 
tbM he \«It his chief toark on Engllsb Htora- 
tnn. H« waa tb« Hml Knf(ti4i writer of 
sonnetfi aft«r Surrey and Wvnti. Moei of 
hia sfinnels were publisWd lwfiiri> tboM of 
Sir Philip Sidney, and the pnpidarif y attetid- 
iDff WaiMon's sonn*^t(>'ri))(; ^Hbrts was n 
chief cauitf of thi- exi>_'nd<.'d rogue of thi' 
MOBCt iu Kntflnod ntuont; po«l« and their 
patnom in the last degrade of the sixteenth 
ceniuiT. ^Vatao□*fl sonnvia wvm closely 
atuditJ by Hhak«KpimrM ami othvr contem- 
ponmea,aiul,dnpitp their friglditv and imi- 
tatire iiaaltty, activdly influenced tbn form 
and topic of thn later MDtieta of the century. 
All manner of praise waa bwtow«d on Wnl- 
aon at his d'.ath by hiA feHow pnetfl and 
own of letters, wbo reckoned him tho oom- 
pe«r of Spikoser and Sidney. Harvey in hi.* 
'Four I.<titt«rs* (1S9^) highly commended 
^jl 'ctudious eaae«TOurs in enricliing and 

polishing Ilia native tongue,' rankinff him 
with Speosur. Slanyhurat, Frauuce, Daniel, 
and Noah. In his 'itert^e's Supereroffnlinn 
(1593) Gabriel Ilarvey montiona Watson 
aa * a loarnod and ipillnnt p-nllrman, a 
notable poet;' Naah in bU reply to Harvey 
in 'Have with vnii to Safrroii Walden' 
t,l&I*6), says of Wataon: *A man h« waa 
that i dearely lov'd and honnr'd, and for all 
thing* hath left f«>v his c^uails in Ensland.' 
OtHiri^ I'eelc. in a prologuo to his * iTouour 
of the Ciartcr' (1593), refers 

To Wnlaon, worthy many B^itiiphea 
Far his sweet Poeaie for Aromton Ivarsii 
Andjoyeaso veil set downs. 

Spenser refeis to him as a palion of llio 

poets aa well as a poet liim&elf. In ' ('olin 

Clout'a coine liomu again' (150l>) KutnSKr, 

writ ing of Wataon under tht' iiiuiiu of ' Auiyu* 

ta«,' dvplorea his recent death: 

Amyacaa, tioure of ntiepbeanlH pride fDrlorno, 

He wLitlrHt tiQ liaod waa tlie rutblMt swaias, 

Thai «uor piped la an oat«n unill. 

Both did be other, which ci^uld \>ipt, tnainiaiiUk 

And •![« could ]>ipe UiiiiMlfu witli jmmiag skill. 

AVilliam Gierke, in a work entitled ' Poli- 

mnnt«ia* (1fi9d)[ seems, when rvferring to 
Shakespeare's* vemia and Adonis,' to dub 
Shakespeare ' Watson's heire,' Watson biw 
Ix-^-n doubtfully kk-ntified, too, with ' happie 
Mcnalcaii,' to whntn TlioonoA l*i>dp> (iddroeaed 
a laudatory poem in 'A Fig for Momua' 
(]5d.3j. Francis Mores, in ' Pallodis Tamia ' 
(l.MIH), after hoiiourablu muniionof Watson 
as a Laiiuist, tre«Led him as the i>qua] of 
Petrarch, and duclnred ihal his lAtin piutto- 
rala • Aniyntm (luudiii* and ' MolibaMis' 
weri) wiprthy of comparison with the work 
ofThdocritiis, Virgil. Muntiinniis, and San- 

Professor Arber edited Watson's English 
pocmft (excluding the madrigala ) in hi^ srriea 
ofEnglisli reprints lu 1870. Another issue 
is datod 18116. 

[Arhrr's tniroduction : Brydgea'a llritish 
Itibliugrnphar, iii. t-17. Csoatira Litanuia, iii. 
33-'5 : Ftiitun's Bibliufcniplua Poetica ; Aathony 
k Wood'M Athfin* Oson, i. am, «d. Bliss; ibe 
[ircsaoC writer's Life of William SbakeKpHirtt, 
1998; nuiit«r'> ntaatuoript Choros Vstum iu 
AddiL MS. 2Um. pp. 34S >«|.J ii. L. 

WATSON. THOMAS (f/. 1086), ejt-cted 
divine, was educated Ht Emmajiuul OoUfgff,/ 
Cambridgv, whoru be was remarkable lof 
hard ■ludy. Afttr miding for iKime tini' 
with the Vamily of Mary, the widow of S 
llorace Vere. Imron Tilbury [q. v.l, he y 
nnpointfldin IfUO to iireoeli at f^t. i^Krph^ 
\\aIbroDk. Duringilie civil war beaW 
himsulf strongly (hrvabyteriau in lu9T 




while dieeovwria^ «ttiehiMtii to the Irinff. 

Hi' joined lh» |>n>*bTt(^ati inuitM<4« id h ' 
rcmonsLrance ro (.foniwt!!! und thi- council 
of wu •((itDai tbtt dutb uf Ctiarloe. la 
lOfil he iMi iupiiMned, with mMUf other 
miniBien, far \ub shue m Love's plot to re- 
cull (7b«rlM II [ma Lots, CttKtnoi'iiRRj. 
After Hoou! tnonuu' inptisnnmeDt Watson 
■fid hti oomimnioiM wera released on peti- 
lioniitg for marcv, und on -^ Jum* 1fifi2 hff 
WB» formal Ij-rvinst at ed vit-arof St.Stepten'B, 
WftlbroDk. Hv obtained t:T»at fiiUL' and 
impulArity &• preacher unlil I \iv KniomLioti, 
when h« wa« ujccU-d for ntincouf-'naily. 
TfotwithtiiandJo^ tbu rigour of the nets 
K((fiiiut dtuenters, Wataon ooDlluiied U) 
exiTcise littt miiiiiitri' privnti'lT aa be 
found iniiiurlunily. tn Imli, nfli-r thw fin* 
of Liindon, liko seveml olher iHinonfor- 
lusto, liw tillvd up m large phiiw f(.>rpubUt 
woTfihip fnr any whn wishnl lo atlund. 
Upon ihc decUfHtion of iudalgcnce in Iti":? 
ho obtllin^d n lic«iu» for the great hall iu 
Crosby House, then belonfpnff to Sir JtJiii 
lADffliatn, n patron of m-onii^iciLl iinncon- 
foruilv. AfitT [in^ui'liiiirr tbi'Ti' f'T Kevurul 
Tears bi* health |0i\« vriiy. and bcn-tin-d to 
ftomsI«n in Kobps, where lie wafl buried on 
28 July IftBH ill llw jrrnv-.- of -lobn It»adlv 
[q. v.", formerly ns-tor th.-Ti\ A portrait, 
engmvi.'d by Jann-J! Unpwood. i« in Cnlamy's 
■ Nftrir(inf(inn»til.'it Mi-niitniil,' ed. I'alroer : 
unoihfr. Miirraved bv John Stun, is tiretixcil 
to bii.' Bodyornivmity.' IffOS; hii<lathird, 
«nfrrfiv(>d bv Fnili-rirk Flt^nry van Tlovp, is 
prefixed to his ' Art of ContenlDH-iU," 1IHj2. 
WnfMwi wnif n mnn of cniwifli'rablc leam- 
inii, und his work* prciwrun! Li* fiim*.! lon(f 
Mtitr his doath. Accordio;; to Doddridfle, 
hia ' Uhmtinu Suldier, or lU'uren tak>.>ii hy 
Ktorin,' was tin' meanaof <"onvrrtiiijj<'iib.m'l 
Jamea Gardiner (ID^S^lMo) [q. V.J llis 
ntoat fanoitii worli, tlw ' Ifcidv of I*nicticjil 
DiTinitv,' appeared aftsr bin ilealh. in lilftU 
(London, fol.J Itron^ists of I "I* iwrmona on 
tJ)c catDchisn) of thi'^ Wcstmitutor luwcublj- 
of divJRtw. Nuin«rou> aubeequent wlitioiis 
have be«n printed, the lost botnft issued in 
I95i* <Loiidon, Sto) and in 1:^55 (NVw 
York, t<TO). Hi» olh>*r writiii)cit ivurii itiiiui!- 
pous. Amonp the moat important are: 
1. *TliL' Christians Ohnrt*r; shewing tbi> 
PriTiI«lge« of a Hcliftvi^r botb in thin Life 
and tbat whicli is to Come,' Loudon, 19&)i, 
Svfl ; Ifth odit. I*ondon, IWJft, 8vo. 2. ' Avr- 
apxtia. or tbf Art of Uivitto (.'ontentmem,' 
London. 16o3, J^vu ; l-Jtb edit. Ijondon, 
1793, t^mo; new ed. Diss, 1338, I6mc). 
S^'l'hH 8aini« Dtilteht. To wbitdi k on- 
nexod & I'realiae of Meditation,' London, 
1067, 8vo; nww edition by the Iteli^oua 

TnurtSodetr, London, isao^ ISm*. 4. 'Hht 
Beatitude*: or a Pinouna npoo part «f 
Uliritts famniiA Semum «■ the Hoiiiti* 
(with other diflCOttneB), London, 1060, 4(«. 
8. * Jt^niaalenw Olory ; or the SiiinU .Snf^ 
tiea in Kvin^ thti Chorrhui Socitricy,' Um- 
don. HHlt, 8\-o. U. * na(tanv6it>v, or a W<wd 
of Comfort for th(!i Chnrvh of Ood,' London, 
I6K, Sto. 7. '.V Oit-iiie Cordial : or the 
Transcendent Printcdgu of ihon: that lorv 
God,' LondoD, 106^8vo; new edit. London,, I'imo. 8. 'Tlie GodlrMans riclun^ 
drawn wilh a Srrijilutv F'.-iukI,' i.A>ndoOi 
KMW, Hv... ». ' Th«^ H..It Eui-Larist.' fiii4 
impression, London, 10t{8,t)To. 10.<IIeavi-a' 
taktiii by Stortii : or lb« Holy Vi<drncv a 
Christian iii to put forth in the nureuil 
afVer Glory." London, IflOO, Svo; ?nd t-dit,, 
cntitU'*! ' The Chri*tian Sohlier. nr H*<Te» 
tak>;o by Stonn:' new edit. London, \t&o, 
Mvo; tirst American ciJil, New York, 1«IC^ 
12nju; Nov. 1 and -' were published, t<^eth«T 
with ' A Uiacourae of Me>iitiitiou.' under thft 
title of 'Three Tmuliw!!'/ ttib i:dii. l<oadon, 
into, 4to. \ collection of bi«'SeruiuuH and 
selert Diacmrsea' appeared in two voloines. 
HIn;«ir"W. l79fi-9, Bto; (ili»i(p>w, 1»G7, 8 
1x1 IK'ifl appi^arf-d ' Puritan Gem«, or 
and Holy S«yiii(tB of Tlmmns Wi>(«a>,' 
by .lull o Adi'V, Londr>n, ItSmo. Tvonaa 
MrrtpT Mormons bv him are pre»ervml la 
Itritiab i\Lu9eum'(IIarl. MS. 7517). 

tWaiiou'H Works ; WiI»on'a DtMeminc 
ChnrvhM 181)8. i, 3!i1-4; Cubunr'a Nodcob* 
formiilV Mpuiorial, rd. ratoicr. i. ISS-SI; 
Wood'* AtlMMB Oson.ed. Bliw, iii. m. 1001. 
ViU; arangerV Biogr. lliat. ill. UtO; Cal. 
Stntv Paper-. I>om. 1651. i.>i>. 347, 4&T, 4Mi 
HetuiFMy'ii Novum Ri'^wrt. Bcidei. 1898, p. IH; 
HrvTinWiiCnl. of Ener. Porlzaits. p. 184.1 

E. I, e. 

WATSON, THOMAS (Ht87-I717). 
nrii-t'd liiiilio{i of Si. David's, th<- son of John, 
Wutfloti, 11 '»?nm»ii,' wnit lioru nt North 
Fi-rrihv. ii^ur Hull, on 1 March 1636-T. Be 
wao «'duntted iit the i^'ainmar school at Hall 
and wo* admittwl fn St, John'o fVilIemt 
Cambridp'. on iH Mnv IftM, whoace o9 
(rra.iuat^'d M,A. in HWi', RO. in 166J», and 
IJ.LI. in 107."). He was admitted a fallow ol 
his collow on 10 April lUSO. He wu 
itrwKfuted to the rectory of Bnrrongb fi 
in Caml>ridp.'fliiin',and in 167t! exerted * 
evH' in thf pjirliaunTifary elections for 
conntT in Invour of tho courl candidatv ; hi 
the foTiowJUj! yenr bf ivun made a juittica of 
the peace. On lifi .Tune l(i87 hv was con- 
Mi9at«d at Lambelb bi«hop <>f St. I>u\'id'i 
soceeediug John Lloyd (IfiSS-lfl^T) [q.v-] 

policy, anJ, acoordiog to Wood, owed 






adTonoemeatto the raoommi'nilaticMiof Henry 
Jtrrnyn, baron Dover [1).^.], tltoiii^b bis «is- 
mivs iMwrttrd llitl be oolaineU it bv piirclinj»i'. 
Aftor his L-onsrcration Wiit«oii ili^ not nh&te 
liis tvaX, and. Htreuuouslv proniot^H) the read- 
ing of tfa* Ueclaiatian oF Indalf^co in hi« 
dioowfl in 16S8. At thi* rvvolutiou iiv nu 
«iwpt*d from Ibp net of indoinnitv, vfiw «l- 
taok(>!d Bt Burroii{;b Grwa bv tlw mbhli* uf 
the npii;h)(OUTh<KMl, wiu brwigbL a ar\90net 
to Oftmbrid^'. anil wss rwrciutd by tau kcIio- 
lunof the uuivijTsitr. TbuMn^nglh of bi> 
opinions iriks not, Iiowcvrt, lo \k mtKlcmted 
bj-fvarof Ttolcnw. IJe6ynip«thi»<.>dardenttv 
wiib ifau notijiiror*: and it wu allej^. 
perhaps witbuui truth, ihitt he ordained 
maajr peranns without tvndvring thom th« 
oathE. la 1692 bu void i>>nust>.-nt ly s^tut 
tba eovi^ninienl in tbt> ilciiife of l»rd«, and 
io IWMf, aft'-ribt'deiiciinu of r ho anamina- 
tion plot, he nif^iiwd l» join tbo luaooialinn 
lo defi-nd William and Manr fmm eucb nt- 
t^mpis, becanst.' mpinbrrnhip inrulvf-d a <}«•• 
cUrtilion tbnt Willium wait 'nf;htfiil ntid 
U«'ful' hin^. lu lOMj be ouniuinc^] his 
iatention uf invutint; on the nMtih-nce of Uin 
chancifJlor, rMidt'niiarj'canoDfi, noil beneficed 
elerry who bad be«ii lax in riiltilliii^ the 
dntuu of their pa-itjon«. Thin meuun.', 
tiioitgh jnallv ciwcpived. wan sumuwhal 
raptly annouDc-od, nnd WHli>on ua* ]>»>• 
lily induonrad br ihf knowlt^d^cvlbul wbig 

_^ini'itu Wert' jin-vaK'ut ninOHj; bi^ rlergy, 
Tt V&3 alio b<Hii.-v(-d lliat be iuU>nilf.-d rfuiuv- 
ing fri^iii bip iillii'i- hi* n'^itlrnr, !i<il)i-rl l<ttcy, 
til." f^-ltl of Villinm Lucy [a. v.], a formor 
liifhi'T- of thf^see. In niarm Luc y und othen) 
(' V pMi-nri'd an inhibition fmtn iho 

h: . Jobii TilliJtMin ij, v.], and Wat- . 

MMD vas ^usp^mlfd from hi-'^ otBcc on '21 Aug. j 
1064 wliiW u oiuuiiiwion iutiiiired into ibe ' 
wtalo of bib t** (LvTTUKLt, ItrUf Krlotion, 
I8-J7. iii. 3i7, 300). Afi-T ibi- U-raiinBtion 

fth'-'--ummiMionVn*farLhes.hoWi\i!r, Wflt- 
iindauntcdlyaintinu(.><l bis etid^-avour to 

Bl rid of Lucy, Hnd in wlf-ilttfrui-t- l,iiry 

rosffhc ehargw of i^imony and luuladmini- 
stnbMi agHin«t biui. In OeU>b**r l(}d>'i, in 
aiuwi^r toa citniion, Wat«>nnpj*Rrwl V-foiv 
TboButi Tenison 'a. v.] and six coadjulor- 
biahops and plcmled his pririlcfrQ of peen((e 
{A. ill. &4), Kl'J). Iliie courau urrL-Mod pn>< 
ceedinga until 20 Mnrc-h inHG-fl. when be 
■gmd to witi\-c bie privilufTT? {ib. iv. 70, 8^S |. 
In a forlhor nuit bv liitrv fiir the n-civirry "f 
sntne of hie {ei^a, tbe lortk ddcidcd on ^.l May 
109§ Ibni Waf «on bad no privilege. I_>u bis 
trial in the r-«rlMin.«ifal court it wasprovpil 
that Wntson bad let out to another clc ivy - 
tBan, William Jlrotiiks, hia rectory of Dnr- 
rangli tirevo, wbidi bu hud retained in «mr- 

mrmlamf and that he bad appointed hia 
ucphi'w, John Medley, to tho nrcbdoaeonry 
of M. David's, rewrving uoat of the enolu- 
mc-ntA for Limself. In defence it vraa ahown 
that Itnx'kv bad Burrough lireeu on very 
favourable terras, and that Medley was in- 
debted to hia undo for eumtt of money ad- 
Tonci-d unon bond lo pay for hia cdiiration 
and fur tliu eupport of nis motbiTonil sistcTB. 
Wat Mill wa», Imwcver, found jruilly of 
simony, and deprivt^. The ofiirinid deed of 
deprivation u«iu tbeLanibetb Lihnry. On« 
of the coadjutors, Thomas Sprat [q-T-li '^ 
fused to concur in thii aenteaoe because ha 
regarded the proceediiiKa oa uttra t-i'rejt. ]I« 
was willing that WutMm should bv f**u- 
pcndet), but did not tbink tlu^ archbishoj) 
oompvlent to dvjirive him. Sprai'ii poaitioa la 
aet forth bv an nn'mynirtim vrntur in ' A 
Letter lo a terwn nf (Jnality oonoeminp the 
Arcbbidbop of Canlcrbwry"*- of l>e- 
I primtinn o^inRt the Risln^p of f>t. David's ' 
I (London, l69tf, 4to>, and in Humet's ' Lelter 
to a Member of the Houm- of t'ommons,* 

inibtis!it;d wiiboui date; both are IB the 
trilisb Mutteuui Libriirv. 

W*nl»on refused lo atlinit Ibe validity of 
the lUMileiire, whieh wiu etrnfirnjed bv the 
' oDurt nf deleifales on 2^ Feb. 1009-1700, 
and cmtiniii^ir tn takr lii* »wiL in the Hjium 
nf IxirdB (I'A. iii. Q&l, &J\\. He at tint 
atbetnirted lu roaaaie bis priviUtc^ ^ pcunige ; 
but, thf lords decbuini; nn tt Dt-e, Itillil tluit 
h« could not do ao after Talnntnrily wuivitig 
it, he adopted Sprat's contentinu that tho 
atehhittHop was iDcomp'^tenl to deprive a 
bishop. This point, however, was decided 
•ffftinat him by tho lords on *J March IKS^ 
liOO, allbuiigb ou f Mareli they rvnuesled 
the crown not to fill the see of St. Uarid'a 
immediately. Ou 4 Hay 1701 Walison wm 
rxcomtnunioili-d for contiiinacv, and oij 
.30 .funi' 1702 was am«ti>d ou a writ for 
l,Oi:tO/., bii! co«t> in tlw suit (ib. r. 40. 1H>), 
In Novemlxtr 17<''ll the conrt nf excheijuDe 
gave judt^menl that he was justly dejinv«d 
of llio tcmporaliliee of the see, and ua 
i';t Jan. 1701-ri the lords finally decbirwl 
the M?e vncant by rejectinp a petition of 
Watson in connucti»n with ibeproceedinKs 
in ihv court nf fxehequer (lA. v. 3l)e*, M'J, 
fi01,.'iOn, 511). He waa Bueceedt'd in tho 
«!e of St. David's in >Iarrb 1704-O by Ot•org«^ 
Bull [q. v.] He retir»?<l to his s»Al at 
Wilbrohua. near Cfitubridgp, wIhtw bu died, 
ou a June 1717. He was buried 10 tba 
cbatic<.-l uf the parish church under the sculJi 
wall, but without any wrvic*. a*, he was 
friill extiKumuninttvd. He was married, hi«. 
wife's cbri>tiuu naint? bt/m)^ Joliannu. Ha 
waa an inlimato frivud of i'homu 





{165rt-1740j [q. v.], whom he wished to 
bia cbB(il«in (Nickoi.*, Lit. Aneal. v. 107). 
During his lifi^timc lie b*9towed many bene- 
fnctioiiA uii Hi. Joha't Colk-gi', iac:lai.liiif; llic 
iilvnu-snii of the three liviimii of Fillboiirn 
St. ViKora, iidd lirinkli-y in CsmbridgL-shirL', 
und UniniiriihuTlriii, ni'nr ni'vt>rli'y m Vork- 
r.hirc. Ht^ iiUx> foitiideil a hnR[iiUil at IlitU, 
wliich wiw further endowed by bis brother, 
William WnlJinn. 

Many points in Watson's cooKluct dutiriK 
his tcniins of tho wn of Si, T>a,Tid'fl wt-re 
undoubtedly (liscretlitable, and hiit ){«ner«l 
eb&ractrrwAS painted iutbc blackcvl; oolonrs 
by liii) i*nomi«». U u wid ibai M-hcn hie 
tiepbew, .Mfdley, blundered wUile coiidurt- 
io^ ltiL> iK'niL'u in the t'jitlii<dral, Wnteon 
•cniidiLlLMtd tliM cotif^r^f^iilioii with 'twnluiid 
find diimmea.' Mueli of the eridunce on 
which tli(> cUnrpt' of simony wrut bns*^ wms 
of a iiiifatiniuihie fihnriwter, *ml ibo *!ourt. 
in whicli IJumet ww n coadjutor, displayed 
foo mwli i)ftrty fMin^ to nllfiw conmU-ncu 
inthi; inipar[Liility i>!l Us findings. The dif- 
ffrt'ot tn-HTuicnt ioL't".'d out to tho Jncobite 
Wiil,*'iii and ibi) wliig Kdwani Jnno»(lHiI 
I7U<t} ^1. r.', liiAliiO|> of Llaiidatl', was very 
rumiirkiLb!';. Joni>a wa« clujirly conviriod 
offiilerinK into Himuniiu-iil ciiiitr«cts, nmre 
boinoua thnn any of thow charpod a^*ninat 
WatJiiin, bill, bin oiilv ])U]it*hm<-nt wax nun- 
p('«nloii fur li'ns than a yi^nr. lUirnCit casulit- 
tically deft-ndod iLh incousifitfim* bv saying 
t.hnl, whilr Walnon wiw cmiA'ictm of niinnny, 
JoDf-a wna only fouad ^Uty of BimoiiiacAl 
pmcticea; for Wntsnn tnnk bribe* hinmi-lf, 
while Jonea reeeiTed them thrnngh his wife. 
Shippen remarked that Archbishop Teoiaon 

did in L>itJier ease iiijusiiee nhow, 
Here »a»*i! a fritod, (ht-ro triuitiphcd o'er ft foe. 

{Faction J)i»pla^d, IJlW, p. 5). 

[Bnktr'sJIiw.'^f St, John's ColIfgo.Cninbridge, 
tA. Mayor, Iflfifl. pp-a?*-!!, 697-8; Siilmon'a 
Lifuivf thfl Ktiifli'iili liiBliops from thu Rvsuun- 
tion to the Kornlution, 1723. pp. 211-6; Pa- 
trick'* W»rk«. i». 617. 518; tlwlwn, Do I'rv- 
suJitiuH Antlliv Coniin«iiliiriii'. e<l. RiohnrdEOD, 
l?!.!. p. AfiSiOent.MAK- I7B0. i.3'ifl-3. 104-8, 
413.616,616; Wrnon Lettera. od. Jam™. IBll. 
i). 331, 334, 3TS: Lotdb' Journpdit; Wood's 
AtbeDR Ozon. ed. Blisa. It. 870; AMiiatAn'a 
Mefnoin, p. '1^; Burnet's Hifet. of hi* 0«n 
Tim«i, 1823. ir. lOJ-T. i4P-50. v. 181-5; 
Uutcn's yomoirs of Baker. 1784, pp. 3-fi, 
9-14; KvclyD'o I>iftry. ed. Itray. ii. 3I.5. Z&A; 
Birch's Ijf« of Tillolson, 1 75S. pp. 329, 230-2 : 
Kotcfl and Quorirv, 1st Mr. rii. 363 ; Rnjmond'a 
Reports of Cases in ihc King's Hotifh and 
Cooimon PIm», 17a.\ j. 117. Mfi; HowcH'? 
8tw«Triid«, »!▼. 4*7 71 ; Brit.Miiif. Add.WSS. 
Ul» f. 196, 6821 f. 40,0831 iT. 116>60, 208-17. 

£BSa f. 16. fiSll ff. 7.17. Tbo OTidcnco aa 

«hicb Watson was coai)MnB*d in miDUt^ly dl 
tn«»d ia A SuMinaryViflw of iii« Articles Ear 
bited afcxiost tht lat« Bishop of St. Darid's, Lc 
dni), ITOI. Hro, irrittdo in support of lh« STCl 
bUbop's Rction, and to a repljr «ulitlcd A Lai] 
IteTiaw of ibaSumtnuY Viov, 1702. Jto.] 

E. I. C. 

WATSON, TilOMAS {il. 1"«), capUin 
in tho iiftvy, may ven- posublv, ns Chamock 
suppost-A, linvr s»rv)>d as a mitLihipmuu wilil 
Edward \'<arnon (IfiM-ITSr) [q.T.], perhaps 
ill tbi! nriif^oR. The oaly tui.-miuii of bim 
now to be found is aa first lieutenant of tlut 
Aniflope in 17^3. till bis promotion on "Oct. 
17.'{7 Xn hr captain of iIk Aiit*ilopo. On 
lOJuly 1739 ho was appointed to the Hurford 
OS Vitmon's Sag-captain, and n^-lud in tbsC 
capacity at ihii reduction of Porto Hello, 
IiL January' I74()-l lot ntOTud with ^ ernoa 
to ib« Prinoflfia CnmlinB, wa* flag-captain 
during tbf abortive attack on ('artfitrena, and 
ill Junu 1741 tnovd ft|rain with Vcnion to 
the IfrivTii?, in which he returned lo Knglaod 
in Dow-mhi^r 174L'. In .S^'pti-mber 1743 ha 
WIW appoimed to the 70-kuu tliip Nurlhuin- 
bertana, wliich in the folluwin^f ■'priug was 
one of tho flwt gent out to Lisbon under 
thfl command of Sit Cbarle* ilanlr (tlw 
elder) [q. v.] On the homfward roystfe at 
daybTVBK oti 8 May tlio Northumberland, 
looking out ahead, wa.* orderwl by Higoal to 
diaee a »trunge suil seen to thti northward. 
Sh« did not come iii» with it, and did not- 
ob«y bvr nicaU, whicli wuh made about two 
o'clock. Tbi! wi-nther got thick and squallj 
ttliti lostsi^htofthe Heel ; tlicnof thechasa 
but aboul four o'clock sighted three &fatpB 
tliu le^Murd, that is in tho ooat qtiarBtf^, 
thn wind being westerly. Towards tb 
etrangera tho Xorthumborliind ran da 
Thfy lay-to to wail, for hvf ; it was 
that thoywcrp French and that two of 
were ships of (M guns; liiv thirdwofialM-gun 
frigntf. One of the iM-giin ahipit, lUv Con- 
tent, was about a inilu lo windward of her 
consort, the Mar«; and if Watson had eo* 
gatfud her, bi> might pDseibly have disabled h«r 
before tbt' .M«r» cimld come to her support. 
It wftfl clearly the only anii* thing to do, if 
lin refiDii-d to accept the advice oflcivd by. 
the mastfir and endi-avour to k-adthe l-'njncfc-' 
men buck to Hardy's Qml. 

lint \Vat*on was in no humour to follow 
tulvice or plan which flavour^ of cauiioi 
Wbilt witli \'ernon bn must have been 
capable otlicur; but since th«n, it is au^ 
Ilia aliulE had bi^nn frarti)n*d in a fall, 'tad ft 
fimali matter of liquor rendered liim ijulla 
out of order — whia^i was hia unhappy fiito 
tlwt day ' (..4 True and Autkcntick Xarru- 


ila ^ 





/i>* nf tM AciMn Mtctrii the Xorthumber- 
imtid and Ikrrt FrmcK Mm of War . . . . 
By an Ey«-WiiueM). ' We boretiown oa 
tii«m,' says tho ^yfr-'witneaa, •» prccipi- 
lal«ly tlint our «iunll taiU waro DOt Ktowcd 
nor tniv^'allBnt soiU ftirlftd brrfore lli« 
vucmy tK'gaii tu firv uii uh, tnd nt ihe mme 
timn had tlie cittuii* l<> cliiir away; tb* 
buoioocln v,ere not sinwt;(l nt they abould 
be : in (Jiorl , we had notliirit( iu onhir as v^ 
sbould befnm artinn.' Abuut 6w o'clock 
ihv North 1) m be rlnnd closed will) th« Con- 
tent and ri>c«ivi-d hor fire, bnt, wJtbout re- 
plying to it, ran down to ibv Man. Tbc 
L'onirnt followed, so did Uie fripnt*?. Th«* 
Noriliuiaberiaud wasa targvt for lbi> tlin'u 
of them. I'he men at th« wliu*!! went kilki!, 
and Dobody ihougbi of wndin^ nthi^ra to 
take Llieir [dac«. Th« captain wnk inud- 
drunb, tbe master a ahivennjr rowan), and 
the limilarianta imablu or utiwillintf to take 
■ha Bommaiid. Tin* cairtaJn vriis mortally 
iwoanded ; and hufore llie first lieuieiiant 
rould get on deck, the inait'-r atruck tbo 
colours, and thu ahipwns taken powesaion 
of. WaMon din) in Frunca oa 4 June 1"44. 
The master, tried by court-inartiul on 1 Fi-b, 
1 ~4A, was M-nlfiicpd to bi- iiupnH«iit!(i in the 
MonbolsM for life: }r> wiutjiarfdihvcii^iiiBl 
piiniBhnient oii tli« ground tluir lu> liud pvfii 
good advice to his captain bcfnre the act inn. 

[CbariKKk's Btogr. Xsr. it. 370: (Imii. Mur. 
1745. p. lOfl: True and Authobtick Siirmtivf. 
174.^; CoaiRiiuion and Wnrmnt DixiIih nnd 
Wiontea of the Conn-majtial iu tho Ihihlie 
Record itOre.] J. K. L. 

WATSON. THOMAS (1743-1781). en- 
grater, was boru in Wiidon in 174.'!, snd 
aitifU-d to an pti^traver on plate. He exe- 
cuted some ^ood Htinplc pnnlit, which in- 
clude portraitii of Sin. t-livridsH at St. 
CfKilia, and Elizabi^tb Il«aucl"rk a* Cna, 
both after lIe>itoId», and portraits of >Irs. 
Crcwo and Airs. Wilbrahain, aflvr Danii-I 
Gardner; but lie specially exuellediii ine«o- 
tinc, workinff from pirfnn-Ji by K>>yRolds, 
Daow. West, Gardner, Williadn.itembrandt, 
Oorreinno, and ntli«-r>. Hie portraiis, after 
BeyiWllds, of I^y namplyl.te, Lndy Mtd- 
bouTiML Mrs. Crewe as Si. UiMi-viive. Lndy 
Towiuliend and bersisten), and the 'Straw- 
berry Oirl,' are briUiaut uxamploe of i\w art, 
End proofs (>f thetn are now greatly priced. 
lie also executed a i*t of aix fine plates of 
I^-ly's * Windsor lleauLra-*^' now nt llnnipton 
Court. WalsonforaiiinenirriiflnnbtisineM 
as a printaeiW in Ni-w Bond Street, and in 

177deaterMlJnto partnirahip with >\'illiam 
I buried at Briatol in I: 

SickiusoD (l74(t-|fiL>a) [g.T.J He died and 

snip wi 

.T.J li 


[Radmre't IiicL ot Artiiis; J. Chaloesr 

SRiilh'sorilisfa 3iIe<iolLnto Portraits : Ixi IllHnr's 
Maiiti«ldel'AinAteurd'K»l>iupM.] F. M. 0'I>. 

WATSON, Sib TIIO.MAS (1792-18821, 
firHt baronet, physician, eldest son»e|ih 
Waifron of Tborw-lv^kon, Essex, and bh 
wife Marv, daugntcr of lliomait Cnlton, was 
Iwm atiXfontratfa, near CuUotnpton iu Devon* 
sltin', on 7 March ITK?. lie was t^ucaled 
ntthe gnimroar school of Rurv.Si. f^Imnnds, 
when'C'harlen James Hlnmlield [q. v.], nfter- 
wards bishop of I»ndou. was bis couteu- 
wirorj-; tbey continued friends througliout 
life. Watson i-nlertMl St. John'* College, 
Cambridge, in 1811, and endualed B.A. iia 
trtith wrangler in l>*lb. Iftr wan elected a 
fellow in 181(>, and in 181S (rradost'tl M.A. 
He studied raedieini' at tit. Karlboloin^w's 
Hospital, whon- ha attended the lenTiiri^s of 
John Aberiietlir [ij. v.'', in iHlft. .■Vfter 
spending one session at Kdinburfth, hr 
again re»idpd at Cambrid^o, obuinMl the uni- 
versity lirenae in medicine in iH'2'2, was 
junior proctor in t&.'^4, and graduated M.I>. 
in iei>G [Gimluati Cittftnbr. p. 5411). In the 
same year, on 10 i-ept.. he married Sarali, 
daughter of RdwarJ Jonfs of llracklry, 
NonbamptoQsbire, and tivjka honsa in Lon- 
don. HeWBS elected » fnltowof tim 0<ll-ge 
of I'hyMdans in 1830, and in May 18lJ7 phy- 
sician 10 tho 3IiddK'si'x Hospital, whirh woa 
then connected with rnivenntj College. He 
was urufflseur of clinical medicine, and lec- 
tured from I y28 u> I Hfll. Tn 1831 he became 
lecturer on foreusio medicine at King's Col- 
lege, London, and in lis'lo profetwor of medi- 
cine, an oflice which he hold till IMO. He 
continued to be phvMcian to tbe Middlesex 
Hospital till Ifij;!.' In that year he pub- 
lishtd his fanious ■ Lectures on the JVinciples 
and Practice of Phytic." which luid fiml l«-..-n 
printed in ihu ' Mi-dieul Times nud <iaz<<iie.' 
The author correcieil fivn ttdiliiiim, ^nd it 
C'.iutiutiL'd for thirty years the chief Kngliih 
text-bonk of meiUcim-. It contains no dis- 
fiOvoies, but is based upon sound clinical 
observations, gi^es a complete view of I'Jig- 
lish medicine of its period, and is remarkable 
for its ^d literary styh^. At the Calk'gu 
of PtivAicians he j^ave the UuUtouian lectures 
in 1^:J7, the Luinleinn lectures on hnnnor- 
rhagc in 183], and waa a ceniior in 18S8, 
1837. and 1838. In 1862 he was elected 
prtsident, and wiw rt-r!wtfd for fivs sucoes- 
oive yL-ars. )Ie was electe<l F.RJt,. in ISfift, 
and m 1804 wo« made an honorary LL.D, 
at CamliridBP. In IH/i" hr became president 
of Ihe raltiological Society, and in 1808 of 
the Clinical Sociclr. His practice ait a phy- 
sician was lar^, anil in If^vO hu was appoiniud 





t^Toaiin cxtnoHinarv to the qu«en, nnd In 
1870 phi'siciftn in ordiDory. lie waa nne 
of tlifi phyaiciana vho attondM the |inncv 
co[i»i>n u litH laitt illnvc*. Ik- woe crt>at>.>d u 
hunrn'r; uri '27 June 1866. He retiivd from 
praeltev boou «IVcr 1870. lit- la»l atlvuJed 
tiin cnmitia of the ("ollfrge of Phv>!('ioi:.'i 
in Marrti 186i\ on which ucca^ion all thu 
fvllnM'H |>n'wnt rof" whfu In- i.'nlen*<l thi- 
rooni, n nirp mark of respect, luid llie higbmt 
honour which the cpU«({« can bestow oo on* 
of il« feUovA who )m« c«ued to hoM oIAim.'. 
WoWW) iiie<l on II IW, \HH± His por- 
tnit, by UeorgL- I{i<'htnr>Qd, hnni;'» in the 
crnwin room ot thu ColWt: of I'livf iciaii*. 
He lefl n son, Sir Arthur To«iil<'y Watson, 
Q.C. and nno daugbu-r, 

[.M>ir>h)iir» ol>;tuni7 iu>ti» in Mediw-Chirtir- 
gical Tnitmcliunx, Tgl. Ixri. ; Lancrt, ubiliutry 
noiice. 16 Dec 3882 ; Worlw.] N. M. 

ScortUK portt, wits horn of lowly pnretitafre 
al Clirv*l"n, |i.nnt.!i of Caliler, Lsnarksbin?, 
on S' Sfnrrh 17WJ. At the ago of rif^ht. h*> 
bccsuio a herd, andafteraepell atwwiviiijihe 
tncd farm»(Tvit:i'i'or«liin<riit homr.uiiiii-in- 

Eluyau-nt a» a i>4in'yitr iti Olas^jow, afli^r n hiuli 
u L-uliftt^'d in tlie Hcottt fir*',''''' i" 1701>. Dis- 
chiirr.'i<d m ihf- inniee of Aiuiviis, IBO^f, ht' 
pr<f>M?iilly lunrr;^! nnd^irltlMl aa a weaver in 
Chrj-»t-in. He rhtrnpfld to Kilsyth, St irling- 
»Uin;, ill If'iO, u(\":r which In' niiiiiw viirifii* 
axperiuK-iits till l^tl' in tlie adi.iirinp coun- 
ties of SlirliDg, Lanark, uitd Ihimbnrtou — 
now worliing as a fcawyer nnd Hvyim on a 
WMwr— finally seltUii(f at Duntibloi-, near 
Kirliintiilnr.-h, Ihimharttinnhin-, ivlii'ff h« 
died nn 12 Sept. l(*ri|. He waa buried in 
OaldeTchiircbynrd, and a fjmniN' mominiMit 
iruenwtcd at hix gnt^'<> in lS7n. He woe 
gur^nTiN] by a widow and four menihcra of a 
£iini[y of l«n. 

Stvvnil"f Watson'* lyrics ^<«p«;ialiy such 
mirrry, festive son^ a* ' Sit diiwn, my Crt>- 
ni<-,'and'A w«c dra|i|nv «'t ' — ^ihoiifih nut 
of dpi-t^inlly fint- ijuftlity, have a winning 
ehrewdne?§ ktid vivacity that liavi- M.-L'ari<d 
th«m a coTtnin wipularity. Watann pub- 
tii>hi>d thns* small vnlumea of hif Teratt in 
leoy, IMS. and 1*43 njepwlivvly. and a 
ToUimc iif his ■ .Select Pnirna ' was edited In- 
Hu^fa Mucdoiiald in 1803. 

[ Mm iluci «] il 9 Menuir ; Itogara'a Modern 
guotiish Mlusuel; Gmnt WiImu's Toot* and 
PoMry of Scotland.] T. B. 

ai^CLiInr pritiat and conspinitor, bom on 
33 April, apnoreutly in l*>59, wm, Vikf his 
contemporartirB, .VnihonyWaldon [ij.T.j and 

Christopher Wktsoa [q. t.], a native of 
dioc«»i' of Diirfaam. Hii^ nano doc4 
occur in thu 'Viaitattnns of Durham' (< 
Foctvr, lSi<7l.hut his fathur must havs ~ 
a man of »»mir |Kwi(i>iii if William'* sta 
incnt Ls lo Ell? truetett, (b&I be waa 'anit 
Oxfiinli! at 10 ypaiTit nf a^^ with ray tv 
(a pcrffHrt liiigtiiiit.whirh roy father Kept 
ti-acliV lip mnft be di»tin);;ui«hp(l fniia 
' William Wawun of Durbatn, pirb.,' whi>' 
inatriculati<d, Bg«d 2fJ, from All SouU' oo 
3H Nov. lAi^l, and gmduauxl It..\. in the 
following K«hruarr, for tbo fiiture oO! 
apiriitor ' at 14 i-ame to tl»e inns of cou 
and III fixti'vn ' paMtnl tlw h-k l<> Ilhi'iiBC 
(Watson to llw Atloniey-g»*n«raI, print 
in L4W, Arrhprifft Q/ntromvu, i. 211 (qq.' 
Watson'* faniilv mix t-vidi-nll^ lEuman ca 
tholic, and his nama iws not appear on 
rei^.tli-nt at Oxford or ut iht' inns of coi 
According to Parwtns, who is <*T*'n I 
vi>nu-ions than M'ateon himfielf, Wa' 
eatne tn ]thpiin.-< ' a ]>oor, litfli- hi-jjinn^ hoy* 
and obt&ini>d employment in menial ofRots 
At flic F.Tiftlinh Col U-j;*-, when.' Utr mndv api 
for the btudenlit ' in tumbling, for which 
l>ody wan litlv made, and ao hv pa^.v-d bv I _ 
nanif t>f Wil. Wat., or Wot. Tiun1)1(« 
(P.vlttOX!*, Mani/tilativn. IWl', fV. WS-J 
WatKon'* own af^count was that * my fetudi 
until i waa 18 vfan-s of aun iuvtv in 
7 tiberall Kit-noes iutt>mnx1e, with 
tonffiu-s phisi^kti, common lawe (and i*s] 
cially biatorti-A all mv Hft^ tim« tor n^ 
tfou): from 1^ to I'l 1 Mudied the 1 
canOn nnd civil willi pOMilive dirinitie, and 
]ierft-L'Unp of my melaphiairke nnd philn- 
sophii*; afti'r tliut, wntill mv n>lnm home, 
plyed wihooln divinitii;.' Tlie lihrory, wb 
nc was arrested, containtKl, be«iidfii ihool 
gical irorka, ' lawt; bookrii. Jfnchiavels 
tragedies, crcmyelt-s, eollveiunn of Polemoa, 
Pliilopalcr, fjf'ycvatcrs Commonwealth.' 

Waiflon was cuntinnud at Kheims on 
35 March \<>h\, received minor onl(ir» on 
'I'i Sfpt. 15SJ, waa ordained c^uhdeacon 
on :;i Hept. liiSo, deanm at liaon on 
'2-1 MHn:h i Wj 0, priest on ."i April, and 
Iti Jun>! following wax Dent ii!i raiMiioner 
Enpland {pauni Dini-iM, pp. l;j, 178, 1 
2(Ht, i^llV II(> yrat cuplur^d almost int- 
mediately nnd impri^nod in thv Marslud- 
sea; hv was wion rcleused on condition 
leaving Kn^land wilbin a 8peci<i>-d li 
dtiritig which hv wa" not to be mol«s' 
Hicbfinl TopclifTi" ^q. v.], howe^-er, who 
been com missioned to hunt mil priori t^, an: 
Wat.-ton, shut faim up in Hndc\r«dl, 
aevwely tortured him fef. Statr Pap^rv, ITw 
Elir. ccii. 01). In ir^H WaUaa .-reaped 
ibc coutioeut (on 30 Aug. in that yt«r 




pmon)> -vrt-n »ccat«d for contrintif; hu 
eecsnei, Hod piiM^l two yvtin at liii>g9. 
In rhf KuluinD of l-MXt he agnin rcMirnt.>(l 
to KokIukj, anJ ••Hicml^ for voDMi (iiB'J iQ 
the weHl., elndinff capture ia spil« of tiiere 
bwng nt one tiuM: frL\t(Hui vramnts out 
uninM him. ICvi-ntually nno nf SirWJUJAm 
WwuI'e iif?t.-nttf discovorpd hini; hul hU im- 
pHoDnincnl , ap|ai in tlii> (tatpbouw, 
was roiii{)anitivelT mild until Topcliire agtk'm 
uit4!rv«ned with lii« tonur»«. <)n('« a(pun 
WatAon, 'Uiking ocoa«ina of the dorcs Mt 
TTdt- njipo unto me,' eB'e«tetl Iii» e»Cfi|K, in 
onlrr, bo main tit im-d, to avniil I^^l fro- 
c«uliQgi »n account of 200/. which lisd hi-en 
*lakfu up* by homv otu^ mmg hut nntnc; 
posfibiv tuis me on 18 Mtjr ICt^, when he 
•acHlR^l from BndtMvi-ll with 'nn Irish 
litshijp' (<?«/. Hatjietd Mas. vii. i<H). l>n 
30 JiiDr \NSd it wpjit ivp(.>r(>^ ' Wat^i'ii, 
ft fu<'niinarT priefri, hiLs a^in oMmp^i) lh:>rn 
^v lintehouM and cnnnot b<; h>*nrd of; In* 
iii thnu^it la havf with him a MTvant whi>, 
with hi-t coDnent, has iitolfft hit> mnMiT's 
best f:>-hlin;r nnd AiM. in money IVir Wataoii'ii 
u»e' (CtA Wa/*- /'<7'm', Doin. ISOS-KKH, 
p. '2'iA'i. He now Pt^m* to bavi- fltnl to 
{■voiUnd, ItopiniT to cross th'-nra \n Fmncp, 
but returaMto rbi- niir;h nf Kiii;l«nii, nm) 
tbeaop oncp more lo London. Ht-n- np- 
oflh^ t-nirtv-thrfHw-culnrprii'stdin prison nl; 
WbM-h f.'iisllewlioon h N"v. Iflftt-ijfncd 
tbi* funoii* *nprH-nl' «L'aiii»t lh« «|nK>iiitment 
of (ii-or^ RlaAwidl q. t.Jiu" arcnpri«M.on 
tfao iiT"<'t>'' that he was h tool of l^roona aiid 
thi^ Wuii*. \N'nt«nn'K thirty «rticlM against 
BUvKw-tl'i Hppiiiiilmi.-tii nrt! priaWd by Mr. 
T. O. Taw in 'The Archpriesi. l!)ontroTeraj * 
(C«md«ii:^oc.l, i. R>-8. 

To iliia Mliiigslti heLwfwn thm ft«calar 
pi*ie«t8 nnd tlivji-suil^ WD.teon bod devot>><l 
ni* Milin? i>n«rgy. hiln- nthrr w>ciilnr«, Im 
vms bitterly oppoBod iiol only tn the dn- 
minsttnn of the j<*»tiilB, hul ulso to their 
uiti-tiational tiitnfiiif's, c«pecially t)ic pi^- 
jwt for BMfUiinjr the euceoBion to the in- 
fhotn of .Spain : bi' maintained that but for 
tbue plots Klisabeth's (;v>v«mmwiic would 
grant alarj^mramre of toleration tn Homaii 
euboiivs. An curly tt* l-V^T, while in the 
UafAbataea, he had prolvsifd a^B*[ Dabing* 
touE plot, and thcjcr-uitsdenoimeed himoan 
govertitn^nt «iy anil lii* siill'urintrs in prison as 
Betittoua; 'SVatsnn himself declared thnt Iw 
enilan>d morufruin th? tonffu^softheje&utts 
than from TopciifiV* tortwres. rossiblv his i 
TiaiC to Sootland was in connection with hii> 
project of anawarhig the ' Coufert^nce about 
the next SucMHioo,* wbicli t'ursoas bad 
fubltafaod undw the peeudonym of Dolemau 

iti lt'K)4, advocatinc; iha claims of tho infanta. 

The account which Walaon |i:ive* of fai»book 

ia obeetim and jtoMibly uiitnte: at first ap- 

jnreittly he wi«b«<l to udvocatv ihi- cxclu- 

j aioi) of all 'for^ga' claims, the Scottish 

, inetud*-d, and liu says that the queon and 

' Kasiix liked what hn wrot<*; th«n hii main- 

I lainvd Jamva's right, and when thif proTcd 

I unpalatable at court ho i<nf{g»tpil ihnt Im 

' had only been ontmpped into writing lh» 

bfiok at all byj«>4mt intrigues. 

This hook doi-s not *ifm to bare been 
printixl. but in l<fUI aripmred fourworke, all 
probably printed at lUieims nnd a»chbed i» 
Watiwn. The Hnrt, ■ ,\ Dialnpiu bciwixt a 
SeciiUr Prifjitnudft Vax lienttfmaii couwni- 
iag some points ohjfx-ted by the JoAuitiall 
Faction n^iiiiit KUi-b Si-culnr PririU aa haue 
fchewt-d itiBlr dislike of M. Rlackwell and 
thf Jfwutt I'rocwiltnjfs,' was PiToneoualj' 
asfipncd br IWaons and Anthony ItirejrAlo 
.li>h« Mush f I], v.], iinothvT of the ojipellanis 
(I-'iiLKy, Iterorda, i. i'2; l*,\w, JrJtiitt n^rf 
fircntnre, p. cxxxvii). The second, '.\dpBr- 
iBfC l>ifl-pOT»'ri« of our En^disli I>?Hu>ts and of 
Fa. I'arsona' i'roc^Wiuiirs uuihr pp'ti-nco nf 
promotinptliot.'Bthu]iku Fuiihin Kutfland... 
newly imprinted' (KttvinisF -lt>>), is oecribpd 
by Itiveni to Christoplipr Hugshnw lI-^-J 
((A.) But 'tha moat notable nf these lateM 
wrttinga on t)i« side of thf apjwllants vam 
the "Important Oinaidntationn." It fornw, 
howoTCT. un oxei-ption to the gimiTTil cha- 
racler of \V«t*(>ir« pmductioM*, hotli in 
matter and styh'. Indoi-^1 ir Iuik int littlt^ of 
WuLhiu'm miinn<^r llinl it is not inii)robahIe> 
that he waa th.^ writer of no morri thun the 
pn-fntory epiBllt>, whioli is signed with bia 
initialit. 'l\w book itst^'lf professes to be 
"published by ouiidn- of \i», lliu tk'cular 
Prii'Stx," and is a brief, and on the whole fair, 
liiRtoricnl tiur\-vy of all tliu rebellioiie, plots 
and " bloody desif^nmoDls'' set nn footagain)>t 
Kugland \i\ the pope or otlien, mainly at 
the iiisligalion of ihf*' (I'A. p. »ri). Us 
title iviLs ' Imp'>rtaiit ('otiHidi'raiion'i which 
ought In move all tnii-an') sound Cathiili(-kee.j 
who are not whnlly J<*iiitc'd to n<>kiinn-ludi^i' 
. . . thivt the fYoceedinffsof Her MajeMv . . , 
haTebt-en both raiM and mLTciful.' It wasn*- 
printed in ' AOoUefiiou of Several Tr\>BliM»i 
coiiceniing . . . the Penal Laws.' 1I17.J and 
1U88, in 'Thu Ji-suit's I.oyBlty,' U>77 wiriwi, 
in *A Prwervalive afjain^t PopiT*',' 173R, 
vol. iii., and waa editM by the Key. Joseph 
.Mi-iidhatn in Iti^SI. Tt was also vxtensiTelv 
ns<?d hv Stlllingflert in bin ' Answer to- 
Crrs-y,' and by Joseph Berington [n. v.] 
in his ' IVclin'e and Kail of the Ronian 
Oat^holic IMigion,' ItsIS {ib., p. cxsxv; 
MKHOOUt, prcf. pp. xiT-xv). In IHOl alwv 

wu publislied Walton's lon^t work, ' A 
Decacordoii of Tcm (juodlibcliCAll Qii«Aiinns ' 
CODOlirninK Itvligiuti uii'i ■'^l«t«; wherein the ' 
author, rrainiiig liinia^lf a Ijuilibel to every 
Quodlibvl, <lecidi-8 an Hundred CrcwM In- 
t«rrogRU>nu Double iibnut thfl g(»n«'all iVin- 
t«ntiotu betwixt the Ht'tninnrie Prii-elB sud 
iMtiiU . . .,' Rhi'imdJ' 4tn, Thmt^jb dalt-d 
1602, it Win ilcrtcrilx'il by FatliHr Uirers m a 
letter l« rarsons on tJ Hwr, ItiOI. It con- 
tuns a few int^^rt'^titif; ntlnuaiu to Nash, ' 
Tarllon, wid Will ^^oDle^<l, which seem to 
indicate tliet Wotson fivqiitntod thp thfalri! 
Ipp. 266, 3S9). YMvf aalWd it n ' noUble 
uook,' and der]ar<?J that no answer to it w«» 

fublisliod by tlin Ji?«uits {CharcM Jtiftoiy, 
tJBO, bk. X. mi. &-0). A piiritun n-idy, how- 
ever, a])pt<ar<' J t'Brh- in 1(1(12 (Koixr, I. SO) a* 
'Let yuUibet boivnn? of IJ'ufidiibet,' ii.d., 
n. pi., and 'An Anti>^iindlthot or an Advcr- 
tifroment to bewara 'jt .S-'culnr Priests ' ( Mid- 
delburg, lUO'J, l"^mo) ha* l>wn attributed 
Lu Juliii rdall j|A'.J who, however, died tvn 
jvnrn belurt*. 

Wliatorcr Imiid wih^r apiwllaiits had ia 
tbv pRidiiclwjii of tbeit! worMS, tbfir bittrr- 
nttm and pvtravn^nnrt' imjiidlcd tlic dfpiiia- 
tiva Iht-D ploiiiliiig thn aitpidlaniA' caui>i> at 
Itome to rii^ii lid into rt*p<}aiedlT nil sliftrc in 
them {Arrhpritft Cvnlrorrrfi/, Li. (S8, 77, 87, 
89). T!iL- jr-aiiils at Thi> same tim» cii- 
denvouoMJ to saddle lliem with the n^Biion- 
sibililj'. and rnndu ^ihkI iiki* of tlit- bckoka in 
tbmt alt'-mpt. tn prejudice the papal court 

Sainet llie appellants. I'arannt ri*pU>-d tn 
cm with ftqual HcurnlitT, but mom Hkill, 
in liis * Briefe Apoloipe' ll(K)y) and ' Mnni- 
fesution of tbt! Qri'at Folly . . .' (1^02), in 
which hfl heaps on Watson all manner of 
j9«r«onal abuse. 

MisanwLllt Wulsuu bad b<.'nefit<,vj. by the 
favour sliijwn by Klirtibt'th's government to 
the secular prii«ls. llu had nrobrtbly \xva 
removed frnin WinU-cIi with the! otlu^r 
B(»culnr.*» to I'ramlinghain, but in Ajiril 11102 
he was in tlie Clink. In n l«tliT ti> IVrsnnn, 
Anthony Rtvcra relates hnw tlifl Roman 
eatholics in that prison lind nia<li.> MMrmt 
arrangemonta for celfbmt inff nio-ta when 
ihuv vrvTc Hiir^>ri8i'd by (rovacnment ajrente, 
and aaHertii that thia was prt-arrnnft^l bv 
Walaon, who was rt-uiovud to the kin^e 
bench, bnt dincliargiid thi* iitxt day. lie 
was now soen in frttijut'tit cuneullal ion with 
Bancroft, liisliop iif lyindou, tin? siiljject of 
their dcliberflttona being ii form of oath of 
allripirn'f wliii'li mlghl be takpii by lli« mom 
raoderaid catholirs. This oath was taken in 
JJovmbi^ir fnllowinn by Watson and otbirr 
ACCulani, who wer*" thprenpon r^len-'MMJ : and 
to this period must probably be referred the 

report (dated October 1001 in Gil. Sttilt 
Papei-», Dam> Addenda, 1 580 -m:>5) of Wat- 
son's * going gallantly, in hie gold chain and 
whit«satin doublet . . .contrai^tobiapritwt'a 
habit.' He had now begun to rcpud hi 
a« a n»rsou of importance, and on tJi« dvath 
of Euaabcth he hurried to Scotland to obtain 
from Jamtv a imimiiw nf toleration which 
would completely juKtifv hLt own policy and 
Cripplti theintliienr-eof liiejeauits, ilegaiiied 
aooRss to Jam*^4 anrl boA:fii-d that his r«^ly 
waa faToiirable. When t!ier<*forenochnugtof 
policv was forthcoming. \Vataon was bitter! 
uturtiSed; 'the resolution of James to exi 
the Bnes was regarded by liiu almost in r. 
light ofapareoual insult' (OASOniEK, i. 100 
Ife bt>ga]) to nimtttatti niorf fiirciblc method 
of effecting hia aims, and rommnnicat^ hi 
grii'vanc*«taSir CJriHin Marklmra n.r.lAi 
thonyropleyrq. v.', William Clark (rf,UH>3. 
'(|. V,], and otoeTB, seculars like himM-lf or 
(liMtppointedoaartien. In May ItUK) Mnrk- 
ham suggeeted recourse to the Scott Lsh pn>- 
ccdtni of s«tiing the king's peraon and com* 
pcUiug him to accede to their demands. 
Even wilder schemes went discuased ; lli« 
king, not yi;t crowned and anointed, mightj 
\VutM>u thought. ■>!• kKt Baid« if h« pro>' 
obdurate ; the Tower cnuld easily be aeii 
' iMidWiitwm numinntM himwdf future l 
keeper or lord chanceltnr. and Copl.*v aocMr 
Cary of state. Uanda of catholic adhi^mits 
vri-rt- tn hi- rollvcl^l for 2-t June, when th*y 
wiiild yr-'-^ii iheir demandn nn the Idogu 
lir> I mvK II This conspiracy became known 
I n.>» iliKi • liya ' or ' Priests" 1*101.' and Goorfn* 
I Drooke, bi» brother. Lord Cobham^and i^-n! 
Grey de Wilton were implicated in it; ' " 
Wat»oTi aW knew of Cobnom'sor the ' -H. 
plot<Cfl/. Staff Papers, Dom. imi;i-l(l, pp. 
34-8), and I'Vi'n discuf«.'d tla- advisability of 
drawing Knlegh Into lb« 'IJyti' plot i^AdtUt. 

Wfttaon'* nliil gave th« j«auit« an oppop- 
tunily, which they were not hIow to uae, i3f 
turning the tables on the seculars and re- 
T^nging tki'ir defiwf over the orchpriest con- 
troversy. Father Gerard obtained from tlu> 
pope an espn.'.** prohibition of * all un- 
({uietnoM,' and the whole infiuenoe of the 
socit'ty was exerted to frustrate WatMon' 
ech«me. Coploy, who vai tu havo bra 
in two hundred adherents, could not ob 
oni), ' for I knew never a catholic near nte 
many a milt! tiint wt:>r« not jrsuitvd ' (con- 
fession an. Ilonti, ed. Tiemey, vol.iv. App, [)p. i 
aqq.) Gerard, Blackwell, and GametL all 
hastened to inform the government of what 
was goine on, and Gerard at least made a 
ra^rit of this when charged with complicity 
in the 'gunpower plot.' The attempt 



r ihc^ 






84 June wm «d otter Smco, wid on 2 July 

■ prof laniDtioo ima Umod forCnpley'sinwii. 
ll WHS by liit coofeMion on ItJ J»h thot llio 
other* mn»ptrfttanweT» impticAtiMC.and tliiit. 
cou[)lL<d vrith ibu tad lljit Copley nas par- > 
doned, iiug>;niti( that lie aUo was pUrinfTU 
doubts part <Euwakd», Life of liaUvrh, ii, 
140, U'l aqtj.) U wu nut till 11! July that 
a nraclanwlwo was iasueal IbrWoUun's arrMt, 
"wiiich apwrMitljwasoot •flVcl<-<I untU«bout 
G Ave. he' wMlnkcn In a tield by ibo Usy . 
m llerefonlabire (or BrvcknockAhire . . .) 
by X(r. . . . Vaiif(b«n. ■ . . 'Twae obavrvnu I 
tuat Mr. ^'augban did nevor pro^ptr afntr- | 
wnutb" (AinHBT, ISri^ Lives, cd. C..1«rk, ii. , 
303). 'Waiaon'i ootiTeaaion, datvd JO Aur.. is | 
prinU-d in Ti#rn«^'a *l>odd' (toI. it. App. , 
pp. xix aqq.) Owing to tho aflbrU made by 
toe Kori-mmfnt to di#«ntaiigle the obMurv 
run i Heat ion& nf the tn-n plot^Wntson was 
not braui{ht tt Irinl till 16 \ov. at Win- 
cbaaUr Oostle (' B«(ra de Secretis' in Dry. 
Ju^r of Hffvab, *itli ll'fp. \py. n. IS.*-!)). 
Ha wa« condtiniu'd 1 df-rttli nigh I n^a'oii, 
and was executed ai Wiuctieeier on 1) I)vc. 
Willi WilliftDi Clark. Amon;; tho matiD- 
scripia at Slonvburst is a ' itrevv relasi'>ne 
dslla uort« di due sacerdoti GiU. Wauoni >>t 
QuL Ctarkci, » Di-c. 1003." 

In Lbt! ppiclaiuacion for bu arrett Watson 
is deacriU^l ae 'a man of the towG«l wrt 

[-Tury sbuftj . . . hia bair betwixt aln-am 
^aubiim] nwl finxcn; lip l<x>ketU aaijuint, 
and u ver}' purblind, so as if bo rmdv an^* 
tbitiK li« putt<>tht' the paper ne«T« to bis 
iryt»; hi- did weare hta Im«H at len^h of 
tlie samv coloured bairn n« is liix hMid. Kill 
informatioii isf^iren that nowe hi.^ beard is 
cut.' ]*ar»ou» aaya he ' waa bo wrong »!irt]«'n 
and of so bad and blinkinff aspii-t as lie 
lookelh aino waya at oaw,' 

[Thv raOfl impurtaut aonreea for WHivon'k 
Wilt Ar« the doeamenu printed fmm tho I'utyt 
M.SS. by Mr. T. 0. Law in hia ATchpriest Con- 
ItoiHua]. etuJorscd April 1A99 ; a doiibl whatlwr 
tlii« >• the correct diii', Wntaon'auwn Tagn«Deu, 
and adiOcaliy in reconciling liiadaloa with itiow 
affon}«l bj oeeuional rofmocea in tlia Mittr 
uapen, oonbina to midvr ttip cbnpiiuloKT "' ''** 
life Muavbat ttntatiro. See olao Law « JMuit* 
ainl l^rcatan;. 1889; I)t<nai Diario* : Citl. Slat« 
PuptTi*, IKim, ; Panonn'R Urirf Apiluj^ie nnd 
HuiftMulioa, boifa 1603?; Fuley'i llrcvrdv S.J. 
vol. i. paMitn: Uorria'a TronblMi. \. I9li. ii.S6a, 
277 : I.Nnwt. MB. 983. art- 16 ; Cotton. M3.Ve*p. 
fxif.t.i79: RiklMSS. Cotnai.Srdltvp.App.pp. 
lAO, 16-J, :i38, 13th f{*p. A|>p. IV. 12!! ; Col. 8tnt« 
Pnptn, V'rD«rii>u>, 1&92-I«V3. No#. 10.VJ. 1001, 
1078, 1069: Mutts nod Qaniaa. 4thMr.iv. 311, 
422 ; at»d Walaoai Woria in Brit. Utu. Library. 

For bu eoDAptracy, iteaCMifeaiaoua and Examii 
tioM anioB)t lb» DoRi««iic Siat« Papera Id tb 
Baeord Office. th« most impurunt ol which u 
prinUd in lleroey'a Doila. rol. iv. App. pp,' 
i-lii ; olh«r« nrv at IIstHrlJ (cf. rsiract lu 
AddiLMS. 8177, f. 202)1 rtutber dHaiU ars 
giren in the doapalehoa of Boaumoot, ibe Frene 
nmbaMador, ia the Brit. Miu. King's HS. 121^-1 
fr 309 fqq., 329-4S. nnd MS. 124 ; mhj aim 
ffcJdon'a Conrt of Jamwl.pp. 310sq<|.- Uirch'a 
CoorL anil Timra nf Jamra 1 ; Ii^so's Illostra* , 
tiooa, iii. '-J-^: Edwwd*"* LiTrof Kalrigb, 
ii. paaaim ; Sharpe'a L^nikm and ihn Kingdom^ 
ii. 6-7 ; GiinliiMr'a Hlsl. of KngUnd. i. tU8-40 ; 
Hume's Life of Raloififa. I8tf7. pp. 2i*. 249. 202, 
274; ep. almarta. Bannaa. tiHoaiia; llwiiOKK, 
IlsxaY, viiihtli LoMU CuKUAM ; Ci.akk. Wii.* 
LiikH. ('/, 1603): CoPiEv. Ajttuomt: OaNr, 
TaoiiAs. lltlecnih Bjkaoy Gbht of Wii.tux; 
afiMKHaM, 8iB UsirriN; and lUuuiH, Sta 
WaiTxa-l A. i\ P. 

WATSON, Sib WILLIAM (I7I6-3787), 
pbysician, naturalist, and electrician, burn 
on 3 .Vpri) l7l/> in St. John's Strml, nnar 
Smilhfield, London, waa tho son of a I mdes- 
man. Ilcwas cnlm-dal the .M^ri-bunl Tay- 
lont' school in I'iJit.audin IZSOwaHappr^^n- 
IJced to au apothecary naui>H) Uiuh^rdson. 
I-'rom his %'outh hu mad« many t'xcnrgions 
iritu thf couiilry to Hemrcb forptanU, hDvio{[ 
a«tn>n^'ta(>tu forhotany.and liRobtainod thtr 
prvtuiutu K<viinaiiiuiatly bythQApothccarii.-&' 
DomiKiny fi)r jirnlicLiMicy in that subject. In 
17fM Watson married And KCMipin busineiw 
rorhimm-lf. He hecAme iiifi(ini{iii>.h>-d for bis 
fici(!iilihcknowlc4!^e,andon0.\pril 1741 waa 
electfid, though be dtK** not aeurn to 
have piiblivhod any r*'»earchea pri'viiiiw to 
this date. Uetw>,>«ii tliixaud hJH dpnth,hnw« 
ever, be contributed to the 'Philosophical 
TTaiisaetions' uioru than finy-eishi ortfpnal 

Eapera and aummarii-* of Iht^wo^ of otlivra, 
earing on natural history, ttleciririty. and 
initdiriue, nianv of which nreofcoutiderabtv 
imiwrlonce. Watnon was k cnnsinnt nll«n- 
dant at the r«>fiiiUr in«etin^a of the ICoyiit 
Society nnd m. the privatf.- aasoclationa of'ita 
members, wbirh met on Tbursduya, Arst at 
the Mitrf in Fleet Street, and later at the 
<'rowii and Anchor ialW Strand (l*ri.TESKY, 
op. rit. ii. ti^S). In I74o he waa awanltnl by 
air Hans Sloane^i.T.], as aurvivuu; executor 
of Sir (lodfrey liipley [q- v.], tlie Copley 
I mwlal fur Ins elaclricaF research. Latt-r^ 
I Bloane, with wlioni W had become verv 
I intimatip,nominntedhimtnistMoftJi«Briliii)t 
I MuiMTUin, atid aftt^T iti4 establisluneat in lioD- 
' taf^n Hnu.tu in KM Wat.son showed great 
' assiduity in the internal arraaattmentB and in 
' foniisliini? the ganltn with a farg« oollbction 
. of pluits. 




On e Sept. 1757 lie wa« crMted dootar of 
pbyaic of Utv uuivoraitj of Ilalk', and about 
tboaUDetimeof Willviiilwr;;; ln-liudiilreaily 
bwb elected mt-mlKr of thi! K'jvil Acudf-tny 
of Mulritl. AflT hATJnifbt'vii ilinrntni-hiiu-il 
froa tJie 8flciety o{ ApntluicarieA he begun 
to pnotkM iM a nhTHician, nn<l after exarni- 
lutlon was adtniU'Kl L.U.C.r. nn 22 Dec. 
]7ri9. About tliii) lime ht> mav«<l from A1- 
dencnto Slrmt to LincoInV Ina Fio1<L(. In 
Oetoiwr nfi'i Im wm cIiusvu j^byMcian <')tbv 
Foundling lloapital, and retained this otlicc 
iai tiia dwUi. On 30 SopC. 1784 liu wah 
fl«Ct*d fellnwof the Itoyal r<>ll(i((i><it'I'iiv- 
BMUitU. H*^ VfH9 censor of Ilie college m 
17l*-*» and 17f*0, and wn* knitflilxd nii il Oct. 
in ihe lal t>^r year, tieine naa of T.)iiHf d>'|tiited 
by the colletto I'j c<>n(tT*txilal'-' Cieorgf III oa 
liis «>cap« ?rr>m a*MMin«t)nn hy }l|iir^ar><'t 
Nicbolflon. He wu nlco a inisiee oi tlie 
UnlleKcof I'liyaiciand, and for t'Mtn^ tJmc viro 
preaident of the iCoyal Society. IK- died iu 
Linccdii'M Inn l-Vldaon lOMay ir»7. ' Wiit- 
•on.' Hars I'uUunfv, ' wa# a miwi uxact a-ouiio 
mist of hiii ttnm . . . u]> u«uaily iu aummnr 
at six or oarlier;' ho was in apesch 'clear, 
forcible, and tmerirotic,' 'a cantful olHt«rv«r 
of ini-n,* and endowed n'iih an extra<irdinary 
inuniorv, buiag calK-d by Itis TrMnds 'ih« 
living iKxicrtn of hnWny ; ' lu> wna, a.i a phy- 
flictaii, ofiiarticularly humnni' temper. 

\VaI«OD had a lanfe fureit^i cnrrf-vpnndenca 
wilh Jeun Andrt Pevwontsl, Clnirniii, Brw* 
flf Witti'UibeTiK.the A'bbA Nolk't, Ilemnnl de 
Ju&sii'ii, and othera. In 17-4^ hv nhon-M 
eivilily lo till- uutumlin lVt*r Kalni (171.V 
177i»), a puiJil oC IjiiiiuBus, and in ITUl to 
Or. Peler simun I'allas uf St. IVteraburg 
<JuIt 17B1 tn April 17UL'). 

Watftnn (lontribiued liia fir*t papers on 
t>1«ctrici<y li> thn lifiyalSiMTiely in thcroiinie 
of 174.J and Kflhniarv l71ti"(PAiV. Trant. 
iliii. 4K1. xlis. 41. «».>). and piil>!i>.h(.d thrm 
•epwrately iindcrlhc titlM* Kx^tTimftntii . . . 
[on] thf Ntttttr\*. . .of Eleftncity' in 1740, 
• aocnnd edition boinf; publishi-d in the initmi 
yeiir. H« nutu:us Iherein that allliou^h icp, 
» wt^ll im wut*^^, ia an 'electric' or non- 
condactor, moi^t air cuuducte, nnd liu l-x- 
plaiiu tliervby tli'.' railumul'idoctriral fxperj- 
monts iu w^t weatbcr. On 30 Oct, I74ti 
</«■. (TiV. xliv. 7(M) Watwn nmd liia'Swuml 
tnthf Eicpan-inients. . .[on]Klectririty,' also 
yiibliahi'd ttcperately in t)ie same yfur ; hv 
altovft therein by Ilia own f^xporiniuiili* and | 
thowi of Lift trmid .John Uevis q. y.] that 
tlw ' Btroki' ' of tli« nrcuntly diMCOvcrtrcT Iji-y- 
tloii jar wutf, cintnrio paribiu, |woponionkl 
not to iisme, but to thfcuudiidtni): aurfac** 
vt it* com injtTS — a ]ioint to which li« rvtnrmit 
later {I'AU. Tnint. 174B, xh. 1(W). ll» 

uotioes tiiatfliv! Vlpctrica] foTOT always 
•cribca a circoit' iVoc. n't. p. 716>, and 
ptiiuiils tho tbwury that in an plcclrical 
machine tlia i^Uas (^bt**, ftc Itaro not tlw 
«'b-rtriciii |Kiweriouiera«-Wi-0,l>ui oalys«m 
oj ' the tifAt Ri(>v«n and determiners of ihai 
powf-r.' He agrees with ihi- .\hb* N-jlicl 
regardinjj electricity a^ exi^tintf numial 
sT^rrwbvrv in a slatv of m^oilibriiuu. ai 
rtigards the electrical machint^ a- roiiiiiarabia 
to a putnp which aceumulatea olectncity on 
tb* bodiws wr it-nii 'i-Iitlriliwi.' \Vb«im>q'« 
Ilivory, Ihoujih l<.'tia ck-arly fonnulatHl. 
hardlr dixtiii^uishablu from thai of ll«nj: 
niin rmnklin. In his n«xr papt^r ( 
:JI Jan. 1748, toe. cit. x!v. 93) Watton ol 
ratM ihi:i ihi-ory and di-fin«« it motv rlonel; 
unotinK at the eam« timo from Fmiiklin 
tamnn>i tiriti litter Idalt^'d 1 Jiuif 1747) 
the subject lol'iiU-rColliniwin ^t|. V.} I)u 
1747 iind 174** Wat*oB, iu conjunction vn 
Martin Folhiti [i^. v.~\, then preeidenl. and 
along wilh Bcvi«, parried out a long serii 
of trx[wrinH*nt« on ' ihi* velocity of elec 
matter' acrowi the Tliamea at Wi-stminst 
Britigw, at Ili^libuns and at Shooter's 
W'atsnn planning; nnddir>''Clin^all thf opt' 
tions. Tbeyfoundthiit no appreciable int 
Tal could be perccivMl bcltrecn the (n>ii||>I 
lion of Ihocircuil VJ^id feet long, iinitj] 
the two coatings of a Leyden jar, and 
rcMMpt of tlio shock by an obserrer in 
midille of ihe circuit; th^-y coucvived that 
thcvrlocitrafelectricity was'iiislautiuieoua.' 
In 17')1 \Vat*o», then ''the nioai interestaj 
and aetivi> itenon in thn kingdom in er«fT- 
ihiiif; ndatnifT to electricity' (PKtf«t^g^ 
took trri'iit tToiiMe to di'niiinittnkte tbe 
of coriain blAlt^menls of (ii^n: Matthiaa 
(17]0^17<ll)»nil Johunn Ileinrich Winkler 
<17(K{-177t)i In Krbniiiry 17'i:i ho ^nrean 
account of the expenmentii on the ehx.'lrieal 
pied »i nee 1747. which, lo^elher with thoM- 
Sollet.are the fimt on the subject. In (-»pt-n 
nieniul <1i>(aiU he wu» help-\t by John Sui 
itin [f|. v.] ftad by I.or>l Charli'a Cavondi 
llw s\\'ix aa accurate account of the plu'ni 
nii.-iin, findu llintrenifiwiatrconducts eii*ct 
city, though not so well ait metahi. and ui 

furen the diecharsv to the aurora bon-atl 
fn Ifl Itec. I'&i he read before the Hoy 
Society t ho substance of a letter to Liird A 
Aon. ttr«l lonl of the admimlty, advocatii _, 
the use of the lightning couduciors uf Fraalt^; 
lin for the powder majiaztne then bein^ coa< 
irtructL-dnt riirtlwt. Tho Royal .'vH-irty wi 
formally connulu-d in Iho aiatti-r, am) a e«: 
witlce WHS ap^mintcd tn consider it, Mnsi 
iiig of Watson, Henry Cavtmdisli [q. v. 







FninkUn, JolitiKobert60B<1712 1776) L'|. v.J. 
and Benjitniin Wilnon [q. v.]; tliej rcporle^ 
^Tnunilily in \77'j. 

Wilt-'"'- •'•■'"-ica! exTOrimtml)" b^ciimf' 
fainoiM < ntitic circW. (ieargclll 

(llWD I'm l^),tlie [InkpoffMinUT- 

lma<\, and other fiuhiotiablt^ peopltt Trent to 
•w tUtm nt Ui» hoiiw iu Aldernnilo Street. 
In ITi'iO {ioc. eit. xlvi. 5»i) Wkuon coin> 
mnucalirtl lu iLl* ICovol S>ciet>i *eevfTs1 
{Mtprrw c(inft-rnii»g a new semi-metal caUed 
plalicuu' Thu crvKliL of the iutnxlucti'Mi of 
pbitiniim liMKin tliU Account been aacftbcA 
tAWiiTt(nn,andiilmto his nanM-aak-.-, Kioli&riJ 
"'' 1 I I^H- v.], l>iH)lO{l of I .l»ti<l«l]'. Tin* 
! in(wt important of Ihfi papers ui by 
^'i uiirnri JlrownripK [<i. v.", wliu li.ij titmniiiir 
liecii Rii in I 111- -irKTim.iis of' )>tfliinA (ii I'intn' 
from (liv S[Mau!i \\'e«t Ituliia« by C'tiwlus 
Wood aino yttn iMrevioiinly. Awl limwnriw 
denrmi inont cn-Jit in llix matter, W'atwn « 
fmpnr bpiuii mcreU a conimeDtary on DritHH- 
"' "*" In l"''i7 (Grnt. May. xxvii. 6( \V«i- 
I ifat^ubiioimbnt tinportuit [inrticnl 
m tluit inslirdd of corerin^; tlti': lend 
valer I'tp'**. osft 'o MJpjily hmtM-A, witli 
lion»-dua)r. to piY'Vcnt th«in from froezitig', 
tlioc »liuuM he proridml with t^v<>cl•cllK, *0 
AA to eiit olf the Auppty ftn'1 orapty tliam 
(luring &dK. 3^ 

TliB mo«t important of Watmi late wicul 
papcn is lliat un the Stnr-pufT bnlSmjlM'''') 
which lirst dn'W ih» siteittion of conta#|Ctl 
lMilani»lA tr> huwork (PAiV. Trttna. xHii.'flifc 
ivuI201>i»c 17^4). M«Dyof hi». botanic^ 
pspeni lire hiaioneal ^ummnrie^, ilioirin^ 
ensA kaowlcdgojuid ifrvpicuctty. <>ii7 M»y 
17.5;* (li. xlrii. 4-l.'») do n-ad ft l')nK af«oiiut 
of a maiiuwript trvatiso bv LV r>'yu.<'ji»cl, 
{troviiiu tliHt cornl whs nf^animiit and ni.>t 
rof^ttiltU- origin, which had befn LMmmnni- 
c«(>il N' I'l" l'»ri» Arad<»niy <if S»ri''tnT'» in 
I7_ Wted. In K.MOA.xhiii.dl.-.i 

111- , I that th»' holly is ' polyK""""** 

In thv • i JfDtlemun'fl MnniJEiiie,' I Z-ti, p. r).1.% 
WktKm piiMisbtHl ovi-'T n*^ initinU a nntirr 
aiytmn^'M^'tiNpfrifiplaHtarnm. in wbi. ' 
•Utli'^r M'l forlh hi* nvw fnethod of n < 
clal un«, and pronounced it to be thu ' maf :cr- 
piNti of thi^ miut cnmplt<(it naturalist the 
world hat I'vrr but in^vi-rlUKlfss etiti- 
cian<«ftnin d^taiU. In tlie following; ypv 
{Gffit. Moj/. Kxv. .117) l.innaxiti n>pliitd to 
bid aoonymtiu* orilic, whom ht^ cnlb ' in ri< 
hvrWriu tiolidiMimum et honeetiMimnm, 
Mimnl L't miliMtmum judicrm.' WatAoii did 
much u> inUttlucu thii Linnjeaasytitem into 
EoKhuid. II0 wrote a numbvr of mt'diMl 
nmnojn dtialing with ciu>n of poiHoniue 
by fangt. &<^ ; but his chii^f mfilica) noiii 
•ietd* nrich epidemics. In Dcecmbpr 1 7*32 h<.' 

uublulinl if AH. Tntfu. UL tU6) m letter to 
hilt friend John Iliixliani f<l-v.~ on th>- 'cutar^ 
rliul disord^' I indii^nial of May 1702, cind 
ihr dv««nt«ry that folluwed in tlii.> autumn. 
In I'Vbniarj- 1763 (hc.rif. liii. lO) \iv pub- 
lished an inten>stin]^cur9or««vciv Qiu«cular 
rif;idity by mtiana uf ntoctricity. lie ptib- 
Ufltml various pap«r# in tbi.* ' Londun Mudi- 
cal Obsenrationa^ (iti..So, it. 7H, i:iiM 'oo 
putrid mvaelee' (wv CkEmuTux, £/u'deinic€ 
in Britoin, li. 7(WS, iv. 321). In KtiH Wat- 
eua publisbtHl ka % pamphlet *An Ai-cnunt 
of a Srrir-" of Expi'rinu'nt* instituI*M| with 
a view of a<uN-nainin|; the moot kuc-cciisful 
Method of inoculating the Smallpjx.' Wat- 
iwn found thiit pr>-paial .-iry drugH had no 
elTect, thar mat ttT from iiai ural or inoculated 
smallpox produced the <muii< rraull, uiid that 
it wtu iuadvi^ablt* t'l tnoouUte children 
under three yeara of ajfw. 

A portrait of Wat«on in oili*, by L. F. 
Abbot, givan by liu!»itt<>r,and an ''ii^fraviug 
Uwrefiron by Tliomthwaice (17117) are in 
tlw powoMioa of tlw Iluyal Society, lie 
liiid A maaaivA though not handsome face, 
with hipblyarcbedinretvowaand larf^c orbit«. 
W'aiAon left one oon, and a daiif^hter, uiar- 
ritfdlo Edward lleadon, rector of Nort h Stuno- 
linm, Hampshire, brother oC Itii-bard lt<rai)on 
[4. V. , bi.-)l>op of Bath iinJ Wella. Thtt mn 
i.oi'niiiablvlobe ideuli tied with th» Willi AX 
Watson tl744-182.'.?)iun., .M.D., Iwm on 
, 2H Au^. or y Sept. 1744. He was kuightvd 
on (i March 17fl« (.Tliowsox, Hist, a/ tht 
Jioyal S'icie(v). electwl F.K.S. on 10 XUx, 
17ti7, and fti!mitt..d on 19 May 17lW. Ilo 
rontnhnt«vl a paper on ib^ bluo dliark to lbs 
' Philo»ophicml TraDsactioas' (Ixviii. 7W>. 
Il<> dit-d about \%iTt. 

I dsrl'a rii.iirKiiiii Km, Hi. itlfl ; Chnlman'a 

lliofftyM.:-!.; r.riit, .M«g, Ks;, i. 4*4: KoUn- 

- - T- ■ uf Mtri^lmni Tnylwi" SchoMl. ii. 88 ; 

.1 rl% Ittigjr. Li'imi-. Handworlvrbucli, 

' iiPi ; Pii1ii.'Hi'.i'b .'^kt-tobca of ibn I*ro< 

kreas ut Kiiluij \n in-^Utti. 1790. ii. 206-340 

'frhr* nuisl enmphicn meiiioir; proWbly wriltitn 

' I pergonal kHavI^lg^): HunVaCall. of Phys; 

I'K: riiomscinf. Hi»t. of tho Itoyul Am^ 

1.^I2, App, p, slii ; B*'conl of lh» Kojnl Sue,. 

1807; Croigbtoii's Kwd^miM in Pniain. I.t(l4. 

ii. pavim; Mat/s Indax to the I%il. Tiuna. 

voU. i»Ui.; W'ni»)a*aovB papers ; I'risttlay's 

' Hist, of Kloctrwity, fttb atlic. 1794, paaailm; 

' Uopoa'a Uaaebtchl« >l*r Elvktriritiil. paanm; 

Wivdamani)'* L»hr« von Klwktnciifit, pasiini : 

infornatioD fnmi Pnf. Marcus llartAg of 

QaMn's Coll., Cotk.J P. J. H. 


lUyi-l:*""*!. baron of ih>! exchL-i]»i-r, bnm 
at K'tm boron e;h in 17t)tS, waslbi* »on of John 
\\'at'«oii, captain in tbo 7<ltli fool, by l-^liso- 

Watson-Wentworth 48 Watson-Wentworth 

bptli, (iniiffliierof Henry (iroyornambonHiffli) 
Xonliumoertani]. Ue was educxtiHl nt tne 
Rnyiil Militftiy Collrge, llnriow, ami given 
acotDRiiifiion i» the iBtrovaldn^ooiuby tbo 
riukp of York on 7 May Wl L', Hiring trflli 
kU rot^iiiK-at ill lh« Spnni-ih peninsuln. 
M'hen it 17A4 Tednc«d in 1814 lie exelianf^d 
inii; tl)<3 4klidniguo[MDn 13 April 181{}, vrilli 
whom 111' .iitvikI in Itetsium anil Prance, lie 
waii prcHeiil at ibe buttle o{ Wat4srloo and at 
tlie entry of thr iillii.*il Hrraii-N hito lYHs. 

Me was plncei] an the half-pay lUt on 
£5 March loKi, anil ihe nt^xt jiwr entf-nxl 
aa a atiideiit. at Ijinonln'it Inn, ami by hard 
work BDon became competent tu prnctbe as 
a apocidl t>k^n(ic-r, and roiilinnc<l to do M 
uutil I83li, wh«!ti lie ^iia called lo the bar 
in Liatrolii'n Inn. He ioiiiL'd tbi.^ DOrtbrm 
circiiii, wlitTi'' he fuiiiiu work and becttO)« 
popular. In lt^4| be enteivd tli^ IIoufl«of 
CommonR na librral mumliiT for K!n«a1«, 
for which Ixuviijih Im wit till 3M7. lu 
18lS h« hcrnme a Q.C. and a beiiclior nf hia 
inn. lie was an utMiii-cvsKfut cntiititUlr 
for Xew(rrLfitlf-ftii-Tynp in The liberal in- 
ten.'st, July 1W»2, but in l^M Iw whs 
I'k'CtL'd Tiienibcr for Hull, and srti a* 
Bucli until on S Nov. IHW be was created 
baron of f heexehcqiier, to SQCL'fod Sir Thorn (w 
Jovliua I'Iftli [y, v.] Ite waa Icnigliied on 
SH Xov. of the itaniL' y«ar. Watson proved 
himeolf a {ndpre po«MB«d of clear head and 
Mroiifi oimtl, but bie carver on the bench 
■waa Tery short. On tlia conclusion of his 
clinrse lo tli« rrand jur>' nt Welshpool, 
12 March I860, be wosseited with apoplexy, 
mid diL'd ihi! next day. 

WntftOM macrii'd, tir.-it, in lH2t>, a dnugh- 
lur of WJUiaui ArmstrooK ot Xowcastle-on- 
Tyn*', nnd »ii>tfr of l^oril .^rmntrotij^; »ti- 
uonilly,in Ifttl. Mnri-, dniiphter of Anthony 
llnlliot of Midhur^l.HuHHex. 

Ho was di.Hlin)^iiii»hed 09 an atlvwat* by 
honesty nrnJ earnestneM rather than elo- 
quence, but WAS a Bound lavryor uid the 
author of two (lor a time) atandard pro- 
fa-Afiional works : 1 . ' A Trcatiso on Arbitra- 
I ion uud Award,' Londun, \fi'25, Svo\ Srd uJ. 
ld4Q. 'J. ' A Trealifto on the Law rt-latini^ 
to the OBioe and Duty of Shn-riff," 8vo, 1 827 ; 
2ad »a. 1848, by William Nnwlwid Welaby 
[q. v.] 

[Uoroine P*t>i ; Gem. Mai;. 1840. i. 432; 
Fom'a Jad^a ; Law Alag. ; I^d'a KnichtAg^ ; 
Army LiWh. 1813-17.1 W.t'-u. 

itei-und MABQi'ia OF Rot'KiNiniAU (I'^U- 
17i*2), born ..n 13 ^Uy 1?30, wn« fifth 
nnd only suriivinji son of Tliomos Wat- 
SOQ-Wenlwortb, maniius of tCockingham, 

by Mary, daugbter of Daniel Fi: 
MK^mil MtVl of XnttinKhara and »ixth rarl 
WinchiUea j|-t-] Hb deMdided (Votn Sir 
I.«>wiM Wat»on,firstbaronnoc1(iD)fhani[q.T.] 
Kin prand father, Tbomu Watwn, thira son 
of Edward Watson, seeond baron Kecking- 
bnra, by .\nnc, f1r«t dau^trr of 'rhonuw 
Wentworlh, first earl of rrtrairord, inhcri 
the Wr.ntworth estates, and a».-.umt-d 
addilional suruami,' of Wvutwortb. 
father— (treated on 2M May 1738 Ramn 
Wi-ntworth of Malton, Vorksbire, and on 
19 Nov. 1734 Raron of llarrowdvn, and 
Vificount Hlfrhara of lligliam Femfr*. 
Northnmntonaiiirv, and Baron of Walb anJ 
Karl of Mnlion, Yorkshire — *«a:<h^ded to thi- 
"barony of Itockinpham on ilu.'deatb(3tiFi'b. 
174/M!> of hi* CtiUiin. Tbnainn Wataao. 
third earl of liockingham — ihe oarlduni and' 
OMiociated honours, except the barony, " 
becoming o.Minci — and was croiired 
10 April 174ti ManiuiH of ItocLinghnm. 

Charles Wution- Went worth, styled in 
hi« ftttlii-r's lifHinif ViM'oiitu Hicham and 
Eiirl of Malton, wns edncaied at Wf*fmiji»i 
nt.T 9>choid and St, John's CoUetje, t'ai 
bridge. He waa ciy*rH on I" JSi-pl. 17 
an Tri«h peer by the titles of Darou aoj 
Kfirl of Miilton, co. Wieklow, and on tie 
death, of hia filter on 14 Dor. th« aaaa 
T(-flr miciy-edod to nil his honours. H« took 
Ilia neat in tb« Houw of Lords on 9! May 
17o), anil in ihe following Julv was ap- 
pointed lord -lien ten nnt of the North mm) 
Euftt Hidings of Vorkshira. He was elertrd 
F.n.S. on 7 Nov. ]7r»l. and F.R.A. 
13 Feb. 17W. On 27 Feb. I75r> \w 
appointed vice-admirul of Ynrkubire. 
waa installed K.*^). on Mav 17lK). and 
on thi' acrejmion of Oeorge itl continued 
In the odirn of InnI of ihc bedchamber, 
which hf lind held since 1761. Iq ITW hff 
waa appointed (_14 April) trustee of Wert- 
minsler school and (11 t-W.) Roromor of 
ihe Chnrtcrhouso: in I7B6 (7 Aprih hip:* 
tteward of Hull. KockiEigbum was bred b 
the stricteal whip principle*, and even n 
boyhood wait t:o full of zeal for the booM 
of llanoTc^r that during tli<* wint«r of 
174fl-f) ho clipped a%vny from Wcntworth 
and joiiiml tliti Duke of Cumberland*! 
standard at Carlisle. He never coquetted 
with Leicester Uoiue, or sliowdd thir 
slightest, disposition to comtiroiiUB« with th» 
party of prerotrative which, on the »ee»- 
flion of GcorK« Tit, Lord Bute iMigaii lo 
or^nise under tlia tipucious deeij^nation of 
' kind's frieuds,' On th« ete of \iii 
signature of lliu preliminaries of the pcact 
of Paris, lie followed the exampl<> of 
DcTon^hiru [eee Civ^JSBtsH, W 





fourth DeKB cip DuTiiHSii iukI in resignioir 
hi* plkce in itie be^bamber {A Nov. |7iV2). 
He WM thsKupon dtainif»etl from Iii^ lieu- 
tenaaciw (Ueceoiber) and tlie othce of \'ux- 
natiiiral of VorkghiK r*J9 Jaii. 176>3). A 
heaitaal spcakL-r, Uc iDBi^en>^ brilliant parlin- 
m^iitarr ilt-biit, and meddled little with 
poUtice until, ia March 17<K>. bf- was in- 
ducml bjr ]>^inl JoLa ('Avt'odii<lt to occnm- 
pjuiy him lo llaycs to Eolicit I'itl's couoavl 
CAdaid in organiiiing iiji|iniiitton In tiie arbi- 
traiy mcaaure^ tak*>ii br the (irrnrille-Bed- 
furd adminUtralionn^nintit 111? Hiqiport^raof 
\Vi!W«, From lbi^ miii.iion linckittKbam 
Kdimi-d \eiv dii'iat istied with Pui. Jle in 
eoibteiqunncc dr^jw .■■li:>**rr to NewciWtlt; [*M 


CA"TLK-tTON-Trxi; . by wbotn lie was con- 
auhed durini; lli<.- iirul<ii;L''t<l ptru^lu on the 
leitvncv bill. Huriiip the eriiis wliit^b re- . 
au)C«cl Itockingham rviceivt'd tbroii^'h Cum* I 
berland siri»r»l« ori-rliiri'-s, conrurrviit willi 
thruM) mane to Pin, for the fonnntion of a 
eoalttioii adniiuii>tratiiin, nnd, oti l'ilt'»<l?iB- 
Ditivi< refusal of nlfice, aMwi)t«d the irea- 
«nd reappointed lord lieiiti>nant of ihe vtfsi 
and Bortli ridings of Yorluhirt.' (T Au^.) 
Tbtt i^reat ami wa^ reuincd by Nortliin^- 
ton and the flt«i. lonlsUip of thQ admiralty 
t>y Kfrmonl, but Kt^'ppel wai made a junior 
lonl [see Honr.ltT, first K&HI. of 


i*RT, or Lgmoxt; and Kkppkl, AvarsTP*, 
riBi-ovsx Kepj-elH. Oraflon and Conway 
ere madi^ ntKrcLariea of atatn for the 
arthem and eou( bem deporlnients tv- 
jiivply [km FrntROY, .\i:or.<»TD* IIrsrt, 
iird DtKK Of Giwrios; uid Cosn*r. 
Is.vKV SbtHOCIi]. WJllinm nowdeewell 
\7i\ I'Tlitfii. T. toot theaoalBof tk' t.x- 
hc^uerand N»wcii»tle l)ii> privy «eal, Daniel 
finch. Hvitntli earl of WinchdiMMi, beconiu 
sid«nt of thi# council, and W'illiitm Leggv, 
cond carl of Dnrtmouth [*|. v.^, president 
lliu board ttf Iradn. L»ni J"!iri Cuvt-n- 
jiib ^ij. v.", Thomas TownBliond (uHerwanls 
?Ucount Sydiiwy) \i\. v, i, und tJuurge (utter- 
la I»rdj OiiaJow [i\. v.] wi^ro nruvided 
; Mtnia nt the traafiury board. Ilerring- 

Vd[b«L' BAKltlVrtfOS, \VlLI.UM Wll.DMAJC. 

aeeond Vieoiust Bahkixutov] vnm mtulc 
retary d1 war, and Cliarl>.« Towusheiid 
v.] payinoAler of the fntdM, Chit'f- 
IllHtictt I'niti was created lliLron Camden 
[ae« Pbatt, CilABLKs, first Eahl Camdes]. 
tbe lower houac the ^\cnim(>iit' wks 
ngtbeiwd by tho return of Kockini^- 
im's private secretary. Edmund Burku 
L*)' '^-Ji '"^ '-'*' borouf[Ii of W«ndorrr. 

On the Americoii queotion ministers (ox> 


cept Norlhiuifl'in, BaniDgtolt, and Town- 
vliend) vn-vv iiidinrvl to bfi accommodatiug. 
Novimhole«s iltey hesitated, and it was ml 
until the iprin^ of 17tW, and bh«n only^ 
undiYprMsnr<> mim I'itt and Csmli-n, that 
they propoied the re|)«ttl of t!ie f^caiup Act. 
The measnre waa carried in thu toclh nf 
iho dec«rmlned opposition of the Oreurille- 
BiKlfurd faction, reinforcl^d in somo dcBTCA 
by tho king's frivnd^. Tlio kinjj htin^ulf 
wa« known to prefer the modification of tho 
measure to its n-peal. Tha nspual was 
facilitatwl livn coiicurti-nlstnliitnrydi^clarft- 
lion of the abHoUiCe auppi-inacy of parlia- 
ment oviT th« coloniit, to whii-b practiool 
cffoct wa* given by ft new .Mntiny Act, 
under which the provincial a&<«Diblies were 
requirL-d to appropriiiti> fund* for tho 
miarlt;rin(^ und muuuenance of the trjopa. 
Th>* L-olomeA were^anteda more favour^iblo 
tariQ*, tho evoston of the ua^ i)fiitiun laws bv 
the Spuniah bullion slupn wa» nkfliiclioneu, 
and tht) laws tht'mwlvetf wert'slij^hily relaxed 
in r«pini to tli« W'fM [iidte*- Ti> ihe cliaj^rin 
which iht* repeal of the Stump Act caused 
the king, □liiii'tert added tliq further morli- 
licnTion of n-fueing an allowance to hia 
brothers and carryiug {2i, 'J't April) resulu- 
liona condeuiniitory of general werranta. 
On 14 May Grafton resigned, and, though 
hU nuccesiKir wna found in Kii^hmomi [seo 
LcN'yox, C'lUKUSi, third Vv%r. op JiiCH- 
KOSV \, a negotiation which had iou^ [»ea 
pending betweftfl Pitt and tho court ended 
in KuckiuLfliam's di^uiiwal and Pitt's rulum 
to power nt the do^ of the folbiwing July 
[see TlliXLi:r, liouEicr, E.lkl ob' NuKiiiixu- 
Tov', Imnit-diiili'Iy iifL-r ibc pron>gatinn 
of '2 July ]"(»" It'Jckinghiim was oummici- 
flioDpd byOmOon fo furtn iin adininistrntion 
Upon anestenaive plan; btic, after prolonged 
dixcussiun, tb^ irrueuncilable divisions of 
the wbig« caiiP4^d the abandonmiint of iht: 
project. Uockingbam was di>beart<?ned by 
the suhscmiLnt fusion of tho Bedford faction 
witli tho iiiugs frieudi, and except to join 
in ih<- protest ogaloat tlie limitation of thu 
Eu£t India Company's dividend on 8 Feb. 
]7*W, niid to move in March 17<!il for dn- 
tailed accounts |ireliiiiitmry to the diechargH 
of thu di'bc on ihe civil lint, h« took littls 
pnrr. in puhliir atlairs until Chatham's rettmi 
to St. Stephen's. 

A call of The HntLW of Lords moved by 
llockiugliam in conEei{U>ence of the retnovtU 
of Camden was di>fi'fttcd by an adjournment, 
against whicli he enterod his prulust in tliu 
juiiriial (1") Jan. ITTO). lie wivt^d for 
(2:iJan.), and with Chatham's aid obtained 
(2 Feb.), a committeii »f Iht- whole houi*i! 
on the state of the nation ; in which he wni? 




ui^oftLeliou»uor(.*oiutiiuD« iiiibi'iiiutierof 
the. MiddleAex eloction [see ^Vii^es, JahKj. 
Tb*j iniooritv rucurdud their pt»l«Bl in ilie 
joiirnnl nf tlw houKo, nnil tvplii'tl liv a similar 
protest to a volo deprecating interferfliio' by 
sitltcr li»UM> in tnaU«ra of whirb th« other 
hiul I'xoluMvt! ruf^iaance. Itocltinghain a]m> 
HUpport«*rlCliatLiim"«molioiiforan»ecouiit of 
tho i-xpf-Tiditurtt nn t1i» civil list (14 Miirfh), 
joliivd in till? iinit««b agtutut tlie n-jectioii 
cpf his bill to reyene Uia adjudictttioiu of 
the IluuiM.- urCuDimoni in thomiLttur of tliti 
Middli^Jtex pleciion {1 Mivyl, but (U-cliiied to 
follow liim in hL« alt^mtit to force an ub- 
inwlintv diMiiiliiliini (11 ^^l\v^. U"'fijllowi»d 
RidimondV lf>ad in ci'DBiiring tht> i^in-ctimu 
iwuim) fay UilUborouRh for ibv dissolutioa 
of tho osMMnbly of Miut.wcbiii!«tlA Ti«y and 
the siifi pension of th» r»vi>niie laws in Vir- 
ffiiila (1-^ Mny). IK- nlio supported Itich- 
Diond':) aioiiun lorpaptrrs ndaUvo t« thit Falk- 
(niiil Isliiudft iiot'sliou i'J'J Nov.), and jotued 
(lO Dix.) in tliv unilv^^c ii^ainKL tlio forciblu 
Clutinincv of l)iM lioiisi- bv whicb dfbatr on 
tlif Htnlc ofthi- national (lefenoee vaa stifled. 
RiicUiri^linm jiaid a tribute to c>Ttc TirttU) 
by visiting I ^trd-mayor HrtM (.'rosby fq. v,^ 
and Alflvrmnn Oliver m tbe Tower (SUMarcli 
1771). lie redcmval tht ■•xt>>n«ion of tlic 
prerojistive effectod by the Jtoyal Mamaei* 
Acl of 1772, and p«rp(.-ltiatt>d the grounda 
ofhU opnosition inann)>1<'i>mto«t (S March). 
In 177o liu Bki[i|iorii>J i:^ April) ibo nii'««iin; 
relicvinp proti-«tanl diFscnton and Acbool- 
ioa*l<-ni from thu partial »iti«criptiun to thi^ 
Thirty-nino art icW of relipioti rtyjuin-i! by 
ihe Toltraliuu AvI, juinfd (lO Juiii>) in the 
prol«at againat the rtijeclion of Kirbiuond'a 
mottOD for a messe^ to th« nouoe of Coat' 
mon> praying ilij»cl*wiir>' of flie •-videno? on 
which the India bill wa^ founded, and in 
the Mihaoqiient i>roti!>«.t |l'.)-Jun«) a^nat 
the tnnnsure tt«(.'1t. Hi- nmratt^ thi^ tn^Aaures 
of 1774-5 i-oabiing u ciianu« of vmiuo for 
trialH of persons proo'K'iitt'd in Maasachuatitta 
Bay foructt- doni.' in i^xL'Ciitiun of tlic law, 
and laying; the exienial and inlirnal Lraili- 
of thu colonies undtT iutonliol ; supported 
(20 Jan. 177") Chat bam a motion for tti« re- 
call of the troops from Rnston; and, aft«r 
novine to tlie addreu on 31 '^t. 177C an 
amendnifnt d>-prccating tho coutinuance of 
the Ktru^le, n>i.-ord«d nu prottft B£UD*t it^ 
rejiicttOD. and virtually aecedeit from the 
houu. The ot[ic<j of v iw-admiml of York- 
ahiro wai thereupon raaton-d to liim { 1 R Ut^} 
Hmcnrliii; from hia cave on the ooncluaion 
of the Franco- AnMrica II alliaBcv, ItocUof^ 
bam ciTwured North's (ronciliatory hills [see 
NuBTH, I-'kedesick, H-cond Cam. or Qvur 

I fosd] a« iuadeqoate, and doclared for tlis 
I immedtiite nwo^tiou of thv indopeudciie* 
' of the coIobIm (9, 17 March I77»). Tba 
subsecjucnt denoncialrjn of war a outranem 
nsainrt thi> cnloniiix by tlir. peace conuni*- 
.•uoQi^re draw from him on indignMil »- 
mon«tranoe (7 Dec.) In tJw tnterral h» 
bad If'nt hiit support to Sir Qoaij^ 8ftnle'» 
measure for the partial enfrauckiMmeDt ' 
Roman catholics (25 Mav). 

ItodciDebam was awduoua in aKendan 
on Keppelduring hia eonrt-martial at I'orti 
' uuuth|(uid,ou thoad&unil']sii«>4i(rCla],mui 
' intheHouseof Lords a vote of thanks for his 
eminent icnricAi (16 Feb. 177(*). lie aljso 
{ in tin* courw of ITTU moi-rd au addraw 
' (11 May) on the didtreased state of Irel&cdf 
I led the attack on Lord Sandwicb'a ad 
simion of the nary <2n June), and on thft, 
criminal negligence which sent Kempcufeldt, 
to ae« with an inadiX|iiat4.^ force founded 
motion for thn wiihboklini; of further sa 
pliea (19 1»bc) lJeal»0ftupi)orlcd(l,7 Dec.) 
SbulburouV cphsuk npuu itiv govenituiuit'l 
nifilMt of iriitli airain, and ICiohmond'a 
motion fi>r njform of the civil list. e«tAbtiGli- 
ment- Plwxmnti^nancinf^ tlw HfiiLAtion olVI 
thf' following year for short mrliament 
an«l A wide swftrap". he received oni rvjwled 
Norlh'a OTerttirM for a coalition (H Jnly)^ 
la 17til hecenaured the ruptiiK with Holland 
as both unjust and impolilir ('-'^ J(^n.\ anc 
czpOMd the corrupt and imph.viib-nt Riann«l 
inwhich thelonn wasrai**d (t'l March), Oj 
the eve of the fall of XorthV adminiAratic 
llockingbau r>>i:eivt.'(l ihroiigh Tburlow 1 1 
TiifHJ-ow, Edwabd, first Load Tiiriitowl 
overturus which, aflvi eonur delay, rMuItvq 
in the formation of a coalition (27 Marci 
171^^1. Itockingh&m received the trettfiurVf, 
Ijord John Cnwndiatb the exclwonar, Sbolm 
burne wn« mailo home and colonial BeareUl^ 
C'harlea JttUKe Fox fq. v.] fora^n McretatTn 
Caavdcn prwideot or the counei). Tbitris^ 
retained the great seaLand Orafton rvcMTc 
the priiT'seu. TUchmond lK7C(un<' master 
gvownl of til* ordoancet KeppiO tir^i kira o 
the admiralty, Conway oonuuandcr-in-clUt] 
Portland went to Duhlin as vicvruy. Tli 
administration waf> diMOlved by Hocking^] 
ham's death (1 July 1762). hut not before 
legislature indepeod«B C« had baaa ooDoadad 
10 Ireland, ana the power of the emwn 
conuderably curtailed by the reduction ofj 
the houAohold, thi> dij>franchi94>m>'nt of' 
nivenuc ofSiKrs, and the excluaioii of go- 
venunent contractors from tbn Houm of 
ConUDDna [see Pmrir. Witi-UH. first 
qcia OF LAjm&owxK, and Wilku, Joim]. 

Rockinirham wa« buried (20 July) in ih< 
chioir of York Minstvr. Hy Ida wife MMry~\ 

(m. -26 Feb. i;.V2,rf. 19 Doc. 18l>li.(litu7hl«r 
of Thomas ltn||;bt,fonoerly LiddvlUufUud*' 
worth. YorI«lii», he let't no iMUdn Uia 
hoaimn bvcuuv ttXlinct. His uelntw de- 
volved upon liis nepbew, Williniu Wt-iiu 
wuriU HuwiUutiD,fi*ieaiid uarl i-lizwiiliom 

in- v.] 

In Lhti NstioD«l Portrait Cliilliiry tintl at 
Tluckin^luin IVilaeeareibrw-iiusrtt-r-leufiitU 
ponraiui of Rockingluta uopi'd fram iLc 
ori^nal, bv Sir Joshua Itvynjld^, io the col- 
lection of liOrd Filxwilliam. Another copj 
Tva» exhibited by Lord Uardwicku tl tuu 
Qnwf ftoor 0*Uor7 in 18*M, wmI wn* part of 
in 1-Stm. I'or PH^nriiiit* mw l^dgv'a 'l*nr> 
trute' ADtl ' liockin^liam'a Mfuncira' b; 
AlliBiiiarle. Otimr |Kirtrr>it n nf Itijckin|;liani 
tUNs a wbole-lmf^h br ICt^yiioldfl nt A\'ind!Ktr 
Ctwtiv, uid n thrwMjimner-leD^h by Wilson, 
of both nf which tlie^ro nre <.'ngr«vin^ in 
Uie Cntiah Muwuin. A mausoleum tt 
Wi-ntwoilli I'Ark c-oiitAins hix alatuu bv 
NollekenA. lbt> p«dt>«tul iiiHcribi'd with hiis 
euiotry by Dnrku (cf. ' Hue^ch on Americati 
Titiniion,' ID April I7'i, Ri'kkb's SbMeAet, 
ed. ISIO. i. 1^12). 

ilttekini^huni waa on ohi irbi^ of sterling 
honc^ly who, during n long period of id- 
vfifiity, amti^ndfd manfully HMinat a cyir* 
rupt system of (rov<^>mmenl. Ue wm, how- 
eViT, by no oMMins » ereat FtAbsmmn. His 
poliey to^-ords An«nc« and Trtiland vriut 
tXKT^ opt>ortuni«ni. At the cMmmeiicem*"!!! 
of the n'ilkM nffaii he orrwl by defect, and 
toward* its i:Iu»e by uxwts, of Jieal. In his 
jurt jftiilou«j-of the influence of the crown hft 
«liowed a dupMiiion lo push (.-vuiiamy lo the 
vcr^ of chceftefnring, while h>- tifnon-d lht> 
far wvif^htier ijtiwrlioa of the reform of the 
repreMentativu nysteok. 

[AlbMDsrl«'a Memoirs of RoekiDgham: K<ip- 
pel'fl Life of Kepptd; Qrcnvtltfl Pnpen^ oA. 
!Sniith ; Walpole'pt Mentuir* uf the Hoi^D of 
Owr)^ III, od. Lo ^luvtisat. reviw^ hy RuucU 
Barker; Walpol)>'» Jourtml of llie R«ijtn of 
Omti^ IIJ, md. Dornn; Walpol«'B I>it«n, ed. 
Cnni!>at;l>»m ; Oraftuu'ri Aatshiogr. ed. Anson ; 
M lir. lir%. 1767. p. 303; Prat«ars of 

t.Rogon; IWl. flist.vol. xri-sxiii.; 
CtircTKiinuii DdmlMuf the Hous* of Cumiuoiuk 
1. B7e, flBI.7, eon.?: Ad-ht. aiSS. 0828 f. 103. 
S2723-33108; Wrr-^.U'. ih.t. uml |Vi*lh. M«- 
moify, .jl. AVfcpatl ii-Hc*i'« Lifoof dboi- 

bvrntt. Bu«kinf;K.> > -^of iho<'oarta«Dd 

CsbiiH^la of Gfwrge 111; i.luthnm'o CarrMf),; 
Burku's Uomvp. ; McmariaU and Cwrrwp. of 
Charifts Jamu l-'ox, ed. Lord John KtMu«|]. i. 
116. li'il. 20S: CorrMp. of Juho, fourth Duka 
of ilodford. td. I^rdJohn RuwUi EurlRutttell'a 
Life of Chari«« Jamua Fox. i. 278 «l tmq.; 
TrcTclyaa'a Body Uijlorjr of Cliactet James 


Pox ; Gent Xng. 1782, i. 369 ; Abo. B«g. 1 78S, 
Chron. p. 289; Allen's Yortahire, i. J2I. iii. 
172: Doyle's OlllrialBBrOMifK: Jliirke'ti Kstinci 
Peerage; Adolphtij'a Hist, of Baal.; Biwet's 
Hiat. of the K*iga of Geotx* I]I ; MuMy's 
HiM,of ICiig!.; Lrcky'a Httl. of Engl.; G. K. 
C[olMyn^]*A Complete PoCMne: HiaU M3S, 
Oaunt. Srd Rep. App. p. 232. 4ll) Rep. App, 
pp. 390. 102. ath Rep. App. pp. 310-11, 3.W, 
25S-8. 6Ui Rep. Apf. p. 21. 8th Rep. App. ii. 
131. Uth Rep. App. iii. in, 14,24,21.(11,132, 
!Oth Rep. App. i. SCO. li. 13. 24, 3U2. Ilth 
Kvp. App. ir. 3fi». r. 331, 13th Rep. App. x. A3. 
69. 14tii Rep. App. i. 11. 18, App. x. ISUi Rep. 
App. r. l.|6_ai J. M. B. 

WATT, JAMES (1730-1819), ongineeiv 
bDmatOre«ttockonl9 Jan. 1 7.^t,wiui grand- 
son of Thomas Watt (U(4i'-!7»4), a teacher 
of uuitbomutieflt Hurvoying, and navigation at 
en»wfordftdylte,i»ear Gnwnocii. The fallibf. 
Jamb* Watt (lO0e-17l»2) of ( liwnnek, ap- 
pear* to liave bwji a man of many pur»uil«t 
carpenter and joiner, bnilder and caMi^ctar, 
miithi.-Dial iral inetrtiment nukvr~lo eome 
exti^nt at leaat (for it npp^-ars be 'tmichttd' 
oompatiti n€edLee>— a Blnpownor, and a mei^ 
chant. Tlii« loMt callin)^ In that by which he 
is dcKribud id certain of the tourn pape», 
and this in the calling alaled on the tomb- 
sLono urt.-cted by Lis son, Jamea Watt, in 
IB08. Ke was luucli mspvcled and eeteemed, 
and in 1751 waa maili^ rhinf maitistnite of 
Greuiioch-. Kb died in I7J'2, in hiscipbty- 
founh year. .About 17178 be had moirittd 
Agnua MuirfaetuI: she apnt^ars la have been 
a meet tMcmplfiry ftnd devoted wifo and 
mother. Prior lo i tip birth of James, lim vn- 
fpneer, ^hn had sustaint^l the Iubh of trro Bona 
and an only daughter, who diuil in infiiiiey : 
three yeare aAerwanlF another son. John 
Wall, was born, who died at wa in 1708, at 
the ««e of twtaKy-fuur. The mothftr prede- 
ceased her bu&band in 17uo, at the age of 

JaueA Watt, the i>on, was nlwayH delicate, 
and Bofiered tbroushont liia lifit &am suvem 
attncko of hendache. Me lived with his 
parents till his eighteenth yoar Uu vraa 
first i^^nt to a eciiool in Greenock, kujit by 
one M' .\dnm. and was jeered at by hi«r«!h»we 
Its bein^ dull and «>pintles(t, a cunditian due, 
no doulit, tu his feehiL' health, f^ubxequently, 
■wben ibineuQ years of age, ho bt'gan to study 
geometry, and at <>nc« slmwed the BTvaiesl 
poscible interest in the mihjoct. lie then 
went to the (ireiju'icl* grammar school, wlmni 
lie acquired Iialin and aomc Gniek. During; 
his Ixiyliood hu u-aa a diligent worker in his 
father';) shop nn far as regards the malting of 
models, and ^ave early uridenoo of his great 
manual dexterity and of his power to turn 



ouL JuliciLte work. At tho om of WTeuteqa 

to «'iffht>H?D he wa^ »>nt (A GtasgYivr tn live 
witii his tuulliuT*!! rrliicivi-v, t1ii.'n lu LoiidoD 
to imprrivr him.^lf (u* n mathemBt.ic!iU iii- 
Mrntnent inakL>r, and wilb ihie objiol btL-amu 
an sppri'ntic" nf Juliii Murirati, |>[iilii»o|>hi<'nl 
rnM ruioiit itinker, of Fioch Lane, ConihilL 
IIp found, Lowev^r, ttiat tlic ntnuiuplnTc of 
I^iinlnri -KM iiD6iiil«d W one nf hi.'fi dtilicnTi> 
bealtti, and in l«ta tlinn a year he rplumed 
to Oreonocl(. 1 Ic AiA not sta^ tht>TL> for an; 
lengtii of liuip, Ijut went Bud settled in 
QUuow, bein;f ihan in kin ttv^Dty-tirst. jroar. 
He turn flodcttvoiincl lu ouru a sliop, ii» 
malhoinflliral iiiBtrumviil maKer.intttnsgow, 
but wiR prpvcnivd by tho Corporation of 
I1amiiit'rini.'ii, lilt thi- ^nnind that In* had not 
«prve<l n prnpni* ■pprctiticwiliq). It wbs at 
tbiH jiinciiini ilint otiv ni' liix Kcbcil rriund- 
•lii|K* Altifu) liiiii iti (I'^od Rtend. Wait had 
f<ir liU most iiiliinalv scUoolf^^Uow Andrew 
Aiidi.-r«on, wli^idi' older broihi-r, John An- 
<l«niou H7'Ji^-\7W) [t|. v.], was profesaor of 
nnliira] pIiiloAouhy at (iliMgow L'nivenity. 
Thi> hoads of \\k- imivvt^iiv now cainv tn 
"W'att.'a nwiijttatiri! by iip])oi[itinn; bim math*^ 
nntiral inAtrum^nt muliur to tin? university, 
■nd by allowincc liim Liv t*Htatj1iHti n ivurkiilmp 
witliin itsprpcinfitfl, Hun* WoCi conliniic-d 
lo work and to improvi- biniKrir in various 
ways, and llo^«^ ho innde Che armmintnnrit of 
many cmineiit man, mt^h ae JosL'pli Glacli 
'*!■ ^'ii "'E' dincoviTt-r r)r lal<-nt heat; Adnm 
Rmilh^n.T.]; andJnlni |{ol>iw>ii [([.v.]. pro- 
f«Mor of natural philiwopliy, Hfiv nlso, in 
17(14 (wbt'n Wtiit wiw in hi* twtnlyi/ipluli 
year), ooounvd th» w«ll-known incidi.'nl of 
the rwpnir of the model of A Ncwfomcn tire 
(flt<>iiiii) t.-ii|iiii>', bi-loti(iiiig to tbi! university, 
whidi hiul m^viT ueti'd properly, altboiipih ii . 
had been sunt lo London to hv ptit in onk-r ' 
by th(r ri'lMbralKd in«lh<>malii'»l iii-ttruun-ul \ 
aikW, Bisaon. Tbc poor iierformancf of this 
model fixed Watt'»tiiiiii^lit« i^n tJn' i(Uvition 
of theooonomyofsl''ain,B.nd1aid tbefouiida- 
lion of hi« first and ({i»RtMtinv>'iHioTi, "Watt 

firo«ecul«d tbis invention no far nn hin 
imitfid mwoil^ would admit, but iiijtliinif on 
A Wdrlciug «cal« (tDems to hnTi< bn.-n done, I 
until hn tmlertid into an arraugeint-nt witb ; 
John ItcH'bucIc [(|. v.l, the founder of the 
Cnrron ^^'<^^ka, to tako a shari' in the in- 
TQtilion,Qnd an uniciiii' wiin iiiuditai Kirui'-il, : 
airttrLinlittignw. Hut noebiiclifftlintodiffi- 
cultiet. and this enijino dot* iini Bm-m to 
have exnt4>d nuieb BlI«ntion; nor did itiP 
tnvoiition dt^vabip in the manner that mi^ht 
have been ein>?eIt-<], 

Horeuver, Watt bi'cami- largeJy euiplny«d 

in making: surveya and reports, in connection 
wilbcatMl^iLTer^uidbiirboun. Huiippuiirs 

I to h&ve luoMMled Snivton in tbt 
ofen|fit]«<>nn(radT(Mrtoth«-<\irron ! 
AraoBff the lit«t of hi» en^ini-vrinfi; worke < 
tbiii character were an improvement of tb*^ 
harbour of hiA native ploct!, Grwnock. and' 
a proviiiun of walrr-work« fir that ti-mii, ' 
In 17C8 Dr. Small mlmduced Walt t^J 
' Matthew Iloulton [a, v.], (h*> founder of tb«1 
S^iho ICngini^erinir W nrk*, nmr Bttmin^rbani. 
In 17liM Watt's invfnlioa waspBterili'd. In 
1772 Rorbuck fAilc^. and Roulton ofli-rt^ to 
' take a two-ihirdH Khjm> iii Watt's vni^int 
I patent, in lion of a debt of {,^001, in Aln}* 
1771 Watt, disc'onti^utvd with hie i^urvoring, 
I and ullier work in SoitUnd, migmitKl to-' 
I Birmin^'bam, and onrly in 1776, Wmg then 
tbirtvH'ijtbt or t hirtv-ninti, hw cnti-rvd into 
I pannershipwith Hoiilton attlieSiiho Worin. 

In I7MJ \\'»H QCCompHnie<) BoiUlon to 
I'aris to consider proposol.* for the erfCtimt 
j of ettwm engines m that country unJtir an 
I exchinivi- pfticnt, AVait di:elined*t bv French 
gnvenimeut'fl otior on the jfround that th« 
plan waa contrary to Kngloitii's intervsta. 
Among the Frvnch mon of «ciL<ncu irb' 
welcomed Vi'ittt with euthustaam on tbip 
oowifion wa* Beribolkt.whocommuniMitpd' 
to Watt hi* nfwly liincovnrt-d melhwl of 
blearbin^. Itwafithmuffh Wall thattbcne 
nivtbiid was iiiinKliifitr into tliis country. 

Watt Ti'tin'd from the firm of Roullon ft 
Walt in Ir^), Matthew Boultnn gninsrontat 
the stme linie, leaving the bu-iine«s to iheir 
!<on8,Jatn<<nWatt,ji9nior,nnd Malih'-w Itohi* 
»on Itoulton. After bisretiremeni from Stilio 
Janit'* Wittt purtutid at lii«Tv#idtnce, Ileatb- 
field Mull, near llirmtnfflmm, varioiik iuTi'u- 
tions inlhewortubop which ho had lilted up 
thi'n-. Ho aUo cuuiIuuihI Lis intt>n?«t ia 
Orecnook, and gave to this town a librarv 
in 1810. In 1«19, oil 1'5 Aug., Wmt dieS 
at Healbfii-ld, in bin t^ighty-foiirlh vear, and 
watt faurie<i in St. Mary's Church at Iland.'t- 
worth (now a suburb of Itirminghum). 

Watt married, in 1763, hU coiiMn, Mar- 
garet Miller of Cilosgow, who bore hiio two 
*inr« and two dnnghtcri. Thi« Indy died in 
childbirtb in 177'{. It would nppoar that 
one son and a dnughter die^l in Walt'n Iif<>- 
littiu; thfl other i^on,JumL-«, ia noticed below. 
In 1775 Watt miirrieil hi* .M'coud wif"*. Ann 
Macfrregor, wlio siirviveil him some thirti'rn 
yeiirs, dying in WVJ. lie bad by h?r a son 
Gregi^ry, wtio npneara to have been a man 
of great ability in literary as -well as in 
scifntilic puntuita. To Watt'* great ami 
enduring {arief tliis son died of con^umirtion 
in lF<l>4,at the age of twenty-seven. TlwrM 
waa ilUo a daugbiLT uf the MH^ond marru^. 

Uost perBons, of ^ood standing and gene- 


I tb 

ml infonnation. if uked vbitt thojr knew 
■Ixiut ' Wiitt,* wiiiiH |>nibitbly uny tJinl he 
was (he inTcntorof thf #U'ikni ^riffini?. TliriKo 
wlio at alt study the itibjec(,uraivaoi}<miiited 
n'iili Riocbauical mnttiT^, will nt onw npT«* 
tliai, (ireat u Wfr<? Wall's luvrits. tLvy wcru 
tbc int^rits of an improvtr upon ad eiiatiny 
inacliin&~llH> Bra engine — and wuni not 
tliOMt wlucb attach to the nriginiU i)ii)r)!:t-al«r 
f n noTL'l principle of work. Solomun de 
ill* in llilft, lh<> Miin|uiH itf Worci'xtvr in 
,660 Ihef. -<(iMEiEWKr, KowiHi), si^nml Ma«- 
Ql'is or \ViiRi,E«(;n]. Sir Soraiii«l Morlaud 
Tq.v.] in Ifllil.And lJrtni*l'Apin '^.v "in KiiK), 
bail «8cli uf lliom proposed lo raise wutn 
from one li-vel to tiuot'i«?r, in rariniis ways, 
by lll(^ us« of (tMiim. il U (It-^pmrd nit to 
wlii't lier any oiiu of tlieMs four invt^utora f'Vttr 
put his iiI<MU> into itncticu. Fullowiiur tbMO 
uiTiMitors, iinwfvcr, 4»iiin TkoroM Savwry 
[<\. v.], who put bia idt'Sfi of raising warvr by 
Ht«AUi jioTWirr intij niul atv, luiil to U vvrj" 
comiderahle oxtent. 

Ail tli« boforc-men Cloned inventore em- 
ploywi tlw sTi^iim, not to drive an ^nplR'■ («a 
1^'v imdentond that ex[ii\.-t>«iion) lo work a 
puni|)| but tbirr appliL-d it din.-ctly to tb« 
ir«aBelj into wbicb tli« water lo on miiwd 
cam?. eitb«r to caiue a pariialty vacuou* 
condition in xucb ruefti'b', so ae T.n allow the 
Ktti]OAiib«ric prmstire tu dnv« lb« wni>.T up i 
into ibcm, or to pruia mion the nurfarN- nf 
the wau*r in tbu vetsebi, bo as to «spel tbu ; 
wraler up a rinini^uuitn, tiialiri^ht ili-|»'ri(l>-nl i 
upon Ibu pressure above rbn atnuvapbeiv of 
tbi!f>li-Ani «mpli:iypd,or,asin Sfl.*ery» inven- 
tion, to raiftc wiit4'r byncombiniiliaiiof thct^^ 
nwtJiod*. In J'npin'scnse, pistonii wen* intei^ 
powc) between rbi- surfnfff of the water and 
tb« Bteam. itut about ITIOTli'nua* Nvwcu- 
loen [t\. v.], in conjunction with JobnCiiUcv. 
inTeiittfd a ' firv i-nginv ' wbicli wb« iu Irulh 
a stc«m engine, in th» oi^nsu in which we 
DOW iindoratund thi> i-xprwision ; tliat ]», by 
the agency of ntcnm hn cutmcct rcrtnin iKir* 
tioiu of machinery la move, and he applied 
tlu-ir motion ro mirk othi?r innrliiiipii, i.v. 
pumpfl. I'bere waa not anv patent taken 
oat for tbis eni^ne, hat Newcouit^n and 
Call<;y awoicintcrd themselves witti Savory, 
prfsiininbly on aoojuut of tb« exiiiKoro t»f 
linv<Tv's patent, wbicb in ihnae days probaldy 
would bd held TO Ltnrr the doin^ nf nn act 
by » parlicubir ancmt (*lvaiu) iilmimt irm- 
ftpcttivo of the mode by wliicli that agent 
WMt (implnyt^L Nrwcouicn'it engine cum- 
prts«d a rerticsl cylinder with a piston work- 
log within it, which, when it descended by 
the prcMure of the ainto^phon' acting on the 
pirton, pulltKl down rhe cylinder end of tho 
peat beam, the other and at the aamo time 

f rieing kimI ratling th« pamp rods. TheM 
wax, of course-, tlw boiler to produce ibn 
Steam, and the condoniiation of the steam 
to produce tha partially vacuous condition 
below rhe piston. An int(>Toeting adaptation 
of the pow«f of a Nowcomeu viigiiiv to 
produce rotanr motion i« to be found in 
the »)}eci Scat ion of Jonathan Hull's patent 
of yi life. 17;{H, or, helli-r still, in t)ia 
pamphlet that bo issued in 1737, where he 
pnipOBfs til anily titn slt-iim t-ngint to paddle- 
wheel propuiHion. 

IVfrjre pauin^ ikway from the Newcomi-n 
engine, it may bi- well to notice! he admirublB 
account siven by Uelidor, in Itii 'Architec- 
ture Ilydroiilique' (liyU-oai, of an engine 
of this coiiairuiniiin whieh bud Iwfn made 
ill Kuglandnud wiisen-cted in I'Vauce at iha 
colliery of Frt*iie«, neiir Cond6. The de- 
scription in accoiiipanird witheifniplctescalo 
drawings, frtm which, at the prasent day, a 
reiiriHlucLion of thiH engine could be made 
wubout the slightMt: difficulty. It will be 
found that the boiler is pn.ivide(l with the 
safely valvo invi>niod by I'npin, and with nn 
opeu-endcdstandpip^forlheadmi&siouof the 
feod walcT; tbisWier arrangement should, 
at all evonit), bare insured that tfae pressure 
never could have attained more than tbe in- 
lendi'd am<jU[it, probably two puundM above 
the atmciipliere ; but the amiuiing precaution 
IB taken uf covering the top of tli^ boiler 
« ith b*.-avy masonry, not for the purpuH^ uf 
confining the hi-at, Inil for that of holding 
down the iKiitor lop against the nresaure 
within. Thtt wrilertuld the Ut»8ir William 
Sii^metLs thip, and was informt^d by him that, 
iHilil quite liitely, a reKulnlion exi<i<Ml in 
FrunPt' making such loading of iJio boiler 
top obligalorv — a j>rovi»iou, it need hardly Iw 
MLid, not only uscIom with boilers of tbo 
prcMiif day, working at Hvvural atmoepberw 
pressure, biitatiMlutely harmful, as proriding 
a aiocll of missilvM ready to be flrvd all over 
the place altould thi: boiler bunt. E]ioe])t in 
the matter of bettor workmanship and cf 
incnieau in dimt-n«i(>iii>, th« * Nvwcouien * 
engine, as applied to the vtry iinporiant pup- 
posvsof pumpiu);> had remained priKtically 
without impm\.;ni>nt. for lh>? n<:Mirly fifty 
years inlenening between 17:20 and 17t^ 
the dale of Watt's first pittent. 

Allutiion ban already been made to the 
well-kuowti incident of tbe entrusting to 
Jumce Watt for rupnlr thci model of thu 
NvwDonir'i] vnginu belonging to the univer- 
sity of Glnagow. It turned out that tbu 
modrl wsa not out of repair, in the ordinary 
senae of th'"" word, for it had lately hi^^n put 
in order by a celebrated philosophical in- 
atrumont maker in London ; but it was found 



lIuL, nlUiouffh tlio boiler appMn>d to be of 
unpl<> ftise, naviog ngird to the ditneosioas 
•r thp cvlintliT, it wss tncompitti-jit to gen«- 
nUe auftioicnt steftm to fiuppty the heavy 

Watt was vrry much strack by this Ivgc 
•ominDptioa of steam, and at once tum^ 
bia powerful mind to the cotuidemtioii of 
how ii M-BK that to lus« " quantity of steam 
warn nivdrd. He i&w It wafi due to lh^ cold 
water ximod lo coDdrnee thi- eti'Btn boiiii^ in- 
jfct.ll into ilw very kU'Siu cvltndcr itself^ 
and b<.>iiiR pUyrd into that cylinder imlU its 
wall" wrn- l>r(iii^lit down tn a tftmiHrmtttni 
eoamapnnding to Thi> tbcuoiia mnditinn in- 
beodad to Iw proaluced iu ii; that, iherefow, 
tlif qiianlitr of incnmiof; Moflin niydcd to 
fill the cyliiider to atmospheric pn.«Hiiiu in 
thcujvatrokL' W(W itot merely that rrjin'!«ont«l 
by the cubic content* of ihe cj'lind«r, but 
waa, in additiou, that needed in tbe lint 
hiBtauM 10 bi-al up tliv wh'ilr of tin* walU 
of the eylinder, and thue pUlou, with the 
VBter packing: on the top of it, lo its own 
t«iil}Niratof*, to TiT\- cnnxidi'Tnbly beat up 
the vater aoeumiilntnl in iho rylinder, ana 
alco to azpel the li>|titd rgnu-nis and the air 
Bt tha 'aniftinK valve.' Wiitr fjnimated 
tbeae sonrcea of lo«a aa demaading at least 
tlu«e tJiDM A« mn«h atcam a« would bare 
been naeded to fill the cnotents of the 
cylinder; and, in netual practice, with lar^ 
envines, in after jcArf, be based hi* remune- 
ration upon on>»-iliird of th<.' coal of the fuel 
aavad. At this lime, and for «ome yean 
prvrioufly, Jo««ph Black bad hold tbu 
clin-ir of chemistry in tilasgow I'nivemtty, 
and in Uu- coune of his experimentE bad 
made the diii'Drrrv nf latent, hcnl ; that in 
to Rav, hi* hail proved that mere t{>mperatnre 
capnhleoTlieini; appreciated by at Li'rmometer 
wa* by itwlf nn f:uid« a« to tho he/it vhicli 
hadCf< beoiDiniuiiii^atedto bodieatooccaiiirni 
diauiTMof condiiion. This importnntwicn- 
tlScfact WILD rvi-.'aiedlyenunuiat'.-d br Black 
in htH lectuKA. vVlthouftb it appears \Vatt 
had not tbe teiaure to attend these lectaTee, 
he Qe\'eittii<ln)w waj> cn^ninnnt nf thi^ diR- 
eoTory, and he pur^tietl the inTe<itigatians 
into Intent hoot in connection with steam; 
h« nlxo detormined tlio relation between tbo 
bulk* of steam and water at atouwpbenc 
pit — HPa. at preMurea leM than the atlttO 
Ipluac, and, to ^omu extent, at proasam 
abOT* tbe atJuoMpLire. In fact, be prepared 
hiaaelf, as a man of fvisnce, todeal with tbe 
probl«m of inipnirMni.rnt« in iht rti'ani 
cnffine in artnnl nmrticc. Th^ Aolution of 
tbu problem by U'att was to condense tbe 
MMun, not in the rylind«r itaelf, but in a 
•spotnte TeaMtl, in connection, howerer, with 

tbe crlinder at a[^roprial» timet. The ieC 
uf cold water yvna thus from heno«forth (or 
diacarded (rnra entrrinK the 



With the early modeb> conatrticicci 
Watt tbe separate vewel waa eompaaed d 
thin metal and was imneraed in water; m[ 
other words, it waa the ' surface eoiidnwer.*J 
But subsequently, although as a rule thef 
condenAer continued to be touncrscd in wata^ j 
the main rulianec wb« no lunger placed upon] 
llic cooling of tlip aiiles, but upon tbe nae in 
the Benmle oondeaser of aoch an injection 
aa bad been employed by ?>nwcompn in the 
Etl^am cylinder itaftf. It nuet ntrike ere ~ 
onv (of course it at once occurred to Wa 
llintin a verytkhoTt timf-hiacondenaw"" 
be full of water from the condenaed 
nixed with tbe incondauablc ur I 
iVom the steam and from the condeoun^ 
water, and that thuB tho vacuous oonditin 
would be Gjie^-dily lost. The remedy 
this wa» 1< • apply ail unlinary pump, to pi 
ont tbe cncdeufed et'-am, and alao, wl 
injection wiut uiH>d, (he walirr of condEC 
tion and the air, and in thi? way the aepa- 
ratc vi'seel woe si all tin»es mntnlained m a 
partially VAciiniiKconditinn. As haa already 
been said, Wait's want of means, and thir 
mt-d or pursuing other avocatvons for a 
livirlihood, n^lard-.-d (h>^ practical outcome ' 
the invention for som.- time. Indeed, t\ 
want of means even pr<>Tented the spplit 
tion for a patent to i>«cure the inveutionj 
ff>r, althougli the discovery was made 
170&, the patent wa<> not obluiuod unt 
1769 (No. 913). It doM not api>ear that 
the preparation of tbe specifiualioa Wi 
bad the }«inefit of legal advice, but 
had plenty nf friendly philosophical adt 
A« a tv»ult of thift amateur 
the speeification was so clumuly drawa' 
tbal the validity of the pal*-m was, manv 
years aft4*rward4, seriously contest^. This 

Salent not only inclu'ied the separate coo- 
Huser, with the eir-pump. but >t also ea> 
braced a variety of other tuultrn. In the 
speeiBcatinnthem lAntunclaied tbe doctrine 
iniieh is b§ truly at the root of all eagiu 
ec onom y at th'- preeenl ilay a* it wan in tba 
davftof V>'»Xl -iiamely,ihat thewallaof the 
cylinder should b^ maintained at the sanin 
heat as that of the st<>«m wtiirh ia aboai to 
enter che cylinder. Watt proposed to do 
this by means of an external caatn^, leaviag 
an annular space hatwaen it and toe ouiaide 
of the olinctr, in whidi apace theca sboold 
ahvavs be steam, thia ejUoval eaaiag to bs 
iteolt surrounded by some ooa<ooiidaclaT. 
It eliould hav.' been stated that Watt ex- 
perimented with wooden cylinden. 

