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vol. III. 
How Woodward 







How Woodward 

1 * . 









How Woodward 






V 3 


■n i 

— X . 


• > 




E. A The Late Evelyn Abbott, LL.D. 

A. J. A. . . . Sib Alexander Arbuthnot, 


YJ. A. . . . . Sib Walteb Armstrong. 

J. B. A ... J. B. Atlay. 

R. B The Bey. Ronald Bayne. 

T. B Thomas Bayne. 

T. H. B. . . Pbofe8sob T. Hudson Beabe. 

C. B Professor Cecil Bendall. 

H. B-e. . . . H. Beyebtdoe. 

A. B-l. . . . Augustine Birrell, K.C. 

T. G. B.. . . The Rev. Canon Bonnet, F.R.S. 

T. B. B. . . . T. B. Browning. 

E. I. C. . . . E. Irving Carlyle. 

J. L. C. . . . J. L. Caw. 

E. C-e. . . . Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clerke. 

S. C Sidney Colvin. 

E. T. C. . . . E. T. Cook. 

J. C The Rev. Professor Cooper, 


T. C Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

J. S. C. . . . J. S. Cotton. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Courtney. 

L. C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

H. D Henry Davey. 

J. Ll. D. . . The Rev. J. Llewelyn Dayies. 

AD Austin Dobson. 

CD Campbell Dodoson. 

B. E. D. . . Professor B. E. Douglas. 
F. G. E.. . . F. G. Edwabds. 

C L. F. . . . C. Litton Falktneb. 

C. H. F.. . . C. H. Fibth. 
F. W. G. . . F. W. Gamble. 

B. G Richard Garnett, LL.D. r 


A. G The Bey. Alexander Gordon. 

H. R. H. . . H. R. Hall. 

A. H-n. . . . Arthur Harden, Pn.D. 

C. A. H. . . . C. Alexander Harris, C.M.G. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. Henderson. 

W. H The Rev. William Hunt. 

T. B. J. . . . The Rev. T. B. Johnstone. 

L. W. K. . . L. W. King. 

J. K Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 

J. K. L. . . . Professor J. K. Laughton. 

W. J. L. . . W. J. Lawrence. 

I. S. L. ... I. S. Leadam. 

E. L Miss Elizabeth Lee. 

S. L Sidney Lee. 

C. H. L.. . . C. H. Lees, D.Sc. 

E. M. L. . . Colonel E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 

S. J. L. . . . Sidney J. Low. 

J. H. L. . . . The Rev. J. H. Lupton, 


R. L Richard Lydekker, F.R.S. 

vi List of Writers to Volume III. — Supplement. 

J. xv. M. . • • 

tL» Jx» BL* . . • 

*. W. M. • • 
A. Jr. M* • • 
v. C M. • • • 
xl. E. M. • • 

A* H. M. • • 


xi. C. M. • • 

N. M 

G. Lb G. N. 
F. M. O'D. . 
E. O. f • • • 
J. H. O. • • • 
A. x*» Jr. • • • 
D'A. P. . . . 
E. B. • • • • 

Jr. X*. • • • • 

W. P. B. . . 

J. M. A. • • • 

John Sabum 

J. B. Macdonald. 

Professor A. A. Macdonell. 

J. W. Maokail. 

A. Patchbtt Martin. 

The Hon. Mb. Justice Mathew. 

The Bight Hon. Sib Herbert 
Maxwell, Bart., M.P. 

A. H. Millar. 

The late Cosmo Monkhoube. 

H. C. Moore. 

Norman Moore, M.D. 

G. Lb Gbts Noboatb. 

F. M. O'Donoghue. 

Miss Eliza Obme. 

The Bet. Canon Overton. 

A. F. Pollard. 

D'Abcy Power, FJv.C.S. 

Ebnbst Badfobd. 

Eraser Bae. 

The Hon. W. P. Beeves. 

J. M. Biog. 

The Bt. Bbv. the Bishop of 

A. J3. • • . . 
A. D— K. . • • 
C. S— H. ... 

C F. S. • • • 
Jj. T. d. • • • 
Jj. d. • • • • 
J. H. S. • • • 
G. S-H. ... 
B. N. 0. . • . 
H. B. T. . . 

D. Ll. T. . . 
H. L. T. . . 

E. B. T. • • • 
B. Y. T. • • . 
B. H. V. • • 

A. \V. \V. • • 
P. W. • » . • 

w.w.w. . 

W. F. B. W. 

B. B. W. • . 

Thomas Secoombe. 

Arthur Sidgwick. 

Cecil Smith. 

Miss C. Fell Smith. 

Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith. 

Leslie Stephen. 

J. H. Stevenson. 

Geobge Stbonach. 

Mrs. Napier Stubt. 

H. B. Tedder, F.S.A. 

D. Llbufeb Thomab. 

The Bbv. H. L. Thompson. 

Professor E. B>. Tylob, FJR.S. 

Professor B. Y. Tyrrell, D.CX. 

Colonel B. H. Vetch, BJB., 

Dr. A. W. Ward, Master of 
Pbtebhouse, Cambbidge. 

Paul Watebhouse. 

Major W. W. Webb, MD., 

Professor Weldon, FJLS. 

B. B. Woodward. 







1897 | r first bishop of Wakefield, born 
13 Dec. 1828 at College Hill, St. Chad's 
parish, Shrewsbury, was eldest sod of Wil- 
liam Wyberg How, wbu belonged to an old 
Cumberland family and practised at Shrews- 
bury as a solicitor. He waa educated at 
Shrewsbury school, and on 19 Nov. 1840 
entered at Wadhatn College, Oxford. He 
wu Goodridge exhibitioner io 184S, Warner 
exhibitioner 1842-3, and graduated 1J.A. 
with third-class honours in lit. hum. on 
10 kta 1846, and M.A. on 26 May 1847. 
He then pasted through the theological 
course At Durham, waa ordained deacon De- 
cember 1846, and became curate at St. 
Georgia, Kidderminster. under Thomas Legh 
t 'laugh ten, afterwards bishop of St. Albans 
ppLT, from whom ne received an 

rellent training for his ministerial work, 
is ordained priest in December 1847, 

d is 1848, for family reasons, returned to 

irewsburr, where he acted as curate in the 
perish of Holy Cross. In 1849 he married 
France* Anne, daughter of Henry Douglas, 
rector of Salwarpe and residentiary canon 
of iKirhnm. In 1851 he became rector of 
Whittington in Shropshire, and remained 
thorn, an exemplary parish priest, for twenty- 
eight Tears. Id 1854 he was appointed 
raral dean of Oswestry, in 1860 honorary 
canon of St. Asaph, in 1868 proctor for the 
clMgy in convocation, and in the same year 
idiorut Oxford. 

How soon ln«ame known as a devotional 
wriier, an efficient conductor of parochial 
ntiaawtu. , rats, and a 

: -aw. 

congress speaker. He was offered and de- 
clined the bishoprics of Natal (1867), New 
Zealand (1808), MmH real (ISti'J), Cape Town 
(1873), and Jamaica (1878), besides a 
canonry, with superintendence of home 
mission work, at Winchester (1878), and 
the important livings of Brighton (1870), 
All Saints', Margaret Street (1873), and 
Windsor, with a readership to the queen 
(1878). The first offer he accepted was that 
of suffragan to the bishop of London, with 
episcopal supervision of East London. He 
had to assume the title of bishop of Bedford, 
because the only titles which could then be 
Ued by sutl'rngan bishops were those specified 
in the Suffragan-bishop Act of Henry VIII. 
He was consecrated on St. James's day, 1879, 
and on the following day was instituted to 
the living of St. Andrew Undersbuft, which 
supplied tin; income for the bishop, and a 
prebeodal stall in St. Paul's Cathedral; 
in tbe same year he was created D.D. by the 
archbishop of Canterbury, and on 15 June 
1886 by Oxford University. He resided at 
Btainforth House, Upper Clapton, which 
was generously put at his disposal by tbe 
owner, and became, as a co-worker said, 
' the leader of an East London crusade.' 
He availed himself of tbe general feeling 
that the spiritual destitution of East Lon- 
don was appalling, and enlisted agencies 
for remedying the situation from all Quarters. 
Hia first policy was ' to fill up the gaps 
in the ministry, both clerical and lay,' and 
for this purpose he founded an ' East London 
Church Fund,' which met with a ready 
response. The Princess Christian evinced 






How Woodward 



and at the Strand, under J. W. Hammond 
in 1887, was Winkle in a piece called 

* Pickwick.' Many years later he played 
Mr. Pickwick in Albery's play at the Lyceum. 
The same year he acted with Macready at 
Oovent Garden, and he participated in the 
original performance of the ' Lady of Lyons ' 
(15 Feb. 1888). He also played Mark An- 
tony in ' Julius Caesar.' Joining the Hay- 
market under Webster, he remained there 
without a break in his engagement for the 
almost unprecedented term of forty years. 
Among innumerable original parts were: 
Brandon in Lo veil's 'Look beforeyou Leap' 
on 29 Oct. 1846, Ernest de Fonblanche 
in the 'Roused Lion' on 15 Nov. 1847, 
Lord Arden in LovelTs ' Wife's Secret ' 
on 17 Jan. 1848. His characters included 
Fazio, Sir George Airy in the ' Busy Body/ 
Lord Townley m the ' Provoked Husband/ 
Archer in the ' Beaux' Stratagem/ Benedick, 
Joseph Surface, Sir Anthony Absolute, Sir 
Peter Teazle, Malvolio, Jaques, Macduff, 
Harry Dornton. He used to state that 
there were pieces (such as the ( Lady of 
Lyons ') in which, during his gradual rise, he 
had played every male part from the lowest 
to the highest. On 16 Aug. 1879, at the 
Vaudeville, he was the first Rev. Otho 
Doxey in Richard Lee's ' Home for Home/ 
and played Farren's part of Clench in the 

* Girls.' Soon afterwards he took (Sir) Henry 
Irving's role of Digby Grant in a revival of 
Albery's \ Two Roses.' On 26 Dec. 1881, as 
Mr. Furnival in same piece, he appeared at 
the Lyceum, with which his closing years 
were connected. Here he played characters 
such as Old Capulet, Antonio in ' Much Ado 
about Nothing ' and ' Twelfth Night/ Ger- 
meuil in ' Robert Macaire/ Farmer Flam- 
borough in ' Olivia/ Burgomaster in ( Faust/ 
and very many others. He accompanied 
Sir Henry Irving to America, where he died 
on 10 March 1896. He was a thoroughly 
conscientious actor, and an exceptionally 
worthy and amiable man, whose one delight 
was to cultivate his garden at Isleworth. 
His son, Henry A. Hutchinson Howe, musical 
and theatrical critic on the * Morning Adver- 
tiser/ predeceased him, dying on 1 June 
1894, aged sixty-one. 

[Personal recollections; The Player, 12 May 
1860; Paacoe's Dramatic List; Scott and 
Howard's Blanchard ; Scott's From the Bells to 
King Arthur; Era Almanack, various years; 
8unday Times, various years; Theatrical Notes, 
1893.] J. K. 

HUCHOWN (/. 14th cent.), the author 
of several romances in the old alliterative 
Terse, is described byWyntoun as ' Huchown 
of the Awle Ry ale ' (in one MS. ' Auld Ry all '). 

Wyntoun eulogises him as ' cunnand in litem 
ture/ and ascribes to him three romance! 
' The Gret Gest of Arthure/ 'The Awntyre oj 
Gawane/and 'The PVstyll of Swete Susan: 
Of these ' The Pystyll of Swete Susan ' cm 
be identified beyond dispute. It exists in fin 
manuscripts (two in the British Museum, on* 
in the Bodleian library, a fourth at Chelten- 
ham, and a fifth at Ripley), and was pufc 
lished in Lung's 'Select Remains/ 182^ 
and, besides several times by German editors, 
by the Scottish Text Society in 'Scottial 
Alliterative Poems 'from the five manuscript! 
ed. F. J. Amours, 1896-7. Further, by mean! 
of an exhaustive comparison with thfl 
'Pystyll,' Dr. Trautmann (Der DichUa 
Huchown und seine Werke in Anglia, 1877 J 
has established the identification of 'The 
Gest of Arthure' with the non-rhyminjo 
alliterative poem ' Morte Arthure ' preserved 
in the Thornton MS. at Lincoln, and pub- 
lished, ed. Halliwell, 1847, and by the Early 
English Text Society, ed. £. Brock, 1865, 
The identification of 'The Awn tyre afl 
Gawaine ' is still, however, a matter of dis- 
pute. Mr. F. J. Amours (Scottish Allitera- 
tive Poems) argues with some plausibility 
for the rhyming alliterative poem, 'The 
Awntyres of Arthure at the Terne Wathe- 
lyne/ preserved in the Thornton MS., in the 
Douce MS. in the Bodleian Library, and in 
the Ireland MS. at Hale, Lancashire, and 
published bv Pinkerton from the Douce MS. 
in 'Scottish Poems/ 1792, under the title 
' Sir Gawain and Sir Galaron of Galloway/ 
by David Laing in ' Select Remains/ 1822 
(2nd ed. 1885) ; by the Bannatyne Club, ed. 
Sir F. Madden, 1839 ; by the Camden So- 
ciety, ed. Robson, 1842 ; and by the Scottish 
Text Society in ' Scottish Alliterative Poems,' 
ed. F. J. Amours, 1896-7. This conclusion 
cannot, however, be regarded as more than 
probable; and there is even a possibility that 
it may be the non-rhyming 'Sir Gawain and 
the Green Knight/ which is poetically of 
great merit. 

As to the identity of the poet himself, 
since his name was Huchown (French 
Huchon), it has generally been supposed 
that he was the ' £ude Sir Hew of Eglyn- 
toun ' mentioned in Dunbar's ' Lament for 
the Makeris.' A Sir Hugh of Eglinton, who 
flourished between 1348 and 1375, was mar- 
ried to Egidia, half sister of Robert II, and 
was for some years auditor of accounts. The 
name of no other Sir Hew of Eglinton 
occurs in public documents in the fourteenth 
century, and notwithstanding some ingenious 
arguments to the contrary, there is absolutely 
no reason for refusing to accept this Sir Hew 
as the poet referred to by Dunbar, and ther6* 

fore in all probability ' Huchown oft lie Awte 
Uyale,' which two last words have, with at 
least plausibility, been interpreted aa 'royal 

[ Authorities mentioned in tcit ; Athra.-eum, 
lHOO-l.j T. F. H. 

HUDSON, Sib JOHN (1888-1888), lieo- 

lenant-general, born in 1833, VM the eldest 
son of Captain John Hudson, UN., by his 
first wife, Emily (<*. 9 Oct. 18*4 J, only child 
of Patrick Keith, rector of Ruckinge and 
Stalistield in Kent. lie was educated at the 
Royal Naval School, New Cross. He ob- j 
tained a commission in the tilth regiment 
nn 22 April 1853, and received his lieu- 
tenancy on 9 March 1855. He served us 
adjutant to his regiment throughout the 
Persian campaign of 1856-7. He was pre- 
sent at the storm and capture of liesbire, 
the surrender of Busbire, the night attack 
and battle of Kooshab, and the bombard- 
ment of Mohurarah, and received a medal 
with a clasp. At the time of the Indian 
mutiny he served as regimental adjutant 
in Bengal and the north-west provinces, 
and was present in 185? wilh Havcloek's 
column in the actions of Fatebpur ( 1 2 July |, 
Aong (16 July), Pandu Nndi (15 Jul}'), 
CawnpurtHi Juki, i.-nuo i 29 July), Bashi- 
ratganj (29 July), and Bithiir(16 Aug.) He 
was deputy assistant adjutant -general on 
Havelack's staff during the advance to Luck- 
now, was mentioned in the despatches, nnd 
received the thanks of the governor-general 
in council. He served as adjutant of the 
64th foot during the defence of Cawnpur, 
and at the defeat of the Owalior mutineers, 
and was present in the action of Kali Nadi 
12 Jan. 18.Vi)aiidKaukar (17 April) as well 
as at the capture of Bareilly (May). He was 
attached to Brigadier Taylor's brigade as 
brigade- rani or in the actions at Burnai, 
Mohaindi, and Shahiibad. For his services 
he was promoted to the rank of captain in 
the 43rd light infanlry on 23 July 1856, 
jejuni a medal with a clasp, and was 
[owed a year's service for Lucknow. I In 
March 1364 he received the brevet rank 

In the Abyssinian campaign of 1 807— 8 h» 

nd in command of the 21st Bengal 

ifantry. He was mentioned in the 

tches and received a medal. On 

1 870 ha received the brevet rank of 

i tenant-colonel, and on 11 April 1873 at- 

ined the regimental rank of major. On 

7 lie obtained the brevet rank of 


He commanded the 28th Bengal nativi 
mbOtn throughout the Afghan war of 
1876-80, was present during the operations 

in the Kho't, including the affair at Matoon, 
and was twice mentioned in the despatches. 
On 22 April 1879 he attained the regimental 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was with 
Sir Frederick (afterwards Earl) Roberts's 
division in the advance on Kabul in 1879, 
and with Brigadier-general (Sir) Herbert 
Macpberson's brigade in the rear-guard atthe 
engagement at Charasiahon 13 Oct, 1879. For 
bi< services at Charasiah he was men! iutied in 
the despatches. During the operations round 
Kabul in December he commanded the out- 
post at Lataband, and was mentioned in the 
despatches for sallying out and dispersing a 
hostile force which threatened lo invest, the 
garrison. He received a medal with two 
clasps, and in 1881 was nominated C.B. 
He commanded the British troops occupying 
the Khaihar Pass from January 1881 until 
that force was withdrawn. 

In 1885 Hudson commanded the Indian 
contingent in the Soudan campaign, was 
mentioned in the despatches, received a 
medal with a clasp and the Khedive's star, 
and was nominated K.C.B. On his return 
to India be commanded a brigade of the 
Bengal army from 188B to 1888. He at- 
tained the rank of major-general on 2 Aug. 
1887, and from 1888 to 1889 was in com- 
mand of the Quetta division of the Indian 
array- From 1889 to 1892 lie commandeda 
tirst-class division of I he ileugal army. On 
13 Jan. 1892 he became a lieutenant-general, 
nnd early in 1893 was appointed commander- 
in-chief in Bombay. He was killed at 
Poonaon 9 June 1893 by a fall from his 
horse, and was buried there on tin. following 
day. On 7 April 1859 at Allahabad ha 
married Isabel Muir, second daughter of 
Major-general Charles Frederick Havelock 
(o\ 14 May 1868) of the imperial Ottoman 
army, and niece of Sir Henry Havelock 

[Hurt's Annv I,i-t- ; Times. 10. 12 June 1SS'3 
Burke » Peerage j Gent. Mag. 1859, ii. 78 
Roberts's Forty-olio Years in India, 1897, ii 
IuD,3H7, 299.] E. I. C. 

KNATCHBCLL- (1829 18931, first Babqbt 
Bhabqprne. [See K natch hull- I Ieo esses.] 


1900), electrician and inventor, was born in 
London on 16 May 1830. His father, David 
Hughes, was i be -mi of linlvri Hughes, boot- 
maker, of London and HaU, .Merionethshire. 
In 1837 the family went out to Virginia, 
and David received his education at St. 
Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky. At 
an early age he displayed a talent for music 
inherited probably from his father, and i 


1849 became professor of music at the col- 
lege. His great interest in experimental 
science led to his undertaking the teaching 
of natural philosophy, and during the tenure 
of his double oihce the idea of his type- 

! printing telegraph occurred to him. Although 
Sir) Charles Wheatstone [q. v.] had ex- 
hibited a type-nrinter at the Royal Poly- 
technic Institution, London, in 1841, the 
first instrument available for practical use 
was that invented by House, of Vermont, 
and adopted by the American Telegraph 
Company in 1847. In it the motion of the 
wheel carrying the type at the receiving 
station was produced step by step, by the 
teeth of a wheel at the transmitting end 
making and breaking the electrical circuit 
as it was rotated. Hughes proposed to pro- 
duce these synchronous rotations mechani- 
cally, and only to use the electric current 
once for each letter printed. 

He resigned his position at Bards town, 
and spent two years working out the details 
of his instrument, which he completed and 
patented in 1855. Next year it was adopted 
oy the American Telegraph Company, and 
many of its features are present in the Phelps 
instruments now used by them. 

In 1857 Hughes brought the instrument 
to this country, and, on its not meeting with 
the reception he expected, proceeded to 
France, where it was purchased by the 
government in 1860 and installed on their 
Fines. During the next ten years it was 
adopted by most of the continental govern- 
ments, and its inventor was the recipient of 
many decorations and honours. In 1872, 
while resident in Paris, he was elected a 
foreign member of the newly founded So- 
ciety of Telegraph Engineers, now the In- 
stitution of Electrical Engineers. In 1877 
he settled in London, and devoted much of 
his time to experimental electrical work, 
with apparatus constructed by himself. 

The telephone, invented by Reiss in 1861, 
had been rendered a practical instrument bv 
Bell in 1876, but his transmitter was still 
unsatisfactory, even after the introduction of 
the carbon button into it in 1877. Further 
improvement was rendered possible by the 
invention of the 'microphone' in 1878, 
almost simultaneously by Liidtge (' universal 
telephone/ German patent, 12 Jan. 1878), 
and by Hughes (Proc. Royal Soc. London, 
8 May 1878). It owes its action, as the 
latter explained, to the great variation of 
electrical resistance of a loose contact between 
two conductors, on the slightest relative 
motion of the two parts. 

In April 1878 D' Arson val, in a communi- 
cation to the Academie dee Sciences ( Comptes 


Rendu*, lxxxvi. 832), called attention to the 
telephone as a sensitive detector of varying 
electric currents, and in May 1879 Hughes 
exhibited to the Royal Society of London 
(Proc. Royal Soc. xxix. 56) a new ' induction 
balance,' in which a telephone replaced the 
galvanometer and current rectifier of Felici 
(Ann. de Chim. et de Pkys. xxxiv. 65, 68, 
1852), and with it repeated and extended the 
results obtained by Dove with his original 
balance (Ann. der Pkysih, xlix. 77, 1840). 

In 1880 he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society, and in 1885 received the 
society's gold medal 'for experimental re- 
search in electricity and magnetism, and for 
the invention of the microphone and in- 
duction balance/ He had ceased to be a 
foreign and become an ordinary member 
of the Society of Telegraph Engineers in 
1879, and after being successively a member 
of the council (1880) and vice-president 
(1882), he was in 1886 elected president of 
the society. In his inaugural address he 
gave an account of his experiments on ' the 
self-induction of an electric current,' &c. 
(Journal Tel. Eng. xv. 6), and succeeded 
in arousing general interest in the laws of 
distribution of alternating electric currents 
in conductors, which had been investigated 
mathematically by Heaviside and others. 

During the interval 1879-86 Hughea 
appears from his letters to have convinced 
himself by experiment of the existence of 
electric waves in the air surrounding an 
electric spark, and to have discovered the 
efficacy of a microphone contact (coherer) 
in series with a telephone or galvanometer 
and a voltaic cell, as a detector of them. 
Unfortunately these early experiments on 
aerial telegraphy were not made public, and 
it was left for Hertz to demonstrate the ex- 
istence of electric waves in 1887, for Branly 
to re-invent the coherer as a detector in 
1891, and for Marconi to combine the two 
into a system of wireless telegraphy in 1896. 

He continued for the rest of his life to 
take an interest in electrical matters, and 
occasionally took part in the discussion of 
papers read before the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers. In 1889 he was elected a ma- 
nager, and in 1891 vice-president, of the 
Royal Institution. In 1898 the Society of 
Arts conferred the Albert medal on him for 
' his numerous inventions, especially the 
printing telegraph and the microphone.' 

About this time he began to be troubled 
with paralysis, and died at 40 Langham 
Street, W., on 22 Jan. 1900, after an attack 
of influenza. He was interred at Highgate 
cemetery. Leaving no issue, he bequeathed 
between 300,000/. and 400,000/. to four 


London hospitals, and WfiOOL to the Royal 

Society of London,! lie Acad^'medes Scierici-s 
of Paris, the Institution of Electrical Kn- 

g'ueers, and the BoeiiW Internationale ties 
lectriciens, fr>r the I'.tu iiit;iT iou of scholar- 
ships and prizes to be awarded for work in 
physical science. 

lie married Anna, daughter of Dr. Thomns- 

In person be was fair, and rather behiw 
tht- middle height : lie ' wi» simple in his 

!;;-:..-,' '■ BUMl IHUa] Cf.riifn lljnll." Wd I""- 

sessed 'an inexhaustible fund of informa- 
tion '(COOKE J. Portraits appeared in ' Eleo- 

triciati,' xliv, -1'j7, and tha 'Electrical Re- 
view/ xlyi. 186, 186. 

t Royal Sw. Git. of Scii>BUfici*..pers;HBghes's 
Papa in OomptM Randtw, Proc. Bojil Sw. 
London, Telegr. Eng, Journ. tic. ; obituary no- 
tice* I>t C-iotr. J num. Inst. Klr-.-tr. En;;, axil. 
Ml, nod by Munro, Klectr. Review, ilvi. 185; 
Rosenbergcr, Gesfbielitc dcr Phyailc paaaim; 
:., Elektricitat passim ; Present! 'a 
and tha Electric Tabgraph, 7th adit 
- j.. Prerce and Si ve Wright's Tele- 
graphy pHtcim ; Preece ami Stulibs's TtilrplKine 
pisiim ; Oeraxd's Electrieite, vol. ii. passim; 
Irtlgef Signalling through Hpace, 3rd adit. p. 
SSeitrq, ; Fulii"'- Hist, of Win-less Telegraphy, 
Electrician, Electrical Review, an. I 
MMim; private informa- 
U'ou.] C. H. L. 

HUGHES, THOMAS (182&-1896), the 

author of 'Tom Brown's School Days,' was 
born at Cffington, a country parish near 
Faringdon in Berkshire, on 20 Oct. 1*22. 
His father was John Hughes (1790-1857) 
!.; brother George Edward (1821- 
1878 I, who is the subject of Tom Hughes's 
' Memoir of aBrother, was thirteen months 
Tom's senior ; he wns educated at Rugby 
and Oriel College, Oxford, stroked tha Oxford 
crew of 1843, entered Lincoln's Inn in 1848, 
and practised in the ecclesiastical courts; 
he UK a member of the Pen and Pencil 
Club, a skilful player on the violoncello, and 
died at Hoylnke, CheabiM, on 2 .May 187-'. 

Tom spent almost all Lis years up to early 
manhood in the closest companionship with 
this elder brother. They went together in 
the autumn of IS.'H) to a private school at 
Twyford. near Winchester, "here they had 
;!;n'hfi-ird Mansfield [t\. v.] as their 
schoolfellow. Tom Hughes describes this 
school as being before its time in tin* culti- 
vation of athle 


bruary 1834 

Rugby, Tom being then eleven years old. 

DM hod been at Oriel with Dr. 

Arnold, and though he had no sympathy 

with his politics he admired his character 
ami abilities, and lie. sent his sons to Rugby 

to be under Arnold. 

The Rugby of that time is described in 
'Tom Brown's School Days.' It has been 
almost inevitable that readers should see 
Hughes himself in Tom Drown. But in the 
preface to 'Tom Brown St Oxford ' lie com- 
plains of this identification. 'I must take 
this iny first and lost chance of saying that 
he is not I, eitheras boy or man. . . .When 
I first resolved to write the book I tried to 
realise to myself what the commonest type 
of English boy of the upper middle class 
was, so far as my experience went ; and to 
that type I have throughout adhered, tryiug 
simply to give a good specimen of the genus. 
I certainly have i> laced him in the country 
scenes which I know best myself, for the 
simple reason that I knew them better than 
any others, and therefore was less likely to 
blunder in writing about them,' Headers 
are hound to respect this protest. But the 
sentiments and doings ascrilied to Tom 
Brown were by Hugh's account those of 
the kind of boy that Hughes was. Tom 
Hughes did not become much of a scholar; 
in academical attainments ho was below his 
brnl her George, but hat sclirml und at college. 
But he rose high enough in the school to 
come into that close contact with Dr. Arnold 
which never failed to draw boys .of any 
thought fulness into reverence for him. Tom 
stayed s year at Rugby behind hi* brother 
George, and in the middle of the year he 
played for Rugby at Lord's in the annual 
match against n. Marvlebone club eleven. 
Then in the spring of 1842, having matri- 
culated on 2 Dec. 1841, he followed his 
brother to Oxford and Oriel, carrying with 
him at least a great cricketing reputation, 
for he played in the June of his first year in 
the Oxford and Cambridge match at Lord's. 
The two brothers had rooms on the same 
staircase, and the genuine though unobtru- 
sive seriousness of Tom's character was no 
doubt fostered by his intimacy with George. 
But neither of them seems b) have been at 
all affected by the religious movement of 
their Oxford days. They associated with 
their distinguished schoolfellows, Matthew 
Arnold, Clough, Walrond.and others. Tom 
Hughes records that in the year before he 
took his degree he made a tour with a pupil 
in the north of England and Scotland 
(Memoir of a Brother, p. 88), He did 
this by the special reouest of the pupil's 
father, who was a neighbour and friend of 
the Hughes family. Hughes says that he 
frequented commercial hotels, and heard the 
corn-law question vigorously discussed, and 

came back from the north 'an anient, nrflo- 
trader.' In other respects, he adds, ' I was 
rapidly falling away from the political fniih 
in which we had been brought up. . . . The 
noble side of democracy was carrying me 
away.' He was thus early showing himself 
to he the generous, teachable, and courageous 
Englishman that he was known to bo in 

■iter life. 

Haying graduated B.A. in 1S45, he went 
up tu London to read for the bar. He had 
been admitted at Lincoln's Inn on '21 Jan. 
1845, but migrated to the Inner Temple on 
18 Jan. 1848, and was called to the bar ten 
days later. Ha never became a great lawyer, 
but he studied diligently, and was able to 
acquit himself creditably in proll-ssionul busi- 
ness. He became Q.C. in lW9,and bencher 
of his inn in 1870. It was through hi* resi- 
dence in Lincoln's Inn that he crime under 
the great influence of his life. F. D. Maurice 
was then chaplain of the Inn, ami, whilst his 
personal character won the reverence of the 

Gung student, his teaching- came home to 
meeds and aspirations and deepest convic- 
tions, and completely mastered him. Maurice 
had no more devoted disciple than Tom 
Hughes. It was the work of his life to put 
in practice what ho learnt from Maurice. 
In the latter part of 1*48 he offered himself 
as a fellow-worker to the little band of 
Christian socialists who had gathered round 
Maurice, in which Mr. John 51. Ludlow, for 
many years Hughes's closest friend and ally, 
and Charles Kmgsley, and his old school- 
fellow Charles Mansfield, were already en- 
rolled. The practical part of Christian so- 
cialism was the co-opomtive movement, espe- 
cially in its ' productive ' form. This branch 
of it has been overshadowed by the vast 
store system ; but it was co-operative pro- 
duction that had the sympathy and ikIvociicv 
of Hughes and the more enthusiastic pro- 
moters of co-operation. In his later years 
Hughes was accustomed to denounce with 
some veh'iacnce what ho regarded as a de- 
aertion of the true co-operative principle by 
those who cared only for the stores, and who 
gave no share in the business to the employes 
of the store and the factory. The early busi- 
nesses set up by the Christian socialists did 
not prosper, but Hughes never despaired of 
the cause. He was one of the mosl diligent. 
and ardent of its promoters, attending c 
ferences, giving legal advice, and going 
missionary tours. He contributed to the 
' Christian Socialist ' and the ' Tracts or 
Christian Socialism,' and acted for somi 
months its editor of the' Journal of Associa' 
tion.' By giving iyidence in lK/iohfil'nir I he 
House of Commons committee on the savings 

iddle and working classes, and by 
other persevering efforts, he aided the passing 
of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act 
(56-7 Victoria, e. 39) in 1893. 

Hughes had married in 1848 Frances, 
daughter of the Itev. .lames Ford, and niece 
of Kichard Ford [q. v.], author of the famous 
'Handbook of Spain, and near the end of 
1349 his brother George became once more 
for a short time his companion, haying joined 
the young couple in a small house in Upper 
Berkeley Street. Tom bad chambers in 
common with Mr. J. M. Ludlow at No. 3 Old 
Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, ami in 1853 the 
two friends agreed to build and occupy a joint 
bouse at Wimbledon. 'Our comniiiui.-tic 

experiment,' savs Mr. Ludlow [Ecv?iomic 
Rf-r-inr, July 18U6. p. 305), ' was entirely suc- 
cessful while it lasted,' which was for four 
years. It was in this Wimbledon house that 
'Tom Brown's School Davs' was written. 
Mr. Ludlow records (ift. pp. 306. 30") how 
Hughes put into his hands one night a portion 
of his manuscript, und with what surprise he 
became aware, us he read, of the quality of 
the book. It was shown without delay to 
Alexander Macmil la n [see under Ms.cxiLUa', 
Daniel], who promptly undertook to publish 
it. Its completion wits. ih-Iayed by a do- 
mestic grief, the death of Hughes s eldest 
daughter; but it appeared anonymously in 
April 1857. Its success was rapid, five edi- 
tions being issued in nine months. 

This book is Hughes's chief title to dis- 
tinction. His object in writing it w-ns to do 
good. He had had no literary ambition, and 
no friend of his had ever thought of him as 
an author. ' Tom Brown's School Hays ' is s; 
piece of life, simply and modestly presented, 
with a rare humour playing all over it, and 

K net rated by the best sort of English re- 
jious feeling. And the life was that which 
is peculiarly delightful to the whole Kriglish- 
speoking race — that of rural sport and the 
public school. The pirl lire was none the less 
welcome, and is none the less interesting 
now, because there was a good deal that was 
beginning to pass away in the life that it 
depicts. The inmk was written expressly for 
boys, and it would be difficult to measure 
the good influence which it has exerted upon 
innumerable boys hy its power to enter into 
their ways and prejudices, and to appeal to 
their betterinstincts; but it has commended 
itself to readers of all ages, classes, and 
characters. The author was naturally in- 
duced to go on writing, and his aubteqMHf 
books, such as ' The Scouring of the White 
Horse '(1859) nnd'Tom Brown at Oxford' 
( 1861) are not without the qualities of which 
the ' School Days ' had given evidence ; but 

Ill January 18->l, at a meeting of llit- pro- 
moters of associations, i( was resolved, on a 
motion made by Hughes, * Unit it be re- 
! lie committee of leaching and 
publi cat ions to frame and, 50 far as they 
think tit, to carry out a plan for the esta- 
■■■■ of a people's college in connection 
with the metropolitan associations.' This 
was the beginning of the Working Men's 

■ 1 hreet I Ennond Btreet, winch con- 

■ be to the end of li is life One 'if 

lief inten its 1 le m not able 
ICQ in it as a teacher, but he took 
an active part in carrying on its social work, 
commanded its volunteer corps, and was 
nrinL'ipal of the college for ten years, from 
93. He delighted the students by 
■li. but he never concealed from 
them hU earnest religion? fnitli. ' bit: of bis 
books, 'The Manliness of Christ ' (1879), 
gm> out of what he taught in a bible-class 
in fin earlier Tear, 1801, he 
had written the first of a series of 'Tracts 
for 1'rieats and People,' issued by Maurice 
and his friends. His tract was entitled 
'.'iici/or, in a subsequent edition 
I Layman's Faith' (1888). His 
tbeology was Kaurice'*, transfused through 
his own simple and devout mind. In all 
thai hr wrote or spoke or did, he was sincere, 
ileranl 'il'd..-ceitormean- 
■ I himself ardently in 
form, and was a hearty member of 
1 inform union,' when it was origi- 
nated in 1 870, and again when it had a brief 
.: ]; Arnold Toynbee's 
position whs that of a 
lurchman, supporting a national 
church with ^nthiisiiiMii, bul desiring to make 
■ ■.Mi- Find inoll'iTi.-ii-i' as possifile to 
lists When he became known 
r, Ll was natural that he 
urged lo seek entrance to the 
House of Commons, and he was elected for 
Lambeth in 1865. It. 1808 ha was glad to 
sidy and unmanageable 
trough of Frome, for 
eras returned at the general elee- 
■■ lmi|ui.-!ir-d his candidature for 
Frome at the general election in February 

■ Mat was won for the conservatives 
by fl«nry Charles, afterwards Lord Lopes 
lq. T.j t, and was nominated for Moryleboue, 

the doj before the poll. In the 
!he line he took was defi- 
nitely that ■■: peciallj '.1 1 
., working clauses ; a trades union 
bin ha introxloced was read a second time 

on 7 July 1*69, but made no farther pro- \ 
gress. He was not a very successful speaker, 
and, though greatly liked and respected, he 
would not have been able to reach the front 
rank in politics. When Gladstone went 
over to home rule for Ireland, Hughes's 
opposition to that policy was touched with 
indignation, and he became a vehement 
liberal unionist. In 1809 he was chairman 
of the first co-operative congress, and spoke 
against the tendency to shelve ' productive ' 
co-operation, which he never censed lode- 
Tin,, first of Thrif vi-iir m to America was 
made by Hughes in 1870. One of his 
strongest ties to the United States was his 
admiration of Lowell's ' Poems,' which was 
most fervent. Mr. Ludlow describes [Ero- 
nomic Review, July 1696, p. 309) how, Wing 
asked by Trubner in 1859 to write an in- 
troduction to an edition of the 'Biglow 
Papers,' Hughes, in his self-distrustful way, 
begged help from him, and the introduction 
was a joint composition. Two separate 
essays on American history by the same 
authors were combined in a volume published 
in 1862. One of Hughes's objects 111 going 
to America was to make Lowell's personal 
acquaintance. He had been warmly on the | 
side of the north in the civil war, and this, I 
added to the fame of ' Tom Prowii's Bdtool 
Days," mude him very popular in the States. 
In the course of this visit he gave two 
lectures — one at Boston entitled 'John to 
Jonathan,' another nt New York on the 
labour question. His subsequent visits to 
America were connected with a project, 
commenced in 1879, which at first awakened 
all his enthusiiu-m, und uflerwurde coused 
him much anxiety and considerable pecuniary 
loss. His sanguine, unsuspicious temper 
was not favourable to success in business. 
In conjunction with friends he bought a 
large estate in Ti'iui'-s.-ee, mi which a model 
community was to be established. The place 
was named Rugby. The purchasers had 
been misled as to the productive value of 
the estate, and the early settlers underwent 
a rather bitter disappointment. Tom Hughes 
drew out of the enterprise, but his mother 
went to live at the new Rugby with her 
youngest son, Hastings Hughes, and after 
ten years' residence died there at u very 
advanced age. 

In July 1882 Hughes was appointed a 
county-court judge, and went to live at 
Chester. There he built himself a house, 
which he named after his birthplace, Utnng- 
lon, and he grew old happily in the per- 
formance of his judicial duties. His health 
at last gave way to infirmities, and he died 

st Brighton on 22 March 1*96. In accord- 
ance with his known wishes his funeral 
was strictly private, mid he m buried in the 
Brighton cemetery. Besides his wife he 
left six surviving cliihlr-ii, three sous and 
three daughters. Two died in childhood, 
and a son, who was a soldier, died some years 
before hit father after military experience In 
Siuth Africa. A fine statue o*f Tom Hughes 
by Brock has been erected in the school 
grounds at Rugby. 

There are two original portraits, both by 
Lowes Dickinson— one painted when be 
was a little over forty years of age, in the 
possession of his daughter, Mrs. Cornish ; 
the other when he wan seventy, in the 
possession of Mrs. Hughes. An addition 
that is about to be made to the buildings of 
the "Working Men's College is to be a ' 
memorial of bii principiilship and to bear ; 
his name, 

In addition to the books which have been 
mentioned — 'Tom Brown's School Days,' ■ 
'Tom Brown at Oxford,' 'The Scouring of ! 
the White Horse,' ' The Memoir of u Brother,' ; 
'The Manliness of Christ' — Hughes wrote ' 
Lives of Bishop 1'raser (1**7), of Daniel ! 
Macmillan (1882), of Livingstone (18*19),! 
and of Alfred the Great ( 1869 ), • The Old' 
Ckureh' (1878), ' Rugbr, Tennessee' (1881), ', 
'Gone to Texas' (1884). Many of his 
addresses and shorter compositions were 

[irintod in pamphlet form. A aeries of his 
etters to the 'Spectator' were published 
in bis lifetime hv his daughter, Mrs. Cornish, 
under the tit le of Vncal ion Rambles' (I895V 
A short fragment of autobiography, which 
has been privately printed, contains some 
memories of his early youth and manhood. 

[Personal knowledge and information given 
by friends ; Hughes's Metnoi r of a Brother ; an 
article by J. M. Ludlow. ' Thomas Hughes and 
Septimus Uansard.' in the Economic Review, 
Joly 1808; Life of F. D. Mssrice; Brit. Mm. 
Cat. ; Off. Ret. Members of Pari. ; Lincoln's 
Inn Records; Foster's Alumni Oxnn. 1715- 
1886, and Men at tba Bar ; Men of the Time, 
13th ad.] J. I.i. Ii. 

HUI8H, ROBERT (1777-1850), mis- 
cellaneous writer, son of Mark Huuh of 
Nottingham, was born there in 1777. He 
appears to have begun Ids literary career by 
writing a readable little treatise on bee- 
culture, which was afterwards expanded and 
issued in various forms. This was the onesub- 
ject on which he may perhaps be termed an 
expert. His other works are nearly all poor 
examples of anecdotal, quasi-historical book- 
making. They occasionally embellish a 
blank space in biography with a great 
quantity of loose and fragmentary gossip, 


but the '(Quarterly Review' spoke of him 
with no great injustice ss an obscure and 
im-jTiipuhiiis scribbler. His fecundity wa* 
remarkable, u witnessed by his voluminous 
compilations during 1835-6. He exec 
a few translations from the German, and in 
his later rears some novels of a very low 
type. He died in Camberwell in April 

His works comprise: 1. 'A Treatise on 
-- Economy, and Practical 
of Bees,' London, 1816, 8 vo. 
of her late Royal Highi 
Princess Charlotte Augusta,' 1818, fcVo,! 

a separate! v issued supplement, ISIS. 
3. ' The Public and Private Life of George 
HI,' 1891, 4to. 4. 'An Authentic History 
of the Coronation of George IV,' 1621. 
.j. ' Memoirs of Caroline, Queen of Great 
Britain,' 1821, 2 vols. 12mo. 6.' Authentic 
Memoir of . . . Frederick, Duke of York 
and Albany,' 1827, 8vo. 7. 'Memoirs of 
George IV, 1 London, 1*31), 2 vols. s. "The 
Historical Galleries of Celebrated Men 
(authentic portraits'!, 1*30 : onli one volume 

Siublished. 9. ' The Wonders of the Animal 
lingdom,' London, 1830. 10. 'The .' 
Voyage of Captain Sir John Ross . . 
the Arctic Re-ions m lsj'i-:;:j,' London, 
1835. 11. 'The Travels of Richard and 
John Lander . , . into the interior 
Africa,' 1835 (with a resume of previous 
African travel). 12. 'A Narrative of the 
Voyages of . . . Captain Beechey to 
IVilic and (Wiring's Straits,' London, 1836. 
13. ' Private and Political 
Life of Henry Hunt, Esq., his Times and 
Co-temporaries,' 1836. 14. ■ Memoirs of 
William Cobbett, Esq.,' 1836, 2 vols. 
15. ' The Memoirs. Private and Political, of 
Daniel O'Cunnell,' 1836. 16. 'The History 
of the Life and Reign of William IV, the 
Reform Monarch of England,' 1837. 17. 'The 
Natural History and General Manager 
of Bees,' 1844. ' 18. ' The Progress of Crime; 
or, Authentic Memoirs of Marie Manning,' 
1819, 8vo. Nearly all his books exhibit vio- 
lent anti-Tory prejudices. 

[Gent. Mag. I860, i. 681 ; Quarterly Review, 
liv. fi; Atheuaiurn, 1842, p. SB3 ; Brit. Mlu. 
Cat.] T. 8. 

18051, surgeon, born on Nov. 1830, 
fourth son of William llulke, surgeon, li 1 
at Deal in Kent. He was from 1843 to] 
educated at. the Moravian College, Neuwied. 
Here he gained hi-t int.iunite knowledge of 
the German language and the groundwork 
of his acquaintance with natural history; 
here, too, in the Eifel district, his interest 

in geology was first awakened. Returning 
to England he attended King's College school 
! in 1849 he entered the 
nodical department of King'* Col 
don. He served as a iTiiwiii hi Sir William 
Bowman [n. v. Suppl.] at King's College Hos- 

JiUl, and he was admitted a member of the 
Ucgs of Surgeons of England on 
1« July lSoii. 11l- then returned to Deal, 
where he acted as assistant to his father dur- 
um attendance on the fatal illness of the 
- of Wellington in Septembe* 1863, and 
"" -ward* served the office of honse-sur- 
I Sir William Fergusson [q. v.J at 
^a College Hospital. 
In 1S&5 Hulke was attached to the medi- 
cal stnlTof the general hospital in the Crimea, 
' 'till of that year he was doing 
English hospital at Smyrna. In 
; he left Smyrna for (he camp be- 
fijFf" Sebastopol, where he spent the winter 
He then returned to England, 
and after examination was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal College of Surgeons on 
88 May 1867. 'He acted for a short time a* 
tutor at King's College Hospital, where he 
was elected assistant surgeon in 1857 for a 
term of five years. In lew he was appointed 
assistant surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital, 
becoming full surgeon in 1-70. In 1858 he 
was elected assistant surgeon at the Royal 
' 'j hlhalmie Hospital, Moorfiefda, 
where he became full surgeon ii 

: l-'.Mi. 

ftoju College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land Hulke tilled in succession every office 
Often to him, and died daring his second year 
u president. Winning the Juck*oni«n priie 

• iiv upon the morbid 

... ■ . ',;. i! ', ,! 

Arris and Gale lecturer upon anatomy and 
■.miner on the 
mv and physiology (1876-60), 
1830-89), and on the dental 
1 u a member of 


M,Bt*i!sh»ir lecturer in 1801, 

. Him being based exel n- 

mtAj on was relies relating to the anatomy 

■ ■ gy of tlii) retina in man and the 

lowar animals, particularly the reptiles. He 

served no thr council of the I 

'. ' Elected a 
■amber of the Geological Society in 1868, 

L.-U^iBi.'prt.iid.Tit from ).«.-<■.' t,.,lS84, find in 
!■--? be was presented with the Wollnston 
■i(l*o power of 

pointed foreign secretary, a position ho held 
until lie died. 

In Febrtttxj 1869 he was elected an 
honorary fellow of Kind's Col!' 

;■!■■ a i'"Ni'.-|nnnliiin in em her of 
the Academy of Natural .Sciem 
delphia, and in 1684 an honorary member of 
the Cambridge I'hiliwjphir-iil Si... . 
was president of the Pathological Socierv ol' 
London from 1883 to 1885, president of the 
Oph thai mo logical Society of the United 
Kingdom in 1888-7, and president of the 
Clinical Society in 1893-4. 

He died in London on 19 Feb. 1895, and 
is buried in (he cemet ery at. Deal . He ninr- 
ried, 1 Oct. 18i>8, Jnlin, daughter of Samuel 
Ridley, but they had no children. 

Hulko's name is not associated with any 
brilliant departure in surgery, hut he wa3 
wise and quick to see what surgical move- 
ments would stand the test of time ; an early 
supporter of aseptic methods, and, to a cer- 
tain extent, a pioneer in cerebral surgery. 
He was highly skilled too in the special 
branch of ophthalmic surgery j he was an 
excellent pathologist, and his Huntarian 
oration showed him to be n first-rate botanist. 
A tiaturnl talent, aided by opportunity, en- 
abled him to make Important additions to 
palaeontology, more especially in conned i<>n 
with the great extinct land reptiles (Ditw- 
jinuri'a) of the secondary period. His investi- 
gations were made in the Klmmeridge clay 
of the Dorset dill's and upon the Wealden 
reptiles of the clill's of llrook and its neigh- 
bourhood in the Isle of Wight. 

[Personal Xnowledgo ; private information; 
British Medical Journal, 1805, ii. 451 ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Sucitty, vl. Iviii. 1S95-1 
D'A. P. 

il,--'0- lsvlil), surgeon, horn at Sudbury in 
Suffolk on 18 July 1820, was third son of 
William Wood Humphry, barrister-at-law 
and distributor of stamps for Suffolk. Ha 
was educated at the grammar schools of Sud- 
bury and Dedhoro, and in 183« he waa ap- 
prenticed to J. G. CrosBe, surgeon to the 
Xorfolk and Norwich Hospital. In 18-39 he 
iil'i Norwich and entered as a student at St. 
Rartholomew's Hospital in London, where 
he BUBS iiml'T the i u (1 iii'iii.''- Ot Peter Mere 
Latham [q. v.J, William Lawrence fa. v.], and 
(Sir) James Paget [q.v. Suppl.] He passed 
the first M.R. examination at the London 
University hi 1840, obtaining the gold medal 
in anatomy and physiology, but he never pre- 
sented himself for the tinul culmination. He 
was admitted a member of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons of England on 19 Nov. 1841, 



12 May 1842 lie became a licentiate 
of the Society of Apothecaries. In thesame 

C three of the surgeons nt Adden- 
ke's Hospital, Cambridge, resigned their 
office, and oil 31 Oct. 1842 ' Mr. Humfrey' 
was placed third out of bis candidates in a 
contested flection for the vacant posts. This 
appointment made him the youngest hos- 
pital Burgeon in England, and he at once 
began to (five clinical lectures and systematic 
ftlWlhlng in surgery. In 1H47 he was invited 
to act as deputy to the professor of anatomy, 
and he gave the lectures and demonstrations 
upon human anatomy from 1847 to 1880. 
He entered himself a fellow-commoner at 
Downing Colb-^e in 1-17, graduating M.H. 
in 18.52 and M.I), in 18SU On the death of 
the Rev. Dr. William Clark, the professor of 
human and comparative anatomy, in 1866, 
(lie duties of the chair were recast, and 
Humphry was elected professor of human 
anatomy in the university. He held this 
office until lNrvl, when In* resigned it for the 
newly founded but unpaid professorship of 
surgery. In 1869 lie succeeded I'rofessor 
(afterwiinls Sir") George l-Mwurd Paget [q. v.], 
who was then fleeted president of the coun- 
cil, us the representative of the university of 
Cambridge on the General Medical Council. 
In l--iHi.- deliven-d I be lied- le.'liire before 
the university of Uiimbridge, tailing ' Man, 
Fast, Present, and Future' as the subject of 
his address. He served on the council of 
the senate of the university, he was an hono- 
rary fellow of Downing, and in 1884 he was 
elected a professorial fellow of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

At the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land Humphry tilled all the offices which hie 
physical strength and his devotion to the uni- 
versity of ( 'umbridge would permit. Elected 
a fellow on 2ti Aug. 1844, when he was still 
a vear below the statutory age, lie served as 
a member of the council "from 1804 to 1884, 
was Arris and Gale lecturer on anatomy and 
physiology from 1871 to 187'!,amember of t ha 
court of examiners from 1877 to 1887, and 
Hunterian oratnr in 1879. lie declined to be 
nominated for the offices of vice-president 
and president. 

He was elected a F.R.S. in 18.W. and lie 
served on the council of this society 1870-1. 
He was long a member of the ltritish Medi- 
cal Association, acting first as secretary and 
afterwarda as president of thu Cambridge 
and Huntingdon branch. He delivered the 
address in surgery at the general meeting 
held at Cambridge in 1856, presided in the 

"" of anatomy and physiology at the 
ter meeting in 1882, and was presi- 
dent of the whole association at the Cam- 

bridge meeting in 1381. In 1807 he presided 
over the physiological section of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
and in 1870 he gave six lectures on the 
nr.liir.^ciiir.! of the human body as a part 
of the Fullerian course nt the Royal Insti- 
tution of London. He took an active 
in the formation of the Cambridge M« 
Society, and for some time was president. 
lie presided at the annual meetings of the 
Sanitary Society of Great Uritai 
London in 1882 and in Glaagoi 
In 1887 he was the first president of the 
Anatomical Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and he served as president of the 
Pathological Society of London during the 
years 1891-3. He was kniirhted in If"" 

Humphry died at his residence, 
Lodge, "ti 21 Sept. !■-:«;, iin.l is buried at 1 
Mill Komi cemetery, Cambridge. A bust 
"Wiles was presented to Addenbrooke's not- 
pi tal by the vice-chili Ilor of the university. 

A portrait by Mr. W. W. Ouless, R. A., hangs 
in the Fitiwillinm Museum, and has been en- 

Professor Humphry as a freeman of his native 
town, is in the public bull at Sudbury, Suf- 

He married, in September 1849, Mary, 
daughter of Daniel Robert McXab, surgeon, 
of lipping, by whom he had a daughter and 
one son, Mr. Alfred Paget Humphry, se 
esquire bedell of the university of Cam- 

Beginning as a general practitioner wit 
out a practice, poor and without influi 
Humphry became the most influential n 
in the university of Cambridge, and c 
verted its insignificant medical school i 
one which is world-renowned. Before 
things he was a scientific man and a < 
lector. The Museum of Anatomy and Sur- 
gical Pathology engrossed much of his at- 
tention, and many of his holidays were 
spent in journeys designed expressly to 
secure specimens to fill its Bhelves. As an 
anatomist he was one of the earliest workers 
who attempted to bring human anatomy 
into line with the growing scieuce of mor- 
phology. He was a good and successful 
surgeon, though a great, operation waj 
severe trial to him. He was the first 
England to remove successfully a tumour 
from the male bladder, and one of the first 
to advocate the advantages to be derived 
from the suprapubic method. He had no 
amusements and was sparing in all that con- 
cerned hia own indulgence, but 1 

itable and in large matters profusely 
Having begun poor, he ended 



rich. Be wa* full of research and 

and generally succeeded in gelling his own 

wmv, but hia nima were unselfish and were 

always directed to the improvement of his 


Humphry's works were: 1. *A Treatise 
OB the Human Skeleton, including the 
■ uliridge, 1858, 8 vo; an important 
work containing IW results of original re- 
•Mich in tmtu directions. The excellent 
plate* by which the book is illustrnted were 
drawn by his wife. 2. ' On the Coagula- 
:■-■ Blood in the Venous System 
during life,' Cambridge, 1869, 8vo; of this 
subject ba had had painful experience dur- 
ing' his own illnesses. 3. 'The Human Foot 
and the Human Hand,' Cambridge and 
London, 1801, 12nio. 4. ' Observations in 
Myology,' Cambridge and London, 1872, 
8vo. 8. • Cambridge : lbs Town, University, 
and College*,' Cambridge, 1880, 12mo ; a 
very excellent little guide book. 7. ' Old 
Age: the Results of Information received 
respecting nearly Nine Hundred Persona 
who bad attained the Age of Eighty Years, 
including Seventy-four Centenarians,' Cam- 
bridge, 1889. Humphry was also founder 
and co-editor (with S~ir William Turner, 
M.D.I of th>? 'Journal of Anatomy and 
Fkyaiology,' Cambridge and London, 1886. | 

{PertooaL knowlniige ; private information; 
Train. Royal Mud. and Chirurg. Spa, IB97. ml 
Uii. Bt. B-irtholonieVs Hospital Reports, 
1898, vol. rail] D'A. P. 

WOLFE (16G6P-1897), novelist, eldeat 
daughter of Canon Fitzjobn Stannus Hamil- 
ton, near-choral of Ross Cathedral and rector 
Cork, was born about 1866, and 
educated in Ireland. Her early home was at 
bVl, eo. Cork. She married, first, 
Edward Argles, a Dublin solicitor,by whom 
she had three daughters; and, secondly, 
Mr. Thnraan H. Hungerford, by whom she 
had two sons and one daughter. She died 
of typhoid fever at Handon on 24 Jan. 

:i wrfnri.l wrote over thirty novels 
dealing with the more frivolous aspects of 
modem society. They had a great vogue in 
their day. The first, 'Phyllis,' appeared in 
:Liost popular of all was perhaps 
' Molly Bawn ' (1878). Most of the books 
appeared anonymously, but a few bore the 
iMcodoovm *Tbe Duchess.' Her plots are 
and conventional, hut she possessed the 
of reproducing faithfully the tone of 


1808), landscape painter, bom at Liverpool 
on 15 Nov. 1830, was the seventh child, and 
the only son who survived infancy, of the 
painter Andrew Hunt [q. v.j, by his marriage 
with Sarah Sanderson. He was educated 
at t he Liverpool collegiate school, and gained 
ii erholnr-hip at Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford, in 1848. In 1851 he won the NVudi- 
gate prize for English verse, (he subject being 
'Nineveh,' and he graduated B.A. in 1862. 
In 1863 he was elected to a fellowship at his 
college, which he resigned on his marriage in 
1881. In 1882 the college paid him the com- 
pliment of electing him an honorary follow. 
He had painted since the age of eight 
under his father's instruction, and had spent 
his vacations during his school and college 
days in sketching from nature in Scotland, 
Cumberland, Wales, and Devonshire, and 
in 1860 on the Rhine. He had exhibited 
drawings at a very early age at the Liver- 
pool Academy, of which he became a member 
in 1850, and later at the Portland Clallery 
in London. At Oxford he was deeply im- 
pressed by the writings of John Raskin and 
by the art of Turner. James Wyatt, the 
well-known print-seller in the High Street, 

him to adopt painting as a profesi 

opl pain 
for a ( 

) between an academic 
He i 

Diet., Bnppl. 

B7S ; 


scholar, a clear and ready speaker, and took 
much interest in politics as well as litera- 
ture ; but he was first and foremost on artist, 
and Wyatt turned the scale in 18G4 by 
giving him a commission to go to Wales and 
paint as much as he could. In that year he 
exhibited a picture, ' Wast dale Head from 
Styhead Pass, Cumberland,' at the Royal 
Academy, and two years later a small oil- 
painting by him, ' Llvn Idwal, Carnarvon- 
shire,' was huug on the line. It wus much 
praised by Ruskin, and was followed by 
other landscapes. These, however, were too 
much in the pre- Rap b eel it c manner to find 
favour with the hanging committee. In 

1857 his pictures were badly hung, and in 

1858 an elaborate work, 'The Track of an 
Old- World Glacier,' was refused. Ruskin 
protested vehemently in his notes on the 
Academy against the treatment of Hunt, but 

close touch with the pre- 
Raphaelites, though not a member of the 
brotherhood, and he was one of the original 
members of th e Hogarth Club. He exhibited 
at the Academy each year from I860 to 1809, 
but his pictures were badly hung, and after 

that time persistently refuse J, till he ceased 
to send them in. This discouragement 
caused him almost to abandon oil-paiuting, 
though be was no less gifted in the use of 
oils than in that of water-colours. In 186J 
lie was unanimously elected an associate of 
the Old Water-colour Society, to which he 
became a regular contributor. He was 
elected a full member in 1804. For about 
seven years be worked in water-colours only, 
but in 1870 lit! again exhibited an oil-] minting 
at the Royal Academy, and continued to 
do so occasionally till within a few yean of 
his death. His contributions amounted in 
all to thirty-seven. At the gallery in Pall 
Mall East he exhibited more than three 
hundred water-colours, and these represent 
only a small proportion of his life's work, 
for he was a rapid though a very careful 
worker. He devoted much time and energy 
to the sorvice of the Royal Water-colour 
Society, as it has been called sinco 1881 : 
this advance and the prosperity which the 
society has enjoyed in recent years were due 
in some measure to Hunt's exertion?. I[ R 
was a trustee of the society from 1879 on- 
wards, and acted as deputy-president in 1888. 
He was largely instrumental in organising 
the Art Club, for social meetings and tem- 
porary loan exhibitions, in connection with 
the society, which was formed in 1883. 

After bis marriage in 1861 Hunt lived 
for a time at Durham, but in 186.1 lie came 
to London and took a house, 1 Tor Villus 
(afterwards called 10 Tor Gardens), Camp- 
den Hill, Kensington, which had been occu- 
pied previously by Mr. James Clarke Hook 
and Mr, Iloltnnn Hunt. This was his resi- 
dence during the remainder of his life, and 
he died there on 3 May 189fl. A fine and 
representative loan collection of his works 
waa exhibited in the following year at the 
private gallery of the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club. Exhibitions had been held in his 
lifetime at the Grosvenor Gallery and in 
the rooms of the Fine Art Society* in New 
Bond Street (1884). 

On 16 Nov. 1861 Hunt married Margaret, 
second daughter of James llaine [q. v.] Mrs. 
Hunt, who, with three daughters, survives 
him, is the anthoresa of several novels. 

Hunt painted much at Durham, on the 
Tees, and at Whitby and other places on the 
north-east coast of England, but also on the 
Thames (Sonning, Pangbourne, Windsor, 
&c), in Scotland and Wales, in Switzerland, 
on the Rhine and Moselle, and in Italy, Sicily, 
and Greece, during a tour of nine months 
in 1 Stilt -70. He visited America and painted 
the Falls of Niagara in a season of exceptional 
drought. He was a devoted disciple, but by 

no means a mere imitator, of Turner. Like 
Turner, h* was a painter of the sky, of 
cloud, sunshine, and mist. He used water- 
colour with an exquisite purity and delicacv, 
and was no less diligent in the exact study 
of nature than in acquiring mastery over the 
technicalities of his art. He took a verv 
high view of the function of the artist, and 
had a deep and reverent love for the beauty 
of the world as a manifestation of the divine. 
His sincere and modest work, inspired by 
an aim so spiritual, did not show to advan- 
tage in a mixed exhibition, and failed to 
attract, the attention it deserved, especially 
at the Academy; but bis reputation with 
collectors and good judges of art stand* 
high, and is certain to increase. Most of 
his pictures are in private hands; ' Windsor 
Castle' (1889) is in the Tate Gallery, and 
' Working Late' (exhibited in 1873) is ii 
the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. 

[Timea, 6 May 18B8; Daily Graphic, 7 Ma 
1898- Illustrated London News. I ti May 1836 
wiili portrait; Athenvum. 9 May 1896; Cata- 
logue of Exhibition at Burlington pine Arts 
Club, with introduction by Cosmo Monkhonw ; 
other exhibition catalogue* ; Graves's Diet, (if 
Artists; private information.] CD. 

HUNTER, ROBERT (1823-1897), lexi- 
cographer, theologian, and missionary, born 
at N'uwhurgh, Fifeshire,on3Sept.l823,ww 
son of John M. Hunter, a native of Wig- 
townshire, and Agues Strickland of invers- 
ion, Lancashire. His father was a collector 
in her majesty's excise. Hunter attended at 
the university of Aberdeen, where he gra- 
duated in 1840. He received an appoint- 
ment in connection with education in Ber- 
muda and resided there for two years, 
account of his work as a naturalist while 
in Bermuda he attracted the attention and 
elicited the warm commendation of f" 
William Jackson Hooker [a. v.] of Kew, a 
of Sir Richard Owen [q. v.], both of whom 
advised him to devote himself to branches 
of natural Bcience. Hunter, however, pre- 
ferred to continue his studies for the mini- 
stry of the free church of Scotland, and, 
having attended the requisite theological 
classes in Edinburgh, he was licensed as a 
preacher of the free church. On 22 Oct. 
1840 he was ordained colleague of Stephen 
Hislop q.v.] of the free church missic 
Nagpore, Central India. He gave nine y 
of distinguished service to the educational 
and evangelistic advancement of that popu- 
lous district, and while doing so made several 
important discoveries in geological science. 
But failure of health compelled him in 1855 
to return home. He subsequently assisted 
Alexander Duff [q.v.] in forming missionary 

■r twenty 

in [he free church, nnd from 
tutor in the 
■ ■. i lie presbyterian church 

■ under of Hunter** 1 ' 

engaged in editing the 
il.lishc'1 in 
1^*9, in.fpiv»"l in lSOii by the proprietor 
I : aide' as * Lloyd's finer-' 
Joydii Dictionary.* Bir Richard Owen 
: t-olosul work.' It is a monu- i 
!■!•■ knowledge, clear arrangement. 
He also pub- 
School Teacher's Bible 
now known u Ciisell's 
Bible Dictionary ' (1894), and was 
a froqiurat contributor to the ' British and 
Foreign Evangelical Review ' and other reli- 
gk»u journals and periodicals of the day, 

■ imaged i" literary work Hunter 
also continued to render good service in 
«Ttnf«listic work in London, lie founded 

i it Docks Sunday school and 

■ with the pes by term n 

I'liurch nf England, and for over 


■■■■-■-itv of Aberdeen conferred the 
dnpMOfLL.I>.upon Hnnter in I 
wa* *lw> a fellow of the Ueologicol Society, 
a member of the British Archioologicnl So- 
1 ■ u connected with other learned 
bodies. He was a man of vast lenrning, of 
ttatnments, and of great 

and retirtn. .■ auine piety, 

Ho died OH I rHsidence in 

, earnest preacher of the 

rospel and a devoted missionory, he will 

ibered as an experienced 

nd ii skilful lexicographer. 

rks already mentioned, 

I . ' History of India,' 

1803. -2. • History of the Missions of the 

;oi.l in India and Africa,' 

[Infra-math.- a ehiifly from the litr. W. Hume 
FJliut. Banuliottoiu. by whom a memoir of 
1 I ihorlly; in ths Brit. 
IV. Huntrr'a wurks are ascribed to two 
ntpraom.] T. B J. 

r. born in Aberdeen on 

chant, by Ins wife, Mar- 
A at the cnimmar school and 


-.. with a high 
pUoe is the burHary competition. In 1862- 


ISfitf he was first prizeman in logic, moral 
philosophy, Christian evidences, botany, 
and chemistry, and in 1864 graduated as 
.M.A. with • the highest honours ' in mental 
philosophy and in natural science. Be- 
sides several prizes he gained the Ferguson 
scholarship in mental philosophy, and the 
Murray scholarship awarded hy the univer- 
sity after a competitive examination in all the 
subjects of the arts curriculum, With 
this successful record he was encouraged to 
read for the bar, and entered the Middle 
Temple in 1865. After taking numerous 
exhibitions awarded by the council of legal 
education, and passing his examinations 
with first-class honours, he was called to 
the English bar in 1867, and joined the 

For some years 1 lunter's work was almost 
entirely educational. In 18ttt* he gained 
the 'proximo occesstt Shaw fellowship ' 
in philosophy, which, like the I 
is open to graduates of nil Scottish univer- 
sities. Shortly afterwards he took the 
Blackw ell prize for the best essay on the 
philosophy of Leibnitz, and on 7 Aug. 1869 
was appointed professor of Roman law at 
University College, London. His ehi-s was 
■-. bat he devoted much time to 
the preparation of his lectures, and elabo- 
rated a logical arrangement of the subject, 
which afterwords appeared in his text- 
books. Iu 1878 he resigned the chair of 
Roman law, and on 2 Nov. was appointed 
professor of jurisprudence in the same 
college. His lectures on this subject during 
the four years he held the chair contained 
much valuable criticism of Austen and 
other writers, but the matter was not pub- 
lished except, in a few magazine articles. 
Under the influence of John BtUSIt Mill he 
took an active part in the agitation for the 
political enfranchisement of women, nnd 
aided in obtaining for them opportunities of 
higher education. In 1875, following the 
example of Professor John Eliot. Cairnes 

1q. v.], he admitted women to his class in 
toman law, and extended to them the same 
privilege when he afterwards became pro- 
feseorofjurisprudence. In 1 8^2 he resigned 
his chair of jurisprudence at University 
College, nnd in the same year received the 
degree of LL.D. from the university of 
Aberdeen. While professor at University 
College HuntfiT acted from time to time as 
■>xamin>.-r in I Ionian law iim.lJTirj.priirti-tir.-e at 
the university of Loudon, and he wrote on 
social and political subjects in the ' Ex- 

and other newspapers. He ' 
litor of the ' Weekly I ■ 
In Io"fi he wrote a pamphlet 00 the ' Law of 

Hunter 16 Hunter 

• . 

Muter and Servant,' and gave muck atten- ; in old age penaiona, which he waa the 
tion to the interpretation of the law aa it j to press upon the attention of p^rlm** 
affected labour dispute*. On retiring from j and gave valuable assistance to those 
his chair at University College in 1882 • tempting to bring forward a feasible scJm 
Hunter gave whatever time was not occupied , Bat his health was rapidly failing, am 
in professional pursuits to political contro- j seldom intervened in debate during hit 
Tersy. In conjunction with his friend, ' maining years in parliament. In 1891! 
James Barclay, M.P. for Forfarshire, he took j was re-elected as member for North A) 
part in the attempts then being made by ■ deen by a majority of 3^48, but retired t 
Kw glioh and Scottish tenant farmers to ob- parliament in the following year owing 
tain compensation for improvements. He , the state of his health. On the recomm 
also took up in the same interest the question : dation of Mr. A. J. Balfour he was awar 
of railway rates, and succeeded in obtaining ( a civil list pension of 200/. He died 
important improvements in restrictions on j 21 July 1806 at Cults in Aberdeenshire, 
charges and in the classification of goods Hunters most important work waa 
and rates. He collected some materials for j Systematic and Historical Exposition 
a work on private bill legislation, but this ' Roman Law in the order of a Code embo 
was never completed. ing the Institutes of Gains and of Justini 

In 1885 Hunter was elected member of i translated into English by J. A. Cross,' L 
parliament for the north division of Aber- \ don, 1870 ; 2nd edit, enlarged, 1885. 1 
deen by a majority of 3.900 over the con- ■ chief characteristic of this work waa 
servative candidate. His friendship with order of arrangement, which was baaed 
Charles BradUugh [q. v. SuppL] and his \ that recommended by Bentham for a d 
intimate acquaintance with natives from In- ! code. Under the head of 'contracts' so 
dia who had passed through his hands as law ' important criticisms of Maine's theory of 1 
students had familiarised him with Indian origin of Stipulatio are given, and urn 
questions, and on 21 Jan. 1886 he began his 'ownership* a new theory respecting be 
career in the House of Commons by moving fide Possesaio is put forward entirely oppoj 
an amendment to the address expressing re- ! to that of Savignv. The ' Introduction 
gret that the revenues of India had been . Roman Law,' which appeared in 1880 (I 
applied to defray the expenses of the military ed. 1885), was a smaller work contain] 
operations in Ava without the consent of such parts of the subject as students requii 
parliament. This was withdrawn at Glad- ' for pass examinations, 
stone's suggestion. I Besides the above works Hunter pi 

At the general election in the same year i lished * The Trial of Muluk Chand for t 
Hunter declared himself in favour of home | Murder of his own Child : a Romance 
rule, and was returned for North Aberdeen j Criminal Administration in Bengal. Wi 
unopposed. In 1888 he was appointed by an Introduction by W. A. Hunter, LL.1 
the council of legal education reader in Roman i M.P.,* 1888. 
law, international law, and jurisprudence. | [Personal knowledge.] B.X). 

Next year the government, when legislating ' 

on local government in Scotland, appro- | HUNTER, Sib WILLIAM WILSC 
priated probate duty to the payment of the (1840-1900 », Indian civilian, historian, ai 

fees of children taking the three lowest stan- 
dards in elementary schools. In 1890 Hunter 
saw the chance of completely freeing ele- 

publicist, was born on 15 July 1840. £ 
father was Andrew Galloway Hunter* 
Glasgow manufacturer, who came from De 

mentarv education from tne payment of fees, j holm in Roxburghshire. His mother, la 
and urged that the increase in the duties, : bella, was a younger sister of James Wilat 
which the government then imposed on ! (1805-1860) ;<Lt/, and he was thus coi 
spirits, should pay the fees in elementary I nected with Walter Bagehot jq. t.], wl 
schools on the standards above the three married a daughter of James VN ilson. £ 

lowest. This he succeeded in carrying, and 
thus secured wholly free elementary educa- 
tion for Scotland. " For this service he re- 
ceived the freedom of his native city in 1890. 
On 27 Jan. 1891 Hunter moved that the 
resolution refusing permission to Bradlaugh 
to take the oath or make affirmation should 
be expunged from the records of the House 
of Commons, and this was carried without 
a division. He had always been interested 

was educated at Glasgow, first at the act 
demy and afterwards at the university, whe 
he graduated B~\. in 1800. He then spa 
some months in study at Paris and Bon 
acquiring lamong other things) a usef 
knowledge of Sanskrit. At the open con 
petition for the Indian civil service in 186 
he came out at the head of the list. 

On arriving in India in November 186 
Hunter was posted to the lower provinces < 



n materials fi 

■.■■ linl ment was that of 

1 magistral.-- and collector in the re- 

hum, Here, in addition 

. ie ransacked old records 

d local traditions, io order to oh- 

3 for publication. It is ctiarac- 

icalikeof his industry and his ambition 

library venture took tbe form, 

nf a slight magazine article, but of a 

historical work, intended to be 

i, entitled' The Annali 

1 Bengal. 1 On its publication in 

■■■ -i veil with universal 

v. found n voice to make 

.' Iiiiitii-ifiition not only 

-i!.!.' btH attractive. The book has 

h nix editions. In 1ST:.' 

pet in ire important work, in two 

i province which will 

for its far-famed temple 

lanath, and which at that time had 

.1 notice as the sceneof a disas- 

Anothei publication of these 

ja was 'A Comparative Dictionary 

Ni'ii-Arvnu Languages of India and 

glossary of 139 

"a based mainly upon the collections 

■ I Fughtan Hodgson [q. v. 
with apolitical dissertation on the 

i in government, with the 
1 trili^. (If tlii- work it should 
tlmt tlie author subsequently 
UK of the linguistic inductions, 
■0 far as to describe it as one * for 
■ Opportunities ud my knowledge 
i i ntiil-'<jnjit-'.' 

iwliilit, ilniitiT had been selected by 

■ -Niise perhaps the moat 
twpriae that has ever 

Jrtnken by any government— a sta- 

.!■ Indian empire, such 

■j i attempted one 

i year* ego for Scotland, At this 

difficult to realise the 

■Mice !h:ii then, prevailed 

■I to the fundamental facta upon 

mat be based. 

' .nl |j.-.'ii till, ti. mid tli" 

if population found ac- 
Bach of tin- provinci ■ 

if Its knowledge of the 

■ icrcise th" 
■ 1 should arise 

;■ uniformiM in the exe- 
lu July 1860 Lord 

llty < to 

Mayo placed Hunter on special duty 
submit a comprehensive scheme 
the information already collected, for pre- 
scribing the principles according to which 
all local gazetteers are in future to be pre- 
pared, and for the consolidation into one 
work of the whole of the materials that 
may be. available.' This task Occupied the 
neit twelve years of Hunter's life. His first 
duty was to travel over the whole of India, 
so as to put himself into communication 
with the Infill officials, and see things with 
bis own eyes. These tours, often repeated, 
gave him an acquaintance with even corner 
of the peninsula such as few others could 
boast. As was to be expected, he encoun- 
tered some opposition and not a little per- 
sona! criticism, directed chiefly against the 
imiti.rm msI •■hi ol"spr-l]iug|>]nec-names which 
■ -in to introduce. lint his en- 
thusiasm and diplomacy tinsllv triumphed 
over all obttacUs, The llimterian com- 
promise, based upon a transliteration of ver- 
nacular names, without any diacritical marks 
but with a concession to the old spelliug of 

5 laces that have become historical, has gra- 
uully won acceptance even in English news- 

In September 1671 tbe new post of 
direct i ir-geutTul of statistic* to the govern- 
ment of India was created for Hunter, who 
was further privileged to spi-n d long period •= 
in England for the greater convenience of 
the work. In addition to supervising the 
local editors and drawing up the scheme of 
the ' Imperial (oizetteer.' lie took upon him- 
self Bengal, the largest and least, known 
province in India, ami also Assam, which 
then formed an integral part of Bengal. 
'The Statistical Account of Bengal' was 
published in twenty volumes between 1875 
and 1877. The city of Calcutta is omitted, 
but tbe last volume contains a valuable 
appendix on fishes and plants. ' The Sla- 
tistical Account of Assam' followed, in two 
volumes, in 1679. The other local gazetteers 
compiled in India raise the total number of 
volumes to 1 26, aggregating (10,000 pages. 
Meanwhile (he task of condensing this 
enormous moss of material into ' The Im- 

?>rialCin*«tteerof India' was going on apace, 
he first edition, in nine volumes, appeared 
in 1661 ; and a second edition, whic' 

■1)1. d ( 

rating the latest at 

the census of 1881, appeared in 1885- 7. 1 1 

is not too much to say that this will rank 
among the monumental works of reference 
which our generation has produced. Hunter, 
■ : I not accomplish nil this .-.iiifjh'- 
hnpded. Among his many gifts was that 

Hunter 18 Hunter 

of getting their best work out of his assis- genie a? Oxford. After spending a few ye« 

tants, who were content to merge them- in the city and being initiated into acj 

selves in his identity. But his was the demical life, he bought a plot of groun 

mind that planned the whole, and his the about three miles oat on the Evnsham roai 

energy that caused it to appear with such on the slope of the Wit ham Woods, con 

Erompt it ude. The stamp of his own special manding a view over the Vallev of the Whil 

andiwork may be found in the article on Horse. " Here he built a comfortable houa- 

* India/ which was reissued in 1895 in a which he called Oaken Holt, with accon 

revised form under the titl? of * The Indian modation for his library and also for hi 

Empire: its Peoples, History, and Pro- horses and his dogs. The superabundant 

ducts/ forming a volume of 8-">2 pages, of his energy found vent in many form 

Here he has given a summary of his opinions especially in travel; but he never allows 

about many vexed questions in the ethnical pleasure to interfere with work. In form* 

and religious history of early India, which times he had written much for the ' Calcutt 

he had at one time noped to treat at greater Englishman/ He now became a reguli 

length. Specially valuable is the account contributor to the* Times/ where his weekl 

given from original sources of the growth of articles on Indian affairs exercised great ix 

Christianity in Southern India. A conden- nuence. One of the first things that he di 

sation of this important work for school after settling at Oxford was to arrange wit 

use, entitled ' A Brief Ilistory of the Indian the delegates of the Clarendon Press for th 

Peoples ' (1880), has sold to the number of publication of a series of little volumes calle 

nearly ninety thousand copies, and has been * The Rulers of India." These were intende 

translated into five vernacular languages. as historical retrospects rather than person! 

In 1881, after the first edition of the biographies, their object being to awake 

1 Imperial Gazetteer* had passed through popular interest in the spectacle afforded b 

the press, Hunter returned to India as an the gradual growth of our eastern empin 

additional member of the governor-general's He opened the series, which now consists < 

council. This appointment, which is equi- twenty-eight volumes, with a model memoi 

valent to a seat in the legislature, was twice on the administration of Lord Dalhotiai 

renewed, making a term of six years. Dur- \l$90i. and followed it up with ' Lord Maya 

ing this period his most important duty was condensed froma full-length biography whic 

to preside over the commission on educa- he had previously written in two volume 

tion, appointed in 1882 to regulate the diver- ^ 1875 V That biography of Lord Mayo i 

gent systems that had grown up in the notable for containing an admirable analysi 

several provinces. The report of the com- of the machinery of the supreme governmen 

mission, drafted by Hunter's hand and almost in India which controls the local administn 

wholly accepted by the government, marks tions. In a book entitled ' Bombay, 1886 1 

a new departure in the increased attention 1890' (1S92), Hunter supplemented this b 

paid to the elementary instruction of the a detailed examination of the administratio 

masses, and in the recognition of private en- of the Western Presidency, under the go 

terprise, whether displayed by missionaries vernorship of Lord Reay. He had at on 

or by the people themselves. All subsequent time hoped to write the life of Sir Bartl 

improvement in education has been upon the Frere [q.v.], the greatest of recent governoi 

lines of this report. Hunter was also a of Bombay; but this project fell througl 

member of the commission on finance that Instead, he took up the biography of Bria 

sat in 1886, and he was sent to England Houghton Hodgson, the veteran orientalist 

in 1884 to give evidence before a committee who had first aroused his interest in the race 

of the House of Commons on Indian rail- and languages of India. Other publication 

ways. Another post that he filled was that of this period were * The Old Alissionary 

of vice-chancellor of the university of Cal- (1895), an idyll which makes one regret thi 

cutta (1886). he did not more often indulge his lighte 

In 1887 Hunter finally retired from the vein ; and ' The Thackerays in India ' (1897] 

service at the early age of forty-seven, to which is worthy of its subject. He also com 

devote the remainder of his life to working piled a bibliography of books about Indii 


Edinburgh, where he went so far as to build All these books, and not a few other* 
himself a house, which afterwards passed might be called 'Chips from an Anglo 
into the occupation of Professor John Stuart \ Indian Workshop/ They represent th 
Blackie [q. v. Suppl.] He now resolved to , overflow of his literary activity, while hi 

mind was i ■■ m executing 

■ iry of India, which in 1 

[uw thorough 
were hi* aartj r**n 

U»_th»n ■: Ms. i;,,..:,-,]-,' 

rndatv-d ut i tint 'J. 
mbiiah then till i I 

■ permanent settlement. 

w compiled n catalogue of 380 historical 

■ liiirarv of the India 
1 1 DOl destined to carry 

gins! design to ('■juijili'dnn. lie WH 

iiiy oorapeUed to realise thai no 

ml, however laborious, could compass 
lira Geld. lie therefore abandoned 
At tarty period of Hindu and Muhammadan 
. ■; I devoted himself to tracing 
the growth of British dominion, Thla 
'"raited di- : : cbed Oul bj 

would have filled Ave volumes, 
me (1899), 
1 barely open.* the subject, for i1 Stops 
the massacre of AraDoyna in 1623, 
pnny had founded its 
■ mainland of India. 
teoond I'm Ilia the narrative 

a lbs clot* ul' 'In- M-iiii;.-,nil] ■ ■ 

obel 1900. The sample ' 

■ enable u* to realise i 

what the bulk would have been, and how 

great IBS kM caused by the author"* preran- 

i ■ 

ontwnporarv documents, often hidden in 

tugneae and Dutch archives, Hunter 

tero standard of an I 

: ity. By his wide generalisations ! 

if the influence exercised f 

S national character and sea power, he 
jwa him-df a representative of the modern 
writing. The vigour 
at his literary style ure 
all kia awn. 

lioua railway 

journev across Kurop* to Bnku on the Cas- 

ick-bed of a son. On hi* 

■ ted him. mid ultimntelv 

: Oaken Hofi 

i nried in Ihe 

churchyard of Oumnor, his in 

attended by represent;. 

. by many divtin^uish.-d AtJ"- 
Indtan friend'*, and by a crowd of villagers 
who ni'iurtj-.d t heir benefactor. 

faj.appoinledO.I.K.inl.Sr-. C.S.I. 
■ ■-.■merit from 

India in I - 

reo of LL.Ii. 

-rd, in 1889, 

■ d him the ex- 

ceptional distinction of M.A. by decree of 
;. which carried with it full rights 
ofanflrage> Cambridge madehim an. honorary 
LL.D. in 1887. lie was a vice-president of 
the Hoy al Asiatic Society, mid member of 
many learned bodies both in England mid OB 
the continent. He was nlso proud ul" being 
his neighbours as county coun- 
cillor for the Cum nor ilm-mri ■ :■] ll.Tk-liire. 

On 4 Dec. 1883 Hunter mawi 
dangBter of Tfaoinaa Murray (176 
i|. v.] She accompanied bun in many of 
bis journeys, und shared his litemry toils. 
Sho survives him, together wirji ■ 
of whom the elder if a captain in the army. 
[Private information. An authorised biu- 
grapby of Sir W. W. Hunter is beine written by 

■-. i..:-.i....riv..t Bengal Civil 

Service.] J. 3. C. 


the grandson of Joseph llutt on (17H5-H30 i, 
iinitnriLin minister nf EostacS Street congre- 
gation, Dublin, ntid the third son » -t" J ■ ■s.-jili 
Button .. ITilMSW), unitarian minister at 
.Mill Bill chapel. Leeds, His mother was 
Susannah Orindal, eldest daughter of John 
Holt of Nottingham. In IMS lusfatha n 
moved to London to become the minister of 
the congregation at Carter Lane. Kichard 
was educated at University College School 
find at I "iiivi.'r-ity College, under August us De 
Morgan fq. v." 1 , graduating B.A. in 1845 and 
M.A. in 1849," and obtaining the cold medal 
".y besides high distinction in 
At t'niversitv Colhv he !.,- 
•nth Walter Bagebot [q.v,], 
when neither was more then seventeen. 
They both delighted in discus-ini: tlu-iv >ut.- 
jects of study, and Hutton relates bow on 
one occasion they ' wandered up and down 
Regent Street for something like two hours in 
the vain attempt, to find Oxford Stni t,' SO 
absorbed were they in debating ■ whether the 
so-called logical principle of identity! ' 
A) was entitled to rank as a law of tho 
or only as a postulate of language.' 

After spending two semesters at 'Jermnti 
. fast M llei.ielb.TB- in 1841 and 
then at Berlin, he entered Uaacbeator Hew 
College in 1847 to prepare for the unitarian 
ministry. There he studied under James 
Mnrtinenu [q.v. Suppl.] and John James 
Tayler [q. v.] His intention of entering the 
ministry, however, came to nothing:; fcr 

, | .i-i-inntii-in elutri"-. : . 
tun] di.-i-.iiir.-.j, adorned l>v no 
livery, failing to secure appreciation. Fora 

he filled the olbce. ol p 


incrjMl i 

Hutton zz Hutton 

UniT«sirT Hall la. Lr.cii:c tien an jlzc?- »T~-<egce tiwv wx* ai-iec bv Roscoe, who 

ran- oeczn r A zr.eixc^cziss ed-icar cc 1=. ii-i *:m* tr ia msc critical work on this 

1-31 he =.trri#i. aa*i awe^Ged ti«* »k :jT ««*r. '/=. u vas> in I*3£ Hutton under- 

ed-v.r ^ ti** i=.r-Ar!aa ^lxtuLz^. • T"Li* li- :xi to ed:- iis wrszsgs. which were pub- 

qiir«sr." wLicL wl* vreriii aia. "ty tL«* pr:- ".-*?««£ ii I**) wtti a memoir, under the 

prieV.r. R. K-n-ir?. J:Ln liL-.rv.n :*aii:ri title :f ■ Ptem* asii Eaj? " c London, 2 vol*. 

2. t.~ w« ajtricciared witL Lis. ir. tiit editor- •*-; . Hi*^:a. wis prafessccof mathematics 

i£ip "in I>Ti. and ~££ *:c"7i visors frta. !>>: v I*i» 12 B=cf:rd College, Lon- 

w^rr his br:"ii*r-i=.-lAw. W:~ t — Oili-**!! i:c azii frrai LS5* to l*"0 he acted as 

HfjecTAi "i- T - - * & - Bag»its. A: 1 t.=e assist jjit-edrror :f tae 'Economist* [gee 

wh*n tLe :n-iit::n* if ""v.» mj».j TVi-t.« Wiiscy. Jajos. 1*"©-I*30"\ 

BeULam were Kill dfrHart l=l:^z tL.e D»^i=* this ts& Huttod though writing' 

omt&riazL!. Hutton advocated many lur-ova- -:c many and varices subjects, had never 

tiocs. ani in weseqasnce arocsed tLe iisar- -:*a*ed "•: ttajt-* tLeclogr ha chief interest. 

pr-j7il of thrr more conservative. He * a> Ht Lai asrnltely ac*n^?ned the unitarian 

tempted to prove that tLe Laity ought to creed, and Lui accepted the main principles 

have the prvtectiora. if a Ltazy igaiui: it* a&i z*li*£* ■:: the fc-g^*?! church. He was 

arbitrary prayers :f the T. : r.:ster. and thr: earlj drawn i= ti£s «£rMC:on bj his firiend- 

ar ".■»*: "tL-r zr«»5 =a : -:ri:T ;f tie *rr=»:ts *Lip" witL Fr»d*nek William" Roberuoa 

riz£Lr. Vj be *:ippr%sit5*i- ani :L* Libt: :f ie- [:. t.". wb^se ae^^ainisrce he made in 1846 

liT*rinx:L-:n iiscr.n'in-ied alT-T-cKL-sr." Tise wiile £»:ceruoc wi* otfarr'aring at the Eng- 

cgt2l**1* : : p=r^-tcci-jra wer** "^red wi:L *? li*L cLttcL a: HeEiilbrrz. From Robertson 

mich arii-ir :La.: Hirtcc Linelf plajf il> Li rwt-Trii a new eoccepCL^nof the doctrine 

acknowI^dr«**L I ;nz ait^r. ".La* • :^lv \ i-=-> >:: tL«* iz.Mmai::c in which he was after- 

iriiiation <:f ;i§r a<<Q=ii-: allbaT ~p»rr:-H:t* wiris or?ci?3ed bj his intercoone with 

would tar* :oi*ra:ed i: at all.* Is tict tLe F^eder^k IVrJi^in Maurice ~j\. t.' Bagehot 

measure -:: tolerance L-* T«*:Ted was not t.xk "lizc t.? L-ear Maurice preadi in Lincoln's 

larze. hi* vi?w* on do£~rin<» aliTZ^ti^; tLrise Inn cLipeL and he was permanently im- 

who murL: have dlsr=^a?iei Li* L^yr&tioc* preaeei by Lis r^ace and manner. In 1853 

in praci.». HLs tL<eol'>?y wu i7i:'.cir«d bx Mairic»* was *? pl<sased with a review of his 

_ _ _ -_ _ _ _ ^ the 'Pro- 

an in tro- 

th* -pin; .z* of JoLn Hamilton TL:=i "q. v." • TL-r«: logical E*av? "by Hutton ii 
and Jamr^ Mart:s.'=au. wLr^ Mirtin-=au's spective Rcriew " that he sought 

sure en th-em was moved a: :Le annual n-=e> in his social w:ri in London. The progress 

ing of the London district «»jcirtj. and i: of Hutton** views en the subject of the in- 

was even proposed to start another F*">?? -:n camatirn is marked bv the publication, in 

more orthodox lines. t"nder*ichconI:ti:z< 1 '?*?-. ■ : Lis • Incarnation ana Principles of 

Hatton's tenure of office could harilv Lave Evidence." wLich formed Xo. 14 of 'Tracts 

been lonz continued, bu: in 1>">3 the com- for Priests and People.' A doubtful passage 

plete breakdown of his health compelled him in this treatise on the doctrine of the divine 

to relinquish both his editorship and his ap- birth was omitted on its republication in 

pointment at University HalL He found 1S71 in. his •Theological Essays.* 

opinions befrre the publi< 
a widower, his wife bavin? died there of year Mr. Meredith Townsend. who' had just 
yellow fever. returned from India after giving up the 
Hat ton. Ending his theological course be- * Friend of India.' purchased the ' Spectator/ 
set with di£cul:ies. turned to the study of the well-known weekly liberal paper which 
the law, in which, however, he did not lon£ had been founded by Robert Stephen Rintoul 
persevere. He settled in chambers in Lin- ~q. v.~ in 1S2S. Hutton was offered a half- 
coin's Inn. began to read for the bar. and share in the concern, and in June he became 
wrote in the ' Prospective Review." In joint editor and part proprietor. The pro- 
1%55 he ani Bagehot became joint editors of posal was made by Mr. Townsend at a first 
a new magazine. * The National Review.' interview, by an afterthought, when Hutton 
which, it U said, was financed by Lady had taken his leave and was on his wav 
Bvron. This journal they continued to downstairs: but the partnership remained 
direct until its cessation towards the close unbroken until a few months before Button's 
of 1564. During the first four years of its . death. It was arranged that while Towns- 

Of the 

end attended to the politics, Hutton should 

take chnrire of the departmeut of literature. 

D at the journal was not satiafac- 

■, and at. the oomnoDceBunit of tha part- 

' tip Hutton and Mr. Meredith further im- 

' '' popularity by resolutely espousing 

Northern States in the 

civil war. Public feeling in Eng- 

itrongly in favour of the confede- 

it was not ilntil the collapse of 

;i 1865 that the cm rase of the 

uned its reward. The change in 

id towards lie close of the war 

i.mrnal n hearing, and the general 

■ - content! insured it success. Its 
and character were in many respect* 

!■.' Iteview' beingtheonly 

t journal in existence, for the ' Exami- 

Vlbany Fonbhuique ~q. v.l, which 

ingested as the source of Hutton 's 

was different in character. The 

n-istently supported the liberal 

in .a 1686, when, though 

reluctant to withdraw their allegiance to 

Gladstone, they felt compelled to oppose 

To Hutton the drench with 

Glad&ioue was especially painful, for the 

i ad long been united by ties of 

■mil friendship and by a remarknb' 

ry in their view- of life t 

Vtance of thing* and mum:*. 

■ ■■■■■■ tator' Hutton found a pulpit 
Bseonld ipeali on subjects nearest 
■ well as on books and events of 
.■i tbonloKical questions he fir.-( 

nuk as the champion of Cliri — 
ity against agnostic and rationalistic 
■■ this tusk Hutton was qualified 
1th of oil mind, the iiernnn-y of 
mding, and bis profound know- 
nrrent religious thought, Pre- 
mtholic in spirit he was removed 
. party ili'li rencea, and was able 
to coninmheud and reconcile raanv posi- 
tions which to smaller men seemed hope- 
lessly antagonistic While it would be 
idle to rrgard hint as standing in the firs! 
theologians, it may be questioned 
what In* any of bla contemporaries influenced 
ion more widely. This influence 
il both through the "Spectator' 
■ -i correspondence be 
ith private persons on matters of 
roversy. As time advanced 
with the high Anglican and 
:nn positions increased, and while never 
If irith either party, his 
■■.,., i leorge 
Ward.Dcan' i Liddon.were 

drawn from both. For Cardinal Newman 
also be had a great admiration, regarding 

two men 


In the 




the spiritual character of bis life as standing 
in strange contrast ' to the eager and agitated 
turmoil of confused passions, hesitating 
ideals, tentative virtues, and grasping philan- 
thropies amid which it tins been lived.' He 
contributed a memoir of 'Cardinal N'ew- 
man' in 1891 to the series entitled 'English 
Leaders of Religion.' 

1 1 ill ton's later literary labours were some- 
what overshadowed by his theological writ- 
ings, but they were not without importance. 
Ills literary interest f utiv especially directed 
to the great writers of the close of the 
Eighteenth and the first, half of the nine- 
teenth century. Although in such afield 
he could reveal little hitherto unknown, his 
intense sympathy rendered his studies of 
such writers as Scott, Shelley, mid Drowning 
of much value. On the critical side his 
work is less satisfactory, his keen apprecia- 
tion of the merits of bis favourites frequently 
rendering him incapable of considering their 
defects. In writers of the late nineteenth 
century he took less interest, and perhaps in 
the 'Spectator' he underestimated the lite- 
rary value of their work. In 1865, on the 
foundation of the 'Pall Mall Gazette,' Hut- 
ton was recommended to the proprietor, Mr. 
George Smith, by Mr. 1 ; red-rick lireeuwriod 
for the post of editor. Although Mr. Smith 
preferred to appoint Greenwood himself, 
Hutton became a contributor, and in 1866 
published 'Stadias in Parliament' (London, 
Svo), a series of sketches of leading poli- 
ticians, which had appeared in the ' Pall 
Mall Gazette,' and which are among his 
happiest writings. In 1871 he issued his 
■ Ks-iivs, Theological and Literary ' (London, 
2 vols. Bva). They appeared again, largely 
recast, in 1877, and in the third edition of 
1-N^ the essay* oil S del ley nh'l on I Inownillp; 
W«re further revised. In 1877 Hutton lost 
his early friend Hagehot, and imilertonk to 
edit his writings. This he accomplished in 
• In 1879 appeared ' Llagehot's 
I, iterarv Studies/ with a prefatory memoir, 
in 1880 his 'Economic Studies,' and in 1881 
his 'Biographical Studio-*.' Each of these 
collections went through several editions, 
the latest appearing in 1B86, To the second 
volume of this 'Dictionary' Hutton contri- 
buted a notice of bis friend. 

Button was nn original member of the 
Metaphysical Society, founded in April 18t>9, 
and in August 188o published on article in 
which he gave a graphic sketch of the society 
and its chief members in I he ' N ith i' •■.■nth 
Century,' whose editor, Mr. .lauies Kuowtes, 
was the founder of the society. L'uder the 
form of an imaginary debate on a paper by 
William George Ward, he reproduced the 


opinions and expressions of the leading mem- 
bers of the society with striking fidelity. 

Hutton was a strong opponent of vivisec- 
tion, and frequently attacked the practice in 
the 'Spectator.' In 1875 he Berved on a 
royal commission on the subject. The re- 
port was unfavourable to the practice, and 
in consequence in 1876 an act or parliament 
was passed by which persons experimenting 
on living animals were required to hold a 
license from the home seeretarv. 

From 1886 Hutton lived at Twickenham 
in much retirement, owing chiefly to his 
second wife's long illness, giving up all 
society, even that of his closest friends. 
His wife died earlv in 1897. and he did not 
long survive her. He died on 9 Sept. 1897 
at his residence, Crossdepe, and was buried 
in Twickenham parish cemetery on 14 Sept. 
1 Round his grave were grouped Anglicans, 
liOman catholics, and unitarians, in ubout 
equal numbers and in equal grief.' lie was 
twice married : first, in 1851, to his cousin, 
Anne Mary (7/. 1853), daughter of William 
Stanley Roscoe (1782-1843); and secondly, 
in 1858, to Eliza (d. 1897), daughter of 
Robert Roscoe. Both ladies were grand- 
daughters of William Roscoe [q. v.] the his- 
torian, lie left no children. 

Besides the works alreadv mentioned, 
Hutton was the author of: 1. 'The relative 
Value of Studies and Accomplishments in 
the Education of "Women,' London, 1862, 
8vo. L\ • Sir Walter Scott,' London, 1878, 
8vo (Morley's * English Men of letters'). 
3. ' Essays on some of the Modern Guides 
of English Thought in matters of Faith,' 
London, 1887, 8vo. 4. 'Criticisms on Con- 
temporary Thought and Thinkers,' London, 
1894, 8vo. He contributed « The Political 
Character of the Working Class' to * Essays 
on Reform' (London, 1807, 8vo), and * Re- 
ciprocity' to a volume of 'Lectures on 
Economic Science,' published by the Na- 
tional Association for the Promotion of 
Social Science (London, 1870, 8vo). In 
1899 n volume of selections from Hut ton's 
writings in the 'Spi»ctator,' entitled 'Aspects 
Of Religious and Scientific Thought,' was 
published under the editorship of his niece, 
Miss Elizabeth Marv Roscoe. William 
Watson's * Liichrymro Musarum and other 
Poems' (London, 1893, 8vo) was dedicated 
to Hutton and Townsend. 

[This article is based on a skftoh of Hut ton's 
career kindly Mipplied by Mr. 1). C. Luthbury. 
See also HokIkjtTh Richard Ilult Hutton of tha 
Spectator. 1900 ; Academy, 18 Sept. 1897, 
22 April 1S99 ; Inquirer. 18 and 25 Sept., 2 and 
9 Oct. 1807: Watson's Excursions in Criticism, 
1893, pp. 113-20; Contemporary Review, Octo- 



ber 1897 (by Miss Julia Wedgwood) ; Bookmai 
October 1897 ; Primitive Methodist Quarterly 
January 1898 (by ilobert Hind); WilfrJ 
Ward s W. G. Ward and the Catholic Rexivm 
1893 ; L. Huxley's Life of Huxley, 1900, i. 439 
Jackson's James Mart inea a, 1900, pp. 80, 192-3. 


189o) ? man of science, was born at Ealinj 
on 4 May 1825. His father, George Huxley 
was senior assistant master in a school a 
Ealing, which had at that time a considerabli 
reputation under the head-mastership a 
Dr. Nicholas. Huxley was the seventl 
child of his parents, and the youngest o 
those who survived infancy. His mother'i 
maiden name was Rachel Withers. He sayi 
of himself : ' Physically and mentally I an 
the son of my mother so completely — evei 
down to peculiar movements of the hands 
which made their appearance in me as I 
reached the age she had when I noticec 
them — that I can hardly find a trace of my 
father in myself, except an inborn facultj 
for drawing, which unfortunately, in my 
cose, has never been cultivated, a hot temper, 
und that amount of tenacity of purpose 
which unfriendly observers sometimes call 


When Huxley was eight years old he was 
sent to the school in which hisfather worked; 
but the death of the head-master led to a 
change in the character of the school, and 
Cieorge Huxley left it, taking his family to 
his native town of Coventry. From this 
time Huxley received little or no systematic 
education, und his reading does not seem to 
have been guided by any definite plan. He 
did, however, earnestly and thoroughly read 
books on a great variety of subjects. At 
fourteen he had read Sir William Hamilton's 
' Logic,' and under the influence of Carlyle's 
writings he had begun to learn German. 

In 18-39 his two sisters married, and each 
married a doctor. This circumstance seems 
to have determined the choice of a profession 
for Huxley himself, although he tells us 
that his own wish at the time was to become 
a mechanical engineer. One brother-in-law, 
Dr. Cooke of Coventry, strongly excited his 
interest in human anatomy, and in 1841 he 
went to London as apprentice to the other, 
Dr. J. G. Scott. At the first post-mortem 
examination he attended he was in some 
way poisoned ; a serious illness resulted, and 
after the immediate effects had passed away 
a form of chronic dyspepsia remained, which 
was a source of serious trouble throughout 
his after life. 

In 1842 he matriculated at Ixmdon Uni- 
versity, attended Lindley's lectures on 
botany at Chelsea, and endeavoured, in spite 

Huxley 23 

of a still imperfect knowledge of German, to 
read the great work of Schleiden. In the 
autumn of the same year he and his elder 
brother James obtained scholarships at the 
Charing Cross hospital, where Huxley first 
felt the influence of daily intercourse with a 
really able teacher. He says : ' No doubt it 
was very largely my own fault, but the only 
instruction from which I ever obtained the 
proper effect of education was that which I 
received from Mr. Wharton Jones, who was 
the lecturer on physiology at the Charing 
Cross school of medicine. . . . I do not know 
that I have ever felt so much respect for any- 
body as a teacher before or since. During the 
next three years he must have accomplished 
an enormous amount of work. He distin- 
guished himself in the ordinary subjects of 
professional study, but in addition to this he 
acquired in some way or other a remarkably 
thorough knowledge of comparative anatomy, 
and a wide acquaintance with the writings 
of the great biologists. In 1845 he announced 
his discovery of that layer of cells in the 
root-sheath of hair which now bears his 
name. Any one who will try to demonstrate 
the existence of this layer by the methods at 
Huxley's command will appreciate the power 
of observation shown by the discovery. 

He graduated M.B. in London University 
in 184o, winning a gold medal for anatomy 
and physiology. In 1846, being qualified to 
practise his profession, he applied for an ap- 
pointment in the royal navy. An application 
to the director-general, suggested by a fellow- 
student, was successful, and he was sent to 
Haslar hospital on the books of Nelson's ship 
Victory. Sir John Richardson [q. v.], who 
was Huxley's chief at Haslar, quickly recog- 
nised his qualities, and resolved to find him 
an appointment which should enable him to 
prove his worth. Accordingly, when Cap- 
tain Owen Stanley asked for an assistant 
surgeon to be appointed to H.M.S. Rattle- 
snake, then about to start on a surveying 
cruise in the seas between Australia and 
the Great Barrier Reef, Huxley was recom- 
mended and accepted. 

The Rattlesnake left England on 3 Dec. 
1846, and was paid off at Chatham, on her 
return, on 9 Nov. 1850. During the voyage 
Huxley devoted himself chiefly to the study 
of animals which could not be adequately 
preserved, for examination at home, by any 
methods then in use. Accordingly the first 
results of his work are described in a series 
of memoirs on those delicate hydrozoa, 
tunicates, and mollusca, which float near 
the surface of the sea, and can be caught in 
abundance from the deck of -a sailing vessel 
in calm weather. The value of these me- 


moire is due as much to the method of mor- 
phological analysis adopted as to the very 
large amount of new anatomical information 
they contain. The conception of a morpho- 
logical type, which was then supported in 
England by the great influence of (Sir) Richard 
Owen [q. v.], may be understood from his de- 
finition of homology, which he interprets * as 
signifying that essential character of a part 
which belongs to it in its relation to a pre- 
determined pattern, answering to the "idea" 
of the archetypal world in the Platonic 
cosmogony, which archetype or primal pat- 
tern is the basis supporting all the modifica- 
tions of such part ... in all animals pos- 
sessing it ' (Owen, On the Nature of Limbs, 
1849). The conception of morphological 
type as an ' archetypal idea/ which Owen 
had derived from Laurenz Oken(1779-1851), 
the German naturalist, and his followers, 
was clearly incapable of being tested by 
experiment, and Huxley from the first re- 
jected it. For him, as for Von Baer and 
Johannes Miiller, the only useful ' morpho- 
logical type ' was a general statement of 
those structural characters common to all 
members of a group of animals in the em- 
bryonic or the adult state. Such conceptions 
could be tested and corrected by observa- 
tion ; and, until the * Origin of Species ' 
appeared, Huxley regarded any hypothesis 
concerning the nature of the bond between 
animals which exhibit the same structural 
plan as altogether premature. 

AVhen the Rattlesnake left England, the 
hydrozoa were commonly associated with 
starfishes, parasitic worms, and infusoria in 
Cuvier's group ' Radiata.' In 1847 Huxley 
sent two papers, dealing with the structure 
of a great division of the hydrozoa, to the 
Linnean Society ; in 1848 he sent to the 
Royal Society a memoir 'On the Affinities 
of the Family of the Medusne ' (Phil. Trans. 
1849), and he wrote a letter to Edward 
Forbes [(j. v.], published in 1850 (Ann. Mat/. 
Nat. Hist, vi.) In these memoirs the morpho- 
logical type common to all the hydrozoa is 
clearly explained, and in the letter to Ed- 
ward Forbes it is shown that the same 
structural plan may be recognised in sea- 
anemones, corals, and their allies. It is 
pointed out that the plan common to these 
animals is not exhibited by the other « Ra- 
diata,' and it is proposed to remove both sets 
of animals from the Radiata, regarding them 
as subdivisions of a separate class, 'Nema- 
tophora.' The views embodied in this sug- 
gestion were speedily accepted, and Huxley's 
statement of the morphological plan common 
to the class is now held to embody a firmly 
established anatomical truth. 

Huxley 24 Huxley 

In the memoir on the medusae a compari- English biologists. While winning repute 
ion wu mad- between the two cellular t ion and the wmrm friendship of many among 
* foundation la vers " oat of which the Iwdv the ablest men in London, he was not earn 
wall and the varbu* organs of a polyp or a ing money : and without pecuniary help ol 
medus^a an* formed, and the two primary some sort it was impossible even to publish 
lavers recoznis*d bv Pander and Von Baer s^me of his results. The admiralty felt un- 
in the early e-mbryas of vertebrate*. Simi- able to use funds, entrusted to it for othei 
laxities bvt ween the adult condition of lower, purposes, in assisting to publish anatomical 
and the embryonic condition «-«f higher mem- works : and not only so, but in January 
bers of the same group of animal* had be*-n 1>54 Huxley's request for further leave of 
recognUrd by Meckel, and m:»re fully by Von absence was met by an order to join a ship 
Baer: but this c unparison be: ween the early at once. Rather than obey this order he 
embryo of the highest vertebrates and the preferred to leave the service, and with it 
adult condition of the simples: multicellular Lis only certain income, determined to main- 
animals then known went far beyond any tain himself somehow, by writing and lec- 
previous sugz^st ion of the kind. This com- t uring, until he could gain an assured income 
parison pavecl the way for the attempts in- without giving un all hope of scientific work. 
a ug united later by Haeckel and Dr. Ray Fortunately a chance of doing this soon 
Lankt'Ster. under the influence of Darwin, to appeared. In June 1854 his friend, Edward 
interpret the embryonic histories of the Forbes, who had just commenced his course 
higher animals as evidence of th-ir common of lectures at the Royal School of Mines in 
descent from a two-layered ancestor, essen- Jermyn Street, was appointed to the pro- 
tially like a hydroid polyp. fessorsbip of natural history in Edinburgh. 

On his return to England in lS-V) Huxley Huxley undertook to finish the course in 

learnt that the value of his work on Medu&e London : in July he was appointed lecturer 

had been fullv recognised. He was elected on natural historv at the Koval School of 

F.R.S. in 1851. was grant rd the society's Mines, and naturalist to the geological sur- 

medal in l>5i\ and found the leading v*-y in the following year. The salary 

biologists in London, especially Edward attached to these posts was small, but with 

Forbes, were anxious to help him. With such additions as he could make to it in 

their help, and that of Sir John Richardson, other ways he felt justified in taking an 

he obtained from the admiralty an appoint- important step. During the visits of the 

ment as assistant surcreon to a ship then Rattlesnake to Sydney, Huxley had met and 

stationed at Woolwich, with leave of absence won the affection of Miss H. A. Heathorn, 

which enabled him to arrange the materials and he felt that his position was now so 

amassed during his vovago. and to prepare secure that he might ask her to share it. 

his notes for publication. Accordingly in Miss Heathorn and her parents set sail for 

Idol he published two memoirs on the As- England early in 1855, reaching London in 

cidians, in which several aberrant srenera May. The marriage took place in July of 

(especially appendicularia and dolioluin) are the same year. 

shown to be modifications of the same mor- Before the end of 1855 Huxley had pub- 

phological type as that found in other asci- lished more than thirty technical papers, and 

dians ; the relation between salpa and other he had given a number of lectures to unpro- 

ascidians is clearly explained, while the fessional audiences. One of these, ' On the 

phenomenon of budding, alternating with Educational Value of the Natural History 

sexual reproduction, which had been shown Sciences* (1854, Collected Essays, vol. iii.), 

to occur by Chamisso and Eschscholtz. is contains those statements concerning the 

fully described. In the paper ' On the fundamental unity of method in all sciences, 

Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca' the value of that method in the affairs of 

(Phil. Tran*. 1853) a great advance is made daily life, and its importance as a moral and 

upon all previous efforts to recognise the intellectual discipline, which form the 

structural plan common to the various modi- essence of his popular teaching in later 

fixations of the 'foot/ and the structure of years. 

the pelagic * heteropods * is described. These From 1855 until 1859 Huxley's time was 

expositions of the morphology of three largely occupied by the duties of nis new post, 

widely different groups of animals established In his teaching he quickly adopted a svstem 

Huxley's reputation as a scientilic anatomist afterwards developed until it became the 

of the first rank ; and the success which model which teachers of biology throughout 
attended his use of simple inductive gene- ! the country endeavoured to imitate. In his 

ralisation as a statement of morphological lectures he described a small series of 
type had great effect upon the methods of j animals, carefully chosen to illustrate im> 

portant typed of structure ; and Lis aim was 
that every student should be enabled to test 
general statements concerning a group ot 
animals by reference to one member of the 
group which he had been made to know 
thoroughly. Huxley realised from the first 
that the thorough knowledge of representa- 
tive animals, which is the only pro|)er 
foundation fiir a knowledge of morphology, 
ought to be ncijuired by direct observation 
in the laboratory ; this, however, was im- 
possible in Jenny n Street, and bis idenl was 
not completely realised until Inter. In spite 
of a certain distaste for public speaking, 
which only time and practice enabled him to 
overcome, he devoted much of his most 
strenuous effort to the work of popular ex- 
position. In a letter dated 1855 he says, 
' I want the working classes to understand 
that science and her ways are great facts for 
them— that physical virtue ia the base of all 
other, and that they are to be clean and 
temperate and all the rest— not because 
fellows in black with white ties tell them 
so, but because these are plain and patent 
laws of nature, which they must obey under 

Hi* scientific work during this period was 
influenced bv his official duties ill a museum 
of palieontology. The monograph of the 
oceanic hydroioa, although published in 
1859, had been completed long before. Two 

Bpers, which continue work begun 
ittli-nake, are the memoir on Pyroaoma 
(Ttotm. Ltim. Sac. 1859), and that on 
Aphis (1867), Each of these describes nn 
alternation of generation, and so continues 
the early work on salpu : but with these ex- 

Xons the greater part of the work pub- 
d between 1855 and 1859 deals either 
: tirm? or with problems suggested 
by them. Amongthe more important ofthe 
descriptive memoirs (some twenty in num- 
ber) published before the end of 1859, we 
must mention that on cephalaspis and 
pteraspis (1858), in which the truth of the 
suggestion that pteraspis is a fish is finally 
demonstrated ; the accounts of the eurv- 
pterina (1856-9); the descriptions of 
djcyuodon, rhatnphorhynclius, and other 
reptiles. Tins.- studies of fossils seem to 
have been carried on simultaneously with 
that of the living form-; related to them; 
thus the work on fossil fishes (the main 
results of which were not published until 
18»>-J) whs accompanied by b study of the 
development of skull and vertebral column in 
— BBS fishes (Quart, Journ. Micr. Sci. 
i9), and by the histological work upon 
■ published in Todd's ' En- 
'" i of Anatomy and Physiology ' 

(article 'Tegumenlary Organs'). The de- 
scription of extinct crocodilia led to an 
investigation of the dermal skeleton in living 
genera {Journ. Linn. Sac. I800|. The 
most important problem, suggested by con- 
tinual work upon vertebrates, whether re- 
cent or fossil, is that pre.=eiited by the com- 
position of the skull. The doctrine prevalent 
in England was that which (Jwen had 
learned from Goethe and Oken. According 
to Owen, the archetype skeleton of a verte- 
brate ' represents the idea of a scries of 
essentially similar -i^niral* succeeding each 
other in the axis of the body; such segments 
being composed of parts similar in number 
and arrangement.' Attempts were made, in 
accordance with this theory, to divide the 
skull into a scries of rings, each of which 
was supposed to contain every element pre- 
sent in a post-cranial vertebra. The result 
was a method of de.-cnpr ion which obscured 
the actual anatomical relations of the parts 
described ; and the attempt to demonstrate 
an archetypal idea by anatomical methods 
reached its climax of absurdity. Huxley 
applied to the skull the same method of 
analysis as that he had so successfully 
applied to other structures. In his essay 
' Da the Theory of the Vertebrate Skull," 
read as theCroonian lecture before the Royal 
Society in 1858, lie endeavours lo formulate 
a morphological type of cranial structure in 
an inductive statement of those characters 
which are common to the skulls of a number 
of representative vertebrates in the adult 
and embryonic conditions. The lecture is 
based partly on the embryological work of 
lteichert, Iluthke, and livuioji, supplemented 
by observations of his own upon fishes and 
amphibia ; partly on a careful study of adult 
skulls. The result is a statement of crania! 
structure which bus been justified in all 
esse nt in] points bv the work of the lust, forty 
years. The lecture on the skull is admira- 
ble not only in substance but in form. The 
character of the audience justified the free 
use of such aid to concise statement as 
technical terms nflord ; but when this Is re- 
membered the lecture must be regarded as a 
masterpiece of coin-is., nud lucid exposition, 
worthy to rank with the most brilliimtly 
successful efforts of II is v ley's biter years. 

For Huxley, as for many others, the most 
important event of li-.j!-* was tin? publication 
ofthe 'Origin of Species.' He had main- 
tained a sceptical altitude towards all pre- 
vious hypotheses which involved the trans- 
mutation of species, and, in the chapter 
written for Mr. Francis Darwin's ' Life and 
Letters of Charles llarwin,' he says: 'I took 
my stand upon two grounds : firstly, that up 

iscuSsionB i himself. 

to that time tin; evidence in favour of trans- 
mutation was wholly insufficient ; and, se- 
condly, that no suggestion respecting the 
causes of the transmutation assumed, which 
hud bfin made, was in any way adequate to 
explain the phenomena.' 

Darwin rendered a belief in I In; occurrence 
of transmutation far easier than it had been 
by his collection of facts illustrating the ex- 
tent of variation; while the theory of 
natural selection provided a working hypo- 
tboM, adequate to explain the alleged 
phenomena, and capable of being experi- 
mentally tested. The attempt to secure a 
fair trial for the new hypothesis, which 
Huxley felt it his duty to make, involved > 
great expenditure of time and strength. The 
account of the 'Origin of Species' written 
for the ' Times ' in 1859, and a lecture ' On 
Ilnees. S]wcie», and their Origin,' delivered 
in 1801.1, mark the beginning of a long effort, 
which only ceased as the need for it became 
gradually less. Many y 
of this doetrine in which he took part, and 
especially important and interesting was his 
share in the debate on the question during 
the meeting of the British Association for 
the Advancement, of -Science at Oxford iu 

The consequence of Darwin's theory, 
which many persons found the greatest 
difficulty in accepting, was a belief in the 
gradual evolution of man from some lower 
form; and evidence which seemed to esta- 
blish a broad gup between the structure of 
man and that of other animals was wel- 
comed. Great interest was therefore ex- 
cited by a paper which Owen had read iu 
1S."i7, and repeated with slight modification 
as the Itede lecture before the university of 
Cambridge in 1809. Owen declared thai, 
the human brain was distinguished from 
that of all other animals by the backward 
projection of the cerebral hemispheres, so as 
to cover the cerebellum, and by the back- 
ward prolongation of the cavity of each 
cerebral hemisphere into a 'posterior horn, 1 
with an associated ' hippocampus minor.' 
It is difficult to understand bow an ana- 
tomist of Owen's experience can hare made 
these statements; and his subsequent ex- 

Slanations are equally unintelligible (e.g. 
'wen, Comyartttii? Annt:,inii of \~i-rtt-hntto, 
1860, vol. i. pp. xix-xx). In 1861 Ilnxley 
publisbed two essays, one ' On the Brain of 
Ateles l'aniscas,' and one ' On the Zoologi- 
cal Illations of Man with the Lower 
Animals,' in which it was clearly shown that 
Owen's statements were inaccurate and in- 
with well-known facts. Between 
and 18ti!2 he gave a series of lectures 

Owen's st: 

M In the Conipa rati vo Anatomy of Manand the 
Higher Apes,' published in book form under 
the title 'Zoological Evidences a* 
Place in Nature' (1863, Collected Enayi, 
vol. vii.) There inn sense in which the publi- 
cation of this book marks the beginning of 
a new period of his work ; because from the 
time of its appearance his writings attracted 
greater attention and affected a far greater 
number of people than before. This book 
and a series of lectures ' On the Causes of 
the Phenomena of Organic Xature.'addreaeed 
to working men and printed in lfi63, were 
widely read and discussed, and from hence- 
forth Huxley devoted a continually in- 
creasing amount of energy to popular 
teaching and to the controversy arising in 
connection with it. His sense of the im- 

Cortance of such work, and the enjoyment 
e derived from it, may be gathered from 
words which seem, although lie uses them 
of Priestley, to give an admirable picture of 

' It seems to have been Priestley's feeling 
that he was a man and a citizen before he 
was a philosopher, and that the duties of tl 
two former positions are at 
live as those of the latter, 
are men (and I think Priestley was onfl 
them) to whom the satisfaction of throw; 
down a triumphant fallacy is 
great as thai which attends the discovery o 
a new truth, who feel better satisfied witfc 
the government of the world when they 
have been helping Providence by knocking 
an imposture on the head, and who care 
even more for freedom of thought than for 
mere advancement of knowledge. The* 
men are the Carnots who organise v 1 -* — 
for truth, and they arc at least as impi 
us the generals who visiblv light her bi 
in the field ' 1 1874, CAIe.lnl Efniyt, vol. ill.) 

The freedom of thought for which Huxley 
contended was freedom to approach any pro- 
blem whatever in the manner advocated by 
Descartes; and he wishes bis more important 
essays to be regarded as setting forth ' " 
results which, in my judgment, are t" ' 
by an application of the " method " 
carles to the investigation of prnlilen 
widely different kinds, iu the right solutk 
of which we are all deeply interested' ( to- 
vol. i. preface). In 1870, after describing 
Descartes's condition of assent to any pro 
position, he snys : 'The enunciation of 
great, first, commandment of science 0' 
crated doubt. Ii removed doubt from the St 
of penance among tin; grievol 
it had long been condemned, and enthroned 
it. in that high place among the primary 
duties which is assigned to it by the at'" 




tific conscience of these latter days.' While 
he held doubt to be a duty, he had no tole- 
rance for careless indifferentism ; and he was 
fond of quoting Goethe's description of a 
healthy active doubt : ' Eine thatige Skepsis 
ist die, welche unablfissig bemiiht ist, sich 
selbst zu iiberwinden.' 

The fearless application of Cartesian 
criticism aroused great indignation between 
1860 and 1870, but the essays and addresses 
published during this period did their work. 
They were certainly among the principal 
agents in winning a larger measure of tole- 
rance for the critical examination of funda- 
mental beliefs, and for the free expression of 
honest reverent doubt. The best evidence 
of the effect thev have produced is the diffi- 
culty with which men of a younger genera- 
tion realise the outcry caused by 'Alan's 
Place in Nature,' or by the lecture * On the 
Physical Basis of Life \ib. vol. i. 1868). Two 
passages from the last-named lecture may 
be quoted as giving a summary of Huxley's 
philosophical position in his own words : 

4 But if it is certain that we can have no 
knowledge of the nature of either matter or 
spirit, and that the notion of necessity is 
something illegitimately thrust into the per- 
fectly legitimate conception of law, the 
materialistic position that there is nothing 
in the world but matter, force, and necessity, 
is as utterly devoid of justification as the 
most baseless of theological dogmas. The 
fundamental doctrines of materialism, like 
those of spiritualism and most other "-isms," 
lie outside " the limits of philosophical en- 
quiry," and David Hume's great service to 
humanity is his irrefragable demonstration 
of what those limits are. . . . Why trouble 
ourselves about matters of which, however 
important they may be, we do know nothing 
and can knowTTbtuing? We live in a world 
which is full of misery and ignorance, and 
the plain duty of each and all of us is to try 
to make the little corner he can influence 
somewhat less miserable and somewhat less 
ignorant than it was before he entered it. 
To do this effectually it is necessary to be 
fully possessed of only two beliefs — the first, 
that the order of nature is ascertainable bv 
our faculties to an extent which is prac- 
tically unlimited ; the second, that our 
volition counts for something as a condition 
of the course of events. Each of these beliefs 
can be verified experimentally as often as we 
like to try. Each, therefore, stands upon 
the strongest foundation upon which any 
belief can rest, and forms one of our highest 
truths. If we find that the ascertainment 
of the order of nature is facilitated by using 
one terminology, or one set of symbols, rather 

than another, it is our clear duty to use the 
former ; and no harm can accrue so long as 
we bear in mind that we are dealing merely 
with terms and symbols.' 

Those who ' care even more for freedom 
of thought than for mere advancement of 
knowledge ' may well consider the effect 
produced by his lectures and essays upon 
the minds of English-speaking peoples to be 
the most important result of Huxley's work 
between 1860 and 18 JO. But they repre- 
sent only a small part of the work he 
actually did during this period. He was an 
active member of four royal commissions (on 
the acts relating to trawling for herrings on the 
coast of Scotland, 1802; on the sea-fisheries 
of the United Kingdom, 1864-6; on the Royal 
College of Science for Ireland, 1866; on 
science and art instruction in Ireland, 1868). 
He was Hunterian professor at the Royal 
College of Surgeons from 1803 to 1869, and 
Fullerian professor at the Royal Institution 
from 1863 to 1867; he undertook an in- 
creasing amount of administrative work in 
connection with various learned societies, 
especially the Royal, the Zoological, and the 
Ethnological ; and he wrote frequently for 
the reviews, being himself for a short time 
an editor of the quarterly 'Natural History 
Review/ In spite of the increased demands 
upon his time and strength made by all these 
new duties, his purely scientific work rather 
increased than diminished in value and in 

The papers on fossil fishes, already referred 
to, were followed in 1861 by nn ' Essay on 
the Classification of Devonian Fishes.' Apart 
from its great value as an addition to our 
knowledge of a difficult group of fishes, this 
essay is remarkable because in it Huxley 
drew attention to the type of fin which he 
culled 'crossopterygian,' or fringed, because 
the fin-rays are borne on the sides of a longer 
or shorter central axis. The imperfect know- 
ledge attainable from the study of fossils did 
not permit him at this time to describe the 
structure' of the crossnpterygium very fully; 
but after the discovery of Ceratodus the con- 
ceptions foreshadowed in this essay acquired 
great importance in connection with at- 
tempts to find a common type of limb from 
which both the fin of an ordinary fish and 
the limb of an air-breathing vertebrate might 
conceivably have been derived. 

In 1862 he delivered an address to the 
Geological Society, in which he attacked a 
doctrine then widely held. The order in 
which the various forms of life appear, as we 
examine the fossiliferous rocks from the 
oldest to the most recent, is practically the 
same in all parts of the world. This fact 

curred simultaneously nil over the earth, BO 
that two aeries of rocks containing the same 
fossils were held to be of contemporaneous 
origin, however distant from one another 
they uiijlit he. Huxley gave a forcible sum- 
mitry of the evidence against this view, and 
declared that 'neither physical givilogy nor 
MhoOOtolog) i"i.--i ■■■.-> niiv method l.iy wliii-li 
the absolute synchronism uf two strata can 
be demonstrated. All that geology ciin prove 
is local order of succession.' The justice of 
this statement has not been questioned: and 
the limitation imposed by it is one of the 
many difficulties encountered when we at- 
tempt to learn tin; ancestral history of animals 
from the fossil records. 

