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\im A* A* • • 

J. G. A. . . 

t* 0» A » • • 

Om W* Jm • • 

Thb Bet. Canon Ainobb. 

G. A. AlTKEN. 

J. G. Alobb. 

P. J. Ain>EB80N. 

Sib Alexandbb John Abbuthkot, 

W. A Walteb Abmstbono. 

J. B. B. . . Thb l4tb J. B. Bailet. 
M. B M188 Batbson. 

B. B Thb Bbt. Bonald Batnb. 

T. B Thomas Baynb. 

L. B-B. . . . Lionel Bxalb, M.B., F JI.S. 

C. B. B. . . C. Batmond Bbazlet. 

C B Pbofbbsob Cecil Bendall. 

H. E. D. B. The Bet. H. E. D. Blakiston. 

0. C. B. . . The late G. C. Boabb. 

T. G. B. . . The Bev. Pbofessob Bonnet, 


Q. S. B* . • 
T. B. B. . . 
A B. B. • • 
R. W. B. . . 

a. X« W. ... 

W. C— B« . • 

I. L. 0. . . 

h W. C-K. . 
a* v-B» • • . 


T. B. Bbownino. 

The Bet. A. B. Buokland. 


E« Ibtino Cabltlb. 

WnxiUM Cabb. 

J. L. Caw. 

J. Willis Clabk. 

Sn EbsMt Clabkb, F.SJL 

J. C. C. . . J. Chubton Collins. 

A. M. C-B. . Bliss A. M. Cooke. 

T. C Thompson Coopbb, F.SjL 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COUBTNEY. 

H. D Hbnbt Datet. 

CD Campbell Dodoson. 

B. D Bobebt Dunlop. 

F. E Fbancis Espinassb. 

C. L. F. . . C. Litton Falkinbb. 
C. H. F. . . C. H. FiBTH. 

J. G. F-H. . Sib Joshua Fitch. 

W. G. D. F. Thb Bet. W. G. D. Flbtcheb. 

F. W. G. . . F. W. Gamble, M.Sc. 

A. G The Bet. Alexandbb Gobdon. 

B. E. G. . . B. E. Gbates. 

J. C. H. . . J. Cuthbebt Hadden. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

T. H Thb Bet. Thomas Hamilton, 


A. H-N. . . Abthub Habden, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. A. H. . . C. Albxandbb Habbis. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. Hendbbson. 

W. A. S. H. Pbofessob W. A. S. Hewins. 

G. J. H. . . G. J. HOLYOAKB. 

W. H Thb Bet. William Hunt. 

W. H. H. . Thb Bet. W. H. Huttov, B JD. 



List of Writers. 

B. J. J. . . . The Bet. B. Jenkim Jones. 
G. E Chables Kent. 

G. L. E. . . C. L. EiNOBFOBD. 

J. E Joseph Enioht, F.S.A. 

J. E. L. . . Pbofbbsob J. E. Lauohton. 

E. L Bfiss Elizabeth Lee. 

S« L Sidney Lee. 

B. H. Ij. . . B. H. IjEooe. 

E. M. L. . . GoiiONEL E. M. Llotd, B.E. 

J. E. L. . . J. E. Llotd. 

J. H. L. . . The Bey. J. H. Lupton, D.D. 

J. B. M. . . J. B. Maodonald. 

W. E. M. . W. E. Mannbbs. 

E. G. M. . . E. G. Mabchant. 

L. M. M. . . BfiSS MiDDLETON. 


J. B. M. . . J. Babs Mullinoeb. 
G. Lb G. N. G. Lb Gbtb Noboatb. 

E. N Miss Eatb Noboatb. 

D. J. O'D. . D. J. 0*DoNOOHUE. 

P. M. 0*D. . P. M. O'DoNooHUE, F.SJk. 

T. The Bet. Thomas Olden. 

A. P. P. . . A. F. POLLABD. 

S. L.-P.. . . Stanley Lane- Poole. 
B. P Miss Bebtha Pobteb. 

D*A. P. . . . D*Aboy Poweb, F JC.O.S. 

F. B Fbasbb Bae. 

W. E. B. . . W. E. Bhodes. 
J. M. B. . . J. M. Bioo. 

H. J. B. . . H. J. BoBiNSON. 
J. H. B. . . J. H. Bound. 
H. S. S. • . H. S. Salt. 

T. S Thomas Sbocombe. 

C. F. S. . . Miss G. Fell Smith. 
L. S Leslie Stephen. 

G. S-h. . . . Geoboe Stbonaoh. 

C. W. S. . . G. W. Sutton. 
J. T-T. . . . Jambs Tait. 

H. B. T. . . H. B. Teddbb, F.S.A. 

D. Ll. T.. . D. Lleufbb Thomas. 

E. M. T-.D.. Miss Todd. 

T. F. T. . . Pbofessob T. F. Tout. 
G. J. T. . . G. J. Tubneb. 

A. B. U. . . A. B. Ubquhabt, M.D. 

B. H. V. . . Colonel B. H. Vetch, B.E., 


W. W. W. . Suboeon-Captain W. W. Webb. 
H. A. W. . . H. A. Websteb. 
S. W Stephen Wheeleb. 

B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWABD. 






1718), pirate, commonly known as Black- 
beard, is said to have been a native of Bristol, 
to have gone out to the West Indies during 
the war of the Spanish succession, and to 
have been then employed as a privateer or 
buccaneer. When the peace came in 1718 
the privateers virtually refused to recognise 
it, and in large numbers turned pirates. V ast 
numbers of seamen joined them, and, while 
keeping up a pretence of warring against the 
French or Spaniards, plundered all that came 
in their way with absolute impartiality. 
Thatch was one of the earliest to play the 
role of pirate. He is first heard of in 1716, 
and in 1717 was in command of a sloop 
cruising in company with one Benjamin 
Homigold. Among other prizes was a large 
French Guinea ship, which Thatch took com- 
mand of and fitted as a ship of war mount- 
ing 40 guns, naming her Queen Anne's Re- 
venge. On the arrival of Woodes Rogers [q.v.] 
as governor of the Bahamas, Homigold went 
in and accepted the king's mercy ; but Thatch 
continued nis cruise tlm)ugh the West India 
Islands, along the Spanish Main, then north 
along the coast of Carolina and Virginia, 
makmg many prizes, and rendering his name 
terrible. He sent one Richards, whom he 
had placed in command of a tender, with a 
party of men up to Charlestown to demand 
a medicine-chest properly fitted. If it was 
not given he would put his prisoners to 
death. While one of the prisoners pre- 
sented this demand, Richards and his fel- 
lows swaggered through the town, spread- 
ing such terror that the ma^strates did not 
Tenture to refuse the medicine-chest. Then 
the pirates went northwards ; but on or about 
10 June 1718, attempting to go into a creek 
in North Carolina known as Topsail Inlet, 


the Queen Anne's Revenge struck on the 
bar and became a total wreck. Of three 
sloops in company, one was also wrecked on 
the bar. Thatch and his men escaped in 
the other two. They seem to have then 
quarrelled; many of the men were put on 
shore and dispersed ; some found their way 
into Virginia and were hanged ; the sloops 
separated, and Thatch, with some twenty or 
thirty men, went to Bath-town in North 
Carolina to surrender to the king's pro- 

It appears that he found allies in the 
governor, one Eden, and his secretary, Tobias 
Knight, who was also collector of the pro- 
vince. He brought in some prizes, which 
his friends condemned in due form. He met 
at sea two French ships, one laden, the other 
in ballast. He put all the Frenchmen into 
the emptv ship, brought in the full one, and 
made affidavit that he had found her de- 
serted at sea — not a soul on board. The 
story was accepted. Eden got sixty hogs- 
heads of sugar as his share, Knight got 
twenty, and the ship, said to be in danger 
of sinking and so blocking the river, was 
taken outside and burnt, for fear that she 
might be reco^ised. Thatch meanwhile led 
a rollicking life, spending his money freely 
on shore, but compelling the planters to 
supply his wants, and levying heavy toll on 
all the vessels that came up the river or went 
down. As it was useless to apply to Eden 
for redress, the sufferers were at last driven 
to send their complaint to Colonel Alexander 
Spottiswood [q. v.], lieutenant-governor of 
Virginia, who referred the matter to Captain 
George Gordon of the Pearl, and Ellis Brand 
of the Lyme, two frigates then lying in 
James River for the protection of the trade 
against pirates. Gordon and Brand had 




already heard of ThatcVs proceedings, and 
had ascertained that their ships could not 

get at him. Now, in consultation with 
.^pottiswood, it was determined to send two 
small sloops taken up for the occasion, and 
manned and armed from the frigates, under 
the command of Robert Maynard, the first 
lieutenant of the Pearl, while Brand went 
overland to consult with Eden, whose com- 
plicity was not known to Spottiswood and 
his friends. 

On 22 Nov. the sloops came up the creek, 
and, having approached so near the pirate 
as to interchange Homeric compliments, re- 
ceived the fire of the pirate's guns, loaded 
to the muzzle with swan shot and scrap iron. 
All the officers in Lyme's boat were killed, 
and many men in both. Maynard closed, 
boarded, sword in hand, and shot Thatch 
dead. Several pirates were killed, others 
jumped overboard, fifteen were taken alive, 
■ Thatch's head was cut off, and — easy to be 
recognised by its abundant black beard — 
suspended from the end of the bowsprit. The 
sloops with their prize returned to James 
River, where thirteen out of the fifteen pri- 
soners were hanged. Brand had meantime 
made a perquisition on shore, and seized a 
quantity of sugar, cocoa, and other mer- 
chandise said to be Thatch's. In doing this 
he was much obstructed by Knight, who, 
together with Eden, afterwards entered an 
action against him for taking what belonged 
to them. The pirate sloop and property were 
sold for over 2,000/., which Gordon and 
Brand insisted should be divided as prize 
money among the whole ship's companies, 
while Maynard claimed that it ought to go 
entirely to him and those who had taken 
it. This led to a very angry and unseemly 
quarrel, which ended in the professional ruin 
cf all the three. Neither Gordon nor Brand 
seems to have had any further employment, 
and Maynard, whose capture of the pirate 
was a very dashing piece of work, was not 
promoted'till 1740. 

Thatch — asTeachorBlackbeard — has long 
been received as the ideal pirate of fiction 
or romance, and nearly as many legends 
have been fathered on him as on AVilliam 
Kidd [q. v.], with perhaps a little more 
reason. It may indeed be taken as certain 
that he did not bury any large hoard of 
treasure in some unknown bay, and that he 
never had it to bury. On the other hand, 
the story of his blowing out the lights in 
the course of a drinking bout and firing off 
his pistols und(T the table, to the serious 
damage of the legs of one of his companions, 
is officially told as a reason for not lianging 
the latter* Teach seems to have been fierce^ 

reckless, and brutal, without even the virtue 
of honestv to his fellows. 

In all tlie official papers, naval or colonial, 
respecting this pirate, he is called Thatch or 
Thach; the name Teach which has been 
commonly adopted, on the authority of John- 
son, has no official sanction. It is quite im- 
possible to say that either Thatch or Teach 
was his proper name. 

[The Life in Charles Johnson's Lives of the 
Pyrates (1724) is thoroughly accurate, as far as 
it can be tested by the official records, which 
are very fuIL These are Order in Coancil, 
24 Aug. 1721, with memorial from Robert May- 
nard; Admiralty Records. Captains* Letters, 
B. 11, Ellis Brand to Admiralty, 12 July 1718. 
6 Feb. and 12 March 1718-19; G. 6, Gordon 
to Admiralty, 14 Sept. 1721; P. 6, Letters of 
Vincent Pearso, Captain of the Phoenix ; Board 
of Trade, Bahamas 1.] J. K. L. 

TEDDEMAN, Sir THOMAS (rf. 1668 ?), 
vice-admiral, was presumably one of a family 
who had been shipowners at Dover at the 
close of the sixteenth century (Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada, Navy Records Society, i. 
86). His father, also Thomas, was still living 
at Dover in 1658, and is probably the man 
described as a j urate of Dover in a com- 
mission of 28 Oct. 1653. It is, however, 
impossible to discriminate between the two, 
and the j urate of 1653 may have been the 
future vice-admiral. In either case Tedde- 
man does not seem to have served at sea 
during the civil war ; but in 1660 he com- 
manded the Tredagh in the Mediterranean, 
and in May was cruising in the Straits of 
Gibraltar and as far east as Algiers; on 
31 May he met off Algiers six Spanish ships, 
which he chased into Gibraltar and unaer 
the guns of the forts. In November 1660 
he was appointed captain of the Resolution ; 
in May 1661 of the Fairfax. In 1663 he 
commanded the Kent, in which, in July, he 
carried the Earl of Carlisle to Archangel on 
an embassy to Russia. In Ma^ 1664 he was 
moved into the Revenge ; and in 1665, in the 
Royal Katherine, was rear-admiral of the 
blue squadron, with the Earl of Sandwich, 
in the action off l^owestoft. For this service 
he was knighted on 1 July. Afterwards, 
still with Sandwich, he was at the attack on 
Bergen and the subsequent capture of the 
Dutch East Indiamen [see Montagu, Ed- 
ward, Earl of Sandwich]. Still in the 
Royal Katherine, he was vice-admiral of 
the blue squadron in the four days' fight, 
1-4 June 1666, and vice-admiral of the 
white in the St. James*s fight, 25 July. He 
had no command in 1667, and his name does 
not occur again. His contemporary. Captain 
Henry Teddeman, also of Dover, was pre-. 


fiumably a brother ; and the name was still 
in the * Navy List ' a hundred years later. 

[CharDodL*s Biogr. Nav. i. 47 : State Papers, 
Doni., Charles II (see Calendant).] J. E. L. 

1798), United Irishman, was the eldest son 
of Luke Teeling and of Mar\'', daughter of 
John TaafTe of Smarmore Castle, Louth. | 
He was bom in 1774 at Lisbum, where 
his &ther, a descendant of an old Anglo- 
Norman family long settled in co. Meath, 
had established himself as a linen mer- 
chant. The elder Teeling was a delegate 
for CO. Antrim to the catholic convention of 
1793, better known as the * Back Lane par- 
liament.' Though not a United Irishman, 
he was activelv connected with the leaders 
of the United Irish Society, and was arrested 
on suspicion of treason in 1796 and con- 
fined in Carrickferffus prison till 1802. 

Bartholomew, who was educated in Dub- 
lin at the academy of the liev. W. Dubordieu, 
a French protestant clergyman, joined the 
United Irish movement before he was twenty, 
and was an active member of the club com- 
mittee. In 1796 he went to France to aid 
in the efforts of Wolfe Tone and others to 
induce the French government to undertake 
an inyasion of Ireland. His mission having 
become known to the Irish government, he 
deemed it unsafe to return to England, and 
accepted a commission in the French army 
in tne name of Biron. He served a cam- 
paign under Hoche with the army of the 
Khine. In the autumn of 1798 he was at- 
tached to the expedition organised against 
Ireland as aide-de-camp and interpreter to 
General Humbert, ana, embarking at La 
Rochelle, landed with the French army at 
Killala. During the brief campaign of less 
than three weeks* duration, which termi- 
nated with the surrender of Ballinamuck, 
Teeling distinffuished himself by his personal 
courage, particularly at the battle of Co- 
looney. Being excluded as a British subject 
from the benefit of the exchange of prisoners 
which followed the surrender, though claimed 
by Humbert as his aide-de-camp, he was 
removed to Dublin, where he was tried 
before a court-martial. At the trial the 
evidence for the prosecution, though con- 
clusive as to Teelmg's treason, was highly 
creditable to his humanity and tolerance, 
one of the witnesses deposing that when 
some of the rebels had endeavoured to 
excuse the outrages they had committed, on 
the ground that the victims were protestants, 
' 3fr. Teeling warmly exclaimed tnat he knew 
of no diflerence between a protestant and a 
catholic, nor should any be allowed' {Irish 


Monthly BegUter, October 1798). But, 
despite an energetic appeal by Humbert, who 
wrote that * Teeling, by his bravery and gene- 
rous conduct in all the towns through which 
we have passed, has prevented the insurgents 
from indulging in the most criminal ex- 
cesses,' he was sentenced to death by the 
court-martial. The viceroy finding himself 
unable to comply with the recommendation 
to mercy by which the sentence was accom- 
panied, Teeling suffered the extreme penalty 
of the law at Arbour Hill on 24 Sept. 1798. 

Charles Hamilton Teelino (1778- 
1850), Irish journalist, was a younger brother 
of Bartholomew, and, like him, connected 
with the United Irish movement. On 1 6 Sept. 
1796, when still a lad, he was arrested 
with his father by Lord Castlereagh on sus- 
picion of treason. He had previously been 
ofi*ered a commission in the British army, 
but had declined it as incompatible with his 
political sentiments. In 1802 he settled at 
Dundalk as a linen-bleacher. Subsequently 
he became proprietorof the 'Belfast Northern 
Herald,* and later on removed to Newry, 
where he established the * Newry Examiner.' 
He was also (1832-6) the proprietor and 
editor of a monthly periodical, the * Ulster 
Magazine.' In 1828 Teeling published his 
'Personal Narrative of the Kebellion of 
1798,' and in 1832 a 'Sequel' to this work 
appeared. The 'Narrative,' especially the 
earlier portion, is of considerable historical 
value. Though feeble as a literary perform- 
ance, it throws much light on the state of 
feeling among the Roman catholics of Ulster 
prior to the Rebellion, and upon the later 
stages of the United Irish movement, as well 
as upon the actual progress of the insurrec- 
tion in Ulster. In 1835 Teeling published 
* The History and Consequences of tne Battle 
of the Diamond,' a pamphlet which gives 
the Roman catholic version of the events in 
which the Orange Society originated, and in 
which the author himself had some share. 
Teeling died in Dublin in 1850. In 1802 he 
married Miss Carolan of Carrickmacross, co. 
Monaghan. His eldest daughter married, 
in 1836, Thomas (afterwards Lord) O'Hagan 
[q. v.], lord chancellor of Ireland. 

[Personal Narrative of the Irish Rebellion, 
pp. 14-22, Sequel thereto, pp. 209-32; Madden's 
United Irishmen, i. 326, iv. 15-27 ; J. Bowes 
Daly*8 Ireland in '98, pp. 376-400; Tone's 
Autobiography, ed. Barry O'Brien, 1893, ii. 347 ; 
Cornwallis Correspondence, ii. 389, 402 ; Leckv's 
Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, v. 63 ; pri- 
vate information.] C L. F. 

CHARLES (1833-1893), major-general, 
royal artillery, son of Lieutenant-general 



Henry Geor^ Teesdale of South Bersted, 
Sussex, was Dom at the Cape of Good Hope 
on 1 June 1833. He entered the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at AVoolwich in May 1848, 
and received a commission as second lieu- 
tenant in the royal artillery on 18 June 
1861. He went to Corfu in 1852, was pro- 
moted to be first lieutenant on 22 April 
1853, and in the following year was ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to Colonel (afterwards 
General Sir) William Fenwick Williams 
[q. v.], British commissioner with the Turkish 
army in Asia Minor during the war with 

Teesdale, with Dr. Humphry Sandwith 
[q. v.], another member of the British com- 
missioner's staif, accompanied Williams to 
Erzeroum, and thence to Kars, where they 
arrived on 24 Sept. 1854. Williams re- 
turned to the headquarters of the Turkish 
army at Erzeroum, leaving Teesdale at Kars 
to establish what discipline and order he 
could. During the whole winter Teesdale, 
aided by his interpreter, Mr. Zohrab, worked 
incessantly to secure the well-being of the 
troops in Kars. Sandwith says he exhibited 
such a rare combination of firmness and 
conciliatory tact that he won all hearts, 
and the grey-bearded old general, Kherim 
Pasha, never ventured on any act of impor- 
tance without first consulting this young 
subaltern of artillery. Colonel (afterwards 
Sir) Henry Atwell Lake [q. v.] and Captain 
Henry Langhome Thompson [q. v.] having 
arrived at Kars in March 1865, Teesdale re- 
turned to Erzeroum and rejoined his chief, 
who, in January, had been made a lieu- 
tenant-general, or ferik, in the Turkish army, 
and a pasha. At the same time Teesdale 
had been made a major in the Turkish army. 
In a letter from the foreign office dated 
7 March 1855, her majesty's government ap- 
proved of Teesdale's efforts in averting from 
the garrison of Kars the horrors that they 
suffered from famine in the previous winter. 
After the thawing of the snow Teesdale 
was daily engaged with Williams from early 
morning to sunset in fortifying all the heights 
around Erzeroum. 

On 1 June 1855 a courier from Lake in- 
formed AVilliams of the formidable Russian 
army assembled at Gumri, and the indica- 
tion of a speedy advance upon Kars. On 
the following day Teesdale started with Wil- 
liams and Sandwith for Kars, arriving there 
on 7 June. On the 9th Teesdale, with Zohrab 
his interpreter, went to hiai post at the 
Tahmasp batteries, and on the 12th he made 
a reconnaissance of the Russian camp. On 
the 16th the Russians, twenty-five thousand 
strong, attacked early in the morning, but 

were repulsed by the artillery fire of the 
fortress. Williams, in his despatch, records 
his thanks to Teesdale, 'whose labours were 
incessant.' Two days later the Russians 
established a blockade of Kars, and shortly 
afterwards intercepted communication with 
Erzeroum. The garrison of Kars was con- 
tinually occupied in skirmishes with the 
enemy, and in the task of strengthening the 
fortifications. On 7 Aug. an attack was 
made by the Russians, who were again 
beaten off. 

Teesdale lived in Tahmasp Tabia with 
that gallant Hungarian and first-rate 
soldier, General Kmety, for whom he had & 
great admiration. He acted as chief of his 
staff, and, besides his graver duties, was 
constantly engaged in harassing the Cossacks 
with parties of rifiemen, or in menacing and 
attacking the Russian cavalry with a com- 
pany of rifies and a couple of guns. 

Early in September the weather grew 
suddenly cold, and snow fell. Provisions 
were scarce, and desertions became fre- 
quent. Late in the month cholera appeared. 
At 4 A.H. on 29 Sept. the Russian general 
Mouravieff, with the bulk of his army, at- 
tacked the heights above Kars and on the 
opposite side of the river. At Tahmasp 
the advance was distinctly heard and pre- 
parations made to meet it. The guns were 
quietly charged with grape. Teesdale, re- 
turning from his rounds, flung himself into 
the most exposed battery in the redoubt^ 
Yuksek Tabia, the key of the position. The 
Russians advanced with their usual steadi- 
ness in three close columns, supported by 
twenty-four guns, and hoped under cover of 
the mist and in the dim light of dawn to 
effect a surprise ; but they were received 
with a crushing artillery fire of grape. 
Undaunted, the Russian infantry cheered 
and rushed up the hill to the breastworks, 
and, in spite of a murderous fire of mus- 
ketry, drove out the Turks and advanced to 
the rear of the redoubts of Tahmasp and 
Yuksek Tabia, where desperate fighting took 
place. Teesdale turned some of his guns to 
the rear and worked them vigorously. The 
redoubts being closed in rear and flanking 
one another, the artillery and musketry fire 
from them made havoc in the ranks of the 
assailants. Nevertheless the Russians pre- 
cipitated themselves upon the works, and 
some even effected an entrance. Three 
were killed *on the platform of a gun 
which at that moment was being worked by 
Teesdale, who then sprang out and led two 
charjjes with the bayonet, the Turks fight- 
ing like heroes * (Letter from General Wil- 
liams, 80 Sept. 1855). 


During the hottest part of the action, 
when the enemy's fire had driven the 
Turkish artillerymen from their guns. Tees- 
dale rallied his gunners, and hy his intrepid 
example induced them to return to their 
posts. After having led the final charge 
which completed the victory of the day, 
Teesdale, at great personal risk, saved from 
the fury of his Turks a considerable num- 
ber of the disabled among the enemy, who 
were lying wounded outside the works. 
This was witnessed and gratefully acknow- 
ledged before the Russian staff by General 
Mouravieff {London Gazettef 25 Sept. 1857). 
The battle of Kars lasted seven and a half 
hours. Near midday, however, the Russians 
were driven off in great disorder, and fled 
down the heights under a heavy musketry 
fire. Their loss was over six thousand 
killed and about as many wounded. 

Teesdale, who was hit by a piece of spent 
shell and received a severe contusion, was 
most favourably mentioned in despatches. 
On 12 Oct. General Williams wrote: * My 
aide-de-camp, Teesdale, had charge of the 
central redoubt and fought like a lion.' 
After the battle the mushir, on behalf of 
the sultan, decorated Teesdale with the 
third class of the order of the Medjidie, 
tLnd promoted him to be a lieutenant- 
eolonel in the Turkish army (Despatch 
from General Williams to Lord Claren- 
don, 31 Oct. 1865). 

Cholera and famine assumed serious pro- 
portions in October, and, although the 
former ceased in November, severe cold 
added to the sufferings of the garrison, 
and every night a number of desertions 
took place. On 22 Oct. news had arrived 
of a relieving army of twenty thousand men 
under Selim Pasha, and in the middle of 
November it was daily expected from Erze- 
roum, where it had arrivea at the beginning 
of the month. But Selim had no intention 
of advancing. On 24 Nov. it was considered 
impossible to hold out any longer, and, there 
being no hope of relief, Teesdale was sent 
with a flag of truce to the Russian camp to 
arrange for a meeting of the generals and to 
discuss terms of capitulation; these were 
mrranged the following day, and on the 28th 
the garrison laid down its arms, and Tees- 
dale and the other English oflicers became 
prisoners of war. 

The English oflicers were most hospitably 
treated bv the Russians, and started on 
90 Nov. for Tiflis, which they reached on 
8 Dec In Januarv 1866 Teesdale accom- 
panied Gtoeral Williams to Riazan, about 
180 miles firom Moscow. After having been 
pntented to the oar in March, they were 


ffiven their liberty and proceeded to Eng- 

Teesdale was made a C.B. on 21 June 
1866, thouffh still a lieutenant of royal 
artillery. He was also made an officer of 
the Legion of Honour, received the medal for 
Kars, and on 25 Sept. 1857 was awarded 
the Victoria Cross for acts of bravery at 
the battle of 29 Sept. 1865. 

From 1856 to 1859 Teesdale continued to 
serve as aide-de-camp to Fenwick-WilliamSy 
who had been appointed commandant of the 
Woolwich district. On 1 Jan. 1858 he was 
promoted to be second captain in the royal 
artillery, and on the 15th of the same month 
to be brevet major in the army for distin* 

fuished service in the field. On 9 Nov. 
858 he was appointed eauerry tothe Prince 
of Wales, a position whicn he held for thirty- 
two years. From 1 859 to 1 864 he was again 
aide-de-camp to Fenwick-AVilliams during 
his term of office as inspector-general of 
artillery at headquarters in London. Tees- 
dale was promoted to be first captain in the 
royal artillery on 3 Feb. 1866, brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 14 Dec. 1868, major royal 
artillery on 6 July 1872, and lieutenant- 
colonel in his regiment on 23 Sept. 1876. 
He was appointed aide-de-camp to tne queen 
and promoted to be colonel in the army on 
1 Oct. 1877, regimental colonel on 1 Oct. 
1882, and major-general on 22 April 1887, 
On 8 July 1887, on the occasion of the 
queen*s jubilee, he was made a knight com- 
mander of St. Michael and St. George. 

In 1890 Teesdale resigned the appoint- 
ment of equerry to the Prince of Wales, 
and was appointed master of the ceremonies 
and extra equerry to the prince, positions 
which he held until his death. He retired 
from the army active list with a pension on 
22 April 1892. He died, unmarried, on 

1 Nov. 1893 at his residence, The Ark, South 
Bersted, Sussex, from a paralytic stroke, a 
few days after his return irom a small estate 
he had in Germany. lie was buried on 
4 Nov. in South Bersted churchyard. He 
wrote a slight sketch of the services of Sir 
W, F. AVilliams for the * Proceedings ' of 
the Royal Artillery Institution (vol. xii. 
pt. ix.) 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Royal 
Artillery Records; Times (London), 2 and 6 Nov. 
1893; United Service Mag. 1855 and 1857; 
Gent. Mag. 1856 and 1858; Lake's Kars and 
our Captivity in Russia, 1856; Sandwith's Nar- 
rative of the Siege of Kars, 1856 ; A Campaiga 
with the Turks in Asia, by Charles Dancan, 

2 vols. 1856.] R. H. V. 

TEGAI (1805-1864), WeUh poet. [See 


Tegg i 

TEGQ, THOMAS (1776-1846), book- 
seller, the son of a grocer, was bom at Wim- 
bledon, Surrey, on 4 March 1776. Being 
left an orphan at the aee of five, he was sent 
to Galashiel in Selkirkshire, where he was 
boarded, lodged, clothed, and educated for 
ten guineas a year. In 1785 he was bound 
apprentice to Alexander Meggett, a book- 
seller at Dalkeith. His master treating him 
very badly, he ran awa^, and for a month 
gained a living at Berwick by selling chap- 
books about fortune-telling, conjuring, and 
dreams. At Newcastle he stayed some 
weeks, and formed an acquaintance with 
Thomas Bewick, the wood engraver. I*ro- 
ceeding to Sheffield, he obtained employ- 
ment from Gale, the proprietor of the * Shef- 
field Register,' at seven shillings a week, 
and during a residence of nine months saw 
Tom Paine and Charles Dibdin. His further 
wanderings led him to Ireland and Wales, 
and then, after some years at Lynn in Nor- 
folk, he came to London in 1796, and ob- 
tained an engagement with William Lane, 
the proprietor of the Minerva Library at 
53 Leadenhall Street. He subsequently served 
with John and Arthur Arch, the quaker 
booksellers of Gracechurch Street, where he 
stayed until he began business on his own 

Having received 200/. from the wreck of 
his father's property, he took a shop in part- 
nership witn a Mr. Dewick in Aldersgate 
Street, and became a bookmaker as well as 
a bookseller, his first small book, * The Com- 
plete Confectioner,' reaching a second edition. 
On 20 April 1800 he married, and opened a 
shop in St. John Street, Clerkenwell, but, 
losing money through the treachery of a 
friend, he took out a country auction license 
to try his fortune in the provinces. He 
started with a stock of shilling political pam- 
phlets and some thousands of the * Monthly 
Visitor.* At Worcester he obtained a parcel 
of books from a clergyman, and held his first 
auction, which produced 30/. With his wife 
acting as clerk, he travelled through the 
country, buying up duplicates in private 
libraries, and rapidly paying oiF his debts. 
Ileturning to London m 1805, he opened a 
shop at 111 Chcapside, and began printing a 
series of pamphlets which were abridgments 
of popular works. His success was great. 
Of such books he at one time had two hun- 
dred kinds, many of which sold to the extent 
of four thousand copies. Up to the close of 
1840 he published lour thousand works on 
his own account, of which not more than 
twenty were failures. Of 'The Whole Life 
of Nelson,' which he brought out immediately 
after the receipt of the news of the battle of 


Trafalgar in 1805, he sold fifty thousand six- 
penny copies, and of ' The Life of Mrs. Maiy 
Ann Clarke,' 1810, thirteen thousand copies 
at 7«. Qd. each. 

In 1824 he purchased the copyri^t of 
Hone's * Everyday Book and Taole Book,' 
and, republishing the whole in weekly parts, 
cleared a very large profit. He then gave 
Hone 500/. to write * The Year Book,' which 
proved much less successful. 

As soon as his own publications com- 
menced paying well he gave up the auctions, 
which he had continued nightly at 111 Cheap- 
side. In 1824 he made nis final move to 
73 Cheapside. In 1825 he commenced ' The 
London Encyclopaedia of Science, Art, Lite- 
rature, and Practical Mechanics,' which ran 
to twenty-two volumes. But his reputation 
as a bookseller chiefiy rested upon his cheap 
reprints, abridgments of popular works, ana 
his distribution of remainders, which he pur- 
chased on a very large scale. He is mentioned 
as a populariser of literature in Thomas Car- 
lyle's famous petition on the copyright bill 
in April 1839. 

In 1835, being then a common councilman 
of the ward of Cheap, he was nominated an 
alderman, but was not elected. In 1836 he 
was chosen sherifi", and paid the fine to escape 
serving. To the usual fine of 400/. he added 
another 100/., and the whole went to found 
a Tegg scholarship at the City of London 
school, and he increased the gift by a valu- 
able collection of books. 

He died on 21 April 1845, and was buried 
at Wimbledon. He was generally believed 
to have been the original of Timothy Twigg 
in Thomas Hood's novel, *Tylney Hall, 
3 vols. 1834. Tegg left three sons, of whom 
Thomas Tegg, a bookseller, died on 15 Sept. 
1871 {Bookseller, 30 June 1864 p. 372, 3 Oct. 
1871 p. 811); and William is separately 

Tegg was author of: 1. * Memoirs of Sir 
F. Burdett,' 1804. 2. * Tegg's Prime Song 
Book, bang up to the mark,' 1810 ; third col- 
lection, 1810; fourth collection,1810. 3. 'The 
Rise, Progress, and Termination of the O. P. 
War at Covent Garden, in Poetic Epistles,' 
1810. 4. * Chronology, or the Historical 
Companion : a register of event* from the 
earliest period to the present time,' 1811 ; 
5th edit. 1854. 5. ' Book of Utility or Re- 
pository of useful Information, connected 
with the Moral, Intellectual, and Phvsical 
Condition of Man,' 1822. 6. ' Remarks on 
the Speech of Seipeant Talfourd on the Laws 
relating to Copyright,' 1837. 7. 'Handbook 
for Emigrants, containing Information on Do- 
mestic, Mechimical, Medical, and other sub* 
jects/ 1839. 8. ' Extension of Copyright pro- 


poted by Serjeant Talfourd; 1840. 9. <Trea- 
suiy of Wit and Anecdote/ 1842. 10. * A 
PTMent to an Apprentice/ 2nd edit. 1848. 
He aleo edited ' The Mag^ine of Knowledge 
and Amusement/ 1843-4 ; twelve numbers 

[Ciirwen*8 Booksellers, 1873, pp. 379-98; 
Bookseller, 1 Sept. 1870, p. 756.] G. C. B. 

TEGG> WILLIAM (1816-1896), son of 
Thomas Teffg [q. v.], was bom in Cheapside, 
London, in 1816. After being articled to an 
enffraver, he was taken into ms father^s pub- 
lishing and bookselling business, to wnich 
be succeeded on his father*s death in 1845. 
He was well known as a publisher of school- 
books, and he also formed a considerable 
export connection. One branch of his busi- 
ness consisted of the reprinting of standard 
works at very moderate prices. In his later 
years he removed to 85 Queen Street, Cheap- 

He knew intimately George Cruikshank 
and Charles Dickens in their early days, while 
Kean, Kemble, and Dion Boucicault were 
his fast friends. He was a well-known and 
energetic member of the common council of 
the city of London. He retired from busi- 
ness some time before his death, which took 
place at 13 Doughty Street, London, on 
23 Dec. 1895. 

His name is attached to upwards of forty 
works, many of them compilations. The fol- 
lowing are the best known: 1. *The Cruet 
Stand: a Collection of Anecdotes/ 1871. 
2. 'Epitaphs . . . and a Selection of Epi- 
grams,' 1875. 3. * Proverbs from Far and 
Near, Wise Sentences . . ./ 1875. 4. * Laco- 
nics, or good Words of the Best Authors,' 
1876. 6. * The Mixture for Low Spirits, being 
a Compound of Witty Sayings/ 4th ed. 1876. 
6. ^Trials of W. Hone for publishing Three 
Parodies/ 1876. 7. * Wills of their own, 
Curious, Eccentric, and Benevolent,' 1876, 
4th ed. 1879. 8. ' The Last Act, being the 
Funeral Rites of Nations and Individuals,* 
1876. 9. ' Meetings and Greetings : Saluta- 
tions of Nations,' 1877. 10. * The Knot tied. 
Marriage Ceremonies of all Nations,' 1877. 
11. 'Posts and Telegraphs, Past and Pre- 
sent, with an Account of the Telephone 
and Phonograph/ 1878. 12. ' Shakespeare 
and his Contemporaries, together with the 
Hots of his Plays, Theatres, and Actors,' 
1879. Under the name of Peter Parley he 
bioiight out much popular juvenile litera- 
tnra, which was either reprinted from or 
ibnnded on books written by the American 
writer, Sftmnel Griswold Goodrich (Alli- 
MWB, Dki. qf JBnpHsh Literature, 1859, 


[Times, 27 Dec. 1895, p. 7 ; Athenseum, 1895, 
ii. 903; Bookseller, 30 June 1864, 10 Jan. 
1896.] G. C. B. 

TEGID (1792-1852), Welsh poet and 
antiquary. [See Jones, John.] 

TEIGNMOUTH, Baron. [See Shore, 
John, first baron, 1751-1834.] 

TEILO {Jl, 550), British saint, was bom 
at 'Eccluis Gunniau (or Guiniau)' in the 
neighbourhood of Tenby (Lib. Land, pp. 124, 
255). The statement of the life in the 
' Liber Landavensis ' that he was of noble 
parentage is supported by the genealogies, 
which make him the son of a man variously 
called Enoc, Eusych, Cussith, and Eisyllt, 
and great-grandson of Ceredig ap Cunedda 
Wledig (Myvyrian Archaioloffy, 2nd edit, 
pp. 416, 430; lolo MSS. p. 124). In the 
life of Oudoceus in the * Liber Landavensis ' 
the form is Ensic (p. 130). Mr. Phillimore be- 
lieves {Cymmrodor^ xi. 125) the name should 
be Usyllt, the patron saint of St. Issell's, 
near Tenby. Teilo's first preceptor was, 
according to his legend, Dyfrig (cf. the Life 
of Dyfrig in Lib, Land. p. 80). He next 
entered the monastic school of Paulinus, 
where David {d. 601 ?) [q. v.], his kinsman, 
was his fellow-pupil. In substantial sgree- 
ment with the accounts given in the legends 
of David and Padam, it is said that the three 
saints received a divine command to visit 
Jerusalem, where they were made bishops — 
a story clearly meant to bring out British 
independence of Rome. Teilo especially dis- 
tinguished himself on this journey by his 
saintly humility and power as a preacher. 
He received as a gift a bell of miraculous 
virtue, and returned to take charge of the 
diocese of Llandaff in succession to Dyfrig. 
Almost immediately, however, the yellow 
plague (which is known to have caused the 
death of MaelgwnG wynedd about 547) began 
to rage in Britain, whereupon Teilo, at the 
bidding of an angel, witharew to Brittany, 
spending some time on the way as the guest 
of King Geraint of Cornwall. When the 
plague was over it was his wish to return to 
this country, but, at the instance of King 
Budic and Bishop Samson [q.v.],he remained 
in Brittany for seven years and seven months. 
Returning at last to bis bishopric, he became 
chief over all the churches of 'dextralis 
Britannia,' sending Ismael to fill the place 
of David at Menevia, and other disciples of 
his to new dioceses which he created. As 
his end drew near, three churches, viz. 
Penally, Llandaff, and Llandeilo Fawr 
(where he died), contended for the honour 
of receiving his corpse, but the dispute was 
settled by the creation of three bodies, a 




miracle which is the subject of one of the 
triads {Myv. Arch, Ist ser. p. 44). 

This is the Llandaff account of Teilo, 
meant to bring out his position as second 
bishop of the see. In Rhygyfarch's * Life of 
St. David/ written before 1099, Teilo ap- 
pears, on the other hand, as a disciple of 
that saint {Camhro-British Saints^ pp. 124, 
135^) ; and, according to Giraldus Cambrensis 
{Itinerary, ii. 1, MS. d. vi. 102, of Rolls 
edit.), he was his immediate successor as 
bishop of St. David's. There is, however, 
no reason to suppose he was a diocesan 
bishop at all. Like others of his age, he 
founded monasteries (many of them bearing 
his name), and Llandaff was perhaps the 
'archimonasterium' (for the term see Lib, 
Laiid, pp. 74, 75, 129) or parent house 
(Cymmrodor, xi. 115-16). Dedications to St. 
Teilo are to be found throughout South 
Wales; Rees (Welsh Saints, pp. 245-6) 
gives a list of eighteen, and a number of 
other * Teilo' churches, which have dis- 
appeared or cannot be identified, are men- 
tioned in the 'Liber Landavensis.' That 
David and Teilo worked together appears 
likely from the fact that of the eighteen 
Welsh dedications to Teilo all but three are 
within the region of David's activity, and 
outside that district between the Usk and 
the Tawy in which there are practically no 

* Dewi ' churches. 

There are no recognised dedications to 
Teilo in Cornwall or Devon, though Borlase 
seeks (Aye of the Saints^ p. 134) to connect 
him with Endellion, St. Issev, Philleigh, 
and other places. The two forms of the 
saint's name, Eliud and Teilo (old Welsh 

* Teliau ' ), are both old (see the marginalia 
of the * Book of St. Chad,' as printed in the 
1893 edition of the Lib, Land,) Professor 
Rhys believes the latter to be a compound 
of the prefix * to ' and the proper name Eliau 
or Eiliau (Arch, Cambr, 6th ser. xii. 37-8). 
Teilo's festival was 9 Feb. 

[Teilo is the subject of a life which appears 
in the Liber L'indavensis(ed. 1893, pp. 97-1 17), 
in the portion written about 1150, and also in 
the Cottonian MS. Vesp. A. xiv. art. 4, which is 
of about 1200. In the latter manuscript the 
life is ascribed to * Geoffrey, brother of bishop 
Urban of Llandaff,' whom Mr. Gwenogvryn 
Evans seeks (pref. to Lib. Land. p. xxi) to 
identify with Geoffrey of Monmouth. An 
abridged version, found, according to Hardy 
(Descriptive Catalogue, i. 132), in Cottonian 
MS. Tib. E. i. fol. 16. was ascribed to John of 
Tinmouth [q.v.], was used by Capgrave (Nova 
Legenda Anglise, p. 280 b), and taken from him 
by the Bollandists (Acta S3. Feb. 9, ii. 808) ; 
other authorities cited.] J. £, L. 

TELFAIR, CHARLES (1777P-1833), 
naturalist, was bom at Belfast about 1777, 
and settled in Mauritius, where he practised 
as a surgeon. He became a correspondent of 
Sir William Jackson Hooker [q. v.l sending 
plants to Kew, and established thel>otaniciu 
gardens at Mauritius and Reunion. He also 
collected bones of the solitaire from Rodri- 
guez, which he forwarded to the Zoological 
Society and to the Andersonian Museum, 
Glasgow. In 1830 he published ' Some 
Account of the State of ^avery at Mauri- 
tius since the British Occupation in 1810, in 
Refutation of Anonymous Charges . . . 
against Government and that Colony,' Port 
Louis, 4to. He died at Port Louis on 
14 July 1833, and was buried in the ceme- 
tery there. There is an oil portrait of Tel- 
fair at the Masonic Lodge, Port Louis, and 
Hooker commemorated him by the African 
genus Telfairia in the cucumber family. 
His wife, who died in 1832, also conmiuni- 
cated drawings and specimens of Mauritius 
algffi to Hooker and Harvey. 

[Journal of Botany, 1834, p. 150; Strickland 
and Melville's Dodo and its Kindred, 1848, 
p. 52 ; Britten and Boulger s Biographical Index 
of Botanists.] G. S. B. 

TELFER, JAMES (1800-1862), minor 
poet, son of a shepherd, was born in the 
parish of Southdcan, Roxburghshire, on 3 Dec. 
1800. Beginning life as a shepherd, he gra- 
dually educated himself for the post of a 
country schoolmaster. He taught first at 
Castleton, Langholm, Dumfriesshire, and then 
for twenty-five years conducted a small ad- 
venture school at Saughtrees, Liddisdale, 
Roxburghshire. On a very limited income 
he supported a wife and /amily, and found 
leisure for literary work. From youth he 
had been an admirer and imitator of James 
Hogg (1770-1835) [a. v.], the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, who befriendea him. As a writer of 
the archaic and quaint ballad style illus- 
trated in Hogg*s 'Queen's Wake,* Telfer 
eventually attained a measure of ease and 
even elegance in composition, and in 1824 
he published a volume entitled 'Border 
Ballads and Miscellaneous Poems.* The 
ballad, * The Gloamyne Buchte,' descriptive 
of the potent influence of fairy song, is 
a skilful development of a happy concep- 
tion. Telfer contributed to "Wilson^s 'Tales 
of the Borders,' 1834, and in 1836 he pub- 
lished ' Barbara Gray,* an interesting prose 
tale. A selected volume of his prose and 
verse appeared in 1852. He died on 18 Jan* 

[Rogers's Modem Scottish Minstrel; Grant 
Wilson's Poets and Poetry of Scotland.] T. B. , 



neer, was bom on 9 Aug. 1757 at Westerkirk, 
a secluded hamlet of Eskdale, in Eastern 
Dumfriesshire. He lost his father, a shep- 
herd, a few months lifter his birth, and was 
left to the care of his mother, who earned 
a scanty living hy occasional farm work. 
When he was old enough he herded cattle 
and made himself generally useful to the 
nei^bouring farmers, and grew up so cheer- 
ful a boy that he was known as 'Laughing 
Tarn.' At intervals he attended the parish 
school of Westerkirk, where he learned 
nothinff more than the three R's. He was 
about fifteen when he was apprenticed to a 
mason at Langholm, where a new Duke of 
Buccleuch was improving the houses and 
holdings of his tenantry, and Telford found 
much and varied work for his hands to do. 
His industry, intelli^nce, and love of read- 
ing attracted the notice of a Langholm lady, 
who made him free of her little library, and 
thus was fostered a love of literature which 
continued with him to the end of his busy 
life. * Paradise Lost ' and Bums's * Poems ' 
were among his favourite books, and from 
reading verse he took to writing it. His ap- 
prenticeship was over, and he was working 
as a journeyman mason at eighteenpence a 
day, when at two-and-twenty he found his 
rhymes admitted into Iluddiman's ' Edin- 
burgh Magazine' (see Matne, Siller Oun, 
ed. 1836, p. 227). A poetical address to 
Bums entreating him to write more verse 
in the spirit of the * Cotter's Saturday Night ' 
was found among Bums's papers after his 
death, and a portion of it was published in 
the first edition of Currie's 'Burns' (1800, 
App. ii. note D). The most ambitious of 
Telford's early metrical performances was 
' Eskdale,' a poem descriptive of his native 
district, which was first published in the 
'Poetical Museum' (Hawick, 1784), and 
was reprinted by Telford himself with a 
few additions, and for private circulation, 
some forty years afterwards. Southey said 
of it, ' Many poems which evinced less obser- 
vation, less feeling, and were in all respects 
of less promise, have obtained university 

Having learned in the way of his trade all 
that was to be learned in Eskdale, Telford 
removed in 1780 to Edinburgh, where the 
new town was in course of being built, and, 
skilled masons being in demand, he easily 
found suitable employment. He availed 
himself of the opportunities which his stay 
afibrded him for studying and sketching 
specimens of the older architecture of Scot- 
land. After spending two years in Edinburgh 
he resolTed on trying his fortune in London, 

whither he proceeded at the age of twenty- 
five. His first employment was as a hewer 
at Somerset House, then in course of erection 
by Sir William Chambers. Two years later, 
in 1784, Telford received a commission fit is 
not known how procured) to superintena the 
erection, among other buildings, of a house 
for the occupation of the commissioner of 
Portsmouth dockyard. Here he had op- 
portunities, which he did not neglect, for 
watching dockyard operations ot various 
kinds, by a knowledge of which he profited 
in after life. His work in his own depart- 
ment gave great satisfaction. He amused 
his leisure by writing verses, and he improved 
it by studying chemistry. By the end of 
1786 his task was completed, and now a 
new and wider career was opened to him. 

One of Telford's Dumfriesshire acquaint- 
ances and patrons was a Mr. Johnstone of 
Westerhall, who assumed the name of Pul- 
teney on marrying a great heiress, the niece 
of AVilliam Pulteney, earl of Bath [q.v.l Be- 
fore Telford left London for I*ortsmoutn Mr. 
(afterwards Sir William) Pulteney had con- 
sulted him respecting some repairs to be 
executed in the family mansion at Wester- 
hall, and took a great liking to his young 
countryman. Pulteney became through his 
wife a large landowner in the neighbour- 
hood of Shrewsbury, which he long repre- 
sented in parliament. AVhen Telford's em- 
ployment at Portsmouth came to an end, 
Pulteney thought of fitting up the castle at 
Shrewsbury as a residence, and invited Tel- 
ford to Shrewsbury to superintend the 
required alterations. Telfora accepted the 
invitation, and while he was working at the 
alterations the office of surveyor of public 
works for Shropshire became vacant. The 
appointment was bestowed on Telford, doubt- 
less through the infiuence of Pulteney. Of 
Telford's multifarious, important, and trying 
duties in this responsible and conspicuous 
position, it must suffice to say that he dis- 
charged them most successfully and made 
himself personally popular, so much so that 
in 1793, without solicitation on his part, he 
was appointed by the Shropshire county 
magnates sole agent, engineer, and architect 
of tne Ellesmere canal, projected to connect 
the Mersey, the Dee, and the Severn. It 
was the greatest work of the kind then in 
course of being undertaken in the United 
Kingdom. On accepting the appointment 
Telford resigned the county surveyorship of 
Shropshire. His salary as engineer of the 
Ellesmere canal was only 500/. a year, and 
out of this he had to pay a clerk, a foreman, 
and his own travelling expenses. 

The labours of Telford as engineer of the 




Ellt^meiv; canal incluifr :-ir; i-rii*-r*2ifc*c:-.i 
which were on a Male *htz. zi.ykrLl'r^z ir 
England and marktd bj rr-A*.^.h' 'j. 
The aqueducts over the Tkllr-j of izit Cer-jiT 
at Chirk and over the Ihrt a: 'P:'-T-«rj*7-TA- 
have been pronounced 1-t iLe cLI-ef F.^.r'.v' 
historian of inland navira:::*:i ::■ it ' t=::cr 
the boldest efforts of human iT:Trz;:i:?z. ir. 
modem times/ The oripnalitj :f tht crCfSrj- 
tion carried out lav in both cs.*--* n:-! 5^:> sll^cI 
in the ma^iitude of the aqueiur:*, urijreor- 
dented as this was, as in the c:n*tniir:::':: ;' 
the bed in which the canal was ctrnt-i rrer 
river and valley. A similar fe-a: hai l^^n ;»rr- 
formed by lirindlev, but he tr£ir.*;*>r:ed Tie 
water of the canal in a bed ofpadilei earrb. 
and necessarily of a breadth whi^-h rvi^iiirei 
the support of piers, abutments, a:; i arches 
of the most massive masonry. In spi'e of 
this the frosts, by expanding I bf m. U: puddle, 
frequently produced fissures which burs: ibr 
masonrj', suffering the water to esoape, and 
sometimes causing the overthr«."»w of the 
aqueducts. Por the bed of puddled eanh 
Telford substituted a trough of cast-iron 
plates infixed in square stone masonry. Not 
only was the displacement pniduced by frosts 
averted, but there was a great saving in 
the size and strength of the masonry, an 
enormous amount of which would have been 
required to support a puddled channel at 
the height of the Chirk and Pont -Cysy lit au 
aou^'duets. Tlie Chirk aque<luct consulted 
ot ten arches of forty span each, carrying 
the canal 70 ft. above the level of the river 
over a valli'V 700 ft. wide, and forming a 
most picturesr|U(' object in a beautiful land- 
HC«p*.». On a still larger scale was the Pont- 
CyKylltau aqueduct over the Dee four miles 
north of (,'hirk and in the vale of Llangollen ; 
121 ft. over the level of the river at low 
water tin* canal was carried in its cast-iron 
trough, with a water-way 11 ft. 10 in. 
wid«% and nineteen arches extending to the 
length of 1,007 ft. The first stone of the ; 
( Ml irk aqueduct was laid on 17 June 1796, 
and if- wbh completed in 1801. The first 
Htriiif. of I }|i. ot her great aqueduct was laid on 
'2n .Iiirw I70o, and it was op«;ned for traffic 
ill lHOr>. Of this i'ont-CyHvUtau a(|ueduct 
Sir Walter S<?oti said to Southey that *it 
wiiH tin* iiioHt impresHiv*; work of art which 
liM had I'ViT HiM.ii (Smilk«, p. 159). 

Ill 1H(M) T«*lford was in Lcmdon giving 

I'vidnnci* iM'fon* a w^lect committee of the 

llniiMn of (■omiiiouH which was considering 

iniji'ftM for till! improvement of the port of 

I guidon. OuM nf theHe was the removal 

of thn old London Kridgn and the erection 

f nnif. While surveyor of public 

^hropshirtt 1 elford had had much 


b ia b:id£v.4<aHi:Bf . Of several 
inc. IrjiTtif wbk^ br boils in tliAt eoantr. 
I'lxt *fcrli*«- In i^;^>-^. iras a twt fine one 
:'Tr7 lirr SrT<r72 fcs B^t^vu. iboot nudwaj 
tiec w-ettt Sis^-wfi-^irT a&i Briirnortb ; it con- 
&«:«i :.f A iir^^ ^rc-b :f 130 i**i span. He 
ac'W -^irypoi^ :.:• T-reyr: a new I/mdon Bridge 
cf lr:c aac of a fis^^e azrh. The scheme 
w£5 Tr2Jc ilrd tr icaay. but, after listening 
zo tbr *-Tidc^ce -I'f tXT«en*- a parliamentary 
Ci'.zcuJv.^SK aj'Tri'Vr^ of ::.aad the preliminary 
wirls w«*, h leezs. a«MaallT begun. The 
■rx«--ti:'r cf :ir h'Ad pr-^ject was not pro- 
c*e^i«2 wi:h, on acei-usi. i* is said, of difficul- 
lir* c-anrc:»rd wi:b makingibe necessary ap- 
jir^acb^ • i?'. p. l-^l •. But TeUbrd*s plan of 
the nrw bridi»r was published in li?OLand pro- 
currd hlzz. faT0UTabl« notice in hi^h quarters, 
fr:m :Le king and the Prince" of Wales 

T*^lford's skill and energies were now to 
be ;i::Iis»eNl for an object ver\- dear to him, 
the improvement of his native country. At 
(he br;nnmn£rof the centurk',at the instance 
of hi* old friend Sir William Pulteney, who 
was governor of the British Fisheries Society, 
he inspected the harbours at their various 
stations on the northern and eastern coasts 
of Scotland, and drew up an instructive and 
suggestive report. Telford's name was now 
well known m London, but doubtless this 
report contributed to procure him in 1801 a 
commission from the government to under- 
take a far wider Scottish survey. This step 
was taken from considerations partly con- 
nected with national defence. There was 
no naval station anywhere on the Scottish 
coasts, and an old project was being revived 
to make the great glen of Scotland, which 
cuts it diagonally from the North Sea to the 
Atlantic, available as a water-way for ships 
of war as well as for traffic. The results of 
Telford's investigations were printed in an 
exhaustive report prt*sented to parliament 
in 1803. Two bodies of commissioners were 
appointed to superintend and make provi- 
sion for carrying out his recommendations, 
which included the construction of the Cale- 
donian canal in the central glen already men- 
tioned, and, what was still more urgently 
needed, extensive road-making and bridge- 
building in the highlands and northern coun- 
ties of Scotland. Telford was appointed en- 
gineer of the Caledonian canal, the whole 
cost of which was to be defrayed by parliamen- 
tary grants. The expenditure on the road- 
making and bridge-building, to be planned 
by him, was to be met only partly by parlia- 
mentary grants, government supplying one 
half of the money required wherever the land- 
owners were ready to contribute the other 




half. The hmdownen as a body cheerfully 
accepted this arrangement, while Telford 
threw himself body and soul into both enter- 
prises with a patriotic even greater than his 
customary professional zeal. 

The cnief roads in the highlands and 
northern counties of Scotland had been made 
after the rebellions of 1716 and 1745 purely 
for militaiy purposes, and were quite made- 
quate as means of general communication. 
The usefulness, such as it was, of these 
military roads was moreover marred by the 
absence of bridges: for instance, over the 
Tay at Dunkeld and the Spey at Fochabers, 
these and other principal rivers having to be 
crossed by ferry-boats, always inconvenient 
and often dangerous. In mountainous dis- 
tricts the people were scattered in isolated 
clusters of miserable huts, without possibility 
of intercommunication, and with no industry 
soprofi table as the illicit distillation of whisky . 
*uie interior of the county of Sutherland 
being inaccessible, the only track lay along 
the snore among rocks and sands, which were 
covered by the sea at every tide.* In eighteen 
years, thanks to the indefatigable energy of 
Telford, to the prudent liferality of the 
government, and to the public spirit of the 
Landowners, the face of the Scottish high- 
lands and northern counties was completely 
changed. Nine hundred and twenty miles 
of good roads and 120 bridges were added 
to their means of communication. In his 
survey of the results of these operations and 
of his labours on the Caledonian canal Tel- 
ford speaks not merely as an engineer, but as 
a social economist and reformer. Three thou- 
sand two hundred men had been annually 
employed, and taught for the first time the 
use of tools. ' These undertakings,' he said, 
' may be regarded in the light of a working 
acadiemy, from which ei^ht hundred men have 
annually gone forth improved workmen.' 
The plough of civilisation had been substi- 
tuted for the former crooked stick, with a 
piece of iron affixed to it, to be drawn or 
pushed along, and wheeled vehicles carried 
the loads formerly borne on the backs of 
women. The spectacle of habits of industry' 
and its rewards nad raised the moral standard 
of the population. According to Telford, 
' about 200,000/. had been granted in fifteen 
years,* and the country haia been advanced 
' at least a century.* 

The execution of Telford's plans for the 
improvement of Scottish harbours and fish- 
ing stations followed on the successful in- 
ception of his road-making and bridg&-build- 
iig. Of the more important of his harbour 
woriUy that at the great fish^y station Wick, 
hflgon Ia 1806^ was the earliesti while about 

the latest which he designed was that at 
Dundee in 1814. Aberdeen, Peterhead, 
Banff, Leith, the port of Edinburgh, are only 
a few of his works of harbour extension and 
construction which did so much for the com- 
merce and fisheries of Scotland, and in some 
coses his labours were facilitated by pre- 
vious reports on Scottish harbours made by 
Rennie [see Rennib, John, 1783-1821], 
whose recommendations had not been carried 
out from a lack of funds. In this respect 
Telford was morel fortunate, considerable 
advances from the fund accumulated by the 
commissioners of forfeited estates in Scot- 
land being made to aid local contributions on 
harbour works. 

Of Telford's engineering enterprises in 
Scotland the most conspicuous, but far from 
tlie most useful, was the Caledonian canal. 
Though nature had furnished for it most of 
the water-way, the twenty or so miles of 
land which connected the various fresh-water 
lochs forming the main route of the canal, 
some sixty miles in length, stretched through 
a country full of engineering difficulties. 
Moreover the canal was planned on an un- 
usually large scale, for use by ships of war ; 
it was to have been 110 feet wide at the 
entrance. From the nature of the ground at 
the north-eastern and south-western termini 
of the canal immense labour was required 
to provide basins from which in all twenty- 
eignt locks had to be constructed from the en- 
trance locks at each extremity, so as to reach 
the highest point on the canal a hundred 
feet above high- water mark. Between Loch 
Eil, which was to be the southernmost point 
of the canal, and the loch next to it on the 
north. Loch Lochy, the distance was only 
eight miles, but the difference between their 
levels was ninety feet. It was necessary to 
connect them by a series of eight gigantic 
locks, to which Telford gave tne name of 
* Neptune's Staircase.' The works were com- 
menced at the beginning of 1804, but it was 
not until October 1822 that the first vessel 
traversed the canal from sea to sea. It had 
cost nearly a million sterling, twice the 
amount of the original estimate. Still worse, 
it proved to be almost useless in comparison 
with the expectations which Telford had 
formed of its commercial promise. This was 
the one great disappointment of his profes- 
sional career. His own theory for the finan- 
cial failure of the canal was that, while 
he had reckoned on a very profitable trade 
in timber to be conveved from the Baltic to 
the western port« of Great Britain and to 
Ireland, this hope was defeated by the policy 
of the government and of parliament in 
levying an almost prohibitory duty on Baltic 




timber in favour of that of Canada. He 
himself reaped little pecuniary profit from the 
time and labour which he devoted to the 
canal . As its engineer- in-chief during twenty- 
one years he received in that capacity only 
287/. per annum. 

"While engaged in these Scottish under- 
takings, Telford was also busily occupied in ! 
England. He had numerous engagements 
to construct and improve canals. In two 
instances he was called on to follow, with 
improved machinery and appliances, where 
Brmdley had led the way. One was the sub- 
stitution of a new tunnel for that which had 
been made by Brindley, but had become in- 
adequate, at barecastle Hill in Staffordshire 
on tne Grand Junction canal ; another was 
the improvement, sometimes amounting to 
reconstruction, of Brindley's Birmingham 
canal, which at the point of its entrance into 
Birmingham had become * little better than 
a crooked ditch.* Long before this Telford's 
reputation as a canal-maker had procured 
him a continental reputation. In 1808-10 
he planned and personally contributed to the 
construction of the Got ha canal, to complete 
the communication between the Baltic and 
the North Sea. I^esenting difficulties similar 
to those which he had overcome in the case 
of the Caledonian canal, the work was on 
a much larger scale, the length of the arti- 
ficial canal which had to be made to connect 
the lakes being 6o miles, and that of the 
whole navigation 120 miles. In Sweden he 
was feted as a public benefactor, and the 
king conferred on him the Swedish order of 
knighthood, honours of a kind never bestowed 
on nim at home. 

The improvement of old and the con- 
struction of new roads in England were re- 
quired by the industrial development of the 
country, bringing with it an increased need 
for safe and rapid postal communication. A 
parliamentary committee in 1814 having re- 
ported on the ruinous and dangerous state 
of the roads between Carlisle and Glasgow, 
the legislature found it desirable, from the 
national importance of the route, to vote 
60,000/. for it« improvement. Sixty-nine miles, 
two-thirds of the new and improved road, 
were placed under Telford's charge, and, like 
all his English roads, it was constructed with 
a solidity greater than that obtained by the 
subsequent and more popular system of 
Macaaam. Of Telford's otner English road 
imnrovements the most noticeable were those 
which the mountainous regions of 
^les were permeated by roads with 
opanying bridges, while through the 
f A new and safe route, under the 
d A parliamentary commissioni from 

Shrewsbury to Holyhead, communication 
between London and Dublin, to say nothing 
of the benefits conferred on the districts 
traversed, was greatly fiicilitated. But the 
very increase of traffic thus caused made 
onl^ more apparent the inconvenience and 
penl attachea to the transit of passengers and 
goods in open feny-boats over the dangerous 
straits of Menai. It was resolved that they 
should be bridged. The task having been 
entrusted to Telford, the execution of it was 
one of his greatest engineering achieve* 

Telford*s design for the Menai bridge was 
based on the suspension principle, of which 
few English engineers had hitherto made 
any practical trial. Telford's application of 
it at Menai was on a scale of enormous mag- 
nitude. When it had been approved by emi- 
nent experts, and recommended by a select 
committee of the House of Commons, parlia- 
ment granted the money required for the 
execution of the scheme. The main chains 
of wrought iron on which the roadway was 
to be laid were sixteen in number, and the 
distance between the piers which supported 
them was no less than 650 feet ; the pyra- 
mids, this being the form which the piers 
assumed at their utmost elevation, were 
53 feet above the level of the road- 
way, and the height of each of the two 
principal piers on which the main chains 
of the bridge were to be suspended was 
153 feet. The first stone of the main pier 
was laid in August 1819, but it was not 
until six years afterwards that things were 
sufficiently advanced for the difficult opera- 
tion of hoisting into position the first 
of the main chains, w^eighing 23} tons 
between the points of suspension. On 
26 April 1825 an enormous assemblage on 
the banks of the straits witnessed the opera- 
tion, and hailed its success with loud and 
prolonged cheering. Telford himself had 
come from London to Bangor to superintend 
the operations. Anxiety respect mg their 
result had kept him sleepless for weeks. It 
is said that wlien on the eventful day some 
friends came to congratulate him on his 
success, they found him on his knees engaged 
in prayer. Soon afterwards, in 1826, Telford 
erected a suspension bridge on the same prin- 
ciple as that at Menai over the estuary of the 

During the speculative mania of 1825-6 
a good many raQwavs were projected, among 
them one in 1826 for a line from London 
to Liverpool. The canal proprietors, alarmed 
at the threatened competition with their 
water-ways, consulted Telford, whose advice 
was that the existing canal systems should 




be made as complete as possible. Accordingly 
he was commissioned to design the Bir- 
mingliam and Liverpool junction ^m a 
point on the Birmingham canal near Wolver- 
hampton to EUesmere Port on the Mersey, 
an operation by which a second communica- 
tion was established between Birmingham 
on the one hand, and Liverpool and Man- 
chester on the other. This was the last of 
Telford's canals. It is said that he declined 
the appointment of engineer to the projected 
Liverpool and Manchester railway because 
it might injuriously affect the interests of 
the canal proprietors. 

Amonff the latest works planned by Tel- 
ford, and executed after he was seventy, 
were the fine bridges at Tewkesbury (1826); 
a cast-iron bridge of one arch, and that at 
Gloucester (1828) of one larce stone arch; 
the St. Katherine Docks at London, opened 
in 1828; the noble Dean Bridge at Edinburgh 

il831); the skilfully planned North Level 
rainage in the Fen country (1830-4); and 
the great bridge over the Clyde at Glasgow 
(1833-5), which was not opened until rather 
more than a year after Telford*s death. His 
latest professional engagement was in 1834, 
when, at the reauest of the great Duke of 
Wellington, as lord warden of the Cinque 
portfl, he visited Dover and framed a plan 
for the improvement of its harbour. 

During his latest years, when he had re- 
tired from active employment and deafness 
diminished his enjoyment of society, he drew 
up a detailed account of his chief engineering 
enterprises, to which he prefixed a fragment 
of autobiography. Telford was one of the 
founders, in 1818, of the society which be- 
came the Institute of Civil Engineers. He 
was its first president, and sedulously fostered 
its development, bestowing on it the nucleus 
of a library, and aiding strenuously in pro- 
caring for it a charter of incorporation in 
1828. The institute received from him its 
first legacy, amounting to 2,000/. 

Telford died at 24 Abingdon Street, West- 
minster, on 2 Sept. 1834. He was buried on 
10 Sept. in Westminster Abbey, near the 
middle of the nave. In the east aisle of the 
north transept there is a fine statue of him 
by Bailey. A portrait by Sir Henry Kae- 
bnm belonged to Mrs. Burge in 1807 {Cat 
qf Portrait Exhibition at South Kensingtonf 
1868, No. 106). A second portrait^ by Lane, 
belongs to the Institute of Civil Engmeers. 

Altnough Telford was unmarried and his 
habits were inexpensive, he did not die rich. 
At the end of nis career his investments 
hronght him in no more than 800/. a year. 
He tnoagbt less of professional gain than 
of the benefits confened on his country by 

his labours. So great was his disinterested 
zeal for the promotion of works of public 
utility that in the case of the British Fisheries 
Society, the promoters of which were ani- 
mated more by public spirit than by the 
hope of profit, while acting for many years 
OS its engineer he refused any remuneration 
for his labour, or even payment for the ex- 
penditure which he incurred in its service. 
His professional charges were so moderate 
that, It is said, a deputation of representative 
engineers once formally expostulated with 
him on the subject (Smiles, p. 317). He 
carried his indifference to money matters so 
far that, when making his will, he fancied 
himself worth only 16,000/. instead of the 
30,000/. which was found to be the real 
amount. He was a man of a kindly and 
generous disposition. He showed his life- 
long attachment to his native district, the 
scene of his humble beginnings, not merely by 
reproducing as soon as he became prosperous 
the poem on Eskdale which he had written 
when he was a journeyman mason, but by 
remitting sums of money every winter for 
the benefit of its poorer inhabitants. He 
also beoueathed to aid in one case, and to 
establisn in another, free public libraries at 
Westerkirk and Langholm in his native 

Telford was of social disposition, a blithe 
companion, and full of anecdote. His per- 
sonality was so attractive as considerably to 
increase the number of visitors to and cus- 
tomers of the Salopian coffee-house, after- 
wards the Ship hotel, which for twenty-one 
years he made his headquarters in London. 
He came to be considered a valuable fixture 
of the establishment. When he left it to 
occupy a house of his own in Abingdon 
Street, a new landlord of the Salopian, who 
had just entered into possession, was indig- 
nant. ' What ! ' he exclaimed, * leave the 
house ? Why, sir, I have just paid 750/. for 
you ! ' (Smiles, p. 302). 

Telford's love of literature and of verse- 
writing clung to him from his early days. 
At one of the busiest periods of his life he 
is found now criticising Goethe and Kot- 
zebue, now studying Dugald Stewart on the 
human mind and Alison on taste. He was 
the warm friend of Thomas Campbell and of 
Southey. He formed a strong attachment 
to Campbell after the appearance of the 
* Pleasures of Hope,* and acted to him as his 
helpful mentor. Writing to Dr. Currie in 
1802, Campbell says: *I have become ac- 
quainted with Telford the engineer ; a fellow 
of infinite humour and of strong enterprising 
mind. He has almost made me a bridge- 
builder already ; at least he has inspired me 

Tdlford 14 

with iifw M'lieiiliiiiin nf ifiirri'^t ill tlif iiu- Shvi^xlfjn:' Iz. iL^ ijrsr nf 'J. 

iini\i*iiii«nt iiinl itriiniufiil nf ntir ciiiitilry. . . . ably from Lis vtziT :>f jLU'it^rnkZistl k^iv- 

Ti'lfoii! ih It iii'iftt iini'liil ricrrmii* ill Loiidnn. le'l^f h«f wis fcfr^ls.T'i-i ':7 A. N Trni:^ 

11.- In ^.l iiiiivrrtiilly iir.|«iuiiitt.i| iiii.l ^.i iH»|.ii- [ jj,^ p-m-viB! u dlf:r.nrT:>-'wi fr-.m. 'z^ it> 

Inr in his iiiiiiiin*rf tlint tiiTiiii iiitriMliin* hum ftrH'^irtuid a»jv:b: T'Srt:-: t i^ r^ijnri r^rfsi :i':h« 

I'liill ki IK la lit' iiM\r|i\ iiiiJ nil «lrptrri|iliiiiiM volume t-iiJfri •r'll.dcTLt.x > nieurr? ij»f !'Bfc*ef 

of iiilri'i'Atiii^ mirii-:! \ .' ( *uiii|ilM'll ih hiii<l to with bis B«t'Irn*-Lt *.: ^rrf^v'-'trT". Tis I'Z* 

hiivr Ih'i'Ii rtin\iii^' iviih 'ri-lfunl ill I hi* Sjilii- jfrwit aafhoritr fi-r Trlf.Krit ":ojCTL:iij •* Dr. 

Jiiiiii i^hfii uriliii^ * lliihriiliiiilfii/ Hiiil to Smile's Li'e. l^t el I?*I: i:ii i-L Iff? '9 

III VI- iit|ii)itr'l • iiii)iiirtiiiil i-iiii-ii(hiliiiiiN • sii^'- which all th«- rtfert::?* :l :i* Tr?*r*-i ix tnit* 

pMi-.l hv It ir.ii'.l j S.M I I.1.N, II. :iH I ). 'IVirnnl ftrc madfcj. JJr. Sale* -.Lrrv taii s-iv kt)S :a- 

iMriimi* K'-H'iilh. r L. hi-, rhl.-,! wm. nml li.- tftrt-siinR li^ht oa Ttlf.r:? pswr-ifc: E-lkr«rer. 

fiiiraih.Mi CaiNhhrii f,(n»/. II.- i.ft 11 h-Kiu-v t'*^ '^::" «*/"> ^'* r^^ --*- "-^"r- -.^4^;.^r,=r 

.Irn... M1I.1.. r I.. Snulh. V. !.. whnii, it /'*? for the first !:.-.. .rtr^;;:* fr-m .- -.-rd* 

,1 . . I .. r : 1 .r T 1 lftti-r*i to hw o.l f.:b>:.>..:w :i ±.4Cl^e. 

.•■..,,.• »..r.v «-..-..i...l.l> . ..h.l »l .. Mi.l . f 1.-1- I j^„,,„.. Little of LaDK-..:=. i* i t,l:-»:> 

r..r.l • A i.inii 111.,.-.- Ii-iirlily i.. I..- liUI, iii..r.- ,,^,5^,,^ ,,y j^,^ j^^^ , gj^^^^. ,.. -^;x.^, „ „ 

worthy lo h" i-*ili-i*iiiiMl niiil i.iliiiin*il, I haVi 
i)Mv«*r i'lilli-ii ill will..' 'I'hi'i'i* i*< nil nuri-fiihli 

riii»inM-r in the * Eriint'srgb JU'rl-iv' i.r Or:> 
Imt 1H39. Telfor-l as a~ r3tii-=iw:?r :* :*fc!t 

ncvoiitit )»y Sinifhi'N iif II l-tiir w huh hi* iiiiuh- y^^^\^ oxhaustivelv in Sir Hr=rr I's-^i-Iif 
with Trlfm-il ill thn hi^'hhiii<l>* iiinl fur imrth Tn-ntisp on HoadV whereia tie Frrrpl** on 
of Scot hind ill Ih1'.». lit- i-rcitril* in it thf whirh iitindH nhould >ie Tna^ie a?^ es}.*.&:Lfi and 
vivid iiii|tri-HNiiiiiri Hindi- nil him hv 'I'ldriinl'.H ■ illu"»lraU;d hy tlie Plans. Sp*:?:!!»-' -i.». aai 
roads, hrid^'i-s, nii.l hiirhmirf, ni.d hv <'iintmctN iiiiule use of hyThoma^Trlf^ri. Esq., 
was tlli'll roiii)drlcdid' lhr< 'idi-ilntiiuli niliiil. Ix>iidtiii, 1833.] F. £. 

and chnrart.T. ■ Irh"*.'!, was tlie sixth son of Henry Tempt'st 

South.^v's nrtirh* wiin n n-vifw of nil nf 'I't'iiff l»y hirt wife, Mary Busball. and 
♦•labomtt' work whi.d. n|i|iciirid in Ih;1.m, as hrothor i if Sir. lohn Tempest, first baronrT. It 
tlii? ^ Life of ThrniitiH Trlfnrd.ri^il l'!ii;jiniM'r, is said that lie was a pupil and assii^tant of 
writti'ii by hiinsidf,^ ii Dfoi-riptixi* , \\'i*iii*eshiiiH Hollar "^q. v.], and some of the 
Xiirrativ*.' of his Pnifm'^iiiiml Lu In ni f^, ' prints whi(di bt>ar his name as the publisher 

with a Folio Atlas and ('"ijiniT I'hili-", nlili'd | ha\i>lMMMi iissumi^l to be his own work; but 
hy Jolin Kickman, rttn* iif hii l')\iMMitnrs, I then* is no actual evidence that be ever 
with a IVi'face, Suppli-iiH-iit, AniKiin- iinirtistMl enjfravinp. Establishing bimself 
tioii.H, and Index/ In this vnluinif Trlfiird's m thrStrancl asa 1x>okand print 8«dlerabout 

ji<"r'oiints of liis various rii^iin-i-riiiK i-iil»-r- 
liri-^'"*, ^rt-at and siiiall, an- i.iii|ilii and 
lijinitioiis. Iiicktnan adrh'd hio^>raphi(-itl 

ItWO, 'ri>ni|M*st issued some sets of plates of 
hinls andh(*astH ftched by Francis Place and 
John ( irillirr from drawinj^ by Francis Bar- 

tniif^aiid am-odotifs of 'I'l-lfMrd. Th.' Hup- I low; a fi'wmt'zzotint portraits by Place and 

|)l<-iiii-Mt C'liitiiins many 4-lu(-idiitions nf hi** othiTs, childly of royal personaf^es; and a 

liroff-'inniil can-i-r and a fi'w of hi** |)rrMMiul | IraiiMhition of C Kipa's * Iconolofria/ 1709. 

I hnrar-ti-r, tiiiion^ thi* fonni-r hi-ini^ hi.-* m- Hut hi- is hi-st. known by the celebrated *Cr>'OS 

(I ffi ^ \ii iMirliainimt, &c., and tliom* of par- of tin* City of London,* whicb he published 

liaiiMiiiiiiv I'liiiiiMisHioniTs nndiT wIiom- mi- in 1711, a series of seventy-four portraits, 

|ji I Virion .'iiiiir of the moh. important f»f from drawings by Marctdlus Laroon the 

hi:* i-iiiiTpilM"* \v<;n* I'xecutijd. In oni' id* «ddi>r|({. v.], of itinerant deal 
I hi* iipjHii'hrj's hiM poi'iu on ' Kskdali' * is rem arkahli* characters who at 

ipjH-ii'liri-s liiM I 

n-priiiii-d. 'J'hi-ri' is also a (-opy of his will. 
• Soim- Ari'ouiii of tho Inland Navijjation 

dealers and other 

that time fre- 
({Ucntcd the streets of the metropolis: the 
phiti's wern ])rohahly all engravea by John 

rewsirr's * Kdinhurph F.ncyclo- tint])ortrait of him by Place, after G. Ileems- 
Jie priKluclion of which w(»rk hit kerk, wit h tlie motto * Cnvete vobis principes,' 
;ial assistance, the nrtich*s on and tlu' %im» of a nonconformist minister 
Civil Architecture,* and 'Inland j in the * Cryos' is said to represent him. 



Hist, of EnjrraTBra in Bril. Mun. (Addit. JW. 
334(M); iDfonoatioD from Major Tempt^t of 
Brodghlon Hall.] F- M- OD. 

TEMPLE, EiEL. [See Gba^villb, Ui- 
CBiKD Tbmplb, 1711-1779.] 

TEMPLE, HENRY, first Vibcoust 
PiL)iBMioit(1673i'-1757), born about mr.t, 
wM tbe eldest survlvintt son of Sir John 
Temple, ipeaker of the Irish House of Com- 
mons [see under Temple, Sib John]. On 
21 Sept. 1680, when about HBTen yfiars old, he 
wMsppointed, with LukeKing, chief remem- 
brancer of the court of exchequer in Ireland, 
for their joint lives, and on king's death the 
(rrant was renewed to Temple and his son 
Henry for life (6 June 1710). It was then 
■worth nearly 2,000/. per annum (Swift, 
H'orJt., 1883 ed. vi. 41fl>. Temple was 
created, on 12 March 17->2-3, a peer of Ire- 
land as Bnron Temple of Mount Temple, co. 
Sliiro, and Viscount Palmeraton of Palmer- 
»ton, CO. Publin. He sat in the Knglish 
Houae of Commons for East Orinstead, 
SiiMex, 1727-3*, Bo«siner,a)mwttll, 1734- 
1741, and Weobly, HerefordBhire, 1741^7, 
and was a supporter of Sir Robert Walpole's 
ndminist ration. In the interest of Walpole 
he offered l>r. "Willism Webster in 1734 a 
crown pension of 300/. per annum if he would 
turn the 'Weekly Miscellany' into a mini- 
Sir Charles Hanbary Williams wrote several 
skits upon' Little Broad bot torn Palmerston ' 
(H'ork»,i. 189,ii. 266,iii.36). Hewascured 
at Bath in 173Cof asevereillnessOVitLiAM 
DttVEK, PnKticttt Esiny on Warm Bathing, 
2nd edit. pp. 60-2). Palmerslon ailded the 
(rarden front to the house at East Sheen 
(Ltbons, Envinnu, i. 371), and greatly im- 
proved the mansion of Brondlands, nearRom- 
ser, Hampshire (Hal. MSS. Comm. Ulh 
ll'ep. App. ii. 2i)I). The volume of ' Poems 
on sereral Occasions' (1736) by Stephen Duck 
fq. T.], the 'thresher.' patronised by Queen 
Canil ine, incl udes 'A Journey t o M arlborough, 
Bath,' inscribed lo Viscount Palmerston. 
Part of the poem describes a feast giTen by 
the peer anuaally on 30 June to the threshers 
of the rillajfe of Charlton, between Pewsey 
and Amesbury, Wiltshire, in honour of 
Duck, a native of that place. The dinner is 
still ([iven every year, and its coat is partly 
provided (torn the rent of a piece of litnd 
given by Lord Palmerston. 

Palmerston was a correspondent of the 
Duchess of Marlborough, and soma angry 
letters pamed between hira and Swift 
January 1726-6 ( If(.rA-8,1883 edit. xvu. 1 

„ the island of St. Chris- 
topher (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Hep, App, 
p. 242), and he presented lo Eton College 
in 1750 four large volumes on heraldry, 
which had been painted for Henry VIII by 
John Tirol (ifi. 9th Rep. App. i. 357). He 
died at Chelsea on 10 June 1757, ag.'d 84. 

He married, first, Anne, only daughter of 
Abraham Houblon, governor of the Bank of 
England. She died on 8 Dec. 173i), having 
bed issue, with other children, a son Henry, 
who married, on 18 June 1735, Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Colonel Lee, whose widow, 
Lady Eliiabelh, had become in May 1731 
the wife of Edward Young the poet. Henry 
Temple's wife died of consumption at Mont- 

Kllier, on her way to Nice, in October 1738. 
e was usually considered tUe Philander, 
and his wife was certainly the Narciasa, of 
Young's ' Night Tliouphta ' (Ni^ht iii.) As 
a protestant she was denied Christian burial 
at Montpellier, and was finally buried in the 
old prntestant burial-ground of the Hutel- 
Dieu at Lyons, 72^ livres having been paid 
for permission to inter her remains there 
(McRRiT, /fonrfi«)*-fo/>Q«'*, 1892,ii.27). 
'Thewidowermarried. onl2Sept. 1738, Jane, 
voungest daughter of Sir John Barnard fq. v.], 
lord mayor of London, and left at his decease, 
on 18 Aug. 1740, Henry Temple, second vis- 
count Palmerston [q.v,] "rhe first Lord 
Palmerston married as his second wife, 
11 May 1738, Isabella, daughter of Sir 
Francis Gerard, bort., and relict of Sir John 
Fryer, hurt. She died on 10 Aug. I7C2. 

[Burke's Extinct Peersge; Lodge's Irish Peer- 
»gB. ©d. Arclid«ll. V. 240-4 ; Chester's Wost- 
miuslcr Abbey Rstristers, pp. 7, 382 ; Jnlininn's 
Poets, ed. CnnniDgham. iii. 330-3] W. P. C. 

TEMPLE, HENRY, second ViscorxT 
PA1.MEB8T0S (1739-1802), son of Henrv 
Temple (d. 1740) by his second wife, an'd 
grandson of Henry, first viscount [q. v.], was 
bom on 4 Dec. 1739. At a by-eleclion on 
28 May 1762 he was returned to parliament 
in the interest of the family of Butler for ihu 
Cornish borough t Z" East Looe, and sat for 
it until 1708. He subsequently represented 
the constituencies ofSoulhampt(in( 1 768-74), 
Hastings (1774-80 and 1780-84), Borougli. 
bridge in Yorkshirefl784-90),Newpnrt.lBle 
of Wight (17i»-96), and Winchester (1796 
to death). He seconded the address in De- 
cember I76-J. In the same month ha was 
appointed to a seat at the board of trade. 
From September 17(i6 t.i DecemlK'r 1777 ho 
was a lord of the admiralty, and from the 
latter date to the aeci'ssionoftheKoekingliam 
ministry in March 1782 ho was a lord of the 




ixi.!Ti?«r t: OS.: ::*•.*■- bj ly.ri Nvrrl iri Nir^s- 
>>:r 177:^ 'o :r»'j-:r*r IriVj tlr fcf*i>* ^f *:•.* 

of travel, of &•::*'. I-f-. ir-i .f iLr >■ npi^v :f 

"\Vi!k*'S in tlv.- -rrr^'r '.f J^irl* in ir^-^J-wLrn 
the parrior wa.* cLalIn:i:g<6-l bv & S^OTssLiTi 
gi-rvinjr in th*? Fr*: n':h armv. L&te in tL* 
f-am*.' year hf ps»T?-r'i thr.'j::L LaTi-ann-r. "KrLra 
(Tibb'm prais-fl h!« ■scbemr of iravrl aci p»r> 
phe.«ied that he would derive t-rra! impr jTr- 
munt from it. II-: wa? '.-I-rctfr^J a mrrmber of 
the Catch Club in 1771. and ri!U>on diaed 
with him on 20 May 1770 at *a gr^at dinn»:r 
of Catches.' 11*; ^va? cr^ar*-d a IJ.C.L. of 
Oxford on 7 July 1773. At his first nomina- 
tion on 1 July 17n3 for ' Th'.* Club* he was. 
against Johnson's opinion, rfjected; but on 
10 Fob. 1784 h'.' wa^ dulv ».'lectod ( Boswell, 
ftd. Napier, iv. Uui)- A I»itter from him in 
1777 is in (Jurrick's * Corre>pond*;nce ' (ii. 
:?70 1); Sir Joshua K^^ynoldb often dined 
at his house, and I'ulmerston was one of the 
pall-bear«5rs at the funerals of Oarrick and 
llevnolds. Under the will of Sir Joshua 
ho hud the second chnic»i of any picture 
painted by him, and he selected the 'Infant 

William Pars [q. v." accompanied Palmer- ! 
ston to the continent in 1707, and made many 
drawinf^sof HCen«'H which they visited. When 
at Spa thi'Y met France's, only daughter of Sir 
r'rancis Pooh*, bart., nf Poole Ilall, Chester. ' 
Slie was tun yi'ars oMer than Lord Palmer- | 
Hton, but * a^'rejMible, sensible, and so clever,* 
that, although ha (li>Mir(>d a fortune and she 
WHS ])()or, hi^ niiirriecl her on (J Oct. 1767 
( Mies. OsHoicN, Jjcftcru, p. 174; Notes ami 
(^Hrricft, 1th s«T. vii. IV\0). She died at the 
AdiniraltVf Whit(>IuilI, L(md()n, on 1 June 
17t>!), hnviii^^ had a (lauf;hterbr)rnfin 17 May, 
and was buried in a vault under the abbev 
church of U()in<4i>y, llanipshire. A mural 
tiibh't til her iiu*nu)ry, wiili an inscription in 
prosi' l»v luT liusbiiud, was placi^d under its 
\v«vst window. Ills liurs on her d(»ath, l)e- 
^iuiiiii^ witli thi> words 

Wlun'iT. liko WW. with troniblinj; anguish briaps 
His lu-.iri'N\vluili» 1 rt'iiNurr to fairHrisinr.s spriii{^s, 

hint* brrn iinu'h adiniri'd, and are often 

alt riliulril to MiiMtn. 

r.-ilniiMNtuM inarrird, as liis second wile, at 

lijilh, HU .*» Jnti. lysJi, Mary, tlau^diter of 

lleniauiiii 'rhoimir. Me<\ and sister ot' Henja- 

'iH\ dirtvlor of iho Ibink o( Kn^land ; 

hu>*l»nnd. shi' ri'\idlod in society. The 

Sluvn, their favourite n»sort, is do- 

-i «•:• fjrti.:' ani tLrir assemblies at the 
TTira h-isrr in Hi!i?rrr S^oare were famous 

De. BrzyET. .V*7*.i>#. iii. i*71-2). No 
5.?r.-»:!b»::T was ■ «.:• of a bieakinf-up as 
L:ri Pal:zr7s:-:n is of a junket and pleasur- 
:ar.' Tbrir life 1* siade a • toil of pleasure.* 
EiTiT :n Apr:! I^t? Palmerston was reiy 
il:. bjt ':n r»i spirits. crackLng hLs jokes 
and Tr&diTiz from mominj to night.* He 
di-ri of an ossin-e-d throat at his house in 
Hanover ."^luar^. London, on 10 April 1802. 
His w'dow died a: B^>adlands (the family 
seat near R imsey. Hampshire, which Palmer- 
ston had irreatlv enlarj^ed and adorned) on 
20 Jan. ISJo. iJ-Mh of'them were buried in 
the vault under Komsey church, and against 
the west wall of the nave a monument, by 
Flaxman. was erected to their memory. Of 
their larsre familv. the eldest was the states- 
man, Henry Jolin Temple, third viscount 
Palmerston 'q. v.' 

Palmepston s * Diary in France during July 
and August 1 791 * was published at Cam- 
bridge in 1885 as an appendix to * The Des- 
patches of Earl Go wer, English Ambassador 
at Paris * (ed. 0. Browning). 

Verses by Lord Palmerston are in Lady 
Miller's 'Poetical Amusements at a Villa 
near Bath* (i. 12,52-7, (50-3), the 'New 
Foundling Hospital for Wit* (i. 51-9), and 
Wal pole's * Royal and Noble Authors ' (ed. 
Park, v. 327-8). Those in the first of these 
collections are describwl by Walpole as * very 
pretty* {Lt'tterSj vi. 171), but they were 
ridiculed by Tickell in hia satire, *The 
Wreath of Fashion.* His mezzotint portraits 
were sold bv Christie & Manson in May 
1890 ; his pictures in April 1891. 

[Lodge's Irish l*corage. ed. Archdall, v. 244 ; 
Fo8t(T 8 Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1802 i. 
381, 1805 p. 95; Spence's Romscy Church, pp. 
40-2 ; Brayley and Britton's Beaaties of Eng- 
land and Wales, vi. 223 ; Pratt's Harvest Home, 
i. 78 ; Courtney's Pari. Rep. of Cornwall, p. 
124 ; Gronville Papers, i. 443-6 ; Notei and 
QnerioH, Ist ser. i. 382, v. 620, 3rd 8€r. i. 388 ; 
Walpole's Journals, 1771-1783, i. 168, ii. 174; 
Cpoker Papers, i. 17; Nicliols's Lit. Anecdotes, 
vii. 4 : WooH's Warton, p. 84 ; Walpole's Letters, 
vi. 178, 217. 269-70, vii. 54; Alger's English- 
men in the iTcnch RovoUition, pp. 105-7 ; Chat- 
ham Corrosp. ii. 350; Ix>r«i Minto s Life, passim; 
Ciil)l><)n'H l^'tters. i. t)0/JS3; Leslie and Taylors 
Sir .loshuu Koynulds. i. 380, 386, ii. 53, 414, 632, 
(J;t6.J AV. P. C. 

rmxr I'ai.mkksto.v in the peerage of Ire- 
hiud (17S4-180o)y statesman, was the elder 

a of HenTj Temple, second 
Y hia second wife, Maif, da ugh I 
min TbriinB« Mee nf Bath. He was bom 
; bU father's English estate, Broadlands, 
' mpshire, on -Jfi Oct. 1784. SEuch of Lis 
Idhood was spent abroad, chiefl; iu Italy, 
[ at home his education was bogun by an 
klian refugee nameil liavizzotti; but in 
F96 he entered HsTTOw, where he rose to 
A monitor, and thrice 'declaimed' in 
tin and EDglish at speeches in 1800. 
Ihoip and Abprdeeti were amonfc his 
loolfellows. Iti ISOO he wua sent to Eldio- 
irgti to board with Dugald Stewart [q.y,] 
■a attend Lis lectures. Hers, says Lord 

a (in a fragment of autobiography 
D 1830), ' I kid the foundation for 
r useful knowledge and habits of 
d I poaseag.' Stewart gave him a very 
gfaebaract«rineveTy respect; and to moral 
nlities the boy added the advantage of a 
likingly hand^me face and figure, which 
^^erwarda procured him tho nickname of 
'apid' among his intimates. From Edin- 
rgh lie proceeded to Cambridge, where he 
* adinittedto8t.Jobn'sCoUegeon4 April 
03 {Bniiter of the College). Dr. Outnim, 
erwttruB a canon of Lichfield, was his 
iTOte tutor, and commended his pupil's 
l^vlarity of conduct.' At tho coU<^ ex- 
^Hunations Henir Temple waa always in 
e first cla», ancE he Menu to have regarded 
e Cambridge studies as somewhat ele- 
Bitary aiter bis Edinbui^h training. He 
ined tlie Johnian corps of volunteers, and 
Ills early abowed his mtcrost, never abated, 
I the nadonal defences. He did not matri- 
lats in tbe university till '27 Jan. 1806, 
d on the came day be proceeded master of 
l« witlioDt eiamination. Jure natalium, 
wna then the privilege of noblemen (Rfg. 
nie. Omir.) Bv tbis time he bad suc- 
aded to tbe Irisf peerage on bis father's 
■th on 16 Ajiril IWi. 
In 1800, while still only an ' inceptor,' he 
i in the tory interest for the seat of 
It fat the university, vacant by the death 
^t, and, thciugh Lord Henry Pe^Cy won 
jB contest, Palmerston was only seventeen 
Res below Althorp, tbe second candidate. 
lie same year, at the general election, 
ras returned for Horsham at a cost of 
fiOO'-; but there was a double retnrn, and 
t wu unseated on petition 'iQ Jan. 1807. 
ft«rBgun contesting Cambridge University 
I Uay \Wi, and failing by only four votes, 
laooaalterwardsfoundaseat at Newtown, 
le of Wieht. B pocket borough of Sir 
WDUil nolmf^, who exacted tbe curiom 
a tbat the candidate, even at elec- 
t, should ' never set foot in the place. 

Hy the influence of his guardian. Lord 
Malmeabury, be had already (3 April 1807) 
been appointed a lord of the admiralty in 
the Portland administration, and bis first 
speech (3 Feb. 1808) related to a naval 
'Ih rose to defend tbe government 
against an attack directed upon them for 
not laying before the house full papers on 
the recent eicpedition to Denmark. Tbe 
speech was a vindication of the necesuty of 
secrecy in diplomatic correspondence. Al- 
though a rare and only on grvat occasions 
an eloquent speaker, be was a close observer 
of current pohtical movements, and a journal 
which he kept from 1806 to 1808«bowa that 
early devoted particular attention to 
foreign affairs. In October 1803 the new 
prima minister.Spencer Perceval, offered Pal- 
merston conditionally the choice of the post 
■ the exchequBr, of a junior 
lordship of the treasury with an understood 
succession to the exchequer, or of secretary 
at war with a seat in the cabinet. The 
young man consulted Lord Malmesbury and 
other friends, but he bad already made up 
his mind. He clearly realised Che dangers 
if premature promotion, andaccordingly de- 
clined tbe higher otBce, accepting the post 
of secretary at war, but without a seat in 
the cabinet. He was sworn of tbe privy 
council on 1 Nov. 1809. 

Palmerston entered upon his duties at tbe 
war office on 27 Oct. 1809, and held his 
post for nearly twenty years (till 1828) 
under the five administrations respectively 
of Perceval, I^rd Liverpool, Canning, Lord 
Godericb, and (for a few months) the Duke 
of Wellington, Apparently he was content 
with his work, for he successively declined 
Lord Liverpool's offers of the post of chief 
secretary for Ireland, governor-general of 
India, and the post olBce with an English 
peerage. Like not a few English statesmen 
of high family and social tastes, be had at 
that time little ambition, and performed bis 
official labours more as aduty tobiscountry 
than as a step to power. He was, in fact, a 
man of fashiiin, a sportsman, a bit of a dandr, 
a light of Almack's, and all t bat t hia implied ; 
also something of a wit, writing parodies 
for the 'New Whig Guide.' llis steady at- 
tachment to bis post is tbe more remarkable, 
since tlie duties of the secretary at war were 
mainly concerned with dreary financial cal- 
culations, while the secretary for war eon- 
trolled the military policy. Palmerston 
bold that it was his business to stand be- 
tween the spending authorities — i.e. the 
secretary for war and the comraander-in- 
chief^and the public, and to control and 
llitarj e.ipenditure in the beat 

Temple is Temple 

inrer*. sr^i ;: :h- .■■.:ztv ^-.-j. . .- j-'rritrl.i.-r ■ a: i Ik* king's suggest ion. he explained) the go- 

vrmorship of Jamaica, Palmerston * laug-hed 
>.'« hfartily ' in his face that Canning looked 
. j::e put out. and I was obliged to grow 
$r r: >us again ' (^autobiographical fragment in 
A-i-HLKY's IJfe of Palmerston^ ed. 1879, i. 
!'>*►->". PalmerstonV jolly * Ila, ha!* was 
i liiirxj To be remembered. Presently Can-^ oJvri'd him the governor-generalship 
:: I::.iia. as Lord Liverjiool had done before, 
: ■-■.: ■ : was declined on the score of climate and 

the ■. 

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' fi*.".h. After the prime minister's sudden 

.■.T.i.T': S Auir. 1S271 and the brief admini- 

7rv-'->.\. ••.•■..=.> :- s. ** ■- .:"1.> .~-'.:* >'T^.:.:n "^f* lioodyGnderich/ which expired 

r'? ::::- ■\.".:.: :'. .r : -■:> :.".::-■;•>::■. -'x = r.-h« later ^see Kobinson', Fredkricc 

|«. r-i ".-i, ;i". I .1 !:. *. •:".'. iVi*. -. i"- J HX. Cannings supporters, including Pal- 

r ■::■.: - I t' ix> :>>■!■ ■' ". ":* - >:t^s : nirrs: n. ^■>•.^lved ' as a parly' to continue 

r".i^^vi7 ^v'.'-' \\^ \v' . *'*.'^. V-7::".- Y !:: :*.- Puke of Wellingtons government. 

:"..-■ ■ ■*.". in! ■■■..■. ■■ "\ .. **-:-.: ^^ ■ ■.■ : n l"".:^ o:::Vrenci*j?, however, between the 

:'.-• ': ••. .-.n I r.;* — - 7^: ". \\ ''.. j". .i7-.«..':. 7.>"..' * :"7.-n *<■:■!* Mr. Canning' and the older school 

::: U". i:vn:.*v. v.i I .■ .:> '. : • .■:■.;.■.,■: :!.- .:* vr'r > — :he 'pig-tails/ as Palmerston 

^7.- •■> --i :- r nv; . ^.• .'/.'.-. I :*.:-. :i:— were too de«*p-rooted to permit 

I' 17.7. J ".-Mr'. V :!■.; \\'-. ■'■• •:' ' .% :-'.•>.■ •:" .m :v.:.;r:n.r alliance, and in four months 

:!.-'Ti7 ■:*:.'■.» *■•>■." > • ' :-^'. >< :". 7 i" ■■:> ^Uv Wl*>\ on the pn'text of the East 

':•:.- rnl\ 7-^ v. :" 7 -a' . '• '.; • w .< '^-^- Kt -iVr.l bill. : he Canningites left the govem- 

7 * .7-.-1 ;n M.i-i"'-. :**'.*. - '. 'a i< "'-'. *:■.": .1 n:.n:. ::> t:>'y had entennl it, * as a party.' 

'.-.' >:l'. >>. '>J'\ v.'. "^l". :' ■ '.>: :.-.v- Civ.n'n^'* :ntl nonce moulded Palmerston's 

i'* -7 1 \ ':" ..■-<• *\. ■'. Kt.':'.'::T\. 11-; v*V.:U*il O'-nviotl'Mis, fspecially on foreign 

-v;. :•.-.. ni -. 7- :. ■. '."^ i.' n:*T ■^•.' •■: :" *-v^'- Ca!ii::nj:'< principles governed Pal- 

:'■-:-.-.'■ -7 >■«'.' ;• \\ .- 7 • v" ,• v. '.'..: !'.*.- n*.:'7^: 'n's i"on^lui*T of continental relations 

: '.r.j ■•7 n l.j :• • ■' '. - 7- -v i- • >".v- r.r- i^'io'.:: hi* life. The inheritance of a 

■■ "^ :'; i'!. :n: !■' -/y 7- :■■:••. H / '"v-r' ■.•:■-■.: •, TV. vi of C:innin:i's mantle explains the 

■ .:■ r.. ■:..' -75 ■ i'. '< 'A-', ^n V" !:•.'::: •.>■..• •■>.':i::.*n ;iud independence of Palmerston's 

• .-' • !:-.-.:■ .U'..:>' ■ ■•. .•.•••. 'vo^-vi -.l v '^-'^-'-i ^•*•":l'4^"**•'^'^.'^"^^^'^^^'^^^*^^^^"•'*^**™*^'• 
' ' * . ' '^".' • -*' • -;.vv v^ •; ' ■> l"vH,^i H- v.-.\ or K '. -iije.l strictly to any party or 

ir.-i V. \' X i: \\.i'i r»l..\U- •.".uTiv!. Tories thought him too whiggish, 

■'■7' ::7 -I i'\ :'';■ K.-f-rni A^'T !::• wms 

:i:'..l A\!'.i.:si -iusinvred him of toryism, and he 
v'-'7'.i.::!y 'rrJunod some of the principles of 
." ^ .* . 1 r'-7 ^. •:*'•. 11 inv"./.-r>' 1 i.'> \\\\ b rl: -jM*-::-*. T!:e rupture between the Can- 
i -■'-■ ■ r.'- ■■.?*-•. \.y -1: • S ;:'i Uav.^ii-il:::-- i!.'i^=:-.< and the tories threw the former 
-. ■ • ..•- "t I-.'.;.'..- r. ::■.:■:!•.•; I wir'i ■.;: a <■;:• <?:• ^ ::;o artr.* of the whigs. and after 1828 
'.: 1 .r .:.■• !-.;.'.. V.:.- :■. -..^ •■'•.;!:. I .1 k\\\\- : \v\\ l\il!*i>r^:.>:i always acted with them, some- 
-• ; ':'.!-• '■-:-•■* ;-:..;;.■ ■'; I'ix 71 <m. 'l* \v:iiv'!i r::'''"; -.ii o^mbinailm with the Peelites or 
}. •.:.:..: 1 ' . b- !:>.:r.V- r \\\^ :■» his vltM'.li. l.lv7aUv>n*trv:itivi's. l?ut though he acted 
■.■,.- .-i-- ; ,-'7. \\ \\\x wIsiiTs. aul likj\l them and .agreed with 

'•'. ' •'.■■ ^1 :Cv";^:i "!' r.n'jlu^ to p uvor thoni \\\\w\\ inoro than with the tories (as 
. ."'.'7. I*:l:!.'--- .n r-o- iv I promi<rs of Iw wr^:*.' to his br-^t her. Sir William Temple, 
;- • ■ ' ■. Ai'l. :!< i"»7'»!l:!i s-vr-.turx i< .liin. !<:?>). he nev^r was a true whig, 

* ::. .. .,■ {■. ;:, I hi--- i'.l^;uri- ninarkaUy muoh U'>s a true libenil. He pledged him- 
.:•■.* , u\ <';rf.;.!:iiii*;'l Tliaf Ij.- c-uiUl 11- 't ilruj <.li* to no parly, but judged ever}- question 

'J:...' ' ■!.-■ ■■-H*-.;!:--." l*:il!n-rst->n inti^ acTi.>Tr on its nuTits. 

• V : J.' '.!; T. }:;-'iA-ii\v.irtl.'parrm»'nt \va<tho Purine: t!ie two years of opposition in the 
- j!,;.. • ',!<]I..:i-.;.,?i. T::; nM\v|irimf minist-r lloiiso ofC.mimons. Palm»*rston's attention 

nental com- . 

and Greece. ' 

great speech 

} declaration 

'ign policy, and his tirst decided om- 

«'. PiihniT.Mton took the change of torical success. * He denounci?d the govem- 

hiHU->iifil grx>d ti?mper: but when, j ment*scountenanceofL)om Miguel, lamented 

I afterwards, Canning oflered him | that England had not shared with France 




the honour of expelling the Egyptians from 
the Morea, and ridiculed the absurdity of 
creating 'a Greece which should contain 
neither Athens, nor lliebes, nor Marathon, 
nor SalamiSy nor Plato^a, nor Thermopylte, 
nor Missolonfrhi/ In home affairs he interfered 
but little. Since 1812 he had consistently 
advocated and voted for catholic emancipa- 
tion: he had voted against the dissenters' 
disabilities bill in 1828 because no provision 
had b«*en made on bi-half of the Roman 
catholics; and in the proat debate of 1829 
he !(poke (18 ^farch) with much spirit on be- 
half of emancipation, which he predicted, in 
his sanguine way, would * give peace to Ire- 
land.* His influence and reputation had by 
this time frrown so considerable that the 
Duke of Wellington twice songht his co- 
operation in 1830 as a member of his cabinet ; 
but, apart from other diflerences, Palmer- 
ston*s advocacy of |Kirliamentary reform 
made any such alliance impossible. 

When I»rd Grev formed his administra- 
lion in 1830 Palmerston became (22 Nov.) 
secretary of state for foreign ailairs, and he 
held the office for the next eleven years con- 
tiuously« except for the four months (De- 
cember 1834 to April 18.'Jo) during which 
Sir Koliert Peel was premier. 11 is first 
negotiation was one of the most difficult 
and perliaps the most successful of all. The 
IWIgians, smarting under the tyninny of the 
Dutch and inspirited by the Paris revolu- 
tion of July, had ristm on 28 Aug. 1830, 
and severed the factitious union of the 
Netherlands wliich the Vienna congress had 
set up as a barrier against French expansion. 
The immediate danger was that Belgium, 
if defeated by Holland, would appeal to the 
known sympathy of France, and French as- 
sistance might develop into French annexa- 
tion, or at least involve the destruction of 
the barrier fortresses. The l^lgians were 
fully aware of Enfi4and*s anxiety on this 
point, and played their cards with skill. 
I^rd Aberdeen, who was at the foreign office 
when the revolution took place, wisely sum- 
moned a conference of the representatives of 
the five powers, when it became evident 
that the autocratic states, Russia, Austria, 
and Pmssia, were all for maintaining the 
proTisiona of the treaty of I8I0, and Russia 
even advocated a forcible restoration of the 
union. They agreed, however, in arranging 
an armiatice between the belligerents pend- 
ing ncj^iations. Palmerston, coming into 
omoe in November, saw that the Belgians 
conld not go longer in double harness, and, 
■opported bj France, he succeeded within a 
nontli in inducing the conference to consent 
(20 Dee.) to tlie independence of Belgium 

as a neutral state guaranteed by the powers, 
who all pledged themselves to seek no in- 
crease of territory in connection with the 
new arrangement. If it was difficult to get 
the autocratic powers to agree to the sepa- 
ration, it was even harder to persuade France 
to sign the self-denying clause, and the at- 
tainment of both objects is a striking testi- 
mony to Palmerstou's diplomatic skill. The 
articles of peace were signed by the five 
powers on 27 Jan. 1831. The Dutch ac- 
cepted but the Belgians refused them, and, 
in accordance with their policy of playing oft' 

informed the French government that the 
acceptance of the Belgian crown by a French 
prince meant war with Englancl, and he 
prevailed u])on the conference still sitting 
in London to agree to reject any candidate 
who belonged to the reigning families of the 
five powers. France alone stood out, and 
some irritation was displayed at Paris, inso- 
much that Palmerston hud to instruct our 
ambassador (lO Feb. 1831) to inform Se- 
bastian i that * our desire for jjeace will 
never lead us to submit to affront either 
in language or in act.' So early hod the 
* Palmerstonian style * been adopted. Louis- 
Philippe hod the sense to decline the offer 
for his son, and, after further opposition, 
the Belgians elected IVince Leopold as their 
king, and accepted the London articles 
(slightly modified in th«-ir favour) on Pul- 
merston's ultimatum of 29 May. It was now 
the turn of the Dutch to refuse ; they re- 
newed the war and defeated the Belgian 
army. France went to the rescue, and the 
dangers of French occupation again con- 
fronted the cabinet. It demanded the finest 
combination of tact nnd firmness on the ])art 
of Palmerston to secure on lo Sept. 1832 
the definite promise of the unconditional 
withdrawal of the French army. On 15 Nov. 
a final act of separation was signed by the 
conference, and, after some demur, acce])ted 
by Belgium. Holland still held out, and 
Antwerp wos bombarded by the French, while 
an English S([uadron blocked the Scheldt. 
The citv surrendered on 23 Dec. 1832 ; the 
French army withdrew according to en- 
gagement; five of the frontier fortress««s 
were dismantled without consultation with 
France; and Belgium was thenceforward 
free. The independence of Belgium hus 
been cited as the most enduring monument 
of Palmerston*s diplomacy. It was the first 
stone dislodged from the portentous fabric 
erected by the congress of Vienna, and the 
change has stood the test of time. Belgium 

. *mpie ::a Tonplc 

• > ■ - "VT ■ '\r v^nrii t.i:.-. *.iv- ..:»?ffia. ::nudez. obdurate, aad reromed to Fn yjnwii 
:.r .i<*>»'i .T- •■z'.'- -i*- ■■ rT3 : -*r-? :ji- ricaoac iiccompiiahixur iiia purpose. Before 

V - - ' * ' ^ i 'aimersron's Pomumese policy had beea 
•.!'>•";• 7 i.^ I'.--.- iAr-r. . -r-zra- ensured ia rhe House n Lords, but tlie 

»,- . ',-^--.<- • ■■-"—_-«.- : -..-• -r-ri* : If .ammona iuui approved the support of Donii* 

■ .•^'».r 'v--.* -. -P'. ..i^; r^i-i^i ^ :- V-i- .'■lanaiiud i.' and recioynisgd 
- .- T ar..".-- ■ -'J.^. 1..'; ; .r-r"-'.r-- i; ar- ' nj.c ur friendly and aimost protective rel*- 
.:-.-.-r-. ..- •". - ^r ':'. .• u-*^ -'j.:-- : ": jus wirhPortusraijastiiieduur interference. 
-..-.- ..-.^ I ^t. '{.- .. TTr- :: ■_:• iti- TLe ieath -f b'^^rdinand. ^n 21) Sept. I?*33, 
-' .**: .*'.~ ivir-*. ,> nr .- > ^L.'. r. - ■ i^^ reacod :n Spain, ha was Toreseen. a situa- 

•.'.-. ■• •. -iT^ar. L-. : . >r-..-Li :r-t.» :■.)& io^iv parallel :o rhat in PortogaL 

. - .- •." .' ^Li:. •*. .*->:■.. I. .n.: .ju •'•i- '/ -Hinnnu. -vith rhe consent 'jf the cortes, 

.--'- ■ Av.-rx'.-."'. .- :i.-.- :"i:..-r uia i-v^peaieii t he prairmacic sanction of 1713 

• .--■^■- .*-::. ■'1" " .r".-r -.-.s ..i» .r.'* r.'-ji :i avnur <£ iiid >lauffhter Isabella, who thns 

■L.-i ■•-.•: ..i;-. •••^•. -H"."^i:i,-'.:-:;*-.i r-jame -iueen: -vhiie lier'incle. Don Carlos, 

".:■ •: '•.::- '^ .:■..; .:■ ::.-.-r ■■:!i- -Iv "-ILr'.iei In Portugal. -lenied rhe validity 

.- ■ • "- .■ .* '•'=. ■-■■rr" ■...•.'. T ... r.: : "i-r 'ticireasion. .ind claimed the throne for 

-. ^' :-•'■.. ^" :-r, .\i:r.:r«r ;i ■jll:!:- z: -insrii. In 'his loubLe I'risia Palmeiston 

.- — -.■ ^-r '•- -.*■■.:: .^: m . -rt^.':j._ "Liv-^i'viiat lie ria:titlvcailed* a ^jreat stroke.' 

'■ . •-'•■ - -* i.-,: -: ■■ -. .;■..'. .:> r-'-.-: -7 3v L_^ -iLe 'xertions l quadruple alliance 

■ .--•- -. -: -: ■' V .-"v. '■ :*. .::- • .- T'i>.-.'nir::ute*i 'jyarreaty.'4i:jne<ii)n±i April 
- J ...:.-:' 1^. 1.' ' ".-■•"'•: v;- **■* 'V "laiciand. France. ^? pain, and Por- 

. - - . :Lr.'~u.-vh:L'u.;dl:bnrp«)werspledire«ithein- 

"^ .' ■ '■■ -« ~ 1^ T'.^.. ;r. : ^-a.:: ■!*.- -r-.' -^ "v^ -xrei ju^h Miiruel ;aid Carlos firom 

-jr. *-r -.fcT- ' j-.L^:: .:- :•..■ vnias'iid. He ^vrote in hiich zlee (to 

.: - i.i... : -.-ci:!-: ■ -r r^ ^s r-'ii^r. -1 April Lr?:J4) : ' E (.■arried it 

.- ..-..'-:--.• r.,-:-; V :..:» :'. ■>:- .^r^^^r^ -bjt^ 'liuiuysZ hv ii r'oup tie main/ Be- 

'.- - : : -.-I ■: r..- - :-■ -^m.: :::u i ■'r..i :i smifiiate purpose, he hoped ic 

• :nn::- •.:.!; I- t::.: .V.ll v ^ li.i ^r"** .li i powerlul •->«Junterpoise to 

.- _■.-•*.>. I vi:, .rs m- ".L;- .:■.■!'" liLLancv. The mere rumour was 

,- ■ ■;.■.-■.-. v_ .: v> ir •"..■■ ■ :u- ■^'. "UT'i .'or "iie isiirpers : M.iiriel and Carlos 

, ■. ' .- I.— ' .. : . -.1 / -.-■7\ i;-i r.^'m ::•.• :j-mnduia. But Fnince soon 

■• ' . * '--.^ ' i. — — :.s "^v: i::.: -i.^^v -.L -ii^rii •£ ietection- Palmerston 

. ..■ •.-■ -■-•-■•-.'.[ j:-. ■r.-.i:; k -r-r-.'s -^-in? "^ .Liv * ■vniuide'l rhe sensibility of 

• ■ ,»■• ■■ .^ ■ • i" 1 i:' •■-i.r- -■•r:* -.-nx. ■. : T.uler. l? le .'aile^l liim : and Talley- 

•■ - .* > - .r. : i~ i -.iv-i r".:i-*.w ri::.;. *n .iij. 7'r;im "■.» Paris in 1.S35, is said 

: j"--:".i':: :Si-.*rs \- »r» " :;l'.* * ivi^a^si' ins bvsettinir Louis-Philippe 

-.:- i-.^^r.i. l-"'- I uri i:i<" r.'Ji. Tii* late ..'oniiaiity vanishiniy 

'' v ..7 - ■ pr r^:T - I.. 7 u:-:. '•uain wis i*rim pIuniTHi in anarchy. The 

fc- -■i:]T'.r'->.i .)»- ■ir*>.:ii'«> if i^r-n^h-imiadron'mrhecoast and 

■ ::v^-r*. 1" il- -lii* .:i:u::ii;r 'f .in aoxdiary leifi^'^n under De 

I. •..'■'. i V- . f.--: .-■ n -A'* HI- .i-'ri: ' Lu'" Zviiii; ild "ir^ie^Md. and aroused very 

•",1 1. v . .;.. „..:; ■ iji- :-T3uu'.-"i "i ■«.:.> .•rr.r'jjai m Elnifiand. :Slr H. Har- 

I ;ij^' .1 • 1'. 1 :- 1 :#'-» ' ir**!! '.• uV- liaj^* H'T'd .m iddress M the kin^j cen- 

.','■■« •■ ' J-' / .'. 1 :' 1 ■ 01 ^[.^-;!»■.-\•■.l■>-* -.;r-;ic "lii^ 'aipu-v-menr jc British troops in 

V.'.'" i-tvt'i. -. j'-i. r." :■ r: .!»-•. r •;:'.■ r.-^r::-. Scn.ii ■:\".-li.'ii: i ieolarition of war; but 

* ■■ . \ I.--. .../ > "A ;'-i--. :!U!"i : I^i'u:".. ii'tc^t -jr-^t* a.^'i:s' :ei)a:e Palmerston got 

'..■.:...: . : -.i-.v- par.- n -!•* i::,iL -jr ip. i::,i ;:i x ii»^ speech IiLstin:? thr^e hours 

■J- •' - ■ •:/»..■. I-.: ;'.r .:-i. ..-i ->.- '.>p';-r*ii - :m^i -Ii'* :abi'.^' 'n his opp«ments, and 

.■..•,..■..■■.■.•■ » u ./'•.' "-r w: i ir.i'".- 'arrvii "'>:■.* '.i'' ':<<■* v:cnigI>*CrLy wi:h him. The 

V '/ ;-■.■..■•-.'■. ..-. -a/>. M."»^». Ai?;-?:- r "v *r.i2i''ii" lia.i -.1 3iai':rirvof thirtv-six, and 
•./ ; ■.- «. -. ■ -..• «vi-:'-,ri t. i '':.>} =::=-sr.^r ^is ohnered 'riotously.' HU 

.• y . 1 v. .vt . , -. -.-. .\f .ij ; .-. : . - -a 7 * ! . . r ■.•*•*::' > car* i. *':i p . ■ '.ii.* y 'j*ui johi*^ ved some chiujir. * The 

. •: :/ ■. y.y.f^-'. "...-. -:-'^.\'...\\:ir.-^vr .: r»'r.r..i Cirl:.-" ca :s»f :.uled.' as h-? said; ' the cause 

'.:4' % v. .. ^•. •v;.^ 44 '■j ..-f-Ti /.f P r;r-.i'.". •-:' :':-.^^vc^^^valI-?d.'andhehadal30 

:'..'. ^ ..'. .••...'..■....;.. 'ft...-.' ^r r*-,Tn P-ir-i .-■:' i-:Vi:ei: :i= =t:Iiemes of I>:m Miguel in 

.iH..v. V, '. -..-^ .•.v/j;r.c.v ^i .rir.i- *:»^ mir. %r>y Pt^rural- 

- « 

< ■ 


■ ■•■• arm ■• 

. i: 

^1 V//f ftn/1 hi4 minister, 2S^a Ber- . eastern policy, andtkat policy has been man 



peverely criticised than perhaps any other 
,rt of his manogemenl of forei^ aflnirB. 
is constant support of Turkey has been 
nsured as an upholding of barherisrn Against 
ciTiliBSlion. It must, DoweTer, be remem* 
iwredlhat I'almeislon'stenure of the foreign 
office from 1830 Co 1&41 coincided with the 
•straordinory reviral and reforming eflbrts 
i<if that energetic and courageous sultan 
Slahmud n, when many stntesmen enter- 
incd sani^iDe hopes of thi' riigeneralion of 
iirkey. I'almerston himself did not believe 
i&t the Ottoman empire was decaying ; on 
tlie contiary.he held that ten years of peace 
niglit coDvert it into 'a respectable power' 
letterato 11. Bulwer,22 Sept. 1838, 1 Sept. 
R3B). Besides this hope, he was firtnlycon- 
nncw oftheparamnuot importance of main- 
Maniiig ■ barrier between Kussia and the 
Uedilerraneitn. Itussia, however, was not 
~« only danger. The 'eastern queBtion'of 
Mt lime presented a new feature in the for- 
nidaUe antagonism of a great vassal, Mo- 
^ntmed All, the paaha of Egypt. The first 
* e of his attack upon the sultan, culmi- 
Mting in the victory of Koniy a (December 
""""', was carried out withont any inler- 
e by Pnlmerston. He foresaw indeed 
t nnleoa the powem intervened, Kuseia 
rould tindertake the defence of Turkey by 
•eeii; botbefalledtoconvinceLordOrey's 
nnet of tlie importance of succouring the 
rte. Turkey, deserted by Ergloud and 
Fr»nc« (who, imbued wiili the old Na- 
eonic idea, eocouraKed the pasha), was 
:i>appeBl to liueeia, who willingly sent 
thousand troops to Aeintic Turkey, 
ipelled Ibrahim to retire, and saved Con- 
luitinople. In return the tsar exacted from 
teiutUn the tr^at^of Unkiar Skeleni on 
Jnly 1833, by which Russia acquired the 
gbt to interfere in defence of Turkey, and 
M Black Sea wag converted into a Russian 
ik«. Bilmerslon in vain protested both at 
lie and at St. Petersburg, and 
m aent the Mediterranean squadron to 
[UM off the Dardanelles. Henceforward 
S VJVB were npen to the a^grsndising policy 
RuMia and her hostile influence not only 
Eiunpe hilt in Persia and Afghanistan, 
Ucb wought about Bumes's miuion and 
B bqinning of the Afghan troubles. In 
it« of his cutpicion of Russia, however, on 
I ntim to office in ISSfi under Melbourne, 
«r Peel's brief administration, Palmeraton 
md it neceesary in 1840 to enter into an 
» with the very power he suspected, 
, the rery quarter to which his suspicions 
liefly pointed. 

Tbe cause lay tn the increasing alienation 
France. Tlie policy of Louia-Philippe 

and Thiers was to give Mohammed Ali a 
freehand, in the hope (as It fmusat admitted) 
Ihut Kgypt might become a respectable 
second-class power in the Mediterranean, 
bound in ([ratitude to support France in the 
contest with England that was anticipated 
by many observers. I'almerstonhadtned to 
Induce France to join him in on engagement 
to defend Turkey by sea if attacked ; but ha 
had failed to bring the king or Thiers to his 
view, and their and Soult's response to his 
overtures bred in him a profound distrust of 
I/iuis-Philippe and his advisers. AVhen, 
therefore, the Egyptians again overran Syria, 
delivered acrushing blow to the Turks at tha 
battle of Nezib on -Ifj June 183U, and by the 
treachery of the Turkish admiral obtained 
possession of the Ottoman fleet, Palmereton 
abandoned all thoughts of joint action with 
France,and opened negotiations with Russia. 
Inaction meant dividingthe Ottoman empire 
into two parts, of which one would be the 
satellite of France, and the other the depen- 
dent of Russia, while in both the interests 
and influence of England ' would be sacri- 
ficed and her prestige humiliated (to Lord 
Melbourne. 5 July 1S4U). Russlareceivedkis 
proposals with eagerness. Kotbing was more 
to the mindof Nicholas than to detach Great 
Britain Irom her former cordial understand- 
ing with Louis-Philippe, and friendly nego- 
tialtons rapidly arranged the quadrilateral 
treaty of 15 July 1840, by which England, 
Russia, Austria, and Prussia agreed with the 
Porte to drive back the Egyptians and to 
pacify the Levant, 

Poimerston did not carry his quadrilateral 
alliance without coiuiderable oppn.'iition. In 
the cabinet Lords Holland and Clarendon, 
and later Lord John Russell, were strongly 
against him: so, as afterwards appeared, was 
Melbourne ; so was the court ; and so was 
Lord Granville, the ambassador at Paris. 
I'a 1 merston ,bowever,wBEreaoliite,aiidplaced 
his resignation in Melbourne's hands as the 
Journal, pt. ii. vol. i. p. 308t. I'ltimalely the 
measure was adopted by the majority of the 
cabinet. The fears which had been ex- 
pressed that Mohammed All, with French 
encouragement, was too strong for us, and 
that France would declare war, proved 
groundless. Palmerston had throughout 
maintained that Mohammed All was not 
nearly BO slrongas beseemed, and that Louia- 
Philippe wss 'not the man to run amuck, 
especially without any adequate motive ' (to 
U. Bulwer, 21 July 1840), Everything he 
prophesied came true, Beyrout, Sidon, and 
St, Jean d'Acre were successively taken by the 
British fleet under Charles Napier between 


» • » 


1-i ■ ^:..^^■:. ■ .- . ..-. .:.-'■ 

-- :■ :':- > 

: ■ T- .. J . -r-. ■ '. *: ■ :■ -• :- 

• :." .. '..- 

. ■■•■ ■ ' ^■ ::...• •.- ' :■ -- . 

'. I r." .-. 

- : r ^v- : \\ !. • .■ j ...■:■: %\ ■ » . 

* : :■ ' ..^- 

1 t f\.. . .\ 

■ ■ • 

H .Mm fc. -.■.»- 

■ N .■":.-; 

.•."■ • . ■ . ■ '•^ .- • \ ' •:'..• 


* ■» . " * ' 

Tcinv-e ^2 Temple 

rvjTtr^ii^r i.:.- N •TU.>'.**-f. l:r:.:..ZLTrty ••.•; "wL»ij C'.''nrr Lindrclanrd war by 

m • ^ 

A.. ^^ h- ■• .-Jt'- :. »..■.••;■' . .:."•.. .•^_ :>.rt Tsu- n:tLiixi<:f:r;: bat tocarrvthe con- 
'. :.- :.'>.'.. :w} '.l:.*:.:.^:. *. .^ :j\'. :. v. ::i •..: ";-^: : h *siiT>fhc:''rT conclii*i?ii. Oraham** 
i.-. -.v- i >>-!.. :.' .. : . •-'■ •■: :!• ...:x.:>i. =: T^ i. =•! cviisurr in April l>40was easily 
r.- • • i! - r .■■..::... T\' •. • •:. ■.: - r^- .:. ^. :tL:-.-i. iia J ibv ar-n»rxa::on of H>)i!:;-Koiijr 

.- -.'. ::.:•:.:.■.•. v. r:- •-■■-i .. -. ..:;:: t :.:..- ^l- ■.•j»r!jiEi: of live p^-rt* to firvizn trade 
••v--y:. :.j :.:.? " r:.-. . ..: »• - : : : .v.. "n--- .:i!}i ruLT c- 'xasvrcial aci^uisitions. 

H- - _ ..'■: ' ••.. •-■' ■ - * . .--v' • : .- .•: n- M-Lr.T«Li-- : • I'fil:i;rr*i'>n5 ».-lfort* was due 

::.-. *.!.-;-. :rj l-- cnvrnTi-.m «'f the Kumpean 

V |:i. «r> :' l«»4l. TLere was no object f«>r 

. j -v^ :_ . :. Pi.".::.- r-: n w .rkt-d bar«lrr rhniuffhout 

\\ • • :■ I ...■.•■.■■>.■--"■•_:.: :• . ".. I ; .«. *•.-•-. r " :li'.- ^upprersi.**!! i.-f the slaiv 

-:...T }i-. :.-•.■..:•. Tit ly ?joke on tln» subjei'i 

:: ::.•. :; ■:' (."ommoKe. wlit-re the aboli- 

. ■.. : -...y-ry w.:> vjT'.-d in ISW at a ct^st 

: '.?:.-% r...... n-: -a spK-n«3id in.*rance,*he 

. ... • : J- :.: r.i-i: y ainl justice, unexampled 

■. : • ?■ •}■ ■■: '"i".*." world.' 

}'■■ .. - . :..':.;.: A f-.rfiirn atTairsfn^m 1S;30 

. ". "*-•■ . ■.•.:•.;:•:*?]}■. '^xcf-pt lor the brief 

• r. :., •. '. '^- '.:-"• ..ijriii J which IVel held 

•:..■ ':\..::.:T^- :.. •wiiliout any loll* win}? 

• ■ • ■ . • - - .: : ■■...- . ' '. •. .-. .:..!.:..'.:.": wlihoul much intlut'nce 

1..: ■ -• :: '■...'. •- •• - ; :^. . ■ ■ ... ^ .■.:r> . ^..^•.-l ihr prestiiTeofKnjrland 

.. : . •:. .-..• r..:" .-■ v. :'. l-..- \ • .; . - __- _ • } - >■ : • a ht^ight whirh it had 

:-.'. ■ 'h- - . ■ -- : • ■ : .% .. .■ .■:■.■. .. . '. .. ". - • : . ..•. .- ". > -..i'WaTvrloo. He had created 

l.;.i'.: ..■ '.\.- • . 1. . — r.. . ..• . \ / ..:_. x..\.. .". r-7:.jral and .Spain fn^m 

T- i"- !i- - I :•"-..: ": ' .■ -....■ —..v. . : -.S " .- «.•.:■.. r-.^. ..-..; Tiirkr-y from l»u*sia. and 

•iii;:z ■: '': ■' '•..;•■ ■ .-' I" '". -•". :•..■ ■.- . :" - ■■ .. .%v..v: Ir. -ii from France \Saxdeils, 
!':•■ i;_-v;'-:.'i 'J ■■ "" " i'-""--"*' '■- r--...- '. .' .' . V ~^' . ^Vi.:':^ he came into otHce he 
I . .li! w I r :-.y- ' ■' .'. v;. ^ .- . - ^v . .:". 1 : ..■■ ■ .. ^•;/, . :. :-. ..:;..x in force; wh»»n he left 
i: .• '-.A \\\.". <. y. ..- \\ .•:'■ '.. :.•: ■ >:.. ':. :....:..■.:. [• -.t:-.-!! more. .*omeof the tir<t 

>•. 1. : II '• V • i ".' V. ■.. •■. -". \\ .- •■ : \\ .-.:• [ w. ,^'- : _;. . .v s:r t.^t foreitru policy had 
iT . « ir:i':\ :".!■.•• ' N ^. i^i' I . ■" ^\..- av. ;- %■ *.. ::. - v.. r. ::• Iv a wlicy of peace. 
i-i : i • i 1- ■■' i^ ' ;- : r •. ■ •■.^•- .."• :■ -^..^ - \- V: ..r: :r :: v.v o y-i'-n:* .^f his (K'piirtmeiit, 
ci.i-i II. :iv i 1*. .:::--•:.-•:; r. •■.•'..:.;...;.■. l'..".::: r-: •.., ..> h.? cn*tnm, look little 
i::i : - lIitIIv : ■:.* i'- i I. ■.i-P!.!: t . ;:•..■ \ .r: .:::'■ \\ t\ r Ta'.k of the Iltuise of Com- 
?:-i':j hr.ii •■' •!:• ] '.i-' : j' -y * ^- T:-.^'.:.:-. : :r. :> ll.-r. ; .::.:''• r. was far trri-atfr abroad 
v-:!" i-y xh- ir.;i h* r\ • :" •1.-. >; :tv.>': mi-- :*.,;,:: :;: :. ::>. . 11.,. m^j^t iinptirtant per- 
T..i.'*"^ ; *■>* ■' '" =• •■":*■•• i • V- !'. )v \ iy. v.;.. * >!: .1 . %• v.: .•:" :!;• -» \>:irs was his marriage, 
V.'.a: riil:i:-r-T .!i »■ r- ?. ::>. 1: w;*": ^r--- ::: ^- ..•.; H 1»,,-. i--::!*.- . l". ^rd M el b ui me s sister, 
^^..^■[y at!»r hi-^ Tr;ii:i:T:. v- r ir.i-.- . a:: I I- • ::>. w \ «\\ •:" \:..r\ T 'W]nr. Thi* lady, by her 
11.' >i*r» ".'f ••x'l'.r ,T:..ii . - •:;j..; Uwv. i'-. ;'*. ol'.iirrr. :!•.•► '.l-o:. • act. and experience, lent a 
:. ;'.ri''. 'i'i>*' pirri..-: .:!:•■ iiLi'lrij!- ;i!Ii- p>'.v. r:::l - i*.-;. «r: t' her husband, and the 
3,....- eoncUitl*- i a <■ oiv-n*: i-i -.n M .liily iii:" ■:!r.;il ilij-l"' work aoconijdished at 

*.>ll by whicli M'»hii!i:in- I Ali w:i< r-o'^'- !u>r » •.' 7 j^r-^Mr-.d t <iipplt*mentt.«d the in- 
ii.-'.'.l a* h»*r»'dirary p-i-iha •.:" Kjvj.r iml-r a::.l Tr.iiisac:i"iis oi tlie foreign 
The dednite >iiz."niin'y ni' tin- -i;lrj:n. tl>» •itlic.-. 