I thai 

^ Toun 

(bat tlie oon-conductiug clioroeUn of tliat 
Knatffid would )uiVi> dunliushed eondetm- 
ttnu; butke foiiaU lliat aucbcyUadoreoodld 
rMint tlt« continued nctioiKif the stnun. 
is 17flO p&tpnt ixiYen>d, as haa been Boid, 
Mwnil fanias of inr«Dtioii. Th'- Rfih lipiu) 
•WM for n rotary I't^nae, of vhioh tlu> d." 
achpttoit was of iLe very Uaiiost, and, w 
tl)i>ri' ven: not art drawings nitAcluMl ti> cho 
•pccilicsiioii of tuia patttHl, it would havt* 
been inipoatiblt.' from ifie infonnattcia &tFordod 
by it fur aoy workman to havo couttrucicd 
Ikucli N iiikrliini! ; itiiil <rvt-n could be ha.VK 
uudf- it, it would not liavo worked, hbWbm 
found out iifltfr rupratiNl trixls. Another 
head of inronlinn wan to lower ihr; pre«!iare 
of tbf< Bt«ftia by coolrti); it to a poiut not 
Mifllcietit 10 «iUMi oondi-ttMtioii, and tli«-n to 
reliaot it. Ncilhor of theee inventions ever 
4:ain« into praclickl use, and it ia c«rl4ialy a 
er of surprifti that, in tlm aclion« wliicli 
tied upon Ibia pal«tit. objection wai not 
to tbi< abeolutis abwncu of explanation 
n^arrU tlu' riflh Wad of inv«ulion, thir 
tMstt «n|rbe. With Koebtick'a aaxiHtancL- 
«0 eii({in>.< witb tb>.> separate condonaiT and 
Air^pomp wiu actually i>ro«Ti^ at Kinn«>il. 
Tbe cylinder wba uightwn incLes dinrootwr, 
TtuN rn^ino was tri<-d on M'Yi^ral ocfa^ons, 
int witb no tborou^hly dofiuiie result. 
Dt, itocbuck bnving got into financial 
~tie«, tbo prof^TcM of tbo (!nf;inr was 
ed nntil, forlunatvly for Watt and for 
ilio world, Koebnck and Dr. ^im^ll in 1767 
brought about tha counvction bt.'lwi.'vn Watt 
and Boultnn. Knh««)iinntly Itoebiick sur- 
rendvnrd, on a projicr mymeni. bi« inU'/vBi 
WaLt'w inviiRlion. It wtw thirn Hifrceil, iw 
many of tlm fourt(>en yean' lifit of tbe 
I«i( hill! nxptrtMl wilbout any n'mriiinni- 
tiTB nsult wliaU'V'jr, to npply lo ^Hirliaiiifiit 
obtain au eid«nsion. In 17T<^ tbi» act, 
hich emmded tho patont until ]8iK), was 
;1. and in thi> samo year ihojMrtn(M>hip 
Villi Boulton woa eir«ct«d. Tlic cxp^ri- 
wolal eu|iinv "ktm rcmovt^l from KinutJiL to 
&0bo, and WBA lli«r>- gmt lo wiirlv in niiili n 
BULtrnvj* ae I'l d«mun8trBt« the luoril of 
Watl'* inTenlion. 

InqniriM from ownns of C^-OTtiisli minnd 
brRan to t»e maib? as to tho provision of the 
Biw .'iiLMni-A, A \rry cnn^iVrablf businoM 
' ' jfniduBlly iu Cornwall, involvine 

^^ lu^ in that county for b-n^^eDed 

ioUji uxt«nding ovvr «^vuml years. This 
peara to have been n ttuin of fftnat dtMtn-Hii 
to Watt. H-.' diotikcd th>] rau^bnuaR of the 

rpl«: bt wiu> avc.rx! fnim nil bni^piining ; 
wof in hit) usual had beoltb ; and wan 
away from all the acl^ntific Boclt'ty be loied. 
In ihe nwolt a large number of the improTeil 

pumpioff ouginw wurv put up, and were piud 
for on tbf^ fuel-aaviitg temiA almady atated ; 
but, wbatoFiT may Iwve been the aoped-for 
ex'eutiinl pratitis tli« imin«diatH rwult wna 
tbo locking up of a Inrp^ amount of capital, 
and it lU'Tnanilrd all Itoiilton's indoioiiable 
energy and thrt est^rci^c of hiit admirable 
bufinees talents to carry the parln^Tship 
ibmu^h till' ticnti of trial. Tbia itiiulton, 
howevt^r, suvcowfully acoouiplisbud, and, 
what is more, he en«onngea hin |<ar(n«r 
Watt, faint-hcarted in all comm*-rcial mat- 
tors to hold uu again&L thtiir troublr'jt. On 
10 April 17(*1 bi> wrotfilo Walt in Hirming- 
hum: ' It-annot h?l]>n-i;onimcudinf;it toyouto 
pray moniingand evi-ning, aftor the manner 
of your coiintrymtin (tlie Scotch prayer 
" TIiP IjOrd gnikl ns a (fudo conceit of" our- 
selves"), for you want nothiof; but a guud 
fipinion and confidence in yourself mid good 
bvatib.' It slinuld Iiavt: buen iilattid that in 
the ' Wntt ' enpne n cover was plut^pJ over 
the cylinder,lh{!piMlon>rr>dn-urkin|*lfar'nif;b 
a ittumrig-biix, uud ili^i. Chi^ Hti-tiio van iil ijl 
times admitted to the upper aid^of ihfpiaton, 
itsprewure r\!pbicing that ortbuatmoepheps 
when the downward or working armite of 
the ptatoa was made, at which time the 
bottom of the cylinder wu in connerrion 
with tho condenser; that when the return 
stroke was to be niud« th« condenser waa 
shut off by an upproprialt.- ^-alve, and that 
another »alve, callud an ' eguilibrium valve,' 
was opened, thereby ^tabluhing a cnnoec- 
tion betwoun thu up[jer und the under side 
of the pi0ifx>n, which, tieing tlicn >n e(|ui- 
librium, could he drawn up by a oounler- 
wei;tht. Thaa far llw improred •■ngine. like 
its predeeeBSor (Neweotnen'ii ), wan applied 
pmctteally only for the raisinu of water; 
find whvre, na was bo eommonly the c»»e, 
rotary motion was newd'J, recourse wo* bad, 
if Ihe work were beyond the power of horso 
geor, to the einploynivnt of n wni'^r-whwl 
to be driven by tlie water pumped by the 
viigino. This was obviously au uusativfuc- 
lory op'Tfttinii, involviiig the cn«l of extra 
pUnt^ldant demandinKacoiisidorablespucu 
-^and involving; ninu the dimiiiii*hetl output 
of work dun to T.lip lo^se-i in the intermediate 
machine, the water-wheel. Watt theTvfnro 
applied bim'^elf to obtain rotrtrvTOol ion from 
liw ndprocatinK engine. Th-' e tig in e. being 
sinHle-iiLlia^, did not lend itself well to the 
pur])OMt; but it could be made lo perform, 
to a <;uiiitideriLlile cYtent, aa though it were 
doublfvacting by tho expedient of lu^goly 
incH'tiKing the coiinli*r-wet||Chl until it was 
equivalent to about one-half the totoJ rais- 
ing power of the piston. Watt applied 
himself to produce direct rotiirj motion ilram 

Mwb ■ MotpTDtttinK wigine. Xt U stated 
tlwt Im tiitvRiJvd to ftbtain tliU «im] bv 
thu UK* of tLu (.■milk, ftiid was jiivpAring to 
pKWot il4 ipplicfttion, bat thnt, while tbe 
aMlt*rirMUnHeronnBiiliTfttion,ono ISdtartl, 
■ ttcirkinin in WntiV riiiptuv. rt>vfn)iil itiv 
fftCi^l trt m in>D of lilt- imm« of Wnshroupli 
of JtriituI, wbo wu i*DtJi»vuuniig (u obUiu 
rotary iijhIk'h bv vnriou* compli-X coniriv- 
uact-n, vrbirb Ik* tnuibi \hp HiibKHil of a 
patenter ]77n(No. 1l'I»); lliiit lliiNx bintiu 
uniuoc^'Mful lii> Jniiifirl bimx^lf to Pickaru, 
wlw in I7M> (nok n (wicnt (^No. lL'fl») fnr 
th« tuc rif tkr rrnnli in tbi.* Al^tm ^'tij^ine. 
Wfttt wu iM-riouBty iiK'vii^iMviit in Lis ob- 
aurvaliuuB uu lliia crank <|Ufstiou, oni} bi* 
biograpliojs — or kidv of tticuj bavu allcwed 
tli«n>MlrM to follow liim in hi» iuM»iM»- 
tpocji frn* wliilit on rlic »nu liiiiul Uv put 
biniMilf forwnnl im a tui-Tilurioua iui-i^iiuir, 
And thu inlcndiii); uulcntMt* of tbu iimi of lliu ■ 
onnk, nnO (•tHii])lnim«l bilti'rly iif Ui" iuvph- 
tt'in having \n'rn HUiltm, on ili« nihiT b^nd 
lu) Wfilv* ill r>,'»iH'rt "f I'irhnnl'* [mlrtil 
llinl 'tb>u iriHi iiivi'niur of ihcrrnnh rnt«liva 
motion wtiH tbo nmii who tirsi confrivt'il tb«« 
common fool-bilbi-. Arn>tviiij? it to lb« 
mffimi WBn like tnkinu ■ kni'lV' to f«l cbet-w 
which hnil bcuu miitlu In cut brrail.' TliUt 
Wud, wliilt! intfniliiig in put'-iit tbv use 
uf Ibn rmnk, ntiixt in Iuh own niinil bavo 
luiowii that siicb iisn WQK n racro 'obriouB 
H|){ilic]il.iuji,' nnd wiiH tbt-n-roru mil i»imbl« 
of briutj uiiwlti iht' liubji'cl of a viiUd ^tent. 
On liiidln^ th&l hv wna «iiiit uut by Pickunl's 
lUmt fnini tb*- uiii' of tbi- crunk, W'litl de- 
led biiui^tlf to duvifiing other oifAHK fur 
oonvi-rtinj; » rt-ci[irtK.'fl.tin(( into a iviliirv mil- 
lion. Ha dovifli-d five ditTfn-nt modus, iho 
subject of his piilent of 1781 (No. ISOltJ, 
none of which, in hi* opinion, were amen- 
able to [be charge of iiivuIvinK the use of 
cr&nks: but there is no doubt thnt two of 
(hum wt?r« ub>oliHi.*Iy crankit, Tberw docs 
not nppcar to bn any rfcord of four of tbcai.' 
d<iviL't« having betii UHcd; but ihu fitili 
di>ric>'. 'Suii-ntul-l'Iniiet ' whwl, waft 
largely cmployLHl by Watt for eonvurtiiig 
the reeiprocating motion into rotjiry inotioii. 
Wal.lfl cni^iite.i, an actually mndft (the 
writer of tbiii article remembers one of tbvin 
perfectly), hud tlii-sunftiul thi- pUnet. wheels 
of equal (isc. lb<r ijUoei Wiag confined to its 
orbit by a link loose upon tbe «un-wbco1 
atlttfl — the natuml and |iroi)er uiBons of doin^ 
iU Jlut whether \\Vtt li^ared that aucli a 
construction mif^ht be held tn fimuunt to & 
crank, or what otbci- chiimi rimy hnve in- 
fluenI^t-d Liin, cannot now bo dftomiini'd; 
hnt ibij fftct. i* that in biH HiH'cilinilion h« 
nude D mo&t extraonlinii.r7 provi^iian fur 

confining tht! plaaet wbeel to it* orbit, b; 

ins«rtiii|; a pin in coDlinuationof the azit 
tL« plftut't wheel, into a circulAr grooi'a 
Tb« ton aod planet wheeliioftliepn>i»rtiotit 
used by \\att— that of Munlity of diax 
invtvr — bad a certain value V-vidrs that of 
fttecrin^ clear of rickord's patent, in that 
tbcy gave 1^*0 revululions of the nun shaft, 
which iva* ab<i> thu fly-whml vbitft, fur each 
double reoitirocalion of the eo^ins, hi tbst 
th« )])t>e<l nl M idow-)(nin(; pnf^ov iraH al oooe 
augni«ufed in ihi* yerr eoffine itself, and, 
moreoTer, tlie tly-whe«l had its Talu<* quad- 
rupled. Some attempt wu made tn afres 
with l^ckurd for ibe ue« of the crank: bit 
Watt's pride revolted from buyin); buck thai 
which he said was bJs own mveution, and 
he expl&ina that Iw had no wiah to detalroy 
I'ickanVs patent, thufl throwing thu use ot 
tbei-niiiU u[M>n lo the public, otid depreciat- 
ing therefore tlie value of Watt's Own Bub* 
slitiiti', the sun mid plnnrt. 

Tji to the prwwnt time it will haTe 
noticed that, tn all case) of Watt's enjii 
tlier« was only on« working ttmke mfl< 
during the poMoge to and fro of iho pistoi 
in the cylinder, the return stroke bringjl 
to the action of a counter-weight. 
hai'iDu now in ihusv engines & cla«c-t 
cylinul-r with a pi^tou-rud working ihroug! 
a Htiitling-b(ix, and having valves l>v whi 
connection was made alternately bctwcta 
the uudur mde of the ulston and the sleam 
boiler, and between tne uudenide of ibe 
piston Bud condenser, it followwl altDOf t as 
a ciitisei|i]enf that by nd<litioiia lu tbi 
valves the functions of tbeeteaio and vacuu: 
might l>e repwitwl on the uppi-rnide of tha 
piston, and that thu.t the engine would haro 
a working stroke in bath directiniis, render- 
ing it ifidi>]N'iident of count or weights, and 
oiuineiilly udapiiii)^ it tor operation upou 
cranlc, or upon its equivalent, to produ 
rotary motion. Thi* wm one of the subi 
of Watt's patent of l7M'(No. 1321), and 
only was this construction uf great utUit; 
fnr giving coroparntive uniformitv of rolar 
motion, but also i! was one wbico obvional, 
doiilded the work that could be obtained out 
of a given dimenaion of cylinder. This pa-, 
tent also embraced another moat importa ~ 
principle inlhcusoof steam, ona upon wbi 
pnicticidly the whole improvement, ra 
bince Walt's days lo the present. in the 
nomy of fuel depend^i— namely, thu inoplo, 
ment of sreom expansively. 

A few words of exphmntion lo the no 
technical readier may perhapti be 
' Assume a cylinder of such a diameter a« 
I have 1 sw|Uftr« foot -14-1 Mptare incliM 
, area, and a.<»ume the stroke of the pistan 

" I 





it to te'Srlhit I^l irt«sin lie introduced 
into tbiE ftt. Bay, tva atnioA]ihort>A of pmuuire, 
and ■Jwumc the impoMible, tbut there wei« a 
jwrfect vaciitiru in the eond«iiMr. Tbfn, fnr 
simplicitj', calling the Rtinos {there 1<^ lb. 
prcnont) the picton voiild be -argd (o moTi> 
b7» 1'i«l «9<tal to \U {-J- 1.V)~4:120 lb. 
And, if it did ao through the L'<f>-v:L >irok«, 
it would |iiv« n work of S040 fnol lb. and 
The consumption of «lcani wnuld Itf '2 chImc 
fi'L'l m :! «UnuMili(>ree den^iiy. A»tiune, nov, 
TliMt, iiult-ndnf nlluwin^ lh» ■ti-atn to e«cap<> 
whtTi tlrn piaTon luid rninpii-ti-d rh*" S-ft-i'l 
iitToktt, I)i9 cylinder cuwhl K' extended lo a 
total len^h nf •! ff^ot. Thon tlit- Minn- stfjim 
— tha intn>!&« of sny further quantity beiiiy 
nit nfT- cnntiniiiiif? to pr*"M on the pisiau 
(ihe TACuous condicioii. bi-ing mnititiiinttd on 
the othpmide). the pi»toii would bt? urged In 
aore with a ijirudually dt-cruarintr prL'^^ure 
Tbrttiigh^'iil tb« remaiuiiig Inn feet; hiuI lii«l, 
at« triid of its idumey, tli*' sloiiin bfin^ 
liiMi double in viilutnu, trntild Htill linvv a 
pKMtue equal t<i one utmo^ph^rt. Tho mi^nn 

rMur«thraut;hoi)l this eovocd 2 feet would 
30-8lb. thenlM a ■*t)fi ^ •» l(*t ctiuaU 
ftQotber o,9Q0 foot-pouuds obtaint.-d without 
thi> cTpendittiri.* of any mora slemn. Thit>i, 
in the tint suppnaed ina(an«<: of ciNii-fiipKn- 
■ion,^ cubic fret orstanni at 2 aliiii>:^|)liiTP9i 
density wimhi produce R,ft40 fiMit-pnimis of 
work, whilv lbt< tant* atuain t-xpiiudinK tu 
twice it« bulk would produce IJ.lil'iU iWit- 
pounda, or 69 pi-r ovux. morv. Il will of 
eouNe be nndersTood thul th•■.••l^ nm nicrrly 
illwtratiTe %URB, s\ibjt>ct in priu:ti(.-f to 
Inr^ dalurtioriR, tiK raii]>i<-« of which CJiiinot. 
bt< ^one into hen;. An \nng »» the <>n^inf4 
w-ro single-ncling and the connection be- 
tween thepiiton-rod imd the bi^^ntn was ono 
that was aiwaya exposed to a teiiviltt ^trniii, 
tltut04inn«vt ion could well bu mad^bymfans 
of > chain wnikiiig orvr a ivclor altuohiid to 
till! beam. But p^o mou as thi! ■'ingines wi-n- 
made <l<)ubloact luif , tliun the ]ii«['>n-rod hud 
no lunger only to pull tin.- bt-nm cud down.htit 
had alsu to push it up. Thi^i wns an oivenii ton 
which obviriuidr riiiild not bv carried out by 
II sine'*? chain. To ovt-rcnme cliis dilficuUy, 
uml "lili bythe uw of n chain, a contriTunce 
was invented which prAlonp-il the pi*ton- 
rod hi^h up, and a e^eond chain connacttnl 
to iho bottom end of thu sector wus cni- 
ploytd; BO that wbilt- the old chain pulled 
lh» beam end down, the n«w chain pulled it 

Another cont ri^-ain^B wait to funtiwli llit> 
Mctor with teeth and to provide the piston- 
rod with a rack engaging in the^e t^.'^^'lh. 
Botli tb<!So nrrangnni»iEa w«re imMti^fac- 
tory. The remedy was to place a link jointed 

at its lower «ndio the top of the piston-rod 
and at its upper end to the beam. It is clear 
that, having regard to the versed sine of the 
arc- di.>^crilM^ by [be beam fnd, thiw link 
would bedetle«?tvd out of the upright, and 
thuBthopirfon-rod top would bfrxpOBcd to a 
rvsultniil ti'irixonlal MTt-K^. t<-ndingto d'^flwt 
it. 'ITif obvious way lo hare OTcrcftnn> this 
tvudoucy was to furnish thv ends of llu' pitus 
of the pinton-nid wiih guide-block.* working 
in or on vertical guidfg, and W'utl in bis 
patent of 17H4 (No. 143:1) A|HTi<ti'n thiii a» 
one means nf attaining his end. Itut lie <1bi 
vised aaoth'T, and » mo»t elepunt rande, 
whereby ficlv<intAg<' woa tak^n ot th<^ rvvor^ 
curve given by levers jiivoted in opposite 
direction* so ihiit th« moving end* r.f thou 
Itfvers biting united by a link, a point would 
be found in ihiit liuk which for llic extent of 
stroke iw^uinil iu llw eiigiuu would move in 
a path that did not harmfully dutrntH irum 
a elmight lino. This is Wall's celebrtiled 
[.iiimllel motiiin, on which he pridi-d hintHvlf 
more than on any of his other invention.", 
and it is still used in nearly all the benm- 
engineathnt an^ now manulBTturt-d in tho 
United Kingdom. But in the laru-e number 
of dir^<t-Bctlng engine*, vudjracinf( as llit-v 
do in thtue diiyt> all ileum reiiseLs and afl 
locomotive*, transversf •■tresses of a more 
Serious chamcler — uiinu-Iy, ihfM'givenbythu 
crunk Ihroiigh the connecting rod — tire iuc- 
ce*«fully combated bv the simple guide which 
Watt rcjecled iu pnrlicv for iho parallel 
motion witli which he w«s so veri' luiieli 
ple&sed. Among Wall'solher I'oolfivaocea 
tu oiildin n ronnrctiim Iwlwi"-!-!! llic pixCnn* 
rod and the beam was the employment of a 
hoUnw or inink niston-rod hsving the pin 
of tJie- lower entl of thf cornn>x!iing link 
eitu&ted at tlii! lower part of the foil just 
above the piston. 

Walt's many aud mo*t valuable inventions 
must always place him among the leading 
bi;iiefucti>rsi>l' mankind, and iheneuu tben^ 
font lie no need tn endi^uvnur to augment hia 
inQrits by attributing to him. ns fome of hia 
biographer" Imve done, niiittern which wcro 
not rnally of hi^ invention, although iiM-d 
by bim. One instance is tliaC of the cenlri- 
fngni governor to rrgnlnn- tho s|»eod o( 
steam engines. It i» commonly stated t\ 
Wntt invented the centrifugal governor; 
but tlii# i« by no mcuns certain, m it. is 
fi-etiuently said thai il had previously been 
usi^ in dour-milla to contrul tho dt<ilanc(i 
a[iiLrt of the luilUtoncui. 

The wTiter has tried to find any publica- 
lion prior to 17S], (he (l«t<; of Wntt s patent i 
fnr obtaining rotary motion from a reAipro^' 
eating steam engine, whichdeacribes the use 

of tboffOfTernoriD floor-tnUls, bill hu not 
tueceeuod. Thu earlivst publiettiuti hi.' bw 
H y>t foaiid is th^ spi-cilic&tion of Thonuu 
Meod'iimtoat of 17)^ (Nu. I0i>'3>, ' Itv^lator 
for Wind anil otliiir K[illri.' A ntMJfir of thu 
Ani>cini«li()ii mual cortainl; com? to tb« coa- 
cIu»ioa tlijtt: M»3(l wax (or tlint. lii; lH>lu)veiI 
himsL-lf to ti?) tlie inventor r>f the itnple- 
upnt, nnd not nufiwlj- the suR-gMter oFil* 
application t-o millit. 

Till? wril«r liu HOI been able to ascertain 
wbcu Walt Bfst opiilicd the f^v«mor lo Lis 
■tvftn ungiii«i. l-ftTvy lu h\B b'".ik on \)iv 
Ntmint woKiiii), ptiV>li.><lMv.l in 1H27, biiv&, at 
p. -13;: 'III Iht' years 17^ and 17n-J Meeen). 
Boulton nni! Vn'n'.t mftdn ■i-vernl mlalivu 
fltiginiv . . . Uiifl of the firflt of these wafi set 
up at Sir. Whit bread's br^wyrj' in C'hi*w«Il 
8tre«)t . . . Mr. Whithrt^iiil'A en^ne was aet 
to work in 17tSo. In their seoLTul upp',>««nce 
theae wugincs worv very much like that ro-'Dl'-d ill plate- xi, JJavini; the same kind 
of uamlEi!! motion, sun and planet whivl#. 
anil ^vcmor.' If thix stuli'iiittni uboul lUc 
((oriTMOr hn torwct, ihi-n Wult woa usius 

S'YPrnnrH three yeiirH btifore iUl- dalu oT 
eod'f paUmt. It niiiiit, htiwnver. Hk re- 
iD«tnb*'TM that T'lin'v wii-i ivrlcinf between 
torly and fiflj' yeoi^ after this prriiui untW 
«OMid«nili.>nr 'At p. 436 Korey, doacribinft 
tlie ((overuor, says : ' It whs ou the priniMplti 
which had been pHnioiuly u»d in wind and 
water niilU." 

Ilarin^ regard to Watt's silence on the 
quealion of the governor, lo the fact that he 
aid aot, patent it, nor vreu lie application to 
tbn stMuii enifine : h&rinft regard.also lo the 
etatcintiiu ( is true) of many 1 
writi'Di that tbo iinplfinent vrnit iuumI aa ap- i 
plied to fiour-milU bvfore the date of its ' 
upplicatinn hv Wnlt to ■•hr ■U'am vngiii«, it 
nppMrs th-^ pMbablliiles are lugvly against i 
Vrutt bein^ tli" inventor of tbe gornrnor. | 
Wutt iipplietl ii to the «t.rAin engrno, and \ 
ll'.'viK'.'Kl a particular kind nf valve, the 
' thmttlo valrc,' which, boitig' balntiocd on ' 
vach aide of a central gpiudk;, waa capable ! 
of bflng nored by a comparatiTely weak 1 
igvot, fiucli aslliL' wuirifugal ODTorDor. 

'I'linrK i" another very uaalol adjunct to I 
llie eteani enpino— the indicntnr — tSe whole 
inrcntion of which i» aIiM> cumnionly but 
«iTane<)ualy attributed to Wntt. The indi- 
cator in an implement by whicli a peooit, 
oonlrolli'^1 br n spring, is made to more 
forwards or "backwards in accordance vilh. 
the pnwinri.' pn-rnilin^j in the engine ey tinder 
nt any moutfut , while a card, or nowadays a 
pii|)vr, i> i'oii-4.-xl to traverse traitaversely to 
the ui^vuii'iii of the pencil, uud tlms taora 
ia drawn un (Lccordby thep>jucil,adiagran). 

wlucb sbowB and feeords the rarying [ 
8ur«e in thecylinderat allpartaof thestr 
of the piiiton, and lhui> (^nablti* Oir 
dono ou the pUtou aad the quantity of steai? 
UWd, to hi; drlerminod. Nv dnuM thU Jm* 
plentent lian been of the ^rmieet ra\aa in 
tlK> developing; of the Tariou« iinproTem«nt« 
which have b««n made, and arc «l4ll geingi 
in the steara OD^inea. Walt's abatv 
invention of the indicator waa coofiaed] 
tbt'simpli.- a»dcuiapsraiivelyu»«leesT4 
motion of the pencil in accordance wit 
prcaiuru in the cylinder, and wu a 
»iubt>tttulioii for a k'"** ^<*be ronlainiagi 
cury ! the tranaverae motion, hv wliiehnloiiA 
the diagram could be obtained, wa» due, it 
i« believed, to the pnniua of John Soutiiani, 
one of lloulton Si Watt's assistants. So Ion; 
aa M«am engine* w«ro lued only for nj^icji 
water, it waa oxtremely eoay 'to &lat<i tlu 
nmouut of work they were doinf; and 10 
compani one eiigiae with another. Tbu^. it 
en^iDM A were raising a hundred galltns | 
miuute from a depth of s hnndrsd f 
and enfiinn 11 were raising two hut 
gallons from the same depth, n was obric 
duing double thu work of A ; but when 
gin<:« wcru employed to drive mill-w<n^ 
there was uo such record of ' work done ' ob 
titinnble; it became nooeasnrj, then-forfvl 
devise some standard. I'rior to i4ie ufi«i 
the steam engine rotary motion ou the itxge 
scale was derived from water^whcel«,«ndi 
a »mall »calt> from windmills or from h<i 
wheel*. Watt therefore, following Sa^ 
del'>rminL-d that iLu hurw-^power ahooldi 
llu-ntitndard. Kaverv had ooua to tin- 
elusion that It would need a Block of 
Itonw lo provide one alwaym at work, 
does not appear to hare determinod 
'work'of atofw; but if tb»Te wen- requitwd 
ibar hofiNH at work to drive, ny, a ptnUk 
and Savory made an t<ngine compet«nt to do 
the same duty, he called that a lt*<JiarM 
vagiDe, OS it wa« aquivalent lo che twi-ln 
horaesthat needed lobe kept toprorid-- fonr 
borai'E nlw-iLVE at work. ^^ att, bowtver, did 
not follow Savcry in ht.« ruli?-of-lhumk 
detenninntion, nor did he credit bis «afinr 
with lb« idle hoiaw. He witiafled biaimf 
that an average botse eotild eontinur to 
work for soveral hours when exertinu him* 
S(>lf to #uob an extent lU would raise I c«t. 
to a boiffbt of 19t) feet in a minute, equal M 
33,0011 lb. one foot high. In otdar th«i a 
puieboser of one of bis cuginea should hat* 
BO ground of complaint, he pronortiuisJ 
tbeac maclunaa so tnat for each of nia hoiB» 
pciwerv tJwv should laiae half aii much t^lUM^ 
or SSfOOO IV one foot bigh per miuut«. Af 
regards the oonfusioD into which tlie qB» 

Iu>[*>»M>O«r0r drifted, rvAulling in AA 
rBB6wdtlfcrent.1)in(]fi,s«t>tliR 'Proci.'vd- 
iftb«Ray«l AeTu-iiltitral^Mrwtj' ('2n<) 
1. ix. Cardiff mfl-ttinu, No. 17, p. B6). 
'an Watt took out hill lout ]ift4«nl, 
S. This WM for eonstni^titu' ftir- 
c, tbe nljwt being to attain better 
tion ftiid tbu avoiduier* of omolto. 
inrviiiiuii tppcsn tu 1»tu bt«ii bu«d 
Bimrt pritunplea, ftnd to have been «a- 
)d with euccws to eoniB litlJe i*xluiit ; 
t WK* di^pKnilnnt varr lorgtilr on Ihu 
tinn of tht> otoker, ana waa of^but little 
ical use. 

bks bern ihoiipht well not to inti^rntpt 
raueDce ortbe L'neiu*.' paienis, and itius 
tl w i«rly as irr^l) (No. 1*244) hn^ iM^i^n 
over in onlor of it.H datv, us it TOlatt>d 
lAlt«r eutir«lv unconnect«it with tho 
engine; it wa«, liowGT«r, of gtvtl 
&ml iit now univenaUy euiptoyeil. 
a thfi invffntion of cojiviiig luttvn 
IS of n Hpocially pri'imml ink, whirh 
^if-i^an irapivssinn on a d«nip«d shEwl 
■liable pap<.>r wlipn the writing and 
tnpitd pap<rr weri- pr^ttflAd roj^iht^r. 
ly hut few of ilie thcitisiitid« upon 
)d« who, throuphunt si) ciTili!»rtl 
, ban- iltcir lrit«r-copyiiig books and 
m nrtj nwure thut this most UM.-f(il pro- 
is da<; to tbflgimt Juinv^ "Watt, 
bvii tb» coooen of th<! Watt encine> 
fully MUbUatw^l, altGrnpts -Kero made ' 
iTimt ungines which shotild )mvv thti i 
advantagm, but which atiould not be 
in tlie itmMt of Watt's paiiiiit. One of , 
I ntt^Dipln wa* by Eilwnnl Hull, in tbv 
of pumping on^n>» forrain«K Thi< Hole ' 
itli»n hx aiadewa«loinrOTt lh«> cvlind^r 
tbt tihnti of tho Tntn« and to connnot 
pimp* diret^tlv lo thw piston-rod, thit« 
f ttWftf with tiic main b<:iini ; but hi^ n'- 
d lli» •eparat* cowIoiimt with it< air- 
f. Another attempt was made by 
tlian Carter Horn bio m'"i: [tw undur 
inilAWim, JoVath»s\ lie proposed to 
i>y th« <»|MUi6ivL' principlL' by allowiuf; | 
^am lojjaM from unr wcirkinfr 1-3 linder 
boond worltin^ cylinder nf inansoaod ' 
H^ — n conslnietion which prvvails 
undiT the titi"' of the cnmpoiind 
and thiiti in !li« furtber devvlopiopnt 
cylinder* in aeri», i« prarticjilly 
!1y eaployt^ in alt largu Ateaio 
wlifttbur uaed for war or for com- . 
Hnmblowcr, bowoTer, rould not 
inM with thit Bc|uirntu condanaar and 
ump, and hU f>nginivi wnre thus In- 
t* oi" Watt'e oriiritial pnlfnl. 
•i 10 1800 Watt and hi-i panm-r 
' in vindicating- iuG patent, nnd , 

in pnttinif a Mo]» lo tbcM infringt^nvnta. 
Actions werf brouglit in the common pliwix 
aftaihst Bull and against llornblowr-r, with 
whom WIS joined as d«fendnnt ana Malwrlej. 
In eaah caae the infnii|i«ii]i>nt was all but 
admittf-d, th« dafendcrx' atvutncnt^ b«nff 
adda-swd toiLe ioTalidity of the palont. In 
each case the Jury found a verdict for lh« 
plaititifT. In web caM' IIh' full court of 
cominnit plea» by a mi^ontv detemiiiiad 
the {latent to be bad, on (Bpea&ine oa s biy- 
Tniin) grounds nf the vnmii<ii««!* nl the upm^i* 
fii^ntion, due to the advice of the amateura 
in patent matters to whom allusion hiis 
already been tnnd''', and in c^ich ciiai^ t liera 
was appeal. On appeal the patent was up- 
held, Bud the lon^ Iilipationcamet-o an L>nd, 
nfltT y-ar* of &iixi>.>ty suflVred hv Wnn and 
hilt pitrtner, and after rory hesvi' exptiidi- 
turu, as may bu fmlburud fr^m the faol iJiat 
in Ihn four vnar. betwrmi ITiKJ and 1800 
the roRts wern A.OOU/. NS'alt u^ed lo HpMilc 
of bis jmletU n< 'lit<t wi-U-lrifd frii-nd.' 

By tli» Irindm'ifl nf Mr. fiforce Tan^f of 
Solio and ol' H«?Bthru'M Kull (al onr tinm 
Watt'ji rpsidi-m-e), the writer h/ij had ■ccms 
to miieb of the correspondence b»tween 
Boulinn and Watt and th^^ir unnn during 
the period tbew actions were goiu^ on ; it is 
luoitt inlcri'Ktius', and it shows also lhi> 
rhnnniiif; charucier of tin; reUlion* tioU«i*(t- 
ini; Ijfl ween ihi?«; four iu>.'ti. In April I7t*l 
Huuhon, af^cr complaining to Watt of a 
diOeivnce bo bnd with a partner in his 
Mparafc biminpu, eonlinued : ' However, aa 
to you and 1 [sic}, 1 am sure tt is iiii[i-.->9;5tbtu 
we can dinagT''" >n the willing of our 
BC£0<inta, as titere is no sum lot&I in any of 
them tbat 1 %-iilue so much n» I do your 
eMn^m, and th<> promotion of your liwiUh 
and happiness; therefore I will not raise a 
sinpl" objection to anytbinf^ tbat yoti #ba11 
think jiiot, as I have a mo»t iinplieit eonti- 
denfe in your honour,' 

Wall's lore of science.- wis not conflnwl 
lo phyaie*. Jle bad from tbe time of his 
early life in Otas^w bocn devoted to 
chemiRlry, and, when wtUed in Birtnin^- 
bam, the pursuit of diemioal science was 
stiinolnred by bis intimata cunnection with 
BU(^h inen as rriestW, Keir, Small, and 
Wedgwood. Tliese, with others, consti- 
tnl^d tho' I.Hnar" Society, who met moiuMy 
at about the time of the full moon. It was 
no doubt his steady pursuit of chemical 
Kcivnce, e\eu in llie mid^t of all hi? ^eam- 
i-nKiiieliibourAjlhat led Watt lo thebnllinnt 
dii^corery of the composit ion of water. That 
Wati did miikn this indi."i»end<«nt di«covi"ry 
is undoubted. Whether it wns made prior 
to B similar disc-overj* by Henry Cavendish 

(I7ai-1B10) [q.v.] ifl a qiiestimi aliout whit^h 
there hun bwn much and biitpr controversy. 
It fleams cl<'iir, howcvt-r, I Lin- Wiitr, iw early 
ai U Vix. 17^1', wrolt> to Jean AndK- Uuluc 
[i|. v.], • I bplicve air is (rencrstrd from 
wator. ... If lIiU pmcoen cniititiiis no Ui;- , 
Ce[)ti<Mi, here tt> an etipct iialacciKint of iQanj ' 
jilit-noim-iia. And ono ekinent dUmi^'wd from 
the li»L' L«Irr on, iff AjH-il ITS.*!, Wait 
wrale to Dr. I*ri«stley n letter setting forth 
liU ihncxivt-ry of tin- i-<iniiHi«ilioii of witter, 
iiTid riii^apsiin^ that it inifi'lit h^ gireii to 
Sir Jwwpii I^aiikM, tliua prtsident of tlu' 
lU^ynl Society, with it vit-w to it* l>t?infi: 
read m n nifetiiig, Owing- lo I'riesih'y's 
dniiht^. \Vn(t nximstcd thai the n'n<linf; 
aliould be d(;layed to ifiet'rtain the rwult of 
twnii^cxiifrinienCs I'rir.-stley Hoid lie wds about 
lo make; it further u]i]ieir« thai in ibumiMiii- 
whiln Walt"» paper w«b urviiy frvi-ly uUown 
among the leading members of the aociery. 
On 30 Nov. I7tf.3 U'att Avroty a letter to Dl*- 
luc on the «ime *iibjwt ; thi* Idler wii« nol 
rend to the toeipty until 1*^ April 1~*M: 
whilr ('»vi>nf31nli'» cniiimiiiiicjitirin on the 
eanie subject was rend nn IJi Jan, l"Hl. 
L'lril Ilrounhfini tracetl out various interpola- 
tionii in the ' I'hilrnopliiciit Tmnonctionti' in 
Cavendish's fnvour by .Sir l.'liarle« HIagden 
[q. v.", then secretnry ; and a curious double 
niiMlatin^ of llieiie imnvnctiuiiK vritg alto 
found; nuiking it ajijienr llifil \Vatt'» roni- 
municntiun of 20 Nov, I78a was -Jti Kov, 
1784, and That riivendijib'i« iwpi-r wan nf the 
date of 1-i Jan. 17^3, and »ol, iu< wan the 
fart, of 16 -Ian. 17«4. Ibi !?'.' A^ril 17h3 
Waif, in wrilinji; lo flilliert Hanntt'tn, tnmU- ^ 
this declarulinn of faith : ' I'lire intiainmahle 
air w i^liloifiston it*clf." ' t>qihli>^i«tic-ated 
air if waiir deprivi'd of i<.« ■•hlu^^i-'ton, and 
united to latent beat.' 'Water is dejililo- 

f;isticuted uir deprived uf purl of its Intent 
leat.anilunitiiil loalar^j^-doMrof |>blo)^i.<aloii.' , 
"Watt dinM;t8 that one part by mea^nre of 
"[Mirw air' ( - dephiii)iisiiciiU'd air -oxygen) 
and two parts by meaaure of inHaminfthlft nir 
{ = pblopistfln -■ hytlropen i iire to be mixed 
and tin^d. It ii iiiiiti-er-rtnin tlmi Arapij in 
hia t-loav of Jaaiv» ^\'ait deliveretl In 
lf<30, though thortkuijhly awiirw of thu 
claiuH lliut had U-qd put forward by tbe 
friend* of Cavendish, unliexltatiitijlv ascribed 
the fint diiM^overy of Tlin fact that water vrnis 
not an element, but wan a compound body, 
and also the aawrtaininif the nature niid 
proportion of the two can»tituvnte, to 

Watt bad bia iattii9»t to chemical science 
Blill further slimulaied l.y ibi- hopo of 
benefltiDf; the health of ius invaliu son, 
Gregory, by ttic inhaling of gases, calhsd in 

those dajra ' factitious ain.' This taoA* ot 

cure was advocated by the celebmled l>r. 
Thomas Jt<-ddoeH [q. v.], and Watt devi«M 
an apparatui to be ut»ed in hospitalfi, and of 
n Amallor size in private boiiiu.-», fur the 
generation of the 'uir*,' and in 179ti pub- 
lisUeil ft pamphlet, with illuiitralions, pncea, 
and directionii for use. Two principal ' airs' 
were tii Im prwluc*-*!. the oue oxyffen and 
the other hydro-carboniite ; this appcan ta 
havit been a mixture of hydnjp'u, irarUitiic 
acid, and »oR]eoarl>onic oxide. Thiahornl:il6 
compound was not supposijd to be of tb« beil 
kind, nor ro do il« worli properly, unleM il 
had the efl'ect of producing in the unhappy 
inhaleranaHrtckof vertiflO- Wiitt lui'tfiih'*. 
cated the eropluymeiit of lime in ihi< 
(be oxyt{<*n gas to purify it, but he c. 
thu u^er of the apparatus whtii tnokiii^ ilu; 
liydr'jHjarbonnte to he careful iio' lo let 
any lime come in coniocl with the t*. 
if &o, it will not produce the dLvin-il . 
nenn. The [mmphVl in one of eAlreme lq- 
tetvst, and the writer is indebtud to Hi^ 
tJeorge Tnupyfi for a copy. 

Watt fill<.id up a garret in HeathQeld 
Hull as a workshop, and lat^^ in life n-liimrd 
to the practice nf tWt delicale manual work 
ill which he had always b«»?n so great h pro« 
Rcient, Heepocially devoti^l himM-Utti the 
invention antl conMniciiug of nppnrsius for 
lb>- f-opyin^r nod ri-pn>ducliiin of sculpt uw. 
and he produced poine very iidrainibU- »iwei- 
mens nflhiswork, of 'which he was iiul a 
little proud. In 1B(<8 there remained in tkia 
workshop a most intere« colbKlion of 
niodLds of several of Watt's inrifntion.4, in- 
cliidiitg models of his various modes of 
obtaining rotary motion. They art- nuwi 
clearly de^LTibetl in a paper by Mr. E. A. 
Cowner, reotl before tbe Instilution of Mi>* 
cliauK'ul Kugiiiwrs in N'ovvmWr of that 
yi-jir. Nciiv, jirnclically the whole of iheM 
inodels have been removed, leaving only ill* 
sculpture copying machint.'S. 

.\mnng the yery inlerejuing lettiTs in tba 
possession of Sir. Georpe Tangye nre ttnaw 
Irom Argand, on behalf of hinii^lf and of 
MuEitgolncr, relating to that most int:en>>iu< 
water-raising ioiplemeui, the hydraulic raaii 
and to the Argand lamp». There are aba 
four original letters fmui Uobert Fultoa t« 
Bniilinu and Watt, ranging from 17M t« 
180.'), in which orrlnra art* given fur ateiia 
engines, to be used in the stoamboate Fullot 
wns building. 

Watt's first and grealASt inrention— cnn- 
densatiou in a vessel separate from the tlwa 
cylinder—was the vcty life of stt-nm engines 
working nt the low pressuns prevailinff in 
thoae days, as such engine* owed their power 




fcn the jrrcjttvr or li-it* npproiurh tii 11 ijitTccI 
vnciintn whicli could be t^tliwToil : but a.« tha 
pre>^*iurivof sl^sDi bwAmvincrvaW'd, tlie v&lu<* 
of tliD TBL-U'itift condition bvcaim) n-Utivo1y 
\v^« Biid lo»t Bnd thin ibe liiiali'y m) contl- j 
dentlv claimed br Mr. Serjeant l(ott.<, in hi* 
spvtcii to lb« court of ^peal> wu iiu*»-dil^- I 
Mown to be groutuUeA*. ]{ouftAfi«a1«a,'T1iiB ' 
pecaliar inrrntiun. fur which this {Mttviil ' 
lin* Ih-^'U "btaint-d, wiw fmpi 1 hi: lint jMrfftl | 
fetid c<im]tb-lf, luu never been imprvvud, naJ ; 
from thu noliirm of t)iiug» nrvpr c«n, b.-ojiuM- | 
it U imjiotuibli^ to hnvi.' mon^ than nil.' S<1 \ 
Iohm; niio as IS?^, at the CanlifT m^-BtiiiK | 
of the Uoynl AfrrtrkiUiiral ikxmy bff'urt' ' 
nwDt-ioned, a ponnble non-condon»io^ t.-u- | 
tinf W09 Rhowii, dt-vf^lupiug a borM^|>o»'i'r 
K>T ■ cutuumpiion or 2-<t> lb. of conl pur 


Tt boi alWATB b>t'n n matter of surprise 
tlut Watt, vrhn hail iuYi-nlnd Ibn fxiMuiMVK 
use of MMiti, did not duvclnp thia principle 
b.V etnplnyini; eti.-niD nf hi^ht-r nnd hiifli'T 
initial nivMure; but thiH be did nor do, nnd 
li«ft(!aui]jopp<w4.-d UicbardTrevitliick ~q.t.\ 
irbo waa th*^! persii'ti-nt adrocatt; of ^lii^h- 
prusBure nenia couidiM] with expaneion. 
Sixteen veai^ after Watt's d<.-ath, wh^n ttu- 
writor of ihia artJclu wax an iipprenticc, the 
m prvaaure of ateam in cAndcnainii 

_ vhvtbor etatiooajy or mnrini?, wiw 

frmo 4 tu lb, pvr vquan* inch abovu utinu- 
didiiTn ; and notwith.ttutidiiiy Iho conden«a- 
liQD in ibd auparato wesol, tlw consumptiuii 
«f ccad wa* fmm o tO 8 lb. per boroc-iwwi-r 
p«>rfaniir. The steam prffviun! in tnnrin<^(>n- 
^nM it now from Im) to 2iiO lb. tlVrkiiiM 
went M hiffh nr 100 Ib.t, and iha onsuin|t- 
lion of coal i« bom 1^ to '2\ lb. por lionw- 
powMT per hour. 

lu I'pil*' of his wretched health, Wntt wns 
<in«! of tlip most determined and pcraiiitont 
of men; hiscouragti, irxcopt in nlnttvr^ of 
Gnanca;, wiw of thi> highest. He viTy early 
acqaintd a koovled((D of German and vf 
Italian to F>ndbl>> hiiu tn rt>ad work* on 
mwhanicM piiblishwl in ihnst! langiiag^x. and 
h» iipptsir! from hi* corr««pfindtnn> fo ha*'' 
br«a a fro'Hl Ktvmcb Acliolar. Ii ba^i been 
Mid h" was originallr n aatbeniDtical in- 
*1.rum«ut maker, and a workman of fcrcat 
iklicacy of loucb. In hui early days at 
OtaJficuw, al the request of somu rriends, he 
made an orpin of great Iciaiitv of I'lnt;, and 
ho alwo madf iilhar muati^al in»lrunienta to 
wbliffe liiK friend^iatld not, it would appi^'iir, 
fruto a luvt" of tniiwr ; for in Inter <,"<"nr», ivhi'ii 
8«utb<Tn applied for pmployropni nc Sobo, 
Watt said: 'I should b« verv pUd to vn- 
Bafre him for a drawer, providisl he (hti-k 
VDod to give op miuic. Otherwise I am 

aiire ht* will do no j;oo<l, it lieing lh« source 
nf idl«no«s.' In i-arly dayit also Watt in- 
vented and »old a port sblumni'limr for draw- 
iuff fmm nature iit proper pt^rapective. 

In his vhfrtnicDl pursuit* ho not only da- 
vi«od the apparatus to tnaatifacturH th« 
'faclitiouB aire,' but he inruBted a umple 
mwle of aiic>-rlnininir th<! it]i«-cific gravity of 
duidi', by mi-<aoE of a lubel^irminatini^in two 
tubular b-^T, imii of which was imm>>r'«<J in 
distilled WHt«r, the '>lher in the liquid to ho 
teatanl. A )Hirlial exhaustion of tlia single 
tuhi> being mad<^, thi^ water and the liquid 
to belented rose in the re.''pe«tive leg«, and 
the dill'cTL'ncc* in thi- height bflwM^n that of 
the water and of thi> Ii(]uid under trial gave 
the e[)ecihe uravitv of thi* liquid n» tum- 
[larud with tbt* water. ^Vuil al.'<o iiivi-nteil 
au admirable miiroinetiT; iind he perceived 
the value of wealber rurnrdt, and for niiio 
veara lo^pt at tyiilu'i a it)f;«l. complete account, 
otterving every day at eight in theinoniing, 
two in tile iifteritoon. and eigln. in the even- 
ing the height of the l)a^)nlrtr^. the tem- 
perature, the hTRTometer, the direction nf 
the wind, Iho rainfall, and the geaornl con- 
dition of the wealber. 

Ktverlinp to engineering— Watt devise<I 
ulocbtMl-up automat tc counter, to nvonl the 
number of iiln>keH madu thmugbont length- 
ened periodx by his pumping t-ngin'?*. Ila 
propof^ed, and included in hid patent of 17»4 
(StK ii'-i'J), n Meuw oarriage for comitioii 
r>ade, with dilferentisl gear for use on bills. 
Ill- aliMi pniito*.-d till- 11"* of the iw-puw ppo- 
]>tilier, wliica he called the ■ spiral oar, for 
unvig.ition. Me how, in Iruth, not a mere 
t<]xvialu>t devoted to one subject, but was 
of great general Hcientific beaming, and wail 
' a happy itistnnce of a man wiio b>M>d hi«.j 
' invetitiiiuA on teientillc data, and proTiMi| 
them in the model form hy aid of his rare 
manual dextertiy. 

i\ji regards the favourable impreasion bo 
made on ihoBu with whom ho ap«ocial*'d in 
bin later life, and the I'xtettt and versatility 
of hia information, nothing oan more readily 
l«»tify In thiit tlinn the etatemeni by Sir 
I Waller .Scott nf bin mwting with Watt in 
I 1^17, when Watt wa» in Uitt eighty-eer^ond 
year (.Scott erronenu*ly aaya Highty-firihl; 
thi* is to be found in Scott's letter to ' (.'ap- 
tain Clutlerbiick ' in ' The Monasterv ' (]t<01 
edit., p. 4i). 

Wall was made a, fellow of the I'oyal 
Swi'-ly nf KdiiibiiiTith in I7S-1, of Uio Itnyal 
?>nciety of I^ndon in 1785, aud an LL.D. 
Cila«gow in 1&)G, and was everywhe-rt! re- 
cognised by men of science as one of the 
foramoat among them. This was so ooL only 

in tlie United Kln^ou, but on Uie eon- 
tiaivt. As early as 1781 the UiuaiaQ 
AinbuSBdoT wmti' nil behalf of lhr> t'inprr-nft 
a moK- flattering letter, bi!gguig Watt to go 
to liuMiB, and tn \» thv Nuprams director of 
ntinco. motallurgii', and ordtuDua coating in 
tluii couiilO'- Wntt tvfuwd tim offer in a 
k'tt^r admirable (nr it« cU-amfiifl and its 
cDurtwjr. H« corrwpoDdpJ very frwjuently 
with scientitic meti in Franco, and wm 
exlnimcly well recvirud llicrr- Ijy tht-m wlicn 
bi> vtont with Houiton to Paris in I'SW. 
LavoiBier and U«rtbolka wvru ainvn^ liis 
most inlinintf »c<iiiniiilHiiCE". In iNJh liu 
WM mttdv a rorreDpondin^ memlier of the 
luvtitute of Francv, ami in 1H14 un« of tli« 
eight foieiiifti a«mci(« of the AejulOinie du 
Scicmce*. lie declined Gbortly before hix 
dMtb an offer of a barouotcj^ tnado thiough 
Sr Jcmnh Books. 

On 18 Juutt l8-.>4 Intber Ir« thiin Sva 
yuars afk<r WiitT'ii death) a public mMting 
■wna ln;l(l in London to make proTiBion 
for a mnnumcui to Watt'e m>im»rT; tlii^ 
mMltng was ulti-uded by (^ir) Uumplirt' 
Davy, Sir Uobi>rt IW, Lord Hruu^^bam, anil 
tuunv otbcn. In l)ii- nwult, n luonniiti-iiL 
by Chnntr>'y was ersictud in "WoainuDflttT 
Abbey, with* an epitapli by Brdugbam ; whiU' 
in Fnaca, XiAt^o in \t^X* prnnouncAd a 
wtdl-kuuwu and appreciative 61o^' before 
Ui« Acad^tiiii< dv* Scicnci^*. 

A bust of Wit'C by ('hantroy,a niedallioD 
and a cbulk drawiTi}r by IIp&niBe, auil a 
Bt-pia by Ocorp' P«wi> nre in the National 
Purlrait Uallury, I'Miiibur)jh. Two portraits, 
ooo painted by Cbark-n F. du Tlredn in 179S, 
&nd lh« othiir by Hfiiry Howard, ll.A., 
arwin tin? Natioimi Tori rait fiallpry, London. 
8ir William nei^cliuy in 1&01 uiidt^irThomnii 
Lawrencv in IBIIi juaintcd balf-lcngtlia, and 
Sir Ht^nry Ituubuni o Lead in L&15. A ]hi^ 
SlalUf wa« ereotvil in Biriuingham in lHi8, 
and then' aro full-len^h etaluee by Chaniroy 
not only in Wtial minster Abbi<y but at Glai^ 
gow (both in fk'orge Square and at the col- 
lepil, in OrwWiock Libran,, and in lland*- 
wortlir.hurdi.wbpTf iboenTinMrwaehurird. 

The 6on, JjJiiB Wait (17«»-1MH), bom 
on 5 Feb. 1709, early tnmcd hia att^ntioit 
lo science. In l?^Li Lw wiail to Pari* to 
pUTdLio bis atlidiM, anil Cook part in ibii 
ruvuliitionary inovenu^nl. At Iirel he waa 
in bi^b I'ftvour with tb«i IftniltTn, but on 
aluiwiii^ a dintaftti' for their lattr esocflse*, 
he waa dbnouoced beforo the Jacobin Club 
by llobviipierri> and was compoUed to dtf 
inio Italy. K-.>turaiiig to England in 1701, 
lif b(.<cain<! a porlnv^r in llu- 8oho hrni, aod 
nfttvrw&rds ^\o muu tMtjiUuicti to Fulton. 
Xu lt^l7 bvl>ougbt tbeCaledoniaoC KUftoDv, 

fitted her with tww en^iuKt, and 'wvnt in 
her to UuUand and op cm Rhiae to Cobleat. 
She waa the first atBamshi]) to le«T« m Bof- 
lish port. On his return ho nude natanil 
impro^'enwnta in marine en^nea. lie died, 
uniDwned, the larttof Wall's descendants, 
at AeloQ Ilall, W'orwiekiihire, on '2 Jaaa 
1 818 ( Gtnt Moff. 181B, it 207 ; Wau, .«m 
of Ibe Hfiyn), 

[WilUaiDKia'e .Meniona) of the Life and 

, Liacagv. &c« of Janue Watt, I8AS; SmilMli 
LirM of iJottlton and Watt, 1866; HuitbcwIV 
Ongin nnd Vtoxrr^ ot the Sleehanieal Invva- 
tiona of Jam» Watt, lS6t ; Murbcad'R Life of 

I Wan. 1868; K. A. Cowper in the Tra»a»elit.ii» 
of tliD Imtitntiuo nf Mwhiuiieal EMpne o p. 18U, 
ou ttie 'iDTunttooj of Jamsi WMA and haa 
Mudals prva^rrnl at Ka&dsworth and at Soath 
Ki'iisinatun;' ' Wati' in ihn I'niili lijiaplJe 

, ShtauBMa, 6(h ed. 1823, by Jamea WatLjoiv.: 
Mnirhead'B CoReBpumleace of the Ut« Jaut* 
Watt on Ilia XKacorery of tba Tticory of tbo 
Compoeitioa of Waier, 1^16; Rvbiwa'a 3Ce- 

, chMiical I'hJloeophy: li^ltenaod notes l>y Jaaw« 

I Walt on tlio lli»lury of tlio SteaiD Bii|[iiie; 
FnrnyontW^tvaia Kugine, IdST: LnwItepoiW: 

' pjiats m«rvcd in BoiUtoo aad Walt r. Boll, ud 
in ItiiiiitoiiiiTiil Wnii I', Uornblownr and Mabw- 
ley ; Spec ilir;it ion of Wn«b rough's patent, ITTIj 
S|H«ilIaii ion of Pickard'a pateot, 1780; KUi- 
buriih Bamv. vol. Iixivii., Jeffn-yn on WoU 

I Hiiil tliB (^injKMiiLidii of Wnlor; I'hil. Tnn*. 

I Ufl3fuidI78'(,n>l.Uxiv,; Lonlnrron th«| 

I Vjt^'ine. \Sia lud IBfil ; Ar.iK.>» I- 
ImmI by MiiirhoMd, 1830 ; Xorih Britiijta' 1 

I 1847, vol. »i. : foeweieron Wau'a Ihs-ovotyi 
tha Conpositioii of Water; Tramairlunia of 1' 
InilitHlion of Ciril Knttinaer^. Walker's (Pr 
di-ntj Addrcas. 1843: BrouKbam's Lirr:tof I 
nont Utn of Lottrrs and bcicnot, 1 H4n ; '' 
burgh Kviioir, xiii. 3'jO; Re««*4 Cydc 
abunt 1814, '&ii!am£agin^.'byFarryon "(V 
InfonaatioBi Stoart's DracripliTe Utitory uf tki 
St(«inBoi^iie,I83I.] F. B-l. 

WATT, JAMK8 IlENRY (1791* 1807), 

line engraTpr, wiw bom in I^oiid^ju in 17W* 
atid, atcht^ n^ofeif:bte«n, bef&ntr' a nuptl of 
Charlw ileatti (!7d5-lt*48t ^q. v.] He e«- 
pTATcd manv beautiful vignt!tt<M for thi> 
' Amiiii-t,' * Lili'rary Souvtmir,' and ttimilar 

frnduciionsi fnini dt*igiK by Ilijbf rt Smirkv, 
tichurd Westnll. ami otberfi; also Mvsnl 
platf-H for tho i.iili<;inl publication ' Aiwiwil 
MBrhlen in t.ho llritiAh !MnB<-um,' Of Ufr 
larger works, whicli arc all executed in put* 
ltn<! on t'np|i^r, wirh much taa1<.- and pown^ 
the most imponaut ore: 'Thi- Flitch of 
HocoM,' ufler .Stothard, IHSL* ; ' Slay Uay in 
the Tiu)*' of (Juven Kliabuth,' after Lwlie* 
l83tt; ' llighlaud llniver»* IVnarture,' anJ 
' Courtyani in the Olden Time," after 
K. Landceer; and 'Uluiat Bksuiig 



in Loudon on 18 May LtW7. 
^ [An Joatnal. 1 W" ; Bnl|[raT«'« Diet, of Ar- 
LtfijU: OoDt,H«s. 186;, ii. Lli;.] li^- M. U'D. 

PwATT. KOBKRT (177I-181»>. bibUo- 
gnpb«r. ton of John Watt (i^. 1810^, w 
umt &c BoQDyton fiirm in cbc poneh of 
Stew«rt4>u, Aynhiie, od I Maj U7I. At 
an early age b« inu »ent to school, but itImii 
about tbmvan worluxl u & pIou{[liboy to a 
noKbliouring fKrtner. A lore of odventura 
gn\o him ttiu dctite to b* a chkpmua. Wjtli 
etune olliwns ho iiiwi« a Inp into (iailoway to 
work f-ti stone-dfkin; and mad-tniLlfini;. At 
Uumfnes they boHtJvil on thv f»rm ol' Kllih- 
laod, ID tlw poueMion nf Rok'iTt Uiirns.and 
UtmI for&om? days in ibe old house which 
lu* atid his familr UnA n-et^ntly occupied. 
■ Purine the Bunuuer I sp^nt to. DumtriM- 
aiurv I liad fFcquGiit opport uuiti(« of Mdina 
Bums. l>ul cinitut n.-cu]IocL uf having rormed 
any oiiini'>n of him, except a conrus^d idea 
that lif WW an t-xtrnonlinan* cluinictt*r' 
(Autohivifiaphiratl Fragineutin Jii'yttifiAKa/ 
Diet, jf EmineM ^cf.ttmm, 18fi4l, p. 433). 
Even while curling »tLiDwi he found ouprT- 
ruoirir.ifnrrf^&dintc. llU^hlt^r brother, John, 
who hud been ucubiutii-mali'T iu Olas^w, 
retum»d homt.- and pentiAdcd ^^llU to joi» 
bin ID bunnew a» carpculer and joiner, llis 
Watt in iJcloher of NoTcmbtT 1702, tiaving 
bam liropored by on hour's tuition •mchinom- 
JIJl in tiretfk and lAtin by Iluni'nn Macfar- 
une. Khoolaiastvr in StcwurloEi, vntwrvdtht- 
rla»*rw fi>r thnau Langiia^cea at (>lA.<i((on- I'lii. 
Ter»ity in 1703. and for thv Un»^^li and lugic 
flifntf tht following year. We giiStinl n 
pritK bciBtowHd br Profisor John YounR id. 
1820) ;q.v.]for6r«fU, .-.ndinna-innd ITHd 
atfanded the rnoral and iiiittiml phiU)i>')pliy 
cllBWH nf Edinburgh. I)i)rin}{ {\iv suiniuer 
rrnnan \\t mpporT»] hiniitolf by tt-avhini^, 
sod in l~)>ti had a»cliool in Kiloiaun jnritib, 
whfTA he hi-<Mme nonuiLinttd with tho Ilcr. 
John UuMvI ^q. V.J of Kilmarnock — UumsV 
•KumhleJobn.' In l7(Kand l7U7beatud)«l 
aoatcmy and divinity at EdinlturK^h, and 
o)>taint-a a pritn of 1(U. for iin hixiiv on 
* Rc^genBruioD/ highly praiac-d by I'Tnlt.«Aor 
HlUtt«r. lb acted a» pnroclual ncliijcdmitstvr 
in SyniiTifnon, nf>ar Kilmarnork, in KlC and 
irtw, but resolvr^d to give up the study of 
divinity for that of nn-dicin*-, which he fol- 
lowed ut Uhugow in 17&8 and I'DLK Ue 
wa< uul, howovt^r, appreattoed to a suvgeon, 
allbnuirh IVtcr MacKenxwi atktog that in 171*3 
Walt ' tfot into the apothecary shop of old 
Mines frardner' in Glasgow {Bemmucencea, 
wL iii.) 


llavin)^ »»cured tbi^ license of thC' filaAgow 
1799, Wjktl ciiinni«'ii«'d ■!> a (^rtiwml nraiTli- 
I toner at Paiitlev, contributed to the 'Medical 
and Htysicnl .foumal' (l^ndon, March and 
Anfpist 1800, and May 1801), and jmihliiihed 
hi* tlntt book, ' Cases of l>iab«t«8, CoiifiuEDp- 
tion, &c., witli Oh«(«rvation& on the IIi«tory 
and'lV.-at tuunt of Uiseosv in eeuonl ' (PaisW, 
1 80S, ^va), n worb long held in otteen. ifia 
pnctico and rvputattou incruaaed, and bfi 
lMcani» a ' memlier' of the OInjigow far.ultT 
on '> Jan. 1 807. Two TPars hit«r ha joumi-ywl 
sooth lo we if hv Cfuild find « suitablr- "Imti- 
ing in England. He reociTed the degree of 
.M.L>, from King's CoU«ge> Aberdeen, on 
"M March 1810, took n inrgo hou«> in QiiMn 
Sirvei, (tlasgow, practised as a physician, 
and dclLTercd courfe* of lecturas on ni«-di- 
ebic. Ili» itystem i.f teaching wsa ' to haro 
raouursH to original authors, and he ust«- 
hliisLod a wi-ll><:l>ouiu libraty, d«cribed in B 
'(^tluh>guH of Mnlicnl liwiliii for the u»e cS 
Studnnla atlendini,' I.L-clnros on tht! Prin- 
ciplp« and i'rnclxcr nf Mndifiiw; with an 
AddrpM to Mpdiral Studpnia on the host 
Method of prosecuting their Studies' (Glas- 
gow. 1811', 8vo), now MtTcmely mrt', atid 
nj-ji'iallv iutbrosting as the starting point 
of the ^^nlOus ' Itibliothvca Britannica,' tlie 
plan for which had been dovclopiiig from 
thelimehcmatriculated in MM'A. 'Die 'Cata- 
logue' includita ov<^r o thousand mlries: 
ancienl end oiMdvrn litvniiun.- are wtll ru- 
pre.icnled. lIi- also Imd a ccllpciion of a 
thousand there's u\ailahli> for refL-rencc, and 
' mniiiinrripl ealalo^iivs, iirrtin^i'd uljihatM-l i- 
cally ucmrding to thti aiuhorB* namos and 
the siibiiiclH treAtml, miiy !••■ f^^^n in the 
library, and will bo printed aji iuion oa the 
collection i* completev.!.' Ho in.ide wmie pro- 
grcM in ihf formation of n pathological 
In 1B13 ho publishc^d 'A Treatin on the 
j Ili^ton', Nalnre, and IWatuoeui of Chin- 
I cougb, iocludinff a Variety of Casf.« and Itia- 
I M.>ctious; U> which itt subjoinod an Inijuiry 
I into thfc nilative Mortality of the iirincjpa! 
I IHiieefieH of Children aud ibo numuers who 
have diLsl nndtrr U'n yeAr* of agv in Q]as|;oiv 
during tlifi !a5t thirlv yearn,' Glasgow, ftvo. 
The 'Inquiry' was tlw fruil of a Inborioua 
invtMiKftlionof [lit- r^giMurs of tlieGlaapOW 
Ixirial-places, and sMggested that the dimi- 
nution in deaths by smallpox due lo vaccio^- 
lioii waa compeit8ate<1 by Ihv incn.'>a9e in 
deaths by itiesjiIeA (cf. ltjLRo:(, L\fe v^Jettnrr^ 
it. dU2: Edinburgh MeHeai and Sumiait 
Javmal, .\pril I>^1J, p. 177; Sir (lilb«wt 
Blane ill MrdimS nnd Vhirurifi^it Tmns. of 
Looduo, 1813, ir. W6; Dr. Farr in lityutrar- 




f;nw/«r* Rrpmt, IftrtT pp. Sl.t-U, lft72p. 
324. arid lii» Vital .SMittic*, IS<?*5. pp. 321-2^ 
WkIt's tables wero riprodnwd Ijt Jolin 
TlmtnMn, Glasgow, IHSH (=we W. Wuitb, 
iS'(i>ry i;/"« (iitat DtluAuin. 1885, pp. 439 62 ; 
J. WiiVaII., Vareinati'jn Vindkiite't, 1667, 

J. tOI; Orkiohton', IlUtoiy (ff Jipidemies, 
S91, ii. 662-fiO}. 

Watt piiMisli'i] finnnymouAly it I'Miii- 
burfchinlHI'l (i small .tptnvo volume entitled 
' Kuloaof Liff, with lt»«fli'Oli"ii«on tliw Man- 
ners and r>i(ip(i.«iti"iirt nf Maiikind,* rintain- 
inp II tliaueaiid and onu ftpborisms. At this 
period be wm leadinj; n vi-ry ftciiv<> fimff-s- 
eionnl lif(^ IIo wua a lUHmber of the Medical 
(irni ('binirifical Society of I^ndon, Mid con- 
tributed pnjtfTK to tUiLt body: be tvas t 
fnundtT Bnil iitTt pre«idi-nt of the Qloigow 
Mi-.<ii<^nl ^?n^i<>(y; nnd in 181-1 wtu Klvctud 
president of lli« t'ticully 'jf I'livijicifliis and 
yiirReoii*. und phy^icimi to ibe iloyal Infil^ 
mnry of GUsgow. From ISlfl to 1S17 Lu 
wa.«* presidio tU of tbo Gluiynw I'ltiloMipiiicnl 
Society. Ttiit the cantinuaiiH labmir of pn>- 
pnriiiu the- JiiWiolhtrca'iinpaln-d bmbfjiltb, 
and \\c witbdrow frtini prnrtim aboiil tlie 
U';;iiinin^ of 1SI7. IK- retired to Cmnpritl^, 
R subur>i of Gliidg-nw, wtu-ri' be rftmninod 
until bis di-ntli. lii Itn? compilntion of the 
' Kibliiilhecti,' wliiuli he directwl frnni il sick 
bfil, be was &^i)<t<-d by bi* tern* .Jobn ond 
Jamed, Willium !\lot.!ierweIl [().v.j, nnd Alex- 
niidiT Wliiti-lftw. A sL'ft vovage to Loudon 
undo tour in l^ngland fuibKl to n-rtlyre bU 
vifi^our. ' Propo^ilr' ' for llie publicatioti of 
tli« work by subscription xvew circii!nl«i; 
the firit part wa.-i fidvorti*fd nn 1 IVc l!^l8 
as rt'ady to bv i*-vied in Febnifiry 1819, 
but Woit ' died when only u few of ite ^htwla 
were primt'd oil" (iV»:A(nf, p.v>, on 12 March 
1»I9 (Ohior/ow lln-nld. Ul' March If^lB). 

He married Muriun 13iinu> {il. l^Ott), who 
bore him nine rbibln-n, of whom .lobti, the 
eldc*t.(Ii«l in 1*^21, and James in 1^29, both, 
likt' ibt'ir father, victim* to tbrir devotion 
to bibli(>f.'nipby. .\ daughter israidto havo 
diod in (bf workhouse si Glunow in 18ft4 
i^Ij.ndon Jitadft, '2>^ May 186-0. 

Two portruil* of Watt ore preserved in 
tlw hall of the I-'acully of I'liysicians ftnd 
Sitr^reona at Gltu>|^w, one as a young man ; 
theotb'T, in mutuo' a^^e,ia aaid 10 bepointed 
by Ita'-hiirn. A third portrait, of a uiilu 1>e- 
tweeu the two, wan e»hihiled at the Old 
Gbidpi^w I'^xbibitinn in 18i>4. ^^'tttt was a 
tall and handsome man, nnd very robii«C, in 
«iLriy life. 

A month after Walt's duath Dr. Tboma* 
Chalmen [l- ^0 "'"' somu olhi^ra ii»iied a 
circular to iumuk the aubecribers that the 
manuacrijjt of Ibe 'Uibliolht-ca' had twcn 

loft by thft author in an adranc^ stale of 
reodiiieas, and that his son vrould mu it 
through ibe pres*. The work was fiuallr 
compieti'd in 1>'24, under the title of ' Ilili- 
liotbe<:ii llriiaTinica; or a general Indim lo 
RritiHh and Foreign Literature, by Itoboit 
Walt, M.l). In two pan«, Authors aad 
Siibjecta' (Edinburgh, -I vols. 4to). It camu 
out in juirt4, of which No«. 1 to 4 bad thv 
imprinr of Olftf^ow, lrt|9-S0, and fi to II 
that of Edinburgh, 1821 4. The publication 
broTtifht nothing but evil fortune tothe W»u 
famUy. The author nnd hi« two soof wen 
killed hy it, anil the t'oiuitable-s failed btrfon 
tJiL-y paid to Mrs. Wiitt a sum of 2.00W. 
wliieb hail U-eji agnwd upon for the compiU- 
tion. "VVatt was 'a praetii loner of great 
fisgacitv and 11 pbiloKopbicnl pmrvubinr of 
medicine' (Parr in ltrg.-Ge». Report, t"*?, 

f). 314), but it is B<i a bibliographer that his 
amti will liri*. Ilia induslrj' and i>rnar> 
verAnc<< under dilltcultiex were re.mnrfiaUe, 
The plan of a rntslogue of authors, follow^ 
by An index of sutgeeta, grew from tb« ar- 
rangement of bia own tnedical coUeciioo; 
he enlarged thi< to include all medical works 
piihliKbud in Knjilnnd. then lo law and •iHk! 
subjects, and tiually to foreign and clasftical 
lileratun'. An idee from )>uriodicali> and iJi« 
jiri^d unions of faiiimw printing pri'ssi^ wit» 
alio included. In spile of many iiujwrfec- 
lioiw and Ihi.i increase of intxiern r.- ; 
ments. rhe book ii* srill ono of the li • 
tools of the librarian nnd bibliogtujrj.-r 
After iho dcatli of Watt's lost aurvivia^ 
daughter in ISOl the original manni^nw 
wasdiscnvered. consisting of two large «acki 
fuU uf slips. It is now preserved in the fnw 
library at Pai.ttev, arranged in aixfy-nbie 

[TLe ehipf M)ur<.-eK of infomiatiun are ]>r, 
Jtmiut Ktnlnyson*!! .^cmnnt nf th« Life aad 
Wurk» of Dr. Rnbert. Watt. 1897. Svo {wiiba 
pDFtrsit and blbliuKTHptiy): I>r. Finlaysw'i 
Uedii-4l UiMingrapliy and Mt-dical KducaiUiu: 
Di-. KoLorl Wnii'ii Library for his MnlicjJ Sin- 
dcDtv in 1813 CEdiab. Meriieal Jonrnal, OctoW 
1898;. .SoeKlfeo (.Tbambsra'a Biogr. Dktiou^ 
of J'^iniiK'Ul So-tftmeTi, Qbueoir, l8AA-ft, 4 nh. 
4lo(wub}<atol.<iognipiii«ul fragment not in IST4 
edition, wliiMi, huwavor, conlains aoin* fii 
itifurninlion). Jtlacfarlnnr-'s IWixli of Str«afi 
(N'air Klnliiticnl Acc-ijiinl of I'^ttnoil, Edi 
1844, T. "30-1): DunentiV Memorials of 
Kiicwlty nf I'hymcinris and .Sor^wmaof fll 
189e;'AllibHinu'i Diet, of Kagliab Lit.; 
keoiie's Old Rcinlni>c«DrGi of QUagow, tit. I 
610; MaMci'fl Bibliographical M(>rt>-r (The 
bmry. lB89,i.M-63); Proc-of thi-rhiloiophitd 
Soe. of Olaagow, 1S40. iv. 101-17; Memoriol 
Cat of tha Old Gku^v ExUb. 18&t. GUagov. 
1S96.) U.R.T. 

(1797-lfWI>. poel, born in Loudon on 
IC Marcli J "Iff, wtw the youngtet wn of 
John Alrtalev W Kits, the rKUTeoeDlalivi! of a 
reiipoctablo Lijiceslenlure maily , bv .Sarah, 
(lau^hti^ri.irS«n)iHi| RiJton nf Fair \iiIi<,nMir 
Ili'nlpy-on-Thampe. His grand fiitlK^, Dr. 
\^ illiam Watl4, a nhjsiciaa, n-|iu married 
MA13-, d«ugkler of Ui^nrgi- Wlialluy (of th[> 
regicide hmilr)t was one of tli« foutnlcni of 
tbo Leicester Infimutrv (ein; Nicuou, Jlint. 
fif Lacetter»Mre). Tin.- iui>H:oii«luci of liiit 
fatlier occaJiioned a »H[)aratioQ between his 
parauu, whoso aflkirs wi're furtiieT com- 

?licaled by an inlnrmiiinblM cliiiniri>r3' HUtt. 
'oun^Wattawad broiijr'it up by hi* mother, 
wrho placed him in ipilW ut Wyt- Cwlli-ge 
graumar bo1u>oI, K'-nt^ nnd two Vi'iira liit>:r 
«t I'ower'fl 'Academy' at Astiford. On 
leaving school in 181'J Lt- hocaiii<; ;^iicri>9- 
Eively u&her iuascbooL at riilhatu; a private 
tutor in the family of Mr. Kuspini, dpntial 
to theprincir rogcnt ; and temporary durk in 
tba oBice of I be cinitrolltrraf army account*. 
Loaviog' rhi^ cmploTtnent in conecqufnce of 
Um r«du(;lion uf thv nrmy, bv SlW »aui« 
ttrtorahipfi in the north of England, and 
evrntuafly, ntwut 1618, wturned to Loadon 
as sub-editnr of the *N*vf Monthly Maf^- 
siae.' In llsli) be supeTiiit<^ndedthe produc- 
tion of Char 1(4 Ilobtrt Mat iirin's imsneccaifiil 
trsffedy of Fivdu[phij/ai)d in the mme year 
■ude the ac(|uaimanco of .leri'Oktab Iloltnea 
and Btnjantin Barron ^Viffl■^ q. v.], whose 
•ieier, I'rixilla AEndt-n, iiDtiulIy known as 
'ZillaJi,' he married at Wobnrn on IB Sept. 
1821. Jluwu^ai tbiH limc! u coQtribitlur to 
the 'Literary (Inn-ltt',' where it wcrii-ji of 
pipon on ilie ' llumiwlugp of Byron ' bad 
■ttnulcdconxidvruhtfitll^nlinR, imd had bf 
oone intimate with many literary and «r- 
tiatic celabrities, but bad no cerluin means 
orineone until, in 182*J. Mr. J.O. Itobiniion, 
of the Brm of Hunt & Hobiiifon, for whom 
b« bftd perfonned some literary work, offoppd 
him tlw editortliip of the ' i>>i.-dj liiiL'Ui- 
gencer.* He nomewliat prejudici-d tht-popor 
at first by an advocacy of the fencing of 
machinery in fn<!torir->i which it«liiiii»bed aiid 
exaaperated the employf^ra: hut in the opi- 
nion of hia fritrad Croty ' hit) estmciH and 
tit«mTT noticPA plncf^ his work nbnvp the 
level of any country newepajwr,' and he con- 
ducted i( MtccctAfiilly until, in ]&J''i. hu left 
Leeds for Manchesier to fdii the ' Couritir.' 
]lia connection with .Meft^re, Hunt I'v: Itobin- 
aon, hnwevt^r.woH not di^^oUcd, bul Ix^ounc 
iDor« intimate IhrouKh the enlablishment 
onder bill t-ditor^hip m 1624 of the ' Liti*- 
rary riouvenir,' partly an imitation of thtu 
(lemuui periodicals of the class, hiit sub- 

stnntiullv the parent of the nuinerutu tribe 
of annuals and pocket-bonkx wbicb abAorbml 
80 miu-Li uf English art and litemture for 
the next tifteen yi-Arx. ^^'lltl» nparad no 

K'ns tu secure first-rate contributor!* in 
h di-partmi^ntx, and liisedilorshiji brought 
bim into friendly relatii>ns with. Seori, Word 8- 
wortli.L'uleridge,l'raed, Sidney Walker, Mr#. 
HemaiLi, and many other leading writers. 
Such work waa more congenial to hint than 
iho editorship of the 'Courier," and he re-i 
Aigiiedibal post in LSl'ti: hw now beaimi 
proprietor of the 'Literary Souvenir,' lb«' 
original publishers having sunk in the com- 
mercial tem|je!.i tif thtj tiimi. lie had ob-i 
lainud retiuintion as a pnel by a pleoAini 
xoluiuH, 'l''tclicalSketchi'»,'privnie!yurinieo 
in lHi'-> (London, i^vn) and piiblishrd in l>i2S 
(4ih edit. 1>*-J»)i and in 1U2H he collected 
some of the bw>f- fugitive pociry of the day 
in the 'I'oetical Album.' A Mcond M-riva 
followed in 1**:;^, and wna sueceeded by two 
v>iuiiLar coHeetioni', "'ITio Lyre' and 'The 
Laurel,' lonether reprinted in IWZas'Tb 
Xjaurul and the Lyre.' In 18^7 he took [ 
in eHlabVuthing the 'StandiLni' newspaper 
[see GiFFAKO, Staxlkv Lbcm], and in 183S 
h» founded tb« ' (.'nited .Service Gotette,* 
which he conducted for some years. The 
'Literary Souvenir,' long exceedingly euo-' 
cessful, wa.« by thi» rime declining, and ex^ 

!iired in IKJfi, after baring being carried on' 
ijr three years as the ' Cabinet of Hrilish 
An.' Wiiua (Litnbuttid this to the attaicka 
of William Mftginn [»). v.] in • Fhwit's Miga- 
linLVwhcrenlihoUoiiBbiit irreaialibly comical 
caricuiuio portrait by Maulisu had appeared, 
representing WuttA carrying off pietureg with 
a decidedly furtive uxpreaeiou. An aiCtion 
fur liUd reiiulted, in wlilch Walts obtained 
1 r»0^. daniagea. The decline of the ■ Souvenir' 
led liini to become what Mucinn contem^K 
Inoiiflly called ' bead nurse of a hospital of 
rickety newapsperlings,' a deacription the 
trutli of which in ndmitti^d by his son. 
The*e specula! ions, cIiieHy minor provincial 
papers eslablishnd in the conaert atire in- 
terest, involved him iu Utigalion with hia 
partner in the ' L'nited Service Oaaelte;' ho 
relirt'd frum all eonneclion with the press in 
1^7, and in IKVl became a bankrupt. Jn 
the .'iarao year, neveriheleas. appeared a col- 
lective edition of poems, which long retained 
ffipulnrily, entitled ' Lvrics of the HcBrt,*! 
ri 165S he accepted an utferiorappDintntcnt. 
in Iho inland iwenile office, where his aon 
bad obtained a high position; a civil list 

fiension of IIK)/. a year was conferred upon 
>im by l^>rd .\benleeii in January }^M. 
Hii> later duy* wt-rM thu» rcnderrd c<iniforl- 
uble. In It^jtibeimliatedaverynseful c1a.<ui 


of publication by editing tlio first iwiio at 
' Mon of tb« Time,' remarkable for ta nn- 
pareJIelod misprint ftt blor at tbc oxpetue of 
tliti bishop of Oxford, &u(l the porl«ntou<i 
leiigib of th^ artick' on the editor, wbo knit 
Mwunltfl bi[u»t:li tlirve Xnavt iii< much i>|>ikv 
u he has bpslowed on Tennyson. 

BufiitluE hia was the author of 
Hiv«ral pra»c vnr)i«, nf vrliich, as b« *nT«, 

* he did not think it won h while tn rlaiin 
the pitt«mity.' Ilia moat notpworthy Cdin- 
pilalion LH the momnir and let t I'rpn'cx no- 
compnnTing tb» beRtitiful i«<iue of Turner'* 

* I^bcr Flitviornro ' in I-'^fiR, He diM on 
Ti April 1801 at iJlenbeiiii Orescent, Nottiog 
Jlill, whither he had moved from St. John's 
Woiid in 16W. Ui:i widow .tiirvivud until 
IK I>im:. IST-'J, and was buried beside her 
hnBbaiid in Hifrhiifiilc ci'mot^ry. Their son 
Altirii- Aifivd {born iH Fttb. \t^'2ti) marrii-d 
in I hW Annn Mnria, elder daUKrhter of Wil- 
liam lotd Mnry llnwilt. Kti-hinffi of Walt* 
nnd his wifr: are pTfiHxe^^ In the two volumes 
of the ' Life' by Alaric Alfred Watts. 

[Ahiriir WatlH: a Nuruiiro of hit Life, by hii 
Bon. Alnric Alfred Wiiits. 18M: Mb^inn and 
ilnUii in iha Mudiou Portmii Uallery.] R. R. 

WATTS, GILBEItT (A lflf>7), divine, 
a youupjr ton of Richiird Watts, fey his wife 
laabnl, daughter nf Arthur Atrock of St. 
Martin'sVintrv, London, widow nfhiitpounin, 
Tlioma. Heott (./. ir,Rr>) of Bamw Hall, 
Krc!e?tic!d, Yorkshirv?, wan (frandann of .Jfihn 
Watl.ri41l7:-'-ll401l of Miickleton. Shrojj- 
ghire, by biit wifi> Ann, diinghter of Uichnrd 
,Scott of liarnea Hall. \\'aTt8 na* thito of 
kin tn Thorno-i lioiherham [q.v.l, archbiabop 
of York and second founder of Lincoln Col- 
leg^e, whose arms he i]iiflrter<?d with bU own. 
11 1« elder brolhoi-, llichttrd, M.A., fellow of 
Trinity Colle(fe,L'ambndg;e, vicar iifObnitair- 
Con, Combrid^aliire, and chuplaiu lo Tfaomaa 
Weiitworth, ejirl of Stniifoni [q. v.l, bpcame 
the owner of Barnea Halt after tlip dealli, 
on 17 July 16^8, in Ireland, of his elder 
half-brother. Sir Rirhard Scott, comirtrollcr 
of the household to the »nnie earl, 

Gilbert, wn.8 bom at Rothcrham, York- 
aliire. lie studied for a few terms ai Cum- 
brid^\ and on Ms admissioit as batler or ser- 
vitor at Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1 1507, he 
waa permittM to reckon them towiirdit quali- 
Wng for a dcffrec (Ojford I'nii. Key. ii. i. 
S71). He graduated B. A.. m 2S Jan. UHO- 
1011, M.A. on 7 July 16H. was elpcted a 
fellow in 1621. and bi-canie B.D, on lOJuly 
1623. On 1 XoT. IfUiJ Wati,^ was or^iit«d 
D.I), daring the liing'a vi^it to Ojfonl,having 
boon presented on 11 Jiilv pn-vinns to the 
»6Ctoi7of\\lUingaleDoe,liaaex, Hiarectory 


WIS ee()ue«tmted by thn Wostminstcr a>> 
snnbly in Auguat ltU7: but allhouffh the 
elerfc of the oomrailtt« for plunderea naiui- 
sters was ordered lo show cauve far the 
act, th« f^und of cotnplaini ngainat \\'\ 
does not ap|iear. 

lie returned to Oxford, diod at Kynt 
on Jt Sept. Ift67, and wa« buried in 
choneel of All Saints, By his will, dated 
5 tfept. (pruved G Not.) 1C&7, Watts led lo 
Lincoln ColK-ge ' aox many bookes as cost me 
threescore jiounda,' to be chuseo t.nd valut-d 
by ThomaK Itarlnw [q. v. |, then librarian of 
the BndUian. Waits was a itood pnadiet 
and an excellent Ungiiifit. Wood any 
hod 'so smooth a pen in I^tin or Enrlii 
tlmt no nan of his time exceeded him. 

Watts translated Bacon's * Pe Auf^eo 
Scientiarum,' and hia nndering called 
the Advancement and IVofieience of 1*1 
ing, of the Partitions of i^icnoes,' Oxfoidi 
ItUO, fol., was highly pr«isen! on itK appear- 
ance. HUiran-ilationof D'Avila'e' IlLstory 
of the Civil \^ars of Franc*' w«« revi-rpuli' 
lislicd : and he left otherwotks in mantiscripl, 
including 'A Catalogue of all the wnrits of 
Charles 1,' which is prvserred among the 
maiiiucripls at Corpua Cbristi College, 

[Wood's AthouK Oxon. cd. Blita. tii. At, 
WoodVOoUegwand Hall*. <.d. Ontdi. p. Sift 
Foster's Athene. 15UI1-1 714, IT. l68-i;BorPft' 
Visitfttioii, p. fi08 : Ni'ireonrt'i Itspert. Eodi 
ii.688; Addit. MS. 15671, ff. 17^. I7< ; W 
I'.C.C. 472 Kuthen; Hunter's Ha!lam»hir«. 

6443; J. K. 8rotl'> >'u.mily of tJocrtt nS ScoU 
all, p. 167.] C. F. a 

WATTS, UKNRY(IS15-18ftl>,rliemi 
w&» bom in London on L'O Jan. ISIC. 
went to a privnli- school, and waa articled 
but, tiudioK himself unfuiti-d for tliisi 
fe««oi), supported himself by teaching, 
mathematical, prirately and at a *d 
He then went to University College, Ixindon. 
In 1^1 he graduated RA*. in the universit 
of London. In 1840 he became aMiatont 
Ot'opgo Fowucs [q. v.}. then ^ofewor 
practical ebemislry at University CoUf 
and occupied this post, after Fownea's At 
in 1B49, until 18S7, under I'rofeiwir Ali 
ander William Williamson. Owing \o 
inciinible impiidiment in «pM-vh he foui 
bim<)rlf unable to obtain a nmfeMonluj 
and, on this account, was ultimately iiK 
duced to devote himaelf entirely to the 
literature of chemistry. In 18^7 he wa* 
'dieted fellow of the Chemical Society. In 
1H'18 ho was engaged by the Cavendish 
Society to translate into English and «&■ 
largo Leopold Umelin's clusical ' Himdln) ' 

lie,' m work witicli occopted mucli 
IB time till 187a, when Urn la»t of 
tt «i^liteitn voltimM ftppwred. On 17 Due 
iM'-* lie was t-lectetl eailor of t!ie C'tiemicol 
irittlv'* ' Journal,' notl about tho bt'ffiiinliif; 
]{4'iO lie ali>o bwntuv libruriin lo tliv »>• 
ciety. Kftrly in 1871 it was ilw;i<l(^d to print 
ID tbu ivcitflvV journal abstracU at' all 
pkpen on c)iewi.-«l rv njipi-aria^ in full rW- 
wbere. Jn February 1>*7I a r, innnittw was 
{xiind'O L<j ii)im-riiitvml till' piib)i<:ntioii of 
i« journal aua tlutse ttummim^H, Imt th« 
licmo ' very sewn pKiTpd to be unworkable, 
il the rv?\-i«ioo of tin; abelniclK was Ipft 
tirely in tlie handii of ... , Walt^, with 
,. iDo«t satisfactory results.' Th<- abstract!) 
In [ be ' Journal * may hv rt'^nltd a« inodvlfl, 
and tbu succea.<t of thin ncbetni! munt b« at- 
iribiilt'd to WuttB. In li*o8 Kl" was '•ngajjed 
liy Mi'-»«w. LonKmni))! .^ (.V. to pn;|iart" a 
nswi-ditios of the 'Dictionary of (^lifimistn- 
and ^JineraloKy' of Andrew Vn> [a. t.j; 
but, finding tliia book too miicb oul oi datf , 
he tranafortD«d it, wiili the ht-Ip of a nume- 
rooa and distiniroi^licd MaB', into a rcul 
QDcycloptedia of clu-mtcal Koit;ins«. Tbo firet 
Milion of Watta's ' Dictiouarv of Cbi-niiMtry,' 
in tlv« TolumcD, was L-umplLt ud in 1*^68; 
8upp!rmenU were publii<bcd in 1^47:^, lf*7't, 
and 18"0-S1. A nnw edition, n-viited And en- 
tirely rwiRTitten by l'rofc««or M. M, I'littisoii 
Muir and Dr. 11. For«t«r Mnrb-v, wa» [kiIj- 
liahwl 18^8-04. 4 voU. Svo. Tlw diriinnary 
cuntainii Axcnll^nt tiiimmari«»« nf tbc fncla 
and ibcoriesnfRbemlntry, pn>.<4enlfd in an nn- 
■ ■■Mallyrcadableandnttnu-tiTeforin. In IWiO 
■\Vatts wa« fliARted K.R.S,. and in 1^70 ha 
'B» (•lected fellocr of thi; I'hvnicfti Sycii-tv. 
WalU died on :tO June tw4. II« tia.l 
larried in l-^&l Sop)iiL*,diitit;btvrorM. lltmri i 
nnnliart. of Mulhauacn in .Vlsaci^, by whom 
bad *r\ji\M mat and two dou^blcTi^. 
lWide^ tbft work^ in<-iili(>n(.-d nbovi?, ! 
sttf edited tbe tt>Dlb. ^Ifvt'nth, twdftb, ! 
and tbirtii-nlliodilionH of Fownt's's ' Manual 
DfCliemiatry.' Hewajtan honorary turmb^r 
of tb.i Pharmaceutical Society and lifu- ' 
governor of University Colleffe, London. i 
[ObitwiriosiaNatnrt'. 18HI. xix.217, Chftm. | 
8or, Jonni. 1886. slrii. 343. indudtnt; a brinf 
Haioliiogr«phy ; Jobilise of the ClK-'mioal Socioiy, 

I89t.i>p. 210. ava passifli.] r. j. ii. 

■WATTS, HlTQtr (lofi2S16«>, bcll- 
fouutlcr, tht^ aeconi turn of Krancis Watts, 
be)l*fi>unditrof LeicnHier((i. l6lN>},aiid aom^- 
tioU) partner with th» Nowcomkn, wa« bom 
aliotiT lhi^2. niapTandditliPr mny httvi- been 
tliu IN-or Wnt who in Uttiti cast a \tvl\ for 
South I.ulf<?nhain, Rutland. 

In ltW;>. the year of litfi faibL-r's di-alh, 
I'otU cutL for Erin;rton in Lfiicettt-rsbirv 

a hell bMrinft his own name and the ohiold 
with the device oftbroe bell« used by Fran* 
ci* Watt.t. Tht* «mi' dcvio- wad borne by 
Northaniptonshin? and Bed ford »liirv belli 
made bv a William Watts, and in 14,'iOby 
iiiclianl Bm>»er of Norwich, to wboui the 
ori/final bell-fonnder Watta may hare b«vn 

In Hi\ I Wal.ta woa admiltt^d to tb« chap- 
umn's or murrbont^fruUtl: in ltt:!0-l hewoji 
•'bvtrd cbanib'Tluin of the b<)niuf(h, nod in 
H^13-l mayor of Leicester (' Poyr'd to Mr. 
iliijth Watts mnior for bis yearly allowance 
aoeordinf^ to the ancient order, 3/. 6*. Hd.') 
A slalely reception of Charity I and hii« 
cjuecn on their jtrogreaA in Auf^si 16^ 
utarked the year of Watti's mayoralty. 

There remain in the nounty of I,i*ire*ter 
maiiy eiamplos of Watis'a fitmouB work, 
incliiiling M-teral couiplrfi* riuE*, admirvd 
for I. be Imauly of their tone. The jwiil of 
ten bciln for Si. MurjiarKt'd, I,<>i(^'9tor, wub 
.■wiidnibmhelineJit inEncland. 1 1 i.<« favourite 
inttcriplion : * J. H.S. : Nnxan)us:rex:ludBO- 
ruin: Fili: Keir raisfrere: tn#i:' caused 
his bells to be called Watts'a Naftarenei. 
He workiM) the bel Ufoundr>' of Leieeater 
until hi» death, at the ng« nf Blxiy, in 
Kebmarv or March lt)42-S. and was buri^ 
in Ht. ^fary'i* Church, Ltiicvatcr. 

Kborlly afi«r ihi> tieath of Watta tli6 
buiinew was wound up and iwrlly tsktm 
over by NuItink'bamfoundcTit. SVatteairoti, 
al*i tiaiwd Hugh lIGll-ltw'iO), to wbnm 
ihe bell-melHl and bell-foundin); appli- 
nnreji wen- bmin-atlnfil, miirried a dau^litpr 
(ifSirThoma-i Burton of Stockerston. 

[for a foil nc^oant of tbc Newfiombc and 
Wiitra f>tmiti(>s aad thsir b«llit see North's Churel; 
Italia of l.vioMtanliire (LricMlur, 1876, *ttt).\ 

:.. H. SI. 

WATTS, ISAAC (1074-1-481. hymn- 
writor, wa» born at Houl liampliin on 1 7 Julj 
I't'l. Hie grandfather, Thumas VX'atts, «~] 
coniuiniider of a man-of-war under BIflke in 
I6rttt,died in the prinio of life throuffh no 
e][plosii>non board Ilia 'El i[>. Hisfatber.Isaao, 
occupied n lowi'rpni^iiion, beln^ dc^ribed as 
' u clothier' of 21 French Street, ^outhauinlo 
(1710). An deacon nf tbi- independen 
inoi'liufir.lie wfl-^ impriiMTivd for hiii ruli^noua' 
ouiniout in the ffaof of Soutlmitiptou at the 
time of I be birth of hla sun Isnac and in t he 
following year (107o). In IflS.'> nlwoli,? wn* 
fnr the aa'me cauac oblignd to biclo in I^n- 
doo for twoyear*. In biter years he kcpr 
a flonrifthiug honrdinjf-school nt Southamii- 
ton. lie had a liking for the comno.^ition 
ofaacrod VOrSiM. Dneor two of hianieceii 
aiipuar iu the poathumous worka of his ft{Hi 
(]77d},aud several others in that volume are 



Bmditedto liinbyOibbons in his biuitmpby. 
H« died in February l73ft-7, ttgv^ Hii. Hin 
wife WHS dauffht'jr of an Alderman Tsunlon 
at Scut tiamplon, and lud II u^enot blood in 
her Tcine. 

JuL&c Wiitu ws* tlie widest of nine cliil- 
drt!n,of wboruKii^hard iived to be a phyiieian, 
Dnucb was Itrud to t-lie tea, aud HiumU mitr- 
ricd a di«p«r iutni\l limcksloiio at Soiith- 
anjitou. WtttU ruceivfld an t-xTOlk-m fiii- 
Catinn Mt tht'gmtnmnr wrbnot rmiii .loliii I'iii- 
home, rector of All Sdinta, Soiithampinn, 
ptvbeiiiliiry of Ijt-ckfnnl, »nd view of I'.liiiKr 
Iliinipitliirvr: n Tindrtric ode to Pinliome,b^ 
Watts, de«cribt?a the widerao^of hUclMCi- 
cal tcactLLD^. lli« facility in Rngliah trtsp 
showed iwelf very early. 'I'lie promise of his 
genius indui'ml |)r. Jotin 8p<<4a, a vhyMCian 
of tho lowti. to olfor to providi; for Watta at 
the uiiiv*'n'iLy ; hut, a» Iip piref«rrMl ' to take 
hiB Inr atnonR ihu dissfnlan^," he wuji M-nt 
(1C90) to an nradt-ray at Hniki* NVwihh;- 
Jjjn, imdfir the presidency of Thomoa Rowt' 

fq.v.\ pastor of tli« independent rai""ting in 
hrdleni' Hall. The teaching in claaaics, 
logic, Hfhrew, and divinity whs *xcn!l'-nl, 
as the nalohookft of Watt* Bhnw j and h* 
owwl lu i!i« academy hia after habiw oC Inbo- 
rimis analyaia and accuracy of thought. 
Atnoci^hisc-QntempDrarluA wore John Hughes 
(IR"r-17:») [<). v.], one of the cuiiitnbutnra 
to thu ' Spftciator : .Samuel Say [q. v.], who 
8UCceedL«I Calamy iKpa«l'>r in We»1inin«t«r; 
Danii'i Ni-n! ; and .Insiah llort [t\. v.] (after- 
wards bishnj] of Kilmure aud Ardajih, and 
■ichbiahop ofTnamV Watts ■wasadmicied 
to communion in Uowb'h church in Dcctiinhor 
1893. After leaving thi- (ItMllJ, 
Iifi Bpont two Ti.'ttri4 and a half at home, iiud 
commenced tue compoiiition of hin hytnn». 
The firat of the*.?, ' Brhold ttm glorins of the 
LamV was pnKlucwl aa nn improvement on 
the hymm «f William Burton \(\. v.l. and 
otherBlhensung in tliu .SnutliMuptoncliapcl, 
Several othi-r pieces followed : they wer« 
circiilaled in manuscript, uud niven out line 
by line when sung". In October 169li ho 
became tutor to thtt son of Sir John Harlopp, 
bart., at -Stoke Newineltin, and held the poat 
fit* yeara, devoting all his leisure to Hehretw 
and divinity. He preached his first »Hnn«n 
on 17 Jul/ Iti'JS, and in the following year 
was clio6en assisrant putor to Isaac Chauacy 
[q. v.] in the rha]iet at Mark Lam-, fin 
IH March 1702 he auccet'dcd to tbe pastorate. 
The congrt-ffutiiin wan n distin|TULSDed one: 
Joseph (!aryl [q-v.] and John Owon (IfilO- 
ltJ83) [<)■■*■] had formerly minintert'd to it; 
it numWrnii ami^ng its members Mrs. Ben- 
disbt Cmmwell's grandilaiifrhfet ; Cliiirlt?« 
Fleetwood, Charlci Deaboroiigh, brother-in- 

law of Cminwell ; aa wtdl a« the Hartn 
nnd 8ir ThonuM and Lady Abn«y. Tt 
moval Rumeaflively ti\ I'innt'w' Hall (1*01) 
and Bury Sirwt, St. .Mary Axe <I70»*). 
Watt*, liowerpr, aooa pro\-ed unequal to i 
ainffle auperriiiiou, The iult^iuw study 
which he had devnted himself had undi 
minml Ilia eonttituiiou and ntadu him eubj 
to fnwiient attiLfka of tlhieaa. Aa early 
L7CM bamuul IMoe begoii to asnst him, an 
wa.t afterwardii fhomrn ('■>-piLNlur {171>i). 
viait to Sir Tlioma^ and I<ady Ahney at 
TheobnhU in 1712 led to a propowl fro 
rbem thnt Watt* dhoiild fftside prminn^ntl 
in their house; and the remainder of hivdavi 
was spont tmder their roof, either at Th 
baldaorat Stoke Newingtoti, to which Lad 
Abney removed (17Uo) afWr the death 
SirThomaa Abncv (1722). The kindness of 
the Abneya gave ^lim n nhetti^rKil hihI 1u«u- 
rimis homo. He drove jn from The«bal" 
for hiHSmidny mini>>lrat ions when his heal 
permittee]. In the tine lionae at Stoke Ne 
iiiglon, which sIoikI in what is now Abney 
I'ark Cf m«<ter^', aoniiT tij^ures on the panelling 

fainted bv Watts, were formerly sho 
[in nt tack^ of illneu increaaed as vcars w-eo< 
he only reluctaully consttntixl lu rvtai 


his poatomtt.-, and had aeruplatt aa to laki 
any calnry ; bul the congn^gation refiued 
break this conni-elioij with onitao famous 
bclovei] OS Walts became. 

Watts waa unu of the mom popular writcra 
of the day. [lia i-ducuriimal maniiali— the 
'Catechiams' (1730) and the '.ScripUireHia- 
lory' (17.12)— wer* still standard wurks in 
the middle of tlua century. Hi.^ philoao- 

Itbicftl book«, ««pecially the 'Logic' (I7J5>, 
lad a long circulation: ^ alfto had hta 
.'World to t'-ome' tl~^S] and other worka 
' of rkipuhir divinity. The beat of bis worlts 
is 'The liDpn:ivemea( of the Mind' (17411. 
which Jobnfinn culotriaes. In two fii'-lda his 
literary work iiuuda longer nolico. His 
' Uorie Lyricn?' (17{>ffl gnvn him hi? niche 
iu Johruon'a ' Lives of the PoeU.' It was 
a fdvoiiritit iHwik of mligioua poirtry, and ■> 
fiiiL'b was nclrailted into a aetics of * Sacred 
Clajmicjt' (IS.'U), with a memoir of Watte 
from Soiitlicy's pen. But hi* poetical fame 
reetB on bis hymns. At the begUtning of ibe 
t^ightoenth century the stern embargo which 
Culvin had laid on tbc ii.->e in tbu music of 
sacred worship of even-thinR except melrica] 
pHalmtf Bud cunlicleH had been hroaen bytlM 
obscure hrniii" of Mii'ton, Kciach, Barton, 
and ntbaraj and hj-mns were freely iL-jed in 
(he baptist and independent congregatiooB- 
The pfwtry of Watts took the religious worlJ 
of dissent by storm. I( gave an utt«moc«. 
till then unheard in England.lotbespirit 


69 ^^ Watts 

«iDOti(iD«, in their contemp1atit>ii o( Qod'i 
glory in naliip! mmI his rav«latioii in Chrut. 
aad nudR h^riiin-fliiiging a fpn*id dovotioDU 
force. Tba siicceu of \\'8tt(i's hyiun« «p- 
fVOacbiMl tliAt of thfl n«w version of the 
PsbIids. £diti(tu followed udition. Id the 
Mrlr jotn of thia centurv the annua.! output 
of WBtts'e bj'iuuj, uotwillutftnding all the 
wraith of hvDlR production ariniiig oul of 
metbodism, wu sull fifty thousanu cnpiiis. 
Tbe two Rtuiilt! voliiinai, Hubooquftitly often 
bound loffetoer, were the ' HTinn.i' (ITl>7; 
Sod sdit. J70O) and the ' I'saloia of l>ftTid' 
(17lft). There are also hymnn «ppenili;d to 
vome of his 'Sermons' (17i'l) and in tl)« 
* Horw l.yric-lc.' The • P»alni8 of IMvtd ' ia 
DotamctricBlp«AltiTof the oriiiiuryputlpra. 
It U-ATM out all the imptvcatorj purtiorui, 
Mraphnwa fn-L-ly, infuM:s into the text the 
Heosianic fultiliuuut nod ihw t:Tuii((<-liiuil in- 
tcipretiiioos, and adjusts the whole (some- 
t i in nt ill |irTX)4««qu«l5 baid iastv, ss iu t be sub- 
stitution of * nrilain " for ' lanu^l ') to tho de- 
votional Htondpoinl of bis time. The total 
number of pieces in the various books must 
bu about eix hundred, about twuWe of wbiclj 
are atil) iti vatt general nae ('Jesuit shall 
rei^wberti'er tie Buu,' Psalm Ixxii.; * Whun 
I survey the wondrous CrOMi'T'ome.let u» 
join our cLuorful Mmgsj'and ' Our God, our 
Delp in ag«s poet.' arn in every ljymu>ljaok). 
Tho characteristics of his hymnn arw tftudrr 
faith, joyousnese, and servne piety. Uis 
range of subjects is ve-ry larse, btit many of 
thetn have been better hanalcd Rince. Jlt> 
had to contend with ditlicultii^e which lie biM 
ItifflBolf pointetl nut: tho dearth of tunns 
which restricted him lo the metr^ of (be 
old Tersion, the i^orancc of thc^ conpi-pi- 
tiooa. and the habtt of giving out tlic vertt'i 
om Of one, or eren line by line; and be 
had the faults of the poetic diction of tlio 
a^. The result is «. at vie which is some- 
uniM rhetorical, oometime^ tuii^di some- 
times tantf^; but liiii lx-»t pieces are ainnnff 
tbe lini-st hymns iu English. Of soother 
department of hymnologv, Wsttx was also 
tbe founder. The * Divini- Songs ' (ITl-'i), th« 
fint ohildrfn's hymn-boolc, afterwards en- 
larged and rcnaniL-d ' lliviiic and Monil 
Songv/rsD tbrousb a hundred edit ioiiH befort^ 
thft middle of this centun* (cf. Xotea and 
Qwriet, 3rd mr. is. 493, x.'iW. -2^}. 

Tho Arian coutrnveray of hi* lime left, its 
mark on Watr& His liymnH contain an en- 
tiro book of doxolngieii modrlii'd cm thf 
Gloria Pniri. But at the conferenrti about 
the mininti-rx «I Kxetvrhi-ld ut Halters' Hall 
(1719) be voted with the minority, who re- 
fused to imjwse acceptance of the doctrine 
of the Trinity on the independent ministers 

He did not believe it Deeeaaarytn salvation; 
the creed of r-oi>staatiiM>p1e ^ad l)«come to 
him only a human eiplication of tho mysU-rv 
of thu divine Godhead; and he bad bmiself 
adopted another explication, which lie hopnl 
might heul the breach between Arinuism and 
tht.- fnitb of tb') church. lie broached this 
theory in 'The CliruftiBn Doctrine ui Uw 
Trinitv' (172:i), and supported it in ' IMa- 
•ertatiuiut ntlaliuir lo the Christian I>octnne 

of the Trinity 'A'"-'*-^')- 
the subject in ' Th 

H.- r^tiimM to 
he fitory of Chri-^t an (lod- 
.Mnin rnveiled ' { 1746), nud ■ Useful and Im- 
ponant- Qnesriotis concemiiift ivwt, thu Son 
of Clwd'(ir4«). Iliii theory, held alao by 
Henry More, llobi-rt I'Tumiii^, sud iluruet 
iDoK-SHK, The PiTwn •>/ Ckrirt, div. ii. 
ii. ^:^t), Iransl. Clark), wa.<t that tbe buuiu) 
soul of Christ had been cn>alod anterior 
to the cnwiiuii of the wotIiI, and untied to 
the divine principle in the Godbi^ad known aa 
Ibe Sophia or l^iipns (only u short step from 
Arinnifun, and with some affinity to hab*"!- 
lisnism): and that the [leraonality of the 
Holy <ihiwt WAS Bpiirativi- rut iier than proper 
or lUeml. None of the exioiit writing of 
Watis iidraTifes further than this: but a 
very pathetic picci', entitled ' A Solemn 
AddrcMA lv> the Ureal and Kver Illessed 
Uod ' (pubUf<hed in n pampliUt called 'A 
Kaillilul lni.]uiry after the AnciuoL and 
OriRinat Doctrine of the IVioity ' in 1745, 
but suppri'iHL'd by Wati." at thai time, and 
n-publi^hiHl in IHO^), »liow» hnw dm-iily his 
mind was p>rpEc!sed and Imiibled. lie lays 
out iitl the ptT|>lcxily befnre riod. slating 
his b«lief in ihu vory words of Hcripturo 
(renerally, with the plea ' Forbid it, -ih . my 
<iod, that I should ever be so unhappy lU to 
imgl'irify my Father, my Huviour, or my 
Sanctitier. , , , Help mo ... for 1 am<iuit« 
tired and weary 01 tbew liuinun expiiiia- 
ings, so various and uncerlnin.' Lnrdner 
athrm<jd that in bis lu&t years (uut luortt 
lluui two 3*eiirH nt ukmI, in fiiiling health) 
Watts passed to the unitarinn position, and 
iRTot* in dt-f^-nce of it ; the iKipt^rs w*«rp, as 
I.nrOnor owned, unlit, for pnbliratlnn, and 1 
such were destroyed by Uoddndffe nnd Jen* 
ninjfs, fho liternry tnistoes, Utnlner 
clored also that the la^l belitif of Watta 
' conndetely uiutaciau ' (BklaiiaM, Afrmaira' 
(if ThtophUtta Lmiite^, pp. 101 4). The 
testimony, bowvi-r, nrchiiw? who wi-re most, 
intimate with Watia to bis laft hours ia en- 
tin.-lv Hilt'nt an 10 nnr ^itcli i.'*nan|^-; and hi| 
depend.'nre at death nu the nront'ment^ 
( which is incompatible with ' complete wnU • 

The Calvinism of Watts was of tbo mildor 




type whicli shrinks rroin tli» doctrins of r^ 
probfttion. He Md libi-rttl viiyw* on wliira- 
tion. Kip toI*ranc» ami loieof comprchen- 
flion d«^iicrat«cl at timen intn wrakni-.*.* ; 
u ill liis proDMftl 10 UTiitv tliu iiH^vitendi-iiti 
And liaptLHis by anrrendt-ring th« tloctrine of 
iiifaiil bupttem, if tbu biiixifits would ^'ivu 
up iinmi-rsioti, Iliti li^nrnin^ uml pii-tT *'- 
tncivd u lor^ circle, itirludlng Doddndgi.', 
Ijtdy UtTtfnnl (nDi^m'iinls Iliirlii'ow "f So- 
merset), the lirat I^rd Hftrrinpinn, Bishop 
(libson, Archbisliciji Ilort, bdi) Archbislioji 
SMker, Tin) iini^'orsity of Edinburgh pnvc 
him an honorary L).U. dogrvt! (172«). llu 
died on 2^ Nov. I74><, and va% buripd al 
Hunbill Fii'ldo. A iiiotiiiincnt Iiiit^ biM>n 
erected to him in Westtniimtt-r Abljey; a 
HUttiu ill Xhe park culled nfl^n by Lis nnmu 
at SoiitliHnipliJii (1801 J; and iin'irher munu- 
mert in iht- AbTiny I'lirk cem.^ter^-, nncP thn 
(fn>iiii<Jjiiif l.ndj- Abm-yVhouw (1816). His 
porlrait, minted by Kneller, ntid anotln-r 
drawn and erprnved from the life in tneuo- 
tint by Ocnrgt! Whiti", nre in the Xationnl 
Portrait Gallerj, Loudon. An (inonyaious 

rarl.rait and a l)ii5t are in Dr. Willianit's Li- 
rary. Thurn is n port rail of him in wig and 
govrn ond baud^ a.a a voting man in llit* 
Abovuliar chikpi'l, SoiithnmiJlon, Thtisp an* 
engraved in tin- ' Life " tiy I'njtton Mood (rf. 
Bbomtj!)-, Cat. of&iffrtAfd Porfri-n'tii}. 

Bi'sidfH tlioeo of Watte's piibliciLtioim 
nirondv mpiiliiiiii'd, the fullnwin); nr* tbi" 
ehicl': I. 'Thi3 Knoivlt'iice of lhr> Heavwt* 
and Kartb," \7'2t}. 2, ' K«)mits townrda tli" 
EncQwrup-mtini of Charily Sfhool* nmong 
ibi^ ni«»pri(»r^,' iri?(*. H. * Phil'iinphirnl 
I'>afiyft,' 173-1. 1. ' TIpltimiT Jiivpniie".* 
1T34. 6. ' Works,' p(!it«d liy Ji.-iniinf(i( und 
DoddridjTc, 1763. 8. ' I'oftthiinnoua Wnrlie' 
(compiled from pii[K'r)t in ])u»«L'»«iun wf liix 
immedLntefliiPceBsor), 177J). 7. • A Fnitlifnl 
Entjuirv uitvr xlic Anuiont and ( 'ri^insl l)<ir- 
triii^ nf the Trinitv,' cd. (liibricl Wntu. I fOJ. 
A ndloCtive edilion of Watls'a ' WorkV 
im edited by ■''■""inK" and Doddridgt', with 
wldilione and a mi'mnir by OeoreT' Burder, 
apppnred in nix folio volume* in I^IO. 

D.».. 1780; MilnorftLiff, 183J; Pulton tlomf. 
Lif^. 1875 (R«ligii)P» TmctSoc.l ; Juliivospitr, 
of Uymnulory, nr(«. ' WrIIs," ■ Pmltcrs Kngli&h,' 
unii ' Kiirly l.rigHfh Ujmitolofcjf,'] H. L, B. 

WATTS, Mr^. JA\E (I7!lft-lft2rt), nn- 

Or. [.S*-iS ii[|<itir WaI DH;,CllAULOTrE .VSN,^ 

WATTS. SiK JOHN ill. mini.iDfrtfbfint 
and ahipnn'nur, the son of Thomas Wnitsof 
Buntin^ord, TlrrtfoTtbthirr, was owner of 
th« MarfJTBret and John, one of tins itbips set 
forth and paid by the city of London in 


1A88 H|i^inst the Spanish armadK. Wm 

himself served in li« •.*« volunteer, and tri 

in the hottest of the %btinji. In 1590 t 

snmi'fhipwnA one of a fleet of im^rehant* 

mpn coming hoine from the Mi<diturrsnean 

which foiiphl and beat off tbi? S[nni>b galleyi 

n^arOadiz. ll does not appear that Watta 

was then in ker; but thmiiftliuul tbe war 

' ha swma to have taken an active part in tbe 

I wjuiprai-nt of privatifnt. M*>ntion is madeof 

! one which in .Inly IflOl took into Ph-moutb 

' > priiw fomtni; from the Indie* ladeo with 

: fhina niilis, ^atinli. nnd talfctas. At this 

j time he waa an etderman of London (Tower 

wAnI), And had been sn^ected of beinj; a 

I supporter of Essex, lie waa one of tha 

'■ founders of the Kast India Coin[iJiny, aai 

' on 11 April ItXIl wn« vlecied iforemo'rof 


ori?mytbi>(lo'>8K It'.55)[n,v.] Oniheaccei 

I iiiun nf .lHin>;<ii 1 hi- mn Icnighted '2Q July 

' H)03{MEn'At.ra, I{<;tik f/ Kn{ffAt*).nndvtM 

lonl mayor in 1606-7 (Uhbiiwe, CV(c 

• and thnr Iluler*, p. 232), at which time 

was described in a letter (30 April 1807^ 

N.S.) ro ill." king of Spain on ' tin- Kiwit 

pirate that bad i-n-r bfL'n in this kin;^om 

(Browrt, OennUo/Ihe I'mtedStatrj-,-^. 99). 

l)uringthafollowiii]f years he was an actiTe 

membtr of tbe \ irjriuin Cmrpany- In the 

rity of London Waits wa.>i a member of 

' (.'loThworkt'fa' Conipany. 

I Walts died ot his sicat in HiTtfitrdshire 

ScpTemler lOlfl, and was burieil on the 7' 

of that month al Wiirv. By his wife 

' ^n-t, duufihler of Sir Jaini*» llawes, 

! (lonl mnvor in l-'i74), he left four tons 

fourdatiglitp-ra. The eldest son. John, 

in the Cadir expedilino and was knii^ied 

hiH good s'Tvicein \fi'2b: be subs<-r[uen 

served under KDekiu^lnui in the lih^ t- 

ditlon, and under Count Mnusfi-ldt in t 

I'alatiimtf!; bo marriud Mary, daughter nf 

Thomas Haynin(r. ami aunt of Paul, fin" 

vtBcomil liuynint;. and left numerous issai 

His ehlest -ton ifrrnndiinnof the lord mayor 

, who nlio becaiut) Sir John WaitJ", ae; 

nil Bpprentieedlu]) in arms under bis fatb 

He was kni^'iti'd in litt->. nnd rrct^ived B' 

iNiinini«<.ion to ruiee a traop of arni" for tllff 

kinjr. Uavlnjr been fXpdlwl fmm the bo- 

veniorBhip of ("hirk Cftstle, he attached him- 

«elf to the fcirluiies of Lord Caiwl, and was 

one of thi) defL-mlent of Colchester Caatle 

(August 1(148). He compounded for del in- 

tliu-ney by pHvifVf? themotleraie fine of lUO/. 

und wa« dtHehnr^d on )1 May IfttO; fao' 

ever, he was forced to sell io [Sir! J< 

Huek hi* mnnur of Mardocks in Wi 

After the KeMorntion he waa made recei 

fur Kwex and Ilerifordehire. lie died ahcnt 


1660, and vrta buried in the church oT llcrC- 


[Cal. SlA>.e Paprnt, KoU IndiM And Dom.: 
Defval of tb» Sp«iii»h AnnatJii (N«T]r RcconU 
Sm.}; ChauDcey'fi iliit. AaLiquitim vf U«rt- 
Iflnlfiliirp. )700. fol.: Hnrl. Mi^. In46, f. lOJt 
(Wi(tta'Bp«digrM); Clnttnrbuck'tilTcrlfcnlaliirc, 
iii. 30$ i CiuuBa'« Ilcnrordabin (Hunrlnd uf 
Hditford), P> IIV: Notes wtd QncrioB, Srd Mr. 
riii. 310; CWL uf Coitimitl** for Compomulln^ 
p. 1SS6 ; iiifonDoiiuD from Mr. F. Oirea FUhvr.l 

J. K. L. 

WATTS, JliHX (1618-1S87), ediica- 
lionol and kocIiU rorurinvr, von of JamcH 
WBttH, ribton Wfavpr, wa* born at tJoven- 
try. Warwicltfthipp, nn J4 March ISlS. At 
fivv yvwa of ug* hv wuffvnul [lurtini pnrnlyK'" 
of his left side, and vim unnbli^ on tJtat 
■ccount to foUow a manitul <>inptoynii.'nl. 
After learioff thv onlmkry ^.IfRii^nrArr 
cckool, be became a member of tb« local 
mochauica' institutiun, whi-rv from tin? age 
of (birl'.'Cu to tn-i-ii[y Ito ucteil oa assUlant 
•ecreUrv an<) libmrian, ondit woa tb«rethiir 
mncbof^bissvlf-cdiicatirin WIL8 accomplMbod. 
Aftrtr tbat hit vrrnl into tradK, l>ut, baring 
adopted communifitic principles, Eoon be- 
cam« a lecturer in fiinfRTancci of Itolwrl 
Owen'a viewa, and Tiaiti-i] mnny towns, 
nwaan'faile readiutr liard, and in Si'olUnd 
•UondinK IccTunii at tti>- Andfi>ODion l'ni> 
T«r«iiT. Finally in July 1841 ha took op 
hia wiidence in .M »nofie*teP, where fortbree 
TMn bo conducted a boya' school in tbt> 
Ilall of ^^ci«no•?, and held many public di«- 
euaaiona in tbo diatrict on Owon*s system of 
McWly. lu 1B44 he bad cvinu to th? con* 
cttmton that Own'!* idi-ul cnmmunity was 
impracticable and many of its adbeivnts 
»eir-)HM;1(tiig, and lip w>-nt. inli') tiiiitini'M 
a^ain; but puhlir life litill claimnd a Uif^e 
amount of tiin attention. At tliix timo 
(18 July 18-(4) b<! obtDinod from ibfi iini- 
Tereity of Giee^en the degrweof l'li.i>. In 
ItH-'i ho took part in a movom«nt which 
Iwl to tli« esiMbli«[iiuf[ii of three publir 

rarka in Mancht'sinr and Salford, and in 
B47 joinud, and afturwardii lH.>camu llit' 
leadinir advocntt> of, Iht^ Lanca^liiri^ t fubfitv 
qucntly cjillcd the National) Public Schdol 
Asaociation, for the jipivinion of fm; 
tuvnlar, and nl^'-Aiipport'.'d schooK of which 
OT^aniastion Samuel Lucas (l^ll-1<^>i*i| 
^g. v.' was chairman. lie also joined rhe 
ciely forpromoting thertipenlof the'laxe" 
I knowledjte,' and mat«-rtally assiMt.-d tbo 
pfTorte 10 that end in parliomrnt of Milni'r 
Gibwon, Cobden, and Avrtoii, fnimtntt many 
of tliB puuling^ quDstioDt, and coUoelin^ 
mo«t of Iho »p*(;im«in cm»« which oo noii- 
plaued the chancellor of the exchequer. In 

IS^luiiaduocdiJir John Fotter, theo mayor 
of Mancheiiler, to form a committee for 
tile eatabliahmeut of a free library under 
thu pnn'iftionji of KwBrl'9 acl., which wa* 
then pajwing tbnnigh ]Mtrliam(;Qt, the norel 
feature in his Miif-^atjoit bt'injclbal it Hhould 
bu H free l«nditi!( library*. Walta acted aji 
one of the Becrvtaries of the committee, 
whose labours ended in Ilie openinff of tha 
ManichetU*r Uw library, a iium of nearly 
ia,O00/. having been raised by public luh- 
scriptioa. In 1^>3 ho was a promoter of 
iho People'* iVtvideut Auurancw Society, 
and went lo London, tTturning in 1^7 to be 
local raanagiT in MaiK'hi-itlrr. ThiH com- 
pany was atterwards known m tlm ' Euro- 
pean,' and, by nuiueroiisiimnlgaiiiiilii.ns with 
unbound compnnii'fl and diipartiniz from the 
linea orifiinaUy laid down, it came to n disar- 
tmuaend. Diu-inpun illn^M l)n>U);l)i about 
bv this (ailuru ho reeolved to protii. by bis 
bitter experience, and\«TOto the firsi. draft of 
a hill which wax iucroduciHl into purliament 
and bt^ame the Life Assurance Act of l87U, 
whicli amont; other pri'diiitiunary niuiixures 
fnTbadd till' tnin>l''T or ninul^iualiuu of in- 
aurance minpanieH without judicial autbu- 
rity. Tho KdiiCBtion Aid SociHy of Mna- 
chtJtler n'ctiived gKat ofiaiAlance from bim, 
aa did also the educational seclii.m of the 
aocial sdi-nc4 con^cas of I8>6tt. Aa a rv- 
suit of thnt conference a specnl committee 
was appointed, on whose behalf h« prepared 
tho draft of llcnn,- Austin Brucc'a education 
bill of IHCSf^. 11^ wiut on active nii'mber of 
Ihc. Manchester school board fiiom its wmsti- 
bution in 1870 lo his di>alh. and i^L-crvtury 
to rhi- (Iwt'ri* rolli-^? exteuMon committee, 
which raised nbmil a quarter of a milliuu 
Kterlinp; for tin.' v!n<t'lii>n and iiinipmi-iit of a 
ntvr collepiati' building, and for th(> further 
endowment of I ho collepf, I If wan inlimatety 
BsflociflCed with the co-opiTative movement, 
and for a time was a principal contributor 
lo tho 'Co-opcratirti Now:-.' Hi^ waa also 
I'lminnpiii of (In.* council* ol' thi- Inlon of 
l.iiLi iiHliirtiand I 'hoshire Institutes, the Man- 
L'lit-iyt Twchiiicul Sclmol, the Ifoyal llotaiii- 
ail imd I lort iculiiinvl Suciety of MancliMtcr, 
and the local provident difipposaricii (which 
Wflro founded on bin »ii(f (jfnt ion and largely 
by his aid), secretary of llie Mancheeler lie- 
form Club, a Roveraor of the Maocliaater 
grammar school, and president of the Man- 
chiwTer StatUtieal Sociply, besides heintr on 
the committees of other public institutions. 
I)nrint{ tliu cotton famine occaiiiont^d by the 
American war, he *Nt as a member of the 
famous rcntrnl relief rommittoe, wfauw 
opcratinns he n-cordi'd in a volume entitled 
'The Fads of the Cotton Famine,' puk 


limbed in IBSB. In ulditioa to ttiU rolumo 
)}••■ [iiihliebr'd 'The Catechiiim of Wb^ub and 
Cumlal,' IS'Jr, Slid a Imvc nitmloT of pam- 
phlors, diicfly on cconoiniceubjecle, oa trude- 
aitiuiti, MrikM, co-operation, and i^itCAtion. 
He -was a contributor lo several nf t!ie 
Imdiog [tori odi till*, and h most pflffrcttvp 
nitwiipsrHT correspondent, oapocially on edu- 
cational and tfconomic tubjecc*. Jli* iu- 
flimnri! wilh thi> workiriff clftflscs wm alwayi 
verj' groat, and his cuiiciUulory udvico wa» 
often Tound In br of llio atmoftt value 
in tndcctispatea. 

He died at Old Trafford, MnTicIwMfr, on 
T I'Vb. 18S7, nnd wn« huriMl in thn pariid) 
cburcli of lti>«don, Oheshire. He marriud 
Catherine Shaw in (>rt/>bfr ]|i<4J, nnd Ifft 
four cbihlrL-ii, Iliree hsvtog' diod in liia life- 
time. liiB oldest Hon in Mr. W. II. S. 
Watts, district rci;i»lrar in .Mui]clit.-xler nf 
th« lii|;h cotirl i^f Jtiatiix-. Ilii) daughter, 
Caroline Kmma, murriud Dr. T. K. ThorjKS 
F.U.S., chief iffjvvrnmrnt. nniilvKt. 

In 1**M n mftrWft bii&t. of \\'att*, eseputed 
by -I. W. Swinnurton, was «^lb»(:^ih^^d for and 
placed in Che MniH-hi'stfr H^'fomi Oluh. lit* 
liad previously, in lyft", Wen the recipiL-iit 
of y,(iOU/,, raiM?(l by subscriplion, a^ n mark 
of tlie e^liK'm in whieli he was bvld, 

[Bec-IIivo, U Amt- 1875. wild portrait; 
MiktioliPdlfr rmtiritiiLn. fl Vnh. 1837 ; Thfunpsoirs 
tlironii Collotti' ; itif'irmnliiiri IriMii W. fl, S, 
Wmi*. (!»"|. ; piTioiml knytrledg-.] C W, ,S. 

WATTS, IlK'H ART) (I.WJUSra), foun- 
der of Watta's cliiirity at llocberter, waj( 
bom at "West Pt-ckham, K*nt, iiVnit Io29, 
and inigralvd lo liocliester in ornenr 1'>'i:!. 
He aeema lo bare bepn a l^ont^aoto^ to the 
({Ovcruinuiit , and paymuiits for victtmllinK 
tlii^ flwi-t luuiunnv wi>re made to him in 1551) 
and l."51 (CaJ. State Paptrt, Uoni. I-'47-80, 
]». 204; \Vntt« acted aa d^jmly fur Sir IM- 
wanl Rait<ihe, victualler to iht? navy iti loj-l 
and 15.HI), while in l6tV) ]«• nw H|ip(> 
by Quurn Klixabitlh lo b« pnyma.-*tor and 
siirveyor of ihe works at L'pnor Castle and, 
two years later, 'sim-t-yor of tho ordnnnft^' 
at L'pri'ir. Ml- was also ireoiurfr of the 
revenuttS of l£<icli«*ler Uridine, llo sat in 
Elizabeth's iteconil parliamont (lIi(}-'!-7), and 
reCMved a viiiil frnm tin* igiioeQ during; lier 
pro^reaa through Surrey and Kent in 1573. 
The atory Roes Hiat when, at Itiavi-laliiHg, 
"tlje hnsr wfi« fain to apnlnj^Ue for tlie iii- 
KufGciency of his bouse, liliiabeth remarked 
'Hatia.' Watts took tins as a coinplimi'iit, 
apd named his lioubc on Itully IIlII 'italic 
ilouae.' He died t!ien> oji 10 Sept. loTtt, 
and was bnriL-d in Itoirhr^clur Cathodral. 
la 173? th<^ cirporation, at tbn iiistauce of 

the mayor, whose nune li«|ipei>ed to be 

Iticliaiu Watts, erected • monumeut to bi« 
memorr in ttwiiuuth IraoMtpt. llv lii«will, 
States th« inscriutioD, 'dated 23 Aug. and 

Itrovfd 2o Sept. I&79, he founded an alms- 
lou.te for the relief nf poor people and ~ 
the reception of six poor travelers evi 
niffht, and for tmploying the poor of t 
city.* Tbt; original atitiual ralue of 
estate in Chatham deroted to the purpn 
of ili« charily was twenty luarka, but upoa 
tho death of Watts's wi^w, Marian (who 
after his death espoused a lawyer named 
Thiimax Pn^^ltt), thv income wax nii|fmenl4 
lo npftriy A~L In 1771, when the poor it 
vulleni' lod^'injcs in the High Street we 
rpptiin-d, rbp ntv^nuo amountdd to am 
50(.i/. per unnuiu, and id 1899 to 7.000/. 
annum. At the dale latt nienltoned the 
charitv wai runiodelled and iwcatv almsfolk^i 
lodgea in a new building on Ihe Maidstoni|^H 
mail, with an allowunc>.< of 9(W. a year eocu^fl 
A mform of tlie <.-harity had Wen urf^^ed fire ' 
years preriously by Charlea Dickens in the I 
('hrixlinaw number of * Household Words' 
f<jr!S54. I 

The dauBe in Ills will winch bas caused 
fCichnrd Watt« to Ix^ r<'nii>mberod siipulniei 
that 'six matrices or fiock beds and other 
good nnd sutficit-nt fnrniturc' should lie 
provide>il Mo barliour or lodge in poor 
travellers or wayfaring men, being no 
common ro^cs nor prortora [i.e. itinera 
prictu] . . . tlu.- »aid wayfaring men _ 
harbour therein no longer than one nigb 
unless eickuL'ss l»- the farther cause thei 
nnd tlia-u- pmir folk.* there dwelling xhoul 
keep the ennie sweei and courteously 
tn-Jit the snid jMior iravi'lh-r* ; and ereryi 
the said poor travellcTH nl their lirxt enmiE 
in lo bni'e fourpence.' The singularity 
thp beijiie^t, wnicli is atill operative, ha« 
given rise to a nituiber of Hciitioua expUiis- 
tiana. It ba.^ somi^ points nf resemblance to 
the ' wnvfart'rV di'lu' in conuocliou with tli« 
Hospitut of St, t'rfi» at Wincheat^ir. 

A bu»t of Watts, stated to have been ex; 
culi-d during IiIh lifetime, »iinnoiint« 
monumcni in llnche.'iter Cathedral. 

[.■^rao n«» facts <rc)Qremipg WaUa v 
tnl>iitoil i»i1io ILnchusior nod ChaLhan Nei 
30 July XWi'A, by Mr. A. Rhodm. See al<« i 
Hinlury and Anti<|uiric?a a{ Rochester, 1^17. [ 
Z18-:i3; Thorpitn Iti'Gfi.-^runi RoRtdm', 17l! 
p]' 7'iOM[. ; Uiiiiteil'» Hini. "f Keut; Arel 
iu'jia Cataiiinu. v. ii. vii. 323 : Addit. 
o"-'i2. f. 3)1 ; .Vt* ot Wivy Conncil, new sef- 
iii. 203 ; l^irifj'loii's CliiMlnjud and Voutb nS 
Charli'B Dickeus, 1801. with a view of ' Waio't 
Chari'v.' and a copy of tb<^ inwriplion in ih« 
tathadnil.l T. S. ' 

WATTS, ROBERT (1820-1895), Irish 
presbyteriaii divine, young-'St of fcmrteen 
chililrvn of a prfsbyl.Tiau farmer, wu bom 
fct MoneyUnH, near Cat lltwcHan, l-o. ttwwij, 
oo 10 July \>*'2it. ti« wn* ivUicaleil at Hit- 
pAtish echonl nf KUmv^ii, ro, Uown, und nt 
the Itoral A«iil>-miail Inatitiition, llflfMHl. 
In l»W ho w<'iit 1« Aini^rina, (p'aduaifl 
(1849) at WasLinpion Collt-Rp, I*xinnion. 
Vir}tini>.antl atudit-d lhpo!'->frYnl: Prinpt'Imi, 
NfW Jor»i.-y, UIiUlt Charl>;« llcxitre, H.l). 
(17iI7-1^7x*). Uc ftr^niarri llS.W) A prcs- 
bylcrian miii&ioR tit I'liilnili'lphin, ^tTtiervd n 
conjiri-jint iim in b'tuiildin House H&U, waa 
ordftined its pojitar in IS^tS, nad (.vUiiiiu-d 
thv erwctitm (18MJ of Wi-ntmimlt-r C'liurrli 
for it* uif, III! gnt into c^nlrovprar on Ar- 
niniantBiiiwith Albert Harue* (I79f<-!H70), 
ft I'liilndfliihia presbvtprian of liberal views. 
Oil a vijiil lo IreloDil be accepted a call to 
Lower Qlouc«»l<T Street enngn^fjfllion. 
Dublin, and was iuittalled (heru in Auguet 

On the dratb (1906) of Jutin Edgar [(). t. i. 
WatlHWKB «l«ct«d to tbecbutr nf oyMtetuslic 
theologjr to Uie Aawoibly'fi C'oUego, }k>lfust. 
He was a liwn tlnwl'ijitnn, of very rtiniMTVa- 
tivf viewB, onpoMiil lo the tendenry of muoh 
modem cridciBin, nn:l espt-cinlly l<i tbo iti- 
Hucnn: of Ucrmnn <*x<ji(tin , II.< ^tiidit^d 
correni opMnjIniions with wnne care, in a 
Bpiril of iiuoompfoinisina: ant>k(;oi]ism. Ilix 
writingfl wck aecoptaklu to thi^ old«>r miiidK 
in Iiis dcaiomiuation, and were in Eome 
tneasHM saccaesful in arrestinf- tendcncit-s 
which h« combat«d with cunfldent vivacily. 
In matter* wbrre ho ciiTntldervd that nn theo- 
logical inten>fit woe iavolved h« wa« not k> 
COnMWatiro ; Im Hdvnratiil th» tise of in- 
strumenial music in public worsblp, thuu(.'b 
this wa» s)^inst the geneml wiirimi'iril nf 
Iriib pn>abyl«nAD«. Itis health Hiifl'ered from 
orer work, and after the eloso of the cnU«ee 
Mssinn, April IH9o, hp cimplrtrlv hrofce 
<kiwR. He died m Co!k-gv I'ark, Iteifitf't, on 
S6 July 189a, and was burii'd on '19 July in 
the cilvcuiw.-tery. IK- iiiiirrifd(l'*-V'J» .^lar- 
garet. daughter nf Willinm Ncwell .if Smn- 
mL-rhill.Downpatrick. ^^hl}!'u^\ivL■dhiJIl with 
a ixHi and Iwo dan^hlvn>. Hi* t-tdr-st nun, 
Rohen AVatta, pppaby terian rainiiler of Kil- 
mafreMinn. co. DoneRal, died on l Di-c ]r*89. 

