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Stow Tytler 


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This nineteenth volume of a Re-issue of the Dictionary 
OF National Biography comprises the fifty-fifth, fifty- 
sixth and fifty-seventh volumes of the original edition, viz., 
Volume LV {Stow-Taylor) published in July 1898; Volume 
LVI (Teach-Tollet) published in October 1898 ; Volume LVII 
(Tom-Tytler) published in January 1899. Errors have as far 
as possible been corrected, and some of the bibliographies 
have been revised, but otherwise the text remains unaltered. 

Three supplementary volumes, published m the autumn 
of 1901, and now forming the XXlInd and last volume of this 
Re-issue, supply (with a few accidental omissions) memoirs 
of persons who died while the original volumes were in 
course of quarterly publication. The death of Queen Victoria 
(22nd January 1901) forms the limit of the undertaking. 

•," The Index and Epitome o( the Dictionary, which ia pub- 
lished in a separate volume, gives, with full Cross-references, an 
alphabetical list oC all memoin in both the DiCTloHARV (18S3-I900) and 
the SUPPLEUENI to the DlCTiOHaRY (1901). 






Stow Tytler 



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DigiiizMbi Google 

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F. W. 0. 

W. O-E. 

W. G-OE. 
I. G. . . 

P. H. G. 
J. C. H.. 

J. A. B. 
T. H. . . 

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W. A. 8. 1 
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W.H. . 

W. H. H. 

a. J. J. . 

L . 

C. L. E. 

J. K.L,. 

T. G. L. 

E. M. L. 
J. E. L.. 
J. H. L. 
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W. E. M. 
E. C. M. 
P. E. U. 

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lUNTLB, Dbah or BiFOS. 
F. W. Gahblz, M.So. 
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foot. IsBUI, QOLLiBCK. 



B. E. Geites. 
t F. HoiDis Gboove. 


HoBKRi H.T.I. , F.3.A. 

Mr. Jobticb Eamiltok. 

Tes Bet. Tbouis Hamilton, 

Abtsctb HjlBdes, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. Alkiandbb Habbd, O.M.G. 
T. F. Hendebson. 
W. A. 8. Rewihs. 

t G. J. HoiTOiEE. 

The Bet. Wujjah Hurt, 

TsE Bev. W. H. Hdttos, 

The Rev. T. B. Johttbioke. 
The Bet. B. Jkhkih Jones. 


C. L. EiNasroBD. 
t Jobefb Knioht, F.S.A. 

Pbof. Snt JoHH Ekox Ladob- 
lOH, D.Lm. 
f T. G. L*T. 

I. 8. LEADill. 

MiBB Elizabeth Lee. 
amsEi Lee, LLP., Lm.D. 
B. H. Leooi. 
Col. E. U. Luts, B.E. 
J. E. Llotd. 
t The Bet. J. H. Lowoh, D,D. 
Michael MacDoxaoh. 
J. BuiSAT Macdokald, M.P. 
iGkeab Haceat, K.C, LL.D. 
W. E. Makhebs. 

E. C. MiBCHAtlT. 

P. E. Mathesoh. 

L. M. M. . 
A. K-B. . 
A. H. U. . 

J. B. M. ... 
G. H. M 

B. N 

E. T. N. . . . 
G.leG.N. . 

D. J. O'D. . . 
F. M. O'D. . . 

G. W. 1. 0. . 
E. G. P. ... 
J. F. P. 

A. F. P. ... 
S. L.P. .... 

B. P 

D'A. P 

E. L. B. ... 

W. E. E. . . . 
T. K. B. ... 
J. M. R. ... 
H. J. R. ... 
J. H. R. ... 
H. S. S. ... 

W. A. 8 

C. F. 9 

G. W. B 

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G. US Qbib NosaATB. 
Mu3 Kate N'dboate. 

D. J. O'DoNOaBDB. 

F. M. O'DoN-ooBDE, F.S.A. 
t The Bet. Thouab Olden. 

G. W, T. Omoka. 

E. Gaubibb Pabby. 
J. F. Paihe, M.D. 
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SiAHL^i Lan E- Poole. 
Miss Bebiha Fobier. 
D'Aeci Poweb, F.B.C.a 
Mna. Baofobd. 

I Fbaseb Bab. 
W. E. BaODBs. 
Tbe Bet. Caxoh Bichmohd. 
J. M. BitM. 

H. J. BoBUtBON. 

H. S, Balt. 

Tbe Bbt. Fba-ncis Sandbbs. 
Tbouab Sbccohbe. 
W. A. Shaw. 
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Alfbed Stove. 
Geobob SrBONAon. 
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Mbs. Nakxb Sturt. 
c. w. bottwh. 

B. B. Bwnrros. 
Pbof. James Tait. 
H. B. Tedder, F.8.A. 

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List of Writers. 

D. Li. T. . . 

D. Lutms Taoiua. 

A. W. W.. . 

. A W. WiBD, LiTT-D., LL.B., 

E. M. T-D. . 

. Miss Todd. 

T.P. T. . . 

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B.P.T. . . 

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W. W. W. . 

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H. A. W. . . 

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B. B. T. . . 

Col. B. H. Vetch, K.E., 

B. B. W. . . 

. B, B. WoOBWiUD. 


W. W 

. Wiawici Weoth, F.S.A 


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■mrtuei u>d foondat of the Qlugow Nornul 
School, was born at P&Ulej on 17 May 1793, 
Kikd «u the sou of William Stow, bj hia vife, 
A^Bci Smith. HiB £itEiar was a Bubebuitiu 
BMC&uit knd loagictnte in the town. David 
'««• •daeat«d &t the PaUley gnmrnu school, 
a«d w»* in 1811 employed in bnsineae in 
ni«^nw Verj earlj in Ufa he developed 
« deep intereat In the Btate of the poor in 
Thai grekt cit j, and eepeciallv in the cnildien 
«f the Saltmarket, a aqualid i^^n through 
wUeh ha puMd daily. For theae he eata- 
blnhcd in 1816 a Sunday evening school, 
in whidi ha gathered for convereation and 
faifalial instractioa the poorest and most 
■< i;lnni i1 at the children. He became an 
ekMT of Ih-. Chalmers's church, and was an- 
mged br him in his eflbrts. The experi- 
MgaiDM in naiting the children's homes 
dhim wieh the need of ntoral train- 

iag M £*tiiwiushad from simple insCruction, 
mad gndoalfy «hH>«d in his mind the prin- 
lialti w KifJi lm aAsrwarda elucidatad in iua 

o^wtiAM aAsrwarda 

if tbmicfcefibctedaC the same time by Bell 
a^ 1 iM-tifnr in England, and eepecituly by 
faiaal VDiteqiiii [q- v.], the author of 
tb 'Ifflbu SystMii.' -^^ Stow's invitation 
"" -■ [aTS aome lectures on infant 
jjHtargii ai^ Glasgow, and an 

-r— n-rr --t t^TiMBd. Under the name of 

(iefflaHOwEdoctftkiiialSocien. In 1824 
tkk toStr HtabUsbad at Stew's instance a 

Mbol W 1837 developed into a Munmary 
fc Ha miainff of U^bim, which was m 
SrtdJfart norm*l colWe m the kmg- 
STatthoSS botH tbe National Socie^ 
K^ Kwi^ aocietiea m Endand 

had several years earlier admitted youu; 
persons who intended to become school- 

new premises on a larger scale in Bunda* 
Vale, Glasgow. 

In 183S, 20,00(M. hanng been voted in 
parliament for the erection of schoolhouses, 
StoVs enterprise was aided by a grant, and 
he was invited in 1838 to become the first 
government inspector of Scottish schools. 
He declined this ofTer, preferring to develop 
his own system in the institution which he 
had founded. The success of the college 
attracted the special attention and vpu- 
pathy of Dr. J. P. Kay (afterwards Sir James 
Phillips Kay-Shuttleworth [q.T.]), who visited 
it, and Teoommended in 1841 the further 

overto the general assembly of the church of 
Scotland. Thiscondition WBsfulfilledj but 
in 1846, when the disruption of the Scottish 
ohuich took place, a dunge became inevi- 
table. Stow and the directors and teachers 
of the institution were all in sympathy with 
Chalmers and the free-church leaaers; with 
the whole bodr of atudents, as well as the 
pupils of the schools, they seceded, and were 
housed in temporary premises until the new 
seminary, known to this day as the Free 
Church Normal Collie, was erected. Ofthis 
institution Stow remained the guiding spirit 
until his death on 6 Nov. 1664. He ma> 
rted,iii 1822, Marion Freebaim, bvwhom he 
hadfourchildren; shediedinlSSl. Hemar- 
ried, secondly, in 1841, Elizabeth AlcArtbnr i 
she died in 1847. 
The influence of Stow's normal college 


■ ■' ■ StDW 

wu not oonGned to Scotland. The Wes- 
lejan tiducBtiou committee from 1840 to 
1B61 STsilsd themselves of StoVa institu- 
tion, and encouraged theit atudanta to go 
to Glasgow for their profession&l pTeparation. 
"When me Weslejau Truning College waa 
wtabli^ed in Westminster, Stow'a methoda 
wen lanrelj adopted, two of tlie principal 
^cera of that college having been trained 
at Glasgow nnder hu superintendence. 

Stow placed Teligioua and moral tmaing 
before hint as the priacipal objects to m 
attained in education, Tne pla^cround ot 
'uncovered schoolroom ' he BBpeeialiy valued 
as a place where, under right supervision, 
good physical and moral training- might be 
secured. As to direct teaching, he made bibli- 
cal lessons and instruction both ' 

_ _ I system; and he attached apeciol im- 
portance to what he called ' picturmg out,' 
Dy means of oral description and iliustra- 
tioni, those geogra^cal and historical soenee 
which appeiil to the ima^nation rather than 
to the TMbal memory. He sought to tncor- 
poTSite into tiii practice much of the best 
experience of Bell, Lancaster, and Pesta- 
loui; but the monitorial system appeared 
to him very defective from the point of 
view of moral influence, and the parrot-like 
enumeration of the qualitiea of objects whidi 
was so oitan to be found in achools profess- 
ing to be Peatoloman he regarded as often 
vnfruitfaL He was one (^ the fint of our 
educational refonnera to recooniM fially the 
value of infant schools, and the importuice 
of what he called the 'mnpathy -of numbers' 
and of collective taaching as a means of 
quietening the intelligence of young children. 
In the training of teaohem he was one of the 
earliest and iBost etfectiTe workers, and the 
method of requiring all candidatee for the 
teacher's oBice to give public lessons whit^ 
were afterwards made the subject of private | 
critioiam by the fellow~atudenta and by him- 
self — a method now universally adapted in 
all good training colleges — may be said to 
have originated with him. His experience 
led >'''n also to advocate the teaching of boya 
and girls together in the primary school, and 
to attach great value to this association 
on moral grounds. From the first he deter- 
mined to employ no corporal punishment, 
no prizes, no place-taking, and he always rfr- 
earaed these as wholly unnBCeasary expe- 
dients for any teacher who was properly 
qualified for his work. He was not a great 
educational philosopher, and he never, like 
Roussean, Comeuius, Locke, or Feetalout, 
tbrmulattd a scientific theory of education. 


His system was the reanlt of experience guided 

by a loving insight into child-nature. 

In the Ught of later experience some oi 
his methods have been superseded. The 
gallery on which ne delighted to 
r more children gathered to receive 
a stnriiig moral or pictorial lesson was found 
to be an ineffective instrnment for serious 
intellectual work. Later teachers have also 
found that it is not safe to rely too much on 
oral instruction or to relegate, aa he did, the 
study of language to a rank so &t inferior 
to the study of material things. 

His chieipubhcations were : 1. ' PbvMcal 
and Moral Training,' 1833. 3. ' The Trun- 
ing System,' first published in 1836, which 
TMchedaninth edition, revised and expanded, 
in 1863. a ■ National Education: the Duty 
of England in re^:aTd to the Moral and In- 
tellectual Elevabon of the Poor and Work- 
ing Classes — Teaching or Training,' 1347. 
4. < Bible Emblems,' 186G. 6. 'Bible Train. 
ing for Sabbath Schools,' 1867. 

[The bast aeconnt of his Ufa will ba fonnd in 
the Memoir by the Rev. W. Prassr, a member of 
the Qlsssoir College staff, London, 1 668 ;Leiteh'i 
PraetioaT Edncationtsts ; J. O-. Thomson's Cen- 
tenary Addieu before the Eduostional Institate 
of Sootland, 1893.] J. Q. F-x. 

STOW, JAMES (j*. 1790-1820), en- 
graver, born near Maidstone about 1770, was 
son of a labourer. At the a^ of thirteen 
he enfraved a plate from Munllo's ' St. John 
and the Lamb, which showed such preoo- 
oioue talent that, with funds provided by 
gentleuieo in the oeighbourhaod, he was 
articled to William WooUett |^q. v.] After 
WooUett's death in 1785 he Completed his 
apprentioeahip with William Sharp [q. v.] 
Stow worked entirely in die line manner, 
and engraved many of the plates for Boydell's 
' Shakespeare ' (small series), Bowyers edi- , 
, tion of Hume's ' History of En^lsjad,' Maol^ 
I lin's ' Bible,' Du Roveray's edition of 'Pope's 
I Homer,' George Perfect HaFding|s series of 
portruts of tl^ 'Deans of Westmtnatar,' and 
I other fine publications. His most importsnt 
j single plates were ' The Three W^omeu at the 
Sepulchre,' after Benjamin West, which he 
, issued hiniself; aodaportrutof Lord Fiede- 
rick Campbell, after Edrid)^. His Uteat 
employment was upon the lUustrations to 
WilkiDson's ' Londina Illustrats,' 1611-33. 
Falling into intemperate habits, Stow died 
in obscurity and poverty. 

[BadgTate's Diet of Artists ; Dodd'a uam- 
senpt History of Ennavers la Brit. Mas. Add. 
H8. 3340S ; Notes and Queries, 0th ser. ir. 437, 

aai.] F. u. VD. 

Digitized byGOOgle 


8I0W, JOHN (15S5 P'1606), chronicler 
■ad ■■tiqnary, iras bom aboat 1625 in tlie 
ju^ of St. Michael, Oomhill, London, of 
vUek hia bthar and gruidfather ware pai- 
-" *" --»(cf. AirBaBT,X*M»,ii.641). Tho- 

of ft jait of tha garden of Ma house ii- -_-„ 
nortfitt BDeet (cf. Stu-rey, ed. Thoma, p. 67). 
H« dMCfibefl himself in his youth as fetohincr 
wlk ' hot from the Une ' mim e, farm in the 
JCnoiiw. In earl;]ifehefoIlawed thetnde 
«f ft uBcr, which was donbtless his father's 
•flwpfttiow. In 1S44 ft btlee chfti^, which 
is ftut defined, was brought against him bj' a 
prictt, and be bad the sstisfitction of convict- 
tog his aeenaer of penoiy in the StaT->chaDiber 
<STBm>. On ^6 Nov. 1647 he was ad- 
mitted to the freedom of tlte Ueichant 
Taykea' Ooanpanv, but was never called into 
the Mntj nor held anv office (Olddb, Siat, 
0f Mtniamt Taylor/ Company, p. 183). 
iW U4S hs was living near the well in 
Aidgite, between Leadenhall Street and 
Fendareh Street, and there witnessed tJae 
aaeoQan in front of his house of the bailiff 
q£ "BmiSarA, who seems to have been iudir 
ciallj maidered aa a repated rebel. Soon 
d«WBids Stow removed to Lime Street 
wd, wbera he reoidad till hU death. 

9tw doea not saem to have abandoned 
has UaM altfl^ther till near the close of hia 
canB^ and no was until his death an 
boMored member of the Merchant TajloTa' 
Coaqaaj. Bat ho left in middle life ' his 
own pwnliar gains,' and coaaecnted himself 
• to Sb weatoi of our famous antiquities.' 
Aoa UMO OBwarda his lime was mainly 
mfcmt m tbo oollaeCion of printed books, 
^■1 and literal^ dociuneuts, and charters, 
m tko tiBBScripttoii of ancient manosciiiite, 
JMiiililiiMis, and the like< ^ dealing with 
l^fMi Uatory, trcbtooLogy, and literature. 
Ha seat as a collector inoieaaed with hie 
jmt, tad he nitiinatel^ spent as much as 
ioQL saBoallr on hie library. Some time 
■Av the death, in 1678, of Iteginald or 

Eitrchased Wolfe'i 
__^„_^ .„ now all the lead- 

'mg wtii^riM of hie d*J> including Wil- 
fan faiaHr**, OMndon, and Fleetwood. 
Hs mmUmI nMBuecripta of medieval chro- 
«JwA«hbi«hop I'f''"''?:^!*'"^' 
mmtkting patron, ""^^^^.f^^^^uPT °^ 
AMbri£l£Mt*<n* nnderUieardibishops 
ftM^^Tloiiied the Society of Anti- 
•aos ixmai by the arohbishop, but of his 
rfT '.-TT --' the BOdetnp'a proceedings 
It on the origin of <Bt8rling 


Stow's first publication was an edition of 
'The woorkes of Geffrey Chaucer, newly 
printed, with divers oddicious whiche were 
never in printa before ' (London, 1661, to\.j 
Lydgate's ' Siege of Thebes' was appended. 
Stow worked on William Thynne's edition 
of 1633, but ' corrected ' and ' increased ' it. 
For many years subsequently he ' beautified ' 
Chaucer^ text with notes ' collected out of 
divers records and monuments.' 'These he 
madeover to his Mend Thomas Speght [q.v.], 
who printed them in his edition 011696 
(cf. Suroty, 1603, p. 466). Speght included 
ft valuable list of Lydgate's works, whioh he 
owed to Stow. Francis Thynne [a. vj cen- 
sured Speght'e work, and in ia!a ^eght - 
brought out a corrected edition. 

In 1662 Stow acquired a manuscript of 
the 'Tree of the Commonwealth,' by Ed- 
mund Dudley [q.v.], irrandfather of Robert 
Dudley (afterwards Earl of Leicester), the 

niiaan<s favniii.Il's Tin -..J^ g_ **OPy with 

e favourite. He b 

thor's grandscui. The latter, in acknow- 
ledging the gift, suggeeted that Stow ought 
to undertake ori^nal historical writing. 
Stow took the advice, and planned a chro- 
nicle on a generous scale, hut before he had 
gone far with it he turned aside to produce 
a obronologioal epitome of English history, 
with lists of the ofBcers of the corporation 
of London. Such workawere notuncommon 
at the time, and an undated reissue, assigned 
to 1661, of ' Abreviat Chronicle contaynynge 
all the Kynges [of England],' which waa 
originally published many years before by J. 
Myohell of Oantarbury,w&slanK regarded in 
error as the first edition of Stow's ' Epitome.* 
It waa not until 1665 that Stow produced his 
I SummAiie of Euglyahe Chronicles oon- 
teynyxte the true accompt of yeres, wherein 
every Kyng of this Kealme . . . hogtn theyr 
retgne, Eowe loner ^^J reigned ; and what 
notable thyngee nath bene doone durynge 
theyr Reygnea. Wyth also the names and 
yeares of all the Bylyffea, custos, maiors, 
and sherifTei of the Citie of London sens 
the Conqueate, driigentely collected by J. 
Stow. In EedibosT.MarEhi' (London, 1666, 
8vo). The work was well received, and was 
frequently reissued until the year preceding 
Stow's death, with successive additions bring- 
ing the infarmation up to date. An account 
of the universities of England was added 
to the issue of 1667. Others bear the dates 
1570, 1578", 1576, 1679, 1584, 1587, 1590", 
ISeS*, and 1604* (those marked with an 
asteriak are in the British Museum). The 
work was dedicated to sucoeasive lord 
mftyors with the aldermen and commonalty 
of London. From the first Stow's accuracy 



Tu impugned bj an inteiested rival chroni- 
cler, Richard Grafton [q.y.], who had antici- 
pated him in bringing out a Bomewhat similar 
' Abridgment of the Chronicles of England ' 
in 1562. This was dedicated to Lord Robert 
Dudley, and was often reprinted. In the 
1666 edition G-rafton meered ' at the memo- 
Ties of supitretitious foundacicns, fables, and 
lyes foolishly Stowed together,' In the de- 
dication to the edition of 1567 Stow pim- 
ningly, by way of retort, deplored the 
' thundering noice of empty tonne* and un- 
fruitful graftti of Momus offspring' hy 
which his work was menaced. The war- 
&Te was long pursued in prefaces to succea- 
sive editions <n the two men's handbooks. 
Stow finally denounced with asperity all 
Qrafton's historical work (cp. Address to the 
Reader, 1573). There seetns little doubt that 
his capacity as an historian was greater than 
Qrafton's, and that the victory finally rested 
with him (AltEa, Typogr. Antiq. ed, Dihdin, 
iii. 422-7). 

But Stow had other troubles. His studies 
inclined him to conservatism in religion, and 
be never accepted the reformed doctrine with 
mnch enthusiasm. His teal as a collector 
of documents laid him open to the suspicion 
of Elimbeth's ministers. In 1568 he was 

the Duke of Alva'a manifesto against Eliza- 
beth which the Spanish ambassador had dis- 
•emiuated in London. He was examined hy 
the council, but was not punished (Clodb, p. 
651). Soon afterwards — in Febroary 1568-9 
— hia house was searched for recendy pub- 
lished papistical books, and a list was made 
of those found. The officiala of the ecclesias- 
tical commission who made the search re- 
ported that they found, in addition to the 
forbidden Uterature, ' foolish fabulous books 
of old print as of Sir Degocy Triamour,' ' old 
written English chronicles,' 'miscellanea of 
divers sorts both touching physic, surgery, 
and herbs, with medicines of experience, and 
'old fantastical books' of popish tendencies 
(cf Stbipb, ffniKia/.pp. 184, 518). In 1670 
a brother gave information which led to 
another summons before the ecclesiastical 
commission, but the unspecified charge, 
which apparently again impugned Stow's 
religious orthodoxy, was satisfactorily con- 
futed. In the same year Stow accused a 
fellow-tailor named Holmes of slandering his 
wife, and Holmes was ordered to pay Stow 
twenty shillings. Thenceforth he was un- 
molested, and inspired his fellow citiieas 
with so much confidence that in 1585 he was 
one of the collectors in the city of the money 
required tofumish the government with four 
thousand anned men. 


Stowpursued his historical andantiquarian 
work with undintinished vigour throughout 
the period of his persecution by the coundl 
and hia bitter controversy with Grafton, 
Archbishop Parker's favour was not alienated 
by the allegations of romaniam made against 
him. With Parker's aid Stow saw through 
the press for the first time Matlliewof West- 
minster's ' Florea Historiarum ' in 1567, 
Matthew Paris's 'Chronicle' in 1671, and 
Thomas Walsinjfham's ' Chroniole ' in lo74. 
In 1580 ha dedicated to Leicester the first 
edition of his original contribution to Eng- 
lish history entitled ' The Chronicles of Eng- 
land from Brute unto this present yeare of 
Christ, ISSO. CoUectad by J. Stow, oiticen 
of London,' London, by ' R. Newberia at the 
Bssiniement of H. Byuneman,' 4to. The 
useful work, in anew edition four years later, 
first bore the mora familiar title of 'The 
Annales of England laithfully collected out 
of tha most authenticall Anthers, Bacordi, 
and other Konumenta of Antiq uitia frcun 
the first inhabitation until! . . . 1692,' Lon- 
don (by Ralph Newbery), 1592, 4to. The 
dedication was now addressed to Archbishop 
Whit^ift. The text consiste of more than 
thirteen hundred pagee, and ooncludea 'with 
an appendix 'of the universities of England.' 
The' Annales 'were reissued byStowwi^in 
a few days of his death in 1605 still in quarto, 
' encreased and continued . . . ustill this pre- 
sent years 1605.' Itwasr&«ditBd, continued, 
and considerably altered in 1616 by Bdmund 
Howes [q. v.], with an appwided account of 
the universities, to which Sir Qeorge Buc 
supplied a description of ' the university of 
London ' (i.e. of the Inns of Court BJid other 
educational establishments of the metropolis), 
A new edition by Howes appeared in 1631. 

Meanwhile Stowwas employedin revising . 
Uie second edition of Holinshed's ' ChrtMiicle? 
which was published in January 1585-7. 
His final work was * A Snrvay of London 
oontayning the originall antiquity and in- 
crease, modeme estates, and desoriptioa of 
that citie . . . also an apologie (or defence) 
againat the opinion of some men conceminff 
the citie, the greatnesse thereof, . . , WitS 
an appendix containing in Iiatine, Libelluin 
de situ et nobilitate Londini, bj W. Fit£- 
stephan in the RsJgne of Henry the Secoud. 
b.l,,J.Wolfe,' London, 1698, 4to. Itwaode^ 
cated to Robert Lee, lord mayor, and to the 
oitiiens of London, and is an exhauative and 
inval uable record of EliEabe than Iiondon. 'In- 
creased with divers notes of antiq-Qity,' it was 
republishedbyStowinieoa. Areprintof the 
1608 edition, edited by William J. Thorns, ap- 
peared in 1842 with modemiaed OTtli07»nhT 
and edited by Henry Morley j^q, yi j^ xyjjo' 



^tow's aatborised text is to be found alone 
in i)k edition of 1G03. After hia death the 
work was liberallj reviaed. An enlarged 
r^.UioD b7 Aathonj Uimdsj appeared in 
ItilP, and b; Mimdaji Henry oi Humphi:; 
EHmn, and others in 1633. Strjpe expanded 
it "in 17-20 (2 toU. fgl.), and again in 1764. 
' Robert 3ejmour/ Lo, John Jlottley [q.T.], 
piibli>bedaneditioninl734. Anewedition, 
«<iiteil bj G. L. Kingsford, was isaued bj the 
Oif^ I'niTerBit; Preas in 1908. 

tSiTw'i reputation grew steadily in his 
clofiiu; Team. He waa of livetj tempera- 
BdC, tad bis society was Bought by men of 
W >xi. Benry Holland, in his ' MoQiunenta 
Saacti Pauli ' (1614), called Stow 'the merry 
old nun.' Bnt he was alwajrs pecuniarily 
FBibarr&.Med ; hia expenses always exceeded 
hia iacome, and his researches were pursned 
ncder many difficulties. 'He could nerei 
ridf. bnt trs-relled on foote unto divera cathe- 
dral efaorches SLnd other chiefe places of the 
land to search records ' (Howes). He told 
Haaam^hani tbe diarist, when they met 
cm Jr Dee. 1602, that he 'made no gains 
by bis traTftils ' (^Diary). He bore his 
pomtT eheerfnlly. Ben Jonson related 
thii trhfa he and Stow were walking alone 
to?*thpr, tbeThappaaed to meet two crippled 

' f JoH- 


arly aa 


f after 



i Stow 

tome of tbe letteia patent was circulated 

in print, A copy suryives in Harleian MS. 
367, f 10. Apparently StoW set up basins 
for alms in the streets, but the citizens were 
chary of contributions. In 1005 William 
Warner, in a new edition of his 'Albion's 
England,' illustrated the neglect of literary 
merit by the atory of Stow's poverty. 

He died on 6 April 1606, and wag buried 
in the church of St. Andrew Undershaft ia 
, Lesdenball Street, where Elizabeth, his 
widow, erected to bis memory a monument 
in terra-cottft. The effigy, which still aur- 
Tives, was formerly coloured. He ia re- 

Ciented as seated in a chair and reading, 
ides the sculptured portrait on tbe tomb, 
a. contemporary engravrng of Stow was pro- 
paied for his 'Survey' (ed. 1603). The 
original painting belonged to Serjeant Fleeb- 
wood(cf.MAirBiireHAH,Z>un^). Moetextant 
copies of the 'Survey 'lack the portrait. It is 
reproduced in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
1837, i. 48. The insoription on the engraving 
entitles Stow 'Antiquarius Anglifo,' Hia 
friend Howes deecrihed him aa ' tall of stature, 
leane of body and face, hia eyes small and 
cryBtalline, of a pleasant and cheerful coum- 

Stow was the most accurate and business- 
like of English annalists or chroniclers of 
the Gl3t«enth century. 'He always protested 
never Ut have written anything either for 
malice, fear, or favour^ nor to seek his own 
particular gain or vainglory, and that hjs 
only pains and care was to write truth' 
(Howes). Sir Roger Lestran^ is reported 
by Heame to have said ' that it was always 
a wonderto him that the very best that had 
penn'd our higtnry in English should be a 
poot taylour, honest John Stow' (Eobert 
or Oloucesteb, od. Heame, p. Ixi), Hcame 
described Stow as an 'honest and knowing 
man,' ' but an indifferent scholar ' {LetUn 
from the Bodleian, i. 288, ii. 98). 

Much reluctance waa shown by Stow's 
fiienda in preparing any of his numerous 
maQUScripIs for publication after his death 
(cf. StBTPB, Cranmer, vol. i. p. xvii). But 
Edmund Howes [q. v.] at lengili revised hia 
' AnnaleSj'and Munday his ' Survey of Lon- 
don.' In his ' Annales ' (ed. 1593, p. 1295) 
Stow wrote that he had a larger volume, 'An 
History of this Island,' ready for the press. 
In 1C05, a few days before Msdeath,heaBk«l 
thereaderof his 'Annates 'to encourage him 
to publish or to leave to ^sterity a far larger 
TOlmne. He had long since laboured at it, 
he wrote, at the request and command of 
ArcbbiBluipFarker,bLitthe archbishop's death 
and the issue of Holinahed's ' Chronicle ' had 
led to delay in the publication. Howes in 



lis continoation of Stow wrote that Stow 
purposed if he had lived one }fear loagsi to 
DB-ve pat the nndertaMnf in print, but, Deing 
pcevented bj death, left tine same in hie Btudj 
OTderljwritten readj-foT the proas. The&te 
of this majiiiacript ie unknown, bnt it it sug- 
gested that portions were embodied in toe 
' Successions of the History of England, from 
the beginning of Edward IV to the end of 
the reign of Queen Elixabeth,' t«gether with 
a list 'of peers of the present time, hy 
John Stow,^1638, foL 

Many of Stow's manuscripta passed into 
the collection of Sir Symonds IVEwea, and 
soma of them are now in the British Mu- 
•eum. Autograph translations bj him of 
Oiraldus Cambrensis, Florence of Worcester, 
Alured of RieTanlz, and Nicholas TriTOt, are 
araon^the Harleian manuscripts (Nos. 561, 
66S1. Harleian MS. 543 consists of transraipts 
made by Stow from historical papen, now 
lost, formerly in Fleetwood's Ubrary ; one 
piece, ' History of the Arrival of Edward IV 
in England,' formed the first volume of the 
Camden Society'spublicationsin 1838. Har- 
leian MS. 367 consists of private |)apeis be- 
longing to Stow. A raluable bat imperfect 
transcnptby Stowof Leland's ' Itinerary' i< 
in Bodlebn Library, Tanner MS. 461. 

[HoTes iDMrCed an accoaiit of Stow into the 
1618 edition of his Annalea. Strjpa contri- 
btiLed an interMting memoir to his edition of 
IhoSorvojof LondoQ(ir2ll). There iaagood 
biogmphy in Clode'e History of the MercbsDC 
Taylors' Company, pp. 183-7. See alio Gent. 
Hag. 18S7, i- *S seq.; Thome'l introdactlon to 
the Surrey of London, I87S ; O.L.Kingafurd'iedi- 
■itisi of Literature; Boluin Comey's Cnriositiesof 
Literatiir«illuetnted;Strype's Works] 3. L. 

1866), scholar and journalist, eldest aon of 
William and Mary Stowe, was bom at Buck- 
ingham on 1 Jan. 1826. Af^er attending s 
school at Iffley, near Oxford, he spent six 
months at King Edward's school, Birming- 
ham. Leaving at Easter 1840, he studied 
medicine for three years at Buckingham, but, 
finding the pursuit uncoagenial, entered at 
Wadham College, Oxford, in January 1844. 
At Oxford he was intimately associated with 
G. Q. Bradley fafterwards dean of Westmin- 
ster}, John Gonington, and other members 
of the Rugby set. In 1848 he was placed 
in the first ctass in the final classical school 
with Edward Parry (afterwards bishop suf- 
fragan of Dover) and William Stubba (afteiv 
wards bishop of Oxford). After occupying 
himself for two years in private tuition at 
Oxford, he began in 1861 a connection with 
the'TimM'byoontributing literary articles, 

I Stowel 

amoDR' them a comparison of the characteris- 
tics of 'liiackeray and Dickons. In Msrch 
1862 he obtained an open fellowship at Oriel 
College, and afterwards ent«red at Lincoln's 

In May 1859 John Walter, the propiietor, 
gave him a permanent post on the staff of 
the 'Times.' His work for the paper wss 
mainly confined to literary subjects, although 
he wrote many leading articles on miscel- 
laneous topics. His reviews of Kaye's 

* A&hanistan' and of Dickens's ' David (>p- 
perfleld'were reissued in 'Essays from the 
Times' (2nd ear. 1864), edited by Samuel 
Phillips [q. v.] Other literary notices by 
him of interest were on ' Niebuhr's Letters' 
(1868) and on 'The Mechanical Inventions 
of James Wart' (1866). An admirable me- 
moir which he wrote of ]>ird Brongham ap> 
geared in the 'Times' of 11 May 1868, after 
Stowe's death. 

In 1866 the 'Times* organised a 'sick and 
wounded fund' for the r3ief of the British 
army in the Crimea, and Stowe was selected 
to proceed to the east as the fund's almoneiv 
He reached Constantinople before the end of 
February, and was soon at Scutari, whence 
be moved to Bslaklava. There he visited 
the bospitAls and camp, and reported on the 
defects of the sanitary situation. 'Others 
talked, Mr. Stowe acted,' wrote the author of 
'EastemHoBpita1s'(pp.90-2). Onl6Maich. 
bis first letter from the Crimea appeared in the 
'Times,' and described the Balnklava hospital! 
and the health of the army. Many fiuthei 
despatches on like mibjects followed up to 
midsummer 1866. Two of Stowe's letters 
(Nos. 80 and 81) described the third bom- 
bard m ent of Sebastopol, and were embodied in 
' The War,' 1856, by (Sir) W. H. Russell, th« 

* Times ' correspondent. But Stowe's h^th 
was unable to resist the fatigue and exposure 
to an unhealthy climate which were incident 
to his labours. lie died of camp fever at 
Ealaklava on 32 June 1855, and was buried 
in the cemetery there (see JUiufrafci^ Londtni 
Newt, S3 Nov. 1666). A cenotaph to his 
memoiy was erected by friends in the chapeL 
of Oriel College. John Walter, in a leading 
article from h;8 own pen in the 'Times' of 
6 Ju1t1856, recounted Stowe's experiences in 
the Crimea, and characterised bis despatehea 
as ' an astonishing efibrt of intellectual and 
descriptive talent' 

[Tiinw. 8 July 18B6 ; Sr W. H. BnsBcll'a Tha 
War, 18SS; prirate information.] A. 8. 

STOWEL, JOHN (tf. 1799), Manx poet, 
a member of a family well known in the 
island, was bom at Peel in the Isle of Han, 
and became master of the Latin aiJiool at 


Stow ell 

Peet He paWlubed in 1790 "The E«tro- 
ip^ct.or a Beview of tlie Memorable EvenU 
M Mona,' > Batire on the M&uz_parliameiit 
■nd on iLo toiru of Douelaa. Tha poem is 
«t Mn$idenbl« length, but lacks lit«rarj 
Bent. In the budo jtai he published in 
liicrpool 'A Skllad for the young Ladies 
•nd Uentleanen of Douglas raised b^ Tom 
tbe Gardener,' and in 1791 'The Literary 
Quiiou,' B wtire on the ' Journal of Richard 
T^wniey,' > book on tbe Isle of Uan. In 
179^ he printed an elegy in verse on Mis. 
CsUow and Miss M. Bacon, and in 1793 
'An El^riac Invocation of the Mnees.' His 
Uct work ia dated 27 April 1796, and is an 
addma in Terse to the Dncheea of AtholL 
He died at Peel in 1799. 

[SanualBnrdT'aArdirlaM, Dublin, lS[)3;niir- 
r)«ri'« Bibliolheca Slonetiaii, Douglas, 1861; 
Hs^ Stov^'a UeoKtiiB of the Bar. Joeeph 
Elii«^1831.] N. M. 

OTOWEUti, LoBD. [See Scott, Sib 
■WiLLiui, 1746-1836.] 

8T0WELL, HnQH ( 1799-1866), dinino, 
elder aon of the Rev. Hugh Stowell, author 
of a 'Life of Bishop Thomaa Wilson,' was 
hr-n t Douglas, Isle of Man, on 3 Dec. 1799. 
Villian) Hendry Stowell [q. v.] was his 
axmn, Hngb was educated at oome and 
aiivwards by the Rev. John Cawood, at 
Bevdley, Worceeterahire, whence he pio- 
CMded m 1819 to St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. 
His college cai«er was nndiitingpiehed except 

! and 



Ho was appointed honorary canon of 
Chester Cathecfrftl in 1846, chflplom to Dr. 
Lee, bishop of Manchester, in 1851, and rural 
dean of Eccles at a later dat«. He died at- 
hie residence, Barr Hill, Pendleton, near 
Manchestar, on 6 Oct. 1866, and was bnried 
in the church of which he had been minister 
for thirty-four yean. His portrait, ^inted 
by Charles Mercier, was placed during his 
lifetime in the SalfoTd town-hall. There 
was an earlier portrait by William Bradley. 
Both portraits were engraved. 

By his wife, Anne Susannah, eldest daugh- 
ter of Richard Johnson Daventry Ashworth 
of Strawberry HiU, Pendleton, whom ha 
married in 1828, be had, besides other issue, 
the Rbt. Hugh Ashworth Stowell (1830- 
1886), rector of Breodsall, Derby, and author 
of 'Floraof FarerBham'(in the'PhytoIogiat,' 
1866-6), of ' Entomology of the Isle of Man ' 
(in the ' Zoologist,' 1862), and of other con- 
tributions (Britth;!! and BocLOBit, Bicffra- 
pliieal Index of BotanitU, 1893, p. 163) ; and 
the Rev. Thomss Alfred Stowell, M. A., hon. 
oonon of Manchester from 1679 and rector 
of Chorley, Lancashire (1890-1S07). 

Among his numerous works are the fol- 
lowing: 1. 'The Peaceful Valley, or the 
Influenceof Relieion' 1826. 2. 'Pleasures 
of Religion, and other Poem6,'1832; enlarged 
edition, 1860. 3. ' TrBctarianiBm tested by 
Holy Scripture and the Church of England,' 
2to1s.,]846. i'AModelforMenofBuai- 
ness, or Lectures on tbe Character of Nehe-. 
miah,' 1864, 6, ' Sermons for tbe Sick and 
Afflicted,' 1866. 6. ' iljmns,' edited by his 
son, 1868. 7. 'Sermons preached in Christ 
Church, Salford,' 1869. 

[Marsden's Mi'inoira of Stowolt, 1868, with 
portrait; Eviins's LanEiahiro Authors nnd Ora- 
tors, 1860, LifB of William MrKeTTOir, D.D., 
1881; Mnnchw^teTQaordinn, e Oct. tSBg; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oion. 1716~18SS; Oeot. Mag. 
1866, ii. 78B; Julian's Diet, of Hymnolt^; 
Brit. Mns. Cat,] C. W. S. 

STOWELL, Sib JOHN (1599-1662), 
rojoLat. [See Stawbll.] 

(1800-1868), dissenting divine, bom at 
Douglas, Isle of Man, on 19 June 1800, 
was son of William Stowell and his wife, 
Susan Hilton. Hugh Stowell [q. v.] was 
his cousin. He was one of the first stu- 
dente at the Blackburn Academy, opened in 
1816, under Dr. Joseph Fletcher. His firat 
ministerial charge, at St. Andrew's Chapel, 
North Shields, extended from February 1821 
to 1834, when he was appointed bead of the 
Independent College at Rotherham, and 
pastor of MasboroD^ congregational church. 




The Utter post he resigned in 1849, and the 
fonaer in October 1860, on his appointment 
as pre^dent of ClieBhiuit CoUef^. In 1348 
he -was the pioneer of the ' missions to work- 
ing men,' and tool: the most prominent part 
in renderinK saccesefiil the concert-hall leo- 
tores established bj Nathaniel Oaine at Livei^ 
pool in 1850. The uniTeisity of Gla^fo^ 
oonfarred on bini the degree ol D.D. in 1849, 
io recognition of the value of his theological 
works. He reNffned Cheshunt Colle^ in 
1866, and died at his residence, Roman Boad, 
Bamsburj, London, on 2 Jan. 1868. He 
married Sarah Hilton in July 1821, and left 
several children. 

