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f -^ '"^- f ^' 




Whichcord Williams 






Whichcord Williams 




FEB 21 1900 



J. B. A. . . J. B. ATLiT, 

B. B-L. . . . BiCBUtD Baowell. 

U. B Uis8 Batxson. 

B. B Tarn Bxr. Bomild Batnb. 


U. B-i.. . . Uacxkhzie Bill. ^ 

C. B Pbofxbsor Ckcil Bkiidall. 

T. 0. B. . . Ths Bit. PRonaaoB BoimiT, 

a. S. B. . . 0. S. BODLOEB. 

£. L 0. . . . E. iBTitta Caklili. 

W. C-R. . . WiLLUH Garb. 

J. L. C. . . J. L. Caw. 

A. H. C. . . Miss A. M. Clbbxi. 

A. M. C-K. . UiBB A. 11. Coou. 

T. C Thohfson Ooopkk, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COOBTNET. 

L. C LiOKXL CvsT, F.S.A. 

H. D HZKBT Datkx- 


B. D BoBxsT Ddklop. 

C. L. F. . . C. LmoN Falsixeb. 
C. H. F. . . C. H. FiBTH. 

W. O. D. F. The Rbt. W. Q. D. Fletchir. 
S. B. O. . . 8. B. Gabdibbb, LL.D., D.CL. 
B. G RicHABO Oab-vett, LL.D., C.B. 

^ A. O. . . . Tbb Ret. Almasheb Gordok. 

; J. C, H. . . J. CUTHBERT HaODBN-. 

j J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilto!!. 

I C. A. H. . . C. Alexander Harris. 

' P. J. H. . . P. J. Hartoo. 

3. A. H-T. . J. A. Hebbibt. 

W. H.. . . . The Bet. Willuu HnxT. 

J. H John Hotcbixbon. 

W. H. H. . The Bby. W. H. Hottos, D.D. 

A- J The Bit. Adoustos Jtnorr, 


3. K. . , . . Joseph KmoHr, F.S.A. 

J. E. L. . . Pbofessob J. E. Laoohtos, 

S. L StSHET Lee. 

F. L Francis Leoob. 

E. M. L. . . CoLOBBL E. M. Llotp, BE. 

J. E. L. . . J. E. Llosd. 

J. H. L. . . The Bet. J. H. LnpTos, B.D. 

M. MacD.. . Michael HacDonaoh. 

J. B M. . . J. K MACtwNAU). 

£. U. ... SRKRirr MtcxAt. 

D. S. H. . . The Ret. Pbofessob D. S. 


H. E. M. . . The Rioht Hon. Sib Hebbert 
Maewbll, Bart., M.P , 

L. M. M. . . Miss Midcleion. 


List of Writers. 

K. M. . . . 


G. S-H. . . 

. Geoboe Stbonacb. 

J. B. M. . 

. J. Bass Mullikokb. 

C. W. S. . 

. C. W. SOTTON. 

A. N-x. . . 

. Pbofbsbob Aured Newton, 

J. T-T. . . 

, James Tait. 


B. L. T. . 

. The Rev. Ethelred Tac.nton. 

0. Lz O. N 

Q. Li Gbt8 Koroati. 

H. B. T. . 

. H. R. Tedder, F.S.A. 

K. N. . . . 

. Sfi88 Eats Nohqate. 

D. Ld. T. 

. D. Id-EurER Thomas, 

D. J. O'D. 


M. T. . . . 

.Mrs. Tout. 

F. M. O'D. 

F. M. O'DoNooHUK, F.S.1L 

T. F. T. 

Professor T. F. Toot. 

A. F. P. . 


R. H. V. . 

. CotoxBL B. H. Vetch, B.E., C.B. 

B. P. . . . 

M1S8 Bebtha Pobteb. 

A. V. . . . 

. Albaoer Yian. 

DA. P. . . 

. D'Abct Power, F.B.C.S. 

A. W. W. 

. A. W. Ward, LL.D., Litt.D. 

F. R. . . I 

Fbaseb IUe. 

P. W. . . . 

. Paul Watebhocbe. 

W. E. E. . 

W. E. Rhodes. 

M. G. W. 

. The Ret. H. G. Watkins. 

3. M. B. . 

. J. 31. Itiaa. 

W. W. W. 

. Captain W. W. Webd, M.D., 

H. B. . . . 

Herbert Bix. 


F. S. , . . 

The Be v. F. Sakderb. 

M. H. W. 

. Mabtis H. WiLEis. 

T. S. . . . 

Thohab Seccombe. 

J. F. W. . 

. The Ret. J. Frouk Wilkixsox. 

P. A. S. . 


E. W-B. . 

. Mbb, Rowland Willuus. 

C. P. s. . 

M188 C. Feu, SurtB. 

W. B. W. 

. W, R. Williams. 

L. S. ... 

. Le8U8 Stephen. 

B. B. W. . 


•,• In vol. li. (p- 83, cnl. 1, U. 4-S fttim endi omu H> tm fUlwr ot ih* »ntiqa»i7 *nil hiBtorUn, Mr, WiUIun 
Eeaij Jame* Wealc ; ip. Hi, col. S, L 8) for Lahore rrad iDdors. 






wmCHCOBD, JOHN* (182S-1S86). 
architect, bora at JUidstfineon 11 Not. Itsaa, 
-w&s the son of John WliichconI < 1 79U 1 r^), 
III nrrhiu-cl who deit^vd two churcln.-* (Sl- 
■•liiliii and Holy Trioity) in .Msidfttone, thi? 
om Kxcbuigu and Kvnt fini olficti in ikv 
inw town, «□<! rarioiia i-hurvhot, pnntnn- 
•gea, »ai iostitutiona in the couqLv uf Knat 
iBuilJfr, IHJO, xviu. »4S: Arrh. Pu/,!. -V-^r. 

The Eon, oAer ediication at Moidslone nnd 
At King's Collttrc, \jinAon, bc^nmo in 18-10 
Mcittant to his nthur, aud in 1>^ n. Ktudunl 
at the Knyal Academy, Afler prolonged 
travi-1 inltuy. Grveci'. Asiatic Turk<.<y. Syria, 
^iigvpt.nnd lh<- Holy I^nd (IH46-lKiiO),'ftnd 
iMur in Frailly, (JKnoanv, aiid Doiiniark 
fl^'iO). h« took a_piir( nerxli ip ( t ill 1 S5S) with 
Arihur Aiilipit«I [.q-v.] With him ho cnrricd 
out sddilianB (l>SS3> to Lord Abergavenny's 
hoUH, BirIinp.Kont,Dnd in 18d8 built foui>- 
t««it houites on the Mount Klliutt «#lat4 at 
Lea in the anmc county. His Hubsequent 
mwk coii»l«ted laip.*ly uf ofEcu prvmieM m 
the«ityof ]xinduii,«ui:!i a« 9 Mincing Lane, 
24 Lombard Sircat, 8 Old Jpwrv, Mansion 
Hmi*« t'lminlH'ni, thi< Vvw Zwtlitud Jjtnk 
and tha Xarional Saf^ Dnprbiir, nil in Vic- 
toria Strwl, and Drown Janson Sc Co.'a bank, 
Abchurch I>nti(-. Kl^ built th>.* Orand n<^tcl 
at Briiibion and the Clarence IIot«lac l>over. 
aA Wvll M 8l. Mary's Chun-h and pnrsona^'e 
at ijbortlaods, near Bromli\v. K«nt, whert' 
hit &l»o laid out tb« eatate for building. Unf. 
of WhicboordV beat, koo^'n works ie the St. 
Stephen's Club (1874), a cLaMWal building 
witlt boldlr corbelled projections, fiicing 
WMtminatr'r bndtjo (B.aMrr, xxxii. 308), 
He designed the int^'maltittinffft for the liouM 
of parliun«nt at Cape Town. Whichcord was 
often employed as arbitrator in govcrumeiit 

TOt. LIl. 

matli^nt, and he was ono of the aarveron to 
the railway deiiftrtn)i*nt of tbp board uf trade. 

From 1S64 no held the post cif diatrict nwr- 
voyor for Di-ptfonl, and froin 1879 to 1881 
was president of the Royut Institute of 
Uriuiili Arcliituclii. whfiru lie deli vi<n>d varioiu 
»ddn'iU4-ti and papi^fH, ntid wiiM largplyinstrii- 
mental in the eecabliahment of thv examina- 
tion "V^ifm (rida Trnnntirtiont, 

In I8ii6 Whichcord unRucceMfully con- 
tcat«d th« con«titu4.>ncy of RAmataplc in thv 
conevrvativv interval : ho wa^ an ardent 
vnlunt«%r, and became in l8t)9<-aptHiD intbo 
lit Middleenx ortilk'rv volunteerx, forwhich 
lit^miHoda battery m am I y composed of young 
architect-i and lawyew, Hm wrj» elected in 
1848 B Mlow of \\w Society of Antiqiutrica. 

y\ii\ Au'A on 9 Jan. IS8fi, andwaa buri«d 
at Kenjial Green. 

WTiichcord published ' History and Anti- 
uiiilieii of the t'oUegiatt* ('hurch of AH 
Sainta, Maidstone,' with illuNtmlion*, in 
Woalo'a 'Quartitfly Tajwre,' voL iv. Ifi-M, 
oad varioiu paniplileta. 

[Builder. ISH5. xLviii. 1)8; Archit. I^obl. Soc; 
Dicliunitr/.] I'. W". 

]ir.NJA.MlN(lli09-li*3),prov(Mjitof King'* 
College, Cambridge, was the sixth mn of 
Clinstriphi-rWhichcote of Whichcote Hall in 
the parish of Stoke in Shropshirn', wLem ha 
was bom on 4 May \l^)i^t^Bnker MS.\\.mb). 
His mother, whoete uaiue wui> Klizabeth, wna 
the daugltter of Kdward Fox of (Iruet in the 
same countv<Sii,TEH, Pref. \oEight 7^tter», 
&c., p. xTi ). " On iT. Oct. M2H lit; was admitted 
ft|w>nftionRratEmmnnueU'oIlege, Cambridge, 
on which occasion his nnmo in the entry in tlio 
ri}gisl«r M e>pclt 'Wbitcbcote.' IIia'calleg» 


Which cote 


[•■tar wait AMh— yTackmy [4- ^■], * divine 
twkfcvha* ■■t—tiiiBl iiiuii'tinmn buciine 
rta. In 1629-30 be was ad- 

lBLA-,procMdedM.A.in16.1S, in which 
twtarmita W iraa ^ecUd a felluw of ii'm cxl- 
ISvL AceordJv to Ina biocnpbf^r, bn w 
[lM«a*d by Jm WilltMw [q. v.l, bislmp uf 
'*' lbl,M fi Msrrii 1686, 'bolli iVacon ami 
t i ' ' wUcfa brefnUritv,' sa^s Salter, ' I 
aan how to mteoaot for in a prvlato 
OUOM to the ruling powera both ia 
I and MftM ' (A. p. xvit). In the tuna 
I jiar hs iraa nipoioCsd to tb« important post 
Mt Smdfty utcnioaa l«ctunr at Triaity 
rCbvdi in Oaaibrid^, a post wliicli be cuo> 
^fiaaad to 611 for nearly twMit^- vnont. A bout 
' tUa tine be receired also bia licence as uni- 
_ Mty preacbvr. 

HUaiaeoonaB at Trinity Churrh, wbirb 
largely ilteaded by tho u^i^-ersitT, 
rire only in (hr ffimi nf nnU's, but tt wax 
[ihroogb thssG that he attBini<d his chief 
xCoalentpnrary fwlsbrity- It was bin aim 
r^ to turn men'!) minds nway frnm {»n]>>TniRnl 
iil^mentBtian tn the f(n>at morKi and spiri- 
tual realities lying at tbn bai>i« nf all r>>- 
ligioD — from the " forms of words " to " the 
inwards of tilings " and " tho rL'ason of 
them" (letttn,^. lO-*). 

In Ittil he succty-dt-d to the offica of ci>l- 
\6ge tutor, in which [capacity ' ti« wasfnmouH 
for tlie number, raalc, and chiiractPt of hia 
pupils, and ttiu can' bu to'jk of tbuin.' 
Among lho4e who afterwards attained to 
'diacincciun wuro John Smith (101H-lt}rf2) 
Tq. v.] nf tjuser*'. John Wort hinR ton [q. t.], 
Jubn WaUU (1«10 170:5> 'q. v.J, ibt; matho- 
malinan, uiid Sumucl Cradocb. 

In 1040 bo pm-wlod 11.1). : in 1(5-11 bo 
A rftiiilLdnIo for the divinity chair nt 
iOroshani C^oll-.-Ki*. but wag defi'at«d W 
T1imna.t Horton (Wakh, Ore»kam PrafetMn'ii, 
p. Ofj); and in IUI3 wju preeented by his 
colle^ to the rectory of North Cadbury in 
BcnuTMit. Ha thereupon tnarriod (the iiamo 
of his wife is not roconlod) and r^rtircd to hii 
living. In the following year, however, lie 
waa AumtnoTicd hacli to the university by Iho 
Earl of MancheBtcr, to bf Inrtall<?d as provoaL 
of Kinf^'ii (joUcEe in tJie place of the rtjcctcd 
l>r. Samuel Collins [q. v.] HU hononriibla 
chamrter and noriipiiIouH nntitre were sbown 
by the rpluctanct' with which he nt length, 
under cnnsidftrahln prflssure, couBentfit to 
supplant one whom be liijiblv ri-Hpi-cted, as 
well as by the gcnoroflily whfch led him to 
sttpulatft that his pw(lnci-*aor sliuiild (.■nalinue 
to receive a mni^y of ihu slijieml attaching 
to the pmvnitelnp (Pruf Jtc. pi>. .tviii, kU). 
Tbt- art'umi-nt» pra and can by which ho 
ultimatdy arrived at the concluaion that 

duty required liia acoeptaoca of tfae post 

wore commitlod by him to writing ajtd aw 
urint*^! tn Hiirwooil (KixQ* Cotley^ StattUa, 
p. 290) from Baker 313. vi. 90. Alone 
among tV* newly infftallMd beads of nuufli 
at rarabridge lia refu.'wd to take the cnre- 
nanl ; he is even said to have ' prcrailed to 
have the grcat«rt part of the fellow* of King* 
College eiempted from that impo*ition, and 
p[T«er>-cd them in their places ' (TlLWWOSi 
Sermm. p. L>3). 

In July ItUO he was created D.1>. b^ 
mandate : about this time he reMigned bis 
Somer»et living, but was soon aftwrwardajw- 
aented by his collegB to the rectory of Sli^ 
Ion tn Cambridgeabire, which hf rontinnea 
to hnia BA long as h« lived (Pret p. xjm). 
Id XoT«mb«T I8.')0 he was elMted Tte*- 
chanfvllor nf the Hrivereity. and while filUag 
thiii ollice preadied at thv Cambrid^ co»- 
metirement (July 16iJl) a sermon which 
was t he occasion of a uotablu eorroapondenc* 
between himself and bi.t former tutor, Tock- 
ntiy (now master of Emmiinuol), Thirta 
letters, eight in Dumber, were edited and 
publinht'd in I7fl3 br3>r. Salter, a grandson 
of Ur. JefTery, Whicha»t«*« nephew and 
editor; and un ftiialyairi and criticisui of lb" 
same will he found in Tulloch'et ■ lUtios&L 
Theology' (ii. ii9-81). (Jem-rally speaking, 
they reprejent the main point* at iMue be- 
tween n ataUDoh and sblo npholder of ine 
puritan orthodoxy as formulated in the 
Westminster confession, and one whoee aim 
it was Co bring about o fuller recognition at 
the clnima nf private iudgmcnt anil of 'the 
ratlonalily of ChriBtian dtx^trine.' KndeljT 
challenKe'il at the nntset, WhicKeote's views 
eventually resulti'd in a movement repro- 
M'nli-d by the b<:idy knnwn na tho CambndfTs 
Phitouists and, in a wider circle, as the I.iati- 
I udinfttiam, a remarktibie school of wriiew 
and thinkers fur whom Bumot claims the 
high i^redit uf having savtnl the chuieh 
from losing her ustvum chroagfaout the 

In liio^, on tho occasion of the peaea^tlt 

Holland. Whichnule appnam an one ot HM 

contributors to the vol ume of verses (' Olivs 

Pacts ') oomEKwed by ueitibors nf tli«i mu* 

vemity to cefobrata the event, and dedicated 

to Oromweli. Ill Deeemlirr I<h>& he wad 

invitod by Cromwoll to udvian him, in cni»- 

juiiclion will) Uudworth and others, on ibe 

question of tolerating the Jpw.t (^CroMley's 

notelo Worthivoion'n Diary, \. 79). In 

1659 be ojinbini'd withrudwnrlh.Tucknry, 

and other Catnbrid^ iliviigi.>s, in supportilig 

j Matthew Puolu'a Hcheme for the mairitainiBg 

' of students of ' i lioico ability at the IuUtbT- 

j aity, and principally in order to tlie 



ttry' (%f« VooLK, MATTHnr; AutoAiogr. of 
Matlhe\c AoftuMMij tA. >raTor, p. ld.1}. 

At tli<< lEMtnrttion \Vltk'hcoU> sbanxl the 
bt« of tltii otbfT lii<fld4 of collff^ea who h^A 
been iaatallMl tiud<-r iiuritftn tDfluvJici.-«, and 
«u mccted, not iritlhiut rMiMuioe on litH 
put, aom fat« pruroHialiip, lii> aveoeeem bein^ 
JuBea Fleetwood [^. v.' of KiIkcIiIII c«^!.*- 
britf. Acrnrdtn^ to a Ifltt^r written by 
.hicbcote liiroMririot^uderdale, oneor th» 
jectioos urged u|^in#t tiim hiitl tMim tlint be 
niM-rr bm>n a feltowoftbe»lOciety(iJltlr- 
7V^^t«• MS. No. ft48). Among tho(» 
oiQ lie IwlJrieaded about tho timi' of thic 
«miii wad8«Diiirt Kartlibt]. v., with wbo«u 
' frequ^nily cont;«poDd»d ^W'oBTItlNUTOX, 
'ary, Cliclbam Hoc., vuU. i. it. mecini). 
\M ci>mpliaow with ibe Act of ITniformity 
Mored bim to murt faTOur, and in No- 
mWt ^'^i^2 lie was Rppointrtl to tbe ciirw 
Si, .Vaiif's. ]llat:kfrinrs. When tbo church 
M^liuiBt down in the (frent fire he rciin-d 
^jlig^vjK Milton, and cjnlinued to rv 
kM'nPwun'^ Tivar* : ho * imwctied rail- ^ 
slant ly, rcliered the pi»r, Itftd ihfir children , 
Uujrbt tn read* at hi* own L-barpe, and 
BUKle ap diBei«uee« auon^ tbo neigoboun ' 
Tn.LOT»y, .Sfmnwri, p. 5l>. [d 1(108 lii» 
'end Ih-. John\ViIl(ina[q.v.] was appcunled 
the l>i«hApric of Clu^ttfr, thvreby vacat- 
hc vimniiie of St. Lawrenro Jewry, to 
b, bv bi<i iiitcrc't, U'bic-hi^ote was now 
iioted. The ehnixOi, howuver, bad to be 
lit, and during the work, which Dcoti- 

Eiwl aoni^Ai^vcnyean, hepreacheil refcularlv 
■7fon,> the corporation at Guildhall Chapel. 
In n lr>l(<^r wnttim to Saucmfi on 21 Uw. 
1670 he givea an account of his sorviees iKith 
to Lili^mturn and to thv church. In 1074, 
aJon^ with Tillot»on anil StiIUnfi;{l<«t, hi> 
co-op^rvte^J with cvrtaln noncDnfotnifts in 
fiirilxrini; Thomas Gouge's dforta to «xtend 
mincati-^n in Wales. 

In ltt&3 Whiobciit" waa at Cnmbrid)^ on 
A vi»it to Cddworth at> College, 
when he took cold and erentunlly dit-d, 
Ht! wa» inlorrad in St. Lawrpnoo Church, 
whefe Ilia funpml sermon was prvached by 
Tillotaon on 24 Mar. His epitaph is printed 
ittStrypo** 'Stow'' (iii, -17-8), There wo 
pOTtnutu of him in the provoot'a lodge at 
Ki^ts College an'l in tbe gaUen* and hall 
of Emmanuel, the last b>nng nol'-^l by Dr. 
Wartoott as citpL-cially 'characteriiiiic.' He 
wa« a bcnefufrlor lo the noirenily librtti>' 
■nl alau lu Kiufir's and Emra&nii«l, at wliicti 
Lwl society h*» had founded, before his 
doatb, echolarshipa to the value of 1,000/., 
'bearing thy name of William lArkin, who, 
naliiDg hJRi his executor, eutruiited him 
with the said riu&qic to di'tposa of to 

pions unes at bi» own discretioo' {Baksr 
-If .S. BSD). 

Whichcote left no children ; his axerutoTB 
were his two iwiphevrs, the non* of Sir 
Jeretuy Whichcote of the loner Temple and 
deputy lieulennnt. of Middlesex. Qis sistAT 
Anne married Thomas llayeA, and was lb« 
iiiothiT of Pliileiuon llaye-s, mi&Lfter of 
Childs Ercall tOwE.s and Biakkwat, Hint. 
of Shrtwthtuy, i. 40H n. 7). 

An able i»timat£ of bis mvrits as a dirlne, 
from the pen of Dr. Wistcott, will bi* found 
in ' Mast«n of Theology ,'ed. llarry, London, 

Whiohcotf's works (all publis^ied pofthn- 
mOllsly) ant : I • ' 8f o0opof^/i« ^ayttara ; or, 
Bom« t>elect Notions of that l^eamcd and 
Reverend Divine of the Church of England, 
Bcnj. Whichiole, D.U. Kaitbfully collected 
fn-im him by a Pupil and particular Frirud of 
hia,' London, KwA. 2. ' ATreotisenf IVfo- 
tion. with Morning and Kv<-ning Itaycr for 
all the UaysoflboWefk.' 1697 (attributed to 
lum, but no copy is known loexist). 3. ' Se- 
l«et Svnuons, with a jm-face by the third 
Karl of Shaftesbury, author of the ' Cliarac- 
terisiic*,' 160*^; reprinteil at Edinburgh itt 
1742 by IMncipal Wishart. 4. 'Several 
Di(i«»ititt« [ten in number . examined and 
corrected by hiA own Xol<rS| and publithcd 
by John Je'tTery, D.D., archdeacon of Nor- 
wich," London, 1701. '>. 'The True Notion 
of I'latv in th.- Kingdom or Churcli of Christ, 
stated by the lata Dr. Wbitchcot in a Sop- 
mon lonJamet iii. 18] proach'd by him on 
the malignitv of Voper^-, l^xaminvd and cor^ 
reetedby J.'JelTerj/lJondon, 1717. 6. 'The 
Workii of the learnra llenjemin Whichcote, 
D.D., rector of St. Lawn-nce Jowry, Ixmi- 
don.'4 vol-.; Aberdeen, 1751 (coalaius only 
the discoorees). 7. ' Moral and Iteligioiu 
Aphorixnm: collected from the maouBcript 
Papers of the Iteven'tid and Learned Doctor 
Whichcote, and published in MDCCHI by 
Dr. JeffiTT. Now ropubli?<hed, with very 
large addition! from the TranMript* of l-lio 
latter, bv Hamuf-1 Salter, D.D. ... to which 
am added Eight Liritew, which passdd bc- 
twwn Dr. Whichcote, pntvosl of King's 
College, and l>r. Tuckney, master of Em- 
manuel C"lk^,' London, 1753. 

[Preface to the Ki;.'bt Lottirr* by .S>iH*r, pp. 
xvi->iviii; TilloUt'jn'w .-iermon pMirhfsl at tfio 
Funenl of the Kev*Mind BsnismlQ 'Whichcoi 
(wilti portmilA, I-ondnn. 1083; TulloeVs Ra- 
lifiiisl Theolopy ia ICnglnna in the Sevwit^with 
C«ntiiry. ii. - ; nnpiiliU)'hi>J noies by FnfBt- 
mt J. K. B. JUvor in hi.i Cambridgs in the 
liclpB of Qneen Ann*, pp. 397-306: iBfonua. 
lion kindlj sfford«l by the maatet of Kinmnnuel 
CoUqia.] JBM. 



WHICHOOTE, QEOttGE (1794-1891), 
naenkl, bom on ^1 Dec. 1704, wm thu 
nmith ton o( Sir Thoinu Whicb«i>ce, fll^b 
bwonet (1763-1624}, of A*warb7 Park.Lin- 
eoltuluTe, far his wifu Diana (d. \H'26), third 
douffhtvr uf Kduiund Tiirriiir of Fiiiiton and 
Stoke Kofhford. In ]f»03heeniewd Hupby 
•cbool, wbt-n.' b" fiif{g«d for Williorn Clmrlcn 
BlurMdj, ihfl gn»t actor. In December 
1810, on Irarine iluj{by, hejnined ilii> oJnd 
ft»l M a volunt»ftr, and tvwtTcd a ciimrnij*- 
non oseangnon 10 Jan. Jiill. In the same 
year be embarkttl on lbs Pompoy, « French 
{iriso, to join tbcBritUb army in iheHpaniaL 
peninoulo, where faii r«|fiinent,wtrli tbe4;ird 
ftnd the f>fith, formed tlie famouH li);lit div!- 
aioo. He took part in thn bntlli' of Sal]U([8l 
onS April, and in ibe combut of El Bodon 
on 36 Dopl., tbuugli bb nutriment yrojs nul 
vngnfied. Ili> a&iisl«d in ihi> fttuniiiriK of 
Ciudod Kodriso on 19 Jan. l^li', and uf 
Itadajm on fl AptiL On fi Jtily bn Imthith! 
lieiilflnant, aiid nn 2'J July woa pretwnt at 
the battle of Snlnmnnni and nt ibst of Vit- 
T-orift on '2\ Juni? ]i^l-1, whirrw tlm fi2nd car- 
ri^ tbe villofi^e of AlaRarita wilh an im- 
petuoun charge. lie took part ivlth Lis 
nsiiuvnt in liif; combats in tbe Pyrenee* in 
Jiuv and Au^tut, tbe combat of Vera on 

3 Oct., the battle uf the Nivellu on lONoc, 
the hnttl*^ of thft Nivc on lO-Kl Dw., thtt 
bftttl-i of OrtbeH on 1'7 Feb. 1814, orTorhea 
on 1^ March, and of Tuiiloimti on \'2 April. 
HowutlwSrHt man in tbe Kngli^h army 
to enter Toulouse, W'bile in command of an 
advanced picltcr, Jut obtf^rved tlie French re- 
treat, and, boldly pu«hin(r on, ''X-k poflsoo- 
aionof the town. At the close of thL-wartliL' 
ivjjiiuout v.'M plnovd iu ^rri»oQ at Cojitvl- 
aarrasin on tbe Oaronno, and afterwards was 
BBDt to Iri'laad. Wliicticote to^A part in the 
battle of Waterloo, where tlift .Vind coin- 
pletad thu rout of the imptirial ^lard, lie 
wma quartvtwl in I'arU diirinir (bu occupa- 
tion by the allies, and on bin return home 
received tin.' Walprto'j nipHa! and the silver 
vrnr medal wilh nine rlrtBns, hfrorv Ik' hud 
attained his majority. After the pe»oe the 
52nd was ordered to Hiitjiny nay, aad Which- 
cote exchanged into the buffs. 

On 22 Jon. I8IH be obtained hiit cap- 
totncv, and tnl82tj again r!tcbanp„-d into the 
4lb arngoon guards, llf wnn inadu major 
on 21> Oct. 1825, limlenant-colonel on 
28 JuoH 1B.S8, and coloiM on 1 1 Nov. 1851. 
In 1S26 he was placed on half-pay, and on 

4 Juiu- U^lfi" he otlainwl the rank of tnajor- 
pflieral; wan pmmoi.^d tn hi- lioiiIiL^nant- 
general on 31 Jan. 1864, and be<:anie a fidl 
general on fiDcc. Ifl71, In 1N57 he received 
B jubilee medal from the queen in recog- 

nition of his servicea, aoconpuiied by on 
tmto|Trnp]i letter. He died on 3S Aog. 1891 

at MeridtiD, near Coventry, where be ba<l 
reittded aince retiriitg fn»ni active serrice, 
and was burii'd there ou 31 Aufr. 'SA'ith tlu> 
exception of Liriitt^nant-oulonfl Hi-ivill,b« 
was the Inst officer of the Engli!ili army 
"urvivinfi who had been present at Wat ptIoo. 
In 1812 be nifLrrii<d Charlotte Sophia (d. 
IHbC), danghter of Philip Monckton. lie 
bad no issue. 

(Timna, 27 Aug. 18S1 ; CaraaUT Soutdant, 
36 Aujf. 1891 ; Hurke'i Pc«nfte«tHlBamiwtae*>* 
KugbjScfaoal B«gi»ier; Army Lists.1 

E. I, C 

WHICHELO. C. JOHN M. (A 1865), 
w atTcri do L 11^ painter, i« said to have been a 
pupil of John Varlejr [q, v.], but hia nmnnv 
euK^i.>ete nithcr the inUutMice of Joi^hoa Cri>- 
tall [<i.v.J Hi» rarlituti work was of a purely 
topo^apbical chorarter, and Bome of hit 
dniwing* n'ere woifnived for WtlkinMo't 
'Lnndiiin lIliLttnira'and Brayler'a ' Beautief 
of England and ^Valei^.' He bwan to ex- 
hibit at the Iloyal .\cndemv in 1810, eend- 
inff chiolty marine vienn, and for a few yean 
hold the np]>oinlnient of marino p*inler to 
tbi> priucy nyunl. lu 182.'t \\'hichelo be- 
came an osftociftte of the W'atercolour So- 
ciety, and fur forty yuan; bo was a regolor 
conlribulor to it« vxhibitinnx, bin itub}eM4 
biung mainly rcpre«entationH of l^agUeb 
cnoflt and barbonr acenery, with a few viewa 
on Dutch ri^-rw. Ho ui«jally si^ed his 
drawinns 'John Wbicbelo.' He died in 
September 1865. 

[ Red^nnvv's Di^t. of ArtistH ; Rmt's Hilt, of 
ibo ' Old Waty-rcoloar ' Sociay.] F. M. O'D. 

fica-caplain, n trust-ed H-rvaat and follower 
of Sir Waller liidi'jili, who iipoaha of him 
a-q * a man most valiant and hontst,' eeems 
to have bt-en with Sir Riclmrd Urpynvile in 
bin vnyapr" to Virginia in IBSS. In IWft bo 
commanded ItaU-ijb's ship tbe Roebuck, in 
ibe fleet und^r T.ord Howard, and is de- 
itcribcd as particularly active in tho various 
services which could be perrormt<d by so 
'^mall II vej^scl. He (ouk po6»es«ioa of, and 
hrouKht intoTorhay, t he flagalup of Don Pedro 
do Voided ; liu braug'lit supplies of am- 
miinilion to the fl>-nl, and wa* conwlantly 
employed in ficoutinp duty. In 1B&4 m 
whk sent out by lluleg^h to mak« s pr^ 
liminary explnrafioTi of the Orinoro. His 
object wiiB friinrsted by the governor of 
Trinidnfl, wbii imprisoned some of his crew, 
and praelically obliged him to return to 
Enflaad withoiitthe information he sotight. 
It IS piobftblu that be was with Rnle^ in 

Ilie rnrng» to Ouiuu in lfiV6, llie cupMi- 
tton A^iut Cadiz in lAi>6. nnd Ihe IsktuU' 
Toy«^Q ID 16^ ; t>ut lua tiauv u uul men- 

LEtlvknU'fl laU of lUIogh ; IMmL of tli« 
Bpuish Armiulii (Nkvjr llnconJn 8oc.) ; 
Iul««h'a DitcoTcrw of Uuimiin ; Lfflinrd'a NutkI 
BtK.] J.K. L. 

WHIDDON. Sni JOHN (,I. U76),\ad^, 
wu tho «](lMt son *»r Jului ^^'lliddo^ of 
CbAgfordmDeTnnMbiri^,vr)i>-n>Uiit fntnily lind 
long been csUbliehed. Hi.i ranibpr, wIionr 
imi(l«n nkiDtfiriu Kn^tr. was nUo a autivi- of 
Cbmgford. FT(!ntiii)ie<llAWHlt)if IniK-rlVmpIo, 
•nd WM L'lMtcMi a tvadt^r id the uutuuui of 
<:jr^. rkilintf til mid oa ttiat nocusinii, his 
poiuliueDl was renewed for the fulluwiiig 
be WM a{(Ua «Im:I«<I lo the ottice un 
. 163A, and wu chowo ircosunir oo 
■. I&88. holding tite office for two ytwr*. 
e WAB nomiiintt'd a eeijeuit at tUh cIdsr of 
Vlir* mimi, aud cun» «| i-d by ■ 
writ a week art«r thn k'mg'a death, 
aj^umentit in wiirt duhng Edward's 
are ri-portr;d by I'lowdt'n. Whiddon 
ap|K>tni«d a jud^ of the queen's benoh, 
■ImMt itninG>«lia(olj aHer Mary's acc««sioD, 
br pfttent dat«d 4 Oci. 1(m:3, and on 27 Jan. 
Io6hl-fi he was knightMl. lie woi thu tint. 
jadgQ to ridi* to Wwlmiiister Halt un a horse 
^Idin^ iiivttfud of a mulv, according to 
villus custom. In April 15A7, aftftr thi- 
fUing of Thomaa SialTord (l'Wl?-lfl57) 
[q. v7], be waa M'nt dun-n rn Vdrkuhiri* lit 
try the prisaoen, end it i^ naid that he le- 
ccivml the cnmmiuion of ([eneriil. Riving 
him authority to nim (oKCt to qiutll any 
further HsintTB. It ift ervn fitated that, owing 
to lh>i unsfllli:^ stat<> of the countn-, he sAt 
oo tbe bench iii full nruiour. ilLi patfiit 
was rph'^WKl on KIJEabt^h's occHwioQ. and 
be conlinii(.»J in hii:' oiticv until hi* death. 
lla died m C'lia)rf.>rd on :?r Jan. I'lr'i-ti.and 
was burk-d in tb^ jwrish cburt'h. He was 
twice luarritNl. Hv hin fimt wiff, Antiu, 
O&ughlor of Sir William Holli.^, be had one 
daughter, Jo>n, minrii-d to John Ashlew of 
LooMoa ; by bia a^nnd, KlizntK/th, dauf^fitttr 
■ad oohetrms of Witham Sbiliion, be had 
•on* and seT«n diuigbten. 
(V'iTi«n'« ViMtAlionitof DnTon. 189$; Pom's 
fiiS; I'nncrii Wonhim of Devon, 
p. 593 : Mnchjo'i Divry {Candon Soc.). 
'13: Calendar of Inner Temple lt«cot>d>. 
1899. rul- t- paiaiiu; Iiii(;iliili''H OrigiiiM Juri* 
dicKiJrt. J680, pp. 38, 118. 181, 170.1 

K. I. C. 
WHINCOP, TKOMAS 01. 1730), com- 

Silar, eatse of a Londou fuccily which pro- 
liCed BDVeral divine* of fair rvimte in. the 
HTeatoentb ovulary. Joba Wbiooo]) or 

1 i"* 


Wincoppwasapnaintedrtirtornf St.Martiu'a- 
in-th<-r it- Id« in Jaiuinry lfl41-2,a post which 
ha reGigned in 101.3, thou^ two yrant Uiter 
he uTHuJied two sermons before the House 
of CamraonK (JoumaU, ii. 99:^). Htit hod, 
Thomas Whincop, iJ.I3., was appointed roctor 
of St. Slaiy Abchorch on 10 Nov. ltJ81, 
preached tji« Spital «ormon in 1701, and 
died in 1710 (liKNX^asy, yoi-um lOfitrto- 
rium, p. :f9r; cf. Cole, Aihetite, Add. MS. 
.>88y, i. '2Hy Tbp coinpiliT may liave been a 
Bun of thie Dr.Wbincop, but virtually nothing 
ia known <xiiii-t'rning hitn khvu that \iv lost 
conjidonihle kumi.i in thi; * Soul hS«& bubble' 
during I7i;i, and died at Tott«^ridgv, wh«l» 
hi> waa bnrii>d on I fScpt. 17;10. 6eTent««ii 
veare after hia death wa.i primed, as by the 
lal« Thomas Whincop.'ScsndMbog; orLov* 
and Liberty : a Tragedy. To which is added 
a l>i»t of all thi> bratuutic Authors, with 
ifouiu Account of thdr Livuis: and of all the 
UrJiinaLic I'ivcm publiithiil in thtt Kngllsh 
languagu to the year 1747 '^London, 1747, 
hvu). 11m work was nuininalty i-ditHd and 
brought up to dat4> bv >[artha Whincop, the 
widow of tbi! compiler, who dedicated the 
volume lo lht> Karl of Middlesex and ob- 
tained a goodly list of subechbei^; but It is 
clear that somo of tlit> articles were pre* 

?an<d by llie biographical compiler John 
lotlleyjg. v.], and it is probable that the 
wholo * Liat ' was thorongldy rcviswl by bis 
band.i (se« Xm/, pp. 2^)4 ^). The dramatia 
authors are divided into two alphabetical 
raivgorLv, tliwu who Sourish<.'d bvforu nttd 
lhQ«>e who flouririied afti-r \WA\ and the 
doubltn'olutansore embelli^bad by a number 
iif soinii tni'dnllinn portraits engraved by 
N. Parr. At the end ia an index of the 
titles of plays. The book is n«^atiy ■rninged, 
but ttannot claim to be mere than a hasty 
compilation, based for the most psH upon 
the 'Engliab Dramatic Poct4' (1(191) of 
(jerard I^ngbaiiie thv younger. \Vhiiicop's 
labours bavo long since btwn morgv-d in 
tliOM of \'icior, Baker, and Ueed. The 
Ilritiah Museum bua a copy of tho ' List * 
with copious maousuript uuti;s by Joseph 

[Baker's Ibnyr. Dram. i. 7-lfi: Lotro's EiM. 
Arcoani of TIi«ilni;al LiUmlura. 1888. jj, 3K0; 
NoiM nod Queries. 8th aer. iv. 9; Brit. Mii», 
Oit. Ths contiociion. if any, betwoeti Thoiniiii 
Whini-op And the VViUinrii Whiacnpp, .M.I.I. 
C176»-I832t, nulinsl iu Davy's Ath<>i>B Suf. 
fokriensrs, iii. f. 3U6, has ai>t Wco discororvd.] 

T. K. 


CHAKLKS [17ft2-18W»), general, born on 
(! May l7Bi', wiw third son of Major Thumaa 
Mliiiiyates <176&-l»0Bj of Abbotalutgh, 



OerowhiR, br C^Uiehne, dsutrliter of Sir 
Tlkomu FrankUnil, htrt., of Tliirklebr Tnrk, 
Yorkshire^ He wu «dtickx«il ut Mr. Nuw- 
canbc'i idlool, llaK.-kni?v, «u(l &t the Iloval 
Milit&ty Attdvmy, WctoWtch, wlitcli ho »»• 
tantd M M odet on 18 Mar 17!l(S. II<> ^vxa 
eomminiaoed u aecand li(>utcnant hi tEic> 
TO5»I «rttlbt7 on ] March 1798, ami lHi:itnii< 
lient^nuc on S Oct. 1700. H^ mtvmI in t.Un 
expvdJtioa of tlwtrear to the Jlelder,atid in 
the expedition Ui SlKtlfim in IHOl. When 
Nadtpim was ei-acunlvd ot tlie peace of 
AnueiUr h« w«nt with kin company to 
Janaieo, and wu mail)- adjutant. On8Jiily 
I>*U>S he Vina pivimoted it«ron<I capt&iti, anil 
came home. Ih; wrrviil m adjutant to Lho 
■rtillKry in tlif allafk tm (\i|)i'iibii(fiiu in 
1S07. In tho f'tllrjwinfr yrar he was posted 
to D troop of ihv lionw nrtillLTy. 

In K'-bruary 1810 li>! c^mbarkafl with it for 
thii Peninaulu, but the Camilla tranaport, on 
hoard nf whlrti hr wntt, ni-arh' f(>i(ndi<ri*d, and 
had to put back. Owinjt to thiit, [) troop did 
not Inketb" fivUUiiaunit lilM^I I : butWhin- 
7at«wasprvi>i>ntat Buucoon :^St^<10, 
■ad acted as adjutant to the olGccr comniand- 
inr tbt arttlliT}*. TFc wa? nt A I bncrn on I it Mny 
1811 with foiif guDit, uml th^•ro nru K-Ucm of 
hia doMribing thi« and sub<wqui'nt action)) 
(WinrtyATr-t. pp. 159 mj.) llr and liia troup 
look part in thfl ravniry (ifritir at U«af!rc on 
25 Mav. and in thfi (irl.inn.i nt Fiientea de 
(fiiinui'lo nnd Aldea de i'onto ou tt6 and 
27 Mflpr. 

In I^il;; lbi> troop was with Ilill'ii corps 
on thft Tapw; and at Ribcra, on 24 July, 
Whinyates niadt- mioh pood ums of twi> 
g\UM that thrv Frcoich commandiT I^ll*^ 
mand inquired liin nninr*, and o-ut, him a 
meataf^e : ' Tel! tliat bmvc man that if it lijjd 
not bwn for hnu, I xhiinld hare Ijuati'ti your 
cavttlry' (WinNr*TE«, p. R3). Thi^ caplnin 
of D troop di(-0 at Madrid on 22 Oct., and 
fur tin- tiest. four inDtilhH Wiiinyati-* wint in 
command of il. It diMinfnii<>h(>d itsplf at 
Han Miiniij on 17 Nov., at thi- cWe of the 
rrlr^nt from flurgos, fivf nut of ita gix ^unn 
Ix'itijr injured. O'.'iieralLontfiWbocoramundod 
thfi pftviilry to whiL-li it wm attaoliod, iiPIlt- 
WBTib wrote ol'ths troop that he had never 
witnCMcd 'mora exemplary onndiK^t in' 
quarters, nor mon> diatin^ishud zitaL and 
gallantry in the tiidd.' i 

On 24 Jun. 1^13 WhinyaU-a b.-cume cap- 
tain, and KODwjuently li-ft tlm I'lTiinHuIn in 
March. Uh Htirvir^ thp^^ won him no prn- 
mption, an bmrct nink wosnot givi-n nt that 
tlm>! to second rnprainit. In 1SI4 h.c wns 
appxinlni to thu Kocond rocket troop, and lie 
(OTDimnndod it at Waterloo. Wrliingron, I 
who did act belicro in rock«tB, ordered that I 

tht^y ahould bf left behind ; and when he wa* ' 
told that thia would hroak AVbinTatea** 
Iii^art, he replied: ' Damn hU heart : let my 
ord*'r» be obeytd.' HowiTit, Whinyates 
eventually obtained leave lo bring tbtm intji 
thf field, together with hia nx gun*. Wh«n 
l'(>n«onby'« brigade charg«d 0'Erlon'G corpk 
he followed it with bis rocket aecttono, and 
fired several vollcya of ground-rocketa with 
giHid vlTeci Hgainst the French cavalry 
{Tfatfrho Ijfttfrt, pp. 203-10). Ho llien 
rcjoinvd his guns, which were placed ld 
front of !*ioton'« diviiuon. In the courw of 
the day he had three horsei ahot under hiBa 
was atruckon th<- Icp-. and sen-re! r wounded 
in the left am. He Kcniveif a brvT« 
majority and ihi- Waterloo mecbil, and aRvr- 
warda the Pouineular Kilrar medal «rHb 
cIoDps for lltigaco and Albuera. 

At tho end of 1815 the rocket troop went 
lo England to W r«!duced, and WbisyatM 
woa appointed to a troop of dririT* in the 
army oiocviipatiun, witu which be renuaed 
till 181 R. He conimnndLHl II troop of 
htJiw! arlillory from 182S to 2J July 18S0. 
wli»n bL< IxK'aine regimental lieutenaat- 
rolonel. He was maib; K.H. in 1823 and 
C.B. in IK31. He had command of the 
horm artillcrv at Woolwich from November 
WAX lo May If^lO. nnd of thv artiUery in 
the northern dislrict for eleveji reftra aAeN 
wards, huvjii^ Lecomo regimental colonel on 

23 Nov. 1H41. 

On 1 AprillH.%2 he woA appointed director- 
gpnvnit oT artillery, and on 19 Aug. com- 
mandant ai Woolwich, wht'rt- he mniaiiMil 
till I June ItSnft. He had been promoted 
mnjor-^t^nml on iJU June 1854^ and beeaou 
lieutenant-Kiineral on 7 June IMMJ, and gMl»' 
ral on 10 Dee. 1804. lie wna made K.C.BL 
on 18 .May IHfUJ. Hu hud become oulonvl- 
commandant of a baltaliun on 1 April IH56, 
and was trunsfiTrcd to the liorfie ariillerr no 
22 July 1801. lift wait 'an ofKcer whum 
ability, aan!, nnd fwrvices have hnrdlv beni 
jiijrpait«"d in Ww n-gimiTit ' (Duncak, li. 37). 

lie died at Oheltenhani on "21* I>ee. 1866. 
In 1827 be hud married EUxabeih. only 
daiiglitrr of Samuel Compton of Wood Knd, 
North Riding, Vorkftbire. He left no chil- 
ren. lie bad five brothers, of whom four 
served with diiilinctioa in the anny and 

T'ho I'ldiwt, Rf-ar-adminJ TnoMAe Wiiis- 
YATia (1778.|Rr(7), born on 7 Sept. 1778, 
entered llio navv na first-claaa volunt.H*r on 

24 ilay ITfl.l. lie commanded a boat to the 
attack and rnpturp of Martinique in March 
1794, ami nHistad in boarding the fVMeh 
frigate Bienvonue. He ^"aa aUo pTMani all' 
the capture of St. Lucia and (iusdeloup* 






[b was in Lord Bridnort'sM'tionof 23June ' medal. Heaervcdvitlitliparmyofoccapfttuni 

79v>, and in tliat iii Hir Jolin Warrvu o» in I'Vancc. nixl madv reporU on »otae of the 

" Uct. ITOct. lie vaa rninmU^'^ned as Kn^nch fMlroweo (now in th« Itoynl Eng^i- 

nnt on 7 8t>pl. 179'.', itnd as com- neers' Insiitate, 01uilbam>. 11a was coax- 

*T on 16 Mny 1«0S. ]» April 18<li he nuinilin^ roj-a) enginf*-r with tlip field tbrce 

wiu npvoiiilwl lo the Frolic, un 18-ffuu bri); in Nvw tiruii«wicK ivlu'ii lb« diKimi<.tl u-rri- 

or 3iS4 toiMi. Hf look hiT out to thp Wtst lorr wa» inTtultH) by iW »t«te of Maint^ in 

Indivs, luid ^peiit lire ]ri«n thi-n:-. iK'iiig pre- 
trnt at tbe recapture of MtirtiDique on 
•24 F>>b. 160d, and of Guadi-loupe on 5 Feb. 

He wu made first captain on 12 Au^. 
181*J, and on his iray home, in i-barg? of 
convoy, hf wiia atlackeil on 18 Oct. by tlie 
rnilf'j^itat>;s sloop Wasp of -l^ji tons. The 
I'nilio lioil bii-i-n unch dauagt'd in a sate, 
and Hfitir as action of &tly DtinuieM, in nnicb 
more than half h«r crew were killed or 
wootulod, iiicludin^ ber oonimaoder,Bhi}waa 
boonli-il and taken. Sbc was n^orered, and 
the \\'a»p waa tak^n by the Poictiers tho 
Boat! day. Tbv court-martial wliicli Iriitd 

1830. He waa promolud licutvnant-colonrl 
on <J Nov. 1S4(1, and colonel on Itl IW. \^'A. 
fie retired na major-general on 13 Jan. li^AA, 
and died at Clieltvnhani on 9 Jan. 1>?H1. lit; 
married, on 'JR Jan. 1A(0, .Saralt SInmnne, 
wcond daughter of ClinrW \\'balleT of Stow- 
on- ^^' old. Gloiin-titrnihirtt, and bad »ii cliil- 
dreu, four of whom became ofliwn of the 

WniXT-iiEa (l7'J<t-lMB7), bora on liU June 
1706, enter«d tfae East India Coin]iaDy'a Bsr- 
Tice at llw a^^ of alxtvun, and woe ^atetted 
It* liim ten ant-lire worker in the ^ladruii artil- 
lery in July 1»I3. vUter eerving in Ceyluo 

\Vhiny»i«« for Ih.- lo»« of bin ithip acquitted ani^ nj^ainM tlw Pindari*, he took part in thr 

liim moot tiooounibly, as iiaving done all 
that coidd bo donit (JaMM, \nrtil Hinlun/, 
vi. 1<1A~6:3). In ldl£ ha W(ui appointed to a 
rorrette, but i<he was paid off at the peacv. 
He woj promoted rvar^tniml on 1 Oct. 
!>^ll'>, and died unmarried at Cheltenham on 

Mabratta war of 1817-19 as a suiMtlem in 
A troophorse art lllery, and received the medal 
with cla»p fur Maboidpnor 1.21 l>ec. 1617). 
I'romoted ciiniain on S4 Uct. \'^2-\, he served 
at tbesif^f^ofKittooraT thccndof ihutycar. 
Hv na» prindjial comini»»ur\- of orduimcv 

lo March 1857. He received the silver war , from 1S45 trt !.h.')0, iind then \wA eommaad 
lunlal with five cUajpa. i of llie horiu! nrlillery, mill of the Modnia ar- 

Tlu- fnurfh mm oi M^MOr Thoroaa Whin- | lillery si hricndier. ' He loft India in 18M, 
yal<#. Captain GBoftciii EtBRi.tiilo.f Wiiix- i hayitig*nili'd,iK-ith the higbeni credit to hlm- 
viTr:» (1(88-1808), bom nn •II Aug. 17l^>t, j »elf, everv appointment and command con- 
iil^red the twvt aa fliwt-class volunipflr in nectcdwi'th niscorpa'Cgeneral onb-r, lOFeb. 

l^-ji). Hu becaoivmaiOMR'ncTa) on -"(* Nov. 

^^HT^~, and iUkW niiicrh active cerrice, rhiefly 
^Ki the Mcditormncan. Tn I80'i, ait tieit- 
^Kenant in the Sjicnccr, 71 Run», he served 
Grander Nclsoa in the blockade of Toulon, the 
Voy*!^ to tbtt Weot Indii-<, and the blockade 
of' Oadif; but hia ship, which formed part 
of thu iushorv sr^uiidrun, was si-nt to Ciibrul- 
t«r fiir provLiionii tl»n-ii day* bi-fore Trafalirur, 
He was in Duckworth's artion ofl' St. Do- 
XDtn(ro on 6 Feb. iPtW. In 1WJ7 he nim- 

4). llu becaaivmmor^r 
]864,lieuteD&nl-geDeraloD 14 July l8i)7,aDd 
ffeneral un '2\ Jan. 1872. He died without 
iMue al Rath on 2'2Jan.18S7. On 7 Aug. 1820 
he bad married Elixabcth, daughter of John 
Campbell nf ^Irmidnli-, .\rgTilliJiiiv, 

fWhiayaUt I'amily Ki*otdii. by MAJor- 
r.eneral Fredf^rlck T. Wliiuyatea, IS94. 3 Tola. 
4to, with porlntta (IwetitylWu rapiw privntely 
pciiit4Nl); Whicjales pvdiitrM in Gen^alt^Ht, 

monded the Benri'^re tiloop in the Mediier- | m^v ser. viii. 62-6; Procyedings of Royal Ar- 
znnean and the Channel. He died of con* ' lUlcry luAtitulimi, *'>!. v. pp vii-iii ; Oulonel 
aumplion, bnaiigbt on by hardahip and ex- F. A. Whinyaiee** From Coruiiii lo Rotnuiopol, 
' ,. I 18M ; Uaiiaias History of the Itoyid Ariillttry ; 

posure, on & Aug. If^OS. 

The Bftb son, Major-gi>neral Fnt:tiERlcc 
\S'it.LlAll WiiixtATBs (179.1-I(*1). born on 
20 Au;{. I7!W, waa conimlsaiomed as second 
licntenanl in the royal engioeera on 14 Dec. 
iHtl, and l»«Am» liitiitKnanl on 1 July 181:^. 
lib was present nt the bomhnnlmpnt of 
Al(n*'n» on '^ .^iig. ll^lO, iK'ing in command 
of n (li^Iachment of .'wppcrs and mimrson tlie 
Impregimble. He has tcfr n graphic H(M:ount 
of tlt>^ bombnnlnient.aiul of a confen-uci" wiili 

JfMTords of Ih* Koyal Horim Arlillcry; O'llyma^ 
Maval Biogr, ; K"y»l Kn){ii((»nt' Journal, »t. 31 ; 
inforiDHtTOn fornisliod by Mnjor-geooral F. T. 
Whioy.Hw^] K. M. L. 

(]*^'I:J- isyy), pbyciciM, the aon of Oeorjio 
Whipple, a native of rievomeliin-. was bi>rn 
on 1-5 Si;j]l. 1S42 al Tcddin^itoii, Middlesex, 
when- his fatlit-r was mahtfr of the public 
school. He was educaitd nl ibc gmmmoc 

tiw) de? three days aAerwnrds {Jivj/al Jin- school, Kiogston-on-Thnme*, al Dr. Wil- 
ginerrJ Journal, xi. 26). He received the j liams'a private school at Richmond, Surrey, 



mmi M KhA Cafltyi, Landon, ttkiog tde- 
, 0M wiMBe. m the onhuMCy of I.od(1iid ia 
P»i«g tfctr^^n 7Mu», from 4 Jnn. 
h* ound tbc K«w OUervKior; 
ipir it r. hti identiBcd him- 
I «lfwiAtfaiM(inC7«flWt uUblUlimont^of 
■■ — uniitii ■III liiii ill iHili', 
I w Xovflsbo' 1863,and mper- 
ia 1^0. Ii« drvw the pl«t<!» fur 
Wmitm ia U Roe'* * RMMichM in Solar 
ttnmm! 1W&-4 ; improved tbe Kev mats- 
mah0 cMlnaMtU; 'mrcnxei, be«idi» ot)i«r 
MliBil MiatiM, ■ dcvicv fur tesUoff tli« 
4m1c «&•£» «f MlUiiU iS'roce^diitfft lioyal 
A^irtf. iLxr. 4:^): and maJi^, witli Cuptain j 
}i4«T»Mdc in IH7iI, a Mrri«H of jMnilnliitu 
•SMraMnta. miMiled witti Colunt!! llcrach'rl 
^ IWI, M'l vilb Uita«ral Walker In IHBK, | 
ftr diCciBiuQf til* eonMant «f grnviiaiion. ' 
Wiad iirawiiw and valocity wuro hia life- 
law ■Mdr; b* catrifd out nr. llin OVto' 
FluaniBi374a ruuTMligatiiiuuftlie *cup- 
■wnoRMbg-' inreaUKl t.v TLoiitas Ilomnoy 
RoboMOB [q. r.]| and wiiK Goneral (Sir) 
Itidiard Htracliej' in 18B0 Donditcled a re- 
M«rrh til ctood'iiltotoKnipby tinder tho mo- 
C«oroio{[ic«l c'uuucil. comniuntL'utiti^ tlii> rp- 
•ttlU io l\ui Kovnl >y>ci(!l y on 2.3 April Ih91 
Cf». ilil. 4y7). ' 

Wbippit' cniil rilmtml fr«f-ly to m^ii-ntifii.- 
culliiCtionB, fnpL'uially to \\\v * iJuarliTly 
Juunikl' iif IJi.i Mtt«ior'flo((icnl fSoi-iely, of 
whicli body he btcAinu a Diember on IN April 
J^74. Ife ivrved od iu council (1870 to 
18K7), and teXoA la iU foroi^ aoentiiry 
(1884 lj>. IIu Mil also for lonity yeun en 
thu ouuiicil of tliu I'livAical Society of Loo- 
dou, aii'J was I'lvclt^d'a fvllow of [bv lioyal 
AHtiou'tinical Society on ll' April 1871'. 
IIk wkji aaaifttaiit t-iniaiuLT in iiaturul pbilo- 
•opliy Io IliK univ<-n>ity of Liiricliiti(l87ti-81), 
and in tho ociL'nco and art dqiartmisnt, 
Soiitli h.-n»iiiKto>i (187n-8:i and 18K-W»t. 
Tbc magnetic sootion of the ' Itoport nn the 
Eruption of Krakatoa,' publUbed by ibo 
Jioyal Soci«tv in 1688, wa^ compjlfld by bim. 
%Jt died St Itichmond iu Surrey on ^ Feb. 

[Mun of ti)» Time, 131b od. I8D1 : Nature, 
16 Feb, 1803: Titnn. G Feb. 1893: Uimrteily 
Juiimnl U'>yal Met core lof^ical 8oci«ty. xi. 113: 
Itnvitl Society's CnU Scientiflc FnpBr*.] 

A. M. C. 
(17h7-1>*''>3J, lipntcnrint-|t*vni>ra!, IbinKnl ar- 
tillwry, aon of Ittcliord Wbitb, roctor of West 
Walton and vicar of Wickford, CaMX, by a 
lltimhu>r nf William Sandyx, wm bom at 
Korthwold on 27 Feb, 1787. He received a 
commi«»ioa a» lioutvnnnt in ttiu Buiigiil ar- 
tillery on ^1 Aog. 180 1, aud arriviHl tu India 


taDMember. HeviMpromatft)lolwca|iUia 
OB 13 May 1 807, and oomaatided llt« n3ck<et 
troop of horse artillei; of lb« rmtn- divutoa 
of tlio (frand army under thd M«rqiui of 
HaalingH in tbe I'iudari and Maeathamrat 
th(> end of 1817 and bB^cinE of 1 j>18,aftff 
which bf! tuok tb<; troop Iu >Iirmt, wbt9r«,oa 
L*0 July 18:^, bo was appointed to aei w 
brigndi^niajor. IIi.i wa« prvmotvd tobotnijar 
on IflJuly 1821. 

He coiomanded the let brigade of b(s«D 
artilk-r^- in the army oMenbled at -Vr*, 
und«r Lord OombtTmere, in December ls5, 
for thu sief^- of Bhartpur. Tbe placa ma 
cuptiired by aitbauU on IS Jan. lif^, aad 
^Nliiitb wttfl mentioned in deapatche* and 
pruiniilud to be lieuumaiit^Mlonfl for dia- 
tinguinlitHl iMrvico in tbe li«ld fnim 19 Jan. 
l)n -}.& I>L'<.-. Itit23 hi! waa appouit«d to eon- 
[Qund the Karnid and Siibiiid divi^ioa of B(> 
tilli-ry. He wah ninde a rompanion of ibe 
order of the Bulb, military divisioa, on thit 
occasion of (he iitKH^n's curon»lion in 1838; 
appointed a colonel commandant of artilleiy, 
with rank of briffadier-Ketieral and tcith a 
Hat on th'> militAry bovd, on 21 Dec: and 
in Kebniary 1839 succeeded Maioi^feneml 
Faithful in commrtDd of tbe proaiaeQcy dirl- 
Kion of artillory nl Ibim Dum. Ue ww pro* 
njoti>d to be TUftjor-f^eneral on M Nov. 1811, 
luid WL-ut uti fuilougb tu Eugland until tbe 
t-od of ]S47. 

Whisli vim nn|tointcd to ilie rommnnd at 
I^^hore of tbe riinjab divi»ioD on Sit Jon. 
\^^^i'^. In Aucitn ne ww ?iv«n the com- 
mand of ihc! Muttau field force, eight thou- 
ftand strong, to operate a^inst Mulraj, and 
1 owarde thu end of tbe inuutb took up a posi- 
tion in front of Multaru The siege eowmeQCod 
uu 7 Supt ., but, owint; tu the dtjii-ctiuo oC 
to Tibi, and a period of inactioa folio 
which rnnbled ilolraj, lb« drfrndt-r of Mul- 
tan, to improve hin defenreA and tn incretM 
hisKarrison. In the betfinaingof NoTsnber 
Mulny tbiTw up bHtI.fri« which threMeaed 
Whi^h's camp, aiid on 7 Nov. a Hucooasfal 
action resulted in the dctttniction of Mdlmj'a 
adrancL-d bnlu-riutt oitd thu capture of Sre 
guii«. Oa 21 Dec. VVhinhwaa reinforcad by 
u column from Bombay, and on Cbriittinu 
day woM abbt Ui ot^cupy hut old posttioa. On 
'^7 Dec. the enemy Tirere driven from ihft 
GUburbe, Tbt> ewffa retooi mttnccd on the 
iJHth, tbo city woa captimMl on '2 Jan. IMO, 
and the sie^ of the citadel preaaed forward. 
On '2'2 Jan. all waa r«ady to atorm when 
Alulraj aurreadered. 

IjCKving a elrong rarri»on in Multan, 
Whiab man-htxl to Join I^ord Gouffh, csp- 
turlug tlie fort of Chiniot on 9 Feb., on 

■ ncoa 


,whicli day the advanced portion of Iiik 

lYre reached Itamtiaftar. An!tciita1iiif|:l»ril 

uugli*a ordun>, WkUli gceurtii) tbe fonlB of 

thf i'li'-iiitb at WniintluKt, and nti ^I tVU 

ouuiina&di^ the Isi divUion of I.flnlCi(vn^h'ft 

■mtjnt tlii*bnttlr-of<iuinil. For tusBemcw 

bereceiTed ihcthaiikAot tho TOveraor-gcneral 

of tbe court of directon uf tbe East India 

Company, and of bolb hoiiMvi of parliament. 

^^fie waa promoted to be a. kiiiglit commander 

^^Bf till; ord«r of tbe Biith, mililarv diviiioQ 

^MZvH'lon Ciazttte,'2S Marcli, 19 April. tiJiiiui 

^BtU4U), and waa trauaftrruil tu the conimaitd 

^'of tliK Baogal dis'iaiuiiof tlicamiy in March. 

In October L8r>l Im nji« n)>i>()i]iU'd In lliv 

Ci»-Jboliini division, but bffor*- a-oAiiRiing 

command wvnt bumc on furlout^h. lit- was 

^^jTomoied to be lidutennnt-gcnf ral on 1 1 Xot. 

■1661. H« died at Claridge'e Hotel, Brook 

^BBtr«et, Ijondon.on So ¥*•}>. li^iiS. 

Wbifih roarrii>d, in 1«(W, n dau;;ht«r of 
Onorn*' Dixon, by whom lie left a fiunily. 
Hif< fidest aon.<i. I'almcr WTiiith.froiieral of 
the Beo^al staff corps, servt-d wilh bis father 
~ It Gnjrat. Anotlicr eon, Ilonry Edn-ord 
_ivbi»li, major-i^cn^ntl of tlio BL-nfjal tlalf 
"corpR, Krr&d witli bis father at the ajogv of 
Alultan, and was in ihv Indian mutiny cam- 

[India Offic« Beoorda; Siubbd'a Hist, of the 

Boiffal Artillery ; Fdwanles'n Vku- do Ihi; 

Punjab Frontier. 1818-9; Oi>iijth aod Iddq*'* 

The Sikba and lbs Sikh Wan ; LAwr^neo' 

Anba'a Ooniaientiu-ii-H on tlm Punjnli Ciun- 

I^jsign, 1948-8 ; Timos (I/>udoii]. t Murvh 18.33 ; 

^■Dvat. Mag. Juno 1803 ; Men ol i)ie Reigs.] 

■^ R. H.V 

WHISTLER. P.VXIEL (1619-1684), 

phyaician, wT'Uof W tlliaui Wliittlvrof Elving- 

ton, Oxfordahire, was born at ^^'alIU&^utow 

in KsxNC in I61U. 11l- wod L-duviitud at ibu 

Kbool of Tliame, Oxfordshire, and ftjit*:red 

31cnoD Collvgv, OxfunJ, in January IttSO. 

He graduated 11. A. in lllli*. On ti Aug. 1012 

be b«gan the rtudy of pliyaic at thw university 

of Lry(li--n, wli«n* hv f!mduaC«d M.W. on 

19 Oct, IfrlS, liavinf in rlii> inr^'rvalrMiimed 

^mU* (Kford to takeniB M..\. decree {S Feb. 

^Klitt4). llisinaufTurAldiAvrtJition nt L^rdon, 

^KM i» Uct. imO, 'He Morbo nucrili Anglo- 

^HHktjiiuni patrio idiomate indiffpntn voeniLt 

^^^Be KicWt'is,"' if! bia only piiblixbi^Hl work, 

and ia tbir first printed bocik on rickets. IW 

ti-prinUtdit in \!itH. Tbti diat'oae was at that 

(iiitf tbe aubJM-t of mucli active obM^rvntiim 

_by Francia l*rlUaon [q, v.], and a commiitj'p, 

»ri-n in Hiimber, of theColli-gpof I'liyiiciiin- 

rhich worked with him had made ihr- fiiihj.i i 

w>-ll known, tlioudbrilisaon'aeluborate'Trac- I 

tatus de ItariiiTidtiMid not npjinar till Ifi-jO. i 

^^V^'hiatler's theais contains no original obaor- | 

vations. but maoybypotboMa and reports of 
thf< viewa of ottaera who are not named. 
It ia clearly baaed on tbe eorrent dianu&non, 
and irnkfn nutbing from the oriRinality of 
! GliMon'sirreatwork. Ho proposes the name 
I ' I'lbdoMpiancbnoEteocacw' for the diseOM, 
I but no nub«M]uent writAr baa UM-d tbe word. 
He waa incorporated M.D. at Oxford on 
I l^) May lii47. and waa electM a fellow of 
tbe College of Fliv»icians on 13 Doc. 104&. 
On UlJune 1((4^ he wa* eleetinl profaaaor 
of geometry at (irvshom College, and waa 
at the same limu Linacrv rwider ut Oxford. 
III! took can of wounded acamen in rht: 
Dulrh war of 1052, and in October IttM 
waa (k'slrod to accompany Bn)#trode \^'hite• 
|i>ckf [q, T.] to 8u-edeD. lib first caae 
(WiiiTKWCKB, p. 18WJ was a broken arm, 
and hia next a broken l^,and he biuualf oet 
liolli. He «poke Latin and French, and 
I wmti! lAtin versu on the abdication of 
(|ureriCbriatinaofSweden.wbicli are printed 
in the 'Journal of I lie .Swedish Hnabaany ' ( ii. 
I 47-1). In July WW h« Rtumud to London. 
A I the College of I'bvaiciaiw heddivereil the 
llnrveian oration in IW9, was Twelve times 
censor, registrar from 1G74 toIIWi, trf-aimrer 
in IWl'.und in lOdS prtvidenl. He married 
in 1657, and dird on 11 May ]6«4,whde pr*- 
eiduuit of pneumonia, and woe buried in 
CbriifC Cliurcb, Newgate .'Street. Hie bouse 
wan in thfl colIcfreiii\\'arwick l-ane. lie waa 
thought agreeable by Siimuol IVpya [u, v.j, 
who often dinodand aupped with b'ini. fliey 
walked together to view (be rsvogeaof the 

{;reat tire of ]6(Hi. Jolui Kvelvn alao liluid 
lis cunvunation. He waa negligent aa re- 
ffialrar, and aa presidi/nt of the Oollege of 
Pbysicians took little care of il8 projierly. 
Iliit portniil waa preaented in 17(M to the 
College of Physicians. 

[Munlt'a Coll. of I'hvs. i. 2*0 ; Journal of the 
Swedish EmbuHij, l.aiidon. 1772 ; Nomtan 
Moon'eHiktory uf tlir FintTreaiUaoaRickotB. 
St. Bartholomew' a IlAspiul Roporta. vol. xx. ; 
Ward's Omifaara Prvifp™or« ; I'spyp's l>iarjr, 
3 Tola. 1889 ; KTeLya'ti Dinry.] N. M. 

WHI3T0M, JOHN (d. 1780), hookaeUar, 
was Tbi! son of 'William Whiaton [i\. v.], and 
wo^ probably txini wiibin five yeara of hia 
fatbHt's mnrria(;H in I 111*!*, thontih be is 
known to have bofu a voutiger son. He net 
up an a bi>'>ki«'l!fr in Fleet Street, and en- 
joyed the croveled, though nominal, dtstjuo 
t iun of being one of the printers of the votes 
i^tf the Itoiise of Commons, He waa one of 
ill'.' oarliest issaera of regular priced cata- 
!.'(.ni.» (NiCROM. iiY. Ane^. iii. 668). In 
17Uo be bought and Uauitd u priced catalogue 
of Edmund Chibbuil'it librarv. Sbotlly nffec 
ibia date he soeuu lu have Wn in partner- 


■ w$k BenjuDiB Wbti« (rf. UIM). but 
■d iimmrj mad otlwr comI^ illustrated 

faL laoottjnaelMfi with Wliite lio itwunl 
is 1749 * Utmoin of iho Urv kikI Writing 
ol Mr. lIliIliBiB Wliiar<ni.' IIi« mother dtid 
ia Juioaiy 1761, Rod his iWtber follnweil hur 
■a tWrw •oMUoc, whepvupon in 1763 
Joba W ai^ ao imoea a 'e«rrut«d' •dition 
vt tlw 'McWKn.' HiB publishinc tritdv 
M«k «u 'hajW* Utvi. With O'lhnnie, 
ttmha^ ami oth«r IwokKller-publisbers, 
WhiMoa bnlc a iMntinff wt in piromoting' 
dK 'Ke* uud Oenwu Uio^rapUicul Dic- 
Itoaarjr,' uaiAd m twdrw volumva at kix 
lUUtagteaeb daring 176I--J. Thv Ilritiati 
MaMUlii pnMMM a copy with a lai^n niim- 
Wr of «Mf||^aal natm and uddcndK writri>n 
tw Whi*b>n. Olhec biofrrnpUicjil mt-moraiulu 
nf BO ifTvat Talun wen? auppliod by Wliiafon 
tq Jotio NicboU, and ackaowlLMlifud by him 
ia fau * l.itirrBry Aoardiriea.' WIiiHlon'sfihop 
waa kiwmD an a m-titing-placu and hoosB of 
rail for nufo of Irttwrv, «nd a cnmic vncoiin- 
Ur n foporttid lo haTc laki-n pliu:i> tlu^rc ho- 
twata Warbarton »ni\ hi* itdvemary, Dr. 
John Ja<?kB/Mi. In 1 7(ti'> M'hiR^m boiifjhtllic 
hhnry of Adam Andfnnn (my2)--l7ti&) 
[(). v.f llu |>r'jbu)ily ntired «oon sfl^ir this, 
and n'jlliinf; fcinliiT is kuown of liiin nve 
thaib«dw<l(in.'lMay )7H0. Iliscld^r brother, 
i Eifir^vWbiatODt U slated tu havi' bunu for a 
timxuMOciatW with biiii in tin- Flwl Rtrcet 
hll»in«^u fXiclMit^, 7'i/. Aufrtl. vVi'i. ^7^), and 
lo liave died at St. AlbunH abmi). 1775. 

[KicboU* Literary AnrAloliuiikniil Lit. tllus- 
tratiwia. inAmx, frwt ; Alltlionn'a Itirl.. nf Kng- 
lUi liuirutoro; Titopirrloy's Cyclopodia. lS4'i, 
pp. 772. 782.) T. S. 

WraSTON. WILLIAM fltlB7-17ftJ), 

divin*-, boni at NorLon iiisto Twynraaae, 
Iv«icL'«l«rBliir»^, on t4 Di^c. JW7, nun tile son 
of Jomiiih Whidtoi). n^tor of tho purish, by 
Catborioe, dausbi«r of Uabriel Rosae, the 
pmvioiu incani[K<fLt, who died in )0W. Th>* 
cldtT WIiIhI'jii hnd bufn u prc^byttriun, um) 
only ju*t fjirupi^d njirrtion alWr th« Itestorn- 
tion. Ho wae, ncffordinf to \m mn, vnry 
dilijcnt in lii« diiUrii, cvuri iiftttr \w hiul ln*- 
enm<> blind, lAni<>, nnd, fnr n tinio, deaf. In 
his hoyliiod Willinm was i>inplr)5i<d lu tiis 
fatlii^'K nmnnuf'-n»i>i.unil tin- ron»>'qni*n!. r^n- 
Snement. ho cLou^lii, In-lped to make him 
ft ' vtilctudinnrian anil fire^lly eiibjocl. to tbi- 
fiatu* Jit/pwAu/flriaci' iUrou((lioiit hU life. 
11)31 fiillier was his only tf^octier until ItitM, 
when bo viui sent to aeliuol ut Tainwiirth. 
Tlio iiuutrr nim (liMirjp^ Antrolm*, wlirMi* 
datLrht«r Kiirh becamo his wife in 1(11)0. 
In lOaiB li« was Kut to Clarv Hull, Cam- 

brid^. He was an iodosirioaa aludsBt, 

Surtteulorljr in iwulieniaboii, hat had lawh 
ifficiUiy m aupportinf; himwU'. w lua 
father had died in Jannnry 108&-6, Uavine 
a widow and mveu cbildzea. Ue Daaa«a 
to tiVB upou lUO/. till be took bia IIJ^ de- 
gTTfi ill 109O. II'< was t-l«4.tud lo a fidleir* 
jthi^j on 16 July lO-'M (-Vemoirt, p. 73). and 
graduated 3)1. A. in liiii'i. He bad Mruples 
a« to tnking th« a«thk toWiUiun aod Han*, 
and resolvfid not to apply to any buliop who 
bad laken the plaoa of on* of the drariv^ 
nonjiimrR. He thorefore vent to WHiam 
LloVd (m:^-17I7) fq- ^0. >«•««? of Lich- 
fiL-ld. bv whom hi^ was ordained dMOOO in 
September 1W3. He returned to Oambridge. 
inleDdin^ to lakepupilii. IleniUfil haT«b««n 
rcganlod as a youn^ man of 1iit;b promise. 
.\rchbiiihop Tillotsoii (also educated at CUrB 
Hall) flirnt a itopbew to ho one of hispuiuls. 
Wliiitou'i ill-hi-altb, however, decidcNiliiin 
to g-ir« up tuition. Ilia 'bosom friend' Ki- 
churd Lnn^htotx woschaplaio to John Moore 
<I04H-I714) [ci- V.J, bishop of Xorwicb. 
Moore had preriaualy fpoi Whiaton !iL, lo 
}wlp him n« n ■tuclent, and now allownl an 
excnnn^ of jdIocds betwt^n WhUton and 
Laujlhton. ftliile chaplain to Moore, Whiston 
published bis flrnt book. IIb bnd been ' ipio- 
minioualy studying the ficiitioiw hypotheae* 
of the Onrtrsiiiri philosophy' at Cambrid^, 
but hi! hod buurd sumu of Nuwton's teciolM, 
and was induced to hI udv the ' 1*ri»Hpta' bT a 
paper of Dovid (Jregory ( ItWI - 170ft) [q. V.] 
Ill* *\<'w TbiHiry "f thii Karlh' was aiib- 
niitted in manuscript to Newton lumfii'lf, to 
Wren, sue! lo Itenllev. It was praised by 
Locke (letter to Molynens of i?a Feb. 1696), 
who thniij{b( that writers who aogge^tM 
m^wbypntlioscsoupbt ro be modt cnmiiniged. 
Wliistdii's Apeculatiou wa» nu'ant to auper- 
sede the previous theorv of Thomas Bumet 
(l<i;jrjf-1710) [o.r.] of (be aiarlerbouse. 
He coufinnMl tliw riarraitie in <lt-ui9>tii on 
Nuwlonian jTroiinds, esplainiiifr the deln^ 
Ijv collifinn with n In I69r( li« wit 
prPAcnted by liishnp Mnom to the viear- 
ag^ of I.nwestofl-witli-Kifisin(;luid in Sof- 
fiilU, worth about VJdi. n rear afur allow- 
ing for a cunilG at Iviesiii^tand. He set up 
an t-nrly st^rrice in a chapel, preached twiee 
II day ut the church, nna gave cat«cbelioal 
leetiires. Tart of the lilbeit of Kiaaincland 
bflon^.'cd to John Itnron (afV6m*anl« dean of 
Norwich), who nffftrtid to Mill bis pn^erty to 
the church for eight yejira' purcDaae(100f.) 
Winston sot up a FubfiTi)'tion, ndvaacin|[ 
W/. hiin%''Tf, and nitimatrly fu-ttledtbe tithe 
upon the vicara^ on being reimbursed Eat 
bis own expenses. HisRUCC^ssorafterwaHa 
made him a yearly preMbt of five guineas. 



which wu of eonaidcmhle importeniw U» 
him. la 1701 Wljutoti v/an ii[iM>lnt«d deputy 
to NeWUin's liuoasitia i>roIei*M)r^iip. He 
publisliLMl an iMlilioii uf ' Euclid ' for tin; use 
of ittuiIriilA. lu iron lit- KucceMli^ Newton 

sft pnfeaeor, and g&ve up liU livitiL'. IK- di>- 
ItvRTvd locturvs ( nff'Twiinlji publiwieii) uimih 
mm h^nuitirA and natural pl)iln>«ophr, and 
K-as atnoD^ tlie tint to populiirii-e llw N«w- 
toniAii tlieoriod. Itogi-r Cot<^ fq, v.] wasv np- 
puio1t;(I to tlie uew I'lumian proreseor^liip la 
iTUtt, chiefly upon Whislon's mwmini-Ddu- 
tioot uid ia tb« nuti year he joiut.'d Coica io 
a aeries of Kietitific eX|M*rii]ieDl«. In 1707 
be WII8 alio permitted Ly thL> author lo pub- 
lijih N«!Wlon» ' Antliiwlicii L'liivpnuili-*." 
'Whlfiton wa» artive in other wsya, He com- 
plMiriK of llii> pni'iicc of ihv tintf m n^iinl 
infi'llowahip >?le<M ions. Thp rnn(!i(!nteaMrae- 

, tim>.'a rPi.-')nimt.'Tidtsl thi'msdves by proweea 
'w ilxinkin^. WhUtoti propoflrd rvfonn» of 

FTario us kinds ( M^mtArt, pp . 4 2, 1 1 1 ). He waa 
also R member xf tlie Society I'or i'mtnolino' 
Cbrittttan Knowlwlif. fnumled by bis friend 
Thomas Hray (1WHJ-I7a0) [q. v.], and wrot* 
a momorial for iwttin^ up charity »cIioo]a 
tluouaitiout (Ii« kingduui. M<.-anwbile Whi»- 

Iton,liKP Newton, haid unluckilybeen combin- 
iaa scitintifii: wilb iLeulogioiI in'iuinv^. lit- 
dt-livBtt-d \\u: IVjylf li-ctumi ill 1707, and in 
1706 lif! wrolt> an ' impprfi'ci ' f»wnr Hpt>n the 
'Apostnltci) Constituiinnc,' which ibw vic(>- 
ehoncf^'llor rcfuwHl lo licence. Wbiston wrot« 
to the arclibisbops in July 1708, iiiforniinif 

kthcm that be vrsa entonn^ upon an important 
Enquiry, li k-d hiin to ibc i-'MiduKioii that 
Bie ' Apostolical Ciin.-tilntiiinA' was' t ho most 
Mend of thf canunivul books of tbo Nrw 
Tcatamctil,' and tlinr tlir arct'pted doctrint- 
ofthg Trinity vras ("rroneoua. Rt-poriH tbat 
hn wa> an Arian, or, a* be call<-d (limiirir, a 
Koseliian, hfgnn to sprv-atl, and liin friends 
Temonstml«d. He told lh«m that ibpymif^t 
u anon p^isiiade tb>- itiiii to h-Av« lb« Armn' 
ment as cban^ bis resolution. Ho wati 
finally au mm onvd bcfor<- ibe beads of bootses. 
LAf his professor* bip, 'M Oct. 1710. Wbistoti 
not to London with his family, and to- 
tbe end of 1711 pnblialiKd hja rJiief 
It, 'PrimitivaChristianity Revived.' The ' 
WAS taken up by convocation, whtcb 
voted an addreaH for hU pro^r-rntion. Various 
dalays took place, till in 1714 a 'court' of 
dal^»t«8 was Appointed by th^ lord cban- 
«e1[or for his trial. The proceedings aiminet < 
him w#re dropped aftor the di-atb of IJufon 
Anae. (WbiMon piibli^hwl an aci-ouut of 
the proceedinija againsl him at Cambridfre 
in 1711 and 17IS. Various 'pnpuni' rvlat- 
ing to the prucewlings in convocation and ' 

the roort of d(*le{||ate« wer« pnbliihni b^ 
him Id I7Ifi. See ahw appendices to Prim\- 
tiw Vhr\HtaMitu,h,nA CoKBETi's.VVii/f Tn'aUj 
XV. 703-101. \Vlit8ton wob known to nianj 
tcadtng divines nf ibe time, espi'cially CO 
Samuel Clarkw, trbo had Huc«couttd him a« 
cbauloiii Ui Muon^, and Hoadly, tvlio iiym- 
patliijiod with some of hi* vihwa, but were 
CMutioTiM in avowing ibvir opinions. Wbistoo 
was now a poor man. He atatin (^M^moiri, 
p. 'J'W) tbat he bad a small fartn near New- 
market, and that b<^ n'ceivfd fci)^^ from 
varioua friends, and bad in later veitrs a life 
annuity of "JU/. from .Sir.Io«C[ib Jtkyll [fl- v.], 
and -10^. u ytwr from Quet-u C'lvruliiii} (con- 
linuc'd,it is si3id,afl(.Tlii^r death bylieorgell). 
Tbi.-X',' ineuni^, tojjvther with ' vclijx^HTe, cuiuuts, 
and l«ctut>-»,' ^-ave bim 'such u coiupetenoy 
a» K'^atly coiittnltd him.' ANTien Prince 
EugetiL' come to London in 17ll-li,WhisL0a 
printed a nc^w dedication to a prrvioua >-aaa^ 
upoti the Apocalypao, [raintinff out tbat tm 
pritui^ bail liilfilleu tuime nf tTir propbpvies. 
The prince bad not been awart', lie replied, 
thai lirt .' Iind tlm bommr of beinf^ known to 
St. John.' but sent ihn inteqirctcr fiftcea 
giiineuA. In 1712 Whifirnu made n charoo- 
fcrit»iic aitcmpt to impro^-« his finance. 
Simon I'strick, bishop of Kiy, bad in 170^ 
promised him a prebend which wo-s esjwcted 
lo he vacated upon Thouiu* Turnor'H n-fuFol 
Iotakothenath9[seeTrRXi:K,Tiio)(A», HU.'W 
1714]. Wbifiton Eiipposed (erronmusly, i( 
iu.*>4n\*> that Turner monagvd to <>Tade the 
oath and to keop hii) prebend. In 171^ he 
wrote lo Turner mentioninif thin as a fact, 
and 'hinting' hi« expectations. Turner, he 
thoiiglit.baviiig wronjifullvkept the prebend, 
ouf^ht to contribute to the aupjiori of the 
riabtful owner, Tumur look no nolicv of 
what must have looked like an nttempl at 
extortion. NVhistou kept th(.> &ucrel, how- 
evcr,and in I7.')l np]Hiil<'tl in the coqtorotion 
to which Turner hnd left a fortune, stating 
fiinl bf bad Ici«t \,'2(W. by bis aoqiiiesceuce. 
He wosa^in obliged 'IoaIi down con tcnt4.-d* 
witboiil any compemwlion. 

Whiston was one of th* ftnX, if not the 
first person, to give lectures with osperi- 
mpRtfl in I»Tidi-in (cf. DESiori.iElts, JoHS 
Tit0>riiitxs, and IIe Mouoak. Budgft ^ 
I'nrtid'txf*, p. 9;i). ile co-openitRd in nomn 
of them wiib the elder Fmncis Hauksbee 
fq.v.) Tliff lirHl.ui'KiiKxtronomv. werojiivefl 
St niitton's eoffee-liDUB*' by the help of Addi- 
S'ni ami Slm.-In ( .VrMiwV.c, p, l'07), both of 
whom \\f kni w well. H>^ Biniift.-J ^reat men 
by his frank rebukes. Ho asked Steele oa« day 
how bf roiild *pc»k for tlie Soiitbwn directors 
after writing against them, StL^lcKpliadi'Mr. 
Whiaton, you can walk on foot and 1 cannot.* 





IVImb he KUggeated to Cnig^ that bontuty 
night ha thL'UMt puUcy, Crn^^ rupliL'tl tliat 
M (•InttfStiinii migbl Ix: boiii»l fur a fnrliii^bl, 
but tlmt it would not da far a month. 
Whiston asliiif] turn whitthrr luiliml nvitr triwl 
for ft fortnigliT (Nichih-s IJl. Aaivd. i. 1104). 
W'hiaton'a absolutt' honestv was Bd[iiiU<<d by 
his cniiii^mporariu^ whom )i>''(]iMinn<-rt by his 
^implii'iiy. lie {fives T&rioiLs aaecdou-i) of 
the perpiexilioS into which he brought othi.T 
cliirgyiDuii b,v iii»Uttug iipou their mJcitt^ 
uotiua of rice in high poailioii;). la I'lu hi< 
started a eucitily iur proinoliiig [iritnitivu 
ChriitC.iiLntty.wliitb hi-ld w.-i-kly un!fliii)jn iit 
his hnuse in (.'nicB Strpct, Ilutton Gnrdt-ii, 
for two jean*. Th" ch«irn«in WL-rc iiu<,xv«- 
ftivelT tli« bopriat Jahn Oale [g. v.], Arihtir 
(JdsIow [q.v.] i^srtv-TwartJsspvaKvri, and cbu 
unitArinn Tbomns Kiiilyn [q. v.] («oe W. 
Ci-^Kny'a Hffmi'tm; and for nn ncroiint of 
the suhiecia ilisciiM^d, Wiil-fToXB T/iire 
'fratU, 1742). To this Rocietv he inyit«d 
Clarki>, ILoudly, and Hare, who, Lowev<?r, 
did not bttend. ^Vhiflton ^ntm on parricki- 
larly iutimuUt lermit wiib Otnrkc. I'lurW 
probably introduced him to the lVinc«?M of 
Wftlea (afturwurds Qu^-un CaruHiio), who 
nnjiiywl Whi5l.Oiro ]ibutmt-»-t of s|>e<!!ch and 
took bU peprnofegood-bumourodly. Amonp 
the niembor« of WhiRtori'ii imcirty wiw Thii- 
ma» Kundle ^>). v.] ^aftiTwanla biahnp of 
Derry). Whiston wa» alter wunls shocked by 
heahnif that Kundlo attributed thL' 'Apos- 
tolical OoDflitutioii*' to lhi« fourth cenitiry, 
and Miid, ' iMakia him dean of Durham, 
and tUvy will nut hf writtvu till the fifth.' 
Annthrr nn-uilM^r wint Tbiimas (.'hubb [q.Y.J, 
of whoHo fint book he procured tho publiua- 
tion. H« bait nftfrwimln In altiutlt I'hubb'H 
more deruloptd duiacu. A mom decided 
opponent w«» Anthony Colliiii! fa. v.], 
wliOMt two bookn on the '(iri^iinj^ and 
Iteesone,' &«. (17:;4), and Ihp 'Schnsme nf 
Literal Propht-cy' (]7'2T) are prufedsud ly 
dinjct«d against Whifton's viuw of tlio 
prophecioH. In the first (p. '^7^1 h« pivca 
' an account of Mr. Whimuit hiin^i'ir,' prai«- 
in(i bis inte|;rtiy and xaal. WUiAtoti, ha anys, 
visits persons of the hiffhesL rniik mid • fn'- 

r'ntx t-liv most ijublir. cofl«e-boiia<-ji,' where 
dorpy fly befor<> him. WTiifiton wna 
a»tical nioiinti'hniik ' Joliii Henley [i\,. vj thp 
'onHor.' Whiston uccuiwd Ilenlwy of im- 
morality, atid proposed in vain that he »hauhl 
aubtnit loa trtal uccnrdiug [o the* rules of the 
primitive church. Tht: bishop of Londoa dr- 
olared that lh«r\; was no canon now in force 
for the punioiw, and HenUy retorted by rt- 
proMfhinif Whiston fur bowing bia knuo iu 
Ck« houMt of Himmou, thai is, atttfuding the 

Anglican a«rvic«s (Wuistos, jVmotra, pp. 
'2\r>, 327. and biB pamphlet 3fr. HenUyi 

littterx nnii Ailvrrttnemmtii, tcith Nnfrj by 
Mr. H'A*>f(>n,'I7l'7,wbidi ia not,asLowndi^ 
MV", ' iilinnat unrvadahle ' on account of it* 

M'biston meanwhile kept up hia nutiMH 
mnticft. He nadv varioua nti<MDpi4 lode- 
vise means for discovering ibf longitude. A 
Urge reward for ■ sueceasful att«mpt waft 
ol!'(rred by parliuuieiu. Whiaton co-op<iraled 
with iliiiuphr^v llitton [q. v. J in a achcma 
piihtii>hrd in ^714, which ^'as obvioudj 
cbJiai^rti-al. In 17:20 bo jmbliahnd a new 
plan foundnd on the 'dipping of the nc«dle.* 
improvtrd in 17:il, but al'ttirwardu found 
that hia ' labour had been in Tain.* A 
public aub»cription, however, was raised 
in 17:2] to reward biro and <^&ab1c him lo 
carry on hia rttttearchmt. Th& king gate 
10<l/., and the tot^tl was 470^ Sm. tjti 
Another duin of Ji<X)f. wna raia«d for him 
about 1710, the whole of which, however, 
WOA spt^nt in a survcr of the coasts, for 
which be vmployvd u iir. Iteuabaw in 17-14. 
A chart waa laaiied, which he declare* to be 
ibv moHt correct lutht'tlo puhllahud. In 
1720 a propoMil to nl^-ct hiiti u fellow of th« 
Hoyal Soeitty wna defeated by Newton. 
Newton, aiTiirdiiiig lo Whiston, could not 
bear to be coniradiRted in hici old age, and 
(or the last tbirteen years of hia life was 
afraid of Whiston, who waa always rcadyto 
contradict any one. 

Whiston lectured upon varioua aubjectft, 
comprising tuuteur«, ocUps^s, and aarUl' 
quakes, which li« connected mure or leas 
with tho fulhlmeiit of propheciw. In I72fl 
ht! had ituHli'bi miule of t lie tabcmiicle of 
Muaea and the temple of Jonualem, and 
nftcnvnrd* iMctiireid upon tb«m at London, 
Bristol, Halb, and Tuiibndge AVelU. Them 
lectures and ntbi're preparatory to the Tt^ 
ittoratinn of thv Jews to Palestine (an event 
which he regarded oa rapidly approaching) 
were to be hia 'peculiar busiueas' bence- 
forch. llo cotiiinut^d, however, to puhliah a 
I vavit-ty of pamphlets and lreati»>s ui>ori hi* 
I fiivouriti! lopi[». Ilia most succesaful work, 
the trunalutton of Jc>»rjihiiit, wil.b wwral 
diaaertationa addcjl, appparecl in 17R7, and 
bus )»ince, in Hpitv of defective scholarship, 
been the estahltahed verainn. In 17<'S), om 
the deHlh of bis succ^-ssor in the Cambridge 
rrolV-dfwirahip, Nicholas Saundcrson [q. v,"* 
be applied lo be reinstated in his 
but reccin-d no answer. In his laat 
he took up a few moru fancies, or, 

Eut it, made some new diacoveriuiu 
ecaiuo coiirincud chut unoinliiig the aiok 
with oil was a Uhriattan duty. lie found 


that tbu practice l»d been curied on iritb 

mucli Huccess br the baptists. U*; bad 

httliL-rtu Btti-ndi'^ tbi< servicer of the cburcb 

of Kcifflond, tbnuab in I71'.> Iltmry Socbe- 

Tfiretl [q>v.] Uua Rndcavminji] to ftxelude 

1)im rrniu tlie pitriab cburcb. WliUton de- 

clired oil oS«r from a Iswyt-r tn pnweciittf 

&achfv«.>n>ll Enituitously, Nayinft tbot it 

-troiiM proTA nim to be * n-i fooliAti and oaa- 

cionate M the doctor bimself.' IlcpubUsuml 

• curiou 'AMOiint* of I>r. ' Sncocvorf!ir.i 

^rtoroco^diDga ' in tbls maiter in 1719. (ira- 

^^Btinlly be became utioninfoTl«ble iib«>ut tho 

^^^Lhaouian cra«d, and fiimlly gnvi* up com- 

^Bnunion witb the cburcb and joined tbc ba^ 

^■tiats after TrintlT SundiLv 1747. H>' bi.'ard 

a good cbaracttT of the MontviaiiN, but was 

cined by perceivinp tbeir ' we«liDea« and eu- 

tbtwiasm. H in 'most fnnioii* di»cnveiry,' nr 

ntviral nra diii«»««rT, wo* tbul tbe Tartars 

were tbe loat tribt.'S. Uo was still IwturiDg 

at Tiitibrid^it WtdU in 174(1 wbf>n be an- I 

nniinced that the millenniuTn would ht-ipn 

in twenty yv»n, and tbat tb^rv vrnuM tliirn 

Pno more enmine^tablfls at Tnnhridge 
ells or infidels in Cbriatendom (Af^moirt, 
p. ;t3:)). Tic appears there in 174114 in th". 
Wi-U-known picture pr«flxed to the third 
volume of the ' Iticharaaon CorrespondciMw.' 
Id 17^} bv gave anotber ivTivf of l«ctur«« 
(piiblish«-d in second voUitne of ' Siemoira '), 
abowinp hnw hi-i predictions were eonfimied 
rbr th*" •:«rth(]ual[ti of tint yei»r, and (bat 
^Isry Toft ij. t.I, the rabbi t-wninan, bad 
been foretol<f in tb* bonk of Esdnw. 
j^ Whistoii dirti on 32 Aug. 1763 at the 
'f' hou9« of ^imoual Darker, busband of bi« 
'^ oniydau^blcr, at Lrndon. Itutland, IIowaH 
buriird at Lyndon ix*«ide bis wife, who died 
in January i7oO-l. II* left two sons, George 
and Jobn [q. t.J A youu^ brothi-r, Danii^l, 
■wiu for flftytno yvan curate of .Soreenihiim. 
He agreed witb bin brother's views, and 
-wrot« a ' IVimitivr Cut^-cbi^ni,' p«Wi«bM by 
his brother. H*" TV'fusod prfifftr!npnl.s from 
unwillin^css to make the neceraarx sub* 
script ions, and wiu prote<c.t4-d. it is mid, at 
the sutTffeation of Samui^l Clarke, by the 
ticbcss of Marlboroiif;b (Nifiiot,'*. Lit. 
'A»e*^. viii. 376-7). Ilo in apimrmitly tbu 
Dani«l who died on lit April I751t, aged ^3 
(i4. i. fiOG). 

\Vbi«toa b^longvd to a fniuiliar type an a 
man of very aAat« bat iU-balanced inielli<ci. 
liis leamiuz was great, faowKwr fanciful \u* 
theories, and he no doubt hftp<^ tn call at- 
ICDtionto important points in ecclp«ta»tii'Bl 
history. Thi? clinrm of his Mmplt>-mind«l 
boncfly gives great intt^rest to his autobio- 
graphy; thoiiKb a Urge part of it is occupii^d 
■witli rather liresomL- accoutiu of his wrilmgs 


and careful diivctiona for their ireatmont by 
the fiitnr« r^publJshers, wbo have not yet 
ap-jteared. In manv re*peclJ» hw strongly re- 
sembles the Vicar of Wakefield, who adopted 
bi« priacipleti of monogamy. Hie condem- 
aation of lloadly upon tbat and other 
BTOurds is in the spirit of I»p. IVimmd.* 
{MrtH'jir*, p. 209). It w not impn^bable that 
Whiston was more or leaa in Goldamith'a 
mind whitn hi- wrotv bis masterpiece. 

Wbiaton's portrait, by Mr*. Snrab lloadly, 
is in tbe National I'ortruit Gallery of Lon- 
don. A cbftract<>ri»tic portrait, by II. White, 
is etttrraved in his ' MtunoirV and abm in 
Nichols's ' Litt-rary Anecdotes' (i. 41M). 
Anoihi-r by Vertuo was angrawd in 1720. 

Wbiaton's works, omillmu- a Uvi occn- 
Htonal papi-rs, are: 1, *A New Theory of 
the I'^anii,' &c., lOWJ; appvndix added to 
Bth edit.l73«. 1. * Short Vii-w of the Chro- 
uoloijy of ihu Old Tfelament/ ftc, 1702. 
a. ' Essay on the Ilevclntlon of 8t. John,' 
170(1 (nearly tlie same a<i * Syncbronismo* 
rum A )KMl (ilii-iiriim Series," ITI^). 4. ' Pne- 
lectionRe AHtronomictc/ 1707 Tin Kngli<t1i 
iTi 171'> Htid 172tf). 5. 'Tboacooiupli»hiui.'nt 
of Scripture Prophpcica/ I70B (lloylr b-r- 
luren). tt. ' SermoDB and Kuavt upon eevcral 
Subjects/ 1700. 7. ' I'HBlectionM I'hysio- 
Alaihematicio,' 1710 (iu English in Iftfl). 
8. * Essay upon tbe Teaching of St. f^atius,' 
1710. 9. 'ilbloricalPrsifiiiw,'l'IO(in 1711 
prftiied to ' Primitive Obristianity,' aud re- 
publifihed separolelr in I71ft). * 10. Two 
'|{.-p]ie-(o!)r. .VIJen.'lTll. I J. ' Rcmaiks 
upon I>r. Grabi^s's ' Bmiiv upon two Arabick 
MSS.,' 1711. \-2. ' IVinoitivH Christianity 
revived/ 1711. 4 vols. 8vo (.-ontaining 
ibe Epistles of Iguutiuti, tbe 'Apostolical 
CotutituIJons/ and dissertations; a fifth 
voluiuw, cotituiniug tiio ' Kecngnitions of 
("lempnt/ woji addi--(] iiiJ7l2). 13. ' Atbana- 
sius convicted of Forgery," 1713. 14. *IVi- 
iiiitivn Infunt llapttsm revived,' 1712. 
Ifi. ' Reflexions on an .iLUonymous Pam- 
phlet' (i-e. Collins's 'Discount of Free- 
thinking'), 1713. 16. 'Throe lisaays' (on 
tbe Council of Nice, 'Ancient Monuments 
relating to the Trinity,' Ac, and * Tb.> 
Liturgy ofthe Church of England reduced 
nearer to the Primitivi- Htandnrd '), 1713. 
17. ' .\ Coiirw of Mechanical, Optical, Hy- 
dr<3«taiical, and Pneuniatical Ejiperiments,* 
1713 (w-ith F. Haiikiibpe). IK 'A New 
M^thfid of discovering the Longiludu,*17I4 
(with llumphrpy llirtony 10. 'An Argu- 
ment to prove tbiit ... all Poisotis Bolumnly, 
though irwffiilarly, net apart for the .Ministry 
are real Clerffyroen . . .,' I7I4. 30, 'A 
j Vindication of tbo Sibylline (Jraclivi,' 17IB. 
I 21. 'St. Clemenl's and St. Irenioua'a Vindi- 



\V hi taker 

Mtioo of the Apostolical Otuiskitutiou,* 
171ft. 22. 'An Awxnmt at a Surwrixing 
Meuor,' KItt (Anotlur in 1719). 2.1 'An 
AddtMa to the J*riDoe8 ... of Europe for 
lb« AdmiMion ... of the Christiitu l!«U- 
pOD to tbtfir Dominions,' 1716. ;^4. ' Atitm- 
noinic^kl I'rincipW of R'-lifjion,' 1717. 
Sa. 'Scripiuru Folitie*,' 1717 (to which is 
wldcnl 'The Su{ipo«al, or a New St:liem« uf 
GoTenuiusnt,' privKU'ljr i)rint'.-cl in 1712}. 
89. 'A Debnw of tli« lti»liop of tendon,' 
17I9[ a second 'Defangf,' ITli). 27. 'Cnm- 
mntsiTon lh« Thrm Cntliollc EpUtlcs of 
fit. John,' 1710. 2*. 'Irfttcr to ih« Fjirl of 
Nottiogbam canc«rning tho Etemilrofthe 
SoaofOod/ 1719, nix cdilinnii; 'lU-i)ly'to 
tlwHiiwia 1721. 29. 'The true Origin of 
tile SaboUiftn and .\thanuiAii DoetrliiM of 
tho Trinity,* 17:!0. 3U. ' The l^nj^itudu and 
LatituOt.* diMOTered by the Inchnatory or 
Dipping XcwHt," 1721. 31. * A Chronolo- 
gical Tublv, C'jutaininit th« ll«hrow, Phceni- 
cian, Kgrptioa, and Chaldean AntiijuitiiM,' 
1721. 32. 'An Kuoy lowatdfroelDnng Hr- 
Tni*- Text of the (»ld TestsmtnL,' 1722 
(' fiupplemenl ' in 1723). 33. 'The Calcu- 
lation of SoUr Kirlipsefl without I'limllnxes,' 
1724. ."il. 'TIip Literal AcconipUiJiniRni of 
Scripture IVophBcii-s," 17:J4 ; (vnnw^r to Col- 
lins's 'Ciroiimu and Ruaaona' ('Siip|ilflmcnt* 
in l"2->). 9H. 'Of the Thunderiinf Legion," 
172fi. 30. * A Collection of Authentick 
Records, IwlDugius lo the Old and New 
Tiwlnnu'lit.'* • {in Kngliah), 1727. 37. 'Tin. 
noreb Covenant, ruvivod,' 1730. 3«. 'Ilia- 
torical Mtunoirg . . . of Dr. Snmii-] Clarki?,' 
1730 (threat cilitions'l. 39. ' Paraphnwo on 
the Book of Job,' I T.'SS. 4(K ' The TMlimony 
ofl'hlcffon viiidiriiiwl,'1732. II. 'Six l>t8*cr- 
tfttiona/1731. ■i^.'AtbnnHsianForgeriea.Iin- 
poaitioiui, and Intoqiolniiona' (by a 'Lorer 
of Truth'). 1"3(}. -13. 'The I'mnilifK Eu- 
charist n-Tived,' 173tJ (af^aiiist llitadly'n 
'Plain Account'). 11. ■ Tho Astronomical 
Year/ l?:*?. 4fi. 'Tla- (Jeuuiim n..rt<» of 
Flariiis .loftephiia, lh« Jewish Historian, in 
English; 1737 (often n^rirl^d till 1879), 
46. ' An AccnunC of the DiBmoniafJifl,' 
47. 'Thtt Lonffitudy found by the Ellipses 
. . . of Jupiter's Hancts,* ir"3H. 18. 'Tho 
Eteniity ot Hull Torments considered,* 17*10. 
49. 'Three 'IVacts,' I74;i. r.l). 'The IVimi- 
thre New ToHtamitnt in Knitlish,' 1745. 
61, 'SacH'tl Hi»lorv of the Olil and New 
Teatament; reduced inlu Annnii),' 174^. 
52, 'Memoirs of the IjilVt and Writing* of 
Mr. WilliAm Whiston, containing sRveral of 
hi« Friends also, and writtt'n by Himself,' 
174W; 2nd edit. 17ft3. 

[Whidton's Mnmoini is the chief autboritj for 
his lifa. BafwonoM abor* aro to the second edi- 

tion. OthM- fieta are raeatiaBad in bla Tntuu 
.See sUd Nidiola'a Lit. A.nKd. i. 4M-aOS. fat 
nutneruos refereaceii to Wliiiton's rarious CQOU^ 
Ter)iMa,aee the Initx tathcfiametroA.JL.8. 

WUITAKER. [.See also WHinacRB.] 

173r)(,lwmin IdtfO. admiral, waa on 10 Oct. 
1688 aii)>ainle(t lieutenant of the Swallow, 
then commanded hr Matthow (afterwatds 
l^onl) AvhoMr [n-v.] In 1089 bn was in tlu 
>lary, in 1(100 again with Aylmer, in tbe 
Koyal Knlh«rinw, and on l.'S Slay 1090 lia 
wa-t promoted to he mptain of the Dorer 
of 44 guns, in nhich. during tba follcnrias 
three yoni^i, h« madd tfvenl rich ftitta ana 
captured many nf the French priTBt«en. In 
16U3-4 lie was flag-capUin to Aylmcr in the 
ICoyal Sovereign. In lfi9<'>-6 h« suceeasiTely 
coiumanded the Eliiabeth, Monclc, and St. 
Andrew, and was flag-copt&in to Sir Clow- 
dteloy Sliovi'll [q. v.] in the Victory, ta 
169S he was living at Leigh in fls«ex. la 
Mav 1690 ho woa aupointod to the Portland, 
iLti;[ oil 13 Jan. 1701-3 to the Kanelogh, one 
of the Itdy ships commiaeioned on the nna 
day- A month luttr, 1t1 Frli., h« wasap* 
poinHvd mftftli^r-attendant at Woolwich, and 
seems to have held the otfice through thii 
jaar. On 4 Jan. 1702-3 he waa appoiottd 
to the lleMoration, and, a few daya later, 
from her to the Dorsetshire, on« of the Ba«t 
with Itooko in the Meditenaneau iii 17(M. 
In tlin rapture! of (lihrallar Whitaker actml 
08 aidt^-dfMmmp to Sir Oeoign BjTig fq. v.], 
' hi« sliip not bring upon Mrvioc,' com- 
manded the bonta in the attack, rallied the 
meu when pauic-struck by the .•xploeion of 
a nagnzitic, ard hoisted the English edoun 
on the baation. In the battle of Malaga 
the Dorset shin' was one of the rod wiuadron, 
and wus closely 4>ugag«d throughout. In 
17U.1 Whitaker commanded tho Oarfleur ; 
early in 1706 he was promoted to hv war- 
lulmirnl of lh<i lil\i<^, was hnighled, and ap- 

Eninted to cnmmand a equadron off Dun- 
irk. In .\pril he cnn^-oywl the Duke of 
.Marlborough to Holland. 

In I70y, with his flog in the Northum- 
berland, he w«nt out to tlw Mediterranean 
with .Sir John Leake [q. v.], and in August 
commanded the detachment which eo- 
onernted in (hfl r«ducliuu of Minorca. 
Whpn LBakii returned to England, Whitaker 
rc.mnined in command, and tin 2l Dec nrat 
promoted to be vici^admiral of the blue. A 
commisHon of 20 Dec. to be admiral of tlte 
blue seems to hare afterwards bwn canc»II«d, 
and on llNor. 1 709 ho waa mode vice-admiral 
of tho white. In January 1708-9 h» waa re- 
lieved from the command in chief io tlie 

_^ inMa by Sir Qeotge Byngt ■with 

whom Ik remaiaed *e second, till be aaain 
bectine chief by Uyng'i return to Enilaiid 
in July ITOd. In lliu ftummcr uf 1710 h« 
aUo mlunted to England, mid bad no 
farther aea semcc. ife livod afterwards in 
retira-mont, nnd tli«d on '20 \uv. I7!i't itt 
Canhallon in Surrey, where he vaa buried. 
His will (in Soownwt Tlouw: Duciv, iiWi 
wft.<« proTtd on .1 Dm. by bin ni(>co, -Mnry 
Whitakei, epinster, sole executrix. Ilia 
vrifd F.iiukbuth (CilARNOCK, ti. 370) dt<<d 
on \ Si'pt. 1727. The will mentions his 
mepbevr, Capuiia Samuel Whitalcer [i^. iii. 
113), who, aa comnADdmi^ a ftbip «i 
Gibrmltar and Malaga, ba* bueo oft«n con- 
fu!i«d with bis uncle ; and hiit gnind- 
daugbtnr Ann, daiigliUtr nf hi« *nn, Caiftiiii'i 
Edward Wbitakor, deceased, whn if) oruprad 
to be brought up by Mary Wliitak'^r, 

Pnpuntlu (ftax nnd without tlm ddvio', 
tvction, or rantrol of bcr mother.' Marv 
t«<rward9 married lM*r St. Eloy, wlio ad- 
inistiircd Wr will on *2ll July 17Sd. 
[Cluininck'it Biogr, N»v, ii. 36fi; MMOoir* r*- 
Ultn^ to the Ijunl TurrinKton iCAntden Soc.). 
pp. UO-3. lfll-3. 1»6 ; Udiard"* NftT»l Hisrory ; 
jCftDDlnffOBd Bmy'aSiLmT, li. 617.M8: OcnI. 
Uag. 1 736, p. SB2 ; OIBcial Irtlcro, luirl oommi»- 
•ion and varrant boolu id lb« PnUie R«eoid 
I Offlae.1 J. K. L. 

^n7&2--1618), dinne, hirtorian, and pbiUn- 
tbropirt, »on of William Whitakor of Lon- 
don, Beijeant-at-law, born in 1752, was 
matriculated nt ChrLit Church, Oxford. 
■J April 1773, uud ^oduau-d U.A. 4 FuU 
1777. lie waa institute to lhi« n-clory of 
St. John's, Clerkenwflll, ia 1778, oftenvarda 
to the rectory of Ht. .Mlldn-d, Bmod Htr««t, 
London, and from 17B3 until hiii death he 
hnld itw rwctory of St. Murj- -de-Castro with 
that of ,\U Sainia, CnntiTburv, lit? wa« 
(he founder of tbt* li^^fage for tlie Destitute. 
For many Ti>ar» he n-sidL-dat llftLnm, Surrey, 
rUere he kept a school, llu diid ut 13ri;au- 
roet llill, Loudon, on 14 Oct. 1^18. 
lit! aumerouA works includu: 1. 'Four 
on th^ Uorcrina uf lh« Holy 
ty, tanght thmuffliout the Scripturee, 
and on othftr p«int» wniob havu of ]al« b«wa 
suUecta of . . . diBeitA»ion,' Cant«rbarv, 
17^, 8vo. 2. 'Sermoas on Education,' 
totulon, 178*, 8to, S. '.A. Letter to the 
PiMpIe of tba Jews,' London, 1788, 8vo. 
4. ' A Oencral and Connoted \''i«w of thtr 
Prophecies rvUtin? to tbo times of tho 
Gaatil^a, delivered by our bliJAued Saviour, 
tbu Fr(>plu.-L David, and the Apostles Paul 
and Jobu; with a brief aocouut of their 
Mcompliabment to the prasont age/ Kgham, 

179fi, ISnm. An «nlarfi;ed edition wat pub- 
linhed under the title of 'A Commeiiury 
on the IM'olation of St. John/ London, 
180-J, )*xo. 6. ' Familr Sermons,* 2nd edJI. 
l,ondon, 1801-2. 3 voU. 8vu. 6. 'The 
Manual of Prophi'cy,' HKfaam, 1S0)<, litma. 
7. 'All Abridgment of Oniverwil Flistory," 
].oiidon, 1817, 4 to1&. 4to, 

[BiogT. Dirt, of Living Autborc, 1816. n. 383 -, 
Ilitrlin^'K Tycl. ItilJ. pp. 3180, 31BI; iWor'a 
Alumni Oxov,. 1716-U88; Gent. Majr. 1S18, 
li. -171; rinlu'a Clcrk»well. r. 329: Watt's 
Bibt Brit ] T. C. 


l»tH I, [jfi'micr of New Zpftlnnd, cldMt son 
of FrtfJirU-k Wliitnker,<leiiuty-lieuienant of 
Oxfordshire, waA horn on 'JH April 181:! at 
Itauipton, Oxfoidshire, and br»u(fUt up to 
the prttfefisian of a Aolidtor. In \H3». »uon 
after he bad qnalified, ho emif^tod to Syd- 
nny, ami ihuncpwent on to New Zvalaofi in 
18J0, settling down to practice at Kor^ra- 
rvka, tlwn the seat of jj^ov.irumfMt, and mov- 
ing with thti government to Aurklniid in I h» 
following year. In 1H42 he wtia appointed 
a county-court juilye; hut in 1844 theae 
courtit were abulishod, and lie nnc« more rc- 
t[ini<>d to the practioc of bis profvuiBion. 

In 1845 Hhitulipr waj iippoint4>d an 
nnollicial moiniiin' of the legislaiiv; cnmnl; 
and during the fir«t nntivu war of 1K4<'> and 
1846 hn was callpd uixm to serve in the 
militia,of which ho waa a major. In 18.^1 
he waa elected to reprf»eiit Auckland in lliv 
loffialative eouncil for the province of \ew 
t'lcUT; but lliu council was ("upi'rscdtsl 
bL'fore meeting by thti constitution of 18W. 
I'ud'.T tbu now (KiQBtilutii)R h» was elect(>d 
a mfmbur of tho new provincial council, be- 
coming eumewhat Inter provincial lawofliccr 
Bud II Rir-mber of the provJucia] executive 
council. In 1M3 hewas nominated a mt^m- 
l»T of thy leKnslati\w council, and in IftM 
took hLi *.-ni us such in tb« firitt general 
aseembly of tlio colony. In I8W hv voa 
appointod attoni«v-;7«itr*ni.t iu aucc&ssion to 
William Swiiinsoti (iKKt-ltWl) [q. v.], and 
later in the year liw tjecame speaker uf iho 
legislative council. On 7 May 1856, with 
th« intn)du<-titm of responitiblirgovfimment, 
Whitaker borame fttt(imey-u;e«cnil in tb« 
BelUS»we!l ministry, and," although hefrtre 
the end of 3fay he was out of offico, he was 
diirine .Inue again ailomey-gGncral under 
(Sir) FJIward William StalTord; in thiacapa- 
city he was leader of the government in tho 
legislftlivo council. Tho two main qu«8tion» 
which tbL* goviiniment had to face wer» 
thoM of tba organiMtion of provincial ad- 
mintstrations and of the Adjustmeut of nativn 
rights. Uii 13 July IsOl tbuy were de- 





Atfli«B tW BBWrii of aulTeK&in muA ' 
lb «v tf IMOL WUtaker ww wt «r 

mt f f t— 1 w ito D aw Kt ■ JKigti y withwrt : 
• «Mi a tW afcdwc ; ia Odobcr tkt alai- 

wi Wfcdik* hee— jfBMJLt ai oog of tfcs 
■Mt awj firiod* ai tW cDloaial iMtofj. 
BivUDt fiv UN ■BMnnaaaaf nfacUiDa And 

Move Mltl^BBBtB WW M*Bfll^ CntHSMO* 

HrvM MOB ia TolTrd ia diipstc uritk tlw 
mam t taoe , Sor Gfei|p Gfqrr u te th« «»- 
Ami ctf the Ibon wm, wtoek vm Uwd >1 < 
JH Wight iM» A«Mf ^ CbsMMM S*mpen, 
IMi ad U65). Ercotnlhr h* iwigned. 
S«Mah« 16M [Me WiiSf Sn PKDERtcx 
AiMsnl la iM& Iw WW devud saper- 
iaUa^Mt'rf Aacthad, *aJ ia tiw ••■« year ' 
WW Biabar lor htaall ia tha Ikmm of »- 
fi—loriiM B» M tlw vnaatamm to the 
ataagerftkfeatof gOTtirwaeMfcoa Anck- 
laad la W«Ui^tML Hii wekwrnw fur tbr 
aiwaiiilnTiiia M the laad faad wu one of 
dw dwT kaa of kii poliey. 

b 1987 WUtakw mind ft«ai ibe u- 
aoablr lad tht pott of Npmalaideatf mad 
dovoiad hi— elf to the pnCtic* of bit pro- 
todiM, Mkd to meahoop ia Tariooi boa- i 
MHBt eovaeelOB with tiaiber ukd ffrutng 
MwdlMBMBBg. H« WM Car luajr jrcam 
ia fartMrtfcif widi Tbonu BumbII, and I 
cewrad a lacntJT* private pnetiee, but 
Ih iBTTWfnionn lAd speculations were un- ' 
fclliilwU. aad he dii^ po(>r. A mmn of 
■alirn^ iadnKnr sad ecUTitT, be was % ' 
dbvdar of tho Beak of N>w 'ZeaUad. ihr 
Htm Zealand Sagw CoapanT, the New 
y»i.»i and Rirer Plate L«Bd Mortsag* 
"T"j ukd other local uutitotiiMu or 
Moaeica. Some of hit laod claims, aocli aa I 
ne anttar of tl>e Kaho Hwanp, came bdom I 
tha leiiiaTaiiiiii and were lou aubjact ofi 
■eriMonoiudebair. Id 1^75 be oaee more I 
Rtomed to poliiiOB, and ■v*^ elected for i 
Va^MlDtotM booaeof rvprvc-ntaliti-ai; in' 
flifli inbra 1870 ha became attomPT-^eBeral ' 
ia AdDDtoa's nnnUDent, taking later the 
aortblio of poaU aad telt^apb*. His Uad 
■fll thia jear waa stn-nuuualy oppoaed, aad 
BthgC witbdnwa. t>n ia Oct. 1877 Che 
g o aar aai ew waa defatted, and in tb» 
l UMja l eleccioe whicb IbUawed ha lost hie 
■eat- XUit ttie iaeominc ministry waa ahort- 
lirad, aad vben Sir Jmid Hall formed hia 
adaiaiatiation, \\'hiuk«r became attortte^v- 
aeoaal with a eeat in the lefrisUtiw cotmcil. 
it waa doriiur thb tenn of o1fio>- that h^ 
came iato ooWaion with Taiaroa, the Uaori 
Banher, over fcta wart eoaac aettleaMDCa 
bin. Oa il April 1883; oo HaU'a reMgna- 
tiOD, be becaae prvmier aad reoonstracEed 

theaiBte>7;aa»Se|C 1883 beraMgaed 
to attend to pmate a&us. H* was iiiaiiil 
K.a)LG. ia Febraan ISiyl. Ania in 
Ottotar 18B7 WUMfac nanaed hii old 
pMitiaa «t atlnwiar gaaial aader Sr 
HcB7 ArHain, mxAm ia ibe iMB»ea tiU 
hi* baaltb hagaa t« fidta 1890 ; ia Uwen- 
baraflkaiwr tke wiaiatj i laajgaad, aad 
Whitakar daeiM to nttw 6m oahGc lib. 
He fied at bit oAoe oa * Dae. 1801, aad 
waa bttraed ia Su Scefhoi's owaiety with 
naaoaie knoacs aad aneb aiga of pubUe 

Whitaker bw baea dairrib«I a* ' probablj 
the anat maaitabia public man in S'ew 
Zealand' ^GtsaoKn, opLctt. p. 71), jret he 
wo^ed with WMier efliaet ia aohoniinau 
poaitien thaniraan bolduif pioBiaeat offlec; 
.^ a premier he haid^ aaeewded ; aa adviatf 
to maav viniaUMS ha Jiiflainiii was power- 
fnl aad aAdaat. Ila was aaither a ^fxA 
fyf^kar iwr eoircapaedat, yex be was skil- 
ful in draftiar billa in rlear and siaipla lao- 
Roafe. Rtuden ntKrlv and perfaapa too 
•rvrrelT cDademoa hi> hi^h-haaded potior 
towarda the Maoris. lie was eertainljr pr»> 
niaent in iaatigaiiaff t aaa aar aa which oo 
thor lace diannnlea kha aatieca' intenat, 
Whitaker awRiad, in 1S<3. Aorasu (d. 
1884), nifpdaiigbl^r of AleiaiMkr Sbepheid, 
coIobmI tnaaarsr of New Zealand, and left 
four a ooa ■ oae of whoa waa in partaanhip^ 
with him— aad thtae dauphtera. 

[AadJaod Wadtly He««, 11 Dee. 1»1 ; 
MenaaU'a Diet, of Anstralaaaii Biogntpbj ; Ot»- 
boTDr'a N«v Zaaland Rolen aad 9tat«anin ; 
Ru«f«e'i Hut. vt New Zealand, rob. ii. aad iiL 
pa^in] C. A. H. 

IO'^).pariian divine, wa^ bom at Wake- 
field, ^Ofkahire, in ISEW. .■Vftet beint' «lu- 
nted at the rraataiaradiool tha« turner the 
Kev. l*hilip back, he catered Sidaaj-Soanx . 
Cirilen, Cambridge, aa a aiaar in 1916, 
jroats befoie OUror Cromwell In 181 
graduated in arts, and fur a time 
■cboolmanerat Oakham. Rutland. In 1630 
be waa made reetor uf Stiettoti, Rnliand; 
atkd on the efeetieo of Hobuu Paaka from 
tbe rectorv of St. Mary MagdiUea, Bermond- 
eey, in ltU4. Whitaker waa ^oaen m hi* 
stead. ^Miea tbe Weetmimter aaaembly of 
diriiMB waa eoaraBcd in June 18*3, be wa« 
0B« of the firnt iBembeTs elected, and in 
1847 waa af^Knatad noderator. In th» aam« 
year he waa e^OM« by the Hou^e of \jxtAi, 
alon^ with Dr. Tbomait Ihnxlurin, lo examiaa 
and euperintend the a&wmblT'siHiblioatiaaa, 
Whitaker diiYl on 1 Jone 16o4, and waa 
buried in the cbanoel of Si. Marr Maffda- 
lea's Cburcb, Bermoadaer. His epiupti is 

printed in 'A N«w Vi*w of London,' I7(W 
rp. S^^. Wliilei ftt Oakhana be muried 
Che|ihtsibah,ikugkt«r tif Williom Pe*cli>>T, 
m. puritan ininiKt^jT of Oakhum. Willtaia 
WliiUker ( lrt2i»-lfir:i) [q.v.J w»-« liLs wjn, 

Whitaker WAS agood oriental iiuholar, siitl 
anremiltiaK in hU Libour*, pnwcUin^, whtiu 
in Tjomlon. four timee a voek. A letter 
fromliiml'i Cromwell uprwerred am rjnjilhii 
Sloanu niaau<«npt8 in IJio Rriti-ih MmF>iini 
(No. 41M, an. *>0t; b« writes to excii«<> 
niiiuelf frum att«n(liiig ia twnon to pri!i»«Mit n 
Inok to tile Protector, ' baing eonfiuiad to my 
chamber rnd^r BXiretne torrattiitin;^ paineA 
of the Etont!, which furcutli mo to cry and 
inoiin« ni^lil und dij.' 

[LiTiDj Iy>ran bttwMa Christ and dyiug 
CbntCMUW, • fsuLTitl ■ornion Itj Sinivon Ashe, 
1051: Bnok'a Livntof iho Purintn*. 1813. iii. 
ISO; B*!l«f'» Life of Ttli>niA» Fuller, 18'+. p. 
ill; Pmwoek'* Histwpy (rf WAkefi.-!.! OrMnntar 
School. IK92.p, 122; Manning aad Bny't Aor- 
rey, j. aiW. ai4.] J. U. L. 

WHITAKER, JOHN a733-180^), hi*. 
torianofManebnteriMHiorJaiiioji Whitakvr, 
innkccppr, wiu bom at MancliMtef on 
27 April 17.V>. iiud uttfodMl ihu Maochestw 
Cranmuir school from January 1744-JS to 
17&2, whim be ent«T«d Braseaaw Colle^, 
Ox&>rd, with a tchool (•■lilbition. Hu wait 
•Ic«t«(l on 2 ^farrb l7o.t a r<anca«hti« 
•cholar of Corpus Chrii>ti Oolle^, aiid be- 
came f^^llow on SI Jan. littS. IIo prmdu- 
at«d B.A. on 24 Oct. 1766. M.A. on -.'7 F«b. 
17fi8, and 11.1). on ! July 1767. H.> was or- 
daimKl at Oxford in 1760, and acted els cuntu 
•OOOeMivoly at N«wlon !Ii«lh chnpid, n>-(ir 
ItaiichaalBr, 1760-1, and at Bray, n«rkeliira. 
H« waacl»ct«id F.S.A.on 10 Jan. 1771, and 
liter in the year puhli-ihed hla first work, 
'The nistory of Mnnphenter,' toI. i. 4to, 
ftrming boolc i,, and containin); Rriti<i1i and 
Soman pertod^. A second udition of thin, 
in two vol*, octavo, is dat«d 177U, and at 
the 8am>> limo a quarto rolum<j of 'Thu 
Principal ('orrwtionj' to the »ri|;inul mli- 
tioD wan published. Tbfl second volume, 
«Dbncing ttin Suson ponod* wa* published 
in 1776, 4to, and never r&iuuod in octavo, 
and only two of tbs projoct«d four books 
w»r< oomptciod. A tranMriptof AVhttalier'i 
maouficript continuation to iba flfteentb 
century ia preserved at the Obetham Library, 
MancbeBier. Thiti work bu bwn conned 
* an antiquarian romance,' and tVancia Dunce 
~ . v.], on luaring liia aiinotattd copy to the 

ritiah Muaeum, applii^d thd iimppropriato 

3ttbut 'blockhvad to the nuibor. Inipite 
its diduxentDM and unlvnubli; hypothvaQS, 
U is a Taloable and interesting booX show- 

TOL. 1.XI, 


tag acute imeanh and profound lc«miag, 
B9 well aa bold ima{;inal4on and orit^inality. 
>>onio of ita weaknftisea Wi<ro ably irriliclsMl 
by John Collier (Tim Bobbin) in ' RHm»rk» 
on tb'.^ I tistory of SfanclnrsVr," by MuAClpula, 
1 77 i, and * More Fruit from the samt* L'anater,' 
1773 (cf. Tram. Lnnc. and Chfh. Antiy. 
&ic. IbO-'O. \Vhitakern«l published ' The 
(Imuinn tliitloryof the Itritous aMOFtt.'d in a 
. . . Refutation of Mr. Macpliorftou's" Intro- 
duction li> ihn llinturyiiriiTva.t Itritaiu and 
Ireland,"' 1772, ftro, '2ai t-Jit, oorrectod, 
177y, which would Imvc hi-nn tnn* valuiibln 
if it boil beM>n \pm controversial. For a 
short time 4Noremb«r 1773 to Fvbruary 
1774) ho h>>]il the moroinr preacbcrahip at 
l)erk<^lcy Chap-il, London, out left it owinr 
to a diaput><, eontxiniinif which ba pnbliih«d 
an intemperate 'Statu of tbe Cose-' While 
in London h« made the acquaiutance of 
Dr.Jobmonand Edward Gibbon. Tho Hrst 
volume of tbe lattur't ' Uucliue and Fall 
of tbe Roman Empire' was submitlod in 
nanuseript to Wbilakor, but Uihbou witb< 
h«ld hi* cbaptnr on (^liri.ilianily, and Whi- 
rak^r rircit road it in the pubUHhi-d vulumtr, 
wfaereujion be wrot« inili^tiantly to tb« 

In L77it he aotirely participated in mi>a- 
aur<>» for tbt- imnrivi.'m<'nt of i\n? town of 
Mancbi;«ter, and iu an angry paper war 
wiiifh uroMi in connwtion with tho im- 
pTovoment bill. During ibo n««t yi-ar bu 
wrotw 'An Odv ' to promote the formation 
of thf> Mancbeati^r retfimenl, iutondud for 
'reducing the American rcb^Iiu' Tim regi- 
ment nover r&nchcd ila destination, but 
was diverted to Gibraltar, where it won ita 

On 22 Au?. 1777 he waa presented by 
Corpus (.'brimi CoH^^ to the rectory of 
Ituan Lauyhorn, Coniwull. Iu IIH? he 

Kublii>liiid ■ Thn ( ;hiirt*r of Manchester trans- 
ited, with Kxptanalioni' and liomark^,' 
prepared nt the request of a roiniuittee of 
jnhnbitAnt«engAffedin vindinitini^thori|;htii 
of the town utralnst thf> lord of lb* mauor. 
For thin service lie re«»ived the thanks of 
the townapeople in 1703. In his 'Mary 
tjue«n of Scola vindic«l«d,' 1787, A ToU. 
8vo, bo wont beyond all previous writers 
iu dttrending tbe queen and incriminating 
bur enaminD. A wound edition i.t dated 
1790, and to tbo Hnmit dale bnlmiga a volumo 
of ' Additiona and CorrectiotiB.' Iu 1791 
and 1794 be announced ihn ' Privatw Life of 
Mary Queen of Scoia,' Tliia waa not pub- 
lished until Goor^e Cbalmere made u*i> of 
tho unfinished manuMript in hin lifi^ of tbe 
queen, 1818. His * Origin of Arianism dis- 
cloeed,' 1791, 8ro, wbUe praiaed by William 




TUi Milderr [q. r.) io biR BatIa leritureB, 
was severolv bottdled b; Coleriaee {Literary 
Rtmaini, )k)8, it. »96). In I7v)| he pub- 
U«>lied 'Gibbon's Ilistorv of tbe DecUiio and 
FaU of flit^ Itoman l^mpiro, in vols. iv. 
T. and vi. revtewfld' (styled bv Macaulftv 
• pointless spite, witU ben- Kt)'i iberw a ju»l 
ivmnrk't: uiid in 1794 'TLo Gouren of 
ilniiuilml ovi^r the AIpii iii<c«rtniT»^,' '2 roln. 
8v«. Tile laller «tw the Btibject of * A 
Crilicit] Kxiiininxlinn ' by Alexsnilvr Fraiwr 
Tnlpf J^rd Wnndhoufllw) [q. \-.l. 1704, 
2 roU. 8vo. In 15*01 be issued bis -Ancient 
Catheilrftl of Cornwall hiMonpAll; soi^ 
veyed,' '2 vols, "Itg, perliaps liia ablust pro- 

He died nt Kuan mclory on 30 tict. 1808. 
He mnrriisl Jane, UauKbter ol' llie Kev. 
Jotin Tn-guiiuj, rwitor of MBW^n-iii-Pydir, 
Coriiwul], Hnd htid bv bur iba-u diLu^bton>: 
slifl died on .(O Dec. I's^P. 

Ills wtbt-r works wuiv; 1, *A Coiiree of 
Sermoii.t upon Df^atb, .ludj^iurrit, HrnvMn, 
and Hell/ 17S3; anothflr edition, I8m 
2. ' Th.t ]U'«i Or'iBin of fJm'ernmout,' 179'., 
expanded fmm a HAnnon ngninKt the rennllti 
oflheFreiicli Uevoliition. It wiia denounced 
by SbLTidfti) and othirs in the Ho««c of 
UomuiTOs. 3. 'The Life of St. Neot,' IHOtf, 
Qpon whii^b he was (rn^^-d vrben he di«d. 
llecontribulud Io Hioliard Polwliuk-'a Touins 
wnll, l.Di; wrote on inlKwhictinnand notes 
to FIIndt'ir» Hihlf>, l.sOO: and ■ Kcmnrka on 
St. Micliiud'i* .Mmmt," in vol. iii. of Pol- 
wheWs ' Cornwall : ' beaidpn articlw in the 
' EnjjIisTi It.'\n«w.' the ' British Cntio/ and 
the ' Anti-.I«cobin llevifw.' Among bin 
contemplated but lUAccompliabod works 
were hisuiries uf ].,ondou and U.xford, a 
military history of the Itoman.'i in ItritAin, 
outvH ou ^Iiukot;]»are, and iUusIrotiona to 
the (tible. 

Hia lotttra Ui Otwrf[B ClialntprR hpt.wp/>ii 
1791 and IKM remiiin in rniiniivcript. in the 
Ohetlifira Library. They .iliow, inffr aiui, 
thnt he hankcR-d after tho wardensbip of 
M«*-r('fine(?i«l«Chiirch, Other b-lttrs, 
Io (ieorge Browne of Modmiii, arc in this 
nritish Mo*fum (Addil. MS. l'Hr«W). I'ol- 
wbele, ItriltOH, VVidcoit (I'eter Pindar), und 
nth«rs attest preat admimlion for Whitaki-r'n 
intcUi^ctual ominencr nnd ronviTsatinnal 
powi-rM. A ffiiod iwirt.ntit, afli>r a miniiiture 
by H. Bonp, U enj^nived in Brittnn*.^ ' Anto- 
hjoffmpliy; 1860, i. 335. 

[I'cil wb" loV Itiogr. Sk*t*bo», iii. 1 : I'olwfiftc'* 
KiTTniniiicMions, i. 83, ii. 1S5: Polwhelt^'s Trsdl- 
t.ionr, p. 152; Clialmen's Bioip*. Uii-i.; Geut, 
Ma^. 1808, ii. I03&: ti^milli'a ManchraC«r School 
Ittgittor, i. IS; BatnM's Lancarbirv, «d. liar- 

land.!. 410; J. E. Bailry'a Manair ID ^p«n ofj 
tho Manri)mtRr<>mr£ Club, IB77; BHUoa' 
Autotiiggr. i. 213, S3.) ; Itrit ton's JtemioivKncan^ 
ii. 170. 205, 379; Boaao luid CoxaXaifn BibUo 
thMn ComubieiiRo, if., and the authoritiM eitad 
thrra ; PiiUtiii* Noliitibok, t. 7? (yi\\h portrait); 
iliv Lifr uf S. Dretr. 1M4, coDtaiDs lecun ttnm 
WbitAki>r; Nietioh'a DIOKtr. of Lit. Tiii. 463; 
Worth iaiiton's Diar? and Corrwp. (Che(han 
Skic.) ii, 337 ; BoiweU's Jobnion (ed. G. B. Hill), 
ii. lOK, iii. nSZ : Iinwria] Ma^siaa. iii. 1238 ; 
Trarolyan'a Lifo of Macaubiv, 1897. ii. «84; 
Southay's Itonor. i. CO.] C, W. 8. 

rckm]>iiM.-r, and n nii-mlwr of tbn miuiR pul^ 
lishinfT firm of Button, ^^^utBker, &. Co., St. 
Paul's CbnTckynrcI, was bum in 1770. H<> 
wait a t<-nrherof miiflic, and orjraniat to St. 
C'lement'e, Kastcbeap. In l>*l?l Wbitaker 
collected and piiblisLM 'Th# Seraph,' iwi> 
%-oliimi-« of nftcred mtisic, for four votcas, of, 
which many pieces are original. He was 
better known as a writer of occasional WMi^ 
inlmdtieed in Diii«)cal plays at the priocipu 
Ibeatreti between IS07 and 1625. Among'tboca 
wkifh a(tainL<d groat popularity wuru: 'Fly 
nwny, dovi-,' ioine by Miaa Oawae on bcr 
d^biit iu tbe ' Hobrow Family;' 'O say 
not witman'H hirart. i.i )>ouf;bt,' ' Oo, Rovor, 
eo,' ' Itempraber me," ' The Little Farmer's 
Ibupbter," ' My Toor Dog Tmv,' ' Th.- Lily 
that bloomfl,' ' Paddy Carry's t'ortiUK,' aul. 

A iiinrL' lasting claim to eolebrity i« 
afforded by \N'bitakcr's beautiful ^\vn, ori- 
ginully wrillen for three voicea, • Winds, 
gvntlv wbiaper.' Hi< died at Tbaviee' Ibb, 
Ilolbom, on 4 nee. IHt*. 

{art>TB*i Dt^t. uf Musio, ir. 450; Oanaat^ 
Bint of tha Stage, Tnla. viii. iz. ; Quartarly 
Atusieal Hagaztne, 1836. p. '2^9; Oent, JC^. 
16tB. i. 106; Whitaker's probca to 'Tha 
Seraph.'] L. &L U. 

WHITAKER, JOSEPH (1820-1895), 

publisher, iKim tn London on 4 May 18^, 
wn« Ihi^ arm of u kilvt-rAinilh. Attbeage of 
fonrtiMtn he was apprenticL'd to Mr. Barritt, 
bo(ik»ell"r. of FUi(rt Slnmt. Nine yearn later 

Jcixvng Whitnker was with John Witliani 
'arkur [f^. V,] of tlie Strand. Hw imxt vn- 
inrr-d tbe boii^n r.f J, H. & J. Parker of Ox- 
ford, for whom lie became thi? London a^nt, 
nnd opened a branch at 877 Stmnd. Here, io 
IfMU, be oriKJnatod the ' Penny Post,' the first 
ptvnny monthly church magaime, which still 
continiicB in ilii original form, and edited 
an wlltidn of the' .Mdniintt* and ' KTeiuDff 
Church Sp.r\-ica8.' In 1?S0 he projouted ana 

ftibltshod for four years tli« ' IviincationsI 
U'iriM«r ' and * Whitaker's Clersytaan'a 
Diary;' tbe latter iaEtiUtssaudbytMCon- 





of StAtiunuK. He eoinnirnred buM- 
I on \w ovnt aoeounL tm a tbeolo}{ical jjut>- 
Bher in PsU Malt, and retooved in l§oo (o 
310 Slrant], whwre lio pitbliahrd, with tlie 
ftBsUtanRe of Thomaa Delph, 'The Artist,' a 
fine-nrt TVTww. Between 1&5H and l^'iSho 
edilMtliL' * G«nllciBAa'4 Mttni!in(«/ and in 
January 1)^ etaned tlie ' Books«Uer,' in- 
tend^ primarilj as on orf^an for bookMllftn 
and pubUshera, but alao adapted to tiie t&- 
quir«tnent« of book-buTen geii«raltj, Thu 
new montUy journal wait verv- itii«cc«tiful, 
and waa warmly AupportMl bvl-bV bookselling 
and publishing tradu. Witb it, in 1660, wan 
innrgi-<l ' [Vn('» Lttrrarv Advurti^r;' llii> 
i'nrm of (he periodical fuia mmaincd prac- 
ticitlly unallered for oTer forty years. 

Mill namf ha» heromc fnniiliartbTniiclioul 
EnKliah-epeakingrrounlrii'snwingti) ' ^^ liila- 
kers Almanac.' This waa commenced in 
\fi(iK ; thirty-aix thouBtod eopieii of the ArKt 
usu« M-ere aubacribed before publication. As 
an «xatnp1<* of tha wine forethought of its 
origioator, it i» Doticvab!« tbat thv ' Altoa- 
nac,' like the 'Books-idlpr,' baa been little 
changsd aiaco the tirEt uumbur.cxcopt in lliL- 
dinction of natural expansiuti. \vhitiikAr 
had a lance eliare in tlU> nrganisatinn of a 
ivUcf fund, which ultitDat4^>ly rwiched 2,000/., 
for the Paris bookflt'llen) and their luaiatanta 
in 1871. As n diitributor of tke fund he 
\B-a8 one of the first Engliahmt^ who cntcrpd 
f aria afler the aivge. In 1874 he produced 
tbo ' It«terence Catalojrne of Current I.ilera- 
tare,*contfistintf of a collect iun of catalu^ma 
(if books on «nlf- liv HnifliKh juiMiihfni, 
an elaboratti index. Other edititina of thiK 
luu^ful rnmpilntinn appeared in iH/fl, 1877, 
!.««}, 188.-». IfijSO, and 1891; thr Ut«t. in 
two THTT thick TotumM, Waft publishea in 

lie published a fuw di<volioaal works, 
among which may be mentioned ' The Uaily 
Roond' (1880, and mnny siiluaeiiuent edi- 
t>OD») and Itidlvy'a 'Holy Communism.' Hn 
vac always a keun and judioioua defender of 
the inlenista of tho booksalling trade, and 
was ntcogniaod as an aarhoritv iipnn copy- 
riglit. In i87fi bft was elected a fellow of 
iheSooieWof AnliqnanVfl. H,> dird at En- 
field on 16 May l^r>. He hod a famUy of 
fifteen children, fif whom the eldest, 

JoB«pu Vebkos Whitakfji (]S45-lfi05), 
bom on 3 Feb. 1845. was educated at Jdox- 
hamiefaoal. Hepntrom-d u lifu of adrentore 
to buftinesa, and, after a voyage! In the KokI 
Indies, i"nli«tt?d in the army, and hecanw a 
full »«rgt!ftnl. at ihi- age of twenty-one. Hav- 
ing purehnaed his disrharge, hit Ant«r<-d the 
office of the ' Bookseller ' for a rear or two. 
At th« invitation of Oeorg« William Ohilda 

of I'hiladelpbia h« went to lUe United 
Slates, and wa« editor of iJie ' American 
Liturary GazutU',' and «ub«ii|uvntly acted aa 
■ub-«ditar of the * Public l<<Nlgtir ' for three 
yuara. He returned to England in 1875 to 
rrmum*- his ranni^liou with the * Itooluelkiri* 
of which he ultimately became editor, as 
well aa of the ' Kefwnjnce CalaloKue,' men- 
tiomed nhovi'. In ISfiO, in f^njnnctitui with 
hifl father, he started the 'Stationery Trades* 
Journal.' He took an active interest in all 
trade quesiinns, i^ypucially tho»« of a social 
and charitable characttr. He died in Lon- 
dunon l^Jun. 189J),in hiafiftii-th ve«r, Ue 
rnamud, in iKiii, an Anieriean fady, who 
bore him two cliiHron, one of whom eoi^ 
vived th« fatiii.-T. 

[Buokarller. 6 Fob. 18S& (wiUi portrait). 
8 June ISO.} {with poKmit); I'ubli^iers' Cir- 
cut»r, 10 Jan,, 18 May, 2& May (with portrait) 
ISM; Atheovum. lU .Ian., 10 Hay ISM; 
Times, 16 Jan. 18»4.] H. B. T. 

(ITi'O-lWi'i. inpugraphcr, bnro at I'ainhom 
on 8 JiiiH' l7ofl, wM »i>n of Winimtn Whi- 
lakcr (17.W-17W), curate of Rainham, Nor- 
folk, by his wife Lucy, daughter of Itobert 
Dunham, and widow of Ambroeo Alli'.n. 
In 17C0 his father removed to hia ancestral 
house at Ilolmc. in the township of Cliriger, 
Lancaahin>, and the boy was iti November 
T7l!fi pUr.iHl under thi> car*! of the llev. John 
Shaw of Koch dale. In November 1774, after 
spending n short, time with thi* Rot, W. 
Shrepnhankfl of (•rnwington in Craven, h« 
WAS admitted of 8t. John'vt College, Com* 
bridge, and wont into rt'sidenw in October 
177-'». lie roijk the degree ofLL.It, in Xo- 
vember J7&I, intending to enter tho legal 
profeuiun, which (lurpoau wa« tat, aaideou 
tlie death of his father in the following year, 
when he Estlled at Ilolnu). Ho was or- 
dainrd in 17^>>, btil mmainHl without pan- 
I nral charge until 1797, when he wafl licensed 
to thfi perpetual curacy of Hulme, having 
rtibnilt thnt chapel at hia own er\Al in 1788. 
He completed hia degree of LL.D. in 1801. 
In ]SU9no attained the great object of hiA 
wishijs in bt^comiug vicar of the exteBsive 
parish of WhaUey. Lancaahire. The rectory 
of HeY»ham, nuur Ijuncaslcr, waa pruacuted 
to biui in Jnriuary 1HI3. He resigned it in 
1819. On 7 Nov. 1&18 he becnms vicar of 
Blackburn, which brncJic" be retained, to 
gfttherwith WhalleT.untilb-ifldeath, AVIien 
settled at Holme he instituted a snri of 
local literary ehib, He devoted much atten- 
tion to improving his estate there, taking 
especial delight in planliog. He reeeiwo 
thfi gold mtxial of the Society of Arts for 
tlie greatest number of larch treca planted 

c 2 

Whi taker 


Whi taker 

in one year, H* h&tl ercat inflnenw with 
the people of his parisoee, and on eeyeral 
occMiona *TeTt*d it w'lUi rwmJ eff»'Ct in 
quelUiig disiiirbaaces, pftrlicularlvBt Dlack- 
bum in 1B17. For his ' patriotic utrricf's ' 
he wa^ pnwoated with a public luaiimonial 
in April Ift!!. 

III! died at BlaRkbiim Ticaragc on 18 Dpi<. 
1821, nnd wui iulcrrw] at Hulinti, litN I'oliin 
h«in^ made out of a tree of his own plnnt- 
in){, hollowed oiil by his owu dirvctiuns. 
Hii mnrrifd, l.^Jan. 17i<3, l.ii^y, danghti^r 
of Thomas Thoreeby of Laed.*, and left seve- 
ral children, of whom out', Itobort. NovrHl 
Wliitaker, nucceedtid him tt W'hailcy vicar- 
age (cf. FoaiBH, Lmii^n*hire I'fiiii/ri-c/i). 
Tliuni art) portruilo of ^^'llitttk^.*^ bv W. 1>. 
l''rysr, pngravwd in bix ' t!raveii ' anj ' Wbal- 
ler/ and by Jamoa Nortbcote, cn^^Ted in 
' Loidis and Eliavlu,' and a timaLh'r (;u[jy iiL 
the'Oentleman'a Ma^aeint",' IVhruary Iti22. 
A biial was pxocutud by Mucdoniild. A 
monimirnl. nki<«)d byptilitic KiibfiRriplion wjin 

filaced in WhalLey cliurrh in l>*42. Ilia 
ibrarv wan sold «t Sutbehy's in 18^3, wid 
hiiii roin^^and anliqnilu>R, wir.h thf^ OKCt^ption 
of his Homan altars and inscriptinn§, which 
he hMiiu'Athud to St. JohnV CollL'fft', Cntn- 
brid^, w«TH di»per!ied in HiH, 

Towards tho end of last cent urv ^\'hitftkor 
proioct«d tb« Uret of his tupotrrapuical works, 
which lijn){ hiul great fnmn on ni'coiiiil. of 
their Hirholamhip and liturarv charm. Ilia 
works weiv: 1. ' Histor%' of tb« Oripinal 
Pamli nf Whalh'v and IfonoiirofCIiibf^roe, 
in the Counties of Lancaster and York,' 
lf<Ol, 4to: 2nd edit. 1806, -trd edit. 1K18: 
4th Mlit. (enlarged by John (tough NicboU 
and I'onsonbv A, Lyone), lS7if-6, 'J toIs, 
4co. 2. * Hutory and Antiquittos of thu 
DeftneiT of Craven,' 1805, 4to; 2nd edit, 
1S12 : 3rd edit, (hr Alfrud William Morant ) 
167fi, 4to. 3. ' T)(^ MotiJ piT Hrilnnniikui 
Oiviflo annis 1745 ct ]71e; lS()i), l-imn, 
bein^ an account in Latin bas«d on John 
Ilomo'ei ' Historv of tbd ISf^hpllion of 174fi.' 
4. ' Life and Ongiaul Correspondence of Sir 
Oeoree Hddclilfb, Knt,, LL.D., the Pmndof 
th« Earl of Stmtlbrd,' 1810, Ito. C. 'TheS«r- 
inoufl of Or. Fdwin ^andrs, formerly Arch- 
bishop of York, with a l.if*; of the Author/ 
IRIl^.Bvo. 0. ' Vi»io Will'ide IVtn. I'loub- 
man ... or tlio A'iaJon of William coufiflm- 
injT Piers Plouhman,' 1813, 4to, 7. 'Fierce 
tlifl I'longhman'fl ("Ysde, edited from the 
edition ofie&S.' I8J4, 4to. 8. * Loidis and 
Eloi«t«,nran Attcmptto i^l^l!*t^/»^<^ . . . thu 
I.^wer Portions of Airedale and WliarfdaW 
lSllI,fol. (uniform with No. 8). An appendix 
ws« pnbliahud in 1821. 9. 'Tbu History 
of Kicbmondsbire, in the North Hiding of 

Torkabire,' 183S, 2 roU. fol. Thia wm 
portion of a proji»ctt.-d history of Yorkshire, 
to bo completed in about si'ven folio volumes. 
It is thu li'ast MtiA&ciory of hi« topo- 
grapbioH, tbou^b the most orAtentious. A 
Aeriea of thirty-two beatitirul platM, aftor 
J. M. \V. Tiimrr, add to ibi- Tauie and dit- 
tinrtion nf the. work. Some of this artist's 
oarly drawings appeatvd in \Mutalwr's firW 
biKik. M 

>Vbilaker re-edited Tlioreeby's 'Ducatusl 
Jjeodii-nsis ' (:inti edit, with notes and addi- 
tioiitf. 18L(i). He al^ projected, but did 
not tinish, several other works, including a 
history* of Lonsdale (1813), new udtlioas of 
John WbitiiloTsi 'lli.ilfjrv of Manchester' 
and IIorsley'H ' Dritannia Komana,' and erm 
n ni.'w odition of Tim Bobbin's * Lancashire 
Dialect * ^fw>e Collier, Joiik], 

He ^mbliaUed ten occasional eermons and 
a jwlilicaJ "[ii^ijL'li, and wTOt« at It^ast twenty- 
night articles in the 'Quarterly Review* 
between IsiJll and 1818. 

(Memoir, by J. O. Nichols. pmRxod to Mb 
edit, of Hieiory of Wbsllry, 18*3: Sichols'i 
Literary AuodotM and lllastr. of Lit.: Oaat. 
Mag. 1833. i. 83, 105. 312 i AlliUnr'* IHct. of 
Authors, iii, 2S70: BojDv's Yorksbirv Library. 
I8fl8. Wilsim'sMisrallania* (Cbrtham &><:.) coa- 
titin mTfinil iif Wliitakrr'* lett/'cs. Au early 
manti»>:rii)t cainiii>in|iUeubookby WhitakT isia 
thoGhMlMin Lilirnry, Maih.-li«st4ir.] C. W. S. 


fdyaicinn, was bom probably ia lltOOor ItWI. 
Id practiaed phvsic firat in Norwich, and tn 
1 Qii-i, whtln ri'sti^ing in that lowu, piibltslivd 
'ntfii v/ifiimeiai'ii,' London, 12mo. Betweea 
lt(34 and lf)3r< he n^movvid to London, «ad 
in 1038 brnucht out his moat important 
work, 'Till' 'Iree of llumnne Life, or the 
Blond of thi> Grapp, provini? tho Po^ibilttia 
of maiuwiniiig Humane Life from Infancy 
to Kxin-ame Uid Age, without any Sick- 
nesse, hy the L'so of Wino' (London, 8to). 
This dt.-rrncii of wini-, which ha regarded 0* 
a univPFsnl remedy affainst disuaM, was re- 
published in Ifi'fi, and Iransiati^d into Latin 
nnder tlift title ' l>e Sanguine Urfp' (Frank- 
fort. 1655, yvo: Uajpie. IWKI, 1«63, ISmol. 
In StptembLT 1(W0 he waa appointed nhysi- 
cian in ordinary to tht< royul oouKvLold with 
n aularv of ('(0/, a yt^ar [Cnl. StaU Papen, 
Doin. IflGO l,p.38l). lu 1061 he published 
' An Kk-uchua of Opinions concerning th« 
SmalliMnx,' London, 1-mo, to which wat> prv- 
5jtt}d liis portrait ongravud by John Chan* 
trpy; another edition appeared in 1671. 
Woitaker died earlv in lOHK, txKforo 21 May 
(cf. A. 1H64-5 p. l-J9, \m^-6 p. 4(M). 

' Tli« IVee of Life ' is ascribed bv Wood to> 
William \\'hitaker, a candidate 0^ the Royal 





College of PhTUfiana, who d!«d in the parish 
of St* ClemeDt Panics in January 1670-1 
(Wood. Fmiti Oim., ed. Hli*s ii. 17f* ; Fc«- 
■reH. Alumm O-rwi., 1500-1714; MoSB, 
Jtogai (W/. offhyt. i. 2lJH). 

rWhiukcra Worfca; GrHDger'a ^logr. HiM. 
ir. «; W»tt'i BiW. Bnt.] K. I. C. 

iQSiUr of St. John's Collefte, Cambiid)^-, and 
• Uodine divine in the university iu the lutter 
half of the 8«TeDtfi«ntb cent ury, wiu> boni ' ui 
iJiihue in the pariah of Bromley, Lancaabire, 
in \'Afi, bvtnf^ ihu third 8on of lliomiw 
^Vllitllil<•r of thai uliice, by Mlixalintli hi* 
wifo, daughter of Jaba Novell, eM., of Res^l, 
and «i«U'r of Ali<xan(W Nowcll, aeon of St. 
Panl's ' (CoopEB, Athene CantiAr.W. 19H). 
After receiving tb« rudimeiue of koroing 
St his nalivi* pumli dcbnol, hw wr« »ent by 
bis uncle, Alf-xandiT Nowell [q. v.], to St. 
Paal'i school t ni/ondi>n, and tbence proceeded 
to Catobridec, when' he matriculated as a 
pensioner of Trinity ColWgv vn J Oct. Iutf4. 
He wna ffuh«.-qtiently elected a Mbolar on 

itb» Mine rouiidB(i>>n, procuwli.-d B.A. in 
March 15e>-, and on (! Sept. I-IOQ waa elected 
tu a miuur ff llowsliip, and on 25 March 157 1 
to a major feU()W;Oiii>, at hi> college. In 
1S71 ho oommenced M.A. Tbroug^un his 
tfarliiT carver al tbunnivrsitybewaeasi'iBled 
by liiximcle. who (rrnnted him Icams, 'freely 
and without fine' iCiilkiom, N</vkU, p. 3W), 
townni* di'frayin^ bis expenaca. A'nilakcr 
uviiiced his gratitude by di'<licuting lo Nowull 
a translation of the Bookof ('onunmi I'rnyer 
into Oroulc.and a likaversion of N'oweU'eown 
laivtfr <!ali^hiiini fnim \hi- I.«Mn itiIu flroek. 
The marked abilily wir.h which ho ai^ 
(intLlwl bintself when pr^taiding na ' father nf 
ine philoflophy not ' at an nrndemic com- 
tnencement appear* to liare Hret broushl 
him proraincntly into notico. lie also be- 
came known an aa iJuIofBtigablu student of 
the acripturea, the cnmmentalum, and the 
Kbooltnen, and wm vrry ttarly in his rareiT 
nngled out by Wiiil^iftiaT ttinl liinr inajiTi-r 
of Triniir, for marks of anerinl favour 
(Opprw, vul. ii. p. V). On 3 F-.-b. l.j"rt he 
waa irutall^'d canon of Norwich (.'Athrdral, 
aad iu the «amu year was adoiitlwi to the 
dft(rr«-e of li.It,, and incorporated on 14 Jiiiv 
at Oxford (FotnrHR, Atumni Oxvn. 1500- 
1714^ In 15Mt he was appointed by the 
crown to tbu rt-giii« profetteoraDip of divinity, 
t« which Kliiabirlli ahortly af)i*r addfd the 
rhancfllorship of 8t. Paul's, London, and 
from this tinii- hit! ]j(uit iun aa the champion of 
th'' teaching of the rhiirpb of England, inter- 
preted ia its most Calrlnittic senae, apnear? 
tobavo been definitely taken up. In \b&. 


on taking part in a disputatioa at com- 
mmicement, lie took for bia Ihi^ui, ' Ponti- 
fex Ronanua cat ille Antic^ristUB, qncni 
futnram Sciiptura prcdixit.' MiaUviurM, 
aspmfeaaor, an«nrards noblished from short- 
hand notes taken by John AUenGOn, a fellow 
of St. John's (Baxur, Umt. *•/ lit. Jain't 
Oollrift, p. 1*5), were mainly directed to- 
wards the refutation of tlm nrgumenta of 
divines of llio Itoman church, c-iipuciany 
llnllarmiue and Tbouiiut Staplelon (1585- 
16!(8) [t\. r.l llo also suveruly criticised tho 
[limoy verxiou of the New Te»taiueul, thereby 
bi>coniing invoked in a coatroTerey with 
William nainuld8[a. v.] 

On 28 Feb. Utt^ Whitaker, on the recom- 
mendation of \Vhitgifi and liurgfaley. was 
appointed by the crown to the taiwt«nihip of 
St. Jobn'a Collef;i\ The appointment was, 
however, oppoaed by a majority of the 
feltowfl on the ground of his supposed lean- 
ings towardii puritani^m. llis nile aa an 
ailniinistrator justified in almost equal tnea- 
suru the appointmeol and ita ubji'Cturc The 
colloga incKOM-d greatly in numbers and 
reputation, but the puritan party gained 
ground considerably in tliv society. Whi- 
taker was B no less resolute opponent of 
Lntlierani«ni lliail of Roman doctrine nnd 
ritual, and under his teaching tli» doctrine 
of Calvin and Ueza came to be regarded as 
of far hiffher authority than that of tho 
fathers aiLil (he Kchoolnicn. 

In lliir diM^luirtfi! of hia ordinary duties as 
master bis a^iiduily and Nirict impunialily 
in distributing the rewnnla nt bin (iiaifiMtl 
roncIlintiHl evrn thosij who demurred lo bin 
I be>jlo{(-ical teaching, and Baker dwolareH 
that tho membvrs of the oolh-ge wewi 'all 
at la»t united in their affection to their 
mnster,' and that eventually ' he had no 
envmies to ovcrcom*.' 

In 1&87 he was crested 1).I>. : and in 
l-'WS, on the mostervhip of Trinity Collegu 
Ciiiling Tftcnnt by 1 Uh urcfrrinent of Ur. John 
Still [ii. v.] lo the bishopric of Bath and 
Wtlls.llv was an unxiiccvsaful candidate for 
the iiosT. In the following year ho pub- 
lished hie 'De Auihorilate Scriplurw,' 
w^lt^•n in reply to Htiipli-lon, pretixing ro it 
a dedication lo SVhitgitl (IH April l-'i94), 
tht> hitter atToTdiug A nateworthy illti'lrittion 
ofhi<< piTMinul relations with the primate, 
aiiilalnoof the Ituman coiitrovGrsialist learn- 
ing nf that lime. In May 159>i hu was in- 
Mulled cnnon vf Ciinlerbury; but his pro- 
feiwirship, mnstership. and rationry appear 
to have left him »till poor, and in a letter 
t^ Burghley, writ ten about aforlnij^ht beforu 
bis death, liti complains patbelicaUy at being 
so frequently passed over amid ' the great 

\V hi taker 


nrefertueiitA of aoe many.' llemny |>0MtblT 
u&Tu IxMtn Eudl-nnz from (li>ji!(.-tii}n at this 
lime, owiiiiK to Ihti diitagTi^-tiK'iit willt WJiiU 
pift in which, in cnminon with otliflfB of tlio 
Gainbricl[;ii hL'n>li>, lio t'oiinrl liirawlf involvoiJ 
in cnnnoction with thp prfi*rfliiliim of Wil- 
liun Harrctt [q, v.] In Nciveinber 15&5 bo 
WM depiiteii, aloDff with Hiunnlinty Gow«r 
U[. T.Jt president of Queens' Cotiege, to con- 
liT with the priroatf oti thu rlmwing up of 
the Laiubt'th articli^^. On tins u£ea«ioii b« 
appears to have pressed bia Cftlviuiatic views 
warmly, but without eucooiw, nnil he re- 
turned to Citiubridge fatiguinl and iliKiiti- 
pointei). Ad illnosB ennued by which ao 
Wtt» cjirrii'd off on 4 Doc in tint forty- 
seventh yfiAr of Lifl age. 

Thyru aru two portraits of Whitakt-r in 
thfi miisri'r's iodjje fit St. Jolui'ft Collfi^ (one 
in the it rawing- room, the other in the hall), 
both bcnrinu tlie word*. ' Dr. Whilalnsr, Mr. 
iri87,' and om; at On* Chtttham no*pifal and 
Library at Manchestt^r. lli» nort rail has alto 
bi-'ftn enp'avpd by William Marshall in Tho- 
maa FuIlerV 'Holy State,' ir>l:J, aitdby John 
Payne. Uis epitaph, in Lai in hoxnmelers oii 
a marblL> tabLt, uas Wvu iilacud on thu 
north Willi of tItR inl<?rior i^f tlift t.nLii«i-|it nf 
thi}culk<guchapi'l; it is prinlt'd in '0]iem,"i. 

Uifi hopes of preftimient wpre disappointed 
probably owinR to the fact that ho was 
twice married, and thus forfeited in some 
mcasurv tU'i Aivour of Elixala.-th. Thu 
mfiidcn name of hia first wif.-, who was 
ailter-iu-law to LaurL'iict! Chadvrton [((. v.], 
■WEaCulvflrwoll; hi* second v.ifi>, who *ur» 
vivod Lim, wan tba widow of Dudley Fenner 
fij. v.] He lirid rijfbt childn'ii: ont- of the 
8008, Alexander, who wan educated at 
Trinity Collepw, iiftwrwurdu became known 
n9 tht) ' Apo!<lleof Virginia;' a Bfcond, Ri- 
chard, wn« a l(>amed bonkeeller and printer ' 
in London (CnmTOS,;, pp. Sal-a). 

No English divinu of the sixifftith cen- 
tury surpQMcd Whilakcr in th'e estinialkm 
of ht« contc-m|K)rarifK. C'hurLon jtiMtly BlyltM 
him 'the [iriJe wtjil ornament of ("ambriilgt-.' 
Bullarmine fa much admired bis (fenins and 
attainrafiilH that Iif- hiid liis portrait »iis> 
wnded in his =1 udv. Jofli-ph Scalim-r, 
Bt«hop llnll, and JKnuc Cnsaubon alilie 
speall of him in tcrmi' ol' ii!tm»t itiiboiindedl 

Tho followinB iit a li«( of Whitalter's pub- 
lished wnrlc», those includ'jd iii the udttton 
«>f hia theological treatises reprintud by | 
Sflinuid Driapiti at GDui-^'a in two volum^^n, ; 
foU», in lUlO, being di«tinguiith>^i by nn ' 
Mtorislc : 1. ' Liber Precutn Puhlit^arum 
Ecclesiae Anglirnniv . , . Latine Gnece- . 

quo leditus,' London, 1609. 2. Greek 
VRrnes appended to Csrr'a ' Drmcfltbitnci^,* 
lo71. iS. * Kar7]('(r^liri ■ ■ ■ rp r« 'RXX^wmii 
jfoi Tfi 'I'oi/tni'uc AmXc'cr^ it&oSt\aa,' IjOndoa, 
1fj7:i, K,74, ir,78, ]C{73 (thg On.wlc v^wion 
ia by- W'hitaker, thn I..atin hy Alexaader 
Xowell). 4. ' JoanniB liielU Sariabur. . . . 
a(lver!>un Tliomom Ilardingum Tolumcti 
alterum ex .\nglico »t>rtiioiie conversum lu 
lifiiinum a Quiielmo AVhitakiiro,' London, 
l.'»7t?. 5*. 'Ad dt^c^m raiiouo^ 1-Muiuiidi 
Campiani , . . CbriattoDs resposKio,' Lon- 
don, 1-'>81 ; ft truwlalion of thut by Iticfaaid 
Stock fq-v.J was priutixl in Ixindon in 1006. 
()•. * 'luuBis propoaita ... in Arodomia 
(.'anlalirigi«ii)ti diiiCuinilii.iniin anno flnmioi 
1&R2; cuius Humma hire, I'ontifex Ronub- 
nu« v»t Ule Antichriglns,' London, I< 
7". ' llesponiiioni.i . . . dt'f-^nftio contra 
futatiunem Inannifi nuraii Scoti, presl 
lesuita',' London, lo-SS, 8*. ' Nicolai Flan- 
deri i^Hadni^inta dc-monstratinnpa, Quod 
Papa non cet Antichrislu't ille insignia . . . 
ct carundom dcmonstrationum sotida nta- 
tatlo,' Loudon, Uttj.:i. 9*. ' Fraj;:uii-uia vetv- 
rum hnorcseon ad constituendani Ecclesiie 
i'ontiUciic anMrraaiav cullucta,' Lundon. 
K)8;!. 10. ' An iiitn-iwcrn to a certaine 
fiooUt.', written by M. William liftinoldea 
. . . cntitulpd A Krfutntioii,' liOndon, 
1G&»; Cambridge, \iiOO. 11*. ' DispuUtio 
de Sacra Scriptura eonlra bujiis lenjporia 
pspiKtati. inpnmis Robcrtum BollarmiDum 
. . . et Thomaui .StApl«(ouiim . . . aex qtuw* 
tionibus propo&ila et Tracrata,' Cambridtffr, 
IS^. 1^'.' AdvvT»usT1io. Slftpk-luui An^lo- 
pupistiB . . . deftmkinnem <-rcle.uiasticsB 
uuihorttalia . . . duplicatio pro authoritate 
ul-iuni airaniari^ S. ScrijiLunii,' Cambridge, 
159^. 13*. ' Prnlectianes in ijuibua trac- 
taliir controvpreia de eccWia contra pooti- 
ficto."!, inprimiA KohtTlnm Do-llarmiDUin 
I<ffiiiitam, in septeui quiestiones distribute,' 
Cambridpcj ioSUl. 14. 'Cygnca cantio . . , 
lioc isr, ultima illi us t;onci«adc]eruin,habita 
CuntabrigiiD anno loUo, ix Oct.' Cambridge, 
I'599. ly*. • Controvursia ic Coiiciliis, contm 

tiontificion, iitpHmiit Uellarminum 
cauitam, in sex n itipat iones dist ributa,' Cam- 
hridg.-, IflOO. 111". 'TmcUtii* dij [Wccato 
nriginali . . . contraStfipletonuro.'f'ambridgfl, 
l*)00. 17*. 'I'm-iectiones in cantroversiam 
delEomanoPonllRce . . .adversui»ponlificto«, 
inprimis liobeitum BeUanninum,' llanuu. 
Illtl8. 18. 'E'ra'lectionesalinuot eontralkd- 
larniinumhabitw'i'inCotir. Docker' ]>ij Pro- 

frietatihuB lesuitarum,' CJ]rpenheim, Kill). 
9, ' AdvDrsus unLTcrsalig gratis arsfrtores 
prajleclio in I Tim. U. 4' (in Pel. llanj'a 
'8umma Trium de Pnndefitinaiione Smten- 
tiurum," flarderwyk, HUS). 20. ' Prsclec- 






tiODM d» SAcmneotie in GetwreM Jn Spede 
le SS. Baplismo ct Euclumtift,' I-'ranMctrt, 
i&ii. 21. * Artifuli do pnptlestiniktiont; . . . 
sihft propotili, VI L. Aodrews de 
ludiciiiD),' Loudon, ItioJ . 

Oder ^K^rka l)y Whitakvr urv L<.vtaiii iu 
muiuccript ; tlii- IlodlxiiLii U\tr»Ty Itaa 
* Commenurii in Canlica,'uid*Pni']flcLiones 
in pnoivm KmstoUm ud Oirintliioa * hy 
bun ; Cftliis ColWe, * Thesen : do HAe Davt- 
diB : de I*ricde0ttnaUoae ; ' and St. Jobn'e 
Cnllrfiv, CniDbridffr, Atrontisu on t-ccl<MiA«ti- 
cal iwliiy {}iii. 11. 8), wliicli Baker {liitl. 
*,/ at. Jahits Cbiieffe, p. I8«) thioki wtt 
probuljly ttttm lu» p«D, ullliougb it le&tu 
M>iD(!wh&l lo i-lTMlianism. 