In 1883 he delivered a course of lectures 
at the College of Surgeons ' On the Classifi- 
cation of Animals,' and another 'On theVerte- 
brnte Skull.' These lectures were published 
together in 1864. Other courses 'On the 
Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates' fol- 
lowed, and a condensed summary of these 
was published as a ' Manual uf I lie ( 'nmpuni- 
live Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals' in 
1871. The scrupulous core with which he 
endeavoured to verily hy actual observation 
every statement made In his lectures rendered 
Che labour of preparation very great. Sir Wil- 
liam Flower [q, v. Suppl.l describes the way 
in which he would spend long evenings at 
the College of Surgeons, dissecting animals 
available among thy stores, or making rapid 
notes and drawings, after a day's work in 
Jermyn Street. The consequences were 
twofold; the vivid impression of his own 
recent experience wus communicated to his 
hearers, and the work ol preparation became 
at once an incentive to further research and 
a means of pursuing it. 

The lectures in 1867 dealt with birds, 
and Professor Newton writes of them ; ' It 
is much to be regretted thnt his many 
engagements hindered him from publishing 
in its entirety his elucidation of thoanatomy 
of the class, and the results which he drew 
from his investigations of it ; for never, 
assuredly, had the subject been attacked 
with greater skill and power, or, since the 
days of Buffon, had ornithology been set 
forth with greater eloquence' (Newtok, A 
Dictionary of Birds, p. :W). One great 
result of the work on birds, together with 
the study of reptiles, was a recognition 
of the fundamental similarities between the 
two, which Huxley expressed by uniting 
birds and reptiles in one great group, the 
Saurupsidu, Other results obtained were 
shortly summarised in an essay ' On the 

Classification of Birds' {Zuol. Sue. Pror. 
1887), containing an elaborate account of 
the modifications exhibited hy the bones of 
the palate. This essay exhibits in an entirely 
new light the problems which have to be 
solved before we can establish a natural 
classification of birds. The solution offered 
has not been accepted as final : but there is no 
question about the great value of the essay 
as a contribution to cranial morphology. 

The lectures on birds must serve aa e 
amples of others given at the College of 
Surgeons; they were probably the moat 
strikingly novel of any except tins first course 
* On the Classification of Animals ; ' but the 
condensed summary, published in 1871, 
shows that every course of lectures x 
have marked important additions to 
knowledge of the animals with which it 
dealt. One other important problem, that 
of the homologies of the bones which con- 
nect the tympanic membrane with the ear- 
capsule, must be mentioned as treated in 
these lectures, and more fully in a pape 
read before the Zoological Society (1869). 

Apart from the lectures, and from the 
books based on them, Huxley published 
about, fifty technical papers between 1860 
and 1870. Among these are numerous 
descriptions of dinosauria, including that 
"1 hypsilophodon, the results being sum- 
marised in the essay on the classification of 
the group {Quart. Jaunt, Geol. Soc. 1869), 
and in the statements of the relation be- 
tween reptiles mill bird.*, already referred to. 
The account of hyperodapedon (1869) ia 
of great importance in connection with 
nno t her group of reptiles, and there are 
many valuable memoirs on fossil amphibia. 
Much of his work on systematic ethnology 
remoins unpublished; but in 1885 he pub- 
lished anessay ' On the Methods and Ilesulta 
of Ethnology,' containing a scheme of 
classification of the races of mankind, based 
on the characters of the hair, the colour of 
the skin, and the cranial index. He 
dently contemplated a more complete study 
of physical anthropology; for among the 
materials left in his laboratory are some, 
hundreds of pbolujrraphs of various races of 
men, which he had collected before 1870. 

The ' Elementary Lessons in Physiology,' 
published in 1*68, 'is probably better kuown 
than any elementary text-hook of its kind. 
It has been reprinted no less than thirty 
times since its first appearance. 

The years from 1870 to 188i> comprise • 
period of constant nctivily, ending in In 
almost complete withdrawal from public 
life, made necessary by increasing illness. 

In 1872 the removal of the School of 

Mines from Jermyn Street lo South Ken- 
sington gav.- the long'-deaired opportunity 
eting Lis plan of instruction, bj 
rnsblitit' I verv student Co exaiuiue for him- 
■ ■..,'-. With ill- help of hii (bur 
demonstrators, Thiselton liver, Michael 
Foster, lUy I.nnkeslcr, and W. Kuiherford, 
of laboratory work whs perfected, 
and its mniii features are described in the 
well-known text-book of ' Elementary Bio- 
". ', written in conjunction with 
\n important ohancterietic of Huxley's 
teaching, both in his lectured to students 
technical memoirs, may here be 
Darwin had suggested an inter- 
iiHH I Mill of the fact! of embryology which 
■ ; one that a fuller Icoo* ledge of 
at might reveal the ancestml 
nil the great group* of animals, 
nt least in its main outlines. This hope 

but the attempt to interpret the phenomena 

I'd to speculations which were 

ifnl and ill ware incapable of 

keenly sensible of the 

cannot he experimentally tested, und he 

(voided it. This is well seen in 

. on Cerstodos (1S70), 

where a di-m—mo nf I lie «-|iy in which the 

taws are smpended from the skull lends him 

■■■-. In one 

the higher vertebrates; and the hypothesis 
■ autostylic' resemble the 
"i air-breathing forme suggests 
itself at one- 1 . All hough this wa? clearly 
Huxley 1 * mind, he is careful to 
■ I eiin ■ n t n r d emonstrnble 
structural resemblance, which must remain 
true, whatever hypothesis of its origin may 
ultimately he found most useful. Again, in 
the Compara- 
tive Anatomy of [nvertebrated Animals' 
■ hate abstained from dis- 
(et.iology, not because I 
mate their importance, or nm iu- 
Ihn interest of the great problem 
because, to my mind, the 
. . mix n|, ;mI i . 1 1 .■ i :.- 1 1 ■ . 1 1 

turns will, il unchecked, Ih row Biology 

mpts to trace 

i irtiealar forms which 

Ue bawd on pulreonto- 
tfcr rudtc '- wprord to bitn Buflicicnl lyeom- 

plete. Such are the essays on the hnrse 
In ihr (leoingical So- 
ciety, 1870; Antrim* dUn ■ 

Collected li>sny<, vols. iii. und viii. ), an.! that 
on the 'Classification of the Mamnialiu'i Free. 
/..„/. 8iW, l-:-H|. The treat.-., on the cmv- 
fish (187»3 may I,- taken U it BUtaotent of 
his mat lire convictions; and I he dipt-ussinn 
of tin' •• ot crayfishes, riven in this 
work, relates solely (0 the evidence of their 
modification since liaaaic times, which is 
afforded by fossils. 

In 1870 the school board for London 
was instituted, and Huxley's interest in the 
problem of education led him to become 
one of its first members. In an essay 011 
the first duties of the board (Coittempii- 
rary Review, 1870: Collected Estayt, vol. iii.) 
he lays stress on the primary importance of 
physical ami moral culliire. ' The engage- 
ment of the affections in favour of that 
particular line of -conduct which we call 
good," he says, 'seems to me to be some- 
thing quite beyond men- science. And I 
cannot but think that it, together with tbn 
awe mid reverence which have no kinship 
■■ ii', bul arise whenever one tries 
to pierce below the surface of things, whether 
they be material or spiritual, constitutes nil 
that hus.inv iin('h:iiif.'i'iible renhty in religion.' 
This feeling can, 111 bis judgment, be best, 
cultivated by a study of the Bible ■ wirh 
aueh grammatical, geographical, and his- 
torical explanations by r lay teacher as may 
be needful. ' lie held that the elements of 
physical science, with drawing, modelling, 
and singing, aabrded the beat means of 
intellectual training in such schools. Hux- 
ley's influence upon the scheme of education 
iinnllv adopted wai very great, although he 
left tin- board in 1872. 

In speaking of the later stages of educa- 
tion, he dwelt upon the great value of 
literary training as a means of intellectual 
culture, bul he never tired of contending 
that a perfect culture, which should ' Mijiply 
a complete theory of life, based upon a 
clear knowledge alike of it* possibilities and 
of its limitation!,' could not be acquired ■ 
without a training in the methods of physi- 
cal science, At the same lime he was care- 
ful to emphasise his horror of the prevalent 
idea that n mere acquaintance with the 
1 useful ' results of scientific work has auy 
educational value. He well knew that, 
educational discipline e»n only be obtained 
by the pun-nit ox knowledge without regard 
lo its practical applicat ions ; and he saw the 
need for sharply separating inch educational 
discipline from < It..- preparation for a handi- 
craft or profession. Writing in 1808 to 

Huxley 33 Huxley 

one of those engaged in the attempt r ? obtain the monographs in which they are descril 

irrangements tor i 

teaching bodies devoted to art < literary and ministering the annual grant of 4,000/. mi 

other t. history, philosophy. and sc ier.ce.wher? by the treasury in aid of scientific reseav 

any one who wanted to learn all that is mrule the duties of the secretary a serious I 

known about these matters shoull end < lit ion to other demands upon him. In 18 

people who could teach him and put him in hv was elected president of the society ; I 

the way of learning for himst-lt. Thar i* in l>v> he was forced by ill-health to reti 

what the world will want one dav or o:*::er. He received the Copley medal in 1888, m 

as a supplement to all manner of high the Darwin medal in lSfU. From 1870 

schools and technical institutions in which 1S>4 he served upon the following royal coi 

young people get decently educated and missions : upon the Administration m 

iearn to earn their bread — such as our Operation of the Contagious Diseases Ai 

present universities. It would be a place ^1*70-1 1: on Scientific Instruction and 1 

for men to get knowledge, and not for boys Advancement of Science (1870-5) ; on t) 

and adolescents to get degrees.* l*ractice of subjecting Live Animals to E 

Between 1S70 and 1S:n» he published a periments for Scientific Purposes (1870 
number of essays on philosophical subjects, to inquire into the Universities of Sco 
the most important being hi* sketch of flume land (lS76->>: on the Medical Ac 
^1879) in Mr. John Morleys • English Men ■ l^Sl-S^ : on Trawl, Net. and Beam Tm 
of 1-etters * series. In the chapter on the ob- Fishing tlS84>. He also acted as an ii 
ject and scope of philosophy. Huxley adopts spector of fisheries from 15S1 to 1885. 
t he view that t he method ox* psychology is t he In spite of the immense amount of work 1 
same as that of the physical sciences, and contrived to perform. Huxley never enjoy* 
he points to Descartes. Spinoza, and Kant as robust health after the accidental poisonin 
showing the advantage to a philosopher of a already mentioned. Fresh air and some dail 
training in physical science. The chapter exorcise were necessary in order to ward o 
dealing with volition and necessity is an e\- digestive difficulties, accompanied by lass 
pansion of the passage in the lecture 'On the :tide and depression of a severe kind: hn 
i'hvsical Basis of Life * already quoted. The fresh air and exercise are the most difficul 
chapter on miracles begins by demonstrating ofallthinrrs for a busy man in London t 
the absurdity of a priori objections to belief obtain. The evil effects of a sedentary lit 
in miracles because they arc violations of had shown themselves at the very beginning 
the • laws of nature : * but while it is absurd of his work in London, and they increase* 
to believe that that which never has hap- vear bv vear. At the end of 1^71 he wm 
pent-d never can happen without a violation forced to take a long holiday: bat this pro 
of the laws of nature, he agrees with Hume duced only a temporary improvement, aw 
in thinking that * the more a statement of finally symptoms of cardiac mischief becanw 
fact conflicts with previous experience, the too eviJent to be neglected. For thi 
more complete must be the evidence which reason he gave up his public work in 1885 
is to justily us in believing it." Theappliea- and in ISW he finally left London, living 
lion of this criterion to the history of the thenceforward at Eastbourne. 
world as given in the Pentateuch and to The years of comparative leisure aftei 
the story ot the crospels forms the subject of lS5o were occupied in writing many of the 
numerous controversial essays and ad- essays on philosophy and theology reprinted 
dresses, repriutrd iu the fourth and fifth in the fourth and fifth volumes of his 'Col- 
volumes of the 4 Collect »*d Essays.' lected Essays.' An attack of pleurisy in 

In 1>71. on the retirement of William ISn caused grave nnxiety. and after its oc- 

Sharpey ~q. v.". Huxley was chosen as one of currenco he suffered severely from influenza, 

the two secretaries of the Royal Society. The so that the work of helping those teachen 

duties of this othce were even more* severe in London in their efforts to obtain an 

than usual during the years through which adequate university, which he undertook in 

he held it. The Royal Society was requested lSt>- and 1£93. involved physical effort of a 

by theadmiralty to plan the equipment and to very severe kind, as did the delivery of hii 

nominate the scientific staff of the Challenger, Romanes lecture on 'Evolution and tthics 1 

in preparation for her voyage round t he world, j before t he universit y of Oxford in 1 803. An 

Later on, the task of distributing her col- j attack of influenza in the winter of 1894 wai 

lections, and arranging for the publication of i followed by an affection of the kidneys, and 

nuts or' LI , ! a ' Life 

Minted in 

. (',,11,,-r, mi,w in the. 

ioiuU Portrait GaQery, London. His 

>w, with I Hid Henry, 

■Jrs. Waller and the 
Hon. Mrs. John Collier}, survived him; a 
■ 1 in IWSO. 

■of Aberdeen University 
,'a> cremii-il Ikiu, O.V.I,. 
of Oxford ■ g also received 

hilWWJ oVgrees from Edinburgh, Dublin, 
i. tViirsburg, rsolognu, and Erlan- 
Ben. He wat eWied member of countless ! 
ties, and in 1883 be accepted the 
office of privy councillor, but hi 
for anch honours. The only reward far 
which be cared is thai freely given to biro 
by iMHTi.'.r men nf every kind, in every 
country, w!io gratefully reverence hia labours 
in furthering the noble abject* which he lei 
before himself, ' to promote the increase of . 
natural knowledge aud to further the appli- 
cation of scientific methods of ini 

to "11 tli« proUons of lift* to the best of my 
the conviction which has grown 
with my growth and itranMhenad with rav 
il there ia no alleviation for the 
■ i mankind except i. 
thought and aotioo, and the naolaU facing 
of the world la it a when tha nrBteaJ w 
niLik.'-inlii'vi', by which pioui !■■■ 
hidden its uglier features, is stripped off 
Those of 11 iLvli-v'- Maayi which he wished 
d ■ final edition are published in 

', edited by Sir Michael Foster nnd 
Professor Lankester, is in course of publica- 
tion in four quurto volumes ; three have ap- 

[The Lift and Utters of T.H. Huiley, by bia 
eon, "Leonard Huxley, 2 vol*. 1800, i* the inniu 
authority ; it contains a full list of Ins published 
works. An account of his scientific -work is given 
ErTTbonMa ffenrj Huiley. ■ Sketch of his Life 
mid vTortJoyF. Chalmers Mitchell, London and 
New York, 1 900. Bm aim article by Mr. Leslie 
Stejjheu in Nineteenth Center v, December liWO.l 

W. !■'. B. W. 

1NOELOW. JEAM (1890-1887), poetess, 
lurch 1830*1 Boston, Lincoln- 
•hit-r, was iho eUeet ohild of William Inge- 
low, a banker, and his wife, Jean Kilgonr, 
re family. The 
early yeors of her life were spent in Lincoln- 
shire, and the effect of the fen scenery ifl 
apparent in lien lived nt ! 

Ipawicb. and before 1868 oame to London, 
whore abn •pent the rest of her life. She 
I at home. 
of Incident* and Feelings,,' published in 1850, 
ittle attention, although Tennyson 
foanii mdo charming things in it (of. Liff 
of Tampan, L 888-7). It was not unl il the 

1863 thai the public recognised in Miss 
li ii merit. It contained 
the *erws entitled ■ High Tide on the Coast 

.':'.'■ ■ ! : 
and tecknii ■ ■■ of the finest 

of modem ballads, The volume reached a 
fount; edit ■;' publication. 

In I "'7 it. dins) r-i'-i edition, with drawings 
br ranoau art:-!- 

■ J \V, North, 

ww hroogbl. out. By 1879 it was in a 

icond series of 

m appeared in 1876, and both aeries were 

reprinted in 1879. A third serial was added 
in 1885. She wrote much under the in- 
fluence of Wordsworth nnd Tennyson. Her 
verse is mainly characterised by lyrical 
charm, graceful fancy, pathos, close and accu- 
rate observation of nature, and sympnthv 
with the common interests of life. The 
language is invariably clear and simple. 
She is particularly successful in handling 
■aapmtu maworee. He* poetry It Tory 
popular in America, where some 200.000 
copies of her various works have been sold. 
Al ■ novelist she does not rank so high. 
Iler best long novel, 'Off the Skelligs,' ap- 
peared in 1872 in four volumes. The '(Studies 
for Stories,' published in 1864, are admirable 
short stories. She depicted child life with 
and her best work in that line 
will be found in 'Stories told to a Child," 
published in 1805. Between thnt date and 
1871 she wrote numerous children's stories. 
Her books brought her comparatively large 
sums of money, but her fame rests on two 
or three poems in the volume of 188& Bhe 
was acquainted with Tennyson, Bultin, 
Fronde, Browning, Christina Rossetti, and 
with most of the poets, painter*, :,i . 
of her time. She died at Kensington an 
'Hi July 1897, and was buried at Brompton 
cemetery on the 24th, 

■-.— ^=-=.:-* 

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• - ■- ■■-- - ." : '- ." Mirjh l«5 

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>■ _. . - vs>- i.i.-z:.ii : thrirt.* «ctic 

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•: - . 7 iz.- *.^*7 :he i^u^ei 

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- : w --=« - i-i r- oS y.T. l*f 
v. .- -.- - r_. ~ • ■- " ?* " . :-. I <i7. to Eli 

.. ,■"." : ; -~_r: Johnston 
■ - : z -." \.. -—>•-'_. by whom: 

- : 1~. .z *. *■- .: ■ Beatrice Mai 
^.-- : \'-r. H:£nett oft! 

'.-^ :■ ■ "*■ • '- -'-" *: c::l:ivaced ta* 

-. •.:•-. tl .:.r-"-."y I" the course 

* ». — ;■ i "■'. : . ir. i -r*T«rCSiHr while i 

^ . s. • -z.- : . i v- -r c?a*:derable an 

. ^^ -^ • . - - :" ■*£ Venetian glas 

--:- -.>-".' a r..:r.:er «^f except iom 

, ,. -• .^ - l7-~-.t: >zz* o! his pictures- 

t_; ■■:.:?*■ V':.t La** Cruise of the La? 

■. ::.-. 7:.r^-.:v;irrs" — have been in tli 

V.-fl"=y: stVcrVi were exhibited a 

- "':.-■« a :r. the Navil Exhibition of 1891 

■MM ■■ 

... B llerophon and theWeat 

. ii i>jr'T purl 

of hii house into it workshop, witn lathee, 
headw'*. &c, with which he occupied much 

; [i wns also the 

ng gear, which 

■ ■ in the navy till supw- 

of the tnglefield anchor. 

Bn-ide* "In 1 1 ready men- 

WU the author of some pamphlets 

on naval subjects. 

[O'Byroe'i Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Times, 
J. 10 S*pt. 18*1 ; Navy Lists; Royal Savy 

a; {wrviinil knowledge.) 

J. K. L. 


SS-1900), public benefactor, bom 

in MMebMUr on H May 1853, was the 

■ .1 Alexander 4 'enstantine Ionides 
by Euterpe, daughter of Lucas Sgonta. lie 
commenced a business career in Manchester 
in 1850, and, aome five years later, went out 
to Uuoharpat in the wheat trade. Subse- 
■ returned to England, and in 
1 the London Stock Exchange, 
realising a considerable fortune, and accu- 
mulating many superb pictures and articles 
■■ his residence, 8 Holland Villas 
Road, Kensington. In 1882 he retired from 
active business, and nine years later he trans- 
ferred the whole of his collection to his house, 
\ venue, liright on, which he had 
■ . 18*1. He died at. Brighton on 
! 900, and was buried on 2 July at 
eemrtery. He married in I860 
.daughter of Cougtanline Fenerli 
at Constantinople, and left issue three daugh- 
ter* and live son-i. There are two portraits 
i- a boy in a group by Mr Q, F. 
Walla, a niiniatuVe by Ross da 
later portrait [1880) by Mr. Watts, and a 
broui* portrait medal designed In 1882 by 

Ionidee Iwqueathed his pictures, pastels, 
tawing*, and engravings lo the 
ind Albert (South Kensington) 
Miiwuni. on condition that they should he 
her and in no way concealed from 
the pictures include ex- 
r, Ruyadael, Terborch, 
Millet, Corot, Degas, 
!*, Itosaetti.and n number of por- 


SS Jul; 1000; private information ,] 

T. S. 


nnd BUD of letters, was 

9 May 1810. Hie 

liitli.r mi engaged in business, and Ireland 
for long followed pursuits unconnected with 
literature; but his literary interests and 
studies procured him as a young man many 
intellectual friends, among them the brothers 
I Ibjambem and Dr. John Ghurdwu ■'<(. v. nju 
friendship with Uairdner h-d t<. his ncuuninl- 
anee with Emerson, who in 1838 
Edinburgh with an introduction to the phy- 
sician, whose extensive medical practice 
Compelled him |o request Ireland to act as 
cicerone in his stead. Ireland's sealous dis- 
charge of this office waj the foundation of a 
lifelong friendship with the great American. 
In 1843 he removed to Manchester ns re- 
present iitii ■■ of I EXoddenAaU lirm, mid in 
the same year received a signal proof of the 
confidence of Robert Chamber::, who not 

ouly entrusted him with the secret of the 
authorship of 'The Vestiges of Creation,' 
divulged to only three other persons, but 
employed him to avert suspicion while the 
book waa going through the preu, The 
-■-■lit by tin- London publisher, 
who was himself in complete ignorance, to 
Ireland nt Manchester, find tlienc.e trans- 
mitted to Chambers. The secret was strictly 
kept until 1884, when, every other depository 
of it being dead, Ireland very properly re- 
vealed it in a preface to the twelfth edition, 
thus disposing of a host of grouutili'ss con- 
jectures. In 18-Ri Ireland succeeded Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Edward Wat kin as pub- 
lisher and business manager of the 'Man- 
cheater Examiner,' a paper founded the 
vear before by Watkin, John Bright, and 
wniiam McKerrow fq. v.] in opposition to 
the ' Guardian,' too haughtily independent 
of the anti-comlaw league to please the 
■ Manchester school.' The first editor waa 
Thomas Ballantyne [q. v.] Ere long the 
' Examiner' absorbed the other local expo- 
nent of advanced liberalism, the ' Manchester 

! In' -eciiMil |C ■ in ! In' M iihcli-'-i i !' jc'i'-'i 

for forty years. In 1847 and 1848 occurred 
the interesting episode of Emerson's second 
visit to England at the instigation of Ireland, 
whowas.iu Car] y lean phrase, 'infinitely well 
affected towards the man Emerson.' All the 
arrangements for Emerson's lectures were 
made by him ; in bis guest's words ho ' ap- 

E roved himself the king of all friends and 
elpful agents; the most active, unweari- 
able, imperturbable.' 

Ireland, after a while, found himself able 
to spare time from journalism for the lite- 
rary pursuits in which he delighted. In 
18fil he was a member of the committee 
that organised the Manchester Free Library, 

vi*-> iwr.; vr.ff.* f .-.-=. L.* ".-v^. l~inr7 rati Z-Ij-i :if B^=£=£^as£« who died i 

-!vr>> ■•.* ?.-.*-: i i.:i.-; -.*? : \\r.<-t \z*i Liti^i 3Ll<*. im Ixsz-LT? ■ dL 1935k, Ireland 1 

, : ; ur j-.'" ■ -.i* _t."^ '.^fi.'.t: i* *i:*n. , :'t , i s-a^&t tt*. "vimx i* «■«* . - i * *! in 1866 

t rtti if.*—. ••-- v.-. : :vr. tL' !■- t:--: -ru :!•* «.«; rtf H-mrr Allevne Nlchol 

^v ■ -. * .".v.- .-.'-1.7 jf* tl^r^'trv: t — >- *.:=.]: t 5.17 s L\ ?nr.ztt pr: feasor of natura 

: s «-/ : . ■. •-•*rt ; ■- 7 . £ 2 : li* "« wr. : I^jr*. lir : rr it A :•?=<£•**£. *k, was herself knowi 

■..-..■■-: * -.-. »>l"^t --.'. .— -7 -B-l-.i 1 -i—^ir l* *1»* *v>n:Mr :(f Jib* Wel*h Carlyl 

, *- ." • iv. :iu. v."*. i-i -.rl--*-: ^ 1 I?'."-l . tz.£ •?£* -KitTr >f her corre s pon 

.-i.--:-: v.vr--*- . .-.-. .-. >'■- J- L?t> It ir-'e t::z. XL?e JtwsVitt «l5©2): her re 

><.. v-: i *-. .r:~ ..?- £_•-■=. r £.!*..".**. -sr-.ri*. -tt- ?:I1t«:-:t:l* :: Ji=-» Anihonr Fronde "q.f 

£uv: ■.*» i". -:■.-->-:*• n*:t*.iT. r . ";«;- t-zi-r?- S:rcl" "St?o- z z£lL*z.*i p>*thumou«ly in th 

*v- » :^lt ■. . -. 1 -T2 - t - . ■/ 1* 1 - : 4" : : ■ <znz>' * C-: £:«r"=rt: nrV E«rvv*w. She died on 4 Oct 

: -.-« .• v :» ^. A r7-^ i*; V-'-^ — r" =r:'=xti* lift ;: J:iz Mil.*: r*«onaI know 


*■ ' ••■" .» » 

.'-*•-; .. ■.. <:.-< v M4r.V-«Trr-St< :!!-> ISMAY. THOMAS HEXRY (1837- 

% .-.' *,.'•■..•/•: .Vitv,:. *r. i r.i- \j^i* itts :^ 1*'>-V . §i.:p:-wcer. eldest son of Josepl 

■f>\. ■-. -'*-:• ..'. .r>;-r r i'rr!.i'-». LoTTrv-7. I?n:aT. shipb^ilirr. of Marypoint. Camber 

- ; '.'-•:.'.-'.:. •..:'.'*.•.'.:. > '■ Thr B>:"-> land, was torn there on 7 Jan. 1837. A1 

.'• . ^r '■■ .*.'.- .. .-. :.'.:..* * c\!l-o:: r. '.:" p'iS^ir -? the are of air:**n he was apprenticed to 1 

.-. ;..•■; '-: .: v. .a- ±:\-.f:*.t?i i: ,tt. 'i -sr: :-: rir.z-^ tira of fhipbr^kers 'Imrie & Tomlinson) ii 

•.: \ .* '..-. f* -.■.-■, * p ,>>l:t;.rd :r» l^-' ur.I-rr L:verp»>?l. and on the expiration of his tinu 

■\> p,-^- ::.:;.:.'. ',f •I , ».:! ^/S>>.' ar. i w-r.t male a vova^r to South America, visit ins 

■;..••..;•:. r.v- -';.•" r>. He hi. Ts-r'.fjK^i** *•:■'] ■'* the wveraf fort* on the west coast. Re- 

r.r.-r \r-i. •-;,w-:.%,;iy ri'-;!i in rh- work? •■f taming to Liverpool he started in busineaf 

• ■■-.'. v K-.i'. •:. -. .*h'.r-. in which h»r wa* wvll on hi* own account, and enpaged especially 

•.-■■•*'-■': if • '■•>*'■!%;>.- a- lmi red Daniel and in thr Australian trade. In 1867 he ao- 

!;«r',.*.. •:.:.•: y>-"--:-.*A n.11 t he wvenreenrh- -juired the AMiite Star line of Australian 

'■»:'.* .rv ■••:.-. ',r.- ' # f The Iaf:r « "Anatomy --.if clippers, and in the following rear, in 

1 J <• ! \ :. *. -. '. '. y . " I ." n fort 1 nately . this r r»-a« uk 1 partnership with an old friend and fellow- 

' ',..«■■:*.'/'. :.A'i "# b" -old owinz to th»; re- apprentice. William Imrie, he formed the 

.-r •*■ *.\ *,r •iii" which overto-.k him in hi* Oceanic Steamship Company. In 1870 they 

>.••<.- •:.-:;/- ir-jin rlie ^en'*rul rran.*f-r of added the American trade to their other 

ih :■■.! - W'T* from the ' Examiner' to the ventures, and in 1871 began running then 

'</ j;:;'J .tn," -ijion the Utf-r jn unci's recon- steamers regularly between Liverpool and 

#:.!.* *iori with the rnor*; advanced section of New York. In co-operation with Harland 

fhe y+r'y on occasion of Gladstone's home- and Wolff of Belfast, the White Star linen 

pj!<: proposal*! in 1 ^tt. The • Examiner/ now earned a good reputation for safety, comfort, 

fin iiriprofif-ihle property, passed into oth»*r and speed; it is stated that between 1870 

hand*, and -oon coated to exist. Ireland bore and 1699 they paid to Harland and Wolff 

hi-: in. f'lrtunea with tfreat dignity and forti- no less a sum than 7,000,000/. In 1878 the 

itid«r, and, although an octogenarian, re- White Star line placed their steamers at 

mained nci\\<- to t}j<- In u t as a writer in the the disposal of the government as transports 

prn-11. Iff: dind 011 7 Dec. 1^9 J at Mauldeth or cruisers — an offer which led to the 

l:oad ( Within^tori. modern system of subsidising certain private 

In-lanrl wtiH nn <*xe^llent man, jyenerou*. companies. At the naval review at SphV 

ho"jiit:il;!«-, full of inif'Hirttiial interests, and head in 1897, the Teutonic, one of the 

j><TK<-v<;rin^ in hi<« aid of public causes and largest steamers then afloat, was sent by 

privafi: friend •■. A medallion portrait is en- Isinay to take part in the national display. 

tfruvird in 'ThreafN from the Life of John In 1892 Ismay retired from the firm of 

M 1 11/ I "Wi. A collect ion of Ireland's hooks, Ismav, Imrie, & Co., but retained the chair- 

rir-h in editions of Latnb, Hazlitt, Leiph manship of the WTaite Star Company, 

Hunt, i: ii*1 Cnrlyl", was presented in 189o to whose fleet then consisted of eighteen 

tin- Mmirlc-'hT I«><«<? KefiTfnce Library by steamers, of an aggregate of 99,000 tons, 
ThomiiM Kiwi WilkinHnn,nnd a social cata- | which by 1899 was increased to 164,000. 
lop-ui- wuh issued in 1898. 1 Ismay was also chairman of the Liverpool 

Ireland wuh twice married— first, in and London Steamship Protection Associa- 
1KK), to Eliza .Mary, daughter of Frede- | tion, a director of the London and North- 




Western Railway Company, and of many 
other industrial enterprises. In 1884 he 
served on Lord Ravensworth's admiralty 
committee on contract versus dockyard 
systems of building ships ; in 1888 on Lord 
Hartington's royal commission on army and 
navy administration, and on several other 
important committees. He was a liberal 
support er of the Liverpool Seamen's Orphan 
Institution; and in 1887 he contributed 
20,000/. towards a pension fund for worn-out 
Liverpool sailors. He was for some years a 
JJ\ and D.L. of Cheshire, and high sheriff 
in 1892. He died at Dawpool, near Birken- 

head, on 23 Nov. 1899, and was buried on 
the 27th in the churchyard of Thurstanton, 
after a semi-public memorial service in St. 
Nicholas's, Liverpool. Notwithstanding his 
liberal charities, his estate, as proved, was 
considerably over 1 ,000,000/. Ismay married 
in 1859 Margaret, daughter of Luke Bruce, 
and left issue three sons and four daughters. 
His portrait by Millais in 1885 was pre- 
sented to him by the shareholders of the 
White Star Company. 

[Times, 24 Nov. 1899; Who's Who, 1899; 
Wnitaker's Almanack, 1901, p. 382.] 

J. K. L. 

tenant-colonel, born at Glasgow on 27 June CHARLOTTE, Lady (d. 1891), authoress, 
1795, was the son of Major Basil Jackson of j was the daughter of Thomas Elliott of Wake- 
the royal wagon train, who died on 10 Sept. field. She became the second wife of Sir 
1849 at the aye of ninety-two. He entered j George Jackson [q. v.] in 1856, the marriage 
the Royal Military College in 1808, obtained taking place at St. Helena. After her hus- 
a commission in the royal staff corps on ' band's death in 1861 she turned her attention 
11 July 1811, and was promoted lieutenant ; to literature, and began by editing the diaries 
on 6 May 1813. He was employed in the , and letters of her husband's early life. In 
Netherlands in 1814-15, was present at 1872 appeared in two volumes 'The Diaries 
Waterloo as deputy assistant quartermaster- i and Letters of Sir George Jackson, from the 
general, and was afterwards sent to St. Peace of Amiens to the Battle of Talavera/ 
Helena, where he remained till 1819. He and in 1873, also in two volumes, ' The Bath 
served in Canada and was employed in the Archives: a further Select ion from the Diaries 
construction of the Rideau canal. He was and Letters of Sir George Jackson, 1809-16/ 
promoted captain on 17 Sept. 1825, and was On 19 June 1874 she was granted a pen- 
given a half-pay majority on 7 Feb. 1834. i sion of 100/. a year from the civil list, in 

In February 1835 he was made assistant recognition of her husband's services. She 
professor of fortification at the East India now took to reading widely in French 
Company's college at Addiscombe. He was memoirs, and compiled from them several 
transferred in December 1836 to the assistant books on French society. One of the best 
professorship of military surveying, and held of them, ' Old Paris : its Court and Literary 
that post till 30 Dec. 1857, when he retired Salons,' appeared in two volumes in 1878. 
on a pension. He had become lieutenant- Lady Jackson's works have an interest for 
colonel on 9 Nov. 1840, and had sold out in the general reader, but their inaccuracies and 
1847. He afterwards lived at Glewston lack of perspective render them useless to 
Court, near Ross, Herefordshire, till Sep- the historical student. Tier English style 
tember 1874, and at Hillsborough, co. Down, cannot be commended. She died at Bath 
till his death on 23 Oct. 1889. He married, on 9 Dec. 1891. 

on 28 March 1828, the daughter of Colonel Other works are: i. 'Fair Lusitania/ 
George Muttleburv, C.B. 1874. 2. 'The Old Regime : Court, Salons, 

He published : 1. < A Course of Military and Theatres/ 2 vols. 1880. 3. < The French 
Surveying ' (1838), which passed through Court and Society : Reign of Louis XVI 
several editions, and was the text-book at and First Empire,' 2 vols. 1881. 4. 'The 
Addiscombe. 2. (in conjunction with Cap- Court of the Tuileries from the Resto- 
tain C. R. Scott, also of the roval st aff corps) ration to the Flight of Louis Philippe,' 
• The Military Life of the Duke of Welling- 2 vols. 1883. 5. * The Court of France in 
ton' (2 vols. 1840), furnished with unusually the Sixteenth Century, 1514-59,' 2 vols. 
good plans. I 1885. 6. ' The Last of the Valois and 

[Times, 24 Oct. 1889; Dalton's Waterloo , Accession of Henry of Navarre, 1559-89,' 
Roll Call, 1890 ; Vibart's Addiscombe.] ' 2 vols. 1888. 7. ' The First of the Bourbons,' 

E. M. L. j 2 vols. 1890. 





Lift; Allib 

JAOO, JAMES (1816-1893), physician, 
second son of John Jago, was born on 
18 Dec. 1815 at the barton of Kigilliack, 
Budock, near Falmouth, once a seat of the 
bishops of Exeter. He was educated at the 
Falmouth classical and mathematical school 
until about 1833. After a short period of 
private tuition he entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in Easter term 1833, and gra- 
duated B.A. in the mathematical tripos of 
1839 as thirty-second wrangler. He then 
determined to adopt the medical profession, 
and studied at various hospitals in London, 
Paris, and Dublin. On 16 Feb. 1843 he was 
incorporated at the university of Oxford 
from Wadham College (Garihnek, Reg. 
Wadham, Si. 414). He graduated M.B. on 
22 June 1848, and the degree of doctor of 
medicine was conferred upon him by this 
university on 10 Juno 1859. ne then began 
to practise in Truro, and in 1856 he was ap- 
pointed physician to the Royal Cornwall 
Infirmary, and he was also connected profes- 
sionally with the Truro dispensary. He was 
elected a fellow of the Roval Society on 
•2 June 1870, and he served (1873-6) as 
president of the Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall at Truro, a society of which he had been 
the honorary secretary for many years. 

He died on 18 Jan. 1893. He married, in 
1864, Maria Jones, daughter of Richard Pearce 
of Penzance, by whom lie had two daughters. 
Dr. Jago was a voluminous writer on 
various medical subjects, the most important 
of which were investigations upon certain 
physiological and pathological conditions of j 
the eye, which his mathematical and medi- | 
cal knowledge especially fitted him to d'ts- I 
cuss. He was also interested in the history ' 
and progress of Cornish science and antiqui- 
ties. His works are: 1. 'Ocular Spectres 
and Structures an Mutual Exponents,' Lon- 
don, 1856,8vo. This work deals with various 
optical defects of the human eye. 2. ' Ent- 
optics, with its Uses in Physiology and 
Medicine,' London, 1864, 8vo. He also con- 
tributed various papers to the ' London 
Medical Gazette,' 'Proceedings of the Royal 
Society,' the ' British and Foreign Medical 
and Chirurgical Review,' and the 'Journal 
of the Royal Institution of Cornwall.' 

[Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1893, vol. 
liv.j Foster's Alumni Oiod. 1715-1888] 

JAMES, DAVID (1839-1893), actor, 
whose real name waa Bblasco, bom in Lon- 
don in 1839, made hia first appearance in a 

subordinate part at the Princess's theata 
under Charles Kean. He is first recogiiisabL 
at the Royalty, where on 28 Sept. 1863 hi 
was the first Mercury in Mr. Burnand's bur 
lesqueof 'Ixion.' The following year he wai 
at the Strand, where he played in burlesque 
and on 28 Oct. was the first Archibald Goods 
1 a young lover in Craven's ' Milky White. 
Tom Foxer in Craven's ' One Tree Hill ' ft* 
1 lowed. In Mr. Burnand's ' Windsor Caatla 
I he waa Will Somers. Other parte of littll 
importance succeeded, and on 15 June 186] 
he was the first Joseph in ' Our Domestics, 
('Nos Domestiques '). His reputation row 
with his performance on 5 Feb. 1870 ol 
Zekiel Homespun in a revival of the 'Heii 
at Law.' Two months later, in partnership 
with Henry James Montague fq. v.] and 
Thomas Thorne, he undertook the manage- 
ment of the Vaudeville, but waa unable to 
appear in the opening performance*. On 
4 June 1870, at the Vaudeville, he played 
Mr. Jenkins in Albery's 'Two Roses,' was 
the original John Tweedie in ' Tweedie'i 
Rights *on 27 May 1871, and Bob Prout in 
'Apple Blossoms on 9 Sept. He played 
Sir Benjamin Backbite in ' School for Scan- 
dal ' and Goldfinch in the ' Road to Ruin ' 
with brilliant success, Sheridan's master- 
piece being given over four hundred times. 
He was the original Sir Ball Brace in 
Albery's 'Pride' on 22 April 1874, and 
' the retired butterman,' Perkyn Middlewick, 
in ' Our Boys ' on 16 Jan, 1875. This was 
his greatest success, and the piece waa 
played for over a thousand timea; it waa not 
removed from the playbills until 18 April 
1879, and was claimed as ' the largest run 
on record.' On 19 April 1879 he was the 
first Plantagenet Potter in 'Our Girls,' on 
29 Jan. 1880 the first John Peddington in 
Mr. Burnand's ' Ourselves,' and on 8 March 
Smallribin Charles WillsVCobwebs.' James 
was the first Edward Irwin in Albery's 
' Jacks and Jills ' on 29 May, Macclesfield 
inE.G.Laukester's'TheGuv , nor'on23June, 
and Professor Mistletoe in Byron's ' Punch 
on 26 May 1881. After] the partnership 
between James and Thorne had come to an 
end, James played at the Haymarket Lovi- 
bond in the ' Overland Route ' and Eccles 
in 'Caste.' In 1886 he undertook the 
management of the Opera Comique, playing 
Blueskin in 'Little Jack Sheppard,' and 
Aristides Caasegrain in the ' Excursion Train.' 
In 1886 he waa at the Criterion playing 
John Dory in ' Wild Oats,' Simon Ingot in 
' David Derrick,' Matthew Pincber in < Cyril's. 
Success,' and his old part in 'Our Boys.' 

i.,k.nj..j..i ia also the nratTownely 

1 19 Not. 1887, 


; ;v'nnr.' He was alsosecn 

ilul 'nndSarouel 

k in ' Married Life' He died on 2 Oct 

Junta wns an admirable comedian ii 
pan* in which ripeneal and humour wen 
reqniaitis. In John Dory, Perkyn Middle, 
wick, Macclesfield, and other characters ii 
which clift-rincss and unction were re 

Tweedie m ■ Tw Ii. ' 

Rights ' was a marvellous piece of acting. 

[Pir» .iiial recollections; Paaeoe's Dramatie 
' " ; The Theatre, various years; Scott, and 
■rd» Blanchard ; The Dramatic IV rage ; 
trioni years; Sunday Timet, 
. .-•.,. - | J. K. 

JENNER, Stb WILLIAM, first baronet 
- -i, physician, born on 30 Jan. 181fi 
at Chalhats, wis the fourth son of John Jen- 
Mr, afterward* of St. Margaret's, Rochester, 
and of Elizabeth, his wife, the only daughter 
of G«irge Terry. He received his medical 
education at UnirenSty College, London, 
and w apprrutir.' 

Upper EM -' Turk. He 

waa admitted a licentiate of the Society of 
Apothecaries on 6 July 1837, and a member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 
on 90 Aug. ls:;7. ll» then r™ me need gene- 
ral practice at 13 Albany Street, Regent' 
PatL am' 


Era Attn 
urioo" j 

Park, and graduated M.D. i 
of London iu 1-44 

t ill* beginning of I si? Jenner began a 

■ if continued 

■ the London Fever Ho— 

a ide notes of a thousand 

jte disease. The result of tbe 

ruses was, in his own 

prove ineoulestably, so far as 

jction can prove tbe point, that tbe 

I'iursoDU typhoid fevers 

are absolutely different from each other.and 

highest degree probable 

paing fever is 

■i ,:>> that of either of the two 

ha «u appointed professor of 
patbologicat anatomy 

i.l law in the same year be became 

■r *MHtunt physician to University College 

ng to the ollice of full 

This post be resigned 

' i consulting 

I ■■■ was nomi- 

.'.■ Hospital, 
■ :■' lie acted as substitute 

for Dr. Edmund Alexander l'arkes[(j, v.], the 
Holme professor of clinical medicine, during 
his ahseuceat the Crimean war, 186.1 -6 ; and 
when Parkes was appointed professor of 
hygiene in the army medical school, esta- 
blished at Fort Pitt, Chatham, in I860, 
Jennet was confirmed in the chair of Holme 
professor at University College. From 1868 
to I87S he mi Btodwaor or the principles 
and practice of medicine at University Col- 
lege. From 1853 to 1861 ha held the office 
of physician to the London Fever Hospital, 
and from 1852 to 1862 he was physician to 

the Hospital for Sick Children i .m 

Ormoad Street. 

.li'Illlvr W BS l.-l-r-t.-rl (1 m-'llllliT of ' Ii" l.'oN id 

College of Pbvsiciaus in 1848, and a fellow 
iu 1852. He delivered the Gulatontan 
lectures in 1853, on' Acute Specific Diseases;' 
be was a councillor iu 1860-6-7, censor in 
1870-1 and in 1880, Harveian orator (for 
Dr.Parkes(in l*7i'.!i»dp resident from March 
188! to March 18S8. 1 le was elected a fellow 
of tbe lioyal Sociei.v in 1864. and wits created 
hon. D.C.L. Oxford on 22 .lone 1870, hon. 
LL.D. Cantab. 1880, and hon. LL.D. Edin. 
1884. He was president of the Epidemio- 
logical Society 1866-8, of tbe Pathological 
Society of London 1873-5, and of the 
Clinical Society in 1875. 

He was appointed physician extraordinary 
to Queen Victoria in 1*61 upon the death of 
Dr. William Balj (1814-1861) [q. v.] In 
1862 Jenner became physician in ordinary to 

i 1863 he was appoint. 
n ordinary to the prince of Wales. 

_Ie attended tbe prince consort during the at- 
tack of typhoid which caused bis death in De- 
cember 1861, and the prince of Wales during 
an attack of the same fever ten Years later. 
He was created a baronel on ZG Fob, 1 988, ■ 
K.C.B. in 1*72, and a G.C.B. (civil) on 
24 May 1*89. He was also a commander 
of the order of Leopold of lielgium. 

Jenner retired from practice in 1*110 owing 

ill-health, and died at Greenwood, near 
Bishop's Walthnm, Hants, on 1 1 Dec. 1898. 
He is buried at Darky, a village near his 
residence. A three-quarter-length oil por- 
of Sir William Jenner in his robes as pre- 
sident of the lioyal College of I'livsiciflns, 
painted by Frank" Holl, R.A., is in the pos- 
session of Lady Jenner. A copy by Val 
Prineep, R.A., Langs in the common room ol 
the Royal College of Physicians in Pall Mall, 
London. He married in 1858 Adelu Lucy 
Lemun, second daughter of Stephen Adey, 

.,bv whom be bad five sons nndadaughter. 

lir William Jennet's claim to recognition 

. in the fact that by a rigid examination, 
clinical as well aa post mortem, of thirty-six 




patients he was able to substantiate the 
suspicion of the great French physician Louis 
that under the name of continued fever the 
English physicians had long confounded two 
entirely different diseases, to one of which 
Louis gave the name of typhus, to the other 
typhoid. The credit of drawing this dis- 
tinction belongs, among others, to Dr. Ger- 
hard and Dr. Shatmak in America, to Dr. 
Valleix in France, and to Dr. Alexander 
Patrick Stewart [q.v.] in Great Britain, but 
their work was contested, while, since the 
publication of Jenner s papers, the identity 
of the two conditions has never been seriously 

Jenner's robust common sense, his sound 
knowledge of his profession, his kindliness 
to patients, and his somewhat autocratic 
manner, made him acceptable to all classes, 
and enabled him to acquire so lucrative a 
practice that he left behind him a fortune 
of 375,000/. The failing health of Sir James 
Clark threw upon him the chief immediate 
care of the queen's health soon after his 
appointment as physician in ordinary, and 
for more than thirty years he proved himself 
not only a most able physician, but a true 
and devoted friend of Queen Victoria, who 
deeply mourned his loss. 

Jenner T s papers on typhoid and typhus 
fevers were published in the ' Monthly 
Journal of Medical Science ' (Edinburgh and 
London) for 1849, and in the ' Transactions 
of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society/ 
1850, vol. xxxiii. The latter paper was re- 
ceived on 20 Nov., and read on 11 Dec. 1849, 
the author being introduced by Dr. William 
Sbarpey [q. v.] 

Jenner also published : 1. ' On the Iden- 
tity and Non-identity of Typhoid Fever/ 
London, 1850, 8vo ; translated into French, 
Brussels, in two parts, 1852-3. 2. ' Diph- 
theria, its Symptoms and Treatment/ Lon- 
don, 1801, 12mo. 3. ' Lectures and Essays 
on Fevers and Diphtheria, 1849-79/ London, 
1893, 8vo. 4. ' Clinical Lectures and Essays 
on Rickets, Tuberculosis, Abdominal Tu- 
mours, and other Subjects/ London, 1895, 

[British Medical Journal, 1898, ii. 1851 ; 
Transactions of the Royal Medical and Chirur- 
gical Society, 1899, vol. lxxxii.; Royal Society's 
Yearbook, 1900, p. 183; private information.] 

D'A. P. 

JENNINGS, LOUIS JOHN (1836-1893), 
journalist and politician, son of John Jen- 
nings, a member of an old Norfolk family, 
was born on 12 May 1836. Before he was 
twenty-five he became connected with the 
1 Times/ for which journal he was sent to 
India as special correspondent in 1863. For 

some time he was editor of the ' Times o 
India.' After the civil war he was the repre 
sentative of the * Times ' in America, as sue 
cessor to Dr. Charles Mackay [q. vj In 1861 
he published * Eighty Years of Kepublicai 
Government in the United States/ London 
1868, cr. 8vo, and in the same year he marriec 
Madeline, daughter of David Henriques ol 
New York. He settled in New York anc 
became the editor of the ' New York Times. 
The municipal government of the city hai 
fallen into the hands of the Tammany Kini 
and 'Boss' Tweed. Jennings, undeterrec 
by threats of personal violence, and even ol 
murder, during many months exposed th( 
malpractices in his newspaper, and finally 
had the satisfaction of seeing the corrupt 
organisation broken up through his public- 
spirited and courageous efforts, and the ring- 
leaders, who had defrauded their fellow- 
citizens of millions of dollars, punished 
This remarkable achievement was commemo- 
rated by a testimonial to Jennings, signed by 
representatives of the best classes in New 

Jennings returned to London in 1876 tc 
devote himself to literature, founded and 
edited ' The Week/ a newspaper which did 
not meet with much success, and became a 
contributor to the ' Quarterly Review/ foi 
the publisher of which, John Murray, he 
acted as reader. In 1877 he had charge oi 
the city article in the ' World/ He was an 
active pedestrian, and published ' Field Paths 
and Green Lanes: being Country Walks, 
chiefly in Surrey and Sussex T (1877 &c. fixt 
editions), followed by ' Rambles among the 
Hills in the Peak of Derbyshire and the South 
I Downs ' (1880), with some charmingwood- 
| cuts after sketches by Mr. A. H. Hallam 
1 Murray. These volumes have nothing of the 
formal character of guide-books, but are racy 
descriptions of secluded country paths inter- 
spersed with stories of quaint rural wav- 
farere. In 1882-3 he wrote a novel, *Tne 
Millionaire/ said to depict Jay Gould, the 
American, which appeared in ( Blackwood's 
Magazine/ and was afterwards published 
anonymously (1883, 3 vols.) 

His most important literary undertaking 
was to edit ' The Croker Papers : the Cor- 
respondence and Diaries of the late Rt. 
Hon. John Wilson Croker, Secretary to the 
Admiralty from 1809 to 1830' (London, 
1884, 3 vols. 8vo ; 2nd edit, revised, 1885), 
a duty which he performed with much skill 
and judgment. In November 1885 and July 
1886 he was elected M.P. for Stockport in 
the conservative interest, and became ab- 
sorbed in politics. He was a follower of 
Lord Randolph Churchill [q. v. SuppL], but 




dissociated himself when Lord Randolph 
attacked the appointment of the Parnell 
commission in 1889. His last literary work 
was to edit Lord Randolph Churchill's 
* Speeches, with Notes and Introduction' 
(1889, 2 vols. 8vo). He acted as London 
correspondent of the ' New York Herald/ 
and published ' Mr. Gladstone : a Study ' 
(1887, cr. 8vo, several editions), a severe 
party attack criticised by Mr. H. J. Leech 
in 'Mr. Gladstone and his Reviler/ 1888. 
After two years' illness he died on 9 Feb. 
1893, at Elm Park Gardens, London, aged 56, 
leaving a widow and children. 

[Athenaeum, 18 Feb. 1893, p. 221 ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1891, 13th edit. p. 500; 
Supplement to Alii bone's Dictionary, 1891, ii. 
908; Times, 10 Feb. p. 5, and 11 Feb. 1893, 
© 1 1 H R T 

(1831-1897), premier of New South Wales, 
was son of Francis Jennings of Newry, a 
merchant, who came of a family long settled 
in that part of Ireland, and his wife, Mary 
O'NeiL He was born at Newry on 17 March 
1831, and educated in that town till he went 
to the high school at Exeter. Intended for 
the bar, he preferred engineering, but ulti- 
mately began life in a merchant's office ; he 
emigrated to the goldfields of Victoria in 
1852. Here he was fairly successful. In 
18»>5 he settled at St. Arnaud and erected 
quartz-crushing mills. 

Jennings soon made an impression in the 
young colony. He was asked to stand for 
the Wimmera in the first Victorian assembly 
(1856), but resolved to devote himself for 
the present to his own business. In 18.^7, 
however, he was made a magistrate, and 
then chairman of the road board, and after- 
wards of the first municipal council, of St. 

In 1863 Jennings acquired a large pastoral 
property on the Murrumbidgee in New South 
Wales, and, migrating to that colony, settled 
at Warbreccan in the Riverina district as a 
squatter. Shortly afterwards the agitation 
for the separation of the Riverina district 
and its erection into a separate colony 
reached its height. In 1805 Jennings was 
asked to go to England as a delegate to re- 
present the grievances of the separatists, 
tut declined because he expected the local 
government to tackle the question effec- 
tively. In I860 James Martin [q.v.], then 
premier of New South Wales, personally 
risked the district and nominated several 
leading residents to the legislative council. 
Jennings accepted his nomination and entered 
the council on 28 March 1867. He re- 
signed in 1869, and was elected to the 

assembly as member for the Murray district, 
for which he sat till 1872, when he decided 
to contest Mudgee and was beaten, thus, 
losing his seat in parliament. In 1875 he 
represented the colony at the Melbourne 
exhibition, and in 1876 was commissioner 
for New South Wales, Queensland, and 
Tasmania at the United States centennial 
exhibition at Philadelphia. Here he re- 
ceived a special medal from the States and 
was also thanked by the British authorities. 
From America he travelled to the United 
Kingdom and Europe, and at Rome was 
presented to the pope (Pius IX) and de- 
corated with the order of St. Gregory the 
Great. In December 1878 Jennings was 
offered by Sir John Robertson (1816-1891) 
[q. v.] a seat in his projected cabinet as 
vice-president of the executive council and 
leader of the upper chamber, but the forma- 
tion of this ministry was not completed. In 
1879 he was executive commissioner for 
New South Wales at the international ex- 
hibition held at Sydney, and in connection 
with this service was made a C.M.G. and a 
year later K.C.M.G. In November 1880 he 
once more entered the assembly as member 
for the Bogan. From 6 Jan. to 31 July 
1883 Jennings was vice-president of the exe- 
cutive council in Alexander Stuart's [q. vJ 
ministry. From 10 Oct. to 21 Dec. 1885 
he was colonial treasurer under (Sir) George 
Dibbs. The period was a stormy one in 
colonial politics. Sir John Robertson came 
into power only to be defeated on a vote of 
censure ; Sir Henry Parkes [q.v. Stippl.] was 
condemning severely all parties without 
having strength to form a government. 
Jennings was called upon and attempted to 
form a coalition ministry with Robertson; 
finally, on 2f> Feb. 1886, he became premier, 
holding office as colonial treasurer. The 
questions with which he had to deal were 
those of retrenchment and fresh revenue, 
certain reforms in the civil service, and the 
amendment of the Land Act. His financial 
proposals evoked very determined opposi- 
tion ; Parkes condemns them as a protec- 
tionist effort put forth by a professed free- 
trader. Thev were onlv carried bv extra- 
ordinary expedients and all-night sittings. 
His land tax bill was lost. His colonial se- 
cretary, Dibbs, quarrelled with him and left 
! him. At the end of the session his position 
was greatly weakened, and as he was not 
| wedded to politics, he resigned otlieeon 19. Tan. 
1887, partly perhaps in order that ho might 
; visit England, where he represented the 
colony at the colonial conference in London 
in June and July 1887. After his return 
he practically eschewed local politics; he 



wos, indeed, appointed to the legislativ 
council in 1890, and was delegate (or Net 
n the 

_d at Sydney 
was practically the close of his public life. 
He died at Brisbane at a private hospital on 
11 July 1897, and wu buried at Sydney. 

Jennings is described hy a contemporary as 
' a clear-headed, cultured Irishman ' who 
' turned every honest opponent who came 
into contact with him into an admiring 
friend ' {Sydnry Mail, 17 July 1897, p. 115). 
He did much to promote the cultivation of 
music in New South Wales, aud gave large 
sums for the erection of the organ at Sydney 
University, of which he was a member of 
senate. lie was also a trustee of the Na- 
tional Art Gallery. He was a fellow of St. 
John's (Roman catholic) College in Sydney, 
a knight grand cross of Pius IX in 1887, 
and was made LL.D. of Dublin in 1887. 

JenningB married, in Wll, Mary Anne, 
daughter of Martin Shanahan of Marnoo, 
Victoria; she died in 1887. He left two 
sons and a daughter. 

[Sydney Mail, 17 July 1697; Heuton'e Ans- 
traliao Dictionary of Dates; Mennell's Diet, 
of Australasian Biogr. ; Parkea's Fifty Years in 
the making of Australian History, vol. ii. ; !frw 
South Wales Blue-books; Sew South Walos 
Parliamentary Debates.] C. A. H. 

JENYNS, LEONARD 11799-1808), 
writer and benefactor of Bath. [See Blow u- 


mathematician, was the son of Major-general 
Joseph Jerrard (A 23 Nov. 1858). He 
studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1827. He is chiefly known 
for his work in connection with the theory 
of equations. Between 1K32 and 1835 he 

fubli&hed bis ' Mathematical Researches' 
Bristol, 8vo), in which he made important 
contributions towards the solution of the 
general ouintic equation. In 1858 ho pub- 
fished a further treatise on the subject, en- 
titled ' An Essay on the Resolution of Equa- 
tions' { London, 8 vo). The theory of equations 
has since undergone great development, 
Arthur Caylev [q. v. Suppl.] and Sir James 
Cockle [q. v. Suppl."! being among those who 
have devoted attention to it. 

Jerrard died on 23 Nov. 1863 at Long 
Stratton rectory in Norfolk, the residence of 
his brother, Frederick William Hill Jerrard 
(A 18 Feb. 16*4). 

[Boase's Modern English Biogr. ; Gent. Mag. 
1859 i. 102. 1884 i. ISO; Knoyclopa-diaBriUn- 
nica, 9th edit. viii. 6(19.] E. I. C. 

DRUMMOND (1821-1897), lieutenant- 

1 general, colonel-commandant royal engineers, 
son of General William Jervois, K.H., colonel 
of the 76th foot, and his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Maitland, waa born at 
I Cowes, Isle of Wight, on 10 Sept. 1821. 
| Educated at Dr. Burney's academy at Goa- 
j port and Mr. Barry's school at Woolwich, 
' he entered the Royal Military Academy at 
1 Woolwich in February 1837, and obtained 
a commission as second lieutenant in the 
royal engineers on 19 March 1839. Hi* 
further commissions were dated : lieutenant 
8 Oct. 1841, captain 13 Dec 1847, brevet 
major 29 Sept. 1854, brevet lieutenant 
colonel 13 Feb. 1861, lieutenant-colonel 
1 April 1862, brevet colonel 1 April 1867, 
colonel 27 Jan. 1872, major-general 1 Oct. 
1877, lieutenant-general 7 April 1883, 
colonel-commandant of royal engineer* 
28 June 1893. 

After the usual course of professional in- 
struction at Chatham, where his survey 
sheets were framed as a pattern for the sur- 
vev school, and after a few months' duty at 
ft oolwich, Jervois embarked on 26 March 
1841 for the Cape of Good Hope. Ha was 
employed on the eastern frontier in the 
construction of defensive posts on the Fish 
river to keep the Kaffirs in check. Toward* 
the end of 1842 he was appointed brigade 
major to a force of all arms, sent to Coles- 
berg on the Orange river, under Colonel 
Hare, the lieutenant-governor, to control the 
Boers. He was afterwards employed in 
building a bridge over the Fish river at Fort 
Brown, and in making the main road to 
Fort Beaufort. In 1845 he was appointed 
adjutant of the royal sappers and miners. 
He accompanied Colonel Piper, the com- 
manding royal engineer, to Natal, and, on 
his return overland via Oolesberg to Cape 
Town, made a rough survey of the little- 
known country through which he passed. 

At the beginning of 1847 he accompanied 
General Sir George Berkeley, commanding 
the troops, to Kaffirland, where he mode a 
sketch survey of British Kaflraria, extend- 
ing from the Keiskama river to the Kei 
river, and from Fort Hare to the sea, some 
two thousand square miles, of which eleven 
hundred were surveyed during the war under 
the protection of 'military escorts. This 
survey proved of considerable value in sub- 
sequent wars, and thirty years later was the 
only map with any pretension to accuracy 
which Lord Chelmsford could find for his 
guidance in that part of the country. On 
his way home in the Devastation, in 1648, 
Jervois connected the sketch sheets of the 

survev. which was published by Arrow smith. 
Sir llnrrv George Wakelyn Smith [q. v.], 
the governor at (he Cape of Good Hope, 
in Lnrri Itiaelnn, the 
muter-general of the ordnance, ' as one ot 
the most able, energetic, and melons officer! 
I harp ever exacted more than his shore of 
duty from," Fur his services in t hi- Kullir 
war Jervuis received the war medul. 

From 1S45) to 1*52 Jervois commanded a 
company of royal sappers end miners at 
Woolwich H'ld Chatham, and in Jane 186"2 

■ Aldernevfor employment, on the 
one far tie defence of the new 

harbour in course of formation. In August 

i".-y was visited by Queen Victoria 

>nd Ptunse Albert, and, in accordance with 

rwi.«n. Jervois received a brevet majority on 

56 he was sp- 

Cted commanding royal engineer of the 
don military distrust, and in the aune 
ve*r woe ■ member of the committee on 
barracks. (In" April 1850 lie was appointed 
assistant inspector-general of fortifications 
at the war office, and commenced the work 
by which be is best known. 

In 1857, in addition to hia other duties, 
Jervoie was appointed secretary !o tiio de- 
fence committee presided out In the Duke 
ijf Cam bridge, commanding- in -chief. In the 
following year a violent French outburst 
against England on the occasion "f tin. 

■ ; ij | ■ r "ii the lift of Napoleon III 
created ■ war scare, and Jervoie was spe- 
ciellv employed by General Jonathan Peal 

■ wir minister, in preparing plans 

■ nee of Loudon in case of invasion. 
e was appointed secretary to the 

royal commission on the defences of the 
United Kingdom, and displayed great energy 

in guiding; the commission. The 
report, which was mainly drafted by him and 
fully accepted by the members of the com- 
mission, was presented to parliament in 1660, 
ind resulted in a loan of 7,000,000/. to buy 
laud and carry out the works recommended, 
prince consort, who took 
■•: in the fortifications, 

H to Jervois of much kindness 

mostly made under the direct 
Mervoi", who, in the transition 
r* iind j-ujji [1 arms, bad great 
contend with. Rifling was 
■ adopted for guns, but the 
oothliorc and the rifled 110- 
guns then known, 
chances which were taking 
fiitnlnm.'iiluHi affected the 
work. lr ,, 

proposed both for ships and forts, and Jer- 
vois was a member of the special committee 
on the application of iron to defence. 

On o Sept. 18U-' he was appointed director 
of works for furl ideations, and as such was 
nominally in administrative charge of all 
adar the ius»ector~general of for- 
tifications, but in reality he was the confi- 
dential adviser of successive secretaries of 
state for war on nil questions of defence. 
In September 1863 Jervois was sent to 

wick, ami Bermuda. He also visited tin: 
principal forts of the eastern seaboard of the 
United States during the war between north 
and south. On 27 Nov. l«t!3 he was made 
a companion of the order of the Bath, civil 
division. Both in 1864 and 1866 ho viaited 
Canada oud discussed defence questions with 
the local authorities. His reports were laid 
before parliament. Canada voted overs mil- 
lion sterling to carry out. the proposals, but 
the money was ultimately expended in 
making a railway to connect the various pro- 

The works in course 
home met with plenty of criticism, to which 
Jervois replied with his usual energy and 
success. In 1*{!S he delivered a lecture at 
the [loyal l.'uitcd Service Institution outlie 
' Application of Iron to Fort iticiii. inn; in special 
reference to the Plymouth Breakwater Fort.' 
In the same year the work of the engineers 
was attacked in the House of Commons and 
a committee appointed to examine the forti- 
fication works built under the defence loan. 

to the -kill shown in adapting original 
designs to altered circumstances and the 
great advance in the power of rilled artillery. 

In l*(i!» Jervois visited Halifax, Bermuda, 
Gibraltar, and Malta, to inspect the works in 
progress. Iu 1*71 and 1872, at the request, 
of the government of India, he visited 
Aden, Perim, Bombay, Calcutta, Rangoon, 
and Moulmein, reporting bis proposals tor 
defending them. While engaged in this 
work he accompanied Lord Mayo, governor- 
general of India, to the Andaman Islands, 
and was close behind him when he was 
assassinated. On 98 May 1874 lie was 
created a knight commander of the order of 
Bt. Michael and St. George in especial re- 
cognition of his services to Canada. On the 
Winding up of the defence loans in the fol- 
lowing year the accounts showed a saving of 
40,000/. on the voted sum of 7,460,000/., s 
result highly creditable to Jervois. 

On 7 April 1875 Jervois was appointed 

governor of the Straits Settlements. On ar- 
rival at Singapore, he visited the treaty 
states and found I'erak in a very unsettled 
condition— he and his party were nearly 
massacred, lie develop! the able policy of 
hi* predecessor, Sir Andrew Clarke, and ap- 
pointed commissioners to administer the 
government in the name of the sultan. The 
murder of Mr. liirch in November, followed 
by the repulse of a small British force at 
Passii^Sala, led Jervois to take energetic 
measures. All available troops in the Straits 
Settlements and at. Hongkong were hurried . 
to the spot, nod, reinforced by troops from i 
India, a successful campaign ensued and j 
the sultan was apprehended. The home go- 
vernment expressed its approval of Jervois's 
energetic measures. lie received the Indian 
war medal and clasp for his services in the 
I'erak expedition. 

While at Singapore Jervois made a valu- 
able report upon the defences required there, 
which forim-d the basis of the scheme carried 
out aome years later. In April 1877 be was 
appointed adviser to the various Australa- 
sian colonies as to the defence of their chief 
ports, and visited New Smith Wales, Vic- 
toria, Queensland, and South Australia. 
While '.'Hanged iu ( his duty he was appointed 
on 6 July to the government of South 
Australia, retaining the duty of defence ad- 
viser to the other Australasian colonies, and, 
after taking over his government, visited 
Tasmania and New Zealand. On 25 May 
1878 he was promoted to be a knight grand 
cross of the order of St Michael and St. 
George. His recommendations as to the 
defences of the Australasian colonies were 
accepted and eventually curried out, and his 
reports were of great assistance to the royal 
commissiim. of which Lord Carnarvon was 
president in 1882, on the defence of British 
possessions and commerce 

Jorvols proved a good governor, and after 
five years in South Australia be was trans- 
ferred to the government of New Zealand iu 
1881', retiring from the military service on 
7 April of the same year. He paid great 
attention to the defence of the principal 
ports of New Zealand, and roused public 
feeling in the colony by bis lectures and 
writings. He was much aided in these en- 
deavours by the war scare in 1885, and had 
the satisfaction of seeing the scheme of de- 
fence completed before the termination of 
his term of office. His prompt action when 
the king of Samoa made overtures to the 
colony to place his dnuiinions under British 
protection, and the Now Zealand ministers 
proposed to send an armed vessel to Samoa, 
saved a serious complii 

Jervois differed from the general opi: 
in Australasia on the question of Chinew 
immigration, believing that, as half the 
Australian continent lies within the tropie, 
it can only be fully developed by coloured 
labour, of which the Chinese is the most 
valuable, In 1888 Jervois attended the 
I'.li'hratinri at Sydney nf the centenary of 
New South Wales, and delivered a remark- 
ably able spcti-h. He left Wellington, New 
Zealand, on the completion of bis term of 
government on 18 March 1881). 'the best and 
most popular governor that New Zealand has 

In 1890 Jervois served on Edward Stan- 
hope's consultal ive committee on coast de- 
fence duties. Hu had strongly advocated, 
on his return home, both in the press and 
by lectures, that (he defence of naval base* 
at home and abroad should be in the hands 
of the navy. The navy, however, consis- 
tently adhered to the fundamental principle 
that its duty is to fight the enemy's ships, 
and declined to be hampered by tin; such 
charge. This somewhat whimsical proposal, 
which owed any significance it possessed to 
its advocacy by Jervois, fell through. In 
1802 be revisited South Australia, and on 
bis return to England lived at Virginia 
Water. He died on 16 Aug. 1897. from the 
effects of a carriage accident at Bitterns, 
Hampshire, and wai buried at Virginia 

'- -on 20 Aug. 

cut ilie societies, and an associate of the lu- 
s( it nt inn of Civil Engineers. 

Jervois married, on 19 March 18o0, in 
London, Lucy frf, 17 March 1895), daughter 
of William Horsworthy, bv whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. Besides the 
papers already meiil it met I Jervois contributed 
to vol. is. of the ltoyul Engineers' Profes- 
sional Papers, new series, ' Observations re- 
lating to Works for the Defence of Naval 
Ports,' and the following were separately 
published: 'The 1 l.'l'rns-ivc iVilicyof Great 
Britain,' 1871 ; ' Const Defences of England,' 
1869; 'Coast Defences and the application 
of Iron to Fortification,' 18tl8; 'Report on 
the Defence of Canada,' 1 866, fol. ; ' The De- 
fence of New Zealand,' 1884, fol.; 'Anni- 
versary Address to the New Zealand Insti- 
tute,' 1883; 'Address to South Australian 
Institute,' 1879. 

Two portraits of Jervois in oil, by Fisher, 
both in uniform — one as a young lieutenant 
and the other as it captain- are iu the posses- 
sion of the family. An engraving of Jervois 
was published about l.-Ot) iri the " Drawing- 
Portrait Gallery of Eminent Person- 

i with the ' Illustrated 
i trf the World.' 
r Office Beeortl*; Bojal Ea&ataat Be- 

. DapMbfi ; Times, 13 Aug. 18»T i Me- 

>.r Sir K. F. Da Cane in the Royal Engi- 

"> Journal ; Proceedings of the. Institution 

■if il Engineers, ml. tin. ; private sources.] 

R. H. V. 

>-l8B3), general and colon el -co m- 
ient royal (late Bengal) artillery, fourth 
of -Sir Henry Allen Johnson, bart, 
.. and of his wife Charlotte 
h. 'I.. [£. 21 Feb. 1888), daughter of 
rick rlutipee of Philjpsebarg, Hon 
, wa» born at Bath on 4 July 1825. 

■ kL hi hi Christ Church, 
* tutor there to the prince of 

ige, and, having received a commission 
e»lsl regiment, acciimpanied him as 
ie-eauip to the Peninsula, where he 
d under Wellington and was awarded 
[ medal with five clasps for Ciudtid 
-■.iiimiintii, Vittoria, and 

n Beaumont uttered the military 

■• .if the East India Company at Addis- 
n 7 An;;- 1-10. received a eommis- 

Moond lieutenant in the Bengal 

on 10 June 1*12, and arrived in 

His further 

suasions were dared : lieutenant 3 July 

hi 10 June 1857, captain 

iBvot major 5 July 1857, 

■ atonal II* Jan. 1858; 

I ■in. 1868, 'regimental 

94 March 1865, raajor- 

■ 08, lieutenant-general 

sneral 1 Oct, 1M77, colonel-commandant 

■ Dec 1890. 
i the fith troop of the 

I 'engal horse artillery in 
Uj campaign of the first Sikh war, 

■ " battles of Fironnah on 

16, and of Sobraon on 


to 17 Nov. 1850 

i -advocate- general of the 

b campaign of 

sand Sikh war in 1848 9 be served 


m Sampson Whiab [q. v.], and was 


: -Hi 21 Feb., on 

■ « Staff, in the subsequent 

: i- iind Afghans to Peahn- 

1 render of the Sikh annv 

-i-rrices he was 

1 in despatches (Lvndun Gazette, 

LB April 1849), received the war medal and 
two clasps, and was noted for a brevet 
majority on attaining the rank of captain. 

From 12 March 1856 be was aide-de-camp 
to the commander-in-chief in India, Sir 
William Mnytiard Qomn [q. v.], and on 
21 Dec. of that year was appointed assistant 

adjutant-general ot artillery 111 tin: 1 >iule 
division. He wus at Mirut when tlie mutiny 
broke out in May 1867, and accompanied 
the column of Bngadici-giiienil Arclnlali- 
Wilson [q. v.] on its march to join that of 
the commander-in-chief hvim Atuhala. He 
took part in the actions on the Ilindmi river 
at Ghazi-ud-din-Niigar on 30 and Ml Mar, 
when he was slightly wounded, and in the 
action of Had li-ke- Serai on 8 June nml lie' 
subsequent occupation of the ridge before 
Delhi. He served throughout the siege as 
assistant adjutant-general, and when the siege 
batteries were thmra up be ili.l regimental 
duty on the left portion of No. 2 battery, 
consisting of nine 24- pounder guns, suc- 
ceeding to the command when Major Camp- 
bell wan wounded. At the ajaull ot 
14 Sept. he resumed his place 011 Wilson's 
staff. For his services he was mentioned in 
despatches {Hi. 15 Dec. 1867) and receiveda 
brevet lieutenant-colonelcy. 

He accompanied Wilson, who commanded 
the artillery, to the siege of Lucknow as 
filltanl adjutant-general, and on its capture 
in March 1858 was honourably mentioned 
for his services (ib. So May 1858). He was 
made a companion of the order of the Bath, 
military division, on 2(i July, mid received 
the Indian mutiny medal with two clasps. 
After the mutiny was suppressed he re- 
sumed his duties as assistant adjutant- 
general of the Oude division, and held the 
appointment until January 1889, when, 
after officiating for n time as adjutant- 
general of the army, he went In England on 
turlough. On 10" July I800 he was ap- 
pointed assistant military secretary for In- 
dian affairs at the headquarters of the arm v 
in London, and on 4 Aug. of the following 
year was nominated an extra aide-de-camp 
to the field-marshal commanding-! n-< ihi '■!'. 
the Duke of Cambridge. He held both ap- 
pointments untd 1 Aug. 1872, when he re- 
turned to India. On 8 July in the following 
.rear he became quartermaster-giiieral in 
India, but hod only filled the office eight 
months when ho was summoned home to 
take his seat, as a member of enLncil of 
the secretary of state for India in October 
1S74. He was promoted to be 
military division, 1111 29 May Wfi. He 
again rot urn ed to India in 1*77, having been 
appointed military member of the council of 


Johnson 44 Johnson 

the governor-general of India on 19 March, ' he was made an honorary fellow of Kins 

and held the office until 13 Sept. 1880. He College. In 1856 he became physician to tn 

was made a companion of the Indian Empire hospital, and in 1867 he succeeded Dr. Royl 

on 1 Jan. 1878. His last appointment was as professor of materia medica and therapei 

that of director-genera] of military educat ion tics, an office which he continued to hold unti 

at the war office in London, which he held 1803, when, on the resignation of Dr. Georg 

from 10 Dec. 1884 to 31 Dec. 1880. He Budd, he succeeded to the chair of medicine 

was decorated with the grand cross of the and also became senior physician to th 

order of the Bath on the occasion of the hospital. He was professor of medicine a 

queen's jubilee on 21 June 1887. Johnson King's College for thirteen years. In 187( 

retired from the active list on 31 Jan. 1891, he was appointed professor of clinical medl 

and died on 18 June 1893, being buried at cine — an office he resigned ten years latei 

Hanwell. when he became emeritus professor of clinica 

[Despatches: India Office Recoils; Stubbs's medicine and consulting physician to Kingfi 

Hist, of the Beugal Artillery ; Norman's Narra- College Hospital 

tive of the Campaign of the Delhi Army, 1857 ; In 1802 Johnson was nominated by con- 
Medley's A Year's Campaigning in India. 1857- vocation and elected a member of the senate 
1858; Kaye'a Hist, of the Sepoy War; Malle- of the university of London. In 1872 he was 
sons Hist, of the Indian Mutiny; Holmes's made a fellow of the Royal Society ; in 1884 
Hist, of the Indian Mutiny ; Archers Punjab president of the Royal Medical and Chirur- 
Campaign, 1818-9; Thackeray's Two Indian gical Society, and in 1889 physician-extra- 

JOHNSON, Sir GEORGE (1818-1896\ Journal.' In 1871, at the annual meeting 
physician, born on 29 Nov. 1818 at Goud- of the association at Plymouth, he delivered 

--- -*^ -■ * ■ * »* - for its topic 


Edenbridgo in the same county. In 1837 at his residence, 11 Savile Row, on Wednes- 
he was apprenticed to his uncle, a general day, 3 June 1890, and was buried on 8 June 
practitioner at Cranbrook in Kent, und in atAddington. In 1897 an ophthalmologics! 
October 1839 he entered the medical school theatre at King's College Hospital was built 
of King s College. While a student he was and equipped in his memory. His portrait, 
awarded manv prizes and obtained the senior by "Frank Holl, subscribed for by the staff 
medical scholarship. At this early age he and students of King's College Hospital, 
was commencing original work, and was was presented to Johnson in 1888 by Sir 
awarded the prize of the King's College Joseph (now lord) Lister. 
Medical Society for an essay ' On Auscul- In 1850 he married Charlotte Elizabeth, 
tation and Percussion/ In 1841 he passed the youngest daughter of the late Lieutenant 
the first M.B. London, in the first class, and William White of Addington, Surrey, but 
in 1842, at the M.B. examination, he received ten years later was left a widower with five 
the scholarship and gold medal in physio- ' children. 

logy and comparative anatomy. In 1844 ! Johnson's contributions to medical litera- 
he graduated M.D. He became a member ture were extremely numerous, and dealt 
of the Royal College of Physicians in 1846, a chiefly with the pathology and treatment of 
fellow in 1850 ; in 1872-3 he was an examiner kidney disease. Ho was an ardent exponent 
in medicine, censor in I860, 1886, and 1875, of the views of Richard Bright [q. v.], and 

councillor in 1865, 1874, 1881, 1882, and 
1883, Gulstonian lecturer in 1852, materia 
medica lecturer in 1853, Lumleian lecturer 

extended Bright's observations in many di- 
rections. His discovery of the hypertrophy 
of the small arteries in Bright's disease, and 

in 1877, Ilarveian orator in 1882, and vice- j his 'stop-cock' explanatory theory, led to 

president in 188' 

At the end of his college course Johnson 
held in succession the offices of house phy- 
sician and house surgeon to King's College 
Hospital. He was an associate of King's Col- 
lege, and in 1843 became resident medical 
tutor: four years later he was appointed 

what was known as the 'hyaline-fibroid 
degeneration ' controversy with Sir AVilliam 
Gull and Dr. Sutton : the practical outcome 
was that attention was directed to the high 
tension pulse of chronic kidney disease, 
together with its importance in connection 
with other symptoms, and this has opened 

assistant physician to the hospital. In 1850 up new fields of treatment. In 1852 he pub- 

KUM of the Kidney, their Pathc- 
logy. Diagnosis, and Pi 

'Lectures on Bright'* IWa«",' 8vo. His 

last publication was ' The Pathology of the 

. Grnnnlu Kidney,' 1896. 

■■! in ni.-i'.i . 1 . ■ Epidemic 
mid Cholera: their Pathology 
and Treatment,' London, 18oo, post 8»0. 
! LTjngoacopa i Directions foi ita 
Use and 1 'i i f its Value,' 

'.■hI Lectures and Es*ny 9,' 
Ljodnti, 1887, 8«». 4. 'An Essay on 
■ .■. -."ll-L he attacked the 
views advocated hy many modern physio- 
logists, 6. ' History of tiie Cholera Contro- 
■. >. He reintroduced 
th" picric acid test for albumen and the 
1 and potash teat for sugar. He 
eeenbad the great use of the nph- 
]'- in renal pat hology, and assisted 
- Watson [q. v.] in I 
la-t edition of hi.* famous 'Lectures on the 
and Practice of Medicine.' 

[Lancet, 1890; Brit. Med. Journal, 1H9B: 

■ >]..pu(, ; Chan-hill's Med- 

i'-ji-.UT.ijpli v. Sit , private informa- 

w. w. w. 
JONES, ilKNl'.V il*31 1899), known as 
' Cavendish.' writer on whist, the eldest son 
of Henry Darriene Jones of 12 Norfolk 
waa born in London on 2 Nov. 
1 father was an ardent devotee of 
whist, and was in 18fiS chosen to be chair- 
man of the Portland Club whist committee, 
which, in connection with James Clay [q.v.j 
\Hitigton Club committee, framed 
the ' Laws of Short Whist,' edited by John 
Lorain.- Baldwin in Hay 1864. Henry was 
educated at King's Coll'ege school ( 1B43-B), 
and proceeded as a student to St. Bartholo- 
mew * Hospital, where be was a pupil of Sir 
William Lawrence. After qualifying in 
1852 as M.R.C.S. and L.S.A., be practised 
for tome sixteen years in tin- neighbourhood 
of Soho Square. In 1809 he retired from 
practice, but retained a connection with bis 
old profession as a member of the court of 
tli" Apothecari-?*' Company. 

at Cambridge, Henry's younger 
brother, Daniel Jones, joined a knot of young 
men of considerable ability, who had at first 
'taken up whist for amusement, but who 
found it offer such a field for intellectual 
■tudr thai thev continued it 9 practice more 
cally'with a view to iU more cotn- 
intion, and to the solution of 
nit problems connected with it.' In 
, a fow years Inter, Henrv was intro- 
.i.i hi* brother's set, of which he 
i the moat advanced member. 

began to make notes upon difficult points and 
to record interesting hands, and he joined 
the club known as the ' Cavendish,' situated 

the back of the Polytechnic, in Oavendiah 
Square. He subsequently became a member 
ol the Portland Club, where he met James 
Clay. His first written contribution on the 
subject of whist appeared in " Bell's Life ' 
for March 1857. In January 186-2, in an 
lein 'Macmillan's Magazine,' William 
Pole f q.v. Suppl.] suggested the utility of u 
handbook embodying a series of model games 

whist. After correspondence with, and 

;ouragement received from, Pole, Jones 
brought out in l8fi2 a small edition of such 
manual entitle! ■ Principle of Whist stated 
in I '^['l.itii'-'l by ' 'iivernlisli.' A fifth edition 
.■as called for "in 1 WW, when the title was 
altered to'The Laws and Principles of Whist.' 
The eighth edition of 1868 was recast, a 
ninth edition was dedicated to James Clay, 
the tenth contains new matter, while the 
eleventh, of 1886, introduces the subject of 
American leads, a* promulgated by Nicholas 
Trist of New Orleans. 'Cavendish' very soon 
came to be regarded ns the standard autho- 
rity upon whist, and was (so t he story runs) 
appealed to as such hy, among other promi- 
nent player,-. Jones's own father, though the 
latter had no idea that the writer was his 
son Henry, of whose powers as a whist player 
he had formed a lar from commensurate 
opinion. Its distinctive merit as a manual 
was not novelty of doctrine, but lucidity, 
literary skill, and above all theoretical cohe- 
rence. He was, however, the first to lay 
down clearly the true principles of the dis- 
card, and of the call for trumps. 

Two years after ' Cavendish ' came the 
slender and less exhaustive 'Treatise on Short 
Wbiit,'i)f.I[ames]C[lay]. 'Cavendish ' was 
certainly a great advance upon anything that 
had gone before, on the book of ' Major A,' 
published in 1835, and on the book from 
which the latter was plagiarised, Mat thews's 
'Advice to the Young Whist Player 'of 1804. 
Before this came Payne's 'Maxims,' 1770, 
which for the first time laid down the prin- 
ciple of leading from live trumps ; and before 
him was the 'immortal' Edmund Iloyle, who 

fublishfil hit famous 'Short Treatise' in 
Immediately upon the appearance of his 
'classic' in 1862 'Cavendish ' became whist 
editor of the ' Field,' and he soon afterwards 
became 'Pastime' editor of 'The Queen,' 
producing at the same time numerous 
manuals on games. Upon the subject of 
which he was an undoubted master he pro- 
duced ' Card Essays,' 1879 (with a dedica- 
tion to Edward Tayener Foster and a sup- 

Jones 46 Jones 

Quarterly Review/ January 1871, and he also «pi<*e); Baldwinand Clay's 8hort Whist, 1870; 

contributed to * The Whist Table, 1 edited bv C^^ey's . En &}£ Whist and Whist Player*, 

1 Portland/ He naturally was a member of **J*. P? 81 " 1 ^ ? a ?iL ton '» ^J*"" Scientific 

the leading whist clubs such as the West- Jj!"'' ?•£ Yor M 89 * ; f . Pole ? S\l ^^ f f 

minster, the Portland, the Arlington, and 2^?;^?^ Ev f °^ t, °} 1 r° f Wh # W 

♦u~ n- 1 • v* *•_ u. _i j Horrs Bibliography of Card Games, Cleveland, 

the Baldwin At one time he played a 1892 note s kindly supplied by W. P. Courtney 

great deal at the I mon i lub Brighton, esq., and J. W. AUen, e^. The Milwaukee serial 

He visited America (May to October 1893), . whist/ contains numerous adecdotes of ■ Ca- 

and a bnn«iuet was given to him by the whist vendish/ and as many as seven portraits of him 

Slayers of Philadelphia at the Union League at various ages (see especially vols. ii. iii. yi. 

Hub in June 189tt. He played in several and xiii.)] T. S. 

matches of the Chicago Wliist Club. As a 

player he wa* surpassed by his father, and JONES, LEWIS TOBIAS (1797-1895), 
still more by Clay, whose occasional criti- admiral, second son of L. T. Jones, captain 
cisms upon his own performances he records in the royal artillery and author of a history 
with candour. Jones's personality is de- of the campaign in Holland in 1793-4-5, 
scribed as decided, not without brusqueness. was born on 24 Dec. 1797. He entered the 
He died at 22 Albion St wet, Hyde Park, on navy in January 1808 on board the Thrasher 
10 Feb. 1800, and was buried at Kensal brig, attached to the Walcheren expedition in 
Green. II is will was proved on 7 April 1 8119 1*09, but whether Jones was actually serving 
by Harriet Louisa Jones, his widow, and in her at the time is doubtful. In 1812 he 
IJaniel Jones, his brother, the value of the was in the Stirling Castle off Brest, in 1816 
estate being 11 .OH?/. The testator gave his was in the Granicus at Algiers, where he 
Indian whist-mnrkers to his sister, Fanny was wounded, and served continuously in the 
Hale Jones, his books, writings, and manu- Channel, and on the Cape of Good Hope or 
scripts to his brother Daniel. His whist West Indian stations till he was made lieu- 
librnry was sold by Sothebv on 22 May 1900. tenant on 29 Aug. 1822. He was afterwards on 
* Cavendish/ said the * Times ' in a ieading the North American, the West Indies, home, 
article upon his death. 'was not a law- and .Mediterranean stations. On 28 June 
maker, but lie codified and commented on 18JJ8 he was promoted to be commander 
the laws which had been made, no one (second captain) of the Princess Charlotte, 
knows by whom, during many generations flagship of Sir Robert Stopford [q. v.], and 
of card-playing. He was thus the humble was in her during the operations on the coast 
brother of Justinian and Blackstone, taking of Syria in the summer and autumn of 1840, 
for his material, not the vast material inte- for which service he was promoted to be 
rests of mankind, but one of their most captain by commission dated 4 Nov., the 
cherished amusements.' In addition to his day following the reduction of Acre. In 
works on ' Whist ' Cavendish issued guides 1*47 he was flag-captain to Commodore Sir 
to croquet (l*u'0), bezique (1S70), ecarte Charles Hot ham [q. v.] in the Penelope, on the 
(1870), euchre (187(>\ calabrasella (1870), west coast of Africa, where in February 1849 
cribhage ( 187.'$), picqiiet (187:*; 9th edit, he commanded the boats of the squadron at 
189b"), vinirt-et-un (1870. go-bang (1870), the destruction of the slave barracoons in 
lawn-tennis and badminton (1870), chess the Gallinas river. The Penelope was paid 
(1878), backgammon ( 1878), and patience off in the summer of 1849, and early in 18.V0 
games (1*90). lie was much interested in Jones was appointed to the Sampson, again 
croquet, and helped to found the All Kng- . for the west coast, under the orders of Corn- 
land Croquet Club, lie edited Joseph Ben- modore Bruc-\ On 26-7 Dec. 1851 he com- 
nett's • Billiard- ' in lS7o\ issued a limited manded the expedition detached against the 
edition of ' Second Sight for Amateurs,' a I great slaving stronghold at Lagos, which 
very scarce volume, in 18 s - 1 *, wrote articles was destroyed and the place made dependent 
upon whist and other games for the ninth : on the English government. Bruce highly 
edit ion of the ' Encyclopedia Britnnnica,' com mended Jones's ^gallantry, firmness, judg- 

and collaborated with 4 B. W. 1).' in * Wliist, 
with and without Perception' in 1889. 

[Timfs. 13, 16, and 17 Fob. 1899; Field, 

ment, and energy.* and sent him home with 
despatches. Still in the Sampson, he then 
went to the Mediterranean, and on 22 April 

18 and 2."> Feb. 1899; Illustrated London News, j !*•>* was senior officer at the bombardment 
22 April 1899 : Daily Telegraph, 21 Feb. 1899; | of Odessa. On 26 May he was nominated a 
Harpers Monthly. March 1891; Quarterly Re- ' C.B. He continued actively employed in 

the Black Sea, Mid in November was moved 
. in which he 
:: 1 of the war. For his 
services at ibis tuna he received the cross of 
an officer of the legion pfhotioiirandthe Med- 
psue of the third class. On 17 June 1859 he 
win promoted to be rear-admiral, and in the 
fWTOI second in command on 
. under Sir James Hope 
, n. v. tin 28 June 1861 bewas 
madea K.C.H. From 1863 to 1866 he was 
cownuindpr- in- chief at Queens town, and be- 
came n vice-admiral on 2 Dec. 1866. On 
I April 1870, under Childers's scheme of 
I for ace, he was put on the retired 
. Inch he became an admiral on 
UJiilv 1871. On iM Mav 137:! he was made 

• G.C.B.; and on i>6 March 1884 viaitor and 
governor of Greenwich Hospital, B nominal 
and honorary appointment. He died ! ' ; 
uea, after two days' indiaji ■ ■ : 
it pain, on 11 Oct. 1^9">,wii]oi: ; 

lit ninety-eighth year. 

( 0"Byrns'« Naval Biogr. Diet , ; Times. 
1895; Sstj Lift*.] J. K. L. 

■■■!!■■ TlOXHLL) (1823- 
■), binhopof St. David's. I> 
I on 8 Jan. 1828, wae the only son by 
■ofHi nryTicketl 
tone, Ease*) of William Tilaley 
' « of Rwvnfryn, I.lnngynfelyn, near 
rvstwvth, high sheriff of Cardiganshire 
' R, ParxLiM, Sheriff* of Cardi- 
Mr*, pp. 37-8). He was educated al 
rsburv School under Samuel Butler and 
Hall Kennedy from 183-1 to 1841, 
WW head boy in his last year (ft. VV, 
Fiatixn, ShiwtAay School, p. 336). He 
went tip to Oxford in 1841, having roatri- 
cnlatci on HI June 1840, waa scholar of 
i' ■,-■■ WO-o, and Ireland scholar 
iish op Temple was second 
Life of E. A. 
■■! of Ultra kitmaniarei 
■.:■■ year, and 
MA ia 1847. Hewa*eIectedinl845ton 
Mhdwl k:, : 18 to a Michel 

Mknnhi;' bul exchanged 

: .r a fellowship nl I it. L - 
■■■!■ he held till 18o7, l«~ 
eomingas^tniit tutor and bursar in 1864, 
! i-lassicol lee- 
1865, when he finally 
ilea lerved theuniver- 
-—■* master of the schools in 1848, u- - (wa- 
ll ^ moderations in 1856 and 
1-2, and aa BehKl preacher in 1800-2, 

1866-7. 1876-8, being also select preacher at 
Cambridge in 1881. 

Jones's closest, friends during his under- 

S.duale days inelttded (Sirl George F. 
wen, H.J'Cokridg.., ]■). A. Freeman, and 
W. Gilford I'algrave, all Trinity scholars, 
■ad hut former schoolfellow, James. Ridden, 
scholar of Batlbl. They had u literary and 
philosophical society of their own called 
' Ik-rnii'S,' in which Jones took a prominent 
part; he was nl*) a member and for a time 
secretary of the Oxford Architectural So- 
ciety. At Qm'.'ii's i 'oilier Commenced his 
close intimacy with William Thomson (after- 
wards archbishop of Yorli), who lite himself 
was an old Shrewsbury hoy. Thomson, when 
appointed bishop of Gloucester in 1861, made 
Jones his examining chaplain, and, when 
translated to York in 1S63, presented him 
the Grindal prebend in York Minster 

1 the per] 
tuting for tl 

BisJiopthorpe, wnere Tin ■ episcopal palace is 
situated. Jones soon came to be regarded 
us the archbishop's 'right-hand man,' and 
the series of archtepiscopal favours was con- 
linii.'.l by lis appointment as archdeacon af 
York in 1867, rural dean of fiishopthorpe in 
lhljfl, el inn eel I or of Yorli and prebendary of 
Laughton (in lien of Grindal) in 1871, and 
canon residentiary of Y'ork in 1873, all which 
preferments he held (along with his vicarage 
and examining chaplaincy) till his own eleva- 
tion to the episcopal bench. 

Qatbereaigiiatnmof the nee of St. David's 
by Connop Thirl wall [q. v.] in 1874, Is- 
raeli chose Jones as Thirl wol IV 
Apart from his. distinction as a scholar, and 
Ms exceptional experience of organisation and 
administration in church work, he had the 
special qualification of possessing intimate 
associations with the diocese, and of being 
a Welshman who spoke Welsh (though in a 
stiff, bookish manner), and who hiid made 
no mean contributions to Welsh antiquarian 
research. His interest in ecclesiastical ar- 
chitecture had led him. while still an under- 
graduate, repeatedly to visit St. David's 
remote cathedral, on which he also wrote 
some ' very pretty verses," among the best 
of his few poetical effusions; he hod en- 
couraged Oxford men to go thither to read 
during the long vacations, and in 1846 one 
of these reading parties started the move- 
ment for tin- restoration of the cathedral by 
raising at Oxford a fund for restoring the 

His lifelong friend, Edward 

his interest, and collaborated with bin 
several years in writing an elaborate hiatory 
of St. David's (Stephens,!. 104,206). Jonas 

Jones 4» Jones 

secured Freeman's active support for the ' business ability to effecting a very complet 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, which organisation of diocesan work. In tb 
was started in 1*4*3-7, Jones himself acting diocesan conference which he established u 
as one of its general secretaries in 1 £48-51, 18-S1, administrative as distinct from de 
and joint editor in 18->4 (Index to Arch, liberative functions obtained prominenot 
Camb.} He also interested himself during from the outset, so that by 1897 as many ai 
this period in Welsh education, advocating twenty-one diocesan committees, boards 
the reform of Christ's Colleze. Brecon (in a and societies submitted reports to the con- 
booklet on Its Past History and Present ference. 

Capabilities. 1853. Svo). and, at the time of The proposed division of the diocese — bj 

the schools inquire commission, of Ystrad- far the largest in the kingdom— did not, 

meurig School. Thirlwali, who had a high when first suggested, commend itself to the 

pointing him in 18o9 to one of the six cursal part 
prebends of St. David's : but this he vacated tion that the endowment left should not be 
in I860, on settling at Bishopthorpe. He was less than that of the other Welsh dioceses, 
consecrated bishop of St. Davids by Arch- He ultimately contented himself, however, 
bishop Tai tat West minster Abbey on 24 Aug. with the appointment in 1890 of a bishop 
1874 (being made D.D. bv the archbishop's suffragan to relieve him of confirmations, 
diploma on 27 Oct.), and enthroned at St. while himself retaining control of diocesan 
David's on 15 Sept. He did not obtain a business to the end. 

seat in the House of Lords till after the death As visitor of St." David's College, Lampe- 
of Bishop S«lwyn in April 1S7 8, but then as ter, he was endowed, under the college 
junior bishop he held the chaplaincy of the charter, with exceptionally wide powers, 
house for the unusually long period of four which he exercised to its very marked inl- 
and a half years, t ill December 1 882. After provement , one of his first acts being to supplv 
his release from the chaplaincy he rarely at- it with a complete code of statutes (1879, evoi, 
tended the house. instead of the few provisional rules which 

' The progress of the diocese during Bishop it previously had, while in his last year he 
Jones's episcopate was far greater than the pro- assisted the college board in framing a more 
gress during any period of equal length since democratic charter. When the university of 
t he Ueform at ion '(quoted by his successor. Dr. Wales was being established in 1893, he 
Owen, in his primary ' Charge,' 1900, p. 26). however missed the opportunity of securing 
This was pirtly due to the fact that in his time the inclusion of Lampeter as a constituent 
the diocese reaped the benefit of reforms initi- college of the university, towards which he 
ated by Burgess and Thirlwali. the latter of thereafter advised an attitude of friendly 
whom had devoted himself to church build- reserve. He took an active part in the 
ing and restoration, the augmentation of government of Christ's College, Brecon, be- 
benefices (thereby greatly reducing non- coming chairman of its board of governors in 
residence), and the reform or establishment 1880 (see his evidence before Lord Aberdare's 
of educational institutions. All this work committee on Welsh intermediate education, 
Bishop Jones continued and extended. Minutes, pp. 433-43V As to elementary 
While always encouraging judicious 're- education, he was satisfied with the religious 
storation ' he also gave his support to the instruction which it was possible to provide at 
multiplication of new mission churches, and board schools. He also cheerfully accepted 
the number of churches annually conse- the Burials Act of 1880, which in his opinion 
crated by him was more than treble Thirl- 1 was 'not unjust' to the church, for he ad- 
wall's yearly average. His personal efforts mited that the nonconformists of Wales 
for improving the number and status of the j had at least a theoretical grievance in the 
parochial clergy and his scrupulous care in j matter. But when the Welsh church es- 
the exercise of patronage ana in the selec- I tablishment was more directly attacked, he 
tion of candidates for ordination (insisting denied that Wales was either geographically 
on good testimonials and preferring well- or ecclesiastically distinct from England, 
educated to merely fluent men), resulted embodying his views in the dicta that Wales 
within a few years in the almost total dis- | is ' merely a geographical expression/ is 
appearance of non-residence from the diocese, ; 'nothing more than the highlands of Scotland,' 
in a much-needed improvement in pastoral I and that it ' has never had a national unity.' 
work, and in the progressive raising of the ' He, however, took only a slight part in the 
educational and spiritual standard of the work of church defence, which in its militant 
ministry. He also applied his conspicuous I and aggressive forms was distasteful to 

Jones 49 


him, and he was successful beyond most 
Welsh bishops (Thirlwall not excepted) in 
avoiding controversies, and in maintaining 
amicable relations with Welsh noncon- 

like most of his friends at Trinity he had 
been deeply interested in the tractarian 
movement, the more so in his case perhaps, 
owing to his personal affection for Isaac 
Williams [q. v.], who was a native of Llangyn- 
felyn parish, where Jones's Welsh home was 
situated. But a still earlier attachment to 
evangelicalism, corrected by his cultured 
historical sense, led him, after the secession 
of Newman, to develop his sympathies in 
the direction of the evangelical wing of the 
moderate school, but with a whole-hearted 
loyalty to the prayer-book. Among the 
benefits which he ascribed to the Oxford 
movement was the greater dignity and 
solemnity with which it had invested re- 
ligious functions, whence perhaps (and owing 
also to his fondness of music, cf. Stephens, 
Freeman, i. 90) his private admission that 
he liked a few ritualists ' to give colour ' to 
his diocese. 

Throughout- his life Jones was always 
methodical and minutely accurate, though 
his range of knowledge was of the widest. 
A natural warmth of reeling was concealed 
under a somewhat precise manner. In pre- 
sence, his short stature was compensated by 
a quiet dignity. To the last he took a lively 
interest in archaeological research, and his pre- 
sidential addresses to the Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association at Carmarthen and Lam- 
peter in 1876 and 1878, and to the British 
Archaeological Association at Tenby in 1884, 
were models of their kind. 

He died at Abergwili Palace on 14 Jan. 
1897, and was buried on the 20th in the 
family vault at Llangynfelyn. The bishop 
was twice married: first, on 10 Sept. 1856 
(during his residence at Oxford), to Frances 
Charlotte, second daughter of the Rev. 
Samuel Hoi worthy, vicar of Croxall, Derby- 
shire, who died without issue on 21 Sept. 
1^81 ; and secondly, on 2 Dec. 1886, to Anne, 
fifth daughter of Mr. G. H. Loxdale of Aig- 
burth, Liverpool, by whom he left issue a 
son and two daughters. 

The following were his published works : 
1. 'Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd/ Lon- 
don (Tenby printed), 1851, 8vo. 2. 'The 
History and Antiquities of St. David's,' 
written jointly with E. A. Freeman ; issued 
in four parts, 1852-7 (Tenby, 4to), with 
illustrations by Jewitt, engraved by Le 
Keux. 3. ' Notes on the OEdipus Tyrannus 
of Sophocles, adapted to the Text of Din- 
dorf,' Oxford, 1862, 16mo ; 2nd ed. 1869. 


4. 'The New Testament illustrated by a 
Plain Commentary for Private Reading,' 
2 vols. London, 1865, 4 to ; the second volume 
only was by Basil Jones, the first being 
by Archdeacon Churton. 5. ' The OEdipus 
Rex of Sophocles with Notes/ Oxford, 1866, 
8vo. 6. ' The Peace of God : Sermons on 
the Reconciliation of God and Man' (chiefly 
preached before the University of Oxford), 
London, 1869, 8vo. 

His translation into Greek anapaestic verse 
of Tennyson's 'Dying Swan' in the Antho- 
logia Oxoniensis deserves to be mentioned 
as probably the most beautiful thing in that 
collection. Single sermons and the episcopal 
charges were also published separately shortly 
after their delivery. A selection of his ' Ordina- 
tion Addresses' was issued after his death 
(Oxford, 1900, 8vo), with a preface by Canon 
Gregory Smith, who, in his ' Holy Days' 
(1900, p. 67), has delineated the chief traits 
of the bishop's character. 

The restoration of the ruinous eastern 
chapels at St. David's Cathedral is being 
carried out as a memorial to Bishop Jones 
and of his two friends, Deans Allen and 
Phillips, who both died within a few months 
after the bishop. A portrait of the bishop 
in his robes, painted by Eddie in 1882, is 
preserved at Gwynfryn. 

[Authorities cited ; Nicholas's County Families 
of Wales 1st ed. p. 198 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
sub nom. Jones of Gwynfryn ; Debrett's Peerage 
(1896),p.661 ; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses(l7l5- 
1886), p. 775, and Oxford Men and their Col- 
leges, p. 32; Crock ford's Clerical Directory (1896) 
s.v. * St. David's ; ' Canon F. Meyrick's Narrative 
of Undergraduate Life at Trinity College, Ox- 
ford, 1844-7, in Hort's Memorials of Wharton 
B. Marriott (1873), pp. 41 et seq. ; Blakiston's 
Trinity College (1898), pp. 223-6; Dean Ste- 
phens's Life and Letters of K. A. Freeman, i. 43- 
51, 99, 393-4, ii. 8, 37, 131-4, 208-9, 372-3, 
443 ; Archfuologia Cambrensis (January 1898), 
5th scr. xv. 88 (with portrait) ; Allibone's Diet, 
of English Literature, p. 995, and Suppl. p. 925 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; obituary notices in the Times, 
15 Jan. 1897 ; Guardian, 20 and 27 Jan. ; Western 
Mail (Cardiff), 15 and 16 Jan. (cf. 1 April 1901) ; 
Church Times, 22 Jan. ; Brecon Times, 26 Jan. ; 
Bye-Gones, 27 Jan. 1 897, and Annual Register for 
1897, pp. 137-8 ; private information. See also 
the Primary Charge of (his successor) Bishop 
Owen of St. David's (Carmarthen, Nov. 1900), 
pp.25 et seq., William Hughes's Hist, of the 
Church of the Cymry (1900), and Archdeacon 
Bovan in the St. David's Diocesan Gazette for 
1901.] D. Ll. T. 

! JOWETT, BENJAMIN (1817-1893), 
master of Balliol College, and regius pro- 
fessor of Greek in the university of Oxford, 

I was the eldest son and second child of Ben- 





jam in Jowett of London and Isabella Lang 
home. The family originally came from 
Manningham, near Bradford in Yorkshire, 
where at one time they owned land. Ben- 
jamin was born in the parish of Camberwell 
on 1") April 1817. lie is said to have been a 
pale delicate-looking boy of unusual mental 
precocity, and when he learned Greek with 
the tutor of his cousins, the Langhornes, 
' they had no chance against him in their 
(Jrei'k lessons 1 (Life and Letter*, i. 30). His 
chief companion in these years was his elder 
sister Emily ; ' the two would shut them- 
selves up in a room with their books and 
st udy for hours.' 

On 1« June 1829 he was admitted to St. 
Paul's school. The high master at the time 
was Dr. John Sleath [jq. v.] of Wadham 
College. Here he acquired two methods of 
st udv which he always impressed on his pupils 
at a later time ; he learned large quantities of 
Greek and Latin poetry by heart, and he 
constantly retranslated into Greek or Latin 
passages which he had previously translated 
into English. Among his contemporaries at 
the school were [Baron] C. E. Pollock, [Lord] 
JIannen. and A. S. Eddis of Trinity College, 

In November 1835 he gained an open 
scholarship at Balliol College. About a 
year afterwards (October 1830) he came into 
residence. Among the scholars of the time 
were [Dean] Stanley, [Vice-chancellor] 
Wickens, Stafford Xorthcote [Lord Iddes- 
leigh], J. G. Lonsdale, [Dean] Lake, andTDean] 
( Joulrmrn ; and among the fallows [Arch- 
bishop] Tait,[Dean] Scott, and W. G. Ward. 

In Dr. Sleath's opinion Jowett was ' the 
best Latin scholar whom he had ever sent 
to college,' -and this opinion was confirmed 
when in the spring ot 1837 he gained the 
Hertford (University) scholarship for Latin. 
In the next vear he obtained a success even 
more brilliant, being elected a fellow of the 
college while still an undergraduate (Novem- 
ber 1838). In the following summer he 
obtained a first class in literte huma?iiores. 
Already he had begun to take private pupils, 
the first of whom were Thomas Henry Carter- 
wards Lord) Farrt?r [q. v. Suppl.] and his 
brother Oliver. He graduated 15. A. in 1839, 
and M.A. in 1842. In 1841 he obtained 
the chancellor's prize for the Latin essay, 
and in 1842 he was appointed by Dr. Jen- 
kyns, the master, to a tutorship in the col- 
lege, a post which he retained till his elec- 
tion to the mastership in 1870. Jle took 
deacon's orders in 1842, and priest's in 1845. 

Jowett had been brought up amid evan- 
gelical views, which were traditional in his 
family. He now found himself in the 

midst of the Oxford movement, and wai 
peatlv attracted by William George "Ward 
q. v.*], with whom he was brought into 
Wily contact. Years afterwards, when the 
two friends met after a long separation, 
Jowett said: 'Ward reminded me that I 
charged him with shallow logic, and that he 
retorted on me with misty metaphysics. 
That was perhaps not an unfair account of 
the state of the controversy between us.' 
In February 1841 Newman's tract on the 
articles — the famous 'No. XC — appeared. 
It was at once attacked and condemned, and 
the controversy had a peculiar interest for 
the Balliol common room. For Tait was 
one of the first to move in the attack, and 
Ward, who supported the tract, was dis- 
missed from his lectureship at the college in 
the following June (Church, Oxford Move- 
ment, c. xiv., esp. pp. 252 IT.) It appears 
that Jowett was somewhat bewildered by 
the shifting currents around him. ' Bnt for 
the providence of God/ he said at a later 
time, 'I might have become a Roman 
Catholic/ In 1844 the crisis in the move- 
ment came. Newman had retired from St. 
Mary's to Littlemore, and Ward published 
his ' Ideal of a Christian Church.* Jowett, 
with A. P. Stanley to lead, fought on the 
side of toleration, and both were present at 
the scene of Ward's degradation on 13 Feb. 
1845, a day which Dean Church regards as 
the birthday of Oxford liberalism (/. c. p. 

Meanwhile Jowett was working earnestly 
with pupils in college, travelling on the 
continent in the long vacations. In 1844 
he made the acquaintance of some of the 
most distinguished German scholars of the 
time, G. Hermann, Bekker, Lachmann, and 
Ewald, and consulted Erdmann, the his- 
torian of philosophy, on the best method of 
approaching the philosophy of Hegel, by 
whose teaching he was now becoming 
fascinated. For some years he remained an 
eager student of Hegel's writings, and even 
translated a good deal of the logic in con- 
junction with [Archbishop] Temple (Life, i. 
120, 129, 142). He seems also to have been 
greatly stimulated by Hegel's ' History of 
Philosophy ' in the lectures which he was 
now giving as tutor, on the ' Fragments of 
the Early Greek Philosophers ' — lectures in 
which he first gave proof of his peculiar 
powers. From 1846 onwards his position as 
tutor was assured ; he was the centre of a 
number of pupils, who were devoted to him, 
and proved the value of his teaching by their 
success in the schools. In 1848 he "began 
the practice, which he continued till near 
the end of his life, of taking pupils with him 


in the vacation to some quiet healthy place. 
Like William Sewell [q. v.] of Exeter, he 
became a student of Plato, and it was greatly 
due to him that Plato was included in the 
list of books which could be offered in the 
schools (Life, i. 132). This incursion into 
a new field of philosophy he balanced by 
lectures on political economy. His tours 
abroad became more rare as the years passed 
on, but in April 1848 he visited Paris in 
the days of the revolution with Stanley, 
Francis Turner Palgrave [q. v. Supplj, and 
[Sir] Robert Burnett Morier [q. v. J (see 
STJLSXEr, Life, i. 390). 

Yet theology was the chief study of these 
days. For some years past Jowett had 
been on terms of intimate friendship with 
Stanley, and finally the two friends planned 
an edition of St. Paul's epistles. Jowett 
undertook the Thessalonians, Galatians, and 
Romans; Stanley the Corinthians. From 
these labours they were drawn away for a 
time by the movement for reform which now 
swept over Oxford. Stanley and Jowett had 
already begun a joint work on university 
reform, when in looO a commission was ap- 
pointed to take evidence on the subject. Of 
this commission Stanley was the secretary. 
From the evidence which Jowett gave be- 
fore it we see that he wished to retain the 
college system, but was in favour of increasing 
the number of professors. That he had in 
view at this time any extension of university 
privileges to non-collegiate students there is 
no proof. But he was clearly on the side of 
the poor student, and did not wish to see 
the university possessed by the * gentleman 
heresy* (Life, i. 18.T). He was a public ex- 
aminer in 1849, 1850, 1851, and 1853. 

Jowett was now known beyond Oxford. 
He was consulted by Sir CTrevelyan in re- 
gard to examinations for the Indian civil 
service, and eventually became a member of 
Lord Macaulav's committee, which reported 
in 1*54. To the end of his life he retained 
a lively interest in this subject, and indeed 
in everything connected with India (see 
letters to Lord Lansdowne in Letter*, 1899). 

"When Dr. Richard Jenkyns [q.v.] died in 
1854, Jowett was put forward as a candidate 
for the mastership, but the election fell on 
Robert Scott (1811-1887) [q. v.] This re- 
pulse made a deep impression on Jowett's 
sensitive nature ; it was, in fact, the beginning 
of a somewhat distressful period of his life, 
during which he felt himself in little sym- 
pathy with his college and Oxford. The first 
effect of it was to send him back with re- 
newed energy to his unfinished work on St. 
Paul. In the next summer, on the same day 
with Stanley's edition of the Corinthians, his 



edition of the Thessalonians, Galatians, and 
Romans appeared. The publication of this 
book formed an epoch in Jowett's life. 

To the stricter school of philologists the 
commentary seemed to be vitiated by the 
view which Jowett took of St. Paul's use of 
language. His ablest critic, [Bishop] Light- 
foot, strongly protested against the charge of 
vagueness which Jowett brought against the 
Greek of the New Testament period; and of 
St. Paul especially he maintained that his 
antecedents were such that he could hardly 
fail to speak or write Greek with accuracy, 
while Jowett was inclined to look on the 
apostle as one whose thoughts outran his 
power of expression, so that his meaning 
must be gathered from the context rather 
than by a strictly grammatical treatment of 
the words (see Journal of Sacred and Classical 
Philology, iii. p. 104, ff. 1856). The essays, 
which were generally acknowledged to be 
the most important part of the work, were 
partly condemned as heretical, especially 
the essay on the atonement, and were also 
thought to be wanting in definite conclusions, 
though no one could deny that deep and 
suggestive thoughts were contained in them. 
1 Those who look only for positive results will 
be greatly disappointed with Mr. Jowett's 
essays. On the other hand, those who are 
satisfied witli being made to think instead of 
being thought for, and are willing to follow 
out for themselves important lines of re- 
flexion, when suggested to them, will find 
no lack of interest, or instruction in these 
volumes. The value of Mr. Jowett's labours 
is far from consisting solely in the definite 
results attained, which are poorer than 
might have been looked for. The recon- 
structive process bears no proportion to the 
destructive. But, after every abatement 
which has to be made on this score, these 
volumes will still hold their position in the 
foremost ranks of recent literature for depth 
and range of thought ' (Lkjhtfoot, /. c). 
The book could not fail to attract attention, 
even beyond theological readers. Bagehot 
said that Jowett had shown by ' chance ex- 
pressions ' that he had exhausted impending 
controversies years before they arrived, and 
had perceived more or less the conclusion at 
which the disputants would arrive lon« before 
the public issue was joined ' (Pin/sirs and 
Politic*, 8th ed. pp. 110, 117). In 1S59 a 
second edition was published, in which the 
essay on the atonement was rewritten, not 
with any view of retracting tht» virws put 
forward in the first, but to explain them 
more clearly and meet some of the miscon- 
ceptions which had arisen. 

In the same summer (1855) Jowett was 





appointed to the regius professorship of 
Greek, vacant by the death of Dean Gaisford 
[q. v.] Those who condemned his views 
were roused to action by this preferment. 
Under an almost forgotten statute Jowett 
was denounced bv Dr. John David Macbride 

[q. v.] and the Rev. Charles Pourtales Go- 
lightly [q. v.] to the vice-chancellor (Dr. 
Cotton of Worcester) as having denied the 

catholic faith. Dr. Cotton summoned him 
to subscribe the articles anew in his pre- 
sence, and to this Jowett submitted. It 
was a mean attack, which might create a 
prejudice, but could lead to no definite result. 
Almost meaner still was the agitation, pro- , 
longed over ten years, by which the Greek 
chair was deprived of any addition to the 
statutory emoluments which had been 
hitherto paid. Of the four chairs founded 
by Henry VIII at Oxford, and endowed by 
him with 40/. each, the chair of Greek was 
the only one which had never received in- 
creased emolument, and this continued to 
be the case in spite of repeated appeals to ; 
convocation till 186*5, when Christ Church 
consented to raise the income to 500/. a year. 
It was, in fact, made clear that estates had 
been granted to that college for the purpose, 
and that the chair must be endowed from 
some source was rendered inevitable by the 
action of Jowett's friends, who subscribed 
2,000/. towards the deficiency — which Jowett 
refused to accept — and by his own action 
as professor. 

For from his election Jowett had departed 
altogether from the traditional lines. To 
edit dictionaries and scholia was not to his 
taste at all ; he began a series of lectures on 
the ' Republic of Plato* and the ' Fragments 
of the Early Greek Philosophers/ and at 
the same time allowed any undergraduate i 
who wished, whether belonging to his own 
college or not, to bring him, for correction, 
translations into Greek prose or verse two 
or even three times a week. This was a 
very severe addition to his tutorial work. 
Hut his lectures were a success. Greek 
scholarship received a stimulus throughout ! 
the university, and outside Oxford his de- 
voted labour on his pupils could not but 
tell in his favour, whatever his theological 
opinions might be. 

In the ten years following the election to 
the professorship Jowett fell deeper still j 
under suspicion of heresy. In the second 
edition of his « Epistles of St. Paul' (ia59) 
he had repeated Lis views, and in this he 
had intended to include an essay on the 
' Interpretation of Scripture.' This essay he 
finally kept back till the next year, when it 
appeared in ' Essays and Reviews/ a work 

which created a panic in the church. The 
volume was promoted bv the Rev. Harry 
Bristow Wilson [q.v.],of St. John's College, 
Oxford, and among the contributors, besides 
Jowett and Wilson, were Archdeacon Row- 
land Williams [q.v.J, the present Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Mark Pattison [q. v.], and 
others. The book went through many edi- 
tions, ' for though we have now got to the 
stage of affecting astonishment at the sen- 
sation produced dv the avowal of admitted 
truths in that work, nobody who remembers 
the time can doubt that it marked the ap- 
pearance of a very important development 
of religious and philosophical thought' 
(Leslie Stephen, Studies of a Biographer, 
ii. 129). Wilson and Williams were brought 
before the court of arches and suspended for 
a year, but this judgment was suDsequentlv 
reversed by Lorci Westbury. After tne ver- 
dict of the dean of arches an attack was 
made upon Jowett. The case was opened in 
the vice-chancellor's court at Oxford (20 Feb. 
1863), when Mountague Bernard [q. v.] ap- 
peared as the vice-chancellor s assessor. On 
J owett's part it was protested that the court 
had no jurisdiction in the matter. Bernard, 
while rejecting the protest, refused to order 
Jowett to appear ana to admit articles on the 
part of the promoters of the case. Counsel 
advised against an application to the court 
of queen's bench for a mandamus, and the 
prosecution was dropped. 

For a time Jowett * held his tongue about 
theology, and was glad to have done so, 
because he began to see things more clearly' 
(1866). But in 1870 he was planning in 
connection with Wilson a new volume of 
' Essays/ in which he intended to write on 
the great religions of the world. In Sep- 
tember of that year he was elected master 
of Balliol College, and the projected volume 
never appeared. Theology occupied a great, 
deal of his thought and time ; he preached 
not only in the college chapel but in the 
university pulpit, in Westminster Abbey, 
and elsewhere. But nothing was published, 
lie would not allow any of his sermons to 
be printed, or his * St. Paul' to appear in a 
new edition. He wished to attain to greater 
clearness and certainty, and hoped that these 
would come with time ; but he took on him- 
self other labours which left no leisure for 
elaborating his views. Yet his theological 
work had not been in vain ; he had pointed 
out where changes must be made if theology 
is to retain a hold on thoughtful minds, and 
if some of his positive conceptions were re- 
garded as ' misty ' and ' vague/ he was clear 
enough in maintaining what he called ' the 
central light of all religion/ the divine jus- 




tke and truth. What he wrote ' was much 
read and pondered by the more intellectual 
sort of undergraduates' (Patek). 

From 1860 to 1870 his labours were such 
as would have overwhelmed any other man. 
At one time he writes that he is seeing" every 
undergraduate in college once a week ! In 
the vacations his hours were given to Plato. 
He had begun with the idea of a commentary 
on the ( Republic,' a work which he never 
dropped, though he did not live to finish it. 
But he soon felt that a complete analysis of 
all Plato's writings was required if any one 
wished thoroughly to understand the ' He- 
public,* and the analysis in time became an 
analysis and translation. To this must be 
added the work of the professorship. One 
who attended his lectures at the time spoke 
of them as being ' informal, unwritten, and 
seemingly unpremeditated, but with many 
a long-remembered gem of expression, or 
delightfully novel idea, which seemed to be 
lying in wait whenever, at a loss for a 
moment in his somewhat hesitating dis- 
course, he opened a book of loose notes' 
(Life, i. 330). 

About I860 he became, with the support 
of fellows who had been his pupils, a pre- 
ponderating influence in the common room 
of Balliol College. Much time was devoted 
to the organisation of education in the 
college and the university. Arrangements 
w»*re made for inter-collegiate lectures, and 
Scottish professors were invited to give lec- 
tures in the summer term, when theirlabours 
in the north were at an end. But his chief 
object was to lessen the expense of an Oxford 
career. For this purpose he persuaded the 
college to found more scholarships and ex- 
hibitions, and to establish a hall where, as 
he hoped, young men would be able to live 
for little, while enjoying the benefits of the 
college system. In the end the movement 
which he supported was carried on a larger 
scale bv the universitv; the restriction was 
removed by which students were compelled 
to reside within the college walls, ana non- 
collegiate students came into being. In the 
same years a considerable part of the college 
was rebuilt. Jowett was convinced that 
' not a twentieth part of the ability in the 
country ever comes to the university.' In 
order to attract men from new classes he 
persuaded the college to alter the subjects 
for examination in some of the exhibitions, 
adding physical science and mathematics to 

By his election to the mastership (7 Sept. 
1870) Jowett attained the position which 
he most coveted. He now enjoyed more 
leisure than hitherto, and he had as much 

power as the head of a house could have, 
For some years after his election he was 
much occupied with the enlargement of the 
college. A new hall was built (1877), and 
the old one transformed into a library for 
the use of the undergraduates. Later on a 
hope, formed many years before, was realised, 
and a field for cricket and football was 
secured for the college To this, as to every- 
thing connected with Balliol, Jowett gave 
liberally from his private purse, and finally 
he built at his own expense a house for a 
tutor adjacent to the field. 

Jowett's interests in education were not 
confined to Oxford. The University College 
at Bristol owed much to him, he strongly 
supported the claims of secondary education 
and university extension, and at the time of 
his death he was busy with a scheme for 
bringing the university and the secondary 
schools together. When it was arranged in 
1874-5 that the age of the candidates for 
the Indian civil service should be fixed at 
seventeen to nineteen, and that successful 
candidates should pass two years of proba- 
tion at a university, Jowett made arrange- 
ments to receive a number of candidates at 
Balliol College, and helped in establishing a 
school of oriental languages. In the uni- 
versity commission of 1877-81 he was of 
course greatly interested. He had not much 
svmpathy with research, beyond certain 
limits, and on the other hand he urged 
strongly the claims of secondary education 
in the large towns, a movement in which 
he thought it would be wise for the uni- 
versity to take a part. The better organisa- 
tion of the teaching of the non-collegiate 
students was strongly pressed, and, above 
all, the retention to a large extent of prize 
fellowships, on which Jowett placed great 

In 1*71 the translation of Plato appeared 
in four volumes. This was an event which 
determined to a great extent the literary 
work of the rest of Jowett's life — not that 
he * had done with theology and intended 
to lead a new life' (Plato, Euthyphro, end), 
for he was always hoping to return to theo- 
logy when he could escape from other labours 
— but the translation of Plato had a rapid 
sale, and it was necessnrv to revise it for 
a second edition (5 vols. 1876). Many 
thoughts which might have appeared in an 
independent work on theology or morals 
were now embodied in the introductions to 
the dialogues. From Plato he was led on to 
a translation of Thucydides, with notes on 
the Greek text (2 vols. 1881 ). From 1882 to 
1886 he was vice-chancellor, and carried into 
the administration of the office the restless 

Jowett 54 Jowett 

energy which was one of the mo«; marked times r Under what contradictory aspects 

characteristics of his nature. He was able ' may a particular religious sentiment or moral 

to do something for the non-collegiat e stu- truth be viewed? what phenomena does 

dents. and, in a different line, for the drainage an individual mind exhibit at different stages 

of the Thames Valley, in conjunction with in its growth? What contrasts do we find 

Dean Liddell— though but a small part of in the ancient and modern world of thought? 

their schemes was realised — and a m-m^rial This is the class of questions Mr. Jowett 

of his work remains in the name * Vice- delights to ask and to answer.' So said Dr. 

chancellor's Cut,' which was given to a new Lightfoot when speaking of the work on 

outlet made for the Cherwell into the Isi?. * St. Paul.' and the remarks apply with equal 

lie also did much for the recognition and force to the * Plato.' If we ask ourselves 

elevat ion of dramatic represent at ions at Ox- what were Plato's views on ethics, or politics, 

ford. It was due to his support that the or art. we shall indeed find many far-reach- 

1 Agamemnon* of .Eschylus was acted in ing observations in Jowett's introductions, 

Jialliol Hall, and he gave his direct sane- but not a systematic statement, such as is 

tion und encouragement to the performances given e.g. in Zeller's * History of Greek Phi- 

of the Oxford University Dramatic Society, losophy.* We shall also find much which, 

The theatre at Oxford was rebuilt at this though it arises out of Plato's thoughts, is 

time, and Jowett was one of the first to onlv indirect lv connected with him — cri- 

enter it on the opening night. He also in- ticism of modern forms of old views, of 

vited Sir Henry Irving to give a lectur- nt ideal governments other than that of Plato, 

Oxford, und stay at the masters lodge on of recent utilitarianism, of Hegel, of the 

the occasion. In the same liberal spirit he nature and origin of language. Few books 

encouraged music in his own college, inviting cover so wide a field, or show keener powers 

John Farmer from Harrow to superintend, of observation, or contain deeper thoughts, 

and giving an organ for the hall. This was If the result often seems inadequate, it is 

the beginning of the Sunday concerts at because it was the author's aim to get at the 

Halliol. Another subject to which he gave truth, not to support any theory. And what 

much thought and care was the university is written is written with a finish and beauty 

press. During these years his literarv work rarely surpassed, just as the translation of 

flagged a little, yet in 18S"> he published the text of Plato — and of Thucydides too— 

the translation of Aristotle's * Politics,' with has superseded all previous translations, 

notes, but without the essays which would In 1891 Jowett had a very serious illness, 

have given a special value to the book, which returned upon him in 1893. Towards 

These he did not live to finish. the end of September in this year he left 

The strain of the vice-chancellorship was Oxford on a visit to Professor Campbell in 

more than Jowett's health could bear. In London. Thence he went to Headier Park, 

1887 he fell ill, and though he recovered a the home of an old pupil, Sir Robert S. 

considerable degree of health, he was quite , Wright, judge of the high court, where 

unequal to the tasks which he laid upon he died on 1 Oct. He was buried in St. 

himself. lie was, however, able to carry on Sepulchres cemetery, Oxford, on 6 Oct. 

the revision of the 4 Plato' for a third edition, : After making bequests to his relatives, 

which appeared in 1892, and work upon the | secretaries, servants, and others, Jowett left 

edition of the * Republic 'on which he had the remainder of his property of whatever 

that we naturallv turn lor Jowett's final : thus formed was to be applied partly to re- 
views on philosophy. He does not give us [ publication of Jowett's own works, and 
any comprehensive account of Plato's phi- | partly ' to the making of new translations 
losophy, for he did not quite believe that ! and editions of Greek authors, or in any way 
such a comprehensive account was possible, j promoting and advancing the study of Greek 
Plato's view changes in different dialogues, literature or otherwise for the advancement 
and in some no definite conclusion is reached, of learning in such way that the college may 
It was therefore better to treat each dialogue j have the benefit intended by 15 George III, 
separately. It was also characteristic of ch.oS, § 1.' 
his own mind to be constantly changing his j After his death his friends subscribed a 

point of view. 'Mr. Jowett's forte is mental 
philosophy. How has this or that meta- 
physical question presented itself to different 
minds, or to the same mind at different 

large sum of money, of which a small por- 
tion was expended on a memorial tablet in 
Balliol College chapel, and the remainder 
applied to the foundation of two 'Jowett 




lectureships ' in Greek philosophy and his- 
tory (or literature) at Balliol College. 