He wrote: 1. 'The Ten Commandments 
illuBtrated,' 1824, 8to, 2. ' The Missionary 
Church,'1832. 3. 'TheMiraculonsGiftocon- 
udered,' 18S4. 4. ' History of the Puritans,' 
1847. 6. ' The Work of the Spirit, 1849. 
6. 'MemoirofH. W.Hamilton,I).D,'1850. 
He also published several discoursea and 
chaigee, eoited the works of Thomas Adams 
(fi. 1613-1653) [q. v.], the puritan divine, 
1847 ; and, for tie monthly series of the It«- 
Unous Tract Society, wrote: 1. ' History of 
(£eece,'1848. 2.'LivesofIlIustriouBQreeks,' 
1849. 3. ' Life of Mohammed.' 4. ' JuUus 
Ceeaor.' 6. 'Life of IsaacNewton.* Hewaa 
Kiint editor of the fifth series of the ' Ekslectio 
Keview,' and a contributor to the ' British 
Quarterly Beview ' and other periodicals of 
the denomination to which he Delonged. A 
posthumous volume of sermons appeared in 
1859,'edited by his eldest son, William Stowell 
{d. 1877). 

An unsatisfactory portrait, painted by 
Parker, was preaented by subscribers to 
Botherham College in 1844 ; it is engraved 
in the * Memoir ' by Stowell's eon. 

[William Stowell's Mrmoir of the life and 
LatxranofW.H.Stevell.lSfie; Congregational 
Year Book, I8S9, p. 222; Onaat's History of 
Kotherham, 1S70; Athennnm, 1869, it. 237; 
Brit. Hns. Cat. ; Hugh Stowell Brown's Anto- 
biography, lSB7,p. 20; prirata ioformation.] 

(1290P-1872 f), judge, is stated to have been 
bom at Stowforain the parish ofWest Down, 
Devonshire, about 1290 (Pbiscb, fForthiet 
of Deixm, p. 569). He was perhaps a son 
of John de Stoford, who was manucaptor in 
1S07 for a bursess returned to parliament 
for Plympton (Pari. Writ*, ii. 5). Stowford 
was an attorney for Hugh d Audeley on 
12 April 1329 and 17 June 1331 {QU. Fat. 
SoiU, Edward III, i. 381, ii. 43). During 
1331 he a^ipears on commissions of oyer and 
tenniner in the counties of Kent, Devon, 
and Fembioke, and on 13 Feb. 1333 was on 

of peace for Devonshire (A. 
ii. 67, 131, 199, 286). His name occasionaUy 
appears in judicial commissionsinsubssquent 
years, and in 1340 he is mentioned as one 
of the keepers of the coast of Davonahire 
{F<Bdera, ii. 1112). In the same year hewas 
made one of the kin^s se^eant^ and on 
23 April 1842 was appointed one of the judges 
of the court of oonunon pleas. F.rom 10 Nov. 
to 8 Dec 1346 he act«d temporarily as chief 
baron of the exchequer. Aiterwarda he re- 
sumed his place in the court of common pleas, 
where he continued to sit till midsummer 
1373 (DiTSDUE, Orig. p. 46). He probably 
died soon after, and ia said to have been 
buried in the church of West Down. Stow- 
ford made a benefaction to the convent of 
St. John at Wells in 1336 {Cal. Pat. BoOs, 
Edward III, iii. 834). He is eaii to have 
built the bridge over the Taw, near Barn- 
staple, and also a brid^ between that t<rwn 
and Pilton. He married Joan, coheiress of 
the Tracys of Woollocombe. He and his 
wife held lands at South Petherton and 
Drayton, Somerset (i6. ii. 489). 

colonel, is Urst mentbned as serving under 
CromweU at Preston in 1648, with the rank 
of major. According to Baitlie, his former 
life had been ' very lewd,' but he had 
reformed, ' inclined much in opinion to- 
wards the sectaries,' and remained with 
Cromwell till the death of Charles I. He 
was employed in the negotiations between 
Argyll and Cromwell in September 1648 
(CABLn.B, Letter 76). He brought the 
news of Charles's execution to Edinburgh, 
and, after much discussion on account of the 
scandals of his past conduct, the conuniasion 
of the kirk on 14 March 1649 allowed him 
to sign the covenant. 

He was given a tioop of horse, and helped 
to dispetse the levies of Mackenzie of Plus- 
cardine at Balveny on 8 May. The levies 
numbered 1,200, but they were routed by 
130 horsemen. Alexander Leslie, first earl 
of Leven [q. v.], wished to get rid of him 
as a ' sectuT,* but the kirk supported him, 
and he for his part was eager to clear the 
army of malignants (see Mdbdoch and Simp- 
son, p. 802. The date of this letter, m 
Dr. (Gardiner has shown, should probably 
be S June 1649). As to any danger irom 
Montrose, he says, ' If James Grahame land 
neir this quarters [Inverness], he will 
suddenly be de . . ed. And tJier sbalbe no 
need of the levy of knavis to the work tbo 
they should be willing,' 



WTmm Uontrose did land, m April 1660, 
C^rtdiui made good his words. Bj Leslie's 
Offers be ftdTanced with two troops to Taiti, 
ind was there joined hy three othsr troops, 
BaloBg 330 hoTse in all, and by thirtj-^ii 
BoAeteen and four hundred men of the 
Rom aad Monro elans. On 27 April be 
mored wot, along the sonth side of the Kyle 
of htboland, near the bead of which Hont- 
VOM wti encamped, in Carbisdale, with 
l,XOtoat (of which 460 men were Danes 
or GaniBna), bnt onlr fortj horse. By the 
idnee oi Andrew Monro, Strachan, when 
ka wBi near the enamj, hid the bulk of hia 
two, and abowed only a nngle troop. This 
rrabntd the statement made by Robert 
Mooni to Mantroae, that there was only one 
troop of bone in Koes-ehire, and Montrose 
dmr op bis men on open gronnd eonth of 
t^ Cousin bnrn, instead of seeking shelter 
OB the wooded heights behind. About 
6 r.X. Strachan bnrst upon him with two 
tzQops, the rest following close in support and 
ruuiu Hontroae's men were routed and 
tw»4liida of them killed or taken, and ha 
hJMiir hardly escaped for the time. After 
pTing thanks to Qod on the field, the Tictors 
r ec uiu e d with their prisoners to Tain, and 
Stneban went south to receive bis reward. 
He sod Halkett (the second in command) 
•Kh leceiTed 1000/. sterling and a gold 
rttmwwi^ with the tint Tiki of the parliament. 
He bid been hit by a bnlLet in Che fight, 
hitt it was stopped by bis belt and buff- 

> Strachaa 

countered Lambert at Hamilton, and were 
beaten ; but before this Strachan had aepa- 
rated himBslf from them, and after it he 
joined Cromwell, and is said to have helped 
to bring about the surrender of Edinburgh 
Castle. He was excommunicated at Perth 
on 12 Jan. 1651 ; in April he was declared a 
traitor and his goods were forfeited. Wod- 
row says (on the anthority of his wife's 
ancle, who had married Stracban's sister) 
that he took the excommunication so much 
to heart that 'he sickened and died within 
a while.' He adds that Cromwell offered 
Strachan the command of the forces to be 
left in Scotknd, but he declined it (Analeeta, 
ii. 86). He died in November 166a (Notei 
and Queria, 9th ser. vii. 446). 

[QardinBr'fl ConnnonireHlth and Protectorata, 
vol. i. ; Mardoeh aod SimpsaD's edition of 
WiiABrt'aMBnioinof MontmsB; Balfoftr's Hif- 
torical Works, toI. iv. ; Baillia'a Letters, ii. 34D, 
Ac; Carljle's CromweU Lactars, So. ; Nicball's 
DiaryofFQblicTraasactionBiiiScoCUiid; Bow's 
Life of Robert Blair.] £. U. L. 

STRACHAN, Sib JOHN (d. 1777), cap- 
tain in the navy, was the descendant of a 
Tounger branch of the family of Strachan of 
Thornton in Kincardineshire. His uncle, 
Thomas Strachan, having served with dis- 
tinction in the armies of the Emperor Leo- 
pold I, was created a baronet by James II in 
May 1686. Bving without issue, be was 
succeeded by his younger brother, Patrick 
Strachan, M.D., physiciftn to Greenwich 
Hospital. John, the elder son of this Fa- 
trick, by his wife, a daughter of Captain 
Gregory, R.N., entered the navy, and was 
promoted lieutenant inJanuaryJ746-7. In 
1765 he was appointed second lieutenant of 
the St. Geoige, then Lord Hawke's flagship, 
and in the following year, when the Antelope 
took out her 'carco of courage' to Gibraltar, 
Strachan, with the other officers of the St. 
George, accompanied Hawke. At Gibraltar 
he was appointed to command the Fortune 
sloop, and on 9 Sept. 1766 was posted into 
the Experiment, of 20 guns and 160 men, in 
which, on 8 July 1767, off Alicante, ha cap- 
tured the French privateer T61£maqun, of 20 
guns and 460 men [see Lockeb, Wiluah ]. 
After the action the Experiment and her 
prise anchored near a Spanish fort, the 
governor of which claimed the French ship 
aa having been in Spanish waters when aha 
struck. Strachan, however, took the Tfilfr- 
maque to Oibialtar, and woa shortly after- 
waras moved to the Sapphire, of 32 gnus, in 
which, in the following year, he was sent to 
England, and in 1769 waa attached to the 

Cd fleet under Sir Edward (afterwards 
t) Hawke [q. v.], and was with Cont- 


Strachan > 

modore Bobeit Duff in tlie l^t eqnftdron 
in Quiberon Baj. He cootmued in tbe 
Sapphire tiU 1763. In November 1770 he 
was appointed to tfae Orford, one of the 
K|nBdroa which went to the But Indies 
with Rear-adminil (afterwards Sr Robert) 
Hsrlsnd. Inl76G, l^tfaedaatliofliisfsther, 
he sacceeded to tlie baronetc;. On account 
of ill-health he returned to England in 1773, 
and had no further aerrice. He died at 
Bath on 26 Dec 1777. He married Eliso- 
betb, daughter of Robert Lovelace of Batter- 
sea, but bad no male issue, the baronetcy 
passing to his nephew, Richard John Stra- 
chan [q. T.] 

[Charaoek'i Biun-. Nav. vi. 302; Oaut. Mag. 
I778,p.4S; Roger^s Msmoriala of the Strsehans, 
pp. 91-3.] J. K.L. 

STRACHAN, JOHN (1778-1867), firrt 
bishop of Torontc, son of John Strachan, 
OTerseer in the granite quarries near Aber- 
deen, ondBliiabetb Findlajson, bis wife, was 
bom St Aberdeen on 12 April 1778, and edu- 
cated first at the grammar school and then 
in 1793 and the following years at King's 
College, Aberdeen. In 1794liet«ok chai^ 
of a school at Carmyllie, and in 1796 re- 
cetTed a better appointment at Danino, all 
the while continuing his studies at the 
univeruty, and taking his M.A. degree in 
1797. In 1798 he became master of the 
parish school of Kettle, near St. Andrews, 
joining the university in order to study 
theology. He acquired a solid reputation 
and made friends with some notable men in 
the two uniTersities. On the recommenda- 
tion of Dr. Cbalmen he woe invited to go 
ont to Canada in 1799 to take charge of 
the new college which had been projected 
by Governor John Graves Simcoe [q. v.] at 
York (now Toronto). 

On his arrival in Canada on 31 Dec. 1799, 
Strachan found that the project of the college 
had fallen through, and he was without on 
appointment. Again he began life as a private 
tutor, and, subeeqnently opening a school at 
Kingston, he soon began to prosper. Having 
decided to leave the free church and enter 
the ministry of the church of England, 
Strachan was ordained in May 1803, and 
became curate at Cornwall, where he also 
opened a grammar school. In 1807 he be- 
came LL.D. of St. Andrews, and in 1811 
D.D. of Aberdeen. In 1813 he was made 
rector of york, chaplain to the troops, and 
master of the grammar school. He warmly 
advocatedtheeetablisbmentof district gram- 
mar schools throughout Canada. Duringthe 
war with the United States he was active in 
the work of alleviating suffering. In 1816 


he was made an executive councillor, and in 
1816 nominated to the legislative counciL 

In 1636 Strachan beciune archdeacon of 
York. A description of his visitation in 1826 
is in Hawkins's ' Annals of the Church of 
Toronto.' In 1S30 he revisited Great Britain. 
In 1868 Strachan gave up his active school 
work, and in 1839 he bemme first bishop erf 
Toronto. In 1841 hemadehiafiist visitation, 
going by way of the southern missions and 
Niagara westward through what woa then a 
new country, holding services in log school- 
houses or in the open air. In the succeeding 
years these journeys were oonatantly ra- 
peated. In five yearstheuumberof churches 
had more than doubled. He established 
common schools throughout the pravincflt 
and throueh his exertions a statute was 
passed estocilishing twenty ^mmar schoola 
where a classical education might be obtained. 
In 1827 he succeeded in obtauiing five hun- 
dred thousand acres to endow a imiveinty 
of Toronto, and after many etrng^es suc- 
ceeded in founding it. When in 1860 it 
was deprived of its Anglican character and 
was made unsectarian, ne issued a stirring 
appeal to the laity, and, obtaining a ro]^ 
charter for the purpose, formed a second 
university under the name of Trinity Col- 
lie. Strachan died at Toronto on 1 Nor. 

His admirers speak with enthusiasm of 
his capacity, wisdom, and worthiness. He 
did ' more to build up the church of England 
in Canada by his zeal, devotion, diplomatio 
talent, and business energy, than all the 
other bishops and priests of that church ^b 
together' (Rosebb). There is a memorial 
to nim in the cathedral at Toronto. 

Strachan married, in 1807, Ann, daughter 
of Thompson Wood, and widow of Andrew 
HcGill of Montreal, and had four sons uid 
five daughters. 

[Scndding'i First Bishop of Torouto. and 
Toronto of Old, pp. tfiSaqq. ; Chad*ick'i> On- 
tanan Fsmiiias, pt. xvi. j Mo^ao'a Bketchea of 
Celebrated CaoadEaDB ; Bethane'i Hemoir of 
Bishop Stmchan, 1870 ; Tavior'e last Three 
Bishops of the AngLiam CburcuofCaosda, 1S70> 
pp. 187-281 ; Uelrille's Bin and Frogress of 
TdDJbj College, Toronto, 18S2, pp. 3fi sqq. ; 
Rogers's Hist, of Canada, i. 106-6; Colonial 
Church Chronicle, vol. L sqq. psasiju.1 

C. AH. 

(1760-1828), admiral, eldest aon of Lieu- 
tenant Patrick Strachan of the navy, and 
nephew of Sir John Strachan [q. r.], wa4 
bom on 27 Oct. 1700. He enteral the navy 
in 1772 on board the Intrepid, in which he 
went ont to the £a«t Indies, where he was 





mired into the Orford, then commuided br 
kis nncle. He 'w** afterwards on the Nortl 
Anericui atation in the Preston with Com- 
modoTB 'WiUiam (afterwards Lord) Hotham 
[q.T.] : in the Baffle, flagship of Lord Howe ; 
■nd in tKe Actieon on the coaat of Africa and 
in the West Indiea. On the death of his 
node OQ S6 Dec. 1777, he succeeded to the 
bann^ttT. He waa made a lieutenant on 
6 April ■l779. Early in 1781 he was ap- 
rnnted to the Hero with Captain James 
Hawker [q. ▼.], one of the squadron which 
niled imaer the command of Commodore 
George JohnHtoce and fought the abortiTe 
•cUds in Porto Praya. The Hero afterwards 
vent on to the East Indies, where Strachan 
«u mored into the Magnanime, and after- 
^mia into the Superb, in wliieb he was 
prsKot in the &i8t four of the actions be- 
tween Snffren and Sir Edward Huffhee 
[q. T.], who in January 178S promoted him 
to the command of the Lizard, cutter, and 
to be captain oftheNaiad,&igtte,on 26 April 

In 1787 Strachan was appointed to the 
V««;al, which in the spring of 1788 sailed for 
C^LDS, carrying out the ambagsador, the Hon. 
CliarleaAlanC^hcart. Cathcait died in the 
Stiaitsof Banca, and the Vestal returned to 
Elegland. The following year she waa again 
•eat to the East Indies, to join the sijuadroD 
«ad«r Commodore "WiUiam Comwallis [q. t.I 
Strachan wu moved into the Phtsnir, and 
in Norember 1791, when he was in com- 
i cherry 

with a 



is. As 
ring his 

In 1793 



the coast of Normandy and Brittany, cap- 
turing or destroying a very large number 
of the enemy's coasting craft, many of tbem 
laden with military stores and convoyed by 
armed vessels. 

In 1796 Strachan was moved into the 
Diiunond, and remained on the same ser- 
vice till 1799, when he was appointed to 
the 74-gun ship Captain, and employed on 
the west coast of France, either alone or in 
command of a detached squadron. In 1803 
he was appointed to the Donegal of eighty 
gnns, in which during 1808-4 he was seniw 
officer at Gibraltar, and in charge of the 
watch on Cadii under the orders of Nelson. 
In March 1805 he returned to England in 
the Renown, but was almost immediately 
appointed to the CcesBr, in which he com- 
manded a detached squadron of three other 
line-of-battle ships and four frwates in the 
Bay of Biscay. On 2 Not. 18(e, off Cape 
Finisterre, he fell in with the four French 
ships of the line which had escaped from 
Trafalgar under the command of Rear-admi* 
ral Dnmauoir. On the 4th he succeeded in 
brining them to action, and after a short en- 
gagement, in which the French shine suffered 
great loss, captured the whole of uiem, thus 
rounding off the destruction of the R>eneh 
fleet. By the promotion of 9 Nov. 1805 
Strachan became a rear'admiral. On 28 Jan. 
1806, when the thanks of both houses of 
parliament were voted to Collingwood and 
the other officers and seamen engaged at 
Trafalgar, Strachan and the oificera and sea- 
men with him on 4 Nov. were specially 
included, and a pension of 1,0001. a year was 
settled on Strachan. On 39 Jan. he was 
nominated a knight of the Bath ; the city of 
London also voted him the freedom of the 
city and a sword of honour. 

Early in 1806 Strachan was despatched 
in search of a French squadron reported to 
have sailed for America, but, not finding it, 
he returned off Bochefort, where he continued 
till January 1808, when, in thick weather, 
the French succeeded in escaping and entered 
the Hediterranesn. Strachan followed, and 
joined Lord Collingwood [see CoLLisawooD, 
CnTHBHBT, LoBSl ; buton the enemy retiring 
into Toulon Strachan was ordered home, and 
was ap}>ointed to the naval command of the 
expedition agunst the island of Walcberen, 
and for the destruction of the French arsenals 
in the Scheldt. The expedition, fitted ont 
at enormons cost, effected nothing beyond 
the capture of Flushing, and its return home 
was the signal for en outbreak of angry 
recriminations [see Pitt, Joiih, second Eabl 
0¥ Chateau]. In a narrative which he pre- 
sented to the king, the Elarl of Chatham by 


Strachey i 

implicatjon sccusad Strachan of being the 
prmcipal ouee of tlie misoaniage, vhich 
becoDUQ^ known to 8tnclian, be wrote a 
reply, areuing with appareiit justice that the 
ships haa done all that thej had been aaked 
to do, all that from the nature of things thej 
could do (IU1.FE, ii. 468). Strachan had no 
further employment ; he became a vice-ad- 
miral on SI July 1810, admiral on 19 July 
1821, and died at bis house in Bryanstoii 
SqnareonSFeb. 1828. HemarriBdml813, 
but died without male taaue, and the bnn>- 
netcy became extinct. 

[Haifa's NaT. Blogr. ii. tS6 ; Marahall's Hoy. 
NaT.lIiogr.i.284; Jnmes'a NaT. Hist. : NichoU'i 
Herald and Qenaitogist, ToL Tiii. ; 'BvAt'a Ex- 
tinct Baronstdea.] 3, K. L. 

8TRA0HEY, WILLIAM (fi. 1609- 
1618), colonist and writer on Virginia, has 
been somewhat doubtfully identified with a 
William Strachey of Saffron Walden, who 
married in 1588 and was alive in 1620, and 
whose grandson was a cittsen of the colony 
of Virginia (he was living in 1626 on Hog 
Island, a^ 17). A William Strachey hod 
verses betore Ben Jonson's ' Sejanus ' (1603). 
The colonist saUed on 16 May 1609 for Vir- 
ginia in a fleet of nine small vessels. Hb 
ship, the Sea Venture, having on board the 
commanders Sir Thomas Gates [q. v.] and 
Sir Gteorge Somers [q. v.], was wracked 00 
the Bermudas durmg the great storm of 
July 1609. Strachey wrote an account of 
the circumstances in a letter dated IS July 
1610, and addressed to a lady of rank in 
England. This letter was published fifteen 
years later in 'Purcbas his Pilgrimes,' 162S 
(iv. 1734), under the title 'A true Hoportory 
of the wrack and redemption of Sir Thomas 
Oat«8, knight, upon and from the ilands of 
the Bermudas his coming to Virginia, and 

blands, disclaiming, however, the popula- 
tion of ' divels ' with which they had been 
credit^ (a la^ portion of the 'Beportoir ' 
is reprinted in Lefroy's ' Memorials of the 
Bermudas,' ISr?, i. 25-61 ; cf. Tyler, Siat. 
^Amtriean Literature, L 41-5). The writer 
implies that he had seen service on the coast 
of fiarbaiy and Algiers. 

Somers and hie party, including Strachey, 
spent the winter of 1609 upon the Bermudas 
in constructing two small vessels, in which 
they succeeded in reaching James Town, 
Virginia, on 23 May 1610. In the following 
month the hopes of the desponding colony 
wore revived by the advent of Thomas West, 
third lord De la Warr [q. v.], an account 
of whoao opportune arrival woa written by 


An account of the adventures and the ulti- 
mate safety of Somers and his party was 
forwarded by De La Warr during the sum- 
mer of 1610, in the form of a despatch, 
to the Virginia patentees in England (the 
original, signed in autograph by Thomas La 
Warre, ThomasOatee,Wenman, Percy, and 
Strachey, is in Harl. MS. 7009, f. 68, and 
it is printed in Major's volume, see below). 
This account was probably written mainly 
by Gates and Strachey, whom De la Warr 
had formally appointed secretary uid ' re- 
corder' of the colony, and it appears to be 
in Strachey's handwriting. The patentees 
caused to be drawn up man. the material 
afforded by this despatch their ' True Decla- 
ration of theEstateofthe Oolonie in Virginia,' 
London, 1610, 4to (ootyectured to have been 
writtai mainly by Sir Edwin Sandys). The 
official version was, however, anticipated by 
a ' Discovery of the Bannudas,' an unautho- 
rised work hurried through the press hj Sil- 
vester Jourdain [q. v.], who returned in the 
same ship with De La Warr'e despatch. The 
appearanceof these two works at a short inter- 
val during the autumn of 1610 probably occa- 
sioned Shakespeare's allusion in the 'Tem- 
pest ' to the ' still-vei'd Bermoothes ' [see 
Gates, Sis TaoiLAB ; SoiiEBs, Sib Geosoe]. 
Strachey returned to England attheclosBof 
1611, bearing with him the stem code of 
laws promul^ted for the use of Virginia by 
Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Thomas Dale dar- 
ing 1610-11, and bssed upon the 'Law« for 
governing the Annye in the Lowe Contrnyes.' 
Having been revised by Sir Edward Cecil, 
eiterwards Viscount Wimbledon, they vrera 
edited, with a preliminary address to the 
council for Virginia, by Strachey under the 
title 'For the Colony in Virginea Britannia 
Lawes Divine, Moral! and Martial], Alget 
qui non ardet,' London, 1612, 4to (reprinted 
in Force's ' Tracta,' 1844, vol. iii.) Strachey 
wrote from his lodging 'in the Blocke Friars.' 
In the same year he took part in editing the 
' Map of Virginia,' with descriptions by the 
famousCaptain John Smith (1580-1 63 l}[q.T.] 
and others. He seems at the same tune to 
have planned an estensive work on Virginia, 
and of this he completed before the close of 
1612 a couaiderablB portion, to wliicli he 
gave the title ' The Ilistorie of Travailo into 
Virginia Britannia expressing the Oobdjo- 
graphie and Comodlties of the Country. To- 

S'ther with the Manners And Customee of 
e People. Gathered and Observed As 
Well by those who went First Thither, Ab 
Collected by William Strachey, ^at- Three 
yeares thither Imployed Secretana of State,' 
&c Heinscribed the manuscript to Sir AUea 





Apde; (1669F-1630) [q. v.], but be Beem« to 
bkTS mat with no eacouregement to publiBh, 
citiier from him or from the Virginia Com- 
miUae (the muiuscript is now in the Bod- 
leUa Libmry, Ashmole MS. 1754 ; b. copy 
*ith ft few neceusiy verbal olteratione wss 
aaie in 1618 and mtcribed to Bacon, and 
tlui KCood manuscript is in the British Mu- 
M>im,i^l<«ne MS. 1622). The frfLgmeDtwu 
not phDted until 1&49, when it nas edited 
bj fiichard Henry Major [q. t.] for the 
Uikfajt Society. Of the nnmerons accounts 
ol th« early settlement of Vir^nia it is pro- 

■pfoided B brief ' Dictionary of the Indian 
'"v"*p;' which is printed as an appendiK 
to u« llaklnyt volume. Strachey^ sub- 
■cnption to the Vir^nia Company was 26^. 
Nolliing appesn to be known of him subsa- 
qornt to bis attempt in 1618 to interest 
Itacrni in his ' History.' 

[Huaebe^i Histoi; of Travaila into Virginia, 
^M^ar(HaUayt3ocO. 1S49; Bioirn'B GenwiB 
of I'licid States, ii. 1021: Winsor'B Hist, of 
An» TfT , iii Id6: Vnw England EiBt. and 
(lonl. Schist. I8S6, p. SSj MsMochusetti 
Hi^ Sac publications, 4tb set. I 21S ; Stith's 
HJK. of Virginia, 1747, pp. US iq. ; Bdt. Mna. 
Ctf. For the aontrovon; apon the connection, 
Of vaat of conDeccioa, between the literature 



ed on 

th the 

1 1678, 
f Qla- 

for the pnblic good that no man in his time 

went beyond him forhia singular knowledge 
in tho British langaage and antiquities, Sit 
hia eminent encouragement of learning and 
learned men, and for hia great expense and 
indefatigable industry in collecting together 
BeTeral ancient manuscripts of learning and 
antiquity, all which, with other books, were 
reduc'd into a well-ordered library at St. 

In 1672 he compiled an account of 'The 
Winning of ths Lordship of QlamorMn out 
of the Welehnien's Hands^' a copy of whidt 
he sent by the hand of hie kinswoman, Blanch 
Parry, who was maid of honour to Queen 
Eliiabeth, to David FoweU [q. v.] Powell 
incorporated it (at pp. 122-41)in his edition 
of Humphry Llwyd 8 ' Historie of Combria ' 
(London, 1684, 4to). In the introduction 
Powel also says that he was ' greatlie fur- 
thered 'in the compilation of the pedigrees by 
Stradling'a ' paineiuU and studious trayell,' 
Stradling is also mentioned by Lewys Dwnu 
(Her. i^. i. 381, ii. 87) among those who 
hod written on the history or genealogies of 
the whole of Britain, and his name is placed 
first among the ' aristocracy,' by whom he 
was permitted to see ' old records and books 
from religious bouses that had been written 
and their materials collected by abbots and 
prion ' (ib. i. 8). These must have included 
the register of Neath A-bbey, which was in 
Stradlmg's posaesaion in 1574, hut is now 
lost (Mhbriok, Morgama Arehaiographia, 
ed. 1887, p. iv). In 1645-« Archbishop 
XJsaher sojourned for almost a year at St. 
Donat's, where ' he spent his time chiefly in 
the library, which had been collected by Sir 
Edward Stradling, a great antiquary and 
friend of Mr. Cambden's; and out of some of 
j these MSS. the L. Primate made many choice 
collections of the British or Welch anti- 
quity,* which in 1086 were in the custody of 
Uasner's biographer, Bichard Parr (Lm of 
DMfter,p. 60). 

Stradling's beat known service to litera- 
ture was that of bearing the whole expense 
of the publication of Dr. John Dafydd Bkja'e 
Welsh grammar or ' Cambrobrytanmwe 
lingusB lostitntionee ' (London, 1602, fol.) 
^ee under Rhib, Iout Hxvtvd]. Meurig 
Dafydd, a Glamorgan poet, addressed an ode 
or cywydd to Stradling end Rhys on the 
pubUcation of the grammar, and refers to 
the former aa a master of eeven languages 
(F (^/mmrodor,'\v. 221--4,whare the cywydd 
is printed). 

Stradling also Spent large same on puUic 
improvements. To check the encroachments 
of the sea on the Glamorguiehire coast he 
built in 1606 a lea-wali at Aberthaw, which 




was, however, completelv destroyed b;' 1 1 
great etorm a few months lat«r. At Uerthyr- ; 
mawi he ooustnicted sn aqueduct, and seems 
to have attempted a harbour at the mouth 
of the Ogmore. Ha had also a Tineyaid on 
hia estate. Death intervened before he had 
arranged the endowment of a grammar 
school which be established at Oowbridge, 
but his intentions wera carried out by ma 
heir (Arch. Cambr. 2nd ser. v. 182-6). 

He died without issue oa 15 Uay 1609, 
leaving his estate to his adopted son and 
great-nephew. Sir John Stradling [q. v.], 
who had married his wife's niece. Ha was 
buried in the private chapel at St. Donat's, ! 
where his heir and hia widow Araea, second I 
dai^hter of Sir Edward G)a^ of HenCTava, 
Sumlk, whom he married in 1666, ^aced 
an inacription to his memorv ; ^e died | 
1 Feb. 1624, and was buried u the same 

Many letters addressed to Stradling by 
Walsingham, Sir Henry Sidney, Oliver, first 
lord St. John of Bletsoe, and others were 
published in 1340, &om transcripts preserved 
at Margam, under the title w ' btradling 
Correspondence,' edited, by J. Montgomery 
Traheme (London, Svo). 

[In addition to the auChoritiea cited, ua Ool- 
lina's Baronetoga, «d. 1730. i. i^-*. irhieh bu 
also been eloselyfoUowedin Q. T. Clark's Limbas 
Fatram Uoi^nia, p. 437. Haay dataili are 
also glaanad from Sir John Stiadling's £pi- 
grami aad the Stradling CorrMpoadenoe. Sea 

STRADLINa, Sib HENRY (fi. 1642), 
royalist captain, was fourth son of Sir John 
Stradling [q.v.] of St. Donat'a, Glamorgan- 
shire, w&u« he was bom probably not mter 
than 1610. He was nominated by the kiiu 
on 6 May 1631 to be captain of the Tenth 
Whelp, under the general command of Cap- 
tain John Pennington [q.v.], who, as admiral 
of the Narrow Seas, was specially chained 
with the r^ulation of the trawling at the 

Downs and the suppression of piracy 
smuggling in the English Channel. Di 


reports and letters to the admiralty. He was 
in charge of the Swallow on 30 March 1636, 
and in October captured a small Dunkirk 
man-of-waroffFalmouth. In March 1636-7 
he is mentioned as captain of the Dread- 
nought, but in November was sent in charge 
of another ship to the Groyne to bring the 
JhiehesaofOhevreuse toEi^land. He was 
then daaoribed as a ' stout able gentleman, 
bntspeaksUttleFrench.' In November 1641 
it was decided that he ahouldgo in the Bona- 

venture, a ship of 160 men and 667 tons, M 
the Irish Sea (Cal. StaU Papert, Dom. 1641- 
1648, pp. 179, 285 ; cf. Peacock, Army lut, 
p. 60) 1 but hia appointment was ohajlanged 
m the House of Commons on 10 Match 
1641-2, though ona division it was approved 
(Oamm. Joumah, ii. 474). Soon BUer this 
Stradling appears to have been knighted (it 
is erroneously stated in Nichols's Progreuet 
of Jama I, lii. 628, that he was kmghtad 
on 6 Nov. 1620). On 24 Aug. 1642 the 
Earl of Warwick was ordered t« seiee Strad- 
ling and Captain Kettlefay (Comm. JoumalM, 
ii. 736), who were known to be ' entirely 
devoted to the king's service,' and whom 
parliament, it was said, failed to oorrupt. 
Meanwhile ' they no sooner endeavoured to 
bring off their ships to the king, but they 
were seixed upon by the seamen and kept 
prisoners till they could be aent to land ' 
(Glabhkdoit, Sutory, v. 377 a., 381 ; cf. 
Qmtnoiu' JoumaU, ii. 728 ; and Si»t. MSS. 
Oamm. 12th Rep. App. iL 321, under 22 Aug. 

Stradling next appears at Carlisle, of which 
Sir Thomas Glemnam [q. v.] became g<^ 
vemor in July 1644. The town waa shortly 
afterwards closely berieged, and on 26 June 
1646 its surrender was agreed upon {A 
True Copie of tha Artiela thereupon Car- 
lisle wxH delivered Jt(ne[2] 8, 1646). The re- 
mains of the garrison, about two hundred 
foot, with Glemham and Stradling at their 
head, proceeded to Cardiff, where they joined 
the king towards the end of July ; and, having 
soon after been converted into dragoons, be- 
came the king's lifeguards in hia subsequent 
marches that autumn (Sykoitss, Diary, pp. 
219, 228, 2493. At Eowt«n Heath on 
24 Sept. Stradling was taken prisoner (Fhii> 
LIPS, Citdt War in Walet, ii. 273). On 

10 Deo. 1646 Stradling besged to be allowed 
to compound for his deunqueney, but no 
(Kder was made (Qi/. 0/mm.for Compound- 
iag.v. 1607). In June 1647 he, with bis 
brother Thomas and nephew John, the major- 
general, took a part m an abortive rising 
among the Glamorganshire gentry (Psi^ 
LIPS, u, 336-9 ; cf. Cat. State Paper«, Dom., 
1646-7, p. 692), and they also joined Poyer'a 
revolt in South Wales in 1648, all three 
being probably present at the battle of 
St. Pagan's on 8 May 1648. The two bro- 
thers were also with Poyer in Pembroke 
Castle when it was taken b^ Cromwell on 

11 July 1648, and by the articles of surren- 
der it was stipulated that they should both 
quit the kingdom within six weeks (Phu^ 
UPS, ii. 397-8). 

Stradling is said to have died at Oork, and 
ta have been buried in Trinity Churcb there. 




- [Maay dauQs •• ta Stndling'i naTtJ eottei 
Mij b* fonnd in tha Calandan of State Papen, 
Dam,tnt«Mn 1631 and 1B42. Other RQthoti- 
iMaan: JeffersoD'a Hiator; of Carlule, pp. Sl- 
it^ OdliM'a BuoDslage, 1730. p. 37 i Q. T. 
CluVi limboa Patnim JtlorganiB, p. 438 ; Phil- 
lipa'i QtU War in Wain.] D. Lt. T. 

m&ADLINa, Sib JOHN (1663-1637), 
M^Ui tad poet, waa the ton of FranciB 
■ad ElaabeUi Stradling of St. George's, 
■Mr Bastdi, where he waa bom in 1663, 
Hm cmt-ancle, Sir Edward Stradling 
fq. T.^ heiitf childless, Bdopt«d John and 
W^BMthed him hie estate. Stradling was 
edncrted andar Kdw&rd Green, a canon of 
Bmfail. and at Oxford, where ha matricu- 
lated from Brasenoee College on 18 July 
1S80, and gndnated B.A. from Magdalen 
HtD an 7 Feb. 1683-4, being then accounted 
*> mbade for hia forwardneM in leammg 
•ad pngnoncj of parts* (Woos). ae 
■todied for a tune at one of the inns of 
coon, and then travelled abroad. He waa 
aluriff of Olamorganahira for 1607 and 
IIBQ, and was knighted on 16 May 1608, 
beiuf then dewribed aa of Shropahire 
(Nicaou, Progrruew of Jamtt I, ii. 196, 
4ii). In 1609 ha sncceedod to the castle 
■ad eatata of St. Donat'a m Qlamoiran- 
idnra, and was created a baronet on 22 Maj 
1811, ftandiog fifth on the flnt list of 
"e waa elected M.P. for St. 

sius's 'Spistola de PeregrinaticHie Italica.* 

3. 'TwoBookes of Oonatancie; written in 
Latins by luBtuft Lipdiua ; containing, prin- 
CLpfi11ie,a comfortable Conference in common 
Calamities,' London, 1695, 4to ; a translation 
of Lipsius's ' De Constantia libri duo,' which 
hnd been published at Antwerp in 1684. 
Stradling also mentions Lipsius's ' Politickes ' 
among those ' bookes wherein I had done 
mine endeuor by translating to pleasure you,' 
but this does not appear to have been pub- 
lished, possibly because another translation 
of the work by one William Jonea appeared 
in the same year. 8. 'De Vita at lUorte 
contemnenda libri duo,'Ftankfort,1697,8TO 
(Bodleian lAbr. Qit. ; cf. WOOD, AOuna 
Oxon. ii. 897 ; SraAnLmo, Epiifranu, p. 26). 

4, ' Epigrsmmatum libri quatuor,* London, 
1607, Svo. 6. 'Beati Pacifici: a Divine 
Poem written to the Kings Host Excellent 
Maiestie . . . Perused by his Maies^, and 
printed by Authority ' (London, 1623, 4to), 
with a portrait of James I engraved by R. 
Vaughan. 6. ' Divine Poems ; in seven 
sevmll Claasee, written to his Moat £x- 
cellsnt Maiestie, Charles [the First] . , .* 
London, 1626, 4to. The poetry is of a 
didactic character; tha work was described 
by TbeophiluB Field [q.v.], bishop of Llan~ 
daff, in commendatory verses, aa 'A Sub- 
toema Theoloeical), a para^rase npon the 
holy Bible ' (cf. Robbbt HiTiiAif, Quod- 
libels . , . fnm Neuifoandland, London, 
1628, p. 63). A 'Poetical Deecription of 
OlomoTvanshire ' by Stradlinz is also men- 
tioned (NoUi and Queries, 8^ ser. ilL 448), 
but of this nothing is known. 

Stradling married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward Gage of Firla, Sussex. By her he 
had eight sons, two of whom are noticed 
below, and one. Sir Henry, is noticed sepa> 
rately, and three daughters, of whom the 
eldert, Jane, moriied William Thomsa of 
Wenvoe, and had a daughter Elisabeth, 
who became wifa of Edmund Lndlow, the 
remside [q. v.] 

The eldest son. Sib Edwabd SiRiDLTira 
(1601-1644), the second baronet, bom in 
1601 , matriculated from Brssenose College, 
Oxford, on 16 June 1616, and was elected 
U.P. for OUmorganshira in 1640. He was 
ooncemed in several important business 
undertakings ; he was a shareholder in asoap- 
moking monopoly (Cal. State Paper*, Dom. 
1636, p. 474), and was summoned on 14 Oct. 
1641beforatheHouseof Commons to account 
for some of its acts (Common*' Joumai*, ii. 
299). On 16 June 1637 he and 9ir Lewis 
Dives and another were summoned before the 
St*iMjh«mber' for trans portinggoldsndeilver 
out of the kingdom' (Cii^ State Fapa-t^t.%. 





f. 318),but tbejaubaequMitljieceiTedafiill 
paTd0D(i6. underSS March 163S-9). Stradliag 
was olao tlie dkief promoter of a Bcheme for 
brinnnKB supply of water to Loudon from 
Jio&aMoa, whicb engaged much public at- 
teution between 1630 and 1940 (ib. under 
11 Feb. 1631 p. 555, for 16SS-9 pp. 304, 314, 
163911. 481 ; Commons' Jvumalt, ii.SSS ; tlie 
deed between Ch&rlcs I and the promoters is 
VTiDted in Rykeb'b Fwdera, vol. viii. pt. iii. p. 


At the outbreak of the civil war Stradling 
was the leading rojalist in Qlamor^nslitre, 
and led a regiment of foot toEdgehill in Oo- 
tober 1643, where lie was taken prisoner (Oli- 
BEXDON, Ilitt. vi. 94) and sent to Warwick 
Castle ; but the king obtained his releaea on 
an exchange of prisoners (_Cai. State Paper*, 
Dom. 1^4, p. 117), and, proceeding to Ox- 
ford, Stradling died there in June 1644, and 
WBA buried on 21 June in tha chapel of Jeans 
College (Wood, Athma Oxon. u. 61, (hlL 
and HalU, ed. Qutch, p. 690), He married 
Manr, onlj daughter Qaj the aecond wife) 
of Sit litomas A^nitel of Margam, who sur- 
vived >»!"! In Jul; 164fi she extended 
hoepitable protection to Biahop Ussher, who 
stayed almost a year at St. Donat'a (Fabb, 
Life of Uuher, pp. 58-63). Of his sons, Ed- 
ward, the eldeot, succeeded as thvd baronet ; 
John and Thomas served on th« toyaliat side 
throughout the civil war, both being im- 

f Heated in the Olamorgansbire risings in 
647 and 1648 ; John died in prison at Windsor 
Castle in 1648. The title became extinct 
by the death, unmarried, of Sir Thomas 
Stradling, the sixth baronet, who was killed 
in a duel at Montpelier on 27 Sept. 1736. 
Hia disposition of^the projierty gave rise 
to prolonged litigation, which was flnall; 
closed and the partition of the estates con- 
firmed under an act of parliament (cf. Ifottt 
and Queriet, Srd ser. xi. 163). 