Ixvporus and l»aplan»'ll'* w»r- rii— .1 rn In .ipp.w-ti.^n fr>m 1*^41 to l'^4(5, during 
ihiptf o^ '*'*'" ^^' *'^'*'^y "■^■i''". «" I Tiirk.y ' v.. r< a.liiiiiii.-Tr.iT-wi. raimerston took a 
w^ nlactsl formally undir rli..- ].r'i:.iri.iTi laro-r -har»- in the d-1 -at -s in the House of 

kinweiwlicythn-wih'f nuitt.-rint'i prDvisions ihey found in the larder/ he 

)| the local authority. I*alnii.r>tim, nothing but danger in Lonl AlK»rdeen'8*i 

lief 8Uperiiit4jndi-nt , of rour.-**' dis- qnated imljecility ' and timid use of these 

jy protection to opium «m uggling, * leavings ;' he said the g^jvernment * purchased 




temporary security by lasting sacrifices/ and 
he denounced the habit of making concessions 
(as in the Ashburton treaty with America) 
as fatal to a nation's interests, tranquillity, 
and honour. It was rumoured that ne sup- 
ported these opinions by articles in the 
* Mominflr Chronicle ; ' and, though he 
denied this when in office, Aberdeen and 
Gre^ille certainly attributed many of the 
moet vehement * leaders ' to him when he 
was ' out * (Greville, Journal, pt. ii. vol. i. 
p. 327, vol. ii. pp. 105, 109, &c.) In home 
afiairs he was a free-trader, as he understood 
it, though he advocated a fixed duty on corn ; 
he supported his intimate friend Lord Ashley 
(afterwards Shaftesbury) in his measures for 
the regulation of women's and children's 
labour and the limiting of hours of work in 
factories, and voted in 1845 for the May- 
nooth bill. 

On 25 June 1846 Peel was defeated on 
the Irish coercion bill and placed his resig- 
nation in the hands of the aueen. The new 
prime minister, Lord John Kussell, naturally 
mvited Palmerston to resume the seals oi 
the foreign office, though the appointmenlfl 
I was not made without apprehensions of hii' 
stalwart policy. For the third time he took 
up the threads of diplomacy in Downing 
Street on 3 July 1846. The affairs of Switzer^ 
land were then in a serious crisis : the federal 
diet on 20 July declared the dissentient Son- 
derfound of the seven Roman catholic cantons 
to be illegal, and in September decreed the 
expulsion of the Jesuits from the country ; 
civil war ensued. France sugsrested armed 
intervention and a revision of the federal 
constitution by the powers. Palmerston re- 
fused to agree to any use of force or to any 
tinkering of the constitution by outride 
powers ; he was willing to join in mediation 
on certain conditions, but he wished the 
Swiss themselves, after the dissolution of 
the Sonderbund, to modify their constitution 
in the mode prescribed in their federal pact, 
aa gpiaranteed by the powers. His chief 
object in debating each point in detail was 
to gain time for the diet, and prevent France 
or Austria finding a pretext for the invasion 
of Switzerland. In this he succeeded, and, 
in spite of the sympathv of France and 
Austria with the seven dented cantons, the 
poli<nr advocated by England was carried out, 
the Sonderbund was abolished, the iesuits 
expelled, and the federal pact re-established. 
lUmerston's obstinate delav and prudent 
advice materially contributed to the preser- 
vation of Swiss independence. 

Meanwhile Louis-Philippe, who was am- 
bitions of a d3ma8tic union between France 
and Spain, avenged himself for Palmerston's 


eastern policy of 1840. He had promised 
Queen v ictoria, on her visit to him at the 
Chateau d'Eu in September 1843, to delay 
the marriage of bis son, the Due de Mont^ 
pensier, with the younger infanta of Spain 
until her elder sister, the queen of Spain, 
was married and had issue. At the same 
time the pretensions to the young queen*s 
hand alike of Prince Albert's brother Emest| 
duke of Saxe-Coburg, and of the French 
king's eldest son were withdrawn, and it 
was agreed that a Spanish suitor of the 
Bourbon line should be chosen — either Fran- 
cisco de Paula, duke of Cadiz, or his brother 
Enrique, duke of Seville. On 18 July 1846 
Palmerston, having just returned to the 
foreign office, sent to the Spanish ministers 
an outspoken despatch condemning their 
misgovemment, and there fell into the error 
of mentioning the Duke of Cobur^ with the 
two Spanish princes as the suitors from 
whom the Spanish queen's husband was to 
be selected. The French ambassador in 
London protested, and Cobur^s name was 
withdrawn. But Louis-Philippe and his 
minister Guizot, in defiance ot the agree- 
ment of the Chateau d'Eu, made Palmer- 
ston's despatch the pretext for independent 
action. They arran^d that the Duke of 
Cadiz, although Louis-Philippe knew him to 
be unfit for matrimony, should be at once 
united in marriage to the Spanish queen, 
and that that marriage and the marriage of 
the Due de Montpensier with the younger 
infanta should be celebrated on the same 
day. Both marriages took place on 10 Oct. 
(Annual Reg, 1847, p. 396; D'Hausson- 
viLLB, Politique ExtSrieure de la France, 
i. 156 ; Alison, vii. 600 et seq. ; Spencer 
Walpole, v. 534 ; Granieb de Cassagnac, 
Chute de Louis-Philippe^ The result was 
that the Orleanist dynasty-lost the support 
of England, its only friend in Europe, and 
thereby prepared its own fall. 

From the autumn of 1846 to the spring of 
1847 Palmerston was anxiously engaged in 
dealing with the Portuguese imbroglio. His 
sending the fleet in November to coerce the 
rebellious junta and to re-establish the 
queen on conditions involving her return 
jnrom absolutism to her former constitutional 
system of government, though successfully 
efiected with the concurrence of France and 
Spain and the final acceptance of Donna 
Maria, was much criticised ; but the motions 
of censure in both houses of parliament col- 
lapsed ludicrously . Palmerston's defence was 
set forth in the well-considered memorandum 
of 25 March 1847. 

The troubles in Spain and Portugal, 
Switzerland and Cracow (against whose 





annexation by Auatria he earnestly pro- 
tested) were trifles compared with the 
general upheaval of the *year of revolu- 
tions/ Palmerston was not taken by sur- 
prise; he had foreseen sweeping changes and 
reforms, though hardly so general a move- 
ment as actually took place. In an admi- 
rable circular addressed in January 1848 
to the British representatives in Italy, he 
urged them to impress upon the Italian 
rulers the dangerous temper of the times, 
and the risk of persistent obstruction of 
reasonable reforms. In this spirit he had 
sent Lord Minto in 1847 on a special mis- 
sion to the sovereigns of Italy to warn and 
prepare them for the popular jud^ent to 
come; but the mission came too late; the 
' Young Italian ' party was past control, and 
the princes were supine or incapable. I'al- 
merston's personal desire was for a kingdom 
of Northern Italy, from the Alps to the 
Adriatic, under Charles Albert of Sardinia, 
combined with a confederation of Italian 
states ; and he was convinced that to Austria 
her Italian provinces were really a source of 
weakness — 'the heel of Achilles, and not 
the shield of Ajax.' He was out in his 
reckoning for Italian independence by some 
ten years, but even ho could not foresee the 
remarkable recuperative power of Austria, 
whose system of government (an * old woman,' 
a ' European China ') he abliorred, though he 
fully recognised tlie importance of her em- 

Eire OS an element in the European equili- 
rium. Throughout the revolutionary tur- 
moil his sympathies were frankly on the side 
of ^oppresseu nationalities,' and his advice 
was always exerted on l)ehalf of constitu- 
tional as against abRohitint principles; but, 
to the sur])rise of his detractors, he main- 
tained a policy of neutrality in diplomatic 
action, and left each state to mend its aflairs 
in its own way. * r^very ])Ost,' he wrote, 
* sonds me a lamenting minister throwing 
himself and hi« country upon England for 
helj), which 1 am obliged to tell him we 
cannot ailbrd him.' The chief exception to 
this nihi was his dictatorial h'cture to the 
<lii(M'n of Spain on U) March 1H4><, which was 
indit^nantly returned, and led to Sir H. Ji. 
iJiilwi-r's dismissal from Madrid; but even 
ln'H* the fault lay less with the principal 
llian with tlin agent (who was not instructed 
to show the dosputch, much loss to publish it 
in tin* Simnisli opposition pap«'rs), though 
raimtTKton's loyalty to lii» oHicer forbade 
tlic a(lmissi(m. Another instance of indis- 
(•n'«'l interforrncM* was the permission given 
to tliM onlnance of Woolwich to supply arms 
indirtTtly to the Sicilian insurgents. Only 
the unmitigated brutalities of 'Bomba' could 

palliate such a breach of neutrality; but 
Falmerston's disgust and indignation were 
00 widely shared by Englishmen that when 
he was brought to book in the commona, his 
defence, in 'a slashing impudent speech' 
(Greville, Joumaly pt. ii. toL iii. p. 277), 
completely carried the house with him. His 
efforts in conjunction with France to mediate 
between Austria and Sardinia had little 
effect beyond procuring slightly better terms 
of peace for the latter ; out the Marquis 
Massimo d'Axeglio*8 grateful letter of thajiks 
(Au^st 1849) showed how they were ap- 
preciated in Italy, and a result ot this sym- 
pathy appeared later in the Sardinian con- 
tingent m the Crimean war. 

The French revolution of February 1848 
found no cold reception from Palmerston. 
' Our principles of action,' he instructed Lord 
Normanby on 26 Feb., ' are to acknowledge 
whatever rule may be established with ap- 
parent prospect of permanency, but none 
other. We desire friendship and extended 
commercial intercourse with France, and 
peace between France and the rest of Europe ' 
tie fully trusted Lamartine's sincerity and 
pacific intentions, and used his influence at 
foreign courts on his behalf. One result was 
seen in Lamartine*s chilly reception of Smith 
O'Brien's Irish deputation ; and the value of 
Palmerston's exertions in preventing fric- 
tion between the powers and the French pro- 
visional government was warmly attested 
by the sagacious king of the Belgians, who 
stated (3 Jan. 1849) that this policy had 
assisted the P'rench government in ' a system 
of moderation which it could but with great 
ditKculty have maintained if it had not been 
acting in concert with England.' 

The rigours ado])ted by Austria in sup- 
pressing the rebellions in Italy and Hungary 
excited England's indignant 'disgust, as 
Palmerston bade Lord Ponsonby tell Prince 
Schwarzenberg * openly and decidedly.' 
When Kossuth and other defeated leaders of 
the Hungarian revolution, with over three 
thousand Hungarian and Polish followers, 
took n'fnge in Turkey in August 1849, the 
ambassadors of Austria and Russia de- 
manded their extradition. On the advice of 
Sir Stratford Canning, supported by the 
French ambassador, the sultan declined to 
give up the refugees. The Austrian and Rus- 
sian representatives at the Porte continued 
to insist in violent and imperious terms, and 
on 4 Sept. Prince Michael Kadzivil arrived 
at Constantinople charged with an ultima- 
tum from the tsar, announcing that the 
escape of a single refugee would be taken as 
a declaration of war. The Turkish govern- 
ment, in great alarm, sought counsel with 




be ' QretLt Elchi/ and Sir Stratford Canning 

ST.} took upon himself the responsibility of 
rising resolute resistance, ana, in conjunc- 
ion wiUi his French colleague, allowed the 
Porte to understand that in the event of war 
Turkey would have the support of England 
uid France (Lavb- Pools, Life of Stratford 
Oanmnfff iL 191). Upon this the imperial 
imbassadors broke off diplomatic relations 
with the Pbrte. Palmerston at once obtained 
the consent of the cabinet to support Turkey 
in her generous action, and to make friendly 
refwesentations at Vienna and Petersburg 
to induce the emperors *not to press the 
SultAn to do that which a regard for his 
honour and the common dictates of humanity 
forbid him to do.' At the same time the 
English and French squadrons were in- 
structed to move up to the Dardanelles with 
orders to go to the aid of the sultan if he 
should invite them (to S. Canning, 2 Oct. 
1849). Palmerston was careful to explain 
to Baron Brunnow that this step was in no 
sense a threat, but merely a measure ' to pre- 
vent accidents,' and to ' comfort and support 
the sultan * — ' like holding a bottle of salts 
to the nose of a lady who had been frightened.' 
He was fully conscious, however, of the 
gravity of the situation, and prepared to go 
all lengths in support of Turkey, ' let who 
will be against her ' (to I'onsonby, 6 Oct. 
1849). I* inn language and the presence of 
the fleets brought the two emperors to 
reason, and in a fortnight Austria privately 
intimated that the extradition would not be 
insisted on. 

Palmer8ton*s chivalrous defence of the 
refugees brought him great renown in Eng- 
land, which his imprudent reception of a 
deputation of London radicals, overflowing 
with virulent abuse of the two emperors, did 
nothing to diminish. The judicious bottle- 
holder, as he then styled himself, was the 
most popular man in the country (cf. cartoon 
in Punch, 6 Dec, ISol). The *Pacifico affair,' 
which occurred shortly afterwards, tested his 
popularity. Two British subjects, ])r. George 
rinlay [q. v.] and David Pacifico [q. v.], had 
laid claims against the Greek government 
for injuries suffered by them at the hands of 
Greek subjects. The Greek government re- 
pudiated their right to compensation. Conse- 
quently Admiral Sir William Parker [q. v.] 
blockaded the Piraeus in January IB/K). The 
claims were clear, and force was used only 
after every diplomatic expedient had bt^eii 
exhausted. ' It is our long forbearance, and 
not our precipitation, that de^rves remark,' 
said Palmerston. The French government 
offered to mediate, but on 21 April the French 
mediator at Athens, Baron Gros, threw up his 

mission as hopeless. The coercion of Greece 
by the Englisn fleet was renewed (26 April), 
and the Greek government compelled to ac- 
cept England's terms (26 April). The re- 
newed blockade of the Piraeus was held by 
France to be a breach of an arrangement 
made in London on 18 April between Pal- 
merston and the French ambassador, Drouyn 
de Lhuys. It seems that the promptness of 
action taken at Athens by Admirai Parker 
and by Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) 
Wyse [q. v.], the British minister at Athens, 
who was not informed of the negotiations in 
London, was not foreseen by the foreign 
secretary. It had, however, been understood 
all along that, if French mediation failed, 
coercion mieht be renewed without further re- 
ference to the home ^vernment (Greville, 
Journal, pt. ii. vol. iii. p. i^34). The French 
government seized the opportunity to fix a 
Quarrel upon England in order to make a 
decent figure before the warlike party in the 
assemblv at Paris. With a great show of 
offended integrity, and expressly on the 
queen's birthday, they recalled Drouyn de 
Lhuys from London, and in the chambers 
openly taxed the English government with 
duplicity. Those who understood French 
politics were not deceived. * Oh, it's all non- 
sense/ said the old Duke of Wellington; 
and Palmerston did not think it even worth 
while to retaliate by recalling Lord Nor- 
manby from Paris. He hastened, on the con- 
trary, to conciliate French susceptibilities by 
consulting Guizot in the final settlement of 
some outstanding claims upon Greece, and 
the storm blew over. The House of Lords 
indeed censured him by a majority of thirty- 
seven, on Lord Stanley's motion on 17 June, 
supported by Aberdeen and Brougham ; but 
in the commons Roebuck's vote of confidence 
was carried in favour of the government by 
forty-six. Thedebate,which lasted four nights, 
was made memorable by the brilliant speeches 
of Gladstone, Cockburn,and Peel, who spoke 
for the last time, for his fatal accident hap- 
pened next day ; but the chief honours fell to 
Palmerston. In his famous * civis Romanus ' 
oration he for more than four hours vindi- 
cated his whole foreign policy with a breadth 
of view, a tenacity of logical argument, a 
moderation of tone, and a height of elocjuence 
which the house listened to with rapture and 
interrupted with volleys of cheers. It was 
the greatest sj)eech he ever made ; * a moat 
able and temperate speech, a speech which 
made us all proud of the man wno delivered 
it,' said Sir Robert Peel, generous to the 
last. It * was an extraordinary eftbrt,' wrote 
Sir George C. Lewis (to Sir E. Head, Lett^g, 
p. 227). *IIe defeated the whole conserva- 

^ ^ m m. » ^iJ ^ ^ 

i t—zle 

- -- -,i-- -- --. - . --._.-.. L.". : . — . "-'. •:■;:- c«:-r Tii^i:-.'a— i > if-n Lrzi~nrS.y ilzvTvA 

-, --.'.: - :"•_.- ---.—'--- 'i-i.-i. v II- : ".u-.a-i r zi- 'LJi— : •; -j^ -n - ■»■•'-'' .c pdi:: of di.*- 

- - - -... - r'^-'» ' t.". : 1-- ' -^ "J I. -.«:•: :' r:-^- n.r-iii JLr.ri-i': -Z/"'. — il* . I'mlni-rrston 
-■ : *- ^-_ L". liLi..*^ .1. :::-'•* .1 ;:izit :.■: z«.r rrsxi i" ;ci:»*- "ttrCAiA: h*- undex^ 

-■• ..^-^ -J.- ;'.-■- T- - ■. i. -.-..-.-.- :.iZ" ziJ.- -r 1 1: -.ij.- -.jj- zi-cii:rLi«:L=. ■■-i^->nnd«rntul 

— L - : * 1- ■ 'I-' "t. 7 ■ :" r-..—- y.*. ^-r- >"-r-rTE. Ij:r-i 7 liz. r-i-i!»rl- izi iizj^Li. and 

lt. : ?l:i^:..-- :"i. ' .■."-•"" "rr -'■ x- .-..21 1.1 i !:- :.i -•;* -v-.-xi :. T«-*L-fii :■: tI-t fcouae and 

:> rrbir- l.zi. t- i-^ -l. : ..-.':: -?-.:. ': " "ir I'.'-^rrj-rzj.:. iti-Jirf t-T :•: 1 ^aersisLal dispute 

I T-r7 '. T,2 -■ ..-^ ".: - r-T ._».• i-r.; =:t r-ir-r . Kt Trir^s-ei - E^^tIzct Albert that 

^.-■* rr ":.-: ".•>'. ".z:- --: i»Ti:;t~- "Ir - -y i-a " r " ^^ ~ -• i^-i-ci 'i-r «l:*ht«5t dis- 

11.1- :' "l-r p*r- :"-. •' .r 11 < '^' ^ - I- — LZ. Tvr-iect -.-. "1- iittE- il-:xi-«i Tiirvme ppw- 

,-•;:._.:;■. .-■.r:'.'*--!.. i Lr:'*:-' • r;-i mz- *irr .: ^irr-rn: '".•-'*ir'=>*. ani pp^mi^ra to 

■ - -:-»r . t.-:"3ri.- ■--■T-ir! . =:t*!»:-': .1 i.'? ■:• rir. l7T"-:z"-r:r ZLVe^TT- *_:•?::--,:: i«''iis- But 

-'i'---,-. ' - ■ - A-.S.I.* i-.T.T.'T iz. : :"— V^'-i"; c.-? :: Ez^lm-i slat wrll have bred a 

:.-"..:: l: -.rr.i'.T ii-r.c- :t z.-ri.:,'.r. l=. »ri:'-^::c:ii-r:o-: iJii i-et-'i*:.!: which bn»k«i 

-i". r. :' i -i-iiT-rrnl iE.--.-:.-::.rT. ii. : ":.-e prrs.t:?. ini :* Tr.Oi r- : "r^ tAST lif it wen? 

'".ir." v-.r-: IT ■: :' -.nir .:' :..- :t-:.ji'. .:.-:•• ir-i nTii^rs-siry ■ *•■ afc^ilTr Ptlx-rrscon fn.^m the 

ii". ni-io Li-T.-.*- r-r -r-r.-.r;-: & J •^-^- oiiArre :f : n irf ten i»rns> ia m?re than the 

..-/ > iziprr*"?: n "a:.:*:!^ i-i "■■■ "-'--^ r..-:Ar.i.z:-? m.iiir xTiir^ ;■: h:* oit>». Miny instances 

:*l.>brini:' -^L;:-: h:r ji .r.\v. o.r.- :-r.:. ■.ot^-►r^^:«i fc^'h fc*r: rv ani after the queen's 

~-J:.i-i air in ".'.-r L . .^ *-ivr 1 " "i-7 ' =:-rn:.rai:i-:si.' ani :: i? clear that from 

;i'«- isipr^-i jn '.■: '.TV.'.y ir. i .:: i.rfr >-:..>: to 1?4-* :awarij :Lr c::irt was azixious to rid 

jrr::u? i?*'!-:-. Tha* i.-: rtii-r r. -.n-rr.-u- i-.-rlf of thr forti^ •ninUter. and that 

i* r:- pp-:.f '.'f a mi-'r.i'Arn Kn^*!:-L p*:/Iicy. /-.urrt/i/, pt. ii. vol. iii. p. -KJO; ^IaLXKBUST, 

aci -h-^ rr-alr ijf hi.-; -tr-jn/ {•■.•li'-y xi-.t- p»r:iCi=. M*^noir«. i. :^A 1. In un«>£eLal ct^nversation 

J M5t whrn h»: wa.- ut th- h'-i.'Kt of hi- yt^^-^.r with Count WalrWyki. the French ambasM- 

an i pi>pularif V a.- f'!^i/ii mini-t»:r in •rv»rnt d-.-r, Palnirrsron rxpresovd hi* appp.^val of 

hap'vnr'l which had n-i' h— .-n sinf ..-*•— rn by L'.-ui* Nap«:*iri>n** cm/* 'fetat of i iWc. 1851, 

:hi>ff acijuainr»-d wi*h 'h- coiir. I>-irin^ andforthish'r wa* curtly di«mls«ed from office 

th-^ vea> he had h^M th»: -rr.-iU of rh»: f'.'r»ri|?n by L«;rd John Kasik-Il on the 19th, and even 

.^tSov und»rr Lonl M«^Ib^iiirn»' h^r had >j-»rn insultMl by the otft^r of the lord-lieutenancv 

allowed ro do as he ple»i.^.-d in hi-? own dr- of Ireland. Thi? pretext was considerably 

pdrtmeni. Jir ♦*x»:rted • an ab-rolui*? d»r-po- w»;akvned by the fact that Lord John him- 

rUm at the F. i). . . . witliout tb* Bli;:ht»:!it *»-lf und ?*.'Vtral memljtrrs of his cabinet had 

control, and scarc»;ly any inr»:rf*jr»;n(;»r on th»; ♦.•xpr»;'«sed similar opinions of the coup d'etat 

mrt of his coll»?Mgut.- ' j Gkkvillk, Jouma/, to the same person at nearly the same time; 

ot ii. vol. i. p. ^*'?f- J'*' '"rt-at^d, in fact, an but the theorj* seems to have been that an 

MUiertuiii wi imfterio, which, howfr;v»-r w».-ll exjiression of approval from the foreign 

itworked under his able rub.*, was hardly secretary to the French representative, 

LikelT to commend itself to a more vigilant whether official or merely 'officious/ meant a 

'^ minister, or to a court which con- jr^.-ftt d*-al more than the opinions of other 

MiTcd the regulation of for»-ign atiairs to be members of the povemmenl. ' There ra* a 
:^ ^^ijjjP province. On M-veral occu.-ions Palmerston,' said Disraeli, and the clubs 
-^jjjQU had taken uiKin himself to des- b«?lieved that the * Firebrand ' was quenched 
initnictions involving serious ijues- forever. Schwarzenberp rejoiced and gave 
^ol policy without consult in^i: the crown a ball, and Prussian opinion was summed up 
'"fcia cweagues, whom lie Uta oft»-n left in in the doggerel lines: 
5!L,,pje of important f rhn|.Hc:Tion«. These ; ^.^^ j^,^. ,^^^^^^ ^j^^^^^ ^^^^ 

^ZTirf independence brouj^ht ii])r,n him the 1 ^ j^t ^.^ ^^^hw Palmerston. 

TLS Memorandum of 12 A.i^r. \m\ »»',,,,, 

ZX h« was required to *di.Miinctly state In hngland, however, people and pre» 
*^ii itfopofies in a given case, in onler 1 lamented, and Lord John was considered to 
^ •* lieeninav know an distinrtly to ■ have behaved badly. Within three weeks 

it 1^9' 

I BiTing litT rf»yul simction ;' and i the government were defeated on an amend- 
|JL commanded that 11 measure > ment moved by Lord Talmerston to Ru88ell*8 




militia bill, and resigned. Thej had long 
been tottering, and were glad once more to 
avail themselves of a pretext. The result of 
the division was a surprise to Palmerston, 
who had not intended to turn them out (to 
his brother, 24 Feb. ; Lewis, Letters, p. 

During the 30o days of the first Derby 
administration Palmerston thrice refused 
invitations to join the conser\'ative govern- 
ment. He rendered cordial aid, however, to 
Lord Malmesbury, the new foreign secretary 
< Malmebbubt, Mem. i. 317), and on 23 Nov. 
1862 he saved the government from defeat by 
an adroit amendment to Villiers's free-trade 
resolution ; but the respite was short. On 
3 Dec. they were beaten on Disraeli*s budget, 
and resigned. In the coalition government 
under Aberdeen, Palmerston, pre&sed by 
Lords Lansdowne and Clarendon, took the 
home office, the post he had settled upon be- 
forehand as his choice in any government 
^to his brother, 17 Nov. 1852). lie did not 
feel equal to * the immense labour of the 
foreign office ; ' and probably he did not care 
to run the chance of further repression, 
though he now stood * in better odour at 
Windsor' (Grevillk, / iii.vol.i. p. 14). 
But before he joined the cabinet of the 
statesman whose foreign policy he had per- 
sistently attacked, he took care to ascertain 
that his own principles would be maintained. 
He proved an admirable home secretary, vigi- 
lant, assiduous, observant o^ details, original 
in remedies. Stimulated by Lord Shaft-es- 
bury, he introduced or supported various 
improvements in factory acts, carried out 
prison reforms, established the ticket-of-leave 
system and reformatory schools, and put a 
atop to intramural burials. He shone as a 
receiver of deputations, and got rid of many 
a troublesome interrogator with a good- 
humoured jest. On the question of parlia- 
mentary reform he was not in accord with 
Russell, and resigned on 16 Dec. 1853 on 
the proposals for a reform bill; but re- 
turned to office after ten days on the under- 
standing that the details of the bill were 
still open to discussion. Another subject 
on which the cabinet disagreed was the 
negotiation which preceded the Crimean 
war. Palmerston was all for vigorous action, 
which, he believed, would avert war. Aber- 
deen, however, was tied bv his secret agree- 
ment with the Emperor I^icholas, signed in 
1844 (Malm iSBUBT, Memoirs, i. 402), grant- 
ing the very points at issue, and was consti- 
tutionally unequal to strong measures. Of 
Lord Clarendon, who early in the administra- 
tion succeeded Russell at the foreign office, 
Palmerston had a high opinion, and supported j 

! him in the cabinet. Concession, he held, only 
led to more extortionate demands. 'The 
Russian government has been led on step by 
step by the apparent timidity of the govern- 
ment of England,' he told the cabinet, when 
pressing for the despatch of the fleets to the 
J3osporus in July 1863, as a reply to Russia's 
occupation of the principalities. He believed 
the tsar had resolved upon *the complete 
submission of Turkey,' and was * bent upon a 
stand-up fight.' * If he is determined to break 
a lance with us,' he wrote to Sidney Herbert, 
21 Sept., * why, then, have at him, say I, and 
perhaps he may have enough of it before we 
have done with him.' It is curious, however, 
that the special act which provoked the de- 
claration of war — the sending of the allied 
fleets to take possession of the Black Sea — 
was ordered by the cabinet during the inter- 
val of Palmerston's resignation. When war 
had been declared, and the troops were at 
Varna, Palmerston laid a memorandum before 
the cabinet (14 June 1854) in which he argued 
that the mere driving of the Russians out of 
the principalities was not a sufficient reprisal, 
and that * it seems absolutely necessary that 
some heavy blow should be struck at the 
naval power and territorial dimensions of 
Russia.' His proposals were the capture of 
Sevastopol, the occupation of the Crimea, 
and the expulsion of the Russians from 
Georgia and Circaasia. His plan was adopted 
by the cabinet, and afterwards warmly sup- 
ported by Gladstone (Ashley, Z//<?, ii. 300). 
No one then foresaw the long delays, the 
blunders, the mismanagement, and the 
terrible hardships of the ensuing winter. 
"When things looked blackest there was a 
feeling that Palmerston was tho only man, 
and Lord John Russell proposed that the 
two offices of secretary for war and secretary 
at war should be united in Palmerston. On 
Aberdeen's rejection of this sensible pro- 
posal, Lord John resigned, 23 Jan. l8o5, 
sooner than resist Roebuck's motion (28 Jan.) 
for a select committee of inquiry into the 
state of our army in the Crimea. After two 
nights' debate the government were defeated 
by a majority of 157, and resigned on 1 Feb. 

On the fall of the Aberdeen ministry Lord 
Derby attempted to form a government, and 
invited Palmerston to take the leadership 
of the House of Commons, which Disraeli 
was willing to surrender to him. Finding, 
however, that none of the late cabinet would 
go with him, Palmerston declined, engaging 
at the same time to support any government 
that carried on the war with energy, and 
sustained the dignity and interests of the 
country abroad. Wlien both Lord Derby 



and Lord Jaha Russell had foiled to con- communicated to tbe army vas rewarded 
struct ail admittislration, although Palmer- hy the fall of the south side of Serantopol in 
atoTunagnanimousiyconsented to serve again September, and then once more Austria 
under 'Johniiy,' he was himself sent for by tried her hnnd at negotialions for peace, 
the queen, and, after some delay, succeeded Palmerston lirmly relused lo consent to 
(6 Feb. 1856) in forming a government of Buol's projKtsal to let the Qlack Sea quM- 
whiga and Peelites ; the latter, however t ion be the subject of a separate arrange- 
(Gladstone, Uraham, and Sidney Herbert), roent between IJusMft and Turkey — 'I had 
retired within three weeks, on Palmerston's better beforehand tahe the Chiltera Hiiii- 
reluctant consent to the appointment of dreds,' he said — but greatly as he and Cla- 
RoebucVs committee of inquiry into the ren don would have preferred a third year's 
manncement of the war. Tlieir plsceswere campaign, to complete the punishment of 
fi]|<!<l by Sir O. 0. Lewis, Sir C Wood, and liussia, he found himself forced, by the 
Lord John Russell, and the cabinet thus action of the emperor of the French and the 

S tuned in strength and unity — especially as pressure of Austiia, to agree to (he treaty of 
lussell was fortunatelyabsentatthe Vienna Paris, 30 March ISM. The guarantee by the 
conference. powers of the integrity and independence of 

The situation when Palmerston at last be- the Turkish empire, the abnegation by them 
I came prime minister of England, at the age of any right to interfere between the sultan 
of seventy, wasfullof danger and perplexity, and uis subjects, and the nentniliisation of 
The siege of Sevastopol seamed no nearer a the Black Sea, with the cession of Bessa- 
ConduHion ; the allianee of the four powers rabia to Rnumania and the destruction of 
was shaken j the emperor of the French had the forts of Sevastopol, oppeared to him a 
lost heart, and was falling more and more I fairly saliafactory ending to the struggle. 
under the influence of financiers ; the sultan iThe Declaration of Paris, abolishing priva- 
of Turkey was Eauanderin|; borrowed money Iteertng and recognising neutral goods and 
onlttxuriesand snowing himself unworthy of Ihottoma, followed. The Garter was the ex- 
support ; parties in England were broken up/ pression of his sovereign's well-deserved ap- 
Bnddisorganised.andtheHoUBeof Commons probation (12 Jul; 186tl). 

& captious mood. At first Palmer- 
Eton's old ener^ and address seem to have 
deserted bim, but it was not long before 
his tact and temper began to reassert their 
power, ile Infused a new energy into the 
military departments, where his long ex]ie- 
rience as secretary at war served liim in 
good stead. He united the secretaryships 
for and at war in one post, which he gave ' 

Shortly after France had joined in guaran- 
teeing the integrity of the Ottoman em- 
pire, she proposed to England, with splendid 
inconsistency, to partition the Turkish pos- 
sessions in North Africa — England to have 
Egypt. While pointing out the moral im- 
possibility of the scheme, Palmerston stated 
to Lord fclarendon his conviction that tha 
only importance of Egypt to Engh 

Lord Ponmure; heformedaspecialtransport sisled in keeping open the road to India. 
branch at the admiralty ; sent out Sir John , He opposed the project of the Suez Canal 
McNeill fq. v.] to reconstitute the commis- | tooth and nail; the reasons he gave have for . 
_ _- . ..V,., -■* - j^ Q„,j despatched a strong 1 the most part besn proved fallacious, but the 


ei^aul tbe hospitals and camp, 
rated personally with Loui 

e re- France might seize it in time of war and !*• 
s Napoleon duce Egypt to vassalage. He had little faitlt 
upon his desire for peace at any price ; and in the constancy of French friendship ; * in 
urged him ('28 May 186fl) 'not to allow Uiur alliance with France,' he wrote (to 
diplomacy to rob us of the great and impor- Iclarendon, 39 Sept, 1857), ' we are ridiog ft 
tant advantages which we are on the point runaway horse, and must always be 

of gaining.' In a querulous House of Coi 
muDS his splendid generalship carried hi 
triumphantly through the session. The 
Manchester parly he treated 
temptuous banter, and refused to ' count for 
anything' — the country was plainly against 
them ; hut hevigorougly repulsed the attacks 
of the conservatives, and administered a 
severB rebuke (30 July) to Mr. Gladstone 
and tbe other Peelites who had in office gone 
ivillingly into the war, and then turned 

tound and denounced ii 

The n 

guard.' He predicted the risk of a Franco- | 
' Ituseian alliance ; tbe necessity of a stronft 
! Germany headed by IVussia ; and the ad- 
vance of Russia to Bokhara, which led to 
the Persian seizure of Herat and the brief 
Persian war of the winter of 1856-7. 

On 3 March 1857 the government was de- 
feated by a majority of fourteen by a cont- 
biiiBtion of cunservntives, Peelites, Uberala, 
and Irish, on Cobden's motion for a select 
ittee t3 investigate the affair of the 

r energy I lorcha Arrow and the justification alleged 

for the second China war. It had already 
been CL-iisured in ih^ liinis iiy a maiority of 
ihirtv-six. A lechnical flaw in the regi- 
etration of the Arrow gave a handle tor 
•rgument to those who, ignorant of our 
pc«itioa in China and regardless of a long 
seriea of bivach^ of treaty and of humilia- 
tiotu, insults, and outrages upon British sub- 
jects, saw merely an opportunity for mailing 
party capitftl or airing a vapid philanthropy 
which WM seldom less approprialu. Palmer- 
■ton might have sheltered himself beliind Ibe 
fact that the war had been begun by Sir John 
rtowring in the urgency of the moment, 
without consulting the home government; 
but h« never deserted his ollicers in ajiut 
cause, and the case in dispute fitted closely 
with bis own policy. H'a instrnctions to 
Sir John Davis, on 9 Jan. 1647. which were 
familiar to Bowring and Parkes, fully 
covered the emergency : ' We shall lose,' he 
wrote, ' ftll the vantsge-irround we have 
gninod by our victories in China if we take 
B low tone. . . . Depend upon it, that tbe best 
way of keeping anv men quiet is to let tliem 
see that you are able and determined to re- 
pel force riy force; and the Chinese are not 
m the least dillerent, in this respect, from 
the rest of mankind' (Bir/. Papiri, 1847, 184, 
n. 2 : LiMB-PooLB, Life ofSirHiirry Parket, 
1. 216-37^, No foreign secretary was so 
keenly aLve to the importance of British in- 
terests in China, so tnorouglily conversant 
withconditionsofdiplomacyin the Far East, 

tent policy. He accepted his parliamentary 
defeat very calmly, and, after miisbing neces- 
■wy bnsinew. appealed to the country. No 
nan could feel the popular pulse more ac- 
cnntely, and the result of the general elec- 
lioo was never doubtful. It wag essentially 
A pMSonaJ election, and the country voted 
for ' old Pam ' with overwhelming en- 
thusiium. That 'fortuitous concourse of* 
Uoma,' the opposition, was scattered to the' 
irinds: Cobdeii, Bright, and Milner Gibson I 
JiMt tbur teats, and the peace parly was 
tanponrily annihilated. In April the) 
jp)v«rameDt returned to power with a largely 
inenaMd majoiity (3U6 liberals, 287 con- 

Meanwhile the Indian mutiny had broken 
out. At first Palmerslon, like most of the 
xntborities. was disposed to underrate its 
■eriousnees, but bis measures for tbe relief of 
the overmatched British garrison of India 
Mill the suppression of the rebellion were 
promiit and energetic. He sent out Sir 
Coim CnnpbeU at once, and by the end of 
Septdnber eighty ships had sailed for India, 
thirty 'thousand troopa. Foreign 

powers proffered assistance, but Palmerston 
replied that England must show that she 
was able to put down her own rebolliona 
'off her own bat' (Ashlky, I.e. ii, 351). 
When tills was accomplished, he brought ia 
(1-2 Feb. 1S56) the bill to transfer the 
dominions of the East India Company to 
the crown, and carried tbe first reading by a 
majority of 145. A week after this trium- 
phant majority the government was IteatSB 
by nineteen on the second reading of tha 
conspiracy to murder bill (by which, in vMlit 
□f Ursiui's attempt on the life of Napoleon J 
HI, conspiracy to murdur was to be vaB4»Mf 
felony). The" division was a complete aiir- 
prise, chieHy due to bad management of the 
whips. Palmerston at once resigned, and 
was succeeded by Lord Derby. The new 
ministry was in a minority, and, being 
beaten on a reform bill early in I860, di^ 
solved parliament. The election, however, 
left them still to tbe bad, and afler Lord 
Derby bad for the fourth time tried to in- 
duce tbe popular ex-premier to join hiin, 
he was defeated on 10 June, and resigned. 

Embarrassed by the difficulty of choosing 
between the two veterans, Palmerston and 
Russell, the queen sent for Lord Granville, 
who found it impossible to form a cabinet, 
though Palmerston generously consented 
to join his junior. The country looked to 
' Pam,' and him only, as its leader, and at, 
tbe age bf seventy-five he formed his second! 
administration (30 June 1869), with a rerp 
strongcabinet, including Itussell, Gladstone, 
Corne wall I-ewis, Granville, Cardwell, Wood, 
.'Sidney Herbert, and Milner Gibson. His 
internal of leisure while out of office bad 
enabled him to resume his old alliance with 
those who had opposed him on the Crimean 
and China wars. It was oneofPalmerston's 
finest trails of character that be never bore 
malice. When Guiiot was banished from 
France in 1848 Palmerston had him to dinner 
at once, old foe as he was, and they nearly 
' shook their arms off' in their hearty recon- 
ciliation (Obetillb, Journal, pt. ii. vol. iii. 
p. 157). ' He was always a very generous 
enemy,' said dying Cobden. When OronTille 
supplanted Palmerston at the foreign office in 
1851, be met with acbeery greeting and offers 
of help. When Kussell threw hun over, he 
called him laughingly ' a foolish fellow,' and 
bore him no personal grudge. So in 1859 
he brought tbem all together again. His six 
remaining years were marked by peaceful 
tranquillity both in home and foreign altliirt. 
Italy and France indeed presented problems | 
of some complexity, but these were met with 
prudence and skill. Palmerston and bis 
foreign minister, Lord John Kussell, now 

Temple 30 Temple 

complt'toly under his leader's influence, ! Louis Napoleon would yield to a national 
deelmrd to mediate in the Franco-Austrian passion forpayinjf oft' old scores against Eng- 
quarrel, as the conditions were unacceptable land, and he preached the strengthening of 
to Austria ; but they did not conceal their the army and navy and encouraged the new 
<lisa])pr()valofthe preliminary treaty of Villa- rifle volunteer movement. In this policy 
franca, which Palmerston declare<l drove he was opposed by Gladstone, the chan- 
Ttaly to dfspair and delivfr<*d her, lied hand cellor of the exchequer, whose brilliant 
andfoot. into the power of Austria. * L'ltalie i budgets contributed notably to the reputa- 
n'ndue a elh^-meme,' he said, had lx>come tion of the government. There was little 
* ritalie vendue a VAutriche.* That he main- cordiality between the two men. 'He has 
tain«'d strict neutrality in the later negotia- never behaved to me as a colleague/ said 
tions connect ed with tlie propost'd congress l*almerston, and went on to prophesy that 
«>f Ziirich, and his suggested triple alliance when Gladstone l>ecame prime minister 
of Kiighnid, France, and Sardinia to prevent * we shall have strange doings.* On the 
any forcible interference of foreign iM)Wers chancellor of the exchequer's pronounced 
in the internal affjiirs of Italy (memorandum hostility to the scheme of fortiflcations, 
to cabinet, »■> Jan. 1H(K)), is scarcely to be Palmerston wrote to the que*»n that it was 
argued. The result of tlie mere rumour of M)etter to lose Mr. Gladstone than to run 
such an alliance (which never came to ])ass) the risk of losing Portsmouth.' AVith Lord 
was the voluntary union of tlie Italian ; John Kussell's projects of elcjctoral reform 
duchies to Sardinia and a hmg stride to- ' the prime minister was not in sympathy; 
wards Italian unity. Palinerston resolutely ' but lie quietly let his colleague introduce 
refused to accede to the French desire that his bill, knowing very well that, in the total 
he should oppose Garibaldi, and hastened to apathy of the country, it would die a natural 
recognise with entire satisfaction the new death. It is significant of these diiferences 
kingdom of Italy. An elo«juent panegyric on and of the general confidence in Palmerston 
the death of CaVour, delivered in the House that for a temporary purpose, and in view 

of ( 'ominous on 6 June 18G1 , f«>rmed a worthy 
conclusion to the sympathy of many years. 

Palnierston's vigilant care of the national 
defences was never relaxed, and the increase 

of ]^ossib^^ secessions from the cabinet, Dis- 
raeli promised tlie government the support 
of the conservative ])arty. The ' consummate 
tact,* to use Greville's phrase, displayed by 

of till? French wavy and the hostile language ' th»* premier iu accommodating the dispute 
towards Kngland which was becoming more between the lords and cr)mmon3 over the 
general in I'rance strengthent?d hiiu in his paper bill, and the adoption of Oobden's 
pijlicv of fortifying the arsenals and dock- commercial treaty with France, were among 
viinls at I*ortsmoutli, Plymouth, Chatham, the events of the session of 1>^00, at the 
and (/ork, for which ho obtained a vote of | close of which l^^rd Westbury wrote to 
nine millions in 18<»(.). In his memorable. Paluierst on to ex]»res'« his admiration of his 
Hpeech on this occasion ('J-i July) he said : * masterly leading during this most difficult 
< If your docrkyards are destroyed, your navy session.* 

is cut up liy tlie roots. If any nnval action J During the civil war in America Palmer- 
were to take place . . . you would have no jlston pres(Tved strict neutrality of action, in 

ls]>ite of the pronounced sympathy of the 
'Fnglish ujiper classes, and even it was be- 
lieved of S(mie of the cabinet, for the South, 
jispiteof a personal liking, from ls50, when and the pressure in the same direction ex- 
i«' visited hiui at Conipiegne, onwards he had erted by the emperor of the French. "What 
grown more and more distrustful of Louis friction there was with the North arose out 
' >;im()l«M)ii, whose mind, he said, was * as full of of isolated cases for which the government 
Hrhenies as a warren is full of rabbits,* and had no responsibility. The forcible seiiure 

means of relilting your navy and sending it 
out to balth'. Il' ever we lt>se Xhi command 
of the sea, what becomes of this. country •' * 


whose aggrandising theory of a * natural 
frcmtier,* involving the annexatirm of Nice 

of two confederate passengers on board the 
British mail-steamer Trent in November 1861 

and Savoy, and even of Chablais and Fan- was an affront and a breach of the law of 

*»i«rny, n«'Utral districts of Switzerland, had * nations, esiK'cially inexcusable in a state 

iced a very unfavourable impression, which repudiated the * right of search.' 

at of sending the Fnglish fleet was I*almerston's prompt despatch of the guards 

fV to prevent (.lenoa l»eing added to to Canada, even before nH!civing a reply to 

fa of the disinteresti^l champion of his protest, proved, as he prophesieOt'tbe 

The interference of France in the shortest way to peace. Sewara, the Ame* 

ifiiculty of 1800 also caused some rican secretary of state, at once submitted, 

Palm''*' ~"« convinced that I and restored the prisoners. The Alabama 




iispute went far nearer to a serious rupture, 
thoagh the hesitation to detain the vessel at 
Dirkenhead in August 1862 was due not to 
Palmerston or Kiissell, but to the law oifir 
cers of the crown. Whatever the syml 
pathies of England for the South, Palmer-I 
8ton actively stimulated the admiralty in it^ 
work of suppressing the slave trade. 

In 1862 the Ionian Islands were presented 
to (ireece, on Mr. Gladstone's recommenda- 
tion, although Palmerston had formerly held 
the opinion that Corfu ought to be retained 
as an English military station. Apart from 
a fruitless attempt in 1863 to intercede 
again for the Poles, and a refusal to enter a 
European congress suggested by Louis Na- 
poleon for the purpose of revising the treaties 
of 1815, and tnereby opening, as Palmerston 
feared, a number of dangerous pretensions, 
the chief foreign question that occupied him 
during his concluding years was the Danish 
war. While condemning the king of I)en- 
inark*s policy towards the Schleswig- 
Ilolstein duchies, he thought the action of 
I'nissia and Austria ungenerous and dis- 
honest ; but the conference lie managed to 
assemble for the settlement of the dispute 
broke up when it appeared that neither 
party could be induced to yield a point: 
and, in presence of a lukewarm cabinet and 
the indifference of Franca and Ilussia, Pal- 
merston could do little for the weaker side. 
Challenged by Disraeli on his Danish policy, 
the premier, then eighty years of age, de- 
fended himself with his old vigour, and then 
turning to the general, and especially the 
financial, work of the government, * played 
to the score* by citing the growing prosperity 
of the country under his administration, 
with the result that he secured a majority 
of eighteen. His last important speech in 
the house was on Irish affairs, on which, as 
a liberal and active Irish landholder, he had 
a right to his opinions. He did not believe 
that legislative remedies or tenant-right 
could keep the people from emigrating: 
' nothing can do it except the influence of 

r or several years before his death Lord Pal- 
merston had been a martyr to gout, which 
lie did not improve by his assiduous atten- 
dance at the Iiouse oi Commons. There, if 
he seldom made set speeches (his si^ht had 
become too weak to read his notes), his ready 
interposition, unfailing tact and good humour, 
practical management, and wide popularity 
on both sides, smoothed away aifnculties, 
kept up a dignified tone, and expedited the 
Vosinefls of tne house. He refused to give in 
to old age, kept up his shooting, rode to 
HaROW and back in the rain when nearly 

seventy-seven to lay the foundation-stone of 
the school library, and on his eightieth birth- 
day was on horseback nearly all day inspect- 
ing forts at Anglesey, Gosport, and else- 
where. When parliament, having sat for 
over six years, was dissolved, 6 July I860, 
he went down to his constituency and won a 
contested election. But he never met the 
new parliament, for a chill caught when driv- 
ing brought on complications, and he died 
at his wife's estate. Brocket Hall, Hertford- 
shire, 18 Oct., within two days of his eighty- 
first birthday. His official despatch-box and 
a half-finished letter showed that he died in 
harness. He had sat in sixteen parliaments, 
had been a member of every administration, 
except PeeVs and Derby's, from 1807 to 1805, 
and had held office for all but half a cen- 
tury. He was buried on 27 Oct. with public 
honours in AVest minster Abbey, where he 
lies near Pitt. Ladv Palmerston was laid 
beside him on her death on 11 Sept. 1869, at 
the age of eighty-two. 

Among the honours conferred upon him, 
besides the Garter, may be mentioned the 
grand cross of the Bath (1832), the lord- 
wardenship of the Cinque ports (1861 ), lord- 
rectorship of Glasgow University (1863), 
and honorary degrees of D.C.L., Oxford 
(1862), and of LL.D., Cambridge (1864). 
His title died with him, and his property de- 
scended to Lady PalmerstonV second son by 
her first marriage, William Francis Cow])er, 
who added the name of Temple, and was 
created Baron Mount Temple of Sligo in 
1880 ; and thence devolved to her grandson, 
the llight Hon. Evelyn Ashley. 

Lord Palmerston, as Mr. Ashley points 
out (ii. 458-0), was a great man rather by a 
combination of good qualities, paradoxically 
contrary, than by any special attribute of 
genius. *He had great pluck, combined 
with remarkable tact ; unfailing good temper, 
associated "»"ith firmness almost amounting 
to obstina ^ . He was a strict disciplinarian, 
and yet ready above most men to make 
allowance for the weakness and short- 
comings of others. He loved hard work in 
all its details, and yet took a keen delight in 
many kinds of sport and amusement. He 
believed in England as the best and greatest 
country in the world . . . but knew and 
cared more about foreign nations than any 
other public man. He had little or no 
vanity, and claimed but a modest value for 
his own abilities; yet no man had a better 
opinion of his own judgment or was more 
full of self-confidence/ He never doubted 
for an instant, when he had once made up 
his mind on a subject, that he was right and 
those who diftered from him were hopelessly 

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mM quit* iccnmte mntobiogmphj' op to IS30 for 
tit inlorntatioD of 1^7 Covper, ftflemrds his 
•mile, tbith 'a prioted in fnll at th« eod of Xionl 
IWlina'* Brsc Tolome, uul in freel; used id Mr. 
A^ty a renHd edition. He aUo kept ■ joucnal 
fnm June 1806 toFebmar; lSOS.eiinicts from 
vhiclian printed in Ur. Ashle;'! firatTolunie 
(1879), pp. 17 to *1. The best short biogr«phj 
11 Hr. Uord C. S&ndera'a ' LIfs of Vi»»unt Pal- 
mcntoD.' 1S8B, which has furniehcd useful dats 
tot the prPHut article. Tho Mirqaii of Lorae 
Iwalio pulilialied & abort biography, routainlng 
Buh preTiausIr unpnblihhed malerinl. Anlhiiny 
Trr>;jnpe'( • I^rd pHlmentoD,' 1882. is an ea- 
Umiutic ealofty, ctiiFfly remarkablp for a 
Tigorona difence of Pnlmenton ngainsit the 
oilicinns of ibe Prince Conaort, but oontaining 
mhing new. A. lADgel in ' Lord Pittmenton ec 
Lord Uussel].' 1877, gire«n Frencb depreciation 
ef 'un grand ennemi de la Prance.' Selectiona 
from hii ppeeehes vera published, vilh a brief 
nrmoir b? ti. II. Francis, in 1SS2, with the title 
' Opinions and Policy of Viscount Paltnereton.' 
AJiiK»>t all the contemporary political and diplo- 
matic memoirs and hietoriea sa)>pljr informncion 
nr rritici^ni on Palmerslon's policy and acts. 
ITlhe^ethsmost important is Grerilla's Journal, 
tbungh its tone of personal malcTolencedrtracts 
fmrn the valup of its eridenee. • PalmeiBloa'a 
Bornugh.' by F. J. Snell (1894). contain! notes 
Ml the Tiverton elections. Other sources for 
.hi* luticle are Fagan's Hiatury of the Keform 
!!^lnb; Parliamentary Papers; Return of Mem- 
wrs of pHrliatnent, 1878 i Complete Peerage by 
i. E. C[ukayne]: information from the Right 
lEon. Erelyn Ashley ; B. P. Lnscelles of Harrow ; 
[. Bass Mullinger, librarian, und R. F. Scott, 
:iark, rtgistmry of that uniTBrsity.JS. L.-P. 

TEMPLE, JAMES (J. l&iO-Um), k- 
ricidi', was the only son of Sir Alexander 
rt!'mple of Etchinchain in Sussex by bis first 
a-iff. )larv, daugnter of John Somera and 
widow of Thomas reniston. Sir Alexander 
d. Iti^lMwas younger brother of Sir Thomas 
ri-mple, first bart., of Stowe (d. 1625), and 
>f Sir John Temple, knt., anceator of the 
Temples of Framptonin Warwicknliire. lie 
iras knifrhted at the Tower on 14 .March 
1U)4, and rrpresented the county of iSua«ei 
In the parliament of 162S-t<. Ilis set^ond 
wife was Mary, daughter of John Keve of 
Bury Ht. Edmunds, and widow of Itobert 
Itarkworlh of London, and of John Qus- 
bridfre of Etchingham in Sussex. 

James was captain of a troop of horse 
in (he parliamentary army in 1&42, serving 
rinder William Russell, earl of Bedford, In 
l&t'd he was made captain of the fort of 

iO-2. 205, 242, 2&4). He was appointed one 
if the Gommiaiionen for the sequestration 

of the estates of delinquents for the county 
, of Sussei in iSia In IJecember 1643 h« 
I defended the fort of Dramber, of which he 
I was governor, against an attack by th« 
royalists. In February 1644-fi he was made 
: one of the commissioners for the county of 
Susses for raising supplies for lht> Scottish 
army. In September l(i46 he was elected a 
'recruiter 'to the Long parliament, represent- 
ing the borough of I)rerober,nnd in May 1649 
he was made governor of Tilburj- fort. 

Tempie was one of the king's judges, and 
attended nine sittings of the trial. lie was 
present on the morning of 27 Jan. 164!l 
when sentence was passed, and signed the 
warrant on l1> Jan. 

On 9 May lUTiO he was added to tho 
militia commission for the county of Kent, 
»nd in September of the same year was re- 

Silaced in bis post of governor of Tilbury 
ort bv Colonel Heorge LVompton. In lUM 
Temple's pecuniary difficulties led to a tem- 
porary imprisonment, lie sat as a recruiter 
LQ the restored Itiimji of IClTi!), and was 
granted a residence in Whiteliall in the 

At the Hestoration Templo was excepted 
from the act of oblivion on June 1««0, 
and attempted to make his way into Ireland, 
He was, however, taken prisoner at Coventry, 
where he 'confessed that he was a parlia- 
ment man and one of the late king's judges,' 
and was detained in the custody of tho 
sheriff of Coventry. He surrenderod him- 
self on 16 June in accordance with the king's 
. proclamation of 4 June, and was received 
: into the custody of the lieutenant of tho 
Tower. He was excepted out of the in- 
demnity bill of 2S) Aug. with the saving 
clause of suspension of e.veculion until de- 
termined upon by act of parliament. On 
, 10 Oct. he wasindicted at the sessions house, 
I Uld Bailey, when he pleaded 'not guilty.' 
I On 16 Oct., when again called, lie beggeil to 
see his signature on tho warrant, adding ' If 
it be my liand I must confess all, I he cir- 
! cumstancea must follow.' Acknowledging 
the hand to be his, he presented n petition to 
the court. He was pronounced 'guilty,' 
when he begged for the btmefit of the king's 
proclamation. In hisI>l^tilion he statvdthat 
Wore 1648 he came under the influence of 
Dr. Stephen Goftu [<i.v.] and Ih-. Henry 
Hammond ^q. v.], who ' came to liim as from 
the said late king,' urging him to take part 
in the trial for the purpose i>{ providing 
them with informstion as to tlii^ probable 
result. Accordingly he furnii>)i<^ ihemwiili 
an account from time to lime. He was 
afterwards suspected by (Jromwell of con- 
cealing royalist papers and fell out of favour. 

Temple 24 Temple 

XT. : %.. .-. • e.-r^"-. H' -r.'ii-^-i ^r .--»-'=* OTi»:*irr. :_ ITl . •.■:. iS J^t 1*^4:; he wu 

f-.r. -I- .-:>-:. f'-- .ivr i-:u: t--. r-:---i XJ-. ::? ^ M-*ri.i;ria« dMoihed 

K •. v.r..v.i- T . -j-.^v -, -rrr- -::-=. iz.i i* .: B»LlT;nri- ^:. Cfcrlr-m- OMeiai Bttwnt 

p---. .--.- • . •:.-." --.r.r ..>rr-.-"- \'.i -r-'ir.r*. / XP^. IrLx=.L zr. li. p. ^JTu In the 

T^v.^.i ■»>• : :* -i^- -:<:. -. .* rr=i^r-i sm^l-r ■>rrrr-rc. TZrr =■.»!. tsi lb* ptililp 

.r. '-.r.-'-.-r.'.^.*:- .-. * - T.-r-r i.z *■-.— -r '-^r^. — --■ z-s z:>i— zAT-r^a ir^-^ ria to the side 

a '. ■: -K t- . r. • :. - ''/. : C tr* .r . - J r r— t . - >•>. : : • i-r l±~-rr. ui i. :^ r:^*r-L -vesiK of iht Td»- 

/• .• r. .• /.-. .T.'. Tf-^-r r t;,-- i- :.tL B7 m-r-: ^r^-*■-A:Iz^^ 1-r :5r?«rz r-:- ibe CfiWatiOB, 

:. . t/-: M.i*7 :.' ':.',], t--. ?.!i- i' i i: l-rf.-": ir: ifi.* 1^ A^x^*: 1'54-* s:i*peEd*d fromhu 

/,.'.- :.: .r.^-'r. M i.-^- : — ^r -.7 -.1-^ 1 : ris ; :jcI-^=s ^i^tIas^ and Ticb- 

< .: '.'XK .r\ •..'?:' 5"=::. 1- ^"ri .V't-:.'-?: '.•itz.-t. i^r.^ -- i:L'?:r:tr:l:-ri £p?ai Chixiei, 

.V'/ t^' .//y - ;,-t:i -. ' . : .' r ~ : 1- i- ■ i =: •_- " :-i- in L t.-i. S-r W. Pirsrcj. S_r A. Loft as, and 

f.i'-. :..- :.-i: '- . ': -"."i'ijfr^:*. L.* i-Ar: -S.r i:. M-rrrLrz. -r :r=:"r:r-i & clc^se posoner 

f . .. '.f J.."- i.-- : • i'.. .r. i'.i :.. - hir. i 's> : :.! '-: :l-r ?*.<>. H.-r iri* sprciillj cban^ with 

r* ' .■>'"• \: .' : .: irivr.'T." • »- -.i.- ■•"i-rr LitIht := Mij 1.- i J::r-=- irrlr:*-: two scift- 

K t '. ■: . '•'•'. r. • • >. .'. '. ' '■ /// y r ' .1/^ '*> -a' <-y. : . iil :is I rT "-r* irii=.*' ti* err, miuch hid 

1 ; i :. • /r. -..'.'-:» ;. '. .v. ■ r, • *. -. :r. . /r. :*i=i -. .? ">^n i-r-i : ' isZtt^ LI* =jrT*:y a$ fftToana; 

f ,.• r- • -.4. .r %.* r.^r -...liir.--. rA-;.-.!- r-:=iir'i- •'1- rt'.-rl? •.iKTX. £'/- •_"'' Ot»^>ji^. L 441- 

*•..«- f',.- :.'.•:.. r.:* '. .• ":..-. :.' iri'/.r r, l^'.:.-:^^ .: -W:; . Hi- inpri'-: n=-rz.: lA&T<?d neariy a 

• ■'. • r / . r. i-' • :r. - r* :, r r . f . r 7.- :. . -. ". . ;, - ca =1- :::: : 7 -. ^r. w'- ■=• - i -e tt*.? -ei^ han^i. In compeM- 

•:.- ;.•..'% • , :.'.-•> 4 -;.4rr in '-.^ •7''-7".-^" -imiT'arhiT'a-iiT'rriri'e-ia.* lils h&rsh treat- 

J>' •*•;.-!• fr'.v. Tvrr-p!- *'. .^'r T:.>i4s Bit- =.-n-. i- tts.* pr?vii^i is 164»i with a aeat 

r>./*',r. ',-. .Ti!..* irv fr*i**-rr^. -.' r>rrr* in J :'. 7 :r. tlt En^'.l*'- ilviir- of Common* as a *ie- 

*rr: A .;'i-- I'ii^;. ;.^-.-: '>r-n prir.:-': h7 -r-r or^*:-rr' : r •.■hi<r':r«:er.r«^ivin^ atthenme 

K -",r,'^4! :.'.;i'. .-':- p"- f:;r:i:r,.:'..'*r, - App. 7:h 'i^r i"* *y-r«?:il rb-ink* f'-r ta* s^rrioes be 

I :*:;*. '.: . ■V/J. t'ii ,/ tii rvtirr'r'i To •■:* Knrllsh intci^etst in Iie- 

'••' • '. - - ;>■ --■•^•-- >«■. >. '"'0: L:'*r.rr.-.'5 '^^"'^ ^* *-- i-'^rinninr of th-:- rebellion. 
U. k 1' ... ' . r- :;•"* ii^rrn-^fy-^L^'^ir^^^' year Trpi.epallLjhed his- Irish Be- 

j/ -*:,,'- ... X M- •- ; f '^ xi'Ak '/ Kr.iy::*.-. i. brliion : or an Li-torr of the beeiiining and 

ifi. ^'*f. -•-. i'-'" ..-•. 'f M. -•'>.;. 47-'. «'• J: Oi:. nr--: pr jrvrMffr of the c^nerall ivbellion 

-■A"*- i'/.:.' .•'., It ,'i.. l'*-'':-Ci iH'.':.::. ; Ni'f^r.s rai~rl wi'LIa :hr kinr^ioai of Ireland upon 

I.-.-.. ',f r" .•.'.' ■. I. i' ;y^i- Ar-::v L.--«, t!.- . . . i'3 •Jc:. l''4l. Toz^-ther with thebaf- 

;.. .Vi; M-.*- .'- .M ■ ^•. - *»-'. ^- t'*. ^-- ^3: bir:'.:-eri-l:":r> and bl'»iv massacres which 

'ir.i. '.?».;.'• ?'-''•'■;■ ;;■•«■• -J-''''-:. 271.270; ^r*.vJ^i th-r»:up--»n.* in 2 p:«. 4to. The book 

H,-.'- M.-!-. ','...'... 7*.'. i'p. p;. I''l, lij-'i: rnvii: an immediaie and ^p?at sensation. As 

>.i--x Ar ■'.". / .:;-.■•:'■> nCo..^ V. .;i. ;.o. ,;.. p^,iuction of a profrssed eve-witness 

r,^. -Si: ''.:;.-;..:.-. ..v-r.,t V v. .;,;^ •... Jiv ^.^j ^^j- one who^ IH^sition entitled him to 

V..;. 0., l.w: J/..-:. Jo.p:.-.... v. ^., xj .>-. ^ j^ ^j^j^ authoritv. its statements were 

^ ..' P.., .■ !-', '/'fa. v>,«. V- r-'V r^'^'-'vwl with unnu^^stionm^ confidence, 

^ ., , ;# f. . ,„i.;^„. I V p and did much to mname popular mduma- 

' tion in hnglani a^mst the Irish, and to 

TEMPLE, .^n: .JOHN CI♦XX^1077l. justify rh»^ si? vere treatment afterwards mea- 

mtLr-*-r of Th«; r'lil- in Jr*;]an'l, ••!'l«--t ton of ftur»-d out to thnm by Cromwirll. But the 

gir AVilliwm 'i-riijil" tl'hf't \*yj7 ) '<{. y,~, calm».-r judgment of posterity has seen rea- 

p:ov<'rtt of Trinity ('oll^:;^*:, JinMin, and son to doubt tht* veracity of many of its 

Martha, daij;.dit':r of JtoU-rt IJarri?-on of stat^rnivnts, and. thousrh >rill occasionally ap- 

iMrbv.-hir**, wa** bom in Jnrland in I'KX). p<-ab;d to as an authority, its position is rather 

\t*rer receivinir h\h «:diic>it ion at 'I'riniry T'oi- that of a parti.«an pamphlet than of an histori- 

leffe Dublin, he j-p'-nt j-onur tim*; tntvllin;,' cal tr<-atis»? (Leckt. Ili^t, of Enpl, ii. 148- 

abmad and on hi.* prtnrn <rnt#T«;d tin.* p*:r- l.VJ: JIic Ksos./mA 3/flr#itff rr**«. vol. rod. 

M^nal service of rharlui f. If*? obtained p. 140). A new edition appeared in London 

rrof his inh*;ritHnc>; on *'; .Jan. U»:^>^, and in M»74, much to the ann^tyance of ^vem- 

^lioitlvafterwardMknit/bt'rd. kf;tuniin^>' m**nt, but, on beinjr questional by the lord- 

j[giid'he wafl on •/! Jan. lOUJ cn'at«.'d lieut*.>nunt (the Earl of Essex) on the sub- 

p of the ndlH th«:nj (pat wit 20 Feb. ) jfct. Temple disclaimed Iiavin^r bad any share 

jeiMon to Sir Christ ojdnT WandeH- ' in its reis.sue. sayiner that • whoever printed 

x^i^VYTTit Tjfiw Ojfi^trrH of Ireland f • it did it without his knowledge' (EssEZ, 

^iid admittfid a privy coiinciilnr. I Lfiftcrftf p. 2). So highly, indeed, were the 

^ rebellion brokf! out. in October Irish incensed against it that one of the firrt 

of the g^reatcst serrice to govern- resolutions of the parliament of 1G89 was to 



'jbrder it to be bomt by the 
laan {Egtrton MS.mi, f. 108): hat since' 
tben it htu been frequently reprinted both 
in Dublin ant) in London. 

In 1647, after the conclusion of the peace 
between Ormonde and the parliament, 
Temple was appointed a commiBsioner for 
the government of Munster, and on 16 Oot. 
the followinir vear was made joint commit- 
noner with Sir W. Pareons for ihe admini- 
etrstion of the great seal of Ireland. But, 
haTing Toted with the majority nn 5 Dec. in 
fitTour of the propoeed compromise with 
Charles, he was excluded from further at- 
tendance in the house ; and during the next 
foai vears ha took no pari in public affairs, 
Maiding the while quii^tly in London. His 
pereonal experience, however, of the cir- 
cumstancea attending the outbreak of the 
RbeTliou led to his appointment on 31 Nov. 
1653 as a commiiaioner ' to consider and 
■dviBe from time to time how the titles of 
the Irish and others to any estate in Intknd, 
and likewise their delinquency according to 
their respective qualifications, might be put 
in the mmt speedy and exact way of adjudi- 
cation consistent with justice.' His labours 
koeonipliched,he returned to England in the 
following year, and, the government of Ire- 
land haviDg grown into a settled condition, 
he expressed his willingneM to resume the 
ri-giilar execution of his old office of master 
of the rolls. He accordingly repaired thither 
in June lOm, bearing a highly recommen- 
datory letter from Cromwell to the lord- 
deputy Fleetwood and council of stat« in 
his favour [Cimiinonrreaith Pajiert, 
Dublin. A^, 2(1, f. 60). In addition to an 

Iincreasi^d official salary hereceived from time 
to time several grants of money for special 
•errice* renderfil by him. In SepWmber 
Uiat year he was joined with Sir K. King, 
Benjamin Woraley, and others in a commis- 
sion for letting and netting of houses and 
land? belonging to the state in the counties of 
Dublin, Kildare, and Carlow. and on 13 June 
WiA was appointed a commiosioner for de- 
tffnaining all differences among the adven- 
tnren ooncemiog lands, &c. (i%. A/ 36, 24, ff. 
115, 237). As a recompense forhia services 
be received on 6 July 1666 a grant of two 
Icasps for twenly-one yearn, tne one com- 
prising the town and lands of Moyle, Castle- 
town, Park, tee., adjoining the town of Car- 
low, amouDtingto about 1,490 acres, in part 
aFltirwards confirmed to him under the act 
of settlement onlS June 1066; the other of 
certain lands in the barony of Balrothery 
Weft, CO. Dublin, to which were added those 
nf Li.ipable in the same county on 30 March 
16CS for a similar term of yeaie, lie ob- 

tained license to go to England for a whole 
year or more on 31 April 1659 (SMTTH,i«w 
Offirerf, p. 67). At the Restoration he was 
confirmed in his office of mnster of the rolls, 
swoni n member of the privy council, ap- 
pointed B trustee for the '4M ofiicers, and 
on 4 May 1661 elected, with his eldest 
son William, to represent co. Carlow in par- 
liament {Offidnl Sehim of M.P.», Ireland, p. 60i). On the 6th of the same month 
he obtained for the payment of a fine of 
540;. a reversionary lease from the queen 
mother Henrietta Maria of the park of 
Blandesby or Blansby in Yorkshire for a 
term of forty years. He received a confir- 
mation in perpetuitv of bis lands in co. 
Dublin, intruding those of Palmerstown, 
under tbe act of settlement on 39 July 1666; 
to which were added on 20 .May 1669 others 
In counties Kilkenny, Meath, Weslmeath, 
end Dublin. Dtber grants followed, viz. on 
3 May 1672 of 144 acres formerly belonging 
to the Phcenii Park, and on 1« Nov. 1676 
of cerlain lands, fishings, &e., In and near 
Cliapelizod. He wasappointed vice-treasurer 
nf Ireland in 1673, but died in 1677, and was 
buried beside his father in Trinity Collega 
near the campanile, having that year mode 
a benefaction of lOU/. to the college to be laid 
out In certain buildings, entitling him and 
his heirs to bestow two handsome chambers 
upon such students as they desired. 

By his wife Mary, daughter of Dr. John 
nammond [q. v.], of Chertsey. Surrey, who 
died at Penahurst in Kent in November 
1638, Temple had, besides two sons and a 
daughter who died young. Sir William, the 

:, I Feb. 


Marv, who married (1) Abraham 1 
andVa), on 19 Dec. 1693, Hugh Eccles. 

SiH John Tbhplb (1633-1704). having 
ceived an education in England nualifyi 
him for the bar, was on 10 July 16t 
solicitor-general of Ireland (pnleii 
1661; 8mitm,Z«h; 0^ccr*,p. 177), anu in , 
March followingappointedacommissioner for 
executing the king's 'Declaration 'of 30Nov, 
1660 touchingthe settlement of the country. 
He was returned M.P. for Carlow borou^ 
on 8 May 1661, and was elected sneaker on 
the first day (6 Sept.) of the second sessions 
of parliament in the place of Sir A. Mervvn 
(cf. CxBTE, Life of Ornumdr, App. pp. 20-1), 
being shortly aflerwards knighted. His re- 
putation as a lawyer stood very high, and 
there was some talk in October 1679 of 
making him attomev-gener&l of England 
(Hitt. MSS. Comm. tth Bep. pt. i. p. 476). 
He was continued in Hb office of solicitor- 




general by James II till the Tiolent measures 
of Tyrconnel compelled him to seek refuf^ 
in England [see Talbot, Kichard]. His 
name was included in the list of persons 
proscribed by the Irish parliament in 1689, 
and his estates to the value of 1,700/. per 
annum sequestered. But after the revolu- 
tion he was on liO Oct. 1 690 (patent, 21 March 
1691) appointed attorney-general of Ireland 
in the place of Sir Richard Nagle [q. v.], re- 
moved, and continued in that offace till his 
resignation on 10 May 1695. Afterwards 
retiring to his estate at East Sheen in Surrey, 
he died there on 10 March 1704, and was 
buried in Mortlake church. By his wife 
Jane, daughter of Sir Abraham Yamer, of 
Dublin, whom he married on 4 Aug. 1663, 
he had several children, of whom his eldest 
surviving son Henry (1673P-1757) [q. v.], 
was created Viscount Palmerston, 

[Lodge's Peerage, e<l. Archdall, v. 235-42 ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Authors ; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography; Gilbert's CoDtemporary 
Hist, of Affairs; Clarendon State Papers, ii. 
134, and authorities quoted.] R. I), 

TEMPLE, PKTER (1600-1663), regicide, 
was third son of Edmund Temple (d, 1616) 
of Temple Hall in the parish of Sibbesdon, 
near Whellesburgh in Leicestershire, and of 
his wife Elizabetli, daughter of Robert Bur- 
goine of Wroxhall in Warwickshire. Peter, 
who was born in 1600, was apprenticed to a 
linendraper in Friday Street, London, but, 
his elder brothers Paul and Jonathan dying, 
he inherited the family estate of Temple 

In December 1642, when the association 
for the mutual defence and safety of the 
counties of Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, 
Rutland, Northampton, Buckingham, Bed- 
ford, and Huntingdon was formed. Temple 
was chosen one of the committee. He was 
at that time the captain of a troop of horse. 
He was an original member of the committee 
for the management of the militia for the 
county of Leicester, formed ou 17 Jan. 164^3. 
On 19 Jan. lr44 he was elected high sheriff 
of Tieicestershire (having been appointed to 
the post by the parliament on 30 Dec. pre- 
viously), and was deputed to settle the diffe- 
rences between Lord Grey and Richard 
Ludlam, mayor of Leicester. He was placed 
ou the committee for raising supplies for the 
maintenance of the Scottish army in the 
town and county of Leicester, when it was 
formed in February 164o. His bravery as a 
soldier has been doubted, and he has been 
accused of attempt ing to dissuade Lord Grey 
from fortifying Leicester and of retiring with 
his troops to Rockingham on the intelligence 
of the enemy *s advance on the town in May 

1645. Even his supporters were unable to 
advance an adequate reason for his departure 
for London just before the siege of Leicester 
(29 May 1645). On 17 Nov. 1645 he was 
chosen a freeman of the town of Leicester, 
and elected to represent the borough in parlia- 
ment, vice Thomas ^Cooke, disabled to sit on 
30 Sept. previously. At about the same time 
he was military governor of Cole Orton in 

Temple was one of the king's judges. He 
attended all the sittings of the court save 
two, was present on 27 Jan. 1648 when sen* 
tence was passed, and signed the death war- 
rant on the 29th. On 13 June 1649 he was 
added to the committee for compounding at 
Goldsmiths* Hall, and was elected to serve 
on a sub-committee of the same on 23 June. 
On 21 July he was petitioning parliament 
for redress for losses ouring the war, and was 
voted 1,500/. out of the sequestrations in the 
county of Leicester. By 3 Jan. 1650 1,200/. 
had been paid, and further payment was 
ordered out of the Michaelmas rents. In De- 
cember 1650, being then in London, Temple 
was ordered by the council of state to return 
to his duties as militia commissioner for the 
county of Leicester. In July 1659 he was 
again in London, and was assigned lodgings 
id Whitehall. 

At the Restoration Temple was excepted 
from the act of oblivion. He surrendered 
himself on 12 June, in accordance with the 
king's proclamation of 4 June 1660, and was 
committed to the Tower. He was excepted 
from the indemnity bill of 29 Aug. with 
the saving clause 01 suspension of execution 
awaiting special act of parliament. He 
pleaded * not guilty ' when brought to the 
bar of the sessions house. Old l3ailey, on 
10 Oct., and when tried on the 16th was con- 
demned to be hanged. Temple then pleaded 
the benefit of the king's proclamation. He 
was respited, and remained in the Tower till 
20 Dec. 1663, when he died a prisoner. His 
estate of Temple Hall was confiscated by 
Charles II, who bestowed it on his brother 
James, duke of York. It had been in the 
possession of the Temples for many genera- 

Temple married Phoebe, daughter of John 
Gayring of London, by whom he had three 
sons, Edmund, John, and Peter (/>. 1635). 
Winstanley (Loyal Marty rohgy, pp. 141-2) 
gives a poor character of Temple, as one 
' easier to be led to act anything to which 
the hope of profit called him,' and considers 
him to have been * fooled by Oliver into the 

The subject of this article has been con- 
fused alike with Sir Peter Temple, the con- 




temporary baronet of Stowe [see Temple, 
Sib RlCHABD, 1634-1697], and with Sir 
Peter Temple of Stanton Bury, knt., nephew 
of the baronet. 

[Nirholg'n Hemld and neDMlogUt. iii 389- 
391; NoUle'a SpaDJah Armnda; Official LIbIb of 
Members of Farliameat, i. 490 ; Noble's Lircs of 
the Regidde*: Masion's Milton, iii. 402, ti. 43, 
64.93, 116; Nichols's Leiceit«nhire, i. 461, iii. 
App. i. 33, ir. 9Ad: Commona' Joarnals, iii. 
354, 576, ess, ti. 367, TJii. 61, 63; Malson'e 
Trial of Charles I ; Calendsc of CommitlBB for 
Com pounding, pp. 144, 165 ; Cul. State Papers. 
Dom. 1650 p. 468, 1658-60 pp. 30, 96. 325, 
1663 p. 383; ThompsoD'a Leicester, pp. 377, 
381, 386; Trial of the R^cidee, pp. 29, 267, 
371, 376i laaes's An EiaminatioQ of a Pnnted 
Pam|thlet entiluled A Narrative of the Siege of 
tha Town of Leicester, p. G ; An Eiaminatioa 
Examined, p. 13.] B. P. 

TEMPLE, Sir HICIIARD (1634-1697), 
politician, bom on 28 March 1634, was the 
•on of Sir Pet«r Temple, second baronet of 
Stowe, bj hia second wife, Christian, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Sir John Leveson of 
'Walling in Kent (Paruh llft/uler of Ken- 
mufffm. Hart. Soc. p. 70). 

Althoufch in the visitation of I^eicester- 
shire in 1019 the fainil; of Temple is traced 
back to the reign of Henry III, the Brst un- 
doubted fiiure in their pedigree is Robert 
Teiople, who lived at Temple ilall in Leices- 
tershire in the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. He left three sons, of whom Hobert 
carried on the elder line at Temple Hall, . 
to which belonged Peter Temple fq. v.] the | 
'refficide,' while Thomas settled at Witney in 
Oxfordshire. Thomas Temple's great-grand - 
•on Peter became lessee of Stowe in liuck- 
if^bamshire, and died on 28 May 1677. He i 
had two sons— John, who purchased Stowe 
on 27 Jan. lr,S9-90, and Anthony, father of 
Sir William TempIe(1665-I6a7)[q.Y.l John 
waa succeeded by his eldest son Thomas, 
wbowaa knighted in June 1603 and created 
a baronet on 24 Sept. 1611. He married 
Hester, daughter of Miles Sandys of Lati- 
iiier,Bnckinghamahire,hy whomhehad four 
tana. Of these the eldest waa Sir Peter 
Temple, father of Sir Richard (Nichols, 
But. of Leioe«Ur*hire, iv. 958-62 ; Hannat, 
Thrte Siatdred Yean of a Nerman House, 
18S7, pp. 262-88; Herald and GentalogUt, 
1st ser. iii. 386-97; Kotes and Quertei, in. 
Tiii. 606). 

Sir Peteh Temple (1692-1653), who waa 
the bofouf^ of Buckii^ham in the laat two 
pari iamentsofChajles^and was knighted at 
Wliitahall on 6 June 1041 (Mktcalfe, Book 
^^i^ktt, p. 106 ; q^eial Setunu of Mem- 

bers o/ Parliament ,i. 480,485). He espoused 
the cause of the parliamentarians, and held 
the commission of colonel in their army. But 
on the execution of Charles he threw up hia 
commisaion, and exhibited ao much disgust 
that information was laid against him in 
parliament for seditious language (JoumaU 
of the House of Cmamom, vii. < 0, 79, 108). 
He died in 1653, and was buried at Stowa 
(StotEe M8S. 1077-9). 

In 1654 Sir Bichard Temple, although 
not of age, was chosen to represent War- 
wickshire in Cromwell's 6rst parliament, and 
on 7 Jan. 1658-9 he was returned for the 
town of Buckingham under Richard Crom- 
well. At that time he was a secret royal- 
ist, and delayed the proceedings of parlia- 
ment by proposing that the Scottish and 
Irish members should withdraw white the 
constitution and powers of the upper house 
were under discussion {Hat. MSS. Comm. 
5th Rep. pp. 171-2, 7th Rep. p. 48.'i; LlN- 
OABD, Hiet. of England, 1849, viii, 566). 
After the Restoration he was again returned 
for Buckingham, and retained his seat for 
the rest of hia life, except in the parliament 
which met in March 1678-9, when he was 
defeated by the influence of the Duke of 
Buckingham {MUt. MSS. Comm. 13th Rep, 
Ti. 13,^0). On l»April 1661 he was created 
a knight of the Bath. He became a promi- 
nent member of the country party, and in 
1663 the king complained of his conduct to 
the House of Commons, who succeeded in 
effecting an accommodation (Journals of the 
House of Commons, viii. 602, 503, 607, 611- 
516; Cat. State Paper*, I)om. 1663-4, p. 
190; Pbpts, Dttiru, ed. Bravbrooke, pp. 175, 
179. 182, 185). In 1671 a warrant was made 
out appointing him to the council for foreign 
plantations, and in the following year he waa 
nominated senior commissioner of customs 
(1^.1671 passim; H.wits, Book of Diffttitiet, 
pp. 273-4; Sitl. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. ii. 
33). He distinguished himself by hia zeal 
against those accused of participation in the 
popish plot, and on account of his anxiety to 
promote the exclusion bill was known to the 
adherents of the Duke of York as the * Stoe 
monster.' In February 16S2-3 Charles re- 
moved him from his place in the customs. 
He waa reinstated in the following year, but 
was immediately dismissed on the accession 
of James II (Luttrbll, Brief Beiation, 
1857,1.251,329). After the Revolution he 
regained his post on 6 April 1689, and held 
it until the place bill of 1694 compelled 
him to choose between hie otKce and his 
seat in parliament (i£. i. 523, iii. 300, 353; 
Cat. Stal» PaiKre, Dom, 1689-90, pp. 63, 
614, 616). 

5t 7 exnult 

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,n enKiKiM-y ill IVi/iii- <J.'.rpV Vi^'oimi Ciibhum. On '2\ Sept. 1719 he 

[X>t on .*{') .hiiif I'JK*,, anil was huiJiMl fnim Spitlieud in command of an ex- 

utant on \'J \\tn\ J0h7. On , pfdiiiun which was originally destined to 




itUck Coni&u Finding th&t place too 1 
itnmg, bowever, he atuuied Viiro instead, | 
:aplurBdtIietowii,uidcleatro7edtlie military : 
itore* BCcamuUted there tAddit. MS. loSm, 
t 370). OnlOApril 1721 he was appointed | 
M>lonel of the 'king's own' horse, in 1723 i 
comptroller of the accounts of the army, and i 
roTemor of Jersey for life in 1723 iHiit. \ 
.VSS. Omm. 11th Rep. iv. 138). i 

Until 1733 Cobham, with the rest of the 
wbiga, supported Walpole's ministry. In 
that year he strongly opposed Walpole's 
scheme of excise {id. 8th Ke^. i. 18). This 
difference led to others, and, in consequence 
of a strongly worded protest against Che pro- 
tection of the 6outh Sea Company's directors 
by the government. Lord Ckibham and Charles 

dfrom their regiments. 
of an old and tried soldier like Lord Cob- 
ham this proceeding caused a great sensa- 
tion. Bills were introduced in both Louses 
totakefrom the crown the power of breaking | 
officers, and motions were made to petition 
the king to inform them who had advised 
bim to sQch a course. By breaking with 
Walpole Cobham forfeited the favour of the 
king; but by opposing the excise he gained 
the erteem of tlie Prince of Wales, and by 
asmling the South Sea Company he ob- 
tained Uie sympathy of the people. In asso- , 
ciation with Lyttelton and George Gren- 
ville, he formed an independent whig section, 
known as the 'boy patriots,' which in 1736 
was joined by William Pitt (IlERTBr, ^*- 
meirt, i. 166, ^16, 24£, 2t>0, 28B, 291 ; Coie, 
Lift of Walpott, 1798, pp. 40tt, 409; Qent. 
Mag. 1734, passim). 

Un 37 Oct. 1735Cobbam attained the rank 
of general. During the rest of Walpole's 
ministryhe maintained his attitude of opposi- 
tion, and in 1737 joined in a protest against 
the refusal of the upper bouse to request the 
king to settle 100,000^ a year on the Prince . 
of Wales out of the civil list (Kebvei, 
ifanot'iw.iii. 89-90). After Walpole's down- ; 
fall a coalition was effected among Lord 
Wilmington, the Pelhams, and the prince's 
party, which Cobham joined. He was created 
a field-marshal on 28 March 1743, and on 
35 Dee. waa appointed colonel of Hie first 
troop of borse-guards. On 9 Dec. following, 
bowerer, he resigned his commission, owing 
Xi> the strong objections he conceived to em- 
ploying British troops in support of Ilano- 
renan interests on the continent (Addit. 
M8. 32701, i. 302). 

In 1744, on the expulsioa bom the cabinet 
of John Carteret, lord QranTille, the chief 
sa|lporter of the continental policy, the 
gnatCT put of the whig opposition effected 

a coalition with the Pelhams, in which Lord 
Cobham joined on receiving a ple^e from 
Newcastle that the interests of Hanover 

should be subordiuated to those of Eng- 
land. On 5 Aug, he was appointed colonel 
of the lat dragoons, which was exchanged 
in the following year for the 10th. 

Cobham died on 13 Sept. 1749, and waa 
buried at Stowe. lie married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Edmund Halsey of Stoke Pogis, 
Buckinghamshire, but had no issue. Ac- 
cording to the terms of the grant he was 
succeeded in the viscounty and barony by his 
sister Hester, wife of Richard Grenville of 
WooCton, Buckinghamshire. He was sue- 
ceeded in the baronetcy by his cousin, Wil- 
liam Temple, great-gTandBon of Sir John 
Temple of Stanton Bury, who was the second 
son of Sir Thomas Temple, the first baronet. 
Oibham rebuilt the house at Stowe and 
laid out the famous gardens. He was a 
friend and patron of literary men, whom he 
I frequently entertained there. Both Pope and 
' Congrove celebrated him in verse — Pope in 
the lirst of his ' Moral Essays,' and Congreve 
in 'A Letter to Lord Cobham' written in 
1739. Pope was a frequent visitor at Stowe, 
and Congreve waa honoured by a funeral 
monument there distinguished by it* singular 
ugliness (Swift, Worki, ed. Scott, index ; 
Pope, )rer^«,ed.EIwin, index; Ruffue&d, 
Life of Pop-:, 1769, p. 21-2; Egerton MS. 
' 1949, "tf. 1, 3). 

Cobham was a member of the Kit-Cat 
Club, and his portrait was pinted with those 
of the other members by Sir Godfrey Kneller 
[q.v.] It was engraved byJean Siraon,and 
I III 1732 by John Paber the younger. Another 
portrait, painted by Jean Baptiate Van Loo, 
waa purcnased for the National Portrait 
Gallery in June 1869 ; it waa engraved by 
George Bickham in 176], and by Charles 
Knight in 1807 (Smith, British 'Mezzotint 
. Portraits, ^^. mo, 1120; Bromlbi, Cat. of 
; Jintish Portraits, p. 357). 

; [Prima'a Account of the Temple Family, New 
york, 3rd edit. 18H6 ; O. E. Cfokaynel's Peer- 
age, ii. 3'2i-5 ; Colliaa's Peerage of England, ed. 
Bridges, ii. 414-15; Whittnore's Ac^uatof the 
Temple Family. 1S56, p. 6 ; Coxe's Memoirs of 
the Pelham Administnitiun, 1S29, J. pnsam ; 
Fdje'g Kecurds of tbe Itoyal Marines, i. index ; 
BeaisoD'e Political Index, ii, lid; Memoirs of 
tbe Kit-Cat Club. 1821, pp. 118-1<); Glover's 
Memoi™, 1814. passim; Dojles Ofiiuial Baro- 
n»ge, i. 41&; Mwhon's Hi.-,!, of EnglnnJ, I83B,i, 
170,oll,ii,aae,262-4;Gent. Mug. 1718, p. 33; 
Oibbs's WorchiEis of Buckinghjimshire, p. 106 ; 
yotesandQaeries, Srdeer. ii.a91 ; Brit. Muaeum 
Addil. MSS. 6795 f. 371, 693S; Egerton MS. 
2529. f. 86; Stowe MSS. 248 f. 24, 481 ff. 89- 
166.] E.LC. 

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f.-.ii- n f ■■l'tI.;iT jirt r;i: her than t'>r vain and 
I'lli- inTiiljiTion-.' H»' acceprt<l with enthu- 

... . , .'t ii'if '1 -ii = ■ J ..■■]■ i.-i •..' Ii ' -t |.;i I ■•■ 

. -,.. i,,iri*!fii ■ "il ' ■■ I i-.'l.ii.-l II- III', ''l f>* 
T . ,^,|.,n -li'irrlv I'' '••" I" !• ■' J. •■»' '- *.lini !i 

ir'l f f»« WJI ■ h'li I' 'I ■•! I 'iliii.- *.| .'I'M' I- ■ , 

,.« '•'* f H« h hi <# ', */'/■ nfm rtti iii :in f|j*' l'i;.'li;il m»-tli<vl< and phiIos4iphiL*aI 

\'* >;ipct inn/In V' **"' "' '' " "" ' '•' ^"'■' ' '"' ''•** 'rtnch pliilo-opher Tiem* de 

'rir— ^ Biippl.-I Ir M- ' \ l-J- \'.IhI '" '•"•"•';'' *^'"'^^" us Ramus (ir>ir> 1o7l>), 

5,,|,J,l. „l I.,..,. I. I.,i..ii.. M.i,. v^l"''\'li'in'nt attacks on the lopical *y»- 

'■ Twnph' I.MMii.. >.* I Nil.. i»iin;, '•■"• '»• Ari^iiitli' hml divided the learned 



li'n Hi"! "' • I '.'.III l'W..i. I iiHii 'it r.iirnjMt intr> two opposinir campg of 

jnn HimI '-■" < •i>l" ihiiih, I :tiii , liuiiii}4i.i and Aristiitrlinns. Temple rapidly 
jKt. tif MiMiu, i <iiH, \i\\ , Mr , iH'i'itnif till' most active champion or tb» 




Ramists in England. In 1580 he replied in 
print to an impeachment of Ramu8*8 position 
by Everard Digby {Jl. 1690) [q, v.] Adopt- 
ing the pseudonym of Franciscus Milda- 
pettus of Navarre (Ramus had studied in 
youth at the Parisian Coll^ de Navarre), 
£e issued a tract entitled ' Francisci Milda- 
petti Xavarreni ad Everardum Digbeium 
Anglum admonitio de unica P. Rami 
metnodo reieotis c^eteris retinenda/ London 
(by Henry Middleton for Thomas Mann), 
1580. The work was dedicated to Philip 
Howard, first earl of Arundel, whose ac- 
quaintance Temple had made while the earl 
was studying at Cambridge, l^ighy replied 
with great heat next year, and Temple re- 
torted with a volume published under his 
own name. This he again dedicated to the 
Earl of Arundel, whom he described as his 
MsecenaH, and he announced to him his iden- 
tity with the pseudonymous * Mildapettus.' 
Temple's second tract bore the title, *Pro 
Mildapetti de unica Methodo Defensione 
contra Diplodophilum p.e. Digby] commen- 
tatio Gulielmi Tempelli e regio Collegio Can- 
tabrigiensi.' He appended to the volume an 
elaborate epistle addressed to another cham- 

5 ion of Aristotle and opponent of Ramus, 
ohannes Piscator of Strasburg, professor at 
Herbom. Temple's contributions to the 
controversy attracted notice abroad, and this 
volume was reissued at Frankfort in 1584 
(this reissue alone is in the British Mu- 
seum). Meanwhile in 1582 Temple had con- 
centrated his efforts on Piscator*s writings, 
and he published in 1582 a second letter to 
Piscator with the latter*s full replv. This 
volume was entitled * Gulielmi I'empelli 
Philosophi Cantabri^ensis Epistola de Dia- 
lect icis P. Rami ad Joannem Piscatorem 
Argentinensem una cum Joannis Piscatoris 
ad lUam epistolam responsione/ London (by 
Henry Middleton for John Harrison and 
George Bishop), 1582. 

Meanwhile, on 11 July 1581, Temple had 
supplicated for incorporation as M.A. at . 
Ox&rd (Foster, Alumni Oxon.), and soon 
afterwaitls he left Cambridge to take up the . 
office of master of the Lincoln grammar ' 
schooL In 1584 he made his most valu- 
able contribution to the dispute between the 
Ramists and Aristotelians by publishing an 
annotated edition of Ramus'a 'Dialectics.' 
It was published at Cambridge by Thomas 
Tliomas, the universitv printer, and is said 
to have been the first book that issued from 
the university press (Mvllingeb, Hist, of 
Cambridge University, ii. 405). The work 
bore the title, ' P. Rami Dialectics libri duo 
•dioliia G. Tempelli Cantabrigiensis illus- 
tmtL' A further reply to Piscator was 

appended. The dedication was addressed by 
Temple from Lincoln under date 4 Feb. to 
Sir [Philip Sidney. In the same year Tem- 
ple contributed a long preface, in which he 
renewed with spirit the war on Aristotle, to 
the *Disputatio de prima simplicium et con- 
cretorum corporum generatione,' by a fellow 
Ramist, James Martin [q. v.] of Dunkeld, 
professor of philosophy at Turin. This also 
came from Thomas s press at Cambridge ; it 
was republished at Frankfort in 1589. In 
the same place there was issued in 1591 a 
• severe criticism of both Martin's argument 
and Temple's preface by an Aristotelian, 
Andreas Libavius, in his * Quiestionum Phy- 
sicarum controversarum inter Peripateticos 
et Rameos Tractatus' (Frankfort, 1591). 

Temple's philosophical writings attracted 
the attention of Sir Philip Sidney, to whom 
the edition of Ramus's * Dialectics 'was dedi- 
cated in 1584, and Sidney marked his appre- 
ciation by inviting Temple to become his 
secretary in November 1585, when he was 
appointed governor of Flushing. He was 
with Sidney during his fatal illness in the 
autumn of the following year, and his master 
died in his arms (17 Oct. 1580). Sidnev left 
him by will an annuity of 30/. Templets ser- 
vices were next sought successively by Wil- 
liam Davison [q.v.], the queen's secretary, and 
Sir Thomas Smith [q. v.], clerk of the privy 
council (Rmcu, Memoirs of Eli'zaf)€th/u. 106). 
But about 1594 he joined the household of 
Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, and 
for manjr years performed secretarial duties for 
the earl in conjunction with Anthony Bacon 
[q. v.], Ilenrv Cuff [q. v.], and Sir Henry 
Wotton [q. v.] In 1597 he was, by Essex s 
influence, returned to parliament as member 
for Tamworth in Staffordshire. He seems 
to have accompanied Essex to Ireland in 
1599, and to have returned with him next 
year. When Essex was engaged in organising 
his rebellion in London in the winter of 
1600-1, Temple was still in his service, to- 
gether with one Edward Temj)le, whose re- 
lationship to William, if any, has not been 
determined. Edward Temple knew far more 
of Essex's treasonable design than William, 
who protested in a letter to Sir Robert Cecil, 
written after Essex's arrest, that he was kept 
in complete ignorance of the plot (Brit. Mus, 
Addit. MS. 4160, No. 78 ; Speddixo, Bacon, 
ii. 364). No proceedings were taken against 
either of the Temples. 

William Temple's fortunes were prejudiced 
by Essex's fall. Sir Robert Cecil is said to 
have viewed him with marked disfavour. 
Consequently, despairing of success in poli- 
tical affairs, Temple turned anew to literary 
study. In 1605 he brought out, with a dedi- 




cation to Henry, prince of Walea, 'A 1-iOgi- 
call Analysis of Twentye Select Psalmes 
performed by W. Temple ' (London, by Felix 
Kyngston for Thomas Man, 1605). lie is ap- 
parently the person named Temple for whom 
i^acon vainly endeavoured, through Thomas 
Murray of the privy chamber, to procure the 
honour of knighthood in 1607-8 (Speddino, 
iv. 2-3V But soon afterwards his friends 
succeeded in securing for him a position of 
profit and dignity. On 14 Nov. 1609 he was 
made provost of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Kobert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, the chancel- 
lor of the university, was induced to assent 
to the nomination at the urgent request of 
James IJssher [q. v.] Temple was thence- 
forth a familiar figure in the Irish capital. 
He was appointed a master in chancery at 
Dublin on 31 Jan. UiOiH-lO, and he was re- 
turned to the Irish lloust^ of Commons as 
member for Dublin University in April 1613. 
He represented that constituency till his 

Temple proved himself an efficient admini- 
strator of both college and university, at- 
tempting to bring them into conformity at 
all points with tlie educational system in 
vogue at Cambridge. Many of his innova- 
tions became permanent features of the aca- 
demic organisation of Dublin. Dy careful 
manipulation of the revenues of the college 
he increased the number of fellows from four 
to sixteen, and the number of scholars from 
twt»nty-eight to seventy. The fellows he 
was the first to divide into two classes, 
making seven of them senior fellows, and 
nine of them junior. The general govern- 
ment of the institution he entrusted to the 
senior fellows. He instituted many other 
administrative offices, to each of which he 
allotted definite functions, and his scheme of 
college offices is still in the main unchanged. 
He drew up new statutes for both the col- 
lege and the university, and endeavoured to 
obtain from James 1 a new charter, extend- 
ing the privileges which Queen Elizabeth 
had granted in 159."). He was in London 
from May 1016 to May 1617 seeking to in- 
duce the government to ac(!ept his pro- 
posals, but liis efforts failed. His tenure of 
tht; othce of pn)V(»st was not altogether free 
from controvei'sv. He defied the order of 
Archbishop Abbot that he and his colleagues 
should wear surplices inchapt^l. He insisted 
tliat as a layman he was j*ntitled to dispense 
witli t hat formality. Privately he was often 
ill pecuniary difficulties, from which he 
sought to extricate himself by alienating the 
college estates to his wife and other relatives 
(SruuBS, i/w^. of the University of DitbliUf 
li:<«9, pp. 27 sq.) 

Temple was knighted by the lord-deputy, 
Sir Oliver St. John (afterwards Lord Grandi- 
son), on 4 May 1622, and died at TTlnity 
College, Dublin, on 15 Jan. 1626-7, being 
buried in the old college chapel (since pulled 
down). At the date of his death negotia- 
tions were begim for his resignation owing 
to * his age and weakness.' His will, dated 
21 Dec. 1626, is preserved in the public 
record office at Dublin (printed in Temple 
Prime's * Temple Family,'pp. 168-9). lie was 
possessed of much land in Ireland. His 
wife Martha, daughter of Ilobert Harri- 
son, of a Derbyshire family, was sole execu- 
trix. By her Temple left two sons — Sir 
John [q.v.], afterwards master of the rolls in 
Ireland, and Thomas — with three daughters* 
Catharine, Mary, and Martha. The second 
son, Thomas, fellow of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, became rector of Old Ross, in the diocese 
of Ferns, on 6 .March 1626-7. He subse- 
quently achieved a reputation as a puritan 
preacher in London, where he exercised his 
ministry at Battersea from 1641 onwards. 
He preached before the Long parliament, and 
was a member of the Westminster assembly. 
He purchased for 4o0/. an estate of 750 acres 
in CO. Westmeath, and, dying before 1671, 
was buried in the church of St. Lawrence, 
Reading. By his wife Anne, who was of 
a Reading family, he left two daughters 
(Temple Prime, "pp. 24-5). 

[Authorities cited ; Cole's Manuscript His- 
tory of King's College, Cambridge, ii. 157 (in 
Adilit. MS. 6815) ; Lodge's Peerage, 8.V. 
• Temple, viscount Palmerston,' iii. 233-4 ; Temple 
Prime's Account of the Family of Temple, New 
York, 3rd edit. 1896. pp. 23 sq., 105 sq. ; Mind 
(new ser.). vol. i. ; Ware's Irish Writers ; Parr's 
Life of Ussher, pp. 374 et seq. ; Ebrington's 
Life and Works of Ussher, 1847, i. 32, xvi. 
329, 335.] S. L. 

TEMPLE, Sir WILLIAM (1628-1G99), 
statesman and author, bom at Rlackfriars 
in London in 1()28, was the grandson of Sir 
William Temple (1555-1627) [q. v.], provost 
of Trinity College, Dublin, and formerly 
secretary to Sir Philip Sidney. His father, 
Sir John Temj)le [q. v.], master of the rolls 
in Ireland, married, in 1627, Mary (d. 1638), 
daughter of John Hammond, M.D. [q.v.l, and 
sistta* of Dr. Henry Hammond [q. v.], the 
divine. William was the eldest son. A sister 
Martha, who married, on 21 April 1662, Sir 
Thomas Gillard of Castle Jordan, co. Meath, 
was left a widow within a month of her wed- 
ding, and became a permanent and valued 
inmate of her eldest brother*s household ; she 
died on 31 Dec. 1722, affed 84, and was buried 
in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey oil 
5 Jan. 1723. 




William Temple was brought up by liis 
uncle, I)r. Henry Hammond, at the latter^s 
rectory of Penshurst in Kent. When Ham- 
mond was sequestered from his living in 1643, 
Temple was sent to Bishop Stortford school, 
where he learnt all the Latin and Greek he 
ever knew ; the Latin he retained, but he 
often regretted the loss of his Greek. On 
13 Aug. 1644 he was entered as a fellow- 
commoner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
where he remained a pupil of Ralph Cud- 
worth for two years. Leaving Cambridge 
without taking any degree, in 1648 ho set 
out fur France. On his road he fell in with 
the son and daughter (Dorothy) of Sir Peter 
Osborne. Sir Peter held Guernsey for the 
king, and his family were ardent royalists. 
At an inn where they stopped in the Isle of 
Wight young Osborne amused himself by 
writing with a diamond on the window pane, 
^Vnd llamon was Imnged on the gallows they 
had prepared for Mordecai.' ior this act 
of malignancy the party were arrested and 
brought before the governor; whereupon 
Dorothy, with ready wit and a singular con- 
fidence in the gallautn- of a rouudliead, took 
the otTence upon herself, and was imme- 
diately set at liberty with her fellow-travel- 
lers. The incident made a deep impression 
upon Temple ; he was only twenty at the 
time, and the lady twenty-one. A courtship 
was commenced, thouc^h the father of the 
hero was sitting in the Long parliament, 
while the father of the heroine was holding 
a command for the king. Even when the 
war ended and Sir Peter Osborne returned 
to his seat of Chicksands in Bedfordshire, 
the prospects of the lovers seemed scarcely 
less gloomy. Sir John Temple hud a more 
advantageous alliance in view for his son. 
Dorothy, on her side, was besieged by many 
suitors. Prominent among them were Sir 
Justinian Isham [q. v.], her distant cousin 
Thomas Osborne (afterwards Earl of Dauby 
and Duke of Leeds) [q. v.], andllenry Crom- 
well [q. v.l the fourth son of the Protector, 
who made her the present of a fine Irish grey- 
hound. Even more hostile to the match than 
Temple's father were Dorothy *s brothers, one 
of wtiom, Henry, was vehement in his re- 
proaches. At the close of seven years of 
courtship and correspondence, during which 
Temple was in Paris, Madrid, St. Malo, and 
brusaeU (the city of his predilection), ac- 
[juiring French and Spanish, Dorothy fell ill, 
and was cruelly pitttnl with the small-pox. 
Templets constancy had now been proved 
mough, and on 31 Jan. 1654-5 the faithful 
pair were united before a justice of the peace 
in the parish of St. Giles's, Middlesex. At 
the close of 1655 they repaired to Ireland, 

Temple spending the next few years alter- 
nately at his father's house in Dublin and 
upon his own small estate in Carlow. During 
his seclusion he read a good deal, acquired a 
taste for horticulture, and * to please his wife' 
penned some indifferent verses and transla- 
tionSy which were afterwards included in his 
'Works.' A more distinctive composition 
of this period was a family prayer which was 
adapted * for the fanatic times when our ser- 
vants were of so many different sects,' and 
was designed that * all might join in it.' 

Upon the llest oration Temple was chosen a 
member of the Irish convention for Carlow, 
and in May 1061 he was elected for the 
county in the Irish parliament. During al 
visit to England in July 1661 he was coldly I 
introduced at court by Ormonde, but sub- 
sequently he entirely overcame Ormonde's 
prejudices. In May 1663, upon the proro- 
gation of the Irish parliament, he removed 
to England, and settled at Sheen in a house 
which occupied the site of the old priory, in 
the neighbourhood of the Earl of Leicester's 
seat at Kichuiond(cf. Chancellor, Jlist. of 
Hichmondy 1894, p. 73). His widowed sister, 
Lady Giffard,came to live with the Temples 
during the summer, their united income 
amounting to between 500/. and 600/. a 
year. At Sheen, Temple planted an orangery 
and cultivated wall-lruit *tlie most exquisite 
nailed and trained, far better than ever I 
noted it' (Evelyn). 

/ Ormonde provided him with letters to 
Clarendon and Arlington, and Temple ap- 

Srised Arlington of his desire to obtain a 
iplomatic post, subject to the condition that 
it should not be in Sweden or Denmark. In 
June 1665 he was accordingly nominated to 
a diplomatic mission of no little difficulty to 
Christopher Bernard von Ghalen, prince- 
bishop of Munster. The Anglo-Dutch war 
was in progress, and the bishop had under- 
taken, in consideration of a fat subsidv, to 
create a diversion in favour of Great Britain 
by invading Holland from the east. Temple 
was to remit the money by instalments and 
to expedite the bishop's performance of his 
part of the contract (many interesting details 
of the mission are given in Temple's letters 
to his brother, to Arlington, and others, pub- 
lished b}' Swift from the copies made by the 
diplomatist's secn?tary, Thomas Downton). 
The bishop was more than a mat(;h for Temple 
in the subtleties of statecraft. He managed 
on various pretexts to postpone the raid into 
Holland (with the states of which he was 
nominally at peace) until he had secured 
several instalments of subsidy. In the 
meantime Louis XIV had got wind of the 
conspiracy and detached twenty thousand 

Temple 44 Temple 

troops, inon^ tlinn sutFicicut to watch and in- ' tember 1667, and had some intercourse with 
timidatti the little nriny of Munster. The the rT'TJtl pf^***-'"'"'^ Tnh« j^ Wj^f^ -^ixh. 
bishop was ahle to plead force majeure with whomliis relations were to develop into a 
much plausibility; no step was ever taken on notable friendship. De Witt was acutely 
his part to carry out the scheme of invasion, sensitive to the danger from the French ^ar- 
and he made a s«'pnrate peace with the Dutch risons in (landers, yet a policy of concilia- 
at Cleves in April 1(M)6. Temple was at t ion towards France seemi^ to be the onlj 
Brussels when he heard that this step was course open to him. Temple dwelt in his 
impending, and he hurried to Munster m the correspondence to Arlington upon the dan- 
hope of ])reventing it. Alter an adventurous jrers of such an entente ; for a long time the 
journey byway of Diisseldorf and Dortmund Knjflish ministers appeared deaf to the tale 
(see his spirited letter to .Sir .T. Temple, of French aggrandisement, but on 2o Xov., 
dated J^russels, 10 May 16(>(i), he was re- in response to his representations, Temple 
ceived with apparent conliality and initiated received a most important despatch, lie 
into the episcopal mode of drinking out of a was instructed to ascertain from De Witt 
larpre l)ell with the clapper removed; but whether the states would really and etfec- 
durinjr these festivities he learned that the tively enter into a league with Great Britain 
treaty had been irrevocably signed. Several for the protection of the tSpanish Nether- 
bills of jjxchange from England were already lands. The matter was one of considerable 
on their way, and the bishop, on the pretext delicacy, but De Witt was pleased by the 
of the dangerous state of the country, en- Englishman's frank statement of the situa- 
treated Tem])le to seek his safety by a cir- tion, and finally signified his acquiescence 
cuitous retreat by way of Cologne. Theyoung in Temple's views as far as was compatible 
diplomat had formed a very erroneous judg- with a purely defensive alliance, 
ment of Von Ghalen, but he saw through Having hastened to England to report 
this artifice. Jle found means of getting out the matter in full, Temple was supported in 
of the city unobserved, and, after fifty hours* the council by Arlington and Sir Orlando 
most severe travelling amid considerable Bridgeman [q. v.], and his sanguine antici* 
dangers, he succeeded in intercepting a little jjations were held to outweigh the objectiims 
of the money. At the best the negotiation r>f Cliftbrd and the anti-Dutch councillors, 
was not a conspicuous success, ana Temple He returned to The Hague with instnict ions 
was much exercised in his mind as to * how on '2 .Ian. 1 <>()><: and though De Witt was 
to Kjieak of it so as to avoid misrepnjsenta- somewhat taken aback by the suddenness of 
ti«>n/ Happily, his emph^yers in this ill- t he Entflish monarch's conversion to his o\^ni 
cr)nceivHd s<-hcme were not dissatisfied, and specific (of a joint mediation, and a defen- 
in ()ct(»ber 1 <)().") he was accredited envoy at sive league to enforce it)» Temple managed 
the viceregal court at Brussels, a post which to persuade him of its sincerity, and he 
lie had specially desired, receiving oOO/. for undertook to procure the co-operation of the 
equipage and l(K)/. a month salarv {Cal. deputies of the various states. The same 
Staff Pa pcrsyDom. 1()<M>, p. HO). In January evening Temple visited the Swedish envoy 
1(56.")-') he was further gratihed by the un- Christopher Delfiquc, count Dhona, omitting 
ex]>ected honour of a baronetcy, and in the the formal ceremony of introduction on the 
following April h^ moved his family to ground that * ceremonies were made to facili- 
Brussels from Sheen (ib.) tate business, not to hinder it.' When the 
Temple's dut ies at Brussels were to watch French ambassador D'Estrades heard a ru- 
over Spanish neutrality ; to promote a good mour of the negotiation, he observed slight- 
understanding between England and Spain ; ingly, * We will discuss it six weeks hence; * 
and, later on, to suggest any possible means but so favourable was the impression that 
of mediating l)etween Sj»ain and France. He Temple had made on the minds of the pen- 
got permission to go to Breda in July 1()67, sionary and the ministers that business which 
when peac»' was concluded between Eng- was estimated to last two or three months 
land and the I'nited Provinces. In the was despatched in five days (the coramis- 
meantime Louis and Turenne were taking sioners from the seven provinces taking the 
town al't«'r town in Flanders. Brussels itself unjirecedented step of signing without pre- 
was threatened, and Temjjle had to send his vious instruction from the states), and the 
family home, rrtaining only the favoured treaty, named the triple alliance, as drafted 
Lady (Jitliird. The professions of Louis to- by Temple and modified by De Witt, was 
wards the Dutch were friendly, but the alarm ' actually scaled on 23 Jan. fthe signature of 
causi'd in ILdland was great; and Dutch the Swedish envoy was affixed three da^'a 

suspicions were soon shared by Temple, lit 

later). Flassfin attributes this triumph to 

visited Amst^Tdum and The Hague in Si^p- Temple's adherence to the maxim that in 




etlitics one must always speak the truth, 
urke, in his * Regicide Peace/ referred to it 
as a marvellous example of the way in which 
mutual interest and candour could overcome 
obstructive regulations and delays. 

The festivities at The Ha^ue in honour of 
the treaty included a hall given by De Witt 
and opened by the Prince of Orange ; the 
Englisn plenipotentiary was eclipsed on this 
occasion Dy toe grand pensionary, but o' 
tainod his reven^ next day at a tennis 
match. The rejoicings in England were less 
ettusive, but Pepys cnaracterised the treaty 
as the 'glory of the present reign,* while 
Dryden afterwards held Shaftesbury up to 
special execration for having loosed ' the 
triple bond.' 

Ostensibly the triple alliance aimed merely 
at the guarantee by neutral powers of terms 
which I^uis had already ofiered to Spain, 
but which it was apprehended that he meant 
to withdraw and replace by far more onerous 
out^. There were, however, four secret ar- 
ticles, by which England and the United 
l*rovinces pledged themselves to support 
Spain against France if that power deferred 
a just peace too long. Burnet — though, like 
Pepys, he called the treaty the masterpiece 
of Charles ITs reign — was ignorant of the 
secret articles; and contemporary critics 
were also ignorant of the fact that the day 
after the signature Charles wrote to his 
sister, Ilenriette d*0rl6ans, to excuse his 
action in the eyes of the French king on the 
plea of momentary necessity (Dalrymple, 
1. ijS\ Baillon, Ilenriette AnnCf 1886, p. 
^1 ). Clifford, in fact, when he remarked 
* For all this joy we must soon have another 
war with Holland,' accurately expressed the 
views of his master, who found in Temple's 
diplomacy a convenient and respectable 
cloak for his own very different designs, in- 
cluding at no distant date the signal humilia- 
tion of the Dutch. Having regard to the 
sequel, it is plain that Temple was rather 
more of a passive instrument in the hands 
of the thoroughly unsympathetic Charles 
than Macaulay and others, who have idealised 
his achievement, would lead us to suppose. 
It is true that he was for guiding our diplo- 
macy in the direction which it took with 
auch success some twenty years later, and 
time and experience eventually approved his 
policv. But although the popular voice 
acclaimed his attempt to rehabilitate the 
halance of power in Europe, it is .by no 
means so clear that in 1608 English in- 
terests lay in supporting Holland against 
France (cf. Mem, ae Gcurmlle, ap. Michaud, 
3rd aer. v. 644; Mioket, ii. 495, iii. 50; 
Seelet, Growth of British Policy, 1895). 

In February 1668, the treaty having been 
accomplished, Temple left The Hague to re- 
turn to Brussels. In view of a possible 
rupture with France some preliminary dis- 
cussion was entered upon as to a junction of 
the English, Spanish, and Dutch fleets, and 
some trouble was anticipated by Temple in 
consequence of the English pretension to be 
saluted in the narrow seas, which Charles 
would not hear of abating one jot ; but 
mobilisation proved unnecessary. There was 
some talk of Temple being offered a secre- 
taryship, but to his great relief the offer was 
not made, and he was sent on as envoy ex- 
traordinary to Aix-la-Chapelle, where the 
provisions indicated by the triple alliance 
were embodied in the definitive treaty on 
8 May 1668. Whether or no the secret 
pact was the cause of Ix)uis's disgorging 
Franche-Comtd, which his armies had over- 
run, there is no doubt that the credit of 
England abroad had been raised by Temple's 
enerffy, and on his way to and from Aix he 
was hailed by salutes and banquets. 

Having spent two months in England, 
Temple took leave of the king on 8 Aug. 
1()68, and proceeded as English ambassador 
to The Hague, with a salary of 7/. a day. 
By the king's desire he took special pains to 
combat the reserve of the Prince of Orange, 
and he soon wrote in glowing terms to his 
court, of the prince's sense, honesty, and 
promise of pre-eminence. In August 1669, 
m his private capacity, he successfully me- 
diated m a pecuniary dispute between Hol- 
land and Portugal {Buhtrode Papers^ p. 112). 
During 1670 was imposed upon him the un- 
grateful task of demanding the surrender of 
Comet George Joyce [q. v. J The magistrates 
at Rotterdam did not openly refuse, but they 
evaded the request, and in the inter\'alJoyce 
escaped (Ludlow, Meinoirsj 1H94, ii. 425). 
No less difficult were the negotiations in the 
direction of an equitable * marine treaty,' and 
Temple had also on his hands a design for • 
including Spain in a quadruple alliance. / 
But the simultaneous French intrigue onf 
the part of Charles caused all Temple's zeal 
to be regarded with increasing suspicion and 
dislike at home, while his friends Bridgeman, 
Trevor, and Ormonde were frowned upon, and 
finally left unsummoned to the foreign com- 
mittee. AVhen Louis overran Lorraine, and 
Charles made no sign, even Temple's friend 
De Witt could scarcely refrain from ex- 
pressing cynical views as to the stability of 
English policy. The position was becoming 
untenable for an avowed friend of Holland. 
The English ministers still hesitated to take 
so pronounced a step as to recall their mini- 
ster; but during tnis summer Temple re- 

Temple 46 Temple 

o.-iv-.-l -rivrs - ■ r^* .-.m j r!vi:^'.v ::. Earlini. bat &5 anticipating the view expressed nine 
an i L^ lar. l-ri i" Vitzi I'.b . =.'l'> Sept. 1^0. vrATs later in Filmer s • Patriaccna ' that the 
H- pr::E: — I rr.r t-t.^.:t.itj ::• r«e:um. and sraTi* i* the outcome of a patriarchal system 
xha- -p-rrriilr. f. :* l- j ir^ -^i* *i:Eci'rn: rATh-rr than of the ' social compact * as con- 
in-licat: n :;> P- W.:- f tiv tin: :!;ii:r^ c-f-iv-ri hj HoiAer or Hobbes. At the same 
wvrv ritkiiu'. TLrf - i-p'. ■.ii.j 'vL:?L Trzip!?: rim-? hr manages to avoid the worse extra- 
Lad k-p: t ► l-iniji-rl: ^rvr■■ c r':Tz:::ri 'n Li* mcaI12:-< of Filmer (see IL%rbiott. Temple 
arriviil. Arli-ir"" -Vi* irlih-ri:-:".;.' .-~- •*! 'r- .?.-«. vi-f/i^. 1^4: yiisxo, Enyiifh Pro9e, 
hand in Li* irai-iari.-; :r.r kir.j. wb.!'.- IrSl. p. :>16t. In 1672 he penned his * Ob- 
protV'iiini: :::•■ i::in:-?: ?.l:.:".:ul-- ab?-* j'-rvAiions upon thf United Provinces of the 
TrmpiM*? i.valih a:i i v-i pi.*«xrr. •b'i::na:Tly Nr*':'?rlinl* * i London, 1072, Svo; in Dutch, 
rvl'u**."! to >i*^ixK ' • i.:::: ;:p^:: p.'.itio^'. Si!- L?ni.:i. I'>7^^f : 3rd edit. 107l>, Sth 1747; in 
tiLTS. It wii- n-r uv.v'.. ix'. s 2irr::nr :f =::- Fr-.-nch. The Ilazue IHS-j, Utrecht 1697), 
nister-. C"i:J'.»rl blar:-.-! ■•;• a r.uniS:r ?:" which wa» and deserv^fd to be extremely 
diatrib.-s a^^ir^T riie" r»j:oh thi: Tr2:pl- p--'pu!ar. loth at home and abroad. Ten^ple 
r-ali^-rl til- fu'.l ::n: r: ••:' :h- *:::.:a:: n. u<-J to dvolar:? that he was intlueneed in 
His reS'^luti >n wji ir^-un: ar: i o'v iraotvristiv^. j-^X'- jK'inr* of *ry]e by the * Europ:e Specu- 
•1 apprvhvnJ.' h- ^iv-i. • w v. it her ooniinj l-i:n " of Sir Edwin Sandys "q. v.~ If so, he 
that 1 shall hav^ n • ::iir. 1 1 1 be abroad in. wa* probably influenced no Jess 6y Sandys^s 
and thMFrfore dfroilv :> p:i" a warm hous*.* lar^v vi-.-w of toleration. In the fourth 
owr my lir-ad" within: a ni..nirn:"s delay, chapter, upon the disposition of the IIol- 
lle withdr^^w to She-n ar.i trnlarired his laniers, thv author displays a limpid humour 
carl'.-n. Cliarle>»' to t!ie states that and much qui-.t pen^-t rat ion; but it is curious 
Temple liad c »m»f away at his own d— iir-.* that li" nvv-r so much as m«:>ntions Dutch 
and upon urjent privat-.- arlair-s. In rvaliry painiinj, th^n at its apo^ei'. .lean le Clerc, 
his recall had bf-ii d-man It^d by Louis. It while pointinff «^ut some errors (mostly tri- 
was not until Jum^ 1*>7 1 that hv was allowi-d lling). praised th»* work as a whole as the best 
to write a farewt^ll letter to rli.' states, or thin^r of its kind extant (English version by 
that a royal yacht was sent to The IlaErue Theobald, 17 IS). His power as a rhetorical 
for Lady Temple and th- ambassador's writer was displayed about the same time in 
househoM. Tliough he writ" of the decla- his nobb* * Lvttnr to the Countess of Essex' 
ration of war upon tht- Dutch in li^7'2 as a U'f. Hl.vik, Lert. on Rhetoric^ 179ll, i. 260). 
thundnrcla]) ( .l/ew)//*" ), h** must have seen When the nec»'ssity for a p*ace b»*twetMi 
it-: approafii pretty clearly lor some time. Eniyland and Holland l)ecame apparent in 
11 is enforced l-.'isure was dev.^e'lbyTeniple 1674. Temple was calb.»d fn:im his retreat in 
toliti-raturfflnd philosoj»hv. He had already ord»'r to assist in the negotiation of the 
composed (l»i*;7-*^ land submitted to Arlin::- tn-aty of Westminster (14 F»'b.) He wi-nt 
ton in manuscript his ' E^say up«)n the Pre- out to The Hague for the purpose, and his 
Hent State and St-tth.-nn^nt of Ireland.' a intlut-nce again help.'d to expedite matters, 
short but treiiciiant pamphk't, which was His n-putation was now very high, and on his 
published, tog»;th»'r with th*.* ' SeU-ct Letters,' return he had the refusal not only of n digni- 
m 1701. but was not included in tJie collec- tii'd embassy to Madrid but (for the conside- 
tive oditiiju of Tem])l«'s works. In it h** ration of U,0(X)/.) of Williamson's st»cri'tanr- 
condr-mni'd the * late s^ttlennMit of Ireland' ship of state. He fn*quented tin* court, and 
as 'a men; soramVili-,' during whicli 'the beeami* familiar with the new men who were 
gold»;n r^howi^r fi;Il without any well-directed rising into prominence, such as Halifax and 
ord»T or d»;>ign ;' yi»t he recomm»Mided that his old acquaintance Danby. ihit his sojourn 
the sfttbriin-nt, bad as it was, should be in England was not a long one, as in July 
maintained not by balancing parties but by 1074 he was again despatclu'd as ambassador 
«l»-^l)')tie. severity ; • for to think of governing to The Hague. This embassy was rendered 
tluit hingflom !>ya swtret and obliging temper \ mt>morable by the successful contrivance of 
i-^ t'» think of j)utting four wild horses into a match between William of Orange and 
a eciaeli and driviii^r them without whip or (.'harles's niece Mary [see Makv IP, a match 
rein-i.' Am was only habitual among liberal which was in reality of vastly greoter im- 
op eiiliu^liti'iu'd .-tiiiesmen of his century, ho port to England than the triple allianct^ 
igjinrefj tlie cliiimr* <if the native Irish to It seems to have b«'en first hinted at in a 
any l''^'i^lniive f»r other ennsideration. Dur- letter from Templo to the prince dati?d 
iiig 1071 he composed his ' Es>ay upon the i '2'2 Feb. 1074; but the early stages of the 
'irinal and Nature of (Jovirrnment * (first ■ m.'gotiation an* involved in considerable ob- 
ished in I OS()),wiru:h in notable not only scurity. \» soon as Temple found the 
ime thu; iniagi;s and sensible definitions, prince interested, he spared no pains to bring 




thp matter to a successful issue. Lady 
Temple, who was on intimate terms with 
Lady Villiers, the princesses goyemess, was 
fortunately able to satisfy the princess 
curiosity on a number of small points, and 
in 1676 she wont oyer to England and inter- 
yiewed Danby concerning the matter ( 7Vm/7/e 
Memoirs^ ii. 'S4o; IUlph, i. 336; Stbick- 
LA2n), yii. 30 sq.) The negotiations, which 
were t^^rminated by William's yisit to Eng- 
land in September 1677 and his marria^^ 
a few weeks later, brought about a clos) 
rapprochement between Danby and Temple , 
ana a gradual estrangement, due in mrt nb 
doubt to jealousy, between Temple and 
Arlington. The strife between Danby and 
Arlington was already a source of vexation 
to the king; and when, during Temple's 
visit this summer, he pressed the secretary- 
ship once more upon him (even oft'ering 
himself to defray half the fees), it was pro- 
bably in the hope that a man of Temple's 
character would be able to r»»8tore harmony 
as well as respectability to his council. He 
must have thought Temple's ultimate value 
f^reat, or he would not have tolerated the 
iiortentous lectures which the statesman de- 
livered for his benefit (cf. Memoirs, ii. 267). 
Immediately after the wedding on 4 Nov., 
Temple hastened back to The Ilague, his 
coming there being esteemed ' like that of the 
swallow which brought fair weather with it.' 
He was instructed to proceed without delay 
to the congress at Nimeguen, where Leoline 
Jenkins was acting as English plenipo- 
tentiary, but nervously craved for Temple's 
moral support. While there he heard of his 
father's death on 23 Noy. 1677, whereby the 
reversion of the Irish mastership oi the 
rolls devolved upon him. A license to re- 
main away from Ireland for three years was 
prepared and renewed in September 1680 
and September 168o, when he appointed 
John Bennett of Dublin to be deputy clerk 
and keeper of the rolls ; he did not finally 
surrender the post until 29 May 1696 (Last- 
CELLES, Uber Munerum Hibernian, 1824, 
ii. 20). In July 1678 Temple negotiated 
another treaty with the Dutch with the 
object of forcing France to evacuate the 
Spanish towns; but this separate under- 
standing was neutralised by the treaty rati- 
fied at Nimeguen, whither he travelled for 
the last time in January 1679. Ho con- 
gratulated himself that in consequence of a 
formal irregularity his name was not afiixed 
to a treaty the terras of which he thoroughly 
disapproved as being much too favourable to 
France. Extremely susceptible at all times 
to professional jealousy, Temple was greatly 
disconcerted during these negotiations by 

the activity of a diplomatic busybody called 
Du Cros, the political agent in London of 
the Duke of Ilolstein, but in the pay of 
Barillon. Temple subsequently referred 
slightingly in his * Memoirs ' to Du Cros, 
who rejoined in *A Letter ... in answer 
to the impertinences of Sir W. Temple ' 
(1693). An anonymous * Answer,* inspired, 
if not actually written, by Temple, appeared 
without delay, and two months later, in 
some interesting * Reflect ions upon two Pam- 

Ehlets' (the author of which professed to 
ave been waiting in vain for Temple's own 
reply), the * unreasonable slanders' of Du 
Cros were severely handled. 

Upon his return to England in February 
1679 the secretaryship of state was again 
pressed upon him, and he again refused it on 
the plea of waning health and the lack of a 
seat in parliament. He found that the per- 
sonnel of the court had greatly changed, and 
that influences adverse to him were more 
powerful than formerly. Shaftesbury and 
Buckingham, Barillon and Lady Portsmouth 
were bitterly hostile, but their confidence as 
well as that of the king seemed possessed by 
Sunderland, upon whom the post seemed 
naturally to devolve. Umler tin* circum- 
stances it is hardly fair to accuse Temple of 
pusillanimity in declining it. Temple was 
popular as the bulwark of tlie policy of pro- 
testant alliance, and he knew that what was 
wanted was his name rather than his advice. 
He refused to barter away his pood name. 

The king, however, by adroit flattery 
managed in another way to obtain from 
Temple's reputation whatever fillip of popu- 
larity it was able to give to a thorouglily 
discredited administration. In April 1679 
was put forth, as the outcome of a number 
of private interviews betwetm Temple and 
the king, a scheme under Temple's sponsor- 
ship for a revival of the privy council. Tht» 
numbers were now to be fixed at thirty (the 
number actually nominated appears to be 
thirty-three), who were to represent as com- 
pletely as possible the conflicting interests of 
office and opposition, but above all the landed 
wealth of the country; and it was thus by its 
representative character to j)rovide a bridge 
between a headstrong and autocratic execu- 
tive and a discontented and obstructive as- 
sembly. Such a council, after having been 
nearly wrecked at the outset by the king's 
reluctance to admit Halifax, followed by his 
determination to include Shaftesbury,' was 
actually constituted on 21 April 1679.' The 
funds in Holland rose upon the receipt of the 
news that Temple's plan had been carried 
into eft'ect, and Barillon was correspondingly 
displeased, in spite of Lady I'ortsmouth s 


- r^'iinii* >-t!nis 7' biiTr. dt-a:ri the 
-= : t Siie*^i. :iisufficie-T. He pur- 

..i-iit lamilrib*' seat of «' .n:p:.»u 
: • "" • ariiUi^iL llfre Le c ^n-rru-.r .«! 

- -' "-i '»ir rurdt-n* in :iir l»;.*oh 

-■ ' .:^ " li:- ]r;ii»rr; y wli.-n c:-n:plvif 

-i- r I-'i^rii. it 'fSiLiI;.*: -n «■: ::i- 

.*: :—.."• ifcir.l-3iiari!!"w. ■r:i:. wl.t-rv he 

" ■: ; .:p.:~L -.M* -k!L iiud Ta*:-- -i: tlv 

-— 7- i^vf.. i:,r'ir..;*^, I^Ti;, "p. 