He received the honorary degree of doctor 
of theology at Leyden, 1875, of LL.D. at 
Edinburgh, 1884, and of LL.D. at Cam- 
bridge, 1890. 

There are several portraits of Jowett : 
(1) In crayons, bv George Richmond, R.A., 
about 1859, at Balliol College ; (2) in crayons, 
by Laugee, 1871, in the possession of Pro- 
fessor Dicey; (3) in oils, by Mr. G. F. Watts, 
R. A., in the hall of Balliol College ; (4) in 
pastels, by the Cavaliere C. M. Ross, at 
Balliol College ; (5) in water-colours, by the 
Lady Abercromby, 1892, in the hall of 
Balliol College ; the head was subsequently 
repainted by the same lady, and is at the 
master's lodge. 

Jowett's energy and industry in literary 
work were more than equalled by his de- 
votion to his pupils and friends. ' He had 
the genius of friendship/ and was never so 
happy as when visiting and entertaining 
friends, or contributing in any way to their 
happiness. A long succession of pupils re- 
garded him with the greatest affection, and 
at the close of his life the friends of his youth 
were his friends still, for he never lost them. 
Among the earliest were Lord Farrer, Pro- 
fessor W. Y. Sellar, Sir A. Grant, T. C. 
Sandars, F. T. Palgrave, Theodore Walrond, 
IVofessorll. J. S. Smith. These were followed 
by Lord Bowen, W. L. Newman, Justice 
Wright, Professor T. H. Green, Lyulph 
Stanley, Sir C. P. Ilbert, and later still by 
Sir W. R. Anson, Sir F. II. Jeune, Lord 
Lansdowne, Sir Arthur Godley, Andrew 
Lang, Professor W. Wallace, Professor Caird, 
Lord Milner, Sir G. Baden-Powell, and 
many others. It was his delight to have 
some of these pupil friends at the master's 
lodge for Sunday, where he also brought 
together, whenever he could, some of the 
most distinguished men of his time. Such 
were Lowell, W. W. Goodwin, O. Wendell 
Holmes, Huxley, M. Arnold, Turgenieff, 
Browning, Froude, II. M. Stanley, Dr. 
Martineau, G. Eliot, Kenan, Ruskin. As a 
host he was most careful and solicitous of 
the comfort of his guests, but in his conver- 
sation he was often reserved. A competent 
judge wrote of him : * A disciple of Socrutes 
he valued speech more hignly than any 
other gift, yet he was always hampered by 
a conscious imperfection and by a difficulty 
in sustaining and developing his thoughts in 
society. . . . He was seldom more than 
the third party intervening' (J. D. Rogers, 
see Life, li. 157). In a tete-a-tete conver- 
sation he was often perversely silent, and 
gaps wen; almost painful. But with one or 

two congenial friends he would talk unre- 
mittingly till midnight, and even in his 
serious illness he insisted on coming down to 
breakfast that he ' might have a little cheer- 
ful conversation.' He loved to tell stories 
and to have them told to him, or to discuss 
subjects in which he had an interest, in the 
hope of gaining clearer insight. He had 
a wonderful power of fixing a discussion in 
a phrase : ' Respectability is a great foe to 
religion/ he said at the close of a discussion 
on chapel and church; 'The practice of 
divines has permanently lowered the standard 
of truth ' was his severe sentence on theo- 
logical criticism. In his letters to friends 
he felt able to pour himself out with less re- 
straint than in conversation, and here we 
often find him at his best, light-hearted, 
cheerful, amusing, and devoted to his friends, 
endeavouring to comfort them in distress 
or bereavement, and to help them in diffi- 

Jowett formed no school, and was not the 
leader of a party in religion or philosophy. 
A leader in the church he could not be after 
the publication of his 'St. Paul/ and he 
never wished to leave the church for any 
form of nonconformity. His critical in- 
stincts led him in one direction, his re- 
ligious feeling drew him in another. Thus 
his speculations led him to ' irreconcilable 
contrasts' (Leslie Stephen, op. cit. ii. 
141), but he did not * pretend that such con- 
trasts did not exist ; ' it was because he 
pointed them out with unusual force and 
freedom that he was regarded as heretical. 
In philosophy he was content to be critical 
(see above) ; he saw that one philosophy 
had always been succeeded by another, and 
the leader of to-day was forgotten to- 
morrow ; each therefore, he concluded, had 
grasped part of the truth, but not the 
whole truth. His speculations ended in 
compromise, and thus, here also, he was 
unfitted to be a leader. For himself he 
had almost a horror of tailing under one set 
of ideas to the exclusion of others. ' He 
stood at the parting of many ways/ and 
wrote i No thoroughfare ' upon them all, says 
Mr. Stephen, severely but not unjustly (loc. 
cit. p. 143) ; and after all, in doing so, 
Jowett only went a step lieyond the philo- 
sopher who condemns all systems but his 
own. Yet indirectly he left his mark even 
on philosophy. By him his pupil T. II. 
Green was stimulated to the study of Hegel, 
and no influence has been greater in Oxford 
for the last thirty years than Green's. But 
the chief traces of Jowett's influence will be 
I found in other spheres. His essays and 
! translations must secure him a high place 


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rett* in * N o Song, No S upper/ ber first appear- 
ance at Covent Garden. Her name appears 
to Sophia in the ' Road to Ruin/ Norah in 
4 Norah, or the Girl of Erin/ Matilda in 
* Three Deep/ Lucette in ' Shepherd's Boy/ 
and very many parts, original and other. 
In 1834 she was a comic support of the 
Adelphi, where in November 1838 she made 
a neat success as Smike; and in 1839 one 
still greater as Jack Sheppard. With Mac- 
ready at Drury Lane in 1842 she played Ne- 

57 Kemble 

Williams's Leaves of a Life. 1890; Planche's 
Recollections ; Men and Women of the Time, 
14th ed.; Era, 18 March 1891); Athenaeum, 
18 March 1899.] J. K. 

wards Mrs. Butleb, generally known as 
Fanny Kemble (1809-1893), actress and 
writer, the daughter of Charles Kemble [q.v.] 
and Marie Therese Kemble [q. v.], was born in 
Newman Street, London, on 2? Nov. 1809, 
and educated principally in France. When 
rissa, Audrey, Mrs. Placid in Mrs.Inch bald's her father's management of Covent Garden 

4 Every one has his Fault/ and Polly Pall- 
mall in Jerrold's ' Prisoner of War.' (For 
her share in the management of various 
theatres, for many of her characters, and for 
her family, see art. Robert Keeley). Mrs. 
Peerybingle, Clemencv Newcome, Maud in 
the 4 Wife's Secret/ Jane in ' Wild Oats/ 
Rosemary in the ' Catspaw/ Maria in ' Twelf t h 
Night/ m which she was seen at different 
theatres, were so many triumphs. Betty 
Martin in an adaptation so named of ' Le 
Chapeau de rHorloger' of Madame Emile de 
Girardin, in which she was seen at the 
Adelphi (8 March 1856), was a comic master- 

Jiece. As much may be said for her Mary 
ane (February 1866) in Moore's 'That 
Blessed Baby/ and Frank Oatlands in 'A 
Cure for the Heartache.' Betsy Baker, Dame 

was in extremis she made her first appear- 
ance on the stage on 5 Oct. 1829 as Juliet 
to her father's Mercutio and the Lady Capu- 
let of her mother, who returned to the stage 
after a long absence. Fanny Kemble's suc- 
cess was overwhelming. She appeared on 
9 Dec. as Belvidera in ' Venice Preserved; ' 
on 18 Jan. 1830asEuphasiain the 'Grecian 
Daughter ; ' on 25 Feb. as Mrs. Beverley in 
the ' Gamester ; ' on 28 April as Isabella in 
the piece so named ; and on 28 May as Lady 
Townley in the ' Provoked Husband/ So 
profitable were her appearances that 13,000/. 
of debt were wiped on the theatre. In the 
following season she was seen as Mrs. Hal- 
ler in the ' Stranger/ Calista in the ' Fair 
Penitent/ Juliana in the ' Honeymoon/ 
Lady Macbeth, Portia, Beatrice, and Con- 

Quickly, Mrs. Page, and Miss Prue in ' Love ! stance. In 1833 she was the first Louise de 
for Love/ must also be mentioned. When, Savoie in her own * Francis the First/ which 

indeed, Mrs. Keeley in 18o9 followed her 

was not a success ; the first Duchess of 

husband into retirement, it was with the j Guise in an adaptation of the * Henri III' 
reputation of the finest comedian in her line of Dumas, which was a failure ; and the 
of modern days. Her last professional ap- first Julia in Knowles's 'Hunchback/ In 
pearance was at the Lyceum in 1859 as the autumn she accompanied her father to 
Hector in trough's burlesque, 'The Siege America, appearing on IS Sept. at the Park 
of Troy/ She came frequently for benefits theatre, New York, as Bianca in ' Fazio/ a 
before the public in her old parts, and often ■ part she repeated in Philadelphia and Bos- 
delivered addresses by her friend, Mr. Joseph ! ton. On 7 Jan. 1834 she married Pierce 
Ashby Sterry, and others. On 22 Nov. 1895 I Butler, a southern planter, whom in 1848 
her ninetieth birthday was celebrated at the she divorced (he died in 1867). On 10 Feb. 

Lyceum by a miscellaneous entertainment, 
in which many leading actors took part. She 

1847, at Manchester, she reappeared on the 
stage as Julia, which with Lady Teazle, 

preserved to the last an unconquerable viva- j Mariana, and Queen Katherine, she repeated 
citv. Mrs. Keeley died on 12 March 1899 j at Liverpool. In May she reappeared in Lon- 
at lOPelham Crescent, Brompton, the house don, playing at the Princess's with William 
in which thirty years previously her husband Creswick [q. v. Suppl.] After a short visit to 
breathed his last. Her daughter, Louisa Mary, ! America sue began in April 1848 a aeries of 

married Montagu Stephen Williams [q. v.] 
In her latest vears she was feted and caressed 
beyond the wont of womanhood by almost all 
people from the queen downwards, and her 
funeral at Brompton cemetery on 16 March 
was almost a public ceremonial. 

[Personal knowledge ; Genest's Account of 
the English Stage ; Scott and Howard's Blan- 
ehard ; Dramatic and Musical Review ; Pnscoe's 
Dramatic List ; Hollingshend's Gaiety Chroni- 
cles; Mars ton S Oar Recent Actors; Montagu 

Shakespearean readings at Willis's rooms. 
In October 1849 at Sansom Street hall, 
Philadelphia, she gave a reading from ' King 
John.' Resuming her maiden name she re- 
tired for twenty years to Lennox, Massa- 
chusetts, reappearing in 1808 as a reader 
at Stein way hall, New York. In 187.'J she 
resided near Philadelphia, and in 1877-8 
returned to England, dying at 86 Gloucester 
Place, London, the residence of her son- 
in-law, the Rev. Canon Leigh, on 15 Jan. 




K*ft: <h« tv&a buried on rh»- 20rh ar, K-n>ul 

F'&nny Kemhle had a 'parklinir, *au»*y, and 
/.irh»-r hoi.»t*-ror.d individually, and -^t>m. j 
* 'i hav* had -t arrinar of elderly admirer?* of 
■:Uti.ic*i<jfi. I.'j#ff-rs, Macau lav, Sidney 
— .mir.h. and ofh«r library men of riie epoch 
jf.ivi- her ir.<VM?uint homage, and memoir* ni 
' i'.k ear;* r,irr of centurv are fill of h*r. 
Eiwfhrv-tive Iet»>ra addrewrd ro her bv Ed- 
■ward Kirxjyraldberween 1-71 and l^ow^re 
printed in 'Temple Bar/ and with th»- addi- 
tion of nin^tewi li-!rt*-r'-* w^re i.*au*d separately 
in 1-^.7 WiNon. in the ■ Nocte* 8 / cr^di:**! 
her wir.h ar^niu.j. and a.*aijrn*:d her. a.-* did 
v.hen, a pl«i/ie near her aunt. Mrs. Sidduns. 
-cotr. \iA Moore placed heron a ljw*r plane. 
I/wigfaliow ■*«.* complexly under h«-r .■pell. 
.f'A%- Haiihurt.on *poke of her *c!everne*» 
and audacity, rennement and '•oar."+-r.e.*j*. 
mod^ty and bounce, pretty humility and 
prettier arrogance/ L^izh Hunt could not 
f>e won f.o faith in her. Macready said, with 
»ome justice, that *he was ignoranr of rhe 
v»-ry rudimentj* of h^r art, but mad-.- amend*. 
d*-rdaring that v-jhe is one of the most re- 
ma rkabb; women of the present day." Lew»ss 
called her reading 'an intellectual delight.' 

lh:r chief literary productions w^re : 
♦Francis the First/' ]&&'. 'The Star of 
Seville/ a dramn. 1*37: * Poem-/ Phila- 
delphia, kH; 'A Year of Consolation* 
ft ravels in Italy), 1*17; 'Play*/ I>*j-*5, 
including 'An English Tragedy/ 'Mary 
Stuart," tran-IaN-d from Schiller, and ■ Made- 
moiselle de Uelle-IMe,' translated fr-^m 
Huma* ; * f.'hri.-.tmas Tree and other Tale.*/ 
from the German, l*.Vj: • Notes on some 
of Shak*^pear*-'s Plays/ 18^2; 'Far Away 
and Long Ago/ 18*9. 

Her nutobiographical works consist of: 
1. 'Journal of F. A. Butler/ l^-'io, reprinted 
apparently a-* 'Journal of a Residence in 
America/ 'J. ' Journal of a Residence on a 
Georgian Plantation/ HW3. 3. c Record of a 
Girlhood/ ]*7*. 4. ' Record** of Later Life/ 
\**2. o. 'Further Records/ 1*01. Thwe 
works are bright and animated, but caused 
Home offence in certain circles bv the views 
tli- - v expressed ns to the theatrical profession, 
which she joined with reluctance. One or 
two work* bearing on slavery were extracted 
from her early journal, and published sepa- 

A charming portrait by Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, hhowing her, as she said, ' like what 
those who love me have sometimes seen me/ 
has Iji'i-n often reproduced. Another beauti- 
ful portrait by Sully, now in the possession 
of tlie Hon. Sirs. Leigh, has been engraved 
by J. G. St oc] art. 

f &Miks ciNtd ,* Account of the Eng- 
".l.-n rl&ige : (.'lark Roanei"* RepreseatiLivt 
AiAon ; Wartes A rtors of r.he Centura; Note* 
■md '4'ieries. 7f.h. «er. x:. 1)9 ; Patcoe's Dra- 
matiL' D«r. : Pollock'* M reread v; Xme. Crarea's 
.j^iin»w«e ti« F. K-»m:.le . Letters of E.:*ard 
r>Zir?rald Co F;iany Krmbie. LS&o : Theatrical 
Time*, vA. :i. : Dramaric and Maaii»I Review. 
v.ii. r'.; Taeari*. v.L xsi. Marci ISi)3: Leigh 
U;inr.4 Lium.-nii: Ei«*iLv»: Levees Dramatic 


J. K. 

KENNEDY. VANS . 17S+-1S4<3>. major- 
general. Sanskrit and Persian scholar, was 
b*"jrn at Plnmore in the pariah of Ayr, Scot- 
land, lie belonged :o an old Ayrshire 
tamilr. and was connected with the houses 
of L'adailL* and E*rlintoun. Hi^ father was 
Itobert Kenneily ot Pinmore. and his mother 
Rob 'ma. (Iiughr^r of John Vans of Barabar- 
roch, Wigtownshire, who on marrying' his 
cousin assumed the name of .Vgnew. Robert 
Kennedy wa>> mined by the failure of the 
Ayr bank, and had to sell Pinmore and re- 
tire to E:linburgh, where he died in 1790. 
The oar- of his numerous children then 
devolved on the widow, who was a woman 
of great worth and ability. Major-general 
Kennedy was her youngest son. and one of 
his sisters was Grace Kennedy ^q. v.] 

Kennedy was educated at Edinburgh, 
at Rerkhamsted. and finally at Monmouth, 
and was noted in youth lor his studious 
habits. On the completion of his fourteenth 
year he returned to Edinburgh, and, having 
obtained a cadet ship, he sailed for Bombay 
in 1SX). Shortly after his arrival he was 
employed with his corps, the 1st battalion 
of the '2nd grenadiers, against the people 
of the Malabar district, and received a wound 
in his neck, from the effects of which he 
sutfered all his life. In 1807 he became 
Persian interpreter to the Peshwa's sub- 
sidiarv force at Sirur, then commanded by 
the Colonel W. Wallace (d. 1809) who, 
according to the * Imperial Gazetteer of In- 
dia/ is still worshipped as a saint bv the 
Hindus. While at Sirur Kennedy had fre- 
quent opportunities of meeting Sir Barry 
(.'lose and Sir James Mackintosh, both of 
whom greatly admired him. In 1817 he 
was appointee! judge-advocate-general to the 
Bombay army, and on 30 Sept. of the same 
year he contributed a paper on Persian 
literature to the Literary Society of Bombay. 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, who described 
Kennedy as the most learned man of his 
acquaintance, gave him the appointment of 
Maratha and Gujrati translator of the regu- 
lations of government, but the post was 
abolished a few months after Elphinstone's 
retirement. He held the office of judge- 




advocate-general till 1835, when he was 
removed by Sir John Keane. After that he 
was appointed oriental translator to the 
government, and he held this office till his 

Kennedy was throughout life a student, 
and he seems to have belonged to the type 
of the recluse and self-denying scholar. lie 
is described as working sixteen hours a day, 
and as spending all his money on manu- 
scripts and munshies, and in relieving the 
wants of others. He contributed several 
papers to the Bombay branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Societv, and in 1824 he published 
at Bombay a Maratha dictionary. In 1828 
he published in London a quarto volume 
entitled * Researches into the Origin and 
Affinity of the Principal Languages of Asia 
and Europe/ and in 1831 he followed this 
up by another quarto entitled ' Researches 
into the Nature and Affinity of Ancient 
and Hindu Mythology .' Both these works 
exhibit much learning and vigorous and 
independent thinking, but are now nearly 
obsolete. The first seems to be the more 
valuable of the two, and contains some in- 
teresting notes, e.g. that at p. 182 on the 
number of Arabic words in the Shahnama. 
Kennedy also wrote five letters on the 
Puranas, and had a controversy with Horace 
Hayman Wilson [q. v.] and Sir Graves 
Champney Haughton [q. v.] He published 
at Bombav in 1 832 a work on military law, 
of which a second edition appeared in 1847. 
He died at Bombay on 29 Dec. 1846, and 
was buried at the old European cemetery at 

[Biojrraphical Memoir by James Bird, Secre- 
tary Bombay branch R.A.S. ; Journal of 
B.B.R.A.S. ii. 430, Bombay, 1848. and X. V. 
Mandlik's edition of the Transactions of the 
Literary Society of Bombay, Bombay, 1877, 
toL i. p. xv ; Preface to Grace Kennedy's Col- 
lected Works, Edinburgh, 1827.] H. B-k. 

(1799-1862), Manx poet, son of Thomas 
Kennish by bis wife, Margaret (Radcliffe), 
was baptised at Kirk Maughold, Isle of Man, 
on 24 Feb. 1799. Of bumble parentage, he 
was reared as a plougbboy, but in 1821 
entered the navy as a common seaman, 
learned English of his messmates, having 
previously known only his native dialect, 
and rose to be a warrant officer. He was 
ship's carpenter on the Hussar, bearing the 
flag of Sir Charles Ogle upon the* North 
American station, 1829-30, and while sta- 
tioned at Halifax devised a plan for concen- 
trating a ship's broadside with greater effect 
than hitherto attempted upon a given mark. 
Hia plan, which met witn encouragement 

from Captain Edward Boxer of the Hussar, 
waa tried by Sir Charles Napier on board 
the Galatea in 1831, and was recommended 
to the admiralty, to which body Kennish 
also submitted a theodolite of his invention. 
In June 1832 he received the gold Isis medal 
from the Society of Arts. He published his 
essay, on concentrating a ship's broadside, in 
1837 in a handsome quarto, with nineteen 
plates, and subsequently he served upon the 
men-of-war Tribune and Donegal in the 
Mediterranean and in the Channel. But 
he felt that he had received no encourage- 
ment from the admiralty at all commen- 
surate with the labour and money that he 
had expended upon his essay, and he left 
the navy in or about 1841. Three years 
later he published in London ' Mona's Isle 
and other Poems' (1844, 8vo, a scarce 
volume), with a long subscription list of 
naval men. Some of the local pieces, such 
as 'The Curraghs of Lezayre/ more espe- 
cially those in ballad metre, have merit, and 
the book is a mine of Manx folk-lore. Dis- 
appointed at the limited circulation of his 
fame, Kennish went over to America, became 
attached to the United States admiralty, for 
which body he made a survey of the Isthmus 
of Panama, and died at New York on 19 March 
1862, at the age of sixty-three. 

[Harrison's Bibliotheca Monensi.s (Manx Soc ), 
2nd edit. 1876, p. 165; KtMinish's Works in 
Brit. Museum Library; note kindly furnished 
by Mr. R. Corteil Cowell.] T. S. 

Earl of Albemarle and Viscount Bury 
(1832-1894), born in London on 15 April 
1832, was eldest son of George Thomas 
Keppel, sixtli earl of Albemarle [q. v.], by 
his wife Susan, third daughter of Sir Coutts 
Trotter, bart. Throughout the greater part 
of his life he was known as Viscount Burv, 
his father's second title, lie was educated 
at Eton, and in 1843, when eleven years 
old, was gazetted ensign and lieutenant in 
the forty-third regiment. In 1849 he became 
lieutenant in the Scots guards, and during 
1850 1 lie was private secretary to Lord 
John Russell. In 1852 he went out to 
India as aide-de-camp to Lord Frederick 
Fitzclarence, commander-in-chief at Bom- 
bay. In the following year he came home 
on sick leave, retired from the army, and 
in December 1854 went out to Canada as 
superintendent of Indian affairs for Canada. 
He utilised the knowledge gained in Canada 
in bis 'Exodus of the Western Nations' 
(London, 18H5, 2 vols. 8vo). 'Phis is really 
a history of North America, with particular 
reference to Canada. Bury believed that 

Ker 60 Kerr 

-ai :i mate separatim :■:" Er^rlani ani 171»J, after examination by ministers and 

being the first special 
30 March 1S57. elec^i :■> rirIla=rK: ::>r the subject there (Stat. Account of Scotland, 
Norwich in "he Liberal inters:. Hr wis xxL >-*'. It is significant that he should 
re-elrc:~i on iV April :<V. mi iralr. on hare secured this post when his political pro- 
lix June f?LL-»w:zii on, hi* ipp-rir.Ticer.: 1-y c*.:vi::es are remembered, as well as hisad- 
Iv-rd IV.3rr*::u :o :he ?>s: :: treasurer of miration for the uncompromising Jacobite, 
the ho.;s.-h:".i. Hi* r'.reti^r. »is. L:-wrrv-r. Archibald Pitcairne ~q. v."! On 2 Oct. 1734 
declar* I v ii. an.: :-n 1 LV.\ "»-» k^was Krr succeeded Adam Watt in the Latin 
rviurr.ri :':r Wick turvr'-is. He *:■>?■! ::r chiir a: Edinburgh University. Here he 
Dover a: :h- £r:ieral rlrv'.i:- :■" W-""*. but studied law. associating again with friends 
wa * deiV-aCrd. an.: he erssvi :^ bf trea* irer of h : .*h school days, and became exceed- 
of the I..vjL^h?II i" 1 ■"*>'. w-^ -h* ^ -- injiy^ popular (Chalmers, Life of Ruddi- 
*ervative> eui^e into p:*wer. On 17 N~ -v. vtr/i. p. I*!?), lie had a distinct influence in 
l^yy* he wa5 returned :?r Berwick. In 1>74 reviving exact Latin scholarship in Scot- 
he was defeated (?? Berwick, asi in l^S i ir j. As a professor he commanded the 

K m happened 

Ashford. From March 1>7** to April l^SO But.savsDr. Alexander Carl vie of In veresk. 

he was under-secreTary at war un.trr iH*a- who notes this foible, he * was very much 

constieli, and in I >"»•"»- ri he held the same master of his business* (Autobiography of 

office under L^rd Salisbury. On Kas:-.r the R> \ Dr. Alexander Carlyle, p. 31). He 

Sunday l>7i* he was rveived :r.: 1 :hr died at Edinburgh in November 1741. 

Kiimancathy.ioolr.ixvh. He succeeded his About 1725 'Ker published his Latin 

father as seventh earl of ALbemarie on p.vm. • Donaides " ^ those of the Don), cele- 

21 Feb. 1>01. and died 0:1 i ,,; Auz. 1*^4. branny illustrious alumni of Aberdeen. 

Man-, second daughter of Sir A'.lan Napier verses on Archibald Pitcairne, Sir William 
Mac-Nab ~«i- v.". premier of Canada. By ber s^.^; v 1074 ?-17l*5*) "q. v.\ and others. He 
he havl issue throe >-»n* and seven daughter*, i* represented, along with" Arthur Johnston 
The eldes: son. Arnold A'.lan Cecil, is eighth ai: ] or her Latinists. in Lauder's * Poetarum 
and present earl of Albemarle. ^ So-»:orum Musre Sacne,* 1731). The Latin 
Albemarle, who was created K.C.M.i.t. :n ballad on the ba'tle of Killiecninkie versified 
1-70, was an enthusiastic volunteer. He \ n English by Sir Walter Scott in 4 Cham- 
was male lieutenant-col-' 1 !!-! of the civil bers's Journal." 1st ser. No. 48. is most pro- 
service ride volunteers in IjvV. volunteer i uD ly k lT ' s , Chambers, Scottish Song* before 
aide-de-camp to the queen in ISS1. and /;»<#■«*. p. 4-j ). 

published • <a^estions for an I'niforni Code , B lW -, Historv of lhe r n iversitv of Edin- 

of Standing Orders on the Organisation ami llU fc r:: ;. x \ -JP6-3U ; Grant's Storvof the Univer- 

Interior Economy of Y.dunte-r Corps (.: tvo f Edinburgh duri^eiis first Three Hundred 

(London. 1<00. limoi. He was alsoautln^r Years, ii. 31S: appendix to Krskine** Sermon on 

of *The Kinder^sT treated by Homo? »pathy t - ne I^ath of Robertson ihe Historian, in Diu- 

in South Holland." IStvi. Svo, and with o.»ur>es oa several Occasions, i. 271.] T. B. 
Mr. G. Lacv Hillior of 'Cvclinc' in the ^^^^ _ v „^ r . v - ,^ 01 1 ^ x , . 
* Iladminton* Libran-' (London, lvs. ^, KERR, NORMAN (1834-1^99), physi- 

which reached a tifth edition in l!<«. cian. the eldest son of Alexander Kerr, a 

JW.rks in Brit. Mu, Li r : 0. K. Cr,k,yne]s ™«« han V was "j™ SP 1 ?*?"^ 1 ' ?*? 

Cr.m pe -e Peeriee; Burke's Peerage, 10n0; InW and was educated at the high school 

Armv L!,t». 1S43-o4 : Men of the Time. 1S01. "t that city. He supported himself as a 

s.v. "■ Bury : ' Tim-s. '2$ Ai:j. 1S94 : TabKr. journalist on the stall of the 'Glasgow Mail 

1 Sfp*. 1*89 1: Official Return of Members of until he entered the university of Glasgow, 

Parliami-nr.] A. F. P. where he graduated M.D. and CM. in 1*61. 

KER, JOHN id. 1741), Latin poet, was He then sailed for a time as surgeon in the 

born at Dunblane, Perthshire. He was for Allan Canadian mail steamers, and in 1S74 he 

a time schoolmaster at Crieff, and about settled at St. John's Wood in London, and 




was appointed a parochial medical officer of 
St. Marylebone, a post he retained for 
twenty-four years. He died at Hastings on 
30 May 1899, and is buried at Paddington 
cemetery, Willeaden Lane. He was twice 
married : first, in 1671, to Eleanor Georgina, 
daughter of Mr. Edward Gibson of Ballin- 
derry, Ireland, who died in 1892, leaving 
issue four daughters and a son; and, se- 
condly, in 1894, to Edith Jane, daughter of 
Mr. James Henderson of Belvidere Lodge, 

The advancement of temperance was the 
work of Kerr's life. He originated the 
Total Abstinence Society in connection with 
the university of Glasgow, was an early 
member of the United Kingdom Alliance, 
and was the founder and first president of 
the Society for the Study and Cure of In- 
ebriety. For many years he was chairman 
of the Inebriates Legislation Committee of 
the British Medical Association, and he was 
vice-president of the Homes for Inebriates 
Association. He was senior consulting phy- 
sician to the Dalrymple Home for Inebriates 
at Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire. The Ine- 
briates Act of 1898 was largely the outcome 
of his labours. 

He wrote: 1. 'On the Action of Alco- 
holic Liquors in Health,' London, 1876. 
2. ' Mortality from Intemperance,' London, 
1*79. 3. ' Stimulants in Workhouses/ Lon- 
don, 1882. 4. 'The Truth about Alcohol/ 
London, 1885. 5. ' Inebriety, its /Etiology, 
Pathology, Treatment, and Jurisprudence/ 
3rd edit. London, 1894. Among many 
ephemeral articles was his l Alcoholism anil 
Drug Habits ' in the ' Twentieth Century 
Practice of Medicine/ 1895. 

[British Medical Journal, 1890. i. 1442; 
additional information kindly given by Mrs. 
Norman Kerr.] D'A. P. 

Marquis of Lothian (1833-1900), diplo- 
matist and secretary of state for Scotland, 
second son of John William Robert, seventh 
marquis of Lothian, by Lady Cecil Chetwynd 
Talbot, only daughter of Charles, second 
earl Talbot, was born at Newbottle Abbey, 
near Dalkeith, on 2 Dec. 1833. His elder 
brother, William Schomberg Robert Kerr, 
born on 12 Aug. 1832, succeeded as eighth 
marquis of Lothian on his father's death, 
14 Nov. 1841, but himself died without 
issue on 4 July 1870. He bequeathed to 
Oxford University a sum of money for the 
foundation of the Marquis of Lothian's 
prize, which is of the annual value of 40/., 
and is awarded for an essay on some point 
in foreign history between the death of 

Romulus Augustulus and that of Frederick 
the Great. 

Schomberg Henry was educated at Glen- 
almond and Oxford, where he matriculated 
from New College on 20 Oct. 1851. He left 
the university without a degree, entered the 
diplomatic service, and was appointed attache 
at Lisbon. He was transferred in 1864 to 
Teheran, and thence in 1855 to Bagdad. 
During the Persian war of 1857 he served 
as a volunteer on the staff of Sir J. Out ram, 
by whom he was publicly thanked at the 
close of the campaign. He was afterwards 
attache at Athens, and in 1862 was ap- 
pointed second secretary at Frankfort. In 
the same capacity he was removed in 1865 
to Madrid, and thence in the same year to 
Vienna. He succeeded his elder brother, 
William Schomberg Robert, as ninth mar- 
quis of Lothian, and fourth baron Ker of 
Kersheugh, Roxburghshire, on 4 July 1870, 
and in right of the latter peerage took his 
seat in the House of Lords on 30 March 
1871. He moved, on 19 March 1874, the 
address in answer to the queen's speech, 
and on 5 Aug. following took the oaths for 
the subordinate office of lord privy seal of 
Scotland, which he retained until death. 
He was sworn of the privy council on 
6 Feb. 1886, and in Lord Salisbury's second 
administration succeeded Mr. Arthur Bal- 
four as secretary for Scotland, and, as such, 
ex-officio keeper of the great seal of Scot- 
land and vice-president of the committee 
of council for education in Scotland 
(11 March 1887). The sphere of his admi- 
nistrative duties was furtner enlarged by a 
statute of the same year (50 & 51 Vict. c. 
52). Ho held office until the fall of the 
administration in August 1892, during 
which period he had charge of the measures 
of 1889 for the reform and re-endow- 
ment of the Scottish universities and the 
reform of Scottish local government, and 
several other measures nearly affecting 
Scottish interests. He was a member of 
the historical manuscripts commission, 
was elected in 1877 president of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and re- 
ceived in 1882 the degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Edinburgh, of which he 
was lord rector in 1887-8. He was also 
vice-president of the Royal Scottish Geo- 
graphical Society, and a member of the 
governing body of the Imperial Institute. 
He was elected K.T. in 1878, and a knight of 
grace of the order of St. John of Jerusalem 
in 1899: was colonel from 1878 to 1889, 
and afterwards honorary colonel, of the 
3rd battalion of the royal Scots regiment, 
and captain- general of the royal company 

Kettle 62 Kettlewell 

of archers from 1884 until his death on | eluding a large part of the English bnildin| 
17 Jan. 1900. ! trade. Kettle formed similar boards in tin 

He married, in I860, Lady Victoria Alex- ' coal trade, the potteries, the Nottinghan 
andrina Montagu Douglas Scott, second ■ lace trade, the handmade paper trade, th« 
daughter of Walter Francis, fifth duke of j ironstone trade, and other staple trades ol 
Ruccleugh, by whom he had thive sons ] the country. He was commonly styled the 
and five daughters. His third son, Robert ' Prince of Arbitrators/ and on I Dec. 188C 
Schomberg, lord Jedburgh, succeeded him as ! he was knighted * for his public services in 
t*.*nth marquis of Lothian. ■ establishing a system of arbitration between 

[Fosters Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Irving'. ! employers and lemnloyeoV In 1890 the post- 
Book of Scotsmen; Ann. Reg. 1837, ii. 448 :' master-general, Henry Cecil Raikes [a. v.], 
Lords' Jonrn.ciii. 163; Hansards Pari. Debates, ■ consulted Kettle during the strike of the 
3rd ser. ccxviii-ecclvi, 4th ser. i-lxxvi ; Haydn's j post-office employes. 
Book of Dignities. od.Ockerby; Imperial Kalen- j On 24 Nov. 1832 Kettle was elected 

J - ^- **• i tant chairman of quarter sessions from 1866 

KETTLE, Sir RUPERT ALFRED to 1*91. He was an artist of some ability, 
(1817-1891), advocate of arbitration in trade ; and several of his pictures were publiclv 
disputes, born at Birmingham on 9 Jan. j exhibited. In 1892 he resigned his office of 
1817, was the fifth son of Thomas F. Kettle countv court judge, finding that his labours 

of Suffolk Street, Birmingham, a glass- 
stainer, fancy button and military ornament 

in connection with arbitration occupied the 
greater part of his time. He died at his 

maker, and gilder. The family was de- residence, Merridale, Wolverhampton, on 
hcended from Henri Quit el, a Huguenot of ■ 6 Oct. 1894, and was buried on 9 Oct. in 
Milhaud or Millau in Languedoc, who emi- the Wolverhampton cemetery. On 18 Dec. 
grated to Birmingham on the revocation of ; 1851 he married Mary (rf. 13 July 1884), 
the edict of Nantes, and practised there the I only child and heiress of William Cooke of 
trade of glass-stainer. Rupert left Binning- , Merridale. By her he left issue, 
ham early in life and was articled to Richard i Kettle was the author of: 1. 'A Note on 
Fryer, a Wolverhampton attorney. Resolv- Rating to the Poor ... for Unproductive 
ing to qualify as a barrister, he entered the Land/ London, 1856, 8vo. 2. « Strikes and 
Middle Temple on 2 June 1*42, was called Arbitrations/ London, 1866, 8vo. 3. « School 
to the baron 6 June 184">, and soon obtained Hoard Powers and School Board Duties/ 
a large practice on the Oxford circuit. In 1871. 4. « Masters and Men/ London, 1871, 
18o9 he was appointed judge of the Worces- Hvo. 5. 'Boards of Conciliation and Arbi- 
tershire county courts, and subsequently he ( txation between Employers and Employed,' 
acted as chairman of the standing committee 1871 . 0. ' Suggestions for diminishing" the 
for framing the rules for county courts. I Xumber of Imprisonments/ 1875. 7. ' The 
Kettle took the deepest interest in industrial Church in relation to Trades Unions/ 1877. 
matters, and was frequently called upon to , rt „ , ^, . , ^ 

arbitrate in disputes in the iron and coal I „ [Wolverhampton Chronicle, 10 Oct. 1894; 

trades. He wtl the first president of the ***** ^ n ^\ <£ ntr £ "^ \ T S,mm " ^^ 

■vc-j, i • .j, „„„«» \i*„-A o«^ «o«,i . them Stafford. 1894; Fosters Men at the Bar, 

Midland iron trade wages board, and used fiiograph. 1880, iv. 487-8; Men and 

the influence which this office gave him to . Wom ' en ofJi^Time, 1898; Jeans's Conciliation 
]>er9uade masters and men to accept nrbitra- and Arb itration in Labour Disputes. 1894, p. 
tion in their disputes. In 1Ho4, after a : 93.] E. I. C. 

strike in the building trade at Wolverhamp- \ 

ton had lasted seventeen weeks, Kettle, on : KETTLEWELL, SAMUEL (1822-1893), 
invitation from both sides, succeeded in theological writer, born on 31 March 1822, 
arranging a settlement and ultimately in ' was son of the Rev. William Kettlewell, 
establishing at Wolverhampton a legally 1 rector of Kirkheaton, near Huddersfield, and 
organised system of arbitration. The essen- 1 his wife, Mary Midgeley. lie was educated 
tial principle of the new system was that if ■ at Durham University, where he graduated 
the delegates of the contending parties could ! as a licentiate of theology in 1848. He was 
not agree, an independent umpire should ordained deacon in the same year, and priest 
have power to make a final and legally in 1849 by the bishop of Ripon. He then 
binding award between them. The scheme became a curate at Leeds under Walter 
proved so satisfactory that it was rapidly 
extended to other towns, eventually in- 

Farquhar Hook [q. v.], and in 1851 he was 
appointed vicar of St. Mark's, Leeds, This, 

Keux 63 


lis only incumbency, he resigned in 1870 
to devote himself to literary work. He had 
already published a * Catechism on Gospel 
History f (London, 1851 , 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1 878), 
and two works suggested by the Irish dis- 
establishment agitation, namely : * A Short 
Account of the Reformation in Ireland/ 
and 'Rights and Liberties of the Church* 
(both London, 1869, 8vo). His energies 
were now mainly devoted to his work on 
Thomas k Kempis, and in 1877 he published 
'The Authorship of the " De Imitatione 
Christ i" ' (London, 8vo); this was followed 
in 1882 by 'Thomas a Kempis and the 
Brothers of Common Life' (London, 2 vols. 
8vo ; 2nd edit. 1884). These two books were 
the fruit of much research in England, Hol- 
land, and Belgium. Kettlewell maintains 
the usually accepted authorship of the * De 
Imitatione/ and collects all that is known 
about the life of Thomas a Kempis. In 
1888 he published 'The Basis of True 
Christian Unity ' (London, 2 vols. 8vo), and 
in 1892 a translation of the ' De Imitatione.' 
He had received the Lambeth M.A. in 1860, 
and in 1892, in recognition of his work, he 
was granted the Lambeth D.D., the queen 
countersigning his diploma. He died at his 
residence, Kesselville, Eastbourne, whither 
he retired in 1870, on 2 Nov. 1893; he was 
twice married, and his widow survives him. 
[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Crockford's 
Clerical Directory, 1891 ; Eastbourne Chro- 
nicle, 5 Nor. 1893; Times, 21 Nov. 1893; 
Guardian, 8 Nov. 1893; private information.] 

A. F. P. 

KEUX, JOHN HENRY le (1812-1896), 
engraver. [See Le Keux.] 

1610-1620), economic writer, is said to have 
written as early as 1601 his l Observations 
upon the Dutch Fishing/ which was first 
published by Sir Edward Ford in 1664 
(London, 4to). Keymer had no practical 
knowledge of the fisheries, being ' altogether 
unexperimented in such business ' (Gentle- 
xax, Way to Win Wealth, 1014, p. 3) ; he 
collected his notes from conversation with 
fishermen like Tobias Gentleman [q. v. SuppL] 
and others, with a view to stimulating Eng- 
lish fishery, then almost a monopoly of the 
Dutch. 1 1 is tract was translated into German, 
and published in part xii. of the ' Diarium 
Europjeum/ Frankfort, 1666, 4to; it was 
reissued in English in the ' Phenix ' [sic] 
1707, vol. i., in 'A Collection of choice 
Tracts/ 1721, and in ' A small Collection of 
valuable Tracts relating to the Herring 
Fishery/ 1751. 

Another work by Keymer, addressed to 

James I, on the importance of encouraging 
manufactures in England and increasing 
commerce by reducing customs, is extant 
in the Record Office (State Papers, Dom. 
James I, cxviii. 114). The latter suggestion 
was much in advance of the age, but on 
20 Dec. 1622 Prince Charles, John Williams, 
bishop of Lincoln and Buckingham, were 
joined with others in a commission ' to hear 
the propositions of John Keymer, and con- 
sider whether they will tend to the good of 
I the King and the Commonwealth, as is pre- 
| tended* (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619-22, 

L469). Nothing further seems to have 
m done in the matter. 

[Editions of Keymer a book in Brit. Mus. 

Libr.; CaL State Papers, Dom. 1619-22; Gen- 

J tleman's Way to Win Wealth, 1614 ; Palgrave s 

Diet, of Political Economy, s.v. ' Gentleman, 

Tobias.'] A. F. P. 

KING, THOMAS (1836-1888), prize- 
fighter, was born in Silver Street, Stepney, 
on 14 Aug. 1835, and as a youth served 
before the mast both in the navy and in 
a trading vessel. About 1868 he obtained 
a position as foreman of labourers at the 
Victoria Docks. His courage in disposing 
of a dock bully known as ' Brighton Bill ' 
commended him to the notice of the ex- 
champion, Jem Ward, who coached him 
with the gloves at the George in Ratclifte 
Highway. On 27 Nov. 1860, on the Kentish 
marshes, he met Tommy Truckle of Ports- 
mouth for 50/. a side, and defeated him in 
forty-nine rounds (sixty-two minutes). He 
was now taken in hand and trained by Nat 
Langham at the Feathers, Wandsworth, for 
a contest with William Evans (' Young 
Broome'), to be followed, if successful, by a 
fight for the championship with Jem Mace, 
the finest boxer in England since the retire- 
ment of Sayers. The betting of two to one 
on King was justified by the event on 21 Oct. 
1861, after a long fight interrupted by the 
police at the seventeenth round, but resumed 
until the forty-third. The fight between 
the i Young Sailor,' as King was called, and 
the * scientific ' Jem Mace of Norwich had 
another issue, King being outclassed after 
displaying the utmost pluck in a contest of 
sixty-eight minutes (28 Jan. 1862). A return 
match, which excited much greater interest, 
took place at Aldershot (26 Nov. 1862). The 
betting was seven to four on Mace, who had 
the best of the fighting, but was knocked 
out by a single blow, a 'terrific cross-counter 
on the left cheek/ in the nineteenth round. 
In this battle of thirty-eight minutes King 
had shown himself a glutton for punishment, 
of a ' bottom ' and endurance worthy of the 

King 64 King 

be«Tri~i:-* :£:i~r:^. Ki^-r^sAr- KING. THOMAS CIIIS WELL ( 1818- 

rl-ri mi ir-:ir.^£ li» :£:«?-: i:--"-:^ IriTiij I*S*3, wtt. was born at Twvning, near 

:L* rinr. :I_* tM^l-i=.:i^r ii :"_r res ini-ilrc. T*«t*V-TT. on 54 April 1818. lie adopted 

'.:" :hr "frrlt :t >!»,>■. i> - br tl* tJ- : Li* wi:V* maiden name of Chiswell in addi- 

cbazp::>r. F.-rl*r.i ark..-?: A— -rrL:* ll :1-t ;:>a ::»li* own name of Thomas King on 
st^a: £rh: tt.:L :i-r"-Br=I*ia B:*." J:ir. zl* znarriage, which took place shortly after 

Csm~I H--r=i^- :ir aiTrrskrr ::" Say^r*. i* ;->:^ei the theatrical profession. Appren- 

The rliz was il:.:le£ i*. Waih^^K. b*I:w :i«*i in his youth to the painting and paper- 

Tsnbriir* W r Lls. 1* sr. *ar~y i: zr :- 10 Tho. *M*vg:sg business at Cheltenham, he acquired 

1S53. Kirjw-ir^fi * llrrlr >e':w:iir:er=. a rasr? for the stage through acting with 

Hern an ;u«: T«er f:-^r-=-r- r.:^r: wti. w*?e aaatrur*,. ani about 1 840 joined the com - 

over *Lx f-*r :r. hrLr"-*- TL* firmer s-rrn-ri pany :f Alexander Lee, the ballad composer, 

mistrial f j I. H ^ nan tzll ■:: j-'^i £■*•». Re:s 10 *-jprort Mrs. Harriett Waylett [q. v.] in 

of '20 to 7 werv fr*r!y :5erei ::: :■:* ArfK- one-act drama* and operettas in Cheltenham, 

can. bu: there w~r* few :akrr?. Hr-erin'* Worcester. Warwick, and Leamington. In 

game throughout :br early rruuis was ::• lf43 he became attached in a subordinate 

close ;n ani " pu: the hug :- * >:• a? to crush capacity to the Simpson-Munro company at 

hi* antagonist bv dashi^; Lim vlr-I-entlv to B:rminrh " ~ 

gham. playing on 24 Oct. Conrade in 
Ad:» about Nothing/ and Sir Thomas 

the around. Ki-.g"s eon*:>:ei ■:•: iealinr his " Much 

adv^rsiry a aeries :f sleije-Laasrr b*:*w* Fairfax in the* Field of the Forty Footsteps.' 

on his n>se. Both were extreizrly succrss- On 10 May 1S44 he was seen as Young 

ful in their respective tactics, ani in the >erooge in the 'Christmas Carol* to the 

absence o: the orthodox fe:r.::ag, sr^irrinr. Fezziwig of his wife. 

and 'science.* the result came to be mainly King made rapid progress in his profession, 
a question of sheer on durance. A: the and by August 1S47 was playing leading 
eirhte^nth round the tiie ">f victory turned in business on the York circuit under J. L. 
King** favour. At the cl^se of the twenty- Pritchard. Proceeding to Gourlav's Vic- 
fourth round, after nearlv fcrtv minutes' toria Theatre. Edinburgh, in June 1848. he 
fighting. Heenan lay insensible, and his remained there four months, and in Novem- 
seconds threw up the spomre. Public anxiety ber joined W. H. Murray's company at the 
as to his condition was allayed by a medical Theatre Royal in the same city as 'heavy 
report in the * Times* \ \'2 Dec* Roth com- man.* appearing on the 13th as Sir Richard 
batants appeared in person at Wadhurst. in Wrought on in the 'Jacobite.' In April 
answer to a summons, on '22 Dec., when they lSoO he supported Charles Kean during his 
were bound over to ke-p the peace, both visit to Edinburgh , and was engaged by him 
King and Heenan engaging to fight no more to play secondary tragic parts during the 
in this country. King, having won about opening season of his management in Lon- 
4.000/. in stakes and presents, fulfilled his don. Making his d4but at the Princess's in 
promise to the letter. After starring the October 1850 as Bassanio in the ' Merchant 
country at 100/. a week, he set up as a book- of Venice/ Kin? subsequently played the 
maker and realised a handsome competence, king in ' Henry IV. Part I./ and on 31 Jan. 
He also invested in barge property. 1S51 was seen as the exiled duke when ' As 
In 1*^7 he won a couple of sculling races you like it * was performed before the queen 
on the Thames, but in later years was best at Windsor. Late in the year he was en- 
known for his success in metropolitan dower gaged bv John Harris of Dublin as leading 
shows. He died of bronchitis at Clarence actor at the Theatre Royal there. He opened 
House, Clarence Road, Clapham, on 4 Oct. under the new management on 26 Dec. as 
1888. After 18(53 the vigilance of the police Colonel Buckthorne in 'Love in a Maze/ 
confined pugilism in England more and more and soon became an abiding favourite with 
to the disreputable and dangerous classes, > Dublin playgoers. Remaining there ^\e 
and Tom King is thus not incorrectly termed seasons, lie appeared in no fewer than fifteen 
by the historian of the English prize-ring '■ notable Shakespearean revivals, and as Mac- 
as ' I'ltimus Romanorum.' beth, Master Ford, Hotspur, and Leontes, 

[Mi Ws Pmrilistica, vol. iii. ad fin. (portrait) ; met ^ mu ^ approbation. During 1855 

Pendragon's Modern Boxing. 1879. P V- 43-50, £ e was in leading sunport to Helen Faucit, 

57-78 : Bell's Life, October 1861 ; W. E. Hard- Samuel Phelpa, and Miss Glyn during their 

in^'i, Champions of the American Prize Ring, V18lta to Dublin. In March I806 he seceded 

18«8. pp. 54-9 (portrait); Times, 11-12 Dec abruptly from the Theatre Royal, and on 

1863; Bird of Freedom, 10 Oct. 1888; Sporting 14 April began a three weeks' engagement 

TjmeH, 13 March 1875 ; B mse's Modern Bio- at the Queen's in the same city in * Hamlet/ 

graphy, ii. 229.] T. S. Opening at Birmingham on 20 Oct., in con- 

i .! , o, King remained 
; utter tttr departure, mid mi 1- \.iv, 

'.: :i Dec. lie 

, ■ .Still Waters 
■ ; " in ' Esme- 
ralda." On ti July 1867 at ■ 
«ppau"ance la Hat 

ill tod Robert Roxby 

Birmingham "" 20 Sept. 

u Hamlet, he appeared there on the _7ili 

it iphelea in Boueicaull 
'Faust and Marguerite,' which was played 
-e.-hi nights ul a [irolit of 2.O0W. 
I luring 1859 King fulfilled several engage- 
rs Theatre, Dublin, (in 
B April be played there Serjeant Auaterliti 
Theresa's Vow,' to the Theresa of his 
26 July be was seen 
Martin Heywood in the 'Kent Day,' and 
a* Esteran in the 'Broken 
On 30 April I860 lie began no . 
engagement at the City of Lon- 
don Theatre in Hamlet, returning thither in . 
Decvmbrr. i in i'l 3ep1 intervening he re- 
turned to the Queen'* at Dublin as Kuthven 
in the ' Vl» 

From 18fil to 1666 Kings record was one 
of splendid strolling. On 15 March 1869 be 
was given ■ trial engage men I at Drury Lane 
by F. 0. Chstterton, op-uing there as Riche- 
lieu to the Julie de Morlerunr of his daugh- 
ter Bessie, who I lien made her London 
d*bot. He was favourably received, and 
subsequently played Hamlet, Julian St. 
PWre, and Willium in 'Black -eyed Susan,' 

■ ' ii'-llu and lago with 
At the =ame house on 

■;ii 1670 King wu tl rigiual Varoey 

if Andrew Halliday. 
i \hv Easter of 1871 his aervi 

isferred to the Adalphi al n salary of 
3tV. per week. There he originated the rile 
I ■■ lre« Helliday's ver- 
n of 'Notre Dame,' which 

i Rtrfeaber, and i 

ived » 


■ ling fulfilled an 

■) (I..- Htrylebo&e, and on n oept. 
hi* American debut ul the Lyceum 
Theatre, Sew York, as Quasimodo. The 
play did not repeat its Adelphi success, 
■ it was performed fur six weeks, 
!,", nfter which 
, i closed abruptly. It reopened 
iber with Italian opera, and on the 
■' was revived for four 
di King modes successful 
. i . ■ i valy in Shakespearean 
plats, an ■: ■ ■ ieiitn Theatre, 

From I?: was leasee of 

the Wiire.sterlli'Utre, an unprofitable specu- 
lation. In 1883 he made a short provincial 
tour under Mr. J. Pitt Hanlaere's manage- 
ment, but he had outlived his popularity 
and the vogue of his school. Later appear- 
ances were infrequent, but in July 1890 he 
|,. it"i iiii,! fur -i.v nights to good houses at 
the Queen's Theatre, Miiiielicster, and was 
much admired as Ingotunr, one of his most 
impersonal ions. Retiring 
finally to King's Heath, he died there on 
■21 Oct, 1808, and was buried at Claines, 
near Worcester. He had a son and two 
daughters, all of whom took to the stage. 
Hi- eltli-r daughter, Miss Bessie King, eur- 

A sound tragedian of the second order, 
T. C. King was the last exponent of a school 
which subordinated intelligence to precept, 
and tradition. Physically he was well 
equipped, having a fall and shapely figure, 
with dark expressive features and well-set 
■Tea ; and Ins rich bass voice was flexible 
and resonant.. A temperate graceful actor, 
he had more individuality and fewer vices 
of style than most conventional tragedian.-. 
In London he never established hi. 1 * hold, 
hut in one or two large provincial centres, 
notably Dublin and Birmingham, bis follow- 
ing was large and affectionate. 

[Mini v r-rrors of detail common to all the 
biographical accounts of T. C. King are here 
corrected, thanks to authentic information 
kindly plnrad at thr, writer's disposal by the 
actor's neptin*. Mr. Hunry Kin^.- of St. Leonards- 
on-Sea. fata hafe also been derived from Dib- 
din's Annals of the Kdinburgli Stage; Pascoe's 
Dramatic List; Lev ev sad O'Rorke's Annuls of 
the Theatre Royal, 'Dublin ; Colo'a Life of 
Charles Kean; Michuol Williams's London 
Theatres, Past and Present ; Birmingham Pages 
and Places, vol. v. No. 12 ; local playbills in the 
l'irminghnm Free Library; Freeman's Journal.] 
W. J. L. 

KIMGSFORD, WILLIAM (1619-1898), 
historian of Canada, born on 23 Dee. 1819 
in the parish of St. Lawrence Jewry, Lon- 
don, was the son of William and Elizabeth 
Kingsford of Lad Lane. Educated at 
Wanostrocbt's well-known school in Cam- 
WajTOMBOOHX, Nicholas!, he 
was articled at an early age to an architect, 
but, finding the orlice uncongenial, enlisted 
in the 1st dragoon guards in his seventeenth 
year. He went with bis regiment to Canada 
in 1887, became sergeant, and in 1*40, 
through the. influence of his friends at home, 
obtained his discharge, much to tin 
tbe colonel, Sir George Cathcart [q.v.j, who 
offerer] to procure a commission for him. 
On the death of that officer in the Crimen, 

K:r.^:":ri *f Kingsford 

K : "rs':r: Tr r r l t :■!>:•- t t_t«:-- -: 1j Tie ilsTiissal of so important a civil ser- 
— rsiey. t-"^:i. itv-Lr* .z. L-i£y ."fifiir:* ~iz.t :z «.> sasimary a fashion gave rise to 
"„> :: j.- • i -rtujj^ 1 :«l"r c rssient a: the time as an act of ex- 

:=xr pirtisan«hip. and was brought to the 

-»•"■ - ! 

>I:--t7vaI — L>i~. -e . -L-i-i ji ii~ :■ -i^s- --.f::re f tie Canadian House of Commons, 

t* .-.v_ r 7^--e--. iz.: :":-j-z.ri ~ie ins.".:- 71-r =iii* - rr defended himself by saying 

: £t- :-t :.:t j^rr T -.r. i -» *•- v":_:.l V- -i±-_ iiTi^: made certain changes in the 

ItII : t -ir-* "r-LT* ::r rt^^T-: t:«ss.":.i- -r:r£:7:r :: lis department, the services of a 

'.„.-". ••rji- :i? 3 -"■ 1 :-a": - : ■:' ~'i - M : - ttviL *^: _l! erutnetr in charge of harbours was no 

■ T.— r-f." .-_ :■— :y.z - v.-i ?V jri X.I-tT. /^r -r*>*5arr. Kingsford published the 

T*r:j-i> ::-:>>•:--:• :_- -r:V*. t. ^rrrvK^iecc* and proceedings in a pun- 

•sz.'.-tz^l :!ir "- -: -r--£* IrT-LT— -r-i:. ir i jll-t \--itLvd * Mr. Kingsford and Sir Hec- 

i~r^r -".'-• t .'-l/ra-'z- zllIt l ---v >-ir- vr L-ir^revin*» 1>^2i. There seems no doubt 

I ■ - -_ *-l ' 

l- Ir_ LSV- "i- Ti.i -li: K.t^rsto-ri was unfairly treated. 

:■. * : _ ^t --. _is . .j.i* niely cast on the world at the age 

r? r._r i i .7. : It *- l~- : >"- - V ri lz. : . : *.x*y. Kit^rsfttd began the great work of 

■■ Jltlzil L* l>4-*:a.t" i_s i.:e. - ie history of his adopted country. 

." Jiiij ">.'.. —i -rts ;i : ; :•- t±* -sr-rLL prepared for the task. Besides 

: n -? -il s-iT };-- . — r^ - '■__* ti LsTir-iaz* he was master of French, 

Oa^jl. : .i .- >-*■ . -. *ir*---'L :t :1t -.-nr. i. '^rzii=. ItV.i&n. and Spanish. He had 

ilr^iiT ^^trLrured largely to the press, and 
t _- :*; rti a ulster of substantial pamphlets : 
* Izt His:-: rv. Structure, and Statistics of 

" "\ ' "* ^^ * ■ _ , ^^ ^^ *„ ,_ " " 

:::■■ ^ '->:-:.:.: :*..:::.• ■»■ rk .v. ;": ir^r. "i. L ?"_iz.£-r:d i*.' 1S">2: 'Impressions of the 

: . -ar. : L.- " . ■'. ■. * : : : 1 r -. r: *- - : V . . : ■ : . i Hr. I* t W-*: *c i >»?u: h." 1 ^^ : ' The Canadian 

Hr wii :!.-: r :-.-.::--. "r :: :'t :.-.-;: 7 ■?*:-": Oisi*-* :'-r:r History and Cost/ 1865. a 

:'rs :Vw n :::•':.* : ..:r.^ *<v. - - >s^n-i wrk s-rrleaicntcd later by articles in the 

• ?v-::-.*rT :li-. s-ri'.:-: :" :ir ,: r5.-I 7r_v.i. *M:r.T:i^r Tisres." Toronto: and a mono- 

:r. w'^.sr T--:y" .vui:*.:: ":.-. >«i :/.'. ". S--t rrapb n Canadian history entitled * A Po- 

1 1 v ;i^: -.- i & ■ f. rv i.» ?::■;-::• :-. i-. " : :::".. -: \.~. : .-i*. C: :~ ." nis professional engatrement * 

".!=•■ e.-.*: :r:^i 1 . r :.: . «r. : j.:'::r vir r > ..» j^v- ;: : .a a full iniowledee of Canadian 

t-tt-a: 7 _\ 

*te- • 

v. ■ V.i: r .:*:* : -r- "CTij - ~y. whilv hi* -.-arly experience in the 
c.-y -.v- >:\v.s-.: : • <"ri::' r.:. H- irTry. >^rp*.e7i:e:i:ed by assiduous reading, 
Ci=ir : K::*:".. 1 .:: : ::: ">-". ~ .«..:: -■■■ r far rr.i:".ri bin: :^ t^aiprehend a military sit ua- 

:v> r. :;-.:■ »t.-;-t"": :* 7 Kr* '.!>.: ;:;r.. K:^r«t>rd srt himself in 1880 to the 

tirii*. .i::l ry:v7:vi ::■ TV. *:uis :>rj.*>-v "...v " ?-.r :* *:.:Iv ?{ :he archives of Canada, 

■ 7i :iir- r.i : .".*.viy ] •«#.:■ :".:::■.> :' *V- .?". .7. : . ;:' w-V.:o'- were collected at <>ttawa, and he con- 

S i rii :i . .i . * : . r. .: «.i : h e w -«rk a1 mt5*t wit hout int erm ission 

In I s "!". : 5 .: :V.e :::s:a::»- .:" K::^"..**:: ;i:> •-• :he r.-.x: >ev-nreen years 

:a!:*:s wh:» Ivk-.v. f.-rwari ::■ :".:-. ? ■.::I-.::r. • Th-: rirv: ir.iirs of his labour. ; Canadian 

•:»:' '):•: Cw.zv.r.r. 'ZLZ-z^'.r.'J.*'.— ■«■• Arcbje/Io^y/ appeared in 1S8<^. and was 

■::>.■ o-ni:":^? ■:: :!;■■ r.:-x rVirr:.: ::■■*. - *>?n :."*:! >we-i by The 'Early Bibliography 

K:nr*:""r.I w--r.: or.^esjrt :■? C..r.i :.i. wh--rr» of ihiTari?.' Ilr published the first volume 

he r-.:^i:ur-.l^: ::.e tvs: ■:::::* '.::-.. A* of the "History of Canada' in 18*7. The 

rhr -l/siini'n re*Mvr.l to *t::".-i the I:i;e :■> t-.-nth voluxe. which concludes his task and 

a 2 v-rTTiir.ettt work. Lr wa< disr.r>jir.teu ::: hriiurs the narrative >»f events to the union 

Lis i~ mediate ^xjvotat; ?r.s. bv.t sou or- of Cpivr and Lower Canada (1841), was 

tVinei •*nspl'\vm^nt. w:.:oh :n^.;:.ied t!:e rn- ^7in*ta in 1>^. the preface being" dated 

Urjetnvnt >f the iiresVillv crmal ar.i the *J4 May. Tak^n as a whole, the work justifies 

•Irair.inj f :h- township of l»:iss-V. in 0::- Kir.^ford's anticipations and the warm re- 

T:ir: •. Th-.'I^'-nier.ti^r.elworkcav.vih:!:: ivp:i'in it receive! in England and Canada. 

to tix his per:n-inent residence ::: i. Ottawa. It i< the fullest and fairest presentation of 

Wh»-n rh- Mackenzie j^vernment can:'* into Canadian experience that has been given to 

p iw-t in 1*7- KiiiiT-frd was appointed th-/ world. Queen's University at Kingston 

ilominion ^r.jineer in charce of thr harbour* a::d Dalhousie in Nova Scotia signified their 

<-if th*.- irr-at lakes and the .St. Lawren«.v. appreciation of his labours by conferring on 

H* rontinned in this post till :\\ Dec. 1>70. him the degree of LL.D. McGill t'niversity 

when he wa» crishiered by Sir H^tor Lan- gave his name to a recently endowed chair 

f.".-vin, wlio had bvcome minister ».if public of history. 

work- in the second Macdonald administra- Kingsford was a fellow of the Royal 

f i'»n. Soviet v of Canada, to which he contributed 

her, besides iniproviii;: her health, which hud 

■ , hal delicate. In I be 

1'nliivii it'll men and imiur>ti. L-on^i.-miil to L>-r 

fill lira ami herself, die gsi 1 confidence in 

lira own powers winning friends and nppn- 

sUtkui fin bei own wke, KboM 

■:il tn ill bl r In I'uris for ii week 
Iiit lirst taste of foreign travel. During 
T he four years I lint follow. -d she devoted her- 
self with tender capability to uursing her 
motlier, who had been attacked by serious 
illness, nml during the latter part of the 
period she also had the cnre of lira father, 
who had returned home broken in health 
rheumatic Hiver. Dr. Kingslev died in 
■'102, and his wife in April. The 
of responsibility which had 1111- 

v-i-ral papers, and a member of the Cans- 


HVPll ill-, i 

1 on 28 Sept. 1893. 
hi IB48 he married Marii 

daugUtT of William Hum- Lindsay, clerk 

oftbe Itsnslative 1- — Ttihlv of tin- province 

Ha. Queen \ icioria bestowed mi hi- 
,. ii. ion of HXV. in reeog- 

. ' ■ ■ .1 Won ixn i'! the Tim.-. 

■ ■ ■ ■. Kt port 'in 

he i w sei 
St. Lav- turaty weighed upon Mary l\_ingsley_ 
m Jewry. EC. j prir.itp information,] lightened, and nftcr u trip tn the Canaries in 

T. B. B. thr late Boring lie came back restored in 
NGSLEY. MARY HENRIETTA health ami tone, with a mind full of new 
f-1000), traveller and writer, >>oni in possibilities awakened by the incidents of 
■■'..■'■ the onlj ner voyage. Removing with her brother to 
■Ideal eMld of I h. t leorge &.ddiaon Road, London, Blled by the bendi- 
' " wife. Mary tary passion I'm- travel, -In- renounced an in- 
:iiid Hcnrv tentmn "f studying medicine in order to 
_«.W brothers. I pursue the study, which .she hud all Mill 
Her permits removed to Highgate in 1*63, j begun with her father, cf early religion and 
■non aftei her birth, and there she passed law. Shewasresolvedpersonally to mvesti- 
her firet sixteen year-'. She had a somewhat gate the subject in uncivil bed count rie? .- she 

.' books, i|i)ii t had formerly thought of going to India for 

■-.<•:■- i if numerous pet rhe purpos,.., hut- instead -be now prepared 

luties and for a voyage to tropical West Africa. Her 

* which staved by her through life, friends, i'r. Ouillemard of Cambridge and 

. ol or college, but Dr. (.1 timber of the British Museum, en- 

n f tiii h had a world couraged her to collect beetles and fresh- 

" ra own amid the obi hooka of travel, water fishes ; she read Monteiro and other 

BalMMory ■■■ icon, l . . . - 1 1 ■: -. on tit.' West Coast; and, with a few 

" f sport, and literature, which she introductions to Portuguese Colonists and 

in her father's shelves, The family 

i Mary grew up a shy, 

j itherings 



<*M "n enthusiastic traveller 

wilh keen These his 

daughter fulh fhand She was fond of 

rial!* nl' hot father's 

el fishes and their ways. 

man. but not French, which 

ugiuvr mil eniest eiiim oi i»r, ■ 

■'.- r tj. v.] by bis wife, 

■ | i|. i and 

•■hold removed to Bexley 

! in mechanic, 

, nml, through friendship 

■ I array q, v.], 

With an increasing 

. lit s she took up ethno- 

d anthrn|H)Iogy. In the spring of 


n I at Christ's 

re had a grtot effect upon 

lers, she, happy i" the sense of freedoi 
irted alone in August 189.3. She s 

down the coast to St. Paul de Loanda, made 

her way thence by land lo Andci 

many parts hitlierto i mi m veiled by Euro- 

Eeans, through great diliieulties of swamp, 
uah, and river while gathering her ool- 
lefltoris. Sl|.- iil-ii vi-iied ihinnctliis journey 
Kabinda and Matadi on the Congo river ; 
l&d, returning byway of Old ' Waber, reached 
England in January 1894, On this first 
journey she gained some acquaintance with 
the customs and fetish (i.e. religion) of the 
in the old kingdom of Congo, 
-which she afterwards utilised in an intro- 
duction to Mr. K. Hennet's 'Folk Lore of 
. I -'I-, 
The collections which she brought home 
were of value to naturalists ; and the voyage 
hail been a foretaste of what she might do 
with more definite aims and a better Know- 
ledge of how bo attain them. Daring 19M 

Kingsley 68 Kingsley 

she made good use of her opportunities : School of Medicine for Women on 'African 
among her old friends and new, in preparing Therapeutics from a Witch Doctor's point 
to start afresh. Having received a collec- of view.' During the next two years she 
tor's equipment from the British Museum, lectured on West Africa all over the 
she sailed from Liverpool on 23 Dec. 1894 country, speaking to various audiences, 
for Old Calabar, touching on the way thither associations of nurses, pupil-teachers, and 
at Sierra Leon»\ Cape Coast Castle, and working men, as well as to scientific so- 
Accra. Mary Kingsley stayed nearly two cieties, academic gatherings, and to both 
months at Old Calabar, where she was most the Liverpool and the Manchester chambers 
hospitably entertained by Sir Claude and of commerce. She freely gave her services 
Lady Macdonald. and made many excursions for charitable purposes. Her great desire 
in the neighbourhood. She then went south was that Englishmen should know the con- 
to Congo Francais and ascended the Ogow6 ditions of life and government in their West 
river, passing, at the risk of her life, through . African colonies, insisting that justice 
the dangerous rapids above VOjele : and should be done to native and white man 
subsequently made a very adventurous and alike. One of her last public utterances was 
dangerous journey through apart of the Fan at the Imperial Institute on 12 Feb. 1900. 
country which had never been explored Meanwhile she was still writing assiduously; 
before, from Lambarene on the Ogowi' river in February 1899 appeared ' West African 
to Agonjo on the upper waters of the Studies/ containing some matter already 
Kcmbwe river, passing on her way the . published and essays showing her matured 
beautiful and almost unknown Lake S'covi. views on several important subjects. A 
Afterwards she visited the island of Corisco, second edition of this book appeared in 1901, 
where she obtained some valuable zoological ' with an introduction by Mr. George Mac- 
specimens; and the last, but not the least, millan. A small volume, 'The Story of West 
feat of this memorable journey was the i Africa* (H. Marshall's Empire Series), begun 
ascent of Mungo Mali Lobeh," the great in 1897, came out in 1899 ; and her last book 
Cameroon, a mountain lo\7(J0 feet high, was a sympathetic memoir of her father pre- 
During this expedition she won the affection fixed to his ' Notes on Sport and Travel' 
and respect of natives all down the coast by (January 1900). 

the interest >he took in their welfare and Her health suffered under the strain of 
their affairs: ami (iermau and French work and London life, and she longed to get 
officials, and missionaries, traders, and sea- away. The war of 1899 with the Boer re- 
captains everywhere became her friends and publics turned her thoughts to South Africa, 
admiring helpers. In order to pay her way whence she hoped she might return to her 
^for which her slender resources did not own west coast. She sailed on 1 1 March 1900, 
suffice) she had learnt to trade with rubber reaching Cape Town on the 28th. Offering 
and oil, and the knowledge thus acquired her services to the authorities, she was sent 
liecame of great importance to the West to the Simon's Town Palace Hospital to 
African merchants in this country. She nurse sick Boer prisoners; but overwork, 
brought home a collection, reported on by heroically and ably performed, brought on 
Dr. Hunt her, consisting of insects, shells, enteric fever, from which she died on 3 June 
and plants, eighteen species of reptiles, and 1900. By her long-cherished desire she was 
sixty-five species of hshes, of which three buried at sea. The coffin was conveyed 
were entirely new and were named after her. from Simon's Town harbour on a torpedo 
Careful notes and observations made on the boat: the honours of a combined naval and 
spot were afterwards used as the foundation i military funeral were accorded her. The 
of her writings and lectures. . feeling expressed at this sudden, and as it 

She landed again in England on 30 Nov. j appeared to many unnecessary, loss of a 
1895, and work soon began to pour in upon i valuable life was universal wherever she had 
her. She set herself resolutely to acquire a been known, at Cape Town, on the West 
power of exposition, both as a writer and ■ Coast, and in England. Memorials to her 
j ;_.i_! ... i .. . .... were immediately set on foot at 

at Liverpool, where a hospital 
name is to be erected; while 

narrative of both her journeys. Her fresh 
sty le bubbled over with humour. In February 
and March she read papers before the Scot- 
tish and Liverpool Geographical Societies, 
magazine articles followed, and on 19 Nov 
she gave her first lecture at the London 

other friends in England and West Africa 
hope to carry on her work, which has had 
an important influence for good on West 
African affairs, by the establishment of a 
Mary Kingsley West Africa Society, for in- 
quiry into native custom and law, and for 

Although of during » nil ipm"! 1 n»T, 
ing the sea mid outdoor life, Mise Kings- 
wee full of womanly tenderness, svm- 
ly, mid !'.■ thout false 

fru able, wise, and in- 
ng: and, though some- 
time* wrong, she dcjilt with great issues 

H.r Em iqiure brow tu ber chief 

nceiaied remarkable per- 

ij litened by her brilliant 

rraation and ber keen 

Ivi hiniinir Portraits exist of her in 

one, a profile, taken at 

bodn in [898, toe outer, nearly full 

Loudon about the middle of 

Mnrv Kingsley was elected n member of 
- ■ ■ .. 'v in Juna 1898. 
A ** >nM B ' lcr principal lectures and writings 
nee named above are 'The Fetish 
-mil," 'Folk Lore,' vol. 
' African Religion and 
■:■.!>, "National 

■ Member 1897; 'The Law and 
.Tatars of r rope rt y among the People* of 

'■ j,-rn,' i C<l i I'TH-'il at the Bri- 

.-i"l|, September I Mi PS: 

Bit nf Apparitions in West Africa,' S.eiei V.' 

■ no!. xir.Jj 'Administration 'of 
era Wert African Colonies,' an important 

address to the Manchester chamber of coni- 

b it ■ Monthly Record,' 

;■« from an 

Kt'iiinl'.ryii-al I' .nil of View,' ' Imperial ln- 

imal,' April [BOO. ' The Develop- 

■ ! -.<*,' • National Bcriew,' March 


' West African Pro] 

. .111.71- IV=t' in .July 1WW, 

ami three or four letters ware published in 
itnr' in 1887, 1808. and 100(1. 
■ tt«rd*ning'and ' Nursing' in West Africa 
an articles in ' Climate,' April, mid ' (.'liniii- 
bctVe Journal,' Juno 1900. 

(Ter«onal knowled^" il1 '' 1 prirate letters ; Hfr 
ntwrcJltr I . iDihtCr, l»U0; 

■■ II. KiNL! -Ir 1 

. ■■ noTs M..Y.K, J» May 1898,1 

L, T. 8. 


ian, was born in 1623 at 

\iW educa- 

1 1 Cartmel he 

■»«-. at tic- ■ iprentioed to a 

■pptentioed i 

ice to .St. Hart boloinew's Hospital, 
London, id 1841. He was distinguished in 
the school examinations, and in 18-16 gra- 
duated M.I), at Berliu, In 1855 he was 
elaottd a fellow of the Royal College of 
T'n i inn- of London, and delivered the 
i iultitrniian lectures there in Itiafj. -Sir James 
1 *.■ i ll i - 1 i.|. i ■ Suppl. whs i Ih.-u warden of the 
colli/j,'.' ' ' ' S| . liijrlboloiiH'w's Hospital, and in 
\Hi* lie mill Kh-kes published a 'Handbook 
of Physiology ,' which soon became popular 
among students of medicine, A second 
edition iiiipenred in 1*61, and further editions 
U kiil:.. i,lo„„ ,n IKM, 1,-ai, and 1863. 
In 1807, I tftftt, I f-7l',aud 1*76 further editions 
by William Morrant linker appe a red. Vin- 
cent Dormer Harris waa next, joined with 
Bakes in BBTenl editions, and then edited 
the book himself, with the assistance itf 
Mr. D'Arcy Power. John Murray, i lie pub- 
lisher, to whom il was ii valuable property, 
next employed William Dobbinson llalli- 
burton, under whose care no part of the 
original work of Kirkes, except his name on 
the outside cover, remained, and in this 
form the book goes through almost annual 
editions, and is si ill the most popular text- 
book of physiology Cor medical student", 
Kirkes was appointed demonstrator of mor- 
bid anatomy to St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
in 1848, and in 18->1 defeated Dr. John 
Willimn llu,- in ii contort fin the office of 
assistant physician. He became lecturer on 
botany, and then on medicine, and in 1864, 
when --ii- 1 leorge Burrows [q. v. Suppl,] re- 
signed, In' whs elected physician to the hos- 
pital, lie died al his house in Lower 
Seymour Street of double pneumonia with 
pericarditis after live days' illness nn 8 Dec. 
1864 {Gent. Mag, 1866, i. 124). His most 
original work is a paper in the 'Transactions 
of the Royal Mi'dnvi] and ( 'hiruryii'iil Society 
of London ' I xxxv, *Jsl | on ■ Km holism, or the 
carrying of blood-clots from I he heart to re- 
mote parts of the body,' a pathological pro- 
cess then just beginning to be recognised. 
[Memoir in !:. -,!■,. ■ I 

1884 ; MS. Beowdl at St. Bartholomews Hos- 
pital ; Work? ; ]!i':i-i- Modern I'ngliah Bioar.l 

N, X. 

WAKli lULlESSMN, first Bahon Bf*- 
Boiiiyt; ( 182B-1898), was eldest, son, by the 
second wile, of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 

ninth liiin.uel ij.v. .of Merchant I latch, Kent, 

whew he was born on 39 April [899. His 
mother, a niece of Jane Austen, was a 
daughter of Edward Knight of (iodmersham 

1'ark. li.Mil, mid of I 'ha wl on House, I lamp- 
shin-. Kiuit.'hlii.ill went to Eton in 1844, 
and matriculated at Magdalen College, Ox- 

Knatchbull-Hugessen 7° 


ford, on 9 July 1847. He graduated B.A. 
in 1851, and proceeded M.A. in 1854. His 
father died on 24 May 1849, and stated in 
his will his desire that his son should add to 
his surname the name Hugessen, after the 
testator's mother, Mary, daughter and co- 
heiress of William Western Hugessen of 
Provender, Kent. This was done hy royal 

At the general election of 1857 Knatch- 
bull-Hugessen was elected a member for 
Sandwich, in the liberal interest, having 
Lord Clarence Paget for a colleague. His 
maiden speech in the House of Commons 
was made on 21 April 1858 in support of the 
abolition of church rates. When Palmer- 
ston, on 30 June 1859, formed his second ad- 
ministration he included Knatchbull-Huges- 
sen in it as a lord of the treasury. This 
office he filled till 18(36, with the exception 
of two months in 1860, when he was under- 
secretary for the home office. In Glad- 
stone's first administration, formed on 9 Dec. 
1868, Knatchbull-Hugessen returned to the 
Under-Secretary ship for the home office. In 
1871 he became iinder-secretary for the 
colonies. On 24 March 1873 he was ap- 
pointed a privy councillor. He left office 
when Gladstone resigned on 13 Feb. 1874. 
He was not included in Gladstone's second 
administration, which was formed on 28 April 
1880, but on 24 March in that year he was 
gazetted a peer, with the title of Baron 
Brabourne of Brabourne in the county of 
Kent. After he entered the House of Lords 
his political views entirely changed, and he 
became a member of the. Carlton Club. 

He filled the offices of chairman of the 
East Kent quarter sessions and deputy- 
chairman of the South-Eastern Railway. He 
died on 6 Feb. 1893 at Smeeth Paddocks, 
and was buried at Smeeth, Kent, three days 
later. He was twice married: first, on 
19 Oct, 1852, at St. Stephen's, Hertfordshire, 
to Anna Maria Elizabeth, younger daughter 
of the Rev. Marcus Richard Southwell, 
vicar of that church, by whom he had two 
sons and two daughters ; and, secondlv, on 
3 June 1890, at Maxwelton chapel, Glen- 
cairn, to Ethel Mary, third daughter of 
Colonel Walker of Crawfordton, Dumfries- 
shire, by whom he had two daughters. 

Before and after his elevation to the 
peerage Brabourne was an industrious man 
of letters, being chiefly known as author of 
numerous stories for children, but in these 
capacities failed to distinguish himself. He 
was also a book collector. His library, 
which was sold by auction in May 1892, 
' abounded in topographical works, scarcely 
any English county being unrepresented/ 

and the sum realised was over 2,000/. 
(Athenaum, Nos. 3317 and 3353). After 
the death of his mother on 24 Dec. 1882, in 
her ninetieth year, Brabourne became pos- 
sessor of ninety-four letters written by his 
Sreat-aunt, Jane Austen, to her elder sister, 
assandra. At the close of 1884 he published 
these letters in two volumes, with introduc- 
tory and critical remarks, which were mainly 
notable for their diffuse irrelevance. 

Brabourne's story books, which pleased 
the uncritical readers for whom they were 
produced, were entitled : 1. ' Stories for my 
Children,' 1869. 2. ' Crackers for Christ- 
mas : more Stories,' 1870. 3. ' Moonshine: 
Fairy Stories/ 1871. 4. * Tales at Teatime: 
Fairy Stories/ 1872. 5. ' Queer Folk: 
Seven Stories/ 1878. 6. ' River Legends ; 
or, Father Thames and Father Rhine, 1874. 
7. 'Whispers from Fairy-Land/ 1874. 
8. ' Higgleay-Piggledy ; or, Stories for Every- 
body and Everybodv's Children/ 1875. 
9. 'Uncle Joe's Stories/ 1878. 10. 'Other 
Stories/ 1879. 11. 'The Mountain Sprites 
Kingdom, and other Stories/ 1880. 12. * Fer- 
dinand's Adventure, and other Stories.' 
13. 'Friends and Foes from Fairy-Land/ 
1885. He also published, in 1877, 'The 
Life, Times, and Character of Oliver Crom- 
well : a Lecture/ and, in 1886, ' Facts and 
Fictions in Irish History: a Reply to Mr. 

[Times and Annual Register for 1893; pre- 
face to Letters of Jane Austen.] F. R. 

KNIBB, WILLIAM (1803-1845), mis- 
sionary and abolitionist, third son of Thomas 
and Mary (born Dexter) Knibb, was born at 
Kettering on 7 Sept. 1803, one of twins. His 
father was a tradesman, his mother a mem- 
ber of the independent chapel whose Sunday 
school he joined at seven years old. After 
three years at the grammar school he entered 
some printing works in 1814, and in 1816 
removed with his elder brother Thomas 
(b. 11 Oct. 1799) to Bristol on the transfer of 
the business. He was baptised by Dr. John 
Ryland [q. v.] and admitted member of the 
Broadmead Chapel on 7 March 1822. 

Both brothers early conceived a desire for 
missionary enterprise. William's first im- 
pulse was felt while ' composing ' missionary 
accounts and letters. Thomas was accepted 
in 1822 by the Baptist Missionnrv Society 
as master of the free school in Kingston, 
Jamaica, while William commenced preach- 
ing in a village near Bristol, and in a low 
part of the town called the ' Beggars' Opera/ 
colloquially the ' Beggars' Uproar.' The 
death of his brother after three days' illness, 
on 25 April 1823, led to William sailing on 




5 Not. 1824 for Jamaica to fill the post. 
He was just over twenty-one, and took with I 
him his young wife, Mary Watkina of Bris- ' 
tol, to whom he waa married a month earlier. I 
After four years Knibb resigned his school i 
to undertake the small mission of Savannah 1 
la Mar, and in 1830 he settled at Falmouth, , 
near Mont ego Bay. Local feeling against 
the missionaries was strong, and their evan- 
gelical labours greatly restricted by the ! 
island laws. Knibb protested against the 
unjust action of the magistrates, and became 
the subject of much misrepresentation. The 
introduction of Fowell Buxton's motion re- 
lating to colonial slavery in April 1831 was 
the signal for violent agitation among the 
planters and excitement amomj the slaves, 
which culminated in insurrection. Knibb 
was arrested on a charge of aiding, and his 
chapel, like many others in the island, was 
destroyed. But the case against him fell 
through, and on his release he was despatched 
by the missionaries to plead their cause in 

He arrived to find the reform bill passed, 
when his first exclamation was ' Now 1*11 
have slavery down.' He threw himself ve- 
hemently into the struggle. At the Assembly 
Rooms at Bath, on 15 Dec. 1832, he defended 
the missionaries in a public discussion, and 
published with P. Borthwick a defence of 
the missionaries under the title of * Colo- 
nial Slavery' (London, i'nd edit. 183:3). 
He was examined before select committees 
of both houses of parliament, and in his 
.spare moments addressed some meetings of 
the Anti-Slavery Society. A handsome sum 
of money was raised to recoup the heavily 
taxed missionaries and rebuild their schools 
and chapels. In October 1834 Knibb re- 
turned to Jamaica, where he became the 
object of malicious attacks in the pro-slavery 
Jamaican press. These were copied by 
•John Bull/ an English paper, then edited 
bv Thomas Hood. A Bristol solicitor and 
friend of Knibb (Mr. 11. W. Hall) brought 
a libel action against the proprietor of the 
paper before Jx>rd Denman in 1839 and ob- 
tained damages, amounting to 70/., for the 
missionary. The Baptist Missionary Society 
presented him with a testimonial to mark 
the vindication of his character. 

In 1840 Knibb, with his two daughters, 
proceeded to England to exhibit in public 
addresses the results of emancipation, and 
to appeal for the enlargement of the mission. 
At the same time he pressed home the sub- 
ject of African slavery. Ho was everywhere 
received with enthusiasm, as he was subse- 
quently upon his third and fourth visits in 
1841' and 1845. 

To Knibb's efforts in England and at 
home the increase of missionary activity in 
Jamaica was largely due. Addressing a 
meeting in Norwich in June 1845 he related 
tbat thirty-five chapels, sixteen schoolrooms, 
and twenty-four mission-houses had been 
built at a cost of 157,000/. The conditions 
of life had already improved so much that, 
as he pointed out, the average limit of a 
missionary's life in the West Indies had in- 
creased from three to seven years. Knibb 
himself, a man of splendid constitution and 
immense energy, spent twenty-one years in 
Jamaica. He was stricken down with ma- 
lignant fever in the thick of his work, and 
died after four days' illness on 15 Nov. 1845 
at Kettering, one of his seven stations, where 
a house had been built and presented by his 
affectionate people to his wife and daughters. 
Mrs. Knibb survived until 1 April 1806. 
Five of their children predeceased him. Of 
the elder son, William, a remarkable boy of 
twelve, Dr. James Hoby wrote a ' Memoir/ 

Knibb founded, in September 1839, the 
1 Baptist Herald and Friend of Africa/ a 
weekly paper for the instruction of the 
emancipated population of Jamaica. Some 
of his speeches in England are printed in 
pamphlet form. His correspondence with 
Joseph Sturge [a. v.], Joseph John Gurnev 
i [q. v.], Dr. Hoby, and many other aboli- 
tionists and missionaries, is included in 
1 Hinton's ' Life/ where also is a portrait. A 
medallion was placed at the base of a figure 
of justice, erected in his chapel at Falmouth 
to commemorate the birth of freedom on 
1 Aug. 1838. Figures of Sturge, Granville 
Sharp, and Wilberforce appear in bas-relief. 

[Life, by J. Howard Ilinton, 1847; Memoir 

by\Mrs. J. J. Smith, 18i)G ; Dr. Cox's Hist, of 

ths Bapti>t Missionary Society, 1812. vol. ii. 

pussim ; Jamaica Missionary, 1819 ; funeral ser- 

1 mons by J. Howard Hinton, Samuel Oughton, 

( T. F. Newman, J. Aldis, and other baptist 

1 ministers, 1846; Uevan Braithwaite's Memoir 

I of J. J. Gurnev ; (Jurnev's Winter in the West 

Indies, p. 184 ; Sturge and JIarvev's West Indies 

1 in 1837, pp. 199, 201, 204, 231*; The Tourist, 

, 1833, p. 1.] C. F. S. 

. HAM HAMILTON (lsr>:M89t5), first bi- 
shop of Mashonaland. [See Bruce.] 

KNOX, ROBERT BENT (1808-1*<W), 
archbishop of Armagh, was second son of Hon. 
Charles Knox (</. lSi\")), archdeacon of Ar- 
magh, by his wife Hannah (//. 185:*), daugh- 
ter of Robert Bent, M.P., and widow of 
James Fletcher. I le was born at Dungannon 
1 Park Mansion, the residence of his grand- 
I father Thomas Knox, first viscount North- 




land (d. 1818), on 25 Sept. 1808. Though 
baptised Robert Bent, he early dropped the 
use of his middle name. He was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating B.A. 
in 1829, M.A. in 1834, B.D. and D.D. jn 
1858; he was also LL.D. Cambridge in 
1888. In 1832 he was ordained deacon and 

?riest by Beresford, bishop of Kilmore. On 
May 1834 he was collated chancellor of 
Ardfert,and on 16 Oct. 1841 he was collated 
to the prebend of St. Munchia, Limerick, by 
his uncle Edmund Knox (d. 7 May 1849), 
bishop of Limerick, who made him his do- 
mestic chaplain. In March 1£49 he was 
nominated by Lord Clarendon to the see of 
Down, Connor, and Dromore, vacated by the 
death (2 Nov. 1848) of Richard Mant [q. v.l 
He was consecrated on 1 May, and enthroned 
on 3 May at Lisburn, on 5 May at Dro- 
more. Samuel Wilberforce [q. v. J, who was 
in Ireland in 1861, details in his diary 
(26 Aug.) some ill-natured gossip about the 
appointment. James Henthorn Todd J\j. v.] 
described Knox as 'very foolish, without 
learning, piety, Judgment, conduct, sense, 
appointed by a job, that his uncle should 
resign Limerick.' The dean of Limerick, 
Anthony La Touche Kirwan (d. 1868), said 
of him, ' He used, when made to preach by 
his uncle, to get me to write his sermon, and 
could not deliver it. The bishop used to 
say, " "Why do you always blow your nose 
in the pathetic part ? " ' (Life of Wilberforce, 
1882, iii. 25). 

Knox, as a whig, was not at the outset 
popular in his diocese. Like his predecessor, 
ne resided at Holywood, co. Down. He 
made no secret of his opinion that, in the 
absence of extensive reforms, disestablish- 
ment was inevitable, and did his best to 
prepare for it. At an early period of his 
episcopate he had entertained the project of 
a cathedral at Belfast (in addition to the 
three existing cathedrals of the diocese) ; 
this luxury he abandoned in favour of a plan 
for multiplication of churches. The 'Bel- 
fast Church Extension Society ' was founded 
by him in 1862; as the result of his efforts, 
forty-eight new or enlarged churches were 

consecrated in his diocese. Prior to disesta- 
blishment, he organised (1862) diocesan 
conferences, and founded a diocesan board i 
of missions. In the House of Lords in 1867, 
and before the church commission in 1868, 
he proposed a reduction of the Irish hier- 
archy to one archbishop and five bishops. 
He was not a man of commanding power or 
of genial warmth, but his simplicity and 
modesty of manner, the plain good sense of 
his clear and frank utterances, his ready 
exertions in all works of charity, and his 
complete freedom from sectarian bias, won 
for him the respect and good feeling of every 
section in the community. 

On the death, 26 Dec. 1886, of Primate 
Marcus Gervais Beresford [q. v. Suppl.] he 
was chosen by the house of bishops as his 
successor, and, exchanging his diocese for 
that of Armagh, was enthroned at Armagh 
as archbishop on 1 June 1886. As president 
of the general synod of the Irish church, his 
characteristic qualities of fairness and mode- 
ration came effectively into play. He re- 
tained to the last his activity of body, 
presiding at the Armagh diocesan synod a 
fortnight before his death. He died at Ar- 
magh of heart disease on 23 Oct. 1893, and 
was buried on 27 Oct. in the old church (a 
disused ruin) at Holywood. Portraits of 
him are at Armagh Palace and at the see 
house of Down. He married, on 6 Oct. 1842, 
Catherine Delia, daughter of Thomas Gibbon 
Fitzgibbon of Ballyseeda, co. Limerick, and 
by her (who predeceased him) had three 
sons and three daughters, of whom a son, 
Lieutenant-general Charles Edmond Knox, 
and two daughters survive him. Besides a 
sermon (1847), charges (1850 and 1858), and 
a brief address, * Fruits of the Revival/ in 
Steane's ' Ulster Revival ' (1859, 8vo), he 
published ' Ecclesiastical Index (of Ireland) f 
(Dublin, 1839, 8vo), a valuable book of refe- 
rence, with appendix of forms and prece- 

[Cotton 8 Fasti Eccles. Hibern. ; Belfast News 
Letter, 24 and 30 Oct. 1893; Northern Whig, 
same dates ; Burkes Peerage, 1899, p. 1214] 

A. G. 


■■":■ Italian scholar and politician, 

■ i acuta of Handuria in 

the Terra d'Utrnntn, and of Again Conti of 

Agnone in the UtolUe. wns Imni ul Mini- 

diirU, in to* provinea "t" Lecce, Italy, on 

took ii Law degree at the 

I, WM admitted mi iiihn- 

li.-i-il In- |ir>|i--i"M. 

■ !' Enos Throop, United 

:.:'■ d'affaires al Nap 
December 183X, helped him in the study o( 

■ -i this tiurali^cij ruined hiiu the 

_ i adviser to t In.- British legation at 

Hapten, nnd the friendship of the minuter, 

un Temple, at who»e table he 
met many English travellers of distinction, 
Lacsita'a political opinions wore liberal bul 

i.'. and !><■ never belonged to any 

ociety. He was n» unsuccessful 
a for the repneratetion of the city 

■ !■!-, .in 7 Iprjl was np- 
V>-.'ip<>]it!in li-^nrioii 

i : lor his post, 
h he re-iuied after tile lull of the liberal 

May. In November 1850 
.-. ho wm 111 Naples in 
o collect information about Bourbon 
misrule. Tin- ted to the aw il 
on s Jan. 1851, and he remained in custody 
,.- days. In a letter from Gladstone 
o iViuzi, in fSejit ember, hi' is referred to 
■ \cellent man, hunted bv the 

■ ■ (F*0*N, L(fe of Ptina'ii, ii. 

TV publication of ' Hint-One's letters to 

lort Aberdeen, for which Lacaita supplied 
itility of 



■ MM 

Th» p 


i, aroused the hostility 
ill partisans in Italy, and 

i.-i I'n I it :nli L :- 1 1. h i L i - to leave Naples 

LnvdotJ, where h" arrived mi 8 Jan. [852, 

Edinburgh on 11 Feb., in May 

wti an uaaneoaaafnl candidate for the 

of librarian of the London Library, 

i 'lnvi i-ins: 

daughter of Sir Thomas Gibson 

i baronet. His meana 

[, lint he made many powerful 

■ political innl liler.iry 

circle- in Lond'Hl and Edinburgh. From 

■ [BfiSnntil April L8B8 he was pro- 

feem of Italian at Queen's College, London, 

* naturnli-'-'l in July [h.Vi, nnd publishi-d 

■: Writers ' 

Ivo). In Ihe 

l*5ft-7 he accompanied Lord 

Uinta to Floeenoe and Turin, From 18.J7 
to 1683 he acted lis private -c-i-, tmi U3 
Lord Lutiwloivne, and towards the close of 
LB38 went with (ilndstotut to the Ionian 
Islands an secretary to the mission, being 
made K. CM .U, for liisservicesm March LH5U. 
Lacaita whs entrusted by Cavour with n 
delicate diphimntic negotiation in IxiKI con- 
ic vied u it li sell'- » to prevent I inrilmldi from 

crossing from Sicily to Calabria, aj 

Silently the Neap ililnti government offered 
iin the poet of minister in London with the 
title of tnarquis, both of which hi- declined (iA.»). In December ISflO.aftertheexpulaioii 
of the Bourbons, he revisited Naples, caused 
his name to he reinstated on the municipal 
registry, nnd in July 1861, while buck in 
England, was returned as deputy to the 
first. Italian legislature. Ha generally sup- 
ported the new Italian government. After 
the dissolution of 1805 he did not seek re- 
election, and was made a senator in 1878. 
Though speaking but seldom in I he chamber, 
ad ii aonsidarable in! ■ 

Etiblic affairs between ISiil and 1876 through 
is intimacy with Kieasoli, l.n Marmora, Min- 
ghctti, Viscooli-Venoata, and other leading 
men. Florence became his headquarters in 
Italy after the removal of the government 
thence from Turin, and so it remained even 
after the transfer of I lie capital tn iinuie, Hit 
spent a portion of each year in England, and 
during the last fifteen years of his life 
wintered at Loucaspide, near Tariiutn, where 
he had made large purchase* of monastic 
lands in Ifttifl. lie was a director of the 
Italian company for the Southern lliiilivavs 
from its formation, and took a share In the 
management of several Anglo-Itnlir.n public 
companies. Resides his English title, he 
was a knight of the Bmiilinn order of the 
Hose, and k night com m under nf S. Maoriiio 
e I.azzaro and of the Corona d' Italia. 

During his earlier years in England he 
lVi-i[iii-niiv It-aurad on Italian subjects at the 
Royal Institution, the London Institution, 
and elsewhere. lie wrote nearly all the 
Italian articles for the eighth edition of the 
' Encyclopedia Britannic*,' and revised 
several editions of Murray's ' Handbook for 
South Italy.' In 1865 he edited the third 
or album volume of the great edition of the 
' InfiTzni ili Dante,' after the death of Lrn-d 
Vernon, having helped in the production of 
the former volumes ( Lonihm. 1858 SB, 3 
Tola, folio). lie compiled the 'Catalogue 





of the Library at Chatsworth ' (London, 
1879, 4 vols, large 8vo) for the seventh 
Duke of Devonshire, and edited the first 
complete publication of the famous Latin 
lectures on Dante of Benvenuto da Imola, 
delivered in 1375, ' Comentum super Dantis 
Aldigherij Comoediam nunc primum integre 
in lucem editum, sumptibus Guil. Warren 
Vernon/ Florence, 1887, 6 vols, large 8vo. 

He died at Posilipo, near Naples, on 
4 Jan. 1895, in his eighty-second year, 
leaving an only son, Charles Carmichael 
Lacaita (b. 1853), M.P. for Dundee, 1885-7. 

During forty-five years his life and in- 
terests were divided between this country 
and Italy ; in the one a polished English- 
man, in the other a vivacious Neapolitan 
and a conscientious landowner. He was a 
notable Dante scholar, an excellent biblio- 
grapher, a man of wide reading and intel- 
lectual sympathy, of great social tact and 
goodness of heart. 

[Information kindly furnished by Mr. C. C. 
Lacaita; see also the Times, 8 Jan. p. 10, j 
10 Jan. p. 1,4, 1895 ; Lettere ad Antonio 
Panizzi, pubbl. da L. Fagan, 1880, p. 463, 
&c.; Minghetti, Miei Ricordi, 1890, iii. 228; 
Burke's Peerage, 1894, p. 1607.] H. R- T. 

LACY, EDMUND (1370 P-1453), bishop 
of Exeter, born probably about 1370, was 
sod of Stephen Lacy and his wife Sibilla, 
who were buried in the conventual church 
of the Carmelites at Gloucester. Edmund 
was probably a native of that city, and was 
educated at Oxford, where he graduated D.D. 
In 1398 he was master of University College, 
and is said to have presided over that society 
for live years (Wood, Hist, and Ant. ii. 59). 
On 4 Jan. 1400-1 he appears as canon of 
Windsor. He was installed prebendary of 
Hereford Cathedral on 25 Sept. 1412, and in 
1414 also held the prebend of Nassington 
in Lincoln Cathedral. On 12 May 1409 he 
was sent as envoy to France, and on 22 May 
1413 he was appointed agent to the papal 
court. In Henry V's reign he was dean of 
the chapel royal, and accompanied the king 
to Agincourt in 1415 (Nicolas, Agincourt, 
p. 389). On 8 Feb. 1416-17 lie was granted 
custody of the temporalities of the bishopric 
of Hereford ; the pope assented to his election 
on 3 March, and Henry V was present at 
his consecration on 18 April. In 1420 he 
was translated to Exeter, the temporalities 
were restored on 31 Oct., and he was installed 
on 29 March 1421. In that year he preached 
before Henry V at Westminster (Walsing- 
ham, Hist. Angl. ii. 337). He was one of 
Henry V's executors, but seems to have taken 
little part in politics in the following reign, 

though he is mentioned in a political satire « 
about 1460 (Bentley, Excerpta Historica, s 
p. 162). He was bishop of Exeter for thirty- 
tive years. In 1434 he was excused attend- 
ance at parliament on account of his bodily 
infirmities, but twenty years later he was 
fined eighty marks for not being present. 
He died at Chudleigh on 18 Sept. 1455, and 
was buried on the north side of the choir in 
Exeter Cathedral. His tomb, which still 
remains, was long the resort of pilgrims. 
His will, proved on 8 Oct?. 1455, is lost, but 
his register, covering more than seventeen 
hundred pages, remains. He gave various 
books to his chapter, and made other benefac- 
tions to the diocese. His ' Liber Pontificalia ? 
was edited from an original fifteenth-century 
manuscript (the title-page savs fourteenth 
century) by Ralph Barnes ana published in 
1847 (Exeter, 8vo). 

[Preface to Lacy's Liber Pontificalia ; Olivers 
Bishops of Exeter; Rymer's Fcedera, ix. 404, 
422, 450; Beckington Corrrcp. (Rolls Ser.); 
Nicolas's Ordinances of the Privy Council ; Rolls 
of Parliament ; Ramsay's Lancaster and York, 
ii. 1 93 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl., ed. Hardy, passim ; 
Godwin's De Praesulibus Angliae ; Stabbs's Reg. 
Sacrum.] A. F. P. 

LACY, WALTER (1809-1898), actor, 
whose real name was Williams, the son 
of a coach-builder in Bristol, born in 1809, 
was educated for the medical profession, 
went to Australia, and was first seen on the 
stage in Edinburgh, in 1829, as Mont al ban 
in the ' Honeymoon/ was playing there 
again in 1832, and acted also in Glasgow, 
Liverpool, and Manchester. His debut in 
London was at the Hay market on 21 Aug. 
1838 as Charles Surface. At Covent Gar- 
den he appeared, about 1841, as Captain Ab- 
solute, and at Drury Lane as Wildrake in 
the ' Love Chase.' With Charles Kean 
[cj. v.] at the Princess's he was, on 18 Sept. 
1852, the original Rouble in Boucicault's 
' Prima Donna/ and made a great success as 
Chateau Renaud in the * Corsican Brothers/ 
With Kean he played John of Gaunt in 
' Richard 11/ Edmund in ' I^ear/ Gratiano, 
and Lord Trinket in the 'Jealous Wife.' 
On 30 June 1860 he was, at the Lyceum, 
the Marquis of Saint Evremont in ' A Tale 
of Two Cities/ and at DrurvLaneon 17 Oct. 
1864 was Clot en to Miss Faucit's Imogen. 
He was Flutter in the 'Belle's Stratagem' 
on 8 Oct. 1866 at the St. James's, where he 
was on 6 Nov. the first John Leigh in 
' Hunted Down, or Two Lives of John 
Leigh.' In two Lyceum revivals of ' Romeo 
and Juliet ' he wasMercutio. On 12 Aug. 1868 
he was, at the Princess's, the original Bel- 
lingham in Boucicault's' After Dark/ Other 

Ma lv, .4io, Touchstone, 
i, I I. ■■!-!■ VIII, Young 
., Goldfinch, 
uapkin. It-,), '■ 

■' grim in 'Blue Devils,' 

', let, - My Lord Duke in 'High 

Jeremy Diddler, and 

beence from the stage, 

I with teaching elocution »t the 

m) ol Music, he reappeared at 

■ ilonel Damaa 

■ Bit Denry Irving'* revival n! ■ 

■ ■■! on 13 Dec. 1898 at 

.lit on, and was buried 

: Bi»nipton cemetery on the 17th. Lacy 

* a respectable light comedian, b 
I an exponent ol' old nit'ti mid ITU B 
Hi' was a 

miliar figure at the Qarriclc Club, which 

iiji in 0J1«, and was 
ion to the Inst n man of much vivacity, 
I of (junior, clover, unbridled, and oha- 

■ ■ I.m ,, II; I)i:rnn:ui 
[Ptnooal knowledge ' lark ];■■■■ 

ulj : li:l>dia's Edni- 

„b &ag#, Rueae* Dramatic I. 

J Uunrdt Ulundmhd ; Holliugtilieiid's <'-;iiA y 
runich*: Em. 17 He*. 1898; Oole'i Life of 

arlea Knn. Em Al nock, and Sunday 

ia yean; private information.] 

1 .. Cauadian 

■ . ■ rifle, in the 
irably, [*wer Canada, ii - 

i 1807, was the third sou of Antoine 
1 l.afontaine. a farmer of that neigh- 
borhood, by hia wife Marie .1. Fontaine 

■i: i till! (.Till id Si ill nl A n ■ ■ '! I. Mi - 

in-mber of the legislative 

in My of Lower Canada. He wai edu- 

eled at Montreal, and after uirseoffive 

- ..r i ,i-. < ilw! ti> - 1 .I'll" law, entering (111' 

l v.] His 

.1. ill. Ill 11 ,1. eiill-Lll'TllUi' wliilv 

i clerk, and after hia call to the 
■ Itly acquired n l,i- 

tiudiaus. Hi' jnnn'il 

itreul, and was return* d 
i. il>l\ nl' Lower Cmiailn 
..' I -:'.U f-.rtlii- omury 
rbich he continued to 
;:. lie was at first, a follower 
. whom he 
, in 'ii- resistance to the 

■ ir or two, liow- 
i iII.iivit to the 
r eventually he 

beeaimi ei>ii]ple!el_\ >-A ranged. \\ bill L*tpt- 
neau was associated with tin.' parti ju'Hre, 
' Lafontaine led that of fa jmut i-\<utr,-, ami 
I was regarded by the orthodox as little 
better Mian an infidel. Although ha in* 

•.bilged in unmeasured oppoi-lli,.i, ■ 

> ment, he m« tin- outbreak of the rebellion 

nf |HH7 will, leeliii^.nl' ii. n-:. 

'convinced that iln< ii'i-iiiiriv. nf r In- Iiimh-- 

■j i-r i r - ii ■ ■[■>■ unite inadequate. The gorem- 

I ment, however, mindful of his incendiary 

ins, issued a 

warrant against him for high treason, La- 

■ - :i|ii'i! In I % r i _■ I ■ i rn I mill I hence 

Prance, lie was, aUi- to hi.* in- 

.■I returned to Cauda in Ma? 

1838. lie was imprisoned on 7 NoY. 1838, 
during the hostile expeditious "I' 1 :■ ■! ■■ !■! 
■■■ N'ELSOS, W0LFBBH Iroin tin- 
United States, hut was released /rum luck of 

■■ -uppression of the rebellion Ltr 
fontaine found the leadership of the jittr/i 
prrtre vacant owing to l'api main's exile. I Il- 
eum iliati'd the priests and assumed the 
Cition. On Papineau's return in 1847 he 
nd his place filled mid wn compelled to 
become the head of the mure extreme party 
which Lafontaine bad formerly directed. 
I,ri!'intiiirii- opposed I lie lininLI ol' 1 [iper and 
l.nw.r Canada in 1M0. On 21 Sept. 1841, 
after contesting Terrebonne unsuccessful ly, 
he was returned In the parliament of the 
united provinces: for the fourth riding of 
York, a county in Upper Canada, eliieflv 

through the batnunentality of Kobert Bald- 
win i|. v Suppl. !!■' whs nt mice recognised 
as the leader ill Me' l-'remii Canadians in the 
new assembly, and early in 1849 <l i-liued 
an offer of the H'dici tor-gene nils hip nf Lower 
Canada from the governor-general, Charles 
Edward l'liuli'tt Thomson. Itaron Syden- 
ham [q. v.], made to him on the condition 
that, he should support the governors policy. 
In September In)'.', at the instance of 

S\d.:iiharn'- .in,-, ,,r, Sir I -■ 

[it. v. Suppl.", he joined Baldwin in fnrming 
the first I In Id it in- 1, a In ii tni ne adm in ist ration, 
in which he held the portfolio of niirie ■. ■ 
general for the lower province. I luring his 
lenn nl oilier lie obtained a negation of pro- 
ceedings against the political oflenuera of 

\y.\7, including l'il|,nieini. Tlie lililli-ll'V 

re-signed on -J~ \m I ■ . ■ 

a dilli-reuei- with BagOt'« jucces-nt'. Sir 
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe (afterwards 
Baron Melcalle) |"ij. v. !, with regard io lie- 
control of the nomination of government 
olheials. In Norember 1344 l.afontuino was 
retiinnil for Terrebonne, which he repre- 
sented during the whole period I ' 

Lafontaine 76 Laing 

sition. In March 1848, after a stormy 
election in which several persons were killed, 
he was returned for the city of Montreal, 
which he represented during the remainder 
of his public life. 

In March 1848 the reform party triumphed 
at the general election, and Baldwin and La- 
fontaine again took office, Lafontaine as 
premier and attorney-general for Lower 
Canada. In January 1849 he passed an 
amnesty bill, and in February he introduced 
the famous rebellion losses bill, which was 
intended to compensate innocent sufferers in 
1837. This bill was bitterly resented both 
in Canada and England, because it was 

269-76 ; Gerin-Lajoie's Dix Ans an Canada de 
1840 a I860, Quebec, 1888; Turcotte's Canada 5 
sous V Union, Quebec, 1871-2, pts. i. and ii.; r 
Dent's Last Forty Years, Toronto. 1881 ; Kaye's 
Life and Corresp. of Lord Metcalfe, 1858, ii. 
320-425 ; Hincks's Reminiscences, Montreal, 
1884 ; Hindu's Lecture on the Political History 
of Canada between 1840 and 1855, Montreal, 
1877 ; Bibaud's Pantheon Canadien, Montreal, 
1891.] E. I. C. 

LAING, SAMUEL (1812-1897), poli- 
tician, author, and chairman of the Brighton 
Railway, was born in Edinburgh on 12 Dec. 
1812. He was the son of Samuel Laing 
[q. v.], the author of the well-known ' Tours' 

feared that it would benefit disloyal French I in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, who was 
Canadians, and it gave rise to the most | the younger brother of Malcolm Laing [q. v.], 
extraordinary scenes of riot in Montreal , the historian of Scotland. Laing was edu- 

Isee Bruce, James, eighth Earl of Elgin]. , cated at Houghton-le-Springgrammar school, 
jafontaine's house was partly burnt down ! and privately by Richard Wilson, a fellow 
and he himself on more than one occasion ; of St. John's, Cambridge. He entered that 
exposed to imminent peril. In consequence I college as a pensioner on 5 Julv 1827, gra- 
of the disorder the seat of government was j duated BA. as second wrangler in 1831, and 
permanently removed from Montreal. In I was also second Smith's prizeman. He was 
the meantime Lafontaine felt that he was i elected a fellow of St. John's on 17 March 
growing out of sympathy with the younger 1884, and remained for a time in Cambridge 
reformers. The temper of his mind was as a mathematical coach. lie was admitted 
naturally aristocratic and conservative. The a student of Lincoln's Inn on 10 Nov. 1832, 
movement which he had led had been na- and was called to the bar on 9 June 1837. 
tional, and when questions of class interest ! Shortly after his call he was appointed private 
became of importance he found himself out ' secretary to Henry Labouchere, afterwards 
of accord with his former supporters. He I Lord Taunton [q. v.], then president of the 
was opposed to the secularisation of the , board of trade. Upon the formation of the rail- 
clergy reserves in Upper Canada and the , way department of that office in 1842 he was 
abolition of the seigneural tenure in the appointed secretary, and thenceforth dist in- 
lower province, both of them measures ,' guished himself as an authority upon rail ways 
steadily demanded by a large section of the | under successive presidents of the board of 
reform party. In consequence he retired ' trade. In 1844 he published the results of 
from political life towards the close of 1851. ' his experience in ' A Report on British and 
On 13 Aug. 18.53 he was nominated chief ! Foreign Railways,' and gave much valuable 
justice of Lower Canada in succession to Sir ; evidence before a committee of the House 
James Stuart [q. v.], and on 28 Aug. 1864 i of Commons on railways. To his suggestion 
he was created a baronet. He continued to ( the public are mainly indebted for the con- 
hold the office of chief-justice until his death venience of 'parliamentary ' trains at the rate 
at Montreal on 26 Feb. 1864. He was twice of one penny per mile. In 1845 Laing was 
married : first, on 9 July 1831, to Adele, ! appointed a member of the railway com- 
daughter of Amable Berthelot, an advocate '■ mission, presided over by Lord Dalhousie, 
at Quebec. She died without issue on ! and drew up the chief reports on the railway 
27 May 1859, and he married secondly, on I schemes ot that period. Had his recom- 
30 Jan. 1861, Jane Morrison, a widow of j mendations been followed, much of the com- 
Montreal. By her he had an only surviving j mercial crisis of 1846 would, as he after- 
son, Louis Hypolite, on whose death, in 1867, j wards proved, have been averted. The report 
the baronetcy became extinct. , of the commission having been rejected bv 

[Burke's Peerage, 1900; Dent's Canadian P^fment, thp commission was ai^lveo\ 
Portrait (udlery, Toronto, 1881, iii. 10L8 i I and Laing, resigning his post at the board of 
(with portrait); David's Biographies et Por- i trade, returned to his practice at the bar. 
traits, Montreal. 1876, pp. 96-113 (with por- , In 1848 he accepted the post of chairman 
trait) ; David's Union des deux Canndas, Mont- and managing director of the London, Brigh- 
real, 1898; Morgan's Sketches of Celebrated | ton, and South Coast Rail way, and under his 
Canadians, Quebec, 1862, pp. 417-9; David's administration the passenger traffic of the 
Patriotes de 1837-1838, Montreal, 1886, pp. line was in five years nearly doubled. In 

ime chairman of Eke Crystal 
i»uy, from which lie retired in 
I as from the chairmanship of 

ii. July 1865 he was 

Sarliament. in the liberal interest 
district, which In- represented 

J l«'||('l| i ■ 

■ ■ riti'ni in China), lie 
nd was financial 
i iiv from the following 
1680. in that month 

ti-i*l r. 

il . II is confidence was more than shared by 
ii number of London stockbrokers who lived 
down the line, and knew, (ff thought they 
knew, a great deal about it. Hence tm 
enormous amount of speculation that took 
place for a long period in Brighton Deferred 
Stock ('Brighton W). Whan speculative 
operations for (In- rice tumed out well, their 
author? naturally regarded the management. 

general, to replace James Wil- 

. ,who had died within 

i yrar of taking up this newly created and 

"rative office [Me FritRf, BIB RahTle]. 

India, Lning Mid 




■ ■ d-M-r-.r a .sick budget with n deficit of 

h it ii ■ question of military re- 

n. and the possibility of military re- 

11 depends on pe*M. Yell me candidly 
t you think of thy pTOepeotf of peace, 
e my financial policy ac- 

r.' Pnlmorston replied, 'I do not 
.e nun at the Tuillt-ries au inch 
.ban 1 con eee him; but for the next 
■vliich l- enoughforyour 
, [ think we are fairly safe of peace; 
n for reduction.' 

■ ~ of his mission 
i the lince laid down with such con- 
u* abilitv bv Wilson. Laing was again 
1 B.P. for Wick in July 1865. He 

i Ihr that cnn.-titueiiey in 1WW, 

t waa returned for Orkney and Shetland 

"^. and sat without Interruption until 

e retired from parliament in 1885. Though 

liberal, he was opposed to what 

■■■1 the anti-imperialist leaning 

idsUme; he published in I SS4 a careful 

d moderate indictment of what would now 

1 Little Englandism in 'England's 

B LH7 Laing waa reappointed chairman 

'■in, Brighton, and South Const. 

laJlway (a post, which he held down to 1894), 

inn as a railway magnate intro- 

■ the city. Liiing's connections 

b the financial world were not uuiuipor- 

Duriug his tenure of the chair at the 

los, Brighton, and South 

IIV LTil'lllllllv 1*>- 

; irons, aud he contributed 
i ill bv his business ca- 

1 ordinate*. Noting the 

the earliest to 
n that the line had a grunt, future before 

did not, l.iiing came m for more than a fair 
share of abuse, lie was connected with two 
ot kerimpori ant companies in which his know- 
ledge of railway* waa useful. These were 
the Railway Share Trust and the Railway 
Debenture Trust, which, us chairman, he 
conducted with a much greater degree of 
prudence than became common as enterprises 
of this kind mull iplieil. 

It was not until he had turned seventy 
and retired from parliament that Laing came 
before I he public prominently as on author. 
His ' Modern Science and Modern Thought' 
appeared in 1888 and was very widely read, 
being in fact an admirable popular exposition 
of the speculations of Darwin, Huxley, and 
Spencer, and the incompatibility of the data 
M madam ,-ciouee and ' revealed religion.' 
A supplemental chapter to the third edition 
I IKsti) contained a fairly crushing reply to 
(iladstone's defence of the hook of ("ieuesis. 

|-:-s;,vs,- 1"',', •TheAiiliquilvofMan.'IXII, 
and 'Human Origins,' lfKt'J, all written in a 
similar easy and interesting style. Without 
■i : ln-111-.i.'lvi-.-. any great scientific 
value, these works showed Laing's reading, 
especially in anthropology, to have been ex- 
tremely wide, and furnished people with 
general ideas on subjects of importance which, 
ifdiseussed in a less attractive form, would 
probacy have passed unheeded. 

Laing died, nged .S(i, at liorkhills, Syden- 
ham Hill, on 6 Aug. 1897, and was buried 
on 10 Aug. in the extramural cemetery, 
Brighton, lie married in IrUl Mary, daugh- 
ter of Captain Cowan, R.N., and "left two 
sons and three daughters. His personalty 
was sworn at MfitSl t ltnihrai/ Time*, 
IB Sept, 1897), 

Lamp's writings are remarkable aa the 
relaxations of a man who hod spent over half 
a centurv almost i-\elusivelv immersed in 
affairs. He never attained to Quite 'be same 
thoroughness nud grip of his subject as bis 
father, hut he had much the some gift of 
lucid exposition, mid the same freedom from 
self- consciousness or atleclalion. Besides the 
worka already mentioned and eomepampUetl 
'Samuel Laing the younger' published: 




1. ' India and China;' England's Mission in 
the East, 1863. A luminous forecast of pro- 
babilities in the Far East. 2. * Prehistoric 
Remains of Caithness/ With notes on the 
human remains by T. H. Huxley, 1866. 
3. ' A Sporting Quixote/ 1886, an agreeable 
if somewhat amateurish fantasia in the form 
of a novel (cf. Athenaum, 1886, i. 550). 

[The Eagle, December 1897; Times, 7 and 
11 Aug. 1897; Men of the Time, 13th edit.; j 
Railway Review, 13 Aug. 1897; Railway Times, , 
18 Sept. 1897; Guardian, 12 Aug. 1897; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Laing's Works.] i 

T. S. j 

1897), dean of Durham, born in London on > 
9 Jan. 1817, was the eldest son of Captain 
Charles Lake of the Scots fusilier guards. 
Educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, he , 
became the lifelong friend of his school- I 
fellow, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley [q. v.] 
From Rugby he went to Oxford as scholar 01 
Balliol in November 1834, and was a fellow- 
pupil under Archibald Campbell (afterwards 
archbishop) Tait of Sir Benjamin Brodie, 
Edward Meyrick Goulburn, and Benjamin 
Jowett. In 1838 Lake was elected fellow of 
his college at the same time as Jowett, and 
became tutor four years later. In 1852-3 he 
was senior proctor in the university. He 
acted with the moderate party who opposed 
the action taken against William Cfeoijfe 
Ward [q. v.], and against the proposal that 
the vice-chancellor should have power to 
impose a certain form which a member of the 
university should be required to use in sub- 
scribing the articles. He became very inti- 
mate with Tait, with whom ho generally 
spent his long vacation travelling on the 
continent, and was one of the first who urged 
him to stand for the head-mastership of 
Rugby. Lake himself had been an unsuc- 
cessful candidate in 1849 when Goulburn 
was elected. He had taken orders in 1842, 
and in 1858 he left Oxford to become rector 
of Huntspill in Somerset. Two years later 
he was named prebendary of Wells. Mean- 
while Lake's linguistic abilities had led to 
his appointment by Lord Pan mure as a mem- 
ber ot the commission of 1866 to report on 
military education on the continent. He had 
won the prize at Oxford in 1840 for his Latin 
essay on the Roman army as an obstacle to 
civil liberty. He also served on the New- 
castle commission of 1858 to inquire into 
popular education, and on the royal commis- 
sion upon military education 01 1868. On 
9 Aug. 1869 Lake was nominated by Glad- 
stone for the deanery of Durham. In 1881 
he was a member of the ecclesiastical court's 
commission. His theological position was 

that of a moderate high churchman, and in 
1880 he joined Dean Church and others in 
endeavouring to induce Gladstone and 
Archbishop Tait to bring forward legislation ' 
modifying the Public Worship Regulation 

During Lake's decanate Durham Cathedral 
was restored. He exercised an important in- 
fluence over Durham University of which he 
was warden, and education in the north of 
England generally owed much to his efforts. 
The foundation of the College of Science at 
Newcastle in 1871 was very largely his work. 
He resigned the deanery, owing to failing 
health, in 1894, and went to live at Torquay. 
There he died suddenly on 8 Dec. 1897. lie 
married, in June 1881, Miss Katherine Glad- 
stone, a niece of the premier, who survived 

Lake published nothing separately but a 
few sermons and a pamphlet, ' The Inspira- 
tion of Scripture and Eternal Punishment, 
with a preface on the Oxford Declaration and 
on F. D. Maurice's Letter to the Bishop of Lon- 
don/ 1864. But he contributed to the 'Life' 
of his friend Tait some highly interesting 
recollections, and especially a valuable pic- 
ture of the independent position he hela at 
Oxford, and an account from intimate know- 
ledge of his life as head of Rugby, bishop of 
London, and primate. Lake also supplied to 
| Mr. Wilfrid Ward's « W. G. Ward and the 
I Oxford Movement '(1889) some reminiscences 
of Ward, who was for some time his mathe- 
matical tutor at Balliol and exercised some 
influence over his tone of thought. 

[Men of the Time, 13th edit.; Times, 9-14 
Dec. 1897 ; Guardian, 15 Dec. 1897; 111. Lond. 
News, 18 Dec. 1897 (with portrait); Benham 
and Davidson's Life of Tait, i. 102-9, 111. 128, 
137-40, ii. 603-7: Prothero's Life of Dean 
Stanley, i. 47, 87, 197. 212 ; Life and Letters of 
Dean Church, pp. 255, 273, 283-4; Ward's 
W. G. Ward and the Oxford Movement, pp. 
100-2, 119, and appendix; Abbott and Camp- 
bell's Life of Jowett, i. 97 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
F. Arnold's Our Bishops and Deans, ii. 310. 
Letters from Dr. Arnold to Lake between 1835 
! and 1840 are in Stanley's Life of Arnold.] 

G. Le G. N. 

LAMBERT, Sir JOHN (1772-1847), 
general, was the son of Captain Robert 
Alexander Lambert, R.N. (second son of 

j Sir John Lambert, second baronet), by 
Catherine, daughter of Thomas Byndloss of 

; Jamaica. He was commissioned as ensign 
in the 1st foot guards on 27 Jan. 1791, and 
promoted lieutenant and captain on 9 Oct. 
1793. He served at the sieges of Valen- 
ciennes and Dunkirk, and was in the action 
of Lincelles in 1793. He was adjutant of 


- third hattalion in the campaign of 1791, 

■ i' 'ii Ireland during the ivbellirm 
in the expedition to Holland 

tatenam-coloiiel on U Mar 1801. He 

;ii Spain in 1808, and 

is prewnt at Con i n nn, and he commanded 

ibebght oaatcmaim of the guard) in the/Wal- 

rin-r-n npamthw .if 1809. He became | 

on 28 July 1810, and 
canherked for Cadii in command of the third 
Utiilwion aOMav 1811. EnJanunryl61S! 
lie ww wiit to Carlheg-na with two but- ' 
ufiona. He remained lane three months, 
:■■■.! Wellington's army 
ii 8«Iatmuicn. 

1818 be was promoted niajor- 

a appointed to a brigade of 

union. He commanded it at 

i., Nive, Orthea, and 

specially mentioned in 

NtValle and Tun Ions.' 

■i. 13 April IBI4). He received 

i:l. imd the gold cross, 

lade K.C.B. on 3 Jan. 1815. 