(VitB) et ntunis cl<icttMiini MBctiniioique 
Tbvolosi Qttillit^lini Vi'liitak«ri nr* d««ariptio 
(b^ Abdiu Aahtoc), ia Opem. i. esS-iU-l ; 
t:pJo«>ji» in obituin ejiMdvoi (h«olo^i k VAriife 
Oudiii vtriaOtKCP ec Lttioe scripU, ib. i. 7Ufi- 
714 ^d (^olle«Ltoa ttt mart than ordioftTy iDte- 
rasc); Lifa bjr OaUk«ii' in I'liliM'* At>ol It«<li- 
Tints, pp. 401 -8 : CbortDu's Life of SowcU. pp. 
3SA-34: .Strrpe'B Life of Vt'liit^rift: U'lkor'a 
Hist, of Si. John*! Oollrgn, rd. Ililnj>or; Halnr 
at.-^. ; Ilejwtmd sod Wrigbt'i Cuinbridgo Uni- 
vennl^ TranACtiooi ; Codper'n AtllfnR CMitftbr. 
vol. ii. - MnllingBr'a HmL of Iho Univornly of 
CainbndRq, toI. it.] J. S. M. 

puritui diviiu!, son of Jeremiah Whitii)ii:-r 
tq. v.], was bona kt OakhHin, ICutlnnd, in 
1630, anil in liin fiAotnili vmir was ndnttlted 
A tMinberof ICmiDiuiuHl CuIIe^,Csiiibridffe, 
wbtfe ho bL>canifi nou-d for bts akill in thv 
clanical and onciiiul Innguiiaes. Ukbsrd 
Soldavrortb [q. v.^, otfLatfr of toe college, «et 
bim tbv taiik t>f tiEolatiiiK Euatatbius upoo 
Hoini4, and bo pcrf<irnii-d it iti & bignly 
creUiuUe tnanner. lis took llto degree of 
B.A. in 1&12. Two yean lat«r \w wa» a<l* 
nitced a fidlow nf Queeoa' College br virtui^ 
of a pu-Liamvatary ordinaaco, and id 1644} 
he^Moatcd M.A. mo. oir-mbcr of that col- 
In lti>*>2 lie took orders and became 
lister of llomchurcli, K«$<.-y. lie auc- 
iKdtd hia faihcr in tbe livinii; uf Kt. Mar^ 
'alen, Iti^riuoaclaey, in l(ld4,and lit wan 
Rosw of tbtf IjondoD miniBicre who draw up 
and pnaentwl to the king lli« im-murial 
a^inot tbe oppreeaioti nf tbo Act of I'nifor- 
mity. After bis (jfctment be ii^nthvrcrl a 
iviue con^ffarion, which a-VMi-mhlftd in a 
wU aeeting-bouae in Lons: Walk, ller- 
_>iidse]r. For many tearni lii* lioiiai- wn» 
ill of candidate* in uiviuity, and hu had 
aaiiy forcin divinea under lita care. He 
led itL 1072. 
lie liaa two aermonain Aonpaley's' Moni- 
' iSxamsus,' and in 1074 eighteen uf liis 

■ennoM, vhieh bad been taken in nhorthand, 
were publiaUed by bis widow, with a dedica- 
tion to P'.lixabctb, cotinti.-t« of liJit^tcr. and a 
■ketch of tbe autbor'i ebaracier by TbomM 
Jacomb, D.D. 

(FanenlSormnn by Surniuil Annasley, LL.I>.( 
lft73; A.Jdit. U.S. 6883, f. 164; CuUrny'aUb 
of Baxter, it. 34 i ijilTrntwa lif» of Itaxtcr, 

aK iSS. 4ID. pt, iii. 87, »& : Polmva Nooeuaf. 
oriotUI. 2nd odit. pp. 157, 431 ; banii'a 
iiorantyfir* KminmL UirioM, p. 7U-] T. C. 


l-'j70-102ti), writi'r on Neuioundland, bom 
at Kxmiiulh iu IhjTOusfaira, waa 'a iraveW 
and adventurer into farejgn ouunlriea' at 
lifte<-n yuan of agv. lliti jnuni^vn «x.trndvd 
to ' Franoc, Spaine, Italy, Sauoy, Denmnrke, 
XorwvBy.SpruwIand, l1i<.'Canani>f>, nnd Soria 
IliLnila. Iiv miulc liia tiritl voya^* to Ni^W' 
foundland about 1S7!) in a veaatA of 3UU tonsj 
fr\'tgbt«d by Edward Cotton nf.Southamutoil, 
Tie rii>ii«d the island again in 1-^^ m a 
Soutliawpton vessel of 5^ tons, and was 
oyC'witncMof.SlrHumphfvyUilbcn'B formal 
annexation of tbe country, tbe cereniouy 
takiiiff place in tlie harbour of St. Jobu'a. 
Iu IbH-j hv paid a third visit in a ahip oj 
which ht! M-a-t part ownif, and 8aw Sir 
Bernard Dmkfi [q. v.j utpturo 'many Por- 
tiigall 9ihi[Mi lA(li5n wiih liith.' In 1^88 
'Wliirboiinie «qiiipp«d a ship at hia own ex- 
peuBC to tierve againsi tbe Spaniiih armada, 
commanding her in person, and on takina 
K*-uvi; of liie Uniilioh auuiiral. Lord Uownra, 
rectieed ' favorable letters ' from him. He 
mudu njvurul otbor voyngm to Nvwfouud- 
land.and occaAiounlly fell in with pirates. 
In IDl L he met tbu famous l*i.<ter Kastun, for 
whom liK tiviluN>|niriilly »uliriti-d a jinrdnn at 
rnurt, nnd in 161 1 enrrmntered Sir Ilency 
Mainnaring. tJn 11 May Ltll*> he mailed from 
KjttKT in II bark (■quipped at bin oi\-n char^u 
beariug a comiuiifrion Ironi ihu court of ad- 
miralty to hutd eourl» of vIcc-Bdminilty in 
Ncwfoundlttuil, tbi.- tint atlrwpt lo cn.«l«a 
formal court of justicv in the counliy. Ila 
procuodud lo ihtj rarinufl harbours, callod 
die muali^ra of tlitt Kii(i;1ii>h nhipa together 
and held courts, in wliicli Im carefully 
in'tiiiri'd into di»ordpni toiutniititl on the 
const, receiving pn^spntments and traiu- 
mittin^ tbvm to the admiralty. 

In Ulltt a whip of Wbitboimii^'s wa* rilled 
' by a French piTste of Rochell,' om- Uonivl 
T^bilo, bv winch ho lo»t morv llian HtHit. 
Ill 1617 lie w(M sunt for by Sir William 
Vati|(han [q, v,^, who was altcmptiug to 
TMtopk* Newioundliuid with AVuUlimen, and 
iti th« year folhiwing wna vntruat'i'd with 
the conduct of a accand detachment of colo- 




niets, who wurv c<»n?^td in ■ nhiii bolntiging 
to Wliilboiirrte Tn Yaughftn'A settlement, 
Golden Grove, now known lu Tn^pnnwy 
Tlnrbour. Tlifc Tcntniw w«« n fnilure, owing 
cbiefly co iLe idlonesB of tlieV^'eUh coloaUts, 
and il oenrly ruined Wliitboumo, who iUiv* 
imtbcticuUy tlial, ' afler the more than forty 
y««re« spent in tbeforvi&Lcl coiirsi^§, there r^ 
naines little oilier fruitw vnlo mv, muiup 
(hit jM-orm iif a good <:tniiicience' and lh^^ j 
ront«nttnent of liealih. In liWO. whilf rt'- 
eidinf{ in Ij.mdon '«! tht- »ignti nf ihnlHldeil 
Cocke in I'atr-i^rnstfr-llow,' he published I 
his 'Di»coiT9'-' nnJ Jli^cuvi-ry of Nrw-fovnd- 
land, with many n-ojnnfl to proniie hr>w 
worthy and beneficiall a I'lanmtion nimy 1 
there bo mudi-, oftor A far Ix^ttor mnnner 1 
thuii now it in. Toiretlier with tbe laytug 
open of OeriiLine l'!noniiitii_'» and ahujir« ' 
committed bv som^ that trade? lo that 
Couutroy, Btid the meaneR (aide doiine for 
refMrmation thereof. Imprinted nt London 
by Felix Kyn^^ton, for William Harrel,' 
4to. Whilbounie'a treatise found favour 
with Jiimee I, and the arvhbiBliopit orC'uii- 
terbiirv and York wvni enjoined by letters 
from tlie Inrde of the council to reeummuud 
tbe work and to iif^iil in niBkiiin t^olli'rtiotiH 
for^Tiitboiime in the •flevemll porUhM of 
this Kingdome ' to defrny tli» cnst nf print- 
ing it. By n pioclnmiiition, diitw! M April 
IC2-, Jam^-6 n-iTi.'riitvd llK>»einjiiiictirin}.and 
Krnntr-d Whitbourne the sole rij{ht of print- 
ing bia book for tw(.'Lty-<»iiu yeans. In \0'J'2 
A\Tiitbniini« iknpjdKmented the original edi- 
tion with 'A Uiacouree conlaiuiniii a lovicif; 
invitation , . . to all mirh a* .■•]iii)l hf Ad- 
TCTitiirera . . , for the ndvaucement of his 
Majeoties , , . PlantnCion in thr Nrw-fonnd- 
Ibnd/ London. 4ln. Some oopiea also con- 
tain a letter from the bishnp to the clerpy 
of bis dioi-i«o diwftinp them lo nicnmmfiiid 
UlO work from their pulpits, and to mak» a 
upecial collection for tlic nnthor. The ' Hi*- 
courso'wax dedinitud lo the kiiiy, with a 
»ii]ipl«mHiilBrT«!ddi'e)ii. 'lu his MaiestiesKood 
Snbiecta,' ond an auiohiu; introduc- 
tion. Tin." niTOiiiit of Nt*wfiiuiidUnd ia ititt— 
restinj? and valuable, full of amtisin^ dtitu'd. 
and written willi n Uteniry skrl! hurdlv tii 
be look'td for in one who had bf-en a manner 
from fifteen yeara of BRe. Tbe ' Dinconrse ' 
had coii*idcrable fiime at ibw tim.-^ of iiA 
aptHiumiioo, and U wv«ral times quote<l and 
refcrrtd lo liy Tuptaia John Smith. Anothir 
edition of tbu ' liitcourse ' was publiahvd in 
16l>:i (Loiid.m, Jto). 

Whilhoume soon uftiT n!Ct>iT«d the bononr 
of knigliihoiKl; hill hi* cireumHtanceii con- 
tinued straitened, and he grew tired of ibu 
insctirity of his lifv ■«b<nv. Un 13 July 




1626 RdwKid Dnk9 wrot« to Edward 
Nirhola.% rN>aaunendinff him aa pocnliorly 
qunliticd to command a. ship.itnd nn 10 Nor. 
lie him.ielf jtoHcitoH thn favour of Bulking- 
ham. eending a certificate of hie good wr- 
vio-A and loMea, eiracd hv Sir Edward 
Seymour, John Drue, and a'ti^ht othen 
(Oil. fittittr J'apfr*, Dom. l62o-«, p. 37-1, 
Colonial ir>74 1600, p. 82). On 11 Oct. 
I0;*7 be wrote loll null IVachey, staltntj; that 
hi' bad keen apjKiiuted lientenont on ihe 
Ilonavmilure, undur Sir .John Chudlvi^fb, (o 
hasten the ebtp round the Downfl (t2. I>om. 
l4tL>7-.^. P.363J. Tb.. dale of his doatli it 

A rough draft of Whitbouroe's ' l)i»- 
cnunie,'in mnnn«cript. with many alteration* 
in the author's own hntid, in nrt^jiervi'd in tbe 
British Museum (Addit. MS. Li'olH). The 
'Discourse 'won abrideedand traneUledinto 
Oerman by Tbcodor oe Hry in 10^^. for tbr 
thirteenth part of his ' llisloria America;,' a 
collection of the writings uf exuWrFn of all 
nationalities. It alM> apiiinn-d in a similar 
CDlle^tiun by LevinuB IluUius (Theil £0). 
puhlishi'd in Kt'J^ a| Fmnkfnrt-(m-MHin,and 
in 1634 in the Latin version of D« Bry> col- 
l«ction. Snmi' parts of the ' Discourse' were 
also reprintrti in lf*70, undt-r tho cditorahip 
of T. \\ hitburn, with the title ' \Ve»twara 
Uu« for Avulon,' London, 8vo. 

[Whitboiime'sWorlis: Pr0"9»'a Hist, ofNew- 
roTindliuiiJ, I S9fi; lirown's (ien««)i of thi.* UniieJ 
.Siafs, ISOO. ii. lUiO-1 ; Works of John .'<iaith 
(■^rUr'ii Knglittli Scholars' Library), 1884 ] 

K J f^ 

WHITBREAD, SAMTEl. (K.lfuiglS), 

tiolilieiaii. was only son of Samuel 'Wbil- 
ire«.l (rf. 17ftfil of Sontliill, Bedfordshire, by 
Ilia first wife, Hairiet. daujrhttr of William 
llnytfm of Ivinfjhoe. Samui^l \Vbilhn.-a<i 
the elder r.iime of a nonconformtst faniilT 
in Bedforcisbire, where he inherilml a HDul 
prnperty. Aa a young man he entered a 
London brewery, in tlit) fimt instance as a 
chrk, and in coiirie of time b*Y:iimtt po»- ■ 
eeaitor of tin.' whole? brewery tbroiiffh hard ■ 
work and jjood Inck. After n-iilivini; « l*r|l« 
fortune liu piirchaswl Lord Torrington'a 
SouLbill eahtto in 179ri iLfM^M*, Bvqford- 
sAiW, p, ISl), and for a time aupport«d tbo 
tory in[rrf«t in Uedfordsbire iCormealtu 
C'/n-Mp. ii. IIH). 

Snoiuul Whitbread tbe younger was born 
nt Onniin^on, IVdfordBbirc, in I7o8. His 
early home education waii remarkablo for 
ritrirtncss anproiichin^ suverity,and a iitrong 
religiouEj ehiiracU'r. An only eon, he waa 
lh« object of great partnlal care; at Hton. 
when; hv wun u cuntvmpomry and friend of 
Cborlea Qrey (afterwanU ««vond Karl Grej) 





H wu accompanied by a prirato tutor; 
[tltmcH be woaacnt to Christ Clitircb.Oxfonl, 
knd iDAtriculatMl in Julv 17^. Hih pni- 
gnm ac Oxford not sBtiaJVing bis fntlitr, hi! 
WB» reoiO\"ed to St. John'^ O'ilrgu, Cnm- 
bridf;;^, irhenre he graduatAil B.A. in l7Bi, 
and wae then sentooaforei^ tourthrou^h- 
out Europ«, under the churgi- of William 
Coxe [(l-v.] ihe Itistomu. lie retiiniGd ia 
May 1786. For tie next tbrw yeiirft he 
complotcly di>vo(«d himM-Jf to tbi- biuiiK'»» 
of tbf brewttrv. Ilii laarrisfre in 1789 with 
EliEabf!th,thi5 oldest dmighicr ufSirChnrlus 
(kFlervardit )iot Marl) Uri-r, and Hiitt«r of 
bU old BchoolfeUo'H", inclined his interesw to 
politico, and itt ih'- (■rniTnl rlwlion in )"90 
be WA3 i-Wted afl a wbiij to r-'prf'S.'nr Red- 
ford. Almost itntnediai«ly hv hestn to talce 
a prominent part in the (iebatcn in Ibo hoiiw, 
and in NovembeT I'OOfnergeticallT attacked 
the govemnieiit for wantn cfoioni^yon mill- 
toryprepantions. A speech on l'^ April ITItl, 
in which he severeiy and powerfully criti- 
cised the ministerial policy, attrnctcd public 
attention. J-'rom tti« tirttt h>: nltnchi-d him- 
self cloAely to Pox, who aoott ndinittH him 
to his cunfidviica iu fon'tgn alfairs, und in 
June and .Inly 1701 ho traik a pdrt. in Cliit 

toorrsapoDdenca with Fox's emiEsaries nt Si. 
'FstBnbnrif, who, if not aoMiHlly iixHisUiiff tn 
brin^ug about, were rejoiring «i, the fniliire 
of Fnt'enegolialiona. Mellqwalified bytbw 
special information he poMcssed, ho was cn- 
tni» wiih utu- of iht? ojipijHiiton moiituiB 
in tb« deb«l« on thol!ussiao&rmnuient,and, 
[Uioui^b the motion imi! luj-t by u coiisLdi-rabiu 
arity nn tliia QCca.«ioii, h>! )^rcnlly diatiti* 
bimaelf. Whitbread now ra|ridlr 
l#rf*lopFfI into a Irjtdiiip iipirit in oiipovition, 
an«l an earnest opponent of every t hi ii^ 
saTonriDgofoppn-Hiannndabtmc. lleprovetl 
faimwlf a constant a<lr(v?al'> of tK'pN) >:man- 
upation, the vxtenuon of religious and civil 
rights, and thve»tabli«hiDfntof aform of nn- 
ticHial tiducaiion. He consigtently {-hi-rislied 
a belief in the pouibiiity of rani n lain inj; 
peace with Fraaci;, and on I't Dim:. 170i! 
slrongrly ^upjvirled I'ox'a mutiou for nendin^ 
a minister to ne^itiute wtlh Frnuct-. In the 
beginnin); fif 17W1 In? jin-ffnl'-ii in*litiiiii« in 
favour of reform fr«im Hirroinpham andnilipr 
great towns in tbt- north nf Ln)|;land> and be 
«xpieued hi* convicrion of the necGsaity for 
foon on 7 May 1793. Towards the end of 
l7Uo, when there was frrent distress and the 
Mof agricultural Ittbouiers rfan at the 
iweat point, Whitbread brought in a bill 
'(0 Dec-) to enable ibc mAfnKtrul'.;H lu !1x tho 
aiiniinum tut well ait tlm mii.viitiuiii wiigf- nt 
ADarrer sessions; this proposul was opposed 
by Rtt and defy»l»d. In 1790 ho wa» vm 

of those who left the house with Fox on Ch« 
ocriLsion of the aeditioua aasembly bill being 
rrfiTTMl to the comraittee of the house, and 
the followinc year he mov^d nn inijuiry into 
tb« conduct oi the iidminiftration (A March 
1797 1 and a vnt<* of censure (tt May), 

He continued eleadily to hnrase the govem- 
ment, support ine Arthur U'Connor [q.v.jon 
his trial at Maiascotie. May 1799, ui^sg tba 
consideration of the Fn-nch overtures for 

ff-ace, 'I Feb. 1800, and opposiof; (March 
^*0\^ the cuntinunnoe of the art for tlw 
Hiippn-Bsifin of rebellion in Ireland. On 
thr (.■yntUifiiiM of ijcno in 1 H02, he expressed 
his approval of rhi! Addinfrinn ministry by 
Btippuriinf; \)ns adi)rv», I" Nov. l**02. He 
waa<]niif tinabh'^ to un^f-rstundtlie ^nF>tabl^ 
character of the pence, and even in A[ay 
1803 srpnroi'vdliiniiiKlf from some of bis own 

{lartyhyimnfinio^ that its contimtancc could 
>p procured through the inierreDlioa ot 

The report of ihe comini*«ioacre (I80S) 
who had been appointed to inquire into the 
abuies of the navul dcpiirtmint set forth a 
case of su^pidon a^cninft Lord MftviHti [»im 
IHsDAS. IIksjh, first Visi-ui'.\rMi:Lvii.i.i{J. 
Whilbn-iid wnsttccpled by hi« party lui their 
instrutnent of attacK on the friend of Hit. 
He coitimeticed pmcei^dinB* by moving a 
mries of rf'»oliition», 8 Ajirtl lN)6, detaiLiuiif 
and altackltig (he whole conduct of tlw 
treoaurer of iho navy, and, despite Pitt'a 
frtn:>riuous eu'Ieuvouni to prevent the passings 
of the resolutionx, they wi-re ailtmtc-d by tha 
bL>u«L' ou thv costing vote of the nipiBker. 
Kni'Oiintgi'd hv ihiii xuci.'pu', Wliitbct'iid im- 
mediately moved, on 10 April, an addrwa 

' to thrt Icing to retrnvo Melville from bia 
pw-tenre and cminriU for ever, but aft>*r a 
ctebnle this motion was withdrawn. Whit- 
brejid now moved tio April) for a select 
committee, and on Ilieir report gave notice 
of moving for the iiupearhment of Melville, 
and of resolutions tu follow aguini^t Pitt. 
Though Whitbrt-nd'smoritm fdrllwimp-iich- 
rat III, of Melville was loai in thpfiitt inelance 
{H Jiinif), and an nmmtilmi'nt in fuvour of 
criminal prnaMiution ndopti-il, it waa aiihae- 
qiiently Hgreed to, and on liO June, accom- 
pnnir-d by nearly n htindrcd niembrr!', he 
ciirried up the impeachment to the bar of the 
]loii4e ol i.ord». His name was now placed 
at the head of ilie vomaiitice appoiiitod by 
the commoiia lo draw up the urticlHft of 
iiiipt!ach]nent,aiid ho was appointed manager 
on the nominatioH of I.ord Ti-in])!". He 
cnien-d on the tusk witli the enei^ of an 
••nthii>itnHl,Hnd thvame sehsion moved for a 
bill of indemnity in favour of thoaf who 

i had bven in otHce under Melville who should 


Whi thread 



ojvs •viilraoo on Iub Lmptj&cbmeat. On 
29 April 1W0«. on ilw first (fay of llw trial lU 
WKtmiailer ilall, Wliitbrt-aiJ op>-neil aU 
I ^W cltATgc* ID li apeecb of ihtoe liotira and 
''tweatr minutcii. Lutur tii tho trial bo 
odeied hinuelf u a witocM to prava tbe 
mbMaoca of tlw duipw befon the eom- 
Boni, and w«> ai:v«r«ily orowHMEiLiniuwl. lU 
bano bis Kptv on thn entire caw on Id May, 
anaconcliidiMJ'itun ttii.>fijI[owinf{day. Mvl- 
Till« wu ooquitled on all tlit^ oliargM nn 
I'i JuD«. In hi« manogctnent oi' tb« trial 
Whit)*n>ftd appi-arti to liuvu boini aomewbat 
RUwUTful, maa to buve m»i)tf<l on his own 
nethodi in opposilion to tiiv K^iiernl vioirs 
of the maoa^nt and of bin frii'iid KomiUy 
in |>«rticiitiir (Co ix-ii ester, Itinrn, ii. ■')»*>. 
litti dili^-iicu in pr^parini; thu cann won ru- 
nuirkablif, but he m Hutd to liav<i txton i*o 
^ oei'Upipd with diaiilavuig hia own wit and 
I «l'>qut!tK'<>, or, aw tus X>ijcliei» of (lordun vx- 
pKued il, 'with tcuc-liing hix dmyliontn to. 
caucr,' thai his rjn'^-chi'H faili'd In convince 
(HuLLAVli, Mrtn'iim of I hi ii^Aiy Piirtu, i. 
im). lCon-laii(Lion repnrilA lb« r<^nU of the 
trial by hi« cnrtonn, 'The Art|ui(ta1, or up- 
wtCinjT thi! I*ort«r I'ot ' (-JO Jun« 1H06.). 

On the npproacliiiig doalh of I'ox (■Sep- 
temher IUHMt) thu incluaion of Whitbroad in 
the miniatn- won under coiutdomtion (UccK- 
moHAU, Mtrmoirt tif Court and C'alnnrts of 
ffeoiyt iJI,i\ . (iTt),lt[it out hia occa^ioD Lord 
Grey appi'iira wittiout ■ulfu'-icnl wnrntnt lo 
buvp vouchiMl for hia brothfir-in-lnw hariiig 
no donirw for afficv (iVj.) At thii ji^riod ht> 
I OMtainly dt'S'urvcd wi-ll of \m party, for bin 
' attack on Melvilh*, which h»> followed ii» by 
a vigoroLUi fx|ii^?ii[^- of tbi^ conduct ol thtj 
Cuke of Yoi-k, wa^^ pn]iiil«r in (he country 
and ireproved tho poHilioii of ihu whifpi (Lb 
ilKmiiAXT, I^i/f-ii/ Li/rtl S/irnvtr, p. J 15; wu 
art. JOHXSTOVI), A-VtlRKW JTasie^ G'ooueaxe). 
la 1H07 Whilbread brou^rlil in a poor-law 
bill of the moat alaboralii and tiiiwifldy chn- 
rnctiT. Hia apeeeh, dulivorod on 10 Feb. 
lM)7,waa piihlixhircl in pnniiihlvl form. Iliii 
Bcbame comprisfd rho ef<tnbfishTn«>nl of a frL-e 
edurntloriul ayiiifiiii, thv a]ti>Tatiou of thulaw 
of Beitlfment, rh(- i'<)iiAliHalion of counly 
ratsa, and a pucuUiir propoeal for distioRuisli- 
Ing butwiMNi tbe de*er\'inf( and nndcsi?r%'in|7 
poor by thn wwirinjr of badgefl. It eicited 
|COBaidi.-mbk> publir iiit«n-»t, and wna kopiily 
criticised ill tho prtss by .Mallhua, IJoue, 
BowIiMJ, «nd others. The uortions of the 
tuatn acbeme di.ialin(r with i'duealtormud the 
law of aoltUriiiPnt wen* Biibstfqucntly con- 
verted into st'purato bills which pajtsud their 
i«.«coiid rt'aduig; the pnnxJiial aoboola bill, 
under which children berween tbe n^a of 
88TI-11 and fourteen and unable to pay were 

ralitled to two yean* &ee edticktioD, ww 
R^rd«d aa sucb'a nraflicel proposal tbat 
it wa» circulated in lue coauiry for tbe coa- 
aidemtiun of the magistntea. Tbe propoaed 
meuurea, though conl^nine mudt tbac wu 
good and fxhibtting politictu fons^bt, weie 
hurriedly preimrva, and sbowed warn ot 
usuct. knowlMlKVOii I he part of their author. 
Tbi'y were committed, btit Huh&oqui'atly 
abandoned (29 July). 

Wbithroad'fl auitude with rogud to tbe 
conduct of the war and foreign afliura now 
\iiigkn tocfiii»tidiH'iT(.-occaof opialonbeCween 
himstlf and oiIilt l^adin? members of the 
»ijpottiti>>n, and in lAfCcmMT Ibifi hi* hio- 
tliur-Iu-kw (now Lord (irey) priTaiely 
warned hitn of tbe dangers atlt^'ndin^ hit 
ptiaco-at-nny-prico policy. But be wad noc 
Co be re*tr»nRd, and in>d»ted upon moTing 
a peace resolutioa on 2a Feb. !»**, whcr«li 
il wad Etatud tbat tburo was ' nothing in the 
i>ri-3(-iit Miki« of alTaira which abould precltide 
IUB mujvely from embracing tba opportunity 
of coniuinncing nvgntiation*.' O eotge Fon* 
wnby \q. r.}, acting in conrert with Lordi 
Grenvjlle and dny, moved and csrri<»l the 

ErevioUi* que*lion by 211 to 6S, but Wbil- 
read'a following was probably iiicr«^*»ed by 
mietalcc- (ti/f •■/ Lard O'lry. y. IctS), Hia 
action on thiE* occasion cauaed aparty split, 
which resulted in tho prtLCtical dixbandment 
of tho opposition in It^. Thougb Pon«onby 
had li«iMi ai-<><>i)lt?da.*li?ndcr of thfioppoaition 
by Whitbread with cerlaiti rescrxat lona on 
II IW. 1^07 (RpcKlSORAM, Mrmiiirs of tke 
G/url and Ctdiinet* of deorye III, iv. 210), 
vHawclion of the parly, following Whit- 
brt^tid, Kolk^-8ton6, and Hunlcti., bad in 1Sfl9 
completely aAserled its independence {ib. p. 
414) ; and their MTongly czpresacd poltry 
that * peace should bu the cry of the nation ' 
and tho furious aliack on the Duke of York 
catwed open variance between them and 
Lord* Grenville and QrcY iu April l(*OB 
(CoLciiBfTEB, Diary, ii. l/j). Aa tli« re- 
yuliir oppoailioii relaxed ita efforta, «o Wbit- 
brL'ud and bin following ri'doubU'd their cne^ 
gii*H and bei-ame the only forcibla urguu 
of liberal pnnciplvH in the hou&t? (Lb Mai^ 
CHASi, Ltfevf hard Kjirnfrv, p. 115). 

From lilH)9 up to the time of bin dtatb 
Wliitbrviid spoK<- mori) fr«iuenlly than any 
TOnmher of tho llouso of C^mmon^. Ilia 
g|>itniin that ptiblicilv tnui the very esseooa 
of tho British constitution acroiintA for the 
eariH^lttH.tM with which hn attacked nbuscfl 
of all kinds, and the frequent dcbatoa be 
occa»ii>npd on furrign alTiiira. Jlia criticiain 
of Iri)rd Chatham's conduct with regard to 
tlw Scbeldl. fijwrntiond was highly KUCCCaflftll 
nnd grcntly inBplritcd tbo opposition; his 




noUaaaDSS Feb. 18)0 for «b address to the 
kint; iwking f»r nil |)«t>i>n Biil>niitlv>l «l uaj 
lime by the Earl nf Cnattiam vroi carried t>j 
serea TOtev, and the mbeeifueiit motion of 
eawnKon Lord Chatham's conduct by thirty- 
three (3 Mnrch 1310). Dt-smte tliecarrvinjr 
of this reaoltition, it is saiil tWt Cliutlmm 
only resigned on Wliiltintad tlirL-uiviiiii); pul^- 
licly to aak wiiplht^r hv wu* »\M uiiD>ter- 
gcncral of ihu ordnance. 

On tliR tumuli K tirociTiling; Sir Francis Biir^ 
der:t'asrrwt,WhitDr4>^d, though generally in 
sympathy with tht< cttr«mlsts, played the 
ptirt of pnident adviaiT to his friend, and 
uTl^vd him not to resist ibe apeaUer's war- 
rant ; he al»o aAirtnod in the boua« thfl 
legolitT of tliv namuit and ihti eomequtiDL 

He wu orl- of tht* f{'w who uniformly 

d on principlu c\i<ri;ssc<l diEnm>r>jtjation 
of lUo tftrency bill, mid on S.'i t-i-b. 1811 
hi' moved for a eommittoH to inBpi.-ct tho 
joumala of till! llniiMi of liordii cmoTning 
the kioit'o iUnt'&H in IBOJ.and iinndpmnm 
the roniluot nf I>}rd Eldon in 1801 antl ]rifn. 
When in IRll it appeanxl certain i-hnt tlie 
whi^ vrould secure oflice, it wag arran^, 
dmptto objiKtioR M him from th^! Dron- 
vitles, that Whitbread should be swrclary 
of Mate for homo affiiir? (BaousKAU, Auto- 
bios rapAy, vah ii.) The talculatiuneuf tbo 
opposition wi-n», liowvvcr, up<ict by Ihv 
abrupt dptermination of ihf iv^enl tn main- 
(jiin in olTice the Perc«n*sl nJminisTmtion. 

fter PerppvaVft death, Whilbn^ad purstied 
is indwin-ndent ooune in oppo«ilion, acting 

parately from the bulk of nis party. 

In tlw summer of iyi:J he appeara tobavo 
made tho aoaiuiiniunce of the IVincew of 
Wale* iii. ii. l48). I-'rum the' first hi.* ducmvd 
it bia duir to stand by h^r, ' cuiiHidcrin^ ln-r 
S0 ilt-useu as possible, and without any Ju&t 
ground ' (A. ii. Iflo). Although his action wii9 
afaaolntely independent and alienate-d him 
from some of his own relatives (AuoLrtius, 
MtVMtr* oj Caraiiar, i. I'fil), ho waa on 
better terms with the whigs now than in 
IMOO. [n the IloiiM! of Commons he con- 
stituted himM.-lf champion to thu priuiNtisii, I 
and, with his usual eamejtiir>«, allumptt^ 
on all oficaaioRs lo do hi-r M-rrico. Ilis subI, 
faowever, outrau bin dlitm^tion wli«n, in ii 
\taig speech on 17 Miirrb 1S13, ho madr^ 
■ gmiindli**! cbnr^^ against I-ord IClten- 
inijuired into the princesaV eonduct, of sup- 
ing a pnrrion of Mrs, LisIk's cvidfncr. 
this occasion his friends in the coinniotiti 

isurtd him for his rash crednliry, and 
' IJUeuborough intbeHousuof I.onl8on 

March 1613 denounced llie accusation 'as , 

false as liel] in erer^pan.' Whitbread with 
cbamctTiMic obstinacy rpfus«d to adnut 
bitn&nlf in the wronz (//a»MirJ,pp.:*5,274). 
] lis ardour on behalf of the pfince&swas not 
checked by thin cpisodr, and he continued 
to exert Liniself in h^r support. On her de- 
parturo from England in August 1814 he 
wrote t-Apreit«ing *hi» unallurablo attach- 
luttut, his devotiun and x^al fur her n»-Kttt«- 
bliabment ' (ADOLPiiva, Memoirs nfCarolw, 
i. AUC). 

During the last year of 'WTiitbread's life 
his diwia> for pvace, despite all change of cir- 
rumntance on tho CDntirii'nt, dctcrniinol his 
conduct in oppusilion. lie qut-slioned the 

fr>:)Unds of war with America ou 8 Nov. 
SIJ. urged the mninti-ntuire of peace on 
20 Miirch 1815 wbi'lher tht Uourboii dmasty 
or Napolvun should provo succi-ssfnl, prcH 
I'-Ated on •{ April ogtunst tliu di'clnratiou uf 
the allies in congress ngaiust Nupuleoti, and 
on 'I^ April uovtxl an addreee pruyiug thu 
cmwn not to involve the country m a war 
Upon the ground of uxcLiiding a purticular 
pt^rson from the govemnw'nt "I France. 
\N'hen, hnwever, war wn^ actiuilly entered 
upon, liF supported the vot« of credit for its 

During the Inst few years of his life the 
part taken by Whitbread in the rfibuilding 
and reorganisation of l>rury Luno Thtfalrooc- 
caitioniid him gri'nt an.tiety tind nnnnyitnrt!, 
nod is said to have inaUrlally affected his 
health. On the burning down of I he old 
theatre, ^1 Fub. \H1&, be bi^came a member, 
and Hoou after chniruian. of the committee 
for tho rebuilding of the thciitn<. A bill 
for ita re-erect i<^tn bysubocriptir^n waspaAMd 
through parliament, and Whitbreau sup- 
ported thii iutcrvi!lK uf Drurv Lnuu iu the 
commons, suceeAsfully opjKifllng rhe intro- 
duction of bills for thu (.■etabKabment of 
ririJ tlii-ntrrs, oul" of his (irguinvnls being 
that the more thpntres the worse actors ana 
no one sood play (t> May IBlt, 20 March 
I812J. In IHll and IHI-J li*- wa« much oc- 
cupied with the rebuilding and reorganiaa- 
tion of tbo Ihpatrv, which wa* opened sgniti 
on 10 Oct. 1812. InnoraiioL^ wbieb be 
attempted by beginning the pecformances at 
an earlier hour and by pbiying every night 
lh« wbolf y.'«r niuiid involved liim tu dia- 
putcs and ditfirnliiiM witU othfF theatres 
{Aditit. M.S. 2"9:i.'>, f. 40), but bis moni*- 
tary relations with Shi-ridon wttre tn him a 
source of still greater annoyance. Flis bwBi- 
ni><t.«likf nbHities (uablfii him to slhnd firm 
ngninat t^heridan's powen of perausaiou 
I MoORB, L\fr of ahrrtrlan, ii. 443), but there 
docB not appear to bu any ground fur tliu 
■uggestion that be treated Hheridau barsbly, 


or that fet thia time lia wm tuflttring from 

di«ea80 ortlm bniiii. 

Whitbreuil dii-A by his own band on 
6 July 181 fl, huvinft cut liU thmftr at his 
town hiiuHH, :V» Kovor StRjet. At tbo in- 
quest, liuld the flame Any, the jury friund 
lliat he wim in a deranged 9t«t« of mind &t 
the Lini(^ the act vas committHd : bia friend 
Mr, Wilchwr gttve evidence llmt Li^ de- 
BpnndftncY WDS due to belief that bis public 
life -waa extinct. Ho was buriEid at Card- 
inpoTJ in Bedfunisbin*. Ilijt widow dind on 
'2% Ndt. 1:^10. Whitbraid dipd i)a:ftCfiaL>d of 
Bvc^if^lithri of litM hnjw»?n-, bi« fiilber by 
will huving madfl it coropulnory on him to 
retain a mujurilj of tbe eliartw in his own 
bauds. He loft two son*— William lleiin- 
(rf. 1807). M.P. for Bedford 18l»-37; and 
Sunuel OharU't* — and two dttiigbtfni, Kliia- 
baib (d. 18-Ifl), who mftirifid Williatn, ivighlli 
linrl \Vhldp(jTav« ; and Knimn Laurai <l. 18571, 
wbo marriiH) Oharli^s Sbflw-LefeiTC,vi«count 
Everaley [q. v.] 

In th« opinion of a pood judge of tbftrac- 
ter, VVbitbrcad *wa» madu uptif tbo vii'uifnlit 
of "[(poeition' (Ward, /Jinry, wL I'Ui])m, i. 
40^). IIU L'lo<]ucnu(! was more suited for 
ntlAcIf in dehalt- tbnn cb-ft'tirp. Ijord llyniTi 
coiisid«n*d biin liie Ufimofttbenuaof bad tasta 
and vul^r viTlwtn»'nw, but ulrong aad Kng- 
lisii; hiA piTulinr and forcible Angliciom 
wan iiNn nntfd by Wilberfyrct*. who, how- 
ev«!r,lhoiiffbt. *hc epolif ao if he bad a pot of 
pfjrter to his lina and all hi>> wordt I'Amu 
through it' (W ildeiuoece, f,i/e, v, 330). 
Fie was, in the words iif Ilomilly, 'lh« pro- 
niDU*r of erery lilwra! sclieiui? for iriiprnv- 
iug tbt) condition uf niiLiikitid, ibe zi'alutis 
advocate i>r the opprtsm-d, niiil thi^ iimlftiinted 
opposvr ol' t'vory Etwuiee of t^orniption and ill- 
admininlration;' mit Ino vuiti and nub to 
ncqiiiru any real ascendency over ihi' iniudR 
of wi-ll-«tlucal(?d mtrn (IIOLCAXD, Mrmoift 
f^f Whig J*trty, ii. •13,7). Wbiibroad was 
freiiiienlly portrayed by both llowlundson 
and Gillrav in their politicjil cartJ^ons, and 
IB iiivarinbly distinKiii^bed by a porter-pot 
or some rf-fi-rcricr lo Whitbri'Btl's ' onTire. 

A liiilf-ltn(;th porlrait. of Whitbread was 
painttsd by Thomas (_iain:*lKiraiit;b. An en- 
gravfd porlrait, from an ori^iual drawing, 
nppcan in Adolplms's ' Mfmcur of Oftroline ' 
(I. 4*il); and ttnolhiT entTavnd ponrait, by 
W. Ward, after the pnniting bv II. W. 
PickeragJll, wae published on 'S! Juno 1830. 

[Hansard. IHQa.Lt.mwim; Atinunl HfRiBtcr; 
HonnsTribm^sofiht Public Pr»c8lo the Memory 
of the Ute Mr. Whitbrnad. 1815; .M]lb»niic 
Accoiini of 111, Dfaih „f Mr. Whithmivil. ISIft; 
fiir F. Grfl/B Ijifsuf Lord Or*y; Le MHrcSmmfit 
Life of J^irl 8pencer (which eontaina a alion 

bioffraphy of fVhitbnad, pp. 172-80); Di«ry 
and Cormtipoadvnee of Lord Colchcal«r; Ediu* 
biir(>h ilaview. April IS3S; Uenoira of tits 
Ufo of Sir S. Honultj ; Uoare'i M«inotr«.] 

W. C-B. 

WHITBREAD. THOMAS ( 161l*-l6r9>, 

Jesuit. [Sfe ll*Kcoi"Ri, Tiioiiaa.j 

WHITBY. DANIEL (ie3&-1726), pofe- 

micel di villi! nnd cotnmeDta(or,son of Tliomu 
Whitby, rw:lor( 1631 7) of Kudidcn, NonU- 
umptonshire, afterwarda rector of Uarrow- 
OQ-Huiuber, Linoolnahm*, waa born a1 
Uuabdeu on 2X March H138 (roanuacripb 
notu in Briiisb Museum cnny, S226 bo, 
•M, i>f hiH iMt ThoiMhtt, ii:»). Attve 
attending school at Caatfr, I>incn1nahire, 
bv U'camv in IfHtS a commoaer of Trinity 
Collegia, Oxford, matrinilaring on 'JH Jnly, 
wbuo his nanio is written Whiibie. He was 
i>hiClixl «cli<iiar on IM-Tiine lHoh; gmdual^d 
B.A. on L>0 April 1ii.'>r. M..\. on 10 April 
1(!(5U, nnd was elected fellow in ItWH. In 
the samti yeor he came out aa a writer, or 
rather ompiler.agaiust Itoinan catholic doc^ 
trine, altaeliLng Ititgb I'auliuu^ or Sereniu 
CVen&y, 1).I). ^q, v.J llo wag aufWL'nKi by 
John .Sergeant [q.T,], to whom h<' replied in 
l«tW. Scib Ward [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, 
made him bis clinplain in ItHiK, giving bus 
ou 2J t)ct. ihu pn'bend of Vatesbury, and on 
7 Nov. the prt'bend of Hiisbom-TaiTanl and 
BurbagR. In liJCS ho became perpetual 
curate of St, Thomas's and rector of St. Ed- 
mund's, Salisbury, flo next wrote on the 
evidences (167 1). On 11 Sept. l(J7:i he wa* 
installed pn^eentor at Salisbury, and at once 
accumulated It.ll. and ]).!). (l3 Sept.) Ud 
resumvd his anti-liomish polemic* in 1674, 
and coutintiL'd to publiab on tlus topic at 
mtervals till I6SD. 

(.'ousidcmblD popularity bad alt.<ndttd 
Wbitbv's earlier eontrovi-.rsial i-H'orts ; Iw 
lo«t it Wputtingforth anonjmou.-tlv. latcin 
I(Wi), 'The l'«.te«1aut Iteconciler.'pleading 
for Muciaaions to nonconform i«ts, with a 
view to their com prehension. A tlercn- paper 
war followed, in which [.awrcnce Womock 
lijt, v.J, Duvid ,r(inner [q. v.], and Swnuet 
ITiomas [(|. r,] took part. In contvmporaty 
pamphli-ts Whitby, nickrnmt-d Wbigby,wM 
unfavourably contriuilcd with 'Hlua Oat«a; 
iruniiral It^t t<Te of thanks were addreaied to 
him. purporting to come from Mtinster aDa- 
baplUto luid others, llie university of Ox- 
ford in convnpAtion (SI July HJ«3| con- 
d»mu^ tbf proposition • that the dnty of not 
offending a WMK brother ia inronsistenl with 
nil buinait nuthoricy of making lawa coD- 
eeming indilTertnt things,' and ordered 
I Whitby'a book to be forthwith 




'na oraonra j 
1 burned by J 






the unirenitf miirshni in tb« «choolA niind- 
rani^le. Seth Word «xiort«(l from Wliiiby 
a retractattou (9 Ckt. 1683) iu which h« ilC- 
ciutid himMlf of ' wa.iil at pruduiica and d&- 
fereuix lo authority,' ivvohed ' all im-Tereut 
ftad unmeet eipnsaioas,' and renounci'd tlii; 
ahoru propoaitiQn and anothi-r nimilar oi)«. 
e farther iasuAd b ' M^And part ' of the 
I'mti^tnat Rooonctler,' urging difi3uiitr>rH lo 

lo 1694 h« pahtbbvd ia Latin a com- 
EHMiilium of «thio8. In lfi89 lie wrolw in 
favour of taking the oaths to William and 
~ 'ary. lie took a Hinall pAit in the 8a>i?ininn 
itrorenr [«»• SiiuiiLOfK, William. D.I).] 
ir pubUahinfT ( 1 6y n a l,atiu tract on the 
livmity of Christ. On 14 April 1^96 hv 
received t)M> prvbi'iidiifTauiiiiiii Rrt^a. Hi« 
m^^Rwn ojHu, whirh has rfttuned n rertain 
reputation to the prwani ct-nturv. in a *Para- 
phtave and Cnmmimlarv on tin; Ni-w Thftta- 
ment,' begun in 1(188 and publi.ibed in 1703, 
■^ I. 2 Tol». ; latwl wlitioti, 1 H2'2, 4to, T>od- 
id^ (Tforlw. iWi. \. 472) thutijcht it, 
with all deductions, ' preferable to an V other.' 
In hin commontur}' he o^poMS Tillotson's 
vi«ir of h«ll tormentA. Faith he defined an 
mei^ assent to Qosp«l facts as true. A Latin 
Appendix (1710) ii! nn nnwiiw attack on llx^ 
critical labours of John Mill fq. v.] Of this 
' Exatnon'ufic was made hy AnthonvCoilins 
[q, r.'' ; it wu rvprintod (I.<'yden, 1724) by 
Sigebert Havcrkarap. A lati>r Lntin disafip- 
tation (1711) rejects the aiilhority of llin 
'ithcrs as intcrpn'tcru of .Scriptnrf , or a.* on- 
titled to determine cnnlnrivt^mies respecting 
the Trinity. Tie had been led to this posi- 
feioD by his anCugonism (1707) lo tbo arvii- 
nenta on which Henry IhMlweli the elder 
[q. T.l baaed bis rejection of the natural im- 
mortality of tho luiid. He madi^ furthnr uae 
' iC ir. in mticismB directed (171S} aRsinst 
}>iOTj(# Bull [q. v.j and (I7S0-1) Haniet 
Vaterland [q. v.] His knowledge of the 
kthoDi waa accurate, but not profound. 

Mi-anwhilc hi* busy jK-n waa >engag«d 
ri7I0-IL) in refuting the Calrinlstic posi- 
'ans of John Edwards (1637-17111) [q. v.] 
[e is tuiislly raiiki'd &» an Arminian, but his 
Htrenuoiudeiualof the imputation of Adam's 
ejn aoan carried him W'vnnd .\rminiait lined. 
In fhr K>nKtiriat)c(>nlrovnriiyhr! wn)l« (1714 
and 1718) in dpfunw of Homily. On the 
doctrine of our lord's doity, irhich lin had 
defended in 1691 nnd hail tirmly upheld 
tluroughout his New Testament commentary 
flTOS), be waa shakm bj the trwfitiM (17)2) 
" Somnel Olarke (1076-I7:J9) [q. ».] Of 
ilii there an: marked evideflces in his cnti- 
^uou of Bull imd Watorlond, but t he extent 
' hiN departure fram ' the received opinion' 

waa not r«vf*«)ed till the poHthumous publi- 
cation (' by hifl expre«i oruer') in April 17i7 
of his ' I^nst Thoughts,' which ho calls his 
' r«trsccatiou,' aud which ' cleartr shows his 
uiutarianixm' (letter of 17 July 1737 by 
Samuel Crollius, in 'Thesaurus Epiatolicua 
LH-i'rojsianuii,' quoted in Wau-ack's Avti- 
trinilarian Bioffraphy, 1^60, iii. 471). 

Wliilby »n/r>)r*tJ in his lalt-r yearit from 
failing night, and employed nn aroaniiensia, 
otherwise he retaioea his faculties, including 
a tonsciniis memory, to n vory advanced age. 
He was ' very well, and at chuix:h [accord- 
ing to Noblo Ik- bnd preached extempore] 
the day before hv died ; and rr^turuing none 
wsji seized with a ftuntjng, and died the 
night following* fSntBS). He died on 
■>4 Slarch I72.>-6, hi« eight v-eicht U birth- 
day. His portrait, painted \)t K. Kni^'hl, 
was eiijiruvuJ (ITOi^) by VandvrUucht. He 
wan .■•hort nnd very thin; always studious, 
uein^ no recreatioii except lobooco, allable 
in (liiipiititiiin, but 111 («'rlr ignorant of busi* 
nssa matters. To his piety and unselfisli- 
ness ther^ Is full testimonr. 

Sykes gives a 1i«t of thirty-nin^ publica- 
tioBS by Whitby, not counting several 
separate sermons, Thechief are: 

I. (againut Itomanituu) : 1. ' llonmh Hoc- 
trincH not from the Ueginning.' ltil>l, 4ro. 
2. ' Au Auawcr to " Sure Fooiiiig.'" Oxford, 
IttfiO, 8vo (with appi-ndix! '.-Vtiiwnr to Kive 
IJueslions'). .3, ' X Dlsmurtie concerning 
tile Tddntry of . . . Home," 1674, Sva, 
4. 'Tha . . . Idolatry of Hoei-W;oMhip,' 1679, 
8ro. 6. ' A Discourse concerning . . . J^w8 
. . . against Hcrvrlics . . . approvi^d bv , . . 
Home,' 1(Wl', 4to. 6. 'Trfalisi.' in' con- 
futation of the Latin Service," 10S7, 4to. 
7. 'Thtj Fallibility of ihu Komau Churcli,' 
1(187, 4to. 8. 'A Demon utrat ion that . . . 
Kome and her Councils have em?d,' ltil*8, 4to. 
9. 'Trv-atiiW' of TrnditioiK," pt, i, 1688, 4to; 
pt. ii. KWP, 4to. 10. ' lrri.iio Dei Pannarii 
KomanGOsium,' 171H, 6vo (la English). 

II. (on the evidencce^: 11. ' .\6yiiv r^t 
fri'tTTtMf , , . the Certainty of Christian 
Faith," Oxford, HJ7I, 8vo. 12. 'Discourse 
conceniintr lli« Truth ... of tlie Christiao 
Faith," ItS&I, 4to. 13, 'The Necessity . . . 
of . . . Kevelatiou,' irOfi, Svo, U. ' *JI 
Xayue?! itrrptia . . . KtiaMitL is to be our guide 
in . . . Religion,' 1714, Hvn, 

III. (ngninift Calvinism): 1&, 'A Di»- 
cnnrse concerning. . . Election and Repro- 
bation,' 1710, 8vo. 16. *Four Diacourees 
. . . Personal FWtion or Reprobation," 1710, 
8vo( includes replies to Kd wards). 1". 'Trac- 
tntiis dc Imputallone . . , Peccati Adami 
posterts eju8, 1711, 8vo, 

IV. (on the fathers}: 18. 'Reflectioua on 

. . . Dodwell,' 1707, evQ. 19. 'Duwrtatio 
FWLfvm Commenurioa,' 17U, Hvo. m ■ A 
DiaeoHne, khowiog that . . . tlie Ante- 
Nkme FKtLon . . , an; . . . ugreuftbltt id 
ih*! Int*n)rclalion4 of Dr. OUrke,* 1714, Svo 
faninBL llobprl Xelwn [q, T.]) 

V. (on tb» Trinity): 21. 'Tn»clat«« dti 
ten Chruti F>eit«1c tulrorsuB Arii et Hocini 
hlETCfMj' 1W1| 4to (nhow* pxtvnfiviK know- 
tad^ of SiM^i«n writ«n). 'J'i. 'A DiA-nua- 
mwt frota eDijomng into llie Doctrini; of the 
TrioKir,' 1714, rivo. 23. "A . . . I'onfiita- 
tioB of tbe Dqelri&e of tb« HabclUaiia,' 1716, 
fihro^ :i4. 'Utuumtianes Modestm in Uiilli 
Dtiftiuionein Fidoi Niciifnn,' 171?^, 8vo. 
S8. 'A Bflply IoUt. Wnlt-rlttiidV tJbjt-ilifiiis,' 
17S0, 8vo; aeeondpftrt ]7:.M,8vo. lM. (poe- 
(iiunioua)''VcrT«p<ii 4j(H^^i)«ri or . . . lioal 
Thoughbi . . . flddocl, I'ivo Dincouriea,' 1727, 
6vo (edited by Arthur Aiihlcy Svlten [u.y.I); 
SnAoA. 17S8, 8to; reprinlwl wi'lh nrUlilion* 
bj tbe Unitarian AMocintion, 1841, 8ro. 

Volumes of liU SBrmons w<>rt> JMUi-<l m 
1710, 1720, 17211. 

{Short Account, by fijilcM, pnififed In Ltut 
ThoiU[)rU, 1737: Wood'* Aiboo«-OxoD.(TAi)D«>0. 
H. lOda : Wood's ATbcn* Oxon. (BIIm). ir. <7 1 : 
Wood'i Purti CUIiH). it. lOS, 233. SSi-S : Din. 
gmpbitt Briunnion. 17^3. ri. 43IS (nrtii^Io It; 
*C.."i.». Pbilip Mornnt (q. t.]); >'oIjV» Cyn- 
LinunLitiD of tin>n)t<!r. 1803, H. 112; Le Nl'to'b 
VaMi (Hftrtly), 1064, ii. 914, MT, GH ; b'oftnV 
Aliunoi Oxon. )SS2, iv. 1612-1 A O. 

WHITBY, StEi'iiBK OP (d. U12), abbot 
of St, MiiryV, York. [Roe Sthphkx.] 

EDWAUDir/. ITiOl), ppotvalant publUbor, 
Vw a KubstAntial citi/«& oT Lundon ui tbi> 
midiUa of Henry VIII'i* reign. His bii»inc«!> 
wu proba.l>1v Ibnt of a g"''^!'- ^^ accepted 
with enthusuLSm the doclrinm of tbt' prr^- 
l«staut refurmatioa. In J-S37 he jotMi>il witb 
liiit fvllnw citiwM Kicbard Grafton [ij. v.] in 
arranging for iha difltribul ion nf printed 
copiea of tlm DiblM in KiiKli-tb. In that yt'ar 
flrafion and Wbilrhnrch caufrd (!upii>E of 
the first complnto viT^lim uf lb" Hiblw in 
Engliab, wbicn is linnwn an 'Thnmns Mat- 
thflwa's Bible' and wasprlotpdat Autwi-rp, 
to bo hroujrbt to London and piib1i.4hf'd 
there. \N'hitcbiircL'a name does not appear 
in the raro volume, but bi«initin1», * E. W.,' 
■n placed bf low tbe woodcut of the * I'ro- 
pli«t« EBa?e' r«fie UooHM, JoiiT, 1500 P- 
I5fi6]. tn novombcr 1538 Covcrdalo'e 
comwtt^d Vfraion of tbe Nbw Teatani«nt 
was printfid in Pnrifl ai tbi! frxpfliiee of Oraf- 
ton and Whitcbitrcb, whiiae namesappsar on 
the titlo-pa^ as publishers of tbe work in 

England. SabKqtuRiiIy tbej naolTol to 
reprint the Bngtiw Uihlu in i'aru in • non 
elaborate shapv, but after the wurk was b^ 
gun at lli« Freneb pmw Ibi? Ftwich 
iiient prohibited its coDlinuanre, 
(irafton and H'hitclmrch art up a pnw W 
London, * in tbe riousir latA tbe Gmre Freera,' 
and, with eone aid from Tbomu berthelet, 
thev published the work, wbieb wu known 
as ' the Great Bible.* in April 1539. Xu 
rowor than Mven oditions appeared before 
Uoccmber I&4L Tbeaecocdodition ori'>40, 
with Cranmer'a ' prologe,' aeema to bavt? b«u 
jjrlntL'd indopGniwntly 1^ both Whitchurch 
and Hraftoa. Half lhi> copies Ix-ar tbr- tianm 
of WbiUhurch as printer, and half that of 
rimfton. Tti» tbird, fourth, and fifth edition* 
(Jnir and Nni-eniWr IMO, and May 11MI> 
bwirXVliitchurch's imprint only. Whitcharch 
and (rrnftfin itrintwl jointly tlie N»w Twita- 
menl in Kngliihafti^rKrafnnnitVtoxt in1S40i 
t-lin primer in both Enelisb and I^tio io 
li>'IO; and two royal proelamauoiis on oadB- 
siastical topics on OMay and ^4 Jahr 1641 
raspeetiTely [soe GBArroif, IlirHAU>|f. 

After CVomweira fall, 'VMiiichurch tnd 
tirifton offended thejjOTernment by ilwolara 
uf prutfElant zeal. On 8 April l->43 wbil- 
r;hiir<^b, Oraftoii.nntl six othrr pHntrmwi-n' 
cummilltd to the Fleet prison for printing 
unlawful boLikti; ^Miitctiurcb and (IraftoD 
wero rclciiSL'd on 8 Mav following; {Aett 
of Vriry O-wnw/, od. IJoacnt. i. 107. 12C; 
Stbtpe, Bcfl«»Uutieal Memorinh. 1. i.f/Btti, 
<Jn i^^ Jau. 1M3-4 (Jraflon and Wbitchuicli 
received joinllyanexiiiui^e mlont forprinl- 
iug cliurcb eervice bnokii (IttMKlt, Fiiitera, 
xiv. 7m). On 'JR May 1 S4I! tli.jy w^r.; grmntvd 
jointly an exciUiHive right to print pritnen la 
Latin and Knglish. 

[ii Berular litpmlun? ^\^lilohorch pub- 
lished duringtbe same period on bis own a(?- 
ftiiint ft new edition of Kichard Tavemera 
'Ciardenof \Vyi>edomo'(l&40P); Tmhaixu'l 
tmuslation of Vigo's * Workee of Cbirniw 
([•;rvt!* (1543, nvw ed. 1650); liioniaa 
I'haer'a ' Sewe Itoka of I*r«aideni.yi ' ( 1543) ; 
iioffvT Atfbam'a 'Toxophilua' (1545) ; and 
Williajn llaldwlii'a ' Morali Phvlosopbye' 


In Kdvrard ATs reign Whitchurch was 
("stnblifthed at the sign of th* Sun in FIe*t 
l^lr^'et, uud wofi on terms of intimacy with 
the nrntCRtant liiudcrs. His press was bu»y 
until tbe king's death, and h« wa« oecoAton- 
ally employed by the government loprintolE- 
ciel docum't:nIs. Early iu l^AO niiit^urch 
and Grafton printed tbu limt edition of the 
Book of Common Prayer (Cabdwell, Tko 
Bookt uf Commim Pratf^r, pp. xzxvili-xliT). 
Hereprinted aingle-hnndeid an editioo of the 

Kew Teiuuncat in futuU octcro in 1M7. 

HuiT e^itloua of Ibe pravei^bouli Karl of 

the Psalter in Hloraholil antl Honkiim't ver- 

•iQii Ctttn>i from bta nrt-iM (luring the next five 

I TMn>. He reprinted the Great Bibli* in small 

H^Ktlio in ltV19,antl iignin in fuliciin I'rOU. lit- 

^Hclpw) to pmject and hi> itrinted ttic inms- 

^Jhtion of ErasmuVt psninbimw of th« New 

^nr<--«tuni'nt, in which NichoUia TTdall [q. T.l, 

\ John Old, the I'riiicese Mary, and QtWrs toi'>k 

part ; tbu 6rit Yolumo nuMarcd m U>4-*^, the 

aecuud in 1*>11>. John Rogers was for somo 

I tim« \Vhitchurcb*s guMt at hi<) boiuc in 

' Fleet Strvt*!, iind ha published for bim oa 

1 Aajf. 1546 bin book on 'The Iiitcriin/ In 

1&411 oe ifisaed o oemton l^ Bishop Hooper. I 

Thi* nccvHMtioii t>f (Jii<M-n Afary iiupt>nll«d 
Whitchnrch'a poBilion. He waa excepcod 
froin pardon ia th« pniciftmation of uM 
directed itgainat ihiua' whomfitsodallf^ianw 
to the new eocl«flia«tical regime. i\e pru- 
bably B«d to Oermanr. Ilia naniK vrim 
omitt«d from iho lirt of ftalionprs to wlioni 
Que«a Mary ifranti?d the cbarter of incor- 
poration roastitiitini; them tho Stationers' 
Compauv ill I'VrfS, nor was h« mentioned in 
th» conlinuation of that charter br Queen 
Elizalwib oa 10 Nov. I'jS. But after 
Klizabdth'x acceaaion Wbitcburch resumed 
baaiaen in London, and in IdSO ha pub* 
lisbed a ncv t>dtlion of Tliomaa PhaeKa 
I * Ragiment of Life." Tbin waa his last un- 
j dertokin^. lie is apparently the 'Maister 
Wyehurcb* -who was buriwl at Ctmberwell 
I on 1 l»ec. l.VJV. 

Whitfbiirch married, after 15o6,the widow 
of ArchbUti'jpC'raumvr; ebi- was Margaret, ofOsiiuidi'r, pasiorof Nurembi-rp. She 
aarri^-ed ^^liitchurch.Kiid murrii'd oiil^Nuv. 
1664 B third liMsband, BBrtlmlom^w Scott of 
Csmhenrellt juaticB of ihu pou€o fur Hum<y 

p. ^4). 

[AnMa'aTjpoffr.AnUq. ed. Harbort ; Btrjrpe'a 
Woriu; nufltera Life of Jobo Ilogers; Dorv'a 
Old Bibtea, 2ad ed. ]8B8] & L. 

VHTTE, ADAM (1817-18791, nntiira- 
list, wu bom at Kdinbni^h oti 'id April 
1817, and educated at tboblghschoolof tuat 
ty. When nuit^ n lad be went to London 
ith au iat roa lid ion to John I-Mward Gray 
[q. Y.J and U-came an oiBi-JM! iii the EOological 
dopulmcnt of tbi3 British MuMium in Decem- 

Vt i»ar<. ii» iiMid tiM po«t till mf):i,wb«n 

mental indiaposition, oonaeqaent on the loss 
of bij wife, nocessitated his retiriTini-nt im a 

Be nerer permanent lyr«Jovered,aUhotiffh, 
^<ven when au inmatl^ of one of tiK- Sfottiiib 
w^tiuue, hit edited and largely contributed 



to a journal the contmtaof wbidi wereaup- 
plieif by tbo patl«ntA. 

lie wn* a memlfer of the Gntonologiea] 
Soeiety of Loudon from IHbt) (o IKLI, snd a 
fellow ofthoLiiiiietinSocielyof London from 
Decmbor lK4i;t.> IX-'ut. Ut- di<-d at Itluitgow 
on 4 Jan. 1)^70. Hi» work, rxtiL-pt in a few 
instuncuN in which h« wrote to order, baa 
pmred, under the test of timo, to be of ex- 
cwptionol vitliit;. 

lie WAS author of : 1. 'Lintof Cnistaco* 
in the . . . British Museum,' London, 1^7, 
r^iEo. 2. 'Nomenclature of Coleopt<^rou« 
IiL9i>cid in the . . . Uritisb Museum,' pt«. 
I- iv. vii. and viii., Ijondon, lB47-oo, l2n:o. 
A. 'A I'ouulitr History of Mammalia.' 
London, lao'l, Hvo. 4. ' A Cmilributioti 
towanla an Arpimtnl for the Plenary In- 
•pirati'in of Sc:ri|itHr«. . . . By Anwhno- 

fliilu:>,'lxindon, Irtfil, 8vo. R. *A Ponnlar 
liBtory of Birda." I^ndon, 1 SW, 8vo. h.'X 
I'opuliir Hi«tory of British t'nisinc«f«.' Lon- 
don, 1857. 8vo. 7. 'Tubular View of th« 
Ordent and Leadinft Fum ilie* of Insects ' (en- 
gmred by J. W. fjowry I, IfOndon, ^^o7, and 
many subsequent isaiieevindated. ^'Tabular 
View of the Ordv^rs and Leading Families 
of Myriapoda. Aniebuidd, nud Cruslacoa * 
BUUirsubaequeut issuM uudalvd. t*. 'Ili^ads 
and Tales; or Anecdotes. . . of Qiiadnijieds 
and other beoata,' London and f^Iinburgfa, 
1889, 8to; Snd ed. 1870. D>>twcen I'^iiUand 
IftTifi he contributed parts iv.,Tiii.,!tiv., sv., 
and XTii. to the ' List of llrilisb Animals iu 
the British Museum.* Tie eontributed notes 
on natuml history specimens to uumi^rous 
narratives of pxplorlnv expeditions publisthed 
Uitwe'.-n 1>^1 and ISSS. 

He edilcd : I. 'A Collection of Hocn- 
ments on Spitiher^en and fircnlatid ' [Ilalt- 
Inyt Hoci^rty's works. No. 18], ISM. -J. 'The 
Instructive Picture Book, or ProgresaiTO 
Lessona from the Natural History of Ani- 
mala and Plants,' edited bv A. \vlii(e and 
K. M. Stark, iari7; 10th ed. '187". 3. 'Spring 
... by R. Madie,' fifth tbouMnd [I8H0J, 

Ho also wrote upwards of sixty papers, 
nioatly on in«et;lM und cruKtaooa, for varioui 
8cionti6c joumalE between IWlfl and IRftI, 
and conlnbiiti-d 'Some of tile Iiitertebrata' 
to the 'SIu.ieum of Nntuml History," by Sir 
J. ICicbardson and othem, Olaji^w (18Cd- 
1862), 8vo; another issue (181!^). 

[Eomin. Monthly Mag. xr. 21(1; Proe. Linn. 
8oc. i. 310; Brit. 'Mu«. CaU: Nat. Iltst. Man. 
Cht.; Roy. Soc Cut.] B. B. W. 

(lrt.SS-1884), composer, diLugbterof Iticbiird 
8milh, Ineo uierchant, was bom tn London 


on ]» Mav 1B30. 8be Btudied under Sir 
Willinm Slmnidalw It«iini;lt fq. v.] niwl Sir 
trcorgft Alf'xajidi'r Macffirren [q.v.l, and first 
attractod atti5alian as k conitioser by h quitr- 
tct pfrfomii'd in IWil bytti<.- Musical Siiciisty 
of London. SbehBdaii«<xc«plional musicul 
faculty, find pr^idiioed in rnpid siic^l'SsIoii 
^uarteu, nymplionies, concvnx):*, mud ciin- 
tatu,manyof wlli(^h were heurd at tliocoii- 
crrrts of It'udinir wouietit'tt. A uiittiui^uf Col- 
IiuhV (idi-, 'Till" I'njMtoiiii,' wHJi [wrft)rmBd aI 
the Hpreford Fffiti%-«1 of \H-<-2. She alen nH 
tbw 'Od« U> tb« Nortb-HMl Wind' (ISHO) 
and Kinffsilfty'a 'Song of thn Titttla Bsl- 
ttu]([' (lw3). Sb« compoMd tniiny 
picc4t«, aongi and davti, i^n« nf tbn moot 
licipulnr of wLicb is th(3 duet 'Maying,' for 
tenor and soprano, the opvnKbt of which 
Hold in 1883 for ii*S3l. All lier work bore 
<b« iuiprods of liigh artimic cHliune. She 
WM marritd to Frederick Mwidows White, 
Q.C>t iu lSl;7,imd divd iu Lundim onJ Dec. 


(Timu. 8 D«- ia8«; MuiJcal World,13Diw. 
1884; MuiiMl Times, J>t[iiui.ry I8S^, whnm h 
li« of her coupositioDB, dnvro Dp by hur bus- 
band, is giFMi : tiruT«'a Diet, of Music: infor- 
in«tiOB mm Hicbnrd Uorton Smith, mi^ . Q.C., 
M.A.1 J. C H. 

WHITE, .VNDREW <157(>-105ii), jtsiiit 
misiionnry, b'iriL in I.ctiidon in I57II, woA 
cducfttcd in the Enfrlish College at Uouay, 
wb'Cre hp wa« ordtiined s necul&r pri«<it 
About 16U5. On bis rt-turn to Enf^Und he 
WM UTu^ttsI under the Laws in force B^iaM 
miMionary pricsUi, woa ca/t into priAon, and, 
with furty-Lvuollivr prittBt«,wascOQdeDined 
to perpvTuiil baniiLment in 1006. lie was 
admitted to tbe Society of Josua at Louvniii 
in 1(1^7, wiiM Kgain aenttn Englaud in liWO, 
and 1l<i appf are as a oiiastotit'r in London tii 
mi'J, Un Id Juns lllfl In; yruA profitMt^d 
of tbe fourTOW4. At diCereot iKriod^ he 
waa prefect of studiee and nrofviwor of 
aacraa scripturL', dojfmiitic tliwloay and 
Bobrow ij)lb(i lesuits coUugeeat V&Iladoiid 
and Soville. to lltlfo ho wa« a mitiiontT 
ID tbe Siifl'olk dlHrict, and bo was after- 
ward* iiti(it^mir of tbe DeTon district. In 
1626 he was appointL-d profe8«or of tli«ology 
and GrEN>k in tlio coll«|j:e of bia ord^r at 
l.i6(fe. He wan labouring in this Humpahira 
district in 1632, itiid b<i wim »ft)t to Anu^Ttca 
in ifiSS tO' found tbo Maryland mission, of 
wbicbbs was styled ihe apoilUv IIua(.'i[uin>d 
the DAtiVf^ lAnfuago of tbo Indiana, and wait 
twici^ dvclared superior of tbe minion. In 
1644, having been tuhcm priAoner by a banct 
of mamuding soldiorv, hn was carried in 
chain* to Ijioiidou, tried on a charge of hiff-h 
treason^ under the etstute of 27 KliJtabutli, for 

being a prinst in England, but ma aoqititlcd 
on tb« pW that hv was in this oountiy Vf 
forc« and against his will. He was'sttll 
kept in prison, however, and mod afVerwarda 
b(^ was eondcmned to perpetual bani»h(s«nt. 
After a sojourn tu i he AusirioD Netberlandi 
he ratumed to England, biKam« chaplain to 
a uobba family in the Hampshire oiauieii 
and (iiiHl thent ou Juno 1066. 

He was author of: 1. X <immroar, Ke- 
tiouHTy, Hiid (.'Htxcliiniu. of Lh« Tinut^uaua 
I,aTiguii(r>' of Maryland. The catechism only 
if known U) bu i.'xlsnt; it n-A« found l:^ 
Fatb<>r William McSherry in ihit arcbivM 
of tbe jeeuits at Rome. ^. ■ Narrativs of a 
Voyago to Maryland,' writton in I^lin, in 
April 163'!. A translation into Euglisli by 
X. C Brooks appL-ared in 'A itehktioaor 
tbeCidouy of the Lord Baron of Dallimon, 
in Maryland, near Virginia; a Narrative of 
the first \'oyago to Maryland, by Father 
Andrew White, and eunilry roports fram 
Fatbtfrs Andrew Whil«, John .\lthara,Jobn 
ItrvL'k, and other Jotuit Fatbcrc of tbe 
Colony to iht Si:p«)rior Oi-neral at llome. 
Copiea firau tbe urchivt'd of tbo Jeeoita' 
Cntlvgo at itom«, by th«> 1at<! Mf-v. William 
•McSlierry.of Oeorgetown College.' Thia i* 
printed in Peter tree's 'Tracts reUting to 
tbe Colonies in North America,' vol. ir. rfo. 
]:j (Washington, 184(i,Hvo^ It is reprinted 
in Foley's ■ liecords* (iii. 330-fiI). The 
Maryland Historical Society printed the 
original l^tin with a trarialation, edited by 
the Hqv. K A. Dalrvmple, 1874 ; and a oor- 
rnctird Torsion Is giran in tho * Woodstock 
Letlers'fi. 12-21^71-80, 14V5r>,ii. 1-I3J. 

There is a picture of the baptism of King 
Chilomacon by Father \V1iit« in Tanner's 
' Societal Jean Apootolornm Imitatrix' 
(Prague, 1394). It is mprodueod iu Shea'A 
'liiKory of the CatboUo Cbarch in the 
United States.' 

[Da Biickcr, EiW. des Ecriifainsde la Oom- 
pH^iede J^sus. IS76. iii. \62i ; Dodd'a Cbareh 
Hist. iii. 313: I'loros Anglo- BaYaricos, p, 46; 
rol<>y's Kitcords, iii. 331, Tii. 834 : Olirrr's 
JniuiC (.'vll»<:itionK, p. 321 ; rilling's Itibl of tlM 
LniiguACoi of tho Xonb Americiii IndianB, pp. 
7911.802; Hhon't* Ui»t. of the Catholic Church 
ill iha t;riitrdSutos.i. 40-fi7; Sonthwpll'sBibL 
Scriptorum Soc. Jmu, p. 80.] T. C. 

WHITE, AXTHONV (1782 1849), aor- 
geon, bom in 17H2 at Norton in Durham, a 
member of a family long resident in uie 
■county, waa educnt«d at Witton-lc-Wear, 
and afterwards at Cambridge, wberv be grft* 
dilated bachelor of modiciau fiom Emmanuel 
OoUuge iu 1804, having beon admitlod a pen- 
sioner on 18 May 17!)!). He was apprenticed 
to Sir Anthony Carlisle [q. t.], and was ad- 

U nemhrr of thv Rot«1 College nf Siir- 

»is of En^Und ou tt depu 1^3. lie vraa 
j«ct«(l An at^ifititnt-flur^Miu to tho HV«1- 
minster Jlomiul on H Jutv I^OCt, surgeon 
on ;!4 April \t^^2i^, and consiiding Borgieon on 
S3 Ih-c. 1846. At tlie CoUcpi of Siirjrt'"ii« 
hm was t^lRTltKl a uiitmlwr of f h<i coumril »n 
0S»t. 1827, and two ycara iRtnr, 10 Sent. 
183v, b» WKH nppointpd n mumbpr of tli>r 
oonrt of •'samin^ra in .4ar<^<i<iion to WilliHin 
W»«id [q. v.] In Ifttl be delivered the IIuo- 
terisn oration (unpubliiih«<l), And he becftme 
Tice-preEideol in ISS'J and again is ItMO, 
Mrving tlic office of prt^idKOt in IXU and 
le-ij. He iiIm> filli'd tlHMiilic'.'ofsiirgi'on to 
till' (Eovat Sociely of M iiMciaitH. 

Wliii''i!uir«n-(i ni'Vt-njly from poiil in Iiia 
later years, and ilitHl nt liin hnuiw in PaHiu- 
nent Straet on if Murrh lH4fl. Ab a sur- 
R«oa Iia ia remarkBblu btK:iLuse b« was tbt- 
nnt to exeiM! tlie )iuad of ibo fi-tnnr for 
dtsoiue of tbc! liip-joint, a proreedinf tli<>n 
«>n!>idtT»?<l (o bii no hfrmc that Sir Antlionv 
C'arliHb- and Sir Wiltinin Klizcird tbreati'ncd 
to rBjBirt bim to the College of Surjreontt. 
He porformc-d tlii> opcmrion witli compbrt'j 
aHccew,and sen! tbe pnfii'nl to call upon bU 
opponents. Hi< b^ActliDfr md wasunpunc- 
Inality, and hv otXrn untindv forgot bi<> aj)- 
pointmonlA, yet be earlv acquiwd a large 
and liicrutivt; pructico. 

Wbitrt publixlfd : I, 'Treatiae on the 
Clapue,' kc, I^ondnn, lS4n. 8vo. 2. 'An 
l-:n(|iiin,' ink* tbe Proximal* Cruk of Gout, 
and its Hatioiial Trealmt-nt,' I^ondnn, 1848. 
8to; 2nd edit, ItUU; Americnn edit. New 
Vork, 1862. 8vo. 

A Uire^quancr-len^lh ponmit in oil* by 

T. F. Dickww. engravL-d hv W. \\'alker, was 
■nibliab«d on 20 Xxig. IS'i'i. A likeness by 

BimpAon is in tb^ boatd-room of thu Wml- 

BtnBtvr Hospital. 

r [Oeat. 31b«. 18-19. 1.131 ; Lau<!c>MS4D.i, 324.1 

ICA. I'. 
f WHITE, BL.\XCO (1775-18411, diTine 
and author. [See WniTE, Joseph Blasco.] 

WHITE, CFIARr,E.S n73iH813), enr- 
i:«»n, iinlv Hon of Thomas White (I(J9r»- 
I77tt), a pWaipian. and Itosnmond Ii is wife, 
was bom at Manchester on 4 Oct. 1728 and 
C"!Hc»ti:-<l lh.T.:- by tb« Itev. Hadcliffo Riw^el. 
Ac an eaily ago be wu taken undur hia 
father's tuition, and aufaaAqiientlv ntudintl 
modtcinc in I^odon, where he had John 
Hunter &A a fullow-mudt-nt and fni.>nd, and 
aftcrwanU in Kdinburfrh. lictiirninK to 
.^lanchMtfr, h« jiiinwl liis father, and in 
iro2wsA iiiftrninpnia), aloni? iritli JotepK 
ItaocTx>ft, mnrcliaDt, in founding the Man- 
cfafflior Intirmorj, in which hospital be gave 


hit seiriMS M auri^r^n for thirtT-«i)E;ht years. 
He was admitted a I'vllow uf thv Koval So- 
ciety on H Feb. 1702, and a niBinl>er of the 
Koyal Colle^ of Surgeons on thu matt day. 
In 1781 he took an actire part in the foun> 
daCton nf tbo Munchfialur Lilerary and Philo- 
•ophicaJ Kocii-ly, and wn* onn of ila first 
Tico-pTPeidenla. In 17HS he gbared in the 
formitlion of a colb-g* nf science, literature, 
and art, in which be and his AOn, Thomajt 
White, lectured on soatomy. These were 
th'' Hr«t of .anch l^'Cturot in ManchtMter, and, 
it ia believed, in the provjnoes. Id cODjun(^' 
lion with his Aon, anci with the aMiatance of 
Edward and Richard Hall, bv founded in 
ITKOthe MBitch>usterLyin)j-iii HcApital, now 
Si. Mary's lIoKpiial.and woe constilting 5ur- 
gi-i>n there iVir Iwenty-om: yean. 

White was equally occDiopliahed in the 
three dvpurCmeuta of modicin^, surgury, and 
midwiferr, and rrtia tin' firwl to intrciduce 
whiit in "liuown us 'conservative' surgen.-. 
In 17tiSbi;ri-mnT»d thv head of the humerua 
fnr caries ; in I7fi9 he first propowd excieion 
of tba hip, anrj vraa nne of tbe first to prac- 
n*rt excision of ihonliouldvr-joint. lie was 
aUi> the tirat to describe accurately ' white 
leg' in lying-in women, lie was widely 
known for bis imccuMful opumTioiis in litho- 
tomy, but especially for the revolution li« 
i^llhclwl ill ihf pruclicK of midwifery, whlt;li 
III* nmnui-il from lu^ini-lmrliiirisni and plac^l 
on a mlional and hiimuta' hn-'^iit. 

Ite Quincey. in bin* AiiioliiogTaphy ' (ed. 
IHowon. i. 3M3), haft an inti:-rcsting personal 
sketch of While, whom be styles ' tne uioet 
eminent surgeon by much in the north of 
Eniflnml,' »Tui givt-jt n duscription of his 
rauiieum of three hundrrd anntomli'al pr^pa- 
rations, tbo greater part of which ho pre- 
aentei) to St. Mary'it llonpital, Manchi4>ter, 
in 1808. A larg« portion was destroyed at 
a fin' there in tVbruary 1h47, 

Whitnhadan attack nf epidemic ophthal- 
min in m03, which ended in blindness in 
1812. He dii'd nt hi« country house at Sa.Io 
in the pariah of Afihlon-ou*Mfr»fy,Cheahirv, 
on 1.3 Ft-b, 181.1. In Ihecburrb of Ashton- 
on-MenM^y a UKmtimriit lo him and Heveral 
meiuberH of his fflinily waa al'terwarils erect wl. 

He mnrritil, on 22 Nor. IToO, .\nn, daugh- 
ter of John BradHhiLw, and bad vlght chil- 
dren. Hia second i>oii. Thnnuw, who died 
in 1793, wBK a physician, and appears as 
on** of the charact.Ts in Tbomaa Wilnon'a 
' Laiicaahin,' Bniiqoet' (Ohelham Soc. vol. 
sir.) Thomjuia non John was high sheriff 
of Cheshire in 1820, and was f'tuuous fur lits 
fox-huntin|; and e>que»trian explorta. 

A good portrait of V^''hitc woe painted by 
J. Allen and engraved by 'VV'iilium Wnnl. 


An earlier portrait, by W.Tste, in prMtrwd | 
at th« MaiichpfltiT tnHrmary, where iherw 
b&L'<o a bust, eitociiled for and prreonlcd bv 
Charles Jordun in ISSIt. Tb>r« im portraits 
of CharW White and his father in (ireg- 
xon's ' Fragments of Lanciishiiv,' 1824, and a 
■view (if WbiluV hausc, Kiiif; Slroul, Milu- 
obesCar, in ItabtoD's 'MBncbesler Views.' 
1893 (tliiit boiiH) Blood on the slt^ nf theTatvn 
Hall, now th.i Frftrt Ittf^reaee Libriirj). 

Ilis works include : I. ' AMount of iho 
To^CkI Application of tli*i Hpunp' in tht? 
8topp«g;BOf Hmmorrlia^.' I76J. 3. 'Cawb 
in Surgery/ 1770. 3. ' Trentiiw on the Ma- 
n«i[oniont of Pivjrnnnt nndljvinfr-inWnniftn,' 
ITSSj 2nd <tdit. 1777 ; ;ird, l7S5 ; rnli, ITHl ; 
an edition printrsl fit WiorcMtfr, MuMnchu- 
sot.rj, 1773; a GLTmiiii trnnalatioii, Li,'ip«i(t. 
177/>. 4. 'Inquiry into the Nftturo and 
Oauaes of tbnt Swellinjj in one or both of 
the Liuwur Kxcreiuitivs which goiuelimes 
liappenA to LviuR-in Women,' 1784 and 
170^ part it.' 1901: Urrinan trnnsliitiun, 
Vienna, 1785 aiid ISfCJ. 5. 'Observations on 
OangTRnfia and Morliticationa,' Warrington, 
1790CTtnli«n vcn-icn, I7iin. fi. 'An Ac- 
count of the Ke^liir Gradation in Man and 
in diHercnt Animsls snd Vi'getnble!«, iind 
from thi* former to llio krtp.r.' I7fifl, 4lo. 
This traniisc on HToliitton ocoasioneda reply 
from Samuel Stiinliopt* Smith, prr^^idcnt of 
New Jersey Collfspj. One of Lia contribu- 
tions to lliii ' W^rnoirs of the Manchest-er 
I,it«rary and Philosophical Society " was on 
the cnHivation of wrtnin forenl irtii's, ii sub- 
ject in which howas much intereBted. having 
planted a larnje collection of treiw at Snl«. 

[Thomas Honry'i pnjivr in Memoir* of Miin- 
ebtntcr Lit. and Phil. Sac, l^nd m-r, lit. :13: 
Smith'* Mancbeali-T t^ehool RfRisUr, i. 181; 
R. .XuKiu) Stnilh'a Cenlpnary of tfoience in Mjin- 
chcRtcr: Palatine Nol'^tnok, i. 113: Hibbert- 
Ware's Foundntiuns in MancbosiM, ii. 148, Kl 1 ; 
ThoraaoQ'B Hist, of Itnynl Society ; Ormerod'g 
Cheshire: Cat. of Sdrgron-goncrars Ltlrr&ry. 
WashingtoD ; noto •iipplinl by Mr. U'Arcy 
Pow*r; information kindly giron by I>r. D, 
Lloyd Bobcrts.) C. W. S. 

WHITE, FRANCIS (1504P-16S3), 
bishop of Fly, iton of Pirttr White {il. 
19 Di!C. Ifil.l), onrate, afterwards vicar, nf 
Eaton Socon, Badfordnliin.', was born at 
Ealon Socon about l^^fi-l iparUh regisfer 
ba^itiA in l'iQ&). His father bad five sons, 
nil rii-rgymen, of whom Jolin Whit**, n.l>. 
(1 570 ?- 161 5). ii leparately noticed. FrancLi, 
after pamltitf through the jrramniaracbool at 
St. Neota, lluntinj;;dr>tishin;, wu admitled 

Senaioner at (Jonvilli; and (^aiua OoiXbgio, 
ambridw, on 20 March l.'»78-9. twrnit Ifi. 
Ho graduated B JL. in 1&82-3, M.A. in 1 586, 

and wM ordain«d pri9»t br thv bishop of 
London on 17 May lft88. Ilia mrly pi«et- 
raenta were the rectory of Brougbton- 
Aatlcy, TjcioojiterKhirt.', a loctureahip at !^t. 
Paul's, Loudon, and the rectory of St. 
Peter's, Cornbdl,Londou {not in NcwcorUT). 
In. ihecotitrovurfly ai^iujii Kumu ho look ■ 
prominent part. Ilis first publication, 'in 
onswur to a (lopish treikiise, enlitulad, 
Wiiitw dTr-iI Bbich,' was • Th.. Orthodox 
Faith nnS Way to the Oburcb/ 1«I7, 4toi 
n-priniffd nl tin- mil of the ' Worhw' 
(Itl'Si, fol.) of John White, bis brollwr. 
Ue graduated U.D. in lttl8. Early in \Gii 
)w WAS employed by JaniM I a« a dis- 
putant against John Kiaher (IS69-Ift41) 
fq. v.], to stay tho Ilomaii catholic teit- 
dunciitf of Mary, counles* of Bnckingluua 
[see under N'rLLlVtts, SiB KdwardJ. He hrld 
two ' conferences ; ' the third {'M May l«231 
wa« untruslvd to William Laud fu. v.] 
Whites ' Ueplie ' lo Fisher (1624, fol.) waa 
dt'dicaltd to Jainee 1, whose copy ts in ibe 
ltrili>h SUfM^um ; it waji mprint>Mi by snb- 
Bcription, Dublin, 182^. il vols. Sto. An 
*n:i)unt, frnm thit othpr nide, is in 'Trva 
Kelationi of ^Sv^dl7 Confepeocw/ 1626, 410, 
by ' A. C: On 14 Sept. 1622 White was 

rivttentt;d 11 th(! dr^anpry of Carl isle (installed 
iJOict.) lie took part, in conjunction with 
Danii'l Fcfltley or Faircloujth [q. v.l, in an- 
otlior diiK'Uf«iou with Flelier, opened no 
2" June lti2!i. al the lioiuih of 8ir Humphrey 
Lyndt', iu Sheer Lnne, London; a report 
wus piihli*lird in 'Tiie Ki^hpr catchi.'d in bis 
owne Net,' 162M, 4to; and more fully (by 
Peatley) in 'The Komixh Fi>>h«r cavght and 
h»ild in Eiis ownf Not,* 1624, 4to. 

In lli'2o White became aenior dean of 
8ion Coilcffe, London, lie waa conwcrated 
biohop of Oarlialeon Ii IVc. Il>26 at Durham 
House. London, by Neilc of Durham, 
ljuck(.'rideu of l{ocJai.'Mer, and thr«« othn 
prelaleis, John (.'osin [<[. v. J pn-acbing tli» 
consecration sormon. Hiselerationwssmoch 
cnnva-Hswl i a }«iU_-T (13 Feb. 1627-S) in 
Archbishop Ussher's rorreopODdettoo ataiM 
that ho 'hath sold all bis books to llillsthe 
broker . . . aome think he paid for his place.' 
It was said that he bud 'sold hiii ortliodoxa 
bookes and boiigfit JesuilV.' Sir Walter 
Earlo referred to the matter in uarltameal 
(II Feb. 1«28), quoting the linei^ui color 
albuii erat, nunc ettt coutmriua albo' (appen- 
dix to ' Sir Francis Seymor hU . . . Spaucb,' 
l(V41,4lol. On 22 Jan. 1(128-9 he WMclecied 
bishop of Norwich (confirmed 19 Feb.) II* 
waa elected biKhon of Ely on \ft Nov. IBSl 
(confirmed 8 llpc.) .Shortly afterwardd ha 
held a conference at Ely House, Ilolbom, 
with Tboopbilus Braboume [q. t.] on tbi* 

SftUwUi quwtioo, and hod much to do with 
Brmbonrno's Bub»c<qurnl iiroseciilion. Ilia 
' Trefttise of the SabUtb-Dny,' 1035. 4tu, 
3nl «]. ICyO, 4to, waa dedicslud l<> Latiil, 
aiid vrn'ctua at tlie command of rbarloa I. 
Wbilu treated Uin ijiiml.ioii diirtriiiAlly ; its 
Iii«(orical aspect iraa assigned t/i Peter 
H'llyn [<l v.] lie visitwrl Ciinibrid(tP in 
I't'L*. to oonaecrate tbe clmpt'l of Pottr- 
houw, and was cDlfirtaincd at his owo col- 
lege, * where with a short spe«:li ho «n- 
ooaraged the young otudttriu to ply thttir 
hooka hj his own es£.mple<.' llii ia<<t 
publication was 'An ExauiinBtion and Con- 
futation of . . . A Brief« AiuwHr to a latu 
TrwatuM) of ihn Sabhatb-Day,' 1637, 4to ; 
this ' Hrinfe Answi-r' was a dialogiio (bv 
Ricttard Byfleld [q. vO't ^^ ''''*'• 'Th's 
LordV Da; m the SdihoUi Day.' 16»6. 4to. 
IlfdiMl at Fly IToujh", Ilnlljoni, inFebritary 
1037-8, and wiu biiTind in St. VilmVa Cath»- 
(Irnl. ]|i» will, daterl -l Marvh 168(1-7. 
moTiid 27 F«b. 1637-8 by bin relict, Joftn« 
\Vhit«, shows that he BUrvived n M>n, and 
left married dimfrhtcra and sovernl ^rmnd- 
childrea; the bulk of bis pruperty, which 
wuaoC Iftrge, went to bi^ ^ndMn Francia 
White. HJ« purtrait ( 102J, ffit. 59), un^mvad 
by Tbomaa CftckBOn or Coxon [q. v.], v.-n» 
pToGxud to bis ' I{e]i!iG* to Fibber, and re- 
priMliioed bv an opponeni' in ' Th(> Aitsweie 
mto tiw S*in<'. Poititj,' 16'JG, 4lo, tor the 
purgoeoof rallyiii(r Whit*? on ihu Taaity of 
tb« inscription and t)io luxury of his attire. 
Anoihor vngravlus, by U. Muuiitiiii wot 
reproduced at Frankfort in 1(132. 

[Fullfr's Worthie* (NiehoU>. 1811, i. I$9 
(uudfir HaattDgTloaabin): Stow'a Sunw of 
Loodi>n (Strypd). 1720. vol. ii. App. p. 137; 
Ormngcr'a Biogmphiral Uiat of lilnitiitnrj, 177.0, 
I. 347: Oorbara'a Uin, and Aatiq. of Kyiiesbury 
aodSt.N(yrt«,ie2<. i. 310-16; La Sovos Fasti 
(Hanly), 1854. i. »4I, ii.47l, iii. 313. SIC; Coxa 
Z.iC«nitur« of thi- SatiWb QuMtloc. 1865, i. 166, 
184: V«nn'^ Biii^rnpliiiitl [lislcirv of Gonrille 
and Caiua College, 1897. i. 101 ' iStubbi* He- 
gisiram S^cram Antjlicunum, 1887. p. 117; 
While's will at Sorm-Mi-l IIotwa,] A. O, 

WHITE, FRAXCIS (rf. I7in, oripinai 
proprietor of While'a Chocolate HouW', who 
may Tcrr probably luivn been of Ualinti 
origin with a namu nngliciHed from Bianco, 
aet up a chocolatw hoiiHo on tho i-Mt Kido of 
St. JaniBH'g Strp*'ti upon thi' situ now ncf ii- 
pied by ' Boodle'*,' in 1693. It waa perhaps 
itfartea in rivalry with tho tory 'Oocoa 
Trwt • at (he west end of Pull Mull. Wliiui'w 
eaatomera grew morn and mora select and 
ezcliuuve, and in 1007 ho chuiigad his 
qaartfWa for othora on the we»l. *iil^ of thn 
Btpeet. A DuuUr of the early ■ Tallers' of 

1709 are daU-d from * While'a Cbaeo]at«- 
house ' in accordant' with StuelnV announce- 
meiit in ihv firi>l uumbiTi 'Alt acroiintA of 
ffallantry, ii!(ta»iur>', iird r-tili-rlaiumeat shall 
Di! under tue article of ^Vhire'a Chocolate- 
houaa; po«Cr<F uniW that of Will's <Joi^e«^- 
houfw; iMming under the Titlo of Grecian; 
f(>rt>[|;ti nnd domealk news you will have 
from St. .lameo's Colfviyhouae.' Wu Wm 
from the aame authority thai th« charge for 
pntraniv at Whitu'swasaiipenoe, tlinchnrct> 
at th« majoniy of coflve-kouaus b^ing only 
onw pfiiny. Francis Whit^ M[i!i|N>nNl in bis 
buaine.t.'^ uritil hiii d«ath in Februair 1711, 
in which uiunlh be vrimbnriiKii in Ht. James's, 
Piccadilly, By hit will he left n aum of 
i.oUO/,, including It'Racii.'w, to liJs sister .\n- 
frala Maria, wifi^ of Tnmaiio Cusanova of 
Verona, and lo hia aunt NicolettA Toma^i of 
Verona. Th<i widow, Elisabelh While, 
carried on the chocolatc-houiw, already eat*- 
blishi.'d <i« the fnvounle resort lu (hw new 
ne*t end for aiistocnitic members of the 
wlug party ; ahe made it equally well known 
08 a plAca for tlie sale of opera atid ma** 
querau)> tiekeu. Upon ber death, shortly 
before 1730, the proprietorship fell to John 
Arthur, formerly assistant to Francis 
White, Th>' fnmous club within thu choco 
late^buuso, thi> history of which is 00 inti- 
mately ix)und up with that of the oligarchic 
rfyivw down to 1832, is beliercd to bavw 
oriirinatecl about lfl97, but thu first list of 
rultw and mL^mbors is dated 17:Ui. Long 
before ilii* ' White'*' had become uolorioua 
for betting and higb play (irf. SnriFT, Eiuav 
•m K'Jwati<m : Pope's 3rd Kpistle, ' To Lord 
llatbiirst;' and Won xm ft, Jink«'M Pnyrnt, 
ulntes ir. and vi. : tlie place last mentionrd 
hiis rfffn-nw lo iho lire by whichthe i;hoCi>< 
late-house was bunied to the ground in 
April 1733, see DaUif Qmrant, 30 April). 
In 1 755 the cl ub waa removed lo the ' great 
house' in St. Jamcji'sSlrefC (i'«ast side) — the 
premises in which it still flourishea. 

fTho History of While"* Glob, 1893, 2 rola. 
4ro (ohipq. i-iii.) ; Timln'a Cluba aud Clab 
Lifs o( Uiidon, 1872, pp. n~]03: Steele'a 
Tntlrr, od. Ailkfti), i. 13; Popv's Work*, od. 
KIwin nnd Coiirthopo, iii. 41, 1^4, 430. 487, iv. 
32t>. 48S: Natbaal R«ri«w, 18S7. No. riti.; 
Aahton'i S<icin1 Life in ihr Rci^n of Aune, p. 
](J7; NntiM and QupHp*. Srdiwr.ii. 137, 7th tMT 
lii. 288.1 T. 8. 


WHITK (iSli-l^lM). bounist and ento- 
mologist, bom at lVnh,:;Lt Miircii iHU'.was 
the eldest t*n of Francis White. Educated 
•t II Bobool attached to St. Nialan'a Cube- 
drol, and hy a priTate tutor, in his nntiTe 
town, bo entered the university of Hdia- 


bitr^Ii in 1800, niid in 1864 gra.Iuated M.D., 
hU thi^ia boini; ' On Lho Kt^lntion*, Aualo- 
gi(!», Riid ^imilitutliM i?r IiiHM('|j< and!i.' 
Aft-er his raarriage in IWiH he spent nearly 
a year on the coniini-nl, anil thvn •i-tthfti in 
Pt'rtlii, priiwing Bi»T*'rnl mnntho^ howarer, 
almost cvi;ry year, in Botne part of tScoflojidl 
the nntural histrtrr of which ho wished to 
study. Being intltrpeiKJeBl of hie profes- 
■ion, be derottiii biiuii'tf •^Dttivly to thnttudy 
of pl&uM und uiiiinaU, \n» contrLbulbiu to 
t.h« * Knlouj»lo([iBt'« WenkLv IntpUigt'iioiT' 
bi'^nningas parlyasISo", lJ«voi*id ihruu^k- 
■>iii hik Itfn lo t\u- iitigdvof tb« Lfpitloptem, 
ptruL'tiire, ht- from IWSI mudi* h npitiHl xtmly 
of tlift Hi>inipt^ra,ipf>llpn(injr9peciraenaof tliia 

froup of inseclB from all parU of tlic world. 
n bolfiny 1il> df»"oiwl mnch utti'ntion to 
IocaI diAtrihiilLon,iiltitiiilfl,nmi Uf<.*-hiAtoti(iB. 
and to ' critical 'RToiip^.^iich anthw wiUiiwa; 
and it was his dwirc for exln*mo ncruracr 
and tlioiouKbneM that delayed the publica- 
tion of his ' Florn of IVrthihire ' until aftrtr 
hit dMClt. In ]8U7 lie joined in fdundin^f 
the Perthshire Sociflty of Xatunit Sci^nco, 
of which hi' v/as prvvidviit froio lt^tI7 to 
1872 and frfim 1884 to lWi2, seci-etarv from 
187a to 1874. and yditor from 1«74 to 18S4 
and from ISIK* to |ft94. HiKoimtiuunicHtionA 
to this society, many of which arn prinitid 
in ill ' l'rocii(*diii(ii»' und 'Transaction*,' | 
number a hundred, and it i* by following i 
thi- Bchvmc uiuppi.'d out in his presidential 
addrvfls^s rhat tlio musf^iim of this society 
at P«.'rth bus bticomo ruco)fiii»t'd n* a model 
for nil iiicftl miwcnms. In 1H71 he induced 
the i^ociflty to cHtnblish Tho SL-ottish Nnlu- 
ralist,' n matfniimi which \u- earned oil until 
|ft82. but whirh waji afterwardK niBrRpd in 
the 'AnnaU of 9cotti"h Xnlural llisl.ory.' 
Whitw, who had grflat powtira of endurance 
U ft EQouDtaineer aou was vvry fond of 
iUpineplAnto, initiated tbi^ I'erthahin Moiiii- 
tuB Clab u an oflVhoot from the Society 
of NtttunU Science ; and in 1^74 he wua on« 
of tbe foundors of ihu CryptOKamic Society 
of Scotlitnd, of wliich he act«fd as secretary. 
He waa one of the tiral to rL'C(i(^ii9i; iho 
need for co-oporal i^m among locnl natural 
hiBCOTT societies, and, ftntin? on tliis convic- 
tion, Droii|;ht about thu l^ast uf St:otlaiid 
Union of XotiirftIi»t»' Societiw, oTor which 
be preeided at its first meotin^, which was 
beta ftt Dundee in l!^84. He died at hiii 
reeidcQce, Anunt Lodge, Perth, 3 Dec. IBiM, 
and watt buried in the Wellshill cemetery, 
Perth. Whito married .M»rg:nr«t Juliet, 
dnighterof ThoBjBKC'orrii'ofSteiUtonjUum- 
fries, who Burvivos him. Uc had huuu u 
member of the EntomologicKl Society of 

London from 1868, and of the LinDean So- 
ciptyfrom 1373. A bratizo mural m»inortiiI 
In him haa Ixwn cnK.rtwl in the Ptrtb 
Mujeum, and a ^tAined-gtoaa window in 
St. Nininn'n Cathedral. 

In addition to hU numeri^u« papers mntri- 
buled to the ' Entomotogist's .Monthly Mngif 
tine.' the 'Journal of Botany.' tlui 'Tram- 
actions of the Botanical Sucioly of Edin- 
burffb,' and the jouruals already mcntiouf^d, 
White's writing include' urtich=< on a cock- 
roflch, the earwig, autt, the bee, locust«,and 
^nu-^ioppcrs in 'Science for .\n'(voli!.iii-r.): 
a ' Report on IVlnjfii; Hnmipteni, collect«d 
byTI.M.S.Oballengi>r,' in the aeventh rolumfl 
of \hf ' Kep«»rt>( ' of tiiut evpedition, pp. H2, 
with thrp« plate.', written m 188ft; and s 
' llevision of the Britisli 'W'illowH,' in th» 
'Jftiimalnf lb* LInnMn Soci^tv'for 1^^^ 
(vol. xxvii.') Hi* views on th*' latter ^roup 
are rIko repre^'nteil by a classification in 
the ' London CatAlofptc of British PUuls,* 
ninth edition, 189>i, an arrangement charac- 
tcrinud br ■ wide reco^ition of the exitti-aM 
of bybnditoi among tlmm plant*. Ilia 
separate nuhlicatioiiA wfre: 'Fauna Per- 
thacsla— L-'pidoptera," 1S71, & snull quaito 
niDnognph, intended a» the first of n fttiries, 
but not continued : and ' The Flora cf 
Prrththirv.' Edinburgh, 1 898, with a [wrl rait 
and fid! bibliography. 

[Memoir, hy I'rofcwor J«mi» W. H. Trail. 
prefixrd to Whita'ii flora of PvrtbNhirn.1 


WHITE, OTLBEKT (17*20-1793^, natn- 
ruhst, born on 18 July 1720 at the par- 
sonage of Wellionie in Ilaintiahire (of wbioh 
parbli luH gruudfiLiher, Gilbert While, wm 
thiin vicar), wna ihtt nldmt fton of John 
White (]0S«-17r)8). harrister-atr-Uw, who 
married (1719) Anne ( 11IS»3-17.S3), onWchild 
of Thoma.* Holt (d, 17101, r^^ctor of Streat- 
ham in Surrey, llie eld^r Gilbert W'hit* 
nnm-l7'28>, who married Robeoca Laobin 
(J. 176rt, jet*t. 91>, was the fourth son of 
Sir Sampson Whitt! (Itl07-lf)&4) and Mary, 
duughtCT of Richard Super of Ea«t Oaktey* 
Uamp^tiin-. Sir Sampaon waa poaseMed of 
Swan Hall in the pariah of Witaoy and 
coiiHtv of Oxford (an wlale which pawed 
into the female line and wa« Bubsec|uenlly 
sold), and wae mayor of Oxfnnl in Ui60, 
when in that capacity he attended the cok- 
nalion of CharUv 11, and claimed su 
fully the rieht of acting as butler 
kin^. being kuif^htud for his aer^ice. 

John white aeems to have lefl Selboms 

soon nAcr the birth of hi« eldest sod, tha 

nnturMliKl, and to Itavn lived for tbu next 

1 half-dot«n Tears at Compton.neArGuildibrd; 

I but he had returned to Sclborne by 1731, 


^B|4-rd, KliiKbeth ( ltii>4-17>h}), vrt,» B)arri<*d to 

^BCliarlt's Wbit» ( '/. 1 7tl3), appari^riiJv » (.'oitsin, 

^Kwlio b«ld lli« lirings of KrAillrv ftriii Svur- 

^Frntoa (both in Uftmpehirt- }, iMsidva bein|{, 

tlir<'>u);li fai» vrifc, owll(^^ of i Im Itouiso at !>■)• 

lx>nic, built ou luid boturht br tlit; etdvr 

OtIb«rt, and tlien di»tir:KiiiBiii-d m buviuj; 

bel(»gT>d to ono WkLv. riiii< boiitir liue bivii 

sttbHCHjii'oritiv known mt ' The Wnkes.' uiid 

at the deaih of Chnrlea \\'hii« in 1 7lW it 

jMSiMxi to OitbiTt, tlin iintiinklii>l, whu luid 

alrMtdr rraided there for Rome rime. 

^B Gil&rt bad six brothero and four sietvn; 

^Hpnc of tbij fnncrr fvnil rwti nf ttiu Utter 

^Bdied in injjuic^?. Tlioso vrlio jirt^w up werv 

^■iThotDaK (17*^4-- 1797), pn-suniiilbljr god«ou of 

^'Tbomu* llolt (not \iiv rwitop of StrenihBm, 

just uiMitioiiei), but rrcuver t» tW l>ul«^ of 

ll«dford's oetAlo ftt Thomcv in rhc Isl>; nf 

Ely), vhoM proyurty bv inhVntc-d and luinic 

he prefixed to hia ciwa, but !><? did not enter 

upon tbu vuiujinvuc uf tliu k-uuvsl unlii 

17711, wbi-u ni* retired from thr buAinf-Ait he 

liad carried oa »s a wbokHulu irnniiiuDiier iii 

Thain«* Sln^fft, and look up biK nbodn in 

South I^mWth. He wa-i a man of ooa- 

aiderable atlaintnent^, wrilin^ on vnriouR 

subjects in the ' Oentltmun's >Iiiguunv,'and 

wa» elected I'.lt.S. in 3777. 

^K The npxt brotlier wm nfniBmin (I72J>- 

^HlZtM), ibe siicceai-ful piibli»liL-r uf Flsut 

^H£^tr«4>t, who tvf) m-vrrnl >'»ih: liniinmin and 

^Hjubn, who carrieil ou their father'^ biiaiiieM 

^^at 'Tbwllorawt's lliwd;' Hiid I-AltiiiiTid, vitar 

of Nmrton V'alencv, nr-ar S>*)b(>r»(^. 

Th^n cxme John (17:J7-i7f*i ) of Corpu* 

Christ! ColJpjft. Onford, who, tAkinfr ordflrs, 

pnxNwdvd ns cbnplnin io I be forct^s at CSi- 

bniltar; and,doiiblI('s<!lhrou;;b ihv infliit'ncp 

^^Of lL« ginvrnor uf Ibal lortrrsf. Comwiilli-s 

^■-WMA lufaseiiut^ntly |,177l'l jireseniftii by the 

^^uovt-niur'K broiber <arclibivbap uT Cnnli-r- 

^^Epur^r) to tb»i living of Itlurkhuni in I<aiicu- 

^Hafaire, John White hud a ^ironir laale for 

' nntnral bi"t«r}-, ns liii convspondi-iice with 

IJnnxuH (whoflc li-TTi-rs ro biin were tirsi 

printed bv Sir Williimi Jardiiie in Omtribw 

tiiM4 to 6rnith<Jay^, IH41I. mi. 'Jl-iM, 37-10) 

^■Aiid with hid broih'.T Uiluen (printed by 

^^pi«ll, a« below) sbowa. 'I'hiH eon'i'»[Hind<.-ii(!e 

^^tliittfly related to a zoology of (iihniitar 

^^^t'auna VatpmtUll wax niim«d|, w)ii4:b h« 

^""wrote but nevAT aurroeded in publisbiRfr. 

th* manaxcript of tbi' iiitruduclimi fxiiilH, 

and u not remarkabh- for style or loatter. 

Oftherwtof the work, which ba« t'scit'.'d so 

much ciihoAity, nothing mor« i^ known Than 

tbat it WBE compleied. After his death his 

Widow, Bnrbam Mary <17»4~180l'). duiigh- 

xer of George Kreunian of London, resided 

at ^Ibome, keepinff houw for her brotlwr* 
in-law, Gilbert, to the time of his death; 
and hiT #on John, eubeequfni ly in U'edioal 
practice at Salisbury, was for a tiiti*^ hiji 
pupil, and seems to have been one of bis 
favo»irii.e nephews, 

tiilbert'sotherbrDtberB,Fraticit<£.T 728-9) 
nnd Ilonry (I7Itit-17^), were of leMnote; 
but the latlvT wua rector of Fylirld. near 
AiidortT, and thut^Ktracti- fniin hi* diary (in 
yalrt f/H the ParUheJ- of t\ij\eid, ^. K«- 
vifted and edilivl by Kdwnrd Dornii Webb, 
Sali^bur^, If^Ufi) show that in quiet humour 
and habit of observation he wa« worthy gf 
hia more wliibreitod brother. 

Uf tbo sisters, one, Ann (i>. 1731), waa 
married to Thomss Barker of Lyndon in 
Ituttsiid, bv whom fbe bad u von Samuel, a 
frtfiUL-Ml corivj-pondent of his uncle Oilbert, 
with whoflc pursuits he had muchfrympathv; 
the other, l\>;bvL-ca((. I7:j(t), bocaniv the wife 
of Ilunry VVood« of 8bopwyke and Chil- 
vrovv, uviir Cbichuster, at wbicb place Uur 
brother often xlaved on hiH wav to and from 
Itiu^er, nuur Luwes, wbnn: lived an mini 
Krbcctuk (li. 1 7^!l ),» wife of ilv-nry Snookv, 
whom he viifitivl ni'arlv every yi>ar as long 
aaahd lived. Three otlier aunts must also 
b)- noticed : Marj- id. 17<W), married to Bap- 
tist lauac, rector of \V hi! well and A«b well m 
Ituiland.wbttre (iilben passed three montlu 
in 174:i, bL'fore leaviu^ Oxfurd ; Dorothoft 
(>/. 17;il 1, tbf wife of William Henry Cane, 
who succeeded her father in 1727 as vicar of 
^^rlbumoi Aticl KtixuVtb (d. 17f>!{(, married 
to (.'harli-a White^ rector of Uradley and 
Swarruton, as before mentioned. 

Gilbert wok prL-.f<iimahty wnt to a school 
at Fanibani, whose 'sweet peal of bells,' 
bi-'ord At SL'lbomc of a still evening', brought 
him ia the ln«t >eur of bit life ' Bgr>waul« 
nASociationa'and remembrances of hia youth- 
ful days i'/uQioyut, lH9:t, pp. 44^, 449). Sub- 
HKtliiimt 1 y he went to the grammar school at 
Ba^inpstokc, then kepi by lliomna Wsrlon 
(HiKrt !--174r() [q. v.], wbtjee two celebrated 
ftons Win- Whiti- a fellow pupils, and we have 
White's own sXalijnient {Autiijuitiei of Sft- 
hariir, chap. XKvi.) that wiiile at lla.tinj3;atoke 
be waa ' eye-witness ^ofj, perbups a party 
concerned in, undermining; a portion of the 
liiiv (>ld ruin known uit Holy (ihoat Chapid.' 
At Kasitrr I7;(7 be ceems to have been ut 
Lyndon, wlient, aoL'ordint; to tbo diary of his 
futnnibrt/tliT-iij-law (liarker), the depart uru 
of wild geesi! and I Iik coming nf the cuckoo 
were noted by'tl.W,' — an earl; ertdenoe 
nf the nl)&ervant naturaliat'a bent. A liat 
in his own hand of thirty books (mostiv 
clAsaical, but som« reltdous) which h<; loo^ 
back with him to schouL \a January 173i^9 

b In lh« pOBtesrion of bit colUteral de- 
Kcndanl, Mr. Ujutilei|^ Hoh-Wbite, tlic 

Cent bead nf ibv family. In tliu IX-ccm- 
(bltow-iriff III) WUH admitted a commouer 
of Orial Colle^, Oxford, tliougti hi- dul oot 
«ntvr into nniduiicv thara unltl Norvmlwr 
17-10. Ill 1742 h(f paA«>d tlin^ MfrrvMble 
mont-bs with liis uiiclu Imu- at Wliitwvll 
(Brt.L, )i. 1 r^S), bill it mivy hf jtrenamM that 
be Ured with Lis father nl Selborne during 
tht greatet part of t)i« timo wWii bt> wan 
not in ns*idofiCe at Oxford. Un 17 Juav 
1743 be obtained bia ' toatwuar/ and a tow 
duys aflur graduatod B.A. KL-turnia)^' lo 
Oxford, be attended l>r. UradlHv'ii tnftttienia- 
tical lecturer, and in thi* Marrh fullowing 
hi' wa" f-Wti-d a fwlliiw of bb> rollt<g)«, frhne 
hei nuiidM! during the Eutnmor and early 
uutumn. AlttT a visit to Solborac Uv vrent 
bark to Oxfunl, luul ni^in Atlt-tid«-<1 Hnul- 
lev'fl lectures, in S*>pleiiilK!r uiiJ October 
of 174^ be was at ItinKoi^r, tbi* bouse of his 
uncle ir^nookef wfaose wife, (iilbort'fl sunt, 
was owner of the tortoiRe, alwavii aMocinl«d 
■with hifl name. Eiirly in Fi-brunry 174o H 
his iuoth(rr'ii relative, the second Thoma» 
Holt before mGnt.ian«d, died, leaving a con- 
aidemblv v»tiitu, subject to <.lil- 
bert'anext brotbprThomns, l"ilt)ert attended 
the Eick-bed, and fimtid kiiDMilf uH'cutoratid 
tmst«« of tbv projH'rty iind^r thi' dLweated'a 
will. Tbid 1(HL bim tn niuct nome monthii at 
Tbonieyinthe ItdflofEly — not bia first visit 
to that part of the ctiiuitry. for he tm-ntiona 
baviti)! .leen Diirleif^b before— and to ffo into 
Ewer, whoro Ilolt bad ppoptrtr, of which 
Uilburt wrote an excellent and biisiuuMiIike , 
account to bia father. The winding-iin of 
tbo aOairs of tbia wtatv took Home tune. 
In connection with it. h« )iatM-d a wec-k at . 
Spalding in June 1740 (letter to Tennnnt, 
So Feb. 1767): but tlia next nmiith he' 
■»•« stayinff with a eoUfirn friend, Tbomaa 
Iklander (elected fellow gf Oriel at the fol- 
lowing EaalcrJiwIiofn-em* to iLflvcben-n »>>nii— 
what of a uatunil p)i9lo.4«ipber, at To(Id>'uheiui 
in Gloui^estershire, retarnini-' to Oxfonl in 
OclobtT to take hi* .M..\. di'pn.'e, Iti tb" 
fulltiwiu)! Ajiril (1717) lie r«-TiicJ di-ai-ouV 
ardeT» from Thomas Seeker rq. v.\ bisliop of 
Oxford, Irtt bin rfiomK at ()n«n, iiitd n't iinii.'d 
to Selbomp, becnminjr, though milici'nflrtl, 
curate al Sn-arralon for bis uncle Cbarlw 
Whiti*. Ijin-r in tli" yi-ar he wa* again 
with his friend Mander in Utoueeirersbin?, i 
and «h£ifliy after be liail a serere ntlnck of 
Unall-pox nt Oxford. In due timi; be wiim . 
ordained prii^st hv i he bishop of UereforJ.on ' 
letters dimis^vr}' I'rnm Risboti Houdly; and ' 
Contiiititfd to milk'* Sdhonie Iuk lioine while , 
doing duty at Swarr&r^n. In the summer I 

of 1700 he went into Deronshire on a riait 
to bis coIleRe frinul and «>n temporary Na- 
thaniel Well*, rector of Eait Allington, near 
Tolnes, atayiug there at least as late oa tba 
middle of S4'pU'mbcr {Garden Kalfndar, 
'2\ Joly I '(Vt\, and brooming well aiiiuunted 
with the district known aa ibe Soutti Ilaau 
(letter to rvnnant, 1^ Jan. 1700). 

In the following T<wr( I7A1) White sent 
the Teraee, originalfy writt«n 'out of tbe 
frM of Cambndin-ahire' (Mulao, in Utt. 
12 Sept. IT'tS), entitled ' Invitation to Set* 
borne, to Mias Hetty (or liecky as she waa 
called in bar family) Miili«. Tbey went 
forwarded through iW lady's brother John, 
who bad boon White's contemporary at 
Orirl. MuIm), ill acknowlMlginit tbmr ro* 
reipt, somewhat severely rriticwed them. 
This rersion dilTered couaidfrably from that 
wbirb WAH lung uAit iiubltJibcd, and it is to 
be remarked that all tne phraf<e6 objected to 
bv Mulso and bis sister in thi* early copy 
dlaappeered fVom the later vor^ion. llie 
long and interesting aeriea of unpublished 
letter* written by John Mulso to Gilbert 
White (extending frum 1741 to 1790), and 
now iu the poaseaston of the Earl of Stam- 
ford, a great -gnndoon of Henry Wliii(>(wbo 
has Kindly allowed tbe preaeut writer acr^-as 
lu thum), giv« no encouragement to tbe no- 
lion nnnounct^d originally by Jeaae in bis 
edition of the'NntumI lliiitoryof Selbomc,' 
and adopted by Bell and others, that there 
waa ever any ^ftry ponicnlar attachn»ent, 
much le« an enga^emeni to many, between 
Heater Malm, who ^iub^equentlv became Mra, 
Cluiponc [q. v.'', and Uilbi-rt Wfiilu. He wa» 
on the most friendlv terms with tbn whole 
of tbe MuUo family, and these leMer& of 
AIuIm), nil of wbiiOi «-t-m tn Iinvn Iw^n most 
carefully preserved, throw mudi ligiit on 
the mrlier portion nf White's career, hitherto 
liiilfi known. White's letters to Mulso wore 
destroyed many years ago. 

In July 17>'il White visited bia siater, 
latc-lv married to )larker,at Lyndon, and was 
afterwards at Httiiiiford. Mulso at tbts time 
writM of his having n pretty collection of 
OiDinrt'ii travrlii, trliii'b iiidctil mn»t have 
covered the greater part of the .toiitb of 
Kngland and a gijiid ileal of the midlands. 
We know that he had been inEH-iev.and he 
must Bi some time have viaited Norfolk. ain«e 
h.> mentirmed to IVnnant |'2Jan. 1760) 
Tuenn a|>pearaRce of i[» cburckfM. Tlie i 
uortbcni limit of his journeys that 
traced in the IVak of Ib-rbyjibifii i letter to 
Churton, 25 (let. 17811). T.iwsrd* tbei-ndof 
I7-il bu bL'eam(^ eiinite to Dr. Hri^tow, who 
had Kuceneded as ricar of Sellfonio, and waa 
for a time non-resldeRt, since 'V\'iite Ufod 




^^atli* p«rK>iiafrif-bouse ; but Ibis wse it tem- 
^■aomT^ amngeinent, and in April 17o2 be, 
^^Bvubtless by virtue of seuiurity as afellotrof 
^^■Jvcollego, to wliioli llin li^^bt of uotuinutiou 
^RbU, exerciani bin claim to tbe proclorabip 
of the unirt^nilTof Oxford. About tbeiAiue 
timu bf wiu nfto a^^intvd Jcjui of Oriul, 
tbe inoht iinportuiit pONi in the collt-gi* uexl 
lu ibe proYCMtt>hip, Trhicli sbowd that tbi> 
iill^'gt^l diMuttiKfiictioii of ■utile of its mirm- 
berii al his rUiming tbe proctorship waa not 
ili?«'ply f^Tuundi-d. On quittiniT hie ofHciw h« 
iinacrtook tbeciiracv of f)iirh>y, ni'Ar ]ti»hop'ft 
AYakhwa, »t whicfi place he resided for a 
year, tad while tbcrcaocording To Itell, »rbo 
bus primed the accounts (ii. 310 -J 6), the 
ii'^IubI expCiiM.-^ of thi> diitv excv^t^ed tb» re- 
c«ipl9t by iiciLrly 201. {iL vol. \. p. xxxv). 
Miil»o*a letters about this liiii»j exprwji' tbw 
wirprwe with which he and others of While's 
fri«nd« r<,-uunlod huacouptancL' of t hh clmrKf , 
though admitting 'it wa» yoiir [i.i\ U.liV. »] 
twntiinuat ibut u clergyman gbnuld not be 
iiHtr itiid niifiDpIoyod.' 

Tliia BHUtiment , lo which be adhered for the 
wholu of his liff, br no means interfered, bow- 
over, with bii« rambling habits, which he con> 
tinned to indulge, ihougb for the UCXt few 
Ti-ars prcciM^ iniormntion as to the places 
li? riiKed a star of »ODie wecka at * thu 
hot wfll* rit>ar llriKlol' oxceptt^i — i* not 
forthL-omin^. Wbenever be went to Mnlw, 
who III thiN timi' had a email cure at Sun- 
\iurv, bt! wiut (ixpictpd to preach a trrmon, 
and the same di>iDaiid waa probably made ai 
other pla«eft. At this time nearly all his 

E* lumeya w^ra to have bt^u ptirforinvd on 
Ofvrback, and sereral paaaageid in Multo'A 
letters show that bu took care to be wkU 

<»n 2 I''«b. K-V* White was at Harting in 
Sussex, whcrt* bin mollicr had )uinii< properlv, 
and waa apparently slayinff with Dr. l)iirti- 
foni tlin viear, iJuTtiford's wife was sister 
to William rolliiia f'l.T.). the poet. Mr. 
Gordon { UUtory of MarU'/iff, p. 208) »ug- 
geMs that tb'^ vImI was to inc^uire after Ibut 
unhappy man, with whom \^ bilu in hia un- 
drr)rnidiiat« day* had bi^^n inliniati'ly nc- 
auatuled. It ^,fuii> very doubtful whether 
Collins had bm-n iiiovhI lo (.'hicbwster to 
rAT\y in ibe jvar. But Wbitp was for many 
■veam afltr f^c^iivntly with hU eieter (Mr6. 
AVoodfl) at Chilgrore, and nt Cbicbfstei" — 
iwuitlly on bis way to and from bia aunt's 
at [{ingnier. tn a Iolt<^r written by White 
many years later lothe '(Jentlemau'i' Mnga- 
xinc' (ITHl, pn. II, 12), the aulhomhip of 
which is voucued for by Mr. Mey Tbomas 
in the memoir pretixed to bia edition of thv 
poet's woriu (i^. XXX, xxxi) and conRrmed 

by B«>II(to1. t. p.lTiii),be status that be had 
not seen Collins ninct* he waa rarried to a 
madbouee at Oxford, and declares bis ignu- 
rance of when or where Collins dii'd, 

Tlut White bad many g"od friotids in bis 
college there can be no doubt. In February 
17>Vj Mulsu wrote to him.'Vouitg Mr. Sbaw 
of CheitbunI would yeitterday have persuaded 
mo that Dr. Hodgt^s [provost of Oiieljwaa 
(leiad, und tou yfiin goiuK to tie provost in bia 
room ;' and two months later, ' You give mc 
pleasure hearing of the stand sga'mst the piT- 
verse party at Oriol ; I would the provost 
ebould live until you succeed him (if that is 
English: it snunde rather Irish).' On 14 Jan. 
17'j7 Dr. Hodgus died, and thirteen days 
later tbt-re was a college meeting, atleiuk'd 
by White, for the election of hie miccL'KStir, 
Cliurdiii, fijurlh sun o( Sir Cbristophef Mu»- 
gruvi' of KdiMihall, was chosen; but it is 
evident that White bad some strung sup- 
ptjrlers. Miilso, writing shortly after, says: 
'.\fi you have not been the man on thisoci:a- 
eion, I atn not sony for Chardia's »ui:c"*ii»' 
— they had been old friends and ac-ain, a 
mouth later, ' With regard to the altur at 
Oriel. I heartily wiah you had put yourwilf 
up from liiL' bcgiuuing, if anything that we 
Ci>tild have done Would have given you suc- 
cess.' A fuw months later tbuliviiiji; of More- 
lon-l'inkney in Nortbamptonsliire, which 
was in tbi; cift of Oriel, fell vacant, and 
I White, as fellow, did not hesitnte to assert 
I his right to it. It was a smnll viearag^, 
and had long been held by a non-resident 
incumbent. In accordance with tho ciltlom 
of the uge. White thought that the pmctico 
hitherto prevailing m-eil not be set aside. 
Musgrave, t he new prin-u^t, was of a dtfrereul 
cipniinn, nnd rivrnrded in hix nn'raoraiidum 
book (which by favour of Vt. Khadwell is 
here ijuoled) under dnt.e of 1.5 Dec. 17*">7 — ■ 
' Morton I'inkncy given to Mr. White aa 
setir. petitioner, (ho* without his intentions 
of serving it, and not rhiXMiing lo ware his 
claiui tlio' Mr. Lttnd \«d. have accepted it 
upon the other more ttgreeable l(-rms lo the 
society. I Qfrf<(>ed lo thu^ tii avoid any possi- 
bility of a miiwoiistnicti'in of partiality ' — 
this last senterne evidently (from what wo 
now knowl referring to the recent contest 
for the provo«»hi]i, when Whit*^ and Mus- 
grare were eompet iters. The provost, from a 
prtijier sense of duty wu niny consider, ne«rly 
a year luler (1 Nov. IT-W) made another 
entrv in the same book, that he ' hinted to 
Mr. WhiLo's friisnOs thnt I waf> ignorant wlutC 
hilt rircnmstann? nrnlly was, but suppoxe bis 
e^tatp incompatible [with the terms of hU 
fellowship] iind bvg'd be might be tufurm'd 
that if s year of groco waa not applied [for] 




intbengnbrtiiDD ... it ctl. not bo gmuted.' 

Tb« BimpiciKiik of the provtut, aiib««<)iiantly 
art «i not, am would seem br a letter of lita 
to 'VV'bita of 3i l\v. 17.'»8 (Bell, vd. vol. i. 
n. xxrviii), went doiibtloAi ttxctted hr the 
iBCt thai, some two mouths t><>fur«, the lather 
of iiilb^rt Whiti; bud dipd. and he, boLni? 
the eldest son, nufiht iiatunlly be pn^-iumed 
to hive inhvrileu prii|H.Tty nf an amount 
that bv Htatut« oreustom would havu voided 
but frUownLip. It u) c«r1aiii that thin wan 
not the cuw. (!i1b«rt'ii ffttlipr wuh ncvur u 
rich man; {»• linil n liiru" fiimily lo i*dii- 
eatt>: he bad raUred on liia mnmafffl frnm 
tbo bur, wbort hi* nracliCf* wim locQiusidvT- 
ahln, and even th» liniue At Helhome (Thf. 
Wmkfx) in which he lived was not bis 
owii^ hitt l>i>lt>nf^il to nrclivtivo. SrronK«r 
evidence to this uffod is oJforded by the laei 
tb«t in I7&U hf borrowed tD<ni»v ( fU/. or ki) 
of his Kon Gilbert, which was not np&ld 
until May 17.>3 (Itell'o ed. ii. :i:)i'), and ft 
CftTcful cxominution of tho family papi^rs 
oudv bv th« pr«M'[it Mr. lIuU-WhitL- abows 
that (lilben'a patrimony must have bten of 
the slundcrgbt. Ilu bud, ind(.-«d, littlomora 
than hiafiiltowHliip uiiil i-vi-iitunlly iiinXorth- 
ftm])mtubiru livins upiiti wbii:b to dfrwiid 
until the death of hi» iinclu Omrli'a in 17li;{ 

Cut him in noHoeaiinn of Tlip \Vnki>i«, which 
s and liifl lather before him hud occupied 
M tenanla. I-jvlh that inh^rllanc^e waa of 
small peuuniiiry laliit? (thu annual rvnt vim 
but ItVR ^uinooa), tboug'h it vena obviiiiiaiy 
the Ibiii^ ho moel dcsirvd, and it was up- 
pnri'Tiliy with (hi) vit-w nf liviiiif at Htdbiirntt 
that nnou after hia father's death he bad 
(fiven up th" ciimcy nl IlurU-y and mw«pl«d 
that of r flrin^lon, an adjoining parish. For 
B abort time be held tfie curacy of W«at 
Dcuuio in Wiltshire, whtT-, ftcrordinj to 
Mulao, be fell lonely and unhappy by reason 
of ita distaoce from SL-lhornv. Mulso'a 
lallersconi^Vuntly allude (o Whitu'ri uurrovr 
Bwans, whili praiMH(( bia economy and 
hoping; for his pri'fermonl. It nii^bt bu in- 
ftirreil rrt>rnt>nc CiH .Manrli 1 Tiiil), I liittigh 
this is uncertain, that be liod lahen a legal 
opinion b« to ih" projiriety nf holding liis 
fellowship, and that the reply Anli^t^ed bim, 
oa welt a« others, ihat be could do so. A 
little mtrlier (4 Feb. 175^f Miil^o had tact 
Uiwgrave, the q«w provost, aad oaked him 
U to his own intentions and thottoof th>c< col- 
iege towarda Wliilv, r^^ctivinir for an aiit^wt-r 
that 'it wta in your own [O, W.'aJ breauL 
to keep or leave your fellowabip. fur nobody 
meant to I iini vou out if you did not cluiose 
it yourself.' ^ome two years later the two 
men seem to have been quite reconciled. 
"nniitcwu at Oxford, and MuUowoa abl« 

to write (13 Jan. 1761): 'The pnnwx and 
you be^fin in bare your own fwsla for od» 
another, such aa you had before cUBpetitions 
dividiod you , , . and aa I know you oaretlM 
i;nod of the foundation at h<«rt, it will malie 
you forget what was disagreeable in his elec- 
tion.' In Jonuar^- I7U8 MuKgi^vedied very 
suddenly, and Mulw thou^t that Whit* 
luipht )]« hia successor; but, though the idea 
nuat haveeroMod bis mind I tetter of :iO July 
1768), the opportunity was lost. 

.Monnwhile Mulso, who, bavin); married 
the nivcw of Bisboii Tbutnas, wu npidlv 
riains in the rharch, kept harping on hiis 
frii'nd's pia«pecti<, sunEMttna even an appli- 
cation to thii lord Miancellor for a Uvioff. 
and it soeois that ou the promotion of Sir 
Itobert llenky ["q, v.', to h» lord keeper in 
1757 and chancellor in ]7(H, Wbitu. with 
whom he was acquainted, bad hope of ob- 
tuininf^ ftoniL' prcffnnont in the neigbboar- 
bood of Selborne, which would have allowed 
him still to reaide there. On bis ubde 
CbarlvoV death in I7t}3, application woa un- 
doubtedly made for one of hi.* livings (pt'o- 
babty Bnidley), which were in the pnvata 

Stlrotmitn nf lienley, bv thai time Lord 
_ >irtbiaRton; bui the latter was disaatiafied 
with what he termed ilw 'cold, lingwring 
manner' in which \Vbite had Toted tor 
Kichard Trevor [q. v.], hisbnp of Diirhua« 
in the contoat of i7ot) with Lord AVeatmot^ 
land for lb*; (.'hancellorahip of Oxford, and 
so withheld the bcion- 

Whitc'p desire, wbioh in uo tone time be- 
c.tme a detenuinutinn, to live and din at Sel* 
borne, wu^ 1 he rvH^on why be paaaed bene- 
fic» nfier Iwncfic'i which cnme to his turn aa 
fellow of hiH colli>gf>. Yet liia love of hi* 
Dative place, the beauties of which he aiid 
hie brotbera were at no i>imnll ^tams and ex- 
pense lo improve, did not stay his practice 
of taking long riding journeys — a ' hussar 
pan^ou' MuIkochIU liiui in one of his letter* 
(February ITti'J) — and visiting his relation* 
in Suneex, in London, and in Hut laud, or bis 
frittndu nt Oxford nud other plum. In l|(W, 
having at the time no cleriral duty (More- 
lon-Pinkney being permanently rerved by a 
curntel, he wan absent for «i* months with 
bis brothers Thomas and Benjamin at L«jn- 
hetli, or with hi* sisti-r ( Mr*. Ilarkerl at Ljii- 
don. He undoubtedly took what nowadays 
might be called an ea»y view of some of 
the ducief nf hit< cloth; but tlic tradition, 
which can hardly he ill-fouiiJed, Imx c<iiii« 
down of hiit vepei'ial kindlinuss lo bis poorer 
pari^ltiimerx and neighbniin', wbiW ibv ab> 
Retire of ambition in bis characiet. exc^t 
perhaps in regard In tlie provuslship of oi* 
college, in manifest. Despite bia moderate 





■ineonie, ftod the calls w]iir)i somtt msmbera 
of h'w family lainUi uikhi liiit p'neroaity, bn 
wait Able to vue ho5pit«lit^, ani] relatives 
and rtiends ivere from titae to tiut; ontpp> 
tAincil l>r liim. 

la August 177-' his brotlier Jolin, ubom 
liCcallHEia most coiislnnt corrcspotiil'' nr — 
though few of his lultvn hftvu bwa [ireservcd 
— returned from (libraltar, nml his only son. 
bom in 17'>0. a prumigioff Ud, wlio Lsu ]}K- 
OMled h'» father to tCn((Iiiiicl,viiut n*(-eive(l at 
Kelbome, where he became a favourite with 
hi» uncli' Qilbwrt. White ri'»<l Horace with 
binii and sAnrrallT Inr)kf>l afl^r hi& wduca- 
tioR ; while ' Jack,' as the Dvphuw wm com- 
monly mlled, actt'il as hi» aniAniicnfliA and 
made himself 1,'unemllf useful. Even Laming 
liij iiiicIc'a horfte did not rulHu the owikt's 
temper, and Jack 8ttl)«vqu«iitly juiitifled the 
ffixKi opinion fontied of him, B<ttliliQg at Halis- 
bury in m**dital pracliup. The terms on 
which hewattvrith hi* utbi-r UL-pht^K, .Sam 
Barker, and bia hitherto unpublished corrtr- 
apondtaoe with his uiwt- Mary ('Molly'), 
the daushlfr of Tlimnns, who aftt^twardn 
married ner atuftin Beniamin, the s<m uf 
H'nJHtnin, tttrongly show iiis nlTvction for his 

Tiiniing to the life which White led a» a 
nariiratint— thf life which cspi-ciully (.-ntitU'e 
him to distinction — w« find that in 17<^l he 
began to keep a'tJanlen Kaleudar'on shwts 
of small letiur-pnpLT etiti-hcd tu^'ulher. This 
he continuiKl iiulil ir<>7,afU:r which yc^ar hi- 
^_ adopted a mure tdaboTiUe fiirni. a ' S'alum- 
^■^i«t. ■ Joiirnnl,' iiivi'Tilcd itnr] aiijiiilitHl l<i lilin 
^KbT I>aiuee HarririKtnii [<}. v.~. and printed by 
^^^Senjamiti ^\hit<>, a cirpv hein;; coch year 
^Eprepared for flllinf; in by An <>hrti-rvi.-r. liotli 
of tbeae dinriea, for so they roay be called, 
^^ arenowinthf libntryoftho Itritish Museum; 
^Kbui thiiu^heuc-h btt« Iwvu otir»orily tiispfutitl 
^K'by iialur^liAtft, and certain excerpts wore 
^■priatvd frum thi- former hy Kulltii. S4^fit>). 
^P aiiil fTitni tliK IkTIki bv l>r. J(4in Aikiii 
~ (l747-Wl>-^);q. ^-lin r7!>f>. and in If<34 by 
j«(we {Glfitnittif» in .V/i/. Hut., 2nd nor. jip. 
1-U*f!0), who ^re also a facHmile reproduc- 
tion of one of it« page* (18-34 June I77fi). 
^Hncitber seotni to havt^ bei.<n *tudied by a com- 
^^mleai- xoolo^st. Vet a close t:xatnination 
^^nf thcM documents is absolutely needed to 
^■attain a trut kuunli-dgL< of White's life. 
^B That be was a born aulurnliNl none will 
diepute; in hi.« earliest letter lo IVnoant 
(lOiVuft. I7G7| he *ays ho wni* nttached Co 
natonl hnowled;^ from bis childhood : but 
.it M no \v»t C4>rtoin thai the liiibit of 
rraiion and rrtl'>ction on wbat he ob- 
sTvv*l grew upon him daily. It haa beeu 
Ited {Saturdaif 3Unew, 24 Sept. 1887) 

that be, like Robert Maraham, the cone- 

»|K)iiiWnt of bie cloein|r days, acquired &0Di 
Srt-phen Hahwrq.T.], inn reclorof the neigh- 
bouriug FariniKUou, who was well known to 
While hinudi', hit> fathrr, and (^nindfathcr 
(letter to Mar»hani. lU Auff. 17tK)>, 'tbetwCe 
for obsorviuff and recording periodic natural 
pheuouivna. This may have been eo, tboush 
from hid on-u Klatrmeiil it is not likely. lu 
thok'titr to Pennant just mentioned White 
litmttnted thmu^ln.iul life' thu wiuit. of a com- 
panion to qtiickni my indu.ttry and Rharpsn 
my iittenticm,' The ' MiscellBneous Tract* ' 
of nenjamin HtilUneUcft [q.v.j art< often cited 
with approval by White, and tbeir publica- 
tion in IT-'JH must have oucourai^ed him to 
]juniuu the coitne be hod early adopted; 
while sdli Inter I he five Utile annual vauimes 
of Sco)inli (17091772), wbicli be was fond 
•if c|U'>tin)f, muHt have had the same effi'd. 
There is abundant proof that in hia youth 
he WHS uu enlhusiusiic spurl«m)in, utlbou|ih 
Hi the Mme time a rellerlive one (rf. bis 
letter Nu. xxiii. to liarringtou ), So keen 
wan lie in liix undrrgradunli; dnvx at (liford, 
a.^ one of Mubo's letters (Itl .\ug. I780( re- 
Tnind* him, that he used lo umcti«e with 
bi« K"" 'ti tiummer, and fetch nown mignint 
binla in order to steady bin hand for the 
winter; and in early years lo »hoot wood- 
cucks, eveji whcu paired, iu March (li^B- 
UlsaTOX, MiMrrllnnif», lip. 217, 218). ft 
musi hv degreea have dawned on bim that 
till- liinil of otiiH'rvsticin ntxtlisl for ihe suc- 
cewfiil jiuTfiiiil of sport, just tm of horticul- 
ture, mi|rht be n^nilered more ralusble by 
till' Miidy of plants and utiimalA on a prin- 
ci pie more or lesa methodical. K\ en in 171U 
wo find him (Dbll, ii. ikW) buying Itay's 
' Synupei* Metnodica Avium et riscitiiii,' aud 
T his was t he book which, in regard to toology, 
i^LTV'_-d him as hut guide to thu last, though 
111! to niiuie extent availed himielf of (he im- 
prorenients introduced from time lo time 
into Ky«(*'miitic nntiiml history by Linnieua, 
Y>^t it would af*in that \\*^. did not seriously 
take up the study of botany uatil i7t!iJ: but 
be then for the rc«t of his life pursued it to 
a good end. 

White was in the habit of payinfT at least 
one annual visit to Loudon, where his bro- 
I burs Thomas and Henjiiminwer«eal«blisilii.^ 
It may be infem-d from his advice ttuh^e- 
([iiiMitly ffiven to Knlph Churlun l-'fl> .Murcll 
17M-II that he attended, of a visitor, many 
roeutiuge of the Itoyal Society and of tha 
Society of Antitiiiftri.-* {ih. ii. 18!H|, Un hia 
visits to Loudon i which seem to have gene- 
rally been early in the year! he met several 
men of high scientific pmitiou. He was 
there in the spring of 17ti7, and then, through 




.IdttoOttltSrajamut, tliepublisWr ofP«n- 
"L-IVWlnt lUAdfl IV»nitni'« perMiniil nc- 
i(of. bu Brst letter to him 4 Aug. 
[767, first printed bv Bell, i. 'J7, in 1877). 
Punnant, bavinfr in bund • nvw edition 
of hi* 'Ilnti»U Zoot«pr' \I708-I770), wmi 
natunlly plcasrd ut l&Iling in with nn ob- 
mtrvHT will) had ku much vahiabUt iufonuH- 
lion to impart, and a rorT(<«pondenw sprang 
up bBLwwii tliPin trfaioh lii«t«<) until thn ram- 
pfetion of the ni'w <3o««]led fAurtli) edition 
(1776), the proofs of which were ivviavd by 
Wliit*. I nfortunnlf-ly I'luniml'a letters 
eru not forthcoming, Uiuufth White's, being 
Miib«vquL-nlly rclurnvd to him. form th« bu)» 
of tilt; Cfliibntvd 'Natural Hiitlonf of ^1- 
home,' There chuuoI bf a doubt that thtv 
were originally wriMcn mvrclTforl'cnnant e 
iiwn uav, without any thoupiit of aeparale 
publication. (Vfioiuwntenthave been ready 
to depreciate I'eutiaiit. koib as a iwilo^st aud 
tut an antiqiiiirvi but wilh hitn Whttr found 
him-ielf on the bt»t of Icruis. praising liis 
candour. Il4> did, indeed, complain to hla 
bmthi-r John in Febniarr 1776 of the »tate 
of lh« pmof-sheeta aont lor rerision, mad at 
another timtt h« cont^ast<^d levers fr^nnrous 
conduct with that of IVunnnt, to tin.- adraii- 
toffo of the former, Ihouab it was the latter 
vbu (^TD Liiu the niucu-pfetwrnvd Sct^li 
(t'i. ii. 41). \Vhit« waa ven cerpmomwiK 
in his corraspoiidence. Mtilw, who alwajs 
wrote to him * >lv dear Oil,' ofli>n proteatwi 
againRt bein? nddnH«cd, in the loiters now 
unhappily oeatroyed, ' .Mt dvar Sir,' and 
WUm mquetitly fae^&Q his letters to hia 
ne^ew in the uuc formal elylu; ytM, in 
17w, in on un|iubliAlicd tetur, acdd by 
Messrs. Sothi-by & Co. in April 1896, he 
gently raliiMl Priiiiant on the hononr, of | 
whicu ibo lafl« wa« very proud, of hna^ 
(•l«;t<Mi to the ACMd<>iny of SrtenOMofDront- 
heim (Tronfllijem), hiimorotuty anggoettnf; 
that henoefortu ht> would beUmriil lobclieve 
in Itiahop I'unlnppidBn'a Kraken and Sea- 
Sttrpf^nV uiidi'r {laiii of vipuhtinn. Hull (roL i. 
p. xli) coninluitiJi of PennaiitH *canl rvcoff- 
nition of \S hiii>'ii diiin)V(>ri(.>F, but ifntonuith*' 
fact that Wliittf in rorrrctiiiK ihp proof" of 
lliw fourth pdiiion of tlip • Rriti^h Zoology,' 
and making additions thereto, would luta- 
rally not inrrodnc his own naini> on evfry 
occasion. In the preface I'ennaul ^enemily 
hut fully achnowlfdfioa White's aervices. 

\Vhiit;'» penonal acquaintance witb Dainea 
Darrinfttcm did not begin until May 1769, 
whi'n lIivY met ta London, though more than 
a yair bvfom thn ]att«r had *ent him n copy 
of the 'Xaturalist's Joiimnl' (an invention 
of narriiigton'ii) ibmiipli iii« brollier Ren;a- 
min, who published it. Tlieri'iipon follow^ 

a aerie* of letters whldi. continued until 
17^, fom the woond pan of the ' Xaiom] 
Hiclory of Selboroe,' ihou(;h tomu 'Iirtlers* 
appear, m in the former iiart conaiating ef 
IVunact's leit«n,t<i bavu iMtfn subsp^uentlr 
addtdby wayoTcoDiplstinglbM work. AVitb 
bis usual penrmity Barrington chnfwto div 
heliere in the migration of Ibe swallow-kiod, 
and, with his nstaal casuistry, attemptrd to 
defend the inuiliun h« titok up. It sevuu lo 
have been nis inllnenre that from time lo 
time dirturbed White's mind on the sutnvcl, 
sending him to search for torpid awaltowa 
amontf the shrubs and boica of Selbome 
Hanger ( Idlers li. and Wii. to llarringt«n ; 
Ji::^!!!, Gieamngt in Natural Hiatoiy, ^nd ser. 
p. Iftl); and, when be had actuully **^w 
their loigralion in progrees (Letter 3Lxiii. to 
Pennant), causing bim to ignore the biguifi- 
canee of his ohserration. The hold that 
lhi« uncertainly had upon bim lafttrd \i> the 
end, for in a letter tu Marsliam (IIkll, ii, 
303) only a few darn before bis death he 
repiidiati^ tfaefuppnsti ion that he had writ ten 
is tfatf ' Gent I em an V MngacitM* sfninst the 
toqiidityaf swallows, as it would iiol *be 
consistent with whit I have aoroetinMii 
asserted to lo do.' This is the moru extra- 
ordtnaiy, eioec through one brother h>< had 
poaitive aKUimncL' of tlw miration of swat- 
lows in southern Sunin, and through another 
brother, the bookfleller, be bad opportunitkcs 
(of which be certaiolr availed himself) of 
knowing what wn* pubU«hed on the suhjecl. 
lie could hardly have been unaware of tbft 
* Euayi upon Natural Ilietorv ' bn:>ught out 
t^ George Kdwnrd* (1094 l'"73) [q. v.J in 
1 1 70, one of which coatauia views on mgn- 
tioa, which m mostly sound.thougb poesibtr 
the remarkable* Discoar*e on tht* Fmigralion 
of British Birds ' printed t<^n yearn later bv 
John IjTgg ($Hli*bnry, 1780), being a local 
Bublimtion and anonymon8,tuy haTecsnped 
White's notice. 

It i« reruin that during his annual visiW 
lo London White made other »clt.-ntific nc* 

Juaintances. He ii found writiii)' to (Sir) 
oseph Bauhs [q. v.] (BSLL. ii. 24l) in ful- 
fitmeut of a prumise so Mrly a« Ihi' springof 
170^. A few months latir that inirepid 
iintumliiit rsiled vrith Cook on Iiih nii^nio- 
nhle rnyage in the auccew of whi<-h \Vhit« 
took the greatest ioterwtirA. vol. i. pp. xliv- 
xlviii), while subaequently he knew Daniel 
Charlod tkilander [q-T.], Buki's companion ; 
the oldiT Forster, the nalurMlist of Cook's 
second roynge, ■« well ns William Cnnia 
[q. v.', the ontomologiM and bi>ianii>t (lA. ii. 
li); Sir Ashton I^ver [q. v.], who formed 
th« enoniiou« tniiwura known by his name; 
and John Ligbtfoot (173ft'17eB) [q. T.} of 



'XJxbridgv, PennmntV Mlaw-tniveller. Il ia 
oridenl., too, that White's RTtnpnthies wcm 
not limited Co the B&iuinl« of liu own coun- 
try, M i« tbown by t\if inter«at h« took in 
his brother'^ zoolosical iDTeetifi«tionB at Gi- 
faraliir, nnil in thoCliinewdoetbroiiglii home 
by C'harU's Eliy, a ion of the vic«r of Sel- 
bome (L«(ler Iviii. (o Barrin^^n), to My 
nolhtag of liia deaire to mx thu tmiUowt of 
Jamaica (LfVtt«r vii. to Uie Huue). 

It ia pi'rliaiM itnpQMibli! now to B«cortaia 
irbvD tlii* nvlioti ol |iiiltlia)ilii)^ hia nliHTva- 
tionn in n u-pArntu work firet occumil tu 
White, or wb«a hv fomivd tlie di-lfnninatinn 
of doing M>. Early in 1770 Ilnrringtin 
must have made some e uffRefition on ihi* 
aubject, to which White nplird on 1*2 Aoril 
in uoiiatiog terms : 'It ia uo uiiall uudcr- 
takiDf^ for a man untnppoilcd and alone 
to begin a natural history from hii) own 
antopais ! ' ^methiii^ luutt aUo bare paucd 
between him and rennant, for th* next year, 
in a Inlttfr tu him uf 19 July, of which onir 
an i>xtnu:t haa beon [iiinlt^ {llztL, vol. i. 
p.xlix},ht) says: ' As lu anr I'ublication in 
this war nf my oii*n, I look upon it with 
ETtvat diHidi'nrp, finding that I ow^bcio have 
bef^iin it twi?nty year* ngu.' In 1(73, writing 
to bio brtithcf John, be savf> liV>. Ji. ^1): , 
' If you don't make liaste 1 shall publish 
before you;* and again in 1774 (ifi. ii.2(*J: 
'Out of all my jouninls I think 1 might 
collect mntl.or rituufth and i>ncb a Mirii^ of 
inoidentB net might prfitiy wnU cotnprehc'nd 
tlM natural histonr of tins district. . . . To 
tbeae might be added Mme rirciini»tanR(!a of 
the country — its moiil rurious iilsnts, its 
few anti(]iiiti<-6 — all which altofn'inc-r mijrht 
soon be moulded inio awi^rk, hud [ tvm>Iu- 
tion and spirits to Mi about it.' The follow- 
ing ynu, Lowt-rvr, he KcvrnM tu have lawiv 
np bis mind, though in ihc spring of 1775 
bia eyos suffered ' from overmuch readiop ' 
(bJ. il. 40). In flctobwr hv wnilw (tft. pp. 
44,46), *Mr. Orimm has not appeared,' he ! 
bwnff the 8wisa draughtsman who evon- i 
tually executed tbt; jriatrs for tltei work. I 
Writing from Loadon to ^m Barker on I 
7 Feb. I77(t, he wait still in doubt, at any '■ 
rate, as to the fi>rm of publicnlion ho whuuld 
adopt; but lit^ had Im-n to Kn< (Iriuitu, who 
n few WBtiks later came to Si'lborne, and 
i* called 'my artist' (lA. ii. 1:?S|, laUing 
Tiew.i of the Ilermitagfi and otW places 
snl» engraved forthe volume; whil" 
White declnh^ bin intention ' st^rnft liwi'' 
hence' to publish 'iu mjihi' wav or other' 
n naw edition ot his paiiers on the ' Ilirun- 
dioM.* Those memomblu itiunogmphs, al- 
auwl iJm earlirait m xoological literatnre, he 
bad eommunical«d through Barrlngton, at 

whose instigation they were wriltvo {ii. ii. 
•JO), in 1(74 and 1776 'to the Ttoyal Socwtgr, 
for insertion in the ' Philosophical Tnnsai^ 
tioni.' There they were prinl.i1, although 
verv carelculy, ns the author justly con- 
plained (i£. ii. l]!i). He liad intended an- 
otiiifr pttjH-r, on 'Capniniilgus,' to folluw, 
but Uarniigton, having quarrelled with the 
Society (t'A. ii. 4<t), would not present it 
(iA.i\.-229). In(lu.firi.t half ..f 1777 Whit* 
bad a c«>vere iUneAs (J. .Mul.-to, in litt. 
1 Junv 1777^ which must haie inlerfi^red 
j with his work nn which he had b<-gim Ui bo 
seriously engaged. Moreover, the nnti- 
I quarinn portion— for he had decided t*> 
' include in it an account of thesntiouilies 
of Selborue (ItELL, ii. 1S7) — obviously re- 
iiuir>-d much labour, and he spent a good 
pnrt of (.Mub<*r to that year at Oxford, 
■nvcatignting the archives of Magdalen Col- 
lege, to which tfa» priory of Sulbome bad 
bi--en united nti it* supprvMOn some fifty 
years befon; the Kvnerall dissolution of the 
monant'TieH. In this t»i«k Whilw wimgn-atly 
afeisted by his friend KichardlI7handl«'r(17<')S-- 
18IO)rf(. v.l, the eelebratedfJivektravellf rand 
antiquary', who not only ciotnincd for him 
the recoriis relating to Seltmrne possessed 
br that colk-fre, but also tho.«e whieli he was 
allowed to biirrow fnirn ihu di'nii and ehap- 
ter of Wincliiister. .\l«iit 1779 White Nt- 
came acquainted with lialph Churton [il'V.], 
from whom he receivfil no little Hwinlanei', 
lui appMirs bvihf-ir orn-spondencn tlrst ptib- 
lished by B«ll (ii. lWf-i>:(0). Still, prngress 
WM alow, and he complained to 8am Itarber 
tbat'mucb writing and transcribing always 
hurts me' (i6. ii. laO). Mulso's letters re- 
peatodty urcw gn-ator spifd, but While waa 
not to bt- liurried in the e«i«ution of his 
self-imposed task. Ileeridently deterinined 
ihnt what he had to do hn would do with 
hiii might, and the result justified his delay. 
It was not until January 1788 thiit he 
wrot"> to Ham Itnrker (rt. ii. IfiBtlhat hf 
had at length put bis Mast hand' to the 
book ; but still there was the index to make 
— 'an oecu[]aiion full na i'nle«aini«g(i« that 
of darning of stockings' — and the actual 
puhlicstion did not lake pluet' until iIk' end 
of Hint year, the voltiine li>.-jiriiig on ita 
title-page the date ITfiO, Almost coincident 
wilii iu appearance won llin di-iifh of his 
youngr-st hrniher Hanr, of Fyfield, with 
whom he was always on most atreclionale 
term*, and tlir loss wat cvidf-ntly much ftlt 
by him. The l*ooU wa" nubli-hed by \\ hite'a 
brother IWniamiu. liis Lrnlher Thomas, 
who had b>.-ien t'onj^tiinlly urging the pubU- 
catioN, if he wetw not its primr> instigator, 
wmie (anonymously, of eourw) a review of 


il in the ' Oentlemaa's Slaffuinu,* vhicb, 
speaking of it lii|{hly M it (Uihtvu<I, yttt Ik^- 
tmyi^l lui exoesA of fraternni prnvnlitj. 
John MuUo, whose (aeti? uad rriliciil fuciiltv, 
ori)^nall,v koitti, tn-^ra tn liav<^ h^pn bluntud 
by tlie lazy Ufe be had now so Ion;; led m a 
well-ln-netici'd ccclfaiasiio, oxpn^md lit* ftp- • 
pruvdl ill warm thoiwb uot very mithuaiafi- 
tic teraiN, partly, peraaps, bi'cttiiaii hv secinit 
to have bolorc roiul tbu uniuret liiitmry pOT- 
tion of tiiH 'piect!,*a»cl be biiuetita^d lliat hi» 
Qwn name, lu tbat ai ihu friund at Siiubiiry 
iaBBDtion-il by IliH niillior, did nut'itiaiid in 
a book nf 80 TDucb crt^dil and resp^^abiUly.* 
Tbfl cornjepyodBUCB with Churlnn, whiiiici? 
moit information nf \Vhir«'n lift) at ibid 
period is obtainable, conlnins no laiti'r be- 
tween the biyiniiiiiir of December 17f*6 and 
thu rnd of July 17t^(>, and it wu not UDlil 
Xhfi following OcIoImt that he bbvs li«i wan 
reading the Tjook witli eiTidiiy, ibis being 
uTlvr Wbilt* liad wntlen to him (Kki.l, ii. 
214): 'My book is still a^kcd for in Flwt 
Street. A iivnl. ciiuiu lh<.- othvr day, and 
Haid be understood that thero waa a .Mr. 
Vhiti! wbo bad luU'ly publirbud iwt; bookjji, 
a gixjd oni-. tind ii biiit orii* ; the bad uni; waa 
concerning Botany Bay f ' A Voyago to N«w 
South \VaW,'by John Whit« (no ivlation), 
published in 1790], the bntcer respecting 
pome pariah.' Churton justly complainud 
that the index was not mnTC copiouc. nnd 
the eamu complaint may U' uiaile in ri'^ard 
to fiverv wiilioa i.biit liu>; 6ini-o oppiiarud. 
Soon thin, Wbilu wrutu Ibut ilxfurd 
■ppKAird t'vrry vrur to rcci-Je fiirthtr and 
further from Sulbume, and it is cluur thai 
the infirmities of ag« hnd cnmt* iiiM)n him. 
For fit le&st ton yt^nnt he had suffered from 
deafness, and bis l«tter!i, though tibowinp; no 
indication of decay in nifntal jKiwer, seem 
to bnVB been writlen at longer inli>rvaU. 
Vet in Marth 17tiaCbiirtou ciinvn.4sed him 
for his votu ill favour of Cjuot^ Crabbe [(l.v.] 
an profuintor nf poetry at Uifiird, and a^- 
pxjarej lo think In; might come to the tini- 
ver»ity In ^iw it. 

Whatever mav have been lie reception on 
the psrt of Wbitfl's family and frh-nd^, ibi- 
merits nf the Imok wen; spwrtlily acknow- 
ledged bv naiuraU&ts who were simnger? to 
him. Within six munthii fif Its appamnrft 
George Montagu i'17.'j1-1(«1.1) [q. \. , hardly 
then known to faints, bul not mnnryeart alter 
reco^li>ed OK n leading BritliJi zoologist, 
wrote that he had btwn'greatly entertained' 
by it (lA.. ii. 336), plying it« author with lii- 
quiriiMwhichwvm>v]Mpnlhftinillv answered. 
Another Iflttemf the anme kind followed a 
few weeks lalyr, tolling Whitv ' Your wnrk 
onwliir^d in me fresh ardour, and, with that 

di.'grei'arenthHstum oeeessarr tosuch inveeti- 
gationa, I jxtrvaded the interior receMea of 
the thickeot wood.i, and spread my researches 
to every place within my reach that Beemed 
likely,' The next yenr broupht another 
correspondent, and one who»e scientific repu- 
tation was auun-d. This was Kub^iTl M^ar- 
fiham of .Sirattou-StrswleM in >^orfolk(the 
place where Stillingfleet had written his 
•Tracts'), Whites at-nior by twelvu ywnt, 
who (inlroduct^ Ui the ii«w work 1^ his 
neighbour, "William Windham the staiea- 
man) wn^tn ibnl ho could not deny bimitKlf 
• the honest fintiiifartion ' of otfering the 
iiuthor his thanks for 'the pliMi#un> and in- 
formation' hi^ hnd tfC^'iTed from it. Most 
fortunately the correspondence which ther^ 
upon began bL-twwn tlicst- two men \« almost 
complote, iben- hting but two of White's 
letters missing. It has bt-en published by Mr. 
SoHtliTvell in tlio'Transflctions of the Norfolk 
and Norwich Naiiiruli»t4'Soeiely'for lt*76-B 
(ii. 13;)-9>i), was thence repnnlod by Bell 
(ii. :!43~303). and White's sidu of it by Mr. 
II art ing UN an ai)]H-ndix to his second edition. 
ilere we see that Whito'H ialerutl in alL 
bnitic)i>-s nf ualiiral hlslorv whi> to the very 
end aa keen as i-ver — for hiB lust letter Ut 
Marsham wns dnt«d but eleven day* bitfora 
his death— whilf every pbnrncl^riatic of his 
style, its uuaifected gmce, Wn charming sim- 
plicity, and it« natural humour is maintained 
at fully as in ihu varliest examples which 
hiivf rome down lo lut, an that, this corro- 
tipondeiice is n litling iie<]uel to that between 
liiiUM.-ll'uiid IVnnaril and BarririKtou. While's 
ple.iuure at Manhaiu'c! approval is unmistak- 
able. '0 that 1 hiid known you forty yfun 
ago!' is one of Whitf'ix-xclamalinn^ to Mar- 
sham, the signiBcance of which may be seen 
when rend in connection with thut paasage 
ill Vi* v&rl\^\ Ivlti'T to Pennant (lU Aug. 
17t>7), wherein he wn>te : ' It ba« bwn tny 
misrortunit nevertoliave hadsuy riuighbours 
wIhibi- Mliidii-ii hnvif It-d tliem towards the 
piirBuil of nntiiml knowledge.' 

Ituring Wbitn's Imit yean there hiaaislcr- 
in-Jnw, widow of his hrother John, contiuued 
to keep house for him at S"li>i>rn«. On the 
death of bii aunt Mrs. Snnoke in 1760 he 
bad become possessed of pro(H'rty which 
could lint have been inconsidi^rable, inrludinj^ 
' the old family tortoiw.' and be was ihere- 
bv enabled the more easily lo gratify his 
disposition toward)^ hocpitality. From his 
norri'siiiindeme with hia niec^ ' Molly,' ths 
Rarkets, and rburtoci^whu svemii to hava 
usually pBWi-d Chruitraus with htm — we a«« 
how opiMi hia door was In memhera of liia 
family and to his friends, de-spitu bis in- 
creu^ing deafness. Mulso, writing to him la 







DMeinb«rl790,wys: * AIoj! mygood friend, 
bow should wo now do to convene it vro 
Ovt ? tor TOii cnnnot ht^ur, nml I cniinril, now 
■peak nut.' Many timefi in rhe corr^poD- 
duam with Marsbsm earb compUinud oT tin* 
hold which 'iho JJitfr procnwiinaunii ' hod 
Mlwn upon himself, but lb«re is really tittip 
•iffn of thp power of 'thi> dflunon' upon 
Whit«, and hm 'NatumllHV Journal' was 
ConlioueJ until wilhio fourdaj'aof his death. 
(>D 11 June 17i^3thi< .•'Oil crfhie uldiitt friend. 
Jiilin Mul*u (who Ijml din) in Sirptember 
17ftI),caiaeto Jv-lbonip, M-here be Etavod for 
ft niiiht, nnd wxt d«j- Whit*' -wtoIp fiii> lfl«t 
Vtt<?r to Marahani, which pnii«l with thi' 
^ords. * Tb(> E(.4«>rin with us is unbt*nlthr-' 
In it b«> wild )u- had hwn aniioy.ii In iKp 
•priiu^ by ft bftd nervous cough and ' n 
wftnaeriog Rout,' His ffttnl illntM inii.«t 
haTe bct^n of short diimtion, though, accord- 
ion ti> n«ll, it was attended bv much sulFeis 
iiiff. On the 2llth he diLH) at his boiiM?. Tho 
^VakM, which hot! eiiicM bwii vivitt-d bv ko 
muiy of bill adminr*. He Um buried amonir 
hie liiiusfolk on thu north &id<? of tb<; chanc<.-l 
of Sclhonw ciiiirih, 'thr fiflh (rmvi- from 
this wall ' as rpcorded on n tahhi ori^nally 
placed II ^inxt it on tht* mit^id", but nine" 
removed within, nnd innpiimprliiTi'ly affixed 
to th« south a-.ill of th« build in);. Tlte Rrsrv, 
boveVCT. i« dtill nurkiK] by the old hcadftone 
bvftrinKth" initial btttcrs of Lia tininv and 
\he day of hi* dfalh. 

Thai. While's * Selborne ' is the noly work 
on natiiial Kiitlory which baa attainted the 
rank of an English cliuuiit? in admiltud by 
P?[i<*ral nwlnmnl ion. «■ well a» hy onrnp^ti-nt 
rriticH.and numerous hiiv4(he«ti the nitcmjit^ 
to discover th* "•■cn:>t of its ever-growmg 
reputfttion, SoAnvly two of thum AgTMt 
and no «^xpUnaiion wliat^voroltfred of the 
ch&rm which invests it can be ncc^ptt-d ok 
in iT6<>ir ifttiBliiotory. If wu (;mnt what Ik 
partially true, that it was the tiwL Uiok of 
Its kind to appear tn this country, aud 
therefore liad no rivaU lo t-iiooiiiitHr hRfum 
ita repntftlion was f-itabli.^hed. we find thiit 
ftloni.' inxiifticK.-nt to account for (he wnv in 
whif-h it ia utiU w^^lonmi'd by ihouAandn of 
readers, to many of whom—oad this espe- 
rially applies to itK Aiocricia admirers — 
•carcL'ty a plant or an animal mentioned in 
it is familiar, or eren known but by name. 

Wliilf wu» a prince amung ubMervors, 
nearly always obtxTving tlii! ri|tht tbin^ in 
the right w*ay, and plaring before ua in a 
fuw wonl<i lli« livinp wing h^ olKervcd. Of 
the hundreds of statements recorded by 
Wliiti', the number wfatcb are undoubtedly 
miatakim may be counted almost on tho 
fitig<ete of one hand. The gravest is perbapa 

that on the formation of honcydew (Letter 
Ixiv. to Barriiigton): but it vras not until 
aome yearn latvr that the iialurv of that 
auhalunce was dlacorered in this country 
by William Curtis (q. v.), and it was not 
made known until IMX) {TmuMetiofU fjin>- 
ntnnn Atrirty, ri. 75-91); whil« we hava 
editor nft.T t-ditor, many of them well- 
informed or otherwise cnmpftcnt judgat, 
citing fn-ah proi>fit of Whitt^s industry and 
accuracy. In addition White was 'ascboUr 
and ft Rentlemau,' aud a phi luwojvlu'r iif no 
m^an dt'pth. But >t set'ins ns thoujih the 
combination nf all thHj»! igiuilit Ji.'h would not 
neccMarily pive him the nniiiif^tioni'd dupc- 
riocit y ov«r nil other writer* in the same tield. 
The secret of the charm must bp aouf^bt 
elwfwbere; but it has been sought in vain. 
Some hhv« a-torihrd it lo his way of iden- 
tifyint;; himself in fi^-lin^ with tho animal 
kingdom, Ihonjfh tot hif> sympathy llwreweru 
notablt! iisot'ptions. .Sonic, like Lowell, aet 
down the ' natural maijic' uf While to thu 
fact that, 'upon the bavtk where you will, it 
takes you out of doors; ' but the same b to 
be said of other writers whoy*-t n^main com- 
poralivuly uudistineuisbed. White's style, 
a Certain bI ifTnt-HS ffiaractrristif.' nf the period 
bein^ admitted. iseminentlyunatTcrl (Ml, eTt.>n 
wlii'n hi- in ' didnctic," as he more than onct* 
aiKilogiseB for becominff. aud the same sim- 
[MLcily is observable tn his letters to mi'm- 
bers of his familv, which could tn?Tir bine 
buen penned with ihu view uf publication, 
mid have never been n^tom-hisJ. Tlif>n, tixj, 
there is the complete absence of self-impor- 
limce or •« If-con*riou«nfiw. The observation 
or the remark inlands on it<i own merit, and 
guinit nnthing beciiiise he haiipens to be the 
maker of it, except it hi; in tlip tinge of 
humour that often delicately pervades it. 
Tho tx.'autios of the work, apart from the 
way iu which they directly appeal to tiatu- 
rnli»ts, as they did to Uarwin, grow upon 
the reader who is not a nutumliEt, a^ Lowell 
ituitilieK, and the more th«-y are studied tlw 
more they seem to defeat analysis. 