Sir John's eighth but fourth surviving 
■cm, Qsosae SrsASUsa (1621-1688), alter 
travelling in France and Italy, matriculated 
from Jesas College, Oxford, on 27 April 
1638, graduated B.A. 16 Nov. 1640, M.A. 
26 Jan. 1646-7, and D.D. 6 Nov. 1661. In 
1642, as ' founder's kinsman,' he was elected 
fellow of All Souls'. He served on the 
royalist side during the civil war, but tha 
influence of Oldisworth and Ludlow pre- 
vented his ejection from his fellowship. In 
December 1660 be was made canon of St. 
Paul's and chaplain to Bishop (afterwards 
AKhbisbop) Gilbert Sheldon [q. v.] He 
declined election as president of Jesus on 
the resignation of Francis Mansel [q. vj in 
Marcb 1660-1, hut became rector of Han- 
weU(1662-4), vicar of Clifie-at-Hoo (1663), 

of Sutton-at- Hone (1666), both in Kent; of 
St. Bride'a, London* (1678), canon of Westr 
minster (1668), chontor (1671) and dean of 
Chicherter (1673). He died 18 April 1688, 
and was buried with his wife Margaret (d. 
1681), daughter of Sir WiUiam Salter of 
Iver, Buckinghamshire, in Westminster 
Abbey. A volume of Stradling'a ' Sermons' 
was edited (London, 1692, 8vo) by Jamea 
Harrington [q. v.], who prefixed an account 
of Stradling^ life {Woon.-Athetue 0.n»«. iv. 
237, Fast^ IL 33, 91; Heg. of Vuit. ^ 
Oxford Univ. pp. 42, 476; Nbalb, Wett- 
min»ttr Abbey, ii. S44 ; Chebieb, We*t- 
mintttr Abbey Eeg. pp. 70, 203, 220-1), 

[Anthoritisaqaotedinthetfiti VTood'sAtheBe 
OiOD. ii. 89fi-7; Foster's Alnmni Oion.; Brit. 
Mob. Cat.; Traheme'sStnuiliiigCorTSBpondfDiM; 
James Harrington's Frefiice to Dr. Oeoive Slrad- 
ling'i Sermons (1S92); Williams's EmiDent 
WeUbmsn, p. 475, nod W. S.. WiUiams'i P&cL 
Hiflt-of Wal«a,p.97,cf.alsop. 108. Tbo genea- 
logical particulars are based upon CoIUna'a Baro* 
netage, ed 17^0, pp. S2et eeq., and G. T. Clark's 
Liaaboa Fatrom Horganis, p. 439.1 ^- ^- '^• 

of St. Donat's, Glamoi^nshire, by h 
Eliiabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Arundel 
of Lanherne, Ckimwall. 

Tha family traced its descent from Sir 
William de Esterlinge, an alleged Norman 
companion of Bobert Fitihamon in his eon- 
questof Qlamorgan(cf. Oui.'&s, Land iff Mor- 
gan, p. 18 \ and Fbebhas, Norman Ooagvat, 
v. 110, 820). This story is the basis of the 
eariiest known pedigree whu^ was comjuled 
in 1673 by Sir Edward Stradling [q. ▼.] 
(see PowBL, Sittoria nf Cambria, London, 
1684, p. 137 : Mebsigk, Morgania AiiAa.y>- 
graphta — 'pedigree written in 1678— edit. 
1887, pp. 78-82). More probably the family 
came from Warwickshire (Dusdalb, WttT' 
mdahire, ed. Thomas, i. 672, 676; Ousx, 
Carta «t Mutmtenta de Glamorgan, iv. 67). 
Sir Harry Stradling, Sir Thomaa'e great- 

Cdfather,married Eliialieth, sister of Wil- 
Herbwt, first earl of Pembroke [q. v.] 
In 1477 ha went to JeruBalem, where he 
received the order of the Sepulchre, but 
died, on hia way home, at Cyprus (Dwim, 
Her. Vi*.i. 158; Cubk, View* <tf the Cattle 
^ St. Dtmal't, pp. 7-11 j Mbbbios:, op. at. 
p. 80). 

Sir Tbonias Stradling was the eldest of 
some dosen brothers, ' most of tbem bastArds,' 
who had ' no living but by extortion «nd 

Suing of the king's subjectB' (Col. Letter* 
iper* and Bmiyrni,v.liO,jl 300). Ha 
was iheiiff of OlamoigoiuhiTa in 1647-8, 

Digitized byGOOgle 




vu hiiglit«d 17 Feb. IMtf, nod was ap- 

p>aiC«d irith others ft iiiugt«Nii)Bster of tCe 
qii««D'e «rmy mad r commissioaer for the 
mnhM of \ValeB in 1553. He waa M.P. 
Ibr £ut Grinstead 1653, and for Arundel 
15.^4, and on 6 Feb. 1557-8 he waa joined 
with Sir Thomas Pope [q. v.] and otners in 
a eommtffiioQ thrai issued for the suppression 
o( heresy (Bitkjtct, Bfformatim, ii. 586, v, 

^inidliBg iras a staunch Roman catholic, 
■od was arrested earlj in 1501 on the charge 
tbai in 15GU he had caused four pictures to 
tw made of the lilienesa of a cross as it ap- 
»wd in the grain of a tree blown down m 
iia paA at tit. Dooat'a. He vas released, 
a/irr he bad been kept 'of a longtime' a 
frjjuer in the Tower, on his giving a bond 
fur a thousand marks, dated 15 Oct. 1663, 
fur his peisonal appearance when called upon 
(CtL Stale Fap^rt, Dom. 1647-80, p. 176, 
Addmda, 1647-65, pp. 610, 612 ; Fboudh, 
Alt. viL 339 ; Nicholas Hibpstieed, Dia- 
J«ii' &r. Antwerp, 1668, 4to, pp. 604etseq.; 
a. Ardtaolcgia Cambreiuu, 3rd ser. xi. S3- 
<8,- and (^^bx, Cattie of St. Dona^i, pp. 
14-17). In 1669 Strsdling refused to suV 
■nibe ths declaration for observance of the 
Act of Unilbrniity, pleading that his bond 
«M a Hiffieient guarantee of hie conformitv 
I Cai Slate Faper$, Dom. 1647-80, p. 361). 
He died in 1671, and was buried in the 
pKrate chapel added by him to the parish 
choitk of St. Donat'a. His will, dated 
19 Dw. 1666, was pioTed in the Prerogi 





STRAHAN, WILLIAM: (1716-1785), 
irinter and pubLishet, was bom in April 
.716 at Edinburgh, where Lis fathar, Alex- 
ander Strahan, had a small post in the ous- 
loms. After serving an apprenticeship in 
Edinburgh as a jourueyman printer, he 
' took the high road to England * and found 
a place in a London firm, probably that of 
Andrew Millar [q. v.] lie married, 20 July 
1738, Margaret Penelope, daughter of Wil- 
liam Blphinaton, an episcopalian clergyman 
of Edinburgh, and sister of James Elphinston 
[q.T.] About 1739 he was admitted a junior 
partner of Millar, with whom he was re* 

SQsible for the production of Johnson's 
ctionarj,* and upon his death in 1768 he 
continued in partnership with Thomas 
Cadell the elder [q. v.] In,1769 he wa« able 
to purchase from George Eyre a share of the 
pat«nt as king's printer, and immediately 
afterwards, in February 1770, the king's 
printing-house was removed from Blackfriars 
to New Street, near Qough Square, Fleet 
Street. Strahan was prc^ressively pro- 
sperous, and hi« dealings with his authors 
were marked by more amenity than bad 
hitherto characterised such relations. Dr. 
Thomas Somerville (1741-1830) [q.T.]went 
to dine with him in New Street in 1769, 
and met at bis house David Hume, Sir John 
Pringle, Benjamin Franklin, and Mra.Thrftle. 
The publisher recommended him tc stay in 
London, and gave him 3001. for bis ' History 
of William III.' Besides Hume, Straban 
was pnbliaher, and either banker and agent 
or confidential adviser, to Adam Smith, Dr. 
Johnson, Gibbon, Kobertson, Blaokstone, 
Blair, and many other writers. In the 
ease of Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall,' which 
had been reftised elsewhere, when Gibbon 
and Cadell thought that fivehundred would 
probably be enough for a first impression, 
' the number was doubled by the prophetic 
taste of Mr. Strahan.' Other notable ven- 
tures of the firm were Cook's 'Voyages' 
and Uackenrie'a ' Man of Feeling.' Strahan 
made Isrge same out of the histories of 
Robertson and Hume, and set up a coach, 
which Johnson denominated ' a credit to 

At Stratum's house the unsuccessful 
meeting between Dr. Johnson and Adam 
Smith took place. In 1776 Adam Smith ad- 
dressed to Strahan the famous ' Letter,' dated 
9 Dec., in which he describes the death of 
David Hume ' in such a happy composure of 
mind that nothing could exceed it,' and 
which provoked a long reverberation of angiy 
criticisms. Straban was Hume's literary 
executor, and on 26 Not. 1776 he wrote to 
Adam Smith proposing that the series of 



letters firom Hume tA himself should be 
published along with Hume'a lattera to 
bmith, BobertBOD, and some othetB. But 
Smith put hia foot down on this proposal de< 
ciaiTolj, oathe grouadthat it was moat im- 
proper to publish anything his friend had 
written without eipruaa permission either by 
will or otherwise. These highly intereBting 
letteis were purchased by Lord Rosebery in 
1887, Mid edited by Dt. Birkbaclt Hill in 
1888 (Lettara of David BtOM to William 
StraMan, Oxford, 8vo). 

Strahan was rather an advaaced whig, and 
was extremely fond, sa^rs Boswell, of * politi- 
cal Dt^tiation.' He tried on one occaaion to 
approach Lord North with the idea of pro- 
curing a seat in parliament for Johnson, 
The attempt happUy &iled ; but Strahan 
himself was successful in ent^riiw parlia- 
ment for Malmaabury at the aeneru election 
of 1774, when he had Charles Jamea For 
for bis colleague. He aat for Wootton- 
Bassett in the next parliament, but sup- 
ported the coalition and lost hia seat m 
1784, JohusoQ. was disposed to gibe at 
Btiahan's political ambition. ' I employ 
Strahan,' be said, ' to frank my letters that 
he may have the consequence of appoaring 
as a parliament man.' A difference of two 
months was healed by a letter from John- 
son and a friendly call from Strahan. John- 
son was gratified at being able to get a 
young man he wished to befriend into 
Strahan's printin^house, ' the best in Lon- 

i8 Strang 

at Snow Hill, but died, aged 41, on 19 April 
1781 ; the youngest son, Andrew (1749- 
1831), carried on his father's business with 
success, became one of the joint patentees 
as printer to his majesty, sat in parliament 
succeeaively for Newport, Wareham, Cap. 
low, Aldeburgh, and New Bomney (1706- 
1818), and died on 35 Aug. 1831, having fro* 
sent«l 1,0001. to the Literary Fund, and be* 
dueathed l,225Ato the Stationers' Company. 
)ne of the daughters married John Spottis- 
woode of Spottiswoode, one of whose sons, 
Andrew, entered the printing firm, and ma 
filtber of William Spottiswoode [q. v.] 

Tlie second son, GEO&SB.STKAHAir (1744- 
1834), matriculated from University College, 
Oxford, on IS Nov. 1764, and graduated 
B.A. 1768, M.A 1771, B.D. and D.D. 
1807. He was presented to the vicarage 
of St. Mary's, lalu^n, in 1773, was made 
a prebendary of Rochester in 1806, and 
rector of Kingsdown, Kent, from 1820 until 
his death on 18 Mav 1BS4. Strahftn was 
buried in Islington cnurcb on S4 Mvr. He 
married, on 35 June 1778, Mar^nrat Kobert- 
son of Richmond ; his widow died on 2 April 
1831, aged 60. Johnson in Ut«r life used 

r fell 

into a passion over a proof and sent 
oompositor, but on being convinced that he 
himself was to blame mode a handsome 
apology. Towards the end of hia life 
Strahan's old friend Franklin wrote him 
from Pawy (August 1734), ' I remember 
yonr observing to me that no two journey- 
men printers had met with such success in 
the world as oiuaelves.' He died at New 
Street, aged 70, on 9 July 1786. Jjke hie 
old friend Bowyer, he bequeathed 1,000/. 
to the Stationers' Company, of which be 
had been master in 1774. His widow sur- 
vived biro barely a month, dying on 7 Aug. 
1785, aged 66. 

A portrait of William Strahan by Rey- 
nolds was in the possession of his son An- 
drew, and a copy by &i William Beecbey 
is in the Company of Stationers' court- 
room, where is also a portrut of Andrew 
Strahan by William Owen (see Lsbub and 
Tailob, Semoldt, 1865, ii. 302; ct Gvelph 
EihibUim, No. 196). 

Strahan had five children, three sons and 
two daughters. The eldest son, William, 
carried on a piinting business for some years 

script, which Strahan published in its indi»- 
oreet entirety under the title ' Prayers and 
Meditations composed by Samuel JohnsoD, 
LL.D. ' (London, 1786, 8vo; many editions ; 
the manuscript was depout«d in the librarv 
of Pembroke College, Oxford). The pnbb- 
cation was attacked by Dr. Adama (QttU. 
Mag. 1786, iL 756), and by John Oonrto- 
nay {Poetical Seview, 1788, p. 7). 

JohnioD, ed. Hilt, passim; XirDpeTle7*a Ency- 
clopedia, pp. 7H-6; Chambers's Biogi. Diet. «f 
Eminent Scotwien ; Gibbon's Midc. Works, 
1816, i. 223; Somervi lie's Life and Times; 
Forbes'sLifsof Beatlie, ii. laS; Rae's Life of 
Adam Smith ; Prior's Life of Mitloiie ; Lounger, 
20 Aug. 17B6; Lewis's Hist, of Isliogtan, 1842, 
pp. Ill, 218; Gent. Has. 17S5 ii. fiT4, 039, 
1824 1. 47S, 18S1{.324; Poster's Alumni Oxoo. 
1715-1888.] T. S. 

BTRAHa, JOHN (158^1664), princa- 
pal of Glasgow University, was bom At If- 
vine in the county of Ayr in 15S4. His 
father, William Strang (1547-1588), mini- 
ster of Irvine, belonged to the ancient family 
ofStrongof BalcaskieinFife; and his mother 
Agnes was sister of Alexander Borthwick, 



' portionai * of Nether Lenagher, Uidlothi&n. 
On WilUun'd death in 1588 she married Ro- 
ui<l ToungStrangreceivedhUeitrlj education 
Uilie^iammorachoolof that town, Zachary 
Briyd a. v.] being one of his school fellows. 
About the a;;e of twelve he WAi sent to the 
nnivernt J of St, Andrews, and placed under 
thp cue of Priniup^ R. Wilkie, a relative 
of hit bti^pfather. Ha gradtiated M.A. four 
ftirt aftonrtuds, and subsequentlT becune 
ODc of the legente of St. Leonard^ College. 
In I6U he was ordained and on 10 April 
vu inducted to the parish of Elrrol in the 
toantj of Perth, being reoommended by the 
prorescore of SL Andrews and Alexander 
ilendenon [q. t.I, then minister of Leuchors. 
<Jn 'H Jaij 1616 he wad made doctor of 
diTinitj by his altaa mater, being one of the 
lint on whom that honour was conferred, 
after its renTal, bj order of the kine ; and 
ID tbe following year, in a disputation nold in 
the n^al presence at St. Andrews, he greatly 
duiti^iuslied himself. He was a member of 
the fmeial assembly held at Perth in 1618, 
■ad was the only D.D. who voted against the 
finarlicles. On 16Jaaal6l9he wosmadea 
nember of the high commission, and in 1620 
he refused the oSer of an Eklinburgh chorch. 
Soring hia incumbency at Errol ha fre- 
quenth' acted as moderator of the presbytery 
it Perth in the abaonce of the bishop, and 
be was the meaus of coDvartinir several 



1638 he and others drew up a protest a^uust 
lay elders sitting in that court or Totmg in 
presbyteries at the election of the clerical 
members ; but his supporters fell hota it, and 
the covenanting leaders threatened to treat 
him as an open enemy unluss he also with- 
drew his name. Their threats, backed by 
the tears of his wife, prevailed, and tha pro- 
test was suppressed, fiaillie tells us that his 
position as principal was greatly jeopardised 
by his protesting against elders, signing the 
covenant with limitations, and deserting tha 
assemblyaftersittinginic severaldays. Re- 
peated attempts were made to bring bis case 
before the assembly, but they were defeated 
by the skilful man^jiement of Baillie and 
other friends. 

After this Strang submitted to tha mea- 
sures of the covenantors; but his enemies 
soon accused him of heresy because in his 
dictates to the students he had ezprassad 
opinions as to Qod's providence about sin 
which conAicted with the hypei-Oalvinism 
of Samuel Rutherford [q. v.] and others of 
that school. The subject came before the 
genera! assembly, and was referred to a com- 
mittee of the most learned men in the church. 
After conferring with Strong and examining 
his dictates, they reported that they were 
satisfied OS to his orthodoxy. This report 
was given in to the assembly in August 1647, 
and an act was passed exonerating him from 
the charge (cf. Wodkow, CoUeettoru). Soon 
afterwards the charge of heresy was re- 
newed, and, OS the cliurch was now com- 
pletely dominated by the rigid covenanters, 
Strang thouffht it tha safest course to ro- 
sign his office, which he did, says Baillie, the 
mora readily ' that in his old a^ ha might 
have leisure, with a safe reputation, to revise 
his writings.' His resignation, wliich was 
greatly regretted by the professors, was ac- 
cepted by the visitors in April IGoO, and 
they at the same time granted him a pen- 
sion and gave him a testimonial of ortho- 
doxy. His tenure of oiUce hod been marked 
by additions to the university buildings, to 
the coat of which ha was himself a munifi- 
cent contributor out of his ample private 
means, and the income of the bishopric <^ 
Qalloway wasaddadtotherevenue. luphilo- 
sophy he had no superior among his con- 
temporaries, and Balcanquhal, in a letter to 
Laud, pays a high tribute to hia learning. 
Wodrow tells us, however, that ' he had 
littleof apreachinggift.' He died on 20 June 
1651, when on a visit to Edinburgh, and waa 
buried there in the Qreyfriars churchyard. 
Hany Latin epitaphs were composed in hia 
honour, including one by Andrew Ramsav 
(1674-1669) [q. v.] 





Strong was thrice married and had nume- 
roua cUiidren, many of whom died voung. 
HiBdaughtDrHulon married, first, oneWitkie; 
and, aucondly, Kobert Baillia (1599-1662) 
[q. T.] in 1606. 

The following worka which Stranff had 
prepared for the prew were published after 
his deathi 1. 'De Voluntate et Actiouibus 
I>eicircaPeccatum,'Aniaterdam, 1657, which 
he submitted to the Dutch divines for their 
opinion. 2. ' De laterpretatione ot Ferfec- 
tione SoripHirffl, una cum opusculb de Sab- 
bato,' Rotterdam, 1663. 

[LiI'd iij Baillio prcBzed to De Intcrpreta' 
lione; itiiillie'H Letters; niaDUBi:ript life by 
WodroT (Olasgsw Uoiversity); Declniatioti by 
Charlee I ; Account of Ohugair Unirardty, 
1801 ; HecordB of Commission of Oeneral Aj- 
Mmlly; Crichron's Life of BLubadder; Hew 
Scolfu Fasti, iii. 152-3, iv, 63S.] G. W. S. 

STBANO, JOHN (179&-lftJ3), author 
of ' Glasgow and its Clubs,' was the son of a 
wine merchant in Qlas^w, where he was 
bom in 1795. He received a liberal educa- 
tion, and had special training in Preach and 
German. His fether died when he was 
fourteen, leaving him a competency. In due 
time he succeeded to the business, for which 
he had but small liking. In 1817 he spent 
some time in France and Italy, which b^^t 
in him a deep love of continental travel. 
Presently, when at home, he began to contri- 
bute to periodicals tales and poems translated 
Irom French and German. Uia youthful 
translations from the German of Hoffmann 
and others, when collected into a volume, 
introduced him to men of letteis in London 
and in France and Germany. 

Having- artistic as well as literary tastes, 
Strang sketched some of the outstanding 
features oi Old Glasgow, and he detected 
the ats which his teal and advocacy ulti' 
matelj secured ior what became tlie pio- 
tureequeGlaagow necropolis. In 1831Btrang 
mode a long tour in Germany, writing thence 
many letters subsequently published. For 
the first six months of 1833 he edited the 
' Day,' a literary paper, to which he con- 
tributed original articles and translations. 
In 1834 he was appointed city chamberlain 
of Glasgow, holding the office worthily for 
thirty years. He regulated the finances of 
the city, and helped to improve its architec- 
tural features. In recognition of his literary 
merit and public services, Glasgow Univei^ 
sity conferred on him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. He spent his last summer in 
fiance and Qermany, contributing to the 
' Glasgow Herald ' a series of letters ^m 
' an invalid in search of health.' He died 
in Glasgow on 8 Dec. 1803. In December 

1813 Stranr married Elizabeth Anderson, 
daughter of a distinguished Gla^ow phy- 
sician. Dr. William Anderson. She survived 

As ' Geofilrey Crayon,' Strang published in 
1830 ' A Glance at the Exhibition of Works 
of Living Artists, under the Patronage of 
the Glasgow Dilettante Society.' In 1831 
appeared his pamphlet, ' Necropolis Glas- 
guensis,' advocating the site <^ the new 
garden cemetery. In 1836 he published, in 
two octavo volumes, his acute and observant 
'Germany iu 1831,' which soon reached a 
aecood edition. Besides reading before the 
British Association at various meetings 
papers on the city and harbour of Glasgow, 
he pi«pared for the corporation elaborate 
and accurate reports on the ' Vital Statistics 
of Glasgow,* and on the census of the city 
as rfiown in 1841, 1861, and 1861 i and 
he wrote the article ' Glasgow ' for the eighth 
edition of the ' Encyclopcedia Britannica.' 
His most important work is ' Glasgow and 
iu0lubs,'1865. This is ft valuable record of 
the society and manners of western Scot- 
land in the second half of the ei^teentji 
century. It speedily ran throunli several 
editions. In 1868 appeared 'Trftv« 

[Glasgow Hcnild,9D©c. 1863; Irvine's Diet. 
of EmiuuDt Scotsmen.] T. S. 

STKANGE. [See also L'EsraAUGE.] 
1876), lieutenantKKiloaet and man of science, 
fifth son of Sir Thomas Andrew Lumisden 
Strange [q. v,}, b^ his second wife, Louisa, 
daughter of Sir WilliamB urroughs, bart. , was 
bom in London on27 April 1818. Hewasedu- 
cated at Harrow school, which he entered in 
September 1831, but left in 1831 at sixteen 
years of age for India, on receiving a cona- 
mission in the 7th Madras light cavalry 
(22 June 1834). He was promoted lieu- 
tenantonlOMaylSS7. Inlndiahisnatural 
bent for mechanical science and his rare in- 
ventive faculty soon declared themselves. 
After studying at the Simla observatory he 
was appointed in 1847 second assistant to 
the great trigonometrical survey of India. 
He wsa employed on the 'Karachi lonntu- 
dinnl series, extending from the Sironj tJose 
in Central India to Karachi, and crossing 
the formidable Tharr or desert north of the 
Bann of Kach, When the work was begun 
in 18S0 Strange acted as first assistant to 
Captain Benny Toilyour, but at^r the first 
season Tailyour withdrew and Stiange took 
chief cominaiid. While at work ia tlM 




dewrt of Than the aliceiiM of materials for 
faoildiiift the necessary platfonua, besides 
the DMtd of proTiding a commissariat foT two 
bandnd men, taxed idl the leader's re- 
■>BTecB. The triatifrutation of the section 
wu eompleted on 22 April 1858. The 
acsica was 668 miles long, consistinj; of 173 
prineipal triangles, and coTering an area of 
K.323 miles. After this work was ended, 
Suanp joined the surreyor-general (Sir 
AaJnir Scott Wangh [q. v.]) at hia camp 
M Attock, and took part in measuring a 
TCrificatory base-line. He then bore the 
de«i);Bation of ' astronomical aasistant.' In 
le56 he joined the snrveTor-geueral's head- 
nnttn office, and in 1866 was placed in 
cbai^ of the triangulation southwards from 
Calratta to Uadras, alone the east coast. 
!■ 1659 ha was promoted to the rank of 
lanor, and, in accordance with the regn* 
lauoMs, retired from the surve;^. He re- 
scind the special thanks of the government 

BsMming home in Jannary 1861, Strange 
Ktind from the armj in December of the 

hsfsnoaded the Indian government to esto- 
Uiah a department for tha inspection of 
KJeatiBc instruments for nse in India, and 
vaa appointed to organise it, and to the office 
tt ituftctar in 1862. Hitherto the system 
foUowad bjr the government in supervising 
tba eooatraction of scientific instruments 
for «Aeial oae bod been to keep a stock of 
paUams, invite tenders for copying them, and 
•ecapt the loweat, thus preventing anj chance 
of innrovement in the type of instrument, 
■■d aMdiBg' no gnarautee for good work- 
■aaihip or material. Strange abolished 
th» paCtems, enconraged in<rention, insured 
MMfetitton as to price bv employing at least 
two makats for each class of instrument, 
aad enforced strict sapervision ; a marked 

t wu shown in his first decennial re- 
fart to be odIv abont -028 of one per cent, of 
tht OBlI^ OD Uie works wh ich the inetrumen ts 
wen apk>j«d in designing or executing. 
F<r tfce triaanometrical survey he himself 
dhjjMnJ uid BufMrinCeaded the construction 
(f s «et of massive standard instruments of 
tfe highert geodetic importonce, vix. a great 
tteodolite with a horjcontal circle of three 
fat diameter, and a Tertical circle of two 
fm diaiaeter (theflB circles were read by 
MiUBf of micrometer microscopes); two 
aw'lli isN fnrs 'with arc of eighteen inch 
m£maad telemsope of foarfeetfocal length; 
tn h^iaat twu*^ imtrmmanta for the , 

determination of longitude, with special 
arrangements for detecting flexure of the 
telescope ; with others, which all exhibited 
very ingenious and important developments 
from previously accepted tvpes. 

Strange was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical and Astrononical societies in 
1861, and of the Royal Society on 3 June 
1864. He took an active purt in their pro- 
ceedings. He served on the council of the 
Astronomical Society from 1863 to 1867, 
and as foreign secretary from 1B68 to 1873. 
He contributed several papers to the so- 
ciety's ' Memoirs ' (vol. mi.) and ' Monthly 
Notices.' In 1863 {Monthly Notieet ^ 
Jtoyal Atfronomieal &cM^y, vol. xxiii.), he 
recommended the use of aluminium bronie 
in the construction of philoeophicat instm- 
ments. He was on the council of the 
Royal Society from 1867 to 1869. A 
lover of scienco for its own sake, he 
long preached the duty of government to 
support scientific research, especially indirec- 
tions where discovery, though enriching the 
commnnity, brings no benefit to the inventor. 
To this advocacy was mainly due the appoint- 
ment in 1870 of the royal commission on 
this question (presided over by the Duke 
of Devonshire), which adopted and recom- 
mended many of his suggestions. 

At the British Association at Belfast in 
1874 he read a paper, which attracted much 
attention, on tha desirability of daily sjate- 
matic observations, preferably in India, of 
the sun OS the ohief source of cosmical 
meteorological phenomena. 

Strange died in London on 9 March 1876. 
He married Adelaide, daughter of the Rev. 
William Davies, and left issue. 

[Nalure, liii. 408-9 ; Times, 20 March IS?" ; 
Monthly Notices of Boyal AstrosomiMl Society, 
ml. xxivii. So. 4 ; Mnrkham's Memoirs on tbe 
Indian SarvByn, 2nd ed. 1878.] 0. T. 

STRANGE, SiE JOHN (1606-1754), 
master of the rolls, son and heir of John 
Strange of Fleet Street, London, was bom 
in 1696, and was for some time a pupil of 
Atr. Salkeld of Brooke Street, Ilolbom, the 
attorney, in whose office Robert, viscount 
Jocelyn Qord chancellor of Ireland), Philip, 
earl of Hardwicke (lord chancellor of Eng- 
land), and Sir Thomas Parker (lord chief 
baron) all received their legal education. 
Strange used to carry his master's bng down 
to Westminster, and ne witnessed Sir Joseph 
Jekyll's first appearance as master of tne 
rolls in 1717, Httle dreaming ' that he should 
have the option of being Sir Joseph Jekyll's 
immediate successor, and should actually fill 
the office eventnallj ' (Habbib, Life iff LorJ 


Strange i 

Chancellor Bardvneke,i8i7,i. 88). HewM 
admitted a member of the Middle Temple in 
1712, and was called to the bar in 1718. 
Though he wm ' pretty diligent and exact 
in taking and transcribing notes ' during the 
first jiean of bis attendance at Westminster 
Hall, his 'Keports,' which were not pub- 
lished until after hia death, do not commence 
before Trinity term 1729 (Preface to the first 
edition of STBiMOfl's ^twrt*), InMa7l725 
Htrann waa one of tne counsel iv-no de- 
fended Lord-chanceUot Macclesfield upon 
his impeachment [see Paekbb, Thokas, first 
EablJ. lie became a king's counsel on 
8 Feb. 1786, and was shortlj afterwards 
elected a bencher of the Middle Temple. On 
28 Jan. 1737 he was appointed solicitoi- 
genersl in Walpole's administration, and at 
a hy-election in the following month was 
returned to the House of Commons for the 
borough of West Looe, which he continued 
to represent until the dissolution of parlia- 
ment m April 1741. In June 1737 he t^k 
Eirt in the debate on the murder of Oaptain 
orteoua, and spoke in favour of the bill 
which had been passed through the House 
of Lords for the punishment <X the piovost 
and the abolition of the town guard of Edin- 
burgh(Par/.fiM(.i.275-82). OnSir Joseph 
Jekyll's death in August 1738 the office of 
master of the rolls was offered b; Lord Hard- 
wicke to Strange, who, however, declined it 
(HasxiB, Ljfe of Lord Ckaneellor BardwKke, 
i. 419)' He ■was elected recorder of the 
city of London in the place of Sir William 
Thomson [q. t.], baron of the exchequer, 
on 18 Not. 1739, and was knighted on 
12 Mar 1740. At a by-election in January 
1743 Strange obtained s seat in the House 
of Commons for Totnes, and continued to 
sit for that borough until his death. In 
March 1743 he was elected a member of the 
secret committee appointed to inquire into 
the conduct of Sir Bobert Walpole (Pari, 
Hut. xii. fiS8). In Bpil« of his friendship 
with the fallen minister, Strange appears to 
have TOted in faTonr of the Indemnity fiil! 

SOKACB WAtroLH, LeiUn, 1861, i. 166). 
Michaelmas term 174S S^n^, to the 
surprise of the profession, resigned his 
' offices of eolicitor-^neral, king's counsel, 
and recorder of the city of London,* and left 
his 'practice at the House of Lords, council 
table, delegates, and all the courts in West- 
minster Hall except the king's bench, and 
there also at the aftenioonBitttngs'(SiBAirafl, 
A7ior£s,lBtedit.ii.n76). Accord iuji; to his 
own account, ' the reasons for his retirement 
were that he had received a considerable 
addition to his fortune,' and that ' some de- 
giM of ease and retirement' was judged 


proper for his health ; but other reasona 
are hinted at in the ' Causidicade, a Pane* 
grri-Satiri-Serio-Comic-Dramntical Poem on 
the Strange Resignation and Stranger I'ro- 
motion' (London, 1743, 4to). On taking 
leave of the king. Strange wsa nanted a 
patent of precedence next after ue attor- 

Townley for high treason before a spefflsl 
commission at the court-house at St. Mar- 
ket's Hill, Southwark (Oobbett, StaU 
Trials, xviii. 329-47J, and at the trial of 
Lord Bal merino, for the same offence, before 
the House of I-ords (i"6. iviii. 448-88). In 
March 1747 he acted as one of the managers 
of the impeachment of Simon, lord IjOTat, 
before the House of Lords for high treason 
{&. xviii. 540-841). 

He was appointed msaler of the rolls, in 
the place of William Fortascne, on 11 Jan. 
1760, and was sworn a member of the privy 
council on the 17th of the sane month. 
After sitting on the bench for little more 
than three years, he died on 18 May 1754, 
aged 67. He was buried in the churchyard 
at Leyton in Essei, and a monument was 
erected in the church to his memory (Lrioire, 
Enwinmg of Zondon, 1792-1811, ir. 168-9). 
Strange married Susan, daughter and oo- 
heiress of Edward Strong of Oreenwich, by 
whom he had John Strange (1782-1 799) [q.v.J 
Mid several other children. Ilia wife died 
on 21 Jan. 1747, aged 46, and was buried at 
Leyton. He appears to have purchased the 
manor-house ot Leyton from the Gnusells 
(i». iv. 162). 

Strange was the author of ' Reports of Ad- 
judged Cases in the Courts of Ohancery, K i n g's 
Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, from 
IVinity Term in the Second Year of King 
QeorM I to Trinity Term in tbo Twenty- 
first Year of King George II .. .published 
W his son John Strange of the Middle 
Temple, Esquire,' London, 1765, foL 2 vols.; 
2nd edit, with addition^ references, Lon- 
don, 1782, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 8rd edit, with notea 
and additional references, by Michael Nolan, 
Jjondon, 1795, 8vo, 2 vols. A lees correct 
edition, of inferior eiie and double paging, 
was also published in 1782 (8vo, 2 vole.), and 
a Dublin edition in two volumes appeared in 

His clerk is said to hare stolen bin notes 
of the 'Reports,' and to have published 
from them ' A Collection of Select Cases 
relating to Evidence. By a late Barrister- 
at^Law,'Ijondon,1764,8vo. An injunction in 
chancery having been obtained by Stmnge'a 
executors, moat of the copies were suhe». 




qwatlir dentrofed. A copy of this Hcarce 
book, wliich is 1011101111168 quot«d aa the 
■dcUto Stnage,' is in the Iiincoln'a Inn 
lAnrj, hATiug formerlj belonged to CharleH 
Fnttm Cooper [q. v.] About seTonty cases 
■ itii 'Coneetion' Are not to be found in 
'Stnngo'i RapoTla.' 

e first edition of the 

[FiWi Jodgw of Eogland, 18S4, Tiii. 166-9; 
Gtnpu En, 1833, ii.fiSa-S; Onnt. Mag. 17S4, 
Fp. M, S13 ; Bridgmnn'a View of Legal Bibllo- 
cnphj, IS07, pp. 33S-6 ; Hurrin'a Legsi Bi- 
ttiognfhj, 1847, p. «7fi; Wnllaca'a Haparten, 
IMI, pp. 420-8; Sonle's 147707*9 Keference 
Mum). 1883, pp. 87, 07, 12'J ; Offlci&L Ketara 
«f liita at Hembera of Fsrliunemt, ii. 78, 87, 
loa. 111 ; Hotefl ud Qnehn. 2iid ««. z. 413, 
1U,4»S, lid sar. i. 271, 353, 3SS, ii. 75, 8th 
l.ix.337,S94,513; Towiueiid'* C&ta- 

8TBAHOE, JOHN (1732-1799), diplo- 
■•tiit and Author, tfae lecond and onlj 
•HTfiring son of Sir John Strange [q; ''■J by 
Urn wife SoBui, eldest daaehter of Edward 
Gtmiag of Greenwich, was bom at Bornet in 
1788, and educated privately and at Olaro 
H^ Cambri^ (he was admitted a fellow- 
conUBoner II Oct. 1763), whence he gradu- 
M«d BJL ia 1763, and H.A. in 1765. On 
hoB brbei'a death he saw throug;h the preea 

important b^ng ' An Account of the Origin 
of Natural Paper found near Cortona in 
Tuscany' (toI. lix.) This was translated 
into Italian, and considerably expanded in 
'Letteia sopra 1' orinne deUa carta naturals 
di Cortona (Pisa, 1764, and again, enlarged, 
1766) ; ' An Account of some Specimens of 
Sponges from Italy' (March 1770, Lt. 177, 
with several platee from bis drawings). This 
appeared in Italian as ' Lettera del Signer 
CTioranni Strange, oontenente la descriiione 
di ftlcune spugne ' («p. Oliti, Zoologica 
Adriatica, 179!J, 4to) ; ' An Account of a 
Curious Giant's Causeway newly discovered 
in tlie Eueanean HilU, near Padua' (1776, 
IxT. 4, 418)) an Italian Tersion appeared at 
Milan, 1778, 4to ; and 'An Account of the 
Tides in the Adriatic ' (vol. Ixvii.) Several 
of his papers were also printed in the ' Opus- 
j coll scclci suUe scieaze' (1778, &c.); and 
his geological papers appeared in Weber's 
' Mineraloirisclie Beschreibuniren ' (Berne, 

Meanwhile, in November 1778 he was 
appointed British resident at Venice, where 
his official duties left leisure for the pnisuit 
of hb antiquarian studies. He resigned bis 
diplomaticpostin 1788, and settled at Ridge, 
near Bamet. But be paid several further 
visits to Italy in connection with the tnma- 
portation of the valuable collections that he 
had formed there, not only of books, manu- 
scripts, and antiquities, but also of pictures, 
chiefly by Bellini and other Venetian masters. 
On 4 July 179S he was created an honorary 
D.C.L. at Oxford. He diftd at Ridge on 
19 March 1799, and by his will directed the 
whole of his collections to be sold — the pic- 
tures by private contract; the prints, draw- 
ings, busts, coins, medals, bronzes, and 
antiquities by Christie ; the natural historr 
cabinets by King, and the library by Leign 
£ Sotheby. The sale of the library alone 
occupied twenty-nine days in March and 
April 1801, A valuable catalogue was com- 
piled by Samuel Peterson [q. v.] (DiBnur, 
Bibliomania, p, 690). 

About 1760 Strange married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Davidge Gould of Shaniham Park, 
Somerset, and sister of Sir Henry Gould 
rtie younger [q. v.] ; she died at Venice in 
April 1783. They seem to have had no 

ii. 67S, 720, and Lit. Illustr. Ti. 774; Oradnati 
CantabrigienseE; FoBter's Alumni Oioa. I71S- 
1386; Fosb's Judges of England, iv. 266; 
ThoTDsoa's Hist, ot the Eojal Suciaty ; lyson^s 
EDTiiDos, iv. 291.] T. S, 





STEANOE, RICHARD ^(1611-1682), 

Jesuit, born in Northumberland in 1611, Bn- 
tered the Societj of Jesua in 1631, and wu 
profesBed of the four vowe on 21 Nov. 1646. 
After teaching classics in the college of the 
English jeguitB at St. Omer, he was Bent to 
Durham district in 1644, and about 1661 
was removed to the London loission, in which 
bo laboured for manj yean. In 1671 he was 
appointed rector of the bouse of tertians at 
Gbent. He was in 1674 declared provincial 
of his orderinthis country, and heheld that 
office for three years. Hie name figures in 
Titus Oates's list of jesuita, and alra in the 
narrative of Father PetefHamerton. Having 
escaped to the continent in 1679, he became 
one of the consultors of father John Warner, 
the provincial, and died at St. Omer on 
7 April 1683. 

iCsprincipal workis 'The Life andOests 
of S. Thomss Cantilvpe, Bishop of Hereford, 
and some time before L. Cboncdlor of Eng- 
land. Extracted out of the authenti^ue 

Records of his Canouiiation ai 


K.S.S.1.,' Ghent, 1674, 8vo, pp. 833. A re- 
print forms vol. ixi. of the 'Quarterly Series,' 
London, 1879, 8vo. Strange translated one 
of Nierembeig's works, 'Of Adoration in 
Spirit and Truth,' Antwerp, 1673, 8to; and 
left in manuscript ' Troctatus de septem 
gUdiis, seu doloribus, Beatte Virginia Miuiee.' 
[De Backer's BIbl. du ^rivaim da la Com- 
Mgnieds Jinu(187S).iii. 9S0 ; Dodd's Chaich 
Hist. iii. S13 ; Foley's Recoida, v. 623, vii. 743 ; 
Olirer'a CoUectioD* 8. J., p. 109; SoutbweU'a 
BibL Scriptorom Sot Jesu, p. Tie.] T. 0. 

STRANGE, Sib ROBERT (1721-1792), 
engraver, eldest son of David Strang of 
Eirkwall in the Orkneys, by his second wife, 
Jean, daughter of Malcolm Scollay of Hun- 
ton, was bom at Eirkwall on 14 July 1721. 
He was the lineal leprescntstiTe of the 
ancient family of Struig of Balcaskie in 
Fife, which property was alienated in 1615, 
the family minting to Orkney, where two 
members of it, Geoige and Magnus, hod 
held clerical office in the previous century. 
Robert entered theoiBceof on elder brother, 
B lawyer in Edinburgh; but his heart woe 
not in the work, and he was constantly occu- 
pied in secret in drawing and copjiing any- 
thing which came in his way. Uis brother 
one day, when looking for some missing 
papers, found a batch of these drawings and 
submitted them privately to the engraver, 
iUchard Cooper the elder [q. v.], who had 
settled in Edinburgh, and was almost the 
■ale judge and teacher of art in Scotland. 