Having bein . hi joined the 

«rnv u tuler Sir Edward P.-iketibam [q. v.] 

.■i 6 Jan. 1815. with 

b anil (■' thn uusuc- 

l attach oa tie American tntrench- 

■ ■.■■- uti.rwards, he com- 

L Pakenliam being 

I, tmrl General ( Hbbi mortally wounded, 

immind devolved on Lambert. 

. It to renew the attack, with- 

-.p- which bad been - 
MJaajaainiH, and retreating on the 18th, 
ro barked his force on the 27th (J 

. Porter, i. 363). It mocw 

here Fort ttowyer was 
. and next day news 
■ Imd been signed. 

'■■'> Kur.'pe in time to 

1 tin- tenth brigade of British in- 

; he brigade joined the 

y from Ghent only on the morning of 

and was at first posted in reserve 

After 3 P.M. it was 

ii up to the front line to support the 

;'Picl0n'e) division, and one ol'itsregi- 

■■■ I ■■".•!) bad to be kept in 

ar La ilayw Stinte, loaf two-thirde 

■: lose than tbat of any 

Hi ( Wellington Detpatttet, 

Waltrl->o Letter*, 

181-408). Lambert wus mentioned in 

patch, and received tbe 

neat, the order of St. 

(3rd class), and that 
pb of Bavaria fconi- 
eighi h in- 

fan try brigade in the army of neennatwn in 

Hi' wriJ pin. hi. i.-l [ieiit..'iiani- 
K May t8iS, and general on S3 Noi 1841 
He wasgiv.-n the eolonelej at the tOth ». 
rimeal on 18 Jan. 1834, and the G.C.B. on 
m.Iiih ls;«. II.- .lied m Wi il 

M. m, mi I I Sept. tM^aaad 76, 
hi 1818 be married ■ daughter of John 

M.irnlll i.f lil-.i.'Lli-lim-l I'.iili. Si 

[went Blag. IBM, ii. M>>; Bo4m'i 

If jiniiU'itiH 'imiinli.'i' l; t ,n.l Military 

1-'1. H'li. I', iii. lid*; W>.IIi[|Mti>ri's ']l,-|..,l,li.-y . 

Siliui'i.i-'. Waicrl.i.) Liircii- ; Jim ■ 
Oeevmaeea of the War ]..■:«..„ (irear lirii.iiii 
and America, ii. S70-B4, ,113-7; l'.i",r. ( 
Bngmten. j !■;. m, L, 

LAMINOTON, Baron. [SeeO l*Bl 

Bail LIB, V LSI \mii.i; IIinik- I^m--'. 



baronet ( 1*14-1900), agricultural . « ., - r l„ 

onlrson of John Smart Luw<- (,/. 1893), 

lord of the manor of llothamstei], neat Si. 

Allium*, lIr'>rilsliiriMntd]ii>w;iVMfiiiaiii«', 

danchter of John Sherman of Dnytan, so. 
ii.!.!. Be araa bom at Kothnmsted on 
28 Dec. 1814. He was educated at Eton and 
Brasenose ColWe, Oxford, where be matri- 
enlai.'d on 11 Mu-eli 1833; but, as he said in 
an autobiographical note contributed to tbe 
•Agricultural Gazette 'for 3 Jan. 1888 {p, 
13 1, ■ in his days Eton and Oxford were not 
of much assistance to those whose tastes identtflc rather than classical, and 

(■■ in--..'i|ii.ntly Ilia early pursuits were of a 
must il.'-ultury character.' lie l.'l'l O.vt'or.t 
without a degree. From his earliest years, 
however, he ' had a taste for chemistry,' and 
ha lint ill In ill how at the age of twenty oa 
had ' one of the best bedrooms in the house 
fitted up with stoves, retorts, and all the 
apparatus necessary for chemical research.' 
At this period his attention was chielly di- 
rected to ' the composition of drags, and be 
tiaMM knew the PharmaooHBta by heart;' 
he also spnt some time in tiie lahoratory of 
Anthony Todd Thomson [<j. v.] nl lniv.rsil y 
f'ollege, London. 

l.llrt ,-•. : III. |', ll fill |... ■ ■ I. ill ..| til.' 

family estate in 1834 on coming of age, and 
made experiments with growing idinit* isueh 

■ i dock, '■ 'l.'lii'-n hi, beUadoniki ) 
which tli. nctiveprrDoinieaofdjiuni, 

iwi vit. tlitu ■ for tin-,'.' in- hue 

Sears he does not remember any oonnac 
ioolRui and ohemiatry DroBaina 
hit lain 1 1 1 but the remark of a gentleman, 
Lord Dacre, who farmed near him, who 
poinl.-d out that in one farm hortee m 


invaluable for the turnip crop, and on 
another farm they were useless, attracted 
his attention a good deal/ The investigations 
which Lawes made to discover the reason 
for this may fairly be regarded as the germ 
of the Rothamsted experiments, which sub- 
sequently became world-famous. 

Observing the beneficial results upon his 
own turnip crops at Rothamsted by dressing 
them with bones dissolved in sulphuric acid, 
Lawes took out in 1842 a patent, in which 
he showed how apatite and coprolite and 
other mineral or fossil phosphates might be 
converted into a potent manure by treatment 
with sulphuric acid. He thus laid the 
foundation for what speedily became and 
still remains a very important ind ustry , and he 
was indeed the pioneer of the now very 
large agricultural manure trade. The first 
factory for the manufacture of mineral 
superphosphate was started by Lawes at 
Deptford in 1843; he built a second and 
much larger factory at Barking Creek in 
1867 (see historical description by J. 0. 
Morton in Agric. Gazette, 2 Jan. 1888, p. 8). 
He sold the manure business to a company 
in 1872 ; but he had at that time embarked 
in other branches of chemical manufacture 
(citric and tartaric acid), and remained 
actively engaged in business in London up to 
the time of his death. 

But ' all the time he was accumulating a 
fortune by business in London, he was at 
home spending a fortune in laborious scien- 
tific agricultural investigations' (R. War- 
ington, F.R.S., in Agrk. Gazette, 17 Sept. 
1900, p. 180). In 1843 he started on a 
regular basis the Rothamsted agricultural 
experiment station; and in June of that 
year called to his aid, as coadjutor and 
technical adviser, Dr. (afterwards Sir) Joseph 
Henry Gilbert. Together Lawes and Dr. 
Gilbert instituted and carried out a vast 
number of experiments of enormous benefit 
to the agricultural community at large, 
the details of which were recorded in the 
1 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society/ the Journalsof the Chemical Society 
and of* the Royal Agricultural Society, and 
other publications. Two main lines of in- 
quiry were followed — the one relating to 
plants, the other to animals. In the former 
case the method of procedure is described in 
the official 'Memoranda* in which it was 
shown how endeavours had been made ' to 
grow some of the most important crops of 
rotation, each separately, year after year, for 
many years in succession on the same land, 
without manure, with farmyard manure, and 
with a great variety of chemical manures, 
the same description of manure being as a 




rule applied year after year on the same 
plot. Experiments on an actual course i 
of rotation without manure and with dif- 
ferent manures were also made:' wheat, 
barley, oats, beans, clover and other legumi- 
nous plants, turnips, sugar beet, mangels, 
potatoes, and grass crops having been thus 
experimented on. The main object of the 
experiments on animals (commenced in 
1847) was to ascertain how they could be 
most economically fed for human consump- 
tion ; but incidentally information of great 
value was obtained towards the solution of 
such problems as the sources in the food 
consumed of the fat produced in the animal 
body, the characteristic demands of the 
animal body (for nitrogenous or non-nitro- 
genous constituents of food), in the exer- , 
cise of muscular power, and the comparative 
characters of animal and vegetable food in 
human dietaries. 

In all 132 separate papers or reports on 
the Rothamsted experiments were published 
during Lawes's lite, most of them in the 
joint names of himself and Dr. Gilbert. A 
full list of these is contained in the * Memo- 
randa of the Origin, Plan, and Results of 
the Field and other Experiments ... at 
Rothamsted/ now issued annually by the 
Lawes Agricultural Trust Committee. The 
' Journal of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland' for 1895 contains a 
summary (854 nages), by Sir John Lawes 
and Sir Henry Gilbert themselves, of several 
series of the experiments, with photographic 
portraits of both authors, and a view of the 
manor house. 

This did not, however, exhaust Lawes's 
literary activity, for he was occasionally 
prevailed on to lecture in public to farmers' 
clubs, and a lengthy letter by him, estimating 
the produce of the wheat crop in the 
United Kingdom, was an annual feature of 
the 'Times newspaper in every autumn 
from 1863 to 1899. He would often more- 
over write short pithy practical papers for 
the agricultural press on various phases of 
the Rothamsted experiments, or expressing 
in terse and forcible language his own views 
on some agricultural question of the day. 

The unique feature of Rothamsted— which 
is now the oldest experiment station in the 
world — is the long unbroken continuity of 
the investigations. To provide for their 
permanent continuance, Lawes constituted 
by deed, dated 14 Feb. 1889, three trustees, 
to whom he leased the laboratory and certain 
lands at Rothamsted for ninety-nine years 
at a peppercorn rent, and conveyed to such 
trustees the sum of 100,000/. as an endow- 
ment fund. Under that deed a 'Lawes 

himself al the headoft lie move ni l'"n - 

tMBtonting the Hothamsted jubilee, and' 1 -.- [iri *i-ii1i'(i by iln' iub- 

latibn i, whidi spoke of Lama n- 'i 

. : I : > ■ |i ■ r I -. I ii- well I.1-. (Ill' 111,1-L 

BCMatiBc of mir publie U-in' factors.' Tlie, grimite memorial, and 
■OBi lunad societies, both l!riti-li ud 
tottfiga, with which l.nwas was connected, 
w. re |iv.-.'nti''l ill a public .- r'.-in. -iiljiI nt 
RotbtmSted OD 89 July 1698, over which 

.Mr. Herbert Gtardrier, HJ*. (aft«rwtrdaLordi 

1 ' in ^ln'Ji ■!-..' i. r ln-ti iuini\[<T I'M- iiffrii'ullnr 

]] resided. 

Lawes wos below the middle stature, nr 
was cureless in matters of ilrwss ; lint liis 
rugged iad Mrikiriu (ace nt onee commanded 
attention, and his exposition of his experi- 
ments to an appreciative listener wee most 
telling and instructive. lie was fond of 
deer-stalking and salmon-fishing, and until 
L89G \vni( i-t'^iiliirly to Scotland for pur- 
pose!* of sport, though his greatest enjoy- 
ment was in his farming experiment.-:. |[ M 
found time, however, to interest himself in 
a very practical manner in the wll'ir.- of 
the villagers and labourers at llarpenden, 
00*1 Rot Intrusted, starting in 1863 allotm 

Eirdens for them, and increasing the nt 
t from time to time, so that they r 
number 334 (see 'Allotments tad Small 
Holding' in Jwrnnl R.A.S.L 
l-"il :■>. l-'nmi tin' beginning) lie guru prizea 
for the best gardens, and in 1867 he built, for 
the allotment holders a clubhouse, managed 
entirely by tbemsedves (ibid. 1877, pp. 3*7- 
BB8)i An. -mills nt supplying the various 
wants of the labourers at wholesale prices, 
on n co-operative system, commenced in 
lS,'j'">, mid ('merles hickem. wrote fur t lie first 
number of 'All the Year Round' (30 April 
1859) an article entitled ' A Poor Man and 
his Beer,' in which the relations of Lawes 
(who is ealied in the article ' Friur IWnn ') 
and his labourers are described. The Tig 
Club and the Hoar Club, started by Lawes, 
and the llarpenden Labourers* sin 
(subsequently formed), failed after n 
for want of support from the members, hut 
the clubhouse still exists and is n perma- 
nent success. In 1858 Lanes slutted a sav- 
ings bnnli, giving live per cent, i 
deposits; and as he found after a 
if the bank were to prosper he rat 
the money bin i-u.-lum In 

spend Lti hour every Saturday evening in 
this work, which cunt i lined until the genera! 
introduction of post-ollicc savings banks. 

lied em 31 Aug. 11100, and was 
buried at llarpenden in the presence of a 
large and representative assemblage of agri- 




culturiiti M -t Sept. 1000. The partmit by 
Mr. Heiknm.'i', painted by .-nbscription in 
18W3, haiit'.-iiit Rot ha mated. A Eaproductioti 
of it appears in the 'Journal of the lioyal 
Agricultural Society' for 30 Sept. HIM), 
with a oiiiinuir. Lawea natriodi on 28 Dec. 
1842, Caroline, daughter of Andrew Foun- 
taine of Warford Hall, Norfolk, and by her, 
who died in 1*95, left issue on.; daughter 
and one eon, Charles Bennett (A. 1843), who 
succeeded to the baronetcy. 

[Journal Royal Agric. Soc. 1900. pp. 511-24 
(memoir, with portrait), and earlier vols, .juoti-d 
above; Agricultural Gaiette, 1 .Ian. 1888, p. 13 
(autobiographical note of liis curlier yours); 
Transactions Highland und Agricutf nml Society, 
189fi (portrait, and summary of eJ)vrimentM ; 
Keminisoiues of Sir Jolin Lawss (three ariicles 
in Agricultural Gazette for IT and -Jt Si.-pl.anil 
8 Oct. 1900. by R. Warington. F.R.S., a fur- 
mer assistant in (he Kudeimsted laboratory). 
Lawea and his experimuuU are constant ly re- 
ferred to in the agricultural litenituro of the 
second hulf of the uineternlh ceuturr.l 

( 1817-1*!'-! I. excavator of Nineveh and poli- 
tician, bora in Paris on B March 1817, of desi'eiit, was win nf Ik'iiry Peter 
John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, 
and of .Marianne, daughter of Nathaniel 
Austen of liarasgatSV Daniel lVlur Layard 
[q.v.] was his great -grandfather. His youth 
was mainly spent in Italy. When sixteen 
years old he entered the office of bis uncle, 
llenry Austen, who was a solicitor in Lon- 
don, There he remained for sis years, but 
law did not attract htm, and in 1839 be de- 
cided to leave England for Cevlon, as a rela- 
tive living in the island held out to him a 
{rospect nf more congenial employment 
le bad made the acquaintance of Edward 
Mitford, a young man about ten years older 
than himself, who was setting out for the 
same destination, and, as Mitford disliked 
the sea, they hit upon the plan of making 
the journey overland through Asia. Leav- 
ing England on 8 July 1839, I^ayard joined 
Mitford at Brussels, and thev travelled to- 
gether through Itoumelia to Constantinople. 

In August 1840 they reached Hamadan, 

.n Persia. In the following year 

it becani.' necessary for him to obtain fresh 
funds from home. Having written to his 
friends in London from Ilaghdari, lie de- 
w-ended the Tigris to 1 (asm, and paid a second 
visit to Kliuaislau. His expenses were not 
heavy, as he adopted the Bakhtiyari dress 
ami travelled alone or with one servant. On 

returning to Baghdad he found letters from 
bis friends which necessitated his return to 
England, and in the summer of 1842 he set 
out for Constantinople on the return journey. 
Ou his way he spent several days at Mosul 
with Emil Botta, who bad recently been ap- 
pointed French consul there, ana who had 
already begun his excavations in the great 
mounds opposite the city which mark the 
site of the ruins of Nineveh. Botta had 
opened trenches in the largest of the mounds, 
known as Kuyuniik, and Layard visited and 
examined with him the spot where he him- 
self was subsequently to undertake excava- 
tions for the trustees of the British Museum. 

On his arrival at Constantinople, Layard 
called at the British embassy to deliver a 
letter entrusted to him by Colonel Taylor, 
the British resident at Baghdad. At this 
time the relations between Turkey and Persia 
were strained owing to disputes concerning 
the frontier, and Layard hoped thathisrecent 
travels in Khuzistan and his knowledge of 
the region in dispute would procure him 
employment in some form or other at the 
embassy. His first reception there was not 
encouraging; but when his funds were ex- 
hausted, and be was about to leave, for Eng- 
land, he received an offer from Stratford 
Canning (afterwards Viscount Stratford de 
liedelilt'el [q.v.], the British ambassador to 
Turkey, that he should travel unofficially 
through Western Turkey and report to him 
on the state of affairs. This offer, which he 
readily accepted, was the turning-point in 
I.ayard's fortunes. His financial difficulties 
j ceased, and in Canning he obtained an influ- 
ential patron who put him in the way of 
] his future discoveries. Continuing to em- 
ploy Layard privately, Canning, in the 
spring of 1844, sent him on a mission to 
Northern Albania. Meanwhile he had re- 
commended him for an appointment at tbe 
embassy, but. as the suggestion met with 
opposition at the foreign office, he found 
other employment for his prottyf. Canning 
look a keen interest inarclueology. He hod 
read the memoir of Claudius James Rich. 

6. v.] on the site of Nineveh, and when 
ay aril described to him the mounds which 
he had examined with Botta he decided to 
undertake tho exploration of that site, lie 
used his influence with the Porte to obtain 
the necessary rirman: he paid Layard a 
salary of '2001. a year ; and he placed* at his 
disposal an additional sum for defraying the 
cost of excavation (see Lajte-Poole, The 
IJfe of Stratford Canning, ii. 137 f.) In 
the early part of October 1845 Layard re- 
ceived Lis final instructions, and left Con- 
stantinople for Mosul. 

ditinn had always pointed '° ''"' 

■ ■'■■■ the modern i«mi of Mosul 

■ I llir ancient eitv of 

■■I. Wiistenfeld, Lv, 

■ ■ oof r!i.' first to examine 

in, hi 1820and 1821 Claudius 

ho.! begun the invest iy-a- 

mounda of 

. ■! [tebi-Ytmna with Nine»eh, 

to undertake 

xc.nvatious nt Kuyunjik. Dur- 

1 ■ 13 he opened trenches 

d. but as he did not meet with 

viuraging results he transferred bis opera- 

■■■ theiiteofDiirShamikin, 

Sugon II. The fine sculptures 

re duo up l.-l him to form the 

i belief that Khorsabad, and noi 

ite of Nineveh, and 

ivanl fell into a sunilnr error when he 

mouid at Nirarud and wrongly 

■villi Nineveh. It was not until 

' [mot on ;i( Kuyunjik 

1 bsen di.vij I Ireewicge 

wlinaon [q. v.] and others that Rich's new 

• once again acknowledged to be correct, 

mnid ww afterwards identified as the site 

f the Assyrian city of Gilali, The large 

nd of Nimnid, to which Layard, tnflu- 

d byBotta's want of success at Kuyun- 

ie attention, lies near the village 

S on the left bunk of the Tigris, 

■ twenty miles south-east of Mosul. 

■i to dig there until the summer 

■ .'veringwbat were subset] uent.Ir 

pnrts of the palaces of Ashur- 

i, ana Sbalmaneser TI, 

situated respectively in the 

rth-west an i ■:- and in 

of the mound. Layard made 

; ■ rts uf hi- pro";ross to Canning, 
in May procured from the Turkish 
runlent u letter authorising the con- 
ions and the removal 
jeets as might be discovered. 
(on had the bas-reliefs sawn in 

■ n their Wright, and I be sculp- 
OIU were floated down the Tigris 

hi England. Mean- 
■■ived that his own 
• would not suffice to carry out the 
toocess, and it was in 
" uf (in representations to Sir 
I ['•■■■!, the prime minister (see Life of 
. I4fl f.), that op 

tees of the British Mu- 

'■■ nude a personal gift 

which had 

l iiese Canning gene- 

Taly pnaenled to tha nation, and the 

be museum availed themselves 


rurd left 

Of his advice with regard to the future o 
duct, of the escavutions. 

At. the beginning of November I 8 10 work 
was resumed at Nimrnd 00 a mofi ■ 

scale lor the British Museum, an 

al.-n superintended excavations at Kal'at 

Skerkat (the site of the cin i 
and Turn few weeks in the following sj 
ill Knviiiijik. In June 1847 Layard 
M i.)si tl for England, where In- prepared ai 
count of the oxcaval ions with il.i 

of Samuel Birch [q. v. Suppl." of the British 

Museum. 'I'll ■ ■! - Nineveh 

and its Remains ' fl848-9>, for Layard in- 
correctly )»-lji<ved that Nimriid was within 
the precincts of Nineveh. The book made 
a great sensation, ami in recognition of his 
discoveries Layard received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the university of 
Oxford on 6 July 1848. It is a curious fact, 
however, that, like IWt.a's ' MoKiiuii'tils do 
Ninive,' the book (tad in reality little to do 
with Nin.'vuh or its remains. 

On 5 April 1849 Layard was appointed 
an attach* to the embassy at Constanti- 
nople, wbitber he returned; and in October 
of that year he again superintended excava- 
tions for the trustees of the Mrit isfa Museum. 
a grant of 3,0001 having been placed at. 
tiii'ir disposal by the treasury for this pur- 
pose. For more than s year work was 
carried on, and palaces of Sennacherib and 
Asbur-bntii-pul at Kumnjil; mid u palace of 
Sennacherib and Esnrhaddon at Nebi- 
Yunus were partly uncovered. In the 
spring of 1851 Layard returned to Eng- 
land, and the excavations were continued 
hy Kawlinson, then consul ge.ui.Tal, mid 
I la' political agent of the East India Com- 
pany at Baghdad. Layard published an 
looonal of mi second aeries of excavations 
in his work ' Nineveh and Babylon,' which 
appeared in 1868. Layard 's discoveries 
Ill-ought bim vorv wid" n.-putul ion. lie was 
presented with the freedom of the city of 
London in |H.-,S, and in I '■ '■ '. ■■■ 
lord rector of Aberdeen University. 

He did not. return to Mesopotamia after 
1861. Thenceforth he devoted himself ti 
polling, in which his main interests wen 
confined to the affairs of Eastern Europe. 
On 7 July 1 *■"'-' he was returned as a liberal 
for Aylesbury, and from 12 Feb. I 
held the post of under-sec re tar v for tontfa 
iilliuri under Lord Pnlmerston. He repre- 
sented Aylesbury untii 1857, bill while he 
lu'ld tlii' .--m lie was absent from England 
for some time. In 1868 h- visited al Con- 
stantinople Lord Stratford do Hedoliffe [Sir 
Stratford Canning), his former patron, and, 
prm ding to the Black Sea in the follow- 





ing year on the outbreak of the Crimean 
war, witnessed the battle of the Alma from 
the maintop of H.M.S. Agamemnon. On his 
return to England he gave evidence before 
the committee of inquiry with regard to the 
condition of the British army at Sebasto- 
pol. After losing his seat for Aylesbury at 
the general election in March 1857, he made 
a tour in India during the latter part of 
that year and 1858, in order to study the 
causes and effects of the Indian mutiny. 
In April 1859 he unsuccessfully contested 
York, but in December 1860 was returned 
as one of the members for Southwark. In 
July 1861 he again became under-secretary 
for foreign affairs in Lord Palmerston's ad- 
ministration, in which Lord John (first 
earl) Russell was foreign secretary. On 
Palmerston's death in October 1865, Layard 
continued to hold the same office in Lord 
Russell's administration, in which Lord 
Clarendon was foreign secretary, and he re- 
signed with the ministry in July next year. 
In December 1868, when Gladstone had 
become prime minister for the first time, 
Layard was appointed to the post of chief 
commissioner of works, and was admitted to 
the privy council. In November of the fol- 
lowing year he resigned that office, and his 
career as a politician was brought to an end 
by his acceptance of the post of British mini- 
ster at Madrid. 

Layard was in agreement with Lord Bea- 
consneld's political opinions in regard to 
Eastern Europe. On 31 March 1877 he was 
accordingly transferred by Lord Beacons- 
field from "Madrid to Constantinople, in suc- 
cession to Sir Henry George Elliot. Within 
a month of his arrival the Russo-Turkish 
war broke out, and his action soon became 
the theme of excited controversy among poli- 
ticians at home. His sympathies were un- 
doubtedly with Turkey, but in a despatch to 
the foreign minister, Lord Derby, of February 
1878, he solemnly denied reports that he had 
encouraged Turkey to commence or continue 
the war, or had led her to believe that Eng- 
land would give her material support. He 
declared he had always ' striven ibr peace,' 
and for ' the cause of religious and political | 
liberty.' In June 1878 he negotiated the j 
Anglo-Turkish convention for the British J 
occupation of Cyprus. In June 1878 he re- j 
ceived the order of the grand cross of the 
Bath as a mark of recognition of his advo- 
cacy of Lord Beaconsfield's imperial views. , 
In April 1880 a general election took place ' 
in England, and it resulted in the resigna- 
tion or ljord Beaconsfield and his ministry, 
and in the formation of Gladstone's se- 
cond administration. Thereupon Layard 

received leave of absence from his post at 
Constantinople, and his official career came 
to an end. In May Mr. G. J. (now Viscount) 
Goschen was sent to Constantinople in his 
place as special ambassador and minister- 
plenipotentiary of Great Britain. In his 
later years Layard lived much in Italy, 
chiefly at Venice, where he was well known 
as a social figure and an authority on art, 
which had always been a subject of his close 
study. His interest in Italian art was very 
deep. In February 1866 he was appointed 
a trustee of the National Gallery, and he 
became honorary foreign secretary of the 
Royal Academy of Arts. He died in Lon- 
don on 5 July 1894. His remains were cre- 
mated and buried at Woking on 9 July. 
In 1869 he married Mary Evelyn, daughter 
of Sir John Guest ; she survived him. 

Two portraits of Layard in crayon were 
made by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., tne one for 
Mr. John Murray in 1848, the other a few 
years later for Layard's own collection of 
pictures; the former portrait is reproduced 
in ' Early Adventures ' ( 2nd edit.) A coloured 
picture of Layard, taken in 1843, forms the 
frontispiece to ' Early Adventures ' ( 1st edit.) 

Layard made a greater reputation as an ex- 
cavator than as a politician or a diplomatist, 
but he was without the true archaeologist's 
feeling — a fact which is sufficiently proved 
by ' his presenting to his friends neatly cut 
tablets containing fragments of cuneiform 
inscriptions, which, of course, left serious 
lacunas in priceless historical documents ' 
(Athenaum, 14 July 1894). His best- 
known works are those that deal with his 
excavations. The excavations at Nimrild 
were described in ' Nineveh and its Remains ' 
(1849, 2 vols.) ; and ' Discoveries in the Ruins 
of Nineveh and Babylon ' (1858) recounts 
his second series of excavations ; these were 
his principal works. Drawings of the exca* 
vated bas-reliefs were published in two series 
of plates entitled * The Monuments of Nine- 
veh ' (1849) and 'A Second Series of Monu- 
ments of Nineveh ' (1863). In ' Inscriptions 
in the Cuneiform Character from Assyrian 
Monuments' (1861) he printed, with* Sir 
II. C. Rawlinson's assistance, copies of a few 
of the monumental texts from his diggings, 
but he took no part in the decipherment of 
the inscriptions — a work which was carried 
out by Rawlinson, Dr. Hinckes, M. Jules 
Oppert, and others. In 1861 an abridg- 
ment of 'Nineveh and its Remains' was 
published for the railway bookstalls, under 
the title 'A Popular Account of Dis- 
coveries at Nineveh,' a second edition of 
which was produced in 1867 under the old 
title, ' Nineveh and its Remains,' together 

with a companion volume, ' Nineveh anil 
Ilahyloo.* containing a similar abridgment 
. : work. In !~o4 ha wrote a small 
Nineveh Court in the Crystal 
be published an account 
11 years 1839 and 1845 
(dTenturei in Persia, 
>, anil Babylonia' (abridged edition, 

Ijiynrd also wrote milch on art. In 1887 
KnglerV Handbook of Painting;' 
mote an introduction to a trans- 
I ' Qudbooi of Home' (1894). 

■ itributed MHDfl papers to the 
gs'ofthe Huguenot Society, of 

■ .-.- president, mid -■mie of hi- 
» in thu House of Commons were 
u pamphlet firm. In 1*1*1 lie WD 

ember of the Institut de 

lUtobiogTachy in layard'a 

: -i .!.\ Niuevah and its Rr>- 

1 Ninervb and Babylon (1*1 

uole'a Life of Stratford 

ri. ; l, \Wrliir.-":. Prefutory 

■ .i /.ridged edition of L*yaid'i Earlj 
i ! Wumeii of the Time, 13th 

he Century (1890); Tim-B, 
i'ii-a*«m, 14 Julv 1894-1 
L. W. K. 
antiqunry, born in 1585 or 1586, mo- 
il hillings Auibo in the North Biding 

■ , the son of William Layer, 
in merchant, by his wile Martini, 
r and heiress of Thomas Wanton. 

j> educated as a lawyer, but possessed 
■nl wealth to enable him to devote 

lis time to antiquarian pursuits. 

1 nl Shepreth in i In m bridged ire. 

hipil history of Cambridgeshire is 
of the kind written. It 
d, but parte of it are still 
liriiixh Museum among 
e Harleian MSS. (No. 6768), which con- 
ies • transcript of the portion relating to 
■ .it' Anningfnrd, Long Siowe, 
h.NorthStowe, Chest ert on, Wether- 
plowe, and among the Additional 
.-.:■;, r-i'i, .-,:i;,| l . < >r h.-r 
i i ln> Bishop's 
. : al the librarj al Wim- 
Ilis extracts from 
;. ,p nl" Ely are in the 
■ ' '. MSS o.-LM-oSi^), 
d his Cam: ri ■ in I lie suinr 

:. autograph 
lauacript volume by Layer, licensed lor 

, or an Alphabetical! Abstract of all 

nab Articles and Mutters as are incident and 
enquirable <it the generall quarter Sessions 
of the Peace or otherwise belonging? to the 
knowledge and practice of a Justice of the 
Pence,' is ill the library of Cuius College, 
Cambridge. It is a handbook for justices of 
the peace, and is dedicated to Sir John Cutts, 
' Custos roinlorum for (be county of Cam- 
bridge ' in li>'o\ In an epistle to the reader 
mil in- i- hi l(i- n i if u bunk reeeui ly published, 
entitled ■ 'I'll.- Colupleut Justice, 1 of which 
Layer was the reputed author. Tins w..rk 
n 1 1— i extant, but a copy of a legal treatise 
by Layer entitle! 'The Office und Duty of 
Churehwardens, Const utiles, anil Overseers 
of the Poor '(Cambridge, hill, civo), is pre- 
served in the Bodleian Library. One of 
Liner's not .'books is anion;,' the Lmvlinsiui 
.MSS. in the Bodleian Library til- i7S'), and 
another entitled ' Notes of the foundation 
of several Religious Houses from the Col- 
lect ioni of John Layer ' is In I Imlslvorth MS. 
90 (pp. 158-60). 

Layer died in 1641. He married in 
1611 Frances, daughter of Robert Btenu 
of Maltou in Cambridgeshire. By her he 
had three sons and two daughters. He 
may he truly culled the father of Cambridge 
arclueology, and William Cole (1714-1782) 
[<|.v.l owed much to his industry. After 
Ins death his manuscripts eventually fell 
into the hands of hie descendant, John Eyre, 
who Bold his estate at Shepreth nud came 
to Loudon. Eyre was afterwards convicted 
of felony and transported, when the manu- 
scripts iv. -re dispersed. Several, however, 
fell int. . Cole's hands and were incorporated; 

by him in hit collections. An undated letter 

from W. Fairfax of Yorkshire to J. Layer is 
among the Bodleian MSS. I Jtaielinnon, B. 
450, f 390). 

[Cole's Manuscript Collections for Cam- 
bridgeshire in the Ilritisb Museum Library; 
notes kinnly furnished by Mr. W. M. Palmer of 
Itoyslon ; Smith'.- Catalogue of Manuscripts iu 
Caius College Library, 1349. p. 21 1 : Catalogues 
of Manuscripts in the linJI. inu Library.] 

E 1. C. 

LEATHES, STANLEY (1880-1900)* 

behruist. son of Cliahuicr Stanley Leathes, 
rector of Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire, 
was born at Ellesborough on 111 March 1830. 
He was educated privately and at Jesus 
College, Cambridge, iu which university he 
graduated li.A. iu 18fiS, was elected "first 
Tvrwliiti's Hebrew scholar in IS5:i, nndpro- 

led M.A. in I8M. In L886 he was 

elected honorary fellow of Jesus College. 
Be mi ordained deacon in 1806 and priest 
iu 1N">7. and w;.s ninr. ,ii,ie-:.ivelv of St. 
Martin's, Salisbury (1856-8), St. "Luke's, 

Leathes 86 Leclercq 

Berwick Street, Westminster (1868), and j Christianity/ London (R.T.S.), 1877, 8vo. 
St. James^, Westminster (1858-60), in which 12. * The Relation of the Jews to their own 
last parish he was appointed in 1860 to the Scriptures/ in ' The Jews in relation to the 
freehold office of ' clerk in orders/ to that ; Church and the World/ ed. Claughton, 
of priest and assistant in 1865, and to the London, 1877, 8vo. 13. ' Studies in 
perpetual curacy of St. Philip's, Repent { Genesis/ London, 1880, 8vo. 14. Warbur- 
Street, in 1809. He was elected in 1863 ton Lectures: 'Old Testament Prophecy: 
professor of Hebrew at King's College, Lon- ' its Witness as a Record of Divine Foreknow- 
don, and in 1870 member of the Old Testa- ' ledge/ London, 1880, 8vo. 15. 'The Founda- 
ment revision committee, in the labours of > tions of Morality : being Discourses on the 
which he took an assiduous part until their : Ten Commandments, with special reference 
conclusion in 1885. lie was Boyle lecturer , to their Origin and Authority/ London, 
1868-70, Hulsean lecturer 1873, Bampton j 1882, 8vo. 16. 'Characteristics of Chris- 
lecturer 1874, and Warburton lecturer 1876- tianity/ London, 1884, 8vo. 17. 'Christ 
1880. He was installed prebendary of ' and the Bible. Four Lectures/ London, 
Addington Major in St. Paul's Cathedral in ' 1885, 8vo. 18. ' The Law in the Prophets/ 
1876, and instituted in 1880 to the rectory ' ' " -- -— ~ 

of Cliffe-at-Hoo, Kent, which he exchanged 
in 1889 for the more valuable benefice of 
Much Had ham, Hertfordshire, where he 
died on 30 April 1900. 
Leathers churchmanship was of the mode- 


London, 1891, 8vo. 19. 'The Testimony 
of the Earlier Prophetic Writers to the 
Primal Religion of Israel/ in ' Present Day 
Tracts/ vol. xiv., London, 1898, 8vo. 

[Grad. Cant. ; Crockford's Clerical Director}*, 
1899; Men of the Time, 1895; Times, 1 May 

rate type, equally removed from ritualism I 1900.] J. M. R. 

and rationalism (see hj&TSmtyof the Church,] j^ CAR0 N, Majob HENRI. [See 
a sermon, London, 18b*, 8vo ; Future Pro- \ Be Thomas, 1841-1894.1 

bation, London, 1876, 8vo ; and ' Life and 
Times of Irenasus ' in Lectures on Eccle- 
siastical History, ed. Dean Lefroy, London, 
1896, 8vo). He was a sound Hebrew scho- 

actress, elder daughter of Charles Leclercq, 
actor and pantomimist, was horn in London 

lar, a singularly cautious critic, and a sober ' about 1840. A brother Charles (d. 20 Sept. 
but uncompromising apologist. The follow- I 1894) was a member of Daly's company, and 
ing are his principal works : 1. ' The Birth- I well known both in London and >ew York, 
day of Christ : its Reparation, Message, and | Other members of the family were connected 
Witness. Three Sermons preached before ; with the stage. Her sister Rose is noticed 
the University of Cambridge/ Cambridge, i below. 

1866, 8vo. 2.* ' A Short Practical Hebrew j Carlotta acted at the Princess's as a child. 
Grammar; with an Appendix containing She was in 1853 Maddalina in 'Marco 
the Hebrew Text of (leu. i-vi. and Psalms Spada/ and in the following years played 
i-vi./ London, 1868, 8vo. 3. Boyle Lee- ' Marguerite in 'Faust and Marguerite/ El- 
tures' (three series) : ' The Witness of the I vira in the ' Muleteer of Toledo/ with other 
Old Testament to Christ/ London, 1868, 8vo; ' parts; was Ariel in the 'Tempest/ Nerissa 
' The Witness of St. Paul to Christ/ Lon- I in the 'Merchant of Venice/ Mrs. Ford and 
don, 1869, Hvo; ' The Witness of St. John i Mrs. Page in the 'Merry Wives of Wind- 
to Christ/ I^ondon, 1870, 8vo. 4. ' The \ sor/ Rosalind, &c. Her original parts in- 
Evidential Value of St. Paul's Epistles/ a | eluded Diana in 'Don't Judge by Appear- 
lecture printed in 'Modern Scepticism/ ances/ and Mrs. Savage in Brougham's 
London (C.E.S.\ 1871, 8vo. 5. 'Truth and ' 'Playing with Fire.' With Charles Albert 
Life ; or, Short Sermons for the Day/ Lon- ! Fechter [q. v.] at the Lyceum she plaved 
don, 1872, 8vo. 6. 'The Cities visited bv ' Zillah in the 'Duke's Motto/ Madame" de 
St. Paul/ London (S.P.C.K.\ 1873, H\6. I Pompadour in the ' King's Butterfly/ Lucy 
7. 'The Structure of the Old Testament • :' Ashton in the 'Master of Ravenswood/ 
a series of Popular Essays/ London, 1883, ! Ophelia and Pauline Deschappelles. With 
8vo. 8. Hulsean Lectures: *The Gospel j him at the Adelphi she was Mercedes in 
its own Witness/ London, 1S74, Svo. j ' Monte Cristo' and Emily Milburn in ' Black 
9. Bampton Lectures: ' The Religion of the I and White.' She accompanied Fechter to 

Christ: its Historic and Literary Develop- 
ment considered as an Evidence of its 
Origin/ l^ondon, 1874, 8vo. 10. 'The 
Christian Creed: its Theory and Practice/ 
London, 1H77, 8vo. 11.' Grounds of Chris- 
tian Hope: a Sketch of the Evidences of 

America, returned in 1877, and married 
John Nelson, an actor. She played with her 
husband principally in the country until his 
death on 25 July 1*879. Thenceforward she 
was rarely seen in London. She died in 
August 1893. 

Le Despencer 



Her younger sister. Rose Leclebcq 
(1845?-1899), was born in Liverpool about 
184-5, and was on 28 Sept. 1861 at the Prin- 
cess's the first Mrs. "Waverley in ' Playing 
with Fire.' She was at Drury Lane the ori- 
ginal Mary Vance in Mr. Burnand's ' Deal 
Boatman/ and played Astarte in ' Manfred ' 
(10 Oct. 1863). At the Princess's (August 
1868) she was Eliza in ( After Dark/ and at 
the Adelphi Kate Jessop in ' Lost at Sea/ 
She was Desdemona to the Othello of Phelps, 
was an admirable Mrs. Page, and was at 
Drury Lane the first Clara Ffolliott in the 
4 Shaughraun.' At the Vaudeville she was 
Sophia in an adaptation of ' Tom Jones/ at 
the Ilavmarket was Marie Lezinski in the 
1 Pompadour/ Lady Staunton in 'Captain 
Swift/ and Madame Fourcanard in ' Esther 
Sandray/ at the Garrick the Queen in ' La 
Tosca/ and at the Strand La Faneuse in 
the 'Illusion' of her brother Pierre. She 
was the original Evelina Foster in 'Beau 
Austin/ Lady Dawtryin the 'Dancing Girl/ 
Marchioness in the ' Amazons/ Lady Ring- 
stead in 'The Princess and the Butterfly/ Mrs. 
Fretwell in ' Sowing the Wind/ and Lady 
Wargrave in the ' New Woman.' Her last 
original part was Mrs. Beechinor in Mr. 
H. A. Jones's ' Manoeuvres of Jane/ pro- 
duced at the Havmarket on 29 Oct. 1898. 
She played this character on 25 March 1899, 
and died on 2 April. Both the Leclercqs 
developed into good actresses. Rose Le- 
elercq in her later days had a matchless 
delivery, and was the best, and almost the 
only, representative of the grand style in 
comedy. By her husband, Mr. Fuller, she 
was the mother of the actor, Mr. Fuller Mel- 

[Personal recollections; Pascoc's Dramatic 
List; Dramatic Peerage; Scott and Howard's 
Blanchard ; Hollingshead's Gaiety Chronicles ; 
Cook's Nights at the Play; Athenapum, Era, 
Suntlnv Times, and Era Almanack, various years.] 

J. K. 

LE DESPENCER, Baron. [See Dash- 
wood, Sir Fraxcis, 1708-1781.1 

LEE, HOLME, pseudonvm. [See Parr, 
Harriet, 1828-1000.1 

LEGGE, JAMES (1815-1897), professor 
of Chinese at the university of Oxford, son 
of Ebenezer Legge, was born at Huntlv in 
Aberdeenshire in 1815. He was educated 
at the Aberdeen grammar school, and gra- 
duated M. A. at King's College, Aberdeen, in 
1835. From his earliest years he had de- 
sired to enter the missionary field, and for 
the furtherance of this object he, at the com- 
pletion of his course at Aberdeen, came to 
London and studied at the theological col- 

lege at Highbury. In 1839 he was appointed 
by the London Missionary Society to the 
Chinese mission at Malacca, where he re- 
mained until the treaty of 1842 enabled him 
and others to begin missionary work in China. 
In 1840 he was appointed principal of the 
Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, which 
Robert Morrison [q.v.] had founded in 1825, 
and in the following year the council of the 
university of New lork conferred on him 
the degree of D.D. In 1843 he landed in 
the newly established colony of Hongkong, 
and took part in the negotiations which 
ended in the conversion of the Anglo-Chinese 
college into a theological seminary and its 
removal to Hongkong. There he resumed 
his position as principal. His health having 
broken down, ne paid a visit to England in 
1845, and three years later returned to Hong- 
kong, where, in addition to his missionary 
work, he undertook the pastoral charge of 
an English congregation. In 1858 he paid 
another visit to England, and in 1873 he re- 
turned permanently to this country, resign- 
ing the principalship and other posts. In 
18/0 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on 
him by the university of Aberdeen, and in 
1884 the same honour was granted him by 
the university of Edinburgh. In 1875 a 
number of merchants interested in China, 
and others, collected a fund for the endow- 
ment of a Chinese professorship at Oxford, 
on the understanding that Legge should be 
the first occupant of the chair. The uni- 
versity accepted the arrangement, appointed 
him professor, and the authorities of Corpus 
Christi College elected him a fellow of their 
college. His inaugural lecture was published 
in 1870. At Oxford he remained until his 
death. He died at his residence in Keble 
Road on 29 Nov. 1897. Legge was twice 
married : first, on 30 April 1839, to Mary 
Isabella, daughter of the Rev. John Morison ; 
and secondly, in 1859, to Hannah Mary, 
daughter of John Johnstone, esq., of Hull, 
and widow of the Rev. G. Willetts of 
Salisbury. By both wives lie left children. 

Legge was a voluminous writer both in 
Chinese and English, and did much to in- 
struct his fellow-countrymen and continental 
scholars in the literature and religious beliefs 
of China. He bore a leading part in the 
controversy* as to the best translation into 
Chinese of the term -God,* and published a 
volume called 'The Notions of the Chinese 
concerning God and Spirits' (Hongkong and 
London, 1852, 8vo). hut the great work of 
his life was the edition of the Chinese classics 
— the Chinese text, with translation, notes, 
and preface. This task he began in 1841, 
and finished shortly before his death. 





The publications of his labours commenced 
in 1861, when there appeared ' Confucian 
Analecta : Doctrine of the Mean and Great 
Learning/ and ' Works of Mencius.' There 
quickly followed ' The Shoo-king, or Book 
of Historical Documents/ 1865, 4th edit. 
1876 ; ' The Shi-king, or Book of Poetry/ 
London, 1871, 8vo; and 'The Ch'un Ch'iu: 
with the Tso Chwan/ 1872. He received 
the Julien prize from the French Institut 
in 1876 for these works. In 1876 there 
appeared 'The Book of Ancient Chinese 
Poetry in English Verse/ The last volumes 
of Legge's edition of the Chinese classics 
appeared in the series called ' The Sacred 
Books of the East/ which Friedrich Max 
Miiller [a. v. Suppl.] edited for the Clarendon 
Press. To this series Legge contributed vols, 
iii. xvi. xxvii. xxviii.xxxix.xl., Oxford, 1879- 
1894, 8vo. Of these the first four volumes 
dealt with the ' Texts of Confucianism/ and 
the last two with the 'Texts of Taoism/ 
Legge's other writings on Chinese literature 
and religion were: 1. 'The Life and Teach- 
ing of Confucius/ London, 1867 ; 4th edit. 
1875. 2. ' The Life and Teaching of Men- 
cius/ London, 1875. 3. 'The Religions of 
China: Confucianism and Taoism, described 
and compared with Christian it v/ London, 
1880, 8vo. 4. ' Record of Buddhistic King- 
doms : Travels of the Buddhist Pilgrim, 
Fa-hsien, in India/ London, 1886, 4to. 
5. ' The Nestorian Monument of Hsi-an-fu 
in Shen-Hsi, China, relating to the Diffu- 
sion of Christianity in China in the Seventh 
and Eighth Centuries, with a Sketch of 
subsequent Missions in China/ London, 
1888, 8vo. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Men oi the Time, 1895.1 

R. K. D. 
ton of Strbtton (1830-1896), president of 
the Royal Academy of Arts, was born at 
Scarborough on 3 Dec. 1830. His family 
came originally from Shropshire. His 
grandfather and father were both physicians. 
His jjrandfat her James (afterwards Sir James) 
Boniface Leighton was invited to the Russian 
court, and was court physician under both 
Alexander I and Nicholas I. His son Fre- 
deric Septimus (1800-1892) was educated 
for the medical profession at Edinburgh, and 
practised successfully until about 1843, when 
increasing deafness compelled him to retire. 
He settled for a time at Bath, but afterwards 
returned to Scarborough, and finally to 
London, where he died on 24 Jan. 18921 In 
spite of t he physical disability just mentioned, 
he was a man of great social talent and of 
most agreeable manners. His wife, Lord 

Leighton'8 mother, was Augusta Susan, 
daughter of George Augustus Nash of Ed- 

The young Frederic Leighton showed an 
early love for drawing and filled many 
books with his sketches, but these do not 
seem to have been of a kind to impress his 
family very profoundly, and his lather, it 
must be said, disliked the idea of art as a 
profession. While the boy was still very 
voung, his mother's delicate health gave him 
his first chance of seeing foreign countries. 
The family travelled abroad, and in the year 
1839, before Frederic was ten years old, he 
found himself one day in the studio of George 
Lance in Paris. From this visit his father's 
acceptance of the idea that possibly nature 
had made the boy an artist appears to date. 
Dr. Leighton determined, however, that his 
choice should not be limited by any one- 
sided education. In London, Rome, Dres- 
den, Berlin, Frankfort, and Florence, his 
education was pursued, with the result that, 
in one particular at least, it was vastly more 
thorough than usual with an English boy of 
his condition. He became an accomplished 
linguist, speaking the four chief modern lan- 
guages with almost equal facility. It was 
in Florence in 1844 that his profession was 
finally settled. Dr. Leighton consulted 
Hiram Power, the sculptor of 'The Greek 
Slave,' as to whether he should make his 
son an artist. ' Sir,' said Power, ' Nature 
has done it for you/ adding that the boy 
could become ' as eminent as he pleased.' 

Work was begun in earnest in the Acca- 
demia delle Belle Arti, under Bezzuoli and 
Servolini, whose influence did little but harm. 
Leighton soon left Florence for Frankfort, 
where he resumed his general education. 
At the age of seventeen he finally left school, 
and worked at art for a year in the Staedel 
Institute. In 1848 he moved with hisfamily 
to Brussels, where he painted one or two pic- 
tures, including a ' Cimabue finding Giotto/ 
In 1849 he was in Paris, copying pictures in 
the Louvre, and attending a so-called school 
of art in the Rue Richer. Leighton's indi- 
viduality was not robust enough for such 
constant change, and it is probable that he 
would have been a greater artist than he 
was, had his early training been more favour- 
able to concentration. His real and serious 
studentship began only after he left Paris, 
when he was already in his twentieth year. 
He returned to Frankfort, and there worked 
strenuously for three years under Johann 
Eduard Steinle (1810-1886), of whom he 
ever afterwards spoke as his only real master. 
While under Steinle he painted several pic- 
tures, the most notable perhaps * The Plague 

■. I BBTbtOt) founded DC 

■ ; . . M here lli.« 

plesMnt manners ind varied accomplish^ 

-. :i.ii|fi|ll.' Hi. 'Ill 

Thackeray, Greotge Sum], Lord ■ 

■ ■ M:i.- ill, I li''l"'l'1 , M r- K.Liil.ili , 
i-uereau, mill Hilars. It. was 

. that Thackeray wrote 
■ MiUnis, who *i. LciiilitfinVi senior by 

1 r ! HI I; 

'■■ niig dog who will run yon hard 

ir tin? presidentship cm,, fay.' Soon after 

i in Rome, Lelghton began work 

■ ' ■ 

public «t tent ion to himself for the first time. 

This was ' Gunabae'i " Madonna " carried in 

through (In' Streets of Florence/ 

■ ■ ■ iagham Palace. It was si t be 
idemy in 1865, and was bought bv Queen 

■ 'mfOtWOi, After! bapnyand triua- 

! L'Jll'l'.Hl, I.VC'lltnll Kent to 

■ he came under the apell of 
aim in Robert Fleury. 

■ :'ii to London in 165) 

■■■• rnb'T-. then shaking 

apart, of tin: Prs-Kaphaslite brotherhood, 

1CJ to which perhaps we owe the 

famous drawings of ' A Lemon Tree' and 

[ne well-bead,' which drew such 

inevitable praise from John Kiiskiu [q. v. 

■ ;■:>'.' Iii I860 Leightcn esta- 
hiniself at 3 Urine Square, lluys- 

wlm'li remained bin home until he 

into big famous houte in Holland 

Park lt°»d. Between I8B0 and 1866 he 

was s steady exhibitor al the Koyiil Aca- 

■ bief contributions being ' Paolo 

i Idaliaqoe,' ' Dante at 

I trpheut and Eurydtce,' ' t (ald< □ 

Bride leading 

-mil tn lln- Temple of 

Plans." In I860 he wat elected an AJS.A., 

I vilely justified his elect ion l.y ■ ■'.- 
ig his ■ Venus disrobing for the Bath,' 
which perhaps he never 
, Thu> year, 1866, m an eventful 
one ill bis career, for it saw bis migration 

■ ■ baoM in Holland Park Road, 
ii, which was built fur him bv 

. \'..\ ., :ind also the 
■ ■ nip in Lvnd- 

made the Nile tour in 
. who was then neur- 
■> u great work, 
tie dabbling in 
■ . hioh, however, took no 
it imagination. In ISfiH 


he was elected a royal academician, exhi- 
biting ' Elect™ ut the Tomb of Agamemnon ' 
and • Disdains and Ieanis,' and painting a 
St. Jer'iuti' as bis diploma [itcLiire. In 187U 
the winter exhibitions, which owed much lo 
tail advocacy, were started at Burlington 
House. The two succeeding summer exhi- 
bitions contained three of Leigh ton 'a best 
pictures, lie' ' Hen-iil.-s wrest ling with Death 
for the liodv of Aleestis,' 'The I'undottiere.' 
and ' The Summer Moon.' In 1873 he paid 
a second visit to the East, the outcome of 
which was a series of oriental pictures, 'The 
Egyptian Singer ' and ' The .Moorish Gar- 
den being perhaps the best. The creation 
by which, in some quarters, Leighton is best 
known had its origin in tnia eastern tour. 
lie collected a number of lino Persian tile.-, 
and was smitten with the desire to make 

appropriate use of them. Hence the lu ■ 

Arab hall in bis bouse at Kensington. To 
the next few years belong some of his best 
pictures, e.g. the ' Daphnephoria' and the 
Mule Lesson ' i 1 877), ' Winding the 
Skein/ and ' Nm.isicna ' I IS7S). In 1S77 he 
burst on the world as a sculptor, exhibiting 
the 'Athlete struggling with a Python,' 
which is now in l In- g»tlcrv ai Millbank, 

In 1878 Sir Francis Grant fa. ?.] died, and 
Leighton succeeded him us president of the 
Koyal Academy, the nana] knighthood fol- 
lowing his election ['!■> Nov. 1878), As pre- 

tactful, energetic, and equal to every social 
demand that could In- made upon him, he 
filled the oflice with extraordinary distinc- 
tion in the eyes both of his fellow-country- 
men and of strangers. And yet the y 
which followed bis election Wen among 
the most proline of bis artistic career. Be- 
nvirn l-C^imi Irs'lo, wheu his activity was 
abruptly closed bv disease, lie painted the 
two hue wall-pictures in the Victoria and 
Albert .Museum ; he completed his second 
statue, 'The Sluggard,' which now stands 
tit Millbnnk as a pendant to the 'Athlete 
with a Python/ as well as a. charming 
statuette, * Needless Alarms,' which he pre- 
sented to Sir John Millais; and sent the 
following pictures, among others, to the 
exhibition of the floval Academy: ' Bion- 
dina ' ,1879 ), ' Portrait of Signer Costa ' and 
'Sister's Kiss' llXhUl. his own portrait for 
the Ufnii (1861): • Wedded,' ' Dnvdreruns.' 
and 'Phryne ut Eleusis ' ( IStfii)," ' Cym 

Hurl [phigemV ( 18*41, ' Portrait of Lady 
Svbil PntDroee' (1886), 'The Last Watch 
of Hero' (1887), 'Captive Andromache' 
(1888), 'Greek Girls playing Ball'(18B9), 

Leighton 90 Leighton 

' The Bath of Psyche ' (1890 ; Mill bank was not a great painter. He lacked both 
Gallery ),' Perseus and Andromeda' (1891), I temperament and creative power, and had 
' The Garden of the Hesperides'(1892), and , nothing particular to Bay with paint. On 
' Rizpah' (1893). Hi* last important works ' the other hand he saw beauty and could let 
were the wall decoration on canvas for the us see that he saw it. He was clever in the 
Royal Exchange, ' Phoenicians trading with | best sense, and by dint of taking thought 
the Britons/ finished in 1895, and an un- could clothe his intentions in a pleasant en- 
finished ' Clytie/ which was at the 1896 velope. Occasionally he failed disastrously 
academy. On 11 Feb. 1886 Leighton had through pure lack of bumour, as, for in- 

been created a baronet. 

Early in 1895 his health had given dis- 
quieting signs of collapse. lie was ordered 
to cease all work, and to take rest in a 
warm climate. Prompt obedience to his 

stance, in his ' Andromeda ; ' on the other 
hand, the frankness of his objective admira- 
tions led him occasionally to success of a 
very unusual kind in such pictures as 
' Summer Moon/ 'The Music Lesson/ and 

doctor gave him temporary relief from his ' Wedded/ In spite of his training under 
most distressing symptoms. Sir John Mil- ' various good draughtsmen, Leighton was not 
lais, who was himself beginning to suffer a great draughtsman himself. His forms were 
from the disease which was afterwards to soft, the attaches especially — wrists, ankles, 

Srove fatal, took his place at the academy j &c. — being nerveless and inefficient, a fault 
inner, and did what he could to lighten which was accentuated by the unrealitv of 
his colleague's anxieties. It was hoped that ' his textures. But in design, as distinguished 
these prompt measures had proved more or i from draughtsmanship, he is often as nearly 
less effectual, and when Leighton returned great as a man without creative genius can 
to England late in 1895, the immediate ' be. His studies of drapery are exquisite, 
danger was thought to have passed away, and nothing could well be more rhythmical 
On 1 Jan. 1896 it was announced that he , than the organisation of line in such* pictures 
was to be raised to the peerage as Baron as the three just mentioned. Leighton 
Leighton of Stretton. His patent bore date ' contributed designs to George Eliot's novel 
24 Jan., and on the following day Leighton i of ' Romola ' and to * Dalziel's Bible/ which 
died at his house in Holland Park Road ; { take a very high place among illustrations 
his peerage, whhh 'existed but a day, is ' in black and white; also one design each for 
un ique ' (( i . E. C[okatwb], Complete Peerage , M rs. Browning's poem, ' The G reat God Pan/ 
viii. 245). Ho was buried on 3 Feb. in St. ! and Mrs. Sartoriss ' Week in a French Coun- 
Paul's, the coffin being inscribed with his , try House/ both published in the ' Cornhill 
style as a peer. Magazine.' 

Lord Leighton was an honorary D.O.L. ] Lord Leighton delivered biennially eight 
of Oxford, a LL.D. of Cambridge, and a discourses at the Royal Academy between 
LL.D. of Edinburgh, all of which degrees j 1879 and 1893. They formed a series tracing 
were conferred in 1879. He was a member i the development of art in Europe, and deal- 
of many foreign artistic societies, lie was ' ing philosophically with the chief phases 
president of the international jury of paint- , through which it passed; they were pub- 
rng for the Paris Exhibition of 1878. He lished as 'Addresses delivered to Students 
was a member of the Society of Painters in I of the Royal Academy/ London, 1896,8vo ; 
Watercolours from 1888 onwards. He was 2nd ed. 1897. 

for many years colonel of the artists' regi- ' The contents of Lord Leighton's studio 
ment of volunteers, but resigned the post in were sold at Christie's in July 1896, when 
1883. He was unmarried. His heirs were the studies, especially those of landscape in 
his two sisters, Mrs. Sutherland Orr and oil, were eagerlv competed for. A catalogue 
Mrs. Matthews. After his death a move- of his principal works is appended to the 
ment was set afoot to establish a memorial short biograpny by Mr. Ernest Rhys, pub- 
museum in his own house in Kensington, a ' lished in 1900. 

project which, in spite of controversy, was | His portrait by himself is in the famous 
realised. A large number of those drawings collection of artists' portraits in the Uthzi 
and studies on which his fame will rest . at Florence; another, by Mr. G. F. Watts, 
perhaps most securely in the future have R.A., is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
found a home in what was once his studio. ' London. 

It is recorded that Leighton used to assert ( [Times, 26 Jan. 1896 ; Athenteum, January 
of himself that he was not a great painter. 1896 ; Life and Work of Sir Frederic Leighton, 
'Thank goodness/ he also declared, 'I was P.R.A., by Helen Zimmern; Frederic, Lord 
never clever at anything ! ' The first of these Leighton, by Ernest Rhys, 1896; private in- 
assertions was truer than the second. He formation.] W. A. 


. I engraver and draughts- 

t.!i. I*Il'. After studying under 

■■■ for k iim« as aasis- 
unt la fail blhuT. Be emrmred the plates 
lor auiiv works of nn architectural charac- 
ter, including liuskin's ' Modern I'ainters' 
and 'Sun i:ii.''g 'Studies 

: t -rtj_>l L-f i Architecture 1 
El. Hartshoroa'a 
'Illustration* of Alnwick, Prudhoe, and 
Warkworth,' IB67: ami Parker's ' M-h.evil 
368, 'I'll- Nor- 
sngiaB governmi-at employed him to exe- 

" I ■.■■■■ 
K-uv exhibit. -d architectural drawings nt 
the Royal Academy. I!'' contributed papers 

on umliinal arms and armour to the ' .1 

nal of the ArduMlosicol [netitirte' and 

About ISM lie retired 

years be acted 

a* Biaii-- 8 firm of 

■ bicri In-, wife wna con- 

.. the 'Oxford 
:'". He died at Durham 
..i, 4 Fab. 1696, and wu buried in St, 
Nicholas's Church in thai city. 

. IBM | 1-' M. i'- 
HAUBICE (1811 189B1, 
n 'if Limerick, wan born 
'■'■ ■ terfbrd, where bis father weB a 
woollnn merchant. II" wat one of a family 

Carn.-L-;iTi-Siii;-. Hi- education began at 
■ !. i. hi from twelve to twenty he 

Klege, where he was a 
■ ! William CabiH [q. v.], 
a* known as n skilful player on the 
iin lb,- completion of bia education 
lug career a* a journalist by a 
ii u'iili the ' Tipper* ry Free Press,' 

■ ww proprietor. He was 

ford Chronicle,' 

■ t irring articles 

to favour of the agitation against tithes. 

waa aslnbiisbitl, ha was appoint i<d editor, hut 

10 join the staff of the 

' I-" j' r-i i( M-i .-J h i r- nl' wliif'h 
...i.inii'f ,1. \ .' During 

■ ■ ainan made 
of Father Mathew, who 

i .ii/ friend, At the end 
*r bo was ii I 


of Enc repeal marameBl it 
Xenagh; nnd O'Cotmell in a monster meet- 
ing a! Limerick iimioutieed tin' establish- 
ment of tli e 'Tippetarv Vindicator' under 
Leniban's editorship, in this pap r Leniban 
exposed a police plot known as 'The Shirjrou 
Conspiracy,' and obtained the di-missul of 
(he oeteetive Parker, who waa its leader, 

iiii,I "t' eh-ven polie.emcu who had assisted 
him. In VMS be bought up tiu ' Limerick 
Id purl it ' iiimI i in-:. i-pi ii ii i nl it. with the 
\ indientor.' This [Jiipcr, puli- 
lished nt Ni it ii' I I, i i n i -ii i '1.. he continued 
to conduct with mat ability on moderate 
nationalist lines til! the closing years of his 

Lonihan became much interested in the 
lii-lorv of Limerick, mid from lime In Mm., 
wrote for hi* paper nrl iclcs dealing with I be 
gradually accumulated much 
material, and, encouraged by several well- 
known Irish antiquaries, anionic whom he 
was particularly intimate with Eugene 
D'l'urry o,. v.'. he in [806 published at the 
■UKgeition of 1'iitricl,- Leahy [ij, v.l, areh- 
bi«lni]i nl l.'iihbi'l, 'Limerick; ih Hi-h. vi- 
and Antiquities,' This scholarly and well- 
written vol inn.; superseded the earlier works 
by Ferrar and f'it/cerald nnd John .[nines 
q.f.} two of his primary au- 
thorities, the papers of the Key. James 
White, and the Limerick manuscripts of 
John It'Alluii i|.v,]he had in hisown pnsses- 
-ion: mid be whs one of the lirst who bad 
ii !■■ ■■■:■■• I" ( be mmiu-ciipi works of I lr, Thomas 
Arthur [q. v.], the friend of Ware, tie also 
eotisullcd the elnirtuhiryof Edmund Sexton, 
nod nlii. i lie d valuable mutter from the Care w 
MSS. through Lord-Gort, and tie' papers in 
the possession of the Hon. John Yereker, 
In addition io Ihesen lisl of ni'iirly 160 autho- 
rities utilised for the work i< (riven in the 
preface. Good maps, copious append ices, mid 
tlm index, so rare in Irish books, add much 
to its nine. 

Lenih an, besides contributing to periodi- 
cals, wrote an introduction to T. F. Arthurs 
'Some Leaves from the Fee-book of ;l I'hv- 
>ieinn.' 1874, 8ro. He bad collected M*te» 
rials for histories of Tipperary and Clare, 
lull they were iv vcr nl i 1 i .- . ■ . T . 1 1. 
active part in iiiiinii'ipiil ntliiil's, was ninyoi 
of Limerick in 1S84, and was named a jus- 
tice of the pence by Lord < I'JIagan, whose 
friendship hi- enjoyed. He was ■ member 
of tli,, EtoyaJ iri-li Academy and Intiaato 

with man v of it- leadinj; members. He died 
on Br) Dec, 1895 at 17 Catherine Street, 
Limerick. His son, James Lenihan, suc- 
ceeded him as editor and proprietor of hi- 




[Limerick Reporter, 31 Dec. 1895, with obi- j 
tuary notice from Limerick Chronicle ; Times, 
26 Dec. 1895 ; Brit.Mus. Cat.] G. Lb G. N. 

(1830-1897), general royal engineers, fourth 
son of Lord John George Lennox (1793- 
1873), second son of the fourth Duke of 
Richmond, was born on 4 May 1830 at 
Molecomb House, Goodwood, Sussex. His 
mother was Louisa Frederica (d. 12 Jan. 
1863), daughter of Captain the Hon. John 
Rodney, M.P., third son of Admiral Lord 
Rodney. He was privately educated and, 
after passing through the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, received a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the royal engi- 
neers on 27 June 1848. His further com- 
missions were dated: lieutenant 7 Feb. 1854, 
second captain 25 Nov. 1857, brevet major 
24 March 1858, brevet lieutenant-colonel 
26 April 1859, first captain 1 April 1863, 
brevet colonel 26 Aprd 1867, regimental 
major 5 July 1872, lieutenant-colonel 10 Dec. 
1873, major-general 13 Aug. 1881, lieute- 
nant-general 12 Feb. 1888, general 28 June 

Lennox went through the usual course of 
professional instruction at Chatham, served 
for a few months at Portsmouth, and em- 
barked for Ceylon on 20 Nov. 1850. In 
August 1854 ne went direct from Ceylon 
to tne Crimea, where he arrived on 30 Sept., 
and was employed under Major (afterwards 
General Sir) Frederick Chapman [a. v. 
Suppl.] in the trenches of the left attack on 
Sevastopol, and had also charge of the engi- 
neer park of the left attack. He was pre- 
sent at the battle of Inkerman on 5 Nov., 
having come off the sick list for the purpose. 
On 20 Nov. he won the Victoria Cross * for 
cool and gallant conduct in establishing a 
lodgment in Tryon's rifle pits, and assisting 
to repel the assaults of the enemy. This 
brilliant operation drew forth a special order 
from General Canrobert.' On 9 Dec. he was 
appointed adjutant to the royal engineers of 
the left attack. He acted as aide-de-camp 
to Chapman with Eyre's brigade at the 
attack of the Redan on 18 June, and was 
present in September at the fall of Sebastopol, 
after which he was adjutant of all the royal 
engineer force in the Crimea until the army 
was broken up. He arrived home on 5 Aug. 
1 856. For his services he was mentioned in 
despatches (Lo?idon Gazette, 21 Dec. 1855), 
received the war medal with two clasps, the 
Sardinian and Turkish medals, the 5th class 
of the Turkish order of the Medjidie, and on 
24 Feb. 1857 the Victoria Cross. 

Lennox was adjutant of the royal en- 

gineers at Aldershot until he again left Eng- 
land on 25 April 1857 as senior subaltern of 
the 23rd company of royal engineers to take 
part in the China war. On arrival at Singa- 
pore the force for China was diverted to 
India for the suppression of the mutiny, and 
Lennox reached Calcutta on 10 Aug. On 
the march to Cawnpore he took part on 
2 Nov. in the action at Khajwa under 
Colonel Powell. The captain of his com- 
pany was severely wounded on this occasion, 
and, Colonel Goodwyn of the Bengal en- 
gineers having fallen sick on 14 Nov., 
Lennox became temporarily chief engineer 
on the staff of Sir Colin Campbell. In this 

Coition he served at the second relief of 
ucknow. He submitted a plan of attack 
which was adopted by Sir Colin. He took 
a conspicuous part in the operations, and 
the relief was accomplished on 17 Nov. He 
continued to act as chief engineer in the 
operations against the Gwalior contingent, 
and in the battle of Cawnpore on 6 Dec. 
He commanded a detachment of engineers 
at the action of Kali Naddi under Sir Colin 
Campbell on 2 Jan. 1858, and at the occu- 
pation of Fathghar. He was assistant to 
the commanding royal engineer, Colonel 
(afterwards Sir) Henry Drurv Harness [q. v.], 
in the final siege of Luckuow from 2 to 
21 March. 

After the fall of Lucknow Lennox com- 
manded the engineers of the column under 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Robert 
Walpole [q. v.] for the subjugation of RohU- 
khatid, was present at the unsuccessful attack 
on Fort Ruiya on 15 April, its occupation on 
the following day, and the action 01 Alaganj 
on 22 April. Having rejoined Lord Clyde 
he commanded the engineers at the battle of 
Bareli on 5 May and the occupation of the 
town. In June Lennox took nis company 
to Rurki, and in September to Allahabad, 
where he was appointed commanding en- 
gineer to the column under Lord Clyde for 
the subjugation of Oude. He was present 
at the capture of Amethi on 10 Nov., and of 
Shankarpur on the 16th, and at the action 
of Dundia Khera or Buxar on 24 Nov. On 
30 Nov. he left Lucknow as commanding 
royal engineer of the column under Briga- 
dier-general Eveleigh to settle the country 
to the north-east, and was present at the 
capture of Umria on 2 Dec. He com- 
manded the 23rd company royal engineers 
at the action on 20 Dec. under Lord Clyde 
at Barjadua or Chandu in the Trans-Gopra 
campaign, at the capture of Fort Majaaua 
on tne 27th, and at the action at Banki on 
the Rapti on 31 Dec. Lennox was included 
in the List of officers honourably mentioned 

iniiv by theeommander- 
: ]'■, April 18">*, 
is repeatedly mentioned in despatches 
■ I campaigns {London 
..■' .).,:, , 26 May, and 
He wis rewarded 
hi brvve! majority and a brevet lieu- 
|IMH(» (TQlniMiIrjr ind recured tbe Indian 
mutiny loedn] with twi 

left India in March 1869, and on 

•raj appointed to the 

if tin' south-eastern 

Fnm I 1 .Juno 1862 until 

-■'■'j lie tm deputy-assistant 

r-general lit Aldersbot. On 

KM made a companion 

•if the Daih. mili'iirv illusion, for his war 

Prom Sovember 1866 h- li.-U for 

,ri the. Mill "I instructor in field 

ichool of military engi- 

»t Chatham, where his energy and 

ice were of great value. He origi- 

nfidentul professional 

brother officers au rouraitt 

h mtUen which coulii not be published, 

ions of important 

i works on military engineering anb- 

_. He also started the lioyal Engineers' 

■ i[,iti],' }■ nil. 1. which has been of much 

ml children of soldiers 

/ Ids corps. In 1868 he visited Cobleun 

reported on the experimental siege 

' is carried on there. In the following 

was on a committee on spade-drill 

. :riil inTfimpnnird I.ieutenant- 

r»l Sir William t.'oddringtou to the 

ted Belgium to study 

attached orlirially !■■ the Herman armies 

[ring the Fran co-Germ an war; 

it the siege of Paris under the 

'iu*aio from 11 to 15 Dec. 

: Uenires from 24 Dec. 

erder on 2 Jan. 1871 ; at the 

of Paris under the Herman emperor 

10 Jan. to 4 Feb. ; and at the siege of 

; to the entry of the 

German troop* under von Treskow on 

■ rv_ 1871 I.ennox was appointed 
I, nnlendent of military disei- 
,ind was on a committee 
■ iii in December, In 1872 he 
— attended the military manoeuvres in 
:n!xir 1878 he went to 
uijitth u second in command of the 
; remained there until 
•A Oct, l*7o' as military 
He visited 


Montenegro m connection with the armi- 
stice on the frontier, and arrived in Con- 
-tfiniinfipli' in December. 

In April 1S77 he joined the Turkish 
armies in Bulgaria during the liiisso-Turkish 
war, and win present during tin- bombard- 
ment of KUiopuii in June, al Sietova when 
the Hussians crossed I he Danube on 21 June, 
at the bombii nil ne nt of Huschuk, at the 
battles of Karnhassankeui on 30 Aug., 
Katzelero on •• Sept., Bejin Verboka on 
21 Sept., and l'vrgos Metha on 12 Dec. 
1877. Hn 1« Dec", he accompanied Suleiman 
Pasha's force from Varna to Constantinople. 
He received the Turkish war medal. 

On his return home in March 1878 he 
went to the Curragb in Ireland as com- 
manding royal engineer until bis promotion 
to major-general in August 1881. From 
2 Aug. 188-1 he commanded the garrison of 
Alexandria, and during tbe Nile campaign 
of IflSJ -."> uriiiinisfd (lie h tiding mid ilc-pati-li 
to the front, of the troops, the Nile boats, 
and all the military and other stores of the 
expedition. From Egypt he was transferred 
on 1 April 1887 to the command of the 
troops in Ceylon, hut bis promotion to lieu- 
tenant -general vacated the appointment in 
the following year, uud ho returned home 
via Australia and America. He was pro- 
moted to be K.C.B. on 30 May 1601. Ha 
was director-general of military education 
at the war oIKce from 22 Jan. 1893 until 
his retirement from the active list on ft May 
1895. Great energy, unbending resolution, 
and mast erf ill decision fitted him for high 
command, while his kindness of heart and 
Christian character endeared him to many. 
He wu engaged in writing a memoir of 
Sir Henry Hiirnes^'s Indian career when he 
died in Loudon on 7 Feb. 1897, and was 
buried in the family vault at Brighton 
cemetery on 15 Feb. 

Lt'imruc married, first, at, Denbigh, on 
16 July 1801, Mary Harriett (d. 22 Julv 
1863), daughter of Robert. Harrison of Pla's 
Clougli, Denbighshire, by whom he left a 
son, Gerald WJlbraham Stuart, formerly a 
lieutenant in the Black Watch. He mar- 
ried secondly, in Loudon, on 12 June 1867, 
Susan Hay, who survived him, youngest 
daughter of Admiral Sir John Gordon Sin- 
clair, eighth baronet of Stevenson, by whom 
he had three sons. 

He contributed to the ' l*rofessional Papers 
of the Royal Engineers' papers on the 
'Demolition of the Fort of Tutteah,' ' The 
Engineering Operations ;lI the Siege of Llick- 
now, 1858,' 'Description of the Passage of 
tibeWet Ditch nt the Siege of strasburg, 
1870,' and other;.. Decompiled ' The Engl- 


Leslie 94 Liddell 

neers' Organisation in the Prussian Army Fawkes, Esq./ and on 24 Dec. 1891 in 
for Operations in the Field, 1870-1/ pub- l Cinder-Ellen up too Late/ having a share 
lished in London, 1878, 8vo. in the authorship of both pieces. He was 

[War Office Records; Royal Engineers' Re- Paying «J the burlesque last named when 
rdn ; Despatches ; private sources ; Times, I ne WM taken ill, and on 7 Dec. 1892 he died ; 
„ Feb. 1897 ; Royal Engineers Journal, April | he was buried on the 10th at the Charlton 
and May 1898; Kinglakes Crimean War; Offi- j cemetery. Leslie was seen on occasions as 
cial Journal of the Engineers' Operations at the \ Sir Peter Teazle, Sir Anthony Absolute, 


,,."-*». «r ji" ; * %* . •, • • v — - re8e 7 in 'Money.' He had high 

Indian Mutiny ; Medley. A \ ear s Campaigning i gifts i n l ight comedy, and his burlesque per- 
in India 18A7-8; Thackeray s Two ; Indian ^Cam- f ormance8 often ha j[ more than ^UmAt* 
paigns; Shadwells Life of Lord Clyde ; Histo- ' nnma A*r w;« „,»:«« k:« «~..-~ ~-j u- 
JLl X*rr*tiv«nf th* Turco-RiWn War. 1878. I ^f^' Hl8 Y?"*' *» ^^t «! d hl8 me " 

rical Narrative of the Turco-Russian War, 1878, I ^^i^™ TSSf T "f"*"" ni * ' 
4to; Official Hist, of the Soudan Campaign of ™«* a ? 1 *?.*? M * , him , fo F burie^ue^ 
,oo c. a , t.;»*o. b„»u'. p aflMBfl i which in his line he has had no eaual. 

1884-6; Army Lists; Burke's Peerage.] 


equal. A 

good portrait is in Hollingshead's ' Gaiety 
i Chronicles/ 


LESLIE, FREDERICK, whose real | [Personal recollections; Hollingshead's Gaiety was Frederick Hobson (1855-1892), . Chronicles; Em, 10 Dec. 1892; Scott and 
actor, son of a military out fitter at Woolwich, j Howard's Blnnchard ; Dramatic Peerage ; 
was born on 1 April 1855, was educated at i Theatre and Era Almanack, various years.] 
Woolwich, at Notting Hill, and in France, j J. JL 

and under the name of Owen Hobbs acted . LIDDELL, HENRY GEORGE (1811- 
as an amateur at Woolwich and elsewhere. ' 1898), dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and 
His first appearance in London took place j Greek lexicographer, born at Binchester, 
in 1878 at the Royulty as Colonel Hardy in ; near Bishop Auckland, 6 Feb. 1811, was the 
4 Paul Pry.' He then played at the Folly, : eldest child of the Rev. Henry George Lid- 
theAlhambra, the Standard, and the Avenue , dell (1787-1872), brother of Sir Thomas 
as Faust in ' Mefistofele 11/ Don Jose de ] Liddell, bart., who was created Baron 
Mantilla in ' Les Manteaux Noirs,' Le Mar- . Ravensworth at the coronation of George IV. 
ouis de Pontsabl6 in ' Madame Favart/ the ! His mother, Charlotte Lyon, was niece of 
Duke in * Olivette/ and other characters in : the eighth Earl of Strathmore. His younger 


op' — .- ~. . - — — ~- - — -- -~~— - — — . - — — 

his reputation to the highest point it reached, ' Balaclava, but most of his work was done 
and sustained comparison with that of Joseph on railway construction; among the lines 
Jefferson, whose greatest part it was. At ho built were the Taff Vale and Aber- 
Al * ,l ~mbra he was seen in the * Beggar i gavenny line and * ,u - **-*■ 1: * *■ — 

at the Opera Comique in the 'Fay , to Aylesbury. ] 

jid at the Comedy in the ' Great Street, Westmii 
Mogul.' His first appearance at the Gaiety (Times, 18 Aug.) 

took place on 26 Dec. 1885 as Jonathan Wili ' Liddell was educated at Charterhouse 
in * Little Jack Sheppard,' and resulted in ' School under Dr. John Russell (1787-1863) 
his fine comic gifts being thenceforward • [q. v.], and entered Christ Church as a corn- 
confined to burlesque. In company with his \ moner at Easter 1830, being appointed by 
eminently popular associate, Miss Ellen . Dean Smith to a studentship in December 
Farren, he became during many years a , of the same year. In June 1833 he gained a 
chief support of the house, appearing as \ double first-class, among his companions in 
jNoirtier in 'Monte Cristo, Junr., Don Coesar , the class list being George Canning (go- 
de Bazan in ' 14 uy Bias, or the Blase RoueV vernor-general of India), R. Lowe (Viscount 
the Monster in ' Frankenstein/ and many Sherbrooke), W. E. Jelf, Robert Scott, and 
similar characters. In the composition of j Jackson (bishop of London). He graduated 
not a few of these burlesques he took part ■ B.A. in 1833, Jl.A. in 1836, and B.D. and 
under the pseudonym of * A. C. Torr/ With D.D. in 1855. He became in due course 

Miss Farren and the Gaiety company he 
visited, in 1888-9, America and Australia, 
reappearing at the Gaiety on 21 Sept. 1889. 
On 26 July 1890 he took part in 'Guy 

tutor (1886]) and censor (1845) of Christ 
Church, and in the latter year was elected 
to White's professorship of moral philosophy, 
and appointed Whitehall preacher by Bishop 

Prince Albert, 

■ at tki Mma year wan 

i iiv Pwn G*is(brd to uu hoad- 


il [.lie ' lirvek- 

1 ■ ■ ■ - 1 1 Will »lw»JI In'. n.--o- 

wiih Ins n.-.nn-. I lii" important work 

: m with his 

■ ary, Itobert 

n, v.l and the first 

published, alter labours 

■ 7* 

, il... 

ma b ■- ■■! iip m the ' Greek- 
I Ptssow, professor at 

:i( pupil of Jacobs and Hermann. 

Puaow't name appeared on the title-page of 

Be editions, but wu afterwards 

i.aatliebookincrensed ia volume, and 

■'■' ter was continually 

1'is^jw himself littd spent his first 

oer and Hesiod; 

- be had added the Eonic prose of 

bad I- it his work quite 

niplete. Much remained to be done., 

rangement nnd method of 

latration of the different 

jiinjri of words, but alao io adding com- 

the principal Greek au- 
la agei. The * Lexicon ' was 
il or Liddell in spare 

■ i throughout his life, lonp ■ 

The date. 

rfien Liddell was in his 
year. An abridgment of 
I be use of schools, pub- 

\V'o*tniin»ter School bad much fallen in 
number* whin Liddall nndertc 

i . changes wore needed 
in. New assis- 
., .newschool- 


guidance, mill 
, sparing efforts, much 
■ iber of hoys 
It between eighty an 

about 140. Hewa* in many respects u very 
remarkable ruler, and bis appointment in 
1852 as atnember of the first Oxford Uni- 
versity Co h iasion showed the confidence 
t- . . j . . > - d ■ . ! in him by the government, of the 
day. But tbe hli,.uv. ..f r| M i commission 
formed a serious addition to his school work, 
and an outbreak of typhoid (aver, no milbr- 
tunato result, of Dean Ruckland's sanitary 
reliiriii-. Ii'.l in grave an\lcl il-.-, nnd In a 

nrioua diminution in the nmioban of tfca 

boys. Unable to carry out his wish In inniv 
the school to a new home in the cmnh'v, 
and elejjpairjnjsr <>f its growth and sxpanaioa 
in London, Liddell was glad to accept Lord 
Palmers ton's offer of the deanery Of ( 'liri-t 
Clturch in June 1 K5.5, on the death of his 
.lid chief. Damn Gaisford. 

lie held the deanery from the summer of 
IH.jG till his retirement in December 1891 — 
a period of more than thirty-six years, a 
Longer tenure of the office than any former 
dean had enjoyed. It oonrad alaa u want- 
f id epoch in the history of Christ Church. 
The recommendations of tho commission of 
which ha had been an influential mnnU'r 
were embodied in an ordinance which In - 
came law in I83S, under which tivn of the 
eight canonries were suppressed, mid the 
powers of the dean and chapi..-;- were largely 
ciir(aili j d, their ancient right of nominating 
tn studentships being taken away, nnd a 
board of electors established, consisting of 
the dean, six canons, and the six senior 
members of tbe educational stuff, who were 
to examine nnd select, after open competi- 
tion, all students except those who were 
drawn from Westminster School. Instead 
of the old number of 101 students, there 
were fin the future to he twenty-eight senior 
students (answering In some n 

! fellows of other colleges) and fifty-two 
junior et.udcnldiips, twenty-one annexed tn 
Westminster School, and the MB) open to 

I competition. 

' This ordinance remained in force till 1867. 

' But it satisfied nobody ; the senior students 
especially demanding u place in the admini- 
stration of the properly of their house, of 
which the dean and chapter had always en- 
joyed the sole management. Alter much 
controversy a private commission of five dis- 
tinguished men ra appointed, who drew 
up n new scheme of government,, which all 
parties agreed to abide by, and which via- 
Mtbodiea in the I 'brisl I 'Inirrli i :■■ ■ 

(667. i ader this aoi i neir goranJng 

body was created, cousisling of i 
canons, and i-ouior students, who .■■ 

did malingers of the property. 
The rights of the chapter— as a cathedral 


9 6 

body — were at the same time carefully 
guarded. Liddell had taken a prominent 
part in both these reforms, and lived to see 
and to guide a third change, which came 
after the parliamentary commission of 1877, 
by which the studentships were divided into 
two classes, with different conditions of 
tenure and emoluments. 

Dean LiddeU's time will alwavs be asso- 
ciated with great alterations and additions 
to the buildings of Christ Church. The new 
block of buildings fronting the meadow was 


There are two portraits in oil of Dean 
Liddell ; one, by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., is in 
the hall of Christ Church. This was pre- 
sented to the dean, at the gaudy of 1876, 
in commemoration of the completion of his 
twentieth year of office. The other, by Mr. 
Hubert Herkomer,R. A., was painted in 1891, 
and presented by the painter to the university 
galleries. There is also an exquisite crayon 
drawing by George Richmond, R.A. (1868), 
which has been engraved. These, together 

with a portrait of Liddell at the age of 
erected in 1862-6, the great quadrangle was twenty-eight by George Cruikshank, are re- 
brought to its present state, and the cathe- j produced in the present writer's * Memoir ' 

dral, chapter-house, and cloisters were care- 
fully restored. 

In all matters relating to the university 
Dean Liddell exercised considerable autho- 
rity during many years. The Clarendon 
Press owes very much to his enlightened 
and prudent guidance ; his refined artistic 
tastes, and lifelong friendship with Rusk in, 
led him to take a deep interest in the uni- 
versity galleries. He was vice-chancellor 
1870-4, and discharged with singular dignity 
and efficiency the duties of that important 
office, which had not been held by a dean 
of Christ Church since the days of Dean 


[Memoir of H. G. Liddell, D.D., 1809, by 
the present writer.] H. L. T. 

LILFORD, Babon. [.See Powts, Tho- 
mas Littleton, 1833-1896.] 

LINDLEY, WILLIAM (1808-1900), 
civil engineer, son of Joseph Lindley of 
Heath, Yorkshire, was born in London on 
7 Sent. 1808. He was educated at Croydon 
and in Germany, in which country he was 
afterwards to make his name as an engineer. 
In 1827 he became a pupil of Francis Giles, 

Aldrich (1692-4). As a ruler of his college , and was chiefly engaged in railway work, 
he was somewhat stern and unsympathetic I He was in 1838 appointed engineer-in-chief 
in demeanour, but he became more kindly : to the Hamburg and Bergedorf railway, and 
as he advanced in years, and his rare and it was in the city of Hamburg that the en- 
noble presence, high dignity, and unswerving | gineering work by which he will be remem- 
justice gained the respect and gradually the | bered was carried out for the next twenty- 
affection of all members of his house. He : two years. He designed and supervised the 
was created hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh Uni- | construction of the Hamburg sewerage and 
versity in 1884, and hon. D.C.L. of Oxford water works, of the drainage and reclama- 
in 1893. On Stanley's death he was offered ' tion of the low-lyin^ ' Ilammerbrook' dis- 
but refused the deanery of Westminster. ( trict, much of which is now a valuable part 

After his resignation of the deanery in of the city, and he drew out the plans for 
December 1891 ne lived in retirement at , rebuilding the city after the disastrous Are 
Ascot till his death there on 18 Jan. 1898. | of May 1842. He was in fact responsible 
His body lies at Christ Church, outside the for most of the engineering and other works 
southern wall of the sanctuary of the cathe- I which have changed the ancient Hanseatic 
dral, close by the grave of his daughter city into one of the greatest modern seaports 
Edith, who died in 1876. of Europe. His water supply for Hamburg 

Dean Liddell married, on 2 July 1846, 1 was the first complete system of the kind, 
Lorina, daughter of James Reeve, a member now usually adopted on tiie continent, and his 
of a Norfolk family. Three sons and four sewerage arrangements contained many prin- 
daughters survived him. ' ciples novel at that time, though since com- 

In addition to the ' Greek Lexicon,' , monly adopted. He left Hamburg in 1860, 
Dean Liddell published in 1865 ' A History I and in 1865 he was appointed consulting en- 
of Ancient Rome/ 2 vols. This work was I gineer to the city of Frankfort-on-Main. He 

subsequently (1871) abridged, and as ' The 
Student's History of Rome to the Establish- 
ment of the Empire ' has a permanent circu- 
lation. He rarely published sermons ; the 
best known of them, preached before the 
university of Oxford on 3 Nov. 1867, dealt 
with the philosophical basis of the real 

designed and carried out complete sewerage 
works for that city. Here again many im- 
provements were for the first time adopted, 
and this system has become more or less 
typical for similar works on the continent. 
He retired from active work in 1879. He 

^'oined the Institution of Civil Engineers in 
.842, and was for many years a member of 

Soeieti rif 1-jnuii ;-. T . . — 

E [ • ■ died ut 
wtertllill Road, Black- 
■ a [flOO. 
tnary noticon ; Pn*. Iu-i civil Basin**™, 
T. II. IS. 

LINDSAY, niLIX i L81B-I893),foundw 

. i- -i. Church Union, born ut Mun- 

'. was fourth 

(KinotJim.^ Lind-nv, twenty-fourth earl of 

Crawford and seventh earl of lialearre.s, hj 

; ris Margaret Frances, daughter 

' ningtoii, Aral baron Muneastei: 

uition ba was sent to 

ity College, Cambridge, where he came 

b high-church 

em. Ik' did mil graduate, ami on 

uly 1845 married Lady Frances, daughter 

. . . !i>- i r — ■ of Willi. mi Howard, fourth 
of Wicklow. His early married lift- 

r-j-'l ' ti bis tabes's estate near Wigan, 
::ii activu part in local utlairs. 
churchwarden of All Saints', Wigan, lie 
responsible for the careful 
otaon of thai charch. He was founder 
pHudeol of the Manchester Church 
bicb through his exertions amal- 
*«insteil with other similar associations and 
English Church Union. 
ill this body Lindsay was president from 
87, and I..' devoted himself en- 

lly to the work of the [let ) . 

hese years he lived at Brighton, 

187t) he' removed to Loudon. 

nlid'.' in- rwMMhttf in ecclesiastical inesd lurn of On' untenability 

•iiniii. His wife liml 

mil the Itomun catholic church 

.. 1866, and on a8 Not. 18B8 

Lmdaay »«» himself received into thai 

cliurcb by Cardinal Newman at tin.' Bir- 

Oralory, Hi' gave an account of 

n the intro- 

I" !» \i<- • Evidence for the 

London, 1870, 8vo). In that 

red as a staunch chani- 

i i laiins, mi. 1 lie flirt tier 

mtpoanded these views in hi* ■ I 

■ or tin' Umpire Church of Jesus 


( Queen of Scots in 

I, fivo; iv- 
i iblel i. in which he 

! leer Park, 
inherited in 
lie rareprivi- 


whatever house lie might, be living. He cHetd 

in London at 22 Klvfi-ion I'lare. i,'iieeii'" 

Jim. I**.U. II... and hi, wile, who 

died on SO Aug. 1897, were buried lit St. 

I'll .■!-' Iturunn catholic church, Fulhatn. 

He lefl live sons aud three daughters, of 
whom tli" eldest son, Mr. William Al'Min.lei 
Lindsay, K.C, is Windsor herald, 

Besides lln writings mentioned ahove, 

Lmil-in- was author or rarioui minor works, 

of which a full bibliography is given in Mr. 
Joseph (iillow's ' Dictionary of English 
Os t aol i ce.' Phs mosl important u ' Th-- 
luiviil Supremacy and Church Emancipa- 
tion ' ( London, IS6G, Bvoj, in which Lindsay 
di'liii'.'! die view taken of the establishment 
by the English Church Onion, 

[Work* in Brit. Mua. Libr ; Knglish Cliureli 
Union Calendar; Barb's Peerage ; Timca, 
30 Jan. 1892; Manchester (iuiirdmn, 1 Feb. 
1892; Tablot, lxxlz. 233; House's Modern 

English Biography; Oillow'a Dictionary of 
Bnguah Catholics.] A, f. I'. 


■ inn j ■ ii i.l philologist, was BOM 

at Cnrmyllie, Forfarshire, on 8 Sept, 17M, 
But for the delieiiev of hi- const itulinn he 
would have been a farmer, like his father, 
who apprenticed him to a local band-loom 
weaver. From an early age he displayed a 
taste for study, and nnil rieiilrit.-il ;il St. 
Andrews University in October 1X22. work- 
ing at his trade during the recess, and earning 
some money by private tuition. Having 
finished his arts course he entered on the 
study of theology and completed his curri- 
culum, but was never licensed as n preacher. 
He had gained special honours in mathe- 
matics and physical science, : i ii.<1 in 1«29 be 
war. nppointeil lecturer on these subjects at 
the \\ att Institution. Dundee, aud organised 
classes in electricity and magnetism. In a 
fragment of autobiography, preserved in the 
Dundee Museum, he states that on Oersted's 
discovery of the deflection of the magnetic 
needle by an electric current in ]8aj he 
' hud a clear view of the application of elec- 
tricity to telegraphic communication." The 
electric light, which had been produced and 

'many contrivances for augmenting it and 
rendering it constant.' In the local news- 

Cipera it is recorded, on 25 July 1835, that 
iurlsay delivered a lecture, at which he ex- 
hibited the electric light, and foretold that. 
' the present generation may yet. have it 
burning in their houses and enlightening 
iheir Streets.' Unfortunately a pliilile^i. al 
craze diverted him from liis experiments, 

Liads^Y ps Linton 

"^"LZj- l.t -:*t ;.i_-t*=^:tt in- iibi :•*•?: m»t it- *-ii* port be retained till October lt?^, 

>?s!f^*'i i •.-.■« iiLrtijT- ii__r.u:iry. lh£ :r wL**l tin- Earl of Derby, then prime mini- 

i?£r ii* "i;i.i •.•rrui t: :«:a.-iij- l •"«:•- s:er. conferred uj»on him a pennon of 100/. 

t.'irutf , *^u dii" r.»iLTT. fr.ta. *vij:i L? *-i- • ix reriimiTion of his great learning and 

}*r*: v. .'iru^. l i-ri rr?i*i-j i. 7:»r *-itrfc-»rd.:nary attainments/ He thencefor- 

3?".ev 'ZiLz. t ^ulT"-t :■: t i^tltl^t "u- i-T^ri wtr£ d*r<:i7<«d himself to scientific pursuits. 

til •_.» -jifr :^=*r ■■. r.. :»i.- _t vl? i:* *.--zl- J:«r t«lt5 l*-fore he had starved himself 

\*T'fi l: i..* i-t:i.. t^i "iir na-i -*:■=-: - > -jar in xnirht purchase books and scien- 

z* •* .z. '.'■--. l>^i~ X-«-ls- l r^zuL'. •-. ~ .tii ir-in-menu. and when disease came 

- Tl -*»LV* L -*1 ll."*. 1 .." 

7: -??'.- u:i'i. t.'-r Li* emaciated frame could not 

: --iri :- TLrrw :: off. 1e lwfc? he became seriously 

l-^ 1- * • rV_"r:-. L:-i^rl.»r^t_ r'LT-rroi^rr." 111_ ani. aft*? five days" extreme suffering, 

>- •-." v-r-;.*«- ::' :ir "^:ri * 1- n--r li. rrrj !+ iir£ r-u i!9 June, and was interred in the 

->'-"; -\.-z-*-z-*. Z- I<> Lt T'-": .?l-: "v*"-*:*^ t*rmeT err. Dundee. By a strange 

*.l* *«_"._ r:. -A-rTr; Ia't. l :_.". «: :* A-:r - rrr -r iif i^mbfioar gives 1^63 as the year 

="- vx. •■*! 7 l -.;-■*,".:.:-: iri *■: •.«-.?: .- :*!:■:> ■: Li* sauil.. Despite his straitened cir- 

y.z+t Lr.:. Iv.aI t-= --..■-•>. s._i .:. 1^.1 -A . -r^T-tnc**. ;hr library which he left was 

Tr-A-.tfc*- • _•_ ];^ ;-..--. "L-ri t: L&Xtf. An "enlarged photograph 

So -rt.-> - l--:^ ;. ■: Ili It— !L-TiV-l 'Lr . : L:s£sLy i* in the Dundee Museum, and 

y.^.Kl.r y i -:. -lr:-:r . rrl-jr-^L •- rx- t =.*r:Lr V-*T of him. by George Webster, 

;-:r.^:rr.*- '-. :.'.- Is.-— r «.=.. A*- -: -": t >slXt ttl* pre*rET~i : - Dundee byex-Ix>rd IVovost 

"x-r ■*■;;. .:.-. uz.1 :- 2*--:: 'ti_*; l:_ i MsGrazy :r, l^lt^H. on the centenary of 

"•V r >rr. •-* .: jr--.Tl.-tl rl-.-rl. vl-rriTl_*. LiiijAyf binh. and is in the Dundee Pic- 

I:- t i.r * J.i .:_ ,--: Ad*. " :: r •' >hv 1^4-" :ur* GLllrr. . 

Li;.d-4y 'i--..-r.>rd i r.r-n- =.rTi>£ :: >lr- :-'.rr-k::;rilai:y^3pp]it^l.yDr.C.H.Lees; 

yrap:^y^-«t--«. wLicLL-ca:l-i :"--=. jt - r;:*:L"^rrrr. Ot*;Iu-hte der Phyaik. vuL ii. 

wraph «-V.-*.r:f: T-lrrrapl. I^TTrii :■: t":.- ^.w.ra: Nirrit"* I^air^ (Vlebritirt,p. 112; 

t'A'^fiTy-fo-jr w;r*» Thrn "wri :':rT-:".rjTip"-i=r Kerr"* W;rtls** Telcsraphy: Fabie's Wirelfss 

h'r -i^ ?•:-*■:•; Tr.iT !v. w.-uli "r.^ surH^irST: T-lttfTariy. - S? 1 ^ : Dunire Advertiser. 31 July. 

nA hr'iir,],.^! T:.a- :":.- r^-rr. curr^cT. s-v -1 -J *"»;:/ :*55. :> March 1>53. 7 Sept. 18«J»; 

4'rr.rt \*r »■*•'* * . }%■•■*««— r-r,-' « •« .■.—,-": ^i-t-.ta: . r. J xz.i\tt 1S4H: Ker«j« of the BritUh 

a-.-Ary *>;•:-.' A. II. M. 

I *•!•■*, L;?.'J-av pr.ip'i J -rd a Trar> r ;*l^r.: : ^ ■-!-.- c-r-vr'.Ls: ar.i mi»o-:".ane«?u# writer, was the 

liiii'l*'.. In .'i I'.-T'-.r *■-• tL- 'Nvrthrm 

Wa.-Lrr.a Im:i-I«- n-w^ip-ir. ■■= I-: Junr UNTOX. ELIZA LYNN <1S22-180S) ? 

lfiitf«:rv on oii<? -id«? of the Atlantic and a was an infant, and Mrs. Lynn Linton's youth 

rff.i'.'i\»ir on f li«? oth«-r, u current could be was 5j*en: uneasily from her inability to ac- 

ii;i!--4-l ilirou^h thif ociran to America with- conimodaxe hers-If to the id^asof her family, 

i. at . win>. Ili;rmt«;iit«'il this method ofwir-.- In lS4o she dvparted for London, provided 

i.*.: titli-graphy on o June lK r )4. and during with a years allowance from her father, and 

I wit, v«-ur mad** «;xpi'riincnts on this ]»lan at n.-solvod to establish herself as a woman of 

Kiirl i Sri-y d<H:k, l)iiiidi:f*: ucro^ the Tay. near letters. "With little knowledge of the world, 

liuiidi'i*; nii'l at I'ortK mouth. Tlu;* latter sh>* had a large st ixrk of antique learning de- 

•-*. ■••-nifii-iit- ii n- r|i-crilj*'d in ' Chainbera's rived from her father's library ; and her first 

A|fi-f-iiiM'iils ni. Alx^rdiM-n dorks, which wen? and ' Amymone. a Romance of the Days of 

liiphlvi-'iiiimeriili'd liv Lord Uos«e, Professor Pericles*(3 vols. 1^48), manifested vehement 

l-.iriiflnv, and Sir ( J. H. Airy. eloquence and brilliant colouring. Thesegifts 

While Liud-Hiv wiih tliiia i:.xpi*rimi a nting were no adtHjuate equipment for the delinea- 

lie wiih living in extn«mi; penury. In March tion of modern life; and Miss Lynn's next 

l*|| he wiih uppointed iisiu-her in Dundee novel, though entitled 'Realities' (1851), was 

|.rin«,n lit. a Miliary of W)/. ]M*r annum, and ( universally censured for its glaring unreality. 

a Puis, whan she remained till about 
abandoned Action for 


ng founded, if not pre- 
cisely upon fuel, yet Upon BUperetitiona 

Neepled tin ■""! n( ill'- 

finally appeared in 'All tin 

I 16] w adit. I88S), 

:1 L'.niiiil the friendship 

i ad bet with paternal 

bitterly dissai isiicd wii H 

and criticised it 

■ Sortb British 

..:in into relation 

- purchase of the house 

. which she hnd inherited, lu 

William James Linton 

graver. Linton was q 

- been said that her motive 

was ft wi.-l -of education 

children; but it was more 

■ mpliance wilh the wish of the 

in -be hnd nursed in her 

l«t illness. However this may be, the 

mutual incompatibility was soon apparent, 

■ml the parties amicably separated, although 

Mr-, Listed viaited her husband from time 

■iiilhiri departure lor America in 

one of the orphans continued to 

r.a>ide wilh her stepmother for some time, 

anil she never ceased to correspond with her 

husband. Shi' also wrote a Of 

th« Lake < .where she re- 

; ii-,iiirm with her line- 
Wad* bj " ftrated. Mr-, 
irut.ion from her husband, 
returned lo tieiion, adopting a manner widely 
.' her Barly works. Hav- 
ing previously been romantic and imagino- 
inlraled that experience 
. made her a very clear- 
headed and practical writer, excellent In 
construction, vigorous in style, entirel) 
competent to meet the demands of the 
■verwge novel- reader, but bereft of the 
■ i which bud suffused her 

i he generally mecbani- 

01 her talent, ' Joshua 
i published in 1A73, and 
litiona in two years, ie a 

'or is no reaped irreverent adapta- 

le jto5.jit.-l story to the circumstances 

sing tic antithesis be- 

' the survival 

!i coin m mi ilfi 1 

which irre- 

1:1c (UmuUled thought, I I>-r other 

rriinii-kiiblf book, 'Tin.- Autobiography of 
Christopher Kirklnud' ( 18N> j. is remarkable 
indeed as achieving what it is said that even 
an net ol parliament, cannot do — turning a 
woman into » man. It is in a large mea- 
sure hor own autobiography, curiously in- 
verted by her assumption of a masculine 
i nl, ajHirt from the interest of 
■ itself, this stran^'- ; 
phosis, once perceived, is a source of con- 
tinual entertainment. It gives hef own 
version of her conjugal incompatibilities, «nd 
has striking portraits of I'nnizri, Douglas 
Cook, and other remarkable pers on a with 
whom she bad been brought into contact. 
Of her more ordinary novels, all popular in 
their dnv, the most remarkable were ' Grasp 
your Nettle' [1866), 'Patricia Kemball' 

( 1H71 1, 'Tin' Atonement of Loam Dundas' 
(1877), and ' I'uder which Lord:-' (1879), 
Km. Linton bail ii special talent for 
jinininlisiu ; she had con tri tinted to the 
■ Morning Chronicle' as early as 1848, and 
continued it member of its staff until 1851. 
Writing for the press became mon: and more 
her vocation during her hitter years. She 
became connected with the 'Saturday lie- 
view' in lrtili, Mini for many years was a 
[iiiifh-vultn-il contributor of essays to the 
middle part of the paper. One of these, 
' The Girl of the Period '(14 March 1868), an 
onslaught on some modern developments of 
feminine manners and character, created a 
great sensation, and the number in which it 
had appeared continued to be inquired for for 
many years. It was certainly incisive, and 
was probably though! opportune ; but, like 
her kindred disquisition* unfriendlv to I be 
cause of ' women's rights,' it estranged and 
offended man v other own sex. These papers 
were reprinted as ' The Girl of the Period, 
and other Essays' (1883,2 vols.) A similar 
aeries of essays was entitled 'Ourselves' 
(1870; new edit. 1884). She contributed to 
many other journals and reviews, and always 
with effect. In 1801 site published ' An 
i i.i in ■■: friends,' and in 1897 wrote a 
volume on George Eliot for a series entitled 
'Women Novelists of Queen Victoria's 
Reign.' This displayed a regrettable acerbity, 
which might easily be attributed to motives 
that probably did not influence her, She 
waskind-heartedfliidgenernufl, and especially 
amiable to young people of intellectual pro- 
mise; but her speech and pen were sharp, snd 
she was prone to net upon impulse. She 
hated injustice, and was not alwavs suffi- 
ciently carefid to commit none herself. Her 
Independent spirit and her appetite for work 
were highly to her honour. Her lost book, 
My Literary Life," was published posthu- 





mously, with a prefatory note by Miss Bea- 
trice Harraden, 111 1899. She usually lived 
in London, but about three years before her 
death retired to Brougham House, Malvern. 
She died at Queen Anne's Mansions, London, 
on 14 July 1898. A posthumous portrait 
was painted by the Hon. John Collier for 
presentation to the public library at Keswick, 
and a drawing by Samuel Laurence, taken 
when she was twenty, is in the possession of ; 
the Rev. Augustus Gedge, her brother-in-law. ! 

[The principal authority for Mrs. Linton's 
life is Eliza Lynn Linton, her Life, Letter*, and 
Opinions, by George Somes Layard, 1901. See 
also My Literary Life, 1899 ; Men and Women 
of the Time ; Athenaeum, 23 July 1898.] 

R. G. 

1898), engraver, poet, and political reformer, 
was born in Ireland's Row, Mile End 
Road, on 7 Dec. 1812. His father, whose 
calling is not recorded, was of Scottish ex- 
traction, the son of ' an Aberdeen ship 
carpenter with some pretensions to be 
called an architect/ His younger brother, 
Ilenry Duff Linton (1812-1899), who was 
also a wood-engraver, and was associated 
with W. J. Linton in many of his earlier 
productions, died at Norbiton, Surrev, in 
June 1899 (Times, 23 June 1899). 

Linton received his education at a school 
in Stratford, and in 1828 was apprenticed 
to the wood-engraver George Wilmot Bonner, 
with whom he continued for six years. He 
subsequently worked with Powis and with 
Thompson, and in 1836 became associated 
with John Orrin Smith [q. v.], then intro- 
ducing great improvements into English 
wood-engraving. About the same time he 
married the sister of Thomas Wade [q. v.] the 
poet, after whose death he wedded another 
sister. He now began to mingle in literary 
circles, and to make himself conspicuous as 
a political agitator. Under the influence of 
his enthusiasm for Shelley and Lamennais, 
whose ' Words of a Believer ' were among 
the gospels of the time, he had adopted 
advanced views in religion and extreme 
views in politics, and, while throwing him- 
self with ardour into the chartist move- 
ment, went beyond it in professing himself 
a republican, lie was especially connected 
with Ilenry Hetherington [q. v.] and James 
Watson (1799-1874) [q. v. J, the publishers 
of unstamped newspapers, and in 1839 
himself established ' The National/ designed 
as a vehicle for the reprint of extracts from 
political and philosophical publications in- 
accessible to working men. It had no long 

In 1842 Linton became partner with his 

employer, Orrin Smith, but the partnership 
was dissolved by the latter's death in the fol- 
lowing year. During their connection Linton 
had done much important work, especially on 
< The Illustrated News/ established in 1842. 
He was also active in literature. Through 
his brother-in-law Wade he had become in- 
timate with the circle that gathered around 
W. J. Fox and R. H. Home in the latter 
days of ' The Monthly Repository,' and with 
their aid, after an unsuccessful experiment 
in ' The Illustrated Family Journal, he suc- 
ceeded (1845) Douglas Jerrold as editor of 
' The Illuminated Magazine/ where he pub- 
lished many interesting contributions from 
writers of more merit than popularity. 
Among these were 'A Royal Progress/ a 
poem of considerable length by Sarah Flower 
Adams [q. v.], not hitherto printed else- 
where, and specimens of the ' Stories after 
Nature ' of Charles Jeremiah Wells [<j. v.], 
almost the only known copy of which Linton 
himself had picked off a bookstall. Their 
publication elicited a new story from Wells, 
which Linton subsequently dramatised 
under its own title of * Claribel.' 

As a politician Linton was at this time 
chiefly interested in the patriotic designs 
of Mazzini, with whom he formed an in- 
timate friendship, and the violation of whose 
correspondence at the post office in 1844 he 
was instrumental in exposing. The chartist 
movement had passed under the direction 
of Feargus O'Connor [q. v.], whom Linton 
distrusted and despised, and he had little 
connection with it ; of the free-trade leaders, 
W. J. Fox excepted, he had a still worse 
opinion, and continued to denounce them 
with virulence throughout his life. An 
acquaintance with Charles (now Sir Charles) 
Gavan Duffy led him to contribute political 
verse to the Dublin 'Nation' under the 
signature of * Spartacus.' In 1847 he took a 
prominent part in founding the 'International 
League ' ot patriots of all nations, for which 
the events of the following year seemed to 
provide Ample scope, but which came to 
nothing. The more limited and practical 
movement of ' The Friends of Italy ' was 
supported by him. In 1850 he was con- 
cerned with Thornton Hunt and G. H. 
Lewes in the establishment of 'The 
Leader/ which he expected to make the 
organ of republicanism, but he soon dis- 
covered his associates' lukewarmness in 
political matters, and quitted 'The Leader' 
to found ' The English Republic/ a monthly 
journal published and originally printed 
at Leeds. After a while Linton carried 
on the printing under his own superinten- 
dence at Brantwood, a house which he had 

-■■'71- I 

n the ljake country, since cele- | 
■ ■■,,■.' nf I; tn, He hud 
ivt'J Hi Mitesidc inXorthumber- . 

■ ;,.- well us III.- intJniPite friBiuisliip 
nth Williwn Bell Scott [a. v.], had made I 
him acquainted with a circle of seulous I 

Ci Conner* at Newcastle; there 
published anon y mo 11 sly in 1M2 'The 
i reedom,' a series of poems in 
the met?* of * In Metaoriam,' which gained ' 
him the friendship and the encomiums, for 
out* not undeserved, of Walter Savage 
Undor. In 1855 ' The English Kepublic ' 
wtf discnnt inued, and Linton commenced an 
artistic periodical, ' Pen and Pencil,' which 
■ •■ ii long existence. In this year 
he lost his wife and returned to London, 
voting himself anew to his profes- . 
-inn, he firmly established his reputation us ' 
; best wood-engraver of bis day, and waa 
special request for book illustration. His 
if The pre-liaphaelite artists' de- 
i'\'in'i illustrated Tennyson were 
among his most successful productions ; if 
DM fclways done to the original 
.■■ (knit wai not in the engraver, 
i'iit in the imparfectionc of engraving pro- 
oesses upon wood before the introduction of 
photography. In 1858 Linton married Miss 
Etiin Lynn, the celebrated novelist, best 
.■■■ bet married name of Linton 
Suppl." The union did nut prove fnr- 
- ere probably not unfairly in Mrs. Linton's autobiographical 
of -Christopher Kirkland ' I 1886). Ii 
: m in amicable separation, in- 

■ disposal of the house at Brant- 
wood to liuskin, 'pleasantly arranged,' says 

■ i-miplo of letters.' He re- 
mained for soioo time in London, following 

his profession. Thecovftra of the ' Cornhill 
aillanV raagarines. were engraved 
by biro ; he brought out • The Works of De- 
ceased British Artists,' and illustrated his 
wife's work on the Lake country. In IftflT) 
i i of ' CUribel,' with 
! \ ones of re- 
powerful narrative in 
• nf Ores villa's sea-fight celebrated 
' Revenge,' and an impressive 
-vmbolisiiig his own political 
rations, jiut into < In- mouth o) Henry 

. ! in I 'hrpStmv t'ustli-'. 

In November IsiH; Linton went to the 
FIi had intended only a 
ha project for 
. niev in Italy, hut he found a 

■■■:■■ !-'■ (it' lu- nrl opened 
.,'. ho in i* , jiml hw mainly devoted 


himself at Applednre, n farmhouse i 
New Haven in Connecticut, gathered dis- 
ciples around him, and by precept, and 
example waa accomplishing great things, 
when his career was checked by the intro- 
duction nf cheap 'process' methods, inevi- 
table when the art has become so largely 
popularised, but always regarded hy him 
with the strongest objection. At first 
he sent his blocks to New York, Inn ulti- 
mately-bought a press, and conducted both 
printing and engraving under his own roof. 
For the literary furtherance i.f his views on 
art he produced 'Practical [lints on Wood 
Engraving,' 1*79; 'A History of Wood En- 
graving in America,' 188J, and ' Wood En- 
graving, a Manual of Instruction,' 1884. 
During n visit to England En 1 8*3 and 1*84 
he begun his great work Called 'The Musters 
of Wood Engraving.' This book was based 
upon two hundred photographs from the 
works of the great masters, which he began 
in 1884 in the print-room of the British 
Mnseum. Returning to New Haven he 
wrote his boob, printed it in three copies, 
and mounted the photographs himself, and 
in 188" returned to England, bringing one 
of the copies to be reproduced under his 
superintendence in London. The work ap- 
peared in folio in 1890. 

Meanwhile his private press at Appledore 
had been active in another department, pro- 
ducing charming little volumes of original 
verse, much prized hy collectors, such as 
' Windfalls,' • Love Lore/ and • The Golden 
Apples of Hesperus,' the latter an anthology 
of little-known pieces, partly reproduced in 
another collection edited by him, ' Hare 
Poems of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries '(Xew Haven, \"f>, «vo). In 1883 
he published an r-s tensive anthology of Eng- 
lish poetry in conjunction with R. 11. -Stod- 
dard. In 1879 he wrote the life of his old 
friend, James Watson, the intrepid pub- 
lisher, and contributed his recollections to 
the republished poems of another old friend, 

' In 1889 'Love Lore,' 
Claribel' and other 
pieces, was published in London under the 
title of ' Poems and Translations.' A collec- 
tion of pamphlets and contributions by 
himself to periodical literature, comprising 
twenty volumes (183(1-80), and entitled 
' Prose and Verse,' is in the British Museum 
Library, After hit final return to America 
in 18*2, though upwards of eighty, he 
produced a life of Whittier in the ' Great 
Writers ' series (1893), and his own 'Me- 
mori.r-,' an autobiography full of spirit and 
huovancv, which might with advantage 
have been mow full, in 1895. He died at 


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'"lily mi vi-iir* lui. ilnvH w«n- di- voted John Beale, and sister of Dr. Lionel S.Beale. 


103 Loch 

Ancient Greek history and art were the sub- | (privately printed). 3. * The Portland Vase/ 
jecta of his next two publications, perhaps ( London, 1848, 8vo. 4. ' Homer, his Art 
the most generally interesting of his writings: i and Age/ London, 1848, 8vo (Nos. 3 and 
'The History of bicily to the Athenian War, 4 reprinted from the ' Classical Museum '). 
with Elucidations of the Sicilian Odes of | 5. ' The Eleventh of Pindar's Pythian Odes,* 
Pindar' (1872, 8vo), and 'The Age of Peri- | London, 1849, 8vo. 6. • On the Homeric 
cles : a History of the Politics and Arts of , Design of the Shield of Achilles/ London, 
Greece from the Persian to the Peloponne- 1 1854, large 8vo. 7. ' Pindar and Themisto- 
sian War* (1875, 2 vols. 8vo), the last a . cles/ London, 1862, 8vo(a prose translation 
complete conception of the social life and | of Pindar's eighth Nemean ode). 8. 'Panics 
art of Greece at its highest point. In 1882 1 and their Panaceas : the Theory of Money, 
he delivered four lectures on the 'Iliad * and Metallic or Paper, in relation to Healthy 
' Odyssey 'at the Royal Institution, of which or Disturbed Interchange/ London, 1869, 
body he acted as one of the managers from j 8vo. 9. ' Shakespeare's " Much Ado about 
1879 to 1881. He was elected a member of , Nothing/' now first published in fully re- 
the Athenaeum Club in 1875, and for many . covered Metrical Form with a Prefatory 
years was an active member of the com- : Essay/ London, 1884, 8vo (he contended 
mittee of the London Library. He was a 1 that all the plays were written in blank 
correspondent of the archaeological societies j verse). 10. 'Elijah Fenton : his Poetry and 
of Rome and Palermo. 1 Friends/ Lond. 1894, sm. 8vo (posthumous). 

Lloyd died at 43 Upper Gloucester Place, 1 Lloyd contributed many articles to the 

was bequeathed to the Society of Dilettanti 
(Citst, History, p. 236). Another portrait 
by Sir William Richmond, R.A., is in the 
possession of the family. 

lenic Studies/ and, although he published 
much, left behind a great quantity of un- 
printed manuscripts, among them being 
'The Battles of the Ancients' — military 

Watkiss Lloyd was a remarkable instance j history always attracted him — others, be- 
of a lifelong devotion to learning, stamped I queathed to the British Museum, include 'A 
by disinterested self-denial. Without a 1 Further History of Greece/ treating of the 
university training, and never recognised | later Athenian wars; 'The Century of Mi- 
by any academic body, he had the strong chael Angelo/ a treatise on 'The Nature of 
qualities and some of the weaknesses of the Man/ ' Shakespeare's Plays metrically ar- 
self-taught. His books manifest con- ranged/ 'Essays on the Plays of -Eschylus 
scientious industry, originality, and sound and Sophocles/ and upon the Xeopla- 
scholarship; but while his judgment was tonists, a translation of the Homeric poems 
solid and his thought clear, he was not en- in free hexameters, translations of Theo- 
dowed with the faculty of expressing his critus, Bion, and the odes of Pindar, besides 
ideas in attractive literarv form. Power of materials for the history of architecture, 
condensation and artistic arrangement of painting, and sculpture, 
materials were wanting. One half of his life [Information from Col. K. M. Lloyd ; see 
was passed in solitude, but during the last , also Memoir hy Sophia Beale, with list of works 
half he mixed in the world, and the angu- and photogravure portrait included in Lloyd's 
larities of the student became softened. ( Elijah Fenton, 1894; Times, '27 Dec. 1893 and 
He was a charming talker, modest, unpe- 17 Jan. 1894; Athenwum, 30 Dee. 1893, p.916; 
dantic, and a staunch friend. In personal Architect, 23 Dec. 1893, ]». 399; Publishers' 
appearance he was tall and impressive ; even Circular, 3i> Dee., p. 752 : Allibones Diet, of 
to the end he was strikingly upright in car- English Literature 1870, 11 1111; Kirks 
riage, and showed few outward signs of his s »n»l. to Aliihone. 1891, 11. 1010.] II. R. T. 
advanced age. LOCH, IIEXHY BR'H'GIIAM, first 

Besides the books above mentioned, he Baron Lock of Drylaw (1827-1900), born 
published: 1. 'Explanation of the Groups on 23 May 1827, was the son of James 
in the Western Pediment of the Parthenon,' Loch, M.P., of Drylaw in the county of 
London, 1847, 8vo (from 'Classical Mu- Midlothian, by his wife Ann, the daughter 
seum/ pt. 18); 'The Central Group of the of Patrick Orr. lie entered th»* royal navy 
Panathenaic Frieze' (from 'Trans. Hoy. in 1840, but left it as a midshipman in 1842 
Soc. Lit.' n.s. vol. v. 1854); 'The Eastern and was gazetted to the 3rd Bengal cavalry 
Pediment of the Parthenon ' (from ib. n.s. in 1844. Though only seventeen years of 
vol. vii. 1862). 2. 'Artemis Elaphebolos: ' age, he was chosen by Lord (lough as his 
an Archaeological Essay/ London, 1847, 8vo 1 aide-de-camp, and in that capacity served 




through the Sutlej campaign of 1845. In 
1850 he was appointed adjutant of the 
famous irregular corps, Skinner's Horse. On 
the outbreak of the Crimean war his gift of 
managing Asiatic soldiery led to his being 
selected in 1854 to proceed to Bulgaria and 
assist in organising the Turkish horse. He 
served throughout the war, and at its close he 
was signalled out for the employment which 
was destined to close his military career. In 

1857 James Bruce, eighth earl of ElginTq.v.] 
was despatched on a special embassy to China 
to arrange, as was supposed, the final terms 
of settlement of the war that was then raging, 
and Captain Loch was attached to his stuff. 
He was present at the taking of Canton on 
28 Dec. and the seizure of Commissioner 
Yeh, and he subsequently proceeded with 
Lord Elgin on his mission to Japan, and in 

1858 he was sent back to England with the 
treaty of Yeddo, concluded by Great Britain 
with that country. In 1860 the failure to 
obtain the ratification of the treaty of Tien- 
tsin and the repulse of the English gunboats 
before the Taku forts had involved the Anglo- 
French expedition under Sir James Hope 
Grant [q. v.] and General Montauban, after- 
wards Count Palikao. Lord Elgin was 
again sent out as minister plenipotentiary, 
and mindful of Captain Lochs services he 
took him with him as private secretary. In 
conjunction with Mr. (afterwards Sir) Ilarry 
Smith Parkes |<j. v.], Loch conducted the 
negotiations which led to the surrender of 
the Taku forts, and he shared in the advance 
on Pekin. 

On IK Sept. lie formed one of the small 
party which was treacherously seized by the 
Chinese officials on returning from l*ung- 
chau, whither they had been to arrange the 
preliminaries of peace. Loch hod actually 
made his way through the enemy's lines to 
the English camp and had given warning of 
the intended treachery, but he chivalrously 
returned in order to try and save his com- 
rades. For three weeks he endured the 
most terrible imprisonment, loaded with 
chains, tortured by the gaolers, and herded 
with the worst felons in the common prison. 
So frightful was the state of his surround- 
ings tunt a single abrasion of the skin must 
have led to a terrible death from the poisonous 
insects that swarmed in his cell. Ilia situa- 
tion was rendered more deplorable by his 
inability to speak the Chinese language with 
any fluency. Fortunately the loyalty and 
determination of his fellow-prisoner, Parkes, 
led first to the amelioration of his condition, 
and eventually to their joint release. They 
anticipated by only ten minutes the arrival 
of an order from the emperor imperatively 

commanding their execution. On 8 Oct, 
they rejoined the British camp, but, with 
the exception of a few Indian troopers, the 
rest of the party — French, English, and 
native — died in prison from horrible mal- 
treatment, and Loch himself never fully 
recovered his health. 

In 1860 he was sent home in charge of 
the treaty of Tientsin, and in the following 
year he finally quitted the army, and was 
appointed private secretary to Sir George 
Grey [q. v.j, who was then secretary of state 
at the home office. In 1863 he was made 
governor of the Isle of Man, a post which he 
occupied to the great satisfaction of the 
islanders until 1 SS'2. In 1880 he had received 
the distinction of a K.C.B. In 1882 he was 
transferred to a commissionership of woods 
and forests and land revenue, and his career 
outside the somewhat narrow bounds of the 
English civil service seemed at an end. In 
1884, however, he was sent to Australia by 
Gladstone as governor of Victoria. During 
his five years' tenure of that office his kind- 
ness and tact endeared him to all classes of 
the population, and he left the most affec- 
tionate remembrance behind him when in 
1889 the Marquis of Salisbury, the conser- 
vative prime minister, chose him to succeed 
Sir Hercules Robinson (afterwards Lord 
liosmead) [q. v. Suppl.], who had just com- 
pleted his first term of office as governor of 
the Cape and high commissioner in South 

It was during Loch's residence at the 
Cape that the South African question first 
began to assume the threatening proportions 
which led to the war of 1899. In the Cape 
Colony itself matters were peaceful enough, 
owing to the temporary combination of Mr. 
Cecil Uhodes with the Afrikander party. 
There were few constitutional difficulties, 
and Sir Henry found himself generally in 
accord with his constitutional advisers, and 
able to work with them with but little fric- 
tion. Outside the borders, however, the 
elements of unrest were beginning to fer- 
ment, and Loch had scarcely the requisite 
knowledge of South African problems to 
enable him to adequately master the situa- 
tion. He was alive, however, to the great- 
ness of Mr. lihodes's conceptions, and to the 
danger that would inevitably attend any 
expansion of the Transvaal Republic. He 
assisted the expeditions which led to the 
annexation of Mashonaland and Matabele- 
land, and he allowed the Bechuanaland 
police force to be sent up to threaten the 
Matabele from the west on the outbreak of 
the war of 1893. 

The most striking episode in his South 

Bcwmi b loPretorin, 

ii behalf of the British 

i who bail been commandeered by 

'heir operations against Mala- 

hieftain. He was suc- 

lining tie abandonment of the 

j of the Bow government; but it was 

ight he bad hardly pressed the English 

uffirient rigour. It was from 

corded to I'resLJont 

1 ■ ihSBBMburg on this oecaaion, in 

»»t with the enthutiutic reception ac- 

■ be high commissioner, that much 
f the fbtmeVa bo-tiliiv in Clreal Britain 

Jobauneaborgeitt is said to have 

Earlier in his term of office Sir Henry hud 
:: strong pressure on 
Kruger to prevent the incursions 
to the north and west of roving Hoer fili- 
busters He had, however, made to the 
TnuuTanl government an offer of a nay of 
access to the sea-eaasi on condition that the 
! : : r 1 . i luiiili'i'iiic lii- attitude of 

■ I !ape customs union, 
which \t was fortunate (or the empire thai 
Krugvr remand. 

rrunsvaal policy failed locally to 

ale the impression of any great itrength 

..■■,'. for hi« peace of 

,. a: the he- 

:..i.[ he left Africa before 
■; the Jameson raid. 
i urn to England lie Wn 
the peerage, hut lie took small part in 
ititig «iili t.ln- liberal unionists. 
Wham, a December 1990, the ■ 

h anna in Natal and Cape Colony 

U of the Boers gave rise to the 

untnem from England, Loch threw 

hinipelf heartily into the movement, and look 

■ ■ . ■■ ■'■:. 

of mounted men who were called, after him. 

Loch'* Ilor-e.' He lived to see the decisive 

■ ol Britieb lupremacy by the oe> 
. .. but In- health had beer 

■ A , .mi be died lifter n short illness in 
, . .in 21] .lime HKX1. 

I,och married, is 1862, Elisabeth Villi era, 

■ H of Clarendon, and 
hud bv her two daughter* and a son. The 

. :1m, second baron, en- 

ards and served wil h 

in th,. Nile mp.-dition of 1*9* 

■ i 1899 1900, receiving 

hi in the latter campaign. 