- ■ ^ ..- :.■: •: *L■-^. :.*:;.• 1ri;.:-jr'iwcr, 

•■• ' ' ■ •*' l..^ c-Ij-tti- *. • .>htvn 

- ..: . -:: .1^"-. t: ••: .•■.;■ l;i.' IJ... was 

■ • '■ ..r .1. I-i M.'.rL]i l'i*:i jiiH 
" '•- :• •r._r. .-.fp.i.rr* !«r t:i»» 

. ■ - . • i.:.--:.jr .:. I'.M h- i^i\i.:vd 

■" " ' '- '■- ■ L\ .::z him in un- 

- :--.:..' -ta."*.' fr:«ai ihe 

..-.-• •.— v.-. '.:; :!.••• ::;r:»Ti»', 

" • ■ " " • 'T -•>■:"■ T'ni]»I«.'. bur 

• - ; r ::.>••: Lim wli-n 

'•■-*- '"• ■.:* : r- n:;ii:i i-.iyal. 

•" >-• i " ..V. ir tJi*' ri»y;il 

"•• "■-* - "^.-.r- f thi-i. find, 

■ ?'*''■-..? '.?;> "iiti-'n. hi* 

*. . •. -• ": r. :• i Invasion in 

" :.■: r- "train l:i> <«in 

« ' - ■ ■ •***-. :.'..i i: was ni't 

' ' ' - ■. . ' j':.' that ht' prt- 

* " ■ "f T ^^ iriitiDi TiriT'-d 

■";._>' :TT'..rv«!i:p. Imi he 

- ■ ': •"•■--.' :-:vnt. lunv- 

\ -r' ' .. .'. : >VL*r?'Tary for 

■ * « •.'.. ". . -i.r j^ n J-'lin see 

' M ■ T P.rk in tht* capa- 
" • . •-. ." - --".:ry ..f !'<>/. a 

- " -. ' • • • "^ V..- ^ v/. wl..> \v.-i> rhou 
- : . . • - -' •• • . .-i :' ._-.." ^wiftV ni.iUior 

--.'-' :" I.. -y I\:n]il'.'. He 

• * " * .' - •" •■' --"':* * " .: w>:i :i i". \v >]ii.rt 

" • ■:•."- .!:: ' :" • ■»•."- >!n::r.'? vlrarh. fir a 

■■ -••::.•.•?. :' i; irly !• n y* urs. and 

■ • ' .1 . ' !.•■-: r-::.-.r J •i.iis 'n rSt.lIa'). 

- " '- - !.. •' r *.v > ..:: :".:*.-:::iinr up-m Lady 

t - 

• r 
I. •■ • • 

• • • I 


-• • . -i :v.: :'r \: • l*::: ::\ri«" .»de? inTeni]drV 
:. ••. ' .• .•:•-. i. :::'.! V '^hv rrlati.Mi< bttw-ceu 

n .'. i ■. //' ' '/ ./".!•' //.]•. J: . :".•••:. ^:-\v :: rv cordial. IVmple ]»r.xmred 

riii::; I. : '. .■•..•_ .i- .1 :.:> ;;•- '^wiiV'* ■; :!i:.-'*": :i t'> an <?•/ n/W'.-wi deirr»M' at 

r- M-l i!.' • , -iri'!. -. I. ■ • - '•• il :..'.■• li T" I-' 

.•I f'- ■ tt\ r-iiiiil. it ./n. Il'- V.I :\'[ h.iVf 

t.-' w- >•" ill'- O-.l'.rd {..i;ii.«ifi» fit. ])r'»p«i-i»il t.« If.iv", and in answ«'r to a 

Ki.-«' •»!' II lin:il n;'!i' iip i.i iVoin k-tlt-r, iii wLicL ."Swil'i avowed that hi:* con- 

II i:- Il.iil. n\»; r I. n!r..r..d liim a post of 
I !'«»/. :i VL-iir ill the Irish rolls when Swift 




duct towards his patron had been less con- 
Mderate than petulant, sent him a prompt 
certificate for ordination. After his second 
absence from, and return to, Moor Park in 
169(3, Swift*s position in the family seems to 
have been considerably improved. Temple 
can hardly have failed to perceive either the 

on such a matter was absolutely worthless) 
professed to regard as genuine. It was when 
this conjecture had been ruthlt-issiy demo- 
lished by the learned sarcasm of Bentley 
that Swift came to the aid of his patron with 
the most enduring relic of the controversy, 
<The Battle of the Books/ Temple had 

talents or the usefulness of the * secretary,* . begun a reply to Bentley, but he was now 
as he was now called, who aided him in : happily spared the risk of publication [for 
gr»tting r»^ady for the press the five volumes , the Boyle and Bentley controversy, see 

of his * Iy?tters ' and * ATemoirs.' It is known 
that William III paid several visits to 

Bextley, Richard, 10(52-174:?]. 

Temple's next literary venture was 'An 

Temple at Moor ParK in order * to consult Introduction to the History of England' 
him ui)on matters of high importance.' One (London, 1695 8vo, 1690, 1708; in French, 
of these visits had reference to the triennial Amsterdam, 1695, 12mo), which he intended 
bill of 109;?-3, for which the king had con- as' an incitement to the production of a 
ceived a strong dislike. Temple argued that general history of the nation, such as those 
the bill involved no danger to the monarchy, j of l)e Serres or Mezeray for France, Mariana 
and he is said^to have employed Swift to } for Spain, or l)e Mexia for the t-mpire. The 

* ilraw up reasons for it taken from English 
history. According to Deane Swift (Lijfe of 
Surift, p. 60 ), Temple aided the young author 
to revise in manuscript his ' Tale of a Tub.' 
During the whole period of his retirement 
since 1681, Temple had been elaborating 
thrtpe essays upon which his literary reputa- 
tion now chiefly rests. Six of these appeared 
in 1680 under the title of * Miscellanea.* 
The second and more noteworthy volume 
appeared in 1692 (the * Miscellanea ' in two 
parts appeared united, 4th ed. 1693, 5th 
1607, revised Glasgow 1761, Utrecht 1693). 
Temple sent a copy in November, together 
with a I^tin epistle, to the master and fel- 
lows of Emmanuel, his old college {Addif. 

introduction concludes with an account of 
the Norman conquest and a eulogy of 
William I, in which many saw intended a 
compliment to AVilliam III, the more so as 
the putting aside of Edgar the Atheling was 
carefully condoned. The presumption of 
this work, which abounds in historical errors, 
was perhaps not inferior to that which 
prompted the * Essay on Ancient and Modern 
Leaniing.' Fortunately for Temple, no his- 
torical Bentleys were living to take excep- 
tion to his statements. Among the lighter 
productions of his years of retirement was a 
privately printed volume of * Poems by Sir 
\V. T.,* containing Virgil's last eclogue, a 
few odes and imitations of Horace, and 

^fS. 5800, f. 99). The second part included ; Aristrcus, a version of the 4th Oeorgic of 
the esijays of gardening, of heroic virtue, of Virgil — most of the pieces written pro- 
poetry, and the famous essay on 'Ancient I fessedly by request of Lady Temple or Lady 
and Modem Learning.' The vein of classical | Giffard. (The Grenville Library, Brit ivshMu- 
eulogy and reminiscence which Temple here seum, has a coi)v of this extremely rare 
affect s was adopted merely as an elegant pro- volume, u.d., li^mo, with some manuscript 
lusion upon the passing controversy among notes in Temple s own hand ; it was bought 
the wits of France as to the relative merits of by Grenville at Beloe's sale in 1803 for 
ancient and modem writers. First broached 
as a paradox (cf. Our Noble Selves) by Fon- 
tenelle, the thesis had been maintained in 
earnest bv Perrault (Sihile de Louis le G randy 
January 1687), and Temple now joined hands 
fratemallv with Boileau in contesting some 
of Pcrranlt's rash assertions. Tlie essay was 
in fact light, suggestive, and purely literary; 
it scarcelv aim^ at being critical, so that 
much of tlie serious criticism which has been 
bestowed on it is quite inept. William 
M'otton was the first to enter the lists against 
Templo with his 'Reflections on Ancient 
and Modem Learning,* pubhshed in 1694. 
Charles Boyle (afterwards Earl of Orrery) 
[q. T.], by way of championing the ^lite 
essayist, set to work to edit the 'Epistles 
to Phalaris ' whichVTemple (whose opinion 


•2/. 3/».) 

Temple was attacked bv a serious form of 
gout in 1076, and thougli he staved it oil' 
for a time, as he explains in one of the most 
entertaining of his essays (* Cure of Gout by 
Moxa'), he suffered a good deal both with 
the gout and * the spleen' during the whole 
of Swift's sojourn at Moor Park. He passed 
through a severe illness in 1691, and he was 
much broken by the death of his wife in 
January 1695. Swift kept a sort of diary 
of the state of his patron's health, the last 
entry of which runs, * He died at one o'clock 
this morning, the '27 January 1698-9, and 
with him all that was good and amiable 
amonjif men.' He was buried on 1 Feb. by 
the side of his wife in the south aisle of 
Westminster Abbey. Ilis heart, however, 

Temple so Temple 

liy his special dirtfction wa.s buried in a silver flagfthip seemed imminent (cf. Cal, State 
box under a sundial in the parden of Moor Pajter*^ Dom. 1670-1), and enjoyed the cor- 
Park, opposite his favourite window seat. : dial friendship of Queen Mary, whose deatk 
With his death the baronetcy Ijccame ex- : almost synchronised with her own. She 
tinct. died at Moor Park, aged 60, and was buried 

. \\\ his will, dated 8 ^Farch 1694-0, and on 7 Feb. 1094-5 in Westminster Abbey. 
>^made * as short a? possible to avoid those Extracts from fortv-two of her letters to 
cruel remembniiu'os that have so often oc- Temple were published by Courtcnay in his 
casioned the chaiipincr of it/ Temple left a *Life of Temple.' Macaulay was power- 
lease of some lauds in Morrittown to *Kst her fully attracted by their charm, which is, 
Johnson, servant to my sister (litlard,* and, however, personal rather than literary, and 
by a codicil dated 2 April 1097, 100/. to the complete series of seventy was published 
* William Din^ley, my d^usin, student at | in 18S8 (ed. E. A. Parry). The original 
Oxford, and another 100/. to Mr. .Jonathan letters, amounting in all to 135 folios, were 
Swift, now dwelliuir with me ' (will proved purchased by the British Museum on 16 Feb." 
1)V Sir John Temple and Ihime Martha Gif- IS91 from R. Dacon I^onge, esq., and now 
fird, 29 March lt)l»9, I'.C.C. ."">0 Pett ). To form Addit. MS. 33975. 
Swift also was left such profit as mijrht ' Besides several children who died in iu- 
accrue from the publication of a collective fancy, the Temples had a daughter Diana, 
edition of Temple's * Works.' Of this edition ' who died in 1679, aged 14, and was buried 
two volumes of letters appeared in 1700 | in Westminster Abbey; and a son, John 
(London, 8vo), a tliird volume in 1703; the j Temple (//. 1689), to whom they were both 
'Miscellanies' or ei^says, in three parts, : much devotwl. He was in Paris in 1684 

170.5 H; the * Introduction ' in 170S ; and 

when an official diploma of nobility was 

the* Memoirs* in two volumes, 170i^> (pt. ii., granted to him under the common seal of 
of which * unjiuthorised ' editions had ap- the college of arms in order to insure his 
peared in li)9|-2, related to the period proper reception in foreign courts (this 
1(572-9; pt. iii., of which the autograph curious document, which is in Ijatln, is 
manuscript is in the British Museum Addit. printed in the * Herald and Genealogist,' iii. 
MS. 9804, written in a rapid script with 40r>-8). As a compliment to Lis father, 
scarcely a correction, dealt, with 1679 sO; i .John Tem]>le was made paymaster-general, 
])art i. was thrown into the fire by Temple and. on 12 April 1689, secretary of state for 
shortly l>efore his death). Subsequent col- war in the room of Mr. Blaithwaite. A few 
lective t^ditions a])]>eared in 1720, 2 vols. | days later, having filled his pockets with 
fol. ; 1723; 1731, with prelirainurv notice by stones, he threw himself from a b*"»at into 
LadyCJifljirdjWhowas profoundly dissatisfied 1 the strong current beneath London Bridge, 
with Swift's handling of lu»r brother's ! and was drowned (see TH03irsoN, CAro/ziV-/^* 
literary legacy: 1710; 17.'54, 4 vols. 8vo ; j of London Iirid(/e, 1827, pp. 474-5). The 
1757, 1770, and 1814. : suicide, which created the greatest sensation 

Lady Temple, whom the statesman had at the time, was probably due to official 
married in 1655, was born at Chicksands in anxiety, aggravated by the treachery of a 
ir)27, and wa"* one of thn younger daughters confidential agent whom ho had recom- 
of Sir Peter Osborne ( 15^4-1653). the royalist I mended to the king (Lambeuty, jl/cw. de in 


Henry Osborne <|. v. , her nephew. IJor daughter of M. Duplessis Hambouillet, of a 
mother, Dorothy (15JH) 1 65(V), was sister of: good llngnenot family, he left two daugh- 
Sir John Danvi-r-j (j. v.] and daughter of Sir ! ters: Elizal)eth of Moor Park, who marned 
John Danvers of Dauntsty. Wiltsliire. The her cousin, .Tolm Temple {d. 1753), second 
storyof her deepening at tneliment to Temple, son of Sir John [see under Temple, Sir 
of tli«* loss of lier beauty by smallpox, of her | .Toiix], the speaker of the Irish House of 
wifely gentleiit'ss, and of tin* positi(m of Omimons, but left no issue; and Donjthy. 
comparativ<? inferiority tliat she occupied in j who marrie<l Nicholas Bacon of Shrubland 
the T<'niple household to h«T clever and Hall, Coddenham. 

mmajring sister-in-law, Lady Gillard, is well Of public men who have left behind them 

known tr) every reader of Macaulay 's bril- ' any claim to a place near the front rank, 

essay. Shi* was an active helpmeot to Tem]»le is one of the * safest ' in our annals. 

in many of hii scdiemes, showed Halifax may well have had his exemplary 

ii coura;r«' upon her voyagi* to Krig- fri«»nd in mind when he wrote the maxim 

LG7], when an afifray with the Butch I < lie that leaveth nothing to chance will do 




During the ten yuftra following 
uion, a period blorkened bj great poli- 
nfamv. Temple lived fastidiouslj to 
,r, and pnctidt-tl uurasliionabie virtutia. 
luch to say of B staleBcnan of that age 
ilthough comparatively poor and not 
Idly, be W&3 untainttxi b^ corruption. 
jrolutioii, a crisia at whicli, wito bis 
tr quolilicatinns, he might have played 

scarcely leas protainent than that of 
dou in lOtK), found him atill amid ' the 
is of EpicuruB,' deploring the foibles 
u much loo well bred to denounce 
lacheiiea) of contemporary politiciana. 
a writer, apart froaa a. weakness for 
tttu, wbJcb be admitted and tried to 
:, his prose mnrked a development in 
eetion of refineDient, rhythmical Sniab, 
lancipation from the pedantry of long 
besesand suptrfluoua quotatioTis. He 
ao a, pioneer in the judicious use of the 
aph. Hallam.ignoringHalifax, would 

bim the second place, after Dry den, 
' the polite authors of bia epoch. Swift 
■xprassion to the belief that be bad 
VM our English tongue to as great a 
lion as it could wellliear; Cbosterfield 
mended bim to bia Hon ; Dr. Johnson 

of him as the flrst writer to give 
X to the English language ; and L«rab 
I him delightfully in nis ' Esasy on the 
il Ijtyle.' During the eighteenth cen- 
is essays were used as exercises and 
I. But the progreas made during the 
alf-century in the direction of the 
ign prose quality of limpidity has not 
iTourable 10 Temple's literary reputa- 
nd in the future it is probable that his 
ra' and 'Memoirs' will be valued 

bj the hiatorian, white bia 'Essays' 
emain interesting primarily for the 
) they afford of the cultured gentleman 

period. A few noble similes, how- 
nd thoae majeatic words of consolation 
sed to Lady Essex, deserve and will 

Slace among the consecrated passages 
ish prose. 
:be portrait of Temple by Sir Peter 
painted in 16TS) and nt)w in the 
tal Portrait Onllerv. there are engruv- 
r P. Vanderbank, Houbraken (Biactf, 
i"), George Vertue, Anker Smith, and 
. That by Houbraken is the best 
ing of this portrait, which depicts a 
andsome man, with a resolute mouth, 
fleshy face, and small moustache, after 
kitch pattern. The British Museum 
>es what appears to be a contempo- 
tutch pencil sketch of the atatesman. 
er portrait ia in the master's lodge at 

Emmanuel College. Two further portraits 
by Lely of Temple and bia wife, belonging 
to Sir George Osborne, bart., of Chicksands 
Friory,are reproduced in 'Letters of Dorothy 
Osborne' (1888). 

[The LifB, Wocka, and Correspondence of Sir 
Williiim Tomjile, b.irt., by Thamaa Peregrine 
Courtenay [q. v.], in two Tulnmas, 1838. 8vo, is 
iu □may reapecta a pattern, although, it being 
ihe work of a tory pamphlaleer, Miicaulay vir- 
tually damned it with fdiiit prnise in bis fninoiis 
fsany on Sir WiUiam Temple in thu E^ioburgll 
Beviaw. Upon the fair points in which tha 
essay diTcrges from Courtanny's eoncloaiuDg (as 
in the estimate of triple alliiinee) modern opiniaa 
woald not aide with Mocaulny. Tha cliief ori- 
ginal Huthorrtioi, besides Temple's works, with 
Sirlfi's prafacos and his diptamatie papers in the 
BrJtiah Museum (Addit. MS3. 8796-801 and 
Stowe MS. 1 981, are Bojer'a Life of Sir William 
Temple, 1714. and the life by Lady Giffard, pre- 
fixed to the 1731 edition o! the Works. Eight 
of Temple's original letters are in Iho Morrison 
Collection of Ant ogniphs. cntulogue. vi. 233-10- 
Sbo also Letters ofArlingtoD, 1701, Svo (vol. ii. is 
almost wholly occnpifld by the Ifltlera to Temple 
ttgo, od. Archdall, V. 239; I'rinsterer'a Aruhivea 
de U Miiisnn Orange-Niiasaa, 2"- a^rie, laOl, v. 
paaiim; Boyer'a Life of William III, pp. 11, 36, 
41,00-2,67,83,90. 02-3,96: BulstroiU P»pera, 
1898, pp. 10, 17, 40, 45, Si, 59,68.74, 107. 112. 
123,195, 265,307; Clarendon's Life and Con- 
tinDBtion, 1827 ; Clarendon Corroap. ed. Sing;er, 
1814 ; Sidney'a Diary, ed. Bleneowe, p. liitviii ; 
Bnmefs Own Time. 1833; Wynnes Life of 
Jenkins, 1724; Letters addressed from Londoa 
to Sir .loseph WilKsnison, 1874 ; Boyer's Wil- 
liam III ; Trevor'aLife and Times of William III, 
1834; Baillon's Hennette Anoe d'Anglelerre. 
p. 300; Pyladea and Corinna. 1732, vol. ii. 
Letter V (i-ontaining an ullegorical chiiractfr of 
Temple); Strickland's Queens of England, toI. 
Tii.; Fluaaan's Hiat. de Diplomatie t'raiicaiae, 
1811 ; St. Didier's Hist, doa Nig. de Nimigue, 
1 RMO ; Dumont'a Corps de Diplomatie ; Mignafs 
Hig. relatires k bi Succe-aion ; Lettres de M. le 
Comta d'Eslradea, 1743; Campbell's Momo'ra 
of UoWitt, 174B; Lefivra Fon tali /a Jean de 
Witt, Paris, 188*. i. 447 sq.; Luttrell's Hrief 
Uist. Helfltion of State Affiini ; Banke's Hist, of 
England ; Seelej'a (Irowlh of Hritiah Policy. 
1895 ; MosBon'a Life of Milton, vi. 31.5. 669. 
601; Crnik's Life of Svitt; Foraler's LiTe of 
Swift, vol. i. ; Mimolres de TrSvoui. November 
1707 and March 1708; Mimoirea uf Dnngeon 
and St. Simoa ; Prime's Account of the Temple 
Family. Naw York. 1896 ; Lipi^comb's Hist, of 
Buckinghameliire, iii. 85-6 ; Retrospective Re- 
view, vol. viii ; note kindly furnished by E. S. 
Sbut^kburgh, esq., fellow of Emmanuel.] T. S. 

or JOHNSON' (1738-1790), esaayii^t, and 
friend of Gray and Boaweli, was the son of 

y-"^?lc 53 Terr.ole 

i % 

^^ ■ ^ '• . :.r. r.:j.r r.r rx\iok- cMnn»»rt eel with Ber*-'. :£---- Tvr-: . 1- ttm 

'*• * . " ■ '* "' -' :: ; ::.'^'. r \vfl> instituteil to the |'.rtv«.iz: r^:T:rr : Mia- 

■- ■ ■ •"**♦ Sun- luMid, ndjoinmir >'xr:T:'r'. i-i ir*:.' :«a 
■ '^ V -'" ^'i^ inil»»s from Ex»-t*T. 

\ ., ^ ,. f \ .-:h..m- l\v AiicriKt irrJrT-z:;-- -"-i* =jJT;-iia 
'' .■■v...\ : >;r Northumberland to a Itfr -sr-.:! i f rsa- 

; • ■ , -^ -^ v/'.-''. ^ '^ of l,iiUV.,but inThe:'::::-i-:-j:T^ir-:T:l» 

•■ *•* ■ -■ K .'.s: "^ .'.".'. r.: bjnikrnptcv of Mr. F-::*sr.:k v:t." ai-l 

^ " *^ ^- ^' : . ' Jvr- t]:roujrh the pavm»*n* 0: in izz.-^'j v- Lis 

*' '* ' '•• i fntluT. lit* was nirain :r.r:'>-: :- z^rzizlsiy 

' * ^ \"^* .!.•-• \\ .'.- iliilioulty. Hefound tirrr.lrTTrTrr. •'c•>^ 

^* ■■ " :. rsvT hi.< friend Ii<\*we!!'* * Ax" :r.: :: C-r- 
; ' " ^1 } : •- s^un • (ir(i>». In May 17" • T-rr:- c«to- 

■ " ,-..>, • ^ .' :.- :«?viplaTfd .<»»parntincr fr-in b * Tifr." mi fcr 

■ •'.*• T bo foil. nvincr November he hi: i'.i pirt (if 

t ■ ."*: ; !.:> fSTcite. After proc-r^iinj *•» N rhaia- 

)* «. • * . -• ^. ' I,. ,|.,,^j] ,,n this bu'siness. hr v:f::ei B*wcD 

" ' - ' . ^ : : a: t'his«el*s Huildin£r.«. C'na:'r.ri>. Edin- 

" " ** • ^» ■- ^.:••dM Stpt ember 177fn. In thr fprlsr «f 

• ' ' '■ • .77] ]." wns in pn\at di^rre** 'tLrru^tliil 

• TV.* and di'siri'd a chaiilaincv ar.r"»aL 
\ .V.nraeterof (iray was wri:t«*n by Tvmple 
* * »% . . ■ •. : '.!:: or !•"» l»o5Wfil a short :ia:r af'tr The 

* ••.'».:> i^t-nth (.'»() July 1771 1. ani wa? puh- 

>1.-.: !y The rivipient without a'i:b-rry in 
•• * • • -1 ^r.dim Majjazine' for 1772 «p. 140). 

^ -^ :*. ir.o'>r]v»rate<l the * character* in hi< 

■ ^* •* ^ - ". ' of (iray. and Johnson dera*?*! it 

" • • >> -r'w ■: '.nsfrfion in his mem'">ir of *iravin 

'' ' \ ■ ^ ■ 1 .\:s of The Poets' (cf. G kit's ir»rk*. 

■ ' .' y .' >:.:vr.i. 1S;^>. i. Ixx. S(j. ; OyssE, ZiY'"/ 

" * • •• '.*.-.• c :• ^i^it to London in Mar 1775 

o.r.!-.^. :i: the lumse of the br»>Thers 

*' .' > ■/ r .!\!>hiTS in the I'oultrr.meelimr 

* * ^ ". i« '".K^Tv.ith, l.anirton, B«>swrll. and 

••N ;.-.: I". April 1777) Boswell paid bim 

" ■ . ' ^ - : >!:.:v.V..\-id. In the meantim»*<1774) 

•. tV- eleriry had r*.'vealed to hi* 

- '..:tr;iry skill. Hi>ho|» Kepp»l 

! ^ rV.;ipl.nin. and by November 

' ^ ' . ' :■..• r-.\- i>rd the p]»ecitic promise of 

'^ .:«-:; V :— :r. :];e diocese of Kxetfr, and 

■.*>.!. -r.Knt .hV This was th»* 

^ : iV. .>::,i. with the chapelnr of 

* •' * '. .^ v.: !o the towns of Penrrn 

" "^ : * '. r. l^^rn wall, to which Tempi'* 

' ^» > . . . * ■••. Ki]'p''rs nomination on 

\< \ .\jr of (ilnvias, with 





I I 

^ . V< \ .\ir ot (iluvias. with an 

■•» ** 11 1 ^ ■••.*. .''v' .iv.d private sources of 

• ■ *" "' , • -•'•■ • .- .,v ... • .;:■-:: MvnT the rest of hisday^. 

,».s ,...-. W..1. ...... ..:.. •.. , . : V . .. . . ;r>.."i:,. travelled thronph 

'»-\%;^^ .. *Hi>.... .,^ IV.. ; , ...:,. ,.,M,..^.i two plrasantinter- 

^VkOlrtVAMoivm I.. ........ u... .. , ,,,,, :>> : H.ird. Boswell and hi* 

VilMuul... .^..u. ....•:! „ ^ .,;iuriB* 

VlM».... -.' »v.:. .X ::•• ,. v, . . . -> ;. ..,:,,nWwrll came apiin 

,xM\l,. i..i.o«.. ^> ,, „ , . . , , ... ,,.,.- .i^^.^Vrn^^aiii/ibraTT 

v.i U I...,. I.....1. ... , ,.. ; . . .^ ^ , .^. ^^,^^ tonnded. mainly 

%WM.Mlud,.. . \.NT .:,. ,.. .......J ..•>•:•■•>..:■:, r.Me.*. at Truro (m- 




Pari, Hep, of Cornwall, p. xxii). Upon 
«th in May 1795 Boswell left Temple 
d mourning ring, and Temple, under 
Bpiature ' Biographicus/ wrote apprecia- 
of his friend (Gent, Mag, 1795, ii. 

nple died at Gluvias on 13 Aug. 1796. 
nument in the churchyard was erected 
'. memory of their parents by * the seven 
ning children.^ 11 is second name is 
given as *• Johnstone.' His wife died on 
irch 1793, aged 46; they had issue in 
!Ten children. One son, l^rancis Temple 
) Jan. 1863), became vice-admiral ; 
er, Octavius Temple (d. 13 Aug. 1834), 
ovemor of Sierra Leone, and father of 
"esent archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. 
rick Temple). 

aple's writings were : 1 . 'An Essay on 
lergv, their Studies, liecreations, De- 
of Influence,' 1774 ; this was much 
«d by Bishop Homo. 2. *0n the 
J of Unrestrained Power' [anon.], 1778. 
!oral and Historical Memoirs * [anon.], 
in which was included the essav on 
^st rained l*ower.' These memoirs con- 
1 for less foreign travel, less luxury, 
or less variety of reading. Polwhele 
hat these works were * heavy from too 
historic detail.' 4. A * little pam- 
on Jacobinism,' 1792!^ (Polwhele, 
tions^ \. 327-8). lie left unfinished a 
on * The Kise and Decline of Modern 
.' Some of his letters to Lord Lis- 
are in Egerton MS. 2136 (Brit.Mus.) 
Letters of James lioswell, addressed 
Rev. W. J. Temple,' appeared in 1857. 

ise and Courtney's 13ibl. Cornub. ii. 524, 
», ii. 1344 ; BoafHis Collect. Cornub. 
; Gent. Mag. 1793 i. 479, 1796 ii. 791, 
797 ii. 1110. 1798 i. 188, 1827 i. 472; 
I of BoswoU to Temple, 1857, passim; 
p. of Gray and NichoUs, pp. 62-165; 
p. of Walpole and Mason, i. 195 ; Bisset's 
Mitchell, ii. 356-8 ; Garrick Corresp. i. 
k)8weirs Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 436-7, ii. 11, 
n, iii. 301, I*., ed. ^Napier, i. 357-8; 
lliana, ed. 1874, passim; Notes and Queries, 
\T. iii. 381-2; Fitzgerald's Boswell, i. 
Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, ii. 84; in- 
ion has been kindly furnished by Mr. 
Wi-ddell of Berwick, Mr. C. E. S. Hwid- 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Mr. Arthur 
F.S.A., diocesan registry, Exeter, and 
D. Enys of Enys, Cornwall.] W. P. C. 

tfPLEMAN, PP:TEK, M.D. (1711- 
physician, eldest son of Peter Temple- 
i. 1749), a solicitor at Dorchester, by 
fe Mary, daughter of Robert llaynes, 
om on 17 March 1711, and educated 
» CharterhouBo, though not on the 

foundation. Proceeding to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, he graduated B.A. with distin- 
guished reputation in 1731 {Graditati Can- 
tabr, 1823, p. 463). lie at first int^ded to 
take holy orders, but afterwards Ee applied 
himself to the study of medicine, and went 
in 1736 to the university of Ley den, where he 
attended the lectures of Dr. 'Herman Boer- 
haave, and was created M.D. on 10 Sept. 
1737 {Album Studiosorum Acad, Lugd. Bat, 
1875, p. 967). In 1739 he came to London 
with a view to enter on the practice of his 
profession, supported by a handsome allow- 
ance from his father. He was so fond, how- 
ever, of literary leisure and of the society of 
learned men that he never acquired a very 
extensive practice. 

In 1760 he was introduced to Dr. John 
Fothergill [q. v.] with a view to institute a 
medical society in order to procure the earliest 
intelligence of improvements in physic from 
every part of Europe, but the plan never 
took effect. When the British Museum was 
opened in 1758, for purposes of inspection 
and study, Templeman was appointed on 
22 Dec. to the olhce of keeper of the reading- 
room. Gray gives an amusing account of a 
visit to the reading-room while under his 
care ( Worksy 1884, iii. 1-2). Templeman 
resigned the post on 18 Dec. 1760 on being 
chosen secretary to the recently instituted 
Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Com- 
merce. In 1 762 he was elected a correspond- 
ing member of the Koyal Academy of Sciences 
at Paris, and also of the Economical Society 
at Berne, lie died on 23 Aug. 1769 {Cam- 
bridge Chronicley 30 Aug. 1769). Bowyer 
says * he was esteemed a person of great 
learning, particularly with respect to lan- 
guages, spoke French with great fluency, and 
left the character of a humane, generous, and 
polite member of society.* A portrait by 
Cosway belongs to the Society of Arts, and 
was engraved by William Evans. 

His works are : 1. * On a Polypus at the 
Heart, and a Scirrhous Tumour of the 
Uterus \\n the * Philosophical Transactions,' 
1746). 2. * Curious Remarks and Observa- 
tions in Physics, Anatomy, Chirurgery, 
Chemistry, Botany, and Medicine; selected 
from the Memoirs of the lloyal Academy of 
Sciences at Paris,* 2 vols. London, 1753-4, 
8vo. 8. Edition of Dr. John W'oodward's 
* Select Cases and Consultations in Physic,' 
London, 1757, 8vo. 4. * Travels in Egypt 
and Nubia: translated from the original 
Danish of Frederick Lewis Norden, and en- 
larged,' 2 vols. London, 1756-7, foL, with the 
fine engravings made by Tuscher for the ori- 
ginal edition. Templeman also published at 
the same time the entire translation and the 


Templeton 54 Templeton 

wL'l^r of L^?a'idiiJ-'n-inoE«rYi..l. STo.witLout ton &!«• &dded OroUrnche rubra to the lilt 

jilaT-*. .'1. -rracTical < 'lifrnraiioiis. on \hf of iLe IHsli flcvra. besides numerous cmrto- 

Ciihu>- ".'f L'.iCfnj. TiiTni]!''. HumcT. TimoThy pmic plants; and. while diligently employ- 

<TriiH?. hiid K-wl M-Li.w fira**.' L/nfion. inz bf-th pe-n and pencil in accumulating ■ 

17''». '•Yj. »!. • Kj.i:a]h on L&dv Liicy Mev- materials for a complete natural histoiyc^ 

rick* liii Y- 1. viii. of The • Srlet: CoIJection livland, made imponant contributions to 

of Mi>Crllany l\w-n:*.' 17S] 1. the works of others, such as Sir J. E. 

;Ai-.i!.MS. r,i>s2.f. 105: Gtzi. Maz. 1762 Smith's * Enrli^h liotanv' and 'Flom 

1'. •Ji-4. 17 •^ J-. 4*"3; GririTHn Km. ii. 561; Britan nica,* Le wis Weston Dill wrn^s'Sritiih 

U.u ! n Chr : w.r. !'« .Scj:. 17C9 : Nicho fr"* Ux. Cmfenrip" i lKfi*-7>. I^awson Turner's «Bri- 

AiMvd. i'.. Jti': N >* a:. 3 Q-jerit-. t^rh Mr. i. ti&hFuci'(lK>2i.and'MuscolofiriaHibemici' 
Hut.\.-.:.>> 1I>';. o: D.rM 

TEMPLETON. JOilX il7«v.-ljii^5), many refrivnces to zoophTtes as well is to 
lri>h iKiTural:?:, wi> l-om in IVlfast in other branches of natural fiistoTT, and many 
17iiti. Tho familv Lad l-ern p^-TTlrd ^ince pbrenoloirical observations. The earlier to- 
ilu' tarly par: of thv >'.'YrmrrnTh century lumes aiv still in existence at the Belfast 
nt Oniivi'imiVf. iifu-rw'firas L'ranmor»'. alxiut Museum. He studied birds extensiTely, is 
twumil»'> fri»inliflf:i?t. ".»n ther-»ad toMalone. is shown by his mar^nal notes in a copy of 
.Inmt>Triri]«l»-Ton,:hrfa:h»r'.'f thv naturalist. Montairu's •Oniitholopical Dictionary/ nov 
wjis a I>ll:a^t int-rchaiit, wh.^ miirrird Mary in the ]>ns>esB.ion of the Ker. C. H. AVaddell 
Klt'ftiior. Jaiiulii f r oi 15«.n;an: in Lrzi: r.f Bel- < Pn^Cff^dinff* »/ the h'effaft yaturaiuts- Field 
fii-t \\v.k\ MaK'n*'. John 'rrmpl»-T'>n was t-du- ClnK 1 >r*i-i*. p. 409k ' As to his collection of 
catt d at a ]^riYa:e soli.'ol, and bvf-^re h** was lichens, Dr. Thomas Taylor (rf. 1848) [q.v.]i 
twtnTv lHv;imv* int.ivsTiHl in tht? cultiva- writing in Mackay's* Flora Hibemica'(l836), 
lion of ]ilnntj!. AfttT his fat htrr's death in says (p. 10<'»"): 'The forecroing account of 
17lK^ ho lv;:an tlie ^LivriTinc study of the lichens of Ireland would have been still 
boiany, at ti:>t. it is said, from a desire to more incomplete but for the extensive col- 
liinl nii: !:«>w To iXTir]iate \vt-vds on his farm k-ction of my lamented friend, the late Mr. 
land at C>aiiniorr\ In 17'A'» lie laid "lit an John Templeton. ... I believe that thirty 
e\]i»T;nn iiTal i:ardrn aiTortlini: to a suijirrs- years ago his acquirements in the natunl 
ti«in in llon^sean's • NouYtlle IK'l.'ise/ and history- of orpnnised beings rivalled that of 
was vt-ry sm*ce-sfiil in ouiTivatin*: many any individual in Europe.' He devoted 
tfiultT exotics I'lU I if doors. In 17VM. on sjK-cial attention to mosses and liverworts, 
tlie occa>i":in of his ^irst visit tv> Londv^n. he and. dissatisfied with many of the published 
nr.jiK' t1i»' acijr.ainianee nf Th.^mas Mariyn drawinps. made numerous careful pencil 
( 1 7o.Vl •*ilo I '.J. v.~, professor of botany at studies, shaded with ink or colour, which 
Cambridge. wLoni Le aftvrwarvls siip]»jied have been pninounce<l by experts to beun- 
with in.iiiy ri-marks on cultivation for his rivalled in their lifelike eflects. There wis 
tditi'in of MjII'.t's M.Iardener's 1 dictionary.'' in fact no branch of natural history to which 
T».'nipl"ti»n also came ti» know Dr. lieori:e '■ he did not contribute. Though urged by 
Shaw ij.v.'. tlie zoolo;:ist, and James Dick- , many of his botanical friends to complete 
son 't\. v.". ilif crypropami.-t, and he was i the * Hibernian Flora/ his diffidence and de- 
cho-»'n an a.-.-'»ciale of the Linnean Society, i sire of rendering it perfect prevented its pub* 
Aft'.T his adilitlon of i.'*/^^ hifferm'ra to the lication. In 1>(>^ the 'Belfast Magaxine'wM 
li-t of Tri'h f-jiecii's in 17i»'>, for which the ■ started, and Templeton contributed monthly 
I loyal lri:=-h Academy awarded him a prize ' reports on natural history and meteorology, 
of fivr* tniiricas (not tiftv, as stated bv Sir i Tie was an earlv memlx^r of the Belfiit 

Janit-s Ivlward Sraith),heajrain visited Lon- 
don, wh'-r*; li" met Dr. (afterwards Sir) J. E. 
Sniitli, Dr. .Samu»'l (Joodenouph, Aylmer 
Dniirki." Lanibert, James Sowerhy, William 
(.•urtis, Sir Josi*pli Banks, and Robert 
Brown. Banks olli-red him three or four 
hundrifd pounds a year and a grant of land 
if \ui would go out to New Holland, as 
A"«tralia was then calle<l, presumably with 
'ers's cx|K'dition, which Brown accom- 

Sociely for Promoting Knowledge, and be 
drew up the first two catalogues of the 
Linen Hall Library. On the foundation of 
the Belfast Natural IIistoryi>ociety in ISiU 
he was chosen its first honorary member; and 
on his death the society instituted a medil 
in his honour, which, however, seems to 
have been only once awarded. Though hs 
visited Scotland and Wicklow, Templeton 
lived mainly in Ulster, and never visited 

; but he declined the oiler. Temple- I the south or west of Ireland. He died it 

>» on lo Dec. 1825, and waa buried 
1 ihe new burying-gTound, Clifton Street, 
Tanpleton rawriud in 1799 Kwherine, 
tnglitflr of Robert Johnston of Sejmour- 
31, near Belfast, bj whom he left a son, 
Robert Templeton, deputy inepector- 
ml of hospitalB, «n entomologist, who 
pntributed numerous papers to the ' Annals 
id 3k[acatuie of Natural History ' between 
tSa and ISdS, and died in IBiU. 
Teropleton contributed papers lo the 
t!ran«actioDB ' of the Ltnnean Society on 
migiBtioDB of birds and on soils, and to 
M of the Geological Society in 1821 on 
M-bogs (Soyal &x. Cat. v. {I^IO). Several 
Dlumesof hisnunuscript ' mbemian Flora,' 
Pttb coloured drawings, are preserved in the 
klfaat Muaeiun. Kobert Itrown di^dicated 
I him the Australian leguminous genus 

[SLunly fmm miibirial com m animated by the 
»». C. H. WnddeU, B.D. ; Loudon's Mng. of 
Rtanl Hii-.. i. (182S) 403, li. (132b) 30,}.] 

G. S. B. 
TKMPLETON, JOHN a80-'-1886>, 
DDT rocalial, son of llobert Templeton, was 
Rm at Iticearlon, near Eilmamock. Ayr- 
lire, on 30 July tH02. He had a &oe voice 
J k boy, and, joining his eldest brother, a 
gacert-wn^ and teacher in EkJinburgb, be 
^ part m concerts there. In lS-2-2 be 
Ifliiinjiiri I iiffii to ihe Rose Street secession 
picfa, then under John Brown (1784-165») 
>T.] Resolving to adopt a professional 
r, be vent to London and studied under 
.tt, Welsh, De Pinna, and Tom Cooke. 
ijnljr 1828 he mode liis dibul on the stage 
WorUuDir, Sussex, and, after some wan- 
gi in the proTinces, obtained an engage- 
%l Drury Jjiae, where he appeared as 
^^ low» in 'I>ore in a Village.' Soon 
tonrarda be undertook, at the short notice 
fire days, the part of Don Ottavio in Mo- 
ifa 'lion Giovauni' at Covent Garden, 
1 IH33 Malibran selected him as her tenor 
t'l^ Sonnambula,' and he continued to 
- tucceEsTully associated with her until her 
■th in ItCte. Bellini was so pleased with 
formance of the part of Elvino that 
.." embraced him and, ' with tears (if 
Wltttion,' promised to write a part that 
*wW' inunorialise hitn.' After touring for 
,ear8 in the provinces he visited Paris 
>tSl3, where he was entertained by .luber. 
" 1W3 he started concert-lecture entertain- 
'ntioQ national and cbieBy Scottish music, 
Mtouied through the provinces as well as 
■■Bnca. Ue retired to New Hampton, 
-W London, ID 16i)^, and died there on 
1 Jnljr 1886. He had four brothers, all 

more or less celebrated for their vocal abili- 
ties (cf. Bhows and Strattos), 

Templeton's voice wnsof verv fine quality 
and eiceptionnl compass. Cooke called hitn 
'the tenor with the additional keys.' His 
cheat voice ranged over two octaves, and be 
could sustain A and B Hat in att with ease. 
Ilia weakness was an occasional tendency to 
sing flat. He had a ripetloirc of thirty-five 
opt-ma, in manv of which be created the 
chief parts. He wrote a few sonea, one, 
'Putoffl putoffi' on the subject of (iueen 
Mary's escape from Locbleven. One of bia 
concert lectures, ' A Musical Entertainment,' 
was published at Boston, United States, in 

[Templeton and Malibnm. 1^ W. H. n[nj»kl. 
Duvmofk Standard. 16 Feb, ISTS^ Brown and 
Stratlou's British AtuHiuil Biography : Baptie's 
MusilbI ScutUnil ; Grove's Dictionary of Mu«ic.l 
J.C. H. 

TEMPLO, RICHARD db(/. 1190-1229), 
re|>uted author of the ' Itiuerarium Regis 
Uicardi.' [See IliCiUttli.] 

TENCH, WATKIN ( i:.J9 .=-1833), aol- 
dier and author, is conjectured to have been 
bom about in Wales i in his' Letters in 
France' (p. 140) he refers totbo 'happier days 
passed in Wales,' and in the dedication of liis 
■'Account of Port Jackson ' ( 1793 ) be acknow- 
ledges the 'deepest obligations' from the 
family of Sir AVatkin Williams- Wynn. He 
became lirst lieutenant of marines in Ii't^ 
and served in America, being a prisoner in 
Maryland in that year. Iti 1782 he wasraised 
to the rank of captain, and in 1787 was sent to 
.\ustralia as one of the csplains of marines 
in the cha^e of couvicts. The expedition 
left Portsmouth under the command of 
Arthur Phillip [q. v.] 13 May 1787, and 
arrived at Port Jackson in January 1788. 
\\'ith some other officers he explored during 
six days in August 1790 the country inland 
(CoLLisf., Xeu- South Wakf/t. 131), and on 
18 Dec. 1791 he left Port Jackson for Eng- 
land. He published in 1789 ' A Narrative 
of the Ejipediiion to Botany Bay, with an 
Account of New South Wales,' dated from 
Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 10 July 1788. 
Its conclusions were perhaps over sombre, 
but its value is shown by the issue in that 
year of two more editions in English as well 
aa by the publication of a Dutch translation 
at Amsterdam and a French rendering by 
M. C. J. Poupens at Paris. 

Tench on his return seeros to have fixed 
his residence at Plymouth. Tn 1793 he 
published ' A Complete Account of the 
Settlement at Port Jackson in New South 




Wales/ with a dedication to Sir "NVatkin 
Wynn, and then entered upon active service 
again. He was on board the Alexandra 
with Captain Richard Rodney Bligh [q. v.] 
w^hen, aft<?r a fight of two hours and a 
quarter, that vessel was captured and taken 
into Brest (6 Nov. 1794). On the announce- 
ment of Bligh*s elevation to the rank of 
rear-admiral, Tench was selected by him as 
aide-de-camp and interpreter. From Brest 
they were sent to Quimper (17 Feb. 1795). 
Some time later he obtained permission to 
come to England, and he arrived at Ply- 
mouth 10 May 1795. Next year he brought 
out an interesting and trustworthy volume 
of * Letters written in France to a Friend in 
London between November 1794 and May 

Tench was promoted to be major 1794, lieu- 
tenunt-colonel 1798, lieutenant-colonel of 
marines 1H04, and colonel 1808. He was aj)- 
pointed colonel-commandant en second in 
marines 1809, and was created major-general 
in the army 4 June 1811 {Gmt. Mag, 1811, 
i. 609). At tliis date he was in command of 
the division of marines stationed at Plymouth, 
where Cyrus Redding [q. v.] often heard him 
describe the life at Port Jackson and give his 
views on the future of the settlement (Pe/*- 
sonal Hemhmce.nreSj iii. 259-78). His com- 
mission as lieutenant-general in the army 
was dated 19.1uly 18l>1 {^(Jcnt. Ma;/. 1821, it. 
175). He died in Devonport at the house of 
Daniel Little, a brother-in-law, 7 ]May 1833. 
His widow, Anna Maria, daughter of Robert 
Sarg».Mit, surgeon at Devonport, died there 
1 Aug. 1847, aged 81. 

[Bouso and Courtney's Bibl. Corunb. ii. 710 ; 
Bojise's Collect. Cornub. pp. 64, 975; Gent. 
Mag. 18:i3. i. 470; 1847 ii. 331; Literary 
Memoirs (1798), ii. 300-301.] W. P. C. 

TENISON, EDWARD (1(^73-1735), 
bishop of Ossor}', baptised at Norwich on 
3 April 1673, was the only surviving child 
of Joseph Tenison of Norwich by his wife 
^Margaret, daughter of Edward Milehum of 
Burlingham in Norfolk. Philip Tenison, 
archdeacon of Norfolk, was liis grandfather, 
and Thomas Tenison [q. v.], archbishop of 
Canterbury, his first cousin. After being 
educated at St. Paul's school under Dr. Gale, 
he was admitted a scholar of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, on 19 Feb. 1690-1. He 
graduated 1$.A. in 1694, and proceeded 
LL.B. in 1697 and D.D. in 1731, the last 
two at Lambeth. He was at first intended 
for the law, and was bound apprentice to 
his uncle, Charles Mileham, an attorney at 
Great Yarmouth. Abandoning the law for 
the church, he was ordained deacon and 

priest in 1697, andpresent«d the same year 
to the rectory of Wittersham, Kent. Thii 
he resigned in 1698 on being presented to 
the rectory of Sundridge in the diocese of 
Rochester, which he held conjointly with 
the adjacent rectory of Chiddingstone. On 
24 March 1704-5 he was made a prebendary 
of Lichfield, resigning in 1708 on being ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Caermartben. On 
19 March 1708-9 he became a prebendary 
of Canterbury. In 1714 he inherited con- 
siderable estates from his uncle, Edward 
Tenison of Lambeth, but lost the greater 
part of his wealth in 1720 by investing it 
in the South Sea Company. lu 1715 he 
acted as c.vecutor to his cousin the arch- 
bishop, and was in consequence involved in 
litigation on the question of dilapidations. 
A curious correspondence on the subject 
was published by nim in 1716. In 1730 he 
became chaplain to the Duke of Dorset, lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, who in 1 731 nominated 
him to the bishopric of Ossory. 

He died in Dublin on :>9 Nov. 1735, and 
was buried in St. Mary's Church in that 
city, where a monument was erected to his 
memory by his wife. His will contained 
many charitable bequests, especially for the 
education of the jxoor and the promotion of 
agriculture in Ireland. It was published in 
* Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica ' (3rd 
ser. vol. ii.) in an article entitled *Teni- 
soniana,' by C. M. Tenison of Hobart, Tas- 
mania. In a codicil, dated :?3 Jan. 1735, he 
left a befjuest of 1^00/. to his old college, 
Corpus Christi at Cambridge. By his wife, 
Ann Searle (d. 1750), who was related to 
Archbishop Tenison, he had one son and five 
daughters. His son Thomas (1702-1742) 
became a prebendary of Canterbury in 1739. 
Besides an edition of two books of Colu- 
mella's • De Re Rustica* (Dublin, 1732, 8vo) 
and a puiKT on * The Husbandry of Canary 
Seed,' published in 1713 in * Philosoj»hical 
Transactions,* Tenison's published writings 
are limited to occasional sermons and to 
])amphlets connected with the Bangorian 
controversy. His portrait was painted by 
Kneller and engraved in 1720 by Vertue. 

[luformation kindly given by Mr. C. M. Teni- 
son of Ilobart, Tivsmnnia ; Masters's History of 
tho College of Corpus Christi, 1831, p. 231 ; 
Gardiner s Admission Registers of St. Paul's 
School, p. 60; Gent. Mag. 1735, p. 737 ; Nichols* 
Literary Illustrations, iii. 667 ; Ware's History 
and Antiquities of Ireland, ed. Harris, i. 432; 
Biographia Britannioa, 1763.] J. H. L. 

TENISON, RICHARD (1640 ?-l 705), 
bishop of Meath, bom at Carrickfer^us about 
1640, was son of Major Thomas Tenison, who 
served as sheriff of that town in 1645. Ho 




was related to Archbishop Thomas Tenison 
r<i. v.], who lefk by his will 60/. to each of 
Kichard*8 sons, and described himself as their 
kinsman. Richard went to school, first at 
Carrickfergus and then at St. Bees, and en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1659. He 
left apparently witnout a degree, and was 
appointed master of the diocesan school at 
'Irim. Uaving taken orders he became 
chaplain to Arthur Capel, earl of Essex 

iq. v.], soon after his appointment as lord- 
ieutenant of Ireland in 1672. Essex gave 
him the rectories ofLaracor, Augher, Louth, 
the vicarages of St. Peter's, Drogheda, and 
llonoughmore, and secured his appointment 
on 29 April 1675 to the deanery of Clogher, 
to which he was instituted on 8 June fol- 
lowing. On 18 Feb. 1681-2, being then 
described as M.A., Tenison was presented by 
patent to the see of Killala, being consecrated 
on the following diiy in Christ Church, 
Dublin. In the same year he was created 
D.D. by Trinity College, Dublin. Tenison 
remained in Ireland as long as possible after 
Koman catholic influence had become supreme 
in 1688, and for a time he and his archbishop, 
John V'eaey, were the only protestaut pre- 
lates in Connaught. At length he fled to 
England and found occupation as lecturer at 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, of which Henry 
Hefcketh [q. v.] was then vicar (cf. Cox, 
Amiah of *bY. jftelens^ p. 55). On 26 Feb. 
1690-1 Tenison was translated to the bishop- 
ric of Clogher, Ilesketh being nominated 
about the same time to succeed him at Kil- 
lala. On his return to Ireland the parishioners 
of St. Helen's made Tenison a present of 
plate in acknowledgment of his services. 
On 25 June 1697 he was translated to the 
bishopric of Meath, and in the following 
year was appointed vice-chancellor of Dublin 
Vniversity. He died on 29 July 1705 
(Cotton, Fasti ^ iii. 120; cf. Luttkell, ifrii/ 
lUlation, v. 580), and was buried in the 
chapel of Trinity College, Dublin. Tenison 
was noted ' for the constant exercise of 
preaching, by which he reduced many dis- 
senters to the church.' Five sermons by him 
were separately published (Cotton, iv. 120- 
121). He also ' m one year in one visitation 
confirmed about two thousand five hundred 
persons.' He repaired and beautified the 
^•piscopal palace at Clogher, and bequeathed 
200/. for the establishment of a fund for the 
maintenance of the widows and orphans of 

By his wife Ann Tenison had five sons, 
of whom the eldest, Henry {d, 1709), gra- 
duated B.A. from Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1687, was admitted student at the Middle 
Temple on 17 Feb. 1690, and in 1695 was 

returned to the Irish parliament for both 
Clogher and Monaghan, electing to sit for 
the latter. He was appointed a commis- 
sioner of the revenue for Ireland on 15 Jan. 
1703-4, and died in 1709, leaving a son 
Thomas, who was admitted a student of the 
Middle Temple on 1 Nov. 1726, was appointed 
commissioner for revenue appeals in 1753, 
was made prime serjeant on 27 July 1759, 
and judge of the common pleas in 1761, and 
died in 1779. 

[Information from Mr. C. M. Tenison, Hobart, 
Tasmania; Ware's Bishops of Ireland, ed. Harris ; 
Cottons Fasti Eccl. Ilib. ; Lascelles's Liber Mu- 
nerum Publicoram Hiberoise ; Ofiicial Returns of 
Members of Parliament ; Stowe MS. 82, f. 327 ; 
Mant's Hist, of the Church ia Ireland, j. 697-8, 
ii. 9, 90.] A. F. P. 

TENISON, THOMAS (1636-1715),arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was born, according to 
the parish register, on 29 Sept. 1636 at Cot- 
tenham, Cambridgeshire. His grandfather, 
John Tenison {d. 1044), divine, the son of 
Christopher Tenison by his wife Elizabeth, 
was a fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 
■ 1596 he was presented to the rectory of 
Downham in Cambridgeshire, which he re- 
signed in 1640. He died in 1644, and was 
buried at Ely (Mullinger, Hist, of Cam^ 
hridf/e, ii. 290). His son, John Tenison (d. 
1671), rector of Mundeslcy, Norfolk, was tne 
father of Thomas by his wife Mercy, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Dowsing of Cottenham. 
From the free scliool at Norwich Thomas 
went to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
where he was admitted scholar on 22 April 
1653. He was matriculated 9 July 1653, 
graduated B.A. Lent term 1657, and after- 
wards ' studied physick upon the discourage- 
ment of the times, but about 1659 he was or- 
dained privately at Richmond by Dr. Duppa,' 
bishop of Salisbury ; * his letters of orders 
were not given out till after the Restoration, 
tho' at the time entered into a private book 
of the archbishop's' (Le Neve). He took 
the M.A. degree in 1660(incoq)orated at Ox- 
I ford on 28 June 1604), B.D. 1067, D.D. 1080. 
I He was * pre-elected' to u Norwich fellow- 
I ship at his college on 29 Feb. 1 659, and was 
' admitted on the death of one AVilliam Smith 
(Masters, History of Corpus Christi CollegCf 
Cambridge, p. 392) on 24 March 1662, be- 
coming tutor also, and in 16()5 university 
reader. In the same year he became vicar 
of St. Andrew the Great, Cambridge, where 
he gained much credit for his continued resi- 
dence and ministrations during the plague, 
in consequence of which the parishioners 
gave him a handsome piece of plate. After 
being preacher at St. Peter Mancroft, Nor- 
wichy ne was presented in 1607 to the rec- 




tory of Holywell and Needing^'orth, Hunt- 
ingdoushire, by the Earl of Manchester, 
whose chaplain, and whose son's tutor, he 
became. His first book, * The Creed of 
Mr. Ilobbcs examined,' was publislied in 
1(370. In 1G74 he was chosen * upper mini- 
ster' of St. Peter Mancroft. In 1678 he 
published 'Baconiaua' and a M)iscourse of 
ldolatrv\* The latter was * some part of it 
me<litated and the whole revised in the castle 
of Kimbolton * ( preface), and directed chiefly 
against the church of Rome. Already a 
chaplain in ordinary to the king, he was 
presented to the rectorv of St. M art in-in-t he- 
Fields on 8 Oct. liyHO." From 10^0 to 1692 
he was also minister of St. James's, Picca- 
dilly ( Hlxnessy, yovu7n JReperton'um, l^sy8, 
p. 250). 

In the large parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields he came at once into prominence, and 
during the eleven years he was rector he 
made acquaintance with all the most emi- 
nttnt nu*n of the dav. Kvelvn first heard 
him preach on 5 Nov. 1680, and in 1683 
notes that he is *one of the most profitable 
preachers in the churcli of England, being 
also of a most holy conversation, very learned 
and ingenious. The pains he takes and care 
of his parish will, I fear, wear him out, 
which would bean inexpressible \oss\Diari/f 
21 March 1683). He ministered to the noto- 
rious P!)(l\vard Turberville [q.v.] on his death- 
bed on is Dec. l(»Sl (Throckmorton manu- 
scri]>ts, Hist. MSS. Cumm. 10th IJep. App. 
iv. 174), to Sir Thomas Armstrong [(j. v.] at 
Tyburn on 20 June 1(^84, and in 168.V to 
the Duke of Monmouth before his execution 
(drtails of the duke's statements to Tenison 
in Va'VA.ys's Diari/f lo Julv U>85; see also 
Jlisf. J/»S'6'. Cornin. 12th Hep. App. v. 93). 

While still a parish ])riest lenison won 
fame by his controversy with Andrew Pulton, 
then head of the Jesuits settled in the Savoy. 
Jle published a large number of pamphlets, 
the mo>t important of which are: * A True 
Account of a Confen^nce held about Keligion, 
S<"pt(*mber 29, 1687, between AndrewPulton, 
a Jesuit, and Tho. Tenison, l).l)., as also of 
that which led to it and followed after it' 
(1687), and * Mr. Pult(m considered in his 
Sincerity, Ueasonings, and Authority' (1687). 
lie states that when his father was ejected 
from his living daring the Commonwealth, 
*a Koman catholic got in.* An acrimonious 
correspondence was limg continued on both 
sides. Tenison's arguments are far from 
clear, but he ai)pears to deny the ' corporal 
])res<»nce.' More or less connected with this 
controversy was his attack on tho svstem of 
indulfirences (in* A Defence of Dr. Tenison's 
■>£ Discretion in giving Alms/ 1087), 

his ' Discourse concerning a Guide in Matters 
of Faith,' published anonymously in 1683, 
tho * Difl'erence betwixt the IVotestant and 
Socinian Methods ' (1687), and, in the ' Notes 
of the Church as laid down by Cardinal 
Bellarmin examined and confuted' (1088), 
the tenth note on * Holiness of Life ' (manu- 
script note in Bodleian copy). Tenison ni-as 
assisted in this controversy by Henry \Vha> 
ton [q. v.], whose patron he remained during 
his life. 

Meanwhile Tenison engaged in political 
controversy. In * An Argument for Union,' 
1683, he urged the dissenters to Mo as the 
ancient nonconformists did, who would not 
separate, tho' they feared to subscribe ' (p. 
42) ; and a sermon against self-love, preached 
before the House of Commons, 1 (589, in which 
he attacked Louis XIV. During James IFs 
reign he had preached before the king (Eve- 
lyn, Diary, 14 Feb. 1 680), but he was early 
in the contidence of those who planned the 
invasion of William III (Jh. 10 Aug. 168tS). 
It was chiefly by his interest that the sus- 
pension of Dr. John Sharp [q*"^*] for preach- 
ing against popery was removed (1688 ; Le 
Neve). He joined the seven bishops when 
thej* drew up the declaration which led to 
their imprisonment. 

Tenison's activity in general philanthropic 
works also extended his reputation. Simon 
Patrick [q. v.], bishop of Ely, 'blesses God 
for having placed so good a man in the jwst ' 
{Autobiof/i'fqtht/f p. 84). He erected for his 
parish, in Castle Street, Leicester Square, a 
library, on the design of AVren and after 
consultation with Kvelyn. It was the first 
public library in London. The deed of 
settlement was dated 1695 [Sims, Ilantibitok 
to British Museum Library, 18.>4, p. 39')). 
He also endowed a school, which he located 
under the same roof as the library. In June 
1861 the library, which included valuable 
manuscripts, was sold for the benefit of the 
school endowment for nearly 2,900/. This 
school was removed to a new building erected 
in Leicester Square in 1^*70, on the site of a 
house once tenanted by Hogarth. Tenison 
lihewise distributed large sums during times 
of public distress. Preaching a funeral ser- 
mon on the death of Nell Ciwynne, whom 
he attended in her last illness, he rt»pre- 
sented her as a penitent. When this was 
subsequently made the ground of exposing 
him to the reproof ()f Queen Mary, she re- 
marked that the good doctor no doubt Lad 
said nothing but what the facts authorised. 

Tenison was presented by the new king 
and queen to the archdeaconry of linden, 
26 Oct. 1 689, and in the same year he was one 
of the commission appointed to prepare the 




agenda for conTOcation. He became promi 
nent for his ' moderaliOD towards dissenteTi 
■(seehia DUcourtr conrmiing tht EixUeiasfiiml 
ComnmticaiopafdintheJenaalrm Chamber, 
Oetobrr 10, Ii!S9), baring been already em- 
plojed bj Sancroft lo conElder a poEaible 
reriaion of the Book of Commoa Prayer. I(e 
had long considered the UifleTences between 
the church and the more moderate dieaentere 
to be easy of reconciliation (cf. his Argument 
Jot Uniim, e.g. pp. 4-5, where he comments 
the impossibility of the prasbyteriftns 
Bgreeincr with ' Ariajis, Sociaiani', Anabap- 
tial8. Fif^h Monarchy-men, Sensual MiUu- 
naries, Bebmenists, Familisrs, Seekers, Anti- 
nomians, Kanters, Sabbatarians, Quakers, 
Mu^letonians, Sweet Singers; these may 


On 25 Xoi 

of ft church 'J. 

urgestion of Que 
isDop of Lincoln. 

Mary, he was nominated 
elected on 
11 Dec, consecrated at Lambeth on 10 Jan. 
lfi»l-:^. The writ of summons to the House 
of Lords ia dated :;>5 Jan. ItldS illiit. MSS. 
Comm., 14th Rep. App. vi. 53), and he 
took the oath and his seat the same day 
II^'iIm' JoumaU, iv. 56). He was ufiered 
rtbt< Bichbisliopric of Dublin on the death of 
Fnncis Marsh [q.v.] in 1093, and then re- 
4|uested the king to secure the impropriations 
-belonetDg to iha forfeited estates to tlie pa- 
rish churches; but, the esletes being granted 
to the king's Dutch favouritefi, the design 
carried out. Onthedealhof Tillol- 
ras made archbishop of Canterbury. 
"White Kennet (ifiaf. 'f England, \\\.mi) 
nys that he had at LiDCulii ' restored a 
neglected large diocese to some discipline 
UM good order,' and that his elevation waa 
must univenally approved by the ministry, 
sad the clergy and the people,' and Humet 
tndorses the approbation, though he says 
thit Slilliugfleet would have been more 
generally approved ; but the sppointroeDt wns 
ur ftnm popular amoug the high-church 
clerjy. lie was nomLoaled 8 Dec. I6EI4, 
•Wted IS Jan., confirmed 10 Jan., and en- 
ttroned Ifi May 1690. Immediately at^er 
™ kppenntment, he revived the jurisdictiou 
^the archbishop's court, which had not 
^"^ KtMttMfA, and, summoning Thomas 
J*«son(d:,]717)[q.»,ibeforeitonthe charge 
,|T *iiiioniacal practices, he deprived him of 
™»»eeof St. David's in 1697. He attended 
{•■•^eii Usry on lier deathbed, and preached 
^* faneral sermon, which was severely cen- 
™***d by Ken. He made no answer lo the 
rjj^. hi* relations with the queen being 
™^eT the teal of confession ( Wlllsros, ,Wf- 
■*"«r<, 1757, p. 100>i but he reproved the 

king for his adultery with Fliinheth Villiera,! 
and, on his promise to break oil' the conneo-l 
tion, preached the sermon ' Concerning Holy 1 
Resolution ' before the king on 30 Dec. (pul^ \ 
lished by his command, lt)94). He is said 
also to have been the means of reconciling | 
thePrincessAnne to theking(Boi£R,.ffw(. ' 
of Queen Aitne, introd. p, 7). 1 

Ue was from time to time given politickll 
duties, and was thoroughly trusted Itv Wil-'l 
liam III. In 1696 his action in voting for^ 
the attainder of Sir John Fenwick (1646 J"- 
1097) [q. v.] was much commented on. He 
WBS ploeed at the head of the new eccle- 
siastical commission appointed in 1700. He 
ministered to the king on his deathbed. 

On 23 April 170i he crowned Queen Anne 
in Westminster Abbey. From the beginning 
of the new reign his favour was nt an end. 
He voted against the occasional conformity 
bill, corresponded with the Eh^ctresB Sophia, 
urgin? her to come to England, and waa 
regarded as a leading advocate of the Ijano- 



Frederick of Prussia {;1706, 1709, and 1711) 
as to a project of introducing episcopacy 
into Prussia {m« correspondence in life of 
AreAbithop Sharp, i. 410-49) aroused much 
unfavourable comment, as did his apparent 
favour to WbJston (Hbakke, Diary, ed. i 
Doble, ii. 5B5). His visitation of All Soiila* I 
College was not popular in Oxford (lA.), and f 
he WBS severelv criticised as of a 'm 
Epirit'(i'd. iii. 350). 

It was attributed to Anne's disfavour 1 
more than to his sufferings from the gout: J 
that he was replaced as president ot tlie ] 
convocation of Canterbury by a commission I 
(BcsHET, Hiitory of hi* omi Timer, vol. ii. ; 1 
see also i/rs Orace the Lord Archbirhup of I 
Canlerliur^t Circular Lrller lo the Btshopt t 
of hi» Prociticp, 1707, for his relntions to con- 1 
vocation, and An Account if Prortedinga in I 
CoHi'ocafion in a Camif if Contumani, 1707). 
During the last yfars of the reign he ne< 
oppenred at court, but he took active mi 
surpB to secure the succession of fieorge 
was the first of the justices appointed 
serve at bis arrival in England, and v 
very favourably received by that king, whom 
he crowned on ^0 Oct. 1714, His last publio i 
act was the issue of a ' Declaration [signed 
also bv thirteen of the bishops] testifying' i 
their abhorrence of the Rebellion ' (London, 
iri'i), in which the danger to the church 
which would ensue from the accession of ft 
popish prince was pointed out. 

He died without issue at Lambeth on 
14 Dec. 1715, and was buried in the chancel 
of Lambeth parish church. In 1607 he 
mojried Anne 0633-17U), daughter of 

Ten nan t 60 Tennant 

1 1 ■ . '.. -r : I. - ' . V " , — i?:r: r : : »" : r: -.* I'.ricLfi-ld at Wellmeadow, where he st udied 

t :.r.r': ' " . r j . •. .::. ■ :. :*:t. il : i-^r. ::' Kly. :Lr pri-c^^irs emplojc-d for bleaching fabrics. 

I'r I ." >• L.- ::i •": .::::• ."-:.* "w :rk is- ir:b.- Ar^r havinz leanifd this business he set up 

l'>:. : -v.? - r - ; ;• "- -- --'•- " '-^ a llracLrltldi at Damly in partnership with 

r-'..». > - •.'.-.■?. • -3- - 1 -v *1- > •--■'}■ •" ' ■ -^ C'JcLrant.* of Paisley. 

":.rr I'r J .J.*. :. : t.-r '■ ^;Tl. .: r»:...i: hr Thr? •.•".! pM^Ci-iS of Meaching consisted in 

w^> :L-- j.r i- :.: ..!. .: . :-'.:. .- . '►. ::-:-.' r. -r-1 I- ".l:i:r or * bucking " ihecloth in weakalkali, 

:■ :i V :>. i. :. x--:.: •'..- :..zlI-t. llv iiii niially 'cruftin^' it or exposing it tothe 

Ava- ;■.'.<■ ;.r. :.* ::. . .l.r:.j "L-. n— . 2 :: 5 ur* an i air for eight to ten days on grass. 

l.;-:.>j- i:i : ... A:.i :.:..:: . '..i..- f. -r.i j-.r.-.- A: :Lv c\''j<< of tCe eightt-enth century this 

r ••> .V. >■;•. J :* : :..-. ^.L- :::--..-•*:•.-:' i :r s-.-c:::ipr.."»cc« was being gradually displaced 

f v.:r.,iir.-: ;.-. • : -. •...:• r:. JI.'. MSS, ly :Le u<«.' of chlorine, a substance which 

(• . '.. I J::; K-. • A- -. . \. 1 . II-.- •■ .!■; rr-.a: w;iS dlsO'.»virrd bv the Swedis-h chemist 

iri:tri>: ;:; :"..• -^ ..:.■> : r t:.r rrl.rr^j.*: :: S.Lrrlr. and was tirst applied to bWching 

«.'f ir.;i!;v.t r^ !• i'. . ;::•.'. .f-..v: a c.Tra'.j.': ■ r. •*.- larj-^ scale bv lierthoUet in l"?*". A 

I. ::-. r 11 r^ ".:;-: :":.• .". r^y : -.;::.r: 'i.-r'zi. * '.i;:: n «:.i" iLe gas in water was first em- 

ll;.s i'}:;ir;i.:-. r. ::. >: >• .::;.•- -:rL.j j '.".:::-'. j'-oy-.d. h\ii iLe water was afterwards re- 

*.j»jv>".:: ^:i ::« :;r •>■. »i. "...> ::•. v-r l-r:i Vr.-y j.lacv.t by dilute pota>h ley, the resulting 

urif:iVo.r.J '.y ; . l^: .:. .1 ..:::-> II sj !-.-.• ■■:" L jild ^v:Ilg known as * eau de JavelW 

liliii .!-•::.,:.;..!•.:...::."..:;.•. :'i.-- t'j '•::..: ^: ...-K. Ij; i7'.*^ t'2-) Jjin.i Tennant took out a 

SwL:": >:■ .-.• . : . ::: .- * :. \-ry i./.l izL.-.n w:. . p:*:-!.: » N •. I'l'Ui'j for the manufacture of a 

had a L rr r ■:'.. i. }•"..>.. j "ik- '-.viTy ::; tl.-. bl*. :..Iiir.« liijU'-r by passing chlorine into a 

t!vrj:y. .-J ..•:.! "ly :" w:. -: ' li' ■*.'. x. i':'.l ■. w-ll-ji^itarvvl mixture of lime and water, a 

L':il:i:ny-;i:l:' ./ !.■ ■■.v..>.. \- :; :y. r h :; irr.i >:r. r.j bleaching liquor being thus obtained 

un-.l r--:. . •:■ I ^v :'... .;.><-:.••:> :;.:.:: :v v.-rv ciivai'lv. A number of Lancashire 

uia::y • :' :!.•• •. -•.:^!>1.- :^l. ' /-.v. ii. I'vuL-Ler? made use of the process without 

•)'-)\ •. Kv-. .v::.\\ 1. • w,;- ::'.> \:;''.:\\:i:v ::!•. :. i. :»ckn;»\\bdi:ment, and an action was brousjht 

wr -:-. • 1 n-v. :• ':.:• \\\\ ::'.:ir. i':":i:. r-.- u;-.i\t.vv.'. a^';i':i:>t them by Tennant for infringement of 

an 1 _•::• r - > -: .■/.-. w/l: < • mu'li n: 1-. -ty. pai. iit rights t Tennant v. Slater). It was 

ru I'-nc", :»r. ■ ] • 'y ' i lt'-:/y, ]'<» .T.;".y ]•. ".'! 1. j r . vr-.:tl.a* the process had been secn?tly used 

•y h:^''i t" ! -> '..' w;i- v.-i.ivr^o., i.jj'ur' ::■ iy ii' :ir \«»Ttiiuliani by a bleacher who had com- 

\\ ••].■■!• i:\ .'■]. :-..i- •::. i .» iir.ioh ■•:' a }•:::■: :-;i:vd it only to his partners and to the 

»>;iii. 1 ].> c ':.>*;i:.T ■. -'i;j;> in c 'r.t:v»\' rsy w.vknien aetually employed upon it. J-ord 

V. ..:■• r ■•: !• „.i" :•■ ! jiS iiiiiv.. r-:jlly ^lk'^•e^^^ui. l'.lhnl"-roujh nonsuited the plaintilV *on 

A v.;:*:*]"-:;! ;.:::■;!■.;:..'. I :■> Swifr si;:::mtd iwi^ grouU'ls : I. That the process had been 

i:jj !.;< clirivai*' :• in :!.!- r.\ : * he wa- I."* u--.! live nr >ix years prior to the date of 

ill,! i,iav\. 1.1..- a t::il«ir'- ir-i.^-f.' Swii';"> the patent. -. Tliat the plaintill" was not 

ti*:v'.iwn\ w.i- J. ■■.!.:i]jly duv \o Teiii- ^n's op- thv inventor of the agitation of the lime- 

po-iti',ii fu l:i- .■.|']'oinnju-iit a> eh:j]:lain to wat'-r, an indisiH*n>able part of the process' 

l.oni Whurt'C. j:i,.l t'l lii- mici*»>s in hiiiili.r- i Wiiu.-^iLK. Jicjfurfs ff l\ittui Cfmt^/x. \'2'y\ 

in;: lii- ii"njina'i'in tiTh-- l.ii-h.»prie«^f \\'af«.r- lIu.uiNs, Itit^t'it f*/ Patent Casts, \^. S? : cf. 

lord r 1 r.< 1 i;i:. /.//'' '//" Sirijf .. Cahivm \KL. Jujtort.< on Patrnt Cases, i. 1 77). 

Tfni-'jn"- will \ p:in:»il.Lnndiin. irii'»)i-un- Ti-nnanl was suhseiiuenily presented with 

lain- u;:*- nnnjl.t r ul' r-luiritahle bpiiui'>t<. n service of plate by the bh'achcrs of 1-an- 

A jioriraii \- :it L;iml-«!h. and an engraving ca si lire in recoLrnition of his services to the 

by NiTiip- i- ]jri li.wfl l'» his • .Memoir^.' ii:du.>try. In 170i' he took out anewpatenr 

f M- !ii'jir- 'i; r|j.- LiiV 111' .\r.hl:>li..p Tiiiis'»n; ( N«». I'ol L*) for the manufacture of solid 

<•. .M. 'I'lij -i^ii- r« :,i>'jijiaiia in Mi««ir. <.Jiii. al. ot bleaching powder by the action of chlorine'!. ;;rl m r. vul. ii.; i-rivaU! iiiturinatinu ; on slaked lime, and ill lK)t) removed to St. 

liv. !yii- i;i.iry : AliliyS i:ii;ili-h Clnnrh aiiil Hollox, near CJlasgow, where, in partnership 

it^ ilil..,).^. 17(»w IS'JO; Uni-M.-i's History ^vith C'harh'S Mackintosh, William Cowper, 

own hrn.- ..n-l tl,.- aiiili.^r.t.ics .|i:Mf(..(1 ui iho ,„ij j.^^i^.s Know, he established the well- 

'' '^ ' • ■''• ^*' known chemical works for the manufacture 

TKNNANT. ( 'II AliLKS ( 17tiS-ls:5.S), 1 of bleaching powder and the other products 
nuiiiiirariiirjii;( rlii-inisi , born on .'1 May 17(I.> , of the alkali industry. His time was mainly 

lit Ucliilfrii', AM>liiri*, wa> sun of .lohn devoted to the development of this under- 
'r'iiri;inl bv hi.^ wifi- Mar^Nint .McLun;. He | taking, but he also took an active interest 

iirri\ei| his inrly i-diication at honur and in the railway movement, especially in the 

iit'ii.ri^unli Ml ill,, piinvji heliool of Oehiltree. neighbourhood of Glasgow, and was present 

(hen to Kilbachan tti h-arn the at the opening of the I-iiverpool and Man- 

'.ure of ^illi, and Hub.iequenlly to the Chester railway, lie died on 1 Oct. 1838 at 





hts house in Abercrombie Place, Glasgow. 
lie was the father of John Tennant of St. 
liolloXy whose son, Charles Tennant, was 
created & baronet in 1885, and sat in parlia- 
ment for the city of Glasgow from 1879 to 
1880, and for Peebles and Selkirk from 18S0 
to 1886. 

rWalker*8 Memoirs of Disting^isfaed Men of 
Science of Great Britain liring in 1807-1808 
(1862), p. 186 (a portmit is included in the en- 
graying accompanying this work, taken from a 
picture by A.Geldes); Roscoe and Schorlemmer's 
Treatise on Chemistry, 1807, ii. 426.] A. II-n. 

TENNANT, Sir JAMES (1789-1854), 
brigadier-general, colonel commandant 
Bengal artillery, second son of William Ten- 
nant, merchant of Ayr, and of his wife, the 
daughter of Charles Pattenson of the Bengal 
civil service, was bom on 21 April 1789. lie 
was educated at the military school at Great 
Mario w, and sailed as cadet of the East India 
Company on 31 Aug. 1805 in the East India 
fleet which accompanied the expedition of Sir 
David Baird and Sir Home Popham to the 
Cape of Good Hope, arriving there on 4 Jan. 
1806. The East India Company cadets and 
recruits under Lieutenant-colonel Welleslev 
of the Bengal establishment took part in the 
operations by which Cape Town was cap- 
tured, and were usefully employed in different 
branchesof the service (Despatch of Sir David 
Baird, 12Jan.l806). Tennant arrived in India 
on2l Aug. 1800, and received a commission as 
lieutenant in the Bengal artillery antedated 
to 29 March for his service at the Cape. 

In 1810 Tennant commanded a detachment 
of artillery on service on the * vizier's domi- 
nions.' On 1 Jan. 181 2 he was appointed act- 
ing adjutant and quartermaster to Major G. 
Fuller s detachment ofartillery,andon 15 Jan. 
marched from Bauda with the force under 
Colonel Gabriel Martindell to the attack of 
Kaliniar, a formidable fort on a large isolated 
hill nine hundred feet above the surrounding 
level. Kaliniar was reached on 19 Jan. ; by 
the 28th the batteries opened, and on 2 Feb. 
the breaches being practicable, an unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to storm. On 3 Feb. 
the place capitulated, and was taken posses- 
sion of on the 8th. The governor-general 
noticed in general orders tne distinguished 
part taken by the artillery on 2 Feb. Ten- 
nant was employed throughout this and the 
following year in various minor operations in 
the districts bordering on BandelKhand. 

On 27 Dec. 1814, with two 18-pounder 
guns and four mountain pieces of the 8rd 
division, he joined Sir David Ochterlony [a . v.] 
at Nahr, on the north-north-east side ot the 
Ramgarh ridge, to take part in the operations 
against Nipal. In March 1815 Tennant 

ascended the Ramgarh ridge, with the force 
under Lieutenant-colonel Cooper, and, bring- 
ing up his 18-pounders with incredible labour, 
opened upon Kamgarh, which soon surren- 
dered, Jorjori capitulating at the same time. 
Taragarh (11 March) and Chamha (16th) 
were reached and taken. All the posts on this 
ridge having been successively reduced, the 
detachment took up tlie position assigned to 
it before Malown on 1 April. Malownwas 
captured by assault on 15 April before the 
IS^pounders, which were dragged by hand 
over the hills at the rate of one or two miles a 
day, had arrived ; these guns were eventually 
left in the fort. 

Tennant was promoted to be second captain 
in the regiment and captain in the army on 
1 Oct. 1816, and first captain in the Bengal 
artillery on 1 Sept. 1818. II is next active 
service was in the Pindari and Maratha 
war of 1817 to 1819. He joined the centre 
division under Major-general T. Brown of 
the Marquis of Iiastingss grand army at 
Sikandra in the Cawnpore district , but moving 
forward to Mahewas on the river Sind in No- 
vember 1817, it was attacked by cholera. He 
took part in some of the operations of this war, 
as captain and brigade-major of the second 
division of artillery, and received a share of 
the Dakhan prize-money for general captures. 
He held the appointment of brigade-major of 
artillery in the field in 1819 and 1820. He 
was selected to command theartillery at Agra 
on 23 Dec. 1823, and on tlie Slst ofthe month 
he was nominated first assistant secretary to 
the military board. 

On 28 May 1824 Tennant was appointed 
assistant adjutant-general of artillery. In 
November 1825 he accompanied the com- 
mandant of artillery. Brigadier-general Alex- 
ander Macleod, to Agra, where and at Muttra 
the commander-in-chief, Lord Combermere 
[see CoTTOX, Sir Stapi.eton], assembled his 
army for the siege of Bhartpur. The siege 
began in the middle of December ; on the 
24th the batteries ojwned fire, breaches were 
found practicable on 18 Jan. 1826, and this 
formidable place was carried by assault. 
Tennant, who, as assistant adjutant-general of 
artillery, had the management of all details 
connected with the artillery generally, was 
thanked by the commandant in regimental 
orders (21 Jan. 1826) for the assistance he 
had rendered. Tennant's * methodical habits 
and mathematical talent rendered labour 
easy to him which would have been difficult 
to others.' In February he accompanied 
Combermere to Cawnpore and to the presi- 

Tennant was promoted to be major on 
3 March 1831. lie was appointed to officiate 




as ajrent for tbe muDufaetun: of gunpowdci 
at Isliopiir on 28 April W^i^, and beiaa 
firmed in that appiiintment on 28 Jul; 
c:>ai>«d to bu assistant Bdjutant-pjnerai of 
artillery. On 11 April 1U36 liii became a 
in<?mber of tlio Hpecial committee of artillery 
oIKcers (see Stubbs, Jiitt of the Bengal Ar- 
tillenj, iii. 57!)). Tliu minutes drawn up on 
viirious subjects by members of (he board, 
■when there was sny difference of opinion, 
nre both interestinir and valuable. One bv 
Tenniint on tbu calibre of fruns for horse anil 
field artiUecy,aTid on the substitution in tbe 
latter of liorae for iiullock drangbt, is par- 
liculnrly so. ![•■ was promolcd to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 18 Jun. 1837, and in con- 
xeniience vacated the agency for (gunpowder. 

Vor his eervicos on the committee of ar< 
tiltery iilGccm be reeeired the approbation 
and thanks of the Kovemment of India. On 
21 March 1837 he was posted to tlie com- 
mand of the 4(h battalion of srlillery. On 
'IH \ov. 1813 he WDB giren the comtiiand of 
the Cawnpore division of artillery, and in the 
followinjf year was Bpecially mentioned for 
theRuperiorstate of discipline and equipment 
of his command. On 17 Nov. 1843 he was 
appointed to command, with the rnnkof hri- 
gadier-gen>Tal, tlie foot artillery attached 
to the army of exerciw; assembled at Kgta. 
under Sir IIurU (afterwanls Lord) Ooui^h 
[q. v.] This force left Agra for the Gwalior 
<!am|Niif(n on lH Dec., crossing tbe river 
Chauibal on the 21st. In spite of priiat exer- 
tionw. 'IVnnant and tbe heavy ordnance pot 
considerably beliind. Gouph did not wait 
for his lii'nvy Runs, and tilt! battle of Maba- 
riijjiur (^ Dec.) was rather riskily fonijht 
Without them (cf. Qonirh's despatch ap. Lun- 
d«n Gazftte, 8 March 1941). 

I.ln 1» Feb. 1844 Tennant wai a^min ap- 

Eninteil to be comraandnnt of tbe artillery at 
awnpore. On 3 .fuly 1845 he was pro- 
moted to bo colonel in the army, and was 
Bent on spnclnl duty to insjwct and re|mrt 
on field mat^iiifS of the u|>]H>r provinces. 
He, however, reaijrncd Ihi.* appointment, to 
the refrret of the government, and resumed 
his command at Cawnpore. In 184G-7Ten- 
nant was Msociated with Colonel George 
Ilrooke of the IJengnl artiller*-, on a com- 
iniite<'at Simla, on the equipment of moun- 
tain batteries. Tlieex]ierivnce of both, drawn 
from the Xipalwar,l'<14-ln,ijroduced valii- 
abb> minutes. On 2 Sept. 1848 Tennsnt was 
apinitTti'il hri);adier-p:enernl to commaml the 
Jlaiwnr field fon-e. lie was then attached to 
tlie army of the I'unjab to command the ar- 
tillery with the rank of briRadier-tteneral. Ha 
commanded this arm at thebattleof Chilian- 
wala on 13 .Tan. 1849, and was mentioned in 

di>fipatclies {LoTidiin Gaz^tte.S Aai 23 March 
1849). He also commanded it atthebattleof 
Gujerat on 21 Feb. 1849, and wasagoin men- 
tioned in despatches (ib. 19 April 1849). He 
received the thanks of both houses of parlia- 
ment, of the government of India, and of tha 
court of directors of the East India Company 
(general order, 7 June 1849). He was made 
a companion of the Bath on 5 June 1849, 
and received tbe war medal and clasp. 

On 13 March 1819 Tennant resumed hti 
appointment at Cawnpore, and on 19 Dec. 
was tmiisferred to Lahore as brigadier-gene- 
ral commanding. On 30 Jan. 1852 he waa 
I^Lvcn thocommand of the Cis-Jhilam division 
of the armv. He waa made a knight com- 
mander of' the Bath on 8 Oct. 18.>2. He 
died at llian Mir on 6 March ISo4. I-ieu- 
tenant-general J. F. Tennant, C.I.E., F.R.S., 
of the royal engineers, is his son. Tennant'a 
tt'tainmenia were of a very high order, and 
' he was better acquainted with the details of 
his profesFfion than porbaps any officer in the 
regiment ' {Stitbds). 

[India Offico Hccorda; Despatebes ; Stubbs's 
ITiHt. of the BengA Artillery, 1st aad Sad tuIh. 
1877, and 3rd vul, 1SH3; Lifo of Sir David 
Baird, 2voIs. tS32: Ko»b of Blailensbarfr's Mnr- 
qncHH dF HHstingB (Ralers of India) ; East India 
Military Oil.; Thornton's Hist, of India; 
Prinup's Hist of the Piiliticiil and Military 
TranBiwtianB in Indin dnring the Administra- 
tion of the MarqusBs of HuBtinas. 2 vols. ISiH ; 
Gnmt VaWa Hi^t. of the MahrrttaH. 1826; 
Blackor'ii Memoir of chaOppnitions of the nritinh 
Army in India durinj; thn Mahmta War of 1817- 
1819-21; Journal of the Artdler}- OFiemtion<i 
before Bbartpure in Enot Indi;i Uoitod Rcrriee 
Jonrnal, vol. ii, ; CceiEhlou's Narmlive of thf 
Sir^ge and Cnplure of Bhurlpore, 1830 ; Seaton's 
From Cartet to Colonpl, iBG6; Thiu-kwell's 
Second Sith War.] R. U, V. 

TENNANT. JAMES (190^1881), mine- 
ralogist, was horn on 8 Feb. ISOS at Upton, 
near Southwell, Nottinghamshire. beinJc the 
third child in a family of twelve. His father, 
John Tennant, was an officer in the exicise ; 
his mother, Eleanor Kitchen, came fmm a 
family of yeomen residpnt at Upton for moPB 
than two centuries. Hispsrents nfterwnnls 

1 R24 ho was aiiprenticed to G. Mawe, denier 
in minerals at 140 Strand, and after the death 
of the hitter he managed, and afcerwanli 
purchasi'd, the business, residing on the pre- 
raiaes. Industrious and eager to team from 
the first, be attended classes at a mechanics' 
tuto and the lectures of Michael Faraday 
fq.v.] at the Royal Institution. This gained 
him a friend, and he was also much helped 




by one of his master's customers. In 1838, 
on Faraday's recommendation^ Tennant was 
appointed teacher of geological mineralogy 
at King's College, the title being afterwards 
changed to professor. .In 1853 the professor- 
ship of geologr was added, but he resigned 
that poi»t in 1809, retaining the other till 
his death. He was also from I80O to 1807 
lecturer on geology and mineralogy at Wool- 
wicli. He had an excellent practical know- 
ledge of minerals, and, when diamonds were 
fir»t found in South Africa, maintained the 
genuineness of the discovery, which at first 
was doubted. He was an earnest advocate 
of technical education, giving liberally from 
his own purse to help on the cause, and per- ! 
suadlng the Turners Company, of which he 
was master in 1874, to offer prizes for excel- ! 
lenc«* in their craft. The results of this pro- 
ceeding proved highly satisfactory. When 
the koh-i-nor was recut Tennant superin- 
tended the work, being appointed mmera- 
l*)gi?tto the queen in 1840, and he also had the 
oversight of Miss (now Baroness) Burdett- 
Coutts's collection of minerals. He was 
elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 
ISSi^f and president of the Geological Asso- 
ciation (1802-3). He died, unmarried, on 
'j:i Feb. 1881 . A portrait, painted by Rogers, 
is in the collection of Lady Burdett-Coutts. 
A copy was placed in the Strand vestry in 
commemoration of services to the church 
schools and parish. 

Tennant wrote the following books or pam- 
phlets: 1. 'List of British Fossils,' 1R47. 
± 'Gems and Precious Stones,' 1852. 3. 'Cata- 
logue of British Fossils in the Author's Col- 
lect ion,' 1858. 4. 'Description of the Im- 
perial State Crown,' 1858. 5. 'Descriptive 
Catalogue of Gems, &c., bequeathed to the 
South Kensington Museum by the Rev. 
Chauncey Hare To wnshend ' ( 1 870), with two 
or three scientific papers, one on the koh-i- 
nor. He also, in conjunction with David 
Thomas Ansted and Walter Mitchell, con- 
tributed ' Geology, Mineralogy, and Crystal- 
lography' to Orr's 'Circle of Sciences' in 

[ObitaaTj notices in Quarterly Jonrnal of 
Oological See. 1882 (Proc p. 48) and Geolo- 
{nc«l Mag. 1881, p. 238 ; information from Pro- 
fossom T. Rupert Jones and T. Wiltshiro, and 
from James Tennant, esq.] T. G. B. 

TENNANT, SMITHSON (1761-1815), 
chemist, bom on 30 Nov. 1761 at Selby in 
AVensleydale, Yorkshire, was son of Calvert 
Tennant, vicar of Selby, by his wife Mary 
Daunt. After receiving his early education 
in the grammar schools at Tadcaster and 
Beverley, he studied medicine in 1781 at 
Edinburgh, where he attended the lectures 

of Joseph Black [q. v.] In 17&2 he became 
pensioner and then fellow commoner at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, where he studied 
chemistry and botany, and satisfied himself 
of the truth of the antiphlogistic theory of 
combustion, which was not at that time gene- 
rally accepted in England. In 1784 he tra- 
velled in Denmark and Sweden, and visited 
the Swedish chemist Scheele. He was elected 
a fellow of the Koyal Society in 1785, and 
in 1786 he removed from Christ's College 
to Emmanuel. He graduated M.B. in 1788. 
During the following years he travelled in 
Europe, and on his return took up his resi- 
dence in London in the Temple, and in 179(5 
graduated M.I), at Cambridge. At this period 
he became interested in agricultural matters, 
and, after some preliminary trials in Lincoln- 
shire, purchased land in Somerset, near Ched- 
dar, which he farmed with some success, 
although resident for the greater part of the 
year in London. He lived a very retired life, 
occupied in literary and scientific studies. In 
1804 he was awarded the Copley medal of the 
Royal Society, in recognition of his investi- 
gations. In 1812 he delivered a course of in- 
formal lectures on mineralogy in his chambers 
to a number of friends. In 1813 he was ap- 
pointed professor of chemistry at Cambridge, 
and in 1814 delivered his first and only course 
of lectures, which met with a good reception. 
On 22 Feb. 1815 he accidentally met his death 
in France, near Boulogne, through tlie col- 
lapse of a bridge over which he was riding. 

Although Tennant's published work is 
small in volume, it includes several dis- 
coveries of capital importance. In his first 
paper (Phil. Trans, 1791, ii. 182) he demon- 
strated that when marble is heated with 
phosphorus, tlie carbon of the fixed air which 
it contains is liberated. This experiment 
afibrds the analytical proof of the composi- 
tion of fixed air (carbonic acid gas) which 
had been synthetically proved by Lavoisier. 
In his next paper. * On the Nature of the 
Diamond' {ib. 1797, p. 123), Tennant proved 
that this precious stone consists of carbon, 
and yields the same weight of carbonic acid 
gos as had been previously obtained by La- 
voisier from an equal weight of charcoal. In 
1799 he showed (lA. 17^)9. ii. 305) that the 
lime from many parts of England contains 
magnesia, and that this substance and its 
carbonate are extremely injurious to vegeta- 
tion. In 1804 he published his discovery of 
two new metals, osmium and iridium, which 
occur in crude platinum and are left behind 
when the metal is dissolved in aqua regia (1^. 
1804, p. 411). 

Tennant was a man of wide culture and 
of severe taste in literature and arts. He 




was a brilliant conversationalist^ and ' in 
quick penetration united with soundness and 
accuracy of judgment he was perhaps with- 
out an equal.' In addition to the papers 
mentione(i above he published the follow- 
ing: *0n the Action of Nitre upon Gold and 
riatina' {if). 1797, ii. 219); * On the Com- 
position of Emery ' {ih. 1802. p. 398); * Notice 
respecting Native Concrete Boracic Acid' 
(GeoL Soc. Trans, 1811, n. 389); * On an 
Easier Mode of procuring Potassium' (^PhiL 
Trawt. 18 14, p. 578); *0n the Means of pro- 
curing; a Double Distillation by the same 
Heat ' {ib. 1814, p. 587). 

[Memoir in Annuls of Pliilosophy, 1815, vi. 
1,81. Tliis was reprinted fur private circuU- 
tiou with a few udditionn under the title ' Some 
Account of the late Smithson Tennant,' 1815. It 
is statrxl that it wan drawn up by some of his 
friends, but the main portion of the work was 
duo to Whishaw.] A. H-n. 

TENNANT, WILLIAM (1784-1848), 
linguist and poet, son of Alexander Tennant, 
merchant and farmer, and his wife, Ann 
AVatson, was boni in Austruther Easter, 
Fifeshire, on 15 May 1784. He lost the 
power of both feet in cliildhood, and used 
crutches through life. After receiving his 
elementary education in Anstruther burgh 
school, he studied at St. Andrews Univer- 
sity for two years (1799-1801). On settling 
at home in 1801 Tennant steadily pursued 
liis literary studies. For a time he acted as 
clerk to his brother, a corn factor, first in 
Glasgow and then at j\ji8truther. Owing to 
a crisis in business the brother disapi)eared, 
and Tennant suftered a short period of vi- 
carious incarct^ration at the instance of the 
creditors. lie began the study of llebrew 
about this time, while continuing to increase 
his classical attainments. 1 lis father's house 
had all along been a centre of literary activity 
— visitors of the better class in town had 
met there on occasional evenings for mutual 
imiirovement and recreation — and Tenn ant's 
literary aspirations had been early stirred. 
In 1813 he formed, along with Captain 
Charles Gray [q. v.] and others, the * An- 
struther Musomanik Society,' the members 
of which, according to their code of admis- 
sion, assi?mbled to enjoy * the corruscations 
\ni(P' of their own festive minds.' Their main 
business was to spin rhymes, and some of 
them span merrily and well. Honorary mem- 
bers of ]>roved poetic worth were admitted, 
Sir Walter Scott assuring the members, on 
receipt of his diploma in 1815, of his grati- 
fication at the incident, and his best wishes 
for their healthy indulgence in *weel-timed 
d itling\CoxoLLY, Life and Writings of Wil- 
liam Tennant^ p. 213). 

In 1813 Tennant was appointed parish 
schoolmaster of Dunino, five miles from 8t 
Andrews. Here he not onl^ matured his 
Hebrew scholarship, but gamed a know- 
ledge of Arabic, Syriac, and Persian. In 
1810, through the influence of Buma's friend 
George Thomson [q. v.] and others, Tennant 
became schoolmaster at Lasswade, Mid- 
lothian, where his literary note gained for 
him the intimate acquaintance of IJord Wood- 
houselee and Jeffrey. In 18 ] 9 he was elected 
teacher of classical and oriental languages 
in Dollar academ^% Clackmannanshire, and 
held the post with distinction till 1834, 
when Jeflrey, then lord-advocate for Scot^ 
land, appointed him professor of Hebrew 
and oriental languages m St. Clary's Collmy 
St. Andrews. He retired, owing to 5l- 
health, in 1848. He died, unmarried, a^ 
Devon Grove on 14 Oct. 1848, and he w&ft 
buried at Anstruther, where an obelisk monu.— 
ment with Latin inscription was raised t.o 
his memory. 

While at the university Tennant made8ona.€ 
respectable verse translations; and a Scc^T"-- 
' tish ballad, *the Anster Concert,' 1811, i? 
an early proof of uncommon observation 
descriptive vigour. In * Anster Fair,' pu 
lished anonymously in 1812, Tennant i 
stantly achieved greatness. Based on t^ 
diverting ballad of * Maggie Lauder' (dou 
fully assigned to Francis Sempill), it is^a-'* 
exceedingly clever delineation of provinci **^ 
merry-maliing. It is written in tneocta"**® 
stanza of Fairfax's *Ta8so,' 'shut,* aa tX»® 
author explains in his short preface, * wi t b 
the alexandrine of Spenser, that its clo^^ 
may be more full ana sounding.' Fortl*'* 
stanza, without Tennant's device of tl 
alexandrine, Byron gained a name in Im 

*Beppo,' and he gave it permanent distin.' 
tion m *Don Juan.' A reissue in 1814 w<:>^ 
from Jeffrey, in November of that year, ^^^ 
encomium in the * Edinburgh Review.* Si;^ 
editions of the poem appeared in the autho*"'* 
lifetime, and a * people's edition' was issued 
in 1849. In 1822 Tennant published tl»« 
'Thane of Fife,' based on the Danish inV** 
sion of the ninth centur}-. Inl823appear^ 
'Cardinal Beaton,* a tragedy in five acts, a.0d 
in 1825 'John Baliol,' an liiatorical dram^ 
Nowise dramatic, these works, except inocc*" 
sional passages, have but little poetic di*" 
tinction. In 1827, in his ' Papistry Storm'A 
orthedingin'doon o' the Cathedral' (i.e. the 
destruction of St. Andrews Cathedral at th* 
time of the Reformation), Tennant affected^ 
with fair success but too persistently, the 
method and style of Sir David Lyndsay. To 
the'Scottish Christian Herald ' of 1836-d7]ie 
contributed five ' Hebrew Idylls.' In 1840 he 




* Syriac and Chaldee Grammar/ 
ly and popular text-book. II is 
umas/ founded on incidents in 
y — Jephthah's daughter, Esther, 

of Sodom — appeared in 1845. 
a degree of freshness and vigour, 
newhat lacking in sustained in- 
ut 1830 Tennant became a con- 
16 * Edinburgh Literary Journal,* 
pose translations from Greek and 
,d discussing with Hogg, the 
>herd, the propriety of issuing a 
il verjsion of the Psalms. This 
ice was subsequently issued in 
20U8 bookseller's collection, en- 
phlets/ 1830. Tennant edited 
' Poems' of Allan Ilamsay, with 

Life of William Tennant, and the 
. Kminent Men of Fife and Fifianii; 
dit. of Anster Fair, 1849; Chjim- 
Dict. of Eminent Scotsmen ; Moir's 
'oetical Lit. : Blackwood's Mag. i. 
xIt. 421 ; Wilsons Noctos Am- 
01 ; Archibald Constable and his 
c*ipondeuts, vol. ii. chap. vii. : Notes 
6th ser. v. 232, 312, 357.] T. B. 

, travel lor, polit ician, and author, 

• William Emerson (d, 1821), 
f Bi'lfast, by Sarah, youngest 

William Arbuthnot, was bom 
n 7 April 1804 and was edu- 
aity College, Dublin, whence he 

honorary degree of LL.D. in 
824 he travelled abroad, and 
r countries visited Greece; he 
istic in the cause of Greek free- 
lile there made the acquaintance 
'ron. His impressions of the 
?ared in 1S26 in 'A Picture of 
125, as exhibited in the Personal 

of James Emerson, Count 
I W. K. Humphreys.* 
I. 1831 he was called to the bar 
Inn, where he had entered him- 
udent by the advice of Jeremy 
It it is doubtful if he ever prac- 
>fe8sion. On 24 June 1831 he 
itia, only daughter of William 
realthy banker at Belfast, whose 
ms he assumed by royal license 
his own in 1832. 
lected member for Belfast on 
{2, and was thought a man of 
ds first appearance in the House 
». He was a supporter of Earl 
mment up to the time that 

Sir James Graham retired from 
ration in 1834, being among the 
sh members who fell in with the 

* Derby dilly.' He made an energetic speech 
in favour of Thomas Spring-Rice's amende 
ment against the repeal of the union, which 
was considered one of the ablest in the debate 
(Hansard, 24 April 18;^, pp. 1287-1352). 
Ever afterwards he followed Sir Robert Peel, 
and became a liberal-conservative. At the 
election in 1837 he was defeated at Belfast, 
but subsequently on petition was seated on 
8 March 1838. At tlie general election in 
1841 he was elected, but was unseated on 
petition. In 1842 he regained his seat, and 
during that year was the chief promoter of 
the copyright of designs bill, the passing of 
which gave such satisfaction to the mer- 
chants of Manchester that they presented 
him with a service of plate valued at 3,000/. 
He held the office of secretary to the India 
board from 8 Sept. 1841 to 5 Aug. 1843, 
and remained a member of the House of 
Commons until July 1845, when ho was 
knighted. From 12 Aug. 1845 to December 
1850 he was civil secretary to the colonial 
government of Ceylon. On 31 Dec. 1850 
he was gazetted governor of St. Helena, but 
he never took up the appointment. After 
his return home he again sat in parliament 
as member for Lisburu from 10 Jan. to De- 
cember 1852. He was permanent secretary 
to the poor-law board from 4 March to 
30 Sept. 1852, and then secretair to the 
board of trade from November 1852. On 
his retirement on 2 Feb. 18(57 he was created 
a baronet. 

Tennent took a constant interest in lite- 
rary matters. In October 1859 he published 

* Ceylon : an Account of the Island, Physi- 
cal, Historical, and Topographical,* 2 vols. 
8vo, a work which had a great sale and went 
through five editions in eight months. It 
contained a vast amount of information 
arranged with clearness and precision. In 
November 1>*01 he republished a part of 
the work under the title * Sketches of the 
Natural History of Ceylon,' 8vo. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
5 June 1862. He died suddenly in London 
on March 1869, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery on 12 March. His widow 
died on 21 April 1883 ; by her he had two 
daughters, Eleanor and Edith Sarah, and 
a son. Sir W^ilUam Emerson Tennent, who 
was born on 14 May 1835, was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple on 26 Jan. 
1859, became a clerk in the board of trade 
1855, accompanied Sir William Ilutt [q. v.] 
to Vienna in 1865 to negotiate a treaty of 
commerce, and was secretary to Sir Stephen 
Cave [q. v.] in the mixed commission to Paris 
(1806-7) for revising the fishery convention. 
By his death at Tempo Manor, Fermanagh, 





tbe boy returned to Bomereby to reiiiais 
under bin fatliei^ tuition uulil he went t« 
college. The recttv^oa an adi-qiiale Bcfaglar 
and a mnn of enmepnetic tasto and faculty, 
nnd tUe bny liad tlio run of a library more 
yariouB nuj stimulatinR tban the BveragH of 
country rectotiea could boast. He beuma 
early hd omnivorous reader, eapeoiaUy in 
the department of poetry, to which he *u 
further drawn by the rural charm of 
Someraby and its surroundings, which be 
was to celebrate in one of bis earliest descrip- 
tive poems, the ' Ode to Memory.' A letter 
from Alfred to his mother's siijter when in 
hla tblrteenth year, cont&ining' a criticism of 
'Samson Aeoniste«,'iUu5tratedbyrererraiN« 
to Horace, Danle, and other poets, eihibils 
a quite rcmurhable width of rending forw 
young a boy. Even before this data tlie 
child bud begun to write verse. When only 
eight (bo he tuld his son in Inter life) be hail 
written 'Thomaouian blank verse in prauo 
of Bowers ; ' at the age of ten and eleven he 
had fallen utider the spell of Pope's 'Homer' 
and bad written ' hundreds and hundreds oC 
lines in tbe regular Popeinn metre,' Soii»»— i 
nhat later he liad composed on epic of ^^ 
thousand lines after the pattern of SeOtt^J 
and the boy's father hazarded the jtredicCkosi 
that ' if Alfred die, one of our greateat pO««J 
will have gone.' 

In ie27Tennyion'B elder brother FrsderieJC 
went up from Eton to Trinity, Cambridge f] 
andiniWUof the same year Charles Taii»3^ 
son and his brother Alfred published ■w^t* 
J. & J. Jackson, booksellers of Louth, tJ»* 
' Poema by two Brothers,' Charles's sIib*" 
of the volume having been written betvra^ 
the ages of sixteen and Beventi>en, Alfired* 
between those of fifteen and sevenleeO. F"' 
this little volume the bookseller offered 30tt 
of which sum, bowevvr, half was to bet«lW 
out in books. Tlie two young authonsfM'* 
a portion of their profits in hiring a caiTii0* 
and driving away fourteen miles to • »" 
vourite bit of sea-cogsl at Mabletborpe. *** 
little volume is strangely disappointinfi * 
the main because Alfred was afraid to i^ 
elude in it those boyish efforts in which «•• 
promise of poetic originality might h»* 
been discerned. The memoir by his «*• 
supplies specimens of such, which wan i^ 
parently rejected as being ' too much out ** 
the common for the public taste.' TlKifl 
include a quite remarlcable dramatic 
menl., tbe scene of which is laid in Sp^£ 
and display nn equally aatoniahingeomiwBW 
of metre and of music in the lines wntM^' 
'aft^r reading the " Bride of Lammermoof." 
The lit»lp volume printed conlnins chiaflf _ 
imitative verses, in which the key and tl*' 

on 16 Nov. 1870, tbe baronetcy became 
extinct (_Tiinfi, 17 Nov. 1876). 

Besides tbe works mentioned, Sir James 
Teiment wrote : 1. ' Letters from tbt 
.-Egean,' 1829, 3 vols., originallv printed in 
the 'New Monthly Magazine? 2. 'Tb 
History of Modem Qreec*,' 1830, L* vob 
3, ' A Treatise ou the Copyright of Design! 
for Printed Fabrics and Notices of the statt 
of Calico Printing in Belgium, Germany, 
and the States oi tbe Prussian Commercial 
League,' 1S4I, 2 vols. 4. ' Christianity in 
Ceylon, with Sketch of the Brahmanical and 
Buddbiat8uperatition,'1850. 5. 'Wine, its 
Use and Taxation: an Inquiry into the Wine 
Duties,' IS-'io. 6. ' The Story of Guns," 1865. 
7. 'The Wild Elephant and the Method of 
Capturing and Tamiug it in Ceylon,' 1867. 
Ho was author of the nrticles Turshish, 
Trineomalie, and Wine nnd Wine-making 
in tbe eighth edition of the 'EueycIopiEdia 

[Belfast Np-TB-letter, S, 9. 15 March 1869; 
Timos. 8, 16 Marrjh 1869 ; Portraitsof Eminent 
Conservatives. 1837, portrait No. lii, ; Rcgistoc 
and Haz. of Biuarniib^, April 1869, pp. 2!ll-2, 
where tbe date of hii birth is wrong ; lllnstrated 
London Nowa, 18*3 iii. 293 with portrait, 1S69 
liv. 299. SIT.] tf. C. B. 

TENNYSON, ALFRED, first Babos 
Tesstson ( 1809-18031, poet, the fourth of 
twelve cbildrunof the Rev. Dr. George Clay- 
ton Tennyson, rector of Somersby, a village 
in North Lincolnshire, between nnrncnstle 
and Spllsby, was bom at Somersby on 6 .Vu^. 
1800. His mother wts Elizabeth, daughter 
of tbe Rev. Stephen ^lohe, vicar of Louth 

n the same county. 
of this marriage, 
these, two beaidei 
distinction, I'rederj 
Charles, who in li 
of an uncle, and 
Turner [q. v.] A 
have shared the 

if the twelve children 

Fred became poels of 
Tennyson [cLyO and 
Ife adopted tHe name 
le Charles Tennyson- 
the children seem to 
itic faculty in greater 

less degree. The rector of Somersby. owing 
to ' a caprice ' of his father, George Tenny- 
son (1760-1835) of Bayons Manor, bad been 
disinherited in favour of his younger brother 
Cbatles (Tennyson D'Eyncotfrt), and thedis- 
aiipointment seems to have' embittered the 
elder son to a degree that afi'ected his whole 
subsequent life. 

Alfred was brought up at home until ho 
was seven years old, when he was sent to 
live with his grandmother at Louth and 
attend the grammar school in that town. 
The master was one of tbe strict and pas- 
sionate type, and tbe poet preserved no 
bappy memories of the four years passed 
there. At the end of that time, in 1620, 




stylo an> obviously borrowed from Byron, 

Qpiana/ and 'A Character.' If tlio uncon- 

M<)on\ and other favourites of the hour ; and scious influi^nce of any])ontic masters is to 



»nly here and there does it exhibit any dis- !>• traced in sucli poems, it is tliat of 
inct element of promise. It wems to have Keats and Coleridge: but the individuality 

attracted no notice either from the press or 

the public. 

In Fi'bruarv 1828 Tennvson (as also his 

bnither Charles) matriculated at Triiiity 

College, Carabrid^a*. Here ho 8pi»edify bt>- 
came intimate with a remarkable proup of 
youn{Tmt'n,includinsr.r.K. Spedding, .Monck- 
ton Miln»»ii, K. C. Trench, Blakosley, J. Mit- 
chell Kemble, Merivale, Brookfitdd, Charles 
Mler^and Arthur Ilallam, youngest son of. 

is throUGfliout as unmistakable and decisive 
as the indebtedness. If the pot-ms exhibit 
here and there on their descriptive side a 
.lush«and florid word-painting unelias1«'n«'d 
by thht perfi'ct tast«* that was yi't to coni»», 
there is no h'ss clearly discernibh' a width 
of outlook, a d»*pth of spiritual f«!eling, 
as well as a Ivric versatilitv, which from 
the outset distinguislu'd the n»>w-comer from 
Keats. The poetry-loving ri'ad»'rs of the 

tli«» historian — t his last destim*d to become his dav were not, howrviT, at once attracted bv 
««'an'-<t friend, and profoundly to inHuence tlu; l)ook. Tlie sjkII of Byron was still 
^is clmracter and gmius during his whole 

^if*.'. ' He was as near perfection/ Tennyson 

""••d to say in aftiT times, * as mortal man 

•^^mlil b*!.' ' The jiowers of Tennyson now 

dwi'loiRil apace; for, besides enjoying the 

i^ntinual stimulus of societv such as that 

ju«f jn^ntioniKl, he pursued faithfully the 

'^vial Ptudifs of th*; placo, improving him- 

■'^" in th«! classics, as well as in history and 

lafurid science. Jle took a keen interest iu 

!'['"'' i**al and social (juestionsof the day, and 

powerful with one public, and Wordsworth 
had alrcadv won th»' hearts of anothrr. The 
po«"ts and think«TS of thf day, h«)Wt*v«'r, 
promptly rrcognisi'd a kindred spirit. In 
the * \Vcstminst«'r IN'vi^'w' th»» ]>oi'ms wen* 
praisi'd by Sir .John Howring. Ii»*if:h Hunt 
noticd thi^m fav«>urably iu tlw 'Tjitlrr;* 
and Arthur Hallam Cfuitributi-d a vory r-'- 
markablr r<'vii'W (lately n-print'-d) tn tlu* 
* Phiglishman's Magazine' — a short-liv«d 
Venturi* of Kdward Moxon. In thi* sumnuT 

hNo Worked earnestly at poetic composition, ' of this y»'iir Tennyson joined his friend 
'•^^"liat purpose he had pursued this last "liallam in an <'xp'.'dirion to the Pyreners; 
*tatly was sfwm to be proved- by his winning liallam, with John Sterling, Trench, and 
p chancellor's medal for English verse on j others, had d«'eply interesti-d himsi-lf iu the 
ly!* 'Subject of *Timhfictoo' in .Tune lH2n. ill-fated insurrection, headed by (Jeneral 
y^^^tutlMT had urged him to compete; and ' Torrijos, against the government of Ferdi- 


'^ng by him an old poem on the * Battle | nand II. Tennyson returned from the ex- 
pedition stimulated by the beautiful scenery 
of the PvrentM'S. Parts of Ml-jione' were 
then written in the vaUey of Cauteret*. 

In I'ebr'uarv 1831 'I'ennvson leff riim- 
bridge without taking a degree. His father 

*^' Afmagi'ddon,' he aoapted it to the new 
|uettif?, and so impressed the examiners that, 
*^*I>iteof the daring innovatirii of blank 
^w*f , they awarded him the prize. Monck- 
^^'^ Millies and Arthur liallam were 

S(mnet penned in iKiO he denounced 
their * wax-lighted ' eha]»els and ' sol<*nin 

'®|^ng his fellow-candi<lates. The latter, • was in bad health, and his pnsenee was 
^'nting to his friend W. E.Gladstone, spoke ' much desired at Soni'Tsby. Althonsrh the 
^»^b no less ceuerositv than true critical in- ! two vears and a half spent at Trinitv had 
Meat of ' th^ splendid imaginative power brought him, through the friends made 
that pnrvadfd' his friend's poem. It cer- tlnTe, sonic of the best blessings of his 
^Mnly de8er\-ed this praise, and is as purely life, he left college on no good terms with 
'^^nnysonian ns anything its author ever the university as an Ahurr Mattv. In a 

t *Tiinbuctoo' was speedily followed by the 
*P|*trance of a slender volume of 150 pages ■ organ-pipes,' liecauso whib' the rulers of tin? 
**titlej 'Poems chiefly Lyrical,* which ap- I university professed to teacli, they *tauurlit 
Pj*^d in 18JJ0 frf)ra the publishing* house | him nothing, feeding not the heart.' But 

'^" "" ' his friends, and notably Arthur liallam, had 

supplied this defect in the Cambridge curri- 
culum : andTennvson returned to bisvillntre 
home full of devotion to his mother, who 
was socm to be his single care, for his father 
died suddenly — leaning back in his study 
chair — within a month of his son's rr'tiirn. 
Meantime Arthur liallam had become a 
frequent and intimate visitor to the house, 
and had formed an attachment to TewwN- 

, Etfingham AV'ilson in tho lioyal Ex- 
chanpj. The volume contained, amojig other 
P**^es which the author did not eventually 
fyj** to presi'rve, such now familiar poems as 
>Uribel/the *Odo to Memory,' * Mariana 
*Mhe Moated Grange * (based upon a solitary 
P^^ase in * Measure for Measure '), the * lle- 
f^lections of the Arabian Kiehts,' the 
^'^ in a golden clime was Dom/ the 

%in; Swan: a Dirge/ the 'Ballad of 


Emi!;j- as early as 1829. Two 
years Inter this ripened into en en^n^C^'o^i'^- 
'I'he happy period during the courtahip when 
Ilallnm ' read the Tuscan poets orv the lawn,' 
and Tennyson's sister Mnry broufjlit her 
harp and flung ' a balind to the listening- 
monn,' will be familiar to readers of ' In 

Tiie living of Somersby being now vncsnt, 
an anxious question arose as to tbs future 
home of the Tennyson family; but thu in- 
coming rector (possibly non-resident) not 
intending to occupy the rectory, they con- 
tinued to reside there until 183. . Not long 
after his father's death Tennyson was 
troubled about his eyesight; but a change 
of diet cotTBCted whatever was amiss, and 
he continued to read and write as before. 
The sonnet beoinninK ' Check every- out- 
flash' was sent by Hallam (who apologises 
for so doing) to Moxon for his new maga^ 
i!ine, and a few other trifles found their way 
ititn ' Keepsakes.' Tennyson visited the 
Hnllame in Wimpole Street, where social 
problems aa well as literary matters were 
ardently discussed. Tennyson was now, 
moreover, preparing to publish a new 
volume, and Uallum was full of euthusiagm 
about the ' Dresm of Fair Women,' which 
was already written, and about the ' Ijover's 
Tale,' as to wtilch its author himself had 
misgivinea. In these youngdays his poems, 
like ShuHospeare's 'sugared sonnets, were 
handed fniply about among his private 
frii'mls liefiTe being committed to print. In 
J uly I »:J2 Tennyson and Ilallam went tour- 
iiiB on the Rhine, On their return Ilallam 
acknowledges the receipt of the lines to 
J. K. (James Speddiug) on the death of his 
brotlmr, and announces that Sloxon (who 
was to publish the forthcoming volume) was 
in ecstasias about the ' ftlay Queen.' The 
voliinie 'Poems, by Alfred Tennyson,' ap- 
pnared at the close of the year (though dated 
18-U). It comprised poems still recognised' 
as among the noblest and most imaginativeof 
his woTks,although Borne of them afterwards 
underwent revision, amounting in some 
t'Bsea to reconstruction. Among them were 
•The Lady of Shalott," 'The Miller's 
naughtor,' ' CEnone,' ' The Palace of Art,' 
• The Loto»-Eat«rs,' and ' A Dream of Fair 

Three hundred copies of the book were 
promptly sold (11/. had been thus far his 
profll on the former volume), but the re- 
viewers did not coincide with, this more 
generous recognition by the public. The 
'l^iarterly' liftd an article (April leiSS) 
sitip and brutal, aft^r the usual fiishion in 
those days of treating new poets of any 

6S Tennyson ^H 

individuality ; and it is generally admitted 
tj0t it was mainly the tone of tliis review 
which checked the publication of any fresh 
iTerse by the poet for nearly ten years. A 
great sorrow, moreover, was now to fall 
upon the poet, colouring and directing all 
his thoughts during that period and for long 
afterwards. On 15 Sept. 1S33 Arthur 
Ilallam diSd suddenly at Vienna, whila 
traveltiug in company with his father. His 
remains were brought to England and in- 
terred in a transept of the old pariah church 
of Cleredon, Somerset, overlooking th« 
Bristol Channel. Arthur Ilallam was th« 
dearest frieudof Tennyson, and wtis etignged , 
to his sister Emily, and the whole laiailjji 
were plunged in deep distress by his death, *'| 
From the first Tennyson's whole thoughts 
appear absorbed in memories of his friend, 
and fragmentary verses on the theme were 
continually written, some of them to form, 
seventeen years later, sectionB of a com- 
pleted ' In Memoriam.' Another poem, 
'The Two Voices,' or "Thoughts of • 
Suicide/ was also an immediate outcome of 
this sorrow, which, as the poet in lat*r lifs 
told his son, for a while ' blotted out all joj 
from bis life, and made him long for death.' 
It is noticeable that when this poem was 
flrst published in the second volume of the 
1942 edition, to it alone of all the poems 
was appended the significant date — ' 1833.' 

During the neit lew years Tennyson' «e— 
mained chiefly at home with his fotnily 
at Somershy, reading widely in all litera- 
tures, polishing old poems and writing tie^W' 
ones, corresponding with Spedding, Kem ble. 
Milnes, Tennant, and othera, and all cbe 
while acting (his two elder brothers be«i»S 
away) as father and adviser to the family *' 
home. In 1836, however, the calm corren* 
of home life was interrupted by on e-rent ^ 
fraught with important consequences to th" i 
future life and happiness of Tennyson. /!*• 
brother Charles, bv this time a cletgyoiW' 
and curate of Tealbv in Lincolnshire, ni«»^ 
ried, in Ifia^LouEsa. the youngest daugh- 
ter of Ilenty Sellwood, a solicitor in HoW" 
castle. The elder sister, Emil)^ was on tbv 
occasion token into church as a bridetiMt'* 
by Alfred. Tbeybad met some yearsbeto'*' 
but the idea of marriase seems first to ha** 
entered Tennyson's mind on this oecwivB' 
Ko formal engagement, however, was nctg" 
nised until four or five yearn lifter, and tt* 
fortunes of the poet necessitatL<d ■ stlV^ 
further delav of many years, The maialffi 
did not lake" place until 4850, Mt«uitime,i 
1837, the family bad to TeWS the rectory •» 
Somersliy, and they removed to High BeWjJ 
in Epping Forest, where they remained uoti" 






was t lie originator, and t(j him thcTennysjon 
family ssoem to have blindlv t-ntniisted their 
little capital. The speculation, from what- 
ever cause, did not succeed, and the money 
invested was li(»pelessly lost. *Then fol* 

r' A/*.'antime Tennvson continued to work lowed,' says his son, *a season of real hard- 
ft'irn«'!atly and steailily at his art. As early ship, for marriage seemed further off than 
b^ lS-'J.*i we hear of much fresh material for ever. So severe a hypochondria set in upon 
« n»-\v volume beinj,' com]»lete, including him that his friends despaired for his life.* 
''h' ■ ZNIorte d' Arthur,' the * Dav Dream,* and It was doubtless this critical condition of 

l-^IO. They then tried Tunbridge Wells; 
bur. the air pn»vin{j too strrmp for Tenny- 
v»us in«)ther, they again removed in lJ^4l, 
Jifr-T r)nlya year's residence, to Boxley, near 

A/*.'antime Tennvson continued to work 
e.'irn«'Stly and steailily at his art. As early 
b^ lS-'J.*i we hear of much fresh material for 

''!»• ' Oank'ner's Daughter.' In 18*37 an 
'"vit jition to contribute to a volume of the 

his health and fortunes that led his friends 
to api>roacli the prime minister of the day. 


*IiV»*j>sike order,' consisting of voluntary Sir Kobert Peel; and in Septem!)er lHi.5 

Clin T riliiit ions from th«* ]»rincipal verse Henry llallam was able t«r announce that, 

^"rir«.rs of the day, resulted in Tennyson in reply to the appeal, the ])remier had 

pviiirj to the world, which probably took ]>laced Tennyson's name on the civil list for 

litilt* nntire of it, a poem that was later to a ]M»nsi(m of i*0(>/. a year. It was -M<mekton 

rantc ^vith his most perfect lyrical effort*. Milnes who. according to his own account, 

'111- \nhime, entitled *The Tribute,' and succeeded in impressing «)n Sir liobert the 

I'flitvfl by J-ord Xurlhampt<m, was for the claims of the poet, of whom lln' statesman 

lif' of the family of Edward Smedhy lia<l no ]>revi<ms knowledge. Mihu's read 

'1- ^"-^.a ranch respircted literary man who him * I'lysses/and the day was w«>n. 

luJ fjillnn on evil davs, and to it Tennvson IW 184(> the * Poems' had reached a 

out ributed the stynzas beginning: fourth edition, and in the same vear their 

t 'h I tiiat 'twiTu possil'h} 

AftiT \*n\^ HTuf an<l pjiin. 

To find The arms of my true lovo 

^" '* ^i is >.ame year Tennyson was first mtro- 
<lm-.-.,j to Mr. ( Jla<lst«ine, who became thence- 
'';^U his cordial admirer and friend. Mt?an- 
iiir.*.^ as latif'as 1^40, the engagement with 
T'lnily Selhvood remain«*<l in ft)rce ; .}»it 
ult».*r this date corn?spon<h*nct» bi-tween the 
two was forbidden bv the ladv's familv, the 

l'^*?pects of marriage seeming as Demote as 

J'^^*'". At last, in 1^4*2, the' lohg-expbcted 

'*>«'ms'(in two vols.) were allowed to. see 

Lj"® light, nie date marks an eiK)ch in 

Y"nyson'.«» life, ftir his fame as unquestion- 

*"^y the gn» living poet (Wordsworth's 

J^*'Jpk b^'ingpRictically over) was now secure. 

J^ addition th the reissue of th»» chief p>em8 

fttiin the volumes of l^SO and 18:3,% many 

^: <liem rewritten, the w»cond volume con- 

^[*te«l of ab.^>lut(dv new material, and in- 

'jfica as * Break, break, break,' and * Move 
^•"^ward, happy eorth/ 

*^»t, notwitnstanding this new success 
'J^ the growing recognition that followed, 
^ fortunes of Tennyson did not improve. 
?** and other members of the family had 

author was violently assaib'd by Dulwer 
Lytton in his satire, * The New Timon : a 
Toetieal Koinane*' of LiMidon.* Tennvson 
was dismisNi'd in a few lines as ' School- 
miss Alfred,' and his claims to a pension 
rudely challenired. Tennvson replied in 
some stanzas of great power, entitled *The 
New Timon and the I'oet^,* sign«*d *Alci- 
biades.' They ap]M'ared in * INinch ' (L^J^Feb. 
1^46), having been s«>nt thither, according to 
the poet's son, by .lohii Fnrster, without 
their author's knowledge. A week later the 
])oi't recorded his regr«»t and his recantation 
in two stanzas headed 'An Afterthoimlit.' 
They still ap]>ear in his colh^cted * Poems ' 
under theln-ad of • Literarv Scniabbles.' but 
the previous ])or»ni was not incliuh-d in any 
authorised collection of his works. Tenny- 
son's next appeal to the public was in the 
* Princess,' which appeared in 1847. In its 
earliest shape it did not contain the six 
incidental lvri<rs, which were first added in 
the third e<lition in ISoO. The poi'm, duly 
appreciated })y poets and thinkers, in spite 
of reaching live editions in six y«'ars, does 
not seem to have widely extended Tt?nny- 
son's popularity. 

But it was far otherwise with *In Memo- 
riam,' which appeared anonymously in June 
\Hoil The p(»em, written in a four-lined 
stanza — believed by the poet to have bectn 
invented by himself, but which had Immmi in 

^'^Vegtcd a considerable part of their small fact long before used by Sir I'hilip Sidney, 
^P'ttl in a scheme for * wood-carving by j IWn Jonson, and notably by Lord IT<»rbert 
^•chinery,' which was to popularise and of Cherbury — had grown .to its final shape 

2**peii good art in furniture and other 
■^uaehold decoration. A certain Dr. Allen 

during a period of seventeen years following 
the death of Arthur llallani. Issued with 



Tennyson 70 Tennyson 

no name upon the tiile-pajje, its autln^rsLip Tennysons, Mrs. Rawnsley. In after life, 
^vas never I'rom the tirst moment in douht. his son tells us, liis father was wont to say 
Tlie public, to whose dei^pest and therefore *The peace of God came intx) my life when, , 
commonest faiths and jiorrows the poem ; I wedded her.' Y' 

a]ipeiiled, welcomed it at once. The critics i In April 18i)0 Wordsworth died, and theiXj 
were uotsopromjit in their recojrnition. To poet-laureateship became vacant. The poet 
some uf them the poem seemed hopelessly ! was in the first instance offered to Rogers, 
ohscun^. Others re^^rettLtl that so much good who declined it on the ground of age. The 
poetry and feeling should he wasted upon i offer was then made t\} Tennyson, * owing 

* an Amaryllis «»f the C'hanCfry I5ar ; ' while chieHy to I'rince Albert's admiration of "In 
niiotlier divined that the writer was clearly Mcmoriam.'" The honour was very acceptable, ] 

* the widow of a military man.' The though it entailed the usual flood of poems 
religious world, on the other hand, wony and letters from aspiring or jealous bardfr. 

)erplexed and irritated for different reasons.!: Meantime Tennyson wrote to Moxon in reply 
•"inding the poem intmsely earnest and to a retfuest for another volume of poems- , 
spirit iial in t!i«)uglit and aim. and yet ex- * We artt correct ing all the volumes forne"^B^ 
hibiting no sympatiiy with any particular editions.* In 1 80 1 he produced his tine sor~m^- 
statunuiits of religious truth poi)ular at the net to Macready on occasion of the actoir * 
time, the i)arty tlifologians bitterly de- retirement from the stage. On '20 Api^" W 
nounced it. To thnsf, on thf otlier hand, ; ISol his first child, a son, was bom, ba — nt 
who wrre familiar with the de»'per currents did not survive its birth. In July of tt \e 
()f'nli^aniisiru|uiry working among thought- ; same year Tennyson and his wife travell^ — .•'1 
fill minds in that day, it was evident that abroad, visiting Lucca, Florence, and t^fc— le 
the poem rollrct'/d largely tht* influence of, Italian lakes, returning by the Spliigen. l^^^ie 
l''rud«:?nck DiMiison ^faurice. How early in tour was afterwards celebrated in his pot m 
his lif(^ Tennyson made the jiersonal ac- * The Daisy.* After his return to Twickc^— n- 
cjuaintance of Maurice seems uncertain. Hut ham, wlu^re thev were now living (Cha^z^el 
Tennysr»n had been from his Cambridge days House, Montpelier Row), the poet was bu^ *V' 
the intimate friend of those who knew and with various national and patriotic poen^KJS, 
honoured Maurice.and could not have esca}Hd prompted by the doubtful attitude towa^r"^ 
knowing Well th«' general tendency of his Kngland of IjOuis Napoleon — *lJritons,guc:m.r{I 
teaching. As early a* ]>']0 we fhid Arthur your own,' and 'Hands all round,' prinf ed 
llallam writing to W. E. (iladstone in these . in the * Examiner.' On 1 1 Aug. his secc"* TiJ-jfr 
terms: * I <lo iK»t myself know Maurice, but \ child, a son, was born, and was named IL ^''\tt 
1 know well many whf)m he has known, and lam, after his early friend. The baptism v^-'as * 
whom he has moulded like a second nature; | at Twickenham, and the godfathers Hex^*iy -* 
and lhos«', too, men eminent for intellec- llallam and F. 1). Maurice, 
tual powers, to whom the presence of a c(mi- I In November of this year the Duke* of 
mantling spirit would in all other cases be a Wellington died, and Tennyson's *Ode* ^P- 
signal rather for rivalry than reverential ac- peared on the morning of the funeral. " ^ 
knowledgment.' Maurice, moreover, was met at the moment with * all but univeXT^al f 
closely allied with such men as the Hares, . depreciation.* The form and the substa. '■nw 
K. (.'. Trench, Charles Kinu'sley, and others were alike unconventional, and its receptr -^^j* 
of Teunys<»n's early friends keenly interested , but one more instance of the great tir«Jfn 
in theological questions. And it may here be i that a new poet has to create the tast^ "J 
addi'd that Tennyson invited .Maurice to be | which he himself is to bt* enjoyed. Nodo'^W 
gt)dfather to his first child in 1n.")1, mid fol- it was added to and modified slightly to *t* 
lowed up the re(jue?t with the well-known advantage afterwards, and remains at" *^^*i*. 
stanzas invitin;,^ Maurice to visit the family . day among the most admired of Tenny&<^o*\ 
at their new hrjuie in the Isle of Wight in ])oems. In ISoij, while the poet woe* on 
l>o-i. I a visit to the Isle of Wight, he beard ol 

"'"^riie immediate reputation of 'In ^le- : the house called Farringford at Freshw«*f*' 
nioriam ' and the continued sale of the pre- as being vacant; and a joint visit with- ,'*• 
vious Volumes now enabled Moxon to insure wife to inspect it resulted in their tak'^V 
Tennyson a certain income which would it on leasts with the option of subsequent 
justify him in marrying. The wed<ling ac- , purchase. Tennyson had Wbome weary of 
conlingly t(M»k place on I'i June iMoO at | the many intrusions upon his working Uou» 
Shiplake-on-t he-Thames. The particular while so near London, and the st^p now 
])lace was chosen bi.cause, after ten years of taken was final. The place W6.S purchw^^ 


at ion, the lovers had first met again at . by him some two years later out of the profit 
ake, ut the house of a cousin of the > resulting from * Maud/ and during the reft 





of his life Farrin^ord, ' close to the ridge of 
a noble down/ remained Tennyson*8 Lome for 
the greater part, of each year. 