Cooper estimated Strange's sketches yetj 
highly, and Strange was bound aa apprentice 
to Mm for six years. 

Shortly before the Jacobite rising of 1746 
Strange fell in love with Isabella, daughter 
of WiUiam Lumisden (son of the bishop of 
Edinburgh and a descendant of the Lumis- 
dens of Cusbnie in Aberdeenshire), and Bister 
of Andrew Lumisdenfq.v.],aferventJ acobite. 
The lady, sharing her brother's predilec- 
tions, made it B condition of her favour that 
Strange should fight for her prince. Already 
of some repute as an engraver, he published 
a portrait of Charies Edward, which was 
not without merit, and made the artist very 
popular. While with the onny at Inver- 
ness he also contrived, amid the concision, 
to engrave a plate for the bank-notee of the 
coming dynasty. This plate, in eight com- 
partments, for not«s of different v^ue tVom 
a penny upwards, was found about 1835 in 
Loch Laggan, and is now in the possession 
of Cluny Uecpherson. Strange fought at 
Prestonpansand Falkirk Jn the princess life- 
guards, and, finally, took part in the abortive 
nieht march and doubtful stmtegT which 
led to the disaster of Culloden, of all which 
he left a ^phic account. 

While in hiding for some months attot' 
words he found a ready sale for pencil por- 
traits of the proscribed leaders and small 
engravings of the prince. It is recorded that 
at this time, while he was at the house of 
Ilia lady-love, Isabella Lumisden, soldiers 
came in to search for him, whereupon Isa- 
bella lifted up her hooped shirt, and ne took 
refuge under it, the lady steadily carolling a 
JacoDitesong over her needlework while tna 
baffled soldiers searched the room. In 1747 
they were married clandestinelv; and after 
the amnesty Strange proceeded to London 
and thence — carrying with him the prince's 
seal, which hod been left behind in Scotland 
— to Rouen, a centre of the exiled Jacobites, 
Here he studied anatomy under Lecat, and 
drawing under Bescamps ; and, after carry- 
ing away the bi^^iest prize in Descampe'a 
academy, went in 1749 to Paris and plMed 
himself under the engraver Le Bas. Thora 
he made rapid strides, and learned especially 
the use of the dry-point, much emploved by 
that master (wbo introduced it in Prance) 
in the preparatory parts of his work. Le 
Bas would gladly have engaged his pupil's 
services, but Strange's face was already set 
towards the great Italian maston. Having 
therefore first executed (along with Vbd- 
loo's ' Cupid,* for he always brought out his 
prints in pairs) Wouvennan's ' Return from 
Market,' the only genre picture among his 
principal works (they were issued at 2*. Bd, 





nch), be tetumed in 1750 to London, an 
•nut <^ the first rank. 

Hen for t«n yean, besides producing 
•e*«nl of hU beet-known works, as the 
■ Magdalen' and 'Cleopatra' of Guido (ia- 
■Md at la. each) and the 'Apollo and 
Uanjaa' of Ajidrea Sacchi (at7f. Bd.), be 
contjnnad to import collectiooa of tha beat 
dawcal prints from Italj in tba hope of 
giadaillj educating the popular taste. He 
iMued tliem at a cost hardl; greater than 
that at the commonest prints of the day. 
Bat in 1759 events occurred which for 

Bote, and wished Strang to engrave them. 
Tie pctniea ware not m hia line of work. 
He R^vented to Ramsay that his arrange- 
■CBta Tcse already made for goin^ to It^y, 
and be had work unfinished which would 
oeenpj all his remaining time. The prince, 
bovever, aent a request to him to undertake 
tJba wvk, oSeiina a remuneration (lOOt) so 
iaadeqaUe that he clearly did not know the 
■Booia of time such engraving would take. 
Stnoge again declined, but liis sxplanattons 
wera distrusted. Subsequent intrigueaH^ioat 
him in Italy, in whiA Calton, the king's 
libnrias, and Bartolozzi, the engraver, were 
ctmoecoed, were attribnted by Strange to 
loval naentment at hia refusal. 

'Ib 1760 he left Enaland. The cordiality 
of hia Rcention in France and Italy con- 
trasted with his treatment at borne. At 
Raae his portrait was painted by TofTandli 
on a ttiliiig in the print-room of the Vati- 
A'o other British artist waa similarly 

. ippoeed the directors, and \o believed 
that the exclusion from the newly formed 
academy's ranks of all engravers was levelled 
against himself. The election soon after- 
wards of his rival, Bartolozzi, ostensibly aa 
apainter, lent some colour toliis suKpicions. 
The inferior degree of ' associate ' was soon 
after thrown open to engravers ; but the lead- 
ing men in the profcaeton, Sharp, Hall, and 
Woollett, with Strange, declined it. His 
own conception of an academy was a much 
less exclusive body, with a widely extended 
' artist membership, capable of mutual help 
j and support, and exhibiting their own work 

In 1776 he published a formal statement 
of hisgrievancesagainst tbe Royal Academy 
in ' An Inqui^ into the Bise and Establish- 
ment of the Royal Acaden^ of Arts,* pre- 
faced by a letter to Lord Bute. But the 

gauntlet was not token up, and Straoce, 
parently in dudgeon, carried his fami^ o 


Paris, where they remained (in the Rue 
d'Enfer, the houee looking on the Luxem- 
bourg gardens) till 1760. 

At Wt the tide of royal fovour began to 
turn. Strange desired to engrave Vandjck's 
Queen Henrietta Maria, wliich belonged to 
George IXL Free access to the picture was 
given to Strange on the introduction of Ben- 
iamin West, then preeideDt of tbe Royal 
Academy, who had long been his friend, and 
who had strongly opposed the exclusion of 
the engravers &om the academy. The en- 
graving was published in Paris in 1784, along 
with the great Vandyck of Charles I on his 
horse. On this occasion he had a very 
flattering reception by the French king and 

3ueen, and in a lively letter to his son he 
escribes their admiration of hia wor^, and 
the excitement of the crowds besieging his 
hotel toobtun theearliestcopieaj whiletha 
printing press was working from mom till 
night. The attention and courtesy wiiich, 
owing to West's interposition, Strange had 
met with from the English royal family led 
him to offer to engrave West's picture of 
'The Apotheosis of the Royal Children'— a 
unique compliment Irom Strange to a living 
artist. The plate was fiuiahed in 1786, and 
on 6 Jan. 1787 the artist waa knighted. The 
king, in announcing his intention to confer 
the honour, slyly added, ' Unlees, Mr. 
Strange, you ohject Ui be knighted by the 
Elector of Hanover I' Ilia laat work waa 
on his own portrait by Greuze, which waa 
finished in 1791. It was considered a good 
though not a striking likeneAS. Sir Bonert 
died at his house, No. 52 Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fi^ds, on 5 July 1792, and waa 


Strange i 

buried at St. Paal'a, Covent Garden. Besides 
Strang's portrait 137 Qreuie, there ie a fine 
portrait by Bomnej and ana by Raebum in 
the poasession of the family. 

Stronre's devotion to hu art was carried 
out at the cost both of domeetJc happiness 
and of fortune. It inTolved long absences 
from hia&mily,and he declined to undertake 
t«allj remuneratiTe work of . 

as book-pla 
trations. These he rarely executed except t 
•erre a friend. From some verj interestinK 
OOrrMpondence between S tran ge andhia friend 
Bruce of £innaird, the African traveller, we 
learn that he engraved the itlustrations for 
Bmce'a work on 'Psatum,' but this was 
never published. Probably only three book- 
plates and half a dozen small portnut iUus- 
trationa, of an early date, are genuine. The 
classical portraits in Blockwell's ' History of 
the Court of Augustus,' assumed to be his, 
are unakned and not otherwise auth^iti- 
cat«d. His title to fame rests as much on 
the la^a share he had in the amelioration 
of the national taste as on the works which 
testify to his genius. Advanced modem 
tAste may regret that his choice fell so fre- 
quently on paintings of tlie eclectic school — 
on Carlo Dolci, Carlo Maratti, or even on 
Guercino and Ouido. His uiief achieve- 
ments are the two splendid series of the Van- 
dycks, * Charles I with the Horse ' (issued at 
Sis. 6d.) and m his robes (issued at ISi., 
and sold fifty-five yeara later for 6U. 9»,)> 
and the portraitsof the royal children; and of 
the Titians, e.g. the ' Venus ' of the Florence 
Tribune, the ' Danae/ and the ' Venus blind- 
ing Cupid' (issued at 13s.) In the repro- 
duction of Titian he is probably unequaUed. 
Baffoelle, too, is well represented by nis ' St. 
Cecilia 'and 1^ his 'Justice 'and' Meekness.' 
His ' Madonna della Seggiola,' of which a 
careful drawing was made, was never en- 
graved. Correggio is represented by his 
' Day,' which Strange describes as ' the first 
picture in Italy, if not in the world,' and in 
which the dauling lights are probably ropre> 
sented as efiectually as could bedone by those 
processes to which Strange always strictly 
confined himself. Ouercino, a favourite 
painter with Strange, ia represented by his 
* Death of Dido,' and by his 'Christ appearing 
to the Madonna,' where the draperies are 
thought by someto beStrange'sci^tfimiirB. 
HiB own nortrait by GkeoEe fitly pra&cee 
the series 01 fifty of nis principal works on 
which he desired his fame to rest, and which 
ha had very early in his career begun to set 
audefor thepun>ose. Eighty sets of selected 
impresuonsof these were accordingly bound 
in atlas folio, with a dedication to the king 


pro ^ 

notes on the character m the punting 
engraved. He concludes, with characteristic 
conviction of the merits of his work : ' Sai 
can he fear to be charged with vanity, if, in 
the eve of a life consumed in the study of 
the arts, he indulges the pride to think that 
he may, by this monument of his works, se- 
cure to his name, while en^graving shall last, 
the praise of having contributed to its credit 
and advancement.' 

Strange, it seems, was the first who habi- 
tually employed the dry-point in continua- 
tion of his preparation by etching, and in 
certain modifications of the process he was 
followed by Morghen, Woollett, and Sharp. 
He condemns, as having retarded the pro- 
gr«es of engraving in En^ond, the process of 
'stippling or 'dotting' introduced into Eng- 
land oy Bartoloizi. He had an equal com- 
mand of all the methods he practised. His 
own chief distingnishing cliaracteri8ti(» as 
an engraver are perhaps a certain distinction 
of style and a pervading harmony of treat>- 
ment. His lines, pure, firm, and definite. 

richness and transparency oi , 

produced without any special appearance of 
effort, are well shown m his treatment of 
Ouido, and mare aionally of Titian. On 
the other hand, he £>es not perlwps alwavs 
di^rentiate the spedal cbarecterietics of the 
masters he reproduces. His treatment of 
skies and clouds — a relic of Le Bas'a infln- 
enca~--and of the t«xtures of his draperies 
ie often faulty. He is accuaed by Bom» 
critics of inaccurate drawing. His eariy 
education in this department was probabty 
defective and unsystematic, but he wortrod 
hard at it in later years, and prepared Us 
drawings for engraving with the groatest 
care. He was a perfect master of the burin, 
while the extent to which he carried his 
etched preparation gave great freedom to 
his style and aided in rendering colour. 

As a pure historical line engr&Ter, Stmnge 
stands in the very first European raoK. 
Criticsso different as Horace Walpole, Smith 
(Nollekens's bif^rapher), and Leigh Hunt 
consider him the foremost of his day in Eng- 
land. Some foreign critics, as Longhi, Fer- 
rerio, and Dupleesis, are almost eqiullv 
emphatic ; though others, aa Le Blanc and 
still more Beraldi, find much leaa to admire. 
His works are to-dav more popular in 
France than in England, 


Strange * 

Btnngv'a -wife had much orifpiiAlttf and 
itioagtk of chuact«r. Her letUiis, printed 
bf Deonistoun, are rich in liDmotir and 
paihoa. Daring' StTange'i prolonged absencea 
■he managed the famil;, sold his prints, 
Eracht his battles, and read poetry, philo- 
M{ta7, utd ' phjaico-theoli^. Faithful to 
the Staart csuae, even in ita later and dis- 
oedilnddsyi, hor open sj'mpathj for it mav 
have HnetiDua prejudiced her hiubands 
iat or eiti in high riaoea. Bhe died in 1606. 
Of Stnnge's childnti,hu eldest daughter 
Marj BniM Strange (1748-1784) alone in- 
berilerf aomewhat of her father's gift, and 
he «■• Terr prond of her. His eldGBt son, 
J*waC9iarit» Stuart Strange (1753-1840), 
a foi»o» of the titular king James HI, ro6e 
high in the Madras civil service, When 
the iwwB reached India of Captain Cook's 
di tm tties oa the north-west coast of Ame- 
rica, he fitted ont an expedition to Nootka 
Sooiiid. The expected trade in fura was a 
(aitBr^ bnt he left a curious account of his 
YOVKC and of the natiTea. Strange's second 
■DO, Sbr 'nKHnaa Andrew Lumisden Strange, 
■a aepantclf noticed. A third sou, Robert 
Xontago, was nutjor-g^neral in the Hadras 

[Ilemoira of Sir Robart Strange, Eniaht. aad 
«f Andrew Lomisdeu, ed. JamM Denoibtttiin of 
OrsniMoon: Chalmem'i Oeneral BioKrapbical 


eyre of the forest for the county of Derby. 
In 1SS7 he was despntched into Wslea at 
the head of an eipeaition against Rhys ab 
Mereduc or Maredudd, and was ordered to 
reside in his lordships situated on the Welsh 
border until the rebelUon vss suppressed. 
He was summoned to a council held by 
Edmund, earl of Cornwall, who was acting 
as regent in the king's atoence, on IS Oct. 
1388. In 1290he is referred to as late bailiff 
of Builth. Towards the end of October or 
beginning of NoTember 1291 he was sent 
with Lewis de la Pole to the court of Rome 
as the kind's messen^. He was still stay- 
ing abroad on the king's service on 18 April 
1203. He was summoned to parliament in 
1296, 1296, and 1297. In this latter year he 
surrendered the oiGce of justice of the forest 
on account of ill-health, and on 11 Hay IS96 
he nominated attorneys for two years for the 
same reason. He is, however, spoken of on 
10 July 1301 as lately appointed to assess 
the king's wastes in his forests beyond Trent, 
and he joined in the letter of the barons on 
12 Feb. 1301 respecting Scotland. He died 
between 8 July and 7 Aug. 1311 {Cal. CIom 
ItolU Edw. II, 1318-33, 5. 70 [ Abbreviati) 
SoUilormn Originalmm, 1. 182). He waa 
lord of the manors of Ellesraere and Ches- 
worthine in Shropshire, held for life by the 
gift of the king tbe manor of Shotwick in 
Cheshire, and was tenant by courtesy of a 
third part of the barony of Beaucbamp. 

[Foxa'a Judges of GnKlmil, iti. 157 ; Calea- 
dar of Patent RaUa, filw. I, 1281-92 pp. 84, 
187, 401, 413, 447,486, 12S2-1301 pp. 3S0,526 ,- 
Annaleg LondooienBoB, in Stubbs's Chronicles of 
Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 123 ; ParL Writs, i. tS. 
195, 222, 234, 243, 2ol, 253; anthontiea cited 
in test.] W. E. E. 

LUMISDEN (1756-1S41), Indian jurist, 
second son of Sir Robert Strange (q. t.T, 
was bom on SO Mot. I76t!, and was ad- 
mitted to a king's scholarship at Wentjninstel 
in 1770. He was elected to Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1774, matriculating on 1 June, 
and graduated B.A. in 1778, and M. A. in 
1782. At both school and college hia chief 
competitor was Charles Abbot (afterwards 
first Lord Colchester) [q. v.] Adopting a legal 
career, he entered Lmcoln's Inn in 1776, 
and as a law student received much friendly 
help from his mother's friend, Lord Mans- 
field. He was called to the bar in 1785, and 
in 1789 was appointed chief justice of Nova 

In 1798 he was placed in a position re- 
qniring exceptional tact and firmness. The 
administration of justice at Madras hy the 
court of the mayor and aldennen was not» 





rjoualj corrupt, and Strange was sent ont 
as recorder and preaident of the court. Bo- 
fore leaving England he was knighted on 
14 March 1798. Arrived in Madras, he met 
'with much factioug opposition, which he 
overcame by arranging [aa at the Old Bailej) 
that only one repreaentative of the aldermen 
should sit with him. 

In 1800, owing to the growth in extent 
and wealth ofthepre8idency,a supreme court 
of three judges was estabmhed bj charter 
dated 26 Dec, with Strange aa chief justice. 
In 1801, nnder the apprehension of a French 
attack from Egypt, two volunteer battaiiona 
were organisec^ one commanded bj the ^ 
Temor, Lord Clive, the other by the chief 
justice. Strange drilled hia men regularly 
each morning Mfore his court met. In 1809 
a mutiny of the companj's officers, origina- 
ting in the abolition of certain privileges, 
called out all his energies. The diaaSected 
had many aympathiaers in ciTilian society. 
Sir Thomas aelivered a chaige to the grand 
jniT explaining the criminality of the officers, 
and their responsibility for any bloodshed 
that miffbt occur. His action had a wholo- 
eomeenect, and both the governor,Sir George 
Hilaro Barlow [q. v.], and subaequently Lord 
Uinto, recommended Strange to the home 
government for a baronetcy ; but, apparently 
owing to a change of government on Mr. 
Perceval's death, the lecommendation was 
not carried out. In 1816 Strange com- 
pleted, and printed at Madras for the use of 
Lie court, a selection of ' Notes of Cases ' de- 
cided during hia administration of the re- 
corder's and of the supreme court, prefaced 
by a history of the two suoceasive judica- 

Strange resigned his poat on 7 June 1817, 
and returned to England. In 1818 he waa 
created D.CL. at Oxford. For some years 
he devoted his leisure to the completion of 
his ' Elements of Hindu Law.' The work 
was first published in London in 1826 (2 
vols. 8vo}. The only native authorities on 
the old text-books were commentaries and 
digests, mostly of no groat authority, of only 
local val idi ty, or otherwise irrelevant. Doubt- 
ful points had accordingly been habitually 
refenwl to native pundits. Many of their 
replies, which Sir Tliomss had diligently col- 
lected, ho recorded in his great cook in a 
form available for reference, with comments 
on them throughout by such authorities as 
Colebrooke and Ellis. A. fourth edition of 

testifying to the great Talue of Strange'r 

work. ¥oT ■* ■ — •'•'■ ' 


Strange died at St. Leonard's en 16 Ja\j 
1841. His portrait waa painted for Hali- 
fajc, N'ovaScotia, by Benjamin West, and for 
Madras by Sir Thomas Lawrence. Subse- 
quently a portrait by Sir Martin Archer 
Shee -was placed in the hall at Christ Church, 

Sir Thomas married, first, Cecilia, deugh- 
t«T of Sir Bobert Anstruther, bort., of ^- 
CBskie; and secondly, Louisa, daughter of 
Sir William Burrouffhs, bart., by whom he 
led a numerous family; hia eldest son was 
Thomas Lumisden Strange [q. v.] Ancthar 
son, James Newburgh Strange, born on 2 Oct. 
1812, became an admiral on 9 Jan. 1880. His 
fifth son, AlesBuder Strange, is separately 

[Wetcb'e Alamni Weetmonast.p.tOO; AdiiiuI 
Rc^Gt«r, 1841 ; Barker and Stennins'a Register 
of Westminster School, p. 22t ; The Bliiabnbaii, 
vii 14; Higgiobotbam'a Man whom lodia boa 
known ; mannscript autobiography of Sir T. 
Strange and other prirnte infoccnalion.] C. T. 

(1808-1884), judge and writer, boraon4 Jan. 
1808, was eldest sod of Sir Thomas Andrew 

1823 went out t< 
ing a writer in the East India Company's 
civil service at Madras in 182.5. He was ap- 
pointed an assistant-judge and joint criminal 
judpe on 24 June 1831, become sub-judge at 
Calicut in 1843 and civil and sessions judga 
at Tellicherry in 1846, was a special com- 
missioner tbr investigating the Molpah dis- 
turbances in Malabar in 1862, and for in- 
quiring into the sjetem of judicature in the 
presidency of Madras in 1859, and was made 

judgeofthehighconrt of judicature ii 
He resigned on 2 May IBtiS. He compiled k 
Manual of Hindoo Law,' 1856, taking his 

father'a work aa a basis. This r 
second edition in 1863. lie also published 
'A LettertotheOovemor of Fort St. George 
on Judicial Reform' (1800). 

While in India he was much interested in 
religious subjecta. In 1852 he published 
' The Light of Prophecy ' and ' Observations 
on Mr. Elliott's " Horm Apocalypticee." ' 
Subsequently he was so impressed by ob- 
serving a supposed convert at the gallowB 
proclaim his faith to be in Rama, not in 
Christ,that,onexaminin^Christian evidence, 
his own faith in Christianity broke down. 
He never ceased to be a pioua theist. He 
explained his position in ' How I became 
and ceased to be a Christian,' and many other 

Camphlets for the series published in 1872- 
875 by Thomas Scott (1808-1878) [q.v.]; 
these publications were afterwards collected 




■nd iMUcd •« ' CoaUibutions to & Serias of 
ConUoTersiBl WritingB' (]88I). Larger 
».irk» by Strantre were : 1, ' Tlie Bible : is it 
lU Word of Oodt" 1871. 2. ' The SpeakBr'a 
Uomnoiurr reviewed,' 1871. 3. 'The Le- 
p:tidsoC Uw Olil Testament traced to their 
•ppuott Primitive Sources,' 1874. 4. < The 
UrvelofitMat of Creation on the Earth,' 1874. 
5, ' The Sources and Development of Chria- 
tUnit;,' 1876. 6. ' What ia Christiauitj f ' 
iirSlX Hou!{h far from a briUiant writer, 
Ih wasadiliguut student, and was always an 
nnrat adromte of practical piety in life and 
omdnet. StrangediedatNorwoodoD4Sept. 

[Baker aad Sti^nninji^B WentminsCeF Sdiool 
Ri-j«er, p. 321 r WbeelBr't Dictionary of Free- 
ifeiakwii BriL. Mub. Cat.] J. M. W. 

1S16), ipi^ker of the House of Commoua, 
waa Uw ton of Sir James Strangeways of 
WhortlgD, Yorkshire, by hia wife Joan, 
diagfcttf of Nicholas Orrell. The elder Sit 

' nr was appointed judge of the ccnnmon 

firiM in 142& The vounger was high sheriff 
^ YotkOun in 1446, 1453, and 1469. He 
waa retonied for the county to the parlia- 
Mmta of 1449 and 1430, and, on account of 
t to the house of York, was au- 

and ii. indexes). Sir James died in 1616, and 
was buried in the abbey ohurch of St. Mary 
Oiery's, Southwark. His will was provd 
on ft Jan. 1616-17 (ib. ii. 7*3, 1380). He 
married Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress 
of Philip, lord Darcy, by whom he had 
seventeen children. His eldest son. Sir 
Richard Strangeways, died before hiin in 
1488, and he was succeeded by his grandma. 
Sir James Strangeways. 

[HanniDg:'s Speaken of the House of Com- 
mons, pp. 1I2~16; Stnbbs's Constitulioaal His- 
tory of England, iii, 195; Kaatar'a Yorkshire 
PedigTMS, vol. ii. ; Borke's Landed Qentry, 6tb 
edit. ; Mcmberaof PiirliAment, i. 840, 3S6. App. 
p. nivj Journals of Um House of Lotds, i. 253, 
259. 26S.] £. I C. 

STRANGFORD, Viacouirrs. [See 
Smtthe, Percy Ci,iNTOirSn>KEi, sixth vis- 
conn^ 1780- 1855 ; Smtthh, Georsb ADon&- 
TCa Feeberick Pbbcy Smirai, seventh 
viscount, 1818-1857; Smttsb, Pekot EtlEir 
FsEs£KiczWiLLUK, eighth viscount, 1836- 

STRATFORD ver» Lbchhebb, ED- 
MUND, D.D. (_d. 1640P), catholic divine, 
descended from an ancient family in Worces- 
tershire (cf, Nash, WoneaUrtlure, i, 560 et 
iMUiaim). He was educated in the English 
Ootle^ at Douay, where he finished the 
whole course of divinity under Dr. Matthew 
Kellison [q.v.], and in 1617 was made pro- 
fessor of philosophy. Subsequently he studied 
at Paris under Gamache, and, after graduating 
B.D. there, he returned to Douay, where be 
taught divinity for about eight years. He 
was created D.D. at Bheims on S5 Oct. 1633, 
and died at Douay 'in the prime of his years 
about 1640. 

His works are: 1. 'A Disputation of the 
Church, wherein the old religion ia main- 
tained. By F. R,' Douay, 1632, 8vo ; ' by 
E. S. F./ 2 pts., Douay, 1640, 8vo. 2. ' A 
lielection of^Transubstontiation ; in defence 
of Dr. Smith's Conference with Dr. Featley,' 
1632, 8vo [see Smith, Ehjuakb, 1566-1656]. 
This was answered by 'An Apologie for 
Daniel Featley . . . against the Calumnies 
of one S. E. in respect of his Conference had 
with Doctor Smith. . . . Made by Myrth. 
Waferer, M'. of Artes of Albane Hall in 
Oion.,' Loudon, 1634, 4to. 3. 'A Selection 
of certain Authors, that are pretended to 
disown the Church's Infallibility,' Douay, 
1635. Some theological and phdasophiciu 
treatises by him wore formerly preserved in 
manuscript in the library of ttie English 
College at Douay. 

[Dodd'sChurah HiBt. iii. 93; Lonodes's Bibl. 
Uun. ^ Sohn, p. 2530.] I. C, 





SXOATFOBD, ED WARD, second Eabl 
07 ALDBoBOUfiH (if. 1801), wu the eldest 
sou of John Stntford of Baltu^loss, by his 
wife MuthA, daughter had coheireas of Ben- 
jamin O'Neal, uohdeacoQ of Leigblin, co. 
Onrlow. John Stratford was the grandaon of 
Bobert Stratford who came to Ireland be- 
fore 1660, and is Mid to have sprung from 
a younger branch of the Stratfonts of War- 
wickshire (Note* and Queriet, 3nd ser. viiL 
376, 424). John Stratford was created Baron 
of Baltinglass in 1763, Viscount Aldborough 
in 1770, and Viscount Amiens and Ear! of 
Aldborough, shortl; before his death on 
29 June 1777. 

Edwaid Stratford was widely known foi 
his ability and eccentiicitr, whicn caused him 
to be termed the 'Irish Stanhope.' He was 
an ardent whig, and waaelectud member for 
Taunton to the British parliament in 1774, 
but was unseated with bis colleague, Na- 
thaniel Webb, on petition, on 16 March 1776, 
for bribery snd corrupt practices. After that 
ha represented Baltinglass in the Irish par- 
liament until his father's death (Member/ of 
Parliament, ii. 164, App. p. zli ; Oomnont' 
JoumaU, mv. 18, 146, 900). On 29 May 
1777, while still Viscount Amiens, he was 
elected a memberof the Royal Society. On 
3 July 1777 the uniTersity of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the honorary d^ree of D.C.L. 
He built Stratford Place ana Aldborough 
House in London, and in Ireland he founded 
the town of Stratford-upon-Slaney, besides 
greatlyimproringthe borough of Baltinglass. 
He voted m fitvonr of the union with Eng- 
land in 1800, and received compensation for 
the disfranchisement of Baltinglass (^Oorrt- 
wallit Corretpondtnae, iii, 829). Hedied on 
3 Jan. 1801 at Belan in Wicklow, and was 
buried in the vault of St. Thomas's Church, 
Dublin. He was twice married. His first 
wife, Barbara, daughter of Nicholas Her- 
bert of Great Qlemham, SiuBbUi, son of 
Thomas Herbert, eighth earl of Pembroke 
[q.v.l, died on 11 April 1786, and on 
24 March 1783 he married Anne Elizabeth, 
only daughter of Sir John Henniker, bart. 
(afterwards Lord Henniker). She brooght 
him afortune of 60,000/., which enabled him 
to free his estates from encumbrances, After 
bis death his widow married Oeorge Powell 
in December 1801, and died on 14 July 
1803. As Lord Aldborough died without chil- 
dren, his title and estates descended to his 
brother, John Stratford. Lord Aldborough 
was the author of ' An Essay on the True 
Interests of the Empire,' Dublin, 1783, 8vo. 

[QantUag. 1801, i. SO, 1 01 ; Ann. Beg. 1 SO 1 , 
p. 63; Walker'a HibemiBn Mngaiine, 1801, p. 
165 i a. & C^okaynajs Peerage, 1. 88 ; Lodgers 

Pe«rage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, iii. 33B; 
Thomson's Hist, of thsBoyal Societr, App. p. Iri ; 
Foster's Alamni Oion. 1715-18Sd.J Kl.G. 

STRATFORD, JOHN kb (A 1348), 
archbishop of Couterbun, was bom at 
Stratfbrd-on-Avon, where he and lua brother 
Robert de Stratford [q. v.] held property. 
His parents were called Robert and Isabella. 
Ralpl) de Stratford [q. v.}, bishop of London, 
was his kinsman, possibly his nephew 
(AjigUa Sacra, i. 374). To Uie elder Bobert 
de Stratford is attributed the foundation in 

with. John de Stratford was educated at 
Merton Cotlese, Oxford. He graduated ea 
doctor of civil and canon law before 1311, 
when he was a proctor for the university in 
a suit against the Dominicans at the Roman 
court. Afterwards he received some position 
in the royal service, perhaps as a clerk in the 
chancery, fotin 1317 and subsequent yean he 
was summoned to give advice in parliament 
(i^r^ Writt, n. ii. 1471). He was also 
official of the bishop of Lincoln before 
20 Dec. 1317, when he received the ^bend 
of Castor at Lincoln. He was likewise par- 
son of Stratford-on-Avon, which pi«&rment 
he exchanged on IS Sept. 1319 for the arch- 
deaconry of Lincoln. At York he held a 
oononry, and Edward II granted him the 
prebend of Bere and Oharminster at Solia- 
Dury, to which, however, he was never ad- 
mitted. Archbishop Walter Revnolds [q.v.l 
made him dean of the court of arches, and 
from December 1391 to April 1323 he was 
employed on the businees of Scotland at the 
papal curia (Fiedtra, ii. 462-616). Hia 
colleague, Reginald de Asser, bishop of Win- 
chester, died at Avignon on 19 April 1328, 
and, though the king directed him to use his 
influence on behalf of Robert Baldock, StrW- 
fbrd contrived to obtain a papal bull in hia 
own favour, and he was conaecrated bishop 
of Winchester by the cardinal bishop of 
Albano on 29 June (CSron. Sdviard land 
Edunrd II, i. 305; MttniinrfH, p. 39; 
BiBOHIHOTOIT, p. 19 ; Fodera, Ii. 618, S25, 
631-3). Edward II in wrath dismissed Strat- 
foid from his office, and on his return to 
England refused to recognise him as bialiop 
and withheld the temporalities of his se« till 
98 Jane 1324 (tft.ii. 667). Even then he tnd 
to purchase avour by a bond for 10,000/. 
{Pari tFrtt«,n.ii.96S);jiaymentwas, how- 
ever, not exacted, and Stratford was soon 
restored to favour. On 16 Nov. 1334, &nd 
again on 6 May 1396, Stratford was com- 
missioned to treat with France, and it 'wma 
by his advice that Edward permitted Qaeeti 
, Isabella to go to the French court {Faderv, 





^ illiun de Melton [q. v.], and on 30 Sept. 
13:.'ti joined with the arcnbishop of Canter- 

IS:!!: joined 

bury in pnblishing an old bull against in- 
Taden of the reaJm (Chron. Edaard I arid 
Edtmrd II. L 315). 

Stratford ^raa willing to take the risk of 
offeting kit mediation between the Mng and 
»eai, bat eoold get no one to support him 
(Dm, Sitt. Raffenns, p. 366). He then 
jielded to necessity, and on 16 Nov., as 
treasurer, swore at tne QuildhoU to observe 
the Libmies of London {Ckran. Edward I 
mi Edward II, i. 318). When parliament 
tact in January 1327 Stratford acquiesced 
ia the Flection of Edward III, preaching on 
tte text, 'Cujns caput infinnom c«etera 
Brmteadolent* (Deng, p. 3tt7). He dnw 
up the tix artidee giving the reasons for the 
kme's dcpoeitii — — -^ ' '"■- "— - 

I, and was one of the three 

Btioa ( Ckron. Lanereoit, pp. 267-3 [ 
Buxi. pp. 87-8). 

Stratford waa a member of the council for 
the TOttng king's guidance, and on 23 Feb. 
waa appcaDt«<l to go on a mission to France 
(CmL iu. Ratit, Edward HI, i. 16). But 
hi* own STrnptttiues were constitutional, and 
he ooold not join cordially with the new 
goreminent, by whom he was himself re- 

commissioned to treat with Franca (iS.ii, 373). 
In the autumn of 1333 the archbishopric of 
Canterburr fall vacant, and, Stratford beinff 
favoured by king and pope, the prior ana 
chapter postulated him on 3 Nov. The 
royal assent was given on 18 Nov., and on 
iJ6 Not. (Bibckinstoit, p, 19 ; Mukimtjth, 
p, 70, sa^s 1 Dec.') the pope, disregarding the 

getulation by the chapter, provided Strat- 
rd to the archbishopric. Stratford received 
the boll at Chertse^ on 1 Feb. 1334, and on 
5 Feb. the temporalities were restored to him. 
In April he went abroad on the businesB of 
Ponthieu ( CaL Fat. liolU, ii. 532, 534), and 
thepallwas delivered to him by Bishop Heath 
of Rochester at Rue in Ponthieu on 23 April 
He returned to England for the summer, and 
on 28 Sept. resigned the chancellorahip. 
During September he held a convocation at 
St. Paul's, and on 9 Oct. he was enthroned 
at Canterbury. Almost immediately after- 
wards he crossed over to treat with Philip 
of France concerning Aquitaine and the 
proposed crusade (ib. lii. 30). He returned 
to England in Janoary 1336, and visited Us 
dioceee in February. Stratford was made 
chancellor for the second time on 6 June 
1336, and during almost the whole of the 
next two years was engaged with the king 
in the north of England and in Scotland 
(MnaiHDTH, pp. 75-6 ; cf. lAtt. Cant. ii. 
76, 96-lGO, 140). Ha came south for the 
funeral of John of Eltham on 13 Jan. 1337. 
On 24 March he resigned the great seal. 
About the end of November tlie cardinals 
whom the pope had sent to negotiate peace 
between EnKl&B<l &nd France arrived in 
Biwland, ana were received by the arch^ 
bishop, Their mission proved miitless, and 
on 16 Julv 1838 Stratford accompanied the 
king to Flanders. He remained abroad till 
September 1339, taking part in the negotia- 
tions with France (Mvbihuxh, pp. 63, 85, 
90). On 28 April 1340 Stratford was for 
the third time made chancellor, hut, when 
the Idng refused to accept his advice against 
the proposed naval expedition, he finally 
resignea tlte seal on 30 Jane (Fisdera, ii. 
1126; Atbsbfbv, p. 811, where the king is 
said to haT« restored the archbishop to 

Up to this time Stratford had been far». 
most among the king's advisers, and even 
now he was left as pri'sident of the council 
in Edward's absence. But there was a strong 
party hostile to hia influence. Stratford h^ 
pertups opposed the French war, and this 
circumstance, combined with the king's ill- 
success, gave his enemies their opportunity. 
Under their advice, Edward returned from 
Flanden suddenly on SO Nov. 1340, and on 





tba following daj removed Robert Stratford, 
the archbishop's brother, from his office as 
chancellor, Bad hod a nomber of promiaent 
judges and merchants arrested. The arch- 
oUbop himself wbb at Charing, and on 
receipt of the news took refuge with the 
aoQKs of Cbrittcburdi at Canterbury. On 
a Deo. the king summoned him to attend at 
court; the archbiabop excused himself irom 
compliance, and made his defence in a aeries 
of sermons and letters. Un 29 Dec be 
preached on the t«xt ' In diebus suis non 
timuit prinoipem ' (EocUaattieut, xlviii. 12), 
comparing himself to St. Thomas of Can- 
terburj, and denouncing all who broke the 
great charter. On 1 Jan. 1341 he addressed 
a long letter of remonstrance to the king, 
Un 2H Jan. be wrote to tba new chancellor, 
begging him to staj execution of the collec- 
tion of the clerical grant, and on the follow- 
ing da; directed the bishops lo forbid it. 
Edward and his advisers replied on 10 Feb. 
in a long letter of violent abuse, called a 
'libelluB&mosus; ' Stratford bad kept him 
without funds and so caused the future of the 
late expedition, and was responsible for all 
the rash policy of the last eight ;eara. On 
18 Feb. William Kildesbj, keeper of the 
privy seal, and certain Brabant merchants 
appeared at Canterbury, summoning Strat- 
ford to go to Flanders as security for the 
king's debts. Stratford replied in a sermon 
on Ash Wednesday and in a long letter to 
the king, in which he clumed to be tried 
before bis peers. On 23 April parliament 
met. Stratford was ordered to appear in 
the coort of exchequer and hear the charges 
against him. The king refused to meet tba 
an^bishop, and Stratford on his part insisted 
on taking his place in parliament. On 
27 April the chamberlain refused him ad- 
mission to the Painted Chamber, where the 
bishops wore sitting, but Stratford, with a 
conscious imitation of Thomas BeckM, forced 
his way in. On 1 May he offered to elaar 
bimself betbre parliament, and on 8 May a 
committee of lords was appointed to advise 
the king whether the peers were liable to be 
tried out of parliament. The committee 
reported adversely, and Edward, finding 
himseV cotnrieilea to yield, consented 
7 May to a formal reconciliation (see pi 
cipally BiBOniiraTOK, pp. 22-41 ; HHtniro' 
BtTBGH, ii. S03-S8). 

Thon^ Stratford never resumed hit old 
position in politics, his friendly relations 
with the king were after a time restored. 
In October 1841, while Stratford was hold- 
ing a provincial synod at St. Paul's, a more 
complete reconciliation was effected between 
kim and the king (Mvsiuvih, p. 132). He 

was the king's adviser in refusing to receive 
the two csrdinala whom tba pope sent tO' 
nwotiate for peace in August 1342 (lA. p. 136^, 
and in the parliament of April 1^13 his 
full restoration to &vour was marked by the 
annulment of the proceedings against him 
as contrary to reason and truth {Fiedera, ii. 

During the last years of hia life Stratford, 
though oocasionallj' consulted by the king, 
was occupied mainly with ecclesiastical 
affairs. In Uctobec 1343 he proposed to 
visit the diocese of Norwich, and, b^ng 
resisted by the bishop and clergy, laid both 
bishop and prior under excommunication. 
Edward acted ander Stratford's advice in 
hia negotiations with the pope as to papal 
privileges in England during 1344 and 134G, 
and the legates who came to England in 
the latter year were long entertained by 
Stratford (Mumhdth, pp. 167-63, 176-7). 
Stratfiud was bead of the ooutuul dnring the 
king's absence abroad in July 134fi and 
during the campaign of Cr£cy in 1S46 
{Fada-a, iii. CO, 86). Perhaps bis last 

Eublic appearance of not« was on 10 Aug, 
346, when be read the convention of the 

land at St. Paul's (MuBivirrH, p. 211). 
1348 be fell ill at Maidstone. Thence he 
was taken to Mayfield in Sussex, where he 
died on 2S Aug. He was buried in Can- 
terbn^ Cathedral near the high altar. Hia 
tomb bears a sculptured effigy (engraved in 
Longman's ' Edward III,' i. 179). 

Stratford is described as a man of gi«at 
wisdom and a notable doctor of canon and 
civil law (BiiBB, p. 66). He was ratber 
a politician than an ecclesiastic, and Bir- 
diington sptaks of him as being in the early 
yeora of his archiepiscopate too much ab- 
sorbed in worldly ofiura {Anglui Sacra, i. 
20). But he was more than a capable ad- 
ministrator, and was ' somewhat of a stata»- 
man' (SruBBs). He was 'the most powerful 
adviser of the constitutional party' (iA.), 
and his sympathies kept him from supporting 
Isabella and Mortimer, and sovemed hia 
administration of affairs for the ten years 
that followed their falL By bis resistanoo 
to Edward III in 1341 be esUblished tho 
great principle that peers should only be 
tried before their own order in full parlia- 

Stratford spent much money on the parish. 
chuTcb of bis native town ; be widened thfl 
north aisle and built the south aisle, in 
which be established a chantry in honour 
of Thomas Becket. He endowed a collega 
of priests in connection with the chantry, 
and purchased the advowsoo of the cburoh 




fbrtlieiii (DreDAi:E, WaraicktAirej-pp.GSS-i, 
60-i; Lee, Stratford-an-Avon, pp. 35-41; 
CaL Pat, Ralls, Edward HI, ii. 79. 399). 
He iru klso » benefactor of the hospitals of 
S(. Thomu the Uartjr at Southwark and 
EwtbridM, Canterbury {Cal. Pat. Pallt, 
EdtncdUI, i. 366 j Ziltera Caatuarientea, 

E-J&l-3,367). Of his writings, besidua the 
tere written by him during- the contro- 
TersT of 1341, some conaCitutions published 
is I^^ and 1343 are printed in Wilkins'B 
'CoociUa,' ii. 696, 702. Many of his letters 
■r« priated ia the ' Littera Cantuarienses,' 
»oL ii. ; in ona he rebukes prior Oienden 
tit his ' inutilis verhoditAS ' (ii. 165). A 
number of aennons by Stratibrd are con- 
tamed in a fourteenth-century manuscript 
in Hereford Cathedral Library. Amotiff 
them are included those which he delivered 
at Cmterbury during his dispute with £d- 
waid ni in 1340-1. Some extracts were 
pr:zited in the ' English Historical Review ' 
triii. El5-ei). 