Nil piirtniit of White was ever takea, 
and. thoug^h some have p!en«-<l lhems«lvMi 
with a tradition that one of the figures ia 
the frpntispiec* of the (piarto editions of hie 
book was intended to reprwucnt him. Boll's 
authority (vol. i. p. Iviij n.) for otkerwiss 
idenlifyias eaehoi tho^e fiKurps must be no 
cepted. &)i was told bv Francis White, tlis 
youni^oet «m of Gilbnrt''a Tflungest hrothw, 
(hat he well remembera^ bis uncle, wlio 
' was only fire feet three in«hit>a in stAture, 
of a *psro form and remarkably upright 

A complete bibliography of White's writ- 


toga vould occupy muij P*^-S oving to tlie 
number of ediTioae uia iBsue» (eiifchtsr or 
noK) through whkh bi« chief work h*« 
paoaML A fuU l»t bu b««n attempted in 
* Sou* tDitiamriea' {or ly77-8 (Oih ser-vols. 
Til to ix.), moA by Mr. Kdwanl A. Muiln 
{A BMiagrnpAy t'f fiiiAert U'htU, ^WBlmtn- 
ater [1807], fevo), who wrote apMrenilj is 
ignonacc of what hod appcarMl ia ' Nutv« 
* Qiwrie*.' Tlie hnt pobticatioti to be 
la tbe ' Account of llwi HouRs-Martta 
'MartlH. In • Wt4>r fmm thr IVr. Hit. 
ben Wfait« to the Hon. Daines BarriDftton ' 
(PUL Tnom. yoL Uiv. pt. i. pp. 196-aOl). 
This buar bear* date 20 Nut. 1773, and 
was'radde'to Ihe Kova) (kKrietv on 10 Feb. 
1774. It IE reprintod in the 'S'utunl Hia> 
torr of !>rllx>nM< ' aa lettirr XTi. to Ibr- 
ringtoD. Next there is *0f ibe Hoilse- 
Swaltows, SwiA, and Saad-Marlm. By tb« 
Rt-v. CilWrt White, in Tfanea Lettcca to Ibe 
Hon. I>ain«s Barriaglon' (0. toL Ixt. pi. ti. 
ff. 396-76). TheM> wpt« tvA to thf «■□>« 
flOdetj* on 16 March 1 < i o, and were remec- 
tively dalwl M Jan. 1776, 38 Sept. 1/74, 
and ^ Feb. 1774 : but the annaal dales nf 
ibe flrat and Ian should be reveraed, and 
White oootpUius of rahnos otber misprints. 
Tbfljr rappmred in tba ' Natural Uiatorj of 
Sa l b ai na ' aa letters xviit. xsi. and xx. to 
Barrin^on. Tbtwe were but fDrcntnoen of 
the tiivat work which bore on it« lillr>pag<% 
*Th« Nataral Hixtnry | and ; Antitjuilieej 
of ISelborae, jin lhe[Countr of Southatnp- 
too : ' with I Enf^rinf^ and an ApfM-ndix. | 
London : 1 priated by T. BeoaleT ; ' for B. 
WUie nod Son, at Iloraces Head, Fleet 
Stratt. IILDCCXXXXLX.' li ia in qnarto, 
Ml ri, 48S4 IS mm'Jtnbered. being twelve 
at iadez and one of vmta. Tfav auihoi^a 
aam« in not on the titl0-pa){p, but appeart an 
*nD. White'oo p. T. It bu an oai^ved 
title-pag?, and terra copMr|>latva, br^idea 
«M iiuCTt«d on p. .'$07. Coatenporarf ad- 
TtctiaeaieDta ^how that it was iaanra in 
boarda at the priot of oti« gninea. and it was 
the onljr Enfliah edition publtahed in the 
antbor'a lifetime. Two yeara after hia death 
than appoared ' K Naturalist 'a Calendar | 
with Obaerrattona in \'arioua Itranchea ] of ' 
Xalural HisiMT; | extract*^ from the papers i 
of th* Ut* I Rer. GUbert While, SLA- ! of 
Selbome, Hampishire. Sfnior Fellow nfOrivl 
College, Oxford. Never befut« publtilitKl. ! 
London : Iprinted for B. and J. White, 
Horace's Head. I Fleet Street. ; 179.'>.' This 
M in octaTO, and oontabie pp. 170 + 6 nn- 
nombered. It was compiled by I>r. John 
A3[tn, whnsignii) tlie ' .\dreniwmrai.' The 
l«xt beffins ac p. 7, and to fac« p. 65 ia a 
eeloBied copperplate by J. F. Miller, after 

Ebner'a pictnre of *.•% Hyhhd Bird;' but 
«o badly done as to mktvpRwnc not only 
the original, but alao the watncolottr draw- 
in^ from which the plat* is eopad. [it 
1^01' appeared -The Worta ia Nataral His- 
tory of tne UlC Rer-^iilbcrt White .. .eom- 
^riainji; theNatnial Ilivloryof .Selbame; lh« 
atuniltFt'fi Calendftr: and M i aee ll an eB BS 
()b*eriaitniu. extracted (roa bt* VKfm*. To 
which are addfd a Calendar and OMerral ion* 
by W. Markwidt, Es>].' lliis was pubLiahed 
in two vohimfrj ociaro by John floe son of 
the elder BeDJamin > White in Y\wi Street, 
who added toe brief alcetdi of hJs nnda^a 
life, whieli hai bean eonstaotly rspriatad, 
and it ia often apoken of a» Aikin'a or Marfan 
wick's edition ; bat whetfaer the latter bad 
more to do with it than allow a oalaodar, 
kept br himself in Sosnex, to be printed 
alongfii^ of that conpiled by Aikin fem 
White's jou mall U doiibtful. Tba eolourad 
plate of the ' Hybrid Krd* is repeated, with 
OOnaideiablr mndiScation of tintinif, from 
the fomer publicatiiia ; but tbi^ ' .\ntiqtii- 
ties' of the ori^al work are omitted. 
S. T. CoI«rridge'« copy of this edition, with 
his manoscript eomments, ia in Ibe Brititli 
Sfttseum. In 1813 two editions appeared — 
one in two Tolumcs octavo, practtcally a 
reprint of the tut, with the additioo of the 
ptKOia* now for the first time publiabed, and 
the other in a ainjfle quarto votume, a iv 
print of the original, toeetber with all Um 
other maitersaMsmwatn added, and tweltne 
Goppi'rplaies instcM of the nine of the aditia 
prvterpf, one of the new ewraringa being tbat 
of a picture presented tobelborDeeborchby 
Benjamin White, and tcmv rational notat by 
after whom thiE edition is oRcn named. In 
Itilf^appearad another edition in twovolumee 
oetaTo, wbicli is almost a reprint of Iha 
oetaxo of 1813. as is also one published in 
18S&. In 1839 cane out two editions in 
ISmo — one forming voL xIt. of * Constable's 
Mivetlany ; ' the other, on larg^ ?*?'''• ^ 
Shortfeed, esdi being pul)lL«hed b^ Con- 
Btablo, and containing an introdurlioa and 
someiwle^ by Sir William Jardioe ; but the 
dates of the letters, Ih** plates, antiquities^ 
ca l endars, inanT oheervaiionB, and the ptmaa 
■re omitted. t>ne or the otlin- of thasa WU 
rt-iKnied in mifceiedinfr years (163^1S3S«and 
IKIfi) nith a men< change of date on tbe 
title-page ; but, in IK'i^ a vm- superior edi- 
tion in octavo, with additional notes by 
Jardin-s cAmo out as a volume of the * No* 
tional Illustrated Library.' This girca the 
antiquities, and though the woodcuts are of 
poor quality, tbe iiuvrtion of a map of the 
district and the excellence of tbe notes 





% rery Bervicoible; and tt bas nnce 
be^n roprintci) or reiHanl seri^rAl times 
(1879, I8«i. 1890. &c.) line Jardine in 
16&I broiurbt out Another «litiaii conlAiniD^ 
notej by EdvanlJeMU fq. %-.], who,iu ltf31, 
tift<l iinnted in the Aeconil u-tivs of lits 
•fileanings in Naiunil HUtory ' ("pp. 144- 
SIO) H c>tisi(l<-ruli1p nuniWr nf bJllirrto un- 
[MililiAli'il extmcta from 'White'a ■ Natum- 
listV Journal,' which for o 'lint? wii« in liia 
poue»^on, giving alan n fiiriiimilr'> of ana 
vwni of it, comprieine iho week Ic^-:^4 Juoi> 

In Idd-I also appeared oa edition (in one 
'Voluma octavo, but bearing no dalL-) iocttid- 
in\K the aDtiijiiili(-», 'wilh nuifs bv evvvrol 
vniinont ii«tiirali*bi,'wliiiwvre\\'illiam Uer- 
berr (aftorwarda daan of Mancheslcr), Ko* 
bert ^wi.»;t, ami .liimwit Ifvnniti. Tliin in tliM 
In.-*! edition publiKtiril ii|i lo thai tirnf, and 
is commonly known as Ittmaiv'a: but four 
rears after (1^*37) then- npiimrrd orif, bit.'><-il 
npnn it, which is Ixittir Htill, and ii^ kno^'n 
KS Bennett's, since Edward Turaer Bt^nnelt, 
ihouch dyin^ before it left the press, euper- 1 
viMU it, uddinii notes of his own, and otnera 
by Hell, Dani«1), Owen, and Ynrr«dl, aa well 
aa a sclvction from tboM? in Kunuiut odiiion. 
This, witL soBie fair wnodcuts, rc-inained for 
n lon^ whilo tha KUindanl, but ■□ tlmu bv* 
camu out of diili-, whert^ugjon in IH75 a re- 
\~isionof it (initft rated bv a niimlier of copies ^ 
of Uowick's woodcuts of birds, and the Tac- 
simik- from White's journal forniLTlr jfirco 
l^ Jwae) waa brouifbc out with fn^li notes 
bv Mr. Uartiog, and it has acrcral rim^ 
flinco bum rainued, Trith ihn nddiiiou of 
White's letters to AlarBliuiu. It includes 
the sntiquili(^a,audtgkf^snhiKli ruuknjnonif ' 
mlitionii. In 183.1 also Ciipljiin TlmmaM 
Brown brought out at Kdinburgh, with nfites 
of his own, a now edition of the natiiml hL»- 
tflry ODly^ forminj; toI. i, of n. nerira calhid 
'Thellnttsb Library,'Bnd tfai^being stereo- 
typed, has bi^rn ov<.t and orer affain ^clss)l(^d 
with a new tttl<»-pfige and a clumped date. 
Kurlhemiore, still in the same year {18ay), 
there app««r«d an i^dition uf tliL' natural his- 
tory, ' amug«d for roiintf pttrHunN,' vrhiuli bt 
now known to Unvo bw-n done by Georeianft, 
lady Dover [art- Ki.iii», (Ikorok Jauh^ Wkf.- 
BOBB AuAU-,, and is dedicated to her mn, 
n.A[nr}-Ktllis; (afterwards LordCIifden). 
It is U6 6r*t ' bowdli!>riwd ' edition, chietly 
roaukabie for the omission of a few pas- 
MMges; but the intention was good, and the 
book li&8 sulwequeiitly found its way into 
children's hands, it haTiiig been latterly 
odopted by the Society for I'romotinpChriit- 
(ian Knowlitdgn, and uianv timi,** n-uriiited, 
with new iUustr«tion.<i by Joseph Wolf [q.r.], 

and a few notes by Bell ; while it is the foun- 
dation also of A laKe number of r^printa in 
A.m«rica, ranging Irom 1^1 lo thu present 

A handy edition, inclitditig the antiqui- 
ties, with fjood notes by Illyth, but Terr 
poor woudeuts, which has since been reissued 
MjYi*nil liiuoji, WMji brought, oul in 183Bi and 
in 1^3, a very pretty one, with a fow judi- 
ciuii* nol'-s by Leonard Jenyne. In 14&4 
thi^Tf. vroA ntarterl n seriM of editions of the 
natural hittorr, publisht^d by Messrs. Kout- 
trdgi.*, of whicli the lin«t contnined notes by 
John Ueorgo Wood Iq, v.], of a kind very 
inferior to tbotte by all the pracedlnv editom. 
Brown excepted. Yrar after ytutr tain scries 
ha.1 eoiittnueil, I be price of one of the issues 
bein;* sixisonoc, and that funber reduced, in 
1 87.^1 to t hrKWpenrn for an issue of selections, 
with an introduction by .Mr. llawois. 

In 1875 there appeurcd an edition, with 
iiunirroii.4 illiixImLinn*, bj' I'. ]{. Delamolte, 
with un»ui i? factory note« by Frank Buck- 
land, and a chapter on the antiquiliet by 
RoiindL'll Ptiimer, first lord Selbomo [q, r,] 
The memoir is slight, and lliu fivo new 
letters arv- unimportant. This volume haa 
had a tar^e kbIc, nnd two cbvupor Usues 
since published are very jmpular, as wvll a.« 
one founJud upon it, but printed in AmeriL-a 
in IMI5 under the supenisiou of Mr. John 
Burro ii^hs. 

In \67*i the newly discovered and delight- 
ful cnrTL'spondcnco bLttwctm Wliito and Msr- 
sham was 6rst printed by the Norfolk and 
Norwieh XatiiraliHta' Society, annotated by 
Mr. Southwell and uiburs. and next yuar 
appeared in two volumix the ehuwicul edi- 
' tion of Thomas Bell (I7»l»-l8e0) [a.y.], thp 
pOBuH-srtor and oocnpant formerly for forty 
years of White's house at i^lbome, an edi- 
tion wliieh, from the great amount of new 
informntio'n, it pive«, ihrowe nil others into 
:hu shade. To Belt's edition refereucu haa 
i»vn uhielty made throufjhout this article. 
Uf two editions announcml in 18Q9, onu lias 
a preface by Itrant Allen, witlL illuslratioiui 
by Mr. K. li, tiuvr and Coleridgu's manuscript 
Hiite* friiiu the copy of Markwick'n edition 
I in the British Museum; the other, edited 
by Dr. lIow<ll«r Sharpe from the origmst 
tiianuscript, includu for ttie fintt time the 
, whole of 'The Garden Kalendar ' kept, by 
White from 1761, which is edited by Deati 
Hole, and numerous iUustrntionit by Mr. 
J. O. Keutcmnns, and others. 

A Uermaii translation byF. A. A. Meyur 

was published at Uerlin in 1792 (ISuio) 

under the title of 'White's Beytrftge Eur 

\atiirge*ehichte von Knglniid.' It consists 

! of extracts bo put together as to loae their 




olsry chu&eter, tbougli tlit; name of 
l^t^rA is k*pt up. TN'hile'n first six lotliin 
to Pennimt am condi-niwd inlo sii 'Enter 
Briaf,' whilt' tlm laiit mid' Virrai^buler Brief 
is coropoiindpd of three of thoat- to Bmrinff- 
Uiii, T!ip Irniinlolion i« not viiry accuratr, 
and thh edit^r'n n^marks, whethpr inserted 
in the text Iwtweea britcket« or u foolmitwc, 
ol^en conTcy a onwr, 

SVarloui oUItionK, npucinUy tliAt liy TliODios 
1 (2 roLa, 18771. of Thy Nituml Himory und 
AntiquitiPH of Selborup; uupuUiobDil letters 
and documeora ; n ' Life,' i» yet UDfiniahcd una 
in msnuBeririi. bT White's graM-great-Mphew, 
Riulitp^'h Ho1l-Wliit«, vaq.; »riea of uutiu1:>- 
llsh<>d letI«T« from John Mubo to Ctilbart ^Miilu 
{ITli-Ou) in thf pwsMBtoQ of tho Ijittor'H ralu- 
tivc. William, wtrl of Slnmford; cxtmrto from 
dociiTnaiilB ia Oriol College, Oxfurd. furniahail 
bj Clwrlat LMOCoiot Shitdwell. am.. D.C.L., nnd 
n contribution by him to A. CInrk'* CnllogR* 
of QxCurd, 1691, i>. 121 ; iioouvniuuii Hrtivlu 
' Selborrip' in tho New Motitlily Matfucitifi, vdI, 
xsix., fur D«u-uibor 1830 ; Edwurd Jesae'ii 
Qlrittiinpi ill N'aturikl Histiiry, 'iuii Her., Luii- 
don, IB3f ; C'orrcBpoudeiicu ot Rolwrt AUrabaui 
and Gilbert White, with noios by Thomjis South- 
well «ij[i others, in Tntn«. Norfolk nnd Korwicb 
Naturalists' Society, ii. 133-95 (IS'O): 'Tho 
Puliliflhed Writings of liilbf-rt White,' Xotes 
Htid yiiorin*, 5ih mr. vols, rii-ix. (1877-W); 
'Oilbwi Wliii«(jf t?«lborno' (revi««l|wwjrof thu 
full uriiclo by llichnrd Hooper), 'rcmplc Knr 
Mng:v<tii«', I'ol. !», April le7S ; rrviow* of BtII'h 
wliliun, Nataro, xvii. 309. 400 (21 Mnrvli I8'8) ; 
fipMtatof, 13J'ilv 1878; Articles in iheSntut- 
dny Ituviow, to'.ind 2* ^^(.1, ISH? ; 'Qilbrrt 
Wnito in Siu>«i'S,' by II. D. Unnlon. Zoologiot, 
1893. pp- 4*1-^0 : •' Gilbert White of Selboroe.' 
by W. W. Fi>*Uir. Mix^millan'.* Magiuinn fur 
July 1493. pp. 1S2-9; V.. A. Martina Kiblin- 
pmphy uf Gilbort Whiti>, 1887 ; CItiltrrbucVs 
KoiMOitihi> Pnri»hwof Vyflelil («itrurt*ifroin 
Hoary 'W^itc* I>i.irj>. 6iC., edited by E. V. 
Webb, Sttlisliiiry. 1809.] A. N-jt. 

WHITE, HENRY (1812-1880), bistori- 
cal and educiLtioiial writ«r, boru on 2S N'ov. 
1812, wiw the will of Obarb'S White of Min- 
6ter Stro&l, Rtiadirig. Hn wit? tducatcd 
tkl Roiidirig jfrnuiinar n^biwl und«r RidiKrd 
"S'alpy [q. v.], and proctoded to Triujty Ool- 
]«gQ, Cnmhridif''. lit* abd *tudimL ut the 
iiaJverBity of m>id«lborp. ■wllen^ he obtained 
tb» dugruuuf I'h.l). In i!i« nHrlirrpflrt. of his 
career, after worliinft at Geneva wilh Mfrl« 
d'Aubif^ii'' fur fuino lira«, h«i was chiefly 
occupied with Mholaetic work, and published 
fterenU blMorH-jil tpsi-booltc of considerable 
morit. I'erhupfi tho best known is hi!* ' lli*- 
tory of Fran™,' Kdiribiirgh, 1800, llimo, 
■which attainud an eighth f-dltion in ]t<70. 
J" '*'■•'* tiewaaapiwinUjd to superintend the 

numpilatiDn of iht: ' Calaloifue of ScIentiBc 
i'apera' U»ued by tho iEoyfll Society, and wok 
uogaged In iHI" work until his dtatb. For 
Hoinn ynaro In- also acted as literary critic lo 
the '.\tlaa' durinf! the t^dilur»hip of Houry 
.Tuint>g Slack .<i- v.j 

In IN!" b« publifilied hie moat important 
hook, 'The Maswicn.' of v>t. Uarl b<)li»iiit>w, 
prt-ccdt'il l)r a HlMory of the Itelipinus 
Wars in the Kt-i^i of Charlw* IX,' London, 
8vo, a work of iioniiine rf^ftt-arch. White'a 
n-H^ iho Ski Kuulisih trealiseto ehow that tlio 
mo^atre was ttie roAiilt of a stiddfn revolu' 
tion, and not ^fa long-prwpared conspiracy. 
TUi- iniriLii of his inoiiopaph werw rfcoff" 
niscd by Alfred Maury, who reviewed it 
plnbortttfly in ihf- 'Jotirnal des Savants,' 
White died in London 011 ^'i Jan. 1880. lu 
1^7 he marrivcl KliKabKlh King of Boa- 
lopMi— !*ur-Mf!r, and left iaaiie. 

Beiiidi'ii ihe works nlrvady mt^nliouod, 
\Vliit« wn» tho iiTilhor of : 1. ' Elementa of 
t'niveraal History.' Kdiuhurph, 1843, ISmo; 
lathed. Edinburgh, 1S72, t<vo. 2. • OuU 
lini^n of TTnivcrMi Hifitorv,' Edinburi;h, 
IW.:;, Hvo; loth ed. 1873. l^mn. 3. ' Hi»- 
torv of Great Bril«in nnd Ireland,' Kdin- 
biiruh. 1819, l-iino: t'Oth ed. IKVy. lUalso 
(■ompiled RL'vnral Bchool hi*lori>'f, and b*^ 
Iwdfii ISW and IS03 traunlsted Mfrled'Au- 
bijrn*''» 'History of the lioformntion.' In 
conjunction with Thomas W. Nuwton ho 
prnpartid thn ' flWlalogtii? of thrt Library of 
tbi' Miineiiin of Practical Qwlo^,'|mhl!!-hed 
in 1878. 

lliiformiiiiou klodly (pvun by Mr. H*niy 
White's aon. Mr. A. HofaiogB While; Allibone'a 
BiL-l. uf Kiijtl. Lit. ; Trubner's Amorimn. Knro- 
pean. and Oriertid Kacord, 18»(), p. 12; 
Athcn.-euin. 18S0. i. 68.] E. I. C. 

WHITE. HKNKY Kn{IvE(178.VI80«), 
poetuator, bom in Nottinpham ou 21 Much 
l7Hn, was son of a butcher. Hi* mother, 
whose nnmewaa Neviilfl.cameof a Stafford- 
shine fittniLy, and at one time kf>pt a bo«rd- 
inp-.tchnol for pirla. Th^" linnfl« in which 
Henry is said to have heun bom is stilt 
pointftd nut in Rxchanpc Alley, NoHJnjf- 
liam ; the lower portion romains a butchers 
shop, the upper portion i» a lavtm with the 
sign of Tho Kirku White.' 

Aft4-r Toceiving an tlemontary eduoatioa 
at ftniaU privatu 8cbouli>, be wu at tbn age 
of fourt^f n put to work at a stocking loom. 
But hf chnfi'd nguin»'t such cmploymenl. 
Hi* develope'd lit*mry Iaat<>», and be^^n 
writinffpootrj". Ilojuint^'d a literary aoctety 
and lihowtid promise lu an orator. Within 
a year be obtained more congenial emnloy- 
mtinl; with a firm of lawyitra at N'ottinglUtm. 
His parents could not afford to pay « 



pro- M 


I Toll 



Im wtw ac4oniii>Kly CJ^nipt-Ued to 
terra two yean before bein^ articled. H« 
■ignetl his articles in 1802. His employers 
.ltotii>«<l hi* promiM, and AilviM<(I him to 
inaiy l^tiiL In ten raontba he could rvud 
llormw ' wilh t<4cmblu facilily." and had 
bo^o (fn«k. Sooii arivnrunU lit! acii^uirvd 
•om« knowl«df(eor8paniHh and l\)rtiigueae, 
ftod read many booKs on natunl scionoe. 
til- i^>nlinuni liiit ^ttn-t'it. Kii<I^av<)iirH, ami 
cnntribiitMl 10 the 'MonlUIr I'ret^ptnr' — a 
periodical which ofTonnl pnsua to vouthful 
whtrrs. Subflrtiuemly he aent points and 
easari to the ' Monthlv Mirror,' in which his 
work attraet«4l itiv favonrahii' nolici' oT onv 
of the pn>Driotor», lltnmas IIiII(17tiO lt<-IU) 
fq. v.^, aiidorCape) ImR\. Whitv now deriv 
U)pi!«t n Mtroiig vvangeltcal iii>jiy. He read 
wiVh apprecittCtiMi Spoil's ' Fonai of Trulh,' 
and mnde up his mind to go to Cambridre 
and takt] holy ordvn!. With s view lo rai»- 
Ing some of the needOil funds, be, with the 
aangulneneeH «f youth, preparvd in IKhi a 
ToluiDft ofnoe-ins Inr the pn-ju. Tim Duch^^d* 

if Devonsliire accepted the dedication, and 

td1iiid« •pp«inn'<l in 1803 andor the titin 

'Clifton <]mvf, u sketch in yerae^, with 

itlier po^"™*, by Ui'nry Kirk" Whiti; of Nol- 
tfngham.' In thi' pntfncv White conft-d^t-d 
ibat the verseo came from a very youthful 
pen. Th« work was of raodcwE m«rit; the 
tlu tmem »how«l iht.' intluLtiCEJ uf Uold- 
Kmithii ' I)i!»«-rtt'd ViIliiK<'i' "od "• revii-wer 
in the 'Monthly Itoviow' for tVbruary 1804 
justly rind cmirtfniMly tinid thnt tin" bnyi'th 
vurse vThA ni)i disttnclive. Whitp tt'nt a 
lett«T of complaint to thi- editor, nnd the re- 
virrwer atxi tnoDlh rcpliod in a kindly tone 
that be adhered to his lir»t opinion. Meaii- 
whilo the book come undi^r tho notice of 
Soutlwy, who exaffei.*rau*d it4 literary ralue. 
Olid eneourof^ \\hit« tu n^)ii«nl Limi^elf lui 
a victim of the critic's malignity. Thuuce- 
forth Suutht^y dvcply int«nMt«d himself in 
^V*hilB'a carwr (Sot'THBT, Oonvtpondaw*, 
ii. 91). The vol Lime of ^rovms was not a 
p<vaniary Boeoesti, and Whiter, compolled to 
took elsewhere for aHUtaoce to enable him 
to*^nter (hf univ*:'r«ity, obtained nn iiUro- 
duciiou throus'hhisemnloyerat Xottinsliam 
ti) Chitrk-* SiiUfon fif Kiiie's ColieRe, Oaiw- 
bridg«. :jimtton was iuipr«><«ed bv White's 

Siety. ond procured him a sitaraliip nt St. 
uhn's : Wilb<;rforce and uthirr eympathigers 
gtiarant«ed him a Htnnll i>up|iti-in*-ular>- iii- 
oome, and ho nuitled his leffal employmnnr. 
in )*>! toi>p«>n<l a yearin prcparatiim fortbe 
nnivcr«iiy with a clergyman name<! (J rftinircr 
of Winterinffhiitn, Lincolnghirt.'. There over- 
Wf-irk injured hkA hi-alth, which had already 
fehown signs of weakoBls. 

I Iq October 1806 he eater«d St. John's Col- 
lege, aiu) at oneo distineninhed himself in 
clafisica. At the geaerol coUejte examiniw 
tion at the end of the fint term, and again 
at iht' end of the »unuiier term of IBW, be 
I come out Kr«t of hia jear. Out hi» beidth 
' wns fiiilinf;. and caosaBipliun threAtcowd. 
' The cidleip! pnivided a tutor for him in 
I mathemalK^s during the loojCT vacation of 
I IfiOn. His limlth provi-d un(Hiuiil lo the 
strain. At the beginninf^ of tlie October 
, I'jrm he completely br(>ke don-n, nnd he 
' died in his collcire rooms on HI IM. 1806. 
In It^ld a tablet to liis toemory, with 
' A medallion by ChantrvT and an inscrip" 
I tion by Profwsior William Smnh. was 
I placed above hia grave in All 8ninta' 
I Chnrch, CainI>ri«Ig«, at tliu expanse of & 
', young .\mericau admirer, I-'rancis Uootl 
I fq. T.] of Rostoo. subsequently well knowti 
I in England as a botanist, llie original 
I model of Chnntrey'a medallioQ is in the 
I National Tortraii Oallory. Tb« uii»eum 
nt N\ittingbani powMMw two portraits of 
I W'hite, one (in profile) by T. Barber, and 
I nnother by J. Iloppner. R.A. There ia 4 
' third (annnynioas) portrait in the National 
I I'orlrnit < lallerj*. 

I Wliile left, in manviscript a toum of «n- 
publi'hed ver»e nnii pnme. His relntivea 
placed it. in Mouther's bands, nnd •Snuthejr 
ciitnpUed from It * The lEeuiaiii^ of Heiir^ 
Kirki- WIuIj- . . . with an Account of bia 
Life,' which he piiblialied in two volumes in 
1H07, The vnliime rontainwl ' Clifton 
(irovr' ' and many pneme writtoii by White 
ill childhood, togetlierwilbasftriesof liymns 
and a fragment of an i^ic on the life of 
Cbritt called 'The Chriatisd,' which death 

firevenled White from completing. Waller's 
yric * Oo, lovely Hose,' was n-prinled with. 
A iji^w concluding stanza by White. The 
cbiuf contribution in ^roso was a series of 
twf*lve v*i>nys iiii n-iitfious and philosophic 
topicA chUpiI ■ MelniKuioly Houw.' In tha 
prefatory memoir Htnithi-y i-mplLOMMd the 
pathos of White's short c&ret>r, and wrote 
with enthusiasm of hia poetic i;uuitu. Tim 
'liemains' was wl-II rf'Wive"!, and passed 
through tvu editions by 1*«23. Tho work 
was often reprinted subscc|uenlly both in 
England and America. It was published 
for thci first time in America at Boston 
in 1A!^. Ten of White's hymns wen in- 
cluded by Or. W. ». Cullyer in his 'Sup- 
plement To Itr.Waita'i) Psalms and Hymns,' 
London, 1812, and «(« »till in common 


Many early readers of the 'ICemaios' 
shared Southey'H high opinion of White'* 
literary merits! In 1809 Ilyron wrote sym- 




pfttlivticnlly in ItiH 

EngluU BaH« and 

CnlMpcj Wliu ! vhile life mui ib tra apriiis 
And tliy >Muig muM jtitl ahook her jojoiu 

The spoiler cane ; ud nil thy prcimiie C^ir 
Iloa •oogLt the grurti, \i> ulrep fir er*r th*ro. 
Tvus ihin« ovD cnninx ipiva [hu fltial blow 
And iiolptd to plant thu vouml tliat laid ihw 


BjTon elfo wiolo of Wiito lo Dallaa on 
?7 .\ug. 1611: 'dotting iU)idi*lii9bi|fotrv, lu> 
surely nnkn next Ohaturton. It i* nMn- 
nUbioir how littlu Ik^ whs kuowa ; and »t 
CumbridL^ no mii? thnuglit or henrd of ancli 
ft mnn till hifl deatli rL-ndprfd all nolic« lue- 
hitB. For mv own |mrr. I Htiuuld have been 
protid ofsiirfi anufqunintiinre: liipTOrypro- 
)udic?e were respoctnWe,' But SoiiUicyV 
charitable jiidifini'iU, which Byrtt" ("fliofd. 
h&.4 not i^tood tb« teiit of time. Whitu'a 
TerKe flhoWB vver^ marlc "f imiunliiritV' In 
thoug'ht and eKpfo&sion it Iftcka vijioUT and 
britfiiinlity. A promiae of weipln^M in nn 
fiirly and pKiphptic Ivrie. 'A Danw of Coa- 
BUBi|>livcs (from nn tinfiaiabed 'Eccentric 
I>r«mii'>, was not fulfilled in hia Inter cnm- 
pDfiitiun!!. The inutriual dcxu-ri'v wtut'li is 
phnwii in llirt adrlit.iou ti Waller's 'Go, 
lovely llo*e,' in not beyond n njL'diocrc capa- 
cilT- Swch iiijpiilrtrity nn Wiiilf* work boa 
nnjoyeJ la to be attributetl to the pathe- 
tic brevity of his caTV-er and lo the fervoxir 
of tlip evangelical piety whirh in»pirod llw 
^realt;r part of Lie wriliiiga in both vene and 

(Sijul^py's Memoir prefixed to llemains 
ISO?: Brown'* Nottia^anubire VTorthte*. pp. 
Z93-99 ; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnologv.J 

8. L. 

WHITE. nnr.Ti (ft. iiotp-ump), 

chronicler. [S»e liuoiuj 

WHITE. JAMKS (l7rW820), author 
of 'Fatstatf'a lyettem,' baptised nn 7 ."^pril 
1775, was the eon of fwmuel White of 
llewdley in Worce»t«T»hiri'. Bom in Ibe 
ttumu y ear oa Cbarloi) Lamb, be waa educat ed 
wiUi him at C'hrUl's llonpital, where be was 
adtnittod on 10 Sapt. 17811 on the pn^scu- 
lation iif Thninnii ('fivenfry. lie left Ibp 
ftchonl on 30 April 1790 in order to bccomi' 
a clerk in the lrva»iinT'« oHice, Afior re- 
maining fur Kome yeart in that pcwvtion he 
founded an adrertising agency nt 33 Fleet 
Htreot, which i« Mill carried on iindpr a firm 
of Iho «auio name. To tlua buitincaa ho 
united that of agent for provincial oewa- 

white wma the lifelong friend of Charlea 
t^nib. lie waa introduocd by Lamb to 
Shakespeare'* ' H»nry IV,' knd waa at once 


foAcinatcd hx the oharact«r of Falauti, whom 
ho frequently tmpereouated in lite company 
of hiii fricDds. Ily hia aucce«a in aiutatning' 
the chunicu>r at a auuauontdo ho roiued tliu 
jealousy of bevi-rul Hniull actum hirinl for the 
nccuBioii, and nccoidinit to his friend and 
i>clioiilfe|]ow John MathewCiutch [ij. v.], ho 
waa generally known as ' Sir John ' amon^ 
hi* tnttmntwfi. In 1"9() he published 'On- 
(finnl Letton, &e., of Sir John FaUtafT and 
his Frienda' (London, 8vo). William Ire- 
land's forpeiy, ' Vortigcni,' waa nrodiifvd at 
Drury Lane in I hu same ^t-ar, and t W ' Lotters ' 
were prefaced by a dedieation iu black letter 
lo 'Master 8nmuul In-luund>',* tliu forgvr'8 
father, which wan probnhly wntien by Larab. 
11ie' Lulters'wenholdin ihebiglieateetcom 
bv Lninli, who induc<v1 Colttridgn to notic(» 
tliem in rhe 'Critical Review' for June 
1797, and himEDlfc-otitribuled aa apprfcia- 
tion cif thi-m In the ' Examiiirr' for i» H«'pl, 
1*>10, ' The whole work,' he wrote. ' is full 
of goodlv quip) and rare fancieii, all deeplr 
^laakl^<l like hoar anlitjiiitr.' Xotwitlulviu- 
in|; his entbueiaain, which led him to por> 
cha«A Rvery second-hand copy he found on 
the book<i>*llerti' ulalU and pivaent it to a 
friend in the hope of making a conrert, the 
sale of the ' Li'Ctvrs ' was iueousiderable, and 
they brouglit their author liltle (iinie. A 
fecund edition appeared in 1797, composed 
of unsold copies of the first with new litlo- 
niyft>i«, but the work wa* not r^^ptintod until 
lt^77,wbeo a newedilton was issued with an 
elfihorale memoir (London, iL-mn). 
*^ Wbttn died in London at hi« bouto in 
Burton Crescent, on 13 March ISKX He 
married a daughl^'r of Fauldcr tbu hook- 
M'lliT, and lef^. thny- children, lie waa a 
mnn of infinits humour, one ' who carried 
away with bint half tJiv fun of the world 
when hii died' (JS*«ays of Ulia). Lamb 
always spoke of him with great afTerlion. 
'Ji-in Wiiite,' he said to Le tlrice in 18*1, 
' there never waa liia like. We sliall never 
si'B such days aa thoao in which he nourished.' 
He commamoratvd White's mutual feftit to 
the chimney-sweeps in one of bia most 
familiar es^Anya, and in the msay 'On aomv 
(lid Acl'im ' Ki- (fivtw a ph'ii!«int account of 
White's discomfiture bvI>odd the comedian. 
The author of ' FalstiifrK U-tlen! ' moat 
1)0 dirttingninliod from .1a»f^ White {d. 
ITSW*, scholar ond novelist, who was pro- 
bably a relative. This James WHiite vna 
elected ft acbolar of Trinitv Colle^, Oub- 
lin, in 177 1*, and gradunle^ B.A. in 1780, 
ITi? was well Tery^>il in tht; Orvi'k laofjwijife, 
ndiled one or two classical work*, and wrote 
three historical novels of some merit. To- 
wards the close of bia 1if« his conduct b*- 






eanifl Mcnntrie, oni] h» imitginvd himnlf 
ihc rictUa of acoMf iney. tit- died, iiumnr- 
rieil, ut the Car|M>Dt«re' Aruu in tin: jwrukh 
uf Wick ia Oloucii%ton>liin! on SO olnrcli 
liU'-J, ill tn'eat ilfjilituliiiii. Hn wm cIip 
author of: 1. 'Hinie of « Specific Plan for 
lliH Abolilioti of I lif aUsv Tradi',' 1788. 8vo. 
2. Tonwny ('«stle,' nnd other poems, I^n- 
don, 17**!*, 4tc. 3, ' Earl Stron^oow ; or the 
JlUlory fit litclksrd de Clare and tho IWutU 
fol OfmMa; London. 17^9, 1' vols. U'inu; 
fierrtiftn Imnslution by Geoi)i l-ViedricU 
lkn«ke,lluliiisiadt,l"i>0.8vo. 4. 'TbuAd- 
vpnlar«4 o( John of (Jaunt,' 1790, H vol«, 
12mu; G<>naan tmnBlulion. IlHlmHtttdt, 
1701, 8to. B. 'Tb« Ai!renl.ur»-i' of KiTi(f 
Ricliard Coiur dc Lion," London. 1701, 
3 ¥ol*. I'iain. 0. 'I*tt»^nt to Lord Cam- 
di-n," iri». He al«o tran(v!ftt«l: 7. 'The 
IJrBlioQ of Ctcent at.'aln&t Viirms,* 1787,-llo. 
8. Jfjin Vtmi IlatMiit Sainl'Ktienne's 'Ilis- 
Uiiy of the F'r^nrli ]^>7olutioD,' London, 
17«-i, 8v<.; 2nd t-dit, ITSa. 9. 'Speeclies 
of M. da Mirabeau iho Elder/ Dublin, i7ii^, 
8*0 {Annual Rryht^r, t7W, ii. 1 1 ; ItBfos, 
Rtyutter <ff Liring Authort, 1770-90; it. 
1790- ISWJ; tbt.o/Dubim Gruduatm). 

[Tho T^iKibi. their Live*, tboir Friendi. nnd 
mir CorrMpondonM, by W, C. Hulitt, iS«7, 
pn. 2-1-6 ; Ijifn, Ij«U#r«, aod WritJuK" uf [>«nib, 
M. Fitagvrukl, I88S: Lcltrrs of J^Ainb. ed. 
Afngor. 18S8: Lettrrs of lomb. etl. H«xblt. 
1882-6 (BoWn StAodnrd Literary); Hiuilitt'a 
Mnry oud Charlw LiiDb. 1874 ; Chnrlca Lamb 
Mid tbc lAaydt, cd. £. V. Luims. I SOS, pp. 48- 
60; flimthfv'it I-if« nnd Corresp. 185ll, ri. 28ft- 
287 ; Oftii.'M.ia- 1820. i. 471.] E. L C. 

WHITE, .IAMF.S (l!aOS-l80:i), author, 

bum in Midlothinn in MnrcU 180''^, w«» tho 

yoiingrr «)n nf John White of l>uiimorQ in 

thi county of Stirlini;, by his wife Elizabeth, 

dftiight«r of John Loj^n of Howilua iu Mid- 

lotiuAn. AUer etudr'tag at (iliugow Uni- 

irenity he matriculali'd from Pembroke 

CoIIepo, Oxford, on l5lKfC. 182S,ffr»duntinir 

B.A. inlS27. Ht'serviTcloa curate of Ilnrte-ii- 

I Cum-Boxated in Siitrulk, niid on 27 March 

iIS33 hu wiu! instituted vicar of l>oxi«j- in 

, Warwickahiru. l,ltiniale!y,oU6uooef?dingto 

a eon»idemhle pialjininny on Iht; dciilh of his 

wif«'« fathnr, hw resigned his liyina and re- 

Itired to Bonnhurch in thclaleof Wighl. In 
tbifi rplrmit he turned 111* allwition to litt-ra- 
tuK, in which ho hud already made tMimo 
waays, jcDducjog botwtMu 184c nod 1847 a 
•aeOHliaa of SoottUh hUlorioal tra{r0(1i,.s, 
'Worksof •ome nioric, thou^rb nnty moderati'ty 
aucceofuL Anotbtir tn^dy, ' John Sarile 
of IlgysLuad ' f Londnn, IR17,'>4ro), wA»art4.'d 
at SadUr** Wrila Tbc-atre in 1W7. At a 
lat«r time be brought out urAral hiAtorical 

»k«t«bM of a irapalnr rhameier. «rrittf<n with 
ooiiudcrnble power of ^'eubraliMtiou. llie 
beat known ia ' Th<.' EiKut«4.-uChfi»tiaB C'-en- 
t urifs'(l-Mi[]bur^h,]SfiS,6vo), which raaelied 
a fimrlti vdilinu m I8(U. 

WhitB died al BonchorcU on 26 March 
l&i'I. lEtf miuTii-d in 1839 Kou, only 
dauffhter of Colontd Pnphnm Hill. By her 
he had one Eon, James (Itill-l^Hg), and 
Hiivr lUughttT.i. White noiunwwd a charm- 
ID^ style, and intere^tvd nis reu<li>r8 by his 
cWruoMof thought and hiH ability in select- 
ing; and arranKtng detail. He wola tho friend 
of Charl'e^ Ilickena, who in IMUIook u bouse 
at Bonchurrh fur aomu moutli* in ordttr tu 
be near blm. l)n« of bis tnigedius waa 
dt^dlcBl^d to nickL-ni>. H'm poRruit was 
puinti-d in l^^l bv Koburt 8cott l^udtir. 

Beaidea the works already menlionHl, 
TrVliile was thw author of: 1. 'Thu Villaftc 
r')orliiiii«(i: by a Ootiutrv ('urati',' I>indnii, 
1f>.ti, l:2iiio. :>. '(.'buridi and School: a 
Hialof^te in Verne,' London, IS.IH, li^inn. 
S. *Th« AdrenUirwof Sir Frizxle Pumpkin,' 
London, 1838. Hvo. 4. * The Earl of Gowrte ; 
a Tragedy,' London, l&lS. 8m ft. 'Tlie 
Kiuif iind tbe Commons: a Drama,' London, 
1846, 8ro. tJ. • Feudal Timet ; or tho Court 
of James 111: a bcotlisli historical Play,' 
London, 1847, lUmo. 7. ' Landmarks of 
the Mietory of England,' Ijvndun, I8&!>, 8vd. 
8. 'Landmarks of ih" Hinlory of Greece,* 
London, IS-V, 8vo. Q. * Itobert Bunu^ and 
Walter Scott: two Livee,' London, I8'>8, 
1 3mo. 10. ' History of FVanc«/ Kdinburgti, 
lMM,8vu; and ed. 16B0. II. ' Ilimory of 
EugUnd,' Ixindon, 1880, 8vo. .Some tronv' 
lat ioH!! from Scbilk-r by While were pnbUshvd 
in * Blackwood'!) Mugaxiue,' xliii. ^7, 684, 

[_Burkii"» Landed Gentry, av. ■ Whii« of Kell«r- 
■lAin i' Ornt Mac. 1862, i. 641 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxnii. lilA-I8B0; TosKra liidri BmIw. ; 
AUilona'* Diet of Enjil, Lit,; KoWer's Lire of 
Dii:kenH. ii. 301^(5, iii. Itt4.] E. I. C. 

WHITE. JAMCS (1810 ISSS'i. founder 
of thK Jt!xrHelit«8L [Sish JsicEBtL, Ja1IE» 


WHITE, JEUESnAH (1629-1707), 

chaplain to Cromwell, was bom in W2^. 
He was admitted a sisar of Trinity College, 
Cambridf^', <in 7 April IftlO, proce'jded B.A, 
in 1(U9, and M..\. in ItSoS. In hia atudeul 
years he rxpf^rient'^d much mental distreea 
owinjf to ri'liifiniiNdiHiriiltii-n, hut ultimattdy 
fnand confloiatinn in the doctrine of tbe 
restoration or restitution of all thint^. On 
leJiTing the univernity be pasapJ at oni;p to 
VVbiteLull, and became uomoetic chaplain 
to Oromwel) and preacher to the council of 


state. Hii RttrftcUTe |wmm uid witty con- 
verMtttoiitoonmadehiai poiiulur. Hi« pn«i< 
tion in tliu liuuitcilmlduf the l*mU!Ctor bmught 
him into ctunt? rKlnlLoiixliip with hi« DiDiiljr, 
and Wliils allowed liia ambition to (^ m fnr 
a« to ospiru to tbo U&Dd of Cromwell's 
joiingent daug'hter Frances. Il \a »aui that 
the lady did not look upon Lim with din- 
Aivour. Th<! euilc of ihinga camu to Crom- 
WL'U's kuowled^. With iIik lw\p of a liouM- 
hold gpy he maiiu^ed to surprist» thK two nt u 
moueDt wbeu bin cbupluin w&s on btskneej 
befoPBluada.aghterkii>Hiiiy;hKr[i«riil, '.Itrry,' 
•who tnif nuvLT nt a Iom for sora«tbinK to 
Hiiy, ex|ilitiiitKi tbitl fur huhii.- timii jxisl L« 
luid haen payinff liia aildn^ssrii to th.' Inriy'^i 
wuitinff wumnn, Imt boing iineuccessrul ia 
hifl nndeavouFR, be hud hern drivin to 
soliciting tbe Lady Fraoccs's itilertal on his 
bp)i«ir. TIh» opiiortiinily tbus offered wu« 
not neal^'cttxl by fromwoU. tiopnuehinj; 
the waiting woman ivitb her flliubt of bis 
fri'tnd, and^iiiinfi; h^r con»>.-nt to tbomatoh, 
be sent for anoibt-r cbaijkin and Lad ibvm 
morriod at onc«. 

At till- lictcoratiou WLito found bimsL'lf 
without fixed intome, but nbAtiiin«d from 
tliv ri.'1i)^ouig disputvB iif tb» day. It ia 
]trobatj1t> tbnl: bis pupuliLril y i(nin>>d livm 
&omu furta af muinti'nanc^c. In 16<f0 tbtt 
fvlnlv of 'uld Mrs. (.'romwell ' wn» m bis 
bLndii. Flo colIfCtv"! much inforroatioEi 
after tbci Ri?«tomtioti, but rcfii<ec?d a thoui^iuid 
(TuineaH from Jam-.'^ II fnr bis maiiuseripl, 
bcinft di»Inctined to (Ii»i4?rvdjt the ealabliflbfd 
church. His manuscript is not known to bu 
extant. While neviT hi lasi-lf conform wit o ihc 
cburcL of EtiK^Iaud. He uruiicbisd occasion- 
ally in an iiidi-|M-iidi*nt cbun'b in Mm-linj^- 
tiousti Alley, Queen Sireul, Lowec lloibLT- 
bitbe, which waa built soon afler the R»«to- 

WbiU was a conspicuous mvmber of tite 
Calvfls' Head Ctuhatit«nnniial mcfilini^on 
30 Jan., when the ' AnnivefBary Anthem ' 
wiw snng, and wino in a calf's skull w«nt 
tbe round to tbe mi'mory of 'tbo patriots 
who bad rt-lieved the nation from tymnny.' 
He died in 1707. A iflowiwii; cbiiructU'r is 

?'ivL'n of him in the * Monthly .Miacnllatiy ' 
nv 1707 (i. 83 B. I1»-18V tbyn- is u por- 
Invit of While iticorivrtly ftltributed to Van 
Dyck. An vni^aTiDfri^Iireiixfldiohii! work, 
' A PersuiwivM to ?h I c Hie ration,' publiabed 
aA/irhis death in ITOH. 

Mill publicKtioiitt include: 1.*A Funeral 
SermDn on the IXev. F. Fuller,' l^ndon, 
1702. 2. ' The Restoration of all Thing-,' 
(anon.), London, 1712, 177f) (:lrd edit.), 
1851 (in voL iu. of tbe (Jtuversalist'a Li- 

brary). Extraeta firom thn work were puh- 
Usbed in a volame entitled ' Luitetsal 
Uestoration.' with olbcr» of a like natnro 
by ' some of the mi>3it remarkable authors 
who haw written in dvfence of that int«- 
roeliiig gubjuct' (Louduu, l(J0t9). 3. 'A 
I'ersuaaive tu Moderation,' London, ITOS 
{17£lj.°). Thia is an enlai^ment of pari 
f»f Whil«'» prrfiu'tt to IVltr Stcrry'w ' rhf 
liiae, Rare, and Royaltr nf the Kingdom of 
God in tbv .Soul." 

[I'lilcnrr'i Nooiwnfoi-niiM's Mi'morial. i. 311 ; 
PmfiKM^ io White's I^cetomtion, 1*13; Old- 
ni'innit lli»t. of the Siuivrl". p. 436 ; NoCen aiut 
QiK-rioH. Ul MM-. *ii. ^SH ; t'nL of tiUt« Pl^«n. 
1C^6-S. p. 'Hit; WiUua's Diasonlinir CburelHa. 
ir. M7 ; Tiiaieabr'ti Ihary. i. 7: Tho Secret 
Hiit.of iliB C«lv(« n«ad Cluli, p. 10; Oma^r'a 
Bioi;r. IIi»U («>nl. by Noblu) ii. 161; FcpyVs 
Jiiiiry. ]y Sppl. 1660, 13 Oct. 1661 : Admiwioa 
rauitlers ofi nnity Cotlryo; Cambridge, par tbe 
UnAtir; Cjiireniily ragisten, ptr the Regi- 
slrary.I B. P. 

WHITE, JOJIX { 1610?-1660>, bishop of 
TiV'incbL'stcr. wa« the son of Robert While of 
FaruUaui, wberebewas bom in I o 10 or 1511 
(bia brother John became lord mayor of Lon- 
don in iJVtVS: »ov pt-diitrou in MjiN.vino and 
ItRAT'a Hittury of Surrry, iii. 177 ; but Col- 
ifctanea Topoi/rajMca et Gentaloffica, rli. 
'2]'2, says lhi» ta incorrcL't). In 1621, at 
tbu txfrt' of I'litvttn, hi! u'aa admitted scholar 
at \\ iiichester, "-hence h»j proceed^ as 
fellow to New CoH«pi% Oxford (KinBT,j>. 
111). He wiw admitted full fellow in 152( , 
((Tftduatcd lt.A. on 13 Dlc. I">L'», M.A. on 
SOJan. 1 534, 11.1). (P)b(-fore L-iS.! (see ItTMEE. 
Fiedera, x\. SSH), and U-D. 1 Oct. 1565. 
In 1034 \k rvaiguwl bi5 fi-Uowsbip, hmua 
tht-n toaAtiTof Winchfester College, <if which 
L» was toado wardun in February 1.MI 
i\\'tLt.Vi, MitrrJ AMjirt. i.aS-l). Df'hia UfM 
at Winchester different oocouuta are given; 
fttvourabl-.' by Viifi(l>f Jirbm AnglicU, 1619, 
p. 7fi;i, part ty on report nf Chriatopher John- 
son. hi mseir master of Winchnit(*r),who de- 
ficrihi-.i him lift 'aculut) pneta, orator (-loqucna, 
theolggus aolidiLti, concionator ner\'usua;' 
and iinfnvrturabU-by Itftle (.ScrjpM. lirittmn. 
lllit*tr. p. 737). wbodedcriboslkioi wiikMaii- 
dolousAOfff^^tiViOncss, and dubs him'daltana 
aainus.' lie waii uppninied in March 1<>10-1 
a probcndai7 of H'mdie*l«r. ludcr Kd- 
ward VI hu biigsn to attritct attuntion aa 
an opponent of tbe proteisiantH. \lv was 
exauiiiiod bv the council on 2m March 16M, 
when ho admitted receiving ' divers books 
and lotlvn from bt^yond aua,' and waa com- 
mitted to the Tower {Hatfield MS. I 83: 
Aetj P. C. U)50-2, p. 232). 

Ou 14 June fulLowing the council, * upon 

knowK'dgie of snmo butter conformTtin to 
mnttKnof rflipon/tnumr'-rivd lihit tot'ran- 
raer'a coAtod; 'till euche lymo m he mny 
ii^cIsiDje liim' (lA. p. 30S; Strvpe, (WjHwifr, 

!i.2."J3). Oanmcrwivs sjipnrcnilv Mieces«ful, 
nt in the saaie y-'ar Wliue became nctoruf 
Clii>ytrtn, .Siirti.'V.nHilon 'Ji M\v IMShi^waji 
admiiled tathopr^-buuii of Keel i-i^ hull in Lich- 
field C*thedrftl (Lt; Xeve, /VW*, i. tiOl ). H« 
ent<;n)d into ctmirovirwy with Pctur Marlyr, 
and wa» the lirnl. Fuller says, wlin treated 
th>eological ^i)i|mt<!e in vera.- {tvi: list of \m 
worlw b^low) John I'hil^il [ij. v.J, urch- 
dt'ocon of Winchester, PXcommtinicalV^cl him 
'for prK«ohinj{ nati^tv duclriiHi' (I'hii.pot, 
Hrtria, Parker tvir. p. k-J); but White fleenis 
to bnve rvlainod bisprefermenle, and if ftiid 
10 bat'c bc«n inotnini'-TilAl in |m-.'<(Tving th<: 
college of Si. Ulnryal Winrhtwlor, who-n ihw 
a<Ijoinii)f[ coUe^ of St, Kliiabeth, the aitn 
nf which h*' piiTCli(i*til, -kiu^ drstroywl (,»(■■' 
Milker, HVnoA^^^r, i. W-'). 

On thcaccfRsion of Mary ho came at once 
into ptvntini-ncf. ilu sal on sevvrnl of th« 
coEDiniuion« which reMored and denrived 
buliope. Hl- pn>achnl at St. Fuurii od 
:>.*» Nov. IWi.l in favdiir "f iht^ rn'toration of 
ntlijinoiis jirnce-isiDna (.Mu'iivK, p. -li'l. He 

VH» hIitN'*) Itishnp tif Fiinciiln on I Mnrrh 
IfAi (l.F. Nrvk, F^«li; hill .^ee Hvmkk'h 
/(Frfci-o.xv.yT'l.forliei-iioO. wiwcoiiwiTated 
in St. Saviour>, Siuthwnrk, on I April by 
l)onm«r, Tun^tall, and GardiniT (>TOnBH. 
JteyMtrum fiarntm An;;liettnum, ed. IHI7, p. 
IW). and a'wired rvstitutiun of ibc tempo- 
ralitiea of thi- ft. on 'J Mav Ifi-Vl. He watt 
• pfuvidetl ' to the eee by tt*- po]»e in a con- 
»t«t(irT '^n (t July (I{AV!<I4I.I>iti>, ann. 16't4, 
J 5). Ho wsHgranti'dThf- ncxi preaentalion 
to the arrhdoacnnrr of Tannton on "J Xnv, 
(Hi^t. .V.W, Co7M>w,'\Vrll!' MPS, p. 2m). On 
lhearrivalofI*hilii)ll ht-wA^ioneof i:Iio»who 
received him ut t hi' west door of Winchoaler 
Cftlh-dral (C'if. stntr I'aitrt, For. I'j-W tl, 
pp, 106-7). He prearlirtt ut tlit- on»-iiin([ of 
parltnmunt *m 21 Oct, InSo {lb. Vcn-ttnn, 
I.l.'t.j-U, J), i?l7). Hii had aln-nnly hccoun- 
lamoua in ihp pursuit of her^'tici, and on 
30 S».'pt. I-Vif) Im pn^widi'd at Ridli'v* triol. 
He then twittMl tn« ncrtiAeil with his rhanjfp 
of upiuiofi on the doctrine of the eucharist 
('l'M!.'»0lie9. fV/Nivr«Vin nf F.nijlnivi, ili. INW 
«iq.; cf. FoiB, AetM mitJ Mortuvte/iti). He 
wa» Olio of the ffrecriitor* of llardiner's will, 

? reached at tbt* n-quiL-iii inu^ for him nn 
8 Sov. I'jiiS, Olid wftit wilh the funeral 
pfocweiun ( 2S Feb. ITiM) fromSu Savinur'n, 
noutkwark, to WinchmltfT. On 'Jti Mnrch 
IBM hp was one of the cnnwcrarorn of 
Htfgiltald }'ol«. In thi* vntr liv vi^iled hlit 
l^rgti dioceu hy commfuion of the new 

archhi«ho]i nutfln-^ting dttailH in ^rtpi!, 
vi. 38it, and ■.•« Ihxuy'* Hirlnri/ uf thr 
Church of ^iifflanti, iv. 'i(t7-0). IIo retained 
thi) wunlfnchiji of Winclieetcr with thi» 
bidliopric nf Lincoln (cf. (>/. llatMd AtSS. 

V. ni). 

The appoiniin>-nt fo Win(?h''»t*r was de- 
layed till I'hilip'i return to England {Val, 
Ntatf I'ayr,*, Venplian, IfiofVW, p. Ut'l), 
anil when White wiut at Inni nooiinated t-o 
the see the buLlii lor hi» Iranalntion were 
tiiiip tlelared, and worn vfry coi^tlv |/A. For. 
I(i.'i:^H, pp. -I-SJ, 2l»H. '2V2. and V.-nKtinn, 
ISofi-O, pp. 3tiS, 477). Pole, it iasaid, hod 
winhfd to hold the bishopric ix commeadiita, 
and White, whn de.iirr-fl it especinlly he- 
cause of hiEbirthand lonR llegoc^atio^, could 
only obtain it on hi* tiromi-v to pa%- 1,0111)/. 
a year to the ranlinal »f. lane nn lie lired, 
and to his executors a year ait^jr bi« death 
(MATTtlliW Parkkh, T>f Antiij. Drit. ErcJ. 
p. :t-Vl). The conj/^ i/VViVe lo the dean and 
chnptfT was dated l4',July 15o6. White had 
ulrt'iidy rt'ceiv'-d ctittody uf the leiiipornlilivii 
on Iti .May ItJ.'iU, and thf y wem foniiiiliy re- 
etund to him on 31 >Iuv luo? {1«ihi:», 
Ftt'ifra, 3tY.4fi«,4;i7,441,4fK(; cf. MirnTK, 
p, lOSi. 

11m roTitinufd lo pr^aeli (yingtlanlly in 
l»ndon (lA.), notably lieftm! several heretics 
at St. Saviour'*, Soulhwark, on :i3 May 
\ho7, when (Jratwick i-tood up and 'playi-d 
the malapert fellow with" him (White, in 
FoXE, ill. fW^<). He tried I lie same herctie 
two dayii lutvr, and iii ehargi'd by Fuxe 
with frn>itl liarAhni-HH ((irutwiek'a own d^ 
cturatlon iain Foxb, iii. t!6^). 

Un LS Ilrr. KiGf* Im pn^iichwl the funeral 
sermon of Qnepn .Mary, from the test Ec- 
cte-iaslirnn iv. 2, He lipohe warmly of b»>r, 
but charily of EHoihcth ; iind n piiR»a^p in 
which, referring to the pi-eachers of the day, 
be raid ' meliuis est c«ni» vivii« Iione inor- 
tuo,'wa« takvu, probuWv unjustly, to iwfer 
to I be new sovereign. iJe wns at once com- 
manded to 'keep Ilia hoilM-,' but ou UtJait. 
lfnVt-9 hnwanrnll'-d before the council, and, 
' after n j^mid ndmnniclnn f^even Kim, wuif »«tt 
at lybortyand di''oliarfii.-d'(-4i-('jr /'. C. IfioS- 
70. p. l/>'). (tn IH March he voted n^met 
the siipretnacy bill in the House of l>i>nl», and 
on ill March IJiof h'' look part, in the e.on- 
ference in the choir of Westminster Abbey 
between nine ttomanicta and niuo Anpli- 
iMin* (<.W. Staff Pttfier*, Spanish. U^W 07, 
pp. 46. 4U-H, Uom. 1&47-Io50, p. V>7, and 
Venetian, IS58-80, pp. OTi, fl9; sre C\Mt>ft!t, 
Armnh, p, 27; P*Ri«oMs, A Rrrir^caf Ten 
fiffiltc Di^piifatirjM, 1*W4, pji. 77 sqfl.; 
Ill' KNirr. Hftcni of thf Itf/ormtitini; ii. 388, 
."iOti). White (hflar^-d that he was not ready 

to duput*. Ks thvT ' had not ttwir wTTtynge 
madr to be rkiI tiipn^,' and the eonfeiTDee 
InolM up not n-iliiaut disorder. It wu fe- 
newed on :t Apnl, and nt the doac White, 
vith. tlw ))i»hc<p of Lincoln [iee Waimx, 
TbokaS, loI.'t-I.VHl wu ruDOVcd to the 
l^nnr (Actt P. C lS6»-70, v. TS). On 
SI JtuK he wu deprived of hi* biabopnc 
^dvpriTstion formally completed onSO Jnae, 
JiACnTX, p. ^1), and wa« si?nt back to the 
Tower aft«r a new attempt had Iw^n mad« 
to indocn him to take the oath of sapcenaey 
{CalJit4it^Papfn.Spuii*h, lK»-&:,n.79,ct. 
Venetian, l&Ge-^-b. p. mi>. BeJbn ioas bu 
■ad OB 7 Jnlj bo waa rrbiMed to livu witb 
hta brother, Aldennan John Whit«, ' near 
BanJuIomew Lane.' He was now dependent 
on bia fnenda for mainlcnaiin> (a Aok. 
}o». Cat. StaUfUpen, Vuietian, 1668^. 
p. 117). Uv was Bfaortlj afterwards allowed 
to retire to tli« haoM^ of hi> sister, wtf» of 
SnTbomaa White, at ^uth WambofDogb, 
UaiBliabiiv, whi^rv h« died or lif Jtin- I6H0, 
[''of aa ague' (Machtk, Diaty\. Hv waa 
*" iaJ in Winchester Cathedral on 15 Jan. 
iMd nnojr jeaii belbr* writtan his own 
^«pit«ph. bat thia, though in tbe catbedrml, 
WM BM apfan&tlr pland orer his f^fe. 
Be 'iiaTe mach to^i* wrtaat* ' (Macittx), 
,aadwa« a ben*fartor to New CoU^sv, Ox- 
ford <WoOD, Hittoiy and Antifoitin, ed. 
Oatch, p. 186), aiMl 'to Wineheiter (Woon, 
^Mew OnM. i. SU). 

White i« nHilcrn n{ a* a M-trrv anil gn\t 
man, morv of a theologian than a courtier. 
llu enemiea aocoaed bim of pride and core- 

Verr f«tw of 'fttute'v worku haiT atirriTed 

(rijK,'lh-Stitti Anflijv.]}.7i^). We haT«< 

bia ' IKacflai<^MartTnoD ' (London, looS), 

to which ii added 'EpistolaretroMartTri:' 

both are o o o tfwu ed with the doctrine ol tbc 

eaeharial. Jlia 'Camiina in MatnaKNUom 

^hilippi rcfps com Slaria repna ' at? Quoted 

• hy manT wriier* (e^. FoxB, ArffM and .V«n** 

^maUa, ii. 141i), bat do separate copy ia 

[ knowB to esiat. They -vtrt probably puh- 

in lus 'E]Mgrammauuin liber L' of 

rUeh Pita say*, ' \'idi ali4uando Oxooii 

^«Un>pUr,' bat no copy I* now knows. Ilia 

[' S e rm on preadt^ at the Funeral of Queen 

LMmt* ia in British Jluseam Sloane ULS, 

1678; and an Jnarcnrate copy is priitted in 

Suyp*** * Memorials " (App. Uxxir. p. JT'X 

[Pnibsr details ■» to Ae^trtm will U fonari 
in KoM^a Bsf iif * oS t*DiT«r*iiv of Oafoid 
, OSst. Socl, i tM. Dates o('nr«r«rmsnta. 
I in ftynar'i Pvden, niL zr. , La Nare • Fast i , 

of the B»biipa of 

na's C at alagaas 
3«t alaa Mood's 

Faal) ; (U. Stat* Phiwrs. Dcaa., For^ Spaniah, 
BodTvastisa: Hbt.KSS.Co«na.Rep«.Haifid«l. 
pr. i. aad WeUs CUbedral; Goagfa's Index to 
hufcar ape. PahL poMim ; Acta of the PriTj 
Ooamil, «d. Daaeat; Suypa's EeeUa. SCearariate 
aad Craaner ; Ouadea'a Aastia; Harriii(loa^ 
Bn«f View of the Cbateh of B^ghnd ; BariMt'a 
Iltit.oftheBefannaiior.rol ii.; fmcmttOWi- 
Tftiim of Eacland ; Fosc s Aetea aad Uaao- 
meais ; Bcyiyn's Kerlrsts Rotanrata ; SCilaar'a 
liiK. «f W lachsatar. vol. i.; Paitor, Da Ami- 
qaiu Brit. Eedse.; Asdraves't Tortnns Tacti. 

BIM ; 'Tuiaar's BibitothMs Bntanaieo* 
ibcraica, p. 1 SI ; Wartoti'a Lif'if 8<rT. Biim; 
Holiubtd*>Chrauela.rol iti-: Fuller* WertfaMa, 
ed. Nirbab. i. 4M: Oumui's Itiahapd of Wiiuthea- 
tn; WtMal'sAtbru>OzcfL.; Bridj^tt and Knox'a 
Catbtdie Uieranhj. JSM; Gee's EUnbMhan 
Cl«f^. IS3«,J W. H. H. 

WHITE or WITH. JOHN (J, 1586- 
1593), Vii;p;inian noD««r, uiled with Sir 
Bkbard GrenTiUeftom Plymouth on 9 April 
1665, and wm not of the 107 men vrbosa 
namea are recorded by Uakluyt as ihoM of 
the fint FPttlrre in Virgiuia. Tliey wen 
left by <>rvnTillr on the iJland nf Itoauoke 
under the gotemorsbip of | Sir> Italpli Lona 
[q. V.]; but in Jnno 1AH6, at thi^ir own 
earnest rajnest, tber v«re taken back to 
England by Dn^ ^Vo ycaia laier one of 
tho colaaiats, TlioiDaB Haniot [q. r.^t wiele 
for the «diSc«tion of ICaleffh <at wliloae ex- 
■case the experiment had cfaieny been toadel 
«t 'Briefc and I'rur Itrjujrl of the new 
found landof Virpnia' ( London, 1&88, 6to; 
and Frankfort, 'snntplibus Tfaeodori On 
Bit,' I&90). The Frankfort edition wu 
illostnUed by twenty-three copperplataa 
fram drawtncx fay John Whili>, iiicntdmff a 
• cart i? of all tbc ccast of Virginia.' M-hich 
fonvt'd lht> huM of )be *abeMuvnt ' Map of 
Vinrinia* (Ittl^) of John Smith. 

In July lijt<7 a hondred and fifty new 
Eettlet« were seat out by Ralr^h tinder John 
White, who ia Keoeinlly identified with the 
diauffatanan of the previous expedition (^ 
STKTKxa. Bii4. ni»tonai, 1 ?70, p. 222). In 
Anfnst White wiahed to send boaae two of 
hia sabocdinatea to reprMeM the oeada of 
the eatooiMs. but the wish of tha ooloav 
gwaeraUr was that White- himself sbouU 
undertalte the mimion. He was rwluctanL 
to leare some relaiirea who had arcom- 
panird the expnlitian, but eviriitiinlly oo 
37 AofT. be sailed,aiidaA«rapainrii! voyaov 
reached Southampton on 8 Nor. With bun 
there landed an iadiaa, who waa baptjaed 
in Bideiicwd church, but dard within tho 
Tear. In April 1A88 IUl«ch aent White 
bark with two sinall relivf reaHiU, but like 
sailors, as usual, had ihoaghtk for nothing 


but SpAouh pruEM, Mid, after hnTins bron 
vonitcd la ui cneounier, tlio vex^eU uud to 
put back to Plvmouth 'to l3ie utter di-sl ruc- 
tion of the unhappy culonif^ts.' Hi' luuniwud 
ullimntely, tn Mnrch 151K>, to Nail iiiion VflinC 
be sriilea in bta letter to }laklH>*t to b« 
hi* fifth Toyogi; to tlie ft>«t rndiitJi, in 
ono of tbo nhipfl of a mt^rrhnnt, John Wattes 
(pmbsbiT Sir John Watm [q-v.l, lord innyor 
in ItiOR-i'). tho eiipUin of which iiniiertook 
to luml fliijiulieit at Itoanoke. Un !■'> Aug. 
ihey wviffhed atichur off tli&t islund, oheurcd 
by ihi* »ight of Hiint; iMifiidiiig Muokt', but 
when ti«xt dav thuj wcnl a^iliore, nntkinf; of 
lb* fbniKrcnlonifit« could bi; found. %Vhit<: 
furivvd hock at riyinoutli nn '2'1 Urt. On 
4 Feb. lEOS (Tom his ' house at Newtownr m 
Kvlmorp,' be wrot« a Ictlvr to Hakluyt, in 
wEtch he apologiftt'd for hi-i 'hotnely stile,' 
ffiTia^ detfiihi of hb last voyage. lliia 
^itt>r wiu iirinted in HakluytV third Tolumu 
(ItXKtfPp. 2^S or.). 

In Additional MS. 6'J70 (now in the 
pinnt room at iho Rrittsb Mii*iMim) nt« 
aome watercolour drawing" by Whim of 
Vir^ntan Bubiecta. 8omo of thwtp dmwinga 
oru cupied tu Additional MS. 5iu3. 

I,Stith'* I!i«t. of Virgiuift, i. 'in; Dojlo* Kjig- 
li>h ia Arnvrica, Virpoiu, pp. 91 »n. ; Anihwo- 
logU Ani^cann, iv. 21 ; Wiiuor* Hilt. &f 
ARMrtva, tii. 124 ; r>n(ko'H flaking of Viruinia, 
1801 ; Eohl'c Hapa rolnting lo Aiuorica, Wa^h- 
lagtoD. 1857. pp. 42 (kl.l T. «. 

WHITE. JOHN (iri70-l61G), divine, 
aon of Futer Whitp, viciir «>f f?t.. N"«t)i, 
HDotingdonshin.-. and of ih<- n^iehhou rtn^ 
mrisli of Eaton Socon. rt>-'!fordtliir«>, «»« 
Dom at Saton 8ocnn in ll'JO, and odiirvkrerl 
at Wt. NeoU grammar school, lie waa nd- 
mittod a aizar of QonTitlcandCaiuaCollen!, 
CiuitbridK*)f oa Ift Fub- l-^'^^-O, wiw »cliolar 
from Lady-dar I5*te to Michntlmaa 1691'. 
Slid ^duHt'-d B.A. in lot^OO, M.A. in 
11)03, and l).l>. in 1012. lie wut HUiKiiiited 
Ticar of I'TccleA. Lancashire, and lellovr of 
th« CoHefpale (.Huiirli, MancbHstiT, in ItiOt, 
and riwgned Iheae oHioea in WiOi} on bein^^ 
presentwl by Sir Joba Croft* to llio rectory 
of Bnrsham. SiitfMk. In Ifil I or ItSlfi he 
wn.t made chaplaia in ordinnry to Jamea I. 

\\ hilc in Ilia Mill sp«a}(« of tile' diKlresii'fl ' 
thai bo »ufferod at Kcclex, ' which I was 
never able lo look through to ttii>< day.' It 
is inferred fmm lhii> ihal. Lu vtm in i^ovurty 
ivhitn he ilied, al the ngu of iH, iu KUu, in 
Lombard Street, London. He wna buried 
on -JH May 1616 al tlie church of Ht. Miirj- 
Woolnolb. He left fleven rhildren. The 
eUwt, John, entered QonviLle and Caiue 
College in 1611, af^ed Uf, and become vicar 

of KatoQ Socod; another aon is meottoned 
by Fuller as a dru^iat in Lombard StroaC, 

White wrote *The Way to the True 
L'hureh: wherein t]i« prinripal Moiivca per^ 
ttwading' to Itoinaniame are familiarly die- 
■mtml and drivni to their Isbmi?*,' Ixindon. 
I60S, 4ta. Further editions of rhio leanuil 
defimce of the reforojcd failh coom out in 
1610, leiL'.nnd Ifllfi. 

Il was answered at first by A. D. or Fiaho r , 
alios I'icrcv, to whom White rejoined in ' A 
Defence of the Way io iho Trutt Church 
acaincl A.I). hi« Ileply." U(U,4io. While's 
' lJcf«&(»i ' occonloned ' A Piscovery of cer- 
tain notoriouM KhtfiK, Kva^ione, nnd Vn- 
triilba uttered by M.J. White . . . ByW-O.," 
London, ieil>, -Ito. Meanwhile "Wbitea 
original work evoked Tliomiw W'orlhing- 
lous ' Whyte dvud Mlark^ or a DJMWTery 
of nmiu- niiwr >iiule Itlentiihes, Impoaturea 
and Deceijii* whicli II. Whyio hath prac- 
ty»ed in his Hook/ &e., 1010, ito. A reply 
en Worthington wa,« piihlished after Whittfa 
d<^th, naRi<.'i_v in It^l j , by hit brother I'Vancta 
While [(IV-J. afterwards bishop of Kly. A 
third reply to White's original bock wbb* A 
TreatisL- of the Church, in wliitli it ih provi-d 
>[r. J, W. bis Way to the True Church to 
be in<ltH!d no Way at all lo any Church,' 

Jobn \\'bite also pnblished: 1. ' Kn^lisb 
iVradiw, discovered in a L^atine Prospect of 
Jacobs lllcwiDg, a Sermon on Qeu. xArii. 37,' 
Loudon, 1612, 4to. '2. ' Tn-o Herraona: the 
Former at I'liuU CrusHjuu 1 Tim. ii.l.upon 
the AmiivBraary CouiiiicuKiriitifHi of the 
KIdus moBt liappT Sutvession to the Crowne 
of hnglnnd ; tliw' Latter at the Spittle on 
I Tim. vi. 17,' I/)iuinn, 16in, 4co. His 
workawere collected and republished by hia 
brother Knin«[« in }Q'2i in one volume ^Ito, 
with a portrait ol'thi- autlior. 

I FiiUcr'fl Woriliioir, w], Kuttnll, ii. 103 ; 
Wood's Athone Oian. M. Blia*. iii. 'iHi; Gor- 
bniuB EjiieBbury ami SI. Nout», IR20, p.22J; 
Hai»t>«*« FtillowB of Xanchcaier Collo(ti'. i, 104 ; 
Vfiin'fl BiofTHphiiii] Hist, of OunriU« and Cninn 
Coilogfl. 189;. ). 127 : Kwii.^h'ii Ohothiim'n 
Clinrt-li Lilrarieo, p. Hi; Arhi^r'e Stationora' 
Rtigistcr, lii. avi: Granger'a Bio^. Hist I8S4, 
ii. 83; Tlioiv<iil>y'» Ducntns LraiKanaia. ad. 
Wliilakor. p. 2d.)('>tningtncii rf>» peril o White's 
piirvnLn^): Ctita'o;;uca of Brit. Mas.. Uodl. 
]>ihr.. nnil Mitn^linaicr I-'rce Libr. ; note froni 
iho Rev, J. .M. S. Brooke, r«:tor of Si, Mary 
Wwlu'ith.] C. W. a. 

WHITE rrlimi BiuHSKIW, JOHN, after- 

WftnU Arararmn (Ift7fi-I6lft>, Renedtrtine 
monk, was bom near Worcester, probably 
at Henwick, in 1576, of parentj of good con- 

dilion tnd oTthe old failli. Fatlttr OlclcomL', 
tlw jwuic, wan clia|]lnin iir llinlip, nml It 
was mmc likvty lliruti^li biiii tliu youn^ 
"WhitW wa« introduced to Henry Iturticlt. 
[a. v.\ the iesoit Buiierior, wlio i«.'tit him to 
St. O'tntT. ' On -21 tVl.. IWt! be arrived ut 
th* ifi^iiit wminarv at \'aU!idoln], oni- of llio 
esta'bU.'ihtn<>nte foiindtHj by liolwrt I'arsoiia 
(liUT llJlU) [q.v.], which aecuBlomed ttio 
EiigliaL HM:alBt clei^' to ibt- Spiv[ii«h mid 
jeauit influences nwwwuin' I'nr tltf. rfaliMiioii 
of hiiiritri^ueacoDCemed w-iththeBucc«e»ii>ii 
to the Koglifth cmuii. ^Vhit4> vu in&de 

Sn-fitcl over hi« vuoapaDlaoa. During a 
iiiijiernUN illness in thu winter of lilltK-fl 
hp, vnwL'd to bucuiDfl a B«ui>dictiue xnoak if 
bi» lift' w«r« spared. Already Mveral En^- 
lUh youths in Romo, difisatieGed with tho 
BttQmpt« Ibf! jvsuiU wnni making to »acure 
th9 miwtttrv over the Ht'cular priest* At hoiDV, 
luid joined tlic It&liati mouks at Jloiitt 
CaMino and ()l.hi.-r Bi<iii-diiMiin:i m-onasteries 
with lilt! hope nf one day ruturuinK tii Eiig- 
Iftiid. White "wns llie firxt Ifi Iciivn tlie 
aeminary for tli« mnnrifili'riof San Iliajitu in 
Vulladi>lid, April Uit*l<. After a nwntli'n 
poflluUncT he tvai w^nt to Coiiipoi-litlla, 
■when' he wan received as « notice on -Jf} May 
and took llie naine of Au|tiietin(>. In IttlK) 
he M'liH profi-BU'-'d wiiL four other* lone of 
thorn boutK Joha (Lcander) Jone^ [q.r.] ), 
irlMihadfflllowetl him from cheat!minur,v. Uu 
then went to tli« iiniTLT»ilv "f Sii]iinn»;nm. 
On 5 Tire. UMti, in ^pUi'. nt' the opposition 
of ihe Jesuits, Clement VI 11 ffrnntcd fortoul 
permission to th» Kn^lish Bi'ii«dict.tiii» to 
rtrtuni to tlntir eoiuUrv a» miMionariea. A» 
Boon as tlie news nnivrd in .Spain. Whitr 
ivith ihrea ulhi^r? set nut. lor KnKland on 
S6 Uec., and atrivcd ju^t as Elisabeth was 

Whili- had been appointed superinr over 
his rompouione. He i-e(.iui> to huvi' worked 
at iirel in hie uiiltvi* I'ourity. llv ii* alto 
very likelv the While raenlinntul as a priest 
hauntinK \Vorc*-»teniliirt> ami thi> ni-ijiliinjiir- 
in/ countif-t <WTf^ I'njirr/, Knm. .Innics I, 
vol. xiii. No. 5i)i, The BeaedictineB were 
received wilh opt-n arm* by tln-ir co-rcli- 
fj^oniit^, and ihu hecttlar cler^ );avu ihein 
a i>])i>oiii] welcome as allies in tJie atnuftple 
aifftinBt till' jt'8iiitp. So uinii)' dtu^trt'd tu Join 
their order that it wa.'* soon evident that 
■tep.i must lie taken to find a epol more 
uceseibh* fhjin Hpnin fur ii iniioii»ti>ry in 
vhich Knplifih HuhjeriH cnuld he trained. 
So in the sprint; of l(t(U White set out BRoin 
for Spain to attend thf (f^'tn'ral chapter and 
Wj bcforv his Buperiora the plan, On his 
way he called upon the nuncio in I'aris, and 
tliere it waa ihni most llkdy bi« aiteiition 

was first directed to Douai as a suitable 

position for th«> proposed foundation, it betnf^ 
a university town with rich abbeys close 
at hand, The Spanish abbota agreed to the 
priip»»ul, and ^^ hitv ri^lumed to England 
Willi the title of vicar-(ten«Tal. 

Durinj^ (hfi early pun of 1^> A\*1iite wa» 
en);;a^'d lu n Mrhenin fur purchasing n Uilc ra> 
tion from the government ( WMtmintttr 
Arehiitf, vlii. 99), Oarnett, the jeeuil su- 
perior, bad lately lAihil in a similar attcmptf 
(and did his beat to prevent White's success. 
It -KM vltt liWly about Ibis time that 
While came into personal contact with Cvell, 
who, traditiou assrfta (Wuldox. oiaiiuacript 
Jlifluryt. was av »tnifk with the loyally 
and L'liriAtiaii :<pirit nf thr tiitmk thai be 

Sromiiu'd us tar as in him lay tliat no Bene- 
ictiiiH nhould HufiV>r tlii< panalty of thv law 
for exercising bta priestly functions. 

lu the autumn of \fH& Thomas Arundell. 
fintt iurd Aruiidi'll nf Wnrdour j'*!- t.1, hatl 
taken command of en EncrlUh n^meut in 
the service of the Archduke Albert. II9 
' brought Fathw Augustine Brad«liavr 
[White] out of England with him to be 
chaplain -gcnpral of that rej^ment' {iJotm- 
fid* liriivu; xvi. 30 fw^.) C'onii-rs, a jetuit 
and confessor to ihe Kngli*h foilege at 
Huuui, uli<u joined the camp at Ostend aa 
one of the chaplains, but he by no ntrana 
liked being und<<r lh« command of the B^'ne- 
dictine cbupUiu- genera I. Every means waj 
takim, [hcrt^forc, by the icsuits to iieeara 
White's removal. All other plans failingt 
it was determined to get rid of White bV 

Srocuring the diviuivNvl of Lonl Aruudvll. 
ames Blount, one of I he ofScent, was sent, 
with rvcoiuniciidalionii, 'to blast his lata 
colonel ' at thr Simniih I'ourt.and !titoctHK]t-<l 
SO well that at tlie end of Mav 1006 l^rd 
.-VrUTidi-ll mid alnioiit hnlf of the officer? 
were casIiiiTiKl, and with thttm, of cnunw, 
the cliApIain-gentrnl White. Tlio nuacio 
ftl Hrus-^i-U, Kmng-ipnni.snd William Oilfard, 
dean of Lille, also lost tht-ir postj, being 
favoiirens of Cbe Ik-nedictine. 

Why the jnsuitx wt-rL- so incvnei-d a^inat 
White 19 clear from the history of the fouada* 
tion oflbv uionaslery nt Douai. Parsons, aa 
a meuns to an <-iid, had H.-ciimd I ho control, 
dirt'ctly or indirectly, DTer all the seminarioit 
on the continent in which t lie English sei'itlar 
clergy were ediica1«l. .M. Ihiuni, the only 
collegi.' nominally in tbehaiidaof the clergy. 
he was ahin in power, ut* the preHidont, it. 
Thomas Worthinjfton \r\. v.], ftfld made a 
A'cn.'t TOW of obedience to the Jesuit. Under 
Worthington thu iitatc of the college, both 
material and inlellectual, had b«en reduced 
with ihu express purpose, so the logic of 











weBtB pruvfw, of lon-i.Tiiu; ihir Htnndnnl of 
itn-Kj-i'iiIurrlfiyy. If thf ni'ii«lii;l.iri>^.*, wilb 
their tradition of learning, were lo bii al- 
lowed to svtilv in [Iniini, it wtviild ontiiviv 
npaet the intt>nttnnH that l'ar»nnB had as 
rccards th" evcular callvgp u.nd tliL> Eiiftli«h 
mission. Th.? RiaUdminiMrAlion would be 
expuwd. aiid students leave the colle|;t> for 
the inoiiutcry. Tho iii:Tr foiindutioii wn« 
made csriy in I60/i, and \Vhit(>. ns vicar- 
general, bail control aver it, althdugh bis 
vorit M chaplain-tfvncrnl and ttir (irfenci! 
of Ilia {Kuitioii kept hiiu iiwny from Uouiii 
till the St.>pt4.'inbL'r of IflOC, wlion he wii» 
actuallv in rivxlcnCM a« i>rior. Wry txjim 
ht' found that Hr. Wortninptnn bad h^n 
appoinkil ioh<.'«d thi> aitnck. [n Janv 10^7 
he wont r.n Itruaw-U Tadt^fi^ni) hiAmnnostery, 
and had on inl«>rTiew with the nunniu 
CaiaSa, wliu lold him that hv eeiit for him 
to counHi't him to li-avn Doiiai, for ihni ' tlii' 
Jesuits and the president will never let jou 
DP quiet/ 

White hfti,l alrPMily found another apot in 
case th^ jt-suits fmocrt'ilMl in driving him nut 
of Poiiai, Tlirouirh thu ptxnd ofilui;)^ of Wil- 
liam niH'ard, an nld dimised cnlli^iatn church 
at DivuU'wsrt in Lorraino wte trunHft-m-d 
to him in DnreHilittr lllOfl. Whitr, IiiiweviT, 
succeeded at KoniR and Madrid in defpatinc 
theoppodition to th»!e8t»bUBhm"nt at Uouni, 
when- Philip Cnv*irel, ahbot of St. VodaatV 
in Arrnjf, promised to build nnd endow a 
houM> for them. The monastery of St, 
Oregory was founded at Duiiiii. wh)<ru it 
remained Houriflhiiiif until thf l*'n-nrh n*vi»- 
Intion. when thf (community passed over to 
En^flaiid and (innllv ocItliMl ut llowiutiih-, 
near Bath. 

Whil« thus t<npig«tl in a life *Ui! He»th 
Struggle White wan able to luOp l!iii ^ocular 
clergy. He obtained, from the mmiificent 
Carrrel. Arra* Cnllenc in Paris n* a hmiseof 
study for the Htigli^h cleruy who wero lo 
devote tbeuifii'lFos to wTilitifif. The hmiae 
wan to btf modt-lk-d iifuir tlii- idcu of ChclsL-a 
College, latfly eauhlishKi for Atiirlirnn 
tUvinni hy Jaitirs I. When Worthington 
wait ri'lnwrnl fniiii biji niw iif ohiiliencn nc 
Parsonfl's death ( Ifi Apri] 1610), he becAnift 
neconoilcd to WhiU*, who inrorrowl th« 
ari'h-prii'st Oeorire Hirlthead fo-v,'] that he 
might deal contidentlT with the president. 
Thus thft eliir)?!,- wore induo-d to forpiw the 
fflievous wrung that mi»guidiHi prvsiuenl hud 
done them. 

\» vicar-gcnernl. \Miiti' was constantly 

Knyland aiip!*rintendin(,' the numeroiui 

who wiTQ working on the niaaton. 

614 iIkto werv otit eighty. TJefortJ 

Pwohs'b death \Miite began hia negctiacions 


for a reunion of all Bcnt^ictiues in Kiiglsnd 
into ouB congregation. 'ITie monks from 
Italy (never more than a doxL-n'} had retired 
for two of thfir iiwn im-n, ICdwnrti Itlaihew 
[q. v.] and Sjidlnr, nn aggregation to the 
jniinast^Ty of We«t mineter, then n-pn-wnted 
by old Father liohcrf (or fiigebert; Hm-kley 
[q. v.] These two were joinwl later on by a 
ttiir<r(llt ]li-c. Itiri9>. who ThLTcfor^r r>pre- 
sonted the old historic English congregation, 
Whirt's suhjt^tn were nuiiieroiis: tlwypo*- 
Mi'»t<i-d houw« And ni<;n. Tho Italians bad 
iieillier; the old KoKlish had only the aiic- 
cesnion. TTlPse two Irittcr wcp- dtwirou* of 
n mii"n, and White enlerml enlhuHiuHtii^ally 
into the project. What would suit the 
snialliT bitdit-s would V- for llu- Anglo- 
f^paniAh mnnka to furnish men, money, and 
hoiJseB. while the orliers acted a."" superiors. 
The iiiciHigruilyof mich an aminpi>nient did 
not seem to sirilie Wbitt-. who, on 13 Feb. 
ItSlU, ftigned an agreement of teu articles. 
His precipitate action was greatly rcBcntod 
by ihi.' rest of hi* brelbren, and fh« mouka 
at Doimi appealed to the Spanish peneral, 
and White wan xiuiiinoiied to Spain in 1612. 
The reftult was thut be was r«-miived from 
hie viL-Brship and John (Leauder) Jones set 
HI) in liin place. The union with ibw old 
Knglieh congregnlion n-osevenliudly brougbt 
about under more e<jnitable terms. On his 
way back from Spain While came under 
the notice of the fauiou* 0«puchin JoHi.-ph de 
Tremblfti, afterwards known as tlieTJrey 
Cardinal.' Tho friur wax lh>'U engagi-d in 
hi» work of nrforminif wrtain abheyn, and 
had lately taken interest in the order of 
Fiintevraidl, ['ndpr hiw iiiflui'Tic*' th^ Abb(!i>R 
l^nuitte de Bourbon, with ht-r cnadjulrix 
Antoinette d'Ork-ana. was desirous of re- 
storing monastic oh*or\'ance in the hon-nes 
of tnonka and nuns suliji^t to her rule. 
WTiit« was rcfommended by lie Tremhlai 
'as on« full of cuaL, icncttty, ability, and 
energy.' He began his work in (Iclober 
101.^, and was so BHCces<<fi]] that he wus 
called to u like work in I be nbh<.-yi( ut 
{'hplloa, Ttemiretannt, and Portiern. He 
hficunie also engaged in a pr<>i'.iCl''d imion of 
the monkA of Kontevraiilt with the Kngli-ili 
nionk>> at Douai. But, although thi-t woiUd 
have been of mutorial advantage to I lie latter, 
further refleciion showed the vicar-generid 
that it would drain the niissiou of men and 
be a tAx beyond thu stroiigib of hi» lOnglish 
moaks. Si lhn matter wax dnipjied, and 
Whilo wilhdrawti, Ho was then sent to 
found u liotii'r' fur Knglinb nionk« in Pari«, 
and for one year pn^ided over ita destinies. 
In lOJt), having nwcll-eamed reputation for 
obserrnnoc, he was sent to tetona the 




iiAC prioiT of Ijnnfpifirillc, near Rouen, 

whenj l]i5 died (>u 4 May 1618. 

Whiri> wflri iifrftnlc,npen-niind«i1 mnn, with 
a •iiifiiilar winning way, wliicli gained Iiiin 
Difttif friendti. DautitloM nnd warm-tii-nrUHl, 
bUgeuervufl ualun li>i) bim iulo Impetuous 
AOtiona wEiich caused diiHcultiea n more pm- 
denc man would liuv<.-cH'n|icd. It iBiHiruupe 
open to gut'-Htion wliclinr bn would havt- 
KuccoodGu sa well a« In? did had hn not had 
Ibi^hulpof »ucb rn(."n iw Jwhti I{obwr1«(l')7fl- 
1610) [q-T.] and inhn (I.fjind/T> •ron<>A to 
Btipply the doficionciea of liis cliaraotpr. 
Tlie only known ]jnr1mit in rcprudncfd in 
tUo ' Downnide Itevii'w,' vol. xvit., Irom tlie 
orifpnal in pobAtrsaion of Miu Tietkoloy of 

ll>o<td*« ChuMh HiatoT)', Tftl. iii.; Tiorncy, 
Tola. [ii. IT, V. ; I/.-W111 Uwmi'ti Ituonion Be- 
ffuipr; Wddoii'K HiNtory (MS.) and Chrono- 
logical lf<it«»; Viy'a CVrUinr Ilriafe Notwt; 
Peyner's ApoatalsiUK Hpit^vlii.-tjiiuru'n in AukIii ; 
Uaibeir'a Ti«p!ivai A rvply to Fr. Ponoas'ii 
Libel, by W. C.; Bwrords o( Ui* C.ilfio- 
lien, i. ii. Urit. Mmi. Add. MS. 212i3; Conon 
US. PliiL oiii. E. II: Tauntuu'ti Ensllsh BIhcIc 
MoriliB of St. Doiiudift ; UmijuuL's Henry VIII 
nnil the Kngli»h MoniuiCcriea ; R- 11. (.'timnt'H A 
J}'Dudicti lie Uartyr; Dovnttido Befiow, Ti>la. 
Xfi. and xvii. ; Atnplofortb Juarnal. it., and 
-mriouttmaitiiiwriplsiiuotad from th«an:hirmof 
thvdJocMaof W^Ktminstcr, the old chnpUr, Uie 
BlonyhDnrt {JMcit) coUeetioiw, iho Tm^istcrsof 
th* coklags of V'/i11tululid, and inanuBcnpls from 
UenlB Oatwno und 8ilo».j K. L. T. 

WHTTB. .HlHN tlwSW-lW''!), pnrliHOTTO- 
Urian, commonly culled ' Ontnrv While,' 
■wa« tile second sou of Ilwiry \VTiito of 
}1cnlliut (tirjw wrJTUn Hcn(lund), in tlu* 
pariih of Ithoscrowthir, iVinbrokeshir«, 
where be was born on 'JO Juno 16H0. !lie 
Biutlii^r wn-t Jaiif, dnuglitur of Ili^luird 
Fletchoc of Jiangor, who op|)carA to have 
b«.'n u ni'ur rt-liitive of Iiiulion! inft^hi^r 
[^ij. v.], bwbopiif L.iml(in(l)ws?i, Ifrr. Vinta- 
tiong.'i. 1 20. and cf. p. 161 ; VaiUAVv^ PtrJ!- 
grrtf'/Pfmbn'kruhtrr.^y. 131, 13t>). \Vhit« 
Wiis dp.irpndt^d fmtn afaniilyof wpatthjnii^r- 
clinuts of cUnt name which had been closely 
id('fitiliiMl for many ci-ntrutinns with tho 
town ol'Teiiby. One of litem, Tliomwi While 
{d. I4il:^), who wn» elx times iiiiiyDF of tltat 
town hot wtTii 1-1';7 and llSliULdL-d iboi-arls 
of Kiclimond and I'tiubroke to f^cotie from 
Tenby ti> Itril lany aftt-r iho haillo of Tuwk.'w- 
bury (1(71), nml wiu in turn n-niirdcd hv 
nwaivin" from the fonoBr, aflpr be had 
MCttiid«-d till- t)iri>n(?, a frrnnt of all hi« lands 
jnthfl nfiigliimurhotxi of Tenby f Laws, LittU 
JSnfftand beif'oid fl'aln, pp. '21Q, 226; cf. 
Owes, rfmhrokt^hire, i. 30). Tbomos's 

brother, John White, ww nayor aeren tlinea 
Iwlwi-cn 1 |.-i2 and U98. TK.-ir tomb*, with 
rcciimbi'nt tifriin^* — ' beamifnl wnrka of art,' 
in a ^ood stute of preMri^ation — ire is Tenby 
church tFKSTOlf.pp. A!A-'2 ; NoRBItS Tetihy; 
UiWB, pp. 2S3-4 ; Anh. Camhr. ith eer. xt. 

Jolin Whiti% who, with liia elder brother, 
tInllilU, iuatric-ulat«cl at Jesus College, 
Oxford, on 'M Nov. 1607 fFosTKB, ,^/wiiimi 
OrriJi, IWW-ITM), pmcrwlBd thfn<;K to tbi! 
Middb' T^mpli', whore ho was rallud to the 
bar in lOlH, and bi'Cami* autumn reader or 
henrber in Kill. Whito is said to hare 
been a puritan from hie youUi. In \mh he 
and cIvYi-Q othor« formw'd themwlvet into • 
conimiitce known as tbe feoflees for impro* 
prialioTis. A largfo fund was apeodily railed 
by vuliintary coiitrihiiliotia for iha purpose of 
buvin^ up impropriate tithes, so as to mak« 
A bt'ttcr proTiBion for a preaching ministry, 
TbL'ir piucewdiup! wvn\ however, attacked 
bv IV'ler Ueylyii ^"J-v.], and in IK^l' William 
>'ojfH [a, v,\, at the inatigatiou of Laud, ox- 
bibiteo an information n|;ftin*t ih^^ni in the 
exchi^uor rhnmher. Un II Feb. 16^12-3 tbe 
courC decreed tbe dlsmlulion of thr li-ofltnent 
and the eonfiacAtion of oil itti funds anil 
patroiiaH;e to the kinff'»i'»e. while thefeoHeM 
appear in bare bocn cenimrcd in the Star- 
cuamber ( HbTLiv, L)iprianu*Anglieu$, 1(J68, 
pji. I'lO-IIf; UxnmvKR, Hitt. iff England, 
vii. 268, quolin^ E-ivhequer Vrvrvft, iv. 88). 
It waaprobalily diiriiiu thin time that White 
had orcaeion to appar^tifore Laud as couneel 
about a benefice, and when that btisiaees 
•VTbi done Land ' fell ViiU'rly on him on an 
underrainer of the church.' 

On i'<t Oct. IftlO While wft« retiimwl to 
uarliauiuui for Soutbwark, his colleagne 
beintr Kdward Bagshaw fq.T.] {Mtmbent^ 
Pariiamvni , i.4i>4>. thefoUowing 
inoiiih, it wa* decided IhnI there ahoutd be 
a grand commitfeu nf the houit«i to inunire 
into the i ni in oral J tied of Ibn tdRrpy, ^\ hite 
wan at onr<f elected \ts chairman, and he alao 
presided over iin actioR jiob-cuniTuitl e« for 
cfiTutidtritip bow ti> wpluc"' the jtrAndaloiui 
ministera by puritan pruacherB. AVhen an- 
other committeo wo» appointed in Deeember 
lEMi! to relieve plundered ministers, its 0to- 
ceedinffH ^'ot interwound with tho previous 
one, While bt'in^ at ihti bead of the wboU* 
tiKciicy. .\cconliiig (o an opponent<TMOJtAi 
Pi BKL'K, Tht AViP Jfift-orerfr hifcofer'd, lOoO, 

ti. 140), it wan Whilt^V boiut ihal ' be and 
iiB had ejected eight ihnuaaod churchmen 
in four or fire yean;' but according to ■ 
recent esrimnle (.M&ssok) the rnmmittee 
durinjK its whole existence ejected no more 
than about sixteen hundred. With the riew 



^of pabUaliiiig atike n ro;>uri bikI a dffencA 
of Ibe piocivdinira nf th*^ romraitt^^!. Wliito 
UfiUed on 19 Nov. ldt;i ' TIiv Tinst Cmtnry 
of ScniiilAlouft Mali^unt iVicAts, maik and 
admiltcU into Uent-tices by the I'rtskt**' 
(Liondou, 4io). So iDdvocat itr>' the auea 
npoiti^l iu tbib work ttut, accordiiiK to 
ANoocI, Whitu'a own party diuuadi-H nim 
' froni puttiup out ■ Mcond century.' whil« 
another writer (Picrcb, foe. cit.) naji tli&r t1i« 
AQtbor ' wftB uumed to pursuu lib tliuugbUt 
of anr utbur.' No MCond to1uiu« ever ap- 
I pcared. 

WilJi rvfunMicp to tlw cpief'opnry. White 
I adfoCAteal a • root nnd branrti' pfilicj* of ex- 
urpatioD, and two of liie tip?(.'ch<.'s <^ii tUix 
eitoJMt wcni pub!i*faL><]. namely, that dpli- 
I Torod in Juue l&ll oa tlie introduction, of 
I tfac&nt bill for tLe pxcluftioniif the biRbops, 
I widaaotherconMmiagthctnnlof rli^ twctre 
bubopo, delivered on 17 Jan. lCUl-2, on 
wbicn day lie waa also appoint<3d a niombtr 
' of tbe cammons* couimittou to bvnr the 
bMhow' defeoM in llie lIou«e of Ijotde. IIo 
WBaalMoccnaiaaBlly cntrtuu-d with the latk 
I of licenainf^ pMliliciiiiriiix, tind wan ebar§;ed 
Iw Ulo ehurcu parly wiihbeio^ tou rt'sdyto 
I llcenM work* nttjukiiifj th« church (rf. 
j CUBESDO^, HUf. tif Englanii, iii. 'iG). llu 
li gave evidence aeninst Laud on two nccnuioiiit 
^^L — first ^oni; with (Sir) UiHianl IVpve ihf 
^Balder [(j. v.J on '2'2 March KM'Kl.willi refe- 
^Vretice to Laud's removal of Edward Bajifiihiiw 
^P firom tbu readorsbip of thu .Middle Tvuiplc ; 
^^ and aucondlyiOti ■*■ July, tw to Land's at tnok 
I tipoD luiaaelf wbtn b<.' apfxrnn-d bufurL- him 
aa counsel ('TmnbW and TrtiiU' in t^rti's 
Workt, iv. 132-S, a)l-.'i). Towards th'> end 
I of 1643 be published a hook cnlli-d ' A I .ook- 
iag OUss for Cofrardly Goreniom.' Hi^ was 
klao frequentlydffputed by th? Ilouspof Com- 
mons to draft lot t«rs and imp'-nchmenl a. Thii 
ftnt oharler of the oolouv ol' .Maiisiacbusctta 
waa procured protkably under his advice, and 
vaa perhape oci uully dn.h<;d by hiu ako. 
I Hi* aame ai^peara amonft Ibv members of thti 
^^ eonpany at meeting lield boforw thi'ir cm- 
^Kbiirkalion, but bud'd not hiiiiM^lf emigrate. 
I^f ]lfiil.'V>drewnpin Ortitlier 102'<' ibe articles 
< a(rre*d upon 'btrlwwn tb>> I'hmltjruand Ad- 
vontiin-ni for the jwrformance of what ehall 
b<: delvrmined,* and was chown aiiu of tliQ 
umpired to iMitllf; any diaputM that: miffbt 
artiti {CillticlioHt of the Ma«»avhMftt» Ititt. 
Sot. 4tb H!r. li. '2\~-'A), i^uotinir IJbook'b 
Zirat^t^e i'«nVrt«#and Yor:co's Chn>nklf«, 
pp. 09, 74, Hti, IU1~2), While hHH i>onit-- 
times been oinruMKl with Jobn Wbitv, the 
rnlriorrh of noreln-stfr, who was also coti- 
cerand in the settlcmnit of Mauui^liiiB'ilt.'!, 
mud is separatvly nolln-d below. 

H<idi«doii!{9Jan. IG44-5, and wae buried 
at thn Temple Churrh, nt The high altar, on 
the Middle Temple eide, tlie members of the 
Hoiuv of Commona nttomtin^ his funtral in 
a body. The memorial inscription placed 
ox'or him contained the following; vorses: 
l{or« lytXh Jobn. it humiug, Ktiioinj^ light, 
His Dftcne, lifv, actions mmt all Whit*. 

lie w*K 1wi(!f mnrrli'd, his finl wife beio^ 
,lAm-t, daughter of John ap QrifBtli Eyuon 
of Jetfreston, I'tni brokeshire (JPciwAr. MS. 
Ptdijfne*, 10^, penes Hcnrv Ow*?n, E-jiq., 
K.S.A.) Ily his aucDiid wifn, Winlfrwd, 
daoglitcr of Richard Blackvell of Bnabey, 
HertfordKhirvi, \w luid four sonn and five 
dati^ters, who survived bim. His third 
wife, who eurvivod him, was Mary, eldest 
danehii-r of Thoma-t Style of Litrlo Mia- 
Juridieiaief, ed. 1671, p. 179; cf. PotrTKB, 
AfNmiii Orrtrt.} 

(Viniemporaries describe While as a grave 
and learned liLwycr, an opinion confirmed by 
Lis tW't publi»he<l fiijewhes. Iii» hostility to 
the episcopal system was extreme, and alter 
his dt.-ath his enetuiiMs tried tu dumtge bia 
reuutfliioii br chiirgiii^ biai with ronjugal 
inedelity and opt'o imuumlity (Merairttu 
Aiilirv/.IU Jan. llU4-f)). 

Hi(i elder brottter, OriAilh, who married 
lilieiib^tli, diiuijhl'rr of Itoper Ixirt. of Slaci- 

rnle, wn« hiffh shcrilT of rombroke^hiro io 
IS2Q, aud proved one of the staunobe^i and 
most active parliamentarians in that county 
ihruughouttlie whole of the civil war(Fii]L- 
LiPfl, fV(i7 il'ar in HaU», t. 896. ii. 4, 80-1, 
S-j, 150, lUl ; Laws. LittU England, pp. 321, 
.'w.'i, :^-2:>, .12", asf., 337). 

(WfinrtV Athmiie (Isnn. iii. IflA, U4; Scfcl's 
Hist, of ll]n Purilnns, 1822, ii. 361-6. iii. S3- 
34. 22tl; Jtcliquin Baxtoiiaua'. i. 10: Fnllor's 
(*hiiri7h Hist. 184fi, ri. 67; nkrandim'n HisU 
of Knglnnd, iii. J18; Whiieliioke's Mtmorials, 

f. Vi%\ <V>inmnii«' Jourr.iiln. vol. ii.; MiuMon's 
ito of Millac, ill. 28-30. ink; Ciimbrian 
Jouinol, Tiii. 204, ix. 246; WlUinmi's Euiinonc 
WpUhin^n, p. aU.\ V. U-. T. 

WHITE, JOHN (1576-1(148% called the 
I'ffllriftrrh nf JJorcbpatpr, son of John White, 
who held a leiise under New CoUrf^', Oxfufd, 
by his wife I.kaIk^I. diinfrhter of John Rawle 
Of Li<;hlle1d,wasbnpU>ii.-dBt Htimtontjt.Jolui, 
Ujtfardsbite, on (> Jan. l-''i7'>. lli'i elder 
brother, Joiiaa, was rector of ilorncburch, 
K«nex, 1014-SS, and fHlber of James, a 
wealthy merchant of Boston, MawachiiMtts 
<fiijAj- Arehami. 7'rani. new str. iv. 317). 
i n 1 ft*? h<* entered Wincliealer school, whence 
ho was elected a fellow of New {'oUegv in 
1596 (KiBBT, mneAi»tfr &-Ao/«m, p. 183), 






He ^(luat«d n.A. on 13 April 1A07, M.A. 
on l*J Jan. 1601 ( FysTBK, Alumni 0.rvn. I TtOO- 
1711), lii\ was ftpnoinlivl n-otor of IToljr 
Trioilv, UorebesUT, m I'JOU, and for the rwt 
of Ilia long life wos idt'iitifi'il witb lh«l pldCr*. 
A moderate puritan, tie cirectwl ^renc re- 
fonna iu tlie character of its iuhobiinnl^, 
who FuJUt 118VI! w«n.' inui-h (■iirk-licii by 
hiu, ' for knowUdgi- i-auaed pii>tjr, and pieLj- 
■Imduidufilry, ho 1 hat a iHi^^f^r wiu not 10 w 
■teen in tl»- town. All tW iiblo jHXir wem 
set &n work, and tbf itnpotcnt tnAintained 
by tbe pn>Ht of n public bri'whoune nnd 
Other olIftTtions' {ll'ort/tiM, \\. MO). The 
BBioe ttiitboritj' saye 'he bad perfwt con- 
trol of two thing«, hi« own pnwiw* nnd hia 
SiELrisbioners' puTWBt* which he drew upon 
or hiB pbiiftiiihropic etdft, rtHiilu si Hor- 
[iefaestcr Jul expounded u.!! through ibe Itibit! 
once ami halt ibrougli a^&in. 

About lti:i4 White intorcatcd himcrlf in 
rWnUing out » cotuuy of Hor^il uii:-ii to 
Bttle m MB&jia><rhuM!ttA, wheru such oa wct« 
'HODOOJifurmiHtB uii^ht i-ujo_v lib(.-ny uf i;ou- 
ACi^nce. Thi-^-xiii-riHu-nt nut (irovingat Brat 
Buuceasful, Wbit« imdertouk tQ prucuru Lbcm 
jirhiirl'Tniii! toniispinont'v fiir their nnci-asary 
ojwrations. Tbroiigli bin cxfTlions lh« Ma*- 
inchiufftt^ Compnuy, of which Sir UidiiiTil 
rBoltoiifltiLn vrn.* A chiof phnrfholdtr, wan 
formed, nnd purcha«i'd their intprvst for 
1 .yW)/.. payablo in buius of LWf. at the l!oynI 
£xi'liuu);u cvury Micbuvlmtu from ItSi'y. The 
council for New Kiigland signt-d the Alas- 
eachu^L'tu palt'tit on 19 March \*y2?i, mid 
thi- Wiujf roiiliniu-d il by a iliorli-r dated 
4 Mart-h 1621). John Endecoit [fi, v.j wiu 
W-.iit out urn giiviTiirir. Knincist liigjtiniHjii 
[q. v.] and Saniixd SkWlon were chnstii and 
tpprovi-d by While a* tniiii»tfT», iiiiil MJli-d 
for the iJorclie.iti'r rnlony on I Mav lfi2ff in 
the 1.Jer>rge lionaventiirn. John Winthmp 
['q.v.]9aiJiHlin the Arbclln, \\'bit«' holding a 
serricL' on board before ahu sailed. ^^'Ui1e 
WM n tDLiDber of thii coinpiLtiy, and r>n 
30 Niiv. ht' wu--* niminuivHl nnn of ih«' eam- 
luitleelo value 1 he joint stock. Xn I(i^:^aiul 
lfl3fi he wiif com-KpundinK with John Win- 
tbrop (who ur^ed U'hil« lo visit llie rolcjtiyi 
about L'od-lJni-« and btxikt; to lu< fi>nt, as well 
aaflax iif a utiitable (growth fnr Ubri<li- I><lniid 
(Cn/. fitatr Pajiert, Cnlnnial Set. .\niencp, 
15T-t-l(«J0, pp. 104, 15-^1, lM-1, na. I'l^U). 

In the winti^r of Uliy-;i(» he prv^nrbed nt 
the rip«nin(r of n conRreKufiona! cbnrch at 
the nfw hospital in Pljniftiith. Ho i* rn> 
dit«»d with hatiujr drawn up * the governor 
and Mmpanv's lliimhlt: Kt-ipirst to the re«t 
of their Itret^ren in Hiigland,' London, WJO, 
4to; ATidon thi-raiithoritvoflncpeaM; Mather 
[q. v,],aaweU tm from inttirnnl evidence of 

8tTl«and matter, must be occpptM as author 
uitlw naaajTooat ' I'lmiter^' ]'1>::«,' Loudon, 
IfiSO, 4tQ. This work, unknown to Coiron 
Mather, l*rioce, llutchiason. and BsncroFt, 
historian* of S>-W England, contains the 
earliesL trustworthy information on the first 
planting of the colony. It bus heconif ex- 
ir<tinuly Karcc, but a copy is iu the JJritijdi 
MiueuB), and part of chap. viii. with chap, 
ix. is iv-printi-'d in Aluxandt-r Young's 'Chro- 
ntcle« uf MaKoachuwttH Ihiy,' BuAlon, ISM, 

About I3S5 or 1630 While was examined 
before ?ir John I^ambc [q. r.1 about enme 
pajierH seixcd in his study, and relating to • 
crtn»idtrabli> *ini of monry iwni hy S^Tiitfl 
to [)i. John Stoughlon. This eventually 
turned out to he in part a Ipcnty from one 
Philipiwi I'iit, liEiiiifaihi'd to Whitt- in pio» 
unu*, and in jxirt uishursemenlR for the colo- 
nists in Now England. Whito produ««d 
miuutu t)anicul*r» uf Cht'.-ie in his nott^books, 
and at last, after six months' attendance 
lipfuru the eourl of high oouiiuiMiun, hu waa 
dl-x-'bargi-d and thf infortuant reproYed for 
'iwnttling' (£'n/. State l*apen, l>om. 1636 
and Iti8f>-ll, pii»»in)). In the heuiiuiing nf 
tha Long parliaroeni \\'biiG and manv of 
bi§ congregation took (Im cfivrnnnt. Wood 
callfi him ' ti inndernte, not ninrotie or peerisli 
puritan,' and wiys h« confornjed lo the en** 
muniL's of thp tburch of Kngland. 

\Vhi.'u lhi> war brolio out abcut 1(M3, 
a pi^rty of JVince Kupert's horse hiirat into 
\V kite's houeo at I}orvhi»ti-r, plundenxl it, 
nnd carried off hia book.'i. He tftok refuge at 
tbu Savoy, where he minislt-red until, oAw 
thr (■ifCtlon of Ilnliii'l Ftrallcv [ij. t.|, hi* waa 
api>ointed rector of Lambeth on 30 Si-jit. 
Il>4!i, Slid givf-n thp use of Fwilli-y'* library 
uinil bis own cniild lie recovered. He waa 
cbonen one of the \Ve«tniin«er assenibly of 
divine*, nnd at their opening si-rvicc in St. 
Margaret 'i (i^Ci !^ept. 1(313) prayed a full 
hour to prepare I bcm fortnkinglho covenant 
CWinTBi-ot'KE. Mn/i'/riait, p. "4), He ctn- 
atantly attended the sittings of the ass*^mb!y, 
and sign^id the putition f'irlbv right to n.'fufio 
the Mctanii-nt in *caiidalou» jjenMini*, j«w- 
senled to ihe IIousu of Lords, iH Aug., was 
oni" of I If ntM-twoTA, and in 164^ wnti clHnwn 
on the committee oif accnmmodatinn. 

UlKin till' ih'iilh of Itol)t.-rt i'lnck f(|, v.^ in 
November ltS-17, White wuh df-iigned warden 
of XbW College, but he declined lo go to 
< t.Tfnrd, h'ing * .lick and infirm, a dying man ' 
{ Uriti). FerbopH be rvtumed to l>orehesier 
bfifnrn his d^atb. which took place on VJ July 
1^-11^. He was burifd iu 1110 porch of St. 
Pcter'a Chapel (belonging to Trinity), Uoi^ 
Chester, but no inscription appwn. 





White taaTTJetl Ann, duighter of John 
BurROii of i^tCTboTOoeh, sirtor of Cornelius^M fd. v.l, and left fotir mbs: John, 
Saauul. JmikIi, nnd Natbaniol. Thi; nldivtt 
vntMnMl tliA miaiAtry. and br^anif! rector of 
■Rinpemtf, IXinwl (cf. lAtrdt' JvumaU, riii. 
36?, V'i, 4St ; C»L4Mr. Nrntm^formUtU tVe- 
moriai, ed. I'altni>r, ii. liTt), 

Besides tli>- ' PUnltrs' i*lea ' and a few 
MparatA rerRinnji and abort tTvaliHc*, Wbito 
was author of: I. 'A Way i" tl'e Tree of 
Lift! Sundry Diiv-ctions for the Proftcablu 
2. 'David's r»altn» in yintnn, agnwabln to 
thfl Hebrew, To bo siini; in usuall Times 
Ti> thf! b^ttutit. of tho fhurchfJt of Ohrial,' 
l>oodon. I'i-V}, lilmo. 3. ' A Coinmomary 
upon the Tbres Firal Chapter* of ihi! First 
Rookof Mtwescnlk-d GcnvoiK,' I'Ondoo, 1656, 
fol. TUi' prcjiwrutiou of 1 !i U for the pr«»8 wiw 
entnixt^l lo Stiphen Marshall \(\. v.], but 
aa lie died {l&w) before it was rwidy, a fur- 
ther nott- bv ThouKu Mantoa [g. r.J accom- 
paniod John White jujuor'e uvdication to 
I 1)mj«1 noUM[q.v.] 

SOnxA* Liir« of Tji«Ptiritnn»,tii. 88; Wood*« 
ion* Osnii. *[i. Btiw, lit. 23fl ; Pnitc«"» Chro- 
nota|i»c«t BiBi. i. lit. 1A3, 168. 171, ITS. 183, 
195, 3A0, 2(lAi Uauduit'ii SlioH View of ibe 
Hist. Maaaadiaecua Bay. 1771. p. 24 : Huu-hin- 
■oa'a Bi«L of HuMachiiMUa lla^. I. 8. 9 : Bv\>~ 
bard'»Ht«T.uf Sei>EiieUiid,pp. IA.10A: Rhode 
Uland Riit. Co!), ir. 67: Ever«at'i DorchwiUr 
in 1880. BoatuQ. ISRS.pp. 22-7 . Voung'aChfo- 
aklea of MaaaarhuMtta Kay, pnuim ; MaHaa- 
ahaaetu Hist. Cotl. 4ih n-r. W. ii. ; Math«r'a 
Xear En^Uufl. l.k. i, p. IB; Prynne'j C*nl«r- 
bariwOmmn, p. MS; Wbartoa'a TrutiljlMand 
7^^ sf Laud. i. 174. 17*; Fuller"* Worrhi*. 
iLS40: Mit>-h«ira Wcm miaatw Auembly, ziv. 
98, Ul, 397. -ing: Wood'a Hisl. of th>i> Col- 
]»KM niid aolU. ud. OuUh, p. 33K; Cai. SUtu 
I'apcn. Itam. ]02B-», p. A43, 16)1-3, pp. SAO. 
-(02, IR3a-9i Huteb[DNHlIi»t.of IloriH-t. ti.3T-^. 
ir. 142 : Manaon's Utlton. ii, ^'JJ, &19, 59H, 6DA - 
Applotrtn'H Cyclop, of AmtriMn Bio^. vi. «73; 
AJh bone's Diet. <» Bogl. Lit ; ChnlmcfHa Biagr. 
^n. : BttDCToft's Qin. of An«ricik. i. 2S4.) 

C. F. S. 

WHITE, JOrtK (1826-1801). hisiuma 
of ihe Maoris, son of Francifi Whit*, waa 
bora in Knptand in I8:>ti, nnd went out to 
Now 7<c«land with bia fatlior in ld32,iH-ttlin(( 
first at Kororarcka ; the «ack of that placu 
by tbc Maoris drove them to Auck1an<l in 
1844. Jl« was early attracted rowari^.i tb« 
Maori rac« and tb«ir customs, and was em- 

tloyed by the jioveminent inpositionawbrre 
e came much into contact with thum. Sub- 
aequeacly be wa» frold comniiuioaer at Coro- 
naadel, and received tho appoinimuru of 
offlelal tDIerpreter and agunt for tfa« pur- 


chase of nativp lands; in this last capacity 
be aQQceednd in obtaining for the cohnista 
thp title to most of the Innda roiiml Auck- 
land. .At a lat«rdat« ht> became naffistntte 
of CV'ntrat AVaa^anuL He died sadaaoly at 
Anckhind on 13 Jan. 1891. 

Whitit was employed by the government 
of New Z«a]and to compile a complete hia- 
torr of tho traditions of tlio Maori race: he 
bad coniplelfd four volnmm only at the time 
of hii! dL<ath. Thry npp^arod in I88dwith 
th«i title ' Tim Aiicii-tii. History of tli« 
Maori' { WtsUinfTton, «vo). Hh wa^ also 
author of a novelette, eatitJed ' Ta Kou, or 
thp ^faori at Home.' 

[MoDnall's Diet, of Australaaiun Blofraphy ; 
AiickUnd Weekly News. 21 Jan. ISUl. p. 7-} 

C. A. H. 

1H%1), daaMCal scholar, liorn in 180!*, -n-aa 
the second boo of John White of SeEborndin 
llampabint. Hn ntatriculflted from Corpus 
Chriati rolle^e, Oxfnrd, on 26 Jan. XiSO, 
was elect*;d an exhibitioner in the samevear, 
and jmdiuitAd R.A. in 1»m. M.A. in if<S9, 
andB.D.andli.U. in If^Wt. He wB5ordaiacd 
deacon in 1831 ax curate at Swinncrton in 
Staflordshire. llv was iip]iointed n-sdvr at 
St. Stephen Walbrook in I8.K1. and netted as 
astittam masCvr at Cliri«l.'s HoHpital from 
1886 to laefl. In 18.17 liH bpcame curate at 
8t. Ann, Blackfriaro, waa onlaiiied pnest in 
IK.*)!), nnd in lr<41 wan nppoint>^d curate at 
.St. Martin I.iidgale,*'n-in(r until 18S8.when 
he waa instituted rector, llediedat 17Cam- 
bridzv Rood, Brighton, on 17 Dec. 1853. 

\V hil«> was au able claeaical ixihular, and 
publiahed numerous scbotaatic worku and 
critical editions of (.fruuk and Latin authors. 
He b best known [H>rhapK for hi« * Orammar 
School Ti'Sle,' tt ueries of Latin and Or»'ek 
aulbors nuMi commonly nind in schools. In 
cnnjunctirin with Jn-wph Knmonii Jliddlo 
fq. r.| he brought nut in IWi' '.'V Latin- 
Knplish I H<7tionRry,' London, 8vo. founded 
nn Kthan iVllen Andrews's tmrifltution of 
Wilholm Freiind't ' \Vi>rt«rbucb dur la- 
teiniwhen Sprache.' Fnmnd's * Wiirtorbucb * 
was published at Let]ui^ betwvei) 183J and 
I84fi, and .Vndrttws'a translation nt New 
York in 18oL'. While and Riddle's ' Dio- 
tionary' waa largely superseded by thnt by 
Cliarlton T. l^wis and Charles Short in 
lrt7S. A 'Cotlflg:eIjitin-Kn)rii.'*h]>ictionarv' 
of intermediate siie appeared m l^i't, anda 
'Junior 8tudent'd Complete Latin-Kii|[luih 
and £i^i;lifth-Latin Dictionary ' in 18t)0. 
White also udiTed Robert Lynam's ' Hictory 
of the Roman Emperors' (London, IdfiO, 
2 Tols. 8vo). 




1898; Fwler** Alamni Oxon- 
ITShbr'h Bibliotbeeii Sbifforil. 199( ; 
hcl. of Kng;l. Lit.] K. I. C. 

S, JOSEPH (!~4S-1814), orii>nt«- 
liat mid thi-ologian, was bom at Stonohouac 
(ur, acr^onliiiR to another account, Stroud) 
in nioiicLifU-n-liiru in 174I>, and was the,' sun 
of Tliiiiniu' White, n journevmaH weaver. He 
[Teoeived Iiifi earUt!sl cducutiuii iu uut' of ihi' 
Gloucesl'T chnrily w-hiji)l», and KUu-ted life 
in hiA fnr,h<>r'fleini>]oymeTit. Hiatalentaand 
attainments, howeri.'r, utt ractud thu niitiojof 
AOme iroaltbj neirliliours, irlin i^nahlctl him 
to puriUe his stuaioe nt ICuEcomb, and agoin 
at G loucealor. und tlio JibiTftUly of jnhn 
Mooro ( 1730 180'>) [(i.v.J (afterwards bisbop 
■ of Itaiicor and orcfibishoii of Canterbiirj') 
' ennblocf bim lo wiUT Waclhum Colli'jrfi. Ojs- 
ford, a» tt cotninoiier ou (5 June I7f!5. In 
Bepliuiiber of ihflt year be became scholar 
, of Itis cwll'-'gtf, wbtTi; hi- eb'jrilv ufti^rwiirds 
Obtuni-^l thit Hodv t'xliibitii'H lor Hebrew, 
I U well (iH otlmr pnzvs. U« was fi-Uuw frum 
1771 until 17RK, nnd filhw] v«riinw cotl-^Hv 
4fliec». Ho (rraduBted B.A.on C April I7fiw, 
M.A.on ly Feb. 1773. B.Tl. on 17 Slay 1779. 
and D.D, on 17 T>i-c.. 17S7. At lii* piitronV 
diisire bv devoted himself lo the sludy of 
Syriac, Arabic, and Porsinn, nnd in l"7fi, by 
la uuiuiinioue vote, wm eh;ctfd lo ihp Lau- 
I A'sun chair of Arabie. At iho augHMtion of 
j Bishop I^iowtli tlie delegnteH of tlio Clarendon 
press entruitled to Whitetbn tiwk of cc):uplrt- 
mg and ifliiuinf: an edition of the Fhiloxpnimi 
(or ratber llarklenfiian ) version of N*«w 
TL-rtamcnt, forwliich Glocester Ridley [((. v.] 
liud tt;f^ taotoriols based on two mnnu»cripts 
vhich he had brousbt from thp eutt nnd 
dftflrwordK i»ri;i!«nt«a to New Colleite. Itid- 
ler'n mati-rjalii were, however, of Httlo viau to 
^\ hite.wLo had botli tu uo^iy tbv mauuHcnutt 
and trrinitlnlii tti» It-xt liim.')'>lf. His edition 
appeared in 1778, and >L>xbibLtvd bulb hie 
BCQolarebip and his ncninn-y in a favoumblo 
light. ; ftiKl Mno-C no other edition of ihia im- 
portant version bos evt>r appeariad, it is tho 
work by wbich he i.< Will remembered. A 
volumL- of conimentij wbieh be at one time 
plauued aa a supplemcut to the edition never 
Appean'd. From 1780 to i7>*3 he wm oc- 
Cnpird ill [irHiwrinif an edition of the Pcraian 
text of the ' Inst 1 titles of Timnr/uf which 
A specimen wim iMni:nl iii tb^ formnr year, 
wbAe the wholft appeared in 1783, at the 
eopenee of the East India Cumpnnv- Tli" 
text was accompanied by a tmruilation into 
BngUjib from the pen of Major Davy, then 
I*emiaa secretary to ibc govern or-gonoral of 
BengiU. In 1783 White, who wa-i already 
oneofthnpreachcraat WhiCehttll Chapel, wofl 
■ppointeid to tlie recuntljr founded Bainptoo 

lectureship for 178-1. bis subject being a com- 
panion bctwf^en * MsJiomotiam' and Chris- 
tianity, wliicb hi« eituditw hud well qualified 
him (o treat. He waa, however, aoinewbat 
dinideat of bis rhetorical ability, and, regard- 
ing the appoiutiuenl as Ihn cbauco of bis lif«, 
hu took the danjTerons step of secretly aaso- 
cintinu with Itimat-lf #<i>mo pi*rsuns in wbos4 
capacuv bo had confident!^, and to one of 
tlwBu, ^umuel Dadcock [q. v.J, a ckr^vnton 
in poor circiimManoea, be entrusted the 
composition of one entire diacourw aod 
iif largo porljons of other*, iuoludittg the ex- 
ordium totbescricj. Tbe result justifiud his 
si'iection of coadjutors ; the aermon*, which 
contaim-d among otht^r matter a court(«ua 
answer to (iiblwn, aa well aa a iwply to 
Humfi, wore grmtly admired when delivered, 
and favourably rvc(*ivtid bv thu pr<N<s; and 
indeed, though the thought is shallow, thu 
iirrangornvnt ie lucid, thu uumner exceed- 
ingly ri!finf^,And thK-]Angua£« eTOrTwb«>r« 
choice und felicitouH, and in tne fifth lecture 
cvi'ii t'xtjuiaite. Tladcoclt, who as newspaper 
writer did Komething to press tb« gah; of the 
book, of which several editionswere speedily 
exhausted, liqit siletieo while praisos that 
were due to nini were lavished on While; 
but hi* silence was not gratuitous, and the 
day wLtMi tome important pivbrmcut ehuuld 
be Wbite'sreword was anxtouiiy expected br 
both. In 17r*7 White was. through Mnorea 
iiitrn'wl, pn'wnh'd by the dean am] chapter 
of Ely to the rectory of Melton in Sulfulk; 
and supposing Ibis to be all that the Unuip- 
ton lectures would pi>3dnoe, ho hurried on 
the printing of a learned work, the Arabic 
description of Egypt br Abdullatif, a writer 
of the bist o-ntury of tbt> ouliphate. Hut 
lie despaired too soon ; for earlv in 1788 he 
waa praaenttKi by Lord-chancoll'jr Thurlow 
to a pwbliiid hi ItloiineiitJir ('athcdral, of 
which ihu value was [-onsideruble. His pre- 
f»rnipnl n'nrai' nono too early. Shorllv after 
tliH jire?f-ntation Bndcock died, and White, 
in bis letter of condolence to his sister, le- 
qneated her to return all letters of his that 
might be found iu Qadoock's papers; but 
Miia Badoock, knowing or gnesaiug the value 
of the correspondusoo, took thv opinion of 
It. Gabriel, to whom her brother had haen 
curate, and who had nomt! daalings with 
White of B naluri^ to givM hini a cluM to the 
relations between the two men. Among the 
paptTH wtw found a bond for tSOO/. which 
\\'nitn at fin^t refufted txi pay, nll^ng a \eff»l 
flaw, and also asserting that it was for help 
whifh had n«Vt-r bL-uEiBCtuallvnuiden5d, but 
afterwards agreed to renew, honing thereby 
to prevent the truth about the lectures get- 
ting abroad. His compUanoe come too ma. 


Gabrtel bad tne«nwbilo circulatiKl tliu sioiy, 
■ltd being chalU'n);«cl from itereral quarters 
lo proJtiou ovtil<-iic« Tor lii» luwtrtiun, ut 
I^Dgtli published ft [it!mbi>rof Wbite'slt-tters 
to Badcocb. fpvinj; irrefm^able orldonce of 
Uu! joint nut)itiritlii|>. nndnlNifiii)i)^Mlin^ that 
yet otlier hands had been cmplvived on this 
duoaurw«. (.iabrirl's pamplilet ran ihrougb 
serenl editions; and additinnni Torc-e wiu 
lent lo it bva KJi?inder from one uf Wbilo'a 
pwttLMuu, in which Gnhrirl was Tinilenily 
atldcked. but bis cban;«A were lefl uuan* 
swcred. Whit« kq>T »ili>nce aa long sa pn»- 
Hiblo. At last, tn 1700, U-in^ conipellm to 
answer, be piiblialiod an aecuLinl of hU literary 
oUigstiDni', ID which he upparontly un- 
(iMvouml to conceal nuthiuu, but lunin- 
tained still tlist ibt^ -"HXI/. bona waA for help 
in a proiec(#d historj' of Kgypt, of wbicb his 
' Abuutliitif ' wna to lie Xlu.-. fortirtitm^r. Flis 
puupblet aeenu to havi! anlUfied the jnihltt;. 
Dut Wbibii did notattwinpt again the rv'ik' of 
popular proieber. 

Bf ttre«n 17110 and ISOObe publi»hed little. 
In tlie Uuer jmf hi« edition of * Abdultntif ' 
at laaC appeared, with a dedicatiou to Sir 
William Scott. Ho had printed the text 
bXt«en Tcnra before, but, not Wmg satLfiliijd 
with it, Iiad presented tb« copiai to Pntilii* 
of JuuB. aftvrwarda famous as Ihe leader of 
rationaluin, wbo iMuod the work in (ivrmiiny. 
WhiteV edition embodied a transliition which 
bad been commenced b_v tht* ^ounner Kd- 
ward Poeocke [nw under Pocix-ke. E»- 
wAjip], but was completed bv While biimclf. 
11)8 IS the onlypnn tb&t evcrr appc^ared of a 

Kwt work oil E^pL which bo euems t'l 
re planned, and which IWoock wnn to 
have njuduivii popular io stvie. The time, 
liOweTer, wai» bj no mi-anx ripv f<'>r xiich 
a worki and the elaborate monoLTaph on 
Pnmpej's RlUr which White published in 
19(M Decameantiqiiat«cla8Wionastbe8ei«DC0 
of EfjTptolody was Bia.rt6d. The rest of 
White's liicrarj- work was concentrated on 
the text ual stuay of the Old und N«w Testit- 
ments, and earned him in 1804 the n^^iuH 
professorship of Hobrew at Oxford, carrying 
with it a canoiirv of OhriMl r'hiircli. Himidpn 
Tarioua pamphleW, in which Iu> ndvorjitod a 
rrtranalBtiun uf tlitf nibW.ii&d propcisud a new 
edition of tho SttpMuifijint, to be bnsod on thi^ 
HaxRpIar-Srriac manuscript then recently 

Ofeek' (IM odjt. 1^08: often reiirinted) en- 
deavoured to simplify aud piiptjIiiriiHt Qrivv- 
bull'e ' Critical Studies.' His last work, 
'Oriaeos (iriK»]iiirhiiuifi> in Novum Testa- 
menttun Synapsis' (l^U) contains a sum- 

maty of the more important reaolta. Botb 
OS & theologian and as a critic he was ultra- 
conser valine. 

White died at Christ L'bnrcb, Oxford, on 
2S May 1H14. Ho married, iu 1790, Mary 
Turner. sisUt of i^tnue) Turnttr {1749?- 
1^02) [<|.v.l, who visited Thibet aa a llriti^i 
envoy. }I«r death in 1811 affvcted bim 

Persons who knew MTiIte declared bim to 
he of an indolent disposition, and it in a fact 
that in most of his books be embodivd wheru 
possible thulaboiirfl of others. Ilia ]ingui*ttc 
atiainmont.4 weri% hownvfr, very |^al, and 
conipuns favourably with Ihoi.' of ibt^ miwt 
eittiiietiL oriL-ntulista of his time, with many 
of whom, iiicluding Kih«iitredr' i>«CT,h« was 
in communication, IliaportrAil wa-^nainiod 
by William Pet^irsaiid presented to tue uni- 
versity of Oxford. It wrts etij^BVed by 
Joseph Thompson and appeared in the 
' Kurtipyrtn Magazine ' for October 1798. 

[Nik^liiilsB llluHtnifiuns nf tho I.itamry Jlist. 
of thr KtplitMiiith Cpiitury, iv. 858-85; Gat- 
diner's Register of Wadbam Coil, vol, ii. ; Lan. 
glha'a Nccrologie do J.T.V.; Qent. Mag. 1814, i, 
«260 V. S. M. 

1841), theological vrriter, wan horn at 
Seville ou 11 .luly 1775, and christen&d 
JooA Maria. IMs grandfulher, an Irish 
Koman catholic, lut the heir uf an uncle, 
Philip Nansle, bad become head of a LtTgO 
mercatitilo liouso nt Seville. Ilis father, 
ofter some early iui*fortuuv#, carried on 
the busineaa successfully, and married nn 
Andalusian Udr of tiublo descent and 
small property. Other Iri.->hmi^n 1)ecsme 
partners in the fauueu, and formed a ' small 
IriitEi colon V,' in which mmf> Kn);lisli was 
Spoken: altUouKb the Whiiett Irannlatod 
I heir riaio*>in(u HUnco and became virtuallv 
Spaninnli). Joacph was put into his father a 
oflice at the a^^e of ei^l. Hu bated ths 
business, and preforrcd lessons on the violin. 
Kin mothiir thou[i:ht commerce de^ading, 
and hnJ !iim lau^ht somn Lutin. At twelve 
he doel&red biH deaire lo b«!ome a priest, in 
orilwr lo fjieiipo ibw counting-house. His 
mother induced hia father to consent. Ele 
wikH nlloweO to attend school, and at 
fnurte<f!it hn was .iK^nt to study philosophy 
at a Dominican colietfe. An accident led 
him to read the work* of Feyjoo (1701- 
1.7(M), who had altockeil the scholastic 
philosophy still dominant in Kpanisli 
eoUe^M. Thif) induced thu hov to revolt 
against the repubtitelfacJiingofliismastvre. 
lie was then allowed to enter the univer- 
nitr (October 17W)). He formed a friend- 
ship with a senior student of litorary tastM^ 


vjvX thnjr Kt&rl«d ft litlls eoci«ty t^ rond 
|iapera ou ' pOBtty wid eloquoDCe.* He kIao 
■ninutl soitiM kuowltMlgw ot Kianch and 
It&lian literature. He was, liowBvtT, Mill 
KtudyiriK tliwUiffy widi ii viow tu the 
prk««thflod, AH'l tiod inkcn the 'four minor 
onlen'st the ag« ckf fourtci-D. .\(. twcnl v- 
ono ho took wibdeivcrtn's onierii, tlioush 
with mmo mibg^ivinSB. Both hie pari^nt; were 
Tery devout, nnd fi« coiDiiLiiiris bitterly ot 
tho Ion? »«!rvioi»i whieli he had beea forced 
t.M n1l(-ii[], from the a^ of (.'ight. From 
fourtefiii h(i liud diiily to ruiid his bKviiLr^ 
nnd to KUKtid an Imur in ' |tioua T«adtn.(r' 
and tnpditatinn. Tiie 'a[>ir!liiu] (.-xiTcijUfl' 
in which hv had afCvrwitrdH lo join had ii 
powt:rfiil fiffnot upon him. ThouK-h they 
excited him so far utitn Bupi>nr»)t hiH ncruvlMK 
about taWinir ordcni, hia taate waa shocKed 
by thu ' olayiog and mawkiah dHVolii^n,' and 
by the material imiffory ^mployod to »t,t* 
mnlalc the- emotions. 

While a Hubdeacon ItltLiico wsk vlAcl-ed 
fellow of tht.' colli-gc of ftlriria & Jeau at 
Puvillo, a poBitiuD of trifling emolument, but 
conrorriiigflome socio) advaota^*. Hi-! be- 
came reconciled for a time to hid prnt'e^"ioii, 
and at ChrintDitis IHOU was ordaintd pn(>fiC. 
He gsioed aome crt4ii hy imrfoririitig public 
exerci»es w cMidiilal'Ct for a Mall tu tht^ 
Oathadnl of Cadis ; and in 160:i was ap- 
pointed, U) spite of Mime intrigiuuB, to n 
chft]^inc7 in the Chaii^I Riiyal of St 
Ferdinand at St;ville. Meanwhile his re- 
rigtouH MrnipW hud been a^ln awakcnL^d. 
He was popular ue u coiift-'wor, and hia 
experi'pnce rdiivinccd him that the aystom 
had demoralising effecte eapucially upon the 
nuiu- Une of lii« two awtera hod tnkeu 
tho veil, fell into bad health, and died in 
COi»sei|iieiiL'e of the unwhnlewomc life in thi; 
oonTent. His indiffnation increased his 
doubl«, and, Ihoufh ho endeM-vourud tn ron- 
firm his (kith by prt-aehinj^ a cormoii agninnt 
BCepttcum, be al latit gave up his belief in 
ChriirfiMiity. Hu mndo the acqualntnnco of 
two "prieitta of similar opiuicras who lent 
bim frwithinkinK books, carefully hidden for 
fear of the inquisition. Kiu inentul strugfgW 
led to a bud illne«^, mid ho waa profoundly 
airccti*d by the deciainn of hla younger 
iM8l«r to enter ' one of the (floomii*sl. 
niuioerietat &<-vill(t.' Sh» had already be- 
come hysterical ; she soon developed mental 
•tnd physical di«ciL«c. and died a few ycata 
later. lUanco obtained leave to reside for a 
time at Madrid in order to esc(ip>-hi« painful 
poeitina. Tbero be wn« uppuinted for a time 
•reliffioim inittructor ' to a newlv foundod 
Pf6talonian achooh Meanwhile ihv Krencli 
were eattfring Spain. Blanco hopedi thai the 

rule of Joaepb Ituonaparta would be fatal 
to the inquieiLion and the reli^ous orders. 
Ill- yifldfd, howi^Tfr, lo hiit patriotic senti- 
ment);, and returned to Seville. Tlwr* he 
wan uppointed at cn^-ditor with a I'rofessor 
.Vntillon of ihfl 'Semanario IVtriiitico," a 
pnper eistabliBbed by the central junta. IIi« 
]K>liciojil phili'jiiophy wa.* not npproved, and 
the papL<r was suppressed. He wan ap- 
pointed, however, to draw up a report on 
the coti»t itutiou of the cortt^tt, and com- 
pelled the iiKiuiailioii to hiLud iiv«r to him 
iwiDB of the prohihitijd bookr< in chnir 
poHseuion. Wbi^n the iidviincR of the 
French forced the jnnia to leavo Sevillf, 
]tlniii:i> White riwolved to escape from the 
country and the pri>Mthood. lie fled with 
Fome of hi» frienda to Cadiz, where be was 
in iiomc dnngdr, aa th<> patriota thought 
that fugitivfta muet be traitors. He claimed, 
however, to be a British subject, and con* 
eliisively demonstnvtisi ilie fact bv replying 
•damn your eyes' to the ollicial who iu- 
quired into his character. He waa nllowtid 
to sail in llx.^ kliiKlish |HLclivt, and reached 
Falmouth on 3 March IWIO. A son of the 

Saiulur, Johu Uuppuer [ij. v.'i, wae rarryinj; 
eiipatchea by the sam» hoai, and brought 
him to London, iloppuer the elder had 
juit dil-d, and Ttlnnca Hhitti was at a loM 
in a strange city, lie had thought of ob- 
taining employment aa a inu^ician io a 
thi»tre. Some EngliAhmen who had 
travwllwi in Spain, I'speeiully Lord Holland, 
John (ioorgc Children f-^. v.', and Ijord 
John Kui^w^il, reuoivL-d liim kindly. He 
iLppliwl to Uichard, son of Lonl Wellealey, 
fur employment at the foreign olfins, Wol- 
Ii-.ilitj intriidU'Ci-d iiiin to the French book- 
tieller Uulau, and through DuUu he waa 
iiilrr'diicivl In mil" Juigne, a French n?fugeo 

Sriest, who had beconm a printer in London. 
uign6 agreed to giva him l&A a month to 
conduct a monthly periodical to lie ndled 
the ' Espariol.' I'tlanco (who now added 
White to his neme) wrote thp original 
mattor, and lllled thu ntst up with Cranalati^d 
documenla, to be circulated in Spain io 
dufencu of ihL> natioiml cauae. The labour 
waa eouHidemhli-, niid RlancQ White gave 
offence to one party by aupportioff tho ind&- 

fi;nd»ncu of tlie .Spaninh colonivamAmerica. 
[e .'iays that he was libelled and setioualy 
threatened with aseaaai nation. Juignf also 
had Irioked him into a very bad bar* 
gain. The pap^r was partly circulated by 
tho English governinent, which, however, 
did not diclalu hiu politics. He conatAntlT 
conaultBd Lord llolluid and Holland^ 
friend, John Allen. The paper was carriad 
ou wttb sncceas till aftvr the final expulsion 





I ofth 





of tbv Frvncli. wheu ha wa^ rewarded by 11 
UTe pension uf'-TiU/. a yi-or rrom ihu EnglUh 
govenimciil. llliinco White's bvdltb, how- 
ItKil bmWn down, and liia life vm 
aA«rn-ardji tormftitvd bv rvpcatvd if 
nil coiitiniinus illni^i. Ikaidea wrilinff, 
he had warked bard to improvu but KngliHU 
■Jld to Ivun Oriwli. Hn Itiid itliui ivjiMwed 
biB tbcolo^cfll Btudiea and tiornmn a 
Christlaa again, finding, a» ho tliotiiflu, 
tb*t the church nf Knglnnd hnd otf thi^ 
corraptioDS which had driven him frum 
catholi<risin. lie took th« Mcrnint'tir in hi* 
pnmJi cbureb iu 1^1:J ; itud, alU-r dropping 
the ' Eapaitol.'si|;n4.-d iht-Tiurly-iiint.- arlnrle^ 
UD 10 Aug-. )>yll I'j iiunlify hiuuulf for 
aciiii^ AK an l.i[k(;Iii<h rltrgyman. He 
setilt><l at Oxford to piirsuu bisstadies. He j 
rvad pr»y«r« ix-ciixiunnlly at Kt. Mary'«, | 
and felt a n;«iritl of hi* relifftous en- j 
ibusimfiiQ. Hp left Oxfurd in \ol'> to be- 
cumB tut<ir to Tionl Hnlhind'a hciii, Hf* Ird | 
an a.-K'«tic lif» in the Rin^nlarly uncnntrt^uinJ , 
atmoftphuivof IlGllnnd ]luu»>.<. Tln.i Holliirnl* 
weie p*r»onaIlv kind to the Iiuti, but hii , 
found his datit>3 as a tutor irkmtne, and 
finally retired from hi« position in June 1 
1817. He lived for a tini« with bis friend 
Jiituea CbrtAlie in London, then atayed for , 
B conpk' of ytunt with il Mr, (.'arlutcu hI 
Littl(! (taiidenden, ll'-rtfnrOstiire; and in ' 
18iL rtflumtHl to Ijttndon t» Uvii nuur 
. the CbristifS' Mi* ilUbi-Hhli di^pri'Mi'd 
him. and Iih frit himself a I>iirtl4>n to Uin , 
rri«n(]i<, who, however. (w«m all to have 
bwn prwntly oltrnctcd by his nminbU- charac- 
tur. in IB'JO hi- waa alowly improving, and , 
waa invited by Thomas Campbell, thun j 
iMlilor of thi! ' N'rw Muutbly,' to vunlribnle , 
article*. The Ural part of his book, ' 1 >ob- | 
lado^s LeLtvn,' appi-arud iu tho 'New ' 
Jlfonthly,' anil tnaih^ him gent-mHy known. | 
H-i wrote the nrtide upon ' Spain * in ilie 
fiupplem<.>Dt I" Ihu ' Kncyclopfdia IJri- ' 
tannica.' Hf ^hn engagea at the end of 
182:! by Rudolph Ackennajui [<^. v.]to write [ 
the chief part, of a ji>iimul inl^nded for 
Spaoiah America, called ' Variedadea.' lie 1 
wu to liave 'JUkil. a year a« editor, and 

IcsrriiMl on th« work till Uctobrr \f<2!HI.\fr,\. 
ifiiS, .'lit"). He gave it up upon bwrcming iii- 
tfirceled in th'-> controversy lietWLvn Soiithoy 
and CbarW Kutli-r ajKtn ihi- iiterLln of the 
Tlniaan and .\nglican cburchM. He pub- 
liehed hia 'Eridem'ea njfninat Catbi^Iiciim' 
in 18i!*'>. It was warmly praiMd by hia 
iciend .Southey. To prore hisindepenaence, 
he drclared that ho voutd nover acctpt; 
nrefi-mient. Ity thiii book and its 8QC[uela I 
I lie kt-eaniB a protestant chaupiou, and I 

i KcandaliHtHl hi' frit'ods at Ilullund lloiuo by ' 
you Lxi. ' 


turning even egainat catholic emancipation, 
though with Aomc he«ital)on. In I81'(j 
the luiiversity of Oxford conferred iho 1I.A. 
dcgrcu upon him in re«o^tilinu of Lis mt- 
TiccA to the fihurch^aud in (k-lober he M'ltled 
at Oxford as a mt-iuber of <>rit*l Oollugv, 
intending to purauu bin »ludiei8. He was 
madi' a uiembcr of thv Onvi common-room, 
and wa« welcomed by the men who were 
»o<in itfti'rwiirdK to be iMdimt nf the Oxford 
' ro<ir(>ment.* Newman {who played th« 
violin with liim), Pusey, Uurrell Fronde, 
and othent WiTe on very friendly tnnna ; 
but hia cloBost friendship was wlthAV'hati-ly, 
Whately and hla friend Nns&au Senior 
vi'tire iaicrei'ted in a nt-w quarterlr which 
was started in ]H2S as tlie 'Limilori Ke- 
vicw,' HLinco WTiito waaappoinied editor, 
aiid Nnwinan wiu one of hia contribntore. 
Tlie ' Review,' however, waa too poiidatrouit, 
and divd aftur two numbers. Meanwhile 
Whiti-'a knitwiidge of tin- uilhoiic church 
made hiin interuBling to the rising party. 
H« wB* oHic-Jnting »■ n clerKyman, and 
preached to the university. Ho explained 
till* uee nf the breviary to I'luajy and 
Kroude (l/iff, i. 4^^). His knowledge of 
the scholastic philosophy, then hardly 
kuown At Oxford, int'_TC8tcd hia friends. 
WUfU Hainpdeu ]iri<flchvd ihc ikmpton 
lectures of ISTJ iiiioii the corruptions of 
the true faith introduced bv the sclioolmoo, 
hn wiLK Ihongiit 1(1 havi^ W't'tt inspired by 
lUanco White. Liddon siivs rhnr the ' germ ' 
of the book is in lllsnco White's 'I'acls and 
Inf(Tvn<rt'.>* ' (an enrlr version of bie ' Here«y 
and Orthotlo«y ; ' see Li/r, iii. 362). Moiloy 
in his ' lt)>miniscences' takea the samp 
view, nlthnugh lluuipdenV friunds denied 
what appears to be at least, agravtiorentativ 
tneut, TliL' geuurnl argument was too fatniliar 
to nH)uir>? a special Mij^-xtion, though 
Blanco White may have drawn Hampdcn'R 
attention to the particular line of itiquiry. 
Hlanco White'slat.ercareerniado itdwirablo 
for IlaiDiiden's opponents to attribute the 
twoV to heti-rodoit inHpirnlion. 

Ulanco White's singularly sensitive chfi- 
racler made his Oxford nsidence uncom- 
fortHlik'. He wae kwnly annoyed by the 
iiMack« of the proteslaut pnrly vilitm hn 
voled for Peel at the elfclion oi 1820. U& 
ihotiiihi that the uuiverJiity gHiiernlly dis- 
likwl him as a foreigner and an outsider. 
Not being 11 fi'lhiw, hu was only ou Buf- 
ft-mncfl in the Oriil common-ronm ; (hr soi^ 
vsnts were imjiertinent, and junior fellows 
took pntcedi'nci* of him, Ilongh rniUery 
from old-fashioned dons slung him to the 
soul; and he was humiliated bv civilitii-A 
tu! (lavouriijf; of charity. When his friendf 

>Vh&tc)y left Osfnrd on liiKaminf^srchbithnp 
ofDublm ml83l,tli9 posilion bocitmo in- 
toLembla («;■;£(/)•, ill, ]'2ti,iVc., and Mi'^zlrt). 
'V^iltfttol; iM»D ofierud him ii home. lie wait 
to live u one of tha familr and u> act aa 
tutor to two liulit, «ori8 of VVliutvly liiiaoulf 
ami of ihf ir emnmon frienil Jwiiior. Rlnnci) 
WTiile ftccordingly wont to Dublin in tho 
Aiimiaor of lt«i. M« liv«l i>n tli" rn'M 
tnetidly TfiroiR wil.!i Wislftly and hU wife, 
and bemo to writo n liisl/»ry of tbo inqiii- 
Hiiion (/.»/<-, i. -197). He fnund ilic »ub|i;ct 
too poiufiil ; but in DUi'i be pLiblishetJ an 
answor to Moore's 'TruvL-ls of an Irish 
6«ntleman iu ttc-arch nf a Kulijion,' chIUds 
it ' Seuiind Travels,' fic. Tbe uaitie expreuted 
hit own hii>lorv. Ho bad bei.-n rontmunlly 
OAciUiiting ill bi« vi«wii, and liin pbyaical 
Baflerings pavo a morbid i iiipw to his matit jil 
troubles, llu bid b<x<n cauviticedby ealhulLc 
wrili'r* that firllmilnii dogmo-t n-j"l»>d iijjrm 
aulliorlty, and by ppjlcstaiils ibat the au- 
tWrityof tlitf c-liiircb wjw itidofvniiiblp. As 
liR wAj) 9(.il1 a (.'hrintian by fiontimenr, the 
only solution trasloaccppl a [lurt^ly rnttonftl 
ToUifion; and thl^, hi< finally concluded, was 
to b« found in iinitiiriuiii>iiu. He could no 
longer Ilto with on arcbbiabop : and in 
Jaiiuarv 1835 hw Ivft IlubLiii fiT Lirwiioul. 
There lift attended tlif unitatiann" servici-s, 
and vme i-^tdaUy di'lifibti'd by tUu prvacb- 
iag of T)r, Mitrlineaii, wtionii viuws he 
thorowpbiy approved (/-i/*,ii.O:!). Nnnrmnn, 
on hearing of bit secession, sent him an 
aficctionat<> lotttT, whirh, howvor, was 
Qotbincr but ' a trro<an, a aigli, from bt*^innins 
to end {Lifff i\. 117). A\Tittt*ly annoyea 
him by cuonauusly long loUetn uf wvuro 
terooiiatrnncp (WlUTELY, Ja/f, i. aBO-DO), 
but cunlinui'd bis fmudly n-Iutiouc. Blanco 
li\'hil« found ciiiijj^nis! friends at Livfinioitl, 
including his biograjikur, John Ilaroiltnn 
Thom [q. v.] Hi sctttrd thi>r* f'lr tbit mst 
of his life. In OctobPr \?<?A M'hately nent 
him 100/., and repoateii tbo s\ft, imaually, 
except in IftS?*, wbcti RlftOifift White n-fi)Md 
it upon obtaining, through Lord Knlland, 
a aum of iilHJ/. from Ibc queen's bniinTy. 
Blanco Whii« R'ems to bov>i btten always in 
waul oftiinnev, in spile of liis pi'usinii. On 
accepting the nnniiity he told Sirs. "VXTintcly 
ibat \iv vnA lit'^iniiirig fur \\\f. HrWi time in 
hie life to be economiral. Ilia pp^at li^mp- 
tatioii wsn to buy books. He bad aUospent 
mach upon a Hon, Fprdinnnd >\'hite, who 
vn* patrnniKed by Lord Holland, and b«- 
CAtae major in tbe 40th regiment {L\ft, i. 
324, 3%). Nothing is said of the mother, 
but a refeivnee to an unbii^ipv and cian- 
d««tint> atlacliment during bin to^l yi-jirs in 
P-*'" 'Life, i. 117) probably explainii tha 

facts. Blanco "Wlitte apeftksof his aon with 
^reat i9ndenio»9. During the Liverpool 
period ^\'hite waa able to do aome dasultory 
work, and he contribulud to the ' London 
and \WiiUnin«lBi- Rt^viniv," then under J. S, 
Mill, with whom be had very friendly 
corrmpondrnet" {'l.^tlen' tii Life, vol. ii.,and 
Theohffieat ftcii'i*a?, iv. Il:i). He also coT- 
respondwl with IVjfess-jr Baden- Powell 
anil the Ameriran nnitariarut ChannJng and 
Andrews Norton. His health rapidly de- 
dined, and be Mitreml forest pain, lie vmt 
reiniived in Kebrtmry ISll to Qreenbeuli, 
the houae of William Kathbone the ycMDffer 
rs«M' under Ratiibosb, William. 1757- 
1809], and died iht-n- on 'JO Stay following, 
Blanco Whil^''^ sweetness of cbararter is 
labowj] hv the warmth and endurance of hut 
friendships. Sontlier knew him before 1817, 
ond later letters (given in Dlaneu Wiite's 
Ai/c"* chow H warm repird. Cole-rijlgB wajt 
another frientlly correspondent. la later 
years »ome of bis ortboifox friends, «nch a» 
Stswmnn, were alifnatwl by hia .secension, 
though retaining a kindly feelinfc. Thorn 
aaya that whorti bit Inft Iniblin mor« than 
one clvr^vmnn ollered Iiira a home {,!•*/«, 
ii. 76 w.) Ilisfricndftwcre nlways trying to 

rri'vide fi?r Lim. John Allen, ua«t>?r of 
Inlwich Collt^ge, procured hia nomination aa 
u fellow in 1831 ; out the final diHiisioa wa> 
hv lot, and Ulanco ASTiit* dniw t\\» blaalc 
(fe-. i. 227, 471). H« was frpquenily em- 
ployed as tutor to children, but admits that 
'the impatiotico ofnn old nervoat invalid' 
nnlilted him for the task (lA. ii. 10 ri.) Uis 
ill-health prevented him from finishing any 
work worthy of tht' remarkable abilitiM 
winch hf clftivrly nosae»sed. He complains 
that be had partly furcutten his Spaniali 
willmiit fei-lintt completely at home in Kb^ 
li.ih. He applies to himeolf tlio speech of 
Norfolk ( Pirhnrd //, art i. «. iii.) upon 
tbe loss of hit native lan^iage i,TJff, i. 176). 
Though the defect hardly appears in his 
style, it is the more n^markablft that h* 
wrote whet Coleridge declared to be 'the 
6nost and moat arandly conceived sonnet 
in our lunniage* (Lelt^of i'HNov. IS^ in 
Life. i. 4:i^l. The sonnet (on < Night and 
Deuth*) hud hcun pubUFihed in the ' Bijou* 
f'T l^iJrt, apjiiinently through an oversight of 
Coleridgv, withont the author's approval 
iii>. 0. 44'i). An amonded version i* pven 
in BUnco White's 'Oiary,' 16 Oct. 1S38 
[ib. iii. 4"; see Main's Trra'tuynf EnglUh 
Sunnctn, p. 397, and TAr^ Hundrfd Ertffti^h 
Sonnet*, p. yW ). Probably he will contimue 
to bo known by it when his othep works, ia 
Hpile of the rtail iotereet of his views, bavo 
been forgotten. 



^^^^Wnoo liVhite's worin we: 1. 'Sernon 

id Spuiiiih on the Erid^nce^ of Christ uniry,' 

^^(Thom, i. 1131. il. '^^rmon in Spanisb 

^Wn rhe Slav» Trade' (TnoM, iii. 174. ISO). 

de E-pau»,' I aoe. 4. ' PpBp»«torv Obser- 
TKtioiu on tlid SCadjr of Iteli^oo, by a 
Clvrmniui,' 1817. 6. ' IjiiIIor* trout Siiabi ; 
hj Dni Leucodio DoUodu,' 182-.', 1 vol.i^va 
(iiartly publiKhsd iu 'Nvw Montbly Mimii- 
xine'); I'nd edit, irilh iiario in ]^2.\ 
fi. ' Practical mnd Internal Evidence a^iBinst 
CfttliolicUm, wilb Oocjwional HtrielunL-s on 
Mr. Butler's " Sooit of the Itomao CitUiolic 
Cliurch/' 1825, 1 vol. 8va 7. 'The Poor 
Mui'i* PrcNrvalirc ft^tut Popery,* 1825, 
1 irol. 8to; several UttT «ditioiH. 8. 'A 

Eittar toCniBrlesButlvrfEmj., on bis Xolice 

the "I'Vat-licol. Jet., EviJwicw,*" 1830, 

8r(i, y, 'Socond Trar^ts of an IrUh 

anian ia warcU uf u Ucliiflon . . , not 

■ Edilorof "CapUiii rtockV M.-niolra " ' 

Thomu Moore), 1833. '2 voIh. 12mo. 

*Tha Law of Anti-It«lif;ioiiK l^ibel ra- 

coofiidered in s I>>tter tn ihc Editor of tl1H^ 

"OhrUtian Examiner," by J, S,-arch.' 183-1, 

1 vol. 6to. 11.* An Atuwur to somo friendlr 

Remarka' (ontbelwt), with ■pp'^odix o'u 

an epigram of Martial aiipposed to refer to 

t'hrimioH lunrtjrs, 1836, 8vo. 12. • Obwiw 

TatinnR on Heresy nml Ortboiloxy,' 1K36, 

1 vol. f^vo. Blanm While also trnniilAlod into 

S|iani«h Porl«H(t'a ' Evidences,' Pnlcy's ' Evi- 

deitcn,' the Book of Oommftn Pray<T, «oino 

of the IIomilieB, and O'ottu's work upon th« 

*Eneli>h CritniDAl Lnw;' nnd supervised 

Sci"s translation of iliv Biblv. A li«l ut 

his contribtillnns to the * Quarterly It^rievr,' 

tlie ' >i;w Munlhly,' the ' Xyondon Itaview' 

of I8:*9, the ' Dublin l/nitvrsily lt«Tii-w,' 

tlu ' Lotidun ' and thu ' London and Wesl- 

minatfr Hi-rit^w.'and tlji> 'Chridtian Toacbvr* 

ts siven in Tboni (iii. 4M). 

Thv * Rationalist a Eempis* (1896) is a 
abort iwlftction of paaiagM fWini tho third 
vnlnme nf Thom'a * Life/ with a memoir by 
Jainea llarwood. 

|Tb« Lif> of the Ibv. Jotioph ItUnco White, 
«lit«d Ly John IliunUton Thom, I84A. :i ral». 
8to. Thw lyintiit.t of nn ntit'iliiLii^mphy, uri- 
ghully addnuni in IrUrm to Wbuloly, eadin;; 
at hia arrival in Encl.-ind, and continuod m his 
death by lettera and nslraeU fmm full diarios. 
Thnm wrute aii f-arlier life in tho ' Christian 
Traeher/vol. iii, Whaiely, who was »ppiir»iiily 
afraid that aMDfl acaodal niglit uriM fnim hir> 
ftiuidihip with a tuutannn, rofuaad to give 
latt«n, and pr>Heat«l posaionalcly aKainm the 
Itfa (MO aRioo hy Thom in Thenheicnl Iteriew-, 
tM7. iv. 82.1 IS). H«Biori'i1« of R. D. Hamp- 
in. IS71. pp. 21, S7: Loclier-lAmpMa's My 


ConSJoncM, ISM, p, 98: LitcbUnvteia'i Hol- 
land II<n»». i. UX. i': 183; Mrwoir of T. 0. 
Oltildron. I8r>3. pp. 90, 10«: Modr/a iUini< 
n'M-rnc-*, IRIIS, t. Sfi-8x '^^3-Sl : Ncwaaa'a 
L«uen. 18£»1. i. ISi. Htf. I9i-S. till, liOS. 210. 
319.X7I. ii. 132. 129. I6.i; I.ifo of Whataly. 
ISM,! 178, LN8-»0. Sa^, ii. 32. V2S : LiddonV 
LifoofPutcy. i. llS3-$, m.Wii. ij. JOfl.] L. 8. 

WHITE, Sm MICHAEL (1701-1868), 
lieulenunl-Kvneral, born at St. Micbael's 
.Mount in 1701, waa lh» third eon of Robert 
White, major in llitf :?7th droKOOtM, by hitt 
wife Aone.daughier of Sir John Kt. Aubyn, 
fiitirlhbaninBt 1.1728-1772), ofSt. MichBel** 
Mount. lie was edticat^l at \V«»tniinat«r 
Kfaool, and obtained a corneter in the 34tb 
dragoOQSOn Ui Aiiif. lHrJ4. On' 14 Mir ISOJS 
be vtM promot[;d ItuiiiHtiant. Prucoucfing' tn 
Indiii, ho wan crijjapi'd in active »ervicu iu 
1S09 on iho« of the .Sutlcj. On 7 Nov, 
1815 he attaiufcL Im captaincy, oud Iu 1SI7 
he-vrupFMentatthe capture ofHatnu. Il»i 
wrwl thiouffh tbv Mabratls campai^ of 
1KI7-19, ana at the ai^- and ■.aptiirei of 
Itbanpiir in 18:!'>-0. Lie was pnimot«d 
major on lOJan. IH37,nnd limilenaiit-HioIooel 
on 13 Duo. \^SQ. He commandi^d thuciivnlrr 
Ibmiifihoiit tliv .\rghBn mmpaifrit of I'i-l'i, 
acconipftnytny thu army undur Gcnoral ."^ir 
OwjrjjH I'ollock ^'q, v.] which forc.'d the 
Kbaibar Pa». Ktonned the ht-'ishts at .liigda> 
tak, dL'fvatvd thu ouarayal Tezin. capturoH 
tho poailion at Haft Kolal, and linallv oc- 
ciipi«d tbe Afgban capital Kabul. A.Ufr 
tht- ronrlusion of iht' c-ampaisu, on '2'J iJec. 
lHi2, be VTM nominated (Ml. Iltt Aorred 
in th« Sikh war in 184A-6, under Sir HuffU 
Gough (first Viacoirat Goughl [q. v.] lie 
commanded the cavalry at the battle of 
Mudki on 19 Tfve. 1845, wlieo liia bor§» wan 
wouodtM!. At the battle of Farottliah an 
21 Dec., where hi< commanded a bri^idw, be 
wasvroundfd and hud bislione kilM under 
him, and at Sobraoii ba U-lmvcd with such 
coospicuDUs galliinliy t hut he was nominated 
aidv^fcamp to tbe quwii. On I April 1846 
lie attained the rank of colonel. 

Threw yearn Inivr (lie mcond Sikh war 
hi-gan in the Punjab, and White oomnianded 
the fint brigade of cavalry throughout the 
cnmpai^. At the diautroits aBair ut Ram- 
nagar or 23 Nov. l&4tj, be assailed thu 8ikb 
cavalry, taking the command of tbe cavalry 
on thu fall of Lioucetiaut-coloncl Williain 
lIav*-iock [i|. v.] (In 13 Jan. I8i0 ht wan 

fn»(.'nt at th« d«aHy bought victory of Chil- 
lanwFilbili, whnrv he pmli^ctifd the left of 
ths infantry, and on '2\ Feb. IBIO he look 
imrt in tbe victory at Oujmt. On 20 June 
I8M he rrecived the rank nf major-i^-neral, 
and on 36 Aug. It^GS hewas appointed colonel 

of the 7ili draffootw. On SI Aug. 1860 be 
attailMil tho rank of lieuUiiatit-general, And 
oa 10 Nftv. I«e2 was nominated K.C.B. H» 
died in LondoD at 1& P(;intiri(i|i«Cr«>Hwiit, 
Bayswalcr. on 27 Jnn. Ifift*. In 1816 bo 
murned Mary, dau^liter of Major Myluo of 
tbe 24tli dragoonfl. 

Biuiocluca Coiaub. : Barkor Kud Steaiiitig'a 
W<wtniin«r«r School b#>g. : Amy LUtt ; TimM, 
1 Feb. ISeH; Colliurn'* Uoitod Sorrice Mng. 
IftOft. i. US; ThackweH's SarmtirB of tho 
S««.o4 Seikh War, 188L. pp. 36-6. 163.1 

K. 1 0. 
WHITE, fiiB MOirOIAS <d. 159S), 
naMer uf llie rolls in Ir<jlnnd, dpwrrilji.'d u 
of Whiu>« Hall, nenr Knnclttftphfr, en. Kil- 
kenny, a (leecendaat of ono of tbe early Pale 
wttlen, WM a relativi- npiMrcntly, p<-rhr>p» 
the son, of Jnni«ii "NMiit^ of Wntprford, een- 
llumiin. to whom Henry VIII in ir>lC) 
granted a. lease of the rpctory of Diinkitt in 
CO. KiUtonuy {Vat. Fiant*,' llm. VllI, p. 
1f»l). H<^ ia aiirmiA^d to be identical with 
the 'Xicholas Wbyl' meatiouud in tliv 
rodicii to this will of JantM Biiller. niiilli 
pari of Ormonde and Ossory f MoRBiy, Ca!, 
Intent Ri>/!f,\.MK\). Hit u 'nn'iilioni^d in 
April ISfi-l as a justice of the peace fop 
the counties of Kilkcnnvfind Tippmiry, and 
the foltnwinp VL-ar a.< recorder of the city of 
Waterford (Cal. rhuU, Klix. Nob, 542, 
fli)tt]. Vi*itin|i: Enjrland siihftp<inently, he 
made a fnvuiirabk' impTe^sitin ou Klitabuth 
ami Otti'il. On J Nov. 1.TU8 ihc quet-n 
(liri>ctfld him to bu appointod tu t hu HcuLiichal- 
ship of Wexford and thi> con«'»tiiji and 
mlc of l*ighlin and Fenm, in the room of 
Tlioma« liitueley [i|. v.] On IH Jon. fiillow- 
inp ho oblained a prant of the reversion of 
tllv lands of Uunbrody in cu. Wexford, and 
of aundrv other k'Jiwjt (cf. Cat. Finnttf'^o.*. 
]G37, 1037, 1&43, !GG8, l6tJ2, 1672, 1038), 
with initl ructions at tlio aamo time to be 
admitted a privy coitncillor {Cnl. State 
Papert, Irrl. HIii. i. a02, 4U0). It li nnl*. 
■worthy that his adTancoment woa attri- 
buted to the inflnonoe of tha Earl of 
Ormoud* (lA. i. \Q-\). 

Un bis way back to Iruland b*9 had a 
curious intCTvitvw with Iktary Queen of Scots 
at Tutbury in Febniary 1&89, of which he 
sent a de!.ailed account tn Oocil CHatitB!, 
fftuykl^tf Papern.^p. 509-12). DurinR the 
Butlt-rs' war his prop'-rty was plundered, 
and ho himi>clf obli^'d for n tiinu to tnka 
rvfitp*^ io Waterford (Vat. fiiatf Paji^r*, 
Irel. Klii. i. AQU. 412). On 28 May. in 
coasideration of bin lui'sen, hn nbtainvt] a 
grant of tbe landn of .St. Katbnrine's, I^eixlip 
{Cat, riani4, EUz. No. 1309; cf. Cat. Hat- 

jMd MSS. I -IIS), wliere h« afUrwarda 
rstnbliabed ln» n.'Aid<>aco. As Mne«oha] of 
Wexford hti kept a firm hand orer th« 
Kavaiiaghs {OtJ. Statr Pnpff*^ Irvl. Eli*. 
\. 426). and by his conduct at the ue^ of 
CantUMocoUopin .May 1571 won Iheattpnv- 
batton of the' lord jufiiee, Sir WiUiam 
Filzwillinm (I'A. i. 4f>7). In September he 
repaired, with permission from thf elate to 
be absent six montlis, to Knjtiand. On 
l-l Jnlv lfir2 he wn» appointed maater of 
the rolts in Ireland {paternl, 18 July) in 
sucoMiion 10 Henry IJraycott, with con- 
ceasion to retain the oflioe of aenpsrhnl of 
Woxford for the furthrr maf« of eight 
montb», ' in the hope that he may moiv 
offeotually prost>cate those that mtird««d 
hision-in-law. lloborl Browne' (CaLPatrnt 
RotU.i. ti\H ; Smyth, I^^ Officer; p. 00; 
Mwabo under O'llritni.', I-'uoii Mtcllcoo). 
At till* eomo tJmo the lord cbancellof was 
diriit^K'd to acropt a .*»rrpnder from him of 
his liinda in counties Tipperary. \N'atprfonl, 
and Kilkenny for a n-grnnt of Ibem to him 
in fee-ftimple. 