In March 1804 another son was born to the 
Teunysons, and cliristened Lionel . This was 
the ye«ir of the Crimean war^ tlie'causes and 
progn^ss of which deeply interested Tenny- 
son. In May of this year he was in Lonclon 
arrnnging with Moson about the illustrated 
edition of his poems, in which Millais, llol- 
man Hunt, and Rossetti, the young pre- 
IkalFdellite party, took so distinguished a 
imrt. Later he was visiting Glastonbury and 
orher plikces associated with the Arthurian 
It'gcncf, which already he was preparing to 
trtrat in a consecutive form. But in the 
meantime he was busy with a dilferent 
rh«.'nie. He was engagetf upon * Maud.' His 
friend and neighbour in tlie l!*le of "NViglit, 
Sir John Simeon, had suggested to him that 
the verses printed in Lord Xorthampton's 
^ Tribute* of lKi7 were, in that isolated shape, 
unintelligible, and might with advantage be 
precede<l and followed by other verses so as 
to tell a storv in somcthiuj^r like dramatic 
?*hape. The hint was -taken, .and the work 
made progress through this year and was 
completed early in 1855. In December 1S54 
hf read m the 'Times' of the- disastrous 
charge of the light brigade at Balaclava, and 
he w^ot^ at a sitting his memorable verses, 
l>ased upon the ne^vspapel* description of ther' 
• Times corresjuJudent, in wHiich had oc-^ 
ciirred -the expression ' some one hud 
blundered.' 11ie poem was published in the 
'Kxaminer* of 9 Dec. In June KS»")5 the 
university of Oxford conferred on Tennyson 
the degree of D.C.L. He met with an en- 
thusiastic n?ceptloii from the undergraduates. 
^laud ' appeared in thenutumn of 1855. 

The poem, a dramatic monologue in con- 
aecntive lyricj?, was received for the" most \ 
part both by the criticsand the general public, 
«ren among those hitherto his ardent ad- 
mirers, with violent antagonism and even 
derision. There were many reasons for this. It 
waa the first time Tennyson had told a story 
dramatically ; and the matter spoken being 
delivere<l tnroughoul in the first ])erson, a 
large number of readers attributed to the 
poet himself the sentiments of the speaker — 
a person thrown oif his mental balance (like 
Ilamlct)by private wrong and a bitter sense 
of the festering evils of society, in this case 
(it being the time of the Crimean war) * the 
cankers of a calm world and a long peace.* 
The rebuflf thus experienced by the poet was 
keenly felt';* for ho welLknew,' as di(l all the 
finer critics of the hour, that parts at least 
of the poem reached the highest water-mark 
of lyrical beauty to which- he had yet at- 

tained. Although it may be doubted whether 
the general reader has ever yet quite re- 
covered from the shock, this remains still the 
opinion of the best judges. The little volume 
contained, besides the * Ode on the Death of 
the Duke of Wellington/ «The Daisy,* the 
stanzas addressed to the Kev. F. D. Maurice, 
*Tho Brook, an Idyll,' and the * Charge of the 
Light Brigade.* This last-named poem was 
in a second edition restored to its original 
and fur superior shape, containing the line 

* Some one had blundered,' which had been 
unwisely omitted by request of timid or' 
fastidious friends. 

Not discouraged by adverse criticism, 
Tennyson contmued to work at those 
Arthurian poems, the idea of which had 
never be«n allowed to sleep during the pro- 
gress of other work. * Knid ' was ready in 
the autumn of IWoO, and 'Guinevere' was 
comph'ted early in Ksr>8. In this year, more- 
over, he wrote the first of those single 
dramatic lyrics in monologue by which liis 
]>opularity was to bo greatly widened. *The 
Grandmother' appeared in 'Once a Week,* 
with a tine illustration by Millais, in July 
1809; and the niinghid narrative and dra- 
matic story, *Sea Dreams,' the villain in 
which reflected certain disastrous experi- 
ences of the poet himself, was published in 

* Macmillaus Magazine' for 18(K). The 
'Idylls of the King' appeared in the autumn 
of iJ^ol), and received a welcome so instan- 
taneous as at once to restore its author to 
his lost place in the affections of the many. 
The public were fully prepared for, and full 
of curiosity as to, further treatment by 
Tennyson of the Arthurian legends. The 
fine fragment, first given to the world in 
18-1:^, had whetted appetite for further blank- 
verse epic versions of the stor\* ; and such 
lyrics as *Sir Galahad' and the * Lady of 
Shalott ' liad shown how deeply the po<.'t had 
read and pondered on the subject. 1 he Duke ^ 
of Argyll had predicted that the * Idylls* 
would bo 'understood and admired bvnaanv 
who were incapable of understanding and 
appreciating many of his other works,' and 
the prediction has been verified. At the same 
time such poems as * Klaine ' and * Guinevere ' 
became at once the delight of the most fas- 
tidious, and the least. Men so ditleuent as 
Jowett, Macaulay, Dickens, Kuskin, and 
Walter of the * Times ' swelled the chorus of 
enthusiastic praise. Meantime Tennyson's 
heart and thoughts were, as ever, with his 
country's interests and honour, and the verses 
'Kiflemen, form!' published in the 'Times,' 
May 1859, h2\d their origin in the latest action 
of Louis Napoleon, and the fresh dangers and 
complications in Europe arising out of it. 




A cnrresponding soiifj for tlie iiavv (Mack 
Tar*), first printed in the poet's * Memoir* 
by his son, was composed under tlie same in- 

From the ])ublication of the first * Idylls ' 
until the end of the pruit's life his fnm; and 
popularity continued without a check. The 
next ve.'irs wore vears of travel. In I860 he 

■ ■ 

visited Cornwall, Devonshire, and the Scilly 
Islands; and in 18()1 Auveffijne and the 
Pyrenees, where he wrote the lyric * All 
alonjr the Valley' in memory of his visit 
there thirty years before with Arthur 
Jlallam. fn this same year the prince 
consort died, and the second edition of the 
'Idylls 'was ]m*ticed by the dedication to 
his memory. Tennyson, was now at work 
upon * Enoch Arden''(or the 'Fisherman/ 
as he at first called it), and in April 18(52 
he had his first interview with the queen. 
Later in the vear Tennyson made a tour 
through Derbyshire and York.shire with 
F. T. Paljrrave.' In 1863 'AylmtTS Field' 
was completed, and the laureate wrote his 

* Welcome to Alexandra' on ocjgasion of the 
niarriapre of the Prince of \\'ales. The volume 
entitled 'Enoch A rden' appeared inl8f>i,and 
was an instantant'ous success, sixtythousand 
copi(!S beinp rapidly sold. It contained, be- 
sides the title-poem and * Aylmer's- Field,' 

* Tithonus ' (already printed in the * C'om- 
liill Ma^-azint' ' ), the * Grandmother,' and 
' Sea Dreams, ' and a fresh revelation of ])Ower 
hardly before suspected — ^he * Northern 
Fanner: Old Style.* This was to be the 
first of a series of poems in the dialect of 
North Lincolnshire, exhibitinpf a gift of 
liumorous dramatic characterisation which 
was to give Tennyson rank with the finest 
humourists of any age or ^country. The 
volume (mainly ])erhaps tlirough * Knoch 
Arden,' a legend already common in various 
forms to most European countries) became, 
in his son's judgment, the most popular of" 
all his father's works, with the single ex- 
ception of *In Memoriank' translations 
into Danish, (lerman, Latin, Dutch, Italian, 
French, Hungarian, andliohemian attest its 
widespread reputation. 

The vears tbat followed were marked by 
no incident save travel, unremitting poetic 
labour and reading, the visits of friends, and 
converse with them. He printed a few 
short poems in magazines, but published no 
further volume until the * Holy Grail' in 
1869. The volume contained also * Lu- 
cret ius,' * The Passing of Arthur,' ' Pelleasand 
Ettarre,' *Tlie Victim,' ^ Wages,' 'The Higher 
Pantheism,* and ' Northern Farmer : New 
ytyle.* In this same year Tennyson was made 
an honorary fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 

bridge. On 2'i April (Shakespeare's birth- 
day) 1868 he had laid the foundation-stone 
of a new residence, named Aldworth, near 
llaslemere, and this now became a second 
home. In 187:^ the Arthurian cycle received 
a further addition in * Gareth and Lj-yettc.' 
-InJjbiZ^i^ie poet was offered a baronetcy by 
Gladstone, and declined it, though he would 
have acce])ted it for his son. The same dis- 
tinction was again offered by Disraeli in 1874, 
and again declined. In 1875 he gave to tlie 
world his first blank-verse drama, 'Queen 
Mary,' carefully built on the Shakespearean 
model. This new departure was not gentv 
rally weUH)med by the public, the truth being- 
that any imitation of the Elizabethan poetic 
drama is necessarily an exotic. ^Moreover, 
Tennyson had never been inclose touch with 
t he stage. He used playfully to observe that 
'critics are so exacting nowadays that they 
not only expect a poet-playwright to be a 
first-rate autlior, but a first-rate manager, 
actor, and audience, all in one.' There' is an 
element of truth in tliis jest. It was just 
because Shakespeare had filled all the situa- 
tions here mentioned that his plays l|ave the 
special quality which the purely literary 
drama lacks. Adapted to t he stnge bv 1 lenry 
Irving, 'Queen Mary' was produced at tlie 
Lyceum with success in April 1870. The 
drama ' Harold' was published the same year. 
In 1879 Tennvson reprinted his verv earlv 
poem, * The Lover's Tale,' based upon a story 
in Boccaccio. It was written when its author 
was under twenty, and printed in \Siii\ but 
then distributed only among a few private 
friends. Tlie ripening taste of the poet had 
judged it as tr)o florid and redundant ; and 
he ])ublished it at this later date only 
because it was being * extensively pirated.* 
In Dtjcembcr of this 5-ear the Kendals pro- 
duced at the St. James's Theatre his little 
blank-verse drama* The Falcon* Tbfised upon 
a story in the ' Decameron*), whicli ran sixty- 
seven nights. Fanny Kemble rightly de- 
fined it as 'an exquisite little poem in 
action;' and, although the ph»t is perilously 
grotosciue as a subject for dramatic treat- 
mcnt, as produced and pin yed by the Kendals 
it was undoubtedly charming. The play was 
first published (in the same Tolumc with 
* The Cup ') in 1 884. In March 1680 Tenny- 
son was invited by the students of Glasgow- 
University to stand for the lord-rector8hip ; 
but on learning that the contest was con- 
ducted on political lines, and that he had 
been asked to be the nominee of the conser- 
vative party, he iwithdrew his - acceptance. 
Ordered by Sir Andrew Clark to try change 
of climate, in conseauence of illness from 
which he had suffcrea since the death of his 

Tennyson 73 Tennyson 

brother Charles in the preceding yeiir, Tenny- ' sixty year?* after/ Puring 1.S.S7 the poet 
son and his son visited Venice, Bavaria, and took a cruise in a friend's yacht, visiting 
Tynd. The same year (18K)) saw the pub- Devonshire and Cornwall, and was in the 
licution of the volume entitled * Ballads and ■ meantime preparinganother volume of poems, 
Poems/ Tt-nnyson was now in his seventy- ■ writing * Vastness' (puhlislu'd in * Macmil- 
first year, but these i)oems distinctly added lan's ^lagazine' for March), and * Owd Iioii,' 
to his reputation, tlie range and variety of ] another J^incolnshire poem, based upon a 

and * The Northern Cobbler/ Many of these lowing he was suHicit-ntly n-covered to enjoy 
won* basfd uj ion anecdotes heard in the poet's another sea vovage in his friend Lord 
youth, or read in newspapers and magazines, ; Brussey's yacht the Sunbeam. In Pecember 
and sient to him by friends. In 18^1 (in the 1JS>1> the volume *DemetiTand other Poems' 
January of wliich year * The Cup' was sue- ■ appeared, containing, among other shorter 
cessfully produced at the Lyceum) he sat ])oenis, * Merlin and the Gleam/ an all«?gory 
to Millaid for his portrait, and lie lost one of shadowingthecourseofhisown iH)etic career, 
the oldest and most valued of his friends ' and the memorable * Crossing tlie Bar/ 
in James Spedding [q. v.^ On 11 Nov. writtt-n one day while crossing the Solent 
It^l* was prn<luced at the Globe Theatre his on his annual jouniey from Aldworth to 
drama * Tht^ Promise of May,' written at the Farringford. During lSlM>-i he suffered 
request of a friend who wislied him to at- from influenza, and his strength was notice- 
tempt a modern tnigedy of village life. It ably decreasing. In 1891 he was able again 
was hanlly a success, the character of Kilgar, , to enjoy his favourite pastime of yachting, 
an agnostic and a libertine, Ix'ing much re- i and completed for the American manager 
rented by those of the former class, who Mr. Daly an old and as yet unpublished 
found an unex]K.*cted cliampion one evening drama on the subject of * lvol)in Hood' (* The 
during the performance in the person of j Foresters,' which was given in New York 
J-/?rd (^ueensberrj', who rose from his stall in I'^'^l, and was revived at Daly's Theatre 
and protested against the character as a in London in October l>l)o). In 189:?, 
libel. The year 1^83 brought him another the hist year of his life, he wrote his * Lines 
sorrow in the death of his friend Kdward on the Death of the Duke of Clarence.' He 
Fit zcrerald. ^ In December (yf the same vear was able vet once more to take a vacht- 
a peerage was offered to him by the qu(;en ing cruise to .lersey, and to pay a visit to 
on the recommendation of Mr. (iladstone; l^ondon in July. As late as Septemb»*r he 
the proposal had been tirst 8i>bmitted to wasabletoenjov the society of many visitors, 
him while Mr. Gladstone and the poet were to look over tht? proofs of an intfuded volume 
on a cruise together in the previous Sep- of poems (*The Death of (Knone'), and to 

tember in the Pembroke Caatle, and was 

take interest in the forthcoming production 

now (.lanuarv' llj[84) accepted l>y him after of *Becket,' as abridged and arranged by 
much hesitation.^' In 1884 his son JIallam ' Henry Irving, at the Iiyc«'uni (jiroduced 
was married to Miss Audrey Boyle, and his eventually in February 189f3). During the 
i?on and daughter-in-law continutid to make last days of the month his liealth was so 

their home with him until the end of his life, palpably failing tlmt Sir Andrew Clark was 

lowing, containing a prologue to * Tiresias,' j on tht^ following day, Thursday, t) 
dedicated to the memory of Fitzcerald. The at 1.35 a.m. 

Oct. 1892, 


ueaicaieu lo cue lueziiury ui riizgt*ruiu. j.uti ui; i.oo a.m, c j 

volume contained the noble poem * The ' On Wednesday, 12 Oct., he was buried m 
Ancient Sage,' and the poem, in Irish dia- Westminster Abbey. The pall-bearers were 
lect, * To-morrow/ In 188^5 the poet suffered the Duke of Argyll, Lord Duff«'rin, Lord 
the most grievous family bereavement that . Selbome, Lord I*osel>er}',Jowett,Mr.Lecky, 
he had yet sustained in the death of his ; James Anthony F>oude, Lord Salisbury, Dr. 
second son. Lionel, who contracted jungle j Butler (master of Trinity, Cambridge), the 
fever while on a visit to I<K)rd Dutl'erin in United States minister (Mr. K. T. Lincoln), 

India, and died while on the voyage home, 
in the Red Sea, April 1886. In December 
of this year the * Promise of May' was iirst 
printed, in conjunction with ' Locksley Hall, 

Sir James Paget, and Lord K*»lvin. The 
nave was lined by men of the Balaclava light 
brigade, by some of the London rifle volun- 
teers, and by the boys of the Gordon Boys' 




W'r.t.r. Hi-; ;:riivt; i.- n^-xt t'j tliat ol liol>en 
Jirowniii/, JiinJ in front 'il'th*^ moniimt^nt to 
i.'huuc'-r. TIi»; h-i'tX iil'lLi; pf>-t by WoclncT 
was nnbiii.-qiK'iitly jiluced * u^uiurt lh»* pillar, 
inffir thtr ^'r.'iv«.-.* TIi»r 'IVdhv.- ai mi.innrial 
\f*-irnu iiji'.in llje summi: «jt" JIi;ih Down 
ab'»v»; rr«i?ii water was unvi-ik-l bvthe dean 
of \V«:.-iminrT«.r on <» Au::. lSi»7. Lady 
'iV-nnys Jii di^-d, at tli*.* ajr*,- of fi;:hTy-t!iree. on 
10 \\ij. 1 *^1'0, and was burird in the church- 
yard at I'Vi-'fthwatJ-T. A tabht in th*; church 
conini'.Tnonitirs li^r and hc-r hii.-band. 

That brilliant, if wavward. <^»/nius Edward 
Vitz^rrald |M.'r.*i.<tfd in maintaining that 
'JVnnv-on nt.*v«r niatuiallv added to the 
n-putation obtain»-d by the two vtdiimes ot 
l^llf : an<l thi.s may be .so far true thnt had 
lie died ^r ceu.-ed tt) write at that dale 
lie W(juld f-till have r.mked, amonj? all pood 
critics, as a ])0et of abtSDlute individuality, 
tin: rarest charm, the widest ran«re of in- 
' tellect and ima^anation,nnd an unsiirj)a.*?ed 
felicitv and melndv of diction. In all that 
oon!<titute.s a eonsunimiiti? lyrical artist, 
Tennyson could hardly jtrive further j>roof 
of his jjuality. J5ut he would never have 
reached the audience that he lived to 
puller round him had it not been for * In 
-M«'moriam,' the Arthurian idylls (notably 
the linsl instalment), and the many stirring 
od<*8 and ballads couunemomtinjjr the great- 
ness of ICiiLiland au'l the prowess and loyalty 
of her children. It. is tliis manv-sidednes^ 
and lar^^e- heart edness, the intensity with 
which Ti-nnyson identified himself with his 
country's iieuds ami intr-n'sts, her joys and 
griefs, that, quite as much as his purely 
poetic genius, has made him beloved and 
poj>ular with a lar larger jjublic than per- 
haps any jjoet of the century. The publica- 
tion i»f the biogrji^hy by his son still further 
widened and lieightened the wiu-ld's estimate 
of 'IVnnv>on. It n^viahid, what was before 
known ouIn to his intimate friends, that the 

1>oet who li\(;d as a rrcluse, siddom for the 
ast half, of his life ^unerging from his do- 
mestic siirmundings, used his retirement for 
the c<uitinuous acfjuisitinn of Unowledgo 
and ptirfecting of his art, while never losing 
touch with the ])uls».* «)f tlu' nation, or sym- 
pathy with whateverairect«'d the honour and 
happiness of (he peoph*. This study of per- 
fection made of him one of the finest critics 
of others as well as of himself; and had 
he chosen to ^i^'" 'u more social and public 
relations "^ 'erature and thought of 

h» tir have taken his place 

Yit^ ItMi, and Samuel .lohn- 

4 ling and most salutary 

liniun in the ages they 

The chirf portraits of Tennyson are: 1. The 
tine head painted by ^^muel Laurence about 
l>3!l», of whicli a reproduction is prefixed to 
the "Memoir," 1M*7. i*. A three-quarter 
lenjnh by Mr. G.F. Watts, painted in lt*o9, 
and now ownt-d by Lady Henry Somerset 
{Memoir, i. -1 !*•*). :i. A full face 'by AVatts, 
now in t he Xat ional Portrait Gallery, London, 
dated l^Oo. 4. A p*^rtrait by Professor Her- 
komer, painted in 1>7>*. i). Three-(piarter 
tiirure in dark blue cloak, * one of the finest 
portraits by Sir John Millais,* painted in 
1>5>1, and owned bv Mr. James Knowles. 
<►. A three-<]uarter length by Watts, painted 
in IS91 for Trinity (\illege, Cambridge (a 
replica of this was made by the jiainter for 
beuuest to the nation). The admirable bust 
of fennvson bv Woolner, of whicdi that in 
the abbey is a replica, was executed in 1S.">7 
(a co])v bv Miss Grant is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London). Another bust by 
Wordner was done from life in 1^73. 

The foHo wing is a list of Tennyson*s pub- 
lications as first issued : 1. * Poems bv Two 
lirot hers,' London and Louth, lM'7,(5vo and 
12mo(the original manuscript was sold at 
Sotheby's in l)ecemb».-r 1892 for 4S0/.; large- 
paper copies fetch SO/.) '2, *Timbuctoo:ft 
Poem which obtained the Chancellor s Medal 
at the Cambridge Commencement' (ap. *Pn>- 
lusiones Academicae'), Cambridge, 18i^, Svo 
(in blue wrap])er valued at 7/.) 0. * Poems, 
chiefly Lyrical,'l^ndon,lt<30,{^voiSoutheyIfl 
copy is in the Pyce collection, South Ken- 
siugtrm). 4. * Poems by Alfred Tennyson,' 
London, It^oo [18.'W], *12mo. A selection 
from .'.» and 4 was issued in Canada [1S021, 
8vo, us 'Poems Mi)avxxx-MmT('XXXiii,'ani 
a few copies, now scarce, were circulated 
befr>re the publication was prohibited bj'tho 
court of chancery. 5. * The Lover's Tale/ 
privately printed, London, 1833 (very rare, 
valued at lUO/.); an unauthorised edition 
appeared in 1877); another e<lition 1871*. 
(i. * Poems by Alfred Tennyson. In two 
vidumes,' London, 184 L^ lL*mo. 7. * The 
Princess: a Medley,' London, 1847, 16mo; 
3rd edit, with songs added, 18o0, llfmo. 
s. * In Memoriani (A. IL IL),* London, 
18.')0, 8vo (the manuscript was presented 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1897 by 
Ladv Simeon, widow of Tennyson's friend 
Sir John Simeon, to whom Tennvson had 
given it). 9. * Ode on the Death of the 
Duke oi' Wellington,' Loudon, 1852, 8vo; 
i»nd edit, altertnl, 18o3. 10. 'The Charge 
of the Light Drigade* [London,. 1855], s.sli, 
4to; and a variant, *In Ilonorem, 1856, s -> 
8vo. 11.' Maud, and other Poems,' London, ^ f 
1855, 8vo ; 1850, enlarged ; Kelmscott edit. \ 

1893. I'J. ' Idylls of the King/ London, 1859, .^ 

Tennyson 75 Tennyson 

l:^mo ; new edit. 1862 (the four idylls son's Jie'/nWr, which also contains a full list 
* £md/ * Vivien/ Elaine/ * Guinevere/ issued of the German translations, ii. 530 ; Slater, 

the True and the False/ London, 185/ , 8vo [The only complete and authoritative life of 
(a copv, probably unique, with manuscript } Tennyson is that by his son, in two volumes, 
corrections by the author, is in the British ; published in October 1897. A provisional 
Museum Library). 13. 'Helen's Tower, memoir, careful and appreciative, by Mr. Arthur 
Clandeboye/ privately printed [1861], 4to i II. Waugh, appeared in 1892, and Mrs. Bitchie's 
(rare, valued at 30/.) 14. * A Welcome [to \ interesting llecords of Tennyson, Rufkin, and 
Alexandral,' London, 1863, 8vo ; and tlie | the Brownings in 1892. Various primers, hand- 
variant, *A Welcome to Her Roval High- I books, jind bibliographies have also from time 
ness the Princess of Wales ' [London], ^^ ^^'"o ^«e° published.] A. A. 

IbO:^. 4to, illuminated, lo. * Idylls of the ; ,^ TENNYSON, CHAULES (1808-1879), 

\ T^ V ,^"^''"' ?^ \ r/fo """^ ^\ ■^''''?!' i P««t- [See Turner, Charles Tennyson.] 
Arden (*Aylmers Field/ * Sea Dreams ), ^ «- » j 

liondon, 18<J4, 12mo. 16. *A Selection 
from the WorKs of Alfred Tennyson, D.C.L., 
INxjt Ijuureate,' London, 1865, square 12mo, 
with six new poems. 17. * The W indow ; or. 
The Loves of the Wrens/ privately printed, 
Cunford Manor, 1867, 4to ; with music by 
A. Sullivan, 1871, 4to. 18. *The Victim/ 
Canford Manor, 1867, 4to (the privately 
printed issues of this and * The Window ' 
are valued at 30/. each). 19. * The Holy 

1898), poet, second son of Dr. George Clay- 
ton Tennyson, rector of Somersby, Lincoln- 
shire, and elder brother of Alfred Tennyson, 
first baron Tennyson [q. v.], born at Louth on 
5 June 1807, was educated at Eton (leaving 
as captain of the school in 1&27) and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, whence he graduated 
B.A. in 1832. While at college he gained 
the Browne medal for Greek verse and other 

Grail, and other Poems/ London, 1869 [con- ' distinctions. During his subsequent life he 
taining * The Coming of Arthur/ * The lloly ' lived little in England. lie spent much 
(jJrail/ *Pelleasand Ettarre/ *The Passing of time in travel, and resided for twenty years 

Arthur']; the contents of 12 and 19 were 
published together ns * Idylls of the King,' 
J^ndon,1869,8vo. 20. HiarethandLvnette/ 

at Florence, where he was intimate with the 
Brownings. He here met his future wife, 
Maria Giuliotti, daughter of the chief magi- 

London, 1872, 8vo. The* Idylls of the King/ strate of Siena, and was married to her in 
in sequence complete, first appeared in * Com- ; 1839. Twenty years later he moved to St. 
plete Works/ library edition, London, 1872, Ewold's, Jersey, where he remained till 1896. 
4 vols. 8vo, with * Epilogue to the Queen ' Later he resided with his only son, Captain 
i^ct. Literary AnevfJotes of the Nineteenth Cen- Julius Tennysim, and his wife at Kensington. 
/wry,ii. 219-72). 21.* Queen Mary: a Drama,' i He died at their house on 26 Feb. 1898. 
lx)ndon, 1875,8vo. 22. * Harold: a Drama/ j Frederick Tennyson shared the notable 

!London, 1877 [1870], 8vo. 23. * Ballads and poetic gift current in his family. As a young 

other Poems/ London, 1880, 8vo. 24. * The man he contributed four poems to the * Poems 

Cup and the Falcon/ London, 1884, 12mo. by Two Brothers,' written by Alfred and 

tio, 'Beckfct/ I^ndon, 1884, 8 vo (arranged Charles. In 18o4 he published a volume en- 

"by Sir Henry Irving for the stage, 1893, 8vo). titled * Days and Hours/ concerning which 

iiO. 'Tiresias, and other Poems,' London, some correspondence will be found in the 

1885, 8vo. 27. * Locksley Hall, sixty years * Letters of Edward Fitzgerald ; ' it was also 

after l^and other Poems]/ London, 1886, 8vo. praised by Charles Kiugsley in * The Critic' 

28. * Demeter and other Poems/ London, Discouraged, however, by the general tenor 

1889, 8vo. 29. * The Foresters : Robin Hood of the criticism his poetry encountered, he 

and Maid Marian,' London, 1892, 8vo. t^. i published no more until 1890, when he 

* The Death of Qhlnone ; Akbar's Dream; and printed an epic, * The Isles of Greece,' based 

otherPoems/ London, 1892, 8 vo; also a large- upon a few surviving fragments of Sappho 

paper edition with five steel portraits. 31. and Alcseus. * Daphne ' followed in 1891, 

'Works. Complete in one volume, with last and in 1896 * Poems of the Day and Year/ 

alterations/ Loudon, 1894, 8vo. (For a very . in which a portion of the volume of 1854, 

detailed bibliography down to the respective i * Days and Hours,' was reproduced. 

dates see Termytoniana [ed. R. II. Shepherd], ' No one of these volumes seems to have 

1866 ; 2nd ed. 1879; revised as * The Biblio- attracted any wide notice. Frederick Ten- 

mphy of Tennvson ' [1827-1894], London, , nyson was "from the first overshadowed bv 

l^,4to; cf. 'Clironology'inLoKDTKKKY- i the greater genius of his brother Alfred. 


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vi.-iii ..I ( ....j.l.i..,,. '/v„, .. .. I..I..M f\t;,:, ".',,, r.r.. |,roS;ib.i:... cmvlncitar f«»^ Hcitus . . . iIh .Ml, Ml . ,,i,,M.II 'I.,!. I,... |.,M..-r (>,,„.. ,..,..tI,iimijm;Li;-gc, 1077, to). 
WMi hIii-iiihI. [ I,,. I'.p.kirn J{i;,l. de U Compagnic de Jesns 

-... ..I I.Mn,M . I,(.. ,n ronr..,,. H HT'Jj. iii. 1 o?!*. ai.d rdif. 18o», ii. 631 ; Folev's 

^hrir^ ..I III.- 1. V .,. r,,.-. I,.- .iMi.f |.v,„p|^, jji. .i;,,,^ yi. 3.32. 379, vii. 75: Olivers 

V^' n iiiiMi..n»)r iiriil prt-rioiiM I (:.,||,...,„TM.,i S. J. ji. 201; Southwrll's Bibl. 

i III llii- MUM- Ml iliiii liinr. •i,.n|.i.,riiiii S.r. Jehu, p. 80; Theuxs Bibl. 

I'llilll "O Miiy Ml,7i I.I M .Iimi. I.hV.imiIn*'. |». |;J2.J T, C. 

TERNAN or TERRENAN frf. 431 f), 
mrchbbliop of the Picts, vbs acxordiog to 
John of Forciun. the earliest Mullinrity wbo 
mentions him, 'a disciple of iha blessed 
Palladius [q. t.j. wbo w&s hifl godfather and 
Lis fosttring teacher and furtherer in all the 
rudiments of letters and of the faitb.' The 
' BreTiaty of Aberdeen " urtda that be was 
born in Ine province of the Meams und was 
haptised by PalUdius (Seese, Crllk Seol- 
lai-i, ed. 1887, li. 20-32). According to 
hi^ legend be went to Rome, when: he sprat 
seven years under the care of the pope, was 
appointed arclibishop of the Picts, and re- 
turned to Scotland with the usual accom- 
Saniinenc of miraculous adventures. He 
ied and was buried at BaucboiT on the 
rivrr Dee, which was named from him Ban- 
chory Teman. Hia day in the calendar is 
13 June, and the ytrarsRiven for his death 
vary from 431 to 455. Dempster clmractur- 
ist ically assigns to Teman the authoTship of 
three books, ' Eshortationes ad Pictos,' ' Ex- 
hoitstiiines contra Pelapanos,' and ' IIomiliED 

b ex Sacra Scriptura.' At Banchory Temaa'a 
bead with the tonsnred surface still un- 
comipt, the bell which miraculouBly accom- 
puu«d hira from Rome, and bis copy of 
tbe gODpel of St. Matthew, were said to be 
jtReerved as late aa 1530. A missal called 
tb« ' Liber EctteaitB Beati Terrenani de 
Arbulhnotl,' completed on 22 Feb. 1491-2 
by James Sibbsld, vicar of Arbuthoott, 
>vBs edited in 18fU by Bishop Forbes of 
Brechin from a unique manuscript belonging 
to Viscount ArbnthnoCt. It is the only 
«ompIele miexal of the Scottish use now 
known to be extant. 

Teman has also been identified with an 
Irish saint, Torannan, abbot of Bangor, 
whoac day in the Irish calendar (12 Juno) is 
the aDme as that of Teman in the Scottish. 
vGngua, the Culdec, describes him as ' To- 
ntnnaa the long-famed voyager over the 
broad ahipful sea,' and a scholiast on ibis 
Masage identiiies Torannan with I'alladius. 
Skrnc, who accepts the identitv of Teman 
ftnd Torannan, explains the confusion of thi! 
latter with I'alladiua by suggesting that 
^onuinan or Teman was really a pupil of 
I'nIUdiuB. brought his romaiua from Ireland 
into Scotland, and founded the church at 
ForduD in honour of PalUdioa, with whom 
Jw was accordingly confused. The identity 
of the Scottish and Irish aaints is, however, 
purely conjectural. 

(Tha fullirt uecouQt is given in Bishop 
Furbea'a introductiDu to the liber Eccl. Beuli 
Terrenuii, Bnmlialnnil, 1864, pp. luv-lmv; 

^^.aae al» BoUandists' Acta Siuietoruin, 12 June 
'1)1.30-3. and, t Julj i, 50-3; Fonlun's Scoli 

chraaican, ed. Skene, i. 04, ii. SS; Geg. Bpiacop^fl 
Aberd. i. 327-8, ii. 185; Dempstor's lliat. Eccl.f 
Scot. ii. 907; Spalding Clnb Miscellany, vd.J 
IT. pp. iiii-ixiii; Forb8s"B Calendars of ScottidilL 
Saiata, pp. 450-1 ; Iteeree'a Kal. of Irish Saintaja 
UsBher'a Works, vi. 212-13; Proc. Soc. Antiq,<_ 
Scot. ii. 26*, vi. 128 ; Skene's Celtic 8<>otlandsl 
Diet, of Christian Biogr.J A. F. P. 


(1803 ?-le73), actress. [Ste JiRm.N.] " 


1673), physician, whoae name is also spent 
Teame, was bora in Cambridgeshire in 1620, 
entered the university of Levden on 22 July 
1047, and there graduated'M.D. In May 
1660 he was incorporated first at Cambridgo 
and then at Ozforo. He was examined as a 
candidate at the College of Physicians on 
10 May 1650, and wos elected a fellow on 
15 Nov. 1655. He was elected assistant 

fhysician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital on 
3May 1653 and held oflice till lt»EI (On- 
ffinal Journal iff St. Uarlholomeir's Il'is/iilai). 
Howas appointed lecturer on anatomy to the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company in 166(1, and in 
1663 PeMf8(D«r/y) heard him lecture. His 
' Prsolectio Prima ad Chirureos ' (No. 1917) 
and his other lectures (Nos. 1917 and 1931), 
written in a beautiful hand, aro preserved in 
the Sloane collection in the British Museum. 
The lectures, which are dated 1056, begin 
with an account of the skin, going on to 
the deeper parte, and were delivered conlem- 
poraneously with the dissection of a body 
on the table. Several volumes of notes of 
hia extensive medical reading are preserved 
(N08.I88T, 1890, and 1897) m the same col- 
lection, and on important essay entitled ' .\n 
respiratio inserviat nutritioni?' He de- 
livered the Harveian oration at the College 
of Physicians, in which, as in his lectures, he 
speaks with the utmost reverence of IIar\'ey. 
"rheorationexistsin manuscript! Sloone MS. 

Christopher Bennet [q. v.] which are placed 
below hia portrait in the'Theatrum Tabi- 
doriun.' lie was one of the original fellowa 
of the Royal Society. Teme died at his house 
in Lime Street, London, on 1 Dec. 1673, and 
was buried in St. .^.ndrew's Underahaft. 

His daughter Henrietta married Dr. Ed- 
ward Brownii [q. v.l His library was sold 
on 12 April 1686 with that of Dr. Thomaa 

Cotl. of Phys, vol. iv. ; Library CatalogiiB, printed 
1636; ThoajBOQ-B Hist, of Royal Soc.; Wood's 
Faiti Oxon., od. Bliss, ii. iB2.] N. M. 




TERRICK, KTCHARD (1710-1777), 
bishop successively of Peterborough and 
London, born at York and baptised in its 
minster 20 July 1710, was probably a de- 
scendant of the family of Terrick, whose 
Sedigree is given in the * Visitation of Lon- 
on,* 1633-5 (Harl. Soc. xvii. 279). He was 
the eldest son of Samuel Terrick, rector of 
Wheldrake and canon-residentiary of York, 
who married Ann (d. 31 May 1704), daugh- 
ter of John Gibson of Welburn, Y orkshire, 
and widow of Nathaniel Arlush of Kned- 
lington in that county. Admitted at Clare 
College as pensioner and pupil to Mr. Wilson 
:30 May 1726, he graduated B.A. 1729, 


M.A. 1733, and D.D. 1747. On 7 May 1731 
he was elected a fellow on the Exeter foun- 
dation, was transferred to the Diggons foun- 
dation on 1 Feb. 1732-3, and elected a fellow 
on the old foundation on 30 Sept. 1736. He 
resigned this fellowship about the end of 
April 1738. Terrick soon obtained valuable 
preferment. He was preacher at the Rolls 
chapel, London, from 1736 to 1757, and per- 
formed the funeral service for two of the 
masters, Sir Joseph Jekyll (August 1738) and 
William Fortescue (December 1749). He 
held the post of chaplain to the speaker of 
the House of Commons to 1742, and from 
that year to 1749 was a canon of Windsor. 
By 17-15 he had become a chaplain in ordinary 
to the king. He was installed as prebendary 
of Ealdland and canon-residentiary of St. 
Paul's Cathedral on 7 Oct. 1749, and was in- 
stituted as vicar of Twickenham on 30 June 

Through the influence of the Duke of 
Devonshire he was appointed to the bishop- 
ric of I'eter borough, beincr consecrated at 
Lambeth on 3 July 1757. This appointment 
forced him to vacate all his preferments, ex- 
cepting the vicarage of Twickenham, which 
he retained in commendam. Horace Walpole 
says that the new bishop, who was without 
parts or knowledge and had no characteristics 
but * a sonorous deliverv and an assiduitv of 
backstairs address,' soon deserted the duke 
for the rising influence of Lord Bute, and, to 
ingratiate himself still more with tliat 
favourite, made out *a distant affinity ' with 
one of his creatures, Thomas Worsley, sur- 
veyor of the board of works. In April 1764 
the claims of Terrick, Warburton, and New- 
ton for the see of London were severallv 
pressed by their friends. Warburton applied 
to (leorge Grenville for the reversion on 5 May 
1764, before the bisliopric was vacant, but 
the answer was that the king considered him- 
self pledged to Terrick. Grenville would 
have preferred to translate Bishop Newton, 
but he was obliged to acquiesce in the ap- 

pointment of Terrick, who, on the same day 
that W^arburton made his application, aa- 
dressed a letter of thanks to Grenville for 
his approval of the king's gracious disposi- 
tion (Grenmlle Papers, ii. 312-15). 

Terrick was conflrmed as bishop of Lon- 
don at Bow Church, Cheapside, on 6 June 
1764, and the appointment carried with it 
the deanery of the chapels royal, but he was 
obliged to resign the vicarage of Twicken- 
ham. The anger of Warburton at the 
appointment was shown in his pointed ser- 
mon in the king's chapel, when he asserted 
that preferments were oestowedon unworthy 
objects, 'and in speaking turned himself 
about and stared directly at the bishop of 
London ' (Gray, Works, ed. Gosse, iii. 2i02). 

Terrick was created a privy councillor on 
11 Julv 1764. At the close of 1765 he 
began * to prosecute mass-houses,' and he re- 
fused his sanction to the proposal of the 
Royal Academy in 1773 for the introduction 
into St. Paul's Cathedral of paintings of 
sacred subjects on the ground that it 
savoured of popery. His interference on 
behalf of the tory candidates in the contested 
election for the university of Oxford in 1768 
provoked a severe letter of remonstrance 
(Almon's Political Peg, May 1768, pp. 323- 
326) ; but when Lord Denbigh clamoured 
against a sermon preached in 1776 by Keppel, 
the whig bishop of Exeter, on the vices of 
the age, the sermon in question was defended 
by Terrick. He declined the archbishopric 
of Y'ork in 1776 on the ground of ill-health, 
and died on Easter Mondav, 31 March 1777. 
One of his last acts was to issue a circular 
letter for the better observance of Good 

The bishop was b«ried in Fulham church- 
yard on 8 April 1777. ilis wife wasTabitha, 
daughter of William Stuinforth, rector 
of Simonbum, Northumberland {Notes and 
Qiwnes, 4th ser. vii. 104), and she died 
14 Feb. 1790, aged 77, and was also buried 
in Fulham churchyard. They had issue two 
daughters, coheiresses. The elder, Elizabeth, 
married, on 22 Jan. 1762, Nathaniel Ryder, 
first lord Harrowby, whose children inherited 
most of Mrs. Terrick's fortune ; the younger 
married Dr. Anthonv Hamilton, then vic^ir 
of Fulham, and from her was descended 
Walter Kerr Hamilton [q.v.], bishop of Salis- 

Alexander Carlyle thought Terrick * a truly 
exceUent man of a liberal mind and ex- 
cellent good temper,' and *a famous good 
preacher and the best reader of prayers I 
ever heard ' {Autobiography, \ii^,b\'i-'\i)\ Dr. 
Goddard, master of Clare from 1762 to 1781, 
noticed in the admission book of the college 



his ' goixlneEs of heart, amlnble tenipt;r BiiJ 
disposition, and the graceful mid t>ngnginj( 
manner in which be discharged the aevtrul 
dutiea of his function, paTticiilarl; that of 
preachjog.' Seven of his sermons were aepo- 
mtely pubtished. 

Tcmck presented to Sion College a por- 
trait, now in its hall, of himself, represented 
as Mated and holding a bonk in his left hand, 
and in 1773 be gave ^0/. to ita library. The 
portrait was painted by Nathaniel Dance 
about 1701, and an engraving of it by 
Edward Fisher was published in April 1770. 
A copy of it by Stewart isat Ful ham Palace, 
where Terrick rebuilt thesuit«of apartments 
taang the river, and moved the piisttian of 
ih* chapel. A second copy, by Freeman, 
hangs In the combination-room of Clare 
College. The bishop consecrated tbe eitat- 
ing elutpel at Clare College on 'i July 1769, 
aM gave a large and handsome pair of silver' 
gilt candlesticka, which still stand upon the 

[Q«nL M«g. 17»a p. 331, IT61 p. 303, 1777 
p. 195, 1790 i. 186, 1T9S >i- 108!). 1704 i. 308- 
3U9; Vr»lpalo'*l'tU'*-<'' 117,138 1 Wiilpole's 
OMtga lU, td. B«rker,i. 3St. 11. CO. Ui; Wal- 
pole'a Jonranl. 1771-83. iL 28. 90, lOS ; Lralis 
anil Taytori Sir Joihna Rejnolds, ii. 37-8; 
XicboU's Lit. AnMdotes. ix. 883-4 ; Fnulkner's 
FoUuun.pp. 103, 170, 187, 217-8 i Lo Neru'a 
Futi. ii. 3"£. 384, 637, iii. 408-9 ; Lysoas's 
EdvirMu, ii. 3iS-9. Sill ; Cabbelt's Trirken- 
hsn, P..121 ; Sioa College (by Vfm. Scott), pp. 
«S. 87; Hist- M8S. Comm. Bth Hefi. App. p. 
2&t; information from Kev. Doctor Atkiusan, 
naatcF of Ckre Collego.] W. P. C. 

1891), orientalist, bom in Noroiundy, wus 
• de»*endnnlof the Cornish family of Tftrrion, 
which emigrated to France in the seven- 
t«mth century during the civil war, and 
neqnired the property of La Couperie in 
Ktinnftndy. Uia father whs a merchant, and 
ho raceived a business education. In early 
life ha settled at Honf[ Kong. There he 
aooa turned his attention from commerce 
to the study of oriental languages, and he 
acquired an especially intimala knowledge 
of the Chinese language. In 1867 he piib- 
liabtd a philologic^ work which attracted 
eaitsid«irable attention, entitled ' Du Lan- 
gage, EsMJ sur la Nature et I'^tude des Mots 
et dee Langiies,' Paris, 8vo. Soon after his 
•Iletntion was attracted fay the progress 
made in deciphering Babylonian inscrip- 
tions, and by tbe resemblance between the 
Chinese chatactera and the early Akkadian 
hieroglyphics. The comparative philology 
of the two languagca occupied most of his 

later life, and he was able lo show an 
early aHinily between Ihera. In 1879 he 
came to London, and in the same year was 
elected a follow of tbe Royal Asiatic Society. 
In. 18S4 he became profcasor of comparative 
philology, as applied to the languages of 
South-eaatern Asia, at University College, 
London. His last years were largely oc- 
cupied by a study of tbe 'YbKing,' or 'Book 
of Changes,' the oldest work in the Cliinese 
language. Its meaning bad lonj; provnd a 
puzzle both to native and lo foreign schotiirs. 
Terrien demonstrated that tbe basis of tbe 
work consisted of fragmentary notes, cbieUy 
lexical in character, and noticed that they 
bore a close resemblance to the syllabaries 
uf ClialdsD. In 1893 ba published the first 

Cirt of an explanatory treatise entitled 'Tbe 
Idest Book of the Chinese.' London, 8vo, 
in which he stated bis theory of the nature 
of the ' Yh King,' and gave translations of 
passages from it. The treatise, however, was 
not compleled before his death. In recogni- 
tion of his services to i)riental study be re- 
ceived tlie degri'B of Litt.D. from the uni- 
versity of Louviiin. He also enjoyed for a 
time a small pension from tbe French go- 
vernment, and after that bad been vilb- 
drawn an unsuccessful attempt was msdi* 
by his friends to obtain him an equivalent 
from the English ministry. He was twice 
awarded the 'prix Julien' by the Acod^mie 
des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres for his 
services to oriental pbilologj'. Terrien died 
at his residence, 130 Bishop's Road, Fulham, 
on 11 Oct. 1894, leaving a widow. 

Besides the works nn'ntiiinPil.T.'iru'n wna 
the author of: 1. ' Eiirlv ll..r.i.. . r i i .i„.,i. 
Civilisation,' London. t~-" - i ■■:!ii. 

History of the Arcli.n:' ' 'i .i-^ 

and Text,' London, I'---, -v ■ ['.iiirT 

Money of the Ninth Cuntorv iviiil fii])pn.sed 
LeatherCoinage of China,' London, IWS.Svo. 
4. 'Cradle of the Sban Race," London, 1885, 
8vo. f), 'BnbvloniaBndChina,'London,lHHr, 
4to. (3. 'Diil Cyrus introduce Writing into 
India?' London. 1887, 8vo. 7. 'The Lan- 
guages of China before rhe Chinese,' I^ondon, 
1887, 8vo : French edition, Paris, 188.8, 8to. 
8, 'The Mir^-eks or Stone Men of Corea,' 
Hertford, 18^17. 8vo. 9. ■ The Yueh-'H and 
tbe early Buddhist Missionaries in CThina,' 
1S87, 8vn. 10. 'The Old Babylonian Cha- 
racters and their Chinese Derivates,' London, 
]888,8vo. 11.' TheDjurtchenof Mandshuria,' 
1889, 8vo. 12. ' ]je Non-Monosyllnbisme 
du Cliinois Antique,' Paris, 1889, 8ro. 
13. 'Tlie Onomastic Similarity of Kai 
Kwang-tiofChiiiaandNakhunteof Susiana,' 
Ijondon,lflVtO,8vo. U. 'L'EredesArsacides 
selon les Inscriptions cunCiformes,' Louvain, 





8vo. I .'>. ' How in '21 9 b.c. Buddhism 
entered Chinn,' London [1«91 ? ], 
IH. ' M^lang^s: on the Ancient History of 
GIbm and Conl and tlia Legend of Nii- 
Kwr's Coloured Stcnes in China' nSfllPl, 
Svo. 17. ' Sur deux tres inconnus de VAsie 
Antfirieure,' 330 et 231 b.c..' 1891, 8vo. 
18. 'Tbe Silk Ooddess of China and her 
Legend," London, 1891. 8vo. 19. 'Cat«- 
logHB of Chinese Coins from the Vll" Cent 
B.C. lo A.D. li-21,' ed. H. 8, i'oole, London, 
1892, 8vo. 20. ' Beginnings of Writing 
Central and Kostern Aaia,' London, 181 
8vo. 21. 'Western Origin of the Early 
Chinese Civilisation,' London, 1894, " 
Many of these works were treslisei 
printed from the 'Joumul' of iha KovbI 
Asiatic Society and other puhlipalions. lie 
nlxo edited the 'Babylonian and Oriental 
Record 'from 1886. 

[.loQCDal of Iha Royal Aniatic Soc. ISe.^. p. 
214 : Athenxum, 1804, ii. £31 ; Ttmi-a. 15 Oct. 
1894.1 ^- ^- *^- 

TERRISS, \VILLIAM (1847-189:), 
actor, who met hin death hy asuasei nation, 
■was BOn of George Herbert Lewin, barrister- 
at-1aw (a connection of Mrs. Grote, the wife 
of the hist^oriiin, and a grandson of Thomas 
Lewin, private secretary to "Warren Hast- 
inga). lib true name was William Charles 
James Iiewin. Bom at 7 Circus Koad, St. 
John's Wood, London, on 20 Feb. 1847, he 
was i^ucated at Christ's Hospital, which he 
entenjd 4 Aptil 1854 and quitted at Christ- 
mas 18o(i. Having attended other schools, 
he joined the merchant service, but runaway 
atler a fortnight's experience es a sailor. On 
coining, by the death of his father, int« a 
small patrimony, he studied medicine, went 
out as a part.ner in a large sheep farm in 
the Falkland Isles, and tried tea-jilanting at 
Chittagnng and other commercial experi- 
ments, in the course of which be had expe- 
rience of a shipwreck. 

Totri»splaved OS an amateur at theGallery 
oflllustration. Regent Street; but hi* first 
appearance on the regular stage took place 
in lS6r at the I'rince of Wales's Theatre, 
Birmingham. At the Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, Tottenham Street, on 21 Sept. 
18(58, under the Bancroft management, he 
was first seen in London as Lord Cloud- 
wrays in a revival of RoberlBon'a ' Society.' 
In l871 he WHS at Dritry Lane, where he 
Iiad a small part in llalliday's 'Rebecca,' 
produced on '2S Sept. On a revival of the 
same piece on 13 Feb. 1875 he plaved 
Wilfred of Iranhoe. On 21 Sept. 1872 he 
was the oriainal Malcolm Gra?mo in Halli- 
day's ' Lady oE the Lake,' He also plaved 

Doricourt many consecutive nightsin a vev> 
sion of the ' Belle's Stratagem,' reduced to 
three acts, and produced at the Strand at bliA 
close of 1873. At the Strand he was t^Vva 
first Julian Rothsay in Robert Rc«*'s ' U!^y 
or Dolly's Dilemma.' on 4 April 1874. Bm,<:1c 
again at Drury Lane, he was Tressilian ii 
revival of Hailiday's ' Amy Robaart.' and ow 
20 Sept. the first Sir Kenneth in Hallidia^y'B 
' Richard Coeur de Lion '(the • Talisman. ')- 
He nkyed Romeo to the Juliet of ACcss 
■WalJis, was at the Princess's on 3 Feb. IftTO 
Ned Clayton in a revival of Dyron's ' Lan- 
cashire Lass,' and returned the same men Ma 
to Drury Lane. In Boucicault's 'Shaugh— 
raun' he was the first Captain Molinausc 
on 4 Sept. On 12 Aug. 1876 he was at tb» 
Adelphi aa Beamish MacCoul in a revifal of 
Boneicaull'a' Arrah na Pogue.' On 18 Nor. 
he was the first Goldsworthy in ' Give a 
Dog a Bad Name' by Leopold Lewis, and 
on 11 Auff. 1S77 the first Rev. Blartin 
Preston in Paul Merritt's ' Golden Plough.' 
On 22 Sept. he was at Drury Lane Julisa 
Peveril in W. G. Wills's adaptation from 
Scott'N ' Peveril of the Peak ' (' England m 
the Days of Charles the Second '>. He then 
played Leicester in a further revival of ' Aiw 
llobsart." At the Court on 30 March 1878 
he played what was perhaps his best part, 
Squire Thomhill in Wills's 'Olivia.' adaptrf 
from the ' Vicar of Wakefield,' and siiW- 
<]uently reproduced, with Terriss in his oti- 
ginal part, at the Lyceum. At the Hay- 
markot on IS Sept. he was the first Sydney 
Seftun in Byron s ' Conscience Money,' ana 
on 2 Dec. the first Fawlev Denham in 
Albery's 'Crisis.' He also plsyed Captain 
Absolute, and Romeo to the Juliet of Miss 
Neilson. On the opening of the St. James's 
under the management of Messrs. Hare and 
Kendal on 4 Oct. 1879 he was tbe first 
Comte de la Roqne in Mr. Valentino Prin- 
t's ' Monsieur le Due,' and Jack Gamhier 
the ' Queen's ShilUng.' At the Crvstal 
Palace, on 17 April 1879, he wa? RuvBlos 
I adaptation by himselfof Victor Hugo's 
play 80 named. On 18 Sept. 1880 he «p- 

Siared at the Lyceum in the 'Corsican 
rothers'as Chateau-Rennnd to the bro- 
thers Dei Fmnchi of (Sir) Henry Irving, 
and on S Jan. 1881 was Sinnatus in Tenny- 
son's ' Cup.' In thesubsequont pprformance 
of 'Othello' by Ining, Booth, and Sliss Ellen 
Terry, he was Cassia. Mercntio and Don 
Pedro in'Much Ado about Nothing'foUowed. 
In 1883-4 Terriss aceompanii^ Sir Henry 
Irving to America. During JDss Mary An- 
derson's tenure of the Lyceum, 1884-fi, he 
plaved Romeo to her Juliet, Claiule Meliiolt) 
to her Pauline, and other parts. 




At the close of 1885 Terriss q^uitted the 
Lyceum for the Adelphi, with which theatre 
henceforth his name was principally asso- 
ciated. He was the first David Kiugsley 
in 'Harbour Lights' by Sims and Pettitt, 
^3 Dec. 1885 ; Frank Beresford in Pettitt and 
(w r imdy's * Bells of Haslemere/ 25 July 1887 ; 
•^^dk Medway in the * Union Jack ' by the 
•a.«xie writers, 19 July 1888, and Eric" Xor- 
'^ Unburst in the * Silver Falls' of Sims and 
^^ttitt, 29 Dec. He accompanied in 1889 
^-^ i^ss Mill ward, his constant associate at the 
^ ^^elphi, to America, where he appeared in 
*-*^- 3un8 Shadow' (Roger la Honte), and 
P"^«.Ted in 'Othello/ * Frou Frou/ the 
-^^*arble Heart/ the * I-»ady of Lyons/ and 
^"^ l:ier pieces. On 20 Sept. 1890 he reap- 
l*^«red at the Lyceum as the first llayston 
^^ Bucklaw in * llavenswood/ adapted from 
ott's 'Bride of Lammermoor' by Her- 
in Merivale. At the Lyceum he played 
^•«K) the King in • Henry VIII/ Faust, and 
^ '^6 Feb. 1893 King Henry in Tennyson's 
^IBecket.* On the af^rnoon of 5 June 1894, 
^"^ Daly's Theatre, he was the original Cap- 
^^^in >faramour in 'Journeys end in Lovers 
^^eeting/ a one-act proverb by John Oliver 
J^obbes and Mr. George Moore. In the 
^atal Card' of Messrs. Haddon Chambers 
^Tid B. C. Stephenson, at the Adelphi, on 
^ Sept., he was the original Gerald Austen. 
^Jn tne first production in England of the 
American piece, ' The Girl I left behind me' 
of Messrs. Tyler and Belasco, on 13 April 
]895, he was Lieutenant Hawkesworth. In 
the 'Swordsman's Daughter,' adapted by 
Messrs. Brandon Thomas and Clement Scott 
from *Le Maitre d'Armes' of MM. Mary 
and Grisier, and given at the Adelphi on 
SI Aug., he was Vibrac, a fencing master. 
In ' One of the Best,' by Messrs. Seymour 
Hicks and George Edwardes, on 21 Dec., 
lie was Dudley Keppel ; and on 26 Aug. 
1890 in ' Boys Together/ by Messrs. Had- 
don Chambers and Comyns Carr, Frank 
Yillars. On the revival of Jerrold's * Black- 
eyed Susan' on 23 Dec. 1896 he was 
VVilliam. When, in Aupst 1897, Mr. Gil- 
lette's play of 'Secret Service' was trans- 
ferred from the American company by which 
it was first performed at the Adelphi to an 
Kngliah company, Terriss took the author's 
part of Lewis Damont. He had previously 
(5 Jane) gone to the Haymarket to ' create' 
the part of the Comte de Candale in Mr. 
Sydney Grundy's adaptation of Dumas's 
' Un Manage sous IjOuis XV.' On 9 Sept. 
he supported at the Adelphi the double r61e 
of Colonel Aylmer and Laurence- Aylmer 

i Cither and son) in 'In the Days of the 
)akey' by Meesn. Haddon Chambers and 
¥01*. Lyi. 

Comyns Carr. This was his last original 
part. On the withdrawal of this piece ho 
resumed the part of Lewis Dumont in ' Se- 
cret Service, which he acted for the last 
time on 16 Dec. 1897. On the evening of 
the following day, as he was entering the 
Adelphi Theatre, he was stabbed thrice by a 
poverty-stricken actor named Richard Archer 
Prince, and died in a few minutes. His tragic 
death evoked much sympathy, and his funeral 
at Brompton cemetery on 21 Dec. had the 
character of a public demonstration. The 
murderer Prince was subsequently put on 
his trial, and, being pronounced insane, was 
committed to Broadmoor criminal lunatic 

Terriss married, in 1868, Miss Isabel Lewis, 
an actress known professionally as Miss Amy 
Fellowes, who survives him. He loft issue 
two sons, one an actor, and a daughter, Ella- 
line (Mrs. Seymour Hicks), who is on the 
stage. By his will, dated 11 Nov. 1896, he 
left personalty amounting to upwards of 
18,000/. His last residence was at 2 Bedford 
Road, Bedford Park, Chiswick. 

Terriss had from the first great gallantry 
of bearing and what was popularly calledl 
breeziness of style. In two parts. Squire 
Thornhill and William in ' Black-eyed Susan/ 
he had in his time no superior, perhaps no 
equal. He kept till the close of life a young, 
lithe, and shapely figure. 

Portraits of Terriss, in private clothes 
or in character, chiefly from photographs, 

[Arthur J. Smy the s Life of TorriKS, 1898 (with 
numerous portrait**) ; PiiBCoe's Drrtmatic List ; A 
Few Memories, by Mary Anderson ; Scott and 
Howard's Blanchard ; Archer's Dnimatic World, 
1893-6 ; Era Almanack, various years ; Era for 
18 and 25 Dec. 1897 ; private information.] 

J. K. 

TERROT, CHARLES (1758-1839), 
general royal artillery, was bom at Berwick- 
upon-Tweed on 1 May 1758. He entered 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich 
on 15 March 1771, and received a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the royal 
artillery on 1 March 1774. He went to 
North America in 1776 and joined Sir Guy 
Carleton in May at Quebec, Canada. He 
served under Brigadier-general Fraser at 
the action of the Three Rivers on 7 June, 
when the American attack was repulsed, 
and the Americans, having been driven with 
great loss to their boats on Lake St. Francois, 
fell back on Ticonderoga. 

In June 1777 Terrot was with the army 
of General Burgoyne which pushed forward 
from Canada by "Lake Chamjplain to effect 
a junction at Albany with C^linton^s forces 



Jrom Xtw York. lliirRnyne reaclied Ticou- 
dero|^ on 1 July, and iuvestud the placid. 
On C July till) Aml.■^iI^Blls evacuated it, and 
Terrot took part in the capture of Mount 
IndepondencH and tL« other opentioiu fol- 
lowing the American retreat. On the do- 
piirtureof Buc(;;\iviie for Slill-water, Terrot 
was left undirr ilrigadieT'^teneral i'owel at 
Ticoiidero^, where lie commanded the 
artillerw ThU pkra and ^ouut Indept^n- 
denCH were attacked on 18 Sept. by tbu 
Ameriimns under C'olonel lirown, who hud 
surprised a suiiill cloop and thi! transport 
boats, and captured u detaohnient of tlie 
G3nl rep:imeiit. The attack lasted four dBv«, 
at the end oE wliich the Americana wore 
beaten ofl' 

After Itiirjjroyne'a surrender at Saratof^, 
Terrot returned to Canada. On 7 July 
1779 he was promi)ted tv be first lieutenatit. 
In 1780 he went lo l^ake Ontario with two 
(V-pounders in an expedition under i^ir John 
Johnston : but circiinistaiires altered tbeir 
destination when on the lake, and Terrot 
remained at Nit^;ara for nearly four years, 
principally employed as an assistant mililary 
engineer. Tho works iif defence at Xiagnrn 
were completely repaired under liis supiT- 
vision. In 17»'2 he surveyed the country 
between Liakes Erie andOntario withaTJuw 
to its purchase by the govomment from the 
Iudi]ins, and to mark out ila houndarius. 
He afterwards condueted Ihe negotiations 
with the Indians with complete salisfactinii 
lo them and with |rn'-at advantaf^ to Ihe 
Rovemmeul. <)n S ilarcb 1784 he waspni- 
inotedlobi- second captain when horetumud 
to 1i!n|;land, and served at various liome 
stations with his company. 

In 1701 Terrot volunteered for service in 
the East Iiidien, and ariived on 10 Oct. at 
Madras witht wo compouios of royalarliJlerv, 
of wliich lie was ipiartermaster. lie joiued 
the army of hord Comwallis at Bavandrug 
on \'2 Jan. 179:2. and was attacliedin the 
artillery park. lie took ]iart on I! Feb. in 
the night attach on, and capture of, Tipu 
Sultan's forliliud camp, on the north side 
of the Knveri river. coverinK Serinfrpatam, 
and in the siege of itiut city until terms of 
peaeo were n|n>>ed to. He inarched on 
•JtS March with tho army wliich reached 
Madras at the end of .May. On the declara- 
tion of war by l''ran<Nt against Great Britain, 
mtmanres were taken lo seize the dill'ereiit 
Frencli factorii>!i ju India. In August 179il 
Terrot was employwl ag-ainst Pondicherrv, 
and wlu-n the ftiivcmor. Colonel Prosper de 
Clermont, on Iieing summoned, refused to 
submit, he took part in the bombardment 
of 2li Aug. and in the siege, which, however, 



lasted only till the 23nl of that month, 
when the place capitulated. Terrot wu 
promoted to be first captain on 2o Sept. 1793, 
and returned to England, 

On 1 March 1791 Terrot was promoted 
to be brevet major for his services, and tp- 

faiiiti>d to a command of artillery at 
'ortsmouth. On 1 Jan. 1798 he was pro- 
moted to be brevet lieutenant-colonel, and 
in the following year was employed in tlu 
expedition to the Helder. lie accompanied 
the first division under Sir Kalph Aber- 
crombv, landing on '27 Aug., and took put 
in the' lighting on 10 Sept., in the battle of 
Bergen on IS Sept. under the Duke of 
York, at the tight near Alkmaar on 2 Oct., 
and the affair of Boverwyk on B Oct. Ternw 
having been settled with the French, Terrot 
returned in November to England; he was 
Bhi])wrecked near Yarmoutli harbour, and, 
altliou^h all lives were saved by the boat* 
of the fleet, he lost all his effects. 

On 12 Nov. 1800 Terrot was promoted to 
be regimental major, and on 14 Oct. 1801 
to be re(;imental lieutenant-colonel. After 
ordinary regimental duty for some years, he 
was promoted to he colonel in the rovol artil- 
lery on 1 June 1806. In July 1809 he accom- 
panied the expedition to the Scheldt under 
the Earl of Chatham, and directed tbe artil- 
lery of the attack at the siege of Flushing, 
whicli place capitulated on 15 Aug. Terrot 
was thanked in orders for his services at 

Terrot was promoted to be inajor-general 
on 4 June 1811. In 1814 he was appointe>l 
as a major-generid on the stafTto command 
the royal artillery at Gibraltar, in succes- 
sion to .Major-general Smith, but the latter, 
owing to tlie death of the governor, suc- 
ceeded to the command of the fortress, and 
n-fused to be relieved. After vaiulv wait- 
ing some months for the arrival of a new 
governor. Terrot obtained permission to re» 
turn to England, resigned hla ajipointment, 
and retired on 2.) Juno 1814 on full pay. He 
was promoted to he lieutenant-general on 
l-i Aug. 1819. and gimetal on 10 Jan. 1837- 
Ile died at Xcweostle-on-Tvne on 'JS Sept-. 

fWiir Office Rf rards ; Despntcho ; Rent. Miig. 
IS3g;'s ULst. iif thr RoTnl AMillerv ; 
Stubl.i'M Hist, of Ills HongnlArtin*rT; Squire|i 
Ciinipali;n in /.eDland; Curmichad Smvlha 
t'hronolneiml Epitomf of iho Wars in (ha Lo» 
Conntriui.; Stfdman'iAmerimn Warof Indspen- 
dence:Uunn'aCMinpRicn in India, 1792; ^iDUt^ 
of Proc<«dlnR»of tfiaBoyal ArtillBrjInalitutiwi, 
vnl. iri. : Jnncn'B Sieges ; Cult's Annals of th* 
Wiira of the KighlpnatbCBatm? ; Kiine's List of 
Olfieora of tho Boyol Artilleri-.l R. H. V. 


bishop of Edinburgh, bom at Cudda- 
1 19 Sept. 1790, was a descendant 
amily which the revocation of the 
)f Nantes drove from France. His 
Elias Terrot, a captain in the Indian 
was killed at the siege of Bangalore a 
eks after the child's birth. His mother, 
maiden name was Mary Fonteneau, 
jd to England and settled with her 
Berwick-on-Tweed. When nine years 
was placed for his education under 
arge of the llev. John Fawcett of 
e. In 1808 he entered Trinity Col- 
ambridge, where he was an associate 
lewell, Peacock, Rolfe, Amos, Mill, 
>binson. He graduated B.A. in 1812 
lathematical honours, and was elected 
w of his college. In 1818 he was 
hI deacon, and in 1814 was instituted 
dington, where the leisure of a country 
)ency gave him opportunity of com- 
for university literary honours, and 
he obtained the Seatonian prize 
oem entitled ' Hezekiah and Senna- 
or the Destruction of Sennacherib's 
In 1819 he followed this up with 
r poem, * Common Sense,' in which 
ets and politicians of the day were 
ed in the style of the * Dunciad * and 
olliad.' He then abandoned poetry for 
jfy and mathematics. In 1817 he was 
ted to the charge of St. Peter's, Edin- 
as colleague tx) James Walker (after- 
bishop of Edinburgh). In 1829 he 
ied AValker as sole pastor. In 1883 he 
5 junior minister of St. Paul's, Edin- 
in 1886 he was appointed synod clerk 
diocese, in 1837 Jean of Edinburf^h 
fe, in 18^39 rector of St. Paul's, and m 
)ishop of Edinburgh and Pantonian 
or. In 1856 a church was built for 
i the scene of his labours in the old 
On the death of William Skinner 
1857) [q. v.], bishop of Aberdeen, in 
Terrot was chosen pnmus of Scotland, 
ce which he held till a stroke of 
us compelled his resignation in 1862. 
d on 2 April 1872, and was interred 
Calton burying-ground. 
ot was twice married: first, in 1818, 
h Ingram, daughter of Captain Samuel 
of Minlands, near Berwick-on-Tweed. 
sd on 9 Sept. 18.55. He married, se- 
, in 1859, a widow, Charlotte Madden, 
ed in February 1802. By his first wife 
. fourteen children, six of whom prede- 
him. His eldest daughter accompanied 
lorence Nightingale to the Crimea, and 
terwards decorated with the royal red 
a recogoition of her services. 



Terrot was an excellent mathematician, 
and was for fourteen years a fellow of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, to whose 

* Transactions he contributed numerous 
papers on mathematical subjects. He was 
also a member of the Architectural Society 
of Scotland, and delivered the annual intro- 
ductory address on 29 Nov. 1855. 

Besides separate charges and sermons, Ter- 
rot wrote: 1. * Pastoral Letters,* Edinburgh, 
1834, 8vo. 2. * Two Series of Discourses, on 
i. Christian Humiliation ; ii. The City of God,' 
London, 1845, 8vo. 3. 'Sermons preached 
at St. Pauls Episcopal Church, Edmburgh,' 
Edinburgh, 18^5, 8vo. He edited the Greek 
text of * The Epistle to the llomans, with an 
Introduction, Paraphrase, and Notes ' (Lon- 
don, 1828, 8vo), and translated Ernest i's * In- 
stitutio Interpretis,* in two volumes, entitled 

* Principles of Biblical Interpretation * (Edin- 
burgh, 1832-3, 8vo). 

[Three Churchmen, by W. Walker, 1893 (with 
portrait); Crombie's Mod. Athenians; Proc. of 
Royal Soc. of Edinb. viii. 9-14 (obit, notice by 
Professor Kelland); Scotsman, 3 and 4 April 
1872; Memoir by Dean Ramsay in Scot. Guar- 
dian, 15 May 1872; Cat. of Advoc. Libr. ; in- 
formation supplied by Miss Terrot, the bishop's 
daughter.] G. S-h. 

TERRY, DANIEL (1780 P-1829), actor 
and playwright, was born in Bath about 
1780, and was educated at the Bath gram- 
mar school and subsequently at a private 
school at Wingfield (? Winkfield), Wiltshire, 
under the Rev. Edward Spencer. During 
five years he was a pupil of Samuel AVyatt, 
the architect [see under "Wyatt, James]; 
but, having first played at Bath Heart well 
in the * Prize,* Terry left him to join in 1803 
or 1805 the company at Sheffield under the 
management of the elder Macready. His first 
appearance was as Tressel in * Richard 1 1 1,' and 
was followed bv otiier parts, as Cromwell in 
' Henry VIII ' and Edmund in * Lear.' To- 
wards the close of 1805 he joined Stephen 
Kemble [q.v.J in the north of England. On the 
breaking up in 1800 of Kemble's company, he 
went to Liverpool and made a success which 
recommended him to Henry Siddons [q. v.], 
who brought him out in Edinburgh, 29\ov. 
1809, as Bertrand in Dimond's * Foundling of 
the Forest.' At that period his figure is said 
to have been well formed and graceful, his 
countenance powerfully expressive, and his 
voice strong, full, and clear, though not 
melodious. He is also credited with stage 
knowledge, energy, and propriety of action, 

food judgment, and an active mind. On 
2 Dec. he was Antigonus in the ' Winter a 
Tale,' on 8 Jan. 1810 Prospero, and on the 
29th Argyle in Joanna Baillie's ' Family 

e 2 




I-^gend.' Scott, h pmf>o* of this impersona- 
tion, wrote: * A Mr. Terry, who promis»^3 to 
be a fine ]>erformer, went through the part 
of the ohl earl with ereat taste and effect.* 
fcJcott aUo contributed a prologue which 
Terrv spoke. On 'J'2 Nov. Terrv plaved 
Falstaff in * Henry RV On 15 Jan. 1811 
be was the first liij<lerick Dhu in * The Lady 
of the Lak'?,' adapted by Edmund John Eyre ; 
on 6 -Marcli he played Polonius ; on the It^th 
n»|)eated Roderick Dhu in the * Knight of 
Snowdoun/ a second version, by T. Morton, 
of the * La^ly of the Luke,* not much more 
prosperous than tlie former; and was, for his 
benefit, on the l^3rd, Falstaff* in the * Merry 
"Wives of Windsor.' He was Lord Ogleby 
in the * Clandestine Marriage,* 18 Nov. 

In this ])art Terr\' made his first appearance 
in London at the Ilaymarket, 20 May 1812, 
play ing during the season Shylock, Job Thom- 
borry, hir Antliony Absolute, Major Sturgeon 
in the * Major of Garratt,' Dr. Pangloss in the 

* Heir at Law,* Don Caesar in * A Bold Stroke 
for a Husband,' Megrim in ' BlueDevils,* Har- ' 
mony in 'Everyone has his Fault,' Sir Edward 
Mortimer in the * Iron Chest,' Ijeon in * Rule [ 
a Wife and have a Wife,' Gradus in * Who's , 
the Dupe!-' * Komaldi in the * Tale of Mystery,* 
JJarford in * Who wants a Guinea? ' Selico in 
the * Africans,' Heartall in * Soldier's Daugh- 
ter,' Bustleton in* Manager in Distress,* Octa- 
vian, and lago — a remarkable list for a first 
season. He created some original characters 
in unim])ortant plays, tlie only part calling 
for notice being Count Salerno inLyre*s* Look 
at Home,* 15 Aug. 1812, founded on Moore's 

* Zeluco.* He was announced to rwpen, 
14 Nov., the Edinburgh theatre as Lord 
Ogle!)y, but was ill and did not a])pear until 
the 23rd, and on the 2 1th he played Shy lock. 
Jle was, 23 Dec, the first Lord Archibald in 
' Cahidonia, or the Thistle and the Rose.* 

On 8 S«'])t. 1818, as Leon in *Rule a Wife 
un«l have a Wife,* Terry made his first appear- 
ance^ at Covent Garden, where, except forfre- 
(jui^nt migrations to Edinburgh and summer 
seasons at the Jfaymarkt^t, he remained until 
1 H22. A niong t he ]mrts he played in his first 
season were Sir Robert Bramble in the * Poor 
(Jent Ionian,' Dornton in the * Road to Ruin,* 
Fonl, Sir Adam ('ontest in the * Wedding 
Day,' Vi'Utidius in * Antony and Cleopatra,* 
Shvlock, l'hurlt(m, nn original part in Ken- 
ney's * D.'btor and Creditor,' 20 April 1814, 
and Sir ( )liver in * School for Scandal.* Other 
characttTs in which ln^ was early seen at 
tf^/%v4^Qt (lanlen includ<Kl Marrall in * A New ! 
' imv Old Debts.* Stukeley in the ! 
<*Sir Solomon Cynic in the * Will/ ' 
in 'Grecian Daughter,* and Angclo 
ure for Measure.' On 12 March 

1816 'Gay Mannering,' a musical adspta- 
tion by Terry of Scott's novel, was seen for 
the first time. This appears to have been 
the first of Terry's adaptations from Scott- 
At the Hay market he was seen as Periwinkle 
in * Bold Stroke for a W' ife,'Hardcastle, Hot- 
spur, Sir Greorge Thunder, Sir Pertinax McSt- 
cophant. Sir Fretful Pla^ary, Eustace Je* 
Samt- Pierre, Lord Scratch in the* Dramatist,* 
and verA' many other parts. In 1815, mean- 
while, lie had, by permission of the Covent 
Garden management, supported Mrs. Siddons 
in her farewell engagement in Edinburgh, 
where he ]iluyed Macbeth, *The Stranger* 
[fic[ in * Douglas,' Wolsey, King John, and 
the Earl of Warwick. Back at Covent Gar- 
den, he was, 7 Oct. 1816, the original Colonel 
Rigolio in Dimond's ' Broken Sword,' and on 
12 Xov. the original Governor of Surinam 
in Morton's 'Slave.' On 2 Oct. 1817 his 
acting of Frederick William, king of Prussia, 
in Abbott's * Youthful Davs of Frederick 
the Great,* raised his reputation to the 
highest point it attained, and on 22 April 
1818 he was the first Salerno in Shiel's * Bel- 
lamira.* In Jameson's ' Nine Points of the 
Law* he was at the Hay market, 17 July, 
Mr. l*recise, and in the * Green Man,' 
15 Aug., exhibited what was called a perfect 
piece of acting as Mr. Green. At Covent 
Garden he was, 17 April 1819, the first 
David Deans in his own adaptation, 'The 
Heart, of Midlothian;* played Sir Sampson 
Legend in * l-iove for Love,^ Buckingham in 

* Richard III,' Prospero, Sir Amias Paulet 
in *Mary Stuart* (adapted from Schiller), 
14 Dec. 1819, Lord (ilenallan, and after- 
wards was announced for Jonathan Oldbuck 
in his own and Pocock's adaptation, *The 
Antiquary,* 25 Jan. 1820. Illness seems to 
have prevented his playing Oldbuck, which 
was assigned to Liston. On 17 May he was 
the first Dentatus in Sheridan i^nowles's 

* Virginius.* At the Haymarket during the 
summer seasons Terry played a great round 
of comic characters, including Ilardv in the 
' Belle's Stratagem,' Old Mirabel in « Wine 
does Wonders * (a compressed version of the 

* Inconstant *), Peachum in * IVggar's Opera,' 
Falstatfin * Henry IV,' pt. i., Oldllardcastle, 
Sir Peter Teazle, Dr. Pangloss, Polonius, Lear, 
Sir Anthony Absolute, Pierre in * Venice Pre- 
served,' and Rob Roy. Among many original 
])arts in ])ieces by Renney, J. Dibdin, and 
others, Terry was Sir Christopher Cranberry 
in ' E.\change no Robbery,' by his frienci 
Theodore Hook, 12 Aug. 1820 ; the Prince in 
< Match Breaking,' 20 Aug. 1821 ; and Shark 
in * Morning, Noon, and Night,' 9 Sept. 

Having quarrelled with the management 




of Corent Garden on a question of terms, 
Terry made his first, appearance at Drury Lane, 
16 Oct. 1822, speaking an occasional address 
bj Colman and playing Sir Peter. He after- 
wards acted Crabtree, John Dory in * Wild 
Oats,' Caftsio, Belarius in * (Jymbeline/ 
Kent in * Lear/ Dougal in * Kob Koy/ Solo- 
mou in the 'Stranger/ and Grumio, and 
was, 4 Jan. 1823, the first Simpson in Poole's 
'Simpson & Co/ At the Haymarket, 7 July, 
be wasthe first Admiral Franklin in Kenney s 
'Sweethearts and Wives/ and on 27 Sept. 
the first Dr. Primrose in a new adaptation 
bvT.Dibdin of the 'Vicar of Wakefield/ 
The season 1823-4 at Drury Lane saw him 
M Bartolo in * Fazio,* Lord Sands, Menenius 
in 'Coriolanus/ and as the first Antony 
Foster in a version of * Kenilworth/ o Jan. 
1824, and the following season as Orozembo 
in ' Pizarro,' Justice Woodcock in * Jjove in 
a Village/ Adam in ' As you like it/ 
Afoustache in * Henri Quatre,* Hubert in 
'King John/ and Kochfort in an alteration 
of the * Fatal Dowry.' Among his original 
n'lles wen? Zamet in ' Massaniello/ 17 Feb. 
]82.>, and Mephistopheles in * Faustus,* 
Uy May, the lai^t one of his best parts. In 
IH'Jiif in association with his friend Frederick 
Jlenry Yates [q. v.], he became manager of 
the Adelphi, opening, 1 Oct., in a piece called 
*Killigrew/ On the 31 st was produced Fitz- 
bairs successful adaptation, * The Pilot/ in 
which Terry was the Pilot. lie also appeared 
in other parts. 

Terry's financial afiiiirshad meanwhile be- 
come so involved that he was obliged to re- 
tire from management. Under the strain of 
the which followed, Terry's powers, 
mental and phvsical, gave way. After leav- 
ing the Adelphi he temporarilv retired to the 
continent, and then re-engaged at Drury Lane 
and played Polonius and Simpson. Finding 
himself unable to act, and his memory quite 
^ne, he threw up his enpragement. On 
12 June 1829 he was struck with paralysis, 
and died during the month. Having pre- 
viously married in Liverpool, Terry espoused 
as his second wife Elizabeth Nasmyth, the 
daughter of Alexander Nasmyth [q. v.] the 
painter. Mrs. Terry — who, after Terry's 
death, married Charles Richardson [rj. v.] the 
lexicographer — had great taste in design, and 
aeems to nave taken some share in the deco- 
ration of Abbotsford. Terry left by her a 
«)n named after Scott (Walter), after whose 
fortunes Scott promised to look, and a daugh- 
ter Jane. 

Terry, who was almost as well known in 
Edinbuivh as in London, was highly respected 
in both placea. SirWalterScott,whoextended 
to him a Urge amount of friendship, thought 

highly of his actingin tra^edv, comedy, panto* 

mime, and farce, and said that he could act 

everything except lovers, fine gentlemen, and 

operatic heroes. His merit in tragedy, Scott 

! declared, was seen in those characters which 

exhibit the strong working of a powerful 

! mind and the tortures of an agonised heart. 

i While escaping from the charge of ranting, 

; he was best in scenes of vehemence. Parts 

' of tender emotion he was wise enough not 

to attempt. In comedy he excelled in old 

men, both those of real life and in *the 

tottering caricatures of Centlivre, Vanbrugh, 

and Gibber.' In characters of amorous dotage, 

such as Sir Francis Gripe, Don Manuel, or Sir 

Adam Contest, he was excellent. His Fal- 

stafF was good. Terry's chief fault was want 

of ease. Disapproving of the starring system, 

he was conscientious enough not to pose as 

a * star.' 

Terry's idolatry of Scott led him to imitate 
both his manner and hia calligraphy. Scott, 
who appreciated Terry's knowledge of old 
dramatic literature and his delight in articles 
of vertu, who recognised him as a gentleman 
and corresponded freely with him on most 
subjects, declares that, were ho called upon 
to swear to anv document, the most he could 
do was to attest it was his own writing or 
Terry's. Terry had caught, says Lockhart, 
the very tricrk of Scott's meditative frown, 
and imitated his method of speech so as 
almost to pass lor a Scotsman. Scott lent 
him money for his theatrical speculations, 
and gave him excellent advice. Being inti- 
mate with the Ballantyn(>8, Terry had a 
financial stake in their business, and when 
the crash came Scott was saddled with his 
liability (l,7r)0/.) Terry's architectural know- 
ledge was of great use to Scott, who consulted 
him while building Abbotsford. Scott also 
consulted Terry upon many literarv* questions, 
especially as regards ]>lays, and seems to 
have trusted him with the * Doom of Devor- 
goil/ with a view to fitting it for the stage. 
On 8 Feb. 1818 Scott says, concerning some 
play: * If any time should come when you 
might wish to disclose the secret, it will be 
in your power, and our correspondence will 
alwavs serve to show that it was onlv at 
my earnest request, annexed as the condition 
of bringing the plav forward, that vou gave 
it your name, a circumstance which, with 
all the attending particulars, will prove 
plainly that there was no assumption on 
your part ' (Lockiiabt, Memoiry iv. 125, ed. 
1837). In the same letter he suggests that 
a beautiful drama might be made on the 
concealment of the Scottish regalia during 
the troubles. How many of the numerous 
adaptations of Scott that saw the light be- 




tween the appearance of * Wnverley * and the 
death of the actor are bv Terrv cannot be 
naid, many of these being anonymous and 
unprinted. In addition to these Tern' is 
responsible for the * British Theatrical G al- 
ien-/ a collection of whole-length portraits 
■with biographical notes (London, ifeo, fol.) 

A portrait of Terry by Knight, and one 
by De Wilde as Barford in * AVho wants a 
Guinea ? ' are in the Mathews Collection at 
the Garrick Club. One, as Leon in * Kule a 
AVife and have a "Wife,' is in the * Theatrical 
Inquisitor' (vol. i.) 

[Almost the only trustworthy authority con- 
cerning Terry is Lockhart's Life of Scott, from 
whi«'h the information as regards his intercourse 
witli Scott is taken. His biographers contradict 
one another in numerous particulars, and the 
diites are not to be truste<L What purport to 
be memoirs are given in the Dnimatic Magazine 
(1829, i. 189-90). the Theatrical Inquisitor (v. 
131), Oxl^erry's Dramatic IJio^apiiy (vol. vii.), 
Cunningham's Lives of Eminent Englishmen, 
New Monthly Mngjizino fur 1829, Theatrical Bio- 
graphy (1824), and elsewhere. The list of his 
characters is derived principally irom Genest's 
Account of the Enfilish Stage, and from Mr. 
Dihdin's Ann.ilsof the Edinburgh St;ige, Other 
works which have been consult (m1 are the Geor- 
gian Era, Life of Munden by his son, the 
Annual Kegi.ster for 18f>0, An«lrew I-,aug's Life 
of Lockhart, and Clark Rus^eU's Representative 
Actors.] J. K. 

TERRY, EDWARD (loOO-KJGO), writer 
of travels, was born in 101)0 at Leigh, near 
I'enshurst, Kent. Educated at the free 
school, Rochester, and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, lu' matriculated on 1 July 1(508, 
graduated IVA. on L>() Nov. 1611, and M.A. 
on 6 July 1614. In F.-bruar}- IClo-KiTerry 
went out to India as chaplain with a fleet 
s«*nt by th(^ London East India Company, 
sailing in the Charles with Benjamin Joseph, 
commander of the expedition. In his account 
of the voyage Terry describes a fight with a 
J Portugal carrack, in which Joseph was killed, 
on (5 Aug. KJIO. The Charles anchored in 
Swally Road on "2') Sept. following. (.)n 
1?0 Aug. Sir Thomas Roe [q.v.], ambassador 
at the moghul's court, wliose cha^dain, the 
llev. John Hall, died the day bt"fore, had 
written to the company's agent at Surat, 
saying that he could not Mive the life of an 
atheist,' and begging that another chaplain 
miglit be sent to him. Accordingly Terry, 
shortly after his arrival, wjls appointed to 
succej'd Hall, and, travelling up country 
with four other Englishmen who were taking 
presi'uts for the moghul, joined the ambas- 
sador, who was with the Emperor Jehanghir's 
camp at Mandoa, alwut the end of Febniar\' 
7 (Rob, JiAinial), or, according to Terry, 

towards the end of March. On the way they 
were detained by the moghurs 8oa (afte^ 
wards the Emperor Shah Jehan), who wished 
to see the presents meant for his father. 
Terry stayed at Mandoa till September 1617, 
and thence travelled with the moghuTs 
camp in the ambassador*8 8uit« to Ahmeda- 
bad, and in the neighbourhood he remained 
till September 1618. At Ahmedabad he and 
others of the ambassador's suite were at- 
tacked by the plague, the outbreak of which 
is recorded in the memoirs of Jehanghir 
(Elliot, Hist, of India, vol. vi.) Terry 
also not^s (November 1618) the comet men- 
tioned in the same memoirs (ib.) lie re- 
turned with Roe to England in 1619, their 
ship reaching the Downs on lo Sept. The 
court minutes of the East India Company 
record (22 Oct. 1619) that the freight on 
the goods of * Terry the preacher ' was re- 
mitted, he * being so much commended by 
Sir Thomas Roe for his sober, honest, and 
civil life.' On his arrival in England he 
went back for a while to Christ Church, and 
in 1622 wrote, and presented in manuscript 
to IVince Charles, an account of his life m 
India. On 26 Aug. 1629 he was appointed 
rector of Great Greenford, ^fiddlesex, where 
he lived till his death on 8 Oct. 1660. * He 
was an ingenious and polite man of a pious 
and exemplary conversation, a go(^ preacher, 
and much respected by the neighbourhood ' 
(Wood, Athenm 0.ro7i.) He was buried in 
the chancel of his church on 10 Oct. 1660. 

On 22 Aug. 1661 his widow Elizabeth 
was buried at Greenford. A son James 
(d. IBSO) matriculated from Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 16 April llUl, took orders, 
and became rector of Mickelmarsh, Hamp- 
shire, being ejected from the living in 1662 
for nonconformity. 

Besides two sermons, printed in 1646 and 
1649, Terry published: 1. *A Voyage to 
East India,' with portraits and a map, 
London, 165*3; reprinted, London, 177*. 
2. * Character of King Charles II, with a 
Short A])ology before it, and Introduction to 
it, and Conclusion after it,' London, 1660, 

A portrait of Terrj-, a?tat. 64 (160.5), en- 
graved bv R. Vaughan, is prefixed to his 
* Voyage.^ A summary of his narrative ist- 
given in Purchas's * Pilgrimes ' (ii. 1464 et seq.)^ 
and another epitomised version was pub — 
lislied, with the English translation of P— 
della Valle's travels, m 16(i5. 

[Wood's Athenre Oxon. ; Sir Thomas Roe':^ 
Journal : Purchas's Pilgrimes ; Cal. State Paper^^ 
East Indies, 1617-21 ; Sir H. M. Elliots Hi8K= 
of India ; parish registers at Great Greenford — 

S. W. 



30:i5), divine, bom obniit 1555 W LongSut- 
1, Hampshire, entered Winchester school 
157:;. He matriculated from New Col- 
lege, Oifon), 10 Jan. lo74-5, aged 19, was 
elected a fellow in lo76,and graduated B.A. 
19 XoT. 1578, M.A. 15 June 1582. He re- 
tiened his fellowsbip on being presented by 
Bubap Cooper of IViuchesler to the living 
of SlQckton, WUtfihire, in 1590. Then? he 
died, aged 70, on 10 May 16^5, as recorded 
upon a monument in the church. 

Terry's works show him to have held 
ranff anli-Roman catholic opinions. They 
e : 1. ■ The Triall of Trvlh,' Oxfoni, 1600, 
Ata : the fecond part of this was issued in 
1W2-, ' Theological 1 Logicke, or the third 
part of the Tryall of Trvth,' oppeared at 
Oxford, 1625, 4to. 2. ' The Heasonablenes£ 
of Wise and Holy Trvth, and the Absurdity 
<tf Foolish and Wicked Error,' Oxford, 1617, 
amall 4tr) ; dedicated to Arthur Lake, bishop 
of Bath and We-11h. 3. > A Defence of Pro- 
tMtanejr* (Wood). 

* [Wcwd'» Acheax Oion. ii. *10; Kirby's 
VuehcMw S^oJors, p. 144 1 Fostar'a Aluinni 
lUB. eal4j mr.; It«K- (^ni*. Oxon. ii. il. fll. 
i. J«: WilfflhirB ArciH)!. Mag. xii. lis ; Mn- 
aa'a &irly Oxford Prrts, pp. 19. S4, ]l)9. 128; 
[<Mn-'t Hi«. Q- Willa (vol. >. HnnJrf<l of tiry- 
■tnry. p. 2*7}.] C. f. S. 

J)ALB, THOMAS (1547-1610), ' co- 
ifoander of Pembroke College, Oxford,' son 
,,of Thomas Te^dale {d. 1556), by his second 
wife, Joan (Koapp), was bom at Stanford 
Ha^ey, lierkehiie, and baptised on 18 Oct. 
617. He was brought up by his uncle, 
ti«hBTd Tr«dak, a sadler of Abingdon, and 
n I5(!3 the first scholar of John 
^ 't ffv school in that town. He made 
t uuKC fortune asa maltster, became master 
it Abingdon Hospital in 157!', and whs 

BloetMl mayor, but declined to serve, in 
681, abnut which time be removed bis 
pfudence to Glvmntitn, near Woodstock, 
bcfordcbirf. He died there on 13 June 
1610, aged Its, and was buried in Glymplon 
ihurcfa, under n fine nlabaeter lotiib (re- 
■ed in 1«71), where was nUo laid his 
? Maud (.A 11116), By his will, dated 
Hb» IHIO (in addition to other benefoc- 
> .\hingdon), be left 6,000i. to main- 
1 ecren fellows and six scholars from 
Ibingdon free school at Balliot College, 
Oxford. The Society of Balliol, already 
Miinpered by their obligations to Tiverton 
Kbeml, seem' to have triui hard to obtain a 
relaxation of the conditions attached to the 
bequnt, but tho negotiations were not com- 

pleted in 1623 when liichard Wightwick, 
G.U., formerly of lialliol, offered to augment 
Tesdale's foimdntion. ' It then fell under 
consideration,' says Fuller, ' that ii 
pity so great a bounty (substantial enough 
to stand by itself) should be adjected to b 
former foundation.' 

The feofiees under Teadaie's will, beaded 
by Archbishop George Abbot 'q. 
quiesced in the project of a new college | 
the king was approached through the chan- 
cellor, William Herbert, third earl of Pem- 
broke [q. v.], and, James consenting, the 
existing foundation of Kroadgates Hall 
' was erected by the name of Pembroke 
Collie' (29 June ISai). 

A portrait of Te«lale, dating from the 
middle of the seventeenth century, is pre- 
served in Pembroke Hall, and was engraved 
for Wood's ■ Historia ' (If'"-*)- 

[Little's Monument of Christian Munificenct, 
ed. Cobham, 1871 ; JIscleaDe's llii.1. of Pem- 
broke Coll. Oxford (Oxford Hist. 8w.): Blan- 
dsilB BriefMem. of Abingdon School: fuller'a 
Worthies, tfi62, p. 311 ; Wood's Coll. and 
Halls, ed. Qutcb. iii. eiSi Henry SaTage's 
BullioferguB, liJBH. p. B7 (from which il ia 
evident that the authurilit^t at Bulliul lesonti-d, 
aa they well niiglit, ills divrrai'in of the mouty 
from their aacieiit louudatiuu).] T. 6. 

TESIMOND, niV«G ree.n w* r, OSWALD 

(15(l;)-163.=i), Jesuit, ubo known as PmuP 
Beauhont, bom in Noi thumberland ia 
156.t, entered the English College at Roma 
for his higher studies on 9 ^pt. 1560, and 

{'oined the Society of Jesus on 13 April 15S4 
>y leave of the cardinal protector Moroni, 
After teaching philosophy at Messina and 
Palermo, be was sent to the sBminary at 
Madrid, which he left in November 1597, 
having been ordered to the English misaion. 
He landed at Oi^vesend on 9 Marcli 1697- 
Iii98, and assisted Father Edward Oldcome 
for eight years in the Worcestershire and 
Warwickshire missions. In 1603 ha was 
professed of the four vows. 

Tesimond was one of the three Jesuits who 
were charged with complicitj' in the 'gun- 
powder plot,' and a proclamation, containing 
a description of his personal appearance, was 
issued for his apprehension. It is certain that 
Tesimond knew of the secret in confession, 
but the government was unacquainted with 
this fact at the time of the proclama- 
. On 6 Nov. 160.5 he rode to the con- 
spirators at lluddington, and administered 
the sacrament to them. In explanation he 
afterwards alated that, having learned from 
a letter written by Sir Everard to Lady 
Digby the danger to which the conspirators 
were e.vposed, he deemed it his duty to offer 





to them the aids of religion before they 
suffered that death which threatened them. 
Thomas "Winter [q. v.] at his execution de- 
clared that, whereas certain fathers of the 
Society of Jesus were accused of counsel- 
ling and furthering the conspirators in this 
treason, he could clear them all, and par- 
ticularly Father Tesimond, from all fault and 
participation therein (Morris, Condition of 
Catholics under James /, p. 220). 

Tesimond, after the appearance of the 
proclamation against the Jesuits, came in 
disguise to London. lie was one day stand- 
ing in a crowd, reading the proclamation 
for his apprehension, when a man arrested 
him in the king's name. The Jesuit ac- 
companied his captor quietly until they 
came to a remote and unfrequented street, 
when Tesimond, being a powerful man, 
suddenly seized his companion, and after a 
violent struggle disengaged himself from 
him. He immediately quitted London, and, 
after remaining fora few days in some Koman 
catholic houses in Essex and Suffolk, he 
was safely convevcd to Calais in a small 
boat laden with dead pigs, of which cargo 
he passed as the owner. He stayed for 
some time at St. Omer. Then he went 
to Italy, and was prefect of studies at Home 
and in Sicily. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed theologian in the seminary at Val- 
ladolid, and afterwards he resided in 
Florence and Naples. Sir Edwin liich 
wrote from Naples on o Oct. 1010 to the 
king of Kngluna to siiy that a Jesuit, Philip 
Beaumont, aliai^ Oswald Tesimond, had 
arrived there, and was ]>lotting to send the 
king an embroidered satin doublet and hose 
wliich wertj poisoned, and would be death 
to the wearer. Tesimond died at Naples 
in 1(535. 

The * Autobiography of Father Tesimond,' 
translated from tlie Italian holograph original 
preserved at Stonyhurst College, is printed 
m Morris's * Troubles of our Catholic Fore- 
fathers,' (lift ser. pp. 141-83). 

[Foley's ftecordH. vi. 144, vii. 767; Gerard's 
What wjis the Gunpowjler Plot ? p. 283 ; Jiir- 
dino's N>irrativo of the Gunpowder Plot; 
More 'a Hist. Prov. AnglicAiia' Soc. Jcsu, p. 336 ; 
Oliver's Je.suit Collections, p. 205; Tierncy's 
Account of tho Gunpowder Plot, pp. 67-72.] 

T. C. 

TEVIOT, Earl of. [See KuTiiERyoRD, 
Andrew, d. 1004.] 

TEVIOT, Viscount. [See Livingstone, 
Sir Thomas, 106l>:--1711.J 

musician. [Seo Tunsted, Simon.] 

THACKERAY, FRANCIS (1793-1842), 
author, bom in 1793, was the sixth son of 
AVilliam Makepeace Thackeray (1749-1813), 
of the Bengal civil service, by his wife, 
Amelia (rf. 1810), third daughter of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Richmond Webb. Francis, 
who was uncle of the novelist, graduated 
B.A. from Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 
1814 and M.A. in 1817. He became curate 
of Broxboume in Hertfordshire. He died 
at Broxboume on 18 Feb. 1842, leaving by 
his wife, Mary Ann Shakespear {d. 1851), 
two sons — Francis St. John and Colonel 
Edward Talbot Thackeray, V.C. — and one 
daughter, Marj*. 

Thackeray, who was famous in the family 
for his invention and narration of fairy tales, 
was the author of: 1. *A Defence of the 
Clergy of the Church of England,* London, 
18*J2, 8vo; supplemented in the following 
year by a shorter treatise, entitled *Some 
Observations upon a Pamphlet and upon an 
Attack in the "Edinburgh Review."' 2. * A 
History of William Pitt, Earl of Chatlmm,* 
London, 1827, 8vo. Mjicaulay, in reviewing 
the work in the * Edinburgh Review* for 
1831, justlv censured Thackeray for his ex- 
travagant laudation of his hero. The life, 
however, was painstakmg, and contained a 
good deal of fresh information from the state 
paper office. 3. * Order against Anarchy/ 
London, 1831, 8vo: a reply to Paine's* Rights 
of Man.' 4. * Uesearches into the Ecclesias- 
tical and Political State of Ancient Britain 
under the Roman Emperors,' London, 1843, 

[Burke's Family Records, 1897; Herald and 
Genc', 1st k^t. ii. 447-8; Cass's Menken 
Hadhy, 1880, p. 74; Gent. Mag. 1842, i. 569; 
Hunter's ThackiTay a iu India, 1897. pp. 112- 
113.] K. I. C. 

! NELL (1775-1860), general, colonel com- 
mandant royal engineers, third son of Dr. 
Frederick Thackeray, physician of Windsor, 
by his wife Elizabetli, daughter of Abel 
Aldridge of Uxbridge, was bom at AVindsor, 
Berkshire, in 1775, being baptised 16 Nov. 
His father's sister was wife of Major James 
Rennell [q. v.], of the Bengal engineers, the 
geographer, (jeorge Thackeray fq. v.] was 
his elder brother, and AVilliam Jdakei)eace 
Thackeray [q. v.], the novelist, was his first 
cousin once removed (cf. Huxter, The 
Tharherays in India^ 1897, pp. 6(3 sq.) 

After passing through the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, Thackeray received 
a commission as second lieutenant in the 
royal artillery' on 18 Sept. 1793, and was 
transferred to the roval engineers on 1 Jan. 
1794. He served at Gibraltar from 170S 




until 1797, when he went to the "West 
Indies, having been promoted to be first 
lieutenant on 18 June 1796. He took part, 
on 20 Aug. 1799, in the capture of Suri- 
nam under Sir Thomas Trigge. In 1801 he 
was aide-de-camp to Trigge at the capture 
of the Swedish West India island of St. 
Bartholomew on 21 March, the Dutch island 
of St. Martin on 24 March, the Danish 
isUnds of St. Thomas and St. John on 
28 March, and of Santa Cruz on the 31st of 
that month. 

On lb April 1801 Thackeray was pro- 
moted to be second captain. lie returned 
to England the following year, and in 1803 
proceeded again to (libraltar. He was pro- 
moted to be first captain on 1 March 1805, 
and returned to England. In February 1807 
be was sent to Sicily, whence he proceeded 
with the expedition under Major-general 
McKenzie Eraser to Effypt, returning to 
Sicily in September. In 1 809 Thackeray was 
commanding royal engineer with the force 
under Lieutenant-colonel Ilaviland Smith, 
detached by Sir John Stuart [q. v.] (when 
he made his expedition to the Bay of Naples) 
from Messina on 11 June to make a diver- 
sion by an attack on the castle of Scylla. 
ITie siege was directed by Thackeray with 
such skill that, although raised by a superior 
force of French, the castle was untenable, 
and had to be blown up. 

In March 1810 Thackeray was sent 
from Messina by Sir John Stuart with an 
ample supply of engineer and artillery stores 
to join Colonel (afterwards General Sir) 
John Oswald [q.v. ., in the Ionian Islands, to 
undertake the siege of the fortress of Santa 
Maura. Its position on a long narrow 
isthmus of sand rendered it difiicult of ap- 
proach, and the fortress was not only well 
Supplied, but contained casemated barracks 
sutfacient for its garrison of eight hundred 
men under General Camus. Oswald effected 
m landing on 23 March. From the situation 
of the place no enfilading batteries could be 
erected ; but after the British direct bat- 
teries had opened fire the siege works were 
pushed gradually forward, until on 15 April 
Thackeray pointed out the necessity for 
^^rrying by assault an advanced entrench- 
ment held by the enemv which would enable 
Lim to reconnoitre the approach to, and the 
position for, the breaching batter^', and he 
proposed to turn this entrenchment when 
taken into an advanced parallel of the at- 
tack. The operation was carried out suc- 
cessfully ; the enemy were driven out of the 
entrenchment at the point of the bayonet 
by Lieutenant-colonel Moore of the 35th 
regiment; large working parties were at 

once sent in, and, by Thackeray's judicious 
and indefatigable exertion, the entrenchment 
on the morning of the 16th was converted 
into a lodgment from which the attackers 
could not be driven by the fire of the enemy, 
while the British infantry and sharpshooters 
were able so greatly to distress the artillery 
of the place that in the course of the day, 
16 April 1810, it surrendered. Thackeray 
was mentioned in general orders and in des- 

5atches. Oswald also wrote to thank him. 
'hackeray received on 19 May 1810 a brevet 
majority in special recognition of his services 
on this occasion. 

Thackerav sailed in July 1812 with the 
Anglo-Sicilian army under Lieutenant- 
general Frederick Mai t land, and landed at 
Alicante in August. He took part in the 
operations of this army, which, after Mait- 
land*s resignation in October, was suc- 
cessively commanded by Generals Mac- 
kenzie, William Clinton, Campbell, and Sir 
John Murray, who arrived in February 
1813. On 6 March Thackeray marched 
with the allied army from Alicante to at- 
tack Suchet, and was at the capture of 
Alcoy. lie took part in the battle of Cas- 
talla on 13 April, when Suchet was de- 
feated. On 31 May he embarked with the 
army, fourteen thousand strong, with a 
powerful siege train and ample engineer 
stores, forTarragona, where they disembarked 
on 3 June. Thackeray directed the siege 
operations, and on 8 June a ])racticable 
breach was made in Fort Royal, an out- 
work over four hundred yards in advance 
of the place. Thackeray objected to an 
assault on this work before everything was 
ready for the construction of a parallel and 
advance from it. All was prepared on 
11 June, and instructions were given for an 
assault after a vigorous bombardment. But 
Murray having received intelligence of a 
French advance counter-ordered the assault 
and raised the siege. For this he was 
afterwards tried by court-martial at Win- 
chester, and found guilty of an error of 
judgment. Murray seems at the time of the 
siege to have blamed Thackeray for delay, for 
on the arrival of Lieutenant-general Lord 
William Bentinck to take command on 
18 June, Thackeray wrote to him that an 
attempt had been made to attach blame 
to him on account of the termination of 
the siege of Tarragona, and requested Lord 
William as an act of justice to cause some 
investigation to be made into his conduct 
before Sir John Murray left, and while 
all the parties were present who could 
elucidate the matter. This letter was 
sent to Murray, who completely exone- 




rated Thackeray (reply of Murray, dated 
Alicante, 22 June). 

Thackeray was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel in the royal engineers on 21 July 
1813. lie had moved, at the end of June, 
with Lord AVilliam Bentinck^s army to 
Alicante, and was at the occupation of 
Valencia on 9 Julv, and at the investment 
of Tarragona on 30 July. He took part in 
tlie other operations of the army under 
Bentinck and his successor, Sir William Clin- 
ton. During October and November Thacke- 
ray was employed in rendering Tarragona 
once more defensible. In April 1814, by 
Wellington's orders, Clinton's army was 
broken up, and Thackeray returned to Eng- 
land in ill-health. 

At the beginning of 1815 Thackeray was 
appointed commanding royal engineer at 
Plymouth ; in May 1817 he was transferred 
to Gravesend, and thence to Edinburgh on 
2(5 Nov. 1>^24 as commanding royal engineer 
of North Britain. He was promoted to be 
colonel in the royal engineers on 2 June 
1826. He was made a companion of the 
Bath, military division, on 'Jii 8ept. 1831. 
In 1833 he was appointed commanding royal 
engineer in Ireland. He was promoted to 
be major-general on 10 Jan. 1837, when he 
ceased to be employed. He was made a 
colonel-commandant of the corps of royal 
engineers on 29 April 184(), was promoted to 
be lieutenant-general on 9 Nov. of the same 
year, and to be general on 20 J une 18'>4. He 
died at his residence, the Cedars, Windles- 
ham, Bagsliot, Surrey, on 19 8ept. 1860, 
and was buried at York Town, Famborough. 

Thackeray married at Kosehill, Hamp- 
shire, on 21 Nov. 1825, Lady Elizabeth 
-Margaret Carnegie, third daughter of Wil- 
liam, seventh earl of Northesk [q. v.] Lady 
Elizabeth, three sons, and five daughters 
survived Thackeray. 

[Burke's Family Records, 1897; War Office 
Records; Despatches ; Royal Engineers Records ; 
The Royal Military Caleudur, 1820; Annual 
Register, 1860; Conolly's Hist, of the Royal 
Sappers and Miners ; JJunbury';* Narrative of 
some Piis.*aj;:es in the <ireat War with Franco 
from 1790 to 1810: Napier's History of the 
War in the Peninsula and the South of France ; 
The Professional Papers of the Corps of Ro^-al 
Kn^ineerf, 1851, new ser. vol. i. (paper by 
Thackeray).] R. U. V. 

THACKERAY, GEORGE (1777-1850), 
])rovost of King's College, Cambridge, born 
at \Vindsor,and baptised at the parish church 
on L^3 Nov. 1777, was the fourth and voungest 
son of Frederick Thackeray (1737-1782), a 
physician of Windsor, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Abel Aldridge of Uxbridge (d. 

1816). Frederick Rennell Thackeray [q. v.] 
was his younger brother. Qeorge became a 
king's scholar at Eton in 1792, and a scholar 
of King's College, Cambridge, in 1796. In 
1800 he was elected a fellow of King's Col- 
legre, and in the following year was appointed 
assistant master at Eton. He graduated 
B.A. in 1802, M.A. in 1805, and B.D. in 
1813. On 4 April 1814 he was elected pro- 
vost of King's College, and in the same year 
obtained the degree of D.D. by royal man- 

The death of his second wife in 1818 cast 
a gloom over Thackeray's subsequent life. 
He devoted much of his time to collecting 
rare books, and ' there was not a vendor of 
literary curiosities in London who had not 
some reason for knowing the provost of 
King's.' He directed the finances of the 
college with great ability. He held the 
appointment of chaplain in ordinary to 
George III and to the three succeeding 

Thackeray died in Wimpole Street on 
21 Oct. 1850, and was buried in a vault in 
the ante-chapel of King's College. He was 
twice married : on 9 Nov. 1803 to Miss Car- 
bonell, and in 1816 to Mary Ann, eldest 
daughter of Alexander Cot tin of Cheverells 
in Hertfordshire. She died on 18 Feb. 1818, 
leaving a daughter, Mary Ann Elizabeth. 

[ Burke's Family Records ; Gent. Mag. 1850, 
ii. 664 ; Herald and Genealogist, ii. 446 ; Luard's 
Grad. Cantabr. p. 513; Regi^trum Resale, 1847, 
pp. 8,51.] E. I. C. 

PEACE (1811-1863), novelist, bom at Cal- 
cutta on 18 July 1811, was the only child 
of Richmond and Anne Thackeray. The 
Thackeravs descended from a familv of veo- 
men who had been settled for several genera- 
tions at Hampsthwaite, a hamlet on the 
Nidd in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
Thomas Thackeray (169.S-1760) was ad- 
mitted a king's scholar at Eton in January 
1705-6. He was scholar (1712) and fellow 
(171/>) of King's College, Cambridge, and 
soon afterwards was an assistant master at 
Eton. In 1746 he became headmaster of 
Harrow, where Dr. Parr was one of his 
pupils. In 1748 he was made chaplain to 
b'rederick, prince of Wales, and in 1753 
archdeacon of Surrey. He died at Harrow 
in 17()0. By his wife Anne, daughter of 
John Woodward, he had sixteen children. 
The fourth son, Thomas (1730-180C), be- 
came a surgeon at Cambridge, and had fif- 
teen children, of whom William Makepeace 
(1770-1849) was a well-known phj^cian at 
Chester; Elias (1771-1854), mentioned in 


the * Irish Sketchbook,* became vicar of Bun- 
dalk; and Jane Townley (1788-1871) mar- 
ried in 1813 QeoTf^ Pry me [q. v.l the poli- 
tical economist. The archdeacon s fifth son, 
Frederick (1737-1782), a physician at Wind- 
sor, was father of General Frederick Rennell 
Thackeray [q. v.] and of George Thackeray 
fq. v.], provost of King^s College, Cambridge. 
iTie archdeacon*s youngest cnild, William 
3Iakepeace (1749-1813), entered the service 
of the East India Company in 1766. He was 
patronised by Cartier, governor of Bengal ; he 
was made * factor* at Dacca in 1771, and first 
collector of Sylbet in 1772. There, besides 
reducing the province to order, he became 
known as a hunter of elephants, and made 
money by supplying them to the company, 
lu 1774 he returned to Dacca, and on 31 Jan. 
1776 he married, at Calcutta, Amelia Rich- 
mond, third daughter of Colonel Richmond 
Webb. Webb was related to General 
John Richmond W'ebb [q. v.], whose victory 
at Wynendael is described in * Esmond.' 
W. M. Thackeray had brought two sisters to 
India, one of whom, Jane, married James 
li*>nnell [q. v.l II is sister-in-law. Miss 
Webb,married Peter Moore [q. v.], who was 
afterwards guardian of the novelist. W\ M. 
Thackeray had made a fortune by his ele- 
phants and other tniding speculations then 
allowed to the company's servants, when in 
1776 he returned to England.; In 1780 he 
bought a property at IladleyJ near Bamet, 
•where I'eter Moore had also settled. W. M. 
Thackeray had twelve children : Emily, third 
spear. and was mother of Sir Richmond Camp- 
Dell Shakspear [q. v.] ; Charlotte Sarah, the 
fourth child (1786-1^54), married John 
Ritchie ; and Francis, tenth child and sixth 
son, author of the * Life of Lord Chatham ' 
<IH27), who is separately noticed. Four 
other sons were in the civil service in India, 
one in the Indian armv, and a sixth at the 
Calcutta bar. William, the eldest (1778- 
1823), was intimate with Sir Thomas Munro 
and had an important part in the administra- 
tion and land settlements in Madras. Rich- 
mond, fourth child of W^illiam Makepeace 
and Amelia Thackeray, was born at South 
Mimms on 1 »Sept. 1781, and in 1798 went 
to India in the company*s serA'ice. In 1807 
he became secretary to the board of revenue 
at Calcutta, and on 13 Oct. 1810 married 
Anne, daughter of John llarman Recher, 
and a * reigning beauty ' at Calcutta. William 
Makepeace, their only child, was named after 
his grandfather, the name * Makepeace* being 
derived, according to a family tradition, from 
some ancestor who had been a protestant 
martyr in the days of Queen Mary. Rich- 



mond Thackeray was appointed to the col- 
lectorship of the 24 pergunnahs, then con- 
sidered to be * one of the prizes of the Ben- 
gal service,* at the end of 181 1. lie died at 
Calcutta on 13 Sept. 1816. He seems, like 
his son, to have been a man of artistic tastes 
and a collector of pictures, musical instru- 
ments, and horses (Hunter, Thackerays in 
Indiay p. 158). A portrait in possession of 
his granddaughter, Mrs. Ritchie, shows a re- 
fined and handsome face. 

His son, W'illiam Makepeace Thackeray, 
was sent to England in 1817 in a ship which 
touched at St. Helena. There a black ser- 
vant took the child to look at Napoleon, 
who was then at Bowood, eating three sheep 
a day and all the little children he could 
catch (George III in Four Georges), The 
bov found all England in mourning for the 
Princess Charlotte {d, 6 Nov. 1817). He 
was placed under the care of his aunt, Mrs. 
Ritchie. She was alarmed by discovering 
that the child could wear his uncle's hat, till 
she was assured by a phvsician that the big 
head had a good deal in It. The child's pre- 
cocity appeared especially in an early taste 
for drawing. Thackeray was sent to a school 
in Hampshire, and then to one kept by Dr. 
Turner at Chiswick, in the neighbourhood 
of the imaginary Miss Pinkertonof * Vanity 
Fair.' Thackeray's mother about 1818 mar- 
ried Major Henry William Carmichael Smyth 
(d. 1801 ) of the Bengal engineers, author of 
a Hindoostanee dictionary (1 820), a * llindoo- 
stanee Jest-book,' and a history of the royal 
family of Lahore (1847). The Smyths re- 
turned to England in 1821, and settled at 
Addisconibe, where Major Smyth was for a 
time superintendent of the company's military 
col lege. From 1 822 to 1 828 Thackeray was at 
the Charterhouse. Frequent references in his 
writings show that he was deeply impresseil 
by tlie brutality of English public school 
life, although, as was natural, he came to 
look back with more tenderness, as the years 
went on, upon the scenes of his boyish life. 
The headmaster was John Russell (1787- 
1803) [q.v.], who for a time raised the num- 
bers of the school. Russell had been trying 
the then popular system of Dr. Bell, which, 
after attracting pupils, ended in failure. The 
number of boys in 182o was 4H0, but after- 
wards fell oif. A description of the school 
in Thackerjiv's time is in Mozlev's *Remi- 
niscences.' (leorge StovinVenables [[l-v.] was 
a school fellow and a lifelong friend. V enables 
broke Thackeray's nose in a fight, causing 
permanent disfigurement. He remembered 
Thackeray as a * pretty, gentle boy,' who did 
not distinguish himself either at lessons or 
in the playground, but was much liked by a 




few friends. He rose to the first class in 
time, and was a monitor, but showed no 
promise as a schohir ; and in the latter part 
of his time he became famous as a writer of 
humorous verses. Latterly he lived at a 
boarding-liouse in Cliarterhouse Square, and 
as a May bov' saw less of his schoolfellows. 
In February \i<'2i^ he wrote to his mother, 
saying tliat he had become * terribly in- 
dustrious,' but * could not pet lluSvSell to 
think so.' There were then 370 boys in the 
school, and he wishes that there were only 
369. Kussell, us his letters show, had re- 
proached him pretty much as the master of 

* Greyfriars ' rrproaclies young Pendennis, and 
a year after leaving tlu> school he says that 
as a child \w had been * licked into indolence,' 
and when older * abused into sulkiness' and 

* bullied into des])air.' lie left school in May 
1828 (for many details of his school life, 
illustrated by childish drawings and ]>oetrv, 
see Cornhill Mof/. for January 1^5t)o, and 
(ireyfriars for April 1802). Thackeray now 
went to live with the Smyths, who had left 
Addiscombe, and about 1825 taken a house 
called Larkbeare, a mile and a half from 
Otterv St. ^larv. The scenery is described 
in * IVndennis/ where Clavering St. Mary, 
Chatteris, and I^avmouth stand for Otterv 
St. Mary, Exeter, and Sidmouth. -Dr. Cor- 
nish, then vicar of Otterv St. Mar^-, lent 
Thackeray books, amcmg others Cary's version 
of the ' Birds' of Aristojihanes, which the lad 
illustrated with three humorous watercolour 
drawings. Cornish re])orts that Thackeray, 
like Pendrnnis, contributed to the poet's 
corner of the county paper, and gives a 
parody of Moore's * Minstrel Boy' (c-ited in 
Tharkcray M einoi-iftl'<)T'nV\Qv\\viir, an intended 
speecli of IJic'hard I^alor Sheil ([. v.], which 
was ])robably tlh^ author's first appearance 
in print. Thackeray read, it seems, for a 
time with his stepfather, who was i)roud of 
the lad's cleverness, but probably an incom- 
petent 'coach.' Thackeray was entered at 
Trinity Colleyfe, Cambridge. His (college 
tutor was William Whewell [q. v.] lie 
began residtiuce in F(.'bruarv 18219. He was 
thus a * by-term man,' which, as the great 
majority of his year had a term's start of 
him, was perha]»s some disadvantage. This, 
however, was really of little importance, 
especially as he had the o])tion of * degrading' 
— that is, joining the junior year. Thackeray 
had no taste for mathematics; nor had he 
taken to the classical training of his school 
in such a way as to qualify himself for 
success in examinations. In tlie May exami- 
nation (1829) he was in the fourth class, 
where * clever non-reading men were put as 
in a limbo.' lie had expected to be in the 

fifth. He read some classical authors and 
elementary mathematics, but his main in- 
terests were of a diiferent kind. He saw 

! something of his Cambridge cousins, two of 
whom were fellows of King's College ; and 
formed lasting friendships with some of his 
most promising contemporaries. He was 
very sociable; he formed an * Essay' club in 

I his second term, and afterwards a small club 

; of which .John Allen (afterwards archdeacon), 
Robert Ilindes Grooms [q. v.], and William 
llepworth Thompson [q. v.] (afterwards 
master of Trinity) were mem])er8. Other 
lifelong friendships were with William 
Henry Brookfield ^q. v.], Edward FitzGerald, 
John Mitchell Kemble, A. W. Kinglake, 
Monckton Milnes, Spedding, Tennyson, and 
Venables. He was fond of literary talk, 
expatiated upon the merits of Fielding, read 
Shelley, and could sing a good song. He 
also contributed to the *Suob: a literary 

i and scientific journal not conducted by 
members of the University,' which lasted 
through the May term ot'' 1820. 'Snob' 
a])pears to have been then used for towns- 
men as opposed to gownsmen. In this 
appeared *■ Timbuctoo,' a mock poem upon the 
subject of that year, for which Tennyson won 
the prize; * Genevieve' (which he mentions 
in a letter), and other trifles. Thackeray 
was bound to attend the lectures of IVyme, 
his cousin'shusband, upon political economy. 
He adorned the syllabus with peu-and-iiik 
drawings, but his opinion of the lectures is not 
recorded. He spoke at the Union with little 
success, and was much interested bv Shellev, 
who seems to have been then a frequent 
topic of discussion. Thackeray was attracted 
by the ])oetry but repelled by the principles, 
lie was at this time an ardent opponent of 
catholic emancipation. 

He found Cambridge more agreeable but 
not more profitable than the Charterhouse. 
Ho had learnt ' expensive habits,' and in his 
second year appears to have fallen into some 
of the errors ot Pendennis. He spent part 

J of the long vacation of 1 829 in I'aris studying 
French and German, and left at the end of 
the Easter term 1830. His rooms were on 
the ground floor of the staircase between the 
chapel and the gateway of the great court, 
where, as he remarks to his mother, it will 
be said hereafter that Newton and Thackeray 
both lived. He left, as he said at the time, 
because he felt that he was wasting time 
upon studies which, without more success 
than was possible to him, would be of no use 
in later life. He inherited a fortune which 
has been variously stated at 20,(XX)/.,or 6(X)/. 
a year, from his father. His relations wished 
him to go to the bar ; but he disliked the pro- 




fession from the first, and resolved to finish 
his education by travelling. He in 1830 
went by Qodesberg and Cologne, where he 
made some stay, to Weimar. There he 
spent some months. He was delighted by 
tiie homely and friendly ways of the little 
German court, which afterwards suggested 
' Pumpernickel,' and was made welcome in 
all the socialities of the place. He had never 
been in a society * more simple, charitable, 
court eou8, gentlemanlike.' He was intro- 
duced to Goethe, whom he long afterwards 
described in a letter published in Lewes's 
•Life of Goethe* (reprinted in * Works,* vol. 
XXV.) He delightea then, as afterwards, in 
drawing caricatures to amuse children, and 
was flattered by hearing that the great man 
had looked at tnem. lie seems to have pre- 
ferred the poetry of Schiller, whose * religion 
and morals,* as he observes, * were unexcep- 
tionable,* and who was * by far the favourite * 
at Weimar. He translated some of Schiller^s 
and other German poems, and thought of 
making a book about German manners and 
customs. He did not, however, become a 
profound student of the literature. His 
studies at Weimar had been carried on by 
* lying on a sofa, reading novels, and dream- 
ing ; * but he began to think of the future, 
and, after some thoughts of diplomacy, re- 
solved to be called to the bar. He read a 
littlo civil law, which he did not find * much 
to his taste.* He returned to England in 
1831, entered the Middle Temple, and in 
November was settled in chambers in Hare 

The 'preparatory education* of lawyers 
struck him as ' one of the most cold-blooded, 
prejudiced pieces of invention that ever a 
man was slave to.' He read with Mr. 
Taprell. studied his Chitty, and relieved 
himself by occasional visits to the theatres 
and a trip to his old friends at Cambridge. 
lie became intimate with Charles Buller 

Sq. v.], who, though he had graduated a 
it tie before, was Imown to the later Cam- 
bridge set: and, after the passage of the 
Reform Bill, went to Liskeard to help in 
Buller*s canvass for the following election. 
He then spent some time in Paris ; and soon 
after his return finally gave up a profession 
which seems to have been always distasteful. 
He had formed an acquaintance with Ma^inn 
in 1832 {Diary f in Mrs. Ritchie^s possession). 
F. S. Mahonv (* Father Prout ') told Blan- 
chard Jerrold that he had ^ven the intro- 
duction. This is irreconcilable with the 
dates of Mahony*s life in London. Mahony 
further said that Thackeray paid 500/. to 
Maginn to edit a new magazine — a statement 
which, though clearly erroneous, probably 

refers to some real transaction (B. Jerrold's 
* Father Prout * in lielgmvia for July 1868). 
In any case Thackeray was mixing in literary 
circles and trying to' get publishers for his 
caricatures. A paper had been started on 
5 Jan. 1833 called the * National Standard 
and Journal of Literature, Science, Music, 
Theatricals, and the Fine ArtiT Thackeray 
is said (Vizetelly, i. 235) to have bought 
this from F. W. X. Bayley [q. v.] At any 
rate, he became editor and proprietor, ife 
went to Paris, whence he wrote letters to 
the 'Standard* (end of June to August) 
and collected materials for articles. He re- 
turned to look after the paper about Novem- 
ber, and at the end of the year reports that 
he has lost about 200/. upon it, and that at 
this rate he will be ruined before it has 
made a success. Thackeray tells his mother 
at the same time that he ought to * thank 
heaven * for making him a poor man, as he 
will be * much happier * — presumably as 
having to work harder. The last number 

. of the * Standard* appeared on 1 Feb. 1834. 

j The loss to Thackeray was clearly not suffi- 
cient to explain the change in his position, 
nor are the circumstances now ascertainable. 
A good deal of money was lost at one time 
by the failure of an Indian bank, and pro- 
bably by other investments for which his 
stepfather was more or less responsible. 
Thackeray had spent too mucii at Cambridge, 
and was led into occasional gambling. He 
told Sir Theodore Martin that his story of 
Deuceace (in the ' Yellowplush Papers*) re- 
presented an adventure of his own. ' I 
have not seen that man,* he said, pointing 
to a ^mbler at Spa, * since he drove me 
down in his cabriolet to my bankers in the 
city, where I sold out my patrimony and 
handed it over to him.* He added that the 
sum was lost at 6cart6, and amounted to 
1,500/. (Merivale and Marzials, p. 23«). 
This story, which is clearly authentic, must 
refer to this period. In any case, Thacke- 
ray had now to work for his bread. 11 1^ 
made up his mind that he could draw better 
than he could do anything else, and deter- 
mined to qualify himself as an artist and 
to study in Paris. * Three years* appren- 
ticeship^ would be necessary. He accord- 
ingly settled at Paris in 1834. His aunt 
(Mrs. Ritchie) was living there, and his 
maternal grandmother accompanied him 
thither in October and made a home for 
him. The Smyths about the same time 
left Devonshire for London (some con- 
fusion as to dates has been caused by the 
accidental fusion of two letters into one in 
the 'Memorials,' p. 361). He worked in 
an atelier (probably that of Gros ; llauntn 




and Home*, p. 9), und afterwanls copied 

1)icture3 industriously at the Louvre (see 
lavward'surticle m Edinburgh JievieWfJeLmi- 
ary J 84?^). He never acquired any great 
technical skill as a draughtsman, but he 
always delighted in the art. The effort of 
preparinj^ his drawings for engniving wearied 
him, and partly accounts the inferiority 
of his illustrations to the original sketches 
( Orphan of Pimlicf}, pref. ) As it is, they 
have the rare interest of being interpreta- 
titms by an author of his own conceptions, 
though interpretations in an imperfectly 
known language. 

It is probable that Thackeray was at the 
same time making some literary experiments. 
In January \Hoo he appears as ime of the 

* Frasi'rians ' in the picture by Maclise issued 
with the * Fraser ' of that month. The only 
article before that time which has been con- 
jecturally us'-agned to him is the story of 

* Elizalxith Brownrigge/ a burlesque of Bul- 
wer's * Eugene Aram,' in the numbers for 
August and September 1832. If really by 
him, as is most probable, it shows that his 
skill in the art of burlesquing was as yet 
very imperfectly developed. He was for some 
years desirous of an artistic career, and in 
1830 he a])plied to Dickens (speech at the 
Academy dinner of 1858) to be employed in 
illustrating the * Pickwick Pa^wrs,' as suc- 
cessor to Uolxirt Seymour [q. v.], who died 
'20 April iH'jV). IIiMiry Ktieve speaks of him 
in January 183(> us editing an Luglish paper 
at Paris in opposition to * Ualignani's Mes- 
senger,' but of this nothing more is known. 
In the same year camo out his first publica- 
tion, * Flore et Zephyr,* a collection of eight 
satirical drawings, i>ublished at London and 
Paris. In 1830 a company was formed, of 
which ^lajor Smyt h was chairman, in order to 
start an ultra-liberal newspaper.' The price 
of the stamp upon newspapers was lowered 
in the session of 1830, and the change was 
su]>posed to give a chance for the enterprise. 
All the radicals— (irote, Molesworth, Huller, 
and their friends — prcmiswl support. The 
old *l*ublic Ledger' was bought, and, with 
the new title, * Tiie Constitutional,' prefixed, 
])egan to appear on 15 Sept. (the day on 
which t he duty was lowenni ). Samuel Laman 
Hlanchnrd [q. v.] was editor, and Thackeray 
the l*aris correspondent. He writes that his 
stepfather had behaved * nobly,' and rt^fused 
to tak(^ any remuneratiim as * director,* de- 
siring only this appointment for the stepson. 
Thackeray acted in that capacity for some 
time, and wrote letters strongly attacking 
Louis-PhilijjjH) as the representative of re- 
trograde tendencies. The * Constitutional,* 
however, failed, and after 1 July 1837 the 

name disappeared and the ' Public Ledger 're- 
vived in its place. The company had raised 
over 40,000/., and the loss i? stated at 6,000/. 
or 7,000/. — probably a low estimate (Fox 
liouRXE, English Newspapers f ii. 96-100; 
Andrews, British Journalistnf p. 237). 

Meanwhile Thackeray had taken advan- 
tage of his temporary position. He married, 
as he told his friend Synge,' with 400/.* (the 
exact sum seems to have been eight guineas 
a week ), * paid by a newspaper which failed 
six months afterwards,* referring presumably 
to his salarA' from the * Constitutional.' He 
was engaged early in the year to Isabella 
Gethin Creagh Shawe of Doneraile, co. Cork. 
She was daughter of Colonel Shawe, who 
had been military secretary, it is said, to the 
Marquis of AVellesley in India. The mar- 
riage took place at the British embassy at 
Paris on 20 Aug. 1836 (see Mabzials and 
Merivale, p. 107, for the official entry, first 
made known by Mr. Marzials in the Athe" 

The marriage was so timed that Thacke- 
ray could take up his duties as soon as the 
^ Constitutional * started. The failure of the 
paper left him to find support by his pen/ 
lie speaks in a later letter (Brookfield Cor- 
respondence^ p. 36) of writing for * Galignani ' 
at ten francs a day, apparently at this time. 
He returned, however, to England in 1837. 
The Smyths had left Larkbearc some time 
before, and were now living at 18 Albion 
Street, where Thackeray joined them, and 
where his first daughter was bom. Major 
Smyth resembled Colonel Xewcome in other 
qualities, and also in a weakness for absurd 
speculations. lie wastinl money in various 
directions, and the liabilities incurred by the 

* Constitutional ' were for a long time a source 
of anxiety. The Smyths now went to live 
at Paris, while Thackeray took a house at 
13 (^reat Coram Street, and laboured ener- 
getically at a variety of hackwork. He 
reviewed Carlvle's * French Ilcvolution' in 
the * Times ' (3 Aug. 1837). The author, as 
Carlyle reports, * is one Thackerav, a half- 
monstrous Cornish giant, kind of painter, 
Cambridge man, and Paris new8pa])er cor- 
respondent, who is now writing for his life 
in London. I have seen him at the Bullers* 
and at Sterling*8 ' (IJfe in London, i. 113). 