[CiniBidei of Edward I and Edward II, 
CanDoica Morimnth et AresbuTy, BlaHeford's 
Cbrouicla. Littciat CantuarieaBOB (all thase in 
finlU Ser.); HsmiDgborgh'a Chronicle (Engl. 
G'«. Sac); Cluon. Oalfridi le Bakar, ed. 
Tnoiiipna; Bolla of FarliuDPnt : Bymer's 
Fi?-i<rai Calecdan of Patent RolU,EdiraidTII; 
&r«iiiigton'« Vine Arehiepiscoporam Cantna- 
EKuiiD and Dene's HUtoria EofTensis in Whar- 
toa'i Aaglia Sacra; Tanngr's Bibl. Biit.-Hib. 
]>. 696 1 Foil's Jadgei of England; Hook'sLives 
of ti« AnALishoM of Cantepbory, iv. 1-79 ; 
Bama'i HifL of Edward III ; Longman's Life 
u)d Tisc* of Edward III ; Stubbs'a Constita- 
uocal BitL] C. L. K. 




e, of 

bis prudence and coaciliatory conduct, how- 
ever, he achieved his object without loung 
the respect and affection of his chaptor and 
pariehiouers. He proved in all respects an 
excellent warden, revising the statutes, vin- 
dicating the rights and increasing the revenue 
of his college, while by his inHuence and 
personal example he induced several rich 
parishioners to bequeath large benefactlous 
to the poor of the town. While still re- 
taining his wardenship Stratford was made 
in 167U a prebendary of Lincoln, in 1672 
rector of LlansoattTraid-jm-Mechain, in 1673 
chnplain-in-ordinary to the king, and in 
1674 dean of St. Asaph. He also held the 
donative of Llanrwst. He had by this time 
taken his divinity degrees, graduating B.D. 
inl664andD.D. in 1673. 
Towards the close of Charles ITs rei^ 

Kliticol and religious feeling ran high in 
aachester. Though a higb-churcbman and 
a tory, Stratford was unable to support the 
policy of the court party, and this, tc^ther 
with his forbearing conduct towards the dia- 
sentera, exposed him to fierce attack. Find- 
ing his position intolerable, he resigned his 
wardenship in 1664 and withdrew to Lon- 
don, tvhere he had been nominated to the 
vicarage of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, by the 
parishioners. Here he remained till the Re- 
volution, when he was appointed to the 
vacant see of Chester. He was consecrated 
at Fulham on 16 Sept. 1689, and was allowed 
to hold the rich rectory of Wigan ui com- 
mendam with hie bishopric 

Stratford was one of the prelates to whom 
was committed in 1669 the abortive scheme 
of revising the prayer-book. In 17(X) he 
founded a nospitsi in Chester for the main- 
tenance, instruction, and apprenticeship of 
thirty-five poor boys. He was one of the 
first and most lealous supporters of the 
societies established in the beginning of the 
eighteentli century for the 'reformation of 
manners.' He was appointed one of the 
governors of Queen Anne's bounty in the first 
charter, dated 8 Nov. 1704. Asa bishop he 
merits high commendation. He was a con- 
stant resident in his diocese, which he ruled 
with gentle firmness j he looked after the in- 
terests and well-being of hia clergy j be re- 
paired his cathedral ; and be acquitted him- 
self with seal and learning in the Roman 

Stratford died at Westminster on 13 Feb. 
1707, and was buried at Chester on the 20th 
of the same month. By his wife, the daugh- 
ter of Dr. Stephen Luddington, archdeacon 
of Stow, he had two sons and two daugh- 
ters. His only surviving son, William, was 
archdaacon of fiichmond (1 703-39) and canon 

Digitized byGOOgle 



of Stratheuu, tm witnesc of the fonoda- 
tion of the priory of Scone in 1114, uid 
ftnotlier, or tne sftme Mftlise, w&t present at 
the battle of the Standard on 22 Aug. 1138. 
FeTquord, son of MalUe, Mae one of six 
nobleg -who in 1160 revolted ocainst Mal- 
colm rV. Gilbert, the son of FerquArd, 
founded the monastery of Inchofliay in 1108. 
His son Robert, fourth earl, w&s a -witness 
to the treaty between Alerander II and 
Henry IH in 1237, and, dying in 1244, left 
a eon Maliae, flftb earl of Stratheam, who 
in 1244 was named by Aleianderll as party 
to an obUi not to make war against Henry HI 
{Cat. DocumenU rtktting to Scotland, i. 
No. 1664) i on 30 Oct. 1260 he gave in his 
faomt^ to Henry UI (t«. No. 1792) ; on 
10 Aug. 1265 he was, with other nobles, re- 
ceived into the protection of Henry HI 
against the enemies of the king of Scots, or 
gainsayera of the queen of Scots (ib, "So. 198); 
and on 4 May 1269 received a protection 
'gobg beyond seas' (ib. No. 2166). This 
Malise, according to Fordim, died in 1271, 
«nd was buried m Dunblane. His first wife 
was Uflrgery, daughter and heiress of Bobert 
-de Muscampis, who is mentioned as his wife 
30 Oct. 1250 (ii. No. 1792), although by 
Bome writers she is aupjiosed to have been 
the wife of his grandson. By this wife he 
had, probablv with several sons, two daugh- 
ters, Murielaa (Muriel) and Mariora (Mar- 
gery or Maria), who became heirs of Isabella 
de Forde {ib. No. 1978). Another wife, 
Emma, is mentioned, 13 Oct. 1267- Fordun 
also states that the relict of Magnus, king 
of Man (d. 1269), who was daughter of 
£ugene of Argyll, married Maliee, earl of 
Strathearn. lus is abundantly coTToborated 
by documentary references to Maria, queen 
of Man and countess of Stratheam, and 
the only question is whether she married 
the fifth earl or hifl son Malise. W. F. 
Skene argued that she waa the wife of the 
sixth earl on the ground that, while this 
Malise did homage to Edward I at Stirling 
in 1291, twelve days later ' Maria regina da 
M!an et comitissa oe Stratheme ' did nomsge 
in presence of Earl Malise. But had they 
been husband and wife they would probably 
have done homage on the aame day. They 
were doubtless son and stepmother. The 
latter, Maria, regina de Man, retained her 
title of countess, aft«r she became, as she un- 
doubtedly did become, the wife of William 
Fitivanea^CaLDocamentg relating to Scot- 
land, ii. No. 1117). 

Malise, sixth earl of Stratheam, the son 
of the fifth earl, probably by his first wife, 
was one of the guarantors of the muri^ 
tieatyof Margaret of Scotlaitd with Eric of 

Norway in 1281 ; waapresent at the parlia- 
ment of Scone on S Feb. 1284, when the 
Scots became bound in the event of the 
death of Alexander III to acknowledge 

Margaret, the 'maid of Norwoy,' as their 
sovereign ; and be also attended the parlia- 
ment of Brigham, 14 March 1S90. On the 
supposition that he was married to that 
Maria, countess of Stratheam, who was also 
queen of Man, he must have died before 
Februuy 1292, for mention is then mode of 
a 'Maria comitissa de Stratheme, qum fuit 
uxor Hugonis de Abemethyn,' and the 
former Maria, countass of Stratheam, was 
still alive, but, as has already been seen, the 
former alternative is not necessary ; and the 
second Mario, not the first, was probably the 
wife of the uxth earl. Supposing the sixth 
earl then to have sarvived 1292, no was in 
that year one of the nominees on the part of 
John Baliol in the contest for the crown, 
and in November of the following year was 
present at Berwick, when the claim to the 
orown waa decided in Baliol's favour. He 
attended Edward I into Oaacony, 1 Sept. 
1294. As among the widows who were 
secured in their possessions to the king of 
England in 1 296, mention is made of < Maria 
guffi fuit uxor Matisii comitis de Stratheme.' 
W. F. Skene (^ain argues that this Malise 
died at least before 1296, but the argument 
of course holds good only on the supposition 
that ha had married the first Maria. In the 
spring of 1296 Malise took part in an inva- 
sion of England. On 26 March he, how- 
ever, came to peace with the king at Stir- 
ling {Doatmentt iUuttrativt of the Hittory 
of Scotland, ii. 28), and on 7 July gave him 
hisoatbof fidelity (i». No. 66). On4MaTcli 
1303-4 he was commanded to see that the 
fords of the Forth and the neighbouring- 
districts were guarded with horse and foot; 
to prevent the enemy crossing south (Gi/en- 
daf of Doewnaiti relating to Scotland, iL 
No. 1471), and on 1 Sept. 1305 he ia 
mentioned as lieutenant or warden north. 
of the Forth (lA. No. 1689) ; but after the 
slaughter of Oomyn by Hobert Bruce, he 
joined the Bruce's standard, and was token 

{risoner by the English, probably in June 
306. At all events, he was sent in No- 
vember a prisoner to Bochester, for a mna- 
date of Edward on 10 Nov. 1306 commands 
the constable of Rochester Castle to impriBon 
Malise of Stratheam in the keep there, but 
without iron chains, and to allow liim to hear 
mass and to watch him at night (t&. No. 
1864). Shortly afterwards he presented a me- 
morial to the king, stating that be hod been 
compelled (o join Robert the Rmce throug-U 
fear of his life (Jb. No. 1802). In November 




1307 Iw wu talen by the Earl of Pera- 
brobe from Rochester to York Cutle (16. iii. 
>~o. 23), uxd in 1309 he was ftcqaitt«d of 
maie faau and diaduLraed {ib. No. 118). 
In 1310-13EulMftliM,hi« wife, Lftdj Agnes, 
uid hii eon Malise were in tlie English pay 
(ii>. No*. 192, a06, 299), a fact inconsistent 
with the atatement of DBrbottr that the 
&tfaer, while at the ai«^ of Perth on the 
English lide, wu taken prisoner. This earl, 
aa shown by W. F. Skene, who, however, 
balds him to have been the seventh earl, 
died MDM time before 1320. By his first 
wif«, Maria, he had a daughter Matilda, 
sunned to Bobert de Tbon?, the marriage 
settleiDant being dated 20 April 1293 {Docur 
MAtt* itbutratioe of ike Siatory of Scotland, 
L No. 886^- He had another da^hter, 
Mary, Btarned to Sir John Mora^ of Snim- 
Hrgad. Of hia wife mentioned in the Eng- 
li^ Katfl papers Ofl Lad^ Agnes nothing 
is known, but his last wife was Johanna, 
daughter of Sir John Uontelth, afterwards 
married to John, earl of AtholL Byher he 
had a daagfater married to John de Warren, 
earl of Wairen and Surrey. 

Miun, aeventh EaBi. orSnuTHXASS f ^ 
13-20-1315), rnnat hare eoccaeded bis &uiei 
bs£o(«1320,fbrinthat year Maria, his oonn- 
tcaa, refined to in hu fibber's lifetime as wife 
of Maliae of Stntheam, was imprisoned for 
Hnptkatkn in a oonntuaey agamst Kobert 
thcBraee. Haaignedthelettertotbepope 
in 1S20 ■wiitiii|L the independence of Scot 

to luTe been slain there. In the following 

year be reeigped the earldom of Strathearn 

to Joim de Warron.hiB brother-in-liw, appa- 

EEit!f by Hme arrangement with the King 

d Esf land, and in 1S46 be was forfeited and 

■ttainua} for haTioa: done so. In a charter 

cf 13SJ, in which ne styles himself earl of 

tie meUooi of Strathearn, Caithness, and 

Mney, be gnnteA 'William, earl of Ross, 

tte marrkm at bis daughter Isabel by Mai^ 

jdnysw^; and the cumt^ter wee by the 

lad of Ami married to William St. Clair, 

vfeohsiiwd with hjer the earldom of Caith- 

am. y«rti"" w Airtbar made of another 

vttiathar of thi« Mali«. <» his father, by 

Ijd, PgiK» Comrm, dAoghter of Alexander, 

Mmd aad at Bachaa-^ The earldom of 

bithma wmm bestowed by David II m 

Uam Bh Maurice M?""? of Drumear 

. . _ _* Kaz-1 Malise; and after his 

C?5r$taf _<»1,^'^.™ 17 Oct 

IH^it ] 

I into tbe possession of the 

[Docamenls iUnatrative of the History of 
3«otlaDd,ed.SteTenEoii, vols. i. and ii.; Caleodai 
□f Docummts relating to Scotland, ed. Bain, 
vols, i.-iv, ; ChronielflaofForduDandWyntonn; 
Barbour's Braes ; the Earldom of CaithiMas, by 
W. F. Skene, in Proceedings of the Society <^ 
Antiqaaries of Scotland, lu, 571-6 ; DoagWs 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), li. SST-S.] 

T. F.H. 

STBATHUORE, first £abl of. [See 
LioH, Paibiot, 1642-1696.] 

STSATHMOBE, CooirrEEB or. [See 
Bowes, Mabt Elb4nob, 1749-1800.] 

STBATHNAIBN, Baboit. [See Rohb, 
HcoH Hehbt, 1801-1886.] 

STRATTON, ADAM ot (^. 1266-1290), 
clerk and chamberlain of the exchequer, is 
first mentioned as Iwng in the service of 
Isabella de Fortibus, countess of Albemarle, 
one of the two heieditaiy chamberlains of 
the ezcbeqtier. Hence it is probable that his 
name wae derived from Stratton, Wiltshire, 
one of the manors held by the conntess as 
pertaining to the chamberlainship. He bad 
three brothers, Henry, Ralph, and William, 
for all of whom employment was found at 
the exchequer in connection with his own 
office of uiamberlain. He was certainly 
a clerk, being styled ' dominus Adam 
dericus de Strattune,' and, if be indeed sur- 
vived till 1327, be may be the clerk of that 
name described as 'Magistei Artium' in a 
papal latter. Possibly be was educated at 
the monasteryof Quarriuthelsle of W^ht, 
founded by the family of his patroness. With 
this monastery he had dose relations, having 
even been reckoned, though quite erroneously, 
OS oneof its abbots (j^nnafwilfon. Rolls Ser. 
iv. 319, T. 333). 

Adam de Stratton's first appearance at the 
exchequer seems to have been made in the 
forty-sixthyear of Henry ni(J261-2),whea 
he was retained in the long's service there by 
a special writ. It is prabable that he owed 
his advancement to the Countess of Albe* 
marie, for whom he acted as attorney in the 
upper exchequer during the rest of the reign. 
At this time he was specially engaged as 
clerk of the works at the palace of West- 
minster, and in this connection his name 
firequentiy occurs in the roUs of chancery 
as the recipient of divers robes, and bucks 
and casks of wine, besides more substantial 
presents in the shape of debts and fines due 
to the crown, togetner with land and houses 
at WesCminstsi attached to his ofEce in the 

He liad alreadv acquired the interest of 
the Windsor family m the hereditary ie> 




jeantry of weigher (p«ntov»<»r)in the receipt 

<^ the exchequer, itliieh ha huided over to 
hia brothei William aa his deputy. Another 
brother, Henry, was apparentlykeeping -wMin 
for liTin the lucrative office of deputj-cham- 
berlaitt, to 'which he was formally presented 
by the Countess of Albemarle in person in 
the first year of Edward I'a reign (1272-3). 

With the new kin^ Adam de Stratton 
found such fevour that he was not only re- 
tained and confirmed with lai^flr powers in 
his ofiice of the works at Westmiustai, but 
he was even allowed to obtain feom his 
patroneM a grant in perpetuity of the cham- 
berlainship of the ezchequer, together with 
all the Isjids pertaming thereto. This wb£ 
in 1276, and Stratton had now reached the 
tuniisg-point of his carew. So fai all had 
prospered with him, Prom private deeds 
and bonds still preserved amongthe exchequer 
faoord8,it appears that, thanks to official per- 
qtiisites and extturtions and nstiriouB eon- 
tracts, he had become one of the richest men 
in England. Just as the crown connived at 
the malpractices of Jews and Lombarda with 
the intent to squeeze their ill-gotten gains 
into the cofiers of the state, so the unsCTupu- 
loos official of the period enjoyed a cwtain 
protection as long as his wealth and abilities 
were of service to his employsra. 

In 1279 Stratton was dismissed from his 
office of clerk of the works, and proclamation 
was made for all persons defrauded by him to 
appear and ^ve evidence. He was also aus- 

rded in hia offices at the exchequer, while 
ivas at the same time convicted at the 
suit of the abbot and monastery of Quarr for 
forgery and fraud in connection with their 
litigation with the Oountesa of Albemarle. 
Id spite of this exposure, A dam de Stratton 
found the usual means to make his peace with 
the crown, and his ezchequer offices were re- 
sumed by him in the same year. Ten years 
later a fiesh scandal provoked a more search- 
ing inquiry, which resulted in hia complete 
disgrace. On thiaoccasion itwasthemonas- 
tery of Bermondsey that was victimised by 
his favourite device of tampering with the 
seals of deeds executed by his clients. At 
the same time be figured as the chief dehn- 
qnent in the famous state trials of 1290, 
which led to the disgrace of the two chief 
justices and several justices, barona, and 
other hirh officiola. The charges bronght 
gainst the accused, and particularly against 
Stratton, reveolan almost incredible audacity 
and callousness in theb career of force and 
fraud, Stratton at least defended himself 
with courage, but he was convicted on a 
cha^ of sorcery, and his ruin was com- 
[dets. It is soia that the tieoenre which 

advowsons in almost every diocese. 

Even after this final disgrace Stratton 
was still secretly employed by Uieerown on 
confidential business, and it was whispered 
that he was engaged to t«aiper with the 
deeds executed hy the Countess of Albe- 
marle on her deathbed, in order to obtun 
lor the crown a giant of the Isle of '^ght 
to the disinheritance of the countess's law- 
ful heirs. However this may be, after 1390 
Stratton ia mentioned in public docomcnta 
only as an attainted paraon w^oie estates 
were administered in the ezoheqsei;. His 
name does indeed ocenr as sheriff of Flint, 
a distant employment that might denote his 
GOntinned disgrace. A beneficed clerk of his 
name is referred to in a papal letter of 1337, 
and there is some reason for sopposiog that 
he was still alive at this date. 

Slbs BQthorities for Adain de Strstton'i life 
times are sat oot in detail in the Bed Book 
of tha Eichtqaer (BoUe Series), pt. iii. pp. caav~ 
cccxxx, iDcludiog a lu;ge number of rsfiiraiicea 
to contemporary records and ehzomelia. The few 
printed noCicM that have appeared are insocu- 
rate.] H. H. 

(1830-1S96), suxgeon, son of David Stxatton, 
a solicitor id practice at Perth, was bom 
in the parish of Csputh, near Dunlceld, on 
2 Jnly 1630. He was educated in hk native 
town and afterwards at North Shields, where 
he waa apprenticed about 1840 to Dr. Ing^ 
ham. He was admitted a licentiate of tho 
Hoyol College of Surgeons of Edinbui^h in 
1851, bachelor of medicine of the univereity 
of Aberdeen in 1862, and M.D. in 1865. At 
Aberdeen UnivorBity he gained the medal or 
a first-^lass in every subject of stndy. 

In Ma^ 1862 he g^ad, by competitive 
examination, a nomination offered to the uni- 
verai^ of Aberdeen by the chairman of the 
East India Company. AAer holding variouB 
posts in the Indian medical service (Bombay) 
from 18fi3 onwards, he was appointed in 
December 1864 resideni^ surgeon in Barodft, 
where he took an active part in Ibunding 
tha gaekwai's hospital and ia vaccinating 
•)<e native population. In May 1867 he wus, 
addition to the medical charge, appointed 

..j..»».=;.»n«»_.ijgn(^ Heperformedtha 

of the mutiny, and received the thai 
the resident. Sir Richmond Campbell 6 
spear [q. v.] On the Iatt«r's d^srtui„ .„. 
England, Stratton acted as resident until the 
amvai of Col. (Sir) E. "WaUace. In 1869 
he was selected to take political charg« of 


Straubenzee ; 

U tlw compaaj marl 
iuporUiLca bj a ipecuU. ffani of extra paj. 
Ha ««i ippointed " '""'" -'— -■ 

, e for Buudelkkond and Baghei- 
Uand, ud lie wu promot-ed in June ].864t 
&OB1 paiilical Bsaistaitt tA be political agent ; 
KJuJe irom May to July 1876 he waa offi- 
eUtOig lEsideat. On 4 March 1881 he was 
imunt^d officiatjjig eeBidantiii Mewar. In 
Jm* be iras posted to the western states of 
B^tttana, and on 27 Jan. 1 882 to Jeypur in 
the Mctem atatoa. He retired from the ser- 
fwa andtt the Sity-flve years age rule in 
168fiwilh the rankof brigade-surgeon. He 
died at 61 NeT«m Square, South Eenaine- 
taB,m 8 Aug. 1896, and is buried m Broox- 
VDM euiMeiy. He nuuried, on 13 April 
18&9; GoQiguia Anderson, by whom he had 

Spstton did excellent aerrioe in his eapo- 
atj d political agent. He obtained from 
tfae aatiTS chieft free remisajon of transit 
dfltiei; he penosallj laid oat hill roads ; he 
eRaUisbed the BundalkhandKajkunHU- Col- 
lege &w tma of (^ue&, and institnt«d vao- 
fi aa tirn in Central India. 

[OMtnaiy notice in the Timei, IB Ang. I89S, 
p. 10, od. f. ; additional iDformation kiadlj 
grrvB by Xre. 3tnCtoQ, and bj Deputy aurgean- 
8MailE.]I.SiDdair,ltLD.] I^A P. 

(1S12-189S), geoer&L [See Vak Sisau- 

MACBICE i:i807P^1887}, m»calianeoDS 

9 Strauss 

goTemmentsequBBtrated his property, which 
was not iBtumed to him until 1S40. In 
18S3 be went to Algiers as assistant surgeon 
to the French army. At flrat he was at- 
tached to the foreign legion, but in 1S34 hia 
connection with it was severed. After 
some years' service hi* health broke down, 
and he returned to France, only to ba 
boniahed in 1S3& for supposed cranplicity in 
a revolutionary plot, Ke then oome to 
London, where he tuned his hand ta a 
variety of callings, including those of author, 
linguist, chemist, politician, cook, joumaliaf, 
tutor, dramatist, and suqreon. He waa weU 
known in London as ' Uie Old Bohemian,' 
and was one of the fouodeis of the Sayaga 
Club in 1857. 

In 1865 he published ' The Old Ledger; ft 
Novel,' which was daeeribed by 1^ ' Athe- 
nteum ' as ' vulgar, proiona, and indelicate.' 
In consequence he brought an action against 
that journal at the Eingaton assizes, which 
woa settled by mutual consent. The 'Athe- 
ntaum,' however, juatified the original criti- 
cism on 7 AprU 1866, and Strauss broafij>t 
a second action. In this hia plea toi tree 
literarv expression was met by a demand for 
equal latitude in criticism. The defendant*' 
contention waa supported by Lord-chief- 

1 justice Cockbum, and the jury returned a 

[ verdict in .their favour. 

Id later life his cireunutances became 
straitened, and through Mr. Gladstone's in- 
tervention he received a bounty from the 
civil liat. In 1679 he was admitted into 
the Charterhouse, but after a short residence 
he applied for an outdoor pension, which 
was granted by the governora. Strauss 
died unmarried, on 2 Sept. 1887, at Tad- 

Besides the novel mentioned and several 
unimportant traoelatioos, Strauss was the 
author of: 1. 'The German Beader,' London, 
186S, 12mo. 2. ' A Qermsn Grammar,' 
London, 1862, ISmo. 8. 'A French Gram- 
mar,' London, 1853, 12mo. 4, ' Moslem and 
Frank,' London, 1864. ISmo. 6. ■ Maho- 
metism: an Historiesl Sketch,' 2nd edit. 
London, 1857, 12mo, 6, ' Men who have 
made the new German Empire,' London, 
1875, 8vo. 7. ' Reminiscences of an Old 
Bohemian,' London, 1883, 8vo. 8. ' Stories 
by an Old Bohemian,' London, 1883, 8vo, 
9, ' Philosophy in the Kitdien,' Lc»idon, 
1886,8vo. 10. 'DisheaandDrinks.'London, 

1887, 8vo, 11, 'Emwror William: the 
LLfe of a great King ana good Man,' London, 

1888, 8vo. 

[Stfanss's Works ; AthsMBum, 17 Sept. 1887; 
Times, 14 Sept, 1887; Sala's Life sod Adven- 
tures, 18S6, pp. 1S3-4, 22>, 227.] E. I. a 




STREAT, WILLIAM (1600P-lfl66), 
divine, bom in Deyonsliiie about 1600, 
'bec&me either a batlei or a sojounier of 
Exeter College ' in the beginning of 1617. 
He matriculated on 8 May 16SI, graduated 
B.A. on SI Jan. 1621-2, and proceeded 
U.A. on 10 June 1624. He took holv 
ordera and bacuae rector of 3t. Edmund- 
on~the-Bridge, Eseter, in 1630, and in 1632 
rector of Sonth Pool, Devonabire. After 
1641 he inclined to pTeBbrt^rianigm and, 
according to Wood, preached bitterly against 
Charles and his Killowera, atjling them 
'bloody papiBta.' After the Restoration he 
appears to have modiSed hie opinions, for 
he contrived to keep his rectory until his 
death at South Fool in 1666. He ivae 
buried in the chnrcb. The neighbouring 
ministere, says Wood, agreed ' that ho was 
aa infinite a rogue and as great a sinner 
that could be, and that 'twos pity that hs 
did escape punishment in this life.' 

He was the author of ' The Dividinj^ ot 
the Hooff: or Seeming-ContradieUons 
throughout Sacred Scriptures, Distinguiah'd, 
Resolv'd, and Apply'd. BelpfuU to every 
Household of Faith. B; William Street, 
Uaster of Arts, Preacher of the Word, in 
the County of Devon,' London, 1654, 4to. 
This work is prefaced by a dedication to 
God (Notet and Qutriei, 2nd ser. ix. 266^, 
and Ml epistle to Qod's people, signed ' W. S.' 

[Wood's AthniEe Oion. ed. Bliss, iii. 79S; 
Foster's Alamni Oion. IfiOO-ITH.] E L 0. 

(JL I65(m670}, soldier and pamphleteer, was 
from 16fiO to 1653 quartermaater-geneml of 
the foot in the army of the Commonwealth in 
Ireland, and was also employed as engineer 
in sieges and fortifications. In April 16£3 
he came over to England on leave just 
before Cromwell dissolved the Lonr parlio' 
ment, and , d isappro ving of that act, circ ulated 
among the omcers a pamphlet of his own 
consisting of 'Ten Queries' respecting the 
consequences of the cliaQg& For this he 
was arrested, tried by court-martial, and 
cashiered. Six weeks later he was anain 
arrested for publishing a book called 'The 
Grand Politic Informer,' showing the danger 
of trusting the military forces of the nation 
to the control of a single person. The 
council of Btat« committed him to the Gate- 
house (11 Sept 165S), and the Little parlia- 
ment uso made an order for his confinement 
(21 Nov. 1663). Streater obulned a writ 
of habeas corpus, and his case was heard on 
33 Nov. 1658; he pleaded his cause ei~ 
tremely well, but was remanded to prison 
again. At last, on 11 Feb. 1664, Chief- 


justice Rolls and Judge Aake orderod his 
discharge {Clavit ad Aptriendum Caretrit 
0»tia,or the HighPoint of the Writ tif Habeas 
Corpui ducamed, by T. Y., 1653, 4tO ; Secret 
Beatont (^ State ditcovered . . . m John 
Streater'i eate, Sfe. 1659 ; Commmuf Jownait, 
vii. S63). After Streater's dischargs th« 
Protector made various attempts to arrest 
him, but Major-general Desborougfa Ktood 
his &iend, and on engaging not to write any 
more against the government (18 Oct. 1654) 
he was allowed to keep his freedom (£aw- 
2tnjonJtf&9. Axix.30d; CaL StaU Paper*, 
Dom. 1654). 

Streater now seems to have gao» into 
business as a printer (tb. 1665-6 p. 260, 
1656-7 p. 159, 1659-«) p. 596! CfanimW 
Journal*, vii. 878). In 1669, as a soldier 
who had suffered for the republic, he was 
once more employed. On SO July the 
council of state voted him the command of 
the artillery train (ib. viL 714; Cal. State 
Papert, Dom. 1659-60, p. 52). In October, 
when Lambert interrupted the sittings of 
ment, Streater was again on» 
who took the side of the 
parliament, and signed an expostulatory 
letter to Fleetwood (Thublob, vii. 771). 
After the reetoration of the parliament he 
was given the command of the regiment of 
foot late Colonel Hewsou's (13 Jan. 1660), 
was recommiasioued by Monck, and was 
stationed by him at COTOntry (^Onnmon^ 
Joumalt, vii. 810). To the situation of hia 
regiment and to Monck's confidence in hia 
fidelity Streater owed the very prominent 

Eirt which be played in the suppression of 
ambert's attempted rising (Baibb, Chro- 
nkU, ed. 1670, pp. 702, 720). But in July 
1660 the command of the regiment was 
given to Lord Bellasia, though Streater was 
continued as m^or until its disbanding in 
the autumn {Clarke MSB.) 

Streater was arrested on suspicion abotit 
November 1661, but immediately dischai^ed. 
About the same time he petitioned for 6-2BL 
due to him ' for printing several things 
tending to the king s service at the Restorsf- 
tion' {CaL Slate Papert, Dom. 1661-2, 
pp. 137, 151). In March 1663 he was again 
arrested, hut released on signing an engage- 
ment to print nothing seditious and to 
inform against anyone who did (ib. 1663-4, 
pp. 82, 86, cf. 1665-6, p, 409). ffevertheless 
he was again in trouUe in 1670 for writio^f 
a seditious libel called ' The Character ot 
a true and a false Shepherd' (ib. 1670, p, 
332). Streater during the Dutch war made 
experimente in artillery, inventing a new- 
kind of ' fiie-shot ' or granado (ib. 1667-8, 
p. 135 ; Bawlimoa MS. A cxer. 114). 




Stnatev wiou, 'bMidea the ' Ten Queries ' 
published in 1653! 1. 'The Grand Politic 
iDfonner,' 1653. 2. 'A Olimpsa of th&t 
Jewel precious, just, preserring Liberty,' 
Idal, 4to. S. ' ObeeiTatioM apon Aristotle's 
PoUUcs,' 1664. 4. Secret ReuoiiB of State 
^acotcaed,' 1669, uid ^robsbtj, 6. 'The 
ContiBoation of the Seesion of Parliaijieiit 
i ostififd, and the Bction of this army touching 
thu i&ii defended,' bj J. S., 1669. 

OTRKATEB, ROBEET (1624-1680), 
Minter, bom ill Ccvent Qorden, Loudon, in 
ItL'-l, is said to have been the son of a 
punter, and to have TeceiTed his instruC' 
(ion in Mmting and drawing from on artist 
called m Moulin. He iroa very indus- 
truMt, and attained considerable ability in 
Ibb ait, -which was highly extolled by bis 
CDnteupocanes. His style was founded on 
that cf the late Italian painters. Ha ex- 
eeUsd in aidutectuml and decorative paint- 
inrs OD a lar^ acale, especially those in 
whid perqwetiTe and a knowledge of fore- 
•bortcfimg were required. He painted land- 
acapu, e^eciall^ topographical, with skiU, 
and alio still life. A Tiew of 'Soscobel 
-vitk the Royal Oak' is in the royal colleo- 
li-tB it Windsor Castle. Sanderson, in his 
*Ur^hie«' (1658), speaks of 'Streter, who 
iDdeed ii * compleat Master therein, as 
alaa is other Arts of Etching, Oraving, 
and bi works of Arcbitectnre and Ferspec- 
tire, act a line but is true to the Rules 
of Art and Symmetry.' In 1661 both Fepys 
and Evdya mention, and the latter de- 
scribes, 'Hr. Povey's el^fant house in Lin- 

coln's Inn Fields [see Fotbt, Thoius], where 
the per^ectrre in his court, painted by 
StneCo', H indeede excellent, wita the Tsaas 
■a iautation of porphyrie and fountains.' 
Pejyi, in 1669, vrites that be ' went to Mr. 
SdMter, tbe fftmons history-pointer, wbere 
I found Dt. Wren and CFther virtuosos look- 
ing noa tbe peintiags he is making of the 
■•w^Mtn at Oxford, and describes btrester 
M 'anrvdvil little man and lame, but lives 
vey bta^onely.* Bvelyn, in 1672, notes 
St Sb Bofaert Clayton's house ' the cedar 
Ji li Bg Huuui painted with the history of the 

I O^Mtt War, ineompeiahly done hy Ur. 

■ SbMterbot tbe figures are too near the eye' 
(d» matiiim ware afterwards removed to 

I if«ni-, aear Gk>dat(me) ; and again in 1679 

/ OM ol Stieater's beat paiotbga at Mr. 
Ut* /-nailed down ia 1825). Btreater's 
pmtinS in thft roof of the Sheldonian 
yy^mt Oxfovd were eulogised hy Robert 

Streater also painted part of tbe chapel at 
All Souls', Oxfbrd, ceilings at Whitehall, and 
St. Michael's, Combill. Little of his deco- 
rative work remains, except in the theatre 
at Oxford. Besides landscape, history, aud 
still life, SCreater also pointed portraits. He 
etched a view of the battle of Naseby, and 
designed some of the plates for Stapleton's 
'Juvenal.' Seven pictures byluin,includinj 
five landscapes, are mentioned in the cata- 
logue of James IPs collection. Streaterwas 
a special favourite with Charles II, who made 
bim setjeant-painter on his restoration to tbe 
throne. When Streater in his later years 
was suffering from the stone, Charles Ilsent 
for a special suigeon firom Paris to perform 
the necessary operation. Streater, however, 
died not long ailer, in 1680. He was suc- 
ceeded as seneant-painter by bis son, at whose 
death, in 1711, Streater's books, prints, draw- 
ings, and pictures were sold by auction. He 
hut a brother, Thomas Streater, who mar- 
ried a daughter of Bemigius Van Leempnt 
[q. v.], herself an artist. A portrait of Streater 
by himself was engraved for Walpole's 
'Anecdotes of Punting.' Streater was the 
first native artist to practise his line of art. 
[Walpole's Anecd. of PuDting, ed. Womum ; 
lUdgravo'a Diet, of Artists; Seguier's Diet, of 
PainWrs ; De Pilcs'i Lives of the Painter* ; 
Plot's Rift, of Oifordshire (for a d'^criptioa of 
tbe SbcldontBB Theatre) ; Diaries of Ev^ly" >°^ 
Pepys, paisira.] L. C. 


1S48), tojK»rapbeT, genealogist, and artist, 
bom in 1777, was the eldest son of Sande- 
forth Streatfeild, of London and Wands- 
worth, first a partner in tbe house of Bran- 
dram & Co., and then in that of Sir Samuel 
Fludver & Go. His mother waa Frances, 
daugnter of Thomas Hussey, of Aabford, 
Kent. He matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, on 19 May 17B5,and graduated B.A. 
in 1799 (FosTBK, Alumni Oxon. 171&-I886, 
iv. 1365). In early life he was curate at 
Long Ditton to the Rev. William Pennicott 
(d. 1811), whose funeral sermon he preached 
and afterwards published. At that time he 
was also chaplam to the Duke of Kent. He 
was subsequently for some years curate of 
Tatsfield, Surrey. There he continued to 
officiate till, in 1842, ill-health compelled him 
to relinquish the duty. In 1822 he went to 
reeideatChart'sEdgci, Westerham, Kent, not 
fiir from Tatsfield, on an estate of forty 




«cru, wiieie he built ft houe from his own 
designa, In 1623 he pub1ieli«d ' The Brid&l 
of AJtuagnoc/ a triiged; in Sve acta and in 
Terse ; and he composed other tre^edjea 
which BtUI temaiu in, manoscript. He had 
been. elecW a fellow of the Society (yt Aati- 
tiquariea on 4 June 1813, And for man; years 
h« was employed in forming collectiona, 
chiefly genealogical and bioeraphieal, in 
illustration of the history of Kent. On 
drawicigB and ongraTinga for this projected 
vorkhe is snppo^tonava expended nearly 
3,000/., having several artiste in his constant 
employment, while the ftrmorial drawings 
were made on the wood blocks by himseu. 
Many copper-plat«a of portraits and monu- 
mental Mulptura were also prepared, but 
dui'iog Streat&ild's lifetime the public de- 
lived no further benefit from the undertaking 
than the gratuitous circulation of ' Eicerpta 
Oantiana, being the Prospectus of a History 
of'Kent, preparing for publication' [London, 
1836], fol. pp. 24. Stibaeauontly he brought 
out 'Lympsfield and its £nvirans, and the 
Old Oak Chair,' Westerham, 1839, 8vo, 
being a series of views of interesting objects 
in the vicinity of a Kentish village, accom- 
panied with brief descr^tions. He died at 
Oiart's Edge, Westerham, on 17 May 1848, 
«nd was buried at Chiddiagstooe, 

His first wife, with whom h« acquire a 
considerable fortune (8 Oct. 1800), was Har- 
riet, daughter and coheireBe of Alexander 
Ohamplon, of Wandsworth ; his second, to 
whom he waa married in 1823, was Clare, 
widow of Hem; Woo^fate, of Spring^Qrove, 
and daughter of the Kev. Thomas Harvey, 
rector of Cowden. He left several ctul- 

Hie extensive manuscript materials for a 
history of Kent were left at the disposal of 
Lambert Bladcwell Larking [c^. v.] They in* 
dnded a lazge number of exquisitely beauti- 
ful diawings, which show tJiat he was not 
merely a ^thfnl copyist, but a moaterly 
artist. Some specimens of his wood-engrav- 
ing are given in the ' AnsheologiaCannana,' 
T,oL iii. Thefirttinstalmentof the projected 
county history has been published under the 
title of ■ Haated's History of Kent, cor- 
rected, enlarged, and continued to the pre- 
sent time, from the manuscripts of the late 
Bay. T. Btreatfeild, and the late Kev. L. B. 
Larking . . . Edited by Henry H. Drake 
. . , Part I. The Hundred of Blaokheath,' 
London, 1886, fol. An excellent portrait of 
9trettfeild was painted by Herbert Smith, 
and an engraving is prefixed to the volume 
}nit mentioned. 

Streatfeild's collections for the histoiy of 
K«nt, formiog fiftytwo Tolumea, are now 

in the British Museum (Addit USS. 88878- 


[Memoir by 3. S. Larking in Ardicologia 
Ciuitiana, iii, 1ST, also prioMd sapantsly, Lon- 
don, IseO; lii^tGr, i. 122, 123; Motai and 
Qnarias, Sndser. iii. SSO; Oant Mag. 1836 ii. 
07. IB38 ii. TO, iai8 ii. 99; Intiod. to n«v 
adit, of Haated's Kent.] I. 0. 

1881), architect, bom at Woodford, Baser, 
on 20 June 1824, was the third son of Thomas 
Street, solicitor, by bis second wife, Mary- 
Anne MilUagtou. The &ther,Thomas Street, 
whose business was in Philpot Lana, was 
the descendant of aWorceetershlre family to 
which belonged also the Judge, Sir Tbomaa 
Street [q. v.J About 1830, when bis &thei 
moved to Cunberwell, Geo^ was sent to a 
school at Mitcham, and subsequently to the 
Camberwell collegiate school, which he left 
in 1839. In 1840 Street was placed in t^ 
office in Philpot Lane, but the employment 
was uncongenial, and bis father's death, titer 
a few months, released him from it. For 
a short period he lived with his mother and 
sister at Eietw, where probably be first 
turned his tbouehts to arcoitecture, led by 
the example of his elder brother Thomas, an 
ardent aketeher. Street improved his drawing 
by taking lessons in perspective from lliomas 
Haseler, a painter, who was a connection by 
marriage. In 1841 his mother, tbrongh the 
influence of Haseler, secured for her son the 
position of pu^il with Owen Browne Carter 
[q, v.], an architect of Wincheater. He made 
use of hie local opportunities to such purposa 
that in 1844 be was an enthusiastic and even 
accomplisbed ecclesiologist, and was readily 
._a ■_.. ^ ■ ^^ officaof Scott 


■flat [( 
:e fae worked for five years, and spent 

SooTT, Sib Oeo^b OilbbbtJ. 
led for five years, and spent hia 

leisure in ecclesiological excursions in various 
parts of England, often accompanied b^ his 
elder brother. He was a valuable eosidjutor 
to Scott,whoapparent]fgnve him the oppor- 
tunity of starting an independent practice 
even while he nominal]^ remained an assist- 
ant. A chance acquaintftnce obtained for 
Street his first commiaBlon — the designing of 
Blscovey church, CoznwalL Before 1^19, 
when he first took an office on bis ovrit 
account, he had been engaged on aboot 
a score of buildings, the most important 
being a new church at Bracknell ; another, 
with parsonage and schools, at Treverbya, 
and the restoration of St. Peter's, Plymouth, 
andofthechurcbesof Sheviocke,LosCwitbiel, 

bus, lAnreath, Enfield, HMton, Hawat^. 