>. of Locb by Henry 
: ii ing of which is ap- 
■! edition of his ' Personal 
;.■ Ijord Elgin's 
Ktu (jns.-y to (.'hinn.' Originally pub- 




lisbed in 1*09, this little book is a moat nd- 
■ oust of the expedition, and, 
written in a simple and anafieeted style, 
gives a blghlv pleasing impression of the 
courage, loyalty, and anility of the writer 
under circumstances of great danger and 
hardship. It is much to be regretted that 
by Lord Elgin's desire Loch abandoned his 
intention of publ'i-bini: n detailed account of 
the proceedings of the embassy of I860. 

[There ia no memoir yet published of Loch. See 
the. Pursonnl Narraiiveabove referred I 
21 Jane 190(1; Fronde's Oceana ; l-'itzpatrick'e 

Tmuraal (r Within; Speechea of Cecil J. 

Bbodacad. Viode*.] J. B. A. 

LOCKER, ARTHUR (1838-1898), 

novelist and journalist, second son of 
Edward Hawke Locker [q. v.], and brother 
of Frederick Locker- Lumpen q. v. Suppl. , 
was born at <ire.-nwi.1i 1,0 2 July 1838. 
He was educated at Charterhouse School 
and 1'umbroki- College, Oxford, where lie 
matriculated OH B May 1847, but, after 
graduating B.A. in 1851, he entered upon a 
mercantile life in an office at Liverpool. The 
next vi'iir, however, smitten by the preva- 
lent gold fever, he emigrated to Victoria. 
Not succeeding at the gold-fields, he took to 
journalism, and also produced nme tales 
and plays which have not. been reprinted in 
England, He returned in 1861, with the 
il.-i 11 in i n:ii ion "i' ili'vni inir bimaelf to litera- 

tvire. He wrote e.itetiSLVeh lor newspapers 
and muguiines, and in IMOIS nhtained a con- 
nect inn with the 'Times,' which be kept 
until 1670, "lei] be was appointed editor of 
tile 'Ornphie ' illustrated newspaper, which 
had been established about si\ months 

nrnvjpuelj -t-e Thomas, Willum Ltison, 
Suppl.] lie proved 11 moat efficient editor, 
nod waa greatly beloved for his general 
iirbiinii v. and bis disposition to encourage 
vtmng writers of promise. In I lee ember 
1691 thnatale of bia health compelled him 
in retire, iiinl after viaiting Madeira and the 
Isle uf Wight 111 the vain bone of recovery, be 
died at 79 West Hill. Ilighgate. on S8 June 
1^93. He ma twice married. After his 

return to England he published sumo works 
of fiction, chiefly busi-d on bis Australian ex- 
periences ; 'Sweet Seventeen,' iMili, ' ' 111 
b Coral Reel',' a tale forboyi,186Bi ' Stephen 
Scudamoro the younger, 1871, and 'The 
Village. Surgeon,' 1*74. 

Untnni (lion. 171o-l880; Frit. 

Ma>. Cat.; Times, 28 June !H!):s ; Graphic, 1 July 
1393.] R.O. 


(1821-1895), 1 (. mom commonly known 

■a Psnsnucs UtGJEB,wai bom 

Locker-Lampson 106 Locker-Lampson 

1821 at Greenwich Hospital, where his fat her, several clubs, and enjoyed the friendship of 
Edward Ha wke Locker r q. v.], held the office manv distinguished persons of all classes, 
of civil commissioner. His mother, Eleanor He knew Lord Tennyson, Thackeray, Lord 
Marv Elizabeth Boucher, was the daughter Houghton, Lord Lytton, George' Eliot, 
of the Rev. Jonathan Boucher q. v.], vicar Dickens, Trollope, Dean Stanley (his brother- 
of Epsom, a book collector and a former friend in-law), Hay ward, Kinglake, Oruikshank, 
of George Washington. Frederick Locker Du Maurier, and others, and he had seen or 
was the second son of his parent*, a younger spoken to almost every contemporary of any 
brother being Arthur Locker q. v. SuppL] note in his own day. In April 18/2 Lady 
After an education at various schools — at Charlotte Locker died, and was buried at 
Clapham, at Yateley in Hampshire, at Clap- Kensal Green. Two years later (0 July 
ham again, and elsewhere — he became, in 1874) he married Hannah Jane Lampoon, 
September 1837, a junior clerk in a colonial only daughter of Sir Curt is Miranda Lampson, 
brokers office in Mincing Lane. This uncon- bart. [q. v.], of Itowfant, Sussex, and in 1886 
genial calling he followed for little more than took the name of Lampson. At Rowfant, 
a year. Then, in March 184 1 , he obtained from subsequent to his second marriage, he mainly 
Lord Minto, first lord of the admiralty and son resided, and he died there on 30 May 1895. 
of the governor-general of India, a temporary Locker's general characteristics are well 
clerkship in Somerset House, and in No vera- . summed up by his son-in-law, Mr. Augustine 
ber 1842 he was transferred to the admiralty, ■ Birrell, in the Appendix to the Rowfant 
where he was placed as a junior in Lord Library, 1900. lie was ' essentially a man 
Haddington's private office, and subsequently . of the world; he devoted his leisure hours 
became deputy reader and prtci* writer. In to studying the various sides of human 
his posthumous recollections (' My Confi- i nature, and drawing the good that he could 
dences/ 1 81)6, pp. 135 - o0) he gives an account ( out of all sorts and conditions of men. His 
of his official life, the tedium of which he delicate health prevented him from taking 
had already begun to enliven, apparently ' any very active share in stirring events; but 
wi th the approval of his chief, by the practice | he was content, unembittered, to look on, 
of poetry. A rhyming version of a petition ; and his energies were continually directed 
from an importunate lieutenant seems to towards gathering about him those friends 
have sent Lord Haddington into ecstasies ' aud acquaintances who, with their intel- 
(ib. p. I'M)). J acker's experiences as an ad- i lectual acquirements, combined the charms 
miralty clerk were prolonged under Sir James ■ of good manners, culture, and refinement.' 
Graham and Sir Charles Wood. In 1849 As a poet he belonged to the school of 
his health, never good, broke down, and he ' Prior, Praed, and Hood, and he greatly ad- 
obtained a long leave of absence. In July ' mired the metrical dexterity of Barham. 
1850 he married Lady Charlotte Bruce, a ■ His chief endeavour, he said, was to avoid 
daughter of Thomas Bruce, seventh earl of . flatness and tedium, to cultivate directness 
Elgin I'q.v.l, who brought the famous Elgin and simplicity both in language and idea, 
marbles to England. Not long afterwards he and to preserve individuality without oddity 
quitted the government service. In 18o7 he or affectation. In this he achieved success, 
published, with Chapman & Hall, his first His work is always neat and clear; re- 
collection of verse,' London Lyrics/ a small strained in its art, and refined in its tone; 
volume of ninety pages, and the germ of all ' while to a wit which rivals Praed's, and a 
his subsequent work. Extended or rearranged lightness worthy of Prior, he not unfre- 
in successive editions, the Inst of which is quentlyjoinsa touch of pathos which recalls 
dated 181W, this constitutes his poetical the voice of Hood. His work mellowed 
legacy. In 1S<>7 he published the well-known as he grew older, and departed further from 
anthology entitled * Lyra Elegantiarum/ his first models — those rhymes galammtnt 
being* some of the best specimen* of vera de composees which had been nis youthful am- 
nwivte and rer* (focrasioji in the English hition; but the majority of his pieces, at all 
language/ and in 1H7J) * Patchwork/ justly times, by their distinctive character and per- 
descrihi'd by Mr. Augustine Birrell as 'a sonul note, rise far above the level of the 
little book of extracts of unrivalled merit/ mere vers (Toccarion or vers de socUtc with 
During all this time he was assiduously which it was once the practice to class them, 
cultivating his tastes as a virtuoso and book Locker left children by both his wives, 
lover, of which latter pursuit the 4 Kowfant Eleanor, his daughter by Lady Charlotte, 
Library/ lsst, is the record. Chronic ill- married, first, in 1878, Lord Tennyson's 
health and dyspepsia made it impossible for vounger son, Lionel, and secondly, in 1888, 
him to follow any active calling. But he Mr. Augustine Birrell, K.C. By his second 
went much into society, was a member of . wife Iiocker had four children, the eldest of 

■litary volume fnrnirt 
... : ■■■■ ■ 
■ Ction from its [>age= 

' MtnJatun Poete.' This was illue- 

_\ .. ,,■,!,! 

! in L68B, i.n.l tli.. Doyle 
itinn* were snhaeqiuni : ■ 

187 1 prepared for presentation in 
ir members of tile Cosmopolitan Olub. In 

; ..ii of ■ L Ion Lyric 

■• ■'. John Wilson 

illustrating tin- po.rui called 
r Mistress's Boot*.' To this succeeded 

:■;■'>. !«:-'. i*ri. jsrti. is-h, 

1» vir Bones'), 1891 and mi.'!, 
prepared a privately 
i. i-iimi in 1ks|, ..utitled • Limdon 

:. «Upp]fU]t'ntnl liillllllM. 

■■: ly printed, entitled • London 
iii" the former of these volumes 

a few large-paper t/i .|,Lr~ with struck oil', 

i i frouti piece (' Bramble- 
| by Randolph Cnldeeott (sometime* 

■ Dinky'l In- Kn'i < i n:n.-iiv 

. ■ London Lj ri« ' 
I lV.r the Bool Fellows* Club of Sew 

i. with intrr ah, i -■■:n-- liv-h illiwiiiii i..n, 

■ b 1896 Ihe Club 

'i body which had bor- 

iii.. Iiy [, I'rfim Mr, 

■ :■■, pal forth ii rare little 

. ■- "ii In himself shortly 

before hi* death, and entitled ' ltowfant 

llhymoL' Ii includes n preface by the pre- 

*. :ii writer ami a poem by Robert Louis ote- 

Trntsua. Most of these books contain the 

ither from an etching by 

■ iw the light 

ion ml" 1865, or a pen- 

Dtt Mnurier. 

other American editi ■.. . 

■ pirated. 

ve stated, ap- 

■i ■! ln-r'nnse it jnclinhd 

' :i.l ,r I'. Inrli V.-I-1V found 

d impress! 
■ ontain these pieces, s 

kn A rican editi 

' in I--), and in 1801 an enlarged 
i wa« added w Ward, i 

In preparing this last, 

■ Mr, Conlaon 
- first printed 

privately in quarto fop the Rhilobiblon So- 
ci.-ty, mill afterwards published in octavo in 
187&. No later edition baa bean published. 

In 1886 Locker compiled tfceeatalogl f bit 

books known to Bolwoton u tin- ' Rowfant 
Library.' It comprises, beaidsl its record of 
rare Elizabethan and other volumes, mum 
memoranda, personal and bibllo- 
graphical, riiuce Locker's death nn up]»<ndix 
to the ' 1'nwl'n.iit Library' has been issued. 
under the title of ' A Catalogue of the Printed 
Books &c. colled ed since the printing of the 
tirst Catalogue in 1886 hvilie lata Frederick 
Locker-Lsmpson,' 1!KX). It is inscribed to 
the members of tin- Rnwfatit Chili, has a pre- 
lim. Iiv Mr. r.irri-11. and memorial verse? bv 

varioua bands. 

Locker'- autobiographical renunitoenow 
arete published posthumous!] in 1806 under 
■ Mi (.'ontideiii'u.-: ' the volume 
was edited by Mr. Uirrell. 

[Century Hag. 1883 {Ly Brasdrx a 

RlnaraaDth Oenluij, October 1895 (by 
Kenmban); BeribaaVa Mag. .Iiiiiani r'lSHC H-. 
Augustine Bim-ll); Mv Cunfidsncenl l«'n!.| 
A. D. 

(1846-1900), subject and portrait painter, 

waa be* i 18 Feb. IsHi m Egleslicld, 

Annan, Dumfriesshire. His father, a small 
farmer, managed to send biin, at the age of 



worked with ! 
and for a short time in the life school; 
hut in lSii:; his health gave way, and he 
Wat si ut to Australia. Returning greatly 
benefited bv the lojue, he settled in 
Edinburgh, 'and, in 181)7, paid the first of 
m. vinl risits to Spain, where he found 
material for some of bis finest works. In 
1871 he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and in 1 rt78 be- 
came academician, while be was also an 

ntfll • memli»r of the Royal Scottish 
Wi.ti-r-riilipiii- Society, lie lind occupied a 
prominent position os a painter of subject 
pictures and portraits in Scotland for many 
years ; hut ivhen in IS.' 

rioned hi the queen to paint 'The Jubilee 
Celebration in Westminster' he went to 
London, where be afterwords devoted him- 
self principally to portraiture. 

His pictures in Imlh oil and water-colour 

ale marked bj considerable bravura of exe- 
cution and much brilliance of colour, but 
are rather want my in i.-ljiit'iinii I nudstibtiety. 
'1'hei are always Bflfectrro and biUiag*, how- 

Lockhart 108 Lockhart 

ever, and the ' Jubilee ' picture, to which he 
devoted three years, is one of the ablest 
works of its kind. On the whole, Spanish 
and Majorca pictures, such as ' The Cid and 
the Five Moorish Kings/ * A Church Lottery 
in Spain/ ' The Orange Harvest, Majorca/ 
and ' The Swine-herd are his best and most 
characteristic works; of his portraits, those 
of Lord Peel (bronze medal at the Salon), 
Mr. A. J. Balfour, and Mr. John Poison 
may be mentioned. He also painted land- 
scape in water-colour with much success. 
His portrait of Mr. Balfour is in the Glasgow 

himself in the reconnaissance to Chining. 
In scouting and outpost duty he was very 
efficient, and had a keen eye for ground and 
was particularly useful in hill warfare. His 
services were acknowledged by the govern- 
ment of India, and he received the medal 
and clasp. 

In the Abyssinian expedition of 1867-8 
Lockhart was aide-de-camp to Brigadier- 
general Mere wether, commanding the cavalry 
brigade, and took part in the action of 
Arogee and the capture of Magdala. He 
was mentioned in despatches (London 

Corporation Galleries ; his ' Swineherd * in j Gazette, 30 June 1808) and received the 
the Dundee Gallery ; and his diploma — a j medal. 

study for ' The Cid" — in Edinburgh, while ■ On his return to India he was appointed 
the French government bought the sketch \ deputy-assistant quartermaster-general with 
for ( The Jubilee.' The Kepplestone Collec- i the held force, under Brigadier-general 
tion, Aberdeen Art Gallery, includes an ; (aft erwards Sir) Alfred Thomas Wilde [Q' v -]» 
autograph portrait of Lockhart. ! in the expedition to the Haiara Black 

He married Mary Will, niece of his ! Mountains in 1868, was mentioned in 
master, Mr. J. B. Macdonald, on 7 Feb. despatches (ib. 15 June 1869), and received 
1868, and, dying in London on 9 Feb. 1900, ' a clasp to his frontier medaL 
after several years of rather indifferent j He received the bronze medal of the 
health, was survived by her and five chil- Royal Humane Society for rescuing two 
dren —one son and four daughters. < women from drowning in the Morar Lake, 

[Private information from Mrs. Lockhart and Gwalior, on 26 Dec. 1869. _-^ _ . 

Mr. J. 1*. Macdonald, R.S.A. ; The Scotsman, For ten veare » from October 1869, Lock- 
12 Fob. 10(10; Athonreum. 17 Feb. 1900; Scots hart held the appointments successively of 
Pictorial (by John MacWhirter, R.A.\ March deputy-assistant and assistant quarter- 
1900; H.S A. Report, 190»; catalogues of ! master-general in Bengal, but was twice 
galleries and exhibitions J J. L. C , away in Achin between 187<> and 1877, the 

second time as military attache, to the Dutch 


general, command 

son of the Rev. Lawrence lxtckhart of William, which he was not allowed to ac- 
Wicket-shaw and Milton Lockhart, I*anark- cept, and received the Dutch war medal and 
shire, by his first wife, Ixmisa, daughter of clasp. He was, however, struck down with 
David Hlair. an East India merchant, and malarial fever and put on board the steamer 
nephew of John Gibson Ixickhart ~q. v.", for Singapore in an almost moribund con- 
was born on - Sept. 1841. His" elder dition. 

brothers wen* John Somerville Lockhart, In the Afghan campaigns of 1878 to 
Major-general David Hlair Iiockhart of ISSO Lockhart was first appointed road 
Milton Lockhart. and I .an re nee William commandant in the Khaibar to hold the 
Maxwell Lockhart q. v.\ the novelist. Afridi tribes in check, and, in November 

Knt ering the Indian arm v as an ensign on 1>7*>. assistant quartermaster-general at 
4 Oct. IS"»S, he joined tW 44th Hengal Kabul. He was present at the actions of 


Donald Martin 

commanding in 

1 . . returning with him 

l?w - to India by the Khailwr pass in August 1880. 

ti April 1<7*>, brevet wlonel t» Apnl ISStf. quartermaster-general to Sir 
major-general I Sept. IStM, lieutenant- Stewart "q. v. Suppl.\ ci 
gvneral I April ISiH. and general 4> Nov. Northern Afghanistan, "ret ur 



laiuvr* in i no ifiiiu au campaigns 

to ISOtf. *hen he o>|Hvially ' disunjruished On his return to India Lockhart held the 

•t of deputy quajtermaitar-generaJ in the 

branch at headquarters from 
■- -I he was sent to Aeh'ra 
- ■■" from the 
Malays, for which he received the thanks of 
pn .-rtnoeut . In June 188fi be went nn n 
Otisrion to I - tirtmiessand 

uet bad the best effect. 11- commanded a 
hrigada «s brigadier-general in tbe Burmese 
■•« from September 1886 to March 1687, 
iu mwilinml in despatches' {ib. - Bept. 
thinks of the govern- 
m-nt, a clasp to his medal, and was made n 

K.C.B. «nd * 0J3J. 

On his return to India he commanded a 

•rcomd-clasa district in Bengal, but a severe 

attack of malarial fever compelled him to 

IBM. For si.v months he whs em- 

the India office In the preparation 
of so account of his explorations in Central 
Alia, nnd in April 1889 he took up the «p- 

ndinn affairs at the horse guards. But He 

remain long in England, for he re- 

: 1850 to eom- 

maml the Punjab frontier force, first as a 

-general and then asa major-general, 

■ h 1895. The greater part of this 

time was occupied by Warfare with tbe bill 

■ n of punitive expeditions. 

Lorkhart commanded the Miranzai held force 

and April, and the Miranzai field force again 
Iron April to June. He was mentioned in 
the governor-general's, despatch i ib. 1 .'> Sept. 
*30f), received two clasps, and was pro- 
to he major-general for distinguished 
He Dommandad thi I 

■_■ nnd the WajtiriHlHiit^peditiuii 

a 1*14-6, was again mentioned in despatches 

by tbe government of India (tA. 3 Jolj 1896), 

mother clasp, and was made a 

(urn he was given the 

Punjab command. 

In 1S97, after .Sir Bindon Blood had made 
Hi with the fanatics of Swat, the 
i rose and closed the Khaibar pass; 
rpread to the Mohmands ami 
■ imtsiu tribes of the Tirah, and 
is Bant in command of 40,000 
I to ijuell Lbe rising. He showed 

handling his force of 
n almost impracticable country, 


r», v. liii were always trying to 

. i,ut be outmanoeuvred them and 

own tactics. The com- 

tig among tbe 

■' lighting, including the 

roniiimbl-' action of Dargai, when thi 

Gordon high landers nnd the Ghurkhas 
greatly distinguished themselves. For his 
services he received the tkanlts of the 
government of India, was made a. G.C.B., 
and succeeded Kir George White as com- 
mander-in-chief in India in IS'. 18, He died 

hnrne&s on 18 March 1900. 

A got "1 portrait in oils of Loekhart , 
palate 1 by I Scotsman, Mr. llnrdie, in 1894, 
is in possession of Major-general D. B. Lock- 
hurt of Milton Loekhart. 

He married first, in 1804, Caroline 
Amelia, daughter of Major-general E. Las- 
celles Itennys : and second K', in 1^*8, Mary 
Katharine, daughter of Captain William 
Eccles, Coldstream guard*, who survived 

[Despatches; Army Lists: obituary notice 
in Times of 20 March IflOO ; Lard Roberta's 
Forty-one Years in India; Bennies Story of 
tbe Bhotan War; Holland nnd Hozier'x Ex- 
pedition to Abjrsatnia ; Angle Afchan War, 
1B78-80, official account;'s Afghan 
Campaigns, 1S"B-H0; Hutchinson's Campaign 
n. Tirr.ii. With portrait.] B. H. V. 

LO0KWOOD, Sir FRANK (1846- 
I SSI7 1. solicitor- gene nil. second son of Charles 
Day Lockwood, stoue-quarrier at Levitt 
Hagg, near Doncoster, was born ut Don- 
caster in July 1846. In 1860 the family 
moved lo Manchester, and in 1863 he en- 
tered the grammar school (having been 
previously at a private school at Ei leu bridge ) 
under Mr. Walker, afterwards bead-master 
of St. Paul's School, In October 1805 he 
proceeded to Cains College, Cambridge, 
where he took a ' pas?' degree in 18(i9,'going 
out' in political economy. In 1869, having 
abandoned the idea of holy orders, he entered 
Lincoln's Inn and was called to the bar in 
January 187L 1 . He at once juim;d the old 
midland circuit, and attended sessions at 
Bradford, Leeds, and other places. A fair 
measure of success was speedily awarded him, 
and in 1875 he held fifteen briefs in one 
assize at Leeds. During his early days at 
the bar the habit of drawing he had learnt, 
from his father grew upon him, and his rapid 
sketching in court of judges, witnesses, and 
litigants gave him occupation and secured 
him nut ice. For some of these early sketches 
he appears to have found a market ; but in 
later I if", though In- si ill con' iiiued to sketch, 
he tosaed them from him with careless in- 
difference. In September 1874 he married 
Julio, daughter of Salis Schwabe of (llyu-v- 
garble, Anglesea. His practice steadily in- 
creased, and from 1879, when, ut, the request 
of tbe presiding judge, I" 1 defended the bur- 
glar and murderer. Charles Peace, hii name 
was always much before that large section 




of the public who follow ( celebrated trials' 
with an interest that never flags, lie took 
silk in 1882. In politics he was a liberal. 
His first attempt to get into parliament 
was at King's Lynn, and was unsuccessful, 
as also was his first contest at York in No- 
vember 1883, when, however, he was beaten 
by twenty-one votes only. At that time 
he, like the majority of liberal candidates, 
refused to vote even for an inquiry into 
home rule for Ireland, but he pledged him- 
self to support household suffrage and elec- 
tive local government in that country, and 
for making those pledges he incurred the 
public censure of Lord Salisbury, who, how- 
ever, lived to make them both good. In 
October 1884 he became recorder of Sheffield, 
and in November 1885 he and his great 
friend, Mr. Alfred Pease, were returned to the 
House of Commons for York, which citv he 
continued to represent till his death. From 
1885 to 1895 Lockwood led a very busy life 
both professionally and socially. ' His tall 
powerful frame, his fine head crowned with 
picturesque premature white hair, his hand- 
some healthy face, with its sunshine of 
genial, not vapid good nature, made him 
notable everywhere. So powerful was this 
personality that his entrance into a room 
seemed to change the whole complexion of 
the company, and I often fancied that he 
could dispel a London fog by his presence ' 
(see Lord Rosebery's letter in Mr. Birrell's 
sketch, Sir Frank Lockwood, 1898). 

In the House of Commons Lockwood, 
though he took no active part in debate, was 
a great figure, and his sketches depicting 
the occasional humours of that assembly 
were in much demand. During the vacation 
of 1894 Lord Rosebery, the premier (to whom 
Lockwood was warmly attached), offered 
him the post of solicitor-general, which he 
accepted, in succession to Sir Robert Reid, 
who became attorney-general. The election 
of 1895 restored Lord Salisbury to power, 
but owing to a difficulty about the scale of 
his successors remuneration, Lockwood 
nominally remained solicitor-general until 
August 1895, when Mr. (now Sir Robert) 
Finlay succeeded him. In the vacation of 
1896 he accompanied Charles Lord Russell 
of Killowen [q. v. Suppl.l, the lord-chief- 
justice of England, to the United States of 
America. About May 1897 his health 
showed signs of failing, and it gradually 
declined until his death at his house in 
Lennox Gardens on Sunday, 19 Dec. 1897, in 
the fifty-second year of his age. His wife 
and two children, both daughters, survived 

Lockwood made no pretensions to be con- 

sidered a learned lawyer, nor was he ac- 
counted a consummate advocate; but hit 
sound sense, ready wit, good feeling, and 
sympathetic nature, set off as these qualities 
were by a commanding presence and good 
voice, placed him in the front ranks of the 
bar, and easily secured him a large business. 
Both outside and inside his profession he 
enjoyed a large and deserved popularity with 
all sorts and conditions of men. He had all 
the domestic virtues, and was nowhere more 
appreciated than in his own home. His 
death was unexpected and chilled many 
hearts. A collection from his sketches was 
publicly exhibited in I^ondon after his death 
j for the benefit of the Barristers' Benevolent 
! Association, and some of the sketches have 
j been reproduced in an album, ' The Frank 
j Lockwood Sketch Book,' London, 1898, obi. 
4to. His lecture on ' The Law and Lawyers 
> of Pickwick,' published by the Roxburghe 
j Press in 1894, went into a second edition in 
1896. There is a memorial window and 
tablet in York Cathedral. 

[Sir Frank Lockwood, a Sketch, 1898, by the 
present writer.] A. B-l. 

Baron Ludlow (1828-1899), judge, third 
son of Sir Ralph Lopes, bart . [see Lopes, Sir 
Manasseh MassehJ, of Maristow, Devon, 
by Susan Gibbs, eldest daughter of A. Lud- 
low of Hey wood House, Wiltshire, was born 
at Devonport on 3 Oct. 1828. He was edu- 
cated at Winchester School and the univer- 
sity of Oxford, where he matriculated from 
Balliol College on 12 Dec. 1845, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1849. He was admitted on 
5 June 1849 student at Lincoln's Inn, but 
on 26 May 1852 migrated to the Inner 
Temple, where he was called to the bar on 
7 June 1852, and elected bencher on 81 May 
1870, and treasurer in 1890. He practised 
first as a conveyancer and equity draftsman, 
afterwards as a pleader on the western cir- 
cuit and at Westminster. He was appointed 
recorder of Exeter in 1867, and was gazetted 
Q.C. on 22 June 1869. Returned to parlia- 
ment for Launceston in the conservative in- 
terest on 9 April 1868, he retained the seat 
until the general election of February 1874, 
when he rendered signal service to his party 
by wresting Frome from the liberals. In 
1876 he was appointed justice of the high 
court and knignted (28 Nov.) He sat suc- 
cessively in the common pleas and queen's 
bench divisions until his advancement in 
1885 to the court of appeal (1 Dec.), when 
he was sworn of the pnvy council (12 Dec.) 
He was raised to the peerage, on occasion of 
the queen's jubilee in 1897 (26 July), as 

3 Lad tow of Heywood, Wiltshire, and 

retired [ran the bench 

■ iwn bouse, 8 i Iromwell 

-, "ti Cbmtnuu day 1899, Leaving by 

i-i i-r. n. 

lull of Effort Manor, 

Ludlow, who suc- 

Baron Ludlow. Place 

e tho great lawyers of the nineteenth 

rr Hanoi be dinned for Ludlow, He 

rd, however p'tcej-l iotinl ululir v ill in-i 

i and div.-T-.- . and ■■■■■ ■ 
■ n iii tliB Bur »nd Alumni O™. ; 
: Lin Mm. Rag. ; La« 

, mix. 400; Men nml Women oi tho 

■ pj 0] . 

i Hi <m, 1883-1900, 
OVELL. ROBERT (1770,-1796), poet 

i participator in lilt* ■ pnnti-iocriilic ' pro- 

■ ii.'v and Coleridge, was born 

: mii 1770. He was 

'ii. .■!.'■: ■! pi "I, :il'' j 


Briatoliad,' a satire In Churchill's 

■ nl in vigour, shows thai 

a rbe commercial atmo- 

*■ of Bristol. He still further estranged 

Jriginal circln by marrying, 

I Pricker, a girl of much, beauty 

ndi tome talent., who had endeavoured to re- 

■: n bankrupt, father by 

It does not precisely 

. ide Southey 'a nequaint- 

athey to have 

become engaged i" bis aialer-in-law, Edith, 

■ in Bristol in August 

■ il ,ii lured the two poets to 

:. : . I '..lllf l|, V. . .Ill'l .Ti' 

■ ii third Miss 
», whom he murrieil on 14 Nov. 
month of August 1794 
the three friruds co-operated in the produc- 
tion of a wellniith impni vised three-act. 
tmgnly on the fall of Robespierre. Each 
[.nvell's was rejected as 
I: the others, mid Southey 
■ trendy wm published 
H * nt Cambridge 

lame of poetry 

I7!.tr,) under I be till''.' 
i-,' which has 
' i n transla- 


■lii'v'- ma turn opinion of his own 
pieces may be inferred from tbe liict that ha 
reprinted none of them; and Lovell's tMn 
%• nl. mefa feliwtiea u 'Our villa 
nwnd the elegiac stone,' 'Have we no 
duties of a social kind P ' They were, not- 
withstanding, reprinted in ParVt ' Brtttsfa 

have been published before. Next to their 

■. mi ii j in i'ii iv, ti' eliieily occupied 

with the project for their pantjtocretic. colony 
on the bank! of the Haequeftanna, to which 
Lovell wus tohnve brought not only his wife 
but his brothel mid two listen. The design 
lind practically collapsed before I.o veil's death 
in April lii'Hi from a fever contracted nl, 
Salisbury, end aggravated by his unprudenM 

'i.'iin'U illiiuil Ijikii j :. 
vice. ICdil It Southey, in Setitli'N '• 
nursed him for tlnvt' nights nl the risk of her 
life. I, nvi'll- t'other refused al! aid to his 
da lighter- in-law on the ground of her having 
been an actress, mid she iintl her infant son 
were thrown upon the never-failing; beneli- 
cence of Southey. She lived in his family 
during his life, and afterwards with his 
daughter Ivnte until her death nt the age of 
ninety. The son, liobert Lovell the younger, 
settled in London as u printer in 1-L'l. 
Some years afterwards he went to Italy mid 
mysteriously disappeared. Ilenrv Nelson 
Coleridge journeyed in quest of bim, but no 
I race was ever discovered. 


[Cotiln's Early Becollectio 

nd ' (dleridgs'i 1 - ■ i- r . 

; [ i iv,, 


LUDLOW. Baron-. See I,oph,HSBX1 

Charles, 1828-1899,] 

1896), author and divine, was tbe son of 
John Lumby ot Stunningley, near Leeds, 
where be was born on 18 'July 1631. lie 
was admitted on i' Aug. 1*41 into the Leeds 
grammar school. In March Iw4- S lie left lo 
become master of a school at Meauwood, a 
village now absorbed in Leeds. Here DM 
ability attracted the notice of friend*, by 
whom he was encouraged to proceed U 
the university. In October 1854 he entered 
Magdalene College, i ' 'aiiil.ridg, , where in the 
following year he was elected to ■ Hihwn 
close scholarship. In 1808 he graduated 
B.A., being bracketed ninth in the first 
class of I be classical tripos. His subsequent 
" M.A. 1861, B.L). 1873, D.D. 

Lumbv ri2 Lumsden 

W>hm i:Vt mnnrhaU jraduarion Luml>y >«diced, with commentary, 'The Acts 

tv Hiuitf D»*nn:."i >iln*r n" in* .;olIe:je. and ••hap*, i-xiv.. 1^7i> : completed 1884), 

beaan "o -ake pupils. In >*50 he .rained *l kinds' 1 lS*H5i. '2 Kings" (1887), 'The 

r.i* Cr-^ -cii»:-iar-u:p. imi .n "lie *ame year Ajts' in the 'Cambridge Greek Testament 

wis ;r-ii:neii i-ar^n indprrest :n -he diocese for Srhools' il-"?*5», also in 'The Smaller 

if Ely. r-.r :iervaL -^ors .ie had "lie chap- Cambriilge Bible for School*" (1889), and 

lamer if M.i»r:a.fne imi ~\ir viracy of irir- for r his hut *eries *1 Kings' U891). To 

■v.n. fn >•;! lie v n "ii»- r-rviiitt Hebrew rhe ■ Sim* lay School Centenary Bible' he 

«rhoiar»tiip. md "was ipp».inr-l .:Ia.-«ical «;onrrihuted a • Glossary of Bible Words' 

I»-cTiir*r i"r '^le-iis" C-".iletfe. In '.-7:5 his . I "S) >. republished in the same year in an 

Rmne n* iiiiieii"-. "'-it 11.-" "he ■r.d Testa- ;iirere«l form by the Sxiiery for the Promotion 

men* Re--.*-- n Conipan--. ind .ar» "iii--» work of Christian Knowledge. Forthe 'Speakers 

and :».» *eoi-i. rile rrvi.-iii.-n f "h- Ap« crypha. Commentary" he edited "2 Peter' and ' Jude' 

he d invr \:m*-::' wth much ardour. He i l*SL i : tor • A Popular Commentary' the 

MMt liv^i t *•— -he appearance r' rhe re- ■ Epistles to r he Philippians " and 'Philemon* 

vised v^r-ion f 'he Aptcrr:ma. En 1*74. i I ^:* »: and for ' Th* Expositor's Bible ' the 

bein/ now .i wi i'.wer -hr-njli rhe «iearh of rwo • Epistles of St. Peter' ( 1893). 

his drat w.f~. ::e wiaeho!^n:'--llow ind -lean Besides th*<e works for various series 

of > r . Ca'harineV. and. liav.nj resided his L imby wr»;r^ the chapter on 'The Ordinary 
fviracv %* ifirr. n. was made curate f Sr. I *-£-& ' in Stdey's * Guide' ( 18fi6), 'Three 


Mark'*. N-*vr.i:am. The : :-i.i '.v:nj year he Ssrmons ^n Early Dissent.' &c. (1870), ' A 

here wer*- much appre-cia^i by under- \Ve*rern Church * ( a pamphlet. 1878), pre- 

cradiat'-*. In 1«?7: J -e xi* el— ::r:d *•> r he face ro a 'Compendium of Church History' 

Xorrisian pr jfe*sor&hip of di» :ni\v. j.nd was i l->:> ». • A Popular Introduction to the New 

hWi Lady Marsare* preacher f i? *ha: y-ar. Testament " t ISSS*. anil articles in the 'Cam- 

Ilavinz vm-at^-d his fellowship ar St. Catha- brl.JL^e (l't)mpanion to the Bible ' ( 1893). He 

rine"* bv a -?econd marr:a^-. he was ap- was aU> a contributor to the ninth edition 

poinded ro a professorial fell ■•v*h:p in tha: of the * Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
^oll^je in 1-v*;. In 1—7 he was ma-Ie pr^- 'iv Tir . i^foraLvion : Armlev and Wortlev 

V-n^l irv of W-twan2 m the .■atiie-iralcr.urc.i N . .^ o y y ov 1S a 5 . APt u.]e aienVil W. T. S^utli- 

of York, and ;ir-red t* examm;nj chaplain r ._ WTir ; j n t ; :e Cambri-l^e Revi.-w. 28 Nov. 1895; 

tb»- archb:-!i-ip '"»f Vork and the b^h-^p of 
('arli*I»'. (, n th- death of Fent«)n J:hn 

p»-r*' kr.owlrd^e.] J. II. L. 

Anthony Horr «j. v. Sippi. in W.«-J he wa* LUMSDEN. Sir HARRY BURNETT 

"" " lieutenant-general, born 

»t India Company's ship 
Benjpil, was eldest son of 
Lumsden, C.B., of the 
•J] Nov. l^*o. Beneal artillery, and of Belhelvie Lodffe, 

I unibv'- liternrv career *howe-l r» mark- Alwrdeenshire. by Hay, daughter of John 

_ _ • ■* • ■ 1 i" T * *.■ T^ 1*1*1 m. VT 

serifs, b^injr reqiu-sted bv the master of the and returned to India as a cadet at the age 

rolls to continue the wort of Prnfessnr Ba- of sixteen. He was commissioned as ensign 

liington, he •■dited vol*, iii-ix. ni lligden's in the oOth Bengal native infantry on 

1 Polvrhroiiifon* (1^71- Hf i», and vol. i. of 1 March 1**3*. He had marked aptitude for 

t h<- M -lirnnifon ' of Ht-nry lvniirhtnii ( 1889 ). languiiires, and in the spring of 1842 he was 

To tin* Pitt Pre*.s series lie contributed edi- attached as interpreter and quartermaster to 

iion« of Baron's 'Henry YJl' (1 S 7H), the iWrd Bengal native infantrv, which 

4 \Yrierahilis Unxhv Historiji'. . . . Lil>ri formetl part of the army that forced the 

iii. iv.' fin conjunct ion with Professor John Khyber under Sir Cieorge Pollock hi.v.j At 

K. 1 1. M»iv"r. 1 W 7H), More's ' Tttipia,' in Cm hu I Lumsden began a close friendship with 

i:obvii*oif* r English translation (1870), John Nicholson [q-v.j He was promoted 

Mori'V ' I IiHtory of Richard III' (1883), lieutenant in the oftth on K5 July 1842, and 

II ml Ciiwley's ' Assays * (1887). As co-editor rejoined it at Loodiana early in 1843. He 

of I lie ' (Jainliridgit Bible for Schools,' he , served with it in the Sutlej campaign of 

1SW, and was severely wounded 

BU^Hnnn laontgomery I 

ma resident at Lahore, Lumsden 
iu chosen by biui as one of liis assistants, 
■nil was appointed on 16 April 1846, li<* 
sccompaaied Lawrence to Kashmir in i Icto- 
b*r, and in December he was sent with three 
thousand Sikhs and six guns through the 
liujrn country. Hid march w-iis opposed 
W wme seven thousand billmeu, but by 

mtagema he forced tbi 
two tributaries of the Jbilam, near Muxaffa- 
rabad, and brought the biUnim to submit 
oftar two sharp actions. lie received the 
thanks of the government, and «m charged 
with the formation of the corps of guides 
He was given a free 
band in the recruiting, training, and equip- 
ment of this fore.-, which was to consist 
□f about a hundred horse and two hun- 
dred foot. He chose men from the moat 
warlike tribes of the border, i 

ly taken aback by any sudden emer- 
(.' The equipment of the guides in- 
adoption of the khaki uniform, Lumsden was the first to introduce 
into tbe Indian army. 

The guide cavalry distinguished itself 
under him daring ttn liege of MulUn in 

1248, and again On '■'> -Inn. IMS), when it 
surprised and destroyed a rniding force of 
Sikba on thr> Kashmir border. Lumsden 
■nili rvci'ived the thanks of government. 
He was present at tbe battle of Gujral on 
21 Jan., was mentioned in despatches, and 
■ L'u nj nti imdril with two clasp*. 
His corps bail proved so useful that its 
atrcnglh was rained on 19 June to four hun- 
dred hor-e itml RUC hundred foot, Ah 
aaaiatant commis-ioner in Yusafzai, and for 
barm of the Peshawar district, 
. med in many affairs 
border tribes. Lord Dalhouaie 
1 braver or a better soldier never 
drew a sword. The governnr-gi-nenil places 
..-.• in him and in the 
nf men be commands,' and 
- .-.induct as an admini- 
r" (20 Dec I 

November 1852 be went home on leave, 
Ifttmjean of continuous service in 
India. Un 1 March 1*53 he was promoted 
captain, and on f> Feb. 18&t he was given a 
brevet majority for Ins s-rvices in the Sikh 
■uriied to India at. tbe end of 
il Was restored to the command of 
■ iiry 1857 ho Was sent 
accompanied by 
III.— «CP. 

his brother, Lieutenant (now General Sir 
Peter Stark} Lumsden, and Dr. Henry 
Waiter Bellew, Persia had seized Herat, 
awl the object of tbe mission was to make 
sure that the British subsidy to tbe amir 
was duly applied to the payment of troops 
for the defence of Afghanistan against 
IVr-i.i. It was also to advise and assist the 
amir so far as it could without exciting 
Afghan jealousy. It reached Cand ah ar on 
25 April. Its position, delicate from the 
first, became hazardous a mouth afterwards, 
when news arrived of the outbreak and 
spread of the sepoy mutiny in India. But 
it was important, both in the interest of tbe 
amir and for British prestige, that tbe mis- 
sion should not be recalled during the cri-n ; 
ai i i.l wiuls bis guides Wen lighting brilliantly 
before Delhi and elsewhere, Lumsden had 
to remain at Cundaltnr. It is related that 
at this time Lumsden and his bmtln-r urn: 
night overheard soma Afghans discussing 
the expediency of putting them to death, 
lie left, that city on 15 May 1858, and was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel from that date. 
'The clear sound judgment and admirable 
temper ' which he had shown was duly ac- 
knowledged (29 Dec. lS.iS), and In; ivw 
mode a civil C.B. on 5 Dee. 18», but tin-. 
was small compensation for the opportunities 
he hod missed. 

He resumed command of I lie guides, and 
served under Brigadier (Sir) Neville Cham- 
berluiii in tin- operation* against the Waziris 
in April and May 1860, for which he re- 
ceived the medal with clasps. An attempt 
on his life was made on 2 Aug. by a fana- 
tical camp- fed low it, but. be escaped with a 
severe wound in bis left arm. In March 
1869 lie Mas appointed to the command of 
;b.. Hyderabad contingent, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, and this severed his con- 
nection with the guides. He became colonel 
in the army on 15 June. A good service 
pension was given to him in 186l>. He went 
home for nix months in that year, and on 

5 Sept. married Fanny, daughter of Charles 
John Myers of Dunningwetl, Cumberland, 
vicar of Flint-ham, Nottinghamshire. Early 
in 1869 he gave up the command of the 
nizam's troops, which he had done much to 
improve; and, after attending the Urn hall a 
durbsr to meet the amir, Shere AJi, he left 
India in April. 

He had been promoted major-general on 

6 March 1868, and was made K.C.S.I. on 
24 May 1873. The offer of further employ- 
ment in India, lung looked for, came toolate ; 
and on 15 Sept. 1875 he retired from the 
army with the honorary rank of lieutenant- 
general. On his father's death iu 1874 he 




had inherited Belhelvie Lodge, and there he 
spent the remainder of hia life, occupying 
himself with sport (especially hawking), 
photography, and wood-carving. He died 
there on 12 Aug. 1896. Tall and powerful, 
a good rider, an excellent shot, and skilful 
with all weapons, he was an ideal frontier 
soldier, unequalled in his knowledge of 
Pathans and nis influence over them. He 
was, wrote Sir Richard Pollock, ' a singular 
mixture of shrewdness and simplicity, abso- 
lutely free from selfishness and self-seeking, 
wi£h great originality, a perfect temper, and 
a keen sense of humour.' His military career 
suffered by his absence from India during 
the mutiny, and his intense dislike of official 
routine made him decline civil employment, 
for which he was well qualified. 

Three portraits are given in ' Lumsden of 
the Guides,' 1899, a biographical aktech, by 
General Sir Peter Lumsden and George R. 

[Lumsden and EUmio's Lumsden of the Guides 
(1899); Lumsden s Memorials of the Families 
of Lurawlftine, Lumisden, or Lumsden ; Times, 
13 Aug. 1896; Journal of United Service Insti- 
tution, xxriii. 909 ; The Mission to Kandahar, 
his official report, published at Calcutta in 1 860.] 

E. M. L. 

(1811-1893), Greek professor at Glasgow, 
bom on 10 Jau. 1811, was the son of Ed- 
mund Henry Lushington, chief commis- 
sioner of the colonial board of audit, and 
master of the crown office, and of his second 
wife, Sophia, daughter of Thomas Phillips of 
Sedgeley, near Manchester. He passed his 
childhood at Hanwell, Middlesex, and was 
educated at Charterhouse school, one of his 
contemporaries being Thackeray, who was 
also with him for a time at Cambridge. 
Lushington, becoming head of the school 
while still younjj and not very robust, found 
the exacting duties of captain somewhat irk- 
some. Entering Trinity College, Cambridge, 
he was two years the junior of Tennyson, 
with whom, and with Arthur Hall am, Trench, 
and others, he was associated in the select 
club of twelve, called ' The Apostles ' (com- 
memorated in ' In Memoriam, lxxxvii.) 

In 1832 Lushington was senior classic 
and senior chancellors medallist, and became 
fellow and tutor of Trinity College. The year 
was a specially brilliant one, Henry Alford 
(~q. v.], Richard Shilleto Tq. v.]— 'a second 
Porson' — and William Ilepworth Thomp- 
son [q. v.], afterwards master of Trinity, also 
being in the list. In * The Virginians ' (1. xli.) 
Thackeray makes a covert though sufficiently 
obvious allusion to the brilliant scholarship 
of Thompson and Lushington. 

In 1838 Lushington succeeded Sir Daniel 
Keyte Sandford [<j. v.] as professor of Greek 
at Glasgow, gaining the appointment over 
Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), after Archi- 
bald Campbell Tait [q. v.l subsequently 
archbishop of Canterbury, had withdrawn 
his candidature. As a professor he won the 
admiration and the affection of his students, 
and while, as described in the epilogue to 
' In Memoriam/ ' wearing all that weight of 
learning lightly like a lower/ he invested 
his subject with a singular charm. In ' Prin- 
cipal Shairp and his Friends ' (p. 14) Pro- 
fessor Seller, alluding to Luabington's 
inaugural lecture of 1838-9, says: ' Shairp 
left the lecture, as he told me, repeating to 
himself the line 

That strain I heard was of a higher mood; 

and the impression thus produced was con- 
firmed by nis attendance on the private 
Greek class.' This accords with the uni- 
versal testimony of Lushington's students. 
In 1875 he resigned his chair, the university 
conferring on him the honorary degree of 
LL.D. He settled at Park House, Maid- 
stone, the residence described in the pro- 
logue to ' The Princess/ which is dedicated 
to nis brother Henry. In 1884 he was elected 
lord rector of Glasgow University, and the 
principal, John Caird [q. v. SupplJ, welcomed 
him with a fitting eulogy when he delivered 
the customary rectorial address. He died 
at Park House, Maidstone, on 13 July 1893. 
On 10 Oct. 1842 Lushington married 
Cecilia Tennyson, sister of Lord Tennyson, 
the marriage ceremony being performed by 
Charles Tennyson Turner [q. v.] (Lord 
Tennyson, A Memoir, i. 203). The epi- 
logue to Tennyson's 'In Memoriam' is an 
epithalamium on Lushington's marriage with 
the poet's sister. He was survived by his 
wife and his daughter Cecilia. 

Although believed to have written anony- 
mously for some of the reviews, Lushington 
made few acknowledged contributions to 
literature. He translated into Greek Tennv- 
son's 'GEnone ' (jb, i. 180) and ' Crossing the 
Bar/ the version of the latter giving the 
poet especial satisfaction (Jb. ii. 367). To 
volume i. (pp. 201-3) of the 'Memoir of 
Lord Tennyson' by his son he contributed 
interesting reminiscences. He collaborated 
with Sir Alexander Grant [q. v.] in edit- 
ing in 1866 (2nd edit. 1875) the ' Philoso- 
fihical Works' of James Frederick Ferrier 
q. v.], prefixing to the volume of 'Philo- 
sophical Remains' an exquisitely delicate 
and thoughtful memoir and appreciation. 
He published the Glasgow rectorial address 
in 1885. 

ITimee and GUrfpw Herald of 11 July; 
itWmim of 23 July 1S9S ; Tennyson's Ko- 
Lord Tennyson ; Burke's Landt-d 
r i: 

LYSONS. Bib DANIEL (1816-1898), 
i I An : .. :ii Rodm ■ 
Tshire, wee aon of the Rev. Daniel 
■■: ranner, by his second 
», Joseph* Catherine Susanna, daughter 
i] ar nf Thurgirton 
If, Nottinghamshire. Be WI4 educated 
i tarvey Marryat's school nt Until, 
id mi Shrewsbury school, where he twice 
ii -.iiu drowning, lie spent two 
tfc M. Frneenrd nt Nlme* 
On 96 Dec. 18** be ob- 
n as ensign in the I at 
regimen! al Athloue in 
: 1 treat with ii to Canada 
■■ (oDowinB fear, 

■ Vug. 1837, 

.i his skill as a draughtsman, he 

■■■! on thi- staff of the deputy 

iTlnrmanter-general. Colonel Charles ' fore 

I bag the Canadian insurrection, 

e *tm ptweaal at the action of St Denis, 
mil ««■ in' tches [London 

fUsrttr, iW Dec 1887 ). Hi- was also at the 
■ of St. Eustache. IT'- "'us deputy 
rml from 1 Dec 
Ml, and with the assis- 
»f officers of the line he surveyed a 
■I ileal of the frontier. He wan an inde- 
xable sportsman, and hits left, a vivid 
■e of his Canadian life, and especially 
: banting, in his ' Early Iieminis- 

■■■'■ the ri^ht wing of the 
. Indies in 
.■. bleb was wrecked 
■I i ibatte Bay, on the 
. l.uw rence. Lysons 

d being wnt back to Quebec for help, he 

I ,i half days what was 

'hys' journey of three 

: were praised 

and lip was rewarded by a 

i Weet India regiment on 

Duke of Wellington directing 

■ motion should be notified to him 

He went to the West 

i in the spring of 1844, 

Band of the troops in 

- transferred 

: -Slier*, then stationed 

a BaHndo. He wish brigade-major there 

-. 1846 to IB March 1847. when 

■ aMurapinit'd his r 

— aStsrt.a. 

gland hi the 

autumn of 1848. He 
Portsmouth from 18 June to 21 Aug, in 
1849, and drew up n system of encamping 
and cooking there. Having obtained his 
majority on 3 Aug., he rejoined his regiment 
at Winchester, and served with it during 
the nest five years at Plymouth, Liverpool, 
Chester, and Parkhuret. In April ISM hi 
embarked with it for Turkey, and was the 
first man to land in the Crimea in S.ptiin- 
ber. The 23rd formed part of the first bri- 
gade of the light division. At the Alma it, 
lost over two hundred olh'ccrs ami nnii, in- 
cluding its commanding officer. .lust before 

the battle Lysons joined the second rlti is 

as assistant adjutant grmrirnljliiiliBnnftwwTiTig 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his regiment 
on 21 Sept., be returned to take command 
of it. He was present Bt Inkerman, though 
laid up with fever at the time. The excite- 
ment did him good, and the hurricane of 
16 Nov. seems to have completed his cure. 

Throughout the winter Lysons was inde- 
fatigable in his care of his wen, reduced from 
eight hundred to about two hundred tit for 
duty, lie put up, mainly with his own 
hands, a hospital hut for them. Hi. ofioeH 
were nearly ail ' young boys, very nice lads, 
but asyetquiteuseless;' and in the summer, 
when the strength of the regiment had been 
raised by drifts to over five hundred, he 
described it as ' like a newly raised militia 
regiment officered from the higher classes in 
a public school.' In the assault of 18 June 
18.55 Lysons commanded the snpperis <>t 
the column furnished by his brigade. lie 
was wounded in the knee, but brought the 
brigade out of action, and hod command of 
it for a time. In the 
B Sept., ha led an attack on the right flank 
of the Sedan, and was severely wounded in 
the thigh. On 25 (let, he was given com- 
mand of the second brigade of the light 
division, and retained it till the end of the 
war. He had been three times mentioned 
in despatches (Zattdon Guttttt, 10 (let. 
1854, 4. Inly and 5 Oct. 1855), was made 
brevet-colonel on 17 July 18*w. inul (' H 
(i> July), and received the medal with three 

clasps, the Sardinian and Turkic] tela, 

the legion of honour (4th class), und 
Msdjidte C-ivd class). 

He returned to England in Jul v 1 "■>'>. ■> n.| 
resumed command of the *.Wi'd. i »n 16 .Inn. 
1857 he exchanged to the Joili foot, and Ml 
24 Nov. went on half-pay, hiving been ap- 
pointed on o Nov. assietiiui anjut ■ 
at. headquarter?, In thi* office he m em* 
ployed on the revision of the uifnnlrv drill- 
book and its ■ da of the 
volunteers, lie also prepared ' Instructions 

Macallum tx& Macartney 


for Mounted Rifle Volunteers* (1800). On he m thai placed on the retired list, 

6 Dec. 1861 he was sent to Canada in eon- hiring reached the age of sixty-seven. Onr 

nection with the * Trent ' atfair, mnd he wis 29 May 1886 he recerred the G.C.B., and 

deputy quartermaster-general from 27 Aug. on 4 March. 1890 ha was made constable of 

1*62 till 30 Sept. 1867. This gave him an the Tower. 

opportunity of extending the frontier surreys Lyaons died on 29 Jan. 1898, and was 

which he had been engaged upon as a buried at Rodmarton. Vigorous to the 

subaltern. last, he had been writing on army reform 

He was promoted major-general on 27 Dec. a month, before { Timet, 17 Dec 1897). In 

1868. He commanded brigades at Malta 1856 he married Harriet Sophia, daughter of 

and Aldershot from 1 July 1868 to 30 June Charles Bridges of Court House, Overton. 

1872, and then commanded in the northern She died in 1864, and in 1865 he married 

district for two years. He drew up a sys- Anna Sophia Biscoe, daughter of the Rev. 

tern of * Infantry Piquets/ which was issued Robert Tritton of Morden, Surrey. By his 

by authority in 1875. On 1 April 1876 he first wife he had four sons, of whom the 

was appointed ojiartermaster-general at second, Henry, obtained the Victoria cross 

headquarters. He became lieutenant- in the Zulu war of 1879 as a lieutenant in 

general and was made K.C.B. on 2 June the Scottish rifles. 

1877, and on 14 July 1879 he became [LyFOIISi Early Reminiscences (1896) and 

general. The colonelcv of the Derbyshire th e Crimean War from First to Last (1895), 

regiment was given to him on 2o Aug. 18j 8. the k^e, consisting of letter* written by him 

and he accepted the honorary colonelcy of i n th^ Crimea; Times, 81 Jan. 1898 ; Brough- 

the first volunteer battalion of the royal ton-Mainwaring's Historical Record of the 

fusiliers. From 1 July 1880 to 1 Aug. 1*83 Royal Welsh Fusiliers, pp. 159-216.1 
he commanded the Alderahot division, and £. M. L. 


MACALLUM, HAMILTON (1841- his last picture, the « Crofters Team/ hung 
1896), painter, born at Kames, Argyllshire, on the same walls. Macallum died very sud- 
on 22 May 1841, was the second son'of John denly of heart disease at Beer on 23* June 
Macallum, J.p/, of the Kames gunpowder 1896. He left a widow, Euphemia, daugh- 
works. While still a boy at school he ter of Mr. John Stewart of Glasgow, and one 
showed a strong inclination towards art. son. Mrs. Macallum subsequently (13 March. 
This however, was opposed by his father, 1900) received a civil list pension of 100/. 
who' insisted on his entering a merchant's per annum in consideration of her husband's 
office in Glasgow, in preparation i for an merits as an artist. • 

Indian commercial career. In 1864, when Macallum was one of the most original 
he was twenty-three years of age, he finally landscape painters of his time. He was 
rebelled and, winning a reluctant assent single-minded, concentrating his attention 
from bis father, went to London to become on those aspects of nature bv which his own 
a nainter He entered the Roval Academy sympathies were most closely touched. His 
flchools the same year. From that time on- pictures have great individuality. He saw 
wards his time was divided between London colour in a way of his own, but his best 
and various painting grounds (the western works are likely to be prized long after 
Whlands among which he prowled in a things conceived on more conventional lines 
small yacht ofhiR own, Heligoland Holland, ^re forgotten Thr^ of them are in the 
Sou hern Italy, the south coast of Devon- Millbank Gallery, the < Crofters Team,' al- 
shire) when' his favourite subject, sunlight, ready mentioned,and two drawings in water- 
could ' be fully studied. His original and colour, 
thoroughly personal way of treating this [Private information.] W. A. 

ESt.b m 3SrSSi , 3SS: * HeTaS MACABTN^ JAMES (1770-1843), 
B t,«lio° sumssively at Hampstead (Haver- anatomist, son of Andrew Macartney, gentle- 
•tock Hill), in Piccadilly, andat Beer, South man farmer, of Ballyrea, co. Armagh and 
1 evon. Is contributions to the chief Lon- Mary, bis wife, was born at Armagh on 
don exhibitions extended over twenty years, 8 March 1,,0 He began life as an Irish 
from 1870, when 'Hoisting the Storm Jib' . volunteer in 1780, and was afterwards edu- 
wasat the ttoyal Academy, until 1896, when, cated at the endowed classical school at 

at a private school. Flo 

a tune with Henry and 

,] and Lord Edward b'itz- 

v.], but, being dissatisfied with 

mums-, hi- cut himself adrift and 

study medicine. He apprenticed 

William Hartigan (1760?-1612) 
oo 10 Feb. 1793, his master being president 
ct the Itoyal College of Surgeons of Ireland 
in 1797. Macartney also entered as a pupil 

■ ll'-o? school, Mercer Street, Dublin, 
where he inado some dissections for the 
museum, and he attended the Lock hospital 
: luhlin dispensary. In 179Checitme 
■■■■ to attend the Hunterian Or Great 
Windmill Street school of medicine, and he 
became an occasional pupil at St. Thomas's 
and Guy"* hospitals. lie also attended the 
lectures of John Abemethy [q. v.] at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, and through bis 
influence was appointed a demonstrator of 
anatomy in the medical school in 1796. He 
was admitted a member of the Royal College 
of Surgeon.-* •■: England on 8 Feb. 1800, began 
to practise in London as a Burgeon, n ml was 
ap)«inted lecturer on comparative anatomy 
and physiology at Si. Bartholomew's. Hospi- 
tal, a post be held from March 1600 to 1811. 
I I.. 181 1 he was elected F.K.S., and 
from 1603 to 1812 he ■erred u surgeon to 
the royal Radnor militia. In May 1813 he 
was admitted M.D. of Si,. Andrews Dnirer- 
ally, and on 21 June ]813 he was elected 
professor of anatomy and surgery in the uni- 
versity of Dublin, and physician to Sir rat- 
rick Dun't hospital. These otrices he resigned 
in 1837, after he had raised the medical 
school to a ranch better position than it had 
*T?r before occupied. During almost the 
whole of his residence in Dublin Macartney 
aw subjected to a very singular exhibition 
«f petty persecution and open insult at the 
bands of some members of the board of Tri uity 
He was denied the privilege- of 
■ to the fellowship of the Itoyal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, though he was made an 
honorary fellow of the Royal 
ITivsinans of Ireland in 1618. lie also re- 
i honorary M.ll. frnmthe university 
of Cambridge (31' Aug. 1833), to which be 
university of 

1 aving refused to purchase it, lie 
died at 31 Upper Merrion Street, Dublin, on 

font Stag 1843, i. 664). 
.i"j ,i Miss Eken- 

An ill-used and greatly misunderstood 

:.'- was," says Professor Alexander 

i, 'an expert anatomist andaphilo- 

: in advance of his period. 

the vascular syatei 

birds has in many respects not been sur- 
passed, and his account of the anatomy of 
mammals may be read with more profit than 
many modern works. In his account of the 
brain of the chimpanzee compared with that 
of an idiot, as well as in many others of his 
papers, there are glimpses of a nioqihulogy 
tar beyond Cuvier, whose works he edited. 
His book on inflammation may be placed 
side by side with any pathological work of 
the period, while his researches on animal 
luminosity form the basis of many Bubse- 

3uent researches on the subject.* Macartney 
iscovered the fibrous texture of the white 
substance in the brain, and the connection 
between the subcorneal nerve fibres and the 
grey matter of the cerebral hemispheres. He 
gave, too, the first satisfactory account of 
niminahnu in the herbivora, and he dis- 
covered numerous glandular appendages in 
the digestive organs of mammals, especially 
of rodents. As one of War burton's advisers 
and as a practical anatomist of great expe- 
rience in teaching, ha bad much to do in 
shaping the Anatomy Act of 1832. 

Macartney's works were: 1. ' Lectures on 
Comparative Anatomy' (Cuvier's lectures 
translated by W. Rosa under the inspection 
of J. Macartney), London, 1803,3 vqUBto. 
"2. 'Observations on Curvature of the Spine,' 
Dublin, 1817, 4to. 3. ' A Treatise on In- 
flammation,' London, 18-18, 4to : reissued in 
America, Philadelphia, 18-10. lie also wrote 
numerous papers in the ' Phi loso phi cal Trans- 
actions;' and his articles on comparative 
anatomy are published in Abraham Rees'a 
' Cyclopedia,' London, 1819, 45 vols. 4to. 

[James Macartney, a ineinuir by Profwsor 
Alexander Macaliister, K.R.S., of Cambridge, 
London, 1900; ^ir Charles A. Cameron's His- 
tory of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ire- 
land, pp. 371, 872; 'EriacnsiaV account of the 
appearand) and methods of Macartney ia toi 
Laacat, 1826, viii. 248-52.] D'A. P. 

McCOSH, JAMES (1811-1894), philo- 
sopher, only son of Andrew McCosh, former, 
of Carskoech, Ayrshire, by Jean, daughter 
of James Carson, farmer, of the as 
county, was born on 1 April 1811. 
covenanting ancestry, he was brought up 
religiously and was early devoted to the kirk. 
He was educated at the universities of Gins- 
cow and Edinburgh, and in 1834 gained the 
M.A. degree at Edinburgh by an essay 
the Stoic philosophy, which was highly ci 
mended by Sir William Hamilton, 
studied theology under Dr. Chalmers, and, 
having been licensed by the presbytery of 
Ayrshire, officiated successively at Arbroath, 
1835-8, and Brechm, 1838-Jji). While at 

McCosh n8 McCosh 

however, he was busy with natural theology, his polemical works evince no adequate 
and the publication in 1S-S0 of his first impor- appreciation of the positions which he at- 
tant work, * The Method of the Divine Go- tacked, and his own ' intuitional ' theory is 
vernment. Physical and Moral * ( Edinburgh, a mere ignoratio elenchL 
8vo ; last edition. New York, 1874 ), proved ■ McCosh was joint author with Dr. Dickie 
the turning-point in his career. It was read of * Typical Forms and Special Ends in 
and greatly admired by the Earl of Clarendon, Creation,' Edinburgh, 1855; London, 1862 
then lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and led to (last edition, New York, 18K)). He was 
MeCosh's appointment to the chair of logic also author of the following works: 1. * The 
and metaphvsics in Queen's College, Belfast Supernatural in relation to the Natural,' 


1805 « 
which he attempted to meet the prevalent 3. * The Laws of Discursive Thought/ Lon- 

empiricism by a careful survey of the entire don and New York, 1870, 12mo (last edi- 
domain of what he conceived to be axiomatic tion, New York, 1890). 4. 'Christianity 
truth. It was followed by 'An Examina- and Positivism/ London and New York, 
rionof Mr. J. S. Mill's Philosophy: being a 1871, dvo (last edition, New York, 1875). 
Defence of Fundamental Truth/ London, 5. ' The Scottish Philosophy : Biographical, 
186>> f 8vo (last edition, New York, 1880) — a Expository, Critical; from Hutcheson to 
work called forth by Mill's ' Examination of Hamilton/ London, 1874, 8vo (last edition, 
Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy * ( 1865 ). New York, 1880). 6. * Ideas in Nature over- 
Mill honoured his critic with a few stric- looked by Dr. Tvndall/ New York, 1875, 
tures in his third edition, to which McCosh 12mo. 7. ( The bevelopment Hypothesis: 
rejoined in a volume entitled Philosophical Is it Sufficient?' New York, 1876, 12 mo. 
J 'apers/ London, 1^68 (New York, 1861)), 8. ' The Emotions/ London and New York, 
which also included an * Examination of Sir 1880, 12mo. 9. 'The Conflicts of the Age ' 
"William Hamilton's I^oeric ' and an essay on (from the ' North American Review'), New 
the * Pit-sent State of Moral Philosophy in . York, 1881, 8vo. 10. 'Psychology. The 
Britain.' Cognitive Powers/ London and New York, 

McCosh resigned his post at Belfast on 1886, 8vo (last edition, New York, 1891). 
being elected in 1868 to the presidency of 11. 'Psychology. The Motive Powers : Emo- 
Prinoeton College, New Jersey, with which tions, Conscience, Will/ London and New 
office was a*>ociated the chair of philosophy York, 1887, 8vo. 12. 'Realistic Philosophy 
in that seminary. He administered the defended in a Philosophic Series/ London 
affair* of the college with eminent success and New Y'ork, 1887, 2 vols. 8vo (a collec- 
i'or twenty years, during which period he tive issue of several dissertations published 
published many philosophical works. ; between the years 1882 and 1886). 13. ' The 

McCosh resigned the presidency of Prince- I Religious Aspect of Evolution. The Bedell 
ton College in 1888, but retained the chair j Lectures for 1887/ New Y'ork, 1888, 12mo 
of philosophy until his death on 16 Nov. ' (enlarged edition, 1890). 14. 'First and 

1X9-4. II* 1 was LL.I). of the universities of 
Aberdeen (I8o0) and Harvard (1868), also 
D.Litt. of (J wen's College, Belfast, and D.D. 

Fundamental Truths/ London and New York, 
1H89, 12mo. 15. 'The Tests of various 
Kinds of Truths' (Merrick lectures), New 

He inarri*d in iH 45 a daughter of Alexander I York and Cincinnati^ 1889, 1891, 12mo. 
( Jut hrie,M. I)., brotlierof J)r. Thomas Guthrie - ... _ 

[q.v.j Princeton College contains his statue, 
set t liens by his admirers in 1*MH. (Forpor- 

16. ' The Prevailing Types of Philosophy : 
Can they reach Realit v logically P ' New 
York, 1890, 12mo. 17. 'Our Moral Nature/ 
traits we his ' Li 1 e ' by Sloime, cited infra.) I New York, 1892, 12mo (see also Dulles, 
McCosh is said to have been an effective : McCosh Bibliography, which gives a corn- 
lecturer and preacher, and his simplicity plete catalogue of his multifarious contribu- 
ting perspicuity of st vie render this extremely ' tions to periodical literature, articles in the 
probable. His philosophy, however, had | ' Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious 
never an appreciable influence on English Knowledge/ pamphlets, and other fugitive 
thought. To the defects of the Scottish pieces). 

school he was by no means blind, but his 
early training had included no systematic 
study of transcendentalism, and a visit to 


[Sloane's Life of James McCosh, 1896 ; 
living's Book of Scotsmen ; Eclectic Magazine, 
July 1871 ; Appleton's Journ. 8 March 1873; 

. i.-f. ism ii sin i 

J, M. K. 
IDERIOKi 1838-1890), 
it Mill geologist, son of. Simon McCoy, 
nt . born in i bat cil f 

irL'll 11 I'rtUM 

! n! Cambridge, 
Bg the age when he could 
1 m diverted to natural 

lertalting the arrangement of 

the colter.; rical Society of 

. Griffith i|. v.] then en- 
gaged him to nutlet 

■ea ligu tioiui required fur the 'Geological 

Mapof !r. ■ ftnewBtudies 

wet* published in two volumes, one en- 

ihe l "urlKiniferous Lime- 

■ Mane M - 14, tin.- other 

■ils of Ireland,' 

1W6, knd during the Inter part of the time 

thus employed lie was u member of the 

-' it staff of tbeSurvey. In 18Jli,on the 

. q.r.lhewt 

• iirrange the collection 


■■ d i:i thai anivewit; 
appointed professor of 
JP and geology at (Queen's College, 
! .. work nt 
returned thither for u 
;■ nag and autumn of 
ii--.' imervals h'' n. i ■ I - ■■ I 

. in 1661, nt May Hill 
id in Smith Wales in 
I he completed the de- 
li in the Wnodwardiiin 
- appointed to tin- chair of 
;n'iv university of 

ncland for "' " 
I '■■■ main of hi« 

'.'■ published in q volume 

I ■ ■ amo'ic Hocks and Fos- 

■ . ; to ili" fossils; 

nhiited an introduc- 

rri1« another volume 


ii be had tn cover the 

d of natural history; nevertheless 

Brighton Beech, nln.nii iiim toile* from Mel- 
bourne, where he died on 13 May li 
married Anna Maria, daughter of Thomas 
Harrison, a solicitor, of Dublin, His wife 

i lu.'d in 1 >■-'). mid in 1 lie 1',-. 11, .-svini; year hi' lost 
hi- -'in I i ■ ■ 1 1 r--- . ii I'iii-ii-i'T practising in New 
Zealand, who had married in 187U and left 
a family of seven children. Ilia only daugh- 
Emily Mary McCoy, also died before 

McCoy throughout his long life was the 
most indefatigable of men. He lived very 
plainly, and did much of his work htf Ween 
f ton at night and three in toe DM 
requiring mora than 8re hours' sleep. So, 

'thltanding the olhciiil duties and the 

i.'iiiitli d • I todxomui of the Zoology of Vic- 
toriu'(l878 stjq.|, the other ' Pro dro runs of 
the Paleontology of Victoria,' each appear- 
ing in 'decodes 'at intervals during thirty 
nf the fifty-right yi urs covered hy his pnhli- 
cations; and he also wrote nu LeM than 
sixty-nine papers, dealing, in addition to 
some ruologieal topics, with almost every 
branch of paleontology. In fact, according 
to report, lit; v ' in research 

than in the duties of his chair. lie was 
conspicuous for his antagonism to the rigfl 
of Charles Robert Darwin [q. v.] 

McCoy was elected I'.U.S. in 1852, and 
received from that society ils Murchiaon 
medal in 1879. In 1S80" he was made a 
F.Il.S. The honorary degree of doctor of 
science was conferred on him by Cambridge 
in 1886, where he was also un honorary 
member of the Philosophical Society, as 
well as of the Royal Society of Australia, 
the Imperial Society of Naturalists of Mob- 
Cow, and of many other British and foreign 
societies. He was awarded the Kmperor ot 
Austria's gold medal for arts and Kienaea, 
was a knight chevalier of the royal ordef 
of the crown of Italy, whs created C.H.G, 
""" andK.C.M.t;. in 1681, 

[Obituary notii'i-* in Ii. 
1899, p. 283: The Lin-irterly Journal of the Oeo- 
logi.'.tl Social/, 5fi. lis: t'bv V cur-lunik of the 
Kovnl So.ielv. I yen, p. UfG, by II enry] W[ood- 

N itoK, Ix. as, by H[enrj] 

lin.k.'] W[™«lwnrdl; I i-. cl m-nr r.-frrruces in 
if ud Letters, fol, ii-, *itb h> 

formation from Frtdrrick 11. Mi-l.'oy,i'-.| i.snnJ- 

auin. and attars-] T. <_;. B. 

,.: srr (1725P-1761), 

tliirr"..orli ,-l,.. I' of QUnfirry, born about 

1725, wns eldest son of John, twelfth chief. 
by tin- only daughter of Oolin Mtatonle ra 
Hilton, While yet u mere youth he was 



1 20 


sent in 1738 to France, where in 1748 he 
joined Lord Drummond's regiment of royal 
Scots guards. In March 1744 he was with 
the Earl Mariachal, and intended starting 
with the futile expedition of that year. 
Having in the following year been sent to 
Scotland to give information in connection 
with certain Jacobite disputes, he was in 
May despatched by the highland chiefs to 
France to testify to Charles their allegiance 
to his cause, but at the same time to warn 
him against an attempt to land in Scotland 
unless strongly backed by foreign assistance. 
His mission, however, was of no avail ; for 
Charles, before Macdonell's arrival in France, 
had already set sail on his rash adventure. 
Macdonell resolved to take part in it, but 
while returning to Scotland with a detach- 
ment of Drummond's guards he was cap- 
tured on 25 Nov. 1746 by H.M.S. Sheerness 
{London Gazette, 26-9 Nov., quoted in 
Bl 4IKIe'8/£ ine rary of Prince Charles Edward, 
Scottish Historical Society, 1897, p. Ill), 
and sent to the Tower of London, where he 
was detained until July 1747. In December 
1749 he helped himself to the Jacobite 
treasure concealed at Loch Arkaig. Already 
or shortly afterwards he had further resolved 
on the betrayal of the Jacobite cause, and 
having introduced himself to Henry Pel- 
ham, he, as Mr. Lang has elaborately and 
beyond cavil demonstrated, became a hired 
spy on Prince Charles and the Jacobites, 
corresponding with the government under 
the pseudonym of ' Pickle/ 

Perhaps it has been insufficiently borne in 
mind that Macdonell may have all along 
cherished resentment against the prince on 
account of the clan's removal to the left wing 
at Culloden, where it practically deserted the 
prince's cause by refusing to strike a blow on 
his behalf. True the clan gave the prince 
shelter during his wanderings, but Mac- 
donell himself may on account of the treat- 
ment of the clan, or for some other reason, 
have cherished a personal grudge against the 
prince. In any case he was probably clever 
enough to recognise that the prince himself 
had become impossible; and his interest cor- 
responding with his convictions, he may have 
persuaded himself that he was really saving 
his clan and the highlands generally from 
much needless suffering by frustrating the 
prince's madcap schemes. If, however, as 
is likely, his purpose was mainly selfish, it 
was unsuccessful, for the death of Pelham 
in 1754 blighted his main hopes of reward. 
On the death of his father in September of 
the same year, he became chief of the clan 
and succeeded to his father's impoverished 
fortunes. He died in 1761 in a hut adjoin- 

ing his ruined castle, and having no issue was 
succeeded in the chieftaincy by his nephew 
Duncan, son of his brother iEneas, who was 
slain at Falkirk. 

During the '45 the command of the Glen- 
garry clan was, on account of the imprison- 
ment of the chief, and of Alastair the chiefs 
eldest son, entrusted to the second son, 
^Eneas ; but in the absence of JEnesa in the 
highlands to procure reinforcements, the 
clan was, while on the march southwards to 
Derby, under the charge of Colonel Donald 
Macdonald of Lochgarry; and after the 
death of Mness at Falkirk, Lochgarry ac- 
companied the prince in his later wanderings 
and escaped with him to France, whencehs 
wrote to his chief a 'memorial' detailing 
the clan's achievements during the rebellion 
and its loyal conduct to the prince while a 
fufjitive in its fastnesses (printed in Blaixie's 
Itinerary of Prince Charles Edward, pp. 111- 
126). ' ** 

[Mackenzie's History of the Macdonalds; 
Andrew Lang's Pickle the Spy, 1897, and Com- 
panions of Pickle, 1898, with the authorities 
therein mentioned; Blaikie's Itinerary of Prince 
Charles Edward.] t. F. H. 

1862), lieutenant-colonel of the 79th Came- 
ron highlandere, son of Patrick MacDougall 
of Soroba, Argyleshire, by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Duncan M'Vicar, was born at 
Soroba in 1787. Educated at Edinburgh, he 
entered the army as ensign in 1804, served in 
the />3rd and 80th foot on the frontier, at 
the Cape of Good Hope, and in the peninsu- 
lar war. He took part in the third siege 
and in the capture by storm of Badajos on 
6 April 1812, in the siege and in the cap- 
ture on 27 June of the forts of Salamanca. 
In the battle of Salamanca on 22 July, he 
gallantly saved the colours of his regiment 
and was severely wounded. He was present 
at the siege of Burgos in September and 
October and the retreat from it, at the siege 
and capture on 31 Aug. 1813 of St. Sebas- 
tian, at the passage of the Bidassoa in Octo- 
ber, at the battles of Nivelle ^10 Nov.), the 
Nive (9 to 13 Dec.)i and the investment of 
Bayonne. He received three medals for his 
peninsular services. He took part in the 
American war of 1814, was present at the 
battle of Bladensburg on 24 Aug., the cap- 
ture of Washington, and the attack on Bal- 
timore on 12 Sept., when he was aide-de- 
camp to Major-general Robert Ross [q. v.], 
who was killed. He also served in the opera- 
tions against New Orleans in December 1814 
and January 1815, was aide-de-camp to Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir Edward Pakenham[q.v.^ 

nh.-n thnt officer was killed at the assault 
ol 7 Jui., and took part in the siege of Fort 
Burnt in Florida. In 1825, when in com- 
mand of the 79th foot at Halifax, Nova 
Scotta, he was entrusted with the organisa- 
Lhe colonial militia,. In I.*;',:, be 
nislied the command of liis regiment 
i retired from the active list in order to 
.ii-u auxiliary legion of Spain 
■tenuvtar-niMnl and second in com- 
bU friend Sir De Lacy Evans 
[■J. ».l For his services in Spain he re- 
[i Queen Isabella II the order of 
knighthood of St. Ferdinand. In Inter years 
he raised the Lancashire artillery militia. 
A prominent, figure in (he volunteer move- 
ment of 1859, he presided at the great 
meeting at St. Martin's Hall, London, at 
which it was inaugurated. He published 
rlul pamphlet in 18110 entitled 
• i 1 1 n t » to Volunteers on various Subjects.' 
He died on 10 Dec. 1H62, and was buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, Loudon, where 
there is a monument with a bust by Adauis 
to his memory. Ho was twice married : first, 
in 1817, to Anne, daughter of Colonel 
Smelt, governor of the Isle of Man, by whom 
left an only son, Patrick Leonard [q. v. 
jpL]; and, secondly, in 1844, to Hannah, 
1 v of Colonel Nicholson of Springfield 
i, Liverpool. 

■ Omen Records ; Despatches ; Army 
: private in formation.] It. II. V, 


_ JHARD (1819-1894), general, colonel of 

BT regiment, and military auLhor, 

t> >rn st Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, on 10 Aug. 

1319, WW sori, by his first wife, of Sir Dun- 

■ .;gall [q. v. Suppl.] Educated at 

Military Academy nt Edinburgh and at 

Royal Military College at Sandhurst, be 

ed u commission as second li>>uti-ii!int 

Ceylon rifle regiment on 13 Feb. 183t>, 

July exchanged into the 7!(t.!i Cameron 

rt, and on 28 Julv 1839 into ibe 

:>;th foot His further commissions were 

.tenant 11 Mav 1839, captain 

7 June 18*4, major 9 Feb. [849, brevet lieu- 

te nant -colonel 17 July 1865, brevet colonel 

;.-., major-genera] 6 March 1808, 

lieiit«nant-general 1 Oct. 1*77, colonel of 

. the West India regi- 

Dec 18B1, general 1 Oct. 1883, 

the Le hitter regiment 26 Aug. 


• : : ■.■ ■':.-.■ 

bi i.-ft in 1843 with ; 
Bcate and special commendation. 
form* ■ to tho Royal 

can M 

,„ Jul 

Canadian rifle regiment, he joined it at 
Toronto, Canada, and for the next ten years 
served as a regimental officer there and at 
Kingston. On 3 March i rv>-l In- was iippninl ed 
superintendent of studies at Sandhurst, but 
the following year was sent on particular 
service to the Crimea, where he acted as 
n.*!>ihtiint i'ii.iarti , nuii*ti'r-j,'i , nt'riil on the staff 
of Iirigadier-generBl D. A. Cameron in the 
expedition to Kertch in May 1866, and 
attended Lord Knglan in the trenches at the 
unsuccessful assaultson the Itedanon 18 June. 
For his Crimean servict-s he received the war 
medal and clasp, the Turkish medul, and a 
brevet lieu tenant -colonelcy. On his return 
home he resumed hi- appointment at Sand- 
hurst, which he held until 1858. 

In 1858 his principal work, ' The Theory 
of War: illustrated t)y numerous Examples 
from Military History,' was published, and 
a second edition appeared in ItTiS. It soon 
became a text-book of military instruction, 
was translated inln French and German, and 
gave its author a first place among English 
military writers. In 18G7, in a pamphlet 
ent itled'The Senior Department of the Roval 
Military College,' Marl i.iu-'ril I drew attention 
to the want of proper instruction for staff 
officers, and on the formation of the staff 
college on 6 Feb. following, he became 
its first commandant. He piililihlu-d in ls.'irt 
a treatise written expressly for students of 
military history, entitled 'The Campaigns 
of Hannibal arranged and critically con- 
sidered. 1 

During his tenure of office at the staff 
college he was an industrious writer and 
lecturer, taking as some of his subjects 
'Napoleon's Campaign in Italy in 1798,' 
' The Military diameter of the great Duke of 
Marlborough,' ' General Sir Charles James 
Napier as Conqueror and Governor of Sind.' 
He wrote the obit uarv notice of Napier which 
appeared in the 'Times' of 13 Feb. 1*60, and 
in 1882 published ' Forts verutt Ships ' and 
'Defence of the Canadian Lakes and its 
influence on the gen. -ml Hrfence of Canada,' 
both written in crossing the Atlantic on a 
short, visit to America. In 1864 his life of 
his father-in-law, the historian of the penin- 
sular war, Sir William Francis Patrick 
Napier [q. v.], edited by Lord Aberdare, was 
published in two octavo volumes, and in 
the same year ' Modern Warfare as in- 
fluenced by Modem Artillery.' Early in 
I8BS lie contributed articles on sir William 
Napief both to the 'Edinburgh' and the 
'Quarterly' Reviews, 

MacDougall was appointed nd Jul tint- 
general of Canadian militia in Mav isti.", 
His services in the Fenian raid of 1868 were 




brought to the especial notice of the authori- 
ties at home by Lord Monck, the governor- 
general {Despatch No. 53, 14 June 1866), 
who was so impressed with the value of 
MacDougall's work in the organisation of 
the militia and volunteers that, on leaving 
Canada, he wrote officially to thank him for 
having ' laid the foundation of a military 
system inexpensive, unoppressive, and effi- 
cient/ and sent a copy to the home authori- 
ties. During MacDougall's service on the 
staff in Canada he lectured on military sub- 
jects from time to time, and published a 
pamphlet on the ' Defence of Canada. 1 

Returning to England in April 1869 he 
wrote * The Army and its Reserves/ and was 
much occupied with the then burning ques- 
tion of army reform. In October 1871 he 
was appointed deputy inspector-general of 
the auxiliary forces at headquarters. lie 
presided over Cardwell's ' Localisation Com- 
mittee ' in that year, one of the most impor- 
tant which have ever sat at the war office, 
whose report, generally adopted, proposed 
by the fusion of the regular, reserve, and 
auxiliary forces under the generals com- 
manding districts, to form one army for de- 
fence under the commander-in-chief and by 
the institution of linked battalions, to have 
always one at home and one abroad, with 
depot centres for enlisting and training re- 

For five years from April 1873 MacDou- 
gall was head of the intelligence branch of 
the war office, at first as deputy adjutant- 
general, and afterwards as deputy quarter- 
master-general. Created a K.C.M.G. on 
30 May 1877, he was a year later appointed 
to the command in Xorth America, just at 
a time when relations with Russia were 
strained after the Russo-Turkish war. He 
undertook to have ten thousand trained and 
disciplined Canadian volunteers available 
for service wherever required, in a few weeks 
after the offer of their service was accepted, 
thus instituting a valuable precedent which 
has since been followed, not only by Canada, 
but by most of the self-governing colonies — 
notably in the recent South African troubles 
— to the great advantage of the empire. 

MacDougall returned to England in May 
1883, and retired from the active list in 
July 1K8.">. He died at his residence, Mel- 
bury Lodge, Kingston Hill, Surrey, on 
28 Nov. 1891, and was buried at" East 
Putnev cemetery, the sergeants of the King- 
ston depot carrying his body to the grave. 
He was twice married: first, in 1844, to 
Louisa Augusta (d. 1856), third daughter of 
Sir William Francis Patrick Napier; and, 
secondly, in I860, to Marianne Adelaide, 

who survived him, daughter of Philip John 
Miles of Leigh Court, Somerset. There was 
no issue of either marriage. A miniature of 
Sir Patrick MacDougall by Not man of Mont- 
real, Canada, is in Lady MacDougall's pos- 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, and many articles in the reviews 
and magazines, MacDougall was the author 
of the following: 'Emigration: its Advan- 
tages to Great Britain and her Colonies, 
together with a detailed Plan for the Pro- 
motion of the proposed Railway between 
Halifax and Quebec, by means of Coloniza- 
tion/ London, 1848, 8vo; 'Modem Infantry 
Tactics,' London, 1873, 8vo ; ' Short Service 
Enlistment and the Organisation of our 
Infantry as illustrated by Recent Events,' 
Edinburgh, 1883, 8vo. 

[War Office Records; obituary notice in 
Times of 30 Nov. 1894; Despatches; Army 
Lists ; prirate information.] R. II. V. 

1893), free-trade advocate, son of John 
Macfie, sugar refiner, of Leith, by Alison, 
second daughter of William Thorburn, was 
born at Leith on 4 Oct. 181 1. Educated at 
the high schools of Leith and Edinburgh, 
and at the university of Edinburgh, he en- 
tered, in 1827, his father's business, of which 
about ten years later he established a branch 
at Liverpool. There he co-operated with 
Leone Levi in founding the chamber of com- 
merce, and was elected trustee of the Ex- 
change. He retired from business about 
1863 and devoted the rest of his life to pub- 
lic objects. As member for Leith Burghs 
in the parliament of 1868-74, he made him- 
self conspicuous by his uncompromising Ad- 
vocacy of free trade in inventions, proposing 
a system of ' national recompenses ' in lieu of 
patents. He also agitated for the abridg- 
ment of authors' copyrights. These extreme 
views he combinea with an earnest solici- 
tude for the consolidation and defence of the 
empire, which rendered him a determined 
opponent of all tampering with the Union, 
and a pioneer of imperial federation. He 
died at his countrv seat, Dreghorn, near 
Edinburgh, on 16 " Feb. 1893. He was 
F.R.C.I.and F.R.S.E., and a Knight Com- 
mander of the Ilawaian Order of Kaiakaua. 

Macfie married in 1810 Caroline Eliza, 
daughter of John Eastin of Conrance Hill, 

Macfie published: 1. 'The Patent Ques- 
tion : a solution of difficulties by abolishing 
or shortening the Inventor's monopoly ana 
instituting National Recompenses/ London, 
1863, 8vo. 2. 'Recent Discussions on the 


-: ,■■- ;■■■ -■ iia f'T man. 

if ilir Nation and the 

7 !..-<vn. 4. 'Copyright 

Btiena. Hens and plans 

per books mid greater industrial 

Edinburgh, 1871. 8vo. 6, 'A 

■ at the Position and Prospect* of the 

London, 1872, 8vo. 6. "The 

Copyright,' London, 1876, Svo. 
- in a Crisis for Statesmanship popular 


i Vr, 

ipatlietic l 

Manufactures,' London, 1881, 
8. 'Tli.- Patent. Bills of 1883: private 
i and public claims,' Edinburgh, 1883, 
'i. • The Questions put by the Royal 
"■•toners on the Depressed State of 
doalt with in an independent bur 
spirit,' Bdmbnivb, 1886, 6to. 
Scotch Church Question. Letter 
Heritor in a country parish, and 
100 ho* to adapt and 
the Ecclesiastical System of Scot- 
deetroyiiu it,' 1'dinburgh, 
ii. ' Offhand Notea on "Prayers 
fl Disbip for, the use 
Sojourners in 
by a Committee of the 
Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
a revised edition, 1889,"' Edinburgh, 

■ Mag. 1810, p. 367 ; Men and Women 

I'itne," 1891 i Scotsman, 18 Feb. 1833; 

!.j| ; List of Members of 

it (official); Biaunonda'i British Roll 

to* Cat.] J.M.R. 

IWBAITH.Stu THOMAS (]>;!.'.- 

), premier of Queensland, sun of John 

ilwraith of Ayr, Scotland, and his wife 

■ ■ , daughter of John Uowat, 

Tin at Ayr on I" Mny 1886, and edu- 

il the academy in that town and at 

! obtained employment 

i Victorinu railways, lind afterwards 

■ ■■'. n contractors, Cornish & 

. . 

i good deal iif Land in Queensland, he 

n to reside thero in part and give much 

ntoral pursuits; in 1869 
■ legislative assembly 
t colony as member for Maranoa, and 
'•: in (jm-ensland. 
v 1*71 Mel I wraith took office 
under Arthur 
; I in October, 
iik Do special part in 

politics. Ill 187ri he «m return*] fir Mul- 
grnve, and on -1 Jan. 1878, after the defeat 
of the ministry of the lion. John Douglas, 
1 n -.*!■ tji i - |>r. in i< ■ ;■ rim! niliminl r teuaurer. The 

firogrnmme of his Tirsl session embraced a 
urge schema of local government and a re- 
form of tin: im mitral inn sj>ti-iii. ( >n -'I Dee. 
1881 he took the post of colonial secretary 
instead of treasurer, I'nilmljly the most im- 
portant event of his ndmiiiis! ration nas his 
annexation of New Guinea to Queensland 
on 4 April 1883 ; it was a daring act for a 
colonial statesman, and, after nosing mueh 
criticism at home, was disallowed by Glad- 
stone's government. As au almost imme- 
diate result of ill'.' disallowance, and to the 
Seat indignation of the Australian colonies, 
ermany seized New Guinea and several 
places in the Western Pacific; und the im- 

large part of New Guinea. On the question 
of a railway concession to an English com- 
pany on the land grant system be was left 
in a minority at the general election of this 
year, and resigned once in November 1883, 
after being (wire beaten in the i louse of 
Assembly. Very soon after this defeat he 
left for Great Britain, where he spent some 
months, receiving tin' freedom of Ayr and 
on honorary LL.D. from Glasgow 1 ni ver- 

On his return to Queensland McH wraith 
professed to have retired from politics, hut 
in 1888 he again stood for parliament, was 
elected for North Brisbane, and on a pro- 
gramme of a 'national party' came into 
power at oaoeon 13 June la premier, holding 
office both as colonial secretary and treasurer. 
Tie began by it difference with the governor, 
Sir Anthony Musgrave [q. v.], on the con- 
tention thai the hitter wis bniim.1 to follow 
the advice of his ministers in exercising the 
Crown's prerogative of mercy ; the point was 
ihi'iili'l in M.llwraith's favour. In October 
he came into collision with the imperial 
government on the subject of the appoint- 
ment of a governor; but in this case his 
BDSUationwu not made good. Ob 80 Nov. 
Mcllwraith relinquished the position of pre- 
mier to Mr. Boyd Duulop Morehead, though 
he remained in the cabinet without portfolio 
and proceeded on a voynge to China and 
Jopnn tor his health. In September 1889, 
BOB after bis return, be split with his col- 
leagues on rjur.-f i .ii* ■■(" iinaih'e. and in the 

: lined with his iWmtT apyoaa a t. 
Sir Samuel' Urillith, to defeat them. In 
August 1890 b« bsjcama colonial treasurer 
in Griffith's ministry. Al this time he re- 
ceived on invitation from Scotland to return 





thither and contest Ayr, his native city, but 
he declined. In March 1891 he represented 
Queensland at the federation convention 
held at Sydney. In November 1892 he took 
another voyage for his health, this time to 
Northern India, returning in March 1893 to 
find that the premier had resigned and the 
ministry was in a manner in commission. 
On 27 March he was called upon to form a 
ministry. A general election soon followed, 
and he came in again with a larger working 
majority than any administration Queens- 
land had ever had before. The difficulty 
which faced him at that time was the atti- 
tude of the so-called labour party. On 
27 Oct. he resigned the position of premier 
owing to the failure of his health, but nomi- 
nally remained in the ministry; on 15 Jan. 
1893 he came to England for medical ad- 
vice ; and in a short time his illness became 
so pronounced that he could not return to 
Queensland. For six years following he was 
in the hands of specialists and confined to 
the house. In 1895 he was offered but de- 
clined the position of agent-general. He 
died on 17 July 1900 at 208 Cromwell Road, 
London, and was buried at Ayr. 

Mcll wraith's reputation was not confined 
to his own colony, where his influence was 
commanding. But his connection with the 
Queensland Investment and Land Mortgage 
Company involved him in a series of legal 
actions which came to an end in 1892. Sub- 
sequently he was severely criticised over the 
conduct of business by the Queensland Na- 
tional bank, of which he was a director. He 
was an associate of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers and was made K.C.M.G. in 1882. 

Mcll wraith married, on 14 June 1879, 
Harriet te Ann, daughter of Hugh Mosman 
of Annidale, New South Wales, who with 
four daughters survived him. 

[Innes Addison's Graduates of Glasgow, p. 376 ; 
Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biogr. ; British 
Australian. 19 July 1900; Tho Queenslander, 
21 July 1900; Queensland Blue Books and 
Parliamentary Debates.] C. A. H. 

MACKAY, ALEXANDER (1815-1895), 
educational writer, born in Thurso on 15 Xov. 
181o, was the youngest of the eight children 
of Murdoch Mackay, farmer, of Lat heron, 
Caithness. On his father's second marriage 
voting Mackay went to Aberdeen, where 
he studied at King's College, and graduated 
M.A. in IS40. In 1844 he became the first 
Free church minister of Khynie in Aberdeen- 
shirts the established minister of which had 
been one of the seven clergymen of Strath- 
bogie deposed by the evangel ical majority of 
t ho church of Scotland. Here his geological 

studies, chiefly in connection with rare fossils 
found in the old red sandstone in a quarry 
near Rhyme, brought him into communica- 
tion with Hugh Miller, Sir A. Ramsay, of 
the Geological Survey, Sir Roderick I. Slur- 
chison, and Dr. A. Keith Johnston, who re- 
commended him as a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1859. 

In 1861 Mackay published a ' Manual of 
Modern Geography, Mathematical, Physical, 
and Political/ which attracted much at- 
tention, and has since proved a mine of 
wealth to other writers on geography. In 
1866 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on 
him by King's College, Aberdeen. 

In 1867, finding- the charge of a congrega- 
tion leas congenial than literary work, he 
resigned his pastorate at Rhynie and went 
to Edinburgh, from which he removed to 
Ventnor in 1878. During this period he 
devoted himself entirely to works on geo- 
graphy and kindred subjects. He had just 
completed the rewriting and revision of 
proofs of his work on physiography and 
physical geography, when he died suddenly 
at Ventnor on 81 Jan. 1895. Mackay mar- 
ried in November 1846 Margaret Lillie, 
daughter of Alexander Lillie of Banff. By 
her he had five sons, all of whom he sur- 
vived. One of them was the well-known 
missionary of Uganda, Alexander Murdoch 
Mackay [q. v.] 

Mackay s works have had a very large 
circulation, and are characterised by the best 
qualities of the old school of geographical 
text-books, being full of facts systemati- 
cally arranged, scrupulously verified, and 
illustrated by brief notes of general interest. 
In one instance he made an attempt to fasten 
the elementary facts on the minds of young 
scholars by producing a * Rhyming Geo- 
graphy ' (1873 ; new edit. 1876), some of the 
stanzas of which, once read, are difficult to 
forget. His most arduous piece of work was 
an ingenious mnemonic system for remem- 
bering numbers, which he developed in a 
book entitled 'Facts and Dates' (1869; 3rd 
edit. 1879). 

Mackay was also the author of the follow- 
ing works: 1. 'Elements of Modern Geo- 
graphy/ 1864 ; 12th edit. 1872. 2. ' Out- 
lines of Modern Geography/ 1865. 3. ' First 
Steps in Geography/ 1869. 4. ' Geography 
of the British Empire/ 1869. 5. < The In- 
termediate Geographv/ 1874; 10th edit. 
1885. 6. 'Life and Times of the late 
Rev. George Davidson, Latheron/ 1875. 
7. « Handbook to the Seat of War in Turkey/ 
1877. 8. ' Physiography and Physical Geo- 
graphy/ 1877. He also edited and revised 
Reid's ' Elements of Astronomy/ 1874. 



[Tb» Hi ■ nrwphifflil Journal, v. S76-7 ; privsti 

hifcrmatioa : Mr*. J. W, Harns'ni's Srciry of 

il.ifbn o( Uganda; Uril . Museum Cut.] 

O. S-B. 


--■■neral in I he Indian armv, born 

March 1806, and baptised 

»t St. James's Church, Piccadilly, was 

S.ui In]! MM ill' Kin:.- 
nckenzie (rf. 1831) and his wife, Anne 
TownsROii. His father, who belonged to 
title branch of M»ckenzies, was 
attorney-general of Grenada, and lent much 
be war with Franc.-, 1793*1815, 
educated ■ueuesaivelj at a school 
in Cumberland, at. Dollar, and at Os- 
westry, and in l&Sri he was appointed a 
eadrt of inlimirv mi the Madras establish- 
ment. Ho served a.i adjutant of the 48th 
Madras native infantry m the Coorg cam- 
paten iti 1834, and was present in nil the 
aetiooa of that campaign, during a portion of 
which he held the appointment of deputy- 
aaaistiint nuartermnsur- general. At the 
close of the campaign his services were 
favourably noticed by the brigadier-general 
commanding the force. In 1836 he ac- 
tuofmiued Captain (afterwards Admiral sir 
Henry Ducie) Chads in an expedition to the 
Strait* of Malacca, which had been organised 
for thepuipre of extirpating piracy in those 
seas. Although Mackenzie was on board 
Captain Chads'* ship only as a passenger, bis 
service* and his gallantry were such that they 
mi acknowledgments from Captain 
Chads and afterwards from Lord Auckland, 
then governor-general of India, who selected 
10 for employment with the force 
then serving in Afghanistan. In this un- 
fortunate expedition, which, owing mainly to 
!.■■ uenerul in command, 
ended in the complete destruction of a large 
■ co, Mackenzie greatly distinguished 
hinuolf. He was employed at first as 
■Mutant political agent under Mr. (after- 
wards Sir George) Clerk at Peshawar. 
niMceeded to Kabul, where li» 
sappers which had been 
I ;.. Iiiinistan by Qeorge BrUadfoot, 

.., ate of his on his voyage to India. 

. ■■■! the advanced; guard of Sir 
' •'» force as far as Gundanuudc on 
i Jellalabad, and then, returning 

m [el a so-called, but 

culled the fort 
.i: which tie.' I'MNimi-- 

waakept. He 

mm anil of this fort when the Insu 

■ Afghani at Kiil.mi broke 

of the first wi 

Afghan iitin, thus describes Mackenzie' 

fence: 'On S Nov. it became certain that 
Mackenzie, with all his gallantry and all bis 
laborious zeal, working day and night with- 
out food and without rest, conducting the 
defence with us much judgment as spirit, 
could not much longer hold his post. His 
men wen wearied out, his ammunition was 
exhausted, his wounded Wire dving forwent 
of medical aid. lie bad defended bis position 
throughout two days of toil, suffering, and 
danger; and no aid had come from canton- 
ments, laiiu- \v:is lilirk in enine. So, yield- 
ing at last to the importunity of others, be 
moved out of the fort and fought his way by 
night to cantonments. It was u Uillirult, 
and hazardous march ; and it most by a 
miracle Mackenzie escaped to encounter new 
dangers, to sustain new trials, and to live in 
habitual gratitude to God for his wonderful 

In the following mouth Mackenzie was 
present hi r lie crinierence bet ween the envoy, 
•Sir William Knv Maenaghten [q.v.~], and the 
Afghan chief, Akbdr Khan. He and Eldred 
Pottingor [q.v.] had in vain endeavoured to 
dissuade Macnnghten from attending the 
conference, assuring him that there were 
strong grounds for suspecting treachery. 
Hut the conference took place and the envoy 
was treacherously seized and shot by Akbar 
Khan. At the same time Mackenzie and 
George Lawrence I q.v.] were made prisoners. 
Later on, during tha unfortunnto retreat 
from Kabul, Mackenzie, who had been set 
free, displayed the greatest courage and 
excellent judgment, and did all in his power 
to stimulate the efforts of tin officers in supe- 
rior military command. Indeed it is not too 
much to say that, if Mackenzie had been the 
general in command, instead of being only a 
captain, the disasters which attended the first 
Afghan war might have been averted, In 
the course of the retreat, it. having Imbd 
arranged that hostages should be given up 
to Akbdr Khan, Mackenzie was selected as 
one of them. His selection was approved 
by Akbai Khan as a man who waa certain 
to keep his word. In consequence of his 
deeply religions life the Afghans called him 
the ' English Moollah,' and bad the greatest 
confidence in him. While in this position 
he was deputed by Eldred Pot linger, with 
the approval of Akbiir Khan, to bohvot letters 
to the political agent at Jelliilabad and to 
General Sir George Pollock fq. v.], who had 
reached that place. (In both these missions 
he had more than one very narrow escape, 
and after ithe second ho was attacked by a 
dangerous illness which nearly cost him bis 
life. Mackenzie was subsequently carried oft" 
by Akbdr KJnin with the rest of the hostages 




and prisoners, and with them was being 
moved over the Hindu Kiish, whence they 
were to be sent to Bokhara to be sold as 
slaves, when, owing to the arrival of Pol- 
lock's force in the vicinity of Kabul and the 
flight of Akbar Khan, the Afghan in charge 
of the prisoners was induced by a guaran- 
tee of a large sum of money to release them. 
Before returning to India Mackenzie took 
part with Henry Havelock [see IIavelock, 
Sir IIexry] on the assault upon the fort of 
Istaliff. He, like Eldred Pottinger and the 
others who hud distinguished themselves 
during the insurrection and the retreat, was 
one of the victims of the unreasoning preju- 
dice which led Lord Ellenborough [see Law, 
Edward, Earl of Ellen no rouohJ to treat 
with studied neglect all who had been in | 
any way connected with the recent disasters, 
except the garrison of Jellalabad. Macken- 1 
zie was refused the Kabul medal and the six 
months' pay which accompanied it, and it 
was not until IMS that, owing to the inter- 
position of Lord Dalhousie, it was granted 
to him. He was also created a C.B. 

Mackenzie was subsequently employed on 
the north-west frontier to raise a Sikh regi- 
ment (the 4th), with which he kept the 
peace of the border during the last Sikh 
campaign. It was while thus employed 
that he made the acquaintance of Lord Dal- 
housie, who formed a high opinion of his 
character and of his talents. It is said to 
have been by his advice that Lord Dalhousie 
was induced to abandon an idea he had 
formed of making over to Afghanistan the 
country between the Indus and the Suleiman 
range. ' Mackenzie urged that Peshawar was 
the gate of India, and therefore should not 
be given up. He was still a regimental 
captain when, in 1850, he was appointed by 
Lord Dalhousie brigadier-general in com- 
mand of the Ellichpiir division of the Hy- 
derabad contingent. In nominating Mac- 
kenzie for this post the governor-general 
remarked that ' the gallantry, ability, and 
endurance displayed by him at the time of 
the rising at Kabul are* amply recorded, and 
in connection with the subsequent events of 
that period entitle him to a higher reward 
at the hands of the government of India 
than the command of a local corps in the 
Sutlej provinces.' Mackenzie had held his 
xn!W command for some years when a mutiny 
occurred in one of the cavalry regiments of 
the contingent which nearly cost him his 
life. In September 18o5, on the occasion 
of the Muharrain procession at Bolarum,the 
great day of which happened that year to be 
a Sunday. Mackenzie issued orders which in 
the first* instance prohibited any procession 

being held on the Sunday, but wen subse- 
quently so far modified as to permit of the 
processions taking place within the lines of 
the regiments, but not in the barracks or 
along the roads. This order was openly 
violated by the 3rd cavalry regiment of the 
contingent, which marched past the bri- 
gadier's house and grounds, making a hideous 
din when the procession reached that spot. 
Mackenzie sent out orderlies to stop them, 
and, this interference proving ineffectual, 
went out himself unarmed and seized two 
small standards which the sepoys were 
carrying. The result was a tumult, in the 
course of which Mackenzie was dangerously 
wounded. The government, while paying a 
high tribute to Mackenzie ' as a good and 
distinguished soldier, and as honourable, 
conscientious, and gallant a gentleman as 
the ranks of the army can show/ condemned 
the course taken bv him on this occasion as 
rash and ill-judged. 

Although this judgment was questioned 
by some very distinguished officers, there 
can be no doubt that it had an unfortunate 
influence upon Mackenzie's subsequent career. 
He was compelled by his wounds to return 
to England tor a time. Afterwards he held 
the political appointment of agent to the 
governor-general with the Xawab Nazim of 
Bengal; but there he appears not to have 
received the support which ought to have 
been afforded to him at headquarters, and he 
was transferred to one of the civil depart- 
ments of the army as superintendent of army 
clothing, a post ludicrously inappropriate to 
his previous services. Some years later, on 
his claiming a divisional command in his 
own presidency, it was withheld from him 
by the commander-in-chief on the ground of 
the censure which had been passed upon 
him in the Bolarum case. On that occasion 
the governor of Madras (Francis, lord Napier 
ji.x. Suppl.]) and one of the members of coun- 
cil expressed strong disapproval of the com- 
mander-in-chief's decision, and referred the 
question to the secretary of state, who, how- 
ever, declined to interfere. Mackenzie finally 
left India in 1873, and died at Edinburgh on 
22 Oct. 1881. A photogravure portrait of 
Mackenzie, aged 74, is prefixed to Mrs. 
Mackenzie's ' Storms and Sunshine ' (Edin- 
burgh, 1884, 2 vols.) Mackenzie married 
first, in May 1832, Adeline, eldest daughter 
of James Pat tie of the Bengal civil service, 
who died four vears afterwards. He married 
secondly, in 1843, Helen, eldest daughter of 
AdmiralJohn Erskine Douglas, who survives 
him, and has published several works re- 
lating to India, besides the life of her hus- 

[ History of the War in AfchuD islam by J. W. 
of ii Soldier's 

V::- ■tfil/l,- . Twelve lililiilU 

Sutomm, by George Smith, C.I.E., LL. D. ; 

India Office Records ; Rosso's Modern English 

London News, Lxxix. *Si 

A. J. A. 


3 1893), founder of the British 


■ M.iiv], 1^3, was the son 
Duncan Mackinnon of Campbeltown, by 
bellafd.21 April 1861), daughter 
■ of the Mine town. He was 
cated at Campbeltown, im.! was trainv J 
tlw grocery trade there. Early in life, 
Came lo Glasgow, aud was em- 
it & silk warehouse and afterwards in 
Office "f a merchant engaged in the 
rn trade. In 184" he wan) out to 
nd joined hi3 old schoolfellow, Robert 
cn*ia,whowas engaged in 1 
in the Bay of Bengal. Toget her i her 
M ickmnon, Uaclcaniia, & 
' '.lIciiUo and 
Burrnjh Staan Navigation Company was 
(bonded mainly through Miickiunon's exer- 
It was renamed the British India 
Navigation Company on 8 Dec. 1862. 
company began with a single steamer 
■ing between Calcutta and Rangoon, but 
der Mackinnon'* direction it became one 
._ the greatest shipping companies in the 
world- Under his guidance it developed, and 
in man; instances created, a vast trade around 
the coast of India and Burmali, the Persian 
Gulf, and the east coast of Africa, besides 
establishing subsidiary lines of connection 
with Great Britain, the Dutch East Indies, ' 
and Aulralia. He was careful to have his 
shipa coustructed in such a manner that they 
used for the transport of troop?, 
ing the Indian government from 
the nn*«sity of maintaining a large trans- 

. :. J :.■ ■ . ■■ 

i. humanity of his disposition. 
that his agents during a famine 
i made a contract with gOVern- 

at enhanced rates, he at once 
the agreement, ami t.rdered that 
should be carried at lesa than the 

About 187.1 the company established a 
«ail #er. ■ i ind Zanzibar. 

Mackinnon gained the confidence of ( he 
wltan, S. tad in 1878 ho 

Dcwtud Di . ni for the lease 

□ding 1,160 miles along 
Uw cnait line from i 

of the Congo ftej BbaUi The district 
eontptiaed at least 590,000 square miles, and 

included Lakes Nvasa, Tanganyika, and 

'Inula. 'i'ii>! " 
however, declined t 

Victoria Xynnza. The British government, 

, which, if ratified, would have secured 
for England the whole of what i 
German East Africa. In 1880 the foreign 
minister availed himself of Mackinnon's 
influence to secure the coast line from 
Wangn to Kipini. A charter was granted, 
and the Imperial British East Africa Com- 
pany was formally i n cor] K) rated on 18 April 
1888, with Mackinnon as chairman. The 
company acquired a const lino of ISO miles, 
including the excellent harbour of Mombasa, 
and extending from the river Tana to the 
frontier of aha German protectorate. The 
company, which included among its prin- 
ciples the abolition of the slave trade, the 
prohibition of trade monopoly, and the 
equal treatment of all nationalities, found 
itself seriously handicapped in its relations 
with Ionian associations, such as the Oer- 
uuin East African Company, by the strenuous 
support which they received from their 
respective governments. The British go- 
vernment, on the other hand, was debarred 
by the principles of English colonial ad- 
ministration from affording similar assistance. 
The territory of the company was finally 
taken over by the British government on 
1 July 1895 in return for a cash payment. 

Mackinnon had a great part in promoting 
Sir FI. M. Stanley's expedition for the relief 
of Emin Pasha. In November 1886 he 
addressed a letter, urging immediate action, 
to Sir James Fergusson, under-secretary of 
state for foreign alfairs, and followed this 
by submitting to Lord Iddesleigh, the foreign 
secretary, a memorandum suggesting the 
formation of a small committee to send out 
an expedition. He and his friends sub- 
scribed more than half the bub of 29.Q00& 
provided for the venture, the rest baton 
furnished by the Egyptian government (cf. 
In Darkest Africa, 1800, prefatory epistle). 

Mackinnon was for some time a director 
of the City of Glasgow Bank, and assisted 
to extricate the concern from i 
difficulties. In 1870, finding that li< Mold 
not. approve lie 1 policy of the other directors, 
he resigned his seat on the board. On the 
failure of the bank in 1878 the liquidat 
brought a claim against him in the court 
session for about 400,000/. After a r 
tracted litigation Mackinnon, who 1 
peremptorily declined to list en to any sugges- 
tion ol compromise, waa completely eso 
rated by the court from the charges brou, 
against him, and it was demonstrated I 




the course taken by the directors was con- 
trary to his express advice. 

Mackinnon was one of the chief sup- 
porters of the Free Church of Scotland. 
Towards the end of his life, however, the 
passage of the Declaratory Act, of which 
he disapproved, led to some difference of 
opinion between him and the leaders of the 
church, and he materially assisted the 
seceding members in the Scottish highlands. 
In 1891 he founded the East African 
Scottish Mission. 

In 1882 Mackinnon was nominated CLE., 
and on 15 July 1889 he was created a 
baronet. He died in London, in the Bur- 
lington Hotel, on 22 June 1893, and was 
buried at Clachan in Argyleshire on 28 June. 
He was a highlander of the best type, a 
hospitable host, and a generous benefactor. 
He possessed great administrative ability. 
"When Sir Bartle Frere sent Sir Ijewis Pelly 
to the Persian Gulf in 1862 he said, ' Look 
out for a little Scotsman called Mackinnon ; 
you will find him the mainspring of all the 
British enterprise there.' 

On 12 May 1856 Mackinnon married 
Janet Colouhoun (d. 1894), elder daughter 
of John Jameson of "Woodside Crescent, 
Glasgow. He had no issue. 

[Scotsman, 23, 29 June 1893; Glasgow Herald, 
23 June 1893 ; I). D. Mackinnon 's Memoirs of 
Clan Fingou, 1899, pp. 194-9 ; Times, 23 June 
1893.] E. I. C. 

MACKNIGHT, THOMAS (1829-1899), 
political writer, born at Gainsford, co. Dur- 
ham, on 15 Feb. 1829, was son of Thomas 
Macknight and his wife Elizabeth. After 
being educated at a school at Gainsford kept 
by Dr. Bowman, Macknight removed to 
London, and on 28 Sept. 1849 entered the 
medical faculty at King's College. In 1850 
he won the Stephen prize for an essay on 
'The Historical Plays of Shakespeare' 
(London, 1850, 8vo), and in 1851 the 
Leathes prize for divinity ; he also obtained 
three special certificates for physiology, 
chemistry, and botany. He was president 
of the King's College Literary and Scientific 
Union, and published an ' Address on the 
Literature of the Age/ which he delivered 
on 12 March 1851. He left King's College 
in 1851, and took to writing for the press ; 
he was a whig of the Palmerstonian school, 
and his first book, published anonymously, 
was 4 The Uight Hon. Benjamin Disraeli: a 
Literary and Political Biography ' (London, 
1854, 8vo), in which Disraeli's career and 
policy were vigorously attacked. The book 
was at the time attributed to (Sir) William 
Harcourt, and Lord Lyndhurst denounced 

it as 'a very blackguard publication and 
written in a very blackguard style ' (Croker 
Papers, 1885, hi. 310). Macknighrs next 
book waa 'Thirty Years of Foreign Policy : 
a History of the Secretaryships of the Earl 
of Aberdeen and Viscount Palmerston ' (Lon- 
don, 1855, 8vo) ; this is a defence of the 
policy leading up to the Crimean war, which 
Macknight declared to be ' inevitable. 9 From 
these party pamphlets Macknight turned to 
his most substantial work, his * History of 
the Life and Times of Edmund Burke ' (Lon- 
don, 1858-60, 8 vols. 8vo), which remains 
the best detailed life of Burke ; it had occu- 

Sied much of Macknight's time since he left 
king's College, and he had published two 
papers on Burke in ' Eraser's Magazine ' for 
November and December 1851. In 1863 
he published his ' Life of Henry St. John, 
Viscount Bolingbroke' (London, 8vo). 

Early in 1866 Macknight was appointed 
to succeed Mr. Frank El Hill as eaitor of 
the Belfast 4 Northern Whig.' He crossed 
to Ireland on 31 Jan. 1866, and remained 
editor of the 'Whig* for thirty-two years. 
He made his paper the mainstay of the 
liberal party in Ireland, and vigorously de- 
fended the Irish church disestablishment 
and the land acts of Gladstone's government 
from 1868 to 1874. The influence of the 
1 Northern Whip ' under his editorship was 
mainly responsible for the return of Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Thomas) McClure, a liberal, 
and Mr. William Johnston of Bally kilbeg, an 
independent, as members for Belfast in 1868. 
For nis services on this occasion he was pre- 
sented with a testimonial by his friends on 
26 May 1869. Macknight also supported 
Gladstone's government from 1880 to 1885, 
but, like most liberals in Ulster, he differed 
from Gladstone on home rule, and remained 
a staunch unionist till his death ; he con- 
tinued, however, to advocate drastic measures 
of land reform in Ireland. 

In 1891 Macknight was presented with 
another testimonial in recognition of his 
twenty-five years' service as editor of the 

eight Years' Expei 
(London, 2 vols. 8vo). Macknight died at 
his residence, 28 Wellington Park, Belfast, 
on 19 Nov. 1899. 

[Macknight's works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; 
Belfast Northern Whiff, 20 Nov. 1899; Who's 
Who, 1899 ; private information.] A. F. P. 

(1845-1897), landscape painter, the second 
son of Thomas McLachlan, banker, and his 
wife Jane Hope, waa born at Carbury Hall, 



March IMS. Educated 


, where he 
tdoattd B.A. In 1868, and was bracketed 
n lu« moral science tripos, he entered 
In's Inn on 37 Oct. 1865, and was 
i So l Le bar on 17 Not. 1868. For some 

Jractised in (he court of chancery, 
not care for the work and had 
w bri^fa. His desire was to be a painter, 
•ncour&ged by John Pettis [q. v.] and 
■s who believed in his gifts, lie, in 1878, 
rare up law and took to art. He had do 
vising lo begin with, and the 
l I in the studio of Carol us 
mi at a later date was of Utile account ; 
. i'-'l Mi" narlv Luflish liiudsc:ipf 
tod later was considerably in- 
duced by the work of the French roman- 
ind" Cecil Qordon Lawson [q. v.] His 
k was always individual and interesting, 
r he bod a poetic apprehension of nature, 
"* was peculiarlysen<-itivetri grave and im- 
: 'I ions, which belong to twilight, 
Jit ii,!.'. And while In 
W somewhat faulty, hedesignod with dignil v 
3 was a refined and powerful colourist. 
* exhibited at the Academy and the 
and late/ at toe New Gallery and 
i of Painters in Oil-colours, of 
which h* was a member; but it. was not 
when he became associated with 
fire n titer painters in tbo ' Landscape Ex- 
■'■ the Dudley Gallery, that the 
I of bis work, there seen more in a 
e congenial surrounding. 
■.in it deserved. Rut he 
lircd to share in only another exhibition, 
■ ':•■ died at Weybridge. 
that virir ii collection of his pic- 
ras brought together in the .-tudio> of 
Mr. Leslie Thomson and Mr. 
lb, ntid shortly afterwards some 
f liia admirer, presentee n characteristic 
p thai pa.-- in the Night,' to the 
Jional Gallery. 

" married Jean, youngest daugh- 
m Stow Stowel) of FttTerdale, 
I i" son and daughter of the mar- 
red him. A portrait drawn in 
d chalk by E. It. Hughes has been repro- 
duced. * small portrait is worked into a 
limdpieco in tbo ■ Magazine of A 

97) a photo- 

r« Men at Ilia 

■ 1S!»7; Art 


MACLEAN, Sib JOHN (1S11-1895), 
arehreologist, eon of Robert Lean of Tre- 
hndrathbsrton, in Blisland, Cornwall, and 
bis wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Every of Bodmin, was born at Trehudreth 
on 17 Sept. 1811. In 1845, us a dowendant 
of the Dochgarroch brunch of the clun Lean, 
he resumed the prefix of Mac. 

Maclean entered theordnance department 
of the war office in 1837, was keeper of the 
ordnance records in the Tower of London 
from 185.5 to 1861, and deputy chief auditor 
of army accounts from 1865 to 187). In 
that vear he retired on a pension, and on 
H Jan. 1871 was knighted at Osborne, 
While engaged in official life he dwelt at 
Pall ings wick Lodge, Hammersmith, and as 
an active churchman took much interest in 
the ecclesiastical administration of the 

Earisli of St. John, Hammersmith. After 
is retirement he lived at Hicknor Court, 
near Coleford, Gloucestershire, and from 
about 1887 at Glasbury House, Clifton, 
where he died on 6 March 1895. Hb 
married at II el land church, Cornwall, on 
5 Dee. 1*35, Mart I h. 18131. elder daughter 
and coheiress of Thomas Billing, of Bl island 
and St. Breward. She survived her husband. 
Maclean's great undertaking was: 1, 
'Parochial and Family History of the 
Deanery of Trigg Minor,' 3 vols., a rural 
deanery of East Cornwall, comprising the 
topographical particular* of several important 
pari.- lies, thi; principal uf which was Bodmin, 
and containing elaborate pedigrees of many of 
the leading families in the count v. It cams 
out in parts between 1868 and 1879, and in it 
was embodied the labour of twenty years. 
His other works and editions included: 
2. ' The Life and Times of Peter Carew,' 1657. 
3. 'Letters from Qsorgs, lord Oaraw, to Sir 
Thomas Roe, 1616-17,' Camden Society, 
!-<;<!. -1. 'Letters from Sir Robert Cecil 
to Sir enrge Carew,' Camden Society, 
1864. 6. ' The Life of Sir Thomas Seymour, 
knight, Baron Seymour of Sudeley,' 18611 
(one hundred copies only). After his 
withdrawn! into tiloucest'Tsliire he edited 

6. 'The Berkeley Manuscripts' John Smyth's 
Lives of the Berkeleys,' 1883-6, 3 vols. 

7. ' Annals of Chepstow Castle. By John 
Fitchett Marsh,' 1883; and 8. 'Histories] 
and Genealogical Memoir of the Family of 
I'nvnt;,' 188(1. With W. C. Heana he edited 
B. 'The Visitation of Gloucester in HU;;,' 
Harleian Society, I88G. While living in 
London Maclean shared with enthusiasm in 
tbo work of its chief antiquariini 

He was elected F.S.A. on 10 Dec. 1855, and 
was long s mei'iibi'i' •>!' (he couneJL At the 
meetings of the Royal Archteulogical In- 



■tit lite he was a frequent attendant, supplied 
articles to the journal, and completed the 

feneral index to its first twenty-five volumes. 
Ie was one of the founders of (lie Harleian 
Societv, ami eo-o]>erated with Dr. Drake and 
Colonel Vivian in editing and annotating 
■ The Visitation of Cornwall in 1620.' 

Maclean joined in the foundation of the 
Bristol and Gloucester ArchtBologicul So- 
ciety, contributed many papers to it* 'Trans- 
actions,' and edited vols, iii-xvi., a silver 
inkstand being presented to him for his ser- 
vices. Many articles by him appeared in 
the publications of the Hoy a 1 Institution of 
Cornwall, the Clifton Antiquarian Club, and 
the Somerset Archieological and Natural His- 
tory Society. 

[Bouse noil Cuurtaey's Hibl. Cornub. i. 333-4, 
ii. D73, 1273; House's Collectanea Cornub. pp. 
fi23-4 ; Maclean's Trig? Minor, i. 380 ; 
Academy, 1G March 1895, p. 237 ; Trans. 
Bristol mill Gloucester Archieol. Soe. xix. 3, 
168-0 ; Dod's I'eunigo, IBM.] IV. 1'. G. 

SON (ITi^-lHMl), Indian civilian, born at 
Ardartlen in Dumbartonshire in 1792, was 
the oldest son of Donald Macleod of St. 
Kildti, colonel in the Madras nrmy, by his 
wife. I ) in mi, daughter <."» I" 1 >< iniilil Murdnuald 
of Tormore in Inverness-shire, lie was edu- 
cated hi lliiili'ybiiry and at tltn university of 
Lldiiiljurirli, ami iibuiiii'.'d a writcrship in tin* 
Madras civil service on 27 July lull. On 
7 Jan. 1HU ho was appointed second assis- 
tant, to the secretary to government in the 
several civil department*, and on 8 July was 
promoted to be first assistant. In lf*l(i he 
was nominated secretary and member of the 
committee for revising tha customs laws. 
After u three years' visit to England be was 
appointed acting secretary to govt 

jn-riiiniii'iii ly confirmed as secretary. In 
I f*L'-1 he became Tiimil translator to govern- 
ment, and member of the college board, of 
the board of public instruction, and of the 
mint committee. On 14 April 182U he was 
nominated Persian frnnslatrir to government, 
iiml mi 2(1 Feb. ]*2T he become secretary in 
the revenue mid judicial department a. On 
Iti Juii. IHSII he was appointed a temporary 
member of the board of revenue, and he 
afterwards was permanently confirmed third 
member. On 22 June 1*32 ho received the 
pout Hf commissioner for the government of 
Mysore, nnd in 1834 he was deputed to 
Hyderabad on special duty by the govemor- 
goucrnl. Mucleod's work in Mysore was of 
especial importance. The province had in 
the previous year been transferred from 

native rule to English auperin ten denee. The 
task of organising tha financial and political 
administration fell largely upon him and 
was carried out with ability and success. 
On 19 Feb. 1835 he became a member of 
the Indian law commission, and in 1336 
member of the committee for revising the 
system of prison discipline throughout India. 

retired from the service in 1841. In 1S66 
he was nominated K.C.S.I., and in 1871 a 
privy councillor. He died on 1 March 1831 
at his London residence, 1 Stanhope Street, 
Hyde I'ark. In 1822 he married Catharine, 
daughter of William Greig of Thomhill in 
the county of Stirling. 

[Times. 31 March 1881 ; Dodwell and Milts'* 
Madras Civil Servants, 1839; Prioaep's Becord 
of Services of Civil Servanta in the Madras Pre- 
sidency, 1885.] E.I. C. 

1900), scholar and divine, born at Dublin 
in 1829, was son of John Macmahon, a 
barrister. He was educated at Enniskillen, 
and on 1 July 1846 entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, as a pensioner; he graduated B.A. 
in 1852, being senior moderator and gold 
mi 'dull i st in ethics and logic, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1868. He took holy orders in 1863, 
and held for some years a cure of souls under 
Dr. Alexander, the present primate of Ire- 
land, hut retired from parochial work after 
the disestablishment of the Irish church in 
1860. He was subsequently chaplain to the 
lord-lieutenant, and from 1890 to the Mount- 
joy prison. HediedatDublinon23May 1900. 
'MaeMalion was deeply read in Aristotle, 
the Christian fathers, and the schoolmen, 
but was not an original thinker. He con- 
tributed to Bonn's ' Classical Library ' the 
'Metaphysics of Aristotle, literally trans- 
lated from the Greek, with Notes, Analysis, 
Questions, and Indev,' London, 1867, PVQ ; 
and to Clarke'? ' Ante-Nicene Library ' ' Tha 
Refutation of all Heresies bv Hippolvlus, 
translated,' Edinburgh, 1888, 8vo. He was 
also author of ' A Treatise on Metaphysics, 
chiefly in reference to Revealed Religion,* 
London, lSJtt.Svo dm r-s.sny similar in scope 
to Munsel's celebrated 'Banipton Lectures'), 
and of 'Church and State in England: its 
[fie] Origin and L'se,' London, 1873, 8vo (an 
liist.iri co-juristic argument for the mainte- 
nonce of the established church). 

[Cat. Dubl. Grnd. ; Times, 21 May 1000; 
Brit. Mns. Cat.; information from the registrar 
of Trinity College, Dublin.] J. M. It. 