Among h'» nurncnHinpuhticatinna mar be 
named: 1. 'The Doctrine of Eternal Pun- 
uhment Vindicated,' IVIfnsI, 1^7.'!, Kvii. 
2, * [teply lo Profeseor 'ryiidal'B Addivss be- 
foI>^ the llrtli^h Association.' Ilelfnal, 1)^74, 
8vo. S. ' An Kxamiuarion of Horhcrt Hpiin- 
Oer'n Ilioldfncnl llyputhf«i«,' IMfiift. lH7fi, 
8vo. 4. 'Th'-' Now Apolop-lic," Kilinburiih. 
1979, Svo. S, 'The N»w«r Crilici»tn. ... 

I Itvpiv to . . . "W. Rohertaon Smith,* Edin- 
burgh, ]^I81, 8vo. 0. 'Thu Rule of Faith 

' and the DofLtrint- of Inaiiiration,' lH8i'>, ftvo. 
He contributed many articles lo preebyterian 
and or.hrr pi-riiHlicul«. 

[Norlbnrn Whiji, 'J' JnlylSDA; El*lfa«t New»- 
hurr. 27 July iS9i: Irwiii's PrMbytarianiam 
in Subtil). ISDO. p. »:i3; I^timcr'n ilint. <A Irish 
I're»!iytorii.n» (1H95), p. 2'i7 ; Sclisff «inl .Inclt. 
»on'a Ell L-ri^IofKr dill uf Living iJivinei, ISVl, p. 
•HI.] ' A. <i. 

WATTS, THOMAS (1811-18(10), keeper 
of printed boaliftat tbe llriti»h lilu«fuiD, 'vraa 

' horn in Londun, in the parish of St. Luhe'a, 
4HJ Street, in 1811. His fHtbcr. orijfinally 
friiin Northniuploii»hirf,wa» the pnipriirtor of 
I be 'Peerless Pofd ' hmh.s in the City RoAd, 
l!ie jiriifil* from which piiieed the family ia 
onmlortuble ciri'nmstftnct-.i, Wattj* reccivedl 
liin ■•'ductLtion nl Linnin^^on's academy, act. 
Finftbury Hquiire, wbi^re Iif wxjn fcamed 
whatever was taugbi, and disiin^uiahed 
himiklf in particular by his facility in cooi- 

Sio»ing' v**a.ys aad vcreot. He fursoino liniti 
ullowed no profession, but derottrd tiiinaettJ 
to literary studios, in which he made rwmark* 
Bbl« projTri^.ii, favoured bv n tinHiigioiwIy 
retentive metDon* and A faculty tor arqnirin^ 
dillifuU 1nngua)i>-i', wliii-b imabled him lo 
tnahtprall thi' (Vlrir and Slavonic ton|^iiefi, 
as well ao IlunKarian, and to ntake Aome 
jimj^ewi with Chinese. II'-wus [iarlfcul»rly 
inren'flicd in Diilch litoTniun'. Uc occa- 
sioniiliy contributed lo periodical*, and in 
ISSfi wrote an article on tbeRritish Museum 
in the ' .Mechnnie*' Magazine' which in suine] 
degree aulicipnted PaniB»i'*i .■mlisi^tjuent feat 
of en.'cting thu gri-ut reading-room within 
I be interior quudriiiigli-.lboiigli Wut.ts hardly 
seeins to djwak of the step as one thai wa» 
then prai'licablt\ Hi* tmgnt^Bment to cata- 
logue a antall parcel nf Rui%:kian desideraia, 
(mrdiasednt hiitrecomtnendatran, introduced 
lim to rho muitenn). At Paniui's invitatioa 
hp became a tem|)oran,' eii^itlanl in 18.1^, 
and was employed in ctfecting tbu removal 
of the books fr^iiti tliu old rvuniH in Monta- 
gue Iliiune to the «ew library, fl tusk per- 
formed witli estraonlinary e.tpe<liliun and 
unexjH-i'Ied fncility. In the aiitiinin of tbd 
»ame y.-ar he wa.* placed Upon the penna- 
nviit (itatr Jlis duties for the itnxt twenty 
vr-nr* i-mbrfu-cil two moat imiiorfant depart- 
meiiU: he was the principal agent in the 
.i<d<'Ctiou of cumnt foivijjn lili-niluro for the 
tion to the acf|otitilion of desiderata ; and 
he arranged all newly acipiired bookfi on the 
HfaeLt rji acc'OTiling lo tt hystftn iifrbLii^itii'atiou 
introduced hy hiniaelf, though agreeing to 
a great extent with Brunet'e. Tbeee bookc 

mMtly occupied ffoaea numbered according I 
lo the'elAstic •ysiem' deriaed by 'Wtttiii, 
wliicltprevQot«d the dUturboncs ot' the nii- 
merieu »erieii. ' He appeared,' m; a Cowtui, 
' nerer to havo for^len a smi^lo hwik tliai 
passed throiigli liia liamU, and 4lwHvs re- 
nenbered ila exact locality in thu lilirun'.' 
lie also gate great aMtstanc* to i'lintiii in 
frttuiDg the memonhle report (1^(3) which 
afaowed the inefficiency of tlie library an it 
vresy and tLo nee»«ity of a grvat auemenla- 
tion of the f^rant for p4ircba4ei [eet» Pamxzi, 
8iR AxTiiii.vv]. Of nifiliihours a«a selector 
of buot^i, (.■^puciully lu tUu Ktu knowit kluro> 
w-an liui|{Lia)iirf>, lit! was kbit- lo anv, * In 
liiiiunan, Poliph, Ilun^arinii, Danisli. nnii 
.S»ve<ii»li, with llie fxi'rplion i»Th!i|"s nf liftv 
vohmiftd, every book tlml liiwownmirchaeml 
by ihe museum within the lost llirwiLnd- 
twciiiy year" hiu b<?«'n ])tin;baAecl at my Biiggee- 
tion. Every futureetuJfut of theaeliterntiinj* 
will findnchi^^ where 1 foiiiul povfTty.' Hi» 
ulto, in thill respect before Lis age, advocated 
the printing of ihe catalogiip. ]lc bixramn 
aseiatant kcvpor in IS'iG. When the tii^w ' 
reudinfcriMim vriw oppiied in 1B.57, Watts, 
much to ihfs public advastaijv but greatly 
to hl» own cliuMttiifHCtioti, was appoints] its 
first mip^^rintendpnr. TTua nf^cRasitatcd hia 
ivliiiquiEUment of ihi- duly "f plarliig Ijoobi*, ^ 
in wbii:b h<' liml »ri rtcligbted: hi't^oniiniied, 
howi'ViT, ro bf^&tow the enme attvutiott ns > 
beforeHponthtrpTirirhmynt of tlu'librnry, and 
compiiti^ that botweea \B^>\ and liSOO h« 
had ordered eighty tliousiitnd books nnd 
examined six himdred thniiMnd titlei*. In 
1860 heincceeded John Winter Jones [q. v.] 
aa keeper of printed biolcs. Hi? tvoA eminent 
M a scbolnr raibi.T ihnii iis an aduiniMra- 
tor. ami bis short term ot office was chiefly 
disliriguished fur bia purvisleiico in ri«uliEtug ' 
hi« jtniTiil iibji-cl 'of uniting with the beat 
Knglirth library in the wtirld thu best ' 
Itussisn library out of Hinwin, the bc*t Her- 
m/iti oiii of Germany, cha best Spaniitb out 
of Spain ; and so on in pverv hingiiagi- fm-ji 
Italian to Ictilandic, from t'olish to J'ortii- 

Siieso.' Among otber important ar(|iii6ition8 
ariDg hia tontiro of otlife were a larj^e 
portion of thu Mi'ucan libraries of I'alber 
Fiacht'i' and 31. Andrade, and ibc .liipani'M.' 
library of Dr. 8i«bold. lie died uncxpocUHlly 
at hia residence in the Brilifch 5lu»etiiu on 
9 Sept. \S6i>. llewua intL-rred in Highguli; 

Wattft was n warm-hearted and occs- I 
nonully a warm- tern pi -r ml mim. lo itfiit'> ^ 
of >ome bniMiieno and iingnlariry hn was i 
much bt-lovea by bis colluagm-*, and oni* ! 
verbally regarded as one of the princirul ' 
oraamenCS of the British Museum in ni« 

An in«KpretstT9 QountenaDoe tad a o \ 
iin'nialy figure were for^tteu in the cba«^H 
of Ilia eoavenitioa, wkicb rMemblvd wkl^^ 
baa bivn recorded oifUacanlay'R. ^i 

W'aHi's remftrlnblu endowments voiild 
have gained bim more c<-b<brily if hm h 
bad mors inclination to antborvhip. 
though an excolleni be was ngc « willii 
wriiiT, anil neede<] n «trong tiidacemene 
••mploy hia pen. Apart from but oCB 
work, tie la pertaape b«t remembered for 
exposure in 'A Letter lo Amonio i'ani 
E«|.' ( 18.39) of Ihe fahncation of the all< 
Gr«t Knglinh ncwspuMir (the ' KoglUh Mob 
curie'), a furtuiiai*- l>ul iin eaay dtacuv 
which the first eerioiu investigator cr. 
hardiv fail to mnkt-. Hi* Hxcellrtit ' H\Le 
of the History of the Welsh Language 
Litemliirv' was privately reprinted in 1 
from KnighL>'Kngli»ht'yolopiL-din,'towhi 
he also coDtrtbticod au article, perfMl in 
day, upon tlii.- nnti»h Museum. He wt 
mnny liogruphical urtich-sfor tiio same pi 
licaMon. principallyon fooiign men uf letCi 
and ho wa^, with hts brother Jn«liuii, a lead- 
ing contributor tn nburlivo biograpbicsl 
dictionary- of the f^ociety for the DinuuoD 
of I'lmful Kniiwtfdge. The vnlunble article 
on'Thelliaiorroff'yclojiediaa' in vol. cii 
of the 'Quarlerly Jteview* (April 18lW) 
by bim ; lif wroii^ a »criM ol' lettcra in 
' Atheiijeum,' under the ngnal ure of ' V 
cator,' 'in the fallaciea of library stall 
aivd made many other imponant oommuoi- 
catiana to the same jouriiat. >lewiiaalaoa 
valtied momb>.-r of tno Philological SocU-tT. 
An interesting piipur wnKvn in 18o0 dink 
with 'The I'robafale Kutum I'okition of 
l^nglii^h LauguagoVi'Ai'/u/. &c. J'ror.iv.-' _ 
cf. AXOS, Atray Chapter*, lt*8fi. p, 199>, 
Two yours Inter, in Jumiary I8ri2, Iw gave 
(hn aocii'tr lii« ptiiier on (Ordinal Joseoh 
Mezsofanti, whom lii^ acknowledged (apeu^ 
ing with the authority of a connoiaaeur) ' 
he ' I be greati'.*t linguist tin- world hu e' 
seem' (i6. v. 112). A aubM*r)Ueut t>aper 
the Hungnrinn language proi;un.'d nim 
lionour of elect JOR a« a member of the J) 
gar i an Academy. 

[Atlienwum, IH fv>pt, 1869; Bd 
FomiJiffru nnd Beref«rtar« of the IVii 
Mutii'um; Cuwiun'* Moitiori'-a of the Bri 
Mnsctiin : EopinadMcV Litt-mry Rccallei 
Itoyal CuiriiiLinBiori uii Uritiitb Muaamn, I 
p«noiiJil kui)*Iwlc«.l B. 

I iU:}), jouniniiHt and miniature-painter, 
in the Kiet Indies in 1770, wa.<i the son 
rnptiiin in thi< Tvynl tiavy. lie wa« m 
England at an early age (Uid placed at acb 
in Cht'shire. lie po6S««8e<i Ulont oa 

arti«t, aoid deTot«d wnio time to tlio«ttidy 
uf drawing and pniiiiing. lu IF7O8 li« was a 
member of (he Society of A»^r>ciale>d Artists 
in \\'atercoloun. II« ulxaiuvd eocni- rv- 
nown as a mintature-ptiinter, and fmm I^WH 
to 1&10 exhibiifd miiiiiiturts at ib« Hoyal 
Acattvtny. In l^'l U ln^ wan nppoiiitn) minin- 
tnn^peinti'T ro tlip Princess CbBrltitlH. X(tt 
beiac sU« for snmei tim*< to n?8li«0 a *iilli- 
oient inoomp from {Miniing',}ie olit,nin(td nm- 
plo*rn)«at aa a parluintcntarr rppoTt«r oh tlw 
atatr of the * Momini; Post ' in 1^3. A bout 
1813 ba joinm] ibe 'Mornintf ('hronicli^' in 
the aauH capneitT. lu \Stlfi he uii<lertook 
to nutuifri* IDL- n.'porlinp tlepcirttnvnt of tbe 
' Rmimw-nlHlivi^* but, n-t liming tulhc'.Moru- 
iog (.'hronicle * in iha folli^wvng year, he ron- 
tutiied tu act »* a parliameatary raportvr 
tiU 1840. During this titne \\e alno (!on- 
tributed crilicinns od matters connL>cl«d 
with the fint' arts to the • Litcntrj- tiaMtti-,' 
and edited the 'Aaiiiial Ui<i|;raptiy and 
Ubituary' from ita com iopd cement in I HIT 
unii] Iti^l. Watifldied at liis lod)piig»ut 
Karl'ii Court 'IVrraoe, Old Urompton, on 
4 Jan. 1842. 

Jordnn »1sU>« thnt ^VuMs nrotti wveral 
indfTiPHdrnt works, ninone othpra a replJea- 
tjon of Mnrtin Arciurr ShtV* ' KhrmM in 
Art,' but that they were nearly nil published 

[tX^M'tf Annual Biuamphv. 1842, p. 4ST: 
Genu M«g. 1812, i. 3*J3 : .Morniae Cnmnicin, 
t Jan. 1843; JcTdann .IntobiograpTijr. 186:j, iti. 
J8a,iv. II8-2;.] E. t. c. 

WATTS, WILLIAM (l-'iK):- lomi. 
chaplain to l*ruice IJiipprt, ftoii of William 
Watta of Tibhunhnm, Nurfolk, waa boru 
tboTK about, l.'iW). He wiu> at whool iit 
Moulton, and nt sixteen waa aJmilttid nizar 
at Onn^-illv and Gains Col1i>g«, riimbrirlg?, 
in leOil. Hf> gmdiiBlftd R.A. in 101 1, M.A. 
m ION (Vkkx. .1i/"iM«K>n', p. lOTiliiind wns 
toll'-K*- chaplain from IfllOto lB2fi. fk'wiw 
incorpi>rat4.Hl at Oxl'urd on li July KflM, 
and m lIUO v-as cr(^at(.>d D.n. (IFosti;!!, 
Alumni, I5UO-1714). IIv travvlled on Ihv 
ettatiiK^nt aft^rr Imivihk collcgt?, anJ becaniH 
a goad lin^ifit. In Dfcemlwr I l):iO \w ac- 
OOmpanii;'! Sir Albi-rtui) Murt.on [(|. v. | n* 
chaplain on hin mifuiion 10 th« united pro- 
Ie»tant princes vH (iennnny. 

Ill llilM bf- wat a|>pan>ntly nppotntod 
vicar of Jlarwick, Norfolk, the next year 
nyctor of St, Alhiin, Wood Stroijt, London. 
T1i« fonrnr li\iii^ he mami 10 have fai'Ld 
until lt(4«, a* oil 34 April of that year he 
waa includt^ in a list 01 wquvKtrat^^'d dultn- 
quaiita mid hia a«tate vaiLi>?(l at 81, (C'al. 
CbaaH.Jor Oampoimding, p. 1 1 4 ). From thn 
city rectory ha waa driwu in 164^, liia wifo 

and children rvuderod homelcas for a time 
{ l'fr$ectitiu r'w(/(*-iwa, p. 44). IVrbaps liiit 
absence from both livings accounta fwr this 
tnatnivDliforhv vraHsen'ingia IC^ as army 
chaplain to Lord Arundel. iTie gem-rnl uf Ihn 
forwa, witbfiupervifion of all the olhnr chap- 
laina \f.\il. Htnte I'apgn, Horn. HKiy, p. ril). 
He was apiioiiited a prelwndary of WiUU on 
' 111 Miirch Iti:t.%, an<l m hi4ri vrus nominated 
archdearon,hiit of this cliarg«> he m-vi-r look 
poMeMiOTi (Lk Nevk, Fntti, i. iUl, IW). 

I'jmn I'riiiec Itupcrt's rvtiim to £n){laad 

in 10 li*. Wads, who had iirt-vioiialy held 

I tliL" post of cUnpUiii to llitt kiii({, bLsraunt 

' uttaehi-d to hiui. 1I<> jiccoinpaniBl the 

priiici- ililo the fi«ld, uiul wax pri'M'nt 

throughout many actions. Hti nlso ntt<*iided 

' liim nt Kva, n.n<\ diirin|{ tlio blockade of the 

I myaliat ahipa under the prince in KinMl« 

I llarbobr, Watts FiL'kened of on incurable 

diaeaae, and th'-rt-diisl about Di>rcmber 1649, 

lie waa buried in Ireland. 

Ilia wifii, II daughter of Vau(:han, raini- 
Hcr of Ai-hicud, Jjurny, brotWr of Richard 
\'aughan [4. v.]<, biahup of liondon, with at 
lOQst one iwii, Biirvivvd him. 
I Walla wan a ■'ciiular, l«nrn<-d fur hi* ttme- 
I Gvrard A'osaius {Df I'itiU Sermonia, lib. ii, 
CMp. xvi. Sic) iiniiscs his creiii work, the 
I'dition of the ' EliAlona .Major' of .Matihtiw 
ratis. London, ItUO.fol.i lVLi,iai4; Lon- 
don, 1 lUM [ (WW V\ Ris, .M \mrKw\ He aaaisted 
Sir Hisnry Spplmnn [f[. v.) with his glooary, 
and h)« tmiuliilion of t\w ' CoaAitaioas of 
I St. A»|rut«tiiiL>' (London. Hiii], ]2roo} was 
edited oy I'uwy in It^iS for his 'Library 
_ of the Fathers.' He bIao iiwuttd a numtwrof 
i newaleitvns uudi-r tlie title of ' The Swedish 

Of other wiirkfi mentioned by Wood only 
ono ft*Hmi*i lo liH fxtant. This is a inanu- 
Fcripl trpatiH! on llin Riirpllce entitled 'The 
I'linrchV Linen Garmeol,' duled HHt!, now 
nmonff the Tanner tnanuscripta (No. 2ii'2) in 
the uodteian Library. Kliot Wnrburtoii 
('|. v.] eoi^joelurcd thnt Watta was author of 
1 wo man uecripladescribincf portions of I'rinL'E) 
Uupcrt'fl mnritimt^ cxploita during the Cuin- 
monwcallh. ThcsL- ^\ arbiirlon found among 
the Uupurt miLiu)M;rit)tK ami print<jd in iho 
third volume of his 'Life' of the princt*. 

^Vena's Biuuniphieal Hi«. of Oonrille and 
Cuius Cull. i. l»3; \Vo<iir» Farti. cd. Blits, i. 
883 ; StrwcuurtV Hflp«r(. KccloK. i. 23« ; IJoyd'a 
Mciuoirvf. pp. 604-5; CImlnKina Lifeuf Uuddi- 
maa. p. lU: Cha!m^rA*rli)in^, Dift. xzxi.Si'it: 
Cidniiij a Nori<:anr. Mtm. i. "5 ; Wnlkor's .SiitTatv 
inija, ii. "2 ; Blorjiefleld'it Kurfolk, x. 207 : Wnr^ 
burton's Life of Prino« flupert, iii. 234, 2T8; 
lAiKHlovne MS.080. fol. 164 ;Cal.StnloPapeiv, 
Doiii.l6i8-9,p.6U.] C.F.S. 




WATTS. WILLIAM (1762-1861). tin*. 
enffravpr, tlie wn of ft master *ilW weaTer 
ill Jloortields, ma born esrlr iii I"fi2. Ha 
rvcuivo«l Iiis urt Iruininig from i*ku1 Suidby 
[H- v.] and Hdwuni llrH)]!^ [<). v.j. and on 
till" dL'Bth of lIiH latter in 177-1 Ii« cuntinuud 
thu 'C[i]ip(tr-p!nt<« Mitfpixiiit',' comnnmo"*! bv 
Lttn, an(] piibllithnil a number of «iiETRvJngft 
of country »eat>t aft*?T Sandby. (lis own 
'Scat* of the Noliility nnd Oontry.' n serii** 
of eighty-fgur p]a|«R, followed in I77VM*H, 
He §old l]i« furniture and prints in his houiM 
Bt Kemp's How, Oiul^i'n, and wi-nt to hsly, 
nabbing NaplM iu September i7Htl. After 
about H ytiar he n>tunifd, and livL-d nt f^uii> 
bury,Middli'«'r. In 17H9h«wfiitt(i Carmar- 
then, in 1"(«J In ihn IlniweUH, Briiiol, and 
in 1791 til Bnlh, wlit-re b" xiionl tvrii yi-^ant. 
Hia vifWfi of thi' prin^^inal biiildinfrii in Rath 
and Brifital, pr«>pared alKiut this time, vfotv 
publiaht'd in IHIH. 'Tbirty-tiix View* in 
Jutland' appeared in two paria (1791-4). 
He wfts ki.'pnly intrneatcd in tbt^ French rv- 
Tolution, and wpnt lo r«nii in 1793, where 
Aomf of bis viewx of Kngli»b country seats 
wrro t-n^Tavi'd in colours by LauTvnt (luyot. 
He iiicetttud u)ri!tL of t]t» propi'rLy which 
lid had inlimted from his father, with his 
own «>iritiiigH, in thw Frr-uch fiiiid*, and the 
whnlH was confiscated, thnuiih he re<:o\nri«l 
a portion &t till' peace in IHIf), Hif« Iom com- 
pelled him lo ret urti to (he pnictift' of his 
profeesion, lie engravftd three of the ]>tnrefl 
in ' KiO*)t't Viewn in Lnodon and Wi'-imiii- 
ater' (1800), and «isr^-8v» coloiin-d phitf.i, 
fnim (IrAwinjot b^ Lin'iii Mayer, for i>ir Uo- 
berr .XinMiL''* ' \ icw* in Turkey in Kumpe 
and Asia'(l8Cl), Soon after iLis hureiiwd 
from his profeasion, and lived far a short 
time Bt Mil! IHl], Hundoii. In 1814 hu 
purcbaA«dasmaIlpni|M'rtyat nobhnm,Hiinwy, 
wiiarw lie diad on 7 ber. 1&51, iiftrr baviii^ 
been blind for wimr yonr", within a few 
months of hiB hundrtidrh birthday. 

HirnC. Miig. 1862. i. 420 ; Kedprav*'* Di«t. 
of ArtmU; Soatti Ksnuington Cut. of Ilooka 
on Art.] C. U. 

WACCHOPE, SiK JOHN (rf. 1683). of 
Niddrie, eovrnaDter. wns dflcrended fpnm 
Ihi- "Id faniilyof W'liiifliopi'of Wimdiopi.' in 
I)umfrit*sbire, who bt'came prnprini,on< of the 
landu of CiiU^ir, AberdueusUir-?, and from the 
thirteenth renin ry wr're hi-rtwlitary bailUea in 
Mid Lnthinci to the keith msrtMihiLi of Scot- 
Iftnd, afterward* farl inarischal, from whom 
they obtained the litnd* of Niddnu .Mnn»chnl 
in that eftunly, Hobert Wauchopi', (ii»>t- 
gTandfathernfSirJolin.undhia Bun und li'.'ip- 
apparent Archilmld were forfniled in l.'iH7 
(or aiding and nbettiag the turbulent fifth 

reS I 

Earl of Bothwell [see nepBUBKf Fius 
Strwabt]; bitl tbev continued lo defy jiu- 
tice, the MR, after being c«ptur«d in 1689, 
eacapin^ from tbe TolbootL during hia trial, 
Bjid living thereafter a wandering and Law- 
liMs life. Tbe fntlier also, alter taking pan 
in the rail] of KnlkUiid in 1&80. waa c«[h 
lured at Leamahagow by Lord Hatmllos, 
and placed in the cR»tUi of Prephan, but 
made hia escape with tbe cnnnivance of 
John Hamilton, the commander ofthe 

Sir John Wauchope was the eon of F; 
WaucLope of WaucbopQ by Janet Sandi 
landu, said to ha\'e been the dauKhtcr of 
Lord TorjihtchL-n. He was Ituigaied no 
'J2 June by Charles I on bia viail to I" 
land in IQ'63. In 104- ho joined in a 
lion of Deveral noblemen, biirgvwra, 
miniMers to the SciHtifli privy council, _ 
ing thnt nothing kIiomM Im* enacted pi 
dicial to the work of tbe liefomiatlnn and 
the presurralion of peace between the nro 
hingdnm:i (KraLniKn, Mt^ntonaU, ii. 1 
GiTUKT, Memoir*, p. UCij. A zoaloua eo' _ 
nnnter, he was prostint with Argyll at Itirei^ 
locliy agniim ^]on[TOii*e in 10-15, but did noi- 
lake part in the battle, haviug the premnu 
evL'ninf; },'un«i with Argyll aboard AreTlTs 
ualley (SpALBlXO, ii. 4J4 ; firrHRv, p. IST' 
WiiuchopB died in .lanuary 1685. By ' 
wife .Anne, diiU)fht( r of Sir Andrew Hs 
Ion of Itedlioute, brother cX Thnma*, t-arl of 
Haddington, he had two bous— And 
n ho jon'cri;drd liim ; and .Fiilin, who, ma 
iug .\nna, daughter and }ieirf»v of Jo; 
Hail of I'AlnioTidiitone, became the founder 
of tlw Wanchopea of KdmondMone. By 
•lecond wife, Jean, widow of Sir John 
hu had n i<on .lame^. trho served urn 
Dundee at. Xilli<rcmnkie. 

[.SirJaraioH [tiilfoiir's AiinaU; Itishop Outbrj'* 
Mrmuirs; CaKIi^rKOod'a Uiat. of the Kirk 
.Hcorlnnd; Spaliling'n Momorialain tbe S 
CIiil- ; rtiirkcH Ijimlfd I}«iilry; Anderaon'*^ 
li»li >*nii"ii.l T. P. B.' 

Sfolliiih divine, y<Min)iv*t item of Tb' 
Waiigh. funner, of 1-^st Gordon, Re: 
shire ('I. ITh;}), and Margarvt. his wifcw 
danghti-r of .-Alexander Johnslone and £lia- 
beth VVough, sUo of the farmer cUifW, was 
bom at Kiwt Gordon on Ki Aiig. 1764. Uis 
father waa a zealoim prt>«byteri«n, with • 
strong dislike of lay patronage. Waiigh wat 
A* H child d'jvotvd by bi« pumnts to the 
miniftlry. He was educated at the rillaji? 
school of Eust Gordon until 176d, irhen lia 
WK* i-ntered at tli» gTMinrnitr school of Etrfa* 
ton in llerwickshire. He was a high>$pint<d 
boy, a good clauical scholar, and a vliilfsl 
musician. In 1770 he enterwl tha unireruiy 


of Kdinburgb, Bud nuuifeated grtat apiitude 
for moral pbUosopbv. la August 1«74 lie 
piumed to the bur;gun' ikfCMtfion academy, i 
vTidM- ibemanaffemeiit uf Johnnmwn i\7'J.i- 
17t*7} l^q.v.] of lUdilitiKliii:. A n.-r Mitn<! hesi- 
tation Wnugh apcepleil Kmwn'A tlti^olrwical 
ImiLs of philoMiphT m it« entirety. In 1777 
he rwnovcd to the unlvfiMity of AtxTcletsn, 
and attended t he Ivcturvt of If ni, Il«attie nnd 
UunpbelL He prowedcd M.A. on I April 
1776, uid was liuuused liy (lie iinvbvtt.'rr of 
Edinburgh al UuuM on 'M June 177l>. 'JVo 
monthB later lie was appmnled tempomily 
for ton wi-vks to the McM$lon eonirregalioiiiLl 
diiirchof WellaSu«et,London. ThUdiurch 
enbaequently becaise the centiv of hia mini- 
stntiotiA; but lit th« cotirliiMnn of hU flret 
term of office there he received a cuU to the 
mmiAtiy of Nawtown in the mrish of Mel* 
n>M, Koxbtuightihire, lo which be was or- 
dained on 30 Au^'. l7tiU. The village waa 
Tsty am&lland [Htor, then van do iDaDae.iuid 
Waugh cooitinuiH) to r<>itii]e with bis twrenta, 
foaiteen miles aff, at Fast Gordon, Twiuu in 
May 1781 h« dwHiii'd a t-iill lo \\v\ln Street, 
IjOndnn ; hut when the mil woa repeated 
null year thy presbytery of Edinburgh ad- 
mitu-*) h;m to the London phiir|ri» (1) May 
17^:!). llifi vuoeeea at AVells Street was iof 
iiH-diatc and )n«tiitfr. 

Apart from hi* mitiUiurial duties, bis chief 
activities were absorbed bv the London Mis- 
aiooary Society, of which V- was one of the 
uriginal comuiiltw, formal on 'J'2 fr^ept. 1796. 
He ure«cbed al the Tabemiu'lo at thr second 
saiUTerfary mvttliug' ou 10 May 171^7. In 
on behalf of the tnU&ioa to ' promoto the 
reviral of ptirv rrligion in that roiinlry;' 
bill thi? rtin«>wal of war intt^rrupti'd hiaofTorts. 
Tbenceforlh he rasdc almost Hnnnally mis- 
sionary- toiin* through various parli* of 
land and, after \Hir,, through Scotland. In 
181:! he joined Dr. Jack of Mnnchcrttrr !n a 
Bussionary tour in Iri'lnud. At MrisU)! in 
the iame year he formed an aiuciliari- branch 
of tho cocivty. He sat for Iweiity-uiKhl 
yoani tut chnirman of (lie i-xamininK com- 
mittee of the society, and was also a inembi-r 
of th«? correepondint; boanl of tlie Siwii'ty fur 
propaj^ting OhriAtianity in the Uigblaude 
and Islands of Scotland. 

In 1^12 Wanf^ was largely iiutniinental 
in tlie enUT:geineat aud improvement of the 
paalmodr appointed for church use. He re- 
erired the denva of doctor of ditinily ia 
I81.'i from ilie Marischal Collcpt af AWrdeen. 
Throuj^h lift) he wasone of the tnoet 'iffectual 
friends of Mill Hill jtchoot. H« died on 
14 Tu-c. 18:^7, and wan buried in Rimhill 
Fields on '22 I>ec., (he funenil prccestion. 

which included ministitcs of all <litnoniina- 
tions, bdiii^ half a mile Ions. A marbl» ' 
tablet til hiH mi-niury wiis placed in Well 
Strt^t Chapel by his congn'jpition. 

Waiigh married, on 1(J Aug. \7H6, at Kdtn- 
crow in ib'-parifth of Coldinphnm, Berwick- 
shire, Mary S'eill, danffhtrrof Willism Nvill 
of Edincrow. and Jlarioiret Henderson his 
wife. l!y Imt hi- had sL^ sons and four 
daiightera. His wife died on 20 July 1840, 
ngutt (Jt>. 

Tliem arp iM-vhnil uortraita of Waugh still 
extant. The b4>Bi is a drawing bv W| 
mann, reprvsenting him, hatf-lengtfi, in 
doctor's gown and bands, Thii» portrait w« 
reproduced in the memoir by Hay and Bel- 
fragt'. Tfl»*if i-xecutcil two gem ji'irtraits, 
out! of which wat> diytrihut4.-d in a ctuneo 
iwproductioD amoLig all branrbc* of his 
family. Tbcrc is an oil-painting by nn un- 
kouwn artint now in tlii;! |>r)K<iwiiun of Mar- 
garet Waugh in Ilrisbane. A watcrcolonr 
porlrail, by an unknown art lAt, is in the pos- 
session of his grandiwn, Alexander Wougb 
of Midsomer Norton, Somerset. 

Besides single «ormonv, A\'augh published 
'Sermons, Expositions, and Addrut«ea OC 
the Holy Communion,' London, i825, 8vo. 

[&I''mo'r of tho Hav, AWandor Waugh, D.D., 
br the Iter. Jutiwui Itny, Il.[). a»d thp Re», 
Hnnry Rflfniga, D.U, 3rd ndit., £dinbaij{h, 
1B8»; I*'nmi]y Paper*] A, W. 

(1810 Ift7ft), major- gen [Ta] royal (late Ben- 
gal) eu[riueer«, surveyor-general of India, 
eldest son of <!icncral (iilberl Wangh, mili- 
tary Buditoi-g^'ii'.Tul at Madran, grandson of 
Colont-l Uilherl Waugli of I irnreinuunl, Mid- 
Lothian (descuuded from Waugh of Shaw. 
Ktanclnrd-bearer at Flcnlilt-n Fields, and 
nephew of Sir Murray ^Inxwell of thf royal 
nary, WB* biiirn in India on 3 Feb, 1>SI0. 
Ilewasi'ducali'd at Kdinhnreh High School, 
and, after ps-^ing through ihe military col- 
lege of the En«t India Company at Addis- 
combe in lialf tbi.- uriual limv, came out 
drat of his term and received a rommiMiinn 
as heutensnt in the Ik'iigal engineers on 
1;) I)i«. 1H27. After a i-nuwr' of jirDfeptBinnnl 
instruction at Chatham under Sir Charles 
Paeley [q. v.], who n.-commmded him to the 
chief pnginoer nt Benga), Wangb wnt ti> 
India, arriving in ibut country on 35 May 

Wuugb was appointed in tho following 
year lo assist C^iptain Hutchinson in the 
coneiniction of tile new foundry at Koaai- 
pur. On IS April IStl he was aj)|Kiinted 
adjutant, of the Bengal sappers and miiii»n(, 
and on 17 July 163-' lo lue great trigono- 

metrical axmy of India under the tmmc- 
di«ti? direction of Major («ft«rward« Sir) 
f)t'org:ft Kv*rest (q. t,], tha iiirvevor-geneml. 
Waugb, with Ilia fri'.-nil Bud (.'unlttrnponTj, Hfimv ( ftftarwnnls Major Iteniiy 
Tailyniir). vraa s«nt in tti« ToUawiDg yuar 
to asciiat in op^rnliontt ii>-nr Sinnij, (o rarrv 
a ferics of Irlnnglpii up nii>> of ilia m^riiliaiis 
fiited by the lonffitudmal nerie*. They en- 
plorod the junglt* country between Chunnr 
tod th« Bources of tin* Snno and Nnrbada 
up to Jabalyior,and subniittod a to]io^phi- 
cal and ^otofficnl ivporr, now in the (p>o- 
Bmphical ilBtwirt nienl of the ludio olliee. 
In thefoUowinp yi-ar the tfur^'OTor-ppiit'ral 
wniU'ofHcinllv in lerin* ■>!' ^r«Al rou]fu«iid«- 
tion nf Waujth'fl rnpitbilit Ibm and SBrriceB. 

In XovembtT lsri4 Wmigli jointjd thu 
hi'adqHATii?r!i of the survi^ynr-frpncral nf 
Duhra, fo assist in munsnrins tbo huRe-line. 
In April lKJ.'i. Kiiti-*! haviiif; ri-prew^iitiil 
thai 'Vaiigli anil Itfimy iiiniuesiioiiably eiir- 
pns4t>«l all lilt' oth«r oflioTs undi^r his order* 
m mulb(!inalieal and othur seieiitifi;; knttw- 
Iwctifi-, in corrt^hitrM. nf i-y« autt in tlir-ir 
Aptitude anil fkill in th** lotiiiipulBlianof iht- 
largi.T clni''' wf in»lriinirnlii, Waunb whs ftp- 
pointed aatrnnomioal nii.aiBiQnr for the cf>IpA- 
tialobserrationscoiinecltHl n-tilitli^miviKun^* 
monr of the proat arc. At the end of ISUl 
he was ul l''athgarh,conductio|f the rout^cr 
serien of the ijreHt trijtonomelriciil »nrvey; 
but in Juhii;irT IMft lie ji)ini»d KverpHt at 
Baini. to ha-i'isI in tbi? ineaAiir(<ment of tlie 
arc uf tho meridian rxtendinff from Cnpo j 
Coinurin Co l*elira Duii.iit thr baxeof i]ii< i 
IlimnlayaFi, eommnncinR with the northern I 
baf<(;-linL< in thv I'elira Dun valley, uiid von- ' 
uvctin); ii with tlit- lu-ar Siroiij, 
Bomi? -IfiO milfttt to tin.' south, mid n'measur- 
in(r the Ullff in 18^7 with tin" n*-\v bnr* 
which h'ld beflii iisei! nt Dehra Dun. Tbo 
wonderful nccnmeT sfcureil in tliwi- fi|>"r«- 
tiftiis niBT be estimati'd by the difreninct'." of 
length of the ])''hra biii>*-lini^ &s mcnsiired 
ami ns di-dueed by trianp niatioiis from Sironj 
being 7*2 iimlivs. 

Even-lit fontinwid In report in tho very 
highest trmiB of tin.- ability and Biif'rjjy dis- 1 
plaVLKl hy \\'atii;li,nnd (hi- oourt nf dirMCldri* 
of JUl'; India rompany on soviTal necn- 
aiona espreFSed their njipn'ointiiHi of liiti 
acrviceji, Ili* rraininu undiT F.vrost in- 
alillcd into hiiii the iniporrunce of Ihees- 
trcme occurticy wifh wliieh gcod*?tle mea- 
iturcmeuT8 hav- in b<' cmidncted. In No- 
vember 18'(7 two pnrlii'f. w.-n- funned, tme 
of wliiich wai pinoi-d uiHlrr W'nufth to work 
iioutliwiirdo iiH till! buM- I'u^'Ari) Id .Inlet ipurii : 
the olhpr. iindor EviTt'it, pn-eci-ding Hp"ii 
the base Kuluriii> lu llauod. ThK work wan 


flat iafacT only accnmpliihed by the end of 
. Febniary 1(^, when Wau^ wu dvlaehed 
into thu nizam'a country lo leal the •wu- 
nicy of ibv i rianirulation butwm-n Bedar aad 
Tolialkhard nml lo lar out tJir t»tf of itn ab> 
K>rvutoryat Uamarj^iilda. 1n(trtn1>3r hetook 
tbf fi'-ld, commencinfr with luimuth obaer* 
vations, at Damarjiidda, and. wnrkinff Rortli 
with the trianpulat icn, completed bia portion 
of the work at the t-nd of March 183W. He 
shared with Kveresl tho arduous olwi-rva' 

, work carried on simultaneously at tli« 

lion) oj* Kniiana, Kaliaupur, and Damar> 
ffiddn from Novembrr 1839 to Slurrh 184[\ 
by which the arc of amplicitde was 
, mined. 

I In 1841 Waiigh waa (>ngii^d in the 
I mffiKUFiiiaviit nf ilie Bedar bese, which 
fliilted in a ditl'erence of onlf 4"'2 ioi 
IVlween 1HJ4 and ISJOWaugh bad 
diictt-d tliei ltnng;bir soriea of triAnjrlM in 
Ni.irlU-Wesi I'ni vince.i.iuid in 1k42 he carried 
tho triaiigulntiun ihruuKh lb« inahiriouK 
iJohUkhund Tvmi, which Everest con&idertd 
lo be ' as citinnltfttt u )ip«^umtr» of mpl 
combined wiin aeciimcy of execntioit. 
theri' U on nixinl.' 

At the end of IRi;! Kv.-n'at r>^tiri*<l, ntii, 
in n'oom mending that Waiich should »uc- 
ct-fld him aa surrey ot^ijeneral . he wrote; 'I 
do not beaitate to alakc my pntfeasiotial 
nimtAlion that if your bonounible coiiH 
bad ilie world at \'ourdispOMlwherefrvim to 
iselwcl a ptT^m wfin*.? mm total of pnetical 
skill, ihcoreticul altaiuntpnt,^wers of en- 
dunuice, and all olhvr v^M'nlial qualitJef 
were a niaximum, Lieutenant Wauxli would 
bi- IIhj very perijou of your choice.' Altboogli 
only a subalti-m of iuvhI uneineent, Waugb 
wa» nccordinply aeleeied f) nil, from 16 Dec, 
IKW, (his viTv Ti.'>pfin*ible and imporlaai 

foal, l\e was promoted to be capraia oa 
4 IVIi. J(^44. He be};an by oarrj-iDJC wil 
the ramnminir ftTii-s sov^-n in niuDber^ a 
total of aonip tbirleeii hundred mitn ia 
li^njrtlip emhracin/7 an area of sone ivretiSy- 
eit^Iil thousand aquoru milei". uriginln; 
from the Calcutta lonpladinal ai>riea oa Om 
' (iridiroii miem ' — projected by Erenst 
(Iti form a romtrl. conception uf I hia qretMB, 
ftoe the chart farinp p. 109 of the .VewoiV q? 
fAe Indinn ^nrrfu]. The cmiteni elde ww 
fnrmod bv the {^aleutta meridional seriM 
<l>H^un in'1^14 and flnished iu 1H18), whidi 
tcmiinnled in ennther bAso-lino near t^ 
fool of the Darjiliiig hills. 

On^ of tliu fijQeat of surveying Oponitiaa* 
cimmeuctsd about this jteriod waa the noRli- 
es«t IlimnlnvnMirii'a.ciiiiwwtiiijjthonnr'' ~ 
end of aU Hil* bcfore-mpnlioncd mer 
seriiM. lu lh«su lidd uperations V. 




tookn WiliQif pnrt. TUe Uue of tb« country* 
wa> titong tbt- taae of the Iliiniila>'a Terai, 
and proved very ili-ndlj' to • Itiyv prvpurliun 
of the iintivr i:»tiLbUihnu>nt and to DQftny of 
tliff Kiim[)«ai) ufHcera uiid asSifitanta (40 out 
of J<iU were burit-d in nnd about ihn nwnrnpy 
fonaU of Oornkpur). B.v tlie% o]>KrBtiou» 
vere fitted Ibe positionii mad b>'i{;hti of 
serentj-iuiw of ilii- Hi^ho^i an<l fj^mndcat of 
tbu JlimalsyaD peaks in .Nipal ami i^ikkiui, 
one of winch -natire tuttae Dovidangn — 
S0|OOi f«!t bIwvu llttt «.*«, was iimiii«-<d b,v 
Waug^li .Mount Kveresi, and woa fbtutd to 
be tlu! higbest io the world. The series itm 
die lodgvAt HTtrr <:aiTJt-<I bclwwn oinosuivd 
hfliri, Wnjt IdOO inilBs long frnm Soniboda 
to U«hn Dun. 

On ^1 Hi**. Iftl" WftHgb WM given ihe 
local rank of lieutenant -colonel. In the 
MUthofludia, till' South Konkitn, the Madras 
cosal Mfitu, liui 8uulh i^iftiutU and South 
Hnloncba Mrie* vrvre b«^uo and tinifliml. 
Waofrh wa« now ftvv to imdcriaki' u project 
ori|fiaatfd bv hiinM'lf of fiiniiiiig ii ;*}'i>l<'m 
of iriangulatinn lo the weHtwanl of the 
great arc wriv« over thi* mul trmtorr, nmclt 
of it nftwlr arqiiirMl, that lay in Sind, tli<> 
North- ^\'estl'^ovincu»,ol11J ihv I'linjab. The 
Khich boM', nrnr .\lTi>I<. wn-i mi'a'^tiiyd in 
lft51-3, aad the nottli-wt-st iliiiulaviin 
■erioa, cnunattRi; from the IK-hrn )>a-i<-. f.t- 
t«nd(^d to it, xrhilf from Hironj thi< Citlcutia 
gwal louKiludinalMTicswosi-iirrU-dw^Mward 
to Karachi, clociug on enothtrr bflsc-Iinc nr 
Kamchi. mcuuix-d in lS54'-*i under Wiiiif;hV 
inini«diBt«< aupi>rrinon. Wauf^h wa-s pro- 
motfrd to be najar in the Bengal imgio(.v» 
oa S Auf^. IH&T). In )H>'iG the grt<nt Indu^ 
Miiep was ranmeiu'ed, fonuiti); ttit* weat«ni 
aide of tb« nurvey, havjii^; llii> uxujiI north 
Of Booth Buppleincniarv nn'Tiff. TUc mutiny 
in IW'-'t aelBye<I thin work, which wos 
linblly contplotcd in If^M). In IWJfi Waiif^h 
UUUtat«d a Krivs of leTvlHnji Dpuration* to 
itttrmiae ibe b«iffhts of tht> bW-linos in 
tin interior, conuDtiiiviuir in the luiius vullvy. 
Iff wa* proinoted to be rc-^i menial li<>u- 
li-nant-cofoovl onSOSapt. ]8o7, and in tho 
Mno year waa nwnrdtid th^ {wtrnn'i* ftold 
ntdfll nt the Itoyal (iMigraphira.! Soriety. 
In the followiniiyenr bv was elected a ftillow 
of the Roval Socirty. 

Of all tliti Indian euney work which ori- 
ginnled during ^^'augh'» tenure of olTici-, 
Uiat of Kashmir was p^ritAiM moi<t inter^^t- 
inp, "P"'" ''''^ work Waupb employt^ 
Omonel ThoniaA G«>nJO Muntsomeriu [q. v.], 
aodibemulta in 18G9elieit«d awamleltitr 
of arknoTrlediTminit to Wau^h from Lord 
Oannintf, (h*t gijvern<jr-i^>neni]. During 
Waugh'd tfnim' of office he advanced the 

triangulatioa of India by 810,000 aqiuirv 
milM, and of this &l,000 wvk topngraphi- 
cally (urvBved. llv vaa pntmotcd to lie 
colonel oi»']8 Ft-h. 1861, and retired from 
the eervioe on M M»rrh follmvinff. He n- 
cinvrd tbe honomrv rank of major-jrcneriil 
on A«r. ll*ei,and in the B«in^ vi-ar he 
wjM knighted. The tneraUrs of the nin^y 
deitortmem pres<-Rt<-<i him, on h-aviii); India, 
with a fan-wi-ll addrcw and a Ber%i<r<- of 
plate. On his r«lin>ment he rvtided in Lon- 
don. He was a dt'imty-litutenanl of the 
city of I^udiHi for many yeara, a prominent 
meinber of the rounal of Lhv Jlov-al Qeo- 

frajihical Society, and it«Tice-pre*iJt>nt from 
SnT to 187l>, honcirarv owociate of the 
Geoirraphical docieties of ButUii and Italy, 
a ft^llow of Calcutta l.'niversitv, and nn 
active comoiiliL-v-mnn nf lii.» I/Oiidon Athr^- 
niciini Club, to which he was eleci«Kl hv ihi- 
cooitnittr^ for distinpuiiilird nerviw. ' H» 
(lied at hi* rwiilanet'. 7 J't'ii-rshum T«mce, 
Qtu-enV Gate, on 21 K-h. 1878. 

Wtiiigh inBrried. Hn.r, in lW-1, Jmephine 
(rf. liWfl), dflujrhh-r of Dr. \Villi»in Grahiitn 
of I-:dinhureb, and.Mtcondly, in IPTO, C*'ciliu 
Klixa AdNatde, daughter of Lteulvnaut- 
general Thomiu Whitehtad, K,C.B., of Vp- 
Inndft Mull, Lnncahiiirv. 

The refuIiH of ^\'auph'A work while aur- 
vrynr-geiiprul an^ given in some thirteen 
volumes and r.-port* d»pOBit«l in the India 
oHici', pan* of which, originnlly complete, 
apptar to havw U-en lost, IJu published in 
iWil 'Ini-lructioM for Topogmphical .S«r- 

[India Offlpe Rocorda; (.Sir) aninenta Mark- 
luim'ii Mcmointof tli4» Indian Surveys; R«poE1s 
of th» Ornii Trigunomi;i.rical Swrvty of India, 
1834 to 1841 : Ulten* in the PrisnH of Im!ia, 
17 IVb. 1661; Tha )lilli.3l Jan. IMl ; B^^nl 
Knginfwrs Journal. Way 1878 (a memoir by 
LivnlooaDl-Colond II. II. Uoiiwin Aiirt^'n); 
Times obituary notie., 38 Kel. I&78 . fJfrofjmplit- 
ca! Hiigiime, M«rcli 1878; iVeiidonlialjSildMM 
to tlw Knyal n«a{rmpht«il SociHy Iiv Sir 
Ruihcrforii Alciick. 18*8; Profeask-oiil fnperf 
iKi liidtnn Knpini-iTiug. vol*, ii. and ii!.; Vlliart'a 
Adi^.-w.-Cinbr : its II«r<iai and M«D of Note, 
p. 423 ; Noiore. '28 Feb. iind G .June 18*8.] 

R. H. V. 

WATJGH, EDWIN <1817-I890), Lnn- 
amhiri! jtoi-t nnd miecelhuieuns writer, was 
horn Rl. KochfJalft on :!9 Jan. 1817. His 
fat !itT, n shoemaker at l-luchdate, in decent 
circiimBtiincPA, came nf ii Northtunbrian 
etock,andhad rewjived mmc education ut 
th« local grammar aclKxd ; bis mother, a 
woman of pivt^ and rustic intclligeaoe, waAi 
daufihter of Willinin Ilowrarth. a HoDemi 
and ragrart'p, who belonged lo wuth- 

LAncasliin.-. Edtrin wm nlno wliem bis 
futlitr tlkn], <iiiiJ durintf liiit niot)t«r's vn- 
tltiBTOunt to carry on I he oumdcm in a humble 
viy her povvrty wiut »o gml ibat for wveral 
yvnn it eriliir dn-ellmg waa livrowo and her 
son's hanii-, She Umghihiin. hows v<jr,tor«ul, 
His fatliHt Iiiid Uh ■ few bnokn, niid among 
tliu first wliiph IiR read with nriditv were 
Foxe's ' Ilook of Martyrs,' h wmpcndiimi nf 
Englisli hiaMry, and Knfield'n ' Sptaikor,' At 
•evtto he tvc^ived som^ Bchoolin^, but it ww 
of a fitful kind. Alrvady lici hnd to AMiflt 
Lilt motlivr ut n »lic»>-»tall whicli wtie kept in 
Itochdale toarket. At twelve he *ftni*d 
his Gret wnpeH M nrrniid-boy 1o n lucal 
prwwiier mid printer, lus imither heiug u 
ma1oii.<) Wesleyan. At twolv ho imt««'d 
the service, in tin* unmn ciipni-ity, (jfThcimjiJi 
Iluldt-n, ft ItAchdal.! hfwkftellcr and printer, 
ro whom two years fifterwards h« wni hiHind 
appmutice, and under whnm he l*;ftrnf>d tn 
oe B printer. Aiuon^ the booka in llolden's 
tdiop he fouiDd onportunitirs for r^Adiiig 
which ho had mn Known before. He read 
with c«K<Tni-«M any IiistoriuB of his native 
rminry. Fmm Tim ItobViu, ibo peeudonym 
of John Golli'T [ij- v. ), ht-. leanied something 
of the literary iif^e thttt could bn made of 
the i-B-ncasbire dialw'- UoliyV 'Trwlitiinw 
of Lanciwhin:^ ' ;«c« Hnnr, Joiisl introduced 
him to romiLDtic eplaodvs in I^ncavtiire 
family hiatory and to tlm 1r>|^ndary lont of 
hii jtntivc cnuntT. Ha in (laid to hnTe 
vistvd in eiirty life everj- locs-lily which 
Boby liBfl aatfoclatrd with a legend. Kc 
devottri'd poelry «.* well as prose. One of 
tbi> b<K>liK which most inHucn<.'f<l him wt^ n 
or>ll«ctioii of border hitllndti. Wnugh'a writ- 
ings bear Hhundantteftlimony to Lin intimate 
knowlt'dgfi of the chief Enitli^li poets. 

]I)B apprenticeship ftni-ihed, Waugh led a 
wanderinf^ lift', finding employment ils a 
journeyuinn printer, c!ii«f1y in llni iirovincc-s, 
but for a time in London. At the end of 
cix or eevvn yearn h» returned to Roclidide, 
and re-ent*red lloldcn'a service. It wiw 
prohabty due to thij active part which he 
took in" Mtablisbing a literary inntituto in 
Ilochdiile that he was appointwl about IB47 
ft*WBtaut secryturv to th« Lancaahire Public 
School .\Mocintlon, iho hcad<juiirt«rs of 
which woru at ilnncbwter. 't'hi- HMOCietion 
had Ijeen recentlv founded to advooito the 
estahli»hiiK^]il in Lancashire of a system of 
popiilni- niid unaectarian cduwition, to be 
nupnoried by local rates aad administered 
by local hiiirdi* elected by the rat«payfn9. 
The post wua a mudc8i one, but anbrded 
him leisure for original comp(i§i(iou. The 
reception of ono or two of hi» attumpt« in 
prote, (lefiOri[itioDS of rural rambWj which 

a^tpeaml in the * Manchester EjutiDinea-,' 
encourag<.>d him lo |»ep*orerp. In 18r»i>, by 
which lime he hnd beiome thu tfuvn tmvt-IWr 
of a Manchester prtuling firm, a local hoak- 
aeller pubU*h<!d Inn first book, 'Sketches of 
Lancashire Life and IjOcalilW (reprinted 
from llm 'Manchi!«t«r Examiner'). Ii4iiio«i 
distinctive filature waa the nicy humonr of 
his reproduction, in their own dialect, of 
the daily talk of the Lancashire people. 

The welcome given lo the ' SkutclKc* was 
chiuRy local, but discerning judtreH out of 
Lancashire recoguiaed their sterling merit, 
and Carlyle, into whost- haitdK the vfduiiMi 
fcdl, pronounced its author ' a man nf de- 
cided mark.' In ISTiH, the vear after the 
■fikotchea" was published, U'nngh gn-adr 
c-stMided his reputation by bis son^, 'Cotoe 
whoam to the cJiilder an' me.' It was ftrsl 
printed in a Mauchest«c tusw^paper. and 
forthwith reprintrtd, to be given awav to hi* 
customers, by a Uaocltesler buukacllcr. It 
became at onco immensely popular, not Mily 
in LancashitQ but out of it, and evini in tJie 
colonies. The 'Saturday K«vifw' c*ll«i 
it 'oin' of tli« most delicious idytl.t in the 
world,' and Mi^ t'duttK (now the Buvne** 
Burdtitt-Coulte) had some ten or twenty 
thoiiaand cnpLM of it printed for gmtultous 
distribution (Milnrk, p. 29). 

The success of this lyric largely influt^ucvd 
U'aughV 8ubMqn«nt career. It aenl his 
' 1 ^anoashin) Sbecehes ' into a second Mirion. 
Many metrical compositions still remained 
in mnnawript. lie now prcnared some o( 
them for pubUcalioo, ana tlivy Ki^eand, 
with many additions in the LancasbiN 
dialoct, iti hU ' I'ocms and Songs* (18£8). 
Offers of work poured in on him frots 
local editors uid publishers. About 1S60 
he detiTiniuml to d'-iiond srdely on his pen. 
and for flAeon vbbts, with occasional pohUs 
n-«ding:K frnm nis works, he made it suffice 
for hifi hUTiport. During that period he 
poured forth prose and verse, Songs, tale*i 
and chiiracter-skotchc!, realistic, humoroas. 
pathetic, which were illuittrntivo of Lanca- 
shire lifo in town and country, in lln- norlti 
m Well as in the south of the county, and ia 
which abundant ium was made of ite dialsct- 
BeflidBS theai! them were more or leet 
pict.nresquvly writ inn njirr&tires of tour and 
travel outride Lancaahire, in the Lake 
country, in the south of England, in 
Scotland, in Ireland, and cvon in llkiot- 
land. They were i^ued in various fomsi 
from the broadsheet upwards. One of hif 
earUer writings during thu prolific period 
describes in grapliic detail the districta nwl 
deeply alTucted by th<j cotton famine of 1^^ 

In ]S7(i, on Waugh's hi.-&ltb becomti 


iofinn, a committw uf bis i.Biica«Liirv ail- 
miren took over bis eowyrights ntui ouhsti- 
latitl for bic prwariuiis Utemry gsins a tixttd 
nnnunl incfiiiit\ In I8SI Mr. CllH<Utone 
cuoTemM] oa Waagh a civil-liBl ntiiution a( 
90/. a ,vMr. Betwtwn 1881 KnJ It<8^ he 
|Mibliahed a collective edilinn of hw ■works, 
in ton Toliimes, finely and cojiiouiily iHtit- 
Irau^l. SiibMquently ' h* sent forth Lu quii-Jc 
euceeuion i new aerie« of povinii.' Tlf.-y vt'.rv 
prints singly io a ManchtHti-r nt^wAiiiiper, 
uul in 1869 thvy aQ<l soma •.'nrlier rernf« 
were ustiud aa voltiran x\. of tlii- rollt-rtir>> 
edittoD. He died on SO Apnl 18!I0 m, New 
Jtrighton, aimt^rin^-placvun tiie l^ncasUiro 
oout. IIU remains wt^n^ biMiig)it to Mnii- 
cbraler, and an ii May !iv wua buri(.-(i wIlli 
public r^-rftnontnl in Ktrnal church, in the 
vicinily of his domicilt for tnuiiy yuara on 
Kersal Moor. 

The poDularity of Wniigh'K writing wuh 
increasEMJ by bta dealli. A Diodtiratfly priced 
odir.ion of ht« eeleclfid wriiinjrs, in 'liirht 
volume*, tvaa i«fli]Hd in l^P'J-.l, ciliUvl In- 
hii friend, Mr. fJpoi^^e Milnfr, Tvhn pn>fixcd 
tu T<il. i. Kn inslructive aiid iiiterestitiK notioe 
of Wnugh. Many of '\V(iiij;b'i!i taafi;* }iav6 
been wt lo mosic, and a lUi of tbom occupit-A 
aevertl ^ngti of Cb«> mutic catalogue of (be 
Briti&b Museum Library. 

PerMnally Wau)^ wan a atribing iiptici* 
men of the Murdy, inilflpenilent, pfnin- 
Kpoken L.atica»liiru man. liia km^ Btrti|,'irle 
before he l>ecftm« known did not im- 
pair his i^iiiality iiud checrfultieM, and 
be wa.4 not in tbi- b-ajtl npoilt by »iicceu>. 
Emiuently sotiul and i^nvivlal— a good 
aingi-r a« wi-ll a* writi^r of nongs — he wa* a 
very plea^^nt cninpaninn and an admirable 
Mory-teller, especiallv if ibe stories wen; tu 
he lold in hif favountc Lnnmahire dialed, 
lie bas bt^t^n called tbo ' Lnnensbini Durns.' 

[W»ogh'» Works, MilDi>r'« MeQn>ir; pcr»uiiiLl 

■Ivd^p : ' Unnebcatttr Memorifui : vidvin 

Mffb' in r.iierory Itocolltctiona and Skuicbcti 

1). by the writnr oS thia arlicle.l F. E. 

WAOTON. [See alto Waltiin.] 

"TALTHONE, yiMON be {tL l:iOGK 
M^lmp of Xoiwich, probably a ntitJve of 
Walton d'Kirille, Warwicbtbin' (DimuAi-K, 
WaiKij-khiiirf, p. TuiS), wad uuw of tbec-lerkft 
uf ICingJobn, and rectiived from him ibc 
church of Si. An.lrvw, TlastintfS, <in V April 
1306, and two other livinjffi in Ihr- two fol- 
lowioK yv*n. Uencted ad justice itiiieram 
for the nnrtb.rti coiintieatu lif-MJ, ftnd bid 
name coEstantly appears in kt«r cnmmiK- 
kion^ in I'VTi^ for various counliea; a tinn wax 
levied before him ia V2A7, bo that be may be 

t\ Way 

bt-ld to have tliun been a judge of the com* 
mon pleaa, and in M'i'i b« waa apparently 
Hiif^fjuatioeoftbatfaenclifFfm). Tu l'2(>$bo 
wii* ])reiienled to the rectory of Stoke Prior, 
Hi'rcfordshire, bv the prior and cuuvcnt of 
\Vorceflt«r, and m Itf'jj received from ibem 
a leaio of the manor of nanrin|;;t.on, Wor- 
c^slerfhire; hi«rnun«ction with thucouvvnt 
doubtle^ being through itobert de Walton, 
ibu vhambtTliiin of chtt liousQ, possibly liia 
brut her. WalierSufltJd[q.v.],bt»bo]iof Nor- 
wich, having diedoa ItiMay IS'S", Wauton 
wax flni'l4-d Io ibiit, MX-, and obtainvd coiifir- 
mutinn from the V\ng and the pope without 
difficulty, but is liaid (o bavi; Epest a Rtrad 
Kiim tbroujih iTieiMien(ft^rs wnt bv liim to 
Itome who ubtained tbe pope's license for 
him to retain the re vcnncK of 'tis (•tbtTprefer- 
meala along with bi# bi*Uopric for f'jur yiara. 
He wa>i coiisecmted on 10 Murch Il'oS. 
LutiT in that year he uiia ona uf four biidiupa 
ituminoned lu Oxford Io nettle a rvform of 
the churc-b, apparently with special refe- 
rvncw to inunatitcriv9 ; but tbiHr vehi'nie 
eame to nothing. In common with thp Arch- 
bishop of Canterburyand John Mimsel iq-v.j, 
bfiwas commiiflionfrd by thepope to alutnlvo 
the king and others from tbe oath to main- 
tain the provi»ii>u>« of Oxford. Ilia coiuh»- 
quent action in that matter greatly irritated 
toe baronial party, and when war broke out 
in 1263 he had lollcc fur nifiigu i^ the abbey 
of Jtury tjt. ICdiniiuds. Jl« died at a grenC 
age on '1 Jau, l^t}5~(l, and waa buried in hia 
cathedral church. 

[I-'uHi'i JudgM, ii. AOS ; Blomafiald'a Kurfalk, 
ill. 493 : Mau. Paria, v. B48, 647. 707. vi. SGS, 
299; Cotton, pp. 137, 139, 141; Ann. ila Dun- 
»lap., Aun. d« wi)(urri., \Vjk(<« up. Ann. Monast. 
ill. iv. painim (idl Ilullii S«r.) ; Frndera. 1. 40S.] 

W. H. 

WAY, ALBERT ClR{Vi-!874), anti- 
quary, bom at Bath on 2:1 June 180Ji, waa 
tbe only boh of Lewis Way of Slanstead 
Tark, nwir Itocton, Suawjx, by hia wife Mary, 
daiiatjter of llerinun Urewe, rector of Comb 
Raleigh, Devonshire. 

Tim father, Lewis Wir (1772-lWO). born 
i->n 1 1 Feb. 1 77:;, was the second son of Ben- 
jamin Way uf Dunham, and waa elder brotJier 
of SirUregory Ilolniau Bnnnley Wavfq.v,] 
He graduated M.A. in ITiVt from Merton 
Colluge, Uxford, and in 1797 war called to 
the bar bjr che Sonety of the Inner Temple, 
lie aftwwards enterod tbe church and de- 
voted to religious work.* part of a \iasfi legacy 
left kim by a stranger, named .loan Way, 
He founded the Marboeuf (English protec- 
tant) Ohap«:l in Parii<, which waa completed 
by hjH KCiu. He wan active in acbemen for 
toe ooaveraiou of the Jews, but was not a 

little impoeed upon by unworlhy ouovurtA 
vho boeaina inmates of kit Imiuw, lienco 
MncDuIny'it luim : 
l^li, m/ri the prvrerb, haa Iii> UMt. 'Tis tno. 

Marsh Iotm h wnirorenr. CuhIm » pUj, 
Ilannut ■ f«Ioa. LdwiK Wnf a Jnw. 
Th» Jwr thp filvgr sputMiH of l.on'iK W117. 

Uo died onSrtJun. 1(^10 iTECVBr,**^. Lift- 
ijf Macaulatf, t^htip. i. ; cf. Xnt^n ttnd Qwrirg, 
fith RUT. xi.'j'ht, 7ih BIT. i. ft?. 137), 

AlWl Way wiiK t«JucHtE<d nt home and al 
TrinilT TnUi-jfe, 0«mliriHip>, whero lie gra- 
duaUii B.A. m 1.^29. and M.A. in ]8:tl. In 
tiarly life lii? trftv.01eil in Europe und tlia 
IIoIrLnndM-ith Lis father. In ]^'t9 ha vraa 
eleCtwi fellow of llie Society of Aiitiijunnt^, 
and was ' dirvctor ' of tfii' Micieiv from 
lft*L' till I84t(. when he Ipftl^mdon to livv 
at Wonham Manor. U'-IgaCf-. Hi* was a 
founder in Itl4ri of Ibo ArcUiL-olugica! In- 

Way wa« a Bkilfut drauirhlHman and a 
good Kngliah anti>]uiirv, who contribuied 
much to ihc publirntioim of the .Society of 
Antiijiiarii'!! and olhir societies llin prin- 
cipal piiblicfUion wfw liin Wf;ll-known tdition 
for the Catnden Sociuly of the ' i'roinptoriiini 
Pan-ulonnn»iv«Clcricorum"(18.|;( (k^,4to>, 
the Gngliah-Latin dlctioiutry compiled by 
Oeoffivy thL> prammftrian fn. t.] Way di.'d 
al ItantH.'.! on 'J2 March \Sfi, It« marriM, 
SO April 1M44, Kminplin*. daugliter of Lord 
Stank-y of Alderloy, by whom he hod a 
daughter. Hiit widow premntod lo lh« So- 
ckty of Anii<]uarifts a hnndrcd and fifty 
volummof diclionarie* and glossaries from 
his library, and two rolumfs nf lii>> dntw- 
ing* of prthiiitoric aud othor remains. She 
ako prc-scnted to the socwty hi* finp collec- 
tion of iinprcs«ion« of uiediKval HfalR. The 
aooiety pouesiies a wax mvdaltioo portrait 
ofAVayby It- C. Lucas. 

l.Vnntial Rag. 1874. p. 147; Prao«iKlinf^ of 
Soc.of Antiqaariaa,lft74,|ip. IDBf.; Burka'sIliNt 
of Ui« IVimmonan. ».v. ■ Way «f Dnnlmtn ;' WanE'e 
Monoftho rtt-ign; Brit, Mae, Ciil,] W. W. 

BUOMLRV (I77fl-Ift4l). llcutcnanl-gent- 
ral, bom in l^ndon on ^i* i)i!C. 1 770, was fiftli 
mn of Bpnjamm Way ( 1740-I><08), KK.S., 
of Dfnbani Place, l)uckini;^lmni»bin>, M.P.for 
Bridport in 176^, and of hi.* ivifn Eliwib«tU 
Anne fl'Jtt-ISSni, .-Ido^t d«ught,-r of Wil- 
liam Cooke (1711-1797) [q-v.], provost of 
Kin5'8Cr>llegM.Canibridjre. HiaifnindfathM, 
l«wiB Way (J. 1771), director of the South 
So* Company, thfldrarendant of an old wmi- 
eountrrlamily, first settled in Budfinffham- 
fthire. Tliaaunt Abigail wa* thewifeof John 
Baker Holioyd, first earl of ^huRield [q. v.] 

He entered the amy aa ensign in the 
fi»ot (Camvninians) in 1797, was captured 1 ^ 
French ]iririit«'nt when he was on his waj 
to join tus re^ment iu Canada, and wa« i» 
lainnl a pri»nni^r in France for a y«ar bdbra 
he was exchanj^ed. tie waa prainoud to be 
lieutenant in the Sotb foot on 3 Nov, 1799, 
and sailfd with hii* n'^rimeiit in tlie expedi- 
tion under (leneral Vif^M on 2** Mnnli IftlW 
I for iho .Mcditt^rranean. Arriving at Malta 
in June, bo ttwk part in the fiog» of VnleCta, 
whichcnded in trn'oapitnlnl ion of the French 
on '> H«pl. Ilf n-tiimed lo England in ISOii 
was promoted lii hf captiiin in th>^ 'A'Ah fo 
on IS Auff. of thai year, and shortly all 
waa plooea on hnlf-pay on reduction of tl 

AVav waa brought in as captain of 
Sth foot on 30 Jan. 1603, and, afti-r M-rvii 
1 in tbo Channel Inland*. enib!irki.-d with 
I reiriiiicnt in the o\pedilioa undt-r !jr>rdCBt 
I cart for the liberutiuu of Uaoovcr in ' 

but the veasel in which hi- saiW won - 

[ oi' the Tcxul, and he woe taken maoaerl 

I the Dutch. Afl»r hi* excbanse E« smiled 1 

' thu end of October ISOtl in tV 

nn<W Major-general Robert Crauford [q.T. 

originally deittim^ for Chili, to Cape 

VvrI, St. llelena.andiheCapifofCnwd Uop«, 

wliftncf, in uccordaucc with order« receivud 

there, the exptKlition mailed for the Iliver', arriring at. Montn Vifteo in the be- 

?:ijiuing of June 1807. where it jo(ni>d the 
orce under numeral .lobn Whitelocke , q.v.J, 
of which \Wy wa-i A]tpoint«d i\a«i«tarit quar- 
t^Tirasler-general. Al ihe «tonatiig of 
Buonotf .AyTv-« Way led the right wing of 
the infantry bri^de. Uo returned to Eng- 
land ntttr tho disOAtroua captlulation. 

Wav wa» promoted to ne nujor in the 
29th loot on 'jr> Feb. IPIW. H.- *.>rved nndw 
fiir Hn.>nt Sptuci^-r off C«dijt. and with him 
joined Sir Arthur Wrlii-alry'i' «rmT. landing 
in Mondegn Bay, Portujral, on .T Aug, He 
toot( part in the' Imttle of Itoli^a on 17 Aug., 
when, on (niining llw plateau with a few 
mi^n and onicers of his regimeut, bo, whwi 
charged by the enemy, was rencned from 
the bayoaet of a Fr«neh grunadi»r by ihu 
humanity of Genemt Brenier, und made a 
prLMiner. He was exchanged in time to take 
p;irt in the operations in I'orliipiil wlmn Sir 
Arthur Wellwley retnmpd in April 1*00. 
He crimmandtid th<- light iornntry of Ttriga- 
diur-geneml IL Stewart's hrigo'lf, which l«i 
the aJdvance of the British nrmy, and was 
present in tlie artiona of tliL- piuaagt- of the 
Vouga on 10 May and tlie heights of Qrijou 
the following day, at the poange of the 
Doiiro tutd capture of Uporto on Iho 1 3th, und 
in the mbsequent pursuit of £3oult'« aruij. 




At llic Utile of TKl&VBTt an tbo ni^ht of 
£7 Jalv \\'%y took part witb bU rvjjitnv'nti 
vodmriihyir-gexifnl Hill, in thf gftllnni 
repubwt «l tli« point or tbe bsfooet ot ttie 
Ffpnch Mttmek of llit- Jwiphla on lliP left of 
tliP Britisii positiod. He wu present ftt tlie 
l»ltl« nf Riuaco on 'JT Sept. 1810, and kt 

on tli"» th]\ of Ilia lii^ut*u«nt-i.'oloo(?l, he suc- 
oeed»d to tb« comnuiDd of ihe 2l<lli foot 
durinff the actinn. for wliirli h'^ ri*c.-»-iviJ (Ii>' 
aedol. Ho was hiniM'lf, in charcing with 
hi» K-^nravnt, nbol tbrouKh th« Iwwy "od hia 
leA arm fracturMi at the olinuMpr-joint h; * 
"■ ii*lii-ti>ti<.>t. He wa« promoted lo be brevet 
ftitvn»nt-(!olonel on 3ll Mny )^Il,ftnd on 
ly of tiie Nune year wiw g^Kzetted to tli« 
im*nd of iht •."Jih foot. 

his return to Koi'laiid in 1812 uitli 
Bki-lutfin ff till' :fi'lh rvffiinent (aboiit 
i-ffcctivr- mcnl, H'ay by con- 
enion reforai^d thu coriw, sad 
flcoan<] time for the Pcnin.^uUt 
in IdlS. In 1814, bowavi-r, tbu cQWt of 
eiitsftta and wound* C(>ni|»'llLil him to dm 
torn to Kn^land, wheu fi- vftu* placed an 
iIk balf-pay lii>t of tb4> :^2nd fool. For his 
•ervioM br vma kniphtMl tJie ««ne yoar.wo:* 
'. «o Btinuity of 'HOOJ. tar his iroiinds, 
lived permiMion to acMpr And vcar 
igaitk of B knif^ht commander of the 
' order of the Tower and Sworvl. 
jaialuDg tliu ooiamuid of the :iUib 
)t hi^ was pi«*«nt«(l br bi« bruthnr oiri(.-«ra 
a TaliuMe piece oi plate as a memiHRto 
'their e^itecin. 

In i^^l-^ Way WAR mad^; a commnion of 
• < I- t)u' Batfa, militarv divnion, and 

■"d toUifrslAtfiixdivpulyadjutanl- 
gmwTui 111 North Britain. Hu n'lti pronwted 
to b» ooloDol in thf army on Hi July 1821. 
On t^ abolitiou of his ^talTairp'jintmvnl in 
SoAlud hewaa nominatf il, i>ii 7 Nm-. \itS2, 
colouil of tbi! 3Td royal T.?teran bart&lioii, 
wbicb wafi ilivhandisl in 1^2H. when Way 
wu plnoad on balf-pay. Ho wa.s promoted 
to b« nujor-gtmi-nl na 22 July IHCtO, and 
liMIfloanVpRnwal f»n S^i Nov. IWl.andwos 
grpon tbv col'jnelcy of the iNt W<^i Lodiui 
nffnmenx on *il Nor. Iku. He died at 
Bnffbl<ia OD li) Feb. 1A(J, and was burit-d 
intne fiiintly^-aull at iJrnhaui cluirrh, IlucJc- 
ingtwimthifr. Way marrifd.on ll> Afay I^IS, 
Ibrtanur!, daughter of John Wf-yland, of 
Wo<xWton, '.ixfonUhirp, and W<M>dri«ing, 
Nrtrf-illi. He l«fl no imu*. 

f:-(r Keiwrda: tkapotchas ; Itoyal 
.V ndar. IBM; VTorlu on the I'onin- 

•nlur »iir. Uailod Serri^w Jrinrnal. 184t ; 
Baiha'B Landed G«Btrv; Gvst. Mac. 1814. i. 
«7.1 ' K. H. V. 

WAT or WET, WlLl.LVSl (1407?- 
1470). trovoller. [See Wei.] 

IHAI), artrew), th>' dauj^bttir of a Datli 
tntiltutman named Cooke, waa bora in Uatli 
on 7 Feb. 1798. She eomo of a theatrical 
family, bet uncle being a m<-iubvr of tliu 
DniryJiansoompuny.ivhilo.Mr'i. We4t[q.v.] 
was ner couwn. After »i:t>iiiii{; u>nie in- 
Klniction in miL<<ic from oq«i of tbv Lodnv 
of ituth [tec Lot>£ii, Juii.s' Divio], aba ap- 
peared on thit Bath Mtagu on. HI Mnrcb It^IH 
lu Fllvitui in W'. R. Hi'wvtsDa'a ' Blind Boy.' 
In thit fiilIowiii(( Nran'm pbtt aiijw-arnd as l<eo- 
iiora in thi3 • Padlock " and .>ladffo in * l.ov« 
in H Vil]»f(«,' and pUyt-d in Bristol and, il 
ia said, Brighton. fVvnn afV^r rhi« limp she 
uccic>m|innied to Louden a Captain Dobyn, 
' it^inal whom her father broiig^Lt an aciK-ii 
fof loM of serviw, which was tried at Taun- 
ton and compronmed. Sbe then acted ai 
CoTentiy, wherf she met and married in 
lislVf Waylett, an actoi' in thoeompany. In 
, Ib^ Bho woa at the Adelphi, wh«ire «he was 
I thcori^ualAmyllubaoilLnl'lancb^'Badapta- 
I tion of ' Kenilworth,' mid thti fir»1. 8ae lo 
ber bimhand'e I'limeSt in MoncriL-fl"* 'Tom 
and Jerry' Sbr nlayi-d sa Mr*. Waylett 
Late Mi«6 Cooke of Bath. In ISii'A alie waa 
ju:(iii^ ill Birmingham under Alfred Bunn 
't\. \X playing in 'Sally ' Boolb'a part of Koae 
. Driarlvin'HuiibiLndgtLnd Wives. ]I>.'r«ing- 
in; 0^ ' Itfist th«>. Babe,' in • Ouy .Maiioer- 
', ing' eMablifbud ber in favour. Ciculy in 
I the ' Heir-at-Law ' and Th/!r«ti> in ih" pidce 
»o-uamt'd followed. She plarod Hve parts 
in '(.'hop* and Changc*r or Ibo Servant of 
All Wurkf'aud wosMeooa Ji>nny Oommon 
in ' Wild Uata,' Klien in ' IntriRue.' .\Uddin, 
I.ucy in the* BiTftl*,' Cherrrin 'Cherf?»nd 
Fair Star,' Pdtcli in the ' B.'isy IMv/tattlu 
in * All in the Wronp;.' Susanna in t*!)" ' .Mar^ 
rioge of Figaro/ FvlitciUa Tomboy in tho 
•Romp,' Diaua Vi>rno«, Slary in thct ' Inn- 
kee[ier'ii Baiifrbler/ Cbambennoid in the 

'Clande.4tinn MHrnam,'JMaicB,.Marianite in 
the • r>mmni!Bl,' Cilan in 'Claei, or the Maid 


ried,' Biutrre in the * tocoiutant,' Zelinda in 
the ' Slave,' and in many other cbaract<^ra. 

It. was aecordinffly with a fair amount of 
experience, with a large repertory, and witli 
a reputation aa a chambermaid and a aingvr, 
that Mn. WnyleU accompanied liar nunagpr 
lo Drury Lane, wbtirt-at ahw appeared ma 
Mod^ in 'Lore in a Village* on 4 Doc, 
l8tM. Tfai? KUNtointnl and exceMire eulogies 
which bad been bestowed on her in iho 



littl« imposed upon by unwortlij cunvi^rln 
who bi-uimo inmiites of his bousu, hence 
MacjiiiUr*'* line*: 
Eoi'li, any* Ihc proverb, baa hii I4tt*. TU Irno. 

Uansvt B ToluD, Li-win Way u J«ir, 

Thp Jow tbn «ilror sponns of I.nwii Wiij, 
He liiwd (.n Indian. 1S40(Tkktel»«s, ii/f 
qf JIfaraWaj/, chiui. i. : cf. AVm ttnd Qutrirf, 
Trtli WT. xi, 4r>a, fth »'-r. i. S", 137). 

Allwrt Wny wan et^ttcnrcd at home and nl 
Trinitv Colleifo, t'ambriJa:«, where )ie (fra- 
annroii R.A. in ISSfl. nnA M.A. in IKU. In 
early life be tmvollLHi in Eiiropu and tliu 
HolvLnndivitli hia father. In lA'I!) \\k wiim 
elecli'd fL-lUiw of tilt' Sociit V of Antl<|unnt<ji, 
and wna ' ilirt'Clor ' (vf ifiM »oclr''v fnini 
1841' till l?4lj, when bt- left London to llvrt 
«t Woiiliiiiu Manor, Ufi|(iit<<. He was & 
founder In 1S4'"> nf the Ardiipoln^icnl In- lltv. 

WaTTTfts n iikilfnl t^raiifililsninn and n 
Rood Kngliali nntiquan,-, who coiUribtitud 
much to the puhlicAlIons of the Society of 
Antiquaries and oiliitr iKXiiottcH. His prin- 
cipal publication was Iiia wt>Il-kiiowii t-iiif ion 
for Ihw Camdt-n Socit'ly of the ' Protnptnrium 
Parvuiorum*ivi»('l«rirfjruui'(|rt4.'!-tt-J, 4to), 
th« Euglisli-Latin dirtionsry compiled by 
OeiiRriiv till! graminiirian \a, v.] \\ ay died 
lit Oanni?.^ on 2l' Man-li 18. -t. III.- uiatritd, 
30 April IS-U. Emxnt'Iinp. dHUiflitoi' of !,ord 
Slanlt-y til' Aldi'rliiy, by whom b« hnd f\ 
daujrlitiir. Hia widow prpiit'nlod to ihoSo- 
cii-ly of Antii|unries a LujidrBd ftiid Ulty 
voliimcH of diiirionnrif* «nd Klosuitiea from 
liis library, and !«-■> voliim<?« of liix dniw- 
inff» of prr'hii«toric nnd other remaiu.4. Shp 
bIao prf«i>'ntfd to the society his fine collec- 
tion of impressions of mediu'vnl dutils, Tim 
■ocitly pouvMoa a waK mfldiilUoii pori niit 
of Way by K. C. Lucmt. 

[Annttal Rag-. 187*. p. H7: l'roec*«iinfr* of 
8<)c.of Anti(inune>,lS;4.r>p. ItHSf.; ltur)c«'«Hist 
of ibBCinnuionMii, »,*. " Way uf Dfluliam ;' Wapd'e 
Mtii of Ihft Reign; Brii.. Ma«. CaL| W. W. 

BUOMI.EY (I77fl-1844\ lieunenant-geao- 
ml, horn in IjondnnonSS Dec. l""6,wMfifth 
Bonof Benjamin Way 0710 180S), F.R.S., 
of IVnhani Ilae*. ItuHtinifLADi-ikirv, M.P.for 
Qridport In 17(3>', and of his wife Eliz«b<>th 
Anne (174(WHao), eldest daught-r of Wil- 
liam Cooke (1711-17f7) [q.v.], provost of 
King's OoUeg^ijCnmbridKi-. iri^prandfather. 
liBWi* Way (it. 1771), diroprnr of tho Soulh 
Sea Coriipiinv, tluidesiL-ndont of aDoldwesi- 
oountrrfaTnilyjfirjrt (tetllpd in Biieliinf{ham- 
ahinr, Itixnunt Abigail wbh the wifu of John 
Baker llolroyd, first earl of Sheffield [q. ».] 

He «nl«red th« arntj as ftisign in the 
fool (Catnernniaiut) in 1 707, ttus raptu: 
Freni-b iirivatf^rd wh«n b* was on bis way 
to join b» rcgimf>nt in Canada, and wa^ A^ 
tainwl a prisoner in Franice for a ye«r bdun 
hi* wn> oxcbaagrd, He wu promoted to he 
lieutenant iu lh« ^'■th foot on 3 Nov. 17^^ 
and Eaik-d wtb his n^f[iment in the *"« 
tiou iindi-r Ouu<>nLl I'i^'ot on '^ March 
for the Meditt^rranrau. Arriving at MnJ 
in June'. \w took port in the tdege of Valoit 
whicli i^iidrd in tli>-capituhitionoftJieFreni 
onSSept, Hert^tiimedto Kn^land in 1^ 
woB promoted to \v> captain iii the iJcb fi 
on IS Ana. of that year, and ahortly after' 
was placed on half-pay on reduction of that 

Way waa brougbl in a« caplaia of the 
«th foot on 20 Jan- 1803, and. afier iim-ing 
in the Olinnnvl Inlands, L-nibarhed with his 
njg^iiuent in tin* exiwdilifin iindir l^jrdCatb- 
cart for the lihcmtion of HannTor in 1*36; 
but tho Twotf I in whifh hi* Hilnd was wrecked 
ofl' the Texel, and lii> wa« talifn prisoner by 
thp Dutch. After his exchange he failed at 
the end of (Iprobi^r IHOti in the expeditio 
under Major-gpneral Itobert Oraufurd \}^-\- 
originally d^-stined for Chili, to f'ape d 
; VerdiSt. UeU-nu.iLiidthL'Capi; of Good Hope, 
wht-nce, in acconlance with ord«r« rMm' " 
there, the expudittoii sailed for the &t 
Plate, arriviiiit at Muntu Vidvo in the 
pinning of June 1807, where it jouund 
forcf under Uonural John Whltelocke Cl''*l. 
of which Way wan nppi>itil<td BMistant quai^ 
ti-rmesier-geneml. At the RT^nrming of 
BuetiOM Ayre* Way led the right vinR of 
the infantry brieadi'. He retiinii^d to Eiv 
Innd after the di»astroii<i capitulatioo. 

M'nv wa« promoted lo do mi^jor in the 
^Vh foot on •ih Fob. 1)^08. He wrrtMl tukdv 
Sir Brent Sppncor off Cadis, and with him 
joined Sir Artliur Wullwloy'ii army, laiidiof, 
■n Mondepo Bay, Portugal, on 3 Aiig, He' 
took part in tho buttlt* of lioU^a on It Aog^ 
when, on fjainiiifi; that plntinaii with a few 
muD and oiBtrerR of \ua regitoent, be, when 
charired by the enemy, woa rescued from 
the Bayonet of a French grenadier by tic 
humanity of OetierQl Bremer, and made a 
priivoner. Wc wa» evchangod in lim» ta t 
part in thi} opcraliom in Fortuinl wb«n 
Arthur Wellealey returned in 'April 1809. 
He coumandeil (be li^bt infantry of BriKa- 
dier-gonernl R. Stmvart'H bri^df, irhich W 
lh(? advance of the British army, and trts 

tirr-sent in the actions of iho pMaagv of Um 
i''oupn on 10 May anrl the heights of Qrijna 
thki following day, at the p««sage of the 
Bon ro and cuptur<! of Oporto on the lift b, and 
in the euba'oq.ueiit [lursuit of 3qu1('ii %rmj. 

le a i 




At the balUe of Tslaren on the mgfat of 
27 July \\'»j took pBrt with bin rvf^iiDvnt, 
aiMlL>r Major-gvncrnl HUl, in tlif gallnnt 
repuUfl at the point of th« beyon«t of tho 
Prennb attitck of tho heif^ht? on the left of 
■he British positiutt. Hv wai> |>re«eiit ni IIk- 
baitlt^of Biuaco on 'Si Sc-»t. 1810, &nd at 
tbebottluof Albiuinon IG May Ictll. n-hiMi. 
on thp fall of his Heutwiiint-co!on«l, hf snc- 
ceeiletl to thv command of tho 2J>tb font 
durioff tb» octkin, for which lit- n-^-fivixl tin.' 
mwlnl. U» WBS hiituwlf, in cliar^ing with 
his ni^iinnnl. iJiot lhrou);h the body iitid his 
]^ arm frutiirt^d nr the tthouhlfr-joinT- by a 
inii8k«t-«fKit. He VBSproiiiot«<l to be brevet 
lieuteiuint-coloael on 30 May 1811, and on 
■1 July of the aame year wa« gmz«ttod to the 
enrnmnnil of the Lihh foot. 

On his rtituni to Knf;land in It«l2 with 
the tkelrloii of tlif iJSilh rr>i;iiiient (nbuiit 
ft bundred efFi-ctivc men), Way by con- 
ridarabla exertion nrforaMtL thv corpf, uid 
emlxurltDd a second tiroo for the Penimuln 
in 1813, In 18U, howvrer, the oflt-ct of 
cliraittR and wounds conipi>II(>d him to re- 
turn to England, wheu \\%i was placed on 
the half-naj lUt of thu i!:^ foot. For hia 
MTvicm be was kuigbtcd tha same ycar.wib' 
atruAod an Annuity of 300/. for hia wounds, 
■nd received permiMion to occtspt and wear 
the insignia of a Imiglit couitnandwr of tUt* 
PortuffucH Oldor of the Tower and Swonl. 
On nUnquialuiig the commend of thu 2i>th 
foot h>.* was presented hv hia brother ollic«ra 
with a Teloable piece o^ plate as a memento 
of their e«teieai. 

In 1815 Way was made a comjiAnion of 
the order of thf Rath, mititAry ditision, and 
-WM appointed to the Btftfl'os deputy odjut aut- 
geoet&I in North Britain, lie wo-" promo'ixl 
10 be oolont'I in the army on 19 July 18LM, 
On the abolition of hi* <iIairiLppointu]>.-iit iu 
Soatland he was nominated, on 7 Ni>v. \t*2-2, 
colonei of thu 3ni royal vtiturun baltalioji. I 
whieh was diaband.-[i ifi IS-JB. wh..Ti Wiiy 
■wms placed oa half-par. He wsa promnr^'d 
to be major-gen^ntl on ii July Is;i0. and 
lieutunaot-geaeral on '2'^ Nov. 1811, and was 
given 1I16 colonflcTof the 1st West Indiao 
regiment on HI Nor. 1843. lie died at 
Brighton on 19 Feb. 1844, and wm buriod 
in the femily vault at Denham church, liuck- 
incham shire. Way inarri'-d, on 10 May IS] 5, 
Murianne, daughter of JnUn W.-yI«nd, of 
Woodeaton, (,>Aford«hire, and Woodrieing. 
Norfolk. lie left no Uone. 

fWur Office BeMfds; DeapatchM; Royal 
Military Calpodar. 1S2U: Works on lht> I'cuia. 
Biikr War; Uiiteil Service Jnumn], 1841; 
Unrkiif Laoded 0«Dtty ; G«iiL Mae. IStt. i. 

isr.j B. H. V. 

WAT or WET, ^MLIJAM (Hor?- 
1476), traTeller. [See Wry.] 

WATLETT, Mrs. nAltHIET {179ti- 
1^51), acln>,<t.i, tin- rlaufrbter <^ a Bath 
t nut MM man named Cooke, waa born in Buth 
on 7 Feb. lids. She came of a thra.trictkl 
family, her uncle being a member of the 
DrurrLinGcompany, while Mrs. Weitt[q.v.] 
was W coucin. After rocoiviuf! some in-, 
sl.ryclion in iuui>ii' fruin ont- of the Lodt 
of Bath [sL'f LouLii. John Uaviu], abe ap-' 
peared no thv Hiith riagf im Itl March 18iB 
H^ Elvina in W. R. ITewptfion'a ' Blind Boy.' 
In Ihit fiiHowin^ season she appeared OB Leo* 
nara in the * I'adlocli ' and AlAdare in ' Love 
in a Villofce,' and played in. Bristol and, it 
is said, Briehton. Soon oAer tliis limti aha 
BceoiDpanied to London a Captain DubTn.: 
Against whom her father brou^fhi an action' 
for lou of eervico, which wne Cried at Tann- 
ton and comproialted. Sh« then acted at 
Cov«nlfy, whL'rii shu oiet and married in' 
1^19 Waylett, «u wlor in the company. In J 
1^20 she was at ths Adelplii, wher^ she was 
thvi>ri{^iial.\inyl&>liHartin 1 'I anob^'s adapta- 
tion of ' Kenilwonh,' und thtr first. Sue to 
hiT hu-baiid's IViim.'fit in Moncriurt"* 'Tom i 
and Jerry.' She phiy.d as Mrs. Waylett 
bite Miu Cooke of Bath, lii 1B23 shu wan 
noting in Itirminghaiti under Alfred Uunn 
{a, v-T, playing in 'Sally " B-wth's part of I 
Bnarlvin'Uuabunil.tund Wivi»<. llerstng^'' 
in^ of ' Keet thee. Babe,* in ' Guy ilonnei^ 
ing' estabtislied hvr in fii\-uur. Cicely in 
the ' Heir-at-Law ' aud Tlifrise in the piece, 
■o-numud followed. She pkred five piorta-^ 
in ' t;hops and Cban^iifs, or tlie .Servant of 
All Work,' and wtw &nen as Jenny Gammon 
in ' Wild Oats.' Ellen in ' Intrigue,' .\laddiu, 
Lucv in the' KivalV (^njmrin ' Cherrvand 
Fair Star," Patch in the ' Busy Body.' tattle 
in 'All ID the Wrong,' Susanna in the '.Mar> 
rioge of Figaro," l^riifcilla Tomboy in the 
'H^mp,' Diana Vernon, .Mary in the 'Inn- 
keupur's Daughter,' Cliumbermaid in the 
'OUndeatinR Marriage,' Ji^^icia,. Marianne in I 
the ' Dmmatlst,' Chui m ' Clari, nr tho Moid 
<if Milan,' iu whirli ttht* xaiig ' Home, sweet 
no«no,' Lucetla in thi^' iSnapirious Ilnabond,* 
Clenipntinn.VII-spicointhe' Way toget Mar- 
ricd,' Bimnre in the ' Incon.*tant,' /elinda in 
the * Shtve,' and in many other chtLroctiirs. 

It WHA acoonliugly with a fair atnount of 
experiem'i.'. with a lorffe reperiiory, und with 
a reputation aa n chambermaid anil a singer, 
thai Mrs. Wayloil acfompBDiedhermaTiag<'r 
t') Drury Laiie, wliirt-nt she appeared og 
Madge in 'I^ove in a Village' on 4 Dec 
18IM. Tliij su«1-ained and exceesivo eulogiM^ 
which had boeii bestowed on her in the 

Ob Taariiy. 1 1 Aynl 1 UT.Oani^ml Bos- 
fort dwa ms WilBcbefCcr. Umr. it i* et> 
deat, neeiTM] prttue sfvv o£ tW <tm1 oa 
ife MB* ^r, ud !■— iliMiiy wTon wtfe 
MWiti iiifMTiMfitifit WaiB^iln Sir 
to ihB hUbomit <A. m A). Oh W. 
day, 13 Apnl, IW dKeiiJ kcicr 
iLe TKCkacjr ud f t rnjii ag Ea—» to 
to iJwtiaa ra Amm^AtJ to tk* Ida^ 
Lenen pU«m vm uMfd. doled ChaMr- 
bttiy, II Apca, fmtiMt WqriitBte riloij 
of ^« touonEtiw of th* sw (AtfL ML 
» Ilenrr VI, pt. S. n. SA. Oo 14 Afnl 
^ Bud^ lus tint Maeatatioa. Tb* oayf 
iHirt onder iIm piitt woI h doud 16 Afnl 
■t Cuitetfcorv (Rtmb, .FMm, sL l&S^ 
On Ifondaj, 1* April, tlte jnor aadchnur 
n»d« R fpraul rvlum of tlw olTtirM Yh* 
Mfal b«U iwwiwriaf WftjtJeta lifcop 
bemUw«oriTdM««f10H«T. OaSJoar 
WftjTiflet« toMi llwQftt&nf fealrv tAtbekiof 
ia pereoo (Lk Nets, /oifr, uL 15V U« 
4 Jane tb« tcmpoTtlitiM vcn* &-«iii*Dt rr- 
itored(>*<nlrra,xi.l7:>l On ISJaaeWVyn- 
fletc mads Mofc — >an <d coiKUUcal obedicoM 
ai Luibotb. Bo VM BBao i cr i od ot BUo 
oa 13 iolj; on 18 Jolj Iw neenvd ibe 
epirittim.litif^ He htldfaiKfintgcamlotdi- 
■uUon on Siindar, :2S D«ir. fnQnwing. «t 
Etoa, br special lic-f nse of the bbhop of I Jo- 
coin. Od \9 Jul. 1-M? b» wu rntbitm*^ al 
Wiochetl«r in prcMocK of the kioff. Hotr^k 
dkoiee wss ckorlT a penoiul pnKraaoe. As 
Jotin Ckpgram. t hi- cont^roponnr ehromicli-r, 
drjlv remarlw, WajnAetf 'cuiu, ul ]Hitatur. 
doDuio nigi habelur, oon t>m |in>pl«r ecien- 
tiiHBaolntaremqttuiTitosienlibem.' Kenrr 
himself, in «0Bi)(iiing to Wai-nfle(« a fwra- 
mount plAM unong the «T«utor» of hu aill 
(IS Marvh 1448), exprevMt hi* atiacluueni 
to him fCiuytiutB, p. 318). 

Lil ill' iDOT« th«a • yoor after his edvanev^ 
tnant WavntlRte obtoiaed lMt«ra patent. 
datf-d 6 May 144S. for thp foimdatiuB of a 
hall dndicaltnl to St. Mary Magilalcn iit tbr 
universitT of Oxford. I(a charter was dated 
20 Aiig." 144S (, Anf. |.p. 307-8; 
CHA!CUt.BR,p. 3.10). (ts object waa th« atndy 
of theolojij- and philo»ophT. 

Tht; r<;b(llion of Jack" Cad* [see CittK. 
Joiuc] at WLit.<iuiilide 14')0 Snt brouiclit 
Wftvnflel*' into contact wi'rh ihu turbulent 

Solitica of iho ]>eri*xl. On ibe mominp of 
[M)da]>, 6 Julj", fade having retreated into 
Soutbwark, an ariElatlet waa praelaimed. 
WaTnfIi<ie. who * Tor •oaieaafiBgtiard laie thru 
al Jlaliwpll'<IIoi.iMi>)iBD. Ckron. iii, 2'JtJ'), 
the priory iii Sh'ir«Iili-b | >UtTi^:cii, Hul. 
«f London, •ii\, \:7i, ii. 136&I, antl not at 
hie Soiithwark pnlare, nKvivtMl a numcDons 
la attend a council in the Tower. Thence 


Wayaifce. visk ocker locda OVracBru^s 
<Sra«. p. 708). ffoeoeded to treat with Cade 
ia tW AtiA of StlCtmnt, Southwarb, 
withia kit on Aoeeae. lie reoeired Oade'e 
be of mavaaeea^aad fcoauMd both a gene- 
lalfama ladvtkoKnai caal and a special 
oao to Gtade lr«^ft*^ The itumffenta then 
SmmmA tnm Bo atk w i dt. But ou I Aug. 
14^4 a ipucial cgaiMJaaoo was LMiir^d into 
Kaai to nj ikoae vko, after the proclama- 
taoa of fortoa, Ind nmaitwd in mma at 
aad Roehealar. The romnianoe 
Wajnflelo* name {Pat. RUU, 38 
Uenrr VI, pi. ii. m. 17). Manr execat'utna 

ft lit r. M.I 

Bihiad Code'a rcfceUieo lay the Bympathiv* 
of Ike TerfciiU, tad ikan are a^ that 
Wayaflcto's tntorrwBtioii allimatc Jy i nrolved 
km ia foraidaUe o^um. In ivipiemlwr 
1150 dJatolanoee broke out at AVim-hriit^r, 
tke dtiaens ivAuiac their cuatonarr duf« 
at St OiW fui {HmL M88. Cb»%«i. App. 
to 6tk RepL. p. eOS\. It ia poauble i bat thf 
deapatek of a aoanet of ooe of Cade's ad* 
be*«al« Sot exhibtlioii in that city had pro- 
Tokad initatioa (Ptoetedmsr* of tkt iVi'qr 
Onatnt, <L 106). ThecitiMna of W'incbe«t«r 
fuhmitled, and wetv paidoaed. Bui a more 
M-nou* atUvk thntttowd. On 7 Maj 14ol 
Wayafleto executed a remarkable doeuaeat, 
appMltag fin- pnateetian to the pop* and the 
amibiahop of Canli>rbniT. The raettals sbov 
that aome attempt was on foM to depri'ra 
hira of hia aee bT a proce** in Ibe Apintoal 
maTtM{Stfitir.lta^jlete,i.2,f. I1;1'h45D- 

i-Ek. pp. ee-7v 

At thtfl time neniy VI waa relyiug much 
on Wayofhjie's counaeU. They wero i"> 
nther at Cantt-rburr in August 14'>1. In 
Si-pT«mfoirr the bohop ismed from iH. Albaaa 
aeonuntsaion fortkeTisitatioa of hisdiocMe, 
alleging 'arduous aad unexpected basioeN 
oomwRiinic the king and the realm * (Cbasik 
LKK. p. OP). I'pon the approach to London 
«f Iiicliard, dukn of Yorlt, with an armv in 
^irh llAi. Henry d^^epatcbt^ Waytideif 
to mak^ terms. 

In July l4<Vt Honry VI becane totally 
paralysed. Hia son Edwarrl, prince of Wale*^ 
wa* r»om on I.T t»ct.. and ba)>ti!u>«l byWayn- 
Hex^ on ihv following day \KhsI. Vkran.. p, 
193). Oil liS Man^Iil-lil Wnynrt.-te. witll 
a commitiae of lords, vndt^voured to pro 
cure &Qra the Idi^ an auiIiori»ation for ilic 
conduct of the^vrmmeot by Richard. duke 
tif York, to whoDi! intt^itnblv aacendancy lie 
seem." to Save resigned himself. lie re- 
(lorttKl to thv House nf liordK thai ibeim- 
becility of the hinff rendered the errand 
fniitl(!*». During tu>« interrvKnum he wa* 
conMant in hi« atti^ndanees at the 




pertiapA to watch over the I^aacascnui in- 
wnets. Oo Christmas llsj 14<>4 llvnij 
recovered, and rec«iTP<l WjiynflBt* in audi- 
euw on 7 Jan. 14&5 (l\t«t'fnLflf^r»,i, 316). 
But the dpfent of Henry VI bX St. Albnns 
oti 'J2 Msj* (oUowitiK reatorvd the VorkiHta 
to powN. Wayaflele now s/eem^ fo have 
SKppotttd tlifl mwlLTUto Laiica«trittn«, who 
deAinrtl to mtiuii the Duke of Vork in lli« 
king'A Hen'ice (KicuLAS, Pncredinffg, vi. 
2*12). lie Ktill rnjiivrd lh*> c<infiilrtim of 
IIcnTy, whoon 12 Juljr 1-I<V) iiominati'd him 
a life vUitoc of Eton and King's Collcftw. 
On 11 Oct. 1156, in (he priory nt Covfinirr. 
WsyullMe WB« appointra chancellor by tbo 
kingiFcedera, x\.StiS). There is no foun<lK- 
tioo for Lord CninptH^l'ii stofy that be wa» 
nonuinated because bU jrredecBasor, Tbumas 
BourcliieT[q.iv.], 'ri!fuM.>d to enter into tli>- 
pIol« fortlirt dttstruclioM of lli*t Yorkiiitii.' Aa 
a matter of fact, the Duke of York, at thiH 
very time 'in right good cuncvyt with tlit- 
kinf^' (James (.]rcaliainto.To1inl*aUnn,ltl Oct. 
I'lM), was pr<?»Gnt with his friends at thL- 
ceremony. \Vayntli-t4.>'i( Mlary ah chancellor 
wu 'XQl. B y&iT, probably exclusive of 

Waynfletv'K next iuiportaut public func- 
tion was HA aaiMMor at the trial of Uiahop 
IteginaH Pecock [i- v.] for hurutv, in No- 
vttmber 14-'>~. Wltntvrer polilirail animua 
may hart^ beim latent in this prtuecation, 
Wayoflctc's deDUueiution of Pecock's doc- 
trines in the Tvfunnrd itlntiittiH nf KiDg')' 
Cdkce, Cunbndg%,in8Ui>d ihre£< years befon^ 
is erideDCA that Mn p&rtirijuttion in thu mn- 
tmos igaioAt Pecocb wn.* nn theological 

On 18 July 1457 Waynfii-ti^ obtuned a 
license to found a coUt-gv lo the north-east 
of the orifliuiil site of Maj^duien Hall. Tbt.- 
charter of founduiioii is diitud I'i JurK* 1-16^. 
On 1-1 Juif ibn Micifft V nf Magdalen lUI! 
' aurrendcred up their bouse with its ap- 
purtonancM to thi* ci'dlf-gv,* the building of 
whieli was forthwith be^n. 

In September HftS civil war limkn niK 
AiVt»h. TIiP Laniyul rill IIS routed tlm YorkUt 
forces at Ludlow, and n coiit*iiiporarj' letter 
deticrib«fl Wayulleti^ a^ iiieeiiitcil ni;airiM the 
ingurgviit luad(ir» {Pmti/n Leflrrii, i. -IS?}. 
fAi i'O Now. 14^9 a packed parliiuneDt of 
Lanraslriaoa waa fURnnncied to fovvntry. 
'Wavnllittt.', a» cbaiio.'llni', (ipi-ufd it with an 
•ddresfl upon tho tAKt 'fp'scin Tobtsi et pas 
multipUcetur' IJiot. Part. v. 34'>). It is 
«ridi.'ril that he now took im active part 
•gainst tli« Vorkia^tfi. A bill of attaiud^jr 
agninsi the Duke of Vork and \\\* friend.'' 
■was (iaaac<h An oath of alleainnce and : 
Coafiruatiou of the aucceuiou tn Edward, J 

firinue of ^^'Blfl6, waa tendered singly to 
nrdK by the chancellor {\b. p, UGI ), who I 
on 8Jan. HA7 b^fn appointed ooo of the 
prince's tutors (/o-rf^m, xi. 3H.*)>, 

On 3 Nov. Hol> Sir John iVtolf [q.\.] 
nnmiiiated Wayiillel« evecutor of his will, a 
trurt which inTolved him in prnlrmgi-d con- 
trovensioa (»cu Pattvn Lcttera), tastolfhad 
directed the foundation of a coUpffn at 
L'uletur, which iu 1471 H'avnflele, with a 
iJis|)£Miiia(ii'iii from Sixtiiii IV, divertml to 
his own colIt<^< of .VI ngdalt'ti {it. ii. 402, 
iii. llfl). 

In common with tho chi«f olBcen of tho 
household \^'ayafletc resisDiid olfico in 
Houry VJ's tent, on 7 July 14H0, im- 
laediatttly prior to iht defeat of N urthampton. 
Like them, he t^juk out ■ gi<niTal pnnlun 
{Fir<lrrn. xi. 4^). t'pon thif a'cc«wi<in of 
Kdwsrd i\' , acconJin 

?l« Ij«)nnd, Wayn- 
Kinir Rdn-ard into 

Bt^n-l orin-ni, but at the U«t lie was re- 
fitorid to his ^oodea and the kinf^'s favor.' 
H(i crtninly i« Igst to sight for nyear. That 
the Vnri:i8t.a after Norlhampton again con- 
templated his punishment, and prohubly hi« 
dl'pri^^lt ion, may be iufi-m-d fmiu a remark- 
able leiKr on hki Ixdialf, dotud H Now 1460, 
and written by Henry VI, ibt^u virtually a 
priitoiier in London, lo Piiu II (Cuanolbb, 

p. airi. 

In Augnst 1461, when Edward IV went 
on pmgrws to IliLinpHhin:, the tenuuls of Kat 
Men or Kast lEi-iin and rNfwhpn.-, 'in prwte 
multiiiidu and nonibre,' pntitiont:'d thts king 
fr>r nlir'f fnim ortftiu wn-ice«, custotos, and 
dues which thi>bialio]iand hiaagenUwvroat- 
t*mpiin^' (n exact. According to the author 
of th« ' Brief I>iitin Chronicle' iCmndt-n Soc. 
IHH)), the tenants hud euiied WnynfiuUi, 
which suggDst^ that they vete pn-vi^ting 
un antivipaojd (."ecupu by i^ua, Lutt Mvun 
being near the const. "Edward, iKiwcver, 
not only rutcued him from vinletK-e, bat 
arreted the ringleulfm, whn«tf caae wa« 
tried tti the House of LorLi an 14 Deo. 
1 4tt I , whi'n jml(^f>nt was given for th« bishop 
[Rat. Part. v. 47'0. 

Henceforth \\'nynrtete appears to havB 
arqnit^Ct-d in the new order of things {Hot. 
JV/. v.401,.JW,571), On 10 Nov, 14t» 
he mceived a pardon for all facapua itf 
prisoiieri and fimv duf to the kinf; (C'iiAKl>- 
LER, p. &'>:!>. On 1 Fob. Uni] ho received 
B full pardoji f FteJei-a, xi. 830 ), in whi^h h« 
wu* accepird na the king's ' true and faith- 
ful subject.' Ihil on Howard'^ tlight from 
London upon. £9 Sept, 147D,\Vayiirtotv hiw- 
.vilf reh-A^ed Henry VI from the Tower 
(WARKWOitrii, Chi'm. p. 11). Tho relum 
of Edward IV, and his victories of Uamet 






ckwbiirr, f(kl!i>w«cl bv the d«aih» of 
VI una Kdward, prince of Wales, 
left tht? LBiiC«*lriiin cntui- iii)[iL-l>-Mt. Wnrii- 
flcU- iv6» obliged to purchiuie anotlifr full 
pitrdoa on 30 Mbj- 1471 {Fmlrra, xt. 71U, 
ttifl timf by a "Ionti' of l,.'l;tJ/. (lUutuv, Li. 
S90). (>n ^ July 1-171, witb other peers, he 
took an iiatli of I't-ikltjr to Eilwnnl 1 \ 't. 6ld«-MT 
son [Edwuril VI {F't-ffem, si, "1 1), and wae 
hi-no'furth c-i-n.stftntlv at court. Steanwhile 
he waa comnluliiif^ lii« Lvillt-gc, lui well w that 
of Kton. Il*" fiiiislied oil" the Kton collnge 
building, for the greutDr pnrt at hU own 
expense (CnAyM.KR,Mi>- 137, l*i3, 1»U). On 
20 Sept. IISl Waynrli'!.' viaitwl Maplalf^n, 
Olid oil lije i'Jnd t'ntortairrtd Edward IV 
thei*. Hi' tocilt jinrt in Thfl lum^ral riTc- 
nionk« of l'3dwnrdlN' On IK April HM nl 
WiiidAor (IjAtRDSTTn, I.ftter» nml I'ntu-r*, 
i. 7). On 24 Julv 14HS h« (^ntcrtAini'-d Iti- 
cli&TdllUlMnafdalen ()7.. p. Idl). lu 1J>^ 
hfi bi'^aii the const ructioti of Ji IVoa school 
ttt Ills nnlivv plucu, L'iidi>wiii[{ it nith liiiid 
whidi \\v hndnorjiiircd in H75. This school 
Still Baurishee irndt-T tbu titk* cjf Mn^dolt^u 
C'ollifnf" .Scli'H>l, Wiiinllrs't. 

The countnnnncfi of a prylato no rfspccled 
aaWnyTifle'terJinnol fiiil <ohiiv('«lr>-iif;tl»-nnd 
thi5 position of Uidmnl III. ()n T> July 1 Ift-I 
th<- ttint: borrowed of him UK)/,, doubtlws a 
forced (onn, to bo Kpcnt in meelinp lliv ex- 
pected invaffioii of Ii'-nry VII. 

In Iteri-tnliiT UH,") Wavnflele r<>tired from 
bia palace at Fi^oiil liwaru lu his manor of 
Sotitli Wiillliain, lliini|>«hin-. Tlmm nn 
2ti April llStl hfi es.!<;ut»'d hia will, He had 
already ciimpli^ted bin mriRiiifiM'nt lomli and 
chunlrv in Wtnclipflt-T Cuiliedral, where ht* 
dirvcte<l that he should l)« buried. He Inft 
bequests in money to the nn^mbi-rs of the 
various religion* hoii«e« in Wiiicliester and 
of the colle^M of St. Mary Winton and 
Nflw and Ma)d^lali-u, Oxford. .MntoM nil hia 
Wtjvtim in liiiid b« devised in trust for Maw- 
diilen Tollego. On 2 .'Vufj, 14M be maau 
further proviwnii for Cardinal IWufortV 
Hospital of St. TroiM (riUNULtR, p. 225). 
He died, appareully of h cimpUint of lh» 
heart.on I'nriay, 11 Aujr. IH^tHfAiiniKM., 
Matermiii, ii. 07), having retained his ^'nscA 
to the last. 

Wnyuflirtc was of the Bcliool of episcopal 
KtatiMUicn of the Bfleentli und siiU-cnth cen- 
turice, of whom Beaufort undWulspy aru lUe 
leading lyiiw. Lil(« H'oUe_v, lie was u 
&TOurer of iFaminit, and ifl fven wild, lh"U)^h 
the atatemtfnt is donhtful, in hiiv« pfo\iiifd 
for the ."tiidyof On^-k at Magdalen (Cuasu- 
LKa,pp. 2t>7-^). He aeiWolsey on example 
In tho Mipprcwon of rcliRtoni* hoitt<f« f(^r lii.i 

~ieg«. An chftitcellor he left the rejmta- 

tion of an upright and prudmt adminuli 
of justice dWiHoKE \ EEiiii.p. 74), 'wariUe' 
wii-lding ihu wrt^'lit. of that nflicv' ( lioi.iX' 
KiiBB, C'Aj-irti, iii. 212). A .'ulogy of hiinby 
Laurence William of Savooa q-v.J. written 
in London in UhTi, i.4 printi-al by Chandlcc^— 
(p. 37(1} from Wharton's 'Anglia .Sacra|^| 
(i. S2t)). The paneffyrisl speaks of his ven«^H 
table white hair ('vi.^ui'ran<uieaiiilii<«'). This 
is the only conlribiitiun to a personal de- 
scription which has come down to mm. The 
piftvins which [irrfncen CbandliT'ii ' Lifn' tti 
taken either from a mask of the bishop's 
t'Hiify in Winclii-st+T Cathedral or from tho 
oi!-piiintine lit Magdnlen C'OlWe. If, a.s in 

t>rol»able, this is a portrait, \\aynflete had 
urf;e v.yi^i and t\ rt-hned countenance. Ad> 
other reprciieutaiion i-f him appcarB a» a aup- 
porl to the ciLthion under the head of lue 
cffijyof his father upon the tomberfctod by 
thu bishop in Waintlwt church, now removed 
to Miicdalfii Cotli');;e ctiApet. An elfigy of 
WuynOL-tL* lia« aL^o bucn puicud on the outer 
wi'Bteni wall of Kton College Ohapel. 

The bishop's youtw^r brother. John W»to- 
Hctr^, l)i!ciiniit ih-Hii <i\ Oiichi-sU-r, and died in 
1-181 (CitA.M)LKit,p.210). Chandler addui 
good reason for the conclusion that tliestat 
nicnt, Hrrt tmcfuble to Ciuillim {Di<piay 
JlfVtiliiry, p. 'lOt'; cf. ]1oi.i:«bhei>, Vhn. 
iii. 212: CioiiwiS, 7V /Vw^M/jAtM, p. 23; 
Ibat lliere woe u third brother, Iticba: 
Patti'n of IWIowf-, l>t-rbvi4hirf, in a fic'lioit. 
The urtna originally bom \y Wayntlel*! wefs 
*a Held fti»illy, ermine, and ■aVdn.' Aft«r 
ho bi<onmi> provo«t of Kton lie inaened 'on 
a chief of the second three Lilies sli 
argent,' borrowed fnin the shivid of 
College. Time anus have ever xince 
home by )fagdalen College. lie added 
his motto theveKc of tht' Ma(/uilicot, 'F< 
mihi tn&^na qui pntena eat,' slill remai 
incised over the door of thu chapel of 

[Will. Wore. Aniuilea. ed. 8l«v«ii»ou ( 
Ser. 1808). vol. ii, pi. il; Suppb-Bwnury 
aad Papers o( HfrnryV],/*. ; OoyUnd C' 
tinuatoc ta Gulp's Scriptorvs, i. 1dl-A!l3. 1 
land's Irinerary,(>d.]Iparne(l744'l: (rnaeoipiKi'l 
Liber Veri tain in. Loci a Llbro irVni«ita»t. nr 
suges selcctMi fromGascoijiiici'nTlicattiglr'.tl I) 
ed. Itogim (1881); Cornst'oiidiinpc'if IIibH 
Bukynton (RoHg Sor. .S(S).mI. WiUlains i 
'i TuSi- : I'^HpKmve's I>ib«r di llhtntnl/iii 
ricis, ltd. Ilingiwtiin (RoIIn Sar IH.^K), Peroc' 
RoprtHor of DYermucb Blaming of tLv C\ 
i-A. Balangtoii. i riAs {\Ui\\* Si-r. 18(jO) : I*i 
lifttiT., nd, Oairdnrr, ^ v.lic. [ \ftTl-!'). Three 
lorn til -Century ChronirlM, ed. Qftinliier (On 
Self, IR»fl); Nirolas'HT(isUm«nta Vetnalfl{l8: 
I'll), i.ani I'rixvaititii>iiH[id Onlinunrus of ttiaPri 
Cuuncll(1634); Gti-cory'sChroaicUnCanid. 





1876): Endisli ChnniclD (Ound. 80c I8&6}; 
Wark-worth'i Clirtmide of ihe Fimt Thirtwa 
VmrB of Bdwani IV (Un.-l. Soo. I8M) ; I'oW- 
doTB Vorgira Tbrao Books (Caiod. Soc. I6II): 
Historieil CoUectiona of a Citicwi of Loiulon, 
«d. Gnirdnvr {CabiH. Soc. IBTfi); Onitlgn nnd 
Cooper's lUuitntion* of Jnck CaJt's K«b«lUDii, 
18G9; UoIinshMl's Chronicle of Iikigtand ( 1808). 
vol. iii.; Oale*» Rnnmi AnglKarum KcTinrnriiin 
V«t«rum,&c..Sn>U.l|l$$4, 16e;.l«Ell): loiters 
And FopoTK lUuMroUvo of tho Koign;i of Ki- 
cliaM 111 and Ucnr* Vl[ (nollo Scr. 1811), 
3 Tola. oJ. 4.Tiiir<Jii«r ; Mitt«niil< for the it«i|iii uf 
Hitrrtiioo'ii Dnu^ti piioii of Eiigtand pniGxad tu 
Vit«,4>xon.]G()2; Hiiff.ftfdda Hisiom Anglictuta 
ErclraiHitiiza. \6i'i ; Lanquet'a Clirooiclo, *J. 
Cuoptr, EpiionM of Chroutdn, l^iOOi Oodwin, 
Do PiB«uIibus Anisic Comm«ntftriiis. 1743; 
Wood'a Hiatorjr and Anliauitita of Collegfa nnd 
BaUs. ed.Guicll, ITSG; Jltmrne'e K>-Timrks And 
ColtMtione. od. Dabl^, 18KU; Goillim'a Uiif- 
play of Ilf-ralilrj-. «lh cdil. 1724; Le Ncvc'g 
FaaCi Eivl(«i3e Anglicanv, 3 vol«. vd. llnnlj, 
I8A1 ; llarwootlB Alumni KlonottMi, I7d7; 
OmiuMd'a lUat. of Chiiahire (I8I9). rol. iii.; 
Wnlcv^U'itWillinm uf Wjluimn AndlitaCullagoa, 
1849. IMitiwcll-U-Te'M Uintorjror VAtrn CntltfC-. 
1877; Kirbr'ii v/iDchmti-r SL-hoIan, 1888, adiI 
Anniiof wiacb«at«E Colltfrt-, 1892; Mitcra/s 
JUmtUTiyt MAfcdAl«n ColltRe, Oxford, vol. ii. 
FbImv*. I81>7 -. Itamaajr** L«urtuler «[»! Yurk, 

a vou nn.] i. s. u 

WAYTE, TITOMAS {JL 168+-1«0**), 
rvgiciili;. [fit-* WiiTB-l 

WEALE, JOHN <17I>l-lflB2>, puhlislu-r, 
bom in 1791, oi>mnifliicecl bti«Lii>i>«s as a ptib- 
lUber at. 59 nij^h HolhoTTi nbout I82U. lie 
powecwd A wiile ktiowlcdgv of nrt, and touk 
% pATticalor iot«rMt ia the studv of ar^'lii- 
baeluni. In l^:i3 Lu iMuvd u bililioi^apliicul 
'OAtolOigue of Woriiii on Arcliilocliirc nnd 
the Fine ArU,' of wUidi a new pdiiina 
BjipwnnKi in I^>4. lln fullnwitil th<' ' UiiLh- 
ta|;ue' in lS-19-.'JO witli n ' Itudimi^iitary 
DictionArr of Term* nw-d in Architectur*, 
Bnilding, Aiid F'n^mvring,' a work wliirh 
leavh^ B fifth editioiL in It^76. Ilu was ou 
intiniAte tcrma vritit mAny m^u of acience. 
A« one of ibc firai publUlit:r« of clifjip cdu- 
CaUodaI litcntlure he did much for teclinical 
educsLioH in F^n^Iaiid. HtA ruilimL'nlary 
■orieaaud educatioiiAl MriMcoiuprixi-d kIiiii- 
dard works, bath in i']a»i» and Bcienre, 
Thoy wOTu ooDtinii^O after bi» dt>atti l>y 
jamon Hpreut VirtiiR [a. v.] Wenlfl ilii-d 
in Lvadon on 1$ Dec. I8(^. lie vna tbt; 
fatUerof the Aiui(}iiArTand hiMorlan, Mr. Wil- 
liam ilcnre Jaiues Weole. 

il«»idcfl ilic works mentioned he published : 

I. 'ASeriM of Gxftmplca in Architectural 
Euginc-vrinf; and Mvchaaical Urawiog,' Lon- 
don, 1841, fi>l.. aupplemenlal * Description/ 

Loudon, 1S42. I'.'mo. 2. 'UurigiM of oriit- 
mcnliil rinlt-a, tjO<1u<'.^, PaliMtding, nnd Iron- 
work oflhc Horal Parka adjoiniDgthe Metro- 
polia, editfd bv John Wfiilr,' Ijoniinn, IfMl, 
Ibl. 'A, 'Tlw *n>i«>ry, I^ractice, and Archi- 
twture of Uridaus of StocB, Iron, TitnWr, 
and Wire, cditea by John Wt-iLln,' Ixindon, 
It^lS, '2 volf. 1^vo\ a supplein«nlal Tolume, 
edited by George Itowdon Bumoll and Wil- 
liam TiitrnL-y Cluiku, iippi'iirLsI in 18->3. 

4. ' I>iv«)r* \Vc>rli«of enrly Musltra in Chris- 
tian DpcoriLtion,' London, lJ^46, 2 volti. fol. 

5. 'TbuOrunt ISritiiiu AtlimlicSlrniti 8hip,' 
Ijondon, 1N17, fol. it. ' letter to Lord Jolin 
ituiisell on the defenow of tL« Countrj-,' I^on- 
don, 1847, 8vo. 7. ' I/indon exhibited in 
It«ii; London,lH5l, J:>u2o; 2nd edit. 1*^62. 
H. ' lliMkignaand ICxAmplcAof Cottaei-'S.Villns, 
niid Country Hoiiiiv«,' lA»udou, 1857, 4lo. 
9. 'Kxaiuul*?s fw Builders, UarpenUrB, nnd 
JointTi^,' l^udiiD, It?o7, 4iu. 10. 'Su'iun 
N'Mvi^atiuii, nlitiKl by Jolin VVeAl*-,' Iiondou, 
1858, 4to and ful. H. 'Old English nnd 
Prench OmamnoUf.comprining 244 ilp.nijrnK. 
Col!«-t€-d by John WealiV London, li^8,4to. 
lleedited ' Weale's Q unrterly Puprrs on En- 
pnecrinff," London, !M3-ts, 1! vow, 4lo, and 
* Wiwlr'jt Qwarn'rly I'aperp en Architeoiure/ 
London, 184^-0, 4 vols. Jto. 

IGenU Maft. 1863, i. 2413 ; Ward's Mon of th« 
lUigri ; Allilone's Diet, of Kngl. Lit.] \i. 1. L*. 

WEABO, SiK CLF.MKNT (lflW«U1726), 
itolicifor-^i>n«nil, i<on nml ticir of Thomas 
Wearjt of llnj inner Tempie, who niArried, 
in 1<J^9, Mai7 Fletcher of Ely, waa bom in 
London in It&W.and biipliit-tlal Kt. I5otolpb 
Witlioui. A Idersf-aio, wLiro his ^rand- 
fallivr, Thouiaa W i-aiji, u w vnliliy unTcUnnt, 
livi-d. He ift Huid to liave been at rcteriiouse, 
Camliridp- (I)VUB, Pi-ivile'fes of Cavibr. u. 
L"J). IW- wiw ndniilfi-d utiidt-nt nt the Inner 
'IVniiiln on ^I'tNov. 1706, cnllud to the bar inj 
1711, And lieciimu bencher in t72.t, rcade 
in i'^J, nnd tri-a.tnn^riii 17:^A. 

^VeargH'As a MaluuawhicMndproteslAnt. 
Tie acted a» cbr counsel for llii; rt^wn ia 
tb« proM.-cutioti« of ChrittophtT LAyer [q. r.] 
and IliKhop Alterburv, And van onL' of tliu 
principal mana^n.'rM firr thi.> ciinimons is the 
Iriiii iif L(ird-cliancellor .Mut;elestield {Stal9 
Trial*, Tol. xvi,') In 17^2 fan contialwd, 
without Kticc(>»«S '^i** borongliof fihaflwburjf 
in I>iiR«f<t, bnt wa^ rfrturned for tb« whig 
borough of Uelston iu Coniwallon 10 Marco 
1723-4, havini^ bf-cn appointed flolicitor- 
geuoral ou the previous 1 Feb. About tho 
same time be waa created a koight. He 




died lyf a violent (tver on 6 .Vpril 17:^, luid 
wu bari«d, in accordance witli Uio request 
is his will, in thcTompIcchtirehyardtimilAr 
& pUin roiseil tom)i, on 12 April. He edat- 
ricd £lii«botli, only dau^btt-r of Sir Jamu 
UouUgutq.v.J.cliivf UiiPJimf tlipexchi.>quiT. 
She died on 9 Marc! 1 174i;, nmi wiu biir»-d 
la Hm sun« grave wiih b^r hufiband on 
14 Uaich. Tfanr had n<i cbildnin. 

A volume piibliebed in i7ii:i confiiined 
'T(i« [{i-pli<wof ThoisiLs Re^ve ami Clt^msnt 
Wear? in the Hoiiw of I^onls. I:^ Mnj 1723. 
uaittet tfaeDefeocetiuideby tbuLat«lliibo{i 
or Rocheater «id bia Counm^l.' Curli a-Jvi>r- 
tiwd Ut« ID 1726 tbt! publication of six 
volumes of ' Caau of ImpotencQ and Uivorct!, 
bj Sir Clement Weare, latu Solicitoi^one- 
ral.' Curl! wa» altocked for tbi* by * A. P. ' 
in ibu ' ly^udon Journal 'on 12Xov- 1726, 
aud twodav lutr^r Rwon: uii dlfiilnrit that 
a book produciid by him. and entitlflf! *Thi' 
Ca*i5 of Iinpot'-iiry m drbsted ia Enirland, 
Anno 1613, in Trial bfitweon liobert, Karl ol' 
EML']i,Biid the Ladr I'mnces lloward,' 1715, 
waa bv Wcarjr. It Wrts datod from tbe 
Inner Temple, ;K) (>cu 1711. Wenrg ibun 
had chambon in tlio now court (^yottt atui 
Quen'en', ifud bit. iii, ■501'). 

[Beiichpnt of Inner Tt'iiple, |>. GO ; Goal. Mug. 
1746, p. 1 6-t. A > Dncf Mi^nioir ' of Wd&rg mu 
pulfltnlioil liy bis rvljttjvo, r>«or;!(i Uuki', of 
Otay'i Ino, burn Htvr-u-luv, in IB43.1 

W. F. C. 

(IrHOi'-lS-'jS), mwdical writi-r, burn io Btr- 
wicksbire in 1780 or I7!M1, ji^raduntiHl SI.I>. 
St Edinbur(|[li Univfreity on 1 Aug. ISKi. 
He iVHi* njlmitlvd a liicnttntii of tlix Coll**^ 
of Plivsiciana on 27 March ISl'O, ami (H.'d at 
Tile CottMR>«, Foijt'n CrHi'l*ark| near Bromley 
in Kent, on ■2-2 June \f>'M. 

Weatherbi^nd was tbe author of : 1, ' An 
Essay on llio Dinpi(v«ia biMtwotii En-sipclas, 
l*bU>frint)n, and l:^rytbcmH, witb an \\>- 
n^ndix on the Naturo of Puerperal Fever,' 
London, 1419, tvo. 2. ' A TrL-atiso ou In- 
fantile and Adult ItickelV l.otulon, 1H20, 
l:?mo. 3. ■ An Analysis of ibe Leamiogiou 
Spa in Worwithxbini," IR20, Svo. 4. 'An 
Account of t.ko Reulah Valine Spa at Xnr- 
■wotfd,' London, 188^, 8vn; Srd edit. 1»33. 
6. ' A Xew Synopni< of Xnaolrwy,' London, 
1S34, li'ino. '«. ' A redesirian TourihrougU 
Franco and iMly,' I/indon. 183-1, Svo. 7. 'A 
Treotise on Ilcadeclie?,' London, ]KVi, 
ISmo. 8, ' A Practical Treatise on the tVin- 
oipal DiKunes of ilw Luiijr*,' London, 1857, 
6to. 0. 'ThollirtloryoflLie Karly and Pro- 
Bent State of the Vcnece-nl Dlseusi' examined, 
wherein i» »bown thai Mnrciity nfver wiw 
necowary for it« Cure,' London, 1^1, 8to. 



. !tM7 
It o nlr I 


10. * Od the Hydropathic Core of Gout,' 
London, l!lt:;,8vD; ^odedil. 1843. Hedao 
tmnf)lat«d from the French of Ciabrid Imini 
a tniaiiite ' On the Sponiancoue Krosiona and 

' Perforations of the Htoniach in coatra£»- 
tiuctiun to tboM produced by Poiaooa,' Loo* 
don, IHIJI, [2ino. 
[BXunk'a OalL uf PbnL iii. 213^ Brit. 

|C4i.) EL 

SHED, i:iCHAKL>OFr</.1231),ftRkbiahof 

uft'iuiti-rburj", [S,w CRAXt, KtOHARb.] 

WEAVER, JOUX (rf. Itisfi), politi 
of Nortb LuHenbam, LincoliuhiiVi WM 
mitt«l a fntmnn of Stamford on 25 

I 1031 {lAniytl)ithire Sotet and Querie; i. 
In 1643—1 he waAJudgixdvocate to tbua 
of the Earl of M&ndiMtcr. In Nuvembo 

' IB4o he was r«tume<l to tb« i^iig parlta- 
tnvnt B^ memW for Stamfcnd, and in ItU? 
bL>came cuiikiiIcuovih aa oii« of Un most OtLt- 
Kpukcn members of the independent imt 
tliat ljc,dv(l'iSfcM?/Jff/«n»,i.490; ^ a: 

UUt. of' Independeiuy, i. JW, 108, 124 ,. 

In Jniiuarr 1019 Weaver wae oained odd of 
thf> comraisnionon for tryini; Charles ], but 
never attended anvofllieutiin^ of the ooBft 
fNALSOX, Trial n/C)iarU* I). In September 
lOCiO lie watt appointed one of thu four eon- 
misaionept for llie civil ^verntniuit of lifr 
land {Commons' Joumati, \i. 479). Someef 
lii» letters in that ciijiacity are printed in tits 
appendix to Ludlow^ ■ AU-moim' (ed. ItM, 
i. 492-503). In 1052 Weaver w»b sent 
to England tn n-pn-oent tb« vivwa of 
brother commisEionere to parliamont, but 
18 Feb. HUi:i the officers of tho Iriah 
petitioned for his removal, and on 32 
hw wn«, at lii» own request, allowed to rWff 
(I'fi. i. 319 ; Oimman/JoumaU, vii. I29t»ai 
*2m ; Jtffwrt on t/t- DuXtof IWttamTtMSS. 
\. iHi, fuA). On 14 April !tJo3 parlianient 
voted him Scottish Inuds to too value cS 
250/, ptT annum as a reward for hiaiMTiioMi 
whicli t!iL> I'rutectur euminuled aftenvardl 
for a pftvment nf 2,(XXJ/. (LtnjiAw, i. 401; 
CvSNfru/ru' JmiFnaU, vii. 278; QtU St^^m 
Paner^, IMm. I (164, pp. 200, 270). J^l 

Weaver repTe<<entea Stamford in both V^^ 
parliameiitH called by the l'rot«ctor, and 
Meadilv votwl vriili ihc rcpubtican opposi- 
tion, tu»U|[h in ItViO he Qitlr woeitred Iw 
election by ^rotcating that ' tua mind vm 
altered from what it was in tlic InA plri!*' 
raeni' ('ViivKLQS, Stat f Pitptr*, v.290,Sf0). 
Nono the lustt hv van excluded from theTIoms 
in SKptt-mher Iti^^l, and i>i)^vd tlie pfMMl 
of iLl- 120 members then kept out (MH(t» 
IXHKK, Mnnuriah, ed, 18."i.% iv. 2S0), Ai 
soon ss 1 hey were admittod Wca\-«T U^ 






the Att&ck upon thv anthoritjv of Ui« new 
House of I-ord.' (Ruhthk, ParHamentarv 
Diary, u..Si7,4'29). In Itichard Cromwell s 
MrUAtneat h« once now rcprrsojitcil Stam- 
rordt and made innaj Hpneohva againrt the 
T&liditj- of the ' petition ' nnd ' adrico,' tlie 
uxuteiicv of tbt) otLvr hotuv. and thv adiui»- 
aion itf tbf! niemb^ra far Sci^tlaad {A. iii. 70, 
7fl, 11?. 34«, iv. 00, 104, 240; TiirBLOB, 
vii. ')G0; LrDLOw, it. M, fA), In Deci-mber 
1660, aAer the armr had tumud t>ut the 
LonfT parliammtt, W«nver nid«d Anhlvjr 
Cooper and others in wtciiring the Tower for 
the parliament (Tuukloe, rii. 797). To 
tbi6 z^fll hi- ovfLii liU idt'dicji a« a metnWr 
of (tie touDcil of slal« (L>ec. 31, 16i79), and 
his appointuient as commiwiuntr for the 
goverDiuenl of Ireland uiid the nmiiagi-nient 
of lUft uarr (LCOI.OW, ii. tSKJ; Cornntrtni 
Journals, vU. 799, 800, PlS, 825i. Hi- at- 
Mnded notiv of ihv tavating* uf ilic I'Duricil 
from dUiinclination to take Che oath altjiiring 
monarchy, n-hich was ie!)utn>d fnjin coun- 
cillorK, and AMUted in procuring the rvarU 
miMionof the eecladed meoibeTs (K-U?(5E;n', 
S^/i*tfr, p. 61 ; Cat. Staff, Ptiper*, Unm. 
HW9 00, p. ut), la conseijueuce, wliim 
those niiitDbcri were readmillcd he was affnin 
dccied tti tbK council 'jfotate (,!':} Fvli.lOtlO). 

Stamford elacted Weaver to the Conven- 
tion paFliaminit,but the return wait difijiiited 
and Lu vluction uiimUU>d {V'jfnmonji' Jtiur^ 
aaU. viii. IH). 

Weaver waa buriml at Xorth Lutlt>n!iam 
on 26 March 1(IW>. 

[Lineolnahlre NotM and QueriM, IK89, i. 62- 
63; Katil«'* Lives of th« Regicides, 1798, u. 
M8.3 C. H. F. 