Smodiidge, and Htdlewlk Dniing the n- 
tlontiun of SiindridgB he made tha acquain- 
UDce ol' BanJBiuia Webb [q. v.], lecretary 
n' ihc Ecdeeiological Societj, who -waa ikea 
CHisM of tiw adjoining parisb of Bnisted. 

Webb TBCOnunamled Stnet to WiUiun 
Butler (mfwrwuda dean of lincoln), who 
emp'iored him on the riouue ftod othei 
woru It Wantage, and inboauced lum to 
Simuel Wilberfopce [q, v.], biihop of Oxford, 
who upolnted hi'm honorary dioceaon archi- 
tect, bi 1860 he bM^ up hi( resideiice at 
Wuiti^ making OsfordahiTS the centre 
of hi* uchiteetiual aetirity. Daring two 
f<B«ifr> toon in 1860 and 1861 be studied 
th# ioenUr churche* of France and Oar- 
EMin-. Acting on the advice ot his friend, 
John WiUiam Farter [q.r.], he settled in 
May 1852 in Beaumont Street, Oxford, and 
■kortlr afterwards took two pupils, Ednnnd 
Seddine and Philip Webb, lut firtt regiilar 
assiioaiiu. In 18o3 Street's practice was 
angmaated by the ineoption of two impor- 
tani wnrks — the theological college at Cud- 
lift^cB. and the building of the East Grin- 
ftcaA Sisterhood, aniniiititutionwith the fbun- 
daboD of which Street showed Bueh prac- 
xirti ^mpathj aa to refnee Temuneration. 
Th* eotamisaion to design the important and 
beantifal dioich of St. Feter at Bonnie- 
Bontk. eomplated aome tweotj Tears later, 
beteves to tha aame year. In 1653 also be 
viBted Northern Italy, and obtuned mate~ 
lia) ixK 'Brick and Maible Architecture' 
(pabliihed 1856), hia first important pabli- 
eaticfi. In 1654 he falloirod ap his studies 
of eoaiinental brick architecture by a tour 
in Xartt Q«muuiy, which bore fruit in tuore 
thai ooB p^>er on the churches of the dis- 
trict ecKmnnicated to tha 'Eacleinologist' 
(1055). Li all these toois, aa indeed in all 
kii Uiaaia taoments, he was occupied in the 
lyaketohee which, thon{^ only means 
' iriare in thamaelTeB enough to 





with special reference to the requiremeatw 
of oriental climate, was began in 1664 and 
completed in 1869. 

Meanwhile it was recognised that Street 
stood aide by side witJi his former master, 
Scott, aa one of the creat champion* of 
Qothia architecture, ana it was natural that 
he ahould ang^e on the Qothic side as one of 
go-venaneat offices in lifHS. He was one of 
theseventaenontof 219competitoratowhom 
premiams were awarded, and it was gene- 
rally considered that he diridad with Scott 
and Woodward the credit of sending in the 
best of the Gothic designa. Other important 
woriis on which he was engaged at this date 
were the new naveofBristol Cathedral; the 
church and schools of St. James the Lees, 
Westaiinstei ; St. Maiy Magdalene, Pad- 
dington; All Saints, Olifton; St. John's, 
Torquay; schoolrooms and chapel at Up^ng- 
ham; Longmead House, Bishopstoke; and 
■ ■" of Hedon church, Yorkshire. 

These werefollowed shortly afterwards bj" St. 
SaTiDur's, Eastbourne; St. Mai^ret's, Liver- 
pool; a church for Lord Sudeley at Todding- 
ton ; I>un £cht Honse (with chapel) for Lcvn 
Crawford; andannmb^of school and chui>rii 
building for Sir Tatton Sykes. 

In spite of great pressure of work. Street 
made three tours in Sjiain in 1881-2-3, col- 
lecting materials for his book entitled 'Gk>thic 
Architecture in Spain,' which appeared in 
186G, all the iUustrations being drawn on die 
wood b^ himself. In 1666 ha was elected 
an associate of the Boyal Academy, and he 
became a fnll member in 1871. 

in 1886 Street was invited by the govem- 
raent to compete for the designs both of the 
NationalOaUeryandthelnwcourts. Forthe 
National Gallery competition, -which ended 
abortivelyinthe appointment of EdwardMid- 
dleton Barry [q. v.] to rearrange the existing 
building, Street prepared himself by a tour 
of the galleries of Mid'Europe, and produced 
a design of dignified simrtlidty and conve- 
nience — a long srcaded front with a eou- 
tinuous roof broken only by a central dome 
and by the projecting entrance. 

Street's succeseM competition for the law 
courts in the Strand marks the cnlminatioB 
of hia career, though as the invitation was 
issued in 1866, and the work waa still un- 
finished-whan Street died is 1661, the under- 
taking was coincident with much other prac- 
tice. Originally Ave architects were invited 
as well as Street, Yii. (Sir) G. Q. Seott and 
Messrs. T. H. Wyatt, Alfred Waterhouse, Ed- 
ward M. Barrv, and P. C. Hardwick, junior. 
Wyatt and Sardwidc afterwards retired. 
Thenumberof eompetitwswos subse^ently ' 





raised to twelve, and in Januarj 1S67 deaigna 
-were finally sent in by eleraneTchitecU. The 
judges recommended Street foT the eztemiil 
and Sarry for the internal inangements, 
while a special committee of the IbmI pro- 
feBsion inclined to the designs of Mr, Wat«r- 
hooM. ControTSTBT raged for a ^ear, but at 
last, in June 1863, Street was nominated 
sole architect. The insTitable vexations of 
eolarge an undertaking were greatlyincreased 
from the start by the policy of parsLmony 
pursued by A, S. Ayrton, the first commis- 
sionei of works, which went the length of 
cutting down the architect's remuneration. 
Street met tbeee false economies with the 
generosity of a true artist. Bach of the 
courts was worked out on a separate design. 
Three thousand drawings were prepared liy 
hia own hand, and so loyally did ne obey 
hie instructions as to expense that when 
the east wing was completed the accounts 
Ehowed an expenditure of 2,0001. less than 
the authorised amount. The completed work 
evoked adverse criticism from many points 
of view, but it enhanced Street's reputation 
in the public eye. 

It was, however, as an ecclesiastical archi- 
tect that he won hia highest artisttc successes. 
Street was diocesan architect to York,Win- 
cheeter, and Ripon, aa well as to Oxford. 
During the progress of the work at the law 
courts, which was interrupted by many for- 
midable strikes and by the oontracter's finan- 
cial difficulties. Street was employed in re- 
storing many cathedral a. His work at Briatfll, 
which consisted mainly of the rebaildin);^ of 
the nave, showed a power of combining origi- 
nality with archeeology, and waa marked at 
its close by an acrid controversy over the 
statues placed in the north porch, resulting 
eventually in the banishment of the figures. 
In 1871 Street was engaged in restoration 
at York Uinster, and about the same time 
at Salisbu^ and Carlisle, at Christchurch 
Dublin, and St. Brigid's, Eildare. At Car- 
lisle hie moat important undertaking in con- 
nection with the cathedral was the rehabili- 
tation of the fratry, a building of the fifteenth 
century much concealed by later accretions. 
The removal of these accretions met with 
warm reprobation from certain arohteologiBta, 
and Street defended his action in a repl^ to 
the Society for the Protection of Antient 
Buildings {Buildiy Newt, 27 Feb. 1880). 

In ] 874 be received the gold medal of the 
Koyat Institute of British Architects. Next 
year he took part by writing letten to news- 
papen, and subsequently as a witness before 
the House of Lords, in the agitation which 
saved London Bridge from a hideous iron 
d in 1S76 be was consulted on 

the rehabilitation of Southwell Minster fbi 
purposes of modem worship, In 1879, when 
tears were aroused that St, Mark's at Venice 
was suffering from injudicious restoration, 
Street was the firet to express, if not to con- 
ceive, the idea that the undolations of the 
i lavement, which the reetorers threatened to 
evel, were due to deai^. 

In 1876, in recognition of his drawings 
sent to the Paris Exhibition, Street received 
the knighthood of the Legion of Hononr. 
Another foreign distinctionwhichhe received 
was the memberahip of the Royal Academy 
of Vienna. His appointment as professor <n 
architecture at the Boyal Academy (where 
he also held the office of treasure^ and his 
election to the presidency of the Eoyal In- 
stitute of British Architects both t«ok place 
in 1881, the last year of his life. His sner- 
getic though short presidency of the insti- 
tute was a turning point in its historv. 
His wish that the council of that hoay 
should come to be H^;arded as an arbiter 
in architectural mattere of national and me- 

importance has nnce his death 
been partly raised. 

In 1873 he built himself a house on a site 
he had purchased at Holmbury, Surrey, and 
a few years later he took a lending part in 
the formation of the pariah of Holmbury St. 
Mary. He built the church at his own ex- 
pense. In 1881 his health, which was im- 
paired by the great reeponsibilities of his 
work for the govenunent, showed signs of 
failure. Visite to foreign watering places 
proved of no avail, and he died in London, 
after two strokes of paralysis, on 18 Dec 
1881. He was honoured on 29 Dec. with & 
public funeral in Westminster Abbey. Ha 
married, first, on 17 June 18S2, Mariquita, 
second daughter of Robert Proctor, and niece 
of Robert Proctor, vicar of Hadleigh, whose 
church he restored. She died in 1874, and 
was hnried at Bcyne Hill, near Maidenhead, 
a church designed by Street himself and 
decorated by his own hand with copies of 
Overbeck's designs. He married, secondly, 
on 11 Jan. 1876, Jessie, second daughter of 
"William Holland of Harley Street ; she died 
in tlie aame year. 

The works left incomplete on bis death 
were in most eases completed by his only 
son, Mr. Arthur Edmund Street, with wham 
(Sir)Arthur'W.Blomfield,A.aA., was asso- 
ciated in the task of bringing tiie courts of 
justice to completion. 

The principal memorial to his honour is 
the full-length sculpture by H. H. Amute«d, 
R.A., in the central hall of the courts. Th* 
same artist executed a bust which it pr&- 
served in the rooms of the Royal Inatituta 





of British Architecta. Two photographio 

EitiuLs are giTen in the memoir by aii son. 
! wu Btrong'lj' built, and hia capacity for 
in>rk wM inexhaustible. Tlirouohout life he 
took an active interest in the ^ain of the 
tbii! high-church organisationa, and was 
demoted to claaucal muaic. He lived in poi- 
tonal toat«ct and sympathy with the pre- 
liaphurliteand kindred artists. TheRossettia, 
"W. Holman Hunt, George P. Boyce, Ford 
Uidoi-Brown, William Morris (at one time 
Strtet'i pupil), W. BeU Scott, and (Sir) E. 
Biime-Joaes were among his friends, and 
etpoinhiseariyTeaiaheDBran, as hia means 
allowed, to purchase examples of the 'works 
of the schooL 

Hough never exhibiting any animoeity 
tOTards the practice of classic arohitecturs, 
8tT»et had always looked upon Gothic work 
aa his mission, and was consistently true to 
the ttrk of his choice. In hia earher career 
h« hiS leanings towards an Italian typo of 
tilt ttjle, and the special study which bore 
lilcnry fruit in hia 'Brick and Marble 
Airiiitectare ' was tnmed to practical ai>- 
eotmt in tlie church of St. James the Less, 
Vestmioster. His later and more character- 
iKic wOTk was. however, baned on English, 
«r occasionolly, aa at St. Philip and 
Su Jamea's, Oxford, on French, models of 
the thirteenth century; and although hia 
woik aa a restorer led him more than ouce 
tD ptsctiae in the methods of the late £n^ 
1i^ Gothic or Perpendicular manner, this 
■trie waa hardly ever adopted by him in 
on^ioal deeign. Street was no slavish 
imitator ; he gave full play to his inventive 
CualiKs, and hia special invention of the 
koad Dave with suppressed aislee, a device 
ibr ■ceonunodating' large congregations, is 
wdl exemplified in the chnrch of All Saints, 
fXIbm. ChieofStreefs&vouritedesignswBs 
Aat of Kingst(m« church, Dorset, carried out 
Ibr Lotd Eldoti. It is k cruciform building 
vith as apee, central tower, and narthex 
built thranghont of Purheck atone with 
Adtt of Parbecfc marble, all from quarries 
en the tetate- The mouldings are rich, and, 
tnriv lo the character of the material, the 
Mdiag hu a model-like perfection and 
BMtBcas which age will probably improve. 
Iht Ancnean ehnrche* at Paris and Rome, 
nd tboM for tbe En^ish community at 
Bma^ Venjr Oenoa, Lftoaanne, and Miirren 
■Kibo notable azainples of Street's work, i 
h*tM 'at tho parish uiurch, la^e or small, 
t&ai btf BmioB ffB« realised to beat effect. 

Benidem the literary works already noticed, 
Stnet was the antlior of various occasional 
jamaad «dd«»w«,.and of the article on 
6s^ Mclrit«cttww in the ' awyoloptedia 

Dritannica' (9th edit,) His academy lec- 
tures — six treatises on the art, styles, and 
practice of achitecture — are appended to the 
memoir by hia son, 

[Memoir of aeorgs Bdmimd Street, BjL., by 
his son, Arthur Edmund Street. Loodou, ISBS, 
-with complete list of works; Bailder. voL zli. 
24 Dec. 1881. with list of works illustrated in 
the Builder; Archi[«cC, rol.izvi. 21 Dec. 1S81, 
inclndidg a list of worka eihilited iu the Aca- 
demy (Street first eihil)ited in 1843); Bnildiog 
News, vol. ill. 23 Dee. 1881,1 P- W. 

STREET, SiB THOMAS (1626-1696), 
judgBj son of George Street of Worcester, 
bom in 1628, matriculated at Oxford, from 
Lincoln College, on 22 April 1642. but left 
the university yrithont a degree in Februarv 
1644-5. He was admitted on 22 Not. 1646 
a student at the Inner Temple, where he was 
called to the bar on 24 Nov. 1653, and elected 
a bencher on 7 Nov. 1669. Eetumed to 

SarliameDtforWorceEter on 18 Jan. 1658-9, 
e kept the seat, notwithstanding an attempt 
to exclude him' on the ground that he had 
borne arms for the king and used profane 
language ; and he continued to represent the 
same conatitaeniw until the general election 
of February 1680-1. He was subsecretary 
to the dean and chapter of Worcester Cathe- 
dral from 1661 to 1687, was appointed one 
of their counsel in 1663, and elected pnetor 
of the city in 1867. In 1677 he was ap- 
pointed justice for South Wales (Fehruarrti 
and called to the degree of serieant-at-law 
(23 Oct.) ; on 23 Oct. of the following vear 
he was advanced to the rank of King's 
se^eant; on 23 April 1681 he was raised to 
the exchequer bench, and on 8 June follow- 
ing he was knighted at Whitehall. The 
same year, at the Derby assizes, he passed 
sentence of death as for high treason on 
Geoi^ Busby, a catholic priest convicted of 
saying mass, but reprieved him by order of 
the king. In 1683 he sat with Sir Francis 
Pemberton [q. v.] at the Old Bailey on the 
trial of the Kye-bouse conspirators. On 
29 Nov. 1684 he was removed to the common 
pleas. His patent was renewed on the ac- 
cession of James II, who suffered him to 
retain hisplace notwithstanding h is j udgment 
against the dispensing power m the case of 
Qoddenv. Hales. Sir John Bramston(^uto- 
biogr. Camden Soc. p. S24) insinuates — wbat 
became the general belief— that his j udgment 
was inspired by the king with the view of 
giving an air of independence to that of the 

On the accession of William III Street was 
ignored, and retired to his house at Worcester, 
where he died on 8 March 1695-6. His 
remains were interred in the south cloister 





of Worcester Oatbedral, in the nortli transept 
of which i« A monument by Joseph Wilton 
[q.tJ Bf hi£ wife Penelope, daughter of 
Sir Bowland Berkeley of Cotheridge, Wor- 
cest«TBhire, he left: an only daagbtar. 

poster's Alnmni Oxon. ; InnerTemple Books; 
fl'aah'i WorcMtersbire, Intiod. p. xxx, Tol. n. 
App. p. clri ; Green's Worcester, i. 100, ii. 37, 
App. p. xxriii ; Bnrtoa'i Diary, Hi. TO, 25!, 426 ; 
Granger's Blogr. Hiat. of England, it. 814 ; I* 
Here's Pedigcaes of Knights (Hul. Soo.); Sir 
ThomaaRajinond'BRe^. pp. 288,431 ; Wynne's 
Serjeont-at-lAir; Official Ketoms of Members 
of IWlisinenti Cobbett's State TrkU, nil 026, 
ix. 63t, 693, zi. 1198; Eeble'i Bep. ui. 806; 
Cal. St«t« pBpew, 1869-80 p. J21, 1680-1 pp. 
47, 84, 144 ; Luttrell's BeLudon of Stats AEDiirs, 
i. 77, 818, SS2, 3SS ; KotM and Quenes, 8nl ler. 
iiL 27 i HJBt. MSa Conim. 1st Bap. App. p. S3 ; 
11th Eep. App.ii.fl3,291,TO.9; Britton's Hiat^ 
aodAntiq. of the Cathedral Oharcb of Woreestfif, 
App. p. 94; FoB^i JAvee of the Judges.] 

J. M. B. 

8TEEETEB, JOHN 0<: 1660-1670), 
soldier and pamphleteer. [See Stbe&teb.] 

GUILLIM or WILLIAM (Jl. 1646-1556), 

Krtrait-paintar, is alwa^ deaoril>ed as a 
itchamn, and may possibly haTe been re- 
lated to the Qilee van Btraet, a burgher of 
Ghent, who was implicated in the lesistance 
offered by that dKy to Charles V in 1540, 
and sought English prot«ctdon at Calais 
{BtaU Paper*, Henry YlII, Yiii. 346). A 
WUliam Street was in the employ of the 
English goTomment at Calais in 1689 {Ltt- 
tor* ond i^iper*, XIT, ii 10), but the William 
Streate who was steward of the oourta of 
8t. Paul's Cathedral in 1636 (Jb. toI. ix. 
App. No. 1S> waa no doubt an Englishman, 
and the name was not unoommon in Eng- 

The painter may haye been a pupil of 
Holbein, but there is no evidence to sup- 

Krt the conjectore. In Decembw 16^, 
wever, he was engaged in painting a por- 
trait of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey [q.T.], 
when tAe earl was arreated. The picture 
remained in Stretes's possession until March 
1651-2, when it was Fetched from his honse 
bv order of the council. It was probably 
obnoxious, as portraying the royal anus of 
England which Sorrey had quartered witji 
bis own, an offence which formed the prin- 

X' count in his indictment. This pOTtrait, 
h is highly flnishsd, is now at AmndeL 
Castle (cf. Cat. Tudor Exhib. No. 61>, aad 
was engraved for Lodge's ' Portnuts ; a re- 
plica, also said to be rery fine, is at Knole 
nnit cf. ArehmoUgta, xxziz. 61, where Sir 
-G«c«g« fidurf oonndua tbaie portraits to be 


the work of an Italian). Another portrait 
of Surrey and one of Henry VIH and his 
family, at Hampton Court, are oonjecturally 
ssaigped to Stretes (Law, Cat. of JPietvrm 
at Sampttai Ooia% pp. 114^ 120; Cat. Tador 
Exhtb. No. 101 ; WosNUX, I^e and Work* 
ofBolbeia,ip.837). Another portrait, said to 
hare bean painted by Stretes during Henry's 
-' -, ia tnat of lurgaret Wottou, second 
of Thomas Orey, secoud marquis of 
Dorset [a. t.], which now belongs to the 
Buke of Portland (Ar<A/Boloffia, zxxix. 44). 
He is also said to hare painted on board a 
monumental effigy of the Wingfield family 
now belonging to the Duke of Bucclauch 

During the reign of Edward VI Stretes 
became "the most esteemed and best i^id 
painter 'in England, leceiTing from the kinff 
a salary of 621. IQi. He painted sereiw 
portraits of Edward, some of them to be aoirt 
to English ambasBS^rs abroad. In March 
16C1-S two were sent to Hoby and Mason, 
the respsciiye ambassadors at the courts of 
Charles V and Henry II ; for these, with 
Surrey's portrait, Stretes was paid fifty 
marks. SaTeneKtantportraitsof E^waid VI 
are oonjecturally ascribed to Stretes : (1) A. 
three-quarter length, which belougod to 
James Uaitland Hog, and was exhibited st 
Manchester in 1867 (it was engraved by Bo- 
bert C. Bell for the < Catalogue ' of the 
ArchnoLogical Institute, 1859) ; (2) a fuU- 
length portrait, which was U SoDtbam, 
near Ohdtenham, in 1819; (S) a portrait in 
the treasurer's house at Clnist's Hoepital, de- 
scribed as very similar to that at Southam ; 
(4) a portsut of Edward VI presenting 
t^ charter to Bridewell in 1663, now be- 
longing to tliie govemors of Bridewell 
Hospital (OaL Twhr ExJub. No. 1SI>[ 
(6) a jwrtrait of Edward VI, agsd K^ 
ptunted in 1647, now at Loady Pa^ in the 
possession of Mr. W. Mofe-Molynenx (ib. 
No. 176); (6) a duplicate of the last, be- 
longing to Lead Leconfield at Petworth, 
(WoKRiTM, X^« and Timet ^ Solbein, 
p. 836; Sir Qeorga Soharf in AtoAmiIo^, 
XKxix. 60) ; (7) ^e portnut of Edward a.t 
Windsor Castle (ib.) These portraits have 
been inaccurately aaugned to Holbein, witb 
whose later portraits Stretes's work ' shows 
much affinity' {Cat. TuAmr Exhib. p. 60), 
though, on tha other hand, his strle of 
colouring was ' pecnliarly pale and c<^ and 
verr di^rentfrom that (^Holtein ' (.ilrsAiBo- 
iogta, Exxiz. 42). 

Stretes mtained Ilia position under Mttry, 
and in 1656 presented to bar as a new gear's 
gift '« t«b& of her nujesty's tnarnsfe,' 





^rtueli seenis to bs lost (NtouoLS, Illiutra- 
ttam ^ Anaeitt TitTiet, p. 14). 

[Most of tlie feiTta about SCretes are collectsd 
bTjohaOoQeb Nichols in Archseologia, ixiii. 
4'l>i ; see alsa the same writer in Notes and 
Qnnics, Srd aer. ii.340,uidii] tba prefaiie to the 
Uimwj Bomaina of Edward VI (Kozbarghe 
Clnb), pp. eccxlir, occU-ii ; 8trjp«'» Ecdea. 
Kan. D. H. 917, 285; Walpols'i Aneodotes of 
Painrns, td. Wormitn, i. 138-8; "Woranrn'sLifo 
ud Works of Holbein, pp. ] 02, SOS, 326, 337 ; 
i>ir Qwrge Seharf in Arehieologia, ixiiz. SO-1 ; 
Waagfa'sTreaioreaof A^t,iiL30;Tie^>e;'sAnm■ 
de;^:»^tlo, lBM;Nott'BWoi'ksofSnrrey;Wheftt- 
Wi HiiiarioL! Fortraita, 1867; Iaw'b Cat. of 
Picnrei at Hampton Court; Cat Tador Eihib. 
18S0 ; ButLoritica cited.] A, P. P. 

BTEBTTON, ROBERT dh (d. 1885), 
faisbop of CorentTT and Idchfield, aon of 
Rjabert Ejrjk or de Stretton bj hie wife 
J«4iaBa,iraa bom Kt Stretton Magna, LeicBB- 
tdduTS, from whicli ploca he ajid his elder 
bmbar. Sir William Eyryk, kni^bt (ancestor 
v( tfae He^rickB of Leksatflnhire), derived 
tbarnrmuBes. Aft«r taking holy orders he 
becaan diKplain to Ed ward the Black Prince, 
'wikon tKTOsa he snjojed, and he is said to 
liaT? become doctor of laws and one of the 
mdjion of tlio rota in the court of Rome. 
B^f>r« 1343 he waa rector of Wykyngeeton 
or WiUdDgton, and in that jear obtained a 
cnoarr in OhiclMeter Cathedral. He was 
*1m ei^t«d to prebends or canonries in St 
PaBl'tud Lichfield CathedraU. In 1849, 
-at the nqneat of the Black Prince, he ob- 
tained a eanonrY at Salisbury. Before Oc- 
tober 1861 he bad become a king's clerk, 

Avignon, and submitted himself to tlie ex- 
amination of the pope's examiners, who re- 
jected him 'propter defectum literatnife.' 
But the king insisted on Stretton's appoint- 
ment, and kept the see of Lichfield vacant 
for two yeais, himself enjcmng the tempe- 
ralitiesduring that period. The Black Prince 
now besought the pope to put an end to the 
scandal by af^ointing a commission to ex- 
amine Stretton again, and Innocent referred 
the matter to the archbishop of Canterbury. 
The archbishop, on re-examintng him, still 
found him insufficient, and refused to con- 
secrate him. At length the pope gave way. 
He issued his bull of povifton on 22 April 
1360, presently confirmed Stretton's election, 
and directed the Brchbisbop to consecrate 
him without examination, This, however, 
the archbishop refused to do in person, thou^ 
he confirmed his election on 26 Sept. 1395, 
and commissioned two of his suffragans, 
Northburgh, bishop of London, and Shappey, 
bialum of Rochester, to conaecrate Stretton, 
wbich they did reluctantly on 27 Sept, 1360. 
The temporalities of the see had been restored 
on 19 Sept. On 6 Feb. following Stretton 
made the usual profession of canonical obe- 
dience in the archbishop's presence at Lam- 
beth, 'alio profeesionem legente, qnod ipse 
legera non poeaet.' It is difficult to conceive 
such a d^^ee of ignorance in a prelate, bttt 
the words of the register are conclnsive. 

Stretton presided over the diocese of Co- 
ventry and Lichfield for a period of twenty- 
five years, and bis acts are preserved in two 
volumes of his registers which are extant 
at Lichfield. Mneb of his episcopal work 
in the dioceee was done by suffragans. He 
founded and endowed a chentry in tbe 
chapel of his native place, Stretton Magna, 
on 4 Sept. 1378, and he ordained that the 
chaplain should pray for the founder, and for 
thesoots of Edward IH, the Prince of Wales 
and Isabella his wife, as also of his father 
and mother, brothera and sister. In the 
same year he also endowed a chantry at 
Stretton-supor-Dunsmore in Warwickshire 
(patent 2 Rich. II, pare. I, m. 83). At 
some period daring bis episcopate be appears 
to have reatored or renovated the shrine ot 
St. Chad, which stood in the lady-chapel 
of Lichfield CatbedntL On 7 Sept. 1381, 
having become inftrm and blind, be was 
ordered by the chaptMi of Canterbury to ap- 
point a coadjutor within ten days. He 
died at Ins manor-house at Haywood in 
Stafiordshirs on 26 Starch 1885, and was 
interred in St. Andrew's Chspel in Lichfield 
Cathedral, on the north side of the shrine of 
8C. Chad. An altar-tomb, depicted inSbaVs 
' Histcvy of StaSbrdthire ' (toL i. plate Sft), 




Bad ^ere erroneously described as tbat of 
Bishop Bli^, ia in all probahiiily tbe monu- 
ment of Bishop Stretton. It was standing 
in Dugdale's time, but bas loag since been 
destroyed. Stretton'a will, dated 19 March 
1384-6, and proved on 10 April 1385, is 
preserved at Lambeth Palace (Reg. Courte- 
nay, f. 211ii). 

[Itobart da Stretton, biihop of Coventry and 
LichBeld, 1360-85, in the AMO«iat«d Arohitee- 
tnial Society's Reports and Papsn. xii. 198- 
208 1 Nichols'B Leicenenhire, vol. ii. passim: 
Sbaw's StsffoTdehite, i. 2«r, 269, sq.; S.F.C.K. 
Dioccaan History of Lichfield, pp. 15S-7; Mo- 
beriys William of Wylceham, pp. 40-3 ; Godwin, 
de Pricanlibufi, pp. 2Q2, 321 ; wbsrton's Aogliu 
S&cra, i. 44 and iiO ; Hook's Livas of tbe Arch- 
bisbops, i. 448-0 ; Pngdale's Warwickshire, i. 
*1 ; Le Nore'a Fnsli, i. fi60-l, 620 ; CaL Papal 
BeiristBrs and Cal. Pat. Bolls, 1S77~8I.] 

W. G. D. F. 

STRICKLAHD, AGNES (1796-1874), 
histOTian, second surviving daughter of Tho- 
mas Strichland of Beydon Hall, nearSouth- 
^vo1d. Suffolk, and of his second wife, Eliia- 
JoethHomei, was bominLondonon 19 Aug. 
1790. There were nine children of the 
marriage. Five af them besides Agnes dis- 
tinguisbed themselves (though in a leas 
degree) by their literary talent. These were 
1888), Samuel (1809-1667) [gee below], Mrs. 
Susanna Uoodie (1803-1^) [see MooviB, 
DoHALU], and Mrs. Catherine Parr Traill (6. 
180:^), who survived them all. The father, 
Thomas Strickland, was descended from a 
family of yeomen settled in the FumeSH dis- 
trict of North Lancashire. The connection, 
ifanv, with the Stricklands of Sizergh, to 
ivhicn Miss Strickland constantly referred, is 
remote, and is unsupported by documentary 
eWdence (Davy's ' Suffolk Peaigrees,' Addit. 
MS. 19150). Thomas Strickland was in the 
employment of Meeacs. Hallott & Wells, 
shipowners, and became manurer of the 
Greenland docks. He resided first at tbe 
Laurels, Thorpe, near Norwich, then at Stowe 
House, near Bungay, and finally, in 1608, 
bought Reydoa Hall, Suffolk. He also pos- 
sessed a house at Norwich, where in later 
life he lived during the winter. He took 
entire charge of the education of his elder 
daughters, £tizabeth and Agnes, and they 
early showed a taste for the study of history. 
He died of gont at Norwich on 18 May 1818, 
the disease being aggravated by anxiety 
consequent on tbe loss of tbe larger part of 
hia fortune. He was buried at Lakenham. 

The pecuniary situation of the family 
made it desirable that the sisters, who had 
already commenced to write, should regard 

their literary talents bm a part of their meuu 
of livelihood. Agnes's first publication WM 
'Monody upon the Death of the Princeaa 
Charlotte of Wales,' which appeared anony- 
mously in the 'Norwich Mercury' in 1817. 
In 18^7 she published by subscription 'Wor- 
cester Field, or the Cavalier,' a metrical ro- 
mance, written long before. ' The Seven 
Ages of Woman, and other Poems,' followed 
in the same year (another edition in 1847), 
About 1827, too, she paid a first viut to Lon- 
don and stayed with a cousin, in whoae house 
she met Campbell and Sir Walter Scott. 
With her cousin she studied Italian, and she 
sent some translations of Petrarch's aonueta 
to the ' New Monthly Magoiine.' She now 
turned her attention to prose, and, in conjunc- 
tion with her sister Elizabeth, wrote several 
books for children. The most important 
were: 'Historical Tales of Illustrious British 
Children' (1833 ; there were other ediliona 
in 1847 and 1858) ; 'Tales and Stories &om 
History '(S vols. 1836; the eighth edition 
appeared in 18G0, and the latest b 1870). 
InadditionAgnea contributed to the annuals; 
published at her own expense in 1833 <!>»• 
metrius,' a poem inspired by sympathy with 
the Greeks ; and in 1835 a series of tales 
in two volumes entitled ' The Filgrima of 

At this time Elizabeth was editing the 
'Court Magazine,' and had written for it 
some biographies of female sovereigns. It 
occurred to Agnes that historical biographies 
of the queens of England might prove usefuL 
The two sisters planned a book tcvether, 
under the title of 'Memoirs of the Qneens 
of England &om the Norman Conquest,' and 
obtained ;^rmisaLon from the young queen, 
who had luat ascended the throne, to dedi- 
cate it to ber. But before the first volume 
was published the title was appropriated 
bv another author, Miss Hannah Lawranca 
(1796--189S), whose ' Historical Memoirs of 
tbe Queens of England' appeared in 1839. 
The Stricklands then changed thmr title to 
' Lives of the Queens of England,' and the 
first and second volumes diuy app^red in 
1840. Agfnea's name was alone given u 
author on the title-page, Elizabeth having 
an invindble objection to publicity. Owing 
to an unbusiness-Uke agreement with Henry 
Colbum [q. v.], the publisher, the authors 
gained little remuneration, although the book 
sold well, Agnea fell ill, and wished to stop 
the work. But Colbum inaistad on its com- 
pletion, and finally agreed to pay the joint 
authors IfiO/.avtduoie. As the prosecotion 
of the work necetaitided fCeqaent vidts to 
London, Eliaabeth leased a cottage at Bays* 
water. There Agnes leuded wImh in towik 

zod by Google 



ghevitoesaed the queen's coronation in 1838, 
unA mi prMentod at court in 1840. In that 
T««r ibe mote at Golbnm's tequest ' Queen 
Victoria Iram Birth to Bridal' (S toIb.) The 
kook, which -was founded on BcastT uid un- 
tnutworthf mUerial supplied to toe author 
br Colbam, did not find favonr with the 

Miss Strickland based her ' Lives of the 
Qu«eiu' whererer possible on unpublished 
ollicitl records, on contemporary letters nnd 
other ^vate documents. When preparing 
the biographies oftbe consorts of Henry VIII 
she foond it necessary to consult state papers, 
and applied to Lord John Rnssell lor the 
Ri^aired permission, which he refused. How- 
ever, tbntufh the influence of Lord Nor* 
manby, the uitiiculty was overcome,and both 
■ifleis were permitted to work at the state 
papvr office whenei'er they liked. The 
riuicklands also visited many of the historic 

docammu. In ISU Miss Strickland visited 
Fkhs, and Guizot, who much admired her 
V'^rk. enabled herto make researcbee in the 
FrMwli archives. The last of the twelve 
Tolam« of the first edition of the ' Lives of 
ti- Queens' appeared in 1318. 

Bu this threat undsrtakinrdid not absorb 
ytsai Strickland's energies. Dnring 1813-3 
ab« edited and published the ' Letters of Mary 
QaeeoofS(»ts' in three volumes. The third 
TO tame was dedicated to JaneForCer [q. v.] 
aa fttrifaota of fi-iendshrp, and in the deaica- 
tioa lli« Strickland acknowledges the assis- 
t«iios mdered by Sir Robert Ker Porter 
'q. V.} in ffbtfiini"g transcripts from the royal 
aato^uh collection in the Imperial Library 
«f £(. FeCersbiuv. A new edition in two 
rolgmes appeared in 1841, and a complete 
cation in nn volumes in 1864. From 1360 
to Ufi9 Hisa Strickland was engaf^ in the 
w ritiig md publication of the ' Lives of the 
*i«aeMof Scotland and English Princessee 
co^eetedwith the Royal Succeasiou of Great 
&itatB,'wliichhada goodeale. In 1861 she 

;. 1864, 
er chief 
id just 



materials for her 'Lives of the kstPour Prin- 
cesses of the Royal House of Stuart* (pub- 
lished 1872), bet last work. At The Hague 
she had an intermw with the qoeen of the 

On 8 Ang. 1870 sbe was granted a pension 
of loot, from the civil list (d. CoLLBB, ZiCero- 
ture atidthePantion Lut,f,6i). In 1873 her 
health gave way { ahe broke an ankle through 
a fall, partial paralysis supervened, and she 
died at Southwold on 13 July 1874. She 
was buried in the chnrchyard of Sonthwold. 

Miss Strickland's fame as author and 
historian rests on the ' Lives of the Queens 
of England,' which was the joint work 
of herself and her sister Elizabeth. The 
lives contributed by Elizabeth, whose style 
is more masculine than that of Agnes, were 
those of Adelicia of Louvain, Eleanora of 
Aquitaine, Isabella of France, Isabella of 
Valois, Katherine of Valois, Elisabeth Wood- 
ville, Anne of Warwick, Miiabeth of York, 
Katharine of Arragon, jaue Seymour, Mary 
Tudor, Anne of Denmark, Henrietta Maria, 
Mary II, and Anne. To the 'Queens of Soot- 
land and English Princesses connected with 
the Boyal Succession of Great Britain' El ica- 
beth contributed Elizabeth Stuart, queen of 
Bohemia, and Sophia, electresa of Hanover. 
Elisabeth Strickland also wrote the lives of 
the Duchess of Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey, 
Lady Katharine Grey, and Lady Mary Grey 
in the "Tudor Princesses' (1868), and those of 
Lloyd and Trelawneyin the 'Seven Bishops ' 
(1866), both books, as usual, being given to 
the public as the sole work of Agnes. Elisa- 
beth conducted the greater part of the busi- 
ness arrangements connected with their joint 
literary work. She died at Abbot's Lodge, 
Tilford, Surrey, 30 April 1875. 

'The Lives of the Queens of England' 
was very succesaful aud popular. By 1864 
it was in a fourth edition, which was em- 
belliahed by portraits of each queen. In 
18ti3 Miss Strickland bought from Mrs. 
John Forstor (the sole executrix of Mr. Col- 
bum) the cOOTright of the book for 1,83S/. 
1m. ea. The statement (cf. Xotu and 
Queries, Snd ser. iii. 4C8) that the copyright 
fetched 6,900;. at Colbum's sale in 1867 
appears to be incorrect. Miss Strickland be> 
mieathed the property to ber steCer, Mrs. 
Catherine Parr Traill, who sold it to Messrs. 
Bell & Daldy in 1877 for 736i. (cf. Mbs. 
Tbaili., PearU and Pebbles, 1894). Of the 
eiUtion in six volumes published in 1864-5 
over eleven thousand copies were sold. The 
work has still a small though stead^aale. An 
abridged edition, intended for use in schools, 
appeared in 1867. 

Miss Strickland was laborious and pain^ 





Ulcing, but she linked the judicial temper 

and criticitl mind neceM&ry for deiJinf; in 
the right e^iiit with orinual authoritiee. 
This, ia conjunction with her estraordinai? 
devotion to Mur Queen of Scots and her 
BtTOng torf piejudicas, detract, from the value 
of her ccDclusionB. Her literarr stjle is 
weah, and the popularity of her booli ia in 
neat meaaare due to their trivial ^oasip and 
domestic details. Yet in her extracts ^m 
contemporar; authorities she amasfed much 
Taluable material, and her works contain pic- 
tures of the court, of society, and of domestic 
life not to be found- elsewhere {cf. Letters 
of Mary JRuueU Mii/ord, ed. Chorlev, 2ad 
ser. ii. 25-6). 

Miss Strickland took her work and her 
reputation Terr seriously. On one occasion 
she wrote to the ' Times ' \o complain of the 
plagiBiisms of Lord Campbell in hie 'LiTaa 
of the Chancellors,' and on another gave 
emphatjc eipreeiion, aUo in the 'Times,' 
to her indiniatioa at Froude's description of 
the death M Mary Queen of Scots. She was 
a welcome guest in the houses of many dis- 
tinguished persons, and her warm heart and 
conversational powers won for her many 
Mends. With theexceptionof JanePorter, 
whom she visits at Bristol, and with whom 
ehe carried on a frequent oorrespondenoe, 
and a casual meeting with Macaulay, whom 
she found uncongenial, she came little in 
contact with the authors of her day. 

Miss Strickland's portrait was painted in 
June 1846 by J. Hayes. By her will she 
bequeathed the picture to the nation, and it 
is now in the National Portrait Qallerj. It is 
B three-quarter length representing a woman 
of handsome appearance and intelligent ei' 

tression, with pale complexion and black 
air and eyes. The painting was engraved 
1^ S. C. iJewis, and forma the ^ontispiece ta 
'Historic Scenes and Poetic Fancies' (1650), 
and to the 1861 edition of the ' Lives of the 
Queens of England.' It was again engraved 
in 1867 by John Sartain of Philadelphia for 
the New York 'Eclectic Magasine' (voL 
xlii.) There is another engraved portrait 
in the ' Life ' by her sister, Jane Margaret 
Striokland (1887), which may be from the 
half-length in watercolour by Cruikshsnk 
mentioned in that book. A miniature painted 
by her cousin and a bust by Bailey are also 
referred to there. 