AGU SCOTT (1819-1894), general, born 
on 30 May 1819, was son of Lieutenant- 

A Archibald McMurdo of Lotus, Kirk- 

igbtahire. After pas-iug through Snnd- 

j he wu com m tinned as ensign in the 

17, iind obtained a lieu- 

foot on 6 Jan. 1841. 

r regiment went. !o India in that year, 

1 was stationed at Karachi, It formed 

I of the force with which Sir Charles 

Mtirdo was placet! in charge of the quar- 

lepartment. At the 

. 17 Feb. 1843 he killed 

hand to hand, and three 

:. battle of Hyderabad on 24 March, 

was himself severely wounded. 

Two days before, he had been sent with 360 

l'<>i<nah bane i " r'irii'1.'' Major Stack's 

column on it- march to join Napier, and he 

luggage of the column from cap- 

■xaa throe times mentioned in 

i London Gazette, 1 1 April, 9 May, 

IMS), and received the medal 

with two claim. 

lined a company in the 28th foot 
! B, and was transferred to the 
'i bjghlandex* OB 20 Oct.; but he re- 
1 at the heail of the quartermaster- 
■;..irtment in Bind till Deeem- 
■ inarming the duties 'with great 
or' (Napitr't Life, iv. 
i- iiillmen on the right bank of the Indus 
...muflf by his intrepidity i,.V 
N'apier spoke of him as ' an ornament to 
Scotland ' [ib. p. 81), and on 4 Sept. 1844 
r married Napier'* daughter, Susan Sarah, 
reived a brevet majority on 18 Feb. 
When Napier returned to Indians 
mander- In-chief in 1849, McMnrdo went 
h him a* aide-de-camp. He acted as ns- 
it adjutant-general from November 1849 
nber 1851, and took part in the 

rations against the Afridis, including 
■ _ ■ if the Kohat pass, for which ho 
'■■■■ medal and clasp. In 1850 he 
ilml a pamphlet, 'Sir Charles Napier's 
reply to Colonel 

■ 1 in thearmy 

■ nd was assistant adjutant- 
■noerml at Dublin from May 1 -" ' 

he was appointed director- 

■ a, with the local rank 

■ utiie the transport ser- 
nct. This ho did with great energy and 

tries Trevelyon, 

he marri 
He rrc-i 



Col. McMurdo must limit his 
expenditure.' McMnrdo replied: ■ When 

Sir Cliarlfti T revel van limits the war, I will 
limit my expenditure' (Haiilli, p Jus,. 
Before the war ended, his corps numbered 
seventeen thousand men, with tw 
thousand horses, mules, &e. Me also took 
over the working of the railway. He was 
made aide-de-camp to the queen and brevet- 
colonel on 11 Dec. 185n, and C.B. on J Jim. 
1857. He received the medal with one 
clasp, the Turkish medal, the legion of 
honour [ 4 th class), and ttadjidu (4ih 

Alti-r the war the laud transport corps 
was converted into the military train, ,ul..I 
McMnido waa made colonel -commandant of 
it on 1 April 1867. In 1859 the volunteer 
movement began; in February 1 8d0 McMurdo 
was appointed inspector, and in June in- 
spect op- general, of volunteers. He held this 
office till January 180.5, to the great advau- 
tage of the force. It was 'i post tn which 
he seems to have had a peculiar call, and in 
which his real, faithfulness, and ability have 
been as conspicuous as his gallantry hereto- 
fore in the field' (Nam and Military 
QtHttt*. Bfl Jan. 1866), On hia retirement 
from it he received n testimonial from volun- 
teer officers. He became eolonel of the 
Inns of Court volunteers on 23 Jan., and of 
the Engineer and Railway volnnteer staff 
corps on 9 Feb. 1865. In 1869 he published 
' Kitle Volunteers for Field Service : their 
Arms, Equipment, and Administration,' a 
pamphlet of twenty-seven pages, giving hia 
advice to the commanding officers of corps. 

He commanded a brigade in the ImUni 
district from October 1866 to February 1870, 
and a district in Bengal from BfaylSTOto 

6 March 1868, 1 
10 Feb. 1876, and general on 20 S\ 
Ue was given the colonelcy of the 69tli foot 
in July 1876, was transferred to the 16th 
foot in August 187", and to the 22nd 
(Cheshire regiment) in June 1888, On 
24 May 1881 he was made . and on 
1 July he was placed on the retired list. lie 
died at Nice on 2 March 1894. His wife 
survived him. They had several children. 
[Time* 3 March 1304; Broad Arrow, 

10 March 1894; Napier's Life of Nir C. J. 
Napier; Napier's Conquest of Scinl, ; Kiul,'- 
llkafa Vat in the Crimen; Ilnml. | 
tlH- Crimen.'! 'E. M. L. 


niyntii.-iil writer, born m Ipswich on 37 Oct. 

tl ■ ■ son of Charles David Mnit- 

land, perpetual curate of St. Jam.--'- i hapd. 

llrighUm ; he was the nephew of General 




Sir Peregrine Maitland [q. v.], and brother 
of Brownlow Maitland and of Charles 
Maitland (1815-1866) [q. v.] His father 
was a noted preacher, and Edward Mait- 
land was brought up among strict evan- 
gelical ideas, and rigorous theories about 
original sin and atonement. After educa- 
tion at a large private school in Brighton, he 
was admitted as a pensioner at Caius College, 
Cambridge, on 19 April 1843, and graduated 
B.A. in 1847. lie was destined by his 
family for the pulpit, but was diverted from 
taking orders by doubts as to faith and voca- 
tion, and by the feeling that the church was 
rather ' a tomb for the preservation of em- 
balmed doctrines ' than a living organism. 
In his perplexity he got leave of absence 
from hi 8 home for a year, and left England. 
He went in 1849 to California, became one 
of the band of ' forty-niners/ and remained 
abroad, on the shores of the Pacific, mainly 
in America and Australia, where he became 
a commissioner of crown lands, until the one 
year of absence had grown into nine. He 
married in Australia, but was left a widower 
with one son after a year of wedlock. 

Returning to England at the end of 1857 
he devoted himself to literature, with the 
dominant aim of ' so developing the intui- 
tional faculty as to find the solution of all 
problems having their basis in man's spiri- 
tual nature, with a view to the formulation 
of a perfect system of thought and rule of 
life.' Many of the vicissitudes of his life, 
both physical and mental, were recorded 
with but little distortion in his romance 
called ' The Pilgrim and the Shrine. From 
the Life and Correspondence of Herbert 
Ainslie, B.A. Cantab., which was published 
in 1867, and warmly acclaimed by thought- 
ful critics. Tt was followed bv a romance 
called < The Higher Law ' (1809), which re- 
presents the escape of a youth from the 
trammels, no longer of orthodox religion, 
but of traditional morals. Maitland became 
a figure in society, and was appreciated 
highly by Lord Houghton and Sir Francis 
Hastings Doyle. He began to write in the 
' Spectator* and ' Examiner,' and did some 
reviewing for the ' Athenaeum ' from 1870 
onwards. His book ' By and By : an Histo- 
rical Romance of the Future' (1873) led to 
his making the acquaintance of Anna Kings- 
ford [q. v.], whom he visited at her hus- 
band's vicarage of Atcham, in Shropshire, in 
February 1874. In conjunction with her 
he* produced anonymously, in 1875, 'The 
Keys of the Creeds.' At the close of 1874 
his mother died at Brighton, and Maitland 
accompanied Mrs. Kingsford to Paris. He 
joined her crusade against materialism, ani- 

mal food, and vivisection, upon which sub- 
ject he wrote a forcible letter in the ' Exa- 
miner' (June 1876), which attracted the 
most widespread attention to the subject. 
In this same year he first saw the apparition 
of his father, who had then been ten yean 
dead, and he soon afterwards recognised that 
he ' belonged to the order of the mystics.' 

In 1876 Maitland informs us that he ac- 
quired a new sense, that of ' a spiritual sen- 
sitiveness/ by means of which he opened re- 
lations with the church invisible of the 
spiritual world. He was able to see the 
spiritual condition of people. In a state of 
mind which must have approximated to that 
of William Blake, he tells us that he saw 
upon one occasion the soul of a tree. He 
could also, he asseverated, recall the memory 
of some of his past lives. He was tola* 
through a sensitive that these had been 
many, that he had lived in trees and ani- 
mals, and that he had been a prince. He 
' remembered 'a life lived in ancient Thebes; 
he believed that he had been Marcus Aure- 
lius and St. John the Evangelist (hence the 
mention of boiling oil was inexpressibly pain- 
ful to him). St. John, he believed, was a re- 
incarnation of the prophet Daniel. 

In 1881, before a highly fashionable audi- 
ence, he gave a series of lectures upon his 
new or, as he affirmed, revived esoteric creed ; 
these lectures formed the groundwork of his 
1 revelation,' in which Anna Kingsford col- 
laborated, « The Perfect Way ; or, the Find- 
ing of Christ,' 1882 (revised 1887 and 1890). 
By publishing this in his own name hie 
admits that he cut himself off from his old 
friendships and all his literary and social 
ambitions. A striking parallel is afforded 
by the later life of Laurence Oliphant [q.v.l, 
with whom Maitland had a good deal in 
common, though he was constrained to ex- 
press dissent from the spiritualistic theories 
embodied in ' Sympneumata.' 

Maitland joined the Theosophical Society 
about 1883, but the vagaries 01 Madame Bla- 
vatsky soon compelled him to secede from 
the * London Lodge,' and in May 1884, in 
collaboration with Mrs. Kingsford, he founded 
the Hermetic Society, of mystic rather than 
occult character, claiming no abnormal 
powers, and ' depending for guidance upon 
no Mahatmas.' In 1885, with some help 
from ' Anna,' he rendered into English the 
1 Minerva Mundi ' and other hermetic writings 
of Hermes Trismegistus. In 1886 he and 
Mrs. Kingsford visited Madame Blavatsky at 
Ostend, but refused to be inveigled back into 
the theosophical fold. After the death of 
Anna Kingsford, in February 1888, Maitland 
lived alone at 1 Thurloe Square Studios, Lon- 

don. wtir:. : .v. con: i mm] 

' iUmnioituWi ' i'mm his limner collaborator. 

ed his main energies to 

, j lornalistk 

Work and iti November 1891, in response to 

a-iral intimations, he founded ill" Esoteric 

1 ■ wotki were 

the Book of 

iiaiions of Anno (Bonus) Kings- 

. uf Interpretn- 

1. 1 1 ■ r Life, 

Letters, Diary, and Work. Bj hi 

r»tor . . , witli u Soppletnenl ■■■ 

lem Comma) 1690, After 

■ [ji -t, which he regarded 

a* hts magnum ojius, Maitlmd's phj'sieal ami 

mental aecli '■:■. rapid. In 

went to reside with Colonel Currie 

Enters, Tonbridge, and he lost the 

power of speech some months before his 

death, on 2 Oct. 1907, He »m buried in 

in .'i iiri. By his wife 

Esther, who died in Australia, he left a son, 

a snrgeon-major in the Bombay medical aer- 

rhysienlly. Mnithind 
loral" and intellectual gifts were of a very 

ii giant, and hi 
il silts were of a verj 
A pure and flexible prose style 
fends a charm to all hi* writings, of which 
il ia saxl to reflect that so little will survive. 
The motto of his later life was • An honest 
god* the nobfest work of man,' and in his 
endeavours to construct an honest 
deity (with some aid from the Bible, the 
sacreJ books of the East aud Hermes Tris- 
megialuB, and also from Emerson, Carlyle, 
I .i-hi erf Nature,' Kaphas Levi, 
and Anna Kingaford, but inninlv out of bis 
. entisciiiusncss), he gradually be- 
came to oil appearance completely dis- 

''■■'. lit] tnd nre reproduced 

■ llorderlnnd,' nnd the 'Life of 

Anna Kinjtsfurd.' lie had s large domed 

head, with a somewhat massive cast of fea- 

fac* suggesting at the same lime 

dity nnd will-power. 

' .>[aitland't Works ara I detail, more ptiriicnhirly ' Tin? 

and 'Annn Kingsford,' 

inch M it is a 

1 1 : rurj of Cuius 

r. ; Acadnmy, 

earn, 10 Oct. 1897 ; Light, 

■; (portrait); Borderland, ii. tfSU 

T. S. 


falling bin ' ' esau 

Lai linguist and bibLcal 

• lescended from an old W'iill.ri- 
sian family originally settled at Merindol in 
l'rovence, but dispersed by religion . 
ttaain LT 14. One branch fled to (ieiievu ; 
here Malan was horn on i'i April lull', his 

S rents being Dr. Cesar Henri Abraham 
elan, a noted protest unt divine, nnd Sulnnie 
Georgette Jeanne Sch on berg er, a Bwisl, His 
curly education was given by his father, 
under whom he gained a conversational 
knowledge, not only of German, Spanish, 
and Italian, but also, at an early age, of 
Latin. He had also begun English, Hebrew, 
Arabic, and Sanskrit. In 1880 lie went to 
Scotland as tutor to the family of the Mnr- 
quis of Tweeddale. In 1688 he UatrieanUed 
at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, where he re- 
sided till 1837. Laving meantime <]*::() 
married Mary, daughter of John Moitlock, 
whose acquaintance he had made in Ganere. 
In 1834 he gained the Boilen ('Sanskrit) 
scholarship, and in 1837 he won the l'usey 
and Ellerton (Hebrew) scholarship, and gra- 
duated (Class II) in UUr/u humaniorr*. 

In the same year (1837) Hiiaa aoMptnd 
the post of classical lecturer at. Bishop's < 'ol- 
lege, Calcutta, which he reuched in 1838. 
He took Anglican deacon's orders in tho 
same year ; and in the following year, be- 
coming secretary to the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, gained the intimate friendship of 
the remarkable scholar Dtome Korosi, from 
whom ho learned Tibetan, Besides gaining 
a knowledge of several Indian vernaculars, 
he also advanced in Chinese. Leaving India 
on account of fuilin« health in January 18-10, 
he arrived in England in the following Sep- 
tember. In 1842, after further travels in 
Egypt and in Palestine, he accepted acuracy 
at Alverstoke. Hampshire, taking M.A. 
(and joining Balliol College) and also priest's 
orders in 1843. His first wifd having died 
in 1940, .Malnn married in 1843 Caroline 
Selina, daughter of the Rev. C. M. Mount. 
After a year (1844-5) as perpetual curate of 
Croweombe, Mnlnn accepted the living of 
Broadwindeor, Dorset, which he held till 
1885. In 1849-00 he made a long tour in 
southern Europe, Asia Minor, Me.sopotnmiu, 
and Armenia, illustrating this, like all his 
travels, by excellent sketches, some of which 
have been published. In 1855-6 Mahin's 
Chinese learning came into notice bv his 
pu hi ii'ii t ion Hi' two W'.irlis on controversies of 
tbe time: (1) 'On the translation of the word 
" God " in Chinese ' c Wh„ is t iod in China?' 
London, 1855) ,-(2) 'The Threefold San-t re 
King or Triliteral Classic . . . translated 
. . . withnoteG.'L.itidon, lri.v;, with reference 
to the alleged Christianity of the rebel chief 
IV-ping Wang. During the next twenty 




yean Malan was much occupied with theo- j following, besides those already mentioned, 
logical controversy, but published meanwhile ( are the chief: 1. 'The GoepeL according to 
some of his most valuable work illustrative ' St. John, translated firom toe eleven oldest 
of the Christian East, especially translation* versions, except the Latin . . . with notes,' 
from the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, London, 1502. 2. * Meditations on our 
and Georgian literatures. In 1872 he made ' Lord's Passion . . . firom the Armenian/ Lon- 
a sudden and highly characteristic visit to , don, 1863. 3. ' History of the Georgian 
the Crimea, (Borgia (where he was the guest Church,' translated from the Russian of 
of Bishop Gabriel and preached in Georgian | Josselian, London. 1866. 4. ' Life ... of 
at the cathedral of Kutais), and Armenia, j S. Gregory the Illuminator . . . from the 
In 1881 Malan joined in the onslaught : Armenian/ 1868. 5. 'Liturgy of the Ortho- 
made by John William Burgon [a.v.Suppl.] dor Armenian Church/ translated, London, 
on the revised version of the New Testament, \ 1870. 6. ' Conflicts of the Holv Apostles . . . 
contributing to his articles, and himself Epistle of S. Dionysius from Ethiopic MSS. j 

publiHhing a new version of Matthew i-vi, 
with an appendix giving the Lord's Prayer 
in seventy-one languages. This he followed 

and the Assumption of S. John from the 
Armenian/ London, 1871. 7. ' Misawo, the 
Japanese Girl, translated from the Japanese/ 

up in 1882 by a work directed against the , 1871. 8. 'The Divine Liturgy of S. Mark 
Greek text of Drs. AVestcott and I Iort, which, ! . . . from a Coptic MS./ London, 1672. 

and the rest to the Indian Institute, Oxford, j don, 1882. 

After his retirement Malan lived at Bourne- 
mouth till his death, which happened there 
on 25 Nov. 1891 ; he was buried in Bourne- 
mouth cemetery. During his last years his 
chief literary employment, was the com- 
pilation of his ' Notes on Proverbs '(3 vols, 
published 1S8J), 1*92-3), a huge work in 

[Solomon Cassar Malan . . . by his eldest sur- 
viving son, Rev. A. X. Malan, London, 1897; 
review in Athens am, 12 Feb. 1898 ; obituary 
notico by Prof. Maodonell in Journal R. Asiatic 
Soc. 181*5.] C. B. 

MALCOLM, Sir GEORGE (1818-1807), 
general, born at Bombay on 10 Sept. 1818, 
which, taking the Salomon io text as 11 basis, j was the only son of David Malcolm, a Bora- 
li" illustrated it by parallels from the vast . bay merchant, who was the brother of Ad- 
run "i- of his rending in non-Christian oriental j miral Sir Pultenev and General Sir John 


In practical knowledge of oriental lan- 
giuigeH Malan had certainly no equal in 

Malcolm [q. v.] tie was commissioned as 
ensign in the E.I.C. service on 10 June 
183ti, and was posted to the 1st Bombay 

England, and probably none in the world ; ! native infantry on 18 July 1837. Reserved 
yet he wax scarcely perhaps an orientalist in ! in the Afghan war of 1839 as deputy-assis- 
the scientific sense of the term. His publi- j tant commissary-general and baggagemaster 
cat ions were all (nave one on drawing and | with the Bombay division, and was present 

two on ornithology) of an ecclesiastical 
nature, while even on biblical ground his 
ult ra-conservatism is seen in his opposition 
to modern progressive Hebrew criticism, 

de- i 

at the capture of Ghazni and occupation of 
Kabul. In August 1840, at the head of a 
detachment of Sind horse, he joined the 
force sent under Major Clibborn to relieve 
Kalian in Baluchistan, took part in the at- 

quite analogous to his position above 

perilled, regarding New Testament research. | tempt to force the Nafusk pass, and was 
The biography published by his son illustrates ; mentioned in despatches for his gallantry. 
both his ability in drawing and his great skill He was also engaged in the operations 
in oriental calligraphy. Against the latter we against Nusseer Khan and the Branoes and 

must set his hojK'less and wholly unpractical 
aversion to oriental transliteration. In botany 
and ornithology he had advanced beyond the 
amateur stage, and in manual arts such as 
lly-lishiiig, bookbinding, and a performer's 
knowledge of the construction of musical 
instruments he was also proficient. Of his 
numerous publications (over fifty) the 

the capture of their camp near Kanda on 
1 Dec. He received the medal. 

He became lieutenant on 31 Aug. 1840. 
He served under Colonel John Jacob [q. v.] 
during the subjugation of Sind, and was pre- 
sent at the battle of Shadadpur and the cap- 
ture of Shahpur. In the second Sikh war 
he commanded the 2nd Sind horse, and was 

it at the fi-.yii nfMnltas nnd the battle 
if- ni myntioned in despatches 

(/•Wim Gautte, 19 April 1-4 
the medal, and on becoming captain m his 
- infantry I he 
. on 22 June 
! 1/ became lieutenant ■■■ 

tl in the !*er.=inn war of 18116-7, 

a small tield fores during 

On 88 Nov. 1867 he 

ed village of Hnlgalli. 

poeaataion ofShorapur on 9 Feb. 

■ In- captured the fort of 

•in the South Manttha 

■ u.Titioai'il in dispute lie*, 
: .in d was madeO.B. on 

became colonel in the 

■'■ii, and major-general on 

■ ■■ i-v p.,.. lition to Abys- 

; nilrii tbe second divi- 

. the line of commttnica- 

:i- Be Ilia included in the vote of 

ink? of parliament, w made Iv.C.B. on 

08, ind received tbu medal. He 

■ promoted lieutenant -ufiierul on J'J May 

i. and general OB 1 Oct, 1877, .'Hid vu 

!;■ :iiiiIovi'd supernumerary 


•> Muv raw. 

. died ni. Leamington on 8 April 1897. 
■ bn named WtlhdraiM 

r daughter of the Rev. 
ri ived him. 
circulation at 
on the Indian Army' 

■ which he dwelt on the 

I' ii'.)p'!in troops and of 

idiling the native army, 

■ ■ i In- mutiny, 


: ilnrte'o landed Oi-nr.rj ; 

Offlt-ni itecorj of the Eapftiiti 

K. M. L. 


d I and military writer, born in 

Malleson of Wimbledon, by Lucy 
bttti, whose father was colonial Beere- 

Medio and at Winchester College, 
mi ardent cricketer, 
lon<d Oliphant, a director of the 
riven a direct 
on 1 1 June 1842, 
•ndTrn* pwtj/d to the Both Bengal native 
infantry OB 28 S.-pt. He obtained a lieu- 
il B.X.I, on 28 Sept. 
■ the commis- 
sariat dnparUw-nt on 

is second Burmese war, which 
resulted in the annexation of the lower pro- 
vince in (853. On 28 March 1866 he was 
appointed an assistant military uuditor-gene- 
raf, and be was engaged with acaount« at 
Calcutta during the mutiny. B 
'The Mutiny of the Bengal Army,' wtiioh 
was published anonymously in 18&7, and 
was known as ' the red pamphlet.' In this 
he pointed to Lord Dalhousie's ndm in if t ra- 
tion, and especially the annexation of Undb, 
as mainly responsible for the revolt. 

He was promoted captain on 16 Aug; 
1861, major in the Bengal stall' corps on 
IS Feb. 1863, lieutenant-colonel on I I .lime 
1868, and colonel in the army on 1 1 June 
1373. lie wat appointed a unitary com- 
missioner fur Bengal in I -•'<■'•, urn I rout r- dl'-r 
of the military finance department in 1868. 
In 1869 he was chosen by Lord Mayo to be 
the guardian of the young Maharajah of 
Mysore; he held this post till 1 April 1877, 
when he retired on full pay. He had been 
made C.S.I, on 31 May 1872. 

He had been a frequent contributor to the 
' Calcutta Review ' since 16.}", and was also 
a correspondent of the ' Times.' After his 
retirement he devoted himself to literature, 
dealing chiefly with militiirv history, espe- 
cially Indian. He bad a broad grasp, great 
industry, a vigorous and picturesque style, 
but was apt to be a strong partisan. He did 
much to draw attention to Russian progress 
in Central Asia, and its dangers to British 
rule in India. He died at 27 West Crom- 
well Road, London, on 1 March 1898. In 
1856 he married Marian Charlotte, only 
daughter of George Wynynrd Battve of the 
Bengal civil service, and sister of tons dis- 
tinguished soldiers, tjiiiiitin, Wig-ram, and 
Frederick Battye, nil of the Giie! 
kilted in action. She survived her husband, 
and on II June I8:ill reeeived n <-ivil-li»t. 
pension of 100/. in recognition of his emi- 
nence asnn Indian and military historian. 

He was author of the following works: 
1. 'Tli- Mutiny of the Bengal Army,' 1857, 
2 pts. 8vo. 2. ■ History of the French in 
India,' 1868, 8vo. 3. ' Recreations of an 
Indian Official' ^biographical articles on 
Aiiirlo-Itidiims, Sc, reprinted from periodi- 
cals), 1872, 8vo. 4. ' Studies from Genoese 
Ilistorv,' [876, 8vo. 5. ' Historical Sketch 
of Hi- Native States of India,' 1876, Bvo. 
6. ' Essays and Lectures on Indian Histori- 
cal Subjects,' 1876, 8vo. 7. 'Final French 
i India mid in the Indian Sens,' 
[fffSLflvu. 8. ' Ili-iory of the Indian Mtt- 
. -.uiiativiii of vols. i. riinl ii. of 
KnVe's ■ Sepoy War'), 1878-80, S 
9. 'History of Afghanistan,' 187!', Bra, 


x 3 6 


10. * Herat, the Garden and Granary of 
Central Asia/ 1880, 8vo. 11. ' The Founders 
of the Indian Empire: Lord dive/ 1882, 8vo. 
12. « The Decisive Battles of India/ 1883, 
8vo. 13. 'Captain Musafir's Rambles in 
Alpine Lands/ 1883, 8vo. 14. « The Battle- 
fields of Germany/ 1884, 8vo. 15. 'Lou- 
don ' (series of military biographies), 1884, 
8vo. 16. ' Prince Eugene of Savoy ' (same 
ser.), 1888, 8vo. 17. 'The Russo-Afghan 
Question and the Invasion of India/ 1885, 
8vo. 18. 'Ambushes and Surprises/ 1885, 
8vo. 19. 'Prince Metternich* (Statesmen 
ser.), 1888, 8vo. 20. 'Wellesley* (same 
ser.), 1889, 8vo. 21-2. ' Akbar ' and ' Du- 
pleix* (Rulers of India ser.), 1890, 8vo. 
23. 'Refounding of the German Empire/ 
1893, 8vo. 24. 'Warren Hastings/ 1894, 
8vo. 25. ' The Lakes and Rivers of Austria, 
Bavaria, and Hungary/ 1897, 8vo. 

[Times, 2 March 1898 ; E. I. Registers ; Alli- 
bone'fl Dictionary, supplement; private infor- 
mation.] E. M. L. 

1877), chairman of the East India Com- 
pany, born in 1801, was the son of James 
Mangles {d. September 1838) of Woodbridge, 
near Guildford, by his wife Mary, youngest 
daughter of John Hughes of Guildford. He 
was named after Admiral Sir Ross Donnelly 

Sq. v. Suppl.l, on whose ship his relative, 
ames Mangles [q. v.], first served. He was 
educated at Eton and the East India Com- ' 

?any's College at Haileybury. On 30 April 
819 he entered the Bengal civil service as a 
writer. He arrived in India in the follow- 
ing year, and on 28 Sept. 1821 he was ap- 
pointed assistant to the secretary to the 
board of commissioners for the ceded and 
conquered provinces. In 1822 he was acting 
collector of government customs and town 
duties at Farukhabad, and on 12 June 1823 
he was nominated assistant to the secretary 
to the board of revenue for the Lower Pro- 
vinces and acting commissioner of the 
Sundarbans. On 20 Aug. 1825, during the 
first Burmese war, he became secretarv to 
the commissioner of Pegu and Ava. On 

21 April 1S2i» he was appointed deputy- 
secretary in the judicial and territorial de- 
partments. After a visit to England ex- 
tending from April 1S2S to November 1831, 
lie became on t> IVc. officiating junior secre- 
tary to the sadr board of revenue. On 
3 April 1S^2 he was nominated deputy- 
ikvretary in the general department ; on 

22 Feb. 1S33 magistrate ana collector of 
Tipperah ; on 1 July magistrate and col- 
lector of customs and land revenue at 
Chitt&gong ; and on 4 Nov. magistrate and 

collector of Agra, On 13 May 1835 he was 
placed in the important post of secretarv to 
the government of Bengal in the judicial 
and revenue departments. This office he 
continued to hold until his final return to 
England early in 1839. It was one of es- 
pecial authority, because, during the absence 
of the governor-general, George Eden, earl 
of Auckland [q. v.], who was also, in ac- 
cordance with custom, lieutenant-governor 
of Bengal, the administration of affairs 
of the province fell almost entirely into the 
hands of the secretary. So great was 
Mangles's influence, that the natives used to 
say tnat there were over them three English 
lords — 'Lord Colvin [see John Russell 
ColvinJ, Lord Auckland, and Lord Mangles/ 
On 28 May 1838 he also filled the position 
of temporary member of the sadr board of 

On his return to England he turned his 
attention to politics, and at the general elec- 
tion of 1841 he was returned to parliament 
on 1 July in the liberal interest for Guild- 
ford, a borough which his father had repre- 
sented from 1831 till 1837. This seat he 
retained until 1858. He gained a high re- 

futation in parliament as an authority on 
ndia matters. He was elected a director 
of the East India Company on 14 April 
1847, and filled the post of chairman in 
1857-8, when he was succeeded by Sir Fre- 
derick Currie [a. v.], the last chairman of 
the company. Mangles retired from parlia- 
ment on his appointment, on 21 Sept. 1868, 
as a member of the council of India. This 
office he held until 1866, when he resigned 

| his seat on account of advancing age. He 
died in London at 23 Montagu Street, 

: Montagu Square, on 16 Aug. 1877. On 
16 Feb. 1830 he married Harriet, third 
daughter of George Newcome of Upper 
Wimpole Street. By her he had issue. His 

1 son, Ross Mangles, obtained the Victoria 

1 Cross for gallant conduct near Arrah in 
1857 during the Indian mutiny. 

Mangles was the author of: 1. ' A Brief 
Vindication of the East India Company's 
Government of Bengal from the Attacks of 
Messrs. [Robert" 1 Rickards and [John] Craw- 
furd • "q. v.], London, 1830, 8vo. 2. 4 Chris- 
tian Reasons of a Member of the Church of 
England for being a Reformer,' London, 
1840, Svo. He contributed several articles 
on Indian affairs to the 'Edinburgh Re- 

[Illustrated London News, 9 Oct. 1858 (with 
portrait); Times, 21 Aug. 1877; Ann. Re£. 
1877. ii. 156; Dodwell and Miles'* Bengal Civil 
Servants, 1839: Temple's Men and Events of 
my Time in India, 1882, p. 412.] E. L C. 

MANNING, ANNE [J807-1879V mu- 
writer, eldest child of William 
■ i 1778-1869), insurance broker 
. London, and granddaughter of 
aiog, unitarian minister of Exeter, 
n London OB 17 Rib. L807. Her 
■ was Joan What more, daughter of 
iek UibaoD, principal surveyor of the 
-!■:*, cousin, ward, and heir-at-law 
Lamb's 'most consistent living 
_ Jel of modern politeness.' Joseph Pnice 
(EtMvmofElia:' Modern Gallantry' I. Wil- 
liam Oka Wanning [q.T.] was her brother; 
James Manning;, serjeant-at-law [q. v.], her 
r William Montague Manning 
'■">*, attorney-general, and judge of 
■mIIl- und Manning's ' Reports in 

... bb's Bench,' 3 Tola., 1834, was 

her first oousin. 

Anne was educated by her mother, an 
mr<'ompli»hed scholar. The associations of 
tea, whither the family removed 
a Hrunswick Square when ahewas eight, 
Test in history. Sheacquired 
wledge of several foreign languages, had 
> for science, and obtained a gold medal 
i Royal Academy of Arts for a copy 
if Murillo's 'Flower Girl.' The Mannings 
s John Gait's house when he left 

■ first book, ' A Sister's Gift: Conver- 

i Sacred Subjects,' London, 1820, 

i, written for the brothers and sisters 

d she taught, and published on her own 

t, realised a profit of 60fc The next, 

>s from the History of Italy,' London, 

. was the only ono published under 

her own nam-. 'Village lielles,' her first 

. rokh, 1838, Stoj 2nd edit. 1850), 

written at. Norbury Priory, near MiekL- 

, which was the Mannings' home for 

a and Married Life of Mis- 
I Mary 1'uwell, afterwards Mistress Mil- 
la diary form, first appeared in 
1 Sharp" 1 '* Magaiine' in 1849, and brought 
Mi** Manning considerable notice. She was 
n thenceforward as M lie author of Mary 
' The tale was reprinted 1649, 1865 
it.), 1806, 1874, and with a sequel, 
borah's Diary.' 1860 and I860. Even 
b successful was *Ths Household oi Sir 
. Horsy which, appears I in the same 
sod was republish,-! 
Of both these stories (of which 
i and German translations also ap- 
ny and Violet, a Tale of 
■ ■ edil ions, Must rated by 
i Rail (on, and with intro- 
■ by the Rev. W. 11. Hutton, were 

issued 1897, 181(5, and 1896 : 

was made ('Fraser's Slagatine,' 
toI. lii.j July 1855, p. 104) upon them aa 
' spurious antiques,' and the public was 
seriously warned not to accept them as au- 
thentic diaries. They were of course in- 
tended it fiction. ISoth Archbishop Tait 
and Cardinal Manning spoke in high terms of 
their historical accuracy. 

About I860 Bliss Manning settled fit Rei- 
gate Hill, and remained there until near 
her death nt her sisters' house at. Tun bridge 
Wells on 14 Sept. 1X79. She was buried 
with her parents in Mickleham churchyard, 
near Dorking. 

A most prolific, miter, Hist Uewiina was 
at her best in her historical tales of the 
sixteenth century. AH her books evince in- 
tensive rending, and some of them perhaps a 
gentle pedantry. Her 'Family Pictures* 
and ' Passages in an Authoress's Life ' con- 
tain interesting autobiographical remiuis- 

Otber works by her, all published nt. Lon- 
don, are: 1. 'Quemil'hilippa'slJoIdenRttle,* 
1851, 8vo. 2. 'The Drawing-room Table 
Book,' 1862, 4to. 3. 'The Colloquies of 
Edwnid l Isborne, Citizen and Clothworker,' 
1862,1853, 1600: -1th ed.l£».Hj,8vo. 4.' The 
Provocations of Madame Palissv,' lM5;t; ,'ird 
ed, 1880, 8vo. 5. 'Cherry and Violet, a 
Tale of the Great 1'lngne,' 1*5:1, 8vo; 2nd 
ed. 1870. 0. 'Jack and the Tanner of 
Wvmondlmm,' 1864, Bvo. 7. ' Chronicles 
of Merry England,' 1854, 8vn. 8. 'Claude 
the Colporteur,' 1654, 8vo. 9, 'The Hill 
Side: Illustrations of some of the simplest 
Terms used in Logic,' 1 * 54, 8 V o. 10. ■ Some 
Account of Mrs. Clariuda Singlehnrt,' 1885, 
8vo. 11. -Stories from the History of the 
Caliph Haroun Al Raschid,' 1856, 8vo. 12. 
' A Subbathat Home,' 1855, 6vo. 13. 'The 
Old Chelsea Run Ileus-,' 1655, 6vo ; 2nd ed. 
1860, 8vn; 3rd ed. 1899, 8vo. 14. 'The 
Week of Darkness : a short Manual for the 
Use and Comfort of Mourners,' 186b, 12mo. 
15. ' Tasso and Leonora : the Commentaries 
of Ser Pantnleone d< E li tonnhacorti,' 1856, 
8vo. 16. ' The Good Old Times : a Tale of 
Anvergne,' 2nd ed. 1657, 8vo. 17. ' Lives 
of Good Servants,' 1857, 8vo. 18. 'Helen 
and Olga : n Russian Story,' 18/57, 8vo. 19. 
'The Year Nine: a Tale of the Tyrol,' 1858, 
8vo, 20. ' The Ladies of Bever Hollow,* 
1858, 8vo. 21. 'Poplar House Academy,' 
1869, 8vo, 2 vols. 22, 'Autobiography of 
Valentine Duval,' translated, 1800, 12mo. 
B& 'The Day ot Small Things,' 1880, 8ro. 
24. 'Town and lor.-i.' 1-1,(1,.-.*,.. 25,'The 
i :: lurid,' 1801, 12mo. 
86, ■ Family Ketone,' l«n,8ra. 27. ' Chro- 




nicle of Ethelfled/ 1801, 8vo. 28. ' A Noble 
Purpose Nobly Won ' (Joan of Arc), 1862, 
8vo ; 2nd ed. 1862 ; 3rd ed. 1870, 8vo. 29. 
'Meadowleigh/l^Kvo. 30. ' TheDuchesa 
of Traietto,' 1863, 8vo. 31. < An Interrupted 
Wedding/ 1864, 8vo. 32. « Belforest,' I860, 
8vo. 33. ' Selvaggio : a Tale of Italian 
Country Life/ Edinburgh, 1866, 8vo. 34. 
'Miss 'Biddy Frobisher/ 1866, 8vo. 35. 
' The Lincolnshire Tragedy : Passages in the 
Life of the Faire Gospeller, Mistress Anne 
Askewe, recounted by Nicholas Mold warp/ 
1866, 8vo. 36. ' The Masque at Ludlow and 
other Romanesques/ 1 866, 8vo. 37. ' Jacques 
Bonneval/ 1868, 16mo. 3«. * The Spanish 
Barber/ 1869, 8vo. 39. ' One Trip More/ 
1870, 8vo. 40. 'Compton Friars/ 1872, 
8vo. 41. *The Lady of Limited Income/ 
1872, 8vo. 42. * Monks Norton/ 1874, 8vo. 
43. ' Heroes of the Desert : the Story of the 
Lives of Moffat and Livingstone/ 1875, 8vo ; 
2nd ed. 1885, 8vo. 4-1. 'An Idyll of the 
Alps/ 1876, 8vo. 

From 1868 to 1876 Miss Manning con- 
tributed regularly articles, ver^e, and stories 
to Dr. Whittemore's magazine, ' Golden 
Hours/ in which the following serials by her, 
apparently never republished, appeared : 
' Madame Prosni and M adame Bleav : a Story 
of the Siege of LaRochelle/ 1S(W;** Rosita,' 
lSd9;'On~the Grand Tour.' 1870: 'Octavia 
Solara/ 1S71 ; * Illusions Dispelled/ 1^71. 

[Passages in a:i Authoress's Life in Golden 
Hours, January to May 1872; Wonit-n Novelists 
of Queen Victoria's Heun, article by Charlotte j 
Mary Yon^e; Kiiiflinh woman's Review, February 
1880, notes by Mrs. Ratty; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. viii. 10; Atkuiizeam, 30 Nov. 1S78; 
private information.] C. F. 2?. 

(,/?. 1652), dramatist, of Italian origin, pro- 
bably belonged to the Florentine family of 
Mannucci, some members of which were in 
the service of the Medici iof- Crollalaxza, 
Ih'ziotian'o «SY. »n\.i>- /i , /ei*>. , *ii v, ii. 66: Ape- 
moi.lo, Mfirri' ttti dr Iiv:ci % eJ. Passerini. ii. 
6J»2 .'<>. In 15>7 one Giacopo Man vice i was 
among the agents in Italy who were in cor- 
respondence with i lie English foreign oifice 
{llitn'r-l J Vy »</•.«. iii. ittlM. Cosuv* was 
doubtless r-lated to Krane* *sco Mamnvi. win 
was at one tim.» in the domestic service of 
Kdward Worton.tirs: baron Wot: on \. v.". 
and tVo-.r. U*J\ in :h.i: oi Kdward Co-iway. 
tirs: \i>,vuiv.: Conwav icf. ('.:.'. vV ::> P:r .■ ■■'•.«. 
Pom. \&2i\ \ yy. ■_>«. l>S HV. 4*U : 162<- \K 
p. »» l N \ IL 1 vv.n-. :,i have hmwlf j.'i:;-\i 
the li.i'.^eh.i'.d .»:' Ja-.u-.s iY:iv s »:ou. third o.trl 
ot North.impton, who encouraged his lite- 
rar\ :.i>; k s and ambitions. Purine th-» civil 
wavs be ;o«snd the roya!:*:* and obtained 

commissions in the king's army as captain 
and major of foot. He commonly described 
himself as Major Cosmo Manuche. He served 
continuously to the end of the war in Eng- 
land, and then joined the royalists in Ire- 
land. Returning to England, he sought 
a livelihood by 'boarding scholars' and 
writing plays, most of which he dedicated 
to Lord Northampton. His poverty was 
great. In his need he did not disdain the 
service of the Protector. On 4 June 1656 
he sent, through Secretary Thurloe, a petition 
to Cromwell begging for the payment of 
20/., which he claimed to be the balance of 
an account due to him for 'making dis- 
coveries of the disturbers of our present 
happy government ' ( Cal. State Papers, Bom. 
16*35-6, p. 348). At the time of the Re- 
storation he represented to adherents of 
Charles II that he had often suffered im- 
prisonment during the Protectorate for his 
lovaltv to the cause of the king. On 12 Dec. 
1661 Lord Berkeley of Stratton, Sir Gilbert 
Talbot, and Sir Lewis Dwe signed a certi- 
ficate attesting Manuche s military achieve- 
ments in Charles 1*8 behalf, and the present 
ill -health and destitution not only of him- 
self but of his wife and two children (Eger- 
ton MS. 2623, f. 34). 

No less than twelve plays — three in print 
and nine in manuscript — have been assigned 
to Manuche. The two bv which he is best 
known were published in 1652, with his 
name on the title-page. The titles run: 
* The Just General : a Tragi : Comedy, written 
by Major Cosmo : Manuche. Loudon, Printed 
for M. M. T. C. and G. Bedell, and are to be 
sold at their Shop at the Middle Temple 
gate in Fleet Street, 1652:' and *The Loyal 
Lovers: a Tragi Comedy Written by Major 
Cosmo Manuche. London, Printed for 
Thomas Kglestield at the Brazen Serpent in 
St. Paul's Church-vard, 1052/ Each is de- 
scribed as a tragi-comedy. In neither does 
the language show any trace of its authors 
foreign origin. According to his own ac- 
count 'The Just General ' was his first lite- 
rary effort. Neither piece was acted. 'The 
Just General' is dedicated to the Marquis of 
Northampton and his wife Isabella, and has, 
I y way of prohvue. a dialogue between cha- 
racters called * Prologue * and » Critick.' * The 
Loyal L overs' is defaced by much coarseness. 
Hugh Peters is furiouslv denounced under 
the name of" Sodome.* Manuche's metrical 
method? are curious. In the ■ Loval Lovers ' 
there :s some prose, but the rest of that play 
ar.vl the wh^le of the *Ju?t General'* are 
written in an eccentrically irregular form of 
blank verse, which is rhythmical and not 
metrical, and is barely distinguishable from 

proae. A tliird printed play, a tragedy, called 
*Tb* Boat aid,* whioh was published anony- 
It also in 1W52, has been assigned tra- 
I iliat theory of 
hip iaacoopted by Charles Lamb, who 
quotation (ran it iu his 'Specimenr 
' Dramatic Poets. ' Langba ine trace, 
it* plots to episodes in ' The English Lovers 

■ unfortunate 
Spaniard ' (Eiigi. trans!, by Leonard Digges, 

■ ,■■ |i[. i! igue the author describes 
Li- work «b translated from the Spanish. A 
swill pari, of ' The Bastard ' is in prose, the 
rest U in rane, which is of a far more 
regular kind than is to be met with in 
Mannchu'a undoubted work. 

Uiihop Percy found, about 1770, nine 
manuscript fiiny- other than those already 
named in the Murquia of Northampton s 
at Castle Asllby, the greater cumber 
hick he attributed on reasonable grounds 
tanuche's pen. Eight, which are written 
Bete, are all in the same hand- 
Uf Ukase, two in blank verse, en- 
titled respectively 'The Banished Shep- 
herdess ' and 'The Feast: a comedy,' have 
dwlica)ions to the Marquis of Northampton, 
which are signed 'Cos:M"auuehe.' The third 
and fourth, ' The Mandrake' (a comedy in 
! 'Agamemnon: a tragedy,' are 
uu finished. The tilth, a hi auk- verse tragedy, 
is named by Percy ' Leoutius, King of Oi- 
prus ; ' the sixth, 'The Captives,' seems to be 
an adaptation in prose from Plautus ; the 
lijriimne.' a blank-verse tragedy, 
is ' vury much torn;' and the eighth, a tra- 
in blank verse without a title, opens 
between three characters named 
.__iua, Pajiiniuiiiis, ami Ardent) ms. A 
uscript of a pro-e untitled comedy in 
"o, in which tlii 

:ii Castle Ashby, and 
was tentatively ascribed by Bishop Percy to 

[ADgbaiae'a English Dm- 

»i:li Bishop Pwcy's manuscript 

■ an Library, C -t.i, d. IS] ; 

. ii-aj - (.'hrnri.of 

■ ■ 

S. L. 

MARGARET, the .Unn of Nobway 
icotland. born in 1283, 
r i>!' Eric II of Norway. Her 

liter of Alexander I II of 

1 l i [q. v.] Alexander, 
exander III, 

■ :. the nobles 
:.. Hi84 and 

to ackno»l I 


as heir of the kingdom, reserving the rights 
of any children who might thereafter be born 
to the king, and of any posthumous child w!m 
might be born to his son Alexander. On 
10 "March 1S80 Alexander III was killed, 
and on 11 April the estates appointed six 
recent* to govern for the infant quean. 
Edward I obtained a bill of diapenmtion 
from HonoriusIV iu May 1287, thai bis suns 
and daughters might marry within the pro- 
hibited degrees, and iu May 1 '263 sent am- 
bassadors to Nicolas IV to obtain the p"p'A 
consent to the marriage of h is son Ed ward and 
Margaret. Eric, who was largely indebted to 
the English lung, seat three auibassadors to 
England in September, us from himself and 
Margaret, to request Edward to secure the 
rights of the queen. At Edward's instance 
four commissioners were sent by the regents 
of Scotland to meet them and three com- 
missioners appointed by himself at Salis- 
bury, where on 6 Nov" it was agreed that. 
before 1 Nov. next following Eric should 
send Margaret either to England or Scot- 
land free from uoy matrimonial engagement; 
Edward promised that if Scotland was iu a 
settled state lie would ■am] her thither nam 
■jving ii promise Irnm the Scots 
that they would not give her in marriage 
except as ho should ordain and with her 
father's consent. The hill of dispensation 
for the marriage of the young Edward aud 
Margaret was obtained a few days later. 

Tidings of the proposed marriage having 
maenad Scotland, the estates of that king- 
dom at a meeting at Brighara in March 
1290 wrote to Eiiwurd warmly approving 
his design, aud to Eric urging him to send 
his daughter to England speedily. By the 
articles of Margaret's marriage treaty, 
arranged on 11 July, I'd ward promised that 
the kingdom of .Scotland should remain 
separate and independent, saving his righta 
in the marches and elsewhere. He requisi- 
tioaeil a ship at Yarmouth to fetch Margaret, 
— i caused it to be litted out and victualled 
Matthew da Colurnbers, his butler. The 
p was manned by forty seamen, and as Eric 
ms to have been expected to accompany 
his daughter great prorisi I In 

the voyage, thirty-one hogsheads and one 
pipe of wine, ten barrels of beer, fifteen salted 
oxen, four hundred dried fish and tVO li hji- 
dredstocL fish, live hundred walnuts, aud two 
loaves of sugar being put on board, The 
ship arrived at Bergen, and took Margaret 
on board without h»r father. On 7 Uct. 
William Eraser (o* [297) [q, v . 
St. Andrew., mote (■■ Kdwud wring «Kt 

hi' and (In: English ].v 
themarriage bad heard I ; 




ill, and that it was then generally believed 
that she had died on her voyage at^ one of 
the Orkneys. The report was true. Nothing 
is known of the circumstances of her death 
or burial. About ten years later a young 
woman came to Norway from Germany de- 
claring herself to be Margaret, Eric's daugh- 
ter. She said that she had been kidnapped at 
the Orkneys by a woman of high rank, 
Ingebiorg, the wife of Thore Hakonsson, 
and had been sold by her. Many believed 
her story. The king, Hakon V, who had 
succeeded his brother Eric, caused her to be 
tried, and she was burnt alive at Bergen in 
1301. Her cruel death excited much com- 
passion; she was believed by many to have 
been Eric's daughter, and was for a time 
reverenced at Bergen as a saint. 

[Docs, illustr. Scottish Hist. vol. i. ed. Steven- 
son; Rymer'sFffidera, vol. ii. (both Record publ.); 
Ann. Dunst. ap. Ann. Monast. iii. 359 ; Cotton 
an. 1290 (both Rolls Ser.); Heminffbnrgh an. 
1291 ; Trivot an. 1289 (both Engl. Hist. Soc) ; 
Torfaus's Hist. Nor. pt. iv. bk. 7, cc. 1, 5, bk. 
8, c. 1 ; Ann. Island. Reg. ap. S3. Rerum Dan. 
iii. 123. ed. Langebek ; Munch's Det Norske 
Polks Hist. iv. 192 sqq., 344 sqq. ; Burtons 
Hist, of Scotland, ii. 42 sqq., 112-13.] 

W. H. 

MARKS, HENRY STACY (1829-1898), 
artist, the youngest of four children, was 
born on 13 Sept. 1829 in Great Portland 
Street, West, and baptised in All Souls', 
Langham Place. His father, Isaac Daniel 
Marks, after practising for a time as a solicitor 
in Bloomsbury, took to his father's business 
of a coach-builder in Langham Place. The 
artist's father was a devoted student of 
Shakespeare, which accounts for the subjects 
of some of his earliest paintings. The firm, 
Marks & Co., prospered at first, and it was 
understood that Henry should carry it on. 
His talent for drawing was shown very 
early, and when he leu school he studied 
heraldry, so that he might be able to paint 
the crests and coats of arms on carriage doors 
and panels. Sufficient employment of this 
kind was quickly found for him in his father's 
business, but at the same time he attended 
evening classes at the well-known art school 
in Newman Street of James Mathews Leigh 
[q. v.] In 1851, having 1 failed in the previous 
year, he obtained admission to the Academy 
schools, but continued his studies with 
Lei^h. A picture called ' Hamlet, Horatio, 
Osnc/ painted in 1851, was hung in the 
Portland Gallery with Rossetti's 'Annun- 
ciation.' (Hatherlev, Leigh's successor, sat 
for the Hamlet.) *The possessor of much 
dry humour, and a good comic actor, Marks 
was deservedly popular and never wanted 

friends among artists. The closest in those 
early days were Philip Hermogenes Calde- 
ron, Mr. Val Prinsep, Mr. W. W. Ouless, 
Mr. G. A. Storey, and Mr. Alfred Parsons. 

In January 1852 he stayed for five months 
in Paris with Calderon. He studied first 
with M. Picot, pupil of David, and after- 
wards in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In his 
absence his father's firm failed, and from 
that time forward he had to depend solely 
on his own exertions. 

In 1853 he exhibited for the first time at 
the Royal Academy. His work was a half- 
length of 4 Dogberry/ ' With many other 
students,' Marks wrote, ' I was much influ- 
enced by the pre-Raphaelite school, and that 
influence was very evident in the picture.' 
It was placed next to Holman Hunt's 
' Strayed Sheep/ had the advantage of being 
very well hung, and found a purchaser. 
Henceforth Marks was a frequent exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, and he soon found a 

merous admirer in Charles Edward Mudie 
q. v.], the founder of Mudie's Library. 

efore 1860 Mudie bought two of his most 
important paintings, * Toothache in the Mid- 
dle Ages' (1856), and 'Dogberry's Charge 
to the Watch' (1869). To the same period 
belonged the ' Gravedigger's Riddle,' which 
he also sold. Next in point of interest 
came the * Franciscan Sculptor's Model,' a 
very humorous subject : the matter in hand 
a gargoyle; the model a country bumpkin, 
with features burlesqued to convey the idea 
of spouting. In 1860 Mudie invited Marks 
to accompany him to Belgium, and in 1863 
he repeated the visit with his friends Yeames 
and Hodgson. In the * Jester's Text/ 
painted in 1862, there are traces of Flemish 

In order to supplement his resources Marks 
did much besides painting pictures. He prac- 
tised drawing on wood, contributed cuts to a 
paper called ' The Home Circle/ and illus- 
trated some books. He also taught drawing 
for a short time, was largely emploved by 
the firm of Clayton & Bell, the makers of 
stained glass, and did decorative work of all 
sorts. lie designed the proscenium both for 
the Gaiety Theatre, London, and the Prince's 
Theatre, Manchester. The merit of his 
varied work attracted Ruskin's attention, 
and letters from Ruskin show how sincere 
was his appreciation of Marks's work. The 
studies in natural history, in which Marks 
in course of time specialised, particularly 
appealed to Ruskin, who saw in Marksa 
animals characteristics not unlike those 
which he discerned in Turner and Bewick. 
Marks all his life was a close observer of 
the ways of birds, and his excellent draw- 


particular faculty (le.hainoaT), 

being manifestly on 

.1 and inherent part of you, 

i earnestly developed.' 

I an introduction to Hugh Lupus 

Ti rst duke of Westminster [q. v. 

r.idt.'d in commissions for the 

i: KiiMn llali.Clie-lnre. Hi* I li--t 

undertaking was a frieze repr 

Canterbury Pilgrims, which occupies two 

walls of a. large saloon. Thev are painted on 

canvas more than thirty-five feet 

I'll" designs for the work, exe- 

rater-colourt, were exhibited at the 

Royal Academy in 1876. The paintings, 

commenced in 1876, were completed in 1878. 

There followed a further commission for 

intings of birds for the walls of a smaller 

Wt&n panels in all) were 

bated at Agnew's Gallery in May 1880. 

kin wrote of them: 'I must say how en- 

T glad I aro to see the strength of a 

d painter set upon Natural History, and 

rise fact and abstract of animal 

character used as a principal element in 

DMOontion.' Marks executed similar deco- 

:■„ fin Stewart Hodgson's houses in 

.nilley Street, London, and Lythe 

Hill, Haaletnere. 

Id I86i! Marks removed from Camden 
Town io Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood, 
.''■[it's Park close at hand, he pur- 
aaed his studies of birds, and he and some 
friends who lived near founded the artists' 
club known as the ' Clique.' Among his 
ron-t intimate friends were Frederick Walker 
and Charles Keene. He had first met 
Walker at the Langhnm Society's Sketching 
Club, and Walker's twin-sister married 
Marks's younger brother. 

In January 1871 Marks was elected, 

v. itk Walker and Woolner, to the 

■saociateship of the Royal Academy. He 

imied there in the previous year 'St. 

Francis preaching to the Birds.' He was 

I an associate of the Water-colour 

■!]. After the 

appearance of ' Convocation ' in the summer 

»aa elected a full member of the 

Aault in* . His diploma work, ■ Science is 

one of his finest achieve- 

mtnts. [fl teda full me ro- 

" * f of his liter works are ' The Ornitko- 

•Utl ofhia In 

logist," 1873; Molly Post Rots,' 1875; 'The 
Apothecary,' 1 870;' ' The Gentle Cra It , : 1 »:i ; 
•The I'rofessor,' 1883; 'A ("iuod Storv.' l*K,j; 
'The Hermit, and Pelicans.' 1-**; ' S'-ns in 
the Village,' 1889; 'An Odd Volume.' \".<\. 
In 18*9 and again in MX) he delighted the 
art-loving world with exhibitions ot'birdaat 
the rooms of the Fine Art Society in Bond 
Street; hut it, is not only on these that his 
reputation depends. The beat of the subjecl- 
* are equally good of their kind. All 
1 painting* are in pure colour, and their 
freshness of hue shows ut present no diminu- 
tion. His land and sea scapes in water- 
col ours also have no table serenity and hi eudth. 
His favoured resort was the Suffolk coast, 
and he painted many scenes round South- 
wold and Walberswick. 

In I*!*!, on account of failing health, he 
joined the : retired' A.«il-iiii.iiiii>. il.- died 
at St. Edmund's Terrace, Primrose Hill, on 
9 Jan. 1898, and was buried in Hampetsad 
cemetery. He was twice married : first, 
in 1856, to Helen Dryadale ; and secondly, 
in 1893, to Mary Harriet Kerope. 

A somewhat rarnblingaiitobiogTaphy which 
Marks wrote in his latest years appeared 
after his death, under the title ' Pen and 
Pencil Sketches,' a vols. 1894. His portrait 
was frequently painted. A half-length show- 
ing the profile painted by Mr. Ouless may 
be considered the best. Another portrait 
was by Calderon. A water-colour drawing 
by Mr. Ilerkomer, done at one sitting, is 
exact as a likeness and splendidly drawn. 

[Maria's Tennnd Pencil. -Sketches, 1894, 2 vols.; 
Times, 11 and 14 Jan. 1898; Lifo and Letters 
of Fredoriek Walker, by Marks* nephew, John 
He orge Marks, 1896; prirate information.] 

sively Mbs. Chubch and Mrs. Leas (1838- 
1899), novelist, born at Brighton on 9 July 
1838, was sixth daughter and tenth child of 
Captain Frederick Marryat fq. v.] and hia 
wife Catherine, daughter of Sir Stephen 
Shairp of Houston, Linlithgowshire. She 
was educated at home, and was always a 
great reader. On 13 June 1854, at the age 
of sixteen, she. married ut Penang T. Ross 
Church, afterwards colonel in the Madras 
staff corps, with whom sho travelled over 
nearly the whole of India. She had by him 
eight children. She outlived him, and in 
1890 married, as her 5e co nd husband, Colonel 
Francis Lean of the royal marine light in- 

Her first novel, 'Love's Conflict.' written 
to distract her mind in ihe intervals of 
nursing her chili 
peered in 1805, 




year of her death she published some ninety j 
novels, many of which, notwithstanding | 
their mediocre character, were translated 
into German, French, Swedish, Flemish, and 
Kus*ian, and became popular in America. 
From 1*72 to 1876 she edited the monthly 
periodical called ' Ixmdon Society.' 

In 1*72 she published in two volumes the 
1 Life and Letters of Cantain Marryat ; ' it 
does not. present, a complete portrait of her 
father ; the scanty material is supplemented 
by too many trilling' details. In the latter 
years of her life she was much attracted 
to spiritualism. Although a Roman ca- 
tholic, she received permission from her 
director, Father Dalgairn of the Brompton 
oratory, to pursue researches of the kind in the 
cauwi of science. ' There is no Death/ pub- 
lished in 1 HOI, gives a detailed account of 
the various media with whom she came in 
contact, and of the seances she attended. 
Although it. hears evident, marks of the 
author's sincerity, it is difficult to believe 
that a large element of fiction does not enter 
into the volume. Other bonks dealing with 
Ihe subject are 'The Kisen Dead' 1*93) and 
4 The Spirit World ' ( 1«U). ' Tom Tiddler's 
(iround,' a book of travel (1SH0), is an irre- 
sponsible account of America. 

A woman of varied accomplishments, she 
mlded to tin 1 roles of author and novelist 
those of playwright, comedy act ress, operatic 
singer, giver of lectures and entertainments, 
ami malinger of 11 school of journalism. She 
acted in a drama of her own, entitled ' Her 
World/ produced in London in 1881. She 
died at St.. John's Wood, London, on '27 Oct. 
IS! Hi. 

I Men and Women of the Time, 18H0 ; Alli- 
ImiH-'s Diet.. Suppl. ii. !>8H ; Athi-na-um, 4 Nov. 
ISM; Times, -J8 Oet. 1SU1>.| K. L. 

(iS.'ii* lS'.W), naturalist, born at Birming- 
ham on 8 June 1S.VJ, was the third son of 
William 1\ Marshall, for many years secre- 
tary of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
and himself an enthusiastic naturalist. In 
l*<70 f w hile still :it school. he graduated H.A. 
in thi« London Tniversitv, and in the fol- 
lowing year entered St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, to read for the natural science tripos. 
At that time the M*hool of biology was just 
uri-iiiir. Francis Balfour [q. v.jhnd given it 
a great impetus, and Marshall was one of the 
lirst to take advantage of this change. In 
1S7-I he came out senior in his tripos, and 
lifter graduating B.A. was appointed in the 
early part of lS7o by the Cambridge Uni- 
versity to their table at the new zoological 
station at Naples. In the summer of the 

same year Marshall returned to Cambridge, 
and during the October term he joined Bal- 
four in giving a course of lecturer and labo- 
ratory work in zoology. 

Marshall's next step was to qualify him- 
self for a medical career. In 1*77 tie won 
an open science scholarship at St. Bartholo- 
mew s hospital, and in the same year he 
passed the M.B. examination at Cambridge, 
obtained the London degree of D.Sc.. and 
was elected to a fellowship at St. John's Col- 
lege. These successes were followed by his 
appointment, in 1879, at the early age of 
twenty-seven, to the newly established pro- 
fessorship of zoology at Owens College, 
Manchester, and Marshall soon became 
known for his wonderful skill in teaching 
and his talent for organisation. His insight 
into what had to be done — whether it were 
a research on some zoological problem or 
the reconstruction of a department of study 
— was only equalled by the rapid and skil- 
ful way in which he accomplished the end 
in view. 

In zoological science Marshall's name is 
intimately connected with important dis- 
covery in embryology. At the time of his 
appointment to the chair at Owens College 
he was already known as the author of im- 
portant memoirs on the origin and develop- 
ment of the nervous system in the higher 
animals; and after his election Marshall 
continued, both by his own contributions 
and in conjunction with his pupils, to influ- 
ence the work and views of fellow-natural- 
ists. Between 1878 and 1882 Marshall pub- 
lished ' The Development of the Cranial Nerves 

1881 (in conjunction with W. Baldwin 
Spencer) ; i On the Head-cavities and as- 
sociated Nerves of Elasmobranchs,' 1881. 
These papers appeared" in the 'Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science,' and in 
1^8^ Marshall published a memoir on 'The 
Segmental Value of the Cranial Nerves ' in 
the 'Journal of Anatomy and Physiology/ 
The importance and originality of these solid 
contributions to knowledge were widely re- 
cognised, and, together with his later re- 
searches upon the anatomy of Pennatnlid 
corals, they form Marshall's most important 
contributions to zoology. 

Marshall's lasting work, however, was his 
development of zoological teaching and his 
organisation of the courses of biological study 
at the Victoria University. As a teacher 
Marshall excelled. He was clear, accurate, 
enthusiastic, and keenly alive to the diffi- 
culties of those who approach zoological 

■ would point 
!1 I how In ov 

■ ' is' to 511 

. Iv of bis three 
ka, -Tli" ftog' CI882, 7th ."lil. 

■■■:. r.tb ■.■.in. 

■ Vertebrate Embryology ' (1803). ' 
i r.nd logical style of ' 
t ■» ft lecturer mm- he gained from his 
I Addresses' (1804), 
■ "The Darwinian Theory' (1894). The j 
. iich be embodied the point at | 
_«)iie in some bnppy phrase made an inefface- 
able impression upon his audience, Thus 
lb* theory that animals recapitulate in 
tbiiir own development the anceslry of the 
rate will never be forgotten by those who 
beard it com pressed into the pregnant 
plunje, 'They climb up their genealogical 

Marshall's greatest distinction 

his capacity for DigSiiis&tioiL As secre- 

jid subsequently as chairman, of the 

Marshall rendered most 

rfioM in Che founding and nd- 

■■■■ri.-i IniviTsity. The 

unices in the 

Science is largely due to his 

: [e was also secretary of the es- 

■■liicnt initiated by the university. 

!.■■ success which in variably 

led any organising work that he under- 

man of great and tireless 
hi* attractive personality ren- 
populnr with hil friends, eol- 
idents. He was an excellent 
bimeelf in training by 
aslant practice. His chief recreation was 
mountain climbing. Though he was dissuaded 
timely death of his friend Francis 
in beginning to climb till he was 
It, Marshall subsequently spent part of 
i«t'h long vacation in climbing in the 
Switzerland, or on the Mont Blanc 
and bo frequently passed the Easter 
and Christmas vacations on the mountains of 
Wale* and of the English lake district. He 
wa» always a careful climber, and had ac- 
i-'-nMi- experience of rock-work. 
I.ii.i he was engaged with 
|. holographing the rocks 
fihyll on Scafell, a rock gave way 
liini, and falling backwards he was 
1 r . His death could not 

: ;b cannot be 
from the sport of mountaineering. 


on the looke below Lord's Rata 
marks the spot where his body fell. 

_M:ir-linll graduated 1 M.A" in 1878 and 
M.D. in 1882, H,. •.ms elected a fallow of 
the Royal Bocietj in 188c and served on its 

council HSM --'. U>: \va* president nf 

I> at the meeting of the British .* 

■tL oc da in 1680, mnd pa™ one of the popular 
discourses before the British Association at 
the Edinburgh im.'.'l inr m ]s'li'. ][.. tt ,i a 
for many years president of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society. A list of his chief 
memoirs is given in ' The Owens College, 
Manchester,' 1800, pp. 210, 21 1. 

[Obituary notice* in Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, 18H+-.5, ™I. Ivii. pp. iii-r, and 
Naturu. 11 Jan. !8t"H,p 2W ; irif'jrnialionkiiiilly 
supplied by 1'rof. II. H, Itiio.i. i'.li.S.. and par. 
sonal k a owl edge.] f, W. O. 

IWjF,), Linimnl painter, born about 1787, es- 
een picturea, chiefly portraits of 
racehorses and their owners, at the lloyal 
Academy, 1801-13 and 1818-8. Hie por- 
traits of sporting characters included those 
Of J. Q. Shaddiclc, IBQC.and Daniel Lambert, 
1807. Two pictures of lighting Docks, inhi- 
bited in iHl 2, wets engraved in mezzotint by 
Charles Turner in Ihe same year with tbe 
titles of 'The Cock in Feather' and 'The 
Trimm'd Cock.' Other engraved picture* an 
' Hap-hiuuird ' and ' Mnly Moloch,' rnce- 
horseH belonging lo the Earl of Diirliugton, 
engraved as a pair by W. and O. OookeifSOG, 
from pictures at Haov Castle ; ' Tbe Earl of 
Darlington and his foxhounds.' bv T. Denn, 
1805, and the companion suhpct, ' Francis 
Dukinfield AstlfT and his Harrier*,' hv It, 
Woodman, 1809; 'SirTeddy.' mezzotint by 
Charles Turner, Is(Hj ' Sancho,' a pointer 
belonging to Sir John Shelley, etched by 
Charles Turner in 1808 ; and ; Diamond.' a 
racehorse, engraved in mezzotint by W 
Barnard in 1811. 

Sixtj paiiitiiivs of sportsmen, horses, and 
dogs by Marshall were engraved by John 
Scott for Wketde's 'Sporting Magazine,' 
vols, vii-lxxxi., and eight types o['h..i:s.-- by 
Marshall, also engraved bv Scott, appeared 
in 'The Sportsman's repository, 1 1820. 
Marshall's exhibited and engraved workB 
represent but a small proportion of the com- 
missions which he carried out. for patrons of 
the turf and masters of hounds throughout 
the country. A number of his pictures of 
horses are in the collection of Kir Walter 
GLlbey. About 1800-10 Marshall was living 
at 23 Beaumont Street, Har le 
had various later addresses in London, but 
was often described aa 'Marshall of New- 
market, ' whew he chiefly lived. He died in 




the Hackney Road, at the age of sixty-eight, ' in 1899. All her tales hare a high moral and 
on 24 July 1835. < religious tone. Many have been translated; 

[Royal Academy Catalogues; Gent. Mag. several were included in the Tauchnitx 
1835, ii. 331 ; B-inks's Index of Engravings in Library. John Nichol and J. A. Symonds, 
the Sporting Magazine, pp. 17, 109 ; Redgrave's among others, were warm in their praises of 
Diet, of Artists.] C. D. them. Canon Ainger, when advocating that 

MARSHALL, EMMA (1830-1899), no- , a memorial, which ultimately took the form 

1K09, Hannah (Ransome), a quakeress, was , and declared that her stories 'have been the 
bom at Northrepps Hill House, near Cromer, means of awakening and cultivating a taste 
in 18:30. The lam ily soon removed to Nor- j for history and literature throughout the 
wich. Miss Martin has depicted her early ; English-speaking world. 7 
childhood very faithfully in one of her first | Mrs. Marshall died on 4 May 1899 at 
stories, 'The Dawn of Life' (1867). She was Clifton, and was buried on the 9th in the 
educated at a private school until the age of ' cemetery of Long Ashton. Two portraits are 
«i x teen. The proximity of Norwich Cathedral included in 'Emma Marshall, a Biographical 
and its precincts strongly influenced her sub- ' Sketch/ by her daughter, Beatrice Marshall, 
sequent lino of thought. When as a girl she 1 1900. 

read Longfellow's ' Evangeline/ she was so [Memoir by Beatrice Marshall, 1900; Alii- 
much impressed with it that she wrote to the 


met, and thus began a correspondence that 
astt'd until her death. About 1849 she left 
Norwich with her mother to live at Clifton, 
Bristol, where acquaintance with Dr. Adding- 
ton Symonds gave them a passport to the 
society of the place. In 1854 she married Hugh 
(iraham Marshall, who was in the service of 
tho West of England bank. The earlv years 
of her married 1 ife were spent at Wells, txeter, 

bone's Diet Snppl. ii. 1078-9; Western Daily 
Press, 5 and 10 May 1899; Bristol Times and 
Mirror, 5 May 1899.] E. L. 


(1813-1894), sculptor, born at Gilmour 
Place, Edinburgh, on 18 March 1813, was 
eldest son of William Marshall, goldsmith, 
and Annie Calder, his wife. Educated at 
the high school and university, he com- 
menced his art studies at the Trustees' Aca- 

nndCUoucester; and Longfellow, in reference , demy in 1830, and four years later went to 
to the continual Hitting from one cathedral I London, where he worked under Sir Francis 

lown to another, called her ' Queen of 
Summer, templo-haunting Martlet.' There 
were three sons and four daughters of the 
marriage. She finally settled at Clifton, 
and began to write from a desire to amuse 
and instruct young people. Her first story, 
4 1 1 appy Days at Fernbank/ was pub- 
lislied in 18(51. Between that date and her 
death she wrote over two hundred stories. 
This enormous production was stimulated 
by heavy losses in 1878, when the failure of 
the West of England bank not only swept 
away her husband's income and position, but 
involved him as a shareholder in certain 

Legatt Chantrey [q. v.] and Edward Hodges 
Baily [q. v.], and in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he gained a silver medal in 
1835. He then spent two years (1836-8) in 
Rome, and in 1839 he settled permanently 
in London. In 1835, two vears after he had 
exhibited first in the Royal Scottish Academy, 
he exhibited in London, and in 1844 he was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy, 
and in 1852 an academician, lie had been 
elected A.R.S.A. in 1840, but resigning when 
he received the London honour, he was made 
an honorary member at a later date. In 
recognition of his services as a British com* 

liabilities. These Mrs. Marshall cleared olf . missioner at the Paris Exposition of 1878 he 
with indefatigable courage. Of 'Life's After- | was appointed chevalier of the Legion of 
math' (187(5), perhaps tho most popular of Honour. He retired from the Royal Aca- 
her novels, thirteen thousand copies have demy in 1890, exhibited there for tho last 
been issued. She had a special faculty for time in the following year, and, having coin- 
turning to account dim legend or historical 1 pleted his last work in 1893, died in Loudon 
incident, and her books generally have some ' on 16 June 1894. 

celebrated historical character for the central I He was a hard worker, and during his 
figure round whom the story is woven; in ; long career produced a great number of 

Daughter/ was finish od by her daughter Bea- the Art Union of London, and engravings 
trice after her mother's death, and published of many of his sculptures are to be found in 

"im»l.' Classic am! mythological 

■objects, such os 'Thetis rind Achillas,' W 

'Aj«* proving for Light, 1 and ' Zephyr ud 

Aurora ' or 'Helm,' and motive? derived 

Bible or Shakespeare, were 

favourites with him. These often took the 

form of groups, and one of his best-known 

he group symbolic of ' Agriculture ' 

bart Memorial in Hyde Park. In 

Brat premium 

d the competition for the Wellington 

. bat fortunately the design of 

1 ■vens[q.v.] was afterwards adopted. 

r,,.liir-..-.l ft number of memorial 

, of which the marbles of Lords Cla- 

.i and Somen, in Lhe bonaea of parlta- 

iuater, and of Sir George 

i Cope Town, and the bronre of Sir 

■t 1'eel, in Manchester, may be named. 

j style was of it-* tune, and paeudo- 

i his hands was informed by no 

Anees of fancy or real power of technique. 

L certain elegance of design and type and 

■cienliousnessof execution are? the greatest 

merits his art possesses. An exhibitinn of 

his works was held in his studio in Ebury 

Street, London, after his death; and his 

executors presented the original models of 

his more important pieces to museums end 

galleries throughout, the kingdom. 

Be wu twice married: first, in 1842, to 
Marianne, daughter of Dr. Lawrie, Edin- 
lame year; and secondly, 
in [64S| to Margaret, daughter of Joseph 
Calrier of Burnliouse, Mid-( 'alder, by whom 
he had four sons and (wo daughters. 

[Private information; Times iiml Scotsiiinn, 

" i 1894; Beporta of the U.S.A. 1894; 

:.■ uf exhibition) and gallarita.] 

J. L. C. 
RTIN. Liny (181fl If 
e FiFcrr, Helen.] 


■ : ,. RHtd (fir Thomas ByantMartin[q.v.], 
Doc. 1801. He entered the 
. ■■.rved under his father's 
Si lu-ldt, and in January ISlrt 
to 1 he A Iceste, then going to 
in* willi Lord Amherst [see Maxwell, 
iMlUUti MacLeod, John], After his 
Prince Regent yacht 
1 [ward Hamilton fq.v.j, and tn the 
Glasgow frigate ill Hi-' Mediterraiiean witli 
Captain Anthony Ms itland. tin 15Dec.l820 
he was promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Forte, and a few months Inter was moved into 
lh* Aurora, going nut in tie Smith American 
station, where, oh H Feb. 1823, be was pro- 
moted to bo commander of the Fly sloop, 
toL. ni. — svv- 


In her he rendered valuable assistance to tbe 
British merchants at Calloo in a time of civil 
war, and was ever afterwards best known in 
tbe navy as ' Flv ' Martin, Hu attained post 
rank on 5 June" 1824 ; from 1826 to 1831 ha 
commanded the Samaraug, a 28-gun frigate, 
in the Mediterranean; in 1844 and ISM be 
was flag-captain at Sheerneas, and from 1849 
to 1852 was commodore in command of the 
Lisbon squadron. On 2H May 18.53 he was 

fromoted to tbe rank of rear-admiral. From 
668 till hie promotion to be vice-admiral 
on 13 Feb. 185«, he was superintendent of 
Portsmouth dockyard, and in 1859 he waa 
one of the lords of the admiralty. In 1860 
he was appointed to the command of the 
Mediterranean station, with bis flag in tho 
Marlborough. He held this for three years, 
and in that time effected a reform almost 
amounting to a revolution in the methods 
of nava! discipline. Many of tbe ships were 
manned by ' bounty ' men and were in a 
state bordering on mutiny. Even the flag- 
ship's crew was far from being n good one. 
But by tact, by care, by unremitting atten- 
tion, and by judicious severity he brought, 
the fleet into that admirable order which ia 
still referred to in the navy as one of the 
glories of tho past. When the commander- 
in-chief gave an order, he not only meant it 
to be obeyed but saw that it was obeyed, 
and the insistence was not always agreeable 
to the respective captains and commanders. 
He was thus by no means generally loved 
by officers of the higher ranks; but if not 
loved, he was feared, and tbe work was 
done. On 14 Nov. 1868 Martin was made 
an admiral ; on the death of his cousin, 
Sir Henry Martin, third baronet, he suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy on 4 Dec. 1863; 
and from 18(50 to lyt!9 was commander-in- 
chief at Plymouth. In April 1870 he waa 
put on tbe retired list in accordnnrv with 
the scheme brought out by Hugh Culling 
Eardley Childers [q. v. Suppl.l On 24 May 
1873 he wasmade a G.C.B.,and in September 
1878 he was appointed rear-admiral of the 
United Kingdom. During his later years he 
resided principally at Upton Grey, near 
Winehfield.und there ha died on 'Ji March 

Martin was twice married : first, in 1826, 
to Anne Best, daughter of the first Lord 
Wynford ; she died in 1830, having had two 
bods who died young, and two daughters. 
Secondly, to Sophia Elizabeth, daughter of 
Robert Hurt of Wirksworth, by whom he 
hod issue, besides five daughters, one son, 
Richard Byam Martin, who succeeded to the 
baronetcy. In 1879 Martin published a small 
pamphlet, ' Cyprus as a Naval Station and 




a Place of Arms/ which, as an exposition of 
Mediterranean strategy from one of the great 
masters of the art, is deserving of very close 

[O'Byriip's Nav. Biogr. Diet ; Army and 
Navy Gazette, 30 March 1895 ; Burke's Baro- 
netage; Navy Lists; private information.] 

J. K. L. 

MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805-1900), 
unitarian divine, youngest son and seventh 
child of Thomas Martineau (d. 21 June 
1826), camlet and bombazine manufacturer, 
by his wife Elizabeth (d. 26 Aug. 1848, 
aged 78), eldest daughter of Robert Rankin, 
sugar refiner, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, was 
born in Magdalen Street, Norwich, on 
21 April 1805. His father, of Huguenot 
lineage, had a maternal descent from John 
Meadows or Meadowe [q. v.], the ejected 
puritan, which connected him with the 
family of John Taylor (1694-1761) [q. v.], 
the hehrnist (Taylor, Suffolk Bartholo- 
means, 1840). His mother was a woman of 
great force of character and 'quickness of 
feeling ' ( Martineau's letter in Daily News, 
30 Doc. 1881). His eldest brother, "Thomas 
Martineau, M.D. (tf. 3 June 1824, aged 29), 
was at the time of his early death reckoned 
the ablest of the family ; but the personal 
charm of James was marked in boyhood. In 
1815 he entered the Norwich grammar 
school, of which Edward Valpy [q. v.] be- 
came high master in that year. Among his 
school fellows were (Sir) James Brooke [q. v.], 
raja of Sarawak, and George (Henry) jBor- 
row [q. v.] In after life Borrow would not 
meet Martineau, having been hoisted on his 
baek to receive a well-earned birching {Life 
ofK P. Cobbe, 1894, ii. 117). Martineau, 
whose taste was for mathematics, did not 
proceed to the highest form, but was well 
grounded in classics, and on his eightieth 
birthday wrote some very good Latin verses 
in reply to his old friend Thomas Horn- 
blower Gill, the hvmn- writer (Inquirer, 
20 Jan. 1900, p. 12).* He was not * physi- 
cally robust ,' and 'the tyranny of a large 
public school ' did not suit him (letter in 
lUiihf News, ut sup.) At the suggestion of 
His sister, Harriet Martineau [o. v.J, he was 
sent (1819) to the boarding-school of Lant 
I 'nrpenter [q. v.] at. Bristol; to Carpenters 
influence in the discipline of character he 
pays tho highest tributes (Memoir* of Lant 

was apprenticed to Samuel Fox at Derby, 
with a view to becoming a civil engineer ; 
he boarded with Edward Higginson [see 
under Higginson, Edward], unitarian mini- 

ster at Derby, whose eldest daughter he 
afterwards married. The purely mechanical 
work of the machine-room did not satisfy 
him. The premature death (31 Jan. 1822, 
aged 29) 01 Henry Turner, unitarian mini- 
ster at ISottingham [son of William Turner, 
1761-1859; see under Turner, William, 
1714-1794], who had married (1819) Mar- 
tineau's cousin, Catharine Jtfankin (d. 1 May 
1894, aged 97), produced his c conversion ' 
(Proceedings in connection with his retire- 
ment, 1885, p. 28), and decided him for the 

In September 1822 he entered Manchester 
College, York, as a divinity student under 
Charles Wellbeloved [q. v.] Classics and 
history were taught by John Kenrick [q. v.], 
a scholar of distinction. Philosophy iell to 
William Turner (1788-1863) [see under 
Turner, William, 1714-1794], who taught 
the Hartleyan determinism, then in vogue 
with unitarians, but felt its difficulties 
{Christian Reformer, 1854, p. 136). The 
first York student to adopt the libertarian 
view was William Mountford (1815-1885), 
author of ' Euthanasy ' (1850), who broke 
with the Hartleyan philosophy while at 
York (1833-8). Martineau gained at York 
the highest honours (Christian Life, 23 June 
1900, p. 302) ; his successful oration in 1825 
bore the characteristic title 'The Necessity 
of cultivating the Imagination as a Regu- 
lator of the Devotional Feelings/ Ilis 
fathers death (1826) left on the family a 
burden of undischarged liabilities, all of 
which were paid in full. His mother's 
anxiety for his health, injured by ' intempe- 
rate study ' (Kenrick), led her to propose 
his removal to Gottingen ; Kenrick tnought 
the Gottingen system of lecturing for a ses- 
sion on * one evangelist, one prophet,' inferior 
to Wellbeloved's plan of going through the 
Old or New Testament in a vear (unpub- 
lished letter of Kenrick, 16 April 1826). 
Leaving York in 1827 he preached (4 July) 
one of the annual sermons of the Eastern 
Unitarian Association at Halesworth, Suf- 
folk, the other preacher being Michael 
Maurice, father of (John) Frederick Denison 
Maurice [q. v.] 

In 1827 he became, for a year, assistant 
and virtually locum tenens in Lant Carpen- 
ter s school at Bristol. Next year he was 
called to Dublin as co-pastor (assistant and 
successor) to his aged kinsman, Philip Tay- 
lor [see under Tatlor, John, 1694-1761], 
and colleague with Joseph Hutton (d. 7 Fefi. 
1856, aged 90), grandfather of Richard Holt 
Hutton [q. v. Suppl.1, in the congregation 
of Eustace Street, rounded by Samuel Win- 
ter, D.D. [q. v.], on independent principles, 

Marti neau 


synod of 
of tliis 

that of \ 
Cttriat a 
■and » 

but Utterly known ss Bteebyt ei 
connected with the 'ecuthern 
known (trotn 1809) as the 

limply to 

ineau *u ordained 

■! service, first used at 
i !38| Christian Mode- 
.■■■. p. IS!) ut t.he ordi- 
of William IMSuMM (d. 26 June 
:). was published ( 1839) with a valuable 
biMorical appendix [Me Armstrong, James, 
L< I).] Murttneau's confession of faith re- 
flects the theology of Carpenter rather than 
i'.-Iivid, and on the person of 
carefully selects what was common 
. with Arianism, but is remarkable at 
•late for its silence on the inerrancy and 
l nd the wholequestion 
of miracle*. He bought a house, married, 
and took pupils. He was a chief promoter 
and the first secretary of the 'Irish Ini- 
tarian Christian Society/ founded 17 March 
1830, and still in being. For his congrega- 
boolf (Dublin, 
BO); it was only in local and tem- 
porary \um, 

11 U Dublin ministry was highly appre- 
■ implying tlie 
inanity of Christ ' lost him 'the 
most attached friend ' among his hearers 
I preface to Thum's A Spiritual 
[he death of 
:■- 1631) he succeeded 
t share of regium daman, but resigned 
her tlianhenefilby a ' re- 
filing lo retain 
without tbi* increase of income. 
■ letter in Monthly /!•- 
MS) be roeeiflee the 
,. In- endowing pres- 
iiir ' f..i 
if ua believe to be the better 
lent*.' His 
"1 the resignation 
>v, ) by a majority of one, and made 
I Mentation. He was in- 
) be colleague with John Grundy 
i Paradise Street chapel, Liverpool, 
"don his duties there on 1 July 
i salary was 200/., and he cnn- 
. lake pupil-". One of them, 1 1 is 
I bee him at that period 
■. . if ugly ut all, with 
it feature*, wild upstanding 
ir bread forehead, tnd swarthy 
i «dt, Picture* of the 

In addition to private 
■■-. on scientific 


the Mechanic*' Instil nt.i< in, Sinter Street. 
By firundy'^ resignation ( 1x35) he became 
eole pastor. He never odministered hap- 
tism, substituting a service of dedication. 
In 1886 In' tuok ti leading part in founding 
the Liverpool domestic mission. An indi- 
cation of his local influence is afforded by 
the circumstance that, in 1 BST the Weeleyan 
conference was urged to make special ap- 

E ointments at Liverpool, a reason assigned 
eing the prMBBM than of. 'the brilliant 
Martineau' (Gregory, Side Light* on the 
Conflict* cfMttMSm, L899,n, 847). 

His 'Rationale of Religious Enquiry' 
(1886, 12mo) had made him widely known 
us a writer of exceptions.! power; in iliis 
volume of lectures he denied the Christian 
name to unbelievers in the recorded mira- 
cles of Christ, a judgment defended in the 
second edition (same year), and recalled in 
the third (18&), under the influence of 
Joseph Blanco White [q. v.] The impres- 
sion of his force andorigriisilitv was deepened 
by the part he took (1089) in the Liverpool 
' mtroversy, and not least by t" 

1 .I-:,! . 

local Anglican divines, headed by Fielding 
Ould I Thtimrianinn Defended. I 
Theological Rei-ieit; January 1877, n, 8B> 
Channing wrote of his lectures as ' among 
the noblest eflbrta of our times' (letter of 
22 June 1840 in Memoir, IMS, ii. :V.Hi). 
Martineau's own reference (Memorial Pre- 
face, ut sup, p, xiii) to his attitude in this 
controversy as contrasted with that of John 
Hamilton "Thorn [q. v.l seems due to defec- 
tive memory. In 1»10 he published a 
hymn-book ('Hymns for the I 'lin-rimi 
Church and Home ') which rapidly took the 
place of that associated with the name of 
Andrew Kippis, D.D. [q. v.] It i itlB la 
use, being hut. partially superseded by Mar- 
tineau's later collection, ' llvnin* of Praise 
and Prayer" (1878). 

Retaining his congregationil charge, h» 
became (October 1S40) professor of mental 
and moral philosophy and political BOOnomj 
in his alma mater, removed back from York 
to Manchester, and known us Htnnhmtor 
New College ( M. .\.C. bitrothtfton/ Li-rhirer, 

■i . Rtaiewt, and Jddrtmtt,\&01, 
iv. 3). In the lyUahna of tna lecture* John 

Stuart Mill [tj. v. J ' noti ced thi 
which was beginning to effect hit philo- 
sophical views ( Ti/pe* of Ethi.-at 7%tory, 
1889, p. xii). Channing Iiivl noted it earlier 
: . in Memoir, u rap, 
p. «6). 

: adtdttrj 

waa published in two volumes of sermons, 
■An tli" christian Life' 




(1st ser. 1843, l'2mo; 2nd ser. 1847, 12mo; 
often reprinted), unsurpassed for beauty and 
charm by his later writings, and realising 
his ideal that a sermon should be a ' lyric 
utterance. In a remarkable sermon, 'The 
Bible and the Child ' (July 1845, reprinted, 
Essays, ut sup. iv. 389), he first distinctly 
broke with the biblical conservatism of his 
denomination. Pending the removal of his 
congregation to a more modern structure, 
he was set free from 16 July 1848 till the 
opening (18 Oct. 1849) of the new church in 
Hope Street, his pastoral duties being un- 
dertaken by Joseph Henry Hutton (1822- 
1899), elder brother of It. II. Hutton; one 
of the few occasions on which the latter 
occupied a pulpit was at Paradise Street 
during this interval. 

Martineau spent the fifteen months with 
his family in Germany, taking a winter's 
study at Berlin. It. 11. Hutton, who had 
been his pupil in Manchester, read Plato 
and Hegel with hiin (Proceedings, ut sup. 
p. 38). His studies were mainly directed 
by Trendelenburg. He regarded this break 
ns a 'second education/ and 'a new intel- 
lectual birth/ involving the complete ' sur- 
render of determinism ' ( Types, ut sup. 
p. xiii). His earlier standpoint had been 
determinist and utilitarian (cf. his five arti- 
cles on Bent ham's ' Deontology/ Christian 
Reformer, March December, i835, p. 18/5 
so.) He wrote for the 'I-iondon Review' 
(1835) and for the ' ljondon and Westmin- 
ster Review ' from the amalgamation (1830) 
till January 1851. From 1838 he wrote for 
the ' Christian Teacher/ 1 hen edited by J. II. 
Thom, whom he joined, with John James 
Taylor [q. v.] and Charles Wieksteed (1810- 
1885), in editing the ' IVospective Review ' 
( 1 845-54), of which John Kentish [q. v.] said 
that its title must have been suggested by 
' the Irish member of the firm/ while John 
Gooch Robberds [q. v.], alluding to its motto 
4 Respice, A spice, Wospice/ described it as 
1 a magazine of allspice.' To this quarterly, 
and to its successor the 'National Review' 
(1855-1864), edited bv Martineau, R. II. 
Hutton, and Walter llagehot, he contri- 
buted some of his best critical work; later 
he wrote occasionally for the 'Theological 
Review/edited byCharles Beard r q.v.Suppl/| 
His drastic treatment (' Mesmeric Atheism' 
in Prospective, March 1851) of ' Letters on 
the Laws of Man's Nature and Develop- 
ment' (January 1851), bv Henry George 
Atkinson and itarriet Martineau (who edited 
the volume), was never forgiven by the latter. 
This masterpiece of satire, coming after a 
coolness of some years' standing, due to a 
refusal to destroy his sister's letters to him- 

self, produced an alienation which Marti- 
neau made fruitless efforts to remove (cf. his 
letters in Daily News, 30 Dec. 1884, 2 and 
6 Jan. 1885). 

For five years after the removal (1853) of 
Manchester New College to University Hall,. 
Gordon Square, London, Martineau tra- 
velled up to town every week in the session 
to deliver his lectures, till in 1857 he left 
Liverpool to share with Tayler the theolo- 
gical teaching of the college, as professor of 
mental, moral, and religious philosophy. 
This arrangement was not effected without 
strenuous protest (led by Robert Brook 
Aspland [q. v.], who resigned the secretary- 
ship, and joined by Martineau's brothers-in- 
law, Samuel Bache [q. v.] and Edward 
Higginson [q. v.1) against confining the 
teaching to one school of thought. He re- 
turned to the pulpit in 1859, becoming col- 
league (20 Feb.) with Tayler in the charge* 
of Little Portland Street chapel, left vacant 
by the death of Edward Tagart [q v.J ; from 
1860 he was in sole charge. Oi his London 
ministry there are sketches by Frances 
Power Cobbe (Life, 1894, ii. 145 ; Inquirer, 
20 Jan. 1900, p. 11). From 1858 to 1868 he 
was a trustee of Dr. Williams's founda- 
tions. In his letter (6 Aug. 1859) to Simon 
Frederick Macdonald (1822-1862) on 'the 
unitarian position,' followed by a second 
letter ' Church-Life ? or Sect-Life ? ' (14 Oct. 
1859), ' in reply to the critics of the first ' 
(both reprinted in Essays, ut sup. ii. 371), he 
pleaded for restricting unitarian profession 
to individuals and societies, leaving congre- 
gations unpledged to distinctive doctrine. 

At midsummer 1866 John Hoppus [q. v.] 
vacated the chair of mental philosophy ana 
logic in University College, London. Mar- 
tineau's candidature was unsuccessful, 
mainly through the opposition of George 
Grote |q. v.], who raised the anti-clerical 
cry. In protest against this limitation, 
Augustus de Morgan [a. v.] resigned the 
mathematical chair, and William Ballantyne 
Hodgson [q. v.] resigned his seat on the 
college council. Meanwhile Martineau was 
busy with denominational controversies, 
issuing in the formation of a 'Free Christian 
union/ which celebrated its first anniversary 
1 June 1869) with sermons by Athanase 
oquerel fils and Charles Kegan Paul, and 
lasted a couple of years. He was a member 
of the ' Metaphysical Society ' (2 June 1869- 
12 May 1880), which owed its inception to 
Tennyson. In 1869 he became principal of 
Manchester New College, and in 1872, under 
medical advice, he gave up preaching ; his 
friends presented him with inscribed plate 
and 5,8001. In the same year he received 


■ plana bun Harvard. 
:< •>[' Ins London 
try weTe in ' Hoare of Thought 
on Sacred Things' (1st Mr, 1876, 8vo ; 2nd 
Dap address (B Oct. 1874), 
rising the address (19 Aug.) of John Tyn- 
dali L.ij. V J tu the British Association at 
If elf ii.*t, led to a controversy (1875-6) with 
Tyndall, who wrote in the ' Fortnight !y Re- 
■view,' Mart beau replying in the ' Contem- 
porary.' The brilliance of hia papers (re- 
printed. Buoys, ut sup. iv. 163 1 culminating 
In bi> • Ideal Substitutes for God' (1879), 
won him wide repute as a champion of 
thrum. He received the dipl.-tnasof S.Th.D. 
I B5), D4). Edinburgh (1884), 
Hon. (30 June 1888), I,itt.D. Dub- 
la 1882 appeared his ' Study of 
ripinoia'ciiided. 1863, 8ro), in which be 
maintained that Spinoza's philosophy does 
not reach the point, of theism. Ilia colli- go 
work had been lightened by the appointment 
Cttatiea Barnes Upton as joint 

Erofeasor of philosophy ; at Michaelmas 1885 
e rwignod the principnlship, having passed 
the age of eighty. In 1886-7 he waa presi- 
dent of the college. On his eighty-third 
addregs was presented to him 
es of the stamp of Tennyson, 
ing, Kenan. Kuenen, Jowett, and 
f 1 the tett, with 649 signatures, is in 
[liter Amicos,' 1901, pp. 89 sq.) 
\1 in h at Mart mean* college work was in- 
corporated in his later publications, on which 
his reputation as a philosophic thinker will 
vainly rest. His 'Types of Ethical Tlieurv ' 
(Oxford, W85,2voU.8ro; 3rd ad. 1889, 8vo) 
hm been used as a text-book at Oxford and 
Calcutta ; portions of an analysis, based on 
. Elenry Stephens, were published 
■ In 1690 (see also The Law of 

letted Moral Tert-oonk, bated 

on the Ethical and lielujioun ll'ritinyi uf 

I)r J. Mirtiv,,,,, Uadra*, 1889, 8vo, by 

if the Trini- 

■ ■ rmon of earlier date, 

printed, ChrUtian Reformer, 1886; re- 

t ited, Euayi, at sup. ii. 628) is based on 

the theory that the real object of worship, 

Person 1 under 

different names. Of his'Studv of Religion ' 

. 8voj 1889, 8ro) there 

"i by Ilicbard Acland 

Armstrong. Tlie brilliant elaboration of the 

■nnient' marks the recurrence of 

to u position which he had long 

disparaged, if not discarded ; it was resumed 

made necessary by the 

Darwinian doctrine of evolution. To save 

free-will, Mart ineau (after Sootniu) excludes 

dent of 
1 ttioaj n 


Haaday (I 

the divine foreknowledge of contingen 
but as in bis view all the lines of action, 
between which c&oioa lies, lead to the same 
goal, free-will 'only varying the track' (ii, 
279), the resull seems indisl iiiguinhuhle from 
fatalism. In 1**S he introduced at Leeds a 
com pre he ii site plan of nganintoon and sus- 
tentation for the unitarian body, under the 
character of ' English preshyterians.' The 
scheme, somewhat resembling that of James 
Yates (17*0-1871)[q.v.], was not adopted, 
though certain of its surest ions have borne 
fruit. On the formation (14 May 1889) of 
a ' provincial assembly ' by London uni- 
tarians, Martineau resisted (he proposal of 
Robert Spears [q. v. Suppl.] to make the 
term 'Christian' a part of its title. The 
latatt poUM of his theological teaching 
must be sought in 'The Seat of Authority 
in Keligion ' ( 1890, 8vo ; 1892, 8vo>, in wind, 
more space is given to the polemic than to 
the reconstrneiive ride of his subject : hence 
it has bona described as ' the unseating of 
authorities. ' lif bin New Testament criti- 
cism it has been remarked as 'strange, that 
whenever our Lord's language is at issue 
with Dr. Murtineau's philosophy, the evan- 
gelists have been bad reporlers.' lie lec- 
tured at University Hall, Gordon Square 
(January-March 1*91), on the 'Gospel of 
Luke; ' and (1803) on the newly discovered 
'Gospel according to Peter.' Ho had op- 
posed the removal \ IwtO) of Manchester New 
College to Oxford, but took part in the 
opening of the new buildings, conducting 

the communion service (10 Oct. IF 

chapel of Manchester College. 

Till a few months before the close of his 
long life he showed no symptom of failing 
faculty, unless a slight, deafness be reckoned 
and some defects of memory. Within a 

J ear of his death an old friend calling to sea 
im found that 'the venerable youth had 
gone to a popular concert." Always abs- 
temious and never using tobacco, he disused 
alcohol in the period 1*4:.' 11, and gave it up 
in the sixties (Kimiif, Htiiilt, hip! titimulrtnU, 

with hereditary gout. Till 1898 he 

he spent 

p. 97): he had jirevion-ly been troubled 
iidence, The I'olchar, Avii 

!»■■ lliilli, mill in he proved himself & 
perienced mountaineer. His strenuous cha- 
racter ud Bel lu-tio mum marked every de- 
tail of his work ; he was an excellent man 
of business, and his most ordinary correspon- 
dence bad distinction and a high finish. Old 
age gave grandeur to his countenance, and 
& refined gentleness to bis demeanour. 
his conversation as in bis letters there w 
a rare combination of dignified modesty and 




courtly grace. His spoken addresses were 
simpler in style than most of his literary 
works, which, when richly wrought, re- 
minded his critics of a kaleidoscope (R. B. 
Aspland's phrase ; see also Life of F. P. Cobbe, 
ut sup. p. 146). The delivery of his sermons 
was vivid and even dramatic, though with- 
out action ; his lectures were mechanically 
dictated. Both sermons and lectures were 
written in Doddridge's shorthand. His poli- 
tics were of the old whig school ; he was 
against disestablishment, desiring a compre- 
hensive national church; he took the side 
of the southern states in the American war ; 
in Irish politics he was strongly averse to 
home rule ; he was opposed to free educa- 
tion and advocated a common religious teach- 
ing in board schools. An outside estimate 
of his services to speculative theology, by 
P. T. Forsyth, D.D., is in the ' London Quar- 
terly/ April 1900, p. 214 (cf. H. H. Hutton 
in Proceedings, ut sup. pp. 36-40). To fix 
the ultimate value of his contributions to 
philosophy no attempt can be made here ; as 
an intellectual and moral force, he impressed 
himself on his generation both by his 
writings and by his personality. 

He died at 35 Gordon Square on 11 Jan. 
1900 in his ninetv-fifth year, and was buried 
at Highpate cemetery on 16 Jan. He mar- 
ried (18 Dec. 1*28) 'Helm (d. 9 Nov. 1*77, 
aged 73), eldest daughter of Edward Higgin- 
son, and hud issue three 1*0113 and five 
daughters, of whom one son and three 
daughters suivived him. His portrait was 
painted by C. Agar (1846, engraved 1847) ; 
by Mr. G. F. Watts (1874, engraved 1874), 
not a verv successful likeness (cf. Life of 
F. P. Cohbe, 1894, ii. 94); by Mr. Alfred 
Emslio (1*88, reproduced in photogravure). 
A seated statue by Mr. II. R. Hope Tinker 
(1898) is in tin 1 library of Manchester College, 
Oxford ; and t here are at least two earlier 
busts executed during his Liverpool minis- 
try, and a terra-cotta bust (1877) by James 
Mull ins. 

His chief publications are enumerated 
above. To these may be added, besides 
many sin pie sermons and addresses: 
1. * Jlome Pray its, with Two Services for 
Public Worship,* 1*91, 12mo (the services 
first published 1*02). 2. 'Faith . . .Self- 
Surrender,' 1>H7, 12nu> 1 tour sermons). 
Three collections of his pupers were pub- 
lished in America : ' Miscellanies/ Boston, 
l T .S.A., 1S52. Svo (edited bv Thomas Starr 
King); 'Studies of Christianity/ 1S-V, li'mo 
(edited by William Rounseville Alger ; in- 
cludes his first printed sermon, 1830): *Es- 
bavs, Philosophical and Theological/ Boston, 
Mass., 1860 (includes, in error, an article on 

* Revelation' by K. H. Hut ton, New York, 
1879, 8vo.) His own selection was published 
as * Essays, Reviews, and Addresses,' 1890-1, 
4 vols. 8vo. He prefixed a valuable intro- 
duction to E. P. Hall's translation of Bonet- 
Maury's ' Early Sources of Unitarian Chris- 
tianity/ 1884, and edited, with introduction, 
second editions of works by J. J. Tayler, and 
posthumous sermons by J. H. Thorn. Two 
original hymns are in his collection of 1840, 
another is in his collection of 1873. His 
' Religion as affected by modern Materialism ' 
(1874) was translated into German by Dr. 
Adolf Sydow in 1878 ; four of his sermons 
were translated into Dutch, ' Gedachten/ 
Leyden, 1893, 8vo. 

Russell Martineau (1831-1898), orien- 
talist, eldest son of the above, waa born in 
Dublin on 18 Jan. 1831. Educated at Heidel- 
berg, University College, London, and Ber- 
lin, he graduated B.A. London, 1860, M.A. 
(classics) London, 1854. Having acted as 
domestic tutor, he was appointed (1857) on 
the staff of the British Museum library, and 
rose by successive promotions to the poet of 
assistant-keeper (lo84), which he held till 
superannuated in 1896. His department 
(though oriental studies were his forte) was 
early printing ; he improved the collection 
of Luther 8 works (first editions), catalogued 
that, section, and also the article 'Bible.' 
In 1857 he also became, on Ewald's recom- 
mendation, lecturer on Hebrew language 
and literature in Manchester New College, 
London, was promoted to be professor in 
1860, and resigned in 1874. His all-round 
scholarship was of exceptional thoroughness, 
and he excelled as a painstaking teacher. He 
was a Hibbert trustee, and a trustee of Dr. 
Williams's foundations. His health suffered 
from an epileptic tendency. He died at 
5 Eldon Road, Hampstead, on 14 Dec. 1898. 
He married (1861) trances Bailey, but had 
no issue. He published: 1. ' A Short Dis- 
sertation on the True Pronunciation of the 
Divine Name/ 1809, 8vo. 2. « The Roots of 
Christianity in Mosaism/ 1809, Svo (address 
at Manchester New College). 3. ' Notes on 
the Pronunciation of English Vowels in the 
Seventeenth Century,' 1892, 8vo( Philological 
Societv). 4. 'The Song of Songs/ 1892, 
8vo ; "« The Song of Songjs agam/ 1890, 
8vo (reprinted from ' American Journal of 
Philology*). He translated Gregorovius's 
'Corsica/ 1855, 8vo, and Goldzihers 
' Mythology among the Hebrews/ 1877, 8vo; 
and edited the translation of a section of 
Ewald's * History of Israel/ 1867.2 vols. 8vo; 
last edition, 1883, 8vo. With his brother, 
Basil Martineau, and James Thornely 
Whitehead (1834-1898) he edited the mu- 

■ ■' his rather** ' Hymns 

f PraiM in iblialied also 

e tune' m ■ irately. He 

ectator,' ami contributed to ' Bifalio- 

mphii-a' (l*i<r>) , ilv i to Murray's 
ictionarv ""(fitjlrfwr, '-'1 !te lrH8: CArw- 
■ Zi/r,'i'4 DttCL 

(A bkvnpl by Principul 

mx Upton » expected 
_r. Dublin Uni vanity Hngaain*, Anil 

J LB i-irellent portrait.): Cm- 

1" (7 Ni.v. 
l;.:v. ' linrlrs Wii.Lsu'i'.l. 
a Ibebaeis "f Martineaa'a auUl iw;i 

U) I JtJ ■ IviiiImI'i.; f, 

lj Inqmirer, -jo Jim, 1800 (special 
»W; portniit); Thn Bookman, February 

. J:iL'tsunV .1,11111 - iliir- 

nen, IflOO ! ril its cited 

To; rrciilli'Ctiog.j A. G. 

. THOMAS LEEKK (1808- 

>&), admiral, was born at Ooddington 

■ Unentered 

i navy in October 1816 on board the 

■ ihip in the Mediti 

incia Fremant.le 



i the 

m wrecked in i be ' '■■■'.■■■■*■,<■ 
e brig no the COM) tfofl 

'A | wu in tbe Martin at. tbe demonstra- 
n against Algiers [see Nulb, niw. Hibry 
rribi' 1 ; wn* frequently engaged in boat 
airs with lireek pirates, mid 
a at Navarino on 20 Oct. 1827. For t bis 
t rewarded with promotion to lieu- 
j a deatli vacancy, 11 Nov. 1827. 
mostly in the 
■■.:. and Lisbon station; 

■■■■■■ i 

mi!, i ■■ : 

I tilt.' 


(•a MX 


n»f<llii(*t an I 

On 28 June 

nation -he wasmadu 

commander ; and m 1636 waa, with some 

■ Constantinople to assist in 

■ irifini'iriir tlie Turkish uavy. Tiny were, 

ii months ; 

March 1*40 Maaaie was appointed 

i to the Thunderer with 

■ Berkeley, 

-hardJagi [q. v.] In the 

c> operations on 

ipture of Acre, 

be captain on 

Vpnl 1849 he wasap- 

Opatra, which he com- 


during tiss Batman war, In September 
IBM liu commissioned tbe Powerful, which 
during the latter part of 1855 and L85A m 
on the North American station. He hudno 
further service, but became rear-admiral on 
7 Nov. I860, vie- admiral 0D 2 April 1WJ6, 
and admiral on 20 Oct. US7SL lie died U 
Cheater on 2l.Uuty LB8B. 

[O'Byrne's Naral Biogr. Diet. ; Times. II July 
1898 ; Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 


l'JWi, orientalist. «nd philologist, was the 
only son of the distinguished poet Wilhclm 
Muller (1794-1827), and of idelheid, 
eldest daughter of President von Basedow, 

K'luie minister of the small duchy of Anhalt- 
eBsau. Born at Dessau on 'J Dan, 1828, 
and losing his father when scarcely four 
years old, he lived with his mother and at- 
tended the grammar school of his native 
town till ISSfl, He enrly showed a talent 
contact with 

several distinguished i 


Mendelssohn and L'url Maria < 
Weber, ne was the godson of tin- Latter, 
and received his name Mai from the leading 
character in the ' Freischiitz-,' which had 
been finished just, before his birth. For a 
time he seriously contemplated Inking up 

from doing so by Mendelssohn. The last 
Are years of his school life lie spent at 
Leipzig, living in the family of Dr. C'orus, 
an old friend of his father, and continuing 
ilia education at the 'Nicolai-Scbule' there. 
He had decided to adhere to the of 
the classical languages ; but in order to 
qualify for a small bursary from Anhalt- 
Dessau be found he would have to pass his 
examination of maturity (* Abiturienteu- 
examen '), not at Leipzig, but at Zerbst, a 
small town in that state. For this purpose 
he was obliged to acquire a considerable 
knowledge of mathematics and other non- 
classical subjects in an incredibly short 
time; nevertheless he succeeded in rtwhilg his 
examination with distinction. He accor- 
dingly entered the university of Leipzig in 
the spring of 1841. There he attended no 
fewer than ten courses of lectures, on the 
average, during each term on the most varied 
subjects, including the classical ■ 
Professors Haupt, Hermann, Becker, besides 
others on old German, Hebrew, Arabic, 
psychology, and anthropology. He was, 
however, soon persuaded by Professor Her- 
mann Broakhaua, the lirst occupant of tat) 
-■■,;. (bonded in l^ devote 
himself chiefly lo learning the classical 
language of ancient India, ' The first result 

Max Miiller 


Max Miiller 

of these studies was his translation of the 
now well-known collection of Sanskrit 
fables, the ' Hitopadesa,' which he published 
when only twenty years of age (Leipzig, 1 844). 

He graduated Ph.D. on 1 Sept. 1843, 
when not yet twenty, but continued his 
studies at Leipzig for another term. Then, 
in the spring of 1844, he went to Berlin. 
Here he attended, among others, the lectures 
of Franz Bopp, the celebrated founder of the 
science of comparative philology, and those 
of Schelling, the eminent philosopher. To 
the early influence of the former may be 
traced his studies in the subject which he 
represented in the university of Oxford for 
thirty- two years ; to the teachings of the 
latter was doubtless largely due that interest 
in philosophy which he maintained to the 
end of his life. 

In March 1845 he migrated to Paris, where 
he came under the influence of Eugene Bur- 
nouf, eminent not only as a Sanskrit ist, but 
also as the first Zend scholar of his day. One 
of his fellow-students at Paris was the great 
German orientalist, Rudolf Roth, the founder 
of Vedic philology; another was the distin- 
guished classical Sanskrit scholar, Dr. Theo- 
dore Ooldstiicker. At Burnoufs suggestion 
young Max Miiller set about collecting mate- 
rials for an editio princeps of the ' Uigveda,' 
the most important of the sacred books of the 
Brahmans, and the oldest literary monument 
of the Aryan race, lie accordingly began 
copying and collating manuscripts of the text 
of that work, as well as the commentary of 
Sayana, the great fourteenth-century Vedic 
scholar. All this time he was entirely de- 
tendent on his own exertions for a living, 
nnving a hard struggle to maintain himself 
by copying manuscripts and assisting scho- 
lars in other ways. 

In pursuance of his enterprise he came 
over to England in June 1-S40, provided 
with an introduction to the Prussian 
minister in London, Baron Bunsen. who 
subsequently became his intimate friend. 
Receiving a recommendation to the East 
India Company from him and from Horace 
1 layman \\ ilson ~q. v.", he was commissioned 
by the board of directors to brine out at their 
expense a complete edition of the • Kurveda* 
with S ; iv ana's commentary. Having, in 
company with Bun sen. visited Oxford in 
June IS47 for the meeting «'f the British 
Association, at which he delivered an ad- 
dress on Bengali and its relation to the 
Art an language*, he returned to London. 
Early in IMS he went back to Paris for the 
p it rpo*e of col U t i w g man a sen pts. S udder, iy 
the re\olution broke out. when the young 
orientalist, fearinc for the *afetv of tht? 

precious manuscripts in his keeping, hur- 
riedly returned to London, where he, ac- 
companied by Bunsen, was the first to re- 
port to Lord Palmerston the news that 
Louis Philippe had fled from the French 

As the first volume (published in 1849) 
of his edition of the ' Kigveda ' was being 
printed at the university press, he found it 
necessary to migrate to Oxford. There he 
settled in May 1848 and spent the rest of his 
i life. In 1850 he was appointed deputy Tay- 
j lorian professor of modern European lan- 
| guages, and in the following year was, at the 
suggestion of Dean Gaisford, made an honorary 
ALA. and a member of Christ Church. On 
succeeding to the full professorship in 1864 
he received the full degree of M. A. by decree 
of convocation. As Taylorian professor he 
lectured chiefly on German and French, in- 
cluding courses on middle high German and 
on the structure of the Romance languages. 
He was made a curator of the Bodleian 
library in 1856, holding that office till 1863; 
re-elected in 1881, he retired in 1894. In 
1 1858 he was elected to a life fellowship at 
All Souls' College. 

In 1859 he married Georgians Adelaide, 
daughter of Mr. Riversdale Grenfell, who 
already included among his brothers-in-law 
1 J. A. "Froude, Charles Kingsley, and Lord 
Wolverton. In the same year he published 
his important * History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature,' which, dealing with the Vedic 
period only, contained much valuable re- 
search in literary chronology, based on an 
extensive knowledge of works at that time 
accessible in manuscript only. 

In May 1800 Horace Hayman Wilson, 
professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, died. Max 
Miiller, whose claims were very strong on 
the score of both ability and achievement, 
became a candidate for the vacant chair. 
He was opposed by (Sir) Monier Monier- 
Williams q. v. Suppl.\ an old member of 
Balliol and University colleges, who had 
been professor of Sanskrit at the East India 
College at Haileybury till it was closed in 
1SV*. The election being in the hands of 
convocation — a body consisting of all masters 
of arts who keep their names on the books 
oi the university — came to turn on the po- 
litical and religious opinions of the candi- 
dates rather than on their merits as Sanskrit 
scholars. Party feeling ran high. His broad 
theological views, as well as the fact of his 
being a foreigner, told against Max Miiller, 
especially in the eyes of the country clergy, 
who came up to Oxford in large numbers to 
record their votes. The election took place 
. on 7 lVc. 1^60. when Monier- Williams won 

Max Muller 


hi* aub&e* 
Indies hi 

■■■ ben ■ 

VltV woo 

tbe day with a majority of 223, the -votes in 
bis favour being 833 against 610 for Mai 

There can be little doubt that toil defeat 

: disappointment to Mai Muller, 

■ il a very decided influence on 

ibeeqiient career as a scholar. Sanskrit 

had formed the main interest of his 

toal life for almost twenty years. Had 

successful in the contest, bis neti- 

;y would probably have been almost en- 

frvly limited to bis favourite subject, and, 

though he would in that case hare been less 

famous, he would doubtless have produced, 

during the latter half of bin life, works of 

permanent value in the domain of 

His marvellous industry was now largely 
:': other chanuels. lie began to 
considerable attention to comparative 
logy, delivering two series of lectures 
m of language at the Royal In- 
1861 and 1863. These lectures 
raised him to the rank of the standard 
on philology in the estimation of 
i public. Though much of what 
is contained in them is now out of date, 
there enn be no doubt that they not only 
for the first time aroused general interest iu 
the subject of comparative philology in Eng- 
land, but also exercised in their day a 
valuable stimulating influence on the work of 
i ii re he first displayed that power 
of lucid popular exposition and of inve>t iug 
a dry subject with abundant interest, which 
has more than anything else contributed to 
make his name at least as famous as that of 
any other scholar of the nineteenth century. 
Another of his works, in spite of its title, 
- of Thought 1 ( 1887), is largely 
■rumi with the subject of language, its 
:_ r the inseparability of 
and language. In 1865 he was ap- 
oriental sub-librarian at the Uod- 
. Ending the work uncongenial, 
rnigned the post after holding it for two 
ream. In IMS Mas Muller, vacating tho 
Teylorian chair, was nominated to the new 
liiiifiMwi'iiil iii of comparative philology, 
founded on his behalf. This chair he held 
down to the time of his death, retiring, how- 
ever, from its active duties in 1S75. Four 
years after his election he was invited to ac- 
a professorship f if Sanskrit in the newly 
treraity of Straaburg. Though 
U u appointment, he consented 
course of lectures at Strasburg 
summer term of 1872. The 
honorarium which he received for tbe work 
■ itnireraity authorities, 
, jn-iie.called 


the 'Mm Miiller Stipendinm," for the en- 
couragement of Sanskrit scholarship. 

Mai Muller was not only the introducer 
of comparative philology into England; he 
also became a pioneer in this country of the 
science of comparative mythology founded 
by Adalbert Kuan with W epoch-making 
work, ' Die Herabkunft des Feuers,' pub- 
lished in 1849. Beginning with his eatty 
on 'Comparative Mythology,' which ap- 
peared in 1856, he wrote a number of Otiw 
Kpers on mythological subjects, concluding 
i labours in this domain with a large 
work in 1897. His mythological method, 
based on linguistic equations, baa hardly 
any adherents at the present day. Far mast 
of his identifications, as of the Greek Erlnyus 
with the Sanskrit Saraiiyii*, have been re- 
jected owing to the more stringent applica- 
tion of phonetic laws which now prevails in 
comparative philology. Nor does his theory 
of mythology being a ' disease of lan- 
guage ' any longer find support among 
scholars. Nevertheless his writings have 

Iiroved valuable in this field also by stimu- 
ating mythological investigations even be- 
yond the range of the Aryan family of lan- 

Allied to Ins mi ihul ■! ■-■ !■ ■ ■ 

his work on the comparative study of reli- 
gions, which was far more important and 
enduring. Here, too, he was a pioneer ; 
and the literary activity of the last thirty 
years of his life was largely devoted to this 
subject. He began with four lectures on tbe 
' Science of Religion ' at the Roval Institu- 
tion in 1*70. These were followed by a 
lecture on * Missions,' which dealt with the 
religions of the world, and was delivered 
in Westminster Abbey at the invitation 
of Dean Stanley in D'ecember 1873. He 
further led off the annual series of Hibbert 
lectures with a course on ' The Origin and 
Growth of Religion.' delivered in the ehnpter- 
house of Westminster Abbey in 1878. Sub- 
sequently he discussed four different aspects 
of religion as Gilford lecturer before the 
universltv of Glasgow during the years 1888 
to 1892. 

Of even more far-reaching influence than 
all these lectures on religion waa the great 
enterprise which Mux Miiller initiated in 
lS"o,when he relinquished the active .lories 
of the chair of comparative philology. Tins 
was the publication by the Oxford Cniver- 
sirv 1'resi, under his editorship, of the 
' Sacred Book* of the East,' a series of F.og- 
lish tnaiUtiona,bf leading scholars, of im- 
portant non-Christian oriental works of a 
religious character. This undertaking lm» 
done more than anything else to place the- 

Max Mttller 154 Max Miiller 

historical and comparative study of religions j translated, at his instance, in 188:?, the 
on a sound basis. Among the ' Sacred Books ' ; Chinese catalogue of the many hundreds of 
are several of the earliest Indian legal works Buddhist Sanskrit books which were rendered 
and texts on domestic ritual. The series is into Chinese from the first century A.D. on- 
thus also a valuuble source for the compara- . wards. Another, Kenyiu Kasawara, com- 
tive study of law and custom. By its pub- . piled a list of Sanskrit Buddhistic technical 
lication Max Miiller therefore rendered an i terms, which was edited by him in the 
inestimable service to the science of an- 1 ' Anecdota Oxoniensia ' series ; while the 
thropology. Of the fifty-one volumes of the ! third, Takakusu, at his instigation, translated 
series, all but one and the two concluding I from the Chinese, in 1896, the travels of the 
index-volumes had appeared before the death . pilgrim I-tsing,who visited India during the 
of the editor. Over thirty volumes represent , years 671-690 A.D. Again, the first three 
the Indian religions of Brahmanism, Bud- ; Sanskrit books published bv Monier-Wil- 
dhism, and Jainism, being translations from . liams's successor in the Boden chair were 
Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit : but the series i undertaken under Max M tiller's influence, 
also includes versions of Chinese, Arabic, \ It was through him also that most of the 
Zend, and Pahlavi works. Max Miiller him- j European Sanskrit scholars who went out to 
self contributed three complete volumes and India in the sixties and seventies received 
part of two others to the series. i their appointments. As one of the delegates 

Though debarred by his defeat in I860 of the Clarendon Press he acted as literary 
from officially representing Sanskrit in the ] adviser to the university on Indian subjects 
university, Max Miiller continued to promote , for more than twenty years (1877-98). He 
Sanskrit studies in many ways. In the first constantly stirred up scholars to search for 
place he finished in lsT.'l his i lligveda/ a ! rare and important Sanskrit manuscripts, 
second revised edition of which was com- This insistence led, for example, to the dis- 
pleted in \>W. This was his magnum opu* r covery in Japan of a Sanskrit manuscript 
which will secure him a lasting name in the dating from the sixth century, the oldest 
history of Sanskrit scholarship. He also ' known at that time (1880). He himself 
published several important Sanskrit texts, acquired, in connection with his edition of 
Thus he initiated the Aryan series in the the ' Rigveda/ a valuable collection of Vedic 
'Anecdota Oxoniensia ' with four publica- manuscripts from India, to the number of 
tions of hi* own, partly in eolhiborution with nearly eighty. 

puniN: and the three other contributions Max Miiller had a great literary gift, 
which had appeared down to the end of doubtless inherited from his father. A 
\\KM) were all iindertak'-u at hi< instigation, foreigner by birth and educat inn, he attained 
lie also brought out some Sanskrit books of command of an Knglish style excelled by few 
an educational character, besides publishing native writers. This he displayed in nuine- 
several translations o{ Sanskrit works. In rous contributions to English journals, espe- 
1SS» he further printed a series of lectures cially the * Edinburgh* and ' Contemporary* 
on the value o^ Sanskrit literature, which he reviews, in the • Fortnightly * and the * Nine- 
had delivered at Cambridge, under the title teenth Century.' Most of these were subse- 
ts f 'India, what can it teach n> : ' The main quently republished in a collected form in his 
important*" of this book lies in the • Henais- • Chips froin a d'ernian Workshop* (4 vols.) 
sance theory' which it propounds, lie en- Some of the most attractive of his articles, 

deavours : * pro\e that for >everal hundred consisting of reminiscences, appeared only a 
years there was a cessation of literary acti- year or two before his death in book form, 
vity in India. .»wir.j :o th» ;:u-.:rsion- of "under the title of "Auld Lanjj Svne* (vol. i. 


. ___ _ _ .iinal 

ll::cr.»v 0:1 hid;.:: chro::o' .*_;:cal research, liennan.has passed through thirteen edit ions, 

M.i\ Mulhr \\ a-, w. ">v\ : -r. always ready, an : has be*n translated into French. Italian, 

in^p::- o! !>> dV.k of rt-v.'..-.7 :e:ic!i:r.c. to and K-.issian. as well as English. This ro- 

» e . p s : ;; d ■ : 1 : * o :" Si :: - "., -. : ; :: :". * r::: 1 '. '.y . Thus :r. a nee d esc r i br s . i n the form of recollect ions, 

i'l.^?' A \ ■ 1 ' U "l 1 : .' l .' i x '* "■■"■''" ,1 " ^^ ts ' :1kl ° l ' Vl * ot H voun * student for an invalid 

di:. c:.:.. : : lie >: ... : .i: ^ o:::.r- 1 yo.-.v.^ .?aya::cM» prisvtss: and though the scene is laid in 

*.'■■ c.v:-a- ;o i'yjVM o:«. p»rp ^e to Icirn :he o*. i castle of IVssau. the storv is purelv 

» ai ».*... . .in,. :-.;i ot \\ ho«» : ;«d ls:uv. valuable :maj:narv. 

J*^ K co:;.. lV :cd w-h l«d:a under Max Si; ill er also now and then discussed 

I"* ffiudaiuv. ih:cof them. lUir.yiaNanjw. important public questions, such as the 

: British 'jflicers at the 

, n-at. nitil the necessity 

i ..." an oriental institute for the 

luugiiages in 

*iti»h trade, I li also 

during the 

.1- in letter* to the 

.1 linn* that be managed not only to get 
■u- amount of literary 
o deal punctually with a «at 
Mpondence. Though ba nil dangerously 
during a visit to Germany in Jim.; 18BB, 
* Iter aremorknblerecoverykad a relapse 
r laler, hia literary activity continued 
j> within t>n days of his death, which took 
' 1 at Oxford on S8 Oct. 1900 ; he was 
in Holywell cemetery, Oxford, on 
: l year of his life he de- 
froded the justice of the British cause in the 
Transvaal wnr against Professor Motomsen 
in German journals, ant! contributed three 
I Sum to the 
■1 Century' in September, October, 
. ■!., !■. IKK), 'in Lis deathbed lie 
dictated to bia eon alterations and correc- 
■ i- autobiography, which unfortu- 
nately brings tin- story of bis life only down 
to hie tarlv days at Oxford. 

Mas .Mi: -ii'd of three 

;ht«n and » win. Ilia eldest daughter 

at Dresden in 1876{ the second, mar- 

RO Mr. 1. C. Gun Ware, fellow of Unt- 

i id, died in 1886; the 

. .Mr 

Km, eldeet ton of Sir James Ranken I ■ - 
gtiMon, Bnrt. His win entered the diplomatic 
service, mid in 1900 was second secretary 
Iritiah embassy at Washington. 
Max Miiller'sworld-widefam* waa largely 
due to his literary gifts and the extensive 
range of hi* writings, as well as to his great 
abiiitr, industry, and ambition. But it was 
l!y enhanced by a combination of 
;*it'= such ascan rarely fall to the 
lot of an) scholar. When lie began bis 
were in their infancy, 
and be had the good fortune to become the 
firmt rditor of the ' Bigveda,' the most im- 
portant product of ancient 1 ml i an literature. 
Again, nothing wis known about eompara- 

I '■!.■'■ 1 when he came 

) ; being the first in the 
field, he introduced and popular! aed the new 
aciwocp, aii led aa its chief 

exponent. 1 1 the first to 

inaugurate the study of comparative mytho- 
logy in ihia country. Lastly, it was not till 
the latter half of the nineteenth century 

that the necessary conditions were at band 
for Handing i amenoe trf religion. At this 

precise period Max Miiller 
ipply the needful stimulus by n 

,ns of hie 
Hibbarl lecturi i,aad to colleci the requisite 

- •! Books nf tin: East..' 
Tliii* there whs a great opening in four 
highly important branches of learning j but. 
no one could have taken adequate advantage 
of them nil unless he had been, like Blax 
Miiller, one of the most talented and versa- 
tile scholars of the nineteenth century. 
Though much in his works and methods 
may already be superceded, the great stimu- 
lating inlluence his writings have exercised 
in many fields will give Inni a atrong claim 
to the gratitude of posterity. 

Scholar and voluminous writer though he 
was, Max Miiller was at the same time quite 
a man of the world. Familial frnin his 
earliest days with court life on a small scale 
at Dessau, he was, when quite a young man, 
a frequent visitor at the Prussian embassy in 
London, By Baron Bunsen lie was intro- 
duced to the late prince consort, and so 
came to be well known to Queen Victoria 
and the royal family, lie was also personally 
acquainted with several of the crowned 
heads of Europe, such as the Emperor Fre- 
derick, the present German Emperor, the 
King of Sweden, the King of Koumiuiia, and 
the Sultan of Turkey. He knew most of 
the loading men of the day, foreigner* aa 
well as Englishmen, and entertained many 
of them at Oxford. His house was a place 
of pilgrimage to all Indians visiting Eng- 
land ; for, owing to bis ' Rigveda ' and his 
writings on Indian philosophy nud religion, 
he was far better known in India, though ho 
never visited that country, than any other 
European scholar lias ever been. 