Aft^r his r<>tum to Ireland in tho autumn 
of 1572 A di«pui« arose between him and 
Archbishop Adnm Lofhia [g. r.], on llw 
death of the lord cliancrll or, Robert 'U*e«Um 
[q. v.], OS lu the custody of the gn*X ae*!, 
which Ijoftiis rlaimed es offlcio (Gal- State 
PapfTo, Irel. Elit. i. 506, 508). Tk' incid^t 
caiiwd bad blood bi.^l wi-en biu] and tbe offi* 
cialsof English birth, and was followed by 
disastrous coDsequeaoiM for him. A year oT 
two Inter he supported the agitation of tho 
gentry of the (Vie aftainFt cees by rofniiing 
to fli(fn tho order for th«ir committal [mb 
uuduT Ntjobnt. Hih Christophkb, 1544- 
lfi02l, and drew down upon him the wrath 
of Sir Ucnry Sidney, who d('!»cribcd him to 
WiiUinghiim a* '(he worst of IrisbmcnVt^. 
ii. 117). He ofTort'd an explanation of ois 
conduct to Itiirf^bU^v on IS Junu li>77, all«K- 
inff that he hiwi no intention to impu^p the 
queen's prerogative {Hatjielii .VSS. ii. IfW, 
]S0>, Bitt, 8idn.'y, who from the first had 
disliked him as belonginif to the faction of 
his eneiuT. the Earl of Ormondr-, woa in no 
humour lu bivok oppoeitJou from him, and a ■ 
tliarge being preferred a^tnst him hj the I 
attomfy-goneral. TLumae Snaggle q. t.}. of 
ri^miMiK'sw in llu^ puinitioii of the autics of 
his office and of maintainintf any cause that 
touches his comnlrvtni.'n 'how foul soever 
it he' (Val. ftfatf P^tp^rf, Irel. Elii^ ii. 124, 
120), he was in April 1576 ■iwp*'ndMl from 
tho mastership of the rolla {('al. Fianlf. 
Elii. No. 33C7 (. He found,bowover,a frirnd 
in Sir William Ifrury [q. v.\ and in September 
received pcrmisnun to repair to E&g^Uuid to 







rieail hii uum with Uur^bley ( it>. Nu. 3fi09). 
He •ucceeded in cl«uint{ l)iiu<«-tf of ttui 
charges pntferrod againel. Iiiui by •SiiOj^ ; but 
ntturain^f t(i Irclaiii], ilikI U-ing mimtated 
in bis olSc«, he founj m tiittftr i^oetnj in Sir 
Henry W«lloi> 'q.v J, who pro UiBted strongly 
af ainst A Roncnra&tum nl' a tliousond marks 
that had bwn tUlriwt'd him (C-"«V. Sfate 
Paper*, IrwI. K!i«. ii. 'i'i^). lie wjia with 
tb« army under Ha William IVIhnm [<]. v,} 
inMuastcrdtirinethcsuDtin<.Tof lii-'^O, eorrtv- 
ipoBding fvgulairr thv while with Uurt^liley, 
to whom bK«ent l>r. Sandera'^'iftiictUH bull, 
andanochttr toy after tliu manner of a croMo 
••iijiIKirLing a bookv,' (iiMrnvi-cvd at CWtle 
Luanil iiA, ii. 236), from which it may bo 
inftfrn-ii that *« fur *« lii* wlii^ion wan oon- 
C€rn4\l thprfi was nothing to find fault with. 
Hid toisadventuru iii thu matter of thL> cetMi 
did not pntvent him )ff>ti<'r<>ti*lv iilfadiug the 
unaa 01 Chief-jueticu N ichola.'i N ngeni fij.v.^ 
to Biughlvy \i&. ii. IMXt), mid it vmr ginirmlily 
owinff to this circumM iiiici; tl.jii. Iw wan 
fiercely deaQimc^d by Wallop tin 'a ^ohcit'ir 
fer all traitor? ' {ib. ii. 4I'J>. Kv<-n lilx ttitc- 
CMcful tnanafiemeat of I'ia^b Macllu^h, th« 
trConoTs, aM Knvanngha. ua reported hy 
the council, rvccivt^-d frum Wullop u »iMi«ti;r 
interpretation. 'The raw.if,' lie wrote to 
Walsinffham, ' that isovt-d bim luappn-'huiid 
the bad fi<llowe« w« comMndi^ hint for in 
owr joynt letter, gryvn by mones that I 
dyd openly !u counaell, the end of thw Iiiet 
tcrmc, chnr^ him upon his cwll delyngu 
wilb II* Ijoihe in iinpoynyug and crosyciKe 
owr dayn^ea, that he was a comon advocato 
for trayturs and uwll mun, that he neve^ 
■pjnwht-iidyd, ur cawnfd to be apprcrhended, 
anye iraytor, rubuH. or t-v^-ll dy^pottiil partoa, 
nor vvcr wonldi- ciimr l« tbi- i-xninyiialyon 
orarayiiernetitfiff ajivtraylororcontpvrator' 
{il>. ii. 4l*S). It inif;ht hnv"- Ihh-m iWiued 
bv "^Viillop fuKtc'liMit plhdfti* for hi* loyalty 
i^I h« waa The author (1^. iv. \ii\'2) of tlm 
extraordinary trial by combat in September 
1'>(J-'J butwMo Ttfi((o SlacGilapatrick O'Conor 
and ('.itnor AlacOorinack O'Oonof ( Of/. Carftc. 
MSS. ii. .Itn ), in which both combuiania 
liMl thuir Uvt^a. 

With tbp arrivul of Sir .lohii IVrroi il^ 
difputr in 111^4 White'* pni«pH('l» improved. 
FKVm I'errot h" rvrfiTHd thu honour of 
knifthtbood at hi» takint; the oitth in ('hri*t 
Ohurch on 2 1 Juno. II in jirrAlilude naturally 
inclined biiu to take tbe part of the lord 
deputy in tbu many diapututt in w-lncb tlie 
latter was involved olmoat fWini tbe bepin- 
ninft of his K<^veniment . Out ncitlur bi' 
gratilnd-.i nor hut udiuimiiun of l'i:rn)t'a 
IpXKl quaUcivH blinded bim to the dufecla 
in hia cbamcler (ts£. Cat, StaU Papers, Irel. 

Eliz.tii. 138). Qoiug ihw Leinster circuit io 
the autumn of the same year (lo^4), Wliite 
caut)cdfurty-«t(^Ltof th'L'hundrudand cigbty- 
one priaonitraaput up for trial to he ext<cut«d, 
and 10 tlift fulfilment of hia dutv even ven- 
tured to vijiit llw ri'iluublable Vinuli Mao- 
llngli t)'nyme in hifl fastncfut of linllinacor, 
' wb»r« law never approacbt^ ' {ib, ii. &31). 
In December ho wa.s arnt down into Con* 
naught in order to inveatigate the charges 
of rxlortton iintfcrKid tieainal tbv late go- 
venior, Sir Mcholaa Malby [q. v.J, and on. 
I.j July I5Wo waa appointed a commiasioner 
for couiijounding fur ci'm in that prtivinCiO 
(ili. ii. .'t4'2; Cul. nantu. No. 474r)). In 
^ptember 15ei) be and Sir Lncoa Dillon 
attended tbr turd deputv thltluT, j^ 
the iinnoyance of Sir Uicfiard Bingham [i]. vj, 
ivhu conlidentLully descnWd tbum u 'ni 
inKlrtiini'iilH ' ill IVrrut'* liandH to dlocoTpr 
anything iignint>i hitn (i/i. iii. 18:^). Dillon 
bi^foiigtii llurchley not to let 'the place of 
our birth M:^aniialiM our failhfnl iwrvico;' but 
the fact Ibat tliey were i-eaarded as wholly 
»ub»»rvicnt to IVrrot rendered any oordial 
action between them and thk.* Knijli^h ik'otiou 
in tbu conned impoasibLi?. tlvervthinfi that 
White did wa« uiiainterpn'tL'd. lliit account 
of the quum-l bi>lwepn the lord deputy and 
MarahEil Uagunul in the council chamber, 
Ibongb certainly ibv fairt^^t, wu* intpu^'ued, 
and an attempt t^vin mmlo to di^privv! him 
of the ciulody of Ituncannon Fort, which 
formi'd pan of his estate at Dunbrody, under 
ibe pretence that ' it wafi unmvi't that tho 
tMrae should ho put into the hands of any of 
itiis country's birtb' ytb. iii. 44',)li. J'urrut'ii 
aucceaMT, Sir William Fitrwitliiinj, Hhared 
the gcnural pn^udjce against him, allttging 
that neilhi-r lir- nor Sir Luca* wnulrl 
set their hand U> any lulterH ' wherein Hir 
John P*'rnjt in iiieiitit>iind nut to their lik- 
ing" (lA. iv. I Ifll. In KiSfl he wn* inrliidod 
in the commi»ion foreHeclingapaciKcation 
with the Htirkrs, whom thu ullegud arbi- 
tiary conduct of Itinghum Lad caused to 
revolt. In announcing the ill-aucceaa of 
thxir el1'ort« to Dur^tiley, he roiunrkod that 
tbere was a generuT luclination tu lay th» 
blatno on Bingbum; for himself, bo afker- 
wnrdu inciined to laki:* BinghaiuN part In 
the matter, asbeingin his opinion 'altogether 
inclined In follow the> mildest course' {ib. 
iv. Itil. l'6S, '276]. Shortly at>yrwftr(la he 
was involved in the revelations of ^ir l>enia 
O'lioiighan in the charge of high treason 
preferred against IVrrot, and I'itzwilliam, 
who wris npparenlty too glad of an excuse 
for remnving Iiiui, caused him in June l-JOO, 
though extremely ill, ti^ be placed under 
restraint, at the same timu taking elfectivB 




meaaures to prevent any personal application 
oil the |inrr of his eon to tlio i^ufeii {ib. 
iv. yiS, 3i54. 'ifi?). Two months Utpr h« 
waa aent over to Kiigland, m«l, iifttr «xanii- 
nation by Sir John Popliam (IMl P-1607) 
fq. v.], wa» coinmitt'Hl to lEiv MnrKhnlHon 
(w. IT. &'>% ^x\. In a Btitisequfiit px- 
nmination m tlio Hlnr-chamber ht< admitted 
that Porrot lijifi cnniplninod llinl the qi]er-ii"« 
fears hampered his wrvice; but otherwise 
nothiii|ro[ tnniiTial impnrlnnco won diciti'd 
from him ( 1%. iv. 4^9). Ho woa not Jvprivtii 
<t1 Ilia office, and, bi-inR B|ipiirent!y (illowi>d 
to ivtum to Irolaud, liu ilii<d llii'm «h<jrt]y 
afte^rwftrclfl, at the v-nA of March rr the Ix^ 
(nulling of April IGl>3 (cf, Cal. l-'ianU, N<ie. 
fi820, &836). 

A\T)ile mnrripil a niecnof ArihiirRn^rpton 
of KiUyuu, CO. Muulh, by whom \if Unil two 
w>im — llioiJiHii, I'diiratiMl at ('iinil>ri(!im and 
dit'd inXovfmber 1586, and Andrt'w, likewitie 
••^)iicGt«d «1 Caniltrid^i.',whi> micruiKit'dhiiti — 
and two dmighli'm, one of whom tnarriod 
Itobert Browne of MulcmiiRii, eo. We.vfr.rd, 
the othtT h('in|T thti wife of Chtnstophcr 
D'Arcy of I'latten, co. .Meath. 

[iluthoritiM as quoted.} K. D, 

■WHITE. ninilARD {d. 1584), school- 
muBtf r and linmaii catliotic martf r, bwlotigvd 
to Ati old Welsh family ofihcuHmi'of Owjn 
eettled at Llanidloes, Jlniitpomeryshire, 
wbt'TU h<' hitnx'lt' WHK aim) iirolmbly bom. 
It i« Paid that- • he was twfnty yoara of tifff 
befoiw hi- did fnime liis mind to tike offfvod 
loltereif'nnfT which he prorot-dciJ roOxiord, 
but left tiiere htinrtty afierwardu for St. 
John'd Colli'fff. Cambridge, whcro \ic lived 
by the charily oftht collcai.'. It wnn wliik' 
at Ibo univemly that his friends, discover- 
ing 'Owyn' to bo iho WvMi fur 'While.' 
hegan to call hitu by the latter name, whldi 
ho iheroafttT adtinicd. He quitted Cam- 
bridm Mion aftvr I'^li/nWlli'M nni*>>([siiLi|i . and 
■»tt. ninself up rui n srhoolnia*t*-r in T'laAt 
PeubiRhfthireaml Flintshire, first at Overtoil, 
then at Wn-Ktinm, (Ir^^dford, Krbiitooh. nnd 
other HeighbouriiiB villager. After follow- 
ing thisoMiipatioii for about sixteen yeure, 
hesppean to havu fallen under the infliLVnc.' 
of one of the lloiiny mis«ioiiers, willi the 
rMult that ho {^oniujtjnrad absenlir>; httnKcIf 
fittm chtin-h. Kur Ihi* hi- yen.- nrn-j-fi-d in 
Julv lof*0, and wbk committed to Itnihin 
gnolbyJud(p' !'iilf»twn. Ihirinnth*>nvxt four 
years he was hept a rlntit' priAoncr. nnd wn.* 
eventually indicted for liijjh treason on the 
ground Thnr hi- hid d>Tlar<'cl the pupu nnd 
not the qtieen to belhe bend of the cuurch. 
With two other fellow prisoners he is said 
to haru bvun icnt bt-furt] tbo coundl of the 

marches at B«wdl«y (^ Ludlow), where he 
wii» tortured with the riew of f iiciimff in- 
formation to incriminate otbeni ; but to no 
etfect. He wait linaily brought Up at Ibe 
\V'rp.\bain assijceji, on Oct. \5^, before 
tiir Oeonra Brunilny, ijimuii Tbelwall, and 
others. The jury, after beinp lockiHl up in 
ibti cbnrch nil niiflit, riQttimi;*! a rwnlict of 
' guilty," and Thi-lwall, in Bromley's abarnco, 
pronounceil the usual sentence, which was 
carriod out in all its barbarity on IfitJot. 
His bead and oiiu of his (quarters were Kt 
lip ou Denbigh L'^nstte, and thi-OthcrquArttirft 
wer^ exposed ai Wrciham, liulblu. utd 

Whitft left bfliind him a widow (wlio 
wasanaltvt! of OviTton) and three children. 

[Tliere are two conlinipomry iwi^oQnta of 
Whitc'ii martyidoiD, om- priot^-J (at ff. l"i6to 
'iOZa) in th« Oonoeriatio EmIwi* Catbolm 
t3r<l edit. Lundon, ISSg) of Dr. J. Bridft*wU«r. 
or* Aqnlpoiitnnud.' This (vhich gives tho datm 
of WhiU' B triiil and execution as 11 and 17 Oct. 
rcipectivelv) bus been fullowed in Chft)l«ncr> 
Calhwli* MAriVM. 1877. pp. lli'-I I- The other 
iiccoimt, Tbich is much fuller and coataiai a 
copy of a letter tiy Wliitodi^fribiiig one of hi* 
triiiU, ID frnm n. rnntfmpnr^iry miiimw^ript pre> 
«?md at tt)« CiitholicJUisHon House, UolywvU; 
it w»N printed in fall by Richanl Simpson in lk« 
Itamllrr, nuir aor. ISeo. id. '239. 306. sud kf 
CtiDTidivr Lloyd in his History of I'liwys FudoK> 
iii. 12S-ai. Soe id*o Willinms's MunteoniMy- 
■hirn Worlhiiw, ptRfi ; A. M. Pnlmer's Wrniham 
Clmrdi. pp. 39. $:f. 71,13P,«i>dhi»Towii. Flrlde, 
■nd Polk of XVritxIiam. np. D, IV. A iwdrfiree 
uf thL> n»yii» of l.lniiidloM (fruni Hnrt- M8. 
(ISC4] tHijireii ill Lloya'a Powys Fadog, r. 69- 
62 1 cf, Dma'a Heraldic Vi/^iationa. i. SLO.) 

D. Li, T. 

WHITE. UirHAliD(lo30-I81!),iurifli 
aiid lii-Htorian, wns son of Henry W'Uit* 
iif Itflj'in^'Klrikr, Ilanipshin^, who died at 
tbo siege of Hnulnpiie in iri44, and whosft 
umiidfalb'T bad ultnnit hnlf the town of 
I!ii»inp'*toUn in hi* own pnaw-Hsinn. Hia 
motli4-r was Apues, dauguter of Kichard 
Oapelin of JlamiMhin;. He wa.1 bom at 
Ihixinirooki! in 1W9, entered Winehester 
acli'TJot in lofiH, and was admitted perprtaal 
fellow of New Collep.-. Oxfonl. in 1557 
(KlHnv, Wini-hmti^i- Sihulars, p. ISI). He 
toolt the defrreo of B.A.ou30 Mav 15."0,but 
nflerwards U'ft the college, am) the tlua 
allnwi-d fnr hia absence havinff elapsed, his 
fellowship was declared void in I'ltU, Shortly 
bi'fortr that liin'* he went to Lniivain ana 
aftt^rward* to J'adua, where he was created 
doctor of the civil end canon law». At 
length, ^ing to Uouay, be was con.'^tiiuted 
the kings professor of tboae laws. He coa- 
tinuid to nsKidu for mon than twenty yean 





I caiw 

■ iam< 

ftl Uovisy, when- he mnmod twice iinci no 
t|iured gn»t Wfjiltli by l-alL wir«. ]{_> unJer 
«f the popo ho was made, though out of 
bill unliiisrr turn, 'inn^tiifictis n>ctur' of l.lui 
iiniverfiitr, sn-l abnut ih& name time be wii« 
crvati-tj ' cnmes pnlaliiniB,' 

Aftf r [ho (IcAl li of his Kcond wifv he was, 
iiy tlUpvasBtitni of Ck'nieot Vlll, ordained 
pticst-i and sbciut tb<; snuio time a cAnonry 
in the cburch of Si. I'etur si Uoufty was 
bMloWpd u|ioo him. In hia faviiurite study 
of Drit i#b histon' hv rrcvived oiicmirnpruiviit 
from Tboiaui tiodwcll, Ijislion uf .St. AmiiiU, 
8ir Hfiiry Fracham,«t)d Sir Franria EnRlt- 
field, foruif-riy privv councillors lo <Jm;i'ii 
Mary; buc cliieny from Oardinal linroniuH, 
with whom lit' tnnii]lsii)«d a coDstant vqttv 

rnilenee (iJnun, C'AKfvA //«/. ii. S-Sil, H<^ 
i at I>OLiav in 1(111, and wan hiiriiKl in 
iIm- rliiirchof St, Jncques in that city (Attdit. 

MS. :>803. li: no, looi. 

Hi* works BTw: I. ',-Wia Ljctia Crispia. 
KpifAphiiim nntiauum quod in n^ro Bono- 
oiensi adhiic uiilHur; a diuereie hacU-iiu« 
intorpn'tAtiim u&rio: nouiasime aute^m a 
Ilicurdo Vitu Itatjinstochio, amicoruui pni- 
cibusexpliratiiu),' Padua, l.*G8, 41<i. Ufdi- 
calvd 10 UhrielopUcr Juhnmn, rhiel" maeler 
of Winchwitvr »chivi! ; rnpriiitod, II^jti., IHlfi, 
lOmo. 'J. ' Omtionff. : i'l> Dcrirculo ariiunt 

pliilosophin. CJ) Di; elcqii«iitia et Cice- 
(vt) Pro diriliis n^^m. (4> Pro doc- 
tontu. (fi) De Mudioruin linibuf. Cnmiiotis 
rfTDtn variaram et anttaititatis,' ArrtiS, 
1696, fctvo. 'I'iji; llrnl two, ilHlivfrcd at Imu- 
rain, w«!re ptiblwliod by <:!mM(>iihiT Juhn- 
KOD, I0&4, 10t>5, and ordered by him to be 
read publicly in Wincliwtcr schotil. S. ' H. 
V'iii . . . >"otiB ad leges DfTom-vironira in 
duodif^ini talitilin ; in»lilutioni.>» juris civilla 
in quutLuor librii): primnm pfirlmi ni|^flto< 
mm in niintt-uor libris,' zipiirt*, Arras, |.JU7, 
8fo, 1.' Mii»tori/inim<Britftnniicilibri(l-ll I 
, . , cum Dotis aniiquitatuw ItritannicHruui' 
[oditrd by Thoniiu W'bitv], 7 parts, Amu 
ftcd Uouay, IWr-KiO', Svo. Thf aulhor'i' 
portrait iit prefixed to tJiik work. 6. ' Onilln 
acptuna du ivlipDiiD Ivp^im Romannnim, ad 
revervnduui Uumhuiin, Itoiniiiiim Nichiiiin 
Mmiirroy, elecium Abbaffm Ilcrtininnuni,' 
Uouay, HiO-1, 8vo. (J, 'Itrevis i-.' 
pririleffinrum iuri.<i rt ronsiivtiidifiiit cirvii 
Tvneraoile sacra tnt'Htuni Eucharist i»,'i)oua.Y, 
1609, Ato. 7. * Ik-: Itriifjuiis pt VLmcrationL' 
Sanctorum,' Uouny, lOOf*. S. 'Brevi* cx- 
plicnTtO Martyrii Sancts fraulic ct undecim 
nillium Virginum Britannarum,' Oouav, 
1010, 8vo. 

podd'a Chun-h Hix. ti. 3^2; Dulhdhrijt'M 
Iliol DonnitimiK!. I813. pp. HA. 160. 191; 
FcBter'a Alamai Osoa, I50a-17H; Orjng«'i't! 

Biugr Hist, of KagLund.fithedit. 1.372; Kirb;% 
.'ViiiiiiU of Wjnclirsiar L'u|]«p>, p. 270 ; l,.oiraiI*fft 
Bibl. Mnn. ni. Jlohii. p. ai»U3; Pita. I)i> Anelm 
Soriplohbuv, p. SOli ; ltccr.n!^ at lh« Kn;|[li)<h 
CatliOlics. I. 416 ; Timnorit BibL Jinl.i Wood'n 
Alhrii* (Ixun. i«t. Uliw. it. 118.] T. C. 

WHITE, aiMM .loiixwy, RICHARD 
n"04-liW>, devotional writitr, was bom 111 
thf dion-rti- of Winchi.-sTtT, of poor Knman 
catholic pareiitj^, in ll'<04, and ontt-red the 
Kngltfih Collep; at Hoimy in Ui-2ii, whi>ii h*i 
adopted thv namu of JuliiiMm, which lie re- 
tHinc^d for tb*- n-iit of Lii life. He was or- 
diiiiii'dprirMl (>a2;iF.^h. le2rt-30. On2.1Moy 
ItiSU lit* vtiu »rn1 from Houav to aseist ^tv- 
phi-'n Barnes a.i (■onf-'.-Aor of tlii> English Au- 
piiNliniari canntiee!>ea of yt. MonicAM at Lou- 
vain, lie nrud in tbnl cnpncity for twenty 
VHar?, and for tliirty-six ycfint after Barnes s 
di'iilh b<^ was prLnci{)al confeeaor to thL-Coiu- 
munitT. He died in the conTcnt on 12Jaii. 

III' left in tnnnuscript a large number of 
devotional tr(;alijK.-s, most of which were 
loet Qt tha time of the Trimcb ltevoli]tion, 
Oil"' of tbviu, unliclud 'The Suppliant of tb» 
Holy Ghost: a I'araphraHi of the " Veni 
t^ancto Spirims,"' wa& prinled at London in 
1H78, 8vo. nmliir the editorship of [he Iter. 
Tliomoi) Edward Rridgi4|., who uppcnd>ed to 
it two other trv&tiitir#, belicvL'd lu Iihtc been 
also written by ^\'hiti?, entith^d ' A Park- 
phras*.* of tht' Patur Nosier' and 'Medita- 
tions on the Ukn»ed Sftcnitm!Kl.' 

(Memoir ly Undraw ; Reconlsof tlio Knjirwh 
Cathoh™, i- 23/] T. U. 

WHITE, KOBEItr (ir»40?-157J), mu- 
ridan, wui4 probably bnm abont 1G4U. Hii 
father, who outlived him, waa also named 
Kohurl. A John White supplicated Miia, 
Bhc. Uxun. in 1&^8, There isaouw nnaon to 
suppose thnt the rider ICobert While wao an 
organ-builder. In 1631, and on acvL'ral eub- 
s'-riumt occnsions until IW*"), a Mu^^tster 
White n-pairud the orpui of Magdalen Col- 
le){e, Uxfitrd. lit- vvh« wrongly idfUtiGod 
by C'opo with tliB compiifler, but may have 
bt^ii hi» falitftr. Thv pnrish of St, Andrew's, 
HollMirn, in l-ViS ' gare yonnf; Whytc ■>/. 
for y" pTi-ut orjmynes wli hie father tnadti for 
y rhnrcli.' This organ wna sold in 1672 
to * Itohert Whitt;, gumlenuu of Wcslmm- 
fttir," and John Tliomas. In iri74 the eltivt 
Robert White had liwn fur eomu timp living 
with hia »ou rI Wfxlmiuftti-r, mid iIh-su 
enirt<.-a may not imprubahlT all rvfer to him. 

The r:n't definilc fiict rttcordi-d of the 
younger AVhito is that, having studied miiftic 
tenyi-JirK.hcf^tdiialedMus, Uac.Cantabr. on 
liJDec. I'ViO. He WBsrequircdfUnder penalty 


of 40a. fine, to compose a oommiiDion mtvIm 
to be aang in Hi, Mtrv'e Church on com- 
ni«nc«inRnl dny. 'Ojnnia {KTpfpl.' wiLwaddiMl 
in th« pace book. In a net at pnrt-booka. 
vrriUwn in IWI, |>rt>«irvfd ul Chn«r Cliurcli, 
OxfoH, White is fityleil • batchelar of art., 
b«t«holarof miimcli;' but in bisownandbis 
wifi*"3 wills'hnK'li.'larof iniisick 'only. Very 
aooD aOer ^raduacinc. and uoc Uter than 
Michftflmiis lolil!, fthiTo Hueceeded Dr. 
CUriHto|tLt'r Tvu [q. v,J m miistur of ihi; 
chorL3t«Ta Ht Ely Cathednil, atid wait {laid 
the tanii' »iilart', lOf., ju Tyo, wlio hud buon 
alfto ctylt^d nr^niiiMt, hud r«;«vtd. Whilw 
probiibly innrrii'd Ellen Tye at Doddinjtton 
not I'liift nri'^Twiinl*. lliv bnptivm of th<>ir 
dauchtor ilIarpprT is rfi^orded iin 'JH Dec. l-S6fi 
at Ely. Hy tmisi hove reaicued bis appoint- 
ment in irjfHi, n-i Joliii Kirmnt [see midir, Ifit'iiAiioj rocfivud a ymr's ftalhry 
AB niHstcr of the cliortRtt^rs at MichH«>lD)Bs 
11567. Whil*^ wn* apirainttid in or before 
1570 master of the cuoristeTfl end organist 
at W<!8tininstor Abbey; to the fornjor post 
■waa allotted, by djuevii EliiubvtbV fuiiiidti- 
tion, 'a house, iJ. in n-jrard, and 'M. Its. 4d. 
tot ev«ry oiiw of tht> totiriu (Jutreslors, butydi.>H 
ayerely lyverey loi'ach fnif,and « btmlinU of 
wWatc weolmty.' Bptween Iftro uiid IS"."! 
three iIhukIiIbm of Ut>b«rt While were bnp- 
tised ar. St. Mnrpin^t'a, WVattiiinster. All 
these Bpp&rently died diirini;th'-po7<til«ncK of 
1671, and were buried in ifee oliurchyard of 
Hi. Margawt's ; and on 7 Nov, ItiiWrt Wliit« 
mode his will, din>ctin^ he shoolil b*> buried 
uvartbi'in. llv wtw biirit>d on IL Nov., end 
on the :i 1st biawifttmndi-hiT wiH. >ibi-ditfd 
soon nflLT, and k-ttursofaduiinisiralicn were 
takKU out on B l>i!C. Tivo dnnglitprs, Mar- 
gery and Anne, aun,-Lred. Kob«rt Whim 
powifiutrd tbf) cmtJite of 8wAllowHeId and 
winsbtwps ftt Niiiburi«t, West Stwtsox, which 
hi bpquputhed to his wife, From her will it 
utpears tliiit eh« hnd 8i*l<.-rs ntimM Mnry 
Itowley [eee Ttn, C'HRieTOPHERJ and Siisaii 
Fulke, a brotht-r-in-law ThomaH ITawkeH, 
and an aunt Annt' Dingbry. Site leH ibti 
cliildreii in charg« of her mollmr, Katberintt 
Tyo, urobiiblv Hr. Tvo's widow. 

Koburt Wliilr Jci Itiit «horl llfi.* ullained a 
high ntipiitation u a compnspr. Thin part- 
book* Al. CliriBl Chtirch contain the couplet : 

Hnxima moainim noNtranim gloria Wliit-^. 
Til pariH : itlonium ^ei Cu> intiHH niKUc!. 

Ilaktwin, wri*.iR^ in l.'iH], biggins his list of 
great niusiciauH with ^^'bit«'. Morlev uicn- 
tions bim nmoD)^ the famoUR ICn|{liiihm»u 
'aothiaginfttriur' lo the bu^t injutturrt untho 
continent, and juiililieji ilio um of a Hixth 
u tlw beginning* of a uuuiposition, by the 

iiuthorily of White and I.aaans. But aa 
White hud tmbliidK'd noihinf. h<> bacmna 
forgotten anil cimfuMfd with later miuioana 
nnnii'd Whil« (aee bflow), until Burner re- 
discover)^ him. 

In Bamatd'fi 'Si"3ected Church Musick,' 
IIUI, then' is ont) anibem by Whil«>, 'The 
Lord blene om;' but it waa not inclndftl in 
Boycd's 'Cathedral Music.' Barney printed 
another, 'Jyird, who shall dw«ll in Thy 
tubemacle,' from thy C'Itri»t Cburcb part- 
book*. Uums's ' Anthems und Servioea* 
oontsin« a lliird. <U uniisu Ood in Hi» boli- 
Dfiss.' Arkwright'a tHd Englinb Edition, No. 
xxi., luu) *ThL> Lord blasse na' in wore, and 
'O how glorious urt Thou!' All thi^M* ars 
anlbems for five voicojt, excejrt ' (t praise 
<lod,' whii-b i« for double choir. There are 
unprini»d works, generally lo Latin wnrda, 
Jn early maniiscripUi at Bucliingham PaUc«, 
llii- Ilritiah MuRenm, Ibe Royal College of 
MuBic, the Bodleian and Christ Church 
libraries at Oxford, St. Peter's, Catnbridge, 
Tftnbury, and wveral cathedrals A fiiirly 
complete list is given in Orove's 'Dictionary,' 
iv, i^yJ. ^^'hite comtilHted a setting of the 
' i^mi^ntat ions' whicli bad Iwi-u U-gun l^ 
Talhs, and at Buckinnhnm Palnee thnn* ia a 
ciuitinualion by White of a motet by Tj-e, 
Except fwrne fanoies for tin* lutii, no taslm- 
uienlal mufic by White in known. 

WKil«'» printed an thems are niodelsof pure 
polyphony, beautifully melodic themes join- 
ing in harmonies of the richest t'H'wci. The 
warm enlofpcsof Biimey, Ffti9,aTid Ambros, 
and the great value of While's very fow 
known works, have f&itsed gt^neral <-xpi^la> 
tion thiLt bis imprinted works are aUo mas- 
teq)iece8. Nairel, who judge* that Whitit, 
Lbi>ugh supvrior to all bis predccessoni, lived 
a few years too soon for tlu> periVcl union 
of spiritual beauty with format ma-stcry, nro- 
cIttimA that il is a bounden duty of th« Eog- 
lifih nation to edit White's compliCtc wor^. 
Home who have scored various manu.tcnuts 
rt^jmrt les^ favourably, and have fouutf a 
Etilfui'SB which suggests an varlitr poriod, 
and might rather beexpected from the John 
White at Ojtford in 15^8,, In a »t ofpart- 
tiooks at the British Museum (Addit. >ISS, 
1780'J-5} tlii-r* ia a 'Libem me'con.itructed 
upon a ])lftin-«oiig in loni; note*. Blimey 
piigseswd an important manusr.ript, at pre* 
»eut uiidiBcuv i-rable, coiilstning t weuly-aeven 
piocoB by White, of which bn speaks with 

MAnuEW WittTK (jr. ItilO-ICytl), to 
whcini Hoberl White's works are often attri- 
buted in aevftnrei-ntb-wutHiy maniiitrript^t 
was at Wells Cathedral, a.n'd in 1611 or- 
ganist of Christ Church, Oxford. In laiS 



he WS8 awom • Bentlem&a of the cUii|n;] 
royal, but reftiffncJ oexl year. In lliJ9 he 
uxumulfttcd toe degrees or Mu^. tiw:. and 
Mua. Itoc. Uzon. Anlbony Wooij, in Iuk 
' LtTM of English Miuicisni!' ( Hi/vtl MSlf. 
U) J) 4 in tliv Uoillfi«ii Lihntrvt eonfusf* 
BlBithewwilh Rolwrt Wliite. Tht-culluciions 
(oow at thit Ilnynl Coilvgv of Miwi*') from 
which Itnmimloiimpilt'd his ' Selected Cbii re li 
Musick' contain an sntbcm by M, W'hilo 
(Fo«TBR,/i/MiMwi0.n>wiVi«ti-*.p. Kilt'i ; C/tfOue- 
JJook of the C'AflH Jto^lX^mdea Soc. Isri'). 
WiLUAM \\iniH (y(. I(i'20), of whom 
Dothinc-is rvconled, ba« left coiur antheios 
in Additional .MSS. ^9^7^-7 al ibe British 
Mneeum, anil ainon<^ the ch«ir-biHik» al Hi, 
PeE#r*ii, OanibriduK; iind wiiiif fnnciuarorin- 
Btnunenta in tbp ikdlcian luid Chritit Church 
libnuicB at Oxford, nnd Additiijniil M-SS, 
ITTiCi-il. Onf of tb« 'Soiiip.* br TUomas 
Tomkina {tl. lli-'itl) [n. v.], publiJiud abuut 
ICSa, i« d«dic«led to Will.*-. tl.: ulw 
■ bc«& confuited with Knbert White. 
(InlrrMl to Ark«ri«bt'« Old jMij*1i-h liiilion, 
XXI. wbtte the will* of KoIn>rl arm Ellen White 
are pHnlM^ Murlcy'a PIauik and ICusie Intro- 
durtion to Pnu>tie«ll MiMiirk^. ivprint of li'li 
pp. 174. i3S. ■Ut. 2i» : At dy Willjains'tt Muaical 
I>(gr«M. pp. 80, \66 : P'oblvr's Alnmnj t^son. p. 
1614 ; HnrTi«y>. U«n«ini1 lliit, <.f Miwic, iii. 04- 
71; Ambrw'H QQKhiclitv d«r Jklneik. iit. i-lD: 
Rimbnnll's (mHt Kngliflh Organ- buildtra. pp. 
40, 73 : l}ror«>'« ]>irt. of Mimic nnd Muiiciitttii. 
iii. 273, iv. 4^2. 817; Nngsl'i (iG&cbichco d«r 
Mu*ik in Ciiplnnd. ii. 64-B. 287 . Davcy'n Ili*t. 
of KiiKlinK Mtuic. pp. 67, I:i4, U5, '2,1-1, 493- 
XSS.,ttn<l Worki ifuolrd ; itifurmuiioa from Mr. 
Arkwrtght.] II. I). 

andbv4.'»mif KpiipiloflfHvidLofrgnnrii.v.] lln 
iru the aiQ»t e$ti!^inM] and iiiduKiriniiE por- 
trait enj{raver of bis time, aad hi>< pUte#, 
which numbtrnbfuil four biindivrl, comprisn 
moi't of tbe public and lilerory cboractors of 
th« period. A largo proportion of them were 
osrauLud t:d viitirn, thu rci<l from pictures by 
Leiy, Kneller, Uiley, ilpale, and othi^rs, and 
tfaev havo ntwaya bL>«n greatly viiluud for 
tbwir acuiiraoy AM likvn^Mjini. tif I be plnti^ 
engmvfld by Wbit« from bis own drawiinr* 
tbu beat aru the purtriiilij of I'rinctt tivor^L- of 
Donraark, i.h[> Karl of .\tblrino, rhn l)iik« of 
LecHjs, and tbe Kail of Seafortb: and tliK 
f^roiips of lilt' aevftn bithops, tlwi biitliops' 
council, th« lonl.i jtiiticet of KngUnd, and 
llio I'ortsm'iutli captuina who dcM^Itirvd fur 
Kiae William. M*; tiijpHvod thu pbttf-s to 
Sondford'a Ai^ciuinl of tht^ fnnfral of the Uuhe 
of Albemarle, 1070: the first Oxford •Alma- 
nac,' 1674; a iwt of portraits of mmibttni of 

Ibw Kawdon family; Ihepln1e« to Gwitlim's 
•neraldry' nnd Kurnet'A ' History of ihc It*- 
fonnatioo,' and many book-titUt* and franci- 
*piK*s. A ftiw iscareo mouotiot portmita of 
noblemen bear Wbite'i* name aa Ibe pub- 
lishrr, and are aMuiiied to have be«n «Xo* 
cutod by bim. Wliitu was citlvbrattd for 
hia original |Jortrait.«, vi'hit^h lie druw in i»eu- 
cil ou vellum with gnut delicacy und fiuiah, 
in Ihi- DiH:in<-r of Lijui^n. I(<i di«id m re* 
diiced circumstances in Illonmsbury Market, 
wbaru !i>.' hud long rcsidvd, in Xovembi.'r 
170.1, A portrait of Wbilo wm pngraved 
by W. U.W orthingion for Wgrnuma edilioii 
of WuIpoli'V ■ .\«fcdiitw.' 

Gboiujb W'liirB (lOt^l? l"3ii), mi'«»tiat 
eDorSTer, son of ICobprt, wan born about 
lw4, and iiiittructt-d by hiit fathirr. Ha cum- 
pMed torn* of thv plalt-s left iuiditii>bvd by 
the latler.and himaelf exi'i-iitr^d a few in the 
iincuianiKTi buCfbeinRduGuient iniudiutry. 
he at an i^iirly piTiod trinifd to l.lin Ii»m 
taboriouB mtplhod of tnfluotinl. A portrait 
of Ji^an-Rapliiilo .Mnnnoyt-r, which lie exw 
cuted in tliiflfttylc from a painting by KnfllfTf 
was (^utly admired and broiLi^lit nim much 
employment. H« b(«amc I ho nbU-^t mpnto- 
tint floffTOver that bad yet npjj^-ared in 
England, nnd wax iho lirst to maW uae of 
thv etchi^i line lo ttr^mgtbcn llw work. 
White's plat(!H nninbf>r about nixty, of which 
theboBtarv tbt'portmit* of William Dobaou, 
Oi-orgr K<m])t>r, hii>hop of Si, Axapli, Tycbo 
Wing, and 'IJld' Parr, Whit<:*, like hi« 
father, drew portraits in pencil on vellum 
with great »iiccc*j; \w nUo practiMrd in 
crayons, nnd latterly took to painling in 
oils. lie di^ at hii^ bonse in lUoomsbury 
on -^ May i7'&2. His plato of tbi' • LatiKh- 
i»(t Iloy'af^er IlaU, a maxti^rly work, waa 
pubLiBliad al'tt^r bU doalbr with laudatory 

fWalpoIt'a AnncdolM of PniiilinK: Vertaa'a 
CulWticiiu in Itrit. Mii»tinL <Addit. MSS. 
23072 f. 2. and 2307«f. JS); l)oiM"» muoiuCTipt 
Hiar. of Bngliah i->igrArcra, In Brit. Miis^Qin 
(Addit. MR 33407) ; C!ialuD«r SiDilh'i Britiab 
M*£wtinco Portraitt.] 1'. HL O'D. 

WHITE, ROHKHT (1^*02-18741, auli- 

quary, the eon of a bordpr famipr, waa bom 

! .m 17 Spill.. l(:«y at tht* Clock Mill, near tU* 

ftiniy Tillsgt» of V'ethnim in Itoshiirfrhsbire. 

I While he was a boy hie father removed to 

r OtltTbiirn in Ui'dt-sdalc. Tbere he herded 

I hia father's cattle, maniieing at tbu 8nmo 

time to ucqiiirt' n knowliddfii! of buoka, and 

flit inf^ bin miud with b<jrder lore. Hia father's 

I landlord, Jniut^ Kllin li]. v.], tin- friirnd and 


^ bim, and mode bim wvlcomv in liis Ubnury, 




I lie spaot tliQ wini«r evaninjrs, copyinf^ 
■wholo volume)) of 111* pnlronV Ircnvurt^s. 
After spending a sliorl titnfi with a weaver 
in Ju<lbiirgli lii> n-luru9d tu employaHMit on 
the itrm. [n It*25 lie found eaiploymt^iit. in 
Jvewcastk' in ibe countiug-house of Kabcrt 
Wut^n, n plumber e.n<\ bras&fouDder at the 
High IJridfje, Whiw rotuained wilt Waisou 
until Walson dit-d forty y«ars later. 

At iS'twtuitlo Wliiii! I(iun<l liinL'aiiJ oppor- 
tunity for study, iiy nluiti-miuuN li\itig he 
wiu( nblt! t<} devote part of his small inconiR 
to tii'H piinLha«n ut li(>oka, anil in tiinL'> liP 
ainumiimtt'cl a lilirar>' containing many rare 
and viiluiil)]'? vdlnmrii. Hi* hoH(lQ>s were 
n.^unlly Piwnt in r«inbli'>fl nn th;* border wiib 
hi* frii'iid Jam(.'8Tt'!fer[(j.v.],the ^sautjhtreea 
pf^ot, i>t<'i!ptng liinwi'lf in bLinltT miiisInOsy 
and gathering knowledge of border lifi;. lli.s 
first poetn,'TlieTyneinouth Nun,' was written 
in 1*29, antl n! the KiijrgMlion of tbc anti- 
quary, John AdBni9"n(]7S7-lSIjJi) [q. v,], it 
wa-s printfiii in ttio Mtme year for the Typo- 
jfrupliiciU Society of Nuwfaitllf. Aftur tiiis 
Lmccesaful essay he <levol<«l btmAelf to the 

DtnTTaTLOiiutid n'prudutfliuu uf lucal legend 
and wmg, C(iritnbiilinf{ In iminr loral puIi- 
licationfi. In 1^5^ he printed for diatribiition 
among bin frii-ml* n pi-ii-m on 'Thn? Wind' 
(Nttwca-ttle, 8vo|,andin IWit.Hlsoforprivftli' 
circtilnlioii.niiotlierpoeiiientitted ' Cnglami' : 
(XcwcBstle, SvoV About this lime, or a I 
litlle fiiriifrr, lie beeiiuiv a niembt'r of iLl- j 
iewcastle l^i^iety of Antinuuries, lo which 
be coDtributed ii paper un the battlo uf | 
Neville's CVoas [ArtJi. ^itlianic, new (ht. i. 
371-303), Kiicuiiroged by ila reception, he 
publl^bM H vulunii- on thr; * I)ii>tory of thu 
Bnttto of Otterbnm' (London, Ifi'iT, 8vo), 
addhifi; mpmoirs iif tin? warrior" engafred. 
Thin wail roHowed in Ii^oS hy ii paper read 
to ibti Xewciwlle SiicieJy on the battle of 
I'hjildoji (ifi. iti. 19r-:;Htij, and in 1K71 by a 
'History of (he Itattle of IkjiaockbiLni ' 
("London, Hvo). Thc^o raonographa wero 
rendered raluablw by \Vhito*» mciiuatit ac- 
qiinintanei> wLlb tucal lejji>nd,iiDd bvliia topo- 
yrapliii'iil knowlwdjfe, which cniiLlcd liJiii to 
elucLjiit.i' mm'h Ibul hillji-rt" hm! n-maiiied 
obsi^iire. H<! di«d unmarried al h'm biniSL' iu 
Chirepiunl I'bii-i-, Newcewlli-.on 21) lu-h. 1S7-1. 

AXTiiie waa also the author, apart from 
oUmt nntiijiiariMn pajH-rti, of '(lOing Home,' 
a poem fl^fUl?". Mvn; "A F«tw Lyrics,' Edia- 
Iiiirgb, l!V>7, ti%o, rt-printod from (.'harlies 
Rogt-rs's ' Modern Srotti«h MinsinL' ISoo 
(for private cirpuUtion) ; and 'Poems, in- 
cliidiuf; TnV)>, Rallads, end Sonff*,' Keho, 
1807, 8vo (wiih a ponraii), He edited the 
' Poeuii and Uiillatlsof John l.eyden,' KelhO, 
1866, 8ro,with a mumoir suppIuuieiLting thai 

by Sir Walter Scott. Several of his aong* 
are to be found in the ' WUifttJe Binkie' col- 
Irctiun und in Alexander W'hilelnw'a ' Uttok 
of :^cotti«h Sang' (1^44). 

[Hrmoir by Richiird Walford in ihp Naw- 
Ciiaile Wcckly'Cbrvuidr, 1 0^1.1802; Mamoir 
by JoliD H<-l90ii in tlie Uairick Adreituer, 
ia S»pt. ISflS.J JE. I. C. 

181)6), HawlimMD profewor of Aaclo-li^aKott 
at Oxford University, boni on 8 Jau. 179^ 
was the eldest sou of Itobert Gosfling Wbittt 
('/. 18 Oct. 16'^^), a eolii'ilur at Ualesworth 
in Sulfiiik, by hiii Deomd wife, rHiubctb 
MeadQws|.ii.^'5Sept.l831}. In l813Kaberc 
waH placvd undrr John Valpy at Norwich, 
where John Lindley Tq.v.], theboiAnirt.nnd 
Rajah Sir JameeBrooW [q- v.] were hia fellow 
iiiipiix, l>n'.*lljnly lHi.'>be matriculated from 
Magdali^n CuHbet^, Oxford, and in the samo 
Teir wan elecleda demv, fcradualln^ U. A. oil 
"U !)«:. If 10, M.A. on -MS Feb. ISii'J, B.l>. on 
21 Nov. 1»3:(, and J>.l). on 23 Nov. Ie43. He 
won urdainod dcatwn in li^'Jl and nrieat in 
iHiJi. In \>^2A he wan elwlvd a felluw of 
MaffdalenOolIege.retaiiiinje bin ffUow-ibip till 
1 84. . From 183:J till IKlO he at-ted a* a cJ- 
li'gi^ tutor. On !•) Mnrdi IH.SI be bocame 

{iructnr, and ou 23 April ["^'M bewaacboaen 
UwlinKan profeasor of Au^lo-Saxon, bold- 
ing- that po«t for thu suLutftble period of 
five y^ars, 

AnRlo-i^xon professors at that time wem 
souietinioH defined an ' dotsoq* willing to 
Icara Anglo-sSoxoii.' wfiite, huwevt-r, wu 
known lu a Echulur bi^fora liu waa elected 
to the chair. He hnii nin-ndy conti'mplatmt 
the publication of a ^>a.XDn and Kngliah 
vocabulary, and only nbandoinpd the project 
becauae it appeared Likely to eliuAt with the 
' Anfflo-Saxou Dictionary-' then being pre- 
pared by JoHcpli Ilo<iwortTi T^. v.] On giving- 
up this design, he lumt-d lu» attention about 
iKt:; to editmg thu ' Ormulum,'a banDoniaed 
narralivu of tlut go^pelt) in varst), nreiMTed 
in a uniqno mauuitcript in the liodleiaii 
Library. The tosli, owing to utlier demands 
on bis time, oeciipiMl iii-urlv twwity vrmn. 
In thu oourHe of Iub rwcarchea be visited 
neniijiirk in IK^?,und extmuKtl bis travels to 
Moscow, where he wa^ anviired and niiffcrej 
H uliort dttiention for visitinf; iJie IvreujUn 
without an ofKrinl onler. Hisedition of the 
'Ormulum'wa* issued in Hs5J fromtbe nui- 
veraity prcai, and in the following year ail 
elaborate cril icism of it was pu tiUshvd Lu Eii^ 
liuli by Dr. .Monidte, a Lreraiaii professor. 

In 183E>, III the und of liia term of office, 
White WB» preseiited to thb viranigv of 
^N'oolley, near Wakefield, bj- Godfrey Went- 







worth of timt paruli, to wlioeu eon William 
liM bad acted aa lutor. Afl»T Wt tit worth's 
death liu luft WoolU'T, and vent tu iMtd 
Vftrbomugli aL Br<H.-klR»by Park in Linrolu- 
nhire, where lie arm) as tutor 1o the harnnV 
gnnd«oi», tn )8-l'J Iiu wm pre«etitpd to llic 
rectonr of I.ittln nnd Great Qlemtiam in 
SoObUE 1)5 ttic Hon. Mra. North, Lord Viir- 
Vmof^'i* «i.«fr,*iiitl on 29 Oct. Ifvlli h« was 
prei^Dted bv Magdalen College lo the roct or; 
of Slitnbri<if)i:9 in GloiicesTtTiiliir^, wliich lii.' 
riiUini.'d until tiiit dvatli. He di'-d uninarriiHl 
at Oheltenhani cm SI .Isn. IBUri, miJ was 
buried at Hlimbridgrc. iti tho cliurcbynrd, 
tiiaar Ihu cbancd >>i>ut!i vraW. 

Hia younRvr brotlii?r, Jons MtiADows 
White (17WP-Ii*rt.t),«»ltcitor, was bom iil 
IIalp<(wnrth in 17W» ct ISfflf, and ont«r*Hl 
into pannership witlt liis t'alher tliert). lIu 
moovwl to I^indon. whenp h" W'ame the 
|ifir(nt>r of T. Ilare:t in (Ir.^ftt St. ll.;l.'n> 
Strtwt, and mee to grest eminence as a par- 
liamentarj folicitor, IIi^ nrns «nf^gi!ci in 
th« preparation of nianv iu(ra»arv» of fwiiU, 
If^J, and coctffsiiuticAr roform, sticb as the 
m-w ttoor law, the comtnututiou of tithte, 
and tlie rnrrunchiHunent of oopyhflldo. On 
iho EubJL-ci of litbet) ha became a great 
ftutlioritr, nnd iaxuM NcVfrnl In-ntisrH nn 
lllbH legislslian. U*; was a aolicitor of thti 
0CclMiasti<?al oommitaion, and di<Hl Bt Wey- 
month on Id Mnrvh I8ti3. On 17 Sopt. 
I Sitd be married at llQlesworlli Anne.daui^li- 
r«r of Robert Orobtro«<. an attorney of that 
pjftc«. and bv lier had u iarm* fmnilv. 

Iteflid«d publications on tithe law he was 
tbtt author of: 1. ' Sumo Itumurka on tbc 
Statute Ijiw of Parish Ajijin-nlifi-",' llnlcn- 
worlh, 1*29. 8vo. 2. ' Itcinarlte on ihe Poor Anw'M<liTii-nI Acl,' Ijimdrin, 1H.*H, f<vo. 
3. ' Parochial Scttlemiinis an Obstruction 
to Poor I.iiw Heffirm,' Ixtm^m, l>i.*tri, ^vo. 
-4. ' Retnorltrt on thu Cniithold Knfrnnchi«*>- 
neut Act,' London, It^ll, i:!iDo. Q. 'The 
Act for Ibf Cotnoinlnl ion n{ ct^rtam Manorial 
KigbiB in roii>pr-ct of Lnn<Ji< of Cii;iy!jold and 
Cuatomarr Tenure,' Ixiuilon, IfUl, I'Jino 
(Grnt. Ma'j. 1H(J3, i. mi; Brit. Museum 
Addit. MS. 191(tf, f. mi). 

[Gtnt. Mac. 1S6A, ii. ]II~I3: AlIitjoiK-'* 
Urh.MoseuinAiJdk.US. 1&1£&. r.02i Blvxam* 
R»j;ist«is of Mat'dalm Coll. rii. 'l^a~'i\ Cojt'n 
BcwilleclioiiH of Oxford, l«»fl, ])p. 2*1^.7.] 

H- !■ C, 

WHITE, SAMUEL (173:S-It!ll),«rLool- 
inoater. [8co WllYTE.] 

■WHITE, STKPH r,\ ( 1 675-1 iM7 f). Irish 

it, biim in l.'V?'), wm « native of Clon- 

lael (HoojiN, Utbcmia lg»atiana, p. L'iU), 

He WW educated at the Iruh seminar;- at 
Salamanca, wbero be was a rcndtT in pbilo- 
tuj]>hy. ll<i joined tint jetfuil^ in Io'J<l. In 

I l(KW be became prol'tsaor of sebola-itie thw>- 
lugv at Ingoldstiidl, and ri'tumcd to Spain 
in llMYiUjkii. I'OK t><>l did not live ihent 
lone. John Lynch deocrihus him na • doctor 

I and «mi.>ntii(i tiPifi.'wiLir nf tlu-ology at In- 
gntdMndt, I)i]liu;^!n, and other ptncM in 

I Oeruinny; n man full of ulmoat every kind 

, of b>arnittg' {('nmlirfntit F'ffvu^, ii. .StW). 
He WBA for a long liiue r^tor of tbt.' college 
at ('asftvl. Ho is cLi*.'fly rcmembiTed for bis 
labours luoong Iriib lutnuscripu prv«erviKl 
in lierman monatteriea, and tna? be oaid 
to havo opi^nt'd that rich mino. Ho corre- 
apondod in a fnmidlv way with trubi>r. who 
iicknuwU-d|;es hjn coiirtefV imd icstttles ti> 
hiif iuimutiSL* knowledge, not only of Iri«h 
aHtii[uili<^, hut iif tho«i- of all naliouK. lln 

1 woa iL (inod Hebrew scholar, 

' In lll'i! Whit" transcribed at DilliRgtin 

I a mnniiHcript of Adamnan's life of St. 

: Cntnmbti, li^nl to him for the piirp'Otie bytbe 
R^nwliclineit of Iti>ichfnan, ana now'pr&- 
serveil at SchaB'haiuen. Tln» is tb? most 
important of thi^ manuscripts uatrti by ICeevcs 
in wtlliij(( thu 6tiitidurd ttAl. wfiiiy Juut 
his tnimeript to I'ssher bpfort- lli^ttl. when 
i\iv latcur pubtislit'il hisgn&t work on eticliaei- 
aslical iinliquilii'M. I'talii-r nrinta a hm|7 
extract from an iinpiihlishi-d litV orCoUiinba 
whii'h Heevea believed to hiive been written 
by Whitis The 'Trrtia Vita S, Brigidic' 
printed by John Col^aii [([. v.] in bU • 'I'riBa 
XliwiroaturRii' vthx tran^'criMd by While 
from a very nhl manuscripl ul Hi. Maguus, 
ltatiflb-in. Colgan calla bim 'vir palnanim 
antiguitittiuiiFciuntiMimuset HiJeniiEBimut!.' 
At tit. Ma^nuA be aliw fnnnd n manmicri|it 
life of St. Krbard, and aent a trnnscrijil to 
I:*shi'r. Al KiiiiMTbciiii Whit« tran'cribed 
for Hugh [toy .Macanward fq, v.] thi^ lifd of 
Colnitm, patron Baint of Austria. Jli^nlao 
cnpit'd matiiiscriplA at Itihcrach and at Met*. 
White wuji loDff ri>»gdout at ^cbuifhaustru, 
nnrt i« sometime?) apokeii of as '.Si\i|djuiiio- 
Ilvlvetitis." Ilii^ Ik'si known worli, llit' 
' .'Vpolo^ia pro IlibeniiA,' xn h«lifvi><l In hav« 
b<-i;u wrilti;n af rarly na liil-'), and was long 
supposed to b>' hwl.. Lvrich (.iwd on impcr- 
foct copy for hia 'Cambrentis Eversiis." The 
ninniiKcript from which the ' Apologia' is 
printed was found in ibr^DurfifiiHdiao library 
al Krit^seU in lt^l7. 

Whit.' tviu in Ireland from 16^8 to IIUO, 
and gratefully acknowlodgue thu kindness of 
I'sftb'T, who oftfii aaketl bini lt> dinniir 
f'i{iiod inodi-i'to ivnui' ), und who admitted 
bim freely to bis hnusrt and library (InltiT 
lo C'olgan). M'hile appears to hnvo been 




ftliv« in 1^7, vhen Colf^n publi«faed hla 
' Trias Tli&umatuiVB,' but nothing U knuwn 
of tiim aftiT Hint il«U>. 

Of Wliite's oumt^rousn-orkfi the foUowin(( 
are printed in titfi ' Ilibliolhcm llintoricn- 

rbilmogico-tliiwlogicM,' Un-uii:ii, ['ID-'J^t: 
. ' UtMerLa.Lto daf^nuitia ImtaaiiaeUbcrt&lia 
iiatur& atquu indok'.' 2. 'DiHtcrtmio quu 
divinn rationtii uuctoriUut ciuilra ^ri>fiap- 
fujinum loci 'J Gar. x. 5 mode&t^ vindicatur.' 
3. ' VitaJohnnnis Jezleri.' 4. 'Si-h«(liii»mii,iii 
quo AiiB:iiMiiii.I.nthr-ri,!iiiprAU|)!<nnori]niquE> 
eententia a MnnicWisrai eiilumnia pru piioi- 
iiircr iiroti.-»tiuitfJi fnciliiiit coTioilimiila vindi- 1 
catur. •*>. 'Scheiliuamaiinq^uoar^uueutatjui- 
bua \ir celeb. Jail, (.'hrislianiis L^rs . . . cor- I 
triitinam ui'idH>(A fxiguotur.' Wbito's' Apo- 
lo^a pro Hibuniid ndviTsue Cnmbri calnm- 
niuE ' was udiU'd bv M. Kvllv, Dublin, Ic^i^. 
A 'Letter in {•■aWaa,' dated .'U Jam 1640 
?i.S., in which NMiitu fiT«s an at'cuimt of 
bin »tudi>w, In prin1i-il rroin thi' Si, InidO're'A 
manuscript i» KeevngV * Memoir,' Dubliu, 

[Memoir of White by Utuhop William ItethrH 
(ISGIj.noEn lo 'VVorlu of AdamnuD, Index 10 
Usshcr'a WorliR, Moiiioir of Colgan in rr>]. i. 
oF tliB UlWer JoihtihI of ArcIiM»lo^- — h)I Iiv 
ItN'rn; KcUy'e notes loWhitn'iAp^'loiitit audio 
Lynch sOnmbrcriMi livtr<n*; IIft(iiin"< IHbomia 
Igiiatiiina fiiid LilVof t'itwiiiirjn; W»re'» Writnm 
at Inland. tO. llBrrii ; Brit. Xui. Cat. i.v, 
■ Vitus ■] U. B-I,. 

WHITE, Sib TUOMvVS (!492-irj6rj. 

fotindi-rcil' St. John's Collt^c, Oifiinl, burn 
at litiadingr (for the Hit«, pbc OijuEs's ICead- 
wiff. p, 40''i M.) in 1492, wtm tlw son nf Wil- 
liam Vhiic nf kickmon^wnrtli, Ilprtfnnl- 
ohiro, clothier, and his a'ife Mary, dxughter 
of John KchhIewhilP of South Fawley, 
Uti(.']iin^;huriiiihii« (Chacxckv, Anti'/ui(U« 'rf 
J/crtu, p. 48t id, pivps It icli man* worth »e his 
lilrthplticti, L'froitL'ouely ). tlu wiu< pruhiiblv 
tau)(ht lin>t at th«< Heading fj^untiur M-booI, 
founded l>y Iliinrp VII, 10 which he pavi: 
two scboIiinibijM ; but bi- wuh hruiiKht up 
' nlmoflt friim iiifnnry ' in I^nilon. IIh was 
Itpprt'iiticed at th«> act- of twi'lve to [lii|{h 
Acton, ft pri^mirH^nt mt'mlMT of t!ie M^'nliant 
Taylom' Company, who left hiiu 100/. on hi.$ 
dfBtb in l(i:^>. With this and tiis stuaI) 
Pfttriuinny In* bejtati bmiinoHii fi>r liiuiKelf in 
lASil. In 15^1 he was first renter warden 
nf tliu Mvrchunt Taylors' Company. From 
thi« lin pa»Me() »n to Hie aenior wnnlfHithiii 
about 1633, nnd was ma<ttpr probably in 
1635 (t'i.oi>iE, Hitfotyif the Mrirhant Ta^' 
inri Comjiimif. u. 100). 

lie appears in VhliS as one of those to 
whom Ukt nuu of Kent made revelations 

{ Letttra and Paper* of Hmry VIII, vi. 5S7 ). 
In 1J^36 he was asaeeaed for ifae aubsidy at 
l.tXK)/-, which ahoirii him to harn been by 
this time a prosperous clothier (for note on 
tho fxoct naturt- of bin trade, aee Clodb's 
Iluloiy of the Aferchrrnt Taylors' Company, 
vol. ii. App. p. 4). In 1541* and l&4o be 
□ludi- lar)*r loans Lii ihi- cities of Covi*ntry 
and Hrij'liil. He n:^ided in the [Mirijih of St. 
Michael, Comhill. and in 1544 was elected 
by tiip (niurt ninlh nldcmtan for Cornhdl. 
On his refii-iinii: * to take npon himself the 
wt'iRht thereof bo was ccunmittwl to Xt-w- 
IfBte. and th* wintlowa of hia ahop were 
ordered to be 'closed so long as he should 
continue in ki« obslinscv' (17 Juno, 
3U Ilea. VIII, Keperlory if, f. 7b i). IIq 
was not loiigrecalciLr&nt. In tLeimme ynar, 
bi'in^ tbfii aldt^nnan, he contributed 900/. 
to tht; oity't luiui lo th« king. In 1M7 he 
wa« sheriir. In Io41(-o0 be aided his guild 
with muuev to purcliasu iho obit n-ut chargM, 
In li'iol rije trnHl-iltwd betw<!«n biacompatty 
and the city ofCovoutry was drawn up, by 
whirli liir)^ Mums brcanie arailabl'it afti-r but 
death for thi' charity loann. Sic. In iri53 he 
was oriL' o( the promoters of tho .Miiacovy 
Compftnv (MACriiRRaoit, ATinaU 0/ Comr- 
merer, ii. 114). Un 2 Oct. 1663 he was 
lini^htcd in the prc«onco of the Quty-n Mary 
by thf Kurl of Aruiidift, lord steward {SIS. 
Coll. Anna, I. 7. f. 74; sw .Maciits-, pp. 46, 
33-j). lie n'aa elected lord mayor on ^Oct. 
ir>>'KJ. Mnchvn n^iirdi th*f Hpletidonr nf hla 

lie ant on 13 Nov. on the commiwiion for 
the trial of I.ritly Jane (in^v and lurr adhe- 
rents. On 3 Jan. 156^1 he received the 
S]>aiiish envoys, and t.i?n days later restored 
tlie custom of going in proct-ssion to ^t. 
Paul's for the high mass. On the breaking 
ont of Wyalt's robullion lie arrested the 
-Marquis of Northampton on ti5 Jan. 1563-4. 
tl>_- Deceived Mary on 1 Feb. whtn she mada 
hiT iiuprul to Ihv Lnyaltv nf tbr-ciliu'iia, and 
on tiiii 3rd repnifwl t!n' rebftls from the 
bn<l;;e>Kate, Sonlhwark. His prudence and 
ftagarily pr.'S.rvH I^ndon for thft niie4>n. 
On 10 Feb. he presided over the coutmiosion 
to try the rtibcls. In the fiirlbcr *uppr*ft- 
sion of tumult, hu seems to liave come 
into conHict with Uardiner in the Star- 
chaiubiT (cf. C'LOD!:, ii. I'iS, 138). On 
7 March I6i>4. in pursuance of Lh« queen's 
proclaRiiiticn, he issued orders to thu aldor^ 
itii-n III admiiiiinh nil mudi'iitii of tbnir wards 
to follow the ratbolic religion, which he re- 
p<fated with special application in .\pnl. Tho 
iinjiopnlnrity CBU*e<l by thi» po.wihly h>d to 
an attempt to assassinate him us ho was hear- 
ing a sermon at St. I^ul'a on 10 June. Oa 





19 Aug. be received PliilipfiDd Mary at lli^-ir 
^ntry in italo into tlw cky. His muvornlt y 
and bra proclamation (May IfiiH) against 
guase, moms-djincM, und inU-rludi-s. 

At the end nt his year of offifr* Wliitfl (de- 
voted hiiDSelf to acts of benovolenre outsiilu 
ihecily. lIUfriendSirTJiimn!«PoiiC'( 15(17!'- 
I''JfiO) ^I'V.] had rcceuih' foundcil a colK>8^> 
(Trinity) in Uxlbni. \Vliik> ulready hcltl 
land in thunnKliboiirlioudof ()xfiml(£c<r/cr« 
and }*aptr$ofJifnty J'///, xv. L*iWl, mncltlio 
ox&mplt! of Popu tumi>d hiF thoughu lu llic 
WidilwutKttt of a coU'igi-. H<i in Hiitrl trj liave 
teoo direct(?d by a dream to the site of the dis- 
soIvlxI CistJ-rciati hoiiw of St, Bi-nianl oiit- 
aid** the city vnWs (TAri,OB, mantL^rript 
Jlisiory of Coil^f ; I'lut, yatural Ilittori/ tf 
Orfurd*hirt, p, 169; (iRlFTIX Hl-in«n manil- 
Kcript \alivUa», and t'oATEa'a Reading, 
p. 4()'.i). On 1 Msy 1556 he obtainiK] the 
roynl Iic*n.*i^ to foiinil a collef^ for 'thL- 
Ieamingciftbeeci'?ni?«^of lioly divinity, pbiio- 
•opbv, and good nrts.' dedicated totb^ praiao 
and iioROiirof <.)<id,cl>L*UK'S8vd V'irfiiii Mary, 
and Ht. John Uapliat (the patron saint of the 
Merchmot Taylors' t^mpaiiy). Tlio socifiy 
wall tn ennaiwt of a pn-nidenl and ihirly 
graduate or non-grudtialH scbolara (royeJ 

fal<fnt of foiindiition in cillcgo manuscript*). 
n 15/>7 the «cr>pe and niimbrrs of the 
fonndation were ttntarged (& March, -I & Ti 
Philip and Mary : tbrv statulen wf^rt fnrthcr 
roviw-'J imdkT IJr. Willis, cf. Taylor's mami- 
acript Ifuliiry). The i-iulnwrneiit of the 
coUi'fft; connL'cI('d it closely with th« nt'iKh- 
iMHirrmixi of Oxford, hut it wna not a rich 
foumlatioQ, 'ITie staluit^ E'^on '»'eri^ bofled 
on those of Williiim i)f WvWhain for Nww 
CoII^p. Many Ictrera among the cnlli^ 
mantucriptif show White's con>ilnnt cnre of 
tlitcollen) ha hod foundod. In I5o&bo pur- 
duued (Gloucester Halt, Oxford, when! be is 
■aid to hare resided in bi<t later years. Ho 
was rraqutrntly vntiTtainiMl ut Trinity ColK-gu 
(W*ltTO!f, L^e u/ I^jte, p. 123 «.> <llouc«s- 
tar Hall he madu into a Lalt for a liundrtKl 
BCholan. It was 0[)»?iii-<l on St. John Bap- 
tist'a day, 1560. Sir TbomaB Whites asao- 
ciation with Ciimnor is foiuhu^i^ed by tb*i 
fact that in tliiit hnll th<> htvjy of Amy Itob- 
san lay before burial at -"^t. Mary's, Uis lEte- 
rc«T in education was not contim-d to bit own 
coUefce. lie look a cnuflidemblo part in the 
foundation of the M>-rchai)t Taylors' school, 
for which Kicliard Hilk-^ wu« mainlv ^:n])on• 
sible. Ill lofiO he (tent further directions 
and endun-monts to his ooUeg(>. Rut from 
IGBlJ he imflrred nr-vt'rrly from ihe fnliiri|i-o(l 
in the cloth trade. He was unable m fulfil 
the obligation of bis marriage contract. Hu 

waa still nbl«, howerer, to settle Mra<> con- 
eidvrahle tru«(a on diflcreni (owns, the I^on- 
don livery companies, and hix o«-n kindrvd. 
Tbeao arrunmrnL-nla were finallv cnmnlered 
in hia will, dated 8 and -Ji Nov. 1666 (full 
deWil in CLoaE. ii. I7(V>ll. At thi; hn- 
giiming of thi: noxt year (2 Keb. 1500-7) ha 
made further statutea for his college, by 
wliiTh he ordered that fony-three scliolara 
from th« M<'rrb«nt- Taylor's schoo] should b» 
' assigned and named by continual euccfiB- 
sion ' to in. John'aOolIege by the master and 
wardiene of the company and the- president 
and two senior fijllows of tht* collvgn. 

On 12 Jan, Krtl" ha wrote atoiiehinglptti?!" 
to hi« colkffe, of which he d'-Mn-d that every 
one of the MlowB imd scbolars shniiM have 
a copv, cuunntlliiig brothiHy lovo, in view 
donntlRSs of thft religions dilfcn-ncca which 
bad already cauHcd the ce«>&iou of two, if not 
thrif , premdrnti'. 

I.Rter lettern fifinceme^d the jointure of hia 
wife and the performance of choral survice 
in the college chupd (for tbeae we Oi.obe, 
pt. ii. chap. x\v.) H« died on V2 I'eh. IMfr-T 
eithor in the college or at (iloiicwltr Kal!. 
lie wut) burit-d in thu colb-'gu chapel. Kd- 
mund Campion [q. v.J deliverrd a funeral 
ocntioii (culk'gn mauuscripu). 

White died ii pooniHiii. Much of what he 
had inlfuided for hia college never rmched 
it, and tliii pi^ri^ions of hiti will in rogurd 
both lo bin proinTtT and the college would 
liaTe bt'ijn ntill less fully carried out but for 
(be astute managerneni ('partly by pious 
persuasions, and |iiirtly by judicious delays^ 
of hia executor, .Sir \Vi)liniri t'ordt'll [q.V.], 
master of th« rolU (college niiinusrript$ ; 
atid i-f. Citl. JS/ate Paprr», l>om. I5-17-SO, p. 
\\' : cf. art. Kopkk, \Vii,Luir>. 

W bite wan > mnn of sane iiidgmfint and 
genuine piety ; he baa rarely, if ever, been 
surpaeoecl among mercbantji nii a benoloctor 
lo education and to civic bodies. 

There are several portraits of Sir Thomas' 
White, but it is doubtful if »ny wtrv pnint^;d 
from life. A largu picture in the hall of St. 
.lohu'a tVillege is similar to ihosv belonging 
to tho Murcliant Taylors' Company, to Lei- 
ct'Stnr {,»ni OiATfa*. litndin}/. p, 410), and to 
Tierirly allof the towns to which be li-ft bene- 
factions tcf, Hivt. MHH. Vomm. Kcnding, 
p. ^Wl, Lincoln, p. K-H). Smaller portraits 
are in the bursary and the president's lodpng 
At St. John's College, I'rom om; of tht<Nti 
ihnre is a mE'ZKotini by I'abcr. Tradilion 
Miys that for tbeoritfitial picture Sir Thomas 
Whitn'B suil or (whose portroit is in thfl presi- 
di-nt's lodgings at Si. John's College) aat. 
.\n early portrait on gloAS ia in the mat win- 
dow of ih« old library of St. John's Collie, 




oncuid by Dr. WUlia, pre«ideat of the eol- 
IwB I.'.T7-!m. 

He was l.wiee married. His firat wife, 
Avicin, wlnwn 8umunii< l» xinltnown, di*«l on 
Ufi Feb. 1 M7- A, ami wn.* biinKi in the parUh 
gf St. Mary Aldennary (Macutx, Diary, p. 
IfiTt, On STt Nov. nf the *«mc> yt'*r hciWAr- 
ricd Joan, dau^licer nnd colititrosii of John 
Ltikt' of Londoit, und widow of Sir Kolpb 
Wurruii fq. v.J (tti.) He bad no it^uu. 

Sir TEomas Wfiitf liau fr«<iUHiitlj beeb 
confuted (aa by ImiIiau, Me^norial» t^ Or- 
Jord, St. Jolitin CoIIfp', p. fi) with a luttn^ 
take, Sir Thnroaii 1\ hite of Routh Wam- 
bofoufjii, ClBmwIiirx) [cC. art. WmiB, Johk, 
IM 1-16114')], wuo w&A knig'hted nn iha eAme 
day. and whose wife's nntne, .^kik^^, is not 
uncommuiilyiatorebaiiCLnlwilh Aricin. The 
iifu«iaii is rendered the more oatural from 
the Bid that the Whit© property at South 
"WarDborouf^h cr«ntuallv panccd into tlio 
hands of St. Joh«'s College, Hjcford. Utii 
j^us wajt by tlie gift of Arclifaiihop Laud, 
.who ubluiiwd it fruin William SuudvB ia 
63S{LxvJt, HWA*, vii. a(»!-7i. 
[Among tliB iiiiiMiiicriptii of St. Jnhn'* Cnl- 
H, Osfonl, arv bovitti] varly live*. Eapociidly 
bu noti>.*tiil nro thti Hiatnry of ihn callit^p liy 
Tayliir, It.C.L., the Nativimi. VjLn Mora 
momiiiUitiiii illuntriMimiquu viriTIJutiJibWIiJio, 
OriURn Hist*- *i>d cnpicfl of fun^r<il vcrxt«. 
Qm sIm the Vems on llio denth uf Mr«. Amy 
Leech (Ml Diece),tuidEilinuD(l CampioJi'H Funu- 
rat S<'rmon on Sir Thomu. Haoy IhIw manii- 
■crints onlntii rpfart^iirM to liiui (fur lint nf 
Hi. JijIiu'h Colli>j!»> ninnu«cripl«, xpa Ilinl, MSS, 
Comm. 4th Rop. App. pp. 48-1- 8). for !otl«rB 
of his. M*i Uist. MSS. Comm. CoTontry, p. 100 ; 
Leti«ra«ii'l I'apara, i'or, (inr! tlom. of tlii' Uai^o 
of Ucnrr VJU : Strypv'B Memorials; Mncliva's 
Diarj; Plotn Nntnral History of Oxford^hir" : 
Ftillftr'ii Wtirlhiim, H«rtfi.rJ»}itro, p.3fl , GuIcIi'n 
Hi'lvry ao'i Aoliquiii"* of ilio l'uiv(ir«ity of 
Oxford ; InjTiun n Mecnoriidn of OxfonJ ; CIoiIo'a 
Hiiftory nf tbo Mpri'linTit. TavloTn' Compniiy; 
C')iii«('» History of RcudincT; Wiirtou's Lift- of 
rope; Uutlon'B Hist, of 8. John ItH[ii,isi, CnX- 
itqe,lHW; iiifuniifttionliiiiiily pivfiiby Rvf^iuiiH 
Sharpe, viq., D.CJj., librArinn of ihe tSuitdhitl]. 
For llAl of While's bone fuel ions, too Bint, MS.S. 
Comm- Uejiorlft on inH'nD*cri[it« of towns of 
Southniuption, Itoading, Jjtnroln.iind Corcmlryj 
Oough's CnmdetL, ii. 345; Stow'ii Snrroy, «1. 
SbTTO. Tol i. bt. i. pp. 25J-4; Olodw'n Tlislory 
of UoTclutnt Tnyl'rm Cumpaiiy, pt. ii. oliiip. 
afr. Tpany«n'ji ' Qucwn Mory' did not, lut the 
po«t Aft«rwiin1fl admitted, do juatira to ths 
eharacUtr of White (cf. Mt-moir of Tenuyiiou, ii. 

:;«).] W. H.H. 

WHITE, T110MAS(15M:-'-1624>, foun- 
der of Sion Colltigti, London, nnd of Wliitt' h 
profwBorsbip of moral philosophy at Oxford, 

tbo mn of John White, *a Gloucestenhire 
clothier* (Clodk, Barfy Jfidtmy nf th» Mtr~ 
fAant Taylor*, 1AA8,ii. 8.13), wui bom about 

fromthfl WhitMof Urdi'rtnlnhirc,' I W^ entered 
luatudenl of MsRdalen Hall, Oxford, iu 1566, 
cradiiated H.A. -2', Junt- Ia7l), M.A. 12 Oct. 
1673 (BoASU, Jitffift^r </ the Unir. of Ox~ 
funi, i. 279), took holy orders and ' became 
a noted ondfrcqut-nt pmacberof Qod'aword' 
(Woon, Athtaa Ojvn. IHI5, ii. MI). He 
romovud 1o London, and yftut n^Ior of St. 
Gregory by St. raul'H. n nhorl lime brforo 

. beinffiandtiviciLrofSt. Dnnsian-in-the-West, 
•23 Nov. Ifj/fi. In lore Francis Coldock 
printed for him ' A .Sfrmon pre»eh#d at 

I PawIiM Cru»« on Sunday the uinib of De- 
comber, Ifi76,' Fioadon, 8to, in whidi he 
at t wks the rices of the met ropolii< ( pp. 4G 8), 
iDid Hwc-inlly refers to theatre-houses and 

flayKoinff ; and ftlso ' A Sermon pn^acliod at 
'rtwli-fl CrosBo on Sunday lUu third« of No* 
uerober, Ifi77, in the time of the I'lagite,* 
London, 8to. The Paul's Cross prvuchings 
against plays are referred to by Stephen Ooa- 
son 1 1'liriffn wn/ulcd in /Tt« Actiinw, 1580). 
On 11 Dec. l.^SI be received the d(wT«e of 
Hi), and that of U.D. on 8 March f68t-«. 
Fuller Atfctei) that W'hit«t 'waa afterwards 
relalud to Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.], lord 
deputy of Ircliinil, whose funeral senuoo he 
made, being accounted a good preacher' 
(tiWlAieg, 1811, ii. i^WV It was printed 
under the title of ' A CJodlie Sermon preached 
the XXI day of lunt', l.!>86, at Peosehuret in 
Kent, at tho buriall of tlw lal« Sir Hi^nrie 
Sidney,' London, 1386. 8to. In 1588 be 
was collated to tlm jin-bond of Mom in St. 
Taul's Catliudral, and in 1&8D he printed 
another' Sermon at PntjIeVGrojM*,' preached 
on tbLMmwrn'sday. He was appoIntL-d treo^ 
surer of Salidbiin,- on 21 Anril ir»W>, canon 
of Christ Church', Osford, I5ftl,and canon 
of Windsor 1G&3 (FosTEK. Aittmni Oxon. 
I.-iOO-int; Cuxt, Seguter <if tht l/niii. of 
Oxford, pt. ii. p, 38. pt. iit. p. 32>. * In 161S 
lie n ho4rital in IViiiple St. [Briittol] 
called the Templi! Hujipital, for eight men 
Ancll.w<^wu[ni<u, and orii'mnTinnilon» woman 
were afterwards uddeil by hitn-ielf. He en- 
dowed the same with Itrndn and tenemeiita of 
Iheyeoxly viJuBof r>:*/.,'and in 1032 he gave 
to Bristol certain hnuiufsiu Grav's Inn Lane, 
Iioudon, of the ynarly value of 40/. to bt- 
applied to varioMB chflrilies (Uakkett, Hirt. 
and Antiq.of liri^tol, 1 789. p. 5.i4). He long 
bad friendly relations witu the Merchant 
Taylors' Cotnpony, who, on IS Dec. 1614, 
commenced negotiations fjr lL<a8ing oortain 
gardens in Moorfields from bim (Ciode, ii. 
fi33>. MTiite iji hia will mode tho company 







aominfttnrs to viglit out of tb« twenty placM« 
pmndfid in tiiA unshoua^a at Sinn Cnltfi^e, 
uid the company wen tXsa conneclvd n« 
Audirora Willi the mornl phlloKiiihy lenture 
which be had founded at Oxford in 1021, 
with aBtipend of 100^ to tfao rvadtr; five 
exhibittoni of oV. oaeli wen) laado for scho- 
lars of Ma^dalttn Hall, and ■!/. f(iY^n to ihe 
pr>iici[Mil as vAl as ulhor^ums dun vi-d from 
thw mauorfjf I<ttii|iil<>ii Hill, Khm^, conveyed 
tolhu iinivi^Kitv ( Wood, Tfift. and Antiq, 
r/Oafvnl, 17W, Vi. S.V,, n. V,. 872). 

Itediihlon I Mnrrli I Bi;1-4, and was buried 
in t}w clianct'l nf 9l. Dunstnii-in-lhi>-\Ve»t, 
Flrt^i Sf.rMt. In («ijiti* of hig vvidrly diffufiM 
b^nefncliotu there was no moiiuoit'nt to hU 
mcmojy until 1876. when Sion Collcgff and 
the trualee«of tb» (!harilU'»al Itrixol cauaed 
one, deaiffn«d by Sir A. AV. II]oiutit.'ld, to 
be erected near his f^vc. Both of \Vi9 wivca 
wen* buried in the notnv <:liurc)i. Aft>T his 
d^Bth the univpraitv of Oxford hfinourod liia 
tnt!iiiorr in a piibltc oralioti dullvun^d by 
Williain Prir« (I-Wr-ICIG) Iq. v.J, ihe lin»t 
r««di;roftha moral pULloaiipfay lecture founded 
bvWbil*),wbi(-iiwiiit printed with aomi* I>ulin 
oni! Greek t^t^b, chitifly by roftmbera of 
^fni;^1H^l■ll Kalt, tinder the title of ' Scholn 
Morali.4 I'liilisophinB Oxon. in fiinftn- Whiti 
pullata.' Oxford. 1(>J», urn. 4to, There is n 
oopy of the boolc in thi> Uodli^inn Librnry. 
At ihv back uf the Itllo-pu^e is a li:>t of 
White's benefaction* to Oxford. Home 
oopies oFtfae oratioa seetn to have been pub- 
littwd aepamlfily. 

though I cannot learn thnt at nnce h*- hiul 
mnrn than on« cunt of «ou1h, thn rc<«t bi>iiiir 
dimities, aa false ia the aspersion of his 
bciiwf A gtvAt UBUPor' (Fm-LBB, Worfiieti, 
IHll, ii. iW). .\j^iiut Ibew otxitJ'Rt iurti 
Im uumerous t^hanlir^s during his life and 
l]jr Ijijuut'i^t arv a suRiciL'Dt answer. By liis- 
will, dated 1 Oct. 1023, btmidfJt a loiio: li»t of 
smaller legacies, ho left money for Wture- 
»hip» at St.. I'aulV, al St. DuriKtanV, nnd one 
for the Xowpite priaonprs; but his chief 
dotation w»« 3,000^. for the purchase of 
|)TanUeft ' fit to maho a ollcj^o finr a corpora- 
tion of all the miniatere, par»Dn§, vicars, 
locliirr-rs, and curates within London and 
suburbs thereof; ua aleo for a couveaiu&C 
hOD»a or p]ac« faat by, to nake a conreni«nt 
klmMbouM for tw<>nty ponona, 112. ten men 
aad ten women.' Tliia wim aft^rwarclH known 
ms Ston f^Uege, deaicfned as a KiiiM of the 
clprjiy of tV' rity of London and it«»uburb», 
placing ihem in the same poMtion an mnat 
trtlier calUoKa and profeatiions who enjoyed 
chart«re of incorporation, and with cominnn 
ptivileges and property. All his Latin foUoa 

were lefl to thudean and chapter of Windsor, 
■nd it ia worthy of record that scarctly any 
placi? wliwnce be derived incoiuti ur dienity 
wns forgott*'n. He requested John Vioidi, 
John DowDt-ham, and John Simpson to exa- 
niini> ami pi-rO.-ct hie manuecript nmnnni; and 
lectures ou the ll'.'brt'W6, and print them, an 
Wdll BA a Tolume nf ' .MiM-h^llnmin,' from his 
papers. ThuM two wiiihe,"i wero nol cnrrieil 
out. To the exKilioti* nf John Simpson, hia 
couitin, and one of hia esecufGni arc; chiefly 
due lliH rliartfr obtainud in 10^0 incorporat- 
ing the college, and also thi^ t-rectioii of the 
building nt London VVall iu l(Ji*0, when) tho 
library remainod until ita rvmoval lo ihi- 
nuw building on the Victoria Kmbanbrnent 
in 186<J. I)r, .Simpson was ih^ bnildur and 
founder of the ^rval I ilrurj- which now formn 
ihi- most, fttribin^ IValum of tliu inslituiion 
(Kkadixu, IlUtottf (if tiion (hlhyr, VU, pp. 

' In the chamber of Bristol i« hia picture 
with some verses under il, which ond"Quique 
Albod CQsli iKirtamijui! inreuit apenaiu"' 
(Bakkeit. Briato!, p. 6S2). There is also a 
portrait iil Hiou CoIleRe. 

[Inrormntion from the II«t, W. U. Milnian. 
Jlr. \'.. W. It, NicbolMin,und Mr. U. Guppy. Sen 
alw Milraaa'a Account of Sioo CoIIr^d und 
nf iu Library, 188U. and liiit Brinf Account of 
ths Liiir.iry of Sion CdIIi'Ki^ 1M7; La NevnV 
Va&U Kt;i:]cs. ADiglicaiia^. 1H.H, ii. 6t8; Hcn- 
nessy's Novum KeportoHuu I'^vliw, J'mwJi. L'.'n- 
dinotiRn, 18D8, pp. 38, 39, I3S; Madan'a Kailr 
Oxford Prmw, 1806, pp. 121-2: Stowo's Surrej' 
of London iStrrpe), I'ti, ii. \QZ~A.] 

If. B. T. 

WHITE. TH0M.V8 (1.10.3-1(176), philo- 
•opber and conirrivcn>ialiiir, who wrotv under 
the psuudonyiOB of ALBtrs, .KsQhvs, and 
Iti-ACLOE or Bi^.tc'Xt.ow, waa bom Ju 1^3, 
being the aecond son of Richnrd White of 
Hutlon, KwHx, by his wife -Mary, daughter 
nf Kdmnnd Plowdwi fq. v.], thw celebiated 
lawyer. He waa carefully educated in the 
Itoinan catholic n-lision, and *rnt while very 
young tn the Kiiglieh College at Pt. Omer, 
and afterwords to llm cotlxgi.' at Vallndolid, 
whicli be enlemd on 4 Xnv. lOOfl (Palatine 
Nate~liv^, iii. 10», 17"). Subsequently he 
removed to the Kng]i.<!h vollef^ at Dunny 
and, buying cnmpleted his studies, ho WB« 
ordained priest at .\rrn« on »") March 1617 
under Ibe name of Blacloc. He afterwards 

. Aug. 

for I-jiKtana, where aome business ufTaira 
retiuirt^d bis alteutinn, and on his return to 
Douuy in thu eamo year he brought with 
him one of the ribs ol* Thomaa MiuiGeld {d. 




1616) [q. vA who hiwl b«Mi extH!Ute<l on 
docoiint of hm Hscerdotal clumcter (jDoiiay 
Duirif-i, p, 31)). 

Oil 17 April 1021 lie left l>aaay for I'liciii 
in onW loprostf-ulf hi^sturlien in oniion Iiiw, 
and ahtr n fliorl timu Ik.- •wa» Mint by tlie 
clergy to aetlle &oiue aMaira at Uoniip, whc't-i- 
liB waa rusiding on 21 Murcli l'f2-'j-0. On 
liU ri*turn li<> wila n^fniii cinplnvi^d in teaching 
divinity at Douay. In IdAi lie wm seat to 
LiitlHiti, wh<*n' !i» wns unpuint^'d prawiJantof 
ibfl English C^ollfigp. Nnt lon^ aftftwards 
!■(• catot' to Entflaad, uud ( Liras^lf lo 
tlw 4>]cprciMi of hi* priitsllv functions. In 
1 OOOhe viaa again leaching ilivinity at Douaj", 
■ind exAPutinp; iLt; ollicc of vici-pre«idont of 
the Entflisli CoU<'(fc. Oa retiring IVom aoa- 
dcmic lift- he settled in Lcrridon, and spent 
most of \i\» liinu in pnblixhin); buokd which 
'nindeaffreat ni.'is« in the world.' Wood 
rolatea thar ' HobtieA of Malmahury had a 
ffrmt rospLK:! for him, und wlu'ii liv UvlhI in 
WMlniinstip lie would often visit him, fi.nd 
he Olid Hobbva but Btlduni purti.-d in cool 
blood: frtr tlifly wiiiiM wran^lt?, sqiinbblo, 
and Bcold lilts younB BojiUiatiTS ' (Afh<^<r 
Onn. i-d. [tli»», iii. 1247). Whiirt di^ at. 
Ilia lodirinfj^ in Driiry Lane on tJ July ItiTtl. 
and WHS buried nn tht> 9lli nwir ihc pulpit in 
thu church of St. fttdrtiTi- in -the- Fields. Ilis 
portrait has bwn ■^nKTa-ved bv \ i>rtui'. 

A\'hit.i?'« neciLliar philosopHicfll and theo- 
logical 'jpitiiuusratM' J nprthostof li'iverearitfs 
from all quarters. Many protcstimt^tcni^itp'.'d 
with him upon cunlrovorwial t'ipj<«, anil he liari 
several m^riou-t ((iiJirTel§ ^rith tnc socnlor and 
ru^^ular cIltrj- of his own coiumiiniH>n, who 
flltfti'kt'd hi» wiirk« willi Rrr-At funr. In pftr- 
ticiUarbis ttvutiEeon ihu • middle sunt e of 
aoulH'pHVr- gn'iit scitndnl. AiiDthcr, which 
drew a persecution upon hiui, wan entitled 
' Innlitiiti')i»'» SarrM"/ Thence the unisar- 
siiy of Douay drew twenty-two propDsilioiw, 
which tJifV CO Di!'.' inn ml uudi-r ceiiBure*, on 
n Nov. IfifiO, fhii^fly nt thi- inKli^lldii of 
GeorRo Leyburti iq. v.], pri-ftiderit of tbe 
Knglish Ddh'-fre, and John "W'nriitT (UiiJH 
1092) [q. T.J, pmressor of divinity in the 
soHiL- house. Ilo was a|Faiu censun^d fwr the 
political scheme eihibit«d in his book en- 
titled 'Ubedit-nw and f loremmont,' in which 
be waa said to assert a utiivpr*nl passive 
obediencti to any i*peci^.« fifgovornmLiit that 
had oblaiucd an e6tablishm«nl. Wbilt's 
object, his itdvcrMbrii.'« inainitalud, was to 
fl»tt«r Cromwell in hiB UMirjwli'm, and lo 
incline bim to favour tlw calhulicM in the 
liopp of their being influeno-d by such prin- 
cipiflfl. Tliese and wrvcrftl otliiT wtilings 
liavinffjfivfii pn^ut offence, iitid the see of 
Itotnc having bwu made acijuanitud with 

their dKnfrernus tendency, «nec»lly when 
White hud attacked the T>opei pergonal in- 
fnllibility. they were laid befnr^ the inriui- 
aition and ceaaured by decre«4 of Ihst court 
diilcd U May lH-'io and 7 .Swpl. lfiS7. In 
the nioantiniti a number of priesis, wbo had 
bcien edoeatt-d in the Enftlith College aC 
l>Daay, BigntMl a public dincUiincr of bis 
principles. Kwnlually White recanted biA 
opinions, and submitted hinuvlf snd biit 
writing* nnn.xsi>rr»dly to (lie catholic church 
and the Hnlv See (Kkssbtt, JteyUter and 
Chromele, p. 625). 

from his edition of William RuKhworth's 
' Dialn^uets or the Judgment of f^mmon 
Setue in thechoiccof Jjehgion' (Ptris, 1654, 
l^mo): as w«<ll as from 'An Apology for 
RushworlhVUialogiu-s. When-in theescep- 
tions of the I'Ord* Falkland and Utgby are 
answor'd, and the art.<) of Daillfi discorerod* 
(2 part*, rarif. I0-'*4,»ivo). The*e works ex- 
hibit a Ohrislian without enthiiaiaam, tole- 
rant of doubt and diH<:ust»iun, hut ui tho eun* 
tiniedetenuincd fur citthoHciainnfia^aiafitthe 
rufurmed doelriofg.becuusti ihu uno>;rtAiuli« 
nnd o)i*curitii.!« of ihc SoHpturiMi r*<]uiiv to 
be corrected byaconBlani tradition of which 
a pHFCDanpnt autlumty Hjm guai-ili^l tb* 
dopowu To rely aolely ujion Scripture, as 
Uti* proteitants did, was only, in bis judg- 
ment, a phiusihlo wnv for goinj^ on to 
nlhi,'iitcn. Th-.- ijne^tion, thi^refore, was this: 
• Is it bttt«-r to confide in a church or to be 
nti Hiiiriiit?' ll wua iu eoinu meiwitni by 

i prudential coiisideratioiut that While would 
lavv a luuu dccidv ufvoii tbv cboii^B uf a 
religion I l)B liKUrftAT, IH*t. rlr la I'hittmtphie 
en AitgUlrrre, l*;^. i. 301-13). 

Among WhitKN nunuTouA works ar# the 
following : 1. ' De mundn dialog! trea ; 
qnibuA materia, . . . forma, . . . causMB 
. . . el tandem deflnitin rationibiis purA h 
I'ariH, UWa, -Ito. 2. ' tnstitutionum Teri- 
pMteiicnruin ad tnentem . . . K. Digbeei 

fnrH theories. It«m &pp«ndix theoli^pca d* 
irlgine Mondi,' two part*, I.vons, 164(^ 
12mo; 2nd edit. London, 1(>17, 12mo; 
imui>]»i»d into Gngliah , London, 165S, t2iiio. 
3. ' InsliMitionum socrarum I'lmpdtfticix 
inasdLficiitiinim ; hoc vi\, TheologiK, super 
fundiimenris in Ppripaletica IJiKbBwuia joctis 
BXtruclw.paretheorica . . . Tomus aecundns,' 
twK parts, ft.yon*?], 1052,12010. A. 'Mens 
Augiwiini de gratia Adami. Opus hcrinc- 
n'-ul i(;mn. A d conciliationom gratlie et 
lib^rl arhitrii iu via Dighamna acceasorium,' 
l*nri!>,ltift2, 12mrt. 5. ' tiuiestioTlieologicn, 
quoiinn.lo. secundum pnncipia pfripateticee. 
DigbaEanre . . . bumaui arhitrii liburtjw sit 


•xplicnndft et rum ^raiiie r'fGcacin. concHi- 
jitU,' [l*ari*, IftTiL*^, 1 L'lDo. 6. ■ VillicationU 
Wue de tUMliu aniuiAniiti r>Liitu ratio vpiocopo 
CluilasduiieBtfi [»m Skitii, KicH\Rti, i-Vsti- 
1655] reditu*; PtiHi>, ltl&3, JSmoi this was 
ininslatedM- WhiT« a3 'TIm! Middto Sutc 
of SiniU. f'rDtn ihe hour of Destb lo the 
ciftT of Jmlgm.-nt.' liVMI^ I'Jmo. 7. 'ACon- 
lvm|>Ution of Ueaven: witli an excrcisu 
of Uive., and it ilrwant on the praver in the 
Oaxdeu. By a l.'athi]li(|ut,'^4-ii[.' I^uriii [I»oii- 
.], 1654, l"_'iuo. H. ' Siiima Ituecinii;: 
ve tre» tractntuit <le virtutibua fidei pt 
Ogiip, da iiri iicipiiK ••«riiiniuni, ct <k> 
bus oppofiitis," I'arli, 105-1, PJnin, fV 
liyiU, li'tn... 9. 'Thy sUlf of the 
/iiiare life, and ibe prv!H'iit.',i oMor trt be 
ajil»id*>rvil.' Irnnilnted from tbe Latin, 
London, 1«S1, li'mo. 10. 'Tbe Grounds 
of Obedit>nee and fiovernment. Bt-in^ tbc 
bi-jit ainwiT to a]] tbat has been hituly 
written in dnfenre of Paiiwivo Obedience and 
<m I{mi4ta[in>>,' I'nd ■'dit. l<<>Qdoil, L(f&G, 
2n»(i. SH edit. I^ndon [1685 ."J, 12mo. 
11. 'Tabulie Suifrngialvs do t«niunandi« 
Fidpi ab «-clpsin CalJioIica tij»: occajiioni' 
Tesfene <i'tviupvitut Komjuiie, in6cripia> 
«drersu« folium uiniiii Sant Biiccinic,' l^m- 
don, llJ-55. U'ma (cf. Ad<lif. .\fS. -H.W, srt. 
13). 12. ' Eiiclidi'* I'bv»icii«, sivi* deprim^i- 
niis notumj sKerbfidea' 'F,' Loudon, IAj/, 
I2inn. IS. * KiichdeA MetaphyHtcu8,eivvdv 
Prinripiin Mpii-ntiic.*itaccbeidi>a'E,' Lf>ndf>n, 
iOoH, li'ino. II. ' Ki(i.-rcitii[io Ouomutrica 
(le ijfOtnctrui indirinibilium et priMmrlionr* 
■piralis ad vtrculuni.' Loudon, 10-J8, \'2mn. 
lo. ' ControTii^p»j'-Lii(^ir-i(>'. nr ihn m« to 
come to Inith indebalesof religion.'rParin], 
1069, l2mo. Ifl. "A Cntwliijuu orCliri*lian 
doctrioe,' 2nd <)dit. onlargM, PuHh. lt3ot), 
12mo. 17. ' 4 'bryp^spis sen Scriptorura »uo- 
rtun in acientiti ol»curioril)ii« Apolaffiiv ^>06 
propalala tulfla geonitilnca,' "2 pann [Luu- 
don), Ififtfi, 16mo. Iti. ' Iiislitutionura 
Ethicarum sire Srniene .Moruiti, aptls ra- 
tionum ninmentis librstffi, toinuA primus 
( — BecundiLt) , . . autlioTf T. Anglti nx 
Aibib EadI-SaxoDuni,'2 voU. I.oDdoD, li^KI, 
12mo. ll>. ' Etelifn'on and lUuutn mutiiiilly 
C<fi*ri-iiiK>ridinKa»d KHMi'tiii^ i.>nch Other. . . . 
A r*'plv tji the ^'indicative Answer lately , 
publi»)^ aipiinM a Ivi'tUT. in wbich lln! 
H^iise of A Rnll and Council cnncernimr the | 
duratioo of Purjfatorv wajt diitciuit,' Puris, l 
1060, 8w>, 20. ' Apotof^ia pro Doulrtiiu mm, \ 
Ifenae CaluumiutortM. .\utliorfi Thotna 
*io,' London, HWI,12mo. 2L 'nBvolion 
Rouon. Wherein modem devotirtn for 
dead is bruu^lit lo tK>lid principles, and 
Bado Faltonsl, in way of answer to JTamos] 
I[uinfonlJ'8 Itemvmbraiicu for tbe living to 

nray for the dead,' Paris, 1661, 12cno. 
2-2. 'An exclusion of «c«pticka fivjmall litU 
to disputt] : being an oniwer lo Thu ^*anit7 
of DofrmaliEioff Thr Jow.<pk Ulanvil 1,' Loa- 
doQ, 16M, 4to. 

[BioRr. Brit. ir. a*itf8; Dodd*. Ohureh Hiet. 
iii. 265, 3A0-6 : GniXixHr'it Bi'^r. Hi«L of Engl. 
5th»iit.ii.3S-J: Hallan'ti, 
iii. SOI ;Lo(uiiju»[i.e. PelPtTwlMji^.r.]. BWk- 
loana* HiU'rwift Uiitoria. et Cotifututio, Oliuut, 
1675. 4to; Lovudca'a Bil'l. Mac. nl. Bihn, p. 
'iOnn: N'mrdl" Uiogr. GiiiitrAlc. U63,Tt. 162; 
pHCxnni'ii Mnimirs. pp, 32S. 293 ; FlowdMi's Ro- 
inariji on PaiiziiEii. m. ^M-'S j R«id's Worka. 
e>l. Hamilton, 6tli *n)it.. ISSa, pp. 9ffB. 9A2; 
Wcldon » ChroDologtCBl NotM. pp. 197, US.] 

T. C. 

WHITE, TlIoatA.S (I(fc«-1TO1?), bishop 
of Petorboroiiafh, wo« tljp ann of IVHr Wltito 
of .Mdingtou ill Kent, and was born thera 
in irt'JN. Iii* father diitl nonri aflvr hit 
birtli, and Uin mother went lo reside witK 
h«r ni>ar kinvColk the Bmckmana of Ueacb- 
bnrouvh near Folkciilnnf, Tbcro seems 
Iittl« doubt that he alleuded tbe (frammar 
school At Nuwurk-oti-Tn-nl for aome tiun>, 
but John Jobn*on ihUi-I-l'-Jh) % v.] oC 
Crnnbrook cluims him aa a scholar of the 
l^iutl'^ School, Cauturbury. and ht> wsa 
admitted at L'acubridgc as rn>ni thu cratnmitr 
Krh(H>l of Wye, aAer three years' fltimy there. 
Tt« wax admitted ii einr of St. John's Col- 
lege, Oambridic«, on 29 Oct. 16l2, and took 
the decree of B.A. in m4tl. I>uri[ig thu 
I'mtt'Morntf be held tho post of luctiirer at 
St. Andrew's, Molburn. 

On tJ July 1660 he petitioned thi^ kinff for 
llio vicarage of Xowark-ou-Tn.'ui. which ha 
oblaini^d and ivaigiie«l in June \iifW, wtu-n 
he was made rector of AUhallows the firent, 
London. Thiit lirinf^ h« hrhl till Ti July 
1679, when he received the rectory of Botlwt- 
ford in Leicwtershire. On 4 June 16i?3 he 
woscreiirod l).l>.of ihenniversity ofOsford, 
and in July following was madt chaplain to 
the l.ady < nfurwunb queen | \ nnu, daoghler 
of Janice, duke of Vurk, on her mnrriugv witb 
Ueorf^, prinfo of llenmurk. He imih in- 
Htttlledurcbdtiiicunof Nottinf;buinuul3 Aug:. 
inA.1. (]u3Hfnt. 168.') he wad fleeted biMhup 
of Pftterborotijth, ■woaoonsecmtud nn 2fi Oct. 
and enthronvd by proJty on 9 Xov. He re- 
sif^cd thi; rwctory of Rotteaford in the samu 
year. The foUowinjf year he with Nathaniel 
L'rvw, third baron Cn-vr ft], v.], biahop of 
Durhunt, and Thomas Wprat [q. v.j, blaliopof 
Kocbt'fll.t!r. was tippointud lo exercise ecele- 
flioi-t teal jurisdiction iu the dioci'tkj uf l/Oit- 
duii durin)^ the auiipeitaion of Henry (Vinij)- 
tnn (1632-1713) [ii.v.] When in April lHnS 
James II iwuea the order for all mini«t<.'n$ 





to reoil biKsivonil ' DRclarntioii of Indtilgtrnt!!** 
on 4 ^fay ffiMowinp, White was nne of the 
nx l)i!<bup« who with Bancroft, iir('hbi«tii>j) ot 
Ounti-rhtirj, petilionp'l nf^inst it. Hi- waa 
examined wiib his follow petitioners in tlio 
priry council on S June, &nd committixl to 
tliu Tower the same day; was wilh thent 
bmuflht by writ orhnbrMCoqjue to the court 
of kingr'a boiicb ou IS Juno, wns trii'd i>» 
I'ViiUy tbelJ^flh, aiid awiuilt^'d ibcl'ollowiii)^ 
mornitif W' Lloid, \\ imjam, 10iJ"-17I" ; 
nnd Kf.!I, Tuowym]. Willi tUlmr buliopA 
hfi attended on ibe Mnp to (rivo co»n«?l 
on I'-l Hrpt., on .T Oct-, nnd iiffain on fi Nov., 
when lin savH 'wt> parted und«r somi^ dis- 
pleasure.' On llint. occasion lie tDadi> a 
pi<nonii1 pmri'.stAl inn thnt Ii<> !ind nnC in- 
vited litu prince of Urant^e to invade, uor 
did Iio know miv thdt htid done so, in which 
ho appcam to liftve Iwon perfectly sincere, 
Aftur tbe departure of the king he was 
anxioiu fnr & n>f;ency in order that all public 
mattL-nt mijilit proceed in bistnajcMy'H niDac. 
He wns one oft lie eight bishops who atmoited 
tlwineelvvs at the calliug of tbe Cunrontiou 
pnrlianient in 188U, Kfimed tho ontliit ti) 
William and Mar^', was sa^ndnd on 1 Aui;. 
ll)S9. iiml tii-priv^dorhi»iie»onl Ffb.l(i90. 
Till? rfiRiaindor of hif life was itpint in 
retirement. On 'i-i F*b. Hilt') bet look part 
in the connccrntion of Thornnj* IVagftriift'c- 
[i|. v.], nod he »coompauit'd Sir John Fl'h- 
wiele [q. v.] to tbe scaffold on L'« Jan. I6I17. 
Uc is Eaid to haw wriltt.'u the ' Cuntempla- 
linn* Hjion Lifi- and Dfatli,' (tubliaht-d nndr-r 
Sir JoIitiR namo in the BatDD year, which 

Srovoked the JnRoliitcji by " fwmprnpli con- 
emninr tbe dfieiga of uieaAiutiatin? Kins 

Whitf's nrtviite charncTcr wa* exotnplur. 
In hilt youtli hii had b«en rem&rkable for his 
physical etrenfrth and agility. There U a 
story ihni 011 oneoccasion.whenaceompany- 
iii([ till! bishop of liochesler to Ofirlford In 
omeiate I.hvri', a tn'opiruf thr (^iinrd insulted 
th"? lwniiiidini}miliHl their ])n.)H;tvi«i. Wliito 
ri'proTed the miiii, who retnliated by clial- 
leDKioK hitii l« fight i( otil. A vtilf 6f{ht 
i'n*iiod, in which White was victorious, and 
th« trooper wne compelled to ask tho bi»bop'a 

fiimlon. The sifiry nmiifii:sl Charles II, wno 
iiu^hiugly thruatened to impeach White for 
hit:h treason for oaaaullin^ one of hia jjtiards. 
WhitL- matiRgtid bin hivhopric with gjvu,l pni- 
difiK'i! ititd cure. AtruffRliiiH hard to r»?form tho 
flbuae of pluralities which hud crtipt in { Tan- 
mr M&S. xxxi. 2H9). He dind un 30 Muy 
I6!>M. nnd was buriMl in fit. Grepory's Tault 
in the precincts of Si- I'aulV, London, be- 
tween B and lOr.H.onlJnne. An account 
of ibu fiuieral and the friction in Gonoection 

with it b«tw»«n tb« nonjnront and the clergy 
nf the CAthedral is conMiincd in a krter to 
th* nrchbi»hop of Canterbury from J. Man- 
devile Atnong tho maniiBcriptA at Lambeth 
I»ftkce (MS.'tf3y. No. 'i-J). 

In his oorly yoftrs ho wu considered B 
ffood preodier. He wrote *A True K«- 
lalton of the ('•onveraion and Baptlsoi of 
Isuf the Turk,' London, 1058. In W will 
he left the poor of thrtpariNliin which 
he sbould die, 240/. to Nc'waxk to be l&id out 
in IttJidtt, and iOf. uiinually to bw diiftributi^ 
among twenttr poor pan»hionen above fortT 
year9ofaKewbounI4Dec. inthochiirchporcu 
Khoiild di»tjnctly repwit- the LonVit Prayer, 
the Apostles' (>eed, and the Ten Command- 
ments without missing or chanfpne a word. 
TIm) nwi of tho money to go to the vicar. 
A similar aam Bubjecl, to the hke conditions 
WHS bequeathed to tbe poor of PcteTboroii{;h 
Hud of Aldinjuiou. lie nIt>o left money to 
the poor of Boltesford. He made a present 
lu Hi. John's CuUi'^', Cambridi^, towards 
t1i« carry itiK on of tho new buildings, and 
leC^ an excellent library to tb« cburdt of 

Thftrft am portraits of White in the p«ei- 
dent'sresidenireat MatrdalenCullece, Oxford, 
and in the palace at. PoterbnmuEh, and in a 
L'niiip of ibe'SevenBiibops'inrbeNationnl 
Tonrait Gallerr, London, The last picture 
hae biMtn enKravi'd by It. itohineon, E.O'OOpor, 
]*ii't«r vimdiTliiinck, andR, White. There 
are lar^ folio engmvingB of the bishop by 
J, nr»jientii.n- and K. \\"bit« (Ili88), a 
ijiiarlo bv H. Oribelin, tind smaller portraits 
by J. Onle, A. Ilaelw-«i(;h (with Batch 
Ter«es),.I.Smitb(l'>*».JSlurtand J.Oliver 
(meszotini). Nmith {.VKzotint Portraits) 
incntioaa ftportrait in oval, an^ved by W . 
VincDDt. Oae surrounded by as omaneDtal 
cirouUr border is in the print-room of the 
British Musi'um. iji^lUin from White to 
Lord HaltO'i nmaiuontrthe liritish MuMiun 
maniiBcriplfl (Addit. MS. 205&(, ff. 62, 64, 

I Strickland's Lives of tha Sevta Biahopa, pp. 
132-ilj ; LiTM of t)iu Enftliah Bishops from tbo 
R«8tAratiMi to iliF RcTolntion (Nath. Salmon), 
pp. S23-4; SidottOlh^ni'B Hprnoriuia of Eiag's 
School, C«nt«rbar;ri p- ^1 : Mayor's Admimoos 
to St. John's Collacc Cambridgo, p. 66 : Footsr's 
Alamai; Cal.Slali!pn[ien,I>oin. t«60-l,|>. 112; 
Ncwoourt's Itepertorium.i. 24D; Nichols's Lsi- 
crntorwhini. ii. 'JQ; Wood's F.isti, ii, 393; Lo 
Nitvn's Fft»ti, cd. Herdr.ii.aaG.iii 162; lintcb's 
Coltcclntirai Cuiiosa. 1. 33-5-9, 353. 347, i7«. 
S83, 409, ito- 1 ; D'OyK'i> Lifo of SancKift, i. 
2.itl-7. 3.11. 3.16, 360-1. 373; RmIju's DisiJ. 
ii. 273-fi, 280w. 349 ; Burnot's UiMt. of bin owa 
Titno, 18:i3; Lm's Lifo of Kottlowell. p. 431 : 
Brown'e Annals of Nowark-npon-Trent, pp, SOU- 



301; BookofItirtitiitioiu(R«cordOAca},Hr.B, 
iti. f. 448 ft; ioformulioo fMm C. J>ack, mc|.. 
kutdlf MMnmvnirntiKl hj R. J. Qny, wq., ot 
Ptalvrborougb.! B. P. 

WHITE. THOMAS ne30-1888). C*iia- 
ilisn politlciAD, Imrn in Monlnitl on 7 Au^. 
163(1, WB8 son of Tliomos WLire, wLo emi- 
(frtit'^d from co, \Vc»tmeutli in lUiti, und 
curied on businessaa a leather ut-rcLHiiC iu 
Siontrcal. Od his ni&ternAl side he bt>loii)T(>(l 
lo Oil Kdiuburgh futnilv. lie wrui vdui^tuJ 
Bt tlie Ilt^h School. ^onlT«al, and btgnu 
lift! in K murchutt'e ollici^, but soon turned 
Ilia aLtentioa to jounialiMii. A pupar nwd 
by bim at a diacueuoa doss introducad him 
to th« editor of the ' (Quebec (iaxettv.' In 
18fi3 be fmindi>d the ' r«tertKirough Rc?i«w,' 
and conducted it nntil it^tiO, when he t«m- 
piinirily IcfL juiimklisTn to study Uw t» a 
Dreparatioa for public life. At tlio end of 
tsm yean h* returned lo iournalism. and, 
in {lortnership with his brother, founded thtf 
' linmilton Spwtaior.' Hi* Jiwl jvurnalttil 
connt'clion was made on his return from 
Ko^Und io 1870, vrliuD ho aflsuined coiitr<jl 
of Ue 'Mointreal Qaeette.* Thi» la>tt-d for 

His firtl public work vru a« a mpmb^r of 
tbe aebool boanle of Pfterborouph and 
Hftnilton, Ontario; and be was for some 
timn roerc of Pot«rborou};h. In 1H67 he 
mads an ansucc««i>ful attvmpi to voter tliu 
Ontario provincial parliament, and i» li:i74, 
187S, nnd ISTO ho mado tliree fruitlocs 
effort* tubewmnifxj to tha Hominion House 
of Cutnmutii!. In 1878 the comttiluoncy of 
Cknlw^ nlcTlnl bim, and he reprewnted it 
for tile KM of hiA lifi*. 

Hi)» «»"fii»l intpiVAts were comnercial, but 
the work with which his name vrtll bo pcr- 
manratly connected in Oaimdina y^jliiics is 
tlw opening ttp of northern and wi^bi'Tii (In- 
twrio dnd tne pniirin Uiroud lo i^mt^rrantB. 
Be maaent to Unliun iii 18(!9 u» thn Rnl 
amj^tioa agvnt, and from hid mission date^ 
the direraion to Unlario of the vtivam of 
emi^tion which till then llnn<vl from 
(.^uiada wMtlwanls oier the bordore of thi> 
United Stat«. In fHrlhcranc.' of his emi- 
iion fk^hpmes be was oat* of the [lionccr^ 
'of Canadian railways, and as iniaiHter of 
the interior, an ^pointoient he ni(?i<ivfd 
in 1885, he wtw respaoaible for thu poHticiti 
reorgaaisation of the CL-nliv of the country 
aftez the aecood Kiel rvlwUinn. Hv died at 
Otiawft on 21 April I88S. Both < 'nnndinn 
honaea adjournal out of respect for hiit 

[Cutsdian P4rtiani«ntary Companion, IBS7: 
3IoatTMl Qmbmu, 23 April 1888.] J. B. M. 


WHITE, WALTKH (l(»ll-l(iaij, mi»- 
o'llanwous wriu-r, bom on 23 April 1811 at 
Ileadinr in Berlisliins was the ttldesl «on of 
John White, an iipboleterer and cabiaet- 
ninki>r of thnt town. He was oducalftl at 
two local privaw whools, one of which was 
kept by Jo«^pb IluntW, ihc father of thw 
founder of Huntley Si I'almer'i well-known 
bts4-uit mauufaelor)-. 

At tb« agQ of fourteen Waller left ficboal 
mid Wgnii lo li-nrti bin futh«r'it trndu, Spend- 
ing much of hin leifiurein renduigand in the 
study of French and Gennao. He continued 
catHnet-makinfT at Heading until 11^14. On 
Il> April uf that year he sdiled for ttw 
Unil^ StatM of America with bi^ wife aud 
children, is the bopeof earnini; more monvy. 
He worked at his trade in S'l'w Vork and 
Pou^hkGupsie, but wiihoul imimTin? bis 
cireumslancns. He has ^ven a uetailud and 
pathetic account of bis ciperifuceii an ati 
euii)fraot in an uuunymoua article entitled 
'A WorkiitK Man's I ii'collectioaH of America* 
ih'nhf>t'» Penmt .Voj/oriw, 1840, i. ft7). 
[■innlly, on M) May IS39, be n-tuni^d with 
bin family to the old world, wher<> b«^ rejninoil 
biti father's bui<ii)e)L<i. In Uetober lH4'i he 
wrnt to Londim, and, lh« cohini.^-making 
trade beinK^till in s depnwsed condition, ho 
accepted a situation as clff rk to Joseph Main- 
zvT [q.if.]. uulhtir of ' Singinjf for the iliUiou.' 
In t\i' fiillowing year Ur acrompaiiied biui to 
Kdinbunfh, wheru Maimer was cnndidate 
f"r thecnairof m"«ic Whili^at Kilinbiirgh 
AVLitP attended some lecturea lo the working 
classes by Jame^SiiDiison (17Sl-lSrj.'l)[n. v!j 
Simpaon introdui^Kl nim to ChiirU'4 Itichara 
Weld la, v.], then assistant secretary to th« 
Royal SocietT, who oflered him the post of 
' attendant' in the library of that body. 

WliitK entered upon hifl dutie^s at the 
lEoyitl Society's rooms in SomtTEet House on 
111 April l^U4,and wb« othrially con linn od 
in the appointment on '2 May, at n salarjr of 
aOL A year. His work was at first largely 
mMltaniral , but incmased in importance. 
When Weld retired in 1861, White waaat 
one*^' eWted to ibu post of ftMistant secretary 
and lihrurian. In tbia poMtion be met nnd 
conversed with many emin«'nt meu; some 
account of hiK inimvourMwiih theuiisgiran 
in bin niibli>h<->*l ' Journiilii.' 

"ftlule an ' attendant,' or, ns he was after- 
ward* tli'siijriiiilr^l, 'clerk," White btigan 
jn'riiius literary work, lletwaen Iftl-I and 
18iy he wrote no fewer than two hundred 
articles for ' Ohamlwrfl's Journal * (JournaU, 
p. 93), besides occasional pontribuiioos to 
other serials. It was at tbia time nUo that 
lio bagan the holiday walks which fumiched 
the material for all lus best known books. 





Tbiw« walkii he coinnit*urMl in IB/iOwillia 
nnnth'.x trnm^ in Hnnand, n namtiro of 
wtticli be ituMiiilicid iindi<r tb« titlvuf ' Xotoa 
from tiio N'slhdrlands' (C^miiert't Jtunuii, 
18W. vol. XV.) 

\\Tiit<;r»s*ignc(l tli* »4sistftn1-«;civtiirTn))ip 
of the Koyal Society nil 18 Dec. ISjJi', and 
received n. petiuon to 1\k< full amount of his 
salary. Hn rcvitWl ut Bnxlon uutil )\i» 
do&lti, IS July m)S. Ill ]6:iU Im marrit^J 
Maria llaniillun. His Jome^lic lul vrtm nut 
]in|>|»y. HJK irif«ltifl liim 111 Ir^lfj {JuurttaU, 

tip. 'ti7, OS), Ilia anns (>iniKnit<4d, nnd for the 
net thirty years of his life Im lived qiitti* 

B«eides contributioDs to ms^rnziaes, be pub- 
lished : I. ' To Mont Illanc and Rnck .\);r'>i')>' j 
l./ODdon, 18^4, l^uio. 1'. 'A I^nnilouc-ra 1 

VVftlklothe Land's Knd,' Loudon. 1 8.V>,8v<>; ' 
end ed. 1861. 3. Thi Knot through Tyrol I 
ill the KuiDUi<-r uf II^*)'*,' London, \SW, 8vo ; I 
2nd ed. 18«S. 4. 'A July Holidiiy in, 
Sftxonv, DuhL^iniu, und Silmia,' Louduii. ' 

l8ft",ftvo ; I'nti ed. Il^ffil. 6. 'A Moiiib iit , 
Yoi-lishire/ London. liCiS, 8vn : 4th ed. 18)11. ' 
fl. ' Xiirthiimbi'rliLiid nnd iW BtirdiT," f^n- 
don. Ifi50, fivo: 2nd .'d. I*lfi.^ 7. -All 
Round the Wrehin,' London, \i*iM, 810 ; L'ml 
od. IHffl). fi. 'Riifltcm Knplainl from th»f 
Thnmi** lo the Ilumber.' Ivondon, iHBft, 'I 
vols. 8vo. Si. 'Rhymes.' 1873. 10. ■ Iloli- 
dayD in Tyrol. Rufiildu, Kluht'iLEtvin, nnd 
PaniJTi!j{gio,'Lfind«in,lrt7fi,Hv'>. U.'UhhidiA: 
aiyioleaa Sour->Sprini;,' ItirminirhBiu, 1881, 
8t0. He pdifpd ' A S*ilor lloy'» Ljir-IkioU 
flrtHii I'nrtsmoiK.h to thfl I'eihn,' London, 
leet', 8vo (the 'sailor boy' was his third 
eon, Jlonry), 

[TI19 Journals of Walter White, London. I K98. 
Svo; Me"uf HioTiwp. tSOt; Athcmrrutii. 20 Jtily 
ISM; Minnies of Ooiini-il of th» Uoyiil .Swioty 
(nupuUielioil I ; private infunDatiun.] H. K. 

vine, Willi bora of humbii* pareutnije at Wit- 
ney, Oxfnrdfihin?, in Juni^ 1604. IIl^ matrix 
oulati'd frmn VVadhani t'ldlHgt', Oxford, on 

l» Jnly IR^l, groduntpd R.A. on i.l Feh. 

l«:*5aadM,A.on27Junvlfl28. InHlSl'he 
became mooter of MapdAlfln Co11i>f:p .ichool, 
ftom which post he wae ejected by the par- 
liamentarv cotnmiMioncr* in 1(>J8. Several 
of hiH pupilK tltere becaiue ciniuviu. Through 
till- influence of Brian Duppii, [q. v.], bishop of 
Saliahury, he obtalntid iiltDiit ihu ifuiiR' time 
thwrectory of I*«»Hy, lltrJiHliire, wliich Wnod 
MTS he kept 'throiiph the favour of hia 
friends and the <ininllni.-«» of its profile.* 

After thp Ilr^toralion, about I61W, the 
rectory of Apptelon waa conferred upon him 
by the ptl'orts nf Thotna« Pii-rrft fq.v.'^fpn-si- 
dtmtni Magdalen UoUegt- and a former pupil 

of White. He kept both livings until hia] 
dwith, ftT Pii*y. on 31 May I67H. He waa. 
bnried on June in the chancel, whore a 
flat Mon* reconl-* him doath. By hia will, 
dated L'60ct. Ili77, heleft to hU only datigh- 
t«r, b'lijuibeth, hovi»cs and landa at fiaranton 
and ^^'e«lr Wvale, ^ulyL-ct to a cluuf^ ot 5/. 
to be paid to the vionr of St. Mary'a, Oxford, 
un<l his euccessore, for a ratt>chiBm at even- 
ing prayer, 'i'he Iiouh* which hn hsd enacted 
at Puwy he I>eque«lheii to a fon. 

Whil.' wrote wvenil works in Latin under M 
the naniti of 'OuliolTnuiii Phatfriiis.' thte, I 
•Via ad Pacem Hcclesiosiicau],' London, 
1(i60, 4to, i# in the Briti-'h MuitiMiin. Three 
others are mentioned by ^\'oo«j. ■ 

It'oster's Alumni Oxiu. 1300-1711 ; Wood'a I 
AtlieDB Oinn. iii. 1167; Bnrrowsi'a ViattatioD, " 

{> At4 ; Gnriliucr'H Ha^ater of Wa<IhaiD, p. 93 ; 
iioxaa'e Hiat. of Mai^). Coll. iii. 1£8.1 

C. P. a 
(li:t-i4-lHt)l), diploinalivt, the aon of Arthur 
While, who was in the Britiab conaular 
service, and EliEn Lila, daughter of Lieu- M 
tenant-general William Ganiiiiet Ncvilla, ^ 
was hum in 1^:.'4, and educated at King 
Williain'" Collrgi't We of Miui, and at 
Trinity Collep^, Oambridjce. He entered 
thd Consular wrvice on 9 March 1857 as 
rl(^^k to th« consul-general at Warsaw. Ha 
freniieuily acted a* ooosul-geiieral ; and on 
9 Jan. 1851 he became vice-cou6ul, again 
nctinij; as cousut-cpULTal for the greater 
Dart of 18at> nnd m;.<t. Here, wilh stroi^ 
rulii-h BTtDpathieif, ho neverthelees oon- 
IH^irtcd liimwU with "itch jiidgraent as 
to offend Kuwia. On 9 Nov. IJW4 h 
appointed consul at Danzi({, where in 1 
acted also for nix monthit ati Belgian consul, 
and during the war of 1870 look charge of 
French intero'ts. On i!7 P'eb. 1875 ho was 
transferred lo ^>ervia as llriii^h agent and 
consul-general. Thia ]>o«l at laat ({»vb him 
fiomt' Ei^upi) for employing lL>> knowledge 
which for many ycjam pnsl he had been 
acqniring, and laid the foundation of his 
greiil influence in dealing with KsElvm 
nntionalitiefl. Within a f>'w months of 
bis arrival in Serria the old Eaetem 
qiioittion bcfjan to niwumo an acute phase, 
and in Juno 1^70 the Ser^-iana, following 
the lead of llerxegovina. declared war against 
Turkey. Thi'ir iWeai was followed by tin 
irnifi^ri-uce nt (\iuHlHiili[iople in Uecemlwr 
l8"fi. Thers l^rd .Saiishury was assisted 
bv While, and was d«-flp!y imprMsed by 
hia knowledge and ability. Througb th* 
Bucceedin;; Uusso-Turkish war ho remained 
in 8ervin, but on the erection of Houmania 
into a kingdom ho was appointed eavoy- 

I 00m- 





extraonliDuy «r<) tninMt«r-nlL>'nipi->t«i]tianr 
at Bucharwt on 'i Alarc-Ii 1879. On 18 April 
1885 Whiti? wns nominated envoy-extra- 
I'niiiiary at CoiiHtantiiioiilv, and nos ut onci! 
hfiiiRlit face to t'ai* >» itli a quwttiim nf fintl 
iiDTiortance— thp U-gaJity of the nnnexation 
"f lilsml>-rn Kiniiiii-Iin to itul|piriit in Oofinnco 
of the treaty of Rerlin of )8"8. Ituoaia took 
tbe sround ihiit tlie treaty must he upheld 
at all costs. White wnn Mnvinceii iliat tin.- 
breach of tti« treaty was realty in the imp- 
rests of Euron-; and cv«Mitu«lly ho ciirricd 
Uii* poiai witn ibe representntivi-s of tlic 
Miiwer*. Ilia Bl^rlOll dirvctly contributed to 
tha ccMtMlidatiun of Kulgariun oationalily, 
and the Bul)ptrian» wer* nol slow to peenjf- 
mnp this. Early in ll^J?4i bo woe epecially 
thatiki'O by the Kon-riinnint for hii< nclmn. 
He was creatwf C.B. nn HX Marrh 1H"H, 
K.O.M.O. on 10 Morek 18*3. G.C.M.O. on 
38 Jan. 1K%, G.C.B. nn 2 June IRhS, and 
inrnm of the privy cotincil on 29 June 
186^; be wa« made an lionoriiry LL,U. 
of CamliridKr on 17 .Tun« 188*(. 

llii 11 Oct. IH?*!! White was con6rme<l tu 
apMial a mbassndor-CTtra ordinary and pleoi' 

fn'Ifntiarj- at Ouustantiinnile. Ho died at 
ttrflin, ni the Kaiserhof hotel, on St* Uep. 
1801. He waabuncdiii iho llomanciithulic 
church of St. Hedwiir, Uerlin, oa :i\ ]Jec. in 
the preeewf of n'pn^t-utaiiveii of the whole 
di|domatic nnd |iriUticnl iHidy A Kp^dal 
memorial service wa» bi.'Id at Coiutnnti- 

White shoved facility in acquirio^ the 
I&ug^uafi(«)> of tb<i«*- with wbcitu b« liad l» di^al. 
He nnoke I'oUfli like (i natire, and was 
equally couvvreiinl with ItoiiinnniHU. Jn 
Rueliartifit bf would go »ul into tb<' miirhi-t- 
plaee in the early morning; and pick u]} news 
From ih" np«imntn H*- bfwl a facwlty for 
d-n'otin^ iiini.self to all that bon> immt^ i 
diately on hia work; be wm a Rteat reader : 
of neWftpJiperB and hlue-book-s aitied \u» | 
matter with (rreat acumen, and retained i 
what he needed with Dxtninrdinary accuracy I 
and method; iiii^rctullvctiuu uf pitt^oiiul and j 
official occurrences was of the mime precise 
and UMtful i-barocter, and be utilimxl u< ih" 
fnll, and was a|ij>i«riHted by, tbt- correHixiii- 
denla of the prew. lie a^iplied his Imowludf^ 
'with a quii'k inKi^lit itiio mutiv<w and rnn- 
•MjnejiceA whirh enabled him to check in- 
trigue without re^ortinj; to it himself lie 
■w»f a ffreat iovcrof fiermany, nnd is (uiid 
lo have urged Onnt Itrittuii Xo join the 
triple ailiaDCr ( Acirf, 1 -Ian. I^^l, p. A). 
Thu Frvtich prv<^ ]w'vl him ilu^ complimi'nt 
of coniimtulaliog rhemselve* on his death 
as nn the removal of an ohfttaclu to Kruncb 
■mbition and enpanmion (ii. 31 Dec. p. h). 

Mniitei»arried,in IH(J7, Kathttrine.dBiuli- 
ler of Lflwia Rendsior of I^anii^, and left 
thre« dau|{bt«ra. 

[TiiDM, 2flaad30Dec Ifiul.and I nnd a Jan. 
1892: Foreign Office Liai, 1831; Unrko'aPeer- 
*e«, 1890.1 C. A.H. 

WHITEFIELD.GECmr.E (171-1 -1770), 
tivang^linl utid hiidtT nf i'nlriniEtic inellio- 
distc, sixth son and vonnft'-tf chddof Thoniaa 
Whitwheld (./. 27 bee. 171(5, ugad aii. by 
hU wife, Kliiabrth Kdwnrds {J. Dee^mbHr 
1751), wna born at che Hull lnn,<ilu»i-ester, 
on Iti Dec. 1714. Ilia enrlie^t Known im- 
cestor wail William Wbytfeild, vii^ar of Mav- 
field. Sussex, IflOtJ, whose son, Thoman Whit- 
fidd, wa^ vicar uf Liddiard Slelicent, Wilt- 
shire, IIKV4--^>, and «itb"«iui'nllr njctor of 
Hockhampton, OloDci-siershire. Thomas was 
sucwided in IGaS as rtt-torof RocJihamp:oii 
bv hia Mill, Sam lU'l Whit fetd.Hnd Samuel, in 
li'ja, by htfiMm, S&uinel Whitfield (FonTERf 
Ahimni O-ron. ]i<H'2, iv, Iffjlj. Andrew, 
brolherof ihf, Uisl named, hod fourteon obil- 
dtvn.of whom theeldest.TbomaH Whitulield, 
father of Georffe. became a wine men■ha^l^ 
in IJriatol, and later kept thu Bell Inn at 
CiloHcester. The name is uionouCK-ed Whit- 
field. Of VAliil'.-ficld's Lurly years (to 1730) 
a Mlf-accusinj^ history wa-i given by himself 
in ' ASIiort A(:cmitit,^ [740^ limofabridifL-d, 
I7f>(i; TvFKW*s'«/-ryi' incorporates t he wbok* 
nf the oriifintd). Hi* wyll-known squint waa 
the re»uJt of mea^lea in childhood (Vlir.LlUS, 

I). 270). Flu Seems to liuve been a rogninh 
ad, but with go<^>d impultrL'K. His mother 
look paina with bin education. She marriwd, 
in 17^1, tmv LunKdi:i], an impacuniouii iron- 
mon^fer at (ilonct-i'ter. 

Ill l7'i(J Gcorpe went to ihi! St, Sfory da 
Orj'pt school, lie wna fonder of the drama 
than of clasMcal Mudr. and, lnuner a bom 
iirlor, took part t,' ill nirVs clot hea ' ) iu f chool 
plays before ihi- corporation. Before he was 
tifteen he porauadeu hia mother to reinovo 
him from school. Shortly alterwarda, her 
t'ircum8taiK*<?s being "on lh« decline,' ho 
ilMi»led in the public-huun^, IjeromiTijf at 
huiglh 'a common drawer for ni;;h a ynar 
iiT)d u hiJf.' During thia nt-rii^ the inn was 
made over to one nf hia brntberfi: hw then 
tV-li mil with his sistPT-iu'Ian- and left tho 
inn (the same inn wa."* kopt, from 1782, by 
th>' father of llunry I'hillpottti [q. v.], bishop 
ofRxi^tert. After viniting another brother, Bristol, he ri:tun)ed lohis mother, 
who, on the report of one of hia acboot- 
fi'llon-a, induced him lu prepare for Oxford. 
lie went back to {k-IiooI, bmamw a cuiTimu- 
nimnt on Christmns day 1731, and entered 
aa a avr>itor at IVmbroke CoUegw, Oxford, 




matriculating on 7 Nor. MS3. Among hia 
oontftmpnrnne* wsr WiUlam Shpnslone the 
poet. lie haii {tQCuninr}' aid from I .<tHv Hltin- 
beih EUMin^ [([. v.], tbrniitrh whnra jim- 
b«blj begaa Us connectioa with Selinn Ifast- 
ian, count^M of Hunt iDsdoo [a. v.] 

Before eoiog to Uxroru he ' oad heard of 
aiid loveil the Oxford methodMlK. llix in- 
troduction to Oharle* W«*l«y (170r-178H) 
fq. V.J wii« Ijrought ttfjout by hia ftcndiii); 
WeaEoy ti(itir(>f>rai»uoof Ettliitnplod Huieidc 
CliaHri* W<i«Ikv i-nt liim twokit ; lie fir*t 
' knftwwhnt truftreli|;ion wa«' through ri'ad- 
intr 'The Lift) of (Iwd in tlm Soul of Miui* 
C I fi"? ), by 1 fenry Rooiifrnl [q. v.] He copied 
the metho'liBt practicee.butu'senot octuiillv 
admitted t<t the 'socii-ty'tiU ]7;i'), in which 
year bedatcs kisconvurstou. At Gloucester, 
where he appot th« hkttor half of that vc«r, 
he formed 'a little BOciotr'on tlii> tucthndin 
mod^l. On 1*0 June 17-Wl he was ordaiDe<] 
deAconiit ttloucoivtcrby Martin Benson Tq, v.], 
prt'oched hia first senium al St, Mnrv tit 
UTypI- on -I June, ami gra'liiated B.A. in 
July. Tlio remuval uf the WMlwys puvi- him 
the lead of Ihr- ft^w n-inutnin^ Oxford mo- 
thodiste. During h visit to London ho eon- 
Mired tlia idea of jnininR rhe Wcxli-v* in 
(Georgia, but wan diAKundeil liTfri«'nd». Kis 
first flermon in London wiis on H Awg. at t>t, 
Botolphs, ISifhop^pitc, whero h« cnptirnr*:^ 
1111 autliL'nL'o inclint-d ul lint to sneer at hi» 
youthful lixiUs. For a few weetta (NovemUr 
to l>Hcei]i1>er 1733) lie iifSicinlod for Ohark« 
Kinchin (1711-1742) al. Ihimniir, Hutnti* 
ahiro, and bad rhfl nllVr nf ' a very protitahle 
curncvin Loud on /which li«deElinci!,tli(>itjih 
in deEit, hATinjT maile np hiH mind (:!l l>er.^ 
forCleoifria(CKAi(L>x\V txi.Kr,Jow»aJ, l^(4ll, 
i. fift). ^amos Hcrvey <1"I4 17fift) [f]. v.] 
succeeded him at. 1>uuiTn«r. lilsbnp Benwin, 
Trhom he consulted on Now Year'a day 1 737. 
up|)rov<>d his duiigii. It wa» aol carrii'd out 
for a yi^ar, »pent in uiiMionary preai-hinif, 
chiL'lly in the wast of Knijland and l^mdon. 
For two tnoTil.h* lin vcnit in rharffn of StoiM— 
hoii<)e, QlonnvatctsbiTP (his farewell sermon, 
10 May 1737, -w-iia edited. 1W2, bv J. <!. 
Dim nek, from a manuscript dtwioreTPii in ihnt, 
year). The popularity of hie prenchimr waa 
extraordinaiy: Itts first print'-d jiormon mil 
ilirpii)fU ihnio cdilionii in 17>'S7. He wan in 
coiwtant request for charity Bermons. 

On M Dec 1737 he wunt on board rho 
Whilnker. which did not Ivave the Downa 
for (reonjia till 2 Feb. 1 738. John Wwley, 
who n* iiclifd Uwa! iho chiy b'tforc, would liavo 
Mopped him, but did nor usn the opportunity 
of me<?tinR him (eee Wbulkt, Joiix, and 
WitiTEFiRr.n'fl Hwri-jt, 1771, iv. Wi, for 
Wealoy'a r«cour»c to lot on this occoeioo). 

De made a fbrtniohl'a ttsy at Qibralur, 
whervinf^vr E«eint;Tiifrhma8S,be 'needed no 
other arffunif III nitnJiiKt popery.' The Boremor, 
.Toauph Sabina (16aL»5'-1739) [q. v.], aliowM 
him much attcutioD. Amon^ the ^omsoa 
he found a relij^'oufl society, known &s ' new 
lifchtt) ; ' otbers, belonging to the cburcli of 
SroitnTid, wi'^c known as 'dark lanthonia.' 
The journals of Utsroysge out, tvni to JuBCft 
ilutton (1710-171(51 ^q. t.J, Were printotl 
(17^*-) by T. Cooper. * Huttoo dopn-cated 
the publication as •turn-iililiouit; it ts mom 
cloic to the original than 1 Jutton'a own iiwuA, 
whii^h ran Ifimuj;!] four etUlions in ihi eame 
year. Wh itelit^ld's jnurnaU wtiro too «>g(^ 
litttic for publication, and they prejudiced 
the meihoaiAC cauite. Tlit-ir iuav act an i-x- 
Hmple followed, with more judgmt>nt, by 
.Tohn \\'e*l''y, who bt-jran to publiah hi 
journals in 1710. WliiU'ficld's ( t«oTpa mU- 
Bionliadinoreapparenttiiico.-^lhan \\ etlcy's; 
he was a younijcT man. much more eloquent, 
and unconcerned with disputveaboutcburch- 
manahiu; moreover, he was provideil with 
funds * lot tbu poor of Georgia.' He Bytnpa- 
thiaed wilJi ihu ctdotiixlit, dn'niwl liy Iho 
truEtoue 'the iitte both of rum and alsTee.* 
Hut hrt hi-nrs cmplintic tiMlimonx- to the fact 
that ' the good which Mr. John Wi-^lev bos 
dnm." . , . i« ineTpresaible ' i^Jotutiit/), \\ hite- 
fii^ld Airuok out n line of his own by esta- 
blinhiiig scboula and pi!0}ix:ting nn orphan 
house. To collect money for this Hclirint^, and 
to obtain print's ordiTs, be left for England 
nn 21* .\ug. (hi his rftuni he wx-nt a fort- 
night in Irvland. well received i)v Rishopi 
lluRtcoiifthand Rnndleand Arcbbiahop Boul- 
t«r. He waa nrrlaini'd at Christ Church. Ox- 
ford, on 14 Jan. I7y9 by Martin I^eoson, 
noting for Seeker, and on lettcnt dimUaory 
from Kdmund Gibson [q. v.], bishop of I^d- 
don, who ftcc«pt<«d as title Whitebeld'a a[^- 
poIntniL-nt by tlieOt.'oriiiu trust eee as minister 
of t^avannab. Lady ituntlntidon inten.<«t«d 
httr^olf in his onliniLtion,and brought aristo- 
cralic htinrera to bii> pn<achin^r, among tbem 
th« fiimouB Sarah, dudiefui of Marlborough. 

Lik" Wrml«y. ^Vhitcfietd attended the 
Moravian meetings in Frtt^r l.anc; unlike 
Wysley, he paid visits to leading di^^fenlors: 
I«na€ Wmta [q. v.] received him ' moat cor- 
dially.' lie got into trouble by uronching nt 
St. Miirgarrt*s,\\'estminster, in trie afternoon 
i^f.Siinday,41'"fb.l7S9. Morgan, ibe Friendly 
Society's lectun-.r. bcin({ out of (own, had en- 
gagud John Jnmes Majendie to fiupply hi-4 
plncf. Nol knowing ihi*, the stewards had 
sent for WHiitetield. Majendio was rudely 
siiprseiled; of this Whitefield. who wished 
to ri'rire in his favour, was innocent: but 
the matter gave rise to much angry writing 



against methodifU, coDtisuMl for •oin« 
BonLlu hy ' lUcbard Hooker' (i.«. Willtaoi 
W*b«t«c [q. V.]) in th« ' Weekly MiswUuny.' 
Aeonsequeaco wtui that at Buth atid Briittul, 
^lAro lifl vutwd to prcKch on W'bair of the 
6«onria orphuia^, hU ovi?nures wvki n>- 
J«Oteo. At Halijilmrv' liu risitod f^uMUiiiM 
w'esley, who ftflkt»d hini if her sons ' were 
nottnufingaomeinnovatioaEii] tlii'cbiin;U;' ^ 
he uearod her ' th>>y wi-ni on fnr frDm it that 
they endeavoured all ihey could to ivcoocil)^ 
(liuenters to our commimion' (SnivEXROx, 
MemoriaUt^tAt H«/fy /■limiVy.lS'ii.p.iiO). 
lie began uiMm-uirprem-UiDf; at I'ow Grw ii, 
onKingnwood Uili,nDur KrlHiol.uii 17 I'Vb. 
irifit, Thi* utrvicv cyHVi-r1»?il Tlmuiua Max- 
fi<^ld, afU^rw&rdB John Wftsley's HS§ifitant. 
The pulpiU of Dmlol chwrchwi vtirrv nnw 
flpCTi>yl to him, hui on tiO Prb. he wu anm- 
moned to t h t< chance I lor V court and tbrealoned 
with excammunination forpreatliing-without 
licenM. Bii>hop Rtith-r, to whom hi? ap|ilu>d, 
wrote him a fcvourable letter, prgmisin^ a 
bencfoctioD toniird« thi^ oqihiinn^'C ; ho pive 
flvv ftuiiie«s on W May (,Tn:R»ty, i. l>*'i, 
^33, ail)). He was, howercr, excluded from 
churches, and vviii from preaching iu ihf 
pritvin; only the '(tu^ii'ty' rooms were open 
to him. tlencL- lio thivw hicn».'lf into ihu 
work of outdoor pnwirliiog, alwavH wi'jtriiig 
lull rl^cal rohee. 

V'uiiting WttW in March with William 
Seward (ITOS-l'JU), hnithL-r of Thomtt 
Seward fq. t.I he find uiyl Ilowel Uarrin 
(q.v,} On 2 April tt; laid tbe tirst stone of 
a schoul for tot* coUJitk at Kiiigswood, » 
work tak<>n up by Wi-sli-y in the fullowjnjr 
June. At St, Miirydo (Vytrt.Ulouceeter, he 
hiiptUM'd (17 April) » ipinkiT 'nlniut niitv 
yeure of age.' At Oifnnl ht received ' a great 
ehock'un baring that hi« old frif>nd KinL-hiii 
had reftigned Itia fi-11r>w?hip, and was rf-porti'd | 
to be on the point of leaving tlw church ; be ' 
looked forward to 'dreadful coniKoui.-nc<^rt' 
from ' a necdlen ■eparalion.' No pulpit was 
open to him in Oxford. In I^ondon (-Itorge 
Stcirii'homw, ricur of Ht. Murj'V, Uliiigtoji, 
invite'] Iiim to preach, but the churchwarden 
interfered ; occonlinRly he preaclifd(27 April) ' 
in the chiiM.'hyard, atAndinf;!)!! u l.oniliKtunr, . 
* to a prodigious coacourM' of |>M»plp,* IRs 
fl;^ optm-air sermon at Koorticlds (then a 
led p«rk) waa oa 'it) .\ pril, bi.'for.> chnrfli | 
At moming serrice the Eaine day ho 
lt«ard a violent tiennou acuinst hiit movement , 
by Joseph Trapp [q. v.] at Chriw. Churcb, 
Newgate, and remnrks I hat 'the preacher 
«B0 not BO calm m I wlnhcd him. Trapp 
wa« bni-lii'd up hy thu ' \V«.-kly Mt«cell«uy;' 
Whitefi>?Id hy Kohert Scnj^uve [q. t.] Dod- 
dridge he4rd Whiteftcdd in Mayon Kvuninff 

ton Common, and ehought hiia raah and 
enibusiasiic, 'a wiuik man, much too posi- 
tive" (Ul'UrilHtrvs, t'tirreyi'mi/enix of 7Jm?- 
driiJfe, 182(^ iii. Sslj. Bishop Jleneon, dis- 
approving of htK it int^ntntlnlxMin, 'itlVi-ction- 
uttfly udmotushed' him to preach only whero 
be wiw ' lawfully Rppoiiili.<d,' a sufTgiistion at 
which,replied AVhit<>tii^]d (0 July |, ■ my blood 
runs chill.' lie had already (io March) 
begnna corrwipondfrnco with Itulph Krskino 
fq. V.J, the Scotiish »ocedt-r, whoM Mrmons 
he hftd rciid. \Vhit4'field wrote (1*3 July) 
* My leudiin^it ail^-ctiuni' uwait thu ossociatu 
presbytery' (comlituled U l>ec. 173:5). IL 
liiM \>v*:\\ said that in Whilcliuld*fl sermon 
(tieu- iii. Ki) at £>lul(t! Nnwiiiglon (31 July) 
' to about twenty ihouHand people,' hp ginss 
proininrncti for the firBt time to tho Cul- 
vinifltic doctrini! of election ; but this Mrinon 
('Thu Serptmi beguiling Kve," 1710, 8vo) 
liu bven ConriiiM-d with a Inter sermon ('The 
Seed (rf the Woman,' &r., 1742, 8vo) from 
the same text (TtkkmjiK,!. 1^73). On 1 Aufl. 
Itt^bop Gil)«cin is^upd n pastoral in which 
'enthiL'vtasm,' as iiutitifi'Nt iu Whitefivld's 
jountiils,).') condemned; Whitefield, in reply, 
ollV-rvd (Jibaon ' th^i dlk-mma of pitber allow- 
ing my divine commiMion, or denying your 
own' ( }\'iirk», \v. IS). 

On 14 -Aug. 1739 hii cmhnrliud for .\n]«- 
rica in the Flizabeih, taking with him 
Williain Seward and JoM'ph Perium (an 
iittomcy's ciurlt, whise futher, thinking him 
craiv, hiid jnu hiiu iiuo tlt-dluiu for iliree 
weeks). They landed in .Vmerica on .'WOct. 
and visilud l^hiladulpliia on 2 Nov.; thence 
he New York, lie left Pi^nnnyl- 
vaniA on 'i^ Nov. to make hii) way tUrougli 
Muryhind, V'iri^nia.and t'«r*ilinii, tofiiinrgia. 
\\\i preaching, welcome] hy 'all but his 
nwn churcir {Letlfr of Bmjamiyt Culman, 
D.f}.\ was mainly in presbvierian mMling- 
houses and the open air. 1 here is no better 
tcjtimnny 10 its power than that of Deo- 
jamin Krunliliii, wito writc>, -It waswondeis 
I'ul t<j !>ee the cliange soon made iu the 
inannura of our inhnhilnnts ' ^^femoirg, 181S. 
i. fiii). IIh reached Si^vannah on II Jau. 
1710, bringing n-ilh him i,530^. (about half 
CoUnu'ed in AinHrini) lowardi* th<i orplian- 
B)^', for which the O.-orgiii. tnisteefl had 
j^mntpd him five buudred acres of land. 
Ill- at oncv? hir.'d a hoii*c, and on 2o -March 
began a building, to be called Bethesda. 
For the reniuindi-r of his life the mftin- 
ivuiinc« of thiitiuiiliiiiiion waa an important 
factor in bin work, compelling him to travel, 
and inspiring him to pn-ach (TxKiui.i5, i. 
S.'iO). Duriiig thirty yttiirn of itn raaiinge- 
nient he expended on it, from his private 
rveouma, 3^:^99/. {ib, H. &tjl). 




On k visit to Chirlpetoa, South Carolina, 
in March 17-10, )i« gut Into an unwiM! con- 
tmreniy with the comnissnry, Alesaiidor 
GurdeD {lOSi-]"*'^) [m» undi-r iSARDEX, 
Alehashbr'. rpctnr of St. Philip's, who 
Dreacbi^d ac^iiist him. WhitefitilJ retortlnp 
trom n <!iii»cniiiifr pulpit, nml orirrjins thi* 
nuurTOl into ]irint. lie uttdiTtook lo provo 1 hat 
TiUotsoii 'hnfW rio nioro about true Chris- 
tianity thun Muhnnn-i,' tin i'xpn'.*sioii which 
h.- futlittrnd oil Weiiley, ' if I iiiistHke net.' 
On 4 April he wroio an unavailing pniiiOifil 
ofiniirTiimi' til KhKn]H>lti Di-Umotte nl' IHfii- 
dnn, Kont, eiiter of ('UnrVB 1 ti'lnmorti^ \Vtf«- 
iIct's companion to tK-orain (Tvkrmax, i. 
8m)). Ht^vinitin^ Philadi'lphia in April, he 

Jloflded u» usual for tho orphan huii«p. 
'"ronljlin. whom h« omplny.-J n^ prirt.'r, hurt 
advixod kini on oconomic grounds to build 
tb« hoiine nt fhihictelphia, and refused to 
eontributi^ to thi> Oeoririft scheme. But, 
hvnrtij^ Whitetttdd preach, lie 'began to 
ftofteii,' and ronduatd to ^To copper; 
* uiiotliiT stroke' dociatH^ him lo give eUvpr; 
at the finish ht'empli(?d' hia 'pocket into 
tho culk'Ctvr'ii diih, (^ild aud uU. Hiis ful- 
lowiTit in I'hifndt^lphin fouiidi'd tlnTf (17J;i> 
a prt'ahytfrjun c(>n(rpflfrution. Whiteiieltl 
hitnni-ir pnycc-li'il "n. «cIhk>1 for ni-pYir* in 
IVMHsyhania : ' live thou»tAnd nrrrw nf land 
wen* bmi|i;bt fur thi» purptiw, Seward went 
to T<]ii)flund to colk-ct funds, but the pliuk 
nid'-'d with hi» uiHiuiflv death. 

Nominally ili^ Anglican incumbent of 
Savannah, SVhitflitild was Bcliu);iae(ri.ict ob 
n minister at lur){*-, li-avin(( .lum<^ llalx'T- 
shFUn, tbfi scbotdmodliT (a hivmaii). lo ruad 
prnvcrn nnd M-rrminK in Iiik nl;i4H'. llf Inm- 
BelfdiKcardvd thesurplic**; BlwayBpTnyttl, na 
well asprnaclied, extempore ; ennstant ly otTi- 
ciati.'d in disKontinir mrt'tiBp-hoHWii, nnd 
Bevernl tines put Tilly, a haplist minister, 
into hi« pulpit. Visiting ChiirWton in 
July 1740, ho wo* clt«d (7 Julyi lo apfM-ur 
nu 15 .liilv bofortt the rommisHarv to answr-r 
for CL'rtain i rn.'giitaritiw, 't'hicjfy for oiuil- 
tinn ti> LIW5 tliH forui of pnivfru prenCTiLw) 
in thMcommunionhook.' He duly appeared. 
GarxWn and fnnrothjTrh'rgynuin cont>titiil»d 
the cnmtniiisary'f" court. Fivr- dnvs (on ench 
of wtuch Whitefield proadied twice (o Inrjje 
audienciit) u-eiY- ^pmit in ar^iing quMioiV't 
of juri-idiclion; V^ hitefield appealed lo chan- 
cery, and ud ll> July wa« bound unduroalh to 
lod^uhiii n|lpeal^VLlllinatwelvemoutb,dl!po 
aiting I(l/.asguaranlee. TbeappealwaaduLy 
made: hut as it did not come to a hvnring 
within a venr and a dny, (Innlniia^ain »uui- 
mO'ned "W'hiiefield , and, in hia nhBenw. pm- 
nouiiced a dt-creo of siimtrniiion. This is 
eaid to have been thfl Brnt trial in any 

Anglicun ccdeeiaalical court in a Britiab 


Whitefield WAS invit4yl to Boston (S«|^ 
Icmbi^r 1710) by ISenjamin Colmaii, D.D. 
(Iti73-1747), of iirnttle J^trept eon^esation, 
a correBpoudent of Uenir Winder q. v.], 
and in clo«f alliance with Engliab diaaent. 
lie preached ogaiujtt th« liberalism which 
waa mnking ita way into llarFnrd ('oUHge; 
ihi're ia no duubl ihnt hia influence did much 
lo stem the tide of dtK-lriual indiil'erpnct) 
among I ho run^^gatiunalista of New Eng- 
land. Hi- Kav<^ Urn- vitality to the Cal- 
vinii-tic position, and this reacted on hisown 
tfaidiing. Hence Wcaley's 'free grace' 
p^'rinon i«f which Wesley hail aent a copy to 
(jarden) dn,'w from Whitefield a ' Letter' of 
rcmninii ranee ('Ji IK'C. 17401, Ita publica- 
lion (March 17-lt>, which Chartf* WlvIc; 
tried ti> avert, made the breach betireen thfl 
' two sorts of niethodi»t«' < W'kslbt, 11 Vntf, 
viii, M^iJl. The peraonol alienaTion wu 
aliPttlivcd : Wpnlcy enya the trouble ' wa» 
not merelv the diiferi^uci) of doctrine,' but 
' rather Hi. W hitefield's manner' (A.xi.463). 
Jt inii)<t U> un'ui-d that thvmwas 'maiiner' 
on both i*idi-», Thefnllow-emof Ww«leyand 
Whitt'lield henceforlb formed riral parties. 

Whilrfn-ld li'fi Chnrle-lnn on IH Jan. and 
rpadied Kalnioiith on 11 March 1741, From 
tliisdnti: III.' ri<a>H<d to write lournaiii; but aar- 
m tire* of his work from his own pen were sap- 
pi led in t 111? ' L'hriNt ian 1 1 i«tory ' i 1 740-7), tho 
' Full Aopount,' ) 747, l:Jiiio,And the 'Kurilier 
Account,' 174", 8vo. To provides preaching 
place for liiin while in L<imlon, hi» rrietidf) 
Tinjciiirud a site a liitle to the north of 
W<-*h'v's Fuunili-rv, and vrecteil *■ larffe 
temporary Bhed' linown an the tabemncle. 
This wiin iipHned nlionh the middle of April 
I7n,atid borami' tlir-h^-adquarrer^of Whih^ 
tield'o lioiidoii work. Il was replaced bv a 
lirii-k building on the ume site, opened' ns 
10 JuBL' 17.13. The Aloortii-ldjt tabornaclit 
»Hppwitt.'d ihe Norwich tabenmcle, i^rivted 
for Jami'd Wheiitley in 17ol, Whitefield's 
Itrijitol labt-rnacle waa opimed on 2t> Kot. 

On in .April 1741 Halph Kr^kine wpcrte 
entrcatin;; Whitefield to viait Scotland. 
Thi- incaibert of the ' aaaooiate presbytery ' 
had now (1740) l>pen foTmnlty excluded 
froni the miiiistry by the general sMnmbly. 
KrskiiiL-. wb.t wt:*ln'd Whitefield to caat in 
hia lot: culindy with the 'associate preeby- 
tery/ made it a condition that h« should not 
preui'li in the pitlpilv of thvir ' pereecutors.' 
AgaitiU tiiis limit Whitefield wrote frankly 
1 11 EbcneiM'r Krskine [q. v.] tui well as to Ratpli, 
df*iring lo W 'ncutiT as to I bo particular 
reformatiotiofchiirchgovemaenl,' Eheneipr 

.XwkiiM Wt it * unn?«onatlo ' to scvk to 

dwiitifr Wliiti>fir>l(l will) tlii> tH'ntling orua- 

ilioii, and found a way niiT. oUht- ditfieulty 

"'' II inn not of "our c«rnipl- c\fTry ' hut of 
rihe people,' Whitefield arrived ut Dun- , 
'-rmliiic on 30 JmIj 1741 .m ft visit In 
ilpb Ermine, who at once tuckted hiiD on 
tthfl subject uf his episcopal oniinalion. Writ- ' 
iofT ('ll JuIt) to hilt brother, hi; ullirmK ihKt ' 
\VhiI«fietd told hiin 'hi? would nut liavo it , 
tlmt way 5gaiii for a lhnuiian<l worlds ; ' u» 
for rvfuKiTif^ irivitalionx to [in-Mch, lie would 
'finhnwe ' the nflVr of *a jesiiit priusr. nr n 
Mahgini'dnn,' in onVr to t>.'-«lify nKniii*! : 
them. Hn mr^t and fonfem-d with Ihc | 
'associate prcBbytery' on & Auff. It wiw ' 
OD t.hi* occasioTi ihnt hn ff*vt> hi* fainnns 
answer, when besought to preatrh only for , 
' the Lord** people,' that ' the dBvil'speoplr' ' 
wow in moTti nrcd of pn-achinp. riiiflinff I 
that he was resolved tn Ira iitriclly nenti-al ' 
OD el^ck»iD«ticAl nolitirs, tlit a-tsociutc- pr<'»> > 
bytvr* diMtvowi-d hitji, Adnui tiib U\. v.] 
piibliabed 'A Warninp ' (1742, Il'mo) 
anioit * this forL'ianvr,' to pruvu that 
AVtitcfield'n ' wltohi diirlrine in, iiml lii« a«c- 
cees must he, diaboUi^ul.' Tho ' asaociulu 
presbjti'ry ' in it« «cl of 2."! Tt^c. 1 743 t-nii- 
msnrtea 'tiie kind KCfirtion ' j^iv^ii to Whilt?- 
field amoni^thefinR of Scotlniid. liis popii- 
tarily wm Terr ffrcnt : in thirteen wc«iC8 ho 
Tieitvd Mmv Iliiriy tosvni' and hud liiiae 
opeOHiir aadietices..* His rietractors observed 
tnat 'faff was inflexibk- about tliu uiticl-i of 
e»thrnn|f inoricv ' ( W'AITKr.P.T, AntrciSate*, 
T«71', p. aSI I ; lliey furput to add lUal this 
was n«"")Wiiy fur liiji uwni'vulrrit wlii-nn'^. 
In OctobiT B« wnii the puest at .MelTilk' 
House, Fifesbire, of Alesnnder, fifth carl of 
Lcvcn and fourth «irl of Mrlrillo {d. ITftl), 
the royal commiutoner to the general as- 

Lvavlog (Minburgh on 20 Oct. IT4I. he 

rode to AlHrt^venn}', Monmuuthshire, (1i« 

reaidtfnCR of a widow, i'liztibcth J»[nc» (born 

Biimnll], B frii'ud of Wrwh-y, wbo call* her 

•a woman of candour and humanily' (Wia- 

LBV. W*iTk*, i. ;m ), W tiiti.'UrUl nmrrird hi-r 

on 14 Nor. I74I at St. Martin's, ratrphillT, 

purisll of K(rlwg)lan, CtUtnorEnnsbir". \\<f 

ud mailtf up hi^mtiid to nnrry < 1 11 Ot. 1740i ; 

but no previoa9 courtehip of Mrs. JameA is 

kiiovrn. She was t^-n ymra his [wnior, and 

had r<-ith«r fortune nor buaniy fhi> own ac- 

^counl), hut wa»a' teudtrruunie'aiidawoniuii 

^^■f 6lrDn)7 mind. provL-d mom than oiic<- in 

^HpyinifcirviiiiuitKncM: hIih 'nmi alioiit luahtnK 

^^prtridges' when the Wiliuin^on, bound 

^Bi>r (?«OTgia, aevniM in danger of iillitck by n 

Dutch fleet ( WorlHf ii. 68) ; and on another 

occasion, us Whitcfiuld noiod in her funeml 
sermoD. bailn hi-r hu>huiid 'phivths man' 
(VAn»Uan Mi»eeUany, 1W)6. p. 'ai(*>, Un- 
liappiiit-aa in bio innrnod lift> hns been in- 
furred from the langiiap? of John Bfrridge 
[n. v.], who unworthily calls the wivea 
of Weslpy and Whiteheld 'a brace of 
fcrreis ' (CiLEnMoMj, p, ."JOO); and from tb» 
testimony of Corridiim Wint*?r (174i!-1807}, 
who was'an inmate {17G7-9)in Whit«fitdd'i 
lious* during his wife'a declining dav*, but 
who don* not lay all tin- fnult on tne Udv 
(J*V, jVmwV* •'/ iVintrr, ISO!', p. 80). 
Kh<; divdon 9 Ane. 17t(^, and tight montliR 
afl*'r ber deatb ^\ hiU'Hcld writvi! (1 1 March 
I7ftl1j, "I feiil the loM of my ri;f]it bnwl 
daily.' Tlicy lind one cliUd, John, boni at 
Ilcxion on l <»rl. 1"4;J. bnpt)»-d i>id»lic!y ut 
the Muorfielde tabernacle, burivd ai Ulou- 
tti-ntt'-x OM ^ Feb. 17J4 {Kfffuter of S(. Mary 

Within a week after bis niarriftgc Wbiu*- 
fifdd start<^d on a misuonarc lour in the 
weBl. .-\t ()louc>.!ftvr and Taiuswick ho 
preached in [lariBh cliorche*, aft<'r long i-x- 
c-luHion. From London be embarked for 
Seollflnd on '2li Mny 1742, n-acbing Uin- 
burj;!] on '^ Juno. His drrond vti^it to 
Sirolbind !>tiinulriti-(l the fs'tTioun revival 
at Cambuslan^, l^nnrkphirr-, jun Ix'gim by 
William MCullotb (_10W-177I), the parish 
c-l>'rpjmnn. Thv ponit^'nts were A«i(ed with 
bymeria and convuhion (Hobb, t'lttt/ffu/ 
S'arrafitf, 1742; reprintm) 184(1), pheno> 
mvua di.'n'>uuced by Ht>L<?den as rencwinff 
the fiXCeAf^n of Ibt- riirniKiinU (FtmiER, 
Iteview. 17421. Corrpfciwndenofi with Wea- 
U-x wiva n'nniniNl in OctotJer.and the persona) 
rejatiotifi of the two Wd'T^ wur* htfuceforth 
cordial. Wbit4>lteld was back in Lonilon on 
H Nov. He pfi-^idcd nt tho first conference 
of Calvinistic metbodisid lifid at Wntford, 
near Ciwrrpbillr [llv^nf», I,i fro/ II. Jlarria, 
1891'. p. 2'SS)', on T, Jim. 1743, prt'cediiiB 
Wesley's conforence by « ypnr ami a linlf. 
it conttixU-d of four cler);^~men, inehiding 
Dftiiiel ICowlaud* U\. v.], iiiul (nn Uynien, 
including Harris, Ilumptirpys, ami Onniok, 
tlnf latter Iw" buving deserted Wesley for 
Whiiefield, At tli« sct'ond ronfen-nco 
(II April) Wbitefield was 'chosen, it' in 
Kngland, to Iw ftiwfty» moderator.' Hams to 
he modenitor in his absenco (fM'yttJ Maga- 
:iiti;\77\, p. HH ; HvOHiat, p. I'-IO). At a 
later conierenci- in the i^amo yt-ar it waa 
iiRTeed ' not to separate from thi* ir«lBbIi»hwJ 
churi'h ' ( Warkt, li, 8S). Five >*ears after- 
wanlji Wlutffield HdioilK in a letter to 
Wesley <1 Sept. 174*>) that lie must. Iparo 
lo (ithiirM tb^^ fonnatiun of ' societies,' and 
give himself to geneml preachinfj {it. ii, 169), 




Uence Lq put Ilams in chnrg^ {'27 April 
1748) nf thu MoorBeldi* rnbumnclp nnd oilier 
Kugliah sooUities. An«r his ruptur<:^ witli 
lionrliuidi) (Mar I7G0), llarris aeetded (o 
form an aiidiociitl ion ol' his uwu HlvGii£e, p. 
JJ64), Itowlands licftdin^ thL- inuin tiody. 

In 8(|iI«iuIilt 171-3 I>i>Jdridfl\' prvacLeJ 
M ttie lab«ma«>le, and waa taKen to tuli 
{SO Sept.) by Isauc: Watbi for * ^inUini; the 
c)inntcl«r of B miniMiir, nttd eHpecially a 

I tutor, among ihe di&BRiitGr9,sa low thL'nrby' 
(Hdiip)1RBV», Oirretpanrlmrf nf Thi/driihe, 
1*^29, iv. yA4!. Ni'Xt ninnTh r)oddri(rgi* 
opened liis pulpU at XortbiiiDptoD to Wliilt- 
fic'ld, nml wflft warmly renHurc-d by NAtlmnif-l, 
son of Uunie! NetiL [q, r.], aud by John 

I Bajki-r ( ] B^L'- 1 Vliii) [q. v.] {ii. pp. L7o i"*!.) 
lliev considerud tliat atiy alltimce wiili 
metliodbiDi would pri-iudicL> tbcir n>latioiia 
witli the cetabli'iiied church. OthOTB main- 
tctiiiud dial rK>td-pn<nL-liiiig wait not ]>roi«.'ct«<l 
hy the Toleriilion Act, Uitliard Smalbroke 

tij.v.Jliadcliarj.a'^iigainbt lui^'thudislsin 1743, 
laviac Wliitz-tnOd tsixTJuIly in visw. Taking 
hia wife with hini. whitefield <!)nlnrk<,<d for 
America nt PlyniHuHi mi 10 Aii^. 1744, anil 
reochitl Now York on 'JQ Uct. IIU stay 
in America lastiMl til] 2 June 174H. llis 
sncccjis WW Bchii.'vi'd in Unr face of opposi- 
tion frcini New Hn^iland niiniiilers, many of 
whom wroto slronj;ly iv-«pfciinp hi» irregu- 
lar muthods. T(.':»iliuiuni(.'» nt;uin«t hini ivtru 
iiu»ii«d hy rbe facuUif-t of Harvard (^S Dec. 
17-Uj and Yalo (25 l-'«b. 174-'). TowutJb 
the Huppoi't of bin orjilinri huiiHi! h<i jiun^liawd 
(Mbk!Il 1717) 'ii ptaniitlioiL and fllaros' in 
South Carolina, holdin); it ' imi>o«iHi« for 
the inhttbitanto To inhAi!^t without tho uw- 
oflkYSs' iCitruiian HUtory. 17-17, p, 34), 
an opinion which he rcitLTiiit'd in a lettt-r 
(0 IJec. 174<J) to the Ui'ortria truatee* 
\Work», ii. a08>. The ■ kwfiilneM of kccp- 
inff iilavi.>ii' hi'dcfundi-d (£2 .Marub 17^l)on 
biblioiil (froumlii {ill. ii. 404). 