Other works by Agnes Strickland are : 
1. Floral Sketches, Fables, and other Poems,' 
1836 ; 2nd edit. 1861. 2. ' Old Friends and 
Nsw AcquainUncea,' I860; 2nd ser. 1861. 
She also edited Fisher's 'Juvenile Scrap- 
Book,' in conjunction with Bernard Barton, 

— Mir"" ' 

feom 1 837 to 1839, and contributed two tales 

to the 'Pio-nic Papers,' edited by Chaile* 
Dickens (1841). 

Miss Strickland's brother, 8 AiniBL Stbick- 
LUiD (1B09-I867),bom in England in 1S09. 
emigrated in 182S to Canada, where he !)*• 
came connected with the Canada Company 
and obtained the ccnnmisslon of major in 
the militia. His experiences are recorded 
in 'Twenty-seven Years in Canada' (2 vols. 
1S63), edited by Agnes. He died at Lake- 
field in Canada on 3 Jan. 1867. He was 
thrice married, and left many children. 

Another sister, Jakb Massikbt Stkioe- 
iiiiii (1800-1888), was bom 18 April 1800. 
She died at Park lAne Cotte^, Southwold, 
14 June 1888, and was buried m thechnrch- 
yardtherebesidehersisterAgnes. Herchief 
work was 'Home, Republican and Regal; a 
Family History of Rome,' It was edited by 
Agnes, and published in two volumes in 
1864. She wrote some insignificant boohs 
for children, and a biography of her sister 
Agnes, published in 1887. 

[Alii bone's DLBtionary, ii.22B4-B; sopplemeat, 
ii. 1101 ; Life \j her sister, Jane Margaret 
Strickland (1887): Mrs. TmiU'e Pferls and 
Febhlee, 18S4: ; private inforraation.] B. L. 


1853), naturalist, second son of Henry Eusta- 
tius Strickland of Apperley, Qloncestershire, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of Edmund Cart- 
wright, D.D. [q. y,], inventor of the power- 
loom, and granoson of Sir George Strickland, 
bart., of Boynton, was bom at Righlon in tho 
East Biding of Yorkshire on 2 March 1811. 
In 1827 he was sent as a pupil to Dr. Thomas 
Arnold (1795-1842) [q. v.], a family connec- 
tion, then living at Laleham. He besan to 
collect fossils when about fiAeen, and soon 
afterwards shells, about the samatime writing 
his first paper, a letter to the 'Meohanic«' 
Mazarine' (vii. 264) describing a combined 
wind-gauge and weathercock, with two dials 
ofhis own invention. On29Mayl828henia- 
triculated from Oriel College, Orford, enter- 
ing in Febroaiy 1829, and at once attend- 
ing Bucklond's lectures on geology. During 
vBCadon visits to Paris and the Isle of Wight, 
and at home in the Vale of Eveeham, where 
railways were then being begun, he showed 

graduated B.A. in 1839, proceeding M.A. in 
1836. He furnished geological infonnstioTt 
to George Bellas Greenough [q. v.J on the 
map of Worcestershire ; and, in conjunction 
with Edwin Lees, made the first geological 
map of the country for Sir Charles Ha8tinga*s 
' niuBtrations of the Natural History of 
Wnrceeterahire,' 1834, Hastings introdocttd 




him to Sir Roderick Murcliisoii, who Ksked 
Iiim to laj doTCn the bound&rj line between 
the lias aai the new red aaiidatoiie on the 
ordosttce map, then in preparation. 

In April 1835 Mnrchison Tiaited Crocombe 
H oiue, £l vesham, where Strickland was living 
«itli hiB pareata, btinging vith him Wil- 
liam Join Hamilton [q. v.], who waa then 
amn^in^ hia tour through. Aaia Minoi, 
StrickUad at ODce agreed to go with him, 
asd thej left London on 4 Jufj. Together 
they trarersed Greece, Constantinople, and 
the western coMt of Asia Minor, Strickland 
r^ioming alone through Greece and visiting 
Ii^j and Switzerland. During the twofol- 
Icwiog years Strickland w«a mainly engaged 
in {^dparinjr the resultB of his journeys for 
thb Geological Society, reading six papers 
on the geology of the countries visited. In 
1&37, in company with his father, he visited 
iKe BOrth of Scotland, Orkney, Skje, and the 
G^ieat Glen, meeting Hugh Miller at Oro- 
many. Murchison then urged Strickland 
to vo^ out the new red sandstone in the 
aeifhboorfaood of his home, and the result 
w:a« ■ joint paper on that formation in 
Gl-Toceftershire, Woroesteiahire, and W&r- 
vick^re, in the ' Tran»actions of the Geo- 
lo^icil Society ' (yoI. v.), which is of interest 
■■ tnnuining the earliest mention of fossil 
footprinta in English triaaaic rocks. At the 
Brituh Anociauon meeting at Glasgow in 
1840 Strickluid read his first paper on classl- 
ficatioo, ' On the true method of discovering 
th«Nuaisl Sretem in Zoology and Botany, 
ktuckiog men 'binary' and 'qninary' me- 
icleay and Swainson 
Iff Natural Hutory, 
ly and Babington, he 
imittee on the vit^ty 
nbeny and Henslow 
pted, and the fifteen 
waa summarised by 
sntial address at the 
QellanLam mseCing in 18£6. 

Sooi afterwarda Strickland's attention was 
fincted (o tha need of reform in loological 

Strickland's work, were approved at the 
Manchester meeting of the association in 
I8jl3, and - ware .first printed in the report 
for that year. They were reprinted wiUi 
some modification bj Sir William Jardine 
in 1863, and in the ' Report ' for 1865 _; and, 
having been recognised as authoritative by 
naturalists generally, were re-edited, at the 
request of the association, by Dr. P, Xj. 
Sclater in 1878. It wsa at the ilanchestar 
meeting in 1843 that Strickland broached 
the idea of a natiml history publishing so- 
ciety, which he at first proposed to call 
the Montagu Society. Til. George John- 
ston of Berwick, however, took the first 
active steps to realise the scheme, which 
resulted in the Bay Society. For one of 
the first volumes issued by the society Stride- 
land translated Prince Charles Lucien Bonfr- 
raxt^a ' Report on tha State of Zoology in 

On bis marries, in 1846, Strickland made 
a tour through Holland, Bremen, and Ham- 
burg to Gopenhagen, Malmo, Lund, and Stral- 
sund, returning hy Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, 
the Saxon Switzerland, Frankfort, and Brus- 
sels, visiting most of the museums on the way. 
His attention was now, nnder the influence 
of Sir William Jardine, his father-in-law, 
mainly directed to ornithology, and on this 
journey he was much interested in the pic- 
turee and remuns of the dodo. Taking a 
hoose in Beaumont Street, Oxford, he devoted 
some hours daily to his work on 'Ornitho- 
logical Synonyms,' one volume of which was 
issued after his death by his widow and her 
father [London, 1855). He also carried on 
an extensive ornithological correspondence 
with Edward Blyth in India, and with Sir 
William Jardine, and began a ' Synonymy of 
Reptiles.' At the Oxford meeting of the 
British Association in 1347 he was chairman 
of Section £, and gave on evening lecture on 
the dodo. With the assistance in the ana- 
tomical part of Dr. A. G'. Melville, after- 
wards professor of zoology at Oalway, Strick- 
land in 1848 produced his monograph on 
' The Dodo and its Kindred ; or the i^istory 
ondAfBnitiesofthe Dodo, Solitaire, and other 
Extinct Birds,' London, fol. The preparation 
of the illustrations for this work and for Sir 
William Jardine's ' Contributions to Orni- 
thology ' directed Strickland's notice to De 
la Motto's process of ' anastatic ' printing. 
He and his wife drew birds on paper wiui 
lithographic chalk, and De la Motte, who 
was then living in Oxford, printed from these 
drawings. Strickland wroto two letters to 
the 'Athenaeum' (1848, pp. 172, 276) on 
this process, which he s^Iad papyrography. 
He arranged the publication by the Sar 





Society of Aga^Riz's ' BibliographiaZoologiie 
ei Qeolt^EB, undertaking to edit it him!<elf, 
and adding in. the procees more than a third 
as nmch material as wb.b in the ori^nal 
tnanuBcript. He published three volumea 
in 1848, and had practically completed the 
fourth at the time of liifldeatn. Itwasiaaned 
b; Sir William Jarditie in 1854. 

In 1849 Strickland moved to Appcrley 
Green, near Worceeter ; but, on its becom- 
ing necessary to appoint a euccesaor to Dr. 
Buckland, he consented to act as deputy 
reader in geology at Oxford. He acted as 
president of the Aahmolaan Society, waaone 
of the ^itnesBee before the Oxford Univer- 
sity commiesion, and was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society in 1853. In May 1853 he 
made El yachtingexcureion tothelsleof Man 
and Belfast Lough withhisfriendT.C.Eyton, 
the ornithologist, who afterwards publtsheo 
an account of it (HTJirr, Taekthtff MqgaziM, 
iii. 233). After the meeting of the British 
Flamborough Head with John Phillips, and 
parted with him on IS Sept. to visit a new 
section on the Sheffield, Manchester, and Lin- 
colnshire railway at Clarborough, between 
Retford and Gainsborough. While examin- 
ing the cutting on tlie following day he was 
knocked down Dvan express train and instan- 
taneously killed. A stained-glass window 
was erected to his memory by his family in 
Duerhurat church, and another by his friends 
at Watermoor, near Cirencester. A genus 
of brachiopoda and a fossil plant both bear 
the name StricklantSa. 

Strickland married, on 23 July 1846, Cathe- 
rine Dorces Maule, second daughter of Sir 
William Jardine, who survived him. His 
collection of birds — begun in his boyhood, 
including 130 brought rrom Asia Minor and 
Greece, of which three were new to science, 
twelve hundred purchased in 1838 fr«m his 
cousin Nathaniel Strickland, and five hun- 
dred acquired from his coosin Arthur in 
1850, and comprisingin all over six thousand 
skins — was presented by his widow to the 
university of Cambridge in 1867, and a cata- 
logue of them was published in 1883 hy Mr. 
O. Salvin. Sir William Jardine, in his ' Me- 
moirs ' of Strickland, published in 1 868, enu- 
merates 1S6 papers or other publications by 
him, and reprints fifty of his papers as a 
'Selection from hieScientiflc Writings.' The 
Volume contains, besides various other illus- 
trntiona, two lithographic portraits of Strick- 
land by T. H. Maguire — one from a painting 
ty F. W. Wilkins in 1837, the other from a 
photograph by De la Motte in 1863. 

[Uumoirsh; Sir W. Jardine, 18GS;AthflaaTOm, 

1803, pp. toei, 112s.] e. a B. 


1717), admiral, bom in 1640, was second son 
of Walter Strickland of Katehy Hall, Gai^ 
Btan^, Lancashire (a cadet of the Stricklands 
of Siiergh, Westmoreland), hy Anne, daugh- 
ter of Roger Croft of East ApnletonandOstte- 
rick, Yoriiahire. His elder Brother, Robert, 
was attached to the household of James, duke 
of York, and was afterwords v ice-chamberlain 
to Queen Mary Beatrice. In 1661 Roger was 
appointed to oe lieutenant of the Sapphire; 
in the following year he served in the Crown, 
in 1663 in the Providence, and in 1666 was 
appointed to the command of the Hamburg 
Merchant, from which he was moved into 
the Rainbow, Early in 1666 he was ap- 
pointed to the Santa Maria, of 48 guns, which 
ship he commanded in the four days' fight 
(1-4 June), and again on 25 July 1666. In 
1668 he was in command of the Success tmd 
in 1671 of the Kent {Oil. State Pcqien, Dom. 
167i;. On 16 Jan. 1873 ha was com- 
missioned to the Antelope, and waa trans- 
ferred on 29 Feb. following to the Plymontli, 
a 68-gnn vessel (i&. 1671-2), in which ha 
took part in the battle of Solebsy on 28 May 
1672 as one of the blue squadron, and re- 
covered the Henry, which had Ijeen captured 
by the Duteh ; and again in the three actions 
011673, his services in which wererewarded 
with the honour of knighthood, and he waa 
also appointecl, 1 Oct. 1672, captain in the 
marine regiment, and in the following year 
in Lord Widdrin^n's regiment (DiiTON, 
Engluh Army Lut). In 1674 he waa ap- 
pointed to the Dragon, in which he continued 
in the Mediterranean for three years under 
tbe command of Sir John Narbrough [q. t.]; 
and on his return in 1677 was again sent; 
out in tbe Mary as rear-admiral and third in 
command vrith Narbrough, and later with 
Admiral Arthur Herbert (afterwards Earl of 
Torrington) [q. v.] On 1 A5rill678 hewas 
in company with Herbert in the Rupert 
when they captured a large Algerine cruiser 
of 40 guns after on obstinate fight. He re- 
turned to England in the Bristol, and seems 
to have been then employed for some months 
as a captain cniising in the Channel, aft«r 
which be resided principally at Thornton 
Bridge, near Aldborough in Yorkshire, a 
property which he had acquired from his 
cousin, Sir Thomas Strickland of Siiergh; 
he was elected M.P. for Aldborough in 
March 1684-6. He had inherited in 1681 
an estate near Catterick, under the will of 
his aunt Mary, widow of Richard Brsthwaita 
[q. v.] 

In August 1681 the Duke of York tna 
seeking to find employment for him {Sut. 
MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. v. App. p. 66), and 





on 13 Dec. 16S1 be wu appointed deputy ' 
goTfiaor of Southsea Cutle (Cal. State 
J'a/xn, Dam. t6S9-90;) ; but it was not till 
«it«r the duke's aceeasion as Jameg II that 
StrickUnd was Bgaia appointed captain of 
tin Bristol. Jn August 1366 he vaa sent 
ineommand of aamsU at^uadrou off Algiers; 
in Jul* 1687 as Tice-admiral of a fleet under 
the Diika of Grafton to convoj the queen 
of Portugal to Lisbon ; and on his return 
fiiiine was appointed on 80 Oct rear-admirttl 
cf England and admiral of the blue squadron. 
In the summer of 1688 he was appointed to 
oomnand the fleet in the Narrow Seas, but 
in September, the seamen of the flagship haT- 
in^ tffoken out into violent mutiny in con- 
»»)aeDce of his ill-jodgod attempt to have 
BLus publicly aaid on boanl, he was super- 
seded by Lord Dartmouth [see Lbgoe, 
Geoksb.Lobd Dakthouth]. Stricldend re- 
mained as Tic«-admiral till al^r the revolu- 
tion, vban (13 Dec. 1668) he, with other 
fioniin catholic officers, resigned his com- 
■■isian and irent to Fiance, where he rfr- 
eeiied JamM on his lauding. In the folloW' 
inf vear he accompanied James to Ireland, 
tbiMigh he seems to have held no command. 
In the Enclish parliament his name was at 
fitit iDcluded in a projected bill of attainder, 
end, though it -was struckout on the ground of 
waat of evidence, be was none the less after- 
wards officially described as attainted and 
outlawed, kad his estates were confiscated 
* IIr high trsMon committed on 1 May 1639 ' 
( Heyorttf Attomof-Oeneral, Cal. Treatury 
Pafow, 1708-14). He passed the rest of 
hot Ii& at St. Oennaia, and in 1710 was 
MWitioned by Nathaniel Hooke [q. v.] as 
likely to be useful to the Jacobites, being ft 
SHo that knew the Channel (Cbmuvort- 
doKt tf Cohitel Sooke, Roxborghe Club, 
ii. 3G6}. He had, however, no part in the 
nsomctiao of 1715, died unmarried on 
i Aug. 1717, and waa buried at St. Oer- 

had repaired in 1689. He studied diTinit; 
for four years at Donay, and returned to 
England after his graduation in 1712. It 
appears that he subsequently entered the 
English seminary of St. Gregory at Paris. 
In 1716 he was proposed as a coadjutor to 
Bishop QiFToTd of tne London district, but 
was rejected on the score of his youth and 
unfamiliority with England (Bkadt, Episco- 
pal Sueceagion, iii. 154). For some time he 
resided at Bar in Lorraine, at the court of 
StaiuslasLeszcz;nski,the exiled king of Po- 
land, from whom, according to Berington, 
he 'obtained the honour of the Homas 
purple, which he afterwards resided.' At 
Rome he gained the esteem of Clement XI 
and of the college of cardinals; and at 
Vienna, which capital he thric« visited, he 
was honoured by the emperor Charles VI 
(CoxB, Walpole, ii. 309 n.) Though bis 
tomily had alwavs been adherents of the 
Pretender, Strickland incurred the resent- 
ment of the court of SL Germain by his ne- 
gotiations to induce the English catholics to 
I acknowledge the de facto government, and 
Queen Marv Beatrice personally interfered 
to prevent his preferment. An anonymous- 
pamphlet, ' A Letter from a gentleman b£ 
R{omel to a friend at Lfondon^,' printed in 
1718, further eiaspernted the lacobites by 
its frank criticism of the Pretender's bigotry. 
It was attributed to Strickland, and the - 
Earl of Mar, whom it especially attacked, 
speaks of the author as ' a little conceited, . 
empty, meddling prigg.' But Jacobite oppo- 
sition could scarcely retard Strickland's ad- 
vancement, and on 2S Nov. 1716, writes 
Dangeau, ' the Abbfi Strickland, to whom 
the buke of Orleans had promised the abbey 
of Saint Pierre de Pr£aux in Normandy, on 
the recommendation of the ministers of liing 
George, was presented this momiug to hia 
royal highness, to whom he tendered his 
thanks.' The presentation doubtless took. 
place at the Palais Royal, Paris. The abbey 
was worth 12,000 or 15,000 ' livres de renteJ 
His promotion was effected mainly through 
the efforts of Lord Stair (Gbahax, Carr^' 
apondertce qf the Earh of Stair, 1875, ii. 6&\. 
Strickland now proceeded to Englnnd, 
where, settled in London, and in close connec- 
tion with the British court, ha exerted all his 
influence in the cause of his catholic brethren 
with a view to reconcile them to their de 
facto sovereign after the disastrous events 
of the recent rebellion of 1715. la 1719 a 
projectwasformedforfavouring' the catholics, 
to which, it is related, the ministers of the 
crown cordially acceded. A committee of 
catholics therefore met, and some progresa 
appeared to be made ; but the spirit of jac9- 





bitism oltimatalj' prevailed, and the acheme 
"Was abandoned. The principal agent in 
thia a&if waa the Abb6 StricMand. Itwas 
alle^^ ' that hs was an enemy to his religion 
andinclined to Janaenism,' but he indignantly 
repelled the accuaation. 

It ie aaaerted that in the latter part of the 
reign of Qeonfe I he maintained a correepoo- 
denee with the opposition, throngh vboee 
int«reet with the emperor he was raised to 
the see of Namur. He "was consecrated on. 
28 Sept. 1727 (Oufs, Seriei ^itooporum, p. 
260). Siibsequently he became on informa- 
tion agent in the aervioe of the Engliah 
miniatij, and rendered himgelf ao useful that 
he waa considered a proper person of oonfi- 
dence to resida at lUime for the purpose of 
giving information with regard to the Pre- 
tender, With thia view William Stanhope 
(afterwards first Earl of Harrington) [q. v.] 
went ao far aa to apply to the emperor for 
his interest to obtain tor Strickland a car- 
dinal's hat. 

A few years later, in Ae aatiunn of 17S4, 
Strickland waa at Vienna, and the emperor, 
catching at a last atraw in hie endeavour to 
Mcure England aa an ally in his war with 
France, resolved to employ him upon a 
delicate miaaion. Strickland represented 
that he could either force the British ad- 
miniitration to ent«r into a warwith Prance, 
or else drive Sir Robert Walpole from office 
by detaching Harrington and others from 
the majority. The emperor accordingly fur- 
niahed Strickland with private credentiala to 
the king and queen of England. The bishop 
came to England in 1734 under the assumed 
name of Mr, Moaley, was gradonaly received 
bytheir majesties, and held conferences with 
IJord Harrington, who, though Walpole'e 
colleague as secretary of state for the northern 
department, waa anxioua to aapport the em- 
peror againat Franca in tJie war of Polish 
eucceesion (17S8-6). But the equilibrium 
of Walpole and hie pea ce policy were not eo 
eaulj aiaturbed. Walpole waa soon in- 
formed of Strickland's negotiation, and 
S^eklaud waa civilly dismissed (Oozs, Siet. 
of th« Hotue of AtuMa, ii 146}. He died 
at Namur on 12 Jan, 1739-40, ud was 
buried in his cathedral. 

SbricUand made additions to bis cathedral, 
feundedaadendowedtheaeminary at Namur, 
kud bnilt tlie episcopal palace, wLich is now 
the seat of ^e provmcial administration and 
tiieresidmce of Ae governors. Lord Hervey 

Cea a moat Tm^vnurable pictnre of Strick- 
d, who was famed, he aaya . f or dissolute 
conduct wherever he went. Walpole, who 
waa no I«Ha hostile to him, denounces hia 
'Mtful aid intriguing tarn,' hat admits his 

reputation fi>r gpoA maaa^ment and di»- 
interestedness within his diocese. M. Julea 
Borgnet, state archivist at Namur, who 
perused Strickland's correspondence (173&- 
1740), describee him as a man of heart and 
intelligenoe, a friend of religion and of the 
arts I^AimalM d» la SotiiU ArcMologiotu it 
Xamvr, u. 383-95, iv. 2, v. 408, ivL 14, aeqq.) 

There are two portraits of the Abb6 Strict 
land at Sizeigh, and a third is at Namor. 
His portrait has been engraved in meizotint 
by J. Faber, from a picture by Van der Bank, 
painted for the first Viscount Bateman, and 
now in the possession of Mr. W. 6. Strick- 
land (el. J. Cealonbb Suth, Memotinto 
Port, 1. 438 ; a fine impreaaion is in the 
British Mnseom print-room); and also by 
Thomaasin (Noblb, Ckmtinuatiou of Qranatrr, 
in. 169). 

[Butler's Hiat. Memoirs of English Catholics 
(1S22), iii. 170-S ; Catholio Mo^ub and Re- 
view, iii. 104 ; Tiannctions of tba Cnmbecland 
and Weatmoreland Aotignarian Soo. <188B), x. 
91 and ^adigraa ; Jonraal du Harqoia de Dao- 
gean, xni. 430 ; Michel's Booaiaia en FMnea, ii. 
Ses R. ; Oaatlareagh Oorraap. vol. iv. a^. ; Har- 
vsj'b Mamoin, ii. fi6 ; Addit. US9. 20311 ff. 391 
«q., and 30313 f. 149 ; Stowa MS. 131 ; Notea 
andQuariea, lat ■ei.iL19S,23T,2T0i Fanzani'i 
Hemoira, p. 408 ; Stanhopt's Hist, of England, 
ii, 374; private information.] T. C. 

8TEI0KLAND, WALTEE 01. 1640- 
1660), politician, a youngw aon of Walter 
Strickland (A. 1636) of Boyntou, Yorkshire, 
by hia wife Fraoow, daughter of Peter Want- 
worth of LillingstoueLovel,OxfordsliiTe,and 
niece of Sir ^uicia Walaingfaam, waa ad- 
mitted toGray'e Inn on 16 Aag.l618(FotaBB, 
Ora^iItnlUg. p. 162). In Ausust 1642 the 
Long parliament chose him aa ueir agent to 
the States-Oeneral of the United J^vinces 
to complain of the aaaietance given by the 
Prince of Orange toObarles I(G&8Bir, Lu~ 
tart qf Henrietta Maria, -p. 102; CuBEK- 
SOK, SebtUiort, vi. 176, 204). He remained 
in Holland until 1648, and was given a aalary 
of 400/. per annum (Commtmt' Joumalt, iv. 
226, V. Wi). Strickland's instructions and 
his letters to parliament are printed in the 
Journals of the House of Lords ' (vi. 331, 
152, 619, Tiii. 15, 306, &c. ; see alao C*et, 
MemoriaU of the Civil War, L 165, 226, 
808,309,840; Report on the Dvke of Port~ 
;aTuf>dfaniuc7u:it«, 1112,117,26^, InJnly 
1648 he waa ordered to accompany the Sari 
of Warwick to sea, and in Septamber follow- 
ing to ntum to hu post in Hdland (LM-d^ 
Joumalt, X. 397 ; Cbntmoiu' Jovnutlt, vi. 
31). His salary was raised by the Ctaanion* 
wealthto 6001. perannum(a.n. 123). 8trick~ 
land's post waa by no meena fiee from psnl^ 





•s the fkte of his colle^ue. Dr. DoriBlaus, ! 
(fured, &Bd he was &equently threatened I 
wiih ft Bimilor death (CAar, ii. 104, ISl, I 
loo). He was recalled from HoUuid on j 
31 Junfl lt>50, and thanked by parliament , 
for his lerTicsa on 3 Aug. On S3 Jui, 1651 ' 
purUame&t telecled StricKland to accompany ' 
OliTer St. John (1598 P-167S) [q. v.] in hi 
fuBOua anbosay to Holland to negotiate a 
doseaUioBCe, and, if poeaible, apoliticaluaion 
be<wr«n the two coiomoa'weBJths (W k'tji - 
LocKz. MmoriaU, iii. 267 ; Oasdibeb, Hi»- 
tary of tia OenummioealtA aitd Protectorate, 
L 3n7-65). Their nus&ion was a failure, and 
on :Aj June the twoambaasadora took leave of 
thi> f tatet-Oeneral ; they received the thanka 
of parliament, and gave the houae a narrative 

ol the amfaassadorg see TkttrU>« Papert, i, 
174-43; Report on tlie Dtika of Fortland't 
MSS. 1 567-608). 

Stncitand's career in domeetio politica, 
irhith now begins, opened with his election 
m» aeaber for Hinehsad about 164£. On 
iO Feb. 1651 he was elected a member of 
thethird council of state of the Commou- 
vvtlih; in the fourth conncil he did not 
ait. but he was elected to the fifth on 25 Nov. 
lti:,-2 (Common^ Journals, vi. 5S3, viL 2^0). 
WlieD Cromwell expelled the Long pBrU»- 
>i>«t,StnckUndwas one of the four civilians 
«bo sat in the council of thirteen elected by 
lk nrny; he was also a member of the 
Little fiuUament and of the two councils of 
state which it appointed. He was in both 
tht cooscils of state appointed during the 
Protectorate, and consequently was popu- 
Urlydveeribed asLord Strickland. InltS54 
fat was made uptain of the grey-coated fbot- 

J _. _-.._J »!.- O-.^-.^^, ^j, 


nudt, who waited upon the Protectoi 

•MuUhall (CrvmaMtliojta, m. 141, ^ 

II Mieeellmiy, iii. 477). Hesat 

.mtof 1654 as member for the East 

of IforksliirOr *^^ '*''' Nawcaatls in 

1656. In I>eceBiber 1657 the Pro- 

i hini to his House of Lords. 

^w* H v«7 little evidence to determine 

ftneklnd'B politioftl vtews. Two epeeohea 

^iwd in tie par liamentof 1666 show that, 

wUbie detested tba vi«WB of James Nayler 

fa.Tlthe qamkmr, he bed joster viewa of 

^mmof tl» hoH« » punish such ot- 

*MM tlwB motn of bitt eoll^gnes (Bceiot, 

Jhfts^j itoy IM^ry, i. M, 87). Lndlow 

neoib «■ «nm««»* w^ioh ha had with 

SniAlMd oa die poww of the iword and on 

tk. diffinoce beWreeo the L<«gparhamMt 


r 1657 he oTO 
tiff tbe petitkm and ad 

he was not generally considered hostile to 
the offer of the crown to Cromwell {Com- 
•mani Joamala, vji. 4B6). 

Strickland waa one of the couacU of Ri- 
ciiard Cromwell, but this did not prevent 
him &om taking hia seat in the restoredLong 
parliament and accepting the republic. He 
was a member of the committee of safety 
appointed by the army on 26 Oct. 1659, and 
when the Long puliament was again rein- 
stated, it summoned him to answer for his 
conduct (LuBLOw, Memoirs, ii. 131, 173, 
201; Common^ JournalSftn. mO). HewBS 
not held dangerous, and at the restoration of 
Charlefl II escaped without any penalty, 

Strickland married Dame Anne Morgan, 
who ia said to have been a daughter of Sir 
Charles Morgan, governor of Bergen-op- 
Zoom. She was naturalised by act of par- 
liament on IS Feb. 1661 (CuBBNiioir, Sebel- 
lion,-xJa. 8, ed. Macray; Cwtmum^ Jouraais, 
vi. 535). 

8iB William SrmcKL*in> (1696 P-1678), 
politician, elder brother of the above, was 
bom about 1698 (Fosthb, Yorkshire Pedi- 
greet, vol.ii. ' Strickland of Boy nton '). He 
was admitted to Gray's Iim on 21 May 1617 
(FosTBit,6'ray''/nniff^<er,p. 145). Hewas 
knighted by Charles I on 24 June 1630, and 
created a baronet on 29 July 1641 (Mbtcalfe, 
Book of Knightt, p. 191 ; Deputy-keeper <^ 
Publio Seoimis, 47th Rep. p. 135). In the 
Long parliam^it he represented the borough 
of Hedon, and vigorously supported the par- 
liamentaij cause in Yorkshire. Sir John 
Hotharo wrote to the speaker in March 
1643 saying that Strickland had been plim- 
dered by the royalists of goods to the value 
of 4,000/. (S^ort m Ma Duke o/ Port- 
lands MS3. i. 41, 101). In July 1648, 

He represented Yorkshire in the two parlia- 
ments of 1654 and 1656, and was summoned 
by Cromwell to hia House of Lords (Bbait, 
Parliamentary Xopreeentation of Yorkshire, 
mi. 709, 8S5). His speeches in 1656 show- 
that be was a strict puritan ; he spoke olten 
for the pouishment of James Nayler, and 
was eager to assert the privUegea of the 
house against the Protector's intervention 
(BiTKroir, Parliamentary IXary,i.S6,6l,76, 
79, 131, 169, 253, 276). An opposition pam- 
phlet etigaiatises him as 'of good compliance 
with tiia new court, and tor settling the 
Protector anew in all those things for which 
the king waa cut off' (' Seoond NarrativB of 
the Late Parliament,' Sarl«i»n Misoeliany, 
iii. 466). Strickland sat in the restored Long 
pailiamsnt in 1659, but took very little part 
in it* proceedings (Hiseov, I^ tf Miit«u, 





T. 460,644). AttheRestorationhewBanot 
molested, and afwr it he retired altogether 
from public affain. He died in 1673. 

Strickland married twice; first, on 18 June 
1622, Margaret, daughter of Sir Ricbard 
Cholmley of Whitby (she died in 1629) 
(Memcrirt qf Sir Hagh CholmU^, pp. 22, 29 ; 
FoBTIGR, London Marriage Licettat, 1S98); 
BticDndl;, Fmnces Finch, eldest daughter of 
Thomas, first earl of 'WiDchileea, 

[Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees ; Fosfart 
BiTODetage ; Burke's BsroDeCage; Dagdnle's 
VisitaUon of Yorkshire {Snrtees Soc) zizri. 
112; Uasson's Uilton, passim.] C. E. f . 

bishop of Carlisle, is perhaps the William de 

Strickland who was rector of Ousby in Cum- 
berland in 1866 and parson of Bothbury, 
Northumberland, in 1S80 (cf. Bist. MSS. 
07u».9thIt«p.App.p.l9o; (M. Pat. Soils, 
Eichard II, 1.689; Qit. Doc. relating to Scot- 
land, iT.77). He may have been a member 
oC the Strickland family of Sizergh. In 1388 
he was chaplain to Thomas Appleby, bishop 
of Carlisle, by whom he wae presented to the 
church of Homcastle. He was elected to the 
bishopric of Carlisle in 1396, but the pope 
quashed the elect ion in &vour of Bobert Eeade 
[q.T.] In 1400, after Henry IV had deprived 
Thomas Merke [q. v.] of the see, Strickland's 
promotion was favoiired both by the king 
and chapter. The pope on his part, without 
waititur for election or the royal assent, pro- 
vided Strickland to the bishopric. Though 
cuatod^ofthetemporalitieahaa been granted 
to Strickland on 18 Feb., Henry was very 
indignant (NlCOLlB, Proc. Primf Counail, l. 
115-17), and would not acknowledge Strick- 
land as bishop until he had been elected 
by the chapter and confirmed by himself. 
Strickland was consecrated by the arch- 
bishop of York at Gawood on 24 Aug. 1400, 
but he did not receive formal restitution of 
the temporalities till 16 Nov. following 
(Fixiera, viii. 106, misdated 1899). Strick- 
land was a commissioner to negotiate peace 
with Scotland on 20 Sept. 1401 (Kicolab, 
Proc. Privy OnmctV, i. 168), and on 9 May 
1402 was directed to arrest persons sus- 
pected of asserting that itichard II was still 
alive (Fa«fcra,viii.2efi). On 9 May 1404 he 
was present at the truialation of St. John 
«f Bridlington (WALsnreHAU, Hist. Angl, 
ii. 262). In the same year he had a grant 
of the office of constable of Rose Castle. 
Strickland was one of the witnesses of the 
■ct declaring the succession to the crown In 
1400. He IS said to have built the tower 
■nd belfty of the cathedral at Carlisle, and 
llie towec 4t Bose Castle which beais tiis 

name. He provided the town of Penrith 
with water, and founded the chantry of St. 
Andrew at that place. Strickland died on 
SO Ane. 1419, and was buried in the north 
aisle of Carlisle Cathedral as desired in bis 
will, dated 25 Uay 1419 and proved 7 Sept. 
following. The monument shown as his a^ 
pears, however, to be of much earlier date. 

It would seem that before he took orders 
Strickland was married, for Robert de L01H 
tber (d. 1430) married a Uargaret Strickland 
whom the viaitationsof Yorkshire,1612,and 
of Cumberland, 1616, style ' daughter and 
heir of William Strickland, bishop of Cai> 
lisle.' The descendants of this marriage (the 
Esrl of Lonsdale and others^ qusrtar TAia- 
iraret Strickland's arms, whicK are the same 
as those of the SiierghStricklands, with the 
addition of a border engrailed. 

Strickland appears to have had lands im 
and shout Penntb. In 20 Richard II he had 
a license to crenellatfl ' quamdam cameram 
suam in villa dePenreth,' and in22IUchardII 
like license for ' unam mantellatam suam 
in Penreth ' (Tailos, Manorial Halls, &c) 
Margaret also had lands in Penrith, and 
Robert de Louther was one of the executors 
of the bishop's wilL 

rablD^ham's HisL Angl. ii. 217, 262; An- 
Heanci Qnartj, pp.834, 388, ap, Trokelowe. 
Blanrfordo, &c. (Bolls Ser,) ; Le Neve's Fasti 
UmL Angl iii. 23S-T ; JefTursoD's Cnrhsle, pp. 
200-2, and History of Leath Ward; Todd'a 
Notitia ; Stubbs's Reg. Sacrum ; Nicolson and 
Bum's Hist. Cumberland, iL 270-2; see ala* 
art. Thomas Msbeb.] O. L. K. 

STRiaUL or STRiaiTIL, Eael of. 
[See Cube, Richaed be, <f, 1176.] 
STRODE, SiE GEORGE (1583-1663X 

authorttndroyalist,bom in 1683, was younger 
son of William Strode, of Shepton Mallet, 
Somerset, by Eliesbeth, daughter and heiress 
of Geofirey Upton of Wanninster in th* 
same county. William Strode was grand- 
nephew of Richard Whiting, the last abbot 
of Glastonbury [q. v.] His son George came 
to London and entered trade, and on 11 Feb. 
1616 married, at All Hallows Church, Lom- 
bard Street, Rebecca, one of the dauffhten 
and coheiresses of Alderman Nicholas Crisp, 

thus became \ 

in ra.v.\ lord . 

_ Cullum[q.T.], 
sheriff of London m 1646. He shared the 
royalist opinions of his connections, and, like 
them, suffered in the cause. At the out- 
break of hostilities Strode took service in 
the infantiT,was knighted on 30 July 1641, 
and, together witli Sir Jacob Astley, Sir 



ITic^olu Byron, and Colonel Chftrlee Oerrard, 
wmUjIIv wounded at iheb&ICle of Edgelull 
OD 23 Uct. 1642, ■ fact alluded to in " 
epitaph. By 1636 he wm fdreadj; in po»- 
•»^n of the eatate of Squeries in Kent, 
wbkhbe parchosedfrom theBeresfords, and 
later had to coni{>ound for it with the parlia- 
meUaijcommiaaionen. Inl646Marylebone 
Pa^ a demeane of the crown, was granted 
tj lettara patent of Charles I, dated Oxford, 
e U«T, to Strode and John Wandeeford as 
secari^for a debt of 2,318;. lU.9d., due 
TO them for BuppljinK arms and ammunition 
during the troubles. These claima were natu* 
raily disregarded by the parliameatary party 
wlien in power, and the park was sold on 
behalf ofColonel Thomas H tirrison's dragoons. 
on wham it was settled for their pay. At 
Hit Restoration Strode and Wandeaford were 
rvic^iated, and held the park, with the ex- 
cvptioD of one portion, till thur debt was 

UMOwhile, after tike defeat of Charles I, 
Etrodc bad gone abroad, and there ' in these 
aad distracted times, when I was inforced to 
eat IDT bread in forein parts,' as he tells us, 
be Bolaced himself by translating a work 
by Ciiitofero da Fonseca, which appeared in 
lG-'i2, under tbe title of ' A Discourse of Holy 
LiOTe, written in Spanish by the learned 
ChriHopher de Foaseca, dona into English 
-with much Variation and some Addition by 
S'Qtatgo Strode, Knisht, London, printed 
^ i, Ftesber for Kichard Royaton at the 
Aaget in Ivy Lane.' His portrait, by G. 
Gto^, and arm» appear on the title-page. 
At tbe Restoration, Squerias having been 
aoldia 1650, hasettledonce more in London. 
His will, in which be left alegacy to Charles I's 
bjthfbl attendant, John Aahbumham, dated 
SiAjig. 1661, and confirmed on 6 Feb. fol- 
lowing, was DTored on S Jane 1668. Strode 

in the 

I 'that 


r Strode 

in stipple, engraved by Itocquet, and pub- 
lished by W. Scott, King Street, 1810. The 
original drawing for the latter engraving is 
in the Sutherland collection at the Bodleian 

Granger {Bioffr. Diet, iii, 110, ed. liTfr) 
erroneously claims Strode as the author of 
'The Anatomie of Mortalitie, written by 
George Strode, utter Barrister of the Middle 
Temple, for his own private comfort,' of 
which a first edition appeared in 1618, and 
a second in 1632. The same confusion is 
made in the British Museum catalogue. 
This book is the work of another George 
Strode who was entered of the Middle Tern- 

Sle on as Oct. 1586 as ' late of New Inn, 
lentleman, 4th son of John Stroodo of Por- 
ham, CO. Dorset, esqre.' 

[PrefBCB to his own work, IflfiS; Uiae. Geneal. 
et Herald, Znd ler-iv. 134 ; Somerset and Dorsrt 
Kot« nnd Queries, I. vii. 237, and I. viii. 262 ; 

Somerset, ii. 210; ClarendoD'a Hist, of the Re- 
bellion, Oxford, 1703, ii. 42; Parochial Hist, of 
Westerhain, Kent, by Q. Levenon-Gower, F.S.A. 
1883, p. IS.] G. M. O. C. 

STRODE, RALPH (jl 1350-1400), 
schoolman, was perhaps bom, like most of 
the name, in the west of England. The 
Scottish origin with which ne is oftea. 
credited is an invention of Dempster. He 
was educated at Merton College, Oxford, of 
which he became a fellow before 1800, and 
where John Wycliffe was his colleague. 
Strode acquired a high reputation as a 
teacher of formal logic and scholastic philo- 
sophy, and wrote educational treatises which 
had a wide vogue. Hiit tendencies seem to 
have been realistic, but he followed in the 
footsteps of Albert the Great, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Bonaventura, the inaugurators 
of that 'school of the middle' whoae mem- 
bers were called nominalists by extreme 
realists, and realists by extreme nominalists. 
An important work by him called ' Logics ' 
seems to have perished, but fragments of his 
lineal system have been preserved in his 
treatises 'Consequently' and ' Obligationes,' 
which were printed in 1477 and 1607, with 
the commentaries of Sermoneta and other 
logicians. Tbe ' Oonsequentiee ' explored 
'with appalling thoroughness' certam de- 
partments of logic (Fkastl), and provided 
in almost interminable series of rules for 
lyllogistic reasoning. The ' Obligationea,' 
called by Strode himself ' Sdiolastica 
Militia,' consisted of formal exercises in 
scholastic dialectics. Strode at the same 
took part in theolcfpcal controversy, 
and stoutly contested WycUffe's doctrine of 




{iredestination as deatroying all hope among 
men and deujiia^ iree-nOl. He argued that, 
though apostolic porertj waa better than 
wealth, the posseaaion of wealth bj the 
clergj was not Bioful, and it waa capable in 
their handa of beneficial application. Wy- 
clifie'sschemefoT chan^ngthe church's coo- 
etitution he considered feoliah and wrong 
because impracticable. Strode took his stand 
with Jerome and St. Augustine in insiBting 
thkt the peace of the church must be main- 
tained even at the risk of tolerating abusea. 
None of Strode's theological writinga but- 
vive, but they evoked a reply from Wyclifie. 
Thia is extant in 'Reaponsionea ad Bodol- 
phom Strodum/ a manuscript as jet un- 
triated ia the Imperial Libmry of Vienna 
No. 8926). ■Wycliffa'a 'ReBponsionea ' de- 
ime Strode's theological position. The tone of 
the discussion was, it Ls clear from Wvcliffe'a 
^ontribntion, unusually friendly and coiur- 
t«ous. The refocmer reminds Strode that 
he was ' homo quern novistis in scholia ' (i.e. 
at MertoD College). 