In 1838, and apparently for some time 
later, he worked for the ' Times.* He men- 
tions an article ui)on Fielding in 1840(^rr>oA*- 
Jield Corrvspondencey p. 125). He occasion- 
ally visited Paris upon journalistic business. 
He had some connection with the 'Morning 
Chronicle.' He contributed stories to the 

* New Monthly * and to some of George 
Cruikshank's publications. He also illus- 




trited Douglas Jerrold*8 * Men of Character ' 
in 1838, and in 1 840 was recommended by 
(Sir) Henry Cole [q. v.] for employment 
both as A^Titer and artist by the anti-com- 
law agitators. His drawings for this pur- 
pose are reproduced in Sir Henry Cole's 
'Fifty Years of Public Work' (li. 143). 
IIi5 moftt important connection, however, 
waj> with * Fraser's Magazine.* In 1838 he 
contributed to it the * Yellowplush Corre- 
wmdence,' containing the forcible incarna- 
tion of his old friend Deuceace, and in 1839- 
1840 the ' Catherine : by Ikey Solomons/ 
following apparently the precedent of his 
favourite Fielding's * Jonathan Wild.' The ori- 
ginal wasthereal murderess Catherine Hayes 
(l(JIX)-1726) [q. v.], whose name was unfor- 
tunately identical with that of the popular 
Irish vocalist Catherine Hayes (1825-1861) 
[q.rj A later reference to his old heroine 
JD * rendennis ' (the passage is in vol. ii. 
chap. vii. of the serial form, afterwards 
suppressed) produced some indignant rc- 
parks in Irish papers, which took it for an 
Jnsuh to the singer. Thackeray explained 
the facts on 12 April 1850 in a letter to the 
'Morning Chronicle* on * Capers and An- 
chovies* (dated * Garrick Club, 11 April 
'SoO*). A compatriot of Miss Hayes took 
lodgings about the same time opposite Thackc- 
ff^y's house in Young Street in order to in- 
flict vengeance. Thackeray first eent for a 
Hiceman; but finally called upon the 
avpnger, and succeeded in making him hear 
feason (see Haunts and Homes ^ p. 51). 

For some time Thackeray wrote annual 
Articlesuponthe exhibitions, the first of which 
appeared in * Fraser * in 1838. According to 
I'itzCierald (lieynfting, i. 154), they annoyed 
one at least of the persons criticised, a circum- 
stance not unparalleled, even when criticism, 
Us this seems to have been, is both just and 
l^fHxl-natured. In one respect, unfortunately, 
he conformed too much to a practice common 
to the literary class of the time. He ridi- 
culed the favourite butts of his allies with 
n personality which he afterwards regretted. 
Ill a preface to the * Punch * pai)ers, pub- 
lished in America in 1853, he confesses to 
Lis sins against Bulwer, and afterwards 
apologised to Bulwer himself. ' I suppose 
we all begin by being too savage,' he wrote to 
Ilannay in 1849; * 1 know one who did.* A 
private letter of 1840 shows that he con- 
sidered his satire to be 'good-natured.* 

Three daughters were bom about this 
time. The death of the second in infancy 
(1839) suggested a pathetic chapter in the 
* Iloggartv Diamond.* After the oirth of the 
third (28 Majr 1840) Thackeray took a trip to 
Belgium, having arranged for the publication 

of a short book of travels. He hud left his 
wife * nearly well,* but returned to find her in 
a strange state of languor and mental inac- 
tivity which became gradually more pro- 
nounced. For a long t ime there were gleams 
of hope. Thackeray himself attended to her 
exclusively for a time. He took her to her 
mother's in Ireland, and afterwards to Paris. 
There she had to be placed in a maison de 
sanUj Thackeray taking lodgings close by, 
and seeing her as fre((uentlv as he could. 
A year later, as he wrote to iMtzGerald, then 
very intimate with him, he thought her * all 
but well.* He was then with her at a hydro- 
pathic establishment in (lermany, where she 
seemed to be improving for a short time. The 
case, however, had become almost hopeless 
when in 1842 he went to Ireland. Yet he 
continued to write letters to her as late as 
1844, hoping that she might understand 
them. She had finally to be placed with 
a trustworthy attendant. She was placid 
and gentle, though unfitted for any active 
duty, and with little knowledge of anything 
around her, and survived till 1892.' The 
children had to be sent to the grandparents 
at Paris ; the house at (ireat Coram Street 
was finally given up in 1848, and Thackeray 
for some time lived as a bachelor at 27 
Jermyn Street, 88 St. James's Street, and 
probably elsewhere. 

His short married life had been perfectly 
happy. * Though my marriage was a wreck,* 
he wrote in 1852 to his friend Synge, * I 
would do it over again, for behold love is 
the crown and completion of all earthly 
good.* In spite of the agony of suspense he 
regained cheerfulness, and could write play- 
ful letters, although the frequent melancholy 
of this period may be traced in some of his 
works. Part of * Vanity Fair* was written 
in 1841 (see Orphan of Pimlico). He found 
relief from Ciire in the society of his friends, 
and was a memlK^r of many clubs of various 
kinds. He had been a member of the (iar- 
rick Club from 1838, and in March 1840 was 
elected to the Keform Club. He was a frt»- 
quenter of * Evans's,' described in many of his 
works, and belonged at this and later periods 
to various sociable clubs of the old-fashioned 
style, such as the Shakespeare, the Fielding 
(of which he was a founder), and * Our Club.* 
There in the evenings he met literary com- 
rades, and gradually became known as an 
eminent member of the fraternity. Mean- 
while, as he said, although he could suit the 
magazines, he could not hit the public 
(^CasselVs Maf/azhtej new ser. i. 298). 

In 1840, just before his wife's illness, he 
had published the * Paris Sketchbook,* using 
some of his old material ; and in 1841 he pub- 




lished a collection called ' Comic Tales and 
Sketches/ which had previously appeared in 
* Fraser * and elsewhere. It does not seem 
to have attracted much notice. In Sep- 
tember of the same year the * History of 
Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Ilocrgarty 
Diamond/ which had been refused by *iUact- 
wood/ beg-an to appear in * Fraser.* His friend 
Sterling read the first two numbers * with 
extreme (lelijrht/ and asked what there was 
better in Fielding or Goldsmith. Thackeray, 
he added, with leisure might produce mas- 
terpieces. The opinion, however, remained 
esoteric, and the * Hoggarty Diamond* was 
cut short at the editor's request. His next 
book records a tour made in Ireland in the 
later half of 1842. He there made Lever's 
acquaintance, and advised his new friend to 
try his fortunes in London. Lever declared 
Thackeray to be the *most good-natured of 
men/ but, 'though grateful, could not take 
help oiFered by a man who was himself 
struggling to keep his head above water 
(FiTZPATKiCK, Lever ^ ii. 39(3). The * Irish 
Sketchbook* (1843), in which his experiences 
are recorded, is a quiet narrative of some 
interest as giving a straightforward account 
of Ireland as it appeared to an intelligent 
traveller just before the famine. A preface 
in which Thackeray pronounced himself de- 
cidedly against the English government of 
Ireland was suppressed, presumably in defe- 
rence to tlie fears of the publisher. Thackeray 
would no doubt have been a home-ruler. 
In 1840 he tells his mother that he is *not 
a chartist, only a republican/ and speaks 
stronglv against aristocratic government. 
'Cornhill to Cairo* (I84(i), which in a lite- 
rary sense is very superior, records a two 
montlis* tour made in the autumn of 1844, 
during which he visited Athens, Constanti- 
nople, Jerusalem, and Cairo. Tlie directors 
of the * Peninsular and Oriental Company,* 
as he gratefully records, gave him a free 
passage. During the same year the * Luck 
of Barry Lyndon/ which probably owed 
somethingtohis Irish experiences, was coming 
out in * Fraser.' All later critics have re- 
cognised in this book one of his most power- 
ful performances. In directness and vigour 
he never surpassed it. At the time, how- 
ever, it was still unsuccessful, the popular 
reader of the day not liking the company of 
even an imaginary blackguard. Thackerav 
was to obtain his first recognition in a dif- 
ferent capacity. 

* Punch ' had been started with compara- 
tively little success on 1 7 July 1 841 . Among 
the first contributors were I)ouglas Jerrold 
and Thackeray's schoolfellow John Leech, 
both hi 3 friends, and he naturally tried to turn 

I the new opening to account. FitzGerald ap<* 
parently feared that this would involve & 

I lowering of his literary status (22 May 1842). 

, He began to contribute in June 1842, hii* 
first article being the ' Legend of JawbnhiiO^ 
Heraudee* (Punchy iii. 2^4). His first serieffy 
*Miss Tickletoby's Lectures on English Hi&^ 
tory,* began in June 1842. They ran for ten 
numbers, but failed to attract notice or to 
^ive satisfaction to the proprietors (see letted 
m SpiELMAjfX, p. 310). Thackeray, however, 
persevered, and gpidually became an accept-" 
able contributor, having in particular thi^ 
unique advantage of being skilful both witb. 
pen and pencil. In the course of his con- 
nection with * Punch* he contributed 38(> 
sketches. One of his drawings {Punchy xii, 
50) is famous because nobody has eA'er been 
able to see the point of it, though a rival 
paper ironically offered 500/. for an explana- 
tion. This, however, is a singular exception. 
His comic power was soon appreciated, and at 
Christmas 1843 he became an attendant at 
the regular dinner parties which formed 
' Punch's* cabinet council. The first marked 
success was Meames*s Diary/ which began in 
November 1845, and satirised the railwav 
mania of the time. The ' Snobs of England, 
by One of Themselves/ succeeded, beginning 
on 28 Feb. 1846, and continued for a year; 
and after the completion of this series the 
* Prize Novelists/ inimitably playful bur- 
lesques, began in April and continued till 
October 1847. The * Snob Papers * were col- 
lected as the *Book of Snobs* (issued from 
the * Punch * office). Seven, chiefly political, 
were omitted, but have been added to the 
last volume of the collected works. 

The * Snob Papers* had a very marked 
effect, and may be said to have made 
Thackeray famous. He had at last found out 
how to reach the public ear. The style was 
admirable, and the freshness and vigour of 
the portrait painting undeniable. It lias been 
stated (Spielmanx, p. 319) that Thackeray 
got leave to examine the complaint books of 
several clu))s in order to obtain materials 
for his description of club snobs. He was 
speaking, in any case, upon a very familiar 
topic, and the vivacity of his sketches natu- 
rally suggested identification with particular 
individuals. These must be in any case 
doubtful, and the practice was against 
Thackeray's artistic principles. Several of 
his Indian relatives are mentioned as partly 
originals of Colonel Newcome ^Hunter, 
p. 168). He says himself that his Amelia 
represented his wife, his mother, and Mrs. 
Brookfield (Broohjield Oorrespondencey p. 23). 
He describes to the same correRpondent a 
self-styled Blanche Amory (ib. p. 49). Foker, 




in ' PendenniB,* is said to have been in some 
degree a portrait — according to Mr. JeaiFre- 
fon, « flattering portrait — ofan acquaintance. 
The resemblances can only be taken as 
generic, but a good cap fits many particular 

The success of the * Snob Papers' perhaps 
led Thackeray to insist a little too frequently 

SK)n a particular variety of social inhrmity. 
e was occasionally accused of sharing the 
weakness which he satirised, and would play- 
fully admit that the charge was not alto- 
gether fi^roundless. It is much easier to 
oud(e such statements than to test their 
truth. They indicate, however, one point 
which requires notice. Thackeray was at 
this time, as he remarks in * Philip' (chap, 
v.), an inhabitant of 'Bohemia,' and enjoyed 
the humours and unconventional ways of 
the region. But he was a native of his 
own ^Tybumia/ forced into 'Bohemia' by 
distress and there meeting many men of the 
Bludyer type who were his inferiors in re- 
^ment and cultivation. Such people were 
•Pt to show their * unconventional ity' by 
J*! coarseness, and liked to detect * snol)- 
wfihness' in any taste for good society. To 
^®ar a dress-coat was to truckle to rank and 
*8hion. Thackeray, an intellectual aristo- 
^^t though politically a liberal, was natu- 
'^Uy an object of some suspicion to the 
'^Ugher among his companions. If he ap- 
P'^iated refinement too keenly, no accusa- 
nt! of anything like meanness has ever 
*^n made against him. Meanwhile it was 
^*iiiracteristic of his humour that he saw more 
*^lt)ngly than any one the bad side of the 
^•Hiiety which held out to him the strongest 
^^mptations, and emphasised, possibly too 
^Ucn, its * mean admiration of moan things' 
('S^A^ Papers, chap, ii.) 

Thackeray in 1848 received one proof of 

**is growing fame by the presentation of a 

^jlver inkstond in the shape of * Punch 'from 

^ifirht T admirers at Edinburgh, headed by Dr. 

^ohn'Brown (1810-1882) [q, v.], afterwards 

^ warm friend and appreciative critic. His 

^putation was spreading by other works 

Vhich distracted his enerpes from * Punch.' 

tie continued to contribute occasionallv* 

T*he characteristic 'Bow Street Ballads' in 

1848 commemorate, among other things, his 

friendship for Matthew James Higgins [q. v.], 

tine of whose articles, * A Plea for Plusli,' is 

erroneously included in the last volume of 

Thackeray 8 works (Spielmanx, p. 321 n.) 

^me final contributions appeared in 18o4, 

but his connection ceasea after 1851, in 

which year he contributed forty-one articles 

and tweWe cuts. Thackeray had by this 

time other occupatioiu which made him un- 


willing to devote much time to journalism. 
lie wrote a letter in 1855 to one of the pro- 
prietors, explaining the reasons of his re- 
tirement, lie was annoyed by the political 
line taken by 'Punch' in 1851, especially by 
denunciations of Napoleon III, which seemed 
to him unpatriotic and dangerous to peace 
(Spielmaitn, pp. iJ23-4, and the review of 
John Leech). He remained, however, on 
good terms with his old colleagues, and occa- 
sionally attended their dinners. A sentence 
in his eulogy upon Leech (1854) appeared to 
disparage the relative merits of other con- 
tributors. Thackeray gave an 'atonement 
dinner' at his own house, and obtained full 
forgiveness (Trollope, p. 42; Spielmaxn, 
p. 87). The advantages hud been reciprocal, 
and were cordially admitted on both sides. 
* It was a good day for himself, the journal, 
and the world when Thackeray joined 
"Punch,"' said Shirley Brooks, afterwards 
editor ; and Thackeray himself admitted that 
he * owed the good chances which had lately 
befallen him to his connection with * Punch ' 
(i*. pp. 308, 326). 

From 1846 to 1850 he published yearly a 
'Christmas book,' the lust of which, *The 
Kickleburys on the Rhine,' was attacked in 
the * Times.* Thackeray's reply to this in a 
preface to the second edition is characteristic 
of his own view of the common tone of 
criticism at the time. Thackeray's *May 
Day Ode' on the openingof the exhibition of 
1851 appeared in the 'Times' of 30 April, 
and probably implied a reconciliation with 
the ' Thunderer.* 

Thackeray had meanwhile made his mark 
in a higher department of literature. His 
improving position had now enabled him to 
maKe a home for himself. In 1846 ho took 
a house at 13 Young Street, whither he 
! brought his daughters, and soon afterwards 
received long visits from the Smyths {Ii rook- 
field Correspondence). There he wrote * Vanity 
Fair.' Dickens's success had given popu- 
larity to the system of publisliing novels 
in monthly numbers. The first number of 
'Vanity Fair' appeared in January 1847, 
and the last (a double number) in July 1848. 
It has been said that * Vanity Fair ' was re- 
fused by many publishers, but the state- 
ment has been disputed (cf. Vizetellt, i. 
281 &c.) He received fifty guineas a number, 
including the illustrations. The first num- 
bers were comparatively unsuccessful, and 
the book for a time brought more fame than 

Erofit. Gradually it became popular, and 
efore it was ended his position as one of 
the first of English novelists was generally 
recognised. On 16 Sept. 1847 Mrs. Carlyle 
w^rote to her husband that the last four 




nacilr-r- w^-rr ' v^rv ?"»1 ii:dc*j<l' — Le • beats 
Jiick».-::s «'iit •■■f :L»: \\vi:'..i.* II:iy\v;iri q. v.". an oM frit-nJ. 
La-'l r"f^oinrQ»-r. J'.- 1 T:..i«-*kvray to Maovrv 

ll».-v:»,--.v.rr.* Thjii'A'-ray ha.l aoc-olin^ly 
wrirtt.-n an artiol- \.\>->n N. P. Wiilia'.s 
• l.»a:'h' - a* Lif-,' whii-li Nciplrr inanjkd and 
J'-llr'-y C'>:id».iiin';d i y-tjur O'rrci^p ^ndt^n^^, 
4i'?. •"*'.»»»: ll'iyicaffl <''>rc*i']"jnfhi\r:e, i. 10"»J. 
Hfivwiirl is'.iw F'.'viHwed th'- oarly numL-jrs 
of • Vanity Fair' in th^- • Edinburgh * fvir 
Jami'irv 1^4^. It i- warmly praised as 
' inJUKasuraUy .-up^^rior* t«i all his known 
work-. I'M ward Fitz<ioraM sin^aks of its 
iiiK^cris a lit t If later, and .siv? that Thackerav 
has h»'Cijra»* a ;rrrat man and pnt-s to Holland 
JIoii-*'. Monckton Mibu-s writes 1 19 Mav) 


that 'I'h:ick»;r.iy is • winning; groat social 
sure-?', dininff at tho Aeadt-my with Sir 
Ij'ih' rt P'ol.' and so firth. Milnes was 
throii^-h life a very clo-e friend : he had bet^n 
with Tli.iL-k»rrav to «».!•• the s»*ct)iid funeral of 
>'upolioM. and had acc'iim]ianied him * to see 
n man han;.''ed ' (an ex])edition described liy 
Tharkeray in FrnnL-rA Mn;f, Auprust 1^40). 
ll»j tri».il to obtain a London magistracy for 
TliMck'-niy in 18t0. It was probably with 
a vi'-NV to such an appf)intment, in which he 
wrmld have succeeded Fielding, that Thacke- 
ray was call'd to the bar at the Middle 
Tt-mple ftn ii»» May 184>^. As. however, a 
inaai'-trati* to be a barrister of seven 
years' st;lndinL^ the .siiggi'stion came to 
nrjtliinir ( \Vi:my>s J{i:ed, Mnnrkton Mihtfs, 
I. \'J7 ). Tn)llo])e says (p. .'U) that in 184*^ 
J^nnl < Manriitarde, thrn postmaster-general, 
ppipo^^t'l to make him as-ii:;tant secretary at 
tlii' ]iri.-jt otlic*.', but had to withdraw an oiler 
which would have been unjust to thf ri*gu- 
larslair. ThacktTny, in any cas«', had be- 
corni* famous outsidi* of fashionable circles. 
In tlios»* djiys youthful critics divided 
lhenis<*lv»'S into two camps of Dickens and 
TbatrkiTay worshi])]>ers. lioth were popnlar 
authors of periodical publieatiims, but other- 
wise a * cotni»arisnn ' was as absurd as most 
coui]>arisons of disparate qualities. As a 
mattiT nf faet, Dickens had an incomparably 
lar;r''i* cireulat ion, as was nat ural to one who 
appi'iili'd to a wid«'r audi«'nce. Thackeray 
bad as manv or iiossiblv more adherents 
aniMug tlnj mon' cultivated critics; but for 
Konn' years tlie two n.»igned supreme among 
noveli-ts. Among Thackeray *s warm(?st ad- 
miriTs was Mi«s Bronte, who had pnb- 
lishrd *.lan»* Kvn»' anonvmonslv. The 
second «;dition was (h-dicated in A'ery enthu- 
siastic terms to the * Satirist of Vanity Fair.' 
l[e was compannl to a Hebrew prophet, and 
' ~ ^o ' resemblo Ficldmg as on eaglo does 

^ rulture.' An absurd story to the effeet 
that Miss Bronte was represented by Becky 
Sharp and Thackeray by Mr. Rochester 
lta:^ame current. and was mentioned seriomlv 
in a review of • Vanity Fair' in the *Qu4r- 
terlv " f >r January 1??49. Miss Bronte came 
to London in June l>oO, and was intro- 
duced to her hero. She met him at her 
publi^iher s house, and dined at his hoase on 
1:2 June. Miss Bronto*s genius did not in- 
clude a sense of humour, and she rebuked 
Thackeray for some 'errors of doctrine,' 
which he defended bv 'worse excuses-' 
They were, however, on excellent term^f 
though the dinner to which he invited he^ 
turned out to 1h* so oppressively dull tha-'*^ 
Thackeray sneaked otl' to his chib prema.^' 
turely (Mrs. Kitciiie, Chapters^ &c., p. 62> - 
She attended one of his lectures in 1851, anA^ 
though a little scandalist^d by some of hi 
views, cordially admired his frreat qualities 

'Vanity Fair' was succeeded by *Pen- 
dennis/ the first number of which appei 
in November 1848. Tlie book has more=^^ 
autobioL^raphy than any of the novels, am 
clearly embodies the experience of Thackc 
r.iv*s early life so fullv that it must be 
pointed out that no stress must be laid upoi 
particular facts. Nor is it safe to identify 
any of the characters with ori^nals, thougl 
Captain Shaudon has been ^nerally takei 
to represent Maginn; and Mrs. Carlylc 
gives a lively account in January 1851 of i 
young lady whom she supposed to be the- 
original of Blanche Amory (Memorials, ii. 
1 l-V-7). When accused of ' fostering a bane- 
ful prejudice against literarv men,' Thackeray 
defended himself in a letter to the 'Morning 
Chronicle ' of 1:? Jan. ISoO, and stated that he 
had seen the bookseller from whom Bludver 
robbed and had taken money * from a no\)Ie 
brother man of letters to some one not unlike 
Captain Shandon in prison' (Hannay says 
that it is 'certain' that ho gavo Maginn 
oOO/.) The state of Thackeray's finances 
up to Maginn's death (18-1:?) seems to make 
this impossible, though the statement (sei* 
above) made by Father Prout suggests that 
on some pretext Maginn may have obtained 
such a sum from Thackeray. Anvwav the 
book is a tninscript from real life, and shows 
perhaps as much power as * Vanity Fair,' with 
less satirical intensity. A seyere illness at 
the end of 1 ^49 interrupted the appearance 
of ' Pendennis,' which was not concluded till 
December 1 PoO. The book is dedicated to 
Dr. John Klliotson [q. v.l who would ' take 
no other fee but thanks,' and to whose 
attendance he ascribed his recoyery. 

On 25 Feb. 1851 Thackeray waa elected 
member of the Athenosum Club by the com* 




iiiitt«e. An attempt to elect bim in ltJ50 
had been delV<ated by the oppositioD of one 
memlwr. Macauloy, Croker, Do»n Mil man, 
>nd £.oril Jlahon had supported his claims 
{HatftEarti Oorreipoadenix, i. I!i0). He was 
never, u has been said, ' hiack balled.' He 
was heocefonward a familior tigure at lUe 
elub. The illness of 1$19 appears to have 
left permaDent eSecls. He was afterwards 
liable to attai;k3 which caused much sufier- 
in^. Meanwhile, although ho was now 
making a good Income, he was anxious to 
proTide for hie children and recover what 
ke had lost in his youth. He resolved to 
try his hand at lecturing, following a pre- 
fedent already set by such predecessora as 
Coleridge, Haxlitt, and Carlyle. He Rave a 
Coarae of sis lectures upon the 'English Hu- 
noriMa' at Willis's Rooms from 32 May 
to3JuIyie51. The first (on Swift), though 
'■ttend«l bytnany friends, including Carljle, 
Ktnglake, Hallam, MacauUy, and Milman, 
aeemedto him to he a failure (ili. i. 119, where 
1&I7 must be a misprint for 1«61 ; C. Fox, 
Memories, kc, 18H2, ii. 171). The lectures 
■CMm became popular, as they deserved to be. 
Iliackeray was not given lo minute research, 
mad bis facts and dates require some correc- 
tion. But his delicnt« appreciation of the 
eongenial writers and the hnish of bis style 
^T« ifa« lectures a permaneDt place in cri- 
tiriam. His ■ light-in-hand manner,' as Mot- 
ley remarked of a later course, 'suits well 
toB delicate hovering rather than soper- 
fieial style of his composition.' Without the 
riigfat««t Mtempt at rhetoricn] effect his deli- 
ttiy did full justice to the peculiar merits of 
bi* own writing. The lectures bad appa- 
Knlly been prepared with a view to nn en- 
pg»m«nC in America (BrouliJUld Corre- 
IfonJewx, p. 11-^, where the dale should he 
«riy !B 1851, not 1860). Before starting 
ht puUiebed ' Esmond,' of which IltiOeruld 
Mjs (3 June 18!>-3) that 'it was finished 
,mt SMarday.' The book shows even more 
tium the lectures how thoroughly he had im- 
bibed the spirit of the Queen Anne writers. 
His style had reached its highest perfection, 
■ad the tenderness of the feeling has won 
periiaps more admirers for this bodi than for 
the more powerful and sterner peribrmances 
of tbe earlier period. The manuscript, now 
*llhe library of Trinity Coll^«, Cambridge, 
show* that it was written with very few cor- 
lectiona, and in great part dictated to his 
eldMt daugbler and Mr. Crowe. Earlier 
lunoscripte show much more alteration, and 
ht clearly obtained a completer mastery of 
his tools by long practice, lip tonk, how- 
*ver, much pain;* to get correct stal 
of bet, and read for that purpose 

libraries of the British Museum and the 
Athenajum ( With Thackeray in Ajntriea, 
pp. 1-tl}. The hook had a good sale from the 
lirsl, although the contrary has been stated. 
For the first edition of 'Esmond 'Thackeray 
received 1,200/. It waspubltshed by Messrs. 
Smith Si Elder, and the arrangement was 
made with him by Mr. Oeoi^ Smith of that 
firm, who became a warm friend for the rest 
of his life (MK8. Ritchie, VkapUre, p. 30). 

On 30 Oct. 1*J2 Thackeray sailed for Bos- 
ton, U.S.A. , in company with Clough and 
J. K. Lowell. He lectured at Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia (where he foruied a, 
friendship with W. B. lieed, who has de- 
scribed their intercourse), Ballimoru, Rich- 
mond, Charleston, and Savannah. He was 
received with the characteristic hospitality 
of Americans, and was thoroughly pleased 
with the people, makinfflnany friends in the 
southern us well as in the iu>rthem states — 
a circumstance which probably affected his 
sympathies during the subsequent civil war. 
lie returned in the spring of \t*f>S with 
about 2,500/. Soon after his return he stayed 
three weeks in London, and, after spendjug 
a month with the Smyths, went with bis 
children to Switierlund. There, as he says 
(Tie iVirweoHuw, last ohapt^rt, he strayed into 
a wood near Beme, where the story of ' The 
Newcoraes ' was ' revealed to him somehow.' 
The story, like those of his other longer 
novels, is rather a wide section of &mily 
history than a definite ' plot.' The rather 
complicated action gives room for a good 
deal of autobiographical matter ; and Colonel 
Newcome is undoubtedly drawn to a |p«at 
degree from his stepfather. For'The Jiew- 
comes' he apparently received 4,000/. It 
was again published in numbers, and was 
illustrated by his friend Hichard Doyle [q, v.], 
who had also illustratr>d • I(i;l>ecca and 
Kowena ' (1850). Thackeray was now living 
at 36 Onslow Square, to which he had moved 
from Young Street in I85."t. At Christmas 
1853 Thackeray went with his daughters to 
Home. There, to amuse some children, ha 
made the drawings which gradually ex- 
panded into the delightful burlesqueof 'The 
' liose and the King,' published with great 
success in 16J34. lie tufiered also from a 
Koman fever, from which, if not from the 
previous illness of 1849, dated a series of 
attacks causing much snlTering and depres- 
sion, The last number of ' The Newcomea ' 
appeared in August 1855, and in October 
■Thackeray atart«i for a second lecturing 
tour in the United F'tales. Sixty of hu 
friends cave him a farewell dinner (ll Oct. 
at which Dicken* took the chair. T 
ject of this new series was ' Thi 


f his I 

Oct.), ^d 

Four ^H 





Georges/ Over-scrupulous Britons com- 
plained of him for laying bare the weaknesses 
of our monarchy to Americans, who were 
already not predisposed in their favour. 
The Georges, however, had been dead for 
some time. On this occasion his tour ex- 
tended us far as Xew Orleans. An attempt 
on his return journey to reproduce the * Eng- 
lish Humorists ' in Philadelx>hia failed ow- 
ing to the lateness of the season. Thacke- 
ray said that he could not bear to see the 
* sad, pale-faced young man ' who had lost 
money by undertaking the speculation, and 
left l)ehind him a sum to replace what had 
been lost. He returned to England in April 
ISoO. The lecture's upon the Georges were 
repeated at various places in England and 
Scotland. He received from thirty to fifty 
guineas a lecture (Pollock, lieminiscencesy 
ii. 57). Although they have hardly the 
charm of the more sympathetic accounts of 
the * humorists,' they show the same quali- 
ties of style, and obtained general it not 
equal popularity. 

Thack»»ray's hard struggle, which had 
brought fame and social success, had also en- 
abled him to form a happier home. His chil- 
dren hud lived with him from 1846 ; but 
while they were in infancy the house without 
a mistress was naturally grave and quiet. 
Thackeray had the strongest love of all 
children, and was a most affectionate father 
to his own. He did all that he could to 
make their Wsw-y bright. He took them to 
plays and concerts, or for long drives into 
the country, or children's parties at the 
Dickensos' and elsewhere. They became 
known to his friends, grew up to be on the 
most easy terms with him, and gave him a 
liai>py domestic circle. About 1853 he re- 
ceived as an inmate of his household Amy 
Crowe, the daughter of Eyre Evans Crowe 
[q.v.]. who had been a warm friend at Paris. 
Sue became a si.-^ter to his daughters, and in 
1862 married his cousin, now Colonel Ed- 
ward Talbot Thackeray, V.C. His old college 
friend lirookfieldwas now sett led as a clergv- 
man in London, and had married a very 
charming wife. The published correspon- 
dence shows how much value Thackeray at- 
tached tot liis int ima(!y. Another dear friend 
was John Leech, to whom he was specially 
attached. He was also intimate with Jlichard 
Doyle and other distinguished artists, in- 
cluding I^andst.tT and Mr. G. F. "NVatts. 
Another friend was Heniy Thoby Prinsep 
U\, v.l, who lived in later years at Little Hol- 
land House, which became the centre of a de- 
lightful social circle. Herman Merivale [q.v.] 
and his family, the Theodore Martins, the 
Coles and the JSynges, were other friends 

of whose relation to him some notice is 
given in the last chapter of Mr. Merivale's 
memoir. Thackeray was specially kind to 
the younger members of his friends' families. 
He considered it to be a dutjr to *tip' 
schoolboys, and delighted in giving them 
holidavs at the play. His old friendships 
with Slonckton Milnes (Lord Houghton), 
Venables, Kinglake, and many other well- 
known men were kept up both at his clubs 
and at various social meetings. The Car- 
lyles were always friendly, in spite of Cap- 
lyle*s severe views of a novelist's vocation. 
Thackeray's time, however, was much taken 
up by lecturing and by frequent trips to the 
continent or various country places in search 
cf relaxation. His health was far from 
strong. On 11 Nov. 1854 he wrote to Keed 
that he had been prevented from finisliing 
* The Xewcomes ' by a severe fit of * spasms,' 
of which he had had about a dozen in the 
year. This decline of health is probably to 
be traced in the comparative want of vigour 
of his next writings. 

In July 1857 Thackerav stood for the city 
of ( )xfor(l, the member, Charles Xeate ( 1800- 
1879) [q.v.], having been unseated on petition. 
Thackeray was always a decided liberal in 
politics, though never much interested in 
active agitation. He promised to vote for the 
ballot in extension of the suffrage, and was 
ready to accept triennial parliaments. His 
opponent was Mr. Edward (afterwards Vis- 
count) Card well [q.v.], who had lost the seat at 
the previous election for opposing Palmerst on 
on the Chinese question. Tliackeray seems to 
have done better as a speaker than might 
have been expected, and Cardwcll only won 
('21 July) by a narrow majority — 1,085 to 
1,018. Thackeray had fought the contest with 
good temper and courtesy. * I will ivtire,' he 
said in a farewell speech, *and take my 
place at my desk, and leave to Mr. Card well 
a business which I am sure he understands 
better than I do.' * The Virginians,' the 
firstfruits of this resolution, came out in 
monthly numbers from November 1857 to 
October 1859. It embodied a few of his 
American recollections (see Heed's Hand 
Immemor)^ and continued with less than 
the old force the History of the Esmond 
family. A careful account of the genealo- 
logies in Thackeray's novels is given by Mr. 
E. C. K. Conner in* Time' for 1889 (pp. 
501, 608). Thackeray told Motley that he 
contemplated a ^rand novel of the period of 
Henry V, in which the ancestors of all his 
imaginar}' families should be assembled. He 
mentions this scheme in a letter to Fiti- 
Gerald in 1841. lie had read many of the 
chronicles of the period, though it may be 



Joubted whether hit would havo been 
much at bomt.' with Henry a.s with Que 

In June 1858 Edmaod Yatea [q-T-] put- 
luJied in b paper called ' Town 'J^Ik ' a per- 
Mnal description of Thackerny, mnrked, a« 
the author aAerwarda allowed, by ' silliness 
■nd bad tuste.' Thackeray considered it to 
be also ' ilaoderoue and untrue,' and wrote to 
yate^BafingeointheplaineBlIemiB. Yates,in 
answer, refused to accept Thackeray 'a account 
ofthearticleortomake any apology*. Thacke- 
ny then kid the matter before the committee 
ofllie Garrick Club, of which both lie and 
Yat«s wure members, on thu ground thai 
Yalws's fcnowled)fe waa only derived from 
neetinffB at the club. A peneral meeting of 
the dub in July passed nsolutions calling 
upon YbI^? to apologise under penalty of 
further action. Itickens warmly took Ystes'H 
part, Yales afterwards dinputed the legalily 
of the cluli's action, and counsel's opinion was 
taken on both sides. In Norember Dickens 
Dl&red to act as Y'ates's friend in a con- 
ference with a representative of Thackeray 
witlt a view to arranging 'some quiet ac- 
cominodaiion.' ThackeraT replied that be had 
left the matter in the bands of the com- 
nitlee. Notiiing came of this. Yates had 
to leave the club, and he afterwards dropped 
the l^nl proceeding on the ground of their 

Thackeray's disgust will be intelligible to 
every one who holds that journalism is de- 
gnuKd by such personalities. He would 
Bȴe been fully justified in breaking off in- 
ttrcoime with a man who had violated the 
tacit code under which gentlemen associate. 
He was, however, stung by his excessive 
Mnaibility into injudicious action. Yates, in 
■ letter suppressed hv Dickens's advice, had 
■t first retorted that Thackeray in his youth 
bad been equally impertinent to Bulwer and 
lAldner, and had caricatured members of 
tfie clnb in some of his fictitious characters. 
Thackeray's regrettable freedoms did not 
KkUt constitute a parallel offence, llut a 
neoUection of bis own errors might have 
■Dggested leas vehement aclion. There was 
cieuly much ground for Dickens's argument 
" " ' 3" "gilt to in- 

most unfortu- 
nate remit was an alienation between the 
two gtmt novelists. Thackeray waa no 
dottbt irritated at Dickens's support of 
Yates, though it is impossible to accept Mr. 
JttSbnaOD'g view that jealousy of Dickena 
was at the bottom of this miserable affair. 
An alienation between the two lasted till 
they accidentally met at the Atbenn-um 
few dayi beforv Thac 

•V Thackeray's death and spon- 

taneously shook hands. Though tley bad 
always been on terms of courtesy, they were 
never jnuch attracted by each other perso- 
nally. Sickens did not care for Thackeray's 
later work. Thackeray, on the other hand. I 
though making certain reserves, expressed 1 
the highest admiration of Diclsena's work I 
both in private and public, and recognised I 
ungrudgingly the great merits whic£ jus- 1 
lified Dickens's wider popularity (see e.g. f 
the ' Christmas Carol ' in a * Boi of Novels,' \ 
Work^, ijiv. 73, and Broukfield Corraptm- 1 
(fence, p. 68). 

Thackeray's established rfputation wa« 
soon afterwards recognised by a new posi- 
tion. Messrs. Smith & Elder started the 
■Oomhill Magazine 'in January 1H60. With 
'Macmillan's Magazine,' begun in the pt 
vious month, it set the new fashion of shilling 
magaisines. The ' Comhill ' was illustrated, 
and attracted many of the rising artists of 
the day. Thackeray's editorship gave it pi 
tige, and the first numbers had a sale of o^ 
a hundred thousand. Hisacquaintonce with ] 
all men of literary mark enabled him to 
list some distinguished contributors ; Tenny- I 
son among others, whose 'Titbonus' first I 
appeared in the second number. Uneofths J 
first contributors waa Anthony TruUope, ti 
whom Thackeray had made early applica 
tion. ' Justice compelled ' Trollope to w 
that Thackeray was ' not a good editor.' One | 
reason was that, as he admitted in 
'Thorns in a Cushion,' he was too tender- I 
hearted. He was pained by the necessity of 1 
rejecting articles from poor authors who had ' 
no claim but poverty, and by having to 
fuse his friends — such as Mrs. Browning and 
Trollope himself — from deference to absurd 
public prejudices. An editor no doubt re- 
quires on occasion thickness of ekiu if not 
bardness of heart. Trollope, however, makes 
the more serious complaint that Thackeray 
waa unmethodical and given to procrastina- 
tion. As acriticism of 'Thackeray's methods 
of writing, this of course tells chiefly against 
the critic. Trollope's amusing belief in the 
virtues of what he calls ■ elbnw-greaae ' is 
chamcteriatic of his own methods of pro- 
duction. But an editor is certainly bound 
:o be businesslike, and Thackeray do doubt 
had shortcomings in that direction. Manu- 
scripts were not considered with all desirable 
punctuality and despatch. His health made 
the labour trying; and in April I8C2 he re- 
tired from the editorship, though continuing 

contribute up to the last. 11 is last novels | 
appeared in the magazine. ' Lovel the Wi- 
dower ' came out from January to June 1860, 
and was a rewriting of a play called ' The 
Wolves and the Lamb,' which had been 




Thfs 'Adv-n:-:r-s oi I'hiliji" f jllowei fr»->m 
January l^W Ti'.i Auj-ust lS*5i. cor.::nu:nz 
tL«i ».ar!v •SLab:/v-<Trn:»frl -SM-rv.* ani ai::iiii 
containiEj mucli aii*'"^y'i •jmphieal m&ierial. 
In th-irv'. a- in tli- • Niriinians." it U sr-nvr^lly 
thoui:L: that tli- vijoir ^hown in rhvir pre- 
dfC».'?.*or- lias d»-elin-ii. an-l that the 
t'» di-curffivr r.;i'irali?in^ ha< l^een t-io much 
indul?- •]. * Oeni? l»uval/ on thr -itLvr hand, 
of which "lily a jtart had b-t-n wriiti-n at his 
d-ttth. ZiiVv jTf^-At promise* of a rvtum to 
tht; oM -taiidanl. Hi* ni'^t charat*'»Ti?Tic 
contrihuiion*. h^WfVt-r. wor'.* the ' ll-ain-l- 
about J*Jiji- r?,' which h'-zan in the first num- 
bfr. and ar»* wn:T»-n with th-.- ea*»- uf cm- 
summai- ma^t r>- of stylo. Th»-y are moJvls 
of th»' ».?-ay wliich. without aiming at pro- 
fundity, rivi 9 tliHcharm of playful and tender 
conver>ati<'>n of a trr-at writt-r. 

In !**•»! Thaclioritv built ahc)U5e at i* Palace 
Cirtt-n. Ken-rir.jton, upun which L* now 
placed the commemorative tablt*t of the 
S^>cifty of Arts. It is a red-brick hou«e in 
the >tyle of th^* <^Ufen Anne period, to which 
he was >o much attached : and was then, a? * 
he told un American friend, the *onlv<me of 
its kind' in London (Stopdard. p. 100). , 
The * hon^e-warming* took T»lace on -4 and ; 
25 Feb. 1 Mil', when * The Wolves and the . 
I^mb * wii-i p»-rfi irm«'d bv amateurs. Thackerav ' 
him-»'lf 'iiily ai>p« ared at the end as a clerical : 
fatluT to >siy in pantomime * IJless you. my ! 
chil'lren!' ( .M«'rivale in Tcmp/e Tiar, .June 
l^^^'). His frieiid' thought that the house 
was too hirtr" for his means; }>ut he explained 
that it would b(», as in fact it turned out to 
be, a jrood inve>tm»»nt for his children. His 
income from the M/onihill Magazine* alone 
was about 4.(XX)/. a year. Thackeray had ap- 
pean.'d frjr some time to be olderthan he really 
was, nn ell'ept partly due perhaps to his hair, 
originally black, having become perfectly 
whit I'. His friends, however, had seen a 
change, and variou> passages in his letters 
show that ho thought of himself as an old 
man and con.-idere<l his life to be precarious. 
In 1 )ecenib«'r 1 Mj;5hewas unwell, but attended 
the funeral of a relative, I^idy Kodd, on the 
21st. Keeling ill on the !i*M with one of his 
old attneks, he retin*d at an early hour, and 
next morning was found dead, the final cause 
being an iffusion into the brain. Few deaths 
were received with more general expressions 
of sjjrntw. lie was buried at Kensal ( Jreeii on 
.*iO Dec., whiT*' his mother, who died a year 
later, is aJM) buried. A subscription, first 
suggested by Shirley Hrooks, provided for a 
bust by Marochetti in Wt?stminster Abbey, 
••ay left two daughters: Anne Isalx'lla, 
1*8. liichmond Ititchie; and Harriot 

Marian, who in I'^r married Mr. Leslie 
Stephen, and died '2^ Not. 187*5. 

Nothing need be said here of Thackeray'at 
place in English literature, wliich is dis — 
cursed by all the critics. In any case, he i». 
one of the most characteristic writers of the 
lirst half of the Victorian period. His per— 
sonal character is indicated bv his life. * 1I» 
had many fine qualities,' wrote Carlyle to 
Monckton Milnes upon his death; ' no jpiilfr 
or malice ajainst any mortal; a big mass of a 
soul, but not strong in proportion; a beauti- 
ful vein of genius lay strusrgling about him — 
1 \y>T Thackeray, adieu, adieu ! ' Thackeray's 
weakness meant the excess of sensibility or 
a stron^dy artistic temperament, which in his 
youth led him into extravagance and too 
easy compliance with the follies of younff 
men of his class. In later years it produced 
some foibles, the more visible to nis con- 
temporaries because he seems to have been 
at once singularly frank in revealing his 
feelings to congenial friends, and reticent 
or sarcastic to less congenial strangers. 
His constitutional indolence and the ironical 
view of life which made him a humorist 
disqualified him from beiiig a prophet after 
the fashion of Carlyle. The author of • a 
novel without a hero* was not a 'hero- 
worshipper.' But the estimate of his moral 
and intellectual force will be increased by 
a fair view of his life. If naturally in- 
dolent, he worked most energetically and 
under most trying ctmditions through many 
vi»ars full of sorrow and discouragvment. 
'riie loss of his fortune and the ruin of his 
domestic happiness stimulated him to sus- 
tained and vigorous etlbrts. He worked, as 
he was bound to work, for money, and t«>ok 
his place frankly as a literary drudge. He 
slowly forced his wav to the front, helping 
his comrades liberally whenever occasion 
off'ered. Trollope only confirms the general 
testiniDuy by a storj* of his ready generosity 
(Trollope,* p. (K)). He kept all his old 
friends ; he was most affectionate to his mother, 
and made a home for her in later years ; and 
ho was the tenderest and most devoted of 
fat hers. His* social success ' never distracted 
him from his home duties, and he found his 
chief happiness in his domestic affections. 
The superficial weakness might appear in 
societv, and a man with so keen an eve for 
the weaknesses of others naturally roused 
some resentment. Hut the moral upon which 
Thackeray loved to insist in his writings 
gives also the i*ecret Avhich ennobled his life. 
A contemplation of the ordinary ambitions 
led him to emphasise the 'vanity of vauitiesy' 
and his keen perception of human weaknesses 
showed him the seamy side of much that 




for heroic. But to him the really 
^luaUe element of life was' in the simple 
«id tender affections which do not flourish 
in the world. During his gallant struggle 
^iast difficulties he emphasised the satiri- 
^ vein which is embodied with his greatest 
I»Wer in * Barxy Lyndon * and * Vanity Fair.' 
^ success came he could give freer play 
^^ the gentler emotions which animate ' Es- 
mood/ *The Newcomes/ and the *Round- 
•J^ut Papers/ and in which he found the 
*^ief happiness of his own career. 

Thackeray was 6 feet 3 inches in height. 
^i^ head was very massive, and it is stated 
**^t the brain weighed 58J ounces. His ap- 
P^^nnce was made familiar by many carica- 
^Ui>e8 introduced by himself as illustrations 
^^^liis own works and in * Punch.' Portraits 
^^th names of proprietors are : plaster bust 
^^m a cast taken from life about 1825, by 
!{^ Devile (Mrs. Ritchie : replica in National 
portrait Gallenr). Two drawings by Maclise 
2^ted 1832and 1833(Garrick Club). Another 
^i*awing by Maclise of about 1840 was en- 
K^^ved from a copy made by Thackerajr him- 
self for the * Orphan of Pimlico.' Painting 
bv Frank Stone about 1836 (Mrs. Ritchie). 
Two chalk drawings by Samuel Laurence, 
the first in 1853, a full face, engraved in 
1 854 by Francis Hall, and a profile, reading. 
X^urence made several replicas of the last 
after Thackeray *s death, one of which is in 
the National Portrait Gallery. Laurence 
also painted a posthumous portrait for the 
Keform Club. Portrait of Thackeray, in his 
study at Onslow Square in 1854,* by E. M. 
Ward (Mr. R. Ilurst). Portrait by Sir John 
Oilbert, posthumous, of Thackeray in the 
emoking-room of the Garrick Club (Garrick 
Club; this is engraved in 'Maclise's Por- 
trait Gallery '), where is also the portrait of 
Thackeray among the * Frasereans.' A 
sketch from memory by Millais and a draw- 
ing by F. Walker — aback view of Thackeray, 
done to show the capacity of the then un- 
known artist to illustrate for the * Comhill 
— belong to Mrs. Ritchie. The bust by 
Marochetti in Westminster Abbey is not 
thought to be satisfactory as a likeness. A 
statuette by Edgar Boehm was begun in 
1860 from two short sittings. It was finished 
after Thackeray's death, and is considered to 
be an excellent likeness. Many copies were 
sold, and two were presented to the Garrick 
Club and the Atheneeum. A bust by Joseph 
Durham was presented to the Garrick Club 
by the artist in 1864 ; and a terra-cotta re- 
plica from the original plaster mould is in 
the National Portrait Gallery. A bust by 
J. B. Williamson was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1864; and another, by Nevill 

Northey Bumard [q. v.], is in the National 
Portrait Gallery. For further details see 
article by F. G. Kitton in the * Magazine of 
Art'for July 1891. 

Thackeray's works as independently pub- 
lished are: 1. ' Flore et Zephyr : Ballet My- 
thologique par Th6ophile Wagstafi* ' (eight 
plates lithographed by E. Morton from 
sketches by Thackeray), fol. 1836. 2. * The 
Paris Sketchbook,' by Mr. Titmarsh, 2 vols. 
12mo, 1840, includes 'The Devil's Wager* 
from the * National Standard,' * Mary Ancel ' 
from the ' New Monthly ' (1838), the ' French 
Plutarch ' and * French School of Painting ' 
from * Eraser,' 1839, and three articles from 
the * Corsair,' a New York paper, 1839. ' The 
Student's Quarter,' by J. C. Ilotten, pro- 
fesses to be from 'papers not included in the 
collected writings, but is made up of this 
and one other letter in the * Corsair * (see 
Athenaum, 7, 14 Aug. 1886). 3. * Essay on 
the Genius of George Cruikshauk, with nu- 
merous illustrations of his works,' 1840 (re- 
printed from the * Westminster Review '). 
4. Sketches by Spec. No. 1 . * Britannia pro- 
tecting the drama' [1840]. Facsimile by 
Autotype Company from unique copy be- 
longing to Mr. C. P. Johnson. 6. * Comic 
Tales and Sketches, edited and illustrated 
by Mr. Michael Angelo Titmarsh,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
1841, contains the * Yellowplush Papers ' 
from * Eraser,' 1838 and 1840; * Some Passages 
in the Life of Major Gahagan ' from * New 
Monthly,' 1838-9; the * Professor' from 
^Bentley's Miscellany,' 1837; the ' Bedford 
Row Conspiracy ' from the * New Monthlv,' 
1840; and the 'Fatal Boots' from Cruik- 
shank's ' Comic Almanack ' for 1839. 6. *The 
Second Funeral of Napoleon, in three letters 
to Miss Smith of London' (reprinted in 
* Cornhill Magazine ' for January 1866), and 
the * Chronicleof the Drum,' 16mo, 1841. 7. 
*The Irish Sketchbook,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1843. 
8. * Notes of a Journey from Comhill to Cairo 
by way of Lisbon, Athens, Constantinople, 
and Jerusalem, by Mr. M. A. Titmarsh,' 
12mo, 1846. 9. 'Mrs. Perkins's Ball, by 
M. A. Titmarsh,' 4to, 1847 (Christmas, 1846). 
10. * Vanity Fair : a Novel without a Ilero, 
with Illustrations by the Author,' 1 vol. 8vo, 
1848 (monthly numbers from January 1847 to 
July 1848; last number double). 11. *The 
Book of Snobs,' 8 vo, 1 848 ; reprinted from * The 
Snobs of England, by One of Themselves,' 
in * Punch/ 1846-7 (omitting 7 numbers). 
12. * Our Street, by Mr. M. A. Titmarsh,' 
4to, 1848 (Christmas, 1847). 13. ' The His- 
tory of Pendennis, his Fortunes and Misfor- 
tunes, his Friends and his Greatest Enemy, 
with Illustrations by the Author,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
1849-60 (in monthly numbers from No- 




t :. r*:*: TT. '. fi *. ?-.'; fcf • r .* Sr^'r ::i Vr r 1 •-4^ - 14.' L*r. 
Jj.r;;. ir.'J h!^ V^-^r.i' Fr>r. :.?. by Mr. M. A- 

Ti' '/.;• -- '•• * ' ^'j"- 'j 1 ■»4> i< "■ -'i-'*^ « s 1 -4-^ . 

f'rr*A* If 02 ?%.— •.- IfjiTSk'^rA' iir'jzn • Fr^fer** 
Mfc^iizif.*: ' of i - 41 i. ^•. , 3 ^l^. Ir-. * IJ^becca 
nr.'i liow^rna: a up^.n Il-'-sacr*-.* 
j;jii>jtrar*Td J,v li. JJot!*:. -v-. Ir-SO iCtr>t- 
m4«, Ir49y: enlarp'r^ from • iV-po-wiI' for 
A oorjtiriij&tion of *• Ivanh''^ *"' in • Fraier/ 
A'j;ru-^ an'i .S'ryit':rrib*:r. ] •'lO, 17. " Sketches 
hfr';r Krc'liyh Lnnd-cap/: I'aintera. by S. 
-Marvv, with *liort noMc-'r by W, M. TLacke- 
niv/ fol, 1 "oO. 1 ■*. * Tli'.- Kickl'.-burys on the 
Jiliiri'?, by Mr. M. A. Tir marsh.' 4t'o, IS-VJ: 
tlwl <'/lit. with pr«:fac'; Cj Jan. l^-'il j, bein^r 
an * K-?av on ThunfJ»;r and Small Be»>r/ 
J K'il . V.K * The Jli-.torv of Jlenrv Esmond, 
I">q., a Colon*: I in the Service of Her 
MMJ<-«-ty ilnt'.t'W Anne, written bv hims*.-lf,' 
;5 voIh." ^-vo, l>*r,i'. ijO. 'The English Ha- ' 
inorihts of the Eighteenth Century : a series 
of lectures delivered in England, Scotland, ! 
and the l.'nited States of America,' 8vo, 1853. 
The notes were written bv James Hannav 
(He<; his dharnfter^j &c. p. .Oo n.) 21 . * Preface 
to a Colh'Ction of Papers from "Punch,'" 
].rint<.fl lit New York, 18.VJ. 22. « The Xew- 
coines : .M f 'inoirs of a most respectable Family, 
editrd hy Arthur Pendcnnis, Esq.,' 2 vols. 
Hvo, \^o\ 5, illnrttrated by It. l)oyle (twenty- 
four monthly niimlj^-rs from October 1853 
to August iHoo). 23. *The Kose and the 
King, or the History of Prince Giglio and 
Princo Hulbo : a Fireside Pantomime for 
gn-at and sniall Children, by Mr. M. A. Tit- 
nmrHh/ Hvo, lHr)5, illustrated by the author. 
21. * MiHCellnnies in Prose and Verse,' 4 
vnls. Hvo, 1855, contains all the* Comic Tales 
and Site! dies' (except the * Professor'), the 
*Hool( of Snobs '(IHIH), tho*IIoggarty Dia- 
mond' (IHPJ), * Rebecca and Uowena' 
( 1850) ; nlso* ('ox's Diary,' from the *Comic 
Alnuiuack ' of IKIO; the * Diary of Jeames 
do hi IMucho,' from * l»unch,' 1845-0; 
•Slietehes and Travels in London,' from 
* I'uuch,' 1817, and * Eraser' (*(ioing tosce a 
man haug(>d'), 1810; 'Novels bv Eminent 
Hands.' from •Punch,' 1847; 'Character 
Sketeli(»s,' from * Heads of the People,' drawn 
by Kenny\Mradows,' 1840-1; *liarry Lyn- 
don/ frt»ui * Eraser,* 1R14; * I^gt»nd'of the 
lihine.' from Cruikshank's *Tablebook,* 
1 815: * A litth» Dinner at Timmins's,' from 
•I*uiu'h.* 1818 ; the* Eitxboodle IWrs,'from 
•Eras,.r.* 1812 3; * Men's Wives,* from * Era- 
ser,' 181.H; nud 'A Shnbbv-Henteel Story," 
lV*un •Eraser.' 18-10. 25. ' The Virginians : 
% Tnle of the last Century* * (^illustrated by 

th* author*. 2 rols. ^to. IS5^-9 { monthly 
ni=:^-eTS from Norember 1^57 to October 
1^5J>-. 2»5. 'Lovel the Widower/ 8to, 
l^L from the 'Cornhill Maeazine.' !'?-» 
I iliUsTrated by the aathor). 2*7. • The Four 
O-r^Tz^a.* 1^1. from • Cornhill Macrazine,'' 
lr*50r 2S. 'The Adventures of Philip on 
L:? way throurh the World : showing who 
robbed him. who helped him.and who passed 
him by/ 3 vols. 6to. 1862, from • Cornhill 
Mazazine/ 1n51-i' i illustrated by F.Walker). 
29. • f Roundabout Papers,' 8vo, 1S63, from 
* Cornhill Magazine/ lSU)-3. :iO. •Denis: 
Duval,' 8vo, 1^7, from * Cornhill Magazine/ 
1^>4. 31. *The Orphan of Pimlico, and 
other Sketches, Fragments, and Drawings^ 
bv W. M. Thackerav, with some Notes bv 
A. T. Thackeray/ 4to, 1870. 32. ' Etchings by 
the late W. M. Thackerav while at Cam- 
bridge/ 1878. 33. 'A Collection of Letters 
by W. M. Thackeray, 1847-1855 ' (with in- 
tro^Juction by Mrs. Brookfield>, 8vo, 1887; 
first published in * Scribners Magazine/ 
34. * Sultan .Stork' (from* A insworth's Maga- 
zine,' 1842) and * other stories now first col- 
lected ; to which is added the bibliography of 
Thackerav' [by R. H. Shepherd] • revised and 
considerably enlarged/ Svo, 188< . 35. • Loose 
Sketches. An Eastern Adventure/ &c. (con- 
tributions to * The Britannia' in 1841, and 
to * launch's Pocket-Book' for 1847), London^ 

The first coUectiA'e or ' librarv ' edition of 
the works appeared in 22 vols. 8vo, 1807-9; 
the * popular' edition in 12 vols. cr. 8vo^ 
1871-2 ; the * cheaper illustrated edition ' in 
24 vols. 8vo, 1877-9; the ' Edition de luxe " 
in 24 vols. imp. 8vo, 1878-9 ; the ' standard ' 
edition in 26 vols. 8vo, 1883-5, and the * bio- 
graphical' edition with an introduction to 
each volume by Mrs. Richmond Ritchie, IS 
vols, crown Hvo. All thecollective editions in- 
clude the works (Nos. l-30)mentionedal)ove,. 
and add * The History of the next French- 
Revolution,' from * Punch,' 1 844 ; * Catherine,'" 
from ' Fraser/ 1 83J)-40 ; ' ' Little Travels and 
Roadside Sketches,' from * Fraser/ 1844-5 ;. 

* John Leech,' from * Quarterly Review/ 
December 1854; and ' The Wolves and the 
Lamb ' ^first printed). * Little Billee ' first 
appearea as tlie * Three Sailors ' in Bevan's 

* band and Canvas,' 1849. A facsimile from 
the autograph sent to Bevan is in the' Au- 
tographic Mirror,' 1 Dec. 1864, and another 
from Shirley Brooks's album in the * Editor** 
Box/ 1880. 

The last two volumes of the * standard ' edi- 
tion contain additional matter. Vol. xxx^ 
supplies most of the previously uncollected 
*■ \ raser ' articles and a lecture upon ' Charity 
and Humour/ given at New \ork in 1853; 

Thackeray 105 Thackeray 

the letter describing Qoethe; 'Tiinbuctoo' published. Mr. Marzials has kindly supplied 

from the *Snob/ and a few trifes. Vol. many references and suggestions for this article. 

xxri. contains previously uncollected papers The life by A. Trollope, in the Men of Letters 

from* Punch/includingthesuppressed* Snob* Series, 1879, is meagre. Anecdote Biogra- 

papers, chiefly politicid. These additions are ?^1?, ^^^.^^/S^^^yjJ^^ Dickens (New York, 

also contained in vols. xxv. and xxvi. added ^®7^); "^'l^. V \?' Stoddard, reprints some 

to the * Edition de luxe ' in 18«6. Two vo- "i^^^^j T^^a i «^^« '^''^l"^ published by 

lumee, with the same contents, were added ^^^"^ & Hindus. 1875 is chiefly a reproduc- 

T^iT' \" •»**"" ^^""*^"'"»» "Y 1 ^u ^10° of early drawings from books bought at 

at the same tmie to the 'library ' and the Thackeray's sale. The Thackerays in India, 

! cheaper lUustrated/ and one to the ' popu- by Sir W. W. Hunter (1897), gives interesting 

lar edition, llie pocket edition, 188tMS, information as to Thackeray's relatives. With 

has a few additions, including 'Sultan Stork' Thackeray in America, 1893, and Thackeray'a 

(see No. 84 above), and some omissions. Haunts and Homes, 1897, both by Eyre Crowe, 

V ol. xiii. of the * biog^raphical ' edition will A.R.A., contain some recollections by an old 

contain, in addition to all these miscellanea, friend. See also Life in Chambers's Ency- 

the contributions to the * Britannia ' in 1841 clopsedia, by Mr. Richmond Thackeray Ritchie. 

and • Punch's Pocket-Book ' for 1847, first The following is a list of the principal refe- 

reprinted in 1894 (see No. 35 above). rences to Thackeray in contemporary litera- 

The 'Yellowplush Correspondence' was i^^^^J Serjeant Ballantyne's Barrister's Life, 

reprinted from * Fraser' at Philadelphia in ^^^2,1^. 133 ; Bevan s Sand and Canvas. 1849, 

1838. Some other collections were also pub- ?Lf t. i^TT'^f k .I^T^fl ^^ ^''• 

lished in America in 18.52 and 1853, one Zi^^ll^ihl^^^^^ ?."'*'• ^"^'""' 

I • I !• r J.I n J.I.' ^\. tTt ' "^^ J^ebruary 1864: Cassells Magazine, new 

(recollections by R. 
f as an Artist 
^iftv Years of 

ters,' &c., having a preface by Thackeray Public Work, 1884, i.' 68, 82, i[. 143; Fields' 

(see above). * Early and late Papers '(1867) Yesterdays with Authors, 1873, pp. 11-39; 

is a collection by J. T. Fields. *L'Abbaye FitzGerald's Remains, 1889, i. 24, 6J, 65, 68, 

de Penmarc*h ' has been erroneously attri- 96, 100, 141, 154, 161, 188, 193, 198, 200, 2ir>, 

buted to W. M. Thackeray from confusion 217, 221, 275, 295 ; Fitzpatrick's Life of Lever, 

with a namesake. 1879, i. 239, 336-40, ii. 396, 405, 421 ; Forster's 

The above includes all such writings of ^^^ of Dickens, 1872, i. 04, ii. 162, 439, iii. 51, 

Thackeray as he thought worth preserva- 8^, 104,208, 267; Gaskell's Life of Charlotte 

tion ; and the last two volumes, as the puV Jj^lj. ^^3 P?* ^33, 282, 312, 316, 332, 365, 

lishers state, were intended to prevent the 380 385, 401 ; James Hannays Characters and 

pubUcation of more trifles. The 'Sultan Stork » ^!^'ATri\^oo^ ^ Jl^Ti^'^ SIT 

fiQuTx • 1 J 4.U J \4,c ^ i-Kr r» spondence, 1886, i. 105, 119, 120, 143-5: Hod- 

(1887) includes the doubtful 'Mrs. Brown- ^^.^ Memories if my Time, 1870 pp. 237-312 ; 

ngge from 'Fraser' of 1832 and some others. Hole's Memories of Dean Hole, 1893. pp. 69-76 

A list of many others will be found in the Lord Houghton's Monographs. 1873, p. 233; 

bibboffraphy appended to 'Sultan Stork.' Life by Wemyss Reed, 1890, i. 83,251, 263,283, 

See also the earlier bibliography by R. II. 306, 356, 425-9, 432, ii. 111. 118 ; Jeaffreson's 

Shepherd f 1880), the bibliography appended Book of Recollections, vol. i. passim ; Jerrold'a 

to Merivale and Marzials, and Mr. C. P. A Day with Thackeray, in The Best of All Good 

Johnson's ' Hints to Collectors of First Edi- Company, 1872; KemUe's Records of Later 

tions of Thackeray's Works.' l^ife, 1882, iii. 359-63 ; Life of Lord Lytton, 

ii. 275 ; Knight's Passages of a Working Life, 

[Thackeray's children, in obedience to the 1873, iii. 35 ; Maclise Portrait Gallery, pp. 95, 

wishes of their father, published no authorita- 222 ; Mackay's Forty Years' Recollections, 1877^ 

live life. The introductions contributed by his ii. 294-304 ; Locker^Lampson's My Confidences, 

eldest daughter, Mrs. Ritchie, to the forthcoming 1896, pp. 297-307; Macreadys Reminiscences, 

biographical edition of his works (1898-9) con- ii. 30 ; Theodore Martin's Life of Aytoun, 1867» 

tAin valuable materials. Mrs. Ritchie's Chapters pp. 130-5; Motley's Letters, 1889, i. 226, 229, 

from some Memoirs (1894) contain reminiscences 235, 261, 269; Napier's Correspondence, 1879, 

of his later years; and she has supplied inf or- pp. 498, 506; Planch^'s Recollections and Reflec- 

nation for this article. The Memorials of the tions, 1872, ii. 40; Sir F. Pollock's Personal 

Thackeray Family by Jane Townley Pryme Reminiscences, 1887, i. 177, 189,289, 292, ii. 36, 

(daughter of Thomas Thackeray), and her 67 ; Reed'sHandlmmemor, in Blackwood's Mag. 

daughter, Mrs. Bayne, privately printed in for June, 1872 (privately printed in 1864); Skel- 

1879, contain extracts from Thackeray's early ton's Table Talk of Shirley, 1895, pp. 25-38; 

letters. These are used in the life by Herman Spielmann's History of Punch, 1895, pp. 308-26, 

Meiivale and Frank T. Marzials (Great Wri- and many references ; Tennyson's Life of Tenny- 

Un Series), 1879. This is the fullest hitherto son, 1897, i. 266, 444, iL 371 ; Simpson's Many 






H^moricfl. &c.« 1898, pp. lod-10 ; BaT&rd Taj- 
lor's Life and hbttt-n. 1 8»4, pp. 3<i8, 3 1 5, 32 1 . 333, 
and B. Taylor in Atlantic Moothlj for March 1 864 ; 
'Theodore Taylor's *( pseudonym of J. C. Hot- 
ten) Thackeray the llnmorUt, IS64: Vizetelly's 
Glances lack through Serentv Years, lS93,i. 128, 
235, 249-52, 2Sl-i'6. ii. loVlO; Lester Wal- 
lack's Memories of Fifty Years, lS89,pp. 162-6; 
Yates's Recollect ion>, chap, ii.] L. S. 

18.">9), lieutenant-general, biirn on 1 Feb. 
}7f*\, was fourth s?on of John Thackwell, 
J. P., of Uye Court and Mon.-ton Court, 
Worc<.*stershire, by Judith, daughter of J. . 
Dulfv. He was commissioned as comet in " 
the Worcester fencible caA'alrv on 16 June 


17f»8, became lieutenant in Septemb'-ririH^, 
and ser\'ed with it in Ireland till it was , 
disbanded in 1800. On L'3 April 1800 he 
obtained a commission in the 15th light 
drajfoons, and became lieutenant on 13 Jum* 
18(J1. lie was placed on half-pay in 1802, 
but was broujfht back to th*^ regiment on 
its augmentation in April IKU, and became 
captain on 9 April 1K)7. The I'jth, con- . 
verted into hussars in 1800. formed ])art of 
Lord Paget 's hu>sar brigade in 1807, and 
was s«int to the Peninsula in 1^08. It played 
the principal part in th«' brilliant cavalry- ' 
aflair at Suhagun, and helped to cover the 
retri*at to Corufia. After som»' vears at home 
it went back to th«' I\?ninsula in 1813. It ' 
formed part of the hussar brigade attached 
to (iraham's conis [see Ctraham, Thomas, 
Lord LynkdochJ. and at the passage of th»* 
Ksla, on 31 May, Thackwell commanded the 
leading sfiuadron which surprised a French 
cavalry ])icket and took thirty prisoners. 
JI<' took ]mrt in the battle of Vittoria and 
in the subsequent pursuit, in the battle of 
tlie Pyrenees at the end of Julv, and in the 
blockade of Pampeluna. Jle was also pre- 
sent at Ortlies, Tarbes, and 'J'oulouse. On 
1 March 1814, after passing the Adour, he 
was in command of the l«*ading aqua<lron of 
liis regiment, and hud a creditable encounter 
with the French light cavalry, on account of 
which he was recommended for a brevet 
majority })y Sir Sta])leton Cotton. He 
served with tlni loth in the campaign of 
1^*15. It belonged to (Grant's brigade [see 
(jRANT, Sir Colquiiovn], which was on the 
right of the lin»^ at Waterloo. Its share in 
the battle has hern described by Thackwell 
himsi'lf (SiijoRNK, Waterloo Letters,\^\t. liM- 
12S, 111 3). A ft ersj'veral engagements with 
tht» I^Vench cavalry, it sullered severely in 
charging a sipiani of infantry towards the 
end of tln^ day. Thackwell had two horses 
shot under him and lost his left arm. He 
obtained his majority in the regiment on 

that day, and on 21 June 1817 he was made 
breyet lieatenant-colonel, as he had nofc 
benefited by Cottons recommendation. Bo 
succeeded to the command of the 15th on 
15 June 1820, and after holding this com- 
mand for twelve years, and having served 
thirtv-two years in the regiment, he was 
placed on half-pay on 16 March 1832. He 
was made K.H. in February 18S4. 

On 10 Jan. 1837 he became colonel in the 
army, and on 19 May he obtained, by ex- 
change, command of the 3rd (king*s own) 
light dragoons. He went with that regiments 
to India, but soon left it to assume command o£ 
the cavalry of the army of the Indus in the 
Afghan campaign of 1838-9. He was pr^- 
sent at the siege and capture of Ghazni, and. 
he commanded the second column of tha& 
part of the army which returned to Indiik 
from Cabul in the autumn of 1839. He was 
made C. B. in July 1838, and K.C.B. on 20 Dec. 
1839. He commanded the cavalry division 
of Sir Hugh Gough's army in the short 
campaign against the Marat has of Gwalior 
at the end of 1843, and was mentioned in 
Gough's despatcli after the battle of Maha- 
rajpur ( 2>>/j^ow Gazette, 8 March 1844). In 
the iirst iSikh war he was again in command 
of the cavalry at Sobraon (10 Feb. 1846), 
and led it in file over the intrenchments on 
the right, doing work (as Gougli said) usually 
left to infantry and artillery. He was pro- 
moted major-general on 9 Nov. 1840. 

When the second Sikh war began he was 
appointed to the command of the third divi- 
sion of infantrj"; but on the death of Briga- 
dier Cureton in the action at Ramnagar, on 
22 Nov. 1848, he was transferred to the 
cavalry division. After Itamnagar the 
Sikhs crossed to the right bank of the 
Chinab. To enable his own army to follow 
them, Gough sent a force of about eight 
thousand men under Thackwell to pass the 
river higher up, and help to dislodge the 
Sikhs from their position by moving on their 
left Hank and rear. Thackwell found the 
nearer fords impracticable, but crossed at 
Vazirabad, and on the morning of 3 Dec. 
encamped near Sadulapur. He had orders 
not to attack till he was joined by an addi- 
tional brigade ; but he was himself attacked 
towards midday by about half the Sikh 
army. The Sikhs drove the British pickets 
out of tlireti villages and some large planta- 
tions of sugar-cane, and so secured for them- 
selves a strong position. They kept up a 
heavy fire of artillery till sunset, and made 
some feeble attempts to turn the British 
flanks, but there was very little fighting at 
close quarters. In the course of the after- 
noon Thackwell received authority to attack 


if he iLought proper; but ae the enemj 
•tTODg-lf poeti^d, ha deemed it safer to i 
till neit morniDg. By morning the Sihhs 
hod diaappenreil, and it is doubtful whether 
thej hkd nnv other object in tbeir attack 
tiun that of gainiiig t 
Gough eiiHVSsed his 'worm approval' of 
ThaScwvll 8 conduct, but there 
•i|Ciu of ilissatistiiction is his despatch of 
6 Df«. An officer of fifty years' service ia 
apt to be over-cautious. Thia was not the 
cose with Uoug^h himself, but Chilianwala, 
eix wt-eks nft.?rward9, went far to justify 
Thackwell. He was in command of the 
avslre at Chilianwala, but actually directed 
only the left brigade. At Gujrat he was 
tiso on the left, and kept in check the 
eofrnv's cavalry when it tried to turn that 
fl«nh. After the battle was won he led a 
vigorous pursuit till nighlfall. In his des- 
patch of -JG Feb. lSt9 Gough said : < I am 
tdso greittly indebted to thia tried and gal- 
lant ntficer for his valuable assistance and 
untiring exertions throughout the present 
and previous oNeratlonB as second in com- 
mand with this force.' He receivixl the 
thanks of parliament for the third time, and 
the G.C.B. (5 June 1S49). In Xovembor 
1M9 he was given the colonelcy of the 16th 
ItBCpn. In ltfS4 he was appointed iuspect- 
^■geuaral of cavalry, and on 'HO June he 
MproDiDted lieutenant-generaL He died 
iSApril IB69 at Agbada llnll, co. Cork. 
■ mmed,on29Ju1y 1825,Marta.^ndriaL, 
leat dungbter of I'rancis I'tocbe of Roche- 
Oimt, CO. Cork, by whom he had four sons 
id three daughters. 

Uis thinl son, Osbbrt Dabit3t (1837- 
1856),wsBlientenantintbel5thBenga1 native 

L>6 June 1855, 

23 Nov. 1850. 

:Bs was appointed interpreter to the 83rd 

'toot, was in Mveral engagements with the 

ntineen, and diitinguisbed himself in the 

^Cence of Nimach. lie was present at tbe 

}ge of Lucknow, and, while walking in 

lli« streets after its capture, he was kdled 

l>jr •omu of the sepoys on 20 March 18o8. 

[OmiI. Vug, }»59. i. S40i Burke's Landed 

OmtTj; CaanuD'f IIi*ton«lRci7ordof ihol.^lh 

Hntaara; KaDDiM'sllisl«ricalRecordorthe3rd 

Ught Dragoons ; DeapatcliM uf Lord Hardings 

M^ Lord Qimgh. &c.. relating to tbe firm Sikh 

yrm; Thackwell'i Nsrrativ* of the Second Sikh 

^ii work was «ri(ifn iiy liitcldestsaD, who 

■loo his aide-d«<Miii)i) ; LavTenee- Archer's 

MDcntariea OS tbe Piiiyab Crnnpaign of 1848- 

]SM: QIottCMttrtbim Chronicle, 8 and 29 Mnr 

IMT-l E. M. L. 

THANE, JOHN (1748-1818), prints 
seller and engraver, bom in 1748, earned on 
business for many years in Soho, London, 
and became famous for his expert knowledge 
of pictures, coins, and every species of i-ertii. 
He was a friend of the antiquary Joseph 
Strutt, who at one period resided in his 
family. Ho collected the works of Thomas 
Saelling [q. v.], the medallic antiquary, and 
published them with an e.xcellent portrait 
drawn and engraved by himself. On Dr. 
John Fotbergill's death in 1780 his fine col- 
lection of engraved portraits were sold to 
Thane, wbocut up tbe volumes end disposed 
of the contents to the principal collectors of 
British portraits at that time. Thane was 
the projector and editor of ' British Auto* 
graphy: a Collection of Facsimiles of the 
Ilandwriting of Royal and Illustrious Fe^ 
socages, with their Authentic Portraits,' 
London < 1793 &c.), 3 vols. 4to. A supple- 
ment to this work was published by EdwBid 
Da ni ell, London [lH54j.4to, with a fine por- 
trait of Tbane prefixed, engraved by John 
Ogbome, from o piirtrait by "William Ked- 
more Bigg. Thane died in 1818. His por- 
traits were sold in May 1819. 

[Eranii's Cat. of Engraved Furtrnita, Xo. 
22033; Kidiob's llluslr. of Lit. v. 43fl-7i 
Niohols's Lit. Auecd. ii 160, iii. 630, 6Si, r. 
668, ii. 740.] T. C, 

yiLLE, ninth carl, 1767-1825.] 

THAUN. PHILIP BE (^. 1120), Anglo- 

Xorman writer. [See PuiUP.] 

rurgian* in July IG03; but us his nnme 
does not occur among the members of tbo 
Barber-Surgeons' Company, and as he uses 
no such description in 1325, be was probably 
one of the numerous irregular practitioners 
of the period, end no sworn surgeon. He 
published in London in lfJ03 a ' Treatise of 
the Pestilence,' dedicated to 8ir Hobert Lee, 
lord mayor 1602-3. The cause of the 
disease, the regimen, drugs and diet proper 
for its treatment are discussed. Ten lua- 
gno.qtic symptoms are described, and some 
theology is intermixed. The general plan 
differs little from that of Thomas Phoer's 
Treatise on the Plague,' and identical sen- 
eueea occur in several places [see 1'haer, 
Thomas]. These passages have suggested 
the untenable view (Cafoi/(^aeq/'(Aeii6r(iry 
of the Royal Medical and Chirurgienl So- 
rifty of London, ii. 439) that the works are 
identical, and Thayre a misprint for Pbayre. 
A similar resemblance of passages is to be 





detected in En^^Iish )>ook.s of the sixteenth 
century on other me^'iical s abject?, and is 
usually to b*.* trac»r'l to several writers in- 
dependtrntly ad')pting' and slitrhtly altering 
j^iine admired passage in a common source. 
Thayre publir-herl a s»*cond edition in lfJ25. 
dt^dicatcl to John Gore, lord mayor lt)24-5. 
T!ie work shows lilthj medical knowledge, 
but pre wn>-s some interesting particulars of 
domestic life, and, though inferior in style 
to the writings of Christopher I^njzton 
^q. v.] and evt^n of William Clowes (1540- 
liKU) [fj. v.", contains a few well-put and 
idiomatic exjiressions. 

[Works.] N. M. 

BCtilptor, lK>rn in 1772 at York, was the sun 
of respectable ])arents. In sculpture he was 
u pupil of John Bacon (1740-171^) q. v.], 
and formed himself on his style. He also 
Htudied several y»'ars under John Haxman 
"q. V.' and with Edwanl Hodges J?aily 
(1. v.^ but for the last twenty-four years of 
lis life he was employed by Sir Francis 
Legatt Cliantn*y ['j. v.] to carve the draperies 
and other accessories of that artist's statues 
and groups. Theakston was the ablest orna- 
mental carver of his time. Although he ap- 
peared to work slowly, he was so accurate 
that he seldom nefdud to retouch his figures. 
J{i;sidi!S aiding Cliantry, he produced some 
bu.*»ts and monunu-ntal work of his own, and 
exhibitetl occnsionallv at tlie Koval Aca- 
demv from 1?<I7 to l^'iT. He died at Bel- 
grave Plane on 1 4 A]>ril 1 8 12, and was buried 
])y the side of his wife at Kensal Green. 

[Times, '2r> April 1842; Gent. Ma?. 1842, i. 
672; KoilgrAVo".s Diet, of Artists, 1878.] 

E. I. C. 

THEED, WIJ J JA>r (1804-1891 ), sculp- 
tor, son of AViliiam Tinned, was bom at 
Tnmtliam, Staflbrdshire, in 1804. 

Willi A31 Thked, the father (1 70^-181 7), 
was born in 17()4, and entered tlie schools 
of the lloyal Academy in 178(J. He began 
life as a painter of classical subjects and 
portraits, and exhibited first at tlie lloyal 
Academy in 17?^'.'. He then went to Home, 
where lie iK'canie acquainted with.Tohn Flax- 
man and I Ii'iiry Howard. In 1 794 he returned 
through France to England. In 1797 he 
exhibited a picture of * Venus and Cupids,' 
in 1799 * Nesr*us and Deianeira,* and in 1800 
*CV])haluH and Aurora.' He then began to 
design and model ])Oltory for Messrs.Wedg- 
wood, and continued in their employ until 
about I8().'J, when he transferred his services 
to Messrs. Huiuh^ll «& HridGre,wlio8c gold and 
« he designed lor fourteen years. 
< time he continued to exhibit 


occasional] V at the Roval Academy, of n\A 
he was elected an associate in 181 1 anau 
academician in 1813, when he presented tt 
his diploma work a ' Bacchanalian Group' in 
bronze. In 1812 he exhibited a life-sixed 
group in bronze of * Thetis returning from 
Vulcan with Arms for Achilles,* now in the 
possession of the aueen, and in 1813 a statue 
of ' Mercury.' llis latest exhibited worka 
were of a monumental character. He 6M 
in 1817. He married a French lady named 
Kougeot at Naples about 1794 (Kedgrwe, 
Diet, of Art Mt a; Saxdby, Hist, of the Royal 
Academy J 1862, i. 3fr2 ; Hoyal Academy 
Rchib. Catalogues, 1789-1817 ). 

William Theed the younger, after receiv- 
ing a general education at Ealing and some 
instruction in art from his father, entered the 
studio of Edward Hodges Baily [q. v.], the 
sculptor, and was also for some time a sto- 
dent in the Royal Academy. In 1824 and 
' ld25 he sent busts to the exhibition of the 
' Jtoyal Academy, and in 1826 went to Home, 
\ where he studied under Thorvaldsen, Gib- 
, son, Wyatt, and Tenerani. He sent over 
several busts to exhibitions of the lloval 
Academy, but his works did not attract much 
attention until, in 1844, the prince consort 
requested John Gibson to send designs by 
English sculptors in Rome for marble statues 
for the decoration of Osborne House. Amon;;^ 
those selected were Theed's * Narcissus at 
I the Fountain ' and * Psyche lamenting the 
loss of Cupid.' 

In 1 847 he sent to the Royal Academv a 
marble group of * The Prodigal Son.* iHe 
returned to London in 1^8, when commis- 
sions began to flow in upon him. In ISoO 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy a marble 
statue of * Rebekah ' and another group of 
* The Prodigal Son,' and in 1851 a marble 
heroic statue of * Prometheus.' These works 
were followed in 1853 by a statue in 
marble of Humphrey Chetham for Man- 
chester Cathedral; in 1857 by * The Bard,* 
for the Egyptian Hall of the Mansion House, 
London ; in 1861 by a statue of Sir William 
Peel, for Greenwich Hospital ; in 18(50 by 
' Musidora,* now at Marlborough House ; 
and in 1868 by the group of the queen and 
the prince consort in early Saxon costume, 
which is now at Windsor Castle. His other 
works of importance include the bronze stat ue 
of Sir Isaac Newton which is at Grantham, 
the colossal statue of Sir William Peel at 
Calcutta, the statues of the prince consort 
for Balmoral Castle and Coburg, that of the 
Duchess of Kent at Frogmore, of the Earl 
of Derby at Liverpool, of Sir Robert Peel at 
Huddersfield, of William Ewart Gladstone 
the town-hall, Manchester, of Ueniy 





fliliam in St. PauVs Cathedral, and that of 
£dfflnnd Burke in St. Stephen's Hall in the 
houses of parliament. H^ executed also a 
aeries of twelve alto-relievos in bronze of 
inbjects from English history for the decora- 
tion of the I'rince's Chamber in the House 
of Lords. 

The most important and best known, 
however, of Th^Bd's works is the colossal 
group representing 'Africa' which adorns 
the north-east angle of the pedestal of the 
Albert Memorial in Hyde Park. Among 
his busts may be mentioned those of the 
qneen and the prince consort, of John Gib- 
son, Lord Lawrence, the Earls of Derby and 
Dartmouth, Sir Henry Holland, hart., Sir 
William Tite, General Lord Sandhurst, John 
Bright, William Ewart Gladstone, Sir Fran- 
cis Uoldsmid, hart., Sir James Mackintosh in 
Westminster Abbey, and that of the Marquis 
of Salisbury, his last exhibited work. His 

* Prodigal Son,' ' Sappho,' * Ruth,' and 'Africa ' 
were enffraved in the * Art Journal.' 

Theed died at Campden Lodge, Kensing- 
ton, on 9 Sept. 1891. 

[Times, 11 Sept. 1891; Athonseum, 1891, ii. 
393 ; Art Joornal, 1891, p. 352 ; Koyal Academy 
Exhibition Catalogues, 1824-85.] K. E. G. 

THEINRED (Jl. 1371), musical theorist, 
at an early age entered the Benedictine 
order. He was afterwards made precentor 
of the monastery at Dover, where he died 
and was buried. In 1371 he wrote a treatise 

* De legitimis ordinibus Pentachordorum et 
Tetracnordorum,' which ho addressed to 
Alared of Canterbury. The name Alured 
has been repeatedly transferred to Theinred 
himself, ana Moreri has further corrupted 
his name into David Theinred. The trea- 
tise is an exhaustive disquisition in three 
books upon scales and intervals ; it employs 
the ancient letter^notation instead of the 
usual musical signs, which do not occur 
throughout. The copy in the Bodleian Li- 
brary is the only one known to be extant. 
Boston of Bury gave the title as ' De Musica 
et de legitimis ordinibus Pentacordorum 
et Tetracordorum lib. 3 ; ' Bale, probably 
misled by this statement, described two 
separate treatises, and was followed by Pits. 
Both writers bestowed the highest enco- 
miums on Theinred*s learning. Bale calling 
him 'Musicorum suitemporis Phoenix/ which 
Pits extended into 'Vir morum probitate, 
multiplicique doctrina conspicuus,' although 
both apparently made these assertions only 
on the groimd that the precentor of a monas- 
tery must have had such qualifications. Bale 
adds that Theinred was tne reputed author 
of sereral other works whose titles he had 

not seen. Burney spoke slightingly of Thein- 
red's treatise, but Chappell shows that Burney 
had but cursorily examined it, and does not 
even correctly quote the opening words * Quo- 
niam Musicorum de his cantibus frequens 
est disseusio.' It was announced for publi- 
cation in the fourth volume of Coussemaker's 
* Scriptores de Musica medii aevi,' but did not 

[Bodleian MS. 842 ; Boston of Bury, in Tan- 
ner s Bibl. Brit.-Hib., iotrod. p. xxxix ; Bale's 
Script, p. 479 ; Pitseus, Script, p. 510 ; Bumey's 
General Hist, of Music, ii. 396 ; Chappeirs Hist, 
of Music, introd. p. xiii ; Ouseleys contributions 
to Naumann's Illustrirte Geschichte der Mosik, 
English edit. p. 562 ; Nagel's Geschichte dor 
Musik in England, p. 64 ; Weale's Cat. of the 
Historical Music Loan Exhibition, 1885, p. 
123.] H. D. 

THELLUSSpN, PETER (1737-1797), 
merchant, bom in Paris on 27 June 1737, 
was the third son of Isaac de Thellusson 
(1690-1770), resident envoy of Geneva at the 
court of France, by his wife Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Abraham le Boullen. The family of 
Thellusson was of French origin, but took 
refuge at Geneva after the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew in 1572. Isaac*s second son, 
George, founded a banking house in Paris, in 
which Necker, the financier, commenced his 
career as a clerk, and in which he afterwards 
became junior partner. Peter Thellusson 
came to England in 1762, was naturalised 
by act of parliament in the same year, and 
establishea his head office in Philpot Lane, 
London. Originally he acted as agent for 
Messrs. Vandenyver et Cie, of Amsterdam 
and Paris, and other great commercial houses 
of Paris. Afterwards engaging in business 
on his own account, he traded chiefly with 
the West Indies, where he acquired large 
estates. He eventually amassed a consider- 
able fortune, and, among other landed pro- 
perty, purchased the estate of Brodsworth 
m Yorkshire. He died on 21 July 1797 at 
his seat at Plaistow, near Bromley in Kent. 
On 6 Jan. 1761 he married Ann, second 
daughter of Matthew Woodford of South- 
ampton, by whom he had three sons and 
three daughters. His eldest son, Peter Isaac 
Thellusson (1761-1808), was on 1 Feb. 1806 
created Baron lleudlesham in the Irish 

Bv his wUl, dated 2 April 1790, Thellus- 
son left 100,000/. to his wife and children. 
The remainder of his fortune, valued at 
600,000/. or 800,000/., he assigned to trus- 
tees to accumulate during the lives of his 
sons and sons' sons, and of their issue exists 
ing at the time of his death. On the death 
of the last survivor the estate was to be 



divided equally unone the ' eldest male 
lineal deseendanta of liis three bods then 
living.' If there were no heir, the property 
vfM to go to the eitincttoti of the nationul 
debt. At the time of Thellusson'e dvuth 
be had DO great-gcondchLldren, and in con- 
sequence the trust was limited to the life 
of Iwo generations. The will was gene- 
rally stigmatised ts Absurd, and the family 
endeavoured to get it set aside. On20 April 
1799 the lord chancellor, Alexander ^\ ed- 
derbum, lord IjOughborouch [q- v.], pro- 
nounced the will valid, and liia decision was 
confirmed by the House of Lords on 25 June 
1805. As it waa calcukted tluit the accu- 
mulation might reach 1«),000,000/., the will 
was regarded by some as a peril to the coun- 
try, and an act was passed in 1800 prohibit- 
ing similar schemes of bequest. A second 
lawsuit as to the actual heirs arose in 1856, 
when Cliarles Thellussou, the last grandson, 
died at Brighton on 25 Feb. It was decided 
in the House of Lords on 9 June 1859. As 
George Woodford, I'eter'a secoud son, had 
no issue, the estate was divided between 
Frederick William Broolt Thelliisson, lord 
Kendlesham, and Charles Sabine Augustus 
Thelluason, grandson of Charles Thellusson, 
the third son of Peter. la conseguence of 
nuismanagement and the coats of litigation, 
thejBucceeded to oulya comparatively mode- 
rate fortune. 

[Agnaw's Prolratnot Esiles from Franco, 188fi, 
ii. 381; Gent. Blftg. 1737 ii. 624. 708. 7*T,17B8, 
ii. 1DS3, 1832 ii. 176; Anaonl Rngigter 1797, 
Chroa. p. 148, 18S9 Chron. p. 333; nnnter's 
Dsaasry of Dancastcr, i. 317 ; Lodge's Genea- 
logy of Peerage and Baroaago. 18S9, p. *52 ; 
G, E. C[oIcayne]'B Peerage, vi. 337; Burke's 
Peerage, a. v. ' BeodloBhum ; ' Do Loime's Gene- 
ral Obscrrationa occasioaed by tha last Will of 
Pator Thellosson. 1798 ; Notes and Queri^, 8lh 
aer. xii. 183, 233, 489; Law Times, 183S, Re- 
porfa, pp. 379-83; ObsorvatioBB upon tha Will 
of Peter Thelluason ; Veaej's Case upon the Will 
of Pet*r Thellasson, 1800; Hargrava's Trestiso 
up™ the ThellasBOn Act, 1812.] E.L C. 

THELWALL, EUBULE (15G3-1630), 
principiil of Jesus College, Oxford, fifth son 
of John Thelwall of Bathafam, near Rulhin, 
and Jane, his wife, was bom in 156:2. He 
was educated in Westminster school, whence 
he was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1572 (Welch, Alumni Weitimm, p. fiO), 
graduating IJ.A. in 1676-7. On 14 July 1579 
he was incorporated at Oxford, where ha gra- 
duated M.A. on 13 June 1580. He was ad- 
mitted student at Gray's Inn on 20 July 
1590 (Foster,^. Gray'ainn, p. 75) ; he was 
called to the bar inl599,Bnd became treaaiurer 
of the inn in 16i6, He was appointed a 

master in chancery in 1617, was knigbt«d on 
29 June 1019, and represented the county of 
Denbigh in the parliaments of lti24-5, 102Q, 
and 1628-9. In 1621 he was elected prin- 
cipal of Josus College, (/Ixford, an office 
he held until his death. So ample were his 
benefactions to the college that he haa been 
styled it.'j second founder; he spent upon the 
hall, the decoration of the chapel, and other 
buildings a sum of 5,0007. He also obtained 
a new dmrter for the college from James I 
j in 1622, In 1624 the king employed hjm 
, to assist in framing statutes for Pembroke 
CoUege, Oxford (SlACLEiyB, HUl. Pembrokr 
Co//. 1897, pp. 183-6). He died iiamarried 
on 8 Oct, 1630, and was buried in the col- 
lege chapel, where there is a monument to 
him, erected by his brother Sir Bevis Thel- 
wall. n« gave to his uephew John the 
houso he had built himself at I'tas Coch 
in the parish of Llanychan, Deubiebsbire. 
There is a portrait of him as a child, in 
Jesus College. 

[FoBter'sAInmniOioa. 1300-1714 ;Enwcsion 
Oyniru, Lirerpoal. 1870 ; Chalmers's History of 
the Collies of Oxford, 1810; Clark's CoUegai 
of OxfoTil; Dugdale'a Orig. Jurid. andChromca 
Sflriea ; Pennaat'a Tours.] J. E. It 

THELWALL, JOHN (1761-1834), re- 
former and lecturer on elocution, son of 
Joseph ThelwaU (1731-1772). a silk moreer, 
and grandson of Walter Thelwall, a naval 
surgeon, was bom at Chnndos Street, 
Covent Garden, on 97 July 1704. On his 
father's death in 1772 his mother decided 
to continue the buaineas, but it was not 
until 1777 that John was removed from 
school at Highgate and put behind tha 
counter. His duties were distasteful to btin, 
and he devoted most of his time to india- 
criminate reading, which he varied by iuak~ 
ing copies of engravings. Discord pravailed 
in the familv, his eldest brother hang 
addicted to neavy drinking, while tbe 
mother was constantly reproaching and 
castigating John for his' fondness for booha. 
To end this state of things he consented to 
he apprenticed toa tailor, but here again ex- 
ception was taken to his studious batata. 
Having parted from his master by motiul 
consent, he began studying divinity until lua 
brother-in-law, who held a jwsition M tha 
chancery bar, caused him to be articled in 
1782 to' John Impey [q. v.], altomey, of 
Inner Temple Lane. Here, again, hia inde- 
pendent views precluded the piiriuit of pro- 
fessional success. He studied the poeta and 
philMophers in preference to his law-books, 
avowedT his distaste for copying 'the trash 
of an office,' and refused to certify documents 
he had not read. Hia moral exaltation v 




raeh that he conceived not only a dislike for 
oaths, but a rooted objection to commit him- 
self even to a promise. Impey formed an 
attachment for him in spite of his eccen- 
tricities, but he insisted on having his in- 
dentures cancelled on the score of the 
acraples which he entertained about prac- 
tiung the profession. He was now for a 
time to become dependent wholly upon his 
pen« He had already written U)t the 
periodicaUy and in 1787 he published * Poems 
upon various Subjects ' (London, 2 vols. 
8ro) which was favourably noticed in the 
'Critical Review.' About the same time he 
became editor of the ' Bio^phical and Im- 
perial Magazine/ for which he received a 
aalar}' of 501, He made perhaps as much 
by contributions to other periodicals, and 
devoted half his income to the support of his 
mother, who liad failed in her business. 

Thelwall commenced his political career 
by speaking at the meetings of the society 
ibr free debate at the Coachmakers' Hall. 
In the course of the discussions in which he 
took part a number of radical views became 
giafted upon his original high tory doctrines, 
and when the States-General met at Ver- 
sailles in 1789, he rapidly became * intoxi- 
cated with the French doctrines of the day.' 
Though he suffered originally from a marked 
hesitation of speech and even a slight lisp, 
he gradually developed with the voice of a 
demagogue a genuine declamatory power. 
lie maae an impression at Coachmakers' 
Hall by an eloquent speech in which he 
opposed the compact formed by the rival 
parties to neutralise the voice of the West- 
minster electors in 1790. When it was de- 
termined to nominate an independent candi- 
date, he was asked to act as a poll clerk, and 
he soon won the friendship of the veteran 
Home Tooke when the latter resolved to 
contest the seat. Tooke so appreciated his 
talents that he offered to send him to the 
nniversity and to use his influence to obtain 
his subsequent advancement in the church. 
But Thelwall had formed other plans for his 
future. His income was steadily increasing, 
and during the summer of 1791 he married 
and settled down near the Borough hospi- 
tals in order that he might attend the ana- 
tomical and medical lectures of Henry Cline 
&. v.], W^illiam Babington [q. v.], and others, 
e waa also a frequent attendant at the lec- 
ture-room of John Hunter. He joined the 
Physical Societyat Guy's Hospital, and read 
before it ' An JSssay on Animal Vitality,' 
which was much applauded (London, 1793, 


In the meantime the advanced opinions 
which Thelmll shared were rapidly spread- 

ing in Loudon, and 1791 saw the forma- 
tion of a number of Jacobin societies. Thel- 
wall joined the Society of the Friends of the 
People, and he became a prominent member 
of the Corresponding Society founded by 
Thomas Hardy (1762-1 832) [q. v.] in January 
1792. One of ' Citizen Thelwalrs ' sallies at 
the Capel Court Society, in which he likened 
a crowned despot to a bantam cock on a 
dunghill, caught the radical taste of the day. 
When this rodomontade was reproduced 
with some embellishments in * Politics for the 
People, or Hogswash' (Xo. 8; the second title 
was in reference to a contemptuous remark 
of Burke's upon the * swinish multitude '), 
the government precipitately caused the 
publisher, Daniel Isaac Eaton, to be indicted 
at the Old Bailey for a seditious libel ; but, 
in spite of an adverse summing-up, the jury 
found the prisoner not guilty (24 Feb. if 94 ), 
and the prosecution was covered with ridi- 
cule owing to the grotesque manner in which 
the indictment was framed — the phrase 
* meaning our lord the king ' being interpo- 
lated at each of the most ludicrous passages 
in Thelwall's description. The affair gave 
him a certain notoriety, and he was marked 
down by the government spies. One of 
these, named Gostling, declared that Thel- 
wall upon a public occasion cut the froth 
from a pot of porter and invoked a similar 
fate upon all kings. He was not finally 
arrested, however, until 13 May 1794, when 
he was charged upon the deposition of an- 
other spy, named Ward, with having moved 
a seditious resolution at a meeting at Chalk 
Farm. Six days later he was sent to the 
Tower along with Thomas Hardy and Home 
Tooke, who had been arrested upon similar 
charges. On 6 Oct. true bills were found 
against them, and on 24 Oct. they were 
removed to Newgate. His trial was the 
last of the political trials of the year, being 
held on 1-5 Dec. at the Old Bailey before 
Chief-baron Macdonald. The testimony as 
to Thelwall's moral character was excep- 
tionally strong, and his acquittal was the 
signal for a great outburst of applause. At 
the beginning of the trial he handed a pen- 
cilled note to counsel, saying he wished to 
plead his own cause. * If you do, you will 
be hanged,' was Erskine's comment, to which 
he at once rejoined, * Then I'll be hanged if 
I do ' (Brittox). Soon after his release he 
published * Poems written in Close Confine- 
ment in the Tower and Newgate ' (London, 
1795, 4to). He was now living at Beaufort 
Buildings, Strand, and during 1795 his ac- 
tivity as a lecturer and political speaker was 
redoubled. When in December Pitt's act 
for more effectually preventing seditious 




m*ThUn',rii und a-*»e!nbli«rs recti ve<l the royal 
bjii!«;rit, h*t tlion^lit it wHfret to leave I-ondon; 
and Mathiaa, in the ' Pursuits of Literature/ 
mtrnUfiJiB how 

The! wall for the ••eason r^uiu the Strand, 
To organifee revolt hy Ma and laud 

CDial. iv. 1. 41.'5). But he continued for 
ii';arly t wo yrarn d^nouncinjif the government 
to the provinc^'3, and commenting freely 
upon contiimporarj' pfilitics through the me- 
dium of * L»fCtures uj>on liomaii Hist or v.* 
Me was warmly rec»;ived in some of the 
hirge c«:ntn;.-j; in the eastern counties, espe- 
cially at '^'annouth (when; he narrowly 
«;Hcaii<;d cnjjture by a pressganj^), Kings 
J^ynn, and \Vibh*.*ch, mobs were hired which 
4j|iectually pr«'v«*nted his Ix-ing heard. 

Al>out'l798 he withdrew altogether from 
hin connection with politics and took a small 
farm near Hrwon. There he spent two 
y<'arH, gaining in health, but suffering a great 
<lfal fn)m t he enforced silence ; and about 
18()() lnj rei*umfd his career as a lecturer, 
<liHcarding politics in favour of elocution. 
His ill UHt rations were so good and his man- 
ner so animatitd that his lectures soon be- 
came highly poj)ular. At Edinburgh during 
\H()i he had a fierce paper war with Francis 
Jort'rey [(|. v.], whom he suspected of inspiring 
Homt; uncliaritable remarks about him in the 
* lOdinburgli ileview.* Soon after this he 
H<'ttled down as a teacluT of oratory in 
Upper Bedford Place, and had many bar 
Htu(Ient.s among his ])npilH. lie made the 
arr|uaintanc(^ of Southey, Ilazlitt, and Cole- 
ridge (who Hnoke of him as an honest man, 
witli the additirmal rare dit^tinction of having 
nearly been hanged), and also of Talfourd, 
(Vabb Kobinson, and Charles Lamb. Fn>m 
the onlinary groove of t;locuti(mary teaching, 
Thelwall gradually concentrated his atten- 
tion U])ou th«» cure of stammering, and more 
generally upon the correcti<m of defects 
arising Ironi malfonnation of the organs of 
speech. In WY,) he took a large house in 
Ijincoln's Inn Fields (No. 57) so that ho 
might talct* the complett* charge of patients, 
holding that the science of correcting im- 
peilinients inv«dved the correcting and regu- 
lating of the whole mental and moral habit 
of the pupil. His system had a remarkable 
huceess, sonu» of his greatest triumphs being 
recorded in his * Treatment of Cases of IV- 
fectivi* rtternnee' (ISl n in the form of a 
letter ti> his old friend Cline. CrabblJobin- 
son visit I'd his institution on 27 Doc. 181o, 
anil was tickled In'Thelwall's idea of having 
Milton's • Comus ' recited by a troupe of 
stutterers, hut was astonished at the results 
Attuiued. Much as Charles Lamb disliked 

lectures and recitations, hi^ esteem forXhel 
wall made him an occasional visitor at thes< 
entertainments in Lincoln's Inn Fields 
1 report 8 of some cases of special interes 
were contributed by him to the 'Medics 
and Physical JoumaL' 

Thelwall prospered in his new vocatioi 
until 1S18, when his constitutional restless 
ness impelled him to throw himself one 
more prematurely into the struggle for par 
liamentary reform. lie purchased a journal 
'The Champion/ to advocate this cause 
but his Dantonesque style of political orator 
was entirely out of place in a periodical ad 
dressed to the reflective classes, and he sooi 
lost a great portion of his earnings. H 
sulisequently resumed his elocution schoo 
at I^rixton, and latterly spent much time a 
an itinerant lecturer, retaming his cheerful 
ness and sanguine outlook to the last. H 
died at Bath on 17 Feb. 1834. 

He married, first, on 27 July 1791, Susa: 
Vellum,anativeof Rutland, who died in 1816 
leaving him four children. She supporte 
him greatly during his early trials, and wat 
in the words of Crabb Robinson, his ' goo* 
angel.' He married secondly, about 1819 
Cecil Boyle, a lady many years younger thai 
himself. A woman of great social cham 
and some literar}' ability, she wrote, in addi 
tion to a 'Life' of her husband, severs 
little works for children. She died in 1863 
leaving one son, Weymouth Birkbeck Thel- 
wall, a watercolour artist, who was acci- 
dentally killed in South Africa in 1873. 

Talfourd and Crabb Robinson test if j 
strongly to ThelwalFs integrity and domes- 
tic virtues. His judgment was not perhaps 
equal to his understanding; but, apart from 8 
slight warp of vanity and self-complacency, 
due in part to his self-acc[uired knowledge, 
few men were truer to their convictions. In 
person he was small, compact, and muscular, 
with a head denoting indomitable resolution. 
A ])ortrait engraved by J. C. Timbrell, from 
a bust by E. Davis, forms the frontispiece tc 
the * Life of John Thelwall bv his Widow, 
London, 1837, 8vo. A portrait ascribed tc 
^^'illiam Ilazlitt [q. v.1 has also been repro- 
duced. The British Museum possesses twc 
stipple engravings — one by Richter. 

Apart from the works already mentioned 
and a large number of minor pamphletd 
and leaflets, Thelwall published: 1. 'The 
lVrii)atetic, or Sketches of the Heart ol 
Nature and Society,' London, 1793, 3 vols. 
lL*mo. 2. * Political Lectures: On the 
Moral Tendency of a System of Spies and 
Informers, and the Concluct to be observed 
by the Friends of Liberty during the Con- 
tinuance of such a System,' Loz^on, 1791| 




8to. 3. 'The Natural and Constitutional 
Rights of Britona to Annual Parlianients, 
UniTenal Suffrage, and Freedom of Popular 
Association/ London, 1796, 8vo. 4. 'Peace- 
ful Discussion and not Tumultuary Violence 
the Means of redressing National Grievance,* 
London, 1795, 8vo. 6. * The Kights of 
Nature against the Usurpation of Establish- 
ments: a Series of Letters on the recent 
Effosions of the Kight Hon. Edmund 
Barke,' London, 8vo, 1796. 6. * Sober Re- 
flections on the Seditious and Inflammatory 
Letter of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke to 
a Noble Lord,* London, 1796, Svo. 7. * Poems 
chiefly written in Retirement (including an 
epic, " Edwin of Northumbria "),* Hereford, 
• 1801, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1805. 8. < Selections 
from TlielwaU's Lectures on the Science and 
Practice of Elocution,' York, 1802, 8vo; 
f Tarious editions. 9. * A Letter to Francis 
I Jeffrey on certain Calumnies in the " Edin- 
hnrgh Review,"' Edinburgh, 1804, 8vo. 
10. 'Monody on the Right Hon. Charles 
James Fox,' London, 1806, 8vo ; two editions. 
11. 'The Vestibule of Eloauence . . . Original 
Articles, Oratorical and Poetical, intended 
as Exercises in Recitation,' London, 1810, 
8to. 12. * Selections for the Illustration of 
A Course of Instructions on the Rhythm us 
tnd Utterance of the English Language,' 
London, 1812, 8vo. 13. 'Poetical Recrea- 
tiona of the Champion and his Literary 
Correspondents ; with a Selection of Essays,' 
London, 1822, 8vo. 

Thel wall's eldest son, Algebnon Sydney 
Thelwall (1795-1863), bom at Cowes in 
l"9o, entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
^graduated B.A. as eighteenth wrangler 
in 1818, and M.A. in 1826. Having taken 
^Kf he served as English chaplain and 
missionarv to the Jews at Amsterdam 
1^^19-26, became curate of Blackford, Somer- 
■^t, in 1828, and then successively minister 
of Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury (1842-3), 
^ curate of St. Matthew's, Pell Street 
(184>*-50). He was one of the founders of 
Joe Trinitarian Bible Society. From ISOO 
"« was well known as lecturer on public 
J^tdingand elocution at King's College, Lon- 
don. He died at his house in Torringtou 
pquare on 30 Nov. 1863 (Gent, Mag. 18C4, 

. Among his voluminous writings, the most 
*^Portant are: 1. *A Scriptural Refutation 
^'Mr. Ir\'ing's Heresry,' London, 1834, 12mo. 
r; *The Iniquities of the Opium Trade with 
^T^na,' London, 1839, 12mo. 3. * Old 
|eatament Gospel, or Tracts for the Jews,' 
*^ndon, 1817, 12mo. 4. ' The Importance 
y Elocution in connexion with Mmisterial 
^•efuhieas; London, 1850, 8vo. 5. ' The 

Reading Desk and the Pulpit,' London, 
1861, 8vo. He also compiled the ' l*roceed- 
ings of the Anti-Maynooth Conference of 
1846' (London, 8vo). 

[Life of John Thelwall, 1837, vol. i. (no mora 
published) ; Gont. Mag. 1834, ii. 5*9 ; Talfourd's 
Memoirs of Charles Lamb, ed. Fitzgerald ; 
Crrtbb Robinson's Diary, passim ; Smith's Story 
of the English Jacobins, 1881; Britton's Auto- 
biography, 1850, i. 180-6 (a warm eulogy from 
one who knew him well) ; Coleridge's Table 
Talk; Life of William Wilberforce, 1838, iii. 
499; Wallas's Life of Francis Place, 1898; Trial 
of Tooke, Thelwall, and Hardy, 1795, 8vo ; 
Howell's State Trials, xxiii. 1013 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Britannica; Penny Encyclopaedia; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; private information.] T. S. 


1161), archbishop of Canterbury, came of a 
Norman family of knightly rank, settled near 
Thierceville, in the neighbourhood of Bee 
Ilellouin. lie became a monk of Bee between 
1093 and 1124, was made prior in 1127, and 
elected abbot in 1137. Ditiiculties with re- 
spect to the rights of the archbishop of Rouen 
delayed his benediction for fourteen months ; 
they were finally settled through the media- 
tion of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, 
and Theodore received the benediction from 
the archbishop ( Vita Theobaldi). The see of 
Canterbury having been vacant since the death 
of William of Corbeil [q.v.] in 1 136, the prior 
of Christ Church and a deputation of monks 
were summoned before King Stephen [q. v.] 
and the legate Alberic, and on 24 Dec. 1138 
elected Theobald archbishop. Henry of 
Blois {d. 1171) [q.v.1, bishop of Winchester, 
desired the primacy for himself, but Stephen 
and his queen Matilda (1103 ?-1162Kq. v.] 
had arranged the election of Theobald, who 
was consecrated at Canterbury by the legate 
on 8 Jan. 1 139. Before the end of the mouth 
he left for Rome, received the pall irom 
Innocent II, was present at the Lateran 
council in April, and then returned to Can- 
ti?rbury (Gekvase, i. 107-9, ii» 384; Cont, 
Flor. Wig. ii. 114-1.5). Innocent, how- 
ever, did not renew to him the legatine 
commission held by his predecessor, but 
gave it to the bishop of W^inchest3r. This 
was a slight on tJie archbishop, and an 
injury to the see of Canterbury. Theobald 
did not press his rights at tlie time ; he 
probably thought it best to wait ; for a 
legation of this kind expired on the death 
of the pope who grant e(i it. lie attended 
the legatine council held by Bishop Henry 
at Winchester on 29 Aug., and joined with 
him in entreating the king not to quarrel 
with the clergy (Historia Novella^ ii. c. 477). 
Although he was inclined to the side of the 

I . 

Theobald 114 Theobald 

empress, he was not forgetful of the ties Henry as leeate caused a division of 
that bound him to the king. When Bishop ' authority in the church of Engbind, ind 
Henry received the empress at Winchester in , brought Theobald much trouble. Bishop 
Marcli 11 41, he pressed the primate to acknow- j llenry pushed his authority as legate to tke 
ledge her. Theobald hesitated, and, when he utmost ; he tried to persuade Innocent to 
met her by arrangement at Wilton, declined make his see an archbishopric, and it wis 
to do her homage until he had received the believed that the pope had even sent him a 
king*8 permission, on the ground that it was pall {Annales Winton. ii. 53; Diceto, L 355). 
not lawful for him to witlidraw his fealty . Theobald opposed the wishes of the king 
from a king who had been acknowledjjed by | and Bishop Henry with reference to the 
the Roman church (Tlistoria iWfi/lica/w, election of their nephew, W^illiam of Thwart 
c. 2; Conf. Flor. Wig, ii. 130; RoFXD, [see Fitzherbbbt, W^iLLiA^ifl to the arek- 
Geoffrey do Mandeville^ pp. 65, 200). He bishopric of York, and steadily refused to 
therefore proceeded to Bristol, where the consecrate him. Bishop Henry, howeTor, 
king was imprisoned. On? April, however, I consecrated him on 26 Sept. 1143, without 
he attended the council at Winchester at ! the archbishop^s sanction (Gebvasb, i. 123). 
which Matilda was elected. Having avowedly The supersession of the archbishop encouraged 
joined the side of the empress, he was witli resistance to his authority. Hugh, abbot of 
her at Oxford on 25 July and at Winchester St. Augustine's at Canterbury, claiming that 
a few days later, and shared in her hasty , his house was under the immediate junsdic- 
flight from that city on 13 Sept., reaching a j tion of Rome, appealed to the pope against 
placeof safety after considerable danger, and . a citation from the archbishop. The pope 
perhaps some loss {Gesta Stephani, p. So), took his side, and finally ordered that the 
On .Stephen's release on 1 Nov., Theobald matter should be heard before the legate, 
returned to his allegiance. It is asserted | At a council held by the legate at Winches* 
that sentence of banishment was pronounced ■ ter a composition was arranged which did 
against him (*proscriptus') ; but if so, it did ' not satisfy the archbishop. Theobald was 
not come into effect {Ilistoria Pontificalisy . thwarted by the legate even in his own 
c. 15), and he was present at the council held . monastery. He found that Jeremiah, the 
by tht; legato on 7 Dec. at which Bishop { prior of Christ Church, was setting aside his 
itenry declared his brother king. At Christ- jurisdiction ; a quarrel ensued, and Jeremiah 
mas he received the king and queen at Can- ; appealed to Rome, almost certainly with the 
terhiiry, and placed the crown on the king's " legate's approval, and went thither himself, 
hoad in his catliedral church (G i:rvase, i. 123; Theobald deposed him, and appointed another 
Geoff roj tie Mnndeville^ pp. 137-8). prior. Jeremiah, however, gained his cause, 

Th(M>b{iId attached to his household many and on liis return was reinstated by the 
young men of legal and political talent, and legate. On this Theobald withdrew his 
made his palace the training college and | favour from the convent, and vowed that he 
home * of a new generation of English scholars would never celebrate in the church so long 
and English statesmen' (Norciate, Angevin \ as Jeremiah remained prior {ib. pp. 74,127V 
Kifif/fij \. 352). (yhief among them were The death of Innocent II on 24 Sept. 1143 
lioger of l*ont TEveque [q. v.], afterwards put an end to the legatine authority of 
archbishop of York, John Belmeis fq. v.], j Bishop Henry, and he was no longer able to 
afterwards archbishop of Lyons, and Thomas supersede Theobald in his own province. In 
(Becket) fq.v.], his successor at Canterbury, I November, Theobald went to Kome accom- 
wlio entered his service in 1 143 or 1 144. On panied by Thomas of London ; Bishop Henry 
all mutters Theobald consulted with one or also went thither, hoping for a renewal of his 
other of these three, and chiefly with Thomas commission, but the new pope, Celestine H, 
( William of ("anterbury, ap. Beclet Ma- deprived him of the legation, though he does 
terinls/i.A). It is interesting to find that the j not appear to have granted it to the arch- 
form»T abbot of Lanfranc's house established . bishop (ib. ii. 384). Celestine was strongly 
a law sch<i()l at C'anterbury, and was the first ' in favour of the Angevin cause, and is said 
to iiitrodure the study of civil law into Eng- to have ordered Theobald to allow no new 
land. IVh-ssiblylx^fore 114 t Theobald st?nt for arrangement to be made as to the English 
a famous jurist , V'acrarius of Mant ua, to come crown, as thematterwas contentious, thereby 
and loc'turo on civil law at Canterbury [see guarding against any settlement totliepreju- 
Vacakh's]. Vacarius became the arch- dice of the Angevin claim (7/w^ Powf*/". c. 
bisli<>]»'s a<lvocate, and must have been of 41). Lucius 11^ who 8uc<;eeded Celestine on 
groat us(» to him in his correspondence with i 12 March 1144, also refused the legation to 
the Roman court, which was of unusual im- ' Bishop Henry (John op Hexham, c. 17). 
portauce, for the appointment of Bishop ' W^hile Theobald was in Eome Lucius heazd 



between turn and St. AuguBtioe's, 

ithe uehlHshop'scUlms were fully BHtlsfied 

the irhole cuse see Trobn, cols. 1800-6 ; 

.... 869-ei, 390-1). Theobald 

left Bome, and on 11 June was present 

nation of the new church of St. 

ice {Jiecueil da HiatorieTif, xiv. 

Ifi). Ue returned to England without a 

tl in his pronnce, and Jeremiuh con- 

[uetitlT resigned the prioratc of Christ 

In this year a cardinal named 

•mar arrived in England as legate, but 

coming does not appear to bare affected 

baobald ihe returned on the death of Lucius 

February 1146. The new pope, Eug&- 

la III, was £>Taurably inclined to Theo- 

__d through the influence of his great ad- 

■er, Bentud of Clairvaui, who described 

be<^>ald as a man of piety and acceptable 

ns, aod expressed a hope that the 

r would reward him (S. Bbbmibd, 
238). It might be expected that some 
Hioe should occur of a gnnt nf a legatine 
Bimiseion by Eug^nius to Theob^d as 
WDsequence of this letter, but, in default 
[ finding him described as legate before 
UO, good modem authorities nave given 
bt year ts the date of the grant (Stcbbb, 
hMiiutumal History, iii. 299 ; Kobsate, 
iiAv^ Kingt, i. 304). Nevertheless, 
Ik historian of St. Augustine's Abbey 
■mb of him oa papal legate in 1148 
UHOBM, coL 1807). Against this must be 
Wttkt heis Dot so called in any bull of 
J^gnius known to have been sent to him 
>mn lloO, and that the ' Historia Poutifi- 
is'iseqaallysilentonthe matter. Thorn, 
waA not earlier than the fourteenth 
lluy, majbavo merely been mistaken, or 
Bay liBve been swayed by a desire to 
ks an excuse for the monies of his house 
IH below), lie says that when they dls- 
kjed Theobald in 1148, ihey did not know 
he had legatine authority ; and an 
_■ — ait scholar suggests that this story and 
Hposition of affairs at the time being taken 
■o consideration, ' it is possible, if not ac- 
nllj probable,' that there was a secret com- 
^■noQ to Theobald. A suit was instituted 
Ithe papal court apinst Theobald in 1147 
^Bernard, bishop of St. David's, who sought 
«btainthe recognition of his see asmetro- 
i-.:__j ^ji^ p^pg appointed a day for tbe 
„ of the case ; but Bernard died before 
dabs fixed, and tbe suit dropped (Gir. 
IBB. iii. 61, 168. 180). On 14 March 
8 Theobald consecrated to tbe see of 
jhMter his brother "Walter, whom he had 
riously made archdeacon of Canterbury, 
k amnmooa having been sent to the Eng- 
ipieUt«B to attend the council that Euge- 

niiis held at Ilheims on the 21st, Stephen 
refused to allow Thuobald or the jirelates 
generally to leave the kingdom, iuiowing 
that Theobald was determined to go, he 
ordered various seaports to be watched lest 
he should get away secretly, and declared 
that if he went he should be banished. Theo- 
bald, after obtaining leave to send some of 
his clerks to the council to make liis excuses, 
secretly embarked in s crazy boat, crossed 
the Channel at great risk, and presented him- 
self at (lie council, fie was received with 
much rejoicing, the pope welcoming him as 
one who, for the honour of St. Peter, had 
crossed the sea rather bv swimming than sail' 
ing (Gebvase, i. 134, [i. 38(1; Iliat. Pimt\f. 
c. -l; St. Thomas, Ep. 250 ap. MalfriaU,y\. 
57-8). When, on the lost day of the coun- 
cil, EugeniuB was about to excommunicate 
Stephen, Theobald earnestly bagged him to 
forbear ; the pope granted the king a respite 
of three months, and on leaving Rheims com- 
mitted the case of the English bishops whom 
lie had suspended to Theobald's managementi 
On the archbishop's return to Canterbury 
the king ordered him to quit the kingdom ; 
his revenues were seired and he hastily re- 
turned to France. He sent messengers to 
acquaint the pope with his exile ; they over- 
took Eugenius at Brescia, aud he wrote to 
the English bishops, ordering them t 
the king recall the archbishop and n 
his possessions, thn'Stening b.t ■-* — '■-' 
at Micbaelroaa to excommunicate atepaen, 
Theodore published the interdict ; hut, as 
the bishops were generally on the king's 
side, it was not observed except in Kent, and 
a party among tbe monks of St. Augustine's, 
led by their prior Silvester and the sacristan, 
disregarded it. Queen Matilda, anxious for 
a reconciliation with Theobald, with the help 
of William of Ypres [q. t.] persuaded him 
to remove to St. Omer, where negotiations 
might be carried on more easily, Constant 
communication was carried on between the 
English clergy and laity and the arcbluBhop, 
whose digniDed behaviour, gentleness, and 
liberality to the poor- excited much admira- 
tion (ib. i. 123; Hut. Ponlff. c. 16). While 
at St. Omer he, on 6 Sept., with the assist- 
ance of some French bishops, consecrated 
Gilbert Foliot [q. v.] to the sea of Hereford, 
and when Henry [see Heitbt II], duke of 
Normandy, complamed that tbe new bishop 
had broken his promise to him by swearing 
fealty to Stephen, he appeased him by repre- 
senting; that It would have been schismatical 
to withdraw obedience from a king that bad 
been recognised by the Roman church. 
Before long Theobald returned to England ; 
he sailed from Gra valines, lauded at tfosford 

n interdict, and 




in -ir :rrr;:r:-r- : Uz:. Kir;.: i. llTr :t 
1 1 r^ ■.. V, . *r. i ^ri.i L'-*T -ti*. It rr.*':rriliiT-- 

•w*i. ■■■ ■■-■■ ■•_■ 

r,"" • ' .. »■ "^^ - ■ k ^ •^-^ v^-i • • i A--* — -» -- - — 

• . . .... 

tV.^ /^.•. 4J. • li •"• ■* If .-••»— *• - — ■•'■ ^„.»i- ^ ."t- 

tjT iL'.r..-.'" '".2 ***. A'U--T:r-" • iiiii- *'iii:i:^- 

nni :• i- ...-r-rl :r. ■-•.r.r -.-xv ;ieT:.s".:.'::urn 
Th.:'-haM }.ii jitl"-?:--: ::.- :n**:-r:!'?: in 

L»* war act:r.r jimjiij h* ■•rlin&rv iTK"i:y. 
II.-. I E-ir-^n: 1- 'i- -i'lr*! rij*:nit :L-2D. The 
prior and iicri-'sn w. r*.- a^i'lvvi af:er r^ 
c-rivin:: a l^oivini'. ar. 1 t1i»- c rivvr.t wa* aU"* 
hb=olv*:d by th- .'jr.?};l.i-h-.p ;ift»*r a prr:»3 of 
frtiaw-niion of 'livinv ~r\'ic'.* in thirir cLurch. 
Whibj TL-^'b'iM wa* at Kh>;im$ he mu-t 
ljav<r m»;t witli J.-hn '^»f S.-ili-iburv ".j. v.". 
ivho, in or about 11. '0. came to him wiih a 
It-tfirr of iritr»d!K't:on fr'.»m Bemarl ^f 
Clairvftu.TC r Kp. .*>♦;! ,i: h»* Inrcam'.* the arch- 
birliop's -•;cr»'THn-. and transacted his oOii-ial 
bii.-in»-s. A- Indand was without any real 
archi'-pi^oojijil au?h'irity, Iri-h bishops-eh-ct 
h«nii<-Mm«;'-ou£/h* ^•'»ii-»'fTJition from th».* arch- 
bi-!iOji' of ^':int<rljury, "wlio claimed tliat 
fp-land wa- uiid'-r th«ir jirimatial jurisdio- 
tion, nrjd in I MO Tli'-obuld rons»'crat«*d antl 
r»-r«iv<d tlj«- yirofi--ion of a lii-hop of Limo- 
rir-k. In 1 1.', -J, h'i\vi-v«'r, Annnjrh wa* mad*.* 
t!i< priniatiMl ^i*- fif Ir«-]riiir] — a si p-p which 
wa« ln-ld in I'in;:liind to Ik* a diminution 
of th»; ri;.ditrt of (.'anti-rbury (JoHX of Hex- 
KAM, c". lit; HovKin.-.v, i. *:^1l': Anymh of 
Wan'rlcy^ ii. -.'51 : Stoki>, Iff land aufJ the 
(Htir C'hnrrh, \^\^. \\\1 , W.) ,\\'lTi , ;Wo-7 ». In 
Li?nf I I'll TIu'oImiIiI, a** pnpiil l»'pit«;, held a 
counr-il in l^)ndon, at whicli many appc;als 
W'Ti' ni!«d«; to lIonH* (Hr;\. Hrxr. viii. c. 
.*il ). A n«\v Mttjfnipt was mado by thtr 
nionkw of St. -\u;:n-tin»''s to shako otf th»» 
urrlilii-liiipV authority afti-r tln» (h.*ath of 
Abbot. Hu;:li. Till* ]irior, Silvi'sti.T, was 
rhn^.-n to sur-cj'crl him. TluioljaM ohj«.*ctfd 
to tli«* I'lrrtion, and n-fusi'd Silvostr-r's d«*- 
injind that tlm hcni'diction Miould Im* ^ivcn 
him in the church of liis monastery as con- 
trary to tin* ri^dils of Christ (!hurch. Sil- 
v«*st<*r wrut to liduic, and r»rt urnrd with an 
onirr for his h(>nt>diction by the archbishop 
Ml St. Au^ni-^tiur's. Theobald, whili; goinj? 
the Hbl>«*y n** thou^rli to jicrforni the cere- 
ny, wa."* nn-t, it i.s said by arrangement, 

It -.v* --■>- :f C*-ic: Cliasclu who fflrbtdB 
Ll=: : : r:T* th-r hrC'*»iiK: :n except inCbrirt 

Kome. In Jnlr 

\\''l Ezr*^:is'crier»»»i rhat the archbishop 
*':L:-ili ri^-* the benediction in St. Augu- 
t'.zr'* "BrlT'-r-T ra^jiirlnr a pP'jfeiSfiionofobe- 
iir:: >:. 11:*: :*: i crzpli^a with this order, 
\l'. =.11-? f^irT arpiAls, and the matter 
W15 «:::-! lATrr .TKORy. cols. ISIO-U; 
EixHijf. 7p. 4i»-L 41:4-6; Gebvasc L 78, 
147-^ . Mrin while he had a quanvl with 
:ir = sk* cf C'nrisT Church. As the con- 
Y-rn: wij in pi^junlaiy disSculties. he hid it 
tL'ir r-;urs: taken the administmtimi of 
:r.e:r re- venue? in: ? hi* own hands. W'heo, 
hiwrver. he be-^an to insist on retrench- 
invr.:«.:he mrnk* declared that he was using 
tbrir revenues for the support of his own 
L;uv.-h-H. and had broken the apvement 
miie with them. The dL«pute waxed hot; 
The" bald imprisoned two monks sent by the 
convent tT appeal to the pope, suspended 
:L- perf.^rmanoe of divine service m the 
convent church, and set guards to kt*ep the 
ca: r< • .f the house shut. Finally he deposed 
ih** prior. Walter the Little, and sent him 
nnJ-r a cuard to the abbey of Gloucester, 
bid-linjr the abbot keep him safely: so he- 
was kvpt there until Theobald's death, and 
a worthier prior was chosen in his place (lA. 
i. M3-t>, ii. 3^6-S. must be read as a vio- 
lent eA parte statement on the convent "ssideV 
In the spring of 115:? Stephen held a 
great council in London, at which, the earls 
and bartms having sworn fealty to his son 
Eustaci*. he called upon Theobald and the 
bishops to crown his son king. Tht»obald 
had pnx?ured a letter from Eugeiiius for- 
bidding the coronation, and thus n^|>eating 
th«^ prohibitions of his predecessors Celestine 
and Lucius. Theobald therefon* refused the 
king's demand. Stephen and his son shut 
him and his suffragans up in a house together, 
ami tried to intimidate them. Theobald re- 
maint^l firm, though some of his sutTragans 
wit hdr»*w their support from him: he escaped 
down the Tliames in a boat, sailed to I>over, 
and thence crossed over to Flanders. The 
king seized the lands of the archbisliopric. 
Kugfuius ordert'd the English bishops to ex- 
communicate him and lav the kingdom 
under an interdict. On tliis Stephen rt*- 
calh'd the archbishop, who returned to Can- 
terbury befori* US Sept. (fVi. i. 151, ii. ?♦» ; 
r>ECKi:T, Kp. 250; Hen. Huyr. viii. c. 32: 
Vita Thtohalfiiy p. 33^l). When Henry, duke 
of Normandy, was in England in 115^{, Theo- 
bald laboured to bring about a peace between 
liim and the king. IIo was successful, and 
the tri'aty Wtween the king and the duke WTia 
proclaimed at Westminster before Christ ma» 




L at t great council which Theobald attended. 
! hLent 1154 he received the king and the 
' dnke at Canterbury. He secured the elec- 
tion of Roger of Pont r£veque, archdeacon 
[ d Canterbury, to the see of York, and in 
, eoosecrating him on 10 Oct. acted as legate, 
•0 that lloger was not required to make a pro- 
ftHion of obedience (Diceto, i. 298 ; Will. 
Newb. i. c. 32). He appointed Thomas of 
London to succeed lloger as archdeacon and 
! as provost of Beverley. On the death of 
Stephen on the 25th, Theobald, in conjunc- 
, tion with the other magnates of the realm, 
•eat to Henry, who was then in Normandy, 
I to call him back to England, and during 
\ tliesix weeks that elapsed before his return 
I luunttined peace and order in the kingdom, 
'. in spite of the large number of Flemish 
: nercenaries that were in the country (Ger- 
: ▼A«E,i. 169). 

I On Sunday, 19 Dec, Theobald crowned 
Henry and his queen at Westminster. The 
coronation seemed the sign of the fulfilment 
of his long-cherished hopes. The policy of 
tlie Roman see with respect to the crown 
ihM.1 he had so faithfully and fearlessly carried 
ont had been brought to a successiul issue. 
Nevertheless he evidently felt no small 
•nxiety as to the future. During the reign 
of Stephen the church had become far more 
powerful at home than it had been since the 
Conquest, and at the same time had been 
more strongly bound to the Koman see by ties 
<)f dependence ; Theobald was anxious that it 
thould maintain its position, and knew that 
it was likely to be endangered by the acces- 
^n of a kin^ of Henry ^s disposition and 
[iereditar\' anti-clerical feelings. He hoped 
to insure the maintenance of his ecclesiastical 
policy by securing power for men whom he 
trusted, and shortlv after Henry's accession 
recommended the Archdeacon Thomas to the 
king as chancellor (Auct,Anon. i. iv.ll, 12 ; 
JoHX OP Salisbury, ii. 304 ap. Becket 
Materials; Gebvase, i. 160; Kadford, 
Tkoma* of London^ pp. 68-62). As chan- 
cellor, Thomas disappointed his hopes. 