Shortly after his rt'tnm, I-nJy I [iinlJHgdon 
made* him ( Aiiyiist 1748)oi]e of li^r doutfHltc 
chaplftin*. foUowngr tae coureo bv which. 
before toleration, nonconforming dcrgi,- hnd 
been protoci'td. Bolinj^broka wrote to hor 
tlut llic king had 'represented lo his (jracw 
of Cantorbury ' [IK-rrinRl 'that Mr Wliito- 
isld idiuuld hi> ailvaiict-d to the bench, as 
It only uii>an» of putrinff an •■«(! to hia 
_>rMchinfr* (rimuAX, ii. 1H4). Ihiring a 
vicil of six wef'k.i to Scotland (We|(teuiher- 
OctobcT I71S) tho Bynudii of GUspow. 
I»thian, and Perth piL->]«'d n'iioUitiiiuii in- 
tend imI to exrJndo him from churchen. In 
fiO^'wnlwr he visil'.-d Wnttn on liis d«atli> 
^-^ The attacks on niethodi&m by (iporfp> 
y [q. T.], which began in 1749 

{Enthu»M0m of MfthodUtt and PayUts <w«- 
par^d, ]749~/»l,3pt«.), were mainly dinv;r«d 
apiinst Wbitvfield. Lavin^on had been 
n«ttliMl hy B shaai 'charge* puhliahcd in liis 
name by wme unkitown pemm during 1748, 
and containing methodist si>ntiments. In the 
Unu-(j Mnrray ppbtode [sets Wkslbt, John] 
Whii«-1ield folluwtfd Cbarlea Wealey'a bid- 
ding, (hough he told John W«e]eT Uiit in 
hi* jinljrinMit (Inirti Slurrny wan hi* wife. 
He vii-ited Ireland in May 1751, remaining 
till July, whfin hi.' i-aiWrktwl from Belfaiit 
for Scotland. Tho impn-.taion he made in 
Ireland seems to bavu been very tfutsiton. 
His fonrth viiit to Amoriea ((_)ctober 1761- 
Mny 17'>:.>) was curtailed by liia wish to nin 
from the Georgia tntst«c»i before UiL-ir 
cliartur ttxpinid, c-ertain privileges for libi 
orphan house. Ilia hynm-book (1703), vhich 
in 17tH> had poMed through thiny>stx edi- 
tioiiE, wa« compiled for the new-built taber- 
nacle. During a visit to Scotland (July- 
August l7dS ) a playboiuv at Glasgow agusst 
whiidi bt^ hnd derlnimMl waa pulled down 
{ikots Maijasine, 17&3, p. 301). Detuned ft 
Hn.itilh at LJKbon, on bin way to America, be 
wrote and puhliahed (17ri"'>t graphic acoounla 
of the rfligious obser\-ancee there. On thU 
his fifth vi.*it tn Amcricn (May 17Jj4-M»y 
17otJ) the M.A. degree was conlerred on bim 
(Spptombcr 1754) by New Jersey College. 

Ibu eight ycari! from Mav 17&9 to Jims 
17H3 werw spent bv Whiu-Celd in the I'nited 
Kinf;dom (excepting a trip to Holland in 
17H*-'). Innn-mMrhtilili'li'Ufr |2Julv 1756) 
Franklin wrote: 'I soinf^timeewbh ibat you 
and I were jointly wmployeil by the crown 
to wtllo a colonv on the (thio' [^Earmffeiieial 
Mngazittfi, lyWl, p. 51). Un 7 Nov. 1768 
Whitefield opcnwi tht chapel in Toitcnhun 
Court Uoad (rebuilt lt^»»); at the Uytng of 
the foundation in the urorious June be bad 
ihu uounti'niiiice of Beujaiuin Uroevvsor, 
I).I>. [ij. \.\ Thomas (iibbons J^q, v.], and 
Andruw Gifford [q. T.j, rapresentiDg tlio threo 
«(-('tionKof pnitcKlani diiufnt. llccoiuitantly 
vi.°itedScorlnnd, and in 1 7o7 heard the debatea 
in the general a^ccniblv on tliv vaav of AWx- 
auder Carlvlc, D.D. [(\, v,], proaecnted for 
aitending t^ie representation of th« tragedy 
of ' Iloiiffla* ' by John llotnp [<\. v.] Tn I7fiO 
Whitetield (' Dr.Squinlum *) was burleequed 
by Samnel Footo(q. v.Jin tho ' Minor.' The 
nerformanci; lut looao a flood of diMrri'ditabla 
Inuiponm and cariceliires, Df numerous 
ani mad versions by ^^'lliteti4<ld'fl fritmds, nooo 
wrru in<iri!i-llr(:lt\i- than John Wenli^y'" three 
letters to • Lloyd's Evening Post ' in N^ovem- 
ber and DecemlM-r 17(10. In the 'lEvgiater 
Ortifft' (17«1>, by Josi'ph It^d \a. T.], 
WhiteSeld is introduced as 'Mr. \\ atch- 




light:'ia tlM * Methodi«t * ipuhliihiMl 1761, 
but uever avtMl) ho tiguroH ■giuii e» 
*8quiD(uiii.' These altacks, which wtre felC 
to DO iLuwurtliy, riii84^il W!iiti.-(ifld'8 npulv 
in«tMail iif tiijurin^i il. He wuinrrioudly ill 
«t tliB tim«, and for DMrlj* ft twelvemonth, 
froni MiinTli 1671, wan pmcticiiUy cUnnWwl 
from preaching;. fli> folt, too, the pi-psaum 
of finuncial oblitrntiorm couaected with liis 
pbilantbropir iindi-rtnktnffs. On 4 June 1"6S 
be btarted fiom C>rt-eaock id the F&iiny, for 
hifl sixth voyogo to America. Hiring liia 
stay there of two yean he exeriinl liiiusvlf 
in procuring gift* of bookii for Harvard 
College library-, luixily burnt-d {It'orks. iii. 
307). His prKatbiiifr ]Kintir)i weni ntill 
Itisited, but his popiiluritv showed no dimi- 
nution. H« rcAclKi] KnL'Innd n^in un 
7 July I7fi5 reiir-h enft'chlpd. ( in (i Oct. h.? 
opeaed Lady Huntingdon's cbapet nt Bath. 
Wwley, wIk> mi-l. him in l.ciniton on 1?H Oct., 
deKrioM him as 'mi oM, ol<l mnn, fairly 
worn out . . . Itioiich be h&§ hnrdly o^uu fiHy 
Tears' (Wesley, .^(rRfl/l. Yet be cominued 
nil missionary tours and his open-eir pruach- 
iag. From 17 Jun« 17«7 to 11' Feb. 17«H 
be corrxsp-jndwl wiili .Scckvr re!>[i'*c;linK tliw 
convenion of bis orpbuiiagt! into a college. 
He was willing tlml ibu liret mn^tur should 
hf. «tn .\ngli«in c!i-rgiimmi, biil n^fusitl to 
nnrmw iht.> foundaiinn by cxcludinj^ othi'ra 
in th>>? future, or by making the dnilv UM of 
the common pmj-i^r-bofik a ntntutjiblc obli- 
galion. On tlieAe points tln^ governor und 
cmmcil of Cicorgia won- with him. In A upus^t 
1707 III* att<:nded WVaIcv'* i:oiiii;rfnfo with 
Uow«l Harris. His wife, who dii>d !) Aug. 
1708, woD btiriL-d in ToCtvuham Court Uoud 
chaptl. She left him 7(K>/. Hen|irn.--H.ady 
Huntingdon's college at TrevocRa on J4 Aug. 
17(>8, and hiT cliaiii-I nt Tunliridgu Wells on 
33 July 17d&. His la^it acniionf) in Knzlnnd 
were preached si ICamsgale on Ui Sept., 
flhortlf bt^fore his final embArlfslion for 
America. Uifl aanttant, whom he hift iu 
chargo of the London chapels, was Torial 
Jojw (I "31-179"), formt-rly u HraH^aptain. 

His last public work was the selllemunt 
of u svbfimv fur hi* ' oqthnn Iioiiali iirademy/ 
or llrtb«sihL {?(jl]t^. Ht! might jiroliably 
have nbtointd for it a churt^T had he placetl 
it undor tUw direction of tWstatf ant li'jritiM, 
bur hft h»|ueathe<l the whole inMitiitinn to 
Lady Huntingdon (the main building was 
de*lroy«J by tire in .1mu\ I77;t, and never 
rf built ). Leaving Hnvmiuali on 21 April 
1770, he movLtl ahmit IV^nnsylvania and 
New England, pnviehiiig nunrly every day. 
UIa last letter wna written on :i;i S*!]>t,; \ui 
hat tenaon, two hours in length and full 
of Tfgour, was given at Kxet^r, New Hatnp> 

flhiro, on ii9 Sept. That evening he reachiid 
lliJ! tnaii«e of Jcn&thaii Far8on8O70G-1776], 
nT«t)byt«riau miuisler of Newburvport, 
Hu^MtchuHiitte, whom ho had converted fnjin 
.-Vrmiuiamsm. He wan to havt- preacJiMl 
next morning, and was gning to bud tired, 
hut wait prevail)^] on Iu adur«--ss, from lint 
ataircose, a gathered throng till his bed 
candle bumvd out. During the nij^ht bo 
waA floiK'd with Mlhma, an lie thought; it 
was probably ansioa pectoris (TiiiKMAIt). 
He. died at t>\x o clock in tho morning of 
yo !*«pT. 1770, and we* buried at lii» \j-vn 
desire in a vault beneath the pulpit of tbu 

Krushytftrian mccting-houi^e, Fwderal Struwt, 
i-aburvwirt. Amnni; the pall-U-MnTii wait 
Kd ward* Bum (I"l'(t-l80.'i), renior of St. 
i'aura, N('wbiiryiiort.aft*TW(ird«(17!*7) fimt 
hiibop of the prot4>Atant episcopal rhnrrh in 
Mttssaehustjtis. Tbo irotlin was opened in 
1784, wli*n Ow. body was f'lund perfett ; in 
ISOl it was agnin opeJiod, the fli^sb wa.H 
gone, but the 'gown, c&ssock, and bands' 
rcmainud (TvEitUAS, ii. 60"2i. Later, the 
' main bone of the rigbi arm ' wna Htul^n by 
an admirer and Mnt to England, but restoroa 
iu l**;*? ((*. p. tH^l). At Nowburvport there 
is a monument, erected iu IS'JS (figurwl in 
UxBsiiA). An inEcriptiun to bie memory 
wan lidded In the marble monument, ent.'ted 
lo bia wife in Tottenham Pnurt Itoad chnpel 
(fiiLilKM, p, *_'77]. This monument has 
since- jxTicnod ; tb« charieI,now [190f)] re- 
budding, will eoutaiti a lucuiorial. Funoral 
sermons wfira very numerous. The most im- 
porlaut are thow by Parsons and by \^'e«lvy ; 
ibe latter was delivered both at the tabe'r- 
uuck> and at Tottenham Court l£uad, iu 
aroordance with Whtli-ficld'n own rirtjuest. 
Hifl will ia printed by Oillifs, and reprinted 
by Philip; hr diwl wnrtU alwiit 1,400/. 

Whitefield's unrivalled efTertifts a prenrher 
wecp due to his great power of reiJuiing his 
subject, And to hii liifltrionic genius, aidi-d 
by a fa.-<ciuatLng voice of great compos and 
audible at. immense distancc» (FiuyxLiw, 
Memoirs, 1S18, i. 87j. Lord Uhesi^rtieM, 
bearing him portray a blind beggar as he 
■ottered over the tidgo uf a preoipiei:. 
IxMindml frnm hik sisit and exclaiiued,* (lood 
Ond! he's gonel* (W4ai:t.KT, l«"2,p. 107; 
for a virid drfieript ion of the potency of his 
rhetoric s^e l.trst, Ifi*t. a/ Eniftand, ii. 
Wi^ sq. ; for Lis elfect on Uiirae, GuiDSTOXis, 
p. 878). Hi# primed sermon* by no means 
expbtm bis reputation ; it should be remum- 
bpred that bo preached over eighteen tbousaud 
r".-ruiou8: only sisiy-tbrea wore publi-thed 
bv himsulf, forty-six of them before he waa 
twenty-five ^ears of age. Eighteen other 
aermonii in print were pub]isli«<I frcnn idiort- 




hand notes. anrevUed. Tbe warmth of his 
expromioniF, nn<! nn incntitioii* fnanltrn'M of 
etAtenK'nt in hU nutAbiormphical irritingK, 
lud him open to hdicula aad undMorvetl 
reproQch. It was {vrimnnlT ni^iiist Whito- 
fielfl chat tbe more persistem allacks upon 
mcthixlUm wor^' leiclk^d. Apart from hii 
eT&agelUtiu work lie waji in niftiiy wayti a 
pion«er. Willi none of tbe a<lminiAtrAtiv« 
getuuH by which WuaU-y lurnud Hti<f||ri^iont> 
[to account, he ant icimtt-il Wi-hIi-v'ji liiiwi of 
action ton romarliablf extent., It»pn>ci*rft>d 
him in lualkini; itriKt"! a crntnt of ninlb'>iii<it 
efTort ; hp wn-t hefnn'hand with bim in 
jjiibli^hinu j»unial!>, in founding.' sc)ii>ol», in 
practiHiii); opftii-nir pnvirhiii|;, nuA in cnltinf^ 
Lfiis preacher§ to a conference. Ilia reliKiouji 
'lierifwiiciil, 'Tilt: ('limtian UiMory ' (begun 
lu 1710), may be lookodupoDnaapredecaasor 
of the ' Arminian Magsxine' (17*8). 

WtiitcfieldV eomplexioii wa» fair, his eyes 
ilnrk bltic and tniall; oriKinolly eleniier. hv ' 
bet^ami? coqmlcnt from Tiis fortieth year, : 
tiiuuKb bi# diul wa# t-pore, and a L'otv-LeLd 
his favourite liisun'. Ijihe Wi^siey, be ro*e 
Bt four; hit) punctuality was ri^id. his love 
of on!i-r extn-mn: * litf did n-ot. think hu 
should die easy, if he tliotight hie f^loves 
w.?n.' nut of tlii-ir plaw ' ( WlM'EK, p. l^2>. 
He was 'irritablo, but snon fippr'ii,ii«' (tA. 
'p. 8I>: his benetieencp wan ibe outcocae of 
[th« epni^rous glow of his afli-ctiong. 

Thu Nnliunal I'ortniir (iaIWy liux a por- 
trait, painted nboul 1737 by .lohn Wonlaa- 
ton. in which Wbitchuld ia depicted as 
nreaebin^ fniiu n pulpit ; i\ rr.-mnli- (ii;un> In 
front of the e?ongre(fat.ion k fiuppuscd to re- 

Rm^-nt liijt wifu, Oth*»r portniite are bjr 
athaniel Hone fq. v.l, engraved hvPi^rht; 
and (ITfW) by .lohn'ftuswl! )]74"5-1808> 
[fl. v.\r'ngravii in tn-^wotint by Watnon, A 
whoWentitb nie«otint (["W) bv I'. Kyte 
ie said by (iilliu to he the b(«l tikeneM of 
him in hist youuger ycar«. HisufGiry in wax 
was executed (during hi* lifetime) by lEacUel 
W\dlfl of Philadelphia, and was civen to 
BetbeMla['ifUe;(i*; aiidlltfr \v«« hv hi.'r»i»liT, 
Mrs, Pat ieticp Wright of New York (rt II. 1.1 h», 
pp. iJ60, .ViH). Orii:atur")s»r»? very numerous. 
Wbirj-lield's ' Works' were ediied. 177 1 -2, 
6 voU, 8vo. by John Uillies. D.D. % v.l 
The onlWtion contains U*tii>rA, tnkciii, anil 
Hormons, with a few pieces previnusly un- 
publiAhed, It dnt-ft not contain the auto- 
biofrraphical pit-c*ti, ilm 'Short Account' 
(1740),tlie wven Mournnls ' (issued between 
1738 and 17-II ; none of ihem rctpublliihed 
in full since 1744). the • ('hriittiaii lliatorv ' 
(1710 71. Iho 'Full Account' <1747), aiid 
the ' Further AcmuimI' (1747). In 1760, 
"^tlefield published ' The Two First 

ParU of hia Ufa, with hie Joumala rCTwed, 
corrected, and abridj^Ml.' The fulWtbiblio 
grapby of original editions of Whitelield'a 
miblicutioTiB will bv found embedded in 
Tyermans ' Life,' He wmt* pr«fftce» to 
•evvriil work; ; notably, a brief > recomtiKii- 
dalory «pi«tle ' I0 an ' AhMract,' 17^, 12mo 
(made by Wesley), of the ' Life ' of Tltomu 
Ilalvburton fij. T.J ; and a preface ta a folio 
edition, 1767, of the wurk« of Bunvao. 
Julian doea not include bim in bin 'Uic- 
tioiiary'usa hymn- wriltir, and tl la doabtful 
whellwraiiv of tbt^ veraes which Iw iumu 
the expreatmn of hiaown fwlinifB are strictly 
orifjtiiRl. Milt allf'nttiond of tnp hymns of 
the Wesleys drew from .Tohn Wesley (wliA 
dnps not name him) the aeomful remarks in 
tb« pr«fft(;* to hift hjtnn-book of I7f^. 

[The 8bon AeeoaM, Jouni&la, Chri-ititn 
History, Full AecuonU Furtbcf Aceoati% nrid 
Letters of WhiUriScld are the primary antboriiiu 
for his biography. The llemoirs. 177'^. Iij 
(iilli>i^«, io .-I carofid pinMi nf work, wbicb baa 
bccu often re-pclitvd. but uoc always improTtd. 
Th« I.if*' nnd Timcj, 1832. by \W,vt\ Philip 
fq. r.] fcrilipiMMl liy Sir Jxiiim Klophen. KiIid- 
burijb Rcvicvr. July 163ft), iv r«ry fait but 
diaearKivc. The Vifo and Trnvfla. IS"!, by 
OledatAfie. ■■ tbo bMt far gi'nernl vrm. Thin LiFit, 
1678-7. 2 vols.. \>y Tjorutnn, i» a lienrlr ex- 
hanaiire roni|vaditiRi of materials. Of bio- 

nhie* puMixliMl in Amarica, th* LifH. 1818, 
. Neiretl, and t b* Life. ISftS, l>y D. A. Uaraha. 
may be menttonftl. A Fnlthfnl Narntire of th« 
Life. M'AQ. i« hy n frimd. but tha Lifo . . . 
by an JrupMniAl llnml, 1739. and (ieniiine and 
Secret Memoire. 1712, arc anonyraoua Urapoona, 
Sn.1 alio Jay's Metiioirs of Coru«lius Winter, 
\»m. pp. 72 *t\.. l.ifu and TimM of Salioa^ 
CuuDKiw of Hu&tiii^>d«n, 1839.2 tols.; nicbunl- 
aon's Ueore* Whitelield. CMileoAry C'iaim«mo- 
rationnf Tnttenbuni f.-mrl Chapel, 1857 ; Wake- 
lcy'i> Aric«dol«t* of Whitoflrld. 1 872 ; IdacaaUy'a 
Whitriield Ane(d«tM, 188«; SiMlfoTtl'a Good 
and (Irrat Man of (Jloueiotcrihire, 1867. pp. 
2^1 *:{.; Gl'nicMierakiro Not«a and QuMiao, 
IBM. ii. : Winvir'd HI*!, of Ani'-riMi. rol. t. 
[Ki.wiui ; Foali-r'a Aliimni Oion. 18RS. ir. I.^O, 
18P2. fr. 1631 : extract from regiatcrof $t. Mnry 
lit- Crrpt. Glaim>t«r, per Rot. W, Lloyii.) 
■ A.O. 

WHiTEPOORD. CALEB (17a4-l81€), 
wit and diplomeiiAt, tlio natural son of 
Colont>l Charles WbilpToord q. v.l, wa» 
born lit Edinburgh in 1734 and educated at 
James MumlellH (ie!i(K>l and Edinhurgh Uni- 
ver»ity fmatriculatinu on S March 174S). 
\l\» fnlh«r BCciuii-fCeil in his objections to 
entering ihe mmiHtry, nnd pinred him in the 
count ine-butiTM> of a wine merchant, Archi- 
bald Stewart, of York Ituikliiigs. London. 
T)imiig 17•^6 (having in the meantime aiet 
up in the wine busineas at b Craven Street), 





WhitefooM was in Lisbon in connection 
with IiU trade, and sent homo n vivid nc- 
counL of tlio earthquakv. Itenjamiu Frank- 
Un was hi» m^iglilwur in Crawn Strwl for 
come timv; tlivvb<^-iim« inlimitttt, ami Clmlr 
iniimacy IM toXviiiU-foord being cliosen by 
mielbiirue in ITM as ititfrmf<!inry V'twi^vn 
FrAiiklin, (u minijtN'r of Thi> Tnil."!! Smt^-i 
RC VerMillds, Biid the Uriiish Kuvemment. 
Whit^roonl accoDipanii^d iLlclmnl Oswald 
li\. V.J to Parui in April niid »t^rvoil for a 
jear as Mcre1«ry to tbn ccmmiHion wljii:li 
eonolttded tbc ptacu vilb Amenca. IJurlt^, 
1(1 vxymm tiis poor op'inlou of ihc^ pt«ni- 
potentisriea dioeen, (Uscribeil Oswald lut u 
eioipla merchant, am) WhtiKfoifril as it uii-ri! 
■diiiour de bona tnols.* It was not until 
1793 that a penMon of :J<)0/. a vc-ar wnit 
Kciirvd to Whili^foord for liis semices. 

WliiU'foonl's conlributiooa to the ' Public 
Adrerti»*r," the ' St. .lami-Vs Clin>rucli','«n(i 
Other nvwjjipaperji wore niimffronn, hix line 
behl^ |iohticol p«niflaj(a and his nim to 
ravea] the humorous eidr of partir ahitsv. 
The miniMrv would have liked a panipUIei 
ou the Fulkland Islnnds dilliciiltv from his 
|>cn in. 1771. and i( was hu who n.-i;oui- 
uiKndi^d that the task iJiould be as.'ii)(ned to 
Dr. Johason. Tbu bttcr ihouiibt highly of 
Whitvfoori]'* rj>»avs in tho pi'riodic^ul prt^iui, 
and Caleb was oiii! nf tbn giii-Alfi at the 
Shakcapeam Tavern when JnhneoD took the 
chair on 15 March 1773, prior to th« flret 
Mrformaoee of ' She stoops to coimuer.' 
Manr of hia best Mjiiibs, suL-h os ' l'rcpo«a)M 
fur a I'VmuW Aduiiiii»l ration,' ' Errors of th'- 
Hnuw,* ' \Vi-ji!itiiii*tiT ilsces/ 'Ship News,' 
and 'Cro«i ]<)?adinirE,' are in thu 'Now 
F<)HndlinBHi.«\Vit*{irR4,i. I2!t»q.) 
The ' CroM HeadingH' deliffhted not only 
Johnioi). but s crilio i>f such taxto ii* fiold- 
h, and onf <io di lli«ult to plevuw ax H iimcc 

'olpole. When Gamck set the fashiou 
of writ ini^csricat lire epitaphs in 1 774, Whilo- 
foonl natumlly tried his hand ; and, ('umber- 
iAnd sat s, displayed more iti-uuturi.' tluiii wit. 
Ooldsmilh, howi^vor, ihoujcht wull of Lim, 
as th slinun in tiie epitaph whii^h he leli 
nmoH); his papwa to bo worHcd into ' K'jtalia- 
tion,' and which was nctHa.11y included in 
the fourth and Bubaequent cditianR: 

Here Whiiefoonl rw]ines. di'ny it irlio Piiti ; 
Thn' lie merrily liv»l. he in now ii grave man. 
What pity, alas I that an lib' ml a mind 
Shnulii K) long ho to Newi|iapei' Knsaj-B coii- 

Who perhaps to the antnmit of science might 

Yet content if the table he wi in a roar ; 
WboMC talents to Ht any Blation Mere lit. 
Yet happy if Wool&ll coiifoMiM] him a wit. . . . 

Whilefoord'n correa^iondence with tha 
WuodfalU and with Jamea MuoberMlL 
(printfd ui the Jl'AitefaortJ J^tftn) is of' 
soinu lilvrary interG(>t ; in Aui^st 170*) he 
received from .lohii Crun, the antiquary 
of York, some inedited onerdotes of Stemo, 
whirh (!mfc hud collected at his rvqueet (H, 
pp. l.':iSs(]. ) I'nUh lived on to patronise a 
Keu<.<nition fur suheequeni to that of hia 
early asflflrifttct Foot* and Garrick. In May 
ItiOo Itavtd NVilkie brousht him a 'letter 
of introduction' from Sir Georj'e.Saudiliui.dH, 
and the painter i« ^aid to have xucvf-al'iilly 
tranaftrred to the well-known cativaa Iho 
^'fuve cxpnutsiun which \Vhit«foonl tboughf. 
proper to the oo-a^on. Whiti^fniml, who 
was a F.I1.S. (elected 17W), a F.S..\., and 
a mi-iuljer of the Arcadian Society of Itome, 
died at hia house in Arfryll Strr-et in Fe- 
bruary 1810, and wait buriiad in Paddin^ton 
cluircliynnl (Whkati.EI' and Ct'K.viNuuAH, 
London, iii. ^>. Hia tine collection of pic- 
tiiren wan »ild at Argyll Street on \ and 
5 May 1810. 

A portrait bv Ileynolds (I7S2). owned 
by Cfiarle* Whitefoord, ceq., of Whitton 
I'addocka, near Ludlow, woa uigrarud in 
noLMotint by I. Jones in 1793, A sketch by 
UL'orev Dance (July 179S) was engraved by 
U'illiiuu Daiiiell, and n drawing- by Coeway 
by P. Ci)nd6 far the ' Knmpenn Magazine ' 
(1810), An nnonymoua portrait is at tbo 
Kioma of the Society of Arta, for which body 
Whitefoord procured portraits of Williatii 
SliipUiy I q. v.] and Peter Templeman [ij. v. ] ; 
he wa^ vicvpreiidcut of the souiely iu 18(X) 
( Tran*. Soc. nf Attn, No, scxix.) 

Whitffoord murried late in life (18(X>) a 
Miaa Sidney, and U-fl four children. Ltis 
eldest sun, Caleb, ;;rudualt>rl from QuiH'n'n 
College, 0«f<.rU (B.A. IWlif*, M.A. Iti31), 
mid became rector of Hurford with Whittoa 
in 1S43. 

[Whitefoord ?apoT«. I8&8. ed.HiiTini ; Gent. 
Ms^. 1810. i. 3aU; Piiblie OharactftRs ISGl-a ; 
Itt^nrll'ii Johnson, iv. 233, vA. Hill ; WitlpQlu's 
(Wrcapondi^nr-e, \. 30, ad, Cunuiucbiim ; >orth- 
cute'v Lifo of Roynulds, i, JIT; Forei<-r'tiO<itd- 
smith. Ilk. ir. ch. xx. ; t'amlwrland'i Mameica, 
i. 3C7 i I^milli'p MiuEitntiotn I'ortreits, p. 774; 
Cun'sSocietyof Dilettanti, IS08, p. 123; Fmnk- 
lln'M Worka, viV .Sfwrb. rii. 212 ] T. 8, 

soldier, third son of Sir Adam Whitefoord, 
tlmt baronet {d. 1727), by Marfraret (rf. 
174^), onl^- daugblMTijf Alaji, seventh lord 
Cathcart, is stated, alrhourb the evidence ia 
far from cuiicluKive,tu have been a deaceudout 
orWnlterWhitford[q. \-.l, bishop of Hfechiu. 
His elder brother, ^ir John, aecoitd burunet, 
became a lieutenant-general in the army 





(1701), and died in 17t^, I^ATinfF a boh, Sir 
John \Miitofoord, third baronet (rf. 1803). 
Tlw third baronet, who i» tiuppoacrl to hftYft 
bNii the origiual of Sir Arthur Wjinlour iu 
Boott'a ' Anliijiuiry,' got into (lif)iciiltii!i and 
left Ballochtnyle in Ayrshire for Whiltfoiird 
UouSi> lolhfiCiinnngatM of Edinburgh. He 
VAS one of the enrly piitmns of Bums, who 
celebrates him ici mtav cumplitiiHiiiarv linrt" 
•>ncloBiiu[ tt copy ftf the ' Lam^'nt for Jnmea, 
Earl of QloDcaim.' and his duuKhti^r ^rnrin 
[CranHtoaii] was the heroini' of tlw ' Braes 
of liaUochinylL'.' He was a well-lin»wn 
fi^irr in t-ht; Scottish capital, and WUA de> 
picti>d hy Kny along wilh hiit crooiei, Major 
^Vndrew Fnwi-r luid the Hon. Andpow Er»- 
kini; {Edinhurffh J'artrait', 1877, No. Mcii.) 
(,'hiirle* Whitufoord i-iili-red the navy in 
lil^j hilt iifttTwards ji>in"d a rtgimant of 
drofroow-i, havinff 'learnt'd his i.'.it'rci»«9 of 
riJinj;' in tliw fiuiimi*' acndeiny of Ati(^<*r». 
Ill I7.18hij wn.*arBptain iuthe roynllriiih ut 
MtiiorCiU 811(1 two j-'NiM Ifitrr wrw (pixetCed 
nidi— lie^■clltnp to hix tiiiclni Lord Oatbcsrt, 
and Baih;d in the Wwt India erpsdition, 
tooU part, in tho dBodly operat.ionii againet 
CarI.hag«»nQ. and in 1711 becamp lieutenant- 
colonel in till' flth marine, Ilpwaa viHiling 
ri'lfttives in Scotland whuH the rebellion of 
1715 broke ouf, iind iramediatfly offdrwl lii« 
•errices to the governnrnnt aa u ToIiiQt*er. 
He wan one of th» vi?ry f<iw ollici-ra in tho 
rovnl army who distiii^uiBhed cbemstlvL's at 
tha battlo of Preslonpaos, and iii« oonduet 
<.«uppli«d tho gfonndivork of thfi chivainiua 
tcOTltBftt V'twoeu toward W'arerlsy iLnd 
Oolonel Tiilbot in the forty-fl«vcnlh and fol- 
lowing chapters of ■ Waverley," ' When,' 

teryof four fl(.'lcl-i>iooea waastonnwl and car- 
ried by the Camerons nnd iht- Stewarts of 
Appin»- The lut* Aloxandflt Steiivart of In- 
veruyle -wa* onjj of the forumrml in Ihtt 
chBrnt'.and, obsemngftti offi<*ftr of thekinga 
forces who. Booming to join the flight of all 
aroimd,retnninfd Willi hiss won) in his hand, 
Bs if determined to tho vi.'ry lost to defend tho 
poet aui^ed to him, the highland gii^nthw 
man oommn-nded him to siirroader, and re- 
ceived for reply a thruni- wliicli hu caught 
on hia urptit. 'Phi! officer wa» now defunc^- 
Imb, and the battle-axv of n gigantic high- 
Isnturwaft tiplifttd to dafib his hrvinBOUt, 
when Mr. Stowart with fj^rtut diflicnlty pre- 
r^ed on him to yifhi. Hp took cbargH of 
his enemy's property, protwjled hii* pt^roon, 
■ad fijially obtained him his liberty nnparole. 
The officer provt-d to be Colonel Whitf 
foo-^ ■ A-fitT Cuiloden it wa« Whitefoord's 

turn to atraineTerynervatoobUinStowBrt')* 
])ar<)oD. KoprwentKiiont to tlte lord juatiei! 
clerk, the lord advocat«, and otlwr law dic- 
nitarias provins of no BTail, he at leng^o 
appli«d lo the T>uk<; of Cumberland in per- 
son. ' From him also be rt:<ceir{>d a potiiirs 
refusal, lie then limited Lis request to t 

Srotoction for St«wort'ii houBC, wife, chil- 
ren, and property. Thia was alio n.-fuft.'d 
by ihf^dukc : on which Colonel Whitefoord, 
taking bis eotamisnon b'oiii bi« bosom, laitl 
it on the table before bis royal bighn««8 
with much emotion and asked permission to 
retire from th" itirrvicn of a »overviBn who 
did not know how to spare a vanijuixbed 
«numy-' Thereupon tlm duke 'gianied tbe 
pnitertion rwjiiired.' 

In Sepleniber 1751 Whitefoord was ap- 
pointed lii'iitenAnl-colonoI of the fifth rep- 
mi^nt of foot, on the stafT in Ireland, nnd on 
2J) Nov. 17n2 he was promoted full coloneL 
Hf! dic-d at flalway on '2 Jan. 17o;). Ue 
dot's not appear to have been married, bat 
he left a son, Caleb Whitefoord, who ia 
si.>pamtvly nolicud, imd al»o. it is believed, 
a daughter. Colonel Wbilefoord's ' lji>tt<>r» 
and Papers' n.-ferriu^ to bis lervicee ia 
.Mirinrcft, Cuba, and in Scotland wi-r** eilited 
for the Clarendon Freaa in 1S98 by Mr. 
W. .\. K. Hi'wifi)'. A portrait in oila is 
in Ihi! pnnwssion of Chijrics Whitefoordj of 
Whitton Paddocks, near Ludlow, 

l,Tln)<Jptir(ilf«i'-t, ed. Mar»liall. 1680, It. 142; 
(t^nl. }Ana. IT<>3, p. JJ1 , ('aiiniaghiini'a Lifraad 
W'jrk t>f Burns, iv. 156-7; Scott's Warorlay, 
Intrw5ai"tion ; Whitdfoord I'npors, ed. Hevina, 
IniroilurtinD mid pp. 1-1 17i Hamilton's Lanwlc 
and Iteufww, 1831, p. 79.] T. S. 

WHITEHALL, liODEUT (llW.'>-1685), 
prtetJWt.-r. [t^^wnd son of RobtTt WTiitohall of 
SlmrpcIilTe, Staffordshire, and of Dorothy 
his wifii, daughu^r of Thomas Iletuhaw of 
ham, Iluckinghamsbire, ekrly in 1636, and 
wae bapti^d thenion 18 March of that Tcar. 
HiH tuther, who died in Si^plember 1058, 
wafl virar of .St. Marr MBgnnlen, Oxford, 
and from llllO nfctorof^,\ddin|,'ton, Bilching- 
haiOBhire. The pofltaBt^r wat educated tirst 
at W'eKt minster school, nader Dr. Htotiard 
Rushy, whence he was elected to Chriat 
Church, Oxford, in 1(343. Ue arradualed B.A. 
on 2 Nov. I(i47. On 10 May following, 
with other studtinle of Christ Cbnidi, be 
was summoned lo appear before th« parlia* 
uiuntary risilon, and, when question^, tre- 
ptied: 'As I am siimmonml n student ot 
uhrijit Church, my name itself spe-nk^ for 
mo, that I can acknowledge no visiiatJOU 
but King Charles's/ which reply subsequent 





Blopment bas convvrl^d ioto un indif- 
fenat dimich : 

Uy nm»'B Whitehall, Ood blen th« poet ; 
If I snhmu the king tib&n knov it. 

He WM expelled on 7 July 164^, unpuruntly 
retiring toliis fMtlier's Iioium! iti BucKniiilisiu- 
•bire. Tliere rcunins into contact with bia 
noi^bouTB, thelngoTdsbysibQ became popti* 
}ai with the TMirliftmentMy pnrtv, flnbmittM 
to ibe committee for reg'ubitiii^ the univer- 
«tv,ao<l WKs by (lietD t'li'Ctei] lo&Mlow^hip 
in Harton CaUo^u in 10>'H). He c'>mpl(!t(<u 
bi« degree of M.A. on IH Nov. 16ul'. In 
1665 he wu ' t«rnB filiuH,' and ho di-rided 
the puriLan diKctpLiittt o( The viiiivt^mity. In 
1857 TTt-nry Cromwell, wriring from In.<liind 
(32 J«iM>>,rw(nie8tedtliecoll''t?''*''thuriliejitn 
allow htm lfavi> r>f abflr-nre, Trithiiut 1oh» of 
emolument, in ordertDprDinBtruclion id the 
univpraitT of Dublin ; thi' [wrmiMion wa* 
gimntnl in the foUowinf AueuAt. He was 
crputedM.B. onfiSept.KV'i7bvleUer!ifri'inlii« 
chArd Cromwell. On SlJum-IGlVihe appenm 
tobavehci'u in Oxford, when be wan lio^nsetl 
to practinp modir^ine. Uewas Mrtninlvthcro 
OD jS Oct. 1070, whoo b« wrote from Merton 
CoUu^ tr> Williftnuon bt^winr for considx^ra* 
tion tor his loeees, he having Iwuit ' wonti-d 
in fjnrit rial), of S60/. a year and ni>arly 1 .OOOJ. 
by theCheftbire mi«idventtira'[PSir Qeorgo 
DoQth's rising], Whitehall was tutor to 
John Wilmot. second corl of Rochester [q. v.], 
at Oxford, and much devot<'d to bim. He 
was sub-warden of Mcrton CoUon- in 1671, 
and in 1077 rwuivvd a Icuu or the Diir- 
mington titEies. He died on 8 July lOSo, 
and was buried in Mcrton CoUvgu cliapul on 
llm following diiy- 

Wood calla bim 'a mere poetaster and 
tim^«ervinit poet.' Ilia work* riinxiMt chii'fly 
of oongiataiatory 0[3e.«, and 'hie pn seearn 
to have been as ready to celebmle Olirer 
CromwcH's elevation to the protMtoratfiaa to 
oongratulnto Cbarle» II on Lis recovery from 
an ague; and n^ually lavish of pani'jryrie, 
wbeuer Ricliard Cromwell or Lord (.'luren- 
clan,whomhHiiailml an chancellor* oft he uni- 
Teraity' (Wku'ii, Aiumnf WrttrtnTi. ]»p. 
119-20). His worli*pf.i»ipM«e«rt«iii rhythmic 
flnency not unnlcaAant to the ear. 

He published: 1. 'Tf;(t^;n-nA»;"»yf«iMi, orthii 
MarriagQ of Arms and Arta, It! July Iftol, 
being an Accompt of ibe Act in Oxqd. to a 
Friend,' London. I(>oI. 2. ' V'iro , . . hrino- 
raii^eimo . . . 1-Muardo Hide * on his being 
raiit^d to the dignity of chancellor of tho uni- 
versity of Oiford), Oxford. 1(H>0? 3. 'The 
CoronatiiHi,' tendon, 10^? 4. ' Liraoia, or 
a DeMtiption of tbe iSdntJnf; uf the Top 
of the Theatre at Oxford, a« the Attiat 

laid hi» IK-aipi,' I*ondon, 1699. ft. • Verses 
on Mrs. More, upon her sanding Sir Thomaa 
Motm's picture (of her own drawing) to the 
LoDR (tallery av the Public Schoole at: Ox- 
ford, Oxford, 1674. 'llir pictiiru preseiived 
In" Mr». More is, however, a iiortrait of 
Tlomas Oromwvll, imrl of K«6ex ^\^'^LPOLB, 
Aaecilotet, 1765, lii. 118). K. ''V.^<rTixnu 
I«))i»i>; mve Icntinm quarundaiu extnuiL'airum 
(nunn^roL'Ah) Kxnlicatio brcviu^eula et clnm,' 
Oxford, l(i77. This work, of whioh only 
twelve copti-s were printed, conKiitrd of 
plates parcha«ed by Whlrrhall in Holland, 
lUiivl rating both tbeUldaiiJ .New Testament. 
Tbe uajorily of lliu [ilates were thns^ fin 
ninny cD«ea reveriurd ) unKraved by Matthias 
Mt'Tiun for a tlt-rman edition of the Bible 
piihlifhed in Sinisibu r^; in Hjyo. They 
afterwards a[ipean>d in • AflM-eldingen der 
voornaumstL- llislorien,* iinldi*lvi«d by N, 
Vui«chfr in A ni Kterdnni . Whit.^hall'ii plalrtt 
appear lo have baen Hpecially printed on tlun 
paper. J'^h was pasted on a tlKft of Mpr 
an which had previonily bwit printed nix 
expIanator^-Terwaby Whitebftil. Hie twelve 
copies wen) haridsomply bound, and pro- 
seoted seTerally lo the king and to noble 
frionde. 7. 'tiratulamini : a Con- 
cni'iilalnry Vanay upon His SlnieAtJes Ma«t 
liitppy Hecoverv,' London, lfi7k 8, 'The 
Engliiib Kechabue, or a di>fyanc>> to Bacchus 
iincf all hi« work*,' Londoi), lOtJO." 

Whit*>Iia]l contributed one Latin and on.:- 
Knglisli poem to 'Mosaruui Uxouieoaium 
/Xntoijbopin, sivc, Ob Fmdcra Au'itioiis Si— 
renissinii Olivieri lUpviWOxford. iHS-l; one 
lyfltinpoem under his own name in 'Britannia 
liediviva,' Oxfi-rd. 1000|with another Irfitin 

fofrm with the name of John Wilmot, earl of 
tucbefil(!r,ntlaclied, which if> more probably 
the work of Whil.dinll); two Latin and one 
English to 'Kpie<fliB Acndcmtm Oxoniensia 
in Obitnm i?4?n>ni<isimie Marian I'riucipis 
Arausionrtnsis,' Oxford, IfJOL i'our of the 
pieces were reprinted in Kocheater's * Poems 
on several Occasions,' London, IW>7. 

[Vi^ilntions of StaflbrdBliin; (WiUinm .Salt, 
Arc!in<nlugiral Soc. vol. v. pt.ii.); Amarsiuun 
I'ar. Rmc. ! Barrows's R*^, of Viator* of Univ. 
lUon. pp. 68, 144; Fonlvr's Ainnini ; Wood's 
.AthniiM(Bliw), i, col. liix, iii.cola. 1231-2, iv. 
iijIs, 176- 7. i'9 : Brodrick's Memorialsot Mcrton 
ColIegpfOxfoPfl llitt Soc.), pp. 10«, a»a; Wood's 
Fwu t&Hu), ii. roU. 104. I'l, 309; C'Ul. Suils 
Papert. 1470, p. 4fi7: Wood's Hist, and Antiq. 
(dutch), II. ii. .'183-4, £fi8, 616; Wood's CoI> 
lagm and HalU (Gotch), App. p. 313; Lips- 
comb's BaduQuliaQiftliire. ii. 600,] B. P. 

18<t^), pjet, novelist, and dramatist, the son 
of ft wine inerchaDt, waa bom iu Loudon 




{d 1804. Ue begsn life oe a clerk io a 

mercantite hotue, but »oon adopted 1it«ro- 
turu 88 bi« iiroresMOD. In IS31 lii^ published 
'Tb>j Solitary ,' a poeni in tiio Sperueruu 
stATiKi, ahawiti^ gt.-niiiiio imii^iiiation. The 
poem won tliK apnroTtil of ProfiiMor ^^'il90El 
in the ' Nflctfs Ambroslaaiv,* and of otiior 
critics of einin«n(,"w. In IH31»uii»fiirt-d\Vliil>— 
head's ' liirefl and Exp1nit«nr Iuh^IiaIi High- 
waymen' (probubly wriltnn wnnp ywtM 
Mrlior. thd k-twr worlhv nf his priviurtinnBt, 
and ' 'ihe AutobJoKrapby of Jack Ketoli,' a 
burieaqme bio^ra]]Uy »f Ihe ImnemAr. whicb 
coniained n retnurkablt; opi»odical slory of 
fwrlouii iutMit, 'Tbc C-onfcMion of Jamcsa 
WiUon.' \Vhitub«ad'a vivid blank*Tente 
dramn, 'TIj* C«vali«,' the plot of which ia 
hiid in RaatonitioiL times, wm produced iil 
tbo Ifaytaarkut TIihuIm on ITi S.^Jt. ISStl, 
with Kllfin True and VandenbotT lU the 
prinoipa] parts, and has bwn mtivwI inons 
than once, n^ttnMy at l-lni Tki^alfi; 
in ISW. 

Owing to the eucrcM of Whil«ltcad'« ■ Jack 
Ketch,' Mcism. Chapman & Mall inviled 
faiu to write the lelterprpse to n nmntlily 
isatic of a humorous kind, to which Robert 
Suyiuour \a. v.] wiut to funiiih the illurtra- 
tionjt. pW<iinK inabilitr to prodiie*.^ the 
copy with EuJiicicnl r(.>KulBrily, Wliitebead 
recommciidvd his fritind (.'liarlos Uicktms 
for thi^ work. The publisliera actud oa the 
recommeiidfllion, and tin' ivmill wan thr 
* Pickwick P«pi-n«.' A furlhpr point of 
contact Wlween Whitebi'ad and Dick-'nii 
consisted in \S'hitcboii,d> rcriiriiig in 1^^4*5 
'The .Mitmoir* of (.irimaldi," which had b^en 
edited by Dickens in 1838 under the pAuii- 
donvm of ' Boz.' Whitvbcad'a mnsterpiec^, 
' Kichurd Snvogtt' (IHW), illiwlrated by 
Let'cb, a niuance, partJy ruimdnl on Dr. 
.TobiisoTi'it lifi' <if Sdviigt*, was much admired 
by DickuuR. It wnfidr&[uatis(>d,andtbupluy 
ran for nearly thiriy nights nt thy Siim-v 
Theatre. A u(^w edition of the novel, with 
an introduction bv Harvey Orrinsmitb. wiw 
iniblinhedin |K1«. Included in 'The Solitary 
and othiir Pw.'ias' (ISiy), n collected edition 
i>r Wbitchttad'tt poetical work, i<i hi^ mo^t 
reniQrliable aonncl bi-gltLninfr 'As yonder 
Inmp in my viicatcd room,' which Hanto 
Itoarwtti dflflcribt'd as ' vory lino." 

^Vhitchodd WdungKilin tbiMullwrryClub, 
fifwhirb UnuirlftaJj^rmldanclotbar wits wore 
members, and was nciiuaintctl with bH the 
famoiiH mon of k'trrrs of his day. When 
' IficharJ lavage' appeared ho bad every 
prospect of .""iiccons in literature, hut in- 
tumpttnuicu wrecked bis career, lie went 
toAufttralin. i» li!^o7, with the hone of re- 
oo^'ering' hia positiou. He contriimttid to 

tb« 'Melbourne Punch,' and h« printed in 
Ibif 'Vicionan Monthly Magaaine' the 
' :^panish Marriagt%' ■ fraf^nsnl of povtie 
drama poaaaaaJngcoiiaidenibli? mr^ril. whii^ 
Imd's personal qualilias, deepiie his in- 
I firmitiea of diiiponition, vndiwrvd him to 
those who knew him well, and an admirer 
■>f his litnrary t^ent gave him an aaylam at 
his house in Melbourne, but he furtively 
nmdfi bin i<»cape from the reairictiona of re- 
Hppctabiliry. II# aank into abjeict want, and 
di«d miserably in a Melbourne bwipital on 
A July 186'2. He was buried in a |>nuper'i 
grare, and the authoritios rafusod tlw roq 
mado by friends, when Ibey h«anl for tlie 
time of bis aad end, to reraore hifl renu! 
to a fitting tomb, lliit publi'ber and wanu 
wi'll-wi«htT, George Bfinilcy, deacribed him 
a.-« Ft ' rs-fiiHtl nT-Ii'iUrly man . , . with thought- 
ful, almost p<>nrtral ina nj*i«,' 

Whitobi.'ad was a m><]uent conlribuTiOT to 
luagaxinp*, iiHrticularly to 'Bentley'a Mi»- 
celtimy,* lie aUo imbliahcd 'Victoria Vic- 
trix," ft po«tn 1 18381, 'The Earl of Eutx' 
(l»J3>, 'SniilM and Tears.' a ftorica of col- 
lected stories (1H|7), aud 'A Life uf Sir 
Walter IWegh ' (18o4). 

[ilackciiEii} ntll'fl CliaHe*WIiitrliiMiI, a mono* 
(toiph, '•illi oiiniets from bis works-l 

M. B-L. 
WHITEHEAD, 1>A VID ( 1492 ?-16n t, 
diviiiif, hr)m about 1-1(^2, wait n native of 
Hiimpsbire (Woon), wkwre the Whiteheads 
hud lioniL' landiid jiroporly (Oftt. Iwj. /nut 
mnrtem, Henry V'lt, vol, i. No. 10). Hit 
contemporary, nroii WiiiTEiiu\D(tff. l&5l>, 
wiib whom David ha< U'vu confusod, bw- 
longed to a Durham branch of tht; family, 
WB» from 1019 lo 1540 bet prior, and &om 
I511 lirat db-an of Durham. Hn wua im* 

Etimtvd in (he 6ctitiiiiiiii charges of treaaon 
rviiifiht n);AiiL!!i(htiibtHlinp,Cutbb>'rtTunstall 
ry.T.i, in lflfiO-l,aiid waa i mpriiutni-d in the 
T()wi?r, when' be died in November 1551 
{/.ettrrt and Piifirr* nf flmrtf J'i/I, pouim; 
Ach i*. C, cti. Dosenl, vol. iii. ; Wooi>, 
Ftitti, p. 3m ; Coltfctdnm, Uxford Hist. Soc., 
iii. ■2r>; Oxford Univ. Stiff, i. 62; DllOlt, 
nut. Chureh nf Eitglnnd, \\. 140, 225, iii. 

David WhiUtbead in amid to haT« been 
educiitcd at Bmspnoae or All ^ula* Onllwe-, 
(IxfonI, but hi« nntno does not appear in the 
defective negiflters of ttc period. Thestnlo- 
mont that be wsa chaplain to Anne Boleyn 
hoa alAo not bo«n vcnfli'd, but there ta no 
doubt that he waiilulorloCbarii>«6r«ndoa, 
the yavme dukr-of 8iiflijlk,whodied in IS6I. 
During the wiaUT of 1549 JJO Svititehead, 
Lever, and Elutchiusoit endRavonred to con- 
vert Joan Bocher [q. t.] from ber bere«iM 



1 on ■ 


HrrcHissos. ttWJa, j>. 146). In 1562 
■niner ilvTWriliud h'lai af ' Mr. WhitelitHitl 
ladlfrv,* tliini^li with wliich llaiUey he 
coniiMMt'il U UDcertain, and on 2-'> Aiig. 
A){^-*ti-<l liiin lo Cvcil u, n i:«nt!idnl>- for 
che TacAnt arcbbishnprir nf Arma|^b, nddinp 
'I tnlcQ Mr. Wliil«Iif?Ml for bU gocd kuow- 
l«d^, spmiil biint'stj-, fcrvt-iDt ^cal, and 
politic wisdom lo be Euost mt^et ' (Ckikiibk, 
ITgr**, ii. 431*). Whitolioud, bowtver, re- 
fused the appoiotuicnt, uid llu^li UoodACra 
[q. V.) beoune arclibUIiop. Un & Nov. fol- 
wwing be took pan in tliu diacuwiun on th« 
••eimmsol at C^cir* huuNi^. 

Soon titer Mary'E an:(.>Ksioii Wliitphfud 
flgd to thit contififnl ; )ii> wu« onf of llio 
handed and Beventy-tiTf whn failed wiib 
Jobn & Luco 't|. v.l from Oravi^uod on 
1" Sept. IMS' Wiiitebead was in lh« 
smaller Teasel whinb r^afJiod (^openbagen <>n 
3 Nor. ; thp extlt*B w«re taken for nnabtipti«t8, 
and soon cx])flk'd by order of tlie kitiff <«i 
refiuiug to subscribe t" l!i« Lutberaji con- 
fiFMion. ThcT (ben niiult^ tbi-ir wny to Rns- 
lock, vfhvtv N\'hiiebcud ploftded ihelr euiise 
before the mafristniles, wbri^i' Littberan re- 
qi)iit)mt:iitv (Lt-v foilud to satisfT, and ibuy 
were compt^Ui-ii lo I^avo in JuDimry. .\ 
Bimilarfute befell tliem at Wianiar, Lubeck, 
and Hitiiibur^, but: tlipy found a iwfugw at 
Emdeu in Man-Ii (I'tijuhote, SimplfJ' 2i'ar- 
rafio, Daale, l^W, pp. liy (.qq. ; i;>i^luM 
IliM. Rev. X. 434-40; Dalton, Lagctana, 
Berlin, 1H98, pp. 33-'j~f>). Mvaiiwbilc an 
attempt vroe being made to found a eliurcb 
ofEDglish vxilca at l''ruDkfort,atid <inl! Anj;. 
1&54 an invitation wta- M'nt to WliiKrhfud 
and utbor exiles ut Emden To join tb« cbiircli 
at Frankfort ; ' un 24 Orlober ciime SlarstiT 
Whitebead toFranckfordfand at tbe r(xiui^t4> 
of theconprcgation b" took tbe chaise fora 
time and prxachcd nppon the epistle to tbe 
itoniftiis ' (K.vux, Kur^, Uaunatyne Club, 
IT. 12). 

\\'bit*)beiMl wu ono of tboMt who wiabcd 
to rvtain tbe une of th« Ku^lihh pruver 
book of 1'%j2, and in tbe famous ' troubles^ nt 
Frankfort took llm »idi; 'if llicfanrcl ('ox 
,T.] against Knox. Aft^r llie expiilaion of 
nox (20 Miircb 155.')* Wbittb«ad was 
osen na-ilar of tlii' rmigwiifntion, On 
Se-pt. he and hia eolWatrues winsia a letter 
Calvin to juffify llii-irprooerdiDgRagaitiitt 
:0X, and txpudiatinif ibu charge of too ri^ 
TOtM odhcrenee to the prayer-book and umEg 
'ligfatauid cro»«C8;' tu(.'i'r i>0-r«niomi.'^, tbcy 
pMaded, wen? really very fi-w, and ibt-y went 
<m to attack Knox'f> 'Admonition' oa an 
' mitngeoiui |iniuiibli-t ' wbicb bad addfil 
'mneh oil to tbe flame of peraeciition in 
England' (Origmat Letttrt, Parker Soc, 

pp. 756 aqq.) In February 1565-6 Wbite- 

on 1 Marcb by K.iVrt llonie (ir.l9P-l680) 
[u. V.]; tlio cHiiHo is eiiid to have beim bis 
duuippiMTi tine lit at not being niai)i< Wluntr 
in divinity in ™cf*fision tn Bartholomeiv 
TmbLTon [cj. v.] H« rvmaini^l, however, 
at Frankfurt, aigning a lettfrioHtilltngf^r on 
27 fSept. 10.57. 

fin Kiiiahi-'th'* ncoihAsion WbiK-bi'nd rr- 
turned to Knglond, preaching before the 

3u«cn on I'j Feb. 156H-U, taking pnrt in the 
usputadun with the KonuAoatbotic bishops 
una April, and nerving a« a viritor of Oxford 
fnivervity, and on tm> conunLsaion for re- 
vising tbn liturgy (MACHTSf, liiiity, p. ISlt ; 
IIatwakji, AnnaU,^. 10; Gkk, EiitaMhan 
Vtfrgtf, p. ITO), lie i? micI by all bis bio- 
graphers To Keive had tbe tir*t refuiuil of lb« 
arcbbiNhopric of Canterbury, and he abn 
declined tlie msalendiip of tbe 8btot. On 
IT Sept. liSfll he wroti? to Cecil aflmovr- 
ledginghisobligBtionetohim, but lamenting 
tbi' neoe&ftitv \\v was under of refusing tbe 
living b« oftered {Cnl. Ktatv Paprr', l.>oia. 
1547-80, p. 1^5), * So that whether be bad 
any Hpirit uaUt !•:■« of nolu coiiferr'd un hla 
in yt^t doubtful, hn being much c!i-ligbtpd in 
travelling to and &o to preach tbe word of 
God in tlioni' pnrlit uhcn- hr lltuiiglit it wait 
ivanting' (Wood), Ho is repcirtnd hy 
Whitgilt to bavL' frequently deplored the 
exccasos of some ministerf, but bis own 
leaniugs wer6 puritan, and on 24 Alurcb 
I56S-I he was scmicslered for n^fuaing t^o 
siibecrilHt. Fnuicie Bacuu, wliu eullx Whittt- 
head a 'grave divine . . . of a blunt xloicnl 
nature,' and says be was * touch esteerai'd by 
Qupcn Klixabiitb, but nut prvferrwl K'cniiStf 
be wn.i againnt the gtivemmnnt of bi^hopa^ 
also relate* that tbe queen once Maid to biro 
'I like thee blotter br« tbou livMt un- 
married,' to wbicb Whitehead replied '1h 
troth, m&damc, I like you tbe worse for the 
same cauac ' i H'orks, ed. iiipedding, vii. 163). 
Hicliard Hillea, however, In announcing 
Wbitehiiad's dvalL in June 1671, stated thAt 
' ho lived about ttuvrii yearn a widower , , . 
but very Ulflly, bofore the middle of this 
year, V- mnrrii-d a young widow when b» 
waa bim.self about vijiiiry ' {Xun'rh T.'^tter*, 
i. 242). An engraved portrait ia given in. 
Fuller'9 'Holy State' and in ifolland'a 
' Lleruologia ' ^p. 173V 

Fuller mentions Whitehead's' many bookn 
still extant,' but with thetexciipliou of eonie 
diacourKea printed in Whittingbain'H ' HrielT 
UiecourH of Troubli-s at Franlcfort ' (1675), 
they bavtf not be«n Iruceil either in print or 
manuBcript. A translation of Ripley'i) ' Kf»- 
dulls AlchymiR) ' is aecribvd in BemardV 





•CntnlotfuB of Aftbmolean Mamiscripl«' tf> 
Daviil \Vliitfi!ic«(],'<Jiict(irorPhvHick' (Cat. 
M'%S: Ani/lia; i. Ml* ; in Hi.«t?K,r«r. A^moie 
MSS. en). 1310, the asmiition » rawwly to ■ 
' i>.W.*) 

[Amborilies ciuJ ; Ijinw). MS. 981 f. US; 
Bwypo'a Wortoi (aoiicr*! index); OoQKli'Blniex 
to Pdfkor Soc. I^l^>l. jM.4Min; Whitlin^hiin't 
BrisffDinTOiim, 1674; WooiJ'» Atlioiup, i. 398 ; 
KnuxV Woi^ (BiiBuatyuQ Clul): Foxo's Acx«« 
nnii MitD. ; Hale, tx. f)l; Fitll«r'B WorthiSB, ii. 
1'2 ; Pnler Unrt,vr'a CuiumanLiirliiH, IA68; Tnik 
n«rV Hill. Brit -Uil, p. 7«2 ; Ucwk'* PuntKnit, 
i. 170-4 ; Parkhtirsfa Ludicra, p. lit : Cbfir- 
loa'u Lifu of Nowoil ; Dumot'a liii)C, of thn I{<,^ 
furiiiHttoii, od. pOTOck ; l^onar'c Alamni Oion. 
ldU(i-l7H: I>ixon's Hbt. Church of Cntfluid. 
iii. 238. 38fl. ir. 696.1 A. t-'. P. 

I7:i:i), 'jiiukdr, wa* bom ».t Snn Big*, pimsli 
of Ort'jii. W.'jilniorland, in 1836 or IflST, 
ninl pdiicatcd rI Blencoe free school, Ciim- 
bt^rland, niter which tu- uiuf^ht or usher in 
two »i;!i<H>U. H hi>n ahnut lourtpen he lipard 
of the nuakprs, to whom he -wa* chiefly nl- 
tractvd hy obwrvii^r how they wtji* reviled 
by unnriucipWdp(X)]ik. TholiretnicfMinglic 
aitendetl wa* ut CuiJtuiii Wnrd'* at Suimy 
B)ink, n6Rr (irayrijrg cluipel. wht>ro ho liret 
I lieard Georpi Fox (ii. v.] Hi» [in-sbyttiriiin 
pareals, si h»t muoli (cnerud at hia turniug 
qu^er, gnvr aftcrwardB to lovo tho stwiely, 
of which hw molh<ir and w«l«r Ann diftcl 

Afft-r' bearinR hiN te*titin»ny'a|iiiin»l pn)- 
fe^sional minJut^rs in ^V'^>Islrllor<i^and from 
10-W 10 16f>J., Whitehead slnrted H-boiit Ati- 

?i9l Itifii M on irinernnt priuir.!ier rhrnuph 
orksliir<'. LiDColnshire, and Catnbrid^ahir? 
io Norwich. \t Ciimhrid(irc ho nict Janm-^ 
Poruell [q. V.l At. Norwich he viiiit«d Hi- 
chard lloblK-rthom [<j. v.], a prinfincr in tlio 
caatlo, and h*jld mevtingi and public di.*pu- 
tntionit; in opile of viok-nt opposition and 
much contempt of his youth, taacy wvrc 
COHvertttdlrtiiU!ik*Tiwu. In LK-ciMiiher 1654 
hewaa baled mit of St. IVter's Church f-ir 
><pi7nkinfr aftrr l.hi? niermon, and, b«in^ exa- 
mined abont water baptiiiui, wn^ i inprlitoni.>d 
for more t.hnii fiifhf wt'eka; lioon aftar his 
difcharfre, in Marrh lfi55, ho wan nfl:aiM 
Coiiimitti:d lor visiting jiriaonera in Norwich 
CeallL'. Iti Mnv hw wt-nt to Uuldiuater to ae-s 
^oun^ Partndl in priwin; in July, forilHfi'nd- 
ing a paper nrtisiwl t.n tho church d<ior of 
Uurea.SuIlitlk, brhisconipftniaii.he'was com* 
u)itlfitlf<;rTHnlntBiir7St. P<dmiindii. There 
be lay for thri'o moDthi^; «I the ()ct<ibi.'r«',i8- 
sioos be %-ns aci^usM of b«in^ an idle wan- 
Aering fttllow, and fiopd i^O/. On hia reftusl 
be was rt'inottded, and suffered much 

hardahip in pmon fnr fl(l«en mootlis iiDlil 
his friends in Ixindon, ruiinciBHy one Mary 
Sftiinci<?M, A waiting woman to OlivcrCponi- 
well's wife, appealed to tJir I'rotnctor for an 
iiitjiiiry. \Vhlt^!h«ldwa^I■Iaroinedon22Ma3^ 
l&^tt. and again ia Jtuie, but wm nul re- 
icBM-d until IB Oct. 

>Vor«n tn-AtuiVDl now befell him. At 
Sallroii Waldttn he was net in thi srM:kB,ai»d 
at Nayland was coniiumued ' to be openly 
whipiiUl until hia body be bloody.' About 
Mar 1 tS57 he went tu thu we»t of England, 
ine<<lin;f I'lis at (ihjiieeiitBr. 

lie now ( 1 637), aftfr three y«*»' abBClice. 
returned to Sun BiRS where many quakcrs 
had gathoni-d, and large meetinffs wcra held 
wint«r and bumioer on cmg «dp« or on tho 
mooM, until funds for building meutJng- 
houjeawerefurthcominjr- lie visited Swartb- 
more, Nowcaalle, Berwick, Alnwick, and 
Holy Island, thv govi-rrnor of which placo— 
Captain l'hillipp« — and hi^ wife both uMante 
miakora. llcturning south. M'hitehead wa* 
tlir'jn'ii into prison at Ipawich on the auit 
of a clergTinan whom he had ot-ortaken and 
diecourswl with on the road. When eession« 
came h* inwnsed the mat^islratofi by point- 
ing out the ilk-galily of his uocu-Hation, and 
wu« *-n1. hack to gaol, whence he was only 
reli'osad, after four months, on tho diMitU of 
the I'rotwclor. 

On^Aug. 10'iO>\'liit4'head held at Cam- 
bridge a public diaputewith Thomas Smith, 
vicar of Caldocot and univcraity librarian, 
vh.0 had airvadv appeared af his opponent 
at Q meeting in Wciitminstor. Smith under^ 


l^ttftker l>iiiann'il, or n Tnie Itelation of a 
hilerublie IliEpute held ut Cambridgo ' < Ixm- 
don, Uiri!), Mo), and ' A Tingg for the Quaker*,' 
same place and dale (replying to Henry 
Ueunva 'Th.< Quaker no Papist,' London, 
1650, 4to), issnpil ' The Key of Knowledgv 
not found in the UnJTersity Library of Cain- 
bridf^, or a fhort Answer to a Koi>lUh, Slan- 
derous Pamphlet entituled "A Ciagyfor the 
Quakers." ' London, llViO. 4to. This WM only 
one of a long series of public disputes, lutialty 
enlminafingin literary effort, to which. WhKe- 
headwaschollengedal thi«time. Frequeotly 
ihey fAok place in thu pariah churchea, Mme> 
times ill prirati' houses. Thus, he was tt 
Lj-nn on l5Sept. IC'iH, and icgnin on 11) Jan. 
1660, appeatii)^ ugainsl Thomas Moor and 
John IXom, leaders of n. smalt svct of I'ni- 
veT«ttlist« or • Free willi-ra,' aa ■Whitehead 
calls them. In niply to Horn he wrote * A 
briofe discovery of t)ie dangc^rous PrineiplM 
of John Iloriio and Thomas Moor, both 






jera of ihw pt-oplr cnMi.-^I MoorvitinB or 
lifefllariana,' Lrmdon, Ifit'ti*, ttf);'Tlif! 
ken no Dvceiven, or tlie Munagenn'nl of 
4to; aiul 'Tlie Ile-Oouiii Horn broken, or 
Innoceucy t-lrvstod ni(nin»t Insuliticr uml 
Impuiknt KaUe-hood,' IGtH),-!!'). Otlii'rdis' 
puUtiona took place at Fullinm and Etlimtis- 
bom. At Peeerboiouph in April 1m)0 ho 
lud to iiM rcM-ued fixim the tnob tty LiunbttrtV 
old soldien (juartered in thn town, rndur 
the pTOclamutioD npiiri«1 0Quv>-nticI>-)i h'- 
WAaaoAD in priflonagidn.and in.Marcl) Kitil, 
vbile in Norwich Cattle, lie ulmoft; diyd ot' 
•roe and paol fov^'r. A royul proctamntion 
relefta«d him after sixteen week»<. 

The finit parliament aft^r the Itestjsrntion 
brought in a bill (1.1 & 1-1 C>r. II, cap. ]) for 
the Buppn-wion of quaktTK un '<Ianif(?rou* to 
the public p«m! and safetr.' W'hit^tiuad, Ed- 
watxl Uut^gugh [q. v.].aud HublKTthoni ap- 
peared before the committee aeveral tiin^Jin 
Mar 1(341 to pniicst u^ainst it« conditions. 
Thev wt-re alunbi'nrd iit (In- baroftlwhtiuw, 
19 .Inly, on the third n^adinjr. Tbo bill, 
■whicli forbade livi.' rjiialcpnt to ai'xt for wor- 
ahip, paaaerl; bur althou^'b ihrtir moi^iin^t- 
bouaea were locked up. were turned iotoftol- 
£ete* quarlcra, or polled down, iho quakcn 
eontioued to meet in l)ie«tn>eUor inprivatv 

From tbia tiniD to 1073 Whitehead spent 
moal of )tU tJmfi in prJunn. Oner, nrhilH in 
AMiito Lion prifton, he wa-i chareod with 
beingconcemedin tbeWentmorluntl 'Kipper 
Riglf Plot' (el. FnBorRo*f, Earfij ('uin/n-r- 
imj and Wtstmortnnd FrifniU, pp. 4 »ie(]. ; 
Cat. f!faf/- Pa/>frg,liom. I«0;i-l,pp.tJ32,<i4O). 
He lodged nt tbij liuii', wh*;ii at libvrtv, ut 
the home of Rebecca Travert [o.v.^ in \\'at- 
ling Strent. and laboun>d in auu about Lou- 
don. Wh'ii, under b new act llfi Car. I!), 
impriHoncd qiiaken were M>nt to the mlnniea, 
beu>-ld ini.-*-tinp«onbonrd thi'lranf^iDrt «hii)B 
at Gmvefiend. All thrnuf^h the plague he 
viHitml ibow in prisou. In I'JTU he married 
a nioufl widow* divers years' oldftrthanliim- 
eelf, who wa« ' like a mother to him.' 

In the BpiHng of ItiTli Whit'-he^d and hi<i 
" I'homait Mrtor hml an niidienco with 
n at Whitehall. Whitehead ex- 
thnir uotLsciuuliuus obiuution to 
rMriii|[, and con»H()ui-ut iriabilitv to take 
lie oath of allepADce. In tlio end an order 
raa given on 8 May to prepare s biU for tin.* 
royal ai^atiire wliicb Bh4%uM contain the 
tuunca of all prisoners couimittod before 
SI Jnly. The inAtnimcnl., upon eleven Mtins 
of parcbmeal, and with tho names of 4)40 
prisonera eleven times le^ieated. ia now the 
property of the Meuling for SufTuriugs (cf. 

WtilTKRBAt), Vhrutian Progrfftt). By Ihia 

paidtit John Bunynn was Tpieosed from 
Btnltonl yaol. Deluys occurring in obtaining 
lifitaofthepriAnnern, it. was not until 13 Sept, 
that the docuinetit was sealed (cf. Bab> 
ct-vTs I.ftlrr«, p, 184). Wbtlnbead made 
^nvatexertionaiD obtain the ruletwe of (iiittkurs 
under thi» patent, rititin^ himself C'hehnif 
lord, IJury Sc. Kdinunde, Norwich, and Hert- 

lu little ovor a yi^-ar, bowever, tbia indul- 
(fence was withdni'ivn. On 21 March 167^-80 
Whitulioiid iind TliomnA IJiirr were taken 
from a mKi'^lin^ iit Nurwiob and »ent to gaol. 
When brought before the mngistrulos live 
wtM'kB later, I'nincis Itncon, the recunkr, te- 
funed to allow thn mittimiia to be read, and 
oilered them iLu oath of alb'giaacf. ^^'bito- 
head'a fible and dijfnifieJ defence i» in UU 
' I>ne Orditr of Law and Justice pleaded 
against IrreKulai and Arbitrary I'ruCDeclings 
. . . .' I»ndon, 1680, 4to. 

Whitehead had inunv intvr^-iewa wicb 
Charles n. In IHT-'l he' ]j|.*d.-(i fi.r Fox's 
Iib<.*n(lioD from WorecsUT gaol. On ItiJan. 
iK7lt->«), with WilEiiitn .Me.icl [q.r,], he pr©- 
stnted details of tbo persecution Friotids 
Aitlli'ircd bv U'in^ ronfniinded with papists, 
imd showed how parliament hod prepared 
a apiTinl clause for their relief in tliu bill 
of rosf, hut hnd been prorogued befom the 
bill ri'acbi^d iho npptr housu; on 17 Feb. 
1081-2 be introduced soinf Bri»t<)l quakers 
to report tLu atuto of tilings there; in Ke- 
bniary 168:i-3, with Gilbert Laley [<). v.], 
he described tie sulferings of numbers Id 
nn nnd<T(;mund dunjiteon at Norwich ; on 
l'5 April 1<»A1 they miw CbnrlL'9 ut IT&mpton 
Oiiirt, when he asked for an expluoaiioiL of 
their pcciilior Inn^iiaeti and wearing of hats, 
their own meauwhile hating boea gently 
removed by a courtoflinal and bung uj^in iho 
pork palings: ou 8 .\ug. WKilehcad pre< 
sented an oddreia firom the Hocioty clearing 
thuniKLvus from partinipation in the ' Ityo 
lIouHH ph)!.' Th« last interview occurred 
only II few weeks befom Chnrlf^ft's death, 
wlo^n, ax W'hitidi^iid owns, he left fiftaeii 
hundred nnaker men and women in prison, 
81iorTly after Jamca iTs acce«sion Wbit«> 
htmd repreaouted this to bim ; thrvo or fonr 
months later, accompanied by Itobt-rt Bar- 
clay,hc]tadaeecoi\d interview. Janoa iosimmI 
(lo Maivli 9t)85-U) a warninL for their re- 
lease. Wbiudicud utiit pmciircd ftom 
Jomea II thn ap[>ointment of two po m m la. 
eioners, who sal atClifrord'aInninJune1686 
and effectually crushed tbe inittuitouij iradii 
of the *informpr.i.' The Mng also granted 
bim a roval mandate for tbc iiay of pro- 

H 2 




caaaea in iho eichequer by which (junkers 
wore Qnrid 20/. a moutti and twotliirdn of 
their celQto for ab«ctiict' from lliulr |iAri«li 
cburcli. Aml»l«cl lir Latiify n»J William 
Mntd and by the lord tniaaurcr (Hj-di-. earl 
of Unchtwtwr), he »uccrwii<d in (fitting the 
fee* of the pirn nfPice rediif^ed from the 
'many hundreds dvanmiilod' in tiO!. Tiw 
result of BL-v<>ml intiTviews wirh Jtinira II 
wu a declaration for liberty of cotucietico 
on 4 April IIW7. 

Whi tchwudVeu II liaui?di'(rorts were crowned 
bv tUt! at-'t of tuleratiun piiiiM'd iu the ttrst 
year of WiUiam iLiid Mary. Tliia he keoaly 
»cruttiit»Mi in drnft. niid, btM;aas«the precise 
Htanditig of the quaki>ni wtw obsciin;, drow 
up R fhort cn«i-[i nrul nxwiUTidtHl it to lh« 
cninnjitt<'i=' of thu hrmsf, Many qimki'nt still 
remAiiiinK prisouers, AVhiti.-ht'ud, iutroducvd 
hy Ilunii'l (Jiiun^ fq.v.J ihj? i'l(«"UmHl«i?r, mad*' 
II p'trnonnl appeal to ^\ llliuiu III. Tic king 
woa duly iinprp>w.'cl l>y WhiN-ihcml* rttfi— 
Tvnrji to Ihi- tolnnition of Mnnnonitfifl in 
Holland!, ami ii tew ww^kft later rflciwed the 
quakcra by act. of pnicf. MHiitfhi'ftd iht-n 
Kut alx>ul ubtniuLtii^ au alivratiou of ttie law 
whicli precluded quatii-ra from tnkin;;^ any 
Icfnil AL'ti'ML, from proving or nduiioisterinK 
will*, from telling up their freedom in citirs 
or rnrun rat ions, and in i-uixu; plucue from 
«xereiBiiHJ'Bny cWfnrfl.1 ripht*. Iltthail now, 
hpsidwi Ednnnnd Waller (ann of the poet), 
many iiifluentiaL friends in both house», and 
wfts warmly congmtnlutcd outaido M-ln-n 
Ifiivu to hrinit in ii motion passed by a large 
uiajorJlv. Th<' affirmntion bill, drawn up 
by Sir Vruncii' Winninuton [q. v.l, became 
law on a) April Hiilti. This act, pitsw^d 
rnrHevunyearf. was madt! pt-Tpcluul Jn ITl'T. 
When tliK piill afit nbliginp i^very dissenting 
preaclier tn pay 20«. quarterly was about to 
be renewed in Iffitt, \Vhit«li('HdV inllu>-iici^ 
prevnilf'l for the intrndiictton of & nn^w 
clatttie t'somptiug Friends, who have no paid 

Although the Btalua of the Friends was 
cow If^ltv much improved, a coniplnle miv- 
undenitanilin[; of thuir iL-nets still prevailed. 
In ri?ply to a writ?* of pamphlets by Ed- 
ward iWkham, I).T).. njctor of fiayion 
Thorpe, and two otimr Norfolk rector*, 
Whitehead wrote Iuh 'Truth and Innorencv 
Vindicated,' UJi»9, tto, anil 'Truth iV-va- 
lent," 1701. Jto, Cfintftininir a w.'ll-rrABoned 
and able defence of their civil and religious 

Erineiplex. A little later ho iMiicd, with 
lend, 'TliL' P«ciple cnlkid ijiiokers truly 
rvpro^UivCed . . . witb a llrief Enquiry into 
A Pftniecutitig PsmphK-t lutily <K-livQri.!d to 
iheMenilwrtof I'nrliaiiiiHit stiW' A Wind- 
ing Sheet for Quakeriam " * {by Ktlword Cock- 


too, rector of Wesloot Banoo}, Londoo, 
1712, -Jio. 

\\'hit4hcad'8 ftutohiocTKphy coaaes on 
IH Aug. 1711. Hifl lu>iU!h wm failinff, Imt 
he wa.'i able la present the society's madneB 
to William 111 Dti his return from Holland 
in 1701 ; to Queen Anne on ber Acceonon ; 
to George I oa a Uke oocaeion, and also in 
171fi on th*- euppKSsioi] of the ^cot» re- 
bellion. In an ioterriew with the tVince of 
Wales (GL>orgD It), he u^l;l^d toleration and 
liberty of cou8cieuc«, for which ho bad 
pleaded in perimit with seven English 
aovi)rvi|n>t*- ">^ >liD<l **^ ^ March \7iS, la 
hitt ••iglily-«nventh ynar, and woa burind in 
the quakere' burinl-grouad at Bunhitl Fields 
on 1.^ Mnrch. 

WhiiehMd's first wife, Anne Downer 
(widow of BcDJiuuin Oreenwell |, whom be 
mnrni-il at Pf-t>l Me^-tin)^ in Ch.^rltpnweli on 
13 .Mar 1670, won a minister aa early as 
16H0. i?he travelled two hundred miles on 
fool pr.'ftchintf,«ndwoji prominent in Mttlisg' 
the order of the separate women's roeeliugv. 
She died at Bridfot AuM^H'a, South Strrbt, 
27 July KJtW. Whiteheadpublished a little 
memoir of her, ' I*ietv promoted by Faithful- 
noes.' hi^O, 12ino. llis sc.'coud wife, Aon. 
daughter of C'apiain iticlinrd and Aun (4od> 
dard oTKfadiug.wae, whenaho married him 
at Duvonithirw House on Ifl July l(t8S, an 
ripplian kei-ning a shop in Whiuvhapi'I, ' an 
honest and virtuously inclined niaia.' By 
neither had hr^ any eun'iring i«auo. 

It is almost iuipoHsible to overc»timat« 
WhiteheAd'n shan> in the foundation of tht* 
Society of Fhuude. or his inllueuci' va tb* 
development of national rfligioui* liberty. 
Without the mysticism of Fox, B«rclay, or 
IVnntngton, hv nddn-mtrd lii« rcuIm lethal 
kiinwleuge and literary gifleto eetahliflhing 
the sect on a sound rivi] and political basis. 
Hid works wore almost entirely conirorcniitti 
and nTitten to confute existing attacks upon 
quakers. Iu the titles of his chief writings 
givuu bulow may be traced all the prioei^ 
features of Their crMd. I. 'David's Enemua 
Discovfrri'd,' and i. 'Cuin's Oentiralion Dis- 
i-orrrrd,' lioth Loudon. lRo<% -Itu, uiraiiuit 
Jonathan riapham'p hook^ in defence of sing- 
ing rsahuB. 3. 'Tlie JVlh of the Jiut 
clt'nred, and Cruelty and Tyranny laid op«n,' 
1655, 4to. 4, ' Jacob found in a Desert 
Land," I66li. 4lo. 5. ' A Brief Treati.**,' 
urns, Ito, in answer til Richard Baxter's 
'Shei-t for the Ministry,' 6. 'An Unjust 
Pli-n Confutvd. ... In antwur to a botdt 
L-al]ed Moafw and .Aaron, or the Ministers 
Uighi and the Magistraiofi Piity. by Dankl 
IVmttfU fn^ctor ofStapU-huntt, Kwity I6.'j9, 
4to. 6. (With James Nayler) 'Tlie Tn» 





MiniAtiTs living nf The (>o9p«'I, iliMingiiUhfid 
from ihe False UiniGrers living iipnD TirEies 
ll and forced .MAinlcnnnco,' 1000, 4to, in tin- 
^K BWer to Jobu Ik>wick, n-ctor of^^taiDdrop. 
^H 7. 'The Autliority of th« True MiiiUtn,' in ' 
^^ llaptising with ilicSpiril.' ]60U, in iLiuwer 
to Saimiel JImdIty, a li«i>liit. H. • The True 
LJRlit Bxp«lliiig thti Foxg7 MiAt of thu Pit,* 
1660, in uuwer to Fninrl* DuUh. 9. 'A 
I Serioiis AcoountinXXW KTidrnl KenanoA 

I .... irhflJiQ .... (Juiikvri> cuntiDigoio 

worship Bt .... cl)iirct)eit And rliapnels 
. . . .• 1601, 4to. 10. ■ The Pernicious Way 
orthfi Rigid Pri'sbytrr nnd Auti-ChtiMidn 
3liuialer» lJctectc<].' l(i6:J, llo, in anawer to 
Cpe«awtflt, Whattflr, and Mattltew Cnffin. 
II. 'The Lnw and Light within are ihe 
BMMt mire Kule or Light, which ahcweth Ihe 
righl U8«9 and end of the Hmpluiv,' u.d., in 
anewyr l'> William I3ridi;«, 12. 'TLi- U'on- 
ttcienttouA L'aufti' nf flu- Siilfi-rfTs called 
Qtiskt'rs Plt^aded and E.vputttuliLied,' }GQ4, 
4t^. l.S. 'Nn Kt-minMon witlmiil IJejifivt- 
ance," Iflft'i. Jto. 14. ■ Thp Li^ht and Lifu of 
Christ within, »nd th*- Kxlent, and Klficury 
tht'rMvf Ilemonstrntt'd,' ItiOt*. Ilo, in luiHWer 
Co William Rumet. l'>. 'Tha Divinity of 
Christ, and L'nity of tlio Threp tbit Wr 
Kowrd inll^'avun," 10*19, Jl". With a l*re- 
face by Georf^ Fox, in answprto books by 
Thomas Viiicvnt, William Mado.t, Tboiniu 
nanMon.Kd ward Stillinf^fli'H.ntid.lohn Owen. 
16. ' Ohriat ascended libovp the ClrmdH. His 
Divinity, Li^hl in Man." I'ilW, -ita, rnplyinft 
to John X^'wirian'i' ' Light within.' 17, 'A 
^rious ApoIogT for ihe I'rinciplen and 
Practices of ihwIVoplecallr-dQimlicrt,' 167L 
4to, a^intt Tbomiui .K-nner and Timothy 
Taylor ; pt. ii. by WiUiain Penn. I8. ' Tlio 
>aian- of Cbrittiuiiil v in llii' Trut* Liftht 
aa«rtf!d,'l(f"1.4to. ur'Tht-Uipiwr l'lun)|['d, 
or Thomas Hicks hia Ki-iRitLHl Diulo^un 
bKtwwm a ChriKlinii n.nil a l^unltiT jinived 
an T'nchriplian Fornery ronaiiiting of Self- 
Con(radi('lioii« aud Abu^'x HKain't. thii . . . 
IVopl.1 ciil!.-d Qunkerjt,' lli;-J, Ito. -JO. • Thf- 
Chmtian Quaker,' ]>i73 -1, fol. pt. li. (pt. i. 
U by IVnn); 'Jail ed. 1(W9. tfvo. ropnnted 
Philadol;ihiu. I^!JI, r>vo, i^l. ' Knlhu^ia^ica 
abofe Atheism, or Dirini; Inapirtitiriii and 
Immediatu Illtiminuliun n»»t.Tt«d,' 1(^74, am. 
Hvo. '2'2. ' .-V St-rioiin Si-arch into .Ttirniy 
Tvffl Questions to llie Quakc^nt.' 1074, Avo. 
S3. 'Th4 Qiiaktir'ti Plninni-xN dut*N-(iiit( 
Fnllary,' and 24. ' The Timonma Uevik-r 
Sliphtwi," 1*174, 8vo, in nnswur to 'The 
QiinkiTit ijuibbh'.i,' by Thomns Thrtnijwvn. 
2.3. 'The I-'ase of the (^unki-rs concTiiind 
Oalh« defcndt-d a« KviinK<diciil,' Mi7i>, 4lo. 
20. 'ITie Way of Life und rcrfeetiou 
livingly demoDttrat«d,' ItXiii, 4to. ^'7. ' The 


Real Quaker a Rtiil Prol^scant,' 1679, 4to. 
'^ 'Jud^ent fired upon the Accuaer of 
ourBriMhr^-n," llWl', am. Hvo. "ii*. • Christ "a 
LambN diili'iidcd from 8atan':i liiij^e, in a 
Just Vindication of the I'eople called 
Quaker:!,' 1601, 4tu, in au.«wvr to John 
P<-nii)maii lu. v.] 30. ' 'Hift Contemn'd 
Qiiukerand aisrhriatian Keliffion defended,' 
l(19l',Kin. Hro, 31, 'T\w I)ivin« lAgU of 
C:hrij»t in Man," \m->, sm. Hvo. A-2. 'The 
Christian IWtrine and J^ociety of the People 
called Quaki-ra, ch-and from the Ri-pmacb of 
the lato diTi^ion of a tew . . . tn .-America 
(Aij^ncd by seven othprs),' 1603, stn. 8vo, re- 

Erint«d in S^Wfl'i^ ' History,* tramdau'd into 
liitch by him, l(55,l'Jmo,andintoGennan, 
AuiKtcruam. 1701, l^mo. SS. ' An Autidotu 
agaituL th4^ Venonie nf thn Hnnkn in the 
Ctniss,' ltil)7, Bm. 8to, and 3-1. "ASupple- 
muut upon Uccasiuu of what thu i^naki) 
ca1U,' ItiUll, 8vi>; ihitui^ two in anawftr to 
Charltia Leelio [tj. t.J He also wroie tivu 
Imokit in reply to Francis Buf^f [•!■ ^-l *'*'' 
three answenn; Oeorge Keith [q. v.], both 
apostate qiiakera ; as trelL as innumerable 
epiatlc« and tcstimonitu, or biogTojihical 
account*. Several of hi» sennoiia were taken 
down and printed. 

ITho Christinn Fro^^n-ss of that ancicot sor- 
rnnt Oforgc Whit^hiwd, histnrioiilly rnlating 
bis Ksp'^rirDCC, Alini»Ir;, &c., oililrd hy Jnssph 
Besso, LaadoD, 1726. 9vo, is invsluaMo fur tiia 
quaki-r liistoriiin. Mur-h of it in rcprinimi iu 
'Hifc*'* Memoini of Whitoti^Md, 'I vnis. York. 
1810 : Sfwd's llititory of ibr Kisv, ke., 1. 103. 
IIII.IU. 110. 152. II, 171.287. 40'j, 4111, 416, 
431.463, 467,471 ; Fox's Joornnl. pp. I'-'l, ^04, 
342. 458, 469; 1-Vr|riw>ii's Karly Cuinhorlnnd 
nnit WntLni. Kriendi*; Cnl. Stato Papora, Dom. 
lS;>R-9 p. 1^9. lti63-4 pp aa'2,610, lA6t-A p. 35, 
1672 pp. 'lf^9. 490; .Smith's Csialw^u*; Barclay '« 
Letters of Early Friindi; BMse's SufTarinp, 
piuiiimjGoiij;h'BUi(it. uf llivQiiokcnt; Whilin|["s 
P«r»«ctttiou exposiil; De>.-k and Ball's London 
Frionda'AIcfrtiDgii,np. 17J ssq. ; Chalmi'ni'a Biflgr. 
Diet,; Allibooo'sDict. of EiirI. Lil.| 0, F. S. 

WHPTEEEAD, .TAMKS (1812-188S), 
phy^irinn, born al Oldham in 11*12, was the 
sou of John Whili-hrnd, wlm had ii widu 
r«piitatinii in the dUtricl &ri n hi^rbalist and 
dealer in Gimpien, .lame^, nnvr wnrkiiiR os 
a boy inncorton-niitl.ail'^ndfd fh»v Maraden 
Hiroot school of medicine in Manchester, and 
wn* a pupil first of Mr, C'louch of Lorw 
SlrK*;!, and ufterwaril* of Mr. Lamlwrt of 
Thirwk. H« was admiltcd a lieeDttat« oE 
the .Sncietv of AiK>t1u-cnrie8 of London nn 
11 Hi^pc. Irm, and iin IT, Dec. 183^ l„- ht^ 
camo a member of the CoUe;te of Snrceona. 
He wns admitlwl a fellow of thr l_ViIli.<gc of 
Surgeoniiafl^rrxamiiintion on 14 \nfc. \i*AA. 




ile fnuluftt«(l SI.D. ftt the wiivemiiy of Ft. 
Anarews in 18W, ond lie became q nioinber 
of the lEoyuL College of rhy»iciiiii>i uf London 
in ISW. 

Whitelwod visited France and Genn«nj- in 
1^0, uri<I on his rulum to England in 1838 
lit. begiin to praciine bi» proftusion in Itxford 
Street, Mancheet(>r. In 1^- ho wiu ap- 
points] ili-monitlmtor nf nnnlomy at th« 
Unrsden Street sohool nf n^^icini?, and in 
tfaewae jearbi' mbrriwl Eilizii belli, c]nii)i1iti>r 
of Thomao Hnyward ltAf1elilf(% whi died on 
'JO Sept. 18^11. In ]&5t( he foimdfd.joinlly 
witJi I)r. Sclioepf Mfrei, th* Clinifal Hos- 
pital and Dispensary for Cliildren, whivk be* 
came flulM^rpK-ntlv the Maiiche*tt-r Clinical 
HMpiciiJ fi>r Womi'ii and Children. H« wa» 
kclnrcr on olistetries al the Koynl School of 
M(-<dicine, Eind for fiflix'n year? hn actud aa 
GUrscou to ;^t. Morv'i) llvspilul for Woiuun 
and Children. In 1^*51 ho mnved inio 
Mofltuy Streut, whtre ho conducted a larite 
pTactica nnl il l8R!,nhcn Iwi n-tirml to IJvi- 
on nn eatato ho had niircha.'^ttd nt 8titlnn in 
Surrey. He died, iilTer u long illne", on 
9 April IS^**'!, and t« hnmd in llwr Ardwich 
C*meiery, Mnnchester, 

Whitehead's work« woro: 1. *0n th& 
Caufl^ and Treatuipnt of Abonion and 
SterilitT,' London, IM", Svo; republiflhed 
in Aiui-rico. 1848. 2. 'Un tlioTranj^inimon 
from Pnn'nt to t)ir«|iriiij; of jioino Korin« of 
Disease.' I^ondon, 18r.l, Pro: fJnd edit. 1857. 
3. 'The Wife'* Uimnin, hr PliilothnlnV 
1860, 8vo; 2nd edit. Ifl74.' 4. 'Nofw nn 
the Rate of Mortality in Manchester," 186:5, 
8vo. 5. Jointly Trith Dr. Mcrei, a report 
on childr(tu*s di*Misf». heiunr the first ' lieport 
of the Clinical Krjspilal," M-aneheslet, IS">6, 

1885, i. 87A: ndditionnl informAcion kinilly 
Bvnu by Dr. Dtvid L'ord Kob»rM. Dr. J. E. 
Piatt, and the Inlu Sir. Ltlnnrd Land ^r AUii' 
ehwl-r J Ji'A. 1". 

WHITEHEAD, JOHN (16.10 lOlW), 
qiialier, wh.* born of imntHii parents at 
Owstwick inlloldernejis, Vnrkiahire, in ItlSO, 
Hw entt!>fT>d thi.' nrmy wli^ii <>i|.>htei-ii, hiiviiif; 
threft yenm before experienced ' conversion, ' 
t\e tirat preached as n qnalicr at Mnlton in 
lleccmlkr HS-W. In Mnrrh or April IfVi.l 
he held a m(^eli]la: at nuiterwick. and in tin* 
Bumtner he left the urniyflnd Bturled pr«?Bcli- 
intf on the inoDni of Yorlinhire. In NnveinN'r 
1U54 lie attempted to preach iu Lincoln t'n- 
thedral, but had to lie reBcned by soldiers 
from an unfjjy crmvd. .\t (i^brtiilinn* heAva* 
in prison nt. [,fiice.iter. Thence he went to 
WellinKbnn>u(fb, ivliere, after the vicnr, 
TlioisAA Andpewi, bad conTctnptuoualy de- 

parti>d, he held forth to an attentive audience 
in the chnrch. A public dispute betweea 
the tvo foUowed, and on 14 March 1U55-A 
Whitehead waa BrTe«ti,id a» a vamut. Ile 
called in a Yorkihire nei^rhbour, Slamiaduke 
Storr, who wn? then viiuttDg his brother in 
prison at Nortbainplon, to urovp that he 
reputahlv tnainlalncd his wife and family; 
Jjiit on tile wiliii-Ka rirfiming to awtrar, both 
Whitvbead and Suirr were roinini(te.l to 
NortliamplonKnol. They were libemted by 
an order from Cromwell in January llk'>7. 

AfttT pTPactin;: in Ilcrk&kire anil I..ondoQ 
Whitehead waa tn Ifi'iS in prison at Uoaton. 
He waa afi^in in prinon at Aylesburv in 
Jannarv ]6ii<)-I fnrrefuiinfrtheoath. I'here 
hewrote'ASniallTr\'ati»L''(l001,4to; 5nd 
rtl. 161(6, 4to>. tin 13 Nov. 1061 Iw was 
arreoted wliik> on a visit to a friend at Bin- 
brook, Lincolnshire, and epcnt ibrve months 
in Lincoln Cft*tlf. l)n .Inly ltMi-.> li,- wn* 
aKain sent lu the castle, and kept until May 
Idea. While the_ri« hn wrote ' For thi 
Viin-yard " (IUC2, 4to), AAerthrep mnntha* 
libertjr be wan a^in in f^ol at Hull, and 
later in the year at Spaldinp. 

Whttehnnd travelled with George Fox 
U{. v.] in DflrbjBbin' in 1683, and ncit Toar 
he succeeded in obtaining an order for l^ox'a 
releojia from Scarborough Caatlo. Soon aft«r 
16(ftt he reiDovwl from Uwstwick to 9wim 
tirange. Iti lK7/i he drew up nn addn-w> lo 
kiriff and purliameni asking relief f.-ir tbo 
Vorkflhiro ((unlciTA who hud been fined and 
distrained I CI the amount of 3,^181/. IOji. nnd^r 
till- Cdn vetiticle Act. 

On ti-2 May I6iii WHiitelnNid wm a^in 
committed lo Lincoln CaMie cfaai^;ed with 
heinp n. Jesuit. He was then on hia way to 
London to see about a l«incy of 300/. in » 
chfinopTT suit. In spite of certificateA from 
the vicnr and church wardens of Swine, the 
constable and inhabilanU of l>wKtwick, and 
Wa written declarmion nf allegiance, hewaa 
sent to gaol, and when brougln up in March 
IBS.*! VTBB asked if he could deny that he wu 
a l{<)inu>h prie«t in orders. He WBf> unable 
to procurrt counsel, nnd was remanded. 
Some time before ,]uly lO^J he was released. 
At that date he was presiding over a meet- 
ing for discipline nl Fulbcck, when two 
jilsticcA entered. Fines were iiuh!t^|urntly 
ieviid to tliB amount of 72/. IS*. 2rf, 

Wbi(ebi'ad*!i lai^L impHKinmi-nl was at 
iIk' Poultry Compter, London, whither the 
lord mavor, Sir Kolwrl JcfTeriw, eent hin 
on II Feb. lfift?i, for preaching at Devon- 
nhirn House. He died on if Sept. lOW at 
bin boiiAe nr Fiskcrton, Lincolnshire, and 
wna buri^jd at Lincoln on L Oct. 

II«Eides the works already nwntioned. 






ntioned, M 





WhitefaeaJ wroln : I, ' The Eninity between 
the Two Seeds.' Lomlon, l(Wi''i, 4Ui. 2. 'A 
litppiof frrnn tin- Ixinl," I.omloLi, Hi58, 4lo. 
;J. 'A KftDit'eAtatian of Truth,' I60i!, 4to; 
lliiM »■■« hi iiii''wi'r to ' Folly nnil MuduiBiii 
madf. Manift'si ' ( Ashmnlpnri Library), br 
William I'iennes lord JSiiyo and Melc-, w Iiicli 
^\"bilfln'»rl had n-privi'd in inanitR^ript. 
3. ' Minidtorti amoug ilie I'uopK' of 0<jd 
(c«ll«lQuftkcM)noJe»uiUi,' J«83,4lo. ()th«-r 
fuffitivv iii*!Ct.i* are i» 'The Wriiteii Goapt-t 
Labours of tbat Ancient anil Faitliful . . . 
Jolin Wliitctiead,' London, 1704, gvo; pre- 
face l>y William Piiun. 

(Fox's Journal pp. 267.S04, 303.43a; Cbiilk** 
LiM aod WtiiiDgaaf Whiioli«ul, Itiii : f^mitli's 
C>kt. ii. 909.15; ilrwe'* Sulft-nng^ i. 7^. 76, 
331, 347. X48. 349. 3AA-' 300.470, 4«3, 32:i. 
A2J, 638, ii. 98. 1U7. 130. 143; PduIwd'm Hut. 
of IloMvmcM, ii. 103, for nn «n|n«Ting of Ov«t< 
trick M«HinK Uviito- \Vhiitiig'K Uomo^n ; 
WhitohoBfJ's Cliri'lian I'rogTfw, p. 23, Two 
originni l»ture to Upoi^ l''oxnr« in thn.SwaKii- 
m»r« MSS.] C. P. S. 

WHITEHEAD. -TOUN (]740?-l8W1, 

I'liyaicisn and l)i%T[ipIier, was born nboui 
740, apparently si l>ukinlie)d, Cheshire, of 
humble parcnie who bad Irft rhi' nid dis- 
senting conffregation lo join Ibe Moravians 
(1738). lie bad a clai(»ical education, Early 
ia life lu- bwamo coniwclvd wiili tin- movi*- 
mt^nl of thp W«tli-y«, hnvinp Iwn couvrrl^cl 
bv a tnethodist preacher. Aluiihew Maver of 
Sttockport (TtbrhaN, -ToAn H>«/ry, IN^O. li. 
474). He acted aa a. biy prttiiirbor at Bristol. 
Leavin); this vocal ion, be married ond set up 
in Bristol «« a lincinlrupcr. Bciu^ sncco;igful 
he remoT^d to London, wlifiw bt* joined Ibe 
Society of Friends, bi^eaine a speaker in that 
bodv, and coaditcttMl a Urge boorduig-cckoo! 
At Woudsworl h. Barclay Ibe brewer ofiired 
him B liR' annuity of 100/, to trnvd with his 
liOn on ibe fontiiieiil ; hi- BCi-fptml. At 
l*yd(?n h* PBU'Tt'd ap ampdical siudflnt on 
Id Sppl. 1779 <ivl)en bir< agr' is jjiveu as 
thirtT-nine), and jrriidiifttid Sf.Il. on 4 Feb. 
ijm. On thv death (19 Jan. 17Bl)or,John 
Koovstm, M.lK, b(? bi-Mmr- iiby:>icinn to the 
London diepenEorv, lhroi.ic-li ibe irilUii.-iice 
of JoliD Coaklcy Lettjiom [t|-^-] T*' ^**'* 
admitted a licentiate of thi^ Colbrgu of Pliy- 
kieinns on 'J^> March US'*. In ITHl ihe 
Krinnds pushed bis cnndidatun- as physician 
to llut l.oriilon Huspitnl; li« wiut n'tiirni'd 
oselpcted on 2S .Inly, but the fllection wiis 
dpclan>d not inlid, one vote being bad 
throwh a slight informality. H^ arimdi^ 
the Wesleys as (heir mi'diciil adviser. John 
Wiwley thfiHght tiim wfiind to no physician 
in Kngloud, uiid was anxious for lii» ruturn 
t;0 methodism. Ke [eP: the Society of 

Friftids in 17ft4 and af^in become a metho- 
disT ,' he would linv<! ijuiited hi« medical 
practice, and devoted bimtielf entirely totlie 
mini-itry, if Wcsluy would have givun him 
ordinalioii. lie iin>aehed tliu funeral Mor- 
mon for Wuftley, whieb went through fonr 
oditioni in 1791, lifiiio, and nviliHed SIX)/., 
whirh be handful over to the Bocinty, 

Wi^iey left bis pniiers to Thomas Coke 
''n. v.], \S hitj-bct&d, and Henry M<v)re (i7ftl- 
I'*44) r^. v.], giving tliera full discretion, 
M bin lltcniry execiitorc, I0 deal with them 
OS lUey thougbt Iji. Ilie threo a^m>d lo 
briii^ out ft lifL' of Wrslwy, but. to un'at^ 
the appiHUuace of u proinisttd lifo by .lohn 
llampaOD r*|-v.| This lifv, mainly written 
and in prone port printM btToro Wesley's 
death, vfha n^ully the wurk of llampson's 
fitthor (also John Ilampson), who hnd left 
tnelhoditm from di^upiKjintmeDl at not being 
included in the ' Ir^il linndn-d.'conNtiliilint; 
the cuuferenef) under Wesley's 'deed of 
deelnrattnn' of 1784, At a tn«>»itin(j of 
preachers .Tfinii>s Kojfera prnpo^tod, and thi? 
ex«?uton( Rj^ed. that Whitehead, bein^ the 
man of most, k'ifliin'. should write the life, 
ond receive a hundred guineas for it; for 
this piirpOBo he was entrusted with all Wes- 
ley's papers. llaiup^on'« 'Ufv' wuv pub* 
lished at Sunderland in .lune 3701, t)n 
(1 July Whitehead issued ' Proposola ' for 
prinling by *iL)>ivriptii>n *a full, arfurnte, 
and impartial ' lifo nf Wesley, remarkine 
that. ' nolbioR has yet been published whicn 
annwiTs to any one of 1ni'>^ ehnraetew,' 
With tbe propoAnis was n^inIe^l a document 
flipped (1^1 June) by WalfT, Horton, and 
Marriott, Wfifley'egenerHluxoeutoT»,»olicit- 
ing Whitehead to write tbe life. At tbe 
cuufereuct: (opened at Manchester on 20 July) 
the arrangement wax confirmed iind Wbil*^ 
head pUced on tbe bookcantmittee. Moved 
bv hiM frti-ndK, ■who reprewntrd that tliP 
work would rpfilL'so n hirge sum. Whitehead 
now claimed the copvt'ight and half ■b'l; 
profit-H. Then bi-gan a wrangle about hi.* 
eustody and use of >\'esley'8 papers. On 
9 rice. 1791 Ibe cjuartfrly circuit, meeting 
removed him from the Imt of preucherh ; 
subseqiienllv the aulharities at City lluad 
chnEiul withheld his ticket of Dembor^hip. 
C'loKf Hnd .Mount hI once undertouk a lif« 
of We^lc^Vi without Bcct<s« to his piipers, 
wbi<!b Whilebrad di-nitil thi'm. Tht- work, 
mainly by Moore, was Ix'gun in Januarj' and 
completed in February 1792; published on 
2 April, if ]iad tbe authority of conference ; 
two editions of leu thousand copies each 
were disposed of within the year. At tbe 
confvrtmco of July and Auguti 17W) White- 
bead was called upon to submit the papers 




for exxminatioa and siniDfT. His ofi^red 
compnimise wha acc^pt^d by a eommittet', 
bill tlm (lixpiito went oa ; both paniea be^sii 
oivi! ftCtionii, I'roMediiiits wert- stayed ; the 
L-mdgn society paving all <!ObU, lunoumiiig 
to OTer ■2,000^ 

The fmt voliuni- of Wliiu-liead's'Lifa'af 
Wcdey -was published m 17itS, 8ro, tbu 
tBcluded 'Ltfn' of Clinrles Weeley being 
iMued sep&ratt^ly in Uir wimx yvar ; tho 
Mcond vuliimi' up]wuri>d in 17fH$,8Tn. It 
fell uadefct-rvi-iUy Hal, bt-tne in wvi'nr resp'GCt 
eupurior lo tlie " Lifs ' by Cnit*' and Motirc. 
Ill 179H WhitMir.ail itituraod Wesley's 
papers tn thfl rofthodinl; hf»il(-iv)0ni. Bi-fore 
tbt>y n>at'hi?d Mooiv's handa|^17D7)80ineha(l 
been destroyed by John I'airson ■» * uftele^H 
lumW.' Aided by tbe*e maauwripts, Mooru 
brnu^lit nut bin ncvr life of VV«alt>y m l8'24-n. 
Ni> higbrT tribute can bp paid tn the excel- ] 
]enci> of Whitehead's work tbaa tbu conittant 
uti'. which Mno^rc inalits of it, frequftntly, 
and nitbout ackiiowledjtnurrit, adoplintr ile 
Ituif;uDg(i, thouich critieisms of Whii^liead 
are not pjiarod. Wliiteln'od's 'Life' was 
reprinted at Uublin in iHOli, wicli xumn 
audit iom. 

Id 1707 Whiteb^nd was rcKlnmil tnniKEn- 
bunbip in tlie laelhodiat body. He died at 
his n-aiditiui^ I'oiiniiiiu I'oiirt.OId Bt*tblen), 
in ItJOl ; tbu 'Ueatk-man's Mafpiiino ' j^vw 
7 Miirrli as tbe date of hi« dtfaMi, and 
14 Marrb as that nt his inti^rmi-nt in Wes- 
ley's TBiilt at City lioad chapel ! llieee dates 
HP- probably currcct. but 1lll^ inscription 
added ill IKIU give* IH .March m the date 
of ilealh, while StovcDBon says he died *at 
the end of February,' aud wti» burWd on 
4 Mnrcb. Ilis will, dated 'J4 Feb., codicil 
2f> Feb., wiw i>roved 15 March 18l.i4. Holt-fl ! 
A widow i Mary), children, and grand eliildren. ' 
Hit) fiintiral somiou we< pruuclivd by Jusupli 
Bonson fq. v.l There ia no p.orl rait of hi in ; . 
' a full-fun^^ti Jlguru in the picture of Mr. | 
Weslev'h denthbt'd is Maid lo be that of I>r. , 
Wbitelwad ' (Stbvussos, p, 378). ' 

Hesiduit the hf*^ »E WttHli-y, bn piihliaht-d : 
1. * An Essay on Liborlv and Nocoesity. . . . 
By FUiEurtirun' [177.'], \'2mc> (n^n'inM Tt>p- 
InJly). 'J. ' MateriaHsm philnsophi rally I 
oxamLued,' 177^. ^vo (n^insl l'rti}»tb«y). 
3. 'TwnlamBn physio logiciim ■ . . sistcna 
nOTsm thiHiriati) de causa reciprocarum in , 
corde 4jt arceriis ciintraclinnura,' I^eydfln, 
17WJ, 4to. i. 'To whom it bt-lonRs," 1781, 
f<)l.(auualtorhr»ti(kli<.>t>t,iti^ed' Principle'). | 
B; ' A ii«])ort. , , . of aMemoircontainmRO 
New Metli'id of trcotinff . . . Puerperal I 
Fever,' 1 7aa,8vo|lron3lat,ed from the French ,' 
of Uenia Claude Unwlc-t, with nntodj. 
fl. * A LotUT (in tte DitfiweDce betwewu the I 

Medical ^ocioty of Crane Court anil Dr. 
Whitehead," I7K|. fli-o. 7. • A Tru.- Narra- 
tive of . . . the DiffpTence between Dr. Coke, 
Sir. .M'xtre, Mr. lEog«r«. and Dr. W'hit^hwid, 
concerning . . . tha l.if.> of . . . Wealer,' 
l79a,8vo. 8. * A Defence of a True Narra- 
tive,' 1792. 8vo. 9. 'A I-etter to the Me- 
thodist I'reachcrs.' 1 79:?, Svo. 10. * Circulkr 
to the- Methodist Preacher*,' 1792, 8vo, 

[Gomt. Ms^. 1801. i. 2S3; MtrnkVCull. of I'hn. 
IR'K, ii. 358; -SmiOi's Csl. of FriamW Books, 
1897; 'A'hitfheMi'aLifcof WMlM(|>rDf.ic»),aDd 
hi« Triio Narmtirc: Moorfr's Lifs at Wwilejr 
(prvfacr) : 8t«v«naon'ii City Road Clwpet, Iti72, 
pp. 131. 172. :S7I'. 377: Album JftodiumniinAot- 
demi!L- I.tisdiino-IUtAnt. 1S7A. p. 1132.] 

A. O. 

WHITEHEAB, JOHN (1860-189»>, 
ornithitlogisr, the second son of Mr. Jedrey 
Whitehead of New^lead, WimblMloa, wa* 
born at Altuin-rll Hill, Homimtv, i^ri SO June 
1800. Ite was e.lucated at l^ietrw under 
tliK l£f V. Kfr. Sanndenion, and at the Kdin> M 
burgh Ini^litiilion undetr I>r. Ferj^ uson, who I 
gTi?BtIy fostered his taste for natural history. 
ExposinfT himwlf too reckloasly in the pui^ 
suit of his favourite science, be derelopwd a 
weahncs* of the luiifn', and wn« compelled 
10 winter in th« liliiKadiue in 1?>81-:J, and in 
Corsica in IHKJ and lH$>t, when ho began 
colloctiii^, and dlecoverud a bird u«w to 
science. On hi* irl urn (o England li«- pre- 

Saml fur a collect inr trip to Mount Ixina Bolit, 
lOrth Brimeo.which Inatwdfrom Octobftr \>*Hi 
to August 1888. He brought bock e\amplee 
of innny new animals, includinjc no fewer 
than forty-five now jpt'cjrs nf birds. Tlw 
rcKiills of this trio are fully set forth in his 
'Ksploration of Mount Kina Bnlii,' l^ondon, 
1893. 4to, In Ih-cembcr 181W be wt out for 
the Pliilippino. Tie made nine dilfer«iic 
tripx in thofie Jtlaads, and diMOWrvd on 
.Mount DatA the tirst knoim indieenoua raatn- 
maliau friuun. H'tumint; to England in ls96. 
In .laouary 1899 hf slarlfd for ihone isUuKla 
asain, iutcLiding lo complete his researctiM 
ttiLTc; but the wai'lR-tn-i^ntlic^rnitvd3t«t«t 
and Spain inil an end to the plan, and. aAor 
wnitiiiK a few uvki hI Manila, he sailed for 
Hong Kong, and thence x:t out lo explore 
Ibe island of Hainan. The expedition wae, 
hownvcr, Attacked by fpvi*r. He with diffi- 
culty atruifglwl bacls lo the coajt, and died 
at tbu port of Iloi-boii on 2 June 1899, 

[Country Life. Jtily 1898; Sp*el«tor. July 
1690; infunnali'iii kindlr Mtppliod by Whiu- 
he^d'* fiithiir and by Mp.'W. Ogtlrie Qmni.1 

B. B, W. 

satirist, wa* born on Feb. 1710 in Caatle 
Vard, Holbom, where bis father was a pro- 







ap^rQUB tailor. Aft^r atC4^nilin|; n ftc))onl at 
liilcbin hi> w«s apprvnticed to u mercer in 
tho eitv, but, 8howin^ littl« diiixisition for 
busine^, look chambers in tliti Ti-iuplu u u 
Uw atudL-nf'. Me w&s, howwer, ubli^ted, 
Ajipucatly for il eurio? of yatin. to tnini>rL'r 
faureacleiicetotbeiiei){hbuuriug t'lntfljiriiiiin, 
turing backed n bill wliich the theenical 
uoaager CbBtleH HeolwutKl bad fkilsd to 
roeBt. Prom nni>on WhireliBid is Batd to 
liavx put liiH Qntt. Itt^mrv o Sorts in the 
ohape of jtoLitiral sqiiibn. flii* first more 
eUbonilw pruductiou, ' State Dunces,' a satire 
in liTOic cnuplrt^, wm puhlithed in 1733. 
It wa» ioscribl'd to i'ope. the Qnt ot wboM: 
' Iniitatiooa of Ilora^« datM from th>e same 
VfiLF, ftud whose ' Uunciad* hnd upuwrfd in 
l72H, I'ope'a rhylliin, tofretbi'r v.i\h curttiin 
otbsr chianctt>ri«tiL's of liia satirical verse, is 
pnlui|»a«succusi<full,vr()^rodi)c:eO byWliite- 
De«d ha bv niiy c<>nt*Mti[Mirar_v writer ; hut hr> 
ia altogether lackitig in concent rat inn and 
ill anytiiinf^liktt )>ifri<iiiiiiiiM^'t of iiiirpoMP. Tbe 
chi^f 'State Duncn* is Wnlpole (Appiiis): 
other* are Fmin-l* Ilure [o. r.\ bishop of 
Cbiche^Blerr and th« whig niHtorian James 
Itnlph [q, Y.J Tbe poem, which pruvokci! 
on ntiflwcr undt-r tha tith- o( "A Friendly 
Epislle,' was sold to UtKhley for 10/. ( Bo»> 
WBLL in Lifir, ed. Birkberk Hill, i. l'2-in. 
reconb) Johnson's rufumi to accept a smaller 
aum for bin ' ijondon' tn l73i^,on tlie^rround 
that he "would not lake b-xD than Paul 
'Vi'hitvhend / nnd adds na absurd apology for 
Johnson's 'prwiidici'' agYiinst him). 

In 173(1 Whitehead nmrritHl Aniitt, tlf 
only da«ght<'r of Sir iSiirinnorton Dyer, bart., 
of ::^painft Hall, KsBex. By this liinu he may 
be concluded to have been out af the Flnl, 
unless indred bis niurriu^e pnivided him 
with the means of ciuiiring il. In 173B ha 
puhlishud 'iluuuLTB, tbe satirical poem so 
nighly tiiougbt nf by Dd^wmU, but considered 
bv Johnson a ' poof perfnrmnnce ' {iiOAWBU,, 
£ife, y. lUl). The manuscript is preeerrcd 
in BriliA MiLSPum .\ddilionul MS. 26277, 
IT. 1 17-20. It cannot be said to exhibit any 
adva.nri<! npon iU prpsltfcctaor, nor ean it« 
clamorous rituperatioD — 
Shall I'opv nlonr Lha pleoleimn hnrrDit bare. 
And loot. gilean oo« strs^litiK fool ur koaVft? — 

Ify hvid to bu di);nified by it« pretence of 
proneeding ftnin a nnt.i-iot whos« hopes are 
centred in Fredericit, prince of Wall!*. Thn 

KrAonalitica in thi^ Mitirc led to tlii> author 
ing flummoued, with bis publisher, liefun- 
th>- bar of tbe House of Lordit: but WhJtu- 
liead alMCondud [auo Dooslbt, Roiikkt]. 
AVbetber or not the action uf tbo lord* hnd 
bean tntendad as n warning to Pope, wboAe 

hud dime tbeir utmost to make thi* existing 
puliticultenEion nnhearablQ,it. at least siilficed 
to niuxxlu WUitehcnd for the moment. lie 
continued, however, xo maUc himself gene- 
rally uwful to the opposition. Thus in 1741 
llornce WalpoU mcnlioDs him as ordering 
a Slipper for eight patriots who hud tried to 
vain to bi-At up a mob on the nt'casioR of 
Admiral \'ernon's birthday (I^lterB, ej. 
(.'iiJiniiigham, L V2). Ilia nrxt publication, 
' TbeU^mnasiad' (li-Hj.isa harmlfA'tmnrk 
heroic in thme sburt books or cantos, with 
• ProIegomuDa' by Scriblerua Tortiivs, and 
' Notes Vanoruin, in ridicule of thw pu^ibsLic 
funcy oi tbe day, and dodicutt-d to John 
Hniugbtun.cMienf the most celebrated 'Sona 
of Hockley and llcrce Uri<fkftt reet breed.' In 
1747 he published his lust would-hc political 
Mittin-, ' Honour,* in which l,iberty ia iuiro- 
duc8daaprepan>dtofollow Virtue in ijuit ting 
these shores, unle«e specially detained by 
■ Sinnhcpp' (Cheaterfiefd). Almiil. Ibr muik* 
time he is stated to huvi- edilud the ' Apology 
for the L'.onduct of Mm. 'IVrtuio, (.'onstantiE 
I'liiliips' [o. V, !, tirsl pnbliahfd in S vols, in 

Whitehoud bad now become a paid hunger- 
on of the ' l'rinci*'s friends,* and iii ihu Wijgt- 
tninstereteclionof 1719 was engaged tocom- 
pose adx'urtisements, bundbilU, and t:ht! like 
for iheir candidate. Sir (i.'iirg>' \'undi-piit. 
When a sup[Kir1ur of the oiipoeition candi- 
date, Alexander .Murray (d. 1777) [q. V.]. 
wQs eeiic IL' Ni'wpatn and detained then; for 
a canaiderahh* jN-riii(I on tbe cbur^eof having 
htuded u riot, Whitidtrud composed a pam- 
phlet (HI Iiis oAse, which appealed lo tho 
indignation of iho t)oopl(> of Oreat Britain 
it« wi'll iLM of the electors of WcBliuinslor, 
(SeeexlrHctsap. E.TiioMPsoS; mid cf. Lord 
(JKHHtii's Metnfir* tjf the liriifH t^f Oeortfc II, 
I'd. hord Holland, s.d. 2K June 1751). Ia 
17ol thepriucL'diod.nndin 17nft SVhirchead 
published bid ' Kpi^tle to Dr. Tbompsou,' 
a physician of diaaotiite habits, who had 
Haurrelled Willi the treatment sdopiud by 
th« prince's pby.iicians in his last illness, and 
whom Whitehead, from whatever mociva, 
Dtrives to justify by indiscrimiiiule abuse wf 
til" 'college,' A pamplilrt puhlielii-d by 
hvin in dcfL-nce of Admiral llyu(j O*"''") '« 
s«id by Hawkins lo b« wrilleti in a defiant 
ritraiii, Its if an aniiiittnl w«r«i certain. 

Within thuse yeara, or thnse immediately 
foKowiiig, fiilts tVi dnepest degradation of 
Whittihuud'B life. His iKiHtioal intimacy 
wilb Sir Fniiicis Hasbwooutnflerwarda Lord 
Lu Diapenaerl and other pobltciuiie,and the 
fHcility uf bis literary toleiite, uiadi! him an 
acceptable momber of the diasipated ctrote 




u-i>lluKhi)> of the i;.\cli<}i|uer in liord 
u'i» njini^lrj- [17li2-31, to n ' (Input v 
aurorsliip ut* ihf chamber,' asont! of bu 

CAllinf^ thefDsvlvM tbe ' monks of MmlooQn* 
bam Abbeji'find be wu &]){K>niied wcrt'iary 
niid uttwftril of tbeir order of ill fame, lit* 
liid t.0 iulFur Novenily in coneDqiienei^, for 
tbe acalp-buntiiig Katin^ of Churchill found 
In him a victim entirely ro ita t««te. In 
tbnw (if (!biuTbill'» untinw hv vtu braiiiWd 
09 n *di«gTa«( on manhotxl' (TV Cunferenc^, 
J7fl.t), M Mhi- oKed I'flul" who i-batlia the 
Aftom of thf bliLspbi-iniui^ r'M'i-llL'ni bi^bind 
the door {Vfte Cnmlidate, ITOi), and h» the 
typo of tbe ' ]»-pt biird ' {ludrpendt^nce, 
I7<H). The limtis wen* not ^'ijuij^nuiiab, *nd 
Churchill's tcalimony wss iiol retuect^ ; 
but tilt- cbargtfs wvro unaiiswnmblL', ond 
Wliiteliead ia r^membiTfd for liUli* f\*\: 
W\'. hud, liowL'vcjr.iit lli'- tinni, htt-n rewardeJ 
for bis aervii'i^ \>\ Xn-mg iippi.iiii1ij<3| through 
Sir Francis Diudiwood, probably during his 

bioeraiihen oils it, wortli 80(J/. a. year. This 
enatilod him \tt (■nlnr^n the cott-Ofpn on 
' TwickenbaD) C'rommon wbure be bad for 
.some year* resided (^in l7*>o Horace Walpole 
mentions hiiu as on« of tbe cvlubriliiis of 
tlie locality; see Letttr», li, 447). In hia 
' Kuiitk- toDr. 'i'liompeon'htidi'VLTibvf, auitu 
in Pope's Horatinn vi^iii, th« tnoib'sl (^iimTdrl* 
of Ilia rcl iremcnt, wnd bfl appuirs lo have 
hfien iKijiulnr both in Ibe cmmtry, where 
Jie wiLs known for bis Idndlino.**, and in 
[liOndnn Bociety, wliere nmon^ hi» friends 
vcrc Tlo^arth and Tlaymnn, and the actor 
aJid draumtifl Willliim lEavitrd [4, v.] Sir 
John Hawkins, however, sars thrtt 'in his 
Cuuv L'niulioii tbvKi was littl*' tu praisu: it 
wan dt!.Hn]Lor;', rocift-rons, tmil profane, lid 
bad conirBcli'd ft habit of awenrinff in bia 

IO«i»|f("r TriiM, wliirh In- r>^riiini'd tii bin 
iteat.' fie published vpry lilile in his Inter 
Sears— a pamphlet on Cnv^nt (tnrden stBjfe 
imutMUmcntionL'd in 17(1H— bnt hewroTi> 
B KW fiongB for bis fticnd the actor Iteard 
and others. Un 1*0 \}pq. 1774 be died in his 
lodeings in KenricitA Stiv«C, Coteiit Ourdoii, 
havinfiT during tbe caurxe of a prntnu-tiM! 
illness burnt nil bis mutJUBcnpte wiibin bi^^ 
rt-nrli. In hiit will hn liifl bia hi-urt lu hi* 
patmn, [.nrd IjH Des^pflnscT, by whose order-i 
il was biiri'-d in llm mnii^deum at lligli 
M'ycomhf in lliic^infirhnmsliirn, amid so- 
lemnities which unduT tliu circnuisttincee 
mij^ht, iiki- the bwiiiMt itwlf. bftTi- bn-n 
preiermilted. A collt-ction of bis * L'otims 
and Misci'llan^ouH CompO'iltons,' wltb n 
lifi.' by Ciiptain KdTrard'lliompMiii, whivh it< 
dedicated to Lord Jje Deapunier.atid wiittt^n 
in u i^truin of tur^^id and (rcnscU's^ flatleri', 
upjir — "' -it. Ijoiidoii ill 1777 (Jt'Oi \\l» 

portmit, pitiotcd by Qtinaborcni)^, wae im- 
pitvcd by Cnllyer in ]77tt, and pr«Hxer] to 
tbtj 1777 edilioD of Wbitebeod'fi 'roeun' 
(, p. SHH). 

[CitplAiti t'>l«-nnl Thotnpson'a Lifa in Pooot*. 
tT77; ^ir- John IInwkio»'ii Life ofSiimael Jobn- 
Mjn, I'Si, 2nd odtt. pp. 33(1 v^.i ChalmM*** 
English PoBtJs Tol. jtvi.] A. W. W. 

1785>, i"ict-lBurp«ni, was born av CnmbridsQ 
earlv in 171'V Ho wiw hnpiist-d on 12 Ftb, 
at St. Bciiolpb'e, in which pari^ hix father 
carrii?iil cm tbi- trade of a baker, serving I'eai- 
broke Hull in that capacity. Tlic iddcr 
^^'^hilph(.'ad, while be«1owin^ a liberal edui'S- 
ilun on both his sous, is said lo have liecn 
inclined to exlravagance, and lu bave idiiiifly 
employed bis timt- In urnamentiDg a plot of 
land ni^iir Orunlcbeslor. wbicb lon^c went 
under the nnmc of Wbiluh^'M Kolly. Two 
vcarj^ bvforu his death bis Gecond aun Wil- 
liam, wIk'U fnurtiipn yr-ani of 1^, throiif{li 
tbeuitrona^Bof ileory Etromley (al^t^m^rda 
l^ird Monitor), and liiRh steward of tbe 
uuivi'r^iiy of CauibridtnO, obtainx^d & ttomi- 
nation to ^\'incb*8ter Oollfge, where be re- 
mnini'd tilt I7;jd. It was the period, u 
W'hitfhpad Bftvrwnrd* muj; («"» bin sianzos 
to tho Ftcv. llr. Lowtb, in his Life >.,/ Wiltiam 
vf W^(ir:finm),'\\\ivu Biggpri.-sidt:dand wbua 
IturtoJi tnugbl.' Up in wLJd to have acted 
tbe parts of Marcia in * Cato' and of one of 
tbe lYotnen in tbe -Andrin.'and in 173^1 to 
have gained oni> of the f^uinea prizp« offered 
by reterb"rotnrh, on a visit to tlie ttcbool, for 
\\\fi best poom on n subject to be given oat 
by bis companion I'ope, who chow Pel«rr- 
borou^b bimaelf as tbe tbome. This IM to 
bis Ijving vmplo}'od by Vo^ to translate into 
Ijalin tbe Hirst epiNtlw of the' Kiuiayiin Atan ;' 
but ibis t'frurl was not published, and White- 
bt-iid, ultluinfrb n cnmpi'tunt wibolar. never 
attained to distinclinn a.i a writi'r of Ijitin 
verse. In l'^-}, not commanding eufbcieul 
intprcst to *-cnre .■Vctit>n lo \ew Coll<in, 
Oxfoni, he entered an a entar at ".'latv Hul, 
Cambridge, with tbe aid of a smalt scholar* 
ftbip open to ibo orpbnn »>nH of (nide»m(!a 
of tbe town. He |;rudunlt«l K..\. in liSU 
uud M.A. in 1743, and in 174:! was elected 
a fellow of liin collo^n. His irmproacIiablM 
cnndiH-t, amiable iDUinen),andgtowinrn?pu- 
tation a* n noet secured to bim at CantbridfTv 
ih<> fnendsliinnf many yoiiiij; men of a rank 
euperioi* to his own, conspicuouB amone 
whom wrt« Churles Townshend (1725-1767) 
[q. v.j, 10 whom two of hi-t early iiocmi are 
addressed (ii. 171, 1711). In bis lines ' Un 
Triend^bip' (ii. 120), juMly pmimd by his 
biographer and acoordiug lo him bigbly coni> 






DMMided br Ony, Whil#li««il «)ft«ned wl»t 
tbv litltvr dislilii'd u Mtiriciil louchis; but 
tbou^b liM wim t)irt>iigh liTij moro t>r Ivm 
de]>t>n<li-ni oa liis snHal snperinrs, hiii niLTun! 
vrnK not M>rvili>, and bis lack of ambilHin 
WHS Inrg«ly iltn^ in M-lf-knowlod^fm (in'e the 
linwj, ii. 11';?, aiidrvfuixl in I7'il to his fnuud 
Wright), tti 174ii \V}iitL-bfnd,althercquejt 
of tbe Earl of Jei»ey, undenook tbv [irivaie 
luilion of Ills suTTiTing son. Viscount Vil- 
lien, tbeo • bor odevoa ytmn of uga — who 
ftftervazds u Lord ianey, ww rvpulwd tmo 
of tbtt most high bred u well as one of tW 
mo«t fiubionnbU num of bis offt* — snd a 
m\wf conpaoinn ^see VlLMKHd, Okohhi: 
BcMt, fourtb Karl\ )]q uvordinKly re- 
niflr«d to Ixindoii. ftnd fllinrlJy nn^m'nnl.'i 
sbandwtviJ bi« fellonsbip, ae its reliiotion 
iroiild biivi' nhliicM him to tak« orden. 

At Cunibridf^e Whilcbead htid publislied 
bis first more impnrtsnt poetic efTcirls, whicb 
■bowed btm to have dcliWrntfly formed his 
rtyle as a wm*r of vtrse upoi'i Fupir, at n 
time wh«n En^linb poetical lit«nilura vriva 
at last on tbe very point of widuninifitBraujin 
aa to both form and eubjeciA. l1i« cniatbt 
'On tbo Oon|ii.T of writing in Vi'r8G*(i741> 
ia elegant in v«rjiLfi(-a1 ion iirxl (lictinii. mod 
iiiod«tinioat' — two merits whicbAn<mn^W 
kbaent in Whitfhpad. It wait rapidly fol- 
lowed by * Atys and Adraittn"!* (from Ik'ro- 
dotus); ail ' li*roic«?piMl«'' from' Ann BoJwyn 
lo Tlcnry tlip Eigblb," tlie reversi> of on^j^inHl 
in Ireatmont, b«i( dvlicati' in fwUnfr: and a 
readable didactic CRsay n» ' Hidirulf' (l"-*-'). 
pnKMtins sgaimt lucb as is cxctuuive or 
raijiplaceu. AU rhf-iw pit^c•-■, %it wdU a* the 
rather Utvr ' Uytnn to the Xymph of Uristol 
Bpring' (17')1^, on- in the hi?roic rtiupltft. 

Within thtt-ae ywirs Whitehead be<?ame 
wvH known in the world of letti-rs mid uf 
tbe theatre, and on 'Ji Feb. I7«0 Oarriek 
(to whom he bad adilrcMwd a very jtidieiuuB 
complimrnt in vere*.', conlainini; a charnc- 
t^sttc him ail 10 tbo moruU of tho si.Fitrt>: 
Work*, ii. 1711) hrou|{ht imt at Dnirv Ijine 
bis tivaody of the > Itoman Father.' It is 
foandeJ more or Iron (III romcille's 'Horace;' 
bniUomit^lbi'part of IIornciii.s'1* wif.'.»i.*ifr 
to lb" Curiatii, and it wvkn 10 centre llie 
iatoreit in irDratiun't father, the character 
playvd byOnrrick. Thoush it w»«a theatrical 
SurcPSA, thiitlTafcisl^ i« but n p'>or piece of 
literary work, and in execution ont' of llie 
kaat aooquate of Whitehead's iierfunuunou. 
Hia second traf;i>dy, 'Cr(it>>ui, Qiiwn of 
Athens' (fir«t actt-il on -JO Apri! I7ftl),« ny 
cut of the Kuripideiin ' Inn,' with the anpi^r- 
nalural elotui-ol Kinii tiil, l* far »ii|)eTior to its 
pfwiecvasorinKkilfuIneasof con*tniclionand 
in dignity of ilyltr, and dwerres tbe lugb 

praiae bestowed on it by ftorace Walpol* 

(lo John Chute, Letten, cd, Cuoniiiftbam, 

li. 3^:!) and by Mason. Thenv coiistitute 

I Wbiuihead'soiilyoaMiysin the traj^c drama, 

' unless tbore atiould bu included in tbeui the 

j mihttr clurur biirleMitie, 'tragedy in tb» 

I beroic taste,' of ' Faial Cfnistancy," or Lore 

I in Tears,' spoken in inonologiie by the hero. 

A |win>tly with a more seriouii purpoac i« 

the cuy idyll, ns it wonld perbap)! bo called 

I in thtfse dayif, of 'UTie fiweepem, written in 

blank voru. In fonu Whitebtriid'H vena* 

' tility was remarkable, and ubuut this timo 

he proditcod a smn of tales in (four-root 

iambic) venu.', iiom«lhiiig in tbe manii>^r of 

IVior, but more nearly p'-rhajiit in that of 

l<a Fuiiiaint-, wbicl; possess derided merit of 

their kmd. Such arv ' Vuriety, a Tale for 

1 .Married People;' 'The Goat'a BMrd,' a frwi 

\ vxpviiitiun of une of I'tuednu'n fables, which 

playfully disem««-it the ijiHjntion of L-tjiiBlity 

btftwut.!! the sexes : aiidotberf. These, with a 

. number of vtr* ih toeitif and compliuivutary 

pieees, make up an agrvivablc variety uf ml»> 

c'dlaiu-oiis Terse; and it would have been 

fortunate fur Whitehead's posthutnmii. famo 

had li« not been called upon to put a prtt- 

t«-nlioua Xao to so unpretendinf; nu e<lifice. 

He wrote fittl* )u pnjse— a diBiiiiijition, of 

no moment, on the shield of .Y.neax, and 

a light essay or two for inpertion in ■ The 

World.' Ill .Iiina l"ii-l be ttccampiuiied bis 

pupil, l.^rtl Villient, luid I^oril .\unt4iaiu, llie 

el<fest son of the Karlof Jlarcuiirl. lo I.eipr.ig, 

A tour in Ciermnny and Italy followed, and 

tlie travellem dtd iiol rvturu'to Kniflnnd till 

Ibi'ttutumn of l7oti. The ' Klptriea' in which 

Wkii«head vuminemuratcd iheir visits lo tho 

mausoleum of AiigiiHiuR and other place* of 

inivtvat have not permutu'nily added to hia 

poetic- famifj but thpy wen- not inoppor- 

tuuely written. While still in Italv Iw 

bail l»i'>n HppoinlfHl by \\i» Duke of I^ew- 

CMBtle, ihnMighthe influence of l^dv Jersor* 

to the 'two grntMl pateut placea uaually 

iimtiil' of M.'LTetary and ntfjistrur of the 

order of Ibe Uuth; and when, in fVcemlbor 

1757, Colley L'ibb^r puKted away, the Uuke 

of Uuvuiisbirv, as lord cbutriberiain, otferv^ 

to W Uitebwid the poet-luuruatesbip. which 

hud been previoii.sly rftfuxcd by Umy [**« 

Ukav, Tkomah]. The latlff was to bare 

been pflrmifted to hold it an « Hin>-cure; but 

Whitvbend'a muse waa called upon in the 

iiauAl WAV. and execulM henwlf in % sffries 

of hirthduy odea extendinff over lanrv tlurn 

a (juarter of a century, us well as of special 

vflu)ii()nf> nil occasions aiich hh a peace or a 

royal marrin^e. .\ selection of iho birthday 

odea is published in the poet* worka, but 

cannot be said to call for poethumous cri- 




Udam. In his own day llm »erii» ai lojge 
wtjtvixltwc] with much unfriendlk comment. 
Jolmsan, whn aevmit to have Cult no [inr- 
ttcular ^ntitiuK- to Wliiif-liniid for buTuig 
helped t^ maki? the plan m' his dictionary 
known lo ChMt«rfieId (BoswBi-i,, f.i/''. «"■ 
J. Birkbeck Hill. i. 184 ; see nlfio Havkuvh, 
Life, Slid edit. 1787, p. 176), coin|)inwl Cib- 
ber** birthdny ode* with \Vliil<-hcad*s, In tho 
dittdranugfl of thukit«r: for'p&ndnoQ- 
Mose is iiiaapporrubl<> ' (i'6. t. 40*2), Jnbn 
fiyroii][q. v.], ibt' Luncashln) poet, in 17&S 
coupled Wbiit^head'a ' Veraei to the l\;oplc 
of England ' wilb Alii^neide's ' AiTptal to cht! 
Coiinlrv (irntli'iiirn of Knirlniid us ilUiatra- 
tive f>f tlio jiiifioUm of ibe liour (Poemr of 
Jnhn B^rom, printed for \\w rin-llmiu Hoc, 
18&I, i. 4A!»), (^liiircliill, whohadBiiddenly 
Bpniug into fame and wns beEiuntng to pour 
forth volume aftvr voUimt' iif furiou* inYeo 
tive, in blf. iii. of 'TheOtioHt' (i7rti'i uikk 
Btrophispd tW Iaiire»te Bs 'Dulnt'^is nnd Mi— 
tliod's dnrlini; 8on.' WTiitchpad but once 
mtidt' a public reply lo tbrae unJ other aHiiiks 
in • A t'hflrjie to ilie I'opts" (lir.*t printed in 
1702). which iulroduws iwA^ <ia a eori of 
•epiuel to his i-arly poem on ' Tlie Danpr of 
writ login Verse ,' anil, in iLu hu moron* form of 
Kchsr^.- from I he Iniinrale ro his brol her poets, 
very rensoiinblv and verj- piK>d-hiiiii'>un.>dl_v 
explaiiiK and dvfeuds Lii> imhIiIih). In 'A 
Pflthdtic Apolof^y for all Ijiureiiiea. paet, 
prp«ent, uuu to coioo,' privntslj' circuUlwd 
nraon^ bis friends, he put rhe mntrnr Rtilt 
morvpliiinly, mil] with the same modesl bon- 
himiie. Anil whi^llier or not Iip nctiuillv 
cherlshi'd thi^deeiKnof r(>plyiiifl;lo Churchill 
in II lonpiT jKx^in, he wa* wi»«? M>on;?h m-vcr 
to cany it out, though iLufrajrmi-nts which 
niniin axv in pnrt i^nuroua aswvll Aa eaacQ- 
tUlljr juft in fipiril. 

In tlie year 111 which riinrpliill Imd Nought 
to write tio'ivn thn lAiireat4> dunci! and fool, 
ha hod produced at Drnrv Lami on 10 Fclj. 
hiBcomedy of 'The School fnr Lovers') t76i!j, 
■wbici) has lK»eM frroneouely supposed to bt- 
loug to the suociea called »L'ntimentAl comedy. 
Thii life of liiu pluy is to bo found in the chn- 
ractun nf Arauiinia and Modcly, which ii«' 
genuinely comic. M'hilu the formw i^ also 
The miccMs of this eomady (which was rw- 
vivwl in I??'! and 1794) ■pi-mit to ba»B iu- 
onaaed fiarrinrlc'B ronfidenco in Whituhcad, 
Tirho in the following veum oflieiiilml an hi« 
'reader' of plAyx. When in 17fi7 Oarrii^k 
■WHS hwitnling aa to theprr>duclion <if fluid- 
smith's 'Uoitxl-naliuvd Man,' h« prcvpoBfd 
Whil«In«ad, who for some time Bctcd m 
render of new plejn for 7>riiry Lane, ro him 
as arbilmtor in the difficulty--' of all thu 

mamijfaf'a ali^hia to tha poet,' Recording to 

the biograph'^r uf ihn loLtnr, Ihat which wm 
'forgotten Ihb*' ^Fouhtkb, I^e and Tiwus 
of Olivrr GiAdrmilh, ftth ifdit. lhTLii.41). 
On ti Jan. 1770 Whitehead's ' Trip to Scot- 
land' W8» performed at Dniry Lan?, which 
may btt OeMnbcd as a farc« ending lik« an 
ext ravngann. 

For mflnv voar» aftn hit Ktiim from the 
continent XVditiihi^ remained the weloonu 
houaehidd friend of I*ords Jersey and Ua^ 
court, and nv^idt'd in the town houftu of the 
fcirmi-r,Hndin the kumineral -MiddliitonaDdal 
Xuneham, of which frequent mention is made 
in his vento, and wliciwiomv linM by bim on 
the gnrden^r, Walter (Mark, are fltated as 
still to be s(^en in the groundu- Af^er ths 
death O'f Lonl Jcrwr in ITtiS, ami the accc** 
MOIL to the litlu of Iiis former pupil. White- 
bead occupied apartments in I.^ndoQ, but 
Htill kept up hia inlirascy with )y»h families. 
lu 177-1 hecollected bis worksin I wo volumes, 
under the title of ' Plnya and lAietmi.' A 
trafft^dy, oflwrvd to (iarrick. but iwwr pub- 
Ibhed ; the first ai^i of in "(Kdipus;' end one 
or two other dnitnatiu frogmvnta were found 
ntnonj^ hi^ pngxTS at llii? time of hitt death, 
which took plaoe in Charles 3t reot , Oroarenor 
Square, on 14 .Xpril 1785. 

A complc^ti,' edition of Whitelbead'ii wwnu, 
with a good memoir by his friend \\iUiam 
Atason ( I7;!4-17!)7) [q. v.], was published at 
York in 17s8 (3 vols. 8vo). A half-knglb 
lifi'-*itrd iKirlmil of Whilebead waa pain(«d 
by It. Wilson (fa/. Guetph Bshih. No. 238). 
.\nolher, |mint«d bv W. Doiig-hty in 1776, 
was engraved by Collyer, and prrflxed to 
vol. iii. of Mason's edition uf WhitehesdV 
' Work*." 

[Memoirs by Mason in eallc<.-te<l edition of 
WhitrhnuH'ii I'oami, 3 voU. 1788; Ctialn>ra'a 
EiiicLixh I'oRt*, I'ul. xvLl.iGcnMlBSompAccaaat 
of ihn Kn^linh Strkg«, vol*. Ir. and v.; Dojla's 
OJllckl litrouimp.] .4. W. W. 

WHITEHORNE. [See WuiTlloasB.] 


horologer, bom at Congleton in Ohealura 
on 1(1 .April 1718, waa the onn nf John 
Uliituhurst, a clock and wntch maker of 
thnt plafi'. Hi* i-nrly ediivation wa.* Might, 
and on leaving school h« wag bred by hia 
father in his own trade. Ili« father, who 
wiu a mnn of iiuiuisiiive tuni, uncourased 
bim in his paisinn for knowledge, which led 
him at thon^^of twcnlvoiu: lo vi«it Dublin 
in onbr to inHpecl a clock nf curious con- 
struction uf which he had heard. 

About 17-*^ be KnlHfml into business for 
himself at Derby, where he aoon obtainM 
great empluymeut, distJuguUhing himself 




bv consTnietiitft Aereral in^niooa pieces of 
tawlianietn. BvtMdt;^ 'Hbcr work* Ite tnailn 
tli^ olftck for ihft town-hftll, and in reward 
v&s enrolled as a burgees on 5 Sept. 1737. 
IlealM mudv tliorniometcrii, barometerti, nnd 
other pbiloaopiiical luslmments, and inte- 
reatad himaelf id contriring wiilcrwork*. He 
WM consutC'.-d in uluiost uvery undt.-rtakiug 
in Derbjiiliirf anJ iti llie neighbouring coiia- 
lieain nrbich slcill In mG)clLanice.piicuDi&tici>, 
Olid liyimiiltcN w»R r<H|uinid. 

In ]77ij, fto the pasange of the Ml for tlu' 
better n-gtilntiriii of Ibe g<)ld coinHgn, witli- 
out ftDV toliritaliori nn lii.i part hu was ap- 
potot«a •tatupt^r of tUe nnjney-wfiiglil*, i>n 
the rccomnnfiidatiim of ih* iKike of Npw- 
eoAtle. lie removed lo London, whiTe tbb 
rest of his lif« wsw pn»»cd in pltili^npUic piir- 
ioiu, and wlicn.' Uw liou»t.« in Uolt Court, 
Fl«t Wirwil, formerly the alwJe of Judim 
Feiif^son (1710-1770) [q. v.], b«cain« fhe 
eooManl rL-^uri of m«ii "of <«cience of everjr 
Dktion and rank. In 177^ hD piiblisbcd hi» 
'Iiujuirr intu thi> Original iStati; AiidForma- 
tion of thi" Kurlh' (London, 4lo), of wbicb ft 
second editi^in apppartd iu i7t<'l. cviusidur- 
ably enlarged nnd improvt-d; and a tbirtl, 
after hisdcath. in 179:;?. Thu original dusign 
of this work, wliich h* b»gan l» jin-pnrr 
■wbik' living nt. IVrby, was W faciiiuite the 
discorery of valuable minerals benrotb tbtt 
eartb'a Aurface. He piirfttir^d bis r««eiu«hro 
with $o mucb ardour ttuit Uiu exposure be 
ini-unvd Iciuli^d to impnir bia healtb. 

On 13 May 1779 lie was plwctcd a fellow 
of tile Itoyal Society, nnd iti 17S3 be waa 
•enl to ••xftinint! tbi^ (]iiinl'»4 Caiigowny and 
the volcanic mmains in fb* iiorlb of Im- 
land, i-mbodying liia obtien'atioiis in tliR ae- 
ooiul edition of bifl 'Inquiry.' About 17f*4 
he contrivcid a flvMcm of voiitilation for Ht. 
Tboma«V Hospital (IIkrnax, Uiatoiy and 
Art of Wnrminff and f'eiitiiatioa, 1»45, ii, 
70). Xa 178" lio publisliwl 'An ACtumpI 
tnwuni* obtaining iuvariablu .Measures of 
I>>ngth, Capacity-, and AVciglit., from tlw 
Mviisuration of Time' (l^ndon, jtoi. Start- 
ing on tlu' (Luunnprion that thn length of n 
wcond pendulum in tb« latitudt* of I.'indon 
«a» 9&-2 incbos, hr di^'diicc'l that tbe b'ligtb 
of one oaciUating fony-ivfo timeii u minute 
iaa^ty incbea, wbile tliatof oniM^Mfiltntin)? 
twin w many Uiavs i« twoury iurbe»i. The 
diffiarence bi-tuvw^n tbeae two lenjilhs would 
thrreforv be exactly fivu fi'ul. Hu fuund, 
llowKYiT, upon fX|ifrinii»nt l.bnL tht; actual 
difference waa only fiO-SOi incbra owing to 
ttie real length of the pendulnm, oitcillai ing 

3C6 a second, bi'ing •3]l'l:J<} inclici, lIo 
lined roughly, however, dsia fmm wbirli 
true leogtlu of penduluinR, the spaces 

through wbicb heavj bodiM fall in a given 
tirnt*, and itiniiy hiIiit pjirlicular« DL-Iatiog to 
ib>> force of gravitation and th*; trne figure 
of I lio Lwrth, could be de<)u«Nl. 

Wbitehiuai died at bis houM in Bolt 
Court, Fleet Street, on 18Feb. 17^8, and wa» 
infi^rnvl iH'sidt' bi^ wifi> in St . Andrew's bury- 
ing-ground in Uray'a liin Hoad. On 9 Jan. 
174ft b« married Elizabclh, daiigbft-r of 
liijorgfc Givilon, rector of Trutk-y nnd Hal- 
bury in Derbyubtre. llw liud nu surviving 

\Vhitfbun>t'ii portrait, vngrnved by A. 
Smith fmm a painting by .lowpb Wright, 
wwt bv W, lleilt on 10 Oct. 178** 
(cf. t:at. .%r"«rf T^iftn Krhih. No. 7U>. 
Another, piiinted by Joseph Wright and m\- 
gravf»d by lUll, is prHixt^d to Ins ' Workii* 
(Bkomlby, p. 3U<i). Ilia 'Woris' were 
edit<?il by Obarles Kution [<]. v.], with a 
miitnoir (London, 1792, 4to). In i7i)4 Ito- 
bert Wiltati [<j. v.] ^■diled from bis papers 
*ObB«rrationa on tof- Ventilation of Itnomn, 
ou Chiinueyy, am) Uardcii Stoves' (London, 
4to]. A colk-ction of lii* 'Tmi-tx, 11ii]o»o- 
pUiL'til und .Mcckanicul,* was piiblifihid in 
IHl'i (London,|. Tbrw of bis papers 
first ap|H'are<l in the ' Traiisactiona ' of the 
Itoynl Society. 

(Mcmuir bj HuttoD, preGieil lo Wliiieburst** 
Works ; Eurwjumn Mag. 818-20; Qeni. 
3Ia«. I'fili.i. 18:2. 363; Unirsrsal Mag 1788. ii. 
2a A-tl.1 E. I. C. 

itatlstiviuu and iiLJluiitkropiat, wiut a nativo 
of county Ldlrim, wln-m b« wiia bom in 
l"4t». IK- enU-rud Trinity rolltigf', Dublin, 
in .July 17(iO, Iwraino a ecbolar iu I76U, und 
graduated B.A. in 1771. Hw etudiod for tlia 
church, and «fti<r bis ordination became tutor 
to thff Karl of IM^'atli, who presented him 
with the living of .St, Juraus's, Dublin. He 
eoon aftt'm'ftrna obipiincdthemort-mnannera- 
tiveJivingof Sl.CaihuriiiuBin the.4anif>riry. 
His di'cp interest in tlm jwor pi-nple living 
in the *Ubi;rtiBB' in hia immedinii- neigh- 
bourhood led bill) lo ftjrm wivt-ral cbarilablo 
infililiiliong. the most useful of which was 
tbi- Mfiith cluirilnbh* lonii, founded in 1»*0(J, 
which proved of immense wrvicc to tbe 
wenriiri'ort hi- Coonibe during very dint reMing 
pprindft. Mainly owing to bis strong repre- 
eeutntioiis the trustees of (ho Kro^Jiniis Smith 
fund in IS04 albjcnt^-d i!,(>UO/. to th« founda- 
tion of a *i;boo[ in the Cooinbe, at which 
foor children were giveji fri-n rducntion. 
to wuK iipuuintod onu of the governors of the 
L'barler ^cboolmif Irrlniid, iind bv liis energy 
and unwi-tirii'd alttfntinn to ihf intcaT*ts of 
th« poor li.- wiw enabled greatly lo improve 
their working. 




IVrhap* Km moat, impart int wrrice WM 
h'la oeasuii of tliu city uf Dublin, which he 
UDckrtook ill I7H8, >ail carried thmii^h tae- 
ceesfully in th« fucv <tt muuv flilliciilties and 
daiigcTK, uublifhirig tbe nuiilu of hii iRTafr- 
tigiition in 180.') in hU ftdmirable ' EaMT on 
the lV.Diil»ti«n of nublin in I'SW' (UuMin, 
8vi>). rpid<>m]C diseaMA wt^m tlieti frequent 
in Dublin, but, uad«ternMl by tht» fmir of in- 
fection, he personittly innpeci^d ewry hooM 
In tliu ciiy and qut-fttioned nearly every in- 
habltant, Ilitburto tlio extent of tb« pcpii- 
Ulioii had been only vagiii.>ly conjectured. 
Ue found in one houM a]on« 10s peopto. 
Tbo govemmnit ordorcd iho letinlta ofbis in- 
qniryto be printed, whil» the original papen 
were deposited in DublinCutle. luloOShu 
wu niQO onr of tlip invmbvnt of th« cotu- 
tnisAion to inqiiiiv into the conduct of the 

Saving board nf Dublin. Ilo rewiwd from 
oln Law (1741-181(1) fq. t.1, bUhop of 

^Etpliin, the valuable living of Ckstlerao^b, 
wmcli li* was alloweil to hold jointly with 
that or8t. CftthorincV. Ilo died at a malig- 
nant fcviT, contracted while risiling ]mx>c 
parishionrtrs, on 4 Fob. 1313. Thi> govonk- 
uuriit, conf'Tri-d a ptruiion of 'iOOr a year 
upon hia widow. 

Tliii work with which WhilelawV nam« 
is miwt fri'ijUBnllr auociatvd is tho valu- 

Lftble • History of Dublin,' in which hi; col- 
Lbonited with .Inhn Wsrbnrton, k-fju-r of 

'th« record* in Dublin Ca»tl«. Worburton 
did llii> moro ancient portion of the work ; 
Whilfllftw undertook thi' modpm part. Both 
\Vhil«law u-ud Warbiirlon died, however, 
before it WAApubliflhcd.nnd it was completed 
liy Robert WaUb [q. v.] Ii wa» publifhctl 
inlfllfi in two largo ijunrto volumM. White- 
law's otlinr works ir« ' Pan-ntal SoliciludD ' 
(DuMin, IRIWIP, 12mo); 'A Kyatera of Qi^o- 
prnnhy,' nf which thn raapa onlv (i-n^vod 
by nimself) were publishwl ; urul ' .\u Ewnr 
on the best nn:tliod of (iRccrtainine Areas 
of Countries of any comidomble Extt'Ut ' 
(* Tranaactioni of Itoyal Irish .VcAdomy,' 
vol. vi.) 

nVbtioUiv .ind WHlfth't I[>*t. '>f Dublin, vol. i. ; 
Alllbono'« DioU of l-it. ; Wnlili'ii Oompagxlium 
of Irish Bio^iapby ; tSilbortV Hi*u of Diiblia ; 
Ragiater ot Trinity CoUfgt. Dublin.] 

D. J. O'D. 
1676), koepor of tlu- ftr-nl wsl, i-ldfit mm of 
Sir Jatiie* Whitnlnrli.* 'i-[. v.] and Klien.Ix'l.h, 
daughter of Edward Dulelrodi,* of liydgerley 
Bulatrodc, Bucl[ingbAmBhir(>, woa bom at 
his uncle 8Ir Oeorgs Croke's house in Fleet 
Street on 6 Aug. Iti0.>,and pliriotenwd at St. 
WutisiiiCKB, Li&rr Fauuiieiu, p. 15 ; Cbf- 

leetatua Topt)frauAie« tt Omralayic*!, r. 
3tJ0). n« was admitlfd to M-T.-hftnt Tay- 
lora' school in Itllo, utii] tnatnculat^d at 
Oxford on 8 Dec. )6iH) oa a nvniber of 
St. John'o Ci.lhjgn {I'wenii, Alttm/ii Oj»- 
lUTJMM, i. 1620). Dr. Paraons was Whit«> 
lockn*s tutor, and Laud, who was th^^n pre- 
atdent of St. .Tohn'* nnd waa tu» fathera 
frivnd, took p^nt inleruu in hia oducatioD* 
whiiph Whitclocke »iibs>.'<inenLlv requitodby 
rcfu*inji to tuku jwrt in the proAHution of 
tho arclibiihon iMfmunaJs, i. 21fl). He re- 
created hinuelf with music and field sporta, 
joining other tnamban of the coU^e to 
maintain a paek of beagles (R. H. WnrrB* 
lACKH, Memoir* of IfuUtrodr HTiitelodu, 
pp. ti-ll). Wbileforke left Oxford wilhoat 
a d«vr«v, and wax called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple in li!3il He repr«aeot«d 
StaHbrd in the parliament of l(t26. At 
(7hHittmn» I(1S8 ha was chown maeterof tho 
revslfl and trea^nrer of tho Middle Temple, 
and in 1633, when the four ioos of court 
joined togrtbcr to perform a maaqiM befon 
the king tind queen, uv and hiti friend Edwatd 
Hydo r.-'prcwntod the Miildl«i Titmple oa 
the commitlvo (<'A. [ip. aii-&2; MemnrieU^ 
i. 31, 53-«2). Whit.-livk.. had 'the whol« 
care and eharg« of all the ntuic for this 
groat maaque, whifh was so performed that 
it MCoUed anv tniifac that eT^^ b«>foro tliat 
liiui" linii been'lmard in England.' But while 
diHtingin.shing himself socially \w did not. 
fors^t his profaatonal studios, aa to wl^h 
Scluen g&Tu him valuable ndric*. He be- 
came about lUSl ncordvr of Abingdon and 
counsel for the corpomtion nf Henley. In 
1633 hv v^iEimed by feed no lew than' 310/., 
which dropptxl, liowewr, Xn 46/. in lli« fol- 
lowing year, when he was no longw baiaked 
by bi» fnthcr's inRuence ( WhitewckB, Jfe* 
moin of H'hitflactif, pp. 7i, 90). 

Whitelocke had married in 1030, hut lus 
wife bccaiAL^ insane shortiv a(t«rwanls, and 
in 11)34 he plac«d her under the core of a 
doctor, and trHvelled to ulluviiite his ntelan- 
clioly. At Paris hfl was received with great 
favour by Cardinnl Itichelieu. and offered 
the command ofa tronpofhor^e in thw French 
service. R»turningtoEoglaQdinJuDal634, 
he roaumL'd bis practice, earned sonte local 
reputiition by a speech aa chairman of thd 
Osfordshiro qiiartdr aaaiioDS, in which he 
vindicated thejurisdictlon of the civil against 
the eoclcsiaatical coorto, and morv bv op- 
poaing the extennion of Wychwood Forest 
in tho interest of the grntlciovn of the COUDtV 
(ii.pp.lOi-9; MeinonaU,t.fi7,70). Having 
thus becouiH |iupu!nr, li<* was elected to tho 
Long porlininent an mt'mhcr for Marlow, and 
took from tbe flivt a prominent port in its 



pmc-ndinn. Hi* waa clutinnMi of tlie com- 
micteR wnicb maiui^ tbc prowentton of 
Strair'^rd, anil wiut t<|>«cially ''iitnutcd witli 
llincAndtirt c>f aniclfifl oinetcn U) tvnmty- 
tour of tbo chafRv (Rubhwobtu, Triat qf 
tAf Earl f/ Utraford. pp. lOO, 620, .W2; 
BilLLiE, Letttrn, i. :^7). StnlToTd told n 
friend, aptrakini; of tlie cotnmittru thiiV 
mniiAged ibe evidence n^nst liiio, ilim 
UIvii Bud Ma>-nard osw] bim like ndvocatM, 
but Palmiir and Wliitelocka uhxI him I'lko 
gr'ii<l<-m<-n, and vet l«ft oal nothing material 
tn bp urped ai;ain!^t him {MemtinaU, \. 113, 
l!!4, I^). \Vhitvl»cl:i' nbio urvpanul Iho 
hill Af^inat the dlMohiiinn of thn f.nn^ par- 
liament without its own consent, supporlvd 
and added an amondmcnl to th*; ' ki""'' ^- 
nwustnuice.'aDd look pan in the proctteding^ 
ugainat the i)l«>f{al canons drawn up by Mm- 
Toctttion (Vkbsbt, AVm of the Ljtiff Par- 
liantent, pp. 7'2, 84 ; FoiiarBK, Gratis Re- 
taoutlranot, pp. S.fO, *i'i>. 

Ill fVbruary 1042 Whil<'Iockc iiiude a 
Irimmlnff ipe«ch on thi> militiuqUHtion, lu- 
KL'itUig tliv authority uv«r it to Ihi joiully in 
kinf[ and parliitnii-iil, following up thiH \>y 
a njMH<cb QgaiuHT miaing an army in July 
{MemimaU, \. 1IK>, 177). Itut i\n* ilM not 
prcAtrnt him from bttcotnin))' a di^puty lieu- 
tenant both of Buck ingba ma hire and Ox- 
fordshire, from finnlly prL'V*>ntin)f the i*xfi- 
eulion of t hi) kind's oommisxion of array, and 
ftom raining troojM to occupv Oxford, lie 
urged Lord Ssye to make t^t city « |W> I 
liamMilary gamann, and was himiiplf pnv 
poeed ax governor as beinf; one wliom * the 
city, ihfl univernity, and th« conutry t-lwrw 
abotilA did well know and wft)ild bf pWaed 
with,' Save, bow^Tur, dcotioed to fortify 
thcford (.■*.' i. 171. 180, I83>. Whitclocke's 
suhawiu'-nt military ieirieea were (light. At ' 
Brentford, in November \GV2, he marclu^d ' 
with Iiampdi>n'a regiment (i^. i. W'2). In j 
1G44, whim lh^ Bi>*ncialion of thf three 
ounties of Oifnrfl, Kurhinerbam, and Bcrka , 
W«», Wbiieloclii' m'R!* one of it* | 
gcnvmne. committ»-, and wo-t nronoaed to 
oomnuna its ruroea, bat declioea (i&. i. S64, 
', aofi, 311. 616; RtiRHWoKTri, v. K73). 
H« become instead (^Vtirnur of Henley 
and of bis own houM at I'hylliA Courts 
which was nuidi.> a garriwn. .\i> Iiik houHP 
at t'awley had Ixwn occupi**il utid plundered 
by Princo Kupert in th'.' aniumn of ltf42, 
Um dumagtt caiicei] bv th>* irar to hta pnv 
pertT was very conftiderable {MnnoriaU, i. 
188.' 214, 407; ii. M. m, 62; Whitei.ockb, 
Memoiraff Whitflitrkf. \\. ySO). \\'hitplocke 
wa» on tolerably intimate terms both with 
I'^MX and Fairili.\. FVi-x, wlinra he fre- 
.^uently prabc*, ooofialTed him in l>ecember 

1644 on the feaaibiiity of aeruning Cromwall 
»9 an Incendiary, a coufh! whif^h ^Niiitidocke 
deprecated (J/nwurtVifa, i. 320. 31^1. Whitp- 
lockv spoke against the a^lf-dt-nying ordi* 
nance, but C'larvndon deacribes bim a« iu- 
etnimental in petling it passed (ib. i. 3oS; 
JRrAfilinn, viii. 2UI>. lie claimed kinship 
with the Fairfax family, was pn^wnt in Sir 
Thomas Fairfax'* army durinjr the si*^- of 
UsLfonl in Itj46, and was admitted by Sir 
Thomaa to his council of war (.WemortaU, 
ii. lU, 4a). 

ThtouffhOHl tbo 6rsi civil war Whitelock^t 
dt!«cnbe« himself nj« 'industrioualylabouriug 
to prumotv nil overtures for peace/ H* 
wa« one of lhi> wight commission um aent by 
pArliameni t^ the kinji; at Oxford in Jaauaiy 
will Miin-li 1(113. In the springof IftM he 
mndp a sp.?«ch nt^giug that fresli overtuw* 
should he nwdft to iho king. In November 
lft44 he was affsio sent loOxford to arrangfl 
the pratiiDiiianefl of a treaty, and he wai 
one of the parliamviilary commii»ioners at 
UxbridfTfi in January IBifi, where be gained 

?r«at honour nmun^r bis friends by aricceet- 
ully rnmhftting Hyde's armiments abont 
the mililiu (Mrmon'trk, I IflT, IPO, 246,331, 
382). Hyde, in liit narrative of this trvaty, 
deecribfs WhiteJocke oa one who bad from 
the beginning concurred with tha pTecby- 
terian luadera * without any inclinatioii to 
their person* or priitciplea,' the reason being 
that ■ all his estate was in their quartun, 
and he bad a uatun that, rould not bear or 
submit to be undono.' Yel be sluoerely 
diJBJrvd peuoo, and ' to his old friends who 
wore coinniUsioners for the king ho used liis 


intimacT with Hyde excited suapicioa, and 
in Jul V 1 ftl5 Lord Savilo accused Whitelocke 
and Holies to tb>j parliament of trMsonable 
communiir^A lions with the king and bis 
counsellors during ihttnejroliations of !fU4. 
Hut parliament nc<]uitt<.-d both (21 July 
]64*j'), and gave rh^m permission to prose- 
ciitw thi^ir accuser {Memorialt, i. 33B, 886, 
4f»"-ai; B*Ti,r-iF,/>«^r*,ii.303; Vammonf 
Joumah, iv. yiJ ). Whitclocke was nno of 
the thirty Uy mL-mbcrs of the OKSeniljy of 
divines (12 June H!43). and both in the 
a9»i-mbly it-self ond in tlio House of Com- 
mons pemtstenl-ly combated the- view that 
the preabjrterian "form of church government 
existed juir dirino. For that raamn he 
•aya ' I did not pass luicetisured by the rigid 
nmbyteriana, against whose design I wa^ 
neld to bo one, and thev were {HBased to 
tflrm me a di»ciplo oi Srlden and an 
Erastian' (Memorttttt, i. 200, 202, 337, 601, 



'006). He also incurred the ditplMsure nf 
Eh« eamv pnrlv by liis arguments in favour 
of tul^raliod {ib. II. **8, 1 IH). In May 1647, 
when ihe diitljaiidiiig of the ftnnr was undi-r 
dlMciiKsIuii, WliiifloclcB oppoied th(> nsii 
policy nf HoUm and \he iin-dliyterian ItiBdeto, 
nnd st^parntvd liiitiMtiir from thL'in in tlir' 
debates on l be subject, which, lii> &dd«, ' took 
Tery w«ll, and crvntwl n" int^iruMt for mi' 
wilB the oCh^^r pflrty ' (iti. ii. 146). llo wiw 
COIuequoutly 'courted' by Croiinvttll, and 
escaped impeactimtrnt in June ltt47 vbcn 
tlio army impeiicbvd tbe «li>ven inrnib«rM, 
alcliough one of thu chit^f charges ajtoinet 
HoUm wius that which Lord Savilp liad 
bnjugliL a^iinat Wliilelockc ti\m {ib. ii, 16:^, 
171. 17H; Old Pnrl. Hut. xvi. 701. Durinu 
thw troiibl«Kl -umm«r of 1(H7 WliilWocki- 
•tayod awny from the Ilour^'of Coiumoiis sii 
tniioh an pciafiibU-. and iivi>idt'd coiuoiitiin^ 
liinifieir to pitliitr piirlj l,MetnonaU, ii. 17^). 
1\\» rapidly irio.ri3ajiinjf legftL bust&esa, care- 
fully recorded in bis ' MMnorialn,' supplied 
him with n.n oxchm? for his abeoucv. Uii 
1& March UH8 Whitelocku waa appDinteil 
byporliamont onvof thi! four comtniBsioavre 
of tbi« (jPoal eeiil for one ysar wilh a salary 
of l.OIKK. In that cnpacity he swore in the 
newly uppuiulvd mrjeftDts-at-law in Nov*ra- 
lii-r liVlH.drlivi-ring tli^n and nt tliortwearing- 
in of Uhiof-hurun SVildt' long spwcbea on 
tudicinl antiouitii*" ( Mrmuriah, ii. i;78, 2H8, 
'290, 2m. 341, V2», 4 10, Ut*). TliroiigLoul 
the military revoliitioii of Di-cpuibi-r ItilS 
be continiifd to net in lii» judicial capacily, 
'gludof an holiest pret^-nci- to bti ■•xciwrd 
fmm app.--iiring in the house.' At the end of 
the month hv and his coUeacue, Sir Thomii« 
Widdrinn[1on[ij. v.],discii»«cclwitbCromwfU 
thasettltiment of thu nation, and endeavoured 
to frsmt* Mimi' compromise between pnrlia- 
TDpnt and array. Wbtn it was d'-oiued lo 
bring tb* kinff'to n public trial, Wliitelocke 
■was oni- of lh<t rommilUM appointed to draw 
up D. chaise and consider t!i« metbod of the 
trial, but declined to take any port in thu 
proC'wdinc*. ai^d purposely K-ft London till 
the trial bad bpgun. Hi!iitfit in the House 
of Commona during the progress of the trial, 
but nu tlitrdayof tht: Itiiic'* execution ho 
eaTB, * I went not to the Hou«e, but stayed 
all day nt liomi^ in mv study and nt mv 
prayers, in tUfi liopcs l^iat this day's worK 
miffhc nut so displeJWK God as to briim pre- 
iiioicc to this poor atflirted niittoti ' (.Vemo- 
riaU, u. 467, 477, 4M, 41*7, -I9H, .'.lO). 

Wiiitclocki- was elected a member of the 
couneil (»f utai^ of the republic, tbougb di^ 
rliiiing lb<.> nstrospeclivc approval of tbolati' 
proceedings whicn its menibtira were ori- 
Eiaallv required to express. IIo was obliged, 

however, to declare his disapprobatloa oftha 
vote of 5 Dec. 1648 daclarin)? thi' Idog'scun- 
ocfttions sufficient, in order lo retain hiit tewt 
in lh« iloutfe of Commons (i^. ii. 510, 527, 
65-}). Ilv op{>tiM>d, but in vain, llw abolition 
of tli» House of Ijunls, and had the duty of 
drawing llin act fur that purpose imposed 
iipiin biin {U>. ii. hiX). A new jrrvat sval 
n*iu> innilri, and Whitelocke was appointed 
one nf thfi tJireA commiMiont-rs with Li»le 
and Kebleas his collesgavs (8 F<>b. 1640). 
lie Justified fai$ conduct by the consideration 
that the husin(«a lo bi- undcrtak>.-u was ' the 
ffwcutioiL of luw and jiutice, without which 
men could not live one* bysaotber' (i&. tL 
oL'3). In thi« oHictt lie did considerable scrr> 
view to the republic by procurinf: an altera- 
tion in th« onth of tli>- jud|^>s which enabled 
thptn to act under the new ^vernment, 
driiwiny up a utiwlrenBon law, and attempt- 
ing fttiini- rrfornw in clianc»ry procedure. 
But he felt continually calU'd upon to de- 
fend thi- Imv nnd its practitioners again«t 
popular pn-judio<>, Miicoeeded in dcft^tlnga 
propoiuil to exclude lawyers from parliaiueut, 
jiMcl prrimni<'d the act forconductinf^all legal 
procwdin^is in Kngiish (i*. ii. b'16, iU, 31, 
49. 8S. IIB, 2«0). 