WEAVEE, JOHN atJ73-17flO). dancing 
master, ton of John Wkhvit, wnH liaiitt«-t! til 
Holy CmHs, Shrewsbuiy. on i!l July 1^73, 
HiM fath<-r i» b«liev«d to br idontirnt n-itli 
'one Mr. Wearer,' a dancitii^ tnnsn-r in the 
anirBrwily of Oidbrd, who u named in u 
letter from Ralph Rathiir«t to Oa»coi(;TiiL', 
the Duke nf ttrmonde'tt eecretnry, 1^ Murch 
1675-6, ft.* having been received by tbe 
ehauceUorof the u«iver#ily • at a tiraw when 
there wai room for him,' hut ' i* now like to 
hu rninvd with bin family, heint; ^upplanltd 
by ilr. UiittiHtrr,' aiiotlwr iJanciii); mnnlpr 
(WA«TON,/.ifrf>f B««««f,p. I4l>). Weav,T 
r8C«irc«l Ilia ttiltication al tbi? frei; w-hoo], 
Shrewsbury. In early lifi^ h<- ru>t nn aa a 
danciue master in Shrewsbury, nnd is said 
tA liiivi- tftiiifht duncini^ there for thrco gtnc- 
nlion*, till ni-'arly the ela-ie of hii< litV'. lie 
WBB living tbvrf on lU March 1711 It^.wlieu 
h* wrote a letter to tlie ' Spt-ciutor' <^No. 
334, see also No. 41(6), announcing bia in- 

tention of bringing out a atnall treatise on 
danciny. which was ■ an art celebrated 
Iha uncipnts,' but totally iieglvcted by thit" 
uodenu, and now (alien to a low ebb. But 
his residence in Shrewobiirv was never in hia 
adult life continuous. Vrom 1702h«wMU 
actively associated with tbettlncal enter 
in London. 

Weaver, aud not John Rich ^q. v.J, at 
U cotnmonlv slated, was the orig-mal intro- 
ducer inti) f^nftltiiid of enturtainaLviit¥ which 
bore thf nuni'i of panl<jmimi?.'<. Hut by 
'panlomimes' Wwirer did not mean harle- 
quin entvnainmunts, but nitbiT ballets, oi^ 
aa he term.i it, 'sreniral dftncing.' a repltHf 
Bentation of eome historical incident by 
fimcttt'ul motions. In 170i Iw produced a 
mime uc Urury Lanu styled 'Tbe Tavern 
Bilkers,' which \m stago-mniiak^ed, uud which 
he det)cribe4 t» ' th« first euteriaiument that 
appeared on the I'n^lish Stage, where th« 
itepresenlul ion and Hlory woa carriod on 
by Unncinp .\(;tii)n nnd Motion otilj-.' In 
17t>7 Wpaverconijiosedanewdanceintiftefn 
couplet^ ' Tbe Union,' which wan pi'rfnnned J 
at cnurr on the quMsna birthday, 6 Feb. f 
Either owing to the tluctiialions of theatrical, 
ROTemmcni.or poitibty because hi? mime wa«; 
not Bucoes»riil, Wxuver did not put a eecomil 
on the stage until 17ltt; this was called 'Thai 
Loviis of Miirs and Venus,' and wa« 'an 
attempt in iniilaliou of the ancient i'an- 
tomimea, nnd the first tlint has uppean^^ 
since tbe tlmu uf ibv liuman l']mpcrur».' 
Weaver* subaufuent pejilouiimic enlcrlain'- 
menu were ' I'erHem and Andromeda.' \7M; 
'Orpheun find EurydiciV '"17 ; ' HnrlcMjuin 
tiini'd Judjff,' 171 7; and 'Ciijiid nnd Bacchus,'' 
171ft, ull performed at Dniry Lsne. These 
dat^s of iVunver's piecpa are giwn on his 
own authority, from his ' History of the 
Mimin anil Pnntomimps.' Moet. of them 
were pn.ihably ii^'ver printed, John Thur- 
mond produced »<omewhnt similar pieces for 
Urury Lanu bt-tweLti 1719 and 17^U. Kich't ' 
pniitomiini'ii wi-rt? prodtio-d at Lincoln's Inn 
Fii'Ids from 171" to I'^G. Weaver's 'Tavern 
Hilkem ' ■wji» n-vivMl nt Lincoln'* Inn FiphU 
by ihe yuiinjter Ilich on \'A \yt\\ 1717. and 
affiiin nt the same house '>a II Dec. 1737, 
under iht- nnmi! of 'Thf (.'heals.' 

Weaver himself sometimes acted in his 
rrpnscntnrions. In I7l'8 be imp<:rsnnated 
Clown, the Si^uireV Man, in ' IVrsuus and 
Andromeda, or the Flying Lovers,' an afler- 
pii'Cfl porfonnod at Drury Lane Theatrt'. 

Wi-avfT lujiifflit, to iBlubliiih a HchrM)! of 
patitomime, more like the modem baUH 
li'nrliiin, hut tbe public dill not apprecial« 
his etforr ; tlii^y pn-fi rri>^d j^rote^quR rlanoing 
and acting. lu 1730 he complains itiat 




ipecttton arv equaudvrine tbeir ippUaae 
on iDl«rpoiation« by paeuaMJtjcn, merrj' 
udrewe, tomblen, sad rope-ouieef 8, uid are 
but nnlj tuncbcid witli or «ticaura(ie b twtu- 
itlpl»er or jiut pKniomini)'. 

OnflFeKlTSS his 'Judgni^nt of rari»,' 
described u *n new runlomime Entertain- 
ment,' ftpDHtrvd 81 Uniry I^am*. Mrg, Jtootli 
■cted u IK'lcn, nnd Mt»s llaftor as Thalia 
(QBarixT, iii. :{li9(- Tlienr ww an varliLT 
poH'i:>rniancc. poMibly diirini; lIia Chmtrou 
of 17'd'J; ii is rt'fumxl lo in a l«tlor from 
Aaron Ilill [q^ v.], the dramiitiot, lo Victor, 
tbit att'jr, 1 Jan. 1732-3 (VirroR, Jfititoty 
of (Ac ThtatreM of Ijiniion anil liuhlin, ii. 
177>. It WHS {lenonned by hio pupils in The 
nvttl rijoni ornrth« niarkpt-hau§«at Slarews- 
oury about 17fiO (Owbs and Bi.akbw»t. li. 

WenvfT died at Shrewsbury on 'H .Sept. 
1760, aged 90, and was burit-u iu ilic itouth 
aiale of Uld St. Chad's church in Slirefrftbiiry 
on 2** Sept. (Atldit. M-S. 3li».S6, fol. ft5 A). 
Ho is diaciibMl aa lioing 'a litllt> dapper, 
diecrftil man, tnuch TvitpLtMed in thi' town, 
and by the Krxt |ier)|itt> in the tirif^libuuHiocid' 
(OWKH and Bj.\Ki:WAr, ii. l-'»i', «. 1 j. 

lie waa twict^ tniirrifil. Bv his first wife, 
Catherine, who wa.1 burial at. St. I'hA'l'^ 
^lirvwHbury, on 13 Si'pt. I71i, hi' bad three 
childfpn — Jnhn, bapCiscd on II May 1709; 
Kichard, buptieed on 3 Nov, 17ll>; and 
t!nt1i«rin>', tinjilif^d on 13 Svpt. 171-', all at 
Si. Chad's Chiirrh (67. C/MtTf Itryutrri. His 
aecond uit'e, Sumlhhb, rrho survived hiiu,di<.*d 
on ti Fob. 1773, ftffed 73, and iras bnried nn 
10 Feb. at St. Chad'i, Siiruwibury. Tbt- 
inoniimont waa dratroycd at th» fall of Did 
St Chad'i Chorcli in l'7H^ ; but thu inscriiH 
tioa is preserved in Addit. MS. 2120^, ful. 

Bi-jiides thi> piny* Iwfon- mimlionfd, Wen* 
ver publisbt'd: I. 'Orchci-oifrapby; or the 
Art of HitnciufT. b.'irig an I'naet tmnfllntinn 
from the French of M. F,-uilli-t.' l7(Hi, Uo. 
2. ' Asiuall Trealiseof TimeiiiidC'adwticeiii 
Dancinpr," 1706. 3. 'Tht' Union: a Banco 
writ down in C'tiiirflcler*,' 1707 (."1. 4. 'An 
Essay townrdi an History of Daiicinp,' 1712 
(tba work rcftirrt-d t'l in the Spectator, Jfns. 
334 nnd 4tMi). U. ' Aiiiitcnuicnl atiil Mechu- 
nical IioctiircH upon Dancing.' 1":J1 (these 
worv 'rw»d »l ttii" Acadciny in Chancery 
l«Be'). (i. • 'Hie Ifistfiry nf ch>.' Miinis* and 
Pantomimes, Sic. Also a List ofllie modern 
Knri^rlainrocms llul have bct-n rxbibitod on 
the Eiigliah Su^!!, eilher i» iniiialion of tho 
nncifiU I'lintoiuinies, or aflt'T the Tninnsr of 
the modem IlJiliiiiia,' London, 172^, 8vo, 

[Owea and Blakeway's Hint, of Shrmnbary, 
ii. 161-2, 24&; Itaki^r'a niograpbiii Dramatiu, 

no.' in 

■"" tit ■ 




ad. Reed and Jmh. i. 739: OolUy Cibbac^ i 
Apology; 'The Gmrnanf I-ji^lUh I^nUNaiaw.' 
by W. J. lAwrrti«c, in Tfao Tfaaatre fur Janoafy 
IS93,xsv. 38~3l: >l'aule: Pindtbefint Tm- 
tominc Cluwn,' by W. J. lawrcnee, iq tlia ^p- 
pleaimt lo the Ncwi-arilr Weokly Cbroo. 29 Pse. 
1804; 'TtM Falber of Eagliah Pantonime.' in 
the Pall Mall Gawtte. 2? Dec. 1897; GwMt^ 
Aoroantofth* Knglishtftac*; NotcaaadQa 
Sod KF. iii. 89. lU, 397 ; inTonxLatiOB tram ' 
LawKAce, e«g.j W. 0. D. 

WEAVER, KOBEKT (177:;-18&:i) 
gregmtionat divine and antiquary, bom at 
Trowbridg^! in Wiltaliire on iA Jan. 1773, 
was the arm of llichard Wenvrr, chithii-r. by 
hiK wife Mary. He wa& intended to follow 
his fathei'M tnidf, hut, profrrrinptfl stody for 
thi* congTv^tional minwtiy, he eniimd 
But htifhain Collw^;? early in 171.'-1, residing 
with tb<> pn>«td<'nt KdwarilliVilliama (t7oO- 
1813) [ig. T.I On 15 Feb. ]«02 he btKaaa 
pABior at Manaflrid in NottinKkamabire^ a 
cbarip) which he retained till his destlt. 
When he went to .Manaheld aOairs ware in 
ooDfnsioQ and the oon^^n^tion had been 
broken up. Hv reconittitui«dit in ldO''3,snd 
twice iniliir^-d thu place of wot«hip, in 1 
and in lHl'9. 

Wuaver waa an ardent atudi^nt <4 
tof^ve instraciion to rwidont pupda. H« 
also took an intenut in antiquitiee, ondia 
lH4Upiilili»hii) 'Monum4-nla Anttqua.oriba 
Slont! Monumt^nts of vVnti^iuitv yet n'maiih 
inir ill I h<^ Brit i^h Isles ' ( Umiion, l^ow), ia 
wiiicb heaseribf^l the riTnains of pre-Bomu 
limits tii Pbienictan influence (Uid tuppoded 
his t.bL-ory by the particular! of simiUr 
('anaaniii<ih niid Jewub monumcntGRii'^ia 
the Bible. ^^ i-aver di.-d al ManKbeld OB 
I'i l.)vl. la'f'J. anil wna buried in! grouid 
attached to Uui ind<-pi-ndcnl cbap»l. 

Buaides the work mentionml, he wa? the 
author of: 1. 'Tlw Scriptures Fulfillsd,' 
mvi-a lectures, l^^ndon, 1S2d, 8ttl % 
'Heaven: A Manual for the Heirs of 
IIejiTen,'Londoii,ls37,12mo. 3. ' Edueati.» 
bnsL-d on Scriptural i'rinciple», thu True 
Source of Individual and Social Happmeftti' 
London, I&;J8. 8vo. 4. 'The X^as^ut \l\u 
and Juhovtth'sTi'inple,' London, ]*fl40, \'2ato. 
6. 'ThiT Keconeiler: an Attempt to i>\hihil 
. . . th>! HtLritiiiny and (llory ot the DiiiB* 
Govemmeni,* London, 1841, Kto. rt 'A 
Complete Vivw of ruaeyiam,' Londi'ii. ■ '■" 
12mn. 7. • Diftwnt; its Character,' L 
1^44, Hvo. H, ■ Itationalism,' Liindon, i "-X', 
12mo, 9. 'Popery, calmly, rlowly, anil coni- 
prebensLvuly con«idi;red,' London, lls'jl.M'a 

[Cunenvgutional Veir Book, 1603, pp. S$M, 
Gone Xa^. IS&3, i. «;i.] K X. 






poetaM«r, BOB nf Tliniuas \Voa\«r, wtn bom 
Kt WorcMlvr in IftlG. S)-v<<riil ortii<; family 
were prominent mfmbcrs fir the Stationen' 
ComiMinT in ]jotniim. An iinrlr nf tlw po^ 
tutor, Rdmiind ^^^>av•*r (ma of lliomas 
We«Ter, a wpaver of Worcester), wa» fnim 
1608 nniLI his dMth in l(ViK an nctive Lnn- 
doD publisher. Tbi» I'Mmmul We«Ti-r'» son, 
utntlter Tbomns ^\'o&Tcr < the poetiLStcr's Rri>t 
OOUnd). bccami* ik fni-muii oflln; Sintioner*' 
Comjuny in ll!:??, w«a calh-il into tUn Itvcry 
in 1d33, uidi retiring from buHiuoso in I()?E>. 
■eena to liSTtt vntvrwl u n stiidonlof CJrnyV 
ha oa 1 Nov, IttW (Omy'^ lun Ilffieter, 
B, 338; AKIkn, Trannrrijil of H/tttionrn' 
OmUMom, iL 17A, iii. 68A, jr. ^, 33, 440, 
471. 4W). 

llu! po?tA&t«r matrieiil&tii^d from Cbrist 
Cburcli.(UfonI,on :.') Uarrb ItM^t-l.actlie 
sm nf visfat^eu, gradiiutcd T\.\. on lOOct. 
1637, ud M.A. on .11 Junf< UH>. In 1641 bo 
«rHmftd«OD««f th«cluipbtiii«orpettjcanonR 
of the caUiedml. He wsa » aturdj' roy&Ii»t, 
Atld W1W »)C<»ntinply i>j(irti*d frnni liiji oftic* by 
lb/! TKvrlianipnliiry vj^itnrB in IHll* (Jt^^uter 
^ \ ititon to (ixjard, C'tundpn Soc. |>. 431 ). 
Coder tlieCrtmmonwMlih b'^ 'flhifttd from 
plactt to pltirc and lived upon hi» wits." 
Like lUcbard Corbet, Witliiim Sttvidi', *nd 
flthortvaJdent irmduaO'v nf ''Urisi Chureb in 
holy orders, lit' was an ndept at liifbter | 
forma of Ten«, in Trhicli \\v took n mon: in- 
dulnnt view of butnau frailtiv* than i* ordi- 
oarily ndioned becoming in the clcriul pro- 
fauiOD. In OctoluT 1<I'>4 thcr^'was [iubli»hed 
K collection imlitliMi ' SonifM and I'oemH of ' 
Ijotp and Drollery, bvT. W'.' It was dedi- 
e&ttO 'to my nio«t obliging fri>!nil K. ('. K»- 
quire.' The rene hIiowh flome lyrirnl capa- 
city, and deals &«e]y with iLtnurDiiH tci{iicH. 
Many of the pi'.-CM wore uliit,^ on ihf* nuchor's 

E>Iitirsl anrl thenlogioil I'oea; of tbew. r 
ilbid,'to the tune of "Chevy ChiiKo'" (ji. 
21), cill'.*d '■'LvvX ovt'riieaied, or a relation of 
a lamentable flr«whicbhftpned tnOxonin a 
rdigious brotkcr'ii shou,' jiruwd uspvcially 
obnoxion* to puritan*. 'I he ' religious brother ' 
whnm Weaver sazcasticaUy d<<iiounix'd wa« 
Tbomat WillianiB, an Oacfonl niilliiiwr, who 
belonged to the flock of Denry Comiflh, the 
preebyterian minister at All naintV Church. 
Tbci work wiw d^-ctared to be sedilioim and 
libtflloiiH, Weaver was arrested in London, 
was imprisoned and tried onaenpital chargt^ 
of tn«soQ. At the timl (information about 
wfaicb Dtfm* only «cce»*ib1« in Wood's 
'Athean'), tba book waj produCL-d; but 
the judge, af^cr rr«dlng aomi^ P^S^* ^f '''i 
siimnied up Btronglr in favour of Weaver. 
He WIS uinllbig, d* mwI, to ooadvma ' a 

seholar and a man of wit.' A verdict of ' not 

guilty ' was njiunwd. and Weaver wv B«t 
at liberty. Hi» booh i* rar*- (^Mklok. -4ne?- 
A)te», vi. M-9). Periwi eopttjit wv in thft 
Drilixh Mii»<niR and in Malone'ii cotleclioD 
in thellodldanLibruy. A pcwm by Weaver^ 
calVd 'The Arebbisnop of Yor'kV \i\y\ix\ 
Williams'*] BereU,' wm wprinted from bis 
book in some ediuonn of thi.- works of John 
Cloavclaiid. Weaver is in no wav nis|Knuiibl» i 
for tltu cuHi^ctioD of verse called 'Ohoic 
Drollery with Songs and Bonnet*,' whic 
imLtftlvd his title and wiu) published in IfJAS,] 
Furlh»ir Njn-ciinen* of his po>.-try are nid^. 
however, In be found in misc«l]ftnio« of tho 

On the restomtion of Charles II in 1600 
Weaver was, according to Wood, made ex- 
ctatman or colU>otor of customs for Liver- 
pool (cf. Vat, ataie Paym, ham. 1070, p. 
A46). Wood furlh*.T states that hn wa«j 
commonly called ' Captan Weaver.' He die 
at Li«-erpool on :> Jan. lt)*12-8, 'iirnsuouting' 
too much the crimi-a ofpoeu.'and wa.** buried 

To Weaver bas been freqiientlv SMribcd 
u itwoond voliitnf of verse, eulitfed *Plan- 
ta^etfl Tmgicall Story : or, tho Death of 
King Edwaixl the Fourth: with tlie uti- 
niiriimll vnyegv- of Kichiird the Third througli 
llie Ked Sea uf hia N'uphi-ws innuciml hloud, 
to his ueurpe«l Crowae. Melaphraevd b; 
T. W* . f J.-nt. • I, London, by F. B. for George 
Badger, I(V17). A portrait uf the author, 
ongravod by Blarshall, i* pn-lixi-d. The 
first book is dcdicaHad ' To the truly heroick 
Edwattl Uenlowes, Ksquirv.' There are com- 
mendatory verses by 'I. C, Art. Mag.,' 
•S. S.,' and 'I. 8. Lincoln's Iiiu." I. C. 
refers to the Burpajming merits of the more 
serious work of t lie writer, whom he di.iBcriboS 
a? a Boldier and a scholar, and addresses an 
'Captain T. W.' 'I. S. ' writes in a like 
vi'in, and calls 'his i?ver-hont>urpd friend 
Captain T. \V. ' u ' pL-riVcier of poetry and 
patteme of gallantry.' The second hiiok oJ 
tbu iKiem is dedicaleil by thti author to 
' D, W.,* and the work is tWlnred to bo ' the 
oflspriugof a toiuHry-muse' (wnh Fbt, Bitrtto- 
ffrajih'ml .VrmoHab, 181(f, pp. 1 U-:il), A 
copy of the book is in thi- Britisb Mu- 
seum. TnCerna] evidence fails to connfict 
the f hrf>nicii'-po>'m with Weavers acloiow- 
ludt^cd vereo. and at ilie time of its pub- 
licnlton in !tW7 Weaver was a chaplain 
of Chri«i Church, Oxford— a rank which 
would not allow him to be de«iguated on a 
title-page ts 'T. "W. Gent.,' at to be greeted 
as ' captain ' by his frinnds. 

IWrHKl'ii AthnjBB Oiuu. eJ. Blisi, iii, 822-$; 
authan(«seic«d.l 8. It. 




WEAVER, THOMAS (177S-18M). gw 

In^st. born in 1773. latKiird geology and 
njinemlogy from 1790 lo I7!M undirr Abra- 
ham U'lTniT at FrcilwMy. Soon afU'r hit* r*;- 
ttim[oEnf:lB.n(l he waa entrusted bygoveni- 
miint with the inrc^tigal ion of the sold df^- 
IMwite in Wickiow, in ri'f>.'r«nci' to wnich lie 

5iublislied in I8l0 hia 'Memoir on tbe Geo- 
og:ical IluluLiDEia of thu EmI of IroUnd* 
(l^indon, 4(0). In Uit> early days of tlie Qeo- 
wgictl ^oci«ty he bt^camu onu of its uciivs 
nemberK, Hnd ptililixha'cl in tJiC Mpciind Mm«it 
of its 'Tnosaccioiu' (toIb. t. and iv.) tnu- 
mmn on the geology of Qlouoesrenhiro and 
SoBOerset and th* sniirh of Irelnnd. Tn ih^- 
' rhiloftopliica] Transact ions ' of tlio IJoyoJ 
Society ioi* 18^ ho ftMcrt^d the rolalivoly 
modeiii age of tbu foKsil nunaiaiof thv great 
Irish doer ( (Vrnu mtyaeerox), and in the fol- 
lan-ingTeurhewRSeloctiida fellow of tho so- 
ciety. nntiubiH»qu(>ntlytnLT«ll«dBi a mining 
geologist in Mexico and the United States, 
and in \SS^ hvgan a sn'ririt of papers on the 
parhnniff-miis iv^ks of Anierirji. Weavrr 
had retired from his prof^Mion (or eomo 
yean before his death, which took placb at 
hia home in l^Uoo, 'J July 186&. 

In the Royal Sooiotya cataloguo (vi. 
266-0) he ie crudited with twenty pauvm, 
bearing ibites betwt^n ISSO and 18.41, all of 
which am gualo^icnl, und vi^fht n-fur lo In> 
land. They wtro conlribulBd chiufly to 
Tbomson'ft ' Atiiuils nf i'hiloBO|)bv,' the 
'I'hilueophicul Mu^iuiiiii.'.' tbu 'AnnnlE of 
Naturul llidtory,' ami I In- ' TraiiKnol inti" 
Uul Proceedinga of the Gyuhi^cal Sociuty." 

tQaartM'ly Joarnnl of th>> <^tr<(I>-tgioAl Si)i:it'T^-, 
lii. pp. xxxriii-ix; Mtctiiud'H KicifErxphii* 
UaivomaUo, tvI. xlir.] G. S. B. 

WEBB. [Seoatoo WebheI 

WEBB, Mna. (d. 1703), actr^'w, whose 
maiden name ttok Child, wii« bum in NoT- 
wicli. Sho b4!camu an fictri\'w nnd a singer 
in tlio Norwich company, niid married dm 
« Mr. Ubv. and afterwards a Mr. ^\'t'bb. 
Sbv apppuri- to have toodv li«r Qnl uppunr- 
ance in Edinhursh on '2i Nov. ir7:J at tin? 
Theatre Jtoyal in Shulesptfara Sqnare ae 
C'hnrlott'.' Iluspurl in the * Wt^t liidinn,' 
■printing at once into faroiir. She— if tl»» 
5Jr8.Day were she— also pluywdQut'onCathe- i 
fine in 'Henry VIII.' Webb was about tbia 
tiinv a mecnfaer of the company, acting thu 
King in'Hauikiti'Kent iu ' Lear,' and simi- 
lur parte. On 20 Not. 1773 Portia in ili.- 
' Mei^hant of Venice' was pI&yMl by Mn*. 
Webb, from which tliue Mrs. Day disap- ; 
ueant. In the ' Kdinbiirj(h Htwciwl,' 1776, i 
Mrs. Webb i« df-jwribed as ' very URcful/ and 
it IS liaid of hvr that abo 'Kings very eweet>' i 


hen I 



On 1 June I77A, ox Mrs. W<>bb fmn 

btirgh, fihe apneorad at the Hamai 
playing Mr*. Ltom in Colman's '.Van am 
Wife.' During her first wAson rfio a«t«d 
I.ndy Sycamore in the 'Maid of the Mill,' 
and 1>adv Wronghnid in the 'Provoked 
Husband'' Un 1 July 1779 tbo wa« the 
first Lady Juniper in ' ^iinuner iVmuaetueitt^ 
or an Adveuturv ai Margate,' by AndK^^| 
and Milea. She plaved Mra. Sneak in Focrt^Hj 
; ' Mayor of Oarralt. Mrs. Margaroi Maxw^ 
in the 'Devil on Two Stickr.,' and had m 
original part on 31 Aug. in Colroan'd 
printed 'iSeparato Maintenance,' As 
original Dami^ Hearty in Goodenou^h*;) ' W 
liam and Nanny' she made on 1^ Nov. har 
flntt npp'Mrancf at Coveut Qarden, when i 
she playi'd Mw. Peochuiu in ihe ' Beggu'a J 
r>TH;ra/ 8tnlira in ' Itiral tjuBej» ; or 
Life and Death of Alexander tho Li 
She was at tlie HaymarkeC <iu 30 May I 
tho Lady in the Rnlconyat the firM prodn&- 
tion of ('rtlmnn'* ' Manaf^er in Di^lrvM,' WH 
MrH. Honeyeomhe in ' I'nllv HonfycomW 
and the lir»t Commodij in A ndrews's *Fil« 
Water 'on ft July, .At. Covent Oardtfo _ 
was on 3 Oct. Cnumdaica in an aIl«ratloB 
Fidding'a 'Tom Thumb,' tho finst Mrs. 
Hi^ht in Pilon's * Humours of au lilecti 
on lit Oct., the Duenna, Motlier-tn-latr ii 
the ' Chance-i,' (juii'n in ' Humk-t.'Kmiliaii 
'Othello,' Klrtm (an original pan) io 
din's ■ Islander,' L'5 Nov., Ijadv Ilnsport 
' VV«»t Indian,' and Mis. Uardcsetle. T 
prinoipal oriffinal rharactiirt at this hoi 
which «henevi3r quitted, were I^vTftdt 
(VKei-lVf'*.' PwiUve Man,' Ifi Mwreh 17 
Lady Dangle in Cumberland 'k ' Wsllooi 
yt) April ; Ahigi\il in Cnmberland'tt ' Ci . 
cions I.ady,* I" Jan.l7R3: AMdowGrarapw 
in l*ilon'«' Aerostation," ^Uet. 17?(J ;Lady 
lUiU in O'Kfcffo'B 'FontaincblcaUi'ieNov.; 
MaroHlina in ' Follies of a Day ' (' he -Ma- 
rinp> de Figaro '), 14 Dec. ; Honour in M 
nnlly's ' Fa$hiouablt> Lovitios,' 2 April 17: 
1-ady Mary Magfiin in .Mm. Incfabald's ' 

P^aranco is ogauut Them,' 22 Oct.; Malx^l 
iouriah in lyKeeffe'n ' I<o*"i! in a Camp.' 
17 Fob. 1786! Lndv Oldpt-wk in Pilon's 
'H'.' woidd be a SoUier,' 18 Nov.; Lady 
Dolphin in O'K^offe's* Man Milliner,' tf7 Jan. 
1 7^7 ; Cecily in Mrs, InehbaldV 'Mid 
1 loiir,'22 May ; Kntly Knvanagh in O'Ki 
'Tov,'3Feb. 178&; Lady Waiifor'i in 
□ olas's ' Uraiuatiat,* In May; Mio 
Claekil in Bate Dudlev'e ' Wi 
2n K«b. 1791 ; Lfidy Aoul in Rcyn 
' NotorietT,' fi S'ov. ; and Mia» .Spinster ja 
Mn. Tnchbald's ' Every One has his Fatdt,' 
i?9Jan. 17!W. 
To this list may be added tbe foUoai 




parU plired diiriD^tlieAumniei seasons at th*< 
H^TinwftPt: Hcbo Wintcrtop in 0'K(-eff<*'i< 
•Vfi Alive.' }& Juni- I7«I ; Mefrow Vnti 
QoterhuD in Andrews's 'Uaron Kinkv.-r- 
vwikotiKk'rtpraLin^ti-hdt'rDt' 9 July; Mri*. 
DiMliif" in if'Kei'tti-'it * Agn-eftWe Surprise,' 
3 Sept. ; L«ily Itnancoval in O'lvci-flV's 
'YotinEQHi«lt.T,'20Jiily 17RR; I-ndv IVli- 

SBG in Stuart'fi 'Oretiift Ori^p.n." IfS Aug.; 
KtcireM in trKwH'e'* ' lWpin^Ti>ro,'ti S«'pt. 
ITM ; IMra. MnmnHTj- in <> Kc^fFe'i* * Hegigiir 
on Horeebeck,' Jt! June 17S5; Lad/ SiinpV 
iothp yoiingc;rColnuin«'Tnrk nnd no Tunc,* 
9 Jitlv ; Mrs, Scout in the ■ \illaiai' Lawyer,' 
SB Aug. 17tr7 ; Lady Uundt'f in Uolmnn's 
'WaTK and Mouw/lOJiily \7HS: Mrs. 
Matiuwiy in ' Fnmilv I'arlv,' II July ITW); 
nnd Mrfi. ^[agK> in O'Eeefie's * London Ilor- 
miL* lit lirruliitnictprR iiK>tinii^d bvr at nne 
nr nther lionsfl were Lady M«ry Oldbov in 
' Lionel and Clnrisga,' Lockit in tha ' n^ff- 
gu't Opi^Th ' (vhU till* mall- oliArart^rt played 
Dv womi?n and vice* versa), Mrs. Amiet in 
the 'Cinfwlcmfi-.' .Mrs. Ott«f in the ' Silunt 
Woman,' MTO.H<:idelber^inlb(! 'CiandeetJne 
iHuriwe,' Old Ladv Lambert in th« ' llj^- 
-nfte,' Lady Wieltlurt in tht^ ' Way of Ilio 
World,' JKtrcae in tht;'.M<«:k Doctor,' Wi- 
dow Lackit in ' I >roono1io,' Tag in ' Mias in 
her TwiiV Mr*. Tknnple in tlu' ' Critic,' Wi- 
dow niockacre in rh<j 'I'lnin Dpftlur,' Fnl- 
staff(« straogB experiment for her beni'fit >. 
Unula in the ' Padlock,' Mr», Fanlittpili^ in 
the * Funt^ral,' Lady Dova in r'umbpi-land'K 
' Brotbi-r*,' Sfrs, Sealand in 'O)n«ioiw 
Lover*,' Mrs. Malaprnp, Mr?, Tiruh in ' Ckmw 
Piirptwee,' Motlter-in-Iaw in the 'C'hancM," 
and Mrs, Mechlin in tho'CommiASiirr.' On 
5 Nov. \~9'i nl L'ovt-nt Uiirdi-u »!ie played 
the Ihunua. and on tlie 7tb ilisa SpinsltT 
in ' Evory Unv has Iiia Fault.' On tliv 24tlL 
ahe died. 

Mrs. WebbvftB a good uctrcwt! with inucli 
buinour, her best part« imng Mr*. Cln^tshiri! 
end Mabel Flnnriiih. Site wbk corpulent Lti 
her late yearn, and wsa wen to ndvnntngi^ 
ia grotcAqni* chAract4>i». Her Lochit did 
mflcli to recommend the Strang experiment 
of Oolman of vhieh it was a feature. A 
portrait by IKiwilde mt Jiiidy Uotq in the 
'ItroUiera ii iu the .Matlinwit collection in 
the Garrick Club, in the cataloguo of whicb 
abA ta erronHiudlv mid to luive a[ip(Mred iu 
London OS !iUas CnoB. 

[<rena«t'»Ac«9Dnt of tb« English St^igo; Ollli- 
land'B Dramatic Mirror; Thespian Dictioaaiy: 
Oeul.Mag. 1793. ii. 1081, 1147. j J. K. 

WEBB, BENJAMIN (1819-1885), eccle- 
•iologi*! nnd parish prie«t, eldest mq of Ilen- 
D NS'ubb, of (be fizai oC Webb ft Sons, 


[ wbitdwriglita, of London, waabomatAddl 
I Hill, Doctcit'* Commons, OD Sd Not. 1619? 
I On 2 Oct. 1828 be was admitted to St. Pkul's 
whoo1 iind«r Dr. John Sleath [q. v.], and 

firogeeded with an exhibition to Trinity Col- 
rge, Cambridge, in tWober IH3S. H^ tcrtk- 
dwatwl 1S.A. iu l*i-', M.A. in l84o. Whili 
BtiU an undefKraduftto bn, tofr^-lher with hi| 
somewhat older friend, John Ma^n Xeale 
[i|. v.], fntindinl the Cambrid^ Oamdva 
iiocii'ty, which plaj-ed an impoDnni part in 
till! •■ccli?)iiok>(i{ical revival con^equeul iipou 
the tmcTarinn movement, and of which 
%\'ebh continued to he •ocrvtary, both at 
CAmbrii]f^<' and alterwards in lx>iidon 
(wbilher it waa removed in )S4il< under the 
nam<;Qf tbo KL-clonLolo^^ical Society), fri.mi its 
beginning to it4 e.\tint'lion in l)^<t. With 
Webb and Ntale wer^ ai(K>'ciitr>.>d in thia 
entLT|iri«^ Webb's intimiit^ and lifMon^ 
I'riencl Alexander Jftini>e Iteret^ford-llopo 
[a, T.^ and Frederick .\prJinrp I'niry [(j. v.l 
llie B(ici«ty restored the 'round church 
at Cambridp.^, and Webb bad tlm honour ot 
showinK the restored edifice to the poet 
I Wnrd.*worlh. Wcbbwnsoarly recDunutedaa 
I a leading- outbonty on (iuet»lion« of L-cclesi- 
I nstitnl art (seoLiDDO.v, it/eo//'MJ(«j/ i.47(t- 
I -laO). He wiu ordained deacon in 1S42 and 
priest in 18t<'f, and served hk curate firetl 
' uudur hiB college tutor, ArcIid«a(>on ThoiM' 
(who had bueu the first president of tn© 
Cambridge Comden .SiK-ifly 1. at Kemertou 
inUli>ucoster«Iure, and afterwards ntBraet«d 
in Kent, undirr Wiliiuta Tlodge Mill [q. v.] 
who, as regiud ])rofeanur of Hebrew, hoc 
ruunli-nnnciHl and encouraged bi< vccdo-j 
aiological work at Cambridge, and whoMJ 
daughter he married in 1H47. He waa alsol 
for n whilo curate to William Dodsworth- 
^q. v.] at Christ Church, Si. I'ttncrns, I.rf>n- 
uon. In 1»51 be wa» pn-MTntid by ilere*- 
ford-ilope to lb« peqietusl curacv of Sheen 
in Staflordahire, and in iKIlfl bv'lrf>rd Pal- 
iiierslon, on tlie Ktcommendftl ion of BIr. 
Ciladnlune, tn (be crown living of Hi. An- 
drew's, WolU Street, I.ondon, which he re-j 
tiiinraltiil hi" death. I'ndur liim ttiis uhurch' 
obtained a wide culebrily for the musical 
I'xct'llence of its servioee, and become the 
centn^ of en elaborato and etljcient «vHlem 
of confmttimititw, achoolt, and pamctfol in- 
stitutions, in establiabin^ which liis powers 
of pructical oi^ULAution found a congenial-, 
tield of exerciHe. .\inang these may be^ 
twpocially mentioned hiscati'-chi^ticAl chuMA] 
for cbiliJr.-n iiiid young women of the upper 
clu^sfE, whieh mny be compared with those 
held by I>upanktup at 1^8; and aliso the 
day nuraery or rrl^chf, said to have been thv 
first of its kind in Loodon. 

VTrbibvw appouited br Kthm JKbm | fw** ' ArtidM of [iM|Utrir.'1841, of Fnnk* 
of Londoa in 19^1 to thvpnbeM of Port- ' S#niioa«*iti tW * Anglt^CaUmlic Libmn-,' 
poul in St. Pinl's CAth^lnl. Fnw 1^1 - ^A W. CoQk«> of tho * Hrmaary,' 

tut (Imb hv WM (irjiuv nf ibe 'Clitur: .'; Bad one of ibe editors of * Hienirgiftj 

QtMrtn-I<r It^Tww.' tie died al Us Imiiw ta i Auboia*,' IfUfi, Uw ' n>-mn»l Noted,' 1 hoj^ 
Clwulmi'SmTt.C«m>dttbS^«ftrt',(m?TNav. UHTtlv Dwntialaad n^rtm of tfaf ■ S&r 
I8Rfiv and wu>_b(iried in the AarAjmtd at | MuyV IflBl-ga. Tliere is ■ ponnit in < 

AMeiiT*a ta HartfoHdnc. A fiaa Beiia- 
inent br Am>*ti«d luu br<m piftoed to In 
mimionr id tin; crvpt of St. Pul'i. 

\\'et)b tn* tbroof^ut hU li£> k cosnistevt 
ItifZb-chnndinuui. ilthrMi^h hi* pojicr in 
UKtien of ritual differed frcoa ^hu vimmmj 

h-f E. D. Etiit, A.K.A., in the pocuesfiiaii i 
tu» widow. 

[f^iratc iaRmnktiaa ; oUtmrf notice hj 

A. J. B.-H. is tb» Gwrdiu, 3 Vte. ISU; 

Oardacr'B AtlnMoa Bagistcn of St. PulI'» 

SdMal, p. 177- Sm aba u atticl* do W*lih in 

He T>^niofd btm tin •dafr- i JidinVDMtiuMiy of BjmadkieT. vfai«b sirs 

- 'liR<rfhT»Mor<(BpeMdbyhi«.] C. C. J. W. 

WEBB. DANIEL (!7in.s-lT9R),iutJhor. 
bora tt Mudsiown. eo. liaerick, iti 171 
<v 171^, WW thr ddOTt MOB of Daniel ^^'«l 
nf Maidjtown Caatle, br htn wife Horot 
duflitar sod bMnw o'f M. Leake of C 
Lmm, ML Tipoenrr. Ilr matriculated Gmbi 
New CoIWe. Oxfo^ CO 13 June 1 ?»■•>. la 
later life be reaidcd chiefly in Jtatfa. 11« 
wttiCe •emil tbenvckal WQtlcfl on art, Trbich 
had fniiBiVfihVi vtifpte ftv a tim«. !{« 
died, withoat inue. oo 3 Aa^. I70B. il« 
w»a twice mairied: fin4, to Jaoe Uoyd; 
Bad, seceodlr, to Elinbcib Creed. lie 
the atitbor of: 1. 'An It><)atry iato t 
Beaaties et Pkintin^,' I^n<tnn. 17H0. ^v-: 
4tb edit. 1777 : Icaltan iramlaiioa hy Mtni 
QaanaScuipalia,Vaai«e. l7m,8ro. 'J.'ltif 
ouifa on Uw ftBWWiii of Poenr.' Loodon, 
17a9L8TO; new edit. I>ublin. I'rGI, 12miii 
9l 'OkMrrmiiMis <m the I'orrespoiideBN 
tttw mia Hwtrr and Miuic,' Lonihm, 1*09, 

lion of the •nehanuse Ti«twiMti, boi bum 
nor objocttoa «a priaeipla, bat, aa he atalcd 
in liis endeaM Men uw njti wiahrina 
of 1807) «n gtotutd* of *C^hrtatiaa equity, 
expedieacjr, aikd pradeaca.' On tbe other 
bliad. be U*d p<eat etram on tb* ' aaftwajd 
pMttion,' and tot^ an inponant part ia tbe 
Hrepantton of tb» vitr ^Q ctnaa fnl ' Pucha* 
KenoiMtraBee.' Hi* n>fined arliMie caliora, 
and hi* deep eOBncfmi Ibat tbe beet of 
Mverrlhiim aboabl be offimdia God's aervicv, 

S ■rented him from •bartaff tbe prdaAJBL 
t br mmy who otherwise ay eed witabim 
affairiM tbe pt'rf'>niunre of elal>t<rale modeia 
tnUH^' ia rhiirtrJi. He wa* a^p^id l.>aliD who 
Ur and an acroinplisbed litargiologisi aad 
antii(iiary. The worJt nf muax an l bwaa pab- 
bliftbed In- Ueanv. Novello, £«er Jb Co., and 
not a foir tnieriptiDtt«.UMagtbemtb»* oa 
the «-indows poc^ to Ibe ■SMor j of Deaa j 
Stanley Jn the ohapt'-r-hili— of WeWtOiter, 

an froa bi« pea. Ilis AeeoeerTt w il lanr _. , , ,_. 

be eaUed, of Juws Ftaab Rednom fa. tA Sto i GecBaa tran»latiao bv J. J. GochM' 
and Ua eneoazaMMBt of Oeotge Bdmoid baig,Lc«ag.l771.t<vo. i.'litanirAniu^ 
Oti e el [ifT.JiBtMMri/Magaaof UtCHeert |MeBMinreeMaiMirroee,'LoadQa,176T,8eo. 
eboold not be fiwgoctea. I 5. ' Soae Raaaona for tluakiaf tbe Qmk 

Tie poUiitbed : I. * Sketches of Coali- ' I^tieuagv wu bocrawed from tbe CtuMae: 
IT. £. ' NoleB iUns- ia Notes on tbe "Gtanaatiea Sinica' ^ 

nental Eccl««ob^,' 184' 

tralife of the Pari»h of Sbeen' (a tapple- 

ment to the * Lichfield Dioeeaaa Cbiinh 

CWleoiUr.' 1B59). S. 'lastnietiona and 


edir.l883>. HeeoatribatedDumenNuarmes 

in tb« poblieatiouof the CambrtdgaOUaden 

Soetecy (eafftcially oo the nonoffram I.II.S., . . 

ISIl: ontbeaTpCaof Ixiidon, 1841 : on the edit, witb addittoiu, Rocbdale, IHOB, Sm 

adaptation of pointed aidtilectun: to Uupi< " 

cal«UBatea,l»l5>; andof the Eccberalopcal 

Socirtr. in tbe ' Eeelenolofist.' 'Cliristtan 

lluaesibraucvr,' and ' SaturdaT Keview.' 

He wan joint author (witb J. M. Xealel of 

an ' EeuT on Synboliua ' and a mnsUtion 

«f Doran<iu», 1343; editor of Dr. W. H. Mil'« 

' Olteehel iral I.ectuiv«.* l^i^ of tfan.' Kcood 

editioa of hi* ' Mvtbical iDlerpretatioo of ISSepC 1735, watthethirdMioof JohnW 

the tl^i-t*.' I^l.'aad of bifl ' SaraaiM oa I gf iMBtoa. br hif wife 3lar>-. daughter 

tbeT«mptatiou,'K<3; joint edttor of Montis I eobainaa of UiUiaia Sweet of thveuae 

Slasft. FonnooDi ,' Londoa, 1 787. 8vo. Thrm 
fire wtsAf were repobUafaed in one toIoik 
in 180:? bTTbaaaaa Win8taalvT[q. v.' vaAa 
the title' of ' MiMellaniee.' iJbndMi, 4ta 
W«bb aUo edit«d ' tSeleetwm froa " Lot 
RechMchA< Pbitoeo]AIqMS etir lea Amirt- 
caiaa * of Hr. Pauw? Batb. 1 789. 8rD ; new 

[OeM. Mag. 1798, ii 7S5. SoT; Br^-. 
lAiid«l Oeatry. ISSS, Irekad : Fumw'i a: 
Orna. I71»-I8SS: AUibwe^ theu of Ei«t. Uk.. 
Baeoa'a B^ U Uria^ Aathon. I TTtk-SO, 17M- 
IMS: An. lUg. 17«e ii. U9, 17«S 0- Ml. 
17M M. aU.] E. L C 

WSBfi^ FRAXCLS (ira&-181o>. 
cetlaneoiu wtiter, bom at Taunton 




Hi! W4> edocatvd at Abingdoa Bud Bristol ; 
afterwards Rtutlied tbvnlojiy uiiilvr I'hilip 
]>od4lridM fq. r.1 Utd tiLt naoctasar, Culi-b 
Aibwortn [<^. v.1, at tbc iml-.-pctiiluiit iicii- 
demT at Nort han)pt«Na ami I>iiv<-nlry; and 
finUWl bU traiiiiiig witli T^otnss Amorv 
(1701-17;4>[q. v.] nt Tamitoti. He onlflrwl 
Ulu nODCuufurmifil tniuistrv, beraran pa.itor 
of the congrugutiun nt HonitoD, nnd on 
^ S45pt. 1758 was inducted UMistnnE to 
JoMpb Burroughs [q. y."', iiiini9l«r oT lliw 
ffenenl bsptigt cooffTV^lfon at PaulV Alley, 
London. On the death of llurrt^uulifr, oa 
33 Nov. 1761. Webb undertook tbe sole 
Gba>g«. Iul7l3tiberclin.-dfrom tliepastural 
officv aad filled tJie otBce of deputy anaruktir 
at Oraresend unia 177", wh*n be rpmovpd 
lo Poole in Dorset. In 177'» h« n'publi»h<id 
Dr. Joluifion'a ' Martnor Xnrfolci^nse,' a wiiih 
af^ainnt W'alpol*', which first appearetl in 
17^. Jobnann had not cnrcMliKl hi* .Idco- 
Iwtff principU-a in p<*nninp it, and Webb, in a 
aat incal prefaoe, cleivrly contrasted the vit- ws 
he bad tliQn held with those be manirofit-'d 
in the ' FaW .Alarm '(1770) and in 'Taxn- 
lion no Tyranny' (1775). Diirinjf Wubh'a 
reaidmrc in Dorset he acquired thu favour 
rtt X \iv I>uki; of Le«d«, tlif secretary of ^tat*.-, 
who employed him on se\'erBl occaaioun. In 
] 7M lie waaappuinU'd eccretarv to Sir Isaac 
]Ieard[ij.T.l,andaci3iDipHaivd filin to IIvf^^M.- 
Casecl to invest rUe landgrave with the ordfr 
Qrtho(.*art.'r. In 1601 be accompanied I'ran- 
cia Jamea Jnck-ton [q. v.] to I'srw, acting aa 
hb secretary during the negolistinn of the 
treaty of Atnien!«, He waa employed by 
Jackaon during: t^ n^ntiationa oa an unoffi- 
cial intermediary, the French diplomaliata 
ha%'ine much faith in hid iiUcgrily fromtJieir 
knowleil^ of hie sympathy with Napolwa's 

grtTTnnii'nt. The underatandiog of the 
ritiAb envoys with the royalist and uHra^ 
KpuMiean malcontent!) and cnn^irators 
wu, howerer. intolerable to him, and he 
retired to Koglnml bi-fori< the roncluaion of 
|wacc Ul> was an inlircate fiioiid of the 
nrtiit tViU-* lltiKw/y [q.v.], and wrote a me- 
moir of him whic-h appeared in the ' Iliatory 
of IV«ni<-l ' by.Tohn ltmchinj[(). v.](iv. 1-VI- 
160), and in Xirhola'a ' Literary Anecdotea' 
^viii. 177-1'L'». UealstisavcamorcdutailL'd 
Recount of IIiiMey'i* methoda in' I'anhnrnio- 
uicon ' (].Aiidoii, 181 4, 4to), a deacription of 
one of bis engraving;^. Wnbh Iwcamp d uni- 
tarian while n-^idinff at LuftoT!,neaT Yeovil, 
where hu aflih-d in 1811. He died at Bar* 
nofflODf near TlmitistiT inSompriftt.nn 2 Ang. 
18lo, without sariivinK issue. On Jl March 
176* he was married at Wareham in Porv't. 
to Uannafa, daughter of WiUiam Milner of 


^^' ebb's portrait has bften angraml fiOin 
a pictun- by Abbutu 

\^'ebb waa tiie author of: I, * SitrTnon«f*4 
London, 1700, Idmo : 3rd edit, with m&>i 
moir, London, 1BI8, 8vn. 2. 'Thoughta on 
ths ConatilBtional Kipht and Powtr of tlie 
Cfxjwti in the bestowal of Places and J'en- 
flionn,' Iiondon, 17T2, 8vo, 3. * .\n Epistli' 
to the Her. Mr. Kell, withan Ude to Fotti- 
tutlc," Saliitbury. 17«(. -Ilo, 4. ' Poems : on 
WieJom; on the Duity ; on Oi!nius,'Sidi»>, 
burv, 17(10, 4to. 5. 'Ode to the rurall 
Nymphs of Uraalvd,' 1601, 4to. 0. 'Somer-] 
set: a Poeni,' Londoii, IHll, 4to. Tbiw 
Imters of his ar* preaerred amonn: Warren 
HaatingMH coirmpondonoj ia the Dritiah 
Museum Additional manuwript^ (UU74ff. 
122,419, 17170 f. iri). 

[Mroioir prrtisril to Wahb'aSermott*. ISIS; 
Oent, M»fi 1813, ii. 278. 56»-«; MomhlvKe- 
jKniilory, 181S, pp. 71. 180-D8, 28U ; WilaoD's 
niiM'ntiiig Churi'bea, lii. 2&9.] K. J. C. 

187;il, pliyaician an<l medical writer, bom 
in lluxton Square on ^ -^P^'l ISl'd, vne■^ 
thi- eldest son of William Webb, n cadet' 
of the family of Webb of OdiitOL-lc Manor, 
by his second wifv, EliEabeth IVt«cilla, 
duughtfv of lliomos MaKvtt, He waa 
edurfit«rd at King's College achool, Ijondon, 
nndut thiTDuvonport grammar Fchnol,whf>T« 
he buL'iiuiu a sound clafsicul (Scholar. On 
L'.') Sept. ISil he was appniUiD^d to James 
>^ht.'ppurd, a eurfrt.'on at stuut'liuu.',!!, and in 
Ifil.'i be jiiiniJ Mm nicHrjil si-htiol of Uni- 
versity C!gll<.'gB. lie waa awanlfd flve gold 
anil silver infdal> for proficiency in ditlei-vut 
clafiaea. In 1S17 he became a member of 
tile Collppe nf SinTjeons, and in 1849 ho pro- 
ceeded to Kdinbiirgh, nnd thpro graduatvd 
U.D. in 18&0. In I8&] hn ri.Hurni-d tu Lon- 
don. In 185P ho was appointed a member 
of the Koyal Oolti'tie of Phyeieiane, aad ha 
waa elected a fellow on 31 July 1R7.'J. In 
lb-!37 hu was uumiuulid tu the f.*uair of medi- 
cal jwrinprudf-nce in the (Irosvi-nnr Place 
school otmitdiL'iue, and eubsiiqufntly hewas 
lectiirtron nnlimil history at tW Metropoli- 
lan School of Dental Kctenc*'. In iHttl at 
the Gtosre nor Place school Webb delivered 
the introductory lecture on 'The Sludv of 
Medicine : its Dignity and ICvwardx,' wfiich 
wospublixhrd by request, llistirat important 
literary effurl wasau article on 'Tliu Sweats 
ifift Hickneas in England,' ptibliithni in tho 
' hanitarv Ilcview and Jotimal of Public 
Beparat«1y. Tnts was followed by ' .\ii His- 
torical A&count of Gaol Feier,' read bufuro ■ 
iheKpidtimiolo^cal 8ocictyon 6 July 1457,] 


and )innt«d m ihti * Tra:i*nctioiiK ' of the 
tmcifty. In 1S58 an. easay on * MetropnlltAn 
Hygionwof 'Ij"* P»t ' wm written by Wvbb 
fiw tlie ' SanitQiy Reriew ; ' it waa publtBhed 
in the January number and reprioted nepa- 
rat«ly in the *«me TCAr. It. w n brii?f nnii n 
raftst(irl_T surrey of tbe saaitary ooudiiion ' 
of Lonilnn from tht time of the Normnn \ 
conqiiUAt until our own en. Wboii in the i 
' Utntal U«viow' tbe great ivork of John 
Hunlor on iku tnitli Wfts {)ubtiEbc(I, Wt'bb ' 
COntriburrfd not«« t<i tbe IcxL eultwlving 
nesulla of tncKJem rssearch on the subject, 
And ilwifTTiwl to brtnp {liintfir'ft irctrk up to 
rbf) paint of knowMire of the pn»ent day. 
' Uunlcr'a \utunl llietorv of tli» Hiitnitti 
Teeth,' with notM by Webb and H.T.nulmc. 
BppoBrod in 18(Jo. A few years later \Vebb 
b«eam« onv of the editors of ihu ' MndicAl 
Timw and (iaiette,* and for the laet yesrs 
of hiB life he was editor-in-cbif C 

ne Tru clcctftd n fellow of the Socipty 
of Antiquarivs on i^'i May 1H5C, of the 
Linn«an Snciety on 21 Jon. 185S, and of 
othor liMmwd bodi«». Ho wa» au accom- 
pliobcd musician. 

Ht' die<l on 24 Dec. 1873, and was buriod 
at Highpitr c^mnU-ry. Cta 10 FhIi. ISfnJ 
h« married Sarah Schriidar, <lan|cbter of 
Joseph Crxiucher of Great James's Stiv*t, 
Buckinj^linm Oat(*, and by her had twelve 
childroo, ti'ii of whom surrivvd liim. A 
bual, r^xhibited in the Royal Aoadcmy in 
1874| is in till] po«>«8SL0ii of his widow, 
and an oil painting, ion^ Abortly before bU 
death, is now at Oditock. Netluy Abboy, 
Hampbin! ; bntli w»rks wrr* «X«cut«d bv 
Charlefi Bf^Il Ilircli. 

Bwidcn th»*iibiiv.-imtntion.'il nnptirg, Wi-hb 

Subliftlied ' Riograplutss of 8ir Bei^amin 
irndie, Itart., mid of 1*. G, Price, Surgeon 
to KinfjV College Hoepiial,' London, 1865, 

[Medical Timea and Ouette, 1873~t ; Times, 
DeMmbsr 1973 nad Jauaary IS?^ : fftmilj 
Mp«n ; B«cord» of tbe i^ocivty of Aiitiqnari«a : 
KMords of Royal Cottogo of PhysieiaQB ; Cat. 
Brit. Mu*. LibMryj W.W. W. 

WEBB, OEORUE (15ei-l«4il). bUhop j 
of Limi>ric)i, bum in \'A\, woe third eon of | 
Hugh Webli, ruclor of Elromhnin, Willsbinv i 
He entered New Collffge, Oxford, in April j 
1698, and inigral«d to Corpus CbriHil no | 
Bcholar. Ha waaailmitt^d Fehruarv , 
imi~i. and M,A. in June 10O&, when he [ 
was already in ordiTS nnd Ticur of StcMilii- 
Aaton, Oxfordshire, on Lord Pembroke's i 
presenbation. He W-pt a grammar sobool nt 
SCeep]e-A»ton and aVo at ]iatb, when; lit! 
became rvct or of S8. IVter and I'aul in HIl'l. 
HG«BJoyvdtbefri>.-ndribipc>f CbiL'f-JusiiceSir 
Henry uobarl [g. v.] W ebb wax mad« U.D. ; 

'K M- I 


inm. I 

10i!4, and a)Woiat«Kl chaplnin tu ibe i'riiKw 
of Waleii. H4> wail a nmn of atriiA hie and 
conmaation, and n dietingutsbod prmdm. 
Obarb>« himself, with Laud's approval, M> 
lectedliiui for promotion to the beucii (Slraf- 
ford Lfttt-rt^ i. 38U), and hfwaa con«:^erated 
bufaop of Liimvick in St. J'atrick'a, Dublin, 
18 Dec. Ittai. 

When tliu confudi-nttv catholics entered 
Lituorick in June \*U'2, Webb had alrv<ady 
diud of (^ol friver, having been impriBonud by 
lliMrKyiiipBlhiiirrH wrlbiti tbt-cilv- Jl"' W"» 
buried in St. Mimfhin'a churchyard, du^ up 
twenty-fuur hours liitwr l)y p«r»on« in Imjir 
of finding jftwi^-U, and reintt^rred in the satiie 

{dace. We leani Krom & casual remark in 
lis ' IVftCtico of QuicEneiw' that WftW> was 
happily married. 

Webb piibli^ed: I. ' A Itrief Exposition 
of lb« lVnicipli3» of the Cbri.-ii«n IC^ Iigion,' 
tendon, KJIi. -2. 'The i'alhway to Honour. 
I*r«Achedat t'aiil's Cross, UlJuno 1612,' Lon- 
don. 101 :i. 3. ' The Urido-royal, or tbeypecu- 
lativf -MarHagt" bnlwecu Obriat and lii* 
Church.' Loudon, lOta 4. 'Tbo .'Vraign^ 
ui4^ut of an I'nruli- Tongue,' London, llt~ 
.'■>, ' Agur's Prayer, or the Chrt&tian Choi 
London, Ltt'Jl. I}. ' Catalogii* Proli'^itaiiliaiR, 
or the l*Nlei<tant'fl Oalrndar, cMiniainin^ a 
Surriew of the l*rot«etant'B Relijnoa lon{[ 
before Ttutlutr'tt Days' (Preface by John iiix 
[q. v.] ), Loudon, lt):!J. 7. < Leeiona and Cx- 
erdaea out of (Ucero ad Atticum,' Loudon, 
10:^4, 8. 'Puerihai confabulatiuncula,' Lou- 
•lon, 1024. 9. ' Thn Pmctioe of QuietnCiML,' 6tli 
edit.(atnplified), London, 1633; tnna edition 
iiublisliftl in 171K an engraved p<irtrait of 
\V«bh is piwfixed. 

Webb also traniilated dnrint; I62i) thi> 
' Andria ' and ' Kunacbns ' of Teren«. 

[Warc'sIJiihopMn[idWriior«,«d. Harris ^ Cnl- 
ton's Fojci KGclMno Hibiiratc* ; Looihnn's IIikl 
of Lini«ri<rk; Fovlu's titit. ut Corp<i> l'hr»ti 
Colleg«.] B. B-u 

WEBB or WEBBE, JOHN (iail-16721, 

arcbit*.<c(, came of a Somerset family, bui was 
bom in IjOiidon in 1611. lie was ediicat«<d 
from \KV2ii \vt 1628 at Ali-rcbant TavloTk' 
school (Komvaox, Ret/uter, i. 1 14), anA moa 
a pupil and o.^wutor, and a cooncctluu by 
Inrlh and ttiiLrH »);•<, uf Inigu Jontfk [■}. v.i 
( Woon, Atfiena; iii. ft06, iv. 763-4). Hiii 
iirt'bitL'ctiiriil works wen? Iar|!«ly in conn"C- 
tion with or in conlinualion of thruc of hi« 
master. Wbeu Inigo Jones laid out Grfit 
tiuttcn Stft-L'l, I.infoln*s Inn Fields, Wuhb 
designed (circ, IdlO) the large brick houwoa 
the south aidf, and tlicro cxi»I» aiDong Joma's 
drawings at Worci-«t«r Colliwe, O&furd, a 
design by Webb of a house in the Strand foe 




Fliilip Hf rix'Tt, t»rl of Pi>ml>roke. In IWi 
be Inbuilt, uoMiblfrmDi designs by Jones, a 
portion of Wilton Iloust, Wilwliire. 

ijoon after the Itmtoration Webb |«ti- 
tiODMl for the post of aarveyoT of works, 
pleading tho iutvntioD of tbu Uttf king, his 
troiiiiiijt under InigoJoaea, bis npitointmiMil 
te Junvs'fc dupulj' till lliriut out tor luruily 
in l&i!}, and hi^ comniiaaion under tbr 
axiotio^ purli&ment to [nvpare the rov&I 

SlacpJt for rwiidi'ncri «l Hcost of 8,140/. ilf 
rtbor urged that tli4>ro ware arrean of 
(uUry due to hJm, both or hi« own acooonl 
and lu rxi'cutnr to JontM, and jiravod hia 
loyalty by recalling that b« had sent to tlto 
kill); at Oxford di!si>{n^ of all tlio furtiSca- 
tions in l^iidoii, with iust met ions how thfy 
taiAht Uf carried (Diet, vf Arrhifi-f-turv). 

>Vi<hb 'KM grunted A mvuriiion of ihu office 
of Kiirveii'or aflKT !:?ir Johu IVnhani (1016- 
1669) [q. v.] He actod se Deoham'a ossiA- 
t«nt in thu bitildinif (Mlft|-6) of a portion 
of Inigo Joneo'a debijf it for lirwnvrich Palace, 
whidi woeaubaMjuently inroqjorattHl by Wrvn 
u the w^jt tide of th<> river front of lii^ build- 
iaga. He is described iu the order o.i ' John 
Webb of Butloigb, co. Somerset,' and waa 
ffmniiHl a Mlar^* of iOW. per annum, with 
1/. \'A*. lOrf. a month for tnivelling {Lift <jf 
2. Jwteg, 1848, pp. Ri, 3ft. 4**. in ShakLitm'arM 
SoG.;^'*!^!^:!^., f'iti-iviiui Iiritnmu'ciu/,l7\ti, 
TOl. i. nUt« 31, and vol. iii. plntt^ I). 

AVitii Sir John Dunham ha «]»« carrii-d 
out (gmtuit>mitU-) n^rlnin n-jiaim in UUiii 
al Si. l^ul's Cathedml (M.m.culu. Loadi- 
Ri'wwi Jirdirirum, 1803, iii. 8S>, iind d^i^jti^d 
Burlington Houw, Piowidilly (]<>(! l-6j. for 
Uicbard Boyle, firet ear! of Burlington ; it 
wu rcmod<^'lled bi 171$ 20. 

Other works which Webb carried out in 
accordance with or ext«naion of hia ma.siet'6 
designs wur« AmMbury, Wilittlilrv (10^1). 
for Lord Carleton (0*»tPBBLt., Vitruviuii 
Britannvtui.l~25, ToLiii.plata"); Gunnera- 
bury llf)ii«', ni'Ar Kew (lli(W), for JSrrjitiinf 
Mavnanl {ib. 1717, vol. i. plati^ 17, 1"), to 
which wvi m«r posdbly add AshbnrnLain 
Hooaf!, Westminjit^r, and Bedford IIonsL', 
Dlonmibury Square, though Joni-s'fi "hanj 
!q iht' lAtt«r and Webb's in the forni<ir need 
further i>root 

To Webb are alao attributed IlomeJieath 
Hall. CaiBbridgMhiru (li))15-9), daAtraytd 
■n 1777; the portico and otiitr wiirlo iit 
the Vine, noar Baxingsloke ; Lamport II»11, 
NorthAniplonsliir«(n>ftd front only); ICuin^ 
bary Kranor,Wiltaliin>i nnd Ashdown I'ark, 

Iti ICtii!), on Penlutm's death, the post of 
surveyor pasted to Sir (.'hiislophct Wren, 
deaptte the fact that W'ebb helu the rerer- 

NOD. He died on 34 Oct, 1072 U Butleigh, 
and WAS buried therv. He manwd Ajuiv 
Jones, a kinswomAQ of Inigo Jones, who left 
Webb souiv of luH propiTty. Ho uditvd ' Tho 
moi>t noblo Autioiiit v called btoneheng," by 
liiigo Jonos(l(t^o, fol.l, and wrote 'Vindica- 
tion of .Stiiiiidii-n^ Ib'wtonid ' ( llitio, foL, 2nd 
i-dit. 172o'l, Webb di.«igned tltDfronliiipieoo 
of WalKmV * I'olrglot Bjble ' 1657, fol. 

[Uii-t. of Arcbilvcturw; Aubray'ii Nmtamt 
llixc, of Wjlvthire, 1847. i>. M; Cuiiningham^ 
Life of Inigo JoDsE; Campbolt's Viimrias llri> 
tannicns; Walpole'a Aneodotoa- BlamfieU'a HisL 
of ihs lEens-isMnc* ia England; KudKnive's 
Uh-i. "f Artists.] P. W. 

general ordnance modiatldei>arttn"ut, fourth 
son of John Webb of Woi>clUiid Mill, HIaT- 
fordsbirc, iind nflLTwnrdn of Dublin, hv liis 
wife,adau;{hter of Tlitiniii)> ilfi\th, wnnVirn 
aiDubliuon2r>Oct,1772. He wiu appoinl^^' 
aawitLant :*iiTgoi)ii oti 17 Mnrch 17)^4. lis i 
bpcaiDB a membi'r of thi- Cnllege of Kurgii-oiis I 
<jf Kn^bind oti 1^2 Feb. 1817, and was mada-j 
a fiillow nil 1 1 Dec. ii^3, ln'inj; on*; of tlia 
lintt. batch of three hundred fellows cr«atedi^ 
tiT thftt ditti-. It is stated thiit ho bad tltei, 
d^'gret^of M.D.,butof what luuveriit; is nofil 
kuowD, Till' following are tb» dat«a of his 
appoint Dicul 8 lu this various grades iii the 
army : he wiut promoted regimontal Kiirgooo 
on )^.hil vl 7fio, surgeon to tlie furct-B 1 March 
1797. fivid inspuccor 10 April 1(K.)1, deputy 
i iiAin-ctor-Mneral Si) ilny IBD^, innpectorii 
■i July 1809, inspector-gL.neniil 'JO Nov. 1809,1 1 
and <llreclnr-gi-neral 1 Aug.lKIS. He served I 
i>n the contiuQut under the Duke of York 
from .\pril 1794 to Mav 1795, in the West, 
IiidiRj from Xovemlxir f 79o to June 1 7tl8, at 
The lf"lder from August to NoremLuT 171*9, 
in the M»H i tcmincnn and Egypt from Aiiput 
180U to April IKKi, in the llaliic from July 
10 November 1807, and at Waleberen friira 
July to •Mptvmbiir I^i09. Ho wait thus pre- 
»t>at at theactioiiof Laniioioul7andlHMay 
I'm. al tlio xiegu of Morne Fortune, captun^ 
(if 8t. Litcia, the KxpiiUion of the Can))!. 
frcim St. Vincent in l7iM, captun; of Trini-J 
dad aiitl tho descent on the Porto Itico ia' 
1707, at the reduction of llid Holder and! 
the capture of the Texel fleet in 17i)9^,j 
on the coast itf Spain in 1800, in th* 
Eg^'ptiau campaign Ja 1801, including tb« 
actions at the landing and those of iS and 
'2] March, iil lliu taking of (irond Cairo and 
all thi- »uljMi»jueul operation.'', lit the t<iege of 
Copenhagen ond capture of the Daninli fleet, , 
in lWl7,and lit thei*xiiedition to the Scheldt 
in \fW. He received tho ftilvfr war medal 
with one olasp for Egypt, was kuighti'd in 
18S1, elected a knight ot the Cross of Ilau- 


•Mr m li*^, naj audi* • mm y nrnw of thr 
Bub at leSA H« tetind ca ftUI mr ia 

WAb WM fcr man yt&a * 

a« £k OS IS 8nt. IBS* M " 

tlllM|llt|llt U* CHktMtfc fHC, 

low aTak SoewCT of Aasi^oafM ta ItfHIVi 

Wlsb aeciaf h k roloaceer is cham 
•f Am Briiiak ctoof* off Alrtanrfrk, «£» 
mi* —fttif &B» tbs fIifiK,bc katl A« 
cfiMliiiiiiy of eodMlnw iiMHr'nh tar hm ' 
•Sncirp nf Faeti idabn u lk« mwaiJ 
J^KOfBan, i^tnoMtina, sad Esliaetiaaof i 
■be Plagae ■wnf As Trasfi M| i u y»J mi | 

rOML 3I«. IWt n. US: 3C«a ■■d<kMt»«. 
M RT. i. ««3; ChnrHim* MrfJnJ DincC: 
a^ficol T%M« M>1 C-Mt>. ISAS: BMad of 
flHPrfan iwrtrf at ik» War Oflc*: B«Qid> 

if C«B*ce «f 9w«MM «r Eai^aa^ 

W. W. W. 

WEBB, JOHN (177»-18e»).<liTa»aad 
CBtiqBaf7, tb* eUeat ma of WiIUbsi W«bb. 
of OtaUedlzac*. Loodos. a earfec of the bmilr 
cfWaUerOdMoek. KHuUn. bj hU wi/» 
Ana, the J — g fcr w and eohonaa of JaoKa 
Kh, tacdkal c6«er lo cb» Aldnt« dta- j 
|MiiTT, waa bocn on SH 3farch 1< 76. Be ! 
WMBtaittad to St. Piars Kfaoot oa 38 Jnljr , 
]786l He wa« captain of tb« a^ool 17(M- | 
179S, and ia tlw laiier jear nmeedod to ' 
Wadham College, Oxford, as HuiUtM: exhi- i 
bilioaer. He nadaated BJL on SI Mardi 
I7W« aad ItLA. on 3 Not. \S0S. In 1800 
he «u ordained to the cuncj nf RavBoatoae 
IB th* dioe e a c of Lkhfi^ nod Cawtmtrj, and 
ill the comae aC a miniMrr of aboat uxtj 
jcan waa we ee wiTel y cwale of Itipple, io 
the dioeeas of WoMMter: Roea in t&at of 
Bsnixrd; lectonrof St. Martin's, with the 
ehapelryof St. BartbAlooieir'a, Binnii^liaiB; 
•eipataal conte of Watec&U ia Staffbrd- 
thitv on 7 Bvpt. IbOl ; minor canon of tii« 
eathfdrml of Vi'oneater, with the reetorr nf 
St. Cletaent's in that city oq 6 Feb. 1^11; 
feOor of Tretire (of thU lirin^ he aft«nraida 
faeonae the patron), with Micbael-chiiTch, io 
the gift of Guy's ^Mpttal, on 17 Jan. 1812 ; 
BiinDr CMivm of the cathedral of Gloooecter; 
and ricar of St. John's, Cudiff. ia the gift 
of the dean and chapter of Olotuealar on 
10 Jsn. Iff22, which he held with Tretiia till 
thb ChristnuLS of 1863. Webb via a deroted 
■tndcat of aatitiuitiea (ha waa elected a fel- 

«f Xari Qantj^a etyle ww in* 
m Saney^B vaefcn. aaeaatngAKettiea 
•vMatthabadbof Nan,tbev«dhar. Be 
waadewtyfattewlediawnwe. MelMTat 
ucia * Joaofh* aad pan of Haydn a ■ J 
wm ailaati it br hia Sir cm Bi Mim haas 
mmtmifmani. Ha wnte tba vordi be 
the aaaiaeu 'Hand,' Snt peg hnail in \eU 
as the miMJ^haM ■iiiriil tai^nl (IdUf 
•tto), c o M pwe e d by hie iatiiMra 6imd Cheva- 
lier XewhoMB, wbsehwM raaened ia Ab^ 
ocawithe Bth iai i ai » .aa rt hepr iJnml awni»- 
lar twmrtf a w fern liW a ll n af If i * !■ r l i ii* 
MBBtliibaJ — maria, *The 

Wehb^duOacdwiekrieai^eoa ISFeb. 
ISm, and waa boaad at TntiraL He var- 
nd Saah. tk naee of Jodd Haidbc ef 
SobhoU m Warwidnbim,ftla^ whoae Umir 
ttaad their dii a a i ei to Bh a bwy a i rthindrt^ 
and had by ber two chfldna, Tboinaa Wil' 
liaa Webb 't^. x.\ aad a daaj^rar FraaCaa, 
who died ia mliAey. Then are two poe- 
rraiis of him ia eiJrtfw — Ooa a auatalurp 
painted in enriy lilt, now as Odalock, Netley, 
Ilampsbire. and a w«teffc«lo«r deawing dr> 
pietisr him in advanced hSt, now in tha 
of F. E. Webb, e«i.. of IIS Sla^ 


Boaidn arvoal papers coatzibnted 10 
'AxehMolona,' Wrbb was the aatbor of: 
1. *9noa Anoont of the Monument and 
ChafBCter of T. Wastblii^' 1818. :i. • ka 
Eoar nn the Abbey of Gbncaaier,' writtea 
br Britton'* * Hi^orr aad Antiquiiiaa of 
Gloooeeter Caibedral,* privately- pnot^d in 
11^139. 3. ' A Traoalation of thr* Chan9 
of Gloucester/ pritntely pmied in 
4. ' The HowahoU KoU of Biahop ~ 
field,' edited Cor the Oaatdn Soeie«T. 

HakftBnlniBbedane£tion IbrtbeCkB'j 
den Sociaty of the laanntcript * Militarr !!•■ 
tnonn of Ctuonel John Krehr which wa.« pob- 
lished in 1873, and * UemoriaU of ih« GtH 
\\*araa it alf-^'ii HeT»>fArdffhirtf.' wkieb w«* 
poblished in IsT^ bv his son Thoina« \MI- 
liam Webb (Londoiu 3 voLi. 8n>>. 

[AtbMMB. 1889: F^^y !**?«• M 04- 
stoek ; Oa.Brit. Xitarun Litany.] w. W.lir. 

yrSBB, JOHN UlCHMOXn (lfi67?- 

17f4>, general. Win about l^iS?, was the 
aecood toa of Colonel Edmund Ricbmaod 
Webb of Kodboume Cheney. Wtltahin. by 
hti Snt wife, Jane, daughter of John Smith of 
St. Mary Aldermuiburr, I>oniIon. and aftar> 
ward* of Tidworib, WiUvkire. Kodbaunta 




lenej had far man; guneruiona tiem in 
poamwion of the family, wboK ponirion in 
Uie oonmy vfM improTed in lh« eixtM'ntli 
century by a marruigt into tho St. John 
fnmily of Lydiard Trejpwc. Old p^digtves 
and tredilioQ elium dwcL'tit of iLu family 
from tdf Of iiicliroonda, ruiii'lnbli's of Hii-li- 
moad, and lords of Burton. W'uhh Inet tiif 
tnolbcr in ](](I9; hii<i fnlher, vhn hm] cnm- 
manded & rf^imnnt diirine .Monmoiitli'e re- 
Iw'Uiiin, a promiiiMit man m Witt^hlTv, long 
member of parliament for Cncklado and 
iifl<:-r>vanls for Ludgenliall, lired to rw hiH 
son A distiiif^iabeii soldier, and was buried 
beside bis wifu in lh>.- family vuulc in liod- 
bourn«Cbeneychiircli on I'JUef. ITO."), Tbe 
geiMTarsildcrbrorh*r,SfijeflntTbom«fi Rich- 
mood \V>-bbtl<StI»-l7:il)<>f ICo<lboiirn«Utit>- 
nt-y. a well-known lawyer and recorder of 
'Uvvixi^ in 1700, died in Novsmbflr 1731, 
aged 68. 

Jobn Hicbtnond Webb obtained a com- 
muision AflacomHin tbt?<iu^-n> rcG^inivnt of 
dragoons ^now tbe3rd hiMMirs) in Sofombi-r 
1687, and in tbe November fulloninp waj 
wounded at Wincanion in a vkirmi>'lj Uitwwn 
a amall deliLchnient of the tiing'^ armv under 
^^ifTord «nd .Sarsfiald and o etill >imalW body 
of tb* priiici^ of tlranfti-'it rfguliin ( Hoyek, 
WilUam III, pp. l-I3-4;t. fin I'd Dec. 16»fi 
lie was appointed colonijl of the tith regi- 
ment of U-nit (Kaltom, iv. 70). Two yesAni 
later va hear of his duel with Cnptnin 
Miirilikr>, in which tmth combatAntc were 
dansv^ronsly wounded. In I'O*^ hi- dietin- 
BtituttN] himself nt the atorniint; of ^'«nIoo 
(Caiixos, Uuit. Itff. tltAJtrj/. ]>. 110). lie 
•erv«d in the campaign* of flandcK uiiiIitT 
Marlboroagh from KU^^rWas promoted bri- 
gadier-gvnvrul on II April 170-1, und majvr- 
general on 1 Jan. l7(Xi. As a brignxlier In: 
aisplaTvd grvat ^IliLUir}- in an attack on 
tbe villain- of Bli-nheim on tbe rvenxna of 
13 Au^. 1704. and in forcing the French Imfs 
At llidtxfm (17 JhIv 17l)«'0, IleconitnRnded 
on the left of the ^ngtifth linti at lEamillit -s 
ou 23 May I70li, nnd di*itin|;tiished liimM-lf 
greatly at. Oudt-nardc on IJ Jvily 171IH. In 
tbe month following the victory loiit niLiund 
Wt-bb waa one of the cominanders of Ibw 
forc« of twulvu battalions, with eavalry and 
greuadient, whirb niidml Pieurdy and put Ihv 
eannUj tinder contributinn. Near Lena the 
dalacbmrnt under Wvbb f"!! in with n forcv 
of ei^t hnndred ca^-nlry, wlinm lliev pnr- 
■09d into lb« town. Karly in Sejiteraber he 
was mcalled to Tbonrout in Hnihant. The 
arcumvBlUtion of Lille bad b»Kn compU-t«d 
by tbe alliw by tho «nd of Aiignjit, but us 
Sep(«mber advancvd their communicaiiona 
vent threaleiurd on all aides by the French, 

and eoTtpltPs wen running short. Tho only 

route by which the re>iui*ite stores could 
now reach the besieging army was that be- 
twwaOstDudftndMuiiiii. The hast yprepaifi- 
tioB of a convoy of between aevon and eight 
hundri'd wugona auun rvachvd thv van of 
ibrf Krcnrh gm era In, and Venrli'ime and It«r- 
wick were both deeiroua to attempt its de- 
struction ; but the taak was finally conlided 
10 Coratt^ de Ijimothf, whose local know- 
ledffu was expected to be of apecia] aerrice, 
and a corps amounting to twentT-two thoii- 
fland men was conceiitmted unJei his com- 
mand at Hruges. The convoy set out from 
Opivnd iiam(< liuun btrfore daybreuk on 
1'8 .'^[it., iaic>rlHd by Ilriffadier Landsberg 
with a forra of about U/iOO mun. Webb, 
writh a forw of about four thotiMind foot 
; and three sqnndrotvs of dmjpion^, hitd re- 
ceived orders on the prvTious d«v l'> cqvw 
I theronvoy in tbo neigh bnnrhood of Tbnuroat, 
I where it was most hable to attack. As tbe 
wagons wen.' dL-tiling ihroiigli (;ochln<-r n<>w8 
wa» brought to W'tbb that tbe enemy had 
been observed at IchtegUem. Hi"inimn;diutc!y 
advance rovrardu ihiit ^lai^e, but came u|ion 
tbe French in an ownuig between a dense 
ooppicv on the unu Imnd and the wood und 
castle of Wvnt-nilawlt-on ibeolliHr. I'lMting 
his gn^nailiers in these woods, Webb kept 
tho imeiny in pUv with liiit small force of 
cavalry whih' hii fornied his iiifuiitrv in the 
intervening flpare. It was nearly aark be- 
fore |te l.amuthe, after a long ranniiDiidt) 
whicli did very iiitli' execution, ordered a 
general advance, lie had an advanlage in 
]ioint of numhf^rs of three to ono; but bia 
infiinlry weru dismayed by the crossfire of 
the tvfn ainbuacadc«, and, aft«r Ibreo at- 
lenipife to forcv the iKisitlon, tliuv reiiii'd in 
the utmost confiuion, having autlered a loss 
of belwi'sn two and tlin.'u thoueaud men; 
lite Hllieit lout iH^ in hilled and woonded. 
While the engHKemnnt wmb in progruss tho 
convoy pu»l led on ti> HoiiMeliion- nnd ri'tirhocl 
M<'nin ivnftdy th« next <]ay. Major-geneml 
William C'ndogan [a. v.], having se«n the 
convoy »af«dy through Crtrt*>mark, f<pHrred to 
^^ ynendiudewilb a few squAdr^ins of cavalry, 
arriving about dusk, and ollvrrd to charga 
tbv broken ranks of the Krciich infanlryt'j 
hut th« pmpiMial waa prudently negntived 
by IV ebb, who was t1ii< senior in command. 
{'ndc>|^iri tbvrittipon rode through the nigbt 
m carry the news of the ttSait to Marl- 
borough At Konce, and on 39 Kvpt. tli« 
com ni under- in-chief wrote to Webb to coiHi 
grotitlale him on the success, ' which most ' 
ber flitributed chiefly to your good conduct 
and rueohition ' {DetpateAet, ea. Murray, iv. 
424). In writing home to Godot{ihJn, Jiarl- 


boToit^h mmarkiHl tliut Webb ind Cidogia 
had behaved M-ell, ' a« ttey alwaysdo.' nn- 
fortuiiftNilT, inacomtnonif^ation to tbo' Lon- 
don OaMtie/ Adam [dej Uardonm-1 [(). v."", 
tlic du}M;'s secrutary, BMiffned all the credit 
of tho i-iifiTigvmttRt to Cadoi;uu, wlio wii» 
ttnown t-o be a atouncb whig and a rUiiig 
Cavourilv on Murlboroti|;b'i> etafr. This 
Tersiim of the aSair lo*t notliinif at Lhu 
bandB uf u jmrllsan like Steele, wnn wka nt 
tlii" timi' (Tditiir of Ihr *fia)[titt«." \Wl>b 
Bsked and ublninsd leave in tnlte liomtt to 
thvqucon n triiu nccnnnt nf the eiiKB^meul, 
iitul his hrief narrarivf^ was printed. He 
wu not averse itum poaiug aa tlte martyr of 
whiff mnliMoIcniMt, and lie becanii; the tiero 
of the hoHT. lie rweivod ih« ordLT of 
f^envrocity from the kinj; of Priuun, and 
tbe thanks ' in bi« placo ' of Houae of 
Commonit ( 13 lyec.) 

Arbiilhnot was cltiiirly nlludiDf; t-o Wi'bh'i; 
Irt-aluieiil wlifu, in iht! 'Art of J'olitkul 
Lyinf ," hw explains how ' upon pnnd nrcA- 
uon a man niiiv ■■Vf^n h>- roljV>cl of his vio 
Tory by n person that did Tiitt rotninAnd in 
thti action ; ' and the opposition (^i^aenillr 
endetirnunHl to iDoke political capital out of 
what tb«; repr««eiitea u s gnat tory vic- 
tory, in much the Mmc way that tbirtv 
years later thi> oppoaitton uxtoll«d Venuin 
*for dnin^ with six *hips' what Wtilpole'a 
odmirAl 'could not do with twimty.' Ma- 
lignity went 8o far ha Io hint that, jeulotiity 
npan, the Dukf of Mnrlbopoujfh was ^\<»- 
voualy cboarined bv the rfpiiUw of tUw 
FVench at WrnendacV, inaamnch d<) he bud 
entertained tui* oHvr of an cnoruiaiis bribu 
payable upon tho frustratirm of tin* ate^n 
operations which would liavu tnfiuud upon 
the failure of the convoy. 

Webb waa proniolud liciit<.>naiil-fri'u?ral on 
I Jan. 170U, and on '17 March, tlirmigh (Im 

([ood offices 'jf HaTlyy, to whom be uttached 
limsHf, be wiw i^raiilfH a peiisii.ti of I.OOIU. 
a yoar pendin),' more liicrativa emidoyuifint 
iiiidi-r th« rmwn. Tbt? lutnui niLtiiitin lie 
fought at Malplaqiiet in tho division of tht? 
ptinct" of (Iningw, niniijf with Lnrd (.)rl(Tii<y 
and Cinnenil Meredith, on ihfi righl of thi- 
'premifTf lijjne' (Bei* pinn, n\\. I)ir)io»r, 
1/00, ii. 347). In the. fflport addrftivd tri 
the Stat<'«-( l«neral, wbi^h wt out Ibe alliid 
lots tX twenty thniijiand, he wa.'« siatty] Io 
be amonjf IIki dead {ib. p. 5i6) ; io fact, he 
received ecven^ wniinil]) which crippled him 
for lifL-. Swift mentions the fact of his 
wallcing wit]i a cnii-i'h imd a «ric1t to mip- 
port him {Jourmt to ^'Mfa: ef. Littkeu., 
vi. 582). 

Vrebb, who was a fiiio fiRur-i of a man 
bwro ha wn incapacitated hy bin wounds, 

wafi for the tinns being the idol of ibo popi-, 
Ifice, and during the siimtner of 1710 be 
con ii^Ri plated putting up for Wc«tmin»t«r 
against the whi^ candidate, IVneral istao- 
lionc. AVhen, however, in Aujirusl he was 
ofterwd tliu iw»t of oDptiiin and Rovomurof 
the Isle of Wight, hn thought fit to acetpt 
thu ulTer (W'AUXtiK, Uamitthire. iii. (nl. 
Wilb the E<^viTnoi>bi|i wrnl the nafi- lu^al of 
Newport, ri>r which hi>rongli he vtas duly re- 
turned on t) Oct- 1710; be had bitb< 
flinre ll^tK), Mt for the borough of Lu 
fierslinll. He voted stea<lily for Ilartey 
till- toric*, find ciillivatisd the (rood mces 
SwilY as the literary champion of bu part 
In January ITIiJ be w«.i one of the tirbt ' 
pa)| hit rcspecu to Prince Eugene upon ' 
arrival at Leicester House (Botes, p. olSaf. 
On 10 June 1712 hi> was pronotud mural 
and nominated cominaitder of the land forces 
in Great Britain. Upon the orcrthrow of 
the toruw \\>bb wan iiol only deprived of 
hia posts, but was in I71S fitrce<l to wdl oat. 
Owirge I, who Imd fought by his side at 
Oudejiardfl and ndmirtfl his bravi-ry, re- 
inoniitmted, but was ' bnnight Io reason ' by 
the rriumphnnt whigs ( Wmtworfh Paptri). 
\N'ebb wan nKaiii rt'tiimed for tht^ family 
IxtmuK^i of i.udgershall in 17iri and on 
■2\ March \V2\--2. Duringtb.- triid of ChriB-, 
topher I^yer [ij. v.] in November 17:'\' 
Webb'e name was mention*-*) in connection 
with a Jac')l)iie aMOciatiun known ni> ' Uur' 
ford's,' and thenceforth he found it cvjiedient 
to live in strict retin:inviit {Uiit. lif^. \~^, 
p. 60, ih. Vhrm,. Diary. 17l'-l, p. W). 

Webb diod ill Scpiumbcr (724, and was 
burii-d on J) Si'pt. in thi» iiorlh trnnannt of 
lyudfterithall church, in the navt> of wtiidi 
his hatr.bmcnt i>Itll hniiu:>>. Ifo wns twice 
marriiid: first, to Henrietta, daughter of' 
Willinim Itorlnw. M.P. for Oreat Slnrlow, 
and widownf.SirUiflhard Aatlevof I*atshull 
(nhn tlii-il 27 -funB 1711); and, tecoitdly, iit 
May 17iO, to Aiiufi SIccates, a ' widow.'wbo 
muiit hitve been a comely person, seeing 
that, alllmutjh of ilh-^itimate birth. she was 
ibricii murrieJ, the third lime after Webb's 
dfath to Gnptiiin IIiMirv FowltB or Foolcea; 
Blie was buried at Luilgi-rshall on fl April 
17.17, hnving survived all bur husbandr 
Hy hia Urst wife W.jhh left two s<>n»— B 
!uuni1,'n captain in Ireland.' nnd BorlaM 
Itichmond, >l.t'. for Liidgerahall, who iit« 
loTifod most of hi* fnlliHr's property, tod 
died without iBKui' in March 17:t8 — fiesidas 
ave dfLughters. By his wcoad wife be left 



ton I 




h^yic-, ^A^ 





■ son, J<^n Richtnond of LiDcoln's Inn, 
M.P. for Ttoutncr (1761-4>nn(l jiititicc for 
the counties of Olniuorgan. Itreuon, attJ 
Itailnor, who died lo Jku. 17U6, tttid two 

The Colon^'l [tickmond Webb who died on 
27 MiT I78j>, fl^ed 70, and was buried iu 
tlif r-JWt cloister of \Vf)itmiji*t«r Abh>-v, wa« 
a kinfimon— second rou&in of the Italf'-blond 
^if till) gvoentl Itbpy wvre botli ar»*nt- 
irreat-gnuidiKiM of Ednittiid Wi<bh of Rod- 
boum* (7h*in«T. who dii^l iu I<}'Jl,Bod his 
wifr.Cathi-rimvSr, John); bisf«tber,Cnpliiin 
Itichmood \Vi<bb, was huri«d ut KochL-ster 
in l7iU. Richmond W«bb the jroung^r, 
bom in 1714, a coroct in tlie qucitn's <iwn 
royal draROouft in ]73">, Wcame captain in 
Idoreton'a rLf,'iiD(int in 17-11, comtnandud a 
companr for King (ivor^i- nt C'ullodi'n, and 
rvtin»d from th« army in I7.i(>. Mh wbi 
RiirriviKt four y«ar« by liig widow, Sarah 
(Orifliiha), who was hurittd beside hpr hns- 
band in June 17S9. Their daughter Ani>>lia 
(Kli'-tsiO"), thft podmothor of ■ Knimy ' in 
' N'anity Fair,' married at St. Jolin'9 Catlio- 
dral, Calcutta, on ;ti Jan. 177<t, IVilliam 
JUal[|^peaoc Thadieniy (174d-ls].-ii, thu 
srandfather of the grt^t novelial. Another 
niiH|>hlvr, 3.irah, tnarrii'd Polvr Moon- [ij, v. ;, 
the friend of J^hi^rirlftn (IUvne, Mrmtiriai* 
of the Tharkeray Family ; rf, Huxtku, The 
TAacAerayt in india. 1897, pp. 97, 170). 

An inlKn^tioff hfi-*irj^ ttijut-siriiin nortrnit 
of Wfbb, siffnm 'J. Wootton 1712, ia pre- 
(ujtvinI at Kiddraidi-n Hriiiiu\ n n-d-hrick 
nuuBian iu the fitjV- of Ktnaington Palar^*, 
which the general eryctwl for hiniMiIf in 
1711 uprman cflTntn tin* niiolen.4 of wliicli hr 
had purchimed from the widow of Sir (ieorjp; 
Brown ft in lOfi.'. Another portrait, now In 
ibf powfssion ut" (.'yloiit'l t^ir K. Thackeray, 
V.C, waa Mgraved by Faher after Dafi! 
(N<>VLB, ii. 197). A curious mi-dal attri- 
buted to Chmlian Wermtith waa fitruclf 
to ci:l(:brBti.' the battlu of Wynt.'ndat.'K', and 
rvprHMiHtH a lion piiriitiini; a rijck Chnutirh 
tlie mozea of a I&bvrinth (IiAFI.v, vi. 5; 
MfdnUir Ifist. 0/ Enalajfl. ISMw, ii, a2«). 
Thret^aketnheBdmwn bv Tlifu^keniv for Home 
imaffinary 'Memoirs of Lientonant-Oeneml 
Wcfcb' WWpTvfi.Ttcdlo thcTolumoC'irirnininff 
'EMnond' in the ' Utu^fniphieal I'Miiion.' 
The l^bapte^s in ' Esmond* relating to the 
exploitti of Wttbh (hk. ii. c1]H|>h. x. xiv. xv.) 
are hat>ed upon minute reneari:!!, and rontalti 
what is perhap tho best account extant of 
tbe n flair of ^^ynenda•dH. 

(Burke'«F«aiilyK».-or<i9.1807,B.v, 'Thackeray;' 
Dalion'a English Amy Liaw. rals. iii. and iv. : 
Not«s and Qnmea; 8(h ser. \\. 247, x. 1)9; 
BlIlHo'lPotitiCHlIndas.ii. 309, 117; Members 

I ofFarliaaient(OAcialBMania);Cluitet'a Wmi- 

I mtnsrer Abbey Rogiatwa. 1S78, pp. 439, 4-l<); 

\ ilonn^'s Modem WilUhir*. 'Ambraabory Unn- 

I drcd.' pp. 01 Rj.; Marlborough DoapaUbM, cd. 

I Murray, toU. ir. and ».; Co«'a Ufa of Marti 
bitroiigfa. ii. 318 w). ; fhrift'N Jniirnat To I4t«ilta, 
isl. Itjliioil. pp, Lift, 1J7. HO; ArbutliaM'a 
Wurkn. ed. Aitkea, p. 130; W«ntworth I'apyrs, 
ed. Cariwright. pasaim ; Bi>yer'» Reign of Qunon 
Anna, 1736, pp- .H6, 36i. 477. 535; Pricr'n 

■ Uiit. of hia Own Time, 17*0, i. 277 ; Rapina 
Hist, of Kngland, iv. 7A. 79. 84. »0, IIO. 192, 
433; Burnet'- Offn Time, 1923, ii. 609, 407; 
Uldmixon's Ui«t. of Rn^luid. ii. 413-13 : 8tan- 

, bopeaHiawry. 17')I-13.pp.8AJ,«7a; P^ioler'n 
L'hrOBolug. Hiat. 1714, p. Mb; Wyou's Hisi. uf 
Qaaen Anno, ii. \\t aq.; M^moiraa du Mar^cKal 
da Borwidt, Paris. 1780, ii. 36-9: Uuaiont'a 
tjcttm Uialoriqutu, 170B ii. AOS-SO, I7OO ji. 
520; Detail dn ComUit do WynoadnJc, an. 

< Polel'a TAim. MiliUirea, IKJ^O: (Ignrum MS. 

' 1707. f. 38T (a good account of Wytiooclitejc in 

I Fn-acli, giTing tli* English foiee im 18 10 2t) 
bsttiUiuu, and tho Franch Zi bACtalions and (2 
si^Uadrons of cavalry) ; OffirUI R«ttirii of Heui- 
b«n of t^irl. ; gpnealofpml and other notea 
moat kindly nupplifd to tha wriirr by Malmlm 
Low, e«(],. of CtrtTto. who ha* aiil<Hl in rerisinjt 
ihu articto, anil by Alfml ][. Hath, eaq., of 
IliJdotdun Hou»e.] T. S. 

WEBB, JONAS <17»t-180J), of liubra- 
haul, tttook-bn'i^diT, waa bom on 10 Nov. 
179t! at (.ti^at Thurlow iu HuHolk. Ha ^iu 
wjoond eon of Samnt^l Wi-bb.whonfl.Twarda 
removed to Streclly llttll, West Wickhun, 
in Cambridgeshire. IIi> bi^^nn l>iisin««« aa 
n farmer nt Babraham in Cainbridge'^hirfl 
in \i*'2'2. \* thr rpsiik of a series of experi- 
umite conducted by himm^lf and hia f&ther, 
Im Ffji'xrt.^d the native Norfolk brvcd of afacqi 
■nd speciallv d«vor..'d hiniseif to the breed- 
ing ot SontlidownB. which wen* then liul« 
known in bite district, lie Kr>t of all pur- 
chssed ' the best brc J ihcep that ouuld bi- ol)- 
lAiocd from the principal breeilem in Hiimms,' 
and th«ii. by 11 \i|;i>ruue system of judirious 
and careful seli-clion, Ih- priiduci>il n ptTnia> 
Meiit typ*,; in accordance with hi* own id«M:| 
of perfection, lie bi^^n his career us an 
fxhibitur at the at^conit cniinlry mwUiip of 
tlie Royal ARricultiira] Society of England, 
held at rambridfp' in IMil, when he received 
two prizes for his Soulhdowo ewon. This 
succejui waa foUowod up ai practii-ally every 
oiibsequent annual meeting at which hoexlu- 
bit*d, until at Canterbury in ItWl h<; twk 
oil the six prizi-fl offered by the aorioty for 
rams, and sold tin: timt prixo ram 'Cantvr^ 
bury' for 250 (guineas, lie woa also a con- 
stent pme-wiuii«r at other showa, la, 
eaveral inatancea, however, tliMo sncceaaeal 
wort) bought dearly, as Iiu evrea uid aged 



runs were renderod umIou by o\-er-fatt«n- 
JRR. Tbfl result ww tliat lie reBoIred to 
Qxnibit for the future only yming ratns. He 
Iiad {treat Bucct'tta with hu SbuarliiiK nint 
i>xhibitt'(l at the French I nd'r national Exhi- 
bitioD III IM-I. fi>r which he reooiv«?d • gold 
modal of the iiMt clfi«>. Tht- Emix^ror of tha 
Krcnch cjuifriilukU'd him on b\a Biicems, 
and admirt^il th^^ b^autvof the fains be eilii- 
bi(«d. \Vebbpn«entC(l bimwilh the choicest 
specimen, rvceivin^ eome time afterwards in 
return 'a cand<>labriitn of moMiTA Mirer 
with appropriate devicec.' 

In thtr conrtK uf the last two years of 
AWbb'E life thi- Bnbrnham flocks rren all 
di!ipers<^, 9t!'J sJiwji tioiiig told by auction 
in June IS<12 for IO.&lW. He, howererf 
brod cattle with »ucce<*« to tb» loet. IIi» 
herd of t<)ii)nboniH, bf^un in If^-tS, and re- 
cruited bvpurcljiue from the celebrated herds 
of T»rd hjMTocr and I/inl iJucii.', wiis men- 
tiucMl liv Mon». Trf bonnaid in 1859 as the 
nunt important #1iortborn Iivrd Ibcn exisl- 
iag, and oni' which lind pc-rbiips only been 
BUrpaHafd in b^nulv and perfection by tho«e 
of Booth and TuwiicU-y. At ibo Royal Agri- 
Ciiltiirnl f^ociL'tv's «how held aI Il»ttiT*aa in 
mtt2, imnivdittti'ly nfter thti diHnemion of bi.=< 
tloclcof Southcliiwnn, \V..'bh'8 sftortliom bull 
calf * First Fruit' gained ilip (jnld mwlal as 
*tho be*t tnalu uniniiil in the ahnrlliom 
clou ' (for n iiiirlrMit nf this bull see 
>'((rw»fr.** Mnyazine, I>.*«!mbcr 1802.) 

Webb iVsfA nl Cambridge on 10 Nov. 
IQO'^ (liis birthdav) (|iiitc (tiiddwily, bis end 
bein^ acn-lerutetl by tb« dtath orl.v fivij 
days before; of his wifo, lo whom lie was 
derotwlly attached. Me was buried at 
Babmham on tho 1-lth. llu was one of 
nine children, k'ft niiio i-bildren bimsoir.And 
hid eldest K,n. IJi?iiry Webb ofSirrtitly, bn- 
also bad uiuo children. ' His honour and 
scntpuloiis jfood faith.'naystlir fntnoiw French 
■friculliTiii .M.Trfihonnaia, Miir (p*n(*rn«icy 
and uniform aflnhilityfrninvcl him the respect [ 
of evcryb'jdy.' Klihu Riirritt, in his 'Walk 
from London lo .Tnhu-o'Oroais.'ffiteit an in- I 
t^.TdHUnBdescriptionofWchh'slilc and work. 
A fu [I-l.'ntf1.h stutue of Wubh, cacied by 
public Fiihscription, stAods in thu corn ex- , 
change ui Cambridge. 

[FarniDrs' Mag. 2nil mi-, li. 195-7 (libivh 
184a), nnl ser. uii. 6-», W4 6 (July-Deeamler 
ISU'i). iwntjiiaiiig ft notiiM which also nppMred 
in th« Kark Lnao Express. 17 Nov. 1862 ^ lllua- 
traiedLondonNwws, l862(portrail«ndiiiMnoir): 
JooraiLl of (he Roy«l Agricultural ?«. of Eti([. 
land nuti) IK sec. rii. 60. (I8U) viii. 8. 
(IBM) xiW. ar. (18i8) lix. 881-2; Ann. Rs- 
gww. I8S2. p. 793; Joanial of AftrieHUuro. 
IM3, pp. 202-3, 447-8; Hobiou do ta Trihon- 

I'or* I 

naia'a R«na AfgnetAK A» rAnglelam. ISfiS, \ 
)U4-IA. a biognolikal skatcb «i(h a pmtni 
OomteOvranlde Qootey's Socoad Voyage A^f. 
mIb en Angttt^rre. 1847. p. 2i. HuMriine Vor< 
«&>, 1868.1 K- C-«. 

WEBB, JLVTTIIEW (1^8-1883), 

known as 'Captain ^^ ebb.' tb« (^annal 

swimmer, wa* ham on Is Jan. 1848 at Hanr- 

Icy, Shroinhiri', whi-re hi» fath^^r anil ^^nd* 

I fa'tlwr. alike named Matthew, had both 

I practijMHl OS munlry doctovat His father 

1 (A. 1813; d. at Ironbridgc, 16 Dec. ll*Ttf). 

1 who had qualified as in IdS^ «ub- 

' sequenHy moved to Madeley and then 

Iroobridge, wbi-re the 6wimin«*r'i> brothi 

j Mr. Thomas Law Webb, is still in pracli 

: Muttltaw was ono of u family of 

children, eight of whom wer\( soos, 

loamed to swim in ilia Sen-em bofen 

was eight, and sared th* lif« of a yi 

brother who was endearouring to nnm 

' ocrow til.' river for th<* first time. I'he 

I perusal of Kingston'.* 'Old Jack' inspirvd 

I liim with B strong desire to go to aea, and 

I hsvin); be^n traiiiiHl for two yean on board 

I the Conway in the Mvrk'y. during- which 

Eehixl bp saved a comrade from drowning, 
e was iu li^il! Ixiund apprentice! lo lUth- 
Iwne Bror.hera of Liverpool, and engaged ia 
Uio Kant India and China trade until kit 
indenture* expired in l^OO. He then shipped 
as second matt' under varinun owrnerv, and 
in 1>*74 was awarded the first Stanhope gold 
medul upon tlip occiviion of the remtenary 
dinner of tlie Itoyal Humane StKicty, for 

i' limping overboard ihi* Cunard sleamslup 
tu.'ifiia 011 2^ April 187.S while a iititf brMn 
was blowing and the nhip cutting tlip^u^h 
th«Tratrrnt the rate of l-t^ knot->, in aa 
endeavour lo sure a teouiaii who had fallen 
from the rigf^ing (Suimminff A'ofe* and l0~ 
eord, 1684 : Ro\tal Itumana Socttty Ammal 
lieport, 1874). Smn afttr Ibis h«< backed 
himself to remain in the sea lonirer than a 
NewfoimdlHnil dog, and nftvr Webb bad 
Tumaiiied in the water about an hour and a 
luiir it iva* found that "the poor brut« Wat 
nearly drown«'d.' 

In Jttnnary l>'7''t Webb joined the Eme- 
rald Cif Llvrr|)ijol. and acted as captain fof 
six months; but in Juni' of this year be de- 
termined to rclinijuishtliemercanlile marine. 
In the following month he eetablifihed a 
record nuiotiij; Milt-uiitt^r swimmers by a 
'public^wim'fnimBUclcwnll PiertoOravw- 
«nd, a diKtMncf of ■itmo twenty milec, in 
1899 by M. A.Kolbein. 

Attne1»'ginningof Aiiziut I87d public is* 
terenl. wim grwitly aroused by the aiuioaaoa* 
ment that Webb intende<l to attempt tba 




fiwlof swimmiDgacron tb« Eaglub Channel 
withont an; artificial aid. fb^ attempt 
nude by J. B. JohnAcm lo swim thu atntitit 
in August 1873 hul endi'tl in a fiasco. Oti 
1*8 Slay 1875 C'ai>l«in Paul Boyton, \h.v 
Aia«ncan Ufp-mving fT|M.>rt, }im!. afltir ono 
failure., successfully accomplielifil the fual 
of pad<llin){ iiCTTXis the Strait* wb'.-n cIoMii-d 
in Iu*paii-nt(ire*s; but Although thejoumoy 
deiiiOB«tral«d the ){reat ratu« of the rlreM, 
tlie paddle in it!«lf wu men child's ptay 
in comparison with the taiik which ^^eho 
Bei himself to a(.-romii)i«ti. HUfinit ntlcmpt 
ou 12 Auff. wot! a failurf, owing lo tiio fai'l 
thai be drifted upward* of tiitiL- luilfH out 
i>( his prnpLTcounw in coDM^^iii^ncti of iLu 
»troiigf cumtnt and thu^ «tn-»* of n>-alhfr. 
Twelve dajH lattThe dived from th*> Admi- 
i»Ily Pier, Povw, n fpw second* bnforc ooo 
o'clock in lbe afternoon (^J hours hefnrn 
high water on a l'> A. 10 tn. tide), and 
swimming tfaron^h thti night, by n thr^x-* 
quortvr moon reached Calais at 10.40 a.m. 
next morning ('io Ang,), having lipi-n im- 
m<^r«ud for nearly iwuniy-iwo bou»>, and 
having swum a distance of about forty 
nilrs without liavin;; tuuchi-d a boat or 
arti6rial impnort of any kind. Ciri/iit iinxit-ty 
Ikad been fait by hia guppnrt^rs and ihe 
■pvctalcomwiKindtfnln upon tbi' lugjj^T which 
Sflcompanipfl nim, owing to ih<> fort, that nil* 
Caps Oris Nea the wind arogo, thi3 pea be- 
Cain(> cbonpr, and tx'twnrn figlit nnd ten in 
the rooming BRarcclr any progrefui appfan-d 
to bo made, whili' \Vebii was gHtting iho- 
roughly pxhaiisied. The Riicc>-*«ful nccom- 
pliflnnieDt of auch a feat gaie Wt-bb a pre- 
vminc'nce among nil swimnwtra of whom 
then- iaanyrecowl. Ahandaoiuetcalimonial 
was presented to Webb as the n-ault of u 
public Eubscription (thu amount of the 
wager agatusl him bi-ing only l^.V.) , 

At (be time of his prrformancu Webb was | 
twenty-*K-ri-n and a half y«arK old, bin rh«-i>l 
mea-i^ured 40} in., his height woo •"> ft. ri in., 
and he wfighMl 14 ston* 8lb. Hin body was 
■nointad with pnrpol»e gnmsf^, and he wam 
auatained while treading water by dofies of 
ood-liT*T oil, bfyf-tea, imindy, coffee, and 
atroDg old ale. He us^'d tlii> ' breast Mroliv' , 
almoatexcltiBivelytareraging twenty strains 
per minute. He wa« examined by f^ir '^Vil- i 
liam FerguHon and other Nurgitonjt, and hi* 
exploit was pronounced by miMlicul opinion , 
to ttand almuvl unrivallwd im nn iijiitance i 
i>f human prowess and i-ndurancp (lii'it.i 
Mvd. Journal, iS Aog-; cf. Lancet; the, 
bcM account cvriha di>lail» of the ' tf>viathan j 
vwim'is \n Lnnd nwt Water,' \yi^.,'H \v^., 
4 Sept., with map^hbwtngth'.'zigcog course, 
ud 11 Sept. 1875). j 

During iho ooxt ftw rean Webb gavfl 
exhibitiona of diving and swtmraing, but 
tuBinly uf his pon-vr of endurance m ihu 
watt-r, at varioiio town* in tlw provincwi, 
at the \Veel u)inste.r Aqimrium, and in tha 
United 8tatex. Despite these efforts, how- 
ever, hi-i capital dwindlwl, and hi» health 
stwmed on tb« point of breaking. In the 
oarlv summer of 1883 bo tMoWcd to make a 
further bid for public farour by alt^mulii 
to swim through the rapids and whir1[ 
at (he foul of the Niaguru Falls, 'llic 
sign WB.*! so foolhardy ua to be hardly dtMin- 
guishnble frttm suicide ; hut a con&iderablfi 
amimnt uf cnpilnl iM^ins to have beon 
ninbarked upnn the pntcrpriM, mainly by the 
railway compuiiiefi bearing e.xcurstooista to 
Niagara. The ferry-man at Niagara, after 
a laat attempt to dissuQd'e him from tbo 
enterprise, rowed ' Captiiin Webb ' out into 
I bo middle of lbe river on tho aftcrnooD of J 
j Tuesday, L'4 July ]H8a. Webb pluiigedJ 
from [he boat about 4 r.H., and in abousj 
eight uiiimle.'" Iiad gi)t tbrougb u lial loohwll 
the worst part of Ihu mpids; bnt at tha 
•Mil-miKt^ to thi! whirlpool Iir waa rngnlfed. 
Ue WBfl prceived tn throw up hia arms 
with his face towunis the Canadian shore, 
but was never seen again, lie left a, widow 
and two Dhildren. 

ITimtd. SB and 3T July 1883 ; I->W. 28 July 
1883. p. 147; Jllaeir.Lond.NeWi. 2a Jnly.wJth 
jvittr/iil. rind \ Ang. ; Land and Wiiter, 28 July 
1SB3; Kmclnir iind llcnrvn Hwimniing (Btiaaj 
niiiiton I^limry), IS9f. pp. ltil-6i wlih timapof 
hi.i rourRr^ acrow Obnnnpl aad intcrt«ting t^bai- 
cnl dttniU. Among the nbort hivni iirv KaDdaH'a 
■Captain Webb (with jwrtrailj, MadoUy, 1876 J 
Webh'a Art of Swimming, no. pAyno, with a 
CTilourwl [MJrlniit. and bric-f auUibiogmphical 
prefioe. 1875; Bolpliin's Cbujind t'ents, ISJS; 
and a chap-book by B. L. Williamfl, IRSil.] 

T. 8. 


iH'tuni^t, was great-gruiidson of Philip Car- 
teret Wi^bbf 1 70()- 1 77IJ)[.j.v.], and the el,l.'»t 
of three sonfl of Philip Smith Webb of Mil- 
f'lrd llnuMi, Surriiv, mid Hatinnb, duii;,'bber 
of Sir Knhert Unrkcr, bart. Wi-bh was bom 
at Mitford House on lU July 1793, and waa 
eilnoatr>d nt Harrow and at Christ Church, 
Oxford (he matriculnted on 17 Oct. 1811), 
where William l)ijc?klanil [cj. v.] iuspiivd 
him with a iiliic for gcolog^'. In 181^ he 
entered Lincoln's Inn, and in ISlo h« gra- 
liuaiod as R.A. : but, tho death of bis fatten 
having then put hiui in command of a hand-* 
8Dme fortune, he at onne began to grati^ his 
toste for travel, for which he bad equipped 
him.tolf hv a utiidy of Italian and bpanttli 
while at Oxford, 


Vilitinfc ViennB, h« msdv tltp srqanint- 
anee of thi; Clit>valier Pumlini of Raoosno, 
who was of the snine a^e, i>lnlion, for- 
tune, and tttstca OS [iiTni>Hf. havinj; studit-il 
botany wi(i (i'.'oloiy iiiider Urocchi. WeUb 
haring Blarecl wilh'liim n% DaMaDo, Puxilini 
vstitrned liU visit at MilfixrO in 1916, when 
ihey iilannetl a joint (Expedition to the East. 
Previous to etartinfr u|Kin tli'is, liowevvr. 
Webb imIiI n vlioil vl»il In Sw^lnn, vi»iliiig 
(lottenourg', I'pml, aitd ^locklialcD, and ^o- 
injr •"» fsT H" **l° X, Ut, 

llift wint.>r nf lf*l7-18 Webb ppent. at 
J^'oples witk his mother and inro of Iiik 
niisterH, and Pnrolini joiDinfr him llu-rcr, tliey 
itttirted iu April ISItJ by way of Otranto, 
CorfUf I'nttsB, and Athens, to ihe Cycladw, 
Com^ltiUtinoplo, and tin* Tniad, rviuniiue 
by Siiiyma and Multa to Sicily, [teiiig well 
vPHMrd in IIomtT and 8trabo, W*bl( citrt- 
fully sliidird till- tDjMigrupiiy of thri Trciad ; 
and, havinf; Mine to ronc1iiEinn!i very dif- 
ferent from thowpropmindi'd by I.e GIicv-hImt 
in hid ' Voyuffii dr^ In Trnadi? dans ITH.'i et 
I78y,' hp pubiisht'd al Milan in the wintrr 
of Itj:A)-l'l his '09»-.TVDKioni ii]tomf> alio 
Ktato aiitiot I' pri?«'iite delT agro Troiano,' 
which WBA expimded in 1H44 into 'Topo- 
frraphie do la Trondi' nnciunnc cl niodemo,' 
Parw, Kvu, a work thuwiotf tuucb anti- 

Suarion and geological cruditiun. H« «♦■ 
iEcovi.'n.'d the Suutuundvr and Simoi;^, niitJ 
Mltlttd J4011II- olhwr iuipoMunt points in Ho- 
meric geography. 

A.fl<!r tliii» Wrbb KjN^nt aomd time at Mil- 
ford, where he rolleclttd many interesting 
plant* in hi» (tBrdtun ; hot in July It^-^f be 
visited thf <>ntomolofii>t Lknu Dufour at 8t. 
Sever, and after wj uterine in the »tuith of 
Franw, mnde a year's tour of Ihv ffistt^rn 
and Bonihern coa*t« of Spitin, oflU-cting 
birds, ttsfa, shrills, and e«pecinlly plants, a 
tour ftfttTwurdf^ dftwribud in hii* ' Jut lli«- 
puiwnae ' (I83H) and ' Utin Ilispaniea ' 
(18J>3). In April 1VJ7 hu vretit from Gi- 
braltar to Tuugirr, and, though he foiiuil it 
impOBeiblo to get far into the interior, madi? 
an inlnn-nting •■xplorntiori tif .lvbi-1 lli-rii- 
Hosmar and Jolx'] linrsa, monntainij npar 
Tetiinn, the flora, of whiuU iviie then entiruly 
unknown. It^'tuniing to (libmltnr m June, 
Webb devoted the remainder of the year to 
a jonrmy on honwbuek tlirnugh Portuiral, 
tbv botanical rutiuItM uf which were included 
in bis ' Iter Iliiipaniense,' lliongli hia mriny 
geological and raincrnlourical nutiMt, includ- 
ing n genlugicul map of the I.iol^iin basin, 
made in conjunction with Lniiin ilh ^ilva 
MousiiiLo d Albuipicrqiie, rvmain unpul^ 

In Mnv 1R28 Webb left Lisbon for 

Madeira, and in tba follnwing- 8epteinb«v 
went on to Teiufrifli', int^'nding to ~ 

to Itniiil. Falling in with M, .Savin H«ll 
lot, however, a vfHmg Frenchman wbo 
already apent eikfht years in the i:^laiid und 
had formed a ii«rbarinm, \Vebb r«niain< 
nearly two year» in the Canaries. vJHli 
with him LJincarole, I-'eurtevmiura, n 
Cotiorin, and Pulma. They Btudii^ and col- 
lected Ihc planta, bird*, lioh, dbullfi, 
iuKcts, examined the rocks, aiialvfcd 
wati^ni, made thrrnio metrical observati 
and neglectml nothing which could h 
towards n complete physical and Btatifili 
histoiy of the nn?hii«iago. In April 1 
Webb and Berthelot enbarkcd at Si 
Cruz, and, beinff kepi out of France 
cholera ami rv>vo1niiou, wont by way of t 
coafll of Algeria tuN ice, and ibeocwtiidrnr 
In June IH-i^l thtiy cstabliAhed ihem^elv 
iu IWiti, where Webb got loicetber a go 
library ond a herlurinm finer than an? 

fnviit« collection in Kranoo, aave that of 
teh'oaert. In prennring their gr«at work, 
* Uistoire NatureUe de< ilea Canaries ' 
(IVrii*, IH-W «). i>vrtli. 4t«), Webb reaerrcd 
10 himself moet of the geolt^' and botany 
and the deacnptioiiof the uiam mid a. Berths 
lot contributing tbecthoogmphy,thRliiEhn; 
of the cononeat and of Ifac* TflnlioiiH of tiw 
ii^lnndrra with ibc Moors and with America, 
und iliv lie^cnplivv and »tatiKtical gw^ 
graphy, while the aervlces of ValRnciAitDM 
werv sts:urvd fur the de«cripl ion of tlie fiiib; 
Alcide d'*)rbigny for thn mollunka; Brull£, 
II. l.uc&e, and Macquart for the inaecUf 
Pnn! (^rrvai* for ibe reptiW; and Moquiif 
Tandon for the hinli*. Arliclra were nlw 
cnntributed by Montaene, C. H. SchulK, 
I>eeftisn*>,l'arlntore, I>e Soe, and the yon 
Keichenbacb. The iasuo of the work it 
was followed by that of a folio atlas of 
p9iit«'» by Ibe but uTlitiH obtainable. 

After Imring aptrnt fourtc*n years o 
thuprv])urulion ofthis work, travelling h 
het-wo*H Milforil and Paris, Wrbb wialwd 
visit Tunis and Egypt, to sidv-a some 
tAntcal prribliimit U-ft imMxttletl hv Vahl 
De^fontainea. but wa» twioe stopped at 
oul^t by indiflerent health and the n 
of the uiiMtiitfaciory political and sani 
conditions of ihosf tnuntrtea. He ac<ca' 
ingly in January l^4K started for FUirenM 
and Hume, the lluliau dimate suiting him. 
iind devoted two y«arB to collecting ItaJiaa 
plants. At Rome he made iJm acqaaiat* 
ance of the Counlas* Klizabelh Mazianlt* 
Kinrini, the tryptogainisi, the only womaaa 
h« Kiiid, whom \w had ever met wbo lorvd 
botanr piuwionntely. At Flormoe ba wai 
specially attracted bf the botanical gaUn? 


ot iIm museum, then under the ouo of bii 

friend ParlmoiT, to which hv ylAna^l to b»- 

2»«uil)i )iin libmry awl bet-lMna. It wan 
ere that in the winter of lH4y-9 h« pre- 
pared bis ' FmgiiH-ntA Murulw ^Hbio|iico- 
^KnTptucc,* uhik-b. Iiowever. whs not 
paDlub«>d until 1H.*>4 iINri)!, 8vo), owing: to 
the Tuscan reroliition nf It^ft. 

AfttT t-ix week.* at Biifin^rvft-cI^Lurlion, 
where be had botn ordr-rcfl t'>tiiltn the watent. 
in (hi) »iimin«roriSW),\Vebb revisilt-cl Spain 
to put Aume fioiBbing touches to hi* ' Ml is 
llinpuiicn.' and to visit bin friend OrneLlft, 
dinctor of tlie museum and ^rdrn tit 
Madrid, lie had reei-ntly bvea ^ren tliv 
onler uf Cbarlra Hi liv (ju(^Mn IhkInJIb, and 
on the oocaaion of tlita v'mt was e)ec;ted 
ootrreapDndiDg member of ihv Acad«-ni/ of 
SciMices nt Jdadrid at Ibe saniB time a» 


In l8ol be ri'tum^ Ui I'^njl^lnnd, and in 
Auffust. wilU hiti nephew, Godfrev Webb, 
viAit«d Ireland, and, having received uig- 
gestioDS from hi« friend John Itnll, explored 
Ouf wfljrt coBkt from Cork to KillameT, 
Dingh^, Traltw. Ijtneriuk, (iatwov, il<iiin'l- 
atone, nn<1 lliw Arauumn* [ii]4MdH, lite luiiini 
of an inlPT«>atinjr olTabooi of the Iberian 
flora which he fo wtdl knew. After a ji-nr 
deTolcd to a xynnpeiA of the flora of the 
Ouiarica, whicb' be did not live to finish, , 
■nd a aecond futilo sttvmpt to xtart (dt 
Tuoifl ill tbo HtitiimD of }St2, Webb again 
visited Itnlr and bis friend Farolini, but. 
waD reealled to Enfrland by ihp death of bi« 
motlier. InMay 1W4 be startwi for Geneva 
tovi«it his TO linger brother, Admiral Webb, 
but at I'aria wa« Miih-d with gout; and, 
tho«igb b* iM Car recovered as to be able to 
superintend on crtitchue ibo eluw-itival ion of 
hia librari' by M<H|iiiti-Tandnii, Iter died on 
Si Aufr. If^fi. He waa biimd in n mamw- 
leum wbicit he bad built, in tln-ehiin-byard 
of Milford. Tlie whole of his rnllerlioim and 
herbarium, including Ihow of I'hilijipM Mer- 
rier, lleflfootaines, 1^ Ilillnrdien-, I'nvnn, and 
C^itstave do Mont btet, together u ith cnmpl^te 
Oudner, and ^s?biiD)''.T, he bei|i>ealhed, wiib 
Ut endowment fi>r Ibtrir maiuteuaiiee, to Ibe 
Orattd Duke I^eopold II of Tuwany. The 
eollectioQ has a room to itself in the niuiti-uin 
at I-loreno;, where tliere ia also a bust of 
thi> donor. 

Ilesideaibeworki already mentioned Webb 
wu the RUlbor of niaay papers on rantna 
braueJies of natural hif>tory, tb« moAt iin- 
partsnt of which woh perhaps hia ' Hpieilej;ia 
Oorijonea,' a catalogue of tliD plants of the 
Cufe dflVerd Islaadi^, prefixed to Hooker aod 
flcatham's ■ Niger tlora,' IHW. 

[Xutii<a aur la vie ct Um tiaraax de Pbilii 
Borkar Vimhb, hy )l. J. Oaj, Bulletlu d* 
iktei^t^ Bi>tM[>i<ji»'iJ« Franns 18A6.) O. S. B. 

WEBB. rmUP CUfFEKKT (1700- 
1770), antiimary and politician, siippogt^ to 
b«T« beiu Iwm at DeviwH in Wiltshire in 
1700, wao adniitt-.M »ttomey-al-biw on 
:iO June 1724. II>- practifted at firat in Did 
Jewry, then removed to Budge How. and 
afterwards -H^ttK-d in Ore«t Queen Slnwl, 
Lincoln's Inn J'ields. CJn let IK-c. 1727 be 
wbft admitted ot the Middle Temple, and an 
.■* AnrJl 1741 woji admitted at Lincoln's Inn. 
Early in bis carver be an|iiin-d a frrent t%- 
jiuitttion for linowledge of n'cordu and of 
l>rw;edi-'til.'i of I'unHtitiilionnl law. On (be 
i^upprei>!tioaof the rebellion of 171i» hieabili- 
tif» iw i>oliciior on tbn triaU of the prisoner* 
proved nf great at-rviee to t he Btate. lie waa 
thu nutbor of ' Ivemarks on the I'retendor'fl 
Declaration find t'ommiMton,' ]74o, dated 
from Lincoln's lun on 1:^ l.k:t. in ihnl year, 
and of * Hemsrks on the l*retender'» Kldmt 
Son's Seuond Declanittun,' l74o, which 
eame out suhAetjuenlEv- Lord Ilardwicko 
made biui Mcn'tarv of bnnkrupta in the rourt 
of chancery, und \ii retained the po«|. imtil 
\7(iC>, when Liird Northinglon ceased to bt 
liinl ehftneclior. 

Webb M-flH elecfed F.S.A on 26 Nov. 1747 
atui on 9 Nov. 1749, and in 1"51 bo 
HKiiHl ril rnnterinlly in obtaining the chartur 
of incorporation for th« Society of Anti- 
Qiiariwi (Nichols, Lif. .-Iweerf. 'ii. 712-13). 
In 174^ he ]iiiTchased ihu i-atate of itii9> 
bridge, near (be borough of Uuclemere in 
Surrey, wbieh gave him cniiMdt^mble in- 
fluence ill that eomipl eoastituetuiy. H«, 
Mt for IIuMlr-uicre in tlic iiarlinni^fnls fromJ 
17W 10 1701 tUorliRk'MSf?. in Hht. M.SS. 
Camm. l/itb Itep. vi. s;(>7), and from 1761 to 
1708. The first of ihene election* elicited 
in 17r>4 iliH wi^ll-known iMllaJ, Rttribniod 
to Dr. King, of .Sr. Mary Holl. Oxford, of 
'The Cow of llflftleniere,' whicrli luid eight 
calves, for each of wbieb a vote in Webb's 
interest was claimetl. 

In December l7Ji0 Webbwns made joint* 
solicitor to ibv treasury, nnd bi-ld that post 
until June 17<i>>; lie was c(in<(ei|ueiliry S 
lending of&eial in the proceedings ■gamatj 
John \Vili(eii, and for lui ac'S was dubbod 
by Ilorarn Walpole ■ n most villainous tool 
and agent in any iui(|uiiy,' ■that dirty 
■wreteb,' and 'a norry knave." Wi-bb waa 
tliu Itrader in seizing, ami ng the nafHrs of 
Wilkes, the TWeMinf the ' Kssay on WoinHn ;' 
and when tlie legality uf general warmnia 
was impugned, he printMl prjvatoly and 
nnanymouely a votuniD of 'Copied taken 
from the Ib^urdM of tli« Court of King's 




'Bendi, U)« Office-booki of iho 3wi«Un«8 vf 
8Uit9, of Wnrrants iMiur-cI bv IVcrrtariwt of 
Suite,' 1763. Ul- sLm printed 'Some Obser^ 
TBtion» on tlip lat<! clt-l<*rtnmjition for I>i»* 
chtiri^f^ ^^f- ^Vilk*^ from the Tower. Bv 
• Member of the ifouM of Commons,' 176^. 
In tbc lu-iion brought Kfpiinst W<K»d, Lord 
Egrvniont's secretttrT, for 6^in|{ WiIIcm'b 
paiK^ra, Wffbb, bs a witnp'Sfi. »votp thftt while 
in ihv boiue ' he bail nu Vvy in Itif bund.' 
For this be WAS tried before Lord Mamtield, 
with a 8iKN.'iiU jury, for pi>rjury, uii 'J'2 .May 
17tU. The trial laAtrnl Hevtii hour)', aiid the 
jurr, after an abwnre of nearly an hour, 
rvtamixl « Tcrdict of tmtRuiUy {Oml. Mm}. 
176-1, p. 241^). A mot'win hy Sir Joseph 
Mawbey {q. v.] in Xoveraber 1768 for a re- 
turn of all mom-y* pniil to Wrbh for pnwe- 
CQtiona was refuwid. <!>ii the charge made in 
the Ilouae of Commons on 31 Jan. 17'19 
thnt Webb bad bribt^l. witb iho public 
tnonCT, Michael Ciirrv to (>etray W'ilkesand 
^vv eridotici- BfiiinHt \\\m, \:n\intA pk'iuled 
on bebiilf uf Wfbli ibat hr wwa now blind 
and of impaired inlulU'cl, and the motion 
Kgainxf bim wn* cli-f>-nttHl. 

Webb died at his seat of Buabridge Hall 
on 23 June 1770. H"- marriud, on 2 Xor. 
1730, Suannna, daaght'er nf Hcnjiimin 1.o- 
dlnffCou, many years consul at Tripoli, Slie 
died at Bath on !"J Mdrch I7fil>, ftjjed l-i, 
leaving one aon,al(io called 3'hilip Ciirteret 
Webb (rf. \\> (>t. 17ea; Vorr>-*p. o/ Jekytt, 
p. 31 ). Two othtT cbildron diwu in infancy, 
eiiil, at her own desire, Mrs. Webb was 
buried with thorn in a cstp in the i^nnds 
at llnabridjnr. ' iv K-ing vncavalcd by a com- 
pany of Mildierfl quartered at Guildford ' 
(H'Aei cmii Qurrif/, 1st tvv. viii, 43). Tliey 
w«re jifti'rwnnl.'* di.sinti-rri'd mid p!a(vd in a 
vault under (JodalminK chufL-b, with a monu- 
ment to h(>r nnd bvr himlMind. In Aii|fiiiit 
17fiw Webb mnrrit'd Hhoda, daughter of 
John or Jsme^ f'otos of Dodinffton in 
01lMhir<% nnd by ln^r had no i«nie. He 
bc'iiH-Blhed to her evervtbing that be cnnld. 
Sill- marrii>d|On ftSi-pt. 1771. Edward Rover 
uf l-'umhuni, .Surrey, and iii 177o sold the 
«stal<- of Iltisbridge. 

The other works of Wi-bl) roinprisnjd : 
1. 'A lj«r1lerlo Itcv. William Warburloii on 
ftomn I'ufifagea in the ■' Divine 1^'^cion of 
Mo8«." By aOynlletniLU ofl.iticoin'd Inn,' 
1742, 2. 'Dbaprvationa on the rmirw of 
ProooeduigB in tbe Admiralty Courts,' 1747. 
S. 'KxMiptn «x InMrumentii! Piiblicia Ac 
Jtulicia,' 17.V). 4. 'Short but Tnie State 
of Facts relative to the Jew Hill," 17o3. 
R. ' The (JiucKtion wbethi-r B Jow bom 
"within the llriliHli lluininioiu coiiJd before 
the luic Act purcbii^ and bold Lands. 

By a Qentleman of Lioooln'e Inn,' 1753; 
a reply to tbo question waawriltfn by JoMpb 
Orore [q.'-l 6. 'A Short Account of Daw - 
Rwld. By li Mvmlirr of tbf Society of '^V^H 
iJquariea. Kf-ad at a meeting 1 April 17-i^^| 
7. ' A Short Account of llomesosy Boot^^ 
■with A view to its [*ubltcation. By a ^t'-m- 
ber of the Society of Antiquaries. Itead 
18 Deic. 1755/ 1756. Ilia interleaved copr, 
with additional v«per», is in ihe Uouffb ew' 
Wtion at Ibe Bodleian Librarr (Madiit, 
h'etient MSS. iv. l77-e>. )*. • Stale of FacU 
on hi« Mnjraty'it Kiifhl to certain Fe«-fani 
rtent.i in Xorfolk,' 17SH: hundred copi 
only. 9. ' Account of a CiyiB-r Tnhid wi 
1 wo inncriptions, Oreek and I.arin,di3cove 
in 1732 near Ueraclea. K««d before Anl 
ouarieo. 13 Dfc. 17W,' 1700. On 12 M 
f7[<0 be presented this table to the kin^ 
8|iain, through the Neapolitan minister, 
too royal collection at Naple*, and b« 
ceivml in return a diamond ring worth >. 
{Nicitoijs Lit. Anrci. v. S2«-7>. Web' 
wrote in tlin 'Mo€l*ralor' and contributtt] 
to the 'Philosophical Transactions.* J' 
Topliaro [q, v.] iMTred undrr him. 

The maniiscriprs of Sir Julius Cir'uir 
dispersed W aiiclion in 17-^7, and new 
on«-third of the collpctinn wn» purchi 
by Webb. TJiese, with bis other mauuscri! 
nn papiT, wcw bought from the widow 
l/ird ^hetbnme, and ar^^ now among the 
Lansdowne manuscripts at the British M«* 
seam (Prcf. to Cat. p. is). "Webb sold 
to the House of Lorda thirty manuscript 
volumes of the rolls of parliament, and the 
rest of liis library, inclitdinft his manuscrtpu 
on velhiTn,was sold on •>ft l-'eb. 1771 nnd 
sixteen following days. His most valuable 
cottiN and medals wm acqiiirt^ bv Matthew 
1)iiane [q. v.]; the remainder and (tie anriem 
marble inistjt and bronsM were wild in 1771- 
(In the di>nth of bis widow hiRotbercollect- 
tions wen- sold bv Langford. 
I A letter from K. M. da Costa lo WeWj i» 
' in Nichols's ' llliistraiions of I.iterat 
I (iv. 78S-0). In July Koi^hcobtnined 
! thvSoeiuiv of Arts a silver mt^^al for havt 
I planted n Urge quitnt ity of acorns fur tim 
I [NiclioU'« LiL Anecd. ii. 2r»-82. MS ; 
iiiu£ Hud Bniy's Surrfv, i. 630-1, ii. iS, 5W, 
iii. App. p. exii*; Linroln's Inn Adm. Reg. i. 
in-. (Churchill's Works (1804 «d.). i. IW. ii, 
288 ; Walpole's 0«Qrg« HI. (kI. Barker, paasin: 
Walpole'a Lettera. it. 183-7. viti. 260; Chno- 
lish «lX<b»tes, 1.77, 82. 120: UslkMt andUin;^ 

I'mii'l. Lit, 

Sll, iH3i infgrmaiion fnxB 

r»«iil. Jjt. pp. oil, :ta*'Jn inigrmaiioa in 
C*ptfiin W. W. Webb, M.D.. F.8.A.] W. P. C. 

1685), iistrononter, bom at Ron in Her^ 
fbrdahire, on 14 Bee. )SQ7, was the only sob 

ofJulm Wi>bb(1776-1»09)'(]. V. He ma- 
tricuUteil from Magda]eQ llall, (ixtard, on 
SMarch iKiO, mduaUn) B.A. in l^iit wiih 
ii]»t)i<>niKticitl iMinoun, nnd M.A. in IHSlJ. 
In 1 630 he mu ordained dencoa at Ui'n-ford, 
and lic«R0«d to tba curacy of ['cnn>T(l- I !•> 
Wfts ndmillod to prieat'd ord^ro in tlit! fol- 
lowing ywir br Ci^orffB r«aac IlditlinfffDnl, 
buho|i of Ht^rcVord. Aft>TfWt!nly-flv« Team 
of diligent Oxxieb imodteniat i'>u9 Inboiir in 
tluB and olhrr pitruhes (indudinf; &. k^n^hjr 
Carm u pn^ooulor and minor canvii iL>f fHtju- 
eeater Cathedral), lie waa prcMntiMl in I806 
to ttio ecatUTi'd living uf llardwick. Hun— 
fonl*)iirt*, wliicli hv fillnil utlh ll)t? uiuiobI 
eonsci«ntioit!ineM until liis d<:>ath on h> May 
1885. He was a f«ll<)w uf tii» Kuvul A«tro- 
nnmicAl SocietT, and had a profound and 
sccHnitelaiowledKe,pncucalaiid tbeoretical, 
ofaatrunomy and optiu. From an <>nrly age 
Wvbb took a deep interwt in ilie former 
•cieoce, and oa far uach aa 18?5 was making 
naeful obaervationa, pncunors of a long, 
painatalung, and most accurate sunes. His 
nnt leloaoDpe was a 4-inc1i fluid achromatic, 
aftur which he obiwrVMl in MULrecMion with 
a S^tncb lulli>r, n •'i4-incli Alrun Clark, 
and a04*inch With rflflpctor. In IH.'.9 Uf 
iasued ' Cclwlinl ffbjwta for Common TpIu- 
BCop?f>' (London, lOmo), a work whirli it 
now I IHlK') in its Hfth i-dition, and Um <lnn» 
raore than tinv otti>;r to advancer tli(> cau»e 
of amateur obMTvatinn. IWiiles this book 
W>bh mibli«hi>d 'Optica wirhont ^Uthema- 
tic*' I London, ISfvt, 8»ot, 'TIih Sun' (Ixm- 
dnn, 188-5, l:fmo),andalittle workon'ChriA- 
maa and Eaetvr Caroht.' llv also coiiiri- 
buted largely to such puUicationa aa ' The 
Sludnul,' 'TTic Intellectual Obwn-er," I'hu 
I»ndfm Ki'view,' ' Nntnnt,' * KnowlMlffO,' 
•The Argonaut,' and 'Thfi EnjrlishMechamc.' 
H<" 'wlilrd nnit omplcl*''! ' h'» fiithiT'* ■ Mft- 
noriaU of the Civil War' (London, 1H70, 
S toIb.) Webb waa an ob«*rvt<r nf Kr*^"' 
Bbtliry. He took a tpccial intcTv^st in the 
ftudv of tlie moon, wa* a member of the 
moon committee of the Itrilisli Aiwociation, 
and an aclivw KUiiportur of thi- now defunct 
Selcno^rraphieal ^M>ci^■Iy. After hia father's 
death ill' hnlshcd editing ihe ' Military Me> 
ajoim "f (VWnel John Bin-h.' tor tUi* <.'am- 
den Soriety, and in 1870 puhlisht'd a new 
and Bolarged edition of Jolm AWibVi* 'Civil 
War in iT^n^fonbihire/ In IHS'i he became 
pnibeniiary of Hereford Cathedral. On the 
deacliof Sir llcnry Wrbh.wiTi-nth 
Odfftock, Wiltshire, he succeeded in 1874 as 
head of that fiimily. Ho diud on lU May 
18B5, and wis buried bustd(< his wife Hen- 
rietta (</. 18ai), daughter of Arthur Wyatt 
of Troy Hou&c, Monmouth, in the ct-mLlcry 


of Milchel Troy, UttbeqtMMhed the family 
r#Ut<' in Hcrefmahlnto bia cousin, J. tl. II. 
Wfbb, and U>(1 « «iiin of ovBr 30,000/. lo 
Herefordshire charities. 