The closing years of Theobald's life were full 
3f administrative activity exercised through 
John of Salisbury, for after Thomas had left 
him for tlie king's service John became his 
chief adviser and official (Stubbs, Lectures, 
p. 346). He appears to have disliked the 
tax levied under the name of scutage in 1166 
9n the lands of prelates holding in chief of 
the crown (John of Salisbury, Ep. 128). 
Nor was he at one with the crown in the case 
9f Battle Abbey [see under Hilary, d, 1169]. 
He attended the hearing of the case before 
the king at Colchester in May 1167, and 
ffBinly tried to persuade the king to allow him 

to deal with it according to ecclesiastical 
law (Chronicon Monasterh de Bello, pp. 72- 
104). In July he attended the council at 
Northampton, when the long dispute be- 
tween him and the abbot of St. Augustine's 
was terminated in his favour, and, in pur- 
suance of the decision of Hadrian IV, abbot 
Silvester made profession to him (Gervase, 
i. 76-7, 163-6). A disput^jd election having 
been made to the papacy in 1159, he wrote 
to the king requesting his direction as to 
which of the two rivnls should be acknow- 
ledged by the church of England (John op 
Salisbury, Ep. 44). Having received from 
Amulf, bishop of Lisieux, a statement of 
the claim of Alexander III, he wrote again 
to Henry recommending him to acknow- 
ledge Alexander. This Henry did, and ac- 
cordingly he was at the archbishop's bidding 
acknowledged by a council of bishops and 
clergy of the whole kingdom that Theobald 
called to meet in London (Jb, Epp. 48, 69, 
04, Qb ; Foliot, Ep. 148). 

Theobald was then very ill, and his death 
was expected. He wrote to the chancellor, 
then absent with the king in Normandy 
that he had determined to reform certain 
abuses in his diocese, and specially to abolish 
a payment called * second aids * made to the 
archdeacon, and instituted by his brother 
"Walter, and he spoke of his sorrow at not 
being able to see the chancellor, who still 
retained the archdeaconry (John op Salis- 
bury, Ep.48). In 1161 he was present at the 
consecration of Kichard Peche [q. v.] to the 
see of Lichfield, but could not officiate him- 
self (Gervase, i. 168). During his illness he 
wrote several letters to the king, commend- 
ing his clerks, and, specially John of Salis- 
bury, to his favour, begging him to uphold 
the authority and welfare of the church, and 
praying that Henry might ret urn to England 
so that he miglit behold his son, the lord's 
anointed, before he died (John of Salisbury, 
Epp. 64, 63, 64 ter). Very earnestly, too, 
but in vain, he begged that the king would 
spare Thomas, his archdeacon, to visit him 
{lb. Ep. 70, 71, 78). Theobald hoped that 
the chancellor would succeed him at Canter- 
bury {ib, v. 280). Theobald made a will leav- 
ing his goods to the poor {ib, Ep. 57), and took 
an affectionate farewell of John of Salisbury, 
who was with him to the end (Ep. 266). 
He died on 18 April 1161, and was buried 
in his cathedral church. Eighteen years 
afterwards, during the repairs of the church 
after the fire of 1174, his marble tomb was 
opened, and his body was found entire ; it 
was exhibited to the convent, and, the news 
being spread, many people spoke of him as 
' Saint Theobald.' The body was translated 



andburiedbefore thettlUrol'St. Mary in tlie 
nave, according; to a tleslro nliick he is said 
to liave expressed Id Lis lifetime (GERFAeti, 
i, 26). His coffin was opened in 1787, and 
Ms remains were identified by an inscription 
on a piece of lead (Hook). 

Theobald, ns may be gathered froro the 
letters be wiote during hifl illness, was a 
man of deep religious feeling. He was 
charilable to the poor and liberal in all 
things (Beeket Materials, ii. 307 ; Mmuu- 
ticDn, iv. 363). He loved learning, and look 
care to be surrounded by learned men. In 
manner he was gracious, and in temperament 
gentle, oft'eetionute, and placable. While 
calm and patient, bo was also firm and 
courageous. As a ruler be was wise and 
able ; be was highly respected by the leaders 
of the religions movement of which St. Ber- 
nard was the head, and by relying on the 
helpof theEomansee, and taking advantage 
of the civil disorder of Stephen's reign, he 
succeeded in raising the church of England 
to a position of great power. In his ordinary 
administration ho promoted worthy and 
capable men ; be may be said to have been 
the founder of canonical juriaprudence in 
England, and through John of Salisbury in- 
troduced system and regularity into the work- 
ing of the ecclesiastical courts. Though him- 
self a Benedictine, he wisely did all he coutd 
to check the efforts made by monasteries to 
rid themselves of episcupal control. In secu- 
lar matters he acted with loyalty and skill; 
lie remained faithful to Stephen as the king 
recognised by the llomon see, though he did 
not shrink Irom opposing him whenever he 
tried to override the will of the church or 
iise it as a mere political instrument. At 
the same time he worked steadily to secure 
the succession for the bouse of Anjou. His 
character, the success of his work, and the 
means by which he accomplished it entitle 
him to a place among the best and ablest 
archbishops of Canterbury. 

[Gervasa of Caul,, Will, of Malmcabury, 
Biflt. Nov., John of Henham ap. 0pp. Sym. 
Dunelm. II., Bocket MntDrials, Hen. Hunt,, H. de 
Siceto. Ann. de Wiulon, ap. Ann. Moaast. p. 1 1, 
Giraldus Cambr., Elmbam (all Rolls f^r.) ; 
Hist. Pontif. np. Rer. Garm. 39. ad. Pertz 
vol. n. ; Vila TheobnlcJi np. 0pp. Lanfranci I, 
John of SaliBburj'H Poljcraticus nnd Epp., 
G. Foiiot's Epp, (all three ed. Giles) ; Cont. Flor. 
Wig., GcBta Slepbsni. Will. Nawb. (all thrao 
Eagl. Hist. Sop,); Thorn, ed. Twisden ; Chron. 
Monast. de BbIIo (Aug!. Christ. 8oc.); Bishop 
Stubbs's LectuMJ and Const Hiat, ; Round s 
Geofiivj de Mandeville ; Norgate's Angevin 
Kings: Rndford'a Thomas of London [Cambr. 
Hist. Essays, vii.) ; Ilook's Archbisliops of 
Canterbury.] W. S. 

THEOBALD, LEWIS (1688-1744), 
editor of Shakespeare, was the son of Peler 
Theobald, an attorney practising at Sitting- 
bourne in Kent. He was born in thattowa 
and was baptised at the parish church, U 
the register testifies, on 2 April 1688. He 
was placed under the tuition of an abls 
schoolmaster, the Rev. M. Ellis of Islenacth 
{Baker MSS. extract in GenlleTnan's Majo- 
x'ae, iKi. 783). To Ellis be must have owsd 
much, for Theobald's classical attainments 
Iderable, and it does 

that he received any further instructioo. 
It would seem from what he says in bit 
dedication of the ' Happy Captive to Lady 
Monson that be had early been left an orphan 
in great poverty, that be had been protecI«l 
and educated hy Lady Monsou's father, ber 
brother, Ixird Sondes, being bis fellow-pawl, 
but that be had not made the best of vbU 
' might have accrued to him from ao faraoiv 
able a situation in life.' Like his father, be 
became an attorney; but the law was dis- 
tasteful to him, and he very soon abao' 
doneU it for literature. His first pubUeo- 
tion was B Pindaric ode on the union o' 
England and Scotland, which appeared in 
1707. In his preface to his trogedy'Ibe 
Persian Princess,' printed in 1715, he lolls us 
that that play was written and acted bsfcrt 
he had completed his nineteenth year, whici 
would bein 1707. InMay 17l3hetnmsl«ted 
for Bernard Lintot the 'i'ha>do' of Rata, 
and entered into a contract for a transUtion 
of the tragedies of vGscbylus. Lintot'ss'' 
count-books show that Theobald coolracted 
for many translations which were either nW 
finished or not published, but between 17U 
and 1715 he published tronslations of tbe 
' Electra' JI7I4), of the 'Ajax' (1714), sad 
of the 'CEdipus Rex' (ITlo) of Sophocles, 
and of the ' Plutus ' and the ' Clouds ' (both 
in 171fi) of Aristophanes. The translation 
from Sophocles are in free and spirited blsak 
verse, the choruses in lyrics, and the tragedies 
ore divided into acts nnd scenes; theveisianl 
of the ' I'lutuB ' and the ' Clouds ' an in 
vigorous nnd racy colloquial prose. 

I'heobatd had now settled down to the 

Eursuita of the literary hack, being in all pio- 
abilicy dependent on his pen for bis liv^- 
hood. In 1713 he hurried out a catchpenny 
'LifeofCato'forthebenefit of the spectators 
and readers of Addison's tragedy which then 
held the town. Next year he published two 
poems — ' The Cave of Poverty,' which he calls 
an imitation of Shakespeare, presumably be- 
cause it is written in the measure and form 
of ' Venus and Adonis,' and 'The Mausoleum,' 
a funeral elegv in heroics on the death of 
QueeuAnne. These poems, like all Theotiald'9 




OS, are perfectly worthless. On 11 April 
» he hegui in * Mist^s Journal' ' TheCensor/ 
"ies of short essays on the model of the 
ctitor/ which appeared three times a 
c, ceasing with the thirtieth number on 
ane. Eighteen months afterwards they 
resumed (IJan. 1717)a8an independent 
icition running on to ninety-six numbers, 
n they were discontinued later in the 
year, they were collected and published 
ree duodecimo volumes. By some re- 
3 (see vol. ii. No. xxxiii.) which he had 
)on John Dennis he brought himself 
collision with that formidable critic, 
ifterwards described him as * a notorious 
, one hight Whachum, who, from an 
r spurleather to the law, is become an 
rstrapper to the playhouse* (Dennis, 
trkg on Pope's Homer), 
anwhile Theobald had been engaged in 
works. In 1715 appeared his tragedy, 
Perfidious Brother,' which became the 
ct of a scandal reflecting very seriously 
ieobald*s honesty. It seems that Henry 
tayer, a watchmaker in the city, had 
it ted to Theobald the rough material of 
ilay, requesting him to adapt it for the 
The needful alterations involved the 
lete recasting and rewriting of the piece, 
ig Theobald, according to his own ac- 
, four months* labour. As he had 
ted it anew,' he thought he was entitled 
ng it out as his own work and to take 
redit of it ; and this he did. But as 
as the play was produced Meystayer 
ed it as his own, and in the following 
published what he asserted was his own 
m, with an ironical dedication to the 
;d plagiarist. A comparison of the two 
9 that they are identical in plot and 
)ften in expression. But as Meystayer s 
>n succeeded Theobald's, it is of course 
isible to settle the relative honestv or 
nesty of the one man or of the other, 
net that Theobald did not carry out his 
t of publishing Meystayer's original 
script is not a presumption in his favour. 
3 next performances were a translation 
s first book of the ' Odvssev,* with notes 
\) ; a prose romance founded on Corneille's 
•comedy ' Antiochus,'entitled * The Loves 
itiochus and Stratonice ; ' and an opera 
e act, ' Pan and S3rrinx,' both of which 
ired in 1717. These were succeeded in 
by *The Lady's Triumph,' a dramatic 
, and by * Decius and Paulina,' a masque, 
performed at Lincoln's Inn. In 1719 
tublished a 'Memoir of Sir Walter 
gh' which is of no importance. In 
his adaptation of Shakespeare's 'Ili- 
11/ though it procured for nim a bank- 

note for a hundred pounds * enclosed in an 
Egyptian pebble snuffbox' from Lord Orrery, 
proved that the most exquisite of verbal 
critics mav be the most wretched of dramatic 
artists. !Next year he led ofl* a poetical mis- 
cellany, * The Grove,' published bv William 
Meres [see under Meres, John], with a vapid 
and commonplace poetical version of the 

* liero and Leander of the pseudo-Mus<eus. 
Nor can anything be said in favour of his 

Eantomimes, *The Rape of Proserpine,' or 
is * Harlequin a Sorcerer* (17:i6), or his 

* Vocal Parts of an Entertainment, Apollo and 
Daphne ' (1726). He seems to have mate- 
rially aided his friend John Rich [q. v.], the 
manager of Drury Lane, in establishing the 
popularity of his novel pantomimic enter- 

But Theobald was about to appear in a 
new character. In March 1725 Pope gave 
to the world his edition of Shakespeare —a 
task for which he was ill qualified. But 
what Pope lacked Theobald possessed, and 
early in 1726 appeared in a substantial quarto 
volume * Shakespeare Restored, or a Speci- 
men of the many errors as well Committed 
as Unamended by Mr. Pope in his late edition 
of this poet : designed not only to correct the 
said Edition, but to restore the true Reading 
of Shakespeare in all the Editions ever pub- 
lished. By Mr. Theobald.* It was dedicated 
to John Rich, the manager, who on the 24th 
of the following May gave Theobald a bene- 
fit (Genest, Account of the English Stage ^ 
iii. 188). In the preface Pope is treated 
personally with the greatest respect. But 
Theobald asserted that his veneration for 
Shakespeare had induced him to assume a 
task which Pope * seems purposely, I was 
going to say, with too nice a scruple to have 
declined.' In the body of the work he con- 
fines himself to animadversions on ' Hamlet,' 
but in an appendix of some forty- four closely 
printed pages in small type he deals similarly 
with portions of most of the other plavs. 
This work not only exposed the incapacity 
of Pope as an editor, but gave conclusive 
proof of Theobald's competence for the task 
in which Pope had failed. Many of Theo- 
bald's most felicitous corrections and emen- 
dations of Shakespeare's text are to be found 
in this, his first contribution to textual criti« 

Pope's resentment expressed itself chaiac- 
terist ically . ' From t his ti me ,' says Johnson, 
U^ope became an enemy to editors, collators, 
commentators, and verbal critics, and hoped 
to persuade the world that he miscarried in 
this undertaking only by having a mind too 
great for such minute employment.' In 1728 
Pope brought out a second edition of his 




Shakespeare, in which he incorporated, with- 
out a word to indicate them, the greater 
part of TheobaUrs best conjectures and re- 
gulations of the text, inserting in his last 
volume the following note : * Since the pub- 
licition of our first edition, there having been 
some attempts upon Shakespeare published 
by Lewis Theobald which he would not 
communicate during the time wherein that 
edition was preparing for the press, when we 
by public advertisement did request the as- 
sistance of all lovers of this author, we have 
inserted in tliis impression as many of 'em 
as are judged of any the least importance to 
the poet — the whole amounting to about 
twenty-five words ' (& gross misrepresenta- 
tion of his debt to Theobald) ; * but to the 
end that evcrj^ reader may judge for himself, 
wo have annexed a complete list of the rest, 
which, if he shall think triA'ial or erroneous 
eitber in part or the whole, at worst it can 
but spoil half a sheet of paper that chances 
to be left vacant here ' (Appendix to vol. viii. 
of Pope's Shakespeare). IS or was I'ope con- 
tent with this. In March 1727-8 the third 
volunje of the * Miscellanies * containing the 

* Treatise on the Bathos' was published, in 
which, in addition to three sarcastic Quota- 
tions from Theobald's * Double Falsehood,' 
L. T. figures among the swallows — * authors 
that are eternally skimming and fluttering up 
and down, but all their agility is employed to 
catch flies ' — and the eels, * obscure authors 
that wrap theni:?elvcs up in their own mud, 
but are mi«rhty nimble and pert.' Two mouths 
afterwards uppeart'd the first edition of the 

* Dunciad,' uf which poor Theobald was the 
hero (in 1741 *Tibbald,'as Pope coutem])- 
tuously calh'd him, was 'dethroned* and 
Colley Cibbor elevated in his place). It is, 
however, due to Pope to say that since the 
publication of ' Siiakespeare Restored,' Theo- 
bald had been continually irritating him by 
further remarks about his edition. These 
were inserted in * Mist's Journal,' to which 
he was in the habit of communicating notes 
on Shakespeare. To this Pope refers in the 
couplet : 

Old puns restore, lost blunders nicely seek, 
And criK'ify jxjor Shakespoare once a week 

(Bunciady i. lol-O, 1st edit.) 

Pope's satire is chiefly directed against 
Theobald's ])edantry,dulness, povert y. and in- 
gratitud»\ A^ruinst the charge of ingratitude 
Theobald dt'lVnded himself. In a publication 
called 'The Author,' dated 10 April 17i>y, 
from AVyan's Court, Great Kussell Street, 
where Theobald continued to reside till his 
death, he says that he had asked Pope two 
favours : one was that he would assist him 

' in a few tickets towards my benefit,' 
the other that he would subscribe to his in- 
tended translation of ^Eschylus; that toe-^Bch 
of these requests Pope had sent civil repL ses, 
but had granted neither. The charge of in* 
gratitude, he adds, had been circulBited ibr 
the purpose of injuring him in a subscript: £oa 
he was getting up for some 'Remarks on 
Shakespeare,' and to prejudice the public 
against a play which was about to be Bx^ted 
at a benefit for him at Drury Lane. Tbe 
work referred to as 'Remarks on Shake- 
speare ' he was induced to abandon for an 
edition of Shakespeare ; the play to which he 
refers was * The Double Falsenood,' a tragedy, 
first acted at Drury Lane in 1727, and pub- 
lished in 1728. Theobald professed to believe 
that it was by Shakespeare, and a patent 
was granted him giving him the sole and ex- 
clusive right of printing and publishing the 
work for a term of fourteen years, on the 
ground that he had, at considerable cost, 
purchased the manuscript copy (for its history 
see Theobald's dedication of it to Bubb 
Dodington ; and for conjectures as to its real 
authorship, see Fabmer s Essay on the Learn^ 
ing of Shakespeare^ pp. 29-32, where it is 
assigned to Shirley. Malone was inclined to 
attribute it to Massinger. Reed thought it 
was in the main Theobald's own composition. 
To the present writer it seems all but certain 
that it was founded on some old play, the 

Slot being borrowed from the story of Car- 
enio in *Don Quixote,' but that it is for the 
most part from Theobald's own pen). In 1 728 
Theobald edited the posthumous works of 
William Wyclierley and contributed some 
notes to Cooke's translation of Ilesiod. 

Meanwhile he was accumulating materials 
for his edition of Shakespeare, corresponding 
on the subject with Matthew Concanen, who 
ni)pear8 to have been on the staft* of the 
* l^ndon Journal,' with the learned Dr. 
Styan Thirlby [q. v.], then a fellow of Jesus 
College, Cambridge, and with Warburt on, at 
that time an obscure country clercrvman in 
J^incolnshire. His correspondence with War- 
burton, to whom he was introduced by 
Concanen, was regularly continued between 
March 17:^ and October 1734, and is printed 
in Nichols's * Illustrations of Literature' 
(ii. 204-604). In September 1730 the death 
of Eusden left the poet-laureateship open, and 
Theobald became a candidate. Lord Gage 
introduced him to Sir Robert Walpole, who 
recommended him to the Duke of Grafton, 
then lord chamberlain, and these recommen- 
dations being seconded by Frederick, prince 
of Wales, Theobald had every prospect of 
success. But ' after standing fair for the 
post at least three weeks/ he had ' the mor- 




^ification to be supplanted' by Colley Gibber 
(Lietter to Warburton, December 1730; 
Nichols, Iliuetr. ii. 617). In the following 
^ear (1731) he had an opportunity of proving 
Ills claiins to Greek scholarship. Jortm, with 
Che assistance of two of the most eminent 
scholars of that time — Joseph Wasse [q. v.] 
^nd Zachary Pearce [q. v.], the editor of 
Hion^nus — published the first number of a 
periodical entitled * Miscellaneous Observa- 
tions on Authors Ancient and Modern/ To 
^hia Theobald contributed some ingenious, 
WLud in one or two cases very felicitous, 
emendations of ^Eschylus, Anacreon, Athe- 
nseus, IlesychiuSy Suidas, and Eustathius; 
and Jortin was so pleased with them that he 
not only inserted tnem, but asked Theobald 
for more. 

It seems that as early as 10 Nov. 1731 Theo- 
bald completed an arrangement with Tonson 
for bringing out his edition of Shakespeare, 
for which he was to receive eleven hundred 
guineas. But two laborious years passed 
before it was ready for the public. Mean- 
while a pantomime, 'Perseus and Andro- 
meda/ almost certainly from his pen, was 
produced (1730) at Lincoln's Inn Fields, and 
next year appeared at the same theatre 
'Orestes,' described as a dramatic opera, but 
really a tragedy. In 1733 Pope's attack was 
followed by one from the pen of Mallet in 
the form of an epistle to Pope, entitled 'Ver- 
bal Criticism.' * Hang him, baboon ! ' ex- 
claimed Theobald, in the words of Falstaff; 
'his art is as thick as Tewkesbury mustard ; 
there is no more conceit in him than in a 

At last, in March 1733-4, the long-expected 
edition of Shakespeare was given to the 
world in seven volumes, dedicated to Lord 
Orrery. A long list of influential sub- 
scribers, including the Prince of Wales and 
the prime minister. Sir Kobert Walpole, 
shows that no pains had been spared to in- 
sore its success. It would not be too much 
to say that the text of Shakespeare owes 
more to Theobald than to any other editor. 
Many desperate corruptions were rectified by 
him, and in the union of learning, critical 
acumen, tact^ and good sense he has perhaps 
no equal among Shakespearean commenta- 
tors. (For the general character of Theo- 
bald's work as an editor, and for a detailed 
exposure of the shameful injustice done him 
by sacceedlngeditors, see the present writer's 
essay, ' The Porson of Shakespearean Criti- 
cism,' in Essays and Studies ^ 1895, pp. 263- 
315 ; cf. introduction to the Cambridge Shake- 
speare). In spite of the incessant attacks of 
contemporaries and successors, Theobald's 
work was properly appreciated by the public. 

Between 1734 and 1767 it passed through 
three editions, while between 1767 and 1773 
it was reprinted four times, no less than 
12,860 copies being sold (Nichols, inns' 
t rations f ii. 714 n.) Theobald's net profits 
from his edition appear to have amounted 
to 652/. 10*., a large sum when compared 
with the receipts of other editors for similar 

But poverty still pursued Theobald, and 
he was driven back to his old drudgery for 
the stage. Between 1734 and 1741 he pro- 
duced a pantomime, * Merlin, or the Devd at 
Stonehenge ' (1734) ; 'The Fatal Secret,' a 
tragedy, which is an adaptation of Webster's 
* Duchess of Malfi ; ' two operas, ' Orpheus 
and Eurydice ' (1740) and * The Happy Cap- 
tive ' (1741), founded on a story in the fourth 
book of the first part of ' Don Quixote,' and 
he also completed a tragedy, ' The Death of 
Hannibal,' which was neither acted nor 
printed. But misfortunes were now press- 
ing hard on him, and in the ' Daily Post,' 
13 May 1741, appears a letter from him 
announcing that the * situation of his afiairs 
from a loss and disappointment obliged him 
to embrace a benefit, and laid him under 
the necessity of tlirowing himself on the 
favour of the public and the assistance of 
his friends ; ' and from another part of the 
paper we learn that the ])lay to be acted 
for his benefit was ' The Double Falsehood.' 
Next year he issued proposals for a critical 
edition of the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
' desiring the assistance of all gentlemen who 
had made any comments on them.' He was 
engaged on this when he died ; and in 1760, 
six years after his death, appeared the well- 
known edition of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
plays in tdn volumes, ' edited by the late Mr. 
Theobald, Mr. Seward of Eyam in Derby- 
shire, and Mr. Sympson of Gainsborough.' 
From the work itsulf we learn that Theobald 
had completed the editing and annotation of 
' The Maid's Trap^'dv,' * l^hiloster,' ' A King 
and No King,' ' The Scornful Lady,' ' The 
Custom of the Country,' * The Elder Brother,' 
the first three acts of * The Spanish Curate,' 
and part of * The Humorous Lieutenant' (see 
vol. 1. pref.) 

Of Theobald's death an account has been 
preserved written by a Mr. Stede of Co vent 
Garden Theatre (printed in Nichols's * Hlus- 
trations,' ii. 745 n.): 'September 18th, 1744, 
about 10 A.M., died Mr. Lewis Theobald. 
... He was of a generous spirit, too gene- 
rous for his circumstances ; and none knew 
how to do a handsome thing or confer a 
benefit when in his power with a better 
grace than himself. He was my ancient 
friend of near thirty years' acquaintance. 

Theodore 122 Theodore 

Interred at Pancras, the 20th, o*clock r.H. monk, and had not taken subdeacon's orders 

I only attended him.* This date is corrobo- ^'hen in 667 he was at Home, having perhaps 

rated by a notice in the 'Daily Post' for been led to come to Italy by the visit to that 

20 Sept. 1744 : * Last Tuesday died Mr. country of the Emperor Constans II in 063. 

Theobald, a gentleman well known for his When Theodore was in Bome,PopeVitalian 

poetical productions already printed, and for was anxious to find a primate for tne English 

many more promised and subscribed for.' church in place of Wighard, who had died 

He had a good private library, including in Kome before consecration. He fixed on 

two hundred and ninety-five old English Hadrian, an African by birth and an abbot 

plays in quarto, wliich was advertised to be of a monastery not far from Naples, who 

sold by auction on 20 Oct. succeeding his was learned both in Greek and Latin, in the 

death (lteed*s note in Variorum Shakespeare, Scriptures, and in ecclesiastical discipline, 

ed. 1H03, i. 404). Hadrian refused the pope's offer, and finally 

Theobald was married and left a son presented Theodore to him. Yitalian pro- 
Lewis, who, by the patronage of Sir Edward mlsed to consecrate him, provided that Ila- 
Walpolc, was appointed a clerk in the annuity drian, who had twice visited Gaul and would 
pell otlice, and died young. therefore be useful as a guide, would accom- 

It was suggested by George Steevens [q. v.] pany him to England, and remain with him 

that Hogarth's plate, ' The Distressed Poet, to assist him in doctrinal matters ; for the 

as first published on 3 March 1736, was pope seems to have feared that Theodore 

intended as a satire on the much-abused might be affected by the monothelite heresy. 

Theobald. The composition was doubtless Theodore was ordained subdeacon in Xovem- 

inspired by Pope's vivid picture of the dunce- her, and as he was tonsured after the Eastern 

laureate-elect brooding over his sunken for- fashion — his whole head being shaved — he 

tunes (see Pope, JrorAw?,ed.Courthope,iv. 28). had to wait four months before receiving 

[ThofuUest account of Theobald will be found ^^^?^ orders, to allow his hair t^ grow 

in Nichols's illustrations of Literature, ii. 707- sufficiently for him to be tonsured after the 

1748, but it contains several inaccuracies. Theo- Komanfashion. At last, on Sunday, 20 March 

bald's correspondence with Concanon and War- 668, he was consecrated byVitalian. lie set 

burton is of great interest, and embodies some out from Rome on 27 May, in company with 

biographical particulars, ib. pp. 189-653. There Hadrian and Benedict Biscop [q. v.] At 

is a meagre memoir of him in Gibber's Lives of Aries he and his party were detained by 

the Poets, v. 276-83, and brief notices in Giles John, the archbishop of the city, in accordance 

Jacob's Historical Account of the liives and with the command of Ebroin, mayor of the 

Writings of English Poets, and in Bakers Bio- palace in Neustria and Burgundv, who sus- 

gRiphia Dramatiwi His own preface to his pected them of being political emissaries sent 

bliakcspeare and the Dedications and Prefaces £ ^^^ emperor Constans to the English king, 

to his several works yield a few detai s ; Mey- ^(.j^^^ Ebroin gave them leave tS proceed, 

stayers Dedication tx> his Terndious Brother: rru i *. *. i> • -„u ^i 

Dennis's Observations on Popes Homer ; A Mii- Theodore went on to Pans, where he was 

cellany on Taste (1732) ; Mist's Journal and the [^ceived by Aligbert the bishop, formerly 

Daily Post passim ; Genest's Account of the Eng- ^»?W. o\ ^^^ \\ est-Saxons, and remained 

lish Stai^e ; notes to the various editions of tlie with him during the wmter. At last Egbert, 

Dunciad; Warton's Essay on Pope; prefaces to king of Kent, being informed that the arch- 

the edit ions of Shakespeare by Pope, Warburt on, bishop was in the Prankish kingdom, sent 

Ilanmer, Johnson, and Malone ; Capell's appen- his high reeve Raedfrith to conduct him to 

dix to the I'reface to tlio edition of Beaumont England. Ebroin gave Theodore leave to 

and Fletcher (1750). See, too, Johnson's Life depart, but detained Hadrian, whom he still 

of Pope; Boswell's Life of Johnson ; Watsons suspected of being an imperial envoy. Theo- 

Lifo of Warburton. A few notes have been fur- Jore was conducted by llaedfrith to Quen- 

nished by W. J. Lawrence, esq., of Belfast.] ^avic or Etaples, where he was delayed for 

J. C. C. some time bv sickness. As soon as he began 

THEODORE (602 .?-690), archbishop of to get well lie crossed the Channel, and was 

Canterbury, a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, received at Canterburv on 27 May 669. 

was born in or about 602 (Bede, Historia Hadrian joined him soon afterwards. 

Latin, and was well versed in sacred and the Celtic missionaries had been carried on 

profane literature and in philosophy, which rather by individual effort than through an 

caused him to receive the surname * Philo- ordered ecclesiastical system, llie Roman 

sopher ' {Gesta Pontificum, p. 7). He was a party had gained a decisive victoiy in 664, 




but uniformity had not ^et become universal, 
and the personal feebngs aroused by the 
straggle were still strong. As diocesan ar- 
rangements followed the divisions of king- 
doms, the dioceses were for the most part of 
unmanageable size, and varied in extent with 
the fortimes of war. Soon after his arrival 
Theodore made a tour throuffhout all parts of 
the island in which the English were settled, 
taking Hadrian with him. He found only 
two or at most three bishoprics not vacant. 
He expounded ' the right rule of life,' pro- 
bably lor clerks and monks, and the canoni- 
cal mode of celebrating Easter, and began to 
consecrate bishops, where there were vacant 
sees {Hist, EccUs, iv. c. 2). While in the 
north he accused Ceadda or Chad [q. v.] of 
having been consecrated irregularly, and re- 
consecrated him in the catholic manner. 
Though Wilfrid [q. v.] took possession of the 
see of York, which was rightfully his, Theo- 
dore was able to provide Ceadda with a see ; 
for Wulfhere[q. v.], the king of the Mercians, 
re<}uested him to find a bishop for him, and he 
therefore appointed him bishop of Mercia and 
Lindsey. As Ceadda resisted the archbishop's 
kindly conmiand that he should ride when 
taking long journeys, Theodore with his own 
hands lifted him on horseback (t6. c. 8). He 
also in 670, at the request of Cenwalh [q. v.], 
king of the West-Saxons, consecrated IjO- 
there, the nephew of Bishop Agilbert, to the 
vacant bishopric of theW^est-Saxons. Every- 
"where he was welcomed, and everywhere he 
required and received an acknowledgment of 
his authority, which was invested with 
special weight by the fact that he had ' been 
sent directly from Home,' though his own 
ability and character contributed largely to 
his success (Bright, Early English Church 
History f p. 258). lie was, Bede says, the 
first archbishop to whom the whole English 
church agreed in submitting. 

On his return to Canterbury Theodore 
carried on the work, which he had perhaps 
already begun, of making that city a place 
whence learning might be spread throughout 
his province,ana personally taught a crowd of 
scholars. In this work he was largely as- 
sisted by Hadrian, to whom Theodore gave 
the abbacy of St. Augustine's, in succession 
to Benedict Biscop, that he might remain 
near him. Equally well versed in both 
sacred and secular learning, the archbishop 
and abbot instructed their scholars in Latin 
and Greek, in the mode of computing the 
ecclesiastical seasons, music, astronomy, theo- 
logy, and ecclesiastical matters. Theodore 
alM) seems to have given instruction in medi- 
dne {Hist. JBocles, v. c. 3 ; Penitential^ ii. c. 
11, aeet. 6). Among his scholars were several 

future bishops, and men afterwards distin- 
guished by their learning, together with 
others from all parts of England, and some 
Irish scholars (Aldhelm, Opp, p. 94). Bede 
says that in his time there were many dis- 
ciples of Theodore and Hadrian who knew 
Latin and Greek as well as their mother- 
tongue, and that religious learning was so 
widely difi'used that any one who desired in- 
struction in it found no lack of masters. 

Theodore in 673 took an important step in 
church organisation by holding a synod of 
his province at Hertford on '24: Sept. Of 
his SIX sufiragans four were present in person, 
and Wilfrid sent representatives. Along 
with the bishops many church teachers 
learned in canonical matters attended the 
synod, not, however, as constituent members 
of it, for it consisted of bishops only ( Uist, 
Eccles, iv. 6). Theodore propounded ten 
points based on a book of canons drawn up by 
bionysius Exiguus as specially necessary for 
the English church. These were considered, 
and articles founded upon them were agreed 
upon. Among these it was decreed that a 
synod should be held every year on 1 Aug. 
at a place called Clovesho ; and it was pro- 
posea that the number of bisho{)s should be 
increased. This proposal gave rise to much 
debate. Theodore was unable to obtain the 
consent of the synod to a subdivision of dio- 
ceses, and the point was deferred. In this 
synod the Engbsh church for the first time 
acted as a single body; and it has also 
rightly been regarded as the first of all 
national assemblies, the forerunner of the 
witenagemotes and parliaments of an indi- 
visible realm (Bbight, p. 284). In spite of 
the adjournment of the proposal relating to 
the subdivision of dioceses, Theodore was 
soon enabled, by the resignation of Bisi, 
bishop of the East-Angles, to take a step in 
that direction. While consecrating a suc- 
cessor to him at Dunwich, Theodore formed 
the northern part of the kingdom into a new 
diocese, with its sec at Elmham. Not long 
after this, about (575, he deposed Winfrith, 
the bishop of the Mercians, for some dis- 
obedience, and consecrated to his see Saxulf 
[q. v.] Winfrith's ofi*ence was probably re- 
sistance to a plan formed by Theodore for the 
division of his diocese, which was carried 
out later. The archbishop seems to have 
acted simply on his own authority (ib, p. 256; 
Gesta Pontijicum, p. 6). About that time, 
too, he consecrated Erkenwald [q. v.] to the 
see of London, and in 676 Hseddi to the 
West-Saxon see of Winchester. In that 
year Ethelred of Mercia invaded Kent and 
burnt liochester [see under Putta]. Canter- 
bury, however, escaped invasion. 

Theodore 124 Theodore 

The who!>^ countnr north of the Ilamher &om him if he h&d proposed to divide his 
was under a single bishop, Wilfrid. The diocese. The reason whv he did not do so 
Northumbrian kinz E^fria. who was dis- may be found in the political condition of 
plea3e<l with him. invit^rd Theodore to come Wessex for some years after the death of 
to his court, anl th»? archbishop took ad- Cenwalh iEccU4t. Doc. iii. 126-7, 203; 
vantage of the kincr's dislike of th».- bishop Stubbs; Hitt. EccU*, iv. 12, see Mr. Plum- 
to carry out hi* sch-me for dividing the mersnoteK 

Northumbrian bi^h'-ipric. The allegation that A o^uncil is said to have been held at 
he rec»jived a bribe from th*.- king (Eddits, Rome by Pope Agatho in October 679 to 
c. 24) is absurd : for, apart fr'-m Theodore's remove dissension between Theodore and the 
character, no bribe was needed to induce bishops of his province. No mention is made 
him to do that which he desired. Having of Wilfrid in the report of it, which * suits 
summoned &om*i bishops to consult with neither the time before nor after Wilfrid's 
him. Theodore, without any ref»:*rence to arrival:* the documentary evidence isiinsati»- 
Wilfrid hinia*-lf, declare<l the division of his factorv, and it seems safe to consider it 
di^)Cese into four bishoprics, including ont» spurious (^Bright, p. 330, n. 3; EccUn. Doc. 
for Linds»'y, lat»-ly conquered by Egfrid, and iii. 131-6, where it is not so decisively con- 
leaving Wilfrid the see of York {ib. and demned). In that year the pope held a 
c. 30). Wilfrid appealed to Kome and left council to decide on Wilfrid s appeal. Theo- 
the country, and Theodore, without the dore had sent a monk namrd Coenwald with 
assistance of any other bishops, consecnited K-tters to the Pope to set forth his own side 
two bishops for Deira and Bemiciaf and a of the case. The decree of the council was 
third for Lindsey. He tlien probably went that Wilfrid should be restored to his bi- 
to Lindisfarn*.' and dedicated in honour of shopric, that the irregularly intruded bishops 
St. Pett-r the church that Finan [q. v." had should be tiumed out, and that he should 
built th»*re {Ili^t. R.-cltii. iii. 20). In 679, with the help of a council himself select 
when Egfrid and Ethelred of Mercia were bishops to bo his coadjutors who were to be 
at war, lie acted as an arbiter between the consecrated by the archbishop (Eddius, cc. 
contending king^, and by his exhortations 29-i^2>. While then this decision implicitly 
put an end to a war that seemed likely to condemned the irregular action of Theodore, 
txj long and bitter (ih. iv. 21). At this time it provided that his desire for the increase of 
he carried out a division of the Mercian the episcopate in Northumbria should be 
dioci.'se made at. the request of Ethelred, carried out in a reprular manner. At another 
with whom lie lienceforth was on terms of council held at Kume by Agatho on 27 March 
atr«;ction. A bishop was settled at Worcester 080 against the monothelite heresy Theodore 
for the Ilwicciims : another at Leicester for was expecti?(l, but did not attend {Gesta 
th«; Middle-Angles: iSaxulf retained the see Poni{/irumf-p.7). When in that year Wilfrid 
of Jiichfield ; a fourth MtTcian diocese was returned to England, carrying with him the 
formed with its s^e at Dorchester (in Ox- Koman decree for his restoration, and was 
fordshire); and a fifth bishop was sent to imprisoned by Egfrid, Theodore seems to 
Lindsey, with his se»; at Sidnaoester or Stow, have made no etiort on his behalf, and to 
for Lindsey had Ix^come Mercian again. ' have paid no attention to the decree, of 
Elorencti of Worcester places the fivefold which he could scarcely have been ignorant, 
subdivision of the Mercian see under the Meanwhile Benedict Biscop, during a visit to 
one year, 070. Xo doubt the whoh; scheme lJome,requested Agatho to send .John the pre- 
was feanctioned at one time; but the actual . centor to England with him. Agatho seized 
changes may have been ellectt*d by degrees, ' the opportunity of eliciting from the English 
thfjugli at (lat»'s near together (Klor. \Vio. | church a declaration of its orthodoxy, spe- 
A]»j>. i.210; 7'Jrr/t's. Dor. in. 128-o0; BiiKniT, | cially with reference to the monothelite ques- 
Kttrhf Thif/lish (7iurr/i Jli-iton/^ pp. 3^9-52; , tion; he sent John to Theodore for that 
find rMMMKK, Jicflc, ii. 2-lo-7). As the ^ purpose, bidding him carry with him the 
bishopric of Hereford appears soon after decrees of the Lateran council of 649. In 
this, it may also be recKoned as forming ' obedience to the pope's desire, Theodore 
pari of Theodore's arrangements, though it | held a synod of the bishops of the English 
was not. ])erhaps formally instituted [see j church, which was attended by other leanied 
under riTTA^. A decree puri)orting to have men, at Hatfield in Ilertfordsliireon 17 Sept. 
been made by Theodore, that the West-Saxon 080, and ,Tohn was given a copy of the pro- 
diocese was not to be dividt'd during tlielife- ' fession of the council to carry back to the 
time of Ilaeddi, is almost certainly spurious. I pope {Ilifit. Eccles. iv. cc. 17, 18). 
His regard for the bishop shows that he I Theodore still further increased the Nortbr 
would ' ^ have met with no op^wsition I umbrian episcopate in 681 by dividing the 




Bemidan diocese, adding a see at Hexham 
to that of Lindisfame. He also founded a 
new diocese in the country of the Picts north 
of the Forth, then under English rule, and 
placed the see in the monastery of Abercom 
{ib. cc. 12, 26). Three years later, in 684, 
he deposed Tunhert, it is said for disobedience 
(ib, c. 28 ; Miscellanea Bioffraphica^ Surtees 
See. p. 123), and journeyed to the north to 
pref*iae over an assembly gathered by Ec^d 
at Twyford in Northumberland, at which 
Cuthbert [q. v.] was elected bishop. On 
the followmg Easter day, 26 March 685, 
Theodore consecrated Cuthbert at York to 
the see of Lindisfame [see under Cutiibbbt]. 
In 686 Theodore, who felt the infirmity of 
age increasing upon him, desired to be re- 
conciled to Wilfrid ; he invited him to meet 
him in London and bade Bishop Erkenwald 
also come to him. According to Wilfrid's 
biographer, he humbly acknowledged that 
he had done Wilfrid wrong, and expressed an 
earnest hope that he would succeed him as 
archbishop (Eddius, c. 43). However this 
may be, it is evident that ho felt sorrow for 
Wilfrid's sufferings, highly esteemed him for 
his work among the heathen, and was anxious 
to take advantage of the accession of Aldfrith 
fq. v.] to the Northumbrian throne to procure 
nis restoration. He wrote to Aldfrith and 
to ifiUflied, abbess of Whitby, urging them 
to be reconciled to Wilfrid, and to his friend 
Ethelred of Mercia, that ho would take Wil- 
frid under his protection ; and speaking of 
his own age and weakness begged the kin? 
to come to him, that *my eyes may behold 
thy pleasant face and my soul bless thee 
before I die' {ib.) His injunctions were 
obeyed, and in a short time Wilfrid was re- 
stored to his see at York, though Theodore's 
subdivision of the diocese was not set aside. 
Theodore died at the age of eighty-eight on 
19 Sept. 690. He was buried in the church 
of St. Peter's monastery (St. Augustine's) 
at Canterbury, land an epitaph, of which 
Bede has preserved the first and last four 
lines, was'placed upon his tomb. When his 
body was translated in 1091, it was found 
complete with his cowl and pall (Gocelin, 
Hist. Translationis S. Aw/ustinij vol. i. c. 24, 
ToL ii. c. 27, ap. MiaxE, Patrologia Lat, vol. 

Theodore's piety was not of the sort to 
excite the admiration of monastic writers; 
for no miracles are attributed to him, and he 
was not regarded as a saint (Stubbs) ; this 
was probablv due, in part at least, to his 
c^uarrel with^^ilfrid, whose claim on monas- 
tic reverence was fully recognised. He was 
a man of grand conceptions, strong will, and 
an autocratic spirit, which led him, at least 

in his dealings with Wilfrid, into harsh and 
imfair action. Yet an excuse may be found 
for him in the earnestness of his desire to do 
what he knew to be necessary to the well- 
being of the church, and the difficulties which 
he doubtless had to encounter. Apart from 
his public functions his character seems to 
have been gentle and affectionate. He had 
great power of organisation, his personal in- 
nuence was strong, and he was a skilful 
manager of men. 1 1 is genius was versatile ; 
for he was excellent alike as a scholar, a 
teacher, and in the administration of affairs. 
During his primacy English monasticism 
rapidly advanced; though the charters to 
monasteries to which his name is appended 
are of doubtful value, he protected the monas- 
teries from episcopal invasion, laid down the 
duties of bishops with regard to them, and 
legislated wisely for them (Penitential^ ii. c. 
6). The debt which the English church owes 
to him cannot easily be overestimated. He 
secured its unity and gave it organisation, 
subdividing the vast bishoprics, coterminous 
with kingdoms, and basing its e])iscopate on 
tribal lines, on the means of legislating for it- 
self, and on the idea of obedience to lawfully 
constituted ecclesiastical authority. The be- 
lief that he was the founder of the parochial 
system (Elmham, pp. 285-0 ; Hook) is mis- 
taken (Stubbs, Constitutional History, i. 
c. 8) ; but his legislation aided its develop- 
ment (Bright, pp. 406-7). His educational 
work gave the church a culture that was not 
wholly lost until the period of the Danish 
invasions, and had far-reaching effects. Bede 
says that during his episcopate the churches 
of the English derived more spiritual profit 
than they could ever gain before {Hist, 
Eccles. V. c. 8). His work did not die with 
him : its fruits are to be discerned in the 
character and constitution of the church of 
England at all times to the present day. 

The only written work besides a few lines 
addressed to Ha;ddi and the letter to Ethel- 
red that can with any certainty be ascribed 
to Theodore is a * Penitential.* Although 
Bede does not mention this work, there is 
abundant evidence that a * Penitential ' of 
Theodore was known in very early times. 
{Eccles. Doc, iii. 173-4). Various attempts 
were made from Spelman's time onwards to 
identify and publish Theodore's * Peniten- 
tial,' but that which is now accepted as the 
original work was first edited by Dr. Was- 
serschleben in 1851, and has since been re- 
edited by the editors of * Councils and Eccle- 
siastical Documents' (ib. pp. 173-213), their 
text being taken from a manuscript probably 
of the eighth century at Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Only in a certain sense can 



thia ' PvnilfrDtial ' be de«cribed u the work THEODORE, AXTHOXl' (rf. 1766) 
of Theodore. It consists of a number of adrenturer. 'SeeundeTFsEDEKICK.CoUlsrEL! 
answ-er) given by him to various inquirers,. 1735 ?-1797."l 
and chi-iRv t'l a priest named Eoda, and it i mrm-r.-,,-^ 

was compiled hv someone who calU himself ;,™ERET, JOHN JOSEPH (1791- 
'IHscipulusUnibrensium,' that is, probablv ' '™* '•,'!'"'£?'"""''' °f"ie Roman catholic 
amanlwminthesouthofEnjflandwhohad ?,'"',"=P ,'"„, '^ South Wales, was bom at 
•>d under northern scholarsdJ.) One I V^* '"^'^^ »"" ™**re'l Carlow Collegain 
manuscript state,* that it waa written with ' '™' ' "'^:"^ "^ originated a society bound 
Theodore's advice, but this mav merely mean '° devote itself if need be to foreign miasioa 
that lie approved of such a compilation bein(r"'°™- J^",^'^ trained for the priesthood 
ma-Je, for certainly on two points it differs ' ""derDr Doyle, and ordained atTJublin in 


from what Theodore thought (Bright, p. 4ar) 
In more than twenty places reference ii modi 
to the curtoms of the Greek church. Thi 

character of the wntencea ia austere. Mori 
than once amid the drv enumerati 

April 1815 t< 

t Cork. 

December 1819. He reached Sydne 
1820, and ministered at first 1 


s thfrre appears some evidence of n ■ *>"^P°"l^ chapel in Pitt Street.and at Para- 

loflr soul and of ^plritualitv of mind (i 
8 B.'*. 5, c. li> sec. 7, ii. o. 12 sees, lft-21), 
and once a sentence full of poetic feeling 
(ii. c. 1 sec. 0). Certain olher compilations 

ly edited as the 'Penitential' of -.. „ , , „ ,. e 

of those iudg- ?'f ^?'P1' p-riinfC [%■ v.], m 1827, and 
.-nniJo, J ,1?,. , tor a time deprived of his salary as chap] 

mntta often in the open air. For several 
vearshe was the oulyltomau catholic priest 
in the colony; but he was a devoted pastor, 
travelling great distances to his services, 
into collision with the g 

mctilH of liis which the compiler of th<:' 
genuine work snys in his epilof^c wert' 
widely known and existed in a coafused form. 
Theodore's ' Penitential,' though, 
with other works of same kind, not binding 
on the church, gave it a standard and rule 
of discipline much needed 
holds ail ininortant place among the mate- 
riaU on whidi was liniied the later canon law 
('KTirniiii, LKtiirrt, Xo. xiii). lie eatabliahed 
in till! Kiiglinh chiircii the ol)::ervBnce of the 
twelvii days Iwfore nlirigtmas as a period 
of reticnlancu and good works in prejMira- 
tion for the holy communion on Christinas 
day {Fjjbrrt's I)iali'<pie ap. Ecelet. Doc. iii. 

[All informatirir eonceraing Arclibishnp Theo- 
dore mny bu fciuiiJ in Ciinon Itright'a Enrlj Eng- 
lish Church Jlialnry, i>ns.i<im, 3rd edit. 1897; 
IlB<ldiin and Wulibs's Kcdes. Uoob. iii. lU- 
213.ir1iich hi-k for the Punittntinl. and Bi.ihop 
8luliW«Hrl.'Th.'odorns'(7)inDiet.Chr. Hiogr. 
hero rorum-.l to as > Stiibhs.' to all of which this 
urt. is largely indobt<'<l. Littio cnn ho nddcii 
fXiTpl. by wiy nt cnmmcnt to tho account in 
llrili-'H Kach:i: Hist, (mo Plummcr's edition of 
lleilie t ipeni Hint. vithvaluiiMc notes in lum.ii.), 
mid ^:•ldi'KVila AVilfrUliinllist. of York, vol. i. 
(ItcjllfSiT.), for Tlieodiiru'Hdealiiigs with Wilfrid. 
which must ho used with eautiiin lu tho vork of 
a strim^ ] ; nv also Anglo-ijnion Chmn. 
nnii. liUS- !lll ; llnr. Wig. vol. i. App. (Engl. Hist. 
iS'ii-.]; Wilt. .^lalmcshury's Cattn Puntiflcum, 
Ccn-iiKi- ;if tViul, i. fiO, li. 30, 338-43; Km- 
hnin'i UirX-, ^liin. R. Angiuitini, pn'uim (nil 
Ihr.-n in KnllsfltT.): <ir(.Ws Making of Kngknd, 
P]., ;i3(i-ii, air,, awn ; llook'a ArchbiKhops of 
(l.nferbury,i. U3-7a,] W. H. 

deprivea oi nis salary aschaplaii 
his work waa continued with unabate^. 
vigour. On 29 Oct. 1829 he laid the founda- 
tion stone of St. Joseph's (Jhapel, which 1* 
now part of Sydney Roman catholic cathe- 
dral. In 1833 he waa made subordinate to 
William Bernard Ullathome [q. v.] and then 
to John Bede Folding [q. v.], and waa sent 
by the latter in 1838 to Tasmania. Having 
returned to Sydney, he became priest at St. 
.Vugustine's, Balmain, where he died rather 
suddenly on 25 May 18C4. 

[Hcnton's Auatnilian Dicliooary of Dates, &c. ; 
Meiinell'fl Diet, of Au'lral. Biogr. : Sydney 
Moraing Ilorald, 26 Mny 1804; Ullathornes 
CiUholio Mission in Australasia (pamphlet), 
London, 1838.] c. A. H. 

THERRY, SiB ROGER (1800-1874), 
judge in Xew South Wales, bom in Ireland 
on 22 April 1800. was third son of John 
Therry of Dublin, barriater-at-law. He was 
admitted student at Gray's Inn on 25 Nov. 
1822 (FosTEK, Hty. p. 426), was called to 
the Irish bar in 1824, and to tho English 
liar ill 1827. Ho found his chief employ- 
ment in ]ioliticB, actively connecting himself 
with the agitation for UoiuBn catholic eman- 
cipation. At thia time ha made the 
nwjuaintance of George Canning, whose 
spi'echeahe edited. 

Through Canning's infliieneo Therry waa 
appoiutiid commissioner of the court of ri^ 
quests of Xew Sonth Wales, and went otit 
to the colony in July 182it, arriving in 
November. In April 1830 ho became a 
magistrate; but his path waa not amooth, 
partly because of his active ioterrention ia 




matters affecting the Roman catholic church 
{New South Wales Magazine, 1833, p. 300). 
In 1831 he was yiolently attacked in regard 
to his part in a deposition made hy the wife 
of the attorney-general of the colony against 
her hushand, and it was alleged that he had 
used undue influence to hring the children 
into the Roman catholic church. In 1833 
by his action respecting the treatment of ser- 
Tants by one of the unpaid magistrates 
(Mudie) he brought upon himself a storm of 
opposition, and was yiolently attacked in 
print along with the governor, Sir Richard 
6ourke [q.v.], whose champion he was asserted 
to have made himself (Mudie, Felonry of 
New South Wales f pp. 104 sqq.) At the close 
of 1835 the post of chairman of quarter ses- 
sions was added to his other appointments. 
In May 1841 he was promoted to be attorney- 
general. In 1843 he was elected to the legis- 
lative council for Camden amid some indigna- 
tion due to his close connection with the 
governor's projects (Lang). In January 1845 
he became resident judge at Port Phillip ; in 
February 1846 a puisiie judge of the supreme 
court andprimary jua|fe in equitv. 

On 22 Feb. 1859 Thefry retired on a pen- 
sion and returned to England. In 1803 he 
fublished ' Reminiscences of Thirty Years' 
tesidence in New South Wales,' the first 
edition of which was suppressed because of 
its personalities. Towards the close of his 
Ufe he was much out of health, and resided 
chiefly at Bath,wherehedied on 17 May 1874. 
Therry was married and left children, one 
of whom was in the army. Besides the 
*Speechesof George Canning, with a memoir,' 
London, 1828, 6 vols., and a pamphlet en- 
titled ' Comparison of the Oratory of the 
House of Commons thirty years ago and at 
the present time' (Sydney,! 856, 8vo), several 
of his public letters to ministers and others 
are extant. 

[Meuneirs Diet, of Austral. Biogr. ; Sydney 
HorniDg Herald, 25 Jaly 1874; his own pam- 
phlets and book above cited ; Lang's History of 
New Soath Wales, i. 257 sqq. , Rusden's History 
of Australia, ii. 147-0 ; Allibone's Diet, of Lit. ; 
Official Blae-book returns.] C. A. H. 

1880), lord justice of appeal, third and 
youngest son of Frederick Thesiger, first baron 
Chelmsford [q.v.], by his wife Anna Maria, 
youngest daughter of William Tinling of 
Southampton, was bom on 15 July 1838. He 
was educated at Eton, and matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 15 May 1856, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1860 and M.A. in 1862. 
Both at school and at college he was dis- 
tinguished as a cricketer and as an oarsman. 
He was a student of the Inner Temple, and 

was called to the bar in 1862. He joined 
the home circuit, and rapidly obtained a 
large London practice. For a time he was 
' postman ' of the court of exchequer, and on 
3 July 1873 he became a queen's counsel. 
He was slight and youthful in appearance, 
extremely industrious, and extremely honour- 
able as an advocate. He was lucid in state- 
ment and sound in counsel. After he retired 
from parliamentary work his practice lay 
chiefly in commercial and compensation cases. 
In January 1874 he was elected a bencher of 
his inn of court, and on 10 Sept. 1877 attorney- 
general to the Prince of Wales. In 1876 he 
was a member of the commission upon the 
fugitive slave circujar, and in 1877, on the 
recommendation of Lord Cairns and to the 
surprise of the public, he was appointed to 
succeed Sir Richard Paul Amphlett [q.v.] 
as a lord justice of the court of appeal, though 
only thirty-nine years old, and was sworn of 
the privy council. During his brief tenure 
of a seat on the bench he showed great judi- 
cial ability. He died in London of blood- 
Eoisoning on 20 Oct. 1880. On 31 Dec. 1862 
e married Henrietta, second daughter of the 
Hon. George Hancock, fourth son of the se- 
cond Earl of Castlemaine, but left no issue. 

[Times, 21 Oct. 1880; Law Times, 23 Oct. 
1880.] J. A. H. 

1805), naval officer, was the eldest son of 
John Andrew Thesiger (d, 1783), by his 
wife. Miss Gibson (d. 1814) of Chester. He 
was the uncle of Frederick Thesiger, first 
baron Chelmsford [q. v.] He made several 
voyages in the marine service of the East 
India Company, but, growing tired of the 
monotony of trade, he entered the royal 
navy as a midshipman imder Sir Samuel 
Marshall. At the beginning of 1782, when 
Rodney sailed for the West Indies, he was 
appointed acting-lieutenant on board the 
Formidable, and on the eve of the action 
with the French on 12 April, on the recom- 
mendation of Sir Charles Douglas, captain 
of the fleet, he was appointed aide-de-camp 
to Rodney. Thesiger continued in the West 
Indies under Admiral Hugh Pigot (1721 ?- 
1792) [q. v.], Rodney's successor, and after- 
wards accompanied Sir Charles Douglas to 
America. On the conclusion of peace in 
1 783 he returned to England. 

In 1788. on the outbreak of war between 
Russia and Sweden, Thesiger obtained per- 
mission to enter the Russian service. He 
was warmly recommended to the Russian 
ambassador by Rodney, and in 1789 was 
appointed to tne command of a 74-gun ship. 
lie distinguished himself in the naval en- 




gagement of 2«j Aug., obliging the Swedish 
admiral on board the Guetavus to strike to 
him. In June 1790 a desperate action was 
fought off the island of Domholm. Victorv 
decLaredfor the Kussians^but of six EnglisL 
captains engaged in their service Thesiger 
was the only sun'ivor. In recognition of 
his services in this action he received from 
the Emprei^s Catherine the insignia of the 
order of St. George. In 1796 Sir Frederick 
accompanied the IbUS?ian s(|uadron which 
came to the Downs to co-operate with the 
English fleet in the blockade of the Texel. 

( )n the death of the Empress Catherine in 
1797 he grew discontented with her succes- 
sor, Paul, and, notwithstanding his solicita- 
tions, persisted in tendering his resignation. 
lie was detained in St. Petersburg a year 
before receiving his passport, and finally de- 
parted without receiving his arrears of pay 
or his prize money. lie arrived in England 
at a time when her maritime supremacy 
was threatened by the northern confederacy 
formed to resist her rigorous limitation of the 
commercial privileges of neutrals and her in- 
discriminate application of the right of search. 
On account of his peculiar knowledge of the 
Baltic and the Russian navy Thesiger was 
frequently consulted by Earl Spencer, the 
first lord of the admiralty. When war was 
decided on, he was promoted to the rank of 
commander, and at tlie battle of Copenhagen 
served Lord Nelson as an aidt»-de-camp. .Vt 
the crisis of the battle he volunteered to 
proceed to the crown prince with the flag of 
truce, and, knowing that celerity was im- ; 
port ant, he took his boat straight through the . 
banish fire, avoiding a safer but more tardy , 
route. During the substH^uent operations in 
the Baltic his knowledge of the coast and of . 
the Russian language ])roved of great value. 
On his return to England bearing despatches 
from Sir Charles Morice Pole [4. v.] he re- 
ceived a flattering reception from Lord St. 
Vincent, and shortly after was raised to the 
rank of post-captain, obtaining at the same 
time permission to af?sume the rank of knight- 
hood and to wear the order of St. George. 
On the rupture of the treaty of Amiens he 
was appointed British agent for the prisoners | 
of war at Portsmouth, lie died, unmarried, 
at I'^lson, near Portsmouth, on:^(j Aug. 1805. 

I Universal Mag. NovombfT 180.>; NjivjiI 
Chronicle, December 1805; these memoirs were 
reprintwl with the title 'Short Sketch of the 
Life of Captain Sir F. Thesiger,' London, 180C, 
4lo.] E. I. C. 

CiiEi.MSFOKD (1791-1878), lord chancellor, 
was the third and youngest son of CJiarles 

Thesiger (d, 1831), comptroller and collectoi 
of customs in the island of St. Vincent, b} 
his wife Mai^ Anne (d, 1796), daughter « 
Theonhilus A\ illlams of London. Frederick's 
grandfather, John Andrew Thesiger (</. 1783) 
was a native of Saxony, who settled in Eng 
land about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and was employed as amanuensis t( 
the Marquis of Rockingham. Frederick wa.< 
bom in London on 15 April 1794, and wasal 
first placed at Dr. Charles Bumey*s school at 
Cireenwich. He was destined for the navy 
in which his uncle. Sir Frederick Thesiger 
afterwards Nelson's aide-de-camp at Copen- 
hagen, was a distinguished officer, and was 
removed subsequently to a school at Gospon 
kept by another Dr. Bumey specially U 
train boys for the na\-y. After a year at 
Gosport he joined the frigate Cambrian m 
a midshipman in 1807 and was present at 
the seizure of the fleet at Copenhagen ; but 
shortly afterwards he quitted the navy or 
becoming heir to his father's West Indiai 
estates by the death of his last surviving 
brother, George. He was sent to school foi 
two years more, and then in 1811 went out 
to join his father at St. Vincent. A vol- 
canic eruption on 30 April 1812 utterl) 
destroyed his father's estate and considerabl} 
impoverished his family. It was then deter 
mined that he should practise in the West 
Indies as a barrister. He entered at Gray'g 
Inn on 5 Nov. 1813, and successively read 
in the chambers of a conveyancer, an equitjf 
draughtsman, and of Godfrev Sykes, a well- 
known special pleader. Sykesthought his 
talents would be thrown away in the West 
Indies, and on his advice, though friendless 
and without connections, Thesiger resolved 
to try his fortune in England. 

On 18 Nov. 1818 he was called to the bar. 
He joined the home circuit and Surrey ses- 
sions. In two or three years, by the re- 
moval of his chief competitors, Turton and 
Broderic, he attained the leadership of these 
sessions. Ho also became by purchase one 
of the four counsel of the palace court of 
Westminster. The experience thus gained 
in a constant succession of small cases, civil 
and criminal, was of great value to him. He 
attracted attention by his defence of Ilunt, 
the accomplice of John Thurtell [q. v.], in 
\f<'J4f and he owed so much to his success in 
an action of ejectment, thrice tried at Chelms- 
ford in 1832, that, when he was raised to the 
peerage, he elected to take his title from that 
circuit town. He became a king's counsel 
in 1831, and was leader of his circuit for 
the next ten years. His name became very 
prominent in 1835 as counsel for the peti- 
tioners before the election committee wmch 




inquired into the return of O'Connell and 
Kathven for Dublin. After an unsuccessful 
CQOtest in 1S40 at Newark against Wilde, 
the solicitor-general, he was returned to 
ptriiament as conservative member for Wood- 
stock on 20 March. In 1844, owing to dif- 
ferences of opinion with the Duke of Marl- 
borough, he ceased to represent \Voodstock, 
lod was elected for Abingdon, and at the 
general election of 1852 he was returned 
lor Stamford by the influence of Lord Exeter. 

On 8 June 1842 Thesicer was created 
D.C.L. by the university of Oxford, and on 
19 June 1845 was elected a fellow of the 
Rojal Society. On 15 April 1844 he was 
Appointed solicitor-general in succession to 
Sir "William Webb FoUett [q. v.] and was 
knighted. The breakdown of Jb oUet t's health 
threw upon him almost all the work of both 
kw officers, and on Follett*s death he be- 
came attorney-general on 29 June 1845. lie 
retired on the fall of the Peel administra- 
tion, 3 July 1840. Had the ministry lasted 
another fortnight, he would have succeeded 
to the chief-justiceship of the common pleas, 
which became vacant on 6 July by the death 
of Sir Nicholas Tindal, and was given to 

He returned to his private practice at the 
bar, and in parliament acted with Lord 
Oeorge Bentinck. He obtained office again 
M attorney-general in Lord Derby's first ad- 
ministration from February to December 
1852 ; and when Lord Derby formed his second 
Administration, and Lord St. Leonards re- 
fused, owing to his great age, to return to 
•ctive life, Thesiger received the great seal, 
26 Feb. 1858, and became Baron Chelms- 
ford and a privy councillor. His chancel- 
lorship was short, for the ministry fell in 
June 1859. His chief speech while in office 
^^ an eloquent opposition to the removal of 
Jewish disabilities, on which subject he had 
repeatedly been the principal speaker on 
the conservative side in the House of Com- 

After his resignation he continued active 
in iudicial work, both in the House of Lords 
ana the privy coimcil. He constant ly found 
bunself in collision with Westbury, for whom 
he had a profound antipathy, and in par- 
ticular severely attacked him early in 1862 
^th regard to the hardship inflicted under 
the new Bankruptcy Act upon the officials 
^f the former insolvent court. Lord West- 
bury, on the whole, had the best of the en- 
jounter (Nash, iJft of Westbury, ii. 38). 
^hnsford resumed office again under Lord 
*^by in 1866, but was somewhat summarily 
^ aside in 1868 by Disraeli when Lord 
l^rby ceased to be prime minister. He 

▼ou LTl. 

died on 5 Oct. 1878 at his house in Eaton 
Square, London. 

Thesiger married, in 1822, Anna Maria 
(d, 1875), youngest daughter of William Tin- 
ling of Southampton, and niece of Major 
Francis Peirson [u. v.], the defender of Jer- 
sey. By her he tad seven surviving chil- 
dren, of whom Alfred Henry is noticed sepa- 

Thesiger had a fine presence and hand- 
some features, a beautiful voice, a pleasant 
if too freauent wit, an imperturbable temper, 
and a girt of natural eloquence. He was, 
after the death of Follett, probably the most 
popular leading counsel of his dav. As a 
lawyer he was ready and painstaking, and 
was a particularly sagacious cross-examiner ; 
but his general reputation was that he was 
deficient in learning (see Life of Lord Camp- 
belly ii, 357). It was perhaps a misfortune 
that he was never appointed to a common- 
law judgeship; but his judgments in the 
House of Lords show sound sense and grasp 
of principle. Throughout a laborious career, 
which politically was for long periods un- 
lucky, though profeiionally immensely suc- 
cessful, he preserved an unbroken good 
humour, patience, and freedom from acer- 
bity (see letter by Sir Laurence Peel in Law 
Journal, 12 Oct. 1878). 

His portrait, painted by E. U. Eddis, is in 
the possession of the present Lord Chelms- 
ford. It was mezzotinted by W. Walker. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Law .Toomal 
and Law Times, 12 Oct. 1878; Times, 7 Oct. 
1878.] J. A. H. 

THEW, KOBEIIT (17.58-1 80i>), en- 
graver, was born in 1758 at Patrington, 
Holdemess, Yorkshire, where his father 
kept an inn. He received but little educa- 
tion, and for a time followed the trade of a 
cooper ; but, possessing great natural abilities, 
he invented an ingenious camorii obscura, 
and later took up engraving, in which art, 
although entirely self- taught, he attained to 
a high degree of excellence. In 1783 he 
went to Hull, where he resided for a few 
years, engraving at first shop-bills and 
tradesmen's cards. His earliest work of a 
higher class was a portrait of Harry Howe 
[q. v.] the famous puppet-show man, and in 
1780 lie etched and publish«'d a pair of views 
of the new dock at Hull, which were aqua- 
tinted by Francis Jukes [q. v.] Having exe- 
cuted a good plate of a woman's head after 
Gerard fiou, he obtained from the Marquis 
of Carmarthen an introduction to John Boy- 
dell [q. v.], for whose large edition of Shake- 
speare he engraved in the dot manner twenty- 
two plates after Northcote, Westall, Opie, 



peters, and others. Of these the finest is the 
entry of Curdinal Wolaev into Leicester 
Abbey, after Wpatall, Th#w also engnired 
a few excellent portraits, including^ Miister 
Here, after Reynolds, 1790; Sir Thomas 
Gresham.fifter Sir Anthony More, 1792; and 
Mies Turner, with the title ' Reflections on 
Werter,' after Richard Crosse. He held tho 

Spointment of historicnl engraver to the 
itux of WaleK, and died at or near Steven- 
ase, llertfonlshire, shortly before August 

[aenLMae. 1802 ii. Dil, 1803 i.47S ; Doi!d'« 
maimscript Iliat. of EngliBh EDgravars in Brit. 
Mus. {Addit. MS. 33106); Redgmve's Diet, of 
Artiste.] F. M. O'D. 

■on of John Theyer (d. 1631), and (grandson 
of Thomas Thejer of Brockworth, Gloucester- 
shire, was bora there in 1597. Richard 
Hart, the last prior of Lanlhony Abbev, 
Olouceatarahire, lord of the manor of Broct- 
■worth,andthebuilder of Broekworth Court, 
Tras brother of kis j^andmother, Ann Hart 
(Trnn». Bristol and Glonceatrr Archmologieat 
BtK. vii. 181, 164). Tkeyer inherited Ri- 
chard Hart's valuable library of manuscripts, 
which determined his t>ent in life. 

He entered Magdalen College, Oxford, 
when about sixteen, but did not graduate. 
On 6 July 1643 lie was created St.A. by the 
king's command, ' ob merita sua in rempub. 
lil«rariam et ecclesiam.' After three years 
at Magdalen he practised common law at 
New Inn, London, whither Anlkony Wood's 
mother proposed to send her son to qualify 
under Theyer for anattomey{ Wood, Life arid 
Tinies, Oxford Hist. Soc, i. l.-W). Although 
Wood did not go, ha became a lifelong 
friend, and visited Theyer to make use of his 
library at Cooper's Hill, Brockworth, a small 
estate given him by hia father on his marriage 
in 162S. He liv^ here chiefly (ct. Slate 
Papert, Dom. 1630-40 pp. 280, 286, and 1640 
pp. 383, 386, 388, 392),but in 1943 was in Ox- 
ford, serving in the king'sarmy.andpresented 
toOharles I, in Merton College garden, a copy 
of bin ' Aerio Mastix, or a 'V mdication of the 
Apostolical! and generally received Oovem- 
ment of the Church of Christ by Bishops,' 
Oxford, 1643, 4to. Wood says ho became a 
catholic about this time, and began, but did 
notlivetofinish,' A Friendly Debalebetween 
Protestiinte and I'apiats.' His estate was 
sequestrated by the parliament, who pro- 
nounced him one of the most 'invetenite' 
with whom they had to deal. His family 
'were almost destitute until his discharge 
WAS obtained on 4 Nov. 1052. 

Theyer died at Cooper's Hil on 25 Aug. 

173, and was buried in Brockworth choreb- 
yard on the 2etb. 

By his wife Susan, Theyer had a son John; 
the latter's eon Charles (£. lt>51) matiicD- 
lated at University College, Oxford, o> 
7 May 1668, and was probably the lectnin 
of Totteridge, Hertfordshire, who published 
' A Sermon on her Jlsjesty's Happy Anri- 
yereary,' London, 1T07, 4to. Tottiaertni- 
son Theyer bequeathed hia collection of eiglit 
hundrea manuscripts (catalogued in HarL 
.VS. 460). Charles oftered them to OifoM 
University, and the Bodleian Library des- 
patched Edward Bernard [q.v.] to see them, 
but no purchase was effected, and they passed 
into the hands of Robert Scott, a bookseller 
of London. A catalogue of 336 volumo, 
dated 29 July 1678, prepared by William 
Beveridge [q.v.], rector of St. Peters, Cora- 
hill, and afterwards bishop of St. Asaph, sad 
WUlism JaneFq. v.], is in Royal MS. Ap- 
pendix, 70. The collection, which in Ber- 
nard's ' Catalogus Manuscriptorum Anglie,' 
1697, had dwindled U) 312, was bought bt 
Charles II and passed with the Royal Libia:? 
to the British Museum, where they are now 
numbered MS. Reg. 18 C. 13 et seq. 

[FosUr's Alamni Oion, 1500-1714 ; Woofs 
AibenEE Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 999; Wood'! 
Fasti Oion, ed. Bliss, ii. S9; Atkyn'a GlonMf 
tarshire, p. IfiS; Bigland's Glouceatetshirt. 
1791, i. 2S];LifB andTimoi of Wood (Oxfori 
Hist. Soc). i. 404, 474, ii. 143, 146,268,485. 
4ee,iv. 74, 109, 1298; Notra and Queries, Sid 
Bor.vii,a41,4lhser. ii. 11, Stii ser. li. 48T,» 
31 : Cal. of Comm. for Cunip. pp. 2803, 38DJ; 
Cul. of Comm, (or Adv. of Money, p. 13S6.] 
C. F. S. 
THICKNESSE, formerly Ford, ASS 
(1737-1824), authoress and musician, wife 
of Philip Thicknesse [q. v.], was the oiilj 
child of Thomas Ford {d. 1768), clerk of tho 
arraigns. Her mother waa a Miss ChtiB' 
piou. Ann Ford was bom in a house neU 
the Temple, London, on d3 Feb. 1737. A> 
the niece of Dr. Ford, the queen's physiwwfc 
and of Gilbert Ford, attorney-general » 
Jamaica, she was received in ^hionsbls 
society and became a favourite on accouiB 
of her beauty and talent. Before she wH 
twenty she had been painted by Hone inttM 
character of a muse, and celebrated fat iB 
dancing by the Earl of Chesterfield. Tla 
'town frequented her Sunday eoncvU, 
where Ur. Ame, Tenducci, and other pn^ 
fessors were heard, besides all the fashiuubls 
amateurs, the hosless playing the viol J» 
gamha and singing to the giiitar. ' She il 
excellent in music, loves solitude, and 
unmeasurable alfectations,' wrote one 
to another at Bath in 17&8 (cf. A Letter from 




MmF. . d toaPermm of Distinction, 17 61). 
Her father's objections to her sinking in 
pabh'c were so strong that, by a magistrate's 
wiRintybe secured her capture at the house 
of a lady friend. Not until she had escaped 
the paternal roof a second time was she en- 
abled to make arrangements for the first of 
her five subscription concerts, on 18 March 
1760, at the little theatre in the Hay- 
ttarket. Aristocratic patronage furnished 
IflOOi. in subscriptions; but Miss Ford's 
troables were not yet over, for at her father's 
ioatance the streets round the theatre were 
occupied by Bow Street runners, only dis- 
persed by Lord Tankerville's threats to send 
ibr a detachment of the guards. Such sen- 
aational incidents added to the success of 
the concerts. These generally included 
Handelian and Italian arias, sung by Miss 
Fordy and soli for her on -the viol da gamba 
and guitar. The violinist Pinto and other 
instrumentalists contributed pieces. In 1761 
Miss Ford was announced to sing ' English 
airs, accompanying herself on the musical 
fhkues,' penorming daily from 24 to 30 Oct. 
m the large room, late Cocks's auction-room, 
Spring Gajdens. At the close of the year 
Miss Ford published * Instructions for Play- 
ing on the Musical Glasses ' [see Pockricu, 
IIichard]. These glasses cont^ned water, 
and it was not until the following year that 
the armonica was introduced by Marianne , 
Da vies [q. v.] With regard to Miss Ford's . 
viol da gamba it may be surmised that she ' 
used a favourite instrument ' made in 1612, , 
of exquisite workmanship and mellifluous ; 
tone ' rTHiCKiTESSE, Oainiborvugh, p. 19). j 
In November she left town with Philip 
Thicknesse [c^. v.], the lieutenant-governor, | 
and Lady Elizabeth Thicknesse for Land- 
guard Fort, where her friend gave birth to 
a son, dying a few months afterwards, on 
28 March 1762. The care of the young 
family devolved upon Miss Ford, and Thick- 
nesse after a short interval made her his 
(third) wife on 27 Sept. 1762. She proved 
a kind stepmother and a sympathetic wife. 
Their summer residence, Felixstowe Cottage, 
was the subject of enthusiastic description in 
the pages of ' The School for Fashion,' 1800 
(see Public Characters^ 1806). A sketch of 
the cottage by Gainsborough was published 
in the' Gentleman's Magazine' (1816, ii. 105). 
Mrs. Thicknesse wrote, while living tempo- 
rarily at Bath, her anecdotal * Sketches of the 
Lives and Writings of the Ladies of France ' 
(3 vols. 1778-81). A contemplated visit to 
Italy in 1792 was frustrated bv the sudden 
death of Philip Thicknesse auer they had 
left Boulogne. The widow, remaining in 
Francei was arrested and confined in a con- 

vent. After the execution of Robespierre in 
July 1794, a decree was promulgated for 
the liberation of any prisoners who should 
be able to earn their livelihood. Mrs. 
Thicknesse produced proofs of her accom- 
plishments and was set free. In 1800 she 
published her novel, * The School for 
Fashion,' in which many well-known cha- 
racters appeared under fictitious names, her- 
self as Euterpe. For fifteen or eighteen 
years before ner death, Mrs. Thicnnesse 
lived with a friend in the Edgware Hoad. 
She died at the age of eighty-six on 20 Jan. 
1824 {Annual Register). Her daughter mar- 
ried; her son John died in 1846 (O'Bibxe, 
Naval Biography), 

Mrs. Thicknesse's linguistic and other 
talents were considerable, but she shone 
with most genuine light in music. Kauzzini 
admired her singinji^, and many thought her 
equal to Mrs. Billington in compass and 
sweetness of voice, ller portraits, by Hone 
and Gainsborough, have not been engraved. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 640 ; Letter from 
Miss F . . d; Letter to Miss F . . d; Dia- 
logue, 1761 ; Uorace Walpole's Correspondence, 
iii. 878; Kilvert's Ralph Allen, p. 20; Public 
Advertiser, March-April 176U, October 1761; 
Thicknesse's Gainsborough, p. 19, und other 
Works, passim ; Monkland's Literati of Bath ; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdote^, ix. 251 ; Public 
Characters, 1806; Harwich Guide, 1808, p. 82 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1761 pp. 33, 79, 106, 1792 p. 1164; 
Registers of Wilis, P. C. C. Krskine 1 18, Bogg 
160.] L. M. M. 

THICKNESSE, GEORGE (1714-1790), 
schoolmaster, third son of John Thicknesse, 
rector of Farthinghoe in Northamptonshire, 
was bom in 1714. His mother, Joyce Blen- 
cowe, was niece of Sir John Blencowe [q. v.] 
Philip Thicknesse [q. v.], lieutenant-governor 
of Landguard Fort, was a vounger brother. 
George Thicknesse entered XVinchester Col- 
lege in 172G. In 17.'J7 he was appointed 
chaplain (third master) of St. Paul's school, 
in 1745 surmaster, and in 1748 high master. 
The school, which had been declining in 
his predecessor's time, flourished under his 
rule. Philip Francis, the reputed author of 
* Junius,' was one of his scholars. In 1759 
he suffered for a time from mental derange- 
ment {Gent, Mag, 1814, ii. 629), but did not 
retire from his office till 176J>, when the 
governors of St. Paul's awarded him a pen- 
sion of 100/. a year, and requested him to 
name his successor. 

Thicknesse, on his retirement, resided 
with an old schoolfellow, William Hol- 
bech, at Arlescote, near Warmington, 
Northamptonshire, till the death of the 
latter in 1771. He himself died, unmarried, 

K 2 




on !■* D*?c. 1790. and wa« buried on the 
north sid»_* <-■!' Warminjrt"n churchyard, in 
acc^irdano*.' w'l'h somewhat Mn^ular direc- 
tion* which hv had ;nven w*4. p. 412). A 
marblv ItiHt of him by John Hick»>y. with 
an in-crii^tion. Th'.- joint work of Sir Philip 
Francis aii'l I'M mund Burke, wa? plac»?d in 
St. Paul's sch'jtl by hi* pupils in 1792, but 
ha* si net' l>.-rn r»: moved ( Xofe'* and Querie*, 
8th s-r. ix. 14*»). 

[Kirly's Wir.ehoittr Scholars, 18SS. p. 2S3 ; 
Oripliiitr'b A■im's^ion Regi-itcr-i of S:. Paul's 
Sch'/)!, p. ^4 ; Ni'-]iol«!"» Litenirr Aiit-ciotes, i. 
4-20 w.. ix. L'.31-6; G, at. Mag. 1790 ii. 
lir,3. ITfH i. 30; Arhena&um. 29 Sopt. 
1888: Pji'ilin*- ^St. Paul's .^chool Magazine^ 
xiv. 18-21 ; Mf-rnoirs and Ancc^iotf-s of l*hilip 
Thickii'^ 17R«, i. 7, 8 ; Parkosani Merivale's 
Memoirs of Sir Philip Francis, 18G7, i. o.] 

J. H. Ii. 

THICKNESSE, PHILIP (1710-1792), 
li«'UtHnant-trov«*rnor of Landguard Port, 
seventh i^<i\\ of John, rector of 
Farthingho**, Northamptonshire, who was a 
younjr»*r «on of Halph Thickne«se of Bal- 
tcrhy Hall, Srafford.shire, wa.s born at his 
father's r**(ftorv on 10 Aug. 1719. Ilis 
moth'T, Joyc*.* Blencowe, was niece of Sir 
Jolin Blfucowe ^q. v.] George Thicknesse 
■"q.v." was his rider brot her. Another brother, 
Ifalph (//. 1742), was an as.sistant master at 
Kton ('olh?^'. and published an edition of 
* PhiL-driis uith Fn^ Notes '(1741). He 
di»'d ftud'h-nly at Bath on 1 1 < )ct. 1742, while 
p<'rfonniiiir a musical piece of his own coni- 
i)osIiion («'t'. lii< epitaph in (if/it. May, 1790, 
i. 521 ). 

Anoth.r K'ulpli Thickn.-sse (1719-1790). 
cousin to Philip, born at Barthomley, Che- 
nliire, was M.A. of King's College, Cam- 
bridp^e, and M.l).,Mnd practised as a medical 
man at "NVi^iJiu, where he died on 12 Feb. 
1790, aged 71. il»" wrote a 'Treatise on 
Fon-ign V«';,^et}ibh'^ ' (1749), chiefly tak^n 
from (iroflVov's * Materia ^ledica' (^ib. 171K), 
i. 1^5,272, :m'. Journal nf Botany, 1890, p. 

Philip, aftj-r going to Aynhoe school, was 
admitted a 'gratis* scholar at Westminster 
school. IIo h'ft that school in a short time 
t') bi' placed with an apothecary named Mar- 
madjiKi' Tisdall : but he soon tired of that 
calling, and in 17.%, when he was only aix- 
tiM-n, wrnt out t«» Georgia with General 
OglcthorjM'. Iji'tumingto l^ngland in 1737, 
ln' was cm])loyi'd by the trustees of the 
colony until h»» lost Ogl f't ho rpe*s favour by 
sjH'uking to(» [ilainly of th«^ management of 
airairs in Georgia. He afterwards obtained 
a liiMitcnancy ifi an indeptuident company 
at .Jamaica, where fur some time he was 

engaged in desultorv warfare with the run- 
away negroes in tbe mountains. He le- 
tumt-d home at the end of 1740 after a 
disagreement with his brother officers, and 
in the following January became captain- 
lieutenant in Brigadier JefTries's regiment nf 
marines. Earl v in 1 744-5 he was sent to the 
Mediterranean under Admiral Medlov, and 
|«ssed thrr>ugh a terrible gale near Land's 
End on 27 Feb. In February 1753 he pro- 
cured by purchase the lieutenant-govenwff- 
ship of I..and^uard Fort, Suffolk, an appoint- 
ment which he held till 176U. He had a 
dispute in 1762 with Francis Vernon (afte^ 
wards Lord ( )rwell and Earl of Shipbro^jke), 
then colonel of the Suffolk militia; and, 
having sent the colonel the ludicrous pre.<ient 
of a wooden gun, was involved in an action 
for libel, with the result tliat he was confined 
for three months in the king^s bench prison 
and fined 300/. In 1754 he met with Thomas 
Gainsborough near Landguard Point, and for 
the next twenty years constituted himself 
the patron of the artist, of whose genius he 
considen^d himself the discoverer. He in- 
duced Gainsborough to move to Bath from 
Ipswich: but in 1774 their friendship vaa 
broken by a wretched squabble. About 1706 
he settled at Welwyn, Hertfordshire, remov- 
ing thence to Monmouthshire, and in 17^ 
to Bath, where he purchased a house in the 
Crescent, and built another house which he 
called St. (Catherine's Hermitage. His long- 
cherished hopes of succeeding to 12.(X)0'. 
from the family of his first wife were de- 
stroyed by a decree against him in chancen* 
and by an unsuccessful appeal to the House 
of I-.ords. Three letters, in which this de- 
cision of the House of Lords was vehementlv 
denounced, appeared in an opposition news- 
l)aper, 'The Cri8i.s,* on 18 Feb., 25 March, 
and 12 Aug. 1775 respectively. The fir^t 
two were signed Munius,* and appeared while 
Thicknesse was still in England. The last 
letter, which hadbeen promised in the second, 
and was issued after jhicknesse had quitted 
the countr\', bore his own name. All were 
doubtless by Thicknesse, and the use of 
Junius's name was in all probability an in- 
tentional mystification. Tliicknesse marT 
years later (1789) issued a pamphlet, * Junius 
Discovered,' in which he professed to discover 
Junius in Home Tooke; but the identifica- 
tion cannot be seriously entertained (infor- 
mation kindly supplied by A. Hall, esq.) 

After the House of Lords finally pro- 
nounced against Thicknesse in 1775, lie, re- 
garding himself as * driven out of his own 
countrj- ,* fixed upon Spain as a place of resi- 
dence. He returned, however, to Bath flt 
the end of 1776. In 1784 he erected in his 



wrtai it into a dwelling-Uouse, whence he 
Coali! contemplate the shorea of France, into 
vhichcounln' he made an excursion in 1791, 
■ml wu in FariB daring an early period of 
tie revulution. In the following year he 
ni once more at Bath, which he finally lefl 
b Ihe autumn for the continent, and on 
19 XoT. 179:? be suddenlj died in a coach 
Mu Boulogne, while on his wny to I'uria 
vilb his wife. He was huried in the pro- 
totut cemetery at Boulo^e, where a munii- 
stni was erected to his memory by bis 
vidow {Iptwich Journal, 30 March 1793). 

Thicknesse is described by John Nichols 
\Ut. Anted, ix. 28S) as ' a man of probity 
tai honour, whose heart and nurse were 
alKijs open to the unfortunate. Another 
wiWf (FuLCinm) says ' he had in a reraark- 
*lile ilegn* the faculty of lessening the 
lumber of hia frienda and increasing the 
Bnniber of hia enemies. He was perpetually 
unigjning inault, and would sniff an injury 
from sfar.' It is thought thnt Graves pic- 
tared Thicknesse in tha character of Graham 
in tbe 'Spiritual Quixote;' and be ia one of 
ttttuthors pilloried in Mathias'a 'Fursuita 
of liiteniture ' (8tb edit. p. 71). 

Ue married thrice : first, in 1742, llaria, 
Oilf ilaughl-er of John Ijanovu of South- 
Upton, a French refugee ; she died eariy in 
1748; and on 10 Nov. in the sarae year he 
iiurried Elizabeth Touchet, eldest dauehtur 
'^ 'lie Earl of Castlehaven. She di^ on 
^Mirch 1762, lesyjng three sons and three 
dsugbter.i. The eldest son succeeded to the 
"•iwiy of Audlej. The terms on which 
l^acknesse lived with this aon inay be 
PJhered from the title of his 'Memoirs' 
(ao, 'M, below), and from a clause in his 
*ill, wherein he desires hia right hand to be 
fill off and sent to Lord Audley, ' lo remind 
Mm of his duty to God, after having so long 
'Mndoned the duty he owed to his father.' 
ttis third wife was Anne (1737-1824), 
kughler of Thomas Ford, whom be married 
« 37 Sept. 1763. She is separately noticed. 
As an author Thicknesse was voluminous 
fid often interesting, especially in his no- 
-1^ of bis experiences in Qeorma and 
■Inaica, and on the continent of Europe. 
^ia first pieces were contributions to tlie 
Uuieum Rusticum' (1763). These were 
■Ilowed by: 1. 'A Letter to a Young Ladv,' 
■ 64, 4to. 2. 'Man-Midwifery Analyseil,' 
?*J,4to. 3. 'Proceeding of a Court'Mar- 
*t,' 1766, 4to. 4. 'Narrativonf what passed 
'iUiSirUanyErskiiie,'I7e6,8To, 5. ' Ub- 

sen'ations on the Customs and Manners of 
the French Nation,' 176(!, 8vo ; 2nd and 3rd 
edit. 1779 and 1789. 6. 'Useful Hints to 
those who make the Tour of France,' 1768, 
8vo. 7. 'Account of four Fertions starved 
to Death at Iletchworlh, Herts,' 1769, 4to. 
8. ' Sketches and Characters of the most 
Eminent and most Singular Persons now 
living,' 1770, 12mo. B. ' A Treatise on the 
Art of Deciphering and Writing in Cypher, 
with an Harmonic Alphabet,' 1775, 8vo, 
10. 'A Year's Joumev through France and 
Fart of Spain,' 1777, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 2nd and 
3rd edit, 1* 78 and 1789 (cf, Nichols, Illuttr. 
o/LU.v.737). 11. 'New Prose Bath Guide 
for the Year 1778,; 8vo. 12, ' The Valetu- 
dinarian's Dath Guide; or the Means of ob- 
taining Long Life and Health,' 1760, 8vo. 

13, 'IjjtterstoDr. Falconer of Bath,' 1782. 

14, 'Queries to Lord Audley,' 1782, 8vo. 

15, ' F^re Pascal, a Monk of Monteerrat, 
vindicated,' 1783. Ifl. ' The Speaking Figure, 
and the Automaton Chess Flayer exposed 
and detected,' 1784 (anon,) 17. ' A Year's 

ditious, 1786. 18. 'An Extraordinary Case 
and Perfect Cure of the Gout ... as related 
by , . , Abbe Man, from the French,' 1784. 
19. 'A farther Account of I'Abbe Man's 
Case,' 1786. -J. 'A Letter to the Earl of 
Coventn-,' 1785, 8vo. 21. 'Letter to Dr. 
James Makittrick Adair ' [q. v.], ] 787, 8vo. 
22. ' A Sketch of the Life and Paintings of 
Thomas Gainsborough,' 1788, 8vo. 23. 'Ju- 
nius Discovered '(in the person of Iloma 
Tooke), 1789.8VO, 34. ' Memoirs and Anec- 
dotes of Philip Thicknesse, late Lieutenant- 
governor iif Languard Fort, and unfortu- 
nately father to George Touchet, Baron 
Audley,' 1788-91, 3 vols. 8vo. The third 
volume contains a portrait. His old enemy 
Dr. Adair (see No. 21) published 'Curious 
Facta and Anecdotes not contained in the 
Memoirs of I'bilip Thicknesse,' 1 790, with a 
caricature portrait by Gillray, who also 
satirised Thicknesse in a caricature entitled 
' Lieut .-governor Gall-atone, 4c.' (cf. 
Wbight and Ghego, Jamei Gillrag,pp. 116, 

[Nichols's Lit. Aneal. ix. 256 ; Gent. Mag, 
1809 ii. 1012, 181S ii. 106 (view of Thiik- 
neaie's house, FFliistowe Collage); Monktaitd'i 
Literature and Literati of Biith, ISS-I, p. 32; 
Cbeebire Note* and Queries, 1885, r. 49; 
Fulcher'a Utv of Gainsborough. 1»B6, p. 42; 
Brock-Aroold's Gainsborough, 1881 ; Hinch- 
lilTu'a Barthomley, p, 174; Q. E. C[okiiyne]'s 
Compute Peeraire, i. 201 ; Brit. Mas, Addit. 
HWS. )ai8B ff. 408-13. 18170 ff, 207-0, 19174 
ff, 702-3.J C. W. S. 




POLYTUS, Barox db( 1798-1 864), colonist, 
eldest son of Charles, baron de Thierry, a 
French refugee, was bom in 1793, appa- 
rently at Hathampton in Somerset. After 
some military and diplomatic service he 
matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
on 26 May 1819, aged 25, and migrated 
to Queens* College, Cambridge, on 8 June 
1820, but did not graduate. At Cambridge 
he met in 1820 two Maori chiefs with one 
Kendall, and then conceived the idea of 
founding an empire in New Zealand. In 
1822 Kendall returned to Xew Zealand and 
bought two hundred acres near Ilokianga 
for Thierry, who based on this purchase a 
claim to all the land from Auckland to the 
north cape of the north island. He applied 
to Earl Bathurst, then secretary of state, for 
confirmation of this grant, but was met with 
the pleA that New Zealand was not a British 
possession. He then tried the French go- 
vernment without success. 

Proceeding to form a private company to 
carry out his plans, Thierry returned from 
France in 1826 and set up an office in Lon- 
don, where he slowly ac([uired some little 
support. About 1 833 he went to the United 
States to enlarge his sphere of action, and 
thence by the West Indian islands and 
Panama lie found his way to Tahiti, arriving 
there in 1835. Here he issued a procla- 
mation asserting his claims and intentions. 
But the British consul actively opposed his 
design. In 1837 he had got as far as New 
►South Wales. Hero he collected sixty per- 
sons of rough character to form the nucleus 
of a colony, and sailed in the Nirarod to the 
Bay of Islands. 1 laving summoned a meet- 
ing of chiefs at Mangunga, he explained his 
schemes and liis title to the land he claimed ; 
the chiefs refused to recognise his title, and 
showed ahirm at liis statement that he ex- 

f)ected his brother to follow him with five 
nindreJ persons. lie also made a formal 
address to the white residents of New Zea- 
land, in the course of which he announced 
that he (.'ame to govern within the bounds of 
his own territories, that he came neither as 
invader nor despot, and proceeded to expound 
a scheme of settlement and administration 
which indicated leanings at once com- 
munistic and paternal. lie stated that he 
had bnuijTlit with him a surgeon to attend 
the poor, and a tutor and governess to 
educatf the settlers' children with his own. 
J^ut, (h'spite this solemn bravado, Thierry 
and his party were destitute of supplies be- 
vond tlif> needs of two or three weeks, 
intimately, through the intervention of a 
missionary, one of the chiefs agreed to sell 

Thierry some land near Hokianga for 20(ML to 
be paid iu kind, blankets, tobMXO, fowling 

Sieces, &c. The rest of his party wen 
rafted into the service of other settlers, and 
thus his grand scheme ended in his settlinr 
down as a humble colonist. New Zealand 
was proclaimed a British colony in 18^ 
Later Thierry found his way back to New 
South Wales, and tried to renew his projects 
for a larger colonisation scheme; but he had 
no success, and died on 8 July 1864 at Aiick- 
land, a poor man, but much respected u 
an old colonist. He was married and had a 

[Mennell's Diet, of AnstraL Biogr. ; Rosden's 
History of New Zealand, pp. 179-80; House of 
Commons Papers 1838, i. 53, 109, 110, &e.; 
Blair's Cjclopsedia of Australasia, Melbonne, 
1891 ; The New Zealander, 4 July and 16 Jnlj 
1864.] C.A.H. 

THIMELBY, IHCHARD (1014-1680), 

Jesuit. [See Ashbt.] 

THIRLBY, STYAX (1686P-1763), 
critic and theologian, son of Thomas Thirl- 
by, vicar of St. Margaret*s, Leicester, by 
his wife ^lary, eldest daughter of Henry 
Styan of Kirby Frith, gentleman, was bom 
about 1686 (Nichols, Leice8tershireyiy,*23Qi 
614). He was educated at the free school, 
i Leicester, under the tuition of the llev. John 
Kilby, the chief usher, who afterwards 
said: *He went through my school in three 
years ; and his self-conceit was censured as 
very offensive. He thought he knew more 
than all the school.* One of his pro- 
ductions while at school was a poem in 
Greek *0n the Queen of Sheba*s Visit to 
Solomon.' From his mental abilities no 
small degree of future eminence was pre- 
saged, but the hopes of his friends were un- 
fortunately defeated by a temper which 
was naturally indolent and quarrelsome, 
and by an unhappy addiction to drinking. 
From Leicester he was sent to Jesus Colle^, 
Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. in 
1704. He contributed verses in 1708 to the 
university collection on the death of George, 
prince of Denmark. In 1710 he published 
anonymously an intemperate pamphlet on 
the occasion of the dismissal of tne whig 
ministry. It was entitled * The University 
of Cambridge vindicated from the Imputation 
of Disloyalty it lies under on account of not 
addressing; as also from the malicious and 
foul Aspersions of Dr. Bentlcy, lato Master 
of Trinity College, and of a certain Officer 
and pretended Reformer in the said Uni* 
versity,* London, 1710, 8vo (cf. Monk, L^b 
ofBentiet/,2nd edit. i. !289). Thirlby obtained 
a fellowship of his college in 1712 by the i 




lenoe of Dr. Charles Ashton, who said ' he 
id had the honour of studying with him 
hen joung,' though he afterwards spoke of 
Im T6ry contemptuously as the editor of 
ostin Martyr. 

Devoting himself to the study of diyinity, 
le published 'S. Joannis Chrysostomi de 
Sioudotio . . . editio altera. Accessit S. 
Or. Naiianzeni . . . de eodem Argumento 
oooacripta, Oratio Apologetica, opera S. 
Thirlby/ Greek and Latin, Cambridge, 1712, 
8to ; * An Answer to Mr. Whiston^ Seven- 
teen Suspicions concerning Athanasius, in 
his Historical Preface/ Cambridge, 1712, 
8to; * Calumny no Conviction : or an 
Answer to Mr. Whiston's Letter to Mr. 
Thiriby, intituled Athanasius convicted of 
Forgery/ London, 1713, 8vo;and *A De- 
fence (k the Answer to Mr. Whiston's Sus- 
picions, and an Answer to his Charge of 
Forgery against St. Athanasius,' Cambridge, 
1713, 8vo. On 17 Jan. 1718-19 he was ap- 
pointed deputy registrary of the university 
of Cambridge, but he held this office for 
I very short time (Addit MS, 5852, ff. 
n, 31 a). lie took the degree of M. A. at 
Abridge in 1720. Two years later he 
crought out his principal work — a splendid 
dition of ' Justini Pnilosophi et Martyris 
Lpologise duro, et Dialogus cum Tryphone 
udseo cum notis et emendationibus,' Greek 
ad Latin, London, 1722, fol. ; dedicated to 
V^illiam, lord Craven. Bishop Monk ob- 
jrves that 'so violently had resentment 
ot possession of him [Thirlby] that he 
ives the full reins to invective, and rails 
^inst classical studies and Bentley in so 
ctravagant a style that he makes the reader, 
t the very outset of his work, doubt whether 
le editor was in a sane mind' (Life of 
*entiey, ii. 167). He also treated Meric 
asaubon, Isaac Vossius, and Dr. Grabe 
ith contempt. 

Having discontinued the study of theology, 
is next pursuit was medicine, and for a 
hile he was styled * doctor.' While he 
ms a nominal physician he lived for some 
me with the Duke of Chaudos as librarian. 
fe then studied the civil law, on which 
B occasionally lectured, Sir Edward Wal- 
He being one of his pupils. The civil law 
ispleasing him, though he is said to have 
3Come LLi.D., he applied himself to the 
)mmon law, and haa chambers taken for 
im in the Temple with a view of being 
died to the bar; but of this scheme be 
kewise grew weary. He came, however, to 
ondon, to the house of his friend. Sir 
Idward Walpole, who procured for him in 
[ar 1741 the sinecure office of a king's 
miter in the port of London, worth about 

100/. a year. The remainder of his days 
were passed in privato lodgings, where he 
lived m a very retired manner, seeing only a 
few friends, and indulging occasionally in 
excessive drinking. He contributed some 
notes to Theobald^ Shakespeare, and after- 
wards talked of bringing out an edition of 
his own, but this design was abandoned. He 
left, however, a copy of Shakespeare, with 
some abusive remarks on Warburton in the 
margin of the first volume, and a few at- 
tempts at emendation. The copy became the 
?roperty of Sir Edward Walpole, to whom 
'hirlby bequeathed all his books and papers. 
Walpole lent it to Dr. Johnson when he 
was preparing his edition of Shakespeare, in 
whicn the name of * Thirlby ' appears as a 
commentator. Thirlby died on 19 Dec. 1753^ 

[Addit. MS. 6882, f. 16; Boswell's Johnson 
(Hill), iv. 161 ; Bowes s Cat. of English Books ; 
Briiggemann's Engl. Editions of Greek and 
Latin Authors, pp. 334, 424; Bavies's Athens 
BritannicsB, ii. 378; Gent. Mag. 1753 p. 590, 
1778 p. 597, 1780 p. 407, 1782 p. 242; Hist. 
Reg. 1738, Chron. Diary, p. 28; London Mag. 
July 1738, p. 361 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 238, 
iv. 264; Nichols's Select Collection of Poems 
(1781), vi. 114; Whiston's Memoir of himself 
(1749), i. 204.] T. C. 

(1506.^-1570), the first and only bishop of 
"Westminster, and afterwards successively 
bishop of Norwich and Ely, son of John 
Thirleby, scrivener and town clerk of Cam- 
bridge, and Joan his wife, was bom in the 
parish of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge, in 
or about 1506 (Coopeb, Annals of Cambridge^ 
ii. 262). He received his education at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, graduated bachelor of the 
civil law in 1521, was elected a fellow of his 
college, and proceeded doctor of the civil law 
in 1528, and doctor of the canon law in 1530. 
It is said that while at the university he, 
with other learned men who were the favourers 
of the gospel, though they afterwards relapsed, 
received an allowance from Queen Anne 
Boleyn, the Earl of Wiltshire, her father, 
and Lord Rochford, her brother (Strype, 
EccL Mem. ii. i. 279). In 1532 he was official 
to the archdeacon of Ely {Addit, MS, 5825, 
p. 36). He appears to have taken a prominent 
part in the afiairs of the university between 
1528 and 1534, and is supposed to have held 
the office of commissary. In 1 534 he was ap- 
pointed provost of the collegiate church of 
St. Edmund at Salisbury (Hatches, Hist, of 
Sarunif p. 701 ). Archbishop Cranmer and Dr. 
Butts, physician to the king, were his early 
patrons. Cranmer ' liked his learning and his 
qualities so well that he became his good lord 
towards the king's majesty, and commended 




him to him, to be a man worthy to sen-e a 

Erince, for 8uch singular qualities as were in 
im. And indeed the king soon employed 
him in embassies in France and elsewhere : 
80 that he grew in the king's favour by the 
means of the nrchbishop, who had a very 
extraordinary love for nim, and thought 
nothing too much to give him or to do for 

In 1533 he was one of the kinjf's chaplains, 
and in May communicated to Cranmer * the 
king's commands ' relative to the sentence of 
divorce from Catherine of Arragon. In 1534 
he was presented by the king to the arch- 
deaconrv of Elv, and he was a member of 
the convocation which recognised the king's 
supremacy in ecclesiastical matters. Soon 
afterwards he was appointed dean of the 
chapel royal, and in 1536 one of the mem- 
bers of the council of the north. On 29 Sept. 
1537 the king granted to him a canonry and 
prebend in the collegiate church of St. 
Stephen, in the palace of Westminster {Let- 
ters and Papers of Henry VIII, xii. 350), 
arid on the 15th of tlie following month he 
was present at the christening of Prince 
Edward (afterwards Edward VI) at Hamp- 
ton Court {ib. xii. 320, 350 ). On 2 May 1 538 
a royal commission was issued to Stephen 
Gardiner, Sir Francis Brian, and Thirlby, as 
ambassadors, to treat with Francis I, king of 
France, not only for a league of friendship, 
but for the projected marriage of the IMncess 
]Mary to the Duke of Orleans (Tfarl. MS. 
7571 , f. 35 ; Adflit. MS. 25114, f. 297). The 
three ambassadors were recalled in August 
1538. Thirlbv was one of the roval commis- 
Bioners appointed on 1 Oct. 1538 to search for 
and examine anabaptists (AVilkixs, Co7ia/ia, 
iii. 836). On 23 Dec. 1539 he was presented 
tothemastershipof the hospital of St. Thomas 
a Becket in Southwark, and on 14 Jan. 1539- 
1540 he surrendered tliat house, with all its 
possessions, to the king. At this period he was 
prebendarv of Yeat minster in the cathedral 
church of Salisbury, and rector of Ribchester, 
Lancashire. In 15-lOhe was prolocutor of the 
con vocat ion of the ])ro v i nee of Can terbury , and 
signed the decree declaring the nullity of the 
king's marriage with Anne of Cleves. In the 
same year he was one of the commissioners 
appointed by the king to deliberate upon 
sundry points of religion then in controversy, 
and especially upon the doctrine of the sacra- 

By letters patent dated 17 Dec. 1540 the 
king erected the abl)ey of Westminster into 
an episcopal see, and appointed Thirlby the 
first and, as it happened, the last bishop of 
the new diocese. He was consecrated on 
29 Dec. in St. Saviour's Chapel in the cathe- 

dral church of Westminster (Strtpe, CnxTB- 
mer, p. 90). Soon afterwards he was &T>~ 
pointed by the convocation to revise trie 
translation of the epistles of St. James, St*. 
John, and St. Jude. In January 154Q-1 hein- 
terreded with the crown for the grant of tla« 
imiversity of the house of Franciscan friars at 
Cambridge. In 1 542 he appears as a membc^r 
of the privy council, and was also despatche^l 
as ambassador to the emperor in Spain (Act'S^ 
P. C. ed. Dasent, vol. i. passim) He retunie<i 
the same year. In Apnl 1543 he took part ix> 
the n^vision of the ' Institution of a Christi&xi 
Man/ and on 17 June in that year he was oim^" 
of those empowered to treat with the Scot: ^ 
ambassador concerning the proposed marna^«^ 
of Prince Edward with Mary Queen of Scot^ - 
In May 1545 he was despatched on an en* — 
bassy to the emperor, Charles V (State Papers • 
Hen. VIII, X. 428). lie attended the diet c^ ^ 
Bourbourg,and on 16 Jan. 1546-7 he was on 
of those who signed a treaty of peace at Utrech 
(ItYMER, XV. 120-1). He was not named 
executor by Henry VHI, and consequentl^fc^ 
was excluded from Edward VI's privy coun^ — 
cil. He remained at the court of tne empero ^cr 
till June 1548, taking leave of Charles V a '^^■ 
Augsburg on the 11th (Cat, State Paper^p^ ^ 
For. i. 24). Thirlljv took part in the impor 
tant debates in the House of Lords in Decern 
her 1548 and January 1648-9 on the subjec 
of the sacrament of the altar and the sacnfici 
of the mass. He declared that ' he did neve' 
allow the doctrine ' laid down in the com- 
munion office of the proposed first Book o: 
Common Prayer, stating that he mainly ob- — 
jected to the book as it stood because iC7 
abolished the * elevation * and the ' adora — 
tion ' (C.TASQrETand ^isnov, Edward VI an(^ 
the Book of Common Prat/er , "pi^. 162, 164^- 
166,167,171, 250,263,403,404,427). WTien- 
Somerset expressed to Edward VI some dis^ — 
appointment at Tliirlby's attitude, the youngj" 
king remarked, * I expected nothing else but 
that he, who had been so longtime with th^ 
emperor, should smell of the Interim ' (Origi-^ 
7ial Letters, Parker Soc. ii. 645, 640). He 
voted against the third reading of the act of^ 
uniformity on 15 Jan. 1548-9, but enforced 
its provisions in his diocese after it had beeir 
passed. On 12 April 1549 he was in the com- - 
mission for the suppression of heresy, and on. 
10 Nov. in that year he was ambassador at? 
Brussels with Sir Philip Hobv and Sir Thoma» 
Chevne. On 29 March 1550Thirlby resigned 
the bishopric of Westminster into the hand» 
of the king, who thereupon dissolved it, and 
reannexed the county of Middlesex, which 
had been assigned for its diocese, to the seo^ 
of London (Bextuax, Hist, qf Ely, p. 191)- 
While bishop of Westminster he is said tc^ 




\kye * impoverished the church * TStow, Sur^ 
tty qfLondoHf ed. Thorns, ]j. 170). 

On 1 April, following his resignation of 
the Bee of Westminster, he was constituted 
biuhop of Norwich (Rymeb, Fcedera, xv. 221). 
Bishop Burnet intimates that Thirlby was re- 
moved from Westminster to Norwich, as it 
was thought he could do less mischief in the 
litter see, * for though he complied as soon as 
anj change was made, yet he secretly opposed 
eyeiything while it was safe to do {Hut. of 
the Reformation f ed. 1841 , ii. 753). In January 
looO-l he was appointed one of the com- 
misaioners to correct and punish all anabap- 
tists, and such as did not duly administer 
the sacraments according to the Book of 
Common Prayer ; and on 15 April 1551 one 
of the commissioners to determme a contro- 
versy respecting the borders of England and 
Scotknd. On 20 May following he was in 
^ commission to treat for a marriage between 
'he kinff and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry 
^ of France. He was in 1551 appointed 
^^e of the masters of requests, and ne was 
•^5^ one of the numerous witnesses on the 
^*^al of Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, 
^hich took place in that year. In January 
.**id March 1551-2 his name was inserted 
'^ several commissions appointed to inquire 
J^fcat sums were due to the king or his 
'^ther for sale of lands ; to raise money by 
l^e sale of crown lands to the yearly value 
^C" 1,000/. ; and to survey the state of all the 
-<^urts erected for the custody of the king's 
^knds. In April 1 553 he was again appointed 
^Inbassador to the Emperor Charles V, at 
Vhose court he remained until April 1554 
^4cts P. C. iv. 246, 390). On his return from 
3vermany he brought with him one Kemegius, 
^ho established a paper mill in this country 
-—perhaps at Fen Ditton, near Cambridge 
[^CooPBB, AnnaUj ii. 132, 265). 

At heart a Koman catholic, Thirlby was 
&0011 high in Queen Mary's favour, and in 
luly 1654 he was translated from Norwich 
to Ely, the temporalities of the latter see being 
delivered to him on 15 Sept. ^Rtmeb,xv.405). 
He was one of the prelates wno presided at the 
trials of Bishop Hooper, John Rogers, How- 
land Taylor, and others, for heresy ; and in 
IFebruary 1554-5 he was appointea, together 
'with Anthony Browne, viscount Montague 
[q.v.], and Sir Edward Came [q.T.l a special 
ambassador to the pope, to make the queen's 
obedience, and to obtain a confirmation of 
all those sraces which Cardinal Pole had 
nanted in his name. He returned to London 
from Home on 24 Aug. 1555 with a bull con- 
firming the queen's title to Ireland, which 
docnment he delivered to the lord treasurer 
on 10 Dec. A curious journal of this embassy 

is printed in Lord Ilardwicke's* State Papers' 
(i. 62-102, from Harleian MS. 252, art. 15), 
After the death of the lord chancellor, 
Gardiner, on 12 Nov. 1555, Mary proposed 
to confer on Thirlby the vacant office, but 
Philip objected, and Archbishop Heath was 
appointed {Despatches of Michiel, the Vene^ 
txan Ambassador f 1554-7, ed. Paul Fried- 
mann, Venice, 1869). In January 1555-6 
Thirlby took a part in the degradation of his 
old friend Archbishop Cranmer. * He was 
observed to weep much all the while ; he 
protested to Cranmer that it was the most 
sorrowful action of his whole life, and ac- 
knowledged the great love and friendship that 
had been between them ; and that no earthly 
consideration but the queen's command could 
have induced him to come and do what they 
were then about' (Burnet, i. 531). On 
22 March following he was one of the seven 
bishops who assisted at the consecration of 
Cardinal Pole as archbishop of Canterbury. 
In 1556 he was appointea to receive Osep 
Napea Gregoriwitch, ambassador from the 
emperor of Russia. Thirlby appears to have 
sanctioned the burning of John Hullier for 
heresy in 1556, but only two others suffered 
death in his diocese on account of their re- 
ligion, and it has been said that ^ Thirleby 
was in no way interested therein ; but the 

fuilt thereof must be shared between Dr. 
uller, the chancellor, and other commis- 
sioners ' (Fuller, Church Hist, ed. 1837, i. 
395). In April 1558 Thirlby was sent to 
the north to inquire the cause of the quarrel 
between the Earls of Northumberland and 
Westmoreland. He and Dr. Nicholas Wot- 
ton [q. v.] were Queen Mary's commissioners 
to treat with France respecting the restora- 
tion of Calais and the conclusion of peace. 
Queen Elizabeth sent a new commission to 
them at Cambray in January 1558-9, and 
instructed the Earl of Arundel to act in con- 
junction with them. The commissioners 
succeeded in concluding peace, and returned 
home in April 1559. Tne queen is said to 
have cast upon Thirlby the entire blame of 
the eventual loss of Calais (Strype, Idfe of 
Whitffiftf i. 229). Queen Mary had appointed 
him one of her executors. 

On the assembling of Queen Elizabeth's 
first parliament Thirlby sent his proxy, he 
being then absent on his embassy in France. 
On 17 April 1559 the bill for restoring eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction to the crown was com- 
mitted to him and other peers. He opposed 
this measure on the thira reading. He also 
dissented from the bill for uniformity of com- 
mon prayer (cf. Zurich Letters, i. 20). He 
refused to take the oath of supremacy, and 
for this reason he and Archbishop Heath 

were deposed from their ^eee on 6 July 155B 
at the lord-treasurer's houBB in Broad Street. 

According to Beutham, I'hirlby tvat a 
considersble benefactor to the see of Elj 
because by his interest he procured from th« 
crown for himself and his successors the 
p&tronage of the prebends in the cathedral ; 
but Dr. Cox, his immediBte auccessor, as- 
eerted tliat although ThirJbj received 500/. 
from Bishop Ooodricli's executors for dilapi- 
dations, he left his houses, bridges, lodes, 
rivers, causeways, and banks, in great ruin 
end decay, and spoiled the see of a stock of 
one thousand marks, which bis predecessors 
had enjoyed since the reifin of Edward 111. 
Be also aUegod thnt Tbirlby never came into 
bis diocese (Stetpb, AnnaU of the Se/urma- 
tion, ii. 580). 

Afl^r his deprivation Tbirlbj had his 
liberty for some time, but in consequence of 
his persisting in preaching against the lie- 
formation, be was on 3 June 1660 committed 
to the Tower, and on 25 Feb. 16BO-1 be was 
excommunicated (SmtPB, ib. i. 142). In 
September 1503 he was removed from the 
Tower on account of the plague to Arch- 
bishop Parker's bouse at Beaksboume {Par- 
ker Oarrejipondenai, pp. 122, 192, 195,30.3, 
215,217). In June 1564be was transferred 
to Lambeth Palace, and Parker, who is said 
to have treated Thirlby with great courte§y 
and respect, even permitted nim to lodge 
fur some time at the house of one Mrs. Black- 
welt in Blackfrisrs. He died in Lambeth 
Palace on 20 Aug. 1570. He was buried 
on the 28th in the chancel of Lambeth 
church, under a slone with a brief Latin in- 
scription in braes (Stow, Survei/ of London, 
ed. Strype, App.p. 85). In making a grave 
for the burial of Arclibishop Comwallis in 
March 1783, the body of Bishop Thirfby 
was discovered in his coffin, in n great tnea- 
aure undecaynd, as was the clothing. The 
corpse had a cap an its head and a hat under 
ila arm (Lodge, Illustrations of BritUh Hie- 
tory, ed. IS38, i. 73 n.) His portrait is in 
the print of the delivery of llie charter of 

[AddiLMSS. MOS (. M. GS13 f. 108, 5828 ff. 
1, 123, bH2 p. aos. anus I. 77, 6935 f. So: 
AHhAia's EpiatoliP, pp, 332. 336; Bodforil'« 

of England, ii. 877. iii. 570, iv. 758 ; Durnea's 
Lives of tha Compilars of the ijturgy (1722). 
p. ct; Ducarera Lanilieth ; Ellis's Letters of 
Eminant Literary Men. pp. 23. 23; Fidd^'a 
WolsBj, CollBttaina, pp. 46, 303; Foxe's Aols 
and Mooumcnta ; Frouda's Hist, of England; 

Lingard'a Hist, of Eaglsad ; Godwin, De Fmsi^— 
libuB (Ricbardwa); Harbin"] Hereditary Right:^ 
pp. 191,192; Looaard Howard's Latters, p. art i 
I^nKdotrna M8S ; Lee's Church under Quec^n 
Elilabeth.p. U7;ManningsndBray'aSnrrey,iiS. • 
607 ; Ambasssdrsdo Nosilles, i. 189. ii. 2'13. ii& - 
HO, i V. 1 73. 183, 222, v. 1 9t, 267, 275, 30S, 30« 3 

Nol#B and Qucrir's. 3rd ser. li. 258, 6Ui sar. ic: 

267.S7-I; P^kerSaciety'sPablifHtioD>(gawnk-^M 
indai)! Calendars of State Papera ; ActBdTllii^^ 
Friry Cuuncil, ed. Daseot; Sinpe'a Wurk^^ 
(geavnl index) ; TanDvr's Bibl. Brit. p. 7M S 

Tieraaj-'a Arundel, pp. 331-7: TjUtt's Ei 

wsnl VI nnd Mary, i. 32, 82, 8i. 88, US, 100 ^ 
Widmores Weitniinstur Abbev. pp, 129, ISl,] 

T. a 


[See Maitlind, Sib John, 1545?'1S95.] 

THIBLWALL, CONNOP (17Br-1875>- . 

historian and bishop of St. David's, borr:^^^ 
in London on 11 Feb. 1797, was third son o^^» 
the Uev. Thomas Thirl wall, by his wife, Mt*>- ■ 
Connop of Wile End, the widow of a^^* 
apothecary. His full name was KeweH^^ 
Connop ■fhirlwall. 

Thefather,THO«*^THUiLWiLL(A1837) -m 
was the son of Thomas Thirlwall (d. 1808) ,^ 
vicar of Cottingham, near Hull, who claimei^H' 
descent from the barons of Thirlwall Castle ^ 
Northumberland. The younger Thomas v- 
after holding some small benefices in Lon — 
don, was presented in 1«14 to the rectorv o^ 
Bower's tiiflbrd in Essex, where he dJod oix 
17 March 1827. He was a man of fervenC 
piety, end the author of several published 
works, including 'Uiatessaroo seu intcgra 
Ilistoria Domini nostti Jeau Christi, ex qua- 
tuor Evangeliis con&cU,' Loudon, 1802, 8vo 
{Gmt.Mag. 1827.1.668). 

Connop Thirlwall showed auch precocity 
that when he was only eleven years of age 
Itis father publiahed a volume of his compo- 
sitions called ' l^rimitiie,' a work in aner 
years so odious to the author that he de- 
stroyed every copy that, he could obtain. 
The preface tells us that 'at a verv early 
porind he read English so well that lie was 
taught Latin at tliree years of age, and at 
four rend Greek with an ease and fluency 
which astonished all who heard lilm. Uis 
talent for composition appeared at the age 
of seven." From 1810 to 1813 he was a day 
scholar at tlie Charterhouse. Alter leaving 
school he seems to have worked alone (Let- 

^., p. 21) for a year, entering Trinily 
ige, Cambr* ' -•.-.. 

her 1814. 

College, ( 

m bridge, a 

I pensioner in Oclo- 

While an undergraduate lie found time to 
learn French and Italian, and, besides ac- 
quiring considerable reputation as a speaker 
at the union, was secretary of the societj 


■ 39 


"whi-n the debat«was8ioppedby the 
of the proetors (24 March 1817), who, by 
(he %-ice-chiin cellar's commajid, bade the 
members diEpvrse and on no account reemne 
their discussions. A fen veore later, when 
Thirlwall spoke at a debating society in 
London, John Stuart Mill recorded that he 
w&s tbe best speaker he had heard up to that 
time, and that he had not Buhsequently 
beard any one whom he could place above 
him iAutobiogropht/, p. I^u). In ISIJ) he 
obtained the &I1 and Craven scholarsliips, 
snd ID 1BI6 was elected scholar of his own 
college. In 1818 be graduated B.A, He 
w&s tirenty-second senior opt i me in tbe 
mBthematical tripos, and also oblaineil the 
first chancellor'* medal for proticiency in 
clsssics. In Uctober of the some yosr he 
fras elected fellow of his college. 

Thirlwall WHS now able to realisv what be 
(^Klled 'thti yoost enchantine of my day- 
dreams ' iJ-eftm, ^e., p. 32), and spent 
eeversi months on the continent, The 
winter of 1618-19 was passed in Rome, 
■where be fonned a close friendship with 
Biinsen, then secretary to the Prussian 
legation, at the bead of which wasNiebuhr; 
but Thirlwall and the historian never met. 

Tbirlwall had at this time conceived a 
dialike Co the profession of a clergyman, and, 
yielding to the ui^ncy of his family (i6. 
f. 60), ae entered Lincoln's Inn in February 
162a He was called to the bar in the sum- 
ncT of 1825. Much of his success in af^er 
life may be traced to bis legal training; 
bat tbe work was always distaatefut lo him, 
IboD^ relieved by foreign tours, by intellec- 
toal aocietv, and by s return to more con- 
genial Kudies whenever he had a moment 
to q>are (lA. p. 67). In 16^ he translated 
two talea by Tieek, and began his work on 
BcUeiermaeher's ' Critical Essay on the Gos- 
niof St. Luke.' Both these were published 
(anonymously) in the following year, the 
■eoona with a critical introduction, remark- 
tble not only for thoroughness, but for sc- 
qnaintance with modem German ibeolo^, 
then afield of research untrodden by English 
Mudenls. In October 1^27 Tliirlwall aban- 
A>ned law and returned to Cambridge (ib, 
p. 64). Tbe prospeel of thelosaof hidjellow- 
' ship ftt Trinity College, which would have 
expired in I^2H, probably determined tbe 
" for taking a step which be 

), 86). He 
>n Delore Ibe end of 1837, 
ruid priest in 1^28. 

At Cambridge Thirlwall at once under- 
took bis full share of college and university 
work. Between 1627 and 1832 he held the 
college offices of junior bursar, jimior dean, 

and head lecturer ; and in 1828, 182B, 1832, 
and 1834 examined for the classical tripos. 
In 18:^8 the first volume of the translation of 
Niebuhr's ' History of Home ' appeared, the 
joint work of himself and Julius Chartea 
Hare [q.v.] This was attacked in the ' Quar- 
terly Review,' and Thirlwall contributed to 
Uare'selaborate reply a brief postacript which 
is worthy of his best devs as a conirover- 
siatiat. In 1831 the publication of 'The 
Philological Museum ' was commenced with 
tbe object of promoting *tbe knowledge and 
the love of ancient literature.' Hare and 
Thirlwall were the editors, and the latter 
contributed to it several masterly eiisays (re- 
printed in £Mny», ^., 1880, pp. 1-18»). It 
ceased in 1833. In 1829 Thirlwall held for 
a short time the vicorage of Over, and in 
1832, when Hare left college, he was ap- 
pointed assistant tutor on the side of Wil- 
liam Whewell [q-v.] His lectures were as 
thorough and systematic as Hani's had been 

In 1834 his connection with the educa- 
tional ataff of Trinitv Collega woe rudely 
seven^ under the following circumstances. 
A bill to admit dissenters lo university de- 
grees had in that year passed the House of 
Commons by a majority of eighty-nine. The 
question caused great excitement at Cam- 
bridge, and several pamphlets were written 
to discuss particular asnecta of it. The first 
of theae, called ' Thoughts on the admission 
of Persons, without regard lo their Reli^ous 
Opinions, to certain Degrees in the Univer- 
sities of England,' by Ur. Thomsa Turton 
[q. v.], was promptly answered by Thirl- 
wall in a ' Letter on the Admission of Dis- 
senter* to Academical Degrees." His op^ 
nent tried to show the evils likely to arise 
from a mixture of students differing widely 
from each other in their religious opinions 
by tracing the history of the theoli^ical 
seminary for nonconformists at Daventry. 
Thirlwall argued that at Cambridge * our 
colleges are not theological seminaries. We 
have no theological colleges, no theological 
tutor8,notheologicBl students;' and, further, 
that the colleges at Cambriilge were not 
even 'schools of religious instruction,' In 
the development of this part of his argument 
be condemned the collegiate lectures in 
divinity and the compulsory attendance al 
chapel, with ' the constant repetition of ft 
heartless mechanical ser^'ice.* 'This pamphlet 
ia dated 21 May t834,andfivedayBlater Dr. 
ChristopberWordsworth [q.v.], master, wrote 
to the author, callioff upon him to resign his 
appointment as assistant-tutor. Thirlwall 
obeyed without delay; and, as the maet«r 
had added that he found 'some difficulty in 






understanding how a person with such senti- 
ments can reconcile it to himself to con- 
tinue a memher of a society founded and 
conducted on principles from which he 
differs so widely,* Thirlwall addressed a 
circular letter to the fellows, asking each of 
them to send him * a private explicit and 
unreserved declaration on this point. All 
desired to retain him, but all did not acquit 
him of rashness ; and a few did not condemn 
the master's action. 

Not long after these events — in November 
1834 — Lord Brougham offered him the valu- 
able living of Kirby Underdale in Yorkshire. 
He accepted without hesitation, and went 
into residence in July 1835. He had had 
little experience of parochial work, but he 
proved himself both energetic and successful 
in this new field (Letters j &c., p. 133). 

It was at Kirby Underdale that Thirlwall 
completed his * History of Greece,' ori^nally 
published in the * Cabinet CyclonoBaia ' of 
Dr. Dionysius Lardner [q. v.] This work 
entailed prodigious labour. At Cambridge, 
wliere the first volume was written, he used 
to work all day until half-past three o'clock, 
when he left his rooms for a rapid walk be- 
fore dinner, then served in hall at four ; and 
in Yorkshire he is said to have passed six- 
teen hours of the twenty-four in his study. 
The first volume appeared in 1836 and the 
eighth and last in 1844. By a curious coin- 
cidence he and George Grote [q. v.], his friend 
and schoolfellow, were writing on the same 
subject at the same time unknown to each 
other. On the appearance of Grote's first 
two volumes in 1846 Thirlwall welcomed 
them with generous praise (LetterSy p. 194), 
and when the publication of the fourth 
volume in 1847 enabled him to form a ma- 
turer judgment, he told the author that he 
rejoiced to think that his own performance 
would, * for all higliest purjjoses, be so super- 
seded ' {Personal Life of Grotey p. 173). Grote 
in the preface to his work bore testimony to 
Thirlwall's learning, sagacity, and candour. 
Portions of Thirlwall's historv were trans- 
lated into German bv Leonhard Schmitz in 
1840, and into French by A. Joanne in 

In 1840 Lord Melbourne offered the 
bishopric of St. David's to Thirlwall. He 
had read his translation of Schleiermacher, 
and formed so high an opinion of the author 
that lie had tried, but without success, to 
send him to Norwich in 1837. He was 
anxious, however, that no bishop appointed 
by him should be suspected of lieterodoxy, 
and had therefore consulted Archbishop 
Howley before making the offer, which 
w^as accepted at a personal interview. Not- 

withstanding Melbourne's precaution, the 
appointment caused some outcry {Letters^ 
&c., p. xiii). 

Thirlwall brought to the larger sphere of 
work as a bishop the thoroughness which 
had made him successful as a parish clergy- 
man. Within a year he react prayers and 
preached in Welsh. He visited every part 
of his large and at that time little Kaowsa 
diocese; inspected the condition of schools 
and churches ; and by personal liberality 
augmented the income ot small livings. It 
has been computed that he spent 40,000/. 
while bishop on charities of various kinds. 
After a Quarter of a century of steady effort . 
he could point to the restoration of 183 
churches ; to thirty parishes where new or 
restored churches were then in progress ; to 
manv new parsonages, and to a large increase 
of education {Charges^ ii. 90-100). Yet he 
was not personally popular. His cleiyy, 
while they acknowledgea his merits, and felt 
his intellectual superioritv, failed to under- 
stand him ; and though he did his best to 
receive them hospitably, and to enter into 
their wants and wishes, persisted in regarding 
him as a cold and critical alien. Gradually, 
therefore, his intercourse with them became 
limited to the archdeacons and to the few 
who knew how to value his friendship. 

The solitude of Abergwli — the village 
near Carmarthen where the bishops of 
St. David's reside — suited Thirlwall exactlv. 
There he could enjoy the sights and sounds 
of the countr}*; the society of his birds, 
horses, dogs, and cats ; and, above all, his 
books in all languages and on all subjects. 
The * Letters to a Friend' (1881) show that in 
literature his taste was universal, his appetite 
insatiable. He rarely quitted * Chaos, as he 
called his library, unless compelled by 

But he took a lively interest in the events 
of the day, and in all questions affecting not 
merely his own diocese, but the church at 
large. On such he elaborated his decision 
unbiassed by considerations of party, of his 
own order, or of public opinion. His seclu- 
sion from such influences gives a special 
value to his eleven triennial charges, which 
are, in fact, an epitome of the history of the 
church of P^ngland during his episcopate, 
narrated by a man ofjudicial mind, witnout 
passion or prejudice, and fearless in the ex- 
pression of his views. At periods of great 
excitement he often took the unpopular side. 
He supported the grant to Mayn(K)th (1845) ; 
the abolition of the civil disabilities of the 
Jews (1848); and the disestablishment of 
the Irish church (1869). On these occasions 
he spoke in the House of Lords, of which he ^ 




always had the ear when he chose to address 
it ; and in the case of the Irish church it is 
said that no speech had so great an effect in 
favour of the measure as his. He joined his 
brother bishops in their action against 
* Essays and Keviews ; ' but he declined to 
inhibit Bishop Colenso from preaching in his 
diocese, or to urge him to resign his bishopric. 

I{e was a regular attendant at convoca- 
tion, a member of the royal commission on 
ritual (1868), and chairman of the Old Tes- 
tament Revision Companv. In May 1874 
Thirlwall resigned his bishopric and retired 
to Bath, blind and partially paralysed. He 
died unmarried at 59 Pulteney Street, Bath, 
on 27 July 1875. He was buried on 3 Aug. 
in Westminster Abbey, in the same grave 
with George Grote. His funeral sermon, 
which was preached by Dean Stanley, formed 
the preface of the posthumous volume of 
Thirlwairs * Letters to a Friend ' (1881). In 
1884 the Thirlwall prize was instituted at 
Cambridge in the bishop's memory ; by the 
conditions of the foundation a medal is 
awarded in alternate years for the best 
dissertation involving original historical re- 
search, together with a sum of money to 
defray the expenses of nublication. 