Id June 16&U VVlutelocke was oao of the 
comtnittee appointed to remove KitiH'ux'n 
scniplM about the invasion of Scotland, and 
in Snpt<'mlKir Ittol lin wus siniiUrly selected 
bv parliaroeiit lo ronpntulftiu Cromwell on 
bis victory nt Worcester (lA. iii. :^, itX)). 
{>nniwelf gave him a captured horse and 
two Scoiiitih prisoners as *a tol«m of his 
thankful reception of the parliament's can- 
Smtululiouf.' WLitclocliC rwords two Iobk 
conferences between liimseif and Cnimwulf, 
onu soon after Worcester and another ia 
>tnvember \^h2, in the timt of which he 
urginl the rt>?toration of the monarchy, and 
in tbii sw-ond recommended Cromwell to 
make terms with Chirli** 11, in preference to 
taking upon himself to be king, lo CODie- 
(Jn>:■^Cl^ of this Cromwell, according to 
whitelocke, wishing to g«t him out of the 
way, proposed to make him cliief commis- 
pioncr for tlu' govcrnnititit of Inland, and 
finallv ttvtit liini as ainboMndor tu Switlvn 
(ft. lii. 372, 431. 474). In April I66& 
WhiiHockn opposfil Croinweil's scheme for 
the dissolution of the Long parliament and 
the devolution of its autbonly upon a pro- 
vLiinnal council! created for the purpose (i*. 
iv. 4>, When Cromwell dissolved tna Long 
parlinment Whitelocke was one of theper- 
soni) be sptx:ially attacked ia hie speech to 
the house. He ut (Jescrilied lUi ' looking 
eouctimc« and pointing upon particular per- 
sons, as i:*ir U. Whitelocke, ita., to whom li« 




gave very sharp latiKUBge thougli he namtid 
them not, but by his ffftsture* it was well 
known that ho 'meant cliem* (1!ls.ncowk, 
Sydney J^pers, p. 140). 

For ■ few moaiha Whitolocfat- n-mainod 
ill Doinplete retirement, but in August lUiVl 
he hvard that tllo eoiincil of fttate iat«ndt>d 
ti> iiominat« him aa Kinhaiutmlgr to HwwK'ii 
in ploceofLardLiBlf.wbohudbeenfiriginnlly 
appoiatud. In the nuDit tliLttL'ririK («nDe 
(>amwell pressf^d V'}iiti>lnrk<:' to Accept tbt- 
post, and, morvfromftarof theonsequtinccfi 
of ivfiiMiie ihnn I'mm any desire for tlie dis- 
tinction, hti tioally accepted. Ou 14 Sept. 
hifl nominittioD woii approvi^d by parliatnt^ut 
(Kbbte, Juitmal of IViitflockfg Hwrduh 
JSmboMtf, 1. 15, an, lij). Kilt iiintriiclioiiN 
•uthofLwd him not only to latim a f^enerul 
(rt-uty of amity, but ti> Ciimplo uii ngrovtmsnt 
with Sweden for 6i?cunnff tlie fniiidoui nf 
thi> Souiid n){aiu£t l>L-iimarK and the united 
proviiioes (lA. i. So-90). Whitidocke saileil 
<]n Nciv. witha lurRt? roiinuis iind a .wiifidron 
of nix abvpo, ri'ui'liiiig (mll)i.>nbiirf;on lo Nov. 
Ue retumtid chiougb ( iennauy. liindinff of^o rti 
inEnstandon I .Iu)y UKV4. The treaty hi? 
negotiated, which w^a Ion;; delayed by the 
deain of th* Swedes to anait ihe upshot t>f 
tho pcAcn nvgiHiiktiotis between Kn^land and 
lIulfaiKl, and by ch^ tlitflcutlii-f whiuh ihu 
impeadin^ resignation of (^ueen Chrittina 
threw ID ltd way, was signed nn Sri April 
]r;<'>4, though dated II April lib. ii. IU8). 
In sulstatice it waa little more than a general 
»xpn'iwi<in of frifwd«bip Iwlween the two 
Btati'ji. Quefltinnfi nnch m the trade letations 
of England and Sweden, and the •Uffgtwti.'d 
alliance for cho freedom of the Sound, w«re 
dUcuaaed but po^t poued, and it wiu uoder- 
Btood that u Swedish ombaasodor ivas to bet 
teni 10 England to luttlu ihvm. DuHn^his 
uLoaion \Vhit«Ii>che ahowttd c(in<id*Tnbli< 
diptoiuatic iliill, and sacceedecl in ffainine 
thtf udenn's favour. Sin* freelv diacuBwu 
with him the atrair.i of Kurop*-, ih-; revolu- 
tions of Kiigiatid, iind her own intending 
abdication, and heplumei) himwlf on proving 
to tho SwL'disli court thai a puriinn coulu 
pOBBesa all thn gfraeca of a cava1i<?r. Uis 
self-Mtisfnction ia amusingly evident thruu^ti- 
otit hii> narrntive, but it« portraits of ChriH- 
tina,Oxenstienia,aud other nolahte pe^nvtus, 
mad its description of Swwifn and tho 
Swndea render it an authority of permanent 
mine, and it has br^-u tranNlatvd into 

Wlutflocke landwi in England again on 
July 16Si. and gare an account of his 
bassy u> the cuitncil of atato on July 
Mfmariah, iv. Il-'j). During his abaence 
<m England a new commi^ioti for tho 

custody of the great 8«»1 had bevn issued 
(April 1664), nnd VVhiteloclte, who wa« first 
uamod of llio thr«« commissiont-rs, was sworn 
inti) bis oiKce on 14 July 1ll'>4 (Rebvb, 
S}pftliih Embtufy, ii. '1Q3 1. At the opening 
of til" parliairit'ut of i£S.'>4. to which Iih was 
returned hy throu wiv»ml ci>iuliliivncio6 — 
BuckinglininahirH, Itt-Jfonl, aud Uia city uf 
t>xford— Whiiciocka carriod ihu purse he- 
fore the IVotector, Nnd iii hi* upHcung «pe«ch 
dwelt on the importance of the trvaty with 
Sweden, 'an houourable ].)«ftc«>, through the 
endeavours of an hfliioiirablfi pennn bere 
pn:»unt OA iheinatrument '(CaifLrtc, Vrom- 
uWy, Speech ii.) On6Sept.Whitelocki*gave 
a narnttive of liii> iK'i^iiutionfi (o the Loium, 
nnd waa votrd iJ.OOO/, for hi« services (Mt- 
iHitrialii, iv. 13"). In HifiJiilie Prwli-ciur and 
bis council patot^ an ordinance for the m- 
fonn iif the pmceduro of the court of chan- 
cery which Bcumcd obii."CttimuUe both to 
' It would be nf gruat ptwjudiee to the public,' 
argued WhitHlocko nti bi-half of both, and be 
had akoprivAt':! objections as lo the uuthority 
making tlie Uw. As their »cruril<'!!i could 
uot be ovcTComr hv argumeni., hotii worn ds- 
privcd of ibuir olhce on Ii June 1055 (itf*- 
mariaU, iv. tt>L-i>mS; CarU MSfi. Ixxiv. 60; 
ef. [nuiiuwiok, Thr lriterrrynum,yf.12A-'i). 
Whi)<-!nck<! had, howevi^r, been appointed 
nnv of the ciimmiseionurs of thu truiuury 
(t! Aug. lAVl), n.nd wa.* permantriiCty eon- 
rinued in that post with a salary of 1,OUO/. 

?« anmiin (.tfwKTWj/*, iv. 207; Col. State 
>ap<-r». Dom, 16fi4, p. 2SI). 
Ou 'I Nov. tItAfi Whit«iockfl wan Qamed 
on*? of Ihe coinmitt«e for tmdit fiTid naviga- 
tion, und he was fre«iuently consulted by 
the I'rni^ctor on foreign affairs. Tho 
negotiation of thi' iiouimiircial ine-aty with 
Sweden, C(»ncluded on 17 July l(5ot(, waa 
mainly trusted to bis lunde, and in Jauuur^- 
ltJ5fi te was much pr>?««ed hy Urumwidl lo 
undertake a second miesion to Sweden 
{i\tcmorial9,\v. 'iir.. 219. ?23-rft; Oukrx- 
sEtJoHBS, TA^ Hipfniaatii- Itfl/ifi'mtl/ftir^im 
Cnmweii and Chariex itiutmiu of Swfden, 
1H97, pp. I'M-i?). In thrt parliament called 
in 16'lj<l hu again represented Uuokinghain- 
fhirt-, and during the illness of ThomftS 
Widdrington ho lilW the place of s^ker 
for tUn-i.t wtieka, to the grviLt satisfaction of 
the hou^^e (IlLiii-roN, Pari. Diary, u. S09, 
375 ; MtmoriaUt iv. 1^80). Wbfu the 
humble petition and advice waa brought 
iu. aud parliamenl. invitrd the I'mfrctor to 
t.ake the title of king, Wbicelock^ waa 
chttinuaii of the comtnitlee nppointed to 
confer with Oomwell, in which capacity ho 
made frequent leports lo the houiie and 





»renil Rjtcecbes nrgiog Cromwell to aec«pl 
tho cron-n. It wsn hImuI lliii I'ltaf, BC- 
c^nting (fi liiB own alnl^meat, ihar. White- 
locke was moftt iotitnatrt with>Fnitnclor, 
who voiild l»e fnniiliftr with him in priratc, 
\tiy uide his ^re«tni')», ami mnko vi>rHi>s 
by w»T of diTcrsioii ( Mrui'irinln. it, 2^7-91 ; 
OW /'art. JIut. xxi. 015, 71, 11«1. In th« 
tt-reinonial of tlio lYotoclor's «*cofni initiigii- 
ntion Wbtu-lockii pInvcJ a conspicuoii!) 
I part; bo v/tut mimmoiied to tliu iii>w Ilon^o 
of LohIh (U Dec. 10-iT),aii<l il wu8 (^-mTnllT 
ntjKirted that hn wa« to bi* mn<l>* bnmii of 
Ilpnlwr, He etntt's that Cromwell nrtimllT 
si^«lapnt«>nt tomak^liiinii vis<-utiiil,<nliicli 
he wfiiswl (Me»u,riaU, iv. .Wt, SIS, AllS). 

Wlwn Uicliard Croniw«ll siicccvded hi* 
father, Whitcloclti' pri'-fir-nti'il thft conpuTii- 
latory address of Iluckin^bamHhire lo ibe 
new Protector. Kichn.rd, he ndd% ' hwl a 
partictilnr re«[icct for me,' n» ihe r^iilt of 
which, without any ■olicital ions of his own, 
"Wliilp!ocl(p wiw ni3;nin made n commisuoit^r 
oflhf frrut Mtil (l'2 Jim. Kl-'itt). In A^ril 
1(169 Uichard consulted him on thoquestion 
of dlaeolvinft the parliuoicnl thiiit Biuinn', 
which 'Whitx'locltn insfri-sl ually oppovd. 
He oonaidi<rud tbat the vounR l'rot«;taT 
wna bot-nLTcd by hi« nunr nOntinn* iind hy 
tbose of niA own council. *I wad wary,* 
lie concludes, ' what- to ndriiu^ in thU 
IBOialtcr, hut dcclarMl Tny jndgmont honft<tly, 
and for tho p)od of Hicnnrd, when luy 
advice was renuirtd ' (VA. ir. 'MT, 33&, 343). 
The fall of Iticlinnl did not avccfMrily Imply 
Mill fall of Wliilr-lorkii. Aa a member of 
the Long parliamtnt be took his place 
Bfjain in that nMi-mMv wWil il wmt rt— 
BtorpH, and was i^Wlixf hv it a member of 
tha new council of slnti- (14 May), He 
loM, liowftvf^r, ill'.' C'tmmiwtinnJTahip of tho 
jpvaf Heal, which was placed in new hands 
;14 MaT). I'nrlitinicTit phftr;p'H him to hTinj 
Jn a bili for the union of Kn^^lnnd and Scot- 
"" Dd, which it wBshfId nwflsaapytorft-enacl, 
' Rnd ofn^nnl him tlii' jiot>t of ambaMador to 
Sw(-dt'iJ, which 111" ri^nwed (I'A, iv, UTtl, DOS'). 
Ilifl enflmj". Thomaa Scott (d. 1600) ^q. v.]. 
Recused hitn of being in comH«pond«nct> with 
Charle-s II, bnt thp charp* wmi diseivditod 
(lA, iv. 319). In Anpist 1669 WhiHdoclie 
was elected pir-nidt-nt of llie conncif of ntnt..-, 
[lod, holding that pwt at the lime of Sir 
Gi!urf{i* llootIVs insurrection, was dnflblod to 
show favour to Booth and other royaltslj, 
which «oiid him iii jjood stead at ihe ICesto- 
ralion (ih, ir, 35"). Wlien tho army turni'd 
out tl>e Ijoni; pnrliiunfol. again (11 OcL), 
Wbitfilock.' was onn of the oommitleD of 
safety appointed by thr offiottm t" tiicewd 
the council of atate. Ac*ordinj to his own 

aecount bo aeeefUA the oaBt ofiercd him 
solely to prevent Van« and bis party from 
com|MU»ing the oTerthmw of roafriotrMj and 
niinistrv wbicfa the oflicers wero too mncli 
inclinwl to do {i&. iv. 3fi7 ; cf. Lmtow Me- 
inoirt, ii. Irtl. wl. lytM). He was appointed 
one of iba commitK^ lo draw up a scheno 
fur a new constitution (tit. ii. 119; cf.Jtfnno- 
riaU, iv. •t^'>'>. On 1 Nov. IGoO the great 
««al waa again commiltod to his kc_'jnn|r, and 
in n^ccmoLT be coosentsd to intnip writ.<t for 
a new pnrliiua«nt (i*A. iv. SflB, 373, 37o, 379, 
dM.t]. When Monck d«clar»d for the r»* 
»torulion of the Long jvtrliaineiu, 'Whilr- 
locke, in company of fjectwood and Des- 
Iwirou^h, made a s|)oi>*h to tli« lord mayor 
and riimnion council wsmiaff then against 
hia deaign.* {Old Petri. IlUt. xxii. 10). Ac- 
cording to his own acconat ba di»tnut«d 
Mouckt.hrou^'hout,\irf;ed Lambert to attack 
bim at nn«> instead 0I allowini: him to gain 
time by negotiating, and, liiially pvrceiving 
that h<> meiint to restore Charlea II uncon- 
ditionally, urged Flovtwood to anticipate 
him by oifering to restore tha king npon 
ti-rniH. Whiiolocko ofierwl to he Fleetwood's 
emissary lo Charles II himorlf, bnt, after at 
first consenting, Jleetwond drew back, and 
\\'hilel(v;ke« i>jnn was frustrated {.Memorial, 
iv. 378, 377, :i81). 

When the military revolution collapsed 
and tho Long parliamont was a second time 
restored, WImeliwhe fuund himsi-lf tn daa- 

fer for acting on tbo committne of saErly. 
[if eticuir 8cot threaf^nod to have him 
han^d with the givnt sMtl about liio neck, 
then; wa» n report that he would be neni lo 
the Tower, and evident signs of impending 
procecutlOEL To be out of the way he tp- 
li^>^^ 111 lilt' country, while his wife prepared 
for the worst by burning many of his papers 
lift. ir. 884, SUB; cf. Comnton'' JtmmaU, vii. 
820, 8S.S ; ClarmdM Utate J'apert, iii. 030, 
848), Ileoscapcd.howevr, all punJahmi^nt, 
and at the restoration «if Chnrli-s II he wa* 
cqanlly fortunut^.'. Clarendon rUiAaea to- 
gether Wbilelockn and .lobn Miiynard aa 
men who. though they ' did bow their kne«fr 
to IJaiil and %\\ swerve fniin tlieir olleipftOOC*, 
bad yot acted with less rancour and ma1)C» 
I lian other men ; tbey never led but followed, 
tind were ratlipr carried away with the 
torrent than swam with the *tr(!aiD'(£^r u/" 
Cht&>\iion, i. 63). This view was aeiieral, 
and hence, when Prynne moved that Wbitiv 
lockc should be excepted from the .\ct of 
Indt'iniiitv, thu motinn was nut carried 
(14 June'lflfWV Sir Ri.bfrt Howard, Sir 
fiuorge Booth, and other royalists who wenp 
under oblij^lton to him, spoke in his favour, 
and ic waa also nrged that be bad aont AOO/. 










to the idag, snd Uiat his son Jamcfl, who 
had b«m goremor of Lynn iti A\i(;ust ItVitl, 
had unOffTlfthpn to secure it for OhArlcji II 
(OH Pari. 7/.'»/. iii.347,3o2; ntClanndon 
tifate I'aftfrx, iii. -irS). AccnHinR to family 
trsdidon tho king demanded 90,(X)U/, from 
W'liiU-lockc for his panloti, and ^Vhitelul^ke 
Actually paid .10,000/. 'JTiii>, howi-vcr.tseon- 
tradkted bv Ibo dedication of Wiiil«lrjcke'ji 
hook. ' Wkun ii wiut in th« jmiwit of your 
malest y and iLe [lurpoae of ni'-n,' writ"* tJtti 
suthor, 'to havo token my small foniine. 
liberty, aiid lifr frnm nm, yoii wi-rx pltjused 
oat gnciouAly to ba^tnw on mf, nnd 
I rostore me to a wife and eixtwa children ' 
^WHlTBLO^KF-, .VMftoirn of WhiMo'^kt, pp. 
451-3). No doubt, however, h** paid iwrai*- 
thin^ to \ha kin^;, nnd iu bi« ' Annal« 'hF> 
s1«o mentioDR hiLvin^' paid .'00/. \u the Kurl 
of Berkshire ii;^ compensatii.m for ibe im* 
priftontDcnt of I^odr Mnry Howard in 16fil>, 
and 250/. to Sir Robert Howard for tli« 
benefit of the lord chancellor in ordnr to 
DQt his pordoa pas»L>d undur thu great seal. 
Durioj^ the r««t of hia lif'! Wliilvlwki^ lived 
in ntirement at Chilton Park, ut>iir llun- 
{Ffirford in Willshir.-, which hud been pur- 
chased witli hia third wifnV fortune. Tin 
di«d on 28 July 167r>, and waa buried lit 
Fawley, Riickin?h«mshin>, nr, uccordin^ to 
oth«r accounts iLt Chilton ( Wood, .<M^w«, 
iii. 1041 ; WuiTEiACKK, Memoir* of Wkttt- 
hekf, pp. 4JC, 444). 

Whitelr) mnmed thnw tinuia: Gr«t, 
in June 1C30. Ifehfcca, dau^ter of TlioniBa 
IVnuttt, ahlffmnn of J.ondon {Memoirx nf 
BuUtnde Whiteioela^, n. <io); xho becamj^ 
iiunuM and died on 9 Mav lit.'{4 (ib. p. ll>7\ 
Their eldcat aon.. Jumo.!. bi^rn on VA Jnlv 
1631, served in Cromwt-U'a arwnrd in 1pi*IbiiiI, 
woa chosan colo&el of an Oxfordshire militia 
le^ment in IfJfil, was kuightvd by \\i'> Pro- 
t«ctor on ti Jan. 1657, repn»ftputcd Ayl*-*- 
burv in thu iMirliaisviit of llUO, and died in 
170"i (.a. p.ei); Mfmi,riaU, III. If,, 13,'., .111, 

St2. 4l:{, IV. 338; Lb Xkvk, KniffhtJ>, n. 422). 
AVhit4"lot"i«« murrird, wt-ondly, on V Nov. 
]i)3fi, Franw*, nistpr of Francia, lorrl Wil- 
lougbby of Parham [g. v.], by whom he had 
nitui children (Mfmotrti, p. ]'JS). His eldcat 
eon by his second marriage, William Whito- 
lock«, cnt^-rtaincd Williaiu HI on his jour- 
ney to Loudon, and wa* knij,']iied by him on 
10 April ItitiD (Le NnVR, }l.42]). Hh« died 
ID IftiO, and Whitvlocko married, thirdly, 
about 1651, Mar^idaufcliirr ofoneCorlvton, 
and widow o( Rowland Wilson [q. t.] (.V#- 
fMoirt, p. 2H2), by wlniro he had four son? 
and aereral daiishters (Ln Nnrr:, p, AH'J). 
An account of the distribution of his pro- 
perty uoong thcM diScrent sons is givon in 

R. H. "Whiielocko'fi •Life of "Wliitolocko' 

{Mmujin, j;p. 4'»7-fl4). 

\r nnonymoiiB portmit of \V'hit<>locke 
w»» lent by Mr. 0<.'orp(t Whitelocke Lloyd 
to th^ Drat loan exhibition nr. .South Ken- 
sington in If-Wtt {Cnt. No. e2(f) ; it was yur- 
chosi'd by thtf tmstccsof the Nntianal IVjr- 
trait Gallery, Loudon, in lf*fl7. There am 
encTQTBd portrait* by Stent and Fnithonn-, 

Whit4.-loeke was & very volumiuotia writer. 
liia best known work, I. * Mt)inoriaI« of tbo 
Enjliah AfTairs from the bepnnini; of iho 
liRilI» of Ckarlni I to thv happv If e<(torat ioa 
of King Charles II,' wafl first niihli.-»h<-d in 
lti^'2. .\ Bwondmiition, with additione, was 
piihlishM in 1732, Thn first, i-tlition was 
edited by Arthur Aunesley, ear! of Anglt^JKn, 
who wos th^ aiirhor of the preface. A re- 
print of ihr* second t'riition in four volumes 
was publislied at Oxford by the C'larvudon 
pTEM in less. The value of Whitelocke'a 
work wft» greatly ovoreslimatod by whig 
writers of the next generation, who oppoM><l 
it to Clarendon's ' llittory of the Kelwuvon ' 
a* beioR more trotlifnl and iiuiiartiut. With 
tbia object Oldmixon published his ' Claren- 
don and Whitelocke rnmparr'd,' 1727, Svo. 
Ill reality Whitelocke's "Memorials' is a 
rntnpilntion pnl tngether af^er Ihe ICcttora- 
lion, consisting panly of extracts from news- 
papers, partly of ei;lrnct8 from Whitelocke^e 
autobiograpliical WTitiuga, and swarms with 
inuceumuivfl and auaclirauistos (cf.SANniKU, 
Strirlirx rtnil lHuAtrntinm of thr Grrat Ue- 
bfUif/H, n. 324). 2. Whilelocke'a Annals 
nf ilia I. iff. Only portions of this work 
hnve been publisliecl. Manuscripts of it ari) 
in the posseocion of the Marquis of Dut« aad 
Karl Dp la Warr {Hitt. MSS. Comm. 3rd 
Rep. pp. L'02-17). The Urilidd Mueoum 
poesceacs WTiitclocke'a history of the forty- 
i^ightli year of his age, iutotvuvrsed with 
RcHptiire lectures addressed toltis <;hildr«.>n 
(Bibl. EgiTton 997, Plut.), and annals of 
hi* life from l«r.3 lo l\iW (\n. 4fl92). ITieee 
are described iu the preface to It/^eve's edi- 
tion "f WhilfliK'lu-'n ' Swedish Embosay.' Ex- 
Tracts from the annals and olhor autobiogra- 
phical writings are printed in IE. \l. White- 
locke's 'Life of Whittdrtcke,' ISrJO (pp. LU, 
134). 3. ' Journal of tbo SwcdifU Embassy 
in tbo Y'-rtrs UtoSand 1654.' This was first 
published by Dr. Cbarli^a Morton in 177d 
and re-edited by Mr. tlwiry Heftvn in 1856, 
It was translated into Switiisli in 1777 ^'p- 
wtla, 8vo). Manuscript*: of this journal and 
other pnKrs relating to tW embassy are in 
thfl Kritiwh .MoHCiini ( Nos. 4903 and 4U01 A. 
Pint, cxxiii, H). Dtht^r manuscripts are in 
the possession of the Marquia of Itath and 
the Jvurl Ue la Warr {Hitt. MSH. Comm. 

\ '1 




8nl R«p. |rp. 190-217). 4. 'Not« on iha 
King's t\'rit for rhnoeini; Members of Par- 
linmiriit, I'i ('ImfU-s II, bointt Disquisitioos 
on ihe fiovfrnmnnt nf I'inglivnd by Kin^, 
IjrjnU, and Connnoiis,' publisliud by l)r. 
Char!.'AM(>rtrtiiiii 17t>tJ(".'Tols.4tol. r/'Me- 
momU of Encliiili Ailiiiw ttvm iW suppOMiil 
KxTK'diiioD of I3ni1i> to this UUiiil to thtt 
end of the Kc-ign of Jamrs I, By Sir Bul- 
otrode Will! eloc lie, wiili wmie Acrounl of 
btfl Jjifu sntl WrilintfE hy \V. Ptmn, and a 
l'f.-facL> by .1. W«lwu..d,' llmM. «■ • ^iMly8 
EocIctfiaGtiml iind riril, ro which is aubjoined 
&TrputUn i)f Ihu Work of tlie Hessions of tho 
Peace,' I7CW,f*vo. 7. 'Iju.-nohnftt. the Spirit, 
or S<.'vi.<nil I>i*cp«rw». &c,, with, an Epidlle 
to thf> Iti^adftr by W, IVnn," 1711, 8vo. 
Other iinpiiblishtHl tbcoloi^ical wcrk* iir« 
mtfiitionett bv Mr. Jt. II. Whitelocke in hi» 
' Life of W)iil«locV (p. 417), 

The followinjt (irv attribiit<.'(l to WhiU'- 
locke: ' Monurrhy oMertixl to bu tbt b<»t 
I''orni of Ooveniinoiil-,' 1<W>, t^vo ; ' A l*n>- 
\>iwa\ luimbly offered for rai.iiiig cniui jerublc 
^uiiiit uf Moni'v yearly l» Uit^ Majesty, by 
Jameii Lord Morel iiigton, liiiUtnidi^ Whit..^ 
lucku.' 1070 F, folio i two tmeU on tlio 
bmit'flt of rMpwU-ring ■Ici'dii lu Engliind : 
'TJio Draft of iin Act for a Ooimly Itf^irt>>r 
by thn Lnrdii OomniiiMlon«r». Wbitelocki-aiiil 
I iisle,* 1 7M. 8vo ; iind ' A Projiosu) for pre- 
ventitiE effCTtnallv ibf Kxuurl of Wool,' 
JttOr., fol. 'MyLiird Wliit..lodt,is IteporU 
oil Miiebiav<.-I.' L(f-*9, 4tu, is a satiriciU. pam- 
phlet 8g^ain§t bini. 

in. H. Wbildlockvs Momoini Uioi;ntpbicul 
IliHorical of UuUlifdo Whitoloclt*, ISBO; 
Lirmi of all tho l.orrff'hwwisllors. 1708, 8vu ; Mur- 
ttm'tt prefuce to Whilrlix-kn'ii SiTMliah Knil.i&SBy, 
nl*o r«priiited iii ReuTp'^ (xlltioii of llio B&tae 
work; Fobh's Jii-lKeo of KnElnnd. IM18-a4. and 
DiofjTapliicnl riirtionaryaftlin Jii((^ii«rKtigliii]d, 
1870 ; Cniii|iU-ir8 Liv«a of iliu L-jrU CliitncsUorB 
acd KeerHira <>! ttie tiraat SmI; nbont fifty of 
'W]iit«loeki>'it lei t^n H» printed in Thtirlo* 
&U!U Fk^pera ; Hiat. MSS. Comni., fitb R»p. pp. 
H'i~li. TveDty-eight folio \-()liimi>M of papMv 
coll«ot«d br Wbit«lock<> uru lii Ui'* puiwuiDn of 
tho Uiirquis of £Atli, Hist. XtSS. Coma. 3rd 
B«p. p. 190.] C. H. F. 

1606J, wmriitr, born in (hi' imrtKh of St, 
Gabriel, Feni;hurcb Street, London, on 
10 Fab. Kj64-ij, was pldest son of Richard 
Whit«locI«B,merchaiil. Hit JiuIrc Sir Jamea 
Wliitelocke [o. T.l was a younger brotbi-r. 
After heinc ciiieiitcd nt .Merchant Taylora' 
school undtT Kichard MuLuiuslvr [q. r.J. be 
vu i«nt to Gliriit'a College, Cambridgv, 
where he untrlcuUlod m a punsinner in 
'*' "•nber 1581. iJe acquintd at the um- 

veraity a good kiiowledgi- of i h» cla»Kic» and 
of Hebrew, and ^duaiod B.A. in I5A4-6. 
Hi* brother atlusis thai hn Atudiixl law at 
[jncoln's Inn, and he may b<> identical with 
' Kdward Whitelock of Bork« ' who, accord- 
ing to ih« regiAt^TA of tlic inn, waaadtnitt«d 
n student on '25 Ocl. 1&^ (Limxtlit't Jm 
nffi,rdf, 189»i, i. lO-J). At Whit«untidc 1587 
Wbiit;locko left London on a foreign tour. 
Ilv viMted universities in tiermaay, Italy, 
atid France. Subm^^iivutly be obtained a 
commisMOn an captain of a troop of infantry 
from tlie governor of Provcocw (SL Dea- 
guierea), aud was »tatiuu<Hl ■uecettn^'aly al 
Marseilles and Orennhl^. He aaw some ao- 
tivo aorvicv during the civil ware in Frann, 
and Boon Apohe French like a nntire. H« 
finally retuimed to EiiRland in 151)9, atUr 
on abaimci^ nf twelve yiwrs. Thenceforth be 
Ppent his time and »ueli RtibtitAnce aa re- 
mained to Itim in altendanct* at Elizabeth's 
coun, and won a reputation for profiue dis- 
play and diMoUitA firing. 1I« waa on temu 
of cloKe intimficT with many of the yoanger 
nobility, including Koger Uanottrs, earl of 
ItutEaiiil. and other follovera of the Earl of 
Esat'x, Jtuitand invitvd him lo riett Essex's 
houuj in London on •SO Jan. IKOl,the day 
iixed for I he Karl of Eesfx's insurroctioD. 
IlervinMiiitHlin tb(< hnutuionlv a fow ininuliw, 
hut he incurred a suspicioD of disloyalty (Cnl 
SMr rrtfier*, llom. IMH-l OtH, pp. 64tJ, 5»6). 
ITc was arrcate'd as an abettor of E«Mx'a te- 
iHitlioD.and wax indicted of high ir«a«on,but, 
thouab broug:lit before the court of kiiif>'s 
beiieu, wae not tried, hut allowed to go OB 
pan>le tiKforx h** obtained a final di»caarg». 
Subsequentlv he came to know Uenrj- Percy, 
ninth far! of N<irthnmlwrland[ri.v.]. whom m> 
xealonsly aiipporled in bin quarrel with Sir 
Frnncis Vere in \W.f2. A chsll«<ngij which 
^\"httclocke carried from lUe earl to Sr 
I-'rancis led to the issue of a wamot br the 
privy council for his njTWt ; but Whitelocke 
want into hiding, and ewaped capture for 
the time (a. Uotu. Itt0l-3,pp W2-5: MahE- 
ilAM, Fu/ktiiiff Verrs, pp. %U-tl). Hu hap- 

S-nml, hrnvprer, lo dini- with tlie Karl of 
nrrhnmberland and his kinsman Thomas 
Percy on 4 Nov, IfJOfi, the day praceding 
tliat t^xe<l by ihp enn^pinitors for tlie execu- 
tion of the 'pmipowaer plot.' Sti«(ncioB 
Aj^in fell rrn WhilelocW. nnd, with his " 
hi] rtuffvred a long impriiionment in 
Tow.T of London. Xo cvid'-nL'e waa 
ducL-diiguinrtt him, and he was rt>Iea»ed 
out trial. While a prisoner in tht> Tower be 
s[>cnt much time with the Earl of N'orth- 
itmbrrhind, who graiitMl hint a p>-n»ion of 
40/, ( aftv>rwarda raised to 60/.) AnntW of 
NNIiitelocke'e friends wa« KoWrt KadcLiSe, 


;ncioB ■ 








BfUi Mr] of BuM«x [we under ILtlMTTJrPE, 
THtiMis, thinl EaKLopSi'sbexI. Mnnnin^- 
hata the dmrist iiItnbiil<-» |y Whili-lockt? * 
«vil infliiMCrf* ihftt nohlemanV scainlttloiM 
Delect of liis wife. \\'TiitcI(iekfl wun on a 
■visit to the Eiirl of Su*wt At Xc-wlinll in Eases 
in tbt' autiiiDti of UVM* nbeu he nae taken 
ill ftml(li«><). llt^was biiried in tllt^ fttttiilr 
tomb of bis host nt Botvham. 

[WhiiolockoM LiluT Fxinplivtu (C«md«n Soc.), 
tip. ir, &-10: Co»p«r'j> Atbcnn: C4iirabr. ii. 491; 
Jiannitiiiliain'H Diurji'.] S. L. 

WHITELOCKE, Sir JA>[KK (iri70- 
1032), judge, was bom ou ^ti Nov. 1&7C, 
tbe Toungcr of poslhiimoiw twin soiib of 
Ricluml Wbi:i'loi:l(*'. mfrchaut, of Londoo, 
by Joan Itrockiiur!'!.. wirlow, dau^htt'r of 
John Caltt' of I.iltlo Muiidvu, Hbitford- 
ronlchir<>. LLiii iwin-brotb'.T, William, s«rved 
under Dmke. and fell nt sea in an on^op- 
ment with tbi- Spaniiirdt). Of [wo otbcr 
l>rotiifrrn, llirt eldi^r, Kdmund, is spparately 
noticf^d. Fur a liberal education and tbe 
n)««inK of ■lartiiig in lift- Whitplitck» wah 
indebted to Itii* ninlher, wbiae car? and pru- 
dence Burmoiiiitvd tlie iliflicidtie* in wnich 
she WAS involved] tiy nn nnfortiinaTo tbird 
marrifl^i* wilb n ?<{ii>iidllirift niercbnnt named 
John I'ricc, Hht- plnccd WhJTclocIto in Jo?*^ 
Bl Mvrcbnnt Tayl'ir*' kcIkkiI, wbenct', on 
n .Itim- l'')88, he wH-s fWifd prol}iitioner at 
Si. .John'6 College, Oxford. Ha umtricu- 
lated on 12 .July fi>!I<nvinfr. and iriw I'lir-el.nd 
fellow of his cillegti in November l'w*9. 
Besides tbe clns»ic» and Incic, in which bis 
tutor wti» Howlnnd ScardilU-ldfq.v.J^afrer- 
warda bishop of llriMol ), ite studied ilehrew 
and fbp coCTinte tonf^ics, and un<U-r Aibc- 
rico Oenlili [q. v.]' tb« civil Iiivv, in which 
be nfroduated bai.-belor ou I July 1394. 
Amou^ tbu (»nti>uipijrani-s at Oxford with 
wlinm h" fornird lu-iting friendship were 
May ^').v. I, and Kaliih fiifl'-rwiirrU Sir lEiiliib) 
Winwnnd [(j. v.] In London his tafllo and 
■ptitndo for h.>amed resenrrb dn-w him iniu 
tn* circUi of Sir llob<>rt Bnif e Cotton [([. v.], 
and about lUCK) he joined tbe Society of 
AntiquAriM. Hi* profi-ssiotiHl Mudir-* he 
purfin<xt Uriit nt New [nn, afterwards al 
the .Middle Temple, where b« was adtntlled 
on 3 Mnrdi l>>92-.% calhid to ili« bur in 
Auuiut lUCX). elected bencher in Hilary term 
idlo-19, and reader in the following Au- 
^\ist. Hilt reading i)u tbe titatiU*^ agaiaiil 
plunilitiea, 2) Henrr VUt, c. B, is in Aoli- 
molean.MS, 1150, ff. 1-Sl. 

\\'bitHo<*ke WHS appninrpd steward of the 
St. John's College esCatea in 1001, steward 
of and coiinacl for Eton CVilIcgv on 6 Oec. 

1609, «nd joint steward of thft Weatmiaster 

CoHere eai«tea on 7 May tttlO, On 1 Auo', 
]60tS he was chosen recorder of Woodilocb, 
fur wbidi bonnii^b hv wod roturnvd to par- 
liament on y Feb. lOOtt-IO, Jle repnsseuted 
th» Hami- con atitUL-ncy in lb>i parliomontM of 
lUU and 11121-2. In parliauiHnl Iw luok 
t he poindar side, and cgpeciallv diatin|ruisbeil 
bimndf in the debat'.'* on iin|K)!iitton» in 

1610. Ill) also actpd n.i thi' mouthpiece of 
the eoBunons 00 the pret^entntion (2-1 .May) 
of tlift remonstrance uirttin»t the royal inhi- 
bition which ti^rmLnated the discussion (seu 
bin speech in Stoitv MS. 298. ff. 84 et bi'i|.) 
Tb« siilwequmit prociwdingf drew fram him 
IS July) tbe masterly deJence of llie ritcbta 
of the ^ubji'cl and dilimiiaiiun of tbi< ruyal 

SirerogalivH which w«* lung attribnied lo Sir 
lenry Yelvertonh.v.j A reprint of iheargii- 
uivnt (from an tuition of 1058) is in 'SLnlv 
Trials' (eiU'obbctt, ii. 47T et shh.) A ron- 
tumporarr summary ascribed to VVbitelncka 
in in ' ParlinmrnUry Drbftti'ii in 1010' 
(Camden Stic, pp. IO;t et een. ; cf. Stov:^ 
-W.V2D7,)r. 89 et #«[].) 

In ICl.'i WbJU'lockflV ji^aloHsy of proro- 
ffative brought him into sharp collision with 
1I113 crown. The ndmini^lmtion of ibi- niivy 
stood in urvenl need of reform, and in tlio 
winter of 1613-13 a preliminary step waa 
lukeii bythu ieeueof a comnii^^iuu invcvling 
the hml high admiral (Kurl of NotliiighHin), 
the lord chanrellor tKlltwmere). tbe lord 
privy (ut'al nnri lord cbiimberlnin with extra- 
ordinary powers for the invwtipntion of 
abuses unj iba trial of otl'enders, As legul 
iidvi*i-r CO Sir Robert Mnnntcll 'q. v.l, who 
wa> interested in defeating t hi* invent ijiat ion, 
VVhit-eloche drew up a series of ' esci-prions ' 
lo tbucomniiMiun, in which ho ri>ry strictly 
(■ircumscrihed lUe prurognlive. A eopy of 
tbe ukojptions ciani> into the bands of tbs 
crown lawvern, who nt onCK xiMpi^cted that 
they were WbileWke's- Evidenre was want- 
ing; but \l\» contemporaneous opposiiiun to 
tb(T t.ransft-rof a caufn* in which In- wa* ro- 
tained from tbe clianeeni' to the court of the 
enrl maralial funiiKhrda pretext lor hiscom- 
iniitol to tlu^ i-'luet prison ( li* May) ; and he 
was not released until be bad made full sub- 
mij"<ion in writing' (13 Junu). IIil- detailvii 
acciMint wliieh Whitelocke wrote of Ihia 
iiflair is, u n fort una lely, lost; and, us iha 
IcfXL of the i-iiMimiMiun iii nliKi miitving, it ia 
impossible to pronounce whether his esc«p- 
tioiis were tenable or no. In any case, how- 
ever, bis incarccratinn waft a flagrant bn^ach 
of counseL's privilege, which greatly iii- 
ereoted hii popularity, 

lu tbo short parluunent of 1614 White- 
locke waa tiomtnal«d with SirTfaomaa Crew 




[q. X.] and otters to repres«ul tke commons 
tn the prc]ji)Cti<tl confun-'nco vilh Uie lords. 
Ry rbiuu>n of tliu RuddvutlUixilulioii (7 June) 
tliR conrerence nevsr met ; iind on tliL- dny 
following WIiILbIocUb Kad Iiim culU'agues 
wi'ivMtiiraraciied totJie cmincil chftmber, antl 
compelled to miiUo D. holgcaiist oftlwnoU-i' t>f 
tliwr iiiri^nflir^l Mjiii-ch<y». Tliim wn* lost n ricli 
coLlectioii of miLterial illii9traiivL> of t1i» 
conatitulionnlhi»1orj of Eiif;liLli(l (during tliR 
■m'lgnt of tlic lifHl tlirw lOilwurds. In con- 
itp!ijuetica of the diiifavuur iu wliicb be fttood 

at cnurt Wliicelocbe w«8 eompetl«d lo ituf 
n.'m3« (18 Nov. 1616} th« raYenioiiof t1i« 
king's howM unnjlments' office which he h«ld 
jointly with Itnlxnl (iin«irwtirds Hir lt(ib«rt> 
tieath [(]. v.], by whom hp wns ijao defeatwd 
in tho contest for tliorecorderaliip of London 
in Xov*tmbfr 1018. Mn-Aiiwhilp, hnw^vpr, 
hia prnfe^innnl i^piitnt ion and pain-n iu- 
creased. In 1616 h« purcltaoed th>> fin« Mtntf 
of Fftwicy Court. Ruekia^haiushiro. which 
gavi' liini lhi>rank uf a ooiiiiTy wa^iiiate. lio 
waa pinced on th* commisiion of the jwflce 
for Buckiiiuliuinshirx- on 'J7 Nor. IIH?, and 
for (Ixfortiftliina on 7 Slay 1(51 f*. (Jn 1:^; Jan. 
1618-19 hu was iippuiii ti'd di.muty uu^toe 
rotnlnrutn for th>? iili«rtii-.» uf minster 
and St. MarlinVlo-Grand. 

Notwithntnndin^ mliTiail inm, '\^'l^itl'- 
)ock«ifload, on the wtinlf, widl wich Bacon, 
to whom hv owed hin invt^gtiture wiih the 
coif (1'9 Juno I HSU) and Bub»i'(|Uont advance- 
muiit (29 Oct.) to (lie then luiporlanl I'Oii- 
tion of ch\f( justice of the foiirt of 6e,«ion 
of Ihu cuiiuty palntiuo of Cb«»K>r, and tlio 

frvat. .w*aiims of tin? oountieii of .M onlpomery, 
>i!nbigh, and I'Hnl : upon wUich lie was 
knifftiN'd, Shortly oflfTwnriiiihii wan i-h'clnd 
rf-rorder by each of iIip four bomupba of 
Bewdloy in VVnpreJtl*n.hire, l.iidlow and 
Bishop's Cast li^ in Shropeliirp. and Poolo in 
Cli'Bshire. Difl'erencea with the president of 
the council in the Wdsh ninrclii-s (Lord 
T^orthnmpton) 1yd lo Whitcloclie's trnns- 
fetjsnce from the Chester court to thi' kiii^t's 
bonch, whi-re hi' was sworu in a* justict' on 
IB Ucl. 1624. 11(1 had aUo a comuiiaaiion to 
bear causes in clianci^ri,', and &at one*- in the 
Blnis^h limber. 11<^ wjui roiilinnnl iri ulllrn 
hy (Tiarles I, by whom he wjis much re- 
Kpected. In t]i<^ fullnwinf; autiitnn it fell to 
lum, as juiiiorjnd|;<>in hinonurl.tndiacliargi^ 
the WiardoUB duty of odjauminK term dur- 
1 injf thtipUgni*. Tru-scnpi-from thi'coniapon 
''be drove, halting onlv at Hyde Park Comt^r 
to dine, in his coach from Ilorton, near 
IlaJI, and, nftt-r hurrying through the nwci-ii- 
earv fonuH, rL'-unti-ivo uia ccmeh and druvo 
back to ilorton. 

In November 16:36 Wbitelocke coneumd 
with Sir Itaoutph Crew [q. v.] in ducluung' 
Iu certify tlii5 Iv^alily of Torcea loaiui. Il« 
did not, howo*-er, srrnple to give the king 
thf biin«rit of thv doubt in th« c*m of the 
6ri^ knights fsoo Oarskll, Sik Thoxib}. 
Hie bt>nch at that date cnjoyod as littlo in- 
dependence of parliament m of the crown ; 
and the remand was Bot allowed to pass 
without ttiu citation of (ho judgca to tbe 
Hou^e of Lorda to answer lor their i.-»iiduct. 
They oVwyed, and through Whitulocke'a 
mouth condMccnded to put u faW< gloss on 
their ordnr by rrpnuvulint; it aa only in- 
tended to allow time for fortlier conadL>n- 
tion (see C'obrktt, Statr TriaU, m, 161, and 
Pari Ifitt. ii. '2^). In Ft'.hniary l«L'M-9 
the House of Commons saw fit to iaquire 
into till' nOeaM of tlu> tiunpo««d jewnii* re- 
cently diiicovored in CTterVenwftll. Wbite- 
locke, asoueof the iudgiw who bad examined 
tWm, was cited tojuAtify therclcaM:;, whicb 
he did on the UT'^und thnt tlien> waa noeri- 
denco that the prieoncrs were in prie«t'a 
ordi'PP. 'I'LL- etortuy ftene* which pn.-c«d«d 
the dissolution of this p(irliftnient( 10. March) 
and the subaequenl committal of Sir John 
Kliot ln- v.] and \n» friiind* to lh«! Tower 
broutftii: the judges once more into cluaeaad 
(billcnie relations both with tltn crown and 
with imrliament. Th« nrasion by the three 
common-law cliicfs of the iaauea submitted 
to them by tho king 'sec HbatUi Sir Bo- 
REST, and Walteu, l^iu JotiN] was followed 
by the reference of substantially the same 
questions to thv untirfl common-law bfioch 
(2S .April). The ]<ointa of law were anin 
ei-adra, but elereo out of the twelvu judges 
xnnctioned prorwdings in tli" 8t«r-c-h«n>b«?r. 
Of the eleven ^Vliii^liH'ke wax one. He also 
concurred in thepnsill&nimous course taken 
lifter tile argument upon the writa nt'AatM* 
forjiu*, the application by letter to tl»e king 
for dii-eol ions, and the remand of tlic priaoiwn 
ponding hit^ nnnwer (Juno). Tbi» wm mttcb 
Hgainai WhilelocWs grain, and ul a private 
atidivncc of iho king at Hampton Court oti 
.Micliiu'Inias day lie obtained ui« cctiaeut to 
the enlargemeTit of tba prisonera upon secu- 
rity Riven for tlnnrgool (mhaviour, a oon- 
cesaion which Ih^y unanimouiily rejorted. 
On the trial W'hitelocrlie concurred in the 
judginrnt. He died at Fawli?y Court on 
1'-' June Hi3± His remains were interred 
iu Fawley churchyard, and honoured by 
filial piuty with a splendid marble woqu- 
Bimil. Hisentateawereeiempted by the Long 
parliament from liability to contribute \o 
th>- fund for lunkiug reparation to Eliot aud 
his fellow-snfiererB. 

By his wife <murried 9 Si<pl. 160-J) Eliza- 







betli, eldest daughter of Ktlw-nnl ItuUtnxlw 
ef Httdgerly Bulatrode, Ituckinghuinsliire, 
WbiU)locl(*i liiuJ, will] rvnin])] iicue, n son, 
BalslTode, vho ia aepamU'ly iiniirp«l. 

Wliitelockij n)tiiifii>d tUruuKtiout life tbe 
tut«suid •ccompliAhmcnU of tbo scholar. 
His son reoordfiihst on aae occwton bitt Lviiii 
Mrvol him to expound from the beach willi 
pen{»it:uiiy aod d«{puic<! iJie cour»u of Iv^l 
proceediitgs 10 some dislinf^uLiIied foreigtien 
vbo haifpfltied tu 1m jirufiunl ut tliu usslitia 
{WniTKi-ocKE, .WrtnorliiU, «i. 1732f|j. 18). 

Sevt-rtl pBptTfl by him, comiuunieated to 
the Society vi Ant i>)nami«, art> )irinted in 
Heftine's'liTollection of Oiirimm I)iiicoiirsc« ' 

trium VirDraio(l7IUP'-l$3: ForRer'a Lif« of 
Sir John J-.tiat; y<m'a Lirea of tlie JadeM; 
Gjintiner'ii Uiiti. of Koglnad.] J. U. H. 

WHITELOCKE, JOHX (1757-1833) 
lieiitennnt-goni^ml, Imrn in l?**)", was the sou 
iif John \\ iiiieJocke, sleivm-d to the fuurlh 
Earl of Ayloahiiry, ond ]iri)Iiiiblr n de«ceud- 
■nt of Jlulntrodd Whhelockti fq. v.] Flia 
mother difd nl ilamsbur\-, XViltslnre, on 
7 June ISOi) (dmf. Mag. ii*Oi>, 1. 'j«». and 
WAS liuritKl a» Sarah Lidilmrd <Bliiii> White- 
lucke). lltT was lyluciiied ut Marlborougli 
KTsuitDar Hciidiil, no* jilniTcd Ij^' I>or<l Aylos- 
Dury at Lfwhw-'e miliiary aradcray At t'hel- 


(od. 1771). Their titles are: (I) 'Of I be aea, and ubuinud tlir<iii(;h Lord JJorriD^toti 

Antifiuily nndlltticmf ilerftlda m Kujflaiid:' ~ ;--:-- : — :- .1 ...1 .■ - 

('i) 'Uf tlie Aiitiijuity, Use, and iMvileuu 
of PIrtCM for ^tudetil-s end I'rofcMora of lliu 
Common Law* of Kaglund ; ' (3> ' Of t!n> 
Antiquity, Use, «ml Ceremony uf Lun-ful 
Combats in EngUnd:' (4) ' Our Certnin and 
Definite Topompbicit DimbiieioiiH in Eii^'- 
land couparea with those of the (jnseks luid 
Latins HJt down in urdur lu they orifo in 
quantity.' His ' Lilier I'limt^licuii,' or jour- 
nal, wiia oditt'd by John Bruce. F.S.A., for 
tht? I'miidlt'n Srnrii-tv in |N*(8. [|« wsfl also 
autbocof'A ilUinry of tbe PArlinment of 
England and of same Etesemb lances to the 
Jewish and oth«r Council^,' which ia pre- 
aerved aniotif^ tliv Asliburnliniu mauuscnpU 
(stti Hilt, JdJiS. Comm. Sth Hi^. Apti. lii. 
^). Ilia cbarKu tu tbe izratid jur^* «!' Cbeii- 
ter, 10 April 101*1, is in UurU-iBu MH. (>83, 

[TIm litnr Fatnoliimt: Le Noro'a Padigrcea 
of Knight* (llnrl. Soc.),p,426; Croka's lie dkiI. 
Hist, of the Croki- I'sniify, i, R30 . Croke-llap. 
»d, l*;u?h. Cur. pp. 11". 2S8; Whilvlock*'i Mem. 
•d.I73:r. pp. I;J^IA, 37; ■\Vond> .Mlirinr Oxoo. 
•d. BliiB. ii. uS7, Fa»lt. i. 2m ; Mi-rchnnt 'I"iiy. 
tors' ^bvol Rrn.ed. BvbiuDon; Fii>t"r'« Alumni 
Oaon.: Pant. Slir. Gent. (Hftrl. Si.e->iix. II2&. 
S«gwt«n (llarl. tloc,)v. 133; Li]iH<uii]b'i>])a.-k- 

in^hansbir?. iii. HI; Cluttcrbuck's Il«rif<j<rd- 

•bim i. J()4 : CafoinE'E IIo 

wol^r) lOlS: Ormi-rad's Uhc*htr«. ed. llrNbj. 

Drlfi>Kiahire. ii. (lirvul- 

i. nS; Mrinbcr- iiffarl, (Official Lists); U'iu. 
wood'* Metn. iii. leu ; Ilixt. Hi^-^. Comm. flth 
Jlep. Api^ p. .112, 81h Unp. App. J. 638. 12th 
n«p. App. i.lTl, 207, ii fiS.and I3tb lUp. App. 
vii, T^iiipvd'b'iDr'iLifvuf Bncon.iv. 3i6~&7: Ciil, 
Siata l^ijwrfi, Horn. 1611-3,1; NicluiU'n I'mer. 
Jartit-i I, iii. B18; Dui^iimeiiU connHciBJ with 
the Uitiory of Ludluw. kc, p. 2if>; Carad'-o 
Hiae. toU. ij. imd iv.; Cheihnm Miac ii. 3d; 
Court audTimrauf JiiDinl. i. 121. ii. IOA.214; 
Court ud Tinea gf Cbarlea I. i. 164; Coh- 
tMU'a StaU Tmla. iii. '^87. 307; I'ltrl. Hioi, i. 
1173: .Stown MS. lOIA. ff. uH. 182; Vitu.- 
6d«ct» quomndam EruditicNmorum ac ]Uu»- 

n ciimiQL'uinn on en^ifpi in th>; t4tli fuot ou 
1 + I>rc. I77y. Owinjj to his previoua irain- 
■□K he was «ppointi>d adjutant to a hattaliun 
of Hank oompiinicsarew months afterwards. 
I Ic WRs promoted lienteoant on 20 April 1780 
and ^^vnt to Jamaica with his regiment in 
l(t*l'. 8oon aflerwardv he married a daugh- 
t<sr of William Lewis of Cornvrnll, Jamaica, 
while aiiotber duuf^hU'r woe married to his 
brotluT officer, afterwards Sir Kobert Browa- 
rigg '\| . V . , who bocuue toilitarv secretsn anii 
riuarit'rKi'a*t<*r-gciipnil. MattLsw Lewis, tiia 
bit>iher-in-law, wua deputy secretary at war, 
and WIiiCp)r.iL'li« is mid It) have owed mucb 
to bin iiiHui'iice. Ho obtained n companj 
in tbe ^th foot on 12 May 17^, and a 
Tnnjoritv i» one of the newly ni&cd battalinna 
of the (Jbtb t>u L' Oct. 17Si*. lU went with it 
lo the West Indien, and ou ;iO March 1791 
bubuL-amelieutfiOunl-toloncloftbe I^thfoot, 
tbtin i>lntinn<-d in Jnmnica. In September 
I71),% when the Friinch part of Una I>ominf;o 
vnt» iningiimeclion, he wasaent thither witb 
hiaown n^gimuntrindaomi- other troops, with 
the local rank of colonel. He latidcd at 
JercmtP on tho K^tb with nearly aeren hun- 
dred men. On the :f:Jttd tbv fori at the mole 
of L'ape St, Nicbolaii^ ?i[irrL-iiJere<l. On i (>ct, 
bo mitdo an atlvtinpt on Tihiiron, but the pro- 
iiiined co^iju-rution of Itvnch pliinii-ni fulled 
him.nndhuwAB repulei>d. Yellow fever aonn 
bruhtt 'iiiLnnd nidnred bis small force, but 
atrheendof tbft yearit waajoinwl by nearly 
^tight hundred men from Jatnaica. Ou 'J Feb. 
I7!M Ii fresh filtt-mnt WB« niadtt on Tiburon, 
and proved duucv'^tiil. He next tried to ob* 
tain posscMion of I'on de In i'titx by bribing 
iiacaaiimniider, l^vatix. but his oitvn were 
indignantly refuafd [_Anniiat lirifUter, I7S(4, 
pp. 174-.>). On 19 Feb. bo HiormHd Fort 
I'Acul, which WIIA nti ob«tiicl<- to iin attack 
on l*ori-au-Prince, On 10 May Rri^dier- 
griiDrul Wbyt^nrrivi'd with three r(«f[inieut» 
aod took the chiof command. \Vbitrl(>c1i« 
became qunrtermasler-geaeral, but he slipu- 



lAted tfasi b« aliould 1m allowed to lend tlwf 
print^ipul culuniit in t!nr attack un I'ort-au- 
Printf, »iwl did so 'with tlit- |rn>iLtcst g»l- 
lontrj' on -1 Juiii'. Hi'^ wiu st-nl hoiDOwitb 
dwpntvli'*)', anil Wiijnr<«fierwar<liiSirBr«H) 
Spencer exprssspd, on liebalf of thu troow, 
tneir huyv t Jiat tbcy mlttlit ni^in mti h titm«r 
«n oflic'T ' who torrie.i with him such uni- 
verenl approbniton nnd so \reJ1 iwrm-d ai^ 

Cgtf' l7nn/, App. p, fi7). He ttw iinaa<> 
ei. coloDel on ^1 Auff. 1790, coloni.'! of 
1 the HthWcsl India n-|,'itnpnt on 1 Sept., and 
fbrigadiiT on 10 Sept. After further aer<ric© 
ill lh« Wi-sl liidit'H lie was appointpd l)ri- 
gndiLT-gi-nvrnl in Ouvm-'cj' on 1:.' Jftii.KyH, 
ftntl li(ruleuHnt-^(overnor of PorlamoLilh on 
Sit May 17('0. He wii» promoti'J in«joi^ 
([pneral on IS Jun" 179f*, hiiJ litiutntiftrjt- 
«>»ir'ral on M Oct, l^S. Rhortlr aftpr lhi» 
lit! vtnf> ELinil*! inEjK'clur-gi'neral of r«iTuiting. 
In]ftfJ«5({rnrnil Urn-jfcircl [ wi- HeiumForii, 
WiM.UM (Ultit,ViB(:«i;xTlli:BEfiioiin].wilb 
only tweU-w biindrml nifrijiiid piini-ilp-ii.w-*. 
'■Ion of Bnt'iitw Ayn'5, hwi had bean afler- 
WArde forwd to nurrender. The Iinti»li jfo* 
Vcmmcnt, in dcfiTi'ncc to iho |)opit1nr cry 
itot new markets, dft<>raiiiie«l to send a largf 
tforce to recoTcr it, and on 24 Feb. ]fH)7 
IjVhitvlocku v/n* nwoitiU'd to the command. 
He waa nUo to uiidtTtako the civil (jovrm- 
mienloftlK' provini'u whi-n n-covLTwl. More 
tlinnfivi'thnimnml im-ii hm! nlmidv ii'i-n fli-nt 
ta Itio de )a I'latn, undfT Sir J^uinuLd .\iicb- 
muly [q. v.], aiid n corjin wf four thrinifliii!, 
un3er Brijrndipr KobcrT rTnnfiinl, which was 
on ita way to L'hili, wna tn join ibi'in. Ilc- 
inforf!pmOTit* from England would raise the 
total to eleven thousand men, of which not 
more than eight thonfand wciv to lwpf-rmr>- 
ncutly ri'lftined. Whiti-locke. accompaniwl 
by Major-nerpKil John Levtson-Gowrr as 
second iu coininnnd, n>Dch«d Montevideo on 
10 .M«T, and ou l-'i June Oaufurd'n corps 
arrivcff. WhilidoclH.' di<l not wniL fur the 
troop* fmm Kii^t'"'"!. Ilu Ifft aifTrison of 
1,860 men ar Monlevidoo, and on ^fi-O Junu 
the army Inndod on thr n^jht. bunk uf the 
riv«r, at the Knsnnndn dt- Barnipon. ahoiit 
thirty tnilpB below Uiitmnc Ayn-i-. It imi- 
eiBt'^d nf iiim- Imltn.lintif) of infiiniry.twoiind 
a half ivgimente of cavalry (of which unly 
IfiO ni*'ti werii Tnounrt'd), and .lixrifn tiidd- 
gtins, and numbered 7,81':! rank nod lilt'. 

The innrcli wiitt di-lnyMl by swnuips, which 
can»i;d n loM of guus and Ktores. but on 
S -Tiilv thi^ ndfnneed guard iindrr tiOWt>r 
ronled the C"!iii«IIo, drovu the Spanish troops 
bock into Riif nos Ayrea, and took up a posi- 
tion ill the ^mtihrm mibiirb. Tbty were 
_joini"* '-" •'■•■ ufti'mooM of the Urd'bylhe 
zh had butn misled by their 

guttle. The town had a garriaon of about 
eix thouaund and a population of acrenty 
thoiiMnd. It was cut up into »quan!H by 
etreetj^ 140 rtinlii apart, jumltcl and perpen- 
dicular to the river. It wan iinforlilied. but 
ihe Htn.'L>lii wi-rc barricaded. Whitt^lo.-ki>'A 
intention bad Itt-en tn e«tabli«h himeelf on 
tbo wi'sl nf it, with his left on the river, 
land tfiint, uiid bombard it. But be wished 
to aavt; time, n» the rainr- wrrr impending, 
and to avoid alieuating the inhabitaxit?, so 
he dotormined to take it by e».«nult. 

At 6.S0 i.u. on the J>th eight battaliou«, 
formed in thirteen columns, entered the town 
with arnif nnload<Kl. I'hcy werv to make 
tlHrir way, if possible, to Ilie rivr-r by parallel 
i^trM-t«, and occupv blocks of bnoaea there. 
Thev Wfre lo avoid the ci'Mirnl part <>( thw 
town, the fort, and the great sijnare, and to 
inclinu outwards, if nt all. The columns on 
the right cot poiis*^s.iirjii of the KeAiilencia, 
thoee on the left of the Plaza de loa Toros; 
but iti tb« cenln' the SHth regiment and the 
light brigade (under Craufurd) mi^t with 
slouter nwistanoe from troojw iu the streela^ 
and from the inhabitsnTe on thi- topa of tlieir 
faouBQB. They found thvmi>elvea i(olat«d, 
and tin&blc to advance or retire, ami at 
length surrendered, ^'ext morning \Vhitv> 
locke received a proposal from the SpanUh 
cuniuiauder, IJuit-rH. that hiwlilitieit should 
ci-itie, I lint thii {inMmmoii Imtb KJdiii »hoiild 
be rostofd, and that the Rritiah should 
■■vncnnU" thw province. Montevideo included, 
within two roonthn. If the attack wero re- 
newed, l.iniers could not answer for lh» 
safi'ty of I be iiTisonL'ri«. Of these there wcw 
I,t{7ti, and the total IlritiitL lo*a wb» 2,W0. 
Doubtful whether a fruh attack would be 
ituceessful.and convinced iL&l if it wore (lu> 
object of the expedition was no longer al- 
lainable, and that thu prisoners' lives would 
be sacrificed to no purpose, Wiiitehicke, after 
cuiisiill ing Gowor and A uchmuty, arrested 
l.inieniV tenii*. The l.rnopit withdrew from 
Buenos Ayrcs on the l2th. and from Monte- 
videii onHHf'iit. Till,' indignation of aoldien 
and tnidiTs alike wa« unbounded, 'ticneral 
Wliil^ltx-ku is either a coward or a IraiiOT, 
perhaps both !' was writirn up at the corner* 
of ih(i streets of Montevidoo (Winmxo- 
llAM, p. -JS). 'Snrcrss to grey hairs, but hod 
luck to white locks,' bacame a favourite tuaat 
among the men. 

Wht!i.-!ocke reached Hngland on 7 Nov., 
and on 'M Jan. 1KU8 he wa* broiiglit. before 
a courl-manial at CLi'lsija. He was charged 
wiib. tirat, excluding the hope of amicable 
accommodation by demanding th<^ surrender 
of pentuus holding civil oiliceQ at Buenos 
Ayrus; eecoiidly, not making tbe military 







umofcements best calculnled to ensure eitc- 
ceiw; ilunily, nnt uiAhing fttiy offecl lift! 
&lt«iupt 10 co-opertit<! witb or suiijxirt the 
ditTeon.-nt columns when engaffod in lLfstrpel»; 
fourthly, concluding a trL-ulv by whicli he 
tmneCMUrily and Hlifluiffulty Hurreiidervd 
the advatiliifji-e Iio hud i^'iiint'd iit htavycoDi, 
and dt-liv^red up llm forlrriwof Mi>rit«vidfu. 
The trial lBfit«^d«ev4'nw«i:-kj=,nndnn IfsMnrch 
tlin court fnund hiiti gtiilty nfnil th>t t'hnrgt**, 
with the exoiption of tlut part of the st-pimd 
clinrprv wliiL'Ii n*Ut<^il lu tlm urdyr ibut 'the 
column.x iihould bn unlondi-d, and tlmt no 
firintr should be permnied on anv nccoimt,' 
to wlticli llii-yi»tuic!u-d noblimi'-. TJu-y stn- 
tenced him lo be truKhit^i.-d. The 8i.iitf-nce 
wna conlinned by Ilii' king, and ordered to 
be read out to ev«ry n-jriiiifnt in th« J^.■^^■ici■. 

Th« expedition hnd been oent (imi under the 
profoundly fnJH' impn-»>lun tliat thu iuhubi- 
tantA would be friendly, fmin tixpi^rii^ncu of 
'the diSerenco between the oppretwive do- 
minion of Spain and lIii>b)-nii{nnndpTot';cliM)c 
ffoverniaent of hin Miijcsty. Thi" i^ea^on and 
iDv swiimp* *'nibnm»»sed him. The plan of 
AARault wrut dntun np br Gowcr, ami nono 
of the other oftie*'r^ r(ii«ed any objwiion to 
H. or «hnwrd any dcmbt of its »iif*fa«. Ilnd 
Crsufurd fiiltt-n buck on thu IlL-siduiicia, ii« 
Pack, who knew the ptnce, advi»ed, tlip town 
would probably have beun surrt-'ndorud next 

But Whitelockuhmlabown hiniBelf int^om* 
pefwit thronphout : iulirm of purpow and 
wantinff ill resource, pronp to lean on otbiT?, 
yet j«aloiM of bis own anlhority. lit' left a 
rearffuard of tiixto^n hundred men idle, on 
the east of th'- (.'bnello. dnrinff the UMuult, 
and he himself remained passireall day,n)id 
wvnt bu'.'k lo liii> hcudijnurtere to dine and 
sleep, without mukinfi; uny ■L-rionit tittfrnipl 
to Iwam wbat. hnd hHppeDi>(] to hia pohirana 
on the riglit. In thv wnrds of the genenil 
order, he waa 'deficient in zmI, jiidgmftnt, 
and pt^nonal exertion.' 

People Bskrd how be eamc to he ap- 
pointed. According to Lord Holland, who 
waa in th^ eabinel, he whh an opponent lo 
Windham's plnn of limited enlifitnient, and 
Windhiim wished to ^'t rid itf hitn h.4 iti- 
TOector-^-nvml of recruitinp i Memwe nflke 
Wkijf i'arhj, \t. lllil. Itiit Windbnm "bim- 
eelf mentions that be fiupp-med Sir John 
Stuart (of M«i«Ia), and tliu ehoiw »eem» t'l 
have been mainlT due to the Dnke of York 
("WisoHAJi, Dinry, p. W7). 

He npi^nt the rr-st of his life in rixirempnt, 
latterly at Clifton. lie died on 23 t>et. 
liN^Sat Hall Ram I'hrk, IV?(icon»tield.ltuck- 
ingfaansbire, the aeat of Sir Goni Uusalej 

[<1. T.l, who bad married Li» eldest daughter. 
AnotJier daughter wa^ marripil lo Caplain 
(ieoriic Kurdeit, It.N. Ho waa buried in 
the west aijile of Bristol (^atlindral. 

[(fiMjrginn Km. li. 475; lEfcurdii uf Un- 13t]i 
Rtflimi'nt i llrynn Eduard*'* IIi»t. of ilie British 
Wcet Jndi«, jii. I.16-fl0: War Office OrigiDal 
Corresponilcnfe, No. <a, I'.H.O. (1807. liueoos 
Ajrt* iimi MfiiiteriiloD) ; Triitl nt large of 
UenrmI Whitelocke, 1808; CmufonVs Life of 
Cranlianl; MMnftira of f^ir Suraiicl l-'ord Whit- 
tiuuliaiiiL Moiiioira of M. CJ, I^wt« ; tlnkine 
N«alp> Ui»eu from th« Itanka. p. o;-'J6 ; Notes 
and Qocrit', Itt ser. ii. 2(ll, 4.?A, z. o4,8lti wtt. 
xii. A9-i: Gent. Mug. 11)33, ii. 47A-] E. M. L. 

WHITER. WALTEJt(I75d 16%>),phiIo- 

Ingisl, Iwrn At BirmiDpliam on HO Oct. 17.')8, 
was ac setiool under l>r. Edwurds for ten 
vears at Coveniry, when- Holwrt llree. M.O. 
((], v.l,WB9 II fcllow.pnpil. ] le was admitted 
a( Clan? ColleEi'. Cainbrid^'V, on lit Jime 1778 
OA siiar, ond Kradualed H.A. 1781, M..\, 
17&4, but did not gv out in houourtt. On 
-I April I7*<1' he was eWled n fellow of 
Clare, probably oil account of his reputation 
for clHAairn] iiml philolo^eal knowledge, 
lie lived in Eiis rooma in collepc from 17By 
tn 1797, Porson wwi one of his intimalu 
frienda, and often wrote notes on the margin 
of Wbiter'fi books. Wbiler'a n^-phuw poa- 
s>.'*sed a copy of ' AthenwHS,' onri' t he nro- 
p'Tty of hiB iinele, with these annnlatinns 
I WatsiiS, l'iT3tja,\>x\S\'-Ji. I'tinion in I7t*6 
uddi.'d some notes ot his own and of M'hiter 
to an edition by IIutrhinKi>n of Xenophou'a 
'Anaha.'iis' tt/i. p. 4fl). TIu'-tm; were issued 
separately from Aalpv's press in 1^10, autil 
(JeorgeTownsend adtfcd thctn to his edition 

of im. 

Whiter was presented bv his colle^ in 
17^7 to the rectory of lliinlini^hani in 
Norfolk, and held ibt- beuefiei- until lua 
dvnth. His 'vtim; of ebincal rieeiirum waa 
llii* rrvenw of utrict. Ilnron MiTJiin, in tt 
letter to Dr. Sntnnel BntliT of Sbrpw.*hiiry 
school, writes : ' I ptiy Whiter. A (ffeet. 
etyniolofiist, perhaps the irn-atfiil that i^ver 
rivt"l. A genius certainly, hut it seems, like 
niiwt einimnt tirtists, disaolnle ' (Rc'TTKB, 
/irt* awi Letter*, i. 180). Evury year ou 
'ilt April, the day of St.tieorgw (Titular saint 
of llardinghitiii church), it was his hamilesa 
practice to collect bis fn^ndH at a picnic 
under u bivch on u hillock called St. GeoT^'a 
.Mount, and to claim from each of them &tl 
appropriate noeni in Latin or Enf^lish. A. 
specimim of Iiik verses on one of these occa- 
sions i.^intbi-'()fntIcma»'r'Mnfra3!ine'(l8l6, 
i,St'i-3). He died a> Hardingham n-clory on 
a.'{ July 183*^, afrcd 7.') year»\.Voi/o/A Chro~ 
nate, i X\ig. 1832), and was buried in lCh 




churcbytn] ou 30 Julv, a ItiTge railed-in 
tomb b(>inp fn^ctpd to h^is tnemorr. A biwt 
cif him is in ib« libnry at Clan; Colk-go. 

Whit«r wrottj : I , ' A Specimeii of a 
Coouueultiy uu minkitpvan-, coniiiiiuii(f (i.) 
NoUft on "As vou likt? it :'' ni.) Attcnijil. 
to OXf^in and iUtietratB vuriona PaesagL's 
OH II iiKw IVinoipti? iltTiTi'ii from I^icliv'a 
Doctrine of ilifs Af.«M:iation of Idi'ns,' 1791, 
pronoun Cfci hy Mutliias ' very li-amed nnd 
RagHrioun' {f^r*tiil« of lAt, ]"0S rOit. Oin- 
logue i. i>p. y8-V>). By iHltHie had collected mattiT for two or thrvo rolumiM 
of m'teii. 2. 'Kt^'iuologficoit MftgDum,' & 
uuivcraal etymologicftl dictionary on a now 

tilao. Uambndp*, ItOO, [lurt i.; no mont pnb- 
inlied. fu hiA iin^fiici! he culHrued ou l1i« 
\'alit(! of the jjiiiFV Ifttiguu^f. Tnesc tJows 
and hiji word*)>pi'CtiIntiiitiii inU'rentt^ Oi.-or){Q 
Borrow, who mads hinaeijuiiintaiuvs and in- 
troduced bim, a* understand in K fonjit twentv 
lanfpinpui, intn*T<nvi-n|^ro,' lft.M ciJit. vol. \. 
chop. xxiv. i^Sotii and Qufrie», Std ser. vi. 
J17d; KKArr, fitur^r fiarroir, ii. ft). Joffrtry 
Trrole two arliclRB on the ' Et^iuologicoii 
Matpium'in the ' Monllity Itevii^w ' (Juut^ 
and Jui)r 1802), aseigniu^ to Whiior ' much 
labour and shrawdDeu, wilb a conuidt-riibl** 
shan.' of cpmlulity.' 3. * Etymoliieicon t'ni- 
▼ur«alf,or[Jriivwn"jiI ICtvmii!i>(^ii'iin)ictionjirv 
on a Npw Plan,' vols, i, lind ii. Ifti'l', vol. iii. 
18'J5. ThtKU t iirwf large quarto voluiacs were 

Pirdy |irinlrd nt ihi- emit iif lliii TTiiivi.'wil.*' 
ivaB. Tli8 first ToUimewasoriginallv i*9ued 
in Iftll, and tl)e preface to the Hist vuVimein 
the colloctod nlition of ]K22~^ utill Tetains 
th« date of lo May l8ll. In tliis work 
"Whitpr »et out that 'n)nsonantfl at* alone 
to be reiiardiid in divcovi^ring ihu affinities 
of words, and that the voweU nro to be 
wholly rrjeetL-d ; iLal Iaug^uo{(L')i cuutuin iho 
satne tundamenlal idea, and that ihey aru 
dLTiVL'd from thu t'artli.' llurun Merino 
Mvkd it 'Mil^ndid, a vi'ry fimr booic indftil' 
(ftlTLKH. Life and Letlnf. i. IP-'i). -t. 'A 
PiiMKTlatkin on tlm Disorder of Divith, or 
that Slato rallied Siiitpencli'd Animntion/ 
18iy. In tlii» lit' tried lo show how the 
appari^ntlv dead sbniild ho tfLiat^-d wilh a 
Tienr to ibeir rvjitoration to Miv. In thv ad* 
rertitement at tbt^ ciid he announfed 'a 
iwnfjt of WHAyji lo 1)0 cuUvd " NovaTfiita- 
Riina Mvlbolugica, or Ailfinpt.i to unfold 
Tarious t'ortioua of Mythology by a new 
IVinoplc.' Tlw-sf, and I'lbfir niniiuiicri|it» uf 
Whiter, are now in th" Cambridge Univ«r- 
«iv Librnrv {Cat. of Cambr. LAr. MSS. ir. 

tOi-oi. Mi>g. 1632. ii. ISA; Cockbum'it Lord 
fn^v, i. 127-8; three lettani from Wliilnr to 
Dr. Samuel Uutlci in Addiiionnl M:^. (Brit. 

Km.) 3*&M fC. 200, 20i and S-lfi47 f. I»S (A. i. 
234-d. -J.t7.itf): mformatloo front the R«t. 
Dr. Atkinsirii, Clate ('oll«^ Cnmtiridgs, «bi1 lh« 
Kar. C. S. luitcMii of BaFdinirham tvctery.l 

w. I', a 

lord L'hiorjusticv of Ireland, was bom on 
]-J Aug. IKO* ot IJielganv, co. Wicltlow, of 
which poritib Iiia futtLT. AVillianiAMiitMidc, 
wua ciirat<!. Shortly uftvr Whitivide's birth 
bis faiher removed to Kathn:inei>, near Dub- 
lin, whem htf died in iHDti. Mrs. Wliit«> 
aide was left in narrow circuuBtoncoe, but 
elio was devoted Lo her children, attd to liur 
ihtt hoy wii.< indebted for much of hid euif 
education, lie ciuoo'd Trinitv CoUpge^ lsa'i,andgr8duaU'd 1832. 
In lt^29 hu otiteivd u» a law etudmit at the 
Inner Templi>, nnd in IBIK) hi? wa* calM to 
ihe Irish bar. Ho did not attempt to pmc- 
line durittjf hiM tlrnt yejir, [imfi-rrin^t to etudv 
law in tbrt chamliem of Joseph ("bitty "q. v.] 
Wbibt iiludyiiif; for the fjar Whiteiside occu- 
pied Ilia leisiiro bvrnritrihutin^ tu tJie maga- 
zines n series of tketcheti, uio&ily of ImU 
persnnnfres.iniich in thi-«tyleoftho'SI(et^M 
Legal and FoUticul'of Kichiird Lalor Slioil 
[q. v.j TliMB papers, which arewrilU<n in 
a. lively niutiniT and evincti consideiabh; 
powi-r*. of ohservHliuii, were collwctod and 
rrpiihliKhcd in l870undL'rtbe title of ' Early 
^Jki'lcJ]i>s of Kminunl IVn^ons.' Amon^bia 
subjecifl wer* James ScarlKt, Innl AInngM' 
'q. r.'v Tlomu§ Dcnman, first lord Denman 
t|. v.], Sir (.'hiirlf.t Wrtliori'll [q, v.], and 
hN'illiain Ooiiyngliam, first lorcj Plunkct [q.T.] 
Vvom IKi] Whittsidn's progress at bin pr^ 
fi'HHJon wiL-t rajii:^, and hi- wa# tnado n qucm'a 
counsel in iH-iJ. Kapidiv gaining n n.*pula- 
tion for an iiloqucncc which rccalli-d the tra- 
ditional forensic spK-ndoiin^ of t'urmn.Pliui- 
Icct, and Burho, hta speech in defence of 
O'Connt-ll in ihu ttaU- trials of 1843 placed 
him in front of all hia conlvinporaries at ifaa 
Irish bar. 

Shortly nft<T tho (VConnrll trials WTiii*- 
elde'e Iwalth obligfd him temporanly to r«- 
limgdi'h hi* profiwsion. Ue visited Italy, 
and, Inking inuoli ititrrf«t na well in th« 
afiuirs of the puuinbuln ai* in the aiitiquilieii 
of llonic. be wrote and published hia ' Italy 
iu the >'iiietVL-tilh C'cntiiry,' 1S48. 3 vols., 
and translated Luigt Cunina'a ' ludicazione 
topogralica di Itoma Antlui in Corriitpoii- 
denia detl' epoca i»i|Hrriiil» ' iiudor tbp titiv 
' Vicissitndeaofthe Eternal City.' Relum- 
ing tri urlivnworlc, MhitMidv acted as lead- 
ing counael for the dpfenre of William Kmith 
O^rien [q.v.] and bis fellow-prisonerB in the 
Ktati) trials at Clonmi'l in Ir^lR. Thn-« yean 
later (ltj5I) he ea(«red parliameot ai oonMr^ 



TEitiTe roemlicr for ErmLskilliiu. In 1859 he 
wft8 clioiirn ■* one of tha ntpreaen tat ires of 
Jliiblin Univetsitf, ind held ihiB poeiliun 
niitil bis eU'valion to lliti bcuLli. Wliitir- 
•i<le's striking talent aa u Rpeiiker made liim 
Taloable Bccvssion to his parly in llii> Iloumt 

CommonB, and on tlic ft>minl:ion nf Lnrd 
Derby's first admiaiEiral ion in 185^ be wos 
appointed Holicitor-^Mii^ral for irelani^. Iii.* 
brothi'r-in-IiLM-, (riir) Joseph Xajjicr [*|, v.j. 
Iwioff atloriiey-gcQ'-'ral . In tUa Humo pre- 
miar'e mcond guvorumtuit WbilL-HiJe mlt'il 
tbe office of atloriit^y-gener«l. During Ihe 
libenl Rdminietratioa (1$-'>0-(10) Wbticxidn 
WM in opposition; but, des[iitt! the ciaima 
of hia profesalnti, he was able* to d<>Toti> much 
of bis time to bis parlinnx-ntunr' dutit?", and 
loolc AJ) eminent part in th« cniinHela nf thii 
conserraliro opposition, llo attaiued a 
bich position in thv Hotuu- of CnmntniiH, 
yrlBBTe hi* eloquence, wil, and ^>nialily iDsdii 
him popular with all parliw. In 1 Sill, on 
Ilia Ktum to I»ndo& iiftcr the niarvelloiui 
•pcecb in thv ccU>l>rated Yclverton com — 
tno moftt famo^us of al! bis forcmnc cH'ortji — 
WbJttitido TLVcivvd a reuurkalde compli- 
ment, b«ing greet«d vritb gcnoral cbc^era aa 
ha eotvred tbu Houbi< of Commous for lliv 
first tiniK iiflcr tlir i-tmolujiion of tlio trial. 

On thp return of Lord Derby to office in 
iml, bnt sborily aftiTwiudft acci'ptt'-d tb« 

lc« of cbief justice of ibe queens bench 

in Irelnod, on tbc Fetinomc-nc oF Thomas 

liUgloi« Lofroy [q. v.] Wliiti;«idi.-'s talunle 

were rhetorical and fort-nsic raiber tliau 

udieial; uiid tbuui;h bo bniuglit to his bifrh 

iciition grvtti tiir^onal diffiiily nnd the 

larm of a aingularly ultracttre periuiiality, 

wan not rery siirciu)iful ai> n iu<)^>-. Hn 

Hided in tbtt qatien'e bench diviaiou for 
t«oy«ar«; but the last of I liesewi-re clouded 
by ilUhiwIth. He died at IVijrhtnn on 
26 Not. lUTti, and was buried at Moiml 
Jerome cemcu-ry near Publin. Ho married, 
in July 1*J3, Kow-Ha, daitghter of William 
Napier and atjilcr of Sir JoKijih NapitT q. v.], 
eomL'timu lord L'hani^dlor <if Iceland. 

WliiiedidfV is one of the must lirilliuut 
luune)! in the annals of tliu Irii'h bar. K« 
WBK miaii])roiii.'li<il in iKiint of itloijin-nce liv 
any of hia contempornripfi, and hia pnwerfnl 
per«>n«lity, at once winning nml cuminand- 

, give liini an almoi«.t nncKamph'd yn~ 

iiwncv. Ilia forensic etyle bn» been de- 
u ■ im pet 1 1 0111*1 y buri-Jnd fiu-i^ an>l 
w under a golden avalanche of di^cur^ive 
loquence ; ' and bin parliamtnlary orat-iry 
bven praiMid by Lord Lytion i»hi.<'p>K;in 

•St. Stephen'*.' In ]>ereon lie was tall ami 

CL'fully propori iouL'd. There is a Htalue 


of Wbit«3idc in the Iiall of the Four Courts 
at Dublin, by Woolner. 

[Weijb'd Cum peti ilium of liiiih Bingrsphy ; 
Atiniml ReKit-ter, 187C: Dublin Uuiv. Biaf. 
xxxii). 32B, 3XXT. 213. Teniplr Bar, siii. 304; 
III mtiiiia of Sir Ju<ti-[i1i Napii^r ; Todd'p CataLogua 
of ijniittwiiM, J^ubliii Univ. ; L^w Maeuiao aod 
RuTicw. May 1817 ; 0'?Janai:an'B Irish Bar; 
itmiikcR liecollrctiona of the Iri»h Cliurcli, 2nd 
wr,] C. L. F. 

IlENKV Irf. 1000?), divine, is (*aiJ bv Ma- 
tbcr to have been second »ou of Halpli Whit- 
feld nf Gniy'* Inn, by Dorothv, daughter of 
Kir Henry Spelman [qvJ "liv wiui mor*- 
probably aon of Thomaa Whitfelil. lord of 
lilt miiniir of Kiuit Sbeen and of Mortlake, 
who wftflliei-ased to marry Mildred Manning; 
of Ort-iinwicb on 10 Jan. 15*45 (Ad'Uf. MS. 
L'71>H4, f. :»0A). He apwtort to have taken 
holv orderd, is deHcribed us n.I>., and in anid 
tn have been appointed to the rieh [ivin^ oC 
ftcklev, .**urTey, in lOlfl, althouj^h the regi- 
Hter there contain* no mention of bis induc- 
tion. "Sl&lhcr ( flftt. qf Xfite Hifftland, I8fi3, 
i. bWl] say* llial, poe»i?»»in!f ft lair estate of 
his own bejide^ Ibe rectory, be put ' another 
godly minister ' in at Ockley, and wuut about 
preaching in liie ninDh)HHirbiin<i for twenty 
years as a confomiist. As Nicholas Cuf- 
pe]>per was in^tiCutMl on 14 Sepl. lOIo, and 
the next renWr, Hubert Nowell. on Ifi Jan. 
IiJ38-y, thin may have been the ca*e. Whit- 
feld wrot« during this period ' Somo Ilelpea 
to wtirre up to (.'hri«tiiin Duties' (2ud edit, 
corrected and enlarged, Ijondoii, Iflfti ; 3rd 
edit. 1030}. 

In Iti.'i9 Whit Held, who hail lierotne a 
nunconformifil at the cainc time v.^ Cotton, 
and ri'fuKcd lo read the ' Book of Sports,' 
retiigned tht^ rertory, sold hitt i^st«tt>, and, 
accoinpanieiJ by a number of his hearers from 
Surrpy, Hiim.-jc, and Kent,embnrkcd in Mdy 
for New England. In July l(t^^ tbey luiidud 
at Ni-whaien, ' tbi- first ubip th«t ever cast 
anchor in thai ^ori.' and founded Guildford, 
Connecticut, \\ hllfield bein^ the wenltbieat 
of the xix vcuh-re \sho puri-haeed the land, 
line of the finit boUM^ biiill wan Whit- 
field's, called * llio Stone llousa ' (figuniHl in 
Appi.KIiix'w ('y<-hi>. uf American Sutgr.) 
^lembers increasi-a hut slowly nntil lft48, 
wln-n seven 'pillsrs" were cbosun to draw- 
up n dnrlrin!^ of fairh. After tlevcn teats 
at Ijiuddford, Whil&eld returned to ^ng- 
Inild, He settltid at Winclietiter, where he 
became a uiemher of t h<.! eori>orut ion. Brook 
p>avs he died about 10(50. 

Jty his wife, who came from Cranbmok, 
Whitfield had nine childmn, luiptived at 
Ut:kley between lOlU and 163S. 

IsnllkOr of * Tbf> I.ijrht ajiitparing man ncd 

's&an toWBrdB the iVrfeci I>mt, or ■ fartWr 

DitooTcry of ilir l'n-*tnt St*!*- of ibr lo- 

^AiH in Nt!W Koglsnd coocemitM: the Pro* 

.oraweorilte (ro^pad ankongst Ukem' (l^n- 

'dOD, irKM,4to; re[inDted in *llu8»cha9ctte 

IlbtoricKl Coliectionii,' Sfd aer. vol. ir, nnd 

in Sabin'fl ' Itq)riiii«,' 18AR, 4to>. Tlua wu 

folli>w«-il by "StriTigtli oul of Weakneu' 

(!,ondMi, l(iri2, 410 1, ui •ceoiml of the 

lurthor piogrvea of ibe Oa«p<«l in New Kag- 


[Brook'a Uvm of tba l^iriiAn*. tii. !t71: 

bTBgo's QmmvL Diet, of Fir»t.Swti«rw. i». SI7 : 

pnfiiii'i AiiDKlxof Ibi AncricMii I^ult^i, i. lOft; 

PYM^ingitar tti<i Two Hundred anil FinieiJi 

Annimnwry of tJto SBttlraeat of Quildfunl 

iKcwIisnn. ISStf. PP- *^- 7^- )*&• ^^T. a«3 : 

Sngglo'a Him. nfOuiMford in Masb. HibL Coll. 

'U. 11*5; AppUloa'* CycIot»edi« of Amoricnn 

! Siogmphy. Tol. n. : Dnke'a Ami-rioui Biogr.; 

infarmnliim from Um Rev. F. Huvhall of Uck- 

Uy.J C. V. S. 

lM.f({), or^iiist and tiimpOBor, Bon of John 
CUrko («t 17 S».pU ISO-i) of M«lm«ihury, 
'Wiltshire* wm bom on IS Dec. 1770 aI 
OliMlOwter, and adopted by UtU'n luilrni in 
1614 tho fatnilv nuno of hb inoitier, Am- 

UuUin ; and in 1810 ha wui incorpmrntad 
5Ia&. Dof. at Oxford, In ISl'l.on ths doath 
iif I>r. Hagiip, \Vliitftld wnii appointed niv 
feoorof inUMc lo the nniTerii t v of rambridK, 
ft pMt which be held unlit his death. To 
makr l>.-i»i)r^ for cotiopntilion lie retired to 
the viltaf^v of Chebterton, where ho a«t 10 
niu»-ic maiiT of 8ir Wnltrr Scott's vene». 
In tbi' cvurw of >>ome aiuicable compoa- 
dence with the nusiciaii. Scott pl«a(I«d hia 
' wntiehud emr,' hut R-einml FTrnttGcd by thfl 
great flow of inuaic iiixjiiivd hy hi« balUd« 
and poems. He was now and then at ymioa 
U* forward Iiik iiianuM--ript to WbilfeM. *0 
that words and mufiir should sen the lif^ht 
aimultuwouelr {Anntinl Biography). Whit- 
fi-ld workfd (uitf li-M itiduMrtouxlr on tho 
poeou of UyroD, Moore, and Joanna IJailUet 
M-ltinft tlieir words to muaic in some hundred 
K>!i)^ and part-itongs. About 1814 be pub* 
liftbed two voluinea of 'Twelve Vocal Piece*,' 
for which orifrinal mat^al was contributed 
bv ibcM and ifiher p(.iet«, 
'From ]Kt>Oto IS.i;i Wbitfeldwa-iorpmiit 
and ohoinuatiliTofHeivford Cathedral, being 
fmjucnllj retatiM^ at lite 'Hinf! ('hoin f'lUt- 
tivala to (Hmduci or lo nreside at the piano. 
Af lln'Il*Ti.r.inlf«iiT«l of )sa2h"prodiM>td 
hiA oratorio, 'The Cnicitixion,* anri at tliat 

of IHAI ilsconliniialion, ' Theltesurrection ' 
philliii (rf. 10 Nov. 18ia>,dau^bter of Henri ' tpnWi'hed l/mdon. l(<Vt). ^\niitfeld di«d 
Whiiftilil of llie Burr, Rickmansworth. l m , 


AUcr a musical tniniiic at tlxford under 
I>r. Pliilip Hayeis Clarke-Whitffld obtaini-d 
in 17<'^'.' ilie punt nf or^niMt i» the {lariiih 
church of I.udtow, and married in the fol- 
lowing; vear. In 1793 he took thv Muc. 
Bac. divreo at Osfotd. In 1731 he auc- 
Ciwded itichard Lau|;Ion aa oreaQist and 
maaUT of tlie chortsten at .\rmu^h Calht^ 
dral for tbi\-e year*; on li March Xl^i^ 
\ he waa appoittie<l choinnaater of St. Patrick's 
Oftthedral and Cbriet Cburch, Dublin, aftvr 
obtftining in 17!l>'> lh>^ honoiary degreo of 
Muii.Doc. at Dublin rniversitr. nieourliMt 
|[lee8 and suiiiilas were written and rarlly 

Subliahi.'^ in tn-lund: but the untitled ron- 
itwaofxhe country at leuji^th induced him 
to nMisn his posts, and, rctuminf^ to Kng- 
hutd, uc svtliHl kt Cambrii^o. bevomiui; 
onraniat and clioimaal^r to iS^nitr and Si. 
Jonn's etdleges. To tlie nuutvtw anil fellows 
w<!r« dediiCalod hia thnH" vulomea, 'Sffrioos 
and Anthems' (l^mdon, l'*00-i»). Thi^col- 
laclion WBi( aflorwRTtlii n*pnnted with naup' 
nlemnntary fourth rolume, about 1840, by 
Novwtlo, wbo also n.-i-ditiil in varrous fiimu 
others nf Clarke W hit feld's Aacr<^ works. 

In 1799 narke-Whiifeld wae granted th« 
dcgTM Mus. l>oc. C'atnbridgi) adamdcm from 

llohnvr. nvar llervfurd, on -22 Fob. I»96. 
-V mural tablet records his burial in the 
bishop's cloi'tLT!, HervfLTd Cathedral. 

WLilfi-lil'ii work wa!> ••xc'llc'ntlT adapted 
to the end he had in view, and Co the wanta 
of the period. IIi» twores were musicinnlr 
and a^rret-ahle, and, lika hU wnfra, attained 
piipularity. He did pioneer work in editinff 
ttw tcoTt« nt Purccll, Ame, and I1an<li£ 
and Ilia collection* of ' Favourite Antl>ein« 
(1K)>5) and 'S^gle and Double Chants' 
|1810,> wcTv compiled with judgment. 

[Gkiw's Dictionatj, i. 39&, ir. bii ; prebee 
to vol. ii. Clarice's Anibams: Annals of the 
Tbrvn Cbiurv, pp. IM el ■«].: Aaniial Bto- 
irapby. 18S7. p. 139. Uarfnti^** IIer«forJ, p. 
lO-j; CSnttarbodt's HectfocMiire. IKlA. i. IIW: 
AU}j Williaiaa's DegreM in Mask ; Wbiirrld '« 
mtH:»: private informatioa.) L. M. M. 

WHITPORD, DAnn (16:W-H574>, 
soldier and aeholar, honi in lil26, was tho 
fouftb oon of Walter Whilford Iti- v,\ bi- 
shop of Brechin. Hv waa educate<l al 
Woslminater.whenlu^ waai-leclt^ a quern'a 
scholar oo a mval warrant dated ■2\ March 
lflS9-40(OiV. '«fnfe Paj>er*, D-tn. Hf»" 
Ifi-M), p. ^t7t, and ntatrirnlaN-d fr>>m 
Christ Church, Oxford, BraduaTing U.A. on 
30Marchl647,AiidM.A.on UJu. 10a&- 





lt)61, Ob tba outbrvali of tli* civil war 
he espoused the Vme's cauae and ' bore anna 
witli Uie (lurrUon of OxfvnI.' lncoiis<iiut>i)L'«- 
he wtM deprived of hin Bni(lfiil.«Uip by the 
partianwDtary visitors in Itfl^, snd rvt<iimeil 
to Scotland. Tlirrc )iv ai tJichud himsolf to 
Charies II, und Uicame an ufticer in his 
army. !!« took part in tlu> battle of Wor- 
etuftvr on 3 S«pu l&^l, wii» woiindt^d, taken 
pri*oti*r, coirrii^d to ttxfonl, and coiivared 
tboncB to London, wht-rt' liia friundH' iinuor- 
tuoilv olftiiiiK-d lit!) rr^l«iijiH (cl'. ifi. liii'n-'J, 

5. 11), lie found himself in n Bl»l<t of 
istrws fromwliicli ti" vitm relieved by1f>ii") 
Kdwurd Bysshi^ [l-^'-jr '"artpr Iting-of-artua. 
He obtain«d employiuem m an usbvr in 
Mliitrfriars in iho school of the poft, .lanipa 
Sbirltjy [q. V.J, and in November lOW was 
entered as a studt-nl uf tin- Inner Temple. 
On clic ItoflCorntion he wns rein«tnti-d tn 
lii* atudentsliip bv the viitilora, but, finding 
bitnaelf disabled from holding it Iit the 
CoUt^ rtAlutui>, \iv pirlilfiifd ChurW il in 
Uecftnber 16<iU to gmnt him a di*ppn&ation 
(1:^.1660-1, p.4S3). Oul'CJnlylOC'Jbuwas | 
appointi^dchnplain to l./ard G-tirgn Duugtad's 
regiment of foot ii&. J0(J5-6. p. 540). Ila 
nftcrwanls bvcnmo cbnplain t<j .luliti Miiit* 
lanri, duki^ of Laiidfnlnlf 't[. v.] In 1072 
bte olSciated ae minist'^r to tn« Scottish refi'" 
tnfrnt in Fmuce {Hut, MSS. Gmim. Otli Hep. 
Li. 1481), wid in ll.!7-'J In; wm ap^wintj-d 
rectwof MiddletnnTyas in Yorkabiro. Ilo 
diuil suddenly in hu« uhaniburs ut C'hri«l 
■Chureli on L'H ()rt. 1074, and wiiw burisd on 
the following diiy in tht! Houlh Irnnifpi of 

»tlii' r-nthrdrsl, m:aT lii* eldi.T lirolbiT, Aduiu. 
Whitford was an •tvcellenl ecliolar, and 
^blished 'MiiBS-'i, Muscbi, et Hiooifi onw | 
Mtant oinnin, quibn.^ aorcet^en; quieoam ; 
Wectiora Thnocriti Kidyllia,' Latin and | 
Greek, London, 1655, 4Io; republished with 
a new titK-paifu in Uh>9. 'ilie work con- 
tained u d^ieatiua to Ityaabe. 11l' aUo 
tmnjl&tt'd into Latin thnw ti\>uLi»e» by Sir 
I'Mward Byithir, witilb-d ' Notm in uualilor 

I Libma Nii^hnlai 1 'pton, de Studio .^^liLa^i ' 

^^L [m-v l.-PUiy, NiciiulahI, ' Nolm inJohannin 
^H df> Badn Aiirrn Libellnm d« Amtifl,' and 
^B * XottD in Ilenrici Sp^lmanni A«pi)o(;iiim ' 
^P [tee SpBi,UAK, StR IIbsrtI, which w.ire 
^^ pablisb'ed in one volume in 1654, London, 
fol. llie la»t hud bewi previously prefixed . 
U) Spfcliuttn'B * AMpilu^nu in 1650, Whit- [ 
ford waa lh« author of an appendix to ■ 
WisLttrt'fl 'Coniideat Himorv of Hie War?! 
in ticDtiand nmlfr the L'onduite of James. 
Marqup.a« of Montrose,' 11^60, and of wme 
funiulimentary Terse* pri'lixtrd tu Kriuici-t 
GoIiiHmith'H 'Hum Orotius his upborn-: 
puieas, or loeeph, 1<V>:J. 

[Tood'a Alheim Oxna. «cl. Hlvm, iii. 742, 
lOIS^lS, 1220: W«leir» Alnmni W«tmon. 
1S.12, p. US; Fa«t«r'i Alumni Oxon. 1600- 
1714; WaJker* SnfforiiiK"of tho CIbthj, IJU, 
ii. 109; ikgU'ti t'a«ti iLfcle*. SmttcaDB III. ii. 
890; UhIIoo's Army Lists, IB«2. i. 71 ; Wnorla 
lliit. iind Aniiq. of Itaf CollogeM of Oxfmd, 
ml. Ontch, p. S13: Msmborti oduitMd to ths 
InncrTumpto, \fit7~lWV. p. 37:<.] K. I. C. 

CHAItU ijt. My5-155fli--). -ihc wrt-ich of 
Svon,' obtained bis name pn>bably front 
\vhyiford, near Holywell, in Hint, where 
his uncle, llichani \\ bilford. |HjMu.-»srd pro- 
perty. Wood BtatM that he stndied at Ol- 
ford, bill tilt* can hnrp buen only a tem- 
porary visit, since he was elected a frilow of 
ljiii*eni>' (.Viilege, Cambridge, about 14i>5. Ilo 
was given leave of alMeneo by bis cotiejfe for 
fivH years in 1406-7 that he might attond 
William Hlonnt, fourth lord Mount joy [q.t.], 
as (■haplain and confoswr, on tlio continent. 
In tliat eapucitv be received at I'ari« a lottcir 
from Km.*nm(i. Lord Mountjoy'slntor, written 
shortly before 4 I'«l>. UP"! proliahly from 
tllo Chat<^au Tournobeiis, where Kriwrraus 
WHS staving. Krusmus addres^ieti Whitford 
tut bis ' (iea.r friend Kicliard,' and cnconniges 
him in his study of pbilnaophy. In ll98 
tutor, cbatiloin, and pupil returned to Eng- 
land ; and perhaps nt this time \\'hitford 
vi*il<rd (ixford with Kranmut. Soon afCer- 
wardx he br^came chaplain to Richnrd Foxe 
\i\.y.\ bishop of WinL'hester ; and l£<»ier, in 
)li« ' Lift- of More/reporta that in IciCM ho 
enconraiTfi Moro in hU resintance to 
ricnry Vll'a esactiona. The speech against 
r' asuribt-d to Whitford Moundi* apocrr- 

Shnl, but, the ctoiWrneM of his friendfthip with 
lorg Lb attested by a letter WTitten from 
' th« toimlry,' I May 1W(J, by Enumue 
during his second vfsit to England. He 
sends Whitford a Latin deiciamnlion rom- 
nofted against the 'Pro Tymunicida' of 
Luelan. Thia Wbil/ord is to compare with 
a similar effurt of Morn's, and to decide which 
is better. Thu haiiir contains an enthusiastic 
eatiinatu of More'n abilities. It statta that 
Whitford used to affirm EmRmus and More 
to be 'mo alikf in wit, manners, aH'octions, 
and iiurauitii, that no pair of twins could bo 
found :noru so.' It coticludt-i', 'Koth of ua 
certainly you equally love ; to both you are 
e<]unlly dear.' The leilur uceura in th« 
edilif\n*of these dcclamatioiiH which wero 
printed with ihe tranHritiona from I.ucian 
(e.g. LucMHt Oi/iCH-u/ii, Ijeyijpu, LWft, p, 
ilU). It ff'ruiM the dc^dirslnn' epislle of 
Kraflmu»'.i version of the ' Pro I'yraunicida ' 
(£'«f*mi'0/*fm,l.evde«, 1703,(om. i.) When 
uext heard of, 'VN'Litford, tike hia uncle, is 



mmE< «ta>> Wv»l 



_..' 1 «am4 fmr, i< wUcb tJM k 

^ >• t^w Mi of tk» ima. 

.< 44 ■wMt in t\m mmfo- 

■ - o<irk«,wlueb 

'TiVdiit walla. 

' tMi"iar«hip liu bifvn 

- fialfMl by it^an-w mi 

, iiV r r-t,-irm anil iWeet- 

II I viaitixl ^Ton 

'I ■ Hdil nuiu 

■ iH|tr»'fniu'5', 

ll>Al VN'tti't- 

11(1 n-«t>toit 


I 'I At ibodi^ 


' <>f Mm iliya 

I >« MkiihIJuv. 

I . 1 ..'.twM M^ry"* 

Ifw iHit»«m»k»Mt itfi I- "A .UvW •■wrrT** 



OM M tJh« «r SL BmA W Tittor. ih» 
•hMlcr M Wlitfirfk. "^ Wnk b d«l»d 
38 Nor. leL 4. *A ««te ibr Hmi»- 
bolden Attd far tbeoi tkl latw tKe Ojr^Tits 

or GoTvtiMaaM of may Cao^ttnj,'priiit«a 
by Wyakirn de Wordu, ISJW, 4to. iTiid wm 
rvpriotml with * dightljr AlteivJ title in 
Ifi.t: bv John Wftjluiil, ftad in 10^ hy 
Rohi^rt liMman. A. * Thr Four R^TtlUiont 
of St. Rntlsui,' London,'mo. 6.'Ti» 
li<ild<-n K|i»ttc of St. Bcruud,* London, 
I'M, I2mo. Thia wurapublitbed in l-!>37 
■nd l'V*5 ftlong with other trwtJMSOf Wltil- 
fonl. 7. < Tbo Crossrune, or A G C. Hem 
doDv folowi- two opuscules or amaU wvriu 
of Stynt HiiQavi?ntur«.iaAcbe necMMrie ftud 
{icatyt«lilt> unlv all CUrietiuu specially unto 
ntinuiu jMt*on«, put into KoglTslir bj « 
brouar of Syon, lucliard Whvt^rde. AI- 
plubatani Roligimonim,' 1537, l^mo, 
pEiainl br Wa^luide bvrore No. 3. Itckme 
out Aral' in \6Si. H. 'Tba Pomander of 
Prarvr,' l&ai9. 4u\ printed by Wynltyn d« 
M«>i«> 9. ' llan beg^nuelh the boke ctlled 
Ih* ^f^«r T<xin% w till' tjfi- of iKrCKti<ni. 
IV NMM cr cuat wLviwir dotbe plsTiiIy 
•ffM« in Um pvsMMCi. ImnrTnUid «t london 
te FMr MflwM kjr an Kobect Radnun, 
jt rn J U w ^ s i* Snjnt PunstoneB jmiytahe, 
•«awsCh«i^ lathe yen of our lord 
r^l«i.tfctSdv«rXwelw.'4to. Thii 
ft«HiMftvMMtlh«LMWnn«. 10. 'A 
h^wvoe the 
ttJtaa^AMMriBd the parodunne 
•4fr iffearitp al^aL Fcr • dn» jnpnncion 
Mtevnd br ?Cm. 7 and 45, 
IB:, l£ao. 11. • A 
of dirvrv 
,* London. 
X M. ■ An 

1^ liiBiBii. IS. '<VClMBMliMn,'Laih- 


hv in itylfi itni3 futtUng tho fined retulermft 
into Rnglish of tlif famouB i>ri^iiuil, II tioa 
bevT. '4.'<]it^ u'itli hiiitnrirsl inin^ilui^tion hr 
Dotn Wilfriii I{ftynal,t).S.B.,'l>indrtn. I*7i. 
15. 'Cenaine devoul and OiwHv i)»*lltiiir)!« 
commonly called J«su9 l'anlt<>r. Cum Privi- 
leglo. Anpo 1683.' It is verj- probobly (wn- 
iecturej that thi» fnvonrilc booK of dcvoli^n, 
BBOH-n ID nuideni lime!' under tlie litlo of ' A 
MMlitaticin GIimouH nttmed Jpsu» l'i^alU*r,' 
irasWhilfonl'sL'tjmjKwititui, In li'/iH Oiliere 
islicenawl m John Jtidx"!! In the' Statioaera' 
Register' 'The Spirilnall CounMilc, Jasiu 
Hattent, Jwfu IVi«1|>t, jind \y ()«.' A 
mannAcript in the lihrnrv nf Mnnrt-sa House, 
Roebampt on, scemtt tg \m i\w b<wk fnten«d 
in the ' Stntinntrs' Rcei!it«r,' and is nmrlv 
identical with ihework pablished in 1583. 
Tbera ifi an earlier pdi lion printtd M Ant- 
wnp in lo7>% and nnnif-TYinK later pditif>nii. 
Hie wbole question of Whitford's auihonhip 
And Ibe retation tneach other of tnaniiscript 
and niiiion^ is discit^sud in ' J«9u'h Pnaltt^r. 
What it, was iit ita origin aud as conw>crAt4-d 
hj tbti Its*! uf many martm iinil cjiirue^ors,* 
OT thw Itov. Samurl Ilt^ydon Mnlr, London, 
1888. Tliis prime ibn raaniuicripl of 1571, 
th« sdilion ol ln8!t, nnd thu modiTti rnriion 
of tlie Ptuilti^r. 10. .\ iraneiUtion in the 
Bodleian Library of (he 'Speculum It. Miiriir 
— The Myrrour of Out lAdy/ wai nlmfmt 
certainty by Whitford. It was cs"Ciiti'd at 
the reniie*t of the abbcsi of Syon, aiid prlntwl 
in 1630, 4to. Cvrlfiin 'Solitary MeditAtioii«' 
wm aUci aacrilird to ^VhitfonL by Tanner, 
vithoDt any date or oomment. 

[Wood's Athtnn Oaon. cd. BUw, i. ISfl ; Tan- 
ner* Bihliothaca, p. JBti-, CDopcr'n Atbonie 
CanCabr. i. 79 i the tiilrodaclory ninlter of 2. 14. 
and I A abovo; Epunii Epistuiie, Loudon, IS42. 
pp. 387, niR: DrDroiiiond's Erasmua. i. 144. 
IW; 8*»bobin'ii Oxford Hnfor^)^T^^ p. 182; 
Mon'a Lifo of Sir TbotniiB iiov.', i;20.pp.3S- 
S7; JoRid's Eraanias. i. 188 ; I^ttnniHnd I'lipcnt, 
«d. Oairdnor, 1534, Na<. 633, 1090i Wright'o 
X.«tt«rB relaliae to tliD Supproiitiion of the 
VooaotariM, pp. id. 41, *!i. 47, 49; Anntpcr'a 
Hilt, of Bjtm Maniu<t«ry, 1840; Jktoun'n Cat. 

of 9yoa library, 1898.] 


WHTTFORD, WALTER (in»i ?-lfW71, 
biahop of Br«cbiii. bom about 1 Wl, wa-i rbe 
Bon of Adnm Wbilford of Milntown fnow 
callM -Milton l^ckhart), by hi« wife Mary, 
ilaughtt-rof Hir Jahivj^ Somervillo of Oam- 
buanethaii in Laoarhtihin'. The family of 
\Miitford dnriT»8 itA name from thu estate 
of Whit.fiml in Iti'nfr>-wi<birp on thwCarl, 
which Wnll*>r di» Whitford nbtain^d for hia 
aerricea at the battl« of Larua in I2B.t. 

I Adam "Whitford waa aceusnd of h«infr con- 

^■eemed in January 157S-0 in a ooDapiracy 

against the regent, Jamex Uouglaa, fuurlb 
earl of Morton [q. t.] 

Walter wa* nluvaltM] at CUa»(f0w Uni- 
verpitv, where he was l&iirented in IffllJ, 
and iiniirwiiH* actwl as rtytont. Ud 10 May 
lAu-l h<! vas licenfiM tn pr^acli by the prvs- 
bytory of Paisley, and on 3 D»c. IflCfe he 
waa pr««u>ated by JamcA VI to the parish of 
Kilmarnock in AjTshire. In ItJIO ho wiw 
translated to Momit in LI umfriee shire, whar» 
hv was adntlted bt-foni 8 Juni>. In 1013 
lie wsa nominated on tlin comiiiinMioit of th« 
peseo for Annnndale(.MA^WJN, Rfg. o/ Priev 

Q>iPMi7, loia-io, pp. i(ij-;!,wii-7,r>r,3>,im;i 

waa involved in Bevcral of the fBmily finnd* 
with which thu county abounded {ilf, 1611>- 
ItJIO.p. a^fi). 

On 'JTJunu 1817 Whitford signed the pro- 
ti>flt.ation to parlin:nr'nt in support of ihi- liber- 
tiiio of the kirk, but bit itufTitrt^l himittdf i^uon 
aftwrtobewonoverbythehing, andoii 15 Junu 
1619 ho waa notnitiatod a nionib>rr of the 
court of high commiwtion. On '10 Atiff. ho 
waa constituted minister of Failford in. .'V vr- 
abire by Juniea VI, in additiuu to his utbcr 
charge. In March 16i'0 he rw»iri^ ths d^ 
grea of D.I), from Gloagon- Univarsily: and 
OR 4 Auff. KUl Mil was confirm«<d in hia 
ministry by act »f parliament. In IR2?t his 
cunimiwiion of jimticf nf th* peaci* was re- 
nowdd^ and he was aiipotntod ronToncr of tbo 
■t«wartry of Annandalit (0: Hi2'2-'i, p. liiA). 
In Ibo game yoar Jamc<i proposed to trana- 
lutebimloLiWrlou iiiMitllutliiuu,but failed 
to carry out his intention. I In Sr. Uc.iAn27 
bo -Kms kppoiutod oou of the commiaaioners 
naminal«d bv tln^ kiTig for taking m«asun>a 
againat Lhi^ papi&r^ ilieg. yfar/. &yjV. lifffum 
f^f. 1630-;5.% p, ,, which on 21 Oct. 
1034 was expandod into a high commi>>sion 
to cit« and ptuiish alL perfons dwL4Un^ in 
Scotland concoming whom there were un- 
favourable report-* (rt. 1U;JJ 51, p. 94). On 
D Dee. l(J28 he waa pwsentwd by C'bftrlt«i I 
to till) ftub-di'iinory oi Ulosgow, which af^or 
1070 formed Ihe [mriah of Old Moiikland in 
Lanarkshire. Ht- removed thither in IfillO, 
a dijiputi* a* to tho crown *!< right, of pBtrnnage 
preventing him fn>rn taking posts^.sft ion bt'fnre; 
and on 21 Oct. m34 be waa noinmaled to 
t ho commifiMrinf<^rthp maintenance of cburch 

In Ui36 "Wliitford was consecrated by thi* 
biahop of Brechin a» »ucct«R&r to Thomaa 
SydaerfF fq. v.], holding the aul>,dfanrry m 
OMnme»<iam until I'lSO, when ho disponed 
bio title to Jame;* Hamilton, Ibird marquis 
(afterwards first diibe) of Hamilton fq. v.] 
On 10 April lil-tli be was crcmled a bunrees 
nf Arbr^^ath. Whitford nai^d his episcopal 
authority to support the liturgical changos 




which UhkriM I biul introdiiced. The new 
»ervice-boolc was very unpopular with the 
multitutle, und in 165", when Whitford «n- 
nouncod hi» iiiiumioii of Kailiagit, he was 
thriuit^iit^d iritli vialeiict-. I. ncLctenvd hi> 
BAcendt'dlhtt pulpit, holding a hroccofpittols, 
hie r&inily and wrvnut* att«ndiiiK him»il, 
ftnd TRad tht! «iTvice with cloftod doors. On 
his TvCiitn lit) WAN nll.M'iied by an nnrwed 
mob, and pucnpfd witU difRcuIly. The minj- 
Bter of IVuchin, AU'X&ndi'r Biiwrl,, rKfuniiti^ to 
obey W liitford'ftoomnuinds to I'ollnn' hU e\- 
fimple. the bishop caused his own ■urvnni lu 
!»«3 the sortie* T»gwl«rlyfwm tli*d«ik. This 
olMtinacy roused intt>nse fe^Ung ntFainHt biro, 
Rnd towards the cIosp i>f the year, nftor his 
paUcL' hud li'vii [plundered, he n-as cnmpeUed 
to fly to Knfjland. where, with two other 
bUhops, hr.< vlol'iilly ijp|i(j»<.-d thb dcoicwh 
tnmt^urLT, Sir John Stewart, firm earl of 
Tniiiiiftir [<). v.], vhose moderfttion bo dis- 
liki'u, druKuij; up • momorial n^^iu^t em- 
ploying liiiii nst n commiMioner to treat with 
the"Sc!o!a (Uau-LIK. Letlurt and Jounuih, i. 
74). On l.*! nw. I4i38 he wa« depoM^ and 
cxcchin muni rated by tbti Glu^w osEumbly. 
whose ii'ithority, in common with tbj; other 
bishops, hr hnd refii-wd to n^oo^iiiae. In ad- 
Jition lo the eeclosiaAtical affeoce ofHigniii^ 
the declinntnrc, h<t wan noctuied of dniuken- 
OM* and incontinence, and of ' useioff uf 
iDMiie rrucJBses in Lis chamber ' {ib. i, IM). 
On 23 Aug. 16S9 hu «nd lh<i olhur Scolti»h 
preUli.-jt dn;w up a proteat agaiitut their ex- 
cltHJon fn>Tn parliumant {Hiat. M^S. Comm. 
»th Uwp, App. ii. ^SA). 

On i2S Dec. KUC Whitford was living iii 
Jjondon in f{nvi.t novi-rty (H*l[.l.rE. l^tUrt, 
i. flSKlj but on 6 Miiy 1042, as a rBcomjje&se 
for hi* fluBerioR*. CfiarW rirpirtnled hiin to 
the rectory of %Vfilemve in Northainplon- 
ithlrv, where he was instituted. In ]lt4') h« 
waj* expelled by the parliamentary soldiery ; 
he died in thi^ foUowiuK year, and waa butied 
on 1(1 .lone tu tbt' uiiddh.'uLslc of the channel 
of St. Mu.rp;arutV, Wealminstor, He mamod 
Anne, fonrth ()iiii|,'liler of Sir John L'nrmi- 
rhael of that ilk, find oivcn of tin; reireiit 
Morton {'i^^lV(^^J•.», S'^fruyr of Scutland, 1813, 
i, 763). Bt her ho had fivo boui!— John, 
Adam, David, WalttT, and Jauieji — and two 
dati^htow — llachid was married lo Jammt 
Johnstone, laird of C'ornlieiid, and Uhriatian 
to William Itennf'tt of Ruins. James re- 
mvfj n commission wn unnijjn in th^ Karl 
of Chest (-■rficld'tt rofjimentof fool nn 13 Juna 
166* t l>*l.Tos, Armtf Luh, i. 79). David 
and Walter (r/. lfi^*6i^> are n>parar«tT no- 
ticed, lu I'MW Whitford'* widow peti- 
tion«d for n vearly allowance out of the 
rents of the Lishopric of Brechin iu coa- 

«id«ratioD of the sufftwings of her fikmiLr ia 
the royal oaiue (Brit. Mlu. Addit. Ji& 
•J-MU,r. 135). 

Ilia eldeal son, JoiixWiriTFOBD {d. IWJ), 
divine, waa preaeiited in 1611, at tlw itutancv 
of I.aud, u> the rsctory of Aahtun in Nortb- 
uinptiiniihirM, and inntitutMl on 17 May. In 
ltH5 he waa ^eoted, and took refu^ with 
his fnlhi.Tr. Hv wa» rttin«t«tt>d at the It»> 
fltor&lion, and on <*> July 16til received a 
^janl of 100^ in compongation for the lo» 
of his booka and nthi-r pnipertv {Artt^ 
Pari, of Scotl vol. vii. App. p.* ^-2). Ua 
died at Asht«n on D Oct. IlH>7. lie mnrried 
Judith ((f. 6 March I7(X1'7), daughter of 
John Marriott of .V^bloo. 

The third aon. Aniu WiiiTFOBD (ISlM- 
1017), Doldier, bont in Wl\, waa a qa«an'« 
echnlar at Westminster Dchool, and in 1641 
waa uli'clod tuChrisl Church, Osfurd. wheoM 
hr. matriculated on 10 l>ec.,j[pradaaltii|; DA. 
on 4 Dec. llUfl. Like hia brother David. h« 
vnmlled binjiwirin the roval |iarri«on at Ox- 
ford, and was killed in tlie aiege. We wai 
buned in the luiiith tranaiqtt of the cathiwIrU 
on lOFeb. lfll6-7. 

[ScoIi'h F«»ti HmIbm. Scoctt^Bnie, i, ii 6A3, n.i. 
17U. ITT. ii. BA1>: Wood's Aihen* Oxim. ad. 
UliM, iii. lOia : K'-itb'a CnUloguv of Sfnttuh 
Bi«bopa, 1S24, p. 167; R»^i»trnin Maffni Sigillt 
Regura Seotoruni. 1620-83 pp. SlS, A13,I63t- 
tsat pp. 40. 1£0, 214. 71D; ItniigM's Hist, ol 
Xorttiarop'onsbire, nA. Wbjtiley, i. 384-5, 301, 
ii. ]'Ja-30;Bailliu'BLotten<ao^lJoamak(B«wa< 
lyne Club), vol. i. pauim; Nisb«(,'8 Uerahlry. 
1732, i. 376-7 1 S|nttAa«roo4«'« Hiat. of the 
Church of ticmUnd l.Spot(iswood« Sue.), i. 44; 
CulderwnoiV lli»i, of t.hft Kirt (WodrowSoc.). 
vol. vii. pvwim; Hliick'* Hivt.of Urochin, lft39. 
pp. JI-2, 303-1; RovV Util. of tho Kirk oT 
.S:^tlan(1 (Wmtrow Sm.). pp. -im. H'l. aSS; 
Bn]f.iiir'ii AiitiJil™ of ScolUud, IS'Ji, >. 864, ii. 
309; Cmwfurd'n DdtcripliwH of tli* Sbirs cf 
Renfrrtw. Oi). Rol«rt»oa. IKIH, pp. M-T; )£»' 
iimirnQf Ilwiry Gulhry. 1748. p. 16; Imng's 
Upper Ward of Lanarkshirv. 1844, ii. 43B; 
Hewina's Whitcfoord Papars. iSdS; Knual'* 
Bt^.and Cliruu. 1 720. p. 20 1 ; Hamilton'* Utacrip- 
tioa of tbo Sberiffdomsof lAnark and Ranfra* 
(MaitJaod Club), pp. 18. 70 ; Pitcaim'* Crimiiial 
Trinlit. IS33. I. ii.70; Iduniineata Aloia Klu- 
guansiK (Miiii.lnnd Club),p<u«iai ; Gmb'i Eecl»- 
viusUcttl Hilt, of SmtUnd. 16S1. n. VA, iii. 31, 
43. 4-t, H8 : Arts uf l\irltam«Dt of Scotland, it. 
668, V. 46. ISO, 1?U. 479. 6Q&. £2B. Tii. 347; 
Sptil ii UK's Mwiiuriahi of TniUM{Spal<UaR Club), 
piu-Bim ; Pcierlcin'a nceonlB of the Kirk. 1843, 
pp. 26-7. B»-I06 ; Pat^rwn'a Hutt, of Ayr aad 
Wigion, 19C6. ii. 4*6: Wood'a Hirt. and Antiq. 
nf tba Colleges of Oxford, ed. Gnlcb. p. AlO; 
Mill.-, (lea ct Hprald. Sod a«r. i. 289; iMoA'a 
Works (Libmry of Anglq-Catbolio TheoL), iii. 
313, vi. 4S«-6, 19a, 690, rii. 427.] E. L C 



WHITFORD, WALTER (d. 1080 P>, 
K>ldii^r, wm tLe nwcotwl »on of W^Iur WLit- 
ford (1.581 *-I647) 'ij. r.j, bislioii of Brtschin. 
Hv rnuffht on !)]<:■ siilcor tl»>kini{ in tiin civil 
war, ailaine'l thernnkof iTolniwl.nnd.onthB 
ovwii brow of Cbarli!». took ri^fiif^ ia Ilollanil. 
[n l<VI9 TuAC DorinUuA fq. v.], wbn had 
taken an active part in lb<3 trial of tb» king, 
wuappoiQlt^d Kiif^lifh envoyin llolliind,(in() 
naebed 'Vbt: lloeue ou 2it April, Aiuoim: 
the followers of Moatroee wbo Bwanuvd in 
the stnwid of Ttui Hague the fritliii^ afruliiHt 
tfa« rafificide was especially bilttir, aiid a 
fldiemo was laid amou^ tnom to miirdor 
thn nt-w hnvov. f>n tlm tiivning tif 12 Mny, 
as Dnnelaug waa sitting down to Mipprr at 
th« Witte ZwtMn, six lacn bun^l into Ins 
TWiniB, and whiln afim«of tbi^m ftinmi! bii 
serrantfl, Wliitford, after elasbinp bioi over 
til* h«ad, paw.xl a «woM through bis IxhIy, 
tmA anid, 'Tbiia diw ono of the king's 
jiid^eis' (Woob, Ath^n^ O.Tvn. ed. Illiw, lii. 
060). The wholfi party. It^ariii)? their victim 
dcKa upon (he ground, made ibvir escape, 
and Whitford guccpMlpd in crossing the 
froDti'.T into tbci^iiaimb NetbiTlaiid*. whurc 
htt was ia perfect aafety. All royalis^ls n*- 
oeived tbe nvwa of tlii.' murdiT witb un- 
hnundBc) Nat utfactioci. Hri*n tlni «tnid and 
kindir Nicholas wroto of the ttA^a»<ination 
na ' th* dwrrved (.-xiTiilion of that bloody 
rillain ' <Ca8tb. Jtetim and Vapfvt, i. 1^1 ). 
Whitford nc^ro in panted Montrosf in bi^ Iwt 
Scottish '^^pfdition in iBoU, and was taken 
pri-fOHtr at'I'T tbu bftttb' of C'urbitidalo ou 
'SI April (IIrwiss, WhitefouTii Pnprrn,\i.-x.Y 
Ilf waa to liavo b«a bt-h'-adL-d uii s Junw 
with Sir John Urry \i\. v.). Sir Franrln Hay, 
and oilier royalist othcs-rs, but, while bi>ing 
li«d to i-xrcution, I'xrbiinipd tliat he was 
condemned for killing Dorislaus. who was 
one of thoae who had murdered tlie last 
kiog. (Ine of llut magiMrAic-^ [trfsont, \w^t- 
ing this, ordered him to bo remandud, and, 
inquiry confirming bin statement, ' (he coitu- 
ctl tliought (it (0 avoid lImi rf^proarh, nnd m 
pTMenrnd the genlleroiin.' Thp pari lie hiul 
takvD in th<; murder of DoriKbius wius 
' counts tf> him fur riKbieiiii«ui-«!t'( WittMAKT, 
Jteedn of Montfiiu', T'lO.'i, pp. LH>8, 4'.t«), and 
htt wan girrii fi paj^ to It^avii tlm country on 
SS June iAett of Pari, n/ f^f^tl. VI. ii, r'7fi, 
OHO, r)«H. I'tiJ >. In August 1W« he was at 
tlir c/Mirt of ( "harU-fl (THrRior, AYcff^ /bpflc*, 
T. 315), and ten veurs lai-T Downing wrote 
loThurloir: • As" for W bitlorJ, I did ((ivB 

I) Witt two or llir>;v timeo notic« of liis 
gmg, nnd he iun«t bavi- Ixvn taken, but 
that it was always twenty-four hours ere an 
ordf r could \m bad ; and b<.> nmnirpd bis 
lodging urery night, and now he baa gone 

VOL. LXl. 

tion ' (i&. vii. 4*iO). lit) «ut«red thu Kiinsian 
eerviou {Cat. State Papert, Ttom. Itt6?t— I, 

f. 16U), but returnftd to England before 
D64, and on l-j July of that year pftitioncd 
for tliB post of town-major of IluU (ij. 
I6fifi-6, p. ftliU). |]«iinl»iHini?ntly petitioned 
for 'aid to lieep bis famUv from starviug,' 
stdtinjir thnt hv waa disabled by old wounds 
(lA. Addenda, 1600-70, p. Q3i>). Evrntiially 
be received a commiuion in tho guarrlfl, ni^ 
hid paternal coal-of-armt waa ehargitl with 
tlinx' croaaea pal6e, ' being add«u at Imm 
mnjestie's speriall command' (Stodd.vkt, 
Smtli'jih Arm*, li. 2IS). Up wbb disnii'svd 
from the guards he a papist in 1673 (Won- 
Kow, W^>^ of the Stiffrriitgt iif th(^ Vhurcft 
i>f tirf>tlftiid, ii, :*32). Jamea II granted bim 
u pension on 31 Dec. 1685 {Cai. State 
Paper*, Ilom. 1R89-90, p, 3fij), During 
lii.'* wanderingaon thi' continent his entt'^rwa 
the iJuke nf Savoy *a service, and waa thvnt 
wben the last maosncrc of tho Vaudois wna 
perpiil ruled. At the elo^e of bij life tliu 
rcmi^mbntnce of these atrocities preyod u()on 
bitf mind. Ilirbup 13uni<.'( say* ' ho died a 
few day.* ht'fnre the parliament met (in 
lO^t) I, titid calK'd for muic ministers, and to 
ilicni hu dtv-Jared bin foraaking of popt-ry, 
and his abhorrence of it for its cruelty' 
(ISvBSET, Uiei. of hit Oicn Time, y. 43."*). 
Hut according to Wood he was still living 
in Kditiburgli in 1691 i W oqd, Atticmr Ojvn. 
iii. 1016), His son Cbarlcs was principal 
of till) ^cuta College In i'aris iu 1714 {Bn't. 
Mtu. VaU. Addit. Ms. *J8ty7). 

[KFiironr'ii Annnlts of Pwitl. it. 60; Ctaron* 
don's liUt. of the Roldliua, 188S, v. 131; 
Cary's Momorialsi of tba Civil War, \M2, ii. 
131; Oardiner'n Hist, uf tbe CaDiraanumnltli 
and ProHMi'jralfl, i, 73 ; Nidbol's Eleraldry. 1722. 
i.3;7; f^toddan's Scottish Arms, ii.213: Whlr«- 
locke'ii MvinuTials, p. 460; notes supplied by 
HuRbT. Whitford. «eq,] 

WHITQIFT. .inilX C1630f-ie(M), arth- 
bi-'^hop of Canterbun,', was eldeet son of 
Henry Wbitpift., a well-to-do mcrcliiknt of 
Greiil t3rim»iliy, Lincolnshire, and Anne 
fl)viiHWeilJ bis wife. Af'crirding to FrauciD 
Thvniie lie wa« born al Orcal Grimsby in 
).'3:i.1, but be biiiukdf declared tliat in If.nO 
he renchiid the age of sixfy. In childhood 
lie attracted the fiiv"ur of hi" iiiicle, Hi'berl 
at Wellow, The abbot was a liberal-minded 
ecclesiastic, and no blind opponent of the 
Kofonnoliim. Noticing bis nephew's literary 
proraUe, he undertook the direction of bia 
education. Hy bi« advioe the bov wa-<< n-m 
to Si. .■\otliony"a school in Lonann, wUitb 
had already numbered many dietingutiihcd 




moa nmong Ha acliolan. H« ludged in St. 
Paul's Churehviinl witli TiU aunt, iho wifB 
of Uicbniil Slinllur, nnt) of thn cat tii^dntl vt*r- 
gen. Shewasa bitted Romnniat. Whit- 
gift was out of eympatliT wilh hwr vi«wB. 
nn<\ tiho nnikllr dnv h'tra from t)i<- lionsi'. 
loilue time tic proceeded to Queens' Collefr?, 
Carabrid^i-, biiT 50f>n mit^led to IVmbroIci' 
Hall, wlier« ho iaatrii:uUl«d a** a neiitiouur 
in May looO. At t'om broke llult his prt-di- 
Ii-ctiuu fur tlio mfunnoO niligimi wiia rapidly 
confirmwi. Nii^bulas lEiilluy [ij. v.} waa tlii* 
maAter.aud bis liret tiitnr was the convinced 
urutiHtnnt John Bradford (I.3I0 P - ITlVi) 
[a. T,],who aft^rwardfl Rufffrftd martj-rdom. 
He wn* nppointiHl a bibU-Krlerk, and en- 
dimtrd KA. in l&M~i and M..\. in IftftT. 
SleanwhUw his attHinroQnte were rewarded 
br hiii «l«ciiou on ^1 May 15tV> to a ft'llow- 
siiip at Pflterlioiisfi. Andniw Peme 'q. v.], 
thBinaster.shawed much liliinj; for bim, and 
(ilthiinph IVmt'V own rclipou^ views were 
pliant, hif n.-siitfct«d \Vhit(tif'V adJiereuce lo 
the principles of tht- IV-format ion. Durinff 
lltv vi»itutiori,of Xho unltt>nil,v byCarrliual 
I'ole's delcgalf^A in LIB?, Ppme screened Iiim 
from pcreeculioD. Tlimunbout Manr'Hn'iiiu 
Wtiirk'ift pumiiM hh nUuHra wbiln t>iiKui^d 
in colU'ge tuition. 

It wKji no' until lilt' position of thi> pr>>- 
toatflnt reformaTinn wa-i Fut^urcd in Kn^rland 
by the acci-wion of CJuoen iClizBbi>ith that 
Wliit(fift dc6nitclT pntcrcd tin; scrriee of 
t)io I'litircb. Ilv <lid uoi taku liuly ordcn 
until l.>liO, His firat sermon was prwwhfd 
soon afterwards at (trt-at Si. Mary's, iho 
unirentty cluircb, on th« t^^xt ' f am not 
ashumed of the giofipid of Christ' (Bom. i. 
Il'il. Ili:i delivery was iidmimbip, and Iiw 
Kputation aa a preacher wa-i madn. In tlio 
samp year ]>r. Richard Cox*, bisbop of Ely, 
inviii^d Iiim 10 V-romo hi.-< chaplain, and also 
collated him to the rectory of IWeraham. 
Oftinbrid^cuhirc. In 15IW he procecdod 
B.D., and WHS flpi»>int«d Lady iMa^ret 

fimfeasor of divinity in the nuivi'riiily. His 
irsl Iccttin' dr_>aU with thu idtintilyof th'j 
pope mid ,A,ntii'hrLiil. C?aIvinUtic viifw* Wrtrti 
in the ftftcendanl in the nniverftity, and 
Whilifift tlirrmiihnnl hi* cjirwr adhi'rod to 
the dortrinnl thptirif-a of Cftlvin; but ho 
never approved the Cnlvjnist principled of 
church govornnicnr. In tnnti.rji of ritnol, 
however, he seemed for a time iucUaed to 
AMept ihp viffWflof the Culrtnista. At 6rat 
he aharod the dnuhta of his futuru foe, 
Thomas CartwriRht, the leader of iht* I'al- 
viniiit* in tha niiivcraity, nn to the snrplicii. 
Ou 'J*i Nov. loCI h" signi'd ihi? in'tition lo 
Sir Wiliiam Cecil, chancellor ..f the univor- 
itity, vnlrvating bim to withdraw liia recent 

edict enjoining tb« UM nf aurnlioea in enl- 
l«gc chapelt. But thesp objecCioas retlectcd 
a poMing phase of WbilgiJl'M opinionn, and 
be wa« soon as conrinced an advocate of 
j .\R){'ticjin ritual nsof thv episcopal form uf 
chntrch ffovemment. 

Uu lU June 1&&I3 be was UceBBed to be 
oni> of the uniTersitj- pnsschers. On o July 
following the umver&itv marked their csusein 
for bis Itrcttiros ai La^y Margaret profeaaor 
by raiding bis taiuy from iwvnty markt to 
'Mi. Academic prefernient flow^ steadily 
towards liim. On li April 1-567 he lef^ Peter- 
houRB on hi* ■•li>t;lion t<i llto nuutMnihip of 
Pembroke Hall, At the same time be wsa 
cnMtsd D.P. But h« remuinud at IVmbroka 
TTbII barely thre<^ mnntba. 4^ 4 July he ' 
was admitted master of Trinity Collej^, sod 1 
sb ortly afltrwarda li« exchanjind his M arga rti 
profeEwarshipforthe superior dignity of r«^i]a 
profeMor of divinity. Ilebeld that oflice for 
two y«ir»— till Ociobcr 1589. Within th« 
same period, on ti Dec. l&OS, be woa collated 
. to the third probendal stall at Ely, and his 
' name n-nched thv court. Hv was (ummoDed 
to prench before the queen. Sfa« waj dMply 
impresHMl by his E^'rmon. puuningly declsnd 
him to Ur^ hfT ' WhiTi'-||ift,' and gave ordsr 
that ho should he ewoni one of the royal 
i-hiipUin«. Rut bin chief i-norgiea wnra ab- 
sorbed by biei acadi>nii<! dutiea. He sng- 
geated a revision of iho statutes of the uni- 
versity, wit ha view to increasing the power* 
of tb« head« of houges. To tbem was to V 
ho proflically entrusted the choice of vice- ! 
cbaocidlor uud of th« ' caput,* a body wbieh 
waa to eterciiw) siipreine anihority. The 
I ' caput ' was lo be elected annually, uid to 
' tonnist of tho chsncvUor and a doctor of 
' each of the three farultief, with anon-rt^^nt 
and a re[;ent roaster of arts (MCLLIXORI;, 
I pp. 22-i eiiN].) The statutvat pwied tli« great 
I m>bI in the Ibrm that Whitgift designed on 
So Sept. Io70. The iobcmsl aSiurs of his 
collcfpj nlito fixercimd hi« con«taiit atten- 
tion. The Oal(iniilic leader L'artwri^t was 
a fullow of Trinity: Whitgift waa by nature 
a ({iHciiiliniirinii, and, while aympathiainj( 
with till' leading doctrines of Calvininn, 
uiiido up hill mind lo ostend no tohtrntion 
to (lenevan principlM of church govem- 
menl. Cartwright had of late powerfxdly 
donounctil <-piacopncy, which W hitgifV re- 
garded uiitheonlT practicable form of church 
(fOTommL'^nt, and had dividvd the colleg* 
and ihtt uaiwnity Into two iKistilo csmn. 
WhitgilY believed that peace could best M 
nistoH'd by the removal of Cartwrigbl. In 
Novhuiber IfiiH hit wa« «li-ctiwl vice-chan- 
cellor. Taking advantage of the new uni- 
versity st«tut«B, he induced bia foUow-m«m- 

ben of the 'caput' in Decmnbt'r lo70 to 
dtpriro CartwriKlit of Uiu Lodv Manpiret 

!irof«ssoralitp ot' liiTiniljr, which uo had held 
br ■ ^eftr. This tli>cuiva nv^ liu followed 
up in Siri>Ieml»T 1671 by detn^iiig Cart- 
^irri^bTa expulsion from liis fellowship nt 
Trinitv, which hn hnd hrld for inoiv thui 
nine yean. A\'httgift*fl pretest waa thai 
Cartvrright bad nut takt-n priuct's OTElvrit 
Trithia the Atatutory period. Such displaya 
of rvsolutiOD, while Xwy iacrM9ecl hi* ropu- 
lAtioD wirh one sisMion of cV- iiiiu'i>r*iry, 
ronaod a storm of protest on tlie part of 
another. Whit^ft relorti^ br threatening 
to naign ihe muittnthip and wiilidruw from 
llie univeimitT. Six ueada of house» on 
28 Supt. nppualvd u> Bur^ihloy tt) sliow 
Whitifift fiOQ»n«iiM-ifiI markof fitvoiir. They 
declared ihnt Wbitxift's disciplinary mea- 
siUM were wifce and Wuuficiol, aud 1 lint t liv 
imivftnitj owed I-o him ' th« rppn'.*hiu(f of 
inaoleiice and the maintaining "f leuniinn 
■nd w(i)l*duing.' For iIip lim<' bin rn-i-inti--') 
aeknovled^ed tlwir doftwi. 

Mnanwhde be was preponnf; for with- 
drnval if the mifd utok. On 19 Juno lfl71 
h« WM elected dean of Lincoln, and wns in- 
etallcd in the rath&dral on '2 Auj*. On ^ t Oct. 
Archbi9.bop Parker irrontL-d him a faculty 
authoriaing him Ia hold with the doancry the 
nuett'nkip of Tnnity Colk-gc, tho canonry 
at Klv, l-liii< n-cti>rv at Ti'vontbnni, and any 
other b«>neSce hti rtiosp. H«had no s^ra!}b^^ 
about takiuR full a^lvsnlajje nf no valiiabl<> n 
dispeiwitinn. On ill Mat 1*>~- hu was col- 
lated to the prebaiid of SasBinylon in the 
cburch of Lincoln, and, tilthoitgb he reaiRHcd 
tbe rectory of r<.'T<.>rAhan] about Au)|[u«t 1572, 
be at onee aoc<|pt*d the rectory of Laceby, 
l.iDColiuhlru(Ao/M ami Qufru?*, 81b oar. t. 
4Sa). Th* clerpfy of the Limyiln dioceae, 
wiLb which ho waa tbua associated in many 
capacitifJi, recumnil him b» Un-ir proclor tji 
convocation, and towards the fita nf 1671! 
Arcbbiahop Parker nominated lum to pre<ach 
tbfl Latin wrmnn, On 14 May 11^72 no woa 
clio«i.>n prolocutor of the lower houw. 

Whilifift took wido views of the seriirtv 
he owed the cbuich both iiiflido nnd oiitjiide 
thctiniveniify. He seized every opportunity 
that olTered of cliain pinning ila or^niaution 
agaiiul attack. lu ift'if two violmit tracts 
(each vatillcd ' An Admonition to the Par- 
luunent ') rM!omuu>aded tbp n'ootutittitionnf 
the cJiurcli on presbnerinn lines, Thi^ firat 
' Admnnitinn' WAS by two London clergy- 
men, John Fiflld and Thomag Wilcox fq.T.T, 
and the second was by Whitgift'E formerop- 
ponent Cartwriftht. Whitgift at oacu took 
tip new cudgels again«l Cariwright, and 
iaaiied a pamphlet which was entitled 'An 

Aiuwcre to a cuncn Libel intituled An 
Admonition to the Parliament. By John 
UTiitj-ifte. D. of Diiiinitia' (London, 1672, 
bv Hftiirie Kynneinan for Humfrey Toy; 
black letl*-rj. WhitfC'fl'a tract had a wid« 
cin^ulation, and reappuamd nust rt;ar ' newly 
atigaumt«il by tha auihntir.' 11*! wmtn with 
foroe of bia conTietion that the flpiacopBl 
form of church tru«'«'rnm«nl w«« an «iMuntud 
guarantee of law and order in the Kate. 
CaDwriij-ht readily crossed swords with the 
Riastpr of hifl otli-^ to whom be owed bia 
expulsion, and his 'It^plve' to Whit^ift'a 
'Answcre ' overflowed witli venom. Whit- 
gift relumed to tho chargi.> in hi^'Defetuo 
of the Answere to the Admonition ' (Lon- 
don, I1J74, fol.) 'I do cbnrge all m'jn tioforu 
God Hud bis ang«lii,' he aulemnly warned 
* the ^dly reader ' at the conclusion of his 
pn.-faL'v, 'as tlitiy will answer at iho day of 
judgment. thu.t under tbo pretext of xi-al 
thoy seek uot to spoil ihu chua-h : under 
tlw colour of piirfnetioH iht^v work nut trnn- 
fusion ; under the cloak (•('simplieity they 
covwr not pride, ambition, vainglory, arro 
^ncy; under tht^ outward ahnw of godli- 
neaa they ncinriab not contempt of magi- 
(•tmt<!«(, popularity, atuibaptietry,and auntby 
other pernicious and pestilent errom.' Cart- 
wriglit again answered Wtitgift in both a 
'Seuoud Hcplio' (15;5) and 'The Reat of 
tlie S.'conci Iteplie' (1677), but ^Vhitgift 
deumed it wise loahslain from further direct 
nllTcation with hi» obnCinate enemy. 

In LI?.'! Wbitgift was for a i<«wnd timo 
elected vice-chnnoellor of Cambridge Uoi- 
vcrrtity. On 26 >rarcb 1574 ho preached 
about church government beforo the uucou 
at Orecnwich, and bis sermon was printtd 
and publiiihnd. In l&7ff ho was a commts- 
aioner for the visitation of Kt. Jolin'« (Col- 
lege, and in tho tamo year entreated the 
chaiiCHlliir of lliH uiiivKrHity (o take effective 
ateps to prevent the mile of fellowrdiipn and 
scholarship.! (28 Manrh lt>7(f; STB-teH, life, 
hk. i. rap. xiii; Mri,i,i!iatiR, p. 289). But 
Wbitifiit'sHCUvitiesworeiiowto find a wider 
fi.-Id for exi^rciiie than waa offered by aca- 
demic functions. On 17 March l'j74-*>Arcb- 
bishop Porker su^n^-strd his appointment to 
tb« BW of Norwicli, but Iho recommendation 
was neglected. I'arker's smjoiu) BiigjTfJftinti 
of a liku kind watt autrceaaful. On L'4 .March 
K>7R-7 Whitirift was numinalvd to the 
bishopric of Worcrwt^T; he was enthroned 
by proxy on 6 May l-j??, aud had restitu- 
tion nf the temporalities on thft 10th. Next 
month he resigned the mastership of Trinity, 
which had pn>sp<!wd conspicuously, as h'i-i 
succe^«or Dr. Still eloquently acknow- 
ledged, during hia ten vear*' vigomun rule. 



His pupHi) indudtid ni&nr men who xrvn to 

win tiiiitiiKrIiuii in afti^r lifu — nmong ChAin 
Fmncu< Bui'OD und Itobort DoTerGUx.iieoond 
pnrl of Ks*rK ; l>ul that InttifT only romiitllT 
entvriM) the callegL* a montli hpftm*. WTiitgift 
l«(t it. \Vliil|;ih stoutly prute8(«<d against 
ihe elftims nf WMtminMer ^cIidoI to a nrar- 
tical monopoly of scbolarships &t Tniiiiy, 
attet thi> mnnnt^r in which the L>ndow- 
Bients of Kinjr'a OoUese went moDopoUsod 
by BtoD, uid tboM of Nfrw Co]1«{(^, Oxford, 
by \Viiichc8t«r. Wliiti^ft sscurad a modi- 
licalion of till! WeAtuiiastor luoimpoly, but 
that only proTL'dlAinporary. Maraulnyin his 
* KwuiY "U Hiurim' iiii!<rui>r<.'i>onl«d thn vtr<-ct, 
tfaougli nat thn spirit, at 'Whixtdtt'a action, 
and •TTtMiroiixly MWEiied the dUtinftuishwl 
part that Trinity Collff^ ba.* played in tho 
vduciilionol history of IUh c nuiitry to WTiit- 
gilVit oppristtion to the Westminster mono- 
poly (M ui-tisu KB, pp. 273-7). Aft«Tpreftch- 
iDgfarvwi^!! B^rmoiLs at Oreal St. Mary 'a and 
In Trinity Collffid cbapd, t1i<^ new bishop 
was eacorted to liia hom4> at Worcwter by a 
CBvalcadf of univuraily friends. 

WhitKifl diiicliar^-d hi« uiiitcopal ta^ic- 
tlons with charoctf-netic zeal. Kv^rv i^uoday 
he prcaclu'd t-itlK-r in hiii vatLi.'drttl or iu a 
pariah church of his diocene. lie ciiltivatGd 
thu eucitity of thv Jiuutn,', und amplured his 
inHuHnco to allay dimiiilcn ninonK tli"in. The 
Btory ia told that two of hU neinhhnurK, Sir 
John RiKBieli and Sir Hi-nry Berkeley, b^ 
twMtn wlinin iheie Icrnp sk islml a dpotlly fond, 
on one occwiiin utrixprl in WorcPHt^reach at: 
tiu', bond of an armi'd hand of frionds and 
follower". \Vhit({ift ordpre-d the leodera to 
bu iLiTi'Nied by hit) ^iiard and to h<! brouf^ht 
to hia palace. There he diacuaH«d with them 
their pftinra of diaogreement for two hotm, 
with the r«-sull that thipy left, bia pr«wnc« a4 
fVicndN. Hifi judicial ti^mpcniTiient cauaed 
bim to be nominated a ro^al comiiiiK«ionar 
to visit the cal ln-drnl)! of Lichfield and Hert- 
ford. In both chapters aerioui quarrola 
utiTi^ rifo, and Whitgift buccdmImI in ter- 
minating [hem, 

The oiK-i-n provf-d htt- respect for bim not. 
mi-ruly by foregoing her llrsl-fniits, but by 
i«aifi;ning to him, so lonj? as he reniainnd at 
Wor(;i-ai*r. the riffbt, hitherto I'xerciaed by 
th« crown, of fiUinfr tho prebenda in his 
cuthedntl church (t Aug:. Ili8!>, Biitmarka 
of royul favour did not imperil hi* imh>pon> 
denw or bis sense of lh« duty he owed 
thii church. Tho (]iiwn'.i fovoiirite, th« Earl 
of Leiccai(-r, !>howed little reiipLict for church 
P'^rty. and he and his friends w-n: in the 
habit of divprtinR tothwMelvMtho incorae-s 
« vacant mpb. I.«tee«tcr had ahown ayni- 
patby with Cartwrigbt, and hud no likiug 

Ibr Whitfrift. Whitgift ixnv aotetnnl j^ piv 
tcitM aumunt ihifl nisappropnatioB of •oa»* 
siaatJcat rerunuea, and m an elAbonta knd 
dt|puG*td apiwch which he pronoiiBoed bafon 
the quoen aokmiily warned ber ibmt her 
future aaUation d^mid«d on the aecoritT 
abf- i^re the inherited Mtatee of the churw 
|W»LT05. Lifv qf niA>ktr). Tha qa«an afr* 
knowlpdgi-d th>- )u.'tlic» of the rehake. Bid- 
it WW not solely eccleaiaatical work that 
occupied him whilv bo was buhop of War^ 
costvr. Soon after lua elevation be ww 
appointed vice-preaident of rbe marchM of 
Walm in the ahet-ncp in Ir^-Iand of ibe pn^ 
aidi'nt, Hir Ht-nry Sidney. He held tb* 
offioe fortwoyranandahalf, und pf-rformod 
D)altibTioiiaadmii)ii>lTal)Vi< dutitisM ithbenc' 
flcial enerfTV and i hnroughneas. 

On fl July 1583 Edmund Grludal. arch- 
bishop of CantvTtiurr, died at Croydon. On 
14 .'Vup. Whitgift was nonuBfttad to sueeeid 
bim. He was enthroned at Canterbury mi 
33 Oct. Unlike hia throe icntnediate pre* 
decoMOTB — tVanmer. l*ark«r, and firindal— 
be took part in the (vremony in pn^oa 
inatvwl oi by proxy. Ilia father bad Ufl 
bim a private fortune, which enabled hiis 
to reetorv lo thu priuiacT sonietbiii([ of tbe 
feudal magnificeace which had cbarartenNd 
it in earlier davs. Hv maintained au army 
of retainem, Tl<» travelled on thi* occasion 
of hilt trii^nnial viwtations with a princvly 
retinue. His hospitality waa profuH*. lUl 
stahlce and armriiiry were better funuBhml 
than ihofte of the richest nobtemnn. The 

3ii*en approved siich outward indications of 
ijrnity in her officemof Biat*-.and t be friewHy 
feeling which ahe hod long choriehcd for liim 
incr^'U!>cd after ho wa>i tii«talli»l at Lambeth. 
Shp pluvt'uUy called him 'her little black 
buabund,' and lr>.-atud him aa hvr confomOTt 
t« whom .-Ih" waa reported to reveal • tht 
very &ef.rete of her aoul.' The vrbolo care 
of thu church wa*) ah^ dm-lariMl, dnliyated 
to him (ift.'t She waa fr^xjupntly bis gneat 
at I^rabetb, nod until hr-r d-.-slh Ihe amity 
between ihem knew no intnniption. 

Whitgift held the pHtnacy for more than 
twenty years. His pT«dec«MAr Qrindal* 
owinf; in part to feebleDess of health and \n 

Eart to peraonal aympathy with puritanim, 
ad outraged the aueen'^ genxe of order by 
tolerating much direraitv of ritual aoWMW 
the clergy. Such procc^)uri> in Elizabeths 
ev6» spelt ruin for the church and country. 
I'he qucoQ eogwlv promiaed Whitgift a ftw 
Land on the undersfandinfc that hi- would 
identify htmsQlfunmiHtakabiy with the cauv 
of Hniformity. Wliiljril't bad no hesilati" 
in accepting the condition. From the 6 
be ccuceatrated hJs abimdam energiea 

1 h,<t 

nsiilnting tntl rtKoronxly wDforcIng cliwi- | 
Siini) throughout iliechufch's tiournu. Puri- | 
doctTine was not UDConeviiinl to him, . 
hilt wjili puritan practior whort-vr i( cna- j 
flicted wich itie Book ol' Conimoa I'rsyvr | 
or tlw Act of C&iformity b« rcMlvfed to 
luvo 00 Inioo. To lUimui catbolicisin lie 
wiu t]ir«ctlv opposed in regard to both its . 
doctrino &Eid pntcuce, but, liK« oil tliv scaUM' . 
mimof thi! d«y,he riiffurdMl Itoman cutholi- 
euiin in England L-liiutljr u» a pulitk'nl | 
daoner, )uid wliilv nupporliDg with Kurhii- 
Mum penal tegulaiion of an fxtrcinia kind i 
against vjtiliuhca, hu vrtt* content to Ivt , 
others initiato schi-inra for repre>«8ing thn j 
exercise of the p«pist rvU^ioa. The stifliiig , 
of puritanism, eKi«ciall>- m tht* raiiliA of thi- 
cluT^y, ho reg&nUd u ois piMiuliar ftiDCtion. 
III? tint mi-rcly devised the practjcal mea- 
BOTva for the purjwflt^, but rr-riised to allow 
thv queen'* nunistora to modify tht;m, and 
^Med bis «srs to aif^mcntB, tiOTrcver in- 
6iKiiitial thv quiirlvr whuiicv thvy vnnv, m 
favour «r laxity in the adminijitracioii of a ' 
coercivi' iKilicy. 

tlt« tint alt^p voA In drnw Up in lljSa a 
neriea of utringL-ni articles which, smun^ 
otlivr thiiif^, prrihibit<-<l ull gin'twhing, mad* 
inpi or cateciiii)ing in private housisa, and 
forbade any ens to ex«cut« pRcli^ifliitical 
functionA tmli^«a be iiret »iibAcritK>d to ih« 
royal fuprvnativ, plvdginl hituiwU' to abide 
in all things by the Book of Couimon I'ravcr, 
and aocvptcd ihi> Thirty-uinv .VrUcI'.-t>. The 
artickit n-c^ived thi^ qiit'i'n'A sanction, and 
were put into force during Whitgift'e first 
TMilalion. All cU'r-r^vnirn tvho hc^itat^d 
to nsoent to tlu^in were siupf.nd«d ft\im 
their duties. On nnnivprMiry of thv 
qun-nV ftctri'wifin (1" Nov. I'^Ki) ihn arcli- 
bi«hou preached at Si. I'aul'aOrosa.and took 
for his ti>.-Et (1 Cor. v'l. lO) ' Ratters shall not 
inhvrit liw kingdom of Ood ' (the aermon 
was pubUaWl in lo89}. At ihsMme rime 
La tnccL-Mfully nTVummcDdud that tin? high 
commiMaon court Mlwuld he gruited greuily 
Aaffncnted powers. By liiBauvi(.-4>thfeT<iwn 
drli'gatpd |ij thi> court, which wiu ihrno^ 
fon^h to consiMt of forty-four cnmmififiioiH'H^ 
^twvKeoftlifni to b« bieliop?), ull iti? pt>w«r» 
in ihv wny of dtscovmne and pniiu-^lung 
bentics and echibaiatica. In l-'J84 Whitgilt 
dn-w up a list of twenty-four anii-h-rt, or 
intortugatoricio, which were to be adminis- 
tered by the aoiundL-d court of hi;<b cominis- 
^^aion to any of lliu clergy wboui tb« court, 
^Kof ita own initislivr*, thimglit good to quea- 
^^Btion, TIi« new procuduni ohligMl a »u^ 
^^■pirct'.'d nitiiislrr to odhwit ujkiii oath (called 
HKho oath fj officio) whelhcr he war in thu 
^^Itabit of breaCiag the law, and thus li« waa 

forced to bmrnne tivtdtitioo against binuelT. 
Burgblcy doubted thAwi^dam of nnoh courws, 
wbi^ he oxplainvd to Whiljjifl *too much 
savoured of tho Komioh inquiaition. and 
[wuru] mth^r a device to seek foroflendera 
thiin to n^fomi any.' Whiigift. rt-plJed at 
length that the procedure was well known 
to many courts of the realm, but promisi^d 
not to apply it fxc«pt whtiu piivatv n.>uiun- 
strancos Iiad failed. Tlie clergy and innny 
iuf1ii>;ntiul ryinpalhiecrs protMled against 
\\' hitgitVa proui-durB with no gtvat^r "ft"«ct. 
Sucli ministers of Kent na were au^^cnded 
from Lht! ftxfculion of thvir minittry ad- 
drtased a strong rfmon.Mroncfi tn the privy 
council. Tluj ministi-ns of SuiTolk followed 
the exainpht of their Ki^nli#h colleagues. 
L«ic«eter and other members of the council 
urged the archbishop to show grealiTmi^dera- 
tion. 'WTiitgift peremptorily rifiiMd. Hn 
asserted that tht! puriinn minister* wera 
very few in number, lie knew only ten 
uouconfoniH!*! clergy of uriy uecount in his 
own diocese rif Kent, where sixty ministvrit 
vut b imiastically eiuppurtcd his policy at all 
points. The IIouhd of C'omntonii jiiinixl in 
thu attack ou the er-ofkio oath and Ibo 
new urticli>K of Kubscription that Whi'gift 
iinpoeed ou the clergy, but Whitgill retorted 
ibnt tint L-nnipliiiiits came from lawyers 
whoati learning waii Kwi limited to wiirrnnt. 
any attention btring paid to it. \lv dt^clintid 
to bo moved from any of his positions, and 
in order to crush adyur!>L' criticism hn caused 
to be passed in the high cummiiwicni court. 
oil 2.1 Jiui, l-5t}0au extreotdinarilv rignmus 
decree — known a* tlll^ KriLr-c!ianil>i'r dscree 
— which seemud to render public oritioimn 
imp(iNStbU>. >'o manuscript wus to h« set 
up in t^'pe until it bad be/'n penned and 
licwniwd by the archbishop or tlie bishop of 
Ijondoti. Tho preM of any printer who dis- 
obeyed the ordinance wue to bo at once 
dosi roved ; h« was prohibited from following 
his trade tlivnce forth, and woe to sufTur six 
months' imprisonnifnt (.A.KIIER, TranMci-ivt 
(/ Slatiotur^ CotnpaHy,ii.!<\(i). Elitabeta'a 
faith in the arch biiliop was cunHrmiil by his 
rigorous action. Ho was admitted a mem- 
bur of tbm privy council on 'i Feb. lo8f>-6, 
and regularly (iltiTided it.i mct'-tingft thencn- 
foclb. The absence of Leicester in the Low 
Countries during I681.I, and bis death in 
1088, deprii'ed the puritans of a powerful 
advocate, and the archbishop of a powerful 
critic. Tht! patriotic fervour usciCM by ibij 
Spaniah armada also at rengtbened Whitgifl's 
hands, and oRicurs of statu ^'rew less in- 
clined lo question lliH wi>doui of bill polity, 
lu I5**7, on the death of Sir Thomas nrm- 
lt>y, be was oflercd the post of lord chancoU 




lor, but ilMJiocd it in favour oT Sir Chris- 
topber lint Ion, KliojMinttiiudi^ to |nirit«u»[D 
coinridnl with Ilia ovrn aiid Riider«d him « 
Tsliisble ally. In Bovi<mnpnt ftn:l>;« W'bit- 
gift'sreUnlleHapfnUuncy silenced all active 

Tho arclibipliop vtm not indiflrreal to thti 
advaiitagt: of cfT^clive lit«rarv support. Early 
in Iftbo hi' rL-cotnmcDdi-d Icichnn) Hooker 
[<i. v.] for apiKiiiiiiacai to tins nwit^-TshiD of 
tlw Twoiple, and next year he silenced Waltor 
Travi^n [q. v.], th» puritan cliampioQ, wlio 
wnt anf raiioii lociurer nt thti Temple, and 
hftd rinlpiitly denounced ITookcra tlico- 
loBicftl vij^wd. IIooktT dcdicnUul to WUit- 
j^ft hiii 'Answer' to charges of beredy 
which Trnvers broufiht sfratofit him, and tlia 
arcbbinhop cTinccd the MrongoW inteieat in 
Hooker*« gnat eSbn in hi» ' Ecclesiasticiil 
PoLty* to offer a loRicnt justihcation of Ihi; 
Anfflican utabli^hiutnl. 

MeaifwbilQ th« sctivity of the archbishop 
exaaperoted th« piiriians, and, in #pltA of hut 
enslavement of the orettv, tlivv for a lime 
trJiimphnntly succeeded in defyinjr him in 
print. John I'oun' [q. v.] aiid his friends ar- 
rangrd forlhKaecivl pubhcalion of aKTiea of 
acurrilouB attacks un the e^iscopatv which 
■ppaand at inl<-r\iilii during iii^Arlr two 
ream under the piM>iidonyra of ' .Martin Mar- 
ndate.' The fueilludo Vgan in lo)^ with 
tbe iasue of Martin Mar-Pnlatcn ' Kpiwle." 
and was tharpiv miiitiiniin'd until thi^t-nd of 
!fi89. Throughout, ^\'hit^if^ was a chief 
ubjccl of ihu as«aull. ' Tht.- Epistle ' (lOt^). 
the I'drliral fif th*- (racts, opened witb the 
taunt thai Whilgilt had iievwr repIM to 
OartwrightV lnt<-At. conlriliulionH to the pa^t 
controversy. Peury's addrcFs to parliament 
in 16B9wB8 stated on Mi» titlM-pn^c tr> hi' an 
expoeure of 'the hiid & injurious dt'aUng- of 
th Ar«bb. of Canlerb. & oiher hiscolIeaRU^ii 
of thii hiffh commisHion.' In the ' Dinlojiuo 
of Tyrannical Dt-aling' (1'>S91 Whittiilt waa 
dtmounci-d as uiore ambitious ihon iVolH^y, 
proudtir than GardinLT, mnn- 1 ynmniml than 
mnncr. in tbti ' JiifcK'^'nj'urf iitnl Uetiroiif' 
(15S)) the pomp which churactotiaed Wbii- 
ffift's proorMsaa through his diootM waa 
ooUterouAly ridioulvd : ' Is seven score horse 
nothing, thinkeet thou, to be in the train of 
an En^iiAh prictst f ' Kl(ii:'whi-re the arch- 
biahop was uescribt'd as the 'I5eelcebub of 
Canterbury.' 'the Canterbury Caiaphos,' 'a 
raonatrou« Autidtriftt,' and 'a most bloodv 
tyrant,' The aliack roused all Whitgift a 
niaentmcnt. Ht.> accepted BancrolV's pro- 
posal that mfii of M'f'ni should b» induced 
to reply to tlm Msr-Prplate tro^-ta nfl^ir their 
own indecent fo^hiun, iitit hv dfn'im-d it his 
personal duty to aiippresa the controveTsy 

ot all baxarda. }!& personally dir»eud tbe 
aaarch for tbeoReodinff libellers, and pushed 
the powera of the high commiwion courl to 
the extrwmeet limits in order first to obrain 
evidence aniut >usp(set(<d p«r«otia, and then 
to secure la^puaiahmenl. In his exaui- 
natiou of prisoners be showed & brut«l iuao- 
lenca which U alien to all modi'm oonoep- 
tions of justice or religion. He invariably 
ar^ed for the scvereitt i)enaltie«. Of two of 
the moat active Uar-rn-lalt! piuiiphlntKen, 
Ponry died on the ecoffold, and L'dal ta 
pvison. Nor did iui relax his efforta affainvt 
older offenders. In tfiOO Cartwright was 
cijminilted to prison for refusinfr to tike tbw 
ejt-ti^eio oath. In all part* of the country 
miniaters met with the same fate. UuL 
Whitgift raat^hod tlic conclusion that more 
remained to b« done. In 1&93 be lodueed 
the que^n to appevl to parliament to paaa ao 
act nroridinf; that thoao who Tefus«d to at- 
leucl church, or attended uuauchorised T«li> 
gious meetings, should be banished. In tbe 
ruvult tlie church's stoutest upponcnta left 
their homea and found in ilolhuid the liberty 
denied them in their own country. By aucn 
mr-nt:H Whilgif). wiu iible to boiuit that h« 
put an end for a reason to militant noncon- 

XttiiT the crisis Whitgift showed with 
bold lack of logical consistency that Wr^ 
mftined in theory well dispoiied to thom 
portioni> of Calvinist docirinu which did not 
touch ritual or dtM^ipline. Cambrid^ was 
still a tiroiiffhold of Calvinist doctrinu, and 
tlie Calvinuitic Irailtrs of tliir unireraity 
b«g[rud Whil^ift in 159n to pronounce autho- 
ritaiivnly in thrir fittuur. He sumraonvd 
William Whilaker 'j\, v.], the profeasor of 
divinity, and one or two other Cambriilaa 
tutors to Lambeth to confer with him in 
conjunction with the bishops of Loudon and 
Banj^r and the dean of Ely. As a result of 
the confentucb Whiij^ifl drew up on 20 Nov. 
1595 the so-called LomWth arliclea, nine in 
numbiT, which adiipu-d without qualification 
tlie ('alviui^t vif%>s iif predvAtinalion and 
election. TiiM archbishoji of York (Tlutton), 
who wstinot present at tlicconfTi^nre, wroI» 
to express appro%-n1. Whitgift ina letterto 
tbe vieesihuTicellor and heaos of collefr^ at 
Cambrid^, wliil<^ strongly urfrinj; ibi^m ta 
allow no olher doctrine to be taught pub- 
licly, stittL-d that the propositions WL-rc not 
lawB or decrees, but mt-n.^ explanations of the 
doctrine of the church (^4 Nor.) The 
queen did not appreciate Whitcil^'s attitude, 
ami for thn Bmt tinw comtjbiined of his 
action. Through Sir Robert Cecil, her secre- 
tary, "hn budi.^ the srchbisbon ' siisjM.'ud ' his 
pronouncement (6 Dec.) Three days later 








"Whttgift oonBdftitially iaJbrmed Dr. Neville, 
tnftflw of Triiiity, that the uIil-U'S muat 
not be formally puUuluxl ow'myr to ttia 
quMa'fl ditlikt* of tbem. He hail oaly in- 
t4nidAd tnlrt thBCambriilgoOiilvitiiste know 
that ' he did concur with ibnn in judgiaent 
nnd would tn The {>nd, and tnea&t not to 
SuDVr any miiu to immit^n | thow ojiiiLimiiiJ 
openly or olbtTwUc.' riicri' the intitt<>r was 
Kllowl-d to drop. For ihe remainind y*iir» 
nf tit« i[ueen'A reign Whit^ifl inniiily con- 
fined hie attention tu ndmitiistratlTt> reforms. 
Ihtier w»w taken to sectiro a higher fttni)dlird 
of leaminfr nmonu the infitriurcltiryy (WIL- 
']ny8,Con^t/la,iv..S:^l; Oj^iiav.¥.LL,Nt/Mo<lalui, 

a, MS), and oanons were passed in 1&87 lu 
prevwit tlis abusa of iwn-nr*ni'-mv. It itt 
•aid by hi» biogmphor I'anle that he raagfat 
a reconciliniinii with (?artwriRht , But N\'liil" 
gift still frjujjht hard for thw iiidi-peinlt-nce 
of eoclcsitKtical courts, and, while Krisiug 
their proowlure. h» protested in 1 WO agninKl 
the growing practice in thr msjiilar crtiirts 
of law of grouciuu ' urtiUibiliona' Biiaoending 

lie ordnances ot tna court of higti com- 

On thrt occiuinn of I'jisen's rebellion in 
JanuftFT 1600-1, Whitgift, di-*pil« his pt-p- 
annn) fri<?ncl»Iiip for the i?arl, wiifi vraa hia 
old tiiipil. tthowod tli4> uliD()L-t Etctivily in 
anticipating an attach on the ({uuen. He 
■eut from Lnmbetb a email amiy of forty 
Itorvcmen ind forty fooiui«n to protect the 
court in CBS« of net-d. The archbidhop'a 
troc^ of footmen sccurad Ki!«vJi'8 arrrsl nt 
K«MX IIouM, and ronductetl him to Lam- 
beth before rarrving him to the Towlt, 
"V^'hitgift ii(t«'nrU>(l Qiiet-n KlJKubi'th during 
her laat illueiu. and wnjt nt her bedpide whea 
alio died at Uicbmond on 38 MiLrrh !(']<):> R, 
He acted as chief mourner at lier fLiiienil in 
Weatniituii^r Abbey. .Meanwhile he was 
not iM^lectfiil of hia relations with her sue- 
OflMor. Uu attvndi-d the council at which 
Jamm VI of Scotljiad waa nroelaimrd king, 
sod at ooce wat Thumaa S'uville, deati of 
CaaCvrbury, to Rdinhurgh to convey hia 
Mtigratulatiana. Hn amploynd tixraa of 
obae«]uioii«neM which linv« viixwi^d liiin to 
adrer«ccritici!im, hut ho was laerelr follow- 
ing the fornui in vo^ue in iLd(ln-««ing dotv- 
reigtu. At thckinfr'H invitation hitforwonled 
a report on ihe Ntai« of the churth, nnd n.>- 
ceived satiBfactory aMuraacea that the king 
would prove hid Qdflicy to the Anglican 
MtabliihiuKnt. lu .May Whitf^ift met the 
^ing for thE> first time at Th<.>obiild!< on Im 
way to London, and on "2fi July ctlebrated 
his coponatiiin. Thfi puritans hopitd for now 
liberty frotn the new regime, and Wliilgift 
foand himaetf compelled to adopt the king'ti 

auggestton of a conference with the puritan 
clergy, in order that the poiniw of ditference 
between tlu-m might bu distiuctlv staled. 
The conference waa opened at ilampttm 
Court on 16 .Ian. I60£-4. The king pre- 
aidinl. Wliiigifi. nrtmded aa Ihr ri^tvran 
chnmpion of orthodoxy, but it was left to 
UirlinrO Ituncroft, bt»hop of London, to t4ke 
the handing pnrt in th« diKiissions. The 
nrehbishop waa placed iu an eunborrsssing 
position by the import on it y of John Itai- 
noldea, the lender of the puritan disjiutants 
in urging the formal adoption by the hi*adB 
of tilt: church of Whitgift * Luiiibcth articles. 
JaineM I finally decidud the main p<^iiilit in 
the biehiipa' favour. 