On account of his social qualities Max 
Miiller was much in request as president of 
■oaietiea and congresses. Thus be was the 
first president of the English Goethe Sn iet v. 
and in that capacity delivered bis inaugural 
addreas on ' Carry le and Goethe ' in 1886. 
He was also president of tbt! International 
Congress of Orientalists, held in London in 
18!.l.', mid look a prominent pnrl in most of 
the s>-tii's of oriental congresses which began 

learning. He was one of the knights of the 
Prussian order ' Pour le merite,' a knight of 
the Corona d T Italia, and u privy councillor 
in this country. He received the Northern 
Star (first class) from the King of Sweden, 
and subsequently the grand cordon, and 
waa decorated with the orders of the French 

Mix Vllir -?i Max Muller 

•*£i.i 'J li'.njuLi" .in 2jfu-aa ft", it mi ii hit, ^rrnxun. TamfiJKLiaxL Lsjzig, 1S56-09. 

"i* V»-tuli l..i#».— ' Itifur nut -_ut r ir> - T~inrkimi*«dlKk " • * Aasisdtt* Oxonieniis/ 

i..ciL ii<;i::H:L £1*. vi« m mm:nr uth- ±rna nw* til. i. l lefcl : "Sukhira* 

v.* - a' *•!!-- ll. i.u-.ciiL. 2iuuif-Z-t-fTi- Tain.- -"tt-Ti'h^ ji. r.uZifcfcacazian irhii Xanjio, ft. 

u-iii^. -*- , i/.'.:i. Ll.u.ul:ti. uiiL ?*t:lll<«: m. 1**SJ .- • "^i^ii — 7i£»«i»tti- .VTfti »-T nV r* * in 

.•;.* vu l i.»-»*;ri LW-'.i'Jiu-Vi :r "lih _wr_rir:* a: r:i2^ii:ciraaL wtLLyarrniLii. 1>>4; Dharma- 

/ .n.:iv~ x : u*. ?.*siut .^.Lvb^iziaL tin " «nr«a. uuucnaub. uxpmC. \nr K- Kinvm, and 

*.: .f.v.'U*. V *.ik I-'.^-l it-r^L r*LrrmiT **ilr:*L 17- V" Mi-jar &nd H. Wensel, A. 

.->*. i i.-.L!- Jf i^rtTiti. oil 1-ita. U'-ai'attna**. Iw". m Titt I'lmmfihad*/ pu L. 'Sacred 

v.* *-j* ."ti :^-ii- . l _'.:bi-ii7 :c "»"ftfiii;L :if 11* Zo-jo uf in* &«.* -roiL i. 3*7i««|K-iL rol. xv. 

Jv.*; i. ^-.•■/i-- • y. 7>o~l. Liii :c "lh* .Lsksi- ■ Tin- "^t^ anr Smalls- PrajnsV-paramit*- 

VLt >';..■■.* .»;ilj::u -":•■.:«•:■». l '.-.erwirniiiitr iirizL-rir-Sirc*/ A. -r-JL xlix. l&tft. *A His- 

su--u'j-'? -.»' "i.t r-\--7"L >-'jb^t!iL7 :c _ Aitom. "irry nf JLnmain Sa&skm Literature, as far 

*--..: '.*? :u* r-:.v;t- ro'.^y :■:' '.'.ma&s. ti nt - 2sica:«f li* PnmiLrre Religion of the 

^w.t.- 1 ivrtiw-? :«f :i« 2-:— l1 JLsult.i* I^ujllh^.' LrmSic, 2*o£; 2nd «lit. 1860. 

ro/.r-r -.^ >r*a- hr'^2. iii IrtuuiL :d *.ii* -A Sui££=n Gaoraiir/ London, 1866; 2nd 

OrfriA.-- .-r^i'-t- >:•*.>:-:-. L.ii :. nnr» -lLlz. *•£.-:. I •? I .xh^ and airictaed edition by A. A. 

•i»**_-.r ■r.i^r .^or^Lr: .r-tnx^i t-'s.-j^ruzi. ILu-arin&L. !*£*». • Iiidia. what can it teach 

A i^r..-*.: :- Ku K-.:-?t. -.7 X: I- ♦ ^- L.na5:c- ISSS: ih-w edit. 1892; re- 
"•Vt-.-J*. .-'.a. -u -j»rr'- y-.r±z.~-?i \j :iit tt^:*£ 1^:. 3r*ou*«*iiedition, 1«99. In- 
-:.•• **. '..>. ?*"t*-.-L y.TTL.'* .rklj=rr. Triifirciitt •.:■ Tkkkfufn'i Translation of 


9 » mm ml 


it — *T£ : -zi-rr. I-:.5lxt. «. rrfrci. 1 *^*:"-. 

«..-.-: 4. \_»*. ".j M-. r-r^.r-J :j. :■::! _z. *^t :I" — 'Zb*^ I'iaaimapada,* translated 

fr:= Pil^_ i= 5ic«***"* Burmese translation, 
L:r5:c i*T'J: reprlni^i in the 'Sacred 

',■;/> .\^: *.• 'n. '-..•■: v. :■*=.:=.* =.:«,:* i^s 5r7- ii:i:i* :f lb* Eas^.' t:1l; 2nd edit. 1898. 
v _'. •z* - ■: . ■:* .-.*. . :. y *.:. i I rV r r* . Ar:^ : i-r Snzsri c -r Kn'5 ios. — • On Missions ' 
#,',:.•.*.'..•'..*» r-*--.^ r>*r. K-^j Ei»tri VII "--stm^r df-:T«KC is We5ticin£ter Abbey), 

»: - i :-r- " ^T;>. • Ls:?>Juc?ion to the Science 

«-•.'. ^*:.",r ;»- v- • ;.*: rr. . .-.:•: c^ ^: c : z&: i : = : f : f Selirl :■=." Lr«ad rn. 1 *73 : new edit . 1 882 ; 
.y/jl Jr '.-. .zs+'.Ah'l. 4*"rr •-j-j-Itilt 5.:=r T»i«*ir."ij&?. 'T:.e Origin and Growth of 

y- •*.',:.--. ::.".::.' .r'.hl f. ".:• : itt: i'~? Rt1^tI:zu a* iIIi*Tra:«i bv the Religions of 

*. .::. ",..'■':•<:■: ..'.•,*• Mil .V il^r Me=::r:il I- in." L?si^n« 1S7>: 2nd edit. 1878; new 

I ,:.';. *'/ r,«: :-«:.'! J,y •:-►: -r-.v^r-ity :a :r-«: rti;:. i>f2. Is:>l : re-i«6ue, 1898. ' Natural 

' i*,r *'r.<: pr, :t. '/.', r. o f 1 ;4 .-:. i r. ? an'i rr?r^r: h Kr " ir: ■: n.* I>>n ion, 1 S^ : 2nd edit. 1 892. 

.it >.\. w. »•.•«:.»-. r-latir.7 *o t:.^ L:5::rrar.i • Prrsi^Al Religion." London, 1891: new 

af«.j..i.'^'/;;y, »?-♦; ^riyii^-. iitvra'.ur;:?. ani e5::. l*i<8. • Anthropological Religion/ Lon- 

r*',:/.'j!.*t 'A K!.r_.i:\.\ luriih.' A Jipic-r**? d:-n. l^i*2: n*w i«sue. 1898. 'Theosophy, 

• :-'jf;.i:'y lor Ori'jn**! iS^^arch" hi* als-D or Psychological Relicion/ London, 1893; 
Ij4-i n foijri'i<:'l a^ Tokyo in commemoration of new edit. l!?V5: new impression, 1899. 
Mux M'iiJ'T. I1U libran- wa» acquired by Comparative Mtthologt. — • Essay on 
l.ljir urn verbify of Tokyo in July 1901. Comparative Mythology," part i. of Oxford 

A> .Nf fix Muller':-. writiii?-? wer»; so nume- Essays, 1n5H. • Essays on Mythology and 

roii* and ran^i-d ov«-r fco many fields, a classi- Folklore " (* Chips.' vol. iv.) ; new impression, 

fixation of tli«:fii uwbir d;ff*;n;nt h'.-aris will 1900. 'Contributions to the Science of 

ijr« in J i Ijm h«-t hurvuy of Lift works. Mythology/ 2 vols. London, 1897. 

>:\.N-!Ki:ri. ■• II it opad<;£a/ translated into Comparative Philology. — 'On the 

< finnan, I^'ipzi^r, JM 1 ; ' M^glmduta,' trans- Stratification of Language' (Rede Lecture), 

Inti-'J into Ucniian, Koni^Mbf.T^, 1847. 'Rig London, 1868. ' The Science of Language/ 

Vir'lii Siiiihifii. tin; Ka<T<:<J ilvinns of the 2 vols. London. 1861 and 1863; 14th edit. 
iSriLliriiniiH truri'-bitod and explained' (twelve > 1885; new edit. 1890; last edition, 1899. 

Iivmimh f.o t )i*r M units), London, Triihner, ' On the Results of the Science of Language 9 

l^<;'»; t\u: HuniM, with thirty-six additional (inaugural lecture in German), Strasburg, 
li v turi>, under tin* title of ' Vt.'dic Hymns/ in . 1872. ' Essays on Language and Literature* 

* Sw-n-il l^iks «f ihf Kant/ vol. xxxii. 1MJ1. (' Chips/ vol. iii.) ; last edit. 1899. ' Bio- 
1 li'i^vi'dfi/ with Snvana's ' ( Commentary ,' graplnes of Words and the 1 

i\ vil.H. lifindori, \x\\) l:\-m 2nd edit. 4 vols. 
I^nduii, IH'.K) 2; text only, 2 voln. 1873; 
2nd edit. 1H77. ' I litop/ulesa/ text, with in- 

terlinear t ruiiHlatioti, 2partK f London, 1864- 
IMCk ' UigviMla-PratiAiikhya/ 

text, with 

Home of the 
Aryas/ London, 1888; new edit. 1898. 

Philosophy. — 'Kant's Critique of Pure 
Reason/ translated, London, 1881 ; new 
edit. 1896. 'The Science of Thought/ 
London, 1887. 'Three Lectures on the 

Wlonta Iliilnsophy,' London, 1394. 

Si\ Systems of Indian Philosophy,' London, 


R ion rami i- — ' Biographical Essays ' 

i Won, 1 ■■**»; new un- 

mtaaioa. 1668. ' Ramakrsna, bis Life and 

Savins*,' London, 1898; twice reprinted. 

edition, 1900. ' Auld 

. | Syne," vol. i, London, l89B[Seditioni), 

Indian Friends,' London, 1890; 

■_-rapby. A Fragment,' London, 

. u i -. _■ 'I'lif German Classics From 
EtouUli In to Nineteenth Century,' Lon- 

1858; new and enlarged edit. 'Z vols. 

Deutsche Liebe,' 1st edit. 

edit. 1898 (altogether 

pies); ■ pirated translation, under 

'Memories/ has had an enor- 

::. America ; French transl. 187.'i; 

.us!. 1900; English transl. (by 

Hiilterj London, 1873; 4th edit. 

ffilheln Mullet's rooms,' edited 

with introduction and notes, Leipzig, 1868. 

■rresp'Hidenee with iJuke Fried- 

: mu of Schleswig Holste in,' edited 

■with introduction and notes, Leipzig, 1S7;"j; 

History of German Literature,' 

otlated hv Mrs. Conybeare and edited by 

. Oribrf, 1886; new edit. 

A collected edition of Mai Mullet's essays, 
ins from a German Workshop, 1 
shed in four volumes between 1*''7 
., new edition came out in 1880. 
lected edition of his works began 
to appear in Jw;t8, and fifteen volumes bud 
published in it down to the end of 1900. 
ii* memoir » baaed <m Mai Midler's Liip- 
LMturo-book (Collegienlmch) ; oa Oiford 
■rsity Noti«*from 1850 onwards; on 'Auld 
■ :.l. i. ; on 'My Autobiography ; ' 
I'iMififirvif'liit'.-il nuif« fiirrii^ljcJ I'V Mr.— rt. 
~~ i, Own, & Co. ; on details supplied 
Mai Midler; and largely on personal 
A. A. M. 
1900), admiral and political writer, 
id son of Joines Maine [d, 18641 of 
', by Lady Caroline FiU- 
1603-1886), daughter of Frederick 
i ;t)i earl of Berkeley, was born 
Six Henry Berkeley Fitthardinge 
WM his elder Mother. He en-, obtained his lieutenancy in 
U naval aide-de-camp to Lord 
■■ r the lialtle of the Alma, dis- 
played a commotio us gallantry in carrying 
lanwd his promotion to 
ii in December 1855. 
: from the service with the rank 


of admiral in 1867, and unsuccessfully con- 
tested the borough oi' Southampton, in the 
radical interest at the general election of 
November 1868. He wus also beaten in a 
subsequent contest for Hiddletsi is I ■■- 
bruary 1874; nor did he ever succeed in 
entering parliament. Indeed the curious 
idiosyncrasies which made his character an 
interesting study to his friend Mr. George 
Meredith (see liriW'-hmHp'x I'urrrr) untitled 
him for modern political life. His liberalism 
was of no school, and on Mrtain questions, 
e.g. woman's suffrage and home rulo, In w|| 
as tenaciously conservative as the highest of 
lories. !!■.' was an occii-iiinul contributor lo 
periodical literature, and his articles on the 
conduct of cerlain of the ope rat ions in the 
Crimea, which appeared in the' National ['■•- 
view' under the titles "Admiral Lord Lyons,' 
' My Two Chiefs in the Crimea,' ' Lord Hag- 
Inn's Traducers,' and 'The War Corre- 
spondent at Bay,' during the first quarter 
of 1899, constitute a valuable lOOMUM to 
the materials at the disposal of the future 

HUM died on 25 June 1000. He married, 
in 1862, Cecilia, daughter of Colonel sin 1.., 
hv whom he left issue two sons- — Major 
rrederick Ivor Mnxsu of the Coldstream 
guards, and Mr. L. J. Maxse, editor of the 
'National Review '—and two daughters, the 
younger of whom, Violet, is married to Lord 
Edward Cecil. 

His separate publications are the follow- 
ing; 1. 'The Education of the Agricultural 
Poor, being an Address at a Meeting of the 
Botley and South Hunts Farmers' Club,' 
London, 1868, 8 vo. 2. ' Our Political Duty: 
a Lecture,' London, 1870, 8vo, 3. ' A Plea 
for Intervention,' London, 1871, 8vo. 4. 'The 
Causes of Social Revolt : a Lecturi.,' Lon- 
don. 1872, 8vci, 5. 'Objections to Woman 
Suffrage ; a Speech ... at tho Electoral 
Reform Conference held at the Freemasons' 
Tavern, 1/ Nov. 1874.' (i. '"Whether the 
Minority of Electors should be represented 
by ft Majority in the House of Commons ? A 
Lecture upon Electoral Reform," London, 
1875, 8vo. 7. ' Woman Suffrage : tho Coun- 
t.'rft'it and the True, Reason* for opposing 
both,' London, 1877, 8to; new edit. 1884. 
8. 'National Education and its Opponents : 
a Lecture,' London, 1877, 8vo. 0. 'The 
French Press and Ireland: two Letters on 
the Irish Question addressed to " La Jus- 
tice," ' London, 1888, 8vo. 10. ' Home Rule i 
an Expostulation, 1 London. 1880, 6Vo, 11. 
Judas! a Political Tract, dedicated to the 

,' August 1885, Beotam- 




ber 1896, May 1897, January, February, 
March, April, July 1899, June 1900. 

[Walford's County Families; G-ent. Mag. 
1854 ii. 497, 1869 i. 671 ; Ann. Reg. 1855, ii. 
356; Times, 27 June 1900; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea, 6th edit. iv. 
23.] J. M. R. 

WARD (1846-1897), governor of the Gold 
Coast, was born in 1846. 

His father, Sir Petbb Benson Maxwell 
(1817-1893), chief justice of the Straits 
Settlements, born at Cheltenham in January 
1817, was the fourth son of Peter Benson 
Maxwell of Birdstown, co. Donegal. He 
was educated at Paris and at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1839. 
He entered the Inner Temple on 14 Nov. 
1838, removed to the Middle Temple on 
1(5 Nov. 1840, and was called to the bar on 
19 Nov. 1841. He was recorder of Penang 
from February 1856 to 1866, and recorder 
of Singapore from 27 July 1866 to 1871. 
From 1867 to 1871 he was chief justice of 
the Straits Settlements, and in 1883 and 
1884 he was employed in reorganising the 
judicial tribunals of Egypt. He was 
knighted at Buckingham Palace on 30 Jan. 
1856, and died in France at Grasse, in the 
department of Alpes-Maritimes, on 14 Jan. 
1893. He married, in July 1842, Frances 
Dorothea, only daughter of Francis Synge 
of Glanmore Castle, co. Wicklow. He 
was the author of two legal works of some 
importance: 1. i An Introduction to the 
Duties of Police Magistrates in the Settle- 
ment of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore, 
and Malacca/ Penang, 1866, 8vo. 2. * On 
the Interpretation of Statutes/ London, 
1875, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1883 ( Times, 18 Jan. 
1893 ; Boase, Modern Biogr. 1897 ; Foster, 
Men at the Bar, 1885 ; Foster, Baronetage 
and Knightage). 

His younger son, William Edward, en- 
tered llepton in 1860, and was employed 
from 1865 to 1869 in the supreme court at 
Penang and Singapore. In 1867 he quali- 
fied as an advocate at the local bar, and in 
September 1869 he was appointed a police 
magistrate and commissioner of the court 
of requests at Penang. In February 1870 
lie was placed in the same offices in Malacca, 
in August 1871 at Singapore, and in 1872 
in Province Wellesley. In May 1874 he 
was nominated a temporary judge of the 
supreme court of Penang. In September 
ho was appointed assistant government 
agent for Province Wellesley, and in No- 
vember 1875 he accompanied, as deputy 
commissioner, the Larut field force, which 
punished the murderers of James Wheeler 

Woodford Birch, the British resident at 
Perak. For his services he was mentioned 
in the despatches and received a medaL. 
In February 1878 he became assistant 
resident in Perak and a member of the 
state council. In 1881 he was called to the 
bar by the Society of the Inner Temple, and 
in the following year he was commissioned to 
visit the Australian colonies and report on 
the Torrens land registration system [sea 
Torbens, Sir Robert Richard]. On re- 
turning to the Straits Settlements he became 
commissioner of land titles, and in 1883 
was gazetted a member of the executive and 
legislative councils. In 1884 he was em- 
ployed by the foreign office on a mission to 
the west coast of Atchin to obtain the 
release of the survivors of the British ship 
Nisero, who had been in captivity for ten 
months. He was successful in his task, 
received the thanks of government, and was 
created C.M.G. From 1884 to 1889 he was 
acting resident councillor at Penang, and in 
1889 British resident at Selangor. In 1892 
he was nominated colonial secretary of the 
Straits Settlements, and from September 
1893 till January 1895 he was acting 
governor. In March 1 895 he was nominated 
governor of the Gold Coast. He found the 
colony on the brink of a war with the 
Ashantis, who made frequent slave raids, 
and refused to pay the balance of the war 
indemnity due to the British government. 
On 17 Jan. 1898 an expedition under Sir 
Francis Scott entered Kumassi without 
resistance, and made prisoner the Ashanti 
king, Prempeh. Maxwell, who was nomi- 
nated K.C.M.G. in 1896, visited England in 
the summer, and addressed large meetings 
at Liverpool and Manchester on the future 
of the Gold Coast and Ashanti, returning 
to the Gold Coast in October. He died at 
sea off Grand Canary on 10 Dec. 1897. In 
1870 he married Lilias, daughter of James 
Aberigh-Mackay, chaplain in the Indian 

[Times, 16 Dec. 1896; Pall Mall Gazette, 
8 Jan. 1901; Colonial Office Lists; Burke's 
Peerage ; Baden-Powell's Downfall of Prempeh, 
1896.] K I. 6. 

MAYNARD, WALTER, pseudonym. 
[See Bealb, Thomas Willebt, 1828-1894.] 

MEADE, Sib ROBERT HENRY (183. r >- 
1898), civil servant, second son of Richard 
Meade, third earl of Clanwilliam, and of his 
wife, Lady Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Herbert, eleventh earl of Pembroke, was 
born on 16 Dec. 183o, and educated at Eton 
and Exeter College, Oxford, where he matri- 
culated on 7 Dec. 1854 and graduated B.A. 

■ I860. On 1 J\ 

-.virli Lord Dufferia's 
cm mission on 31 July 18G0, and re- 
turning in September 1861 was selected to 
nccompanv tlxe prince of Wales in his tour 
through Palestine and Eastern Europe in 
tn the autumn of I8fi2 he accom- 
to Germany in atten- 
n. t»n 27 Nov, ]rtl!2 

gi m of t lie bedchamber 

H ale*. In 1863 heaccom- 

I rl Granville abroad with the queen. 

In June 1884 Manila became private 

•*tn.:irj to Earl Granville as president of 

I, mid was with him till July 

pork in the 

W'li'-n Lord II run villi:- liocuni.-, 

1868, secretary of stale for the 

■, Meade accompanied him aa private 

i) the colonial otllce. On 21 May 

1 Mrade was appointed to an assistant 

er^-socretaryship of state in the colonial 

■■■■!'■ ■r-.viir,;] h- df vi .1 i.'d himself to 

and responsible duties of that 

• He was appointed a royal commis- 

r far the Paris exhibition on 22 Jan. 

1 a British delegate to the con- 

n African quest tuns at Berlin on 
1384 (see Pari. Papert, a. 4290, 
i with Prince 
Itiainarck). In February 1892 be became 
ment tinder-secretary for the colonial 
■ Lord Knuteford, and subsequently 
1 lnder Lord Ripon and Mr. Oham- 
hu health became indif- 
•jp was anxious to retire in 1895, but 
■Uynl on at the request of the secretary of 
•tale for However, to- 

ward* the end of 1896 he fell and broke his 
IBUW in entering an omnibus upon 
leaving lie office. lie never returned to 
Ilia work. Ill-health and the sudden death 
«f hi* daughter Iirciki' him down completely, 
at an hotel in 
ll-lfatt. He w,i» buried at Taplow, near 
UN H.It. on 21 March 
84, and O.C.B, in 1897. 
t i.'til common 
nmu and much tact, and he was be- 
tid** a wan of peculiar charm, greatly Hied 
by all who knew him, lie was one of a 
ill liberal* who formed a little 
he crown from 

married, first, on 19 April I860, 

Mary Klutabeth, daughter of Henry 

■ 1 nail ni' Hnrowood : she died 

366, leaving one daughter, who 

father in IK'7. Meade 

, on 18 April 

line Genrfiiaoa, daughter of Charles William 
Grenfell of Tapluw Court, Maidenhead; she 
died on .5 March 1881, leaving a son, Charles 
Francis, who survived him. 

[Foreign Office List, 1895 ; Colonial Office 
List, 1896; Foster's Alumni Oiqd. 1715-1886; 
Times, 10 Jan. 1808; Burke's Peerage, b.t. 
•Clanwilliam ; ' personal knowledge.] C. A. H. 

lOHiTILL, Sir JAMES COSMO 1 17i)2- 
1881 I, lii-l secretary trf the East India Com- 
pany, born at Guernsey in 1792, was the 
third eon of Philip Melvill (17ft l-lli, 
afterwards lieutenant-governor of Pl-iuIioims 
Castle in Cornwall, bv hi* wife, Elizalieth 
Carey (rf. 1 844), youngest daughter of Peter 
Dobree of Beauregarde, Guernsey. Henry 
.Miivil) a, v." wu his rl'lt-r brother. James 
entered the home service of the East India 
Company in February 1808. He soon dis- 
played unusual abilities, and rose by rapid 
steps to the highest permanent position at 
the East India House. In 1824 he was 
appointed auditor of Indian accounts. 
While in this position he gave important 
evidence in 1830 before a parliamentary 
committee vindicating the company's con- 
duct of its China trade from the attack 
of William Huskissou [q. v.], and again in 
1832 before another committee on Indian 
affairs in regard to the accounts of the 
company (Thornton, Hut. of British Em- 
pire in India, 1858, pp, 501, 603). In 
1834 he became financial secretary, and in 
1836 chief secretary, an office which he held 
until the termination of the company's 
existence as a governing body in 1858. 
After his retirement from the service of the 
company he was a ppoi nt ed government 
director of Indian railways, and it is Bald 
that he was ottered appointments of high 
rank in the Indian government, but. declined 
them. Melvill was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 14 Jan. 1841, and was 
created K.C.B, on 5 Sept. 1853. He died 
at Tandridge Court, near Godstone in Sur- 
rey, on 33 July 1881, In March 1815 he 
married Hester Jean Frances (tl. 10 April 
1864), youngest daughter of William Mar- 
maduke Belwn of Barlesden in Middlesex. 
By her he had numerous issue. 

[Memoirs of Philip Melvill, 1812 ; Ann. Beg. 
1861. ii. 169 ; Gent. Mag. 1861. ii. S34; Boaio's 
Collect. Cornuu. 1S9Q: London Review, 27 July 
1861; Bell's British Folks and British India 
Fifty Years Ago, 1891.] fi, I 


(1812-1897), admiral, eldest sou of Admiral 
William Howeh Mends (1781-1864), and 
nephew of Sir Robert Mends [q. v.], was 
born nt Plymouth on 27 Feb, 1*12. In May 




1825 he entered the Royal Naval College at 
Portsmouth, and on passing out in Decem- 
ber 1826 was shortly afterwards appointed 
to the Thetis, a 46-gun frigate, going out to 
the South American station. He was still in 
the Thetis when she was wrecked on Cape 
Frio on 5 Dec. 1830. It was Mends's watch 
at the time the ship struck, but as the night 
was dark and thick and it was raining 
heavily, he was held guiltless, the blame 
falling entirely on the captain and master. 
Mends was considered to have behaved very 
well in a position extremely difficult for one 
so young and inexperienced, and several of 
the members of the court offered to take 
him with them. After passing his exami- 
nation he joined the Actaxm in the Medi- 
terranean, which in 1832 was at Constanti- 
nople when a Russian army of upwards of 
twenty thousand men was there, consequent 
on the terrible defeat of the Turks by Ibrahim 
Pasha at Konieh. The intervention of the 
western powers demanded the withdrawal ot 
this force, and Mends was deeply interested 
in watching its embarkation, making careful 
notes of their manner and methods of em- 
barking the cavalry and guns. Men, horses, 
and guns, with all their stores and baggage, 
were got on board within twelve hours, and 
Mends treasured up the experience for future 
use. In the summer of 1834 the Actaeon 
returned to England and was paid off; and 
in January 1835 Mends was appointed to the 
Pique with Captain Henry John Rous [q. v.] 
In July the ship was sent out to Canada, 
and on the homeward voyage, on 22 Sept., 
struck heavily on a reef off the coast of 
Labrador. After several anxious hours she 
was got off, and, though she was much 
damaged and was leaking badly, and her 
main and mizen masts were badly sprung, 
Rous determined to proceed. Five days 
later her rudder, which had also been in- 
jured, was carried away, and the ship left 
nelpless in a heavy westerly gale. With 
admirable seamanship she was steered for 
several days by means of a weighted hemp 
cable towed astern and controlled by a spar 
lashed across the ship's stern: it was not till 
6 Oct. that they were able to ship a jury 
rudder ; and on the 13th thev anchored at 
St. Helen's after a voyage that has no parallel 
in the annals of the nineteenth century. 
Mends then learnt that he had been pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant on 11 Aug. 
In December he was sent out to join the 
Vernon at Malta. A vear later ne was 
moved into the Caledonia and then to the 
Rodney, from which, in July 1838, he went 
to be flag-lieutenant of Sir John Louis, the 
second in command on the station and super- 

intendent of Malta dockyard. lie continued 
with Louis, sometimes afloat, but mostly at 
Malta, till July 1843 ; afterwards, from No- 
vember 1843 he was in the Fox frigate with 
Sir Henry Blackwood on the coast of Ire* 
land and in the East Indies till, on 2 Jan. 
1847, he received the news of his promotion, 
on 9 Nov. 1 846, to be commander. In January 
1848 he was appointed to the Vanguard, 
in which, a couple of months later, he had 
the misfortune to lose some of the fingers of 
his left hand, which was carried into a block 
and badly crushed. It was this, more than 
the loss of the fingers, which caused trouble; 
and for years afterwards he suffered from 
severe attacks of neuralgia. The Vanguard 
went home and was paid off in March 1 849 ; 
and in July 1850 Mends was appointed to 
the Vengeance, again with Blackwood, who, 
however, died after a short illness at Ports- 
mouth on 7 Jan. 1851, and was succeeded 
by Lord Edward Russell fa. v.] Towards 
the end of the summer the Vengeance went 
to the Mediterranean, btit came home in 
December 1852, when, on 10 Dec., Mends 
was advanced to post rank in acknowledg- 
ment of the excellent order the ship was in. 
In October 1853 he was selected by Sir 
Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons [q. v.] to 
be his flag-captain in the Mediterranean, if 
Captain symonds, then in the Arethusa, 
should prefer to remain in the frigate. If 
Symonds should prefer to join Lyons, it 
was understood that Mends should have the 
Arethusa [see Symonds, Sib Thomas Mat- 
thew Charles]. Mends accordingly took the 
Agamemnon out and joined the fleet in the 
Sea of Marmora on Christmas Eve, when, as 
previously arranged, he took command of the 
Arethusa. In her he took a particularly 
brilliant part in the bombardment of Odessa 
on 22 April 1854 ; ' we stood in twice,' Mends 
wrote, ' tacked close off the Mole and en- 
paged the works on it in reverse . . . pouring 
in a destructive fire as we went about.' He 
was promptly recalled by the commander-in- 
chief, who seems to have considered that he 
was needlessly risking the ship. * I expected 
a reprimand when I went on board the ad- 
miral to report, but the enthusiasm of the 
fleet and the cheers given to us as we passed 
along the lines mollified the chief, and I was 
simply told not to go in again/ The French 
officers who had witnessed the manoeuvre 
called on Mends to compliment him on it ; 
and many years afterwards a French writer 
in the * Revue des Deux Mondes' referred 
to it as a brilliant tour de force. In June 
Lyons and Symonds had found that they did 
not get on well together, and it was proposed 
to Mends to re-exchange into the Agamem- 

Ii Ha did. From that, time his 
the admiral, 
^toiT, lie had 
iv points of detail on 
i. l!v I'nr the moat im- 
portant u( : ■ rkation of the 
\ imi mid the subsequent landing 
■ mea on 1-t Sept. The 
!._' was admirably dune without & 
liiich and without Ices ; aud though, to the 
world at large, ii appeared to be done by 
onl himself and the navy fully re- 
fed to Mends. 
:: ived his ling 
■ tcompanyiug 
m. In all the operations of the year he 
•i his full shore; he wu no minuted a C.B. 
6 Jnly ; and in December was ordered to 
i lie admiral remain- 
1 the Black Sea with his Bag in the 
be. While ■■riin.iing the Sea of Mar- 
■* the stern-gland — tilt metal bearing of 
i acrew-ahaft as it pusses through the 
-Live way. and an alarming rush 
of water followed. Dunne the nex1 day the 
•hippurTi!' ■ ngmc* pump- 
ing Dip water OUti but OH 28 Dec, Mends 
d-odrd that it eras nocaaWTT to beach the 
jell wu cleverly done in Port 
ndofZea. There a coffer- 
dam was built|inside round the hole, and, the 
ship** safety being thus secured, she pro- 
ceeded to Malta under Bail, and arrived 
7 .Ian. 18tVS. Mends continued in 
command of the Royal Albert till March 
.:■ iihe was appointed to the Hast- 
ing*, giiardship in the Mersey, from which, 
n later, he was appointed deputy- 
adminiltv. He held this office for about a 
year, and in May IHo'li was appointed director 
of EnnaportS) with the duty of organising 
and adminiiiiTiriM the transport department 
of lb.' admiralty. Here he remained for 
more than twenty years, during which period 
"* » were several exceptional calls on his 
"ii*weredin a munner that 
i < >rougli working order in 
■.. pt, On 1 .Imi. 1889 he 
me a Pear-admiral, on 20 May 1-71 a 
adminl on I Jan. 1*74, admiral 
n 1.1 June I87W. and on 34 Nov 
laminated a O.C.B., wiili especial reference 
o bis work in connection with the expedi- 

ln February 1883 he retired nnd settled 
down at *Jl ■■ distance of 

lib many i i >ul l>. I lep 


■■ :it, illlles^i. 

1 practically killed him, 

though he sun ived for tlu'ei. yttU, He died 

.hi 96 .1 .' 1897, the day of the great naval 

review in commemoration of the queen's 
diamond jubilee. Mends married, at Malta 
■ 1>:17, Melita, daughter of Dr. 
Stilon, a Neapolitan by birth, who had served 
as a medical officer in the French army at 
Maida, and been sent as a prisoner to Eng- 
land, where he married, entered the navy, 
and some years later settled in private 
practice at "Malta, The 'Life' of Mend* 
(1*09) which was written by his son, liowen 
Slilon Mends, formerly u surgeon in the 
navy, is largely made up of extracts from 
Blende's letters and journals. It has thus a, 
considerable historical value, especially as 
to the Russian war, being the strictly syn- 
chronous opinions of a niau who, from his 
officii) I position and his personal relatione 
with Sir Edmund (aftermuda Lord) Lyons, 
hud very good opportunities of knowing what 
was being done or not done ; at the same 
time the factor of Lyons 's personality is to 
be allowed for. 

[The Life by hia son, just msntjonSd (with 
portraits); Eordley Wilmot'l Life uf Lord 
Lyons.] J. K. L. 

MERCIER, IIONOIlfi (1840-1894), 
premier of Quebec, was born on 15 Oct. 
1840 at Ste,-A.thanase in Lower Canada, 
where his father had been an early set I ler. 
Educated at the Jesuit College, Mmii ival, 
he entered the office of Messrs. Laframboiso 
& Papiueau and began the study of law in 
lfti.50. In 18K be abandoned law for a time 
and undertook the editorship of 'I.e Courier' 
to support the Macdonald-Sicottc ministry. 
He took an active part in founding the /"irlt 
national of that time, and vigorously op- 
posed confederation. When ii seemed in- 
evitable be finished his course in law and 
was called to the Montreal bar in 1867. 
Practising first at Ste.-llyftdnthe, and later 
in Montreal, he attained a fair standing in 
his profession. 

Merrier was elected to the Hon-i'l Com- 
mons in 1872 as opposition member for 
Rouville in the province of Quebec. He 
was not a candidate at the following elec- 
tions, and, being unsuccessful in the cam- 
paign of 1878, ret ired from dominion politic*. 
Thereupon ( Si ri Henrj < ' list live Joly, premier 
of Quebec, offered the post, of solicit or-geM- 
rnl to Mercier, who aceepu-d the office and 
held it till the cabinet resigned in October 
1879. Mr. Joly retired from tin- I 
in 1883, whereupon Me.rcier became liberal 

' leader in the local house, his <■■■ 

Hyacinth*. Sei iug that his party 

j could not make head against the ecclesiastical 




and conservative power, he formed an alli- 
ance with the ultramontanes who were then 
rising into power. He recurred also to his 
project of a so-called parti national, a party 
French-Canadian in race and catholic in reli- 
gion, but open equally to liberals and con- 
servatives. The year 1885 gave him his op- 
portunity, because the north-west rebellion 
then broke out and the execution of Louis 
Kiel [q. v.] followed. Mercier turned to 
political account the French-Canadian racial 
sympathies for the half-breed leader and, 
forming a combination with (Sir) Charles 
Alphonse Pellet ier, a well-known conserva- 
tive, swept the constituencies in the elections 
of 1886, and became premier of the province 
on 29 Jan. 1887. He continued in that office 
for five years. Among his useful measures 
may be ranked the consolidation of the local 
statutes and the establishment of an agri- 
cultural department. 

On 21 Oct. 1887 he called a conference of 
the premiers of the several provinces at 
Quebec to discuss amendments to the con- 
stitution. His endeavours to extend the 
boundaries of the province to Hudson's Bay 
were carried to a successful issue after his 
death— in 1896. 

His financial measures took a wide range. 
He failed to convert part of the local debt, 
which then amounted to the gross sum of 
£ 19,500,000, by substituting four in the 
place of the subscription rate of five per 
cent, interest. He laid increased taxation 
on commercial transactions, persons, and 
corporations, and his measures for the purpose 
were confirmed. In 1888 he launched in 
l'aris a loan for £3,500,000 at four per cent., 
and another in 1891 for £4,000,000 at the 
siime rate. He was enthusiastically received 
in France in April 1891, and was decorated 
with the legion of honour. Passing thence 
to Home, the grand cross of Gregory the 
Great was bestowed on him for his services 
to the church. The king of the Belgians 
made him commander of the order of Leo- 
pold I. 

While he increased taxation and accumu- 
lated debt, his distributions to railways, 
colonisation purposes, public buildings, and 
improvements were liberal. But after the 
elections of 1890, when Mercier was again 
returned to power by a large majority, a 
spending fever seems to have taken hold of 
Mercier and many of his party. Then began 
what is called * la danse des millions. 1 It 
proceeded apace till the crash came at the 
end of 1891. 

Mercier never enjoyed the confidence 
of the episcopate and secular clergy. But, 
overbearing all opposition in the provincial 

contest, he resolved to attack the conserva- 
tive party of the dominion, and, entering 
warmly into the election to the dominion 
parliament of 1891, made a serious change 
in the Quebec delegation to Ottawa. In 
this he necessarily alienated many of his 
conservative allies. Further, investigations 
begun in the senate resulted in tracing to 
Mercier or his agents the sum of £100,000, 
part of £260,000 which the local house had 
voted to the Baie des Chaleurs railway. 
The money, it was alleged, was spent in the 
late elections. Thereupon the lieutenant- 
governor issued a royal commission to in- 
quire into the matter* (21 Sept. 1891), and 
evidence was taken which was confirmatory. 
Mercier sought to ignore the commission 
and its proceedings, taking his stand on con- 
stitutional grounds : that the proper body to 
investigate the charges was the legislature, 
not the commission, and that while he pos- 
sessed the confidence of the house he was 
entitled to the confidence of the lieutenant- 
governor. His opponents had used a simi- 
lar argument, when the lieutenant-gover- 
nor, Letellier de St. Just, dismissed the con- 
servative administration in 1878. In this 
instance it was of no avail. The ministry 
was dismissed, the De Boucherville cabinet 
was gazetted (December 1891), the house dis- 
solved, and on appeal to the electors Mercier 
and his following were hopelessly defeated. 
In 1892 an indictment was laid against 
him for conspiring to defraud the province, 
but the prosecution failed. The result was 
on the whole beneficial to Mercier, and the 
trial helped to re-establish him in public 
credit. He began to take an active part in 

Solitics once more, and on 3 April 1893 
elivered what is considered to be his best 
speech, before an immense audience at 
Sohmer Park, Montreal. It is published 
under the title of 'L'Avenir du Canada.' 
Mercier died on 30 Oct. 1894. On 29 May 
1866 he married Leopoldine Boivin of Stei- 
Hyacinthe, and, after her death, Virginie 
St.-Denis of the same place on 9 May 1871. 
[David's Mos Contemporains. 1878, p. 269; 
VoyorV Biographies, pp. 3-13; Gemmill's 
Parlt. Companion, 1883, pp. 241-2; Bi baud's 
Le Pantheon Canndien, pp. 192-3 ; Annual Beg. 
for 1894. ii. 201 ; Lareau's Hist, du Droit Can. 
ii. 346-51 ; Hodgins'a Corr. of Min. of Justice, 
p. 376; Lo Gouvt. Mercier, Los Elect. Prov. 
1890. pp. 12-20; Todd's Pari. Govt- in the Brit. 
Col. pp. 666-79 ; Tarte's Le Proces Mercier. pp. 
3-28. 180-94; McCord's Handbook of Gin. 
Dates, p. 50 ; N. O. Cote s Political Appoint- 
ments, p. 198 ; La Prov. de Quibec, 1900. p. 36 ; 
L'Hon. Honore Mercier, si vie.sesceuTree, sa fin, 
1895 ; Pellaud's Biographie, Discoure, &c. ; 
Times, 3 April 1891.] T. B. B. 

MERIVALE. CII.\i:i.h;S(160rt-1893), 
historian and dean of Ely, second Mil of 
by Louisa 
Joseph TliomoB 
, Tq. v.], was horn at No. 14 East 
A in, on 8 March 
nl.iiriftn and hia 
shwomon, he was brought tip 
jut any very definite dogmatic instruc- 
i, bill in an atmosphere of sober practical 
lie was carefully taught by his 
kindly tO learning, espe- 
" ) Itoman history, which, with his 
Herman, ho converted into a sort 
fetch tbey played with their hoops 
lie also attended for n 
t time a private day school kept by one 
i Kernel Street, Blooma- 
r, and was afterwards grounded in Greek 
[n January 1818 he was 
.1 Harrow, where he was contempo- 
rary with Charles Wordsworth [q. v.l (after- 
word* Bishop of St. Andrews). Richard 
Chcnevn Trench [q. v.] (afterwards Arch- 
il Dublin), and Henry Edward 
(afterw*rdaCardinal)Manning[q.v.l There 
h« wrote an immense quantity of Latin 

K; committed to memory the Eclogues 
Qenrgics of Virgil, the whole of Ga- 
1 md the greater part of 
n. For relaxation he read Souther's 
; BrnxD,' an achievement winch 
■ courage to attack Mill's ' History 
: wards became 
hia dntY In do so. 1 1 

in the cricket field, and in 1824 played in 
tck aenin-t Eton. An Indian writer- 
ing offered, be was removed in that 
where he took 
«■ in classic* and Persian, and was first 
the class list when a casual perusal of 
'Autobiography' awakened con- 
atoreste. His bent was at once 
ir the life of a Mndenl 
i Indian career became w. i 
im, and his father consented lo transfer 
abridge, The writerahip which 
have taken was given to John 

In' autumn 

i ingentered 


■i in 1830, 

■ . precadtne year gained the 

1 ' ■ ■ ■ ■■:■, and prn- 

nrl H.IUn 1S40. He 

l«o rowed ■ mi lb,. fj rs t 

in l.-'J'.t, and 

)'li«lu.'d tin' 

i»t 'if walking from (3 ■ 

i one day. I i tte days he 

belonged to the coterie of so-called 'Apostle*,' 
whose symposia are celebrated by Tennyson 
in 'In Jletnoriam ' (lxxxvi), and to a 
smaller Moiety cull'*'! tin.' ' 1 lermatbenu:.' 
Among his especial friends were Henry 
Alford [a. v.] (afterwards Dean of Canter- 
bury), Uilliuin llepwortli Thompson '\\. v.) 
(nfterwarda Master of Trinity), .1 
liams Blakesley (q. v.] (afterwards Dean of 
Lincoln I, James Spedding fq. v.], and John 
Uttchell Kemble[q. v.], the son of the actor. 
He was at this time a liberal in politics, and 
interest in the impending Belgian revolution 
drew him to tin- Netlierhuids in the summer 
of 1831. On fail return to England hi tri 
fled with Anglo-Savon, Waint-Simonianisra, 
and Freemasonry, but on his election to a 
fellowship in 1833 took holy orders and 
settled down to historical wr>rk. In i be 
reaction which followed the 1'arlitinientary 
Reform Act of 1832 he went over to the 
conservative party, to which he thereafter 
steadfastly adhered ; but the high toryism 
of St. John's College proved uncongenial, 
and be was reconciled to continnea reei- 
deiice tti'.T.' only liy his failure in l.-.'i.'i to 
obtain the chair of classics at. King's College, 
London, and subsequent disappointments. 
Meanwhile he studied ( ierman. travelled in 
Bavaria and Austria (183fi), and felt a 
growing interest in Roman history. Though 
by no means an enthusiastic, he was a con- 
scientious and efficient, tutor, and in 1836 
and the following year was one of the 
examiners for ike classical tripos, His 
ecclesiastical views were of the moderate 
type, and the four sermons which he de- 
livered as select preacher to the uuiier-il y 
in November ls;{H were warmly commended 
bv Whewell, and led to his appointment in 
the following year as select preacher at 
Whitehall. As n scholar he was more of n 
Lilt mist than a Grecian, and little short of 
a devotee to Latin verse composition. He 
had no speculative interests, and though he 
had studied pnlil icsrl economy under Mall hi is 
at llnileybnry, he entertained no respect 
for that science, and remained throughout 
life a convinced protectionist. New 
in matters academic he was ■ 
reformer, and helped to establish tbl lew, 
moral science, and physci iripOM 
however, he afterwards charm ■ 
' sickly growths.' He was natural 1 
to a recluse life, and, even when fairly 
absorbed in the study of Roman history, 
was satisfied with a -inch' I'l- 
Rome in the autumn of l>|.". Tlir hi-ure 
necessary for his historical work i 
bv accepting in 1648 the rectory of Law ford, 
Essex, with which he united i!. . 

Merivale 164 Merivale 

to the speaker (John Evelyn Denison) of 
the House of Commons from February 1863 
until his preferment in November 1869 to 

while its recognised blemish, neglect of epi- 
graphical sources, was hardly to be avoided 
in the circumstances in which' it was written. 

the deanery of Ely. He was Hulsean I The vogue of the first three volumes was 
lecturer in* 1802, was reappointed select , such as to induce him to issue a popular 
preacher at Whitehall in 1864, and in that ] epitome of them in one volume, entitled 
and the following year delivered the Boyle i * The Fall of the Roman Republic : a short 
lectures. In 1862* and 1871 he examined > History of the last Century of the Common- 
for the Indian civil service. In 1806 he > wealth/ London, 1853, Sv'o; 5th edit. 1863. 
received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from He also edited as parerga ' C. Sallustii Crispi 
the university of Oxford. ■ Catilina et Jugurtha,' London, 1852, 8vo, 

Merivale made no figure in convocation, and ' An Account of the Life and Letters 
and after allowing himself to be added to of Cicero, translated from the German of 
the commirtee for the revision of the autho- : Bernhard Rudolf Abeken,' London, 1854, 
rised version of the New Testament in 12mo. and in 1857 contributed the article on 
February 1871, withdrew from it in the fol- Xiebuhr to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
lowing October. He identified himself with About the same time he formed a connection 
no ecclesiastical party, abhorred polemics, with the 'Saturday Review/ which lasted for 
and as a preacher was solid and judicious some years. His' Boyle Lectures' — 1. 'The 
rather than eloquent. Though inclined to Conversion of the Roman Empire/ and 
comprehension as the only means of avert- 2. 'The Con version of the Northern Nat ions' 
ingtne disrupt i»n of the church, he approved — appeared in 1^64 and 1*66 respectively 
the Public Worship Regulation Act ot 1*74. (London, Svo». More definitely apologetic 
His later years were spent in almost entire wash's lecture forth* Christian Evidence So- 
seclusion at Ely, whore he enlarged the school ciety. entitled • The Contrast between Pagan 
and partially restored the cathedral. He and Christian Society." London, 1872, 8vo. 
also organised the commemoration in 1S73 His * General History of Rome from the 
of the foundation of Elv Minster, of which Foundation of the Citv to the Fall of 
he published an account, entitled 'St. Ethel- Auzustulus/ London, 1*75. 8vo, is a con- 
dreda Festival: Summary of !Vv>~edingr*. venlent epitome of a vast subject : an abridge 
with Sermon* a::d Addresses at the Hifsex- mvnt by C. Puller appeared in 1*77. 'The 
tenarv Festival of St. E:h-:*.ir*ia at Elv, Roman Triumvirates t Ep-xrhs of Ancient 
iVtolvr l?7;V ELy. 1>74. 4:o. Un 17 Feb. History >-r. ». London. l>7o. Svd: • St. Paul 
1S;*2 he had a s*.:*:h: attack o: paralysis: a at Koine' »S. P. C. K. ■. London, 1**77, Svo: 
sec :■:: .1. :o war-As t he cl ?>e ."f N ?ve:^fc~ r 1 >i>3. • Thv Conversion of the Continental Teutons' 
was :".»lL:»we A by hi* :ea:h on 27 Dec. Hi* ■ S. P. C. K. t. London. 1 < 7 < *. *?vo: and • Four 
reaia::*.* wi'w :*:terrt\i in E'.v eesietery. hi* Lectures on *?ie Epochs of Earlv Church 
ir.. , :v.::r.-.::: with epitaph by 1>t. H'-itler. mas- His* ory delivered in Ely Cathedral/ London, 
tor of i'rinity, was placed :r. Ely Cathedral. 1S7>. t»v.\ complete the talr of his historical 
He numed. o:: 2 J.:".y i>-W Juiith Mary anA ap»:l?c*rtic writinrs. 
Soph : a . y .* •.;:•. i . st da- :^ ':: t * r . • f * t e- :■ -ye Frere M e ri v ale's j rize poems are printed in ' Pro- 
of I. :v.o •".:•."# I:::: ar.. \ V'vyf.T.l H::se. Bishop"* Ins". A:a-:esi:*JF." Cambridge. lt*25. iii. 
Stort ?,I. I v «!::« :.e Left :-.*.:e. 27.->". His • Keatsii Hyperions Libri Tres. 

M -. ■ r : \ a'.e oo r.t r . b ■ :t -;•.: t L:e v -. r>: : n : f ■ Per Lit ine rvA Ai Ait C. Merivale." London, 1 $63, *.v..: .:-. :- IV*, h.:;' r.- hi* father's t»v;>: 2r.I e-Ait.. with a collection of minor 
:-;■:>.*: . % :*. .*: t'.v =: :::.•? p.v~* .*: >o:u-.rr pieces trrz: ■ Ar-mtnes Cm m lv*2, 
v L S « i ; V .: t : V. ■; :: ov .V rt h >. * e r:= a r. *: - .lies e vi- oe * : he as*: I ~: ty with which in after life 
^ ;* >. > . : . v* 7 -. .:: a: -.■ : : r. .*.:■. *t r . ;a . w r i . He he o -.: :vatec :::* .in usuai r.rt : - r I-at :n verse, 
was ::\\i>'?\'.:v- ". a •': i ..*:;-t ;: Krr-.' Hi* *H:=irr'* Eiai :r. English Khvmed 

t * - a * ■ - * ■ ■ ^ •■ ■. l .,.*., .. » rTSc, a-«. C-, T!. l^ - »r. ?V . . i.2 E.?* ftu-1 10 

* . ». -n. — a .. ■» .-. .^^ . ^ . . — i.r _.> re. -. i. . -. ii s - — 'Tr>. y *crmons, ine 

.:....r- •: :..-.• .v.:.-Tvr>: *-.: .-.::>.►. : : re- ♦. r. r.- :: ?• -j- »- • a ta;:-tu- \\ itn-iss of 
oa*-. .-.:•. I ov.t ■:■.•.; -'-. ■ -a.t'jl - ■ ■:..- if:::> Ch-".*-. r.'t -r-T yi-j: the Law. bu" fuinll- 
*".. : . ^ :V. . .V. r y :;". -*• ■ r>. > :.i *.vjl* :r.e .7^: ::.' ±T?ri>i at Li.ntr.ipe in iS5v». t^vo, 

AT.Z "WTTr f. V.:^'e-L t " * ^m. :r.* rreache*! in 

» - ^ 





th- t 

r sprinted Eton tin 'Tram 

■ ,.,-,■, I.. i. nutans, Mid Art, 1684, 

■ hy,'« fragment reach- 


ipietolory remains by his daughter, 

.irh Anne Merivule. for private circulation, 

I in 1899, London, Svo. 

TMinjwm'* I- ■ Wordsworth's 

AntuJs of my Hiflj" Life. p. 68; Gonlbnrn* 

. . [SB , I, if" nnd Letters 
nf |iqn Alfiinii Gcut.M.g. IH.JD. ii. 133; Ann 
K<£. 18*3 ii. 3.58, IS6y ii. '276; Timos, 28 Dec. 
1893; Gnardinn, 10 Jan. IM'.'i, 2:2 Not-. 1899; 
Ailwcteuiii. 3.) D-c. 1891, 17 Sept. 1898; Ata- 
d>mj, 31 Oct, 1899.] J. M. K. 

■ :.:,r. born on 4 Oct. 1824, was 
tide r son of William Metford, a physi- 
of Flook House, Taunton, bv his wife, 
5. Anderdon. He was educated at 
■borne school between 1838 and 1841, 
apprenticed to W. M. Peniaton, 
:■.. net .-r under I-;iri|]i,ird Kingdom 
be Bristol nnd Exeter 
railway. From 1846 to 1850 be was em- 
: ;. Wilts, Somerset, and Wey- 
mouth nil way. After I860 he worked for 
Thomas Evans Blackw.ll in connection 
nea for developing the traffic of 
:.l subsequently acted for a short 
time under Penucon as engineer on the 
Wj combe railway, residing at Bourne End. 
During this period he designed an improved 
irllh a travelling stage and a 
arm upholding (he transit axis, and 
'■'"in of level (cf. 
■ of Institution <f Civil Engineer*, 

.n-iis elected an 

iittb" Institution of Civil Engineers, 

early in 1857 ho ohtamed an important 

itmeur "ii (lie Btat India Railway 

llendel. He arrived 

i. 18 May to find that the 

list broken out. With the aid 

i railway stall' he took a leading part 

ocmanising the defence of the lown. llis 

■mesa exert ions largely contributed to the 

■ permanently 

\ and within ft year he 

[ in nliiriilouhisengage- 

■ England. 

shooting began 
l blind, his father having established n 
cluh with i range, in the fields near 
■ rtant al ten- 

■ Iltfineenue, 

■ : or earlj in 1833 he 
»u(-geiled a boUow-bo*ed bullet for the En- 

field rifle, expanding without a plug. It 
was brought out with the assistance of 
I', who was awarded 1,000;. by 
government fat the invention on its adop- 
tion by the small-arms committee. In IBM 
Metford invest Lgui-'d tit-- dislurliuiu-o tif l lie 
barrel by the shock of the explodoiL, whtob 
iiiti-cts tin. 1 lth ■ i>l' llijht of (he bullet, a diffi- 
culty which had led to much misunder- 
standing. In 1807 1 1 1 - - felect committee found 
his form of explosive rirle bullet the ln-sl 
of those submitted to them, and in 1863 it 
was adopted bv government. In March 
lB»,how*Ter, it was declared obsolete in 
■ccowtiaw with the resolution nf the St. 
Petersburg convention against the einploy- 
.' Ii missiles in warfare. Met.fords 
chief distinction in rifle progress, however, 
is that he was the pioneer of the substitution 
of very shallow grooving and a hardened 
cylindrical bullet expanding into it, for deep 
grooving and bullets of soft lead. In 1MB 
bis. first match rifle appeared, having five 
shallow grooves and shooting a hardened 
bullet of special design (Patent No. 2488). 
In 1870 he embarked seriously on the pro- 
duction of a breech loud iug rim, paving the 
closest attention to every detail of the 
barrel and cartridge. Before long his first 
experimental breechloading rifles appeared, 
and at Wimbledon in 1871 two of them were 
of which the principal prize 

for military breechloading rides was won by 
Sir Henry St. John Hall'ord [q. i " 
whose acquaintance he had made i 

the Wimbledon meeting, and who hence- 
forth was his friend and assistant in his 
experiments. From 1877 the record of the 
Metford ritle w-as un unbroken succession of 
triumphs. Between that date nnd 1894 it 
failed only four times to win the Dulte of 
Cambridge's prize, while it took a prepon- 
derating share of other prizes. 

The advance in military small arms 
abroad, and especially the increased rapidity 
of loading, caused the appointment of a 
committee in February 1883 to deal with 
the question. Metford designed for them 
the detail of the -42 bore for the rifle pro- 
visionally issued for trial early in 1887, and 
on the adoption of the '90S "fl" 1 " rifle, 
known as the Lee-Lnlield, be cave much 
assistance in designing the barrel, chamber, 
and cartridge. 

In 18*8 the war-office committee on email 
arms selected as the pattern for British use 
a rifle which combined the Metford bore 
with the. b. .It-action and detachable magazine 
invented by the American, James P. Lao. 
This arm, known as the Lee-Met furd ride, 
'~ still in use. 

Middleton 166 Middleton 

In 1892 Metford's health finallv broke business at Storev's Gate, Westminster, 
down, and henceforth he was precluded from The profession was, however, never congenial 
active work. lie died at his house at Kedland, to him, and after his father's sudden death 
Bristol, on 14 Oct. 1899. About 1856 he in February 1SS5 he placed the business in 
married a daughter of Dr. Wallis of Bristol, thorough working order, and disposed of it 

[Privately printed memoir of W. E. Metford to others. 
(wiih portrait)* This memoir appeared in an , Middleton had never ceased to pursue his 
abbreviated form in the Proceedings of tho In- . favourite studies of art and archaeology, and 
stitution of Civil Eugineers, 1900, vol. cxl.] ; even went through a course in the schools 

E. I. C. of the Royal Academv. II is extensive and 

MIDDLETON, JOHN HENRY (1846- accurate knowledge 'became well known, 
1896*), arclucologist, architect, professor of and brought him many friends, among others 
fine art. and museum director, born at York William Morris q. v. SuppL", with whom 
on 5 Oct. 1846, was the only surviving child Middleton travelled in Iceland. In June 
of John Middleton, architect, of York, and 1879 he was elected a fellow of the Societv of 


a child he was tuken by his parents to Italy, in 1894. He was also a considerable contribu- 
where he acquired a love of that country tor to the * Encyclopaedia Britannica* ^9th 
and its language, which lasted throughout edition), as well as to many weekly and other 
his life. On their return his parents settled periodicals. He made a special study of 
at Cheltenham, where his father practised as the antiquities of Home, and in 18^5 pub- 
an architect, and where Middleton himself lished these as * Ancient Rome.* a revised 
was educated, first at the juvenile proprietary edition of which appeared in 1858. In 
school, and afterwards at Cheltenham Col- 1892 he followed this with another work, 
lege. In 16iV> he was matriculated at 'Remains of Ancient Rome.' In these 
Exeter College, Oxford. Middleton. though works Middleton was the pioneer of the 
far fsvm biing an invent ric recluse, or of as serious and sclent iric study of Roman anti- 
weakly a oonstituiiou as his appearance quities. and his work, it it has been to a 
seemed to denote, displayed from Lis y-^uth great extent supplemented, has not as vet 
an acutely nerv.Hisaud fastidfous tempera- been superseded. In !»■} he was elected 
iucnt, liable to strong envnion* :ind to deep Slide j r .lessor of nue art a: Cambridge, 
depression. This was accentuated in l> r 3o ani ^iven the h njr^ry decree of M. A. at 
by the sh-vk caused by the sidden death ot Cambrii.:? in l>v*. jr. fat Oxford in lts>7, 
a friend a: Oxford, which brought .. n follow-d by !'.:■:*-• ■■: Litt.R a: Cambridge 
a severe and painful illr.e*«. which enticed in W'«. an: IVCL. a* Oxford in 1>94: he 
him : o hi> room for ti\e or ?i\ y v ars: h-nce was also h>n..:rri with a d.vtor's degree 
he .!".! ::ot graduate in th- ordinary coarse, at the univ-rr^.-y ..■:" Bjl.vna. He was 
P-iring I hi* period, however, by as*liar.;s twice re-elected t tie pr:ie**>rship. In 
ftad.n^anist::dy he laid :i:v foundations o: !>"*"* he was elvettd a fellow of King's 
th..r remarkable painstaking. and accurate Collegv. Cambridge. In 1>>9 he was ap- 
kr-.-wl.d^e o: ar: and arvh.ivl vy. f r which v inted f be director of the Fitzwilliam 
he was afterwards s."» highly d.s::::g:ii*i.ed. Museum it Cambridge, a post which offered 
Ov. ::■.> revv\ery h- starttd ■ »* :: a >er*es :: him Tr V7: *=■--* for a turther display of 
t r k \ •. 1 * o t* an ard u • u s a nd a .1 v- nt ur : »s h . * k: . *v 1 - -.i^ : n ■ E nxra v~d Ci ems of Classical 
n..t.:70. llo \i-itid Am-. ri.*a. :t t: T.m-.s" >V'l ■. • Illuminated MSS. of Clas- 
>.:'.: l.akv C.:y and th-. KocVv M.v; sfoal and M-v...e\il Times' i I >**:?>. and a 
*:■. : d t -v.-i'.d:::^ :::t ' M-;\i.-\ \l-: Tiv-.V.-i catal ..-.: ;t * Th.- Lewi* Collection of 
.-. : v.v.\ A>.a M :.:■. Kjvrt. a::.: N.rth '.'' !'»■•■-■. Miiilet.a was also ap- 
A "■ ;.. U. ■.:!;.;-.■ r t.v'x a »' t vc.*l ■*-.:r::-.y t; ■.■».::t:d i lec::.r*rr at thr K-yal Academv in 
t'.r .:■. M.t.wv t. >:udv tS. y* :!;*.■ -. hv : L: ::.:■:: I:: ly^- hr wy selected to till the 

■ -». a> - <a ..^ » , .»... . .. >^ .. .v . — »». . .A.. «• "* . . i. . •.7A". . . . 01 IiJ.e ^OUl U 

. •. ^ 7 ::: i ■..-... ■.; a .: ■_■.: v& ■ .» ■ •. -. v. t .* t . . e .v.?.v^- u M :>-... m . a .*. r yart ment then 

\°r . M .»»..:.■. ■■»". -..-I. ". ' ..::>1.;". ;r lad Si.l.y .-. r:id ■:' >■'::: a~i > organisation. 

j - :\\ .>1\ >..»v- • ■.;.■.: :*. .:■:■■,,:. .v..: a"** tvvrfral t* forms ;t" ;7\-at -miVT/tanc* w-re at 

» \^ ■.?.-.■.■. .-..". . ■ t ".-..■ >.:* i". *s .—.-:■ . :* :'■= *u>. :■ t:\t d l::L .ar7:>d :.:t by Middleton 

:< vV. '. > 7*.- :.:?•■. b. * ■*;*:.: :h: a- S.---h Kt-s.r^t::. I'nfortanately the 

;■■•.■»'»—. .*:" a:: at--"' :v _ . >' . : . a; for .•. stra.Ti .*:" i:"?c-.: A^i -Tuviireslal depart- 

■.'■..* .' J: ..v .-:' > ■ v-.-T-^e \ : ISfrc x^:t: mi-utal w-.*ri br-.'u^ht .*n :hr*?a:enlngs ot the 

■ * . av.X :\ o.i •.:•.■ x :\4.-.::.r .u ".*. # tathfrs i..sea«e i-.'2i wh-jch he had suffered in his 



early youth, and for which he had frequently 
to have recourse to opiates. An accidental 
■■I morphia cut short his life at 
the Residence-. "- .nth Kt'n.-iiijrlon Museum. 
on 10 June 189S. His body was cremated 
at H olting, and the remains interred at 
Brookwood cemetery. Middleton married, 
in December I8B2, Bella, second daughter 
of William J, Still man, American, corre- 
spondent of the ■ Timet ' al Rome, by whom 
he left one child. 



L. C. 

t. teach li 

"ii, painter of history, genre, 
landscape, and portraits, and president of 
the Royal Academy, bora at Southampton 
on 8 June 18"29, was the youngest son of 
John William Millais, who lielonged to an 
old Norman family settled in Jersey for many 
generations, and Emily -Mary, daughter of 
John Kvamy, and the widow of Enoch 
Hodgkinson, bv whom the had two sons. 
The father (who died in 1870) wan noted 
in the island of Jersey for his good looks 
and charming manners, lie was also a good 
mit-iciun and n Inir artist, and held a com- 
"! the Jersey militia. He arrested 

Oxford who shot -it ih,- ijiiueti in 1840. Tins 
.Milliii-'i lived at I.eQuaihouse, just outside 
St. Heliers. before they removed to Southamp- 
ton, where Sir John and his elder brother 
William Henry (also an artist, and the 
author of 'The Game Birds of England') 
were born. The family returned to Jersey 
aoon after Millats's birth, and there he de- 
veloped u taste for natural history and 
A frame containing drawings 
done when only seven years old was ex- 
hibited at. the Royal Academy in the winter 
of 1898. He drew n portrait of his ma- 
ternal grandfather, John Kvamy, fishing, 
•when he was eight years old, and another 
of his father when he was eleven. He 
was sent to school, hut showed no inclination 
for study, and was expelled for biting his 
master's hand. Among the friends of the 
Millaises at Jersey were the family of the 
Lemprieres,one of whom (afterwards General 
Lempriere), the grandson of Philip Rooul 
Lenipriere, Seigneur of Iioselle Manor, was 
the model for the Huguenot in Milluis's 
famous picture of that name. In 1835 the 
family reruor>-il to Dinan in Brittany, where 
the child delighted the French military 
officers by his sketches. One of the colonel 
smoking a cigar, and another of the' tambour 
major' aire specially mentioned in his bio- 
graphy by his son. In 1837 the family once 
more returned to Jersey, where John received 

his first instruction in art from a Mr. Besael, 

the best drawing-master in tl 
soon confessed that he could 
pupil anything more, and in 1838 he came to 
London with an introduction to Sir Martin 
Areher Shee [q, v.], the president of the 
Royal Academv. On the way he sketched 
Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Paxton fo. v.] 
asleep in the coach. Sir Martin told his 
parents that it was their plain duty to fit 
their son for the vocation for which nature 
had evidently intended him, and in the 
winter of 1838-9 he was seat to the well- 
known school of Henry Sass [q. v.] in 
Bloomsbury. In the same year he obtained 
a silver medal from the Society of Arts, 
and in 1840 became a student at the Royal 
Academy. Here he carried off every priie. 
1 lis lirst picture in oils was ' I.' lipid crowned 
with Flowers,' painted in 1841. In 1843 
he gained the first silver medal for drawing 
from the antique, und when seventeen the 
gold medal for an oil painting, ' The Young 
Men of Benjamin sci?mu thi'ir Brides.' 

Millais Ht ill retained hi- disinclination for 
ordinary studies, mid received nil his educa- 
tion (except in art) from his mother, who 
read to him continually. He wore his 
boyish cost time of goujfred tunic and wide 
falling collar till long past the usual age, 
and for this reason was called ' the child ' 
by his fellow-students at the academy— a 

name which Stuck to him long afterwards. 
He was toll and slim, high-spirited and 
indepcndcnl , though very delicute. He was 
fond of cricket and of fishing, and made 
many friends. As early as 1S40 he was 
asked to breakfast by Samuel lingers, and 
met Wordsworth, and iu IK4li he stayed 
with his half-brother, Henry Ilodgkinsim, 
at Oxford, and was introduced to Wyatt, 
the dealer in art, at whose house he fre- 
quently stayed as a guest during the next 
three years. On a window in the room he 
occupied he pointed in oils ' The Queen 
of Beauty' and 'The Victorious Knight.' 
Wyatt bought his picture of 'Cymon and 
Iphigenia' I now liclougiug io Mr. Stauden), 

C in ted in 1IS47 for the Royal Academy, 
t not exhibited. To 1849 belongs a por- 
trait by Millais (exhibited in 18o0) of Wyatt 

of the Clarendon Press, with whom he be- 
came intimate, and Mr. Drury of Shotover 
Park. He earned money also, and from the 
age of sixteen defraved the greater part "f 
the household expenses in Gower Street, 
where he lived with his family. In 1845 he 
was engaged to p:iint small pieturesand back- 
grounds for a dealer named Ralph Thomas 
tor 100/. a year. lie recorded his delight 



1 68 


at receiving his first cheque (still preserved) 
by endorsing it with a drawing of himself. 
T* hev fell out, and Millais threw his palette 
at Thomas, and so ended the connection for 
a while, but it was afterwards renewed 
(though not for long) at an increased salary 
of 150/. a year. 

In 1846 Millais exhibited at the Royal 
Academy for the first time. The subject of 
his picture was * Pizarro seizing the Inca of 
Peru.' This was followed in 1847 by 
♦Elgiva seized by the Soldiers of Odo/ 
John (known as Lester) Wallack, the actor 
[see under Wallack, James William, ad 
/fa.], who married Millais's sister, sat for 
Pizarro. In 1847 also he entered unsuccess- 
fully into the competition at Westminster 
Hall for the decoration of the houses of 
parliament, sending an oil picture of 'The 
Widow's Mite* (ten feet seven inches by 
fourteen feet three inches), since cut up. 
He did not exhibit at the academy in 1848. 

Down to this time his career had differed 
from those of other academy students only 
by its distinguished success, and his pictures 
had shown little if any divergence from the 
ordinary ideals and methods taught in the 
schools; but about the beginning of 1848 he ! 
and Mr. Ilolman Hunt, deeply conscious of | 
the lifeless condition into which British art j 
had fallen, determined to adopt a style of i 
absolute independence as to art dogma and j 
convention, which they called ' Pre-Raphael- j 
itism.' The next to join the movement was j 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti [q.v.], who at this i 
time was struggling with the technical diffi- 
culties of painting under the instruction of 
Ilolman Hunt, but was unknown to Millais. 
The three met together at the Millaises* house 
in Gower Street, where Millais showed them 
engravings from the frescoes in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa, and all agreed to * follow' them. 
The result was the formation of the celebrated 
4 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood/ consisting of 
seven members. There has been much dis- 
pute as to what were the precise principles of 
the brotherhood ; but, according to Millais, 
'the Pre-Raphael ites had but one idea, to 
present on canvas what they saw in 
nature/ and to this idea he adhered from 
first to last. Another disputed point is the 
influence of Rossetti on Millais's earlier 
work. This was entirely denied by Millais 
himself; but it was probably greater than he 
knew, for Rossetti's picture of 'The Girl- 
hood of Mary Virgin ' was clearly the fore- 
runner of Millais's ' Christ in the House of 
his Parents/ and there was a spirit of poetical 
romance in Millais's work while their closest 
intercourse lasted (1848-52) which slowly 
faded away afterwards. The intense intel- 

lectual and spiritual influence of Rossetti on 
the brotherhood generally cannot be denied. 
He was the ruling spirit of their short-lived 
orpan, ' The Germ ' (2 parts, 1850), for which 
Millais made one or two sketches and an etch- 
ing and wrote a story, though none of them ap- 
peared. (A copy of the etching will be found in 
' British Contemporary Artists/) On the 
other hand Millais was very independent 
and impatient of control, and would not 
read the first volume of * Modern Painters' 
(1841), in which principles like those prac- 
tically followed by tne Pre-Raphaelite* 
were first recommended to young artists. 
It is also to be remembered that Rossetti 
was at this time a mere tyro in painting* 
whereas Millais was a trained artist, and 
that of -love of nature and skill in expressing 
it Millais could learn nothing from. Rossetti. 

At all events it is quite certain that Mr. 
Hoi man Hunt and Millais were most inti- 
mately associated in all their views and in 
their practice. They had worked together in 
complete sympathy from the days of their 
studentship, and they together started the 
new movement. The depth of the gulf 
between it and the old is clearly seen if we> 
compare the 'Pizarro' of 1846 with the 
' Isabella ' of 1849 — a banquet scene from 
Keats's poem of ' Isabella and the Pot of 
Basil ' founded on a story by Boccaccio. In- 
dus nearly all the characters were painted 
from his relatives and friends. Among 
them were three at least of the brotherhood, 
the two Ros8ettis, Dante and William, and 
Mr. F. G. Stephens, and it contains all the 
characteristics of ' Pre-Raphaelite ' work — 
most minute imitation of nature down to the 
smallest detail, all persons and objects studied 
directly from the originals, and disregard of 
composition, generalisation, and all conven- 
tion. The tale was told with dramatic power, 
and the expression of the heads, with the ex- 
ception of the lovesick Lorenzo, was excellent. 
Millais never again painted a composition of 
so many figures, or of greater patience and 
success in execution. The picture was bought 
by Mr. Windus, was for a time in the posses- 
sion of Thomas Woolner [q.v.], the sculptor 
(and one of the brethren), and is now in the* 
gallery of the corporation of Liverpool. It 
was exhibited in 1849. 

Millais's next important picture was a sup- 
posed scene in Christ's childhood, treated as an 
incident in the ordinary life of a carpenter*? 
family. It is usually "known as 'Tne Car- 
penter's Shop/ or 'Christ in the House of 
Ii i 8 Parents ; ' but in the catalogue of the 
Royal Academy it had, in place of a title, a 

Suotation from Zechariah xiii. 6. The boy 
as wounded the palm of his hand with m 

nait. Hit ttinthrr kneels by him and kisses 

St. John, mi- 

an ordinary human beings, 

nl parts i ■■ the little drama of 

UpatllV, jlM. tli a carpenter's family might 
■ .-.iinrry. They are all 
f reatment of a 
the Fln!y Family aroused 
t Lisiilitv. The ''limes' stigmatised it 
,'uii'l its minute finish of detail 
' loathsome.' Violent attacks came from 
nearly all quarters, including ' Blackwood,' 
and even from Charles Dickens in ' House- 
Liid Words,' who afterwards owned hia 
■aittake. Another picture of this year, [650, 
'Ferdinand lured by Ariel, 'met with scarcely 
better reception from the critics, and was 
ivCumhI by the dealer for whom it was 
jwintpd. Nevertheless, 'The Carpenter's 
Shop' tiu bought fur L50I. by i dealer 
named Fairer, and 'Ferdinand' by Mr. EUi- 
eon of Sudhrooke Holme, Lincolnshire, for 
thn same sum. About, this time Millai- li.-u'im 
Li feel that the excessively minute handling 
-which was one of the characteristics of the 
tetitt* WM a mistake (see Wil- 
miliiLL Boorrt Autobiographical Nott»,\. 

itle difference in this respect is 
to be noted in his work of the next few years. 
The most notable of these were: 'The Re- 
turn of the Dove to the Ark,' and ' The Wood- 
man's Daughter,' from a poem by Pat more, 
' i range' (all 
'The Huguenot' and 
.■■:. Dr-v-cribed RoyalUt ' 
and * The Order of Release ' ( 1853). ' The 
ihtt Hove,' though the girls who 
I ing the bird were very plain, was 
v painted, and Ruskin wished to 
buy it : but it was purchased by Mr. Combe 
fM HO guineas, who bequeathed it- to the 
university of Oxford. The background of 
■Iman'a Daughter' was a wood near 
Oxford, and the strawberries which the 
boy is ottering to the labourer's 
•r were purchased in Co vent Garden 
ir for fi«. tirf. ' Mariana' was purchased 
Indus, and now belongs to Mr. 
1. F. Makiua. 'The Huguenot,* the figure? 
'litth were painted from Mr. Arthur 
wards General) Lempriere and Miss 
). was bought by a. dealer named White 
ru a, portrait of Miss 
li G. Koasettihand the scene 
■ painted by the side of the Ewell at 
gaton. For "The I'roxcrtbed Royalist 1 
the ■ ell-known painter, 
*" a liyan again appearing in'the female 
v. it- o little wood near 
'The i Irder of Release' 
i figure wu pointed from Mrs. 

Ruskin, who wu afterwards to become his 

u il'e. During these yearn Millais wa 
to spend much time in the country to paint 
his backgrounds, lodging at farmhouses and 
cottages, in company with his brother, Mr. 
Holman Hunt, and Charles Allston Collins. 
Having settled upon t.lie piece of landscape 
he meant to introduce, he would paint it 
day by day with exact, fidelity and almost 
microscopic minuteness. Such backgrounds, 
not only in his pictures, hut those of Holman 
Hunt and their followers, form a very dis- 
tinct feature of the strict 'Pre-Raphaelite' 
period. For literal truth to nature's own 
colours and rendering of intricate dotail, 
those by Millais stand almost alone, espe- 
cially the river sceue in ' Ophelia.' 

All this time Millais was fighting hard for 
his new principles of art, and suffered much 
from the antagonism of critics, dealers, and 
others, including many artists of the older 
school ; but he managed to sell his pictures 
in spite of all, and gradually achieved popu- 
larity also. With the exhibition of -The 
Huguenot 'the light may lie said to have been 
won, as far at least as the public were con- 
cerned. Its sentiment, its refinement of ex- 
pression, and thorough execution appealed to 
nearly si) who saw it. Rut Millais and the 
Pre-Raphaelite cause had many supporters 
and sympathisers, the most important ol whom 
was John Ruskin [q. v. ijnppl. J, who expressed 
his enthusiasm in tetters to the 'Times' and 
in hia pamphlet called ' Pre-Rnphaelitism ' 
(1851). Millais first met Ruskin in this year, 
and two years afterwards he was joined by 
Ruskin and his wife at. Wallington, the Tre- 
velyaus' house in Northumberland, and went 
to Scotland with them. He made several 
architectural designs for liuskin, and in 
1854 painted a portrait of him standing by 
the river, which was bought by Sir 
Thomas Dyke Acland [<]. v. Suppl.] In the. 
autumn of 1853 lie took to hunting with 
John Leech [q. v.], and in November of the 
same year he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Academy. Uy this time the brother- 
hood, whose meetings had always been few 
and far between, had died a natural death, 
and Millais had soon to lose the companion- 
ship of Mr. Holman Hunt, who went to 
Syria in February 1854. In this year Mil- 
lais did not exhibit at the Royal Academy, 
but in 1855 he sent three pictures, including 
' The Rescue,' a so'ii.-. fV'un ii lire in a modern 
town house, with a frantic mother seizing 
her two children from the arms of a fireman. 
This was painted in honour of brave firemen, 
and was a new departure, for the scene was 
modem, and the conception was 
entirely his own. The mother was painted 

Millais 170 Millais 

from Mrs. Nassau Senior, the sister of Tom ; ' Sir Isumbras at the Ford ' and ' The Escape 

Hughesfq. v.Suppl." 1 , author of *Tom Brown's of a Heretic' The knight is old, in golden 

School frays.' Ruskin, in his notes on the armour, mounted on a clack horse, and is 

principal pictures in the academy, declared it bearing with him two poor children across 

to be ' the only great picture exhibited/ add- the river. In front of nim a girl is seated, 

ing that it was ' very great/ and that ' the and a boy clings to him from behind. Behind, 

". element is in it to the full.' In the under a brilliant evening sky, is a landscape 


Paris Exhibition of 1855 Millais was composed from the Bridge of Eden and the 

represented by ' The Order of Release/ range of the Ochills, with a tower painted 

4 Ophelia/ and' 'The Return of the Dove/ from old Elcho Castle. On the further bank 

This was the year of Leighton's ' Cimabue/ are two nuns. 

and the two painters met for the first time. The comparative freedom with which he 

In July of this year (1865) Millais married was now painting offended Ruskin, who de- 

Euphemia Chalmers, the eldest daughter voted to * Sir Isumbras ' several pages of stern 

of George Gray of Bowerswell, Perth, who reproof, declaring, in his ' Notes ' for 1857, 

had obtained a decree of the * nullity' of that the change in the artist's manner from 

her marriage with John Ruskin. They went the years of * Ophelia ' and ' Mariana ' ' is not 

to live at Annat Lodge, near Bowerswell. only Fall— it is Catastrophe.' This picture 

In the garden of this residence was painted was very cleverly caricatured in a lithograph 

the celebrated picture of * Autumn Leaves/ by Mr. ?. Sandys, in which the horse is turned 

which was exhibited in I80O with ' Peace to a donkey branded J. R., the knight into 

Concluded, 1850/ ' The Blind Girl/ 'L'En- Millais, while Dante Rossetti and Holman 

fant du Regiment/ and a 'Portrait of a Gen- Hunt take the places of the girl and the 

tleman.' ' Autumn Leaves' represents four boy. ' Sir Isumbras ' was bought by Charles 

girls heaping up dead leaves in a warm Reade, the novelist, and is now in the posses- 

twilight or afterglow ; ' Peace Concluded/ a sion of Mr. R. V. Benson, at whose request 

wounded oilicer and his wife, with their the artist repainted the horse and its trappings, 

children playing with animals out of a Ruskin was equally severe on ' The escape 

Noah's ark — a cock, a bear, a lion, and a of the Heretic' on account of its subject 

and ' Peace Concluded ;' indeed, his praise of which were exhibited in 1859 (he sent no 

the latter was extravagant. Of 'Autumn picture to the academy in 1858). The subject 

Leaves' he said it 4 is by much the most of ' The Vale of Rest ' (two nuns in a con- 

poetical work the painter has yet conceived, vent garden, one digging a grave) had oc- 

and also, as far as I know, the first instance curred to him during his honeymoon, and 

existing of a perfectly painted twilight/ and ' Apple Blossoms ' was commenced in I806. 

of b'Uh he prophesied that they would ' rank The first was distinguished by its impressive 

in future among the world's best master- sentiment and the background of oaks and 

pieces/ 'The Blind Girl' contained two poplars seen against an evening sky. The 

figures— the blind girl and her coin- face of one of the nuns was of repellent 

panion, a younger ffirl, resting on a bank ugliness, and was repainted in 1862 from a 

beside a common. The blind girl, with red Miss Lane. • The Vale of Rest ' is now in the 

hair and a concertina, is not beautiful, but Tate Gallery. Both pictures were painted 

the group is pathetic from its very truth and at Bowerswell. In- ' Apple Blossoms ' some 

simplicity. The background— one of the beautiful girls are sporting in an orchard 

best the artist ever painted— represents the under boughs of brilliant apple blossom, 

common and village of Icklesham, near Win- painted with great force and freedom. The 

chelsea. 'L'Enfant du Regiment /now called central figure is Miss Georgiana Moncrieff 

I The Random Shot/ is supposed to be an. (Lady Dudley): Lady Forbes, two sisters-in- 

incident in the French Revolution, and re- law, "and a model sat* for the others. Ruskin 



front which be moved to 7 Cromwell Place, 
sington, in 1862. In 1860 he ex- 
hibited 'The Black Br uns wicker,' a parting 

■ i :i uu officer end his limicee 
ittlfl of Waterloo. The officer 

.« painted from aprirste in the lib guards, 
■ ■■ K;j (■■ Dickens i Un. 

r ..if Cliarh- Diek. lis. 
m U leH reflm d in conception 
. '.i' love scenes, * Tlie 
l' and ■ Proscribed [loyalist,' but it 
i painted with great skill, and may be 
i to terminate the period of transition 
n hie first or Pre-Raphaelite manner, and 
. of complete I) read tli and freedom, 
r chiuifpM be&ldoa I but of style begin to 
mv marked . St became tew sedulous 
in his search fin (objects, lees romantic in 
h.i feeling, more content to paint the life 
■bout him. without drawing much upon bis 
imagination, or even his faculty for refined 
Tbe port rait element, always 
n.Mger, and his 
family furnished road] subjects for many 
picture*. At tbe saiuu lime his invention 
was much employed in illustration, ee- 

■ i Irbv Farm,' 
,' 'The Small House nt 

AUington.' ' Rachel lUy,' and ' Phineas Finn,' 
v-i-ri drawings, 

■ mage' in the 
Magazine.' Trollope waa one of 

nt this time with Thackeray, 

■ llins, and John Leech. From 

• continually employed 

■ ■ be cut Upon w 1 for Bradbury 

■ .v lilncU-tt, 

■:.. 1 i| l ,Kld.- r ,,tCo.,Daliiei 

Qsmbart, Motor (the illustrated 

d |. He was one of the 

line and the cleverest of all tbe 

hook illustrator* of thin period, bo celebrated 

for iti revival of woodcutting, and one or 

from his designs are to be found 

;. Week,' 'Tb.elJontb.i1l," Punch,' 

urtrated London News,' -Good 

1 ■iiid.jn Society,' u )i 1 1 manv books, 
'. be illustrated' 'Barry 
"ii deluxe of Thackeray's 
'so made many water-colour 
-. He wns elected a 
i ■■ Among the 

-..■ poetical pic- 
.. wen 'The 
mans leaving 

Ii .-iilind mid 

■ lioyh ! of 

: ll^lll. 

t from Keats's poem, Tb 


his wife, and tbe moonlit room In wlii'li 
' her rich attire creeps rustling to her knees' 
i? at Knole House, Kent. It was painted 
in five days and a half, in December 18tU, 
and is one of the finest of his works. 
belongB to Mr. Val Prinsep, K.A. ' The 
Knight Errant ' is remarkable from the tine 
execution of a full-length life-site female 
figure, the only one lo be found in the 
artist's works. Of tbe others the most suc- 
cessful, perhaps, were ' The Evil One sowing 
Tares,' a version in oils of one of a fine 
series of designs for ' Tbe Parables of Our 
Lord,' published by Bradbury & Eva , 
Flood' (a child carried in its wooden cradle 
down the swollen streaml, and ' The Boy- 
hood of Raleigh, in which two boys (his 
own sons Everett and George) are listening 
to tbe strange tales of a sailor ret urned from 
the Spanish main. Tbe newest element in 
his work of this period was supplied from his 
own nursery, which afforded subjects for 
many very popular pictures, like ' My First 
Sermon,' -Mi ' Sleeping,' 

' Waking,' ' Sisters,' ' Tbe First Minuet,' and 
■Tbe Wolfs Den.' 

Portraits of other children were also 
among his greatest successes, like 'Leisure 
Hours,' the daughters of Sir John Pender 
with a bowl of goldfish, and 'Miss Xinn 
I^-hmrmn' (Lady Campbell). Most of his 
pictures were now single figures, with more 
or less sent iiuent. Like 'Stella ' and ' Vanessa,' 
•The Gambler's Wife,' 'The Widow's Mite,' 
and 'Swallow. Swallow' A mote important 
composition, ' Pilgrims to Si. i'mil 
wicfi pensioners before Nelson's tomb"), ap- 

Eealed to national feeling. Technically bo 
ad reached full maturity, evidently exulting 
in his command over his materials and in- 
dulging occasionally in ■ rivalry with the 

■ ■ ..!' V.l.uiiuer.,us in"' Vnnessa,' 
and ' A Souvenir of Velazquez,' bis diploma 
pi.iiiiv. Belonging to this period, though 
not exhibited tiS [871, was toe grandest of 
his biblical pictures called "Victory, O 
** holding 

Lord,' representing Aaron i 
up tbe hands of Moses 
lEvodiis xvii. 12 1. 

While at work no 
than Millais, but no r 

iiiiporliinee of long 
Every year he mant 
country, usually in Scotland, where he could 
indulge bis love of shooting ami salmon 
fishing. Most, if not all, of bis pure land- painted then, in I Sfifl be 

tnoklle' manse at Urig-o'-Turk in Glenfinlas, 
,'iud in 1860 Mi'- shooting of Kincroig, Iu- 
vemeas-shire, with Colonel Aitkin. In 1865 

:i the top of the hill 

mo worked harder 
e enjoyed his holi- 
e convinced of the 
id thorough ODNi 
j months i" *"" 




he was shooting with Sir William Harcourt 
near Inverary, and afterwards visited Flo- 
rence and Italy in company with Sir Wil- 
liam and his wife, and in 1868 he was 
shooting again with Sir William and with 
Sir Edwin Landseer, and went with Mr. 
Frith to Paris, where they made the ac- 
quaintance of Rosa Bonheur. 

* Chill October/ his first exhibited pure 
landscape, afterwards bought by Lord 
Armstrong, was at the academy in 1871, 
and was painted in the open air from a 
backwater of the Toy just below Kin- 
fauns, near Perth. It was followed by 
'Scotch Firs' and 'Winter Fuel/ painted 
in 1874, 'The Fringe of the Moor' (1875), 
' Over the Hills and Far Away' and 'The 
Sound of many Waters' (1876), all of 
which were equally remarkable for their 
truth to nature and fine execution, but they 
were without the pathetic sentiment of 
'Chill October.' It was to portrait and 
landscape that he devoted himself mainly 
after 1870, and to single figures of children 
and pretty girls under fancv titles like 
' Cherry Ripe/ ' Little Miss Muffet,' ' Cuc- 
koo/ 'Pomona/ 'Olivia/ and many more 
which were very popular in engravings 
and in coloured prints for the illustrated 
newspapers. None of these paintings were 
perhaps more beautiful or popular than 
'Sweetest ores were ever seen/ 'Caller 
llerrin'/ and 'Cinderella/ for which Miss 
J teat rice Buxton sat. Inspired by a stronger 
sentiment were 'The North- West Passage' 
<1«74), 'The Princes in the Tower' (1878), 
\ The Princess Elizabeth ' (1879), and two 
illustrations of Scott, 'EfUe Deans' and 
' The Master of Kavenswood/ painted for 
Messrs. Agnew in 1877 and 1878. 'The 
North- West Passage' represents a deter- 
mined old mariner (a portrait of Edward 
John Trelawny [q.v.]) in a room overlooking 
the sea and strewn with charts. He 
listens to a young woman who is reading 
some tale of Arctic exploration. The artist 
never painted a finer head than that of the 
sailor, and the execution throughout is so 
line that the picture is regarded by some as 
his masterpiece. ' A Yeoman of the Guard ' 
(1877), with his age-worn face and uniform 
of scarlet and gold, is as strong in character, 
and perhaps the artist's most splendid effort 
as a colourist. It was, however, as a por- 
trait painter that he added most to his great 
reputation during the last twenty-five 
years of his life. Among his most cele- 
brated sitters were the Marauises of Salis- 
bury. Hartington (Duke ot Devonshire), 
and Lome (Duke of Argyll), the Earls of 
Shaftesbury, Beaconsfield, and Rosebery, 

Lord Tennyson, W. E. Gladstone, John 
Bright, Sir Charles Russell (Lord Russell 
of Killowen), Cardinal Newman, George 
Grote, Sir William Sterndale Bennett, Sir 
James Paget, Sir Henry Thompson, Thomas 
Carlyle, Wilkie Collins, Sir Henry Irving, 
J. C. Hook, R.A., and Du Maurier, one of 
the most intimate of all his friends. All 
these portraits are lifelike and powerful, 
giving the very presence of the originals, 
and inspiring even their clothes with indi- 
viduality, lie was never more successful 
than in realising the grand head and keen 
expression of W. E. Gladstone, whom he 
painted in 1879, 1885, and 1890. He drew 
Charles Dickens after his death. He was on 
very friendly terms with Gladstone, Lord 
Beaconsfield, Lord Rosebery, and indeed with 
nearly all his sitters. 

Among his best portraits of ladies may be 
mentioned ' Hearts are Trumps ' (the tnree 
Misses Armstrong), Mrs. Coventry Patmore, 
Mrs. Bischoffsheim, Mrs. F. H. Myers, Mrs. 
Stibbard (his wife's sister), Mrs. Jopling, 
the Duchess of Westminster, and Lady * 
Campbell. To his portraits of children 
already mentioned may be added Miss Do- 
rothy TThorpe, Lady Peggy Primrose (after- 
wards Countess of Crewe), and the Princess 
Marie of Edinburgh, which belonged to Queen 

In 1875 Millais took a trip to Holland 
with some of his wife's family, and was 
greatly impressed by the masterpieces of 
Rembrandt, Franz Hals, and Van der Heist. 
In 1878 Millais was represented at the Paris 
Exhibition by 'Chill October,' 'A Yeoman 
of the Guard,' ' Madam Bischoffsheim,' 
' Ilearts are Trumps,' and ' The Bride of 
Lammermoor,' which greatly increased his 
reputation in France, and he was made an 
officer of the legion of honour. In this 
year came the greatest sorrow of his life in 
the loss of his second son, George, who had 
nearly completed his twenty-first year. In 
1879 he left Cromwell Place for a house 
built for him at Palace Gate from the de- 
signs of Philip Charles Hardwick, where he 
remained till he died. In 1880 he painted 
his own portrait for the Uffizi Gallery at 
Florence. He still paid his annual visit to 
Scotland, and in 1881 took a house at 
Murthly, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire, with 
good fishing and shooting. At Murthly or 
its neighbourhood all his other landscapes 
were painted: 'Murthly Moss,' 'Murthly 
Water,' ' Dew-drenched Furze,' ' Lingering 
Autumn,' and others. In 1881 a small ex- 
hibition of his pictures was held by the Fine 
Art Society. On 16 July 1885, at Glad- 
stone's suggestion, he was created a baronet, 

long his other honours were honorary 
rsities of Onford (9 June 
1 1 and Durham. He was an associate of 
lbs Institute of France, an honorary member 
:■( the Royal Scottish and Royal Hibernian 
academirg, * member of the academies of 
Vic ms*, Relgiuin, Antwerp, and of St. Luke, 
Rome, and Snn Fernando, Madrid ; was an 
officer of the order of Leopold, of the order 
of St. MuxrioB, and of the Prussian order, 
Uerite.' In 1883 a large collec- 
ttil works was exhibited at the 

in MH1 hi-- Ltiu;ine\ nf M>irt lily expired, 
and tn' took a shooting with residence at 
Kewraill, which was burnt down in January 
at this time his health began to 
fail. After a bad attack of influenza he 
was troubled with a swelling in his throat, 
and suffered much from depression, lie 

. : !;■■ I'lllll'l. 

and executed with enjoyment several pic- 
tuna, including 'St. Stephen,' *A Disci- 
.1 ■ Speak ! Speak f ' which was piir- 
out of ttie Cliantrey bequest. The 
■rt raits of Mr. John Hare the 
r Richard Quuin also belong to 
last years. The last subject pictureexhi- 
iii was 'The Forerunner' (St. 
IWptist), which was painted as well as 
though somewhat trivial in motive. 

aaeqnenca of the illness of 

fniideot, Sir Frederic (afterwards 

) Leigbton [q. v. Suppl.J, he was called 

to preside at the Royal Academy ban- 

a task be accomplished with great 

liv, owing to th" weakness of his 

1 'ii tin- death of Lord Leighton, on 

2-/ .Ian. l(*Wt, he was unanimously elected to 

succeed him in the presidential chair, but 

be did not live long to enjoy the honour. 

He gradually failed, and died of cancer in 

at mi 18 Aug. loFJfi, and was buried 

in St. Paul's Cathedral on the 20th. lie left 

a widow and six children; Lady Millais 

23 Dec. 1897 of the same disease ; 

a pencil drawing hy herself of Millais's 

portrait of fcn ia given in Millais's 'Life,' i. 

another portrait of her drawn by 

Mr. Q. F. Watts, S.A., is the frontispiece of 

id ■. i;i . M illais's eldest son 

. i-,i did ruth.; baronetcy, 

died oil 7 Bept. 1897. The present baronet 

Millais,SOn of the second 

funding the opposition he had to 
conquer as a Pre-Raphaelite, Millais': 
waa on- . ius sueci 

[T--pcri ly, and perhaps there ia no greatei 
ii the numbei 
lovtr a hundred) of his pictures which wen 

separately engraved on steel. The y 
exhibition of the Royal Academy 1 
entirely devoted to his works. 

It is too early to fix precisely the position 
of Millais as an artist, but there is no doubt 
that he was nua of the greatest painters of 
the nineteenth century, and thut he did 
more than any other of his gcneraiion to 
infuse a new and healthy life into lirili'U 
art. There was nothing of the idealist or 
visionary in his designs, and he had not a 
great iixtavhial ion : but lie could paint what 
he saw with a force and a truth which Intva 
seldom been eice lied, and his intense love 
of nature and of his kind tilled his work 
with life and poetry. 

As a man Millais waa frank, manly, and 
genial, not over-refined, hut devoid of affec- 
tation. Though of no great intellectual 
power, ho had a strong fund of common 
aense, and, if not a great reader, was fond of 
poetry (especially Tenny-on find Keats), of 
the best fiction, and of books of travel, aud 
he could write graceful and humorous 
verses. In manner and appearance he re- 
sembled a country gentleman rather than 
an artist. Ho was devoted to his art, but 
not blind to the advantages of success and 
prosperity. Ho was the life of his own 
family, and regarded with affection by a 
very large and distinguished circle of ac- 
quaintance; but he did not cure for ordinary 
social gatherings, and preferred to spend his 
evenings at the Garricli Club, where he was 
sure to meet a number of congenial friends. 
In person he was very handsome, his face 
(which in his youth Rossetti described aa 
that ol an angel) retained great beauty 
throughout life, and his figure grew well- 
knit and strong. His fine presence and 
cheery voice made themselves felt wherever 
he went, and there were few who knew him 
well who would not echo the words of Sir 
George Reid, P.R.S.A., who wrote of him as 
' one of the kindest, noblest, most beautiful 
and lovable men lever knew or ever hope to 

Besides the portrait of Millais which was 
painted by himnelf for the Uliizi Gallery, 
there are portraits of him by John 1'hilip 
in 1841, by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., in 
1871, and by Sir Henry Thompson, ban., in 
1881. These, with sketches of him by his 
brother, W. H. Millais, John Leech, and 
others, are reproduced in J. G. Millais's ' Life 
and Letters' (!Mr,i|, 

The following works of Millais are to be 
found in public galleries. Nnii 
lery, Trafalgar Square: 'Portrait of ff. K 
Gladstone' (1879) and 'A Tool i of tha 

Guard.' National Hull 




1 Ophelia/ ' Tlie Vale of Rest/ l The Knight 
Kirant/ 'The North- West Passage/' Mercy/ 
' St. Bartholomew's Dav, 1572/ ' Saint Ste- 
phen/ ' A Disciple/ ' Speak ! Speak/ ' The 
Order of Release, 1 746, and ' The Boyhood 
of Raleigh.' Victoria and Albert Museum : 
' Pizarro seizing the Inca of Peru ' and ' Lord 
Lytton.' The National Portrait Gallery: 
' Lord Beaconsfield,' 'Thomas Carlyle/ ' Wil- 
kie Collins/ and' Ijeech.' Oxford University 
Gallery : ' The Return of the Dove ' and ' Por- 
trait of Thomas Combe.' Manchester Cor- 
poration Gallery: 'Autumn Leaves/ 'A 
Flood/ 'Victory, O Lord/ 'Winter Fuel/ 
and ' Bishop Fraser.' Birmingham Art Gal- 
lery : 'The Huguenot ' (1856), ' The Widow's ! 
Mite/ and ' The Blind Girl.' Holloway Col- 
lege : ' Princes in the Tower ' and ' Princess 
Elizabeth.' Liverpool Art Gallery : ' Isa- 
bella/ ' The First Minuet/ and 'The Martyr 
of the Sohvay.' St. Bartholomew's Hospital : 
'Sir James Paget' and 'Luther Holden.' 
University of London: 'George Grote.' 
British and Foreign Bible Society: 'Lord 
Shaftesbury.' University of Glasgow : ' Dr. 
Cuird.' Corporation of Oldham : ' T. O. Bar- 
low, R.A.' 

("Lite &i\ by J. G. Millais, 1899 ; Art Annual, 
18HG (memoir by Sir Walter Armstrong) ; Cut. 
of (iroM'iiior Gallery, Summer Exhibition, 1886 
(F. 0. Siophi'iis) ; Chambers's Kncyi'loptcdi.i (art. 
* Pre- Raphael it is:n\ by W.'ITolman Hunt); Koval j 
Academy Cat.. Winter. 18i>8: Cat, of Fine Art , 
Society, 1881 (A. l^ang); Hritish Contemporary 
Artists; Pre-Kaphaelite Diaries and Letters, ed. I 
W. M. Unssetti ; Cat. National Gallery of British I 
Art ; Spit'liiian's .Millais and his Works; SirW. B. i 
Richmond Vi Lcighton. Millais, iNcc. ; J. H. Payne's i 
The Lineage and Pedigree of the Family of 1 
Millais; Kuskin's Notes on Koval Academy , 
Kxhilitions, Pre-Raphaclitism, and Modern 
Paint rrs; Autobiographical NoU's of William i 
Bell Scott; Memoirs nf Coventry Pat more ; | 
Krith's Korninisceneos.] C. M. 

MILLIGAN, WILLIAM (1821-1898), ' 
Scottish divine, was horn at Edinburgh on 
1.") March 1S21, the eldest «^t" seven children ' 
of tin 1 liev. George Milligan and his wife, 
Janet Fraser. Hi? father, a lieentiate of! 
the ebureb of Scotland, was then engaged ' 
in teaching at Edinburgh, and Milligan 
was M*nt to the high school, where he was ! 
<lux of his cla-«. In lS.'W, when his father 
became minister of the Fifeshire parish of , 
Elie, he was transferred to the neighbouring . 
pari>h school of Kileonquhar, and thence , 
proei'i-ded in ls.'l"> to the university of St. ■ 
Andrews. Though only fourteen years of i 
aire, he earned from that day, by private 
teaching, as much as paid his class-fees, much 
to his parents' relief, for Elie was a ' small J 

living.' Graduating M.A. in 1889, and de- 
voting himself to the ministry, he took his 
divinity course partly at St. Andrews and 
partly at Edinburgh, and for a time he was 
tutor to the sons of Sir George Suttie of 
Prestongrange. During the disruption con- 
troversy of 1843 Milligan adhered to the 
church of Scotland. He wrote to his father 
that he was resolved to * remain in . . . and 
lend any aid he could to those who are ready 
to unite in building up, on principles agree- 
able to the word of God, the old church of 
Scotland.' He was at this time assistant 
to Robert Swan, minister at Abercrombie ; 
next year he was presented to the Fifeshire 
parish of Cameron and ordained. 

In 1845 his health gave cause for anxiety, 
and he obtained a leave of absence for a 
year, which he spent in Germany, studying 
at Halle. He mado the acquaintance, among 
others, of Neander, in whom he found a 
kindred spirit. Promoted in 1850 to the 
more important parish of Kilconquhar, he 
married, in 1859, Annie Mary, the daughter 
of David Macbeth Moir [q. v.] ; and in 1860 
he was appointed first professor of biblical 
criticism in the university of Aberdeen. He 
worked hard ; but his liberal politics and 
mild broad-church views were not congenial 
to many of his colleagues, and his amiability 
concealed from his students the real strength 
of his character. Nevertheless his power and 
influence grew, and in 1870 he joined the 
company formed for the revision of the Eng- 
lish New Testament. From that time on- 
ward ho was. a prolific writer, nis style, 
prolix at first, became pure and graceful, and 
in such works as those on the resurrection 
and ascension of Jesus Christ and on the 
Revelation of St. John he took a foremost 
place among British theologians. In the 
church courts, too, his rise was steady. In 
1872 he was sent, together with the Kev. J. 
Marshall Lang (now Principal Lang) as a 
representative from the general assembly of 
the church of Scotland to the assembly of 
the presbyterian church in the United 
States ; in 187o he was elected depute-clerk 
of the general assembly ; and in 1886 he suc- 
ceeded Principal John Tulloch [q. v.] as 
principal clerk. 

Already in 1882, partly in recognition of 
his work as a New Testament reviser, he 
had been elevated to the moderator's chair. 
His address on the occasion was notable 
for its declaration that, in any scheme for 
church reunion in Scotland, "the Scottish 
episcopalians must be considered ; while its 
enunciation of doctrine concerning the 
church called forth the warm approval of 
Canon Liddon [q. v.], who wrote and 




thanked him for it. Although in his earlier 
days his humanitarian feelings, and his en- 
thusiasm for liberty and progress, had allied 
him with those who were then called broad 
churchmen, Milligan did not have at any 
period of his career the slightest sympathy 
with the disregard for doctrine which has 
sometimes marked the members of that school. 
Ultimately he ranged himself with high 
churchmen, being, he declared, impelled to 
join them by increased study of the New 
Testament. His doctrine of the church he 

fathered for himself from the Epistle to the 
phesians, on which he had contributed an 
important article to the ninth edition of the 
'Encyclopaedia Britannica.' His views on 
the importance of dogma and on the sacra- 
ments ne learned, as he believed, from St. 
John, of whose writings he was a lifelong 
student and diligent expositor. This develop- 
ment of his opinions in no way limited his 
width of sympathy, nor did it interfere with 
the friendly intercourse, ecclesiastical as well 
as social, that he had been wont to hold 
with nonconformists — with Wesley ans like 
Dr. W. F. Moulton [q. v. Supnl.], or with 
independents like Principal Fairbairn. He 
had oeen a member for years of the Church 
Service Society. In 1892, when the Scottish 
Church Society was constituted ' to defend 
and advance catholic doctrine as set forth 
in the ancient creeds, and embodied in the 
standards of the church of Scotland, &c.,' 
he took an important part in its formation, 
and accepted office as its first president. 
The last letter he wrote from his death-bed 
was to the first conference of this society, 
then being held in Glasgow. A few days 
previously he had said that the greatest need 
of the church of Scotland was the restoration 
of a weekly celebration of the eucharist. 

Milligan was keenly interested in social 
and especially in educational questions. In 
1888 he went to Germany to inquire about 
technical education and continuation schools 
in that country ; and the next year he 
visited Sweden to see the working of the 
Gottenburg licensing system. In Aberdeen 
he was an active philanthropist ; and all 
over Scotland his services as a preacher 
were in much request. 

When on the eve of retiring from his 
chair at Aberdeen owing mainly to failing 
eyesight, Milligan was suddenly seized with 
illness which soon proved fatal. He died 
at Edinburgh on 11 Dec. 1893. His wife, by 
whom he left issue, survived him. He left 
unfinished a work on the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, and forbade the publication of the 
parts he had written ; some of his notes, 
nowever, have been used in a work on the 

same subject, since published by his eldest 
son, the Kev. George Milligan. 

There is a portrait of Milligan by Sir 
George Reid, P.R.S.A., at King's College, 
Old Aberdeen (one of the artist's happiest 
likenesses). In 1898 an altar-table, bearing 
an inscription from the pen of his friend 
and colleague, Principal Sir William Geddes 
[q. v. Suppl.], was erected to his memory in 
the College Chapel, Old Aberdeen. 

Milligan's literary productiveness began 
in 1855, when he contributed the first of a 
series of papers to Kitto's ' Journal of 
Sacred Literature.' In 1857 he addressed a 
' Letter to the Duke of Argyll on the Edu- 
cation Question.' * The Decalogue and the 
Lord's Day ' (1806) was evoked by the con- 
troversy stirred in Scotland bv a speech of 
Dr. Norman MacLeod's (1812-1872) [q. v.], 
as his 'Words of the New Testament' (1873) 
— written in conjunction with Dr. Roberts — 
belonged to the literature of New Testa- 
ment revision. In 1 878 appeared a volume on 
the • Higher Education of Women ; ' and the 
next year he contributed to the 'Encyclopaedia 
Britannica' his important article on the 
'Epistle to the Epnesians.' 'The Resur- 
rection of our Lord ' and his ' Commentary 
on St. John* (in conjunction with Dr. Moul- 
ton) (1882), his ' Commentary on the Revela- 
tion' (1883), his 'Discussions on the Apo- 
calypse ' (1883), his 'Baird Lectures on the 
Revelation of St. John' (1886), 'Elijah' 
(1887), 'The Resurrection of the Dead' 
(1890), 'The Ascension and Heavenly 
Priesthood of our Lord,' and his presidential 
address on the 'Aims of the Scottish Church 
Society* (1892), were all productions of his 
ripened powers. Besides these he contri- 
buted many articles to periodicals. His last 
article was a notice ' In Memoriam' of Dr. 
Hort, which appeared in the ' Expository 
Times' (1893). 

[In Memoriam, a memoir drawn up for his 
family by his Wife. Aberdeen, 1894; Aurora; 
Borealos, Aberdeen, 1809 ; private information ; 
personal recollect ionn.] J. C. 

MILLS, Sir CHARLES (182o-l«)5), 
first agent-general for the Capo Colon v, was 
born in 18*25 at Ischl, Hungary, unci edu- 
cated chiefly at Bonn. On 1 Feb. 18-1,3 he 
enlisted as a private in the O^th regiment, 
and went to China, where he very soon at- 
tracted some notice, was made staff clerk in 
the adjutant -general's office, and excused or- 
dinary duty. He seems to have readily mixed 
and become well known in the general so- 
ciety of the station, though nominally only 
• Corporal Mills.' When his regiment was 
ordered to India in 1848, he was offered a 
clerkship in the consular service, but pre- 




ferred to go into active military service. He 
was accordingly with his regiment through 
the Punjab campaign, and was present in 1849 
at Chillianwallah, where he was wounded. 
He received the medal. On 6 June 1851 he 
received a commission as ensign in the 98th 
regiment, became adjutant on 17 June 1851, 
and on 22 Nov. 1854 was promoted lieutenant 
in the 50th foot. 

Mills, having returned home with his regi- 
ment, became, in 1855, brigade-major under 
General Woolridge, who was charged with 
the formation of a camp of instruction for the 
German legion at the Crimea, and went to 
the seat of war with the legion under Sir 
Henry Storks [q.v.] During this war he 
gained special credit for his share in sup- 
pressing an attempt at mutiny among some 
of the Turkish troops. He received the order 
of the Medjidie. 

At the close of the Crimean war, when 
the German legion was disbanded, it was 
proposed to make a military settlement of 
Germans on the eastern border of British 
KafTraria. Mills, who now left the army, was 
selected as officer in charge of the settle- 
ment ; he arrived at Cape Town in January 
1858, and became successively sheriff of King- 
williamsto wn and secret ary to the government 
of Kaffraria. He had brought out three thou- 
sand men, who prospered almost without 
exception; he has himself stated that for 
seven years he was their * guide, philosopher, 
and friend/ and looked upon this as the most 
successful work of his life, lie had intended 
writing an account of the settlement, but 
never did so. 

In 1H65, when Kaffraria was incorporated 
with the Cape Colony, Mills retired on a pen- 
sion. Subsequently", in 18(56, he was elected 
to represent kingwilliamstown in the parlia- 
ment of the Cape, where he supported the 
government, opposing the party which at 
that time demanded responsible government. 
Sir Philip Wodehouse [q. v. Suppl.], who 
was then governor, eventually persuaded 
him to resign political life and enter the 
colonial service, and in 1867 appointed him 
chief clerk for finance in the colonial secre- 
tary's office. In 1872 he became permanent 
under-secretary in the same office when self- 
government was conferred on the colony; 
in this capacity he rendered considerable 
service in organising the Cape civil service. 
In 1880 he was sent to London to arrange 
as to the adjustment of expenditure on the 
Zulu war. When in 1882 the Cape govern- 
ment decided to have an agent-general of 
their own in London, Mills was at once 
selected for the position, which he took up 
in October 1882. 

As agent-general Mills was a familiar 
and popular figure at all functions in which 
the colonies were interested. In 1886 he 
was executive commissioner for the Cape at 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. In 1887 
he was delegate for the Cape at the colonial 
conference. In 1894 he was one of the dele- 
gates of the Cape at the intercolonial con- 
ference at Ottawa, and this was his last 
special service. He died at 110 Victoria 
Street, London, on 31 March 1895, and was 
buried at Highgate cemetery. He had been 
made C.M.G. in 1878, K.C.M.G. in 1885, 
and C.B. in 1886. He was a governor of the 
Imperial Institute. 

Mills was in later years stoud and florid, 
very cheery in manner, and fond of society. 
He was always reckoned businesslike and 
capable ; at times working exceedingly hard, 
as when he stayed almost continuously in 
the colonial secretary's office for over three 
months in 1872. There are portraits of him 
in the colonial secretary's office, and in the 
Civil Service Club, at Cape Town. 

[Times, 1 April 1895 ; Capo Times, 2 April 
1 895 ; Cape (weekly) Argus, 3 April 1 895, p. 5 ; 
Cape Illustrated Magazine, April 1895 ; Army 
Libts, 1850-8.] C. A. H. 

MILNE, Sib ALEXANDER, first baro- 
net (1806-1890), admiral of the fleet, second 
eon of Sir David Milne [q.v.], was born on 
10 Nov. 180(5. In February 1817 he en- 
tered the Koyal Naval College, and in 1819 
first went afloat in the Leander, his fathers 
flagship on the North American station. He 
afterwards served in the Conway with Cap- 
tain Basil Hall [q. v.], in the Albion with 
Sir William iloste [q. v.], and in the 
Ganges, flagship of Sir Robert Waller 
Otway [q. vA on the South American 
station. In June 1827 he was appointed 
acting-lieutenant of the Cadmus brig on the 
Brazilian station, his commission being con- 
firmed on 8 Sept. In 1830 the brig returned 
to England, and Milne was promoted to the 
rank of commander, 25 Nov. In December 
1836 he commissioned the Snake sloop for 
service in the West Indies, where, in No- 
vember and December 1837, he captured two 
slavers, having on board an aggregate of 665 
slaves. He was promoted, 30 Jan. 1839, 
to be captain of the Crocodile, in which, 
and later on in the Cleopatra, he continued 
in the West Indies or on the coast of North 
America, and in charge of the Newfound- 
land fisheries, till November} 1841. From 
April 1842 to April 1845 he was his 
father's flag captain at Devonport ; and from 
October 1846 to December 1847 flag captain 
to Sir Charles Ogle at Portsmouth. For 

e 1859 be 
■ ■I Lis long adi 

! reorganisn- 
nlwirii mini" ft civil K.C.B. a 

■ ■■■"!'■ 11 rear- 
rairal, 2 Jan 1868, 

In 1SS0 Milne was (ipjif.iiui-U i,, r I,,- ,-.,,,,. 
nimiiof iht" W«*i Truiii- and North Ameri- 
can ailiiiii. which, during the 
civil war, he exercised with greet judgment 
---1 tact, nt n time when the tension of 

-'.:]•■- Ill till! At ltlllltC 

called I'" - th« exercise of these 

Tin- duration of hi* commin'l 

. a year, and on 2fi Feb. 

'1 he «ii nominated n military K.C.B., 

miiliuntT in wear both orders. From 

e MJU to December 1868 he was senior 

il lord of the admiralty, and from April 

ii BspMrnhei 1870 wiiscommander-in- 

ineu. I luring the lost 

time the Channel fleet 

I the Mediterranean on the coast of 

tiigal. •nil the two were exercised to- 

■ imand of Milne, who 

■ sired to report on the behaviour 

: ii Talbot; 

*~, Cnwrcn i'utrrs". On 11 Sept. he 

* d the ship, nnd commented on the 

luiunl state of things— the water 

g freely over the lee side of the deck. 

I very exceptional circumstances he 

it think it necessary to do more than 

hie dislike of this to Coles: and 

in view of the strong feeling that 

n excited in favour of the invention. 

Host certain that the outcry would 

*n very jrreat if Milne hud ordered 

:'<• lo be furled, and the ship 

■ in. 'in''- weathered the gale in 

It would have been said that he i 

,iui..t the ship, and had 

1 in the early 

ag of 7 Sepi. the I 'aptain turned over 

ill in the bottom. 

n24MavlP7! Milne wnsmadesG.C.B., ' 

'■: to 1870 nu again first naval 

i 187(1 be 

! ft baronet. During his long 

b> r of many commis- 

1 eonratitttet. Ha was a coramis- 

exhibition of 1851 in London. 

d again for that of 1*67 in Paris ; in 187!) 

Lord Carnarvon's com- 

ntO the slate of defences 

and in 18*1 of a. 

■7 he was chairman of i 
a jmncntation of a ' jut' 

| to the queen. The presentation, of silver 
!: Britannia, « first-rate ship of 
wax in 1837, and of the Victoria, a first- 
eltti battleship of L887, was actually made at 
Windsor on 22 Nov, 1888. During his later 
years he resided principally at Inveresk 
House, Musselburgh, and there he died, in 
consequence of a chill followed bv pneu- 
moniu, on 29 Dec. 1896. He married in 
1850, Euphesu*, daughter of Archibald 
Cochran of Ashkirk, Roxburghshire, nnd by 
her (who died on 1 Oct. 1889) loft issue, be- 
mi].-. two daughter*, one Son, Archibald 
Berkeley Milne, a captain in the navy, who 
succi.-edi'il to the baronetcy. 

[O'Byrne's Bar. Biogr. Diet. ; Men and 
Women of the Time (1893]: Times, SO Dee, 
Itiilti; Bnrke'n Pet-rage and Baronetage : Navy 
List-.] .1. K. L. * 

(1S22-189VI), Scottish eccleeiutica] historian, 
horn at Brechin on 10 Sept. 1822, was son of 
David Mitchell, convener of local guilds, and 
bis wife Eliinhci li.dunc/htcr of .lames Ferrier 
of Broadmyre. After being educated at- 
lirccliio yrnraraar school, he proceeded in 
1837 to St. Mary's College, St, Andrews, 
winning an entrance bursary in classics. 
He graduated M.A. in 1841, and in 1H44 was 
licensed to nrench. After acting as assistant 
to the ministers at Meigle and Dundee, he 
was in 1847 ordained by Meigl.. umeuylo? 
to the charge of Dunnicheti. Adhering to 
the established church during the secession 
movement, ho became in 1848 a metnbet of 
the general assembly. Tn the aaine year, 
when only twenty-six, lie was appointed 
professor of Hebrew in St. Mary's College, 
and was one of the first to introduce into 
Scotland a scientific method of teaching 
Hebrew. As convener from 185B to 1875 
of the committee of the mission to the Jews, 
Mitchell did much to develop missions in 
the Levant, which he visited himself in 1857. 
His main interests lay. however, in Scottish 
I'ccb'sin.sticiil history, and in 1868 he suc- 
ceeded John Cook as professor of divinity 
and ecclesiastical history in Si, Marv's 

Mitchell held his chair for twenty-si x 
years, and during that period published ■ 
number of valuable works on Seottith 
ecclesiastical history. He was an active 
member of the Scottish Historical and Text 
Societies, and took a prominent part in the 
general councils of the Presbyterian Alliance, 
attending tbe meeting at Philadelphia in 
1880. Tn 1885 he was elected moderator of 
the church of Scotland, and the address be 
delivered at tbe close of tbo session was 
separately published (Edinburgh nnd Lon- 

Mitchell 178 Mitchell 

don, 1885, 4to). In 1894 he retired from ' shipbuilding. In 1858 he was elected to the 
his professorship, and in 1895 was presented ; assembly as member for his native county, 
with his portrait, painted by Sir George , and, two years later, became minister in the 
Reid. He was made D.D. of St. Andrews cabinet of Samuel Leonard Tilley [a. v.] 
in 1862, and honorary LL.D. of Glasgow in j He was called to the New Brunswick legi*- 
1892. He divided his later years between ■ lative council in 1860. 
his house at Gowan Park, near Brechin, and ,' Mitchell took no part in the Charlotte* 
56 South Street, St Andrews. He died at j town conference of 1864, whose object was 
St. Andrews on 22 March 1899, and was a union of the maritime provinces only. But 
buried in Brechin cathedral churchyard. ' when in the same year tie larger scheme of 
He married, in 1852, the eldest daughter of uniting British America arose, he attended 
Michael Johnstone of Arch bank, near Moffat, 1 the meeting at Quebec ^10 Oct.) as delegate 
and was survived by three sons and four of his province, and assisted in drawing up 
daughters. ^ j the basis of confederation known as the 

Mitchell published: 1. 'The Westminster Quebec resolutions. On the delegates' return 
Confession of Faith/ 1866, 8 vo; 3rd ed. 1867. I the government of (Sir) Samuel Leonard 
2. 4 The Wedderburns and their Work,' j Tilley [q. v.] submitted the plan to the 
1867, 4to. 3. ' Minutes of the Westminster 1 popular vote, and was defeated by a large 

"in Strut hers), 1*74, majority (1865). Albert Smith then formed 

a cabinet whose element of cohesion was 
opposition to confederation. Shortly after- 
wards Lieutenant-governor Gordon, who 

Assembly ' (with Dr. John 
Hvo. 4. 'The Westminster Assembly' 
(Baird Lectures), London, 1883, 8vo; new 
edit. Philadelphia, 1895. T>. < Catechisms of 

the Church of Scotland,' Edinburgh, 1886, j had himself opposed the measure, received 
8vo. 6. 'The Scottish Reformation,' ed. instructions to forward the movement. For 
D. Hay Fleming, with biographical sketch j this purpose he called Mitchell to his assis- 
by Dr. James Christie, London, 1900, 8vo. . tance, and a line of action was taken which, 
Mitchell also edited for the Scottish Text ! however necessary in the circumstances, can 
Society the ' Richt Vey to Heuine,' by John ; scarcely be considered constitutional to-dav. 
Gau [q. v. Suppl.], in 1888, and the 'Gude : On 8 "March 1866 Gordon addressed tne 
and God lie BaUatis ' from the 1567 version houses and declared in favour of union, 
in 1897. For the Scottish Historical Society During the negotiations and debates that 
he edited in 1892 and 1896 two volumes of ensued, so many supporters deserted the 
* The Records of the Commissions of the ; ministers that they resigned in a body 
General Assembly,' 1646-50. He also pub- (13 April). Mitchell was thereupon asked 
li»hed an edition of Archbishop Hamilton's : to form a cabinet on the basis of confedera- 
' Catechism' (1882), and three lectures at tion. He became himself premier and pre- 
St. Giles's, Edinburgh (St. Giles's Lecture*, \ sident of the council, while Tilley took office 
1st ser. No. 4, 4th ser. No. 1 , and 6th ser. as provincial secretary. Dissolving the as- 
No. 8). Of his numerous contributions to sembly, he forthwith appealed to the people, 
periodical literature and encyclopaedias a list The moment was well chosen, for the fenian 
of the most important is given in Dr. Christie's invasion of the frontier had demonstrated the 
memoir (pp. xxvi-xxvii ). 1 need of consolidating British America. The 

[Mitchell's Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Dr. ' ™ al issue at the polls thus became confedera- 
Christies biogr. sketch prefixed to the Scottish ' tlon or annexation to the United States. 
Reformation, 1900: A. K. H. Boyd's Twenty- ' Mitchell triumphed by a vote of nearly four 
five Wars of St. AndrewH, i. 22, ii. 221 ; Mrs. to one. 

Oliphant's Memoir of Principal Tulloch. p. 7 ; ; A short session followed, the house sitting 
Knight's Principal Shairp and his Friends; "from 26 June till 7 July. The legislature 
Who's Who, 1809: Times. 23 March 1899 ;! was content to vote confidence in the mini- 
English Hist. Review, January 1901.] \ 8 try and leave their course of action *un- 

A. F. P. 1 fettered by any expression of opinion other 

MITCHELL, PETE R ( 1 824- 1 899), Cana- 
dian politician, was born of Scottish parents 
at Newcastle in the county of Northumber- 

than what had been given by the people 
and their representatives/ In the final con- 
federation conference which took place at 

land, New Brunswick, on 24 Jan. 1824. PMu- ! Westminster on 4 Dec. 1866, the New Brans- 
cat ed at the county grammar school, he ; wick delegates had, therefore, a free hand. 
st udied law and was called to the bar of the 1 They made use of it to obtain concessions 
province of New Brunswick in 1848. lie I that gratified the province: a representation 

practised his profession for four years, and 
then entered into partnership with a Mr. 
Ha we in the business of lumbering and 

of twelve members in the dominion senate 
and fifteen in the dominion House of Com- 
mons; a reservation of export duties in 

■ Iors, Fin 
" a guar* 

commuted for #160,000 ft 

8 for i ! I 

■ ■ i •■[! hi-ii te in obtaining 

■ hie also that he favoured 

deral principle with SirGi 

lohn Alexander 
maid's avowed leaning f ■ 
union, The British North America Act 
■a III.' [Dja] a-v!etit on 29 March lH«i7. 

the dominion 

nl] !-'■; I Mitchell was sworn of the 

y council of Canada, and Waine n mem- 

T tbo cahinet with the portfolio of 

I and flnhariea, Thereupon he took 

i lUlima. On 25 Oct. 

eoa raised to the somite bv 

If..- bhI in that body till 

■ in- resigned in order to 
inist. ration In the commons. 

-• it nenev, lie continued 
:ut it in the second, third, fifth, and 
liter the Macdonald 
nj Ml (8 Sot. 187,1), he removed 
■-'imed the editorship of 
tin 1 Herald' newspaper. From that date 

■ party ties, tl gh he advocated 

iacimaa both in the home and in 

hi- organ. He suffered defeat in the elec- 
91 and 1896. On 1 March 18W 
eived an inspectorship of fisheries for 
* Atlantic provinces. 

■ six yean of ministerial life as 
I K-lierieawere of permanent, bene- 

It to the dominion. To the guardianship of 
two thousand miles of const on the Atlantic 
a immediately added the care of the great 
• and rivers, and, after 1871, the Pacific 
I from the straits of Fuca to Alaska. 
■ Initiation regulating such subjects as 
■■■ lighthouses, quarantine, 
bs, and tins like, proceeds broadly on 
■ - disputed, that the do- 
i ia rested as well with proprietary 
t in as with legislative power over them, 
on became oneof the most 
" tin Canada, Theannual yield of the 
m rose Gram 94,186,000 
o flO.SoO.OOO in 1873. 

reputation rests mainly on his 
' ' he fisheries negotiations with the 
' ilea. The presence of American 
lrlli Auii-rieur 
■ and bays caused international com- 
plication.' in hi» department. • The shortest. 
way,' be says, ' to avoid fishery troubles is 
forlbe l"nh>d States to cease trespassing. . . 
or main a fair bargain.' Otherwise, be re- 
no— ended the strict anfbrcement of the 
Canadian rights. After trying other means 
w<t h simi 1 1 ■ ■ . ■ snmisaioned 

aix provincial cruisers to protect the naileries. 