Thirlwairs publishea works (excluding 
separately issued speeches and sermons) were : 
1. * E*rimitioB ; or Essays and Poems on various 
Subjects, Religious, Moral, and Entertaining. 
By Connop Thirlwall, eleven years of age ' 
(preface dated 23 Jan. 1809), London, 1809. 
1i. * Tlie Pictures ; the Betrothing. Novels 
from the German of Lewis Tieck,* 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1825. 3. 'A Critical Essay on the 
Gospel of St. Luke, by Dr. F. Schleier- 
macher ; with an Introduction by the Trans- 
lator, containing an Account of the Con- 
troversy respecting the Origin of the first 
three Gospels since Bishop Marsh's Disserta- 
tion,* 8vo, Ijondon, 1825. 4. * Niebuhr's His- 
tory of Home, translated by J. C. Hare and 
Connop Thirlwall,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1828- 
1832. 5. ' Vindication of Niebuhr's ** His- 
tory of Rome " from the Charges of the " Quar- 
terly Review,"' Hare and Thirlwall, 8vo, 
Cambridge, 1829. 6. 'Letter to the Rev. 
T. Turton, D.D., on the Admission of Dis- 
senters to Academical Degrees (21 May),' 
8vo, Cambridge, 1834. 'Second Letter' (to 
the same, 13 June), 1834*. 7. * History of 
Greece,' 8 vols. 8vo, Londoii, 1835-44 ; 2nd 
edit. 1845-52. 8. ' Speech on Civil Disabili- 
ties of the Jews(25Mav^,'8vo,London, 1848. 
^. * I/Ctter to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
on Statements of Sir B. Hall with regard to 
the Collegiate Church of Brecon,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1851 ; 'Second Letter' t^ same, 1851. 
10. ' Letter to the Rev. Rowland Williams,' 

8vo, London, 1800. 11. * Letter to J. Bow- 
stead, Esq., on Education in South Wales,' 
8vo, Lonaon, 1861. 12. * Reply to a Letter 
of Lord Bishop of Cape Town (29 April),' 
8vo, London, 1867. 

The Rev. J. J. S. Perowne (now bishop 
of Worcester) edited ThirlwalFs ' Remains, 
LiteraiT and Theological,' 8vo, London, 1877 
(vol i. Charges delivered between 1842 and 
1863, vol. ii. Charges delivered between 1863 
and 1872) ; and * Essays, Speeches, and Ser- 
mons,' 8vo, London, 1880. The last volume 
contains Thirl wall's contributions to the 
Philological Museum, five speeches and eight 
sermons, the letter on diocesan synods (1867), 
the letter to the archbishop of Canterbury 
on the episcopal meeting 01 1867, and four 
miscellaneous publications. In 1881 Dean 
Stanley edited * Letters to a Friend ' (Miss 
Johns), and in the same year Dr. Perowne 
and the Rev. Louis Stokes edited ' Letters, 
Literary and Theological,' with a memoir. 

[The materials for a life of Thirlwall are 
scattered and imperfect. A defective memoir 
was prefixed by Mr. Stokes to bis edition of the 
bishop's * Letters,' 1 88 1 . See also Quarterly Re- 
view, xxxix. 8 ; Memoirs of Bunsen, i. 339 ; Life 
of Rev. Rowland Williams, 1874, ch. xv. ; Tor- 
rens's Life of Lord Melbourne, ii. 332 ; Lord 
Houghton in Fortnightly Review, 1878, p. 226; 
Church Quarterly Review, April 1883 (by the 
present writer) ; Life of Bishop Gray, 1876, ii. 
41, 61 ; Life of Bishop AVilberforce, vol. iii. 
passim ; Life of Rev. F. D. Maurice, i. 454 ; Life, 
by John Morgan, in ' Four Biographical Sketches,* 
London, 1892.] J. W. C-K. 

THniNING, WILLIAM (d. 1413), 

chief justice of the common pleas, probably 
came from Thirning in Huntingdonshire; 
his 'name occurs in connection with the 
manor of Hemingford Grey in that county 
{Cal, Inq. post niortenij iii. 218). Thirning 
first appears as an advocate in the year-books 
in 1370. In 1377 he was on the commission 
of peace for the county of Northampton, and 
on 20 Dec. of that year was engaged on a 
commission of oyer and terminer in the 
county of Bedford ( Cal. Pat. Rollsj Richard II , 
i. 48, 95). In June 1380 he was a justice of 
assize for the counties of York, Northumber- 
land, Cumberland, and "Westmoreland (1^. i. 
516). Thirning was appointed a justice of 
the common pleas on 1 1 April 1388, and be- 
came chief justice of that court on 15 Jan. 
1396. In the parliament of January 1398 
the judges were asked for their opinions on 
the answers for which their predecessors had 
been condemned in 1388. Thirning replied 
that ' the declaration of treason not yet de- 
clared belonged to the parliament, but that 
had he been a lord of parliament, if he had 




been a.«ked, he ehoald have replied in the 
same manner ' ( R/jII$ of Parliamtnt^ iii. 35^ ). 
On the strenjzth of this opinion the proceed- 
ings of IS^** were KrrerMJ. Thimmg's at- 
titude on this occasion did not prevent him 
from taking the chief part in the quasi- 
judicial proceedings of the opposition of 
Kichani ll. lie was one of the persons ap- 
pointed to obtain Richard's renunciation of 
the throne on 29 Sept., and was one of the 
commissioners who on the following dav 
pnmounced the sentence of deposition in 
parliament. It is said to have bevn by 
Thiming*8 advice that Henrr of Lancaster 
abandoned liis idea of claiming the throne 
by right of conque.'st, the chief justice arguing 
that such a claim would have made all 
tenure of property insecure (Attnafej* Henrwi 
Quarti, p. 2^*2 ). Thiming was the chief of 
the prrxitors sent to announce the deposition 
to Richard. After the reading of the formal 
commission, liichard refused to renounce the 
spiritual honour of king. Thiming then re- 
minded him of the terms in which on 29 Sept. 
lie had confessed he was deposed on account 
of his demerits. Richard demurred, saying. 
* Not so, but because my governance pleased 
them not.* Thiming, however, insisted, and 
Jiichard yielded with a jest {ib, pp. 286-7 ; 
Hot. Pari. iii. 424). (.)u 3 Xov. Thiming 
pronounced the decision of the king and 
p^ers against the accusers of Thomas of 
(iloucester (Annale^i Hcnrici Quarti\ p. 31 o). 
Tliis was his final interference in politics, 
but lift continued to be chief justice through- 
out tin* roign of Henry IV, and on the acces- 
sion of Henry V received a new patent on 
2 May 1413. Thirning must have died very 
noon aft«?r, for his successor, Richard Norton 
(d. \-i'20) jj. v.], was appointed on 26 June of 
the samt' year, and in Trinity terra of that 
year his widow Joan brought an action of 

I Annates llr-npici Quart i ap. Trokolowo, Blaue- 
f<»rd, &c. (Rolls Ser.): Rolls of Parliament; 
Ramsay 8 L»inoaster and York, i. 11 ; Wylie's 
Hist, of ITenry IV, i. lG-17, 33; Stubbs's Crmst. 
Hi-st. iii. 13-14 ; Foss'b Judges of England.] 

C. L. K.. 

1^20), Cato Street conspirator, born at Tup- 
holnip, about twelve niih'S from Lincoln, 
in 1770, was the son of William Thistle- 
wood of Bardney, Lincolnshin*, and is said 
to hav«} been illegitimate. His father was 
a woll-known bret'dur of stock and respect - 
abl«i farmer under thft Vvners of Gantbv. 
Thistlewood appears to have been brought 
up lus a land surveyor, but never followed 
husiness; his brother, with whom he 
m confused, was apprenticed to a 

doctor, lie is said to have become unsettled 
in mind throogfa reading the works of PiuM^ 
and to have proceeded to America and from 
America to France shortly before the down- 
fall of Robespierre. In Paris he probtUy 
developed the opinions which marked him 
through life, and, according to Ali8on(iGsf. 
Eur. ii. 424), returned to England in 1794 
* firmly persuaded that the first duty d a 
patriot was to massacre the government and 
overturn aU existing institutions/ He wis 
appointed ensi^ in the first regiment of 
West liiding militia on 1 July 179% (MiUtk 
Lift, 1799), and on the raising of the supple- 
mentary militia he obtained a lieutenant's 
commission in the 8rd Lincolnshire regi- 
ment, commanded by Lord Buckinghim- 

He married, 24 Jan. 1804, Jane AVonWi 
a lady older than himself, living in liinoom 
and possessed of a considerable fort une. After 
his marriage he resided first in Bawtry and 
then in Lincoln. On the early death of his 
wife her fortune reverted to her own familyt 
by whom he was granted a small annuitr. 
Being obliged to leave Lincoln owing to 
some gambling transaction which left him 
unable to meet his creditors, he drifted to 
London, and there, being thoroughly dis- 
contented with his own condition, he became 
an active member of the Spencean Society, 
which aimed at revolutionising all social in- 
stitutions in the interest of the poorer 
classes [see Spexce, Thomas]. At the 
s()ciety*s meetings he came in contact with 
the elder James Watson (176G-1838) [q. v.] 
and his son, the younger James, who wero 
in hearty sympathy with his views. In 1814 
he resided for some time in Paris. Soon 
after his return to England, about the end 
of 1814, he came under the observation of 
the government as a dangerous character. 
Under the auspices of the Spencean and 
other revolutionary societies, the younger 
"VVatson and Thistlewood organised* a great 
public meeting for '2 Dec. 1816 at Spa Fields, 
at which it was determined to inaugurate a 
revolution. At the outset the Tower and 
Bank were to be seized. For several months 
before the meeting Thistlewood constantly 
visited the various guardrooms and barracks, 
and he was so confident that his endea- 
vours to increase the existing dissatisfaction 
among the soldiery had proved successful, 
that he fully believed that the Tower guard 
would throw open the gates to the mob. 
The military arrangements under the new 
regime were to be committed to his charge. 
The government was, however, by means of 
informers, kept in touch with the crude 
plans of the conspirators, and was well 




pxepared; consequently the meeting was 
easuy dispersed after the sacking of a few 
gunsmiths' shops. The cabinet was, how- 
ever, so impressed by the dangers of the 
situation that the suspension of the habeas 
corpus bill was moved m the lords on 24 Feb. 
1817, and the same day a bill for the preven- 
tion of seditious meetings was brought for- 
ward in the commons. Warrants had already 
been taken out against Thistlewood and the 
younger James Watson on the charge of high 
treason on 10 Feb. 1817, and a substantial 
reward offered for their apprehension. Both 
went into hiding, and, although the govern- 
ment appears soon to have been informed of 
their movements, it was not thought fit to 
effect Thistlewood's caj^ture until May, when 
he was apprehended with his (second) wife, 
Susan, daughter of J. Wilkinson, a well-to- 
do butcher of Homcastle, and an illegitimate 
8on Julian, on board a ship on the Thames on 
which he had taken his passage for America. 
The younger Watson succeeded in sailing for 
America at an earlier date. Thistlewood 
and the elder Watson were imprisoned in the 
Tower. It was arranged that the prisoners 
charged with high treason should be tried 
separately. Watson was acquitted, and in 
the case against Thistlewood and others, on 
17 June 1817, a verdict of not guilty was 
found by the direction of the judge on the 
determination of the attorney-general to call 
no evidence. This narrow escape had little 
effect on Thistlewood ; the weekly meetings 
of the Spenceans were immediately re- 
newed, and the violence of his language 
increased. A rising in Smithfield was pro- 
jected for 6 Sept., the night of St. Bartholo- 
mew's fair ; the bank was to be blown open, 
the post-office attacked, and artillery seized. 
This and a similar design for 12 Oct. 
were abandoned owing to the careful pre- 
paration of the authorities, in whose pos- 
session were minute accounts of every action 
of Thistlewood and his fellow-committee- 

The want of success attending these re- 
volutionary attempts seems to have driven 
Thistlewood towards the end of October 
1817 to active opposition to Henry Hunt 
[q. v.] and the constitutional reformers, and 
to considerable differences with the Watsons 
and other old associates, who, though ready 
to benefit by violent action, were not pre- 
pared to undertake the responsibility of 
assassination. About this penod he appears 
for the first time to have considered plans 
for the murder of the Prince of Wales and 
privy council at a cabinet or public dinner, 
if sufficient numbers for 'a more noble 
and general enterprise' could not be raised 

{Home Office PaperSj R. O.) Though 
naturallv opposed to all ministers in au- 
thority, Thistlewood entertained a particular 
dislike to the home secretary. Lord Sidmouth, 
to whom he wrote about this period a 
number of letters demanding in violent 
language the return of property taken from 
him on his arrest on board ship. Failing to 
secure either his property or the compensa- 
tion in money (180/.) which he demanded, 
he published the correspondence between 
Lord Sidmouth and himself (London, 1817, 
8vo), and sent a challenge to the minister. 
The result was his arrest on a charge of 
threatened breach of the peace. At his trial 
on this charge on 14 May 1818 he at first 
pleaded guilty but withdrew his plea, and 
was found guilty and sentenced to twelve 
months* imprisonment, and at the expiration 
of the term to find two sureties for 150/. and 
himself for 300/., failing which to remain in 
custody. A new trial was moved for on 
28 Majr, but refused. Thistlewood was con- 
fined m Horsham gaol. His sentence and 
treatment appear to have been exceptionally 
severe. On 29 June he applied to the home 
secretary for improved sleeping accommoda- 
tion, and described his cell as only 9 feet 
by 7 feet, while two and sometimes three 
men slept in the one bed. During his period 
of imprisonment his animosity towards Hunt 
appears to have increased, though Hunt wrote 
to nim in friendly fashion of his attempts ' to 
overturn the horrid power of the Rump.' 

The full term of Thistle wood's imprison- 
ment expired on 28 May 1819, and after a 
little dimculty the sureties requisite for his 
liberation were secured. Directly after his 
release he commenced attending the weekly 
meetings of his old society at his friend 
Preston's lodgings ; a secret directory of 
thirteen were sworn, and more violent coun- 
sels immediately prevailed. In July 1819 
the state of the country, especially in the 
north, was critical; the lord lieutenants were 
ordered back to their counties, and the autho- 
rities in London were in a constant state 
of preparation against meetings which it was 
feared would develop into riots. For a short 
time Thistlewood worked once again in appa- 
rent harmony with the parliamentary re- 
formers, spoke on the same platform with 
Hunt, 21 July, and as late as 5 Sept. orga- 
nised the public reception of the same orator 
on his entry into London ; but the new union 
society was formed, 1 Aug., with the inten- 
tion of taking the country correspondence 
out of the hands of Thistlewood ana Preston, 
whose violence caused alarm to their friends. 
Thistlewood and Watson organised public 
meetings at Kennington on 21 Aug. and 




SmithfieldonSOOct. which passed off with,- 
out disturbuDct*, attliough attended bj men 
inarms, TliisllewuoU deisi^edsimultaneouB 
public meetings in the diesffected parts of 
the countrj for 1 Nov., but tliis course was 
not approved by eitber Hunt or Thomas 
Jonathan Wooller [q. T.j, from whom he 
appears now to have fl nail j separated. The 
reformers were at this period go nervous 
-about traitors in their midst that even 
T bistle wood wns den unced aa a spy ( If ott ing- 
ham meeting, 29 Oct.) Despite, however, 
increased caution and endeavours to secure 
secrecy, the government was in receipt of 
almoflt daily accouuts of the doinpra of the 
secret directory of thirteen. In November 
Thistlewood and his friends grew hopeless 
«£ to their chances of successfully setting 
the revolution on foot in London. Thuy 
now looked to the north for a eommenceme 
Thistlewood was invited to Manchester 
the beginnintc of December, but lack of funds 
prevented him from going. No effective 
support seemed coming from Lancashire; 
Thistlewood regarded a 'straightforward 
revolution ' as liopeless, and concentrated his 
efforts on his old plan of assassination. One 
informer not in the secret wrot« on I Dec: 
'There isgreat mystery in Thistlewood'a con- 
duct; he seems anxious to disguise his real 
intentions, and declaims against the mors 
violent members of the party, but is con- 
tinually with them in private.' Ilia exact 
intentions were being reported to the home 
office by Qeorge Edwaras, who was one of 
the secret committee of thirteen, and espe- 
cially in Tbistlewood's confidence. At first 
an attack on the Houses of Parliament was 
meditated, but, the number of conspirators 
being considered insulficient forthepurpose, 
assassination at a cabinet dinner was pre- 
ferred. A special executive committee of 
five, of whom Edwards was one, was ap- 
pointed on 13 Dec. ; and the government 
permitted the plot to mature. From 20 Dec. 
1819 to 2'2 Feb. 1820 Thistlowood appears 
to have been waiting anxiously for an oppor- 
tunity; his aim was to assassinate the mini- 
sters at dinner, attack Coutts's or Child's 
bank, set fire to public buildings, and seize 
the Tower and Mansion IIouso, where a pro- 
visional government was to be set up with 
the cobbler Ings as secretary. About the 
end of January 18l'0, wearied with waiting, 
he took the management of the plot entirely 
into his own Imiids, Edwards alone being 
in his conSdence. A proclamation was 
prepared and drawn tip with the assistance 
of Dr. Watson, who at thb time was, for- 
tunately for himself, in prison, In it the ap- 
pointment of a provisional government and 

the calling together of a convention of tep«- 
sentatives were announced. TTie death of 
the king, Georee III, on 29 Jan. was regardrf 
as especially favourable to the plot, and thu 
announcement of a cabinet dinner at Lord 
Harrowhy's house in Grosvenor Square in tho 
new 'Times' of 22 Feb., to whicli Thistle- 
wood's attention was called by Edwatda, 
found Thistlewood ready to put his scbsrat 
into execution. The meeting-place which 
the conEpiratora had hitherto attended alwul 
twice a day had been at 4 Fox's Court, 
Gray'a Inn Lane, but as a final rendeivoai 
and centre to which anns, bombs, and hand 
grenades should be brought, a loft over » 
stable in Cato Street was taken on 21 Feb- 
Hither they repaired (about twenty-five i" 
number) on the evening of 23 Feb., and, 
warrants having been issued the same d&^i 
the greater number of them were appre- 
hended about 8.30 p.M, They were faaai 
in the act of arming preparatory to theit 
start for Lord HarrowV's house. Shot! 
were flred. Thistlewood Billed poliee-offioeT 
Smithers with a sword, and escaped imna*- 
diate capture in the darkness and generfcl 
confusion. Anonymous information w)U, 
however, given as to his whereabouts, 
and he was taken the next day at 8 Wl*i« 
Street, Moorfields. He was again imprisoned 
in the Tower, and was the first of the gA*V 
to be tried before Charles Abbott (aflerwa.i-d* 
first lord Tenterden) [q, t.] and Sir Bobert 
Dallas [q. v.J and two other judgas on fcl« 
charge of high treason. After three d»y^ 
trial, 17, 18, and 19 April, during which E* 
wards was not called ad evidence, Thistle- 
wood was found guilty and sentenced tc * 
traitor's death. He was hanged, with flCT'" 
other conapirotors, in front of the debtc»«'* 
door, Newgate, on I May 1820. The cri«=^ 
lals were publicly decapitated after de*.*^ 
lut the quartering of their bodies was K*"' 
jrooeeded with. Thistlewood died ^*- 
fiantly, showing the same spirit that he ^ '" 
hJbited at the end of his trial when ^ 
declaimed ' Albion is still in the chain* °' 
slavery. I quit it without regret. My o^-*'? 
sorrow is that the soil should be a thofc-'*'' 
for slaves, for cowards, for despots.* 

In appearance Thistlewood was about & ^ 
10 in. nigh, of sallow compleiion and lc»'¥ 
visage, dark hair and dark haiel eyes v *'■' 
arched eyebrows ; he was of slender bn-i-^*'' 
with the appearance of a military man. ^ 
lithogrnpheJ portrait of him is pnjfiieA '" 
the report of the 'Cato Street Conspit&c''/ 
'utdished by J. Fairbum, Ludg»te Hi*'t 

[State Trials; Times, 2 May I8S0; Audim' 
Reg.; Earopuan Bar.; Gent, Uag, ; TVII— ^i 




of Lord Sidmouth ; HAnsard's Purl. D&- 
rs, May 1820; Home Office Papers, 1816- 

3. at the Becord Office.] W. C-u. 

•HOM, ALEXANDER (1801-1879), 
ider of ' Thorn's Almanac/ was bom in 
1 at Findhom in Moray. 
lis father, Walter Thom (1770-1824), 
cellaneous writer, was born in 1770 at 
vie, Kincardineshire, and afterwards re- 
^ed to Aberdeen, where he established 
iself as a bookseller. In 1813 he nro- 
led to Dublin as editor of the ' Dublin 
mal.' He died in that city on 16 June 

4. He was the author of a * History of 
erdeen ' (Aberdeen, 1811, 12mo) and of 
reatise on ' Pedestrianism ' (Aberdeen, 
3, 8vo). He also contributed to Brew- 
r*8* Encyclop83dia,' to Sinclair's* Statistical 
2ount of Scotland,' and to Mason*s * Sta- 
ical Account of Ireland.' 

lis son Alexander was educated at the 
fh School, Edinburgh, and came to Dub- 
as a lad of twenty to assist his father 
the management of the * Dublin Jour- 
.' In this capacity he learned the busi- 
8 of printing, and on his father's death 
obtained, through the influence of Sir 
bert Peel, the contract for printing for 
post office in Ireland. In 1838 he ob- 
led the contract for the printing for all 
al commissions in Ireland, and in 1876 
( appointed to the post of queen's printer 
Ireland. In 1844 Thom founded the 
k by which h& has since been known, 
'Irish Almanac and Official Directory,' 
ch in a short time superseded all other 
lications of the kind in the Irish capital, 
superiority to its predecessors was due 
he incorporation for the first time in a 
ctory 01 a mass of valuable and skil- 
Y arranged statistics relating to Ireland, 
the * Almanac' has ever since main- 
ed its position as by far the best periodi- 
of its kind in Ireland. Thom continued 
tonally to supervise its publication for 
ty-seven years, and until within a few 
iths of his death. In 1860 he published 
is own expense for gratuitous distribu- 
* A Collection of Tracts and Treatises 
Jtrative of the Natural History, Antiqui- 
, and the Political and Social State of 
and,' two volumes which contain reprints 
be works of Ware, Spenser, Davis, Petty, 
keley, and other writers on Irish affairs 
he seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
horn, who was twice married, died at his 
lence, Donnycamey House, near Dublin, 
>2 Dec. 1879. 

)bitaar^ notice of the late Alexander Thom, 
en*s Printer in Ireland, by W. Neilson Han- 
:, LL.D., in Journal of the Statistical Society 

of Ireland, April 1880 ; Historical and Biblio- 
graphical AceouDt of Almanacks and Directories 
published in Ireland, by Edward Evans, 1897.] 

C. L. F. 

THOM, JAMES (1802-1850), sculptor, 
* son of James Thom and Margaret Mori- 
son in Skeoch, was born 17th and baptised 
1 9th April 1 802 ' ( Tarbolton Parish Itegister). 
His birthplace was about a mile from 
Lochlee, where Robert Burns lived for some 
time, and his relatives were engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. "While Thom was 
still very young his family removed to 
Meadowbank in the adjoining parish of 
Stair, where he attended a small school* 
With his younger brother Hobert (1805- 
1895) he was apprenticed to Howie & 
Brown, builders, Kilmarnock, and, although 
he took little interest in the more ordinary 
part of his craft, he was fond of ornamental 
carving, in which he excelled. While en- 
gaged upon a monument in Crosbie church- 
yard, near Monk ton, in 1827, he attracted 
the attention of David Auld, a hairdresser 
in Ayr, who was known locally as * Barber 
Auld.' Encouraged by Auld, he carved a 
bust of Burns from a portrait — a copy of 
the Nasymth — which hung in the Monument 
at AUoway. It confirmed Auld's opinion 
of Thom's ability, and induced him to advise 
the sculptot to attempt sometliing more 
ambitious. Statues of Tam o' Shanter and 
Souter Johnnie were decided upon, and 
Thom, who meanwhile resided with Auld, 
set to vrork on the life-size figures, which 
were hewn direct from the stone without 
even a preliminary sketch. William Brown, 
tenant of Trabboch Mill, served as model for 
Tam ; but no one could be induced to sit for 
the Souter, whose face and figure were sur- 
reptitiously studied from two cobblers in the 
neighbourhood of Ayr. 

The statues were secured for the Burns 
monument at Alloway, and when com- 
pleted were sent on tour by Auld. The 
profits, which were equally divided among 
the sculptor, Auld, and the trustees of the 
monument, amounted to nearly 2,000/. 
They reached London in April 1829, and at 
once attracted great notice, the critics hailing 
them as inaugurating a new era in sculp- 
ture, lleplicas to the number of sixteen, 
it is said, were ordered by private patrons, 
and reproductions on a smaller scale, but 
also in stone, were carried out by Thom and 
his brother. James Thom also produced 
statues of the landlord and landlady of the 
poem, which were grouped with the others, 
and several pieces of a similar class, such as 
' Old Mortality ' and his pony, which was 
conceived in 1830 while reading the novel 

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lesidence, Oakfield, Greenbank, Liverpool, 
en 2 Sept. 1894, and was buried on 7 Sept. 
in tbe grayejard of tbe Ancient Chapel, Tox- 
tethPark. He married(2Jan. 1838) Hannah 
BlaiT (1816-1872), second daughter of Wil- 
liam* Rathbone (1787-1868)r8ee under Rath- 
BOITE, AViLLlAX, 1757-1809], but had no 

In hU ' Life of Blanco White,' 1845, his 
best known work, Thorn does little to suggest 
the quality of his own religious teacning. 
By his published discourses he presented 
himself to many minds as a master of rich 
and penetrating thought. In the pulpit his 
powers were ooscurc^ by a fastidious self- 
restraint. On the platform he was brilliant 
and convincing. 

The following are the most important of his 
publications : 1. * Memoir * prefixed to * Ser- 
mons ' by John Ilincks, 1882, 8vo. 2. ' St. 
Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians,' 1851, 8vo 
(expository sermons). 3. * Letters, embracing 
his Life, by John James Tayler,' 1872, 2 vols. 
8vo ; 2nd ed. 1873, 8vo. 4. * Laws of Life 
after the Mind of Christ,' 1883, 8vo (ser- 
mons); 2nd ser. 1886, 8vo. Posthumous 
were: 6. *A Spiritual Faith,' 1895, 8vo 
(sermons ; with portrait and memorial pre- 
face by Dr. Martineau). 6. 'Special Ser- 
vices and Prayers,* 1895, 8vo (unpublished). 
His ' Hymns, Chants, and Anthems,' 1854, 
8vo, is perhaps the best, certainly the least 
sectarian, of unitarian hymn-books. 

He has sometimes been confused with his 
Liverpool contemporary, David Thom, D.D., 
a presbyterian, wno became a universalist, 
published several theological treatises, and 
compiled a very valuable account of * Liver- 
pool Churches and Chapels,' Liverpool, 
1854, 16mo. 

[In Memoriam, by V. D. Davis, in Lirerpool 
Vnitarian Annual, 1895, with coinpleto lidt of 
Thorn's publications ; Martineau's memorial 
preface to Spiritual Faith, 1896 ; Christian Re- 
former, 1857f p. 757 ; Evans's Hist, of Kenshaw 
Street Chapel, 1887, pp. 33 sq. ; Christian Life, 
8 Sept. and 15 Sept. 1894 ; Spectator, 8 Sept. 
1894; Inquirer. 8 Sept. 1894; Liverpool Mer- 
cury, 9 Oct 1894 ; Evans's Record of the Pro- 
vincial Assembly of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
1896; personal recollection.] A. G. 

THOM, JOHN NICHOLS (1799-1838), 
impostor and madman. [See Tom.] 

THOM, WILLIAM (1798P-1848), Scot- 
tish poet, was bom in Aberdeen about 1798. 
His father, a business man, died young, and 
Thom was left to the care of his 'mother, * a 
widow unable to keep him at home idle' 
(Thoit, ReoolUctionSf p. 37). Uun over in 
infancy by a nobleman's carriage, he was 

lamed for life, the nobleman sympathising 
to the extent of bs, bestowed on the widow 
after the accident. Thom was educated at 
a dame's school, which he realistically de- 
scribes in a note to his poem * Old Father 
Frost and his Family.' Apprenticed as a 
weaver in 1810, he jomed in 1814 a weaving 
factory, where his talents and attainments 
as talker, singer, and flute-player secured 
him distinction among his fellows. 

About 1828 Thom married, and in 1831 
he and his wife settled in Dundee ; but 
his wife soon deserted him and returned to 
Aberdeen. Thom afterwards worked in New- 
tyle, Forfarshire, where he took to his home 
the girl Jean whom he celebrated in his prose 
and verse. She bore him four children, and 
died in 1840. In 1837 great depression in 
the weaving trade caused Thom much suffer- 
ing. He hawked the country with second- 
hand books, and even played the flute in the 
streets. He soon founa fixed employment at 
the loom at Aberdeen, and subsequently at 
Inverurie, Aberdeenshire. In the beginning 
of 1841 he sent a lyric — part i. of * The Blind 
Boy's Pranks' — to the * Aberdeen Herald.' 
It was published with a eulogistic editorial 
note, and instantly secured generous atten- 
tion and patronage. Througli the practical 
friendship of Gordon of KnokespocK, Aber- 
deenshire, the family had immediate comfort, 
and Thom was enabled to spend four months 
of 1841 in London, mingling with literary 

On returning to his loom at Inverurie Thom 
chafed against regular employment, and, 
having published his ' Rhymes and Recol- 
lections in the autumn of 1844, he settled 
in London, at the suggestion of Gordon. In 
the metropolis he worked for a time as a 
weaver and composed poems simultaneously* 
His friends included Eliza Cook, Richard, 
William, and Mary Howitt, Samuel Carter 
Hall and his wife, and John Forster. He 
is said to have been feted at Lady Blessing- 
ton's. He was entertained at dinner with 
William Johnson Fox in the chair, and work- 
ing men of London held a Poir6e in his 
honour. Scottish admirers in Calcutta sent 
him an offering of 300/., and Margaret Fuller 
headed an American subscription list which 
rose to 400/. But Thom was an incorrigible 
Bohemian. He procured a new consort from 
Inverurie, by whom he had several children, 
and he neglected business for unprofitable 
company. At length poor, comparatively 
neglected, and very ill, he, by the aid of a 
few staunch admirers, left London and settled 
in Hawkhill, Dundee, where he died on 
29 Feb. 1848. He was honoured with a 
public funeral, and was buried in the Western 


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..r I-'mIKmIi ..n " I., I- I -p.. |j„, i|,...i.:.|, ,.,im.. fr, op-n war with the kinp shortlV 

liM iiMiiir nm.. III.-.-. ...1..I I., i|„ |,H ,,| |,„,,,„.. „j",,.p^ 1,^. p.fiisinp to do homapre to Kdwaril 

uho|nni...l III II.. I...,i..Im I. II,, ,.| |:w,| „, HiTwirk for his new lands because it 

•^.^srd u^ flin |..., I,. ....i.,,. , „l ."V.iJ xvMu niit.sid*. the kingdom, though he had 

'. wan ni«i mill! ilif. Ml...--, ,,r i.;.| jmmpiii.vimI north on purpose. The king 

I that he Im^miii |.> jiIim h IimiJiiik imrt ' vifld.-d hy nii'eting him a few miles within 

^* > 1 li«< lOngliHli border at Haggerston {JChron. de 




LoTiercost^ p. 215) ; Gaveston was present, 
"but Lancaster ignored his presence, much to 
the king's anger. The homage was repeated 
in London on 26 Aug. {ParL WritSf 11. 42). 
The ordinances which were published on 10 
And 11 Oct. contained a decree of banish- 
ment on Gaveston, to which Edward, after 
a humble entreaty that his ' brother Piers ' 
might be forgiven, had been obliged at 
length to consent. But Lancaster and others 
Lad to be forbidden to attend parliament 
in arms (Cal, Close liolU f-p, 442). Gaveston 
returned in January 1312, and the king 
•countermanded the summons for a parlia- 
ment on the first Sunday in Lent (12 Feb.) 
Lancaster, acting for the others, demanded 
Gaveston's withdrawal, and sent a private 
message to the queen that he would not rest 
till he had rid her of his presence. Armed 
bands were collected under the pretext of 
tournament, and Lancaster stole north by 
night. He surprised Edward and Gaveston 
at Xewcastle-on-Tyne, and captured the 
greater part of their baggage. They fied 
hastily to Scarborough by sea, where Edward 
left Gaveston, proceeding himself to York. 
Then the earls of Pembroke and Warenne 
besieged Gaveston in Scarborougli, while 
Lancaster liovered between to cut off Peter 
from all chance of rejoining the king. On 
19 May Gaveston surrendered to Pembroke 
on condition of his safety being guaranteed 
until the parliament which was to meet on the 
first of August. If Edward and Gaveston 
could come to no agreement with the barons 
then, Gaveston was to be replaced in Scar- 
borough Castle, as he was at the time of his 
surrender. Pembroke proceeded southward 
with his prisoner, but the Earl of Warwick 
took advantage of Pembroke's over-confi- 
dence to kidnap Gaveston at Deddington, 
sixteen miles north of Oxford, and carry him 
off to Warwick. Here, with the full con- 
currence of the earls of Lancaster and Here- 
ford, Gaveston was condemned to death. Lan- 
caster assumed tlie chief responsibility for 
his death by having him conveyed to Black- 
low Hill in his lands to be beheaded (Monk 
OF Malmesbubt, ii. 180). 

Neither the king nor Pembroke ever for- 
|rave Lancaster for this act of violence, though 
Edward was too weak at the time to bring 
the offenders to justice. Lancaster thought 
it prudent to come to the parliament to which 
Edward summoned him on 20 Aug. at the 
head of a small army. The earls of Glou- 
cester and Richmond mediated, and after the 
earls had madeaformal submission on 19 Oct., 
the king timore ductus granted them a full 

Sirdon on 9 Nov. (JTor. Hist. iii. 337). This 
d not conclude matters, however, and 

negotiations still went on under safe-con- 
ducts. Lancaster restored the jewels and 
horses he had captured at Newcastle on 
27 Feb. and 29 March 1312, but it was not 
until 16 Oct. 1313 that a complete amnesty for 
all offences conmiitted since the beginning 
of the reign was granted (Moxx of Malmes- 
bubt, ii. 195). Lancaster refused to be re- 
conciled with Hugh le Despenser. Edward 
summoned him to accompany him in an ex- 
pedition against the Scots as early as 23 Dec. 
1313 (RrMEB, ii. 238). But Thomas and his 
party refused, alleging that the king had not 
carried out the ordinances, especially as re- 
gards the removal of evil counsellors. All 
they did was to send the strict legal contin- 
gents due from them (Lanebcost, p. 224). Ed- 
ward's disaster at Bannockbum obliged him 
to seek a new reconciliation with Lancaster, 
who had assembled an army at Pontefract 
under the pretext that the king, if successful 
in Scotlana, intended to turn his arms against 
him. This took place in a parliament held 
in the last three weeks of September. The 
ordinances were confirmed. Edward was 
obliged to dismiss his chancellor, treasurer, 
and sheriffs, who were replaced by Lancaster's 
nominees. Hugh le Despenser went into 
hiding, though he still remained one of the 
king's counsellors (Chron. Edw. I and 
Edw, II, ii. 208; Flor. Hist, iii. 339). In 
the parliament which lasted from January 
to March 1315 he and Walter Langton were 
removed from the council, the king was put 
on an allowance of 10/. a day, and Thomas 
was made his principalis consiliarius (Chron, 
Edw, I andEdto. II, ii. 209). 

On 8 Aug. Thomas was appointed chief 
commander against the Scots, superseding his 
enemy, the Earl of Pembroke. In the autumn 
one of his own tenants, Adam do Banastre, 
rose against him, fearful of punishment for 
a murder he had committed. Banastre seems 
to have made use of the king's name, and is 
said to have borne his banner. But Lan- 
caster's lieutenants easily crushed him (MoxK 
OF Malmesbubt, ii. 214). The parliament 
which met on 28 Jan. 1316 was postponed 
till his arrival on 12 Feb., after which he 
was requested by the king in parliament to 
be president of the council, and accepted 
the office on certain conditions on 17 Feb. 
(ParL Writs, i. 156-7). But neither had 
any confidence in the other. An assemblage 
at Newcastle was postponed from 24 June 
to 10 Aug., and then to Michaelmas. Thomas 
started towards Scotland, only to find that 
the kinff refused to follow him. Edward 
went only as far as York, and, if we are to 
believe the somewhat pro-Lancastrian ac- 
count of Robert of Keaaing {Flor» Hist, iiL 

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91 March. The principal count in his indict- 
ment was his late rebellion, but it also raked 
m his attack on the king and Gaveston at 
Newcastle, and accused him of intimidating 
the parliaments of the reign by appearing at 
Iham with armed men, and of being in league 
with the Scots. Refused even a hearing, he 
was condemned to a traitor's death, the usual 
TCTolting details being commuted to behead- 
ing in consideration of his near relationship 
to the king. Seven earls are mentioned as 
present at his trial, presumably as members 
of the court (22 March). He was taken the 
next day on a sorry nag to a slight hill 
JQSt outside the town and there beheaded 

StOKBLOWE, pp. 112-24; Chron. Edic, I and 
IT. //, i. 803, ii. 77, 270 ; Flor, Hist, iii. 
206, 347). 

Despite his tragic end, it is difficult to say 
anything favourable of Thomas of Lancaster. 
Marked out by birth and by his position as 
holder of five earldoms for the role of leader 
of the barons in their revolt against the 
&vouritism, extravagance, and misgovern- 
uent of Edward II, he signally failed to show 
either patriotism, farsiglitedness, or even the 
more common virtues of a good party leader. 
His only policy was a sort of passive resist- 
ance to the crown, which generallv took the 
form of refusing to do anything whatever to ! 
aid his cousin so long as his personal enemies | 
remained unbanished. In the invention of 
pretexts for this refusal he displayed an in- 
genuity in legal chicanery far surpassing that 
of his uncle, Edward I. Though it was ob- 
Tiously personal aims and personal grievances 
that influenced his action throughout, some of 
these pretexts are interesting illustrations of 
the growth of the idea of a full parliament. 
In 1317 he refused to violate his oath to the 
ordinances by attending a council of magnates 
summoned by the king, because the matters 
there to be discussed ought to be debated in 
a full parhament (Murimitth, pp. 271-4). 
Yet if Lancaster had any political ideal at 
all, it was the revival of Simon de Montfort's 
abortive scheme for government by a council 
of magnates with himself, in the place of 
Simon, as the chief and most powerful mem- 
ber. The only thing in which he was con- 
sistent was the unrelenting hatred with 
which he pursuedthose who offended him. 
Popular idealism, however, made him into a 
saint and a martyr. All the misfortunes 
which befell the country were laid at Ed- 
ward*s door, though Thomases futile policy 
was quite as much to blame for them. While 
Edward personified misgo vemment, disorder, 
Biisfortiine abroad, Thomas was converted, 
though probably not till after his death, into 
A lecofta Simon de Montfbrt. Miraculous 

cures were effected at his tomb at Pontefract, 
as also at an effigy of him in St. Paul's, to 
which crowds of worshippers came with 
offerings. Guards had to be placed to pre- 
vent })eople approaching the places of his 
execution and burial, and the king wrote an 
indignant letter to the bishop of London 
and the dean and chapter of St. PauFs, for- 
bidding them to countenance such proceed- 
ings (^Flor, Hist. iii. 213 ; French Chronicle 
of London^ Camden Soc, p. 54 ; Rymeb, ii. 
528). Time brought further revenges. On 
28 Feb. 1327 Edward III wrote to Pope 
John XXI, requesting him to canonise 
Thomas (IIymer, 11. ii. 695). The request 
was repeated in 1330 and 1331 {ih, pp. 782, 
814). Edward III also on 8 June 1327 
authorised Robert de Werynton, clerk, to 
collect alms for building a chapel on the hill 
where Thomas of Lancaster was beheaded 
(ib, p. 707). This chapel, which was never 
finished, still existed in Inland's time. 

Thomas built and endowed in his castle 
of Kenilworth the chapel of St. Mary, to bo 
served by thirteen regular canons (Bliss, 
Papal Beyisters, ii. 184). 

lie married Alice, daughter and heiress of 
Henrv de Lacv.earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, 
but had no children. His relations with his 
wife were sufficiently strained to give rise 
to more than a suspicion of connivance when 
the Earl of Warenne carried her off in 1317. 
She was accused of adultery with a lame 
squire of the name of Ebulo Le Strange, who 
married her after Lancaster's death. 

[TI16 chief narrative eources for Thomas's life 
aro the Annales LondonienseH ; Annalos Paulini ; 
Gesta Edwardi auctore canonico Bridlingto- 
nionsi ; and the Monachi caiusdam Malraes- 
beriensis Vita Edwardi II, all edited by Bishop 
Stubbs in Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I 
and Edward II (Rolls Ser.); the Chron. of Robert 
of Reading in vol. iii. of the FloresIIistorianiin, 
ed.Luartl ; the Annals of John de Trokolowe ; the 
Chronicles of Adam de Murimuth (Rolls 8er.) ; 
Walter de Hemingburgh (Englibh Historical 
Soc); Ljinercost (Maitland Club); and Scala- 
chroiiica and Walsingham ; the continuator of 
Trivet (ed. Hall, 1722); and the Chronicon 
Henrici de Knighton (Rolls Ser.) The Rolls 
of Parliament, the Parliamentary Writ.s, and 
Kymer's Foedera (all pablished by the Record 
Comm.) ; and the Calendars of the Close Rolls 
(1307-1323, 3 vols.), and Patent Rolls 1292- 
1301, 1307-13 (2 vols.) (Rolls Ser.) form an 
invaluable supplement and corrective to these 
sometimes partial narratives. Dngdale's Baron- 
age of England, thouf!;h prolix, supplies many 
facts : Stubbs's Constitutional Hist. vol. ii. and 
Pauli's Oeschichte von England give the best 
modem accounts cf Thomas and his times.] 

W . £• B. 

Thomas 152 Thomas 

^HIMAS " !*-. TKEF.T 'X. E\RT. OF castlc in Julv to serve against ' Scotch wbels' 

N ;-' : ii - . >: .-.^-ivi : T Ky -LAXD . LiiX'- {^ib. 1313-18, p. 473). 

". . * -. . - - -■ IrT-- :i.. i : Kiwarl I bv In the early part of 1319 Thomas acted 
_ - - -. - - -. M -J -r-.:. '':.r *".**vr ::*rhll:p ' as warden of 'England during EdwanI ih 

• -.'::' :! . ri !: i^-.f L> h -'.:-> r::brr. absence in the field against the Scots, hold- 
. -i- - - 1 / --.-. :-"-•'' -* Br:-: her- injon '2A March of that year a session along 

z- r :.'■:- :'. -x-'.-rr l:* t ir*?-:::* wiih the chief ministers in the chapter-hous*; 

■::--; - -J - .7 "- .y- <. :'i.:. : '-. - ;. ..f St. Paul's, where they summoned bffnrv 

_■■ ■■ ■ ■ ■- ' ::• -v^i -.l.ri Ti ■=:;.> tl-em J. de Wengrave.themayor; Wengrave 

■ -. 1 — : • - f ..-T -*:":' .z.t »^i•. :: f wis ••njag'ed in a controversy with the com- 

'*• T:. ■ - * ■'-•■-:• :ry :r if n -hT-r munity with regard to municipal elections, 

- -,- - - :'..■.•■ ..r. A s* ry :-' "I which was appeased at Thomas's interren- 

• - :; - .„.".: -ST. i '. »- -..r- : : :r. z'.?in Ann. Paulin{,^ji.2>yo-6). After Ih'ing 
i ■-•.*..» ':.- .'.'L -^if rr>: r-.i knl^hvd, on 15 July, Thomas proceetled to 

": ^ . ,• - ■ -. : iV- :' ^"^ ?:. :. _r>^ :".r N-rwcastie, where a great army was miL-ster- 

':'-■■ : -. ' ~ 1 =_ i. • ~ 'LTr :zr ajaLn^t Scotland. He crossed the border 

-. r" - -• — -i --'*■:-:' I :- n I'v* Auj., but nothing resulted from the 

X r -^ ' . . - ^ r ':'.'.' invasion save the vain siege of Berwick 

- - '. ^ ' - ~ . -.y -L- ri-.i ::: : M.'XK OF Malmesburt, pp. 241-2; Ann. 

. •• . . : ^ .-^--. • -_- :-^r. r. P: V;:*. p. 2fr5). 

• :i'i TT ■ * ir/>. : Jr. l-.-i?! Thomas, being summoned with hi* 

'", ' '- »- : :...-- .i.'^ --' 'r t'li-.r Edmund to tht'sie^'e of Leeds CVtle 

. ' . '. -.x-^-i.T-T -•'• . ::: Kr:::ti'7"r,.rf///y/.iii. 199), adhered to the 

- ■ .-* "*■-.:--.'..- 1 r.;**>:Je. and is described as 'strenuous f«»r 
-.' 1. . • . T 'r -'.' ---L' '.:.r '. .T-.jr" . M'lyxorMALMESBi-RT.p. 203 V He 

- . • * -_:-■■!.■-■- f i .1 IT ''Jiinent part in p«?rsuading Mortimer 
.. ^ -_ -. : T- : -.-■-' : ? .r-s::: . MrRiMriH, p. 35). Yet in Sej)- 

. . _.-..--. ■> ••. ::.>.r 132*.* he was one of the first to jom 

-" - - ^ . : . if-T^.: *^* :— 7- Is.iV-;-lla ^^. v.] on her landing at 

, . - y -* .-I'-r* - VTtrrlL The landing-place was within liii< 

^^ . . - ^ --- ti-.,: .4 .MrKiMrTH. p. 40). On 27 Oct. he 

^ - - ■ - -■ ^-^ '— ■•* *he peers who condemned th»> 

--.-■- ' : : -■■..- r»-. -Ty :iv-7 at Bristol (Ann. Panh'/n, p. 

^- . .T .".' . Ir. May 1327 he was ordered to rjiisfi' 

- - • - .- ■- • tt^ •.r;'."** ihe Scots. He was chief of a 

.-:--, 7 J.'. . -^m'ssi.^n sent to Bury St. KdmuiKls 

^ ^ , ■ : - •..:>.»*■?• or.e of the constant quarrels K- 

■J ' •.~j-r "••V--*:: :hv albt-y and the townsmen (/Vi. p. 

^. - \ - .. '."4 l!r was brilied to acoe]»t tlie rule t»f 

~y . . ~ - '<vr"2 ar.l M"»rrimer bv lavis'h crrants of 

. . ^ -- t".t f 7''-.".- i estates of the Despensers and 

. . • , -j^ ;•'- .rs. s::i wjs so closely attached to Mor- 

^- • -zitT ::.i" ht* married his son Edward to 

■. . . .\i ;V *.'?.:-. M rrimer's daughter, and atteinleil 

-• . i '...!:!:ri Tournament at Ilen'ford with 

\ . .' V.''.;:. ::::v crUbrattnl the match (Mriii- 

.: ,^- ■•.:.-;. •*7>: O.LK Baker, p. 42\ But he 

t i .- 'w^'ar.:-- a i so .'lit en ted with the rule of 

^ "• ' ^« : '^.'>.'.'..i s-ii M'-rtix'T. and joined the con- 

' \ , •"■--:■..'• :':r.i4:n:i:eswhichuifton2 Jan. 1329 

' .^,. ~ \^. . - <"-. Tival's i.ef. details in KN'niMTOx, and 

N ^ >. • - • *:' . \\ , : • : . r.,^:es to {}. LE Baker, pp. 217-20. 

- . • * J •■.<:.■-■■. ■ i: - ' - ■ T: :r.vs."»n. from MS, Brut Chnoi.): he 

• * , ^.;.: ,-: '-^ y '■' ■■. v > :.,»-.: witii his broth»T Edmund, the arch- 

<,* ^ ■ ' ^: .vi.-'»»' •*:" l':-.:: ■ ■=.> '>l:--j» of Canterbury, and the bishop of 

' ^ * \ jtM'xre.i ^v.'i :! . ; ^.. . .^ j ., j^^ ^-i enviws fri>ui th»^ barons \n the 

s ■, ^"^ "^^.' ih.« I's-e^ «'*'•'> \\'''. \l ^ ■: j.^wrnment : but tlie defection of Henry 

^*- ^" ' \j.J.Mt on-»'"'"*'*"*'»" *-»l7. wli.ii i.f Lancaster bn^ke up the combination 

^ =*' V1.*%4jC^»' '** ■ ••*.;- {An». Ptnt/mi\v,:U4), On 17 Feb. 1330 

V ^^^ ^^^\ Oi' 'nias n^ J Thomas and Edmund escorted the young 

♦x^N^f' • ^^^1 it New- I queen Philippa on her solemn entry into 

London the day before her coronation (iS. [ 
UH). Luckier than Edmund, Thomas ga\' 
no opportunity to the jealousy of Morliniei 
and survival to welcome Edward Ill's at 
timment of power. On 17-19 June 1331 ho 
fought along- virh the king on the sidi 
Sir Kobert de Morley [q. v.] in a famous 
tournament at Stepney, riding, gorgeously 
attired, through London on 16 June, and 
moking an offering at St. Paul'H (t'b. pp. 353- 
354). In 1337 he was employed in arraying 
Welsh soldiers for the king's wara {Fwdera, 
iii. 08(1). Knighton (ii. 4) says that he wbj< 
one of the lords who accompanied Ed- 
ward in to Antwerp in July 1338, but the 
other chroniclers do not seem to substantiate 
this. Thomas died next month (.\ugiist 
1336), and was buried in the choir of the 
abbey church, where a monument was erected 
to tum that perished after the dissolution at 
Bury St. Edmunds. In September Edward, 
St Antwerp, appointed William de Monta- 
Ctita, first earl of Salisbury fq. v.], his suc- 
-Hssor as rosrshal {Fndera, in. 1060). 

Thomas married, first, Alice, daughter of 
8ir Roger Hales of Harwich ; and, secondly, 
Ulaxy, dsughier of William, lord Roos, nnd 
■widow of Sir William de Braose. Mary 
Kooa anrvived her husband, married Ralph, 
Jard Cobhara, and died in ISIS. Thomas's 
mlyson, Edward, was born of his first wife, 
«na married Beatrice, daughter of Roger 
Hortiimir, first earl of March [q. v.l but died 
without issue in his father's lifetime. His 
widow, who Bubsennently married Thomas 
"i Bmose (d. 1.361), died herself in 1384. 
;She fbunded a fraternity of lay brothers 
rwithin the Franciscan priory at Fisherton, 
^'Wiltshire, and also a chantry for si.t priests 

— .1. g place. 

" Vided between his 

Edward de Montacute, brother 

WiUiam, earl of Salisbury, and had by 

D a daughter Joan, who married William 

Uflbrd, the last earl of Suffolk [q. t.] of 

'""""!, On the death of her niece Joan, 

of Suffolk, daughter of Alice, Mar- 

«me in 1375 the sole heiress of her 

Mates. On the accession ofRichnrdll 

A» petitioned to be allowed to act as marshal 

-^ the coronation, but the request was 

(litely shelved (Mimim. Gitdhall. Land. ii. 

"1). Shemnrried.firstjJohnSegrave, third 

nrd Segrave Fq. r.], by whom she had e 

[•ughter and heiress, Elizabeth, married to 

ohD, lord Mowbray (d. 1366), to whose son, 

" " ilowbray.first dukeof Norfolk[n.v.], 

eaist«sand titles ultimately went. Mar- 

!t married, secondly, Sir Walter Manny 

r.], who died in 1372. She was created 





on 29 .Sept, 1397 Duchess of Norfolk for life, 
on the same day that her grandson, Thomas 
Mowbray, ivns made Duke of Norfolk. She 
died on 2-t March 1400, and was buried in 
the church of the Loudon Franci 

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 03-4 ; Niwlas's Hist. 
Peengd, ed. Cuurthope, p. 3S1 , G.E.C[okayno]*a 
Complete Peerage, TJ. 40-1 ; SaodfoniH OaDCa- 
logioil Hialory, pp. 205-6; Cats, of Patent 
Rolta, Edmutl I 1202-1807. Edward It 1337- 
1338 ; ChI. Close Rolls, 1307-33 ; Rymar's 
FfEdem: AnnnleHBlonasfipi; Rishauger; Flore* 
Hist.; KniRhton; Chrun. Edward I, Edward II, 
sdd Murimnth, the lust gii in Rolls Ser. ; Chron. 
Geoffrey 1e Baker, ed. E. M. Thampaon.] 

T. F. T. 

THOMAS of Woodstock, Earl op 
BucKisoHAM and Dukb op GLOircEsrBB 
(I355-13!>7), seventh and youngest son of 
Edward III and Philippa of Hainaiilt, was 
bom at Woodstock on 7 Jan. 1364-5 (Wit- 
aiXGHAM, i. 280). Edward provided for his 
youngest son in his usual manner by afBan* 
cing him in 1374 to one of the richest heiressea 
of the time, Eleanor, the elder of the two 
daughters of the last Bohun, earl of Here- 
ford, Essex, and Northampton. The earls 
of Hereford haTing been hereditary con- 
stables of England , Thomas received a grant 
on 10 June 1376 of that office during pleasure, 
with a thousand roarlis a year to keep it up, 
and was summoned as constable to the par- 
liament of January 1377 {Eol. Pari. ii. 363). 
He appears later at all events to have been 
Btvled Earl of Essex in right of his wife 
{Complete Pferape, iv. 43). Having been 
knighted by his father at Windsor on. 
23 .ipril 1377 he carried the sceptre and the 
dove at the coronation of his nephew, 
Richard II, and was created Earl of Buck- 
ingham ( 15 July), with a grant of a thousand 
pounds a year out of the alien priories (d/. 
of Pal. Rolli, i. 372). A considerable part 
of the Bohun estates had already, in antici- 
pation of his wife's majority, been placed in 
bis keeping, including Pleshey Castle in 
Essex, which became his chief seatj and in 
May 1360, his wife being now of age, he 
was also given custody of the share of her 
younger sister, Mary {ifi. pp. 66, 602), 

A French and Spanish fleet ravaging the 
southern coast in the summer, Buclungham 
and his brother Edmund averted a landing at 
Dover(FR0is5AKT,viii. 237). In October he waa 
sent against the Spaniards, who were wind- 
bound at Sluys, but his squadron was scattered 
by a storm. Refitting and following the 
Spaniards down the Chanael, he captured 
eight of their ships off Brest, returning after 
Christmas (WiL81KGH*m, i. 343, 364). Ott 






the Duke of Brittany handing over (April 
1378) Brest Castle to the English king for 
the rest of the war, Buckingham was one of 
those appointed to take it over (Fcederay iv. 
36). Hut the duke*s position soon began to 
grow untenable, and Buckingham was sent 
to his aid in June 1380, as lieutenant of the 
king, at the head of some five thousand men 
{Fa*dera, iv. 92; Froissart, ix. c.) His 
staff included some of his father s most dis- 
tinguished warriors — Sir Hugh Calveley 
tq. v.], Sir Robert Knollys [q. v.J, Sir Thomas 
*ercy ^afterwards Earl of Worcester) [q. v.] 
and others. Avoiding the dangers of the 
Channel, the army landed at Calais (19 July) 
and plunged into the heart of northern France 
(ib, ix. 2;38 sqq. ; Walsingham, i. 434). 
Penetrating as far south as Troyes (about 
24 Aug.), where the Duke of Burgundy had 
collected an army but did not venture to 
give battle, Buckingham struck westwards, 
through Bcauce and Maine, for Brittany. 
The death of Charles V on 1 6 Sept. weakened 
the resistance 'opposed to his progress; the 
passage of the Sarthe was forced, Brittany 
entered late in the autumn, and siege laid 
to Nantes. But the duke soon made his 
peace with Charles VI, and about the new 
year Buckingham raised the siege of Nantes 
and quartered his troops in tne southern 
ports of Brittany, whence they were shipped 
home in the spring. The chagrin of failure 
wos enhanced by a private mortification 
which awaited him. His relations with his 
ambitious elder brother, John of Gaunt, had 
never been cordial. At the close of the late 
reign Lancaster had inflicted a marked slight 
upon him by putting his own son Henry 
(afterwards Henry IV), a mere boy, into the 
order of the Garter in preference to his uncle, 
and Buckingham did not enter the order till 
April 1380. Since Richard's accession the 
younger brother had been as popular as the 
elder was generallv hated. During Bucking- 
ham's absence in France Lancaster married 
his son to Mar}- Bohun, younger sister of 
Buckingham's wife (Complete Peeragey v. 9). 
This could not be agreeable to her brother- 
in-law, who had secured the custody of her 
estates, and, according to Froissart, hoped to 
persuade her to become a nun. 

In June 1381 Buckingham dispersed the 
insurgents in Essex, and in the following 
October held an *oyer and terminer* at 
Cambridge (Walsingham, ii. 18; Doyle, ii. 
19). By 1384 the yoimg king's evident de- 
termination to rule through instruments of 
his own dreAv together Buckingham and 
Lancaster. They were associated in the ex- 
pedition into Scotland early in this year, and 
in the negotiations with France and Flanders. 

When Lancaster was accused of treason in 
the April parliament at Salisbury, Bucking- 
ham burst into the king's chamber and swore 
with great oaths to kill any one, no matter 
whom, who should bring such charges 
against his brother (Walsikguak, ii. 114^. 
Richard for a time deferred more to his 
uncles, and during his Scottish expedition in 
the following year created Buckingham Duke 
of Gloucester (6 Aug. 1385), and granted him 
a thousand pounds a year from the exchequer 
bv letters patent, dated at Hoselowelogh in 
Teviotdale (Eof. Pari. iii. 200). In the par- 
liament which met in October Richard 
formally confirmed this elevation, and in- 
vested his uncle with the dignity, girding 
him with a sword and placing a cap 
with a circlet of gold on his head (ib.; 
Sandfokd, p. 231). To this parliament, 
curiously enough, he was summoned as Duke 
of Albemarle, though neither he nor his 
children ever again assumed that style, and 
he did not get possession of Iloldemess, 
which usually went with it, until 1388 
(DuGBALE, ii. 170). It has been suggested 
that this may be a case of a foreign title, 
i.e. a Norman dukedom (Complete Peerapey i. 
56). In elevating his two younger uncles, 
Gloucester and Edmund, duke of York [see 
Lang LEY, Edmuxi) dbI, to the ducal dimity, 
Richard perhaps hoped to sow fresh dissen- 
sion between them and John of Gaunt, and to 
cover his promotion of his humbly bom mini- 
ster, Michael de la Pole, to the earldom of 
Sutiblk. If so, it did not serve its purpose, 
for Gloucester, on John of G aunt's departure 
to Spain, placed himself openly at the head 
of the opposition to the king, and was one 
of the judges who condemned Suffolk in 
1 386, and a member of the commission for 
the reform of the household and realm. 
Richard is alleged to have plotted his 
murder at a dinner. Such charges were made 
too freely at the time to command implicit 
credence; but Gloucester, who forced Richard 
to dismiss Suffolk by threatening him 
with the fate of Edward II, had certainly 
given extreme provocation. When the king 
in August 1387 procured a declaration from 
the judges that the authors of the commis- 
sion were guilty of treason and began to 
raise forces, Gloucester and his friends sought 
to avert the storm by swearing a solemn oath 
on the gospels before the bisliop of London 
that they had been actuated by no personal 
motives, but only by anxiety for Richard's 
own honour and interests. Gloucester, how- 
ever, refused to forego- his revenge upon De 
Vere, whom the king had made duke of 
Ireland. De Vere had repudiated his niete for 
af Bohemian serving-woman. Failing to get 




support from the Londoners against Glou- 
ceater, who took up arms with the Earls of 
Arundel and Warwick, Richard spoke them 
fair, and affected to agree to the impeach- 
ment of his favourites in the parliament 
which was to meet in February 1388. But 
on his sending the Duke of Ireland to raise 
an army in Cheshire, and attempting to pack 
the parliament, the three lords met at Hunt- 
ingdon (12 Dec.) and talked of deposing 
the king. Joined by the Earls of Derby and 
Nottingham, they routed De Vere at Rad- 
cotbrid^ (20 Dec), and, the Londoners 
opening their gates, they got admission to 
tne Tower on the 27th, and entered the 
presence of the helpless king with linked 
arms. Gloucester snowed him their forces 
on Tower Hill, and * soothed his mind ' by 
assurances that ten times their number were 
ready to join in destroying the traitors to the 
king and the realm (Knighton, ii. 256). 
Had Gloucester not been overruled by Derby 
and Nottingham, Richard would have been 
deposed, and he was no doubt chiefly respon- 
sible for the vindictiveness of the Merciless 
parliament. His insistence on the execution 
of Sir Simon Burley fq. v.] involved him in 
a heated quarrel with the Earl of Derby 
(Walsinoham, ii. 174). 

Gloucester and his associates held the 
reins of power for more than twelve months, 
not without some attempt t^ justify their 
promises of reform, but they did not hesitate 
to obtain the enormous parliamentary grant 
of 20,000/. by way of reimbursing them for 
their patriotic sacrifices. Gloucester also 
securea the lordship of Holdemess,the castle, 
town, and manor of Oakham, with the sheriff- 
dom of Rutland (which had belonged to his 
wife's ancestors), and the oflico of chief 
justice of Chester and North Wales, which 
gave him a hold over a district attached to 
Richard by local loyalty (^Dugdalb, ii. 170; 
Orxebod, i. 63). The king resuming the 
govemment in May 1389, and promising his 
subjects better government, Gloucester was 
naturally in disgrace. But through the good 
offices of the Earl of Northumberland and 
of John of Gaunt^ now returned from Spain, 
his peace was made. As early as 10 Dec. he 
once more appeared in the council, was given, 
with his brothers, some control over crown 
ffrants, and allowed to retain his chief- 
justieeship 'of Chester (Ord. Privy Council, 
1. 17, 18 ft). Grants of money were also 
made to him (Dugdale, ii. 170). But he 
doubtless felt that he had no real influence 
with the king, and this, combined with 
eainlation of his nephew Derby's recent 
•eluevements in Prussia [see Henbt IV], 
naj hare induced him to undertake in Sep- 

tember 1391 a mission to the master of the 
Teutonic order. But a storm drove him back 
along the coasts of Denmark, Norway, and 
Scotland ; and, narrowly escaping destruc- 
tion, he landed at Tynemouth, whence he 
returned home to Pleshey {Fwdera, vii. 
705-6; Walsingham, ii. 202). He must 
have been disquieted to find that the king 
during his absence had secured an admission 
from parliament that the proceedings of 
1386-8 had in no way curtailed his preroga- 
tive {Rot. Pari iii. 286). 

Early in 1392 Kichard appointed Glou- 
cester his lieutenant in Irelancf only to super- 
sede him suddenly in favour of the young 
Earl of March in J uly, just as he was about 
to start, * par certeynes causes qui a ce nous 
mouvent * (^King's Council in Ireland, pp. 
255, 258). Gloucester was then holding an 
inquiry into a London riot, but this may 
' not have been the sole cause of his super- 
I session {Hot, Pari. iii. 324). The king, it is 
worth noticing, was seeking the canonisation 
I of Edward II, with whose fate he had been 
threatened by his uncle six years before 
{Issues, p. 247). 

The Cheshire men rose against Gloucester 
and Lancaster in the spring of 1393, while 
they were negotiating at Calais, in the belief 
that it was the king's wish, and Richard 
had to publish a disavowal {Annales, p. 159 ; 
Fosdera, vii. 746). There is some reason to 
think the Earl of Arundel was trying to 
force on a crisis. Gloucester had now to 
give up his post of chief justice of Chester 
to Richard's henchman Nottingham, but was 
consoled with a fresh grant of Iloldemess 
and Oakham, and certain estates that had 
belonged to De Vere {Pat. Bolh, 17-18 
Ric. II). Yet he cannot but have been ren- 
dered uneasy by the king's quiet attacks upon 
the work of the Merciless parliament and his 
serious breach with Arundel after the queen's 
death in June 1394 {Kot. Pari. iii. 302,316 ; 
Annales, p. 424). Richard took him with 
him to Ireland in September, but sent him 
back in the spring of 1395 to obtain a grant 
from the new parliament. It is plain from 
Froissart's account of his visit to England in 
the ensuing summer that Gloucester's rela- 
tions with the court were getting strained. 
The courtiers accused the duke of malice and 
cunning, and said that he had a good head, 
but was proud and wonderfully overbearing 
in his manners. His advocacy of coercion 
to make the Gascons receive John of Gaunt 
as their duke was put down to his desire to 
have the field to himself at home. He dis- 
approved too of the proposed French mar- 
riage and peace, and the negotiations were 
carried through by others, though he waa 




present, willinglv or unwillingly, at the 
marriage festivities in October 1396 near 
Calais. In the early months of 1397 mutual 
provocations followed swiftly upon one 
another. Gloucester may have prompted 
Ilaxey's petition in the January parliament 
in which Kichard saw an attempt to repeat the 
coercion of 1386 [see IIaxey, Thomas]. It 
was afterwards alleged by French writers 
favourable to Kichard that Gloucester, Arun- 
del, and "Warwick engaged in a conspiracy 
which aimed at the perpetual imprisonment 
of the king and his two elder uncles (Chro- 
iiiqiie de la Traison, pp. 3-7). But Richard 
himself did not attempt to bring home to 
them any such definite charge, and every- 
thing points to his having resolved upon 
their destruction, and taken them by sur- 
prise, lie had at first intended to arrest 
them at a dinner, to which , they were in- 
vited, but Gloucester, who was at Pleshey, 
excused himself on the plea of illness (-^w- 
naleSy p. 201). On the evening of 10 July, 
aft^r the arrest of Warwick and Arundel, 
Kichard, accompanied by the London trained 
bands, set off for Pleshey, which was reached 
-early the next morning. Gloucester, who was 
perhaps really ill, came out to meet him at the 
nead of a solemn procession of the priests and 
clerks of his newly founded college (Eve- 
sham, p. 130; II.vuDYXG, p. 345; AnnaleSj-^yi. 
203 sqq.) As ho bent in obeisance, Kichard 
with his own hand arrested him, and, leading 
the procession to the chapel, assured his * bel 
oiicle ' that all Avould turn out for the best. 
According to another version, Gloucester 
begged for hislife, and was told that he should 
have the same grace he liad shown to Burley 
{^Euloffium, iii. 372). After breakfast Kichard 
set off with most of his followers, leaving 
Gloucester in charge of the Earl of Kent 
41 nd Sir Thomas Percy, who conveyed him 
direct to Calais. The statement tliat he 
was first taken to the Tower sounds doubtful 
(IIardyng, p. 345 ; Fabyan, p. 542 ; Traisou, 

am, a 

p. 8). At Calais Gloucester was in the '. 
mgof its captain, the Earl of Nottingh 
prominent partisan of the king. About the 
beginning of September it was announced 
(* feust notifi6/ which surely implies more 
tlian mere report) both in England and in 
Calais that he was dead ; the date given was 
25 or 26 Aug., and the former is the day of 
his dt'ath entered on the escheat roll {Rot, 
JV/r/. iii. 431, 452; Gregory, p. 96; Dug- 
dale, ii. 1 72). It was therefore with intense 
sur|)rise that Sir William Kickhill [q. v.], a 
justice of the common pleas, who oy order 
of the king accompanied Nottingham to 
Calais on 7 Sept., heard on his arrival that 
he was to interview Gloucester and carefully 

report all that he should say to him. What 
made the matter more mysterious still, his 
instructions were dated three weeks before 
(17 Aug.) There is no reason to doubt 
Kickhill s account of his interview with. 
Gloucester on 8 Sept. He took care to have 
witnesses, and his story was fully accepted 
by the first parliament of the next reign. It 
is obvious that Kichard could not safely 
produce his uncle for trial in the forthcoming 
parliament, and there was only less danger 
m meeting the houses with a bare announce- 
ment of his death. Kickhill was introduced to 
his presence in the castle early on the morn- 
ing of 8 Sept., and, in the presence of two 
witnesses, begged him to put what he had to 
say in writing and keep a copy. Late in the 
evening he returned, and Gloucester, before 
the same witnesses, read a written confession 
in nine articles, which he then handed to 
Kickhill. He admitted verbally that he had 
threatened the king with deposition in 1388 if 
the sentence on Sir Simon Burley were not 
carried out, and requested Kickhill to come 
back next day in case he should remember any 
omission. This he did, but was refused an 
audience of the duke by order of Notting- 
ham {Rot, Pari, iii. 431-2). Parliament met 
on 17 Sept., and on the 21fit a writ was 
issued to the captain of Calais to bring up 
his prisoner. Three days later he briefly re- 

Slied that he could not do this because the 
uke was dead. On the petition of the 
lords a])pellant and the commons, the peers 
declared him guilty of treason as having 
levied arms against the king in 1387, and 
his estates consequently forfeited. His con- 
fession, which is in English, was read in 
parliament next day, but omitting, as Kick- 
hill afterwards declared, those articles which 
w^ere * contrary to the intent and purpose ' of 
the king. He admitted helping to put the 
king under restraint in 1386, entcnng his 
presence armed, opening his letters, speaking 
of him in slanderous wise in audience of 
other folk, discussing the possibility of giving 
up their homage to him, and of his deposi- 
tion. But he declared that they had only 
thought of deposing him for two days or 
three and then restoring him, and that if he 
had ' done evil and against his Kegalie,' it 
I had been in fear of his life, and ' to do the 
I best for his person and estate.' Since re- 
newing his oath of allegiahce on God's body 
at Langley he had never been guilty of fresh 
treason. He therefore besought the king 
^ for the passion that God suffered for all 
mankind, and the compassion that he had of 
his mother on the cross and the pity that he 
had of Mary Magdalen,' to grant him hia 
mercy and grace. The confession is printed 




in full in the 'Rolls of Parliament' (iii. 
378-9) from an original sealed copy, but an 
examination of the roll of the actual pro- 
ceedings shows that the exculpatory clauses 
and the final appeal were omitted, and the 
date of RickhilVs interview carefully sup- 
pressed. All who were not in the secret 
would suppose it to have taken place be- 
tween 17 Aug., the date of his commission, 
and 25 Aug., which had been given out as 
the day of Gloucester's death. There were 
obvious reasons for not disclosing the fact 
that he had been alive little more than a 
"week before narliament met. Why the 
murder — ^for the hypothesis of a natural 
death is practically excluded — was left to 
the eleventh hour we can only conjecture. 
Perhaps Nottingham shrank from the deed 
(Euloffium, iii. 373), perhaps Gloucester re- 
fused to make his confession earlier. The 
mutilated confession was published in every 
county in England. In the first parliament 
of Henry IV a certain John Halle, a former 
servant of Nottingham, swore that Glou- 
cester, under orders from the king, had been 
smothered beneath a feather-bed in a house 
at Calais, called the Prince's Inn, by Wil- 
liam Serle, a ser>''ant of Kichard's chamber, 
and several esquires and valets of the Earls of 
Nottingham and Rutland in the month of Sep- 
tember 1397 (JioL Pari. iii. 452). IlaUe, who 
had kept the aoor, was executed, and, though 
he was not publicly examined, there seems 
no strong reason to doubt the main features of 
his story. Serle, on falling into Henry's 
hands in 1404, sufiered the same fate. In 
France Gloucester was thought to have been 
strangled (St. Dents, ii. 562 ; Froissart). 

Richard ordered Nottingham on 14 Oct. 
to deliver the body to Richard Maudeleyn, 
to be given by him to the widow for burial 
in Westminster Abbey (Fcederaf viii. 20, 
21). But on the 31 st of the same month he 
commanded her to take it to the priory of 
Bermondsey instead (t^. viii. 24). Froissart, 
who has been followed by Du^dale and later 
i^nriters, says that he was buned in Pleshey 
church (which he had colle^iated and en- 
dowed under a license obtained in 1393) ; 
but Adam of Usk (p. 38) expressly states 
that Richard buried him in Westminster 
Abbey, but in the south of the church (in 
the chapel of St. Edmund), quite away 
from the royal burial-place. It was removed 
to the chapel of the kings near the shrine of 
St. Edwara, the spot he had selected in his 
lifetime, by Henry IV in 1399 (cf. Nickols's 
Hoyal Wills, p. 177). His elaborate brass, in 
which there were some twenty figures, is 
engraved in Sandford (p. 227), but nothing 
Mve the matrices now remains. 

Gloucester's proud, fierce, and intolerant 
nature, which provoked the lasting and fatal 
resentment of his nephew, may be read in 
the portrait f(from Cott. MS. Nero, D. vii) 
engraved in Doyle*s * Official Baronage.' It 
bears no resemblance to the alleged portrait 
engraved in Grose's 'Antiquarian Reper- 
torv' (ii. 209). He composed about 1390 
* L Ordonnance d' Angle terre pour le Camp h 
Tou trance, ou gaige de bataille* {Chronigue 
de la TraisoHy p. 132 n. ; Antiquarian Be" 
perton/y ii. 210-19). A finely illuminated 
vellum copy of Wyclif's earlier version of his 
translation of the Bible — now in the British 
Museum — was once Gloucester's property; 
his armorial shield appears in the border of 
the first page. 

By his wife Eleanor Boliun he had one 
son and three or four daughters. His only 
son, Humphrey, bom about 1381, was taken to 
Ireland by Richard in 1399, and, on the news 
of Bolingbroke's landing, confined with his 
son (afterwards Henry A") in Trim Castle. 
Recalled by Henry IV immediately after, he 
died on the road, some said by shipwreck, 
others more probably of the plague in 
Anglesey (UsK, p. 28 ; Leland, Collectanea^ 
iii. 384 ; cf. Archceohffia, xx. 173). He was 
buried at Walden Abbey in Essex. Three 
of his sisters were named respectively Anne, 
Joan, and Isabel. A fourth, Philippa, who 
died young, is mentioned by Sandford. Anne 
(1380 P-1438) married, first, in 1392,Thoma8, 
third earl of Stafibrd, but he dying in that 
year, she became in 1398 the wife of his 
brother Edmund, fifth earl of Stafford, by 
whom she was mother of Humphrey Stafford, 
first duke of Buckingham [ci. v.] ; on his 
death she took a third husbAud (1404), Wil- 
liam Bourchier, count of Eu, to whom she 
bore Henry, earl of Essex, Archbishop Bour- 
chier, and two other sons ; she died on 16 Oct. 
1438 {Rot/al Wills, p. 278). Joan (</. 1400) 
was betrothed to Gilbert, lord Talbot, elder 
brother of the first Earl of Shrewsbury, but 
she died unmarried on 16 Aug. 1400 (Dug- 
dale, i. 172 ; cf. Saxdford, p. 234). Isabel 
{b. 1384) became a nun in the Minories out- 
side Aldgate, London. 

Gloucester's widow made her will at 
Pleshey on 9 Aug. 1309, and died of grief at 
the loss of her son, it is said, at the Minories 
on 3 Oct. following {Royal Wills, p. 177 ; 
Annales, p. 321). She lies buried close to 
the first resting-place of her husband in the 
abbey under a fine brass, which is engraved 
by Sandford (j. 230). He is no doubt mis- 
taken in asserting that she died in the abbey 
of Barking, where she became a nun. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Issues of the Ex- 
chequer, ed. Devon ; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 

Thomas 158 Thomas 

Letters,^,67). Eventually, on 1 Sept. 1403,it 
was decided that Thomas should come homei 
tboug-h nominally he remained lieutenant o1 
Ireland, which was ruled by his deputy, lii 
the autumn of 1404 he was with his brotliei 

Anniili^s Ricardi II (withTrokelowe), Knighton, 
the Kulop:ium iliKtrjriaruni, an<l Koll of King's 
Council in Ireland, 1392-3 (in KolU Series); 

Denvs, 'ed/ BellHguet ; DugdaleH Baronage; <^^^ to SI uy 8, where the English burnt 
Sjindford'H Genealogical History of the Kings some vessels in the harbour, but failed in ai 

of England, &\. i677; Cough's History of j attack on the town. Thomas had a narrow 
IMcHhy; Newcourt's Repcrtorium Ecclesijisticum , escape in a fight with some Genoese caracki 
Parocliiale Londinenso, ii. 469 (for his college) ; i off Cadsand, and, after ravaging the coast o 
G. K. C[obivn(!]'» Complete Peerage ; Doyle'a , Normandy, the fleet returned to England b; 
Official Bnronage; Wallon's Richard II; other • July (^«jtfl^«7/e7triir*iQiiar^i*,p. 401: Wtui 
authorities in the text.] J. T-t. j jj. I06-0). On 1 March 1400 Thomas wa 

THOMAS, Duke of Clarence (1388?- | confirmed in his appointment as lieutenan 
M'2\), second son of Henry IV, by his first . of Ireland for twelve years (Nicolas, Prw 
wife, Mary de Bohun, was bom in London Friiy Council/i. 315-18). lie did not, how 
befori' 30 8oi»t. 1388. On the whole it seems i ever, go to Ireland, but was present at th 
most likely that Henry of Monmouth was parliament in June, when the succession t( 
bom in August 1387, and Thomas not quite the throne was regulated. In July he wen 
a year later (but see Wylib, iii. 324, where I to Lynn to witness the departure of hi 
the autumn of 1387 is preferred as the date ' sister Philippa for Denmark, and in Angus 
of Thomas's birth). There are various trifling accompanied his father on a proffress througl 
notices of Thomas as a child in the ac- Lincolnshire. At the close of the year h< 
counts of the duchy of Lancaster (16. iii. | was made captain of Guines, where lie pro 

3:^4-0). On his father's acc^'ssion to the 
throne he was made stmeschal of England 
on 5 Oct., and on the following Sunday 

bably served through the greater part of 1407 
On 8 March 1408, being then in I^ndon 
Thomas agreed to accept a reduced pay mem 

(12 Oct.) was one of the kniglits created in | for his office in Ireland. The afifairs of thai 

i)n»paration for the coronation next day. ' country required his presence, and in May it 
jibt'ral j^rantH of land were made for his ! was arranged that he should cross over, lit 
8U])port in his office in November,' but this , sailed accordingly on 2 Aug., and, landing at 
appointment was of course only nominal, the I Carlingford, proceeded to Dublin. His first 
actual duties bt?ing discharged by Thomas ' act Avas to arrest the Earl of Kildare and hie 
Prrcy, earl of Worcester, who after a year's sons, and in the autumn he made a raid into 
tinn' was himself made seneschal, as the Leinster, in the course of which he wa* 

London on the report of the plot to seize the I The government was now passing into the 
kin^^ and liis sons. In the summer of 1401 hands of the Trince of Wales, who was sup- 
ine was made lieutenant of Ireland, Sir Tho- ' ported by the Beauforts. Thomas quarrelled 
nias Krpin^ham and Sir Hugh Waterton I with lI^^n^y Beaufort over the money duf 
b'ing named his wardens. II»^ crossed , to him on his marriage with the widow oi 
over in November, reaching Publin on tho ' his uncle, John Beaufort, earl of .Somerset 
l.Sth. A council met at Christmas, and took ' (Chron. 6r//^^,pp.01-:^). This quarrel brought 
Thomas for a journey down the coast to Thomas into opi)osition to his brother, whose 
reassert his authority. The ditfieulties of nolicy rested on tho support of the Beauforts. 
the JOnglish government in Ireland were ' However, little is heard of Thomas during 
great, and the boy lieutenant added natu- 1410 and 1411, except for some notices of 
rally to the cares of his guardians, (hi his riotous conduct at London, wherein June 
20 Au'^ 1 K)2 the archbishop of Dublin re- 1 1410 he and his brother John were involved 
ported'^that Thomas had not a penny in the ! in a fray with the men of the town at East- 
w was shut up at Naas with his | cheap ; in the following year the * Lord 

I small retinue, who dared not .Thomas men* wert* again conci»rned in a 
fear harm might befall {livi/al . great debate in Bridge Street {Chnm, Lomd. 




D. 93). At the beginning of 141 2 the Beau- 
lorta were displaced, and Thomas seems to 
bvesapplanted his elder brother in the direc- 
tion of the government. Under his influence 
t treaty of alliance was concluded with the 
Duke of Orleans in May. He was made Duke 
of Clarence on 9 July, and given the command 
of the intended expedition. In August he 
proceeded to France at the head of a force of 
eiigrht thousand men to assist the Orleanists. 
Hb landed at Ho^ue St. Vast in the Cotentin, 
and, after capturing various towns from the 
Burgundians, joined Orleans at Bourges. 
Eventually the French court arranged that 
Orleans should buy the English off, and, 
vnder an agreement concluded on 14 Nov., 
Clarence withdrew with his arm v to Guienne. 
He was intending to interfere m the aflTairs 
of Arragon had not his father's death (tiOMarch 
^413) compelled him to return to England 
(Goodwin, History of Henry V, p. 9). 

Though Clarence was removed from his 
^rish command, and though in the royal 
Council he continued to support an alliance 
trith the Orleanists against the Burgundians, 
^ was personally on good terms with his 
)>rother. He was confirmed as Duke of 
Clarence in the parliament of 1414, and was 
present in the council which considered the 
weparations for the war on 16-18 April 1415 
(Nicolas, Proc. Privy Council, ii. 156). He 
was ordered to hold the muster of the king's 
retinue at Southampton on 20 July {FcederOf 
ix. 287). When the Cambridge plot was 
discovered, Clarence was appointed to pre- 
side over the court of peers summoned to 
consider the process against Richard of Cam- 
bridge and Lord Scrope. He sailed with tlie 
king from Portsmouth on 11 Aug., landing 
before Harfleur two days later. In the siege 
he held the command on the eastern side of 
the town. Like many others, he suffered 
much from illness, and after the fall of Har- 
fleur was appointed to command the portion 
of the host which returned direct to Eng- 
land. In May 1416 Clarence received the 
Emperor Sigismund at Dartford. Monstrelet 
incorrectly ascribes to Clarence the com- 
mand of the fleet which relieved Harfleur in 
August 1416 (Chron, p. 393). Clarence took 
part in the great expedition of 1417 which 
landed in Normandy on 1 Aug. He was 
appointed constable of the army, and, in 
command of the van, captured Touque on 
9 Aug., and led the advance on Caen. This 
town was carried by assault on 4 Sept., the 
troops under Clarence's command scaling a 
suburb on the north side. After the fall of 
Caen he was sent to besiege Alen9on in 
October, and in December rejoined the king 
before Falaise. In the spring of 1418 he 

was employed in the reduction of central 
Normandy, capturing Courtonne, Harcourt, 
and Chambrais. In the summer he joined 
in the advance on Rouen, was present at the 
siege of Louviers in June ana of Pont de 
I'Arche in July, and in August took up his 
post before Rouen at the Porte Cauchoise. 
Immediately after the fall of Rouen in 
January 1419 Clarence was sent to push on 
the English advance, and in February took 
Vernon and Qaillon. The capture of Mantes 
and Beaumont followed, and after the failure 
of negotiations with the French court and 
the capture of Pontoise, Clarence com- 
manded a reconnaissance to the gates of 
Paris at the beginning of August. In May 
1420 he accompanied his brother to Troyes, 
and, after Henry's marriage, took part in the 
sieges of Montereau and Melun. He ac- 
companied the king at his triumphal entry 
into Paris on 1 Dec. After Christmas Cla- 
rence went with Henry to Rouen, and on 
his brother's departure for England at the 
end of January 1421 was appointed captain 
of Normandy and lieutenant of France in 
the king's absence. Shortly afterwards Cla- 
rence started on a raid through Maine and 
Anjou, and advanced as far as Beaufort-en- 
Vall6e, near the Loire. Meantime the 
dauphin had collected his forces, and, being 
joined by a strong force of Scottish knights, 
reached Beaug6 in the English rear on 
21 March. Clarence, on hearing the news 
next day, at once set out with his cavalry, 
not waiting for the main body of his army. 
He drove in the Scottish outposts, but was 
in his turn overwhelmed, and, together with 
many of the knights who accompanied him, 
was slain. His defeat was due to his own 
impatience and his anxiety to win a victory 
which might compare with Agincourt. After 
his death the archers, under the Earl of 
Salisbury, came up and recovered the bodies of 
the slain (Cotton. MS. Claud. A. viii, f. 10 a). 
Clarence's body was carried back to England 
and buried at Canterbury. The English 
mourned him as a brave and valiant soldier 
who had no equal in military prowess ( Gesta 
Henrici Quint i, p. 149^. 

Clarence had no children by his duchess 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Holland, duke 
of Surrey and earl of Kent [q. v.], and widow 
of his uncle, John Beaufort, earl of Somerset. 
He had, however, a bastard son. Sir John 
Clarence, who was old enough to be with his 
father at Beaug6, and who afterwards took 
part in the French wars in the reign of 
Henry VI. 

[Annales Henrici Quarti ap. Trokelowe, Blane- 
forde, &c.; Royal and Historical Letters of 
Henry IV; WaJsiDgham's Historia Anglicana 




(RolUSar.); Gi»tik Henmi Quinti (Eogl Hut. 
Soo.); Elmbam"s Vitn Honrici Quinti, ed. 
Hearne; MonsCrelet'c Cbroniquea (Panlh^on 
Litliraire); Chmn. dn Religieux de S. Denyg 
(DoiTuments InMits but I'HiBt. de Franco); 
Incerti auctoris Chronicon, ed, GIIbs; Dnviffl'a 
Eogliah Chronicla (Camd. 8oc.)i Cliraniclp of 
Loudon (1B27) ; Fngeg Sisgn of fioQen in Col- 
lectioDHof nLoDdoaCilizeQ (Cunid. Soc. 1870); 
Nicoiafl's Procoedinga and OrdinancM of Pri»j 
Conncil : Bymer'a Fiedetaj Wyliea flistorj of 
Eoglnnd under Henry IV ; BamB<i7'B I^ncaHler 
and Yofli.] C. L, K. 

THOMAS OP Batefi (rf. 1100), arch- 
bishop of York, a native of Bayeui, was a 
son of Osbert, a priest {Gesla Pontificum, p. 
m) of nobie family tRiCHiHD of IlESHiM, 
col. 303), and Muriel {Liber Vila Dunelm. 

fp, 139-40J, and was a brother of Samsoa 
d. 1113) [q. v.], bishop of Woreestec. Ha 
and Samson were two of the clerks that Odo 
(rf. 1097) [q. v.],hiBhop of Bayeux, tookintfl 
uis liouseuold and seat to various cities for 
education, paying their ei[ienses ^Orbbbic, 
p. 605). Having acquired learning in France, 
Thomas went to Oerinnny and studied in the 
schools there ; then, after returning lo Nor- 
mandy, ho went to Spain, where he acquired 
much that he could not have learut else- 
where, evidently from Saracen teachers. On 
his return to Bayeux Odo waa pleased with 
his character and attainments, treated him 
as a friend, and made him treasurer of hia 
cathedral charch. His reputation as a scholar 
was widespread. He acoompanied Odo to 
England, and was mode one of the Con- 
queror's chaplains, an office that implied 
much secretarial work. 

At a council held at Windsor at Whit- 
Buntide 1070 William appointed him to the 
see of York, vacant by the death of Arch- 
bishop Aldred [q-v-J In common with 
Walkelin [g. v.], his fellow-chaplain, ap- 
pointed at the same time to the see of Win- 
chester, he is described as wise, polished, 
gentle, and loving and fearing Qod from 
the bottom of his heart {ib. p. 516). His con- 
secration was delayed because, according 
lo the York historian, Ethelwine, bishop of 
Durham, having fled, there were no suffra- 
gans of York to consecrate him, and the see 
of Canterbury hod not yet been filled by the 
consecration of Lanfranc_[q. vj (T. Stubbb, 
apud Hiitoiianv of I'or/c, ii. 357). lie might, 
however, have received the rite, as Walkelin 
did, at once from the legate, Ermenfrid, who 
was then in England ; but it is probable that 
the king caus^ (he delay, intending that 
he should be consecrated by Lanfranc 
(Fkebuajt, Norman Conquest, iv. 344-5). 
After Lanfrauc's consecration in August, 

j Thomas applied to him. Lanfranc deminded 
I a profession of obedience, and when Thomm, 
j acting on the advice of others, refused to 
I make it, Lunfranc declined to consecnta 
him. Thomas complained to the king, vbo 
thought that the claim to the pruKsuoB 
was unreasonable, A few days later, how- 
ever, Lanfranc went to court, and convinced 
the king that his demand wasjust [see nnder 
LiNFRAHc]. As a way out of the dlfluultj 
William ordered Thomas to return to Can- 
terbury and make a written profession to 
Iionfranc personally, not to his succewors 
in the see, for he wished the queation as to 
the right; of the see of Canterbury to bs 
decided in a synod of bishops accotiUng to 
what had been the custom. Thomas wu 
unwilling to give way, and, it is said, was 
only broi^ht to do so by a threat of banish- 
ment. He finally did as he was biddrat, 
though the York writer says that he made 
only a verbal profession, and received con- 
secration (Getta Poniificum, pp. 39, 40 ; T, 
Stctbus). Both the archbi^ops went to 
Home for their palls in 1071. Alexander H 
decided against the validity of the election 
to York, because Thomas was the son of » 
priest, and took away his ring and staff: 
but on Lanfrauc's intercession relented, and 
it is said that Thomas received bis ring and 
BtaS* again from Lanfrauc's hands. He laid 
the claims of his see before the pope, plead- 
ing that Gregory the Great had ordained 
that Canterbury and York should be of 
equal dignity, and that the bishops of Dor- 
chester, Worcester, and Lichfield were right- 
fully suifragans of York. Alexander ordered 
that the matter should be decided in Enff- 
landby the judgment of a council of lushops 
and abbots of the whole kingdom. Tha 
archbishops returned to England, visiting 
Gislebert, bishop of EvreuJt, on their way. 
According to the pope's command, the case 
was decided at Windsor [see under LlV- 
FRANc] at Whitsuntide IOTl', in an aascmbly 
of prelates, in the presence of the king, th» 
queen, and the legate. The perpetual 
superiority of the see of Canterbury was 
declared, the Humberwas to be the boundoiy 
between the two provinces, all north of that 
river to tlie furthest part of Scotland bdng- 
in the province of York, while south of it 
the archbishop of York was to have no juris- 
diction, being left, bo far as England was con- 
cerned, with a single suffrogau, the bishop 
of Durham. By the king's command, and 
in the presence of the court, Thomas made 
full profession of obedience to Lanfranc at 
his successors (LiHFRisc, i. 23-0, S 
William op MiL»iE8Bt;KT, Gesla 1 
iii. ccc. 204, 302 ; Gekvase, ii, 306). 

franc uA ■ 




Thomas was also unsuccessful in a daim 
that he made to twelve estates anciently 
belonging to the bishopric of Worcester and 
appopriated by Aldred to the see of York. 

Wmatan [q. v.j, bishop of Worcester, refused 
to give them up, and Thomas, who before the 
boundary of his province was decided claimed 
Wulatan as his sufiragan, accused him of 
insabordination, and later joined Lanfranc 
in desiring his deprivation. The estates were 
adjudged to the see of Worcester in a na- 
tional assembly presided over by the king. 
Thomas was afterwards on friendly terms 
with Wulstan, and commissioned him to 
-discharge episcopal functions in parts of his 
province into which he could not go, because 
they were still unsubdued, and because he 
«oiud not speak English (T. Stitbbs, ii. 362; 
Flob. Wig. an. 1070; Geata Pontificurh^ p. 
285). He was present at the council of 
London held by Lanfranc in 1075, and it was 
there settled that the place in council of the 
archbishop of York was on the right of the 
archbishop of Canterbury {ib, p. 68). In 
that year a Danish fleet sailed up the H um- 
ber, and the invaders did damage to his 
cathedral church, St, Peter's, which he was 
then raising from its ruined state, and took 
•way much plunder (Anfflo-Saxon Chron. 
nib an.) After the settlement of their dis- 
pute he was very friendly with Lanfranc, 
who, at his request, commissioned two of 
hia aufi&agans to assist Thomas in conse- 
crating lUlph, bishop of Orkney, at York 
on 5 March 1077; and, when writmg on that 
iDAtter, Thomas assured Lanfranc that a sug- 
gestion made by Bemig^us [q.v.], bishop of 
l^orcheeter, that he would again put forward 
• claim to the obedience of the bishops of 
I^orchester and Worcester, was unfounded 
(LiHFRANC, i. S4-6). He also received a 
Fofeasion of obedience from Fothad or 
Joderoch (d, 1093), bishop of St. Andrews, 
^ho was sent to him by Malcolm III [q. v.l 
•nd his aueen Mar^ret {d, 1093) [q. v.], and 
employed him as his commissary to dedicate 
«)me churches (Hitoh the Chantob, T. 
^B8, ap. Historians of York, ii. 127, 363). 
^^n the Conqueror was in the Isle of 
^ight in 1086, both the archbishops being 
^ith him, he was shown a charter that had 
"^en forged by the monks of Canterbury and 
'^deljr distributed, to the eflect that the 
J'^bishop of York was bound to make pro- 
f^ion to Canterbury with an oath, which 
P*d been remitted by Lanfranc without pre- 
judice to his successors. The king is said 
to biiyQ heem ftngryy ftnd to have promised 
^0 do justice to liiomas on hb return from 
'°^e]qpedition, but died in the course of it 
(HuQH, n.8. 101-2). Thomas refused to give 

Vol. lvi. 

advice to his suffragan William of St. Calais, 
bishop of Durham [see Wiluau, d, 1096], 
when summoned before Rufus to answer to 
a charge of treason, and took part in the trial 
of the bishop in the king's court at Salisbury 
in November 1088 (Sym. Dunelm. Opera, 
i. 176, 179, 183). He attended the funeral of 
Lanfranc at Canterbury in 1089, and during 
the vacancy of the see consecrated three 
bishops to aioceses in the southern province, 
they making profession to the future arch- 
bishop of Canterbunr. In 1092, when 
KemigiusTq. v.] had finished his church at 
Lincoln, Thomas declared that it was in his 
province, not as being in the old diocese of 
Dorchester, but because Lincoln and a great 
part of Lindesey anciently pertained to the 
province of York, and haa unjustly been 
taken away, together with Stow, Louth, and 
Newark, formerly the property of his church; 
and he therefore refusea to dedicate the 
church which was to be the head of a diocese 
subject to Canterbury. William Kufus, how- 
ever, ordered the bishops of the realm to 
dedicate it, and they assembled for the pur- 
pose, but the death of Remigius causea the 
ceremony to be put off (Flob. Wio. sub an. ; 
GiR. Cavbr. vii. 19, 194). A letter from 
Urban II, who became pope in 1088, to 
Thomas, is given by a Y ork historian ; in 
it the pope blames Thomas for having made 
profession to Lanfranc, and orders him to 
answer for his conduct; it presents some 
difEcultv, but cannot be rejected (Hu6H| 
U.S. pp. 105, 135). 

On 4 Dec. 1093 Thomas and other bishops 
met at Canterbury to consecrate Anselm 
rq. v.] to that see, and before the rite began 
Hishop Walkelin, acting for the bishop of 
London, began to read out the instrument 
of election. When he came to the words 
Hhe church of Canterbury, the metropolitan 
church of all Britain/ Thomas interrupted 
him ; for though, as he said, he allowed the 
primacy of Canterbury, he could not admit 
that it was the metropolitan see of all Britain, 
as that would mean that the church of York 
was not metropolitan. The justice of his 
remonstrance was acknowledged, the words 
of the instrument were changed to * the 
primatial church of all Britain/ and Thomas 
officiated at the consecration (Eadmeb, His- 
toria Nocorumy col. 373). The York historian, 
however, states that Thomas objected to the 
title of primate of all Britain given in the 
instrument; that he declared that as there 
were two metropolitans one could not be 

Erimate except over the other ; that he went 
ack to the vestrv and began to disrobe; 
that Anselm and Walkelin numbly begged 
him to come back ; that the word * primate * 




was erased, and that Anselm was conse- 
crated simply as metropolitan (Hugh, u.s. 
104-5, 113, who, in spite of his solemn decla- 
ration as to the truth of his story, is scarcely 
to be trusted here). The next day Thomas, 
in pursuance of his claim to include Lincoln 
in his province, warned Anselm not to con- 
secrate Kobert Bloet to that see ; as bishop 
of Dorchester he miffht consecrate him, but 
not of Lincoln, which, he said, was in his 
province. Kufus arranged the matter by 
granting the abbey of Selby and the monas- 
tery of St. Oswald at Gloucester to Thomas 
and his successors in exchan^ for his claim 
on Lincoln and Lindesey, and to the manors 
of Stow and Louth. Thomas is said to have 
accepted this arrangement unwillingly and 
without the consent of his chapter (ib, p. 106 ; 
M0NA8TICON, vi. 82, viii. 1177). As Anselm 
was not in England when Rufus was slain 
in 1100, Thomas, who heard the news at 
Ripon, hastened to London, intending to 
crown Henry king, as was his right. He 
found that he was too late, for Henry had 
been crowned by Maurice [q. v.], bishop of Lon- 
don. He complained of the wrong that had 
been done him, but was pacified by the kin^ 
and his lords, who represented that it would 
have been dangerous to delay the coronation. 
He was easily satisfied, for he was of a gentle 
temper and was suffering greatly from the 
infirmities of age. After doing homage to 
Henry he returned to the north, and died at 
York, * full of years, honour, and divine 
grace,* on 18 Nov. He was buried in York 
minster, near his predecessor, Aldred ; his 
epitaph is preservedTCHuon ; T. Stubbs, who 
says that he died at Ripon ; Gesta Pontificunif 
p. 257). 

Thomas was tall, handsome, and of a cheer- 
ful countenance; in vouth he was active and 
well proportioned, and in age ruddy and with 
hair as white 'as a swan.' He was liberal, 
courteous, and placable, and, though often 
engaged in disputes, they were of a kind that 
became him, for thev were in defence of what 
he and his clergy believed to be the rights of his 
see, and he prosecuted them without personal ' 
bitterness. Beyond reproach in respect of 
purity, his life generally was singularly free 
from blame. lie was eminent as a scholar, 
and especially as a philosopher ; he loved to 
read and hold discussions with his clerks, 
and his mental attainments did not make 
him vain. Church music was one of his 
chief pleasures ; his voice was good, and he 
understood the art of music ; he could make 
organs and teach others to plav on them, and 
he composed many hymns. He was serious 
in disposition, ana when he heard any one 
singing a merry song would set sacred words 

to the air; and he insisted on hla derg;^ nai 
solemn music in their services (tb,) He w 
active in church-building and inecclesiafltic 
organisation. When he received his see 
large part of his diocese lay desolate, for t 
north nad been harried by the Conqueror t 
vear before, and from York to Durham t 
land was uncultivated, uninhabited, ai 
given over to wild beasts. York itselJf h 
been ruined and burnt in the war ; the fi 
had spread to the minster, which was reduc 
to a ruin, and the other churches of the ci 
probably shared its fate. He rebuilt 1 
cathedral church, it is said, from the founc 
tions, though the same author seems to spe 
of restoration and a new roof (Hugh, 
107-8). Possibly he first repaired the c 
church and then built a new one ; possifc 
the words may mean that, though, as seei 
likely, the blackened walls were standii 
he in some parts was forced tx) rebuild the 
altogether ; in any case, his work was c 
tensive, and amounted at least virtually 
the building of a new church, a few m 
ments of wnich are said to remain in t 
crypt (Willis, Architectural History 
York, pp. 13-10; Freekan, Norman Q. 
gwstj iv. 267, 295, 378). Of the aev 
canons he found only three at their pa 
he recalled such of the others as were air 
and added to their number. At first he ma 
them observe the I^tharinffian discipline, ] 
built the dormitory and reiectory, and caue 
them to live together on a common fundunc 
the superintendence of a provost [see xmc 
Aldred, d, 10691. Later he introduc 
the system which became general in secu 
chapters ; he divided the property of t 
church, appointing a prebend to each cam 
which gave him the means of increasing t 
number of canons, and gave each of th( 
an incitement to build his prebendal chui 
and improve its property (Httgh, u. 
Further, he founded and endowed in li 
manner the dignities of dean, treasurer, a: 
precentor, and revived the office of * magisi 
scholarum/ or chancellor, which had pi 
viously existed in the church. He gave ma 
books and ornaments for use in his churc 
and was always most anxious to choose t 
best men as its clergy. In order to carry 
his reforms he save up much property ti 
he might have kept in his own handls, a 
his successors complained that he alienat 
episcopal land for the creation of prebeo 
{Gesta Pontificum, u.s.) Some trouble he 
ing arisen at Beverley with reference to t 
estates of the church, Thomas instituted t 
office of provost there (Rainb), bestowing 
on his nephew and namesake [see Thok 
d. 1114]. In 1083 he granted a chtrt 




freeing all the churches in his diocese be- 
kmging to the convent of Durham from all 
does payable to him and his successors, being 
fflOTM thereto, he says, by gratitude to St. 
Cuthbert, to whose tomb he resorted after 
i sickness of two years, and there received 
healing; and also bv his pleasure at the sub- 
ititation of monks for canons in the church 
of Durham by Bishop William (Rog. Hot. i. 
187-8). The epitaph, in elegiac verse, placed 
on the tomb of the Conqueror, was written 
hy him, and has been preserved (Obderic, 
pp. 663-4). 

[Baines Fasti Ebor. ; Hugh tbo Chanter and 
T. Stubbs, ap. Historians of York, vol. ii.; Will, 
of Malmesbury's 6e!>t% Hegum and Gesta 
Pontiff., Oervase of Cant., Sym. Dunelm., Gir. 
Cambr., Rog. Hor. (all seven in Rolls Ser.) ; 
Lufranc's Epp. ed. Giles ; Ric. of Hexham, ed. 
Twy»den ; Liber Vitae Dunelm. (Surtees Soc.) ; 
£admor, ed. Migne ; Orderic, ed. Duchesne ; 
Freemans Norm. Conq. vol. iv., and Will. 
Bttftti.] W. H. 

THOMAS (d. 1114), archbishop of York, 
WM the son of Samson (rf. 1112) [q.v.^, after- 
wards bishop of Worcester, and tne brother 
of Uichard, oishop of Bayeux from 1108 to 
llSd,ind so the nephew of Thomas {d. 1100) 
[^. v.], archbishop of York, who brought him 
^ at York, where he was generally popular 
(EiDMEB, Historia Novorunif col. 481 ; III- 
CHiBD OF Hexham, col. 803 ; Gallia Chris- 
'wna, xi. 860; IIuoh the Chantor apud 
^torians of Yorky ii. 1 12). His uncle Tho- 
>w« appointed him as the first provost of 
BcTerley in 1092, and he was one of the king's 
chaplains. At Whitsuntide 1108 Henry I 
^M about to appoint him to the bishopric 
of London, vacant by the death of Maurice 
(* 1107) [q. v.] The archbishopric of York 
^^M also vacant by the death of Gerard in 
^v, and the dean and some of the canons 
of York had come to London to elect ; they 
P^aded the king to nominate Thomas to 
^ork instead of Liondon ; he was elected, and 
^ archbishop-elect was present at the coun- 
cil that Anselm held at that season at Lon- 
don (Eadmer, col. 470 ; Flor. Wig. sub an.) 

He then went to York, where he was 
»i^trtily welcomed. He knew that Anselm 
^uld summon him to come to Canterbury 
^ make his profession of obedience and re- 
vive consecration ; and as his chapter urged 
1^ not to make the profession [see under 
]^oiiA8,rf. 1100], he set out to speak to the 
^ on the matter (Hugh, pp. 112-14). At 
'Winchester he was favourably received by 
*«eking, who appears to have told him not to 
^^e the profession at that time, but not 
*o have spoken decidedly, intending probably 
^ inquire further into the case. Tne asser- 

tion that Anselm sent Herbert de Jx)singa 
[q.v.], bishop of Norwich, to Thomas, offer- 
ing to give up the profession if Thomas 
would recognise him as primate, and that 
Thomas refused (i6.), may be rejected so far 
as Anselm is concerned, though the bishop 
may have made the proposal on his own re- 
sponsibility. Meanwhile Turgot [q.v.], bishop- 
elect of St. Andrews, Avas awaiting conse- 
cration, and llanulf Flambard [q. v.], anxious 
to uphold the rights of the church of York, 
proposed to perform the rite at Y'ork with 
the assistance of suffragan bishops of the 
province, in the presence of the archbishop- 
elect. This would have been an infringe- 
ment of the rights of Canterbury, and was 
forbidden by Anselm, who further wrote to 
Thomas requiring him to come to his ' mother 
church ' at Canterbury on 6 Sept., and de- 
claring that if he failed to do so he would 
himself perform episcopal functions in the 
province of York. Thomas wrote that he 
would have come but had spent all his money 
at Winchester; indeed, he said that he would 
have gone at once from Winchester to hinx, 
but the king had given him permission to send 
to Home for his pall, and he was trying to raise 
money for the purpose. He also disclaimed 
any intention of consecrating Turgot. An- 
seim granted him an extension ot* time till 
Sunday, 27 Sept., and told him that it was 
no use sending for the pall before he was 
consecrated, and forbade him to do so. He 
also wrote to Paschal II, requesting him 
not to grant Thomas the pall until he had 
made profession and had been consecrated. 
Thomas then wrote that his chapter had 
forbidden him to make the profession, that 
he could not disobey tikem, and asked An- 
selm*s advice. His letter was followed by 
one from the York chapter declaring that 
if Thomas made the profession thev would 
disown him. Anselm replied to Thomas, 
repeating his command, and fixing 8 Nov. 
as the day for the profession and conse- 
cration. Thomas again wrote, saying that 
he could not act against the will of his chap- 
ter. After consulting with his suffragans, 
Anselm sent the bishops of London and 
Rochester to him to advise him on behalf of 
the bishops generallvt either to desist from 
his rebellious conduct, or at least to go to 
Canterbury and stat^ his case, promising that 
if he proved it he should receive consecra- 
tion. They found liim at SouthwelL He 
told them that he had sent a messenger to 
the king, who was then in Normandy, and 
that he must wait for Henry's answer, and 
for further consultation with his clergy. The 
king's reply was that the (question of the pro- 
fession was to be put off until the following 

M 2 




Easter, when, if he had then returned, he 
would settle it himself with the advice of his 
bishops and barons, and in any case would 
arrange it amicably. Anselm wrote to Tho- 
mas nom his deathbed warning him not to 
Eerform anv episcopal act before he had, like 
is predecessors Thomas and Gerard, made 
profession of obedience, and declaring ex- 
communicate any bishop of the realm that 
should consecrate him or acknowledge him 
if consecrated by foreign bishops, and Tho- 
mas himself if he should ever receive con- 
secration, unless he had made the profession. 
Anselm died on 21 April 1109. 

Meanwhile Henry nad sent to Paschal for 
a legate to help him to settle the dispute. 
Pasciial sent him a cardinal named Ulric, 
who landed in England shortly before the 
king's return. Ulric was dismayed at hear- 
ing of Anselm^s death, for he brought a 
pall from Thomas, but was not to present 
It to him without Ansolm's consent. When 
Henry held his court at London at Whit- 
suntide the matter was discussed. The 
bishops resolved to be faithful to what An- 
selm had commanded in his last letter to 
Thomas, which was read before the council, 
and sent to Bishop Samson, the father of 
Thomas, to know nis mind. He declared 
himself strongly on the same side, and so 
they laid their determination before the king, 
who, in spite of the opposition of the Count of 
Meulan [see HKVirMoyT, Kobert de, d. 1 118], 
decided agiiiiLSt Thomas, and bade him either 
make profession to Canterbury or resign his 
archbishoprie. The royal message was brought 
to him at York by the Count of Meulan. 
Thomas 8ent to the king, praying that the 
case might be tried before him and the legate 
and be decided canonically, but Henry would 
not consent. The father, brother, and other 
relatives of Thomas urged him to submit, 
and he accordingly went to London, and on 
Sunday, 1 1 June, the day fixed for his con- 
secration, u])peared at St. Paul's, where the 
bishop of London and six other bishops were 
gathered for the rite, made a written pro- 
fession of obedience to the see of Canterbury, 
and was consecrated by them. During the 
ceremony the bishops of London and I)ur- 
ham stated Ijy the king's order that Thomas 
was acting by the king's command, not in 
consequence of a legal decision, so that, ac- 
cording to sealed letters from the king, his 
profession was not, in case of any future suit, 
to be held a legal precedent. The York 
clergy, while they did not blame him for 
yielding, were deeply grieved, and it was be- 
lieved tliat if he had not been so fat and con- 
sequently unfitted to bear exile and worry, 
he would never have given way (Eadmeb, 

cols. 474-82 ; HiTGH, pp. 112-26J). Thomi 
returned to York in company witn the legat 
who publicly invested nim with the pa 
He then, on 1 Aug., consecrated Turgot,w] 
made profession to him, and accompanied t] 
legate, after a visit of three days, on li 
southward journey as far as the Irent Ti 
Y'^ork historians assert that on taking lea 
of the archbishop, the legate summoned lu 
to answer at llome for having made the pi 
fession, but withdrew the summons, as t 
archbishop declared that the king's commai 
left him no choice. The Y'^o^ claim 
equality was based on the decree of Gregc 
the Great; it was pre-eminently a mail 
to be decided by the lloman see, and R01 
had not yet spoken authoritatively; tl 
summons, then, must be r^^rded as a fo: 
to safeguard the freedom of Home to jud 
the question in the future. Thomas o( 
secrated and received the profession of th: 
other bishops to the sees of Glasgow, Mi 
and Orkney. While pwrovost of Beverley 
had suffered from a painful disorder, ana 
physicians declared that he could not 
cover except by violating his chastity, 
indignantly silenced the friends who woi 
have had him take that course, increased 
alms, and invoked the help of St. John 
Beverley [q. v.] He recovered, but the ( 
case returned later, and he died at Beverl 
while still young, on 24 Feb. 1114, and "« 
buried in York Minster, near the grave 
his uncle (Richabd ofHexuam,co1s. 303- 
WiLL. Newb. i. c. I ; Hugh). 

Thomas was enormously fat, probablj 
result of disease, and the inertness which 
York historians blame in him arose no doi 
from the same cause. Left to himself, 
would never have carried on the strife ab 
the profession ; it was forced on liim by 
clergy, and they would have preferred t! 
he should go into exile rather than yit 
He was religious, cheerful, benign, and li 
ral, well furnished with learning, cloque 
and generally liked. He founded two n 
prebends at York, and obtained from 
king a grant of privileges for the canons 
Southwell, whose lands and churches he fr 
from episcopal dues. At Hexham, wh 
the church seems at that time to have 
longed to his see and was administered b 
provost, he introduced Augustinian cane 
whom he endowed by various grants, £pv 
them also books and ornaments for their 
in the church (ih, ; Richabd of Hexh. 
U.S.) It is said that he designed to rem* 
the body of Bishop Eata [q. v.] from H 
ham to *Y''ork, but was deterred by a tib 
of the saint, who appeared to him when 
was at Hexham, rebuked huDi and gava 1 





twoblows on tlie shoulder {Biofjraphica Mis- 
tellanM,'^. 124). Bale says that^ like his 
nnrle, ho was fond of music, and that ho 
composed hymns and an otliciarium for tho 
ehuri'h of i'ork, but he evidently ccmfuses 
him and his uncle (Bale, cent. xiii. 132 ; 
TA55EB, p. 700). 

[Iltiine's Fasti EIkjt. • IIu;>h the Clmntor and 
T.Stiibb>Hp. Hist, of York, vol. ii.. Will, of 
Jlalmwliury, Ocsta Pontiif. (1-oth Kolls Ser.) ; 
Anwlml 0pp. vd, ^lijrnc; Flor. Wijjj., Will. 
Newb. (both Engl. Hiht. Sm*.) ; TJiogr. Misc., 
Hexham Priory (both Surtt-es Soc.)] W. H. 

THOMAS, known as Tii(»mas A Beckkt 
(111><?-1 170), archbishop of Canterbury, son 
of tiilbt'rt Becki't and Tl(»hesia (or Matilda), 
bis wife, waM bom at his father s house in 
Cheapside, London, on 21 l)i*c., perha])s in 
111.') or 1120 ((lARNiEK, pp. 203-4; Mato- 
nnl», iv. 4, 78), but more probably in 11 18 
(Uadford, p. 2). riilbert IWket, who 
jpranp frf)m n family of knij^htly rank at 
Thifrpeville in Normandy, had been a mer- 
chant nt Houen, and afterwards in London, 
of which eity he was once portn^eve ; his 
wifewns a burgher- woman from Caen. The 
name IWket is piven to Thomas in thret? 
contomjjorary writings (IJoc. llov. i. 213; 
Materials^ ii. 435, vii. 4ol) ; he called him- 
wlf, evon when archbishop, * Thomas of 
I/mdnn' (IJouxD, Gfoffroy tie MamleviUo, 

S-'iTo; Athentpum, 17 Nov. l^'04; Ancittit 
W*,.\. 491 3, 1'ublic Record Office ). When 
Ipn years old he was sent to school at Merton 
^f»ry (Surrey) ; later he attended a school in 
London, and further studied at l*aris, whence 
hpw-tumed in his twenty-second year. His 
fcther being now in straitened circumstances, 
Tlioinas earned his living for a short time as 
'notary ' to Richer de Laigle, a young knight 
*ho«.» fiports he had shared in his schoolboy 
«y*, and for a somewhat longer period as 
dwk and accountant to a kinsman, Osbi^rn 
yitdeniers, who seems to have betm at this , 
I'ffle Rherift* of London. Thomas was taktm 
wto the household and the innermost coim- 
»ls of Archbishop Theobald fq. v.] of Can- 
terbury licfore November 1143, when he 
?^ompanied the primate to Home. Twice , 
U the next five years the jealousy of Ilogi»r 
"f I*ont TEveque [q. v.] drove him tem- 
porarily away from Theobald's house ; once 
"C vnluntarily nuitted it to spend a year in 
^ndying canon law at Bologna and Auxerre. 
P* accompanied ITieobald on his hazardous 
journey to the council of Reims in 114H; 

Pjpugh only in minor orders, Thomas had 
"Wd the livinirs of St. Mary-le-Strand (Lon- 


don) and Otford (Kent) since 1113. lie 
bi^came a prebendary of St. Paul^, and a 1.^0 
of Lincoln, before the end of 11. '>4, when 
Theobald ordained him deacon and aj)- 
pointed him archdeacon of Canterbury. 
Soon afterwards he was made provost of 
Beverley, and, according to one account, 
chamberlain to Henry II. Karly in 1155 
Henry made him chancellor of Kn-,'land. 

Thomas was afterwards reproached with 
having bought this appointment; but the 
reproach is pointless, for the ])urchase of 
state offices was a recognised practice of 
the time— a practice, however, which in the 
case of that particular office was made less 
easy for the future by the new character 
which the chancellorship accjuired in the 
hands of Thomas himself. An extraordi- 
nary intimacy sprang up between him and 
his sovereign. Folk said that tlu-y had * but 
one heart and one mind ; ' that Thomas was 
next to the king in dignity, not (mly in 
lOngland, but also in Henry's continent al"" 
dominions; that Henry was guideil by him 
as by a *mast«"r,' and that thf chancellor 
was the originator of all the reform* intro- 
duced by the voung king. Thr evidence is 
too scanty eitlier to confirm or to confute 
this view of Thomas's influence; but what 
little evidence there is indicati'> rather that 
Henry's policy was his own, and that 
Thomas was simply the chief in«itrumeut 
in its execution — an instrument «)f such ex- 
ceptionally perfect and A-ari'-d eapabilities 
that those who watched its operations well- 
nigh lost sight of the hand by wliich it was 
directed. Geryjfiie savs that in 1 lot 5 Henry 
'r» died on the great help giv»*n him by his 
chancelh^r.' in subduing a reb»llion in 
Anjou ; but the nature n\' this help is un- 
known. In that year Thoma< acted as 
justice itinerant in three count i".« (Ptjie 
lloll, 2 Hen. II, pp. ir, 2(J. (5.-., Tit J). In 
May 1157 he took a prominent p.irt in tho 
trial of the 'Battle Abbev case' T-s^Je 
IIii..\KY, d. 11(511]; his atiitu«le in it is, 
however, not clear enough to justify the 
efforts made by some of his uiudern bio- 
graphers to evolve from it a th»'>rv of his 
ecclesiastical policy at this time. In the 
spring of 115rt he went as ambassador to 
!• ranee to propose a marriage bet wii-n 1 1 enry's 
eldest son Fse*' Hknry, 1 155-1 1^3] and a 
daughter of l^)uis VII. The splendour of 
his train on this occiu^ion was more than 
regal. * If this is the English chancellor/ 
said Louis and his people, 'what must not 
the king be ! ' and they readily agreed to 
his ])ropo8als. Later in the year he obtained 
Louis*s sanction for Henry's designs upon 
Brittany; and he also acted again as justice 





itinerant in England {Pipe lioll, 4 lien. II, 
p. 114). John of Salisbury seems to imply 
{PolycraticuSf 1. viii. c. 24) that Henry's 
expedition against Toulouse in 1159 was 
thought to have been instigated by the 
chancellor. The taxes imposed to defray its 
costs were so arranged that a dispro|M)r- 
tionately heavy share fell on the church ; 
and that Thomas was somehow concerned 
in this taxation is certain. One of his 
enemies at a later time said that, * having 
in his hand the sword of the state, he 
plunged it into the bosom of the church, 
his mother, when he robbed her of so many 
thousands for the war of Toulouse;' while 
John of Salisbury declared that Thomas 
was in this matter only * a minister of 
iniquitv,' yielding, under compulsion, to the 
will of the king. In the war itself the 
deacon-chancellor figured prominently, at 
the head of a troop of picked knights, fore- 
most in every fight. When Louis VII 
came to relieve Toulouse, Thomas vainly 
urge<l Henry to continue the siege. "When 
all the great barons refused the task of se- 
curing the conuuered territory after Henry's 
withdrawal, Ihomas and the constable, 
Ilenry of Essex, undertook it, and performed 
it with signal success. Thomas afterwards 
defended the Norman border for some 
months with troops whom he paid at his 
own cost and commanded in person ; he 
led several forays into France, and once 
unhorsed a famous French knight in single 
combat. He negotiated the treaty between 
Henry and Louis in Mav 11(>0. Soon after- 
wards he incurred Henry's wrath by oppos- 
ing, though without success, the grant of a 
papal dispensation for the marriage of 
Mary, countess of Boulogne and abbess of 

In May 1162 Thomas returned to Eng- 
land, bringing with him tlie king's eldest son, 
of whom he had for some time past had 
the entire charge, and whose recognition as 
heir to the crown he had undertaken to pro- 
cure from the barons. In this he succeeded. 
Just before leaving Normandy he had 
learned the king's intention of raising him 
to the see of Canterbury', vacant since April 
1161. The late archbishop, Theobald, had 
' hoped and prayed ' for Thomas as his suc- 
cessor (Jony OF Salisbury, EntheticiiSy 11. 
1293-6) ; but Thomas shrank from accepting 
the ofHce, avowedly because he knew that 
Henry's ecclesiastical policy would clash 
with his own ideas of an archbishop's duty, 
and that the apiiointment must lead to a 
severance of their friendship, A cardinal 
who was present, however, l>ade him take 
the risk, and he consented. The Canter- 

bury chapter, urged by the justiciar 
king's name, elected Thomas arch) 
on 23 May the election was rati 
AVestminster by the bishops and cl 
the province ; on Saturday, 2 June, 
ordained priest in Canterbury Cathe 
Hishop Walter of Rochester, and nt 
he was consecrated by the bishop c 
Chester [see Hexry of Blois]. j 
king's request the pope allowed him 
for his pallium instead of fet<;hing it 
son ; he received it on 10 Aug. Hei 
also procured a dispensation for hit 
tain the seals, but he refused to do c 
kept, however, the archdeaconry of 
bury till he was forced by the king t' 
it in January 1163. Possibly his 
mav have been to effect in the archie 
administration some reforms whicl 
bald had desired, but had been un 
accomplish in the absence of the arch 
Thomas himself (3/«^erta/^, v. 9, 10] 
The life of the deacon-chancello] 
ever unclerical, had always been bol 
and pure ; and he was no sooner con^ 
than he became one of the most » 
devout and studious, as well as indi 
of prelates. He seems to have ta 
Anselm [q. v.] for his model ; and li 
an unsuccessful request for Ansebn's 
sation to Alexander III at the coi 
Tours, May 1163. At a council at 
stock on 23 July he opposed a 
mooted by the king for transferrir 
the sheriffs' pockets to the royal tn 
certain * aid ' which those officers cust 
received from their respective shii 
reward for their administrative wor 
primate's opposition was based < 
grounds: (1) the sheriffs had a claii 
money by long prescription, and as 
it by their services to the peoplt 
shire; (2) the enrolment of the( 
among the kind's dues would c 
written record which would make tb 
ment to him binding on all genera 
come, whereas the existing arrangen 
merely one of custom, between peo 
sheriffs, with which neither the king 
law had anything to do. Thomas thuf 
to have stood forth as the champiox 
tice, first in behalf of the sheriffs, and { 
in behalf of the whole English 
If the case was really as it is reprwsc 
contemporary writers, Thomas wai 
but the matter is obscure, and all i 
be said of it with certainty is that 
first case of any opposition to the kii 
in the matter of taxation which is i 
in our national history/ the opposil 
made, and apparently with entire 

y /- f 




IBS Becket (Materia/s, i. 12,ii. 373- 
23-4 ; Gakxikk, p. 30; Kobertson, 
-9; MORRISL 2n(\ ed. pp. lll>-13; 
i. 462-3 ; IJound, Feudal Enylandj 
-1. The version of Thomas Saga 
^itor, i. 139-41, ii. pref. pp. cvii- 
Git variance with all extant contem- 

r's irritation was increased by the 
op*s efforts to reclaim all alienated 
' of his see, even from the crown 
y his prohibition of an uncanonical 
)* which the king's brother, AVilliam 
u, desired to contract with the 
I Counters of Warenne ; by his ex- 
ication of a tenaut-in-chief of the 
jrithout the previous notice to the 
ich was usual in such cases; and, 
11, by his successful opposition to 
i^avours made by the King or his 
3, in several cases durinpf the sum- 
163, to assert the royal jurisdiction 
linous clerks. At last Ilonry called 
) bishops in a body at Westminster, 
ct., to confirm * his grandfathers 
'particularly two which he si^cified, 
e respective shares to be taken by 
nd state in dealing with criminous 
All the bishops answered that they 
Tee to the customs only * saving our 
id the primate absolutely refused to 
the two which Henry had specially 
*d. From this determination Thomas 
to be moved either by the king's 
hich the latter showed by depriving 
of some castles which he had held 
ellpr"iind still retained, and next of 
f9'of the boy Henry, or by his per- 
at a personal interview near North- 
In December, however, the arch- 
resistance was overcome by three 
Krho professed to have been sent for 
poae by the pope; Alexander, ac- 
:o their story, having been assured 
7 that the question at issue was 
06 of words. On this Thomas gave 
ing in private a verbal promise to 
cuatoms ' loyally and in good faith.' 
m he was required to repeat this 
jublicly, before a council summoned 
for that intent at Clarendon on 
LI 64, he saw that he had been de- 
md it was only after three days' 
e that I(b submitted, saying, if we 
eve ^(ffbert Foliot [q. v.l * It is my 
ill that I forswear myself ; I must 
I risk of penury now, and do penance 
ds as best I can.' By * my lord' he 
'meant the pope, at whose supposed 
d he was giving a promise which he 
rould be obliged to break. Henry 

now ordered the 'customs' to be drawn up 
in writing. Sixteen * constitutions,' called 
the constitutions of Clarendon, were ac- 
cordingly produced. Thomas declared them 
all contrary X^y the- canon law, and refused 
to seal them. Some unsuccessful negotia- 
tions followed, and twice he attempted to « 

leave England secretly. 

Thomas was next summoned to appear 
before the king's court on 14 Sept., to answer 
a claim of John the Marshal [see Marshal, 
John, d. 11(54.^] touching a manor of the 
metropolitan see. He excused himself on 
the plea of sickness, and further urged that 
the suit ought to be decided in his own 
court, whence John had procured its removal 
by perjury. Henry rejected both pleas, and 
ordered the suit to be tried before a great 
council at Northampton on Tuesday, 6 Oct. 
Nothing was actually done till the 8th; then 
the council was made to give judgment, not 
on John's claim, but upon I'homas's alleged 
contempt of court in failing to appear on 
14 Sept. The usual sentence for contempt 
was forfeiture of movables ad wisericardiamf 
commuted for a sum which varied in diti'erent 
districts, and which in Kent was 40#. The 
archbishop had to pay 600/. Henry next 
demanded 300/., which he said Thomas owed 
him for arrears of the ferm of Eve. The 
authorities say * Eye and Berkhamstead ; ' but 
the Pipe roll of Michaelmas 1 163 (U Hen. II, 

5. 24) records the archbishop as * quit ' of all 
ues from the honour of Berkhamstead, both 
for that year and for all previous years. For 
Eye there are, during Becket's tenure of 
it, no notices of any payment save one of 
150/. 3^. 7rf., recorded in the same Pipe roll 
(p. 34) as having been made * without ren- 
dering an account for it.' Thomas declared 
that he had spent far more than 300/. in re- 
pairing the Tower of London and other royal 
palaces. Tliis was probabf^f i^nie ; but as he 
had no formal warrant to sliowHor^his ejp- . 

Sloyment of the money, Ilenr^- caaffl^^d 
id compi^l him to give security for its re- 
payment. Next day Henrj' demanded of 
him a further sum of 500/. (or, according to 
another account, two sums of five liundred 
marks each), being a loan made by the king 
to the chancellor during the war of Toulouse. . 
Thomas said this money had been given, not 
lent ; but again he had to find sureties for 
its repa}Tnent. He was then bidden to 
render up an account of all the revenues of 
vacant sees, abbeys, and honours which had 
passed through his hands as chancellor. He 
asked for a day's delay. On the morrow Henry 
demanded, no longer a statement of accounts, 
but a definite sum, variously stated at thirty 
thousand marks, thirty thousand pounds, and 





f ort^-four thousand marks. Thomas's protest 
against the injustice of this demandi his offer 
01 two thousand marks as a compromise, and 
his plea that at his consideration ho had been 
released hy the child Henry and the jus- 
ticiars, in the king's name, from all secular 
^^obligations, were successively rejected. A 
^ rS^'^ days* adjournment followed, owing to 
*^V>uuday and the illness of the primate. On 


self unreservedly to the king's will. Thomas 
forbade tliem to take part in any further 
proceedings agaiiii>t him, their father and 
metropolitan, and warned them that if they 
did so he api)eal'jd against them to the pope. 
After celebrating the mass of St. Steplien, 

office. On 30 Nov. Thomas went to live in 
the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny (Burgundy). 
At Christmas Henry confiscated the property 
of his see, and banished all his relatives, 
friends, and sen-ants. The pope himself, an 
exile, driven from Home by the anti-pope, 
who was backed by the emperor, feared that 
any strong measures might provoke the Eng- 
lish king into joining this schismatic alliance. 

Tuesday morning. 13 Oct.,' all the bishops i It was therefore not till the spring of 110(5 
came to him, and begged him to submit him- that he gave Tliomas leave to take against 

llenr}' whatever steps he might choose. 
Thomas wrote to Henry two letters of re- 
monstrance which were not answered. He 
then, in a third letter, threatened him with 
excommunication, and prepared, by spending 
three nights (31 May to '2 June) in vigil 
with its significant introit, * I'rinces did sit i before three famous shrines at Soissons, ti> 
and speak against nie,' he rode to the castle ; fulfil his threat on Whit-Sunday, 12 June, 
and, followed only by two clerks, ent*Ted j at V6zelav; but hearing that Henrv wa* 
the council-hall, crt^ss in hand. It was usual ; dangerously ill, he contented himself with 
for the archbishop's cross to be borne before publicly repeating his threat, anathematizing 
him by an attendant, and in thus holding it the royal customs, and excommunioat ini;^ 
in his own hands Tlionms was thought to seven of Henry's counsellors. Henry's an- 
be lifting up the svmbol of his spiritual ; nouncement in September of his resolve to 
authority in declared rivalrv with the tem- expel all Cistercians from his dominions if 


porul authority of the king. When Henry, 
who was in another room, heard of tliese 
proceedings, he sent down a message to the 

\ exp 
the order continued to shelter Tliomas com- 
pelled the latter to remove (Xovemljer) 
from Pontigny to Ste. Colombo at Sens, a 

the council's judgment as to the chah<jepy 

primate, bidding him withdraw his threat of /Benedictine abbey under the special pro- 
appeal against the bishops, and suli^iit toy tect ion of the French king. Henrj* himself 

now asked the pope to send legates to settle 

accounts. On Tliomas's refusal the whole j the dispute. This Alexander could not do 
council, now gathered in the king's chamber, v^'ithout overriding a commission as legate 
was bidden to pass sentence on him as a for Kngland which he had given to Thomas 

traitor; but the bishops obtained leave to 
appeal to liomo against him instead. The 
justiciar was sent down to deliver the sen- 
tence of the lay barons. Thomas checked 
him at the outset by u])pealing to the pope, 
nnd with uplifted cro.<s made his way through 
the mob of angry court iers, some of whose 
insults he did not scruple to return, out of 
the castle. As Henry refused to answer till 
the morrow his request for a safe-conduct 
out of England, he lied secretly in the night. 
ft On 1* Nov. Thomas sailed in disguise 

kt Kaster (24 April ll<i()). His envoys were 
wierefore empowered merely to act as arbi- 
trators ; and neither party in the case 'would 
submit to their arbitration. Negotiation* 
dragged on till (i Jan. 1169, when Thomas 
suddenly presented himself before the two 
kings in conf<>rt.>nce at Montmirail,and, fall- 
ing at Henry's feet, oftered to be reconciled 
to him at his discretion ; but he added, 
* saving God's Jionour and my order,' i.e. he 
refused toi dedge himself to acceptance of 
th(j cil^(oinl, Rlld Henry on this drove him 
from Sandwich ; next morning he landed in : angrily away. He excommunicated two of 
Flanders ; a fortnight later he was welcomed ■ his disobedient suffragans and eight usurpers 
at Soissons by Louis of France; and a wt»ek : ofchurchproiH?rty on Palm Sunday, 13 April, 
lat^ir still he laid at the feet of Alexander III, I at Clairvaux, and six other persons on 

at Sens, first the constitutions of Clarendon, 
on which he besought the pope's judgment, 
and next his own pontifical ring, in token 
of his desire to relincjuish an ofiice into which 
he had been intruded by the royal power, 
and in which he con>idered himself to have 
failed. Alexander pronounced six of the 
constitutions individually * tolerable,' but 
condemned them as a whole, and he bade 
the archbishop take back his ring and his 

Ascension day, 2f) May. He also prfxrlaimed 
that if Ilenrj* did not amend before '2 Feb. 
1 1 70, England should then be placed under 
interdict. v • 

At last a project was devised for effecting 
a ])ersonal reconciliation between Thomas 
and Henry without any mention of the 
customs. Thomas, somewhat unwillingly, 
yielded to this scheme for the sake of get- 
ting back to England. Henry's object ia 




entertaining it seems to have been merely to 
gain time. On 18 Nov. 1169, at Montmartre, 
be received a petition from Thomas, re<^uest- 
ing that the archbishop himself and his ad- 
herents might be reinstated in the king's 
favour and in the enjoyment of their rights 
and their property. To this petition he gave 
a verbal assent. Thomas and the pope vainly 
insisted on his confirming it by giving to the 
archbishop the kiss of peace, and early in 1170 
they learned that he was planning to have 
his eldest son crowned by the archbishop of 
York, Thomases old rival, Koger of Pont 
TEveque. This was a clear proof that Henry 

had no real intention of lotting the arch- jbring with him, Thomas, on 29 Nov., sent 
bishop of Canterbury return home, and alsb^^ -- . - - . , . ^- 

a flagrant insult both to him and to his see, 
to which alone, save in case of absolute ne- 
cessity, the right of crowning a king of 
England was held to appertain. The corona- 
tion was performed by Roger on 14 June,, 


vious day. Henry, however, seems to have 
felt that he had g6ne too far, for he hurried 
back to France, and met Thomas at Fr^teval 
on 22 July. Not a word passed between 
them about the customs ; the king promised 
complete restitution to the archbishop and 
his friends, and, after a long orgumeil^^, de- 
clared himself willing * to bo guided by the 

that they should go to England together, 
and there exchange the kiss of peace ; but 
when the appointed time came for their 
voyage he sent word that he was unavoid- 
ably detained, and requested Thomas to go 
under the escort of John of Oxford [q. \.\ 
who had been one of his most active and 
unscrupulous opponents. 