Whitgifi wa>i rcrlin(,'tln'iuconTpnience8of 
old age. In February lti04 he cniu^ht iNild 
while travelling on hia barge from Lamheth 
In the hinhnp of l/indonV reitidvncc nt Ful- 
ham To ccuiBuIt with the bifhona on church 
business. A lew day* later — the first Sun- 
day in Lent -hi- went to dine at Whitehall, 
and while at dinner waa atricken with para- 
lyfli^. He was rcmovt-d to Lambeth. 'I'he 
king paid him a vi»it a fow duya lalvr, but 
his power of speech waa gone. He could 
onlvujuculiitv at iulurvub thu words 'Pro 
eccii-.Hiii IVi.' He di«J — 'likn a lamb,'nc- 
cunliug lo bis attendant and biographer, 
Pante— on 2it Feb. 1603-1. The next day 
hU body was carried to Croydon, and his 
funeral woa tolemni»ed there on '27 March 
ltK)4 in great state. A sermon was preached 
by ii<stvwm Babington, bishop of A\orct»ter. 
In ilie nouth-«a«t corner of the chantry of 
St. Nicholas in the parish church of Croy- 
don Ih'.-re WHM iu<t up u ninnuitii'nt on which 
lay hifl recumbQiit emgy, with hia hands in 
tbe act of pmyer : the decoration included 
his armnrial bcaringiii nn well as tho«o of 
the sees of Canterbury and Woroetier, tlw 
dwinery of Lincoln, nnd the coltegaa of 
PuterbouK, Pembroke Hail, and Trinity, at 
Cumbridne. The monument waa much in- 
Jiirod in the fire which nearly diwtroyod the 
church on fi Jan. IWi". Thomas ('Imrchyard 
[q. T.] isifued on Whitgift.'a death a poem 
laillw! 'Ohun-Iiyarda floo<l Will, naff and 
heavy Veraca in the nature of an Epitaph' 
(Ivondon, liiOt, 4lo; reprinted iu I'ark'a 
' He.liconin,' vol. iii. ) Another ' epitaph ' in 
the form of a pamphlet appeared anony- 
mously in the aatnt- yiMir from the pen of 
John Khodea, and a eulogistic life by the 
controller of hia bonsehoId.SirGeorg* Paide 
[q. v.], WAA published in 1013. 

With hia cunt^'inpiiraries WiiitgiPt'it cha- 
racter stood very high, in spite of the 
rancour with which liu wns pursued by 
puritan pamphleteers. The poet Thotnaa 




Bast&rd, in bis ' Chivstaleros ' (tfiOS), ftpo- 
8troplii»»d Iiis 'fxcv'lliiiii worUi ' and purity 
(cf. Oahaob, Lin/iif IVooUie, 1621), Ae- 
eonUtiff to John Stow, nbo dedicated hia 
'AnnaU'tn titm in l(i9*J, he wns '11 miin 
tiom for tlii3 bi^nefit of Lis country and tbe 

Sood of hi» church ' Camdnt osserla that ' bp 
evouily coufocnied bt>tb hi8 whole lift) to 
Ood and hia painful latKiuntti lli^gi^ioj of liia 
church.' Sir Hfnrj' Woiion t«nu8 him 'a 
man of rurpn*nd and Mftcrvd rnvmnry ; and 
of tUp primitire temper, an wben tbe chorch 
did (IiiiirLKli in biehsKt vxampls of virtutf.* 
Fiillftrpronnancedliini 'on>' nf th'' woRliiciir 
men tiiat I'vor the En^lisb liierarcby did 
ei\joy,' Tiaak Wftlton nMt-rtijd tliat * hV vrn* 
tiot«d to be pnideol and aBnbl*', and gcntlu 
br naturL'.' Hooker creditod fiim witb 
patiKDce. UespilL- Uil- pcnip which lit- maiii- 
lained at Lambeth nud on hin visttalionf, 
be was not personalty aclf-indulgent. Wb«n 
miielvr of Trinity \v? usually tuuk \\\t incali 
■witb the undiTBTaduates in thi? polK-gw hall, 
and Hhorod 'th<.'ir muJuralu, thrii^y divt.' 
Ill lii* latest yi'fiTf. Ill- fr.'()iirritty diiiHid with 
his poor ptinfiioncrs ut bin Croydon boiipiial, 
and ate tlicfir Himpl» rnr>>. But (In* nni- 
mositves which hit ttxciti'd by bia np>routi 
OOercion Iiv«d lonf; aft«r bioi, and aiich fun- 
(imu in hifl chftnicti;r iw ihrw wen? ovct- 
Iwked or deniL^. I*rynn«, in his' Antipathy 
of tbe Eiwliah Lordly Prelacy' (IWIX con- 
demnad bim not unly fur his upprvstii'iu, hut 
for bit lack of spiritual l.<-m]H'r, tiJi i>vid«iii>*d 
by the majfailitenw of his lionsohold nnd 
hi* ni>uiit*'tiKni'i* "f n pirnm'ti cit' ri^t))ini>ra. 
Mapttuhiy, t?t'liitn|; tbi' vii'wsortbi' puritan 
hisl'iriau*, calls tiiin 'a niirrow-uiinded, 
mt-an, nnd fyrnnniral privet, who painod 
power by Hcrvilily and adulation, nnd <*m- 
ployod it in piTsocutinii; both tlio:^ who 
ftgn.-cd wilhOalvin about church j^oveniincut 
and thoBfi who diffi-rodfrom C-alviii touching 
iho doutrini) of njjin ibut ion.' 

\Vhitj{ifl's( puhliL' witrk ran only b* fairlv 
judged in ri>1aiion in hie environment. Th« 
miHli'rn conccptiurm of tO'lumlion and com- 
prrthcnnion, hy which MarnnSay tr-f4ti>d hiii 
conduct, lay nuleidc bis meniul horizon. 
3l« conceived it to lj<t hi* boim<ii-n duty to 
enfo^>^ the law of the land in eccleMiajli^al 
matU^rs st«mly and strictly. Tlio limes 
were critical, and h« believed the AtiKlican 
estahliAhineiit coulil not vexitt the lumuults 
of cutholics on thi- uno hand and pnrltana on 
the other unlt^ui they were represjwd auiu- 
msrlly and by force. Hia pareoTul accep- 
tance of tliM d')Ctriria] lliriorivfl of Hiine of 
tile TPvoltinfT clerjjy went in hie. mind for 
not.biiiK wli(?n tiw war* i.-iiipigiwj in tL'> practi- 
cal boaineaa of gnverning the church. The 

poMive obedience of the cleric to the biiUiopd 
in all iiuiU>'ni toocliinK diM'ipline and ritual 
was in bis eyeA the fundamental princinle of 
vpi»copBvr. Active divergence uon uicci- 
plinA or ritual a^t eatabliahed by law. of 
which the biahops were iole aathoruwd in* 
ttTpftfl^r*, placiM theclerffv in the poailioot 
of traiton or Mwli*. Much cruelty marked 
hiit administration, and Ik- gaiR puriluiiMU 
soinuthlng of the advaniafre that cornea of 
pEntHcttlion. lln; rtli-ot of hii> policv waa la 
narrow thi- bounds of ibechurrJi, but within 
thu HmitK liini lui tia>if;ued it be made the 
.'\Ti)(litran iviiabliahmbnt a Mnbbomly powrr- 
ful and botnoK^neoUB oiyanisMJoo which 
provcl cA|>alil« a f'<w years later of main- 
taining iie eAiAtence against whaiaectucd 10 
be overwhelm inj{ odda. 

Whiif^irt wa« unuuirrtoil. Tbroiichout hia 
life he encoiira^'ed learning and iiilerofied 
bimsolf in education. At Lambeth, aa at 
Trinity College, Canihrid)pj, hu took charge 
of young men to wbo«e training bn devoti^d 
niutth actcntton. According to bia «u>lt»t 
biograplier, Hir lieorge l^ule, 'hia bom», for 
the lectures and acolutic exerciaa themn 
pcrlnrtiipd, mi^lit jiiMly b« account»d a little 
academy, and in Mtnit^ nep(«t« RupArior and 
more profitable — vis. for murti&l aSairt aud 
I luicKperienre that dirine« and othur scholars 
bad, wtnK ni^r, and often at the court and 
chief (wafjt of jiistief, from wlM^nce they oin- 
linuully hud llm puEaafcm and inieUig«iic« 
lioth for niuttt-rit of »Lale nnd govoramwit, 
in causea eccla'iiasticKl and civil.' 

While nt^lcir of Tfvemhnm Whitgift nnd 
Murgaret, widow of Hartholomew Fulnetby 
of Ihar. place, founded a bible clerkship at 
lV■lo^holl^^■^ They abio wttU-d 3/.parannuin 
for the relief ofiioor widows of t he pariah of 
Clavering in Ewex. Ho gave to TriDiCT 
O'dlegv a pivCQ of plalu and • collection of 
mauuscriptj. He alM gave a nianuacrijtl of 
iht'CumpiutuDsian bible to Pembroke llall, 
Kiid a hundred uinrkx to tin- city of C'uilvr* 
bury. Under leciera patent from (jneeii 
KlixAbetli, d»tei) '2i Nov. iri%, be fottniled 
at Croydon a hospital and a free school 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, for d wartlen, 
■cliool muster, and twenty Poor men and 
women, or as many more tiuuer forty u ^Xv^ 
rL-veiLUeawouM admit. The alructure.a brick 
fdiScu of quadrangulHr form, waa finiahud 
unyilSepL 159!l,ata.wlofs;.71tW. lU.lrf., 
the ruvvnutiK at that pirrlud Uitng \iiiU.\t.'2d. 
{K-rniiiiuui. Wbilgifl'^^tatiiti-ii.fromaraanu' 
Rcriptat Lambeth, wet« printed in Uuearet's 
' Cnjvdun,' 17KI, nnd avpsraUdy in 1S10. 
The fmindation ia mill maintained, and the 
endowment is now worth 4,000f. a year. 
The bwpiTal maintains thirty-nine poor per- 







, aemii, tuit nuito inn«t« n«eiving 40/. a year 
ittid each rmBuJe SO/. Twq soboQU aro dow 
E»u{i|Mrt<-<l out of tli« bon«fiiction. The ori- 
' im] 80I100I wRa removed to oew buildinga 
Kt Oovdon in 1871, and in addiiinn tlii>re 
>luu lieeo openad tbc ' Wliitgift Jdiddle 

Tb«> rhtvf tmeis and Aennuiut piihlubed b^ 

Whilcifl ill hill lifi-tiitii^ huvf bttm a)i>ii- 

tionefl. A oolWtion of the^w worlw, wjlh 

much that ha lel'l iu uianuecri[>t, wiu i'dilcd 

I for the I'urker Socie^rv bv the ICev. John 

' Ayre, Cambrid^, lUOl 3 (3 tdIb. Svo). 

' Tmm rolumm conl4Uii his tracts Against 

Ctrtwright, &ermous, l«tten, aud i^xtracia 

from bU determination* and lectiirta. Many 

uotps by Whil^ift niiniiiii in nianuMri^t at 

Liiuihtfth, in the Taiiuer maiiuacripta at (he 

J^idleiiui Library, and in various (.-ollDtMioiw 

at the I'uhtic Ilvcurd UlBuq nod ibu Dritiati 


^^ Portraits of Whitpift are at Lainbutb 
^Kpit1nn.<, Ht Ktiolf, in th« Whitgil^ ho*i|iitttl 
^Hftt ('roydoii, Durham Casllf>, the University 
^H Library, Cambridge, Trinity Colli^gv, and 
^f Pei4.'rhoii»(>, Cambrid^-, and tlit> picture gol- 
I lery at Oxford, Ilia porli-ait hai been en- 

gntred in tho * IlGruologia,' and by U. 
^K wLiic. Ueorgo Vertue, Thoaua Trotter, 
^BaDd J. Fitller. 

1^^ ['l'h« Mfliest bioe'i'pby was ih* Ki-mfHithotic 

Life * wriltaa by Sir Q«orgo VauU, knight. 

COBuptrollerorhis Orai^w lloustlioldo' {LondoD. 

priottHl by Tbnmaji Soodhiun, 1<JI3; another 

•dit. lOVd); rDprintod in Wordsworth's Ecdwi- 

aft)(nl£toeTnphy, Thernniipiod sketch 

of thn xri'hliiKhop in liajik Wnlton'n Lite of 

ilookor. But rh''fuUvst account i* .Sirype'sLifu 

1^ and Acta of WMigift. I/nndon, 1718, fol,. with 

I^H an DOfrrated portrait by Vert 11 e ^lti22, Z VuIh. 

^H'Srn, oith itii t-D^nTeil jjortniil hy J. Fittler). 

^BSao nlao Hnok'a Lives of ths Archliishopa of 

^H- OaBCerbory. ral. v. -, OoopM-'s Atbenie Oiutatir, 

^B Tol. ii. ; Cwicvr's Annals of Cambriilgc ; J, Kh»d 

Hulliogi^r'A fiiivarfiity of Cambridge from lfi3A 

to IS2&, Ci^inbriiiKe, 1SS4. jiiisaini ; liaskeirs 

JHartin Mnrprvliito ContruviTsj' ; Arber's In- 

Lrudactiitn to tlio Hartin AfarproUta Contro- 

Tomj ; Acts of ths Priry OjiiDdl; C«l. Wtato 


^MSoamca's Elixabcthun Hist.; Fallvr's Church 

^^kSinlory; IItwatoI's Crovdon niid I^iiiUlh ; 

^^■Hallnai's Cunslitotiainiil Htit. ; OArrawH Hint. 

^Hand Aaiiq. of Cravdun, iritli a Sketch uf iha 

^PLifeof Whilgift. Croydon, IKIB.] 8. L. 

i'bTKU (/. l.V13-^lo4i3), miliUry writer, ta 
di'scrihed ou thi: tilIi>|>nR(?s of his books, first 
I as »tiidfnL aiul thtin ajK'fa'Uow'ufllrBy'H Inn ; 

buthia name doea not ncmr in the repi^iers 
tuilvMI be b« th« I*. Whjtanm who was ad- 
mitted a student in lM3(FoeTBB, p. 16). 

About 1R60 he wa.<i M>Tving in the annioa of 
tb« cmp«cur Charles V against the Moors, 
and wa4 pr^M'nt at thf^ sit-ffi.- nud capture by 
thw Spaaiardii of ' L'alibbia,' a momiatffry in 
Africa, lie also spiiaks of baTtng baen in 
Constniiitnopli.'. While in Adricu ne trans- 
lated into Engliah from the italtnn ^In- 
chiavetli'a ttv-utisu on thu art of war, but it 
waa not publisbini till t«ii ymini hitur, when 
WbilahoniL' t^nns it 'the tirst frniiettof a 
poom soul dill ur's studit*.' It was dedicated 
to Qu»!n Elizabeth and was cnciHcd 'The 
Art« of Wamg written first in Italian by 
Nictiolaa Machinuoil and set forlhv in Eng- 
Uehe . . . with an addicion of otliur like 
Marciftllii fL'al«« and cxiwriinents . . .,' Lon- 
don, 410. Th>.- titlc-pagu ia iluiL-d 'Anno 
MULX. Mensc Julii,' but the colophon baa 
'MDLXII M*<nM> A]>ri]itt.' Other tdilions 
appeart'd in 167-1-'laiid l-j4d.bothiiii]uurto, 
wliitehoruf nt-jct produced ou Enj/lisb Lran*> 
Ialii.»u of I'abto Colta'e Ituliau vt'naonof tbe 
tireek ' Strale^ii'^UN ' by Ouosaiidir, a wTJtw 
of tho lirst conltiry i.u. It. was pmitied 
• Onoijiandm PInlonico, of tho Gi-npral Cap- 
taints, and of bU office . , . itnjinntcd at 
l^indon by Willysm S«*8. Anno 1J>6U,' 
and van di'diciitt-d to the Mirl m&rabal, 
Tfaomss Howard, duke of Norfolk, to Tvfaom 
'XS'hilijhome ' wyshcth longe life and per- 
pctuall felicilit;.' 

[Work« in Brit. .MiM. Liljrarr; Tannei's Bibl. 
Ur.t,-IIil.] A. F. P. 

ULusical amateur, publiahed in 1671 ' Soag«s 
of three, foivcr, and Buo pariea, by Tliomaa 
Whythornft, g«>t.' llie collMCtiim conaista 
of j<(>\entT-atx pieces, mostly to devotional 
words, in fivr inirl-book*. Thpy were well 

firinlt^d by John Day, tbt! words in black 
••tier. Tnere are copiea at the British Mu- 
seum^ Bodleian, and Christ Church libranca. 
As waa umoX, Whithomo wmiu both tbo 
worda and music. Complimentary Latin 
TursM, difTiTuut iiL iNich of the part-hooka, 
are pre&xtid ; and Wliithorut! in duly iir>- 
mised iimnorlality. la liiOO hi> imbliidied 
another collt-clion ttnl.itWl ' Dims, contain- 
ing tifty-twn pifcea, some for treble and bass, 
some for two tryVlea or two comvia, and Qf- 
t'-'-n cfttinn.*. It is drdicated ro the Earl of 
Iluntiu^doD from London ; it waa printed 
by Thotnns East, and Whithornu's portrait, 
at tht) age of forty, is at the «nd of vaob 
part-book. The first twelve pieooa are an- 
tbumsi only ihu opou lag words of all tba 

othnnt HTv giveu. 

'^^'bithomewas an amat^nr with an inor- 
dinat«> tn^lii-f in bis own pownrs. His works 
are ignored in the theoretical treatiaea of 




Morler, R&TcnMroft, *i\d OitmpioD ; nor 
vere tbey tnenlioncd by an; critic until 
Buni«; deAcribcd thu ' Soiigos,* dismiMictf 
botli wonla ocd niu&ic bh * \mly bubarouB. 
ilimbaull^ ItocliBtro, lliiak, Dnri.'j, nnA Noget 
ftU speak of tlivm with contt<[npl. Tne 
'Duos' tre le«i bad, but orw unknown to 
biUiogntp])«n, Knd are not mention^ lintti 
in Grove'a ' J^ctiuiiBry.' In [In>tt-n iiud 
Hiratton'H 'British Musiral Iliot^ftphy 'they 
uv nbnurdlv vntitli.'il ' Rmmivo,' 

A portrait of Whitlirime, dated \iiP&, in in 
tb« po wo wion or Mr. W. II. CummingR (of. 
Brumlks, p. ■>:{). 

pSTiitlipnio'B Worta in Britisli Moseum Li- 
bfnry; Hiirnnj'» Iliitjjry of Music, iii. 119; ilini- 
bsult'* Bibliothc» Mud rig aH ana, |>. vii , (jrova's 
Dictlonarjr of Uunc and MuMi-innti. ii. llil, ir. 
48<, i)l7; i>«T«y'« titntorjr of Kiiglinti Mtu-ic. 

Lt38; Nflccl'* Onchic'bui dor Miutik in Kog- 
d, iL288.} II. U. 

WHITINa. JOHN (1068-1722),qaftkep, 
SOOOf Jolin Wliitiu^nf Xailtea, tHMrHmtol, 
wb«re bb yLumau anceEtors had lougowoBd 
a SDUU e«tntt!, wn« born tlirn^ in idW. Hu 
BLoUiur &Urr, dau^iitc'rof John Kvanji of thn 
Mine parial), mid Ihh rnlluT n-i>n< onvprtpd ("-n 

Juukerism in lUM by John Aiidland and 
olm ('jiuiin [q-*-] At tbeir house wcrw 
liuldtlififirst mec-tinirsinSoniorBL't. WhiiiuR'a 
filtbfirdied in I<V>8. His mothor in DucumWr 
1660 niu sent with two hitudrcd others to 
fllcbwter gaol for refii»iii(j ihu oath of all^ 

S'uioe. Rcleosffd dC tliP apriiig uasixca at 
iftrd,sb0 nmrrlud iu lUOt MueL-s Urjant uf 
Nail«M: hy him ahe bad tbn-e suiu, and 
died in Noveiiibi-r ItlOlf. 

WIiitiufT was [.>diic:»ted at r^ gTitiiunar 
schoot, but wtLs bn^itjj^Lt up sa « quaker. 
At his stcptiilh^-r'a dt-ntJi in Ui7'2 hv vn-nl 
to live with hU titiw cuardian, Edmond 
Bc«k#, at IVrtisbead, aiiduiur thrn- CbmrliM 
Marsliall (1637-1898) [q. v.] Ilia sUri-r 
Mary, bom in 1654, was now a qunkur 
pr«aoiter, and io August 167fi B<a out on a 
prMWhiag jouruny towards Londt^n. InNo- 
TSinber be joined her in ltiicliirt);>ULm4hin\ 
They visited quak<-ni in Kcading gaol, and 
nwclivd London in DflWiuhij-r. Thonce hu 
■ Tatoraed home, while sW travelled north- 
ward. On 1 April lH7fi he nyoioud b*:r at 
Norton, Durlinm, an.] fgund hur ill ; »hd died 
tb«B oil 8 April 107(1. aged tweiitv-Iwo. 
isome time after, while in pri*on, bewroic 
•Early Piety wcpmplifird m the Uh and 
IJentL of Mary Whitinff, with two of her 
I'.p.fitlw atlcH.=.4to; 2nd edit. 17H. ll'ino). 

J<«Kw after hw rettirn to Xnilsea. AVhitioff 
^.f ^'*.?P»**'" 'n III" hi»bo(i'« rn,,rt at 

WoU. (38 Itay ie78j for not paying tithw. 

llf WAK, bowrver, appointed orontBcr of bis 
pariih, and was unmolested tbrougli thit 
wintfT. but on as Jan. IfiTfl he waa 
nnd carrit^ to lIcbntiTciol- Aftervigii 
months be was removed to thn Old rri 
allowt-d to walk out, and frometimes to vi 
Nailsea. Mauv olherqiuikfrrs wi-rcprifOn^r*, 
and on Sundays tlitty bvld meotitigs, which 
oiitaidm Ktti'ndfd. in thi> cr^at ball or ia 
thn wallei) oiwhjird. MTutinR wan in fre- 
quent oorrcspondtrncn with Ixiiidon Frieodi, 
wild sent him hnnk-f. Hp wrote much, aod 
reed the works of Boehmv, Sir "WaU.THnlt^h, 
ani^l oth^'T aulbors. Un Jami» ITs aceeaaion 
WbiiiuK rainly tried to obtain his rolwM. 
' Liberty of cmnscJ^^iw was in the pwA*,' he 
says, * for ii was to lonft in coming out.' 

Whi^n Monmouth arrin-d in Taunton, 
ASrliitingandhtssisttfr^in-ian-, Mrs-Scoti, in- 
ivrriewod bim. Coosidi^rint; the state of the 
country. Whiting thoufrht bv»t to itiirr>>ndpr 
bimeclf at Ilchcster. TUi'po h>*wi»» speedily 
thrust into irons amonir Mimmouth'^ men, 
and spent eix wwks chaini-d 1u John }iip9- 
ley, another fjuuk(>r. He was ollow^l to ff> 
to hie own room afl«r thirtmm wit;k», in timr 
In hi' an cyn-wititeas of Mmr of Clieat nxutins 
of the ' Bloody aasiie * (Am« Memoir; pp. 
Ki'i-B). He i»mnin«! ii oliwi- jirinoner Hialal 
tbt! kingV proclamation about the end of 
MnrHi \*m. 

W'liiiiii^ mnrrivd Sarah Ilnrd on M May 
IQiM, and two yvnr^aftcriuovod to a shop at 
Wrington. Thpre I'enn often viMted bin, 
and held mwlimfs. VVliitin)i's aulobio^ropliy 
ends in 1696. Th« remaiiidi>r of bin life was 
largely spent tnvelluij; in various counli|^^| 
in the soul li of KnKlimd and in Lond^^^^| 
wharH he died in the parish of St. ^^^^ 

1 in the parish of St. 
,011 V2 N..V. 1722. n* 

buried in the now vanbhed (juakor btkrial- 
groiiiiil in Hanorer Street, l^ng Acre, oa 
lh« 16th. 

.Mnny of AVhiting's manuscripts remained 
unpuhl'iAlicd. His 'Catalojjiie of Friends' 
Books '( Londun, 1 7(^, 8ro ), ibv fitvc attempt 
at quaker bibliographr, ood his ' P«niecu(ioa 
Expowd, in BOme Memoin of tlio SufTer- 
ing«' (l^ondon, 1715, 4ro; reprinlrd 1791, 
Bto), hold iuiportani placvis Iu ouaker an- 
nals. II u also wTut«,bw>idM«stnall('rworkj5: 
1. 'An Abstract of tht' Lir<>a. l>recept«t, and 
Sayings of Ancient I'nihi-ni,' London, 1634, 
4to. -2. *Judu«,andtheChief I*rio*t«j*lx)n- 
don, 1701, 4to (ibiii vrtv in answer to Seorn 
Keith), a ' Truth and Innocency defended,* 
London, 1702, 8vo (in answer to anxirsiutM 
on thi' quakcrs in Cnlton Mather^ 'His<- 
lory'j. 4. '.Mfinoira of Sarah Scott' (his 
niucoj, l^ndon, 170M, l2mo; 2nd«di(.17ll. 
Bto. h. 'The Admoaithrrs admonished,* 





LoudoQ, 1705,-ito. 6. 'Trutb, tlie strtwKwt 
of all,' London [1706], 4lo; Smlwiil. 1700, 
4U). 7. ' Till* Kect<» correci^, or Forgery 
diwecUd; London, 17l)M, «vo. 8. 'Chriiit 
Jeeus owned ut ho 'us Uod tiiid Mkr.' LuadoD, 
1700, Svo. He alau vdilud 'titren^h in 
WeoKneaR,' nKtnains of his ft-llow prbunvr, 
£l)abe(ti f^tirrMlg*^' (l^mlon, 1711, l^ino; 
Other «iUtioiiA, 1746, 177i^, 1705; ntprintiRi 
iutlie ' Fri«Bds' Library,' vol, ii. i'liilmii-lphtit, 
1838); and the ' .Irjiirnal of John Gmtton,' 
(Loadon. 17iO, «vo; 177y, 1795, and Stock- 
port, 1823 ; Ti'pulilidhud in the ' Frionda' 
Library,' l^j, vol. ix.) 

[HomouM tibuva uamnd ; BeM«'s Su^riogs, i. 
611. 612, 6ia, 6«1, an, ei~, M ; Smi[b*« CiU. 
ii. ai7-«.] C. K. S. 

WHITING, ItlflTAlU) (rf. ir.3i»), «bbf>r. 
in l-l^sndl>,l). in ].jO.'>. und Ix-caiw u monk 
at Glutonbury (.wliL-n- hi; inav i^rt-vioiisly 
hftve beeo a Bvholar) during (be ab^jacy of 
RteluLrd Bwa (for coDJ«ctiin_-«, more or lojs 

SlnusibLb, of Ibi! dat« and place of birth, 5«e 
AaQVOT, The Ijatt Abbot of Gltutcmburt;, 
pp. 14, 19). lie wuB admilti><i \\< lliu ordiT 
of luxilytw in .Sepu-uibiT 1498, sab-dencon in 
140(>, deacon in 1^00, priiisl (1 Marcii l.'^Ol 
fOAMni^, p. 28, ijiiotinff rofpeli-r of llinliup 
Kin^ of Bath and. WttlU). He held fur 
•ome liine tlie oflice of camerarius in lh«> 
abb^y. On tht- driath ofBoro in Kcbmary 
\Kf2'i forty -«vv>.* II of i\k tuoiika gavu tlieir 
rights ot'^leccing into the Itand^ of WoWy, 
and OS SMarcb 1&2I3 llie cunliua! oppoiiilvd 
Whiting to the viinuit tibl)iu::v (docum>?nt in 
Ab&ii op Dohiirsbau, ed. llL-arnv. vol. 1. 
pp.xcviiM.) ArtoTcnnoiiiai.! invt»t iffiitumn, 
iic, on f> April l-'l'I) k<> rttcelved restitulion 
of lhpit)inporalitii>8of t.hvabbFT(/>lfe)-#RW 
Pai>tr» of Henrv VIIJ, iv. i. M8). 

While abbot ue appear* frequenily in the 
Mate paper* iia prMenting CnriattaoA ffifts 
to Cbe ktug, providing hawk», ka., ni;gotia< 
ting eonronung advowvons, and (■ngaKioK 
Uy derks and ur^auistA. The proiiurty of 
ttie abbey was wry lar^^-, ami thn ubbol Kept 
gnat Btato, bnneing up nearly thrcQ hiindnrd 
aoiMOf the nobilily ntid i^ntrj- bt'sidw otlLc^r 
neatwrfolk; hn ^'nti^nained anoaptimesflTo 
handred persous of qunlity at oace, and 
every W^dneadny unci l-VidM' fed the poor 
of tlw neighbourliood, W'ben he went abroad 
he waa nttendvd by mvi-r a hundred iD(>n. 
Ha (tnUffiainvd l^^hind, who iu his first draft 
spoke of Itim aa * liouio haiie candid ttuiini us, 
et aminus muus einguliiris' i^CoUect. v'\. 70 >. 
In 1/V34 he tcKik ihr oalii of 9ii[in>niHCy witli 
hia prior and fiftv nianki< iLetUr* and 
fapert, Tii. 396, 47^ ; tha oatii wua sl^ed 

19 ajept., but had a[)parantly bmn tAkan on 
1 Junv). 

The early invostigations iqwke well of tbv 
state of Olastonbury. LayTon, writing to 
Cromwall 2^ Aug. Iu36,aaye th&t the mooka 
ara there 'so Ktrait kept that th<.'y cannot 
oBcnd, but fain ibuy would* {ib, \x. &0); 
Mjid u hiu been anggeated that the gladacaa 
with which tlio motiltH dcptirti'd ua iha 
diuvlution (Wkmht, DiMtUution </ the 
MattaxUrift, p. iSfSj is eridenreof ibuslrict- 
neea of Whiting's nJe <li. W. Uixoii in 
English Jlietfirieal Reviev, fictober It*ft7, 
p. 7%'i). The abbot iswrna lo bare hu>m 
anxious to be oDgood MMmn with t'romwell. 
Ho ihaiika him ' far hia goodneu to thia 
house,* grants him a corrmly formerly en- 
joyed by Sir I'bomae Mot«, ' wishing it a 
1iBtt«rttiing'(/*((cM(iji<//*«/irr*.ix.6!*, lOft). 
Ncverthcleflft the jurisdiction of the nbbfty 
over ibu town and district was stii^pended 
(lA. p. ^31), nnd strict injunctions as to tbo 
maiiageioenl of (hu prupurty and obaurvanco 
of the riili-* w«T« jfivtii by the viaiton {*ft. 
p. Sfi). It wna aiiiiounctKl, howwruT, that 
tber« was no intrtition of nupprt-.t-^iug tha 
abboy(t6. X. ISC), 

In 1636 a friar pri^aching in the abboy ()••• 
nouncM ihf * imw fangylW and new men ' 
(li. p.l2l),and thi«B]ipoars to have ilirecled 
the attention of the rourt toullcfn'd f*^dilton 
in iho housu (I'A. xii. 264). Tbo propurty 
of liw ahbey was ponHlantly bcinft granted 
on leanea to CDuniuni (ib. piui«im>, und Whit- 
ing, writing ^m his cuJttlo ol'Hl.urinin-Mvr- 
Kvwton, Doraot, 26 Jan. lOSH, compluma 
that his 'game in C(<rlain parkx in much 
dt'cayed by de*poir (iJ.ToI., i. p.-'K)). 
U« appears to liave l^eeo reossured shout thu 
sam^ timo by Oromwell ng&inxt any 'faar 
of Huppruasion or cha»gt> of life ' | ii>. pp. 
'2\\-\'2, and see Sir. C4airdkob'8 notv}, and 
at Cbristmaa 1030 hit iMrvauta received the 
ustial pn^mnt fWim the king (ib, pt. ii. p. oS8). 

At th« beginning of \WA9 Glastonbury 
^ras the only rvli^iouii h(iu»i! Irifl. unlouirhiid 
in thecouTity, In September a new visitation 
was deternilDed on. I'd ]<t H'_>pt. Ijiytun 
wroto to Oromwell thrt Whiting, whom he 
luid formerly liraised, ' now appear? to havw 
no part of a chrislirin man ' (lA. XIV. 11. M). 
On 19 Sept. Lnyton, Pollard, and Moyle 
arrived at tilastunbury, but, not findiltg the 
abbot, wont to Shurphnm, onu of his maaoTB, 
whrTH ilii-y found and examined bini, a[^ 
parently touching the sacceeeion. H« was 
tlivii tnkvn back Co Glastonbury, and thi-nee 
to the Tower. There has been much discue- 
aioo OS to the charge on which the abbot 
wna am.'Atod {see SAyDEiid, De Hchimuite, 
p. 135, ed. 1623 ; Bckkbt, m$t. of the Jie- 




, p. 239: QoovutfAnnaU, pp. 167- 
10^; IjfiitTt and Paptfrji, Xiv. ii. |MMin) ; 
biit it u^ma osruin imvt it was not concern- 
ing tbe royal supmnscj, but the mcoMSton 
to tli« orown (tee tb« cinBmiwioneti* letter 
to Cromwell, Wkigmt, DitKtlutitm of tht 
Mtfiastrrie*. [». 'iitb: and LrtUi^t and I'aprrt, 
irr. ii. 13il, wtierv Msrillac «Mtes tltat 
Wliiljng WM 'put inio tlie Tower bM:aUM> 
in taking tbc abbev (rvjutircK, TaJucd %\ two 
tiun<ir«(l IhoiiMaiiJ trowiut, t)i«y fouud a 
wnlli-ii bonk of the ar^ments on iMhalf 
of t^iii?«"M Cullinriiii' "J. 

On 2 Orl., liy whwh time the abbnt was 
aar«i ID Ibe Tuw«r, * bviog but « v»nr wi-ak 
man nml itirkly ' {ifi. p. HI t, ihecv^mmUaionGrii 
reporU'd to Cromwell iliat xhvy bad coise to 
thi: knowledge of I muKinftcommillvd bybim 
(ih. p. 101). lu rbo Miuc uomb Croaiw«U 
wrol« hm ainiil^r ' retDerobrauceB ' toucbin^ 
ibo abbot : ' Cvilain persons to bo «cnt to 
th'j Tower for ibu funnerexanunatioDof tbe 
abbat of UlaaCoa . . .' [for hiflOwncxnniin&< 
Ui>u ul' ttLL- abbut, Mc WaicuT.* Oittululion 
Ly" iA* Munnnterie*, 11. ■_'U2 1. * The nblint nf 
■uloatoa to bo trieu ut (ikslun, and also 
fXt^iilftl tbiT" wilfi 111* ouiii|ilyi'vi>. Ciiun- 
Bflloru t^i^ivi'evid^tncc . . . itrninat ibi'abbst 
of Ijlaston, Hich, IVUard, L*wi!i Komtnw, 
Thoa. Moyle. To 8oe thai the eifidenpe bfl 
veil sorted and (be iBdictiuenlavrall drawn.' 
Later ' remembraTiccn ' reneat tbia, and re- 
cord tbv vast fume rei'eivca ttom tliti nbU-y 
{JjctUrt and I'aft^r*, xiv. ii. \'>\, 41'"). It ia 

Iiuwible tbul a cbari^ul' embczElvuiL-nt tuny 
invr' hifn added to ibal of tri'aMiti, but 
of tllia ttiero U no cWr eviduaiv (i^ouparu 
ni-*QTJ(T, p. 10:^, with til" (iri|iiiiij l«ltrtr», 
!tK.), though till! inonkfl witb Whitinti m-nni 
to have bevncharRed wilh 'rolibini^ Gliiston- 
bury church.' Tin; abbot wa« nnit down to 
["WelU in ebar^ of rollard. lU was ar- 
'nigfnod at M'Ala on Friday, 14 Nov.. and 
' the next day put to «xtH;utiou on ibo 
Torre llil], iiL-xt unto tbe town of Ulaaton' 
<WaiciiT, i)p, ;»rifl-(«, I'til -i). At ibo 
uiotneiit of bxiH-utiou h»> aaked Iba kina * to 
for|riv4-' him htH ^mt otTfncts, and toolt hiu 
iWl h wry l"!' I'll' ty.' Tbi- luniilui wlm 
aiilTt'D-d wirh biin wcro John Thorne and 
KiifTur Jnini.o. Hik limbs witv vxpoa«^d at 
"Wells, llaih, IIcheftKr, iiiui liridffwater. 

WbitinB wna 'beatifiwl' in 1894J. He 
4tpi>carH to bavu bfeii a pioiu man, a good 
ruler, end a keeu sportunan. 

I IlefliJeB tlir aulhoritiea i)u(ilril in thn t«xt, 
IIciirD»')i Uitlnrj iiiiii Arili<)uitip» of QUaion- 
bury, IT'i-: Harnct'e History of the Huforma- 
tioij; ll'iilwinw Anniil». SninJi-rnit l)n Origine 
Sclii'iiiAtia AnglicHQJ ; Lnul. Hint. Rnr. >ii. 
7«l-5.] W. H. H. 

Irfiiti), acin»«,thn tblid flaugbter and flftb 
child of RofTTT Ketnble [Q-tJ., wu boro at 
WarrinKlna on ^ April l7til, and was ap- 
pn^nticiMl lo a mantua^malfrr. After a£- 
i|uiriu(; eoin« ex|>erirare in the country <<bi; 
wriil with brr two elder Mtla^ra. .Sarah I'.Hn. 
Stddons [<|. V.]), and Fhucea (Mrv. Twiw), 
to OruT) Xant-, where abe tDad« her lirat an- 
pearanw on '22 Feb. 1783 at I'ortia in ino 
' )f eri-'Laitt of VeDtc«,' a part hIw rejMat*^ on 
I MnruL Hcru aha n-mnined two seas 

Slayinjf, throun^ the intluiiic'r- of 3|rk ^,_ 
ons, Mnrgarel in 'A New Way to pay OIb 
Ih-litH,' ImogKii, Ijrononi in * KeTeage,' El- 
vira in ' Love makes a Man.' Lucia in ' Cato/ 
X<ady Touchwood in ' Uouble Deeler,' and 
Mrs. Marwood in ' \\ av of the World.' At 
\\iti «nd of this |vriod eim wt^nt to VotJt, and 
married on yi June 17y.> Charles Edward 
Wliitlock, proprirtor or ahansboldor of 
tbe Newcaatle, Sunderland, l^ncastcr, and 
Chester theatrEs^ him she accompanied to 
America, where she playfd principally in 
Annapolis, CharleAtou. and Fhiladrlpbia 
(wbi.-ru tbu playi."d bt'fonj Washington). witli 
aiich auccoM aa to obtain an imli-nrnilHncy. 
On IS June 1703 aha made, aa Mn. whitlock, 
hisr fimt appr-amno- at tbe TlayrDarkel, play- 
ing the Queen in thn ' Balikf of ITi-xtiun' 
and Julia in ' Siege of Oalais.' On 30 Aug. 
1797 idio Dr«t appeared at New York, at the 
Ur«enwich (?irvct rbeatn), u Ieab«Ua in tho 
* Fatal Slarringe ' (Urowk, Avterhau Stage, 
p. 3ft.'). On ti Oct. 1B07 xlic rvaopouvd at 
Urury Lane as l-ilwina in * F*n-y. Hhe waa 
aiuiouuvvd D« baving returned from. Antetieai 
and bnr n-appearance cauiwd aomo saoBatioo ; 
but abe doe« not appeu to hare bom Mea 
jnuru than oncw, and is no more heard of 
on the Htage. The characters namM are 
all in wUicn slie can be traced. She played 
otluira, howrTtr, n portrait of her, t»v Do 
Wilde, as Margaret in tlic 'Earl of War* 
wick' beinc in llie Mathews collection in tlie 
Ciorrick Club, lint husband died mW- 
quently to JHI:;. She b«r«elf died tin -^7 Feb. 
1836. 8ha wua a more than rej^peclable 
aolrpBH in Im^mlv. but the n-jiutnlion of bar 
aiatbr, Mre. Siddons. to whom she bot« in 
voiitb aumit ntM-m bla 11 cv, stood io bet waj. 
Iler voice waa th>> ba-^t in the family, but 
she droppMl it towards tbe close of a aen- 
lencp. Her action was stntucsque a« well 
AS powerful, but her bearing lackud .■'ptrit. 

[Moil iaformatioQ supfilied concendtig Mrs. 
Wbitlock is inacoamia. bcr hasband's dsath 
bsiuE antidpatod by more ihnn twinty yean. 
and her uwn nt<pciirAi>cr« oanfuBed wiUi iIiom 
of h«r s>»ter I-anny. The forvBOJDg facta are 
derired tt^nti. Gvacst's Accoontef the English 






8ta|i«, CAmpbell's Life of 8id<loiu, Q«nt. Mikg. 
Ci. 43«. 430). Fii«;cniM'i Lkm qE Uie K«<inL<lo9, 
UoDttat/ Mirror (l»o7, new »r. toL ii.)< Xhes- 
pJHD IHrt., GillUiinil'a Unmsiic Mirror, nad 
TlwipiAD Miif{. 1*92-3.] J. K. 

WHITLOCK, JOHN (1825-170SI), 
•jecteil ilivini', Iwrn in HfciS, was iiii> son of 
Kichftrd Whitlock, merchant, of London. 
Hb mothflr (bom in 169Q) diud at Luig'hton 
on 2 April IfMU. and w«« buried tli»r«. A 
gm&U hrofs to hiT memory is in vLo church. 
Or 23 Junw IfS-lL' Wliitlnrli wu> itduiiLlfd n 
pensioner of Emmnniipl roilejie. C«mbri(J(r*'. 
(fnidiiiiling R.A. in HUr. ati-l M.A. in KUH. 
In trti;1 he raadf'ihftao-qiiaintanKP of William 
lieyiioWsrq.v,], which quickly ripened into a 
cIoiwfri<>na'«hip.'inlybroKen»fli>rnoRrly fifiy- 
tivoyeara'MAiidin^ by the death of Itoyuoldit 
in 159^. In the summer of Iftlo Whitlock 
w&ff inWtc^ ro pnvifih at. Leif!;hton Buuanl 
in U^dfor<lsbire. He nettled there in No- 
Tpmher, and in the followinff month was 
joiuLHl by Hi.-ynoli]it, the two living iindor 
the same root, studying in the same mom, 
iin<l writing at the Himo lahlu. lu thu spring 
of KWH Hej'tiolils was invitei) to Aytesbnry, 
and airreed to ahare the two placoa (AtIb§- 
biiry ami Ijcightnn) with hi« friciid- H<>- 
fusing ihe ' Knenp'mpnr ' in Iftlt). thpy wore 
dpprired of th'-ir mftintenniK-e in both Ibeir 
plarw of mini*tn,-. imd (■('fluisl to prenoh at 
Ayleitbury in March UViO, and at Lt'iffhtoQ 
mMarch'l651. Laterin U!fll Whitlnckwna 
prvwat«d to tliu vi4.-aragL< of 8t. Mury'«. NaU 
tjnfffaam, bin friend Heynolila Imnff jointnl 
with him B» lecturer. In October 1651 they 
VRfB both Ordiiint'tl at St- Andrewn Unditr- 
shaft in London, and etoabli-^lied tb^ir church 
«f)«r Ih? preabvtenaii form on their return 
to Xottingham' In July 1662 Whitlock 
was indicled nt thetemoas at Xottinabam 
for not rittdinf? the common prnyGr, and, 
kitbouyh the Act of L'nifomity wa* tiot yet 
to fOKti, be was suspended and his chuivh 
•Ogneiuml. Thti two frii-nds thrtn sought 
nnige out of tbtt town, and shnnil nil <liK- 
turunceHandimpri»nnmpnt^[<H3e Rcr\»i.D8, 
Wrt-TAM 1 till thp ' ludiiliiimiy.' (if October 
168" enabled them to n^turn tn Notlin^fham. 
Koottia at litritUesmith rtatewt>recerti6ed in 
July 1689 for the joint uv of the pn'-«by- 
terians Whitlock, Ileynolde, and John llarrel 
( ItiSl-17 13 )[q .v.], and the independent John 
Rrther (rf. 17041 [wo under RrrarB, John. 
Ifo»?-1681]. A little kt«r tbetwoaeets 
had mparate Loiisif, but evm utter the 
building of the prei.bvt"''inn chnjMil iiti thf 
"rh ftivemont. about 16f»0, they joined with 

olh»"r in ndigioug B^rvices. 
LWhitWk continued to peach in the High 
■"■ " it Chapel until within two years of 

hia dnnth. Hy died on 4 Dec. 1709, and was 
buried in fit. Mary* Church on 13 Jan. fol- 
lowing. He married, on 'J^ March 1053, a 
dauighter of .\nthony Tuckney [o, v.], mvc- 
ceuively matiter of Emioanuc] onu .St. John'a 
Collcgvis, Cambridge. I'oaw-iuttfd of a fair 

froperty, h*j wiu liberul lu the uae of it. 
lo v/aa succeeded in tbn minintnr by hi» 
»on John, who died on 16 March 1723'.»gediW, 
and was buried in St. Mary's on '20 Mareh. 
A joint tablet to father and son is in ths 

Reudea fungle aermons, Whilloclc pub- 
liithed : 1. ' A Short Account of the Life of 
the H(-v. W. Heynolds.' London, IfiSS ; Not- 
tingham. 1807. '2. 'Tb« Grvat Duty and 
Comfortable Evidence,' London, 1098, 

[PiilmurV Noneonfonnist'sllAmorial, iit. 100- 
103; t'jirjwnter's Pros tiyteriKu ism in Notting- 
ham, p«»im; The Coofonntst's Fourth Fl6n 
fbr the Nnnronformists. pp. 3B. 43-4; Whit- 
luck's Lifo of Ui* Iter. Wjllinm Rv>*uuldN, 
uiusini; Hayvood and DicktDsoa's Non^^n- 
tormist TC«2ist«r, p, 28i ; Cr«8WoU's Cullnctinn 
towiirdN n HivLorj uf I'riiitinK in N'ottiiigUani* 
shir« ; Wood's Athenx^ ltli«t>. iii. 'J^; Illaydan's 
Geoealofra Bedfordieiwiii. p. 387 ; Cat, of Dr. 
WiUiftiui's Lil-rar/ ; utimisiiou rpginf.ers of Kiii- 
-tDAim*! ('olUgK, CaRibridj:e. j>ur iLo master ; ual- 
varaily ragietan. per tiio regiHtrary.] B. P. 

WHITLOCK, MILUAM (rf. IftW), his- 
torian of I.iclifii*li!, was educated ut Eton 
College, and elected to King's CoHeife, Cam- 
bridge, in Io37. He graduatud B.A. in 
IMl -2, comtoeiiccd M.A. in l&ir>, atid pm- 
ceetled H.IJ. in ItWJa. On 18 Dec. I068 he 
was presented by King's UoihtKe to the 
vicarage of Prescol in Laacanhire. On 
3 July 1560 he Traa admitted to the rectory 
of Gn'cnford Magna in Middlesex, on the 
presentation of .Sir Kdwnrd Thonitou, and 
on 10 Jan. 150U-1 he wa8 onllntcd t-a the 

Srpbt-nd of CiiTlwrough in Lichtiotd Catbe- 
ral. He died in or before February 1IJS3- 
1584. Ho was a friend of •fohn Twrne 

[q- v.] 

Whitlock is chieJIy remarkablo for hia ad- 
ditions to the manuscript chronicK^ of Thorn oa 
Chc^tcrfii-ld 'q.T.l This record of the hiahops 
of t'orentry and Lichlield i.ixt«nded to l.'J-tr. 
Whitlock added many details to the exist- 
ing clinmicin, and compiled usupplement con- 
tinuing it to 15fi(». Ilia manuscripts wer» 
used by ilenry Wlwrton [q, v.] in IROl in 
his 'Anglia Sacra,' who printed in that work 
WhitlocVs additions to Chpatertirld'a manu- 
script under Ihe title * Additamenta ad HiJ^ 
toriam vtiterem Lit«hfuIdonMim,' and hiA 
supplement und-^r the litlii ' Continii8tit> 
Historim Litclifiddcnsis ab anno MCCCI.IX 
ad annum MDLIX.' The earlier date is 

mialeading, as Wbitlock's chronicle befruis 

nfttr i;U~. Whitlock'a maniiiscrints nm pn^ 
^jBervcd in tlit* Kodibiftii Library (MSiJ. >ot. 

T70 Mul Sai)), aud in the Cottoniati manu- 
ranipu at thu Brltittli MtiMum ^Vuep. B. IG 

«n<] CloopRlra D. 9). 

(C<»p<tr'i Aihen* CsnUbr. i. Wfi ; Harwoffld'a 
itunui Elon. p. ]&&; Tntjiii-r'i IliM. DHl -Uib. 
|]798:Ii« NflTo'tf l'iMCi&i.'l««. Anjflimcite; Simimi'B 
Sibl. StAflbnl. 18U4 : llAnrood'i HisL of Licii- 
BcW. i>p. 2^3,240; Oj1c'» CnllMtion* in Hriu 
Mn*. Addit, MS. SRIS. f. 10; Stwcoan'n Itvpvrt. 
EccW. I»n(lin. i. Old; Williti"B3iirvcj'<>f Oitbe- 
tira\n. 1712. 11.1^1,-161 ; WhArton'HAiiKliiiSAera, 
ItflU, vut. i. pr«fii(*. p. Slid.] vl. I. C. 

lord lUHvor of London, was the third son of 
William Whi^lno^t^ (rf. 8 Aur. I*>t«), & Lon- 
doH merchant, bv hiK wife Anne (d. 9 Oct. 
IfiJ.I), dftujfhter'of Sit William Bond, an 
aldtTiuaii cif Londoti. IIo was maatar vt ibv 
IIiib4Tdnikb)^r!t'Cnni{)snr,ftndftn23Mav lUOU 
became a membpr of thu Virrlaia Company 
iindwr tb« itovand clmrtiT. Hp MTved the 
ofBco of flheriiTof Landfin in 1621-2, and 
WHH Hldi.'nunii of this wiirtl of Fnrrinndon 
Within from 2 Junn lfi21 to 7 Nov. 162fl, 
when hi> «xcbHnj[c<d to LAURboump wnrd, of 
which ho WM uldiTman until Mny 1613. 
On 7 July K120 ho and his *-ldw brother.Sir 
Williftm Whilmorc, received a ^ant of Ihu 
mamirof Bridpwotar Oa«tlo, with Ht'yifrov« 
inB-imwrw^tt C'rt/. State Paper*, Ilmn.ltJii.l-e, 
pp. 360, rtdfO). la 1631 he wu^ clioaun lord 
mayor of London, und mn -7 May I6S2 hn 
"waa linightiid. TIia pni;ri>nnt.t which cele- 
brnt'-d his entrj- into <>l!icf> rtt? drtnilcd in 
a pn.niphlot pri-.Wvod in tho Huth Libraiyp 
etiiitliM' l.oiidonHlitslIonor&rium't London, 
leyi. 4to), compilod by Thomai Hpywood 
(d. laWD [q. V.J (ef. OoftSER, Vollfft^nm, 
iv. 2U7). On 6 May 1637 he waa appointed 
a commifUiionur Ut c&rrf out tho MaluLv of 
H«nr^- V'lII for eoeouraging tha u*e of tbe 
loni? bow and suppreesinc unlawful g&mos 
{Car. staff Paper*, Dcim. 1687, p. 66). 

Whitmore was an ardnnt lovaliat, and on 
25 Not. 1641 tbe kinn paswd tlimiigb lii« 
nounds at Bnlmy* in itarknfty on his r>>tuni 
from Scotland. In ItSW he wns impnBnnt»d 
in Crosby lIouHQ aa a dclinqut^iil (ib. 1611 -.t, 
p. 403), and, alttiou^h It« was nhorily re- 
tanaied, hawaareimpnsanod onL'O Jan. 1642- 
IBW for rofMbp to pay ihe taiea levied by 
parlmint^nt. Hit ett«t« waa sequeatered for 
saam timf', hue ha finally obtaini^d his di»- 
charBi* frt>ni thy commiltsfiof )«!([Ui'5itraiio«!i, 
luid on t?2 On. 1(WH won commandnd to Uy 
his discbarKi^ before the commitlrv for cniu- 

founding (Ont. Comm,/or Compotw4inff, 'p. 

He diod at Balmea on 13 Dee. 1654, and 
was buried at St. AUry Hk^kIhi, Milk 
Strnet, on 6 Jan. He married Harr <161ft- 
1667), eldsat daughU'r of Ricbanl Xlaoiel of 
Truro. By her 1^ had thre« nons - -CbarlM, 
(Iporce, and Willi«m~and four danxhlcn: 
Elisanstb, married u> Sir John Weld of 
Willey: Anne, married to Sir John Robin- 
(inn.lordmayorof Ijondon; Margaret, martiad 
to Sir Cliarlea Kemya; and Muy 

[]loaaeandC<MirtB«7'« Biblioih. CoranV 1874; 
IlravoB Gantuiia of (he DnitMl Stwaa, 18tW, I. 
238, U. 10^3; Whitiugro'* Xotaion th« Manor 
and yftmily of Whitmore. 18a6, pp. 9,9: Rabin- 
ton's Hist, and Aatiq.of Ha>ekn«>y. lS12,i. IH- 
103: O»nn.D0y'B Guide to Puaaaea, 184d, Ann. 
p. »0 : Gaol. Hag. lase, i. 131 ; I'«pya'B JHaxj 
iind Oorrpsp. od. Brsyl>roukii, ii. 298. 377. ir. 
442 : Funml Smidoo by ^Anthony Parindan, 
App«oiled to his Thirty Sorraona, 1057] 

E. I. C. 

1601 f), poet, ilie eon of ■ Cither of tne «me 
namfl, was bom at, or near, Coole PiUte, a 
townahip in tho parish of Acton, four milea 
from Naotwir.h in ChHshire, in or about 
1548. Kifi family, probftblTftpnioK from the 
WliilnMii "f Whitney In iferefordshiru, had 
been sotlled on a umall ostate at CJoola 
PilatM fiino- l^SS. Educated at the neigli- 
bonrine echwl of Audlem, hn an«rw!inU 
proceeded to Oxford, and ijien for nlonffcr 

f leriod to Ma^dAlen(<Collcge, Cambridge; but 
le aoeus to havu loft the anivernty without 
a decree. Having ndnnti.'d the le^l pio- 
foaaioa, bo became in time nndcr-bailiff of 
Oreitt Ynrmoiith. Up held this port in 1680 
Cbow much pnrlier is not evident), retaining 
it till ibm. In Io»4 the li^irl of Leiceett-r, 
high aleward of the borongh, made an iin- 
auocessful attempt to procure tlta under- 
st«ward«lilp for Whitney, but the place waa 
given to John Htubba [q. r.] After some 
litigation with the corparalion, by which be 
•ooms to hnve Vwn badly treated, the di*- 

Jute was Aettlpd by a pnyment to the poet of 
r>/. (M.*!f»uir, Yarmauih, vol, ii.) 
Uuriim hit nwdunce at yarmoulh WTitl- 
ncy appeoTB to harii had much inlercourw 
wiili th» Netherlands, and to have made the 
a{-qiinintancc of many scholant thnn*. On 
the termination of bis conm^crion with the 
tjiwn, he proceeds] to Levdi-n, 'where he 
was in ^reat esteem amoni; bin rountrym>>n 
tar hU ingenuity.' On I Murch \h!^ I^e Iw- 
came a student in iia tiewlv foundi'>d univer- 
sity, and later in the yw be brouffbt om at 
Plantin's press hU ' rnoiee of Bmbloms,* the 
iHxjk which hug preserved bis name from 
oblivion. Of thf? duration of fats eojonni on 
the continent thereis no urideiioe. He nub- 

lly cwtumvd to Knekni], «nd resided 

in ihB neighbourhood of bin btrthplftcc. Al 

Itj-lw (or ICofols) Qreea, near Combermere 

I Abbwy, he mml^ his will on II Scpl. IBUO, 

which was proved on 'JS May ICWl. Ha 

I aeeinii to have died unmuiried. 

Whitney's repulauori dopenda upon his 
^■c«lcbrat«d work,>d 'A Cboi<!« of Em- 
^BU«t»fi:4 and oihor I>CTise», for the moete 
^^karto gttthered out of Kiindrio whtr-nt, Ens* 
^^^ht-d find moraliEcd, and diren iif>wly 
^"■d^vijMid, by OrfTrcy Whitney, A worUe 
adorntiJ with vnnptie ol' maitVr, bor-h plea- 
Mint and proGlable: whemo tboee chat 
please tnn^A Hndp to Hi th^ir fancies: Be- 
cause herfin, by the oilice of the eio and iho 
eare, th« minde mare reape doobl^'delighte 
tbrougbe holaome proc«pt4;s, ithttdowed with 
pleaMnt devises: both lit for Iho %'<niuouii, 
to their incorogiuff ; and for the wicked, for 
their adnioni»liinj( uiid auicnduK-nt ' ('i p1«., 
Lcydcn, loflt!, 4to>. Thft book wa* d*!di- 
caled to the I'Virl of Li-iuBeH-T from London 
j on 28?»or. LW^witU anfpisiUsU) ttifiryiulpr 
duti'd Lcydi'u 4 Muv iflStl. Theauthnrrrpeaks 
AH if Ihia wr« a i>i>cond pdition ; if so, the 
firel was nritten only, and not printH. Ili» 
<']nlihim«, 348 in intinb«r, K^oeraliy oai> or 
more Atannu^ of six liniw (n qiiat ruin foltowfd 
by » couplet), have a dBvic' or woodcut 
, prellzMl, with an appropriate- motto. Being 
I addr«Med cithor lu his klnsmL'u or friends, 
^^ir to aoioo Mmin^^nl oontpmpomry, liif.y fur- 
^^■ish aottees of pcTfons, pU'CGd, and things 
^^BOt elsewhere n-adily tu V met with. Of 
the dwriL"ert twenty- three only are originni, 
while twi'iit.y-three are su^gWed hy, and 
' d identicnf with, those of Alciati, Pandin, 
iimbnciia, Junius, and Faenii. The work 
the fintt of itjt kind to present to Eng- 
ibmen an adei^uate cxamplu of thv cmbtum 
Imokfl that hod issued from the great ponti- 
neotal prewe*; and it woe mainly from it, 
: U s representative book of iho Rrpiitur piirt 
I of vmbluni literature which had prei^Meo it, 
that SbakeApeoregkiiwd the knowledge which 
be evid4gitly poasesacd of the gnvi' foroign 
enibli>imaItstsi}ftfaesixtoeathcentury. Wbit- 
ney'a verfww arc often of grout merit, and 
always manifest a pure mind and oxwnsive 

The only other works which can ho prjsi- 
tivcly assigned to Whitney arti: 1. 'An Ae- 
couBi in Lsiin of a Viiiit to Scratbr Mand, 
oQ* Great Varuioulh,' IfiRO, ii Invoslntion of 
which is prinlM in Man.ihip'ei • History nf 
Or«aL Yarmouth.' 2. Some verses in I>0UBa*e 
* Odffi Britannicap,' lyjydon, IB8fi,4to. 

IsntirUft Whitney, a sister of the poet, was 

likewian awrilcr of verses. Ilor principU 

^Mrorlt, ' A Sweet Nosegay, or Plc-aaont X'o^u, 

coutayning a >lundr«d and Ten Phylo«ophi- 
call Flowera,' appearad in 1573. 

[Green's fitealmflo reprini of the Choice of Em- 
blems, lSfl6, acil i.ha mmn «rril«r'« Sbukespmre 
and the Emlleni Writtva; Utilrilto's Family of 
Whitney: Wood's Athewt Oxoa. i. fiS7 : Rilaon'a 
Bill). Aiiglo-Poetica ; Coniar's Collsctao^a; 
Cooper's Atii«ne Cantabr. it. 23-1.] F. S. 

(1762-181S), U'luiirul of the flet:t, hom in 
I'fU, was thiril SOI) iif Jaino* Kuwkias 
nTlS-l^a"!), biah-ip of liaphoe, and in 1773 
waa wnLerttd nn thn books uf the IJantfcr 
aloop, then on the IriAh Atiitinn. ilt was 
afterwards borne on the books of the Kent, 
ffuardahij)Kt Plymmith, and flrst went afloat, 
m the AldbarouEh, serving oii the New- 
foundland and North American stations, 
till, on 4 Sept, 177>*, hu- was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant. J>iiruig 1770 he 
wax in thb Amaton, on the home station, 
and in l>Gcenili.-r he joined the Sandwich, 
flagship of Sir Ooorge IJrj-ilges (aflcrwarik 
Lord) Itoduey [;j. v.], with whom he was 

{resent in the act ion olf ('app St. Vincent on 
6 Jan. 1780, Al Gibraltar he waa mad" 
(^ommnndnr into th» Sun Vincents sloop, and, 
going out to the Weat Indios with Bodnoy, 
was present in the action of 17 April 1780, 
and on tbo next day, 18 April, woe posted 
lo the Deal Castle, which, in a violent tiurri- 
cano in the following October, was blown 
ftoin herauehorage at St. Lucia, and wrecked 
on the coast of Porto Kico. lim cri-w hap- 
pily escaped U> thu shore, and Hawkins, afk'r 
recovering from a dHnf^nLiiiK fever hroiight 
on by th« exposure, was hononnibly uc- 
quittod by a court-ninrlial of all blame, and 
wa.'' e^'nt to England with dL'■apa^ch1^s, In 
July 17(^1 he was appointed to iho Ceres 
frtgnte, in which, in too fnltowing spring, hn 
took out Sir Guy Carletou (alVerwards Lord 
Dorchester) [q. v.] to New York, and brought 
him buck lo England in December 17M. 
For the next thrtM y<!ar« Hawkins com- 
manded the IViae frigait* nt; I^-tth and on 
the east coast of Scotland. Ho then studied 
for three ypar.t at Oxford, at,r.endiug lecture* 
OD astronomy, and travelled on the continent, 
mainly in Dftnmark and in Russia. In 1791 
hoasaomed the name of Whjtshed, ihit of bis 
maternal grandmother, in accordance witli 
tho terms of a cousin's will. 

lu l71Kt Ue woii iii)|HiiitlMd to tliit .Arrogant 
of 74 guni>, one of tne squadron under Rear- 
admiral OeorE'' Montag^ii [q.v-i in .May and 
June 1704. In I'd'") he was moved into (ho 
>'amuT, one of the EhJps which in January 
1707 were dcliiched from the Ohunnel Reet 
wHb ilear-admiral [Sir] William Parker 




(JTlS-ieOfJ) [q. T.I to ranfofce Sir Jolu 
Jervi« (ifterwfcnU "Ear] 8l, Vincent) [q.r.] 
It IJsbon, Biid lo tn)ut part in the baiiltf of 
Cbpe Ki. Vinc«ot, for which Whit«hod, with 
thfi other ciiptsiiu ca^aged, roceivod the ^Id 
medal and the thAnlu of botli bouMs of pai^ 
lininent. He aflHrwudi oonmiindiil 8uc- 
CMKively th« Ajax and thv Formidable in 
the Ch&nne] fle«t, and on U Feb. 1790 wa« 
promoted to be rear*adminil. In April, with 
hiA tltte in th« Queen Charbite, be coa- 
mandod a squadron of four ship* of the Uiw 
which WAS sent, om a n'iofonvmi'nt to the 
Msditerruieaii fleet, on thu news of the 
Frauchfl>e«t haviii); i-scaped from Bro^t. In 
the puniiil he rvtumcd off Itreat with Lord 
Keith [iwt Elvhixstoitb, Qeoroe Keith. 
TjUBD KBlTif]. Ho eoIltiDUl^d in the Chun- 
niil lill 1S01, and in ia)»,oii th^^ reiwwal of 
the war, was appointed naval adrtser to the 
lord lieuu-iisut of eupvrintoDd Ibu 
Birani^tfintTito for thu defence of the Irish 
enact and to ortramso thu aca fvncihk«. Ml- 
became incHndmirnt nn ^H April 1>S04, anil 
in the flprintr of ISO" was appnintud aim- 
mander-in-ctiief at Cork. whi^R' hr n-nuiitiwi 
for throo yi^nn>. ihi 31 July If 10 he was 
promoted to the rank of admiral, Ife w«h 
nominntL^da K.C.Ii, onS Jan. ISIS, was cnm- 
mundvr-in-chief nl I'orlsuinnlh from January 
1821 to April ISlM, was mado n O.C.B. on 
17 Nov. 1830, a biironm on 10 May I8W. 
baron of th'- kintril'^in of Hanover in 184.1, 
Hnrladmiml nflhf! ItMt on H Jnn. 1W4, lie 
died at hi" hmine in Ciivciidi^h Square, l/oii- 
don. cin2«Oci, If^lO. 

Whituhfld'fl portrait, by F. Cniikahnok, ix 
in the Painted Hall M Cirfytnwich. 

Whiuhed marriiM), in l"yi,t?ophia Hen- 
riettA, daiiphtor of Ci\ptain John Albert IVn- 
tinck of tiiv ntivy {d. 1775), and had iwiie 
two i»on» and four daughters. The eldest 
eon yvaa killi-d in Itfl!), wLcu u inid)<hipinau 
of th« B'Twii'k. 'ITie j<eciiiid, St. VincKiit 
Kef'n«,who BUcr<f?dvd to the baronetcy, died 
ID 1870; nnd on thi- dcnlh of l.lio aiKond 
baronet's otilv .'"iirvivinit son in tbe follow- 
ing year the tiironetcy utwain* extinct. 

[O'Brrui''* JJnr. Uioffr. Diet,; itolfe's Nur, 
Siofrr. li, 2T1 ; MnrnIinTl'* Iky. Nut. Hiogr. 1. 
12(1 ; Sura] Chronic!" (with pnrtniit), xxii. 363 ; 
Ocnt. Mag. IBSO. i. Sa.] J. K. L. 

WHITSON, JOHN (l&57-lfil>9), mt-r- 
chnnt ndvenliirer.wn«born in IBS7 nlGIear- 
wcU in Llie parish of Xewland, Gloucoeter- 
nhire, and at the ngc of eighteen went to 
Bristol, wheto Iw entered the service of 
Trenrhard, a wine-cooper and shi))owner. 
Tie becamu Trunohard'a first clerk, uiid on 
Trenchard'a death married tbe widow and 

succeeded to the buuness. When Pbtlip 11 

hiid an eoibar)^ on tbc 'EamViah ships in lA8fi, 
Whitson fitted out tbe Mayllower lo makfi 
nrprisala. ller cruise was succevsful, but 
W hitAon. not earing to cany on the bnn- 
neaa, sold hr-r to Thomaa Jan)f». nfterwKnls 
mayor of Bristol, who has been rrmnwrtislT 
deacribed m»t father af Thomas Jameo ( lU^ ?'■ 
1635 ? ) [a. T.", the navigator. In the Mrly 
vojract-* for tbe svttletneot of North Ame- 
ri«*, >Vhit.inn took an active pan. and espe- 
cially ID sending out Martin Pring [n, r.) 
He was also dixtin^uished for hutchiintW 
and as a b«aefiwlor lo the town of Bristol, 
of which he w«a twice mavor-'in IfKKt and 
lOlS. He roprCMnlod Bristol in four nar^ 
liamenla, being rt^tnmeal in 1006, 1Q30, lUlift. 
and Febrnnry l62.>-tJ. He died of a fiill 
from hi* bnr><^, and who hiiriifd in St. Nicho- 
las Cbutfh.Briiitol.on 9 .March 16M-9. He 
was tbroe timea nuried. 

[Btnwa's Gtnwris nf th« United States, wttb 
liortnit. pp. 1020, 1063, Soj-nr'a MamoirsiirftrLh- 
tul ; liiAw from Ur. Ivor Jnines,] J. K. L. 

WHITTAKER. [Stw ulao Whitwee.) 

(1793-1817). bookseller and puhli«hcr, bora 
ttt 8»ritbniupton in March 1793, was theRon 
of the! K*v, (.eorgt' ^'biltiik«r,taasterofthe 
grauuuar school. About ldl4 ho btvame a 
partner of Charles Law, wbole«aIb ItookM'lW, 
Aru Marin. Lane, Loudon, a honseestablisfaed 
by W. Ilidw.41 Law (rf. 17116). Whittaker 
brought L-apital and enei^ into the busbeH. 
Oni? i.'nt<'rpri»e was t.lie publication of • 
trauAl^iion of Cuvier'a ■ Animal Einf^dom,* 
in Mxteen roluntes, with manv coloured 

5Iat«0. In 1824 ho At-rvod as sheriff of Ijon- 
on and Middlesex. He published for Mn. 
TroUoBC. Colloy Gratton, Ueorife Grolv, and 
Mii<> .'litford. Thv last novel of Sir Wal- 
ler Scott came out with hi* imprint, and 
hie lirm publisliod in London all the early 
irulli^ctivH editions uf tliv novultat. In ooo- 
jiinctfon with thn Oxford and Cambridgp 
bookw.'Uers he producedaserie« of Greek and 
Latin cliiAsicft. .Tohn pAyiutColltcr'seditioD 
of bhakeopeare (l&ll) was issued by bita. 
He pnbli«h4Ml the Pinnock odiicatioiisl pri- 
nters and many other cbildnrn's books, and 
he was a promoter of reading among the 
pw&pic by his ' Popular Library.' 

He died at KnuMiigton On I'l Dw, 1847. 
Richard Gilbert I'q. v."!. founder of the print- 
in|{ tint) nf Gillif.rt & Hi\'inf!ton, married 
Whitlaker'fl only .-iister; their son Robert 
succiii-dcd to hisuuclc's property and business. 
[Ofrnt.Mnff l618.i.9o-S. Nichi.Ii'a llliulm. 
tioo«, 1868, riii. 483-4.] H. R T. 







lH7l»), pointer iti Trftti?rcolour*, son 
^ _ rohii Wliitlakor, n-&reliout>tinnti, wn* born 
Hi MKiLcbMtf^r in IWH, uiil ajipn^nticvd to 
ua ciutavvr for calii-o priau>nt. Hi* HubuL*- 

^uently look up etcbiiii;, and tbt^ii (laiiitiii^. 
a coming Intu h i!iniill fortunf he n^mnv<.-<L 
about Ih58 ti> IJanrumt, \niili \VBi*m, wln-ni 
he practiaed UmlBrape-paintirifj in waicr- 
cob'urs. Francit \VilliRmTopliaiiirq.v.]there 
mnAi- htA ari}imiiiIancc.Anrl. b>-in^ st riicVi wit b 
tbe abtlitj sIiuwd in bie work, induced him 
to become a c*ndidAt<> lor (he Societ)r of 
PainteiB in Watorcoloors. He wtu ulcfiti'd 
an AMociate on 10 Feb. HHi'J, and a member 
on 13 Juno 1B6I, and ubibilud 101 pictiirM 
at thoextiibtlions of tbat ticx-i«ty, and Ihn-M 
mrorkit at ihe ItovaL Academy. Hi3 <>ub}eRt4 
were cbi^y xikwh in tlin Smiwdon dttitrtcti 
ftn<] many of h\» Aketcben, opecinllr l]u»» 
of roujfL moorland tracts of ground, prj«:«!!<&ed 
exr«ptiruial powMr. 

He WS8 ari^idrntallT drowned in t)ir nvor 

By IiiH wife Hiirali, dAiieht'Hr of Joseph 
IJey*s of Manchester (lo wlinm he had bt."eti 
•pprvncicHlj, he loft four children. 

IRogct'a 'Old WatorcoIour'Soc. 1391, ii. Ill ; 
Suiofteld'a Cat, of M>ttjcli<:ai«r City Art Oiillcry, 
>'o, HI : Qnrea'a Diet, of ArtintK, ISQft: (:*t. 
of llio Jubil*.» Ethibilion, Maneheatnr, ISfiT, 
Koa. OM and 972; Trmo*. 1.^ Hufi. 1873; in- 
itirniatHm eivon hy Mr. J.G.RoM,I<otur<its)it.1 

O. W S. 

<1790;--I^3^l).divinR,a(in of William Whitta- 
kcr of Tirndfunl. Vorlt^hire. by bin wifo, Sarah 
Suck, WBfl bora at Mat)cho.'ti-r about 1790, 
tmA «uc»1»h1 at Bradfonl grammar »cliool 
And St. JobnV Collep;, Cambridge, whi^ro 
he was adtnitled a pen»ion«r on SI March 
1810. ITc vrofl thirteenth wrangler in IH14, 
wbeii be wat admitted to a tkrwronl M- 
b>wahip of bla coUpjc" ond ''>*>k h'* H.A. 
de^n^e. lie jircvcewli'd M.A. in 1^17,11.0. 
in IH^L and I).!), in li^tO. In 1819 Ik- wan 
a candidate for tht^ prnfft'wnTship nf Arabic 
at Cnmbridp', and about (ho Bame time was 
appointed examining chaplain ro Cbarlf« 
MannerB-Sutton [q, v.], archbiahop of Can- 
terbury, who tin>»cnt«d him lo the impor- 
tuit TiearaffQ or Blackburn, LanCA«hirL>,in I'o 
bniarj \H'2'2. IIo was itomiuatKd hrjnftranr 
canon uf Manchiuitur in 1852. Durintf bis 
Ticariattjof Itlackbiim th<*pnri«b church wa* 
robuiltand twelve new ohurrht-a in various 
parta of tbf "dd panah were erected. 

His lenminfif was wide, wtd he kept np to 
the end hie rc-adinc in philoloay, geologj-. 
And astmnotny. His inttrrest in the la^i't- 
named subject led litm to iwist lo the format 

TOL. txi. 

tion of the Royal AstroDomioal Sodetj'. 
On<rorhtitnnfiilfillr_-d ]>roject« waaawork an 
tht; uebiiiar bvpotln^is and geological time. 
He died at dlackbum vicara^ on U Aug. 
1654. OntlOJuuu 182-J be marrit<d Uarr 
llaitghton. eldt^t daughter uf Williara PVif- 
ditn lafterwards creatod n haronpl) of Fenia- 
cowle*, bv whom b«- li*ft ninit childmn. 

Hi! WToK!: I. ■ An Hi-storira] and OiticAl 
Tniguiryinto the Interpr«lalJonof the Hebrew 
.Scriptnrps, with Itemnrki* nn Mr. lirllamy'c 
New TmaslBtiun,' Cambridge, 1J>19, aad 
Supplement, 181^0. It wa* this work that 
brought the author undttr ihv notico of rlw 
arc:hbi»hop. and marked him out for pro* 
■notion. It was ruriiwed in llio 'Quarterly 
lleviMw,'xxiii.;;'»l,aaJby Kob^n Nans«[tT.Y.] 
in th« 'OtMilluman'a Mnc^atine,' lt>|{>, ii..'i40. 
if. ' Jimtilinition by Faith: a Courw of Lee- 
tiirfapri'iiclied bproreth.' Universily of Cam- 
bridge,' l!*l'o. ii. ' The Catholic Church : five 
Bcnnonit on th<- C^omnii- mora tion of Ihi* ICi^ 
formation,' 18341. 4. 'A Sarie^ of I^ttera 
to the ICev. Nirholas Wiieman an the Con- 
tont.'t of hi.'i IiiU' I'ublicationfi,' 2 part*, 18314- 
I8y7, I». ■ Moiitet to the Htudy of llihlical 
Literature,' l>59. 6. 'A Troatise on the 
Church of Christ.' if^ii'. 7. ' Letters to Wil- 
liam I'jiclea of Itlackbum on the Volunlary 
System,' if voU. 1844. Hi- alra published 
tnthi! chart iKta at rtlackbuni church in IH.^, 
of which a grwnt jHimbtr were circulated, and 
he coniributf'tl a papi-r on ' .Ancient Etymo- 
logies, especially l^sllic,' to the Itritiah Ar- 
cnaMilogical AsAoeiatiun, 1650, besidca arU- 
cIm (o periodicals. 

(Oenl. Mag. 1854, ii. SOC; Monthly Notices 
oflhaKoyal ABtroMoiiiicat Soc.xv. 119; Buinna 
LaneaHliire, ed. CrosUin, iv. 11; Brit. Museara 
and DttLlin Univ. Library CalaWuca; infoma- 
lion kindiv supplied by Mr. K. P. 9i»tl, bursar 
of Si. John's ColL Cambridge.] C. W. S. 

li?40), • tht: iiinrlL',' priiilcr and founder of 
lh»' Chiawiek Press, bom on 10 Juno 1767 at 
Stoki- Farm, Caludon or Calledon, in War- 
wickfihin?, three mile* from Cuventr>-, wu 
tbe youugeitl i;hild of t'harlea ^^'hiLtingh«m, 
a farmer. He was aiiprenticL>d to lUchard 
Bird, printer, bookwllcr, and Hialioner of 
Corcntry, on "Jfi .March 1770. In 1780 he 
Bet up a press iu a garret in Dean Street, 
Fetter Luik', London, and at first confined 
liimsulf to jobbing work; his plant waannoll, 
and he was his own compositor and preasman, 
olerk and oflice-boy. la 1792 he printed % 
kalf-slieet O'f an edition of VoutigV ' Night 
Thoughts' and Thomas l*aiiie'H ' Letters to 
l>undas.' By the following yam- Eiu Lad two 



Whittingham 14* 


or tltree prvMcs und Imd produced b number 
of small popular rolumi-s. Kin fAmily wa« 
KoDun rntliulic, but lin iittvndcd an Angli- 
can clmrrti. The firm of Willifttu Caalno, 
Lvw-fuundiT!, hud adrancpil SO/, to Touiie 
>\liitt:»^liaiu mi commmiriiii; biuiti^ui, mid 
bv thiA limn his nnnual bill for type, much : 
nf which lit' Hold nt n prviSt, cain<< to >VK)?. 
In 171M, I'M, mid )7i>fl he pmducM b-iokfl 
of irpecimt-Q Ij-pes for Casloa. la 1795 h> 
pnatfH ihi> titlo-puKC and prefdcc to tlu^ , 
•eoond part of I'aiiie'H 'A|(;p of Itoosoa* end 
'The 'lotnrtFiuwk' ("i" IM. l"ft'>), ft liurcrly 
patriotic dailj- \mywt which va» killed bv ■ 
the «tamp<lLitv ill its hundred and thirleL>iith 
niimbrr. \Vhiltin|,'ham is ftu<\ to hikvv bvun i 
tlii'firat l''iiKli»h|trmttTt(»produwa'tiiw'or ' 
' IiidlapBpfr' edition in iha nhapenf an iMiiAof , 
Tate and Brady's ' IVImt.* in 170r. or ITflfl. | 
Thin wiw fitilowi'd bv n ]^iriivRr-b>)ok ffir.Iohn 
Bmtm of Conil Street, Striind. la 1707 he 
lwiiinTBdtnliirK«rpromi'U'*,\o. 1 1 Wn St rent. 
For fli-ptiniitAll, n bonkA4tlh>T of Flopt Rtrm»t 
and subiequently of llnlbnm, ^Vhittint;liDin 
nruilneed editions of no«w«]rfi 'Johmton,' 
itobortaon'a ' AnnTioa ' and ' ObaTle^ V,' and 
Itoffri*'* * I1<>uiiroi of Memorr/ ni« first 
aziiinplu tif a booli lUiuIrotou with wodd- 
cu[« wn-i * l*i[y'« Oifl: a Collection of in- 
tcn'Ntiiiif Ttil'.w,* priat4>d fur TLiomiui Lonf;- 
mnn in 179t*, followinl by two compuiiinn 
vnliimi-91. 'TbH VillniT" Orphan' and 'Thfl 
Itaakvt 51al(or.' TIk' bnainew i[icr«n«?d, nod 
liB cook a ao«otid hotuo in Pi'on Sin^rt and 
beeaiu<> loaaiit of a prival« residence at 

9 Paradiae Itov, lalington. In 171*1) he 
printiul Graj^'a ' rooina ' ' in a more i-loBn.tit 
alatu nf tyjKJcraphr than. theT ever before 
awiimod,' and sold tli» wholv edition tu 
Miller af Old l\rnu\ Sln-«t, and JaiuM 
Aentohonl of Avo Marin l.nni'. This work 
•eema to faavo bronchi th>^ liivinf;tiin», John 
Miirraji and all tlio lending piibliahnrs to 
liini. [Id introduced the plan of printins 
noat and compact (Mliti<ma of xtandnrd 
ftUthora In rlvalrr with the more expeiutire 
Adiliona iwued Dj Ibe bookM^Iliuj; trade. 
Thn booksctlsrs Ihrmtened to withdraw 
thMT iintronftge, but he took a mom at a 
©offi'c- tiouflp nn»! sold ihohriLiks liini^olf by 
anclion. With John Slim^w of llm Stmiid, 
and (tftcrwards of Pircadilly, li.- brou|rht out 
a ^TK3 of the ewayista. in twenty-two iient 
Tolumc*, cttll<^d 'Thf>BritishriaMic-H'(IR(W), 
Cni&rpo'a ' Ilritieh. Theotre' was the nest 
ji>int vantiire, and in li^'ioami- tho ' Britiah 
Poota,' not to bo confounded with tho Chit- 
wick vdition brouRht out aome rears later. 
In IS03 he took aiuitlior workshop at 

10 Union Ituilding:« in L^ratlier Lane, x-ncl 
adopted Che sign of the 'Stanhope Press,' 

alWr the llnl pmaa desMcned by Lord Stan- 
hopt-, which he had purdutaad. In 1807tb« 
whole business was truefiinvd lo QoamlL 
Street. Two yvu% lalwr be )itaxt«d a P'>?^'~ 
pulp manitfactorr at Chiswiek noder tha 
iiii|iHrintend<.*ncu of Thoma;) Potts. Thi\ 
biminpiis jTTcw rapidlr, and Whittinjhain. 
found it neccecary to 0%-e at Ctuswidt. IX* 
IcAMyti in 1810 the High Honte in Chicwiok 
Mall, leaving the London businees in tb* 
oharcc of Robert Rowland, who had beat 
bis loroiiian since 17dS; tbe siyte of the 
firm was Wbittinfhaai Jt Rowliand. The 
High Houco was fitted up a« a uriatin^ 
oflictt and tMcaDW the fiuuoua ChtawicK 
Press, this name beinp fint used oa an tm- 
[irint 'jf Ifill. ni« Np<>cu!atioiia incrMMd; 
tie bought leasehold property, nod waa 
partner witli John Arliss a4 atWtionvrand 
bookarllftrat WatHiie Ktrent. 

Bi>twrf>nl8I0nnd ]816he waaelAborating 
hi* methodii aa n printer of illustrated books, 
was 'the first printer to detelop fiiUr 
the overlaying of wood engraTinpi for book 
ilUistmtion,' and was the first to print 
woodcuts perfectly (Warrbs, Tke Vhnrlet 
H'MtttTiffhavu, pp.' 50-2). His inks were of 
poculiar excellence and brilliutcy. About 
1814 Triphook, the bookseller, and Samuel 
tb« editor of old 
irea». An edition 
eld* (laifi) is A 
i-bsming specimen of this period. In 181(1 
lie begun toW ' iimiticntly successful in small 
editioiui of Cotntnon Pray«r' (TiMPBRunr, 
Etu^c^op-rdia, p. 864 >. n« moved from the 
lligti uou8« in IS18 to more oommodiDiu 
premises, Ceding House, Chi^wick Mall, 
wbiob had been occupied in 10&'> by Or. 
IWby and (bn We«lrainster boy« during^tbp 
plag'UH. From 1^19 to 1831 ne was asao- 
ciatM with William Tlnshas in on enjiTaT- 
ing biuiin<>.Bs at 12 Staining Lane, Ixmdon. 
The well-known Chiswick edition of tli« 
■British Foots' (1S*2-J), in a Imndred small 
Tolume». wa« planned and entirely carri«d 
out by him. In \S'i\ bis nepbuw Cbarlat 
(17nA-18<17), who is fcmiratolv notiONl, b«- 
came a partner iu tbe tliiawick Preaa; tlwy 
diiMialvud partnership four roars afterwards, 
but r<-iiiaim«l on frii-tidlv tnrinji. .Among the 
maHterpiewffl nf Whittinirhain'a later period 
are Northcote's ' Fables' (182fl), ecoood teriea 
(1K33), thrt 'Tower M.^naeeric' (1829>, and 
companion rolumes describing the birds and 
animals at tho Zoological Gardens ( 1830-1). 
Tho engravings vrer>- ofler tbe drawings of 
William Harvey. John Thompson, Jackaoil« 
Branston, Tlinmns Williams, and others, 
workt-'d fur him lu cnifmvera. H« produced 
a great variety of albums, keepauM, and 

i»i4 1 npnaoK, tne doohsbi 
Weller Singer [q. v.l tbi 
atillion, began lo lUie his pr 
of thi) ' Vicar of WakcHe 


147 Whittingham 

lauiUrorJohnPoalenndSuttaby. 'Pudila's 1 
lub* (1&34') is a fine bpwritn'-n of IiU typi*- 
repby. i-Urly in IWlii! Iiis hi'jilth bepu" to 
?Ail, and by Junu tbe nephew took ovor the 
coDirol it ChUwick, where lh« iinolt' diiid 
on A Jan. 1840. Ilu luTl, amoii^ otbor 
kigaotes, one to l;h» I'lJinmuy of Swi'ioncri , 
and ou« to the Printers' l*iMi8ion Society, by 
wbich special pvtiHionii bDoring lits numo 
weri! founds!. 

Ho marriiid Mary MiMirl, wboinvdcceased 
bini. He liad no ^hil<lr<>n. XiU portrnil, 
pttintiM) by Tboaoaa Willioms, nnw nt Hrn- 
ticmt-m' Hall, ii. r«>rrtduC(iil 11* ft frnni.ispii-M 
by Wiirwa (T/te VAarlet U'hitth'i/hcnwi). 

Il« devol'sd biiDwir t.i fim> printinfj with 
ardour and aiic-css, unrl dabbled in many 
coiDmorcial H|»-cultittuiia. AU mt.'chutiiotil 
Dovcltifs atlrarl^d him. He vru oue of 
the Snit in Kufjland to usu a atcam eapsw 
in nakinK tlio pfijH-r-piiIn, and to warm hU 
workalKips irith Mt&m pipus. U« novvrhad 
nn engine for printing, it>* hi; bi-lieved the 
hand preM proaiiccd a bfiiler ri-ault. 

llnfortnatioii rrom Mr. 11. V. St^tMia. Sea 
b1>« Warrun* Til* CJimrle" Whiitinjihiimji, Prin- 
toni{Grfilier Club). New York. 1896. wlioro oil 
tha nvnilabla Ctcts aro rtcoKU^d. vith many por- 
lnitl«. atiiacrapha. wnudcats, bliicks, and other 
illiininttoDB. Sm> also NVf> and Quvriv*. 3rd 
•w. X. 91, Sth »«x. T. SSO, Hth »er. ix. 387, 
4U. 47a; F«ultner'» Hi»t. of Cliinwipk, p. 4fl9 ; 
Ni'hnUi's LiLenr>' Anocdotc*, iii. 469,noa Illiw- 
miioiis, riii. 4«'J, A12 ; Bigmoro and Wyman'a 
DiMi<>t;r. of I'riDtinf;, vol.iti. ; Linton'alVU.iLvra 
of Wood EnffTariu?. 1889, pp. 181-2; Briliil 
BoolcTankcr. ^oplomiwr IS&O.] H. R. T. 

IS'tV), 'the nfiph->«*,' printor, nephew of 
CharlM WhitlinRlmm (17H7-1&40) |>|, v.], 
vftts born at Milchom, Riirrvi'y, on ."«> Oct. 
irW. Hid father, Samuel, brother of tbp 
elder CharW, wa* a nurwryman. Youne 
"Whit t!ni;boni,alwa_vikDowQos' the nephew, 
wa* np]tTt^nlic«'d at the age of lifVe«n to bia 
imrlr, who had paid for In* i-ducalion undvr 
till* Ititv. John KvaiiH of lulingttin. lib waa 
aade a frwman ofthp C'otnpniiy ofSlationera 
1817, and lb" following yt^nr lji« titicl" 
ent him to Paris with lett'-Ta of intrfidiiction 
tho Didots. One rwult of the visit was 
lit) iiroduclion on bis rvlnni of AVbittlnj?- 
luais 'French Clawica' bv tbn Chijiwick 
A BeriM of ' Pocket Novels' was also 
tasiKid iud»r bin enpurvieion. In 1824 liii^ 
ItiuJe took him into pnrtntmbip, and thev 
timed * KnirkerlKJclier's New York' (lft24j, 
^i^src*! Egjin'* ' I.ifu of an Actor' (IftiJfl), 
■Bf'h • .Shakes Ilea re,' in tfin volume-* ( 1 ^^26), 
F nany othvr booka. The partneratiip was 
diasfitrea in 1828, and the younger Wbit- 

tingluuDHlBrted a priutine office at 21 Toole's 
Court, ('})anci*rv tanc. Ilia flnt. work, 'A 
Stinday Book.' bears the dat« of 1820. lie 
wbortlv afterwunU made the acquaintauco of 
Haail Nfontagu, through whom he knrw Wil- 
liiim Pickoriap Tq. t.], (bo bookseller, u li/o- 
liingftiend and lu^ociatc in the productiou of 
many choice volumes. They uow lie aid« 
by Hide at Ki-ntal Grt-cn ctimelery. .\uioDg 
the earliest of bi:i books wero Poole's * Worla^ 
( H^2l*), ' The IJijou, or Annual of liiteratnio 
and thtj. Art)?, 'Walton "a 'AngliTj'tliP 'Canter- 
bury Tales," Haeon'K ' W\irkK,' and Holbein's 
'Dance of Death.' In cnnjunrtion with 
Pifkfring \w Iind mimy wotKlcut initial 
lettera and omnmenla deAign«>cl or adapted. 
Kr did not attempt to rival his uncle oa 
a printer of ilhutratod books, but aimnd nt 
distinction iu Ieiterpn;ii!i and originality in 
woodcut omsments and initials, 111 the vui- 
pl'iynn-nt of flnr ink and huud-madf? paper, 
and in the artistic arrangeoieut of th>.- pagi'a 
and margins. 8onte bookfl illuatrali'd by 
(itorgv and Jiuburl Crulkehank uauie from 
Took a Court between IS.'iO and \BX.V On 
the dvath of hia undo in 1S40 the entire 
buitintrai paitHnd into tlii' liaudK of the younger 
\Vbittiui;b&m, who carried on the works at 
Chisuick ns well as at Tonk's Court until 
IMi^, and the bonks prinliMl at both places 
bear the imprint of Cliiswick I'res''. Li 
1840 \\e commenced block colour printing in 
Shaw'H'ElizabtflhanAiuhitcCturu publldied 
in 1843. Some of the finest niMimena of 
bis work ara to b« found in Sbaw'a piibli- 
ciilionn. i'irkfring innurd frnm \»% tipw 
premises at 177 Piccadilly in 1841 a prayer- 
i»ook, (ini) of (be first of the many fine onia- 
mpnlnl voliimpa prinlod for him by Whit- 
tingham. hfamn^^l Itogera came to the Chis« 
wick PrcM for tha 'ISotes' to bia 'Italy* 

The years ISJ-t and 1844 were of great 
iinporluni!':; in the annals of tlio ChtHwick 
Pn-*tt, uA tlu*y marknd tbtt introduction of 
the old-feflhioned style of book production 
for which Wliittingliam and fiunry t^Ie 
Wire rhiefty rMponsihle. In 1843 Whit- 
tingham persuaded Coslon to revire an old- 
facrd fount of grcM primer cut in 1720, and 
an Ktoa prln; '.luvenal' was prinivd fiir 
Pickering and the ' Diary of Lady Wil- 
loughby' for Longman iu this letter (1&44 ; 
W^- art. lUTHBO^tK, HiJTSAH MaRT; cf. 
Heed, Old Bi^luh Letter Foundries, 18S7, 
p. 2J>'' ; ^i'jl" "111 Qutrifjt, Rfh wr. ix, 4L5, 
472). lie printed Pirkering's fine repro- 
ductions of the first editions of the ' Com- 
mon Prfty<?r' in 18.44, In 1848 ho licwimc a 
liveryman of the Company of Stationers. 
The 'leftM at Took'a Court expiral In l»41], 

I. 2 


and Cor tlirMjreani ftll his pnntinjT WM cutimI 
on At Chiswick. In IS52 fas Mumetl to 
tht pntaif** tt Tnok'a Coun. which havp 
RDUiwd Uw Ohiswick Vrtss down to the 
pte*eat day. Amoof; \he Ul^r fine work* 
than pnot«d ouy bemrntionL'd the rolumra 
of tlM> Fhilobiblon Socielv. Lord VemcMi'a 
'Dute'(]fi&4),«DdUie •hreriarium Abet^ 
ioMmo' (1804). In ISM AMiitUngbajDi 
hat his wife and hU friend Pi.-k^nnir. and 
in 1600 took hi* tiMnft|nrr, John ^'ilhins 
(J. 1S69), inin partwTiJiip, And rMirul from 
Mtire work. Tho bonoeM subaequentljr 
Mated to Mr. G«org« Boll, tho vdHmown 
Loodoo publLsber. The ChUwick Pioi hu 
largely contributed to raUn- th« atondard of 
Enniili prioUoir in tlwf nincifviith ecmtnr^-, 
and it* praductiooH ar>! ai <Ii!>ttuc(it'« m 
ebaracter m those of Ba^kfin-illp. 

Wbiuio|7h«m diitl >.<n '21 April 1^:70. lie 
waa teamed in the history of tlii> art of 
printing, of printing ink, and of the nuou- 
factuni nf pH[»i-n. Ilt^ waa nithvr bruaane 
and severe in manner; flj-Stihiiw' was liis 
relaxation. His portrait, painted by Mrs. 
Fumival, U now at KtAt inni-nt* llnll. 

Ue married, in 18'^, Eleanor liuUej {d. 
ISAi} of NottinghotD, who bore him five 
chiMren— William, Charlotte, Kliubcth 
Bleanor, Jane, and ChnrlM John — all of 
wliom wt-n; for muiy years conm;ctwl with 
the Chiswick Pn^Ks, Ihf dait^itir* applying 
tbttiimlvea to the ]it«rary and artistic de- 
|>artn)«nta. Eltcabetb died in 1867. Char- 
lotte married Mr. B. F. Stevena, who was 
Bpartner in theCliixwick PreftsfTom January 
1872 to Auriuft I«76. Charlotte and Kli«a'- 
bvCh were ^ueated as artists, and from their 
dofligns came the gmatcr part of tbo ext^n- 
aire collection of hofden, monograms, head 
and tail pieces, and ether eml^lliahmesla 
8liU precL-rved and used. Tho engraver of 
moRt of the (Huamental wood-blockit was 
Mary By6flld (rf. 1871). 

[InfonnittioD froiiiMr.6.F.StaT«as. Seanlso 
WarTen'! Thn CharLea WhittinithnRia, Print*r« 
(Orwlier Clob), Now York, 18B6; Bignian aod 
WTioa&'a Uibliognphy of I'rimiai;. vol. lit.; 
Atbonamm. 19 Ane.. 2, Sept. 1H76: BrJtuh 
llooknwikcr, Sppt^mlur 18fl«.J H. B. T. 


FOUI>(I77l'-lK4l). whose Chrialian nainwf 
were contmcU-d by himiu^If and bin friends 
into ' Samford,' liButenimt-genfiml, uldtr son 
and aocond child of William Whitringlinm 
of Briittol, wait bom at. Ilrislol on 29 Jan. 
1772. Samunl Ford was educated at Bristol 
and was intmulijd for tli-H law. llelermined 
to b« a soldier, but unwillinf; to oppMu hia 
AtWs wisliet during' his lifetime, he en- 

teral t«npatmt4lT ih^ mercanTi!- 1i<^>i*t> of 
lii* brolhet^-law, irarellint; - , ain. 

In 1787 be was enrollerl ai ' i the 

mounted Talasteen,a force organised atsauc 
the wealthier dtiEMuonachreatened French. 
iBTaaton. On his fatbo's dentil, on 1^ 8«pt. 
1801 (ued (M)>, at Earl'a Mead, Bri-tol, 
Samfoit^ who was in i^pain, becaime iadc- 
pcndr^tit, and look titt-pa lo enlvr tho anar. 
f^n his return to England he wasgafettpd 
enjiign on 20 Jan. 1803. He bought a lieu- 
K'nanoy on 36 Feb^ and was brought intu 
the let lile guards on 10 March the umo 
vear. He went in the military college at 
lliglt Wycomt>:i. and joined his K^iment ia 
I^oodoa towards the <md of 1801. Intro* 
dncfld byTbomaii Murdoch, an infiatntial 
merchant, to William i'itt, then prime mini- 
ster, as an oBcer wbiMW knowledge of the 
Spnnisb language would be useful, Whii- 
tingliam was aent by Iltt nt the end of I^J 
on a Bwrnt mission to the Pt-'aiOAula. and 
during alnt-nn; iiroinoled. on 14 K«b. l^V, 
to be captain in (he 'JOlh fool. On hia return 
hewmsoompltmvntedby Pitt.nndon IS June 
1600 he wu transferred to the iTomnund or 
a troop in the 13th light dragoons. 

On la Nov. IrOil 'VMiit ting-ham aailed 
from I'urmmouih as deputy-assistant quarter* 
master-general ortbeforcf!, under Bngadier- 
ffunllI«ll^Jbu^ Cratifurdtq. v.l tulfloaedfisc 
Lima; bul •m arriral at the Cape of G 
Hope on lo Marrb 1807 its destination wks 
changed, and on l.t Jiim^ it rr«ched Monti-- 
video, recontlvcaptun^bySirSamu^'l.^iwli- 
muty [q.v.] (General John Whitelocke [<|.v.l 
had arrivod to take command of the con* 
bined forcM, and as AVhittingham's auJl 
oppointment ceased on tho oma^nunation of 
tUD foroeSi \Vhitclockv made biu an ultra 
aidO'.de^aoip to himself. Ue look part in 
the dtssslruus attack on Buenos Ayres and 
tn thn capitulation on 6 July, and wili^l for 
England on 80 July. He gave evidence 
before the general coiirl-martinl, br which 
\\Tiit-plnrkp was tried is I^ondon in February 
and MarchlSOK, Owing to ht^ hariagserTM 
on WhilelocJte's personal slalT, Wnittiiy;- 
hiim's pcsition wais a delicate one; bot ha 
acquitted himself with discretion. 

whittingham was iramcdiately aAer* 
warda appointed deputy-aaaiBtunt quarter* 
mustar-geniml on tliu i^iatV of the amy in 
Sicily- On arrival at Gibraltar, boweTor, be 
actoa tempornrily as asiOFtant military ae«e- 
tary lo Li'-Hti-nantogenursI 8ir H«w^ Dst* 
rymple [q. t.], the governor, and, hMTing of 
nproj"cli.vl campaign of the .Spaniards under 
Don Kavif^r Caataflos against the Frencb, 
obtained leave to join Castaiios as a volun- 
teer, with inslTUCtiona to report iu detail 


laillO M 


Dalrpnpla on tbo pro^ra«t of sITiura. This 
vpaciol duty wax u|>[iit>Mr<l fixiui Lome on 
a July lf^)H, andon the l^th of the same 
miinth U'liittinjtlinni w-ak R|;potiitvd a d«- 

!)iirj-AAsi!<titiit qiianermasler-i^ni^ral to tlie 
QTce under Sir Arthur Wetlesley, but wus 
ordeft><I to rnnttm wjili CMttinoa. Hi* look 
put under La I'uiia on It! July 1806 in Uw 
victoriuuH battk' of Ituvli-u, and for his wr- 
Tice* wa« mulu a colonel uf cavulry in the 
Kpautub army on '20 Juh . 

On hi» recoTBT? from a sDrisro uttaclt of 
rhauinatic ftrv«r, Whittin|fbfuu whh unlit tu 
Senile an a misflian from tJic Ihike nfln- 
bntadu, and in b'>'briinry \SOif jaincd the 
amy oofm of The Dukti nf Albiu^iierque in 
La Msncna, where h» took yut in euvenil 
ca^'alry al&irs with »aeU di-'linction Thiit ho 
waa promoted to bn bricAdier-i^ciicnLl in ihe 
Hpsnisb army, to date trom :i Mnrch lHW. 
He wan pr«-*ent at the buttle oi Mcdclliii on 
5?8 51ar(!ii,wln'n ibt- Snaninli gf'iivral Cin;fltit 
wn* (li>fwiT«d by till' I'rencli geiierul Xictor, 
Oa l]ii» Oicat'vm Whittiiigliiiiu ri><formvd tbu 
routed cavalry and led ihi^m aifniiut Lbn 
iiatimy. He ivpurted constantly inrviughout 
tbe*e campaiiinit tn Lint BritiKb inininli^ in 
Spain, John Huokham FrerEtfi^i. v.l,Oinio thti 
.ClJit« and opt^ratiunit of th<< Stianiali rLmiy. 

A abort Ump previoiw to Wwllesloy's od- 
Tanct^ into Spain Whittinf(ham ioint'd the 
Britisii hfud'^ uurtors on thL- frontier of I'or- 
tuftal, and bucatot.- thv luvdiuin of i:oiiiiuuui' 
fntion with the Hpaaiitli general (jiii--«iia. 
Uu '2'* July at TalavLni he was avxervly 
wiiundt'd when giilbititiv brin^ini; iiti two 
tipanish battalionx to iKp attack, aiiu was 
turnt lont'd in Sir Art bur WpUi-alin' V deapatch 
or:itt July ISW. He went to Seville lo re- 
cover, and livud »ilb the liriti^h minister, 
liord Welli>t*lL-y: f-mployinp himself durinif 
hia convaleAcence in rramlHtiii^f llundoss 
' Cavalry Movement-s' into Spanish. He was 
promoti'd to b« major-gentiral in tho Spanish 
army ou \2 Aug. 

On the a])poiiitinent of Ca^taiios to bt- 

Captain-}j;tfn<?rul uf Aiiduliixia, Whiltingliani 

Iwcanii' im« of his genernlH of diviwon. At 

I»ia-d>vl.vun. -kvbithorlH' w<'nt bySir Aribur 

"Wellfisley 'a direction tn SM'stJi^ncml Vencgns 

Mbout the defence of Cadiz, he wa&giveo the 

aBdofthL' 8pnni»li cavalry, which hu 

elled upon Uritisb linea. 

H\'hittiDeham M-rred in command of n 

force of SpSiiinh cavalry and iufiinlry undt-r 

PL« I'ena at the battle of Harrosa, on riManb 
ISn, and kept in check a Krencb corps ol 
cavalry and nifnntry nbicli attijmptvil to 
turn the Barosaa h*eif;ht^ by the seaiTard 
l^^aide. In June be went lo I'ulma, Majorca, 
^Brrjtli the tide of inspeetor-^neral of divi* 


tioQ, and, in spilo of the oppoeitinn and in- 
lr^ue« of Iktn Un'^irio <. iii-sla, captain- 
gnneral of the naWric Ulands, raised a 
cavalry corps two thuuMod strone, and 
established in Kebruaiy IKl:! a college in 
Talmafor the tmiuiog of officers and cadeta 
at hiA division. 

Oa 21 July lal-J the Majorca division 
embarked for thf eoatern coast of Spain to 
co-operati; with ihvlruupH under Lord Wil- 
liam itt-utiuck from Sicily. In (Vtuber 
VVbittin^liamH corps (increased to seven 
thuuHiuid) wiiH eniployeil on outj^o^t riiity 
with its heJidijuarterii nt Munhaniiel, three 
milvM from Alicante. In Mareh 1^18 Wbit- 
tincham wa^ (ippolnttil initiX'Ctor-gc-noral nf 
botb (he cavalry' aiid iiitautri' troops of his 
division. He wan engaged on tlu- 7lb of the 
mniitli in tlie niltiir of Xe^nna, and oti the 
loth in the lUFair of ConceaCavBa woe 
wounded by a mualiet-ball in tne riffht 
cheek, and was on both occa^ionH muiit 
favourably mentioned by Kir John Murray 
ill dutpatctH'«. On 13 April be took part in 
the victorious! bnlLli! of t?i<-->lii1Iu. and waa 
again mentioned in deepatdtes. When Mur- 
my invo»t«l Tarnigonit on SJtinc Whitting- 
ham'ti divbiioQ orcnpii'd tliu litfit. < >n Suchet'a 
ndvaniw to nlieve the place 'Wbittingbum 
vainly sug^sted to Murniy that a corpn of 
observation should be loft before Tarragona, 
and that Murray abould move to meet 
tiuchet with all his force. Thu eiuge wua 
raised [sou Mtriut, Sin Joiix, ITtW!'- 
laiT]. Murmy was relieved in command 
i)f thi^ army br l.oni William llMnlinckinnd 
\\'luttineham covered the mrri-at, checking 
nnd Topiilsing the French column in pursuit, 
and joining thu main army again atCambril^ 
In July be was ^fiyen thu command of the 
Ciivalry of the socond and third army corps 
in addition i<i hii> o»'n divixiun. 

In March IHU WhittiuftbameacortodKinp 
Ferdinand VI [ in bid progress to Madrid, 
and wo* prr'wnltid with a luoanie anuH'box 
by the king, who on It! June 1H14 promoted 
bim to be livutenunt-genernl in the ^pani*b 
armv. On 4 June Wellington wrote from 
Mnarid to the Duke of York, in anticipation 
of Wbiltiugbam'a return home; 'He ha^ 
bened moit xeulously and gallantly from tho 
commencement of the war in the pcnin^oln, 
aiid I have bad uvcry mo^on tu be satisfied 
with bis conduct in evt^ry niluation iu which 
be ba>> been placed.' AVhitlin^-liam waa pro- 
mutrd til )»• I'lilonrl in llin llritiiih army and 
appuinKd aide-dt?-camp To the prince regont 
from tbw date of W(>[lnigtonV inlter. 

In January nnd Ftiliruary IBliI Wbitting- 
ham gave evidence in Loudon before thn 
general ccurt-martial for the trial of Sir John 







ife w aad afta^iBd npaniar d« ha H 

Spn wiik tk urtiwar flfd oaki is la 

iWfiiiiMwifcrtUflariMh KiiiiMiia 
lIlMlIlij li^lii till TT|iMiifc III I'll I ifcil 
«f M«f iIlMni i»gmam his nak iathi 
fl^MMhtiMT.' nafdvweaaaaa&adhaM 
nAucid by loBiiw, Ukd he via at tUt ttate 
a pogr owa wUk ui mcnMag fa afly . B« 
mmt*d at Dominica on S9 Nami ISSOL Oa 
lu dvpanon to uke up tbt apfaiatBaat, 
dklad A Dd. 1631, of qaaitcniMier-MMtBl 

rcaideot prnffrieton of estates in thv Ulaad 
nra him a aword of bonoar. On his Brriral 
lo KnjitaiiJ br wu made a lui^t oowmaoder 
of the II>nov«ma (tudpliic order, 

Wbittin(;bain RachwfCaLcatta un 2 Not. 
182*2. He »M Inuy in lf«24 witli the pc»- 
uanLions fur ihi expedition to Ava, aaa in 
SVrVKmber of lii«l v«ar wilh (he Banackpur 
motiaj. (>n 27 Juy ISiS be waa proiDoted 
to ba iDajof-ttmuFral, ralainlnif hi* appotat- 
nwni a« qu«it4.Tm«at«T-gftienl until a rotn- 
iMnil becane ravant. He look part ta tli« 
■imn of Bkartpiir, wa> slightly wouDdml on 
18Jbd. I^:.'6,but waipKamt'at tbecapKire 
oa thn It^tb. lie was nada a knight rom- 
»and«n- of the order of the Bath, miliiorjr 
divijiiun,on30D«c., fiirhiJi iiervic««at llhart- 
pur, and rnnolvM th« thanks of tfas House 
t}( Vammnna. In Fi'bnianr ll*27 Iw v.n» ap* 

giintai) to cnmiBand the Cawnnor«> divison. 
n 1 Nov, 1^40 ha waa tran«Tl-rr«l to the 
Miral cninmand, on (n[«hanfr<^ with ^ir Jfl-iper 
Nii-holl, HiH Icnuri- of coimQuncl camv tn 
an ond in Auj^imt 1WJ3, nnJ he then nct*d 
tcn3|>oriu-ily u tnilitarr nvcnMurr ut Iilj» old 
Ootumitndor, i^rd Wiliiiuu Buotinek, the 

Kvuinor-(CL'n'>fnl, with whom ho n.>cunit.'d tu 
Iffland in ]KVf. 
Oaarriral in England in Juljhewiu near 

A WiUiaa Xapier. m 
oonai^rKl thtl 
Smmt iai caai «■ tka tiaaniih troopa in 
kb ^Ommy^ iW War is tba Finiasoh.' 
tal thr ■■>* vaa an^Miid br Sir Rnftns 
DhA^ laOWahw IMaWhiuiDgbani k*s 
wmftmaai la ■!• een^aad of t hi ■ {(net* in 
taa Wiaiwial aad l«««ard I«ian4» of Iks 
V«« ladMa. Bm aaikd for Barbadoa oo 
S Otae, «i& the laol. acbaoged in a tevr 
aaiaka tm (be Mteantivc;, rank nf Ueu- 
b 8nit«Ba»r 1630 bo wu 
tka eo^iaiad of the Slndnu army ; 

on 1 Aog. l&tO, aad 

_ on IB Jan. 1^1 
■witk ailitan- bononm ai Ffirt 
Oaa^ «• A* taBvwmg day, salutea b«U)ff 
fcod « the ftiaeipal wliiary stations ot 
tkmjnmiimtf. AtiyBttohuin»>niorTinu 
|laM ia Aeganiaoa ckoreb, Madras. 

^niltia|AaB ■artiiid at Gibraltar, in 
J^mrw ISM)^ Doaaa Magrfalwin, elder of 
tvia im^ittma ti Tkm nAn de Creus t 
XisMMi. iataadaat of tbe Spaaish nyat 
aiBtes, W wboB Iw had a largie family, oad 
•vmal M Idb Boaa irnv in thv army. 

lA'kiUiafhan pnblithMi m 1^11 '• Primeca 
Put» dt la Tactaea d« la Cabnllerin loftleca 
tndadda.' Bto, aad in ISlii 'A By«t«m of 
Vaaeeatna ia Two Lines: ' also * A SyBtan 
of Cavmlry MaoivuTrea in Lin«>.' London anil 
Madrid, dra. He waa tbe author of wT^ral 
UDiMibliabad papen on military and political 
suWeta, which an is poaseeaion of th^familr, 
A UBt of then is giran in lha*Ucnioir of 
Whiltiagham'a SoTioea'(lB6B), wliit^h bj>i 
aa Cronttipiecea portrait engrainiid by IL Ad- 
lard from an original mmiaturw. 

[Wht OfficA IlsMiHs; D*qMt<'b««; Rojal 
Vimarr Cal. 1830; QanL Hoa. 1811 ; Mamoir 
nf (ho NcTTiMs of Sir SMaatT Ford Whiuing- 
biim, Ac, edttad by Maf<v>f[«D«riU Fcnlinam) 
Whitungham, CD., flro. Londni. 1868. new mIIi. 
Mme T<«r; Routhfy's PealnnilAr War; Wau't 
Bill). Brit.; AUibooea Diet, of Enitlbh Lit.; 
Cnnuon'* Boftimen'sl Beconbof tha ilalHijib- 
land Light InfMiry.] R. H. V. 

]571)|. dean of Iturham, bom at OliiMtcr 
about 1521, tvt« sun urWilUum Whitliuff- 
liftRi, In- hiH wife, a daufflitfT of Haugbtnn 
of naii^blon ( Ha;;lil on 'l Tower, I^ncasbirv, 
n county fmrn wliii-Ii th« Whittintibam* tin- 
^nally rame (I'Uitation of t'heJiAtrf, Ilarh 
Soc. p'. 24i*>. In 1->10, mt the ipe of six- 
teen, be ontt-rcd Brftii>no*e Colly's)-, Oxford, 
iifl a commoner. Kradiiaiiiig B.A. and beinif 
ducted fellow of All Souls' in 1546. In IMi 
till bceamu soiiior student of Christ Churdt, 
commencing M.A. on 5 Feb. 1547-9, and on 
17 May IfifiO he was granted IcaTS to trsnl 






tfaie yww. fl« wwit to Frwicf, where 
Ke spent bU lime chinQy it tlii^ iiTiivifi.titv ol' 
OrlinnB, but he gJ»o fUttedLyone aud ft u-lwi 
: Pwiii. wben^ his ftt'tvicea m intcrprttttr 
ore oflen niquiFed b^ ibe Kiigli«Li nm- 
^or. Sir John Mojod [h, t,] or SirWil- 
ikoring [a. v.] Towards thu (-nii 
of looS be visiied tbe uuireniittisa in der- 
maiiy^ndQeiiL'TH, and, prabublyst tbo cln«< 
of bin tbrae y««r*' liave, rplurnwd t'.i l''iiif- 
tand in May lAfiS. Whittinghnin bad adnptod 
tmiiH prot-sUint rtows, aad tlii> uccvssion 
Qiii^en Mnry niinrd hi* proapiict* for thtt 
tiiD«. Late in August, bowevvr, he io*de 
t&ureeuion, which wrtA iiltimulcly siicc<;>»- 
ftil, for the raleaet! of Pt-tfi' Miiriyr [*(r« 
VCRUIGLI. PlGTRO MkRTlItE' ; but ttfli^r a 
f«w vrKi>k* be hiii»i.-lf f»CApud wi(b difficulty 
by way of Dover lo Prune**. 

In tba 8pnaf( of IbiA the project wra 
«tarl«d of making Fruikrort thuecclouuli* 
cal ccnlre fat the Kni^liah i-.xilt^ on the con- 
tinrnt, uudWbillingliain waff one of xhs 6rsi 
who n-nc)i*>d t.hi- cily on '27 Juiiii li'xVJ, 
and 8t oncu sent out i'nTilnlioni' tn ex)!^.<i in 
olbflr otiiw let join tbeni [swWhubhbsd, 
UivtuJ. I>if1ic!iiliieA.4'ion nmm betweun those 
wbowiKhed to UK Kd ward Vt'BHcond prayer- 
book wiihout mftt^rial mrKiificntion ana those 
led by Wbitlingbam nnd Kiinx, who con- 
aid^rM C-alvinism the piiwst form of Cbrw- 
tiuuity, and iu^t^tvd on revii^iag tbu prayor- 
book in that din^:lioti. WbiltingbKici wa» 
COS itf tbuet! sppoinled to draw up a wnine- 
book, nnd in- prficiirpil a lcM»r froiii CVIvin, 
dated 18 Jan. liWf-'i.wliirh won oversionii' 
«f the wavering ndlierentti of tba prayer-book i 
tln' cotDpromJMi iulrrpl*;d wii» rudflj dit^ 
bed by tb« urrival of Ittebsrd Vox [<|. v.', 
OVHUiuiicoinpromi&iiig champion of the 
yoAyotA. In tbo Du»iiin^ Blruggk' U^ 
t<n Knox and Ci^x Whitiiiigham was 
v»i'« chit'f KupjMjrltT, but hi' fuilud lo ]HT- 
nt Knox'n expuUion (Vom Fmiilifjrl on 
I March, and is thpreiinon mid lo have 
vrn in hi* inib""iini to tli(? ffjrm of diiircli 
vpnunent ta^lablinbod nt Frankfort undtr 
ix'» inHusncv. Tie wiih, however, pro- 
indly didMtisftcd with it. and about 
Sept. in the same year he followud Knox 
to QentTa (Original Ij«lter*, I'arkur t>ic. p. 
760>, He v;*i» bimNelf probably the author 
of the detailed account of tb^ »trugiflr>, >•■»• 
tilled 'A IiriL<fl' l>i(>cour« olT the TroubW 
be|(Onne at FranrkfunI in (K'rnianv. anno 
Domini 1554. Abnwia t\w Bonke niT Cnm- 
mon E*riiyiT nnd CVri^nrnn ii.-*, inid cootiDUi'd 
the Fngli.tbe mftn th<*yi» (rtih>nd« off t^, 
anV« Itiiignr,' (•"•'i, 4lo. It bears nopWe 
'printer's name, but wat printt>d probably 
at Geneva, and in the eame type u Cart- 

wright's tract«: onv copy of the original 
edition U datr^ HUi.xxiv. It waa ri>printi.-d 
ot l^ndon in 1(DJ, -Ito, in vol, ii. of ' The 
I'hrnix; 17U8, 8vo; Oj^in iu ]84ti. J^vo (ed. 
M'Crieti and in vol. it. of ' Knox'a Works' 
(ttuiinatvnp ClubK It i* the only full ac- 
cuunt of lbt> Mrugglc axtonl, but it« valuo 
is impairvd by ita polfmical object (iiei> alao 
M'CbiB. prefC to reprint of 1^40; MuT- 
i..\XD, Jl*»ai/ii 01* thr JiffiirmaCt'"*, liM'J, pp. 
IIM, lOa, 196; EnslUh Hut. lO-c. x. 4;»- 

Meanwhilf nn Itt Dee. Ififii^, and again in 
Pwrmber 155<J,A\TuttinHham was elected a 
'wninr'nr idiii-r of Uw church at ficneva; 
on ift Dee. IMH be was appointed dnicon, 
Diid in looK bo ttuccei-diKl Kuox 8s minister. 
Uu had bilbvrlo receivi-d no urdination of 
any l<ind,(ind dwlurwd tliat bewa.-" litt«?rfor 
civil employment than for the ministry, but 
Ilia rvlnclaiicu was ovvreuiiiH by CaUiu'o 
insistence. On .Man's death mi»t of ibn 
t'SlU'H at Geneva rviunied to Kngbiiid, but 
Wbittiiighiini n^mniniid to oocapUilv tbe 
tnineioiiiin of the '(Jent-va' or 'Bre-chea' 
bihli', lu it is <i(t(sn CallwJ, 'breeches' being 
the rendfriiignf rhit word iiRually Imnslatea 
'aprons' in Genesis iii. 7. He had already 
produced a vurwon of tho New Testament, 
wbieh wa» iesuMl at Uvneva iu l^o by 
Conrad Radius on 10 June 1637, but. lliw 
dillfra from tliit version included in tba 
' Ureechea' bible, for whicli, an wril iii> for 
the prefatory address lo the reader, Whit- 
tingham is gvnernily bi>ld to be raainlr nt- 
.-ponaible. He took jiarT. in the reviHton 
of the Old Te6tnuieDl, and the fact tbnt he 
n>inntued bi-bind to BUpcrvJM the completion 
of ibe work when rooiit of thv iraiiAlators 
returned to Ens'lund probably justiltes hia 
claim to (lii< mo»l impurtaut part of the 
work. Thii ver*ion of the Bibln i« in many 
respi:ctff nulablB; the old bliick-letter type 
»aN iil>amlum<<l for Ttiilinii cbnractprK, Ibe 
cttapterB were for the first time divided into 
vrrw*, and it was printed in quarto instead 
of in folio. It was in n way a ninnifesto of 
the Calvinifits; (he apocrypha was for the 
first time omitted, as were tho names and 
days of »aiiitt> froui ihe tfalomlur preliiiod, 
and the mtioal and explanatory noiea were 
of a pronounced CalrinislicchDracter. It was 
printed at (Jhiihvh by Howbiad Hail in IfifiO, 
and at onno became tho moHt popular version 
of Lilt- Itibic ill ['iiiglntid. Some uttly f^dilions 
were publiflhed before the apTwaranci* of the 
autborise^l version in I'll I, four times the 
nninlior of tlio (^dition.t of the biiilvopi^' biblo 
produced in ISti^H to counteract the puritan 
tendencies of thu (ienrvsn version. Fven 
after lOU its voguu wu oot oxhatutod, ten 


15a Whittingham 

' «ditiaii« appfsrinff b(>tw«>n tbat data and 

[IfMO. It vnu tliQ bible on wbicb it>o«t 

f^^tliAhi^'-'B '!> Kliubfthnn Kn^^lnnd -nvn 

brought up, Bsdeven after tlu.* appeanuioe 

of the aulhon»«H Tmiou contitiUL-d to be the 

fiiTouriie biblu in pamau houMlioIde. 

[le*iilcfl tbe truiiiUtion of tba Bible, Wbil- 
tiogtiAm whilL- at {■(.■■nuva turned into mutrv 
viu-ioim of (lie I'jttilmii. S^veii of llumn wvre 
inrluded among ttis fifty-one paalma pub- 
li»Uvd >it (Inmtvit in ITiM u pnit ni th« 
leagUM bad bwn npp»mtvd to dnw up at 
Fmnlffort ; the oihwj were revisiHl vfrwons 
ot Stemtiotd'a psalms. A meirical render^ 
ing of thfi T«n ComiuandiiicntM br Whit- 
tingliam u a|>p«nded. Anotber eJjlioii in 
]fiG8,nowlMt,iB believed to have containMl 
iim<< fnwh psaltna by Whiuinftham ; llieM 
wtrv- reprinwd lii the cditiuu of 1661, to 
vrhicli NVhinitiKhftin alfta contribute a reT" 
fiion of tbt} ' ^^o^f( vt i^imcon ' and two of tbe 
I,nni'« I'rnver(fi)r other editions we JlTLtAIt, 
I>j>;. of Jipmtu'lo^y, ])p. &57-61>. BeMdi>e 
tbe»o Whitlitigltnin trnnilBlml fiuir pi>Kliii!> 
in tho SnotlUh p^itT, wlitcli do not appuar 
in any English edition. ' His inflti«iic« on 
the praltor wut, in iJitt flmt plnce, that of 
BcboJarly revision of tbe work of Sternbold, 
and of llopkins'a wTOn early piwlmii from 
kla knowledgtt of Hobr«w; and, in tbv 
iPnTond, iotilAlion of French melrea ' (»S. p. 
BBl). WbitiinK'liam nlso wrote n preface 
to IliillfvV ' Brii'f DeiTlarntinn of tlwi ijiird'ii 
Supper' (Geneva? 1550, Hvot, revised for 
preoa KnosV work ou prede»tin»lion, which 
yew ptibli-'hed at (ifneva in 1B(S0 (K^ox. 
Wvrk*, Haiinntvnp (.'liih, v. l.'>* iiqOi a"d 
contributed a <io(Hcatory cpinllt' to Good- 
man't *Ilow Siiperi'ir I'owerB oughl to be 
obeved ' (tieneva, IftaS. Hvo), in which vifWs 
Hitailar tu Knox'i^ wen- aduplt'd with r^fard 
to (lip * mjfiment of woini-n. 

UliiLtintrbam tonk formal leave of the 
council ilC Uiiinjva on -"JO ,\Inv IftW (extract 
intm eounril-honk in Oriffinat /./•rtfr*,l'arkfr 
Soc. p. "65 V.) Soon nftT bis return to 
Kn^Iflnd ho wa* in January 13fiO-l af^ 
pointed to Hlt«nd on Fntiicio UuMcll, sncoiid 
•Mrl of Bedford, during his embaasy to the 
French ooun. In tbr following year hn bu- 
(■7iitjn clmpUin to Aiiibrusf l>inll>-y, t^rl nf 
"Warwick [tj. v.', and ono of the ministers 
at Iluvrt* or Nfwlinvr-n, whicli w«» llw-n oe- 
riiniM hy the Eiifjlish under Warwirk. His 
relij{ioii» teal, find other wrvices of a more 
wnrtik'' cliaricti-r at the nii'pcof iiavro, won 
him peneral praJae (oee t'nt. tflate fapert. 
For. I'jtH-It, pusflim) ; but Cecil was obliged 
10 couipkin of bi« ncgli^i of coufurmity to 
tbe English pray«r-book {Otmiten JUitcel- 

ilffiijr, Ti. 14-1 Ji). Neilber biaporilanisDibow- 
evvt, nor the dialikv Kltiabetb l«lt toward* 

him for his aliarv in OAodniana book pre- 
venttid bin buine collated ou Iti July 1903 to 
the dc«n«7 of l>iirliam, a promotion which 
he ow«d to tbe itrenuoua <iupport of War- 
wick and Leicester. On his way to Durham 
Ik' preached beforo ch« qiiMa ai Windsor on 
■2 S<-pl. IGUa 

UoUke Duny dean^ of Elinhelh'a retgn. 
whvn deanvTifx, beinjj m'n^ mra animantin, 
were regarded aa aeui-aecular |imfiBrmenta, 
W'bittinRfaam took his rdigtoos datiM 
•ohoiD'ly, hnldiiijT two norricM a dav. d«Tat- 
iagmucb time to bis eratomar uLool and 
•ong school {LaHMl. JttK 7, art. IS), and 
being ' %'ery carcfuU to provide tbe beet 
aosga and anttM<aLs that could be got out of 
the t|ut.-<_-u'i> cbAjipell. to rumii>h thv qaire 
with all, bin)»i'lk- bvuis skillfull in musick' 
B^-fo^■ tbe outbreak of the northern rcbcl- 
liua in l-VJ!) ho ^tiinly ur^-d t'ilktngtou, lbs 
hiKbop (if Durham, to put the city in a st«t4 
of defence, but he was mora eucceasful at 
N'-wciulIe, nliicli n-airttKl lli« rcbcU. In 
\'}7'J, when Uurghley bevam^ lord tmsonrt 
Wbitliii|{bam was aaggwt*^, probably by 
L«iciei>i4-r, n« bis auroonor in tbe office of 
•ecT«(ary. In 1677 ]>>ic«ster also promiaed 
Whittingham his aid in sccnring the sm of 
York or IKirbnm, boib of which wen 
vacant ; but the di«u refused to prosecute 
bifi suit. 

Meanwhile Wbitttn)fliaro'R iconoclastic 
procemlingit in the cathedral, a liat of wfaicb 
IS given by Wood, had 'ifT'-nded the hijrf»i-r 
chiiTfli party. .Ascarlya^ liW hp hadwrii- 
Ivn a long letter to Ijeieester (printed in 
Stbti'b's Parfctr, iii. 76-84) protesting 
againftl till) 'old popish apparel,' and ^ro- 
ci-edingti bad in lotiS been taken against 
him for rorusing to wear thv surplicvand 
cop" iVamdm MitrwUmitf, vi. 22); WTiit- 
t Ingham event ually gave war, allc^^ing 
Calvin's advice not to Iwivo the ministry 
• for thcaf cTlitmall matters of order.' In 
1577, however, he incurred the enmity of 
Erlwin -Sandys \q. v.'', tbts n^w srchbiBbap 
ul' York, by resisting liis claim to viut Ilut^ 
ham Cathodntl [16. pp. ^i-7 ; InjunctioM 
and Eecl Pnr. <iflfuk'/p Bnmet, p. &5, Sur- 
lees Soc.) According to Hutchinson (Di4r- 
kan, iL 143-53) and Stirpc {AnnaU, u. li. 
ittr) a com in in* ion, whicu do«« not appear 
on the patent or close rolla, hod been wnvA 
in lo76 or 1577 to examine mattpnt uf cnm- 
plaint against him, bul had proved ineffei^ 
tual because the Karl of Huntingdon and 
Matthew [Iutron(152e-lfi0<t) [(i/v.) aid.^d 
wit h tbu d<MU agoinrt tbelbird comBiiastoner, 
Sandya. A fresh commisaioo waa tsaoed on 


14 May 1678, includinfr thn thtve fonner j 
oomtDiwioners nnd nbotit n dox«u otlicrs. 
Ttlf nrt tcWafminiit ^V hitl inghftm Art' pritiKfcl 
from lUv tJomc^tic etatt? papers in tbe ' Cam- 
den MiKullanj' ' (vi.4(i-l^| ; the cliMgetlial 
*be is defam&d of adultrTio' is vtitered as 

* portly proved ' nnd llinT, of drunk^nnew «s 
'pruvud;' but t\n»v iisBuriiuuaurotoora^iuo 
to df!ii«rvi< acceptance, and tliK ren\ gravamen 
aninsS WhittinphaBi. npart from his Icono- 
cuuuiii wo* tli)^ unnlidilyor hU artSmntiQii. 
He had odmittiMily nnt txM^n onlained nc- 
•ordiDR to tho riU-s of the cbvircli of Eag- 
land, hilt pArliamf'nt li«d ntn-ndy pH.tftr'd nn 
act (]3Eliz. c. 12)practicsUyackDawled^iiig 
Che vttlidity of tho ordination of miniotcrfl ' 
whether acoordtug to Kon&n valliolic or the 

I of tbo refoniiiMl chiirclien on the con- 

leui. Sandys mninluinud thut Whitlinf;- 

, bfld not bi*un vulidl? urduiiii^l evuu nc- 

tolhetiL-in^vflii nte, but only elected 

cbvr vritbuut tbu imposition uf liandi^. 

tluiitingdon, hciwi-vi-r, wnil« lliiit ' it. could 

not but he iU-tokcn of all tbo godly leamtd 

botli at honw and Id all tVi irffirrtK^ r Imrclw* 

ftbrmd. that vre should aHnvr of \ho pniiiiOi 

massing priest* in our miuistrv, nnd disallow 

of tlio inini*UTfi made in a rulorrrn^d cliiirch ' 

(fih'RypE, Annai^, ii. ii. 17-1). lie suggested 

I thestay of Tbo proctodinRg, and this,)i?sidM 


^^WU4:lf to Kliznbi-thV Iiabit nf ttmipi^iriniDg. 

^■\S'biLtinghiim'& death nn 10 ,Iunu lu"l) ren- 

^B^dered fiirthi:>r{irii('''i'(liR)^H \uinfvi.'*itivry , Hi- 

waA biirii'd in Durlinm (-aihi'dral, whom big 

tomb na« deatroy?*! by thn Scots in ittlO. 

I]i»will, dfttod 18 April lyTy, is printed in 

* Durham Will* and Inventories (Surtees 
Soc. ii. U-lti). 

In the im>cnpti<.)» placod mi \Vhittin[(- 
bani'fi tomb he is said to have been de«cribi>d 
aa 'in&ritii* CQlb'^hntu eororit' Julianuis 
Calvini thcobiiri ' ( Hirrcwixsow, Durham, ii. 
151 1, and thiB stAit^ment hasbt't-n commonly 
mpiwlvd, Calvin is, liowrriT, not kni)wti to 
hare had a siatpr named Oatherinc (r.f. 
UALIffU, Soiw* G^fiilogiffurf, iii. 100 
•qq.). no bIIumom to tin- ituppiAed r'Ontion- 
uip bas been found in the M'orks of either 
Ouvin or WhittinKbam. and chronology 
make* ihii «ii[>po»IcioB aloioti; impossible. 
Similar objections upfily to the slalement 
that ^Sliiitin^liatti's wile way sittiT of C<al> 

^ivin'* wif.i; thtt latter wua Idolctle di- Itures, 

widow of a i^tmsburj; anabapliiit whom 

[Tnlrin marripd in IMO; wh-Ti-an Wbilting- 

Bam's wife Oatliprin*?, daughter of Loaia 

I^Jaqueman 'and beire to hvT mother bvincx- 
ihi- heiro of (M(nler>)n [or rroiilf-ronl in (tr- 
\mxxe^ {Geneahffi»t, i, :K)9), was probably 
bom not before )&3d and married to \VhLt- 

tinRham on IB Nov. 1556. Her eldert son, 
Zachnry, wna baptised on 17Aii;f. lor>7,&n(l 
her vluiwt douRiiter, Susanna, on 11 Dec. 
IJJ.58; horh died younj(. And Whittinnirhiim 
wa* nurvivL'd by two fiotm, Sir Timothy 
(rf. FoSTBB, AUimni Oxon. l.'J00-I7W) nnd 
Daniel, and fuur daufjHilenf. In 15@3 ahn 
wa« defendant in a cunouH action fyr >>Iundr>r 
(l}fpo»xtion» from, the Courta of Durhttm, 
Surtoes Hoc. pp. 3I4-I(>),and Iwr will, diilwd 
9 Due. iJiOO, iH print.^d in ' Imrhnm WiiU' 
{ii. 18-19). 

\X\if: Iraniieripl in Anthony k Wood's baud of 
a Itfu of WhittinKiiani, writt«n iibout 1603 by a 
pvnoual friend, ''orm^rlr Aehmulrnn TAS. 8A0O 
R. 4 nrL b, \» now id the Itwilrinn VtaoA MS. 
H.fl4 ; it i> tlio kMii of Wuod'ii arcwiint in lli<< 
Atb«DW 0x011. i. 446 »<|q., nod hu* be«n prinl«d 
in full, with inniir illiistnitiTP diveim>nntH, hy 
Ml*. Kcurm Gn>i-u ill rol. ri. ^)f tb* Camden 
Society's MiiK^lUny, IKTI, and nlm>nN an ftp- 
jicndix to Pclcr Lcirimrr's 'John Knox,' 187&- 
S>?e Bi«n, btMiiileH aulborilin* ciloit iu \n\ , 
Harl. MS. Ift-W t 2a7ft, \asm\. MSS. 981 f. 
Hj, Addit. MSS. 2H*A f. to. lUwHiwon MH. 
xii. I'. 207 ; tluru's Livie dw Angluis a GoiieTu, 
Jfl31 ; Vi«it. Cliwbire, p. 248 (llart. .Sou.); 
BiiiDM's Ltucaahire, iv. 4U0 ; Surlecs's Dur- 
hnm. ii. 28(1 ; Reg. Vntv. Oion. i, 211; Foster's 
Alumni Oxfin. IS«0-i;i4; Le Nero's Fasti, iii. 
299 : Cnl. (State I'oppts, Horn. 1647-80. Foreign 
l.'.SO-C pctssim; Cnl. Haiflfld MSS. Ii'. 217; 
Brioff Diacour» of Trooblw, 167*: Knox's 
Wi)rka(llKiinatyiicClnb) passim; G ouch's Index 
ii) frtrker Soo. I'ltbl,; Sirypo'a Works petsim 
IsoeQenorril Indax); Brook's PijrilanH. i, 229: 
KdaVh Puritans, pi. IKH, i. IU-I7; Collou's 
Kdiiionsof thoHiblt., 18.Vi.pp. 30. 128; Ander- 
svd's Annals of [he Uibia; Dur^'s Old Bibira, 
1888; Hollnnd'M I'ealRiist^ of Britain, i 110; 
Maitland'n iitvtiyn nti thR Rofonnatinii ; Dycr'a 
Lifc^of Ciilviii, IBdO; Dixon's UiHt. uf Churdi 
of England, veil ir ; iJnlton's Liwcinns, 1869. 
p, 341; Ninetofrnlh Onnliiry, April ISSii; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd, lib, and 4lh scr. pursim.l 

A. V. ^. 

WHiTTTNaTON, TiirirARr){rf. im), 

mayor of London, was son of Sir William 
Whiitin^on nnd lii^wift- Joan {.Hontmiiixm, 
vi, 710). Sir liobert Alkym:, thehistorionof 
1 oncost L-rsb ire, in 171^afGiintvd ^^'bitt■n^ 
loii to tbv family which acquired the uunore 
ofl'atmtley,u»<arNtin'ent, in that county, and 
Solh're Hopo in HtTtfordshire, by murrinfe 
with IliM hcirewt of Jidm de SoDi-ts lowarw 
tbp close- of the ihirteonth renturv. Sannel 
l-Y«onB (I8061i*77t hj. v.], in >iia 'Model 
^lerchantof the Middle A(K«' (1»^«0). g«Te 
stroHK reasons for identifyioK his father with 
Sir William Wbiltington of INinntlcy, who 
married (after ISH^) Joan, daughter of Wil- 
liam Moaaell, sheriff of Qloucesterahire in 




UU, maA widow «r 

fiott Miortm,ii. 1 '!:£). 

I at the Puntl^ fully with • muk U 

hwuim e w vmi • di Sc ww of tiacton ud 

Icfwt (Ltmoe^pp^ *iJ^^ ""^ ^* ^ ^"^ 

flOB of noBc^ Id flufip Miniri], Joaa'a 

bntbat, ia 138B (Baun, ^ i;6». A hule 

'dHBenltf ■» tnrolnnl io tW bet ihrtthoagli 

^hBaa oolr have been lb* thirl son of & 

r'WiBiuB ud Jou Uue^ and Iwidly ham 

I'fcdbra 1S50, ^lutlingbM <ra alnMl; k «A> 

' slaitiiil London olwn m ISTfl (d Ltboxi^ 

If. 9S,IMd«iw]L Sir WiOun Wbiui^ttoo 

I an oatuw in 1AS8, uid ii h«i bMn n^ 

cwtod that his odenee wu aur]riii|t without 

Hcenae TVrfceltyB widow, who aunriT«d bin 

nnd died in 1.S73 (OW. /ay. iw*i aaortaR, ii. 

:JI7, 32.1, uL 4^). Tbw elded acm, WU- 

lian, died withoot i»Be in 1XI6-I> {ib. iii. 

S3&), Uaving the e>tat«a to lu> twxt brotbM, 

'Kobert, whose dosoradaots Hill hold land in 


Noihinf^ ti known of WKittin^'^n'A aettle- 
maat and early life m London. Tlie legvod 
convfTt* thiT DoiTKeUbin! knt^hl, tiia£tther> 
in-law, into a London men;!bant and his 
maater, wbich Sir Walter Bfwint acotpta 
oa biMorioal bet. Bat hi> fimt antboitie 
■ppaa r anea belongs to 1379, when he contii* 
Ml«d fiT« DUjl:a to a city loan (Rilht, 
p. 034). By tiada a mcrcvr, w« fijid him 
•umlyuiK the hotwebold of the Karl of 
Den>T. aiirrwards Henry XV, with velrota 
and damaitk* | Wtlis, iv. UiO, 162-3). In 
1363, and B^in in 1397, bo eat in the com- 
nioa coancit aa a Tvpnv<entatiT« of Oolaman 
fHrMi ward (Riun, p. &35). Two years 
later be became Eurety to the chamberlain 
for I Of. towards Ibc di-fence of tli« city. 
In March 1993 he was chooen alderman 
for Broad Stre«t ward, and Marred as sheriff 
in 1393-4 (ib. p. &S5; Fabta^. p. M8; 
W'lLiB, iii. (to). When Adam lUmme, the ] 
mayor of ISOT, died daring his terra of 
offion, tbu king a]>po:nted<B June) Whitting- 
ton to fill his p1a<ro until the next election i 
(FirtUra, vij. tCA; Faiitaw, p. W3). A | 
month Iftlcr Riphard's lonc-dpfi^nvd von- 
fMinc'i* (I'.vcended iipun the lords appellant, 
ami Wliittinffton had to awwobli- llic city 
militia to act^ompany the Idtlf to l'k>3hy \o 
arrt-M. thu DuVv of 01one«ater {Axmalt*, p. 
1}03). It. would be n«b perhaps lo infer 
that lio was a iborough^oinir royal parti»an, 
In yitfw of bix lu>t inttmrtinns lo tne mem- 
ber* of hi« college, diriM-liiig thirmtopntyfor 
itw AOuls both of Kin^ Richard and thf> Duka 
of OtoucMt^T, ' hiK Kiw^cinl lords and pro- 
moters '(.VomtJiftMn, vi. 7'10). In October 

ha WW eiaeled ■■/<■ (or the enaning ycv, 
tkM holding oAoa ooBtinnooaly tat a ysar 
wmd Cra ■oatha nt a tiai» of great exette- 

ia th* dtT, procobed br th« Icioe's 

in^ ^ AiS). ffia 

the hmniliatinK auWission ex- 

ftoB the crttcrn* (Okeoovt. p. 100). 
ffichaid, wbca depoaed, owed Whittinrton 
a Ihn— ad aarha, which he was fortunate 
wmmA IO ns refaid (Wtlie, i. A4). His 
vaafeh mada bim Tery useful to Heury IV 
b Ins rhrooic pecBsiaty difficulties. The 
■■aal'^ of lb" vnry council rwcorci hi* pn»* 
mn with William Bramptnn, another ritj- 
■aa, at > tarrtineon 15 June IIOU. and there 
wu some idea of summoning him to a ffT«al 
covDcil in the foUowinfr yaar (Ord, I^hry 
CotmnJ. i. V2-2, IttSV He furnished cloth ot 
gntd and other meroriy for the bridal outfits 
of llenrr's danf:htet« married abroad in 
1401 snd'l4U6,and frrqnently adrancod to 
the crown lar^ sunw of money on loan, on 
oae ocraaion no ll^ss than tf ,400/. t Lnoxn. p. 
87 : WruB, ii. 4li. 44». tii. 6C ; Ord. ptity 
Oaimtil, it. 107, \\i}. As mayor of tbi>8iapl6 
at London and Calais and a coUm:tor of tha 
■"t*^*"^ and subsidy in both jwirt*. lie 
good aeenritr for the reparmeni of bis ' 

iWruB. iii'. ft.'.; DbtojtJ Jtum-j-. p, 322). 
leniy V also borrowed from \\'hittitigton 
and gave him vsriont proofs of his conS- 
dence, entrusting the expenditure of tbt> 
funds tvi andr for the nstontion of the 
nave of Wealmiturt«r Abber to bim with a 
absle eolleafue, and forbtddinft tbe mayor 
of I41fi to pull down NnT huifdingK in tbe 
city without con«altin^ ^Mlittington 
three others {Finlem, ix. 79; Ord. I 
Covneitf u. \<Vt). Rut hid knighthood if- 
lefT^ndar^ as his bumtoj; the royal bonds. 

\S'hittinf^on was msror for th» sMond 
time (third if hiit nhort tenurvof the olBoeio 
1397 be counted) in 1406-7 (Rl let, p. B65), 
and for the last time in 1419-IX)(i£. p. G76). 
LycoDs asmrta (p. AO) that hi? TVprBxentM 
London in one of the parlinmcnts of 1416, 
but n" n>turiis«evm tr> I'xiot (Auf of Mmi' 
berMf i. 267-8). In hia but yt>ani he waa 
trery active in prosecuting the fotutallen 
of moat and aollttrs of dear ale (CbMoa. MS, 
tialba D 5>. 

On ■'> Sept, 1431 Wbittington made lus 
will (Ltwxs, p. W). He atu-nd«d th« dty 
elections in tbe autumn of I-U3, but diiul, il 
would S(K!m, in tlm L^arly days of the follow- 
ing March (|A. p. 71). Mik will wen proved 
on thtt 8th of that month {ib. p. M)). In 
nccordanct- with it« directions be was buried 
on The north nidi' of the high altar in tho 
church of St. Michael de Patenioster-chiirdi 
in Riola, for whoso eoUegiatioa he pro* 





■ ktt. 


; an epitaph in sontewliut obscure Latin 
deiicrihin^ him as 'llo» intrcAtornm ' 
* re^a Kpi-ii ot pret,' is [irusurvi-J )>y Scow 
(tiL 6). Hia tomb » mitl (rfr.) Ui h&\<a bocii 
rifled for iTvatmre in the reign of Edwiinl VI 
hr the panoit of th« cbiircli, who nb^tracted 
the leoj ID which thn boov vaa lapped. 
It WHS rpplnced undirr Mary, but th* tomb 
perinhpd urit.h thp church in the great fire 
of 1666. Whittington'a execulors wotu in- 
itrucf-«l b; hU wHl 1o «e]\ thci hoTiiH> he- 
lived ID close by the church with other pro- 
perty in the city, and exiicnd I Lc procw-ds uti 
a»Mes for 1 liu »ouIa of fainittf^'lf, bi« wifn, bii« 
&lherand mother, am! «U other* to whom 
llo was bound. Thr old bouse in Il&rt 
Htnwt. iiirMitrk l.nmi', wUirJi iiitt^ to hetni- 
ditioniilly known 4b Whictin^oa Palace, 
Kould M't-ni ibt^refore to buvu ou cUita lo 
that diMiiK^liiin. Then- nn tuni-tttl t-n- 
vraviags of this liau»<<, which was pulled 
dn«\-n <'<Lrly in thi- pr^n'-nl o-itfury {Grnt. 
Mof}. 17iH!, rxvi. ii. filft; I.thohp, p. 7fl). 

Whittington married (^f(lna*tKv», vi. /48) 
Alice, daiijfhU'r of Sir Tto Fitiwiiryn, a 
Iciiifcht orcoDsidorable Inndud property in the 
sriut^-wc«t«m counties, who on seTeral ocea- 
•ion» r>>j>rv»«uti.-d Donwt and Devon in parlin- 
ntent, by hui wife Matilda or Maud DATfjfea- 
teia, onii of ibe coheiresses of the well-known 
SarddhirM family in wlm-h ih* otlW of 
cupbearer w«fl hiTeditary (Hi'tciiixb, 
i. a»/-8, iv. 174; OLI'TTEKlltTCK. ii. 6-11-2). 
8hfl most Eftvo prfHlectMcd bcr fath(^r, who 
died on 6 t^pt. Ill J and wa> buri-^d in 
Wantage church, wh^ro hi» tomb remains, 
for be left only ouo daui^hlur, Aliu,DOr, who 
b«ram« hifl heir {A.- Asituoix, ii. H35; 
AViLiB, iii 05j. Apparently Whittington 
had no tMtue bv her. 

The only portrait of Whiitin^on at all 
likwlv lo t»- Hiithentic i" the illiiniiiiiitioH iit 
the (K^nninjf of th^cnpy of tb'' ordinances 
fin* his hospital at Slerwre' Hull which r^ 
DfCMnM him on his dt-vfilhhed nurrounded by 
nis executors and bedetmen, It n engraved 
is tbe works of Malcolm (ir. 616). Lysons, 
and Iteitnnt. 'riu> fnce i.1 long, (bin, and 
amoolh ithuvou. It bna litlU or nothing iu 
common with thu portmit engraved by 
IC^iiold ICbitmcki- [(j. v.] t-iirlv in tlip Keveii- 
teeulh century. ITie chain of nffjce in tbp 
lattt-r ii« of i-ixtwenlh-century di'tiKii, anil the 
;inal picrure WM prfihably a wnrk of that 
tn the iiM iropreasions of the engrav- 

_ Whittington 'n rieht hand rpAted upon n 
skull, but popular tawte c()m]H^Ilrd ICUtrscke 
toaubititute n cat ia thoremaiuder, and the 
foRDir BK now L>xci'ssivv1y rarv (Qiuhueb, 
Bii^rapkitat Jlitfartf, i. OR). Thewi|iTa«iRg 
in Its eecond shape is reproduced in Lysons 

nod the 'Antinuarian Jtepertory' (ii. ^343). 
Malcolm menlioitH ii timal] porlrnit at 
Mi'rcorw' liall, which Iioj^ uiuce uisappoaivd, 
in which he appear«d as a man of about 
Htxty ' in a fur livi^ry ^wn and a hlsck cap 
aucb SM thx v<K)meu of lbi>i )ptitrd now wear,' 
and with a black- nnd-w bite cat on the left- 
band f id^^ The in^cripli'in, ' K. Whillington, 
l<'5<lt!,*^uggi<«t4 thcpn<»ib)liry of its hfine an 
adaplBtion of a portrait of Robert Whittmjr- 
ton [(J. V,], ihe grammAnan. The pri'wnt 
ponmit at Mercen' Hull ib modem. It was 
cuffraved in Thornton's 'New History, De- 
8crintii.)n and Survey of Londun' (17W). 

Whittinprton wsm grwjjlytieof theraediie- 
rul city msf^ntv. Thure had no doubt bo-u 
Taiifn dixtinguisbt-d inuvora oC |j<)tidc>n. lln 
plnye<l a less nrnminent part in the alfairs of 
ihekiucdum limn Sir John de l*ult'.-ney [q. v.] 
iir Sir .fohij Philtpiii lii. v. |, and ibere is n<W 
thing to show thEit (us conlempi'mry repu- 
tation ?xt«iuh'db'*vond thecily. Tbcrlirrtni- 
clers of bis time who wrofn in the rounlry 
never mention bim by name. Hut bii> com- 
mBreial suoceee, imnsunlly prolonged civic 
cnrwr, and (rreat loans to I be crowu seem to 
have impri?«.<ied the imnginalion of his follow- 
ciliums if we may uccopl the evidence of his 
epitaph and the ultiision to bim in Gregory'a 
'OhruEiicli:' Ip. l-'iOl, written not lon^ illeF 
bis denib, n* 'tbst fumos mHrrliant, and 
merrer Uinhnrd Wbytyndone.' tn a ^entiti, 
too, he wns the Wt of the great mediiVTal 
mayors, for the outbreak of the wars of the 
ro«es uftberyil in a period far less favourable 
tomunii^ipnlmagnntL's. Wt he would hardly 
have bcvu permanently reineiubered had not 
hia benefactions — inostlv postfanntous — asso- 
ciated him with some of iho most prorainont 
London biiiIdingx,Bndouenf tbii few laedilft- 
val foimdations in the city which survived 
the It'-fortnstioti. Ao llml iif ibc ntbuildn" 
nf tlierhief prifon and the fnuntW nf thfi 
prineipn.1 almshouse in London, Whitlinj- 
ton's name was n hooschold word with the 
Londoiu^rst of the sLiteenth cenlurvt when 
many of the scanty facts of his life had 
almady bren forgoltoii. 

(.'hiidleM, imd surviving his wife, Whit- 
lin^on was frou to duvute his wt'Hlth to 
public and piiiua oljects. Hn arcbed over 
a sprinc on the bank of the city ditch, and 
inserted a public ' 1»om ' or wnt"r-tup in th" 
wall of St. fiilen,Cripntegntf> (Stow). Thiiv 
or 0. similar one at DillinftBgate pnve Robert 
Whittington (q.v.J, The pram ninnan, his nick- 
nnme of 'Doss* (Ltboss, p. 62). In hia last 
termofoflice as mayor Whittington defrayed 
thi-tfTcaterpnrlof ihucoMof t hi' new library 
of tlir (inivfriani, now the tiorlh aide of th« 
great cloister of Christ's Hospital (CAnm. t^ 





Gnyfriarf, v. 13). Wttb otlien ha liaoded 
or*-r )>-tul>-uliall Ui tita oarpontinn in 1411, 
and be opeoi^d n&kewell Hall for \he &alc of 
bnwdclothe {^Lviottii, p. 84 i Bkmxt.u. lOfli. 
By kin diriMitions hU executnrn, one nf whom 
vu the wpU-laiown town clerk, John Cmr- 
penter (I-'iTOr'-l-Mir-ifo. v,1. wlin compiled 
tlu! 'Liber Att>uB* id AVhitlin^ton's third 
nMjoralt; { I4I!>), oblaiiicd licctiM u> i\- build 
N«wg«lo, which lerved as ctly priwn, on 
the groiiD<1 th»t it: wu ' feblo, over litirl and 
M ooBtugious of Ertc, jut hit cautttd the 
d4lh of many m«n' {Fmlera, x. 287 ; JM. 
Pari. iv. >^0J. TliL<y nlso contributed to Lhu 
nrpairof Kt. Biirtlioloiiirw'n Ilcminlnl ami tbtt 
rHtoration and enlargL<m«nt of t»e Guildhall 
(Stow, i. 2«M ). Ilut (ln-y wtro directwl to 
ii*c thi'btilk ofhiR wi^dItIi for the fonndation 
of A hcwpitnl or kIidaIiouhu, and the col- 
I«gi*lioo of bin nnmh cliurrli of St. ^lirhaol 
da hitt>nuMl«r-cnureb. T)r hii'l tnken Mme 
DTeliminarj' «(«]« in hia lifetime, thout;h 
ntow-'a authority for tho statpmont. that hn 
obtuinml a rwyal license in MIO doea not 
appear (Slow, iii. ;(; ef. Lysoss. t>. 84). 
In 1411 he |faTL< land fur lliu n'huihling of 
the churrh (KiuiY, p. 678). Ilia executors 
obtained the conaont of tbL> luvUblsbup of 
which was an archif^isciipnl pt-culinr, on 
30 Nor. 14;fJ, and on 17 and IH IJec. issued 
A chArt»r of foiindation find rorulniions for 
college dedicat«d to the Holy Ohoat and 
.e Virgin Mary, to oonaiat of 'firft priests, 
onv of whom wax to bo Bia«t«r. 'I'hey wero 
til reside ill a buildinjir m>wly erc^cted east 
of thu L'hurch, and i>ay uia8H(.-(i for iho soula 
of Wliitlttigloii mil! 1tii> wifi-, bin fHtli'-r uiid 
mother, Jtichiird II, 'niouiae of Woodstock, 
BD(L tlia-ir wivi'n {Alunartir^n, \\, 7>S!I— 11). 

f'urther endowments and rules wflr« added 
18 Feb. \A-2U {ih. vi. 748). KeKinnId 

?eench [q.T,] becamf master in 1481. Thf 
college waa aupi»VMed in lOl^.and the build- 
ing sold for tiS/., but ila memory >» kept alivp 
by College Slnwx. Simiilianeouily with ihe 
Aieatinn of Whittinj^Ion (killrge, the execu- 
tors founOi-^d {2\ l>Pc. 1424) a hoitpiial ha- 
twMH thu church and \V hi Wiiitf ton's house 
for thirloen poor men, one uf wliom was to 
hv tutor, und wlic>j><i |iraT«rit wrra to l>e 
offeri'd for the bouIb of the persoOB tneiitioned 
»boTe, and also for tliow of Iho jmnttirs of 
the foundtfr'e wife [ih. vi, 74-V 7i, An 
illuminated copy of their ordinnnee* is pre- 
aorrcd by the Mrrcers' Compnnv, wlio mnnag^ 

the ho»pila) now removed ti? IlichpiU< \Rti>. 
Jjiwry Companift' CommitttQH, 18U4, iv. 


It has been Wtlttini^on's ainf^ular fate 

to bocomc tlio hero of a [Kipulut iiilu which 

hu found ao ullimate lodfrniml m the 
nurserv, Tbf Whillington nf ibv old hal- 
ladi^, chap-books, and pitpp^ play started 
IITm OB H po(ir ill'tniatvd orphan in th» west 
of England, and made lu« war to Laoina 
on bearing that its streets wciv pam] with 
gold. Arriving in a slate of desiituliAn, he 
attracted the cominiseralion of a rich aer- 
cbnnr, oat Mr. Ilugh KitxWarrtii, who 
placed him ta a scuUioa 10 hu kitdiai, 
whrn.- he sufTerod grratiy from the tyrmnoy 
of the cook, tcmpwrad only by the> kindaeas 
of his master's daughter, 3ilrs. .Uice. Krom 
this stattT of misery he was presratly released 
bv a strange pieci- uf good fortune. It was 
tfie worthy merehant's custom when sending 
out n ship tn let cmch of his Hfmtnts veatan> 
•nmething in it, in order that (tod might 
give him a greater btesiini;. To the freight 
of the good iihip ("nicom Whittington could 
only cnntribule bin cat, whirh hi- had bought 
for a p^DDV to keep down the vermin in ai» 
garrpt. : but the vessel happening 10 touch at 
an unknown part of the Darbary OOMI. tlie 
kinp of the country, whose palace was over- 
run with ra(» and mice, bought the cat for 
ten times more than all the freight besides. 
31eanwhili< her owner, uoconEcioua of his 
(fnoci liirk and driven diiipiTntc by the 000k'* 
ill-UML^, stole away from I<padenhalt Street 
early in the morning of All Hallows day, 
and left the city behind him, but as he 
rested at Holloway he heard Uow bells risg 
out a merry peal, which seened to say : 

Torti sitaia, Wbiuingtoa, 
Lord Mayor of Loodoo. 

Wherounon he reluniMl I0 his pots and 
spits, anu, the t'nlc^uni soon cominc in, raiti^ 
rii-tl .Mr*. Alicf, niid rune to hv thrice lord 
mayor of Ixindnn and entertain Henry V, 
afttr liin crntjiiiwrt of Frnnc*, at a KKat 
ft'ast, in the cour*i- of which hi* threw into 
the fire the king's bonds for thirty-«eTni 
ihooMtnd marks. The story of the vejilure 
of a cat leading to fortune i» in one form or 
another very widely ditTused. It baa bm*n 
Ireced In many countries both of southeiD 
nud nortlierA Kurope, and occuni in a J'arvian 
TtrBiJiii us early ns the end of the thirteenth 
rejiturv. Tht- gi^rm of the slorv 8>*eina sug- 
gested hy the mention of the custom of iliip- 
raasten«iAkiti)Tt ho ventures of the poor wboM 

fravpra were thiinghl to bring good luck. 
UMan nnd Clouslon claim a lluddhistic 
origin for iIk tale. One of tbv reaAons ad- 
duced in support of t]ii» view is that in some 
of the oldtT versions the cat i» Mived from 
ill-treatmoDl hy thi^ person whose fortune it 
is destined to make. The Knglish version 
lia« more in common with the Sc&ndinaTi&a 






aod ItuMiAO forms ot the ntory lliaii tvitli 
tto»e current iiisoutbero Kuroiw. It standi 
olnKMl uloDf, liowvviT, in Ei'luctinf; an his- 
torical in-rsnciage as tli« cniil ml figun-. 'ITte 
•l«gpna' of Whiitjnglon is not known to 
Itavn b^en luirrntcil Ijtiforc IflO-V 0» 8 Fch. 
lfS(H-li a clrAmiLtic Vf-rsion i-ntirhicl ■ The 
Ilislorj (if Uicbanl Whiitington, of hiH 
lowe byith, hi« fjreiit fortune, na jrt wm 

Silaitid b; ibe prync^-HeervnuiB,' was licensed 
or the pri-** (Arbiiti, fsftitionrr*' Iteffi*tfri, 
iti. i^>. On Itt July 1005 u license was 
grwQted for the publication of a ballad called 
*Tho Tcrttious I.yft9 anil nt<^niorable J)»ath 
of Kir Kirhiin) WliitlinfTlon, ini-rcur, wmie- 
tjme Lord Mataur.' Noitbt^' phLvnorballad 
,i> lomrn to bavv *ur%-ived, TIio earlta«t 
«xtant refereiiBea to the ' legend ' figure in 
Thomas TIeyw-ood's 'If you know not me, 
you know nobody' (Rrt j. »c. i.) published 
in 1006, and in Rf^niiinont nnn Flntcher'A 
'Kniffht of the Rurriin^ i'estle,' which sp- 
|M>n.rcd fiv« yciiw lotcr. Both references 
imply that »i>nuij« liU-rli'^ bad b«eu (akea 
in the lofrend with the historieal facts. The 
rariou* altcmplit lo rati:>iuilist.< thfl Ivffi-ud, 
by dragging in t lie use of tlu^ wonl ' cat an a 
namfl wn ehipii currying cuhU frooi Nl>w- 
casth^, a m<'n^ lui miiroiiN )>ii|f |{>'*t i-^n of Snmui^ 
Foote [^.v.], or by explaining ' cat ' n» a cor- 
ruptioQ o£ t!i9 French achata, fall to lh« 
^und when thr> r^al character of tho etory 
u p«co^ui-*e<l. J-y«)n#'» deft-DCe of the his- 
torical truth of the iccideut of I he cat would 
hardly call Xur criticism if it hud not boon 
«a>rio(itity revived in Sir Walter Beitaiit's 
popular history of Whiitin^oa. Their 
corn>b<initiTi' proof* miir h" »t ouch diju 
mbued. Tho i^vidence of lh<) portraits ia of 
course worthleM. The piece of sculptiira 
foutul in an old houftit n.t Cilouce^ter to 
IiaTB once belouged to tb« Wliittington 
family, and figdn^d byCarr (p. xvi), repro- 
teoU a omall boy, not ' a fine sturdy youth,' 
carrying a noodeacript itiuall auimal, ami 
iharo Mcms no mlJsAii;U)ry evideuLM for 
attributing the nlotiKtu Liiefifli^nthi;imtury. 
The astuinptian that the cat r/in-ttd nn tfin 
front tii Ni-wgatv when rebuilt after the 
great Are had exiAlvd on;' building 
enoted by Whitt ington's •■xw;utore rests on 
k mere mittakA of IVjinant. 

pTba fint Mriooii attempt tn ai^scTtaiil and 
hnng to«tetlior Uio facts of Whitli'i^n's Vxfa 
wu made by Haaiuftt Ly*on*. onn of the suUiora 
of ibeUaAnaBritaniiiji, in 'Thn Moili'l Mor<:hnnt 
of thr Middle Agw'ClHSO): very little c^cnped 
him, but the ndoe of his -wark ii> marml by bin 
aecepbiacaof the legend a« genuine l^ography. 
The life by Wallar Beeiint nnd Jamee Rice 
<t4SI ; Sad ed. IBSf) addx a few details from 

thw City Archiveb, butadborae lo Lysgns's tut- 
criiieul standpoiat, aod is little mere tJian an 
oxpantinn of ht» work eritlmut lii* reftirericc* and 
ilacnmiinT*. Tlio (rbirf orif^nftl auihoritituan,' 
Lhu folluwin^: Rotvli FArlinmontomm ; Rymcr's 
Fcrdcm, nrigirifil (d. ; '>tdiii'iin"«» of tliB Pritj 
Cuunc^il.iHl. Nirtilss , t'^ilondnrium iTiquioitiooun 
pom Dioriem : Dcron's Ltsoce of tho Eickcqutr: 
Iteiiim of Niimea of Mtmbcn of ParliABient. 
1878; LiJiU (if i^eriffii, IS9B: Momurticon Angli- 
cftDuiD. «d. Caluy, Kll!*, asd Bnndinul : Annalea 
Rlcardi II (Ilolls Series); r*liy*n'* Chmnicl*-, 
L'd. Elli«; (Jreffory'a Chronicle nud Cbronicle 
of Oreyfriara (Caoiden Soc) : Slows Snm-y of 
Ix>ndon, ed. Stcype ; Bilej'a Memorials of Loo- 
iloo. Al*i Brewer's Lifu and Tiinfn of John 
Car^ieiitT, I83C ; Knli?oIm*fl Londiniuu Redi- 
Tiram 1 Huichins'a nistoryof Dcreet, :tnled. ; 
t'lutlerliiii'k's History of Uertfordshire ; Ash- 
ino|p'« History nf HorksliirD ; Wylie'e Uietory 
of llrnry IV. The li^nJ is crilicftlly examined 
in Thfi». Ktiglitlpy's Tnlrsnnd I'nputap Fielioui, 
1831, >V. A. Clouflon'e Popular Tales acd Fic- 
tions. 1887. nnd by fl, H. Wlicotley in the pro- 
fncc tn lii» mlition of tlin ' Hiolorynf Sir ttichiird 
'Wbillii)Ktoir(ByT. II. [l«;0])for tho VUlon 
Society, 18S6; compire alw* Itcinhold Kolilcr. 
Orient itnd Oec_idoiil (ii. 48K}, and ItAlston's 
Huuiun Fulk-Talee. Tbe earliest form uf the 
slcjry in the Britisb Muaenm C<:llrotioti is a 
hlai-k-letlar ballad of 1641. untitJod 'Lr.ndon's 
gtoi-y snd WhittiofttonV renown; or a loukiog 
glass for the citiuuBof London ; beiagareraark- 
afala ntoiT bow Sir BichnrJ niiiUinKton . . , 
come (o be three timM Lord JJiiyur of Loudon, 
and how his rit*e washy a an.' The prase 
series begins with ' The famous mid reouvrkable 
llinory of Sir Kiohord Whitt>ngtoa, three time* 
Lord Uayor of London,' by T. U. isao. also in 
block li-tter, a later odiiion of which hoa been 
pnpub!i«hKi by ihe Vdk-n Society. The etory 
Watne u fevoaril'* »ubj<H!t of cliap-books whoou 
imprints iii^lnilr b^rlinburgli, I'nrham, Ciirlitde. 
nnd Ni-wMtle-nn-Tyen. Ciirr's Mtotj of Sir 
SiebardWliitiingtoii, 1871 . is a modom Torsion.1 

.r. T-T. 
WHITINTON, l{lHJICKT( rt. If>2<n,gram- 
muriiin, was bom at Lichfield, and educated 
tirat nt the school of 81. John's Hospital in 
that eilv {Shart .itxvunt nf (he Annrnt and 
ModeniStafer,/ lichfii^ia, IHUt, p. Ill'), and 
afterwnrds under John StanbridgD fq, t.] in 
th« KidiDidatlnchi'il to thiTfilb'geof 3t- Mary 
Magdalen, Oxford. In April lfil3 ho anp- 
plicaled tbo congregation of reg«nts at Ox- 
ford for laureaiion in grammar, which was 
granted him on 4 July enduing. At the 
same time be was ndmittod B.A. In bis 
mpfrliea( ho reprosentit ihat be bad studied 
rhatoric for fourteen years, and taught it for 
twelve. This would point to bi:« being burn 
not much Inter than 1480. (In his laureatton 
ha ae«umed the title of ' I'rotovates An; lift,' 





I of 4rrogflnc« which gar« oflVace to 
oth«t schoUrs, ' in compdruon with whom,' 
tays F>ill6r^ ' he tcm but a cneliling' thom.' 
A varbn of epigrams eiuued betweeo him 
dtiii William llormaii [q. v.], «upport«d br 
Lily and AlJrieh, rbu intricaeiui of wfakn 
have b»eu unravelled with much ingenuity 
hy Dr. Maitland (Earfji PrmUd Book$, 
p. Wh). 111*! iK>briquet of < Bom ' was b»- 
ecovRO on \Vhitting1nn bv his fow, iu dari- 
sivn ftllusioD to a public 'boM ' or wutirr-tap 
in lliii city of Ijondnn irhidh had been ori^- 
nally set up by Uichanl WhiuinRton [q. t,^, 
and was t'lillcd by hjn naoM-. Whytynloa is 
■aid by Italf \t> have been alire in 1530 ; but 
beyoQct ihat ali in unM^rtAin. fli« ^ntn- 
BUlical trvi>ti!i>?.s alon^vitb (hnse of hu old 
naikt«r, Stanbridge, bad a wide circulation 
(pay-Book ((fJoka I>omf,vo\. i.of Uw Oxford 
Hist- 3oci«ty*f puUicaliouf, p. 76). lie de- 
•cribfcs cme. of them us * lustA consuetudinMii 
lodi liUTiuiL dim I'auli.' i^everal of thvrc an 
of gnivt viiliie far illustrating the lanffum^ 
and uiuinere of thu limu. Thu clii»f of tbem 
awthwf-nllHiwing: 1. ' EdilioSccttudftdtCOil- 
sinitniD fcnncinnilatt'] pram mat iix-*,' Wvia- 
k^ de WonK-, I<'>lL',.lto (lludi. Ubr), I5lti, 
4to. 3. ' [hi Byllabarum quiuititai?,' Lon- 
don, IGtU, 4f> ( f iiulitC ra«ntiociJi an tidicioa 
of 1513). .S.'Whyttbyntoaieditio: Dedina- 
tiODW uaminum tarn latinorum quum ftre- 
Dorain,' London, lJil7, Itn (Bivll. Lihr.) 