Tli-' English government, howorer, did n 
acquiesce except under L'liinliii.uis which 
Miiili-ll dealiaed to accept. When in 1871 
the Washington t runty was under discussion 
In. I w.'i'Ti tli.' I ljiit-."i Sial.- and I ire at Britain, 
Ifitohall't inlluence led to the insertion of 
articles whereby the Canadian fisheries were 
thrown open to' the Tn;'' 

uideration of a sum to be ascer- 
tained by an arbitration board (ail- wiii 
m.) In 1878 Canada was awarded 
94,500,000. The Canadian right was there- 
by clearly established, mid its value placed 
beyond question. 

In July 1809, aa he was leaving the parlia- 
mentary buildings, Ottawa, be was stricken 
by paralysis. He seemed to recover, but on 
25 Oct. following he was found dead in his 
rooms in the Windsor Hotel, Montreal. In 
1853 he married Mrs. (.tough, a widow 
of St, John, New ISrunswick; she died in 


Mitchell was the author of several pam- 
phlets, including : 1. ' A Review of President 
Message,' Montreal, 1870, which 
the fisheries; and 2. ' Notes of a 
Holiduv Trip,' Montreal, 18S0, a reprint of 
letters to the 'Montreal Herald ' on Manitoba 
and the north-west territories. 

[Canadian Gazette, London, 2 Nov. 1899; 
KontBMl Star. 26 Oct. 1899; Toronto Ulohe. 
28 Oct. 1889; Morgan's Canadian Men and 
Women, pp. 639-40; N. O. Cot^'a Political 
Appoint meats, p. 101 ; UcmmiU's Canadian 
Purl i am notary Companion, 1883, p. 142 ; Gray's 
Confederation, pp. 30, 60; Dent's Last Forty 
Years, ii. 116 et seq. ; Hannay's Life of S. E. 
Tilley, pp. 233-3.19; Stewart's Canada under 
Dufferin, pp. 179. 240-1 ; Popo's Mem. of J. A. 
Macdonald. i. 329-30, ii. 14, 106-16; Pope's 
Confederation Doc. pp. 3, 94, 121; Can. Sees. 
Pap. 1868 No. 3fl. 1869 No. 12, 1870 No. II, 
1871 No«. .land 12; Ha rU let's Coll. of Treaties, 
xiii. 970-86, 1267 ; Hinds Fishery Commisaion, 
Halifax, i. 48-4, ii. 65-6; U.9.A. Doc. and 
Proc. Halifax Com. i. 82-7, ii. 10H-7, 208-17; 
Law Reports, 1898, A. C. p. 700.] T. B. B. 

(1827-1900), biologist, third son of James 
Edward Mivart (rf. 1866), hotel prnjmn tn r, 
of Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, Lniidun, 
30 Nov. 1827. He received his 
Ion at the grammar scln 
CtsphaBL under Charles 1'ritchnrd .j. 
and at Harrow. He subsequently studied 
at King's College, London, with the view 
at BjMtaatms at Oxford, but, having joined 
in LB44 the lioman catholic church, lie pro- 
ceeded to St. Mary's College, Oscott. His 
change of faith is said to have beeu 
prompted bv a taste for Gothic architecture, 
and hnally determined byastudyof Miluer'a 




' End of Religious Controversy.' Admitted 
on 15 Jan. 1846 student at Lincoln's Inn, he 
was there called to the bar on 80 Jan. 1851, 
but preferred a scientific to a forensic career. 
He was member from 1849 of the Royal 
Institution, and fellow from 1858 of the 
Zoological Society, to whose * Proceedings ' he 
was for more than thirty years a frequent 
contributor. In 1862 he was appointed lec- 
turer on comparative anatomy in St. Mary's 
Hospital, London, and elected (20 March) 
fellow of the Linnean Society, of which he 
was secretary from 1874 to 1880, and was 
elected vice-president in 1892. In 1869 he 
was elected F.R.S. in recognition of the un- 
usual merits of his memoir ' On the Appen- 
dicular Skeleton of the Primates/ communi- 
cated through Professor Huxley in 1867 
(< Phil. Trans.' clvii. 299-430). Among 
others of his earlier scientific papers may be 
mentioned 'Notes on the Osteology of the 
Insectivora ' (' Journal of Anatomy and Phy- 
siology,' Cambridge and London, 1867-8, i. 
280-312, ii. 117-54 ; translated in 'Annates 
des Sciences Naturelles,' 5ieme sene, 'Zoo- 
logie,'tom.viii. 221-84, ix. 311-72); 'Appen- 
dicular Skeleton of Simla* ('Trans. Zool. 
Soc.' vol. vi., 1866) ; ' Notes on the Myology 
of Iguana Tuberculata ' (' Proc. Zool. Soc.' 
1867, pp. 766-97) ; ' Notes on the Myology 
of Menobranchus Lateralis' (ib. 1869, pp. 
450-66) ; ' On some Points in the Anatomy 
of Echidna Hystrix ' (' Trans. Linn. Soc.' vol. 
xxv. pt. iii. [1866], pp. 379-403) ; and ' On the 
Vertebrate Skeleton '( ib. vol. xxvii. pt. iii. 
[1871], pp. 369-92). Though greatly stimu- 
lated by Darwin, Mivart never became a 
Darwinian; and in 1871 freely criticised the 
great naturalist's hypothesis both in the 
' Quarterly Review ' (vol. cxxxi. p. 47) and 
in a substantive essay ' On the Genesis of 
Species ' (London, 8vo) ; an assertion of the 
right of private judgment which led to an 
estrangement from both Darwin and Huxley. 
Three subsequent works : 1. ' Lessons in 
Elementary Anatomy,' London, 1873, 8vo. 

2. ' Man and Apes,' London, 1873, 8vo. 

3. ' The Common Frog,' London, 1874, 8vo, 
established his reputation as a specialist. 
He was already known as an attractive lec- 
turer at the Zoological Gardens and the 
London Institution, and in 1874 he was ap- 
pointed professor of biology at the short- 
lived Roman catholic University College, 
Kensington. During the decade 1870-80 
he enriched the 'Transactions' of the 
Zoological Society (vols. viii. and x.) with 
several important papers, viz. : 1. ' On the 
Axial Skeleton of the Ostrich ; ' 2. ' On the 
Axial Skeleton of the StruthionidiB ; ' 8. ' On 
the Axial Skeleton of the Pelecanidee ; ' 

4. ' Notes on the Fins of Elasmobranchs ; with 
Considerations on the Nature and Homo- 
logues of Vertebrate Limbs.' To the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica' (9th edit.) he con- 
tributed the articles ' Ape ' (reproduced in 
substance in Flower and Lydekker's ' Intro- 
duction to the Study of Mammals,' 1891), 
' Reptiles ' (anatomy), and ' Skeleton.' In 
1879 he was president of the biological sec- 
tion of the British Association at Sheffield, 
and delivered an address on Buffon, which 
was included in his ' Essays and Criticisms,' 
London, 1892, ii. 193. In 1881 appeared his 
elaborate monograph, 'The Cat: an Intro- 
duction to the Study of Back-boned Ani- 
mals, especially Mammals' (London, 8vo), 
which for fulness and accuracy of detail 
and lucidity of exposition is worthy to rank 
with Huxley's 'Crayfish/ Subsequent 
studies in the anatomy of the ^Eluroid, 
Arctoid, and Cynoid carnivora appeared in 
the ' Proceedings' of the Zoological Society 
1882, 1885, and 1890. His researches on 
the last group bore fruit in ' Dogs, Jackals, 
Wolves, and Foxes; a monograph of the 
Canidse,' London, 1890, 4to. Other papers 
in the 'Proceedings' of the same society 
(1895) laid the basis of his 'Monograph of 
the Lories, or Brush-tongued Parrots com- 
posing the Family Loridee,' London, 1896, 
4 to. Mivart received in 1876 the degree of 
Ph.D. from the pope, and in 1884 that of 
; M.D. from the university of Louvain, in 
I which he was professor of ' the philosophy 
j of natural history ' from 1890 to 1893. 
Despite his rejection of Darwinism, Mivart 
always professed himself an evolutionist. As 
such, however, he can be ranked with no 
school. He never wavered in maintaining an 
essential disparity between organic and inor- 
ganic matter, and between human reason and 
the highest faculties of the brutes. Natural 
selection he relegated to an extremely sub- 
ordinate place, and attributed the formation 
of specific characters to a principle of indi- 
viduation, which he postulated as the essence 
of life (see Essays and Criticisms, ii. 377-9, and 
| The Origin of Human Reason, London, 1889, 
' pp. 298-303). Evolution thus understood he 
| attempted by a theory of derivative creation 
I to reconcile with the catholic faith, between 
: which and modern thought he aspired to 
I play the part of interpreter (see his paper, 
' One Point in Controversy with the Agnos- 
tics,' in Essays on Religion and Literature, 
ed. Manning, 3rd ser. London, 1874, 8vo). 
In November 1874 he joined the Meta- 
physical Society, in which, as in the wider 
arena of the monthly reviews, he opposed a 
neo-scholastic realism to the prevalent ag- 
nosticism. In 1876 he collected his philo- 

tnphical article* under tli" title 'Lessons 
frjm Nature a* in Mind and 

own method of dialogue, appeared in 1883 
■ ■ -. I; - (nil London, Svol in the fol- 
der ' A I'liilnsopllicnl Catechism ' 
h Trulii: ii Systematic Inquiry ' 
i!-',n. 'Th, Helpful Snence' i\"'X.,, and 
if Science: n Study of 
In these treatises 
be labour**) to re-establish philosophy upon 
•uu) basis, witl] only such modi- 
fications of form as were imperatively de- 
manded by 111.' prubliriii-. 1,1 tli'- iij'-. lint 
tlii» itfnnrnl to refurbish the scholastic 
aroiourv of his church was combined with a 
theological liberalism which eventually 
bin into collision with her, His 
DM-catholicism was adumbrated in 'Con- 
temporary Evolution,' London, 1878 (a re- 
put of article- in I hi' 'Contemporary lle- 
vi.'w'), and nun explicitly formulated in a 
series of papers in the 'Nineteenth Century,' 
Modem Catholics nnd Scientific 1885): 8. 'The Catholic 
tnd Biblical Criticism '(.Lily 1887); 
S, "Catholicity and Reason ' (December 
. ■Sins of Belief and Disbelief 

(October 1**8); .-.. ' llappme" in II. 11' 

(December 1892), which, with two explana- 

(Kebruary and April 1893), was 

Sl.iliroruni I'roliibitornin, 
03 i md 8. "TheContinuitj ofCa- 
i January 1900). The last' article, 
with another entitled 'Some Recent Apolo- 
. b appeared contemporaneously in 
the ' Fortnightly Review,' brought his ortho- 
ii'l led to his 
by Cardinal Yaughan 
. \u article, 'Script lire and Roman 
Catholicism,' which appeared in the ' Nine- 
atury' in the following March, 
irompleted bis repudiation of ecclesiastical 
authontv. lie died of diabetes hi his resi- 
■uliri, lV.,uu 

(April following, II.' was married. Eli* 
St. (Morse ill* art, is a medicn! 
■ I government board. 
It is to be regretted that Mivurl did nol 
■ mself strictly to scientitic work, in 
J li lay. In mtiBterv of 
anatomirnl detail lit- hod few rivals, and per- 
haps no superior, among his coi ■ 

■ nii-nt wasiiot 

itj leisure for the study 
caM and controversial questions 

' ul rate. 

mattM Author of: 1. ' bit reduction Gene rale 

i I'Ettide de la Nature. Coura professe a 
l'Universitf' de Louvuin.' Ijouvain, Paris, 
1881. 2. 'Birds: the Elements of Orni- 
thology,' London, 1892,8m, 8. 'Types of 
Animal Life,' London, 1893, 8vo. 4. 'An 
Introduction to the Elements of Science,' 
London. 18»4,8vo. 5. 'Castle and Manor; 
a Tale of our Time,' London, 1900, Bvo, 
For his uncollected papers not specilied 
above see the Zoological Society's 'Trans- 
actions ' and " Proceedings ' from 1864 (with 
which compare ' Zoological Kecord' nnd 
' Zoologist,' 3rd ser. viii. 281 1; ' Trans act ions 
of tli' Linn. 'an Society,' 2nd ser. (Zool.), 
i. -"i 1 3 : ■ Proceedings of the Iloyal Society,' 
IMS.-, No. 863 j 'Popular Science lleview/ 
viii. Ill, ix. 366, xiv. 372. xv. 225; ' Con- 
temporary Review,' April 1875, May, July, 
September, October 187B, January, February. 
April 1880, May 1**7 : ' Fortnightly Review,' 
January, April 1886, September [890, If*,* 
l«0ti: ' Nineteenth Century,' August, De- 
cember 1803, August 1895, January, Decem- 
ber 1897, August 1899; ' Dublin' Review,' 
October 1876, October 1*91. 

[Hi.yiil Bocistf Year Book, 1001, pp. 227- 
233; Lincoln's Inn Adm. Ke B . , Gent. Mug. lB.iB. 
i. 213 ; Law List, 1852; Owen's Lifo of Pro- 
fessor Uwon; Darwin's Lift of Darwin ; Huxley's 
Life of Huxley; Hutton's 'The HstsfhnisaJ 
Sn-ir v' in Nineteenth Century. August IB83 ; 
K i van's ■ Hernia iscences of Professor Huxley' 
in Nineteenth Century, Dsombsr 1897; Minerva 
Jahrbiieli. IS'.i] ■ Men nnd Wuineii of the Time, 
1895; Times, 12. 13, to, 22. 27, 29 Jan., 2, 3, 
4 April luni; Tablet, 7 April 1900 ; Hatnr". 
12 April IHOtl.] J. M. R, 

[1814 1886), South African statesman, the 
sou of John Moltt'iw, deputy controller of 
the legacy olnce, Somerset House, and of 
Caroline Bower, liis wife, was born on 5 June 
1814 in his father's house in London. The 
family wns ul' Milanese extraction, but. had 
long been domiciled in Euj_duiid. Losing 
his father at an early age, be was educated 
at Ewell. and alter a short experience in the 
office of a citv sbipbroker he suited for South 
Africa in 1831 to take up duties in the public 
library at Cape Town. In 18H7, when twenty- 
three years of age, he stiirled a commercial 
businessof his own, and was lor the next ten 
years engaged in a spirited endeavour to open 
up ii. -iv innrlieN I'll' I'.l' (ii'iidih''- ; lull n 

if adverse mrooiiiitjujieeaj proved 

fatal. Hud in IS-ll he nlandoned his Cape 

Town business ud devoted himself to De- 
veloping tin.' whip] trade on a propertj n hion 
lie had acquired b> Beaufort West. From 
this date till 1863 be lived an rotated life in 

the great Karoo, forming an intimate ac- 




quaintance with the life and characteristics 
of the frontier colonists, especially those of 
Dutch blood. 

lie took part as a burgher and com- 
mandant in the Kaffir war of 1846, and 
formed a strong- opinion of the unsuitabiiity 
of British troops and British regular officers 
for such warlore. The dictatorial tone 
adopted towards the colonist*, together with 
the incapacity displayed by the queen's 
officers, was a strong factor in determining 
his future attitude towards the intervention 
of the home government in military matters. 

In 1852 he returned to mercantile pur- 
suits, and founded the firm of Alport & Co., 
which he combined with a large banking 
business, and he rapidly grew to be one of 
the wealthiest und most influential citizens 
in the Beaufort district. In 1854 repre- 
sentative institutions were introduced in the 
Cape Colony, and Molteno became the first 
member for Beaufort in the legislative 
assembly, and bv his skill in debate and 
profound knowledge of the needs of the 
country soon raised himself to the front rank. 
During the governorship of Sir George Grey 
[q. v. Suppl.] he was generally found in sym- 
pathy and support with him, but on the ap- 
§ ointment of Sir Philip Wodehouse [q. v. 
uppl.] in lrto':? he was driven into a strong 
policy of opposit ion. The leading cry among 
Cape politicians was for responsible govern- 
ment, and for manv vears Molteno took the 
foremost place in the battle. When, with the 
approval of the secretary of the colonies, 
Lord Kimberlev, it was conceded in 1872 bv 
Sir Henry Barkly [q. v. Suppl.], the new 
governor, Molteno was by common consent 
designated as the first. Cane premier. 

The first years of his administration were 
marked by great prosperity, by a vast in- 
crease in railroad communication, and by 
the rehabilitation of the colouial finances. 
The acquisition of the diamond fields had a 
considerable share in this, but the main 
credit mav fairly be attributed to the ad- 
ministrative and financial capacity of Mol- 
teno, and to the confidence that he inspired. 

This peaceful epoch was not of long dura- 
tion. Lord Carnarvon was resolved to force 
on his policy of South African confederation. 
Molteno was not opposed to confederation in 
itself, but insisted that it must come gra- 
dually from within and not from without, 
and tnat at the present time it would impose 
unduly onerous burdens on the Cape Colony. 
Lord Carnarvon was unfortunate in his 
choice of James Anthony Froude[q. v. Suppl/ 
the historian, whom he sent out a* an un- 
official representative of the home govern- 
ment in 1875. Failing to obtain Molteno's 

assistance, Froude started an unconstitu- 
tional agitation throughout South Africa 
which, by stirring up the race antagonism 
between English and Dutch, sowed the seeds 
of future calamities. Molteno and his col- 
leagues procured the rejection of a scheme for 
a conference on the subject of confederation, 
and the Cape parliament refused to allow him 
even to discuss the subject with the home 
government when he was in England during 
the following vear. 

In April 1877 Sir Henry Bartle Edward 
Frere [q. v.] succeeded Sir Henry Barkly at 
the Cape. He came out as the special exponent 
of Lord Carnarvon's views, and it was not 
long before he came into conflict with Molteno. 
The latter was a thorough-going exponent 
of colonial rights, and prepared to insist on 
them to their fullest extent. Sir Bartle had 
no experience of self-governing colonies. It 
would have been difficult under any cir- 
cumstances for the two to work in har- 
mony ; Frere's preconceived notions on con- 
federation and native policy* rendered it- 
impossible. The war with the Galekas in 
1877-8 brought matters to a crisis. The 
governor contended that the commander-in- 
chief at the Cape was the only person who 
could command the colonial troops; Molteno 
insisted that, though the governor, as such, 
had power over the colonial forces, it could 
only be exercised with and by the advice of 
his responsible ministers. The ministers 
were unyielding, and on (J Feb. 1878 Frere 
took the strong step of dismissing them, 
under circumstances which showed little 
consideration for Molteno's long services. 

Molteno had reckoned on the support of 
his parliamentary majority, which had never 
failed him hitherto, but in the debate which 
followed his dismissal the legislative assem- 
bly supported his successor, (Sir) Gordon 
Spri gg. Deeply chagrined, and feeling 
helpless before Sir Bartle Frere's policy, to 
which he was opposed in every respect, he 
retired from public life. In 1881, after 
Frere's recall, Molteno entered for a short 
time Mr. Scanlen's administration as colonial 
secretary, but in August 1882 he finally 
withdrew from politics, receiving the decora- 
tion of a K.C.M.G., and followed by widely 
expressed appreciations of his past services. 
After a short sojourn in England he re- 
turned to the Caj>e and died at Claremont 
on 1 Sept. 1S86. 

Sir John Molteno was a man of com- 
manding presence and of great physical 
strength. In private life he was of" most 
simple and unostentatious habits. He was 
thoroughly representative of the early Eng- 
lish settlers at the Cape, and enjoyed the 

full confidence of llle Dlltcb, 
were fnmutl before the dm of imperialism. 
: :!>» Cane rnukvd lirst 
bad in bit afibrta I 
■BDWEMJOn "I lliuimraknd be ! 

■ i iord Carnarvon. 

of Molteno, 

if parliament, 

■■■■I: fil»t, 1" 

in 1641, to 

Elizabeth Mnrm, n daughter nf Hercules 

lVo«*e Jin ■ loft iaeae i 

thirdly, li> Sobella Maria, i lie daughter of 

■: .. win survived him, 

ban be lefl iaeue. 

Jir John Mot I mo by hie 

■,. Miilteiir)(lS99J. indihe.iutlinriiiisJ 

!iim.l».i.-( Mertinean's Uf« of Sir Bertie 

Fnn] J- I!. A. 


■ . born in London on 

~! March 1B48, mi the only child o( Isaac 

V»i»Mmnniery{lW3-169-2), a well-known 

■ mil minister, by his wife, n 

■ ol Thomas George Williams of 

teacendea from a French 

Huguenot refugees, and early in 

! !]:■■ original form of its surname 

— Momerie. He was educated al the Cit^ 

■ School and ill Edinburgh Uni- 

naitfrwbm be iron the Horeliehill end 

oUndlip with the medal end Bruce 

■ ■ ■-, tun! trniJuiil.."! M,A. 

in l»75*mi D.S-.'i.i l-7ti. Emm Edinburgh 

he proceeded to St. John's Coll 

bridjre, where he eu admitted on 17 March 

■ in the morel science 

tripos in 1877, graduating B. \. in 187* and 

M.A.ui 1881. He ivn» ...rdnined deacon in 

mite of Leigli 

in Lancunire. On 6 Nov. 1879 be was 

John's College, end in 

-■■! professor of logicaud 

;!■■:-. ipbyat King's College,London. 

!;■■ wso rliisrii in " rni rig preacher at 

:■■ Ulna Hospital. 

Between 1-.-1 and IrlflO he published 

books and collections of sermons 

. i iiri-iiiitiily, which lit - 

Mined considerable vogue. Their style was 

brilliant, their views latitudinarian. Like 

■ '■ -nil Maurice, 

■ ,n-'5t'"ll..».- in IM'l, ..lid 
i thii Foundling 

Will, the permission of 


1 ' n Hundayi at the Portmaa rooms. 

.. n mi fl Deo. 1900, al 

bilwnrtli 8t»ei 

Ada Lnuisti, ill., widow of Charles E. Heme, 
hi 1 "7 lie ri iciv.i! llii' honorary degree of 
LL.IJ. from Edinhurgh University. 

Homerm'a chief works are: 1. ' Per- 
sonality the Beginning end End of Meta- 
physica, 1 London. 1879, 8vo ; 4th edit 1889. 
2. ' The Origin of Evil, and other Sermons,* 
London. 1881, Bvo; Oth edit. Edinbnrgh, 
IfaO, Bm 8. 'Defects of Modern Ohoa- 
tianitv. and other Benuons,' Edinburgh, 
I— -J, -v,-. ; L'n.l iksI. I, -The Baals ot 

IMicinn.' Edinburgh. I--:!. Sv, , I'm! ,,dit.. 
186a, Toiawork was n criticism of (Sir) 
J.ilui 1'i.ljert Seelcy's 'Natural iieligiiin.' 
C. ■Agnosticism end other .Sermons,' Edin- 
bwgh, 1884, svo; 2nd edit. 1887, 8. 
'Preaching mid Hearing, and other Ser- 
mona,'Edinburgb r 188fi,8vo; Urd edit. 1*90. 
7. 'Inspiration ami other Bennona, 1 Edin- 
burgh, 1889, Bvo; 2nd edit. 1890. 8. ■Church 

mi. I I 'i 1 : Scruiiins prenehed in tin- 1 Impel 

of the Foundling 1 1'i-jiitii].' London, 1890, 
Bvo. 9. 'The Religion of the Future, and 
-.rh-TK-wvn,' Edinburgh, ISM, Kvo. 10. 'The 

English Church and the Romiefa Saoiani,' 

2nd edit. Edinburgh, 1896, 8vo. 

[Til B D«. 1900; Who's Who, 1001 ; The 

Eagle, sail. 2*1 B; 0» okfbrd'i Clerical Direc- 
tory; AlliboM'l Diet of Englisli tiL] E.1.C 

fourth Vtst'utiKT Mobck in the Irish peer- 

Se, and Brat Basra Vhanx in the neenn 
the United Kingdom(1819-1894 l, lirst 
governor-genera] of the dominion of Canada, 
wn.= liiirn ..I Teniplemore, in the county of 
Tipp.-ini'v, on 10 Oct. 1819, Iwing the eldest 
son of Ohurlt'B Joseph Kelly Mi. ink. ihird 
\ bMOOnt M-.nck of Bnllylraiumou. by Brid- 
get, youngi'it daughter of John WiUington 
nf Killi.-ki'hnu.' in (In- I'.uiiitv of Tippercirv. 
Educated at Trinity College, Dublin 
i in ii l I'll 1 1. A . hi tli' 1 -II miner commeni 
of 1841. and was called to the Irish bar at 
King's Inn in June of the same year. On 
20 April 1849 he succeeded as fourth vis- 
r-.niiii in tlie Irish peerage. 

In I IHH lw miwiii leaifiillj contested ib» 
county of Wicklow in the libt-ml interest, 
but four years later entered the l!.u-e .it 
Commons us member for Portsmouth (July 
1-..L 1 1. Ho the resignation ot Lord Aber- 
deen's ministry in 18o5 he became ii lord of 
ihe treaaurrin Lord Palniemtmi'B govern- 
nit-lit (7 March 18715). His term nf office 
lasted three veara, until March 18o8, when 
the Earl of Derby formed a ministry. Monck 
was defeated at Portsmouth in the genera) 
election i>f 1859. 

On J- Oct, 1881 he was appointed by 
Lord PiilmervtnncapUiii-goueral uiid govcr- 

Monck 184 Moncreiff 

nor-in-chief of Canada, and governor-general | under 30 Vict. cap. 3, and his title declared 
of British North America. Scarcely had he ! to be Governor-general of the Dominion of 
entered on his duties in the month following | Canada. In accordance with the terms of 
when there came the news of the * Trent , Queen Victoria's proclamation he took the 
affair/ which for a time threatened to em- j oath of office and constituted the privy 
broil England and the United States in a ' council of Canada on 1 July 1867. Having 
war. Diplomacy, however, dispelled the ' thus inaugurated the federation successfully, 
cloud, and the local irritation was calmed by the governor-general resigned office on 13 

confederates, having found refuge in Canada 
during the American civil war, plotted to 

turn their asylum into a basis for petty v 

attacks on the United States, e.g. seizing j of St. Michael and St. George on 23 June, 
vessels on the lakes, attacking defenceless and was called to the privy council on 7 Aug. 

1869. Trinity College, Dublin, bestowed on 
him the degree of LL.D. in 1870. 

After his return to Ireland, where he had 
been a commissioner of charitable donations 

's patience and firmness. A more Nov. 1868. He left Canada the next day. 
trouble arose in 1864, when certain On 12 July 1866 he was created a peer of 

the United Kingdom as Baron Monck of 
Ballytrammon in the county of Wexford, 
lie received the honour of the grand cross 

ports, breaking open prisons as at Detroit, 
robbing banks as at St. Albans. By patrol- 
ling his frontier from point to point, and 
setting small armed craft on the lakes, Monck 
diligently guarded his long boundary line of j and bequests in 1851, he was appointed a 
two thousand miles, kept the peace between member of the Church Temporalities and 

the nations, and received the approbation of 
the imperial authorities (1864). But his 
exertions were not so highly appreciated in 

National Education commissions (1871). He 
continued to administer the former till 1881. 
In the following year he was chosen, with 

the United States. Immediately after the Mr. Justice O'Hagan and Mr. Litton, to 
' St. Albans affair,' General Dix put forth a I carry out the provisions of the new Irish 
proclamation threatening reprisals (4 Dec. 1 Land Acts, and sat on the commission until 
1864). Next year the Republic denounced | 1884. From 1874 to 1892 he held the office 
the reciprocity treaty of 1854 for other than , of lord-lieutenant and custos rotulorum in 
commercial reasons, and suffered, if she did and for the county of Dublin. He died 
not encourage, the attempts of the Fenians ; on 29 Nov. 1894. On 22 July 1844 Monck 
against British North America. Once more ; married his cousin, Elizabeth Louisa Mary 
the militia were called forth and the frontier . (d. 16 June 1892), fourth daughter of Henry 
patrolled. At the Niagara peninsula some ! Stanley Monck, earl of Rathdowne. By her 
nine hundred Fenian marauders made an in- he had issue two sons, of whom the elder, 
road into Canadian territory and were re- Henry Power, succeeded to the peerage, and 
pulsed with considerable loss by the militia two daughters. 

on 2 June 1866. Difficulties with the United [Taylor's Port, of Brit. Amer. i. 1-14; Dent's 
States continued during the greater part of Can. Port. Gall. iv. 162-3; Fosters Peerage, 
Monck's term of office, but his government p. 470: Burke's Peerage, p. 1025; Cat. of 
also synchronised with the formation of the I tfrad. Dublin Univ.; Hansard, vols, cxxxvii. 
federated dominion of Canada. ' rxlviii. ; J. E. Cote's Pol. Appoint, i. 30-4 ; Johns 

In 1864 Monck had welcomed a propo- 1 u ^pk«ns Univ. Stud. Now. of the Lnk«s, 16tli 
sition emanating from George Drown To. v. i f f r * £° 8 ' }.~ 4 > r 137 " 66 > Mi8 ' 1 Frances Monck's 
Suppl.], for the introduction into Canada of a Xv Canadun Leaves. 1891, p. 225; Somer- 

federal constitution (memorandum of Urd I V^ ^ n '">™°» f Can pp 103-4; 
\ f li-i iQiti\ ti * 1 ; Uenison s Foninn Raid at tort Erie (pamDh.) 

Monck, 1., June 81U) The governor took lg86 Le CWs Twentv . five Years in the 

an active interest in the conferences on the ( Secret Sen- ice, pp. 30-5; Consolidated Statute. 

subject held at Charlottetown and Quebec f Canada, Upper Canada, Lower Canada, 1859; 

(1804), and in the conduct of the Quebec j |N.O. Cotes Political Appointments, p. 6 ; Popes 

resolutions, which embodied the federal con- , Mem. of Sir J. A. Macdonald, i. 299-303, 319, 

stitution, through the local houses of par- . ii. 416; Ann. Reg. 1894, pt ii. p. 207; 

liamun t (186V)). Ho likewise brought his ! Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890; Hopkins's 

influence to bear in favour of union on the 

'lieutenant-governors of Nova Scotia and 

New liruifewick. In the autumn of 1806 he 

came to England, as well to assist at the 

Canada; Appleton's Annual Encvcl. i. 358-9, ii. 
52.1 ' T. B. B. 

MONCREIFF, JAMES, first Bakox 
Moncreiff of Tullibole (1811 -1895), lord 

Westminster conference as to advise the | justice-clerk of Scotland, son of Sir James 

imperial authorities, Sir John Michel admi- 
nistering affairs in his absence. On 4 June 
following his appointment was renewed 

Well wood Moncreiff [q. v.], baronet, and Ann, 
daughter of George Robertson, K.X., was born 
at Edinburgh on 29 Nov. 1811 . He was edu- 

cated a* the high id) fol and university 
Edinburgh. Katarallyauick and intelligent, 

he earned off the print ■ i |ntl honours at both 

. intituling I lie medal m ' Chrif - 

Si ■ '.\ .-In -.- ,■■!' moral pliiloeophy in 
: i.. the Scottish bur in 
3, where ill » lew years he gathered n large 
Bat, partly from Dal jral bent, and 
i'lirsiunl ]...lilii'- h :\ 
-:r activity even llinu thai with which lie 
wed law . In the forensic nrena he was ' 
ie thick of the church disruption ! i ^l u , *i >i 
'as engaged as counsel in the leading con- 
._* of that, exciting time — the Lethcndv, 
» Mamoch. the Auchterarder, and tbeCul- 
salmond cases. With his father and his elder 
ir H.-Tirv Wellwood Moncreiff 

■ ■■inie out with tli'- seceders, At 

■i e one "1' the lirst orra- 
Xurlli Kritis'i Review,' 
i started in the interest of the dis- 

•ucn-iff tir-t entered the House of Com- 
: P. for the Letts Burghs, which he 

represented from April I80I ti> April 1 ."">'. I, 
when he retired becaose he was averse to 
dividing the liberal party in (lie constituency. 
In April 1858, with Adam Black i|- r, . 
he was elected one of the members (or the 
i. linburgh, and re-elected in 18tW. 
In 1868 he resigned hi* sent, and WM elected 
mentation of (Jlusgow and Aber- 
r iii'-.. In February 1850 Mon- 
i|ii»jiiTii'il.i,]ieilnr-f;eneral for Scot- 
land in Lord John Russell's administration, 
and in April 1*51 lie succeeded Andrew Ru- 
therford q.v.Jas lord advocate. InFebruary 
ent nut. of ollice 'in the ■ 
■ ■-.. il ministry DO their defeat over 
tine in again with Lord 
.■ hi in Decem- 
taaong 'In' meaaures introduced 
i advocate were an act 
'- in the Scottish llni- 

■ --to amend the kw of eutail, to 
ri ihe bankruptcy laws, to diminish the 

t of *heriffs, and to amend the law of 
nary I8R4 he introduced 

tform system of 

ilinn and rating in Scotland, and an 
itinn bill for Scotland, which win re- 

1 m this occasion Spencer Horatio 

. v j sni.l his speech was "as 

■■■ language as it was clear and 

in it- statements,' When the 

i- iletViktcd in Ivl.neirv 

Lord Palmerston 

mil as lord advocate, 

■ mintrnduced bis edu- 

b bill, which wos paaaed, bul thrown 

. it was tli" following 

year. Monereiff wan also responsible for 
the important bankers' act in 18541. On 
the fall of Kars, the lord adv.icate was put 
up to reply on behalf of the government to 

the attack ■>!' Lord John Manners fa. v.], 
was selected by the 

Snernraent to compliment .Mr. Speaker 
unison on hip re-election to the chair in 
iii-' Bouse of Common*, Eiceptiug the 
year of the Derbv Disraeli administration 
(February 1858-June 1859), Moncreiff was 
iord-ndv .cute till July 1866. Hi* only other 
year of office was from December 1868 to 
October 1869, when he succeeded James 
I'uHeii a. v," : as lord justice-clerk. From 
1858 to 1869 he was dean of the faculty 
of advocates — the premier position at the 
Scottish bar. 

During his long career in parliament Mon- 
creiff guided the passing of over a hundred 
acts of parliament, and his name will ever be 
laaoriatod with the reform of legal procedure 
and mercantile law. As lord advocate he 
was engaged ils public prosecutor in many im- 
portant cases, not ably tic trials of Madeline 
Smith, Wielobvcki. ami t lie directors of the 
Western bank! In 185(1 lie defended the 
'Scotsman' in the libel action raised by Mr. 
Duncan McLaren q. of the members 
forthecity of Edinburgh, in January 1857 
he was presented with the freedom of his 
native city for the part he took in regard to 
the Municipal Intension Act. In 1851) he 
became lieutenant -colonel of the first rifle 
volunteer corps in Scot land— thai of the city 
of Edinburgh. In I860 lie benefited Edin- 
burgh by passing the annuity tax bill — a 
subject in which, as a free churchman, he 
took the keenest interest— and in the follow- 
ing year he benefited Scotland by carrying 
the important bill relating to burgh and paro- 
chial schools. In 1861 he was engaged 11 
leading counsel in the defence of Sir \\ illiam 
Johnston, one of the directors of the Edin- 
burgh and Qiawow bank, and in 1863— I he 
was counsel in the famous Velverton case. 

For nineteen years ljird Moncreiff o 
pied the judicial bench, presiding over the 
trials in tin- justiciary court of Chant reiki 
1187.-1), the t'i'tv .-I libis-r.w bunk directors 
(1878), the ihtianiiiai.l, [1888), sad the 
crofters (1888). Eiti»-judioUlli he wasoc- 
cupied in many other matters, Asa lecturer 
he was in great request, and delivered nu- 
merous orations in Edinburgh and Glasgow 
Oil subjects of literary, scientific, and politi- 
cal interest tit the Philosophical Institution, 
lloyal Society. Juridical Society. Scots Law 
Society.and other bodies. Moncreiff also pub- 
lished anonymously in 1871 a novel entitled 
• A Visit to my Discontented Cousin,' which 

Monier-Williams 186 Monier-Williams 

was reprinted, with additions, from 'Fraser's i youngest brother had been killed in the 
Magazine/ He was also a frequent contri- ' unsuccessful attempt to relieve the be- 
butor to the ' Edinburgh Review.' In 1858 leajruered fort of Kahun in Sindh. This 
he received the degree of LL.l). from Edin- entirely changed the course of his career; 
burgh University : from 1868 to 1871 he was ' for, yielding to the urgent desire of his 
rector of Glasgow University, from which he i widowed mother that he should now not 
received the degree of LL.P. in 1879, and in i leave the country, he decided to relinquish 
18H9 he was appointed a member of the privy , his appointment and remain in England, 
council. On 1< May 1871 he was created a He therefore returned to Oxford in May 
baronet; on I Jan. 1874 he was made a baron ', 1841 ; but as Balliol was full, and no pro- 
of the United Kingdom ; in 1878 he was ap- vision existed in those days for out-college 
pointed a royal commissioner under the En- residence, he joined University College. He 
dowed Institutions (Scotland) Act, and in I now entered upon the study of Sanskrit 
1883 he succeeded his brother as eleventh • under Professor Horace Hay man Wilson 
baronet of Tullilmle. In September 1888 he Tq. v.], and gained the Boden scholarship in 
resigned the position of lord justice-clerk, and 1843. Graduating B.A. in the following 
took up the preparation of his * Memorials,' year, he was appointed to the professorship 
which are yet to be published. On these he of Sanskrit, Persian, and Hindustani, at 
was engaged till his death on '27 April 1895. i Haileybury. This office he held for about 
There is a portrait of Moncreiff, painted by : fifteen years, till the college was closed 
Sir George Keid, P. U.S.A., on the wall of { after the Indian mutiny in 1858, and the 
the parliament house in Edinburgh. . teaching staff was pensioned off, After 

Lord Moncreiff married, on \'2 Sept. 1834, ' spending two or three years at Cheltenham, 
Isa1>ella, only daughter of Kobert Bell, pro- I where he held an appointment at the college, 
curator of the church of Scotland, and ; he was elected Boden professor of Sanskrit 
sheriff of Berwickshire and Haddingtonshire, ■ in the university of Oxford by convocation 
and by her ( who died on M> Dec. 1881) he | in December 18ti0, when Professor Max 
had five sons and two daughters. II is eldest ; Muller [q. v. Suppl.] was his opponent, 
son, Henry James, now Baron Moncreiff, sat- j In the early seventies Monier Williams 
since 1888. under the title of Lord Wellwood, | conceived the plan of founding at Oxford an 
as a lord of session, an office which, as Lord i institution which should be a focus for the 
Moncreiff, he >u\\ retains. , concentration and dissemination of correct 

[Scotsman. 2i» April 1S9.> : Addison 1 * Glasgow information about Indian literature and cul- 
Oraduntos: Skittish L-iw Review. Juno 1805 ■ ture. This project he first brought before 
(with portrait); liurke's Peerage; Men of the ; congregation at Oxford in May 1875. With 

Time.] l>. 8-n. n view to enlisting the sympathies of the 

■i t ;erm s 

U.K., surveyor-general, Bombay presidency, were so far crowned with success that he 
and of hi* wife, Hannah Sophia, daughter of collected a fund which finally amounted 
Thomas Brown of the East India Company's ■ to nearly &4,000/. By rare tenacity of pur- 
civil service, reporter-general of external pose he succeeded in overcoming all the 
commerce in Bengal. Bom at Bombay in great difficulties in his way, and the Indian 
1819. he came to England in lSi>2. where he Institute at last became an accomplished 
was educated at private schools at Chelsea ■ fact. The foundation-stone was laid by the 
and Brighton, and afterwards at King's Col- Prince of Wales in 1883. The building was 
lege School, London. He matriculated at erected in three instalments, the first being 
Oxford in March 1837, but did not go into finished in 1884, and the last in 1896, when 
residence at Balliol College till Michaelmas the institute was formally opened by Lord 
1838. In the following year he rowed in Oeorge Hamilton, the secretary of state for 
his college eight at. the head of the river. , India. Monier Williams subsequently pre- 
J laving received a nomination to a writer- sent ed to the library of the institute a valua- 
ship in the East India Company's civil ser- ble collection of oriental manuscripts and 
vice in November 18:M» t he passed his exami- books to the number of about three thousand, 
nation at the East India 1 louse in December. By his sister's desire, and at her own expense, 
lie then left Oxford and went into residence an excellent portrait of him was painted in 
at the East India Company's college, Hailey- oils by Mr. W. \V. Ouless, R.A., in 1880, 
bury, in January 1840, whence he passed out. ' and was presented by her to the institute, 
head of his year. He was about to proceed i Monier Williams was a fellow of Balliol 
to the east when the news arrived tliat his i College from 1882 to 1888; was elected 


i honorary follow of rjoiventit] College 
■i'l «na keeper and perpetual 
he Indian Institute. Ha received 
of D.C.L, front Oxford 
: LL.D. frota (aleuiin, and of 
.■ u. Hi' was created a 
when lie assumed Hit 
: Mrmit-r. 
iligad Sir Mouier lo re- 
his iietive professorial 
dntiM, which hud beoome rery onerous 
owing to the inst it hi i.-.n of the honour 
ndiesat Oxford in 1886. 
He censed to reside in the university, spend- 
ing the » inl ■ fj year in the 
routhof Front*, "I'Ik- Ltd y cars of his lil'e 

he devoted chiefly to the ipletion of the 

' ■ 
He gave the Bnal toueuee to the 
, proof-sheet of this work only a few 
hi* death. He died at Cannes 
1899. His remain* wi re ■ 

and interred in the village 
Surrey. In 1*48 
.-™ier \\ ill i ami married Julia, daughter of 
the Ber. F. J. Foithfnll, rector of Hatfield, 
■nd had by her n family of sit son* and one 

o ■ a scholar 
mi mainly toward! the practical 
Mile of Sanskrit studies, nnd to tin' diu"ii;ion 
d of a knowledge of Indian re- 
ligion*. Tolling little interest in the oldeai 
pin*" of Indian literature, represented by 
-. lie devoted himself almost ex- 
■■■ the study of the later period, or 
laasical Sanskrit. The three texts 
■ i. published editions are Kali- 
iHim't plays • Vikramorvaii ' ( 1*1!' I and 
'gak.mtal, 1876), besides 

. nr Eiiisodu of Nalu ' 
n nil works relating to 
ni liidin, u ■ Sanskrit 
. thed a lourth 
IW6, mi ' J'isiclisli-Snnskrit Dic- 

" (1861). a 'Sanskrit Manual for 

■sit ion' (1883), and u large 'rJanskrit- 

Itouap-Willhtnie was also a successful 

■ : I 

' ."ink mi talii ' in prose and vi 

nxtb edition in 1*04, and hi* 

A ,;.,(, .ni ' (1875), which consists 

: ranalated specimens 

ippearod in a fourth and enlarged 

ire and after 

the beginni ■.:. iloden pro- 

ni Hind" 

other his 'l'rneticnl Hindustani Grammar ' 

Kvit since his iiiuugurnl leei m- 
nil 'Tlii' Study nl" Sauskiii in relation to 
Missionary Work in India' (1861 |, Mnnier- 
"Willimna was a frequent advocate ol the 
claims nf missionary enterprise in India. 
■ led linn i« davotc much of his 
time to writing hooks meant lo difliiee a 
knowledge of Indian raligiana in Kuglatid. 
Most of them have enjoyed a, considerable 
pnpularit v. Then works are entitled 'Hin- 
din-ii) ' [l-77i, ■ Modern India and the 
Indians ' (1878), ' HeligiousLife ami Thought 
in India' (1883), 'Buddhism' (1889), and 

[Personal kiMwIedgo nnd information sup- 
al ■ rs of the family, upoeUIlr Mr. 

C William--, iiu elder lirulllur uf Sir it. Moiiioi- 
Williams.] A. A, M. 

MONK-BRETTON, Bason. [See Don- 

(, John 

. l82o- 



(MIS- -1894), politician, born on 81 Bent. 
B only son of William Mousell 
id. 1822) of Ti-rvoe, co. Limerick, who 
married in 1810 Olivia, second daughter of 
Sir John Allen Johnson Walsh of Bally- 
kileavan, Queen's county. He was educated 
at Winchester College from 1626 to 1830, 
and among his schoolfellows were iioiindell 
I'tdiu, r (afterwards Esrl of Se! borne) and 
W ii. \Y;n-'L i>i.i]iu:\i„ Mr-imrinh. ii. ii. 
411). On 10 March 1831 he matriculated 
from Oriel College, Oxford, hut left, the 
university without Inking a degree. 

At the general election in August 1847 
Monaell was returned to parihuMntf fat the 
county of Limerick, mid represented it, as a 
andante liberal, without, a break until 
1874. He joined (he [loiumi eittholic church 
in 1850, und throughout his parliamentary 
career spoke lis tin' lending: representative of 
its hierarchy. As a resident and concilia- 
tory landlord he was popuhir with liin 
tenantry, nnd In the llou-e uf I'oinuinns he 

fromoted the cause of agricultural reform. 
lis prominence in parliament is shown by 
Ins -.-Ii ■■■■ii. in to propose tin- re-election nf 
Speaker Denison { Hantari, February 1886, 
pp. 4-7; Hkmsiin, Jh'nn/, pp, I8-J-".!. 

UobmU tilled nmny elliiis. He waa 
clerk nl" the ordnance from I So J until the 
nlliee wji- abolished in February 1867, ajad 
from that data to September 1867 he was 

? resident of the board of health. On 
8 Aug. I860 he was created a privy coun- 
I'illnr. I'Vir a few mouths (.March to .lulv he w ,i, vic-presidenl rf Hie board of 
trade, and from ISM to 1868 he acted an 

Montagu 188 Montagu 

paymaster-general. He served as under- bought his company in the 64th foot in No- 
secretary for the colonies from February vember 1822, exchanging into the 40th foot 
1868 to the close of 1870, and as postmaster- j on 7 Aug. 1823. In the same year he pro- 

feneral from January 1871 to November I ceeded to Van Diemens Land (now Tas- 
873. On 12 Jan. 1874 he was raised to I mania) with the lieutenant-governor, (Sir) 
the peerage ns Baron Emly. His name is I George Arthur [q.v.]» ftnc * on his arrival in 
identified with the abortive* scheme for the ' May 1824 was nominated his private secre- 
establishment of an Irish national uni- | tary. This post he retained until 1827, 

against Vaticanism met with his disapproval j constituted a separate colony, and Montagu 
(Purcei.l, --i. P. dp Litle, ii. r>4-65). ■ became clerk of the executive and legisU- 

With tin* rise of the land league Monsell i tive councils. This office he held until 1829, 

board of poor-law guardians. He had j the colonies, offered to reappoint him on 
been high sheriff of Limerick in 183o, and | condition of his quitting the army. He ac- 
he was made lord-lieutenant of the county j cordingly sold out on 10 Sept. and returned 
in 1871. He was also vice-chancellor of : to Van Diemen's Land. In 1832 he took 
the royal universitv of Ireland. | charge for a year of the colonial treasury, 

I^oril Kinly died at Tervoe on 20 April , and in 1834 he was nominated colonial secre- 
1 894, and was buried in the family vault at tary. In October 1836 Arthur relinquished 
Kilkeedv. He married, on 11 Aug. 1836, the" government to Sir John Franklin [q. v.], 
Anna Maria Charlotte Wyndham Quin, , under whom Montagu retained his office, 
only daughter of the second earl of Dun- , From February 1839 to March 1841 he 
raven. She died at St. Leonard's, Sussex, i was absent on a visit to England, and 
on 7 Jan. 18.V) without leaving issue. In on his return he found himself involved in 
18o7 he married Bertha, youngest daughter I differences with the governor. He behaved 
of the Comte de Montignv. She died on ' to Franklin in a somewhat arbitrary man- 
4 Nov. 1 Si K), leaving one .soil, who succeeded ■ ner, insisting on the dismissal of several 
to the peerage, and one daughter. . government ollicials, although the governor 

Monsell contributed to the * Home and was not convinced of their culpability. 
Foreign Review.' He was an intimate Finally Franklin reinstated one of these 
friend of Cardinal Newman (Purcell, ■. officers, and Montagu in consequence ceased 
Manniny, ii. 312-20), was closely associated to co-operate cordially in the work of ad- 
wit h Montalembert and his party, and was ministration, openly charged him withsuffer- 
4 an enthusiastic advocate of liheral catholi- ing his wife to influence his judgment, and 
cism and political reform.' He published . finally declared himself unable to rely upon 
in IStiO -A Lecture on the Koman ques- ! the accuracy of the governor's statements. 
tion.' j On 25 Jan. 1842 Montagu was suspended 

[Burke* IWw; Men of the Time. 13th | from office. He sought a reconciliation, and 
edit.; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Haines's Forty, rrankhn, in his despatch to Lord Stanley 
Years at the Post OmV«\ i. 218; lirnt. Mag. ! „«« STANLEY, EDWARD GEORGE GfiOFFRBT 
18.V>, i. »•_».»; Times, 21 April 189*. p. 7; Ann. ' Smith, fourteenth Eakl of Derbt], with 
Reir. 18i>4. p. K>9; Tablet, 28 April 1894. pp. I great gi'nerosity, spoke highly of his ability, 
66i-2 ; Wards W. G. Ward mid tin? Catholic ' and recommended him for other employment. 
Revival, pp. 143-4, 18 ">-fi. 205. 224-8. 243. Colonial sympathy was largely on Montagu's 
2158-70; Wards W. G. Ward amd the Oxford side, and Stanley" after investigation, came 
Movement, p. 5.1 W. l>. ('. I to tne conclusion that Franklin was not 

MONTAGU, JOHN (17U7-1S5:!), colo- I justified in his action, and that Montagu's 
nial official, born on 21 Aug. 171)7, was the dismissal was unmerited, 
youngest son of Lieutenant-colonel Edward In 1843 Montagu was nominated colonial 
Montagu ( 1755-1 709) [4. v."] He was edu- secretary at the Cape of Good Hope, a post 
cuted at Cheam in Surrev and at Parson's which he retained until death. lie arrived 
Careen, near Knight abridge. On 10 Feb. j at the Cape and entered on office on 23 April. 

: purchase, to Shortly after his arrival he submitted to the 

1*14 he was appointed, without 
an ensignry in the 52nd foot. lie was pre- 
sent at Waterloo, and on U Nov. 1815 was pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy by purchase; he also 

governor, Sir George Thomas Napier [q. v.l, 
a project for improving the financial condi- 
tion of the colony. Napier recognised its 

<rried into effect under : 
Montagu's superintendence. The Condition 
: iiium iliAle improve- 
nl time showed tie 
■nuiVittmtvut lo be permanent, lie ulso . 
■ ■■!' encouraging im- 
;..iil by ii system of hounties , 
sateen hundred with re wi re 
ato the colony in three years. 
During the government of Sir Peregrine 
MaitUnd [q. v.l, Montagu distinguished him- 
self by his able conduct of ilie financial 
hi- necessitated by the Kaffir 
war. H< also rendered the colony signal 
NtfTtoe by promoting the construction of 
rood road* inosi the mountain passes into 
the interior. Tiny were chiefly made by 
convict labour, and Montagu was successful 
in introducing a new system, by which the 
of the criminals was much im- 
I in' road carried over Cradock's 
Banted Montagu i'uss, and is now 
part of the great trunk bin; between the 
wi»t.-ra and eastern districts. The scene of 
another great engineering feat nt Bain's 
he mountain range which separates 
Worcester and the district,' beyond from 
.» is designated Montagu 

On the outbreak of I ha Kaffir war in De- 
cember IBoO the governor, Sir Harry George 
YVaheiyn Smith fq. v.l was besieged in Fori 
Vox. Montagu eserted himself to the utmost 
lo raise levies, and rendered the governor 
a.«aistance of the greatest importance, On 
'2 May lf*61 he was compelled to leave Cape 
ring 10 ill-health brought on by 
overwork. He died in London on 4 Nov. 
L8S8, and was burled in B romp ton cemetery 
In April I -UK In- married Jessy, 
ol tf&jor-general Edward Vaughan 
Montagu's transfer from Tas- 
mania to the Cape seriously injured his 
private fortune. He left his family im- 
. and mii 23 Oct 1864 bis wife 
received n civil-list pension of 300/. 

[Newman's Hiogr. Memoir of Jahn Montagu 
(with pottlait), 18*5; Penton's Hiat. of Tas- 
mania, 18S4 pp. 134. 119-40, 142, l08-»; 
FraaUin'i Narrative or some Passages in the 
Hhtan of Van Dioman'a Laud daring the Last 
Three Years of Sir Joha Franklin -- 
lion, privately printod, 184S; Weal's Hist, of 
Tasmania, iymnewton. I8S2, i. J2fl-7 ; TVal's 
i!i Africa] E.I. C. 


YNIiHAM, second baronet , : 

MhItm civil servant, was the eldest son of 

bam Montgomery (d. 

1680). Tii* fatberserved in India for many 

nta* a cavalry officer, commanding the 

.iil'- bodyguard during a part 
of the time when 1 Ik-hard Colley (Marquis 
"Wellesleyl [o, v. waa jovwnot-generaJ j bi 

was created a baronet on :i i ),- 

married Sarah Mercer (d. 1664), danghtei of 
l.i-l,.- rjrOTt of Grove Hall, no. Donegal. 
The Montgomery finally wen h branch of 

h Monlgomeries, of whom the 
Earl nf Rglinloou i- the head, and had 
settled in Ireland in co. Donegal. 

The subject of tlii- :i ■■ 
Eton and at the East India College, ll;iile\. 
burv. to which institution he was nominated 
as a student on 1 Aug. 1881. He did not, 
however, go out to India until lSl'.'i, having 
been permitted to leave Hailevbury early in 
189S rm the purpose of serving us mmtrmti 

firivate secretary on theMalr'of Lm-ii \\ elli-- 
sy.wbo was at that time lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland There seem* at onetime to have been 
an intention that the young -indent should 
give up his Indian writership and it — : - 
Lord Wellesley's staff, M 


chance of the 

latter being able to provide for him in the 
|pnblii' >i r\ ice in Ihiiibind ; but on the ad- 
vice of Sir .loliu Malcolm [q. v.], a friend of 
his father, who went over to Dublin for the 
purpose of combating the idea, the intention 
was abandoned, and early in 1824 Mont- 
gomery returned to Ilaileyburv, passing 
through college at the end of that year. 

In 1825 he proceeded to India, reaching 
Madras on 3 Nov. In those days it was the 
custom for the young civil servants to re- 
main for two years at the presidency town, 
prosecuting their studies in the native lan- 
guages. Montgomery was therefore not ap- 
pointed to the public service until 16 Jan. 
1827, when he was gazetted assistant to the 
principal collector and magistral'- of Net 
lore. On 31 Jan. 1830 lie succeeded his father 
assecoud baronet. He subsequently served 
in various grades of the revenue department 
in the districts of Tunjore, Salem, Tinne- 
velly, and IJellary, completing his revenue 
service in the provinces a* collector of Tan- 
jore. In all these districts he had 
mark as an able and csreful administrator, 
and the result was that in 1843 he was sent 
on a special commission to the Kiijuhmundry 
(now colled the Codiiiery'i district to inquire 
into the causes of its impoverished condition 
and to suggest a remedy. It was upon his re- 
commendation, based upon his experience in 
Tanjore, that Captain (afterwards Sir Ar- 
thur) Cotton [q. v. Suppl.] was deputed to 
Kajabmundry to investigate the question of 
utilising the water.- of the Godarery for the 
purpose of irrigating thedelt a of that river, as 
had been done in Tanjore and Trictiinopnlv in 
thecase of the Caverv and Colero 




Montgomery's report and recommenda- 
tions on the condition of the Rajahmundry 
district elicited high commendation from 
the government of Madras, and two years 
later he was selected by the Marquis of 
Tweeddale [see George Hay, eighth Mar- 
quis of Tweeddale] to fill a vacancy in the 
government secretariat. He served as secre- 
tary to government in the revenue and 
public works departments until 1850, when 
he was promoted to the chief secretaryship. 
In 1855 he was appointed by the court of 
directors a member of the governor's council, 
which post he held until 1857, when, his 
health failing, he returned to England, and 
in the course of that year resigned his 
appointment and retired from the Indian 
civil service. In the following year, on 
the establishment of the council of India 
in London, Montgomery was appointed to 
be one of the first members of the new coun- 
cil, and this position he retained until 1876, 
when he finally retired from official life. 
On the occasion of his retirement he was 
appointed, at the recommendation of the 
Marquis of Salisbury, then secretarv of state 
for India, to be a member of the privy coun- 
cil, an honour which is very rarely conferred 
upon Indian civil servants. 

Montgomery's official career was eminently 
successful. lie was not a brilliant man, 
but he was an extremely useful public 
servant. As a very young man he was 
remarked for the carefulness and accuracy 
of his work. "When he became the head of a 
district, he was regarded as one of the ablest 
district officers in the presidency to which he 
belonged. He certainly had the advantage 
of possessing influential friends. Lord Wel- 
lestey had formed a high opinion of him 
when In 1 worked in Dublin in the lord- 
lieutenant's private office, and did not fail 
to exert his influence on his behalf. Sir 
John Malcolm was also a kind friend to him. 
But he fully justified their recommendations. 
By his report upon the Rajahmundry dis- 
trict, and dv the recommendations which he 
made for improving its condition, he ren- 
dered a service to the state, the benefits of 
which still remain. In the higher posts 
which he subsequently filled in Madras, as 
secretary and chief secretary to government 
and member of council, he fully maintained 
his previous reputation. By the successive 
governors under whom he served in the 
secretariat and in council, the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, Sir nenry Pottinger, and Lord 
Harris, he was trusted as a wise and con- 
scientious adviser. During his long service 
in the Indian council, extending over 
eighteen years, he was highly esteemed | 

both by successive secretaries of state and by 
his colleagues in the council. His minutes, 
when he found himself called upon to dis- 
sent from the decisions of the secretary of 
state or of a majority of the council, were 
models of independent but courteous 
criticism. He retained to the last a keen 
interest in the presidency in which the 
whole of his Indian service had been 
passed. Indeed, it has been sometimes 
thought that he carried beyond due limits 
his advocacy of the claims of his old presi- 
dency, as in the case of the Madras harbour 
project, which was sanctioned by the 
India office, mainly at his instance, but has 
been a heavy burden upon the Indian 
revenues without compensating results. On 
political questions concerning the south of 
India he was a high authority. When the na- 
wab of the Carnatic died in 1858, Montgomery 
supported Lord Harris in advocating the ex- 
tinction of the titular nawabship as a mis- 
chievous remnant of a state of things which, 
for political reasons, it was inexpedient to 
maintain. But he was not opposed in prin- 
ciple to the maintenance of native dynasties. 
In 1863 he wrote a cogent minute dissenting 
from the refusal of the secretary of state in 
council to restore to the rajah of Mysore the 
administrations of the territories of that 
state. The policy which on this occasion 
Montgomery opposed had been supported 
by two successive governors-general, the 
Marquis of Dalhousie and Earl Canning, 
but was subsequently reversed. 

Montgomery died suddenly in London on 
24 June 1878. In appearance he was sin- 
gularly handsome, although small in stature. 
In manner he was invariably courteous, 
and his courtesy was the outcome of a kindly 
nature. He possessed in a conspicuous 
degree the rare virtue of readiness to admit 
error when he found that he had misjudged 
another. He married, on 3 March 1827, 
Leonora, daughter of General Richard Pigot, 
who survived him, dying on 16 June 1889. 
He left no children, and was succeeded as 
third baronet by his brother, Admiral Sir 
Alexander Leslie Montgomery (1807-1888) 

[Personal knowledge, from 1 846 to Sir Henry's 
death in 1878 ; private papers, lent by the pre- 
sent baronet, Sir Hugh Montgomery, including 
letters from tho Marquis Wellesley, from the 
eighth Marquis of Tweeddale, from the first 
Sir Henry Pottinger, and from the late Lord 
Harris ; official papers and parliamentary re- 
turns at the India Office.] A. J. A. 

MOON, WILLIAM (1818-1894), in- 
ventor of the embossed type known as 
Moon's type for the blind, was descended 
from an old Sussex family seated at Bother- 

; but be was born at Horseraouden, 

i i Honiemonden, 
I Funnel! Moon, llurinj 

d In* parents mnored bo Hrighti 

r r some time ui Horse- 
ninnd™. At tlii? age of four be lost the 
■ :■:■■! fetw and 
affected, He 
was educated in London, and when about 
J i.-«ra old lie settled at Brighton 
wuh hi* widowed mother, lis wm stu dy- 
ing with the intention of Caking holy orders : 
;iplit of the remaining eye gra- 
dually felled, in ipitfl of several surgical 
operation •>. In 1840 he became totally blind, 
lie hud pr--viourly made himself acquainted 
with variipui; aystemi of embossed type) and 
now began to teach several blind children, 
who were formed with tome deaf mutes into 
a d*T school in Egremoul Place, Brighton. 
In ffi-re's system [see Fbbre, Jam lis 
lUtLEi ■":, sad 1 1i-- otaen previously need 

KLearliinit the blind, contractions are 
■<■•] ; Moon, after some 
' teaching, judged this system to be too 
; ..- vast majority of blind 
ne, especially the aged, and accordingly 
constructed a system of his own in 1*45. 
■ed simplified forms of the Koman 
, auait entirely diaearding contrac- 
.: .id after he had constructed his 
alphabet he found that all tbe twenty-six 
letters are ouly nine placed in varying poai- 
Bv the help of friends iiii-T""!--] in 
the blind, type was procured, and Moon 
began a monthly magazine. His first pub- 
i he Last Days of Polycaq>, ap- 
peared on 1 June 1 847 ; ' The Last Hours of 
and devotional works followed. 
»U h* began to prepare the entire Bible, 

g the monthly issues for a time. 

uppty of type was insufficient for so 

mi undertaking, he tried stereo- 

after much experimenting suc- 

■ invention of a process by which 

■ ii dice a satisfactory plate, at less 

Mil of the ordinary price. He 

it iii- process into use in September 1848, 

and the itereotyper then engaged was em- 

■ ilie work till Mixing death, and 

01). The publications have always 

in- deficiency 

■is- from tbe 

■ i be greater 

. il imprinted, a formal 

Was published, with n defence of 

syetmn agsintl objector*, who had 

ml bulk of his publica- 

iri.i and other 

upon con tractions com- 

plicated the notation so far that tbe books 
i useless to the majority of the blind, 
loon extended his system to foreign lan- 
guages, beginning with Irish and Chinese; 
the principal languages of Europe were next 
employed, and before Li* death tin LanPi 
Prayer or some other portion of Scripture 
was embossed in 471! languages and dialects, 
for nil nf whirl] the uriginul nine chji fin-t.. r .J 
are found sufficient. The * ox -ph -uniting' 
succession of lines is adopted. Tbe works 
printed in foreign languages are almost en- 
(in-ly poAMna of the Bible; in English a 
large selection is available, including very 
many devotional works, some scientific trea- 
tises, and selections from Shakespeare, Mil- 
ton, Burns, Scott, Longfellow, and other 
standard authors. 

Moon met with a girl born blind, who 
supposed that horses stood upright and 
walked with two legs ; this suggested to 
him embossed' Pictures for the Blind,' teach- 
ing them by the touch to realise the forms 
of common objects. He also issued em- 
bossed diagrams for Euclid, music, and 
maps, both geographical mid astronomical. 
He was made a fellow -if the Royal Geogra- 
phical Seoielv in 1 s.'ij, i, fellow nf tin! Soe.ietv 
of Arts in 1859, and in 1871 the university 
of Philadelphia created him LL.D. He 

warmly advocated home teaching societies 
for the blind, which by his eflarts were 
founded in many places; and lending libra- 
ries of Moon's hooks exist in eighty towns of 
the United Kingdom, in Paris. Turin, and 
various cities of tbe United States and 
the British colonies. In furtherance of these 
objects he often travelled through Scotland, 
Ireland, and the continent ; in 1883 he visited 
ili.' United States, lie received great help, 
especially in the matter of lending libraries, 
from Sir Charles Lowtker, with whom he 
became intimate in 1836, and who remained 
hia closest friend, dying onlv a few days 
after him. On 4 Sept. I860 Sir Charles laid 
the foundation-stone of a new building at 
UUQnsen'i Road, near the Brighton rail- 
way station; in the*e premises, since con- 
sii.ii-riblv enlarged, the entire production of 
the embossed books is still carried on. 

In 1885 Moon spent several months in 
Sweden. As the jubilee of his work ap- 

E reached, a movement, for a testimonial to 
im was originated in Scotland ; and on 
16 April 181)0 he was presented with a 
chiming clock, purse of L'fiO/., and an illu- 
minated address. His devotion to evange- 
listic work, of which t he publishing was only 
a portion, brought <>nn slight paralytic stroke 
in the autumn of 189l', after which his ac- 
tivity was nee easarily lessened. He died and- 




denly on 10 Oct. 1894, and was buried on 
the 15th in the extramural cemetery at 
Brighton, many of his blind pupils attending 
the funeral and singing over the grave. 
Some years before his death he had made 
over the freehold site of his premises to 
trustees for the continuance of his work in 
publishing embossed books for the blind. 

Moon was twice married — in 1848 to Mary 
Ann Caudle, daughter of a Brighton sur- 
geon, who died in 1804; and in 1866 to 
Anna Maria Elsdale, a granddaughter of 
William Leeves [q. v.], the composer of 
* Auid Robin Gray. 1 By the first marriage 
he had a son, who was of great assistance to 
him in arranging his types to foreign lan- 
guages, and is now a physician in Phila- 
delphia; and a daughter, who now super- 
intends the undertaking that Moon inaugu- 

Moon wrote : 1. ' A Memoir of Harriet 
Pollard, Blind Vocalist,' 1860. 2. ' Blind- 
ness, its Consequences and Ameliorations/ 
1868. 3. « Light for the Blind/ 1873. He 
composed a set of twelve tunes to devotional 
poetry, which were printed both in his em- 
bossed type and in ordinary music notation. 

[Rutherford's William Moon and his Work 
for the Blind. 1898 (with portraits); Brighton 
Herald, 13 and 20 Oct. 1894; Illustrated Lon- 
don News, 20 Oct. 1894 (with portrait) ; Record, 
3 June 1859 ; information from Miss Moon, who ! 
has kindly revised this article.] H. D. j 

MOORE, HENRY (1831-1896), marine 
painter, born at York on 7 March 1831, was 
the second son of the portrait painter, Wil- 
liam Moore (1790-1851) [q. v.], by his second 
wife Sarah Collingham, and the teuth 
child and ninth son of the whole family 
of fourteen. Albert Joseph Moore [q. v.] 
was his brother. Henry was educated at 
York and was taught painting by his father. 
He entered the Royal Academy schools in 
1853, and exhibited his first picture, 'Glen 
Clunie, Braemar/ at the Royal Academy in 
the same year. He was a constant exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy from that time 
onwards. He exhibited at the Portland 
Gallery from 1856 to 1860, and at the 
British Institution from 1855 to 1865. It 
was also in 1855 that he sent the first of 
many contributions to the gallery of the 
Society of British Artists in Suffolk Street. 
He was a member of that society from 1867 
to 1875. He was also a constant contri- 
butor, both in oils and water-colours, to the 
Dudley Gallery from 1865 to 1882. He 
became an associate of the Old Water-colour 
Society in 1876, and a full member in 1880. 
He contributed in later years to the Grosvenor 

Gallery and the New Gallery. He was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy 
on 4 June 1885, and an academician on 
4 May 1893. 

Almost all his early pictures were land- 
scapes, painted in many parts of England, 
or, about 1856, in Switzerland. It was 
towards 1870 that he began to devote him- 
self almost exclusively to the marine subjects 
in which the best work of his maturity was 
done. He had a profound and scientific 
knowledge of wave-form, acquired at the 
cost of exposure in all weathers, and he was 
generally content to paint the sea itself with- 
out introducing ships or human figures. He 
made his studies chiefly in the English 
Channel. He was a fine colourist, and held 
the foremost rank among English marine 
painters of his day. Among the most re- 
markable of his Academy pictures are * A 
White Calm' (1858), 'The Launch of the 
Lifeboat' (1876), now in the Walker Art 
Gallery, Liverpool, ' Cat's-paws off the Land,' 
which was bought out of the funds of the 
Chantrey Bequest in 1885, and is now nt 
Millbank, < The Clearness after Rain ' (1887), 
which won for the painter the grand prix 
and legion of honour at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1889, ' A Breezy Day in the Channel 1 
( 1888), < Shine and Shower' (1889), « Summer 
at Sea ' (1 893), and < Britannia's Realm.' A n 
exhibition of ninety pictures by Moore, en- 
titled ' Afloat and Ashore,' was held by the 
Fine Art Society in 1 887. The total number 
of pictures exhibited by Moore was not far 
short of six hundred. Shortly before hi* 
death an exhibition was held at York of the 
works of the father, William Moore, and his 
five artist sons, Edwin, William (still living), 
John Collingham, Henry, and Albert Joseph. 

Moore lived for many years at Hampstesd, 
but died at Margate on 22 June 1895. He 
married in 1860 Mary {d. 1890), daughter of 
Itobert Bollans of York. He had two daugh- 
ters by this marriage. 

[Daily Graphic, 24 June 1895; Times, 
24 June 1895: Athenaeum, 29 June 189o; 
private information.] C. D. 

1886), chairman of Liverpool Docks. [See 

(1820-1897), first baronet, lawyer and poli- 
tician, was eldest son of 31 organ Morgan, for 
thirtv-one years vicar of Conway, Carnar- 
vonshire, by Fanny Nonnen, daughter of 
John Nonnen of Liseberg, Gothenburg, who 
was descended on the mother's side from the 
Huguenot family of De Lorent. His younger 
brother was John Edward Morgan, M.D., 

u rofe«*or or medicine 

Owens Coll 

■ Arthur 


■ ■■ 

' : '. ■■■. 

: Gothenburg in Sweden cm 

. ..luring the temporary occn- 
v by his foth.-r of the poet of chaplain 

- tf.m»> *t the Friars' school, Hingor, he 
Under Ur. Keu- 
«■■■■ KksmjuV. BlX/AHIV Hall 1 , who 

it' Uiui t.hut In- hod new fen 

■ d itut of undigested in-' il tended him 

ridge sad the church, but he pre - 

■ :i.t and matriculated I 

i:,:-n,':l :■■ 

achool boj 

Jttruordinarv feat of obtuin- 

■ at Oxford 

1 March 1844), afterwards going bark 

again to school. In the following iniiumn 

for a scholarship at Ballioli He 

i* awarded an exhibition, the two aoholar- 

won by Henry John Stephen 

■Sander Grant (1820- 

. and he then went into reei- 

i^Jti he wuproximt aeetwat for 

■.- Ireland scholarship, and in the pstne 

FOB I hi' Newuigate prixu for Eng- 

ili.. tabjed Being ' Settlers in 

When be became uuder-secre- 

I lUr the colonies ill 1SH5, (his poem 

was republished bj the * Melbourne Argus,' 
■ d ■ onstaemble popularity in Aus- 
tralia. In IM7 he minuted m i scholar to 

■. ud in.iiii that college obtained 

.ii fh.< si-lion] itf/itrr/p humniwirex 

■ m nt' the same year, 

graduating L!.A. in 1848, He obtained the 

chancellor" English essay prize in 1850 

opon the the in i- 'The Ancient* and Moderns 

compared in regard to the Administration 

■towel! civil 

■-i(y l.'nll''se. I!'' "l.i- 

liip in 1851, 

it-- bad now determined upon the bar as 

7t ed a studunt 
Lincoln IBM. While 

hie principal friend was (Sir) Alex- 
tlt, Al 'li- dinner at if alii ol on 


i. in respond- 
iiiwh'ilgfd the debt he 

■ ■ ■ ■'■■■ ■:■■ 

Jims, Snpp ■ .it residence 

a* civil law fellow at tni versify he took pri- 


i' pupils, aiming them Viscount i'eel, Sir 
!•:. Grunt. Duff, and Lord- 
moat intimate friends I 

' Puff, and Lord-justice Chitty. 



which was miirked by vehement, religious 

I controversies, wan the opponents of t.rac- 

tariamsni, snob u Arthur IVnrhvn Stanley 

'). v. . William Foang Betlat [ij. v.], and 

Arthur Hugh Ctougn [fl. r.l lie figures in 
i '!■■ uh'i poem 'The ilothii- ' U Lindsay. 

| In 1851 Morgan left Oxford. Thepresent 
arr:hl>i»hop of I 'niil-rlnirv had ''llcred him the 

I vice-presidency of Kueller Hull, a training 
college for teachers then recently established 
at Twickenham, but he was resolutely bent 
upon the bar, and entered as a pupil in the 
chamber!! of equity counsel in Lincoln's Inn. 

| Meanwhile he contributed political leading 
articles lo the ' Horning Chronicle,' and 
aftiT rho stalf <>f thai n-'w.<paper founded 
the ' Saturday Rerriew' he wrote very occa- 
sionally for tin- n.-iv periodical. He was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 6 June 
1868, and practised as an equity draughts- 
man and conveyancer. He rapidly acquired 
ii prm.-lir.-t>, and received a number of pupila 
to read in bis chambers, among them Mr. 
Justice Itvrne, Sir 0. P. Ilbert, and Sir 
Robert Herbert. In IS68 he published 
'Chancery Acts and Orders, being a Collec- 
tion of Statutes and General Orders re- 
cently passed.' This, with slight variations 
in the title, ran through six editions, the 
second being published in lStiO, and the 
hist la 1885. He also became one of the 
four joint editors of ' the New Reports,' 
which contained cases decided in the courts 
of equity and common law between Novem- 
ber U&2 and August 1«65, the first of the 
si\ volumes appearing in March 1863. 

I Among the reporters iisaoeiali'd with him in 
this series wera Lord -chancel lor Herschell, 

i the speaker of the llyuse nl' Commons (the 

i Right IInn.W.C.Gully) T LordDavey,Lord- 
justiee Bowen, Lord-justice Rigbv, and 

In 18(!1 Mnrgan published a sympathetic 
lecture on the Italian revolution of 1860, 
He had already begun his political career by 

' holding meetings in his chambers at Lin- 
coln's Inn for the promotion of church dis- 
establishment ami the abolition of university 
tests. Although a clergyman's son, he had 
been led to form opinions unfavourable to 
the establishment in consequence of abuses 
witnessed by him in the Welch church. 

| He became intimate with Edward Miall 
'i[. v.i, the loader of the militant noncon- 
formists. His opinions on these subjects 
and his nationality designated him lor a 

I Welsh seat in parliament, and in I860 h* 

I accepted an invitation to stand for Carnarvon 




borough, but withdrew in order to avoid 
division in the liberal party. A similar in- 
cident took place in 1867 in connection with 
Denbigh borough. In 1868, on MialTs re- 
commendation, he was invited to stand for 
Denbighshire. He was returned as junior 
colleague to Sir Watkin Williams Wynn on 
24 Nov. 1868. His maiden speech, deli- 
vered on 15 March 1869, was in support of 
the second reading of the university tests 
abolition bill. It struck the attention of 
Bright, and led to a friendship maintained 
throughout the rest of his life. On 6 July 
Osborne Morgan seconded Henry Richard s 
resolution upon the subject of evictions of 
liberal tenants by Welsh landlords during 
the recent elections. During this session too 
he first addressed himself to a question which 
long occupied his energies, that of the law 
affecting married women's property (14 April 
1869), and he supported by a speech the 
second reading of §ir Wilfrid Lawson's per- 
missive prohibitory liquor bill (12 May). 
On 10 Feb. 1870 he first introduced the 
measure with which his name was long asso- 
ciated, the burials bill permitting any Chris- 
tian service in a parish churchyard, and on 
the same day he obtained the leave of the 
house to introduce the places of worship (sites) 
bill, facilitating the acquisition of land for 
religious purposes. From this bill, as intro- 
duced in 1870, W. E. Forster borrowed the 
clauses of the Elementary Education Act of 
that year empowering school boards to 
acquire land compulsorily. The places of 
worship (sites) bill did not become law 
till 1873. In 1871 and 1872 he seconded 
Sir Koundell Palmer's resolutions in favour 
of the creation of a general school of law, 
which led to the institution of examina- 
tions by the inns of court before calling 
students of law to the bar. He had been 
appointed a queen's counsel on 23 June 
1869, and elected a bencher of Lincoln's Inn 
in the Michaelmas term following. In 1890 
he became treasurer. His profession led 
him to take much interest in the reform of 
the land laws. During the session of 1878 
he acted as chairman of the select committee 
on land titles and transfer, and drafted 
its report dated 24 June 1879. ne also 
contributed an article upon the same subject 
to the * Fortnightly Keview* for December 
1879, and in 1 880 reprinted it as a pamphlet 
under the title * Land Law Reform in Eng- 
land.' On all topics directly associated with 
law, such as the bills for the reconstitution 
of the courts of judicature (1873 and 1875), 
he frequently addressed the house. He sup- 
ported the measure for the reform of the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge (1877), 

Mr. (now Sir George) Trevelyan's resolution 
for the extension of the suffrage to the 
counties (1879 J, and the Welsh Sunday 
closing bill, which became law in 1681. 
For ten successive sessions he introduced 
the burials bill, sometimes carrying it 
through the House of Commons by consider- 
able majorities, but it was not finally passed 
by the House of Lords till 1880. 

On the accession of Gladstone to power 
in that year Osborne Morgan became a 
member of the ministry ao judge-tdyoctto- 
general, and retired from the bar. He was 
also nominated a privy councillor. Upon 
the introduction by him on 28 March 1881 
of the annual army discipline &c. bill, he 
provided for the abolition of the punishment 
of flogging, and carried it in spite of a strong 
opposition. He had sole charge of the 
married women's property bill, 1882, a 
bill which, bristling with legal difficulties, 
required exceptionally skilful handling in 
its passage through the House of Commons. 
It became law the same session. He took 
a warm interest in Welsh intermediate and 
higher education. On 14 March 1884 he 
supported by a speech Mr. (now Lord) 
Rendel's motion in favour of placing Aber- 
ystwyth College, ' in respect of state recogni- 
tion and support, on an equal footing with 
the colleges at Cardiff and Bangor.' He 
was anxious to improve the education of 
women, and took part in the foundation of 
a women's hostel at Banpor College. An 
' Osborne Morgan exhibition' was founded 
in the University College of North Wales 
after his death to commemorate his services. 
After the redistribution of the constitu- 
encies in 1885 Osborne Morgan, as sitting 
member, had the natural right of choice 
between East and West Denbighshire. West 
Denbighshire was held to be a safe liberal 
seat, whereas East Denbighshire was the 
centre of the influence of the Wynn family. 
With characteristic courage and self-sacrifice 
he chose the constituency which no liberal 
but himself could hope to contest with any 
prospect of success. In the result he won 
the election by 393 votes, and the Wynn 
family was deposed from the representation 
of the county for the first time for 182 
years. This service was rewarded, on 
Gladstone's accession to office in February 
1 886, by the appointment of Osborne Morgan 
as parliamentary under-secretary for the 
colonies. As his chief, Lord Granville, sat 
in the House of Lords, the labour of repre- 
senting the department in parliament chiefly 
fell upon Osborne Morgan. His tenure of 
office lasted only six months, but it was 
marked by exceptional activity. The distress 

■ med nl _ . 

■ by Welsh settlers ii 

: igrants to 

of the emi- 

i-'ful govem- 

A glance at the index to 

ii shows the number 

: ions connected with 

it department which engaged bis attention. 

and a stubborn 

with his 

i, Sir \V. \V. Wynn, which 

n by the narrow majo- 

is(7Jnly . 

s, from which ho never quite 

apparently inexhaus- 

rgy showed it. self throughout the 

I . 

:,,n. ..f I.w9-!.e, nod in 

was alternately 

Minding committees on 

i trade. 

uly I8SS be afiriiii won Fast Debigh- 
■. this timr by the siilistantinl majority 
former opponent. But he 

! I i be I;. tone's oiler lit" a 

iiheleas, his activity in the 

- -}.eeinlly on alt matters 

M he wu unanimously 

leader of the Welsh party. He 

1 -07, nod wis buried in 

: churchyard of Llsntysilio near Llau- 

lc appearance, a weel 

death, was at an eistedfodd Hi 

It, at which he delivered a speech on the 

upon character. 

h-,rri" Morgan was. phvsienllv as well 

satally, a Celt. He had a Celt's ardent 

^position- Hie Newdigate 

, bin passion for Tennyson's verse, and 

ibined to fasten upon 

a at Oxford the name of ' the poet.' His 

■ develop VVeluii education was 

tofi largeranibition of endowing Wales 

OificationB to stand by the side 

' 'ii in pint pnrtner ' as a nationality 

meter and aims of its own. 

pathiee threw him, at the 

r in parliament, into the 

■.. iii. and at its 

.. tab) ihni of bub home rule. Vet he 

nnedy'a pupils, i Isborne 

npouttons published in 
n Corolla,' 1890, pp. 76, 363. 

He retained to the last his Copdoese lot bm 

school, of which be became a governor, and 
for classical literature, and in the year of his 
dim tli (l-!'7i published, with a dedication to 
GllBdltOBSp n translation into English hexa- 
meter VMM, perhaps a reminiscence of 
Clougli's influence, of the ' Eclogues of 
Virgil, 'which was very favourably received. 
He contributed various articles on current 
topics to the ' Contemporary,' ' Fortnightly,' 
aud 'Nineteenth Century Reviews. He 
was no excellent raconteur and brilliant 
conversationalist. He married in 1856 
Emily, daughter of Leopold Reus 
Lancashire, who survives him. He left uo 

A portrait is in the possession of his 
widow, painted by Edgar Hanley and exhi- 
bited at the Royal Academy in 1882. Two 
engraved portraits wen' [mulished bv Morris 
& Co. in 1860 and 1897 respectively. 

[fli^t'irk-ii! Hi h'i -I it i if the University of Ox- 
ford, 1888; Foster's Alumni Oxotitensos. 1716- 
1888; Lincoln's Inn Admissions, ISM; Han- 
sard's Parliamentary Dcbatas ; Daily News and 
Manchester Guardian, 27 Aug. 1897 ; Professor 
Lewis Campbell ' On some Liber il Movement* 
of the last Half Century ' in the Fortnightly 
It [view fur M:m-h IMS; private in Fot matin n.]" 
I. 3. L. 


1800), orientalist and lawyer, horn in 1615, 
second son of George Morley of the Inner 
Temple, distinguished himself in 1888 liv 
disenveringa EBUmngmaatucript of Itnshldu- 
dln Jftm'ia Tawartkh (see Elliot's History 
of India, iii. 10, and K. A.S.J. IV ls:l!>, vi. 
orig.ser.) He entered the Middle Temple on 
U .l;,h. 1*38, was called to the bar in 1810 
and in 1846, and in 1849-50 published a 
valuable digest of cases decided in the 
Supreme Courts of India (London, 2 vols. 
Sn : new "t vol. i. iiiilv, 1852), He was 
a trustee of the Royal Asiatic Society, nnd 
during the last year'of hi- life also librarian ; 
he published a 'Catalogue of the Historical 
Manuscripts in the Arabic and Persian Lan- 
guages' in the possession of the society 
(London, I8S4,8vo). In 19.56 he published 
a splendid folio, being a description of a 
plnnisphi'ric astrolabe ™n>t meted for Shah 
Sultan Husain Rafavl. He also edited in 
1848, for the Society f. >r publishing Oriental 
kbwarid'g 'History of the Ata- 
beks of Syria and IVrsin,' with a description 
of Atahetc coins hy William .Sandys Van* 
[q. v.l 

His latter days were clouded bv domeatls 
distress, owing to the death of his wife. He 
died at 35 llrompton Squnre, London, on 
21 May I860. 





[Brit.- Mus. Cat. ; Royal Asiatic Society's 
Journal, vol. xviii. orig. ser. vi. ; Annual Report 
of May 1861, and Proceedings of the Numis- 
matic Society of 21 June 1860; Numismatic 
Chronicle, zx. 34 ; Boase's Modern English Bio- 
graphy.] H. B-e. 

MORRIS, RICHARD (1833-1894),Eng- 
lish scholar and philologist, was born at Ber- 
mondsey on 8 Sept. 1 833, of Welsh paren- 
tage. He was trained for an elementary 
schoolmaster at St. John's College, Battersea, 
but his education was for the most part self- 
acquired. In 1869 he was appointed Win- 
chester lecturer on English language and 
literature in King's College school, in 1871 
he was ordained, and served for two years 
as curate of Christ Church, Camberwell. 
From 1875 to 1888 he was head-master of 
the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys at 
Wood Qreen, and afterwards for a short 
time master of the old grammar school of 
Dedham in Essex. His diploma of LL.D. 
came from Lambeth, being given him in 
1870 by Archbishop Tait. The university 
of Oxford conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of M. A. on 28 May 1874. 

As early as 1857 Morris showed the bent 
of his mind by publishing a little book on 

* The Etymology of Local Names.' He was 
one of the first to join as an active member 
the Chaucer, Early English, and Philological 
societies, founded by his lifelong friend, 
Dr. F. J. Furni vull. None of his colleagues 
surpassed him in the devotion which he ex- 
pended upon editing the oldest remains of 
our national literature from the original 
manuscript sources, on the same scientific 

firinciples as adopted by classical scholars, 
let ween 18H2 and 1880 he brought out no 
less than twelve volumes for the Early Eng- 
lish Text Society, of which may be specially 
mentioned three series of * Homilies' (1808 
seq.) and two of ' Alliterative Poems' (1864). 
In 1866 he edited Chaucer for the ' Aldine 
Poets' (2nd edit. 1891). This was the first 
edition to be based upon manuscripts since 
that of Thomas Tvrwhitt [q. v.], and re- 
mained the standard one until it was super- 
seded by Professor Skeat's edition (1894-7). 
In 1869 he edited Spenser for (Macmillan 8 
4 Globe ' edition, again using manuscripts as 
well as the original editions. In 1867 he 
published at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 

* Specimens of Early English,' which has 
been augmented in subsequent editions by 
Professor Skeat. These are books for scholars 
and students. But Morris's long experience 
as a schoolmaster induced him to undertake 
a series of educational works, which have 
contributed largely to place the teaching of 
English upon a sound basis. The first of 

these was ' Historical Outlines of English 
Accidence' (1872), which, after passing 
through some twenty editions, was thoroughly 
revised after his death by Mr. Henry Brad- 
ley and Dr. L. Kellner. Two years later 
(1874) he brought out ' Elementary Lessons 
in Historical English Grammar;' and in 
the same year a pnmer of ' English Gram- 
mar.' From both of these tens of thousands 
of boys and girls have learnt their earliest 
knowledge of their own tongue, which they 
will never need to unlearn. 

Scarcely had Morris struck out this remu- 
nerative line of authorship when he delibe- 
rately turned aside to devote the remainder 
of his life to what is probably the least 
appreciated of all the branches of philology 
— the study of Pali, the sacred language of 
Buddhism. In this case the stimulus came 
from his intimacy with Professor Rhys 
Davids, the founder of the Pali Text Society. 
For that society he edited, between 1882 
and 1888, four texts, being more than any 
other contributor down to that time. But 
he did not confine himself to editing. His 
familiarity with the development of early 
English caused him to take a special inte- 
rest in the corresponding position of Pali, 
as standing midway between the ancient 
Sanskrit and the modern vernaculars, and 
as branching out into various dialects known 
as Prakrits. These relations of Pali he 
expounded in a series of letters to the 
' Academy,' which are valuable not only for 
their lexicographical facts, but also as illus- 
trating the historical growth of the languages 
of India. The very last work he was able 
to complete was a paper on this subject, 
read before the International Congress of 
Orientalists in London in September 1892. 
Unfortunately he could not himself correct 
the proofs of this paper as printed in the 
' Transactions.' 

For the last two years of his life Morris 
was prostrated by an incurable and dis- 
tressing illness, which he bore with charac- 
teristic fortitude, preserving his cheerfulness 
and his love of a good story to the last. 
He retired to the railway-side hamlet of 
Harold Wood in Essex, and there he died 
on 12 May 1894. He was buried at Horn- 
church, within which parish Harold Wood 
is included. In 1893 Gladstone had con- 
ferred upon him a pension of 150/. on the 
civil list ; and on 2 June 1896 new pensions 
of 25/. each were created in favour of his 
three daughters. The greater part of his 
valuable philological library was acquired 
by the bookseller, Mr. David Nutt. 

[Personal knowledge; private information.] 


MORRIS, WILLIAM (1*34-18!*.; i, 

.:■■!. nuJ socialist, was 

JnW M nod third child of Wiiliun 

i 'ily of Loudon, and 

Emniu Sheli-m, daughter of Joseph Shel- 

n, a teacher ■>!' music in Worcester, and 

of John Shelton, proctor in the consistory 

i ie was bom on 24 March 

18.14, .1 Kim HottM, Clay Hill, Wultbam- 

rtow, liia Cm lit-r- raburimo residence. In 

nily removed to Woodford Hall 

trkunrn wUra, Oladatone'sl ■ ■ 

: which was conterminous 

■ ■ ■ ■ t . A* a. boy, therefore, 

baa dally range of that 

Let of country, then little changed 

Uarml or even since prehistoric 

tines ; and these surroundings fostered his 

utural keenness of eve and romantic bent of 

mjwr. He learned" to read eery young, 

■ numbered a lime when hi' could 

; read, but was not notably precocious 

jerwise. His earlier education wm at a 

,e achoot in the neighbourhood; 

January 1848 until December 1851 he 

,t Marlborough College, and then lived 

sarly a year as a private pupil with the 

. F. B. Guy, afterwards canon of St. 

Albans, and then assistant master at the 

st School, Walrhatnstow. He matricu- 

I »t Exeter College, Oxford, in June 

vent into residence in January 

Morr^ went up to Oxford with an unusual 
Kiunl of varied knowledge and a character 
■tly strongly marked and well del sloped. 
e of the middle ages was burn in him, 
was reinforced by the wave of Anglo- 
which had just spread over 
igland, and which bad come us a highly 
Tiinlntiiiii influence on families bronchi up. 
i somewhat stagnant evangeli- 
. aady as a hoy be had acquired a 

■ ' >dge of trees, flowers, 
Vi Marlborough ho hud, with 

■ aid of tin.- tchon] library and all the 

innu of M ■ ■ hin reach, 

i a good aiiriqiuiry, 'knowing,' 

nheufterwerd-i-jid,' IBOei "l' what, was to be 

iwn about English Gothic ; ' and S..v-ni:ik.. 

H iltahin downs made a 

■ plot* harmony with his 

nice and love of beauty. 

Conned it close friend- 

ip wiih Edward Burne-Jones [q. v. Suppl.], 

■I. : together «illi him, 

■ ; r he very different 
lie-class life in Birming- 

,n enthusiasm, a knowledge, and a high 
unfirmcd and 

luppkmant«d Uaown, Lntil Morryj's death 
the iwo men lived in the ch'sest intimacy, 
not only of daily intercourse but of thought 
and work. They were the two ftiuilliinl 
figures in a group of undergraduates, chiefly 
Birmingham schoolfellows of Iturne-.lones, 
which was perhaps more remarkable than 
any which Oxford has produced since. 

At Exeter Morris read only for a pass 
degree, and mixed little in the general life 
of tli" ooUago. But be was an incessant, 
swift, and omnivorous reader, and his pro- 

ilijj inury enabled him in those few 

mm to lay up u enormous store of know- 

,;i.>us perplexities, under which, 

in l-'il, lie was ou the point of joining the 
Homan communion, passed over soou after- 
wards; ecclesiastical history and Anglican 
theology were in turn mastered mid put 
aside, and their influence was gradually re- 
placed by an artistic mid social enthusiasm 
in which Corlyle, liuskin.nnd Kiugsley were 
the chief modern leaders whom he followed. 
When he came of age in 18flfi he still 
cherished a fancy oi'devol in [.'his considerable 
fortune to Ihe foundation of a monastery in 
which he and his friends might, combine an 
ascetic life with the organised production of 
religious art. This ideal became gradually 
enlarged aud secularised, but remained, in 
one firm or another, his ideal throughout 

In the autumn of 1854 Morris had made 
his first visit to northern France, and in the 
long vacation of 1855 he repeated the tour 
in company with Burue-Jones and William 
Fulfonl, another member of the undergra- 
duate circle, who were now known among 
themselves as ' the Brotherhood.' During 
ibis tour, under the added impulse of his 
boundless enthusiasm for French Gothic, he 
definitely renounced the purpose of taking 
orders with which he had gone to Oxford, 
and made un his mind to be an architect. 
As soon as tie had passed his final schools 
thai winter, he articled himself as a pupil to 
George Edmund .Street [q. T.J, already one 
of the most prominent architects of the 
revived English Gothic, who then had bis 
headquarters in Oxford as architect to the 
diocese. The articles were signed on 2d Jan. 
1856. In Street's office Morris formed an 
intimate and lifelong friendship with the 
senior clerk, Philip Webb [q. v.], which had 
an important influence over the development 
taken bv English domestic architecture 
daring the next generation. He worked in 
Street's office for the rest, of that year, first 
Oxford, and afterwards in London when 

■ed removed thither in the a utumn. Mean- 
while Bunie-Jones had left Oxford without 




taking a degree in order to begin life an a 
painter in London. The influence of Rossetti 
was immensely strong on both ; and when 
Morris also came to London and shared rooms 
with Burne-Jones, Rossetti succeeded in con- 
vincing him that he too ought to be a painter. 
Towards the end of the year he emitted 
Street's office, took a studio for himself and 
Burne-Jones at 17 Red Lion Square, Hol- 
born, and plunged at the beginning of 1857 
into a new life. 

Union Society. He painted one of the ten 
bays of the walls, and designed, and exe- 
cuted with some help from friends, the orna- 
mentation of the whole roof. While en- 
gaged on this work at Oxford he made the 
acquaintance of the lady whom he after- 
wards (26 April 1869) married, Miss Jane 

For several years after his marriage Morris 
was absorbed in two intimately connected 
occupations : the building and decoration of 

He had already proved his powers in ima- j a house for himself, and the foundation of a 
ginative literature. The faculty of story- 1 firm of decorators who were also artists, 
telling he had possessed even as a schoolboy ; | with the view of reinstating decoration, down 

and at Oxford he had found that story- 
writing came to him just as easily. About 
the same time he had begun to write lyrical 
poetry; his first attempts being marked 
(together with many mannerisms and im- 

has, except for a few echoes of Tennysonian 

to its smallest details, as one of the fine arts. 
Meanwhile he was practising less and less 
the specific form of decoration known as 
painting; the latest of the few pictures 
painted by him do not go beyond 18o2. The 
house he made for himself was the first 
serious attempt made in this country in the 
present age to apply art throughout to the 
practical objects of common life. It was 

To this and the other pieces belonging to the extant, though in greatly changed surround- 
same year, Chatterton may offer the nearest ings, with a considerable amount of its de- 
English parallel ; and neither Keats nor 1 coration, under its original name of Red 
Tennyson (Morris's two master poets among ' House, given to it when the use of red 
the moderns) had shown a more certain ' brick without stucco was a startling novelty 
voice in their first essays in poetry. j in domestic architecture. Its requirements, 

Morris was one of the originators of the . and the problems it suggested, had a large 
celebrated 'Oxford and Cambridge Magazine,* | share in leading tc the formation, in April 
which was conducted and written by the. 1861, of the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulk- 
members of the brotherhood and some of , ner, & Co., manufacturers and decorators, 
their friends, and paid for by him, during the . and to the whole of Morris's subsequent pro- 
twelve months of 1856. He contributed to ' fessional life. Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Madox 
it eight prose tales (of which 'The Hollow Brown, and Webb were Morris's partners 
Land' is the most remarkable), one or two , in the firm, together with C. J. Faulkner 
essays and reviews, and five poems, including and P. P. Marshall, the former of whom was 
the * Summer Dawn/ which many critics j a member of the Oxford Brotherhood, and 
would place among the first rank of lyrics of the latter a friend of Brown and Rossetti. 
the imagination. When he began life as a 1 The decoration of churches was from the 
painter he did not abandon poetry, and . first an important part of the business. On 
during 1857 wrote, besides a number of : its non-ecclesiastical side it gradually was 
pieces which he afterwards destroyed, and ( extended to include. besides painted windows 
others of which only fragments survive, most , and mural decoration, furniture, metal, and 
of the poems published bv him in March j glass wares, cloth and paper wall-hangings, 
1858 in the volume entitled ' The Defence of embroideries, jewellery, printed cottons, 
Guenevere and other Poems/ Poetry, how- woven and knotted carpets, silk damasks, 
ever, was now only his relaxation (as in a j and tapestries. The first headquarters of 
Hen so it always afterwards continued to be), j the firm were at 8 Red Lion Square. The 

work shown bv it at the Exhibition of 1862 

and his regular work was drawing, painting 
in oil and water-colour, modelling, illumi- 
nating, and designing. During the lost three 
months of 1857 he was working, together 
with Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Hughes, Pollen, 
Prinsep, and Stanhope, on the celebrated 
tempera decorations of the walls and roof of 
the newly built debating hall of the Oxford 

attracted much notice, and within a few 
years it was doing a pretty large business. 
In the autumn of 1864 a severe illness 
obliged Morris to choose between giving up 
his home in Kent and giving up his work in 
London. With great reluctance he did the 
former, and in 1865 established himself, 




under the Mine roof with his workshops, in 
Queen Squire, Bloomsbury. 

During the five years (1860-5) at Red 
House, poetry had been almost laid aside in 
the pressure of other occupation. The un- 
nnisned drafts of a cycle of lyrico-dramatic 
poems called ' Scenes from tbe Fall of Troy ' 
are the only surviving product of that 
period. But on his return to London he re- 
sumed the writing of poetry in a completely 
new manner and with extraordinary copious- 
ness. The general scheme of the * Earthly 
Paradise ' had been already framed by him ; 
and in 1866 he began the composition of a 
series of narrative poems for this work, 
which he continued for about four vears to 
pour forth incessantly. One of the earliest 
written, the * Story of the Q olden Fleece/ 
outgrew its limits so much that it became a 
substantive epic of over ten thousand lines. 
It was separately published, under the title 
of * The Life and Death of Jason,* in June 
1867, and gave Morris a recognised position 
in the foremost rank of modern poets. The 
three volumes of the ' Earthly Paradise/ suc- 
cessively published in 1868-70, contained 
twenty-five more narrative poems, connected 
with one another by a framework of intricate 
skill and singular fitness and beauty. Several 
more are still extant in manuscript, and 
others again were destroyed by their author ; 
but those actually published (including the 
* Jason') extend to over fifty thousand lines. 
In this fluent copiousness of narration, as 
well as in choice and use of metres, and in 
other subtler qualities, Morris went for his 
model to Chaucer, whom he professed as his 
chief master in poetry. 

This torrent of production did not lead 
him to slacken in his work as a decorative 
manufacturer, to which at the beginning of 
1870 he began to add that of producing il- 
luminated manuscripts on paper and vellum, 
executed in many different styles, but all of 
unapproached beauty among modern work. 
About the same time he had made his first 
acquaintance with the Icelandic Sagas in 
the original, and begun to translate them 
into English. One of these translations, that 
of the ' V olsunga-saga/ was published under 
the joint names of Morris and his Icelandic 
tutor, E. Magnusson, in May 1870. In the 
previous month he had sat to Watts for the 
portrait, now presented by the painter to the 
National Portrait Gallery, which represents 
Morris at the prime of his vigour and the 
height of his powers. 

The completion of the ' Earthly Paradise ' 
was followed by a pause in Morris's poet ical 
activity. In the summer of 1871 he made a 
journey through Iceland, the effects of 

which upon his mind may be traced in much 
of his later work. In t he same year he ac- 
quired what became his permanent country 
home, Kelmscott Manor House, a small but 
very beautiful and wholly undisfigured 
building of the early seventeenth century on 
the banks of the Thames near Lechlade. 
Round this house that Move of the earth 
and worship of it/ which was his deepest 
instinct, centred for all the rest of his lite. 

For several years about this time there 
may be traced in all Morris's work a rest- 
lessness due to the constant search after fresh 
methods of artistic expression, and the grow- 
ing feeling that, inasmuch as true art is co- 
extensive with life, the true practice of art 
involves at every point questions belonging 
to the province of moral, social, and political 
doctrine. A prose novel of modern English 
life, begun in the spring of 1871 and never 
completed, was one of these essays in fresh 
methods. Another was the poem of ' Love 
is Enough/ begun after Morris's return from 
Iceland, and published at the end of 1872 : a 
singular and imperfectly successful attempt 
to revive, under modern conditions, the 
dramatic method of the later middle ages, 
and the Middle-English alliterative verse 
I which had been driven out of use by foreign 
1 metres in the fifteenth century. For the 
next two years his leisure was mainly oc- 
cupied by work as a scribe and illuminator; 
to this period belong, among other works, 
the two exquisite manuscripts of Fitzgerald's 
* Omar Khayyam ' belonging to Lady Burne- 
Jones and Mrs. J. F. Horner. Towards the 
end of 1874 the dissolution of the firm of 
Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, & Co. became 
necessary for various reasons, and questions 
which arose as to the claims of the outgoing 
partners led to a period of much difficulty 
and trouble. The effect on Morris after the 
first shock was a bracing one ; and if the first 
period of his lift? had ended with the comple- 
tion of the ' Earthly Paradise/ a second now 
opened which, without the irrecoverable 
romance of youth, was as copious in achieve- 
ment upon a much wider field. 

The first products of this new period were 
in literature. lie had been for some time 
engaged in the production of a magnificent 
folio manuscript of the ^Eneid/ and in the 
course of that work had begun to translate 
the poem into English The manu- 
script was finally laid aside for the trans- 
lation, and the '-Kneids of Virgil ' was pub- 
lished in November 1875. It had been 
preceded earlier in the veur by a volume of 
translations from the Icelandic under the 
title of * Three Northern Love Stories/ and 
was followed almost at once by the com- 




position of his longest poem, the epic of 
' Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the 
Niblungs.' This was published at the .end 
of 1876. Morris himself thought it his 
highest, if not his best, work in poetry. In 
it the influence of the north is seen at its 
height, and for the time has expelled, or 
driven below the surface, his romantic 
mediae vali8m and all traces of the Chaucerian 
manner. Here as elsewhere he owed little 
to English predecessors or contemporaries. 
His inspiration was drawn directly from the 
northern epics of the tenth to twelfth cen- 
turies, where it did not derive from models 
still more ancient and more universal ; and 
the ' Sigurd ' is at once the most largely 
and powerfully modelled of all Morris's 
poetical works, and the poem which ap- 
proximates most nearly to the Homeric 
spirit and manner of all European poems 
since the ' Iliad ' and ' Odyssey/ 

During the period of the composition of 
' Sigurd the Volsung ' Morris had taken up, 
with his customary vehement thoroughness, 
the practical art of dyeing as a necessary 
adjunct of his manufacturing business. He 
spent much of his time at Staffordshire dye 
works in mastering all the processes of that 
art and making experiments in the revival 
of old or discovery of new methods. One 
result of these experiments was to reinstate 
indigo-dyeing as a practical industry, and 
generally to renew the use of those vege- 
table dyes which had been driven almost 
out of use by the anilines. Dyeing of wools, 
silks, and cottons was the necessary pre- 
liminary to what he had much at heart, the 
production of woven and printed stuff's of 
the highest excellence : and the period 
(1875-6) of incessant work at the dye-vat 
was followed by a period during which 
(1877-8) he was absorbed in the production 
of textiles, and more especially in the iv- 
vival of caroet-weaving as a fine art. Amid 
these manifold labours he was also taking 
more and more part in public affairs. From 
1876 onwards be was an officer and one of 
the most active members of the Eastern 
Question Association. In 1877 he founded 
the Society *br the IYotection of Ancient 
Buildings. In 1>79 he became treasurer of 
the National Liberal League. In these 
year* he be^an the practice of giving lec- 
ture* and addresses (at first chieflv to work- 
ing dosic™rs and art students '."which re- 
mained afterwards one of his main occupa- 
tions. The work of the firm, part I v in 
consequence of the new departures "now 
taken, partly from a wider knowledge and 
P^* *PV»*oiation of its products, was 
ateaddy expanding. The premise* at Queen 

Square had already become too small for it. 
Morris and his family had been driven out 
in 1872 that the whole house might be 
utilised for workrooms (he then lived first 
at Turnham Green, and from 1878 for the 
rest of his life on the Upper Mall of Ham- 
mersmith), and in 1881 the establishment 
was removed to large premises at Merton 
Abbey near Wimbledon, a sale-room and 
counting-house having been already set up 
in Oxford Street in the West End of London. 

Since the completion of the 'Sigurd,' 
Morris's production in creative literature 
had almost ceased. Only a few months 
after its publication he had declined to be 
put in nomination for the professorship of 
poetry at Oxford, and since then his life had 
been more and more that of a manufacturer 
and a man keenly interested in public affaire, 
and less that of a man of letters and artist. 
In 1882 a combination of convergent causes 
profoundly altered his political attachments 
and his attitude towards politics. His en- 
thusiasm for liberalism, after many severe 
checks from the whiggerv of his party 
leaders, had been converted into open dis- 
gust by the Irish coercive legislation of 1881 
and the timidity or aversion with which the 
liberal government regarded his favourite 
projects of social reform. Looking back in 
his forty-ninth year over what he nad done 
and what he had failed to do, and looking 
to the future in the light of the past, he 
found himself forced reluctantly to the con- 
clusion that hitherto he had not gone to the 
root of the matter: that, art being a func- 
tion of life, sound art was impossible except 
where life was organised under sound con- 
ditions: that the tendencv of what is called 
civilisation since the great industrial revo- 
lution had been to dehumanise life ; and that 
the only hope for the future was, if that 
were yet possible, to reconstitute society on 
a new basis. 

The Democratic Federation — a league of 
London working men's radical clubs with 
leanings towards state-socialism — was the 
only organisation at hand which seemed to 
Morris, from this r*>int of view, to be at 
work in the right direction. In the belief 
that better conditions of life for the working 
class — which substantially included the ob- 
jects towards which that body worked — 
were the necessary first step "towards all 
further progress, and that they could be at- 
tained by properly organised action on the 
part of the working class itself. Morris joined 
t he federat ion in January 1 <>3. He had a few 
days before been elected an honorary fellow of 
Exeter College. Oxford. The doctrine of the 
federation rapidly developed within thai year 

into profeteed socialism, (tad It 

rather than followed iu this change. He 

innaorMd the federation largely with money, 

illy to writing, 

service. In 

: the leaden iind dii- with regard to policy 

trSftiaa ol the federation. The 

Decoders organised thems.-hes as <• separate 

body under the name of the Socialist league, 

■. much against his will, wis 

force*! into a leadership of this croup, among 

. irni* alike liv rrii'illi-. 

education, and character. To ih< 
the league he gave himself up with even 
roti mi, managing and 
financing their journal, the ' i 'ooimonwea!,' 
unsna.h.1 ug aodeham nmmj the working daec 
the industrial centre* ol Great 
dug street meetings re- 
gularly with lli" view id' organising Jis- 
iward* a ,ocial revolution. In 
; with one of these, u 
East London he was arrested in 
I860, but discharged without trial. During 
this period he wrote much in the 'Com- 
monweal,' tiud also pubfisjhed many socialist 
^ts and pamphlets, both prose mid •.■ rs... 
-il Ian spring oflB88 did be begin to 
a for literature other than that of 
. -m. He then took up a task, 
rather to him a recreation, delightful in 
itself and the more pleasant by contrast 
political work, the translation of 
ihe ■udi-atiy' into English Terse, His 
■Mii published iu 1887, ae wai a 
volume of essays and addressee entitled ' The 
\:l.' In 1888 followed a second 

mhom* of addressee, called 'Signs of Change,' 

and the most remarkable of his prose 

writing-, *,\ Dream of John Hall,' a work of 

eratiou and beauty, which may 

. it her a- a romance or ne a study 

in the philosophy of history. In tin. miiiu> 
year he had taken his head managers into 
partnership, nod thus relieved himself from 
much of tlin routine work of his mannfac- 

leisure. Knd the conviction 

i!s of 13 Nov, 

1867 a Traialgai Square) that no social 

revolution w us now practicable, and that the 

tnie work of noemlists lav in education to- 

■ liition liy influence on opinion, 

by this time, on the one 

hand towards a more native socialism, and 

1 -oimption uf 

■ Tli.. id.-al human 

laj far beyond reach ; he 

■ ii it of a remote 

in a series of prose 


which he went on writ 

remainder of his life. The flrsl 

■'I'll,. H. .,1,,. of the Wolfing!' (1888), ia a 

story in which a romantic nnd supernatural 

element 1." eoiiil) d with u semi-historical 

letting, of life in a Teutonic community of 
tvuiiiii Europe In tiiM of the later 

Jfomaii empire. It. was followed liv 'The 
Uouts hi" ih.> .Mountains' (1S90), ft story of 
somewhat similar method, but of a lean de- 
lined plane and time. The former of these 
stories is in a vehicle of mixed prom ami 
verse used with remarknble skill, which he 
did not repeat, although the auhaaqOant 
rniuuinv.s include pii*sag.s of lyric 
Next came 'The Story of the U littering 
Plain' (1890), 'The Wood beyond the 
World ' ( 1*14 1, ' ( 'luld 1 ihriatopher - (1895), 
and 'TbeWeH at theWotLTi End'flB86), 
the longest and most elaborate of his ro- 
nmiu-i.s. 'The Water of the Wondrous 
Isles' and 'The Stun- nf the Sundering 
Flood,' the last two of the series, wore only 
published after his death (1897, 1898). 
Midway between these romances and the 
1 literature of socialism is the romantic pas- 
toral of 'News from Nowhere,' describing 
the England of some remote future under 
ivuli.-t'il communism, which rippenri'd in [In.- 
'Commonweal ' in l,S!«l, and mi. published 
as a book in 1891. 

The socialist league had since 1887 been 
dwindling in numbers and losingcnherence: 
its control passed in I**!* into the hands of 
a group of anarchists, and in 1*90 Morris 
formally withdrew from it. He hod already 
become absorbed in a new work, that, of re- 
viving the art of printing as it had llniirishid 
in the later year* of the fifteenth century. 
The Kelmscutt I'ress was started hv him at 
Hammersmith during I *!.«(. lie 'designed 
for it three founts of type and an immense 
number of ornamental letters and borders, 
and superintended all the details of printing 
and production. In 1898 he also became 
his own publisher. One of the earliest of 
the Keimscott Press books was a volume of 
his own shorter poems, chiefly lyrics nnd 
ballads, entitled 'Poems bv' tie Waj ' 
(1801), the greater number o'f which were 
now published for the first time. Fifty- 
three books in all wer* issued from the Press 
between April 1891 and .March 1808, when 

They fall broadly under three heads: (I) 
Morris's own worn; (3) reprints of English 
classics, mediieval and modern, beginning 
with that ol' (.'"lion's- ' Golden Legend' 
|160d)i and ending with the Chaucer of 
1896, which competent judges have pro- 
nounced the tiuest printed book ever pro- 




duced ; (3) various smaller books, originals 
or translations, including a series of stories 
translated by Morris from mediaeval 
French. These, with a full account of the 
inception and working of the Kelmscott 
Press, are set forth in a history of the Press 
by Morris's secretary, Mr. S. C. Cockerell, 
which was the last book issued from it 

During these years Morris also took an 
active Dart in various movements towards 
organising guilds of designers and decora- 
tive workmen, and continued to write and 
speak on behalf of the principles of socialism 
with no loss of conviction or enthusiasm. 
He also formed, with special relation to his 
work as a printer, a collection of early 
printed books, and, a little later, another of 
illuminated manuscripts of the twelfth to 
the fifteenth centuries ; both of these were 
at his deatli among the choicest collections 
existing in private ownership. On the death 
of Tennyson in 1894 the question of Morris's 
succession to the laureateship was enter- 
tained by the government, but was laid aside 
on an expression being obtained from him of 
his own disinclination for such an office. 
In 1895 his health began to give way under 
the strain of a crowded and exhausting life. 
When the magnificent Kelmscott Chaucer 
was finished in June 1896 he had sunk into 
very feeble health, and he died at Hammer- 
smith on 3 Oct. in that year. His widow 
and two daughters survived him. 

Morris was a singular instance of a man 
of immense industrv and force of character, 
whose whole life, through a long period of 
manifold activity and multiform production, 
was guided by a very few simple ideas. His 
rapid movements from one form of produc- 
tive energy to another often gave occasion for 
perplexity to his friends as well as for satire 
from his opponents. But in fact all these 
varying energies were directed towards a 
single object, the re-integration of human 
life ; and he practised so many arts because 
to him art was a single thing. Just so his 
work, in whatever field, while it expressed 
his own ideas with complete sincerity, bears 
an aspect of median nl ism, because it was 
all produced in relation to a single doctrine: 
that civilisation had ever since the break-up 
of the middle ages been, upon the whole, on 
a wrong course, and that in the specific arts 
as well as in the general conduct of life it 
was necessary to go back to the middle ages, 
not with the view of remaining at the point 
which had been then readied, but of start- 
ing afresh from that point and tracing out 
the path that had been missed. So long as 
any human industry existed which had once 

been exercised as an art in the full sense, 
and had now become mechanical or com- 
mercial, so long Morris would instinctively 
have passed from one to another, tracing 
back each to its source, and attempting to 
reconstitute each as a real art so far as the 
conditions of the modern world permitted. 
When he became a socialist, it was because 
he had realised that these existing conditions 
were stronger than any individual genius or 
any private co-operation, and that towards a 
new birth of art a new kind of life was 
necessary. To gain the whole he was will- 
ing for a time to give up the parts. When 
convinced by experience that the whole was 
for his own generation unattainable, he re- 
sumed his work on specific arts, to use his 
own words, ' because he could not help it, 
and would be miserable if he were not doing 

it.' ... 

The fame of Morris during his life was 
probably somewhat obscured oy the variety 
of his accomplishments. In all his work 
after he reached mature life there is a 
marked absence of extravagance, of display, 
of superficial cleverness or effectiveness, and 
an equally marked sense of composition and 
subordination. Thus his poetry is singularly 
devoid of striking lines or phrases, and his 
wall-papers and chintzes only reveal their 
full excellence by the lastingnessof the satis- 
faction they give. His genius as a pattern- 
designer is allowed by all qualified judges to 
have been unequalled. This, if anything, 
he himself regarded as his specific profes- 
sion ; it was under the designation of ( de- 
signer' that he enrolled himself in the 
socialist ranks and claimed a position as one 
of the working class. And it is the quality 
of design which, together with a certain fluent 
ease, distinguishes his work in literature as 
well as in industrial art. It is yet too early to 
forecast what permanent place he mav hold 
among English poet s. ' The Defence of druene- 
: vere* had a deep influence on a very limited 
audience. With ' Jason ' and the ' Earthly 
I Paradise' he attained a wide popularity: 
! and these poems, appearing as they did at a 
time when the poetic art in England seemed 
I narrowing into mere labour on a thrice- 
j ploughed field, not only gave a new scope, 
range, and flexibility to English rhymed 
i verse, but recovered for narrative poetry a 
I place among the foremost kinds of the art. 
1 A certain diffuseness of style may seem to be 
I against their permanent life, so far as it is 
not compensated by a uniform wholesome- 
ness and sweetness which indeed marks all 
Morris's work. In * Sigurd the Vblsung * 
Morris appears to have aimed higher than in 
his other poems, but not to have reached his 

■ was i lie ground cm 


■ ...fur |iriiVi-il 

.: iii the dilu- 

other writers. 

Here as elsewhere JI o iris's great effect was 

to itimuh: mid initiate 

kewiie it was with his 

and social work. Much of it was 

not atactica] in the ordinary sense; but it 

was bnsi*d mi principle.- and directed toward* 

ii h have bad n wide and profound 

over thought and practice. 

on Morris was rather below the 

middle height, deep-chest e. I and powerfully 

made, with a head of singular beauty. The 

portrait by Walts has been already men- 

t n ' Adoration of the Kings,' 

CI * i l ■ r j ■ -J - in 1861, and now 
■■■ Mr. G, P. Bodl 

ut portrait of hitn as a 

young matt ( t 1 »■- kneeling king in the centre 

. and i here is another 

head of hirn.uW ■ v.-rv good likeness, in the 

altar piece "f Uandaff Cathedral, painted by the same time. 

■ William Morris, by .1. W, Mackail, 

it,, Norm his Art. hit Writings, 

dlance, IB97 ; 

A iHioriptJoii o( the Kalmscotl Press, fee, by 

■. Ths B U of William 

Morri.. by- H. Bailor, Forman. CIS,, 1867; 
formation.] J. W. M. 

MORRISON. ALFRED (1821-1897), 
of work? of art and autographs. 

firm of Momaon, Dillon, 
Street, Loudon, wns horn in li»2l, 
and received from his father a large fortune. 
Hewn* high sheriff for Wiltshire in 1857. 
H« me a derated and discriminating collec- 
bOusee at Fonthill and Carllon 
n*tt, London, were full of rich 
u examples of Chinese 
i - and gold work, and 
pecially interested him- 
self to seek out artistic craftsmen in all 
■ad employed them for years in 
the slow and careful production of master- 
uneo-cutting, inlaying of metals, 
In this manner he 

hl« specimens, 

■ I' "111 til beliel [Hailed IIIIV- 

K Between 1800 

iva collection 
was described 
ted* Annotated Catalogue and Index 

by M. Holloway' (18tJ8, large 
8vo). His coll'-i'i ion of pictures ■ 
i in.ii-,,. and included the finest < Hot 

■■ niiiltli.. lit-ftl I iiivniiul'trlcripaiu. 
...■fupnt.ii.u .if (In- last, thirty 
yeara of bis life was the accumulation of an 
extraordinary collection of autographs and 
letter;-, fi.-rliiiTiri never ri villi.., I l,v iiny private 
)j'T-nii, nil [es« remarkable for its extent than 
for its completeness and historical aud 
eresl. It contains 

epistolary document dealing with politiot, 

in I mi nisi rut ion. art, science, and literature, 
ranging from the fifteenth to the nineteenth 
centuries, and especially nltUng to the pub- 
lic and private life of itioimrchs, statesmen, 
and other persona of mark of all European 
countries, particularly Great Britain, l-mim-, 
and Italy. Many of the manuscripts are of 
great importance. The correspondence be- 
tween Nelson and Lady Hamilton was for 
the first time fully printed in his catalogue. 
The papers of Sir Richard Bulstrode, who 
dud in 1711 at the age of Ml, contain his 
newsletters, which may be looked upon as a 
companion to, und a contiuuat ion of, Pcpys'e 
' 1 1 in re.' .MiiiTixini |irmlcd fi:.r private diatri- 
butitm two series of handsome volumes de- 
scribing the collection. The first Series, in 
large 4 to, with full descriptions of the docu- 
ments and many facsimiles, was th-' subject 
of an elaborate review by H, Leopold Delisle 
(Journal fc» Savants, Aoiit -Septembre Is;},!), 
The second series is in a more bandy form, 
without facsimiles but with a more ample 
reprodnct ion of the text of tile document*. 

Morrison died at Fonthill, Wiltshire, on 
23 Dee. 1897, ut the age of seventy-six. He 
married, in 18ll(t. Mabel, daughter of the Rev. 
•rmside, rector of Wilton, Wilt- 
shire. His wife survived him with two 
sons— Hugh,/,. lNoSl.Hud .lames Archibald, 
elected M.P. for the Wilton division of 
Wiltshire in October 1900— aud two daugh- 
ters. He was a man of fastidious taste, of 
retiring disposition, and of wide information 
eta in which he was interested. 

The catalogues of his autographs are: 

1. 'Catalogue of (In- ('idled inn of Auto- 
graph Letters and Historical i.iuciinieni.- 
formed between 1805 and 1*82, compiled 
and annotated under Hie direction of A. W. 
Thibaudeau' [London - ;, printed for private 
circulation, 1888-92, fl vols, large It., i I'm- 
similes, the name of Thilmudemi appears mi 
the titles of vols, i-iii. ; only 200 copies). 

2. .Second series. 18*2-33 [Lmdoti , 
1893-8, A to I), 3 vols, large 8*0. & ' 'lie 
Hamilton and Nelson Papers, 1766-1815' 
[London], 1803-4, 2 rale, large 8vo. 
i. 'The Blessington Papers ' [London], 




1896, large 8vo. 5. * The Bulstrode Papers/ 
vol. i., 1607-76 [London, 1897], large 8vo. 

[Times, 27 Dec. 1897, p. 7 ; Hurkes Landed 
Gentry, 1898, i. 1068; Annual Register, 1897, 
p. 2<>4 ; Murray's Handbook for Wilts and 
Dorset, 1899, pp. 410-11.] H. R. T. 

(1826-1900), geologist, was the son of George 
Morton, a brewer, by his wife Elizabeth 
Bartenshaw, both of Liverpool. He was 
born in that city on 9 July 1826, went to 
school there, and when about sixteen years 
old became interested in geology. Going 
into business as a house decorator, he devoted 
every spare minute to his favourite study, 
exploring the country round Liverpool, and 
pushing nis researches into North W ales and 
Shropshire. He formed a large and valuable 
collection of fossils, of which those from the 
Trias downwards have been acauired by the 
British Museum of Natural History, and 
the remainder by the Liverpool University 
College. Morton became F.G.S. in 1858, 
and was awarded the Lyell medal of that 
society in 1892. He was a member of 
various local societies, notably of the Geo- 
logical Society of Liverpool, of which he 
was founder in 1859, honorary secretary for 
twenty-six years, and twice president. Also 
for several years after 1864 he was lecturer 
on geology at Queen's College, Liverpool. 
He died on 30 March 1900. His wife, 
whoso maiden name was Sarah N. Ascroft, 
died about two vears before him, but one 
son and four daughters survived. He wrote, 
beginning in 1856, numerous papers on the 
district already mentioned, whicn have ap- 
peared in the publications of various societies, 
and, though in failing health, read his last, 
one about a fortnight before his death ; but j 
his chief work is the volume entitled * Geo- 
logy of the Country round Liverpool/ of ! 
which the first edition was published in 
1863, a second, revised and enlarged, in 1891, 
with an appendix in 1897. As a geologist 
Morton was characterised by accuracy, 
thoroughness, orderliness, and caution. He 
cared more for the advancement of science 
than for his own reputation, and was a worthy 
representative of a class — the painstaking 
and indefatigable local geologists— to whom 
the science is so much indebted. 

[Obituary notice. Geological Mag. 1900, p. 
288 ; Royal Soc. Cnt. of Papers ; private infor- 
mation, and personal knowledge.] T. G. B. 

(1835-1898), biblical scholar, born at Leek, 
Staffordshire, on 14 March 1835, was the 
second son of James Egan Moulton, a Wes- 

leyan minister, who died in 1866, and 
Catherine, daughter of William Fiddian, a 
well-known Birmingham brass-founder of 
Huguenot descent. His grandfather had 
been, like his father, a methodist preacher ; 
and among his ancestors was John Bakewell, 
Weslev's friend. William was educated at 
Woodbouse Grove school, near Leeds, and 
Wesley College, Sheffield, of which he after- 
wards became a master. After having taught 
for a year in a private school at Devonport, 
he in 1854 went as an assistant master to 
Queen's College, Taunton, where he remained 
for four years. While at Taunton he gra- 
duated B.A. with mathematical honours at 
London University in 1854, and M.A. two 
years later, when he was awarded the gold 
medal for mathematics and natural philo- 
sophy. Subsequently he also won the uni- 
versity prizes for Hebrew, Greek, and Chris- 
tian evidences. In 1858 he entered the 
Wesleyan ministry, and was appointed a 
classical tutor at Wesley College, Richmond, 
Surrey. He held that position for sixteen 
years, during which he gave much of his 
time to biblical studies. On the suggestion 
of a correspondent, Dr. Ellicott, afterwards 
bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, Moulton 
published in 1870 a translation of Winer's 
* Grammar of New Testament Greek/ accom- 
panied with valuable notes, in which several 
errors were corrected and not a little original 
scholarship was shown. A new edition 
appeared in 1876, and a complete recast of 
the whole work had been begun under his 
supervision at the time of Moulton's death. 
In the year in which the first edition of 
Winer was issued, Moulton was invited to 
become one of the committee of revisers of 
the New Testament. He was only thirty- 
five, by far the youngest of the company. 
He acted throughout with the Cambridge 
group, who preferred linguistic accuracy to 
literary picturesqueness. Yet he was espe- 
cially responsible for the renderings from 
older English versions which were inserted 
from collations of black-letter Bibles made 
by his wife. He afterwards acted as secre- 
tary to the Cambridge committee for the 
revision of the Apocrypha. 

Meanwhile Moulton had in 1872 been chosen 
at an unprecedentedly early age a member of 
the Legal Hundred of the Wesleyan con- 
nexion. Two years later, in 1874, he was 
appointed t he first head-master of the newly 
founded Leys school, Cambridge, where he 
entered upon his duties in February 1875, 
and remained for the rest of his life. In 
1874 he received the degree of D.D. from 
Edinburgh, and in 1877 was made an hono- 
rary M.A. of Cambridge. While devoting 



the ffTMtfc D 
head of a iuit.ii 

if teaching, Moulton 'till 

public school 

I if lb.- English Bible; 
■ ].i-iliiin 1 1' i lii' researches under- 
in ■oiii.m with his labours as a re- 
viser. It hud originally been printed in the 
form of articles in CaeaeU'l ' Bible Educa- 
■>■ nd edition appeared in 1682, 
mod wu followed by