Thuni ia a waU-rvolour portrait of 'Webb 
in the poaaeMiOli of F. h. Wrhb, i-vq., nt 
lllj Jklaida Vale, London, and a good [xir- 
trait is iir^-fixi-d tn (ho fifth edition of ' Celes- 
tial Objecte.' Ry bin will he hiiqncaihod 
crrtiiin pictiirvs and articles of p1at« lo the 
tmslees of the South Kensington Museum. 

[UefDolr in tho Moolfalr Noticos of th^ R.A.3.: 
Nalnre; Hea'fl ObterrationflJ .\«ironomy; and 
Ihe biogmphioil nati^ ^refisod lir th« Hrv. T, K, 
K«pln to tae fifth editiDu uf C«lflHtiid Objects; 
Fosur'a Alunmi Oian. 17I6-I8H6; Work* in 
llrit. Mu>. Idbr. ; fiurko'a Landed Oontrj. X 
detailed memoir is in pr»|>iuatioD from tlie pen 
of Mr. S. Miiitland Jlaird GiTiimill.] A. Ma. 

WEBBE. [See also Wbbb.J 

WEBBE, E[i\\'AUU (J. 1690), marter^' 
gunurrundud vvuiun.<r,Bou of Richard Wftbbc, 
' toaster- ^utin<!ir of Kiitf land,* was Imm at St, 
KBthorinu'«. u«ar the Tower of London, about 
ir>r»4. .\t tliBsgeof twrlve his father placed 
him in the EcrviiM of Captain Anthony Jen- 
kinson fq. v.1, ambassoaor to Kuimia, who 
^ili-d from Knglnndon4 Mav \i)6S. He was 
in Jenkinson's eerric^ in and about Moscnw 
for Ilirc^ years, and ri_'tiimL'd with him to 
Cnslfuid. In 1370 hu sailed in the Rngli»h- 
Uussian fleet, underCiipttiin William Borough 
[q.v.], for Narva, and was at Moim^iw in May 
Iii71 wWnihattowii was burnt bytht* Crim 
Tartars. He became a *I«Tr tn the Tartars 
in the Crimva, but was ransomed. Sailing 
a^u from Ijondrm in tti" Hrmrv, be appcaiv 
lo havo been at Tunis when i>on John of 
and lo have rtoolii^d the rank of mastor-f^im- 
ner; hnt somt! months later the Hunrr was 
caplnred by thi; Turku, and Webbe bncame 
a ^lley slave, ' Cousttwincd for want of 
victuals,' he conaontM to serve the Turks as 
a gunner, and accouipunii-d the Turkic nmy 
to Porsin and many other tunttem count rii-e. 
About ^r,^iA Williom Harbomo fq. v.\ the 
English Bmbas.-ad»r, ransotned ft ebbf and 
ninttteun othL-nt. He encountf^red varioua 
troublm an hia way to Englaud, but ri^ached 
England safely in 1A8)). In November of that 
yi-ar hi; pToct!<oded to France, and waa made 
chief ma-MiT-gTinnT by Henry IV. Hi^waa 

Eresentatthe battle o'f Ivrv, 14 Matrh 1580, 
lit. rL'tumedaoon after to iMigtand, and took 
lodgings at Blackwall, wbare on ID May ho 
dedicat«a the little tract which recounts his 
advenluroi. Tho title of this is : • The llare 
& moat wonderful thinifes whicli Edward 
"Wcbbc ttti Englishman bonii; halh nwjub 




ft puaed in hu tronUeaoine ti«TftilM in 
tfac Citries of JeruMlem, THmnuiflko, Bethe- 
lem & Qallolr ; and in tlit* Lande* of 
Jewiie, Egipt, Givcia, KuMin, ^ in tha 
L&nd of Pmicr John. \Vli«mn is itct 
feortii his fxtrmmi' nlnv^ria siutiuned mtnT 
yvnm txgilhur, in thi< Oallien k win of th'u 
frreftt Ttirk «ffainsl ili>> Idutdi^ of I't-mta, 
Tartaria, Spaiati, und Portugall. wiih the 
mannnr ni hi* rKli.<iui>Mni.^nt, nrid romminfi 
imoRn^landein.MavliuL I^itdnn. PrintM 
hv Riilph ItiowiT, lor Tlnmin I'avier,' Jto. 
Tht^M is no daw on thiilitliviw^i-. nnrofi Um 
titk'-pftjjfl ofa reprint ' princud by A. J. for 
noore leadoti liaU,' wliioh Uui* *ix woodoum. 
But tht! second edilinn. ' Nevlr eular)i^ '^'^ 
corn-ciiid Ijy ihc Aiitbor. IVint«d for Wil- 
liam WntfUt/indaled 15510. Tlie tinit xrood- 
L'ut is alt^rnd from tlia( of the prDrioiu edi- 
tion, unit Kiimo itli^lit corn'rliiitKi itiudfi in the 
taxi. Thfl trart hna bei'iv reprinK-d by 1"^- 
^^m fp8«or Atber ( LoDdon, 18(IH> auonj; his 'Bap*- 

^^t linh 1(«pniit.-«,' wirh ft cnn-fiil intrmliictriry 
^^" ' obroTLicle ' of Weblwa life, so fsr as it can 

be <lilKntan]{;ll^d from thf^confituvd and somc^ 
Une* contradictory dotaikof hia uamtive. 
Mr, Arber'ft inreati^tion «3t abliaheathe bom! 
JSde chaniirtor of Wttbbe's suiry an a whoh', 
whilw it «how» that his ni^innry n» n*^t"]ii 
datL« WAS not accurate. Tlii> tract ^re^ a 
vivid piclurv of tbo courajKo aud coastancr 
of the HliKabethan Engliahman. 

Xutbini; further is known of Wttbbe's life. 
bnl. pmuiWv ht- \* iho Krlwiitrl W'tihlji' whri 
paid a bnndi^d pounds Co l)ii' Virj^niaOom- 
[iiinr in lfi:?fl (Tinitwx, (fr^rti-, U.8.A. ii. 

[Edwonl Arb6r'> edition iu KnuUah Heprinis 
mntninx ntl tlial is known of Webbo and hw 
book.] E. It. 

WEBBE, .KtJ^KI'H l/f. ltil_'-HWfi),f^rnin- 
mnrinn and phy^'iriuu, was I^nglish by hirth 
and liomnn cathniic in religion. lii> Rra- 
duatcd M.ll. and Ph. I), at mm^ foreign uni- 
wreity, pi^rhnpB i'ndun. Jii I'll^ he piib- 
lishE^d at Krinicanit«tri]o^cal woric cntitlL-d 
'Miua< Ca'lwteji AflecUis wj['*"'*"''hiis du- 
nunoinn!--*, hoc anno HilS,' %vo. Befortt 
Itt^'J he reliirntid to l^ng:Eaiid,UTid in 1G23 
WHS n;si<linti; in thi;Ohl llailev. He utroiiiilv 
ftdviWfitM ti rollnfiiiinl miilhod of tt'aching 
lansruagt'e, pr-jpoisin^ '" i-xtcnd it n»rn tn 
tho cbi.«i(vil ton)^iifp, and to [lohst.itute it for 
the pednmic manner uf (n^titnmutical study 
in goiicral iul-. In UVi"' \u- pnbliAhi>d. in 
ffnppon of hif views, * An Appeulo to Truth, 
in llw Controuereiw bctwecni- Art and Vm>' 
(Lrindon, 4to1. whirli he »upplvin<!nl«d in 
1023 by 'A Petilioo to the lligh Court of 

nvliamMit, in the behalf of Bmiaieiit uid 

ha sayo thai his sysiem ba* rvceired «n- 
oouni^ment from James I, and that ha 
vriifaM to rccvivtr a monopoly of iho ri^fht to 
teach by his mclhnd. Jcdia Oec [q, t.], in 
bis 'Foot out of ihu Snant,' di!acnbu4 bim iiv 
16^ as reaidio)^ * iu the Old Kajly,' wbure 
' ho prvtendetb to teacb a new gvyne way to 
kanie lan^tuit^rji, and by thi« occasion mar 
inveigle diaciples.' Hin latest work, dodi- 
catod U) Cbarles I, appmred in 1636,entitl«d 
' Vaiia et Authoritas' (^London, l^no), a 
tn^atise on hexametera and peaUiiiet«tt. 
N\>hbe waa also tlio author of a tranaUtiea 
of 'The Familiar Kpietlc* of Cicero' (^Lon- 
don, 12mo), undaleu, biitprobablv published 
almiit W2Q. 

[WobboH Workii; Foley s ItAcord of tbc Eng' 
lixli I'raTtncn of ilip Sm. of Jfsus, i. C8S.1 

E. I. C. 

WEBBE. SAMUEL (1740-l(»lft), musi- 
cal »)m|Ki*er, the Hnnof affovitrnmvnt oJEi 
who dii'd in Minorca about 1740, wai* 
in Ktijfbiiid in 1740. OwiuR to porerty, 
mother could do nnchini; bert*^r for her soa 
ihnn iippnintictf bim at th« age of elereti 
to a tradn. Mis »rv«n years of cabinet- 
making OTBT, Webbe applied htmscif to tJw 
study of languaffes. llis mother had died, 
aud, to support oimself, ho capi(»d music far 
a dealer, and ihii.s nitractcd tht? notice 
Barbandt, a musician, who thettcefor 
Rsve Iiim Iwsoiis. Webbe soon adopi 

music as his prof&i-iion. It in likt^Ir lint 

depntiaod for Barbandt at the chapel.-i of the 
Portuguese and IlnriLrian embnsaie-n. In 1 Tlbl 
hv won the firm ofhistwencyHixjiriae medab 
from th>« Caleb (^Inb, of which be waa a 
membt'r from 1771. On the rvei^atioa of 
Worn-n Home in 17'J4 Webbe was appointed 
the club'i> secrocary, and was actively em- 
i>lny«d in its inlfre'els utitil lyii' (prvfaooto 
W. Lii(i,BY't< Hfguimi). Un the •^taUiah^^ 
meni, in 17^7. of thu Olw riub, WflU^H 
bM-amothe libranan.and he ioinnd thaOM^l 
cf-ntores ^7odal(.« goou after tJie foruatioD of 
their society in 178fl. 

Webbo producud about tbr«j hundred 
pWs, caaon*, calcbi>s, and pnit-sontrs, and 
upon tbiii work hi.'i fanii^ cbicHy rvsta. In 
ilio iiumntime he had become organist. toUic 
chnpel of th« Sardinian embassy u«ar Lin- 
coln's Inn Fielda, and was announa-d in tint 
• I.aity's I'iroctory ' of 17Uy to givn inatriM>* 
tion frratis vwry Friday avt'ning at aemi 
o'clock, ' to such young g6Bit]«ineu as pPMsnt 
tb^nuolve* to learn the chun^ miuio.* 
Among his pupils and choir-boys 
John !>unby [c[. v.\ OhnrlM Knyvott 
youugpr [WW under Ksitbit, Oua 


BC fa^i 





17&S-1B£J1. Owles Dignum [a.v.\ mi Vin- 
cmt NoTuIlo [q. ▼.] Thi:' cuapfl of ihi* 
HiMinislt erobtflBT, nenr Mant-heawr Sqiinrv, I 
UBO enjoTfd bJa wrvicvviprobutrly nft*ir Dan- , 
hy'sd*r«Ui iu l7!IHuriiillhi>voiingrr Webbo's | 

NWbb'- flipH M bi« cliAn]ii4>r<ui(]ntv'it Inn 
on 'J't March |r4l(l. Hia gnve^iionti lo Old 
61. I'ancraa Gnrdena (ohcm iIib chiirchvard) 
bas diMip]}ciir«d witbio tli<^ IwU (av ytura, 
bui a irmuitv obv>ltsk «*&« erect«<l in iu stM<l 
in 181>7. 

Wobbe wa» ' tb* lv|iical giw compoBor' 
^UATBr),andM beti known by such polisliri] 
uh) beaut ITliI pi(!Cfitii8'H'h>'ii win(l> brunt liL- 
»oft,' 'Swiftly fmtn lUt! momituiii's brow,' 
•Glorious Apollo,' ■ Tliy Toice.O HarmDuy,' 
and ' C'ouid liv>^ witli mr.' Hut Iua motets 
are tliU rant>r-nntly «un)r in Ttoman catholic 
cliarchce. His bymiis inclu']<.* nn ' (I Halu- 
tam,' known in Anjilii'an brmn-bnok-i ui 
* MelcombA : ' on ' Atma l!c(!t)uiptoris ' 4 ' A1- 
ma'): a • Veni S«nct<; S]iiritii!<' ("Come, 
Thou Holy Spirit'), and the popular baruio- 
nivMl v«r*ioti of a Urej^naii ' Stabat. Mat4-r.' 

Atnoofr ^^~ebbl;'8 numerous publtoationa 
srr: 1. In roiijuuction with bi* hod, nint* 
books of vocal music in parte, 17(U 9-i; 
nfWrwanlii ri*i'i;bUi>imi) in 3 vnU. IHll'. 
Manr of Wi-bne's glsofi are re-fidilud (ir rv- 
publifibed by H'Btrwn, IdilUh, Olipbiint, 
B00M7, nn<) NoviJlo. '2. Hnnf», nf wbicli 
the but known may have bc«n tlu; simplu 
uit.'lodv, 'Tbf Manitinn nf P*ac«,' l"8o? 

3. 'Od.0 to St. Cecilia,' mix voiciw, ]"90. 

4. 'A Oyllectton of Sacred .Mo^ic us used in 
litis Chapel of the Kinfr of Sardinia in I.nn- 
doii^ by 81)1001-1 W>.*bb«,' iv> dat«, obi. folio. 
It wmtaini upwnrdi* of twonly motots, and 
■ussea in i) minor fur tfarvf voicrs, mid t} 
major for four voiinih, iieitLnr pubiitthed in 
B, * A CollMnion of Masses for Small Cbuir*,' 
I79i (No- 1 wa* priuti-il by Skilli-m in 
irtti 1 ; thpy are tiiinpty wrillen, some for 
1wo parlfl only. (f. ' A CoIUction of Mntirt* 
and Antipbons," ITW, print^-d by WehlM^'s 
jMrmidHion, allbou|Zb b« had no intention 
of nrinlinft them. 7. 'Antiphona in nix 
Book* of Am hems,' 1818. H. ?>erui mosses 
rearranged for three and ft^ur voirtcs, in- 
cludinir two rnjiiit'tn nia»<L-« in O minor and 
K minor, nfvi-r brfiire ]iitbliiili<rd, IHftl. All 
W.'bbp's rhurrh mudic has been TO-edJUid 
and republi#li<-d by Novello. 

ia«n(. Maf. 1814. I SCD. $4J; Qnnrlarly 
Mii<ii<-Al Mngnaine. IA18 p. 210. ISil p. SS3. 

twMiin : Grrtw't Dictiftiury, i, 323, 383. iv. aR7; 
laTevVIlMt. of Knffliith Muaiv', p. 114 ; Cnnsii^k.'* 
Kpitiphs in St, Pinicnx. p. 08; Duitv Kcws", 
26 Jwly lfi97: T.ihlet. 21 July 1897: infar- 
lioil from liie clioirmii«t«T of tbe Satdiniii 


Street carbolic ehnreh, vbare a rnhnas of tb« 
nra'CuIlucteitnof Racind Hitxk' t* pnaerved; 
infornintiou fn>m Kev. K. B. Skiiik«y. M.A., 
Mu«. hue. Oxon. : HuibaritiM citad.l 

WKIJIIE, SAMUEL, the youngw 
(1770!^-184.'S), teacher and composer, tbe aoB^ 
nf Hainnf 1 W.'bbe 1 1740-I81fi) fa. v.'}. wna 

bom in London about 177U, and Rtudifd 
tlu« organ, piano, and rocal ci3nij)o«ittoit 
under uis father and Clemvtiti. Wi-bbe is > 
his actiro init're»t in the glee clubs fullowed 
iu tbe fool^lvpsufhis fu(h'<r. Uv composed' | 
many excellent cnuonH an^i glMcii, but iuj 
\7!iH* hu settled in Liverpool, a» organist tOj 
the uniliirinii chapel in Pnrddttw StnMt, 
Abnat 1817 l)f< joinnd John Iternard ]^gi«r 
[q. v.] in lAindoa in teaching (b>e u»e of ihu 
cluro]diM, \\'rbb« b«»c«mo onanist in tht* 
chapel of iheSp»nisbembawy,Defiire return- 
ing to Liverpool, whrre he was Hl)pOtnt«d 
or^niat to St. >icli'dr< und 10 St. Putrick't 
]l»Dian cathglit; chapel. He died at Ham*. 
mLTfliuiili on 2') Xor. 1^43. Hia aon, Egcr 
Ion \Vebb«(lHIO-I8-IO|,wrot«Tjjxm muiucal' 
subiectA: his dauf;hter married Kdward 
nolmM [q. v.i 

Webhi« pnhUtbnd, in conjunction with h'u 
father, ' A Collection of Ori^uul J'aulm 
Tune*,' 1^00. llv was also the author of 
several authemfl, niadri|od«, and jiWw, be- 
8ide* a Alnos a-nd a .Sanctum, and a Chantd 
for St. Panl's Cathwlral. Jle vrote-settingS 
for numeroita m>n^ and bulhid^. About 
IS-'SO he published ' Oonvito Annonici>,' a 
cotk'Ction of uiudritrale, glees, duets, cauons, 
and ratoJii'ii, bv niiitit'iit fompoaera. 

[Rrovti anil ^ralton'ii Britinli MumcnI Bto- 
gmjiliy, p. 137; nuthorilie.i cited] J,. M. M. 

WEBBE. WILLIAM (yf. IfiOS-Ififtl), 

author of 'A Uiscourse of Kiiftliflh Poeirio,' 
wiu>ii nti'mlter of St. .lohu'v Colleffe, Cani- 
bridpj, where lie was ac<iiiainre(l with 
Onlirit'l Hnrify ami Kdmimd H|>eiiser, H« 
(TTOduaUtd R..\'. in l')?^-^. .Abont !5H3or 
IWI he wa" privnt* tutor to the two joiiJt of 
Edward Sulyurd of Floniynffs in the pariah 
of Kunwfll, Eswx. When thtjsi' pupils 
reached inanhoud Webbe went, pntbably 
npiirt as pnvatu tutor, to tbe family nf 
Henry (frey (cuuitin of Ijidr ./atiu Orey), 
at Pirpj in the ^wirifih of HaviM-injr atte 
Btiwer, KMfx. Orn- nf (Jn'y's dauRhten 
was married to & William Sulyar<i, From 
PirRo on M Auff. 1391 Welbe 'latos a K'iti.'r 
to his friend Robert Wilmot [_fi. 156;^) 
[q.v.], which is pretixed to tlm i-dilion nf 
'Tanert'd and Gi»mund' reviMi) und pnb- 
lifhed by Wilaiot in 1592. Qrey'e wifu 
was one of the hiilie!) to whom tbe tng^Wi 




ted. From tbu Iett«r W«bbe would 
kT to have been prrwnt whm thf finl 
vmioo of tbt: pUj in Ir'iO^ at tbu Inner 
Temple w»s ' coriousl^ actwi in viuw of iw-r 
ini^MtT, bv whom it iras then prinreW 
aec«pU<d.' ' Notbing more ie known of 

Vhilu bv was al I'lomyngs in (h« '•um- 
Mer ev<-nings' app«r«ntlv of 15t*6 Webbe 
compoaed * A Dificcmnv of English Povtric. 
TogtthtT with thu aulbon judgment tAurh- 
ing the reformalioii of our English Verse. 
By William W*bb*, gradimle. Imnrinli^ 
•t London, hv John Cnarlewflod for Itiiberr 
Walley, IQSO/ Uo. This was entered oii tho 
'StAtionera'R«gi«l«r,' 4 Sept. 1M6. (>nlT 
two eopiu on^ known — oue u in Slalgnes 
CoUecUon at tbt? itodltiun, and the other lA 
now at Britwvll, It wa» n'unntml in ' An- 
cient Critical ]-I«a«ja, edited by J. Ilai-le- 
wofvd.Ixmdon, 18Ifi'(,ii. IS-l*.'), nnd by Ed- 
ward ArbeT autong tbt* ' Kn^cltxh lifpriiilj' 
in 187C. Ilw work show* \\'ebbe to liave 
been iutimatelyaDdintcnigrtilly acjtuiintnl 
with contL'inporary Knglish juietrr and p,->eta. 
It h dedicated lo Edward Sulyard, and Iihk 
a prefara * to tlit" noble ;M»ii- nf l-'iigland.' 
At the end of the * Discourse ' the author 
piiota bu own version in hexamfKir* of the 
flnt twoaclogufiA of Virgil. It appears from 
the dedication (llc^e alao Di*eotir»f, p. 66, ed. 
ArlwO that h.i bnd pri^viouslyrranslatod the 
whole eclogufB ititu a t-omuion Knglish metre, 
The eclogues art' followed by a table iu Eng- 
lish of'L'an noiiJi (ir ffi'neml Cautions of I'oetty,' 
cnmpibd from Horai^n by Qeorg« Fobriciue 
{IWH-loiltofCbemnitx. A«bort'KpiIogu(t' 
oondudes the tract. It is of hl^b value uud 
iotereil as a Htorefaouse of Rlluttion* to con- 
temporary poot«, nnd for the light il. thnwii 
upon the critical ideas of the Cambridge in 
which Spenser wan bred. It is a proof of 
Webbe'G taste that lie perceires the supe- 
Tiorily io contemporary vcr«c of the ' Sbep- 
hwd'B Calendar' {{(>. pp. 23. 36, h>, 81). 
He 1-riLiiHlnii's Spenser's fourth ocloguo into 
quaintly nbaurbsttpphi(»,iti;dbit> hexameters 
are fK-u'rc«1y better ; but bis protest against 
'lhi« riiikerly Terse which wu t^I rhyme' 
must not be judifd by hit attempts at com- 
positJon in cluaical metres. 

Warlon meotions 'b smalt blat-k^let* 
tared tract entitlpd "The Touchstone of 
Wittes," chiefiy compiled, with n)me plunder 
additions, from William Wphbe's "Dis- 
COUW1I3 itf En^'Uflh IVtry," written by Ed- 
ward Hnki> and print^-d nt I^ondon bv 
Edmund BoUifant' (Uittory of Ensiuh 
^tnf,^A. ]P70, p. 804); but no copy i» 
known to be extant. 

ICoopsr ■ AtbsN* CnUbr. ii. IS ; nota lad 
prolegoanw to P i g f asa ar Arbers reprint a( Ibo 
DiMoime, I87<t ; Mortur'a Koglttb Writer*, ia. 
M.J R.B. 

WEBBEK. JOHN (I750?-179.Tt, Iand< 
Bcapc-paintiirr, wae bom iu London nbont 
1760. His father, Abraham Weber, w%d ■ 
SwtM Eoulutor, who, at the a^ of twenty- 
four, »etll>-din Knglnnd.anj^Iicised bis Dame. 
and married an KnglifJiwoman namr-d Maria 
Quatiill. John, their eldest child, was teat 
when six }-eain old to Bcme to be brought 
up by a maiden aunt who resided there. At 
the age of rhlrtiix'n he was ^aoed with 
J. L. Abcrli. a -Swim artist of reput<?, 
whom he was instructed in both portraitt 
and Undtfowc. Three years later he ' 
enablad, witn pecuniary aavintjuicv from 
oiunicipal autnoritiei of Berne, to nroc 
Io I'aria to compM« lii> training, and there 
be resided for fire years, studying in the 
academy and undpr J. O. Willo. H« then 
retaniMl to his family in 1.onilon. and 
for a time empkived by a builder in d<.'Contiq 
the int<>rinr9of uonses. In 1771! beexhibiC 
at the Itoyal Academy ■ portrait of 
brother, which Attracted thi* notice of 
Solander, and this led to hii^ appointment i 
draughtsman to the third and Inkl cKprdilHl _ 
of C'aptatu Cook to the South Sc-ad. He 
returued in 1780, having witncewd lh« 
death of Cook, and wax then employiil for 
tome time by the Admiralty in making' 
finished drawings from hi« »ki>tchw for lb>- 
illui^lnttiuus to the account of the expedition 
which was published in 1784. These w«n> 
(•ngraved by WopUett^r-ft wmi'Y , f nd ft>| |f<*. 
.Subsequently «'ebb«'r painted many viewi 
of pictaresfjue paru of England and'Wat-->, 
as well as of Switxerland and North Italv, 
which he visited in 1787. Between 17P7 
and \.~91 he published a series of sixtveo 
vicwe of places riiiitvd bv him with Captain 
Cook,etcued and coloured by hinuelf. Fmia 
1784 he was a nwular exhibitor at iIk 
Koyal .\cademy, of wbich he was elected 
an associate in L7S'i, and a full member ui 
1791. Jlis puiutiuga werecarefuUv Bniihed. 
but weak in colour anil drawrng. FTii 
ruprCKcntalioii of the doatU of Captain Oool 
was ungrai-vd by Byiiw ajid B«noloui, •ad 
his portrait of the explorer (now in tbe 
N'ntidtinl Purlrait Gallery), which be p^lsil 
at the Onp^ of Good Hope, was also eiunnd 
by llurlolozzi. Webber died, unmuned in 
O'xford Slre.>t, London, on if.t .^pril ITBS. 
lie iK^uesthed hia Academy diploma to the 
public lihrarjr at Berne, where also ■* * 
portrait of him painted bv himself. 
brother, llt-nry Webber, practised ■« 
sculptor, but wiiUoilt distinction; thot 




tUMjC 10 Uarrtck in \Vvalfai[ifil«r<*y ih 
liie work. 

I NrqjjilinitJek <]«r Kun>(IurumlI*cliHft in 
Zurirh, No. 17 (wiih poitrnii): Sundliy'B lliu. 
<'f lh(> liojal AcMlotny; RnlgniroB lliot. of 
Arti«». 1 F. M. 0'1>. 


l^l):*), (KJilor of pUvi ntul romaitc^H mid 
litf^rnrv auUtAOt of Sir AVftltt>r Scoci. is said 
tu hkvv bwn ih'.' i»ou uf u W*»tplialiau wliu 
m«rritvl an KngliAhwaman, aiul Lo have 
been bora at Ht. PeivrsburR to I7^:i. lie 
'taiK^petl lo tbUcounlry in 1S04 rrnin miH- 
frwTimps in his own." nnil waa st-nt dmvn 
with hm motlipr to I'Miiiburph ' by Bomw of 
thf L'lndoti books'^ll'Tii in a hikif-stArvt-il 
At«l«,' Scoit pitied their coadilion, «m- 
plort-d him from A ugiut 1 fSOl ns bi« 
aaiknuensut, and Kciirea for htm profitable 
work in litvmrure. Weber was ' An excel- 
lent and ntK^tionntL' t:n>iilun-,' but wn.< im- 
liutHi with Jaciibui 11 riiw:i|tlb«, about which 
Scott used to taunt Lim. IIowos 'alHii^ted 
with pnrtial iniMiiiitv,* f-vpr^jaltv iitKk-r iht- 
int1iii>ncA of strong drinkB, lo which he was 
DCCiibionBlly sddictwl (.SrciT, Journal, I^iK), 
i. nn». Scott'a famity, withwbom hi; oftt:-n 
<liiicd, liked his appuamnce and nmanere, 
and wcTfp!«wod bytii* ntorc!* ot knowledge 
and th« ri^miiiiacencvs of a chtHiuer-'d carvi-r. 
Aft^T Cbrifltaiafi XUVA a (it of mndneas seixed 
\^'ebcr at dusk, ut tbv closi; of a daye work 
in the Muue ruom with his umployvr. Hu 
produced * pair of pifttoU, and cballeiigfd 
Scot! tv mortal coiuimt. A parley eiuuiKt, 
and Weber dined with ihi^ SooTts: nnxX dny 
he was put under nsfitmint. Hia friendii, 
with MiiDf lUMUtani^- friim St-otl, nupported 
liim, 'a hop<'ltv(A lunatic.* in an asyluiTi at 
Vork. Tliere he died in June 1818." 

Soott dft«cribe* WWt a-i ■ a man of vrty 
duperior niiAinmeiUf), lui exci-llj'nt lingui«t 
itni) f^oo^apher. and n remarkablo anti- 
quary.' lie (lilted ■ Th« Itatllu of Fludik-ii 
Field; a Po»in of the Sixteenth Ceiitiiri', 
with TariouK Readings, Nutus,' Sic, 180^; 
Nuwrastle, IHIU. Sixt«eii copiiM <if Uin 
' XnicB and Illustrations* weru struck off 
iM-|i«r«t«dy. Scott ad*i«tr<l him in tliu pub- 
liraiion andsupnliedmateriaLs. 2. 'Metriral 
K<itniinn<8 of the Thirteenth. Fourteenth, 
and SiKt«-nth ritntiiri'e.^, with Introduc- 
tion. Not«H, and CtlossurvV ItilO, 'A toU, 
r>i-Jicribed by Houthdv n« ' odmirublv edited' 
(Ze«#M, ed."Wartt!r.'ii.3(W). .t, 'Dnitnutic 
Works of John Ford, wiOi Introdadion 
Aiid I'^xplanatory Xotva,' 1811, 2 vuK He 
was not Akillnl in old Kn^^ltidi Litpmtiin<, 
and did not collate the earlj editinna of thi^ 
plays. Thia work aruussd a storm of angry 

TOL. t.X. 

cTiranient (cf. FoRU, Woykt, ed. Oifibrd, 
1827, vol. i. pp. li-clxxx; I^tlerla H'iliiaMt 
Oifford, by Octaviiis Oilchrint, I Si I ; Letter 
to J. P. Ketaftle fonoii., by O. I). Whilttnff- 
tonj, IS! I ; letter tv Kiehard Jlrbrr [anon., 
brltev, John Mil fordj, I8l2). 4. • Worka 
o^ B«iiiun)out and Fletcher, with lalroduc- 
tion and KxpIaBatory Notes,' 1812, HvoU.; 
ocknowledtied by Scoll, whoeo own anuo- 
lalttd inlition jitijiplidl thn moiit vatunblit 
notes, to havij b^n 'caiMlosslr done;* Uyce 
ajiuakJs of it as *nii the whuli* the btitt edi- 
tion of the dramatists which had vet ap- 
peared ' i tVor/it of Iteaitmoni and thtcher, 
1843, vol. i. r. iii). 6. ■ Tales of tb.r Eaat ; 
comprising tiiu mast I'opular lUimauovs of 
Oriental Origin and the b«>at Imitations by 
Furripeiin .\ulhure,' I8I1', 3 vola.; the pre- 
laee won borrowed from the 'Tartarion 
Tales' of Thomas Flloyd of Dublin {.UHe- 
nantm, 14 April 1S94, p. 471). 0. ' IVpular 
Itoroant^es, consisting of Ima^narv VoTnMS 
and TrareU,' 1812 (Lonsnu', jJiW. 'AUm, 
I'd. (loHn, iv. :*8fii). 7. 'Cient<ah^f?ioal Ilia- 
torj- of Farldom of .Sutherland, by -Sir Ito- 
b«r*t fiordon feditdd by Wi-bi-rl," 1811 
8. ■ lUudtruiioiU of Xortheni Aiitiquttie 
from the earlier Teutonic and Scaodinavian' 
KomauciTd./ 1814; in this Wuburwos auistod 
by i>r. .lamiMAon and Seott; it i* a wnrh 'of 
udrairablu learning. ta£te, and exucutiun* 
(Uo»coK, Gennan A«m/m(?, iv. p, 0). 

[Orrjt, Miiu;. 1S18. i. 616; NivhuL-V IlluHir. of 
Lit. Hist, vit- 213-18: I/vkhnrfs .Srott(lBI« 
i-il). pp. nr.lH, I5H.ll. HVI. 2:17. :iil-2, ai3; 
Byruu* Puwni'.tKr. 1888, i. 39«; Swtl'tiJounial, 
i. lid; .Scott'a Lettars,i. 330. .187; Smilasa 
Jtiha Murmj. 1. 145, 172, 2(9; Pinkerton 
Cormi). ii. 408-7.J W. I', C. 

WEBER. ()TTO (IS;M-1SS8), painter, 
son of Wilhelrn Welier, a merchant of 
liorlin, was horn in that city on 17 Oct, 
I8tt:i!. lie studied under Professor Stvifeck, 
and was also much inflnenc«d by Eu^n 
Kriiger. H» became a very skilful painter 
of landsrapes and animals, working both in 
oU and watvrcoloun^ und hi* picturva wvnt 
much admired in Paria, where he resided 
for soma veara and was awarded medals 
tbn Salon' in lHfi4 ftn<! IrttiS). tin thv out ^ 
bn-ah of the Franj^o-German war in !a7(^ 
Weber left Francu, ond, aflt-r a stny of two 
year* in Komy, canift to Landon, where ho 
itetiled. He was a regular exhibitor at th« 
Roval Academy from 1874 until his di.-ftlli. 
In"i87nhe was elected an associate of the 
'Old Watercolour' Society, and he also 
became a membor of t he Inslitutti of Paint-vrfl 
in Oil Oiiloum, He received many coju- 
rolnsions from the qufen. Hift beat work, 
' The First Snow on the Alp," io now in Ilia 


Mi'ltKiiime Oallerf. Ilia ' IhMig^IiiY and 
Carlule' (h«f tnnj^ffty'a pel dogtl, '"fwidv 
Colres,' wid ' A Sumiy Tiny, CookliWB,* li*ie 
be«n eof^ared. \Vi_'bvr diod in Iiondon, ^tor 
a long illnva«. od J^i l>w. li*^. 

Brrui's Diet, of pMoUn utd BogTs*«r« < Arni- 
•treng).] F. M. O'D. 

1TS4), Scots wriUT. wu» iIr- m>u of Judm 
Wtt>-I rr, hv his secmd wife. Affotw. datigliteF 
af Alexanilcr Mciuuva vf Culler in Lsuark- 

iiiiiii$l4.T, WHS bora in 10d8 or !0r>9, sik) 
■lu<1iL<il lit St. Andn-ws UMivpriitT.biU.qiiBr- 
reUinji; with Archbishop Jsharp, he hmd to 
]«aTi> ihe univt-rsity hcfiin- hw took hisM..\. 
tlotfn^o. III! ioiai'U the (.'ovtfnant«rs rqiI 
twice ^lutTi^nKl imprifloiiiueiit for his rrlifpoiw 
o])iiiioiui. Afl«r ihL- n.-voluii'>n lie was ap- 
pointed pTt-Jib) it-riaii niiiiiMer of LiberCoii 
(Hftiir Edmburchl in Id^*^. vta rumori-d to 
W|iil<>kirii ill ItiDl.utid thctic« iu l(tU3 to 
the; rollffiat'O church, Edinbuixh. which ho 
retained until his di-nth on 18 M»y 1720 
(Scott, Fn*ti Ef^lfA.Scnt. i. .M, llfi,3Aft). 

Alexfljider \\'eb9t«r was born at Edin- 
burgh ill i r07, Slid wa,* i^uuitM fit thfihigh 
Bi;h'".'I ther".'. In 17-JS he was licensed a» a 
|»n-nchpr by the prwhytery of Il«<ldinf|:ton, 
und in the sAmt- yonr wck Appointed abmh- 
tant and suucuMor lo Allan Logan, minister 
of Culrou. On Lonrnti'd dt-nth in .S>'pt*nibcr 
1733 Webster (is«umfd ihu full fhurifv, utid 
in June 17<17 he wns translated to the Tol- 
booLh churoh, Edinburgh. \VfbsliT'» 
fiivtniritti study hiid b<t>n nialheinatics, and 
h« applied hb knowludjre in a philnuthrupic 
manner. In 1743 ba hiid Iwfom iht: fteni>ral 
neMnbly a propoaal for proviilinii^ annuities 
for the wiuowB of cl>-'njym«u, IjftKJntr liij* 
plan upon actuarial calcnlaTloii-i. Tn obtain 
informaliou that would ennble Iiim ln for- 
mulate bis scheme, \m put himit*-1f in enin- 
inunicallon witli nil (he pn>^Liylvri«« iu 
Bcotland; and the tables of aTerap.' lon- 
gevity drawn up by him woro ^o aceurate 
Uiat they havn ■incfi formed the basis for 
siniilfir calculations mudc by modern life in- 
sumnc" comiinniiw, \Vt?lwilHr rt?Of iv«d io 
1711 thclJinnks of the general assprobly for 
his labours. In Au)^uiit t74K he wiv np- 
poini«d rhiplnin tn thp IVirre of Walea; 
and on ifl May 1753 he was ulectwl mode- 
rator of th" f^eQi'ral a'i.^embly. iYr^vimis to 
I7r>r) no census had been taken in Scotland, 
and the ftovemment, tlnviii(?h Lnnl-pn^itideiit 
Ouiidan, conuniwioned Welwter in that year 
t« obtain figurea w to the population. Sir 

Itobert Sibbald [i). v.] had proji-ctetl an <-nn- 
rovraiJOD of xkuk kind in lOdi, but it luJ 
ntfrer been acoompliahad. Tlw plan talcea 
by Webster ww to tend a ftctuslule nf 
qiiprioa to trrery pariah minister in Scotland, 
and from the repli»'it thim obtAin«>d 1m^ made 
op the first cen»ii« of the kin^om in 17'" 
The maanserinti* of rhio work are now Intl 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. Th«y wv 
uud by Sir John Sinclair [<\. t.] w£«n 
made up bis eutiftical account ot Scot 
at the elooe of last oeutorv; and Sinrl 
adopted the system which Webfter 
deviH^nJ. On 21 Xor. ITG<) \\>biiler obtain 
iXw dfpve nf D,l>. from Kdinbtirph I 
venJty. In th« followinj; month he 
oni* of a di^putatiiU) a^nt by th(r f^ene; 
n&sembly to present an addres«toGeor^ I 
on hii) aocrHion Ut Che throne. He w. 
appointed general collector of the miniat 
widows' fund in June 1771, and in ttafc 
Vi«r waf> madu on>! of his mijueiy's chap- 
1 a ins-in-ordinary for Scotland and a di 
of tbu Chapt'l iJnyal. He died on 2-~> J: 
1784. Iu \7'A7 lip married Mhtv, daugh 
ofColonelJobn Erskine of Alva, by vboin 
he hnd i>ix »im» and a dau}(fat«r ; his wife died 
on L')» XdT. I76fi. 

Webster was a devoted adherent- of the 
hnii»e of Hanover, Wh*n Prince Oharte 
Edward entered Kdinburi;h, Wcl»l«r was 
almost the only minister who re-mained in 
th<r city: aikI it \n luid that it wa« through 
his importunity that C'olouel James GurdtQiir 
(16S8-174oJ ^q. V." was induci>d to precipitate 
the encounter ul I'rvstoupuw, where Gardinar 
wassUin. Af)erCullodenhadtt?nninat«dtlie 
Jocobile ri*iut!, Welnter pn?achul a sennOB 
in the Tulbwth i-huwJi on 2.1 Jim.^ 1746, in 
whit-'h be i-ulo^isei! the conduct of tbft Duka 
of Cumbi-rlnnd. He in credited with 
BUlhorithip nf th« nonr, 'Oh, how could 
tent lire I o love one Ute tbeel'whifh 
fir^r publidiHl in the '8cot« Maf^zine' 
1747 (ix. SSiJ), and in often referr^ to ae a 
model loTo-sonfT- It ifl said that he mig- 
jested to Lord-provost Ocorge UruDuaood 
the plan for the mnatruclion of the new 
town of Kdiuburg'h which has since bwn 
carried out. 

Hisporimit, painted by Dnrid MartiOfWas 
placed in the luill of the ministers' widows' 
ttind ofEc^, iLTid an f-nfraved portrait was piib- 
li»hi*d in thy'Scou Mspuioe'for 1602. 

Hia prinripdl publications are: 1. 'Uiviw 
Intluence the True Spring of the Hxtraofdi- 
rmr)' Work at Cambuslang,' 1742 (a de^encA 
of the revival that fnl!ow»d ^^llit«fiHd*s 

{reaching;): second edition witb pO*t»cript, 
742, 2.'VindicationofthoPoM«eriptVir4A. 
Q. ' Calcutatioua, with the Principle .aaJ 

1, in 




Data an which thfiy ure instituted Tel«tive to 
thw W idows" Scheme." 1 7«. 4. ' Zeal lor the 
Civil and ItelifriottA InieresU of Mankind 
commODded,' I'M. 

[Chacilffns EroiBeut S4.-DKmi-t). ed. L873 iii, 
M6; »eoU MuuiiMt. U-i; is. M9, 1602 1x17, 
277.3fU.4n; ^U'> Futi,i.d1,iv.5KS: Cftla- 
logva or Edinbiugb Qradunimi, p. 243-1 

A. H. M. 

WEBSTER. Mm. -VUGtSTA (1^37 
lft*4). coet, wbj* horn at I'lmlr, Diinwt, on 
30 Jul. 1$-'i7 flier full rliri»lian n^iuiea were 
Julia Auf^i'ta). llirr fnlh«T, Vio>-HJinirnl 
G«>rgHi I)iivit« (1^*0 187*i)i *tMine<l (Trent 
dUtinctiiin for servicts in savin;^ lives from 
»faip«nvclc inlJirilSH, \tiiot ilinsrapky, pp. 
364i '). Hwrmr.thfr,JuliM(18m Ife07).wi* 
tli» fourth ilau)?hter of .loiKph Uuinc (17117- 
1^4ft)uf Samenut Iluuiti;, the iniimalo friuiid 
and axA'X'iiiU' "f Ijiiinb, lliuHtl, nii<l (lud* 
win. Hume wm of raixfu] Enjrlisb, Scnttifih, 
and FreDch estraction, and claimi'd de^cvat 
fniRi tht' lliimes nf I'olwftrth. He was the 
autlior of a translation in bbink vereo of 
Dante's 'Infonio' ll>*li') and of '.\ tScurch 
into the Old Testameai' (I'i^l). 

Aufjiista's eoiliest ji-ara wera apent on 
board tb« Urifior in CLiich'.'fftcr llart>'>ur 
and at various) luiaaid^ pliict-Ji wlii-rv lier 
fotber, aa liMilenAnl in l\w coa&t^Anl, held 
OOiamaDd. In 184:^ lie oMiiin<-<l tiit* runk 
of commander, and vttm annnintiHl th<! next 
year lo the Baaffdistrict. The familr residt-d 
for six veont in BanlT Cajitli->, and A)if{n*tji 
attended a school at Bantf. Aflnr a idiort 
period Kp^tit at Pc^nmire, Duvivh wax ap- 
pointed in IS-'d chi«f constubk' of Canj- 
bridffea.Ii ire, and spttlwi witii hU family in 
Cam))ridlr<^. In I8i^7 he wil<i nonainnted nlan 
to the ehief ooiuKatdwbip of UunUnu^on- 
•bire. At Cambridge Aufnsta read widely, 
and attended clusMf at (liflCambridKQBclio'jl 
of art. Uuring tt brit* f n-sidmin- at Paris and 
Qeneva sbu aaimr<->d a full knowledge of 
French. Hbe Mttidii'd Cln-rk in onler i<\ hiOp 
a youofT hrotber, and subsequently learned 
Italian and Spanish. 

lo li^OO »ho piib1i»ihed, under the name of 
Oecil Home, a volume entitled ' Rlanebe 
Lulc, and olbor Pooms.' Under (be isame 
pseudonym appeared iiL 1604 * Lilian 4iray,' 
a poem, and 'Lcaley'a Guardionn,' a novel 
in tUriN) volumes. 

In December 186:1 Auguxta Davie* mar> 
ried Mr. Tlioma? Webster, then fellow, and 
afterward* law lifttiror, nf Trinity Colleue, 
CambridiTi?. Thi^re waa one ehild of the 
inarriaffe, ti doughtier. In ltf70 ihc-y left 
Oombridgv! for London, wbire Mr. Wi*b»l'.T 
prtetised hie proft'&sion. Meanwhile Mrn. 
Webccer puhlialied in 1(KHJ a literal Iran:^ 

Ution into Enrliab versa of 'Tlie Pro* 
metheua Bound of .ivschrlus. Thi«, ondj 
all bar nihseciuont publication it, appea 
under her own uanie. She waH not o Ui 
scholar, but her tnuunlAtions - in IHiS ap 
peared the 'Medea ' vf Kuripidea -obtained' 
praise from scholars, and proved lior a «vm- 
t>ntlielio Htudiiut of UrwK lileniture. ^er 
views on Unnslution mny b« found in two ex- 
cellent uiisays contributed to the ' ExaniiDcr/ 
i-utitled 'Thfl Tranaktion of Poelrr' and 
* A Tntnecript and a Transcription ' I cf. A. 
I/nfunrifi'e Optnunu, m. 61-79). Tbelalter 
in n review of Browning'ft ' Af^mcmnon.' 
Mre. Webster's first important rolumu of 
original verso. ' Dramatic? Studieii,' was puli> 
U«bed in ISOa. Il containa *The Snow- 
waste,' one nf her beat poema. In 1870 
appfsared 'Portraits,' Hn, WVbsterfi most 
Htrdiiug work in vww apnrl. fnjm her 
dmmafi. It reached a Becond edition in l]m 
yi-tirof piiliHojiti'in, and a thin! iu li^i-. A 
remarkable poem, ' The Castaway,' won th« 
■dmiiKtion of Brownlaft, and deserves a plane 
by tlie aide of Kow«ttj a ' Jenny,' Her first 
enort in tbe poetic drama was ' The Auspi- 
ciotiB llav,' poblishiyl iu 1872. It is a ro- 
luauce of mediievol En^li^ lifu of ttmall 
intereat, ']>isguife«,' written iu 1B7!>, is • 

rihiv of gtKitV ufaorm, conioinin^ heauliful 

Mrs. Webster looV as keen an inten-st. in 
ih<_- practical ulluirs uf life ns in literature. 
In lH7t* appean-d * A Housuwifo'n I )pinionB,' 
a volume of essays un various social suhjt'cle, 
reprinted fmin tlm ' KxaminiT.' She served 
twice Oil the l^ondon sclioot hoard. In No-j 
vemhtT I87!*!i|ie was returned for the Cbelte^J 
division a; ihti lu'ftd of the poll, with Sfil 
volM above the second succeg»ful uaitdidiitSjl 
sliL* owvd her 8ucc«» to her ^ft of sp«(>chj{ 
^hv threw )ier»elf hfBTt Hridttoul intothtt 
work. Mrs Webster was a workiuf.' ratht-r 
thou a lulJtintc muuiber uf tbe butLrd. She 
iiig (jid endinvmvnls into closer coutaet. witli 
I'li^nii'nlary xrliDiils, and nIih iLiitiri|Hi1ed iha-. 
demand ttmt.ns education is a national ncec^' 
sily,itshoiildaUoheanatioiial charjie. ^e 
ttdvocattid the introduction of technical (i.e. 
manual) instruction into elementary »cbool». 
Her I<-atiings were frankly democratic, but 
ill tht.' heat of coutrover»y hor pononality 
rendered ber attractive even to her moxt 
viifurouH u|)pununls. In eunwqnenoe of ill- 
health, which obliued her to seek raat in tbe 
south of Kiiropfsslie did nnt offer herself for 
rv'-i.ilfctioii in 1BR2. 

DnrinR earlier viaitii to Italy ^Irs. Web- 
ster bad been attracted by the Italian pi:-a«aaC i 
Mngs known as ' lisiwtti/ and in ItSbl pub- ' 





lishwt 'A Bonk of Rhi-mf/cntitnininfr rani 
pMBSQiUtsd 'Erurli/ib risiM^ti.* she w the 
fint toiatrDdacvlt»'for[a inio ICncliib poetry. 
In 188S she BBbtished another dnmft, 'In K 
Dcj,' ibe ooly odv nf bvt pla>> tbkt wa« 
BCtM. IlwMprodace<lat>nutin6«<atTerTT'fl 
TbcatrE-.Loodoo.ia IS80,wbeDberdfttijtbter, 
MiM DavuM Web«tn-, pUyed the befrarut, 
Klydane. U bad t tueeit a'l^timg. In 18^ 
Bb<>waaKgKin rwtoniMinomborof thr»chool 
board Tor Chebwa. She ooodaeted her can- 
didature without » committee or any orga- 

tSMoA (NUIVaMUl^. 

*Tbe SenteDce,' a tliree-act tufredy. In 
many ways Mra. Wehrtar'a chi*f worfi, ap- 
pewd in 1887. Tbn tfnodr of which tliit 
play treata Ulustratea C«liguU'a Kvongvful 
Kpirit (cf. RoaBBTTl's iniioductonr noto to 
Mr-su WKnarES's Mot Mr r ami Thxtit/Afrr, jip. 
12-H). It WHS miirli aiJmired by rhristina 
Rosaetti (c£. Mvciujsxik Bkll's Chriitina 
A)Mf//r, i>. I 111). \ Toliim<^ of aelectioni 
from Mre. Websler'a povms (coniaininff eoroe 
originally eontiibtit'^d to ma^^atinM), pnb- 
Iiih«din'l*M)3.TfttiiWLdln'et-iv»d. She died 
nt Kew on 5 Sej.t, ISIM. In I«io appeared 
'Mother and DatuiIitiT,' un imcoiiiplcted 
MCiiiiutt-K'^dancH, vrirh nti introductory aat« 
by Mr. AViUiam Miclaal Hoaaetli. 

A lialf-U'nf(tli |ii>rt,nul lit oritvonvbyCatiM' 
van, drawn at IJotop in Janiinnr 1864, \a 
in the poMi-aaion of Mr. Webster. 

Mre. Wrhdtiir'it virncvnlitl""* hrrtit a high 
placfi ainone t'nir1i>ib pnet^. 8he used with 
snccoF^^llie fnmi r>f the dramatic monoIogxM. 
Sim oft-nn Hi\critirt*d beamy to jitrpn(n.h, but 
flhe poiM)«i&«t^(l much m«>trica1 skiU and an ear 
for mflodv. Some of lior lyric* dt-*crrc a 
phict* ill t'vcry anlhuln^y of m<Hl(.Tii Enirlisb 
portry. Many of hpr poems troat entirely or 
incidentally of <)ue«tion>i Hpucially afrtctintr 
wniBfln. Shp was a warm ad vocate of m oronii'a 
Biiirroge — her eMays in tliu 'Examiner' oa 
thu »itl)jfcl wi-n* rcjirintfil n» Vafii'ta by th« 
Womfin'fi Siiffrapp SociiJty (cf. Mackb^kik 
Bkll's Lift of Chrifiinn linttfiti, p. Ill) 
— and slw* ftympathiwd with all move- 
mentp in favour of a better education for 

Works liy Augusta W'cbstor, not men- 
tioned in lli^ l*xt, arw : 1 . ' A Womaii Sold, 
and oiIkt Pcwma,* 18(i7. 2. * Yu-Pe-Ya'a 
Tiiilf ; a Chiin'ni' Tain in Kngliiili Wn"*,' 
lfi74. 3. ' l>iitridil and iho Croftxaicirans: a 
Tlfimnnei" of llistorr,' 18*4. A selection 
from lir-r pivniR in ffiven in Miles'* ' IVurtit 
and Poetrv of chw Century' (Joaima BaUUe 
to MathildeBlind, p. 4119). 

[Allibonr'H DiK. of Ktig1. Lit, vol. iii. and 
8up|i1. vol. ii.; AlhcnsBnin, 13 Sept. 1894: pri- 
TBto information.] £. L. 


IIAM (17tJ7 iN-^^i^Bctor and dramatist, wai 

I bom in Uatb ou 3 S«i>t. 1797. ]Ii£ fatUt-r, 

I who came from Sheffield, and LbruMj^ti win 

Webeter Waimwd d«Mt.<ni from Sir (t 

. Buc or Back [q. v.], wan at one time 

. musical ' oomposi;r' and a paiilnmimi^t : 

' married Kltiabtitb Mixin of I.«»d», joined t 

army, eerved in the W'^t liidiri>, was i-n- 

gBfivd in Bath in OTKantiiiiit volunteer forcta, 

and settled tht^re kh a dancing And fencii 

naater. A brother Frederick {it. 18"t*) 

name atage manager of the Hay marl 


Aft«r receiving aome education at 
BarberV miliiarr aendMny, 'Ben' We 
threw up the cnanct>3i of a promised coi^ 
minion as mid^ipmun from the Ducht^M of 
York, [i {)0)i litH ro<il licr'»d<*at b hvmade hia fi 
appearance nn the Rtaf^e lui a dancor, astuit: 
hut fWlhiT in \w occu|<8ttonE, ran away fl 
home.and nbtainerl from the younger Wal 
of Warwick nn irngBSement at iwe»ty-fi 
HhilHnf^ a W(^-k to play Ilnrleouin, 
speaking pans, and second violin in tl 
orchestra. As Thewalus in ' Alexander the 
anec at Warwick, plaTingaUo at Licliftrida " 
Walsall races. .Joining in a sharing atWi 
a manager callt-d ' Irish ' Wilson, who fit! 
ap a bam ai Bromagrove, Wi>bst.-r (w 
nouDced, with no upjmrvnt claim, nn from th» 
Theatre Boval, Dublin) doubled the part« 
01 Sir<'harleB Cropland and Pl^'plicn iTar' 
rowby in tb« ' Poor (it^'nlleinan,' danced a 
hornpipe, and playeil ia his own dress, and 
with a bead chalked to look like grey hair, 
Plainway in ' Raiding the Wind,' Ue then 
went as Ilsrloiniin to the Theatre RoyaL 
Belfii«t. under Moiilngue Talbol [q.v.l. 
In Ixindondvrry ai;d Liuu-rick. and joined t 
Dublin company to play wiib it in Cork 
Af^t-r api«aring in Kfancliester and Lt 

foul he came to I^ndon, and pUynl on 
1 May 181!* a ■oiogKler in the opening en- 
teriainmi^nt of tlie Coburg ThcaMr. Ac- 
conliiiK to u speech he made at a cumplimea- 
tarr dinner given to him at the Preeuuktons' 
Tavern on 'II l'«b. ItJGI, he Imd ni this time 
married a widow with a family of childnai. 
Webflor hocame ballet-ztuster and wallnng 
gentleman nt ItiRliiuond, llien Utader of the 
band at Croydon, which led to hit nngage- 
mt*!!! iiK dancer and walking gentleman undff' 
Bererlf^y at the Rpgoncy Theatre in Totfrt>- 
ham Street, called many names before it 
berami^ rhi' l*rinf e of Wuh-s's, At the Eng- 
lish Opera House (the Lyceum), wheiv M 
played n part in 'Captain Cook,' Iivwmji Kat* 
Bioad tu * Kayaiond and AgtM»' and ~ 




in lh« * lljpocrit*.' Accepting (hun EUisUn 
an vngigetuent at Drary I^ne, he appeared 
cm t?8 Nor. I8AI1M AlmsKTOin ' Pia.m),'an(l 
at CUrutmae pkretl Pnntalooii. At tli^^ und 
of ihe s«a«on 01 182I-i! he joiped liunn'u 
O0in]<*ti}- at Binninffbani, iirliorc hv wm iu>L-n 
in low-comedy p&rt«, <Iii.-u actctJ at ^liellield, 
Npwoastle, and Cheater. Itetunting to 
Birmingbam, liu was r»-«ilgaged by EUitituii 
for tliu Dmry Lane VKawin of \H2'>i, nu 
action which EUbtnn had brought agninat 
liim fur ]ir>;vlniiii Iiuw of m>rviL'*> having hnm 
C»inj>rr}RiiHHd. On a wvivAl of ■ Mfn-*iire for 
Meuure ' on 1 Mav l6'2i, llarley, whu played 
Poaper, Wing taWn ilt, Wcb«tt.T took iti« 
part. Ill this vear h^ was the first Tudi- 
tanuii in KnowlM's 'Caius Gracchus,' mid in 
lii25 the Brat Emi in tho ' Willinm 'LVll ' of 
tin awna author. In fipilt^ of obtiLiuiii^ mnua 
nco^ilion. be Mraa Kt>pt hnf^k. Ki-mon- 
ktratinc with KlliMNnt. \]v wu givon ini t!i« 
thin! niKhl of putformancp tlie part of ^dak, 
orijrinnily playwl on 'i7 Mnrcli l^liO Uy FiU- 
williom in an anonymouii Ai^nprntinn of 
'OberoD,' and plaj-ed a few other parte re- 
fused hy llarl^v. On 4 Jnii. I8'.*7 In- wns 
the original Mnliau in the' Lailyof the Lake:' 
on 10 April the ori^innl I'l'mingo, n iit-^ro, 
in MucfarpMiV ' (4il IUa» and the liijbbent of 
Afttunua ; ' on ^'J Nov, tb^ orijiinal Spiilatm 
in ' Iflldon.' di Meridu, or the Devil's Crwli :' 
on 1 Vvi\ tbi.' orifiinul Vclvr in Howard 
Payne's ' I-anr*rs ; ' on 18 I-'eb. iy2.s tUt> fir>t 
Cyrua in ' Don Juan's Kurly I>iivi,' and on 
7 April llif! firot Sturmwnlil iti l1iiiii]p.>on'M 
• Dumb Savovaril and hie Monkpy.' lie was 
bIwi m«ti bb ^!iar(i*.'t. in ih* ' Slivvm ' and iu 
Other slightly better partA. 

On 15 June 1829, im Webater from Dmry 
Lane, he madi'at thi^ Unymarlo't )\U flretap- 
pearsnoe. plaving Trusu', an original part, in 
Poolo'a ' Lodgings for Singlo Gfntlcmcn.' 
Hsrehewaa assigned lending comic tjuoiuc-ss: 
Dr. PangloaH in the ' Heir at Law,' llislc in 
'Love Laughs at LocIieniilh>^,* Spat ti'rdatih in 
the' VoungCjuaker.'Mungo in I In- ' I'tullock,' 
Farmer Ashfitdd in 'Sjieed ihu I'lou^h/ 
LinK" in the ' Agn-cnhli' .Siirjm'"',' linniilit! 
in tJin ' Slieer,' Dougal in ' Hob Hoy,' Trap- 
mnli in 'She would and ilie would not,' 
iVormwftod in tlu^ ' [.ottery Ticker," and 
Sir I'hilip Jfodelove in -A Hold Stroke 
fiwa \Vifi'.' Tliipk at llrurrljinD.h-^ was l\\v 
origias! IvBiitro in the ■ firuek Fiiuiily'on 
:i20ct. lH'JU, nod the original John Thomas in 
Buckstone'6 'Suakva in the Ijniss:' played 
other unimportant original ^lurtu, wtt» ticen 
»g JuBtiee Greodv in 'A Nbi\' War to pnv 
Old IJebIa,' and O^d Uubbo in the ' ^lvn<h»itl 
of Venice;' waa tli« first, Sam in Ila^-nes 
Bayly'a'Porfectioa'on 25 March 1830," and 


on 1 Itfay the orisioat Uerr Stetten in 

'llorer, tlie Tidl of tlie Tyrol.' Henmasocn 
in Hiime other pnrU, and for bia benefit 
(shared with Paul Bedford and Mrs. W, 
Itarrymore) was Jock IVibiason in thr " Cata- 
ract of tlio Ganges.' Tbo Uaymarkel in 
IBSO saw him as itodiTigo, Launwlut 
Gobbo,Oswttld in ' King Irfar,Hohin l^mgh- 
licttd in ' Furtuup's l-'rulic,' Jvasamy in ' ma 
Ton,' L'Kcliiir in the ' Foumlling of the 
Forett,' JocoBO in *Clari,' Sir ilarry'a ser- 
vant in ' lligli Life- Wlow Htain,' Diiskin in 
' Killing no Miinler,' Dandle ninmnnt, Mar- 
i|iii« in lliu ' Cabint-t,' Trudge in ' lukie and 
Yarico,' and in a few nrifl^nal parts -I'op- 

foncitr in 'Separation and Itepaiation ' on 
.Inly, Bamoy tl'L'ag in ' llont-sl Frauds* 
on as ,luly, and itoughheail in Caivlinc 
itoadtn'a ' First of April ' on HI Aug. The 
'Dramatic Magaiine ^181^-30; inx-aks of 
liim at this time as an eminently tutetut ac-ti>r, 
riiid s;aka what tho Hiiymarket, would do 
without him. In IH-'tJ Jim wiut with .Mmjame 
Veslris nt the Olympir, where he played in 
Itanre'i? ' Kill or Cure,' and in an adaptation 
by hiniself of ' LTInrome de .toisante Ans/ 
in which he look the part created by Gabriel; 
Clmrh'S I'oticr. At llie Ilayui&rket hu waa 
on 17 July Ib^M the original Father Olive in 
.Ierri.ilir»'I[oti»elti:-ef)cr; pluyod tbcfoUowiiiff 
October in H\Kiki?tonv'» liircL' ' Uncle John, 
then hret produced ; and was on '2 Jan. 163^ 
at Dmry Lane the original Ureamly ia 
Jerrold'ft ' Wedding Gown,' At the same 
hou&e be playt'd Bardolph in a revival of 
ihi; i^-cuiid part of • King Henry IV ; ' in 
18^ had an origiunl imii. in Jerruld's ' Ueail 
Nash ; ' and was iht; original Samuel Coddla 1 
ill Hu(-l(r>t<>ni''«' iMarrii'd Life.' On 21 April 
|Ma5 he wuH al Covi-nt Ganlcn the first 
Sharkuht'aiJin Fitzball's't'arhnillmn.' Again 
at the Mayniurlcct 111' was t be arigiiml Serjeant 
.\ueterlitz in Mrs.C, Gore's' SlHiiiyfCroiMUy.' 
■*\mong very many original paria which lie 

1>laved at cite lluymnrkut, uf which house 
10 became lessee in ISJl", were Frmlvrii-k II 
inTjroLu Power's ' Si. Patrick's Kve,' Mr, 
Docki-r iu Burlwl one's ' Wi-ak Pointu," Major 
Ilan.^^ .MansfL>ldl. in Ijover's ' White Hnrw of ' 
the Pepoer*,' Gib'/itetle in Buckstone's ' Lea- 
son for Ladies/ Wallop in Thomas Haynca 
Bnylj's 'Mr. Greenliucb,' John Nigcli; in 
Buck.'stnne's ' Single Life," Wildroxu iu 
Kaowles's ' Love Obawe.' and Joseph in 
KiiowIlVs ' Maid of Maritiuhjr^it,' Lionel 
Vnrleyin Bayb; Ik-niunl's'BoBnling School,' 
Ilamn llavenspiirg iu Bernard's ' Wommn 
Hater,' (iruvue In Bulwer's ' Money,' Karry 
Lawli-Mi in Boocicnuli.'s ' Love by Proxy,* 
Pliant in Boucicault's 'Alma Mater,' Boo 
Lincoln in Mark Lemon's ■ Grandfather 




Wliitehead,' Willism Hhake^jMiuv TOMe in 
BoucicauH's ' CuriositiM of Liter&t ure,' Noa- 
mreil in IVtnkf's ' Sheriff of tlie Coumy,' 
C'y™'>n Foxluill in U, iSativmi'* ■ llpj^ar on 
Jlorscback." Nfttlinn Thompson in Wrstland 
Marftton'fi ' HoronjfL I'rtUiics,' N*))o[).''t>n io 
the ' I*rottv Girls of Stilberjr." and Mark 
Muddle iji * Lundou Atiiurunct.'.' 

Webata's own fntix. ' >I j- ^■ohur Wife and 
Old Umbrella' ('Ma Ft'minL' et inoa Pam- 
pluie,' b}- t.aiiivnnin], waji i^vpti nt rliu Hay- 
tnarket ou 'J-i June IS:I7, irith Welim-r tut 
An(ia»tuM TomkinM; liU 'Swiss S wo id,' Id 
which hn plujfd Swifr, "n Oct. 1837 ; the 
' YilliLgw Dnctor,' with himself as Uoron de 
la Fftdaise, nin ii .Iiilj- LSW. lie was Hobhs 
in his own ' li'^blw^, Dobbi*, and Stubba, or 
thp Three Grocers,' 31 .March If^lO; the Maiv 
qui^ d'Arblav in btn 'Cauff'hl in his own 
'IVaji,' L'5 Nov. iyJ41; mid Allv Croaker in 
hij? ' .Miwrie^H of Human Life,* L't Nnv. 1815. 
Hi' aUu traiiiiiiil«d for lli»^ ]{nymarki>l in 
lft4ft 'Le Part dn IHable' Ithf •nSark 
r>OEniiio '), 10 Juiw l«+n, hut did not appear 
in it. lie playwl Vcrgffli, Mones, Hob Acre:*, 
Sir Huffb Kvans, Scrnb, Trappanti. Touy 
Lumpkin, Don Vitiwnrin in ' A liold Stroke 
for a Husband,' and First Wiioti iti '.Mac- 
beth.' At Covtnt Garden in this meautime 
he had bi-i;ii s.-en Jis Sparrow in Dancv's 
' L'ouHtrv S<niire,"l'aMel in Filzball's ' Waller 
TyrTfll/ nnd .Marquis d* Montospaa in Bnl- 
wer's ' I>«(rlivsf>u dv la Valliiru, His first 
appearance ot the Adi-lplii wnfi mnd« in a 
pK'ce calk-d ' Yulluw KiJa.' 

Aft*r 1814 hf. dividftd btn tirrn- l«'fw*i;ii 
th€ Adolphi, of which ht> became manager, 
and t.hi> ilnymnrki't. Amoii^the piwet he 
had i^rnduo'd nt the HavniarkaC were Biil- 
■w^rV 'r^'B Captnin.' Talloiird's 'CUencoe,' 
and tlie' Bridal, an adantniinn of the * Mtiid'n 
TraBrt!d_T.' To the Adelplii, in conjunction 
with Dion ' Bour^ ioault ' («'(•), he pave ' Fox 
and Goose,' 2 Oct. 1^14, in which m did not 
play; and'Casar Ac Itazaii,' 14 Oct. 1844, 
in which bu was Dun CVsiir. Hu had fcv- 
viously, Juuc Iftili, [ihived nt llii' Hiiyinftrket 
for thv first time with W constant iia.wdEitu, 
Mndnini^ Culwitc ['}.»".], in iin adjiptiLtJnn en- 
litlpd ' Lowi.Hfin,' and iin 1 Nov. was N'ictor 
to her llortense in » vaudeviUu called ' Victor 
and Hfjrtenso.' Thi' y<?ar (l-^<-'*l he offcn^d 
apriie ot'COOA for the hcM Kngliflh comedy. 
This was awarded by the JudgL's (including 
CliarlcM VotmB, Ohurlca KfltnUc, G. P. K. 
James, auJ Alexander Dya-J to * tfuid pro 
yii'i, ')r ihtf Day of Dupfs.' by lira. Gore. 
whieL Has pro*3ito«l ut thi- Hnyiniirkrt on 
IS June \^4-i, nnd was rcc^ivwl with iipmar 
andridiciil". 'Old lUadeand Voi,nigH>'Brts,' 
by RoucJcault, was given on 10 Not. IH44, 

witli Wefam BB Tan Coke, & good-be 
coimtrrgvntlvman.sMTt inwhichheaboi 
much " pathos. AVebrter next prodi 
Jerrold'e 'Time works "Wonders,' in wbic 
aft«T thti death of Strickland, th^v orij 
exponent, he playiMJ Professor TruHlea. On 
the aece&sion of bharlcft Mathcwi>, Webet^n- 
played Sir ChArlM Coldttn^m in ' Ceed 
iJp.' On 6 Jan, 1840 he made a Rreat hit 
Bs JoUn Pecrybingki in bis own aouptatioD 
of thr 'Crir-k".!t on the Hearth.' Still at the 
I Haj-niarket, he was Clown in ' Twelfth 
NiRht ; ' played thi' IjiinI of Killi<<cnDkie, a 
dwt^lliat, m'tjupen .Mar\-'.>* Bower,' PlancWs 
I adaptation of ' Lbs Moos-^netairiw de la 
liein*- ; ' Jack Spriffffs in I.ov^'trs ' Ixtok befom 
j You Leap;' and Iteuhen Gwynne in the 
I ' Kound of Wninp.' la 1847 lie'wfta the first 
Job Syku», M.P., in lloucicault'a * School for 
Scliemina,' and Hope Emerson iu Itobert 
BqU'h • Temper.' Ou 15 Nov. b« playwl 
Stani9ila« de Fonhlanche in hia own ' Itoiued 
Lion' (' Ij9 lUveil du Linn'). In perfor- 
mance at CoTont Garden for th^ purchase 
of Shakiftapeare'a hoiiAC, he vu Petniebio. 
He plared Jabex Sneed in a revival of the 
' Wift-'i HeCTfl: ' WM, ff April lfti8, MiehsiJ 
itradiiliaw in Morton's 'Old Uoncfity,' and 
Lavater in ' Lavater the Physiognomist.* 
In bis addrcK* at I he close of the season of 
184t^ he declared that in eighteen months at 
the IlaymarkeC he had lost. d,000/. During 
j ibu nuxt two yi-ars lie was the fir*l Giles 
' Fairland in the 'tjueensbcrrr Ft'-ti?," ployed 
Mnlvalio, Mudiis, Gralianu, Bullfrog in 
I Ji-rndd'o ' Kent l>iiy,' am! produced hi.l own 
1 'Bird of Pa-^soge,' a rendtrini,'' of Bayard'* 
I ' Oisenii ill" I'nsMgf.' In Moiri* Bnmi'Il'» 
I 'SerioHN Kiimily'l^'lie Mariii laCampngne'f 
he was theori|{inal Charles Torrens, was thr 
first Cooh'ftrd in Jerrold's 'Cat«psw,' and 
ill Jerrold's '](t^tir«->l frofl 

Captain Gunn 
Business,' In a 

\*«r!ion of 'Tariuffe' 

a na i 

Oxciifyrd hi.' play«d 'rarriifle, and jjave «t ^ 
theAdtlphi hia own'Belphepr'CPaillftsae't j 
Janutiry l^-'^l. In April ]-%2 was tlip firtt 
Wrdim ill Mark Lemon's' Mind your own 
Husines.*,' On 1*0 Nov. Uc was seen for the 
lirift time in what wait ptirluiiw bis graatMd 
pnrr. Triplet in 'Sfasks and FaOM,' by 
Tnylor and Reede; and in a revival M 
BuIwit's ' Not #0 had as we seen,' -wttt 
Giwfl'rey TUomside. On 1-i March IS 
witli a performanoe of the • Itouaetl l.ii 
' A Novi'l Kxpedienl." and the ' Pr.-tty Cti 
of Stilliei^,' liis maniiKeinenl of the ih 
market closed. He hnd kvpt the bouse i 
sixteitii yttani, paid 60,(XKV. for rent, 30,1 
to acton, and had employed the best actor* 
of bis lime, the KennH, tht^ Uathuwsee, ll^ 
Kceleys, Mr*. AVarren, Mrs. Glover, 




linbettf CbwloUe Caalioiftn, llelpn Kkticit, 
and manT otben. A pRfietituttan was maia 
him liy ttu- oompntiy. 

On t^cpr Monday 1^^ tu! bi^unn a now 
manitgviiieDt nf tti*.' Adelrilii with Lemon'* 
' fore*?, ' Mr. Wi'hsl'^r at Hniac' He pave 
lonU JuiielioucicauU's' Iieae»iiiv»',' iu wbivh 
He fiajed l<orin; produci-tl uu LU Del. his 
own * DiseurdMl Son,' and was FalsLofl' in a 
revival &f the 'Murrv WivM of Windsor.' 
On 20 March Id&t lie wag lliu first I-'oLIilt 
KadeliflW in Tajrlor and Heade's ' Two Loviw 
■ad a Lif0 ; ' played two parts, DiogeavB and 
Fvrdinand Vulagv, in tlin 'Marblv Hruxt,' 
S«Ibr'a acUpiaiinn of ' I^s 1'illeade Morhrfl.' 
SI May; was llicliard Fridu id Bouvicauirs 
* Janet Pfido,' <'t Feb. lf*.V'. ; and on Juiil- 
first J.'^renu llartmanu in Taylor's ' Uel|)< 
ing Hand.' On 6 KS. ityiti be was Cobb* 
in 'IJooU at tbe UoUy Tivi? Inn,' in ISTj" 
the first Joseph ChaviKny in WatU Phillips's 
play m luimod, on 16 Nov. Carl IMilztn in 
th« ' Headlmu Man,' and on 2l' .May 18.')H 
Horaiio SparktnH in Marion'e'Frencti Ladva 

In tba new Adelnhi theatre, erected nn 
tlin site of tliv old, Webster was, on 6 An;;, 
ldfi9f th« original IVnn lloldiT, om; of his 
BT«€teet parts, in bis own aduplalioo, 'Oni- 
Touch orNaturp.' On lU Nr>v. ISTjO hi? was 
the ori|rinal Itobert ],.aiidry in H'litDt Tliil- 
lipss ' ]»ead Heart.' On ill Auj{. IWJI Uv 
prodiiet'd lit the Adulphihis oi^-nndaptation, 
' A Woman of Uii^iiiufs.' On '•¥) Nov. bo 
was first Van Gmtz in the ' Workmen of 
I'arie'CLes i>niuifs du CnburLt'), In 'No 
111 o rough fare,' adapted by Wilkin Collins, 
Wehalsr was the first Joey I^dle on 28 Doc. 
I8ti7. In' Montt! Crist n,* whii.:)! war (liinin«>(l 
in ()ctol>er 186B, he played Nnirtier. On 
:il May I Hia h(! waa the knt ihif{fa Wnlks- 
ton in' Kve,' an adaptation by bis 8on, II. Wcb- 
»t«r,jun.,of Atipiers-Galm'elle,' On 1 Nov. 
he opea«d a» h*tee thn Princ<.-s»'s, wliieh hr< 
hadlonfTOwned, n;viving the 'Willow CopBv,' 
in winch be played bio old part of l.iiki^ 
l-'i<.-liUu){. In Byron's ' Promptur's Don,' un 
■ja March 1870, he was the first Frank Hris- 
tow, and in April 1873 the first Itodin ilie 
Je«iii( iu Tlie ' Wandering J«w,' adapted bv 
Leopold Lewi?. This appears to hav<i Wen 
his Ia»t originjil part. In Fehruary It^^T-i he 
retired from tbi" Btnge, nnrl on 'J May bis 
farvrwell benefit took plncc> ui Drury Lane. 
"rtui "iSclKWl for .Scandal' waa givin. Mrs. 
K(!«ley recited an «ddre».i by Oxeufurd, and 
\\ ^betv'r, who did not act, uiude a itpeerh ; 
over i^.OiXV. was r^et^d. On 1 Au^r- he re- 
peated at the I'riDCi»wt'* Kii-hiird Priil.i in 
■Jam*! Pride.* He playM i^nake for Buck- 
aUuw'a Iwiiefit at iJrurv Lnuv on ^ Jiioi* 

I87li. The pt«vtonadav be had apoken lit 
tbu Tlwatricul Fund dinner at the Yxw- 
masniia' Tavmi. His Ini-t appearance waa at 
Ibt (.'TKlal Palace on 2 Nov. 187G u Wil- 
liam IVnn Holder. He ditsl ..r3 July 1882 
al his reoidence, Chnrchaide, Kennington. 

^^>bat«r 1^ two BOOB, Ben and John^ 

who wi^ro connected with iln^ atagf. Ben 

Webster, the younger, wrote forthe.\delphi 

' Behind Timi-,' a fur(» in one act, on 26 Dec 

It-OS; und wvun otLi-r farct-s or adnptationa 

from the French cawe from his pen between 

^ thai diile and 18"3, John W«b«t._T playud 

; about 18.'!7 iind l888atCovBnt OKn]<-ii,'lh0 

I Hsj-mnrki'i, St. James's, and ibti Adelphi. 

A duu^hler niurrii<d Sir Edwunl Lawson, 

bart., proprietor and editor of the ' Daily 

Telegraph.' Iteajamin WebatiT.a ^frandsoo, 

is At pri.-«t-nt on iha I>ondon stage. 

Id hLi lini! aa a character actor AN'cbeter 
ntood foremoat in his day, and has not sinc« 
knowu a Auperiur. He kept bis energy, phy- 
sical and iElt•■llt^cluaI, almost to the last, and 
I his lati-st crcntLons count among hi!< bi?e[. 
I Hi* gmiti'sl rhnnn-lfn» went iticliurd I'ride, 
I l^Jbert Lniidry, Lnratcr, William Penn 
Holder, l.orvnt* llnrttnann, .Julw* rinwid, 
Tiiphn,! iravps, l!*'lphpgor, Tiirtiiffe, liodln in 
the ' Wandering Jew," and Joey I-ndlc. Hv 
vbn b(i|>pir»t in cliaruct'.^rA in which smouf* 
f[ir\toiii3, purtiauical fervour, ond grim re- 
solution were lehnwn, and had not indeed 
more comedy thiiu would «rv« like light 
point* in a picture 10 indicate the Rloom. 
He waa a spirited manager so far as refjfaida 
the engagi.>im-ul of go(>d actom, but waa 
behind thi> times, backward as tliose were, 
ill respect of sCugti mouiiting and thu em- 
phiymL-nt of »n|)i'rnmHernrie«. To Ibis day 
ihu term Adelphi giiesta is used as a byword, 
Wvhsla'r i* rv9>]icin«ibli- fur i)):x)ul ti bun> 
dred plnv, the nnmfA of many of which om- 
not nowVw traced. Several are in pnrl; bosisj 
on Fri^ndi uriginnl^. In addition to tbosa 
named are ' High Way.i and I|y Wbjti/ u 
farce in two acta (Ciimhcrliuid'ii ' RritiiJi 
Hrama'): "I'liul Clitl'ord,' u dramn in three 
nets, and 'The Golden Farmer.' a drnma 
ill two acts <both in Cumberland's ' Minor 
Tlnratre") ; ' 'fhe Old Ot^iillfnian.' a comedy 
in one act (I>iincomho'H 'British Thcatrv*); 
'The Modern Orpliirin',' n I'nrce in tme act; 
• 'ITit^ Villnco Dfjccnr," a drama in two acrsj 
'Peter and Pmal.'acomicdruma in two nets; 
' Caught in 11 Tmp,' a comedietta in two 
acts; * The Thimble liig.' a fiirce in on«,< acl ; 
•The Wonderful Water Cure,' cxlravagania 
in onu ain : ' Mrs. Sumli (lamp's Tea and 
Turn Oiil,' a Itoizian sketch in one act. 
Theao arc all in Webster'a ' Acting National 
Drama.' Ilij^ mime nW' npjiearH to "TLio 

Soiee of Dnmutic Eaten aiiinwnts perfvnn«d 
by roy«l coKimind at \V'iii<liMir C«*ttr', I84H- 
1640' (l.oniI(Wi, 4tn),in wbicb lie iwik part- 

A portrait in oils of AVebeUr is in the 
Oarrick Club. A l'Ll(en(>^8, enp^ved by J. 
Onwliyn, nccorapanies n memoir prefixed to 
tliu sixth votutiio of Ilia 'Actiiiff NAttonal 
Drama.' Mnttv {iliolographa are ia exiat«nce, 
in character aloue, at in oompanv vith Mr». 
Stirling and oibura, A iat>ro ptotoirrapb of 
him a« KoFjoH Landrv in Wiitia I'hillipA'a 
'Dead Iluart' (!*''», and u coloured fumnv- 
ing of him in t(ii.i ' Hoii«>.-'l Lion,' hh well as 
QD oil pnintiiip, dtp in the possessioii of his 

[Ptfaonal liuowl»(lite i Diuauscript Autobio- 
gmplir Ifiot by Wefc«er*e i^nnilson ; Metnoip 
conlributod by bimwlf to hi* ArtiDg NBtionKl 
Dnma, vol. iv. [on lillo ppiv rol. vi.]: Thm- 
tri^in) Timu ; Uon of tha Timf; 3ilpti of tho 
Boif^i : Tallis'* ilntmntii; li.»g.; TiiP i'Uyrrs, 
188'i; I'vicanD* Dramulio Lilt ; (ii-ncatV Acmiinl 
of thf English Slagii ; iJniDutinil aud Hii«ioil 
HfTicw. 11M2-0; Km ncwspuper. 15 July 1882; 
I'olLock'o Hucrcndy; Morlaj * Jonnuil uf a l»ii- 
don Playgoer; I>i;ttun Cuok's Nitclita at the 
T'lfty; S-Aii ami IlrtwntvlN Ulanchurd; Sundxy 
Time" , Er.i A Inianutk,] J. K. 

WEBSTER, J( )H N ( I r.SO ? - 1 025 ?). dra- 
nititii>l, burn about I."*0, wa* lh« »c>ii of ii 
I^ndun tnilw. The fachi^r may b<' identical 
eithiTwilli Joliii WflwtiT wlm wan admit u-d 
to tlit^ t'ni-ibiin of the Mfniliuiit Tiiybira' 
Company im 10 Dec. 1671, rr with John 
'W^bfltiT tvbi> uTttiini'^3 lo llm likii pusitjon 
an 20 .r nil, ti'i7ti. The dramntiAt ii»pniA \n 
bare bt^n upprHUt ict'd to his father's trade^ 
And nnminaliy at any rate fnllowed Jt. He 
WU8 a fn^eiiiBH of the pfimjtany in l(tU3-4, 
wfa(.-n h« wns iii«M.iwod in the payment of 
ten fhilljiii^ toward 'the ciiarue* of lUc 
pagpants entended Hgaim^t the kinft'A enro- 
nutiun* (Clo&E, MnivirinU <>/ tfir Merchant 
TayW* (A/Hi/fffiiy. IHTo, p. WKi). Hut WVb- 
■ter'e interest lay eleewhere (hiui in lailonnfr, 
and early in lifi- liu idi-nlilieil bini»elf with 
tb(» prof<'p«ion 'if letterii. 

Helore IHI-I"-' Wvb»Ier bud made the ac- 
qwftitirnnct; of lb« rhief rnemh'>r!» of the hand 
of dramatists who weru in tlie servic*! of th» 
tbeatricnl manager I'bilip Ilenslowe, and in 
that yuar he j'liin-d hi* iilwary fm-ndt in 

Srejifiriug al leusl four pieces for lheslag«. 
'our or more pins wtim I'lDployed on each, 
and WViisierV nliarti iuii»I hwvi- lieen mnnll. 
On £2 >lay IfjtJ'J ' CiFsar's Fall' was acoepteil 
by Hmmbiwi- frrjm thtf juini in-ii" of Webster, 
Drayton, Middlernn, >1 iinday, and ' the pii«t.' 
TIjq syndioite wna |>os*ibIv ambitious of 
measnrinjTf'TVords wirh Sliri^r'Bjiearc. whose 
* Juliua Cn-xar ' had been suoceBsfully pro- 

duoed a year b^fora. A we«lt later 
joined the same four partners in prodacinx 
a piece called by ilvuilow* 'Two Uarp«e. 
Twice in the ensuinf; th-tober ilb and SI) 
therv waa performed a pluy uamed ' Lady 
Jane,' in the compcuiitton ot which f'brltlK, 
Dekker, Ileywnod, and AVentwortb Smilli. 
wnniaajwciaied with Webnter, ' l.ndyJaav* 
aeema tn luive bM.-n rpviYed, under the new 
name of ' Th« Clrarthrow of Rebels,' on 6 and 
13 Xov. following. Thrtr«iiithe«anu>month 
(on ^, 'J'4, and io N»v.)there was aUo acted 
a piL-ce called * ChriKtoias coioes but onre a 
yi-iir,* in ptvpariug which CheltW. Dekker, 
and lleywooda^iu combined with Webrter, 
Of t bete four plays only part* of u^(^— * L^dy 
Jane' — survivH. Tlirrr ran be little doubt 
that DeUker'a and Wcbeters cnnttibutiiMta 
ti> ' Ijidy Jstiti' np|H-ared in print in 1607 in 
the play aangrifd to them )niiitly undi-r tlic 
title of'The FatDons History of Sir Tbouias 
WvaT, with thi- Coronatiiw of Ijiteen Mary 
and the coming in of i'hilip.' * l,ady Jane,' 
when first prodnccd in \&.TQ. was acted 
aliheUoitcT'ioatrcbyiheEarlof WoTositer'i 
compnny of playersi, who wer« taken in 
Queen Anucs Henice in 1i)03, and wr 
known tliencfforth a-i ' tbi? i^iieen'* serrantn. 
The lille-pa^te of ' Sir Thomas Wyat ' de 
clared tbnl that pircrf wan * pin yed by tli9 
queen's BtTvantB." The piny, which ia in 
blank verse, lacks atrikin^ funturt-i', but the 
text ix Ml cumipt that it i» diHicull to jtn 
ilt« merits fairly. 

AN'ebster maintained tbrouKh life 
fricndlv n'lutioni* with llio*' engmrcd. 
hinisell, in writing for the alaiie, but after 
the firrt year of his dnimatic career he f;ra* 
dually ulMuniluucd the practice of wntiug ii» 
co-operatiun with olbera. AVilh 'bis kind 
friend' Muudny {irofuasional relations sp> 
parenlly c>'ai«>il when be cotitribiii<'<) i-om- 
mendatorv vetsea to Munday's ' Polmerin of 
KnifUni!, np(M)r tranii1nti<rii tnim tbeFrench 
(1(H)21. In 1(«>1 \V lobster waii emplnye.1 by 
the kind's ecimpnny to make additiona to 
'The Malcontent/ a play by John Marston, 
a writer of far jjreater power than most of 
those with whom he had worked before. At 
thu aaiue limo hu prefixed tu ' The Malcon* 
teat 'aprose ' induction,' in which the actora 
Were introduced under their own namee in 
debult! about I lie nieritii of the piec«. WeW 
sier's contributions were printed in the sfr- 
cmul t'dit ion uf the play, which bon* th«^ title: 
■ The Malcontent. Augmented by Maraton. 
With tbti Additions played by the Kioga 
Maif^sticA 8cn*anl«. "W rittcn bv Jbon Web- 
ster ' ( lt{()4'l. This wa« the sole produclioH 
in which \\ ebater seems to hare been asso- 
cinttii with Mnrvtnn, and it i$ probable that 









be undfirinok llie Btldilbna to 'Tlte Malcon- 
tent * at (be request of the ihratricalmaiiafrer 
Tatlit'r tbiin of the writer of the pluy. Willi 
Thomas lieywoud be vnn in closer |i«rsoiul 
intercourK, ihougb thor did not write to- 
Ri>tber ibr (lit- »lii^- kltvr lOO*.'. Id Uil2 
\Veh8ter joined livywood Mid ("yri! Tout- 
ni'ur in compiliuK ihv volume eiilitlcd 'TUn^! 
Kli'fiira to till! Alt-iiwirv of i'ritu'« il«irv.' 
■Welisler W8B author of the eecund jiim-iu 
vhtcb waMtntiUed* A Munumcnta] t'olnRin,' 
and wae dedicated U) Itoliftrt Carr, vl^cmml 
Itoche^t^r; there i§ a mre separate iaeue 
in the Itritiiih JUiiseun. It was a formnl 
elegy* but it includeft a Sae complioieut to 
tbe poet anil dramatiat Gt-oryi' CbapmaD, 
wbou WflwtCT call* ihn urmc«'t( ' pwwl 
llomt^r and my frii'iid." Webster also wrot*- 
prefalor)' verses for Heywood'e ' A]JoI<)gv fnr 
Actiirn' (1)112), nnd tlii-n; dJilrwuwJ iiuv* 
wood a^ • hU beloved friend.' 

It wa« only witli I't-kker tlmt Webeter 
formed, DB a drunrnt ist, any enduring I ir<Tarr 
alliance. \V itli Di'kker lie wrole vereee for 
tb* iplcnilidly iltiiMnitcd rolunic— Stpplxm ' 
llamaou'si'ArchesofTriuiuph' -whictiL'«;li>- | 
bratcd James I's foriuul i-iitrv inio the cit) 
of London in ItKU. Rut tbu moHt iniiionunt ' 
iruita of Wt-liMlfr'n alliiinci- witli IVkhi-r an? 
tlifi two buMlin^ and unn^fined iloniesiic | 
eooiediir* in iinii'i-, ' Wvntward lltif' iind | 

• Northward IIcw.' Tlirri- (u-itub iranon for 
Vlieting thai ihv first ])i«ce wan beffiin by 
Welwl^^r in the iiiimiTH.'r nf lfJ03, ami l!i»l 
after be had rnnip1<>ti>d tbit firtvt ihre" arl.^, 
ibB rvmaininf; two were added at the end of 
tbe next year br Tckk^r. with i<oin« aid 
from Webitt^r. The piiwe was neted by tbe 
cihildmi of St. Patil's jatt. Marv Chrirtmas 
1004. Wi'b«tur wag al»u tb« lurjivr con- 
tributor to ' Northward lloe," which waa , 
flnt uroducvd, attain by ibu- cliildnn of Si. . 
Paula. abi>nt Februnry liUJo. \n alhi»ion 
in act ii. fc. ii. lu the fact that four yi'urti ' 
bad jMUwed wnco the IsUndV Vnvn[ii'of I'Vi7 
h8<) i»en bvid to ]tnint to KiOl lui the dule 
of tbp first draft of tb*- pluy (.Vo^x aud | 
Querie*, 4th tar. xi. •'^i'^), but \\w dati-N arc < 
Etat«d looaelv. Iloth ' Wf-ktwan! Hue' snd 

• Northward ihw ' were publi»li<;d in leparfito ; 
quartos lu 1C07. > 

WVbftter's geiiiuB did not find full exprea- ' 
aifin iiutil be wholly fried himself frnm thu 
tranunttla of narl utfDiliip with nirti uf ]H)wt-rH 
inferior to hit own. At an wnawertained 
dare Wtwi-tn llJOr nnd 1(112 ]w for tlt« lir«t 
lime wrote a play ninfrlr handed, (iml ihfrfi 
evinced *ucb command of tragic an and in- , 
tensity aft Sbak^tiponreitlo'nranionf; KrfrtiJi- 1 
men baa eur^<a»)eu. Thi new pieeuwaii tint | 
publiahed iu Iljl2, undrr ihv (itle of 'Tht- 

WTiile Divel, or the Tragedy of Paulo Giorw 
dano Ursini, Ihilie of ItrBchiano, with tbe 
Life and Death of V'ittoris Corombotuk, the 
famous \'eneTian Curtisan. Acted by tbu 
Qucene's Maicstics Servant*,' London, 1612, 
4to. In an addreta ' to (liu reader ' WuWlvr 
di^ared that the piece ' was acted in so dull 
u time L<f winter, pn-sentud iu fo opeu and 
bltirlc II ihi-aire tltat ii wuutird a full and un> 
dt'T^tandin^ aiidilory.' It waa produced bjr 
ih".' ipifi'n'm-iimpnny, powibly at I he Curtain, 
in thft cold winl<T nf iTOr-J*. with tha preat 
HCtor lJiirbsi;pin the jinrt of Brocbiiino. 'The 
Wbit* IVvil ■ wa«.'^nb*it|iifn[!y (after ItilJu) 
performed by ^ueeii Henrietta's dcrvautit at 
llie Pba^uix Tht-utru in ]>rury Laue,tuid the 
fai?t wu^ uotMl oil (111! title-pa^- of u uuw 
editinn in IBHI. The ' Whit*; Uevil ' re- 
M^mbW in many points the 'KuvenffOr'a 
'i'ri»p-di«' of t'yril Tounieur [q. v.J, whioh 
van puliliehnd in ItiOT, and van daiibttesH 
written firrt. Tbe plot, drawn from un 
Italian nnurcf, in conipniindeil of aserieaof 
revoliiuu crimes, but the piece holds tbe 
reudiT DiH-IIWnnd bv the «tirrintr intensity 
with winch tbe dimmalist d{>Telops the 
tttory. lUrely in trajzedy has pity been more 
jj'jignnntly I'xdtiid llian bv the sorrows of 
the hi^b^pii'itt^d hei-oiue viltuna (cf. Sk- 
HONPK, ItenaisMtncf. i. 381 seq. ; SxEXDiiAi., 
Chi'fnii/»if» rt .Vt/urr/fM, PariB, IrtiVj). It i« 
doubtful if tbe piece were ju»tly valued in 
\\ u'bati'r'a own day. Only one panvg^yric 
linft b>-en tm-l with, fn 1(m,| Hamin-l Shi-jx 
purd declared in hi.i 'Kpigrarofl' that ihe 
chief clioracters in the ' \\ bite IWil ' nhoiild 
be ' gazed at ns comets by pofitcritie." There 
were laleredilions, in UHio and ltJ7i respec- 
tively. The piece wfl/* revived by Bctterton 
at thv Tbeatrt) Koyat iii H'>^'2, and Nuhnui 
Tate publii^bfd in 1707 an adaptation under 
the (ilk- of ' Injured Low,' but tins was not 

Webtter followed up hia eucccfiH iu ihu 
' White llevil ' with ' .\ppiu« and VirKinia: 
a Tragedy,' a les^ noluDle piece, altbough 
it piiM'.'sised suhstantinl mi^nt. The »tory, 
whinli belongs to Unman liivlnry, waA drawn 
by Webster from I'aynter's ' Palace of Plea- 
tttin-,' wbither it found its way from Sor 
Uiovaoiii'* * II Pecorone-' The dmiuatiat 
invested the rocuunce with much simple 
jmthos, and tbe lucidity uf vho plot fuvout^ 
ably i.'imtrH3it» with the obHCurity that rbarac- 
t<!rised "WeheterH more ambitioiiB work in 
tni^i'dy. Mr. Flenv doubtfully di^tecla an 
allusion ai thiftendnf '.Vppiiis' to Hevwond's 
phiy of 'Lucreece,' which was published in 
16U6. litis II the only ground SDggc«ted 
for aasigniug the cDm]Kit)ition to lOOv, But 
it «et'ms to hftve been acted by (^ueen Annc'8 

cotnpanv of players bofont 1619, And to have 
MMod with the ' White \>«vi\ ' to <Jtie«n 
IleDrietU'A ccunpany <?arlT in Charlc« I> 
reign. Willism Bevfloo, 'tbv ^reritar of 
Hie kiiig Kiut queen'B Toung compaay of 
plftjren at tbe Cock-pit ut l>niry Lauv,' laiil 
ft cliiini in KISS) to nxduftive ownenthip in 
tile p'nwe; Bi-CHton's prptensiotl wasudmittcd 
bv lin* kiiif;. The pl«T wn* tin>l. pitWishwi 
for Iliimphrev Moci^ley in 1U«>4. 'Appiiis 
aod Virginia who xdapt^il by Cnrtwnplit 
for repri'SciitB.tirtn at ihi; Diil{i*'i»'nn*iitr« in 
Lincom-t Inn Fields in 1071, with the new 
DKtne of till- ' Itoman Virf^in, or tiui I'njuAr 
Jud^'.' Th« litle-rulea v/em fllled by Beiter- 

rtoii ni)d Itii- wife, 'i'be play ran at the time 
|br L'iglit (Inys BueoaNDTcly, and was fre- 
hltenlly rnviri-d in the fiillawing yoan (cf. 
QasBUT, i.-)09). The ndnpiatioo van pub- 
lisbed in ltl79 under tbe title of the' I'njuKi 
.fndf^.' John Dennis in 170t) publifllied a 
new piece with Webstcre old title- 
In the' l)iicVe*of MftlH' \Vi'b:>t''r renchpd 
m liiffli n lurel of tragic art as in the ' White 
DL-viT; The 'lluc!iL-s» ol' MM' WM Hwt 
plnyt-d by tlie ktng'K cni;ti iit iht- Blockfriare 
Thflntre obout lUlU, bat it was reviTiai at 
the Ulube TUeatro in iO-J-J, and wtu« tlrit 
^inted next jwr. Tlie titl« ran r ' The 
Tragedy of thv DuCcbmau of Mnlfy. As it 
was presented privatuly nt the Illuck- 
Frii-r* and ptiblitpiply at the {iiobe by Iho 
I King's MnJ4.'£lie8 8(rr\-ants. Th« ^wrfi-ci and 

I vxnct ciippv with divrrwe tbiiius priiileil Ibnl 

^^ tie ■•'ngtli of tba plav would not beare in 

^^m the prvsentment.' A ii»l of nctor»' nain)?> in 

^^r prefixed. Ilurhoffl created thi> pfirl of thike 
Ferdinand, and a boy, II. Sharpe, that of the 
Duchi<«fl. Thti di^dicntion wu addressed to 
UtMrge, lord Hi'rkeley, and tliere are prefa- 
tori- vcrftes embodyinr vnfan and un<jualilitd 
ii^y. OthWeiiltionH appeared in I640and with 
alterations in 107!* uild 1708, but the tiret 
<ju»rto pri.*!«-iit)t the bisit t^xt. Tlii^ iiii«(> 
wat ivvi%ed nt thu Lincoln'a Inn I'lelds 
Tbeatrv in IftU bv BfltiTtiin, whn jilnved 
the villain HonoIh, with Mrs, Bettorton an 
the l)uclie»»; it was acted for eight days 
suc«-»sivi?ly, and provi-d one of the be»t 
i5loL'kliw'-ilteM(UESKST,i.o.*n. Thtt' Uiicheii$ 
of ilalli i.t the only plnv by WebBtar that 
hae been preiwiitt'd on ii uiocU-ni stuf^. On 
20 Nov. JS-M riielpa n-vi»ed it at SadlerV 
Well." Theatre in a ruvist'd veraiim bv 
Itieliard Ilifntfi-^l Home; Misi* (.ilyn t<WK 
thenartof ilif- Dii.rli*'W, nn'I ('helps appeared 
as Uuke Ferdlniiuil, Tlie play met with 
great «ii(y<-r<i, and hnd n Innf^ run. It was 
re)mbli»hed at the \iam an port i. of Tallia's 
' Acting l>raniii,' with a portrait and memoir 

of Mias Oljrn by J. A. H««ud. Anotber. 
rerised version nf the tracedj by Mr. W 
by th» IndepeDdent Theatre bocietv on '2 
and 26 Oct. 1682 : Miss Mary ItorVe play 
tbv Ducbcw. The play was aopBrately 
ediie«l in * The Tttaple Drainatiata ' l>y IVo- 
ffseor C. E. Vaughan tn It^trO. 

1'hii pint i^ bnsod on an incident in N 
pnlitan hifilory, which ia narrated in Bel 
lorpst's FreDcli translation of * BandeU< 
NoTcWNo. 10; in HeanTi! 'ThBatn-of God' 
.ludgineulH,'bk.ii chap. ^1; andindoul 
' Ilisloinia Adtuirabltw de notre tetuptt/ p. ^J 
Lope de V^ conalructed a play out of Ui<i 
Aame malenabt, and oave it the title of ' Kl 
ntayordomu de la Dnqnosca dv Amalti.' 
Thu ihiMne ia the venvi>anee wrought by 
Ferdinand, duke of Calabria, and hia brother. 
the cnrditinl, on their sister, the l)uch«M of 
Malfi, for lier defiance of the fanily faotuior 
in marrying Antonio, (be eteward of her 
liowwhold. Puke Ferdinand wilyect* 
lister to almost eyery&ntaattc torture kao 
lo the writenof Italian fiction. He pays 
the penally of his cruelty by going load, 
and al the »?nd of the play hardly any lead- 
ing clianieter U left alLvn; fii'e mt-n, three 
women, and two children come t» violent 
ends. Webster owed the merest xuggefftton 
of the plar to his uuthoritips. lli» aw^'el 
mt-cit of tlie pl<>t i» wholly original, 
interoel centre.- in the characterisHlion of 
courageoua and iioble-hriirtad heroim% who 
ia slowly niur<!i>.red by her cruel brothe 
It was of her character and fortiinw, whi 
more every just eritic to enlhiwiaitm, ih 
Charles I^mb wrote: 'To more a horror 
flkill'iilly, Co touch a soul to the quick, to 
lay upon fear as much lu it can bear, to 
wean and weary a life till it ia ready to 
drT.>p, and ihun step iu with mortal ioatru* 
nientft to tak«! ita lost forfeit: this only a 
Wcbslijr can do. Writers of au inferior 
gi-niiis may *' upon hiimir'* head horror* 
aceuniutiLte," but they cannot do this. Thin' 
mixtnke iiiingitily for quality, iher " tenify 
babi-.i witli ]}ainted devils,*' but they Imo' 
not how a soul is capable of beinir uiovedij 
llieir terror* want dipnity, their aOJrigf 
motit$ are without decorum' (Lamb's 
r/ieni; ' Iluehess of Maify,' ii. 42). 

\\'ebsttn- nL'ver renclied tbe same h 
lutuin, uiiJ IiIm rvmnuiing work, althou^ 
IicneK louclied with his old spirit, is, ofi 
wbulr'.tninp whrn aiitipan-il with either 
' Durhe&e of Malfy ' or the ' White neril.' 
'The Devil's Law CiW'; or, When Wonii 
go to law the I>evtl I* full of bnsioeat, 
new 1 rage-corn cedy,' has a few scenes i 
ore quit« worthy of thrir author, but the 


aya I 







diugrMoUe plot ii inadequately relieved 
hv artistic tntatmeiit. Ic was act^d *by 
(^uven ABiie'4 wrvanta/nnd therefore Mont 
1619. It WH first publUltvd in liVJS with 
'Cho HMuranco on the litle-jio^ that it was 
'The true stid perfect oopio from ihu origi- 
haIL Aa it wofl approouedlf wi>ll OL-ted by 
bcr Dawwtict sorranla.' MVIj6t«r addreaeed 
UiededicetiAa lASirThoRiui Finch, b*r1,, and 
a modest oppeftl far n fair judf^mpnt * to the 
jndicioiu nwler.' I>yce sMexln that it was 
■«ritt«D not earli>>r thui lijiU, on the M r«n|^h 
of a rer>- disputable allusion to the Atuboyna 
l»ftS.-u»et« in rVbruary of liial year. 

In I6il W«iittterlurnf)d from |)lu.y -writing 
to perfortu a piecv of wtirk for t>ld frieiida. 
In thftt yuar Middloton. the city poet, wv 
unabii? ti> prifparv iUh wonls for lli« lord 
nuyor's p&gouil. iohn dare, \he nf^w lord 
niay(ir, irns n uK'caber of thi> Merchant 
Tayloi?' Company, to wliirli \\V>b«[i-r be- 
toDged, and be ftppropriatt>ly underlook lo 
All Middt4ioii's place. The remit was a 
oonvcntiooal > |iaaeanc' entitled ' Motiumcats 
of Honor, l>enved frRmremarkabltrfltiliqiiity, 
and cclebmied in the Honorable City ni' 
Ixindon, at tlie ni\f niuniliniil <Tbnrgc niid 
expiaici'^ of tbu UiR-ht Wonhy mnd \\'ore]iip- 
full Kratrrnity of the tltnimeiit Mrrthanl 
Taylora. . . . Inv^nt^d and written hyJobn 
W«bBt«T, Merchant Tavior,' priiitt^d at 
I^ndon by Nicholas Ok<;s, 16^4, 4to. Tht- 
work is exr«Mi?eIy rnrR. A copy which 
formerly belon^d to Ileber is now the 
property of tho Diikc of Devonshire. 

A year earlier Wcbuer wpot« oli^^bt coin- 
mendatoTT vcrwa for the 'Eng]:tih Die- 
tionarie ' of ' his iuduelriotu friend Mtuttvr 
Ilonrj' Coclteram ' (\&£i), and a year after 
tbti prmltiction of hie mayoral pu^'uani ho 
aeemii lobavc dii-d. it U iK^Ktibh', nlthoiiffh 
it is by uu meana cnruin, that lie waa int) 
John \Vebtt4ir. 'clotii-worker,' who mad« h>« 
will on Tt Au|^. 1525 ; it was proved on 7 Oct. 

OildoD in bis ' Lives of the I'oeta' (ItiVW) 
elAten thai Wcheter wa« clerk of cha parish 
of St. Andrew's, Holborn. The many refe- 
rences that appear in Web^te^r's pluvs to 
tombsiiHifo and dinrvs huvu boeii ht;ld by 
Lamb niid olbtftn tu curmburato tbit< tUwiry 
of the dramatist's occupation. XoeonfimiB' 
tioa baa tMH*ii found in ihtt purochia] rL-coriU, 
and it is unlikely to \k true. Webster hii^ 
bI*o been wrongly idenliftin! with John Web- 
fitcr, flutbor of the ' Diaplavinj; of Supposed 
\Vitch»tafi,' who is noticeci iie]>iirately. 

Collier Atutix) without authority that 
WebMerrvsided umoiis tbt.- aetoru in Jloly- 
well SiTMt, Colliur iTkewise tdeutified him 
with one John W'eb^or who ojarried Ittbell 
Sutton at S'.. Leonard's parisli church, i31ion»> 

dicoti. tm SS Joly 1590, and was father of a 
danghler Alice ^baptiMd at the same church 
onl) May 1(106). 

Thrw- extant plays were aasiffned to Web- 
fltcr after hisdtiaiii. but doubts as to his 
reaponeibility are justtHuble. Kirkman, un 
enUiusiastic reader and collector of playa, 
publiahvd in lOSl two plays— ■ Tho Thra- 
cian Wonder' aud 'A Can) for a Cuckold* 
—vaoh of which ho oescrti-d to be from the 
joint peuftof W>-lt<tiT oikI Willinm nnwley. 
'Tlu> IHimcian Wonder '^a rery dull pioee 
of work — was basvd on William \^'araer'a 
paatoml Mory of ' .\rgeiilile and Curon,'oiid 
shows few traces of tbc known tttyle of either 
of the uUcgL-d authors. Tbt; fact that one 
t\'lttiaiit Webster publiihwl in 1617 a new 
poetic Version of \\ urner's utorv may account 
lor th'.> aa«K)CLution uf John W^ehster's name 
with ' The Tlimcinn Wondrr.' 

Th« authorship of ' A l/ura for & Cuckold ' 
sunm» ri|{lilly ilttscribud by Xirkman. Th« 
piece naturallv dividea itself into two parta. 
One treats witV some extravagance (but with 
a ^od dt^l of ]Kietic feeling and 'Iranintic 
power) a slory iu NVebster'a vein. The cen- 
tral chnracler of this section, the pefverofr* 
lempei\.-d OEnrv, wlio i« ulliauci-d to Ltnsing- 
hom, dares her lover to murder hi* bftsl 
frii'nd, Itonvilv, and the eusuinff cocnplicn- 
ticmn give the dranuiti»t au o]iportuuily for 
chiirneter-atuilieii, of which hi- lakcA for the 
inoDt UBrt g'xid advonlo^'. Gene»t first 
poiult-ij uHl thut thn incident of 1 .i.<s<>in[^- 
hau's thn<ut lo kill hl.^ friend Ronrilf hud 
a clo*e |>ftmlU-l in MaMinjter's ' Parliament 
of Lnvft." Tin* i<econd part of the ploy fOMts 
with much hb«ldr>', but with comic eBt-ct, 
the discovery by a rough sea oantoin that 
his wife lia^ become a uolliur during hie 
four yeurs' absence. There is no connection 
ill iityle between the two purls. The coatee 
flceufs aire in pro»e, anti iiioy well U- by 
^^'illiaID KowluT. The lore BloryofClfta- la 
in bliiiik*, which rlui*p1vri'feR)bh*-* that nf 
Webster's acknowledged work. .Mr. Kdmiind 
(Jowe ingenioiiftly supge^ted tlint Webster's 
allf'ifed conirihution to the pieioc was n Belf- 
coulsined and indi:peiideiit whole, The 
fantastic tale of Clni-e and Ijei^ingham was 
privately pri)iii.'d with the title of ' Lova'a 
Itmdtiale undtir tile din-etion of Mr. Stephen 
Iv. Sprine-Itice, (.'.B.^at Mr. Daiiiel's Dxford 

En-Mtt ill If'flo. Air. Kdniuud 0<i»*e coiitri- 
uted a prefatory pb^aj. 
The third piis;u posthumouely atwiipied to 
Wi'lwter wiw a comt-dy called 'The Weakest 
goes to the AV'all,' which was tint printed 
anonymously in IfjUU, and aj^aia in llJlH. 
It wa« fintt claimed for Webster (with Uok- 
ker) in l&i5 by liklward Pliillipa in bia 


'TbMtmm Poetannn,' but Phillips vm ccr- 1 
taiuly in error. Tli« plot appean to be 
■Irftwii fmm Bomab^ kicht'a 'Farewell to 
Mililaric l^rofewioD' (1{>SI). 11u9 younger 
Hulict included it in liii edition of Web- 
eter'a worke. 

Two other plajH in which Web«t«r bail a ' 
hand aru bet. Uu 13 Sept. l(Ji4 then; was | 
lic*n!wilforpiib!i«ilion'Bii*!wtragwiy'»lItd i 
* A 1nl« Murder nf the Son upon the Moibpr' 
hy Vord and Webiler. Weixiter was also , 
tnc author of a )>]ay called ' Quids' which 
waadoubtlves a trautidv founded, like Mar- 
lowe's ' MaMacre of l'ari«,' on conlcmporan' 
I-Vvucli history. Webstur T«ftfr«to ibti work 
wht?u (l«dicatiDK hia ' Devil's Law t'a*e ' to 
Kir Thomnfi tlucb. Muntiun of a ]>lay of | 
thit nnnitt iimndt'by IIkiihIdwu in hia'Diarj' 
in 1601, and CoUUt unwamiutubly Inaurlud 
tbi' wnrd ' WVbslw ' uhvr thi» ctitry. W«>b- | 
Jter'fi play hoA not eurTivi>d, and notliin^r i» 
pwitivtly known ni its dot* of composition, 

TLe biMt rftllMlion of orijrinal editions nf 
Webeter's pUvs boloacs to the fuke of 
UovonBbire. fn 1n;J0 Wr-bslir's work^wt-n- 
cullfL'ti^d iiifoiir volumes by Altaandt^r Dycc. 
Anew issiifof I)ycl''s^■dition.revist■dandcor- 
n)Ctt-d, up^R'arvd in 1607, and in i>n>:: volume , 
in 18(16. Williuiu Ilazlitt, the critic's »on, 
i9dilL<d an ftditiiin in four volumt^s in \S56. 

Although Niitbaii Dmkti aiid »utne other 
eiffbt«enth-«entory criticji bad detected in 
WebfittT *n mim tlian enrtlily wilda«*,' . 
it wttH {'hATli<.s IjiTiib wlio tlral tvcogniwd ^ 
hU surpassing K^niua sa a writer of trugedy. 
SulwMMpii'iitly ilftxiitt, and at a laMir prriml 
}iIt. Swinburne, bont powerful tftfltimony tn 
Lamb's mat ncMiif view. Web»t<rri«obTiouely 
a dii*cipli!! of Shrtki'-^pi-aro, and of nil bispnn- 
teinporariefl Wcbfti+.TttpiiroaclienSliakespearf 
noarcet in tragic power. But his jiowcr \» 
inliuitvly circuui^cnbed whva it m compared 
with Shakesneiirt-'s, Ilia kuowIedg;e of his j 
moclvr's wurli, luo, if Eotni't inii*« i Lt-ibU' in a 
form Miig)^)-«tivi^ of plftginriiim. U\* mafiter- ' 
pieflesare liable lo thf u'hnrfrc thut tli(.'yprB- 
iwnt t)ii> story ijidrfiKivrlv nnd at limcjt full 
in dramatic point and per^iiiriiiiy. Many 
BOenea too strongly r*r»einbl»' diaKuruBe from 
romanoca lo ri-ndVr tlisni i-rt^ctivu on lhi> 
tUige. ^N'tibstor lacked Shakes peaiv's sure- 
BMa of touch in developing cbRrHcfvr, and 
bi« 8ludi<.-« of human ujitiin-oftt^n sutler fruiu 
ov«r-L'lnbt)rattou. \\ ttb ft periiiAtcnce tbaL 
BceiDA unjust iriublii in u^nat artist, Webster, 
mon'Over, c()iii;i'iilrutfd hU cbiHrfnBrjriHfl on 
n^ulsivotliemes and characters; liotraiKcked 
"With an ob^CinuU' monoti.iiiy in fntilnniic 
erimiie. NpTerlhu'leiw hf. hnd n true artintir 
•Miiwt. lie worked Blowly.mid viewpdwith 
abhorrence careless or nndigfultid work. ' No 

•ct ton,' he wrote i» ibeprefiiec to'Tlic Derir* 
Law Caae,' ' can erer be gracioaa wh«re the 
dvcencT of tho language and ingenious Ftvue- 
ture of the Kene arrive not to niskc up n 
perfwt harmony.' It is proof of bis high 
pot^lic spirit that hit n-as eap«bie of illunu- 
nating acen«s of the moat repeil«nt wroDg> 
doing with miraculoBS Cou£h«e of pmtio 
beauty such a«only SliakHtpearacouliTrival, 
Furttiennore, Wetiater, dmpite all the vioe 
ruund which bis plols rsTolre, is raraly 
coarm.'. In depicting the pcrt'ersiti'isof pu> 
sioQ he never deviated into prurieocr, and 
hanilltsl situaiioos of conventional didicacy 
with digmlled retbeacc. ^^'cb«ter'8 dia* 
logue (hcscidom ecaayad soliloquy) abouoda 
in rapid imagery. His blank vvrut b vi 
roua and niusku. In itageneral movetnioit 
itrusemblirsthatofSbakespenrv's later pUyo. 
It til far li^win-^iilur than Mnrlowtt'fi, but Nn&tT" 
what moru regular than Fletclier's. .\t ita 
be«tht«Unguag>' lias »on:)«tbing oft be 'happy 
valinnry'which Coleridge detected in Shake- 
epcareV 'Antony and Cleopatra:' it hascon- 
Nequi-ntly no «raall «har« of the obscurity 
which cuaracieri^a Shakespeare's later work. 
This ft-alim; in Webster itopress4!d his con- 
temporurittf, one of whom, Henry Fitc- 
Ueoffrey, applied l'i him I lie epithet ' crabbed,' 
iind dt'clnr>-<l liint Iil- wrolt? ' with hia mouth 
awry.' Uul, as another cuntvmporari', Mid* 
dieton, BUgseated witti surer in»ighl, tha 
force of Webster's tragic gvnius, despite tbo 
occaaional iii(U»tinctni-iu of hiii titl>'rnnc« 
and other del'tvtii of exi'cution, allows n 
i3oubt of tliri M«Mitial greatness of hu 
matie concept ionii. 

T\m fame of Webster has spread to FmncS 
and (tcmiflny. The ' Duclie«t of Mal^' 
and ' 'J1i<> While l>evil ' w«rv publitbed wiii^, 
an npiireciativD profocc in I'rench irnn^la 
lions by Ernest Lafoud at Paris in 1 
and Fn-derick Itodenatedl devoted the G 
volumu of his ' William Shakw^iesres ^i 
g«n»«Rn uiiil ihre Wirrke ' ( Berlin, 1858) I 
K tiermnn rendering of extmcta from 
Websler's piny*. 

[Dj-cd'b I [itro<lui:l ioa to bis oditioD of Wsb- 
"lor's W«iki>. 1H<S6; lirncst'H A<vi>iiot of tha 
.'iljigc, «, ie-I7 ; Wivpd's Ilwtnry of Kn^lish 
bramslic Lltpraturs, new tilit. IB'jD, iJi. Al 
l-'lcjiy's Kii-grnphintl Cbmmclr of the Kaslii 
llntniii : I^iinl]'* Seloolioiiii- IlHKlitt's Klu 
bctbiiu Pnimiitie Liliitulurc ; Witl'wsi Biulii 
(tlir ycmtigiTl ititrtnlucliiin to his edition of Weh 
liter's Work*, IS.'jJ ; Mr. J. A. SyfimntiBB in*f»' 
to tlio 'Mitrniald' eilitiou of Selectivusfrom Web- ' 
stcr; Mr.'a .Sr'Tcnti'«Dlh-('«niUTy .Stgdisfl ' 
LDntBiiiin); no udniinihlo wsoty on Welater; Xt. 
.Suiatfuruvx txinirsgtuLliy euloRtslic raaay is 
the Nineieroih Ceniory, June llltl6; Mr. Wile, 







tiftm Areher'a man sober roiimuu labijiArtide 
* Wsbaior, Limb. »nil Mr. Swtnbuma' in Stw 
fitrion'. IS93. tiii 9f> W].) S. L, 

WEB3TEK, J(JiIN (UH0-l(i*2). author 
of ' Ttw Hisplaviiig of Supposed Witchcraft,' 
WHS boru ilI TIJorulon in Cruvon un S Pub, 
1009-10. Uf- 9]>t»kfl of ('ambrtdgona ihougL 
lie had rt-ceived his education ihere, bat no 
record Csn be foiinilof liim in tEn.i iinivi^rxitY 
reewteni. Su1]iw<|Uent. ta Jtity 1032 he was 
Orauned, and in 1H3J n-ns ciirat» nf Kild- 
wiek in Cnivdn. Prcvi«u.»t(ihi:*oniinati(mhi* ] 
badftudlvdcbeniistry under Job n Iluiiiadf^, 
probably iii llio course uf mrdic^l study. | 
In IftiS lit* w uutvr of lh« frw ^ammiir i 
mJiooI kt CliLbenM, but during tb« civil war \ 
lu>tic(pd an (^hapluin and nurj^non in tho pnrlis- 
mptitary nrniy. 11k vriut nurfriixi tii (iiilniinl 
^hnuleworth'a repiment in 164", by which 
tiiuv lie hod si>pKn>Eitly Ji<fl the ••stnbliHh«d 
church and nccome a nniiimrifnrinist (cf. 
Sainf» Knt, 16i»l). Towards the end of 
the civil war lic'wiut intniil>ii by tbi? go- 
Tt-mtOK powers' iiil{> the vicaraK» of .Milton 
in VorkBliire, and thunce prwachetl sotuetinic« 
*Krati»*Bl (frindlctoti, four miles diNlftiil. 
tie WB> ■till at Mittou in lti>>j. IIi- wait 
•pparentlT oiBciatbf; minifltt-r ut All Kul- 
lo>wa, l<wmblLrd Sttr«-l, when-, «m 12 Oct. 
1063, he and Williotn Erbiiry [q. v.] had ' a 
verj fsiDouti diMjnit"' with ttrq miiu«ti;re 
wThM" nnniM) ax* not knnwn (I'f. Mrrcuriwt 
J*»Ulicu*.\^-2Q0ci. 1053; EuBtm..^ Jtf^on- 
rout Dirpuir; WxiwrKR, Thp Pirtttrv of 
^frcuriun PotiU'cia). At tliiatime Wohati-r 
w famous as a preacher. His attitude) 
iwarda university teaching, or as 1w cnllcd 
tt'haniano or ac(|uired learning,' l«d him 
into aotDfi controvcrey, and wan, ho states, 
much niii<undurKtood, In hi-< vtidiiiroiir 1<> 
makit his ])o«itifiii riear ItP published in 1051 
hia ' Acadominrum Kxatnon,' in thu upisllv to . 
which hi- ii-twrtu thai he iiilrmU not 'to 
ireduri- or r«Uininial« the acadi-tnies them- > 
wives, bt<l only tliecorruplintw thai l.tme' and 1 
oegltfrence hath intmdncod th(>re.' lie gives 
rent, however, to his tendency towards mys- 
ticism in his t'lpn-wwl admiration of Jacob 
Boehmen^P' 24}), and his nM:onitu«>odation 
of tb« study of Mtrotocy (p. 51). The book 
wu anaw^rcd by Strth Ward [ij. v.l, bi^ihop 
ut Salisbury, under the sig;iiature 11. !>., the 
final letlt^rs of both litit Damc«. with a prr- 
&tory Hpititlnby John Wilkinsfq. t.j, biMiop 
of C'hpst^r, also aiptiDd with 6nailetteTa,>*.S., 
and which hn" in iionjwquorco bmm tuwi)^u<d 
to Nntbaniel Stephana (IfWR.^-lfiTB') [{]. v.] 
ThnmiL'i Hall ( lf(Ki 106.5) 'a. v.] also wrott- 
a rt-ply cntitU-d 'Histrio-Mastix: a "ttHiip 
for Wfbster,' at the end of his * Vindiciic 
Lilerarum.* In 16&4 he was occupied in a 

eonlTOTcrsy with Thotna* Jollie [a. v.] In 
ltio7 WebMer was residioir nt Clituerov. 
The following year his books were seiied and 
lakcu away frjm biiii, but for what cauae 
does not appear. He now seems to havn 
ipven up the ninistry Dud to havo devoted 
himNnirio the Hluily of metal lur;gy and the 
practice of medicine. 

It was al this time, ad aUo l«t*r when 
his ng*! inrcrforfld with active practicj:', that 
he prepared his ' DiHplavin^ of Supptised 
Witflhcmft" (l^nilon. t677: Halle, 1719, 
Ot-rmnn Iranslatiun, with pn>t'ace by Chris- 
tian Thomas ), in whiohhe attacked I hr* credu- 
lous vivws uf Muric Cusuuboii [q. v.l. Jusuph 
Hianvi!U*[.v.>nd Henry Morr(l(l!4-1^7) 

'a- '^0 

Wab*t<*r<lind on 19 Jiirw 1162, and was 
buried on the -iUt at Clitliaroe. Hi^ worka 
show that his active, imprwsionuble mind 
paa«dtUmugh manrphascA nfroligions con- 
viction, and it is ditBcult to recoacilu the 
aiirhr>r«hip of 'TheJiid^cnt Het' with that 
of the ■ Examen ' or lUo ' Uisplnvinf.' Wurtl 
accuses Webster of ignorance ( l'i»aieiie A'ti- 
ilrmiarum, p. 1 ), but Im wn« nfcjuiiintvd with 
l>atiu, lireek, Hebrew, Germiui, Il.niian, and 

He was «vidf<nlly married, as Thon-sby 
(Ih'anf. i. AWi) mentions obtaining informs* 
tion m>pi<i;tititf liim from 'a minister who 
marritrd hi.i widow.' 

Hall, in tlifl title to his 'Hirilrio-Mastix,' 
sarcantically »i[wnk» of Webster ' as (as 'tis 
cnnflpived) thit Quondam Player.' and for 
some time it seems to have been taken for 
gmnled that ihL- * Examcn ' waa written by 
bis namesake, the dramatist. Un the 
Btrength of HaU's * coneeived ' opinion, 
rayiM- CVillii-r iPoetitvil Decameron, u. 20O 
ot M-<\.) absurdly accept.i the ' Kxararn ' <w tho 
work of the more famous John Webster, 
and compares pnawiges in it with fome in the 
' Utichesa of Malfi to eup[Hirt his viuw. 
Thi-nci' hc^ fonliHhIy nrgtif* thnt the ' Saint's 
Ouide'wasahioby thodmmali!4t. Hcmn.kc6, 
however, no mention of the 'Displaying of 
8uppowd Witchcraft.' The identity of the 
author of the ' Examen ' with that oftbo ' Di»- 

tilaving,' which liad been previously statfd 
IV Henry More in hi«i attack on Wobster in 
the ' Ppiefatio Qeneniliiuima' to the Latin 
oililion of his works (vol. ii. pp. sri-XTii), 
wad iinally ttstablishedby Hvco in the intrr^- 
duclion to hia 'Works of WVMer the I)r«- 
Riatint.' Dyx'o at the same time disposed of 
the ridiculous ascription of thf 'Kxamen' 
and other works to the dramatist. Webster 
took plrmsiin:- in signing hlmeetf 'Johannes 
Ilyphastes," and tlie pseudonym appears on 
his memorial tablet in Clitheruv church, 

llifl publiah^ work* include: I, 'The 
Sauit'e Quidu,' Lomlon, lOHS. W^l, 1099. 
3- 'The Picture of Mercuriiw IWilicus.'ljOn- 
dmijltiSa, 4to. 3. 'The Jwlpneni Sol tnil 
theBookx o)wnpil,'ljonil<m, lii->4, cinnniiiing 
(i.) * The Vail nf tlie {'iwering' (rpprinted, 
aetmrat«ljr,ljoi]cloii, ITIS, Ci)re«nwicli. 1817); 
(ii.) *Tli<? BiiilfJi?r« of Bnbet confoun<1e<i ; ' 
(jLi.) 'The Power of l>iviD« Auraction;' 
(iv.) 'Tbo Cloud taken off th* Tnbcrnncle ' 
(iviirinUHl, Lumion, 1708); (v.) ' The .Secret 
Sooilisaver ' (reprinled, LondoH, I7l(S) ; 
(vi.) "Thfl ICovtmp of every Pkiil ; ' 
[ vii.) • The S4int,'ii I'errwl FnirJom ; ' 
(viii.) ' A Rft*iponaimi to certain pretendi^d 
Aitpimunts ; ' Ox.) 'A T'-'stimwiy frv^lr 
jrivi-n," th*' wliftlfs work, Itrigblon, I63<'>, 
•J, ' AcadDiniarum Exameu.' London, 16''>1. 
5. • JK-talloffTitphift,' London. IBUl, 1H7). 
UttoUo wrotf aiiatcount und defeoft) of the 
character of William Erhury na ivu epistlu 
to ErburyV -wurk, ' llio Ontiit Knrth'^uiLkv.' 

f\Vhit«kcr'6 WbaUoT. it. 88-7, 9A, *9t. fiOS, 
MS-fil : Whit*k«r's Crtvan. p. 22. InliwUn-- 
tioB nod NoUis bo Potu'i DiiWDVrrjr of Witeb«« 
bj JiimetCroiBle;(Chethain $oc.)pp. xsrlii^i ; 
Wahster'n Worka, pawim ; Cnl. of SlAto Pnpcw, 
IBAf-li, 11. 302; Brnihrnwr'n Hnndbucb der 
KMumi^ieliicliii.', pt. il. Tul, i. p. 31; MorboTc 
Poljrhiator Lit«r»nus. ii. lO'i; JdumtU des 
SvAVUiB, 1678. [1. IJiR; Philopi'Jijhici! Truiisac- 
UoQB, 1070, p. 2034 ; Oldj-s'* Briil«h Librarian, 
p. ii) : Brjrihc<-'<*'* Ccn»uni Lilerariu. x. SOfl-T -. 
Lniwdowiie M3. 4iJ9. f. 72; NotB-bwk of lli* 
R«7. TtiuTDHs JoUy (Chatham f^oe.), pp. xiv. 126, 
188; 8talf> Prtpore (lloior.1 Office) Dom. Com- 
IDonwnllh, toI rllxii. t. 177.1 ^- ^■ 

WEBSTER. THOMAS (1778-18+4), 
geologist, bom in llie Orkneys in 177S, via 
edncated nt Ab«^rdeen, c»me to London early 
in life, and Hfiidicd nrchitcci iiro and afrricul- 
ture. He travelled ihroiitih England and 
FrancCjTnaking'aki'tchts for illiulrated works 
aud oblaint;!! mjni<} practice as an arcLiU'ct, 
the Kftyal Iti.slitiitton in ;\Jbemarle Street 
b«iu|r bulk from hisdt«i^'ii. Il was probably 
thi-ic^ircmiifttiuire that farotintitliini inlooMo* 
daiioEiwith Sir Benjamin Tbompeon, count 
vim Itiimrnrdfq.v.] Wttbttur^ gtmlogieaJ in- 
!<i?hr n-aa .H}iown in hts claMsieal owraotr * On 
1.I1" Fresh-water Formations in the Isle of 
Wight, witli §omc Ob»ftr%-»ti(m»oiii the Strata 
over the Chalk in the South-east of Enffland,' 
which wiispublifihedinthe'GeolagicnlTrttllft- 
actions' in 1814, and led 10 kU (tmocialion u 
eeoloRiat with Sir Heurj- Charles Kn|tle6eld 
[0 . V.I in hi« ' I>o«cri^l iun of the lalo of^Vigr]lt ' 
(London, ISlO.llrt). Though Wubfteriiionly 
credited with eij^ht. napeni in the Royal Sn- 
ciwty's catiiioi{ui' (vi. 2ftR), all iloJiIiag with 
the geology af the Upper t^e£onda^y and Ter- i 

tiarv strata of the 8outh>«a«t of Rag 

and" dated between 1914 and leK," l 

nearly oil rank ai tad eiaatici on their fMpne- 

lifc Kubjuctii. Sudi Rfu tlu.' memoirB on the 

lieieati! *>ioiir nud Nuffield fiilU-r'n-earth 

ilHil), Honlwell Cliff, lh«> Btnua at HaA- 

inf^ii, and the Pnrbitck and Portland be«ls 

(Ii»34). He edited the W^t edition of 

Iinison's ' Eleraenta of Sdeaoe and Art ' 

( [,ondon, \S2'2> Sro). asd. with Mn>. Parker, 

, l^rongman'a ' Kncjclopnoia of UocBMlic 

, Economy ' (Ivondon, 1844, 8to), which John 

! Claudius Loudon [ij.v.'J luid begun. In 18Jb 

' M'ebater wm appointed houa e so cr«tanr to 

the Geological Society and curator of the 

iniii<4-u[n ; in 1840 hn wita ^rantiid a gownt- 

nifint iwnsinn of 60/, a year for his aervi 

to penlo^y, ond in 1^1-2 be was appoiii 

trofi"*.''Or of geology in the univcnity 
,oudon (Unirersity College^. Ue di&d 
Ijijndun on '2G Dec. 1^4 at l/Ondon St 
Fitiroy Square, and was burit<d in Hi| 
cemetery. lie left more than a h 
ToltinieH in manuscript dvaliiu; with a wide 
varii<ty of Hul^ecta. lli^i name tA %>i«nciated 
with a rare British mineral, Weheterite, and 
I with various fossiht. 

[Mifhand's BioxraphiAUniverMiU^, rol. xli 
Oeiit. MaR. Ift4.'i, 1. 211 ; Builder, 184;. v. 1' 
CaasickV Epriaplia i n Ch ureh and BnrMi Oron: 
at St. Pan<<nui. 1 872. ii. :fU, Jaaes's Royal 

■iiit'iiiun. 1871, ituwJui.l 0. 8. Bi 


WEBSTER, TlIOMAS(1810-187iJ),b«l- 
ritut, burn on 10 Oct. 1610, was the eld«Bt 
aon of ThomiuH Wnbalw, vicar of Oaktngton, 
Cnmbnd^esbire. From the Chart«rlu)use i$ 
proct-edi-d fii Tnnit.yCo]]Hffe,Caml>ridse, 
graduated B.A. sb fourteenth uTansler 
18.12, proceedinff M.A. in 1835. la 18:^7 
becsma sscretary to the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. In li*3Q he revigned ibis ]<oft, 
but ntnainod honorary secretary to thi^ in- 
stitution till 1841. In that year he vru 
cAlled to the bar at LincolnV Inn, and joined 
thtf DorthtLTu circtiic. lie suon aoquit^l ■ 
litf^ practii^e in connection with scientific 
coses, and for many years wa-'i reoomiiwd •■ 
a leading Mtithoritr on patent law. Iltf>* R^ 
ports BJid Notes of Oases on I.>et1«r« Patent 
for Taventioiu' (18-t-l) was Ions the chief 
ti>Ttbook on the sninect, and stiTl remaini a 
standard work of rviereuce. It was lurdy 
due to bis efforts that the Patent Law 
Amendment .\ct of 1652 was passed, on act 
by which th« niiinf^rcmn nbtms tliat bsd 
[irown up round the ancient syfllem of grsnt- 
lug pa1i?iitJi were swept awey, the cost of 
n patent greatly reduced, and "the system in- 
1rucUic>.>d that with certain modifications has 
worked well up to the present time. Websltf 





had mIjso a considenLble pnrliumviitar.' prac- 
Ucf^. ilt vfM one ot tlui counaal en^c&^d for 
Birkf.nhMul in rlie sreal oontetiut rvepoctiug 
the Liv*r|Miol nnil ^lursey dock*.. In Iti48 
he publiiiliM A Imnclbonk on 'Tbo PorU Mul 
Docks of ltirkenlii>a(],'Bnd in IS'>3 nnd 18&7 
he republished the reporu of the artinjrcom- 
miitee of the conaervators of the Mvrexy, 
and thcAo books hftvc been fur m«ny Tenra 
tbf staiidjtn) wvrks of rofiaviic reUtinu to 
that riTer. IIo wiafat long an aetivo mom- 
b«rof thw i^vumiiifc boOy of the i^ocioty of 
Art«. lie WM in Ihi* rhair at the mepling 
of the societT in l>*4ii wh«n th* first ]ir>- 
p<Hiil vetut madi^ for Iiokline Lhit grwnt Irittvr- 
nati>>nal Exltihitinn of IHiil, and formed ono 
of the fiwt comiDitlefi oppointiiJ to oripitiisi! 
that «xhibiCton. Ha wns <'!rtctei] a fellow 
of the Koyal Society in l(*4r, and in 1*HA 
he was appointed on« of her nuyoity'* Cfiiin- 
mel. Ho uiL'd in London on 3 .fiinu i^7o. 

W'ebater waa twice marrit-d: first, in 1S3(1, 
to ElianW-lh. <dd<3Ht daiisbter of Kicliard 
Calthrop of Swiii««ii«-ad Abbey, Lineoliiahin.-; 
and, secondly, to Manr Frances, (laughter of 
Jo<wph C<»:)k"worthy, M.IX.of nTincml-li. ]ly 
hia first wifn he ha<l thrne aoha (thenecnndnf 
whom is Sir Itichard Flvcrard Wobrttr, 
G.C.M.O,,attorney-g*^iier«liancl two dau^Ii- 
t«rs ; by liia second wife h? bad one eou itnd 
one dau}(bt«r. 