4. ' 0|iui:Cu]uDi iifTHbrum et rvcognitiim . . . 
de nomiuiiDi ffcnmbu»,* Ix>ridon, )•.». 4to. 

5. 'Editi'J du ilcteroclitiB nomioibiui ei grn- 
dibiM L-nrnparalioni*,' Oxford. I'll 8, 4to 
f BodL Libr.l ; London, 15Sa, llo. (J. ' Acci- 
dfJitiK fX StAnbrifi^iann editions ' together 
with ' Horvula,' Loudon, 1.J2S, Ito. 7. ' Vni- 
garia micclmii oum suia vcmaculis,' Sc. Lon- 
don, l(i28, 4la. Ui.'flidi'fitln.*e hu wrwt« 'l)e 
difficiilinti- iiiitilim servAndm inroip. admini- 
Btmlion(!,'iiIoaF{ with ' Dequaluoruinutibua 
Gftrdineis,' bolh nddrcsMd to Wolsey, Ixm- 
don, IBIO, 4to. ITiu pruHeatatioa copii'^, in 
maaoacript. nni in the Itodieion Library- 
Whytvnton wua iiliu^ thu author of tut> 
following tnuwUtiodst: 'The tlire bookes of 
TultyM OffveeH bothu in Iiilyiii; tonffn i in 
englysehv,' l^mduu, 1&H4, 8vo. ' TulliuH d« 
Senectuto hothc in Ititrn aiid unglvNiho 
long!.,' Londnn, h.b. (1536."), Svo. '• Thtt 
ParadoK of M. T. Cicero,' l^ondon, 1S40, 
IBmo. ' A frulnfull woric nf LuciuH Aunuu* 
Hencca, named the fnrmu and rule of hntipet 
lyuyngo,' London, 15H1, 4lo. '-A frnli-fnll 
wotlce of . . . Sennpa, tailed tho Myrmiir 
or Cilawo of MuntTs . . .' I.rf>iid<m,' 1W7, 
Byo. 'Locii Annei Spnecan ad Qnllionom. 
. . . The rcmHilyes nf;ayniil all cnaunll 
channcea,' Loadon, 1M7, 8vo. ' De civili- 

tata nonin . . . jM^r Dm. Rraamam . . . 
I>U>1, 8%-o. An earliL-r edition of thia luc 
is aaid to baTu ■pptari'd in l-'i^ {BMi»theca 
EnumiaHa, 1893, p. 2U>. 

[Editiooaof Whytyiitoo'i Worlui ia nril. Moa. 
and Bodlwiiui LibnuiM; Wnod'a Atbeiun Mid 
Uiiit. el Aatii]. iL 4, 5 : W'artou'a EoKlith Po«- 
\n. Kcct. xST. ; BoM»'« lt^«t*r of the tlnir. 
of Oxfortl, 1885, i- 8A ; FoaUr'a Alamni Oxon. ; 
v. Cue* Haclitt'y Seboola. SclioolbDolc*, &&, 
l8SS,pp.60^; Ftnifgenano's Viflwof tha Eck^ 
li>h Ediiioo*, 171)7. pp. 60l>, «A1.1 J. H. L. 


(17**9-Ii?yt(), Lancashire antiquary, wa« bom 
at Ingl<twhit<' iu the parish of Oonsnaririi, 
Laiicoiihin:, on 9 July I'tA'tand was edu- 
cated at the ^n^jntoar schools of Oooonarffti, 
Waltoa-lo-Iwt, and IVeston. He h«^mn 
buBinesa as a baokacU«r and printer at I'r«»- 
ton in 1810, and became an actiru concri- 
bulor to various joumaK He was int«IU- 
gent but ill-educaledfOnd bis work*, though 
not without Taluo, abound tu virory. Hv 
sfvled him.*«lf F.S.A., but was not a fellow 
ol'thf! Societyof vVntiquariea, In l^MLord 
Derby, *!< primo laininUT, gare him apen*ir>n 
of TM. n year for 'literary aervices.' Afitr 

g'Tingupbusini-Miti 18fil,hi!iliv»d *I Bolton 
rsomr- yearx, and iht-n removed to Mount 
Vernon, Liverpool. Whittle, who was a 
Roman catholic, died on 7 Jan. 18tfK. 1T« 
married, in Outolwr lr;i;7, Matilda Heari>Mt» 
Armstrong, and had Twoiwn<i: Uobfrl Clan- 
dius, author uf 'The WayfuTVT in Lbduo- 
eh ire,' and Ileniy Armsironp:. 

He was thu author of tht- following local 
histories: 1. 'A Topographiwi! .\ccount, 
&e.,of IVston,' 1S21: vol. ii. 1k;J7, tymo (ihfl 
lirat ¥oliiui<- wit.'* pit 1)1 i ■hill under the psau* 
donymnf'MarmaaukeTu1k<>t*). f*. 'Marina; 
or au lliMoriciil and IWcripiiro Account of 
■>uuihport, Ly tham, and Blackpool,' l*roeton, 
1S31 . HvD(cinoo.j S. • Architectural Descrip- 
tioit of St. Ignatius's Church, Preston,' 1833. 
X. ' IX'scription of St. Mary's (^tsiwrcian 
Churcli at P<*nwortbam,' Bro, 6, ' Eliittoncal 
Xotici'B of Uoghton Tower,' 1845. 6. *An 
.Vocfttint of St. Marie'ii Uliapel at Femy- 
hiilgh,' 1851. Svo. 7. ' Bbickhum as it ik,* 
1SB2. 8. 'Bfiltoii-le-Mftont and the Towo- 
ehipa in the Pari&h,' Bolton, 1865, 8ro. 

[Whittiti's ProBfon, ii. JS& ; M«-n of Lfao Hiafe. 
186£. i^ 835; Johnslona'a Raligiona Hist, of 
Bolton, p. 177; Pi«liwiok'B LaneosWro Libiaiy.] 


WlLr.L\iM (rf. 1374), archbishop of Can- 
terbury, ihouph OoubiUmA u native of the 
Cnmbridgc^hirij viUare whoAe n&nM ho bore, 
studied at Oxford, wliero he to^ biii doctor's 

derree in canon und eivll law (WoOD, i. 
188; Qoswis). HU clioicii of miivumir^ 
mast b«ro tMcm decidKl (nr liim by his 
mslemal uncle. Simgn IsUp (aftvnvftrdx 
ftpclibishop of Contcrbuiy) [q. v.], l.i whom 
Wbililcsey ovod liie eaucaiiou ttaii much 
eeclosiaatical promotion. He wuk cn]!at>><l 
uebdeftcon of IlunitngJtm in June I'^iH', 
mixordiag to n rxcord <]uot«<l by ^Vhilo 
Kcnoelt: but if thU bt- eurnt't, ho was re- 
aupoinlr^ by lrtl»i> jMitt-iil cm 'JO Jiinu KMU 
(Le Nfv«, ii. fiO). fn th*> iilngm- v««r 
(1349), wL«D hi« imL']i> bcount* an^hbiHiop, 
Whiiiliwy viLi idoHp (lOS^ipr.) 'ciialofl' of 
PeUrhouseat CmnbridRe. l"'' lu-Ult hi* posi- 
tion only until l.Vil, lIrwii.*npr>'ltf?ndaryof 
Llcbt!«ld frtna IWO. nnd of CbifhTOter iiml 
Liucolii from iy.')t>, rt-tiutiin^ thi> Iil.«I ilown 
to biii uiit<ointinL>ut uji i<rtiuat(> )//>. i. <>:20, ii. 
IW). lie bnd iiIao a prvbeml nt lla<iiiiic« 
ftkintKM^ p, 7M). Along with his Mcii- 
UUCODrj' nui] prv-bfiids Wliilileftey li«lil (h« 
beneflnMof Ivipcliuivb.near Komner(l.'i.V2), 
Ooydon (ISoS), bd<1 CLitl'u, iKiir IJoche»wr 
(A.: Antjlia Surra, i. ri^fi). He is »iilil to 
haro acteil for a titnu as bie uni'ltt'ii utoclur 
Mt the papal court, kikI wiu> o-rtjtiiily li^rit 
on a tDUMon thoro by the king in 1 'i-']3 (t'A. ; 
Jfo^ ftW. ii. i!oli; ib-rfefw, v. 747). l»lip 
made him first his Ticiir-poncral, thon dejin 
of the court of arcti<^, and finolly secured 
hiji election [2A Oct. I360J to tho dopondcnt 
see of Rocbeeter. nut. it would iwm, wttb- 
ottt a bargain willi (hit uiotiks (Le Nevk, 
ii. 60t; h^uttrtim Rofnite, ji, 181; HooK, 
iv. 224)- The poin.' ^nvti hi* con*(-nt by 
war of provision on X\ July following, and, 
owing to [slip's infirmitien, Whit I !i'i«-yV con- 
Mention was quictlr uorfin'mRd in tbe 
cbapel of Che nrcUbisliop s manor-housv tit 
Olford, not a iinfili> dioiccsoji bishop K'iiig 
]R«Hnt(iifr. ir. 2-i'n Lr. Nbtb. u.a.> Two 
v«an later (6 March l.'t&l) be was trans- 
utedby Islip'a ittdu>'i]et> to the richer see of 
Worc«"tor, nut ikww nut w*ni to hava re- 
aided {ih. iii, B8; rf. H-mik, iv. 2-201. 

After hie uncle's di-ath in lSni5 Whittleaey 
can hardly have looked for furtbor pt^motion, 
but fortunt- still stood liie friend. Lun^hnm, 
Islip'u mut4>rful siicc«-»or, acceptf>d a cardi- 
nal^ hat witliout tbe royal peraiiasion, and 
bad lo resign. A mor« colourloM nnd pliant 
primate being duidera1«d, the choice fell 
upon Wbiltwaey, who wan accordinglv 
tranalated to Canterbury by a pupal bull, 
dated U Oct. 13fl8 (\.v. Nrth, i. !!•). He 
^ived ilie teniporalili^8 on 15 Jan. ISfW, 
pallium on 19 April, and wn* nnlbront^d 
IT June. Tbi.1 nsuni ff-ast beinr dispensed 
ou account of the plague, Wbiltltrwy 

>uld hardly hare ntude ais marlt in Che 

primacy, evea if he had not rery soon be- 
come a oonGrn)«d invalid. Hv was unablo 
in (tonsei)uence to take part in the defence 
of t1iv vliurch in the toemomble pariiameat 
of l.iri, and niMv left liia quiH rofuge nt 
Otford (VVii.Ki.SB,' iii. 89; Ilooic, iv. 228). 
But Xhv preiMiircof taxation upon Che clerg>' 
became »o hvavy that he drugged himevif 
up to London fur ibe mi-i-tiug of couvinii- 
tiim in IlL-combi>r \^&, and UKLimidtHl tbu 

tiitlpittifSt. I'muI'm to iiiaki' bin pryti*»t; but 
It; had not proceeded far wh^n lie swooned 
ill ihr; arms of hi" i-hajilain, and was carried 
nut and rowed to lAmbelh (^P.iiiKKR, p. ;W*0; 
"Wiuixs, iii. U7). llelingert^d until -^i June, 
when he moilc hiii will. Wqiii^alhing bi» 
b&oks to I'eterhoui»e, and tbe residue of hifl 
projicrty to his poor n-lntions. ilia regi»ler 
appcurft togivo this a» thu day of hii< denih 
{An-fUa Sacra, i. 704 ; Lb S'riE, i. ^). 
But tiio TMord of Canterbury obits placea it 
on tholtrh (,4»fflia Sacra, \. (11). Tliw datfl 
in WalBingham (i, ai7)— G July— ibongh 
tb« mouth iit obviously wrong, rather con- 
(irin.4 Ibi! former aCatemeiit. IVrhnim hn 
diod in the night between the two dates. 
IIU n-Riiiins wun} tnlcnn to Canlnrbury and 
buried in the cathnlral near tbn tomb nf 
Inliii, bwtwepn l*vo pitbire on the sniith sids 
of ttiis nave (Somsku, Antiquitiee of Cinter- 
Afiry, pt. i. p. 134). His epiluplt, iiiHcribud 
on brasj, remained legible about. Ili8f!, when 
it was read byOodwin; but only a fragment 
survived wht^n it wa« «*n by 'Veevt-r, who 
puhliBhed his 'Funerall Monuments' id 

.... luxnuhitus 
WittciIi^My nntns gtmntata luce. 

It viat WLittlcMy who obtiuned from Ur- 
ban V n hull exempting tbe univereity of 
Oxford from thojunfidictionorthe bishop nf 

Tbe story in tlie ' Continuntton of tbe 
Eulogium* (iii, U,'S7-8) of the great couneil 
I of prelates and lordi< called after Pentecost 
(20 May 137'i) to discuss a papal demiind 
for a subsidy to be used QKainst the FKiTfii- 
tines, in which ih» Black Prince i« repre- 
sented as calling Whiltleaey an aw, is dis- 
TMWcd of, BO far od thu Uuer la concerned, 
by the fact that he waa on hia deathbed nt 
iJntnhetb when the iwene is euppoaed to hare 
tuhi'ii plmw lit WiMtniinsler. Nor ia this 
the only incredible feature of the incident aa 
there relatad. 

[Rut. Pari., Ryraat'* Findara, orioinal ndit., 
WalsittghAm's HisiDria AuRlicaria uul iIm Eulo- 
gium lliuoriaruni (inRolli-Ser.); .AngliaSaom, 
«d. Whnrton; Q-oilwin, D« Pruwulibiui Angtiv, 
ed. 1743; Wlltiua's CDDcilla Magiua BritaniiitD 
et Hibornis: Taoner's BibliotbcxM Seriptoruni 

SriQumieo-Hibcmicti ; L« Nvrn'it Fwii iicctraiw 
AuglicMUe. t>(\, llHTHpr: P^rkor. D<3 Anti^nitaUt 
SoqImJIp nc I'rivilrgiis KcvliHiw CiuiLuAriMiiii : 
Ho6k'B lAvn of ttia AKUbUhu|i« of C'untofhury,] 

J. T-T. 


(lB27-l600'),?)urn&IUt.ita»<jr.Mictitel James 
XVhitty [ii. v.], waa Iwrn in Loudon in lt*d7. 
He TVAs <>((ucatGi) at tbo I.ivL'rfK)ol lii!<liliue 
and at Iluiiovcr. About 1S44 Iih bHcaiiu? a 
roporUir ni» tin- provinrial prt-as, and from 
1846 Ig 1819 hv wiw llm wriUir of th" 
parliamfntnrv auinmary of thft ' Times,' H6 
waH ihn Lunuoa corresjjondeiit of t\iv ' Lircr- 
pool Joumol,' and for S6Te4'a] vearti wrred 
Willi Guorga Henry Lewus, E. 1>. 3. Pigotl, 
and otliw dUtiiwi^ialied wriUr* on Xha 
staff of ilm ' LuauL-r.' Ilia gmat powers 
of Barca»im wi-ri' Kml ouspicuoiis m tli* 
Bingularty virid and viporoiM «kctcln!9 of 
the proc>!i>diDH;ii in parliitini'iit wliicli he con- 
tribvUi'il to tliii ' ij«a<lrtr.' TUe prcliminftry 
c«ear» hf^axi in lis columns uu 14 Au^- 
1855, and tliP fimt Hi-w.-ri|jl ion of iht^ Jebatea 
bj" ' Tht' Stranciir in Parliuwtnt'apiHiarwl 
in ibe nuiuber for i;( >iir. in that v>yir. A 
scleption from tb«ni Tra,* publiatw^ anoay- 
mouely in ISSl aa tlie ' Ilistoiyof th'< 8e«« 
aiim lB.">i'-a: a PaTlinmontary IM rfinpect.' 
Tbiwu iirtiulru ori(riMati>d llm luperior kind 
of pnrHnincntary Aetcb, iind for piinf[cnpy ' 
of expri^a^inn and fiilelil y of ili;*(.Tipliy[i liiive 
nerer b64>n A volume tuititltd 
•The Dcrbyltcrt and thn Coalition' ilS5i? 
I2mo) U sssipied to Whilty by Alltbone. 
A brilliant wri^s of bin • leader' ailides 
was coUi'Ctud in ' Tb« Gort-rning Clamm of 
<)r«iit llritAm: l*«liticnl I'onmita' (I>in- 
don, 1854 : witL additions, lH.»iO, a voliinj-) 
wbitfb tx naid tci have mndi* a gn^At. impr«»- 
sion on Montalt-mbi'tL. The phnwe 'the 

fQvi^mintr clasjft*/ though previously nocd 
y Carlyle (Vivmwetts Lrtlert and •SpeefAf^, 
1845, ii! l^t, wait idtftitifiud witli WUItly'a 
volume; U. Tl. Broufh dedicEilt-d to him in 
ISJJC hiB volume vf ' Songs of ibi? Oovcruiii^ 


Before long Whitty quamslled witb hi» 

old fmnds on the ' Tjoaniir.' and be seiMd 
the opporiuiiity of satiriaing them in clnviT 
epigrammatic sent<.'nct.'S in bis novel of 
' IVioncbt of Bobomia, or Pkasea of London 
LiFii,' which waa written in a fortnigbt and 
sold for 50/. (Loudon, 1S57. 2 vola. ; N«w 
York anil Philadelpbia, 1804, with memoir). 
'\\Tiittywfwappoiatod editor of tbtJ * Northoni 
Whiff piirly m IB."!", but th«s engajfomeiit 
terminated abruptly in iLu spring of IS58. 
lie relumed for a titue to London, and on 
the doatb of bia wife and two cbUdri'o 
umigrated to Australia to work on the 

' Xnlboume A«iLS.' lie died at MelbonriM, 
at Ibu bouH ofa relatirr. »n '21 F(L-b. lAai. 
\ ftfw yvart later a handsome mouumt^t 
wah erected to his memory by Oarry SuLlivui 
the nclor. 

Whit ty po«*i>jis#d gn-at talent, and was en- 
dowed ' vnih a brilliant «lylt> and apowerful 
battvrr of »Arca«l4C irony * {IrtsA Qtuirterhi 
lifview, vii. 385, &r.) A slcotch of him 
under the namQ of ' N^-d Wexford,* by Jamiw 
Iliinnay, U in thu *C<^nihill Magazine' (xi. 
-'•^1-;!; reprinted in Y.m'iVk'ssM* Litfrttrjf 
UefoHtetion*, pp. S'J.t-t). 

t\th«D»uni. 12 May 1&6D. p. <MtI ; SavadiB, 
ly, & Co. A OrivQlal DudgaU 1 Jum I88U. pL 
122: I>ubltu Heriew. July lUj, pp. 101-4; 
jeaffirwon's Novals and NorcliMa. ii. 402 ; ia- 
furmation fruin Mil* Whitty of Con<^Tdia. 
Blnndcllaandu, IJrorpool, Sir (Mwurd R. RiumII, 
and Mr. F. D. Finlay.] W. P. C. 

1S73'), journaiijit, Ikihi in Wwifnrd in 1706. 
waa tfio f^n of a maltster. In 1^21 hi- 
cntnmenppd Ills !il<>ntry carper in l^ndon, 
and nmong hin earlieet friends were Sr 
Jnmea Uocon and Georgv CruikBhanlc. Ha 
WAS appoinli^d in 182:) to bo tdttorfif th« 
'Loudon ami Dublin Magaiinf,* and in ita 
first Tolumc appaned tho subfttance of tb« 
work uu ' Hobert Emmet,* which liu published 
wilb a prefatory not« aigned • M. J. W,,' 
nhnnt ISVO. He remained editor of the main- 
line until 1827. From 1823tol639h« coo- 
triliiited largely to Irwh periodical liT^'ratarB, 
and waaan ardent advocate for catholic emsn> 
cipation. He pubU^h^d attonymonelr in 18*24 
two voliimca of *Talc» of Irish Life,' with 
illiisl rations by Cniikshank. Tlie«« storieit 
dt-pictvd Iho oiutoma and condilioa of hi* 
fc Uo w - conn try men. 

Whitty began his CQonectiuu with Livei^ 
piiol ill r82K, when b« acci^pted tlia post oC 
editor of ihu 'Livt-rpool Journal,* stuMit 
in January 1830. Ho ^'acatod this position 
in F'?brnAry IK3A rrn hia appoinlmfnt as 
cbief constable of the borough. Ue had 
prrvionsly been 'suporint<>ndmt of the 
nightly waicU ' (Piciojt, Mtmoriah of Livf 
pKif, i. tini)). During his twelve yeaiV 
tenure of the ofBca be porfBCted the omni- 
&ation of thv police force and formea an 
citi'cicnt firn brigade. On his retJicmBBt hfl 
wK* prtfAnntcil by the town council with 
tb^ sum of 1,000/. in recognitinn of his ssr- 

His ronnection with the ' Lirerpool 
Journal ' bad not been wholly sewrwl 
during this period of his life, end in Ift4Sfc8> 
purchased the paper and resumed his btenry 
work. For many years be actt-d as the Liver- 
pool correepondeuc and i^ent of the ' liaily 

toe ' iiauy ■ 




In IS51 be wu a witaess before 
be parliftTUfintArr commiMion oppoirkted lo 
Dquire Into th« Kewspaper Stamp Aci, and 
he vigorously advocated the abolition of tke 
Ituup net, ibf ftdvtTtifti-mont dutv, and the 
doty on pBper, On tiie reruuvaf nf tlir^u 
iwpiiitH h>- iMUt^d m Xti^H the ' Lirerpnol 
Ll»ily Piini," tin- Hml jit-iitiy dnUy papirr pub- 
lished In t hi' rniti>dKin{;;dom, in thf>oolumii!i 
i>f which during IWll-4 ho walously advo- 
cated the cau-xi of ilii> nartJicrn Matvs. The 
Owr pttMCKl out of bi» haodH Mnue years 
ore Lis dcatti, lull it hA» m^vur ccasMl to 
bold ■ promineut place amonir ibu lining 
d«ilv pap«r». 'WTjilly'a (luide tu LivHr- 
poof ' was publisbvd from tlir ofliL-fi in 186>>. 
TW loit lew yenrs of VVhill y'" lift* wpnr 
»pent in rcllroment al l*rinc(!'B I'^rk, Livtrr- 
pooL lie difd lh«m on lOJiiiii' 18"3, and 
■wna buri«d at Aiificid cftinwterj* by tJio nide 
of hi* wifi-, tbt> aiBlcr of E. II. Neill, poito- 
SMiident in l^ndon of tbu ' {.ivvrponl 
Albion.' Edward Micliacl \\Tiitty [q. v.] 
vros their M>n. 

[AUtsDimni, 14 Junv 1873. p. 763 ; infomrn- 
tloD bom Mi-HWhiity. 8irK<l«ard R.RiiMcll. 
Kod Mr. J. GrtgMti of 70 Ororo Strnnt. Livar- 
pool.J W. p. C. 

Hliwabd de WALDHJi (1719-]"97>. [Sec 
ORIFFIS, .IflHX (jKlFriN.^ 

Wbitwokc" {]iS7'>-l7-^i3). L'ldt'Et of the nix 
aoDs of liichard Whitworth of Illowerpipe, 
mni aft»rwarda of Adbajtlon, StnHorlsJiire, 
who married, on 15 I>i>c. 11)7-1, Ann*', Oaut{h> 
tor of FrancU Moiaelej, rector of Wilmglow, 
ChMhirw, WM bom nt Blowerpipi* in lil7<!i, 
and baptised at WilniAiow on 14 Oct. in that 
jvar. H«ws8 edacaltHl al VWotininsttT (ad- 
mitted 05 a qi)C<m'« Khotar in I6IK)). wa* 
el«>ct(>d lo Trinity roilfgi-, C'limbridtje, in 
JtWl, and became a fellow of that mhiit^Iv in 
1700, hanng paduatod RA. in 1000. 'He 
was initiated into ibt^ art.* nf diplomacy by 
O«OTBreSt«im0T"q.v.],ftndwhilfi William lit 
■waa still king )in wa«, upon Sfepn<?y's re- 
comnidndQlioii. aimointed to ri-prfH>-nt Eng- 
land at tbt! diet oriialisbon onl'e>l*ob. 170:! 
(cf. Adiit MS. aififtl, 11*. -iT, S2). After 
Bti'jnM'T, he i» said to hnvo iitidwrsto&d the 
Bolitirs of the empir.' bptler llian anv Kiig- 
liabmsn during the ruiKTi uf .\nTii!. iie van 
appointiNl I'nvoy-t'Xtrniiinliiiarj- tti KiiKstu on 
2 Sept. 17U1, and retained the poAt for xix 
yt»n. In Sent^inbfr 1707, in a-ply to a 
^itHtton frotu Hnrlvy.bogaTe Romo infonna- 
tiou about l.Ue libmry at Moscow, In Sep- 
lembor 1700 ho was cominiasinnL^d to con.- 
gratulatH ibv csar upon kit victory of Pul- 


towa. Peter aeiied the opportunity to de- 
mand thtiiustaiiivxL-cuciou of all ihupi'reonA 
concerii'i'd in the arresi, and tinpri.tuniiii'ut 
fnrdebt of his Loudon onToy.SlotCof. Whit- 
U'ortli Imd dilliculty in expLainini; how iio- 
poartible it vaa for his royal miiitKaA to 
complywith thv czar'* wish; but, tliuotrenders 
having r('e4^iTod a nominal punishment and 
on act haring been pawed by parliament for 
pnMrviug the privilege* of aubaMwdon, 
reterwu eventually appeaaed, and ma uei*- 
over highly gntilied by the Engliah enToya 
oddroaing uiui a» ' ump^ior' (ihu ineidi-nl 
in fiitlr tn«ted by \'oltair» in liii> Jlittvtrc 
df liuMif, nt. i, chap, nix.} ^SHian Wbit- 
wurth t<'o)cFii?i Leavn in May !710)ii«'cxnTisk 
maje.ity' pn&cntcd him with his [Mirtrait net. 
in diainonda (Li''rTHt;u. ; Ntoirf M.S. 223, 
f, 304 1. Un Ilia aecond miAriion to Moscow 
Whitworth found Calhuriiie I, whom on hia 
former embauy hvi bad known in a much 
humblor station, exaked lo the rank of 
empri'tv.und, if an anecdote may be believed 
whicli Walpole relates upon tboaulhority of 
Sir Luke Schaub [(|. v.], the empreoa, after 
honouring the cnror by dancing a minuet 
with btui, 'Ktjutvwa him by itu- hand, and 
wiid in n whijiptT, " Havf vou forgot lillle 

Early in 1711 linvraiiaent as ambanuulor 
to Vienna, but his endeavours to ovurcome 
the reuii^suHH of theimperial court in making 
up their i)uota of troops for service undeir 
Marlborough wvreall in vain (MAHLUoUotroH, 
lirxpritrhr*, ed. Murray, Tol. r.psasim). On 
30 April 17U Whitworrli waa appointed 
Kngliflh plimipotentiary at the congretw of 
Radcn, where during llie following xummur 
were ultimBlely n-ltli-d tlin t»-rm!t of [wjirti 
bftwcen the emperor and the Krenck king 
(7 Sept.; Uakoks, Traif/t tir Pair, ii. App.) 
In 1716 he was appointed envoy-extrnordi- 
uary and plenipotentiary at the court of 
Priuaia. Next yt-nr lie waa transfcrrwl to 
The riagui' (wlii-nce ho Bent long accounts 
of nimourKii Jaiobite conspirum-s), hnl re- 
turned to Berlin in 1711*. Oti I'Jdu. 1730- 
1721 be wan created Iteron Whitworth of 
I'iiilnay, in n-cognilion of hia diplomatic ser- 
vices, and a IttlK' later, in Fi-bniary 1721-2, 
bf wo«apiioint.-d, in ronjunrtion with Lord 
Pulwarlh, British plonipotentiary at the fon- 
grwis of Cantbray (!*■ '■>- '32). He voictd 
tbu EuglisU protest against itie secret treaty 
recfittly concluded b(.-tw«i.-n France- and 
Spain, and prouurvd the adhesion of Dubois 
to another Imaty between (iieat Uritftin, 
Spain, and France. Ureal Britain undiar- 
took to replnce tJie Spaiiinb aliipa deatroyed 
by Byng otf Syranuan in August 1718, but 
i«cuied highly ad viintageous commerc iali'on- 





^Vbituroetli'a cluplntii nt tbo eon- 
^Sm wm Ilichan) Clicnevix [q. v.] Tliis 
wnit liU lii*l <li]iluiiintic lu'lilvri-iueiit. Ho 
Hfitil'^J in Lnnduii.and was in 1722 roluravd 
to purliunwni n» m«ml>vrfor Newport in tlie 
Isl« (<f Witflit. Hilt heMth, liowevfir, wiu> 
not K^xi; litsphviiciaii,I)r. Arbiithiiot, tiild 
Swi^ thatlvcliad practically curM the nmbim- 
•wlorVvertigobyapreecriptioiiof Spawatem, 
but bis illtii-w. rc-curKd, and ho died at liui 
Iioueo in Oumrd yta-cl on SJ^ Uct, 17:i5. 
He wna buried in The «>Qtli aislt? of West- 
minster AbWyon Nuv.(C'iiBsir.ii, liuriiU 
JXr^Ut^r, p. 'lirt). II<> married .Magila)i-un 
Jaooba, <!oiinteiM (li> Vaul^mont, wlio diet! 
ui I'-'M, but ho U'fi no >«>n« and tlit^j)««ni^ 
biXMimn n^Ttnct. Iliit will, dated Berlin 
2- 13 Miircli 171'2-3, was provf d -m 1 \h>c 
by lii» brtithfr, Franci* Whitworth [see under 
WitiTWoBTH. Siii Ohauleb]. 

.Macliv deat^ribes t!ic ambauodor a* a mnn 
of li^amini; and \^Mti ^i.'ust!, handsome, and 
of p«rfei:l. addri-ss. A threw-quarlt-r- length 
nartruit by Jack Ell vb (owned m 1867 by 
tguatwwl'>i'la Wurridfpicia IiimliotdiR^if ttii> 
hand of hia youthful nBph«w, and » pnpt.*r 
addrassod to liini as pli-nipnteulinry at tliu 
COOKTewof Camhray \Cat. of yationai Por- 
trattn, 1867, No, 3I>( ). Fnun a largi- iniaii- 
tity of TioIcK and ini-moranda that hft IrIY in 
nuinuiicript but owe piece has bpyn wlwcti'd 
for ]>ublicalion, 'An Aircniint of [tuxnia aa it 
was in the yoarl"IO. by Cliarlflfl l^ordWliit- 
worlh. i'riuted at tiirawbtrr;- Hill, Ki'iS.' 
Horace Walpolo.wlin wrote nnndvorlHcmBnt 
for tbv book, oUAiiit.-<l till* manuwriptibroueh 
lUcbnrd Owi-n (_"nmt)rid({t-* ^"l"' ] = *- imbridpi; 
bniieht it frum lliu liiii.' cjlW-t ivn of books 
rtflating t" lIuMia fr^nned hv /olninn, a secre- 
tory 0? Btepli«n Toya'K [ij. v.J U whs iv- 
friiilsd in thu si.'wvnil voliimo of 'Fugitive 
'it-ct'A'in I7<!'J, andagain in 17ti5 and 1771. 
Nummary lhQii(;h Whitworth's tn-slmitnt in 
of a rtiibjcct no intcr».'«inB, his bonk is nf 
valuv.and is U'jI uuiii*tlyconipawd by Wal- 
pultt tu Molc6wortbs aerount of Dinmivrk. 
The- auilturiiifiMi! larval f«ui9 for the Hussian 
anii» fi-om IUp ' passive valour* and endu- 
rau<?e of the t)ca»intry. TIib atwmut of the 
Ru»>^tan naval yard* (of wliinh thi' [wraoitni^l 
wa« almost entirely En^li<;h) nt iht.- i-nd of 
the rotHmp isapwciallyciinnuit. WliitworlJi 
hiniAfll'wflii in.itrumi^iital in I'lOinsimdinR 
oTur a number of English Kla»«-blowt>rs to 

Thirty volumeB of Wtiitworth'a oHicinl 
oorrMpundeiiCH are prwcrved iimonp tlie 
psperfl of Kfirl Dc !u Wnrrnt llurkhurst iu 
Siiiwdi. .Many of bin iettcra are among tlia 
Stair Pupenf (Hut. MSS. Comw. 2nd and 
43nl l{i-ps.) 

[Walpol«''a oceotiDt ot Wliltirorch piafizadto 
Ifap Arcount of Huioiiii, I'^K; QttHK» LewitV 
St-rnuia iirnncli'd at ^Vontiam.Sl Oeu 173S, upou 
iht iluith of Iliiibt Hon. the Lor() Wbitworth; 

a. R CiokaTtniJ'ii Complete Peernp''. riii. 131 ; 
Bur1c«'»Bxiiii<!t Feemso, p. J82; Cole'» Alhwnw 
Canuhr. xIt. 338 ; WoleVa AInmni Wcatraon. 
jip. 2?7, 23B; Luttn-Us Ilru-t Hist. IWnlior, 
vi. 07. <fl1,586. 580. ft9«; Bi>y«r'« Krign of 
Annc.l73a. pp. 307. 31IR, 4M.«<rt,664; Swiff* 
Worlm. ed. SoM. iv. S43. xvi. 423; i'arl. Hirt. 
ri, 782; Wwntuiijrtti ["ftpBrii, p. 1 1 ; Wnlpolu'it 
Royal and Nublo .Vuthur*. «1. Tnrk. v. 235, and 
C<itTe»pi>adcoM. iii. 161, 1«7 ; Pialcertoa's Wal- 
poliann. 1793; Ui«t„ Retf. Cliron. Djiiry. 17^*. 
p. i6. cf. 1 728 p. 40 ; Kotcs and Quwiw, «th 
•cr. iii. ii9, 197. 7rh wr. i. »». 18» . fttoBthly 
ftcvifw, x>x 439; Bril.Miu.. CaL ; StoweMSS. 
223. 22i, i'Z: (U-tl-ir* U) Robelhon) ; Addit. 
M.SH. 28Io.>(1btl«nt bi Sir J. Norris), Z8»U2-IS 
(lo J. Ellin), 32740(10 Lord Walpole),] 

T. S, 


1778), author, born about 1714, wa« the 
eldest *on of Francis Whitworth of Ley- 
1'Oitnn', Kent, tilt? vt>uiig«r brother of Charlea, 
baron Whitwortfi [([. v.] FranuL<< MHilt- 
worlh was M.P, for Mitwlii^d from May 
\7'J^. lie was flpnniniedftfrenllpman usher 
of thi3 privy chamuer to the king in Auj^unt 
1 7-f*. survcyf>r-gpnL'ral of woods anil forfsls 
in March 17'i2. and secretary of the island 
of llarbftdos ; llu-s>? uflire» ho h«lid until his 
death on « March 171:*. 

Chnrlw Wbttworlli entered parliaiaeTit for 
Alineliead ai the f^moml election of 1717, 
reprijiwntt'd that pookct borontih in two 
paTlianii-nta until 17UI. and then sat for 
Blelchin^ly from 1761 to 1708, when he w»» 
one* nion?rpliirnt'd for Mi»t-liead. In Octo- 
biT 177-1 he migrated to East Loo<j, but at 
the«nd of the yenrac^cplfd ihi- bUi wardship 
of thf Chilu-rti Hundri'iis, and wa," choe«n 
for Saltasli the following Janiiarr, Whit- 
worth wa« a crcat student of pariininontary 
cu»tomi^ J in .May 1768 \i« waa chosen chaii^ 
ninn of ways and raeann, and, being rmip- 
pointed at tht mevlii7g of the succeeding 
piLrliamvn L in 1774, dischar^fed ita dntlM 
until his death, lie ruceivwl the lionoor of 
knigblbrw-l on 1M Aug. 1708 (TOWWIXH, 
CatahV't^ of Kiiufhts^, and hisnamo appeara 
ill ihe liFt of those who vntwl for the expul- 
sion of Wilkes in I7fil>, He was appointed 
lioMtenanl-governor of Gravesend and Til- 
bury fort (under Lord Gadogati) in August 
17rjS (Gent. May.), and this command he 
hrhl for twi'nty ytiant until his diaith. AMien 
the we^rem lialtnlion of the Kent militia 
was euili<idi«/l on 2:i June 1 7511, Whitworth 
heranif* its major. Being chtwim ouo of th? 
Tice-presidents of tlw tJociety for the En- 





kt of AiU, Muufocturea, and 

ComiiiCTCirt, « it4 mectifis-on 28 F«h, ]7fi5, 
be Bupponed the society during tbe rest of 
bi< life. Httvlnp; inherited from lits father, 
wlio wiia ihv Sim of liis fumily to HvLtlv 
then.', tb« ("itate of LeybuuniM (fraaj^, near 
Town Mullinf^.io K^rnt, Whinvitrlh ri^iiltfd 
tlu-n; until L77II, when, ivilh liin i-ldtvit Mitt'* 
<:on^nt, he ohtainpd a private att of parlia- 
inifnl H-liicli <<nabl«d him lo sell l.t^lKiume, 
aQilhftlK^reupon remoTftfl tft.Slanmore. Af. 
the tim? of lii« death he wsa also ^at«d at 
ttlBchronl. !^mtru:t. tie d\ed at Itafh on 
ti-2 Aiig. 177i*. 

VVhilwi^rtbi married, on 1 Junp 1740, 
Martba. oldest daugliUir of Richard Shttlk-y, 
-who waA deputy raofrer of HL Jamtta'a and 
Hyde Park, and ckHirman of tlte hoard of 
stomM at htDclfitlh on :^SC}<:t. l/uA. Whit^ 
■worth left four ilaueht<-r» aiid ihivtis itonii, of 
wbum Charles {17-j:i-ISl*51[q. v.], the eldest 
aoii, beciiimi Furl Whilworlli. Sir Franc in, 
ibt! second imiii, was a lieutenant-rolonel in 
tlin rnynl iirtttWy, nnd<Ii«>don 'Jti Jan. 180">, 

Xd 4fl; and Itirlinril, wbo was a captain In 
royal imvy, wan Wt at aea. 
WTiitworth compiled soveml works of 
refereact>, which, tliouRb UAvl'ul in thwit dnv, 
bavelong boen Eti]>crst>iled. Thi^y intludt^: 

1. * Suocessiou of l*u.rliiim<.'uts frum the fte- 
«tOTalion to 17lil,' Ij'iriil<in, 17<!4, )^wo. 

2. * A Collection of the Supjdipn and Way* 
uiil -Means from tho Itevotution to the I're- 
iwnt Time," London, 17^1, I'Jrao; thid odit. 
1765. if. 'A List oftbeNobilityand.lud^e^,' 
I^ondon, 1766, 6vo. To the ItHH edition of ^ 
DaTid IJoyd'a ' Stato Worthies ' Whil n-urUi 
COonribui^tlio 'Characters of the KiiifTs and 
QoecnsofKogland.' lu 1771 uptiL-arci ' The ' 
Political and (.'-ommprcial Work* of Oharli-* \ 
D'Avi;naut. colloL'l«d and revised bv Sir : 
O. W.;' and in 1778, t.lin ihird «ditlon of | 
Timothy Cutiningham'fi ' HiKiory of the j 
Otixtonu, Aids, Subsidies, &c., of England, 
with BfiTerallmprovomcnu suggesti-dby Hir 

[Burke's Ex U net Pevmj^; Ollic-ial Return of 
lumban of ParliAmoni; Ueni. Mar.] 

W. R. W. 


Whitworth f 17.^-1825), «m and h.'ir of 

I Sir Cbarli-H Whitworth (a nephew of Charlea 

I Wbitworlfa, baroM Whilworth of fialuny 

I rq.T.]>,wa«baptiae{lat Leybonrdf on 2ltMay 

175± tlKwassducaledatTunbridRe school, 

^luH preceptors thfre ineludinf; Jitm>'s Cnw- 

^Hjbom [ci. v,J and 'Mr. Tow«rs' {TimOrt'iiffe 

^^mAaol iifyiaUr, l^^f^, p. 13). He enbered 

^^Be fii«t rerimeot of foot^unrd>i in April 1 77'i 

^^^ on^ijnit 1>ecaine captam in May liBl.aiid 

' wtacveaiujilly on 6 April ITSiJ appointed 

li«ut«Daot-coloiiel of Ibe 104th r«^ment. 
nia transf«rvnc« fmm militar}- life to diplo- 
macy ia not ea»y to explain, but in tha 
Aceounr f^iveii by \Vraxall, disHf^urt^d though 
it is by maliciuii8 or purc-ly fanciful em- 
broidery, there ia peruaiis a nucli-ua i»f 
truth. Wliicworth wu' highly favoured hy 
iiat.un-, and hi* nddn-mi Mxci^itml Hvun his 
ligur-:. At every period of bis life (]iii>piis, 
ditch > ■»««», and founl.wge* Imvn showerwl on 
him thpir rpgard. The Duke of i)onM., re- 
cently sent ambassador to Fomcp (17S3), 
Vinff an intimoti- frifod of Mr, Whitworth, 
made him known to the iju^-n (Marie- 
Antoincttc), who not only distiuguislietl 
bim by flntterini' marks of ht-r atluntion, 
but iiiliTcHted herself in proniQliug bin 
fortune, which then stood gn-atly in nt^d of 
such patrooagt!.' The good oincra of th« 
queen and Dorset, acconling to thia autho- 
nly, procunxl for Whitworth lu June 1785 
ItiN iijipointmenl. ma ••ciroy-extraordinarv and 
miiiisitT-plenipitenliary to Poland, of whicb 
country the tiiifiirl.iinRic Klanislnu' FoniJt- 
tow.ikl was still tbe nominal mannrrb. Ho 
was at Warsaw diirinK the troublous period 
imm^fliiitidy pnioisiinptlii' second partition. 
JIocallHl early ni thai Tear, he was in the 
following August nominated anvoy-oxtra- 
ordimiry and miniBier-pI^tiipott-ntiary at St. 
Pftfrsburjt, a post which ho held lor nearly 
twelve years. 

Whitwortli ■was well wicoivfil by Cfttht^• 
rine [I, who waa then at war with Tiirkuy, 
but the hnrmonv between the two couiitriea 
wad di«turh';d (luring tb« wintar of I7(*0-1 
by Pitt's subscription to the view of thu 
I'ru^iiian gorcmment that the ihrt-o allies 
— Fu^Iflud.l'ruissia, and IlolUind — could not 
with impunity allow the balance of power 
111 Kaaluru Europe to bu disturlwd. Pill 
bopod by a menace of sending n Ilriiiah 
fleet to tbe Baltic to constmin Ilussiii to 
iDakv nfiBtitution of its chipf com|u»-st, 
( >CMkow and the adjoining territnir a^ far 
OS tbe Dniester, and thus to realise uis idi^ 
of confinitig the ainbitinn of Rusaia in The 
south-east as well as that of Franco in the 
north-west portion of l^urope. The Itussian 
gnvt^mmcnt replied by an uncomproininiug 
mfusal to listt^n to the proposal of reatilu- 
tion. War begun to Ik' lalki'd of, and Whit- 
worth w^nt in a luemor&iiduni in which bit 
dwelt upon the strength of the czarina's 
dctermsnntion nnd tbti gn-M dioplay of 
vigour that would be necessary to overmme 
it. In the spring of 1791 ho wrote of a 
Fn'ncli odvcnturfr, named St. Oiiiit^r, who 
had appeared at 8t. Petersburg with a plan 
(•)? invadiug Bengal by way of Cu»hni4.-rL>, 
andiu Julv liucooimuuicatod (o (jrvuviUt! u 

M 2 




circamstantiAl account of n plot to bum tha 
Snrluh Hfut «t l*orl«moulB l>y lai-uiit of 
Imh ■.nil other inci'ndiaric4 in Itiiwinn pay. 
Intho nouitiini; Piit had become aUnnod 
at tbv opp<Milion to bia Kusai&n policy iti 
piirlinronnt, Borhe and Fox both utterini; 
pon-errul «|i«ircb^ mgmliut the natunticin •<( 
OpMkfvw tn tin* Portfl, and oarly in April 
1791 & toeMvnfc^T wm Imi'tily liespalched to 
St. IV-tcrsbnrji: Jo k^ back iho ultimatum 
wbich Wbiiworib bad on 27 MaJtrli been 
ordered topivMrnt to thecmprpM. His rcla- 
tioDH with the Kuuian court vrvrv now fnr a 
Hbort period eonsidcrably utrained. Cathe- 
rine, elated by n>cent victories of Suvnrof, 
Boid t<» him witii fin ironical «nil«^i 'Sir, 
since the king your mft*ti;r is determined to 
drivo mo owl f>f IMentbnrjr, I hope h<y will 
pormir me to roiim to (."oiiBtaiumopIw ' 
(TooEK, Lf/c vf Catharine II, iii. 284). 
Gradually, Itrtwi'Vpr, tlmiugh tbo infliifnco of 
Madnrnti Gsrepiof.tbu eii^lvrof thefuvourite, 
tW celt^braterl /.iibnf, tiiid in consenuencc of 
the nlarni wcili'd in Uitt mind of CBtherint' 
by the courae thioffs wtfre inking in France, 
whitworth moro than recovered bis poEiltou. 

Great BritainV inllu'tnce upon the peace 
finally conclndM at Jaftsy on 9 Jan. 1792 
wiifl. it i« IruL', little more than nominal, lint 
"ft^iitworth iiblained floma credit for the 
RchieTptnpnt, tHjfL'tliLT vfiili llie cnjea of a 
K.B.O" Nov. 17iW). Wraxairaatatcmpm 
that the relations between Wbiiwonh and 
Madame Qer^piof vrrr. Himllar to tbosc^ 
between Marlborough and the Ducboss of 
Cleveland te utterly inrrvdiblc (w-e Qiucr- 
tfrhi litriew, DwemW 1R36, p. 470'). 

Thu gradual rapyru'-fmnmt betwi't-n tb« 
Tiewd of KuMLn and Enf;l(iod wa.i brought 
about muiuly by the common dnend of any 
wvolutionnrv infrction from the quort«r of 
rrnncc. imd in February 179!i Catlierinewas 
induct-d to itipn a preliminary tr<?atT, by th« 
terms of which she waa to furaiah tlie coali- 
tioii with at least aixty-fivr ihotLoand men 
in return for A Inrffe monthly subsidy from 
tbo Briliak government. TVih trwiy was 
jiiBtly rtgiirdedaaa triumph for Whitworth's 
diplomiiey, though, unfortiinaliOy, iiwl l>r- 
forc tlip date fixed for its final ratificatinii. 
by both countrifs, the ciarina was struck 
down by mortsl illness (Fi:bru«ry I'Sfi). 
Paul I, in his dcalru 10 adopt an orig^inal 
policy, refuwd to alfii bis signature, and it 
was not nntil Jrnio 179S that ibo outrage 
committed by (he l''rwiipli upon the ordor 
of the knigbta of St. John at Malta, who 
bad choaeo lum for thrir prot^ielor, dispoAed 
bim to listen to thp snliciiationa of Whit- 
■worth. The latter oblainpd his adLenion to 
Mn alliance with Or«ftt "Britain offenaire and 

defenBive,wi!b thcobJMtof putting a stop to 
the runht.'r eacroachmenta of FnuH!t),inI)o- 
c<'rober ]7iit*, and the trwty paved the way 
for the r>perations of Suvorof and Koraokof 
in NoHheni Italy and tfatt Alpa. 

Whilworlh was now at the renith of hia 
p.ipularitY in St. P«t«rsburfr, and Paul 
pnisst^ tfie British (rovemraoat to rai«p liim 
to )br I^t^.•nlK^'- Tbi- r«K(ueet woe readily 
Romplira with, and nn 21 Maroh 1800 the 
ambassador nas madt' Baron \\'hitworlb of 
Newport Pratt in Ireland; but b^fon.' tba 
patent could reach him tho csar had bMfi 
reconcili-d to Xapoleon. Irritatml. ntore- 
ever. by ilto Briluih solxure and retention 
of Malta, J'nul abruptly di»Dii*s«d Whit- 
worth. and t hi-raupon commenced that ani^iy 
corrBspuiideucH which d<*velopl^d into tlio 
combiimiiiin of norihera pnwen agiusst 
Urcat Britain. 

In July IHKi Uii> xeiiiire of the Banish 
fnifalt' Freya for opposing thp Priliah richt 
of -tcnrrh I^ to strained relations with 
Benmark, and. in order to anticipate any 
bostib- move from Copt-nhogen, Whitworth 
waa degphtched in Au^%t on a special mis- 
sion to that capitaL To fiive the grvator 
Wright to bis roprewmtationii, a squadron of 
niui> sail of ibu line, with five fngatoa and 
four bombs, waa ordered to lb« Si^und under 
AdmiruJ Dickson. The Danish alinre hat- 
t<-ri<-M were aj> yet very JTicomplete, and Whit- 
wort li'a arigument!) forthetimo bcinj^ proved 
«"(K-tual. lie relumed to Knetaud on 
27 Sept., and on G Nov. was made a pi^^ 

tlii< former friend, the Duke of Dotaet, 
liad dti-il in July 1 709, and on 7 April 1801 
ho married the widowi-d duchi^^ (Arabella 
Dittua, daugbtLT of Sir Charles Cope, bait., 
bv Catharine, crib dau^ht«r of C««n Bishop 
oi Parham, who afterwards married Lord 
Livt^rpoolf. 8he was a capable woman of 
tbiny-two, with a taste for power and plea- 
»un>, Boys Wraxall, kept 'always eubocdi- 
nat* to ber economy.' By the <loatb of the- 
duke she came into poeaesaion of 13,000/. a 
year, bcsidea the borough of East Oriusteod, 
while Dor»ot Huuse iiud Knolo Parit sabae- 
quentlr passed into hnr liandii. 

Thw feace of Amiens wa^ concluded on 
^7 March ISO:?, aiul Whitworth, wbo«v 
means weir now fuUvadM)nate tn the situa- 
tion, was chosen to nil the important post 
of ambassador at I'ftri.t. lli« infltructioii* 
wKnj datod 10 Sept. IMJi', and two months 
later he act out with a large train, being r^ 
reived at Calais with enthusioHa: aeonsid«r- 
able pL-riod bad elaps<-d since a British amboa- 
sttdor had bt^vu ttcun in France. Tie was 
presented to Napoleon and Mate, Bonapnrtj- 










en 7 Dec, aod eli dajs Inter his wifv wiie 
received At t^:. Chud. Tlia duch'-ia, whoff 
lisutvur wu very pronounced, Im<l coiuiiiler- 
abl« sCTUplrH nbnul callin^r iipnn rlif wife of 
TaUcvrand. \n early ii» i3 iAjc, W'liitwwrili 
nMmtioiui in a despnTi-li the niiiiuur Hint lh« 
first consul was mL-dilatin^ u divorcu from 
bis yvih md Ihn aK«ut»j>ti(iii of ihv nn|ii:TiaI 
title, hut during his first iwa moiifh-t' so- 
journ in Pari* thfini ewtiH'd a lacit ajfivg- 
Bifiil to ftVnid dtMif^ivialili- fiiil>Wt>*. Xnpo- 
luou ignored the attacks of the En^fUeUprvae, 
tite retention of Miiltit, mid tho nrotmctrvil 
erncuation of Kg\-pt, while Kiigluiid ki^pi 
tiil«un> u to the rvccQt Frt^ncti ■gKf»'**'o"s 
in HoUunO, I*i>.-dniunt, Klbii, PiLfutu, uiiii 
Hwitxarltttitl. TLi!ltritii>li|;»vc!niu)>t*iit wert-, 
however, obatin&te in thrir refusal lo quit 
Jlalta autil a guamulm.' had Ixwa si^iod by 
thi^ vitriniift powern en»urinff the poMt^Mion 
of ih<> iEkiid to tUe knignts of St. Joba. . 
Thi" diHii-idiV; which cnnnfilutpd tWdnrkwHt 
cioud on iht> iliploinHtii: horizon, waa Bret i 
;aiwd by Tallcvrund oil :.'7 Jan. 1803. Three 
later was piiblishiic) a report filltn? 
;eeof tht! ' Mmiileur' from Colonvl 
If vlullBd bten Bont by Napoli^on 
m RpAclal n^ion of inquiry to lH,'ypt. 
In thtft re|(ort military iiiirinuotiun wns 
frvvly int4;r*ipcr^i.-d withrt.'ii:iirk^di»]Hirn^n^ 
to Knalnnd, in which cotintry thi> document 
woH plauaibly imi'rjirfti.'d ar" a pn-fnct' lo a 
Moond invafion of EfiTpt by llm Fri^nch. | 
TTie AdditiKton miiii»lry conwquentty in- 
fltmcled Wbitwonli, (lirouKh (he fvrci|/ii 
mint8t«r IlaTrkp«b(irv, to atilfcri hi<> back 
a^aiiut anv <h'tnKnd fur tbi- iirutupl ovucuu- 
tion of Malta. On 18 Kib. Napoh-on aiuw- 
moned the ambateador, and, bUlt a §tomiy 
outbunt of rh^rT'irir, crmfhi'It-d with thr> 
meniorablc appeal. ' ['niasona-noiiK jiliniil 
qiir di- nous coinhnltre, et nnua rARlerons 
pnseinhlfi Ifi.t di"*rini^ft du mnndr,' Any 
eiRnilica'ici.' that this offer might hare hail 
was more thiin iii-ntmli»cd by lite lirat oon- 
fiol's observatiou. 'Of aont \h» haKiilrtllea' 
^much eommfuted upon in I^nglMnd), when, 
in answer lo reproai-lies about Multa, AVhit- 
worth hinted at tht! auam«iLtal inn uf French 
piwi-r in Pi(.dniont, Switzerland, and elsb- 

The L-riaJB, of pxtremfi impoManffl in the 
car-'cr of Xaiiiilflctti ('il StJiit arriv^,' aays 
I^anfri^y, 'h I'inslant le nhiH rrilinui^ do OA 
carrion- '> us wetl as in the nistorj- of £ii|fland, 
wAi arrivi-d at on 13 March IMf.fc'), ihi- datti 
of the iamoufl scene between Nu|hd<3<>ii iind 
tbt> British ambnsaador iit thi> ToLlerit*. At 
thf cloM of a vioh'nl tirado lufon; a full 
court, interrupl<>d bv aftidrji tu fuTi'ign diplit- 
mattttta I'xpn-aaivu of the had faith of the 

Dritisb, Napoleon exclaimed loudly to 
Whitworth, ■ Miilhour n c^'ux ((ui nc rc^peC- 
tenc pas Ifit traitis. Ili> fu si-roai roapoD- 
Mbleft ik touti* I'Kunipe.' ' He waa too 
agitated,' eaye the amhawndDr, ' to prolong 
Ibe funvfriiation : I t littrefore tuadn no 
uoawtT, and he retired to his anartmenc re- 
peating thrr last phniKf.' Two huiiilrvd 
p«op|p Ucarft this convcrBBtion('if such it 
can be called '>, ' and I am pcrBuadt>d,' adds 
Whitworth, 'that tlie>rv was not n fingle 
peraon who did not feel the extreme impro- 
prifiv of hid Londiict and tbo total want of 
dignity m wi-11 iia of di^ceni'y on the occa- 
sion.' T!i8 intwrview waa not, however, & 
final uiio (ba haa ottv.n erront'uusly bt<cn 
BlHlfd). Whitworth wa» rBCMvwd by tlie 
first ciinBul onca again on 4 April, when tha 
COTVb diplvmatiijuu wvro kept waiting tor an 
audimr^e for four bi)Ur« wbib- Napoh-on in- 
ape{!t<2d tnapsHcli?. ' When that ceremony 
wna iHtrfornw'd hp rtwiivpil ii«, nnil I hud 
every reason to bi* .-iat i.'fii'd wilb his manner 
towards lup ' (Whitworth to flawki_'»bnry, 
4 April ISOSV XapoK'fin wL^IiL-d to tem- 
porise until hi« preparations w^re a little 
more advanced, but the nourparitrt honce- 
forth hud little reiilsignilieauci-. On 1 May 
an iridispijsition prt-vent«l the amboMador 
from attending thu ret-'cptian at thi- Tuiloriott, 
on 1- May he detnundird his pn«8pnrt«, and 
on 18 May Britain ditclart'd war agaiuet 
l-'niTice. Wbitworih reached London on 
2U May. having L'nct>uritcrp<l th« Frtnch am- 
buSHudur, .VndrtyMy, three days earlier at 
IJnVfc ((lAHniUl, Traitis de i'aiv, viii. 100- 
lol). Throughout thu trying accnvt with 
tht> firxt consul, Ina demeanour was gene- 
rally admitted to have hten marked by n 
dignilv and ilil imfmi.'ifn'!iU worthy of the 
Ix-dt traditinna of aristocratic diplomacy. 

Irritated by hta failnm to stun bitn by n 
displfly of violence (snch aa thm which fkad 
»o daunted the Venetian pleniput-cniiiineH 
before tbo tnvily of Pnmpo Fomiiol. Napo- 
leon did not hoitati! to Hiiggei<t in one of 
hui iiiunmla that Whitworth had Imwo privy 
to lbs murdur ufPaul I in KuHFia. At 8l. 
ilrilrna in July 1^17 Uv alludi-d to Kim with 
calmnepa aa 'habile' and 'adroit,' bill h« 
alwavs maintaincil fhnl tin- nr^'-'-jiLiHi ver*iou 
of thft cid.'bmi' '! I.! March wa« 

' plein dea faun ' < -omit pnnt'td 

■u S'otfA nnd Qunw, Is:, .^t. v. .IIS), 

After his return, not occupying a seal in 
either house nf parliament. Whitworth Mnk 
for ti-n yirnrv into comparative insignificance, 
but in lt<lU, owinn; to bia wife'a connection 
with Lord Liverpool, bu waa laado OL 
2 March a Ion! of tin- Iwdehaitiber to George 
in, and on H Junn vas appointed lord liou- 

Whitworth - 



trnnnt of ttvlaiid, in succ^Mion to the Dalte 
of Nichuiiinil, a post wliicli bti h<jld tmtU 
()c;toI>fr Ihir. In lb« uanic ninnlli lif wa» 
cnailfd ail Kngliali peer a-i Vifcount Wliit- 
Hurtli uf AilbuDtoii; on *J Jnn. IHlo h'- wn* 
protDotcd tn ihe gnnr] crrAi of llif Bath, 
■ik] on '.'A Nov. wu civateti Jtami] Adbuton 
and EnrI 'Wliitwonii of AdbftAton. AtUit 
Ibv rvvtorutiou of the lk>urboii» in Prance, 
which at A political ciprdient lie hiffbly 
approved, be vi&iiud i'aris iit April 1^19 
with tbe DucheM of [)ors«it and a numerous 
tmiii. Ili» oflSeinl cajxaoilv was dt.'Dt«d, but 
he w«B g^nt^rally iWnieti to bam bnfn 
cliargtrd witb a mis^inn of nbs«rvBtion. lie 
*i*it<^ I.oiiii* Will «nd thtt priticv-x, but 
canifully avoided any inifrview with Ibe 
inini»tiTji. Ht^iwisiti'vIPikris in (lit* follow- 
ing Octolwr on hi* way to Nft|ili'«, vrhpTV b« 
was rfctived with groat iliatinrtion, tltoit^h 
iiolittcn! significnnofl was agnln diKclnimed 
for ihfl visit. Hfi iN'fiiniod tn KnpUnd and 
FiKttled at Knole I'nrk in I81.'(t, bt4 UbI pub- 
lic nppttnrailLV iMinc as OMistant lord sewtT 
at the coronation of Oeorgv IV on 19 July 
16*21. He d\(^ without iseuc at Knole on 
13 May 1820, whvu nil lii« honours bccniiii' 
extinct. Ill* will wu* proved on .10 May by 
tliP Duulicw< of Dursut, Ilia universal l<?mlt!*^t 
Ihe perwoiiBllv Iwin^ ■worn undir "O.WKW. 
lilt' ducheHtilifd at Knoleon I Aucr-iitllow- 
inff, ami was btiri^ on 10 Ang. at wiihyam, 
SiLVtex, twenly-lwo hor««n«'n following her 
remains to the );(rave. lUr oiilv son (by her 
first husband), the fourth Ihite of IXtrsft, 
having <}Uh\ in l9I-'5, bwrlnrgv popcrtvMwti* 
matMl at 3o,0UUA jier annum) wu* divided 
bclwoeu \ivT two tuii^-in-lnw, thi* KnrU of 
Plymouth and Hf la Warr. ' KtKiIn in Ki>nt 
waa judiciously bei|U4»l1)wl to the forui"r, bo 
bring llin nrlirr itmn of tin* two, nn l)it< ex- 
press condition that hi.'i Inrdfihip Ahauli) 
i;x^nd6,000A per annum on this favourite 
teudence of th.- Swkvilli-* for w^veral cen- 
turies ' iSumtJc Herald, ap. Uent, Mttji. \&2% 
ii. ft*-). 

Whitworth, cccorttinff lo Noiioleoa, was 
n 'fort b«] lioinmc-' (Mhrional ilif Snmt^ 
JIHhm, ed. 1^02. p. 104, April, Mnv, .luty 
1817], and tbi>> d>*M-rijiliun i* ronfirnKHl fay 
th» portniil by Sir Thoinaa Lawreiwe, an 
enipiiviiig from which iippenrs in Doylv's 
' Official Baronage.' Then- iii a very fin* 
meixotint engrsviug of this portrait by 
Charles Tunier. Tim originol fomsoneof 
the small collection of Jtrilijh mosterit in the 
Ixntrre at I'nrin. A portrait of 'Captain 
AVIiitwortb ' of much i-arlier dntu, ongraved 
by l{, Lnuriu afli-r A. (iralf, ia identified 
by J. ChulutHT .Smith as a portrait of tbe 
diploniaUHl {.Vfzsuiinto I'ttrlraU*, p. 80!)). 

(Tba bnc acoMiai of Karl MThitvorth hitherto 
araHablpislWt ialb»fiilu>tli TolDmeofthn Bio- 
Itfftpbfa Unirarwlle (Pari*. 1827). \>j Dr B«au- 
champ. A Terv Tttlaahlfl ■npptami'iil lotbiaia 
' KiicUnd himI Kapoleufi io \%0^, bviiig lb* l)w 
piicliea uf Lord Wliit»ortb aiMl othats . . . 
Irom Lb* origi&aU in lh« f^cconl OlIi>-<;.' rd. OMar 
Itrowtiiiii;. London. 1887. .S*e *]«> UojU'« 
OIHi-inl Itkimmge, iii. Md ; BurkvM £s.LiBL-t 

I I'suragi, p. M3; 0. E. C^ok&TnoI'a CouipleU 
JVnige, viii. 133: TimM, 17 May 1825; U«iil. 
Maff. 1S2S. ii. 74. 371. M7: Asnual R^nlntf, 
1800. 1803. 1825: Wraxnll'e Biat. Mamoirs, 
IHS4. ir. SI aq. : I'aDllicv>n of t!>n A^i. IBSS.iii. 

' 6flU; OcoT^iiui VJrx, i. &M; So:iM's l.ifnof Napo- 
I«>ii. V. 39 »<], ; ViMi SjrUrn Frtacti RtrolntioB, 
18S7. ii. 3tl0»ii.: Le.-k/* lli»t. af I^lnna iu 
Iba Ei];hlpnitti Ccntui^, v. S'O m.\.\ Ali»oD'B 
JliA. (mT Europe, \Qli.i('.<r.pnwini: Lady BUa- 
iMirhaMCt '8 Talleyrand. \V.'M, ii. &»-ll3. ICam- 
land and J<Briaa«'« U»t. G^-nontU-. Tol. vir. ; Mar- 
lin'sUi&t. deKmD«d«fiuiat7HU,iii.2D3^i I^in- 
ffcyj. Hirt. do Napoli-oo Premirr, 1862, toL iii. 
ehnp. i«. ; MorelV Earope wl U U«rolutian Fran- 
•T'tMf. ISO'J. vol, ir. pabiRi. A cooaidantbl^ pur- 
tt«n a( Wbiia>orths<liploa>atiecorrwpoi>dftn«La 
(•TrMTTod MiDoag !!)• Addil. HSS. 38062-S 
(lailvrsM ibeDokgorLveds. 1787-00), 33410 
tr. 13(;-3 ll^tter* to Jrfmy Brntlian), 34430 
(Isllon to Lord .imkUnd. 1790~9A), 34432 (to 
\\it. Duk< of l«i^. 1790-91), and 34437-63 (ti> 
Lord nreoritlc I791'3),I T. 8. 

1887) baronet, int-chanival engineer, the (no 
ofCharlea Whilworlb <,<!. lii Jan. Irt70), a 
adtoolnusier, and eventuullv a consTCga* 
tionalist minister, fir»t al. ^^hel1«'r, Leeds, KoA 
then at Walton, neur LiviT^iooI. b^ .^samh, 
daughter of Joaepb llolae, wnibom at SlO«k- 
port on 21 Der. li^US. In l«ir> ha was ient 
from his rather'* »cb»ol to William Vint's 
academy at Idle, near l^eeda, where he rv 
iiiain<.-<l until he wai> fuurt>.t'U, being then 
placet) with hia uncle, a colton-tipinnrr in J 
Di'pbvdiirfl. Hi! mastered lh« catifltniciion ■ 
of vvttry machine in thi<plnce, but. like Watt 1 
and liabbage, he found that the mMohinnry 
was very imperfect, and true workmanship 
in ronik^n«nce rery ran*. The prospect of 
a regular business partnership was not aUu^ 
ing to bim ; he wa» ulrradv coascioua of tfa« 
t rue bent of lus genius, ati J, being unaUe to 
emancipate himM>lf in a more r«^ar manner, 
he ran away tu Manchester. There in 1^21 
be entered ibe iliop of (Brighton jb Co., ma- 
chinists, u a working mechanic. His firat 
ainbitiou was to b« a good workman, md 
h« often in later years said that the happiest 
day he ever had was when he Qn>t eamod 
joiimr^vman's wages. 

In rebruarj' 1825 be married Fanny. 
youngest daugtiter of Itich&rdAnkerB,a far- 



merof TiTTin in Chcrtiirc.iind iliortly iiftpr- 
wonl* eniered ilie workubup of Maiidalay &, 
!'■>. iu the \\'es[iu inciter ltrtiit;e I'oad, I.oniiloii 
[bl-oMil'd.ilat, HcxuvJ. Mau(t)<la,v liooii r«- 
ctyaMHtl l)i.« rxoi-|itioiial tnleut, and }jluc«it 
him Belt loJnhtillnmp.s<}ii,(i Y'lrktihiriniim, 
tbptup't worktumi ui tliHi-nljiljliKlim'-iit. Hrre 
■Wliitwortli matlp hin first preni. diacoTery, 
tlitl of n tnily planx surfnce, hr mcrin* of 
which for all ^inrt.<r.f sliding Ii-xils frictional 
Keietsnce mighl be reduced to a niinimiitn. 
bletn W'Uilwortb imded bycomplel^'ly ^olviriif 
it. The most utcuratc plniics hitlit.'rlo liud 
bc«aublaui>jdbj'llrHlpluiiiii),''iinil ibvn grind- 
ing th* Hurfitc*. ' My 'i™i ■'•■p." be siivh,' wta. 
to ab&ndon fprindinjf For »crft[iin(;. Takittfr 
tiru nurfui^cii iii> UTurnti.! im tin- pliminff timl 
could mnko rliein, I muted one of ihftm ibinlr 
with colouring uiotUT iind nibbud tbf olLtT 
oirr il. Hud thv two »iirfiic<w hf'n inn' tin* 
colouring matter would liuve Hprt'iid ilwlf 
uniforcnly over th* upjwr oni*, Il ni^tpr did 
80. but Apnii>nnrd in vjintf and |wilrbi*ji. 11i<>Ht^ 
tnnrked llie em in truces, whirli 1 ivmnved 
with ft wrnpinp tool till the eiirfiiccs bccntno 
STEdually tiiore coincidtiiil. ilul tli*! co- 
ineidvnco of two sttrfacefi would not ]iroT(> 
tbvm to bu plniivui. If tbo omi nt-rv concnw 
and th* other convex Mw?y roig'ht Mill coin- 
cide. I EOt over thU ditiiculty hv tnkiiig a 
thin) surracM and ndjnatin^; il to l>otb of Ihtt 
others. Wer\' ono of the InttiT coiiciivo aivd 
the other Gonvei, the third plnne coiiti) not 
eoinctdi' with both of them. Bv n scric-s of 
comperivons and udju^lmfnlfi I inad*: all 
thr^e suHarcfl cnincide, and tbcii, and tioT 
befoni. Vavvi Ibul I Imd iruu pkuvi^' {Brit. 
Amioc. ftau. ISIO; Inti. .Vei-Jian. Knijint^in 
pTOT. le-j(J; Presidential A'ldrrfs at (ilus- 
ffotr). Till! iia|Hir(jiiir» of ttii» diiwovcry can 
luirdly be ov«>n-slininled, for it laid the 
foundatiim 6f an entirely tiow Flandard of 
accuracy in mcclianicjil rontitnirtifin. 

On leuving MaudelayVWhitworth. worked 
Bt TlolUtftprti'tV. «tid afterwardis at tbi^ work- 
(diop of Joseph Cleiueiil, when.' Uabbngt-'s 
calctJiiting marbine « as at Ibat time in pro- 
c«mofcon>trucuoii[8(>ti RtTinAt;R.('iiAHLi»]. 
In lt*ya be letunied to MnriL-heiiler, where 
hurt'nivd IL room with stefimponer itiChort- 
tou Htre-*!, mid put up a figu. ' Jo»-pli Whtt- 
worth, tnol-niakfr.fpom London,' thus fniind- 
iingn worksbop wtiich sooTi bef«m« h model 
of K mechanical manufncnirinj; t^^iitblii'li' 
■lent. The next twenty years were devoted 
tnalnlrto tht-imprrjVLTOcnt of miichtHO tools, 
incluain^' the duplex luth<;,pluntn|;,driUing, 
slottinfT, shaping, and ulhcr maclilneA. 'I'heMt 
were all dinilnyed and b!f;hly cummcuded 
at the Great Kuiibitioii of IS.'j'l. A nutursl 

scqui?! to the di«cov«ry of thi- inic piano waa 
the intriHluclioiiofn sviiieiiiof meuFurymcul 
of ideal exnt-tness. This wsi elievl^d be- 
iwti'H IH^O iind If^jVt by ihi- concirption and 
de\elijpmput of Whil worth'* famouBnieiaaur- 
iit]; machine. A Fyittem of pliines was to 
arriingt^ Ibal of two pnralltd Kurfac)! tbo 
one call b(! moved nearer to or further from 
Lh« other by means of a Bcrt<w, the tnni» of 
which niAaMine the dUtanc(> over whirh ihti 
moving plane baa advanced or retired. Ex- 
perience! ahowcd thnt a Mi-el bar held he- 
iweeii the two pltuies would fall if tli4' ili»> 
lance b<.tweeu the t>urfecea were increased 
hy Kik incredibly ^loall amount. For mDV> 
ing the pl>^le«^Vhitwl■^th uiwd a scraw with 
[tvciity threads to an inch, fomiinf; ihv axlo 
of a hiTjcii whift dividrd ulung Itii rimum- 
ference into five hundred parts. By this 
means if the wbetd were turned one diviiiiunt 
till- trinvabV siirfiK'c wan adtaiiiW tir n-tin-d 
[Jo of a turn of the screw — that is by 
Tiriaii '^^ "" inrh. This uliffhl diHi-ninco 
wa« found BiiccewtfiiUv tn make the differ- 
ence between the steel bar being firmly held 
and dropping. .\ more delicate m[tchine,ftnl>> 
sequently made and deceribMl to the lii- 
Etitntionof Mcehamcal Ku^iueers in IHStt, 
niiith- p>:<rL'>'pliblv a dilTereiiuo of oiiQ tw^ 
millionth nf an inch. 

Ily meuoa of this KTadually perfected de- 
vice wm elaborated AVhilworth's nyrtem ot 
niandard mt^aAUro^ and gangej), which soon 
proved of such enormouiulilily to engineers, 
nut of alllheataRdnrdfi introduced hy Whit- 
worth, that of the urealeM immediate prac- 
li^-cil utility was doubtless his uniform 
syMtiui tjf H-n'W threads, tiret dulhiitely »ug- 
((ested in 1841 (ef. Minutes of i'lite. In*t. 
Ctvil Ertifl'netTS, 1841, i. Kj"), Ililherto tbo 
iicrew» uiicd in lilting iniirhiner}- hod lK?en 
manufactured ujinn no recognised principle 
or *y»tf>m : eweh workahop bad u tyjie of ita 
own. By colleelin^ on (XTi'nsive ftt^rFriment 
of screw bolts from the differeui Euglieh. 
work'^hop*, Whitworth deduced as a com- 
promise mi Bv'iiru^e pitch of Ihreud for dif- 
fereul diametem, and also a mean nnglo of 
6r>=, which ho ndopu-d all thniiigh the «cal« 
ofaixe*. Tlw advanlagejiof imiformity could 
not hv rvfiisled, and by 186U the \Miilwoith 
HVslem wa« in (^-neral UHe. The beauty uf 
\Vhilwnrtli"8 invcntimifi was first generally 
r>'L"ipniM?d at the vxbibitiou of 1861, where 
hiH Mchihit of patftitod tooUand inTentinna 
gained him the repulation of being the first 
mcchnnica! coiislnictor of the time. 

Ill l*sVJ Whitworth was appointed a mem- 
ber of the roviLlcommiMinu to the New York 
Industrial E^xhibltion. The incomplete etata 
uf thii machinery department prevented hia 




reporCttte ujion it, but be made a joumpjr 

tl)n>tigli ilioiiiiliiHrinl iliMrictAof lli«raitr-fl 
Stales, aud publiattL-^l upoD tu« returii, ia 
COnjuoction witb lii-or^e WAUia{1811-l>'0l) 
[q. v.], 'Tltf Indiui.ry of tliu Uiiii^ Sm:e* 
in Macliiiiery, .Matiiifuctun-H, and UivCul and 
Oninm VII till Ari^.'I^niloa, ISM, ^vo, Whit* 
■wortli'* «biirv c<>n«i>>l»il of tlm lwirlv« abort 
but imen«ting opcining clmpt^re devoted to 

In 1 ^!w he: wns pifsidcnt of the Infltitutinn 
of Mt'plianic-Hl Eu(;iiit>erH,aiid8t tbeOlse^w 
tnpetin^ dfliv^rM uti AJrlreu in which hiA 
favourite projects wi-t« ably aet fonb. lie 
di'plori'il tin; t«iidfiicv to oxcr-saive itiw and 
weigbt it) ilie moving pane of macIiineA e.nd 
tbt' natioDul Iom by over-iiiultipUcatiun of 
WXOH and [ml l'„Tiii). Hi* c'oiiti-m|iluti*d thu 
~ IvanlARt^ (but mi^bt be derived from dv- 
'cimalisitiif wcigbl» and monaiiref.. a subject 
wliicbb'il in la^jT t-ohispiipi'r'OiiuStaudurd 
Di>ctmal Sleosurt- ofljeitglb forKn^ine^erin^ 
Work,' His popurs, livn in number, eiicu 
ont! »f wbicli Ni^iNlii><-i> n. nn'idutiun iu ita 
eubjeut, were collected in a tliin octavo aa 
' Miitri'11nnis)ii« I'njicto utt Merbanical Siil^ 
jerta, hv Ja'tepb whitwnrtb, F,lt.S.,' Jjon- 
(lon, iWirt. Wbitworlli bad been elected tn 
tlic liovftl Society in l&T)" ; h« wiu cn?At»^l 
Lr..D. 'of Triiiitv College, Dublin, in l**H;i, 
ftnd D.C.L. Oxford on 17 June ]SB8. 

[ii tbe tuLtuiilinm, as a coiiwquiJDCv of tli» 
Crimean vor, \Vbit wonb bail bnen requt-iltHl 
liy th« board uf 'irdnauco ia 1854 to dtai^ 
and pivft nri fjilitniitir ftir b Cf)mi>lH« wf of 
mucbin*?ry fur manufacturin); rifle rausiietii. 
Tliin Wbilwiirtli ilwlini.'d lo do, om be cmi- 
Bidered that expi^rimcrls wcrB nxjuir-fd in 
ord'T lo det>frininH wliat ruused the diffe- 
rence iH'twin^ri grond itnd bnd riflcK, what wua 
thf proper diameter of the bore, wliat waa 
tUe bi*r. form of bore, and what tho best 
mode of niiiui;. before any edi-i|iiatc mn- 
ehiniTV could Si< mad)*. L'ltimuti^ly the t[o- 
vernmi'nt v/etv induced Iu iTi-ct a nhcwting- 

Salk-ry for WbitworLli'n um-. iil Falluwfintil, 
laticlieMitr, nnd cxpurimentfl bej^an here in 
Murcb IK'>-'>. Tliey*liowrd thiil tin- jH>[iu]ar 
Knli'.dd riHuwas untrue in ulnicM!t every par- 
tiL'tilHr. In April IbTi? Whitwortb BubuiJtte<l 
to iiilicin) trial a rifle with an ht-xiijronBl 
barr«!, which in accuracy of fire, in penetra- 
tion, and in mnf^i; • (txci-llod thfr Eoficld to a 
dejjTwi whieh haixJIy loavee room for am- 
jwriaon ' ( 'Awr«, L';j April). Mhitworth's 
rifte Wan nut only far jmpi^ricir to any itnmll 
arm thon PxiAtiup, but it also embod'ied the 
prtncinkm nnon whit^b modt'ni LmpruvLunuiUe 
liavu been Dau-d, nuimly, n-ductiuu of bore 
(•■loiitHi), nn t-lDnpated' projectile (3 lo 8J 
"" ' rapid twist (on« turn in 

calibr&^i. mr 

'JO incbee), wid extreme ■ccnrnfy of mKn^ 
fftctun-. Tbift nfle, aftt-r di^inncinf? nil otb 
in competitiou, was rejit'ted by a ^ar 
committev a> i»\ng of loo email calibre 
a military weapon. Ten year» btt«r, ia 1 
(that ia,jiut twelve years aOer Wbitwortb 
had first iuggMl«d tlM<i-4ficaUbn0.a similar 
coratuittee napurtnl that nrillf with a'4<'> inch 
bore would ' appear to be the most suitable 
tor a mililanr arm * (llit> Ijn^Mvtford arm of 
trt-day hna a -30;) bore). 

The iuvenlor found *ome coneglatiim for 
the pronraHtitiationfl of otHcial procedure in 
tbe fact ibai at the open competition pronoiwl 
bytbc National ICiHe Asaoetatinn in I860 the 
VVbitwurtU rifle was adopletl a» the beet 
known, and onitJuty l^'KJtbt- queen np>.-nrd 
the tint Wimbledon rout-tinK by liriafcaVVliit- 
worth ridti from a mecbnrncal n«t at aniiij[« 
of four hundred yards, and bittini; tho buU'a- 
oye within If invln^ frum its ceniiv. Tbe 
new rifle was a(l'i]>te(l by the I-'pench pOTem- 
ment-, aud was K\>nvtally used for tar^t* 
ahonl inf^ until the inlMxl not tonoF the Martini- 
HL-ury, a ride in which auvecal of Wbii- 
wnrth'ii principttui w^ro embodttad. 

Ln the cnnslriiclinn of cannon he was 
eutinlly successful, but failed lo •wurw tbpir 
udoptiun. In 1802 he made a rifled frunof 
bi(fh power (a tix-miie ranRe with a -oO-lb. 
shell], the proportions of which are almosl 
the isuriie lis those adopdil to^ay. But lhi« 
g^in, de^}iile irs unrivalled balliatie power, 
was rejected by the ordnancv board to 1805 
in fa»inir of tb<- \Voi)lwich pnttt-m. wbcrebv 
llie progreej pf impniveoiBai in Itritieh onJ- 
naiice was retardod for nL-arly twenly vriirs. 

It waan,ft«rthfi termination of this 'battle 
of (be guna' that Whitworth made th«> 

f greatest of bis1at«rdiseoveri«^ Kxpfrivnoe 
lad tau^bt bim Ibat bard steel Runs were 
unt>afe, and that the safeguard confistcd in 
employing ductilu MukI. A guti of hard 
steel, in caae of unsoundness, exploilea, 
wbemie a gun of duciilu ated indicates 
wear by lotiinK il>i shape, but does not fly to 
piucee. When duel ile stE-el, hnwuver, is CB»t 
into an ingot, ita liability Iu ' hoiiKvcoinb ' or 
form iilNctillB is ho great as nlmnet to neutra- 
ndf i|« superiority. Wbitwortb novr found 
thut I be difliRuLty of nblaininir a lartce and 
sound ca^tintc of ductile sU",'! tniifbt be suc- 
ceoefiiily nvvrconid by Apnlyins rxtrvmn pr0»- 
sure to Ibe tluid motal, while he further 
difcox'erod that such proasuri- could best be 
applied, nut by ibe sieam-hammor but br 
muaiis of an hydreutic press. Whilwortu 
»lvel, as it wofi (•t.ykil, wa* produced in tbla 
manner about tH7(), and ita Hpecial applica- 
tion to the mtinufaciuro of big guns was de- 
•cribisd by Whitworth in 1876 (iVw. 

oc, IiH. M 





ATeck. Ens. 1875, p. ->Ue). In lS8a the gun- 
fotindry lK>anl of ibv L'nit»d St«te», alter 
payiui; n visit to Whit wort lis lorgi: wurlt* ut 
Opeualmw, near Munche»l«r, gnv« it ua llieir 
upitiiuii iliiii ikv i<yfit«ni tbiTo cjirrii^il uti 
AUrpOMtid nil olhvr tiirtlinti* ur lording, und 
tbftt the ' esperiencti enjoy »! hv tlits Dounl 
during it-n visit mnoiinl^vd 1o n ri^vulalimi ' 
iJleport. October 1>^, WftohingTon, Isnfi^ 
Hvo, p. 14), 

At tli« Pftri:* exhibiuon of 1867 Whit- 
wortli was awarded one oi the iivit ' Rrniida 
pri<( ' allotlcd to Gronl ilrilaiii. In Sop- 
leuiber 1808, after wiiiiL-s«iii|^ llit; perfupui- 
iincif of OU0 of tbe W'liLtwrirtit tittld-guiia at 
CliAIon.-i, Napolt-OQ 111 ei-tit liim the Legion 
of litiiiuur, and iiljoul liiti miiu« tiin« bv rft> 
euivvd thi' Albert medul of thf^ 8odt>ty of 
ArtH fur Ills inetriiuii.'iitft of iui-«JsurL-iii':iit 
«ad uttilbrui ntniulardi*. On IH .March IH<>S 
be wrote lo Disraeli, nflerintr to found thirty 
•cholanliip* of lliu nnnual vhIik.' uf IIXU. 
each, to be competed Tor u]ion a bjuiiii nf 
proficiency in th« theon' and prnclici^ of 
m^-hntiin. Next yenx bis gt-tierous octinn 
and bis merila an an iuviritlor ynvm uublivly 
Tec«eaiBecI Iit b'la hciag created a burooet 
(I Nov. 1809). 

His first wife died in 0<-t>>l»er 1870, and 
on 12 April 1H71 liu niurriud Marv Luulsa 
(b.M Aiiff. 18i>S0,d"iialit.>rof IhuiiMi llroHd- 
hurBf, an<l widow of AlfntdOrrelUifChi-ftiilft. 
Hliorlly bufore his second ainrna(r^ (tliouifh 
etiU retiuoing tbu Firs, Fallowfidd, as bis 
Manchester residence!) he piin^hHsed a nent 
and ectatu at .StanclitTu, near Matloclc. 
Tbere upon qd unpruui i»inu; sit'-, amid a 
number of quarries, Iii3 constructed a won- 
derful [<Krk, Slid lie ucauirt-d muc'h local 
celebrity for hi« gardriia, liia I.nillinj( linrsi'x, 
Aud liifi hi'rdof shorthornH. lliBinin tiilliard- 
tn.bli?, tiio (n-murkitblr for it* triiu xiirfnce), 
bis lawns, cattle pens, and »t-fthb'»i wt-rv all 
' mmluls.' Uie interest in artillery wis sliit 
univlaxed, hnwevc-r, and be was continiitvlly 
makinc new experiments. He was the tin<l 
to Mnist.ratti armour-plating iipwnrds of four 
iocoes in tbickmiMii, and tlie atvt tu dtiuou- 
•trate the possibility uf explodui)^ nnnou^ 
ahvlU without ueint^ uiy kind of fusG. In 
187>1 be gty^ tu tkc world bin iiwii vnntiun 
of lb« points at issue wilb th" ordnancp 
(leparliufnl in ' M iscvllune ou« Piiuers on 
Practical Siibjecis: flnns and ^^^l>el" (l.nn- 
don, 8vo). The unfortunate Ireatmeut to 
which he was «ubjecl«d wn* due in part, no 
doubt, to his plain and inflexible deteTuiiiin- 
Tion. * IIu would not modify a model which 
be knew to be right uut of dffi-rvuco lo 
committees, who, lie ton&iderwl, wem iu- 
compambly bis toferion in technical know- 

ledge, and who, Mag oUleials, wots liftble 

to lake nlfeiiee at the plain if)>eakiagof one 

wbD re^rded ollioiaL and infallible w &ir 

Ijwm syuonyniouji.' In 1**74 be t-oiiverted 

I hi« Dxiuiisiie works at Manchuster into a 

limited liubllitv comjianr- Wltilwortb, Imk 

, foremen, and others in (Jie Mneem, twentjr- 

I llirnn in number, held Vl'J prr cent, of Ibe 

shares, and had prnftiral control; no good- 

, will was cbai^d, and the plant was taken 

I Ht a low viiluiition. .\t tbr wimc lime tim 

clerks, drauglitsiatju, aud workmen wert> 

I rniyturaffed and asaieled to take shares 

I (-J'tJ. I'Bvh). (Ju 1 Jan. 1897 tbu firm vn.9 

united with that of Armstrong's of Klswick, 

with an uutboristsd capital of upwards of 


As be advanci^d in age Whitworth formed 

the habit of wintering in tho Uiviera; but 

he wn.1 nut frmd nf |^iii^ abniiul, uiid in 

188o he madt> for hinii^If at Stanclifle a 

large winter-garden, hoping that be might 

thus ho aldi) to i>pi!nd tbu winters at home. 

Hti passed one wmtet successfully in Derby- 

! ebint, but in October ISSU he went out to 

I Monlw Carlo, and there be died ou 22 Jua. 

I 1&.87. Lady Whitworth died on ^6 May 

I l^W, and, lliuru being no is^uubyeithurwifo, 

the hariinetry beCEiine extiiiel. 'I'he second 

Lady Whitworth was buried beijide bur 

[ husband in h vault in Durh-y L'hnrebyard, 

For many years bi-fdri' bifl death Whit- 
. worth made no secret of his intention to 
devote the bulk of his fortune to public and 
especially educalional pur|>ottes, but died 
without maturing any scbcrac. Ityhis will 
und uudicit*, alter giving n lurgi* life iulvr«»t 
both in n-al ami ptraoiial estate to l»i« 
widow, and making both ebaritablu and 

IMTioniil If^ciea, he di'vi^t-d and l>-r|(i(-athnd 
lis residuary OBtiLt a to his wife and his friends, 
Mr Richard CoplevCbristi« and Mr. Huburt 
Pnkitiifield DurDtsnlTv, in equal oliares for 
their own uae, * they being each of them 
aware of the guneral nahirt^ of the object* 
for which I ahould myself have applied such 
pmperty.' After paying L(KI,OO0/. Im the 
Scit<rnce und Art Department in fulfilmenl of 
WUitworlb'* intention exprensed in 1888 of 
permanenllv endowing Uurty i>cbolnrsbip«, 
(be Vgnlerx bare, during the twelve veara 
tliat have elapsed BJnoe the Kviiator's dTi^alh, 
devoted sums, amounting in nil lo r»94,4IH/., 
t-", <<diicJitional and charitable purpn<te.^. Of 
this amount lt)K,t>f8/. has been given to the 
Wliiiworrh I'ark and InMituie, .Mancbi'ster ; 
llH,8Ifi/. to tbe Owens College (besides an 
vtstate uf tho value of 2lt>.4l.l4/. given to tbe 
ci)lli-go for hospital; 60,110/. to 
tbe .Mancbe^ler Technical School; 30,4077, 
to the Baths, Library, and other public pur- 





posea at Opmebftw ; 25,:!lF>f. to otbcr Man- 
dtester invtitations wid cIiKritiraf ; lUl,lM>t}/. 
to an inMitiik', baths, and hospital at Dnriey 
Date (in. wiiicli Whitworlb's wiit of Stan- 
diffa wu aitiiato) ; I'2,0I)IM. ro thf. Technical 
Schools aiid olbvr insiiiutinns in Siockport ; 
and l4,tUti/.tocliunTivsaDd iiutihitioni el»n- 

W hit worth's mind was not that of a 
logician, but that of an uxptiriuuMilalUl . 
A mjiii iif Tifw wiinlit, Iir f-iicouulered Mch 
pToblflin in ttH-cIianicB by the ntniarli ' l^l us 
try.' Hi» I'XW.'rinifnTJt with rllltik are a 
«tnliin J example of t}in manner in which a 
miadot tbphifchoBt invptitivptirtWRnuluiilly 
and siiri-Iv n'tvancw towards its object. 
Tyadoll stud ih&t when he began to work 
at fireamu be wax a4 ignorant of tli« rille 
' u Fluuur WHS uf lli« micnmoope wlien he 
bcgOD hia immortttl rf>nearc1ieB upon spon- 
tanenus ecm^ration,' In tbo matter of gun- 
nery (liku Darwin in some of_ bis Bp«cial 
infestigHtioao) he may bo said to hare 
provHl aU thiDKH iu unlur to hold fast that 
which woa gwxi. llw ]jatiew», the atep-by- 
rtop pro^THSs of iiivtfslj^'aliou, the ccrtaiat^v 
witli ■winch ctinrlu.tioiw finr.f. fwirlv ri^adird 
are gratipod af< implements, the HV^ttimulic 
form in which facte are ' mnrxliJilli^il nncl 
rc«ult« nrmn^-i1. all indiciite, aa in tliw case 
uf a Darwin or ti Pngteur, ihe capBfily for 
taking ]>ains over triflf^s, and tlio ma:i<lvry 
uf luipf principli*, which gv to toakv up a 

An eiccellent fuU-longth portrait of Whit- 
worth by lj. Diiuingi^ii in in the Whitworth 
Io«tiltiT.ii at Darley Dale; in the gruiinils 
adjoining Btund" n mimolif hie obnlisW (m.ven- 
t«cu feet lil^'h ), en-i't<td by the inbabilants 
in memory of W hitwortb, anii tinwiU-il on 
1 Sept. Ib94 ; upon th-.* p'sWial aiv ]K>rtrait 
and oibur medallions, Portrait* of Whit- 
worth appeared in the ' Ilhwtrati-d 1,ondon 
Xews ' on 1(1 May 186f> and on 5 I-eb. 1H«7. 
"VVbilworth'acJCcepliotiaUy blling motto waa 
' Fortifl (jilt prnderiB,* 

[Memw of Whtiwurth in ilis Proceeding? of 
tllr lii9tir.UL)on of Civil RngiDeers. IHfl'-^, 
rnl. ipi. pi. i. ; IiivliL of Ki-vlinuicii) Kugimeni 
Pmc, Fcbruftry 18S7; Manche^itr L'lomri' und 
I'hilosnpti. S(w. Prop. J'J April 1887; Nnt-urp. 
27 Jan. 11187; Btu^rnpb.ii. 456; KckcliR Kn^iii. 
Jlag.N«( yorfc, ii. 12, liv. laC (by TywIrUIr. 
Fraan'a Knsi. Izix. 680; TmDM. of tUe fioyal 
Sew. 1H97 i Sir J. Enicnon Tcnni-nl'it Story of 
tb« Quitu, 19l}4; Povter's Alumni Oxun. I'lfi- 
1886; Smilee'a Indavtriiil Biour.; Sultuu'* Cat. 
of Lunnuhirc Autliurs ; Tinit<«, '2-I Jiu). 1HK7; 
Mao«b«*ter ExntniixTaiKl Timci, 'if Jait. 1837; 
nioatnted Luixiun Nowp. lsK7.i. H9; Dcbieli's 
BAroB«ta», 1867, p. 63if ; pnvaii! information.] 

T. 8. 

WHOOD, ISA.\C (1689-17iiL>i, portrah- 
painter, bom in 1&^, pnctieed for maay 
vi-nrs an a portnit'|>ain1rr in IJnooln'a Inn 
l-'ield^. ami wild u skilful itnitstor uf tbe 
iityle of Kueller. lie wo* eapeciolly palm- 
niHt'd bf- thu Duke of llttdfard, fur whom Ik* 
painted tiUDtfruu* |)ortraitit uf inpmberK of 
iht! S]K-nrrr an<l Itiucell families, now at 
\Viiljurn .MiW-y; M>Dit> of thrm- wi>m copied 
by Whood from other painters. At Cfiua- 
brid^ii there are p^>rtniite by ^Sliood at 
Trinity Collie, including on« of Dr. l-uuc 
Barrow, and at Trinttr Ual). lli<9 portraits 
of l«dii-a wcri<: »oui4- of th« bfi^t. of that dat«. 
Th«rei8SK'^'^ portrait of Archbiabop Wak« 
by WhooJ at Lambeth Palace, painted in 
17^tl. Some of hic purtniut wvre engraved 
in mexxotinl.noluhly one of Laurent Uelraux 
the Hculptor. ctufrnvcd by Alexander ^*an 
llawken. WboodV drawings in chalk or 
bUckload are inleresiing:. In 1743 he exe- 
cuted a surie* of detiguf lo illustrate Butler's 
' lludibnu.' \Vhoo«l i!i<-d in Itloomobiinr 
Siiuan; on 2i Feb. 17Si. The portrait of 
.](i«'ph Sjwnce [(|. v.] nrvfixed to hia * Aneo 
doifa' was engravud fnta a portrait by 

[Walfolc'i AtKodotce of I^linter■ eJ. Woe- 
imm. Kith ananuwript uoiea by G. Scharf; 
•'^i.'tiurrH Cat . of ih« Pi«i <ir«a at ^^ oburn Abt.<oy ; 
lledeTavc'tt DicL nf Artieu; ChuloDcr ^mitli'a 
Ui'irighMouiDtjntoPMtntla.] L. 0. 


royuUsl, wii« ibe daugbler of on« Kydnr or 
Kylber of Kine«lun. Surrey, sometime sur- 
veyor of tb<-9<fiiljb>s to Jninejn 1 4C1.AKK, /,i/(t 
of AnTMnv H'aod. i, ■2-27). In SepicmlK* 
1(U)'(, III the nm< nf ninet«>en, ahe married 
Uromt' Whomx>od, i'ldi«c Ron of Sir Thomas 
Wborwondof IIohon,Oxford»bire<OllKST£R, 
Lan'ii'tt MarrkiQf T^rrn^w, p. l4W); Tfrneb, 
VuHaiion 0/ Oj/ordtiiirf, p. 212). In ItH? 
and 1(148, when the kmgwaa in captivity, 
Mrs. Wborwuod eignaliMrd hentalf by her 
efforta to communicatH with him and lo 
nrrango his esMtpe. Hhe conveyed money to 
him fnmi liiviili«t« in l.undou when be waa 
I at Hampton Court in the autumn of ItJl", 
! nncl con»ullvd Wiliiam Lilly the o&trologer 
(H to the qu«atioit in whot quarter of tb« 
, nation Charles could best liide bjm^vlf after 
I hia iiitetided tlif^bl. Lilly rccommvnded 
, Kss«x, but tiiu «dvic<^ cainu loo tale lo be 
acted upon (\ALLt , Jlittary tff hi* J^e and 
Tima, p. 39; cf. Wood,' p. 227}. Mrt. 
Wborwood consulted Lilly again in 1648 
on the means of eireciing the King'a gccsm 
from OiriMbroiilm, and ubl«in«d frutn « lock* 
flniith whom he recommended flies sad ai^n^ 
fortLs to be need on tlie window- bars of the 
king's chamber, but through various aod* 



<f«nt» rh« ilpsion raile«1. She also auiited in 

iirovidiiif; u ship, and ou 4 Mny 1443 UuIimi'jI 
liitiiiinin(],tln'giivrni(jri'ri!m Nleof Wij^hl, 
wa.» warnwl tliat a nhip had sailed frnm ihi* 
TtutDori, and wite wuiiinf; about Qii<)ca> 
botoufh tA roiTT thr> king tn Holland. 
• Mm. Whorwood/adds thv letter, * is abcMrd 
the ship, a tall, well-fdDliioni'.-d, anil vu\U 
languagvd gvntlewouun, witb a round visage 
nad pix'kliijlfti ID her fnce' [Letter* betKfeH 
Ojlonrl H'tbrrt llammowi andtke Cvmmittee 

at lierb^ JIouM, 1 70-1, 8vo, pp. 43, 4fi, 4« ; 

p. 142: HiitlLtt, Char' 
Uttnf Wiijht, pp. 147, loS, Ififl), Wood, 

LliXY, p. 142: HlLLlia^ CltarUe I at the 

-whn had nl't<>n 6mn hp.r, adcln to this do- 
Bcription that she was red-hairi'd {IJfe, i. 
'2ii), Affr thn frustraii^^n itf thiftorltemn 
Mrs. Whorwood continued tocunvi-yletterH 
to and fruQi the V\ag diirin^f th>> nuliirain 
of ]d46, and to hatch fn-i^Ii srliemwi. Shu 
ia oA«n refcrred to in the king'* letters 
und» ihi> dph«r ' N." or '715' (Hilt.ieh, 
p. 240; WAtisTAFru, Vindietitwit •>/ Hi'i-j 
CkarleA the Martyr, 1711, pp. Ua, 1511, 
152-7,191-3). 'I vaDiiol bu ttiopj confidwuc 
of any,' »»\^ the kinjt in oph i>f liia letters, 
and iQ another epeiUis of tliu * long, vf'itv 
diM'oiirM'' ■hn hnd mmt him. Wood idttnLi- 
fies Mrs. Whorwoo<l with the unnamsd lad^ 
to whom the kinf; had entniMed u cahinel nf 
jewels which he B«?nt for shortly before hi« 
execiiiion, in onl«r thai hu mi^ht givt; ihi-m 
to his rhitilrfn (Athr-rnr Oj'oni&ri/vs, n. 7U0, 
urt, * llerbLTt '). Uul a Dutu iti Sir TIiuuihs 
Herbert*^ own niirrnlivn»1jitf!t tlnit rhe ladv 
in qaiwtiun was the wile of j-ir \V. Wliwlt^r 
{Hrrueht. .tf«w'«r«, ed. 170:J, p. 122). 

The tlate of Mrs- Wlirtrwt>od*H de&th is un- 
oertain. i ler eldeat eon, itroini', hiipti'>i>d on 
29 Oct, IfrVi, wan drowtif^d in SnpU'mWr 
1057, and buried at llolton (Wiwn, Lifr-, i. 
226). Her dau^liti^r llianfk married in 1U77 
Kdward .Matii«rs, LL.U., choncellur of the 
dioreae of Kxtter {ifi. ii. 3Jll, iii, 4€3), IlkT 
faij»hiuid ra^n-sentcd the city of Oxford in 
ftiur auti^KMijvH juartiiiinttiili' ( KKil-rfU, but, 
becoming a violent whig.-wnji put out of the 
ronrmiiuiim of the penct* in Jnnuary lOt^. 
He dipd in Old Palace Vard, \\'estniinater, 
on U* April l(tHJ,Bnd was buri«'d at llolton 
on 24 April (ii.i.S90, ii. 4an,4(10,J7tt, 523, 
iU. 9y). 

[TnrncrV Viaitationa of Oxfonl»liipe (Sari, 
Soc.}, 1H71. p.24'J: Uhvt Aatb'.ny \Vu<}a,ed. 
Clark; Ath«rtDD Oion. nl. ItlMn ; Lillv'n 
hi. Life and Time., fd. \»n.] C. H, F. 

WHYTE. [Sw! al*o \VniiE.j 

loiutur iuidauth')r. born in 17i(8. wuAnatiirnt 
aon of Caplftia E>olomou AVhyt«, dvpiily- 

govenior of the Towor or London. Inaiiotu 
to TiiTBi's an liimiiulf Whytu says tliat ' lio 
waa bom on nhij^board appronchinil the 
Mer»y [uidl Liverpool was ilw fir^i Und hu 
«fv»r twichtxl' (PoriM OH Varimtt .S'MAfeet*, 
3rded.) His mother dii<id after f^iving birtii 
to him. 

Whyle's first coui'in.Frnnpfa Cham berlaiu 
(her mother wae aiscerof Whytc's father), 
)>>-cam>- the wife of Thomaa yhwidaii '\q. v.J 
Thu ^horidan)) vera verv kind to Wliytn; 
indeed, lie termed Mn>. slieridau ' th" l'ni.'nd 
and p&n-nt of tny youth,' Ho waa plact-d aft 
a txHinler in Samiiid Kdwardx'it acad'.'mv ju 
Golden l^ne, Dublin (Oii.iir:itT, IhMin, iii. 
200). Ills father dii.*d in 1707, and hia estate 
passed to hia nftplu'w. who waa Mr*. Sheri- 
dan's elder brother, \\'nvle roci-iviujr a legacy 
of flvi* hundred pouniJs. On .'( Ajinl ilbti 
hf npenod a 'srtninary for thf? institution 
of yr>iitii' at 75 (now 7'Jl Orafl'in Htreet, 
Dublin, rii- described himself as ' I'rincipal 
of the Knglish (Jramiiiar School.* Mr«. 
>iht'rl(1an p-Tsuaded her hushrind's siAtera, 
■Mrs. iifliecu and Mrs. Knuwles. and other 
Indies to send their cliildn^n to be tnuf^hl, 
und, *tbus favoured, young VVhyte had a 
linnd«ome ahow of pupil» on firgt. opening 
hia school* {Mmioira of Franrfu SJifrtdrntf 
p. W{). Hit own three children, the eldest 
not i'''%i^fi, wiTi' amonf; thetn. Chflrli-s Fran- 
cis remained a few week* only, wtiik- ILichard 
Brinslcv and his sialer .\ticia wen; under 
Whyie « caro es a scbooluiiuler for upwards 
of ft vear. 

V\ hy to wa£ proud ofbavinijibadthu famous 
Sheridan mt ii pupil. But in it footnote to 
tinge 'JTt of the tnird edition of Hi^ poems 
lif miide N fanciful statement which is the 
origin nf th*' tnytli ubout Sheridan and his 
briilhcr being styled by him ' impenetrable 
diincoA.' lie ri'poftted "the footnote atorv to 
Moon' in after years, and Mooni aided in 
dilTiising' it {Mrtnoirt, i, 7). .MIab Lufiinu 
haa e.xpoiR^d Whyle's itiaecuracy (Afemoira 
of FruncrM Shr.ridan, ]i. **■">), whili- Slifridau'ij 
iddi'r sister, writing to Ijidy Morgan in 
1817, cbargf. thu m.-lio(>l roaster of her child- 
hood Willi wilful mi.4r^preji>'nTetion (L*nT 
MoROAjt, Mrjnoire, ii. 61). Un the other 
han<l, ^Vhyl+■ w/w craU-fiil for tlio kindncos 
he r<.^ceived from Tliomaa Sboridnn and bis 
wife, and made a subslantial rt^Lurn when 
fortunt! frowned upon lliom. 

His first work was a 'Treatlae on Ihw 
Eutrli^li l^Jknguagv/ which, though printed 
in f7ttl,waa not jiubliilird till ISOO. II9 
wroif two iragodies and put them in tb(t 
iire aflt^r Tbomius Hberidnn bad imdertakeu 
to get them reprciy-nted. Ifc was it duetit 
vwnilior, and aome of hia rersee appt'ored to 





177:^ in n quuno entitled *The8b«inroclr, 
or llibi'rniuii Ctv^rv*,' ]>nu:lu-al pru[)o«aU 
for & rwroru id education bi^iii^ a|»pt-ii<lrd 
<knoth«r udit. 1773, Svo). His rp)iulAtioD 
Itad led to tEm nfTifr in 17'>tl of tlitt |)ro- 

[fiwnnbip nt Eorlieli in thi> Ilib^riiUn -Vca- 
d«mv; bul, ibinVmg llixt Tliomnt' Hhcridan 
Iiad mea unfairly DVfiriookpd. ho decIin-Hi it. 
Hi* ciiftom WHS to make his pupils rvpT\-«i*nt 
fi pUv nt tlu^ nnniinl i^Tfimi tint ion. And Home 
becnmc nctors in consecjuence. Di'ins' btamed 
for I^1i^ li'- wrote in (wlWefence a diilnclic 
u>c'IIl.'Tb)^'J'b<•tttn^'w)li<'I) wm gmbU^hcd in 
1700. Whvli's son, Kdward Albcnry. who 
had bi:<cou]u his pHTtiiL-r. uolluclvd hi« works 
in 17tft!, of wliicli fourpdiiioonvferf prinl«l. 
Copies were civun as ^tizen to tlie pupiU 
who (lintinttiitKlii-d tliHnn^rlTr-x, u'liilt- trttch 

' one who foil short of i)w n>quired standnrd 
ncvived h\a (tugraved portrait. 

.\f)>T t1if> union iH'tvrceii Crvat Rrilnin 
and Irelnnd tint attendance at Whyle'n 
»clioo1 diminioh<-(] owin^ to Iriih par*fut« 
8endin(r their childrvo to Krtf1»nd for tlu-ir 
«diioalioD. He dii<d at 7') (jrafton ?^tre^t, 
Dtiblin.on 11 Oct. 1811. JliSAon pondnctcd 
th« achool till WM, wti<.'ii In; migraltul to 
London ond aflerwarda died tlicre. 

Wbytv'e workis, in addition to those 
named nbov^, inrrlmU-d : I. ' MiHCKllAii«a 
Nova, with Kfitnark.* on Boswi'U'ft " Join- 
son" and II Critique on IIurRerV "Leonora,"' 
1801, ftTO. 2. 'Thfl Bemiti.-* of History." 
3. * rh« Jijvenilt' tncyclaptwliii,' 4, An 
edition of ' Matbo.' 5. An editiou of ' Hol- 
berg^* UnivcrHil Hirtory.' 0. ■ A Short 
System of Ithetoric' 7. ' HintJi to the Age 
of Kuuon.' 8. ' l^TBcttcal Elocution,' 

[aillnrl'a irittory at Dnlilin. Hi. SnO-tri; 

' <3«Dl1«ni»ira Knpuinp. 18)1. ii. 486; Alicia 

Iiefanti'a Mrmnin of Mr«. I'mnrm .ShrridAn, 

pp. 82-6: Thu Junlii, or llic IiiliTior Cnlnnet 

laid open.] 1-'. R. 

WHYTEHEAD, TIIOM AS ( 1815-18J3), 
nuiaioiiary and poi't, born nt Tliorninnby in 
the Nortb Hiding of Vorkahine on ao Nov. 
1815, wa« ihu fuurth mn of Htinrv Itolxirt 
"Whytehead (I7r2-1H18|, cunitp (>f Tlior- 
raanhy and nt'tor of Qoxliill, by hia wife 
Ifnnnnli Diaiin Trf, 21 Nov. I^>, dannhter 
and bBirosfl of Thnnina Kowmnn, r.'rtflr of 
Crayk* in Vorkshirp, On th« death of llanry 
Robert \Vhyt^h.-(ul on 1*0 Aiif?. 1h18, bi« 
widow removed to York wiiL ber younff 
family. .\n('r«tlfiidiiig thtgrnmniar school 
at Devertey.aud rfndiiijk'i>riviLti;Iyiilon|ifwith 
waa entered 0.1 a jH-iiitioricr at Kt . Jubn'ii Col- 
lege, Cambridffe, m Uclober 18a;i. His uni- 
venltjr auc»»:tn)eB wuro remarkable. In 1834 

hcwiufir«lB«)l»cholar,in 1936 and )S30h« 
won the chancclhirV tjikrliHh niL>dnt with 
pot'intion tli« d«Ktli->l'Che Llukt<afliI'Mirr«l«r 
nud 'The h^pirc of the Si>a.* In lr(3S he 
won thelXubenn prize, with an euAV on' Tbv 
HaaemUaoDo bL'twrvn Chrift and Vloseii ;' in 
lS3fl be obtained Sir William lirowne'e gold 
miilal for Latin and (iroek epi^rnma; or 
'( Frli. 1B!t7 bv woM plact^ F*wond in the 
elai^mcral rripna, andin ^larch h« wa» choara 
srtiiorcIn*sieiil inodallisi. On 13 March be 
waselerlcd in afcllow/ibipai St. John'a Col- 
leg*'. which he retained unltl hU death. Uo 
^diialed B.A. in 1837, and M.A. in 1840, 
and waa admitted at (Ufonl mt nmdem on 
4 U'C. 1S4I. Lo December 1M,'I0 be wiu* or- 
daiiK-d l!) the curacy of Freshwaier in the 
laltiof Wi^Lt. Ounog l*yi bf ciimpo>ed an 
udi^- for the inMfitlaiion of the Dok^^ of Xorth- 
uuiberlaud a» chitna^lor of Cumbiidjre Cai- 
Torsity. which waa St-t to mu.*i<: by Thomoii 
Alt wood WalmitiWr ii.t.I, and uerfonoed at 
the s^-nate houw on ti July 1 w5. 

From childhood W'hyl^heut had been n- 
mjirkubli- for his eariie»l. piety, and afW 
loHK coTiBidemlion he n'^Kil vitl to devote hin- 
««ir to miurion work. In l&ll liv accepc«d 
the post of chaplain t<o Otisnyo Augustus Set- 
wyn [l-V."'. recenlK ap{>oin<v<l bieliop of Now 
Zealand, and railed on Ltt IW. Isil. Ue 
rmclwd Sydney on 14 April 184:2, but his 
health ponipletelv brokw aown, nud, tbnugb 
IuirvflcbeiJNc-w2£eiiland,hediedat Waimate, 
in the Htiy of I«laiid«, on 19 Mnicb 1843. 
Hfl was uutnarriiHl. A tnfmnrinl atone waa 
plaeml nvi^r hii< ftrave at Waimat«, and a 
niarbln tabh-t erwtotl to him by hi« friend 
the l-jirliif I'owis in the chapel ofSt.Jolin'a 
Collep', Pfnr the city of Auckland. In the 
newchapi'l ol'Sl. Jobn'tC-olh-KC.Cnmbndg?, 
wbich wiK completed in 1B4!11, a fulKlength 
figure of Wliyi'.'houd uppt-ars on the roof of 
tlie choir (WlU-ia, Arriitfi-ture and Ifut. 
(^tht Unicenitt/nf Cambridge, IfiSS, u.SoL 

Wniytt'hend wim a port of some merit. 
Tbi? widrly known liymn, 'Sabbaih of the 
eaitila of old,' is one of wren hymns written 
l>y liim for lioly wwfk. Almoal bi« latt act 
was to tran«lAti' lliio hymn and Ken 'it Unea, 
'Olory to Tliee, my (lod, tLi^ niglit,' into 
Maori rhyming Verj«. A collection of hia 
' l'o«ms' was publi»li<;d in 1842 (I<ondon, 
8(roJ. A »p«'und edition, eutitlMl 'Poetical 
Keiaainii,' wiili u memoir, including many of 
his letiuff, was prt-iwrwl by bis nephew, 
ThomnH Bowman Whytehead, and appeared 
in 1877, wiiL a pn-fuo* liy Bishop Ilowaoa 
( London, 8ro). In 1 t»-l I 'a serie.s of i-pi«lb» 
oil 'Collugt* Life: Letters to an Cndergra- 
duate,' were published at Cambridge 

UUI.-tKIII- _ 

]ge after ■ 



hia defttb in 1846, und«r thv vditonhip of 
^ThnmiiE FranciR Xnox [r\. v.] A eooond edi- 
^■tiou by \\^iltiinn NsUianivl OrifHn Bppearud 

in Ijoiidon in IHJJii. WhvtehfHd'd two prize 

fiot>ms were olao printed ui IWU, in ' A Col- 
i>ction of the English Poems which hftv(> ob- 
tained tbe cliaDcelloi's gold medal,' 0am- 
bridg^e, 8to. 

[Memnir prcliscd W Whyt*h«d'» I^Ptiml 
Sain^ina, 1877; Pnf. to C(>l!«'^ LIfo. 18*5: 
Uiwiou Ufih \S7'i,vp. 3:d-l>0; tucker'* Life 
of S^lirjrn, 1879; Kurk^'ji I^mlMi (IrnliT': 
Jnlimi'ii Diet, of Ujmooluny, 1SB2; rostor'n 
AluRini 0x00. 1713^1886 ^ Sluck'v Hi*t. of 
ChuK-h MiBuwDftrT Sot. i, 43(1.] E. 1. C. 

JOHN l|y;il-I87Sl,novelifir and poet, born 
on !0 .luno 1821, was non of .ToUti VVhyli- 
MeltillAorSrnLthktniKMsin Fifeabim, b; Iiii 
wife CnthuriDP Aime Sarah, youngest dftusli- 
tur of FnuicLii Uodoluhiii Usbomu. Gfth dulcv 
of IjHtrd». Kob>!rl wliytH [q. t.] wu* biii 
greaT-Krandfalhtir. TUa noTHliat was edu- 
cat4.>(l at Ktiin iiiidiiir Ktutn, nnd iii |HR9 n'~ 
oeired a mmmiwiinn in the. ftHnl hi^lilandere. 
Bxcbanciii); in 1846 into the ColdBtreBm 
giurdd, nt' retired in lf<49 with the rank of 
captain, but on the outbreak of tbe Crimean 
war in I8&4 he roIuntwMvd forartire ftcrvice, 
and waa appointtid luaj'-r of Tiirkbh irn'icii- 
lar ctivalry. After pt^ce wan reetorrd he 
devoted bimself to literature and field sporif, 
specially fox-bunting, nn whitli Utf »ood 
cami- rn be rc^rded as a hi^hniichorily, llti 
married, oit 7 Auff. lK17,Charlutte,dauKht«r 
of William TTanbury. fintt lord Rat«tnan, 
bv whom he had one daughter; but his mar- 
riod life iTDA unhappy. To that misfortune 
perbap* may \ni Irucud ibf.' girain of mi'lan- 
choly which runs throii;j;h a.11 Wbyte-.Mel- 
viUv a writing. His titurary Eiowen), which 
hf. hirD.«rlf wa* nlways inrlinra to imdi-rtnte, 
were c-ocsiderable, and would havo brought 
bim itreiiler litme had circumetuncra n-qiiin^d 
Ilia) to put them to more diligent use. As 
Loekei^Lampeoa remarks : ' This notion of 
th« tmallnmaof hi« gift muy havo been fo»- 
l«ced by bis never baviiij; been a rt-nlly needy 
man: h« could always alford to biiiit t!ie fox, 
BO iko excitement of ttio chos^u au k ])i;-c<.^ di; 
cent noun, which stiuiu]ate.« mti»i uulLoro, 
waa denied him.' Ab il vnitf, Whylo-Mol- 
villi; di'vutpil nil tlin t-annti^it uf hitc ])nii, 
which mnat Uiive bsen considerable, to phi- 
loatbropic and chsntahlo object*, especinll y 
to the proTtsion of renjiing-rooraa and other 
recreation for grooms and stable-boys in 
bunlinji; qunrteni. Locker- 1 Jtmp«on ohserroji 
in ' ilv Conildt-nce*' (p. 3S'2) that Whyle- 
I MelviUft never sought literary aocietv, pre- 

mc?n, and connlry gentJemen, l'erhnpe>, bad 
he been morp oAiuduou-t in cultivating lite- 
rary men, bis reputation an an author 
might have tttoot! higher with tbe general 
publii:, though he could itciircvly havo bwn 
a grvutiir farounto with ri'&der* of biK own 
cluM. Jr'rom \u» intimtili^-uiviuHintancewitb 
military, sjiortLi:)^, and fitKhtoiiubIi> life, 
Whyit-Mulviilf L-ould deal with it in ficiton 
without at)y riiik of fnlliiiu into th« ludicroua 
exapp-Tat ions und blunder.^ which bC5.ot 
mftuv wrirrrx who attempt to do so. 

After hia marrinpi in 184T Whvte-.Mel- 
Tille iirwl for sumo years in Nortbouipton- 
glure, and then r«aoTed toTetbury inUlou- 
cestersbire. An acknowledged arhitor of 
hunting nractiti- and a critic of co»tunio, bv 
was carfieH.-! to a Ikull in hix own attire. 

Moat of Whyte-Melvilln's worlcH were 
novels, though his volume of 'Song* mhI 
Vorst'i* ' contains »ymo lyrics of charming 
vivft*^ity and tendemem, and at! hi» writings, 
thougli uppLoLing chiu% to sporting men, 
have attmctioiiii fur gi-nvrnl readers oUo, 
owing to the lofty lono of chivalry which 
pMrvadcji Lhi-m and the reverent devolion 
expr«asf?d for tht! fair si».\. Throughout all 
his works there in evident also nn aflvciioil 
ffirclnMipal lorf.njflcctiiigthfltrttiiiiuf,' which 
Whyte-Mi^lriUerwceivud at Ktuu in the days 
of Dr. Koatc. 

Whytu-Mclvitlc was very fond of making 
young liorATs into fininhi-d hiintera, but it 
was on nn old and favourite horse, theShuh, 
tlint h« ini'l hilt dwith, On i> Dec. If^TH be 
waa burning in the Val« of ^\^iLto ITorae, 
tbt< bounds hud found a fox, aad VVhytu- 
Melritle was galloping for a start along the 
gross headland ot a Tilough>.-d field. Hie 
norao fi^ll and killed him m.<itAnlant>ouHly. 
He was buried al Tctbury. A bust was 
executed bv Sir Edgar Uoehra(0»(. Victorian 
RxMh. No,' 1075). _ 

\Vhyti>-Melvill*''s falhi-r, who is men- 
tioned in TiOcker-Larapson's TrtntiHi-ncea,' 
mirvivcd hiin Air livo yoars, dying in ItiH3; 
Strathtiinnpsa then pa^std to 1il» kinsman, 
Mr. JamcG Bullbur, who assumed tliu numo 
nf Mftlvilli; in nddLlinn \^^< his own. 

W byte-Melville's published works are aa 
follows : 1 . ' Captain Digby (Irand : nn 
Autobiograpbv,' iJiM. :!, ' (JentTul Botinc« ; 
or, Tbe Lady and tbp LociJn(»,' 18S4. 
3, ' Kulu CoVL'nlrv: nn Autobiography,* 
IWJO. .1. 'ThM Arab's Itido to Cairo,' 
18f)B. 5. 'The Interpreter: n Tale of 
tho War,' ISW. 6, ' Holm by Ilouae: a 
Tale of Did Xortharaptnnflhirc,* l«(K». 
7. ' Good for Nothing ; or, All Down HiU,' 
li^l. f<. ' Market Harborougb,' I8U1. 
9. 'Tilbury Ifo^: aa Unsui^cussful Man,' 




1861. 10. ' Th« QuMn'fl M*ri«a : ft RomiuiM 
of nolTTOod; \m-2. U. 'TLc UUcUBiore: 
n Td" of Horn*, ana Ju.J«fl,' ISKi. IV. *Tlic 
Brookes of Bnaii>mi.'n.',' 18411. 13. ' Cetine,' 
1866. 14. 'Thfl White ila«e,' 1868. 15. 
* Itnn^B And I : or. The Skoluton nC Tlamv,' 
1868. 16. '.M. or N.,' IWW. 17. -Soitga 
and V«rw»,* Irtea. 1$. • OotstralMmd ; or, 
A LowofC llusnl,' 1870. 19. '3«n;li«tloi»: 
a Tale of itn-Grrftl tinmen," 1S7I. 20. -ThB 
True Cross' (a pelijriouB poem), 1873. 
'21. ' SatancUa : a Story of Punch««towii,' 
1873. L>1*. Tnclc Jolmi s Novel,* 1874. 
2a ' Kidinff ItecolWtioua,' 187o. 24. ' Ka- 
terfelln,' 1876. 3S. ' Sixttir Louise ; m, 
Wnin»n'» KwpvnUnop,' 187fi. 2ll. ' itoaioe.' 
Ift7ft. -27. 'KoyV Wife,' 1878. 28. 'Black 
but Comely,' 1H79 (po«tliuinoii»). 

[Bnrko'a Landed Oeatry : AUibutio'i Diet. ; 
Atinoiil Rrft'"*'"'; Bailya 3lHKiwii]e; Loelier- 
Iaukwoi]'* douliddiieM : prima information.] 

H. E. M. 

WHYTFORD. RICil.^KD {/. U9&- 
l.'iS') ?), author. |_Soh WiiinoRD.J 

WHYTT, ROBERT (irU-lTW). pn»i- 
difnt iif tint Rnynl Collc-jfi? of L'hvaiciaua, 
KdiiiliiirfEh, Focond sou of Robert \Vliylt of 
Bermocbiy, odvoci*!*?, and Ji-nn, daiigbli-r tif 
Aniony Murray of Woodt'ud, I'ertlislurp, 
was bom in Edinburgh no (i .Si<pt. 1714, t'lx 
montlia after his futhcr'a d^ath. IlaTinff |i^- 
duntvd M-A.. at Hi. .\ndrews in 1730, h» 
w.^eil lo ICdinhurgh to Rtudy medicine. Two 
ymn bofore tUia ho liod Buccv«leiJ, by tho 
dtmtli of hi* «dil«r hrollier Heorie, to the 
fiunily AStatp. Whytt devoted himself in 
particular to the RtiiHr i>f nnnlomr iiiidi'r tlie 
first. Monro. l*rooet'ding to Lonaf>n in 17;U, 
Whylt became a pupil of CUeselden, while 
lie visited thfl wanli! of ihi; tinnilnn h<?^it)ilii. 
After tlii«h<> attended the lectures of Wins- 
Iftw in Paris, of Borrhaa^-e and Albinns nt 
Lerdiin. He look tbo de(rree of 51. P. at 
RhV-inw ou 2 April WM. On 3 June 17S7 
a fiimilnr degree won confemi:! on htm by 
the univvrsityof St. Aodrewi, ani) on 21 J utie 
he became a. licemtiate of the Roval Collupe 
of Physicians of K<linburnh. (>n 27 IS'i'v. 
1738 btv viM elect''d to thp fellowship, Rnd 
commenced practice as a physician, 

in 1743 Whytt. publijihod n pnjy'r in the 
'Edinburgh Medical Kssays' entitled 'On 
thft Virluta of Limi'-Waler in the Cure of 
Stone." This impitr attracted much ntron- 
tion, and vrfm published, with additions, 
separately in 1752, and ntii llmiugh sertiral 
editiotit. ll aUo a)i{ieared in Kr^uch and 
Gerninn. Wliytt'a treatment of the atone by 
luueirnter and soup ts iinv i-xplodud. 

On 26 Aug. 1747 Wbytt was appointed 

profeeanr of Um theory of mediciiw in Edts- 
our0i L'nirenity. In I7&1 he published a 
worlc ' On lh« \ ttoi and otlu-r InTOlantarr 
Motions of Animola.' The book attrtcteu 
the attenlion of th« phTsiolo};iftt;§ or Europe. 
Whvtt ' ibniw atide ilie doctrina of Stahl 
that the rational soul is the cauM of all in- 
voluntary motiona in animals.* and oacribed 
aucb m<>v«m«nbi to *tbe efli^-t of a Kiimulu* 
acting on on unconscious sentient principle.' 
He had a vigofvus cotitrorvny with Holler 
on the aiitgeet of this work. 

On 16 .^pril 1752 Whytt was elected Ixmdon, to thn 'Transactions' of 
which be contributed several paper*, la 
1766 he gave locturca on chcnustrv in the 
177U) fo^v.] In 1764 he published hisgWcrt 
bookr ' On Xervouit, Hrpocbondriac. or Hys- 
tsrie Diseases, to whieii ar« prvfi.^ed boidl' 
Remarks on the Sympalhv of the Nerve*.' 
This work was aleo translated into French 
by .'VchillHCiuillaume Iju hiigati dr- Prmie 
in 1767. In 176L Whytt woe madn first 
phvaiciun to thi> king in Scotland— 'a post 
.specially created for him' — and on 1 Dee. 
I i(t3 he was «lected pTBsi^ent of (he Royal 
OoUcg« of Pl^ieisjis of Ediiibtirgh : he held 
the presidency till his death at Edinburgh 
on 1 5 .\pril 1 766. His remainswcre accorded 
a public funeral, and were tnlerrod in Old 
O^eyfriars churchyard. Ha was twice inar> 
ried. Ills first wife, Helen, sister of James 
RobertjHin {1720?-i;88) [q.r.l, gnrnmor of 
New York, dif^in 1 741, leaving no children. 
In I74S be married Louisa, dau({hter of 
James Balfour of Pilrig in Midlothian, who 
died in 1764. By hia second wife XV'hytt 
had six 8urvi\Hng children. 

Bc«id(.« the works mantiooed, ^Vhytt was 
the author of: 1. *An Essay on ihe Virtna 
of LiuK.*- Water in thv Cum of the Stone,' 
Kdiuburgli, 1752, 12mo; 3rd mlit. Dublin. 
1762. l2mo. 2. ' Physiological 'Esa&ys,' 
>jlinhurgh, 1755, 12ino; 3rd wdil. 1766, 
I2niD. 3. ' flbservarions on the Dropsy of 
the Brain,' EdinbuiRb. 176«, 4to. An edi- 
tion of bis ' Work* ' was is.«ued by his son 
in I7iif^, and was translated into (iomon by 
Qbrisliun Klirhnrdt Kapp in 1771 (Loipoig, 
8vo). A complete list or hivdt'taebedpapen 
will be found in Watt's 'UibliotbecH nrt> 

Whytt'a son Jolin, who changed hie name 
toWhyle, bpcame heir to the entailed esiat«a 
of liewrvl Melville of Strathkinness, and 
took the name of Melvilli:- in adilitiou to his 
own. HewasffTondiatberofCaptain Gcorgo 
John Whyto-Mclvill* [q. v.] 

[Life and Writii^ of Kobcn Whrtt. M.D., 
by William S«Uer, UID., Id IWis of Boyal Sor. 


of EldiDlL, niU. 90-131 (vhirli obiatntd lh» 

SiAi!i]uas*ll Brolxine Priic) ; tJn«it'4 Siory of 
Hie Univ^reily of Kdinbargh, li. *01-2 ; Auitcr- 
•on'A ScotiUh NntJDD : ScoIm M»K- I'OI. I>. -'-^ ; 
IJnma'ii BpiUti})* in Hroyfri*!* GKnivliyiird ; 
Btuk«'B LamlfKl (icDtrr, ]A6Bi BrJt. Mus. Cut. : 
Wood's llist. of Rojai CyU. uf Ptiy*. Ediiib.] 

G. S-n. 

ROBKUT IJ. 1520), gr«mmiiriaii. [See 

(15;i3i'-ilKW.->, purilun Jiviii'?, liiim about 
1633, WW admictt-d <i scholar of St. John's 
CoUi^. Cftmbridiie, on Caniuinl Morton'w 
foundation, on il Nov. K^ltt, And was 
mklricuUlvd tn e, mnnioaQt in tlii< samo 
montli. He proeeeaeii H.A. in IWl, ani^ 
on 8 April ]5o2 be waBclectcd and admitted 
a fellow of his coll«Kt!> A man of §tronc 
■protwitftot opinioQS, be sjmpBlliUcd 
tlifi rcffinning lirudcntit-s of Jvdward Via 
(jovemmi-ul , niul ofl'-r the aecessi&n of Man- 
he judged ir prudent to 1«kv« EiiKlumi. Jn 
Mkf 1&^7 be joinpd tW KnKli.ili congrega- 
tion at Genera {,I.ivre dc* AinjtoU, L>d. liurrii 
18U1, p. 10). On the ac«-*«ii)n of Kli/uljfth 
lie iwtumed to Frij^lnnd; in Vt-'A lie pro- 
caeded M.A., and in Ilie same y<«r wiw 
appointed junioTdean and phi1onnp1iyl<>ctnrer 
in his coHeee. On 25 Jim, l-*''9 fl(> be was 
ordained dmiooii by KOmiind (irindal [(\. \.\ 
bUbopof liondon, and on 27 March l-^^tlO 
ho reoeived pn*<»l'» onlrrii froni Itirtiard 
DaviCB {d. 16811 [q.v.], bi.diop of St. .Vsipb 
(SXBIFB, lift of Griivtnl. 1 H-n . Pit. M, 5M). 
OD24Feb. 1560-1 he was insulted a pre- 
beodarv of Norwich, and on 6 April Itifil 
Tva* mliDittcd a senior follow of 8t. John's 
CoUeffe. Xu lO'U be ocoure aa holding the 
•ecnad probendal stall in llio cathc-dral of 
Bochester, wlucb ho si ill posiwsfcod in I-WH, 
but which h« had ivjtium'd IjHroni lSil:J(cf. 
Stxttb, Annala of the lirfomiafit/n, 1824, 
i. 488, 502), On i^S Nov. IfiUl U» vcm 
Installed u canon of Wpsinjinster. 

"Wibunitook port, as profJorof fhoderffy 
of liocbMter, in tlio convo^'arion n{ I fiG2, and 
subscribed lb« revised articW. On B >lnrrh 
35tW-4 be was instituted lo the vic*irnge of 
St. .S«piilcliru'«, Holbnrn. In the eame year, 
howi^ver, ht! wus KeE|iieatfrcd on rvfusin^; 
giib-ichption, and in ordur lo lualntaio bis 
family pmnluyt-d liim^i-U' in hnubnndry. He 
WH not, nowever, hardly dealt with, ihu 
CCcIeeiost ical au(,-» conniving at his 
1tet'{iirif; his prt>b>-nd.i and at hi^ pr^acbin^ 
in public (Stbtpb, Life vf (Jrindal, pp. 14li. 
140; Uffuf I'tirkft; 1821, i. -IHS). In 15ft6 
1)0 viitited Tboodore Ik'za a; GeiicTci and 

lleinrich Bullini^r at Ziirich to roprMenl 
the evil condition of the Kn^-IUh church, 
and to solicit Bssistanco from the 8wi)^ ro- 
formers. It Tk*fi« probnbly at this rinw> that 
Wibuni wroto his description of the * State 
of the (Jhiirch of Enf^land.' which is pre- 
ser\'ed in thu ^iirich nnrbiva^. He was tuc- 
li«rt«d by I be Knglisli ecclctiafiticsof caiiun- 
niating the rhun.^b, uii uccusntion which bu 
indijfitiuritl^' rc[K*lled, and which in a Intter 
dali-d '2h f'eh. l5tW-7 be beaought Bullingcr 
lo contmdlct. 

InJiin«K>7l Wihurn wosritpdfnrnonrnn- 
formity before Arciibiehop I'nrker, tocvther 
with f^'hristopher tloodinnn |'q. v.], Thomas 
LeviT [q. v.], Thomoti Sampson [q. v.], and 
soiDH otliers, and in 15711 bo waa examined 
by the council concerning hia opiuion on 
th« 'Admonition to the Parliament,' some- 
times erroneously attributed to Thomas 
Cartwriffht (1535-ltKW) [q. v.], which bad 
flplMsitwd in the prfwedinfc vmt [see Wiirox, 
1 iioHAs]. AViburu duclaa'd thai Lh« opinions 
esprvfowd in I !»■ • Admonition ' were not law- 
f«l, but he was. notwilhs tut ding', forbidden 
to preach until forthi-r onlrm (.'^tRvi'K, l^^v 
of Parker, ii. fifl. 2;iIMl ; Life of firindai.ja. 
S&S; i'XRXKK, Corivtp., Parker Soc. p. 843; 
(imxDAL, lifnutinftVnrker Soc, p. 348). He 
was afterwards restored to th« mini»lrj', and 
was preocher at Itocboster. In I6t*l ho WM 
one of the divines cboseu for their loamlng' 
and tbrological attainments to dispute with 
th*^ papiflte. In the aame year he pnblit^hed a 
reply to Robert Varrnns ('l-'>4*5-l(iIO) [q. v.], 
wLii undnr the name of John Howlct bad 
ventured to dedicate his 'Brief Discourse' 
to Queen Elisabeth. "SVibwrn's treatiao waa 
untitled ' \ Checke or Iteproofe of M. I tow- 
leta riitimcly shrcoehin^ in her Mnjestiea 
esrus.' Londun, 4lo. J [is zl'sI upiiiiat the 
jfNuiItt, however, did not prevent him from 
being euBpeuded trom prvachinp in 1583 by 
Arcbhi'hop Whilgift Iq-v.] (QrBif rB, Z^frw^ 
}l'/u'tffifr, lKi!2, i. 24fi, W5, 371,5501. llo 
continued under siispension for at le^st five 
year*. Towftrd."* tlifl clone of hi* life he 

t»ruached ul Battersea, mear London, and, 
lemn disabled for a lime from the public 
dutiueuf his uini.Mry by breaking bis leg, he 
wafl assiAt«d by Hie bard Sedgwick. He 
died about }Gw at an advanced a^. He 
vriw tniurled. 

[Coop«r"i5 Athniip Cnntabr. it. 449 ; Brook's 
Lives of r,ha?uriuinf, IBIS.ii. 169-71; Baker'a 
Hist, of St. John'iiColI. pd. Mayor, i. 118.286, 
S91, 3'2<^; I.iriH appvndnl tn i InrWii Enel. 
Msriyrclogif, 18*7. p. 168; Newcoiirl's Ronert. 
iCeek-n. iMd. nti», i. o8l; Rliindlcr'it ItoR, 
]{oi?hcwtL-i Cathdtlral, 1893; Henurjiiv'* Kovnm 
Rdpertorinn. 1898.] 'E. I. C. 




WICHE. [S»e al»o Wtcmb.] 

WICHE. JUnN \_d. lfiJi»,&vt bishop of 
Glouc»>ateT. rScc WaKEMAX,] 

WICHE. JOHN (i7I8-17»t), bftpttut 
mioiMor, was horn at Taunton, Somt-rset, 
on 34 April 171H, Hie jwmitu w.Tf Iwjk- 
ti«t«: hiB el'icr bmthw, Q*orirp H'iche 
(rf. 2 Not. 1794, nifi'd 78), oriuinally k 
mechanic, bt-cnme Mewnrrt of the iun<>Tn>itj 
room», Taunton, where his ponraJt, bj 
Thorn, was plflc>:xl by the subscribers. John 
WidiB wiw btiptJM-u on S-'S Juiii! 1734 by 
Jo«f ph Jeileries. bnj<1ist miaiator of Taunton, 
from vhocn.nnd fromTliomM Lucu«, baut Ut 
miiiii!t'T(172i-lHi<if Trow'Iiridn;!?, Wiltubirc, 
he reffeived his early etlui»liau. By help of 
th? tC^iieral bn]>ti>t fund hi' Hinilii'il xioo^* 
sively (It Tftiinfon, Kendal, and Findem 
acadi'miefl. At: Salbhury, wht'ie h« was 
Msiatsnt nnil ibnii niiiiintiir to k iWlitiinn' 
bapttM congretralion (174S-tf), ha fa«came 
acquaiiitEKl and crnTP«]innd"<3 with Thomas 
ChuLb [q. v.l Tn 17 IB hp went lo London 
to cvusult JosppU BiirrniJjibB [q, v.] and 
JamiM Fo«ter [a. v.] nbout. Ti'nring' the 
mmtHtry. On tbeir advici* hf bncame in 
I)M.-i'Ui)>er I7'l(t mlm!'t«r of a small greneTal 
buplisi cun^rujnition ivi Mai'ljtluiio, Atid hi'ld 
thin chiirgd till death. His vifws at thi* 
time were Ariati. but tu 17<!0 h« became 
a Socinisn. iifter rt-ndin^ lh*> nnnn)'moii>> 
'Letter on the l,o^o»,' piihli-lifd in I7.'i!>, by 
Nfttbaniel Larduer [q. v.] With Lardnw 
he eomapoadcd from liii^, if nnl carliLT. 
Lardnvr fuiiccd with him about the anthor- 
»hip of lhi« ' t.fttter,' but on It June 1768 
(six weoJjB befor-' his df&tb) wroi'* to inform 
hiui ihiil. ihn ' Papinian " to whom it had 
been addreawd nas John Shulv Hurrin^luu, 
firet viscount Bnrringtiiti I(j. v.] SoniP time 
tiftr-r Lnrdnpr's diuirh Wiclie ubtainod Bcceee 
to four of hi§ mnmiKcript Kirnionf (prwiched 
1747), and ininsrrihwl mid publishad ih^m 
lui 'Two Snbemt-f* of a Trinity ■ . ■ and tho 
IJivino L'nitT,' 1784, Hvo, Anions; bin in- 
timntv frieuil^ was William llnalitt, falhc-r 
of thft «4iaayiat, who had bt-cn pirsbyltnfin 
jniniHl«>r <1770-ftO) at Knrl ritroct. Maid- 
Kton«. Aflirr tlip MirmiiiKhain riots of I7S)1 
ho waited nn titnry T)unda« (uft'-rwards 
Krfit Visoount Midvilli-) |i|. v. J, thfii h'iin<- 
*t'cret«ry, with a doputfltion from Maidatom? 
in HriesUey's interesl. Thout^h liis n-soiircM 
wero scanty, he coHivtr-d a conftid^^rnbk bein^hia ' only extravo- 
SUic«'' Wiobedied at MiLi'JMonu on 7 ,-\pril 
1794. He inarrii-d, iu 17M, Klijtabeth Pint! 
(fi. 1767), hv whom be had *ix children; his 
eldest 6on, ThomaB (</. 11 July ISJl, UfTcd 
63), becauM) u Ixiudon hooKMllvr ; liis 

daa([hter Marr marriMl in Augiut 1706 
John Evins (J'TtC-lB^T) [q. v.], anthor of 
IliA 'Sketch' of Chrintiau dKnominalioni. 
Wiche'fl portrait (no enpr^v-cr's name) is 
ipTvn in iho *Prot»Uiiit Dijuicntrrs Mafpt- 
«ne,' 1707. 

lie publiabed, besides mnsle amnotis and 
tracts : 1 . ' A Defen« of. . . Foati^r':* S<Tmon 
of Cutholir Communion. By I'hilocaihoU- 
coB," l7oi. 8V0 (anon., answered by Ornnt- 
iiain Killi^)^wo^h^^. V.J); and 2. •("ibwcrva- 
tiitne on the Debate . . . concerning tbo 
Pivinc Unity . . . oddrflued to tiw Rov. 
K. W. W'hitlaliw of Canterburv,* 1787, Hvo. 
To IViestley's'TliPolopicnl Hepository.' 1786, 
V. H."!, he cmtrihutrd 'Obw-rvations favour- 
inff thfl MiraculouA Conrepfion,' ai^nf>d 
'>aeBraenti;' wrongly attributed by Tbomas 
Belabam [a. v.] lo Newct^mr- C«pp<- [q. tJ 

Georgfl NVichfl or Wrche (1707-1799), 
dicMntine n]inif<t«r nt Alontnn, Lancashire, 
from 17g« fo 17fto, wht'n Iw left thr ministrT'' 
and emigral«dtoAm«rics,wasJohn Wicbe'a 

[SkMoh hy Jfi^'hna] T[oul»in] in ProtHtant 
DUMnitr'ii Mii|ruurio, 1797, p 121 : Munlhl; 
Keporitory, 18J1. p. 461; RuH's Mvnoirs of 
PriestloT, iaSI-2. I. 69. 1»3. OU. 3S«. giroa ex- 
irMCtsfram hiACorrespondinrc furnished IjyJohft 
Krar«, his ^'^''d^^n ; Christian Ili^fornier, I^Sfl, 
[. 417; EninB'a Kerordof tho Prorhicuil Aatm- 
Lly ol' LnncHHliirv At:cl ChMhire. Ifl96, p. 133; 
Knitiis V«Miif[M of Prct«fltaat DisMOt, 1897. 
pp. IrtS, 2m.] A.Q. 

WICKENS. Sib JOHN (I8ir, 1873). 
jud);e, second son of J n roe? Stephen Wicltens 
of OhandoB Street, Cavendifth Niunrc, 1»t his 
wife, Anne Ooodeuougb, dauchler of John 
Hayter of Winterboume Stoke, Wiltshire, 
v:n» bom nt his fatbur'g houM on 13 Junv 
lH]h. lie wn» edupate.d at Elon(under Dr. 
KuatL'), where h« guinvd (hv Nuirca«itk'. Sub- 
nriiutmtly hr won in 1B32 an open ai-holar- 
flhip at. Ftalliot College. Osford,matrii'i]Utinfr 
in the uniwrsity on 30 Nov. of that y-ar. 
Il>> KTfldunr.'d B..A. with a ' double tirat ' io 
Micliaelmaa term 1831, and M.A. in 18^, 
but was uti un«ucc!f-**fiil candidate for a 
Italiiul fcIlowshLp. Jliiviiig entered nt Lin- 
ciiln's Inn, be was called to the bar in May 
1M40. His practice wa« of wmuwhat slow 
growth, but he gradually obtained repilla- 
lion Bj) a conveyancer and equity draftsman; 
and when in I8R- n nunilter of leading juoiora 
took ailk, Wick«>n<) stepped at a bound into 
a largiQ and lucrative court busin««e, wbidi 
nffviT dewrted him, lie waa KtainM in 
ma^it of the heavy chaucerv suits of the day, 
and appeared fruqiicntly Wore the House 
of Lord« n&d the privy council. During the 
Inter years of Lis caraer at the bar he wm 






equity oouoAdl to tlie cruasury. ibn <iuti«s 
connectad with wliich po«t [iivcluded him 
ftvm applying for a silk ^wii even had hn 
been ■» iiicUiiPil. 'Vlwy wcm bLdq demiiMl 
tnoompiLUhle wiih a N>at in the Houaa of 
CommimK, niul bo never lij^rad m a purlift- 
mentary i^Anfiid&te. 

In l«tW lit- wiw n»de vice-chanceHor of 
the county paktino of |j(tnejwU-r on ih« 
el^vntion of r^ir W. M. Jsmes to a THcanC 
l4rd-iii.itiR>-»1it{i. In 1471 Ito was «ltict«d b 
bencher of hi» inn, und in April uf ibat yvur 
^fl« ntiB«d lo tSiH betieh as viM-cbftncBllor in 
sucot'^on to Sir JoLn Stuurt, and recaivud 
Ihtt honour of knighl.luxxl ill dim iMunn Hut 
eound knowIodcB nf law, toj^-iher with the 
|FKaL utiMfnctimi hv litul pvi^n tn iht* pnln- 
tinate court, mi*^d expoctarions which w.*r.> 
not doKtined to be fuldlled, aa his health 
brolo^ (lowti ivil.hin a nhnrt pnricHl of hiJt 
appointment, and h4> died at. hi.i n^nl, Chil> 
(TTOvs, nwar Chiclip«t«r, on "J'-i (.M. \H7S. 

During hin short t«nuro of offici;. Wicktn« 
aci|iiired « r^nutnlion forslowntuts and for 
too close an aabcrencc to that c«m law, of 
which hx; waAsaackiiowl«dgodciutrr; but 
ho was famous for hii intimate acquaintance 
with all uutt<>ra r>.-latiug to proctiuo, und hia 
judgmenta Wfire mruly ap)wal>!d fnim. At 
(ho bar he was chiefly renowufld as an equity 
pleadt^r anrl u.* ii writer of npinionA; tiiil. 
though no s^'.At npiialipr, h«; p»**p*jtiid » pift 
of cWr ami vigorous expression, lo;|[ethyr 
with ft tn.'nchnnt. conciiw way of arpiiiinar a 
l«ffal point, which rnidfri'd his gorviuc* a.* 
an advocate of no incon<iid&rfiliIe! valiU!. In 
private l\(v bx w&B n.-murliablu for iho cst«n( 
and variety of his literary kmnTltvli^', and 
Uu waath« object of the warmest re^ii^hoth 
from hia per«f>n/il and pmfii»»i final friends. 
Ue was famed for wit aa well at^ learning, 
and it waj* oiirrcnt. rumour tbiit his finliira 
to obtain a Ralliol t'ellowithip wilh (Iiib to 
flomp ill-timed diaplay of the former nuallty. 

He marrieii. in 1&4.J. Harriet i'nincea, 
daughter of William Ouvfv of ('owluy 
Houitc, I iloncpslcrshire. His <f«ii{;hter, Mary 
Krskine, ti wifu of Mr. Justice Fiirwell. 

[Foster's JUumai Oxtrn, ITl^'-lSSft; Eton 
SehooL Una; Lav TIrim, Ivi. II; Holi.-iiora' 
JournnI, xviii 2D, TiinVK. 27 Oi;L la'ft (con- 
Iniatni; an viToaeans siMenient I lint ho wua tlte 
^ffWftigata priu at Oxfard).] , J. B. A. 

WIOKHAU. [See also WTKHniM.] 

WICKHAM, WIL[.:aM (17rtl-]8W), 

politician, eldist son nf Henry H'irltham of 

ColUnKl'^y in Yorkshire, a colonel in the l^t 

[font ffoarcU, hy his wifa KlimbL-th, daiif^hter 

' of WiUiam Lamplugb, rioar of Coltiugluy, 

TOL. IXl. 

was boru at Oi>tliogl«y in Octobur 1701. 
He waa i»duc«ted at Harrow and nt Chriat 
Church, Oxford, where he matriculated on 
i"! Jan. 177!], obtuinmi n ntHdenUhip, and 
became intimate with Charli« Abbot (after- 
ward« lAfTti t'ok'bwter) and William Wynd- 
hara I'irenville (afterwHrdft Lord (irenvilbi), 
H« took his B,A. de^e in 17':<^, and then 

tiroCfted.}d to Geneva, wlnire h»* «riidiiil olvil 
sw under Amadin i'enlriau, a proftuior in 
the Qeneveseutiivcrvil.y, Ilnthengraduated 
M.A. iii l-Vbruary 1780. JIu was called to 
tliL> bnr at i^iueuln's Inn iu tb« enauinff 
Michtu.-lmttH lenn, and oblainod a commis- 
»ioiierHliiji in l»iiikru|>U^y iu 17I)U. In (iKciwa 
he becama acquainted wilb Khionora Made- 
hiine Itnrtrnnil, whiiar fnthtiT won pnifeMor 
of luathematitu in the university, and on 
10 Aujj. L7*S they were married, Shu lived. 

tiiiiii \MiX 

Wickham'fl sariy intimacy with Lord 
Orenville and hia Swiss riwi'tence and con- 
noctiona Ant bronrht him into public em* 
ployment. tireOTille, then foreign secretory, 
made use of his etrvic^s in a secret foreign 
corrMpondence in Auguttt 179-l,ttiid in 17Wi 
he was appointed superintendent of aliens in 
order to enable him to e.\luud bis foruiim 
cnmmunicationN. Hi« letter* were carefully 
kept from the knowledge of tb{< diplomatic 
aervJOi' p-m-riillv, and only ntncliM Oren* 
viiWii band.'* tbmugh r.i»rd KoaaIvh. Itt 
October 17W-1 be was sent to .SwitEerland 
on an exceedingly confidential mission, and 
the fact that hu wo* thus engaged wu oa- 
siduouslv concealed from the foreign oflSee, 
Wbuu ibe fact bucamu known about the eiid 
of 1794 it excit«tdgr»iiit jealousy, and secrecy 
being nu lunger attaiDame, lyini Hubert Fila- 
gemld (thiiii mini*r«r p1eni|Kitimtiary tn 
riwLtterland I waa recalled, and WickWn 
was appointed charg6 d'alfaims durin); his 

Sbseoce. In tlte summer of ITfl'i FitagE'ralcl 
ru appointed to Copenhagen, and WicKbam 

bcoamti minister to the Swi»s cantons. His 
j correapondooco in tbie post was moet exteo- 
; sive, and the information which he thus 
I gatbi^rcd forhisgovemment proved very occu- 
I rate and valuabl«, particularly iu connection. 
I with the condition of I^rorence and the 

royalist mowiuenis iu I.n Vgndto. Ii« was 
^ in fact the govenimt>nt'4 priacipal spy on the 
j cootinent.and bis activity andEUCcees w«r4! 
I so great that in I7l>7 the directory foTmnlly 
, demanded bis expulaioa on the ground that 
I he acted not as a diplomatic agent but aa a 

foiQiMiter of inaurrvclion (Mallht l>r Pan, 

t'')riv«/«i(n/rtHiV fflr^c ta (Jour tt^ Vitnttif, ii. 

3iio ^ He was primtely pressed to ruUevu 
I the HwiiM Kovcrnment from its embarrsM- 
^ ment by voluntarily retiring, and in Novem- 




ber he thougHt it wise to comply, and with- 
drew to Fmnkfort. 

In Juniiary 17!)8 Wickhnm retamwl to 
SugloDi] and wm appoioted under-tecwtary 
ofHtato for thrt bom«iU-ponaiL'nl .wliicti i^lftoe 
faftd been promised Mm soiue years before and 
kept tiimporarily ocrupiod ituring liis M>rri»- 
in Switxuriuid. It wu n busy uiiJ impor- 
t&nl pom. |]ia comaipondenoi' wtt^i C'n»t)e- 
T«>BgU durinf; the Irisli relwUicin fillx u con- 
Kidnrtlilo jxirt of thtj Timt two voIihtiim of tlii? 
• AIninoira and rorrespondHiire of Vierimnt 
CustltTFiiKh/ nod pwrliuiis of it arw almi to 
bo fecund in It^MiVs * Corrr,«poHd"?nce nf I^nrd 
ComwalliB.' ^\'ic)(h3m was also privote 5ecr«- 
tnry to tin- Duke of I'ortlnnd. He n-tiirntd u 
envoy U> tli« Swuts csiitoiitt and ilie Itiuaioii 
and Aufltrittn ariuies iti June 1799, while 
flCill n'lninin^ hn ])oat at hom(^ and was vn- 
tru>l«d wiltj wry uxu-u&ivt powers of nego- 
tialiag treaties and arranging auppHea for 
the anti-revolutionary forcps. Ul- tmvolltMl 
vtjt CiixhaTcn, FljinOTcr, and I'tm, anil 
reacbed Switzerland on '27 Juno, ilia n-ifti 
narrowly iwcapml captun^ ut the hattle of 
iCiirioIi, and was annonnt^^'il in the Pari» 

Rpers to htive fallen into tlie hands of the 
Bocb. He WM engaged abroad until, earl V 
iu 1802, he wm appointed ou Abhoi'n a*f- 
vico chief sr-fretary for Ireland. IIt> wna 
tbeu BWOTii of tbu privy cuuuoi], and cani« 
into pnrliAincnl for lli«vti'»liiirv. Kmimrtt'ii 
rising was thfl ('biof «vent of his l«rm of 
ofBcH in Irelnnd, hut the position was dis- 
taat^'ful to him, and he resigned (-(irly iu 
180-1. He would hfive been iwnt in IWW and 
1S0;J OR minister eithor to Berlin or Vienna, 
but for the obieetion madv by tLo8i> courts 
to hU nomination on the ground of h\» being 
pHrsonally obnaxious to the French govern- 
ment, lie at^cnrdingly riHtinml fmin artivn 
nerrice on a ptnaion of about 1,MK)/. p«r 
annum. Tlii* wiw ihe conclusion of Wick,- 
hiim'R piiblir earppr, ftpr-pt that for a short 
time {February IHOI lo March J H07) he was 
a member of thft trtawury board under Lord 
Grenvillo, and went on oni> or two misxioD* 
lo Qermarty in oounection wiih niilKtidieM. 
In 1807 he rctind into tho counlry. He 
wa* made honorarv D.C.L. at Oxfonl in 
1810, and died at Brighton on S'i Ort. ISIO. 
Hia portrait hy FuifHr Wongs lo thv family 
{Cat. Third I>.fin Krhih. No. .%). 

Wv had one nm, llE^Kt Lewis Wicxham 
(178l»-ie6-t),whn waa horn on ]9May 17y9, 
was educated at Westminster and Christ 
Ohurch : having hwn railed to the hor from 
Lincoln's Inn (13 May ISl"), lio was ni>- 
pointed reeciivfi^-general of GibralUr. H« 
waa principnl private sei>relary to Alchorp 
when chancellor of the exchequer, and frum 

183R to 1M8 waa eliainnan of the boaida of 
Btampe and taxvs. Ho published ^rith hia 
cousin, J<din Antony ( 'raraer [q. v.j, a ' Dift- 
serlation on the Passa^ of Ilaiiuiba] over 
the Alp«'(L'nd edit. l.^ndon, IS^,*), and died 
in OhwtwrBold Street, Mavfair, on 27 Oct. 
H(U {(imt. Mar/. l«S4, li. 7ft4 ; FOSTKS, 
AtummOjMt. itl'VlSSO). Uia son, Wil- 
liHin Wickham (1H31-I8y7), woa M.l'. for 
the PeterHfield (iiTifiiou of HampaUire from 
1392 to 1S97. 

(C<jrrf*poiifl«n« of the Rif-kt Hon. W. Wick- 
ham. 187»; B«rrille e« Harrier*, L'oUectioa ds 
M^motKi relatifs k U lUrtdtition Fms^aiaf. vol. 
Iviti. eh. scLiT. p. 99 ; Lwky's lliirtorr of Kng^ 
laod in tlio Kighlwoth Caatory ; LonI Ualia*»> 
bory'M CurrespandaDca, iii. 454, 631 ; Lord Col* 
chMit«r'ii Diarj : Ann. It*^. 184 1 ; M«moirM«t 
Comnrandimcv An MnlloL da Pan, it. 33d. 1 

J. A. R. 

WIOKLOW. Viscount {d. 1786}. {See 
under Howard, ItAxra, ]6^-171aj 

WILLIAM »r id. 1285). archbishop of 
Yorlc, wa« canon and ch«nc«'llnr of \mk 
when on 4 Feb, I2fi2 h« was intjtituled to 
the rvetory of Ivinghoe, Buckinghatn^hlm 
(lUiNTl), Walter GitTard[q.T.l. archhiahop 
of York, having died in April l'*79, Wick- 
wnnr waH eli-eti^d by the enapter to enceeed 
him on i'i June; h« received th« king'» 
asaent on 4 July, and went to tbe pope for 
hia pall. NicolaJ) III aet aside the election 
by llie chapter, but n« of his own will con- 
secrated him to York at Vitcrboon 26 Any. 
On landing in ICngland about 29 Sept. m 
caused hia cross to he borne btfore him in 
the province of Canterbury. John I'eckham 
{i\. v.], the archbishop, or3en?d that no food 
ahould be sold lo him on paiu of «xcommu- 
nic-ation, and hin official and bis met) had a 
struggle with Widcwane's parly and broke 
the croM (Wtkb>). H« waa enthroned at 
York at CliriNtmaa. Tn 1380 he begaa a 
viAitalion of his province, and was *p«ctally 
t-areful in visiting its mona.iterie.*. On com- 
ing Iu Durham he wat refused admiaeion 
into tim cathedral prion', the pate being 
forcibly kept agninut him. Standing in the 
tho monks ; appeals weri' made to Komu, and 
the dispute laoted diiHng the romaiuder of 
his life. He aarain visited Dnrham in p^Hm 
in X^^'i, and wai^ about to exirommunicat* 
the prior in the church of St. Nicnlaa, when 
some of the younger cituenaraised atumnll; 
he was forced to flee.oneof hi* palfrev's ea« 
was cut off, and he is said to nave bfea in 
danger <)f hi;. life. On 8 Jan. 1 2»4 he tran*- 
lated the body of St. William [aee Fint- 
iimuiBRT, Wilijam], arehbiahop of Y'ork, in 






the preMnra of Edwajxl T, and with much 
Ht«i«, and OD the nu\r. divy oonftMnteJ 
Antony Bek {*/. 1310} [n. v.] to the si>e of 
DiirliiLm. HD net which ae la nld lo huvi: 
rM|^1IiMl to llir^ day of hiH death. Iluvicig 
obtained the hinp's leavft, he set out to lay 
his coniplnirits iif;ainst th^convvnt of Dur- 
hain bpfor« th(> poj>e. <>n his wny lie fell 
eick of a fever at Pontiffoy, osBOOiad the 
Cistercinn habit, mid died Tlium on 3S Aiiff. 
1285. The RlatomaiLl that lie reugned his 
aee tppean morely to refer to his aMum{>- 
tion or tbo noDtutio habit durinj; bis lost 
illness, lie was buried iu the abbey church 
of Poblij^y. 

Flmnr-intrid in penton, auiitnni id lif« and 
mimnera, and sparing in expenditure, Wil- 
liam had a high rvputation fur Mnctily, took 
aa little pul aa pi')MibI>^ in rivil alTaini, atid 
WIS industrious and atrict in his adminiatra- 
tiOD of bis province and of hi» diucvwi, in 
irbicb he consecrst«d many new r.hiirc!ie«. 
Hiradea, and apeciaUy curee of fever, are 
Mud to b&TU boon wrmi^lit at hi? tomb. Itii 
made a benelicini riiU>, coiillrmml by the klnn 
in 1283, that each archbishop of York should 
I«tve a certain amount uf nlociL ou the 
estates of the see. Ue is &iiid to have been 
learned, and to bav» written a book callud 
'Memoriale,' full of Imrnin)^ of all kindi*, 
•nparently a kind of commonplace book 
(Balk). Elis register is extant at Vork, 

(Raiiio'KFjwti Rbor. pp.S17-27; Tre* Serin IL 
Hilt. Dunalm. (Suriaw Sac.), pp. S8-69, lian 
a long ncenunt of thv quarrnl vith Durham; 
Pryoxit-'a Record", iii. 2.'ia •rjq. ; Cltmii. de 
Laoeicoft. pp. U\~2 (JtUitlaod Club); S(ul.b-i'« 
Hiitoriansof York, ii. 107-8. WykM'a Ohron. 
apad Ann. Ihlotuut. it. 281. Mntt. Wr»lmiii*t«r, 
ii). A3 (all Uolla Ser.) ; ItaU't Scripit. Cut. Mnt. 
X. 72.] W. H. 

WIOLIF.JOHN (1324P-l.'W43,reform«r. 
[Sew WrcLirvE,] 

conUKlinii, Ixjm in Ston- ^ttv^l, Tottenham 
Court Huad, on M Fub. IB1.1, wtu the «oo 
of Jons Ebdaiuj WlJlllI(rc»M!l ^r WiDDI- 
CtruB (irP7-1^5-l), a woll-known fiffure for 
maay years in LDtidoii, having h>i}n from 
1819 to 1853 riding-master and conductor 
of *the rine' at AstUtr'sAmphithealre. The 
elder Widdicomh, betam he waa at .-Vslloy's, 
had 'pUyC'd the dandvlover in pantomim« 
to thi: clown of Grimaldi at tbo old Coburg 
Theatre. He was to the tasl a wonderfully 
7cniog>-loo1(niff man, and was an excellent 
ring-msater* (Hlaxca ari>, U/e and Rvminit- 
wnyx, IfiDl.p. 13fi). 'Thn »nHpproa«babI« 
~Ir. WidiUcombo ' be if called in a uol« to 
iie ' Lay of St. Romvold,' who ' preserved 

thi' firmcoK of hi4 vmith lo tinag« onlTef|ualIed 
by Tom Hill and the Wandi-riiig Jew' (/n- 
goltUin/ Lrgen.d«, 189-1, iii. B6). firowninfj 
deacribedhimiiia It^tlurtoliiswifo in Augim 
1840 aa having a faca 'just Tom .Moorp'», 
plui two painted cheelo, a eham mouMtacbe, 
luidluur curled in wirylnngringlKx.' Wheu 
there was no evening perfoi-mnnne at .\srli»Vs 
htr vra^ frwjufntly swfu at VaiUKhall. lie 
died in Kenningtoo on 3 Nor. 38W (Genf, 
-Way, l?iM,ii.406). 

'Harry' Widdicomb was ontiTtid by his 
father at fifteen as a clerk in the Iohl^ rut>m 
at the Custom Uoiiae. Against bis lather's 
wish be left this employment in 1831, and 
obtained an eufra^^emenl at the Mnreate 
Thuatru undur Savill» Fuucil. He joined 
the Votkahira circuit under Down, but came 
to London in 1S3.5 or soon after, and ol>- 
LainL'd an viLRagvmi'nt under ADdn3W Ducrow 
[(J. v.] When AHtl.'y"* was burnnd down he 
went to Liverpool and plnved leading parts 
a» n low comi'diait under Mnlone Raymoni], 
In March 1SJ2 \in Hrst obtaintKl employ- 
ment at a west-f?nd tliwalre, being engaged 
by Rcnjamin Wehjlr-r during Buckstone's 
abseno? in America. In 18111 bo ht'came 
joint manncDr of the .Sbethcld and Wotver- 
IiamptoQ theatres with Charles UiUua, but 
throe year* later lie returned to Loudon 
and was utincipal comedian at the Snrr^ 
Tliratr.1 from 1848 down to ISfM). lie 

fhlayed at first occosionallr and ihtio n^- 
srly under Fechter at. {he Lyceum; in 
* Rarah'ii Voung Man' in August lS5w, in 
Oilbert's 'Uncle Haby' in Novembur iJsflS, 
ns (irst gravedigger in ' Hamlet' in the ro- 
vital»'>f' llaiulH 'in Januorv 18(11 and Mar 
iHfH, in the ' King's HutU^rHv ' in thrt foU 
lowing Octobur, as Jacques Strop in the 
' liiiaiUide Inn' In Frcbt<-r"ii Mncain* in Janu- 
ary IH6.'i, as Cmigongell in the ' Bride of 
LnmnK-rmoor' in January ]866, and as 
Moneypenny in Roitcicault'a 'Long Strike' 
in the ntuuin); September, lie wua last 
seen during l^ti? at the llolborn Theatre. 

Widdicomb noTcr aituimid to the front 
rank, but ho had a considerable fund of origi> 
nal humour and was famous for bi^ power 
of facial expresuori. IlKdimlin Kt-nnin^t'in 
I'ark Rood on 6 April ]Sfl8, and was b^tried 
in .NorwfKid rfinHrrv on 12 April. 

[?.tA, 12 April 1869'; Oont. Mse. 1869, i.689: 
£ni Aluiouac, ]87>. y. 14; Diuly Tclogmpb, 
7 April 1868; Blancnard's R4>mi niter ik«s, p. 
35S; Ijeltomof Robert Bmirning, 1899. ii. 43J; 
Fru»t"« Cireus Lite, 187fl; PpucIi. 10 May ISOD, 
^ 226.] f. S. 

WEDDOWEa, On.ES (ir)tWP-I(MG), 
divim.', bom about 1SS8, son of Thomoa 
Widdowes of Uicklcton, QlouceBtorsIui«^ 




wu probnbly mncriculated at Ori«1 ColI^i(e, 
Oxford, ill ]tf03 -1 (l)ut ibcro are no rccoras 
of Orii:l mntricululions at ihftt dftt«\ ffn- 
duotol H.A. ai Oxford *iii 2.", F«b. I<t08. M.A. 
on 27 Jan. lOU, waa fellow of Oriel iii ItflO- 
1621, anil tlirrein waa tutor ta Prynm*, with 
wUum Im aftHrwanl*t!ngs{;t<(] in coiilrovr>niy. 
Bom in the pariah in which Endymion 
I*ort<'r ^i|. V.J fived, he wm patroni«nd by 
hiin in Utt>r Tears (pf. CnJ. Ntal/^ Paper*, 
Dom. 4 Feb, *m39). In 1019 he became 
rector of Sr. Martin C«rfax, Oxford, and, 
after resifniiiiir his ft-llownliip at Oriel, he 
bftC&mc vic4>principal of Gloiiceirt«r Hall. 
Us WW a]»o ctiiiplaiii to Kutlit^trino, diichi3H 
of Riickingharo [pr^fnce to Ihe ScAirmtttieai 
Puritan, 1631), And ve&f, highly thoiij^ht of 
by Laud {^Vanifrlntrir'.t Ifuomr, p. 72). In 
16S0 he published a ticrmnij pnarhcd at 
WitnL-yVutici'ruiuKthL'lawfulnfituiur church 
nulhorilv, for nrdninit)^ and commnndin)^ uf 
rittia ana cereuoiiiee Co beautify the churcli,' 
tiiuli^r Iho titlp of 'The Schismnt ical Puri- 
lan' (Ur ed. liWO; 2nd o^. lfi.11), It wns 
answered by IVriine in an appendi.v to hij 
'ADti-Arininianiem' (2nd cd. liWO), Wid- 
dowes replied in 'llie Lawless Kiieulesa 
^^chi)>maticnl Puritan' (Osford, 1U3I1, dedi- 
cniod to Etidyuiion Porter, iu which Liu 
dtfonded the crmrch'sorderofbovriri(f at tlit: 
Holy Name. ThifiPrynne answerpd iu ' I^ine 
(lilf!* hi* HHllinus' (IfiSl). lli« scrnnons 
at Carfax, thnugh pn|Hi1nr aniytiff th<> royal- 
i«t0 and noldiery, raimed occni>ioiinl riotti 
amnng tho puritan youths. At Land's trial 
it wan stated Ibal \w had set up a window in 
his church with a crucitix on it. We waa 
jforierou* to the poor, u strun)j; aiiUsuhba- 
tarian, dancing with hia flock oii Whit-Son- 
day, and worlii-d BiLi'rp,'i'li(;Rlly in his paijah 
(tiirinp the siegi- of O^fonl. IIh diiti on 
4 Feb, ISil-ft.and woji buried in the chanc<>1 
of hi» church. 

Wood ilpdrribes him m 'a harmU'ss and 
honest man, a noted disputant, well road in 
the echoolmcn. and as confominble to and 
lealous in the ettublitihtKl discipline of the 
churcli of Kogland as any person of bia 
time, yet of 80 odd and atranffe partit that 
few or none could ha companid with liim,' 

(FoBU-r. Almniii Oioii. IJO0-17I4; WoikI'b 
Atbente and I'asti; Oat StjiCti Pnporv, Donu; 
land's Worka; Athynrfs ahnicehlfraliir* ; I'let- 
cfaer'a Church of St, Martin Ciirf«s.] 

W. H. H. 

repiua professor of Orwk at ('atnbriilgf. 

Cing^r son of Lewis Widdrington and 
ther of Sir Thomas Widdrington [ij. v.], 
waa born at .'^tamfordhiua, Norilniuibfrlund, 
and educated at Christ's College, Cambridge. 

Ho must have txwn a eolb^e acqiumtwce of^ 
MittOd's, wli