Exasperated by these delays and shifts, 
and still more by tidings of a plot which 
was hatching between Koger of York, the 
bishops of London and Salisbury, and the 
sheriff of Kent, to intercept him on his land- 
ing, and seize any papal letters that he might 

over to England the pope's letters of 10 Sept., 
ond they were delivered next day to Itoger 
and the two bishops who were at Canterbury 
with him. On that day, 30 Nov., Tliomas 
sailed from Wissant ; on 1 Dec. he landed 
at Sandwich, and proceeded, amid much 

althoughprohibitionsof it from both Thomas^ popular rejoicing, to Canterbury. Here he 
and Alexander had reached him on the pre- was met by a demand from some of the king's 

officers for the immediate and unconditional 
absolution of the suspended bishops. Thomas, 
expecting that by the amended papal letters. 

which he knew to be on the way, he would 
be empowered to deal at his own discretion 
with all except York, offered to absolve Lon- 
don and Salisburv if thev would in his 
presence swear to obey the pope's orders. 

archbishop's counsel' as to the amends due j They refused, and, with Roger, went over 
to the see of Canterbury for the violation of sea to complain to the king. 

its rights in the matter of the coronation. 
The plea which he put forth in his own 
behalf on this last point was certainly irrele- 
vant ; it consisted in his possession of a papa} 
brief authorising him, indeed, to have iiifi^ 
son crowned by any bishop whom he might' 

Thomas set out for the court of the younger 
Henry at Woodstock or Winchester, but was 
stopped in London by an order, in the boy's 
name, to * go and perform hi.s sacred ministry 
at Canterbury.' He went back to find the 
long-promised restoration of his propertv ap- 

choose, but only during the vacancy of Can- parently as far off as ever, and the Do Broc 
terbury, the brief having been granted foill family, one of whom had had the custody and 
that special purpose in 1 161-2, during^the the enjoyment of the arc hi episcopal estates 

inter\'al between Theobald's death and Tho- 
mas's appointment. Still worse than the 
king's offence was that of lloger of York, 
who had crowned the boy in the teeth of a 
direct prohibition from the pope as well as 
from the primate of all England. The pope's 
wrath was increased by a report that a 
very offensive change had been made in the 
coronation oath. On 16 Sept. he therefore 
suspended and censured in the severest terms 
Roger himself and all the bishops who had 
assisted him in the ceremonv. These letters 
of suspension were sent to 'thomas for trans- 
mission to England. Thomas, however, 
having learned that the report as to the oath 
was false, thought them too severe, and asked 
Alexander to soften their terms. IVI ean while 
two more meetings took place between the 
archbishop and the king. Henry proposed 

for many years past, occupying his castle of 
Saltwood, and turning it into a den of thieves. 
On Christmas day he again publicly excom- 
municated these robbers. In the afternoon 
of Tuesday, 29 Dec, he was visited bv four 
knights, Hugh de Morville (^/. 1204) fq. v.], 
William de Tracy fq. v."*, Reginald Fitzurse 
[q. v.], and Richard le iBreton, who, in the 
name of the elder king, from whose court 
they had come, again bade him absolve the 
bishops. He repeated his former answer to 
this demand, saying he could not go beyond 
the pope's instructions. A violent alterca- 
tion ended in the withdrawal of the knights, 
to return at the head of an armed force sup- 
plied by the De Brocs. The archbishop's 
attendants dragged him into the church, and. 
then, all save three, hid themselves in its 
furthest and darkest recesses, as they heard 




armed men approachinf^ the door which led 
from the cloister into the north transept, 
and which Thomas forhade them to fasten. 

* God's house must be closed against no man/ 
he said. He was going up the 8te])s into 
the choir wlieu the four Knights, with a 
clerk named Hugh of Ilorsea, burst into the 
transept. To the cry * Where is the traitor, 
Thomas Ht»cket 't ' he returned no answer ; 
but at the q uest ion, * Where is the archbishop 't ' 
he stepped down again into the transept, 
saying, * Here I am, not traitor, but arch- 
bishop and priest of God; what seek ye?' 

* Your death — hence, traitorl' * I am no 
traitor, and I will not stir hcmce. Wretch I' 
(this to l^itzurse, who had struck off the 
archbishop's cap with his sword) * Slay me 
here if you will, but if you touch any of my 
people you are accursed.' They again bade 
him absolve the bishops; he rt»tunied the 
same answer as before. They tried to drag ■ 
him out of the church ; but he and Edward | 
Grim U\. v.l, now his sole remaining com- 
panion, were more than a match for the tive, 
hampered though Grim was by the fact that 
he *Dore the cross' ( 77/omax Saga, i. 541). 
In the struggle fierce words broke from the 
archbishop; but when his as.sailants drew 
their swords to slay him where lie stood, he 
covered his eyes witli his hands, saying, * To 
God and tlie blessed Mary, to the patron 
saints of this church, and to St. Denys, I 
commend mvself and the church's cause,' 
and with bowed head await(^d their blows. 
The fir.«t blow made a gash in the crown of 
his head, and then fell sideways cm his left 
shoulder, being intercepted by the uplifted 
arm of Grim. Probably this wound com- 
pelled Grim to relinquish the archbishop's 
cross, for it is expressly stated in a con- 
temporary letter that Thomas himself had 
the cross in his hands when he was smitten 
to death {MatcrialSy vii. 431). He received 
another blow on the head, with the words, 

* I^rd, into thy hands I commend my spirit ;* 
at a third he fell on his knees, and then, 
turning towards the altar of St. Benedict 
on his right hand, and murmuring * For the 
name of Jesus and for the defence of the 
church I am ready to embrace death,' dropped 
face downwards at full length on the floor. 
One more sword-stroke completed the seve- 
rance of the tonsured crown from the skull. 
' Let us begone,' cried Hugh of Horsea, 
scattering the brains on the pavement ; * this 
man vf'iW ri^e up no more.' 

' The corpse was buriwl nf»xt day in the 
crypt without any religious service, as none 
could be held in the desecrated church till 
it was formally reconciled. But the grave 
immediately became a place of pilgrimage 

and a scene of visions and miracles, and the 
vox populi clamoured for the canonisation 
which was pronounced by the pope on 21 Feb. 
1173. On 12 July 1174 the king did public 
penance at the martyr's tomb. In that year 
the choir of Canterbury Cathedral was burnt 
doT^n. When its rebuUding was completed 
the body of St. Thomas was translated, on 
7 July 1220, to a shrine in the Trinity chapel, 
behind the high altar. Thenceforth the 
* Canterbury pilgrimage' became the most 
popular in Christendom ; jewels and treasures 
were heaped on the shrine, till in September 
1538 (Stowe, Annals ad ann.) it was de- 
stroyed (as were, in the same year, all the 
shrines in England save one) bv order of 
Thomas Cromwell (1485 .^-1540) Jq. v._;, act- 
ing as vicar-general for Henry VIIl. It was 
afterwards reported that Henry had, on 
24 April 1530, caused the martyr to be sum- 
moned to take his trial for high treason, and 
that on 1 1 June 1538 the trial had been held, 
the accused condemned as contumacious, and 
his body ordered to }>e disinterred and burnt 
(W ILK INS, Concilia f iii. 8:35- 0, 841 ; Letters 
a7id Papers of Henry VIII, xiii. pt. ii. p. 
49) ; but the tale is of doubtful authenticity. 
Whether the contents of the shrine were 
really burnt has been much questioned, and 
in January 1888 they were for a moment 
thought to have been discovered buried in 
the cryi)t. Further investigation, however, 
showed that the bones then found could not be 
those of St. Thomas, and that the evidence 
for the burning of the latter far outweighs 
that which has been adduced for their burial. 
< On 10 Nov. 1538 Henry issued a pro- 
clamation declaring that the death of Thomas 
was * untruly called martyrdom;' that he 
had been canonised by * the bishop of Home' 
merely * because he had been a champion to 
maintain his usurped authority, and a bearer 
of the iniquity of the clergy; ' and that * there 
appearcth nothing in his life and exterior 
conversation whereby he should be called a 
saint, but rather esteemed to have been a 
rebel and traitor to his prince ;' wherefore 
he was in future to be called no more St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, * but Bishop Becket ; ' 
all images and pictures of him were to be 
'put down,' and all mention of him in calendar 
and service book to bo erased f Bubnet, Hist. 
Reformation^ Becords^ pt. iii. bk. iii. No. 62). 
In conse(}uencc of this, mediaeval representa- 
tions and direct memorials of the most famous 
of English saints arc extremely rare in his 
own land. Our one contemporary portrait 
of Idm is the flgure on his archiepiscopal 
seal ; it agrees with the descriptions ffiYcii 
by his biographers of his tall slender form, 
dignified faring, and handsome features, at 




one*; strongly murkod and refined. A mosaic 
in tbe cathedral of Monreale (Sicily), though 
obviously convent ionul in general treatment, 
may very likely be correct in its colouring 
of dark gn»y eyes, dark brown beard, and 
fiomewhat lighter (potisibly grizzled) hair, for 
it is part of a series of decorations completed 
wit Inn twenty years of Thomas's death, under 
the superintendence of King William the 
Good, whose queen, married in 1177, was a 
daughter of Henry II. A sculptured repre- 
t<entution of the martyrdom, over the south 
door of Bayeux Cathedral, dates from the 
game period. 

In Kngland the surviving memorials of 
the martyr are mostly, from the nature of 
the case, onlv rt'cognisablo as such when 
their historv is known. One of the most 
interesting is St.Thoma.s's Hospital in South- 
wark. Tlie present hos])ital is historically 
identical with one established by the citizens 
of London in ITm:?, in the place of an Augujj- 
tiniun house, devoted to the like charitable 
work, which they had bought of the king on 
its dissolution in lo.'^H. The new foundation 
was for a time called *tho king's hospital;' 
but it soon resumed a part, at least, of the 
title of its Augustinian predecessor, which 
had been founded on the same site in 1228, 
underthe invocation of S.Thomas the Martyr, 
and whose first beginnings twenty-one years 
earlier still, on another site, may possibly 
have been connected with a yet older * Xcnth- 
dochium'* begun, * in honour of God and the 
lilessed martyr Thomas, at Southwark in 
London,' within seventeen years of his death 
(Tasxer, yot. Man., Surrey, xx. 2 ; Ann, 
Monast. iii. 451, 4.>7 ; Materials, y\\. 579- 
580). Another hospital, establishecl by 
Thomas's own sister on the site of the 
Beckets' old home in Cheapside, and served 
by canons who were also knights, of the 
order of St. Thomas of Acre, was purchased, 
on its dissolution in 15«i8, by the Mercers* 
Company, and the birthplace of the saint is 
now marked by their hall and chapel (Monast. 
Angl. vi. pt. 'ii. pp. 645-7 ; Watnbt, St. 
Thomas o/AtJon^ pp. 118-40). Many of our 
older churches now nominally dedicated to 
St. Thomas the Apostle are m reality dedi- 
cated to St. Thomas of Canterbury, the title 
of the patron saint having 1)een merely 
changed to evade Henry VIIFs proclamation. 
One indirect commemoration of St. Thomas, 
which did not fall within the terms, of the 

S reclamation, still holds its place in thecalen^ 
ar and services of the English as well as 
of the Roman church. In his time, and for 
a century and a half aft;er him, the festival 
of the Holy Trinity was kept on different days 
in different parts of Christendom. Thomas, 

immediately after his consecration, ordered 
that it should thenceforth be kept in England 
on that day, the first Sunday after Pentecost, 
and in l.'^33 this English usage was adopted 
throughout the whole western church by 
order of Pope John XXII. 

One of the most singular features in what 
may be called the posthumous history of 
Thomas Becket is the interest which he in- 
spired at the farthest end of Christendom. 
The contemporary historian of the Latin 
kingdom of Jerusalem, William of Tyre, 
breaks the thread of his narrative of the wars 
of King Amalric and Saladin to wind up the 
story of the yeor 1 170 with a short account of 
the new English martyr ( W. Tyk. 1. xx. c. 21 ). 
The order of knights of St. Thomas (see above) 
sprang up in Palestine very soon after the 
martyrs death. Possibly it may have ori- 
ginated in the penance imposed on his mur- 
derers, of serving for fourteen years under 
the Templars in Holy Tjand ; possibly in that 
imposed on Henry II, of maintaining, in 
defence of the same land, five hundred knights 
for a year at his own expense. The later 
tradition which ascribed its foundation to 
Uichard I (Sti'bbs, pref. to It in. Ricardi, 
vol. i. pp. cxii-xiii) se<jms to have grown up 
out of the fact that Hubert Walter Tq. y.j 
* constituted the order of canons' (or knights, 
for they were both) 'at St. Thomas the 
Martyr in Aeon' (Ann. Monast. iii. 126), 
i.e. established them in achapel which liichard 
had ' ordered to be built * there in 1 192 (Matt. 
Paris, Ilist. Ant/i. ii. 38), and which itself 
seems to have been merely an enlargement 
or restoration of one founded two years 
eorlier, under the same invocation, by Wil- 
liam, a chaplain of Ualph de Diceto'[q. v.] 
(R. DiCETO, i. 80-1). It is further possible 
that the origin of this order may have been 
in some way connected with that of the 
famous legend which represents the mother 
of Thomas as a Saracen emir's daughter, con- 
verted to Christianity by love of Gilbert 
Ik>cket, who, when a pilgrim in Holy Land, 
had become her father s captive, and whom, 
on his escape, she followed across land and 
sea till she found him in London and became 
his wife. This tale in Latin, followed by the 
heading and first sentence of the same story 
in French, occurs amonsf the miscellaneous 
contents of Harleian MS. 978 (fols. 114 6- 
IU\). The portion of the manuscript in which 
these two items are included dates from 1204 
to 1270 (KiNGSFORD, *$r/wy 0/ Ijetces, introd. 
pp. xi, xvi-xvii) ; and the words with which 
the story opens in the Latin version — 'Nunc 
autem ut paulo altius sermonem historiie 
repetamus * — as they refer to nothing in the 
preceding pages, indicate that this was not 




its first appearance in writing, but that it 
was an extract copied out of some previously 
existing work. Such a legend is pernaps more 
likely to have l)een invented in Palestine than 
in Europe. Its invention at a date so near 
the lifetime of its subject, and its un- 
questioned acceptance during more than five 
hundred years, are curious tokens of the extent 
to which the imaginations of men, alike in 
east and west, were fired bv the character and 
career of Tliomas of London. 

[The primnry Latin nut liori ties for the life 
of Thomas are the biographies by William of 
Canterbury, John of Salisbury, Alan of Tewkes- 
bury, Edward Grim, William FitzStephen, Her- 
bert of Bosham, and two anonymous writers 
(one of whom was formerly, but without suffi- 
cient evidence, called Roger of Pontigny, while 
the other was styled Anonjmus Larobethensis), 
several shorter pieces of varioust kinds, and a 
vast coUtH!tion of letters; all these have been 
published, and the letters arranged in chrono- 
logical order, by the Rev. J. C. Robertson and 
Dr. J. B. Sheppard, in seven volumes of Ma- 
terials for the History of ArehbiMhop Bocket 
(Rolls Ser.), which have entirely bupersuded the 
edition of l)r. J. A. Giles (S. Thomas Cantua- 
riensis, 8 vols. 1845). The Vie do St. Thomas, 
in French verse, by Gamier de Pont Sainte- 
Maxenco (ed. C. Hippeau), is also contemporary. 
The Icelandic Thomas Saga Erkibjskups is a 
fourteenth-century compilation based on earlier 
materials, especially on two twelfth-conturylives, 
now lost, by Benedict of Peterborough and 
Robert of Cricklade. On the authors, dates of 
composition, and value of all these, see the pre- 
faces of Canon Robertson to his Materials, vols. 
i-iv., that, of Mr. K. Mjignusson to his edition of 
Thomas Sjiffa (Rolls iSer.), vol. ii., and Mr. Rad- 
ford's ap])endix to his Thomas of London (sec 
below). Gervase of Canterbury and Ralph de 
Dicoto (Rolls Ser.) were also contcmporariosi, 
and supply a few detiils and dates. The later 
literature of the subject is overwhelming in 
quantity, but most of it is of little historical 
worth. A composite biography of St. Thomas, 
made up of extracts from four of the earlier 
lives, was put together in 1198-9. This was 
eilited by Chri«»tian Wolf (Lnpus), printe<l at 
Brussels in 1(582. and reprinted in Robertson's 
Materials, vol. iv. It is usually called the 
Second Quadrilogus. The First Quadrilogus — 
so calle<l because first printed — seems to have 
been compiled in the thirteenth century, and 
was printed in Paris in H9o. From this Dr. 
Giles reprinted in his second volume the legend 
of Thomas's • Saracen * mother. This legend 
occurs, in almost I'xactl}' the same words, in 
some late manuscripts of the life by Grim (from 
one of which it is printwl in Robertson's MHte- 
rials, vol. ii,). in the chronicle known as John 
Brompton's (Twvsden's Deeem Scriptores, Cf»l8. 
1052-6), and in Harleian MS. 978. of whichMr. 
C. L. Kingsford has given a full account in the 

introduction to his edition of the Song of Lewes 
^Clarendon Press Ser. 1890). The modem works 
dealing with Thomas's life as a whole are 
F. J. Buss's Der heilige Thomas, 1856 ; J. Mor- 
ris's Life and Martyrdom of St. Thomas Becket, 
1859 ; 2nd edit, much enlarged, 1885 ; J. C. 
Robertson's Becket, a Biography, 1859 ; Hooka 
Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. ii. 1862 ; R. A. 
Thompsons Thomas Becket, Martyr Patriot, 
1889. Of these Canon Morris's book, in its 
later form, is by far the best. The history of 
Thomas of London before his Consecration has 
been worked out by the Rev. L. B. Ra<lford (Cam- 
bridge Historical Essajs, No. vii., Prince Con- 
sort Dissertation, 1894). The fourth volume of 
R. U. Fronde's Remains, 1839, contains a His- 
tory of the Contest between Thomas Becket and 
Henry II, carefully compiled from such mate- 
rials as were then accessible, i.e. the Quadri- 
logus and a comparatively small collection of 
letters, of which Froude was the first to attempt 
a chronological arrangement and a systematic 
use. Thomas's last days, death, ami posthumous 
history are dealt with in Lean Stanley's Memo- 
rials of Canterbury Cathedral. There is an 
essay on St. Thomas of Canterbury and his 
Biographers in Freeman's Historical Essays, 
1st ser. Freeman's articles on the Life and 
Times of Thomas Becket, in the Contemporary 
Review, 1878, were called forth by those pub- 
lished under the same title by J. A. Froude 
in the Nineteenth Centuir, 1877. These Litter 
were reprinted, with mo<Iifi cations, in Fronde's 
Short Studies, vol. iv. On the constitutional and 
legal aspects of the strife between Thomas and 
Henry, see Stubbs's Constitutional Hist. vol. i.. 
Pollock and Maitland's Hist, of English Iaw, 
i. 430-40, and Professor Maitland's article on 
Henry II and the Criminous Clerks, in English 
Historical Review, April 1892. The contro- 
versy as to the fate of the relics is summed up 
in Canon Morris's pamphlet on the Relics of 
St. Thomas (Canterbury, 1888). An article 
by Mr. F. .T. Baigcnt, in the Journal of the 
Arch;oological Association, vol. x. (1855), on 
the Martyrdom of St. Thomas, &c., contains de- 
scriptions of some of the few remaining English 
mediaeval pictures of the saint, with reproduc- 
tions of two of them, and of his archiepiscopal 
seal, the latter from an engraving in J. G. 
Nichols's Pilgrimages of Erasmuss. Other pic- 
tures (thirteenth century) of Thomas are repro- 
duced in Archseologia, vol. xxiii., in the Rev. 
W. H. Hutton's St. Thomas of Canterbury (Eng- 
lish Hist, from Contemporary Writers, 1889). 
and in Green's Short History, illustrated edition, 
vol. i. The best, as well as the earliest, extant 
English representation of the martyrdom is an 
illumination in fol. 32 of Harleian MS. 5102 
(British Museum), a Psalter written in Nor- 
mandy and illustrated by an English hand early 
in the thirteenth centurv. The Monrealo mosaic 
is reproduced in Gravina's II Duomo di Mon- 
reale (Palermo. 1859), pi. 14 D. St. Thomas of 
Canterbury is the subject of a dramatic poem 

Thomas 173 


Ijr Aubrrj tia Vfrs, and of a drama {' Becki't') 
bj TeoDymn. The writer of this arlieU ia in- 
debted M Mr. T. A. Archer for aomo valuable 
^nggiMtiDiia.] K. N. 

' THOMAS, known as Thomas Beown 
(^. 1170), officer of the excUequer, wae an 
LDgliEhman by birth, wbo, like others of hia 
countrymen, took service under tliti Norman 
kings of Sicily. He is probably the ' maf^iater 
Thomas FapellBnus regia ' whose name occtirs 
in Sicilian charters dated 2o Aag. and 
34 Not. 1137. Richard FitiXijfel, in the 
' Dialorus da Scaccario,' says that Thomas 
had hpld a high place in the councils of the 
king of Sicily, until a king arose who knew 
him not, when, in response to repeated 
invitations from Henry II, Le returned 
to England. Thomas Brown is mentioned 
■ii * Ma)fi«ter Thomas,' and styled ' familiaris 
regis' in a number of charters of King 
Koger. In a Qreek charter his name appears 
as ' 6iDua rot' Spoivov.' lie returned to 
England after 1154, but before 1150 (Pipe 
Sell, R Henry II, p. 49). lie held an im- 
portant place in the English exchequer, and, 
owinf^ to the confidence in his loyalty and 
discrttinn, kept a special roll in which were 
recorded the king's doing». lie was almoner 
to Henry 1 1 in 1 166, and still held that post 
in 1174 {ib. 12 Henry II, p. 83, and 20 
Henij II, p. 181). His nephew, Italph.had 
« pension of 6f. from the kinf^ in 11&9 (ib. 
■5 Henry II, p. 49), and Thomas himself is 
neolioned as in receipt of a pension of 361. 
in 1168 and 1176. Madox conjeclured that 
the special duties assigned to Thomas were 
the twsis of the later office of chancellor of 
the eiebequer. 

[Dialogos do Scaccario, ap. Stubbs's Select 
Charters, pp. IT8, 1S9-90 ; IJiicumBnti per aor- 
vire atln itorin di Sicilia, 1st err. vol. i. fnso. i. 
jp. 12-13 {Soc. Siciliana per la Siorin pvtria) ; 
Tlrri's Sicilia Sncra ap. Or*Tiu»' ThesaHnia 
Anliq. et Hist. Siciliv, li. Reel. Me». Not. ii. 
i. 283 ; Pipe Rolls, 6 to 20 Henry II (Pipe Roll 
Society); Hadox's Hist. Exchequer, ii. 3TB; 
Boila Aeademia dei Lincei, 3rd ser, pt. ii. 
pp. 411-17, Rome, 1877-8; Freeman's His- 
torical Esaays, Scd ler. pp. 471-2; Stabbs'i 
Xeetorea on Medieval aad Modern Iliatory, 
Ua^i.] C. L. K. 

liagiographer, probably bom at Beverley, 
lecame a monk in the Cistercian abbey of 
Preamont in Hcardy. He wrote in prose and 
Terae an extant life of St. Margaret of Jeru- 
salem, his sister. Ala^portionofthiswork 
is printed from a copy of a Claln-aux manu- 
script by Manriquei in his ' Annates Cia- 
tcxciensu ' under 1174 and following years. 

[Hnnriquez's Ann ales Cint 
117*-fl2; LDjeer'a Hist. Pool, et Poem. roed. 
levi. pp. 43S~G ; Carolus da Visch's Biblialh. 
Pcripl. Ord. Cist. jjp. 311 soq., ed. Colon, 1056; 
Henriqufii's Phtenix Keviviscens. pp. 1S8 aeq. ; 
Wrights Biogr. Brit. Lit. ii. 313-1*.] 

A. M. C-«. 

THOMAS OP Ei.I (A 1170), historian, 
WHS a monk of Ely. Ills principul work 
was a history of Ely in three boohs. The 

first book carriBajTie history to the 
King Edgar, and the remaining' two dovra 
to 1170. The first book has l»en printed 
three times (Mabillow, Acta SS. ii. 738; 
BoLLASoiSTs' Acta SS. Jun. iv. 493 ; D, J, 
Stewakt, L&er EliensU). The second book 
ia printed in a shortened form by the Bol- 
landists from B Uouay manuscript (Jun. iv, 
523-^8), and by D. J. Stewart from an Ely 

College, Cambridge, MSS. O, 2. 1, o' 
41. Stewart erroneously printed as part of 
book ii. a prologue with the title 'Libellua 
quorundara insignium operum B. .Edel woldi 
Kpiscopi.' This ' libellus,' with what follows 
in O. 2. 41, and Vesp. A, xii. (printed by 
Gale, Hist. Brit. \. 403), appears to be the 
work of an unknown monk, writing at the 
order of Ilervey [q. v.l, bishop of Ely, whoso 
work formed the oasis of Thomas's hook ii, 
Thomas used also the work of a monk 
Itichard, then dead, for his account of Here- 
ward. This Itichord must be distinguished 
from Richard (rf. 1194?) [q. v.], prior of 
Ely, vchose work formed the basis of Tho- 
mas's book ili. The third book has been 
printed by Wharton (Aaglia Sacra, i. 678) 
from late versions. An earlier and longer 
form, enlarged with many additional char- 
ti:rs and miracles, is in the Trinity MS. 0.2. 
1 if. 107-7B. In thU mnnuscripC, as in 
Vesp. A. xix, the history of the bishops ends 
with the death of Nigel [q.v.], 11(59. In 
0.3,1, an account oftbe death of St. Thomas 
of Cantcrbuiy follows. Thomas appears 
(ch. xcvi. cf. O. 2. 1) to have taken up the 
work left unfiniBbcd by Itichard when he 
went to Rome (IIGI), and he refers to 
Richard tia ' dominus prior et monochui.' 

Thomasalsowrote an account of the second 
translation of St. Etheldreda in six chapters, 
which is interpolated between books i. and 
ii. of the history of Ely in Domitian A. XT. 
This appears as chapter vi. of book ii. in 
the Douay manuscript, and parts of it occur 
in chapters c.tliii-c.xliv. of the longer 
book ii, (D. J. Stewart). A third work bv 
Thomas, an account of St. Etheldredas 
miracles, is interpolated after the account of 
her translation in Domitian A. xv., and fol- 
lows book ii. in the Douay manuscript (Ada 




SS, Boil. Jun. iv. 539-70). The writer states 
that he, Thomas, was cure<l of a fever by 
the saint's intervention. The miracles are 
brought down to the time of Geoffrey Kidel 
(rf. 1189)[q.v.] 

[Wharton's Anglia Sacra, pp. xxxix-xlv, 593, 
678. Wharton prints also, under the title 
Thomse Historia Eliensis, an epitome based 
upon the work of Thomas. Gale (Hist. Brit, et 
Angl. vol. i.) prints as book ii. some extracts 
from the longer form of this book.] M. B. 

THOMAS (jfi, 1200 ?), romance-writer, 
is said by Wright to have lived in the 
reign of llichard I, but other authorities 
place him in the latter half of the thirteenth 
century. Nothing is known of him except 
that he produced versions of the romances 
of * King Horn ' and * Tristan.* M. Pauline 
Paris considers it certain that he was an 
Englishman, though he lived among French- 
speaking people and himself wrote in French, 
imitating the style of his contemporary 
romancist, Ad6nes le lloi {Hist, Lift, de 
France, xxii. 551-68). Thomas has some- 
times been credited with the original author- 
ship of the romance of King Elom. There 
is, however, little doubt that in its original 
form — in which it is not now known to be 
extant — Horn was written in English, and 
possibly the * parchemin ' to which Thomas 
refers was written in that language. 
Thomas himself evidently expanded his 
original by inserting the long speeches of 
Rimel and *many courtly details of feast 
and tournament ' (Ward, Cat. Romances^ 
i. 4o4), and by incorporating many purely 
French names. Thomas's version, in which 
his name frequently occurs, is extant in 
Douce MS. cxxxii. art. 1, HarleianMS. 627, 
and Cambridge Univ. MS. Ff. vi. 17. An 
analysis of the romance from the Cambridge 
manuscript was printed by Wright in the 
'Foreign Quarterly Review,* xvi. 133-41, 
and it was edited in IS-i^j for the Bannatyne 
Club by M. Francisque Michel. English ver- 
sions of the romance of * King Horn,* ex- 
panded perhaps from the same original that 
Thomas followed, are extant In Cambridge 
Univ. MS. Gg. 4, xxvii. 2, in Bodleian MS. 
Laud 108, and in Harleian MS. 2253. The 
Harleian manuscript was very inaccurately 
printed by Ritson in vol. ii. of his * Early 
English Romances,' 1 802, and has been fully 
described in Ward's * Catalogue of Romances,* 
i. 454 et sqq. The Cambridge manuscript 
was edited by J. R. Lumbv for the Early 
English Text Society in 186(). 

Thomas's other work, a version of the 
romance of * Tristan,' was printed by M. Fran- 
cisque Michel in 1835 irom an imperfect 
manuscript belonging to Douce, which by a 

special clause in his will was not bequeathed 
to the Bodleian Librarv (Michel, pref. 
p. Ivii). Wright {Biogr. Brit, Lit. ii. S42) 
says vaguely that a fragment of another 
manuscript from a private collection had 
been printed but not published. Like 
Thomas's version of * King Horn/ his * Tris- 
tan ' is written in French, but in * different 
measure and style.' Tliomas has been 
generally identified with the * Thomas von 
JBritanie,' whose French version of ' Tristan' 
Gottfried of Strasburg {Jl, 1310) profesaes 
to have translated into German. Thomas's 
version, which does not appear to have been of 
any great length, is said to have been the basis 
of most of the later * Tristan ' romances (for 
the various English versions of * Tristan,' 
which are not certainly known to have been 
connected with Thomas's works, see W^ard, 
Cat, Romancesy i. 356 et sqq. and Kolbixo, 
Die nordische und die enghsche Version der 
Tristan-Sage, Heilbronn, 2 Theile, 1878-83, 
esp. vol. i. pp. cxlii et sqq.) 

[Authorities cited ; Catalogues of the Douce, 
Harleian, and Cambridge University Libraries; 
Preface to Michel's Tristan Romances 1835, 
Warton's Hist, of English Poetry. 1840, i. 95- 
112 ; Wright's Biogr. Lit. ii. 840-4.] A. F. P. 

THOMAS Wallbn'818 or op Wales 
(d. 1255), bishop of St. Davids. [See Wal- 

THOMAS OP Erceldoitxe, or THOMAS 
THE Khymer (/. 1220P-1297?), seer and 
poet. [See Erceldoune.] 

THOMAS OF CoRBRiDGE (d. 1304), arch- 
bishop of York. [See Cobbridge.] 

THOMAS the Englishman {d. 1310), 
cardinal. [See JoRz or Joyce, Thomas.] 

THOMAS IIiBERNicus or de Hibeb- 
NiA (Jl, 1306-1310), known also as Palme- 
BANus or Palmerston, theological writer, 
was bom at Palmerstown, near Naas, in 
Kildare (Tanner, Bihl, Brit,), whence he is 
sometimes styled * Palmeranus.' He studied 
at Paris, became a member of the Sorbonne, 
and took the degree of bachelor of theology 
about 1 306. He was neither a Franciscan nor 
a Dominican, but has been called both. To the 
Sorbonne he bequeathed 16/., with copies of 
his own works and many other books. Ilis 
name is mentioned seven times in the Sor- 
bonne * Catalogue' of 1338, and some of his 
books are now m the Bibliotheque Xationale. 
He was living in 1310. He wrote: 1. 'Ta- 
bula oripinalium sive Manipulus Florum,* 
extracts from more than thirty books of the 
fathers, arranged in alphabetical order, which 
he finished in 1306 (Ribl. Nat. Fonds Lat. 
MS. 16533). The work had been begun by 


John Waller* or Waliensis q. v ], and ia 
Bometimes round divided into two p&rtB, 
' Flores Siblict ' and Flores Ddctonim. It 
wu a favourite work Inilie middk ages, and 
copies esirt in innnv Euglish, French, nnd 
Itaiinn librories. It'waa print<id nt Piacpnzft 
in 1483, and at Venice in 1492, and many 
tim«e in the sixteenth century. 2. 'Trao- 
tatiis detribuBpnnctisCkriatiajKBreligioniH,' 
beginning ' Incipit liber de regulis omnium 
ChristiBnorum.' In the SMbonne MS. 5SW 



(MoSTPAUCos,BiS/wM«;«,ii. 1260) culls 
author Thomas Hibemicus, doctor. This 
work was printed at Liibeck in 149G (Hain, 
Seprrtorium, iii. 5&44). 3. ' Commend alio 
theolofficQ,' heirinnine ' Sanientia ffidifieavit 
«bi,' in the Sorbonne MSS. 694 aud 1010. 
4. 'Trsctatus de tribua hierarcliiiB tam 
angelicisquameecleaiasticis,' in the Sorbonne 
,MS.1010. 5. 'TJetribusseuaibussacriB scrip- 
turn.' 6. ' In primam et secundam aen- 
tentJarum,' banning 'Circa pnmam dis- 
tinctionem,* a folio in tha ijorboune Librar]'. 
TV'are aacribed to him: 7 De illuHionibus 
dajmonum. 8. ' De tentationa diaboli.' 
9. 'De remcdiia ritiorum.' 

TttOMAB BE HiBBKSU{rf, 1270), a learned 
Franciscan, muet be diBtingnished Irom the 
subject of the pn^ceding article. He went 
to ItnlT, and was taught bv P«ier de lli- 
bemia N|. v.j (WttiniNo, Ami. Min. t ;)2 ). 
Thomas was a man of profound humility, 
and rather than become a priest he cut off 
hia left thumb. lie died in 1^69-70, and 
waa turied in tho monastery of St. Bernard 
in Aquila. He wrotu tli- ' Prompt uarium 
Morale,' which A\'nddin){ printed, together 
with the Concordances of St. Anthony, at 

[Wadding's Annnlcs Minomm, it. 302, 321 ; 
.Shnntlra's Supplemaotnin ad Scriptorw a 
Wftddingo descnptoB, 1806. p, 679 ; Qukif and 
Eshard'a Scriptorea OnllniB Predicatorom, i. 
744; Tannar's Blbl. Brit,; Ware, De Scriptori- 
bni HibomiK, L 60; Delisle'i Cabinet de MBS. 
ii. 178.] M. B. 

THOMAS KB L* More (J. 1327-1347), 
duouieler. [See Mdbe.] 

THOMAS or Hatpield {if. 1381), bishop 
of Duifaam. [See H&tfibld.] 

THOMAS OF AsHBoBHB (jf. 1382), 
theological controversialist, -wns a native of 
Asbbome in Derbyebire, nnd became an 
AuMin iriar there. "He went 10 Oxibnl and 
took the degree of master in theology. In 
13(4, at the council of Westminster, he 

aiguedagainstpayingtribute toGregoryXI. ^-^ v,. .» ...... .... ..._-». ...^ 

lu 1362, at the council of London, he helped [ incredil^ statement thatin January 1601 he 

to draft the twenty-four conclusions againat 
Wycliffl doctrines on the sacrament. The 
titles of a number of his controversial 
writings are given by Bale, but they are not 
known to be extant. 

A contemporary TuoaAs ABHEsrKsE (j!. 
1384), poet, was a scUnlor of Corpus Cbrisli 
College, Cambridge, where hin expenses for 
oue year, 11/. is. Id., were paid by Lord De 
La Warr to Br. John Kyme or Kynne, who 
waamaBlerfroml379tol389. Subsequently 
he became a Carmelite of Northampliin, and 
\^TOte a lonj; English theological poem for- 
merly in the Cottoniaa MS. Vitell. f. xiiL 1, 
which has been burnt. In Cott. App. vii. 
a version of Eichard Holle's 'Pricke of 
Conscience' is ascribed in a latPr hiuid to 
Ashehurne. It is preceded by a short alle- 
gorical English poem bepinnin;; 

[Lystjou iiUgretund tniQlu 
I shall ynw tell a lylell tnl-, 
which may be Asheliume'a work (TAjraEB, 
Bibl. Brit. ; Sir K. Madden's and other notes 
in Colt. App. vii. ; Cambridye Aniiq. Soc. 
Communicatiimg, xi.vix. 401). 

[Ealoe. Histuriaram, iii. 337 sq.; Shirley's 
Fascic. Zizao. p. 286.] M. B. 

arithmetician, graduated M. A. at Cambridge, 
and wrote a ' Commentum in Computum 
EcrleBiHHliciira Dionvsli ' (Enigui), whicli is 
in Digby MS. 81, f.' 35, and in Peterhouse 
MS. 189. His 'Commentum in Carmen 
Alerandri de Villa Dei de Algorismo ' ig in 
Digby MS. 81, f. 11. A copy was formerly 
ftt Corpus Coil efte, Cambridge iMuc. Omf 
municationji, pt. i. No. 3, Cambridge Amtiq. 
Soc. pttblicationa, 4to aer.) The 'Compotus 
^lanualis' in Digfay M.S. 81, f. 8, ia perhaps 
also his, and the treatises ' de Sphiera ' and 
de<}i[ftilrnnte in bePeterhoufie manuscript 
may bo by him. Baki confuses his works 
with those of Thomas Merke [q. v.], bishop 
of Carlisle. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit ; Bale's Script. Brit. vii. 
60; Cat. •>( Digbv Mnnua-ripls.] M. B. 

THOMAS Nbttbb flcVAiDES {d. 1430), 

Carmelite. TSee Neiteb.I 

THOMAS TUB BAaTAUD(<f. 1471). [See 
PaUCosiiERg Thomas.' 

THOMAS OF St. Grbooht (1564-1644), 
lienedictine monk. [See Hill, Tuoxas.] 

{d. 1617?), AVelsb bard, wa.s, according to 
the traditional account, the son of leuan ap 
Rhys Brjdydd of Glamorgan. In a stann 
popiiiarlv nttribuled to him he makes the 




"Will be a hundred and thirty years old, which 
would place his birth in 1474 and his age at 
his death at a hundred and forty-three years. 
As a boy he was employed at Margam Abbey, 
but became a zealous protestant, and it was 
perhaps for his faith he was imprisoned by 
Sir Mathew Cradock (1468-1631) in Kenfig 
Castle. He lived as a small farmer at Llan- 
gynwyd, Tythegston, and elsewhere in Gla- 
morganshire, and died about 161 7. ills poems 
were of the ballad order. The only one 
printed, that in the 'Cambrian Quarterly 
Magazine' (v. 96-7), is predictive, Thomas 
having a great reputation as a prophet. It 
was perhaps his prophecies which won him 
the title of * Twm gelwydd teg,' i.e. Tom the 
plausible liar. 

[All that is known of Thomas comes from two 
notices from ' the book of Mr. Lewis of Penlline* 
and *the book of John Bradford' (d. 1780), 
printed in the lolo M3S. pp. 200-3. The ac- 
counts in Malkin's South Wales (1807) and vol. 
V. (1,839) of the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine 
are probably drawn from these or similar 
aoarces.] J. E. L. 

1892), musical composer, bom at Ratton 
Park, Sussex, on 20 Nov. 1860, was the 
youngest son of Freeman Thomas of Ratton 
Park, by his wife Amelia, eldest daughter 
of Colonel Thomas Frederick. After being 
educated at Ilaileybury College, he was 
destined for the civil service, but his health 
failed. In early life he showed musical 
proclivities ; when about ten years old his 
power of extemporisation was remarkable. 
This power he lost after he began to study 
seriously. In 1873 he went to Paris, where, 
on Ambroise Thomas's advice, ho studied for 
two years with Emile Durand. After return- 
ing to England in 1875, he be^an on 13 Sept. 
18/7 a three years' course at the Royal Aca- 
demy of Music under Sullivan and Prout, 
and he twice won the Lucas medal for com- 
position. Later on he studied for a time or- 
chestration under Dr. Max Bruch. While 
still a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music 
Thomas composed an opera, * The Light of 
the Harem/ which was played at that insti- 
tution with such success as to induce Carl 
Rosa to commission him to write * Esme- 
ralda.' That opera was produced at Drury 
Lane on 26 March 1883. It was also played 
at Cologne in the following November, and 
at Hamburg in 1885. In this latter year 
Carl Rosa produced his * Nadeshda,* also at 
Drury Lane (16 April), Mme. Valleria play- 
ing the title role. It was given at Breslau 
in 1890. On 12 July 1890 * Esmeralda' was 
performed at Covent Garden in French. 
Another opera, * The Golden Web,' which 

waa left unfinished so far as regards the 
scoring, was completed by Sydney P. Wad- 
dington, and waa produced posthumously at 
theCourtTheatre,Liverpool,on 15 Feb. 18^ 

In 1881 Thomas's choral ode, 'The Sun 
Worshippers,' was brought out at the Norwich 
festival. His unfinished cantata, ' The Swan 
and the Skylark,' which Professor Villiers 
Stanford completed, was given at the Bir- 
mingham festival in 1894. Thomas died 
prematurely on 20 March 1892. 

In addition to the works already mentioned 
Thomas composed a cant-ata, 'Out of the 
Deep ;' a ' suite de ballet' for orchestra, pro- 
duced at Cambridge on 9 June 1887 ; a violin 
sonata, several vocal scenas, and a very large 
number of songs, many of which enjoy a 
well-merited vogue. On 13 July 1892 a 
concert (in which most of the leading operatic 
singers of the day took part) was given at 
St. James's Hall, London, to help to found 
a scholarship in memory of Thomas at the 
Royal Academy of Music. The effort was 
successful, and the Goring Thomas scholar- 
shijp is now competed for annually. 

Thomas was one of the most richly gifted 
of the British school of musical composers. 
His works, which show traces of their author^s 
French training, are melodious and refined, 
while his orchestration is beautiful. 

[Times, 22 March 1892 ; Diet of British 
Musical Biogr. ; The Overture, iii. 21 ; the pro- 
gramme-book of the concert montioned in the 
text gives an authentic list of Thomas's works, 
published and unpublished-; information from 
the composer's brother, Mr. Charles Thomas.] 

R. H. L. 

THOMAS, DA^^D (1 760 P-1822), Welsh 

Eoet, best known as * Dafydd Ddu Eryri,' was 
om about 1760 at Pen y Bont in the parish 
of Llan Beblig, Carnarvonshire, His lather, 
Thomas Griffith, was a weaver, and the son 
for a time followed that occupation, but in 
1781 abandoned it for that of schoolmaster, 
which he exercised almost without inter- 
mission until his death. He contrived to 
acquire some knowledge of Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew, and also became, under the 
tuition of Robert Hughes (Robin Ddu o 
Fon), then schoolmaster at Carnarvon, pro- 
ficient in the Welsh ' strict ' metres. As a 
bard of promise he was elected in October 
1785 a member of the London *Gwyned- 
digion ' Society. He competed unsuccess- 
fully for the society's medal at Bala in 1789, 
the subject being 'The Life of Man,' but 
wa.<* victorious at St. Asaph in 1790 on 
'Liberty,' and at Llanrwst in 1791 on 'Truth.' 
In consequence of his success he was sus- 
pended from competition for two years, a 
measure which induced him to give up com- 




petinff altogether. In 1791 the three 
'iwdlaa' were printed in London. During 
tliifl year and the next Thomas kept school at 
Llanystumdwy; in 1793 and 1794 he taught 
at Pentraeth, Anglesey, and was also en- 
ga^ in arranging the valuable Pan ton manu- 
icnpts at Plas Gwyn. He then took up the 
business of coal-meter at Amlwch, and after- 
wards at Red Wharf Bay, but ultimately 
returned to Carnarvonshire to teach, living 
for the most part at Waen Fawr, his native 
Tillage. In 1810 he published at Dolffellv 
'Corph y Gainc,' a collection of Welsh 
poems, very Jpaimy of them from his own 
pen; in 1817 a second edition of the 
*Diddanwch Teuluaidd' appeared at Car- 
narvon under his editorship. lie was the 
chief contributor to the *Cylchgrawn 
Cymraeg,' of which five numbers were pub- 
lished at Trefecca and Carmarthen in 1793 
atid 1794, and acted as adjudicator in the 
eiateddfodau of Tremadog (1811), and Car- 
narvon (1821). He was accidentally drowned 
in the river Cegin while returning from 
Banffor to his home on 80 March 1822, and 
was buried in Llanrug churchyard. Dafydd 
Bdtt's work as a poet, facile and vigorous 
though it be, is less remarkable than the 
position he held as bardic mentor to the 
ichool of poets which sprang up in his day 
in Carnarvonshire. He did much to secure 
the continuity of the old bardic traditions 
▼hich were threatened by the innovating 
tendencies of Dr. William Owen Pughe [q.v. J 
^d his London supporters. Many of his 
letters are printed in * Adgof uwch Anghof ' 
(Penygroes, 1883). 

[Memoir in Cambro-Briton (1822), iii. 426, 
433 ; Leatbart*s History of the Owyneddigion, 
1831; Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry; Ashton's Hanea 
Ueoyddiaeth Gymreig; letters in Adgof uwch 
Anghof.] J. E. L. 

THOMAS, DAVID (1813-1894), divine, 
son of William Thomas, a dissenting mini- 
ster of Vatson, near Tenby, was bom in Pem- 
Iwkeshire in 1813. For some years he fol- 
lowed a mercantile career, giving his Sundays 
to preaching and school teaching. At the 
solicitation of his friends. Nun Morgan 
Harry [q. v.] and Caleb Morris, he gave up 
business to aevote himself wholly to the 
uainiatry. He then entered Newport-Pagnell 
College, where, under the instruction of the 
Bev. T. B. Bull and the Rev. Josiah Bull, he 
w a successful career. His first charge was 
^ congregational church at Chesham, where 
be laboured for three jrears. In 1844 he 
^e to London as minister of the indepen- 
dent church at Stockwell, and remained there 
^til 1877^ when he retired from active ser- 
^^* During his ministry at Stockwell his 

▼Ot. LTI. 

teaching was much appreciated by an ever- 
widening circle of influential minds, who 
gathered from far and near, attracted by the 
originality of his thinking and the charm of 
his personalitv. For his congregation he 
compiled * A biblical Liturgy for the Use 
of Evangelical Churches and Homes,* 1866, 
which was adopted by some other inde- 
pendent churches, and ran to twelve editions. 
A further contribution to public worship 
was * The Augustine Hymn Book, a Hymnal 
for all Churches,* 1866, which contains some 
fine hymns from his own pen, especially 
that beginning 

Show pity, Lord, 

For we are frail and faint. 

In the formation of the character of Mrs. 
Catherine Booth, the * mother of the Salva- 
tion Army,' he had a considerable share 
(BooTH-TucKER, Life of Catherine Booths 
1892, i. 83-6, 134) ; and among the members 
of the Stockwell church was the Kev. Wilson 
Carlile, rector of St. Mary-at-Hill, East- 
cheap, the founder of the Church Army. 

Thomas was the originator of the univer- 
sity of Wales at Abeiystwith in 1872, and 
of the Working Men's Club and Institute in 
1862, of which Lord Brougham was presi- 
dent. He was the founder of *ThejDiar 
newspaper, which was first issued on 7 Jan. 
1860, and after 4 June 1864 was incorporated 
with the ' Morning Star;' and it was under 
his impulse that the 'Cambrian Daily Leader' 
was started at Swansea in 1861 by his second 
son, David Morgan Thomas, a barrister. 
He died at Hamsgate on 30 Dec. 1894, and 
was buried at Norwood cemetery. His wife, 
who died in 1873, was daughter of David 
Rees, a shipowner of Carmarthenshire. By 
her he haa two sons — Urijah Rees, mini- 
ster at liedland Park, Bristol ; David Mor- 
gan ThomaS) previously mentioned, and two 

The literary undertaking with which his 
name is most prominently associated is ' The 
Homilist, or Voice for the Truth,' which was 
commenced in March 1852, and, under the 
management of himself and his son, ran to 
upwards of fifty volumes, with an aggregate 
circulation of about a hundred and twenty 
thousand copies. Through its influence he 
lessened in a great degree the differences of 
opinion between the English and American 
pulpits. Other works by Thomas are : 1. * The 
Crisis of Being : six lectures to young men 
on Religious Decision,' 1849; 4th edit. 1864. 
2. ' The Core of Creeds, or St. Peter's Keys,' 
1851 . 3. ' The Progress of Being : six lectures 
on the True Progress of Man,' 1854; 4th 
edit. 1864. 4. < The Genius of the Gospels : a 




homiletical commentary on the Gospel of St. 
Matthew/ 1864; 2nd edit. 1873. 5. ' Allomi- 
letic Commentary on the Acts,* 1870 ; 2nd 
edit. 1889. 6. ' The Practical Philosopher: a 
Daily Monitor for the Business Men of Eng- 
land/ 1873, with portrait of the author. 
7. * Problemata Mundi : the Book of Job 
exegetically considered,' 1878. His com- 
plete works were issued in nine volumes 
between 1882 and 1889 under the title ' The 
Homilistic Library.' 

In * The l\ilpit Commentary on the Ten 
Prophets * and * The Epistles to the Thessa- 
lonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon,' 
edited by Henry Donald Maurice Spence 
and Joseph Samuel Exell, 1887-93, many 
of the homilies are contributed by David 
Thomas, and signed * D. T.' 

[Congregational Year Book, 1896, pp. 237-9; 
Times, 1 Jan. 1896; Bookseller, 9 Jan. 1895.] 

(Jr. 0. B. 

THOMAS, EDWARD (1813-1886), 
Indian antiquary, bom on 31 Dec. 1813, the 
son of Honoratus Leigh Thomas [q. vj, was 
educated at the East India College at Hailey- 
bury. He went to India in 1832 as a * writer' 
in the Bengal service of the company. Ill- 
health interfered with his duties, and com- 
pelled several absences in England on sick 
leave ; and when Lord Dalhousie, struck by 
his abilities, offered him in 1852 the post of 
foreign secretary to the government 01 India, 
he was reluctantly obliged to decline it, feel- 
ing himself unequal to the strain. After 
acting for a short time as judge at Delhi, he 
was ap])ointed superintending judge of the 
Saugor and Nerbudda territory, lie retired 
on a pension in 1867, and spent the rest of 
his life in scholarly pursuits, attending the 
meetings of learned societies and writing 
numerous essavs and articles on oriental 
archreologv. lie died in Kensington on 
10 Feb. 1886. 

By breaking ground in a dozen obscure 
subjects — such as Bactrian, Indo-Scythic, 
and Sassanian coins, Indian metrology, 
Persian gems and inscriptions — Thomas 
rendered important services to science, which 
were recognised by his election as a fellow of 
the Royal Society on 8 June 1871, as cor- 
responaent of the Institute of France in 
January 1873, and as honorary member of the 
Russian Academy, and by his decoration as 
companion of the Indian Empire. His chief 
published volumes were his * Chronicles of 
the Pathan Kings of Delhi' (1847; 2nd 
enlarged edit. 1871), and his edition of James 
Prinspp's * Essavs on Indian Antiquities ' and 
< Useful Tables' (2 vols. 1858), which he en- 
riclied with valuable notes, and rendered an 
indispensable work of reference for oriental 

archaeologists. Other noteworthy jpublica- 
tions were his 'Coins of the Kings of 
Ghazni' (1847, 1858), 'Initial Coinage of 
Bengal ' (1886, 1873), ' Early Sassanian In- 
scriptions' (1868), * Ancient Indian Weights* 
(1874, being part i. of the new ' Numismata 
Orient alia ' which he edited for Nicholas Triib- 
ner [^. v.]), and * The Revenue of the Mughil 
Empire ' (1871, 1882). His numerous short 
papers in the transactions of learned societies, 
albeit often avowedly premature and contain- 
ing tentative views which later studv caused 
him to modify or abandon, not only bore the 
marks of a fine gift for palaeography, numis- 
matics, and a wide range of archaeology, hut 
gave a fresh impetus to the science, and 
stimulated other students. Many of these 
papers appeared in the 'Numismatic Chro- 
nicle' between 1847 and 1883, but the greater 
number were contributed to the 'Journal' of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, of which he was a 
member for forty years and treasurer for 
twenty-five, and in which his influence and 
advice were deeply felt and valued. 

[Personal knowledge; private information; 
obituary by the present writer in Athemenm, 
21 and 28 Feb. 1886; Annual Rep. Bojal 
Asiatic See. May 1886 ; Men of theTime, 1884.] 

8. L.-P. 

THOMAS, ELIZABETH (1677-1781), 

poetaster, known as * Corinna/ the daughter 
of Emmanuel Thomas (d. 1677) of the Inner 
Temple, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Osborne of Sittingboume, was bom 
in 1677. During 1699 Elizabeth, who was 
a great celebrity hunter, managed to inveigle 
Drj'den into a correspondence, and two of 
the poet's letters to the lady are still pre- 
served (Workff ed. Scott, xviii. 164 seq.) 
Dryden professed to detect in her manner 
much of tne * matchless Orinda' [see Philips, 
Katherine], and he conferred upon her (by 
request) the poetic name * Corinna,* after the 
Theban poetess. * I would,' says the gallant 
poet, * have called you Sapho, but that I hear 
you are handsomer.' After Dryden's death 
she kept up a correspondence with Mrs. 
Creed and other members of the family. Dur- 
ing her early career she seems to have resided 
with her mother inDyott Street, Bloomsbury. 
On 16 April 1717 there died Richard Qwin- 
net [q. vJ, a gentleman of means, who had, 
she aeclares, repeatedly offered her marriage. 
Many years afterwards she published the 
letters (No. 4 infra) which had, she stated, 
passed between them during their long court- 
sh ip. In the correspondence she assumed the 
name of * Corinna,' and Q winnet that of ' 1^- 
lades.' The latter bequeathed his * Corinna* 
600/., of which sum she managed to obtain. 
213/. from the lawyers and relatives. TTiifl 




rapidlj absorbed by creditors after her 
mother 8 death in January 1718-19. Hitherto 
ahe declarea that 'platonic love* had been 
her ruling passion, and she published some 
'Poema' inspired by this sentiment in 1722. 
In the meantime, as Scott observes with 
more probability than politeness, it would 
aeem that ' her person as well as her writings 
were dedicated to the service of the public' 
While under the protection of Henry Crom- 
irell, the correspondent of Pope, some letters 
of Pope came into her clutches. In 1726 
the sold twenty-five of these letters for ten 
guineas to Curll, by whom they were promptly 
pablished. They appeared on 12 Aug. 1726 
as ' Mr. Pope's familiar Letters . . . written 
to Henry Cromwell, Esq. between 1707 and 
1712, with oriffinal Poems by Mr. Pope, Mr. 
Cromwell, and Sappho* (cf. Dilub, Papers 
of a CriHe, i. 289-90). The transaction led 
to the long series of manoeuvres by which 
Pope schemed to invest with an appearance 
of spontaneity and artless grace the publica- 
tion of his carefully revised correspondence 
^ Curll, Edmund, and Pope, Alex^j^der]. 
original letters sold by Mrs. Thomas to 
Corll were bequeathed by Eichard Kawlin- 
•on [a, v.] to the Bodleian. Pope having pro- 
feued to oelieve that the letters were stolen, 
the fact was expressly denied upon the title- 
ptge of the second edition in 1727. It seems 
piobsble that Mrs. Thomas attempted to 
•vbsiit for a time upon the products of black- 
nuilingy but early in 1727 she became quite 
<le8titate, and was thrown into the Fleet 
fnion, then under the wardenship of the 
i&fuBoos Thomas Bambridge. Unaer an act 
of insolvency a warrant was issued for her 
nietie in 1729 ; but in consequence of her 
extreme indigence and inability to pay the 
friolar's fees, she was unable to regain her 
liberty. Probably about 1727, in order to raise 
t few shillings, she concocted a harrowing 
bat almost entirely fictitious account of Dry- 
<ien's death and funeral [see Drtden, John]. 
This she disposed of to Curll, who intro- 
duced it into his Grub Street 'Memoirs of 
Gongieve ' in 17dO. < Mrs.' Thomas also con- 
trived to extract some didactic letters from 
Henry Norris of Bemerton, which she pub- 
liihea in a cheap duodecimo to relieve her 
necessities while in the Fleet. On 16 April 
17S0 she addressed to Sir Joseph Jekyll from 
priaon a pitiable appeal for some means of 
vvpport and a ' few modest fig leaves ' to cover 
her. Two months later she was enabled to 
i^nove to lodgings in Fleet Street, where 
•he died on 6 Feb. 1730-1 (Hist. Reg. 1731, 
^^w. Diary, p. 11). She was buried in 
the ehnrchyard of St. Bride's, at the expense 
«Hargaret,ladyDeLaWarr. Swift's *Co- 

rinna, a Ballad/ from the reference in the last 
stanza to the ' Atalantis,' would seem to 
have been aimed at Mrs. Manley; but the 
contents, as well as the title, make it more 
appropriate to Mrs. Thomas (Swift, Works, 
ed. Scott, 1824, xii. 300). 

The writings of * Corinna ' comprise : 
1. * Poems on several Occasions. By a Lady,' 
1722, 8vo, 1726 and 1727. 2. 'Codrus; or 
the Duuciad dissected. To which is added 
Farmer Pope and his Son,' 1729, a small 
sixpenny octavo, written for, and perhaps in 
conjunction with, Edmund Curll. 3. * The 
Metamorphoses of the Town ; or a View of 
the present Fashions. A Tale, after the 
manner of Fontaine,' 1730, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 
to which is added Swift's 'Journal of a 
Modem Lady,' 1730, 1731 ; 1731 (4th edit.) 
*By the late celebrated Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thomas, who has so often obliged the town 
under the name of Corinna' (the British 
Museum has William Cowper s copy). 4. * Py- 
lades and Corinna ; or Memoirs of the Lives, 
Amours, and Writings of Richard Gwinnet, 
Esquire, and Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, junior. 
... To which is prefixed the Life of Corinna, 
written by herself,' 1731, 2 vols. 8vo (dedi- 
cated to the Duchess of Somerset and Lord 
and Lady De LaWarr). The * autobiography,' 
for the most part a tissue of absurdities, was 
abridged for Cibbers 'Lives of the Poets' 
(iv. 146 seq.) 

An engraving^ of ' Mrs. Eliz. Thomas, set. 
30,' by G. King, is prefixed to the first volume 
of * Pylades and Corinna.' 

[Malone's Dryden,i. 364 seq. ; Dryden's Works, 
ed. Scott, xviii. 164 seq.; Popes Works, ed. 
Elwin and Courthope, iv. 327, vi. 36, 61, 419, 
434; Steele's Tatler, 1823, vol i.; Chnlmers's 
Biogr. Diet. xxix. 281 ; Alii bone's Diet, of Eng- 
lish Lit. ; Noble's Continuation of Granger, vol. 
ii. ; Lowndes's Bibliogr. Man. (Bolin) ; Cibbers 
Lives of the Poets, iv. 146-54 ; Remarks on the 
Fleet Prison, 1733 ; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of 
Anon, and Pseudon. Lit. pp. 1607, 1951.] 

T. S. 

1892), bibliographer, the eldest son of John 
Withiel Thomas, bom on 28 Oct. 1860 at 
Birkenhead, was educated at Manchester 
grammar school, matriculated from Trinity 
College, Oxford, on 17 Oct. 1870, and gra- 
duated B.A. in June 1875. lie became a 
student at Gray's Inn on 7 May 1874, and, 
having won the Bacon scholarship of the 
inn in May 1875, published the following 
year a volume on ' Leading Cases in Consti- 
tutional Law briefly stated' (2nd edit. 1885). 
In 1875 and 1876 Thomas studied in the 
universities of Jena and Bonn, and produced 
in 1877 the first volume of a translation of 



1 80 


Lange's * Geschichte des Materialbmus/ the 
second volume of which appeared in 1880, 
and the third in 1881. He issued in 1878 
' Leading Statutes summarised for the use 
of Students/ and in the same year became 
joint honorary secretary of the Library 
Association with Mr. H. R. Tedder, with 
whom he collaborated in writing the article 
* Libraries * in the ninth edition of the * En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica* (1882). He was 
called to the bar on 29 June 1881. He 
edited the * Monthly Notes ' of the Library 
Association for 1882, and published in Janu- 
aiy 1884 the first number of the ' Library 
Chronicle : a Journal of Librarianship and 
Bibliography,* which he carried on until 

His chief claim to notice is his edition of 
the * Philobiblon of Kichard de Bury, bishop 
of Durham, treasurer and chancellor of Ed- 
ward ni ' (London, 1888, sm. 8vo ; also large 
paper), of which he produced the first really 
critical text, based upon the early editions 
and a personal examination of twenty-eight 
manuscripts. The notes clear up most of 
the obscurities which have enibarrassed suc- 
cessive editors and translators. The trans- 
lation is scholarly and the bibliography a 
model of careful research. It is an illustra- 
tion of Thomas's conscientious methods that, 
a later investigation having led him to doubt 
the real authorsliip of the * Philobiblon,' he 
printed a pamphlet which questioned the fair 
literar}' fame of Kichard de Burj-. Thomas 
had at one time a small practice at the bar, 
but his life was chiefly devoted to literature 
and librarianship. lie was a man of exten- 
sive reading, a brilliant talker, a keen de- 
bater, an excellent writer. He edited several 
volumes for the Library Association, and 
contributed many articles and papers to the 
proceedings and journals of that society, 
which owes much to his self-denying labours, 
and to which, with several colleagues, he 
acted as honorary secretary for twelve years. 
He died at Tunbridge Wells on 5 Feb. 1892. 

[Biography, with a complete bibliography, by 
the present -writcT, reprinted from the * Library,* 
1893, iv. 73-80 ; personal knowledge.] 

H. R. T. 


(1794 ?-lHo7), archivist, was bom at Kings- 
ton in Herefordshire in 1793 or 1794. In 
1826 he entered the Public Record Office in 
Chancery Lane, where he rose to the posi- 
tion of secretary. In 1846 he privately 
l)rinted a useful collection of passages from 
public records relating to the departments 
of state under the title ' Notes of Materials 
for the History of Public Departments/ with 

an account of the contents of the state paper 
office (London, fol.) This was followedT m 
1848 by a more elaborate work on the ex- 
chequer, which comprised a sketch of the 
entire central financial machinery of Eng- 
land and Ireland. It was entitled ' The An- 
cient Exchequer of England, the Tr&uoiy, 
and Origin of the Present Management of 
the Exchequer and Treasury of Ireland* 
(London, 8vo). In the following year ap- 
peared ' A History of the State Paper Office* 
(London, 8vo), elaborated from the sketch of 
the department which he had already given 
in * Notes for the Ilbtory of Public bepart- 
ments.' In 1852 he wrote an explanatory 
preface to * Liber Munerum Publicorum 
Hibemise,' by Rowley Lascelles [q. v.], which 
was then first offered to the public In 
1853 appeared his ' Handbook to Public 
Records, and in 1856 'Historical Notes' 
(3 vols.), which was perhaps his most impor- 
tant work. It consists of a collection of 
short notes, chiefiy biographical, compiled 
while he was arranging the papers in the 
state paper office, and afterwards supple- 
mented by further research. Thomas aied 
at Croydon on 27 Aug. 1867. 

[Thomas's Works ; Gent. Mag. 1857. ii. 469; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 


(1786-1855), rear-admiral, younger son of 
Sir John Thomas (1740-1828) of Wenvoe 
Castle, Glamorganshire, fifth baronet, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of John Parker of 
TIasfield Court, Gloucestershire, was bom 
on 19 April 1786. He entered the navy in 
March 1709 on board the Boston on the 
North American station, and afVerwards in 
the West Indies. In the autumn of 1803 
he joined the Prince of Wales, flagship of 
Sir Robert Calder [q. v.], and was present 
in the action of 22 July 1805. On 19 Sept. 
he was appointed acting lieutenant of the 
Spartiate, and in her was present in the 
battle of Trafalgar. His commission as lieu- 
tenant was confirmed on 14 Feb. 1806. lie 
continued in the Spartiate off Rochefort, and 
afterwards in the Mediterranean till Novem- 
ber 1809, when he was for a few months on 
board the Antelope, the flagship of Sir John 
Duckworth, and was then sent to Cadiz, 
where he was employed for the next three 
vears in the defence of the town against the 
French flotilla ; was promoted to be com- 
mander on 4 March 1811, and second in 
command of the English flotilla. Towards 
the end of 1813 he was acting captain of the 
San Juan, the flagship of Rear-admiral 
Samuel Hood Linzee at Gibraltar. Hewaa 
posted on 8 Dec. 1813, and returned to Eog* 




land with Linzee in the Eurotas in 1814. 
He had no further employment afloat, but 
married on 7 Aug. 1816, Susannah, daughter 
of Arthur Atherley of Southampton, and 
Mems to have settled down in that neigh- 
bourhood. He accepted the retired rank of 
rear-admiral on 1 Oct. 1846, and died at 
Hill, near Southampton, on 19 Dec. 1855, 
leaving three sons and a daughter. He was 
huried at Millbrook, near Southampton. 

[O'Byme's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 
1866, i. 303 ; Burke's Peerage aod Baronetage ; 
Napier's Hist, of the War in the Peninsula, bk. 
xii. ch. ii.] J. K. L. 

THOMAS, GEORGE (1756 P-1802), 
adventurer in India, an Irishman, bom about 
1750 at Itoscrea, Tipperary, was a quarter- 
master, or, according to some accounts, a 
common sailor in the British navy. About 
the end of 1781 he deserted from a man-of- 
TTar at Madras, and took service under the 
Poli^r chiefs of the Camatic. Going to 
Delhi in 1787, he was employed by the 
Begum Sumru of Sirdhana, who made him 
commander of her army. In 1788, when the 
moghul emperor of Delhi, Shah Alum, with 
the assistance of the begum's troops, was 
laying siege to Gokalgarn, the stronghold 
of a rebellious vassal, Thomas repulsed a 
sortie of the garrison, saved the emperor 
from capture, and turned the fortunes of the 
day. Being degraded in 1792 for miscon- 
duct, or, more possibly, displaced in the 
begum's favour by the Frenchman, Le Vais- 
Beau, his old enemy, Thomas transferred his 
services to Scindia's cousin, Appa Ilao, the 
Mahratta governor of Meerut, for whom he 
raised troops, and drilled them, as far as he 
could, on the European system. As a 
reward the district of Jhajjar was assigned 
to him, and he was made warden of the 
Sikh marches. He now built the fort of i 
Georgegarh, known to the natives as Jehaz- ; 
-garb, and established a military post at 
H&nsi, eighty-nine miles north-west of Delhi, 
as a bulwark against the Sikhs. In 1795 
he made his peace with the begum Sumru, 
whom he helped to suppress a mutiny and 
to recover possession of her territory east of : 
the Jumna. Shortly after Appa Hao's death . 
(1797) Thomas asserted his mdependence, 
eeized Hissar and H&nsi, and began to en- 
croach on the neighbouring Sikh and Rajput 
states. By the end of 1799 his authority ex- 
tended over all Hissar, Hansi, and Sirsa, and 
« greater part of Rohtak ; and he was the 
most powerful ruler on the right bank of 
the Jumna, or, as he said himself, dictator of 
•11 the countries belonging to the Sikhs south 
of the Sutlej. His ne^quarters were at 
Hinu. His annual revenue was reckoned 

at 200,000/. He started a mint and gun 
factories, maintained a large military force, 
levied tribute from Sikh states, * and would 
probably have been master of them all, in 
the room of Ranjit Singh, had not the jea- 
lousy of Perron and other French officers in 
the Mahratta army interposed ' (Sleemak). 
In 1797 he had invited the principal Sikh 
chieftains to join him in opposing the Mah- 
rattas and conquering northern India. He 

f rejected an expedition to the mouths of the 
ndus, intending to transport his army in 
boats from Ferozepore. Another scheme was 
the conquest of the Punjab, which he offered 
to carry out on behalf of the British govern- 
ment, hoping, he said, to have the honour 
of planting the standard of England on the 
banks of the Attock. But he had already 
reached the height of his power. The Sikh 
chieftains east of the Sutlej, driven to 
desperation by his freouent forays, sought 
help from Perron, Scindia's French general 
at Delhi, who sent a force under Captain 
Felix Smith, supported by Louis Bourquin, 
to besiege Georgegarh. Thomas facea his 
enemies with boldness and at first with suc- 
cess. He compelled Smith to raise the siege 
of Georgegarh, and defeated Bouruuin at 
Beri. But the Mahrattas were quickly rein- 
forced ; Jats and Rajputs gathered from the 
south, Sikhs from the north, and Georgegarh 
was threatened by an army of thirty thou- 
sand men, with 110 cannon. Some of his 
chief officers now deserted him, and he fled 
by night to 114nsi. He was followed and 
again surrounded, and, with traitors in his 
camp, was compelled early in 1802 to sur- 
render. It was a^eed that he should be 
escorted to the British frontier, where he 
arrived early in 1802 with a lakh and a 
half of rupees and property worth another 
lakh. Proceeding on his way to Calcutta, 
he died at Burhampore, Bengal, on 22 Aug. 

ColonelJames Skinner (1778-1841) [q. v.], 
who with Scindia's troops fought against 
Thomas at Georgegarh and Ilansi, has de- 
scribed his tall martial figure, great strength, 
bold features, and erect carriage, adding tnat 
in disposition he was frank, generous, and 
humane, though liable to sudden outbursts of 
temper. Sir William Henry Sleeman [a. v.] 
says ' he was unquestionably a man oi ex- 
traordinary military genius, and his ferocity 
and recklessness as to the means he used 
were ouite in keeping with the times.' He 
is still spoken of with admiration by the 
natives oi the Rohtak district, ' whose affec- 
tions he ffained by his gallantry and kind- 
ness ; and he seems never to have tarnished 
the name of his country by the gross actions 




that most military adventurers have been 
guilty of {Bohtaic Gazetteer), 

There is a portrait of * General Georji^e 
Thomas/ apparently by a native artist, in 
his * Memoirs/ by Capt. AVilliam Francklin 
[q. v.] 

[Francklin's Military Memoirs cf Mr. George 
Thomas, Calcutta, 1803; Compton's Military 
Adventurers of Hindustan, 1892, pp. 109-220, 
-with portrait; Asiatic Annual Resistor, 1800; 
Calcutta RcTiew, v. 362 ; Punjab District 
Gazetteers (Kohtak and Hissar).] S. W. 

(1824-1868), painter, was bom in London 
on 17 Dec. 1824. After sending his appren- 
ticeship to the wood-engraver George Bon- 
ner in London , he began his professional career 
in Paris, iirst as an engraver, afterwards as a 
draughtsman on the wood. In 1846 he went to 
the United States to illustrate a New York 
paper, and remained there about two years. 
J)uring this time he obtained a commission 
from the government of the United States to 
design bank-notes. His health compelled him 
to return to Europe, and he went to Italy. 
He was present at the siege of Home by the 
French m 1 849, and sent many sketches of 
the siege to the * Illustrated London News.' 
After spending two vears in Italy he re- 
turned to England. About 1850 ho produced 
a remarkable set of woodcuts for * Uncle Tom's 
Cabin.' He also illustrated very many other 
books, including Ix)ng^ellow's * Hiawatha,' 
Foxe's * Book of Martyrs,' and Trollope's 
* Last Chronicle of Barset.' He exhibited his 
first picture, * St. Anthony's Day at Rome,' at 
the British Institution in 1851 ; * Garibaldi 
at Rome,' painted from sketches made in 
1849, was exhibited at the Roval Academv 
in 1854, and attracted much attention. His 
next picture was * Ball at the Camp, Bou- 
logne,' 1856. He obtained the patronage of 
Queen Victoria, and painted the following 
pictures by her majesty's command: * Dis- 
tribution of Crimean Medals, 18 Mav 1855,' 
1858 ; * Review in the Champ de iMars in 
Honour of Queen Victoria,' 1859 ; ' Parade 
at Potsdam, 17 Aug. 1858,' 1860; 'Mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales,' * Homage of 
the Princess Royal at the Coronation of the 
King of Prussia,' and Marriage of the Princess 
Alice,' 1863 ; ' The Queen and Prince Con- 
sort at Aldershot, 1 859,' 1 866 ;' The Children 
of Princess Alice, 1 866 ; ' The Queen investing 
theSultanwith theOrder of the Garter,' 1868, 
painted from a sketch by Princess Louise. 
All these were exhibited at the Roval Aca- 
demy in the years named. Of his otKer exhi- 
bits, which were either military or domestic 
subjects, * Rotten Row ' (1862) was the most 
remarkable. His paintings were bright and 


animated and gained him considerable pops- 
larity,but had none of the higher qualities of 
art. Thomas resided at Kingston and Sui^ 
biton till illness caused his removal to Bou- 
logne, where he died on 21 Julv 1868. A 
collection of his works was exhibited in Bond 
Street in June 1869, and his sketches and 
studies were sold at Christie's in Julv 1872. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Athensam, 
I Aug. 1868; Art Journal, 1868, p. 181 (bio- 
graphy, 1869 (criticism).] C. D. 

(1769-1846), surgeon, the son of John Thomas 
of Ha warden, Flint, by his wife Maria, sister 
of John Boydell fq. v.], was bom on 26 Mareh 
1769. On commg to London as a very 
young man, he presented a letter of intro- 
duction to John Hunter, the great surgeon. 
Hunter at once made an appointment with 
Thomas for five o'clock the following morn- 
ing, and on his presenting himself at that 
hour he found Ilunter busily engaged dis- 
secting insects. He was appointed dresser 
to Hunt«r at St. George's Hospital and a 
upil of William Cumberland Cruikshank 
q. v.], the anatomist. He obtained the diploma 
ot the Corporation of Surgeons on 16 Oct. 
1794, was an original member of the College 
of Surgeons, and was elected to the fellow- 
ship on its foundation in 1843. Thomas's 
early professional work was in the army and 
navy. He passed as 1st mate, 3rd rate 
(navy), on 6 July 1792, and, on the recom- 
mendation of Hunter, was appointed assistant 
surgeon to Lord Macartney's embassy to 
China in the same year [see Macartxet, 
Geobge, Earl Macartket]. In 1799 he 
volunteered for medical service with the Duke 
of York's army in Holland. On the capitula- 
tion of the forces to the French enemy Tho- 
mas wished to remain with the wounded, 
who could not be moved. He was told that 
he could only stay as a prisoner, and he de- 
cided to remain in that capacity. As soon, 
however, as his services could be dispensed 
with he was allowed to return home. 

Thomas married the elder daughter of 
Cruikshank, and in 1800 succeeded to his 
father^in-law*s practice in Leicester Place, 
where he resided for nearly half a century. 
Notwithstanding his position at the College 
of Surgeons, Thomas seems rather to have 
avoided surgery, and was generally called 
in for consultation in medical cases. In this 
branch of his profession he wasvery succeasful. 

At the College of Surgeons Thomas was a 
member of the court of assistants from 1818 
to 1846, examiner from 1818 to 1845, Tio»- 
president in 1827,1828, 1836, and 1837, and 
president in 1829 and 183& In 1827 he 




delivered the Hunterian oration. In this 
oration there are some interesting personal 
reminiscencesof Hunter. Thomas was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society on ] 6 Jan. 180G. 
He was also a member of the Imperial Aca- 
demy of St. Petersburg. He died at Bel- 
monty Torquay, on 26 June 1846. Edward 
Thomas [^.v.J was his son. 

In addit ion to his H unterian orat ion,Thomas 
published : 1 . ' Description of an Herma- 
phrodite Lamb' {LcncUm Medical and Phy^ 
deal Journal, ii. 1799). 2. * Anatomical De- 
scription of a Male Rhinoceros' {Phil. Trans, 
1801, p. 146). 3. 'Case of Artificial Dila- 
tation of the Female Urethra' {Med. Chir. 
Trans, i. 123). 4. 'Case of Obstruction in 
the Large Intestines occasioned by a Biliary 
Calculus of extraordinary size' {ib. vol. vi. 
1845). There is a portrait in oil of Thomas 
by James Green at the Royal College of 

[Lancet, 1846, ii. 26 ; Proc. Royal Soc. v. 640 ; 
Clarke's Autobiographical Recollections of the 
Medical Profession, p. 113; and private infor- 
mation kindly supplied by Mrs. Foss and F. L. 
Hatchins, esq., grandchildren of Thomafi.] 

J. B. B. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1691-1766), succes- 
sively bishop of Lincoln and Salisbury, bom 
on 23 June 1691, was the son of a drayman 
in Nicholson's brewery in the parish of All 
Hallows the Great in the city of London, 
and was sent to the parish school (note in 
Lb Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 28). He was 
admitted to Merchant I'aylors' school on 
11 March 1702-3. He graduated B.A. in 
1713 and M.A. in 1717 from Catharine Hall, 
Cambridge, was made D.D. in 1728, and in- 
corporated at Oxford on 1 1 July of the same 
year. He became chaplain of the English 
&ctory at Hamburg, where he was highly 
popular with the merchants, published a 
pa]^r in Gterman called the ' Patriot ' in imi- 
tation of the ' Spectator,' and attracted the 
notice of George II, who voluntarily offered 
him preferment in England if his ministers 
would leave him any patronage to bestow. 
In 1736 he was presented to the rectory of 
St. Vedast's, Foster Lane ; he accompanied 
the king to Hanover at his personal request, 
and succeeded Dr. Lockyer as dean of Peter- 
borough in 1740, in spite of the opposition of 
the Duke of Newcastle (Newton, Autobiogr. 
pp. 61-5). In 1743 he was nominated to the 
bishopric of St. Asaph, but was immediately 
transferred to Lincoln, to which he was con- 
secrated at Lambeth on 1 April 1744. lie 
was translated to Salisbury in November 
1761, died there on 19 July 1766, and was 
boried in the cathedral, where a tablet erro- 
aeoualy gives his age as eighty-five instead 

of seventy-five. His library was sold in 
1767. He left one daughter, married to 
John Taylor, chancellor of Salisbury. Of 
his four wives, the first was a niece of Bishop 
Sherlock. The famous wedding-ring * posy,' 
* If I survive I'll make them live,' is attri- 
buted to him. 

Thomas seems to have been a worthy man, 
though weak in the disposal of patronage. 
His Knowledge of German had commended 
him to George II, who liked him, and refused 
to ,quarrel with him for having dined at 
Clielden with Frederick, prince of Wales, 
lie was often confused with his namesakes 
of Winchester and Rochester, especially with 
the former, who also had held a city living, 
was a royal chaplain, preached well, and 
squinted. Thomas was also very deaf. He 
was a man of some humour, perhaps occa- 
sionally a practical joker (Wakefield, Life, 
i. 15 ; Gent. Mag. 1783 i. 46^3, ii. 1008, 1784 
i. 80^. Thomas was the author of sermons 
published between 1731) and 1756. His por- 
trait is in the palace at Salisbury. 

[Cassan's Bishops of Salisbury, iii. 313-19; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. passim; Abbey's English 
Church and its Bishops, ii. 75-6 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Robinson's JStlerchunt Taylors' Register, 
ii. 9.] H. E. D. B. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1096-1781), succes- 
sively bishop of Peterborough, Salisbury, and 
Winchester, was the son of Stremer Thomas, 
a colonel in the guards ; he was born on 
17 Aug. 1696 at Westminster, and educated 
at Charterhouse school (Foster, Alumni 
Oxon.) He matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 28 March 1713, and took the 
degrees of B.A. 1716, M.A. 1719, B.D. 1727, 
and D.D. 1731. In 1720 he was elected 
fellow of All Souls' College, and, having 
been disappointed of a living promised to 
him by a friend of his father, took a curacy 
in London. Here his preaching attracted 
attention ; in 1731 he was given a prebend 
in St. Paul's, and was presented by the dean 
and chapter in 1733 to the rectory of St. 
Bene*t and St. Peter, Paul's Wharf, which 
he retained till 1757 ; in 1742 he succeeded 
to a canonry of St. PauVs, and held it tiD 
1748. In 1742 he had been made one of 
George II's chaplains, and preached the Boylo 
lectures, which he did not publish; and, 
having secured the favour of the king when 
Prince of Wales, he was at last ^ popp^ into ' 
the bishopric of Peterborough, and conse- 
crated at Lambeth on 4 Oct. 1747. 

In 1752 he was selected to succeed Thomas 
Hayter [q v.], bishop of Norwich, as pre- 
ceptor to the young Prince of Wales, after- 
wards George III, Lord Waldegrave beioff 
governor ; these appointments were directed 




against the influence of the princess dowager. 
In 1757 he followed John Gilbert [a. vj, as 
bishop of Salisbury and also as clerK of the 
closet, and in 1761 was translated to Win- 
chester in succession to Benjamin Hoadly 
(1676-1761) [q. v.] He seems to have been 
a useful bisliop as well as a good preacher, 
though Hurd (Ktlvbrt, Life of Hurdjja. 119) 
speaks rather contemptuously of 'Honest 
Tom's ' laxity about patronage. 

He died at Winchester House, Chelsea, on 
1 May 1781, and was buried in Winchester 
Cathedral. He married Susan, daughter of 
Thomas Mulso of Twywell, Northampton- 
shire ; her brother Thomas married the bishop's 
sister, and their daughter, Mrs. Hester Cha- 
pone [q. v.], spent much of her time after her 
husband's death with her uncle and aunt 
at Famham Castle. Mrs. Thomas died on 
19 Nov. 1778, leaving three daughters, who 
married respectively Newton Ogle, dean of 
Winchester: William BuUer, afterwards 
bishop of Exeter; and Rear-admiral Sir 
Chaloner Ogle. 

There are portraits of the bishop at 
the palaces of Salisbury and Lambeth, and 
a fine mezzotint engraving (three-quarter 
length in robes of the Garter) by R. Sayer 
from a picture by Benjamin Wilson, pub- 
lished on 24 Jan. 1771. Richardson the 
novelist, in a letter to Miss Mulso, alludes 
to * the beni;?n countenance of my good lord 
of Peterboroiigli,' a phrase which is borne 
out by the portraits. 

John Thomas published ten or eleven sepa- 
rate discourses, chiefly spital, fast, or charity 
sermons. Ho is credited with some scholar- 
ship, and with taste in letter-writing. 

[Ciissan's Bishops of Salisbury, iii. 281- 
283, and Bishops of Winchester, ii. 270-77 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy ; Abbey's English 
Church and its Bishops, ii. 75 ; Life and Works 
of Mrs. Chapone ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

H. E. D. B. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1712-1793), bishop 
of Rochester, born at Carlisle on 14 Oct. 
1712, was tlie eldest son of John Thomas 
(<f. 1747 ), vicar of Brampton in Cumberland, 
by his wife Ann, daughter of Richard Kel- 
sick of Whitehaven, a captain in the mer- 
cliant service. The younger Thomas was 
educated at the Carlisle grammar school, 
whence he proceeded to Oxford, matricula- 
ting from Queen's College on 17 Dec. 1730. 
Soon after his admission he received a clerk- 
ship from the provost, Joseph Smith (1670- 
17o6) [q. v.] After completing his terms 
he became assistant master at an academy 
in Soho Square, and afterwards private tutor 
to the younger son of Sir William Clayton, 
bart., whose sister he afterwards married. 

On 27 March 1787 Thomas was ordained 
a deacon, and on 25 Sept. received priest's 
orders. On 27 Jan. 1737-8 he was in- 
stituted rector of Bletchingley in Surrey, a 
living in the gift of Sir William Clayton. 
He graduated B.C.L. on 6 March 1741-2, 
and D.C.L. on 25 May 1742, and on 18 Jan. 
1748-9 he was appointed chaplain in or- 
dinary to George II, a post which he also 
retained under George III. On 23 April 
1754 he was made a prebendary of West- 
minster, and in 1762 he was appointed sub- 
almoner to the archhishop of York. On 
7 Jan. 1766 he was instituted to the 
vicarage of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, London, 
and in 1768 he became dean of Westminster 
and of the order of the Bath. On 13 Nov. 
1774 he was consecrated bishop of Roches- 
ter. He signalised his episcopacy by repair- 
ing the deanery at Rochester and rebuilding 
the bishop's palace at Bromley, which was 
in»a ruinous state. He died at Bromley on 
22 Aug. 1793, and was buried in the vault 
of the parish church of Bletchingley. Ue 
was twice married : first, in 1742, to Anne, 
sister of Sir William Clayton, bart., and 
widow of Sir Charles Blackwell, bart. She 
died on 7 July 1772, and on 12 Jan. 1776 he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Bald- 
win of Munslow in Shropshire, and widow 
of Sir Joseph Yates [q. v.], judge of the court 
of king's bench. He left no children. Among 
other bequests he founded two scholarships 
at Queen s College for sons of clergymen edu- 
cated at the grammar school at Carlisle, and 
during his lifetime he established two simi- 
lar scholarships from Westminster school. 

Thomas's * Sermons and Charges ' were 
collected and edited after his death by his 
nephew, George Andrew Thomas, in 1790 
(London, 8vo, 3rd ed. 1803). Several of his 
sermons were published separately in his 
lifetime. His portrait in the robes of the 
Batb, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is in 
the library of Queen's College. An engrav- 
ing from it by Joseph Baker is prefixed to 
his * Sermons and Charges.' 

[Life of Thomas, by G. A. Thomas, prefixed 
to Sermons and Charges ; Chalmers's Biogr. 
Diet. 1816; Gent. Ma«. 1793 ii. 780, 86.3. 955, 
1794 i. 275; Lo Neve's Fasti Eccl. 1854, ii. 
576, iii. 349, 366 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852, p. 33; 
American Church Review, xix. 628 ; Manninpj's 
History of Surrey, ed. Bray, ii. 315; Stanley's 
Memorialsof Westminster Abbey, 5th ed. p. 477; 
Chester's London Marriage Licences, col. 1330.] 


THOMAS, JOHN (18ia-1862), sculptor 
and architectural draughtsman, bom at Chal- 
ford in Gloucestershire in 1813, was of 




Welsh descent. In 1825 he was appren- 
ticed to a neighbouring mason, and later 
assisted his brother William, an architect at 
Birmingham. A monument bj him at 
Huntingdon attracted the attention of Sir 
Charles Barry [q. v.], who employed him on 
the schools at Birmingham. lie first attracted 
public notice at the time of the rebuilding 
of the houses of parliament, when, coming 
to London, he was at once engaged by Barry 
on the sculptural decorations of the new 
structure. Ilis quick intelligence, technical 
facility, and organising talent soon marked 
him out as a yaluable collaborator for the 
architect, and the army of skilled carvers 
and masons employed upon the ornamenta- 
tion of the building were placed practically 
under his sole control. Ilis labours in this 
connection and the many commissions of a 
like nature resulting therefrom naturally 
hindered the production of more individual 
work. His only noticeable achievements of 
a more fanciful Kind were the * Queen of the 
Eastern Britons rousing her Subjects to Ke- 
venge,' * Musidora/ * Lady Godiva,* and * Una 
and the Lion.' Of the great mass of deco- 
rative work carried out by him the most 
characteristic examples, says the ' Builder,' 
are 'the colossal lions at the ends of the 
Britannia Bridge over the Mcnai Straits, the 
large bas-reliefs at the Euston Square Sta- 
tion, the pediment and figures in front of 
the Great Western Hotel, figures and vases 
of the new works at the Serpentine, the deco- 
rative sculpture on the entrance piers of Buck- 
ingham Palace. ... In Edinburgh there 
are specimens of his handiwork on the life 
assurance building, besides the group of 
figures'at the Masonic Ilall, and the fountain 
at Holyrood. In Windsor Castle he was 
much engaged for the late prince consort.' 

He haa nirther a considerable practice as 
an architectural draughtsman, and prepared 
the designs for the national bank at Glasgow, 
Sir Samuel Morton Peto's house at Somerley- 
ton, the mausoleum of the Ilouldsworth 
family, and the royal dairy at Windsor. 

Ilis design for a grand national monument 
to Shakespeare and a design for a great 
majolica fountain (executed by Messrs. Min- 
ton, and lately in the horticultural gardens) 
were at the International Exhibition of 1862. 
He died at his house in Blomfield Road, 
Maida Hill, on 9 April 1862, leaving a widow 
and a daughter. Among the unfinished works . 
in his studio at his death were statues of i 
Joseph Sturge [q. v.] for the city of Birming- 
ham and of Sir Hugh Myddelton [q. v.] for I 
Islington. He was a frequent exhibitor of 
busts and decorative subjects at the Royal 
Academy from 1838 to 1862. 

[Scott's British School of Sculpture; Art 
Journal, 1862; The Bnildur, 1862; Kedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists ; Diet, of Architecture.] 

W. A. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1795-1871), musical 
composer and Welsh song writer, also known 
as leuan Ddu, was bom at l*ibwr Llwyd, 
near Carmarthen, in 1795. He was edu- 
cated at Carmarthen, where subsequently he 
also kept a school for a short time. He then 
removed to Glamorganshire to follow the 
same occupation, and, except for a short 
period when he was clerk to Zephania Williams 
the chartist, at Blaenau, Monmouthshire, 
his whole life was spent in keeping a private 
school of his own, first at Merthyr Tydfil, 
and from 1850 on at Pontypridd and Tre- 
forest successively. He was twice married, 
and died atTreforest on 30 June 1871, being 
buried at Glyntaflf cemetery, where a monu- 
ment was erected over his grave by his 
* friends and pupils.' 

Thomas was one of the chief pioneers of 
choral training in the mining district of 
Glamorganshire, and is justly described in 
his epitaph as ' the first to lay the founda- 
tion of that prevailing taste for music which 
attained its triumph in the Crystal Palace 
(choral competition) in the years 1872 and 
1873.' For many years he regularly held 
musical classes at Merthyr and Pontypridd. 
In 1845 he published a collection of Welsh 
airs entitlea * Y Caniedydd Cymreig : the 
Cambrian Minstrel,' Merthyr, 4to. This con- 
tained forty-three pieces of his own composi- 
tion and a hundred and four old Welsh airs, 
one half of which he had gathered from the 
lips of the peasantry of Carmarthenshire and 
Glamorganshire, and which had never been 
previously published. For almost all these 
airs he wrote both the Welsh and English 
songSf several of which have been adopted 
in subsequent collections of Welsh music 
(cf. Brtnley Bichards, Sonffs of Wales, 
pp. iii, 39, 62, 68. 70). In 1849 he published 
a poem on * The Vale of TaflF' (Merthyr, 8 vo), 
which was followed in 1867 by a volume of 
poetry entitled * Cambria upon Two Sticks.' 
Thomas also contributed many papers to 
magazines, and a prize essay of his on the 
Welsh harp was puolished in the ' Cambrian 
Journal ' for 1855. 

[M. 0. Jones's Cerddorion Cymreig (Welsh 
Musicians), pp. 131-3, 160.] D. Lu T. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1821-1892), inde- 
pendent minister, son of Owen and Mary 
Thomas, was bom in Thomas Street, Holy- 
head, on 3 Feb. 1821. Owen Thomas 
[q. v.] was an elder brother. At the age of 
seventeen he left the Calvinistic methodist 




church in Bangor, with which his family 
was connected, and joined the independents, 
among whom he began in August 1839 to 
preach. After keeping school wr some time 
at Penraorfa, Carnarvonshire, and Prestatyn, 
Flintshire, he entered the dissenting academy 
of Marton, Shropshire, and subsequently that 
of Froodvale, Carmarthenshire. In March 
1842 he accepted the pastorate of Bwlch 
Newydd in the latter county, where he was 
ordained on 15 June 1842. His next pas- 
torate was that of Glyn Nedd, Glamorgan- 
shire, whither he moved in February 1850. 
In March 1854 he became minister of the 
Tabernacle Welsh independent church, 
Liverpool, in which town he spent the re- 
mainder of his days. His vigorous intellect 
and energetic spirit made him for half a 
century a prominent figure in his denomi- 
nation and in Welsh public movements 
generally. While a successful pastor and 
powerful preacher, he was even better 
known as a journalist, lecturer, organiser, 
and political speaker. He edited the * Gwe- 
rinwr,' a monthly periodical, in 1855 and 
185G; the *Anibynnwr/ another monthly, 
from 1857 to 1861 ; and the * Tyst,' a weekly 
newspaper of the independents, jointly with 
W^illiam Rees [q. v.] until 1872, and there- 
after as sole editor until his death. He had 
a large share in the 1662 commemoration 
movement which led to the building of the 
Memorial College at Brecon ; and he twice 
visited the United States, in 1865 and in 
1870, in the interests of the Welsh indepen- 
dent churches established there. He took a 
keen interest in the t-c^tal abstinence move- 
ment from its beginning in North Wales in 
18i^5, and was one of its best known advo- 
cates. In 1876 he received the degree of D.D. 
from Middlebury College, Vermont. He 
was chairman of the Union of Welsh Inde- 
pendents in 1878, and of the Congregational 
tJnion of England and Wales in 1885. 
He died on 14 July 1892 at Uwch y Don, 
Colwyn, and was buried in Anfield cemetery, 
Liverpool. On 23 Jan. 1843 he married 
Mrs. Eliza Owens, widow of his predeces- 
sor at Bwlch Newydd. 

The following is a list of his published 
works : 1. A volume of essays and sermons, 
Liverpool, 1864. 2. 'Memoir of Three 
Brothers,' viz., J., D., and N. Stephens, 
independent ministers, Liverpool, 1876. 
3. * llistory of the Independent Churches 
of Wales,' written jointly by Thomas and 
Thomas Kees (1815-1885) [q. v.], 4 vols., 
Liverpool, 1871-5. 4. A second volume of 
sermons, Wrexham, 1882. 5. *Life of the 
Rev. J. Davies, Cardiff/ Merthyr, 1883. 
6, ' History of the Temperance Movement in 

Wales/ Merthyr, 1885. 7. ' Life of the Rev. 
Thomas Rees, D.D.,* Dolgelly, 1888. 8. Fifth 
volume of the 'History of the Churches,' 
written by Thomas only, Dolgelly, 1891. A 
novel, 'Arthur Llwyd y Felin/ was pub- 
lished posthumously (Liverpool, 1893). 
There is a portrait in oils oi Thomas in 
the Memorial College, Brecon. 

[Information kindly furnished by Mr. Josiah 
ThoiDHR, Liverpool ; articles in the Geninen (Oc- 
tober 1892) and Cymru (October 1892).] 

J. E. L. 

THOMAS, JOHN EVAN (1809-1873), 
sculptor, bom in Brecon in 1809, was the 
eldest son of John Thomas of Castle Street, 
Brecon. He came to London and studied 
under Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey [q. v.] 
From 1835 to 1867 he exhibited frequently 
at the Royal Academy. His works were 
chiefly busts, and for many years he laboured 
at nothing else. Later in fife, however, he 
executed several statues in marble and 
bronze and several portrait statuettes. 
Among his statues was a colossal bronze 
figure of the Marquis of Bute at Cardiff, 
lie also sculptured a statue of the Duke of 
Wellington at Brecon, of Prince Albert on 
the Castle Hill, Tenby, of James Henry 
Vivian at Swansea, of the Prince of Wales 
at the Welsh schools at Ashford, of Sir 
Charles Morgan at Newport, and of Sir 
Joseph Bailey at Glanusk Park. About 
1857 Thomas retired to Penisha'r Pentre in 
Brecknockshire, where he filled the office of 
sheriff. He died at his London residence, 
58 Buckingham Palace Road, on 9 Oct. 
1873, and was buried in Prompt on cemetery. 
He was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries on 3 Feb. 1842. 

[Brecon County Times, 18 Oct. 1873; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists.] W. A. 

THOMAS, JOHN FRYER (1797-1877), 
Madras civil servant, bom in 1797, entered 
the service in 1816, and after holding mini- 
sterial appointments in the court of Sadr 
Adalat and ofliciating in various revenue and 
judicial appointments, including those of prin- 
cipal collector and magistrate and of jud|^ 
of the provincial court of appeal and circuit, 
was eventually in 1844 appointed secretary, 
and in the following year chief secretary to 
the government of Madras, in both of which 

, positions he exercised considerable influence 
over the governor, the Marquis of Tweed- 

I dale [see Hat, Gbobge, eighth Majiquis of 
Tweeddale]. In 1850 he became a member 
of the governor's council, and in 1855 he re- 
tired from the service. He was a man of 
marked ability. Some of his minutes, re- 




corded in yerj incUive languaffe, are among 
the ablest papers in the archives of the 
Madras Presidency. Among them perhaps 
the most remarkable are a review of Mac- 
aulay's draft of the Indian penal code, and 
a minute on native education, written in 
1850, shortly after he joined the Madras 
government. He considered the educational 
policy then in force unduly ambitious, and 
held that the funds available, veir limited in 
amount, ought to be expended rather in 
educating the many through the medium of 
the vernacular languages than in instruct- 
ing the few in the higher branches of lite- 
rature and science through the medium of 
English. He also advocated the adoption 
of the grant-in-aid system and its applica- 
tion to missionary schools as well as to 
others. He strongly supported and libe- 
raUy contributed to missionary efforts, and 
deprecated the continued exclusion of the 
Biole from the course of instruction in go- 
vernment schools, differing on this point 
from James Thomason [q. v.] He died in 
Ix)ndon on 7 April 1877. 

[India Office Kecords ; Selections from tho 
Records of the Madms Government, No. 2, 
1855 ; personal knoivledge.] A. J. A. 

1872), translator of Dante, bom on 4 Aug. 
1798 at Exeter, was the son of John Thomas, 
a tradesman and leading Wesleyan local 
nreacher in that city. In 1820 he went to 
London, attaching himself to the Hiude 
Street circuit, and in 1822 entered the itine- 
rating ranks of the Wesleyan ministry. 
After fifty years of active ministerial effort 
he died at Dumfries on 7 Feb. 1872. 

Although for the most part self-educated, 
Thomas was a considerable linguist, a poet 
of some capacity, and an artist of ability. 
He contributed largely to the * Wesleyan 
Methodist Magazine and other periodicals. 
His most important published works are: 
1. * An Apologv for Don Juan,' cantos i. and 
iL 1824 ; Srd ed, with canto iii. 1850 ; new 
edition, 1855 ; this is a review and criticism 
of Lord Byron's poetry written in the * Don 
Juan ' stanza. 2. ' Lyra Britannica, or Se- 
lect Beauties of Moaem English Poetry,' 
1830. S. * The Trilogy of Dante : " Inferno," 
1869; " Purgatorio/' 1862 ; " Paradiso," 
1860/ An able translation of Dante's poem 
in the metre of the original, with scholarly 
notea and appendices. Its merits have been 

Snerally admitted by English students of 
uite. 4. * The Lord b Day, or the Christian 
Sabbath: its History. Oluigation, Import- 
ance, and BLesaedness, 1865. 6. ' Poems on 
Saovedy Claasical, Medinval, and Modem Sub- 

jects,' 1867. 6. ' The War of the Surplice : 
a Poem in Three Cantos,' 2nd ed. 1871 j the 
troubles in 1845 of Henry Phillpotts [q. v. J, 
bishop of Exeter, are the subject of this 
poem. 7. ' Tho Tower, the Temple, and the 
Minster: the Historical and Biographical 
Associations of the Tower of London, St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and Westminster Abbey,' 
1873. 8. * William the Silent, Prince of 
Orange,' 1873. 

[Christopher's Poets of Methodism, 1875, 
pp. 344-66 ; Methodist Recorder, February 
1872, pp. 79, 91 ; Christian World. 16 Feb. 
1872; Athena>um, 1872, i. 337; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Comub.] R. B. 

THOMAS, JOSHUA (1710-1797), Welsh 
writer, was the eldest son of Morgan Thomas 
of Tyheu in the parish of Caio, Carmarthen- 
shire, where he was bom on 22 Feb. 1719. 
In 1739 he was apprenticed to his uncle, 
Simon Thomas, who was a mercer and in- 
dependent minister at Hereford, and was 
the author of numerous works both in Welsh 
and English, mostly printed at a private 
press of his own, one of which, a popu- 
lar summary of universal history, entitled 
* Hanes y Byd a*r Amseroedd,* ran through 
several editions (Asutox, p. 159). In 1746 
Joshua married and settled in business at 
Hay, Breconshire, where he preached occa- 
sionally at the baptist chapel of Maesyberllan, 
of which church he was appointed co-pastor 
in 1749. In 1764 he undertook the pastor- 
ship of the baptist church of Leommster, 
where he kept a day-school until his death. 

Thomas translated into Welsh several 
works dealing with the doctrines of the bap- 
tist denomination, including the following : 
1. * Dr. GilFs Keply to the Arguments for 
Infant Baptism, advanced by Griffith Jones 
of Llanddowror,' with some additions by 
Thomas himself, 1751. 2. * Tystiolaeth y 
Credadyn am ei bawl i'r Nefoedd,' 1757. 
3. * Samuel Ewer*s Reply to Edward Hitchin 
on Infant Baptism, with additions by 
Thomas, Carmarthen, 1767, 12mo. 4. 'Ro- 
bert Hall's Doctrine of the Trinity/ Car- 
marthen, 1794. 

But Thomases most important work was 
his history of the baptists in Wales, pub- 
lished in 1778 under the title 'Hanes y 
Bedyddwyr ymhlith y Cymry, o amser yr 
Apostolion hyd y flwyddyn hon,' Car- 
marthen, 8vo. A supplement of corrections 
and additions was also issued in 1780. The 
author's own manuscript translation into 
English of this work, with additions thereto, 
is preserved in the Baptists' Library at Bria- 
tol. Thomas subsequently wrote, in English^ 
' A History of the Baptist Association in 
Wales/ wmch first appeared in the ' Baptist 

Thomas iss Thomas 

Ilegister ' between 1791 and 1795, and was ' volames of sermons: 1. * Searen Sermons, 
published in book form in the latter vear or the Exercises of Seven Sabbaths; together 
( London, 8vo). These two works still form j with a Short Treatise upon the Command- 
the chief sources of information as to the early ments.' The first edition was issued in 1599 
history oftheliaptist denomination in "Wales. (Abber, Transcript of the Stationer^ Re^ 
A new edition of the Welsh history, with gUter, iii. 140), but no copy of it is now 
additions, was brought out by B. Davies of known. A fourth edition appeared in 1602, 
Pontypridd in l^^^o. Thomas died at Leo- \ and a seventh and tenth, printed in black 
minster on 25 Aug. 1797. letter, in 1610 and 1619 respectively {Brit, 

As many as eleven members of Thomas's ' Mwi. Cat.), while another edition is men- 
family entered the baptist ministry. His ; tioned as issued in 1630 (Wood). 2. * Deme- 
son Timothy Tliomas (1753-1827) was for '- goriai. Certaine Lectures upon Sundry Por- 

Zechariah ('1727-1810), were successively great seal, who was one of Thomas's first 

pastors of A oerduar church, Carmarthenshire patrons. 

(Seren Gi/mer, 1820, p. 3(51 ; cf. Davies, Echoes [Wood's Athena Oxon. ii. 277, Fasti ii. 286 ; 

from the WeUh Ililhy p. 33*^). The former Clark's Register of the University of Oxford, iii. 

was the author or translator of several doc- 139; Foster's Alumni Oxoq. 1500-1714, s.x. 

trinal works in AVelsh, the best-known being * Evans ' and • Thomas ; ' Williams's Eminent 

' Y Wisg wen Ddisglaer * (1759), and a small Welshmen, p. 487.] D. Ll T. 

vohime of hymns (17G4). THOMAS, MATTHEW EVAN (1788?- 

.-^^^r*" "T"^ ^"''\^'''' ^imivL Thomas {d, ^ggQ)^ architect, bom in 1787 or 1788, was 

1.090, who was bom early in the seven- ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 1 Academy. In 1815 

teenth centunr at Penpes in the parish of j,^ ^^^ ^he academy's gold iedal for a 

H^^"?^^^"^^^»%^T^^^^^^ design for a palace. He went to Italy in 

of Tir Abbot in the same county in 1/39, ^^ie following year, remaining there till 

vicar of Merthyr Cynog 1/41, with which j^jq ^^^' ^^ g^ ^^ ;^ ^^^^^ ^ 

he also held, from 1/-16 the living of Llan- member of the academy at Florence, and of 

bister, Radnor8hire,till l/58,when hebe- st. Luke at Home. After his return he 

;ry respect one oi the best ,qLv ••' q, n 
AVclsh books published in this period'(Row. ^"^"' "* ^^'J 
LANDS, Cambr. Bibliography, pp. 431,439-9). THOMAS, Sir XO AH (1720-1792), phy- 
[J. T. Jones's (Juirijulur Bywgraffyddol, pp. sician, son of Hophni Thomas, master of a 
•OC), .')71, 073, 575, 579, 591, 595; Ashton's merchant vessel, was bom at Neath, Glamor- 
llanos Llenyddiju'th Gymroig, pp. 289-95; ganshire, inl720. He was educated at Oak- 
l^owlivnds'H Cambrian Bibliography, pp. 445-6, ham school, when Mr. Adcock was itshead- 

prunchor, born in 1508, was a native of inLondon,was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
(Uamorganshiro, or, according to another Society on 1 Feb. 1753, was elected a fellow 

account, of Radnorshire. He was educated of the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1757, 

at Oxford, wliero lie matriculated, under the and delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 

nani(» of Lewis Kvans, from Gloucester Hall, 1759. In 1761, 1706, 1767, and 1781 ho was 

11 Dec. 1581, and graduated B. A. from Rrase- one of the censors. He became physician 

n()S(» (\)ll(»ge on 15 Ftd). 1580-7, being then extraordinary to George III in 1763, and 

described as * Lewis Kvans alias Thomas.' physicianinordinary 1775, and was knighted 

I le took orders soon after, and was eventually in that year. He was also physician to the 

beneficed 'in his native couiitv of Glam 

and elsewhere' (Wood). It issuppo 

he was alive in 1619, but the date of his 

death is unknown. 

imorgan Lock Hospital. He died at Bath on 17 May 
sed that 1 792. His i)ortrait was painted by Sir Joshua 

l)ortrait was painted by 
Reynolds, and hangs m the combination- 
room of St. Johns College, Cambridge. In 

He was the author of the following two the College of Physicians he was esteemed 




or bis learning, but he never published any 

[Miink*B Coll. of Phys. ii. 218 ; extract from 
iriginal legistar of St. John's College kindly 
made by the bursar, Mr. B. F. Scott.] N. M. 

THOMAS, OWEX (1812-1891), Cal- 
vinistic methodist minister, son of Owen 
and Mary Thomas, was born in Edmund 
Street, ilolyhead, on 10 Dec. 1812. John 
Thomas (1821-1892) [q. v.] was a younger 
brother. Ilis father was a stonemason, and 
he followed the same occupation from the 
time of the removal of the family to Bangor 
in 1827 until he was twenty-two. In 1834 
he began to preach in connection with the 
Calvinistic methodists, among whom his 
father had been a lay officer until his death 
in 1831, and at once took high rank as a 
preacher. After keeping school in Bangor 
for some years, he entered in 1838 the Cal- 
vinistic methodist college at Bala, and thence 
proceeded in 1841 to the university of Edin- 
Durgh. Lack of means, however, K)rced him 
to cut short his imiversity course before he 
could graduate, and in January 1844 he be- 
came pastor of Penymount chapel, Pwllheli. 
In the following September he was ordained 
in the North Wales Association meeting at 
Bangor. Two years later he moved to New- 
town, Montgomeryshire, to take charge of 
the English Calvinistic methodist church in 
that town, and at the end of 1851 he accepted 
the pastorate of the Welsh church meeting in 
Jewin Crescent, London. In 1865 he moved 
again to Liverpool, where he spent the rest 
0? his days as pastor, first, of the Netherfield 
Road, and then (from 1871) of the Princes 
Road church of the Calvinistic methodists. 
He was moderatoroftheNorth Wales Associa- 
tion in 1863 and 1882, and of the general as- 
sembly of the denomination in 18G8 and 1888. 
Throughout life he was a close student, and 
his literary work bears witness to his wide 
theological reading and talent for exposition. 
But it was as a preacher he won tne com- 
manding position he occupied in Wales ; his 
native gifts of speech and intense earnest- 
ness enabled him to wield in the pulpit an 
influence which was said to recall tnat of 
John Elias [q. v.], and he never appeared to 
better advantage than in the ^eat open-air 
Birvices held in connection with the meet- 
ings of the two associations. In 1877 the 
decree of D.D. was conferred upon him by 
Pnnceton College, New Jersey. He died 
on 2 Aug. 1891, and was buried in Anfield 
cemetery, Liverpool. 

The iollowing is a list of his published 
works : 1. A Welsh translation of Watson's 
essay on ' Sanctification/ Llanrwst, 1839. 

2. * Commentary on the New Testament' 
(1862-1885), embodied in additional notes 
to a Welsh version of Kitto's * Commentary.' 
Editions of the commentaries on * Hebrews * 
(1889) and 'Galatians' (1892) were issued 
separately. 3. * Life of the Rev. John Jones, 
Talsam, with a Sketch of the History of 
W^elsh Theology and Preaching ' (Welsh), 
2 vols. Wrexham, 1874. 4. ' Life of the Rev. 
Henry Rees' (Welsh), 2 vols. Wrexham, 
1890. Thomas was a contributor to the 
'Traethodydd' from its start, and for a time 
one of its two joint editors. Many of the 
articles in th« first edition of the *Gwyd- 
doniadur,' a Welsh encyclopaedia, in ten 
volumes (1857-77), were from his pen. 

On 24 Jan. 1860 he married Ellen (d. 1867)» 
youngest daughter of the Rev. William 
Roberts, Amlwch. 

[Information kindly furnished by the Rev. 
Josiah Thomas, M.A. of Lirerpool ; articles in 
the Geninen (January 1892), D^'sgedydd (Sep- 
tember 1891); and Cymru (September 1891).] 

J. E. L. 

THOMAS, RICHARD (1777-1867), 
admiral, a native of Saltaah in Cornwall, 
entered the navy in May 1790 on board the 
Cumberland with Captain John Macbride 
[q. vj He was afterwards in the Blanche in 
the West Indies, and when she was paid off 
in June 1792 he joined the Nautilus sloop, 
in which he again went to the West Indies, 
and was present at the reduction of Tobago, 
Martinique, and St. Lucia. At Martinique 
he commanded a fiat-bottomed boat in the 
brilliant attack upon Fort Royal. He re- 
turned to England in the Boyne, and waa 
still on board her when she was burnt at 
Spithead on 1 May 1796. He was after- 
wards in the Glory and Commerce de Mar- 
seille in the Channel, and in the Barfleur 
and Victory in the Mediterranean, and on 
15 Jan. 1797 was promoted to be lieutenant 
of the Excellent, in which, on 14 Feb., he 
was present in the battle of Cape St. Vin- 
cent [see CoLLiXGWooD, Cuthbert, Lord]. 
He continued in the Excellent off Cadiz till 
June 1798, when he was moved to the 
Thalia ; in February 1799 to the Defence ; 
in December to the Triumph, and in October 
1801 to the Barfleur, then carrying Colling- 
wood's flag in the Channel. During the 
peace he was in the Leander on the Halifax 
station, and was promoted to the rank of 
commander on 18 Jan. 1803. The Lady 
Hobart nacket, in which he took a passage 
for England, was wrecked on an iceberg. 
After seven days in a small boat he, wim 
his companion^, succeeded in reaching Cove 
Island, north of St. John's, Newfoundland. 
On his arrival in England he was appointed^ 




in December 1803, to the Etna bomb, which 
he took out to the Mediterranean. He was 
posted on 22 Oct. 1805 to the Bellerophon, 
from which he was moved to the Queen as 
flag-captain to Lord Collingwood, with 
whom, in the Ocean and the ville de Paris, 
he continued till Collingwood*s death in 
March 1810. He remained in the Ville de 
Paris, as a private ship, till December, and 
in February 1811 was appointed to the Un- 
daunted, in which he co-operated with and 
assisted the Spaniards along the coast of 
Catalonia. In February 1813, after nine 
years* continuous service in the Mediterra^ 
nean, he was obliged by the bad state of his 
health to return to England. In 1822-6 he 
was captain of the ordinary at Portsmouth, 
and in the same capacity at Plymouth in 
1834-7. He became a rear-admiral on 
10 Jan. 1837, was commander-in-chief in 
the Pacific from 1841 to 1844 — a time of 
much revolutionary trouble and excitement, 
was promoted to be vice-admiral on 8 Jan. 
1848, admiral on 11 Sept. 1854, and died at 
Stonehouse, Plymouth, on 21 Aug. 1857. 
He married, in October 1827, Gratina, 
daughter of Lieutenant-general Robert Wil- 
liams of the lioyal Marines, and left issue. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 
1857. ii. 468.] J. K. L. 

THOMAS, SAMUEL (1627-1693), non- 
juror, born in 1027 at Ubley, Somerset, was 
the son of William Thomas (1593-1667) 
[q. v.], rector of Ubley. lie graduated B. A. 
from Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1648-9, 
and was incorporated at Oxford on 20 Aug. 
1651. He became a fellow of St. Johns 
College, and graduated M.A. on 17 Dec. 
1651, being incorporated at Cambridge in 
1663. In 1660 he was deprived of his fel- 
lowship by the royal commissioners, and was 
soon alter made a chaplain or petty canon of 
Christ Church, where in 1672 he became a 
chantor. He was also vicar of St. Thomas's 
at Oxford, and afterwards curate of Holy 
well. In 1681 he became vicar of Chard in 
Somerset, and on 3 Aug. of the same year 
was appointed to the prebend of Compton 
Bishop in the see of Wells. On the acces- 
sion of William and Mary, Thomas was one 
of those who refused to take the oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy, and he was in 
consequence deprived of his prebend in 1691, 
and in the following year of the vicarage 
of Chard. He died at Chard on 4 Nov. 1693, 
and was buried in the chancel of the parish 

Thomas was the author of : 1. *The Pres- 
byterians UnmasW, or Animadversions 
upon a Nonconformist Book called the In- 

terest of England in the Matter of Religion/ 
London, 1676, 8vo; republished in 1681 
under the title * The Dissenters Disarmed/ 
without the preface, as a second part to the 
* New Distemper ' of Thomas Tomkins (d. 
1675) [q. v.] The * Interest of England lin 
the Matter of Religion' was written by 
John Corbet (1620-1680) [q. v.] Baxter 
terms Thomases reply 'a bloody invective' 
(Works, xviii. 188). 2. 'The Charge of 
Schism renewed against the Separatists,' 
London, 1680, 4to. A pamphlet written in 
reply to ' An Answer to Dr. Stillingfleet's 
Sermon on the Mischief of Separation ' by 
Stephen Lobb [q. v.] and John Humfrey 
[q. v.] 3. * Remarks on the Preface to the 
Protestant Reconciler [by Daniel WTiitby, 
q. v.] in a Letter to a Friend,' London, 1683, 
4to. Thomas also wrote a preface to Tom- 
kins's * New Distemper,' in wnich he assailed 
Richard Baxter ana other nonconformists. 

[Wood's Athenie Oxen. ed. Bliss, iv. 390 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxen. 1500-1714; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 5882, 
f. 39.] E. L C. 

(1860-1886), metallurgist and inventor, bom 
on 16 April 1860 at Canonbury, London, 
was son of William Thomas (1808-1867), 
a Welshman in the solicitors' department of 
the inland revenue office, and his wife 
Melicent (b. 1816), eldest daughter of the 
Rev. James Gilchrist, author or the * Intel- 
lectual Patrimony' (1817). Thomas, who 
was mainly educated at Dulwich College, 
early manifested a strong bent towards 
applied science. The death of his father 
when Thomas was still at school and not 
yet seventeen led him to resolve to earn at 
once a livelihood for himself. For a few 
months he was an assistant master in an 
Essex school. Later in the same year (1 807) 
he obtained a clerkship at Marlborough 
Street police-court, whence in the summer 
of 1868 he was transferred to a similar 
post at the Thames court, Arbour Square, 
Stepney. Here, at a very modest salary, 
he remained until 1879. Meanwhile he had, 
after office hours, pursued the study of applied 
chemistry, and the solution of one special 
problem became, about 1870, the real pur- 
pose of his life. This problem was the de- 
phosphorisation of pig-iron in the Bessemer 
converter. A sentence used by Mr. Chaloner, 
teacher of chemistry at the Birkbeck Insti- 
tution, in the course of a lecture which 
Thomas heard, seems to have imprinted itself 
deeply on Thomas's mind : ' The man who 
eliminates phosphorus by means of the Bes- 
semer converter will make his fortune.' 




Both the Bessemer and the Siemens- 
Martin processes, which were then, and 
still are, the most used methods of convert- 
ing pig-iron into steel, laboured under the 
serious drawback that in neither was the 
phosphorus, which is a very common im- 
puritj of iron ores, removed. This was a 
matter of the highest practical importance ; 
for the retained phosphorus rendered steel 
made by these systems from phosphoric ores 
brittle and worthless. Consequently only 
non-phosphoric ores could be used, and the 
great mass of British, French, German, and 
l^lgian iron became unavailable for steel- 
making. If phosphoric pig-iron could be 
cheaply dephosphorised m the course of 
these processes, the cost of the production 
of steel would be diminished and the supply 
of the raw material indefinitely increased. 
From 1860 onwards Sir Henry BBssemer and 
an army of experimentalists vainly grappled 
with the difficulty. 

Thomas devoted his whole leisure to these 
questions, experimentalising unceasingly in 
a little workshop at home, and attending 
systematically the laboratories of various 
chemical t^eachers. He submitted himself 
from time to time to the science examina- 
tions of the science and art department and 
of the Royal School of Mines, and he passed 
all the examinations qualifying him for the 
degree in metallurgy given by this latter 
institution, but was denied it because he 
was unable to attend the day-time lectures. 
Holidays from his police-court labours were 
mainly spent in visiting ironworks in this 
country and abroad. In 1873 he was offered 
-the post of analytical chemist to a great 
brewery at Burton-on-Trent, but declined it 
from conscientious scruples about fostering, 
even indirectly, the use of alcohol. During 
1874 and subsequent years he contributed 
regularly to the technical journal ' Iron.' 

Towards the end of 1875 Thomas arrived 
at a theoretic and provisional solution of the 
problem of dephosporisation. He discovered 
that the non-elimination of phosphorus in 
the Bessemer converter was depenaent upon 
the character, from a chemical standpoint, 
of its lining. This lining varied in mate- 
rial ; but it was always of silicious sort. The 
phosphoms in the pig-iron was rapidly oxi- 
dised during the process, or, in other words, 
formed phosphoric acid. This phosphoric 
acid, owing to the silicious character of the 
slag, was' again reduced to phosphorus and 
re-entered the metal. Thomas, therefore, saw 
clearly the necessity of a change in the chemi- 
cal constitution of the lining. A basic lining 
was essential, a * base ' being a substance 
which would combine with the phosphoric 

acid formed b^ the oxidising of the phos- 

Ehorus. In this way the phosphorus would 
e hindered from re-entering the metal and 
would be deposited in the slag. The basic 
substance must be one able to endure the in- 
tense heat of the process, since the durability 
of the * lining ' was essential to that cheap- 
ness which was the main requisite of com- 
mercial success. A long scries of experiments 
led Thomas to the selection, for the material 
of the new lining, of lime, or its congeners — 
magnesia or magnesian limestone. Thomas 
foresaw not only that by employing such a 
lining he was removing phosphorus from the 
pig-iron, but that in the phosphorus de- 
posited in the basic slag he was creating a 
material itself of immense commercial 

To a cousin, Mr. Percy Gilchrist, M.R.S.M. 
(afterwards F.R.S.), who was chemist to 
large ironworks at Blaenavon, Thomas com- 
municated the * basic theory,' and Gilchrist 
joined him in further experiments with vary- 
ing success ; but ultimately the two young 
men established their theory. Thomas took 
out his first patent in November 1877. Mr. 
E. P. Martin, the manager of the works where 
Mr. Gilchrist was employed, was early in 1878 
admitted into the secret, and proved most 
helpful. In March 1878 Thomas first publicly 
announced, at a meeting of the Iron and 
Steel Institute of Great Britain, that he had 
successfully dephosphorised iron in the Bes- 
semer converter. The announcement, how- 
ever, was disregarded, but the complete speci- 
fication of his patent was filed in May 1878, 
and patent succeeded patent down to the 

Eremature death of the inventor. Thomas 
ad meanwhile made an all-important convert 
in Mr. £. Windsor Richards, then manager 
of Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co.'s huge 
ironworks in Cleveland. On 4 April 1879 
most successful experiments on a large scale 
were carried out at that company's Middles- 
borough establishment. These experiments 
at once secured the practical commercial 
triumph both of the process and of the in- 
ventor. A paper, written earlier by Thomas 
in conjimction with Mr. Gilchrist for the 
Iron and Steel Institute on the ^Elimina- 
tion of Phosphorus in the Bessemer Con- 
verter,' was read in May 1879. There the 
problem to be solved and its solution, now 
experimentally demonstrated by the * basic' 
process, were clearly and succinctly stated. 
Thomas proved that he had solved the pro- 
blem by substituting in the Bessemer con- 
verter a durable basic lining for the former 
silicious one, and he avoided 'waste of lining 
by making large basic additions, so as to 
secure a highly hasic slag at an early stage of 




th* blow.* This In,-: hnnch of rhe solar ion fortune to the alleviation of the livea of the 

diif*rre!i*iar<>d th- «ucc»:**ful Thoma*-GLl- worker*. He bequeathed this intention to 

Christ pr.:K^?*9 from s-jme oth^r attempts on his $i«ter a« a sacred trust. After a modest 

fi^im*what slmflir I:nr.«. Th-?" process could provision had been made for her and for his 

ali'i Ui adapt**d to the 'S:»rmt?n3 Martin' mother hij monev was spent on phiianthropte 

syi^eni. It wai? imm-Iiirely used b>th in objects. 

Great Britain anl aVir'-'ad, and it spread There is a portrait of Thomas in oils by 

rapidlv. In IS-t ^*4.7W tons of * basic* Mr. Ilubert Herkomer, R. A. (executed from 

sv-e! were pr-vl'i-^l in all parts of the photographs after death), now in the poases- 

world, and in l-'-.» 2.L'74..Vi2 tons. More- simof >lrs. Percy Thompson at Sevenoaks. 
OTMr in thi.A la.-t y.-nr thvr- were also pro- [Je-mss Creator* of the Ago of Steel. 1884; 

d'ic»rd. to?»-th»r wi*h the ^teel. 700,000 tons Bamre"* Memoir and Letten of Sidney Gil- 

fif slaz, most of w!iich was us*^! for land- chrirt Thomas. 18r*l ; 'A Rjire Yoaof? Man,' by 

fertili-in? purpo«»-. In Knjland and GkT' the Right Hon. W. E. Gbulstone, in Youth's 

many alone — no fieri ir-* are now acct^ssible for Manz^ne (Boston, Mass.). 4 Aug. 1892; per- 

ot her coant rie«—th-o'ir pit in l'*9.j amounted •^"»l knowledge.] R. W. B. 

to '2,^'J'<A76 ton«. The pnyluction of basic THOMAS, THOMAS (1553-1588), 

»»lai»' in the same y»'.ir may be e:«timated as printer and lexicofinrapher, bom in the citv 

aVx>ut a third of the weight of the steel of London on 25 Dec. 1553, was educated 

pro<iuced. at Eton school. He was admitted a scholar 

Thomas, who was po-ise'se^l of great finan- of King's Colle^, Cambridge, on 24 Aug. 
cial ability, as wvU h< of a thorough know- * 1571, and a ft?llow on 24 Aug. 1574. 

\*-flzK' of Briti.'.h and rontinental patent law, He proceeded B..\. in 1575, commenced 

had early secured his inventors rights, not M.A. in 1579, and on 20 Jan. 1580- 

only in Great ISritain but also on the con- 1">'?1 was enjoined to divert to the study of 

tinent and in Am»Tica. He thus secured theo!i)gy. On 3 May 15>*2 he was con- 

the 'fortune' predicted by Mr. Chaloner. stituteil the first printer to the university 

But systematic ov»Twork had ruined his of Cambridge, but nothing from his press 

h«ralth, and serious limg trouble soon mani- ] appeared l)efore 1584, when he issued the 

festcd itself. In May 1 '•70 ho at lenjfth re- I edition of Ramus's 'Dialectics' by (Sir) 

fii;rned his junior clerksliip at the Thames William Temple (1555-1027) fq. v.]* About 

police-court. In thi* early part of IS"^! 1W3 he had begun to print alwok by Wil- 

J'bomas jiaid a triumplial vi.>it to the Tnited [ liam Whitaker I_q. v.], and had other works 

Stjites, wli*-re h»' wns enthusiastically wel- ■ in readiness fi»r the press, when the Sta- 

com»*d by the l»'ri'lin;,' m»*tallurpists and ' " '^ ' 

ironmasters. In ]>*^'2 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the counr^il of the Irm and Steel 
In-titnt«', «ucr»r*"'lin:: Sir James Ramsden, 
and on 9 May l>*^:i hi; \va< voted the Besse- 
m'T^'old medal by tin* council of the institute. 
But the last few y»'ars of his short life were 
occupied in a vain S'^arcli for health. After 
Hojoums atA'entnor ami Tonjuav, he made 
in 1><8.*{ a prolonged voyage round the world, 

by way of tlie (.^n]>«', India, and Australia, 
r<'turning by the I. nit«?d States. The winter 
of IHs.'} and tlu' spring and early summer of 
\x^\ were spent in Algiers. Here experi- 
ments wen? pursued on the utilisation 01 the 
Mia'^ic slag' formed in the Thomas-Gilchrist 

})rr)c«.!««s. Xew lint;s of research were also 
>e;run_nota])ly an endeavour to produce a 
new typ'i- writer. In the summer of 1884 
ThoniiH came northward with his mother 
find sister to Paris, wlwre he died on 1 Feb. 
lHS5 of * emphysema.' H*- was buried in the 
Passy cemetery. He was unmarried. 

Thomas secured a largo financial reward 

for his labours ; but from the first ho held 

* "dvanced* polit ical and social views, and 

'C lived he had intended to devote his 

tioners' Company of London, regarding the 
proceedings as an infringement 01 their privi- 
legi.'S, seized his press and materials. The 
vice-chancellor and heads of colleges applied 
to their chancellor, Lord Burghley, n»<| nest- 
ing his interposition on behalf of their an- 
cient privilege. Eventually Burghley wrote 
in reply, stating that he had consulted Sir 
Gilbert (ierrard, master of the rolls, to whom 
he had submitted their charter, and who 
concurred with him in opinion that it was 

Thomas, who was called bv Martin Mar- 
Prelate the puritan Cambridge printer, 
laboured with such assiduity at the com- 
pilation of his Latin dictionary as to bring 
on a fatal disease. He was buried in the 
church of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge, 
on 9 Aug. 1588. 

Ames enumerates seventeen works which 
came from his press. He was the author 
of: *Thomro Thomasii Dictionarium summa 
fide ac diligentia accuratissime emendatum^ 
magnaque insuper Rerum Scitu Dignarum, 
ct Vocabulorum accessione, longd auctius 
locupletiusquc reddi