[Joan. 8oe. Arts, xxiii. 6R5: law Tiront, 
13 Jnnn 18*5; Tibimi, 7 Jnna IHiu ; pc^raonuL 
knowlodK^': iafomuitigu furaixljed by f*it Ri- 
chard Wobatcr.] H. T. W. 

nnintiT, was bom in Ram^lapli Htreet, 
I'imlico, on 20 March 1800, Tlis fath-r, 
who hwld an appoiofmiMit in tlie iKiuiirtkold 
of George III. took the boy to Windsor, 
where bo roraainod till the kind's ilcath. He 
showed an vsrty Coslc for muaicatid becaiQ«> 
a ehoriat^r at St. Georfft^'s Chapol, btit aban- 
dtmed music for paintiii|jr, and in \>*'/l ]m- 
ausf> a Mudetit at th<- Koynl Arailemy. He 
exhibited a purtrait-Rroiip in 1823, and 

fainvid th« firiil prix>' for pointing' in IStJo. 
n that ynar he «^xhihit(>a at cho Suflolk 
Street Gallery ' lUbeU shooting a rrinom-r,' 
the fiwt of tiioao pictures of nchoolhoy life 
by which he won nia repuutiou. In 1820 
he exhibited 'The Ounpowder I'lot' at thp 
Roval Academj^t ood in IS^) ' 'niePriaouer' 
and ' A Fora^n^ I'artv aroused ' at th(> 
Briti»h Iii!(lilulion. TfiuM were followed 
by nuui-nmii uthtir pictures of sclioot and 
villafp? life at both jalleries. In 1840 Web- 
ster was tflcClnd an associatn of tlw Itoyal 
Acadi^my, and in ld4ti an seadejninan. He 
intinned to be a frequent exhibitor till 


Il?7(f,whni ho retired Aroni the academy. 
lie exhibited his own portrait in 1871^, and 
' ItvluaaiKl Grom School,' his lo^t piclurr, in 
!87S>. From -ISG.*. to It^.'ifS he r.-«i(iwl at 
The Mall, Kenfiliigton, but the la-M thirly 
VfOT" iif Iilit lifr wfn? spent, nt CrfiiibrooK, 
Kent, where he died on 3S Sepi. ISPti, 

In the limited rang« of subjects which he 
mad« hiii own, Webster is unrivalled. Two 
good specimens of his work, 'A Dainc's 
School ' and ' Thfl Truajjt ,' were pre&entwl to 
the Nttlrional (iaIK-ry in 1S17 m purt of th« 
Vernon coUeetion. The painter necj neat lied 
to Ihu nation tin? portrait of his father and 
mother, [)iunt4<d in lh>4 Itftipth year uf their 
marriage, whicli he had uxhihiter] at. th» 
Hoviil AiTniomy in 1844. Six pictures hv 
him, incltidinir 'Tlie Villaffe Choir* and 
'Sickness anil TU-alth,' are in the Sbeep- 
ahaaks collection at lh« South Kt-nsinpton 
Miisetim. Three more in the same mu»iruia 
formed iiurt of ihi* Jom-it Iwquesl. ' Tke 
Sniile,'"The I''rown,' • ITie Hoy with Many 
Friends." are amonfj the numerous pictiirt'j* 
which am wvll known byengmvinpa. W«b- 
st(?r eo«tribul«J elchinK'^ "f i^imilar Hiibjecls 
by his own bund lo tbu following volninea 
iMUttd bv tho KicliiiiK Olnh : ' Tlie Deserted 
Milage,' I&4] : 'Soups of Shakoftpcare,* 
184.'! ; and ' Ktch'd ThoHRhls,' IS44. 

(."ijiiiiJbya Hi«t. of Rgyul Acaiisiny. ii. 177; 
CniaUvguw of the Nnlioual Gallery and of th« 
l'i>-turrH in thu Snat)] Konsini;Uin Mosauni ; 
Times, 21 S«p(. 18SS; Men of ihr Time, ISSl.j 


WEBSTER, WILLIAM (16A0-ir68), 
divitif, liiirn ill Ttnu in Siitlblk in Dvci*inbur 
IfJfiO. was tlm soil of Kicbard A\ ebster (r/. 
17221, by hi8wifeJ»oe,dniighl«r of Anthony 
Sparrow [(|, v.], hidiop of Norwich. His 
father wan n nnnjuring clergyman, who after- 
wards stibroittiil and bocamo vicur <if Pos- 
linpfonl in SulTolk. Webster was educatisl 
at Becelw, and was ndmitted to rionville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, on 2 Mar«-h 
1707-8. Ho pradnatM B.A. in 1711-12, 
M.A. iu 171'J, iind D.U. in VA-2. He waa 
ordaini-4l di-ai-on on 24 June 17m n* cimite 
of Uepden in Sufiblk, ami jiriwr on '2n I-Vh. 
171''>-1<! as curnty of St, Dmi-Slau-in-thp- 
Weat, London, In 172.3 be edited ' Tim Life 
of Genieral Monk' (London, Sro), frotn thn 
monuicriptofThomas Skinner ( I tyfl?-I(I79) 
[o. v.], contributing u pnifiMK' in vindication 
of Monck's cliaracter. A »»cond edition ap- 
pL'Jirud ill 17l*4. In 1730hptnuiBlated "The 
Ivl'w Testament, with Critical Itemarkit* 
(London, 2 vole. -1 to), from the French of 
Richard Simon. lA'aving St, IXlllKtan's in 
1731, he was appointed in August ITHiJ to 
the curacy of at. Cbment. iioetcheap, and 




lit Fi'lininnr 17IU-3 wu pravuited to tlu> 
n>clury of Ih-pd<4i. On |lJ IW. 173:?, and«r 
tlin pwudoovn of ' Riclurd HnoVer nf tlu^ 
Innu Tmiplr.' li« b»fi«n m i^it b p^Hoilic&l 
tihtitlril 'The W^kly MisrellAnr.' Not 
lu>in|{ very ftiiC4n>vful, it w\* dit&mUaard on 
tI7 Juni^ I74L Fntm the numb^rof rvJigimt* 
waftTt it cnntainml it becune lm<m-n u 'Old 
MuttiT I|ftitkcr'» Journal.' U i* cfaivflv 
tii«mi>fBt)lif for ibe aliacka tasile in its 
rolumiw on Willinm Wurburtoo'x • I>iriin> 
l.'VAli'Htof MoMifi.* Wf1k<t^r«cnniribiilinn4 
lit lliAConlroTpr»Tirer« rejxihiished probably 
in \73Ht, under the title nf 'Rentkrk* on 
Ibc IMrrne Le^timi' (l^ndon. tfro). They 
KsmtM) biut a place in the ' Duncmd,' 1V«m.', 
in 1712, tn»>rLing u pUMgi- (lik. ii. I. 2■^^) 
in wliir:li Wrlmter wa« couplml with (Ji-org« 
W'liiU-fioM, who hiul aUo eriticisM] Wap- 
Irurlon (I*"Pf-, If'nrkjt, nl. IClwin an<l Court- < 
hope. \v. 17, Atl, ix. iWj. MD. 

In 17'10, froni mntcrinU fumi>^lie(l bj a 
m«rehant in tlie Irndrt, Webster mibli^ti'Hl a 
|»mnhl«t OQ the woollen maniuactonr, en- 
titled 'Tlie Oonteqiienc^ of Trade to the 
We«Uh nnd Stn-Htfth of any Nation, lly a 
Praper of London' <Iy>iidon.8voX It had 
a lancf saloj and 'wlicn the dvnuid begun to 
iubBLdo hf iH-tinM a rvfutalion of bia own 
nrffiimr-ntfl, under the t'lthj 'Th« Draper's 
ilf])lT' (Lond'jn, 17'11, Hvo\ wLioh went 
ttiroujih Bi'venil i^iiilinns. ' 

In Julv 1740 lit! veaa instituted to tlie j 
viojtrair^w of Wnri' iiml Thundridge in llert- 
fonlihiri?, wliirh he n^inined till hie death, rw- 
niKnini; ''i» rectory iind iiirncy. In l«t*r life 
he fill into groat |iov.>rty, and aflt^T vainly 
politioniiis; tlw' srolibinhops and hisbops f-ir 
charity, he opened lii» woc:* t.n the public in 
'A plain Nurrutive of FaeiS'ir ilie.A.nthor's 
can" fnirly n.t\d ciindidlj- atalod" (I^nilon, 
\7'A. Bro). He died unmnrried ut Ware on 
4 Dec. 1768. Climlopher Smnrt [q. v.] *d- 
dr««ed to him hU seventh (ide.eompUiuetit- 
inn him on his 'CKWiinlicftl Ktatny on .\ngiT 
and Forpi von !>-*«' (lyondon, 1750, ISmoy 

Webster W41-1 a voluminous writer. AmoiiR 
hi* worksnotalnMidymonlionpil are: I. 'Tim 
Ctorgy'it UiKht of Maintenance vindirated 
from Scripture and Rewon,' I.on<3nn, 1726, 
Svo: 2nd edit. 1727. -^ 'TIio iMtnesm of 
the Wilni*B« of th« Iteaiirrection of Christ 
en.n»ider('d,' I.{)ndoti. 1731, 8to. 3. 'Tlu- 
f.'rodiliilitr of tho Bwturreiclion of Olirist,' 
IfiiiHloti. I7^,^v(t. -I. ' A Complete Tliatory 
•>t Arianii-iu trum 30« to IBflfl. To wlich i» 
ud'h-il tbe lliitiiry of .Sodmanisni,tmnfilated 
from the Kr»*ivr)iof tlieleamed Fathum Maim- 
Umra ntiil I.ainr,' I,oridon, 173'1, 2 vols. 4to, 
'''. ' Truetji, ronduitintf of Sermons, Discourses, 
«iidlMtrr»,'LoMdcni, 1745, 6ro. G.'AVin- 

dteationofhif .Maj^ty'sTilUtntfav (,'roi 
London, I74r,#To. 7. ' ATreatiwon Pli 
and Pre fern ent^,* Ijondon, 1757, ffro. 

[Nichols '■ Anccdotea of Bowjn. 1782. pp. 93, 
&39-43 : Vena's Bioi^. HtvU of GoarilW and 
dinaColl. !»;. i. IS7. £18; George lU, bio 
Coart ami F*milj. 1821. t. 99; Cluuerbadk'* 
Hi.«ory orit«.rlft)pd«tiit», iir. 280. 308: Dmwf* 
SatTolk Cvlltet»Ds in Bite. Mtu. Add. M& 
lin«6. pp.2«a.7X.] B. ]. c. 

(15N-I653), under-«eer<>t«rT of Mjite in 
KwRUnd. waa bom at Stuttgiirt on 1-j Sept. 
l.V*-l. He rtndied jurisprudenc* at the uni- 
versity of Tiibingt-u. wIktd he madn manv 
diglingitished ac^uatntancfv, as alt««te<l t^ 
i the iiucriptioos m bU alhon, lately tixlsnt 
hut now foal. He appear* to hare* entered 
th« di|)lomstic flunicu shortlT afLer leavinit 
the unirerMt^, and to hsre discbatved nu* 
merons mUsions to Oemuuij' and France. 
He also, at aurae date betweeo 1607 and 
li^l4, spent thr«« consecutive years in Kng« 
hind, which he probably viHiled in the train 
of the Wiirtcmberg ombasKdor, Von Ho- 
wincktunsea. In 1614 he waa Kg:ain at 
WiirtemboiKi where he became pri«-«te secre- 
tary to the uulw, and continued ther^ until 
Mine period betwt^n 11120 and llt-?4. This 
residuucv at home, however, was inlcrrnpted 
by a visit to Kiiglaad in lUUi, when, oo 
13 Sept., be married Elizaheih, daughter of 
Francis Uawortb of Dover. Atter April 
I6S4 his eorre»pondrncw, preserved tn tho 
slate pa]K>r oHire, »>bowit htm to be discbarg- 
iiip llm duty of an nnder-<«cretary of etote, 
and to have been rej^uUrly emploj-ed until 
Ht41 indptf^inK. deciphenntr,iLQairansiatic 
ofErial ronwiiondenee. fte Bccomj*tii 
Charles I in liit) expedition against the :^t 
but continually complains of thu unre 
nerativxne't of hio uo«t, and upon the br 
ing out of the civil war he look part " 
the j»arliaun'nl. In February liU4 ho 
made * secretary for f'in.-ifpi tongues * to i 
joint committee of the two kin^oma, w 
anniuuiaUnUn-or^SA/. ]3«. t4itf.,equiv«I« 
to nearly 1.000/. at lli« present day. Tl 
|M«tinn V held until V.i SlarcU 1049. wbefl 
Upon ihernnMiMitionof the council of iilall 
he was displfti^ed by Milton, Ko ment, 
19 mndcof liim in the resolution of the con 
cil Bppoiutint; Milton, and the caiigo of i 
removal or reni)(nal ion wnii probably Bl* 
hcnltli, u^ liifi death wnsn»poniHl in firr- 
maiiy, and hi» couMtrvman Mylius fluutlT 
nfttrwurds found liim iniffe-rini; from gooi- 
On 11 -March 1(1.52 he WBS.nolwitlistandinf. 
appointed, at a salary of 201)/. a year, assis- 
tant to .Milton, u-ho was fast losing his aiglil. 
He wa5 succeeded by Thurlo« on 1 Dee. of 




the anme vrar, »iid died on 13 Fi-b, 1C63. \ 
By Ilia wile, who died butween 1641 nnO 
UU7, W liitd two chihWn — ICiKlnltili, tiorn 
in 1617, who nbtainod an t«tat>' in Kent 
Slid di^ in 1667; and Ettuibpth, bom in 
ItilR. who iaftiTi«d William Trumbull of 
Esftthuniutead, and b»c&me th« inotbvr of 
Sir William TrtmibuU [q. v.], the friend of 

Weckh^rlin was & Toluminoua writer in 
Tem^and ruudvTvd conaidurnblHi eerricu to tlio 
literature nf lii^ fattiitrlanit by wntribittiiiff 
10 introduce the sonnet, the seatinc, and 
otlMT uxutic (<jTini. Ht) attmited Wis n-na* 
lilily bv writing with wiual faciliiy in CJer- 
nan, FVencb, and EuRlish. His principal 
Kngtish pocnnftr«ihr*Trinni]ihdlSl]OW!»i**t 
forui lately at Stutgart,' lOlC; nnrla 'ra)ie- 

fyrickfeloLord Hbt, \ istDUiit of HoiicnsUT,' 
B19, one copy of which, recorded to lia\« 
b^enftold at un aucliun in lH4o,iA ai preAetil 
niiiu>in^. A lar^ proporti')n uf his vlt- 
OHi-ular |)Ofan, clu*ifly piibliub'-d iti IWI 
and 104)*, aro imitated from the Frenrh or 
tint Kn^ltih nf Hinniud Itaniel, Sir Hunry 
Wotton,and otlur writers pe-rAnnaily knnwn 
to him in Kn^'Und.ornre translated i'roin I lit! 
I'Mlmg. A cflnaidcrsblu number, liowtvtT, 
of hie lyrics and epifframs art; original, and 
on tht Strt-ngth of^liiese ht is pronounced 
by bis German ediloraud hioimiphir, l-lwibfr, 
the moat import»nt national pH»t of his 
peiiod prior to OpitK. Tho same authority 
QOiutder* that h>> would have gninod a yul 
U^ier reputation but for hiJt beAi^tlinf; in- 
cometoese — 'huwrutu too muuhnitagvntle- 
man and too little aaa Hcliolar.' Ama ituhllc 
serraat be scums to have b<>en edirient, 
though lit' did not •••cap*" chnrf^es of ' ma- 
licious biu-hiLroiisnew).' Hi« noeras have 
been piiblisIifM] in two volumes Dv Hermann 
Fifclwr, SlMttcftrt, 1801-5. Ilifl portrait, 
painted when hv was fif^y by Mytutu, wai! 
engraved by Faithomo after hw death. 

l^Kermaon Fiwhfr, in liia edilioa of Week- 
horlin and in tho Allg*in*in« DouUche Itio- 
arapbin, *ol. uli. ; Byti'i Knglaad ns sesu by 
Foreigui'm pp. ^Kxir-^xxiii ; MaMon'sLifoof 
MilUin, vol. IX. Iilc. i. rhap. ii. lik. ii.<<tiap. riii. ; 
Calmdara of State Fap«n frum 1620; Cons. 
Nachriclitra von dem Irftlwn un>) d«» Srhrlflcu 
R. 'Wodberlin'i, 1603 ; Bohtn'i Ruglands Kin- 
floM auf Weckktrliu, 18&3.] R. Q. 

WEDDELL, JA.MtS! (1787-1634). 
navigator, Mn uf a working nphnlstprer. a 
native of LanjirliKliire, who had settled in 
London and there married, wa^ bom at 
OeU-nd ou 24 .^ug. 1787. The father was ul 
ihe time in had li^lth, and neems to have 
died shortly aftenvanl^, leaving the widow 
with two boy^ unprovided for. Thv elder 


aon went to itea, eventually settled in thi< 
W«8L Iiidiue. made a Utile uoney there, and 
di<?d aljoul l^l^i. ,\t a very early ag>* tbe 
voun^^r son, Jameti, with no education 
beyond the Httte that hid mother had herself 
bet-n able to give him, waa bound to iho 
master of a constiniT vesse). apparently a 
Nowcoetlc colliLT. About ISOo uo shipped 
on board a uierchanniian trading to th« 
WeM Indiee, made sevt^ral voyagea,and about 
1608 was liandud over ro tho Il&inbow 
frigate, as a prisoner jruilty of insubordina- 
tion and mutiny: charged, in fact, with 
having knocked down hia captain. Wed- 
dell's later enndurt renders it very probable 
that the blow was i^vva undff extreme pri>- 
voratiou. His opportunities for educating, 
himself had, up to this time, beuu extreinelyl 
:imall : nueli an Ihoy were, he bad mada th6 ' 
mofi of ihttn ; be wo* fond uf reading ; and, 
on board the Kainbow,ao far ira proved him* 
KL'irib&t hu was ruie^l n i]iid.''hipman, then 
quite ax often a reapiuiMble peliy nfheer at a 
youn^Bli'r learniuf; hia proft^saion. Afl a 
inidi>iiiiMnnii Wtiddi'llhnd moreopporlunitim 
for reading ond study; he n^ndarpd hiniRelf 
a cjipuhle navigiilor, and in December 181U 
wn.* Appointed acting ma-iirr of tlw I-'irplly. 
Twelve mouths later he was moved to the 
Thalia.and on liiTTi-t urn loKnglandand being 
paid lift", he was onl'lUcl. l^li' promoted to 
be master of the II>>pi>. A few months lat«r 
he was moved to the Aron brig, with Com- 
mander (afterwards Adiuiral-of-t he-fleet Sir 
George Hose) Sartorios [q. v.], who, in 1838, 
wrote of him as 'oiii- of the moat efEcieiit 
and trustworthy officers I have met with in 
tho course of my pn)fi'ittional life. On taking 
command of tlit- J'ijrTU)^'iii's« liberating 
aquadron (lt^31), I immediately wrote to 
Wedthdl (o join mi', hut he unfortunately 
hui>t)ened to tn: out of England, and whi'n I 
received bis answer accepting with pleasure 
my proposal, I lia<i already given up the 
command.' The Avon was paid oil' i n .March 
1814, and ^Vt.ddl^l] was appointed to the 
Espoir tloop, from which he was promoted 
tij the (.'vdnus frigate and later on to thn 
I'actulus, from which be was Kupvraodcd 111 
Fttbruary ISIfi. 

'JTie reduction following the peace ren- 
dered it impowiblu for him to get further 
employment in the navy, and after three 
years on a scanty half-pay lie accepted the 
command of the Jane of hcith, a brig of 100 
tuna, bolongring to a .Mr. Strachau, intended 
for a sealing voyage in the southern seas, for 
which tho newly discovered South ShetUod 
lalnuds titmmed to ofier great factlltiea. Of 
this first voyage, made in the years 1610- 
1820-21, no record is extant. Thmigh 





W«ddftU thid no fnrioaa a aperi aneB u » ' 
•mUt, It Kppmn to Iut* bean MSciMlIf I 
MMOMMfai ta Mdhltt bin ta bnj m Amn m 
th» brif . uul Op W tntniaud wtth the entn- 

the cutler Ihiiiftiy of L aa » b » . at w tona. 
kUo Mt «BiW but iinlvca. With Ai^ two 
ohU Tww h . which auM bam th» I)»wa* 
o» 17 Stfl. Iffi!. WwliWll, is h» Hueh far 
fiir riiW, ^Baioed thtf FklUand t-H—f , 
0«p« Elan. «ad itt aiitM'mirtnnd, South 
SbKUnd*. SMlh GtMVk At Sonh Odk- 
wjr«, which h« bid J S»ow il in his tormtr ' 
voyag* : umI ftsjtaf tho Mi ofMo, godhed oo 
IP th^ aoQihwmrd u fcr w HCitnni 7'!° 13'. 
whu ti Hm RNbcbnl un ») K«h. ISKL Th« Kft 
WW jttiU 'wHifCtlvebiiroC tvU k*;* b«t 
tW wlad w» NtoWUf ftvdk ftoMWMlh, MBd 

lh« btaOMM «f ^ tMKHt lOWfiBli fclB B» 

taktad«mai«(««riclbrt«t«K«nw. Ofeamtwm,^ 
M*k th* ^1 ihM lh» nrinrr iMiBt of th* 
v»;rH* •■* *»•*«• •»• MWWBT, had u tn^ 
Borual WMtfte. WwUttUnMOMd M Bor- 
bvl U Jjjr 1^:H. ubI « tko Mnrwf 
jwr MhlUh^ 'A V«n«» III ■ m il tW 
Swiih Vulw Mrlwwd ta Gh« dwh laSS-M' 

•MMd vOitiM h« vhWd MBo * ObMnatiov 
M lh» »«^A«kilit? af M>K*Mf ihaSkMlk 
KK' ud • JU Jmsmwi oTtt SmomI T««a«* 
MtA>nM*l Vv tW Bmb^ to th* aia» mm.' 
TW w<.<rti i» lAMnttiHt oat wh ■• A* i^ > 
Mfd t<f o ^vT*«* *^ **"* ^*** ■■** *■!' "" 

MMt^hw oha M C^nv « iow m of tho 
awtth Hkithiii. w»w iwy of th»«M« 

rtrtT ="■ "* — -*---*^'*»^> ■ * 

it att thM* wHoaaA. Cl i^fta w ten tb* 

«d AH*Mi«* atamhr MiMil ihMl ho 

' w mn to tMa> intMlN im 

dof>MiiiiMiA» n»«d^ 

; Wl Mt Ww WWMML Ml W b 
tMnltoha** bMM i» vo(7«MdMwi<te«a»> 
Maww. tH dwJ. ■■■iwiii i, m SwMfc 

V »>Mm>w it ia «• ■aumiaK it tb» 
Kvx«. :Aw«teh O iiijl^ h i nfl i^wo<y;i«wat 
itwwatwl V -Mr>. ■«» JkttM IteMi^ wkwH- 
lha»«.Mta «Ww«vM*AM».rf*TW?&Mtl^ 
Wm IVMMwawiUto :^«Rk**SbtJuhK 

rvMiUuTiMK, M fMi i . it innl a y^ 

-WSDDELL. JOHN i l.'Wt-lt.l^), 
nprirti. hovn u 1<%*3. wu,io Ittt'.mavtt 
nataof tho Eact I&di* CompKnT's ship I>n- 
2MI; uulin Ekteenbet wmj pr<>motvd lucom- 
inaadthoLioB. InApril itl:!! b» suled ^m 
Eagland u optaia or th* Jonas, with threa 
otlMT (ihfBa ondt^r hi* orden. At tha Cape 
of Osod wpa ba was jcriaad Vr two otfcen. 
which ha aUo took umliT kU rDtnmand aod 
wi9t oa to SotBt. Thence he was aent bj 
tha cotDfOBv's Bg«nt to Oombrooo, wL«r« 
the riuk allad oa the EnirUah to aMitt him 
aipnifc th* Plirtugmae. The Enj^liih were, 
or Mtnidid ta M.aBwiUine'; but on tha 
Aak inartlnK. with a ifanMC that be woold 
tiaat thoK aa tajeiBwa and aack tbeJr &ct4>Ty, 
thagr jiaUad, aad the awtv readilv as tfaer 
*— ^— * that th* Wortagaasa aUiiM at Ormu'i 
w«n iaMadBd to act aniast tbe Enrlinh. 
Tfaoak^ andv Wodddl wwe airccnliDtrly 
ant ta eo-ofanie with the PentiAnii, And 
after takaf fomtmaa of lUe island of 
Ktahnt. a tte e h e J Okiaai, wh«t« thej buded 
on 9 Feb. ia±L Tha riiaiilii were n'umtrou 
hut twCcHOi, aad tha bntnt of tbe wor 
liU o« Ik Bi«iA. who blodadad tha ] 
br MO, aad •■ ihace actad aa ena' 
aiiillMjMifc Aftv hoUiaf ontliraTelT I 
tan wwmVi the Ptjctagoaaa aurmidonm ■ 
~ " * to tha nmnl 
toOoo. The town wu^ 
: of tha hoo^ Ml t^ chtj 
alU than of the- plunder j 
d tha Whale, which, withj 
o» «■• alt^rly Itwt on thii 
; aad thas, in direct gaia, 
mr mat the compan/s aa- 
tiht liehar fot the 

into whoa I 
a tcntli I 
w u a>.aahwd high adairfal. and on 
mStka gaoocaar naoetad lo the 
rriiln iVitti' '- • " 
(wd imMhImb* aa lo iha iaatt«r; that 
d^ hri hm oU^ad to «d the Peraiaas. 
tir iiIm oiai * Aa caBfaar's gooda aad 

ihaa thev had *aaUfe(d Manv liiramo* 
^A ■!■■■» tha IVniufrau, and 
•wa ihaaa lo earn ih^m to 
ad^^dtyhnL' Oto4DaB.lASd'Weddeil 



ODBTt of id- 

aeeooBtof his 


r be waa Dot e«B- 

mI «■ 9 llMch* IftM ha aailed fer 

•if tha Bonl Jaaea. Ilf 

aytHi cia^HHiv of the coapaoT's fleet 




for thfl jeta, and on readiing SurM on 
18S«pt. and Icaniiu); lliat ihc rortUKUMo 
w.-iv prrjwrinii; ' grt^at firct*' »;iain*t the 
Knglish niid Datch in tho (iulf of I'trsia, be 
iVM sent at onc.B to Gntnbnxtn tn joia wilh 
the Dutch aquwlron Kf^'iiut the common 
enemy. When the Portuguese fleet came in 
flight the English nnd the l>nl«hcommaTidcTV 
OOD«tUl«d, w«nt out to meet it, and after a 
hard-fonght. nctioOf which htatod through 
ihiw <.inv», i>ut tlw PortugueM to fU;u:bt,»nd 
cbmAcd tiicin well on their way to Goa. The 
•ffiur 16 oariooe, for tha ' ooospimcy ' ur thu 
' iDBBsacn* ' of Ambojna fvve Towrrwik, 
Oarrici^ d. 10*i3] rauAt have hjeo bmh 
in the miud* ot both Weddwll aiitl hi* ullj ; 
nirtwith^trtTiding which, they seem to have 
acted together with perfect loyaltv and good 

In 1626 \Veddell relumed to Eiigland, 
uiil, alteDding n court meetinff on IS Dec, 
was told that the company was goiog 'to 
comaiffxux a sail agaioat him ' for irreguhir 
or illegal private trading. Ha hoped that 
* qpon coiisidflration of hi« Mtnrii:«« they 
would tbinfahedeaenrBdlKtter.' <\ilerwarde, 
I6Feb. I6:f7,he 'submitted to theircen«ur«,' 
bat 'dnired tJiem to look at hin good 
aer^'icee.' It aceus probable that he con- 
ceived that bis victory ort-r the Portugnc*c 
gave hiui a riffht to break the very itrict 
rs^lationa which the company found ne- 
Moaarr, and thiit thi« diflercncc of opinion 
aUimately led to a bitti^r quamil. At the 
time it was quietly arr&ngMl, the more 
eaaily, iwrhapi*, lu Weddoll o[tVn.'d his eiT- 
vioas lf> Ihecrowu tocnmmAi)daNhipof war, 
■nd took with bim ' divers prime and able 
men.' During 1637 and IflS^ he commanded 
the king's ithip Rainlmw ; in Slav he was 
■eat with s imall mjiuidron to [lavn* for in- 
fbnaation ; al\«rwArd«, he wtcm^ to have 
btwn with Uuckiugh&m at i^l^. In Deoember 
he was at llymouth, in Catwater. whoiw 
tlio itainbow got uu i«ho», and Wi.-ddeU 
wa» higbty praised for hii diligence in pet- 
tiiur her afloat again (Qii. State I'upprf, Dom. 
ltt^-fi.pp.ni7,WI). (>n28.Ian.lfl2Sniick- 
ingham wrotfl to him, givinir bim leave to 
come to town. ' On bis arrival be ia to let 
tha duke- m'i' htm with chi' first, for ho longs 
to present him In his majesty.' There is no 
account of his being pniMnt«d ;but W^dcll, 
wilh a kaeo evo to busine»«, wrote on '2\ Feb. 
hoping that he mij^lit he paid for his late 
aerricHfl as a vice-admiral. 

By IJi^wmbnr 1628 be had n-tumed to ihi? 
sorvice of the rompanv, and on the 3rd was 
appointed to command the Charles, with the 
pay of Uit. 1>U. 4d, a month. It i« thnn not 
to bu wondered at that on his return in 

April lb31 he was again eenaured for hit 

Envate trading; and, ibougb he sabmitted-J 
imMlfto the court, 'hi- aUt;gT>d ht« good! 
iUirvice,and in particular that last year hehoal j 
snv"d thi>m at least 2,0(K)/. at Oombrooa I 
hy koHping a guard on shore to prerenc th« 
at«>aliagofgooids by theUoorsand Peruana* 
(fW. State Paper*. East Indies.^ April). 
.\ few days later bo reported that he had 
bronght home a leopard and a cage of birds, 
which bu di-sired b.uvctoprw«at totttokfalf 
and ijueen in bin own name. 'I'he eompaiiy 
ih'jugbt it mare St to prccont them oa mm 
ibr-mMlTes. In 1032 We<ldfn w>-nt out 
again in the Charles, which, by the ciilpabla 
csralessness of tbo moster of the i^wallow, 
woji bnmt at Kurat, aboiiT. 20 Jan. 1632-8 
yih. X Oct. 1633). The master of the .Swallow' 
was sent hum« in irons, and Wcddt-ll, in re- 
porling t\xit circumstance, bevg^idthat * haT> 
inft lost his whole estate by the firinjf of tha , 
Cbiarh'A, thi> court would nnaw hie comraia*^ 
Hii>n and giT« bim anoth*r ^ip' (tA. 1 1 SepC 
1633). The couTt refused to do tbta, and 
sent out ordvrs for him to rat urn in tltv 

The company's ag«nl« in India took a 
dillVrent Tiew of tbn mstter.and on 21 April 
10^1 the president and council of 8arat 
^n\t Woddrll a commission as admiral of 
the comjianv's fleet. This was before they 
liftd received the refusal of the court to give 
him another ship; and on 29 Dec. 1dS4, 
wheit the Jonas was oo llie point of sailiitg, 
they WTot«, regretting that the court hu 
nutgrantiid VVcddeLl's reauut. * Ue is^* they 
Kitid, ' a gi-ntieman of valour ami resolution, 
and submits tu uo man that theoompanyj 
evi^r einployiul in tbn cnnt of bts chaTS9|- 
e^eetally at aea : but bifi tractability «fl far 
exoeads that, of mnny nf thnun churlish com- 
manders who conceire tbt^mselvM only 
created for the sole good of the fleete they 
command, that they aii8irpnobett«r or other 
man to eon the fleet.' Of WwddellV appwip* ' 
ante before the court we hnve no account, 
but it is evident thai ho went homo fooUng 
that hn was aggrieved by tbo Gnm])anT. It ia 
pnasiblu also that the company were diapond 
to blame himfurthelosnof tbuCbnrles, eves 
though ho was not on board ar the time. 
And ju&t at the time of his arrival -Sir 
William Courtt^n [n. v.] was pusbinp his en- 
deavour to e-Rtablisn. a serrate trade to the 
1-^t Indi^, and Obnrles I, alwuvs in wanii 
of money, had no acruple about, giving him a 
licttnsn to do this. For a tuaiiintbepoaitiua 
of Courten, Weddell and hL^ grierancea were 
valuable aids and he luul no difticulty in 
persnading Weddetl to throw over thp com- 
pany and to take service with him. The 


WH ikuO 1:* Dee. lOSfi, 

: ft lew monllu WeJdell w^nt out 
iiiiKnd <if ft fU'ot of «LX bliipf. Hu sr- 
riml ftt JoIladiu in AugiuU. 1638; vent 
frvH llwn to (la>, uid thenee to Bfttlooolo, 
Aall— Hi MacAO, and Cknton. At CanUio 
fowlns to I'ortogueK iDlrigut!*) he had ft 
ilUIUmltjr wilhtbQChiiMBe,KDd,aft«rbavin)t 
■t«rBwd otM of th«ir fort*, was ronjx'lKwl to 
Mtim to Macao, (.•oinfc biclt to India, he 
NMMdvd ia MUbluhii^ a triid« at R^apur, 
Hffvnl*. Un KtumMl to Enft^atMl apparcntlr 
in 1(140, and in 164:}. Htill u an iiit'-rlLiiitir, 
WU back in Indin, vrlierft )i« dUnl. OnU M«_v 
164S Iflltari nf adminUtraiion — in wblcit b^ 
WU luunod a* dead ' in partibu* tnn»nM- 
rinia' — wenprett to hia rrpditor, William 
Oouftfin[aeeaMerCoi-itrii.x,:jiit WtLLUMJ, 
utd OB Cbiirt«n'B death, to Jt-nmv \V«dd«ll, 
oftW '*o'i of ll>^ l*t® Joliii Woddell, 2^ Auff. 
ItlWl. \Vi-<idi'ir»wtllliAsnot bi-cn iirt_-*ervrtl ; 
bul ibu will ofbiK widow. KraiiMS WcddfU, 
tnurpd 2 Oct. ItJT/J [Somerset Uoui^ : 
nnwycr. l&iV], mt^'ntiDos two tH>ni>, John and 
JervTOVi'thu rinuTl>B!ni[dt-«d),iiinl» daiijih- 
l«l. Kliubeth, wif..' of Kdwanl Wye. >Vwi- 
drll's |impt<rtr, Kiicli of it m wa* imi to«t 
In the CoarW, would atvta to have bet^n 
flWftlli>w«d up in CMiiten's iawdTeocy. A 

Ertraii of W«ldi>ll (now loat) wsa l«ft b^ 
I widow to their dangblar, BixabeCb Wyv. 

lCaL9utv Piii<M«,fiwtItidJMa»dPoaM«t>e; 
Rntet'a AaaaUoitbe But India Coatpaoj-, toL. 
L ; LuwB lluC of tb« litdiait Narv ^ DotM kindly 
NTPUmI t>jr Mr. W.lli>n Ko«t«r.l J. K. L. 

(1<U0- 1 l>7tl l.ol BlaekiK«», KorTanliirv.etdiMl 
•on of JaiiMM Weddvrbum, town ol«rk of 
Uundev. br Mainiet, dftV^hter of James 
Goldman, alw s 1>«mIm merwftat, was bora 
tn ItllO. Sir IVIat Wt-ddCTliwro ;t|. t.] was 
his youn^F biv>Ui«r. AbuBdw wm (>dtt- 
c«t«d foe Uw b« and iiMsed adromiv ; but 
upon the dMth of hia vneW Alrxftitdet of 
Knuvnnir, whuev m>u wa» tbvn a minor, h« 
WM i& 1<E13 aM^iutml lovru clerk of DuDoee, 
ud bald tha OOk* till ltf7& For his ste«i- 
fcat lovahv b* ohttuowd from ('barlw 1 in 
Ui») a lACk of lb» ovstoma of I>uadw» and 
in tUlO a ixwaw* «f low. per nnnnm out of 
tboi>ti«Uiui». InS^tomberoftbemmnjew 

JkUMtokUtu* V>< arauice tW tT<Mly of Kifoib 
» itotobor (i>lk>wuiv he bnd an e.\oBtc«tfoa 
Md teUHoaliun (lOtt the kitt({. and in ttME9 

k iiMj[htbi>i>d wan cunlhnvd on hia. Uu 
l0ft(iHrut>i i-^l iKuitUv iu tliw ^Vvttl«h partiA* 

■«ev<rd vn •omv 

rotu eomnittmi of (be ertntes. At tfca 
KMtomtiaa in 1661 he wan appotnlod oaft 
of tin ooomiaaioDers for renilatine wif>glit4 
and mcaiMires: and on 10 Feb. ItiW be m- 
eetred from Cbariea II a prason of 100/. 
vtrrlinir. \U died on 18 Nov. ItTtl. J)y 
Malildii, daiiebier of Sir Andrew Flftcher 
of IiinerpvffWr, he had fir? eons and nx 
daiiKbti-ra. Hi« twcond »d, Jainos 1161ft- 
itJM}), was grandfather of !!9tr John Woddo^ 
bum (KOi-ir-W} [<!• r.] 

[Uordifvn's Sm(s At&ira awl Speldinfia He- 
morUlln of ihpTrnublM (.Spnlding C5ub>; Sir 
Jatni-s HalfoiirV Annals; lUcunu of Henberw 
of l'ftrliAtn«nt ; I>oagla*'» Baronage of ScotUndt 

E179. HO -. WeddM^nm's OoiDpt Bulk. ed. XU- 
,1898-1 T. F. H. 

Basok L>'L-tii(K0H0COH and fir«t Kakl or 
ROHLTV ()'3S-18(>5), lord chancellor. tM>m 
«tl?dtnbiu)(honl;iFcb. 173:t,wastbe«ldeBk 
fcin of Pecer Wedd«rt)am nf Che-<tcr Hall, 
advocate ^after waid n a mcflior of iheCoU 
of Juttice). by his wife Janet Ogiltry. 
Pel ST WedderbuTD [i{. v.] wa« his gTuai^^nd^^ 
father. Ilia education woa begiiit m the 
wbool of Ualkuilh ondcr Jiuuua BarcUj, a 
famoiu pedaf[o(;ue of the tinif, and 1t>^*liad^l 
Hraiy Duodae (aficrwarda %'i»ouTit M'd-^l 
villf)ubid«<-biX)lfKl1'>w. Onl^Uarcb ITit 
he matricuUted at Edinbnrph rnir<!<r»itr. 
Wliilt! a student he was on familiar lemu 
with many of tbe loading literaiT men of 
thu time.'auoaK them Dr. KoboTt«on, tbe 
historian; David Ilnme. the librarian loihe 
faculty nfadrocat^: and Adam8mith.whOM 
friendship was lifelong. At WedderbwB 
wa« tnt«ndod for the legaljprofeMion , bo benn 
his ipwial Mudiee in IToO with a viewtu 
practising in tbe court of mauoo. From ui 
early period, however, be felt that tike Fdi- 
lisb bar offered him larger opportunities, ami 
on 8 May IT-VJ he vtd adnuttM a member 
of tbelniurrTrmpU! wbileon aviatl to Lob* 
dflo. Betuminr to Edinburgh, be pursued 
his ftudies, and was enrolled as advocate en 
SO Jane 17M. He Sir won distinction u 
a debater in tbe genaml assembly of tlie kirk 
of Scotland^ taking; his poeitioa them as an 
elder wbm only twaaty-oae nan old. and 
it was his task to deftnd David Home fmni 
church c«B«ir* and Jobo Home, the author 
of ' Ilimabi.' boot depodtioa froB his mia>- 
Btwrial aoet. At this time he wia aaaociufd 
with n nnaber of thn Edinborgfa Uteiati in 
* " tbe Select Snci^ty. in which \\>d- 
tloafh yovageet member, had • 
,IM*. He abo projected and 
idi tet B«a vodben of a atmi-annoal pabti- 
rminn rarifcil 1h« "IMJ^iii ati V i i n i .' n hirTi 
wanMHOdiadHidiiia I'M. The dfalh 




of his father on 11 An?. ITBUalCered Wed- 

durbunt'e proeui-ct*, and iotviiitilioJ liis denini 
hi aUmdoii I'jdinburtfli. liiit exit wili ilm- 
malic. la Au&iist l^fiT bf! whs opjKisnd to 
AluxftmWr Ixiclihiirt (»ft*rwun)«i Ixinl Oov- 
in^<tn of Sewuna) in a cAKft which lie von 
S^ainfft hia retersn K'herBiiry. Hlunjf by n 
deprMifttorj- rcmtrk nindi> b; LockliArt, tho 
ToungadTocnterepliwlsoinleiiipeniieK' thai 
Ke woA rcbukvd by tho pntt>idin);judgt^, I_.ord- 
pmideut Craixie> Tliuoitierjuiigfs wuiv of 
opini4»i that Wedderburn sbouUl retract diwl 
apulo^Lsc: but instvnd i>f doing eo, hit touk 
on hia JuiviHrntc'it jKuvtii, in'ul it on tlw tjnr, 
juid.clpclarin^tbnttii'wniildwparit no more, 
bf k'ft tbv rourt, nvviT itsiiin to i^nt^-r it, 
Thatni|^htbe>t*^t out f»r L^iiilon.dct^rtninprl 
to make bis way at ibt:' Knc^lUU bar. He 
rvDted cbarahcrsin t)iv Tcinpir;. and, u bis 
first step towards took li>BSons in 
olociition from the eld^r Sheridan &nd bflcr- 
ward]) from ihsMlor Qutn.w)tliat be mitfht 
overcome bis ]>roviiicial accntit, On W Nov. 
1737 bu waa called to tho bnr. His practicu 
for iw>-ral yvnn wait not ffrt-at. but hit Ud- 
e&me AO intimate friend of the ^»rl of Bute, 
aod n-biin tlint noblimian cam? into power 
nftor th.^ dfjith nf OMrjre II in ]7(iO, Wed- 
derburn came into ootice. (>a :f8 Dec. 1701 
ho was returned topnrtiAmcnt ns mDmbc-r fnr 
the Ayr burgbs, and rvtainod Ibifl ttuat tiU 
1768, He 'took tiilk' and wa* I'hostjii a 
betiebcrof Lincoln's Inn in Fi-bruary ITft't, 
«nd joined the nortbi-'ru circitii. llere be 
waa not so sac<wsflfiil ea he had anticipated, 
and Hbonly aftvrwurda bi- lui>k up liis resi- 
dence pcroiiuieHtly in London, prartUinji; 
chiefly in tbp court of chancury. Ua booh 
made a nnnii' for liiiti>>>'1f il'4 Kti i^quitv hiwyer. 
Important c'ae«6 from ^^cnilandTTf! re All l.nititpd 
to him,nndli4* wsjicoiinwl for tht< respondent 
in the fam.-)ii.i Ttoiiplns cnii^.^, in wnicfa Iip 
icmntl^ diHlinguiihed hintself, though tbe 
iinal judgin«-nt was a^innt his clifut f^ee 
Itatim_ti«, ABCIIIHAI.D Jahbh Epwarp. fir«t 
Barob Doi'GLkd oy IJot'r>tJt» . 

On 21 March 17C8 Wedd-'rburii was re- 
turned 113 member nf |Hirliuni<-iil fur Kich- 
ioond, Yorkshirt;. Hi? enUrpd ibt? hoiiae as 
• tory ; bill in tUv folJowinu yi'gr lie warmly 
espoused the raiiAi:' of Wilk>-», nnd didiv<>:rctl 
BO violent n speech affuinAt the government 
tbflf bo felf. bound in honour to accept the 
Cfailteni Hundreds and rvslint bis seat. 
Within a few dnya I,,ord Clivti oflered him 
the biirgh of IVijibop's Cai>tU'. .^hrtip:<liiru, n 
vacancy having baen create! by th" r>-tir(f- 
meui of William Clire, and W<>d<lt'rbiirn 
look bin M^t iiH nn ardent itiipporter dT llie 
popular parlv. He Kpre^iited llii<< con- 
<titue»cr tilf 1774. 

AVedderbum bf^fan the seeaion of 1770 ui 
rioluHt opposttiuD to Lord North's admioj* 
slralioii, and lost nooiiporlunily of attack- 
iiig the ^vemmeni slikii on home and colo- 
nial [xihcy. He hits hpitn nrciiitr'd, not wilb> 
out raa«on, of having adopted this attitude 
for the purpose of compelling l^oM North to 
purcbAHi^h!«8up(iort. Hixanibitiori was un- 
bounded, and it i* probable that he coveted 
the offico of lord chuncellor from thi' b&- 
ginoiug of bis parliamentary career. Out 
Wedderburn did not at first listen to the 
cautioufi overturos made by I>or1 North. 
Wbi-n, however, l^ird (Tbiithiini, towards the 
eloBo of 1770, sought to attach him to the 
whig party by pvrnonal attenlionx, Lo justi- 
fie<l the epithet nf ' tho wary Weaderoorn," 
applied to Uim by Junius. It was evident 
thnc his nrdoiir tor the popular cause was 
cooling, and at length Lord North waa able 
to hid for his support. On 25 .Ian. 1771 
Thurlow was gaxettiid as nitoruey-geneml, 
and Wedderburn succt«ded his great rival a* 
aolicnlor-genvTal. Tbi)( conversion han buiin 
justly dt^ncriljed si« 'oiw-of the moul fJngrant 
cases nf ratting recorded in our party annals.' 
There was nocbangeof policy on ibn part of 
the government to excnsie so virulent an 
opponent becomins' a devoted partisan of 
Lord North. Wedcferbumwasalsosppointed 
at iht^sonie limi^clinnceMor to the queen and 
a privy councillor l^ffj*/. M-SS. (.'omm. lOtb 
Itep. App.Ti. 3). llchadtborouptily broken 
his connection with the whig party. Tbgugh 
Lord Clive was indigtianC at Wedderfoum's 
conviTsiuu, the new solicit or- general had no 
difficulty in securing bis re-election for 
Bishop'p Caelte. 

Tlie reputntion which Wedderburn bad 
^ned as a parlUitDeTiiarydebater was greatly 
mcreiLSed after he took oflice. At the elec- 
tion in 1774 he was c1io.tcn for two plooes 
— Casile Uisiitg, Norfolk, and Okebamptoo, 
Devonshire ■. and> setocting tlic bitter, be sat 
BS its nii-uiber till 17'^. Jn June of that 
year, when Thurlow received the gri>at scol^ 
WLdderbura was promoted to llio ullorney- 
pi-ncralshiii, unci hrcunin ohcp more member 
fur lti»<hops {'ustle. During his tenure of 
office he had manydillicull CB"!e" to conduct, 
while thf defeno.> of the govrmment through 
all the blundering of the American war was 
no light t«j*k. It was, bixides, pUirdv wen 
by Wedderburn that the mini»iry could not 
retain its hold upon office much longer, and 
he wun the man< eagi^r to oblaiu a secure 
plare on I he bench whil« opportunity re- 
mained. At length, on H .nine 1780, be 
WOK npp'iinled chief justice nf tint court of 
comnifin pb>«s, and raisM to the peerage vith 
the title of Baron Lougliborougn of Lough- 

'baroii^, Leicestersliire. H« remained chief 
jUKtice for twelve years, and pwMrved the 
digntly of tho tifTicv. altbuuKb 'hf had not 
imiclicreditaBacoinmauliivfyftr.' Dnr^April | 
\7S3 North und Fax fometl a coalilitiu 
ministrv iimlir ilw im-itii<T8lii|i of llie Ihtke j 
of Portland; i lie great seul was piil intocom- ' 
minion, nnd Ty'm^Ii bo rough was oppointxd < 
flrrt commiMionpr. Tlip coolilinn KOvm- 
meiit, it WS3 evident, could not lon^ hold 
topcrher. Loiiglibomuj^h wcmecl to favour 
the party of Fox mth>>r tlinn tL»t of llieir 
ojipoMODta. It K poMilit^ tlmt the friMid- 
ftfiip of tilt; prince rt-gt-nt for Fox liad suf- 
(Ii-nlt^d to Lou^hbomuffh that in event of llin 
death of Gforpu III tfii?i eovetod lord ^-han- 
OaUorshlp might be nt Fox's diKpu^al. Rut 
Pitt cama info a^re at tie end of 178.% 
and IxTrd Tliurlow was mndo chancellor. 
Thurlow retired in .Tunc l7H2,«nd the great 
■eal was for wven monlhs in commiuion. 

At length Pitt (f'^ktitii'd Louffhboroiiffh'i 
ambition. On -'S Jan, 1793 lie LUJtained the 
great seal, and took hia ifat ai lord ehnn- 
enllor. Having n-iii-hi-d thi;(foalof1ii8Ainbi> 
tion, li« (itjaudittinl lh« imrly of the' Prince of 
Walea, and dclinii'dy loinud himiwlf lo thi! 
adbarvnlt of llfOT^^T III, who wt>rr Icnmvn 
as ' the \ang'a frit-nd^.' Tn 17it5 ho nbtaineil 
u rc-^rrant uf his litle, and, as Iil* hud no 
chihln^n, it n'A5 givi^n in rcmnindcr to his 
nephnw, Sir Jdineji St- Clnir Kr.ikinfl. The 
desiRniit ion wnscbsnuwd from I^jughbomupli, 
TifiicmM^TRhirp. to fionphboroiigh, Surn>y. 
The chancclior waa not fnted to find the 
voolsork an fa*y neat. Thp iravc of in- 
■ar^ncy which hnd b*-gun in France flitn-ed 
rapidly to this connlry, and the amtition 
Cnals were iiii'rci1«*ly p^>8(ICllU'd undi?r thv 
n«wfhaneellor. Thfrf can bi- lit tin doubt that 
the iirm atlicude nf I^ughlwrough hulpt-d 
to atom tho *vrclliiig tiili- rif nirnlitt ion, 
ChouBh it served to tnuk^ him very iin- 
poptlsr. 'DiHrp werw coniitant cabals amoOR 
oontfndini;; .'itati'Anion, and hf. hncw that hi8 
place. 90 patiently waited for, was for from 
■ecure. After the Itinp had a return nf 
meutal nialaily, I^uffbborotr^'h wns a<.'i'U(u-d 
ofproeurin^tholcinft'a signature to importnni 
document.^ when he wns not in a lit alatti to 
undoratand them. In March I8()l Pilt'n 
ministry was dismitfed, Mr. Addinpton 
(Lurd Sidmijiilli) wns colli-d upon to form a 
nrw cabinet, and Lnughhorongh was otiared 
from hiE nthcc to makti way for John Scotf , 
lord Klilon. On 14 April I ,oii;(hboroupii 
resided the great seal, but »o lenaciou»Iy 
did tiv cling to offioo that he continued to 
attend thu m'.-otingis of tko cubinul, whi;n hv 
had no longer any right to Jo so, unld he 
wa« potiluly dtimissed byAddington. On 

31 April 1801 be wa« anted Bari 
KoMlyn, with rruainder to his nephfrw, a* 
in the paiunt uf the hnrany of LmighborDugh. 
As an ■.■<|iit(y judgr? i»ugIi)>on)Ugh attaioed 
a very aioder^t renutalioD. But hia diKtMS 
wen« well considered, and wrn" couched in 
clrar and forcible language. He abowrd 
Rood tensv and jiooil nature in the distri 
tion of fcrWiflstical patronage. 

After hi« rvtirvnieni from th« wool 
Lotigh borough's mental powers dceli 
ilv took little part in parliamrniorv aflai 
and fipMit most of bis time lu a villa whl 
h» purchased near AVindsur. It ie raid 
be "flen contrivi?il to force biinitelf into the 
companv of the king. lie died saddenly at 
bis re«iduttce on 2 Jan. 1805, and waa buried 
in St. PanV« CAth<>dml. IV was twice mar- 
ried : firat, on 31 Itec. 17tt7, to Betty An 
doughtrr of John Ilawson of Morlry, Yof 
Mn-; and, w^ondly, ill 178:?, to Chariot 
daughter of William, Brst viscount Obu 
nay. As Iia died witboul i«^ut', tliu ei 
, dooi fell to his nepli«w, Kir Jiiaies Si. t'l 
' ErsVinR, son of hia stater Jonot, who w 
the <lin<ct ancestor uf thv preaent. I£ar1 of 

I The chief nuthoriiy is Campbell's Lires of 
' IaoA Chancellors, aa iho writer had ace«ss(o 
niiM>K'ii doeunientx. Miny Irltera by aud 
' Wwiil't-rburn will be found in Hist. >Ii^. Comia. 
61b n*[>., lOlh Rep. pt. vi„ I'JtU B«i). pt. ii., 
Mlh Pep. ii(B.t.iv.x. Smmlm Tli>- ^^»d(lrrhun 
llobk. 1898 : Millar's Compt Bnik of David Wrd- 
(itrbiinie (Pcriliiah IliBt.Boc.i; Millar's Koll of 
I Kminent KurRei<i?«of i>iind»o; l-'nmklin'i'W 
ed. Spiirkv. iv. Vii, i I" ; BrouKhnin's Stal 
of the Kiri^ii of Ucorga UI ; l^osVs Jadees.) 

I WEDDERBTJSN. p AVT1> O 6e0-16«). 

Lnlin |Kiel, wa» baptised in Aberdeen oa 

I 2 Jan. ia7y-;S0 (JbfniMi Parhh Ittyuftr). 

I He was the eldc'^t son of William Wedder- 

lium, hurgpss of Aberdeen, and Maijorie 

Annond, and was indurated nt Maiitchal 

Collcgi*. In liW'2 bf wri» appointed masterof 

1 he grammar erhool of A beweon, ia conjuuc- 

t ton with Tliooias Reid id. ^»2^\ fn.v.: ; b 

in the following year \w ri-i^i^ed nis o: 

with the intention of becoming a minist 

, This purpoac wns abandoned, however, a 

I in Iw-'J hu wa*i reiiirtiated. Tn 161 L Gilbl 

I Clray, urincipal of Marisclml College, di*^ 

I and'ASedderhum was nppuinti^ to tGScb 

the das* in that college which had been 

under firay's charge. On fl Fab. 1820 Wed- 

derbiirn was mado pi irt -laureate of -Abe^ 

deMi, receiving n Milarr of eighty merb 

' vearly from the town council, for wludi 

I he undertook to teach a weekly Icaaoo of 

humauily ia the college, aad ' to compose >> 



iollof I 




Latin, boLb {iroee md tsisb, whstBTer nur- 
pone ortlwineeoncerniDffUM; common iLflnir* 
of the bnr^ cither ui untn^ or atield, lliut 
he ilioll l>e rmuirwl bj Any of th« miiKi»l rate* 
or clerks.' trora a jMwace in tlm ' Disry of 
iUiid«rJiil)nLy'(^rdedit.p.'l:^|it uppears 
kit Wedderboni eontinai'd in hia plac« aa 
nalerof tb« gramniftr ecbool &Ioi)(i wtttitlii' 
prcfceaorU chai^ in th<^ coU«^'. Hut iu 
IBiU the towu council onivn-cl him lorusifni 
bi« class in the college, uid to confiue tiii> 
attcutiuu iti thu ^inmar school, la \H26 
he obtained an aiii>i!>lant in llit> gmintnnr 
Khoolfdnd in the folloving' year litii stipend 
wu increaJMd l>y i't^Iitv mt>rks (ItfyniU nf 
Itftnfk^AherdMM, Ui-J.'t 4-J,pp. I9,:fl), RLii^h 
Records 8oc. edit.) (Jo 14 Au^. K^L'O ho Lad 
biv>n ndiniu«il ■ butf^OM of Aberd(-L>ii 'in 
right of Lis fatb«r,' but on L'O Muv lO-'Ji hu 
vaii utitdu an honorary burgesit of Duudei* in 
ROOKnitiua of hi« iMimine and «kilL' in uni- 
dieodo juTentdtem.' In Tti^Ul Ii» c^oinpkttnl 
■ new invmiuBrforlheugeof youn;; aclioUrfl, 
for wliicli he recivwl tin- rvwan! of a hun- 
dnd lib. ^cols from the toirn council of 
Alx-rdwn. Hi- waa sunt specially to Edui- 
liiirch that the tici^mw of the priry council 
miglit be obtained for the priaTiog of tlm 
work. The TO^Hlirr of this pnry council 
coutaius Kveral eiitrivit la rt-gard to thii> 
hook in ll'»'«i 2, and the matlurcainv before 
pArlitttii'Tt in June IGSil, wljim W presented 
a pi-iition tlukt bit'rliortaiid fuvili-tfrttuLmftr' 
might bo tlio only one taujiht in the schools 
of llm country ^ WrtMerbum Ifovk. vol. ii.; 
Aett nf i'nrt.ti/tinl.) llii- tTibrniiric^df n^>r 
conipelli'd Weddt-Tbum lo resi|m his o(5ce a« 
nuutt-r nf the |.'r»tnmar Jtf.liool in IIUD. His 
death tiK>k place eitber in IVbriinri' nr Octo- 
ber ]IU0. nnd be wan buried 'gratis ' in the 
church of St. NicholiM, Abordi'en. lie wna 
twic« married : in April Kill luJunei Jtilni^ 
none, by irhom he bad issue one son : and 
in Octobw LOU to Ilacbiu .Mowat, by wbum 
h4> bftd two aona and tive dau|^liters. 

When Jamra VI vieilad ScotUnd in 1617 
Wedderburn wan engagnd by tlm lown coun- 
cil of Aberdeen to n-rite b Latin wel- 
come, and lb« two poem* wliich he com- 
posed — 'Synpnphranr^rion in Iteditu Ititgin' 
antl ' Pnipemptifon Caritalum Abredoutju- 
aium' — wcrrt nflvrwarda published in Sir 
Jobn Scot's 'Delitim Foeiarum Srotoniiu.' 
Thw' nro UHinlly referred to aa Weddef- , 
bom's first imbliirations; but in rtK- Advo- 
cates' Library, Kdinliurgb, there is a W)py nf 
u Lutiit idjein on the death of IMnce Eletiry, 
abio included in ihi* ' IMitiie,' which wan ; 
printed by Andm Hurt in liSl:i, under the ' 
title ' In Oliiiti sittamiD Spt>i IViucipis IIbu- 
'u,JacohiVr Itegi.4filiipri(n0]!e»it],l^s«ii9,' 

by ' IMvid AVudderbumus, ihtbolie Abre- 
(lunensid Moderator.' In ID^i'i he wrot« a 
Latin poets on the death of Jaoie^ VI, which 
wiM printed by Kdward Ilsban [fl-v.] of 
Aberdeen, witli the tit1« ' Abrcdonio atrata 
«ub Obitum sereniasiml et potent lasimi Slo- 
norehie Jaoobi VI,' a work now very sCArt-e. 
( tne of his most eatwmed friends wa» Arthur 
Johnston [q. t.], who wrote one of bis finest 
Latin poems on Woddurburn, to which b« 
replied in a similar lil rain. Wbt^n Jobnaton 
died in l(UL, Wuddurbum published atx 
l.atit) eletfieit upon bin friend, under thti title 
'Sub Ohiiuin \ iri clariEtOmi (A carisuml O. 
Artitri Jiihustoni, Mudici reKti, UavidisWed- 
derbumi rtu.ipirin.' The.v- poems were in- 
; eluded in l^uder's 'I'Dutaruui Scotoruni 
' Tllussn *a<;r«,' piibliahi'd in 1731. In ItU^l 
Wedderburn published at Abi.Tde«i) ' Mcdi- 
tntioiLuui conipe^trium, »eu Kpt^^raimnatuui 
moralium, Cvuturim duie;' and in 1044 ho 
iMued a similar work, ' Cent uritt tetlia,' which 
ulaowuaprinledby HdwnrdKaban. Another 
of liiH elfKiitc c<:)Uipoiiition!> wan bin contribu- 
tion Xa tlm ' Funerula,' or memorial verwa 
j 01) Pnl rick Forbet of Com", bixhop of Aber- 
deen, pnbliflbed in \KAf>. Tbe council rttcnnh 
of Awrdeen contain many yntries of pay- 
ment« nmdo to TiVeddcrhum for poems and 
ou account of his fframmar. V\cdilerbuni 
was reckoned one uf the foremost latiiiistH 
nf his day. Etj^htof his Latin poems are in- 
cluded in Scot's ' Deliiiie rotiarum Scoto- 
rum.' Itesides those poeina mentioned abovi;, 
tbi-re uru an ck'gy, epitaph, and apotbeoBia 
of IVife^-ior IJuiican l.idiUI of AlM;rdenn,and 
an ode to Calliope. 

Wi-ddiTbnniV n.-xl brcith.?r, At.KXAKtiKR 
VVEI^UEllHL•H^ (ITiSl-lilW)?), Ijitin sdiolnr, 
was baptiaed at Aberdeen on 1) Sept. ICHL 
He WAS Admitted as a biirMr of >tnrt8chal 
College on '£d .)an. l&i'-i, on the petition of 
his two brothers, WilUiimand Darid, 'bein^ 
presentljc in Eniihind iu a pedugoKiv.' IJtlltt 
IS known regnroing him, save that he pre- 
pared for publication an t-dition culilled 
■ IVr.'iu* «niii!i-Htus, sive (^oiuiui'iitnrins ex-J 
ncti^aitnus ct uiaxime perspicuiu in Pcrtiutn, 
E'nMlariini omnium dillicilliinuin,' for which 
hia brother David bad U-l't notes. This work 
Wii" pubUshed at Ameterdam in ](H>4, afteri 
iLu death of .Mexander. The dale of hit 
decease is not recorded, but il was about 
lUoD (V'A* IVrddrrhum Hook, \. 477). 

Another of Weddt'rbum'^ brothure. \Vii<* 
LUJi WEDi)Ennrux (]'"'*^^''-l*!*K)), 8cotcb 
divine, wiifi bum iu \.a%'i or li*)^, but the 
Uws of the Abvrdvifn parish rp|{iet<<r for the 
period, leaves tbo e\nct date unknown. He 
was doctor of the grsiuuiar lichool of Aber- 
deen in 11^16-17, and afterwards became one 




of tho ref^Dnte of MariKlial College. On 
■2J) Ucl. 16-3 h*- w«!» eiin>UMl lu burffotxuf 
Abardpen. in riplit of his fatln'r. In ItillSlie 
was iidinittt<d minister i.if Uethelaay, Old 
Melfinim, Ahrrdwnshirf, nnd wa« piv»ent«i 
to tbe cborKO by Charles I in June Itf^tJ. 
I ['t* nitnic (ij)])'-Qra in ihi- li.ic of nssfinbliiM of 
Hjas* 9. In UH-2 In; wii* driiosi'il for fomi- 
catum. bill tbe sentence \viL>t r^MrindiKl in 
llip fiillnwing VfBr, and !il- vraa nHtummt-iidi-d 
for a vacuiil ^iliu-c It itppr'nrH IbnL hi* was 
ajjain censured, aa in >ovi?mbi'r 1048 his 
MtnttiH «> n tnini^tT yvnn rrslon-d. In llV>I 
he wafi admitted ininisrer of Innemnrhtie or 
Htrnthdon, and was in that chnr^f in April 
lOTft; but as tbc pamli was vac-ant \a A\m} 
IIKX), ho probably died in tliu interim. ILe 
was twicp raarried: tir»E, in Juno \li'24, to 
MarffiLrai. Tulli«di-p1i, aod »&ooQii!y, in No- 
vembfr KMy, 1o A^es llowisone. It is 
euppaeDcl tliat liom'r of tha '\Vcddi>rbuniB in 
Old Weidrum wi*ro bi« dewri-DdanlB. No 
lilernrv works by hiru bavo been idcntilipd. 
In MatduiL'ut's ' Catalu^uv of Scoti»h 
Writ^rn,' tlif ' Mwlitfiliftnnm (Jaiapt-strimn ' 
written by David WfddtJTbiini is wronglv 
axcrihcil to WjUinm (S<xi'rT, /W(i, ui. C6^, 

[Tim Wadd«rbiirn Boole (nriraUly prinbed 
I89S). i. <77-8; Atiilcrwura RecnnUi of Slnrin- 
dial Collrgp. pnMini : C'ulle«tion» Tor Hi«t. of 
Abnrdrra and lUnff (Spalding Club): Kxtntctn 
Irom Council Itefpkti'r uf Abitnltxiti, I'i7()-1625 
{SpnldiitR Club); Miic.of ^jMldiiift CInb. vol.v.; 
Cat. of l1i^AdrocatM*IJbnuv, 1776; Chnmbtra'a 
EmioeJil iteolatuen : Miliars- Itull of Kmitieut 
BlU^MM* of Dundee; imiou^eript Alfcr-ipeii 
P&nsb RegislDr.] A. H. M. 

K>53), r-coltiiihpwa.wasi.-ldvBl. wn of JomiTK 
WiwldtTbiirn, nn^FPbant im Uitndec(deHcribifil 
iu dociim«nt8 us 'ul itiu Weet Kirlc Styk-' 
l<idiitlinK"i^b bim frnm iitln-rji of tin- niitn'*!, 
and of Janfll Barrv. sister of John Barry, 
vicar "f I>undti.-. IIvwrs bora in Pnndi't.' 
about I4^S, nnd mntricitlatiKl at St.. .Andrew.'* 
University iu 15M. He wiis enrolled aa a 
buriifpMof Uiindeyin 1.M7. and wns int4>ndcd 
tt> take up \n» falber*!i occupation nn a nn-r- 
chant. While at ^t. Leonard'it Collets, St. 
Andrtjw^, ho had comu urnkT thi- influ'.-nce 
of Gavin |jogie,on»or tbelHadiiig reforiuum, 
and hu af^i'rwnnlii Utnk an acIivk purl opiinnL 
Homnninm. Afltir Ii^hviiik tlir univMri>itv Im 
was sent to I>ieppf and Itouen, wh^ro it is 
proba1>lt> thut n lirnncb of lh« Wvddi'rbiini 
tamily wassi^ttlfd in commerce, ili'turniug- 
to Dundee, he wrote two pluya — a tragedy on 
the bi'licftding of John the Bajriiat, nnd n 
comedy called ' Dionyaiua the Tyrant'- in 
which b^ ttalirised the abitsea in thu HomiaU 

chunli. Tliese xAajs were ]>erfnnD«d in 
OMin air at thr I'layfield, nasr the WMt 
of Dundof^ in 11^39-40; but they hare 
bwn pn-wrved, though from n-ft-reoow n 

tn tht-m bv CnMi-rwond nnd tithit? ihejr Aeem 
to have given much oHence to rulini; ecci 
aiMtica. About this time, in conjimctif 
with bin brothers John and Kobcrl, Itu wro< 
a niiralwr of iia<:rtMl narodies on popnl 
LalladH, which weru published apparently 
lirsl. MM brondxhiwi bitlltiili, and were after- 
wards collected and issued in lo67, undor 
tbr' tills ' Ane Cotnpi.'ndiouii IVxilc uf Uodlr 
and Spiritnall Song^ collifcted out of snndrw 
partes of the Scripture, with eundrie 
olhiT Ballat't'St cbanfr»-d oiit ^f pmphai 
jan^es, foravoyding of Biuue and harlo[n«, 
DuUatex nut cuntvnii in the fir^l editiooa.* 
Unly iiiHi copy of the (edition of 1607 ia known 
to exiAt, and there ts no clue to thr dttl« of 
thi' firet oditioti refvrTvd to on its title-page. 
\a ju>u]c? of the aongs jilninly refer to inci- 
dents that Cook place in Scotluud ui>'ut I'tiQ, 
thv tlimiry I lint tbrno wiTti circulated aa 
broadsheets is not unrensonabli!. According 
to Colderwood. James Weddcrburn 'counter- 
footi'd llie conjuring of n ghosi' in a drama, 
which seemed to retiuct upon James V. wl 
confessor, Father lAing. bad MandaliB«d 
king bv aomo mummery of Uiis hind. 
Niblr iMh was the cause that action w&a 
taken against Wedderbum as a hurelic, foe 
in 1539 he wns 'delntdd lo tin- king, a 
letters of raptioii dlrocli'd again&t him/ b 
be managed to escape to France, reluming 
to r>i''>ppo or Rotien and reiinming his com- 
mercial occupation. An unsuccessful attempt 
was made by the Scottish factom there to 
bavv bitu proiecutwl by Ihi^ bishop of Itouen, 
and be remained in i'rance until his death 
in ltjo3, not 1&05, us somi'timve atatt-d. 'IIk 
date i* proveJ by l!ie n-iurn uf his sou John 
aa heir to his father in October ]l>*>3, 
W'edderliurn mnrritil Ijefort' 1628 Janet, 
daughter of Ilftvid Forreatcr in Nevny. 
whom he hud three sons : of th««e Jolui (A 
Noveroh<-r IMH) was grandfather of Jami 
VVeddwburn ij.v. . bisliop of JJunblane (JS' 
Maimi SHjitltJltff. iSeol. ir»lil-4tj, No*, bi 

Uia brother, JoHX WuDftsmatTlT (ISOO? 
I'ViO), the i^ecund sonof Jamn) Wtnldiirbum 
and Janet Burr)-, was born iu Dundee about 


While at college he came under the teaching 
of John Major (I46{l-16o0)[q.'v."; and I'alrick 
Uamilton [^. v. ]the martyr, and,1ike hia elder 
brother, became an ardent reformer. Jlctu 



lly ! 



foe I 


''jOO. He Mudied at the picdagogiutn ('aftep*,gM 
vurds St, ilurv's College!, Si. AndrfW^^B 
Tflditalfd It.A.'io IfiiJtl and M.A. in liii>a " 




ia^ to Dundee, li« v*» pUced under tbe [ 
tailion of Friar Ilewat of ihe Doniiiucnn , 
iuonutcrTthi-n-,aDdhf^tookoTdersii.«aprii«r. i 
Hv wM cbtplaiii of ^1. .MaltbewV i'liupvl, ' 
Dundee-, in 1632. Having th^ gift of poesy, 
be iuined with Li» two brolbtire, Jamva tutd 
HdWrt, in cou>nn.iiii)ir luilUcI* illTeotcd iigain»t | 
KomsiUE[D,iindiii 1 53H- ht! waa accused of ' 
hemjr. It' is nut known wtiflhiT !]>' ■IoikI 
, hU Cral-bat ht\ wa^ rt^nainly convicted and 
I hia goods forreit<^(l and ((iven over to liis 
yoangwt brother ITcnrr, on paTmi»it of ii 
BinaU aiini 1o the hin^fi ireatiury. About 
154U Wedderburn made his way to the con- 
tinent, and rvnuiim.-d ^oiiiu timu at Wittuin- 
bciv. tben the ciii«f cwnlre of the ivfuniiers. 
In 15-12 be rcrunied to Scotland, nnd,in 4'uri- ' 
^mirtiiMi with John Scott or Sent {^fi. J.V»0) 
la. v.], printer in Dundw, began publiAbing [ 
the ballads which he and his two brothers ' 
hail cnmpoa«d af^ the Ilomi-sh n-ligion. i 
That be bad the largest share in writing ^ 
^ tbcfte ballad* ttems probable from rho fact 
' UiM many of tbein an Aumed ou Uvrmati 
j modeU with which he would be fauiiliar. 
I It im expectAd, afUT thd di'ai h of Jauiiu V, 
■ that the privwTiorArrHri would Lb fftvimrabl« 
til thij prolesl tints, but this hope was nut 
real ii>«d, and i*r-v»ml net' of parliniix-nt wafm 
' passed forbiddin;; thi' pubbcatinn of th4->do 
Dallnda, which W(>r« known as ' lhi> Ibindon 
Pnalina.' Wi-ddvrbnm wn* in lluuilw in 
the early part of LVIS, but was forced to flws 
to Knfjliind in that yvnr toavoi'l prosKution, I 
and he diitd thrre in o.\i1<' in l.ViiX ' 

Another brother, ItoBKttr WKDni^KKttRX I 
(ISlOP-lAfiT?), The thin! eon of Jnmw j 
Wedderburn and Jnnvt Harry, wasalso born I 
in Dundee about 1510. lie entered St. Leo- 
nard's OuUejiia, St. Aiidrew:<. in X-'yli}, jini- 
duatfd U.A. in ir.-JP and .VI. A. in lfi:«> with 
epecial honours. In 1528 the reversion of Si, 
K athcrinrt'n Cha]ifl, lliindfi;, wiw giv^n t<i 
him, though lie waallien under aire. He took 
order* n« a prieat, and ultimateCy snrreeded 
hi» uncle, .lohn Barry, tix vicnr of Thindw ; 
but befon? he secured thai twnytico he fell 
under suspicion of hcresr, nnd, IiIer ]ii:< 
[ brothers, was forced to laW rcfugv oii the j 
! coulJnent. He w*nl to Paris, probobly in i 
15,^ or 153*!, and attended the univernity j 
thrre, and it ia tiiiiJ thai lit- iiUo nftKnt iioitie 
time at \\'itteinlM;rg, wliere his brother John 
joined hitn,Biid where theni were many tllcot- 
: tith protestant ref iig'eeA. Hi^reninin^'d abroad 
' till 1646, when the death of Cardinal Beaton 
aeemod to promiMMfrly in 8coilaiid for th<- 
prot«atutt9. It is difficult to discover when 
be became vicar of Dundee. A document in 
Dundee cbartei^room rotvfs to liim as huUl- 
ing that office in 15^, but Joliu Harry wa* , 

Ticar after that date, uid it i« likely that 
Wi.'dderbuni did not come into the bvueflcs 
till after IMO. lie waa certainly vicar in 
10^2, and hu divd K-twven 151)^ aud ISOO. 
By a fleed reconii^d in the register of the 
great seal, 13 Jan. lG&iJ'3, his two tUe^ii- 
mate sons, David and Robert, werv legiti- 
miftftd. Their mother waalfiobel L{>%'cll,who 
msrrietl David Cunl in KitiO nod died shortly 
before 1687. 

It is not [mssible to identify the different 
psalms and sonj^s outributcd by the three 
Wi'dderbnni!' to ihe * Compeudioui) Hook.' 
A Ihnromch eKaminalion of that eolleclion 
and an exhaust ivo account of it will iK-fouud 
in thf ndiliim iuueJ Ijv llu' S<-»lti«h TfXt 
Society, annotated, widi introduction by 
euerituN professor A. K. MitcbLdl, D.D. In 
the iutinu volume therf^ is an account of the 
evidence wliieli led Dr. David Laing and 
other* to a*cnbi- ' Nrdderbum'* Complaynt 
of Scotland,' publinhed in 1518, to Jiobert 

[Hegintnim Majni Sigilli ftr^m Scotoma, 
JS13-4B and 1.-.4B-8Q; "C»Idorwood'» Hist, of 
iha Kirk, Wiylruw edit. i. 111-9; AlilUrV Itoll 
of Kmintai fJurgeaus of Dandce, p. '21 : Max- 
Mell'ii Old Dutidiw prior lu the Ksforuialiou, 
p. Iti, Dr. A. F. Mitebeir* edition of A 
L'umpoadious Book of Godly ami Spintuul Songs 
(fScotlish Tm Stic.); Tbo Wodderturi) Hook 
(l>riTaiilyprinlciU8!)8t.pp.U. 18.22; Julian"* 
l)icl. of llyniiiolu^; Millnr's ('iiDipt lluik of 
Itiivid Weaderbiirn (.4fr.t. Hist. Soc.); .McCVia'a 
Life of Knox, App. Ii : Lnmlj's Dundoe, it* 
Uuuint and llii^torie liailding*. I A. H. M. 

bishop of Dunldane, wat thi< second aon o^ 
John Wedderburn, moriner and shipowner, 
Ihiiidue, and Margaret Lindsay. James 
Wedderhiini (l4!lo ■'-iri.>a| [q.v.] woa Ida 
(iTeat-crandfalliiT, lie was boru at Dundee 
in Di'^t, and txieim hix collegintu niiirAe at 
St. Andrews Lniverfity, matriculating in 
1('I.I4, ^nduutio)! in DllW, and n-miivinif 
thenc* tu one of th« Kngliah univi-rtiittes. 
Wood states that Wedderburn studied at Ox- 
ford, but his name does not occur in the 
rejrister*; and ll«yl>n, in hi.i ' Life of Wil- 
liani Liiud, Archlnshopp' gives Cambridge aa 
thu univtrviTv. He was ol one limu tutor to 
the cIiildrtTi of Inutic ('asaiiWi, and among 
ihfl Humey manuscripts iij the Britiah Mu- 
•funi tben- are several leltern front him to 
('aftauhon and to hi-t son Merir, the latter 
bavins been Wedderburn's stu-cial pupil, 
Wcdrferburn took order* in tnc Anjtlican 
ebiireh, was minlaii^r at llaratone in \*ii^t, 
and was closelv associated with Laud in 
tlm prrpiiralion of the liturgy for the Scot- 
tish c-hurvh. lie wa« profeswir of divinily Iti 




St. Mary'HColIi4p>, St. Aii<ln(i\-c,tti 1H17, an<l 
had obtained his dtifrrtieorD.D. bflforvJanitun- 
laSS, ne nf lliitt limr, in (•onjiinclidn witii 
l*rinci[ial Howie, he inirodiiri'd tin* litui'irj' 
at ibe collegv, in contpiliiiiiiK vviib the oitlcrH 
of the king (OitnEBWoon, I/i*f. 0/ thf Kirk, 
Wodrow Soc. vii. Sfit'). In l-'ebruarv \^'2*i 
he vfftB oppoint^-d rector of t"om|)trin, dioct-s*- 
of Wincli«flt*r, and wok collati-d cution nf KIv 
before CbhaJraos WJM. Oii VI St-irt. lUi^it 
the king iiretttfiitwl liiin to iho vicsnii^- of 
MildeHhall, diocMo ol' Nnrwicb. H<- t^-iim n|^ 
pointed prebendnry of M'liitcHurcli in the 
biHliojiric of Hnth nndWclli* on 'M Mity KUI 
( I.K Nktk, Fasti, i. L'03, ;iliO). Rr became 
dean of rhe ChiipeJ Kwvol, StirlitiK, in Octo- 
ber lfl3.'i. Iln 11 R-h. ■|ll3«hr'>rcfcm'd 
totticseeofUtinblune, lEiiiucceuiioiiio Adaiu 
B€llciidfn,prt>motiid toilii.'bidbopricof Alier- 
AiSrn. Mi: mii#t bavo rwtnincd tbcprcbind of 
Whitcliiircb, as no «iicceMor was (ii>[»Ltinred 
until 1 Jiilvl6.18f HW/«tS;iM..V.SA-. mW/»r 

-v.y.s. c w«. loth i{.>p. iii. 'jm'\. whi-ii i h..- 

UliLH^'OW aMcmbly of 1 ^I Ue«. 1 IUI8 d<--pDJted I bi> 
Uiibapis, Wc-ddurburii wna i-xprr«al_v included 
in tilt? i-xcoinmunication, bM^iiuno ' lie bud 
beea a coaGdentuil agent of Laud, srcbbieUop 
ofCiiDtorbary,in introducing thnn^w lit tirjiv 
and popiah ceremnniefl.' He fled to Kngland. 
in corapimy with otlie-r Srotdsb biidiopii, and 
found pmti;c:tion from his patron, Laud ; but 
hv did n*i\ loii^i sunivti hLi>dt.'privutioii. tie 
died al OuuU'rbury on 'SA Sept. m.'19, and 
wa>^ butR-d in ibu chapel of thu Virgin Mary 
in l.lii- atlliiilnil Lbfr>'. Thpm in a jmrtniit of 
lh<? bi^diop, by Jaiaieson, at llirkhill, Fife- 
sbirViFi-prodiK'td in 'TlioWf.ilili'rhnni Ik>ol(.' 
In Scott's 'Fasti' he is said to hove wtitten 
'A Tr«aLisH of Hi-conciliution.' 

[Kvilh** ( 'iitjili^ur of ]{i«hopK; Uilliir'<i Roll 
frf XmiDont UiirgcsoM. p. bi : Tbc Wcd'lcrburu 
Book (pririitdy printdd. 1808). i. 28; Mtllnr'n 
Compt Itiiik nf DuridWddilerbiim (i^poHinh Hint, 
So«0; Lj-onV Hist, of St. Androws. li. ilSi 
Gwdintrn Mist, of lln^lnml, rii.-^Od. tiii. 811 ; 
Scott's Fiist), it. 840; L«<idii Work*; HokihkV 
Hilt, ttf tboCluipel Roral in Scotland, p. I9(>.] 

A. H. B1. 


J<S7U), piiysticiiin. waw clie fifth tioti of Aii*X- 
BJidur Wi'dderbuniuf Kin(^i;noii>, lown cK'rli 
of lluniiee, Hiidli>"!en,dHHKbtorof .\lfxiuidtfr 
Haraflay of Rrairhmont in Fife, and wn.* born 
itt HumUt-in \:>^. Ml- mntrirulatwl al St. 
AndKWA I'nivcrsity in Ifilfi, gmdanrf-d m 
IdlB, and waBprofoBSDrof pliiloBopiiythCTein 
lt5Ll)-30. Hftvini^' cbrtii>n thf mfrrlical protw- 
aioii.hf rapidly attained autimiiient jioiiitiou. 
Ill- wn* opptiiiitcd physician to tb« king, was 
knitfht«d,and<)btaini.'iJa pvni^iuii of two lliou- 
aand pounds 8eots from Charles I, which 

wait conlintiMl lu bini by Chartwa U. 
lowinir tlu! example of his kinsman and 1 
Djikr, bruthvr of James W'vdderbam (1£6^ 
IKti)) [<{-v.l, who wait then a diMangiUAhed 
phyeician in Moravia, Wedderburn prowj- 
oiit«d hi« m«-dlcal atudiej on the c<intin<iii, 
and was with the priiicv (Charte* II) in II ol- 
Innd. Oil K April 164t! he waa incorporated 
M.l). of Oxford Univureitv, upon ibe rvcon- 
ueudatioit of the chiinciilior. He nctinired a 
larf^v fortune, and |*«ve sn liberally to his 
tu'i> nfpli^w« that cmi", Sir .V Ivxondvr I q.v.}, 
acquired the. estate of RlncknesB, while the 
other, Sir Peter ^q-v.^, bought Hosford in 
I'^sr Lorhijin in liifcO. ".\i Go»ford Sir John 
lived iu partial retirement from |f!'.it! id] bi« 
dcalh in .lulv 1'5T1», and wns niobdWy buried 
in ihf> churAyurd of Ab<.-rla<ly. He waa ua- 
luarricd. By his will he bequtrathed his ex- 
t>'n«iv« and \-AlnabIp library to St. Leonanl't 
CoUe^e, Si. Andrews l'iiivi;T>ity. 

A portrait of him is at Meredith, in 
posfeesion of Sir U'tlliam Wedderburn. 
i.t reprodiieed in ''Hur Wwlderbuni Hook.' 

[jHillnT* Itol! nf RminRiit Burp«>tta,p. 34; 
Leon's Uim, ofSu .■\ii0o5wsii.]8$,418; Wood'* 
Fnsti OxoB. ii. !)2. The ^neal<i^ of the WAd- 
derl>iini» tu Dinia'"-'''» ItnroiiuKc is vttrj iacomict; 
the iiioiL ram|>lt-t« uiid toiLlii'Dttc accnania ar* 
l!ivi*ci in iheConipi Btiikof David Wvddcrhiinie 
(Srol. llift. 8oc.)'indin The WudiierLurn Bcx.k. 
ISilS, r. la-.'l A. H. M, 

WEDDERBURN, Sib lOHN (1701- 
ITMtt ban., of Itlackness, Jacobite, bom on 
4 Aug. 17(M, cldf« twn of Sir AIcxand«i f 
Wedderburn, fourlli baronet (cr. AujiO^^I 
I70J I, by Katbcrine, daughter of John Soolfl^ 
luerciiaul, of Unndee, was takvn prisoner "^1 
Cnlloden. Sir Alexander Wedilerbuin[d.».1 I 
wna bi> greal-^'^miidfat.Iicr. His fatlier luul 
be^oi d«urivt^d of the towurlt-rk»hi[i of Hun- 
Akm in 1<17, and ua bis death in 1741 tb« 
family ir)itati']i Und lu bu lold, and the son 
lived in great povertr. Afcordinr to Sir 
John's own account, he was «.'i*ea by tbe 
rebi»U and compelled to join rhttni by force ; 
it was clearly proved thai he bad been con- 
cerned in lei'ynig excise for their u*o. "" 
uUo joined I bo rubida ax a soldier, wai> 
sent Bt the butlle of Falkirk, was aeeti 
\\w retn-at from Slirlin|f, and in u h'lum of 
r«b«l oUifiT!* and wiIcHth — 'prinonvni in In- 
vemeae, lf» Anril 174tS— his name appeal^* ad 
Sir John Wvfiderbiiro of Kcbo'« lifeguiLrd*^ 
I le was found guilty of treason, and execu 
on hennington Common on SH Mot. 17 
IliA title and hts •'^tnto of BlackneM 
forfeited. l)y Jt-an, iddesl daughter of J 
Fiilb^rton of that ilk, he bad three surriv 
ton* and four dau^hter«. Hu uld««t 
Jobu,was fathur of Uavid of Balltndvan, 






was cr««te<l a baroneL or the I'nited KJng- 
tlum in MOa, and became poettaBStec-gnieni] 
of Scciilnml. 

[Uiatorind pHpm rcUtiDg lo Iha jMcotitt«i 
PwifKl (N«v Spnliling Club), 1806; Lirl of 
PMMoa raaccniMi in ibr Kchrllion in 17-ld 
(BeMlubHUtorySoc.). 1890; Douglan'iSrntiJiih 
Bannwgv, p. 2£2 ; Botk»*i Pocrafte and BuvuvC- 
aae: Wetoter'fii <-ii«nlngi<«] Acmaat of tho Wed' 
derbuni ramil* (pnmtclr printed nl Niintca), 
181».] T. e. H. 

1679), Scouiiih judge-. wa« the third Fon of 
Jmmrn WcddtTbiim, town clerk of Kundre. 
'ifiir Aletander Wi'ddi<-rburn To.r.] wan hm 
felder brotht;r. llcuaa born ai Dundee about 
ISItt, and WR» cdticfltcd nt St. .\ndrawa, 
wbere bfi gradualvd M.A, in HJ;J(V Jle was 
admitted advocate o» ]!) Jan. KUti, and 
meodilTattaiui-d promincnrLnl tbc Imr. In 
ford, ifaddingtonehire, from Sir Alexander 
Aucbmiity, nol, at i* vitatrd in Itivuirlns* 
•Baronaffe.'frnniliiAunHe. Sir John Wfidd^-r- 
bom [q. v.], who advanced money for tie 
pnrpoae aa ne. bad no chiliiron and bad di- 
oidw to make Peter his beir. Weddt-rburn 
remained 6rmly attached lo the royiiliats 
daring; the ciril war; and at tlii>lJeeiom(inn 
be wti4 lini^litt>d and made keepErr of the 
aigni-t for liftf, with power t'l iippoint depuiivn. 
In July I'fttl he ww appninttd cWtV tottiu 
priTT council, anil on 17 Juni; HUlMk^waa 
niiu,-d to tbc bcncb S3 an unliiiary lord of 
seaaioa, wiih ibe tilitf nf Lord {Jrt*ford. ll<r 
RprusL-ntL'd the eon«tabiilur>- of Hadding- 
ton ill tb<! (^cniTentions n1nirt>[ continuonKlv 
£r>in 1(161 until 1R74, H.- di<-d at (ioflfurd 
On II Nov. mry. He man-it^d, firnt, in 
\M9, Christian Gibeon, by whom In- bad 
oiMaon, who dii;d in infnnry ; andf«c»nd]v, 
in 16A3, Agni>fl, daughter of John Dtclt- 
•OD, Lord HarlrM of eiM«ion,and bad llvu 
aoBi and four daup;btprB, The iecoiid son, 
Peter (l6-!>4 1~44}), aEsumL-d ibu uani>.' of 
Ilallt^lt on mtmiHR Jniu-, dnnfihtcr of Fir 
Chnrk-E llalkett, and lieire.'is of her brntln^r, 
8ir Jarne* l[Hllt>-u ; hf i» n-iin*"'iitpd hv Hir 
Peter Arthur Halkfir of riilirmiie, ban. 
SirPpter Wedderbum'slliirdson wni^Rrnnd- 
father nf Alixundcr Wfrddcrbnrn, Ilr«t curl 
of lto«i>lyn [q-v.] I^rd Oosford published 
• A Collrflion of Decisions of the Court of 
Session from 1 June IWW till July 1077." 
which is atill accepted an authoritative. He 
wa^ r<^gard«d aa an fflotinant advocate snd 
an upright judgt'/wli'Mcdvi'dowMn-prdniplfHl 
by lrDtIifulne.ifi.and whnee law wan dircctwl 
hy juflttC4) and sympathy.' 

A poTtTKit of Sir P<rier is In the pcs^caaion 
of .Sir William 1^'edclerbum at Veceditb, ' 

and ia raproducvd in 'The WeddarbuniBcKdL* 
Anotber portrait was at Lulie IIoum, and 
wa« sold in IHNi. 

[lirunton nnd H*i|['!i SmnUira of (hv Col- 
l««u uf Jutiiiv, p. 361 ; MilUr'i Itvll of Eminent 
BurgrMfMaflfutidM-. pp. I S3. IfiC; The Wedder- 
burn Book (iirivatelj* jirinlnl, IH9S), p. 348; 
MillArV Cxniiii Builc of Unsid Wrdilcrlurti (Seot- 
I ti»hHiat.S«.): DoiiKbi*'»Hnroiin([e,] A. il.M. 

colonial FVatvDuian, was born in Eniiland in 
1792. Ho arrived in Ta.*inninri in ItSIi", 
buvLUg rocoivud an appointment in the sur- 
vey d^iiarlmrnt. In IcitS liu' was ordered 
bvpovernmeni to make a]irt'Iinii]iary«ijrvc)r 
o[ tlif country bvforv the patgnl of the L'rant 
about to ho niad<^ to tbv \ an Dicmen's I^anct 
Ccmpany was settled. In acconlaiict) with 
bis report tliv f^runc to the company waa tin 
creaswl from JM.OOQ \o 3150,000 acrw, but. 
bid rcconimendHl ion to reaerve land at Kmu 
Hay for a lownabip was disnvarded, tbaug:h 
it wni the only *it« Miitublt> for a port not 
nlnady in tho company's posat^Mion. Snmu 
y«ani later vvitii f-rankland, llii* eurveyoiV' 
evneral, he explored the rnuntrv from tbft 
ht^ndwutent of ibe IX-rwent to I'ort Daveiv 
tracinu- the Huon river from its »uurcv. Ii^ 
1836 be went lo Fort I'billip aa fig«nt for a 
ATndtcat<? of iini-en Tasmauians to lak« up a 
large tract of land in ibc ti-rriton,- of what 
is now Victoria. Sjjt huiidrt-d tbuusund 
aove were purchased far V\>d^ from the 
natii es bttfore ibo ivudicaiu's expedition, led 
by John Pascoe I^wkner [n. v.], arrived. 
Thi3 purL'liasu yvas dUallowed by the Sydnv^ 
gorcmnii>>it. tb(ui);li nl n Uler period the 
»vudicale rt-cL'ived a g^mnl of land in partial 
eompi-n^Mtiriii, Wwljju twlllne his sbnr<> iu 
1854 for 18,000;. While at Port. Phillip ho 
aidi'd in rescuinp WilUfini Hiicklwy ( L 80- 
ISijti) [i].v,], wbohad lived over thirtv y*iar» ! 
nnion(( tin? Austraiian nattrcf. Arttr the 
crtlbiiwe of this syndicate Wed;(i? vii«iti-d 
England, rtflurning in 18J3, with Frauvia 
UuMcU Nixon [q. vX hi*ho]j of Taamania, 
«« iiiaiiu^(.T of the Ciiriat College astat«at 
ItiBbop-iboLimf. In IB>'>fi he was elected ni«ni> 
bcr of thu ToAinanian b'jjislnlivc cnuncil for 
ih« district ol" Morven, and in ls<56 for tluj 
district of North Kuk. Up waa a member of] 
tlin cabinet witkoutoliicein Thomaft Uvur^ 
Orejraoa'* abort minislrv from '20 l-Vb. to 
"JH April imff. At a I'atur data he repro- 
•i!iil«u llubart, and afterward* thti Ihmn in 
the le|^i«lativu t;nuncil, retaininfr his seat 
until hia death. For miinv V'-'nrs he resided 
on bit) pBtalG. Leighlands, near PfrTb, but in 
18(H) removed to the estate of JtledJands, oa 
the river Forth, where he diwl on 2i' Nov. 
^^72. In ItUS he touried an ilngliah lady 

■who came to Tasmniniii witli Rtsliop Nixon, 
£l]u died Boon Kftvr her RiArringe, learing no 

[Ili>l»rt Merflurj-. 26 Nov. I«72 ; JIiTinfiU's 
AuKtmlnsinn Bio-gr. IS9'>' ; Fenlon'* UUl:. *>t 
TnEtnaniA. 1B84. pp. 7». 80. 129. 131.271.303; 
Ijithillicrr'* KatW Hiitc. of Victftnn, 1878. pp. 

60, At, ao, r..i. 70.] B. I. c. 

1801 1, nkilrildKiflt , ^ntn(li><m of Jomh W*dg- 
wooti ll-y-] nf Eirum.wiiB the youngt'rt 
Bon of Josiuh \V«tlgwoodof -Mnor Hall, Si af- 
fordsliirc-. Ilo wm bnm at fiiinvillp, Dorset, 
iu ltW^,aRdetlucuted at UuRby. Ue mutri- 
culattjid fpom St. John'* Cdll«*«i\ Onmhrid^t', 
and griidimtr-d fri)!!! C'hri&t'D College II.A. 
in ISlU and M..\. in l»'M. lie Tonk A liif;h 
iiiiithL-inatie)iI dt'^TO'.' (1^24 1 : but iuihe cliissi- 
cal tripi>«, iiiiliatfd tlie same yt-ar, his name 
oi;ctL|)ied tb^ lost pWr, givini^ occAsion to 
tJia lillo <■ till' wiamIl-u ivtK](fu') by which 
til" cliuiKJi-jil Wjiiivalftiit of the mathcmstical 
* woodea Hpuon ' cuiilinutid tu be- kuown for 
sixty yjiini. AOit li-iiving (7ambridg« he 
rentf for thn chanct^ry bar, but nfv(?r prnc- 
tised, and la lsif"2 ho vrn* appoititi-«! pnlii-.'" 
mugistriti.c M Ijim^Mth. Thin gave ticcasion 
tij llie most characturisiic action of liis lifi>, 
Bcpomiiiff ponvinci-d that tlioftdmini.Mmtinii 
of oullis wus iiiconsiMent with the injimc- 
lirtn* of tUd New TcAtaiQiMit , ho in IWi7 r■^- 
Ri^i4>d his ullii'L'. in cpitt.' of tht v\pu«[ula- 
tinnxof hi« friimcU, Minting hit dtH^iHion to Uia 
fnther in words which deserve to bo put un 
record : ' I think it verj- po^^ihle thiit il luay 
bet lawful for a muti to lak<> a judicial nuth, 
buinVfllhat Ltisiiotlawftd for me<, atid tlitfn- 
is no ii«c in letting HOOL & y'>iir porgiiade 
ouu'k conscience.' The lois of income was 

Earliftliy ri>covcn>d in the followinp yctir by 
if up point mt'iit to the post of registrErof 
mi-tro))nIilan carrinwes, wliich he held tiU 
il.^ abijliiiuu in 1H19. 

\Vii»i(jwooil'i» cnty-^r n* il ivhoUr h«d in 
the mt^antimrt ol^mmeIw^'?d with two email 
treHttseB on ' The I'nni.-ipW of Owniclricjil 
IV-Tnonsiration'llS-t 1) and'Onthi^'Di'vnlop- 
^m ment of ihe Understaadine' (It^l^). neither 

^^fe of lh>-m deroid of noutmi-M ; and thf kt-<'n 

^^> iiiTitrust in pcycbotogiiNtl priM^essos wliich in- 

W (tpirv-d tbetu was th<< chief detvrtninin^ fncti>r 

I iiithe philolo^nLitl ntudii'^ by wbirh he first 

I becaniH well known. One of the original 

^^ members of the PhilolngicnlSoc'it'tv(fou«dc<l 

^H iii]i^:^>,h*>|iubii>'h>;diiilH.'')7hb>'I)i(^ltoniiTy 

^^^ ofEngli.ih KfTmology/awoTk fftrinRdvMn™ 

^^B ofall it« pnraeceeoors, displaying nn rxini- 
^^f ordinarii' cotnmnnd of Hnf^ni.ilir material and 
^1 gKAi natural ftiiitaciiy, marred by imperfwt 

I ftcquftiiitBuea with the discorunod of philo- 

B to^cal science. Much attention, and at first 

ind „ 

lC«t 1 

cootidcrnbla ridicule, wen e<cit«d bjr _ 
f-lnboDLTo introduction, in which h« energeti- 
cally combated the thwrv, then recently 
advanced bv I'rofessor Alax Miillcr, that 
kuirungc onjinatL>d inu^vrioi! of iillimate 
and irre«nUble root*, aponlaneotuly created 
by primitive man as viprewion^ for hit, ulti- 
uiate and irrruinliihlr' id<>n«. Wt<«tgwood'« 
own Tifiw, which rsgnrdnd tangrna^ as the 
elnbnmtpd imitation of natural eoundo. un' 
doubT^'dly accorviivl hr:ItPr with ibn pn^itire 
ioetincts of modem philolofrr; and his in- 
trndiK'tion. tlir>^it;h nhouni^injr in iint^nahlfl 
uqualioiui, isa douumvnt ol'prvat value. Two 
years hilcr his theory was placed in a new 
and suj^ttftivt! light bv tlw tiuhlication oC 
bia cousin Chanett Darwin a 'Origin of 
Spccifs.' When, in 1881, Professor Skcat 
com|)let«<l hia ' Ktytnoloipcnl iJictionary,' 
Weajnvoodwaa among its ahli-st critic^: and 
di-.'tiirvrdi V t-Xftrcis><*[l a riin»ideml)lt? 4ind 
mainly beniifirial effect upon (he second ei 
lion (cf, I'rof. Skvat's work). In hi» I 
ypnra Wwlewood bi'c«im'> ft confirmed eniri- 
tnnliiit and contributed to the periocii 
' Light,' PcrsonallT. he was a man of cx- 
tr^'me modeitty. Hi* reputiition came un- 
sous'bt, nnd he saw with unqualitied aym- 
patby ihu final triumph of the movcmont for 
the remiwion of the compuLitirA'oalh.a move- 
ment in which hi^ own early eflorta wgtb 
forgotten. He died on ±? June 1891 at bin 
Kniisc in Gower Street. Tie married, in 
1 8i{'J, Frances, daiig-h ter of Sir James Mackm- 
tosh, by whom he lind fix children. 

[luformntiiMi iiml ItUvrt in the puaaaoiom 
the Wedgwood faniity.J C. H. H. 

WEDQWOOD, JOSIAII (173&-i;03); 
notti'r, thirtn-^nfh and yoiuif^t child of 
was t) II prised in the parish church of RnnJem, 
Stnllor.l^hin-. nn 12 July I73II, He was 
thu fourth in descent from (Jilberl Wedg- 
wood of the Mule in Biddulph, born in l&SH, 
who 'tcltli.-d iu i{ur>leiu ulwut IGI'2. wli«n 
he uiurricd Mai^aret, niio of the two dau^li- 
ters and cohure of Thuoias liursli^m. This 
Irilbi-rt waa a ffreat-gnNtt-gmnd.snn uf John 
WedgTA'ood of Dnnwood, whose marriage 
took placi' in lltO. The WedRwoode were 
A prolillc race, ho that, in aplte of the poa* 
sebsion ol some property in lands and hoiuea. 
it wss neew.*ftry for tljii cadi'fi branches of 
ihe family to make a living by fidoptiug the 
staple occupation of the district. Thu« it 
came to piute that Jo<*iah Wedgwood'f father. 
att well as several of hia uui:lea and couAitu, 
j were potion^ — some mast«is, wmfl journey- 
men. Hwfure Joi^iith had complttW I ' 

ymr hw fatlier iJi«<l, ftiiii th« boj-'i eohool 
career, such m it was, cloicd. He st once 
bctriiu wurk al Burslum in tbo pottery of his 
riufJi'. bPrttlicr, ThamaH, mid soou teemne ao 
expcri' thrower 'on tilt; wheel. Aa ntUckof 
viruh-nt ^mnlltxix wlii-n tii* wim ahixiL rleven 
greatly enrveblw) him, particularly BlUctinK 
his right loiMt. Ilowt^ryr, on U S'uv. 1744, 
■when Josifth was id hi« flfU-snth year, h« 
ivaa ap|>TeDtic«d for fiTQ Tears to his htxithvr 
Thomas. Uafartunntcly— m it ei>'cmed u.t 
die time— he w«« toon co]up«Ile<l, bv a rw- 
turu of the Treakaees in his knee, to alundon 
tJi« throwtrr's heuch und to occupy himself 
with otht^r deimrLmtintA uf thu potter's art. 
He thus ohtnined a wid«-r infiiglit into the 
manv pradiciil rvquirvnu.'Htii of tiln craft, 
learning, for inivtanci^ the hiiitine^ of a 
' modvller,' and fashionius various iraitntiimi* 
of onyx and ai^t:*' bv the awociation nl 
differently coloured clays. Towurds tti« 
close of ItU apprL-iili(.'etthip Ja«iaEi dovcloiied 
ft love fi<r urifcinal uxiii.TiiuentJng, which 
wa^ ■i<>I appreci>t<-<l bv his master and flldcst 
bruthiT, who duclintHl on thu axpir^' of hid 
indRtilureot to tiikM him into partnerBhip. 
The Toung and enthnaioatic innturutor was 
not fortunatfl in his m'xt utrp. wlw'u lie 
ioin.'d — about. I/fil— Tiiomaa Alders and 
John llarrtfron in a small pot-worl« m 
Cliff lUntt, nenr Stoke. He ftiiccppdcd, 
indeed, in improving the tjuality and in- 
cr«asing the out-lnm of the humble p(il- 
tcry. hM hi* eopnrtners did irnT. apprtviate 
nor ad«(]ualfly f^J-imjienie tlia efforts of one 
who was so much in ndvanci' of thi'm in 
mtiuUil powt;r and artifliic perception. A 
more congenial poaitton was, however, soon 
cSuvd to him by a worthy mjuU-r-j)Olier, 
iliOtDaa Wliieldfin of Ki^nton. VVitii this 
new partner \\'edgwoad worked for itboul 
fax vi-arn, ntiti! the close of ITrif*, wliim ho 
decidtid to atart in hnrtinens on his own ac- 
coant. On Sti Dec. in that yeiir lie <>nini)p'd 
for lire vwirs the SBrricca of Thoma.i H'udg- 
wood, a second cousin, then living at Wor- 
cester, and practising there as a joiirnoymikn 
potter. Thero is no doubl, ihal the wares 
(especially those haTing^ green and tortoisc- 
sbeU glftlM) made during thu jKTiod of col- 
laboration Miwenn TliDiiiiDi Whieldon and 
Joeish Wedgwood owed much of their di»- 
tioctivB character to improvemenl* pitect.ed 
by the young potter. 

It was prxfbably during t1i« first Imlt of 
1759 thai Wedgwood, now in his iwentT- 
uinih year, beeume a maiiter-pott«r. iJia 
capital was extremely small ; but be know 
bin Btrenglh, and rentured to Itike on leuic 
a Hmttll [Hil-workfl to Huntlem, part of the 
premises belonging to his coiisitia John and 

Tbomat Wedgwood. Although thu annnal 
rent naid for this Ivv House Works was 
but 10/., this sum did not ivprL*»enl its 
market value. The kilns and biiildingtt 
won became unniual to the demandn madn 
upon tlinni. More u;commodatioii was 
wanted, aot only for an incntasiyl number of 
workmen, but hIso for carrying out the 
modem ayglem of division of labour which 
Wedgwood wn.* introducing, and for im- 
proTM meihod« of manipulation. Uut (he 
master-potter himaelf wat everything and 
everywhere, and not only superinicndeil nil 
duportnienlf, but was the bent workman in 
the place, making most of tlu' niod'-ls. pre- 
paring the misea clays, and of coursf acting 
AK elvrk and waruhoiiu-man. Vet Wedg- 
wood saw the im|io&.4ibiUty of conducting 
upon the old lines the factory- which he hail 
tvgun to develop. He cotild not tolerate 
the want of system, the dirt and the muddlii, 
which wer« common (liamcti<ristitB of the 
workers in cloy. But ^^■|JdgwoodiHt^^Idneed 
much more than method and cluanLiiifiui into 
his factory. UJMatittliiHl with the clumai- 
nesa of the ofdiiiarv crock<-ry of bin day, he 
aimed at higher finish, mor<> exact form, leM 
redundancy of niH(i:tTial. He (.indvavoured to 
modify thu crude If naive and picrurefyjuo 
decorative tmatmenl of the common waroi 
by the influenee of n cultivated tASto and of 
a wider knowledge of ornamental art. Sudi 
cltangef were not effected without some loss 
of tnofte individual and human elements 
which gave life to many of the roughor 
produer.x of Kngliih kilns during the Arven- 
leenth and einhleenth cunturios. Uut there 
was much to bo said on the Othnr side. 
Owing Id thtiir uniformity in etxe and aub- 
stance, doeens of Wedjirwftod's plates could 
be piled up without fear of coltapss front 
univ^nal preMure. In gliue and body his 
useful wares were well adapted for "their 
s^viiral piirpo>>i-j>. And then the forms and 
conlouri) of the diffi-reni piecL's showed per- 
fect adjustment to their use: lid» fitted, 
.■^poiiTs poun>d, handles could be held. AI- 
tooiigh it is not to be aMumcd that all theaB 
improvements and developmental took place 
during the fit*l few yoarK of Wedgwood's 
career as an independent manufacturer, yet 
they were bagunauring biBorcunancy of tbo 
Ivy House Work*, lliat his business rapidly 
became protitable may he concluded from 
thL< fact that iu the course of 1700. less 
than two years after Wedgwood had begun 
his labours at the Ivy tlouao Works, he 
was able to make a gift — doiibln tbnl of 
most of the ftoiulk-r inoster-pottars of Huni- 
lem— towards the entabliahini'nt of asecond 
fr<'« j^chool. And verv ?ioon nf(or this date 



"VVediprood pai'l mncli alltintion ti% tbc Jm- 
prorentflnt of tlie meuia of nomniunicAtimi 
by ro«d in the iiotteriM, K<^'"K ^vidcmca 
before » pwliAnienUiT eommittro in 1763, 
and tubwribin^ in 17tl5 The sum of 5001. 
towards mnking^ iipw rMds. Later on h« 
took su importHnt p«n in tlie developm«nt 
of ihe local canal flratom, secinK very clearlT 
bow ncCL'ssarv fur thr traJv of tbc diMrict 

aft«r purity of malmal and finuh of fonn 
bow good fniit. Tie rapidly aciiuired »o 
thinff more ihan a looil reputation. 
{iroductf of his kiln* were CAtcontod for t 
adaptaliou to iLuir several uaes, the va; 
an<l rldgance of llittir aliapM, the deli.-., 
and aobrioty of their colouring, and ttu 
proiiri«tyoftb«irilM-aratioin. TbeaerDtnirla 
applv* wiiecUlly to thn cream warK, aftff 



vren- i-a-iy communication and rapid transit ^ ward* known as queen's ware. This waa 

of mw mati-rials and of ^ods by water na 
wall as by Innd l).'twf«*n lli" chief pUott of 
pmdaclinR nnd of distribution. 

About I76:!,wbi-ii be was sppoint«dqtt6en'» 
potU-r, Wcdpwrtiwl, Rndinj; it n^ceaMir to 
secure addiltonal accomniodniioii. rented tbt* 
Brick Ilou**-' and Wnrks in lliirsli-tn. Thi^e 
buoofiupicd tiniil tux- final n'moval tv Ktruria 
in 1773. In 17(flS 'rht>mii!t Wedjjwood, who 
had been employed in tlio fa«torv »invt> ITfiO, 
waa tmkvn into partnt-niliip. fn the f>ami> 
ypar Jnsinh XWdjrwnnd acquired for 3,00(V. 
B suitable site bi'lween lliiraUnt and 3tok^ 
upoa-TroDt for a new facti^ry and reiidoooe. 
Later on he added considerablv to tbis do- 

Dot brought to perfeclion until about ITi 
or 17(10, wbi'D the ICn§:li.«hpiiU-jili>ufBtBaca»- 
Lsuniguai» 1,1761}) and WiUiatnConkworlfay 
[q. v.] ^ I7tit() had direetnl attention to tka 
true china-clav of Cornwall. But before 
thnt dalu Wwl^fwood had sueonedi'd in im- 
prnving the texturv and colour of his crvaa 
ware, and in prnTcnlinir it« ^lau from be- 
commg tnutnl thrtiiign coatraciinnc mow 
than tlii> body after being finxi in the kiln, 
Thia la*! impnjvcment was efliM?l«l by adding 
both pijiAcUy and (ground Hint to iIm lpa3 
coinpinitid previously uaed alone for nUxin^ 
porpoaes. But Wedgwood's «irly advancee 
were not oonfined to cream ware, lie 
turned his attention to th« ItlHck conipo«iti 

tnain. and biidt thorcon for his workmen a . . . _^ 

villngii, to which h« gave th« name Ecniria, | known as Egyptian black, a rou^tli prodii 
aa well >j the raaiisiou Ktmria Halt and an which, under the iu\nm of black baaalti 

BxtannTO and well-tH|uippLd \v>\ -workn. Tiie 
new Etniria faclorv wiw mwued on Kt Junf 
17fi9,.i««ttenTfiftr»ftfVerAVfldffWfK)dIiad first 
started in buflineu entirely on hit own a«- 
count. DnubtlfHW the «ale of nw-ful war-- 
HH distinf^iMiKll from omnmentsl furnished 
Wedflrwood with the fund* nt hin ili<>{KiKal. 
For dnrinf; the decode 17*i9-(10 Ii*" had bis-n 
coulinuBlly impnaving the cream -coloured 
earthenware, lui well aa several oilier ceramic 
bodies of less importanci-. \Vvd(,'woo«l, we 
know, WM wall iicquninlfid with what other 
pottera in l-'iifrland had alrucidy acliiuved. 
The inj(eniou^ prfwewn-* and beautiful pro- 
dLCtinns of John Philip Elers [q. v.] were 
familiar to him ; ho u^ed tin- »lip-kilii intro- 
duced by lUlph Shnw, the liquid glaze or 
dip* employed bv Knoch Ronlh, and the 

Cr«r-of.ijftrui moulds ch-soribcd by Ralph 
iel. >]nny piilviit'il and aecrel processes 
connected with the ceramic industry had 
been dfiT-iaed in thd forty ycara 17iiO-flO. 
Wedgwood ndoptwl or impnived mnuv of 
them, adding nnvpl elements dt'rivcd i'rom 
bis own careful and num"n)U'< Bi:[»erime«t», 
and from his own acute powers of obaenrar 
tion. Wedgwood was not a grwat chomitt 
in tjie modem sense, for chemistry in hisdav 
waa very imperfectly developed. But his 
t riala of metlioJs niul rantcrial.i WCf Cflrrjed 

nuirnl in Wedgwood's hands a richer h 
ner K''^"*' ""d n smoother surface, 
density wa.9 bi^li (ifO). and it took a floa 

E>li»b on the lapidary's wheel. Of it were 
shioned mnnv objects ^if decoration, sswoll 
a* of utility, f iikMiknd^, M>al^ tea equipega, 
saLt<ce)lani, candlesticks, life-MM busts, TSM^ 
rvlit'f-plajjuea. and medallion portraits of 
'illuKtriiiun ancients and modems werenada 
ill thi.4 body, which wasflometimee d«oni 
with - encaustic' cotoure, silvering, gildl 
or bronzing. The encaii^tic colours w 
onsmeU without (rlose. aad were emplo; 
cbieliy on black baaalt vam^s imitative* 
Gre<-k work. Although the examplus avail- 
able for copying generally beloiigi-d lo a 
period of -[Hjot art : and although the eSWt 
of the encnualic crdoun woa oReti mamd 
by weak drawing and a vulgar modt-rnitT of 
*lyli-, utill ihe body was choicer and the 
potting TOor*> accomplished uny simiiat 
work done by Wedgwood's iminediai^ pre- 
dece<«on. Besides cream •colouiv>d eanben- 
ware and black basnltce, another ware im- 
provc-d by Wedgwood wa» tie Tariegatisd oi 
marbled. This was of two kinds, one colouiw! 
throughout it* entire substance by meana of 
the association, in raiioua twiatingH and 
folding*, of two or more clays fauniing to 
different hue.-* in the kiln. This kind of 

lie J 



out in the cThaurtirw •pirit of true f'cicn.iiUc ware, though improved during hia panniiN 
Inquiry, and brought about many improve- shin with Wliieluon, cannot bit regarded a* 
ments. Hib goad tasti; and hia endeavour , a churac1«riiilic product of Wedgwood's U* 

botif*. But with tbeotlier kind of varit-g^ted { 
ware tha case ia different. This wu crcKtn 
wanvor l«t«roii akinf] of C'Lodl' WBri'.irtvan- 
larlr am] jMChirr-.-iiiUKly veinwl iiud mottled 
merBly an the eurfuce in imitiitimiof v«riou» 
kinlsof |{niiiit», porphyry, jiupcr, »)pcl<-, and 
msrble. It wu Inrgdy nwcl for rases, aad 
W13 distinctly in advane* of anything pn- 
Tiouftly pttxtiiciid in this direction. A fnnrlh 
eerumic body nmdf by Wwistn-ood was pn.i- 
bftbly a ncvr dt-partiinN It was a kind nf 
UOf^uod i«mt-i)<>rc>.-lBi)i, ueod occbsiantiUy 
for the plinthii ot' CQarblMl vaaes and for 
«ulv portntt-mediiUioDii. It pottMHd a 
awAml d«ffrM of tnnitlucwncy and ft amootb 
mxen suriaca ; but its u^efuIneAS vas Im- 
MtUfd by a t«ndoncy to wnrp luid crack in 
firiof;, and hy the dulne.<M and yellowi.ih 
OMt oif its white. Ite pUcp was lak(>D, and 
more than fillcfl, in atirr y>mn« bv t)ie 
g r aa t fltt invenlire triumiib aTnoctf nil AA'edfT- 
wood'a improved waNa, tlic jaKpiT body. 
Of tSuB more mu«t be raid prft>4.'nily, now 
Qoe mtwt b» content with the brtrv mention 
of a fift-h ware — the varioiu kinds of tem- 
ootta, cane^oloiir, bamboo, bricli-red, chocrf 
late, and saf^^en. Thest? wf re of^eii uKtid 
in relief of one hiiv upon ii ijround of 

At the time (1766) whun A\\«dBWf<"»d wns 
deeply oivupifd with ihi- foiiniiinj? of the 
new ktruria, many other important mntterfi 
cn^af^d his attention. Anions t]i«w tliw 
extension of the canal aystetn tohift locality 
otuiht t'> bo named. Wedtrwood'a in- 
defatijofable efTorta, with bis knowlpdjpe 
of th« nquirmnenU of ihv polu-riea' dis- 
trict, luid bnen of g;n>at ust' in A>?ttlin^ sec- 
tions of the flnnd Trunk raiial. In provinK 
thf w«AknrJu> of rival .tohemAtt, and in gnin- 
ififf the appTOTftl of i>>riaii] landowners. He 
Wft« in frequent coniiidtHtion with .(atnfN 
BtindJcy fq. v.", the. enpnecr, nnil with 
l-nmcia Egerton, third duke of Rridgi— 
ivuter [a. v.]: while his friends Km^nnift 
1>BrwiD [q. r.] and Tboinn^ Ik'ntley HiUI- 
^7^<l))'q.V.] helped Uia efforts by ovi donee 
and in writtnus and conft-renCL'^ whi.fiiilH! 
Ijill w«*undiTdi.vtiAAiim by a pariiamentarr 
committet-. Finnllv thf act reooiwd thu 
myal assent on 14'>[uy 1760. Thn Tn-nt 
and Merih'y Canal, wliich was opt^ned in 
1777, and of which Josiali Wedgwuod wa« 
first tre-aBiirtr, pai.'ied tkrongb thi- Rtniria 
Mtato and proved, as \^'odpwood fore*iiiw,of 
tmunnoufi benefit to the thief locti) intliiktry. 
Another maltfir ja^e*()iU(3troublu to H\-dii;- 
wood about th^aametirae. liiaLondonshonr- 
room in Charlca Stn«t, GroBVcnor 3(innrv;. 
proved innd«<|Wit« (and wim indeed cloitrfil in 
t»ctobftr l"ti6),and it waa not until August 

I76H that larger premiMC werr aocurod iti 
Xewpon Street, St. Martin's I^ane. Just 
b«forv thia, on 'JS May, Wod^ood had 
his right leu aoiputatt-d, f^reiiei^ini; that thin 
uwli'Bs and often painful tnomber would 

firovf a Dcrtniis tmcnmbrnnct:' in his en- 
iiTiTcd sphere of work at Ktniria. and on 
14 Nov. of the Mtne year tenns of partner- 
ship weri; finnlly nrrangfod bi-twccn Jasiab 
\\'edjiwooil and Thomas Beniley, the latter 
aoqoirinf^un equal ahan^ in th« profits arising 
from llie soleof omomnntul nsdistin^itshLnlj 
from nsoful ware. Wedpwood's letters «y 
Uenlley rowal lUti writer's appreostiaD 
bis partner'a great aerricvs to tlw bonoMO,' 
and show the innate refinement and amia- 
bility of Wed^ood'a mind iiud cbamcier. 

The mit-tnm and sale of The prodncla of 
\\'edjiw(K)d"» factory ((r«iitly increased after 
the opening of tbo Ktriina work* in l""ia. 
Theomameotal as well as tb'! useful wan! 
bcoarni; bAtt-or and better know-n and a)>- 
preciated, not only in t^ogUnd but on ihti 
continent, lint as yet the moat original 
and moitl distinctivo of tho ceramic liodies 
invented by Wedgwood had not liei'n 
produci-d. He -vraa endearouring to roni- 
pound a pa«le of ftan lextiirn allie<l to Iruv 
pnr(;ulain, but endued with certain nro- 
pprtics, which no burd or soft china 
pn'vinufily made bad posM^^Ai'd. lie foundl 
tile very sobstaiLce required io certain mine- 
ral ('umpoiuuU of the e&nb baryta. Thv 
distinctive cliaractcr nfthis cartb smma to 
have been tint made out in IT7i^ by 
[iuyron dc Mon-eau, while William Wilher- 
ing [q. v.] four year* aftfi-wnrds rvcugnised 
the same base m a mineral ciirbonaii: fniui 
Lt«d-hills, LnnarkabJni. But M'edifwo'jd 
M) early as 1773 wa.t making triaU of both 
theeu uintTals. Uu was punled by the 
apparontlv aipHcioua b<*haviiiiir of Ihewe two 
c'ompnimde, but learnt when; to obtain and 
how to rvcotrnise the more important of the 
two. tbf siilphaft> of bairtft or cawk. which 
became henceforth the chief and characl eris- 
tic con«titHrnt of his 'jasper,' although a 
•>ion[l quimiiiv of lbi< carbonate of baryta 
WAR occasionally added to the mixture. (»ne 
of Wedgwood's early r«cipw for this new 
jasptir l»ody, when trnnialntird inin ncrcen- 
lagi^s, approaches these figures — flulphal« of 
bfirrfca W, clay 29. flint 10, and corbonate 
of baryta '2. Within nitbi»r wider limits 
these proportions were varied with corre- 
itpnndlng varintions in the prnjicrties, 
texture, and appearanceof the product. But 
l!i« product was a ceramic novelty, a 
emi^th panto of exquisite toxture, without 
pm^itive glawt, yet no compiiict as to admit of 
bc;iiig poliEhcd, like natiTc jasfier, on the 




lapidnry'H wheel; nf rarying degMU of 
ftub-tip&city to Lrnnsluovticy, mmvUntM ft 
<]«ad whif, *)in-*(inif« o( •n ivory lioi*. 
But its chiftf cliarni was derivt-il from lU 
beliaviour in the liiln with ciTlJiin molnllii'. 
oxidM. By neaiui of tht-He th*- jasphr body 
Oould be stained or coloured of Tariou* 
exquisite hnps oitber on it« Aiirfai^f^layer or 
tlirougbout its aab«tanc«. The oxide, 
-nhetlif r that of Mbalt for blur, of man^- 
nuse fur tiluct u( iron for yellow, of iron an J 
of cobalt fur green, did not form a layer 
{bb with etianiol on ]M>r<.'uliun) lyiiin m uti 
•dhereni filtn u]x>ii tb» pa.<itt-, but became 
tboroilgbly incirpomced with the materiuL 
t-o which it was applied- But th«rn w*re 
two method* of employing tlie chromatic 
coostilnent : it might bo tninglvd uniformly 
wilb the body, forminir «olid ja^er, nr it 
might be tued a* & vasa upon the Etirfaee, 
ihua conatitutiof; jasper dip. The Iftt^r 
metliod vrus Invented in 1777, but ume 
into (r«tie™l uiw after the death of Bimtley 
in 17rlU; ifimiitlmfM, aa in ia.-<pt.>r ^rap and 
chtiqtwr wuTk, both tnnthixU went used on 
the name piece. Jiwpor vrfut emplorod in 
the productian of an imuinruin vanely of 
objects, portrait and otbi<r mudallions and 
plaques, lea and cofTw SfU, ■nll-o-lliirn, Imib 
nndHower-poTA, lumps undrandleatifrkfl, bpU- 
pulls, »L'unt-holl!ea, chewtnen, and last and 
inottes(««niedor all,nmn.iiifTital Tflse*. Tbo 
putA in relief, BeniTally of whitp jaaiipr, 
wort) soparatoly formed in moulds and tlien 
Ktlixed to the coloiin-d Iwdy. tTwially before 
firing, but sutnt-timijs after, corrections, un- 
df-reiitliii^, and further modellinft could be 
givtio lo ite rtliiifs, and tbua it happens that 
m many imrtniit i^anieoa, plnqiieaandvaaes, 
ih^Tfl im) vsriatioiiB of l'xchIIouco btlwycu 
different coiw" from the sjijne mould. This 
rcmartt Appliea partiL-uUrly to ihu larger 
aud more important pii^**, hucIi for iii- 
Alancs as Wwlgwond'n rRmarkable poprodat:- 
tion in jOAp^r of the antupm rUimi cnmeo 
vaae known as the Barbi'riTii or I'nrtbind 
Vhse, No two copies of the very limited 
ori|pn>Ll is-iue (about 1760) of this vue are 
exactly alike, tli« dift'erenceh not beins con- 
fined to colour of the ground and quality of 
the whitfl reliefs, but extending to the 
mtxlellinp and finifli of I lie .'.iirfaces of the 
figuro*. WedfTWiiod's original price for bin 
best copifi'* was fifty ^jomidji, a num which 
has been (greatly excfwdDd in recent years, 
whon copies have been sold for 173/., 
199/. 10*., and 215/. 6*. It may he hfife a<lded 
tbnt a |u8pcr tablet, tlB incites by 11 inches, 
asacri^ce to Hymen, produci-d in 1787, wa.* 
sold in 1880 for no 1«S6 a sum than IIG^ 
But the highieat figure reach«.>d by a piece of ^ 

{'a«per \rar«! wait in 1877, wlum a 
ilacic and while jaKjtet^ip vase, de 
with thn di-3>iiin of the ' ApotbvoM tt 
Homer.' fetched, with itit pb<l««i«], no Im 
than 7:t.V. It should be not^d that W«a^ 
wood fnmuently poli^W-d on the wbeei iw 
vigo of his cameo*, and occasiooally fr«a 
the grounds or fields of hia amallcst pitfltl 
thus clottely imitaituig Uie appearsaoe d 
natural engraved atones. 

It must not bo thoujitht that Wedgwood'i 
ener^tea nvre conis«ntr«t»^ upon oimitsiwIJ 
ufomum«nt&l pottery, or that he Guled u 
d>?velop th-? [in^'birtioii of uM>riil wan. H>* 
CAtaloguea wen- indeed conhnrd to dtwn- 
tiru piece*, but tlieir ext*>nsive distribuliot, 
not. only in Knjiliih, hut in Fivnch, Dutch, 
and tjerman translal ions, drvw aiti>nti(nit« 
his productions, such u ht« dinner aarvica, 
which became extremely |Mpular ull vnt 
Europe. WivlpfwoiKl'aagenta were geaerallT 
aclivu ill obiuining oruBK for bout uufol 
and oniametitiU wai««, whtl«> homii uil 
forcipn patronage, royal, nnhlf, or di«tiii- 
gui(tU>-i3, greatly Mt«ndeil his i^pwatioo 
and h'jn biuineas. Tlie two dinner aerrioa 
fini«liiHl in 1774 for the Kroprasa Oatbe> 
rinp II of RuS'tiA mnsifttt-d of 95:; piece*, tf 
cruatn -coloured wara, the decoratiMk vf 
whii^h, in enamel with Enfflisb viewi mi 
with ornamental leaf borders, add«d a luo 
of over )i,000l. to the original cost of Uu 
plain itervicM, which wu under hSl. 

Wedjrwood's deai^a were dnwn fma 
numerous aourc«A. Engraving ca^tit fraiB 
antiqiii; and rvnais«ance ^ma, the origiiial 
work of many neulpiors. Kttgli»h as wul u 
fomigu, such as Jolut Haxman, I^ K. Raa- 
tiiliair, llfnry \Vrhl»T, William Hadnrood. 
.Iiimee Ts&sie, Keeling, HoUing*hc«d, and 
i'lieetti, with devij^is lakoi direct ftvm an* 
cient vaae» and sculptureii, furnished abua- 
djince of material. But ^V'edgwood «rw 
more than a mere chooser and cmploTeror 
artists, a mere translator intoolay of doelgn* 
madii by other hands in other inalnrials, s 
mere copitr of tlu- antique. He pocscwri 
^roiit power of nda|)talton, ntid an inwolirv 
faculty, which njvenled itaelf not only ia 
new material]* and utsyv method*, but in tb« 
origination of new forms. Into hit scltvlcd 
dnMiniiit, oriKinal or derivative, he infusoi 
something of his spirit and temper, auil 
combined, wherever posedble, beauty and 
utility. I lilt work wiu distinguished by 
reticence in form and colour, and thai 
olTerod a marked contrast to the cotUem- 
porary productions of Cfaflsea and Wftf> 
ccsfer. In fact, no otlitir potter of moien 
limes .MJ tiuccoMfuIly welded into one har- 
monious wholi;t.hi> priise and the poelr^^ 




tile c^nmic nrt. Evi^n it Ue hiM left us no 
wurk« whicli w« ciiii call wlioUy hi* own, 
we hniiw that Iil- wn^ a p^aeti(^4l thrower. 
Hti vxporL moOdlur uiul uu itigffniuui< ilu- 
aignvr of new Hliiijifit ; itnd thul liia 9«li«» 
{if bcftuty, his power of tm&giuuiiou, bit 
sbrewdtwss, dkill, furoni^lil, p.'r*i:vrran(ri; 
•ndknnvlei^i^ftii&bli^hini tontuiin.insmte 
aniquo position. Hi" oom]>nnion*liin und n<]- 
vicirwepe ■ounlii l>y mifii wf I he biKii^*' cnl- 
tivatian. Bui Iiik rrputAtion in bi« own rlny 
and in bie own m-iglibourboixi wax liui-. nvl 
only to appTMiatioii of thi>work whicb was 
tbc mniii necupfttion of hts lifL-, bill tn tbi' 
([(■nvnikiiy, puulio )>|>inC, and high [lerMtiial 
rhanuter, wliic-h were tn conspicuous io 
Wedgwwod. Thw moiit nttrnclivo juxiibicti' 
of bi» kilns were intitftled, iiomF>Tim<M wilb a 
fsir mrasiue of success, by a host of polt«r« 
during the lut. qu&Tt«r nl* the i-ij[bT>>'Hith 
ecutury and the fir^t (juarter of ihe uiiie- 
t««nt<h, but themeritof initiutini^andcArrr- 
inf^ nut on D Ttry lar^ Kale n gnrat tet^- 
niral ami arti-ilic developuieut of Kngliiib 
uarthenwiLn' ri'mnintt vrith Wvdtrn'outI, UU 
proddclioni, with Ihoiie of hiR immeduiLA 
pred^fAvm, bis contamponriflB, his rival», 
imitntopk HndsucC6noT«iSbQuld b« compart 
tod conirasti^il not only in Biich nuhlic col- 
lections as tboK" of the South hen§in((ton 
Miueiim, tJi0 Mui^umof Pmcticul firtAlopy, 
md the Briliab Miiivutu, in I^ndon, hut 
alw by tbp Btiidy of thp Tan^ive Colli»clion 
at Rirminchiim, thi* Mftyer ColUcfion nt 
IJveruool,ibe llulme Collection ntllunlfUi, 
and toe JoMpb CoUection in Nottingham 

WedflTwooii'a coniributiona to literature 
(otJier llion pri\-nle k'ttere) nn few. ThtTy 
is coond cominonHtciiNi^ in hit* ' Addmiu to 
tbe Youn^ TnbabitaiitH of tli't Poiu^ry.' pub- 
lish*^ in 1T8S on liw ocrasioJi of brpsd 
riott, and in nnntliiT <>piHtlft to workmen 
n>Iating to their ent^riof the K>rvic«> of 
foreign inannfactiir«r>. ]Ii« r»Diarl<» on 
tbi* ban-reltefi of tbe Portland vase are not 
valuable, while hla criticism (l77o) of 
Hicbard Champion'* pulition fur nu cx< 
teuaion of a patient t^ir loakinx p'lircr-lain 
would bare been dilTianmtly -worded had 
h* Imsb anqu«int«d with thn n-al miTitsof 
Ohampion'e cs« (for a rerit-w of the inarf«r, 
•ee Hroii Owes'h Tico Cmturies of Ceramic 
Art in liriiitol, \n7:y pp. 1 J9-JSI>.' 

On WJHti. I7^;J AmJuwood was elected 
« fellow of the Uoyjil Society. !]■? contri- 
buted two papeni on chemical subjects Io 
the * Phdosophical Transact ions' (17SJ and 
1~9I>), and timw I'iii 1782, 17&4, and 17^) 
on Lbe conjilraction aiid iu« of a pyn>* 


meC4tr, an inpiiioii(t invention for determine 
iuf; and re^Merin^ bigb tumpvraturvs by ibti 
m«a«iin!mfnt. of the shriakogi' suiri^red by 
cylindersof prvparvd clay in thefumttWoV 
kiln. This metboj, thuugh utill t-mplnytv] in 
•ome iJOtiwies, uffimlg irr^^rular rtoiillii. On 
4 -May 1786 \Vedgwr»id nrn^ elected a fellow 
yf tut' ijociety of Anii(i\iari.'ii. ITt) ex- 
btbilttd to tbti sociwly on tf May 1790 an 
I'arly copy of thts Rarbt^rinl Ta«P and read a 
papT tlienson. In Ihe aamo year he retired 
from w>me of tTie mon^ ardiiotu duties of his 
business. Diiriofr t'''» "ud the tlir^-i.' subev- 
qui>nt fcAfft his bealtb ravH frmgiifnl >^c- 
casiooB for anxiety to bii^ frii^ndH, but he 
was able Io entertain a «ucoiu>i>ii>n of con- 
genial vieltora at Etruria Hall, To make 
longer tixcurslimv from home than before, 
nod to divert himself by improvini? his 
iTTounds nnil by collectinjf books., eiigrav- 
inga and objt-f^u of nntnrul hiatort'' But 
al>er u brief illness, the nature of which 
ndmitteil from the outset of no hope of 
recovery, Jotiialt Wedgwood died at Einiria 
Hall on 3 Jan. 17U6,at tlieageof «iIv-fotir. 
His gTEve a in Sioko-un-Tn,>nt churchyard ; 
in tbe chancel there is a inonumi-nt to his 
memory by Flnxrann, with nn iiifurripiion. 
which 1 r\[s iiH thai, br ' roiiverled a rude ana 
inconsidcnible mnnufactoTy inio an filef^ut 
art and an itnpfjrtani: part of national 
commerce.' Wwlgwood left more than 
half a million of money besidi's liia largo 
and flourisliiiig business. His will, made Oil 
:i Not. 1 "ii;i, wna provod on '2 July 1795 
(P. C. C. 484 Newcastle), lie dividi^d his 
substance mainly among hia childn'U, but 
did not forget tbe aMiilojit who, since 17^1, 
luid helped him in hi* scientiiic wurk, 
leaving' to Alexander Chiaholm an annuity 
of '20i., an immediate g:ifl of tcm );uiiiefts 'm 
a testimony of regard;' and further dwring 
liix ' son Jokinh To make tlio remainder of bis 
lifi' ejLiy and coraforiahifl." 

On '2li Jan. 17tI4, at Astbury in Cheshire, 
W't-'Irw'iod married SiinJi U'ed^wood, 
daughter of Iticltard N\'edi;wood of iiwn 
Orecu, Cheshire. Mrs. Wedgwood and her 
husband were cousins in the (bird dugre>e, 
their common Kreat-grenl-graiidfathyr beinu 
the Gilbert Hedjrwood previously nanieiL 
Sill) wait b(irn on 18 An^. 1734, nnd died oil 
16 Jan. ISlfi, From the union there S[irAn){ 
seven children, three sons and four duugh- 
ters. The eldi>itt cbih), SuMuinuh, married 
Kobert Waring Darwin, son of Dr. F>afimui4 
Uarwin [q. v.], and father of L'harles l^ibert 
Durwiti \i\. C.j Wedgwood's lliird son, 
Thom&A, iM noticed separately. His swond 
s(in, JoAiah,hud nine children. One of thesti 
WM Henaleigh Wedgwood [q. v.j, matliema- 


tteiso aud pliilulujfist : a diiug!it>jr, Eitmii, 
married hiT timt <-<iiiitin,C'liiirIc.H Robert Dftr- 
win. The works at Flniri* aro etUl carri«d 
on 1>T u irniti'Jsnn nnd ollwr ilc*C«»tUut* of 
the w'ound JoAinh Wedgwood. 

A pi:»ail portrait of Wpdjfwood, pumlifd in 
178S by ^ir Josbun Rcynoldw. now beloogn 
to MU* WcdgwcNKl of l^^illi llilt riace, 
Dorking ; it hue bc«n twice enpntTcd, onoc 
in uiuziocint by S. W. H'-vnoM*. TfisKwl 
of Crawford owns an i«rly opy in oil by 
Jolin Itisiog. Uworg« Stul)bs paint«d iu 
oil a fmnilr piriniv with iiinf lif(ur^s, four 
{ming on horsehnrk, alio n large porl rait in 
oiiritnL'l on earthL-nwnre ; both thvsv works 
ar.^ now in the iKWMMion of Mr. Oodfi^>y 
Wedffwood. A i-orimit of Wedgwood on 
horsAUCkiftbto paint L-d in rtinntvlDQ cart tun- 
ware, is owiiedfby Lord Twt.-edtnoulh ; an 
cnffTaving of this niemn? U girfu in F. 
Itathbone's 'Old M'ljdffwotMi.' A citmi-o 
medal linn •portrnit, iwitli'll'-d by William 
Huckwood, rras mndo nt Ktniria. On thp 
mouiinipnl in Stok'xjn-Trpn' church tlicr>' 
is a prMtthuTnoiiH relief by Flaxmnn. while 
there is a modem btist oy Fontona in the 
Wfldzwood SU-raorial Ia«titi)1o at niir8l«m 
(fomided J803). A broazeelaiueof Wedg- 
wood is at t^toka close to the railway 
atation; it is thu work of Mr. K. Davia, of 
liondon. Il in bHli»>'d lUsI u wax cameo 
portrait of Wedgwood wasetecutcd shortly 
aft«r ITSl by Eli-y ticornto Mount !i[v|>li(.'u. 

[Aipi^ii^ tlie courc«> u^ in preparing this 
mfttnoir am JUntojanl's Lifo of Joaiab Wedg- 
wood, ISfl.i; Ward'" Rwronnh of Slokp-nnon- 
Treril, ISI3; n.myVOu. i.if Liverpool Art Club 
Loan Colloctinn, 1S7B: V. lt>ubbon«'n Cat. of 
the OeiiteniLry Kxbibitjnn .it Unralnm, IBSA; 
Chareh'a I'urifultu MonoKntpli ou Joviah 
Vodjfwoad, 1894. TheSCAflbrd i\<lrertiin-of 
29 JAIto ISOA ennlainx an nerounlof llii^ pro- i 
nedloga at Buraleiii M tbe mutnnry of JosJah 
Wtdfcwood'fl dcallu] A. H. C. 

WEDGWOOD, THOMAS (1771 -1H051. 
the llr^l iihoiograpbvr. born at KtruriaHall. 
StAftbrdsliirf, on 14 May 1771. was the third 
suiriviog sou of Josijili Wi)(l(fwood [q. v.] 
He Wft»*-dticat<r(l almo5>t i-iitiri*lv a1 linmi-, 
but spent a few termFt at Edini>nrgli llni- 
^*«rBity between 17f*7 and ITi^P. For a very 
■hnrt wbiV bf workM enrrjiieticAlly at tbe 
potteries, but was soan compelled by bad 
hB&tth to lead a wnnd'^rin):; life in vain 
(oiireh of curp. 

Tbe name of TliomM WedjTwood is chiefly 
remembered in conncet ion wtthphotO(p"npliy- 
It bad long K'^n kmnvn that nitratn and 
ehlnride of silver nrp affected by light under 
certain conditions, but tbi* id«« of tnakinf; 
practical use of this property does lUt a&om 

lo hai i; vcournid to any one beroi*' it oocurred 
to WedfOik'Oad. hi t lie ■ Journal nf I hf Rnyi ' 
' Instttittion of Great Britain ' for IWfi? we lir 
' ' An Account of a Mothml of ctipyint; I'aii 
! inj^ upon fiWs and of making Pfililc^ 
the a^^ncy nf Light upon Nitrat« of Silv*j 
inrt-ntcd by T. W'-dfrwood, cwj., with 01 
B»rvationsby lI.Davy ' V-elJAvr.SiB Hi7i 
phiit'. Wedf^wood showed that a copy 
a itilbouclle of anyobjeci could be obtauie 
when its shadow was thrown nn a piw i 
nhitt.' paper or Iputhcr which bad bet-n sensfc 
tisnl by beinff mniM>*n«d with nitmt<* 
silver. In a similar manner a silhouette 
a piclun- naint>.'d on glass conld be ot 
tained by placmg thn ^lasa in tb4.' ligtit 
th(> sun 'ipon ibe sensitised surface. T 
' primary t-nd ' of hi* i-\periiD(*nt« w*» lo ol 
tain photographic in a camera obwium, but i 
thi<* endeavour ht- was unsuccessful, sa ni; 
elTvct could bu ohininvd ' in anr moderate 
time,' Motwover he failed to diACOvrr 
mvlhod of Gxiuff bis picture, and the cnpie 
madti had to b» kept in ibi; dark. Mu 
Mefeyard iritw to coitnect the Dagur 
whose nam*) is known in couaeclion wit 
the Daeiiermtype, with a cii>rtain Hagiiei 
with wbom Joaiah Wcdgn-ood had businewj 
dealing*, and in lhi« way to Irac« back ib 
origin of thene early French pliotogrnphit 
invculioni to Thoma« Wedgwood; but it ii 
proboblc that tlwrc i» no juntification what- 
ever for ihes** »nnnises. Although Wi ' 
wood failed to discover a practical nhotc 
graphic j)^x;•^-lD), to him appears to hv di 
tbe credit of lirst conceiving and imbliithinq 
the ides of utiliKing iha cneuicai action 
light fort hepurixiiti- of making piclur>>s,Mt]ie 
by conlacE nr m the rnnii-ra, and of t«kif 
itie first step* towards tbe rvaliHation of 
project [^pi-T* I, ani.Wrt.uiM Uesht FoxV 
On his father's death in I7Uo Wi-dgwood 
inlicritwl n eonaiderable properly, and 
much of hi» fortuiu' in aiding men of g>eniu&.1 
When in 171W Samuel Taylor (.'-oleridge wa« 
a candidut'; for the piieloral charge of the 
iinirnrinii cliapel at Shrewshurr, in onW t< 
enable him to devote himself entirely U 
iibilonojibv and pof'try Wudf^wood and his 
omther offT^ nim an annaily of LilU* 
year, the value of the emolument, the pro- 
itnrtcr of which hf> abandoned by acceptini 
ttiis offer. Thomas \V edgn'ood's half ofllMj 
annuity waa secured legally to Colaridgio fo 
life. Sir .John \a-»Vw [tj. v.l, whose ac- 
quaintance hf m&ile at Edinburgh, was alvn 
assi»t«d in a »rmi1ar manner. Dnring tJ>e 
iilarni tif invaxtun in 1803 and 18l>l ha^ 
equipped at his own expfina4> a forps at' 
volunteer* rat««(l in t he country lound L Ue*- 
wftter. They wen- known u tlra 'L(>ya! 




Wedf*romI VoluntoL-rB.' T\m last eight or 
niiw yvcisof Wed^'ood's sliort UfKW«t« nn 
inoesaant alruggile vrilh diM!{i«>. He died al 
EBctburr. 1>or«el, od 10 July 1805. 

IVrhhim thft maxl striking tribiitw to 
Wedjrwood is that of Sydney ymitli wlwEi 
hf tuiid that he knew ' n<» man who appesTK 
tn have road^ aiich an impression on liis 
friendK,' and his fri^n'U inL-liK!>:?>) mtiny 'j^ 
tbft loadinfT m(>n rtf inrHlct-t of iIj>> ilny. He 
pavf> W'ordswortb * an imprea*ii:iii of sub- 
limity.' Tbomu CiuiipboU aponfas of him as 
■ 'timnfTi- and wotiilvrful boing . . . full of 
{{OodntiM, bena vole net? ... a man of won- 
dcrful talents, a tacr uf tiuitv arut« be- 
vond diwcriptitm.' Hin opiniiKiK wi-re to Sir 
Iliimphry thtvy as ' a wcrpT- tnmsurf.'and 
oft>!D. h« said, eTialiU'd him to ihiiilc richtly 
tvhij-n pivrhnpA ntlicrwiKe hn wniilii linvr 
lhou(;h* wrongly. Thomas Poole wrotu o! 
W«d^*ood that ho ' vu a man who mixod 
«ublitiii! and oomprehensivB views of general 
■ystema with an acuteness of search into the 
minulLin of the detail* of e&oh bi-rotid any 
pvrvon h*- nve-t mirt. with/ 

Aa m ColeriiljfB'fl praiflpa wt- may jiiThapfl 
he tJ'QtpUs) to discount th<-m, thoiij^h hu d'j- 
eURtd, «rid«nt1y alladinir to the annnity, 
tbatWedK^ood was not ' teso the iKnefsctor 
of his int«>lWf.' It U, however, to bi? r»- 
gretted thai the 'full portrait of his friend's 
mind and chftnict«,' wrilt»n by Ojleriiise, 
is lo«t, and ol«t> thiiT Sir .I«mi'* M«cliiiiun«h 
nevvr carrk-J "ut hie intention of pnbliith- ^ 
ing NVod^ood's speculations, and at thm 
nm» time of ehowiug 'how bright u philu- 
Mphical eeniui vent out when the life of 
that feeble bojy was extinguiflhud.' 

Wedj{«'0<¥!'i> iiidy writ iiijrn are two papiTu 
on the * Production of M^ht from dinen^nt 
Bodinbr Il?at andbyAttrition.'rFadbffore 
thti Rovh) Society in J7!H and I79'i, in wliii^h 
we Unci the earliwit HiipK««tion of th? tceneral 
law, since (ifltablishcd, that all bodies be- 
oonw red hot nt tb« Mme tempontuTC. They 
are remarkable as indicatinf; a considerable 
power of rosMrcfa when Iwi was only twouty 
y(<at« of age. 

IPhil. Tmjw. Koyal tiff. I79'i . Mel^yatvVa 
Qnmput Hnglimlimiui; M<>t«jra'ilsIJr«of Josiali ' 
Wadirwootl : CampbvU'B Ufe of S. T. Colcrid^; 
Bandford'sThomiuCookftmlhi:* l-'ricnilfl; Pans'ii 
Irffn of Thiry; Bmltie'x I.ifn ntii] I«ll4>rs of 
Thomas CumpMl ; 0)l«Ti:li;r'* Friend, 18(0, \ 
i. 190: infarmatiou kiuilly girca by It. B. 
Litchfield. c>9.] L. J). I 

WEEDALL, HFA'RY C178fi-185fl>. pre- 
sident of >fi. Mary's College, Oscoti, born in 
Li>nd.>non tl^^pt. 17^8, wassonof u-madicul 
prartitioner who had bwn at Dnttuy Collt'i^u \ 
with Johu Milner [q. v.], bishop of CVntu- | 

bala. At ihu age of six ynan he was wmt 
to ths whool at SedBley Park, and thero 
he remained for nine year* and a half. 
Heinjj dostiucil fur thu prifsthooil, hu con- 
tinued his coiirrtft at fit. M»ry'n CloUege, 
Ok-'oII, and was nrdained pri4St by Bishop 
Miliier at WolTiThumpton on ({ April iyi4. 
He taught claasicH in rht> colIfgL- for some 
ynnm, and in. 1818 he became its vice- 
pre-tident and profi'ssor of theolofcy. AfUr^ 
wards he wa« appointed actiofi prosidont of 
the collcpo, and he became ahsolnlv presi- 
dent in \62fi. Ho woe alio chosen u cnnon 
of the English chapter, and mndt' vicar- 
generul to Bidiup Thomas Walsh, vicur- 
apostolic of the midland ili«trict. lie was 
cniat*d ll.D. by Xfl in January ItR?!). 
l)unri(( his prt»id«n<;y the new lmildin;;s at 
0»!oti were erecli'^I, and his natnc- is inti- 
nintelr associated with that college and 
aeminarv, whiTe he upent more than forty 
years of Jiis life. 

In 184U he wan nominated biidiop of 
Abydos in partibtu, and vicar-apostnljc of 
the new northern dutrict of Kngland, but be 
went to llomi' and obtained a relpfl.Hc from 
the Bpjxii 111 meat. In June 1813 he took 
charge of the mission at Ijcamington. Buiug 
called lo 8l. Chad'K, Birmingham, hti waa 
made vicar-ffcnpnil and d«sn of the cnth>-* 
dml. ^oo oft-jrwanls ha retired to thi' 
canvi^nt «l Hsudiiworth, near Dimint'ham. 
H'i' wn-1 appointrti orovoet of Biniiinjrlium, 
and hf asxisted at tLe first C<JUiicil of Weflt. 
min^tt-r, In Jnly li*.')3 he wfli*n;in<il«ted as' 
nrcMid.-nt wf <.>«;ott College, and on 9 Mar 
1 K5i he was named by l*iiis IX n monsi^o'r 
of the Nt-coud rank, aa domestic prolate of 
his Ilo1iness,',heintflhiiMnntitl«d to the stylo 
of'right ruvureml.' He died at Oncotl 'on 
7 Nov. 1W9. IIi:< rnnernl s-Tmoii, pniuched 
by Dr. (afterwnnts ('nrdinall Xewman, wa* 
pidili*hed (inderlhe title of 'The Tkv he- 
nidi! thrt Waten. 

\\'eedall was disiingLiishml hv his elo- 
qii(!nc« ii« ft prmcher. He wu« (^iminutire 
in stature, nad suflurud from ill-healtJi 
thTOU);hoiit his life. 

ile was die author of: 1. An edition of 
the • Uouay Ijitin Grammar,' IS2I. 2. ' Tito 
Origin. Object, end Tntluencd of Ecclojiast 
cal 8>'miniiries considered. ... To which i 
addefl a .'thort di-wonrse explainini; Ilia Doc- 
trine and Meaning of the Catholic Church 
in consecrating IVlls,' llirmintfliam, 1 
8ro. He alsii published Hcvoral funeral 
mons and addresses. 

[Lifn by P. C. Hutenbetb. D.D. Lond. I8SD ; 
London nnd Dublin Orthodox .fournal. 1638, vii. 
1(18 ; (Inrotinn. nnw <tor. if. W5 (with pnrtrattj. 
and tlic 'History of Oscotl' lo snhnqnont 



VotanMOf thnl pmN>din*l ;Onnt, M»);, I8J9, ii. 
M>; HpidT'i Epiioopnl JJutsflBUon. iii. aJ7. 
2*8,32*. 312.] T. C, 

WEERKS. IIKNKY (l«)7-1877>. sculp- 
tor, wft« bom at Caiilerburv in 1807. Aftf-r 
nerviD^ itii apprt'ntirL-tbip of five yeaw wJlti 
WillUm Ilebiiea ^.|. v.] and utinlrinK in tlie 
■ctiooli iif tbi> lio\a\ Acnihtmy. hr bfcaat' un 
MftistAnt. to Sir Frsnri* Leffsit Chautrev 
rq. v.^ On tbe d(«tb nf thu Utt<?r ia lB4ii 
WfwlcH* cnrriiii) out manr of hU cnniiaif^iou, 
■nd look over hi« dtudio in niii*ktnf;haui 
Piilnff R(iK(). wbicb Iw oceupied llirougbuut 
his liff. Ili> •'xbihittfd for tbe tir*l timv «l 
rh'' Itoyal Acwlemy in 1838. and in IKls 
modelled tb(^ tir»t biut nf tbu quiH>a done 
after her ucoMion to tbe tbiYHie. TI^ torik 
fl higli position an a p«rtrait-»ciilptor, and 
hi« wtiTKJ of tliia class haro gn«t mmt. 
He «xecut«d tb<^ ttntups of Sir Fn(ici« 
Bacon, for Trinity Colie>KR, Cambridge ; 
Lunl AuckUmI, for Calcuiia; Dr. Uoudall, 
f«r Eton ; Jolm Fluntr^r, for t)ie Itoynl Col- 
li'lfit or Surifeoiis; ■\Villi».ai Harvuyi for tbe 
new mii'U'iim ni Mufurd : Archhtittiap Sum- 
iUT,rorCaaier>jiiryCotbtHlnil; OharWII, for 
Ills Hon*' of Lord*; lb.? figun-.* .jf Cma- 
mcf, Lalimer, and Kidlt-y in the Martyrs' 
Mwrnonalat Dxford; and n vvrv liirg« niim* 
ber of bu«ti< of cminGHt penonA. ' Of hia 
fnncy Bgurv* and gn)iip» ibo moat important 
U* the RhellifT mr'morinl in f'briittt'btircb 
Abbey, IIam|)«bire, and ttic gronn of * Mnmi- 
fftCtures' in tlix Allwrl M-monat iii Uydv 
I'ark. EniniiviTi;:^ of bis fipiir« of a 'f^up- 
pUant' and Stu'lley mociuuit'nl wen.* pub- 
hthvd in the ' Art Journal ' in IH.53 and I8ft.t. 
W«!rl("-« wrt* plerted an nxaooiiilo of ibn Uoyal 
Academy in lf*-'-<\ nfull member in IStW.nnd 
profewor of ncdlptiirv in 1873. In 18.'i2 he 
was Award4^>d u gold intnlnl l.v thi.. Society of ■ 
Art* for liiit tmilLsu on tbu Quo art-* ivciion 
of tho Intenintinnal EnliibifioD'il' lH,"ii, lU- I 
diitd, aftt-r mach FiilTering, at liiji house in I 
I'imliro <m 2K Mny 1^77. lli« bii« «f Dkqu I 
Huvkland is now in tho National Portrait j 
ItHllt-rv. A marble buiit of Wetkus was lent I 
by J, Krnfrt Wcokea to the Vietorinti Exhi- j 
bitioti in 1867. ] 

[Moa of lh<i Time, 1876; Art Jonmal. 1877; 
RfdirrftVCH Dirt, of Artints.) F. M. O'D. 

WEELKES. TITOVAH (Jl. 1BOO\. rausi- 
ci«D, was probtibly bom betwoon 1-170 und 
IWO, nj- in lo!l7 he published a sel of mn- 
drigoU, which hv call* intlit- dudicaiion -the 
first-fniicti of my barrun gnjund." ![« also 
albiiUtl to Ills 'unrijk'UwlyMni' in the dedi- 
cation of hi* Necond publication in 151W, 
Soon nflerwarda ho oecame organist of 
Winclie*U'tUollege,a«ft]ipi»arB from bUpuh- 

licnlioiu ID IW-X). He tbua proceeded to 

Now ('ollf>g<^, (Uford, bul wa» not on lb<* 
ri>unJati'>n(^t7. f.wji-. Ontt. Il.i.31. 1 17). 
He AuppU^aln) for thu dcgrno of Mas. }iitc. 
on V2 Feb. 1601-:^, and wa-t admitird on 
1.1 July fullon-inff. \Vni»dl/'(M/i")errontvil¥ly 
t-allfl biin Williaui Weclk*. In the work* 
piibliiihi-d in 1<JI»S be dfwrilKit himself tt 
orgKnint of Chicbo^tcr Oatbedrat and gentl.- 
manoftbt-CbaiwI Koval : but bL<^ iianu'doei 
not oc<^ur in the ' CLeque-book.' Hr dinl 
befon^ I041,aeaiiiinihL>niof bhwasincludtHl 
in Barnard's * First Hook of SM.\-iJtI Chun b 
Mii^ick,' frtjm which compowr* then livinj^ 
were cxctiidvd. Another antbi.'m in Uar- 
nard'a maDUocript colIeoiionA nt tbv Itoyal 
Cid!r({r> of Miisic is daieil 9 March 1017.' 

We.>lke8'.i publicatioa« wur*: 1. ' jladri- 
jtal- to 3, 4, 5, and 6 Voyces,' ITO'; thi* 
colli^ctinn wai oditxd in ■«>rt- by E, J. llo[»- 
kins for tbe Musical Aiiliqiiarian Socii'iT. 
lAiJi: Noe. 2-t are set lo tbe wonl» ■ Mr 
flocks feed doi,' un ini'omK.l vprston ofwhi^li 
ftubaeqVentlv apfH-an^l iii I Ik- 'Passionsie 
Pilgrim.' £ ' Kallels and Madrigals to fivt.- 
vovce-». wilh tmu t" 6 royew,' 159H: re- 
prinlt-'d in lti08. .1. ■ MadrigaU of Si and 3 
part* apt for ihp Viola and \'oyce#,' ICOO. 
4. ' MadrigaU of R part^, apt for t^e \'ioU and 
Voi«'*.' 16iX). 5. 'Ayera or Pbanlarticke 
Spiiil<-fl for lbi¥« Voicea,' 160H. Wenlk™ 
afsto nontribiKi'd a madrigal to Morley* 
'Tnumphsof (.Iriana,' 1001; audlwopieoefi 
to lA'igliton'g "Toares or Lanwatacions of a 
sorrowful Soiile,' 1IJ14. Boside« ibe aotheu 
printed by Barnard in I»U1, twn nth^n- wera^ 
publifbvd in ibe Muiical .^Viitiquariaii S/ 
ciety'fi '.■Vnthemn by Comiw»WT« of tbe Ma- 
drigulimi Period' and ' KnaponseA to tt 
roniiiinndm.^nl* ' in ' Tbe Oljoir and MuiJra 
liecord,' July lrt61. In tlK'inaniisrrtpt col-l 
iMtionn now at the Royal I'ollcgo ofMusie,! 
whenct! Bpimsnl seliTted his publication*, I 
there are eleven oiber unthems; and vocal, 
and instnimcnial pieces am pre«<Tvnd in 
Coayn's 'Virginal Book' at Buckingham 
Palace, in Additional MSS. d02»!), SOSBA-^, 
^37^^:, and ^OIlT ai the Britbh Muwum, 
and in MS. 1S8l^ ni lUt- Itoyal Colt^e. A 
madriga) was published br Stanley Lneai 
from Additional MSS. 1778(t-m ; and there 
are nnvans for vinli> in .Additional MSS. 

.^nm« of Wevlkos'a madrigaU havo bean 
reprintt.'d in popular fiollfctiona dnring ihe 
eight.wntliund tiinetevnthcenliiricK. Atuoi^ 
his bvAl work« am : 'As VeAta wa« from 
Ijtitmoit Hill deacrnding' (his coatribatioa 
lo the * Triiunpha of Oriana ') ; ' l^o country 
aporla,' li5i)7 ; ' To »borten winter'* sadneM^' 
'In pride oTMay,'* >\clcomv, sweet plewure,' , 




And ' Lady, yont rye,' 1&(I6 ; ' Now let iib 
mftko a iwMTT f^TMtmg,* 16O0, ' Strike it up, 
neighbour,' 'Now w'ry irue,' nail 'Tlie >'iglit- 
ingate,' IfJOB. 8|iecim*na may be seen in 
K. T. Wumio'e grL-ut i'ulk'«ti<m of 'Ciitt'li«,' 
Ac. ("1713), ami ' VoCrtl lljiriaunv,' ' Apollo- 
nian llarmntiv' ( 17l*6j,Willoiifrhbv'6'.>in;ii»l 
Jlnrinonv'(l'7rtt)t, Itlanii'i. ' l^lieV C^illw- 
tinn" (ittW), K. Webb's •(.Vill.>cti"ii of Ma- 
drifi»le' (l<<ld), l'ag«'e 'FMtir« Harmony' 

' Mtuicul Library '(ISai), Howcj'V H'oUec- 
lion of MftdriKals '<l83.5),'ne BritiaJ. Ilar- 
OUpii«nt'« 'Tt*!! F«V(tuHl« 3[ni!riEKlii' niul 
Turle and Taylor'a * People's Sin^in^ Book ' 
aM4), Hullah'i 'Vocal Scorro ' (lJ*4li). 
Joae(m AVarren'ii 'ChnriatfyrV irandbook* 
Au^^t 18('>.*t, -Ariun' (18iU),uni] thv cheap 
publicationa of Novatlo, Stanley Lucas, Cu»- 
ftidl, and Giirwci). Weclkes ami Wllhyc arc 
luuallv meniionud together by critk-A mid 
bistoriiina ; but s 'certain cliaracterletic ftLifi- 
nwa* (Ubove) inakiu Wi'ulkcs dc't^idt'dly In- 
fcBiora* a coutfomr lu Iiia e"nU<ni[)'^riiry. 

pV«elkcaV «n>rk» ; Rimbnult'a ]{i1i1tullinc« 
Siadrisalian*. pp. 7, 12, II, '29; Orova'n Itici. 
of 3dat>ican4 Miiaiciiini, ti. 191. it-, iili, tSl , 
Cal.of^-rcl HitrniODk' Sand}'* i.ibmry. pp. 
188. Tii : Oliphaat't La Mum Mivlri^lucii ; 
Xascla 0«Khiclii« Act Miiiik in KngliuiiJ, ii. 
118,-14$: UawkiM'n iliu. of Ma,\e. c. Hi; 
Bornej'sCtetiemliltBt.ofMuiiL-.iit. 124; DavevV 
Hint, of Kngl. Umic, m>. IT?, 16U. I'tii, ihb. 
493. J U. D. 

WKEMSE. JOHN (1579?-lfi3fl>, divine. 
[See WeiiVHt.' 

WEEVER. JOHN Ofi'6-ItB2), poet 
anrl kiitii|u»ry, a uutLre of Ivnicotbin.-. born 
in lo7U, was admittod to Quconn' Collcffe, 
Caii)briii|ze,ii"a^ianrQ]i3l> A[jnl IWI. His 
tutor wa* William I'ftveUfq.V.]!* '(Wryc/^/yf- 
iter). \lv bntbi-d frui'ly, W rttlotus, in what 
lie dtfscribril iih ' Ni-stor-oicl [iviinsh-inintinjf 
Graai'sV He rt'tained chrougL lilV an aH'w- 
tion forlii* callf{(>.<, but n-ems to havu left 
ihr- imiv^nuty without a dffttf. 

Retiring' to tiis Lancaabire home about 
Ifill"*, lit- 4ttidifd earefnily and appivciu- 
liT^Iy current Kn^liab literature, ami Jii 
l&M) bo publifelitil ■ volume entitled 'Kpi- 
grumme* in liw. oldeH Cut and iic-wist 
rultion. A twite Mven Iloiirt-a (in sn 
nuuijr wo«tk««) Studie, Xo longer (tike the 
Fuitltion) ifil imlikti to roiiliiiiie. The liri't 
neTen, John Weflvet ' ^London by V. S. for 
Thomas Bu«holl>, IfiW, Ifmu. The whole 

work WBR dedicntnl to a LAOcasbire patron, 
Sir Kichard Houghton »f Hnn^bton Tower, 
high sherilT of the county. A portrait «!• 
grnvfd by Thomas Cecil is pn-fixed, and de- 
»i.'ri1.ied (he author a« t weuty-l bn.'u ut ibu 
dftU- of publication, IflSlO. IJut Wi*\erin 
»Linie inlrudiiulury stanias ioforma the rsadur 
I bat nifKil oft hi- i-pif^rain.'* Wftv wntti-n when 
be wft£ only twenty, ile speaks of liisCnni- 
briilfp ffdurntinn, and cnnfewH-* iRnorance of 
Ijondon. Tb(! Bpigram»<, whicli are divided 
into seren part* (each called a ' week,' arter 
the manner of the Fnench n>ligious poet Du 
Bartas), are in erode and pedeatnan versu. 
But the volume owea it^ value, apart fmm 
it« nrily, to its mantiun and oomtncodaiion 
of the chief poeta of the day. Tlie nioet in- 
lerueting contribution ia m Minnet (No. 2'2 nf 
the fourth wet-k) addrwwid to Shnkespeare 
which forcibh- illuslratea tbe aidmiralion t-x> 
citt'ii «ni»n)r youthful contemporarieH by the 

EubUraiion of Shakefljieare'a early works — 
is narrative (loeme, his ' Horoeo and Juliet/ 
t*eii/«nVv/'i'/yty«,NuwSlialiiipt'n'Soc., 1S79, 
p. Id). Ilardly ]e4s vutuableto ihehiiiTonQn 
of literature ore VA'eevor'* fpi^aunt on Ed- 
mund SpeiiuT'epoierty and Ueaib,un Daniel, 
Dreyton, Ucn Joiiii>on, Mnnflon, Warner, 
ItoLert Alloll.uiid I'hrinloplutr MiddKl'sa. 
In his epigram on AUeyn, hw aAsprlfl thnt 
iiumeand Husnius yield the palm to Lnnfion 
and A!!'-yii. A cjpv of this i-xlremely rare 
volume is ill the Jualone collection at the l.ihmry. 

Subf<»i|uently We.:-ver produced atiother 
volume of ver»e. This bore the 111 In: ' The 
Mirror of Martyrs; or, the life and deaUi 
of that tbrice valient Capllaiue and moet 

Clly Sfartyrc Sir John Oldcasll.!, knight, 
rd U&bliam,* 1601, am. »q. Bvo (Ixindon, 
byV. S. for William Wood). TIiptd are two 
dudiciLtiou)! to two friends, William Covell, 
im., th>> iuitlior'!> Canibridae tutor, and 
Uichard Dnllon of Pilling. Th>> work wu, 
tliR luithor lelU us, written two years befon.- 
publirrntion, aad woa posaiblviagfiested by 
the controversy about Sir John Otdcastlc 
that waA cKcitcd in London in loSfS bv the 
production of l:9liakoepuiirL>'8 'Henry IV.' 
In thfit plav llie great chiinicler afterwardo 
re-namud I'HielatI at fin^t liore the dftii^na- 
tion of Sir John ()ldcH»lle, to the ecandal of 
tliDKL- who claimed descent from thw tf^llard 
leader or »ympKthised with his opinions imd 
career (ef. SAakf^tiffirr* CVnturte ••/ I'mynf, 
pp. 4l*, 10,1), Weever call* hi" work the 
•true (Hdc/i>tle,' doubtless in referfnc« to 
ilie current controversy. Weever dii-plny>) ut 
H^TcrHl points his knowludtffijrShnkeKp'-nre's 
recent plays, ilo va^ely refl««la »hAk(^• 



epcftre'n lAngua^ in 'Henry IV* (pc U. 
tine nwheareTcrrii^KtoHoUpur'adwUiaud 
th« bnltlp of Sliri-wAburj' (giUnu US). 
Simitfkrly in Maiisu 4 lie nDtices the Epeecbes 
mftde Id ' thi^ inimv-lMmdRd multitudn' bv 
Rrutue and Mark Antony nt Oieiuir% ninfml. 
Thew »ppecUe» w'.-rp the invention of Shiikp- 
spoftre in h\» pKy of '.niliuB Cic«ar,'uid it is 
clou tbat \V«ev*-r hnd witneswd & perform- 
uioe of ShakfHtpetrv'a play of ' Juliiia Cffisar * 
bsfoiv writing of CntarV fiinernl. VV«ovt.-r'ii 
MfernncA in proof that 'Jultua CVaar' wa^ 
written biiforo W«bvot*« volume was pub- 
lisliod in ItiOl. TLiHro i» no othpr c^ntem- 

Krary ipfprnnfte to the play by whirh any 
oitB can be aseiifned to its dale of comiw- 
flitioii, 1'hf pi<x:>? wrw) not puhlishfid until 
ll!23,iiithu tint folio of Shakespeartf'a works. 
As in lii» tirsr. so in hia second volunn^, 
WucviT mcniiona SpenMr** diftrew at the 
ttliiK- of bin lifi? (stnniM 63). Four perfect 
cnpioH of Wi'ttvt-r's ' Mirror of Martyn-s' ars 
liiinwn ; thi*y an* T>'(i|)«t:lin'Iy in tUe Hiith, 
nntwoll, and Bodleian libmnee, and in tliv 
]'vpy«ijinT-i]irnrvHt Miijfitnli'nnCViHi.'p^'.Cnm- 
bridfto. Thi> only othfr copy now known is 
imperfi'ct, nod is m tln> Rritieb ^liiseuin. Tbp 
poem wiui nprititt'd fortliH Knxhnrfrb^'Cltih 
inavolumu«dited bvMr. llenryiluchsCSibiM 
(aftt-rwardi Iiord Aldi-nham) in l^'ii. 

Subsuqticutly Wowve: piiblislieds tUuml>- 
book (If inch in heijjht) ifivintf a poetical 
history of Christ bopnning with Ihu birth of 
tbu Vjrjtin. The iitl«-pa^« ran "An Ayuu« 
0*i. rrinied by V. S. for Nicholas hyug. 
|{fOO.' Tlic dedicaliou ran: 'To rrintMi 
Il'-riry. Vour tmmbltniutrvnnl, Jo. WecriT.' 
ThH only copy known, is in th« H nth Library 
(cf, nayiK^i^, Cennura Litarnrut, \\.; lluth 
L&raiy 0(/.( 

In the early years of the sevent^entk cen- 
tury Wocvor travelled abrond, lie viwlM 
Liu|^, i'Hrin, r«rinii, and Itonie, Miidying 
lileralure and ardiicolnjfv (cf. Funerall 
ilfoniimCTi/#,pp.-iO, 14j,-'-^7,-"iO'*). Finally ho 
•wiTtlf^d in « Inrufi hoiist- liuilt by Sir Thomfta 
Chaloimr in Citrkenwdl Olose. and lunu-d 
his jitl(.'ti'tii>n fxi?lii«ivi-!v I" unliqnilifH. Hi- 
hi- desisi'^d to irmke archteolo^ical explora- 
tion in Scotlund if lifv were iipanxl liim. 
JIv came to know tke antitiuarie^ at ihe 
Colluf.'u of \rnis and oisowhpre in Ixindon, 
and uiadv rrcmifntTOtK^arcbvcLiillKj librnrit^ 
of HirUobftrt<.oltouaitdSirSiinoii<!^D'KwtM, 
His chief labours lutw thx^ light in a folio 
volniDtt vxU'n<3ing tii iii-iirlv nim- hnndnul 

1iages,andhearinpth(ilill«'Anciftnt Fiincrall 
iliwiiiments within Ibu United Munarrhiowf i 
fimat Rrilainr, Endand.nnd thi- Inland!! ad-| 
jac«nt, with the diesolTed monasteries tliere- 

in contained, their Foanden and what E: 
nont I'lTsunshsvebeen in tbesatnu interred 
(Loudon, Iti:i],ro1.) A cunoiiM rniblrmatic 
frontispiece was en^vcd by Tbomaa C' 
a« wolf as a portrait of tbi> niilbor, 's-t. 
A" 1681.' Wt>ev4'r dedicated hi* work 
Charles t. In an «ptstle to the ivader 
a«knowli-df^ ttio vneouragvnient and 
anc« he ri;c<>ived from his 'deare du 
ftiond ' An^iusttne Vincent, and from the 
ti<|uari'SirUobtTt Cotton, t'.> whom Viaoeat 
fire>timrodut<-dhtm. il<^abio mention* among 
hifi hi-lpi'Ts Sir ilcnry Speldun, John Seldon, 
and Sir SiniriiidK !)'l''irri, A copy whicb, 
Wecver presentpd to hisold collfge ^QllP«D9'^ 
at Canibnd(fp is Aill in the library there, am 
has an inscription in his aiitneraph (faeaimi 
in Pink's VUriienuxii, p. 351). Almost 
Woevcr'a sepulchral inscriptions uv n 
obUtemied. Histnnitcnptaare fault; 
and orror* in date* abound (cf, Wm 
Ant/t. Sacra, pur. i. p. 068 : Gent. Mag, 1 
ti. HUH). Itut to tlitt kiHioriau and biograpl 
the book, despit« its dofrat*, is inralaabl 
A ni^wi.*ditiiin n.pjx'ari'i) in ItMl, and a tlti 
with Bome addenda by William Tonkft. i 
1767. Weever'fi orif{inul manuscript of t 
work i» in the library of the 8oci*ty of An 
<iuariea (Nos. lii"-?^). 

Wceter, who dated the address to the 
reader in his M'uiR'rall Moauinent«' fi 
his houae in Clerkenwell Cloae, waabu. 
in l(i82in thr_> church of St. James's, Oer 
well. The church wait subMrq neatly eoti 
rebuilt (cf. VlSKiVUi-kentnU. p. 48). 
lung L'pitaph in vcrsu inscribed on big to: 
It. [irfsiTn-i'd in 8t')-w"» 'Sarver of l^ndon 
(I(J33, p. 000, cf. Strvpe's eiliUon, bk. r 
p. 6.'*; GfTt!. Mas. '"**. "• ^00). 

[AuthoritiMciud; l-'nl Ws Worthiw ; Ohn^ 
itiors's Giu)^. Diet.; funk's Ctcrkv&wcU; 
Adilit. M.S. 24487. f. 8A8 |.Iiunt«r's M.S. Cboi 
Vh) am) - Oillifir's HiMiogr. Cat. ; W«^rri 
buokc.] 3. U 

IW. )8:!8), floldier.born at MoorSeldo in l.^n- 
don, was the uld«et sou of Jobn Chrirtopher 
WVgiiidin by bin »Mv>nd wif«, Klicabwlh. Up 
was appointed acadct in thi' KaM India Com- 
pany's service in March 17^1 on the Benj^l 
i>n>-'*idency. UciirrivHl in Caloutta in April 
178:^, having ureviou^lv been promoted to an 
cofipncy on iG Juno ITiril. lie joined lb* 
third KurojA'au regimvELt at Burhinpur, and 
receiver] a liieutMiiHnl'scouimisflton on I'L* Septa 
Mi^i. In Nox'euibcr hcwai^ removed to l 
lirnl battalion of ihu L'^nd nattri! infantrr. 
at tliH frontier elation of Fatchgarh in ifie 
dominions ofllin nnwith of (>udh. In March 
178.1 he proceeded to thn Fanikhalmd dis- 
trict, where he took pan in some p*tiy 


oporelioD9, &Dfl ill 1796, when his regiment 
WM incorporKted with the i/nd nntivi* in- 
foDtrr, hi- h'ccivcd the brevet rnnk of cn]>- 
teiii. He iterv'M K^iiwt Tipii >*aib frxmi 
lTSK)lo 17i)S with Liouteitant-colone! Jolin 
Cuvkmll'» dvtachiiivut. llv tuok puM in iLl' 
LiaUli^ of Sifriiigspetam OTi l.'I .May 1701, in 
Lhu aeaauU ua ibu HDt^oiy's i<mtvDcbed camp 
on 6 Feb. 1702. mid in llin fwife of tUi3 city. 
In I>(!cefflber 17I.'7 he waA traiiAferrad to 
tb« first battalion of thx* I3tb native itil'antrr, 
which he cominandi'd in 1799 durinir the 
•depoaitioQ of th« tiawab of Oudb ~a«e Wkl- 
LHLBT, RtcirAKD CoLLKY, Mjksai'H Wel- 
I.EBLBT], and ftbonly after joined the I»l 
European refpment at Cawnpur, recnoTin^ 
with It to Diiinpur at tho clusu of tlia your. 
On 10 Aug. ISOl liii reccivetl the regimental 
rank of captain, and in 8E?pti!tnbF3r 1803 ha 
pnotbdtd in (Mmtnand of tbv Hunk com- 

C'na of hifi regiment, to join thf armr under 
1 Laki'fsw La^kk, Obua ia>. Bratltj^KUii], 
then engaf^^ with the Maratta« in the 
nortli-west, where he look pun iu the siege 
ofGwalior. In September 18(W he accom- 
panied Ltiki^-'M amiy in rhecApaeicyurjudgv* 
ad vocat 4y general iu t hi- field provinces north 
and west of Allaliabnd. and took jiart in the 
aieg«of llbnrlpkir. Ilr> ciutitiui-it 1o bold 
tha post nnlil nia appointment to a mnjnrily I 
on 3 ^larcb 1^8. In June he was nomi- I 
lMt«d to commantl an expnlition for the 
deleoce of the I'on.agiii»H of Mncun againat < 
nny French attempt, receiving the local 
rsuk of colonel. On lti» return to H<:-ngal in 
February ItiOObe received the tUanlis of the 
|^vi-mor-g«neral for his eondnct. On the 
establishment of the cuujmi»sariat in ]I<.-ni;ul 
on 1 Feb. It^lU Wegiudiii kos appointed 
deputv couiniiiwar^-gontnil. IU- aceom- 
panied Major-geuetal ^^ir John .Vbi^rt^rouibr j 
fn.T.j in the expedition against Mauritius in . 
1810 aa liend •>( th« commiwut-riut d<-pnrt- 
ment, and aAer thn reduction of tlus iidartd 
WM appointed by the governor, Sir Knbert 
Towneend I'nrniihar [q. v.l, commi»*«n- 

Seneral of Mauritius, ilom-bon, and their 
ependencio*. TIo returned to Rirnpil in 
March \H12 with a letter Proru FonjuLitir To 
the governor in councU expressi tig iuii supru- 
batiou of hilt m-nice^. On 1 July li^i^ he \ 
wa4 nominated i^oumiiMHary-gen'-rnl of lien* 
gal with the ronlt of licutoTiant-coIonel, 
ntLuininif tlic rr^itimnla) riLiili on 10 Mnrch 
I8U. Hediflrharged the dutiea of 00™!!!]."*- 
*ary-ffrnural through the two wars with 
Nepal hrtwiMrn l«Ilnnd 1H16, and that with 
thii< Findaris from ISlti to IS\S, conduetiug 
Cb<- hnoiiU'M of hiAoffica with m much ability 
thai the extra expeaaee of the wurs did not 
exceed tbe comparatively unall xum of 

600,000;. Reing nbligcd by private affairs 
to return to England, he resigned liis otQca 
al thtt close of 18:^, embarking in Joiiuaty 
lytfi. lie lecoivt'd the rank of culouvl com- 
mandant 00 'M July 18:*^, and died in I.>on- 
dou at Aluulagu Squari; ou 'Ji May \8'2^. 
lie was twice married. Ily hia Sriit wife he 
bod a son and a daughter, and by hia cecond 
wife lhr«o «ona. 

rnenl. Mag. 11:128. ii. 180; l>odvrll and 
MilM'» Indian Artiiy Liit, 1834; information 
kiadly given b.v Mr. A. W. Ortenn.] E. J. 0. 


' 1&08), watercolour-palnCer, wo* bom in 
Lonoon, of lierman paa-ntii, in 1813, }!« 
wu educated at Gutltngen, and romved his 
art training <;hietly iu I'aria, w)i'^r» and in 
Ji'rsey ho rwided 'from 1832 to IW17. He 
then ntlurnrd to Fngland and joined the 
recently founded 'New' Society (now the 
Institute) of i'iinters in Waieruolours, to 
rheexhihitionsnf whiehhrt wMSubserjULtntly 
a constant concributor, His drawingit were 
all of an historical ehui^cter, among the 
bc«>t being ' Lord Nigel's Xntroduction to 
the Sanctuary of AUatia,' 'Lnllier rpiuling 
hia 3(.'rmun to ivmu Friends,' 'Tho I>t>atb of 
Wicklifl'f,' ' Hlippo Lippi ond the uun 
1 I.Lcrrtia Buti,' * (_'a.vton examining the first 
I Proof ^heet from hi« I'rtt**,' and ' Tho 
PriKiner of OiHors.' Tlie last m woll known 
! bv tbe engraving ])iiblii<had by the Art 
V nion, 1 fti-'*. Welnifrt'd largit wfirlts, though 
cxccllt-ntly conceived iind drawn, wi're iin- 
BttraetiTe in colour, and did not readilv Hud 
purclinMirs. Ha was more &uccf>'<«fuy as a 
di'Mgiier of hook illiiHtration^. Among the 
many puhlicat ionft for whiela bo t'uniislied the 
Jruwiiiin were'.tritiiui's ' liuu^tdiold Stories,' 
IHoH; Keat-.» ' Evo of St. Agii.*,' Ift.'iBj 
ColmdcL-'s 'Ancient Mariner," iJ^fi"; 'The 
I'ilgrim " Pnnrri'.w,' [808; .\ndi'ritrtrii 'Fairy 
Tail's," 1R6I ; ' Kobinson Cnisoe/ 180^; and 
Fop's 'i'oetical Work*,' Im^t. Wehnert 
print ribiitcd tottin W'L'ftlmitiTiter Hail cartoon 
exhibition in ISJ-'i an allejjorical drawing of 
'Justice,' now in the Elouth Kcnftinjc^ton 
Mti!it.'um. He died at ForlSAt Terruci-, 
Keiitiiih Town, on 15 Sept- I80S. A collyc- 
lion of Ilia works won exhibited at the 
[n«litntu in the following year. 

[Art Journnl, IMS : Itryan'a iHrt. of Pain tent 
(.An[iiittotig)i RmT»'> Ilict. lif Artiatit, )7ftO. 
18113] F.M. OD. 

WEIR, TIIiiMAS (lfim)?-lii70). re- 
puled sorcerer, eon of a Lanark ^hJ re 
nraprietor in Clydctdale, was born about 
IfELKl. Hi: i<urved w cnpiain-Henteiuint lu 
Colonel Itoberl Home's regiment in Itv 


IMl, ud sIm far km* time m 
k tW Ewl of UMfk* 
aa 3 IUr* 1047 f iiiiiil a 
to the flitato far the w » «m (^ • 
flOO Mofa 4ae to Us lar thne 
iei»-90 bt m powNed lo tk 
of tfe city gMEd «r EdiakM^ lie 
one «f dw ■tottows «f tW 
aoMtraacB m 1^0^ aad gaiaaiOt 
noted a «ae ef tfe aoK det<atBd tad 
MHtiSedar a aCrict MCt of E JiaWi^ eo- 
raanlen, •■ vkne wwriap he dbpUTvd 
A le—^iMe jpft of <Kliipnfi finTM'. Aa 
mijwrf rtnntrparifcr fced J|| riil ifcirin 
(rf Hoatnae benn hm eu et aimt u M*t 
1660, ftad ie etatod to Inxe tnotvd hia with 

In Us later ;«)uii. uul aA«r be ntind 
from the dtj- gvud. War gmdaaUj hmmr 
npoted H ■ wixani. Chi eoBtng to Ediii> 
borgh he lodged iae wane time ia the Cow- 
nte^ in the bow* of ■ Mub Qnm^VtlMtori, 
vbcfe Jtawa MHehell (^ ISTi) 'q. t^ the 
«ootd-he M a Mii ai t or of ARhhiihof S«n^ 
ilao for mne timt loiftd. Sobeequently he 
Wiided with lu< aieCer Jran in k biiue in the 
Wcet Bow. On the Hair of tliu bouse be u 
aud to hsTe out ■ powerful :i|<(-ll bv which 
thoee who wrr» ucrading it Mi u if ther 
wen gotfif dowD. His incuitatioas were 
aujolj rtf'*(^tr^ by mrAHK nf ft blacit vtatT, 
which wm curiously cured with heads lilce 
thoee of ibe Mtyn, aud wuau|foaed to have 
bean pmmteil to bim hj Satan. Tliia atcff 
eoold be eeat bjr him on emndA, and od 
dark aigfals (ao it wme pa^'vlr ailimiwl^ 
night be Men goin^ before bim rarn-infra 
lantern. Frs«Br, minister of Wardle, who 
c&whimin f^Iinburfcliin lG0O,thiteda«cribei 
him : ' ili« garb vts »till a cloak, and anmfs 
what dark, and he nt-rrr went wiibnui hi< 
Staff, llu was a tall black man, and vnlj- 
narily looked dnwn an the ground : a frnm 
oonntenaoce and a big now' (manuM-ripi in 
the AdviirtitrV Libfary, quoted in \Vitsos*a 
JfmtorialA n/ EdaUttirffh in tJte Olden Time, 
\^'/, np. •*!% «iq , wh«re is also an pngrav- 
inc of Wt-ir'a bonm in the West Bow). But 
whether inHuenced by remorv! or iunacy.ot 
k comhinaiioD of the two, Woir, tbouf^h ho 
ntverprofeMwlany Knttence, nadea voluD- 
tai7 eonfeaaion (o x\\t aulhoritira of ince»t, 
•orcerr.and orh<^rcrimt.4: and. af^erti^Lon 
9 April lii'O, during which he u aaid to 
hsTO been dflirioui>. wb* burned a! Ibe^takc 
on tbe \'2\\i, at (>allowli>i?, un Eht- kIuw^ of 
0Teenaide,beiw<«nKdinburgbaDd1«itn. T\(^ 
died inpenittint, and n-jgouiioad all Ik>|i^ of 
hearen. Ww stalT, which waa ntm btimed 
with him, '(tnvi> mm luminE^'in the firo, 
•od, likt' him^i^tr, 'was long n burning.' 

Hia mna, norwilhuamliag that »bc nuuii- 
bnned alonf with hia. Hi* storr i* cup- 
fOMd to hnw^mirtiid Lord RvruD'a ■ Man- 

rmclnV HavmBw Bafintm, I S78 : StneUir's 
At- ble Warid DMpla^. I6H0. r«. 

K. .-. LmmM's Uarr. Ml.'Ktnloch, 
» . lUUff UVa HMormUt. ad. C. E.SbarpB. 
ISIB : Anai'a Ctmiakl Triala : B^faert CImbi' 
bna's Tt^tiaas of Edialnis)).] T. F. H. 

WSnt, WILUAH (IW2 1836), jc 
■a]t<t, WB# bora ta 1(W at Mount Ilamittc 

ia ATrahirr. Bia father, nbu wa* Mr. 

wala^flactar.'diediB IWI; hiamoLherntap^ 
tied ^raia, aad Mr. Oawald acte^ aa hia] 
gwdian. Mpdinc hia lo .\vr arademy^ 
whidibakn mAufuat I8L7 with ibcrepv 
taiMBof bmng'talmted, bonoarable. kiiu 
hearted, MMtewbat aocrntnc, and a noftj 
tlperiowt nnder.' His Hucatina waA 
pMfld at tbeaniTvnuty of Ooitingien. H 
■fnne a nember of ibe Sooitiui bar 
?7J«n.liS27. HewastbeSiitteditororil 
MJIaagnw Arna* (G£«yoM> Cttian, S^|itenk>' 
ber I^8),atta, removing to Loiidun, ho ooD- 
tribated to the * Spectator' .Many artielii. 
in tbe * ^noj Cyckipttdia' and in Knight) 
' London ' were 60m b ia pen, and hv wrot« t ~ 
chapter on manners durin{> the r^ign 
ti*orij;e Hi in the • I'lclorial H istorr of ~ 
land' iKsiauT. Ptuaagea iff a IfWi/iw 
ii. -"V. ■2-'.9, 3031. 

Weir joined thi> editorial staff of the -Llailj' 
News' when it was fbundt>d in 1SI6, and 

ahip tbf * Daily Ncw»'flonriabed, tbe ''fines' 
wniiof; after his d««th that he had 
diictrd it in a way which ' made it a worthl 
reprv9eniait\e of iho Eoglub prv^.' 
'Olobe' wrote 'that he waa maxt«-r nf tlwl 
library of Euroiw;' the 'Athemeum' thi 
' in tbe rank* of Hii-ml urc lhpn> was not 1 
nobler or more unafeuminf^ fwildier than be;1 
and tlM- 'Spectator' thai 'his death it a 
public loea.* Hewaacn^litedby the 'Qla^' 
(fow Citix^n' with writiiu^pood VMMna well 
aa prow. Tbe infirmity of deafneaa prevented 
liim from playing a more coiupieoons part .*~^ 
public life. 

[l^valr iiifonnation.] p, R. 

WEISS. wnxoranBY nrxTEB 

(Isao-lSfi?), vocalist and compoaer, thviKm 
of Willoiighbr Gaspard Wei**. piMfeasor of 
the flute and mueic publisher at IJverpoal, 
wftj bom tki»n^ori 1* A)kril 18L'0. Iln \>ua 
pupil of Sir (Jeotve Tliorna* Smart [q-v." and 
Slictiocl William IJalfe [q. v.], and inaJehii 

first «ppuannev in [lublie ai « unger at a con- 
cwt of hU own at Liverpool, 5 May 184S. 
He firet aitpeared in opcm as Orovcgo ii» 
* Normn " at OiibUu on ? July 1841*, fttid aubse- 
quentljIwcatiiGa useful tnembi-rof tliorvm- 
andllaiTison and oilier oi«inicoinp«nii-ft, lit 
wae diMiTigiiiRlii^laAaconc)trt-'<iii^'r, but be 
flpeaallr excelled as bo exponent of oratorio 
miuic. in irhich his artistic feeling sii<l rich 
voice found full Pteans of QxprvssioD. His 
firet appearance at ft fwiival waa at Gloucee* 
ter in 1^4. 

Wiaaji'RcbiefcUiniln distinction rt}sls upon 
hf>inff tbe composer of 'Tha Village Kluck- 
enutb,' *^ to Ijonirfwlinw'jt wordit, a Ming 
vbirl) has had and Mil] retains an nxlm- 
oidiiianr popularity. Uocompijs^d it nbixit 
1654. Ill- •^IT'T^d tlvA copTTtght to a firm of 
nuaic pubU->hers for the sum of HI., anil, 
upon their decliniQE to accept it on tho^' 
tcmu, Wciitji publjsuod tbe aoug on his oven 
account, with the reaull tliat iL brotiglit to 
bim and bia di^Munilani i< an uimuitl incuuiv 
of DO iiiconiudenbl« anntuut for upwnrd»> of 
ftirfv vean. 

Wris«, wlio n-iM of a f^rnlal, lovntile iVu' 

Kition, diw! at St. fieor^'a Villa, lU-jj'-nt'a 
fk, 'ji Oct. 1n!7, nnil IS buri'vl iti IIi|;!)- 
g«t« cfraetery. Ho mnrri^il, 1.1 S<!pt. IHiri, 
Geo^ina Ansell Barrett (lt«^tS-l«<^)), a 
native of GloucfSlcr, who -wiw I'avoiirably 
known as a ^oger. Kv Hor be \eft a Jaiigb- 

In addition to ' The ^'illaj^ Ttlnck^mitli * i 
WtfiH couipoMO nianv other iongn and | 
ballad*, and arrange) & pianoforte edition of 
Weber's Ma« in U. 

[GniT«'s Diet, of Mtiiic and MiiiJciHini. iv. 
4ii; Mu«icMl Worli), 'Jf> Oct. »rJ 2 Nor. 1867: 
CinU M»f. 18A7, ii- B'lR; pritnte iiiforiiiai ion 
A«ii] hi« smiidtou, W. W. Omliam, wq. } 

F. G. E. 

(18S8-1KI1 ), mii'iicinn, *»ii of ThuuiUA ilill, 
goUlDiith and freeman of the city, was born 
m London on -^ Jbh, ]>S:?8. n»* nlmwcd an 
Mrly ta.-^ie for rbt^ \inlin, and, afti-r ap]iear- 
iug al (iravesend bm an ' infant pTodij^y,' he 
in 1814 entered the Ro>-q1 Academy of 
Mitaie, wlu-n- lie I'tudicJ under I'rosper 
l*hilippi< Callierint* Saintuu [q. v,]. and in 
1645 took the king's schularvuip. II« u'tiM 
i(ub»f«|Upiitlv a priift-Mor of tlit! violin at tin? 
acadi-Tny, and conducted ita choir and {.r- 
chutra. On Imvin}; th« institnlinn be nt- 
lacbtHl himself to the orrhestra of tlip Prin- 
eeaa Theatre, but b« soon became Imnvrn as 
ft eon«ert Tiolini«t, and ifM tak^m iii> Atm 
fay Edward James Lodi:T[(i. v.J.aod then bv 
Liouia AntoineJulienor Jul1ien[q.v.] Willi 
the latter h'.- lounil iu Anivrica, wactt: hv 

WW the fljvt to make known Uendelseotm's 
riolio concerto, and lat«r visited the prin- 
cipal coiiliiit.'ii[al citiL-t. Hiiuming to Lon- 
don, he was en^agfd as lirat violin by (Sir) 
^[iehuel CoBta [^. v.], under whom lin playi^d 
for miiiiy vimm \n the Ojn-m, I'hilhannonic, 
and Sacred Harmonic socieiie*' nrche.tilra.s. 
On tile njiening of the Alexandra I'alnce in 
lt^7;l he wai» itppointed inufical director.nnd 
in tbiit cai-acity did good service by brJntfing 
forward new compositions by native writers, 
as well a* by rf» iviiiK furjiotten works, such 
fi9 Ilniidel's 'Ksthiir' and 'Kusanna,' In 
1P7H bv coniluctml the orchestral conLYrta of 
Madame Viard-l^iiiii, itt which mivnml im- 
porlant works w^re heard for iJi« first tima 
m Ktiglund. }[e was appoinlud principal ofJ 
the Guildhall !^chool nf Music in 18B0. and* 
held that post till his death at South Ken- 
AJneton on '2^ Hcc. 1891. lie waaan fldmi- 
mble violinist and on able administrator. 
lie wrote a tnw compntitiunj*, mostly for 
violin and 'cello, of which ihi; ' Pumpnduur 
Gavotte ' became popular. 

[MuaioAl llpiiiinii. Jimiinry lS8a : Lute, 
Miir.-h I86I (j.iitlnitt); Mimiciil Korald (por. 
tmii) niid Mufical Tt^le^ Futrunry IHilS; 
Brown and Stntiton'.t Bnlinh Muniff^l llin^m- 
pby ; informal iuQ fi-oni iho win, Ferdinand 
WwVuUjII, (,«,.) .1. C. H. 

WELBT, IlEXRY (rf. Iffilei), -The Pho3- 
nis iif ihvBe late Times,' was the eldest son 
of Adlnnl Wclhy K 1 1 Aug. ir.70) of Ged- 
niiv in l.tncolnshini, by his firot wife, the 
dnnghtpr of iin inhiibitinit. of Hull named 
Hall. He wan mntriciiUted as a pcn-iioii^r 
of St. John's ColleBe,C'anibrid(;e, on "J J May 
]>*i58, and was made a student of the Inner 
IVnipie in November 156:!, 'whore, being 
aecomodatod with all tht? parts of a gentle 
man, liu?anL'rrctyiv(l himself into l.hocouii-| 
trye,' purchasing the c.-ttate of (ioxbill in 
I.incoliiehire from Lord Wentworth. Wifih- 
iiif; to iithirf^' hi* mind hx Imvfl, he '»|ient 
ponif ft'w viareit in ibu Lowe Countreya, 
I ieriDsnT, I' ranee, and Italy, making the b«st 
u^ of his time.' 

In lhi» manner Welby continued hit 
blameless Ufe until past luiddleoge. About 
1o92 bis youni^er brother, Juhn, a disMiIuto 
youth, took umhrnifK at llenry'-i endt-avuurs 
to reform his liftbits. and, niier rcpeat.edly 
thrvateninif hi» life, attempted to thrvui hitn 
with a pi.*rol. Welby waa def ply allecl.'d by 
this rillainy, and, tiikinR ' a very fuiru house 
in ihe loivrr end of Grub HtreeT, n^^r unto 
Cripple^le,' he jiassed the rest of his life in 
ubHilnte st'clusion, never leuvinf( hia npart- 
menti' or neeing any living crenlun' t;xc«pt 
his old niaid-scrvant Elitahetli. In tliia 
niancier he lived for fortv-four veurs in lh« 




DOBt abHcmbus bidiioa, wbUo exereisiag « 
raiorftiiA bmintr lowirdit bis •poomr lu-islf 
boura. During that period h<! Bto neitucr 
fish nor llniili, and ni.<vfr dnak witiu. lit' 
died <m 39 Oct. 1636, mid ww biiriod in Si. 
Qilcs'a, Crtpplfgate. Tie manried A)ic«, 
diiuffht«r of Tbotnw White of WollingVi-clls 
in ^oHcnhtre ancl Noitiii^linin»liin>, br hi» 
wifo Anna Cecil, sister of the first Lord 
Burf[h]«v. I)v Alice, Welhy had onu dough- 
tfir, Klizabetfi. hia »oIe h«irc«*, vrbn was 
married at St-Uilcs'i*, CriupleKBtc.oa IS Jul v 
IfiUK In Sir ChriMojiiior lltlili-nrd of Wiiiiv 
staad in VorkHhin-. She waa huriMl at 
Buuth in thv Kui>i Kiding on ^ Nov. 163». 
The family M Flildvard t^Atahlinh^'a at. Flints 
hum Hall, near Newark, arc b«r dwcendants 
(KrnKB. ran-Uti fiejitrj/, 1898, s, t. 'Mild- 
yard;' FoNiKR, YorkMre Ptdiffntt, 1871, 
voL ii. t.y. " Ilildyard'), . 

A lift! w> ouc'cniric n« that of Widhy wm 
the Miurct! of ioiiie uotori«ty, and lu tli« Te»r 
aflL-r hifi doalhnbio};ra])liTn])pearpd entitled 
* Tim PluriiiK of thrw mlc Timui", or llii* 
Life of Mr, Henry Welbv, Vjm.\.' (Lnndon, 
1837, 4loi It contati)^ commvinoratire 
T«nea bv Hhiwikerlev Mnnnion [({. v.], John 
Taylor t\w ' Water l*«et," Thomna Ueywood, 
Tliomiu NnbWfl. and oth<>r<, and had nrrfixi^d i 
B portrait of Welby as hu aptit-aniu at the 
lime of Ilia death, engraved by Witliani SEar- 
ahall. Tnro editions, with no important dif- 
ferencee, appeared in the amv yi-ar. 

lTli» Pha-iiJK of ihuM lnt« Ttrao*. 1637: 
Kotiewt of llio Family of Walby. 1M2. pt». <8- 
&< . Gibbons a Xot«tt oo Die V^ailation of lin* 
eoIn»hirn in 1634, pi. ix. ISM, pp. \9%-Wt; 
StudvDtfi adoiltrd to the IniHr Temple, 15-17- 
1660, p. 43; Notes and liQcrica, 3m wr. iii. 
168. 197.) E. I. C. 

\^>'2), prv.'.bvtTiiiii (3ivin»i, win of the laird 
of CoUicsion wr Collision, in thu parish of 
IJiiUM-rirr, Dumfrii^sjdiir'', and iKirdrriofr 
CniijtPiipmiock— which f^arlylft {JanfM'ffth 
Cariyie, ]i. 102) ntlpposm to have been all- 
cii-ntly tndudi'd nti moorland in the? estate- 
was binni ubout li'f'O. When young he din- 
played a Tnlbrr unruly dispo^iticm, and, dis- 
liktngtbe K«vort- n'HtniiutH of humv, hrokv 
^om parental control and joinwl a band nf 
border rtivcrs; but, dlHcovurini; ibis ad- 
vi.tiit.urouit lifi- lo liH Ifne pIi>;iKuiit and diwir- 
ablfl than his youthful fnnry btid dfpiripd it, 
hvsoiiK^hl rocuncitiationivith bisfn'hi^T, and, 
with a vi(>w nf studyitiff for the church, he 
was presently sent to th« university of Ediii- 
biirgli, wlii-rt^ ht) took the d.'(jri7e of M.A. in. 
I5n6. On Ii Mnroli X'tHl* 90 Im wa* nomi- 
nal«l by the privy council oiit^ of tbrvi* for 
maintaining tlio triiQ religion in tbe Fonst 

and Twceddalf, and was wttlvd at Selkirit. 
In ISIMhe was tronslatMl to Kirkcodbri^t, 
and on 2& March l&OO hi> w«« appointed oiw 
of (he vtJiitorA for Nilhsdale, Annandalfi, 
Lauderdalt!, EBkdale,andEwQBdale(CujiBK- 
WifCD, Ili'tory, v. 4'JO). 

On 18 Dec. follnwine, when occupytsg 
Oie pulpit of 8t. Giles B kirk, I^dinbtugL, 
•hortly after the tumult of the presbyteriam 
a^^iitst ihe king, Iw look oppunuoiiy to 
preach a^inst tho kiBg-'a eondnct, 'alle^w 
that his uii^vsty wb« poHccaed of a dorit 
and after the outputting of that devil there 
joined to hia highness eevcn durils. t^uhilk 
was hilt majeaty'a council ;' and thai &« it wu 
lawful for a son to bind a lunatic father, it 
WKM Hinally lawful ' to lii« highne«»'s vuljectt 
to hind hia inaJi>.ttT, hr-in^ in the like cms' 
( li^. r. V. .ietti. v' 359). railinR to answer 
the diar)^ of having: juatiAod lJ>e tumult, he 
was on 1 r Jan. denounced a rv bel (i'&.) ; but, 
on the pelilioti of the aasotnhly io thn fol- 
lowing March hu waa, mainly tbrougb ihf 
iuter>'entiwn of Lonl UchiltreefMoTBiK, .Ifp- 
nmiit, p. 133j, ndaxed from the bom and 
(•fmuttt'd to mtum lo hi* chorgv. 

Bt the aasftmbly held at Montrose is 
Mareh 1&»9-I0()0 Wvlch was a^n ap- 
pointed on(> of the viititora for NithsdaU 
(Caldbbwoou, VI. '23), and in August of the 
same j«arhe was trsnAferred to the parish oif 
Ayr as assistant to John Porierfiold.onwfaoM 
death in 1604 he was cho««] to nuccaed hju. 
Before ihia the prcnchinp of Welch bad be- 
gun to attract such crowd* that ihv towu 
couaii»l on ^ May \60'A resolved to build a 
DOW church. When Welch cauD to Ayr tbt 
town was noted for lis feud)) and riots, but 
by otipeariu;.' boldly on tho strweis. clad in a 
ati-rl cap, nnd intervfiiing in distuiHMUiOM,h' 
speedily siirreeited in encctiiig quite a refbr- 
million in public manner*. 

For having ooncunv'd in the maetin]; of 
the asMimbly held in Aberdeen in July K 
conlrarrtothe prohibition of the )diig,\Vi' 
alihoiigb he did not arrive iu Ab«rd«CD 
two days after the luiaemhly bad been 
wa» along with John Foibirs, the 
the first to he called before the priv» cou_._. 
to answer for taking part in it, and. haraf 
declined to (j'^" '"'* oath to answer fuck 
things afi might he demanded nf bim in re- 
gard to lliu delili-eratinjis ofthe assent' 1' ' 
was nn 21! July ordained to bo eomn^:'< 
ward in the cfistle of Blackness (Jity. J'. ' 
firot/. vii. likl), wberi' it was slal«d Ikr 
were ' more slrailly uwd than either JMoit* 
or murderers' {ib. p. 105), On 3 OcL be 
and othur ministers weru summoned toip- 
ptiur b«!fi>re the council on tho iMth, wkD 
tbey were found guilty, the couiwil 

in^ the form of thpirpuit MliiDfliittotholc lug's 
oirn will (CAT.PBKtvwD, vi. Mii-fM : Jteg. 
S\ C. Smtl. vii. 134-7). Aa they had put tii 
a dccliiuturc ofilipjiiriMiction of thecmincil 
in (be iuat(«r ibc- kuijr resolv>!>l, oa thin Ac- 
count, to put thom OQ trial for high trcik<ori, 
'wliicli Vixt duiiL' It on att'ixt: hvEd Ht l.iii- 
litliguw, whRii iLey were by a majority 
declared puiltr (we eniecially IvUlts lo 
Biul friira tho liiog on the Auhjcot in Jtri/. 
P. C. Searl. vii. -IT8-S6, lifS-ti: JJeclaration 
oftiteJiut Cannot i,f hi* Mnji-tfy'ii Prmmi- 
infit rtffomtt tk0»f MinUtfm u-ko art nute 
lying ia Primn attainted of High Tretium, 
Edinburgh, pririt«<) l>v Itobcrt OhnrttTrin, 
1606, alto repriuU'd mRey. P. V. Seotl. rli! 
ieB-2(t>, and in Calrehwood's Itialort/. vi. 
419-37; and Foriies, Keenrdt f'/ue/iini/ tAe 
Ettntr of the Kirk in tAn I'eaf IHitTt ami 
i6^*^■, in tlio Wodrow Soc.) Thu puitieh- 
mpDt fur liiifh tri-uon xtuit <\t rounti^ dnulJi, 
hot by the king'n direction the sentence wua 
commuted on '2Z Oct. Il300 to iwrpotunl 
bAiiUhm<-<nt from the kinj^s i)ominion», and 
tbuv were appointed to so on board a ship 
which on I \oT. saUtd with them from 
l^'itli to Etordvaux. 

(In Hrnvirig in France Welcli 9«t hiiniieir 
imroediatflly to master thu I-'rt'nch lAn^uagv, 
and thin with *uch diligence thut 'Ailliiii 
fourteen ■weeks ho vma abk- to pn-uch in 
French. Shortly aftt-T^anls hi; bi-cauio 
paaior of lb*» protirirlunt cbureli of "Svtuc, 
tben of JoDPac, and finally of 3r. Jvnn 
d'Angalj in BainlDti^^, vrbi^nt "iu: TvvnhintwX 
■ixteen year^ For Reyeral ^ataa after Iii« 
baniahment the town council of Ayr cnn- 
tinniHl rrf^lorly to n-mit to him hiit rtipt-nd 
aa minister of ilie piinidi. 

When St. Jean d'Anzcly, n strnnply forti- 
fied tuwn, wan bejifKVu by Louis -Mil dui^ 
ing the war againat thr protcalnnts in IClt*. 
n elclt sbowi-d givat zt.ii[ in t-ni^iuTtiifioK llic 
citizftna to n-i>i«tii»Cf, ami nMtAU'd iii .lurvitig 
tbe gone un iXw. wiill.'i. ilanug alsi^, oft^r 
til* capitulation of tbi- L-ity, ninlinui-d to 
pTMch aa U!>ual, hrt was iniinninnt'd before 
the king, nrho D'pritnsnd«id hini for vioUt ing 
the law forbidding onyrtno to n^e piibiirly 
wilhia I he riTgi- of Ibn court any other titan 
the eslablisbtd form of religious st-rvicp. To 
tbia rt:ioon»tranL-H Welch idircwdly n^plicd 
that if the king knew what he preached he 
would himself boLh romc to Iil'qt him and 
make nil bin nubji'ctK do the Hamt;, for what 
be preached wm thru, thepo wiw none on 
eertn above the king, which ngn« who htol 
adhered to the pope would ftay. This .".hrewd 
SDHwer »o pl(!a»ed[ tbe king tbai hoansweivd, 
'Verrwi'll, father, you shall !)« my minijtor," 
and protDiD4;d bini iiis i>rotcctiun. When 

thorafore the town waa captured again in 
the following ;ear tbe king, in awnrdanw. 
with Uia promiM, gave orders that guardl' 
sboiild be placed round the bouac of Welch, 
and al«o provided hor»ea and waggons to 
convoy him, bis family, and bin household, 
goods tu iJocLullo in safvty. J 

Welch never nt;ain rfiumi?J tobisoharge, 
hut went ui Zealand. whenL^:. tiuding himi>elf 
ill ducliniiig hi.-nllli, \\': sfnt a iH-Ittiun to tbd 
king of Kiij^laiid llmt he might bo permitted 
t-o ivtiim tohis native country-, nmi obtained , 
libirriy 1o Comoro lyindon, that be 'migfakj 
lie dealt with.' Th^re, through l>r. Young, 
dean of Winchester, an attempt woa made 
to obtain from Iiim a gunerol approval of 
epiiciipiicy, but without ellect. To his wife, 
who had gone lo the king to iLsk bis remis- 
■inn, lb<- king nri»wi?n-tl tlint h>- would gladly 
pardon him if slio would induce him to snli- 
mit to Ibe hiebo|w, to which she replied that , 
iihe wniitdrathorriY-iivi; hia decapitated head : 
in her lap^' I'leaw your majesty, I had 
rather Itep hi* head thi-re.' OnneAring. how- 
erar, that h(! was &o ill that be would not 
long survive, tbe king acceded tu bis ic- 
qtie^t for p<^nui)«ioii to preach in London; 
but he died (■- \\itA l(S2:;i two hours after 
concluding the services; 'ami 80,* says l7al- 
derwood, VmliL liix Anyi-* f\\. London, iifler 
tb(t exile of mannie ycers, with deBe^^'ed 
name uf unc bulie man, a piLinfuU and puwar- 
full [in-Bcii'iiir, and ft constant sufferer for 
the Lrueth' ylli/ittity, vii, fill ). llybia wifa, 
Klixabetb, ynnngest dsuRhler of John KnoX 
the rcfftmn-r (obo died at Ayr in January 
16^), Welch bad four sons and two daugh- 
ters, of whom Jo^ias hccnmo minister of 
Temple liar, or Teupb' Patrick, indand. 
Jane H'elsh, the wife of Thr^mas Carlyle, 
claini'.-d di<&cuiU from Welch, and tkroiigb' 
him from John Kuox. 

Welch was ibu author of a ' lEeply against 
Mr. (iilhert Ilrowne, prii-*l ' (Edinburgh, 
IflO:^; nnothRr inlilion, Cilasgow, 1672);] 
' L'.\rmsgedd>cin de la Itabylon Apocalyp-' 
tiqiie,' Joniwc. 1612; ' FoTty-cight Sftlinit . 
SermoBH ... to which is prefixed the Ilia* 
l/iry of His Life nnd Suflerings,' (ilasgov.j 
L771, bvo: and 'l<etlvrs toMr. Uobert Boyd 
of Tfichrig,' in the Wodrow Society. 

{Hiitorin bv CiildHrwood iiiiJ ■SjMttisn'ood; 
iU-g. P. C. Seotl. v-vil,; Select Jliagraphto* in 
the Wodrow .SocIbIy ; Hew Scott's L'sMi KrHcniai 
Scutii-aiue. ii. 85-6 ; The History of Mr. John 
WeUb, Minisior nt Aire, filimgow, 1703; 
Mi't'ric's Lift.' of John Kaoi : Chambura's Biugr. 
Did of Kminrnl Scritscnr-n.] T. 1'", tl. 

WELCH, JOSKl'H <rf. 180r>), compiler of 
'Alumni \^'l^^mpnal^te^iMlflea,'wajl for forty 
years oasistant to Mr. Ginger, bookseller lo 

'Weetmuulor acliooL He prepared a list of ] 
srlidliini, wliirb fur mtiny vear* lii; »o\A ill 
nuiiiuAcripl. In 1788 he priiitcd it under' 
the titlp ' A Liit nf Scliolarn i>f St. Pclfr'n [ 
Cotl*'^, WeslminetiT, m tU-.y wem vlocied 
toCIirist Churcli CoHeRe, f )j(fi»rci,uid Trinity ' 
Collier, Cnmbrid^, fromlStil to tln'prnMnt 
time, l-':iiidoit, ito. To it be pwHxed li»l« 
of the duuLS of Weetm inciter, tlio d^anH of 
Otuiflt Clturvb, (Jxforil, the iua«tvn> uf Trinity 
OoUegeiCninbridgi^.iuidLhpniaatiTsiif WpfU- 
minst^tr Bcbool. Th« work wbs rvputilidlied 
in lK.'i:*,uncIiTl.iit*rditon<hip i)fOh«rlfi<Kngot 
Pbillimore, with th*> addition of ihi' Queen's 
sobolars from lf!03, and of copious biwRm- 
phical notes. Th* work in gi'tit-rnlly krifiwii 
u 'Alumni WoeiniDniLslerieafies,' WvLch 
died in April lyOo. 

[Gent. Xh^. 1805, 1. 380.] K. 1. C. 

thulogtan, t>on afJobn Welchnian, ' ((eniJt,- 
man,' uf nnnbury, Oxfurdfthirv, was bum In 
IflGTi. lie wiL" mill TtfrulntBtl lut n comuonpr 
of MapdalDn Kail, Oxford, on 7 July I67!>. 
lU- wits on" I'f ihi) choristt'in of MuiidBK-n 
Colli'^e in that university from U\'ii till 
leWi (BloXAM, Hfsilter of MayUileti Vo!- 
tfve, i. 117). Me procnijdwl lt.A.on:J4 April 
1683. was admitted a pmbalioner f«iIow of 
MertontJoIlegwin ]li84, and commenced M..\. 
on Id Juno iiiSti. Hittcollofc prt<9i»it);d him 
in HiW to Ihrt rectory of Lnpworth, War- 
wiclubire, and lio wm qUo r«ctor of Berkeis- 
wcll iu tbv mail.' counts-, llu bvcnniD arcb^ 
deacon of Cardigan and u prelw^ndary of St. 
David's on 7 Au^. 17^7. Aft<!rwan)e liv 
becatni^dmpliiiii to thr bi»linp of hiclifiidd, 
wliw coUaieil liim to th« pmbend of Wolvny 
in tliiit ciLtbi-dnil on I^H S.-nt. 17.^3. He ol>- 
laiiK^d ihi^ rtjctnrT of .Solihull, Warwick- 
Hhire, in 173tt, and held it uuLiI bia death 
onl9Moy 1739. 

Ilia son John grnduatnd M.A. at Oxford, 
tnd became vicar of Tnniworth, Wnrwick- 
•hire. Anollit-rswi ki-pt an inn at Strinford- 
on-Avon, and used to bonat tlmt hi» father 
mud« the Tbirly-nino articlire {-Sjiintuai 
QHiial^, bk. xii. cliap. x.) 

Ilie priotinal work is: 1. 'Artionli 
XXXIX. Ecclrsijo Anfflicana' Textibu» o 
Sacra Scriptura depromptia oonfirinari, hre- 
TibuMfiie NDtiailUistmti ; cum Appeadice de 
Doctririii I'ntniin,' Ijxfiiril, 1713, 8vo ; r<^ 
printed 171t*, 1721; 5th edit. 1730, 1774, 
1793, 1819. Ail EnKtiali translatian from 
the sixth tiditiou appeivruil undiT iho title of 
'nil- Thirty-nine Articles of Ihs t'hurch of 
EngLnnd, illuMtratvd with Xotiw," 1770; rt'- 
pnntfJ in 1777, I7«3, I7<.H), 180r., 1811, 
1823,1)^4, and 1842. 

AmoD^ hia oLber |mbUcations tre : 2. *i 
llefence of llu: nhiirch of Englnnd from US~ 
Ch»ifv of Schism and Hen>iiif',a.'> laid i^ioK 
it l>r [fl^nry Dodweir the Vindicator of 
t hw deprived Hi.shoiw' (anon. I, London. ItJEW, 
4to, 8. 'The llu!ibandmaii'» Uanual: 
dircoting him how to improve the wveral 
actions of bin calling, aod lh« nioet uwia) 
occnrrences of his life, to the glcwy of Ood, 
and the benefit of his toul.' Loodoiit lOt^ 
8vo; Mth t-dil. Ijomion, 1B18, ftvo; new 
wlil. Undoa, 1821, 12mo. 4. ' Dr.Clartte'i 
Scripture Doctrinr of thi- TrioitT examined ; 
to wliirh are added Rom»> remark* on hii 
seniiments, and a brief examiaation of hti 
Dnctrinfl,' Oxford, 1714, 4lo. r». An rdi- 
tion with notvs of 'D. Aurolii Ahl ' 
|]ip[)Oi]rn>ii» E[H#£opi Liber de ll^r 
ad quod-vull-Uiiuin, una cum (jennadii .Mu- 
siliensis Appendice.'()xrord,1721,Kva. 0. *A 
Ccmfi-runCL' with an Arian : occasion 'd bf 
Mr. Whi*ton'B Itejilv to thf Karl of Xotting- 
bam ' (anon.t, (tsford, 1721, Sro, 7. "A 
Iliala^uo bi-lwixl a IVotwlaot Minister snd 
a Romish l'rie.*t,' 3ri1 Ptlit. Londnr !"-" 
8vo: 4th edit. 1735. 8. ♦ Novatiaoi Pr 
ItomaniOpem, qua'- extant, omnia, COT: 
loiilje ijuaiu utii{uam antehiu edits, notii 
ilhwtruto," Uxford, 1734, 8vo. 

[.Viiiiit. MS. 8883, f. M«A; Briij__ 
Kngl. K^uion* «f Onnk aod Lalio Am 

[■p. 721.747 ; Cookea PrmL-lier'B .^MBUnt; ft 
n Ilnoha'n Now MemoiTH of I^icrnlure, I'Sft 
i!. 133: I'oHivr'e Alumai Oxon.. l.'iao^l7I4. it. 
15^4 ; Li- Ncv«'a tVuiti, mI llMnly, i. 31A. 3» 
643, W^Hxl'i /thenar Oiun. ed. Itlin, if. 481.] 

]N.>9), historian uf tlit- ICoyal Hocii'iy, kn 
at Winil.ior in Autrust IRl.'l, wm the ion rf 
Isaac Widd id. 1X24) of Dublin, bv to 
»0C0th1 marring*!, contract t^l in 181 -J, to \,ari, 
onlv daughter of Eyre Powi'll of l.irwitt'fla- 
nel[, Kildare. He was thus balf-broilift tu 
Imuic Weld '(|. v.} In 18:H>be acmmpauird 
his pareniH to France, whvre thuy occuptfl 
a ciinteau m>ar Dijon. After ilia fathcri 
death he n>tuniLtl to Huhliu and atteadcd 
classes atTrinilyColiegrt, but titok nodvgns 
there. In 183d li>> proceeded to l^ndonawl 
took up an nppoiut ia«iit na secretary to tb 
.Stnlistirjil Socipty. Three VMr» later !» 
niarriud Anne, daughter of llenry Sidvwd 
and nioce of Sir John Franklin ; her cldrt 
sister, Emily, niarried Alfred ToBnjsWj 
and b'_-r youngeitt sister, Louiaa, toarhee 
Charlus 'K'nnysoii. Weld atudied at ibt 
Midillt' reuinle, and was calMl to the htf 
on ii Nov, 18+4; but scienet* wa.* bis inie 
voratiun, and, iindt-r th>^ friendlv adviM 
of Sir .Tohn Barrow, he bc.'cam< 




■s»i«tant HTCivtiiry umX Ubmrikb to tlie 
R1150I 8od«tT, R |io«t which h«' !i'*ld for six- 
teen yaare. The senior necreurv- At ihi^ 
ticD<* w»i» I>r. Peti*r Mark Rogvl [q. v.] 
With Itojret's n-nnn rncourk^i-ciii^cit \\'Ad 
CDmmenc*>d at nnp*- upon ih*? wyrii by wJiirli 
he in rptnctnlK^trd, and wliich Appeared in 
two To1iiroe« in 18-W ns'A Iliflory uf tliu 
IloTftl Socifl.T with iletiioirs of th« l*r<?.-i- 
dvntv. c'^inpilvd i'niii Auth>.>nlic DocumenU* 
1_l<(inilan, Svo). TU" Ixtolc vrnfi illu^ilmti'^d 
by dmwuieB made bv Mrs. \\'eld, and pmvfld 
« Wfll-Trrifli'ti tuiil iiiiich-n<-<^t<-d oiipplpinpnl 
to thfi hwiorir's nf Hireh nnd Thrirnson. An 
iDterestinK appeudiic to the T»IumQ& is the 
•I)McripcIvf CuwI&(rn^^ of th'- I'ortnvitii in 
Ute poMassioii of the Ko^l ^TJiciety,' which 
Weld compiled by ordt-r of the cauneil ill 

Ill 1850 WVId comnwnri'd hi* nffn-i!iifjlr 
wriuon serifs of ' Vacation Tours,' witn 
'Aurt^rfriii', Pi'^lniont, and ^roy; & Sum- 
mer Ramble,' follnwed in lr^'i-1 by * A Vnoi- 
tion Totir ia tbv Unitpd States and Canada.' 
dMlicat«d loI«i«r Widd, who*' o\«t> 'TraToU 
in North America' bad excited much atten- 
tion in \7W. Xtxt came 'A \'Bcat!un in 
Britfany' {!S-'iOt, * A N'aculion 111 Ireland' 
(ISo7), 'The Pyreiie*a, Went and Ka-t ' 
O^SOi, 'Two Months in ihe ITicliIands, 
t>iT«"iia and Skve' (!?*«»),' Ln.t, Witit.-r in 
Home '(l8tW|.'' Fl'in-m-e thu New (Capita] 
of Italy ' ) 1867 1, ond ' Xol*?s on HutKundy,' 
•diUitl bf MrK. Wi/Id ahi-r hiT liiishiind'c 
death in iHOy. Many of iheae wens illus- 
trat«td by Ihf author'" nwn sk«itrh(*H. 

Wftid was till* chii'f helper of .Sir John 
Ftaoklin in rhe home work conneicted with 
liM Arctic colorations, and wn^an nnthority 
no every matter oonii);['ti.'d with thu polar 
circle. He ia§uw! in 1850 a well-l-imi'd 
lecture un ' Arcliv LlxpttditioiLii.' ori[;iiiaIly 
di'lirvr^l al rhi- IxtiidOTi ln-*liriitrnn on 
6 Feb. 18-5'*, and ihia was followed by 

SwrnplilfftH upon the i»!>arch far Franklin 
luriiiff IB'd. 

In I66L he re«i|[ned his post at the Itoyal 
8acietj. and he ihoitlT ftftorwnrd* bi'came 
t partner in the publishiug busineHs with 
Lcn-ell lieevc. In IWi2 he whs enlrusted 
with ihi- pn-panitibn und mniiiigi'tn'-iii of 
Ihv philotMiphical df partmtint >i{ llio Inter- 
national KxhibiLBon. and he was nlso ap- 
nointed a 'dwlricl vupi!rin1t>ndi-iil 'nf thm-x- 
oibiriiin. He repnyiented fireat Britain 
at iheFarisExbibitionof ]847,asonu ofthe 
BMistnnt lyimniiMioni-n, and hi^ ahlt^ n^pnrt 
an the ' Philosophical InBlrumenls and 
Apparatus for ToachinffScirnco' was pnnled, 
and afterwards abridged for the ' Illuiitmted 
iKMidon News' (5 Oct. I8ti7l. In the 

autumn of It^ hi<! wont on n tour in ltur> 
Rundr, and during the wiater Kuan ha 
dflivfP.-d ."evcnil papers at the ' Bath IJtt— 
raiv and I'hilowiplticiLl Aasucialion,' in iJie 
wolfrire of wliiph ho took a warm intercstJ 
tk* died suddt'iily at his residenre (ainca 
imH), IMU-VM,-, \«w HridR.- tlill.Denrltath, 
uu 15 Jan. )8itll. He wa« survived by t 
widow mid n 'laiiKhler, Mias Acnes Grace 
Weld. A portrait of Charles Ilicfiiml Wold 
is pn-fix^d tn the post humous' Nulwou Bur- 
gundy ' which hi! was preparing for iha press 
at the lime of hit* di-atb. 

(It>i)ci*t.T and ]Uagaiia» of Blogniphy. 1869, 
i. :i3i; Timo*. 19 San. 1869; Men of tho llfi^, 
fith odit. ; Allibuiio'a DictJoimry of Kti^ltKh 
literature; Ilrit, Mu», t'at.; private iafotiua- 
tiou.J T, S. 

(IfS^Jt-iyyi >,coloniaIffov»runr,lKinujn!»MKy 
18^3, camonrn well-lcoown Uomiin catholic 
family, beiun iht- third non of Humphrey 
W«!d of Chidt'ork Manor, Dnrset. and Chris- 
liiia .Mitria, khcouiI dnufrhtvr of Charles Clif- 
ford, sixth bnron OlifFord of Ohnillci^h, lie 
waa ftlncated nt Sfonyburst College and at 
Freiburg in Switzerland, and in 1844 emi- 
grated to Xew Zealand in ordf r to durota 
himcdf to frracing^bcvp and cattle. He soon 
attracted public notice, and was in 1S4S 
oHiTCd a seat in llif iiomint^e eouncit, which 
hf declined, soon afterwards taLin^ a leading 
part in the agitation for niiirfs-Mit alive ineti- 
tiitionc. In IS.'iO and part of |N5| Im waa 
in I'^trghiitd, but I11U.T in the latter year car- 
ried out cxuloratiiiiia of i*onie inlerpst in the 
itiLinhabiteu dii^iricts of the iniddle ialand, 
and ajfain in ISori amund \eIson. In that 
vear he also paid a visit, rn ihc Sandwich 
Inlniidii, and luicended Mauna Ivja. 

W'i'ld beramo in ScptfrnhtT 1W;I a mem- 
ber of the House of Kepres<-nl8iivvB of New 
S^cnland. In 18*>4 ha wn^ for a lime one of 
the special members of lliu executive coun- 
cil. In Noveml>rr IS(HJ he joini^l the finiit 
SlalTord uiiuistryof- miriisterfornativeafliiirs, 
but was thrown iml of nilifi- in July I>^61 by 
thtj resignation of the minifltry. In No- 
VHiwbi-r 1WS4 he wii»»ummoniil by thegover- 
por. Sir neorgc- fJrr-y, to form a ministry. 
The pwriofi was a critical one; ihei* had 
been much dimension bt-tween the retiring 
miuistry and the governor; thu policy of ihf 
ministcrsiLsrcgardst he Maori!! wttAiliHtriiKtnd, 
and iheir interfureiici' in n'sp™t of military 
operationi' was resenled. Weld Inid down 
the conditions on which he could accept. 
nlHc^ in u mi^rnornndum which enunciated 
the sound principlfs of minijl'^rial rwponsi- 
bility. The eoveruor accepted theto at oucc 
On 24 Nov. lam hi became premier and 

chief KcreUry, nnd, tJKmgli len tban u year 
ia office, nre a. eompletolj n«w tiirti t« 
evenu, aau left ■ umrk ujpoit ai3iui»tatra- 
Uon in New K«aUntl. His first efforts wew 
diivctwl to cunclu(lin{{ tlu' Mauri wtr with 
e<ilonu)l ttfMips am) by ^lorilU metbo<l» 
rather than with the cxpuusivo itujieria) 
trv»ipii,nnt],iLtlh<m(i;lih<Mva;triiil)LarraM«d t)jrn 
dinpute Willi llie military cnmtiuindvr, Lieu- 
tenant •genera I Sir Hiincan Alexander CWniK- 
ron.lie Ikid rhe b&HistW thoauoomful termi- 
nolion of tie war: at thi aaine time tie 
carried our tli'_- coiitiAcaiionof Waik&to. inati- 
tul«diiat4V(i land eour1«, and carried a native 
righu bill. lie atao initinted pronoaala for 
tfaempnsenUtiim of tbt; Maoris in ttiu Hotiai' 
of RetnewnCatiTea. H\» ad uitni»t ration rv- 
Btorea the credit «f tfai? culoiiy, atid brought 
back atabilily l<> itt tiiiaiiC'-i'. A t4>l«({ni[i)i 
cable for connecting tlin two islandA vraa 
bflgus, and the capital of tliecolonj reino\'?d 
!<:■ Weill ni^t>>n, in acconlft nee wiOi the rcctim- 
mundal ion of ajmmifisious mnde in 1^3. In 
Jnly ISdi) ttji- crisis cftu*wl by the difference* 
witL General CamtTon liad blown ovor, and 
Weld met bi^ [larliumont again ; but on the 
Otai;^ rcsefA'-^a bill Iil' wat< »1iakcn, and on a 
(]ii<.>fitii]n iif itiiiifHiiug HtainjidiitieR be waiK all 
but defcalod. His lieallh was already jjiving 
WBV, und on IH Oct. ISrtfi bf naifti'i?'!. and, 
O!* tbi.' ^lrtll*>^'^wdiMolve(^, relnrned tii Hnjr- 
land far rlian^i; and rent. 

Ilii administration mado n conaiderable 
inijfr<?«*iinn in Downing.' Rlrwt, and in IRiWt 
he waaappiiiuted Rnvernor of Westi?rn Aus- 
tralia. In hi« ni-w i*plnTt' WVld continnod 
to do well. lU obtain'?'! the introductioii 
of an etectivi- cli'mcnt into tho Lopislative 
Council, and vnL'<JurB^'i.'d tfav v»tablisbm<.-nL 
of miiuid|>a) in.^titiilions: nn edncfliion art 
passodiu 1871. provided fur till- etjuttlity of all 
rfiligiotisdi'nmiiinntinn*. }li.-t aduiiniAlralioii 
coincided with a period of distinct develop- 
ment in tbe colony ; it was mnrlted by tlie 
oomplption of ncystem of internal t.obignipli.s, 
lliu ".■stnblisbni'ent of a steam service rtiiind 
the coasta. and the commi'nccmcnt of the first 
railway. In January ISTJiliewast-ransferrfld. 
on the tompletion of bia term of office, to 
Tactnania. He came ul u diilicull I inie. wlu'n 
t\iv perauiiiil aiitaanniam of fnelions iu tbn 
legislature occupied allention lo the e>:- 
OllLsion of public biisin<^ss. Hisccnllict wilb 
the jndgea over tbo release of th(= woman 
Ilunt created a Btorm. Hib term of office is 
cliielly marWl by the discoyery of tin, He 
waa at Hvdney for tlie opt^aing of the Inter- 
nationalExbibition of 1}^7&, and was tran&- 
farrud iu April 1880 to tbt: govemmunt of 
the StraiU Settlemcnta, where he arrived on , 


A^ain Weld*g lot fell un a time of mueii 
oxpattaion in th« colony to which be waa 
apputniixl. In tbv rvKulalioa of the rapid 
Chinese ieatuiflTntion he hail a diifttrult t< 
Hie name is cuunocted with ^tieral iinnr 
mt^nt of ibtt public boildiiiga and tbe tit 
Mueeom, but be particularly duvotitl 
M-lf t<> lb«> cousolidationof relations with I 
natiTf> fitat^^'a. In March Ili^S he wcntil 
Malacca to settle the Iteuibau ditturl 
and laid the foundation of the arrangein< 
wbicb led <o the exincnce of the \>\ 
Etat« of NcffTi Scmbilao: in May ISfifi] 
UTttugod a now IroaLy with the suhonl 
Johore ; in May iH87 Ite prooevdml to '. 
at « coQiniiaeioner to report on the chiims of 
certain ehinftiiins ojpuiul th« British North 
Ilomen Company. In Noromb^r laH? he 
wtxit to I'abaug, and left there a itriusb 
«^eii?y, which was «oon followed bya rcfVi- 
lar protectorate. 

WWd retired on a pension iu 1887, and, tv^ 
I umin); to KoKlaud. uied at Chide'ick Manor. 
Bridport, on 5o July I8i)l. lie wan made 
('.U.«. in ld75, K.C.M.G. in ISfO. ao 
G.C.M.(}. in IHST.. He marnwl.o»2: 
IS^, Filomena Afary Anoe, daajrht«r 
.\mbrum) IJsle Manh PbillippG de lisloj 
Onrenden Park, Li^ii-j^ter. By her he 
»i\ sons and »evea daughters. 

Weld WA.1 a man of ability and cultutn;., 
straiff'htforwiLnl and chivalrous, both a5 0iiflp~ 
sler and ffovernor, but Appappntlr wautin^] 
tRctnndciiocrotion. I'oit WrldintheSt 
Settlement* ia named aflvr biw. He 
two or (hrw pamplilet« on atfaim in 
Kunlaud, ihv tjiicf uf which are 'Hinte 
intending Hheep t'armera in Nctt Zeali 
l..uudan, l^A, and ' Notea on New 
Affair;*,' l>)n()ot), 1&fl9 ; tho latter conlain>| 
g^iod sketch of hifi own policy. 

[burke'a Dindcd Geuiry : Manner's t)i(t.i 
Auslralnsiiui Bioftrapby : OtsbociMi'R ]{ul«ra 
StAtesrneii uf New Malauil; Ruvdca'* UUl. ' 
Npw Zealnod, vol. ii. chapv. >ii. and xiii. f^ !BT 
SO}.: Olotiiiil Officii List. 1886; Weld'* Nuui 
iin New /mlanii ABain, L'arl. Pap«c« Of UH< 
Fvntgn's Tatnania. ch-xviii.; inmrnatkii to* 
nigJiod 1^ Sir Jamta SvcUonban) of Ibe Strala 
St-tllaiaaabt] C. A. H. 

WELD, ISAAC a7r-l-1856>, topoerip 
pbicul writer, horn in Hwit Street, DnMUi, 
on 15 Viircb 1774, waa the eldewt ton hxhit 
firei wife, Elisiiboth Kerr, of Imoc U'eU 
(rf. 1H24). Rud b«lf-brf>lher of Cliarlofi Ri- 
chard lA'eld [q. >*J niBfTeat-jrrsat-ffnuiil- 
father, tbe Kev. Edmuiid Weld, of Olaney 
Cft.slb.',co.Cork, infiie limeof CromwoUrsw 
undE^r Weld, ThoBas], was thti dcaoeBauit 
of l^ir liicbani \\'eld of Eaton. Ilia |[Tand* 

father wu iuuiii»i iuac after NewtoBfT 




tntiiitnl« fri«D(J of liU fCTwnUgmndfalher, Or. 
Nathaniel Weld. Both NalTiiiniel (rf. 17801 
rdO hiR )u>nlRa*c(r/,1778)H-»T>>ilistiugii»iti>>al 
for1>!*mingaiiil pirayin thnniini^tr)-, wliicJi 
tliev held i>ucc«9sively in New lEow, Dublin. 
Thf Inflcr edited, in four vohinios, in 176ft, 
witli 'n preface niviuti wun- account of tlie 
lifeofthe Author/ the 'I'i.TOimea on Variotu 
Sul^ccts ' of l>r. Juliii lA'liiiid. 

Yonnjr Isaac, the Ihini of tUt. nfiioi*, wn* 
»eut to the Bch'jol of Samut'l Wbylu in (Jriif- 
t^n St ri-rt, and itn'iici' tn ihiit of liiKhiiiu'inL 
Rarhaiilil at I'al^rave. noar l>isH, Norfolk, 
when* ho hud a» schoolftdl'jws Th'tmas, aftar- 
wards flnit l>ord DenruAn, and Sir Willinui 
Gell. From Visa lie proceeded to Norwich as 
a prirait' pupil to Dr. Kiifirld, l>y whom In- 
was iutritauced to the Tavloraml .Mariinoau 
fiuniltee. lie left Norwich m 175)3, and t-no 
jaen later, having rL-it')hi<d upoii i-xplurinir 
the resource* of tlw t'liitwl State* iind 
Canada, he Mt aail from Dublin for Phila- 
drlphia. Hr nrriviKl in Nuvi'inlx.'r ir{)'% lii« 
voyage harintr ORCupifwl snme sisty dBy«, 
and "pnnt n littlo ovur two years la thu 
rounTrr. .^fwimpanicd hy iifaithfiil.vrratiT, 
wmotitnK on hoisebaok, sometimes 00 foot 
R in a ca&M, ho mode kij way (ofl<;n under 
the guidaoce of Indians'), through the vtM 
fereeta and along thi.- gn'at rivent. IIo nnr- 
nowl^- sac«p*(] Miipwruek on I.uku Kriu and 
MOipcrivnc'-il all tiie advculure incid^-nt I0 
VWfiing throuffh an unsettled country, wliiln 
m thu tou'us m mixi'd in the bust (wck-ty, 
and bad the privil*?ffe of mt>etin|f flenran 
Washington. He paid a visit to Mount 
Vrni'in, and inwliCiLtrHl ttitim thi> «Iiiviu(' 
cabias that dl!>fi^urtHl the proHixict. Tho 
impedinifnti!! to locnmotion were such that 
ituxtkhimtwoday^iind t^vo tu^)il« to i^ncli 
AJbanv from New Vork, and eight da-ys bi-- 
twoen')kfontt«al and Kinfpilon. tic rctumod 
famaeattbeciou'of 1797 " without ontertnin- 
ing^thcfliirhlestwuili to revisit' the Aincricjiii 
OUDtineut, and publith'-d through Stodcdtik-, 
in January 1709, hi-» 'Travel* through ihi- 
Stal«8 of North America and the ProvinceH 
of I jipiT nnd I^wi-r l^nnndn diirinK 'h*? 
Vears 1705, 1706, and 171*7 .' The work wiw 
received with great favour, and before the 
vmir wa.* nut a wcnnd oditifin wna called for. 
The 6r9l was in tiuarto, with plates IVom 
original 8kfvtchi-« by the author, tho second 
in two Toluine.8 octavo, with fokled p]at«s ; 
other editions followed m 1800 aud 1807. 
A Fwnch vemion waa handaomety goi. up in 
Plana, with rnluced copi«r« of th" plat<-Ji, 
'better than the originn^.' Two Oenniin 
tnuulalion* were made, one by Knenig and 
tht other by Mm<^. tlerti, and a Dut^h ver- 
non alw appeared, with copiw of the platea 

in the original utt. W«]d waa iutroducud 
at the 'Institut' at Patia as an American 
irnvidliT, was (Oect«d a momlwr of the His- 
torical aud [.itontry Society of Quvbac, and 
I on 'J7 Nov. IHOO was elected a member of 
llio Royal Dublin Society, of which hcsub- 
setmeutly (in ISiy) became vici-]ir<.>#ideiit. 
I Tn I8OI, at the request of the lord !in«- 
I tvaitiil of Ireland, Lord llardwickc. Weld 
, drew up a paper on the »uhjfct of i-mi^ra- 
I tiun. basL'd upon some of the data given in 
, hU lioolc, in ivhicli nn ttlforl wn* irindn to 
I divert the sMream of emigration fn)m the 
' United Statoa to Canada. Lord Ilardwicke 
in return int^rwAti^ hinaelf nicoo«afiilly in 
procuring for Weld Ibe rerenioa of a lucra- 
tive poM in the Irith cuatoms, which had 
liueo hold by his father. When, however, 
tbe father dieil in 1824 the salary of the 
i>o*t wae reduced to vanishing point, and 
Weld never secured any Hdei:[uate couj]>ea- 
sution for this injuetii'e. 

Ill th(t inecintimii W«ld huil fully <<uk* 
tnined his repiiiatinn na a topographer in bis 
' (Uustratious of tlio Scenery "f Killnmey 
and The aiinroiinding Country' (l.r)ndnn,lrtl7, 
1(0, aud 181:;, 8vol, illustrated by eigbteea 
engravings on coppi'r from dmwitiga by the 
author. During nis peregrinations in tbe 
south-wost of Ireland he iiavijjated the lakes 
ill a boni wliiiib h*: mauufactutvd out of com- 
pr**«fd brown paper, ncid he also ascended 
The then little Known summit of Gheraun- 
tael, in the Macgillicuddy Ituiiks. 

In May D->lo he saih^d upon what was 
then tliuiight a imriloim voyage, embarking 
in the pi'itn-i-r 14 horw-powrr i<tvamboat 
■ Thami'<<. sailing from DunWry fo London. 
Hid voyiiRe, dunng which, tliongli the 
! wentli^r wa^ rough, the innnll slcamcr ovcr- 
I hauled all the shipping in the Cbnnnel.fonni.'d 
! the auhjcct of an dnimnted nnrrativo in 
I ' I'raaerV Magazine' for Septi/mljer 1S48. In 
1838, at which time he hold the post of 
Kcnirir honorary sucretary to thv Ituyat Dub- 
lin Society, Wi-ld drew up for this l>ody hi« 
compendious ' Statistical Survey of the 
noiinlynflto*coniTnon'( Dublin, Mvrt). W'-ld 
took ft keen interest in IrUh indust ria-i, and 
first suggested thetriennialexhibilionswhidi 
the Royn! Dublin Society innngurated. In 
I 1H3** ho gave valuable evidence befoni tho 
I soloct committee appointed to inquire into 
tbe aduiniMraliou of the aociotv. In hia 
later years he travelle<d extensively in Italy 
and spent much time in Rome, where he ho- 
caine intimate with t,'ani)rii. Ke died on 
4 Aug. 1M6 at Ravenaweil, near Rrav, 
whero tho greater portion of bis later li/e, 
when he was not upon hit travels, had been 
spent. He married at Gdinburgli, in 1H)3, 




Alvxjuulriiu [fomc, hut leA tu> hmne. Tlw 
■umbanof the Haytl Dnblia Sodccr nued 
B mooiniMnil In Ilia rormorT in Mount JifminA 
MoMeiy in the eoune of 1^7. 

{DaUia fair. Ha^. So. zHz (Jul lMT)i 
Pru& Ro^l Itvblia Hncittjr. xtiS. i. S. 31. it. 
Ktt.H. 17: Aikmmi. ISA;, t. Ifl; Simmi- 
•Bii'a Cu. of Vojrnfw Mil TravvU, Xo. VW ; 

SfofAbir R«v i;g9 Ui. sm. iito« i is: 

Qwn«rl7 IUt. ii. 314 ; RAwUlPa Uta at 
JdRoda. UM. iii. »<>: Oeot. Uii«. IftM. L 
810 ; Ttackmuta't AmrrK* nt\A bar C«BaiBt»- 
tan. Itft4, p 20s. Ilrii. Ua*. Cat.] T. S. 

M\S (ISMP IWU), puritan divine, wu 
bora iti the ■onth of EnaiUDti about 1590, 
ami HucalMl at Caml>ridg«, wb«T« ho ^- 
duftti^ ill lillX lit* waa butituted vicnr 
of Terliiiflr, I-Uaex, in 1624. On 10 Nov. 
IQ.V ho joinMl to Ihf puHlan pclilktn to 
Witliara i^nd^.v.].th«Bbiahi^af LoDdon, 
in faTour of Tanmas Qoolwr [q. r.] On 
SSrpt. IKtl be wnad«priff«d bj Land for 
Doncon/ufmiir. and succeeded by JnhnSul- 
bam '^q. V. Hf' eoiifrrated to N«ir England, 
arriving at Boaion on fi June 1032. In 
Juljr Itn waa appointed 'paafor' of Fint 
[{nxburr, Masaaciiutu-ltx. On -1 Not. John 
Eliot [q.r. ,' t\u- hiOiaii ai>o«tlr,' waa aamr- 
ciated irith him m ' tMcner.' He vnfi a 
omnber of the ' ai»>_'mbl_v of tb«i chnrchce ' 
(th« first of till- ]iuritan ayiiodit nf New 
Hn^lnnd ) vliicli met for tltr«e weeks at New- 
town (renamvd ratnbridgv in 16!tH). and 
eondemned on W Aug. Ift17 tlu' amino- 
nian Tiewa of John \Vh««lwnf!bt (16H2?- 
16791 of I)niintre«, and his siaU-r-in-liw, 
Mr«. .^nn« Hutchinson [q-T.] In the in- 
ierral between thp two trials of Mr^.Tlntchin- 
son before thu civil doiu( at Newtown (Oc- 
lobiir in;Ct anil the cceleatastleal court at 
Bo-ttnii <].'> March 1638), she was detained 
in Weld's cUnrgw at Kozburjr iind«r MUtonCe 
of haniftliincnt. 

Iti Julv hKia John JoMelyn [q. t.] brought 
to Boston fromFrancisQuarles [q. v.]ik new 
metrical tvrKioti of tax malma. This sug- 
gested the nrepamtioQ of a |iwU«r to iupfT- 
sedv St«>muoId and Hopkiti*. Weld look 
juirt in thii work (which N^al calls ' a mean 
Twrf.irmancp ') with El iot and IS ichard 
Moibcr [q. v.] it wn» pubUaht-c! m 'Tin- 
WhoV Booke nf l^^alm^j. faithfully Irana- 
lated into English Metre,' 1640, $vo ; no 
plac'-' or printer ia given, but it w«j printed 
at Cambridge, itassocbunttB, by Stephen 
Haye 'q. v.] Known as the 'Bay Psalm 
Boolt,* it is momornbto ns thu fir»l volume 

frinted in lh« American colonies. luAuffuiti 
Oil Weld WAS sent to England with llueh 
IViAm ij. v.] as one of ibo agents of tW 

eelon^. U* viuied Lead in tbe Tow»r, 
cUiauBC rvdrMsfcrfionMrgnevano^a. Laai) 
* r^nentbrtcd no nidi uiog ' I Bntrw. 
Grvml tmfatttr VnmaAwi^ j,!^]). la 
1612 be accompuued IVtafs in the Iruh 
exwdition nnder .\lexaa(li*r, lord ForbM- 

Betng in [»n<li)n in KUJ br- ni>-t ■» itb ia 
Bccatrat of rEfWhcftwrighl and HoirhiuMa 
ca«e, * newly cone forth of thti prewr,' »tili 
title * A Caulof^oe of Kmneou? Onioiou 
opod«iased in >ew E^nxlaml,' 1614, 4 to (rf 
prioited lO^t, 'and, bring earnestly jirvNeJ 
By ^v«fM tu perfect it.' ho added a pn-faro 
and ■ codcliiuon. It was iwued as ' A i?t'C. 
Story of the Rise, Reign, and Hutu of tb> 
Antinoniian«,FaintIuta,Jt Libert iut^.tbulia- 
fected the Chafrlies of Xerv-EngUnd,' l(iU 
4tQ. It has beenconjiTturcd thai tW ituia 
account WM drawn up by John V'n''^ ; 
fq. T.l Wberfwriirbt replied in '>!■ 
Amrncanu*," UH.'., 4ia. In Hi4H \\ r,^ -.- 
relieved of hb atrt^ncy and Kc«Ued to N** 
England. He dtd not return, and %pfem 
iu have ret&ained in London. 

In 16(9 be was put into the rvctorjor 
Su MarrV, Gateshead. Ucve he took fnrt 
with ^Villia^1 l>ura»t <<f. 16SI), SsBU'l 
Hammond, I>.1>. [q-v.], and otberv, ia con- 
tfnT'-rey with qiiaben and in eJipoaii^ tb* 
impoi?! lire of Tbnmaa Ramsay [q. v.] Aceovi- 
ing to the church book* bia oonnoction «ilk 
QateshMul ceased in 1067; it is not inpriV- 
baMe that he nade some stay in IreliBi 
lie »i|rned the declaration against the in- 
surrection of flfth-iDoiiarchy men isMid 
(January I*VI1 ) by cf^ngregatioiial m'misl'is 
' in and about the city of London.' Iln 
sucoweor at Uale-»hvnd (John Laidler)^ 
not ^TMenled till lit March 1060-1. W-U 
is said to have died in Kuglnnd on 'IZ March 
1061-2. H*r was twii-.- mnrrird. lliaeldMt 

, aoD, Thomas Weld, graduatnl M..^ at Usr- 
vard in 1641. and n''mitin'''l in Nrw Kugland. 

I Another son, Kdniund \>'eld, graduatol >< 
Ilarvard in Ift'ill, became one of CromwHl' 
chaplains in Ir«>1und, wa.^ indepf-ndrtnt uilai' 
tt«r at KiiiMle, co. Cork, in 165>5, and laitf 
at BUmev Castle, co. Cork, and dii<d is 
166S. Kg«<i -^7. This Edmund Wehl wu 
father of NatJiantel Weld i lU60-1730),iB- 
dependent mtntflti-r at Eustaoo 8lrei-l, l^ub* 
lin, and grandfatber of l>aac WeJd (1710- 
1 778). hw siirci-asor, whoso gnndaonfi •tvt^ 
Isaac Weld fq.v.] and CharUw Richard ^^'tld 

Besides the above he puhlished : 1. 'An 
.\nswer to W. R. his Xarration of the 
Opiiituns and ProctiM* of the Chuxchts . ■ . 
in New England,' 1644. 4to; William Itath- 
band the elder (d. 104-j) had tn-ated the 
disorders above mentioned as the natu 

nauh of mdcjwnilencT. i. 'The P'lrfocl 
I'liariiuv iiDcler Moiikiitii llolines ... in tlit* 
Gt'Df^riktion . . . ca]K>d Quolierf,' ^lalesidv 
IG«u»li<:iL<l . \*V>3, 4iQ ; Imprinted London, 
1664, 4lo. bv Weld, Richani lVidc««x, Hwn- 
mciM,WiUiamCult,iin(i Duraot. -1. * A False 
Jfw.'NewcaMlc, ltli>;j, 2pts. 4to; oMountof 
RuiiBay, by Weld, Ilammoiid, C*. Sidvnbam, 
snd Durant. 4. 'A furthfr Discovery of 
Ui«t GeaenUon , . . colled Quukere,' Outc- 
aide [OnteshMdl. 1«64. 4to. f>. ' A Viudicn- 
tion of Mr, Weld,' 1608, iio; in reply to 

{AppMiiu's Cytli^Mcdk of AmmcAB Bio- 
gnpiiy. I8«9. ri. h25; CJamj-'e Acwuiii, l.tS. 
n.3K8^ CiUmy's CoDtinuatioa. 1727. i. 464 ; 
OotUiB Matlntr's MoffiitttU Chriiti ATncricit. 
WOT, i». 137. vii, IT; Nnnl'» JEim- of Now Eng- 
luid, 1720. i. tSft; UnUhiiwoD'* Hiit- of Mm- 
Mchurt't B*y. l7flS,p.86: Bmnd'a Ktvcaatle, 
1789, i. 499 ; SurtM^ T>nrt)»m. 1)120, ii. 118 ; 
l89S,pp. KI-2: IfantttitTHEIiitnrifal MemomU, 
l$44,iiLA92: Uhdon'aN'sw Knalxnd T!>eomii-j- 
(Conant). lUS.p. lOO: D^vidn's Noneviiforaiitv 
in F.Mes. llWt.pp. l&l.ri74-B«id'BBiEl. Frosb. 
Chnrcbin Ir*lftO<l(Killpii). 18«7.ii. M*; Smitb'i. 
KbUoth«ca Ani.i>Qu>ikeriaua, 1873. p. 44S; 
Witiicrow's Hiat. and Lie H«m. of PtmIi;- 
Urianinn in irelaad, 1879 I 118 aq^ 18S0 ii. 
114 aq.i MaaMOhwetU Hial. CollectioBf, 3nl 
ser. i. 23S : Sarag«'« Ooualaeieal Diet. iy. 459, 
-473 : Julian's DictionaTy uf llymiiolotiy, 1892, 
p. 110.] A.Q. 

WELD, TirOMAS (ir7»-I«t7j, car- 
(IuiaI. born in London on 2:i Jan. 1773. was 
tii« eldwt son of Tliomna Wt-Iit of I.iillwoHli 
Ooetlo, Ronux, by Iuh wif.- Mnry, oldfiel- 
dauffhierof Sir Jolm Stanley Miissey St-anley 
of Hooton, wlio b^flonffcd to the cUlt fcnd 
oUiolic bnincb of the Hlsntvy fnuilv, now 
extinct., lie was educated at home nnder 
CIuxIm Plowd«n [<). v.], and at au cajrly aifi) 
hn gmve proof of nut great piitty and munill- 
infftTonrof nuinyreliffioiucotnTnutntiwUiat 
wen* dnTt>n into Fngland by ilie fur;' of tlie 
Prench revolution. lie conciured witb hia 
&ther in bestowing upon the bnniihcd nem- 
bm of tb« Society of Je«iu< the spkodid 
maiuioD of Stonyhuntt. The Trappiitt nuns 
were ntouivcd at Lultworth ; while th« Poor 
Cn*r«a from (iraveliuca aiid tbn niitia of the 
ViutAtion were also Bpecial objects of his 
bounty. CiwoTgu HI, in bin lojoMniit at Woy 
montJi, used to viail Liillwnri!i, and alwaya 
extveeaed the ^r^atnt reK»rd tor the family. 

Do 14 June 1798 WVld married, at Uji- 
lirDoke, Lucy Brid|fet, second dftughtor of 
Tliomaa Clitford of Tixall. fourth aoD of 
Hugh, tbirtl lord CUBbnI. 'niciroiilj iHue 


I waa Mu7 Lucy, bom at Tpway, near W«^ 
mouth, oa 31 Jan. 1 799. Thv toss of bis wb 
at Clifton on 1 June IH16, and th« tub 
(]ueul tnarrioAeof hisonly vliild toh«r»rc<»i 
cousin, Hugh Churk-it Olitlord (afkerwi 
•evt^ulb Bnr<>iL('liiri>rd),on I Sept. l8lH,le 
him at liberty to embrace the ticclvuaatieal 
«tat«, and to renounci- tJir family properly to 
hiA next hrolber. Joseph Weld, lie placed 
hlmselt' under the din.'clionof biH old fn<fnd« 
art'libitlmp uf I'nris, ordttineti biin ]n-ie«t ool 
7 April IfSt'I. Dn l>0 Jiincl82:J he began to 
astiitt tlu- pallor of the Chelsea mi^^ion, and 
aftKr Mtna tiint hv wa* remored to ilammer- 
amilb. Tlie holy see liaring nomiusl«() him 
coadjutor to Alexander Mncdonell (17fi^ 
IMOi "q. v."*, bishop of Kintp-ton, (ho oei 
mony of AVeld'a cuimecmtion as biahop of" 
Amycia, a town of the Morea, was ner- 
fonned at St. Edniuud'a Collvgv, nearWai*, 
by iiinhiip William Poynter [q. v.] on 6 Aug. 
\'S'M. C'ircunictanoe«, bowevvr, antayiM] his 
departure for Canada. His dmighler bt^itis 
in failing hualth. be accompanied her and 
her bui>luind to Italy, nud sliortly afti-r his 
arriral at Rom^i Canlina.1 Alboni, on 19 Jan. 
18SU, aonounced to him that I'ius \'Hl 
had decided to honour bim with tltu purplfe. 
He waa adinittv<d into the College of Car- 
dinals on lA March \8S0, und on this occft- 
i<ion n Latin ode was couijiOEL'd and pub* 
ILalied to Dominic ('reK<»r| ( I tome, 1830, 
Ito). llii daiiffhtttr died at i'alo on 15 May 
1831, and waA buried on tbti li^tK in OitA 
charch of Mnrwllos at Umni', fmin whiohj 
his umiciL-nce dt^rivi^d bin title. <Jn bis ele 
vation to tho Sacred Callc(;t: bo rc^eirod a^j 
suraiiceii from pvrsona of hi^'h influence and 
dignity in Kufflandthat bis nomination had] 
(ixcited ua jetupusy. but ou^he contrary " 
given general Mitiafactiou. His apartment 
m the OdcMTalclii pulace weru splvadidij 
fnmiehed, and jienodically filled by th*' 
ariMocracy of Romp, native aiidfonign, and 
by lar^e numbers of his fellow-conn try mn^n 
( W'JSKMAS, Itemllectioivi of the Four Lmt 
J^prt, ^dudit. p. iJ(i>. lie died on Ut April 
1B37, and hi.i remaioA weru deiKisitud in rbe 
church of S. Maria. Amiiro. The funeral 
oration, dHliventd by NiL-holas (afterwarda 
Cardinal) Wisnman.liiiH been publi^fd (Lou- 
don. 1837, 8VO). 

His brother. JoBEPii Wblu (1777-1803), 
third son of Tbomae WeUl, wa» horn on 
'27 Jan. 1777. H« received the esil&d royal 
family of France at Lutlworlb in Auguet 
IK30, the king and bla Buitv TLinnining tnero 
for somu davH. until their removal to Holy- 
rood Hoiiiie. Hnwa* the owner of tbfiAlamif 
Arrow,and Lultworth yacbtSfWhidi he novi-' 




gated himself nolil very lnti> in hte, nnd, 
bavinfr a practiul knowledge And a ival 
lilfinK for luo Ma, Le wm alwar* very fortu- 
nate in the conatrnction and Miling of liis 
VMBsla. He died at LuUwoitfa Cattle on 
le Oct. 1863. 

[Bradj'R EptMopol Succwaion, lii. ]fi9. 3iS. 
487; Catliolie Dinetorj, 18a«. vith portrait; 
KJiTibundi Ofttbotir Mag.iMwwr. London, 1 8S 7. 
i. 38S, iii. frontiapiew (portrait): Ogot. Jhg. 
I84>1, i. 130: G«inrd'a StAo^hunit Call«ce 
CocilMiarv ^porLniit): OihaoD's LriJial* Hikll, 

LM8: Lulv'a Dinmorj. I8$8. willi ponnil: 
ndon (ind llmWin Onhodnx Joamnl, 1887, \r. 
2'A : Maodonrll'B LiEe uf Biabup Mkcdonall, 
Toronto, 18»8. p. S.V: Olirer'a Corawnll. pp^ 
AO, 131 : Oliver's Joftnit Collectioirii, p. 61 ; 
Rimnmr'a Stunylinnt lUuaUittnl, 18lt4. witli 
l^uKniit: UlUtliurue'ii Autobiof(raphy. pp. 132, 
I'ifi] T. C. 

WELDON, S™ ANTriOfft (A 1R4B P), 
hutoriui] wrilvr. uf SwanaoombB, Kent, 
dnofiitliM! front a yiiiiiiif(«r branch of thtt 
family ni Weltdt-n of Xorthumlicrland. Ula 
fallier, Sir llftlpli WVIiiftu, lintjilit<;il mi 
24 July \C<0^. tvns clerk of the Giwn CUoTh 
U> Queen 1*!liitnt)"tli atitl James I. and his 
unclf, A^^honT, cleric of the kiirWn. Sir 
Anihonr, who BUciM.>edt>d to bis uucleV ofKc« 
an the resi^njilion of the Utter in 1604, and 
to hi« fatherV in ltX)U. wa^ knighted on 
11 Moy U117 (lUwED, /lUtorv ••/ Kent, 
i. afil : Nichols, l^ttgreaitii of Janu* 7, iii. 
290>. lio ttccompiiriitMl Jamea I to Scot- 
land ill 1617, iind in anid to havfv ht^a 
duaniued from liiti posl aE court iu coii^v- 
quemm nf tin" dLicoFor\' of kis authorship of 
& libel aguinst ihi' Scottish nation {Secret 
Hi»f'inf "f Jitmt* I, ii. 102). Two i«Mers 
writwii fey Wiildon to Socretarj- Winde- 
bonk in I'^'^t proro that hi^ Ktill kvpl frifiuU 
at court. {Cal. Sfnfe Papfn, l)om. ItiPiS-A, 
pp. -iW, 21 i). Uther UtterB, including a 
aohAiun for the better asmMmcnt of nhip- 
money and » complaint agninst ibu gitn- 
priwil^r mnnrrpolr, sdotc signs of hostility to 
tli<< govomment of Charlua I {H>. 1637-8, pp. 
3S8, WP: Larkiwo. Proeeetffnfft in Kmt, 
p. IS). During tho civil war Wuldon was 
one of tho eliitff mFtii tti tli>4 giarliaiuoii- 
tarv rnmmiltiv in Kent, and enfiTgBtirally 
maiiitnlned the autU'inty of parliament 
during ibu insnrriK'tinnR whirl) tank plnm 
in that oouitty in IfUtl and lfcU8 {Jtejfrt on 
tJu Dukt of Partianifi Manuarript*, \. *Jfl6, 
31 3, 472. 708 ; Tanntr MSS. Ixii. 1 7fi, 1 79 ; 
Clarke Papnt, ii. Xh). On i'4 ttet. IfMH 

Earliitment onlortid him 500/. bf a rL>wiird for 
is fiiilhrtil Jii-rvic^t-* iCammimx Jijurnnln, v't. 
(t1). He died about 1*^9. 

A portniit, or rsLbvr a caricaturv, of Wet- 

doB is givra in tha ' Ajiti(|iuirian ][«periai 
fed. ISOe, ii. 390). 

Jly hii marriage with liHiRor. daugbt«r of 
George \Vilm#r, W<;ldon had eight 90a» (of 


Itki.PH (jf. I6>5U), waa colonel of a Kentuh 
regiment of f'lot, undur the ouiniaud of isir 
William Wnller f q. v.J in 1644, and in .\pril 
164I!ibecaaieB colonel ID the new moduL tin 
ooDunaodfld tfae brigad« d«tacfaed br Fairfax 
to tb<^ n-licf of Taiintxin in May 1645. 
alao had command of o brigade at the si 
of Bristol in the following Septum 
(SMtioGE, Anglia JieJitira, ed. 1854, pp. 19, 
I, li>H). On ^5 ttet. liMr> tbfr two houtes 


passed an ordinance making him goTcmor 
of nymuulh (/iwri*' Jourtia/t, vii. 374, 6(!1, 
viii. 43). In that capacity hv ohtainod 
various succesaoa (Colmiri llV/t/mi'j t^^^'J^^ 
^ Iwhrna^e Btnue, »Mr PtytitoutA, l&IO^f 
•Ito; Articlet 0/ AffrrrmnH /or ti^ Stirrmdi^^ 
of Ch<trff4 Fnrt. Iftltt), but was involved in 
continual difficulties from want of inon«y to 
iwiy the soldiers of tlii> garrifwai. Many of 
^^uldou'(l letter* rapresenliag Ibeir nec»- 
rIcoiu condition are in print, and, to prevent 
mutiny, he was finally obliged to raib«moiie)' 
on liie personal aecurily for their pap^m "" 
(Oabt, MtmariaU qf the CieU War, 1. Z 
32», «43: OmmoKt' Jovmalt, v. 3112^ 4 
'>71). In June lOIHJ 4,000;. was still owing 
him. and on 23 Dec. 1650 he wm ordwvd 
tbe Proleclor .l.-WW. in satisfaction for 
d«bl (ih. vii. 410, MQ; Oif. StaU Popen, 
Dora. ltS.W-7, pp. 209, 224). 

Anotlicr son, AsthoniWbukisO*. 1660% 
was eucccmively captain undn-Lnru Esmond 
in thf! garrison of Duncannon, mi^or of tlu 
Karl of Liiiculns regiment of horse in Ui»- 
c"ln«hirp,and major to Sir Micliael LivuryV 
Kentish regimeut of liorse in Sir WtUuun 
WiillerV army. HffliiarroUcd with all tlisse 
rnmm&ndorSfpreeenling to pwliamtinl in I 
a ebarge against thi.< IjiiuNiliisliirecoiumitt 
nnd in lft44 artiden ag&inEL Sir Miclu 
Ifirevey {Ca»ntu»u' Jounuih, iii. 24ri, £09; 
rrt/..SYoff J*<i;wr(i,Dom.l6t4,p.l7Tl. tnl 
Weldon took service under the Spaniards t 
i-landi-ni, but lost bis command, and 
imprinontsd owing to a di«imte with 1 
Gnring. In IMS he returned to Knglaud, 
and GndpAvoured to get leave lo raise a rv- 
giment for Vwnetian wrvto« out of tl«- 
royalist prienni'r.s in the power of the pai^ 
liament (Comvwm' jQurmtlr, vi. 60?, In 
March ItUH he di^nouncodthiiiniended pub- 
lication of a traiislaiion of the Koma to 
parliament, and obtained authority to seixe 
It. On 11 Doc. 1050 the cwacit of — - 




iisaed a warmnt for his umt, uid on 
30 Nov. IfUH iliv Prohictor, on his own 
'petition, orrfcrwl him a ■pikia. to go liKvoni) 
M!aM(Cal. Statr ^perf,Dota. lfi4SV-.1() pp. 
42, 5.10. 16,'iO p. MS, ie6« p. 40S). \\>l<lou 
waa tl)u autlior of an autafiingmnhicftl pAm- 
phlt-t of atomi* intiTiwC, i-nlf(<il ' Tne Declnra- 
tion of Colonial Atitliony WcWon' (ItflU, 

TbesG two Co1oiu>l AVcldons oro frequently 
confuKpd -with each other, unil willi ii iliinl, 
viz. Colonpl MirHAisL Wblmx tjt. HMo) r.f 
the N<irthtiiubitrlui(I faiiulv, who wu em- 
plovrd hv parliament u agemt to tlw Scot- 
ti*L cuuiicil in May lftl3 (ZarrfV JtiumaU, 
vii. -li^I. II« cocnmantlvtl n rt'KirBent of 
liiiref in tlie Scottiab army, whicli entered 
KnfiUnd in IttW, was also high »hertll' of 
Northumberland in that yesr, und was very 
acthrp in gnppri>ssiiiK mass troopifrit on tho 
border in \tii!> (rt^«>rt on thr Dnkr of i\,rl- 
land'f Manu»:ript», '\. :J02. 31-1: TiiUBLOB, 
Sto/*- J'/T^Vrt, i. -.'5, yH, 41 ). 

Sir Anthony Wi-Idon wu^ the author nf: 
J. 'The Court and (^harncior of King 
Junes 1/ \6'M, X'irtM ; a ."erond edi- 
tion, ' wherein i« addi-<l I lio Cmirt of Kin;r 
Charles,' impeared in lAnI, and is r>'prinu-d 
in tb« ' S<<crot Ili«torv of the Court of 
JanK-t! I,' 1^1!, 2 roK (i. ^m to ii. 7Sl. 
Thi* If a collection of scandalotiit gOM>ip 
about tho twn kinj^ and their ministuni 
and r&Touritefl. A few of the stories it 
contain* vmbncly peraoita] rerniiutcttncot, or 
information rvC4>ivi?d from p?rsoaa^9 mii- 
cernpd in I. he iiK'tdi-nU n.'lnlod. UuTlyn, in 
Us 'Examon TIi*toricum/ summnttly dia- 
mines Weld»n'ti biiok n^ im iofamoue Iihi>l. 
It was immediaii-lv aiiftwcrcd hy William 
SandorMu in Lis • Aulicna Coguinari^r'' (re- 
printed iii'Secrpt lliitfurr nr Jani»« I,' ii. 
01 X and also in bin 'CotniilclM History of 
the LivM ami ttoigns of Marv (Jiieea of 
Scots and liw »nn Jatnw ' (Dt. ii. ieo«), A 
SAROnd an«n-er la contaiiioi in Ooodinnu's 
'Ooutt of Kinc^ JatDM 1' [see Goodman, 
CiooTKBT], which wa» llrsl publiihud bv 
J. 8. Brewer in 1S31I. ' I novo-r rmid,' K\y* 
OoodmaB, ' a more malicious-tsimlcHl author, 
not" any who had aucb poor and mi'sn, ob- 
servations ' (i.41if). -i. 'Afar may look nt 
a kiiiR: or a Briff Chnmicle and (.'haraeter 
of iheKing^of Eneland from William the 
ConqinTor to Ihc Iteijin of Cliarles I.' \<ih2, 
16niii: ihiawasrppriiitcd in J7U(se.' &,mert 
TrarU, vA. Scott, vol. xiii., and lu^iin in 
17fi*i^ 3. 'A IVrf<.*t Ilescriptiorv of thr 
IVopJ'-awdCoiintrj-orScoT.liiiid, Iflolt, 12mo. 
Thifl i* rcpnnled in the'Secriit History of 
the Court of JamM I ' (\9\ I, ii. 76) and in 
Nichols's ' rpogressM of Jsmw I ' (iii. sas). 

I ManuDCriptu of it art; to !>•■ fniiod in Ilar> 
leian MS. 5101. lAnadomi<> MS. 973, and 
j the Ri-cord f.tflice {Cat. Slaft Paper*, l}om. 
I 1623-5, p. B«J>. 

tWoiKl'a A(li«i»», od. Oli«i.!i. SeS: HaMfd's 
K«at, i. 2S1; S«ret Hiitorv of thft Court of 
Jaim-«1, IBII.] ■ C. H. F. 

I waa born at {.'iiichpHti'j- on 19 .Tan, 1 6"U. IIo 
waj< ecIucAti>d at Blon ('olle^, and also 
Mudiod mnw. theri> under the orennist, John 
Walter. Subsequeni ly he Iiad letsoni! from 
ITi'tiry Purccll. In I(>i>4he hecame orgaitiat 
of New Collogi', (.t.\ford. Ilvwas unuoftho 
contributors to Fraiicia Smilli'a ' Miuiica 
OxonitinHia.* ]f)!)8. At the oompelitinn in 
1700 for tlw bftit |il^ttinK of Coujrravv'a 
maa'jue, ' Th<! Jiidfrronnt of Pnria.' tho first 
prijii.' tif HXIA WW! awiinlwl ti> W'eldon; but 
the work was not puhliahtHi, allhouf^t) John 
Eccloe [q. V.I and Itaniul Piircell [q. v.], the 
second and iliird prii*- winnf^rs, i»su4^ thoir 
>>eitiD|i«, Tho only number of Weldou's iiuw 

i)reserved in tho air of Juno, * Let ambition 
\tv thy mind,' whitih was adaplvd hyThomait 
Augustine .\rue [f|. v.] to t\w duet, ' flogx;, 
thou nursi) of yoiin^r druini,' in the opera 
'liOvw ill H ViltiLKi*;' Hunii-v Nays(l788) no 
air was ' in BTeaier fa^'our tlian this at pr<^ 
■ent.' On u .Fan. 1701 Wtddou was Bworn 
in a jii^ntbiniin rxlractrdinnrv of M11; Ohapel 
Royal, and in 1702 bi^ reH^ited bin porit at 
Oxfortl. Ihi thi? d4'nib of John IHow [q. v.] 
in 1 70k, Wrddiin obtainud thi- post «f organist 
in the Ohapel Uoyal ; and hw nl»i> held tJio 
namo poBt at St. Bride's Church, Fleet Street, 
Tilloi«ou had nivommwndod that. « wcoiid 
compo.wr fihoutd be appointed at the Uhu[wl 
Koyal 1 ihiH vnu tlr«t Juiiv by Urarffo I, and 
Wi-ldnn waa awom in for tln> plnrii- im 8 .\H)f. 
l?!!*). Soon after hig institutiua ho com- 
priMid mniiio fur thi-coininuciiiiii nervico, which 
wan very fitihlom set after thi! KcBtoratJon, 
imlil the Oxfonl movement. Tho 'Sfliictua' 
and 'filoria' w<>rft cditi^l by Uimhnult for 
the ' Choir and Slusical Itecord,' September 
IWti4. In 1726 ho became oi^iiist of St. 
,Mnrtin'»-in-lIi"-Field». lie died on 7 May 
17!Mi, and wiw buried in the i-hurchyard of 
St. Paul. CoviTit Garden. At [lie l.'hapet 
Hrn-at liH was Kuccentled by Williuu Hoy04 
q. T.], al at. Martin's by Joaeph Kelway 
■q. V.J 

W«ldon enmpOjif>d much aa(tr>td and seculw; 
music. He contriliuled to 11 colleciioQ 01 
aolos for llntas (or violins) which waa ro- 
prinlftd ot Amsterdam, but seemi to havo 
in fjeneral ne^lect^od instniniental muitic. 
Up gavu concijrtA at York Buildingvi, and a 
tiollvctlon of tongs perfonued there was pub- 

H 2 

liilwd; abo • ooIbcUon of mii» with violin 
•nd fiuts ucAiDMnimeBU, umT buit aaffia 
•on^ SpeciAifv )xipiil*r EmonK tMw«*» 
• Fh>m GraVA LcMoitis* which w printed by 
Uavrkitu. In ucivd muetc W<<1i1od w»< 
still more Bucmwuful : two of h'm &n!licm». 
'la Thw, Lord,' aoJ ' H«ar iut cryinj,' 
wfiv priutrd ia llojrce'ti * C^tbcdnU MQ»ic,* 
and a.n' still frvquvaUx MrforiDed. Otben 
were priutMl in the eoUeetiMU of Anokt 
■nd rmge. 'Bleased an Tliou* was pub- 
lishod in lli« 'Paiisli Choir,' vol. iii., and 
with ^^'fll^ wordo in J. Roberts^ ' Orddor 
y Tonic Sol-fa.* Weldon pabti0h<.-d wnlr "it 
•olo antlMin», which h« had oompoaea for 
the cvlebnrt«d c»ant«r-tenor Kichard Etfonl 
[q.T.], and entitled 'Divine Hsrmonv ;' iHit 
tboM half not mnintainMl <bi;tr plac9 upon 
the ivpetlory. I'ii » pieces, arrangod for lh« 
omaii, wore includMl in \'iue«9nt NoveUo'l 
'Oatbcdral Volunlariea,' IHSl ; and two 
oUun in A. n. Brown's 'Organ Arranp.-- 
mentai' 1879. Tin* cheap pdilionA of Narello 
and Curwi^n cnntain untlienu hr WiOdoa, 
both in gUIT notation and tunic M>I-fa. 
Iturucy ((walis \i«rv inapprifiai ively of Wel- 
dau'» antDi'iua, but lime ka^ sboini be wa« 
wroHK ; and probably not a week pasMi 
withuut a pcriorinance of one or moc«. 

[Hawkins's Hixiory of Mtiiic, chaps. cxUi. 
dxir.; Burney'i Hiatorj i>r Muaif, iti. ei'ifE; 
OroTo'i Uict. of Maui' A»d MoAiciana. i. 71. i^- 
43fi ; Kmil VufEel's Knialu^ d«r . . . Bililiotliek 
fl« Wolfi»ib3tt«l ; Barreit'»En|[ltsh Church OD«n- 
Eio»rB, pp. 112-lS. MBUins a good acoonnt of 
Weldou'a atitikena. batanrj ex«gg(«atad stata* 
msm. of hift impottaom as ao inrMitor of naw 
hannuot«B : Chsquc-bwk vf lbs Chapol Rojal 
(CaandDD Sac.). IST'i: Uarey's History of Eng- 
lish Music, pp. 3'.*9, 34fi. S'S ; W«ldoii's rom^ 
positions in tli« Hrilitti Mosaani and Chrtsc 
Church. Oxfor.!. 1 H. D. 

WELDON, ItAJ^PH (lU7t-1713),Dene- 
dictini? monk, of the ancient familvof Wel- 
don of SwauscoEube, Kt;nt, wa« tbe aeven- 
lAenth child of Colonel George Weldon 
(yoniigusl HOn of Hit .\iithony Wvldon [q.v.]) 
aDdofhiji n-iff, l.ucy Neclon. Upwasboni 
in London on ll! April (N.S.) 1674, and was 
cbristvntfd at thn Sii^'oy. Bi-iuft convorted 
to the catlioitt- rpHsfion by Father Joaepb 
Johnatone, bu madv bis ubjurutinn at M. 
James's Chapel on M Oct. Itl8~. TI<^ iniide 
bis profeasion as a Benedictine mr?n)t in tbe 
convent of N. Edmund at I'ari* on 13 Jan. 
1061-2, .Vlthouffb a \ery learned man, be 
could n».'ViT he induct-d to laLt- piirot's urdera. 
He died at St. I-Mmuiid'a '111 '2^ Nov. 17i;i. 

Ii« was ihL- author of 'A Chronicle of the 
Engliah UcDb-dicitoe Hoakt fivm t^ rcnuw- 

ing of tbeir Congregation in tbe daya of 
QuDfn Mary to the death of King James II ' 
^London, 1882', 4l(t. T)i« original tnami- 
script, cooHistin^ of two folio roliuni's gf 
' Clininil'igical Not**,' is prrsftrTiid nl Am* 
plefortli, and ilnvv 10 an abridpnent of it at 
St, Gtwgory's, Downside. 

[RanbUr, laM.vii. 433; Otinr't Cwnwall. 
p. A39: Bmyir's Chroaoloi^r, p. 97; Tnnntoa'i 
l^niilisfa Benedict iiutt. 1898.] T. C. 

' "WELDON, M'ALTKR (1832-1888), 
clMtmist ,«Idiu>t Kon of lUmbcn WVldon, man u- 
facturcr, and his wife, wliiuo mnidi-n ntitne 
WH Esther Fowke, was bom at Louiih- 
I bonxigh on^l <_K-t. IKU. Ittt was employed I 
I for MKn« ymrs in hia father's husiacM, bur, 
I finding bo bad a taster for litcmture, he went 
1 10 London la • joumaliai shortly aft^r bi« 
I raaniage in Maroi it*5i. Ileajiitrlbuted to 
' the ' Dial,* aftorwardit incorporated with ibe 
, *.M<imiug Star.' On I Auj;. ISlKl be iuimkI 
^ the first numberof a sixpenny monthlr mafn- 
xine, rallod 'Weldon a K»^»lcr oi Facts 
and Occurrencr« rcUiinff to l,tte^»tll^', ttw 
^iencesjBnd the Arts,' but, although ably 
conducted, it provitl a fnihire, and was aban- 
doned in 1864. Among tbe contributors 
were Geori^AugustusSala. Edmund VatM. 
Mr. William Michael Koasctti, Janie« Hatn 
Friswell, and I'ercy Creg. .\tioul this 
time. probablT throuj^h the influence of 4 
friend and ftdlow->Sw<.-deiiborxian, Chazlu 
Townsend Hook, a paptrr manufa£tUT«r 
Snodluid, near Hocth-sttir, hi» uttention wi 
drawn to tiichnological chrmiMry. lU- raul 
widely and look out his liret pat«nta for the 
'mangani^j-n-K^n^iatioii process,' which 
evt-ntnally madt* bin nauii; famoii.«, before he 
had evi<r si>»n a c1i»-inical experiment. On 
18 St-pt.^-'i Weldnnnnd hisfricnd Oreg m«t 
Mr, John Sp'iller to exnlain to bim two 
cesses devised by M'oulon for tbe c 
uanufaclun; of magncMum and uliiminiii 
whirbprored.howuver, impracticable. Inthft 
lattLTpart uf ItMO hi.- uivl Colonel Qamble, 
and esplaini^l that hf ' thought he had ob- 
tained a ]K'roxidi-ufmanRatte»e'fromthepiQ- 
toxide by Auii|innding it in walrr and Mowing 
air through, a prooeiu which, with crrtain 
important modifications, proved ultimaiclr 
succk-WuI. He was nt thit time, aavsColonM 
QaDible, totally unacquainted viih tbe ine- 
Ihod.t of quant i tot i v.- chemical analysis, and 
the reeutte to be obtained thereby. The 
object of Weldon (and of various nnsucceas- 
ful predeooisora) was to regenerate the 
manganese peroxide used in dinnnoiis i]uan- 
titios in the manufacture of chlnrtne, and 
couvt-rted into a valueWx by-product which 
w&a thrown away. From this time onwards 

^ I 




he c&rried out experinieaU on a lan^ so&lc, 
first m 1860 at Uh demolisbtfd works of iKl- 
W'alkvr Clivtntcal Comminy <>n tbe Tyne, 
anil later at tliose of Meaere. J. ('. tiambk* 
& Cninpany kI Si . Ht-Iim*. Thw Ipil to Un- 
* nwneua-mannneae' [im^ciu natimted in 
1667, and tie 'lime-manRBiiMe nroct.** p». 
htxx not workeJ comnmrcinUj' till IWflt. IW 
this IWT^r pnveas ninety to nincty-fiTO per 
cent, of tbi> umnguiiox; {n'raxiiJe formerly 
lost wot recovered ; ' the price of bleachint; 
powder woe reduced by 6/. per ton, uu<J 
aontotlung liifv 750,000/. ]irr Himum addird 
to the national wealth." Tlie oastjotiat (1«- 
tail of tile pr<x«»4 wlucli rlistiiigiiiRlifH i1 
from that ^i (-ftrlirr workers is the uee 
of an excess of lime over and abovt> tlmt 
required for the precipitJitinn nf the man- 
guieae. M. JMo-ltaptiate Dunius, in pre- 
aentinit to WVIdoo tnv go\6 mvdal of (ho 
Sociftfi d'KiKxiurBgvment pour I'ladustrie 
Natiouale in l*«ri«, said, ' l(y this invention 
everyabwtof pajwrand i-vcry yard of calico 
tlimuKiiout thi:' wiiiid was diPiipem-d.' For 
Ihia dlflcnvery Weldnn was aUu awanli'd u 
' grand prix "at thvPari* KxliibitioinjI'lH?^. 
Id 1870 thi- iriveiilinTi of a new cldorine 
|irooeS8, ' the Ik'acou ptw:v««,' br Henrv P^a- 
con ( A 1870) and Fi-nlinftiid i'lK4-(- 
16d8>led U'eldoD to tear that liie n*ork tnigtit 
be Wperseded, and he invetitpil another prrt- 
ceeSt Known as th«*n]a^itv<iik-€hloriiit>' pro- 
crmt. which was devehiped lateir at the work* 
ftt Salindres hy Messrs. P^cliiney and M. 
Boulouvard, and wait th«ti calW th- IV-clu- 
ney-Weldou pmreMi [see Jam<.-a Dl-wof, 
Journal i^fth^ iwip^y ff Cheaii'-al Imimtty, 
ri. 776). Tliic propi-iis hiu< not proved tiniilly 
BURCf'SAfuI, while tbe lime-moii^'a[R«i' urrjc(.«a 
ia«till larRi'Iy employe*). In IHMll \V«dii(iii 
read at the Swnn.*<'a me'^tini; of tlift British 
AaaociatioD uri import aiH pajier, in whicli he 
abowc'd that the lioat of I'vrmntion of cam- 
pounds increaaoB in nearly all cases with the 
atomic ToliitDO, the bent of formation of i^qititl 
mati;ly equal. OntfJuue 18J^^ Weldonwas 
tdactwd F.K.:;. On 11 July \^'^i li« waa 
eleottKl preiud«nt of i)ii! S-jriniy of L'hemtcal 
TnduAtry, nf whit^h he had huen onu of the 
founden in 18>^1> I)oriti|f tlm nrnL half of 
1884 he voluntarily underionk the kbour of 
Blipplyin^ thejournnl of tho society wilh a 
larfre niimbiT of nbi»rractft nf pal<'nt.t 'at a 
ritinou.1 post of time.' On 9 July lt-?*4 he 
delivered his presidenlial uddrcW At N«w> 
caatlK-uu-Tync on the »oda and chlorine in- 
duxtrii^. A paper on the iJumuricD) relntionti 
between tlto atomic wvighli^, nadut the Mout - 
real mvcting ufthrt IlriiiAli AMociatum, waa 

not publiiihed, but W«ldoR printed in 186610 
qunrto form, for pnvate circulation, the fit 
chapU'r deaiini; wilh thr gliiciniun fanulr^ 
ofamemoir 'OntheKatioB. . .of thti Atomifi 
Wt-ig!ii«.' He attempts to show that the 
ratios of tlm ntomic wwf^hlj* ol hif^her 
membent of the glneinum family 10 that of 
f^liiciniitn arc powers, or muItipU-e of ^towers, 
of the fourth root of thw ratio of llif atumic 

' W(sif;ht of ma|^e«ium to that of ^tiicinum, 
\\'i;ldoii wvnt In apiti- of illuets to the Aber- 

■ deen meeting of the Asjopintion tn 
1^85, but WU8 ubligud to return, and ditid at 
liiti hiHiae, Ited* Hull. Burstow, Snrrey, of 
lieort disease shortly after, on 20 Sept. 
that yvnr. The msngaiiese-recoveiy prooe 
will be rememliered not only for its greslil 
intnnMc importance in chemical induali7Vi 
but tf u murvcllous uchievement on the part 
of a man without previous training. Liliukifl 
scientific contemporaries, .Mr. Alfred Uuaael,| 
Wallaee tind Sir William Crookiw, Weldonl 
waa a believer iu mod^^rn xpirilualiKin. 

1 Weldon married Anne Cotton ai Itelperon 
U March 1W14. Hy K-r \\,^ Imd llia-e chil- 
WiddoM, F.]{-S.,bornon IGMarcb lH*K),pro- 

j fiuaor of compamtiTft arialomv nf Oxford, 

I survived him. A second son, \Vailer Alfred 
Dnnle, bom on 15 Juno I8H:;. died suddenlv 
at Cambridge in 1^1. Tbe Koyal .Suciutya 
CataloKue contains a list of ten priptrrs by 

[Resides tho Miiicca (juotMl, obitunrioi in the 
Jotirtinl of thA Snc. of CbeniicMl InduMry, 1SSQ, 
iv. A77 (il)« must important), and Proc. of tha 
Royal Soe. IA88. vol. xlvi. p. xii. hy K. W. 
n(iniaut]; Luiige'ii MAniifiuiluni of SLilphuric 
Acid Mild Alkiili, I8RO1 lit. ffivcT a history cf 
Wcldon B procetirt. iiud of ilip work of hi* pnde- 
eessurBi arlidehyLuajto 011 Chtorinein Thurpe'ij 
Hicl of Ajiplii-d Cliuriiistry; Vi'eldim's uwi 
papers: irifoimittion kindly eappUed by Prof . 
W. F. H. WeUI^n.] I*. J. H. 

1808;, iinitarinn divine and archrcoloffigti 
onlv child ofJohnWidlbelinedt 1742-1(87), 
by tiis wife Elizabeth < I'lnw). was barn in 
Detimurl(t?tr(.<et, Hi. Uik'it, London, on d April 
I'tiU, and baptisud on 2o April at St. iTltea- 
in-tlia-Fielde. OwinR to dninesiic unhappi- 
neaa he was brou([ht tip fnim tin* Rg<i of lour 
hv hia i^andfatW, Charliss Wellheloted 
(l7l."J-liH:i), a countrr ({pntlenian at Mort- 
liike, Surrey, an Angliran, and tbe frcitnd 
and follower of John Wesley. He got the 
be*tpnrl of his early e<iwcat ion from a clergy- 
man (Uelafos^ii) at l{ichmond. In 1783 ho 
was placed with a firm of dnipfrs on llol" 
born Hill, but only luarnud ' how to tie up 
a parcel." In 178.1 h^ became a 8(udi.tnt at 



Wei I beloved 

HoBcrtoa AcMlMoy waiW Bmjinin Ubvim. 
AiDom biR feUov-MvdcaU wtn WjllniB 
Fidd [q.T.l and lJ*Tid JonM<l;6&-)^l<SJ 
[«. v.] Jom* wu emUed fin- lwn«T in 
1380; his upininns ud mfltiMiccd W*>ilb«> 
lored, wlu> wia aUcrwcd to finisk the imiop 
4f 17R7, Int not to rvtnm. Id Sfp to m b fr 
1't<7 lu> followed Jtne* to N«w CoUm«, 
Hwknipy, DRil^r Abrmbam Il«« [<i. r.^, Ae 
^TclofNcdiM. cnii Andrmr Ktopis ,q. r. . ktid 
•tdiMgomtiv ( 17i!Q)) uiuler Tnonut HrUbajn 
fa. tJ tad '(1790) Gilbnt \Vak,-fi*W [q, t.] 
urn b« formed » elora fn«^(I^hi]i vitli 
Artlinr AilnB [q- v.l who t«t>!r«<l in 1T8H. 
H<^ ktt«nd'_<d iBa minutry of Riehjird Price 
(17:f3-!7yi I ]q. T.* Ilia ftret iwniion wm 
pRuhedftt^alfhiniBtowoa 13 Not. 17»1. 
Sbofllj Kfter«rsnl« Im» received throiigli 
Mtduifl Mftiince, htherof fJi^hn' Frederirk 

J>eiu»nn Maunc« a.'i.'\, an iovitatioa to he- 
eotat: uaixtont lo'Xcwcomc Cn|>t«- '([. v.] at 
St. Sariour^i« Ctiapel, York, lie accepted 

ou iS Jan. IT^i, and braan liu dutiea >( 
rorfc OS G Feb. Id 1801 he beoame sol« 

miniAier on Cappe'R (|p«th. 

He al ooce hcgtui a Sunday adiool and a 
a7«t«[D of calKchelical elmtMm. In 1704 h« 
be^ftn to take pupila. He waa invited in 
Norenber 1T97 (auer B«lsham ttad dticlinrd ) 
to niece«d Tlinmas Itamr-ji (1747-1^10) 
[q.r.] aa diTinity tutor in the Manchnler 
•eademj. Ranu^ an pvanf^lical Ariiin, 
gnve him nn t^ncounuroment, but ho did not 
l*j*ct tin* offer till Februar>' 1~!W*; it was 
acojrtcd itoonftfterbrf iwirffc Walker n7S4?- 
1807) [q. v.] On H'alh-r'* n»ipnatio» the 
tnutL-iMpro[)o«-d(:f<'iMarclilHU3) to removf^ 
the iufetitulion lu York if Wvllbi- loved would 
become iladin-ctor. ll«a)rT(^-d(ll April|,and 
from H^ptcffibet ISOS to Jurit- IH4<J the in- 
•titutioD WB» litjown ns Mnncb'-^lir CollffM, 
Tofk. lU naiingemnnt vtw retained dt 
a comoiitlee, cneeling oi-dinnrily in Mnn- 
eh«ftt4-r. For thirty-seven yi'ani Wellhc- 
lovrd (litcliarfted l-h<> diiti«a nf the divinity 
ehnir in a ipirit deflcribrd byl>r. MartlnDou, 
hia pupil, lui 'candid and culhulic, Kiiiiplu 
and tliorougb.' Ho folIowM tin; method 
which Itifrhard Watsun (1737 1816") [q. v.] 
had inlrijiiuci^d at Cnniliriil^rv, rlixrnnliiiKi'yii- 
temntif! th*'f>Iojry «nd HnhKlitutin;; biblical 
exogvfH. ThR chjff feaUiro of hit> exetfi-ticiil 
wni'k Willi hid lrciitm>*iit of propV-cy. limit- 
in^r the ruii{f<! of its prediction, confining 
ihnl of Hebrew prophecy to thf mj^w of ilj< 

Sfidiiction, and bounding oiii- Lonl'ii pre- 
iclioiiti bv tbi* di^ntrtic'tioii of Jerii»JilGin. 
fin broke with th« Ptiiwtloy whoo], nject- 
"ig ri i;i-nnrul n-iturrfclinii niid fixin); the 
IrwT.juiIcnM^nt at death. In those iind other 
points tie ctoiudy followed thn avtileni of 

^ewnate UbmSi but wc cuvnil 
of Jogwaluaa irft hi* fnfSla tpm^madmrnevl 
ihaa followed hits tnlo * Ckpptam.* Amoaj 
kit ea*djii!<i» wwtv Tbeopuilus Browav 
rq-v.\ W illiaai TujT»»™', t»Tliu» 'rrtf oadirr 
TtBXKR, WiixiAMf 1714-1754], and Wi: 
liaoi Hindis [fne okder Itixruf. Tii'>m 
Dix*. Frora 1r*10 hf had the inraluaMo 
((ppration tJ John Ksnriek q. T.l, who m 
ned his rldtr dansht^rr I^rt'itia. 

iVopofala for edi(it))i a fsiDilv bible wm 
made to Wellbeloved iI4 March I»=14) by 
David Latent (ir7l-I&^).lhcn a IxHikMlW 
in Uolbum in kuooesMon It> WiDUm Vidler 
fq. T.] The prospectuA (May 1(*I4) an- 
nouncwd ■ r«TUMJ tnuulation irtlh eom> 
meniary. Tlr'tWH^n l^lDand IH36 ttiaepwtt 
wer« i»«Tied in larjie qnsilo, coiitainin(f the 
Pr-ntateDcli, J^h, I'Mitma. l*rov>-rh«, Kpcleii- 
ftf^es, and Caiiiicl>«. Thv text was r«prinied, 
with WrllU'lovet)'* rcvitcd Terwoa of Joahua, 
Jud^n, Kuth. and the Minor Propbcu, in 
'The Hoi V Script una of the Old Coveuan' ' 
18£&-62. 3yuW.6vo. In lr>:>.1 Im took 
a controTeray, be^m bv Thomax Thni 
(1701-lft43), with Krwicis'Wranithatn [q. 
Sydney Smith [q- v.'- wrote: "If I had 
cause to nin I would fee Ur. WelUx^lnred 
tn plead forme, and donble fe« Mr. Wraas- 
hara to nU«d agminat me.' Aa a ftab-Truat«e 
of the Iiewler trtust be waa inrolved in the 
Fuit (lKSil!U(^) which Tfmmed unitarians 
fr>ro U* mana^'metit and t>meflt« [tee 

lie was one of the fnundcrs of the York 
Subscription Library (I7)>1), lh« Vurlu^h 
Philosophical Society |lJ^^-'», wid the V 
l&stitulp(162'). iind demoted much time to 
the archieoloffv of York. After the fite 
of 2 Feb. lls^ lie look a h-'«diop pari 
railiinfi; funds fot^the rc«lonition of Ibc mi 
Bter, and in onpnaiag the remoVAl nf 
choir-KTeeti. Toe description of the min 
in l^witi'ii ' Topof^pbkal Dicfionnrr,' tW 
article 'York' in the 'PennT ('vcl"p»iii»,' 
and A 'Ouidt''(IW4) to York Xiinstcr 
from his pen. J(i« ' Eburacum, or Y 
under t he Ttomans ' ( Yorii, 1842, 8vo), 
the subatanc<e of his proritHie papers and^ I 
turea on the m)b}ect. 

PpBBentBtions of plate(l&40) and of 1,000£ 
f !**4S) wer.- iiind*- to him on n>«ifrning hi» 
divinity chair. TI^ retninf-d till death hi? 
connection with his chapel, ofiiciating occa- 
nionAlly till ^^*&:^, haTing a« iMJatanU Join 
U'rillitt (lilJ.'MU} and Ueory Vau^baa 
ralmcrd^'!-"^). He died at hlaT«•idcgw^ 
Monkffiit-:, York, on 'J9 Aug. 1858, aod wis 
buriecl (3 Sept.) in the graverard of St, 
Saviourj^atu Oliuiwl : a mtinorial taUfit it in 
the chapel. His portrait, painted in I6S6hy 



in I 






Jsmefi Lonsdale [q. v.], u in Uie i>oecMMon 
ffi. W. liayniT Worn! »t Rtngletoii l^ge, 
lanrhhottir ; n>pi(>fl Brt> in the niueitum iif 
the Vorkshii* PtLiliMophical Socitflr Btid tlu' 
vosirr of St. Sa%'iour(r»t«! Chnpel; it has 
Ijecn Biigraveci by Samuel CoiiftiiiH ^q.v.j 
He marrifd, 1 July 17'll3, m St. Maty\ 
StuJiO Nttwiiif;ton, Ami ('A yi Jan. IttiiS), 
elilMt ditiigliier of John Kinder, und wils 
eurriri'd by a sun and two tliLu;i;Lu-r8. Ilit^ 
-rotmg)->ii win, K<ibi-rt {ft. ITi July \W-i.d. 
5l Feb. lfv»), lflok(I7 Feb. 1830) (h« namt- 
and anna or^jcott.aud wajKWimty-li'ruteiiAnt 
for Worw-^KTdhire and M.t*. for \VaI«iH 
(l(*41-4tJ», llisToniiffcel dau;;bt».T, ETnmn 
(it. 39 Jolv 1842)i msn-ifHl ) IKJl ) Sir J^rai^ 
Caner, chii-fjiiMice of Svv Uruuswick. 

U«sideK Lb« works moiitioiied ahove, and 
eingk- KiTmoue and i>Biti[)hlvt8, tic- piiblisli&d : 
1. 'Dnvoiional Kxt-rtiae*,' If^l, 12mo ; 8tb 
edit. 18S2. 2. 'Memolre of . . . Kcv. \V[il- 
liamj Wood,' 1609, Rro. :i. ' Thfwo l^tlen 
... to FVanriii ^^'^anghBm,' \S'2&, ftvo; 
3nd edit. Bame year. 4. 'Three Additiunnl 
Letters," i824> 8vo. fi. 'Mcinoit' prefixed 
to'Senaoni,' IfkiQ, H\o, by Thomae Wal- 
aon. 8. ' Account of . . . tht- AbUy of .Sf. 
Mary, York,' in'N'etiuta Moiiuinenla,' 1.&2Q, 
yd. V. fill. 7. ' Memoir of Thomait "nirusti," 
184S, 8to. 8. ' DMtTi[itivf Account of ch« 
Aotiquitivs in Iba Miueiim of the YorkuLirv ' 
Hiilosophica! Socittv,' I86L>, 8vo ; 3rd ' 
adit. 1bo8. He wnlriWlvd to thu ' York* 
tliint BMoaitOTT',' 17SU, l:^mo; tlie'AnniiuJ 
Reriew/ 1808^ ; and the ' Proceedinffs of [ 
thv YorksItirB Philosophical Society,' 18A&, j 
Tol. i. 

[BwgnphiealMciiiDiFbyJohn K«nrick.lS60; I 
Vnnaml otYinoiia by Thoirni.'" iLinckii and Wil- ' 
ham UMaknII, IftaS; Chrikliitn Itnrimncr. IKAR ' 
y.ii^. 18'38p(>, 617. 650. 6«3, 708. 1859 p. 16; < 
AlMDoirH of OrithcTine Ctppo, \fi'i'2. p. 2d>^: I 
Hull i.r Stadrnl., Mi-ntlio^t.-r CilUj^e. Ifl6»; ; 
KetirL'kV Mnniorial* of Si. Siiviuurente, Yurk. ' 
18611, p. bl : anpubluhad letters of ^y(-llb<-Jb\'<Hl I 
and Kfiiriok; podigrr« cxtnicicd from frtiiiilv 
bible by the R«v.C.U. W»llWor«l.Somhi!ort.'l 

A. G. 
WELLES. [SeealiM. \VEi.t-».] 

BiKOir (rf. 1:111 >, wait HiLi »oii of WilUnin 
fU^ Welle and his wife, leabella de Veeoi 
(DtT'iUALK, Barvnayr, n. 10). Thi* family 
Took its namn from the manor of \Vt>]l, iionr 
AlTord in Lindsey, Lincobiahiro, in which 
neighbourhood nptirly all itx i>«latvA lay ; 
but lat'tr and inorv fiunoiu meuibL-rti of it 
adopted the »iiruuiiie Welles, thuUBb in 
MiriiDr limt^ iht>y wuru mort> cointnunly dt-- 
Bcribeti a« Wi^Ue. The earliest of (he famUy 
ncntioned in Dugdale HourisbBd under Ki- | 

chard L WiUian, Adam's father, paid fine 
in 127ti for biA knighthnrKl lu bv poKlpooNd 
for three years (I'ar/. H'riU, i. 230). lie was 
Htill alive in ^lay \'2HQ, w\iva lia nominated 
atcomevs on going bevond seaa with Hiif^li 
It! Uwipenwr {Cal. Patmt lioUs, 128i-y-i, 
p. ^48). Kiffht ypars later Adam also ap- 
poiul^d attoruev» on W .hm<; X'JS^i for a 
year on g^oin^ beyond staa with Uugb le 
1)>-H]>eii»«r {ib. VJin-V-ildi. p. 73), wlu> tltea 
went to Gaacony. On l(i Jan. 12117 he ac- 
ijuiri'd tanda at Ciunborn'orth, and tlw ad- 
vowHon of .\nderby, Liiicolovtiin*, fnito Wil- 
liam du WilloughSy {ib. p. ±flf). In March 
"f Um Mima year he was appointed, with the 
ftheriff of Li'ncolntthiri-, to itci-iv} into thu 
kind's protection clerkei who wishud to dis- 
aooiate tliL-mselvva from Arcbbi»hop Win- 
cbelsea'a resiataaoo to cWicul ta.\atiou <iA. 
p. 33U; J-'ttilera, i. 87o). Ueforo thi« he bad 
beoome a knifjht. On 7 July 1m; vnf ordurod 
to routiter in Loudim for u freHU term of 
furvign BCTTirn, bun he was sood back in 
Hngland, for on 1 Jnii. 1296 b« rtcmTod 
letters of prnrextiori until Chrifftmatt ar 
liriiig about to BCeomiJiuiy the kioB to .Scot- 
land (StnfJitnti *H l^'JS, p. ■%}. lie Aerved 
throug^li the Falkirk campaign with hia bro- 
fliLT l*liilip, and fought in the battle {t6. pp. 
l-l.*>-7:!). in 12fH) hi'' wa* made consinDle 
of Itockingham (Jaatle and warden of it« 
forc«t {AMrei-iatio JM. Ori'j. i. ItKlV. lie 
wait first of liis liuuitL' HiimmuHLd ai< n barou 
to ikttend the parltauieut of Manh iL'HSt 
(itir/. H'rits, i. bOOi, after which he was 
regularly cnlbtid tintil hi* ditath. lie wa« 
eununoned with v^ua\ n'gidarity to ttitrve 
»fpiin«t tbe Scots, and on 14 Jan. itVM was 
one of the kntghtt apiiomtrd lo mine tlw 
Lincolnshire ten ant « of I he crown; and in 
the eouic year fought witli ICdward t at the 
sie^'e iif CarlaTerock. llo was prewot at ibo 
Lincoln parliament of February 1301, and 
Kigiu-d tliu famous luttur of ihu barons to 
the popi'. In I!t03 he was again summoned 
against the Scots {Fadera, 1. 1W8>. How- 
ever in FebntBry 1304 ho »wnis lo hare bwni 
rvbiUied by the tiiiig for hix reiniHHn>Bra against 
thu Hoot* \Hut, Ifvc. Hc'itUimi, ii. 470). 

.Xdam bought of John dc Kolland, who 
died soon after, ihemaiiorofWvbenon, ni}«r 
BoMOu (cf. Cat. Pat. JMU, I3(3l-7, p. ^Uit; 
Mniwranda de Pnriiamenio, IiolI« Ser. pp. 
70-1*). Under Kiiward II Welles wan m 
L'JOO (t'tcdera,n. "Hjandin l.^lOengBeedQn 
ibii king'H Her«icv in Scotland, being Blinwed 
in the latter y«Rr are9pit«of hiadebtAtnthe 
crown until Christmaa {Cal. Clatf Holit, 
1307-13, n. i0M), He was alao granted 
lands wonlj -1:^^. a year in J,iucotD»hire (Cb/. 
Pittrnt JiolU, 1U07-1U). Uia last smnmonB 


to Mrliameiit vu on 1ft June 1311 (Part. 
H tH", it. 1A97 ), in wbieb year bu died. 

I lit yr'xU'. Joan, who wa* jointly Miwd with 
bitn of the mnnor of U^bertfln, aunived 
him. IliN •tittatri' nt th« tiatp of fatx death 
urn fnumeratcd in 'Calendnrium Inquiiii- 
liomitn (icMit raortnm,' i. l'l"-8, Suvt? a 
gniiil! prrip^Ttj in Norlhninplonahire. ihcy 
wpre nil in Liitcoliihhirf.includiD^ Ihe whole 
or partf* of nrvcnteiMi manors, fire and a half 
kntahtV liwR, and Uvk B'Jvowsonti. 

iiin oldi»t !0[i, Itnhert, aucc«ni]«d to the 
Inndv. lit- liftil twu yuun^Tsuns, Adiun and 
.Iiihn, who in ISlit wrv d«^cUn«I \<y havt- 
vi]iiii! rii;ht5 of flticcewion lo Wybcrton wifh 
thwr eldiir lm)tlii'r. UoV'rt waa nevursiim- 
mnned to pnrHami'nt.aiid <)i«d in l-VjOwIih- 
■iiit ivjiii- rnim his wife. Adam (<f, n-15) 
then iMiwu'tli'd , «n<! wiw ftummoncd as a 
biiruii frooi I^L' lo l^l-H. IHs dintci dtv 
•CCiiiiftnU in ihi- mnli- lint^ i^onliuui-d [ohuld 
tlir.' b'irony umil tin; lailer [lort of lht> ILf- 
tcunfli wiiVurv' see \VKi.[.i:»,LlOXRt.DK,MX|]i 

1 P»rliiitncnt4ry Writs, vd*. i. and ii. ; Calen- 
dAriiini KntuWum I'art.^rum ; ItyiiH-r** Fitdn.i, 
vi)Ia. i. mid ii. ; rAlandtn> gf I'nUnt and Cluae 
Rclljii Roll* of Pitrlinmtiit ; Moniorandd do 
ParlianirnUi. 1305 (KnllsSor.); NicoliisN .Si^fit^ 
of CaHiLTiTock. (tp.3a, 20*-7; i)ugdal«'i Baron- 
lilte, ii. lO-!!.] T. F. T. 

iiR, nixili Biuu.s WBLi.ra {140.1 » Uflb, 
•oldicr, Imrci itlimiL IWn, wa« son of Kndo 
d« Wi'Ilffl bv .Mnml. dniigliiiT of Iinlph, 
bird ( irHVutonh. Frnin Adam di- Welles, llrsi 
Imron ^^'e]]cK [i). v.], drM-i^ndeil John dp 
Weill-", fifth bnroii, ^uuimnmrdto uorlianii-ni 
nil baron from I'O Jan. 1.17« to 'JH Veh. IJlM, 
nnd di"tini{iit«h<'d iti the Krunch utid Scuttiali 
wnrn, 111' died in tiyl, It-ftviiig l»v liiw iieiMiid 
wife, Mnrgarvt (or Ek'iinorl, (taugbtor of 
John, Inrd JKowbrny, Ifif *"» Kudo ithnr^ 
nienlioiLod, whu iirL-dnct^ui^ed him. Kiidn'H 
yoimjrer son, Williiini, (WfiminnallT acted nn 
dcpiily U» his brotbLT 'wIiPii Inrtl lii>utenimt 
of IrLdanil, of wliich Im wii» in IlLio Innl 
chiiucL>llor(0'FLA:«AO.^x, Lord CAaaeftlore of 

Lionel, tlie t^ldfst inn. sncctiuded bi» 

SaniifiitluT in !4:il, was hni(fhtcd wilb 
(■nry VI (It IjCioiSftT by tho Uuke of livii- 
ford (in 19 Mav \itH\, and W(-nt wirb iho 
young king to France in U:)0. ![« wiu niini- 
monod w parlincntiut us »i.Trh llaroti Wcllfs 
fmm L'-IFub. I4;(i; to30.1uly UfSO. In U.'U 
Ih' becamu n privy coiin«illor. He was sent 
(o rdifivc Calais in 14:ifi, w-bt-n thf l«wn was 
fvobly bi!.*iog«fd by liw Rtirfnindiann. Hi; 
(Wrvcd as lord Eieiitennitt of Iri'tund from 
aboai I43>i, and vcu* ufturwardfl f-[)i>cially 

cxe»pl«d from act* of rwiUBpuoti, beeaoae 
of the aums owed bitn bj ths crown is 
Twpecc of his 0Xpcndttn». He waa a bitad 
— indeed a eoDn«ciioD— of thu kio^. and 
constantiv at court. In 14oO h<* was 
tpiwiatcJ a trier of petiuona tor (Heoooy 
and th« part^ btrvond the aaM. In 1461 
be was iitated to be berood the sea br lh« 
king** mnimaiiiimirut. ll<f waa probaUf 
tbeu at Ca1ai.4, where be bad bei-n sent in 
14.^1, with l»rd Riren; be remained in 
rommand iu< lieutenantof the PoVeof Somer- 
s«t unlil :i!0 April 1400, wb«n Warwick ^ 
ciirtd poaat-MioD. Jlewaaelected K.ti. be£aro 
1.1 May W>7. As a Lancastrian be 
the oath of alli^anc« at Uur«ntrv in I 
Hu Joiued Uaiigarpt of Anjoa on ner 
KOuUi, was al llte> Mrund battle of St. Al 
on 7 F«;h. 1-160-1. and was Irilled at Towtan 
on 'J9 Mandi. and atlainte'l in the parliament 
which folIowNl. 1 1« WA» buried in Waterli 
church, ilelhley, Yorkshire. 

lie mikrrir-d. lintt, about 14i*6, Joan 
Cecilia ), only daugbt«r of Ait Koben Wi 
ton of Watcrton and Mt^lbt^y, and had i 
a eon, lliclmrd (n-u bi-low ), uud fuur dang- 
lers; and, HFicondly, Ijotwe^u J7 Slay 1 144 
and .^1 Xug. 1447, Marparrt, daugbter of 
Kir John Jltfaiiirbainp of HlAUioe ; she was 
widow of Sir Oliver St. John and of John 
]teiLtLfort, diikc of ^mprset, W whom she 
hiul had a dnuf^hlor, thv Lmly Marjpiret 
UuauTurt [q. t.] ; by her \V«1U>3 hod a um 
John (»>>• briow). 

Kjciiakd WKi.i.Efi,ticTenth Bahos W'bllbs 
(I4:{|-I4701, son of Lionel, aixth baroD, by 
his finil wifv, tnnrn^ Joanr, dao^htcr of 
Itobt-rl,lord Willotifrhby dvlCr««!by, and wai 
BiimmonL-d in her right as Lord Willoogfaby 
from 2(J >Iay IW> to '29 Fob. IWii. ilU 
firat wifb died before I4t50, and In- tnarrind 
Mcondly Mar^rarKt. dsugbtvr of Sir Janus 
■Stranrways and widow of .Fohn lnglebr,wbo 
touU lTii> vvil in 1 47-'j, He was a I.juicafltriaa 
and |irt-»fnt Ht lliii^Mroiid bnttl>>nf St. JVlbaaa 
{7 Ft'b, M60-1), bnt soon manaffod to make 
biiii |H>ac(^ with Edward, who pardoned bim 
nt OlnucKitoT, in the first year of his reiRn; 
and to be soon got h'la family properly again, 
and in 1468 hi» honours.* Doiiblleaa bis 
family couiu-L'tion with the NuTilk-i. helped 
him. His son Hohert, however, tiwili pari 
in Warwick's plots, and in March 147^ 
attacked thv luiiiiu- of Sir TfaoiiuM Huroii};!! 
a knif^lit of the kinf;'i^ body, Bpoiled it, an<_ 
drov.? iltiowniT away. Edwajd now eiim- 
inuui'd Lord WV-llea (th« father) and liia 
brotbi-r-in-law, j^ir Thomas l'ymi.x:k, to Loo- 
d<m. .\t first Wellea refused to go on the 
pl'-a "f illnees: but aftwwanU wtiit, took 
sanclnAr}' at ^^'fstl^in5lcr, and the 






quitted it on prnniM of piirdoii, Edwiird 
nsde \V«Utss wril« lo Km »oii lelling; liim 
to give up Wartvick*0 (miii«c, and then took 
him down to LuicuLiuiliirv. Auj^- ut the 
obstinacj of the san, lit- ln^lxi^aded Iwird 
Wellcc uiil Dymock at U tuitmgdan. Hie 
•on Ibfii rUkei] n ImttU- n«Ar Stainfonl, 
but woa defe«t«d, tal>en, and *!.^RCuCed on 
19 Rliirch 1470, His confexsion in printed 
in * Exrarpta Hisiorien.' (jip. ;iP2, kc.) 
Both fatber and son wore altaiiitt^d in tlie 
fwirlianienr. of 1476, but the ftttnmdcn> triTi-i 
Kvi^rsed in the first parliami'iil of IK-nry Vll, 
Itichard Welles left a daughter .liiaue, who 
■iiarTied.Hn)t,lii<Tluird I'i^ut <jf Loiidoii.and, 
aecdndly, befom 1470, Sir Kiclmnl IlnnLin^cit. 
BMBtiugt, in (wiuu.'quiroce, waa nft^'rwanlB 
•ammonrd to parlikiDt-nt nn Buron AVidliii>, 
15 Nor. 14)^2; he di^d in l.'iOS, and bia 
widow in IGOo, both without issue, and the 
baronjrof Welleflfcll intoftboyance between 
tere. Sir Hobert W>^1Imi hud marrii^ Klicii- 
beth, dBugbt«r of John Bourcbii^r, lord Her- 
ncrs. Shf died a jtar after his ext^cut ion , and 
wu> burivd by hii< t<tdL> in ] lonciucor church. 
Uer will t« t>n»lfd in ' 'IVnlnni'-titii Vvliixla.' 
JoiiH Wellix, firat. Visi-oisx Wl:^.L^a 
(d. 14U9), »on 111' Lionel, sixth baron, b}' hi« 
■Mond wife, waA a Lanetutrinn, biiT he it 
naantioiied as a walcber at Edward IV'g 
funeral. lln was at the coronallnn of 

I Kichord 111, but oppomtd him at once, imd 
afler the insurrvrtion of Buckinjiham tied 
to Brittany, Ho look part in theBosworth 

I campaign, and was created Viscyunl Wi'lK-i) 
by sttminona to parliament on 1 Sept. 14^7. 
lJoubtlc«a as a aafe muu of thu GL-L-oitd rank 
bo was allowed U> marry, btrforp Ut'ci-inbtT 
14^7, tVcily. daughter of l-Mward IV. who 

. Iiad Ih^ii pn>nii«n(I In tlii^ king of Scotland. 
Ho wa« «lect*!d KXi. befora ?1) Sept. l-lf**, 
and din] on ft Vvb. MOS-^; h« was buried 
it) WestminHtor .\bb(>y. Byhis wife Cticily 
he had two daughters, Kiizabeth and Anin-, 

' both of whom ditd younz ; the Tiscouiity 
of Welles thus became extmct. 

[Exnrpta Ui^torica. pp. 28'i. &c. ; Rot. Piirl. 

r, 1S2.&C., *i. 144.-246. tc;.; Wan of P,ii||cli*h tn 

Fnu.(« (Rolls S«.). ii. 776, 778 ; Cal. Roll-, 

Edw. IV, pp. Il3.&e, : Cooper's Lift! or the I-ady 

Marf^Rt, y. 6; PuAtou Jjiittem. td, Qairdni^r, 

< i. 96, ice, ii. S.&c, [tpauroan'M Charlea 

I VII, vi. 47 ; GilUrtV Vicorojw of Iroland. p. 

I m I Caindfrn .Mi«c«llitny, vol. t. ; Warkworih » 

[Chron. (Camd. Soc.}, pp. g. 62, .^0; P>^lj'ilorL- 

Venjil (Camd. Sot. tmnsL). pp. 126, 121 ; Tm- 

tamenta Vrta.ilA. p. Silt; RnniM)-'* IybnnMt«r 

and York. i. «I6, ii. IS.'i, ftc; (i. K. t^o- 

i kayos Ts Pseraco; Burkr's Eaiinct and tior- 

iFMnge.J W.A.J. A. 

WELLES, THOMAS (1698-1680), go- 
vernor of Connecticut, bont in 1-'J88. belonoed 
to thi' branch of tho family of Welles settSsd 
in NonhninutonHbirv. lu 1034 he wan living 
at Kothwell in that rounty. On -f Nov. 
1031 bo wajsadtuunishcd bvthe court of Rtar- 
ctuimber to a:i.«a-(T in fnll articles agaiiial 
him and several others, amnng whom wu 
Williiiiu Fox, thw ant-estor of tieofge Fox, 
chFtr^ing him witli holding puritan tenets. 
IliK property u-a«G<infiscBted,ai]d on 10 April 
' l(i:Vi thL'ir cause was appointed to be finally 
' sentenced ; but Welli"-s urad«d puuiEbmenC 
' byproCLcdinglo New England in the capacity 
of seervtarv lo William Fii^nnes, first vis- 
count Saye and Seled). v.J.agrwif prwlwtor 
of nuuconformistd ( CaJ. -State Paper*, Item, 
; ]tsa4-r. pawini, in.S.') p. 179), Early in ItKIO 
Lord Sayu and ^ele arrived with his secre- 
tary ot llti' fort ut the mouth of the Oon- 
ne^tiniit, afl^-rward..< called .Saybrook. Di»- 
plmiwd with his reception and di^courntfed 
by thi'ditHcultiosof c(}lonisiitiou,be speeuily 
returned to England, Iintvtng Wolliis, who 
was unwilliiie to facu the Star-cbunibur. 
WolKw joiueu a party of cmiprnntji from 
Newtown f»uw Ctuubridg^j) in MuH^chu- 
I sKils, amonR whom were Thomas 1 looker 
I and Nainnnl Klonn [u. v.], in founding a 
now settlement on the n<irth bmik of the 
I Connt^clicut, which they at lirst culled New- 
town, iiflnr tbftir formrir n>»idence, but aflei^ 
wards, on '1\ Feb. HJ.^13-7, rmonicd Hartford, 
I afttt Stone's birthplace. In 1H37 Welles 
, was cline«n one of the magirtrntes of thw 
loivn, nn office which he held I'very year 
iiniil hiw dentil. Thi- colony of Connecticut 
wuA organised on an iu'dvpcndeiil fuutiag on 
1 May lE(37,and in la^n Wflles was cliosen 
t h? first tn.'ii(turt.<r under th'; new const it utinn, 
apOftC which he held till Ui<')l,whL-n, finding 
tile dutit^'u hurdensotne. hu was relieved of it 
nl hi» own ivi|Ut-«l. I-Vutn 1640 to I64M ho 
iilled \\\\' olliw ai secretary, and in lfti9 
WHji mix nf tile mmmiafliQiiers of the unitod 
colnniea in th'.* fir^t fi-dLrnl council assembled 
in New England. Welli.*dvffiided thepolicy 
of th^? colony tnplucinuft small duiyf>n«*i>orle 
from the Ci.'iinectioul rivur for iht; support 
of Saybrook, nnd smcnMifiilly iiMcd bis in- 
flucnt'tt to avoid wur with the Dutch in 
lleluware Hay. On I Mnrch ltl53-4 John 
Htiynivi, the dfTiuty govfinior, died, and M 
thtr goviTfioT, Edward Hopkins [q. t.], was 
nbeent in England, Wcllrs was ciiosen head 
of ihf colony, with the lille of inodt'mCor of 
tilt- gi^nnral cmirl. In May 16&4 he was 
elected deputy governor. In the sami' year 
111! waH ugniu appointed n commissioner to 
the aitsembly of (li« united colonies, but wu 
prevented by his other dutit-M from serving. 




During his rearaf o(Iic'> Ii» quiptitd adiniute 
concrning Inndii betweeii [. ncas, tlit! ilobi- 
can chief, and tint wttler* at NVvr l^iulrm, 
lind Nuiftioniil tliBSiHiiiiwtraliitTi nf the Dutch 

Eiropottv nI llortfrtnl. Mo ULTreil as (p>Ti?riior 
n IH60 and lti68, and as deputy gorcrnnr 
in 1(UW, 1607, aud ItfJJU. Hv powesMd to a 
very great degren lb« eonftdoncc of the colo- 
nials, and drafted manr of llieir awA iin- 
nortant eonclumnts. Hr died at WetJiers- 
Seld, near Hartfard. mi U Jan. 1059-00. 
TT<t WB* IwicL' raiftrrifid. Bv hi« firM wife, 
Klizabntli [luiit, to whom )ie was married 
in Kngland in lOlt^, lit* h&d suvcn Eiirviving 
children, four hi'dih and t!m»- daiiftlitf^rii. Ilin 
fine wifi.' divd aboiii 1<14D, and iu ltH.5 be 
WM marriud to Eliinbi'th, duiij^hTtT of John 
DenuD^ of Kiwland, uud widow of Nathaniel 
Poote of \\'etli«r»6e]d. Jij her he had no 
iMue. aha difd on ^ July 1083. Wolln's 
will inpriutHd ill Albert WbIWs 'History of 
the W>A\ea Fntnily," Ntw York, 1876. 

[WbIIw'h HiiC, of WcJlw Fsrailv, pp. BS-IO?, 
I10-.L2, 120, 133-3: SntagB> GeocolugicBl Diet. 
1 Hfi'i , I'tilili.- Ilecord* of CoimMt i«iil, i. S46, 3AU : 
CollR^liiiriH of t,h« Cotinaellcut Hinl. ^oc. ii. 8*, 
m, 277-1 E. J. C. 

WELLESLEY, AllTHriC, first Duke 
OP Wbi.lixctok il~<i9'185'i), tii'ld-iiwrahal, 
waBfiHirtliHiiiTofHarrntl Wellis*l»<y,fir«leBrl 
of MoininKion [a. v.], by Anne, cldost dauffh- 
tvruf Arthur lIilL, vLscouut Duufrunnun. ilv 
waabnnun ITlin, lft<\ ihuiirour rnoTitlij* befare 
Napoliwii. Thirt* in Eume dniihl about the 
i^xactduliiaiidplai^ni)rhi« birlii. Hin molhrT 
gavv 1 May hs lib birthday, nnd U« hiniH-^If 
Kokirjil. it, hilt thr nil ran atlinni^l tlmt lip was 
bortianSMrarrbai; Dnngnnt'n-' MfAth. 
Tlw riiRiwIry oFSt. I'eter's Church, Dublin, 
showtthat li(twni*ohri«t«n«d thrri-nn •10 April 
17<IS', and ih'f May number of ' I'jLshnw's 
fientlcmnn'* Ma(^zm(>']iiL«: ' April 29. Th« 
Coijnt«M)flr.Momiii^U>norn!io[i, The* Dub- 
lin GaiLittc' of 2 4 llay datea tb*- pv*nt 'n 
few day* ago, in Merrioii Sirvct.' On thi; 
whole the evidence points to 'jy April, and 
to '2* TpiXT MfrrnHi Slni'l, Dublin (A'(//« 
aaii QurriM, 4th Ber. i. I4;j, 7lh .ii-r. xi. iH; 
UvBtUY, IVfUiitsifon: tkr Dittt and Pl/irr of 
hi* JJirfk). He dinned binist'lf Arthur Wm- 
lev" till Mqv 1708, whun hs adopted thpform 


Wiillesloy rccoWed his earliest e<lHCatinn 
ftt Ilrown's prisjiiimtiirv nchtiol at CbfLst^a. 
TbincB he was sem to Iiton,wlier«? h^Twardf-d 
at Mnt. ltagiii-ii'<auV A* 11 bor h<^ was un- 
sociable and ratbiT cnmbaiivi-. lU- b^d no 
turn for fcliolnrship, hut, lilie Napoleon, lie 
bod the jiowrtf of rapid and correct ca1«iila- 
tion. Jlia father divd in l"yi, and in 17S4 

I bis mother, straic-ned for nuaiu, wit 

bim from Eton, whvru be hod only 

the reinore, and ti>ok him with li^n- to hn»- 

eels. Tbvr« he vrns Ibe pupil of I^uia <~ 

I bert,al>iirriNlvr, at wbow ItouB^they Wlj 

I According loaiellow-piiidlhnirsxext 

' fond of music and played well on th« 

but Rliowed no oint^r Dort. of tAlvnt. 

' mother, a clever but hard woman, came tu 

the conclueion that her 'ufOy boy .Vithur' 

I vai 'til food for powdvr.'aud'm IjSObewi* 

I sent to Pifneroro tuiliturv academy at .\s- 

mn, whicu was principally a ridinirTCcbooL 

I lie was 'rather of a wiaik conatitutioa, not 

vonr attentive to bis studies, and CAOBiantly 

occupied with a littlo Ivirivr called Vic' 

(lUiKOt, J'tumaJ, ir. 30S). He renuined 

thereabout a year. mode frieode intbeneif^ 

I b^iirhnod, and gained a farilily in Kn-Dcli 

, which was of service to him ali^rwaitU. 

On 7 Marcli I7H7 In; wa« piztilted enagD 

inthe73rd(higUlaud)re{rimi'iii. Hi^brolhor, 

Lord Morniuffton, obtained this comniaiiaa 

for him, di-diiiing onu in the artillery (But- 

I land MSS. iii, !t7">. Tha refriinent was in 

Indtii, but Wellculey did not join it. It 

' iniixE bari- biH^ii on inining ■ depot thai, as 

! he afterwards reUti-d, lie had a man vei^d 

I with and witbniLl hii> arm», accoutPennnt*, 

and kit, that ha mi/ht know ■'sofllr whal 

n-eight thv men had to carry t.CHOUES, t. 

%{7>. Dn 'ja I W. he waft made li«ut«aasl 

in the 'tttb, from wbicli he was truitfciwi 

to the 4lii[ on :J3 Jan. 17^, and thencnto 

Tho 12th Itpht dragoons on '25 June. H* 

nbtaine<l a company in the 'xjlh foot 00 

MU June I7t^l, and was transferred to tte 

IHth litfht dntsDons on .')1 Oct. 179^. 

' But be did little, if any, dutr with lh*« 

rcKimuut«, for frumNovf-mber I7B7taURRk 

171>3 ho was aide-de^auip lo Ihc het 

lieutenant of IrcLuid— first, the Marqiiii rf 

Buckingham, nnd aftcrwanis lite Kul of 

Westmorland. Mornin^on, in thankiu; 

Ituokinf^hnm for hix Hp]H>intiiieni, said : 'Bt 

boa everv diapoeition which can raider «■ 

young a toy desrr^inp of Tournotic*' (Bt rt- 

iSiiHAU, 0>tirl4> and CahmfU of (ie^^ryr lit, 

i. aSi ; ef. Fortf^aie MS.S. i. '2im-&,'u. U). 

Itut life WOK oxpcnmreat tbcvic«reaalcourti 

hie privai-j income was only ISSl. • rev 

tOi.EIo, iv. KM), and it is sold h« bad M 

borrow money ofiLvbouimfehur with whom Iii> 

lodf(i.d. In April 1700 he waa retumrd !■> 

the Irish parliamciit m member for Tnta. 

and he held that aeat till the dissolution d 

. a June \7Qfi. Accordinf; lo Mnmin^'ni, he 

I restored the interest nf Im family in tbsi 

boroug'h ' by bis excellent judgmenl', uniabk 

I uaiiiii-TH, adininiblH tein|H>r, and firmnn*' 

\(_Supj)l. Dnpatekf^, x\\\. 37). tta 10 Jon. 

Welles ley 



1793 he teconded tbe addrtMa in ri-]ily to « 
li from ihi' thruDo aonouociiti; pivpHru- 
fiir wnr with FntncwMid rvcnitiiiir-miin^ 
mnAKlerationnrthecaLhnliiTUimi). Hc^iip- 
poTl«d the );orirrRni>-nt bill Riving CAthi>licj< 
the frAncIiW-. biil (ii>[h>M''1 att iimwirlmeiit m\- 
mittiriK tht>in t<>]«irliiin<^iit (•V^^vcAm, IH Jan. 
and K.5 Feb. : I.ixky. England, x'\. 6t)l-(J). 

On W Ajiril {''■Xi lit' jiurcbftiviJ a utujority 
in tilt? 33r<l foot, Moruiiigton leiulin^ him the 
ini>nt.-T. nod urivrwatxlit rufu!^iD|^ to ocoepl 
rujuTinciiI'. tlu iW S.-nt. Wtl!t:aley becftnte 
]ieutenant-c<)li>n(!l of tlie iwitaent, and in 
J une 1 79-1 i-mlNirkril wttb 1 1 atCorkforUetvnd. 
In ronaeqiience nf the Fn^jirh netorjr 8t 
yieurus (:f6 June) tho allied armiea iMired 
bttfaind \\\v. lH'l«, llie Rriti*li ln-inff on thr 
riffht l>elwe«u Antwerp and Maliues. The 
SUrd. jent round by ica to Antweni, joined 
tbo army thvni about 10 July. tIij< ullii-ji 
•ooa aeparuled, the AH«iriiiui< a^nli^ t-a^t- 
wsrdfUidth'j Dulfi'uf York [f*iv FitcDcnicK, 
Ddkb op Vokx^ retiyaUn^ lit ihr line nf ihK 
Datii^h foTtressM. In September Picheijru 
advancL'd into Hollimd, On Ihu 14th tim 
wwt fii Bnxtel, near Ilni(i-Ift-l)iir, was tnk<-n 
Iw the French, and t iie resene torps, to which 
tbc 33rd belonpr^d, wmr m^nt tn recovt-r it 
next day, but found the enemy in too greut 
Ktreiiglh. Thi«wa» \Wllv4ky'« first enKa^t- 
mvut. S«H-iD)f that lh« Irooiii* in front of him 
were retiring is aomeconfiuion, he deployed 
hie rfgimrnt, let the others paea t hrougii, and 
drove hick tbvir puniicra by a voUay (Cpst, 
AnhoU, iv. 1M6). 

Uutoumben-d by four t« one, Yor)% re- 
trTA(«d, but uinintnitttsl hituiu-lf bi-hirtil \\v' 
Waal till tbo Olid of thn year. i)n liODecWt-l- 
lealey wrote: ' \V> turn out one*", somi-titDeo 
twioo, every nipht ; rhti nflip«r» and mi*n ur*" 
bsnu««d todeatli. I huve not hiu) mvclolhefl 
off my back for a lon^; tirrK^, iind ^i-nentlly 
Mwud tbo grt^atect putt of the nixhi upon 
the bank of the river' {Hitppl. Dttpatchr*, 
sill. 2). Frost mud« tEie \\ uul piiHBiibk' ut 
any p^int, and on 4 Jan. 171lfi tin- .'illrd ivii« 
atlackt.-d at Meten-n, and hod to fall bu'cj; on 
ri<ddi-rmal>en, wWrv, with tin* tild ut two 
other re^ments, it repubed thtf Frenrh. The 
army retin>d to the liuwl, and thence iicroKi) 
Korth <li-rm<my ro tlw mouth of the Wwcr, 
where il embarked for Englaud in April. 
UuHd^ th<.- n-lr-.-al tbi^commnud of abrifTHde 
in Doitdas'soorps full loWellealcy by wiiioriiy, 
tmS tbe brijcades were below I be normnl 
Mtwtptb of re^imi-nts. T1id hardshtjM of this 
winter campaign wer<* exireicit-, llii; dii^ordcr 
and diaorgsnieation were -withnut esaTspIe. 
Wellvalffy Wrnt ' whnt one oiiKht not todo,' 
and nude acquaintance with the new French 

I He came huniK in advance of the army, 
and on 13 Murrh spoke In tbo Irish |)srlia- 
Tttt-nl. On 2.1 3\\w h« asked tbft n»w lord 
linutenanl, Lord Cnmden, toappuint him to 
the revenue or treasury board, lie took this 
Htt^jt ou-inf^ to 'Th« oceewitiea under which 
1 liibour from ditlerent circumalanccti.' llu 
added that it va?, a dcpanuri> frnm the line 
which h« preferred), but h)? kui-iv iLal it was 
itfteleiM lo a*k for n military office ((il^in, i. 

.23), The upidiculiuD protL'd fruilletu>. ]]c 

] jointnl bin n-giiMi-nt nl \\ arky in Fwcx.nnd 

I embarked with il in Ocitober for tbe West 
Indies. HvRvy galea dutperm^d Ibw expedi- 

! lion of vhirh it, formed pan, and it rfttumod 
to England. It was four moalhs at Poole, 
and was unt to India in April 1796. 

■ W'ellealey, who became colonel in the army 
on 'A May, was unable to aC4.'ompany it, but 
he overtook it at thu Cape, aud lantlcd with 
it at (rnlculta oti 17 I'Vb. I7y7. ilia colouei, 
I^rd Comwullis, introduced him to tbe 
Koveninr-ijentfnil a» ' i\ BcnuiWe man and a 
(^od officer' {VnmimllU Corrfnp. ii. ."JO?). 

At this point bis publiiibed corrsBpondwiCO 
>K-|{(n«, and tlio li|<lit on hiA rhnractoT and 
actioaf, hitherto acanlVt becomes abundant, 

' Ho had already made it a rule to ^tudv by 
bimsidf for some hours ovt-ry day, and bu 

I f^ive up cards nnd tbe violin as wn^to of 
lirao (kusKEpy, p. 28; Croskb. l. 837), 
IliK earliwi paper* ebow hii> br<.^tb of view 
iind the influence he at once gained. He 
was given comuiiiid of ihf Bengal portion 
nf fill expislilion n|iitintit. Miiiiilla, which 
renched Fenang in September, hut Wfis then 
recalled on Nccount of ihf attitude of Tippoo 
Sultan of Myson-. WoJli-flii-y bad Rtrongly 
urt(ed hih brother .Moniintiton to come to 
India uf i^ovcrnor-pcin^ral. llcdid 80,rL'ach- 
ing Calcutta on 17 .May 17!^!:^, and tbe 
younger brotlier became tbe unotticinL ad- 
viirur of tbe elder. The HchI que^tioti was 
hfnv to act tnwardit Ti(>poo, and here Wel- 
h'iley discouraged .MomiDgton'e incUnatiuo 
In mei'l. ibini^r half way. Hh had imid a 
two months TiHit I') .Madras in th(> begin- 
ning of the year, and was well acqiiainteid 
with thi> nituation rhLTO. IIu tbouKht that 
war with Tippoo, though amply jiistiBed, 
was inexpedient, and thnl. his dcalingn with 
ihtt Fruuch t^hould hv ignored. Thin was the 
counte adoplwdal that time. 

In AuifUHt tht3 SSrd wax transffrrtid to tbe 

, .Madnw ectablifdinientiOud Welli^lev wuato 
have gone aa envoy to Seringapatam, but 
Tippoo refused to rvcejv*' thn tuussiun. In 
l)iicfimherh<- was frivencommand of tbe troops 
assembled neiu- Vellore, aud Ueueral llnms, 
when he arrived in FchriiftrT K&f, prail*d 
bim for tbe state of bia division, and for his 




' juiliciuiu ukI maitmiy smngtiBaiU in r«- 
twel of npplie** (Si^pl- Aw. xiti. 4). In 
die iaruion of Hjraan WaUtMlvy bud ibe 

diraction of tbp nixufi'ii auxilitry extrft, to 
which itie -^Ird was at(sch«l. Ii consisted 
of t«i) battalions of sepoys, l<>n tbouvciid mi»> 
collanpous honmten. Mid iwi»niT-.«ii puna. 
It formtsi ill',* l^ft of till? army iii the action 
Al MaLavcllv on '27 March. The anny arrived 
hvIoK ik-riagaytitiia) on h April, and an 
attack wan inaae on the enemT's outpoeia 
that night by two (li.-lavhiiivat#, of which 
one, ttodvr We1le«leT, waa reptitsMl with 
Mme loas. He d^temitned ' nflTor to ntlTrr 
to ottaclc to bf> mailA bv niftht upon an 
sneny who ia prqiared and stmnfrlv jxtst^. 
and wbose posts havi' not bwn rvcanitoitTvd 
bydavlight' {il, IS April). Ho had noohare 
in tiu> (ttonaing of Seringapatam, being in 
command of the n^scr^e in the tn^Ticbe* ; but 
btswtAMnt into the town next day to restore 
order, and waa appointed f^oremor by Ilarria 
on 6 Mar. Gt.>s«m1 (Sir) I>aTid Baifd ^<).tJ, 
who had led tl)«>ajuault,wa»mucb morti&ed 
at tliia choice, but then wera good ronwos 
for it (Crokbb, ii. 103). 

On tLe withdrawal of the amr in July 
theoommand of all the troop* left m My«nrv 
fell to Wellmli^y, ami h<> aIho rontroHecl the 
civil udministnition of Tippoo's euoosuor. 
lie had written in May : ' 1 iiuond to aak to 
be broiight awar with th.- arwiy if any ciril 
wrvant of tho company is to be here, or any 
person with civil authority who is not under 
ut; orders' (ib. tj MavK In Auguct he had 
to tak« the Seld Rfrauist Dboondish Waueh, 
■ frocbootcr who uad gaihvred a lar^- JVil- 
lowinj^. Wellaaley dnivi^ him a^roas the 
frontier and disponed his bauds : but thvr 
refiumed ttii-ir incursiniiM in April 1800, niuik- 
l«riiifr fnrty thousand men. Having ob- 
tained Ieav« to puniin' t heiu into llif ^Uhrat ta 
tt'rritorj', \Wl]ia»lt?y crr«sM tlifi Tnombud- 
dra, near ilurryhur, on 'M June, tixik some 
forts, and, pushing on with four n-eimenift 
oFciivalry, ovenooK on -H) J uly part of bhoon- 
diah'a army, enounpcd on the Malpoorba. 
Tbe camp vox 8turmi.-d and iht.- )iunn and 
stores taken. After cbmaing the remainder 
for several weeks, and fitlh^win^ tht-m into 
thii niznni'M douiiniunM, \V<-llii>l(!y full ici with 
them at ConahKnll on ID Hept. Hhonndiali 
hinaelf was killed, and hi« bnnds, rvducod 
by this tiinn to five thnnNand horse, were 
srattered. His son fell into iho hands of 
"VVi-llealrv. who provided ff>r him till his 
denth {lUiftatchrt, t!(i Oct. l^L^'n. 

In Mny the governor-general had o(fei«d 
Wclh-.tlcy tliv command of an i-xpcdilion 
which wai> to be sent against llnlavia, bui 
lut declined tho oRrr, at! it waa not for the 

public intvcMt thai b« >ibQ«ld laarv Uj 
lost then. In November be wa* tent if 
rrincomolee to take command of a fbrce of 
3,IJ0O mrn for a dovrnt upfin Hw de K«Q«- 
(Mauritius) and Bourbon; but on 7 Jut. 
1801 b«! tvamt from his bn>th«r — now Mar- 
([UiH Welledoy—ihai this force mifht lure 
to form part of an expedition to Bgil'li m 
which case a general oi^ccr must bo placed 
at the head of it. (>n the 'li\\i Uainl vai 
oppoinled to it, and it« deatiaatJon was 
ciiaugvdtoBalavia. BofonitbitDVwsiau^ri 
Tri ncooulee WellesJey had act ont for Bombay 
with hi^ troops. He hod learnt that det- 
patcheo fnim Knglaod w«re oa th«ir wsv to 
Calcutta, desiring that a forw should be wnt 
to Egypt, and, in aptle of the remijnsltaiM* 
of the governor of Ceylon. Fn-dcrick Noitk 
fan«rwatdB HlVh Eart ofGuiIlbrd)'q.v.], be 
aceided to anticipnic iho orders o^ the gi^ 
TemoT^«eaeraL The latter at first diitf* 
proved nia action, but was salisliiwl b/ th* 
rouont given for it \Dt»p. 16 Feb. tad 
^•A .Varch ; Suppi. littp. »0 March). 

On 6 April the expedition, numberrr ■' 
aix thou««nd m»n, left Rombar for t'ri> 
.<e« under Itaird. Wellesley waa v< r 
at his sunerMssion, and compluned I' 
of it, with too little allowaoM for '■^'■ 
ciim§t4ince6 i-'^p/tl. Item. 11 and M Aptil 
and -Jt; Mat), lie yielded to his brotluf^ 
wish, in which Bairn joined, that be abonll 
go as se<rond in command ; but be was di^ 
ablod by illness at the last moment I r^rtv- 
noFK, p. loa). The ^UMnnah, m wbicii 1*- 
was to have sailed, waa lost with all handf 
in tho lt«d Sua. Hv amt BairO a careful 
memorandum containing such infonaatioa 
as he had bven abU> to gather bearing on Uie 
intended opiTatino* (Tifitp. 9 April). 

In May he rvtumed to My.'iore, and Ebr 
tlie nvxi year and n. hnlf he was busily rc- 
aipied there, bringing the conntn* inm 
order, making rwds and fortificatioue, form- 
ing a good bullock-tmin,and orgAoiaing ibt 
departments. Ho became major-geacroi by 
seniority on Lt* April l(Hf2. At ll»e end cX 
that vrar the pesuwab, Ibe titular cbivf of 
the Mahralta confederacy, (>igii<il the tmatf 
of Baasetn, by which he accepted the posi- 
tion of a pnitnclt^il urinci.s and stepa wi4a 
taken to rein.4tate him at Poonab, whenn 
ilolkar had driven liim. \\ eliesley hid 
already funiicibed a 'memorandum' upon 
operations in the Mabrattu territory' yA, 
6 .St-pt. 1801). and as soon as be learnt that 
.Madnui troops werv to he u«d, he offered 
his services, pointing out that hia purwrt 
of Dlioomdiuh hud made him welt acquainted 
with the ciiuntrv nnd people. On :?8 Nov. 
he was appointed n major^eneral i 




KmS of cliB MmIiw wubliiluuvot, mid uu 
8 Fab. 1803 be It-It SenngH]i>tlan) with h» 

By th« *nA of the month th* Mailnw 
umy, under Qfiieral JaniM Stunrt, wiui 
usetnbleil on th? frontier at ilurryhur, bik) 
Wellmley, with nin« thouMuid men, ti-tut ^triii 
Ibrwajd to I'ooafth. I.«arninK ihnc tht! nluct! 
was lo be set on fire on his approach, ho 
made a forvitl oiarch of forty luilva with hie 
eitralry and one battalion, and iTa« in time 
10 Aavt! it. lli> rvncbcd it on i!0 April, uid 
thptM-AliW]direturn«<ltx>hiMcnpiliLli)n IflMay. 

Kir aosie noatluthe attitudo of Ilnlknr 
ftod Scindinb wiie doubtful. \V(>IWley vik* 
made on 'X Jiitif^ chief political nnd inili- 
tarv agent id tb« southern Mabrulta states 
and the Der«an, and did all hodmld to pnv 
nerve i>eace, but in vain. On 7 Auk. war 
urta (Wlar^d afain»t thi? two chief*, and 
iht'T w«rtf ntta(£ix| by Lalie in the nurlb, 
by WrtllBjm- ill tin? aoMth. 'I"hti latter hnd 
under hia »rdcn, befideit bis own divisiun, 
■Oine Bombay Itik^un in Mujtrrut, and the 
nuatn's corps of eight thniiAand ninn under 
Colonel Ht45reDaot], which true ni'iir Jstilnuli, 
Coverin|i|^ rhe niznm's dominion.^. The fort 
of Ahmediiu^[ur, reckoned one of the 
•trongent forts in India, was taken by Wel- 
Icflvy after a two daya' *iege (li. 12 Aup.) 
Marchiotf norlbward, be reached Aurunfja- 
bad on the 29th: but m^nnvhiLe Kcindinli 
mad the rajah of Jterar bod »lip|ied paAt Hi^ 
Tensoa and were advaiicinjr iin ilyderabnd, 
WaUoiLey nuvvd down the Uoduruiry to in- 
tercept them, and they tiiruf^d hack. On 
SI Sept, W't'Uealey and Sttn-cnsou uuit ul 
Biidnapiior, niul arrnnt^d to attack tbi^iu at 
Roter-fiin on ibe 24th, St*'ven.ion fullinj; nn 
their right, Wvllealey on their left. Whtm 
the latter rcacb«d his campin^-eroiind on 
the 2<{rd, be was Cold that the Mabrattaa 
were within aix mil»t, but wck morinfr off. 
tMrndin^ word to HteveUHMi, fau Diorvhed on, 
ud about 1 r.M. found hicnacif in presence 
of their TrhoU' army. 

It waA drawn up liehind Iho Kailna, with 
iuleft near the village of Aasye.pasl which 
the Jiiah ftowii lo jnin the KaitiiH. On the 
ri|rht were thirty thouoand horfl^raftn.onrbB 
left ten thousand infantry trained by Run>- 

San officer*, with over u hundred (run*. 
avtog left some of hia trvxjps to guard bis 
eunp, 'VVellealey had with him only 4,5(X> 
men — vix. ma battalions and four rvgiraitntA 
■of cavalry, two battalions and one regiment 
of cavsliy being European. Hu hnd mivt^u- 
t«en ffUiiM and u>K»it nve ihoumnd Myaom 
and Mahratta horai^men, not much to bu 
relied on. But ' he fully reaIiiK>d the au- 
prttne importance in eastern warfare of 

promptitude of action and audacity in 
eiMitniiitg the otlV-nvive, wen though th^ 
eneiuy mi[flil be enormouslv superior in 
niinilHir' ( LORD RouERT», p. -lO), Ue decided 
to mm (lieir luft, -ti-ise .-\sev«!, and fall upon 
their Hank and renr. To do this hv ULUst 
crow the Kaitiia, and ho was told there was 
no ford. But he noticed that, a little above 
ica junction with the Juab, there waa a. 
villfi^i- ou the left bank up{iosit« a village on 
the ngbt bank, and he flm-eUid bis troops 
on this point, cou^denl that they would 
find Aome. mean* of piKi«ge there (Crokek, 
i, Sn3). He found a ford, and, ieni'ing the 
im-^iUr huriw on the right bank, led the 
rest of W\A army arnwta, and formed it be- 
tween the two streams, wbose iiullalia 
COVen>d his t1ank:<. Ilia infantry were in 
two lines, his cavalry in a third. 

The formeition wao carried out under a 
iLeavy Urn from the enunty's runs, while 
their infantry irhaiigt-d fmiit. with «urpri»ing 
provision, und phiied their right on the 
Knitiia, ihttir loft on lFi>- Junh at Assye, 
' Wlien T saw tbni tlity had gor. ihi-ir left" to 
Awiye, I allenul my plan; and delermined 
to manniuiTo by my left and push the 
enemy iipun tbe nullah, knowing that the 
vilUff>^of A*A)i' niiiit fall when the right 
should be beat ' | I)f*p. 2J Sept,.) By a mia- 
undcrstauding tin- British right attacked 
Awye; it was exposed to 'a most terrible 
cannonade ; ' the cavalry had !■> be »vnt for- 
ward tirt cover its withdrowa), and could not 
bu u»ed afterwards for pursuit. Tbe battle 
was obstilintely contesled, liiit, the victory 
was compbtu. the enemy leaving nearly all 
tbi-ir guiiH oil tile field. Tht.> Iom o^ tbe 
British was a third of thnir strength, and 
incliidiHl (UO Kiiropenii*. Wellesley had b 
hnrne shot und<'r him and another bayoneted. 
One of bis ntatf wrote : ' 1 never saw a maa 
M cuol and collected as he waa the whole 
time, though I ean assure you till our troops 
j^l orders to advance, the fate of the day 
aecnied doubtful' (•S'»f>/i/. Deep. 3 Oct. and 
1 Nov.: TlloRx, If 'fir in IniUn. lft03-0; 
.^'a/jc.4»7iiwf//f(y/U'/ei-,l803,p.4<1; Malu> 
BOB, Decuiir TSattlr* >,/ Imb'a, np, 28H-95>. 
Scindiah retreated westward, and Wel- 
lesley watched him while i!ltevenson took 
AsBwrghur. Tin* two divisions then marched 
into Berar Co besiesetiawilghur. Scindiah, 
having learnt that his be«t troops bad been 
routed by Lakif at Laji^warrce, opi>nod negn- 
tiatiooB wilb Wellestey, and on SJl Nov. a 
^Uflpensiuu ufhoMilitieu vae agreed upon so 
. far as he waa roncernnd. But he dtd not 
' obsi!r»-u it. and bis cavalry joined the troopa 
I of [hv rajab of Berar in pjeisting Wellesley's 
^ advance' on Tiawilghur. On the iDth a 

bttltle vu Tought on * pbin in front of llie 
rilligB of Argaum. Somv tvyoy resimenU 
wei> ilinnnl*Toi! bj tticem^mvn artilk-ry firr. 
anil Wellwley wrolf: 'If 1 liml nwt ipxu 
tbtfK, I UD conrinci'd w** •hf>ul<l havr lo«t 
tlie j«5' ' (/)K!jp. 2 Disc.) Bui the MaknItAs 
9Q0Q bn>k* and tl^d, l^avinj; thirl. r*«!i^lit 

Km on lh<^ fi^ld, ■nil th« rictnir cost the 
ilUh uiiiler iW men, (imvrilghur wiw 
fttormed <m 1<> DM^. ; ftiu) tnmtiM of peace, 
nvftotiat«d by Wellwlt-y, were »^ed wilh 
th« rakh nf Berar on tht> ITlli, and with 
Sctadiali on tUv SOUi (•Sw^f. iAN^'. iv. iH- 


Wellesle; nvii>iT^ tbe thnnka of purl i«- 
BMOU A swi>rd of linoour wan ]ii>4entMl to 
bim hr th« inhnbitantn nf Calcutta, and a 
serf ic« of plate, enilioswd with ' .\*«yf,' by 
the officers nf hi* dixn.Mon. He visit(><l 
Bombay in March and received aa addrw«. 
Up wnit now aiixioiie to n-tuni to Knfrland: 
' I (hiiik 1 hara wrrird ac lon^ in India as 
any man ought wh" can aervt anywhi^rc 
els.': and I think that thvro appcan a pro- 
vpL-ct of Mn'ia- inP^tirupi* m which I should 
he more likolytofretfprwiird' ( 7)r»p. t^June 
18(VI). Uis hi^allh had sulfi-ml bv life \a 
camn, and he was agjrneved that tlie Dukf 
of ^ork had oot coafirn»>d hi» appoint mtuit 
totbo staff of tbo Mitdran Army, lie ad- 
vised the governor-general also to nwgn 
beoniiae of thf hoalUity of the din-ctor* and 
ika want of support (rnm thti tninistry 
{Siimi. J)*»r>. 31 Jan. and *24 Ft>b.) 

^f peace turned adrifl bando nf frn'- 
boolqrv who tuadt> raids into the Lteccan, and 
in February ItDUl \X'ello«ley went in pumiit 
of cue of ihcsu bauds. He wt out ou Ihe 
morning of the 4tb with all his cavalry, 
tbree battaliona of iiifantri,-, and four guiUr 
and in thirty houm |iTicliidin^ a halt of ten 
hour?) hfi march>ed sixty mSm. He over- 
took thp band, winch vtnn near iVrinda. and 
diBpencd it, raking iii< giine {Deep. ■'> Feb. : 
Crokcr, ii. 'JSiy This wax hi« last ■Hirviot' 
in the field in India. 

He waioUitfd with some uneaeiness tie 
coarse of the j^vi^mnr-gvfltral, fearin;; llial 
it would lvti>i to n fresh coalition of the 
M&limrta princes : 'The system of modera- 
tion and conciliation by which, wbethvril 
ba right or wrong, I made the treatiea of 
peoc*-, and which has been su highly ap- 
imivrd mill ••^(IoIIikI, is now given np' 
iSupff. T>f*p. 13 MayV Orders had already 
bet.'ii (fivi'ti lor 1i<>«lilitint tiuniiist Holkar, 
hut lhe.=<- ffll moinly fo Lake. <^>n 'i\ June 
WeU'wlrv Imib.' faniwcl) to lit* diviwtin at 
I'oonah, and went to Cftlentta, I[e mennt 
to go bomti from tln-n-, but tile disaster to 
Cobnel MiinsonA force {Ttf»p. 12 Sept.) 

! WB5 iota I 
rmvwoakl i 

made it Deceasanr for him to n-lam to 
Seringapatam io Kowmber. He was loU 
Ibal thecommandoflbc Iloniluiy army woakl 
be ofii>red him, but be wrote : * E' 
wen- Cf^rtain tbal I should not be 
in Hngland at all, ihi'rn is no siti 
India which would Induce me tO >t«y bfH 
iSumtl. Dr*jK \r> .Ian. iHOo). 

lie resigned his civil aad military a^ 
pointnuint# on 24Feh. 1805. At Maiira»hv 
was invett>>d with thv order uf the Baih 
(K.G.H.), which had been conferr^-il on his 
on 1 Sept. 1^04: Uu received nddmswi 
from thn idlicvr* of his laL>' dirision, frtsi 
ihow of the ■ttrd regiment, and from the 
nativK inhabitanU of ^eri ii(,'npatam, and ht 
was entertained by the ciiil and military 
oHicere of the presidency. In the uiddlo aj 
I March Sir .\rthiir sailed for Kngland ia 
I the Trident, and arrived jn Lbe Downs og 
I 10 Sept. His eight years' aervicM in lai^ 
' had beea e-^C4-lIeiii iiiining for the raried 
buBtneaa he was afterwards lu b« engaoed ia. 
In addition to thv ordinary dutiea of con- 
mand, he luid btH^ii cnginvrr, commiwaTMl 
and store officer, aa well a.i civil admin*- 
HtratOT and diplomatist. Always ready ta 
accept new funetions and clinging to tluwB 
\u) unsady had, more than &ftv tbouM4 
soldiera were iiDd»*r his orders in diflenat 

farts of southern India al the iKvinuing «{ 

It must liavc been within twa or tbrm 

days of hia landing that the only moetiog 
hMw(H>n WcIWleyand NeUon took pUee Iff 
cluinre at the colonial oiQ(x>, for Nelson Uh 
Kngland on 13 Sept. for tbe last tiinx 
(CuuKEB, ii. l>3d). Lord Caftlereagh, who 
was then secretary of atate for war and the 
colouii'S. had been president of the board ^ 
control, and WVlliMU^y made ■( his fan 
business to exphun and jn-itify his broUm^ 
Indian [tolicy to him and to l*itt. Tbe 
Utlerwoji struck wilh his reticence aboat 
his own actions, and a few davs before his 
death be told Lord Wellesley: 'T avvrt 
mwl any military (»llici>r with whom it was 
.40 --iai inoctory toconvcrse. Ha; states ••*«« 
dillicully i>v^re he uuderlalcej) any r ' 
but none after he hti* und<*rtaketi it 
HOPE. Pitt, iv. 375; OnnKBR, in 
AVellmley was appointed to theatatl 
Kent district on 30 Oct., and a month atm- 
wHtd'< hr- was given comomnd of a brigaik 
in the expedition to llunover under Lotil 
riilhcHft [see CilHCaRT, SlK WiLUUi 
SniAw, tenth lUnos]. Th^ victory irf 
.\iisterliiz caiisvd the withdrawal of'tla* 
exp&cli(ioD,and on L'o Feb. lt^O«J WeUeJfJ 
was appointed to a hrigfbde at Ilastinga 
On 3U Jan. he had succeeded Lotd 




WkUii u colouel of ihu 33nl. of which he 
htd CDOtinuMl to be lieuli'iiuil-cuIunKl uji 
to that litnt>. 

On 1 April IflOB "WVIlwley wm n»tiirn«!Kl 
to pwliameat for Kre, a goremnient «>>«! 
which he M'<'ppl«(l in order tn r«nly lo the 
chaigce brought nentiuit hord WHlr«Ir>' by 
JiBuePauIl [q. rj lie KpTikv on this and 
oibor Indita «ubj(>ci«, and wrote ft full 
BumoraDdum ou it mX iho undofthe wasion 
(SptKChcs, 23 April, ftc; Suj>nf. I)r*p. iv. 
54u-d5t- IWIininviit wiu iliitwilvi'd in Octo- 
ber, and OH IS Jan. 1807 Iw- wait rrtiinii^J 
for Miicliiill, Cornwall. In March lf*0" the 
OmiTilie ntiniMry n-AiffiiwI, oo tbv kinK'" 
illiiiiiiiiil thftt fait -thfliild hear notbinn innr<> nf 
eoDcnwinns to iW TOihoUc«. The f'orllaad 
mini.4tTT Jiureeeded it, th« Duke of tttehmond 
becamin>; lord lieutenant and U'ell^ley 
cfaicf MCretary of Ireland. ll£< wka Aworn 
of the m'vrv council in I/>ndon on 8 April, 
•nd al Diiblm oii tin- L'Utb. 

U« held this ulCcti for two TMre, but hi- 
had atipuUied that it kIiouKI Iw no bar tJi 
Ua ampoyment oo active serrlce, and he 
wtM iwict abwiil (in Lbat account. Tbv lunl 
Ueatetuuit prambled, bnt did not wiftli to 
part with him. I'll!.' state of Ireland waa 
aocb aa to rail for the vrholr> iitt«iition of it* 
chi<*f ewcrt'lary, TIm? people wen.* looking 
H^rcrlT to a FruTich invanioii.anilBmtinvthp 
first tliingfl t^ which Wpllcsky turnt*a hie 
thoughts nnn how to Ruard nKain»l it. 'The 
oprratiooB which rhu Itririiib army would 
bare to carry on woiJd be of tho iiuturv of 
thoae in an cntunys country, in which lb« 
hostility of thv pettplu would be most active. 
... I am posiiivflv (ViDviiu^c'l that no puli- 
tieal mm»ur>.> which you could adopt would 
a]t«rtb«tj^ip>T(ifllii<pe(ip)eof this country' 
(A97P/. Dt>j>. 7 .^[ny &c.) Tins titlio afc'iXn- 
tton aoon Itecsme rijioroiis. tie held that 
txorbitaot r^-nitt, not tithes, wcr« 1I10 rt-nl 
grievance; hui he tiugge^jted ihat tlifclfrifr 
should be enabled lo grant lt>nJtf-9 ol' their ', 
i'llUft and should bv ubURvd to rveidu iu 
lh>'ir benefices. He reeoiniuendfH] increnard 
rspiiudilurtr on canala, which would lower { 
mat» and imunive ni^icultiini. Ilf re< 
organified thti i>uh]in police, and on laid the 
Ibundation for the Irish constabulary, lie 
had b<5en re-eleci>-d for .Mitchell on becominff 
oUef eeorvtary, but parliament was diasolved , 
•000 oAcrwiird*, and in May be wa< re- ' 
turnod for Tmlw, co. Korry, and Newport, 
lale of Wi|^ht. liu chose the latter t<eat. 

Ho wa.'* given comrannd of the naervn in 
titii army sent to Zealand under Ijord Cnth- 
onrt, to iwcuru tho Daiush fleet, and nm- 
barkifl at Sheenwas on SI July. As tliv 
crown [irince refbaed to aurrender the fleet, 

ttiv amr landed on. 16 Aug., WoL^ 
leadins the way with th« light iroopn ;' 
CopenhagOD waa inml«d mat day. A' 
Uaniah K>rce of tvgulani and militia aoon' 
threatened tho rear of the army, and on tba 
2illh WullmWy wa;t tient against il with fiva 
battaliniig,c9g'ht squadrana, and two battoriea ' 
of artillery. ThoTlaoes fell back before him 
to Kit>i;i3, when- they had Aome intmnrh- 
ments. lie attacked lliem on the 2t>th aud 
routed them, taking fifteen hundred pri- 
r>on«r*. Unf-Sept. L-openhagea lUrn^cnid, 
Welletfley being ono of the commiaatonera 
who arrangud the termb of capitulation. By 
ihf UOtb ha waa in £ngland again, and on 
1 Fob. 1606 be nndTAd the ihanka of tho 
Iluiutt of Commona in hia plocv. lie was 

Emmoied lieutenant-general on '2li April, 
nving ulrvady, on 1*2 Nov. 1607, had tbaE 
rank givi^n him in IreJand in oaae of in- 

Uk had. been fVvquentlT cooaulted by the 
miuj«t«re, especially by Ca^tlereagh, about 
schemes for attoclnng the colonial poaaea-] 
BJoiis of Spain, ajid liod.writtuu sorend 
memoranda. Dul the change of Uyiiaxty and 
the upnaingofthc^uiiniar da against NapolNiii 
in May ISlJH altnred the situation. Il« eawj 
that 'any DH>nfliirL>& which can disCreAs the 
Fneach in Spain niudt. ohlijio tbi'm to delay 
for a neARon the e.\ecation of lliHr pinna 
upon Turkey, ur lo withdraw ihiiir armioa 
from the mirth," nnd hn r- -coin mended tbab | 
nil the Itriiiah troop that could Iwiapared' 
should be sent In Ciioraltnr to act aKcircuiO*] 
Stances might suggOAt {Sujtpi. D»»p. vL 80). 
Genoral (unerwaraa ^Hi) Brent Smomt [q. r.| 
was at that time off Cadiz with a fotte os 
five thousand dwiii, having bean aent out] 
lo do what be could to hinder the French 
plansof naval cunu-ntratiuu. On U June 
WeUwli-y was givKii romiiiand of a frtrce 
of about nine ihouHand men, lutaemblod at 
Cork, with Keneral inialnicli'ins to iiwist the 
Spaniards or thi' Portuguese. 

lie nailed an li! Julr.Rnd put into Com ila, 
where tho junta of Gnlicia informed him 
ibal tliev ntM^lt-d only money and nrms, and 
advisod liim to take hi; troops to I'ortugal. 
][uwL-nt on to (Juorto. and, having i-urisulied 
the bii-luip niid cue I'orlitguese geiiemlH, and 
th-! British admiral Dtl'lhuTagus.hodccidn) 
lo land hi* mtfn in Mondr>go l^y, and sent 
oi-ders to Spencer to join him tlii>re. It was. 
a bold step, for the Fn-nch urmy under Juaotfi' 
which had beon in or^upntinn of Lisbon sincft 1 
November, tiiunbered nearly thirty thouaaaili 
men. But Wcllcaloy know that they wexa] 
Kiiutt'ired a4id bad to find garrisons, and sup"j 

fMed the total to be under eighteen thousand. I 
be Ponuguoau,whubad promised co-open^ 

tiou, woulil be discouraged if hie troops re- 
fDaiaed on boud sliip, nnd Itr rxpr^Unl tobr 
aooB reinforwd. On the .tOth ho learnt that 
five thousaod mwn were on their way from 
Eng^uid, thftt ten tbouund undrr 8i'r John 
Moon woultl follow, that the whole army 
waa t« be commanded br Sir Hew Dal* 
rympli', find that he Iiimeolfv^oiild be fourth 
iutcad of first, 'I hope that I shall have 
boat Jiuiul bufoni ativ uf iLi.-m shall arrivL-, 
and tbrn thej WiU dn OA they [>Uaa«! with 
mu,' he wrote to tb(> Duko nf liichoiuud 
(StM>/i/. Dr*p. I Aitir.) 

'ihe diai<mbarkntion w» not completed 
till 6 AtiK>i on which day Spenc«r •rri^-i«d. 
On the B^ the army adranced, and on the 
ISth it WB« joined at Leiris by six thousand 
Portugueae under Frein*. Ft*irc refuMd to 
march on LUbon, hui he allowed Cotonvl 
(afitTwarda riir) Nicholas Ttant [a- v.] lo 
nccompuDy thu British with fotincoii liunaml 
foot iiiiii t?5() hor*e. Jmiot, wliile galUf-rioK 
htB troops, bad aenl forward Dolubordo with 
live thousand rni^ii Co dr'iny Lbct British 
advance. Delaborde those a position ar 
Roliea, and was attacked tberv no thu Itth 
by Wellesley wirli nt'nrlv foiirtoim thousand 
men. Tliia superiority in nu.mbur« cDsbted 
Wellcsley to tlireatvn both flank* while 

Sru^-infithe French in front; Dtlabordu waa 
Dnx'd hack to a §ecoQd position, and then 
had to rctroiit altof^ther, after lo«itig «ix 
huodryd lueii. ]lut the front attack bad 
bfc2n promatnre, and the British loss waa 
nut much lew, 

Well&iley meant to march next day on 
Torres Vvdnu). to Kucure tbc" past;, but learn- 
ing that thii brigndi^D of Aoland and An- 
fltruUipr weru off the cuoet, he look a posi- 
tion at Vim-?iro tu cover th«ir diMnibarkation. 
On tbe evening of the 2(hh a senior officer, 
Sir Harry Burrard [q. v.l, arrived, and r^ 
fmod 1-0 nllow nay onensive mnvements till 
Mcore's troops should have joined. On the 
moraine of the :?l«t the British army was 
attacWd in '\U position by Jiuiot, atid llur- 
rard left. Wello«ley to conduct the action. 
Junot bad fourtvL-u lbuu»Qiid mon, including' 
thirteen hundred cavalry, and '2^ guaa. The 
KriliAhnuiubori'd sixteiu thum-uudi, uf which 
only 1^40 wurti cavalry, with ei^bl^Mi gum*, 
beeidcs Tmnt's Pomipiieso. Tneir po&ition 
waa coiiVf X, tht< ri^lil r<N>tiii^ un t hij wui, iicid 
Juniit's plan wna to turn the left, ttut 
W^llwley moved foiir of lii» eight bn){adee 
from ligbt to h!ft by the rear, and iSoligniic'A 
division, which maae tbe tuminc movement, i 
wafi driven back and si-pnraled from the rest 
of tbc' army, Tbe columns sent against the I 
British front were also repulsed, Wc!le«lfy ' 
bad said of the French wLen he wm leaving i 

KngUiid, ' if what I bear of their i^i< 
mamnnvrm hm tnie, I think it a falM on 
aeainei steady troojie' (Cbokeb. i. \! 
122). The columua biled, as he an 
pati>d, before a volley and a charge in Itw. 
The French losa waa over two tbouaaad 
men, about three timee that of the Britinh, 
and thirteen guoa. 

WeUealey wished to fallow uphis viclory, 
but be was Moppedshort. ' ii'ir H. Burrard. 
who waa at this time on the groitiid, still 
I bought it advisable nut tu move froa 
Vimeiru ; and the enemy made gw>d tlieir 
retreat to Tom« Vedraa' {Dtjy>. ^ Ai^.) 
Sir Hew ^\'hitefoord Dalrymplo [ij, v.] took 
command n<>xt day, and tbe conVealioa or 
Cintra followed, Welleeley eoncumd ts 
Tho principle of it, tbinkinff that, as thtt 
French had not be«n cut off from Lifibon. 
it was best to allow them to evaciul'' 
Portugal; and on 22 Ao^. be eirned, by 
Dalrymnte'a deure, tbe armutice which ws# 
the prvludo lo it, thouffh he diaaporond 
of »oui« details. In tbenuther negotistioBS 
bis advice waa disregarded. CaMlcroi^ 
] had st-ronifly recommended bim to Dil- 
' rvmple's particular contiitt^nce, but he found 
' tlial it was not given lo biu ; and be mh* 
' camp lo the conclusion that 'it is quite 
impossible for me to continue any l(iK|tr 
I with this army' {De»p. 5 Sept.) It wu 
8aggf!»iv:ii that ho should go to the Astan'u 
to report on the country, but he rvpliwi 
that ne was not a topograpbieal engiiMr. 
lit- also dectiuud a prupoifal that he uumU 
go to Madrid. Leave of abMjooe was gitn 
him, and he arrived in England on 6 del. 

The cntiventton had r*i«ed a storm tbtft, 
and OS Wellealey bad signed the armixioe, 
and wiw wronrly aatd lo )iave negotiated it, 
much of the blame fell on him (CbokbB,!' 
344). A court of inquiry met at Chekoaos 
17 Xor.,axtd WcUeelev laid before this eoart 
some masterly statemenla vindicating k* 
conduft and forming a full record df the 
campaign (Uefp. iv. 152-237; SiapL _ 
ri. ISU&lj cf. Sptteke*, t>l and 28 Y 
leW). In it« iinal report (22 T>ec,) 
court approved of the armiitt ice, one mem 
diwienting: with the convenlion Well 
was not cODCeroed, The inquirr preveai 
his rejoining lh« army, which was thent^- 
vsDcing into Spain under Moore. Ht le- 
ceivr-d the tbank.t of parliament foe hi# 
conduct at lloli^a and Vineiro, thoae of tbe 
Ftoa'H' of Commons lieing given to bin ia 
his placo OfotaeAM, 27 Jan. 1800). Heshe 
received adaieases from Limerick and Loo- 
donderry, and a piece of plate from theMO- 
manding olficers who hail I'l.'rved under tuD 
at Vimairo, 




TliR hopeR buill on inltfrAciilinii in SpnJn i 
wen* dusli^i) bj ike rvsult of Moore's cam- ' 
pftign iktiil br the damih of Frencli Troops ' 
(orer thrw uuHtlred thouwttil) poured into 
th>- IVninsuU. But at tho end of Jiiniiary 
lyoytbey l»ei:antorvviTi-. Austrin'«ptypiini* ' 
tiona for war recalled Napoleon lo I'iinft,nnd I 
obUifwIlumiowitlKlniwlortjiboiisaDdnien. I 
TUf l*MtugiieM Kgencf iuh<il for n Hnri>)i | 
officer to orgaoiae mid cntnmand their troops, 
and at the ituG)fo9ition of \Vi>I|t-i4li-v, wlioliim- 
eelf derlint^d thw (inat, Bereafuni was si-nl 
o<it- In u QHftnoruidum tu CH!>tIer»a)lb, ' 
which wftfl Uid hpfrtn- the culiirn^r, WrlloAl^?/ . 
nuiiiitained that ' I'orin^l nii^ht be di^ I 
fcmli^l. whiitcriT mijirlit h« the rt-wilt of I 
tbi; coatifst in Suain" (Ihtf>. 7 Miirch'l. ' 
Ther<:^ slill rramini.-uaomt' l{riti»h troopii near 
Liaboii, iiridfrr l^ir John FmiiciM Cmdock I 
[H- v.] Il wa« decidfd lo rni*p thwn I'l 
f v(voly-thr«ti thousand men, wid on "J April ' 
W««Ih!i"l«'if wa* uiipnintt^] 1" till" torn mn ml, i 
nnporspdinp Omnock. Samm-] Whithn-fiil 
had cnlW?!! in c|iit>stion t hi- propriety n(' a oiiui 
holding otficr' and drawing pny its cliief »eor*- 
lary while abwnt Trom the realm, and W«?l- 
Irslry. tlioiij^h liv jii«ifl(rd hinitelf, had dv- 
cUred that if o^ain appoiiiied to a miUtAty 
command hn «h'iuld rt.-ttij2n (Upe^ch^, 2 aigd | 
Fi^b. ) Accordingly hi^ nitignvd both his ' 
office and his seat on 4 April, i^mharked un 
the 16th, and landed at Liabon on 22 April I 

I It was warmly welf onicd, for ' the nation 
wua dUniuycd by Jofeal^. diatractud with 
anarchv, lO'^iuict^d on Iwci iiidtw bv itowerfiil 
armicH' <Na1'Ii;u. i. 11 II. SoiiU. with mor* 
CliMii Lw<-nljllniii4andnien, woji in the north 
of Portn^al, havinif Mormi'd Oporto on 
ST March, Victor, with thirty thoui^aad, 
nta It Merida, Imvinfr b<»ten the ^paiiish 
genwal, CuMtB, nt Mixli-Uin on '29 March, 
and ilrivi^n bint into the Sierra Morcna. 
\Vell<>«li!y decided to dval first with ?»oiiU, 
and on 27 April, the day on whii^h hi^ took 
ov»r the c^iuin&ud, ordure were issued for 
tbe troops to aaMubie at Coltnhra. lie hud 
t]url,r-«rTon Ihooeand men, of which nearly 
Italf wnrc I'ort iipiif »r. Leaving twelve 
thousand to guard thrt Tajm*, m cmc Viclor 
iilioiild appronch.nnddireclingeighl thousand 
undi-r Iter^-fifoni on I^mpffo, to m.-s thu 
DutTo and descend thi* ri^ht batik, \w moved 
with th* remainder on l)|)orfo. The ad- 
vance began on Mbv. Smill. bemnto^ in 
bv in^iirtr"nl bnnd«. hui hit-in furrwl to Bcatler 
liu* trot>[j*, and had only ten thonwnd va%-n 
■VfXlh him in Oporto, ll-- knuw aothing of 
the danger tbnTfllfniiifr him until the Kttb, j 
whi-ii a. Krrtich division ou the Voiiga wan I 
attacked and drivn in. He thea destroyed \ 

rou LX 

the bridgo orer tbe Utieni, aeited all the 
bnslfi n<«r Oportn, and made nrrsngi'menls 
for retreat, lint on t hi." 12th Wflh*sb-y forced 
the |isas«ae of the river. Three boats were 
obTAi&ed by Colonel John Waters ['i| .T.l, nnd 
three compsiiics were thrown into ilieS'.'ini- 
nary, a Xar^e hiiildm^ on the riffht bank. 
More troops followed them, while oihfrs 
paued the river l hree miles higher up. After 
trying in vain to rLtTjver th*; S«^mioary, the 
Frencit retired in duuirdrr from the cttjT. 
Hoult found that his intended line of r«U«at 
WAM barred by nerl^>lford ; so be deatroyed 
his giinA, abandoni'd his storM, toolc a pat^ 
over the moantaine, and on the 19th croued 
the frontier into Onlicin {Dr»p. 12 and 
IS Mav; Mimwi* de ■'iamt-CAamttHf, pp. 
142 V). 

Welhi^hiy.luamin^un lliat day that Victor 
liad Kent a diviAi»n acrosi th<i Thltu* at 
.McantariL on tlie 14ih, abandoned liirther 
['iiroitil, inarched iioulliwHrd, and liv 12 Juni* 
wiu^ on the Tagiis at Ahrantes. The armj 
ri.nnuined there a fortni|fht for rest and 
fqiunnu-nl. Us Inx discipline drvjw tVom' 
Wellesley the first of many complaint e: 'Ifte 
are flu excellent army on parftdc, an excel- 
Ival one to %ht ; but we arv. wof»e than an ' 
enemy in a country; and take my word for 
it, that eithur diifeal or aLiL'eesa would diii- 
•olve us' iDraj). 17 Jun^V llaving asketl 
for and received authority to invade 8pdin, 
be now coneurtud anaii^:umvnc« with Cuesta 
for attacking Victor, who bad retired on his 

t)n Ihw 27th the l!rlti«h army pawittd th« 
frontier, about Iwonly thousand atrnnf^. 
Hereeford wa« left near Almeida, with one 
British bripide, to nrpnninc tlm I'ortujfucise 
troops and ^uard the only vulnerable part 
of the frontiur. As tbe Spnnish i^'ivemment 
had pressed for Uriiijih co-oporaliou,, Wel- 
lealev supitoaed that it would help him to 
obtBjti tmnspon and proviaions ; but ho wm 
ditLappoinlfd, and by the time the British 
and Spanish armies met at Tulavem on 
22 July, the former whu mi iibnrl. of siippUo* 
tliat it could move no further. Ouettia had 
thirty-eight thousand men under bis imme- 
diate ocimniand, rtnd tli« corps of Vencfpis, 
eigblQCii thousand men, was also under bia 
oi'alers. This coi*pa was to Madrid 
fnim the Kouth-i*A«t, and so distmct the 
l-'n-nch forces: but it did not play its part, 
and Cueata, hartnff udvauced a few milL>s 
toward" Madrid, was driven hiick. 

King Joseph had joined Victor With re- 
inforcements, rai«inj{ hii> nnmlwi* to fifty 
thou-^nnd men, and on 27 and 28 .TuIt the 
French iiltacked the allied armies at Tala- 
vera. The Uritub, who wece oti the left, 




ftote tl>e brant uf thuae anaclu, wliicti iri<re , 
vigoroiu uid obstiiiatv, and vrvn dip^clcd 
agnitiot both front mhI Hank. TIwtu wak » 
critical moDieat, wImu the English ^uuds, 
followiiifc up too M^rir sntnn troops they 1 
had n^lM^n, were raft by tlw French re- ' 
wrrM and driven Wck in confu«ion. Bui 
Wcllwlcy. fomjwinjf trhai ha)iiM>iiiHl, had 
brought tlic 4^b rp(piiM*nt from tli<* left, nnd | 
iu steady fire g»v.- ih<^ o-ntrc timii ro re- 
rvmi. At h'n^h the l'V>nchreiin^, lewTing 
iMtvi-Dtoen i^tis on the fit-Id ami haring lft«t 
ov IT ■■■¥«» lliiiiiiiaiKl men. 'ITii* 1o*a nf the 1 
Brtliiiti Willi ,''t,400and of the Simnianl* IjM) | 
(/>(*p. iO .JhIt: yajKiJfm't OtrrrjjtondrtKf, ■ 
'2\ Autr/t ' li pnrail i|n« r'r«t un faouira^, I 
1*0 "WeTlftsVy," was NaiwIiHin's rpmark whon 
the news reacht-d him nl Vicnnn (Jiikixi, 

had been joinfd I>t Xry, and had madi' nU 
WAV titiopjiOTed throti^'h )>assH wbidi Wol- 
Wtey betiuvt'd to U' wt-Il ettardcd, with ' 
fifty-thiw t1ii>iiaand lu.-ti. tmir days after | 
th« biittif of TaUvtra ht> n-aehMl I*la<«nci*, , 
where h« wrj iiiioii the British ILm> nf com- 
muiiicationK. The allied annitm now hiy 
between two French nrmiw, Wtlle^loy. be- 
liuTiii|{ Sutill** i>l length to hn r>nlr linlf wlinl 
it was, dett-rmined to mnrrU otrain&t him. 
Iravini! Ihp HpntiinnN b( Tolm-Ta to fow 
Ju««pli. Itut ( niviln. |HTnT9>u and inra]in1jlr 
thmtiglinut, a1>and()iit*d Talnvera, and then 
np}in»(xl thf ftnlv roiir«' i)p»ii i.t them, to 
no*i the Tiigiia at AnolMttp". Tliis ^^"n.* drni*', 
however, by thf ]lrili«li on 4 Aiif[., and the 
Spo:iiard«foHowpdii>'XldBy. AlAr^-ntiniber 
of the wniinded had to be left liehind. 

Thi> allied armiM tools up positional to 
disputf! iLo raiwagir of tin- lagii* at Anso- 
hispo or Almarni. At the fonaer tb« 
.S{iuiiiard9 wvn.' eurpritcd oo llie 9th, hut the 
Fn-m-h did not fnlfow tip Iheir aucwm, and 
on the l-th (.'ucsta r<.•»if^><^d■ Oii the 20tli 
■•)ttr<-iii(- dnaliUilion nbliiiml thv Briljiiih tn 
fall haiL-k on Itndnjox. Tlie Spanish junta 
cutnphiini'il Iriiidly, but WidU'^ilry iwwed 
m no-opcrtite any longer with their armifs 
nlV<-r lii«i exnvrii«ncp of their breaches of 
faith find miAhr^hnviour in thi' fiold. ' Thi>y 
are really children in the an of war,' he 
wrcte ( />!*«', 5fi Aug.") I Ir warned 
tbem to avoid pitched battles, but iu vain ; 
their boit nroiy wa* routed ut Ocaiia on 
10 Nov., and another under IM Parque 
waa beaten nt Atba de Tormea before the 
end of the month. U'ellpsli-v'fl position «t 
Budniiix naved Audiilu«ifl from invasion, 
and, in epit« of great low* from Hicknecs, he 
reniniaed there till the middle of Dociunber. 
The exposun of uorthem Portugal by Del 

Ptin]ue's defeat then )«d litn to mom I 
arrnr to irpp«r Beiru, leaTJii^ oQ« ill ' ' 
und«r IliU at Abra&tM. 

The bupninv command of tbr rorraguBtt 
army bad been (^ivcii lo him on t! Julv with 
llid rsnk of nurahal-gciieral, and in Aiifiia 
ho hnd )w4>n innd« cnplain-p-ncnil in t 
Spanifih army. For the victoriea of fipon 
and Tal« vera be was r«ia»d lo tbemvn^ 
on t Sept. Bn R*ron I>oaro nf 'NWUps-- 
ler and I'iscount WVIlini^tnu of TaUwri. 
The title -we* chDH':n by bis brother William. •■ 
apparvntly to minimive the chnnfft- of name, 
lie received t be tbankaorparlinmeni CM Jan. 
and I Fub. 1610) and an muuaity of l',000/. < 
But tltH vote of thank* woa oimoMd ia both 
houAM (fla-Mird, XV. 130,2.7), aad T^ofdf 
Urvy »nd Ijiudenlaln Mntrml ■ prcilMt. 
Thp oommnn ronncil of I^ndon oAm] fur 
an inquiry into Wellington 'e condni'i. H'- 
wan ujuh) as a inMn.'* of attafkinff the mini- 
stry, which was weak and divided. It had 
bcffu di*CT».ilited by ilie Walchfc-ron 
and had lu^t Casilerea^h and 
IVrreval, th« new head of it, was 11 
to withdrawal froni ihv Fvniiuula, w 
Lord Wellesley had joined it aa foT«i^ 
M>crt^ary in order lo countumct bimIi a 
potiev IfiiMfyil. Itfi^. vii. Uft7). 

But it vna not mere part.r spirit ih»i 
found fault with Welltn){toii. Tala^-pts ba^ 
■diownlbnl >ixit^<>n ihou^and nritiih infanlty 
could hold tlieir Emund against tliiitv 
thousund Frmcb. btit nihxrwtw it bait 
borne no f^it ; and the army had escapd 
disaster only by the fniilts of thv Frvnrfi 
leadem, It hod fufTrrfd mneli ond hail 
lo«l fmlh in its pjneral ( NAPinH, I.i/r ufSir 
CkarUa Jam&* yapirr, i. llH. 1^1. 'TI« 
' Moniti'ur ' had i-xprewed ihf hope that hp 
would ahvay-commnnd the English nmiM: 
'du cBractcn* dont il ofl, il i>»g»iet« de 
pTHudi-* cRUu-lroiihes' (MArRri., p, 
NRpoleoii hail mode ptracR with .%uBlfti«' 
and even licfom it wn» nigni^d bad girrO 
onlers (7 Oct. IftW)) for tli« formation of ■ 
fresh army of n hnndr^d thousand mm. 
which Ite meant to l>*ad into Spain at the 
end of the year. As Ix>rd Liverjiool afte> 
warda wrote, ' All the offifors in the anST 
who were iu Inland, wlicthrr they kail 
served in IVtrtugator not, enterliiined awl 
avowed tlie most det]H)ndinf* views as 
thrre«ult of ihi^ war in iliat nouftlry .» 
and not IL mail itrrived from I.Ubon w!" 
did not bring iottiTu nt tbnt tine 
oAinerB of rank and aitnatioQ in the a 
avawLn]{ their opinioiu as to the p: 
and evftU nef^^itv nf a ap^pdv rvscuai 
the coontrr ' {SMppl. lietp. lU Se-pt, 1810) 

But Wcllin;!ton himself never ' 





He ittMaioed convinced that the UonntMne \ 
Bystsm Wis liolliiw and tntisl collapM< 
(Jh-jp. 4 April 1810). In (teWber he h&A 
ouHfuUy BX&mlnncl tlivcuuiitrv aew Lbbou, 
and lud otarted lliR works HfttTnardA 
knoim w Ihe linee of Turres ^'edraB [^JJenfK 
30 Oct. ; Suppl. Dr,,,, l.'i Oct., Ac.) In reply 
to l)ie nDKioiiA inquih^a nf rtu; itovem.- 
menli hi> RMured them that thn FniiicI) 
anniM would n(«(J to ho wry larffelj- rein- 
fgnwd to t>ubjugBt« Spain, and until that 
WAS done an Brmv of thirtr thousand 
Bricuh Hud rufty-livu tliotisaud I'ortuguow, 
aided liT mililta, would b*- iiIjIh Io hold 
Portugal. If ■( caniK to th^ worst., the 
I{rit4»li could iiiiliaTk. ' I tnHv fitti, 1 jUiaU 
be most oonfoundodly almsi^d, and in the end 
I may Ioec tUi< ]itlU< chntiiotcr I bar* 
f^ained ; but I sliould not act fiiirlr by tb« 
gOTtiramvnt if i did not t«ll them my real 
opinion, which i», that llifly will bcrray tb« 
honour and interestj^ of the couDtr>' if they 
do not continue tbcireflbrta in the Peninsula' 
(Iksp. 14 and 28 Nov.) lie would not a»k 
tor more men, being tmit^ Ue ahould not get 
lb«m. and it would only fpve \he miniMU-n an 
9SCUJW fur withdniwiii^ ihnarmy (t^. 1-1 Jau. 

In the middlo of January 1810 llie I-'wuch 
ioTaded Anilalufin, andmfitwilb lir.t]t'r(vii.<t- 
tancc. Joseph entt^red Seville on 1 1-Vb., 
and OD the 41h Victor invested CVlia. Tii>* 
aid of Briti«h tmoiw, hithrrto dfdint-d, wa.* 
DOW asked for bvtbe Spaniahrfgeuey, which 
had rrplac«d tho central junta. 'Wwl- 
lingtoo *ejit four n^imeuts, and in a few 
montba the fnrcc waa increnaed to a division 
of 8,600 mvu undurO<!UL-ral Thomu« Umliam 
[q. v.] The FfMicIi Biii^t-sa incniRM-d thi? 
onxiijty in Knarland, and LiTerpool wrote I'j 
Wiillinetou that he noiiUI b^ more ntnilily 
oxcu8tKi fur bringing the amy away too 
soon llisn for stayiiic too lonf^, adding, 'T 
could not rMommend any attempt at what 
may be called denperaie resistance' (Supjti. 
I)e»p. \& March). \\'e1lington waj ready to 
Bocopt the rMUODRJbiUty tJiUH thrown 011 
liim, if only the government would trust 
him and leuv^- him to u.\on:iiit' lot own judg- 
inrat; but if (lii-y wem gnitig I0 take other 
people's onininnn insUad of hie, let thsm 
send him (ielaii<irii)«triiction*, and liewoiild 
cony them out (fjfy: '2 .April), 

Napoleon chan^'d bis mind abotii goiug 
to Spain hinjicif, bm hi> »i.>nt I6t>,0(Kl raon 
ibere, or 10 the frontier, in the linit half of 
1610. Ho wrote: 'The English ulutie are 
to be feared in Spain ; lh>.! n-et arv moru 
nartisans, who can ttuver kfvp tltn field ' 
(SI Jan.) To drive 'the hideous leopanl' 
into th« lUM, on army uf Portugal was 

formed on 17 April, consisting of tht! 3nd 
corp* (ituynier), the Otb (Ney), and the 6t' 
(.lunol). and numbering eighty thouac 
mun. MaEftf'na wua appoiutod to ihv com- 
mand of it, and •lv>,0OU men in the northern 
firoviiices uf Spain wara also pluced under 
ii«ord>Ts. Ilrwos to spend Cbe nummer 
in raking frontier fortrcascs, and not enter 
I'ornigal till after lb" barvi-wt. 

To Oppose thin |K>w«rful army, Welling- 
ton had only about fifty thousand regular 
troops, half of which wi-n; Portugoot;, and 
htt WU8 very weak in cavalry. Iliaobjoct w«» 
'to uiake the French move In mosses, and 
to gain timr ; tim>j to Mcurv thit horVHSl and 
iMDiitWlv tilt) liiitfAj time to diMUpline thn 
n^ulan, to efiect tho arming and o^anisor-j 
tion of tho ordvnani^ and to conaulidate 1 
moral aacendancy over thu nation ' (Napieb, 
ii. 3-^). lie meant to Uy waste Ihe 
country as he fell back, lo atarrp tho enemy 
if rhtiv kept to^CGiher, and beat them if 
Ihev ftcatlt'red (cf. De»p. 6 July IHI I ). 

\Vlien Mu^wi'-na joiniKl lus army on 
27 June, the Hfh and 8th coru* were be- 
sieging Ciudad Hodrigo: thu '2aa corpH was 
at .Merida, nml Hill with twelve I liouaand 
vaon was at Purlalegre, south of the Togiis, 
lo watfb it. Wtdlinffton, whos" himd- 
qiifirtrtnt wi^n- at Almeioa, waa pressed 
bv Spouiards and Portuguese to raise th«l 
siege, and wn« t.iunted by the Fn-nrh with 
his innctivity ; hut )ii' would not riflk t 
battle in opvn country with such odds 
against him. Ciudad itodrigo siirrendonjd 
on 11 July, .\3nieida on 2" Aug. Welling- 
ton had fatten back as the French adranet'd, 
and tile sharp uctioii on thu Cua fought by 
itolieri Cniiifurd f(). v.] on 24 July woa 
against bis orders. In tho middle of July 
lievnii^r lind cnwu'd thn Tagu^t near Alcan- 
tara, and Hill had made a parallel move- 
ment, crossing at Villa Vi-lh/i, nnd fsiki'Ti a 
position ni-ar C»i-*iel Brauco. Bihind him, 
on the Zi^Kere, there was u reserve corns of 
ten thausand men, under Lcith ; for Wol- 
liug1<.iu was uncertain as to thu line ofin- 
TAwnn, and ilie Senr* de F^trells wa* an 
obalttcle lo prompt cunceutriUioTi. On 
4 Aug. he iKSurd a prodamation to the 
Portiiguesa, warning tJium that ihey mt 
remove themselves and their property oi 
the Freni^h appmarh. 

On It; Sept. MassCiui assembled lus threa 
coqM west of .VImeida. Ho had decided to 
march hv the right bank of the Mondego, 
and hoped to r^ach Coimbra before Welling- 
ton could 1m JQincd by HUl. But he had 
choHpn <he woral rnad iu Portugal^ his march 
was hara^ised, Leith and Hill joined Wnlling- 
f^a on the 'Hit, and thu allied annv wa« 

n i2 





> up iu pout ion OB tlifl ridg« of Bosuo, 
rynilm north-east of CQtinbrs,wlienth« 
bead of tbi* FnttioTi ftrmy uppMretl on ili« 
35tli. Tlie stren^h of iliia ponition, the 
monj AfieCT of k victory. uoA tlu.' wisb lo 
ypua timu for cWring tlii' country, deti^r- 
iMHii'dW (Ellington toti^Lt Ilicre. The Frencli 
unity VTBH ttovr TvilMOid tu 0-j,OUO, uiitl its 
cavklrv w«5 of nrj lue. 

Napoleon liad told SlamAna not to hv 
ove recall t ioiix, but lo nltitck tlitt KoiiHaIi 
vigoroiiBly after re{!nnnoitring tlicm (Ci/r- 
rmjMmdmct, 19 Sept.); anil, t bough m h-ttvr 
to thi« effect coold not have rwar htnl liim, 
Maasfina Bct«d as Napol«oa n'ould buve 
truhed. He would not allow Nejto fall on 
nt onc«,a8 he wUhiiil to do, but»pent tticiiOtli 
in oxamininjc the Engliab position., which, 
iboiigb sleep and difticult oracccw, wu ex- 
tmided anilftluUlow. On the2Tth hs directed 
Xey's corpa agun^t. the left and Rt-j-niur's 
■zainet tW wnlrr, hrjIilingJimnt'ii in rvm-rrp. 
Nfy'dfttTAckwHfl prntnpfly repulsed byCTrau- 
furd'o division. ICeyniur's i mi>p»foll uptm I'ic- 
Ton'i> divi.4lnti,aiidint'ln-ith !vini^eiuoceefi.biit 
rginforcemiints were broujfht ajsaiiiBt taem 
l*nim iho right, and liii-T failid to k«*p their 
footing on the ridgt^. I'hi French lost four 
thouAUid Gto hundred mon anil the alUrft 
only ihirlvfn limidn^d. Lvnniin^ that therp 
waii a roud over the hills bv which the left 
of the position could be turned, MsMtiia 
murchud liy il next day.gainod the (tp(jrt*> 
road, and entered Ooimbra on 1 Oct. Uwas 
dvevrtud, and ha found uu mtuiis of sub* 
ftiMeni^o but ([Towiiig crops. Irf^nving; lii» 
siuli and wounded tbore, to bv madu prieonors 
in A few ditv« hf thi' PortugucMi militia 
[M.'1'TitAKI, Sir NiLiioUKj. ha followed tlii^ 
allii^) nrniv, which Imd fiilh'n hack Inwnrxl* 
Lislioii. lie cropsed the Monte .Tunio into 
till' Tiilifv of tli« TapUB, and on 12 Oct. 
fimnd him.'xilf ii) front of tlirt lines ofTom^ 
\ iflrn^i, 

Thfi-w works, of which Mai«AnA hnd first 
hifard five days befi>re>, tho)i;^l» they had been 
in progress forncnrlyayeftr,confliBted of two 
chaina of redoubts across twenty-four milut 
of rugged rontitrj- between tho Tapus and 
the sea. The Lnuor chain, about tiC^een milv^ 
north of Lisbon, started from Albandra 
imd ran by Buceltfia, Mafrn, and thu 8iui 
linrtn<;o river to the coast. The outer chain 
also had its right nt Alh&ndrn, hut, pnasing 
by Monte Oraca and Torres Vednm, it fol- 
lowed the course of tht; j^iKandra to the sea. 
The mimher of redoubts was VJii wlii^n tliif 
allied nrniy took shulter within the lines, 
and ^'J~ puns were mounted in tliom. 
There were also other work* Ijelow Lisbon, 
to cr>wT an embarkation at St. Julian's in 

the iHt nmrt. Tbew were nniaonvd 1 
Englith marinex, the works nf tfao two a 
vanced lineii mainly by Portiigiieoe tnilUia.' 
The refoilar tnmM, raised by reinforcmnmti 
to sixty thoaMnd. wi;rr quite unfetttmd br 
the works : while the French were cnirepM 
by Monte Junto and its apiire, which ma 
lateral luovemente »lowaud dimcuti (Jox 
i^etft* in flftaia, iii. 1-101 ; Jaumal r-f Vtuti 
Sm-MT Snftiltithn. xl. 1338 ). 

Mussina canfully examined tbe oul4 
line from end to end, but made no Bcriout 
atlampt to force it; and in the middle of 
Xoveinber he fell bock to .^«nl«rem. IV 
eoantiT behind it bad not been wasted, and 
be was able to maintain himself there till 
the apriug, though constsatly haraswd hx 
parltsans in his rear. He had uked f^r 
large reioforcemenls, and at ibe end nf 
December he was joined by about tweli^ 
tbou-uind men, but ibey did not make dp 
for lux ItNia hv sickness. Moult waa ordervd 
to march to his a»sl!«lance from Andaltuia. 
but iicrupkH! himi^'If in 1>e«ietnng Olive^^t 
and Itad&jnz as a preliminary. 

.Meanwiiile Wellinftton bad his own dif- 
ficiiUif-f. ']1ie pcop1<> crowded round Lkkn 
sulTered terribly, and forty thousand aiv laid 
to have died from privations. Sonie men- 
ber« of the Poriutruese recency, eepedull.T 
Frincipal Soma, iibsfrueted him in ererr 
wfiy and threw on him all the odium of 
the plan of defi-uce {Xffp. HO Nov. anil 
18 Jan, I**ll ). But before Basaco he wrote: 
'Thu tumper of tomv of the oflicvra of the 
ItritiHh iiriny gives me more oonocm thin 

the folly of the Portuguese ^^'ersuMnt 

Therv is a aystem of cnakuty in the araiT 
which is bighlv injurious to tbi! public ref- 
vice, and whic^ I raiisl devise eonw nsans 
of putting an end to. or it will put as , 
end to us'(iMi;t. II Sept.) Among tbne 
croakers were Rrem Spencer, the arcond in 
command, and Charles Stewart (afterward* 
Lord 1 .ondondprry) To. r.". tlie adjutant- 
general (Napier, iii. 49; t'HoKtji, i. MB)- 
The but officers were constantly asking kt 
leave to go home, many others wen* in> 
efficient, and whe^^^ he met with xeal atwl 
ability be could not reward it {Dfjip. 4 Aug. 
and 28 Jan. 1811; Atppl. Drm. 29 Aug. 

The ['cfceva] toinistry did not •e«m lo 
bn%'e "The power, or ths inclination, or the 
nenes to ao all that ought to be done to 
carrv on the cotitp*t a» it might be' (i 
11 Jan. It^ll). When luvn^ioii was immi- 
nent, Wellini^on had asked (on 19 Aae.) 
for all avalluble reinforcements, hut he re- 
ceived only live thousand men inlheaiiturcD. 
and five thoiuand more in the followioj 




gfTtna. He was lolil that this incnww 
could oolf be temporary, for * it is ob- 
soliitrlr impOMible tocontina«our exertions 
upon tncpivKnt K&Ie in thu IVninsula for 
anyconsiaenbleleufflliof lime' (tA.'^UFeb. ) 
In n.*ply, he remmJfrfi LivoTiwol that tht'ir 
oaly cliuice Ikv bvtwceii %litiii|: iLu Fruiicb 
abroful ar at homo, aad ar^utii tliat the coi^t 
of till} war in tlic rDiiiasuIit, eubtttdits in- 
cluilml, wiu> nuilly itrt; in^U-iuL itf nine, 
nillioua a year {De^. i-i Marrb). 

There eramed mery r«?Jw(on to oxpect tliat 
in iJie spring of Ir^ll tbu Frendi advance 
on l4sboa wgald be resumed in ^ater force, 
and Wellington was urg«d to bti befurf>- 
baud and drive Masifna out of Portugal; 
but failure would have bei-n diaastrous, 
tbe gain doubtful, and liu wuuld nut run 
tb« riak {Deap. '2\ Dec) Ue omtiauwl tit 
Areiwtbcn his \mc», and madu nisw linew 
at Altnnda, uppo«t«- l.mlion, to Hn>t«-n't the 
city and tb« Heet from biimbammf nt from 
th« left bank of tli« Tai[u». llv had to kowfi 
* corps of fourltvn rhoiiMnd mnn on ihnt. 
aide of tbe river, while Masȣiia waa at 
Santarura, to clivck operationa in Alcint«jo 
by him or by Soiilt. 

'Od 1' Mnreh IHll live tliauHitnd Ilritiah 
troop« Laudfd ul Liabun, and un tliu nijrlil 
of tfieoth Manilla began bia mtniil. He 
mvnnt to hold the line of tlio ^luncli'go, aa 
^apoluon ruckuiied on Ins duin|f {Vwrtfjr. 
29 MarrJi); but on n-ucbing (Aiimbra \%e. 
fonnd it occupied by PortugueJie militia, utid, 
mistaking thorn for t.lip nnwiy iirrivud trnriiw, 
bficoniinuedliiit n^treatuptlittl^ft banhofthc 
river. Wclliiiiit on followed buimjiMclosely as 

jpliea would pcTtnit, and sharp n^rcTnird 

aon« were fought at JVubal, I'ediiihfl, 
|jHovo,and Foxd'Aroni^*^ ( 1 1 -lo March). 
% rvac-Uvl itie bend gf tbu Moudego, 
BO bold liifl antoud nt (luurda lill tlie 
end ufthc month, but wuh then forced back 
licbini) tlif f'on. On 3 April iiti ailion wiis 
fought Bl Subupal between the lif,'Iit division 
an<) Ii»'ynii"r'» riirp», which wa* 'otib of tlni 
most glorioiia tlint Rritiiih Irciope i^ere 
©rer engaged in' {Ifetp, 9 AprilV On the 
Aih Manftiia recro«s«d the frontic^r of Tor- 
tugal and fell bock on Salmuaitcn to recruit 
bis troops. The invasion had cost him tliirty 
tbouannd men. 

Thii W8a the lurnidg-poiut of thi" war. 
Napoleon was already preuariti^ for a breacli 
villi Uuiwia, arid could ill •|>nr>' mum men 
for Spain, whib> Wellington gained atrenglb 
from thp realiHtinn of lirn rorecu't. In fiitiini 
be Itad not lo li^lit. airitini^t dt'^uoiidi-ney 
about the u-ur iu the I'eniusulu, iliou^h be 
had oft>:-n to ojipoto Hclit'in(-« for trmuferrini; 
Krme of the Uritit^h icoojik, or «vc'U'. 

l/> MitDn oUier field {SumiL De»p. 7 Dec 
mil, lL> Oct. W2; and D«»p. 7 Nov. 
1812. 12 July and Jl Hec. 1813). Tbe thanks 
of parliament were voted t o him on 2)1 April 
for bis Buceetnfui d>:fence of Portu^l, Uroy 
Mii^onding tho motion in the lonJs; and 
Samuel WbJtbrend wwt« lo him frankly 
owning that hin opinion about tbe conl«at 
in the rGiiin«ula was changed. 

It wan miw Wrlliiifftuiia fin^t oln<«I to 
rvcover the frontier tortrea-iea. lie had 
b(i[itH] f) ftnve RadHJox, but it mirrwnderwd 
prematurely on 11 March ; and Soult, hoar- 
Ills of Ofuliam's victory at Barroea on 
tt March, returned to .^ndaluala. On tha 
15tb lieresford was detached acroas ibe 
Ta^us with twenty-two thousand menlo 
retake Jladujos before thu brvuicboe were re- 
imired, and to raitMi Lite Awge nf (7auipo 
Miiyur, on which Moriicrwas engaged. The 
Ult«r placK frll on tlie -1*1, Imt whn tv 
coverod on the iiHth, und, pnaainp iJie Gua- 
diuna on R Ajiril, Beresfonl reCuoK OHveofa 
on the 1'lth. Welliii^oii, liavinf^ invested 
Almeida wiih the main army, left bis troops 
under Spencer, and went lo E1vb« in the 
middle of April to armuge tor Spanish co- 
operatiou iu the aie^eof lt4idajoz ; but hu was 
•000 rt>caLled to (be nurlh by the udvuncu 
of Mas&gna with forty-hre ihoiuiaiid luun 
to rulieve Almeida. Wellington had only 
thirty-five thousand, and in uavatry the 
French were four lime-i hia atn^ngth. Ho 
drew up his army hthind the I>os Casati 
!»! reiun , li.rt w<-('n Fori. Co no 'pi ion find Fuirntwj 
de Ofinro; and on 8 May the Frendi attacked 
Ibo TilUge, while demoiistraliDK along the 
whole front. On tha 5th tb« attack on the 
village was reut.-wed, and having shifted the 
8tli corps from rii;ht to left, Maasfina sent It 
forward lo turn llie Brilwb rigbt. In antici* 
pation of micb a inovenienl Wellington had 
extended lus luic, so thut Fucntcs du Ofiuru 
had bflroinn thi- ciritrti itiBtleiid of ibe right ; 
hilt the extemion hjid weakened it, the new 
right WHM «i>on forced bitclc, and bad lo form u 
freali front al right angles to iho line. ThiH 
it WHS allowed time to do, and the French 
attack was not piishud further; but Wel- 
lington owned ' if" Honey " had been tbere, 
we »1iould have been beaten' {fiuppl. Itrfp, 
2 July : Lakpe-st. i. 82), On tlii' 10th .Ma»- 
stna fell back to Ciudad lUidrig-), ckiming 
a victory though lie had failed in hia object ; 

' but that iii)[1it Ilrrnnirr, thn ^ovi-rniir of 
Almeida, hlfw up part of the works and 
brought off hi' garriwin. Wellington waa 

' m\ieh v.'Xi^l at his escapf : ' I iim obliged 
to be everywhere, and if ahi^-ut from any 
operation. Mniething gw« wrong' {D^»p.* 
lo May). Mkiiditt now handed over liifl 




eommand to Mirmont, wbo had b»«n trnt ' 
to euecenl him, nnd who wiihdrew most of 
the troops to ^^aluIlaacft. 

Tlw Biemt of Rmlnjox Itnd btwn bo^n on 
8 May 1811, but Souli H(lvknc<.*(l ii> nttv it. 
Ilfi wu cl«fMktp<l by nM«&fnrd at Albii?ni, 
owini; 10 the fxtniordiiiiiry lunncily of tLt.- 
Kngltnli infantry, hll^ al t)i« coat »f nearly 
two-l birds of the tin.Aj«mfl/o/l7BiVfrf^rn'(Sf 
Intlilttliim, xx%\x,VUA); nnd he fvtintii to 
IJercna. (>n the ],thi><lay nn which the 
hairlH WRu fmi({bt, WwMiriRton hwi wt mit tn 
join Bcntfifonl, nnd hp nrrivwl nt Klvas on 
ibe 19tb, followed by (wo British divisions. 
Th(; %wgu of Bftdojox widi Wguo afresh : bat 
the tneaos wero ienmy, tht.' guiui Imd, mid ' 
nn 10 Jiitifi it bad to hv raised, for Maruiont 
was maisrhiii^ xoulliwnnl to ioio Hoiilt. Thn < 
I wo rnarxlialii irn^I at Mtriita on fh*! I8tli, 
and m>xr diiy their Romhinpd arniiua reached 
Ba'iaiiJi, W><llii)i[t'ii) hail ri-lirwl acrosn the 
fliiftdiann, and fjilipn a posili'ni near l-^pa.*, 
wherv hi- waa joini-d on rht; i4tb by Spencer 
wit.h t.lio rc.'tt of his troops. He wm jjrt- 

Sored to accept battle, though hn bad only 
rty thousand rarn to meet sixty-four 
thousand. Tli« Kn>itc!i eomcMii'd thctnu-Ivefi, 
howeviT, with nditiviiijf Hndiijoz. SoiiUwasi | 
dnwn back ru Andnlusiii by ihrcattt against 
Heville, and in tbo niiddlti of J itly Mnrmuiit 
retired hctohb the Togiis to l^la^encia. 

WellinKtun delermini-d to try a stroke at 
Ciudail KdflriKii, bf1ii>V(n|^ that h>.< womM 
not iind the cnemv in such ftiroe in the 
north. 1.1-BviMg Hdl witli fonrt^^n thou- 
Rand men twutb of tlie Ta{^u-<, he maivhi'd 
backtolhi' neighbourhood of that forirfss 
tnd invosUsl it in thr bvpnning of Auf^ust. 
A powerful si«ge-train, newly conte from 
England, wu secretly «ent up the J>iiero 
to Lamego. But ti« wu s^uu confroiiTed 
by ft cftrabinaiiwn more powerful than he 
had reclioni'd on, and C(.>nnned himself lo a 
hlti-rl«iuii'. Ill till' tiii'ldlimf .Scptt'nibcr, when 
the flupplii'a of Kodripo hpgan to run nhort, 
Marniont imd DoFK^nne (who comraanded 
the amny nf rhenoilh)ildTnncH to rnvicrunl 
it with sixty tbonsand men. Wellin^ioa 
had only forty-four Thousand, and could not 
prevent thtim; but, wixliin^^ to luiilcu tht-m 
i>how their force, he iilood hiit uround soulli- 
wt^Bt of the fortress, his troops boin^ ex- 
l«iid<Hl ovT fwi'uty njili-ic. A vijp>roiii» 
ailaclc would hnve lippn disaflrroiin to him ; 
but hi- took the mi'iisure of hi? adversary, 
atwl flhowod a bokU^r front than rirciim- 
ctAnces warranted. His centre was forci^d 
hftck at Kl Itridnn oil th>' '.^.'itlt, but he re- 
tired iilowly. making )i stand nt Oiiiiialdo 
and at Aldoa I'onte, and so ^Iii>.'d time to 
COD'^-'— ■■• his trooi» "" ''"' *^'"' {^^- Mae- 

-f t b>^ 

MOirr, JUfmoirwi, it. BS; THifcsarLr, M< 
mning, IT. filO). Marmoni th^-ti fell 
and retnrned to the ^-alley nf the Ta^t. 

Wellington's Ttlans haA be<>n battl^ but 
h« had engagvd Ine attention of ib« eoemT'i 
main armies and had saved llalicia. tie 
had found jicn-at dilhculty in ft^ixlinj; hii; men : 
hewaA oblige) to inii>ort whmt Tmrn Rfrtvt 
and America, and to uae eonuniasariat 
aN a paper currancT in ilefault of specie, 
nay tne muleteere on whom he depended ft 
his transport. The British troops in 1 
iVninsula had been rnii«od to nearly si 
thousand men, but one-ihird of ihiain « 
sick. The I'ortugueae suflered even moiaf 
for tlteir ^Tvmaie&c woaM mako no ex!#>' 
tions. Il considered all danger P>st, and 
r(><^irded the war as the coucirrn of England, 
not Portugal {Dfr*p. 13 Sept.) Vrt W»l- 
lin^^tou, hard iireMed for means as he wa«, 
still continued lo strvn^lien the works fat 
the defence of Lisbon, to mf«t a posnblr 
turn nf fortune. He was given the local 
rank of ji^ni^ral on ft \\i(;., and r«>cciTml the 
(fraud cross of the Portuguese order of tht 
Tower and Sword, with the title of C 
di- VimeJro. 

At the end of the year French Imopa lu 
thu number of sixty thousand men veic 
withdrawn from Spain, thcmililary dirinoo* 
were rearranged, and Mannont wiw told to 
send troops to hel[i 8uchot in Valencis- 
This favinitrtd an outrriirt*ft for which Wel- 
lington had been serretly preparing. He had 
brought his sirge-trnin lo Almeida, as if fcr 
itie annament of that nlacv, and on 8 Jan. 
IHI'i he appeared before Ciudad Itodripi. 
That night a roilonbt on a hill from whick 
tbe walls could be breached at a raagv of 
six hundred ynrds was atonnod. ]latt«nes 
w«rc built there, and on tbe IPth, then 
being two prsctienble breacltes, n gnnmUj 
assault wa« tnndi} at five pointfi. At tl 
main, breach the ili-fencfi waa obxtinnte, ha 
the defenders were taken in rear by thf mrtil 
of ibit lif^rht. division, who had carried tbtl 
nmaller hivaph. Alon^f with thu fortrosi^] 
and itn (garrison of seventeen hiindred tat 
Martnont's sicgir-tntiii fdl into Wellingtonlf 
bands. The loiis of the bcsit-^K waa i ~ ' 
t<7fn hundred. Mnrmout, whose head*] 
ipiari«r« wurv now ut YalladoUd, wyis nOkj 
awure nf thK slc-ge till the ITiih, and by (I 
timu he had aAsemhIod \m army he ImdiI 
thai ihr- place had fnlleii. In rifward (o 
this brilliant stroke Wellington was ma 
nn earl (IS Feb.), and received the than 
of pnrliamcnt (ll> Fi-b I. with an addilional^ 
annuily of '2,V(]0l. The Spaniiih goremufilt 
created hint lluke of L'iudad JCodrigo and a 
grandee of the lliyt cla««. 




to eel po60eMiou of Bad^jos 

befiwe the French, who had to tire 
upoD the countrv, coulj lake the &tf\>i. He 
r«niMn«<l near itodrigo till its work« were 
niMured; thuu puitinu il ■'^)»iii»h girri>ou 
iiitn il, and trufttiiiK llii' dt^fcrice of rbo 
frontier to the P'jrc u^u<jti>.' militin aiid ihu 
lialiciAiu, Uf took lii" wli<il<- iimiy [n Klv>d 
tu tlui bwnning uf March. On tiu- Itttb ku 
invealed lUdajoi. Th>< cnrrisi:>ti iitiml»-r<-d 
fivB thouftand men, snd lh'< works wefB 
stronger than ihose of Hodriffo; but there 
wu agaiaahitl from which tho wiiUk tniifht 
ba brMchcd at a dtaConro, and ihat side was 
ffiOtm for the attac