Wyclifib was not the only dietinKuiahed 
miter of the time with whom Strode was 
acquainted. At the end of Chaucer's 
'Trojlus and Cryseyde,' written between 
1372 and 1SS6, the poet penned a dedication 
of his work to the poet John Gower and the 
'philosophical Strode' conjointly. Ohaucer's 
lines run: 

moral Oowar, this books I directe 

Of yaure benigaetoa and zelei gi 

Ttken is every reason to doubt the accuracy 
«f the oft-repeated Btat«ment that Strode 
waa tutor to the poet's son Lewis while the 
latter was a student at Merton College in 
1391. For this son Chaucer wrote his 'Trea^ 
tise on the Astrolabe ' in that vear, and in 
-one manoscvpt of the work (Dd. o, 3, in Cam- 
bridge University Library) the colophon at 
the end of pt. ii. $ 40 recites : ' Explicit trso- 
tatus de condniionibus AstrolabL compilatns 
p«r Oalfridium Chancier ad Filium sunm Lo- 
dewicnro Scholarem tone temporis Ozonie, 
ae sub tutela illius nobilissimi philosophi 
Magistri N. Strode.' These worda were evi~ 
dently added towards the end of the fifteenth 
centniy, long after the manuscript was 
written. The script is ornate, and, although 
the initial before Strode's name is usuaUy 
Mad ' N,' it might stand for ' R.' In any 
case it saems probable that tli» reference, 
though a mere nroneous guess, was to Ralph 
the ^ ■" ' - ' -' ■ ' 




Lydgate and others of Chaucer's diadplea, 

as though mereW following Chaucer's preoo* 
dent in the dedication to ' Troylus,' often 
linked Strode'a name with Gowei's, but 
Strode himself seems to have essayed poetic 
composition. The ' Vetus Catalogue ' of the 
fellows of Merton CoU^, written in the 
fifteenth century, adds to Strode's some the 
gloss : ' Nobilis poetaf ui t et versificavit librum 
elegiacumTOcatumPhantasmaRBdulphi.' No 
mention is made in the catalogue of Strode's 
li^ical or theological work. John Lelaml 
(1606-1662) [q. v.], who had access to the 
Merton ' Vetus C«taIoguB,' expands, in his 
' Commentarii ' (Oxford, 1709), its deacrip- 
tion of Strode into an elaborate statom^it 
of Strode's skill in elegiac poetry, but does 
not pretend that he personally hod access to 
his work, and makes no mention of Strode 
in any other capacity then that of U> 
amatory poet. Bale, in the first edition of 
hie 'Brilannin Scriptores' (1&18), treats 
Strode exclusively as a Iwieian and a dft- 

E raved adversary of Wycli&. Incidentally 
e notes that Strode was an Englishmaa, 
though John Major had enoneously intro- 
duced his name into his ' History of the Scots' 
in 1621. Inthe next edition of Bale's 'Scrip- 
tores ' (1667), where Stnide'a biogra^y waa 
liberollT expanded, he was descrilwd as a 
poet 01 emmence. Chaucer was credited 
with having designated him as on English 
poet at the close of ' "B-oylus.' To Strode 
Bale now allotted, in addition to hia logical 
and tliecdogical tracts, two new literary worka. 
Til. the ' Ph&ntaama Badolphi' and (on tbo 
authority of Nicholas Brignam [q. v.], in « 
lost work, ' De Venatione rerum Memora- 
bilium *) an 'Itinerarium Terrte Sanotse' 
(Baib, Scnptoret, edited by R. L. Poofe 
from Selden MS. Sup. 64, f. 107). Pita and 
Dempster recklessly amplified, after their 
wont, Bale's list of Strode's compoaitione. 
Neither of the literary works assigned to 
Strode by Bole is known to be extant. The 
present writer has suggested as possibla 
that the fine fourteenth-century elegiac poem 
'The Pearl' (printed in 1881) may be iden- 
tical with the ' Hiaatasma Radulphi.' The 
author of ' The Pearl ' was also responsible for 
three other poems — 'Cleanness,' 'Patience,' 
and the romance of ' Sir Oawsmie and the 
Green Knight.' The poet was cleaiiy from a 
west midluid district, and, although Strode'a 
birthplace is not determined, he doubtlese 
belonged to one of the Strode &milies neaar 
that part of the country. 

It IS noteworthy that soon after the refer- 
ences to Strode oease in the Merton records, 
a ' RadulphuB Strode ' obtained a reputation 
•a a lawyer in London. Ha 





tentant of the city between 1375 and 1386, 
mud -was granted the gat« of Aldrich-^te, i.e. 
Aldencste. He died in 1887, when his will 
va» proTcd in the archdeaconry court of 
London; bat, though duly indexed in the 
»retiT« of the archdeaconry now at SomBr- 
»^ Home, the docomeiit itself ia misBin^. 
The will of his widow Emma was proved in 
MaT 13&( in the conuniesary court of Ijon- 
dc«i (ct LibtT AUm» Letter-book, H, 11). 
Her eie<:Titor3 were her son Ralph and Mar- 
gery, wife of Thomaa Lucib, citiien and 
Bieiwr of London. The fact that Chaucer 
was in posseMion of Aldgate, and resided 
there at the eame date ai the Oonimon-ee:^- 
j-taX Strode occupied Aldersgate, auggeata 
tip pofsibility of friendly intercourse be- 
tween the two. 

'Thn Xerton College RegJBter, the mentions 
<£ Snods in Chancer's works, and the aaeoautB 
of I«Uad ind Bale an the sol* authoritieaof any 
fai^Mrieil talniL John PiU, in hie antplifloatioa 
of fiUe, adda granitoiulj Ihat Strode trareiled 
in FncM and Italy and was a jocular oinTei- 
uUouIut. Dempster, in his Hist. EccL Oentla 
Soouram, eharaet«TisUEaU; described Strode as 
a Seouiah monk who receiTsd hia onrlj educo- 
tiai at Dryburgh Abbey, addndog at hia 
Bj:horitj a lort work by Gilbert Brown [q. v.] 
I>eiEpEi<r alao axlenda his alleged tcaTsls to 
G^nuny and the Holy Land, aud iocludes in 
U* hi^my Tork Fabohe Lepidae Tersn and 
^knccrns Teisu Fatrio. Stmlerand Posseviuo 
Ta«nel7 deMnbe Strode as a moot, bnt Qu4tif 
asd Edaid, Uie hiatoriana of the Domiuicaii 
ordar. eiaiu him ' ex flde Denpcteri ' aa a dia- 
tinpnilwl BwmbcF vt their order. Dempater'a 
Maty of Strode^ Scottiah origin hna been widely 


Btnietion to bie Son, A Mother'e Instruclion 
to her Daughter, Tha Thewia of Wyameo. The 
Thewia of Qud Women. . . . Next there i* 
Itiuorarium Tame Sancte, and again we have a 
poem by David iiate in Ashmole MS. 61, The 
Staayona of Jenualem. That tha author of that 
poem himaelf viaited the placea he describes ia 
not doubtful. He aaja be was there, Prantl'a 
Qeachichts der Lagik gives a eummary account 
of Strode's philosophy; 'iSi. H. Dziawicki, the 
BdiWr of Wydiffe, has kindly given the writer 
the benefit of his views on CETtain poiuta. The 
varions editions of Stroda's ConssquentiB and 
Obligatiouea ara catalogued in Hain'a Beper- 
torinm Bibliographjcum, vol. ii. Nos. IfiOftS- 
15100 ; eU Copinger'i Supplement, pt. i. p. 491 J 


STBODE, THOMAS CA 1642-1688), 
mathematician, son of Thomas Strode of 
Shepton-Mallet, Somerset, was bom about 
1326. He matricnlated from University 
College, Oxford, on 1 July 1642. After 
remaining there about two years, he travelled 
for a timein France with tus tutor, Abraham 
Woodhead [q. v J, and then returning settled 
at Maperton, SomorEet. Strode waa the 
authorof : 1. ' A Short Treatiseof theCom- 
binatioos. Elections, Permutations, and Com- 
position of Quantities,' London,1678, 4to, ia 
which, besides dealing with permutations and 
combinations, he treats of some cases of pro- 
bability, 2. 'A New and Eosie Method to 
the Art of Dyallin?, containing: (1) all 
Horizontal Byals, tS\. TJpright Dyals, &c.; 

SJ) the most Natural and Easie Way of 
escribing the Curve-Linea of the Sun's De- 
clination on any Plane,' London, 1668, 4tJ7. 
Another Thomas Strode (1628-1699), Ber- 
was son of Sir John Strode of that place by 
his second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir Jolm 
Wyndham of Orchard. He was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple in 1657, became 
aeneant-at-law in 1677, and, dying withoilt 
male issue on 4 Feb. 1698-9, was buried at 
Beaminstcr (HciCHin-s, Dorset, 1864, iL 

[Wood's Athsme Oxou, sd. Blisa, iv. 418; 
Postal's Alumni Ozon. lfiOO-1714.] K I. 0. 

BTRODB, WILLIAM (1599 P-1 645), 
politician, bora about 1599, was the aecond 
son of Sir William Strode, knt.,afNewnham, 
Devonshire, by ^^iTi daughter of Thomaa 
SonthcotBofBoveyTraoey in the same county 
(GSCBBTSB, WutminiUr Abbey Seffuten, p. 
£22). Strode matriculated at Exeter Ool- 
lege, Oxford, 9 Hay 1617, at the age of 
ei^teen, and graduatadB.A. SO June 1619. 
In 1614 he was admitted a student of tha 
Inner Temple (Fosthb, AhtmniOxan. 1500- 
1714, p. 1438). In the laet pailiament of 


Strode ( 

Jkmes I and in the earlient three p&rlio- 

mantBcalled by Charleal, Strode represenUd 
Beerdstou. Oa 3 March 1629, when the 
Bpeaker tried to adjourn the bouse and re- 
fused to put Eliot's Twoliitions to the TOts, 
Strode played a great pert in the disorderly 
scene which followed. He did not content 
himself with pointedly reminding the speaker 
that he was only the servant Of the house, 
but called on all those who desired Eliot's 
declaration to be read to sienify their assent 
by standing up. ' I desire the same,' he ex- 
plained, ' that we may not be turned off like 
scattered sheep, as we were at the end of 
the last session, and have a scorn put on us 
in print; but that we mayleave something 
behmd us' (Oabdiheb, JSutoiy of England, 
Tii. 69). The next day Strode was sum- 
moned before the couociL As he declined 
t^ come, he was arrested in the country, and 
committed first to the king's beach prison, 
then to the Tower, and thenca to the Uar- 
shalsea. "When he was proceeded against 
in the Star-chamber he repudiated the juris- 
diction of that court, and refused to answer 
outside parliament for words spoken within 
it. As ns also refused to bo hound over to 
good behaviour, he remained a prisoner until 
January 1640 ( ii. vii. 90, 116 ; Forster, 
Zifaqf Eliot, ii. 460, 531, 644,663; Grbeh, 
William Strode, p. 11). The Long parlia- 
ment voted the ]iroceedings against liini a 
breach of privilege, and ordered him 600Z. 
compensation for his sufTerings (Vbiuibi, 
Xotei of the Iiotw Parliament, p. 102 j Cfem- 
ffltW Joumalt, ii. 203, iv. 189). 

Strode was returned for Beeralston to the 
two parliaments elected in 1640. His suf- 
ferings gave him a position in the popular 
party which his anilities would not nave 
entitled him to claim, and his holdness and 
freedom of speech soon made him notorious. 
Clarendon terms him ' one of the fiercest 
men of the party,' and ' one of those Ephoii 
who most avowed the curbing and suppress- 
ing of mmesty' (^Rebellion, u. 86, iv. 32). 
D'Ewes describes him as a 'firebrand,' a 
' notable profaner of the scriptures,' and one 
with 'too hot a tongue' (Fobbteb, Arrest 
of th» Five MenOier*, p. 230). Strode was 
one of the managers of StraSord's impeAch- 
ment, and wag so bitter that he proposed 
that the earl should not be allowed counsel 
to speak for him (SaiLLiB, Letter», i. 809, 
880, 339). He spoke a^inst Lord-keeper 
linch, and was zealous for the protestation, 
but his most important act was the intro- 
duction of the bill for annual parliaments 
{Not^>o<>k of Sir John J¥ortA<»(e, ed. H. A. 
Hamilton, 1877,pp.96, 112 ; Vbbnhy, Note*, 
f. 67). In ths Mcoad session of the Long 

o Strode 

farliament be was still bolder. On 23 Oct. 
641 he demanded that parliament should 
have a negative voice in all ministerial ap- 
pointments, and a month later moved that 
the kingdom should be ^ut in a posture of 
defence, thus foreshadowing the militia bill 
(QiBDiNBR, ii. 253, 1. 41, 86; cf. Sasfokb, 
Studia of the Great Eebellion, pp. 446, 463). 
To his activity rather than his influence 
with the popular party Strode's inclusion 
among the five members impeached by 
Charles I was due : Clarandon describes both 
him and Hesilrige as ' persons of too low an 
account and esteem' to be joined withPvra 
and Hampden (lUbeUton, iv. 192). The 
articles of impeachment were presented on 
8 June 1642, and on the following day the 
king came to the house in person to arrest 
the members. A pamphlet printed at the 
time ^ves a speech which Strode is said to 
have delivered in his vindication on 3 Jan., 
but there con be little doubt that it is a 
forgen" (Old ParliamaUary Wttonf, 1. 167, 
163, 182 ; OABsnrBB, x. 136). According 
to D'Ewes, it was difficult to persuade him 
to leave the house even when the king's 
approach was announced. ' t/Lt. William 
Strode, the last of the five, being a young 
man and unmarried, could not be persuaded 
by his friends for a pretty while to go out ; 
hut said that, knowing himself to be inno- 
cent, he would stay in the house, though he 
sealed his innocency with his blood at the 
door . . . nay when no persuasions could 
prevail with Uie said Mr. Strode, Sir Walter 
Erie, his entire friend, was fain to take him 
by the cloak and pull him out of his pUc« 
and so gat him oat of the Honsa ' (Samo&D, 
p. 464). 

After his impeachment Strode was natu- 
rally the more embittered against the king, 
and when the civil war began became one 
of the chief opponents of attempts at accom- 
modation witli Charles (ii. pp. 497,629, 640, 
544, 662, 567V He was present at tho 
battle of Edgenill, and was sent up hy Essex 
to give a narrative of it to parliament. In 
the speech which he made to the corporation 
of the city on 27 Oct. 1642, Strode gave a 
short account of the fight, specially praising 
the regimenta ' that were ignonuDously re- 
proached by the name of Roundheads,' 
whose courage bad restored the fortune of 
the day {Old Parliamentary Sistory, xi. 
479; CusBirpoir, -vi. 101). In 1648 his 
house in Deronshire was plundered by Sir 
Ralph Hopton's troops, and the commons 
introduced an ordinance for indemnifving him 
out of Hopton's estate (Common^ ibumalt, 
ii. 977). When Pym was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, Strode was one of his beaxen 





(13 Dec 1&43). Strode wu active againat 
Aichhishop L«ud, and on 28 Not. 1644 waa 
emeloTwl by tbo commons to press the 
lords to agree to the ordinance for the arch- 
teahop't execatioii. He ia aaid to have 
thnatened ttia peen that the mob of the 
citT vould force them to pass it if they da- 
layed (LiTO, Workt, t. 414, 427). ' Mer- 
cuiius Aniicue,' commenting on the incident, 
terms Strode 'he that makea all the bloody 
motiMia' (GsBKif, p, 10). On 81 Jan. 1645 
be vms added to the aasembly of diviaes 
(GnurHou' Joumab, iv. 88). 

Strode died of a fever at Tottenham early 
in S^jtember 1645. On 10 Sept. the house 
ordered that he ahonld have a public funeral 
and be buried in 'Westminster Abbey (ib. 
ir, 2i>»). Whitelocke, who attended the 
Aineral, describes him aa a conetant servant 
the parliament, jnat and courteous {Me- 

fa the dufuterestednees of Strode, states that 
be tpetA or lost all he had in the public 
Merrtee, and asserts that his speeches were 
cbaraeterised by a 'solid vehemence and a 
birmng acnteness ' (T&e Z^fe and DeatAof 
Jtind, a tennim preached at tie funeral of 
WaUam Strode, ^c, 1646, 4to). At the 
fiMtoralion his remains were disinterred by 
• warrant dated 9 Sept. 1661 (Chesteb, 
WettmatUr Abbey Registert, p. 522). 

Hie idenlitv of the Strode who was Im- 
priaooed in 1^^ with the Strode who was 
unpe&..-hed in If)42 has been denied (Fobbttb, 
mtmteraux.p, J76 ; Life ^ Sir John EUot, ii. 
4*5). It is satisfactorily established by Mr. 
Sanfbrd (Studies and Uluttratiotu of the 
Onat XOel&m, p. 897) and by Mr. Oar- 
£aa(mttoiyaf£nffltmd,ix.i-2S). Strode 
ii abo sometimea confused with William 
Strode fI^9P-I666> of Barrington, near 
I!ihn:er, who distinguished himself by his 
sppoaition to tbs king^s commission of array 
■a 8nwnet, waa one of the parliamentary 
<aaly-IieateiiAi)t« of that county in 1642, 
SH bcome ■ colonel in the parliament's 
Btnice. la 1646 be w»s returned to the 
I^f pvliament for Ilchester, and, being a 
stray pTwbTterun, was eipelled from the 
fcoaiTby'P^ide'B purge' in 1646. In 1661 
W»M jmpriMned »»5 obliged to make a 
knyesahnis«i(Mi f<w disobeymg the orders 
tf tb hng'a depaty-Ii«'>'«i>»°*« in Somerset, 
BttMmie6e,*ged 77. His portrait, by 
TiIliaB DobMn, which -wu m 1866 exhi- 
iad at ftxrtb ^«*»n^o»' (**<>■ 69?) " 'I""* 
tf tbs other WOluun Strode, was acquired 
ktb 5atioB«l Portrait Qalleiy, London, 
^- ■ rl897. 

[An Historic Doabt solved: William Stroda 
ODB of the Fire Idembers, William Strode 
colonel in (he ParliameDt Army. By Em- 
maanel Qreen, TxDDton, 1885, reprinted from 
the Proceodings of the Somerset Archieological 
Society for ISSli other aatborities mentionsd 
in the article.] C. H. F. 

STRODE, WILLIAM {1602-1615), poet 
and dramatist, bom, according to tbe entry in 
the Oiford matricula t ion register, in 1602, was 
only son of Philip Strode, who lived near 
Plympton, Devonshire, by his wife, Wilmot 
Hanton. Sir Richard Strode of Newnham, 
Devonshire, eeema to have been his uncle, 
ig's scholarship at Westmin- 
elected to Ctirist Church, 
Oxford, in 1617, hut he did not matriculate 
in the university till 1 June 1621, when he 
was stated to be nineteen yean old. He 
graduated B.A. on 6 Dec. 1621, M.A. on 
17 June 1624, and B.D. on 10 Dec. 1631. 
Taking holy orders, he gained a reputation 
as ' a most florid preacher,' and became chap- 
lain to Richard Ck>rbet [q. v.], bishop of 
Oxford. Like the bishop, he amused his 
leisure by writing facile verse. In 1629 he 
was appointed public orator in the university, 
and served as proct«r during the aame year. 
In 1633 he was instituted to the rectory of 
East Bradenham, Norfolk, but apparently 
continued to reside in Oxford. When 
Charles I and Queen Henrietta visited the 
nniversity in 1330, Strode welcomed them at 
the gate of Christ Church with a Latin era- 
tion, and on 29 Aug. ItiSd a trogi-comedy by 
him, called ' The Floating Island,' was acted 
by the students of bis college in the royal 
presence. The songs were set to music by 
Henry Lawes. The play was reported to be 
too full of morality to please the court, but 
the king commended it, and preferment fol- 
lowed. In 1638 Strode was made a canon of 
Christ Church, and vicar of Btackbourton, 
Oxfordshire, and he proceeded to the degree 
of D.D. (6 July 1638). From 1089 to 1642 
be waa vicar of Badby, Northamptonshire. 
He died at Christ Church on 11 March 1644- 
1645, and was buried in the divinity chapel 
of Chriat Church Cathedral, but no memorul 
marked his grave. 

Wood describee Strode as 'a person of 
great parts, a pithy ostentatious preacher, an 
exquisite orator, and an eminent poet.' Ho 
is referred to as 'this renowned -nit ' in an ad- 
vertisement of his play in Phillips's 'World 
of Words,' 1668. Threesermonsby him were 
inblished in his last ^ears. His 'Floating 
[sland ' was first pnnted in 1665, with. 
> dedication addressed by the writer to Sir 
John Hele. But bis lame, like that of 
his Oxford triends. Bishop Corbet and Jea- 





KHajne, who were alao dimea, resM on 
occasional Terse, which «howB a genuiae 
lyrical fftcnlty and sportive temperament. 
^fEcimens were included in many Mven- 
toeoth-c«ntury antholi^iea and Bong-books, 
but much remains in manuscript, and well 
deserves printing. Two of his poems are in 
Henry Lawes's' Ayres for Three Voices,' of 
whiiib one, ' To a Lady taking off her Veil/ 
■was reprinted in Beloe's 'Anecdotes' (ri. 
307-81. Others, including 'Melancholy Op- 
poBed,*are in ' Wit Bestored' (ia58),in 'Par- 
nassus Biceps ' (1658), and in 'Poems written 
by William, Earl of Pembroke ' (1660). An 
anthem by him was set to music by lUchapd 
Gibbs, organist at Norwich. A poem on 
losses, in the manner of Lyly's ' Cupid and 
Canipaspe,' appeared in ' New Court Songa 
and Poems, by R. V. Gent' (1672), and in 
Siyden's ' Miscellany Poems ' (pt. iv. 1716, p. 
ISl) ; it was reprinted in ' Notee and Queries' 
(Istser.i. 302) and elsewhere. Sitpoemaby 
him from ' an old manuscript volume ' are in 
•Gent, Mag.' 1823, ii. 7-8; two of these are 
in Ellis's ' Specimens,' iii. 173. A song in 
DeTOoahire dialect, recounting a country- 
man's viMt to Plymouth, is assigned t« Strode 
(printed from Harl, MS. in ' Notes and 
Queries,' Snd sen. 463). Borne unpublished 
piecea are among the mannacnpts at the 
Bodleian Library and British Museum. A 
complete edition of Strode's ' Poetical Works,' 
with many pieces printed fsom manuscript 
for the first time, was edited by Bertram 
DobeU in 1908. 

[Ttebell's edition of Strode's Poetical Works, 
1908; Prince's Wortiies of Dtvon, pp. 662-8 ; 
Wood's AthenieOion. ed. Bliss, iii. 161-3 ; L«)g. 
bains's I>»matdek Poets ; Fleaj's Biograpbical 
Cbronicle of the English Drama ; Foatar'i Alauuii 
Oxoii. ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast, p. 89; 
«t Hist. MS3. Coniio. 4th Sep. p. *«.] S. L. 

aTROHG, WILLIAM ((11664), inde- 
pendent diTine, waa bom in Buihiun. He 
was educated at Cambridge, graduating B.A. 
from St. Catharine Hall, of which he was 
dected a fellow on 30 Dec. 1681. In 1640 
he became rector of Moore Critchell in 
Doreetahire, but he was driven oat in 1643, 
when the royalists obtained the ascendency 
in the county. He fied to London, where 
be met a cordial reception, and frequently 
preached before parliament (/oumoIcjr'ifoUM 
tifCommotu, v. vi. vii. passim). On 81 Dec. 

1646 the commons appointed him as suc- 
cessor to Edward Peale in the Westminster 
■asembly (J*. iv. 392, 865), and on 14 Oct. 

1647 ha became minister of St. Dunstan's-in- 
tha-Weet, FlseC Street (ib. v. 464). On 
S Bee. 1650 he was chosen pastor to a con- 

n of. independents, which comprised 

many members ofjpailiament, and to which 
he preached in WasUninster Abbey. On 
29 July 1653 he was appointed to a commit- 
tee for selecting 'godly persona to go into 
Ireland and preach the gospel' (^Cal. State 
P(5)ar«,1651-2, p. 851). A sermon preached 
at Westminater in July 1663 ' t^^ainet thft 
liberty of the times as introducing popery,' 
attracted some attention (Cal. Clarendott 
P^ert, iii. 3S6). He died m'middle life ia 
June 16d4, and waa buried in Westminster 
Abbey on 4 July ; but on the Restoration 
his remains were dug up and thrown into a 

E'tinSt.Margaret'sohurchyard. Hiawidow 
amaris survived him. 

Strong was the author of: 1. 'Clavis 
Apoca^tica ad incudun revocata,' Lon- 
don, 1^3, 8vo. 2. ■ The Saints Communion 
with Qod, and Gods Communion with them 
ID Ordinances,' ed. Hering, London, 1656, 
ISmo. 3. ' Heavenly Treasure, or Uau'a 
Chiefest Good,' ed. Ko we, London 1 666, 1 2mo. 
4. 'Thirty-oneSelect Sermons,' London,l 666, 
4to. 6. ' A Treatise showing the Subordina- 
tion of the Will of Man to the Will of God,' 
ed. Bowe, London, 1667, 8vo. 6. ' A Dis- 
course on the Two Covenants,' published by 
TheophJlus Gale [q. v.], London, 1678, foL 
Strong also published several sermon^ and 
wroto prefatory remarks to DingLey's ' spiri- 
tual Taste Described,' London, 1649, Svo. 

[Funeral S«rajoD ; Blisba, his lAmsntatita, 
by Ohadiad Sedgwick, 1864; Prafacea to Strong's 
poHthnmons pablicstious ; Brook's Livss of the 
Puritans, ill. 19S-200 ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches, iii. 161-6; Wood's Atheme Oxon. iii, 
ns.iii; Hutchins'sHist.of Doraat, ed.Sbipp 
and Hodson, iii. 132.] E. L C. 

02 Pbhbboxb and ShusuIn [See Clab^ 

ElOHiXD DB, d. 1176.] 

son of Edward Strother, who was admitted 
extra- licmtiate of the CoUe^ of Physiciana 
onlOct,1700,andafterwards practised atAIn- 
wick. On24Aug.l696hewasadmittedpen- 
aioner of Christ's College, Cambridge, hot left 
vrithout a degree. On 8 May 1720 be gradu- 
ated M.D. at the university of Utrecht, and 
on 3 April 1721 he waa admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians. He died oa 
14 April 1737 at hia house near Soho Squax«. 
He was the author ofr 1. 'A Critical Essay 
on Fevi^,' London, 1716, 8vo. 2. 'Evodia, 
or a Discourse of Causes and Cures,' London, 
1718,8vo. 3. 'PharmacopceiaPractica,' Lon- 
don, 1719, 12mo. 4. ' D. M. I. de Vi Cordis 
Motrice,' Utrecht, 1 720, 4to. 6. 'Experieaiced 
.Measures how to man^e the Smali-pox/ 
London, 1721, Svo. 6. 'Syllabus Prsleo- 





tinnniB Ph&nnaco-log^icarun) et Medico -pnc- 
licuom,' Loudon, 1724, 4to, 7. 'An £s»lj 
OD r^icknes* and Heoltii,' London, 1725, 8 vo. 
6. ' Practic&l Obeerntions on the Epidami- 
al Se-rcT,' London, 1729, 8vo. Soma ob- 
•emtiona hy Strother ue also prefixed to 
lUddifie's ' Fbsrmacopoeia,' London, 1716, 
1-Jmo; udhetruulat^dHunan'a'Itlaterk 
U cite*,' London, 1727, 8vo. 

(Mutri BoU of the RojBi Collega of Fh;- 
sau^ i. <20. ii. 77 ; Oemt. Mag. 1737,p.2ji3; 
A^aos Scodiosornm AcodemiEB KhenD-Trajec- 
Una CDu^cht), col. 121 ; Political StoM of 
Gnu Britain. 17S7, i. 4S2.] E. L C. 

8TRUTHKES, JOHN (1776-1853), 
Pcottiah poat, son of "William Struthere, 
tliD«mmksr, And his wife, Elizabeth Scott, 
wu bom at Longcalderwood, East Kilbride, 
Lanarkahire, on 18 Julf 1776. Joanna 
B«nUe and her mother and her siMer, then 
re^dent at Lon|fealderwood, were interested 
in ibe child, rmd and played to him, and 
b^ard him reading in turn. After acting' as 
eowbtrd and form-Berrant till the age of 
fift??n, he learned the trade of ahoemaking 
in GluTow, and settled at Longcalderwood 
in 1793 to work for Glasgow employers. He 
BUiried on 24 Jnlj 1793, and in 1801 settled 
m Glasgow, working at his trade till 1819. 
Beading widely and writing oonaiderably, 
b« KKM puned a high literaty reputation, 
aad relnctantly abandoned shoemaking to 
bsoome editorial reader successively for the 
finaa of Khnll, Blackie, & Co. and Archi- 
bald Fallait^ni ft Co., Glasgow. Through 
Joauia BaOlia, Scott came to Know Struthers, 
wlto liappOy depicts his brilliant friend aa 
'iioatMBO of a frank and open heart, an un- 
aondad understanding, and a benevolence 
that embratwd the world ' (STBiTTHBBe, My 
«*■ JJ/f, p. cii). Bcott aided Stmthera in 
nwMiations witb Constable the publieber 
i&vtrt 1^1, iL 176, ed. 1837). In 1833 he 
«» ^ipniited librarian of Stirling's public 
libniT, Olaagoir (cf. LoCKsakt, lAfe of Scott, 
ii. 177, ed. IS37). He filled this situation 
tv aboDt fifteen jeare. He died in Glasgow 

Sintkaa iru twice married, in 1798 and 
JB ISl^ mA had familiea by both wives. 

~ ■■ early printed a small volume of 

■ ' ' mting, burnt the 

exception of a 

I 180S he published 

. vigorous and successful 

VT odia^pnmpted ^ mmoura of Napoleon's 
■i»j»ltiiji iiiTuioii. In 1804 appeared the 
iSkv'i mart popolv poem, 'The Poor 
Km*! Sabbxth,' of wbicb the fourth edition, 
■kk a ebuaeteristic pre&ce, was published 

inl824. Somewhatdigre&Biyeanddifiuse,dia 
poem is written in fluent Spenserian stania, 
and shows an ardent love of nature and 
rural life, and an enthusiasm for the impree- 
sive simplicity of Scottish church services. 
Soon after appeared ' The Sabbath, a po«n,' 
hy James Grahame (1765-1811) [q.v.], whon» 
the ' Dramatic Mirror ' unjustinably charged 
with plagiarism from ' The Poor Man'a Sab- 
bath.'^ ' The Peasant's Death,' 1806, is a 
realistic and touching pendant to 'The Poor 
Man'a Sabbath.' In 1811 appeared 'The 
Winter Day,' a fairly snccessM delineation 
of nature's sterner moods, followed in 1814 
by ' Poems, Moral and Hellgtous.' In ISIS 
Struthers published anonymously a discrimi- 
nating and suggestive ' Essay on the State 
of the Labouring Poor, with some Hints for 
its Improvement.' About the same date he 
edited, with biographical preface, ' Selections 
from the Poems of William Mnir.' A pant* 
phlet entitled 'Tekel,* sharply criticising 
voluntaryism, ia another undated product A 
this time. 'The Plough,' 1818, written in 
Spenserian stania, is too ambitiously con- 
ceived, bnt has notable idyllic passages. Is 
1819 appeared 'The Harp of Caledonia' 
(3 vols, 18mo), a good collection of Scottish 
Bongi, with an appended essay on Scottish 
song-writers. For this work the editor re- 
ceived aid from Soott, Joanna Btullie, and 
Mrs. John Hunter. Two years later appeared 
a similar anthology called ' The British Min- 
strel' (Glasgow,1821,2 vols. 12mo). During 
his career as pnbliahBra' reader Struthera 
annotated a new edition of Wodrow's ' His- 
tory of the Church of Scotland,' and produced 
in two volumes, in 1827, a ' History of Scot- 
land from the Union.' He was engaged on 
athirdvolume at his death. In 1336 ap- 
peared his fine descriptive poem ' Dychmtmt/ 
begun in youth and completed in later liie^ 
Besides miscellaneous, ecclesiastical, and 
other pamphlet*, Struthers wrote many trf 
the lives in Chambers's 'Biographical Dio- 
tionary of Eminent Scotsmen, and also con- 
tributed to the ' Christian Instructor.' Hia 
collected poems — in two volumes, with a 
somewhat discursive but valuable autobio- 
graphy — appeared in I860 and agtun in 1654. 

[Struthers'B HLj own Life, prefixed to Poems ; 
Lookhart's Ufa of Seott ; Ssmpls'a Poems and 
Snag* of Bobert Tanaahitl, p. 883 ; Oent. Mag. 
18eS, ii. 318; CSiambers's Biogr. Diet of Emi- 
neot Scotstaen.] T. B. 

STRTTTT, EDWARD, first Babos Bbl- 
PEE (1801-1880), bora at Derby on 26 Oct. 
1801 , was only son of William Strutt ot St. 
Helen's House, Derby, by his wife Barbaia, 
daughter of Thomas Evans of that town [see 
tmder SxBun, Jesbduh]. He was edit- 





eated at Trinity College, Cambridge, m- 
diULtmg B.&. in 18S3 and M.A. in 1828. 
Wiiile at Cambridga he filled the office of 
president of the Umon Society. On leaving 
the univereityhe settled in London in order 
to study law. He never took an active part 
in the affaira of the family firm (W. Q, and 
J, Strutt), of -which he waa a partner. On 
10 May 1828 he waa admitted a student at 
Lincoln's Inn, and on 18 June 1325 at the 
Inner Temple. He waa not called to the bar. 
A3 a boT Strutt shared his father's in- 
terest in science, but he mainly devoted hia 
leisure, while a law-student in London, to a 
Btudy of social and economic questions. He 
became intimate with Jeremy Bentham (a 
friend of hia ftther) and James and John 
Stuart Mill, and under their influence framed 
his political views, identifying himself with 
the philosophical radicals. On 81 July 1830 
he was returned in the liberal interest mem- 
ber of parliament for the borough of Derby. 
He retained his seat until 1847, when hia 
election, with that of his fellow member, 
the Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower, waa de- 
clared void on petition on account of bribery 
Sraotised by their agents (HASSiEi), Pari. 
iebatei, xcviii. 4024^1). On 16 July 1851 
he was returned for Arundel in Sussex. 
That seat he exchanged in July 1862 for 
Nottingham, which he continued to repre- 
sent untilhiselevationtothepeerage. From 
1846 to 1848 he filled the post of chief com- 
missioner of railways, in 1850 he became 
high sheriff for Nottinghamshire, and in 
December 1852,wheii Lord Aberdeen's coali- 
tion government was formed, he received 
the office of chancolloT of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, but resigned it in June 1854 in favour 
of Earl GranvDIe. On 29 Aug. 1856hewa8 
created Baron Belper of Belper in Derby- 
ahire, and in 1862 he received the honorary 
degree of LL.D.fcom Cambridge University. 
In 1864 he was nominated lord lieu ten ant of 
Nottinghamshire, and in 1871 he succeeded 
George Grote[q.V.] as president of University 
College, London. He was also chairman of 

8uart«r sessions for the txiunty of Nottingham 
yt many years, and waa highly esteemed in 
that capacity, particularly by the legal pro- 

Beljwr waa in middle life a recognised 
authority on questions of free trade, law 
reform, and education. Through life he en- 
joyed the regard of hia ablest contemporariBS, 
among others of Macaulay, John Komilly, 
McCwloch, John and Charles Austen, Geor^ 
Qrote, and Clmrlea Buller. His interest in 
science and literature proved a eolace to his 
later years. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 22 March 18TO, and 

alao a fellow of the Geological and ZooI<^^ 
cal societies. He died on 30 June 1880 at 
bis house, 76 Eaton Square, London. His 
portrut, painted by George Richmond, R.A., 
IS in possession of the present Lord Helper. 

Belper married, on 28 March 1837, Amelia 
Harriet, youngest daughter of William Otter 
rq.v.],bishop of CSiicbeBter. By her he had 
Four eons — William, who di ed i n 1 856, Henry, 
his successor, Arthur, and Frederick — and 
four dai^hters : Sophia,marriedtoSirHeniy 
Denis LeMarchant, hart, ; Caroline, married 
to Sir KeuelmEdwardDigby;Mat7,mamed 
first to Mr. Henry Mark Oa!e, secondly to 
Henry Handford, M.D. ; and Ellen, married 
to Mr. Geo:ge Murray Smith. 

[Q. E. C[okayne]'sF(>erage ; Burke's Fserago ; 
Men of the Tims, 187B ; Times, 1 July 1880 ; 
Wslford's County Families, 1880; Proc.ofBojal 
Soc zixi. 75; Index to Admiaaions at Inner 
Temple.] K I. C. 

STBUn, JACOB GEORGE (^. 1820- 
1850), painter and etcher, studied in London, 
and was acontributor tothe RoyalAcademy 
and British Institution at intervals between 
1819 and 1858. For a few yearshepractiaed 
portrait-painting, but from 1824 to 1831 ex- 
hibited studies of forest scenery, and he ia 
now best known by two sets of etchings 
which he published at this period — 'Sylva 
Britannica, or portraits of Forest Trees dis- 
tinguished for their Antiquity,' &c., 1823 (re- 
issued in 1838), and 'DeliciiB Sylvarnm, or 
grand and romantic Forest Scenery in Eng.> 
land and Scotland,' 1828. About 1831 
Strutt went abroad, and, after residing for a 
time at Lausanne, settled in Home, whence 
he sent to the academy in 1845 ' The An- 
cient Forum, Rome,' and in 1851 'Tasso's 
Oak, Borne.' In the latter year he returned 
to England, and in 1858 exhibited a view ia 
the Roman Campogna ; his name then dis- 
appears, Strutt^ ^rtraits of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Marsh and Philander Cliase, D.D., were 
engraved by J. Young and C. Turner. 

[RodgraTD's Diet, of Artista ; Q-nyta'e Diet. 
of ArtisU, 1760-1893 ; UniTcrsal Cat. of Books 
on Art.] F. M. O'D. 

STRUTT, JEDEDIAH (1726-1797), 
cotton-spinner and improver of the atock- 
ing-frame, bom at Blackwell in Derbyshtr« 
in 1726, was the second son of William 
Strutt of Blackwell. tnl740hewas articled 
for seven years to Ralph Maasey, a wheel- 
wright atfindem,iieaT Derby. Afteroerving 
his apprenticeship ha became a farmer, bat 
about 1756 his brother-in-law, William Wool- 
latt, a native of Flndem, who became ft 
hosier at Darby, called his attention to some 
unsuccessful attempts that liad been mada 




) ribbed stodiings Dpon the 
r-frame[^Bee Leh, Willux, d.lQlO?]. 
ftd a natural ioclm&tion towards 
8,*nd, in conj unction with WoolUtt, 
\a took out two patenta, on 19 April 1758 
(So. 722) ftnd on 10 Jan. 1769 (No. 734), for 
4 ' macliDie furnished with a set of tuming- 
nMdlea, uid ta be fixed to a atocking-fntme 
hr makiii^ turned ribbed etockinga, piecea, 
•Bd other goods usuallj manufactured upon 
atocking-jrunea.* Thismocbinecouldbeused 
or not u ribbed or plain work was deaired. 
Tk ^inciple of Strutt'a inventioQ became tbe 
biab ot niunarous later modifications of the 
■Ujpiiiliiii and of other machines. To him- 
aeU Hid Ilia partner the invention proved ai- 
ti^Dclyliioratirei they commenced to manu- 
betue at Derby, where the ' Derbj Patent 
Bib ' quickly became popular. 

Abont 1768 Meesn. Wright, bankeia of 
Kotttngbam, refused to contiuue their ad- 
nmett U> Bichard Aikwright (1733-1792) 
f q. T.^ tkea engaeed in contri vinr hia »»iuning- 
Inme. The bankers were doubtful oi the pos- 
aibtlicy of Arkwnght'a experiment reaching a 
aaece«ful termination, and they adviaed him 
to eoaanlt on this point a etocliing monufac- 
t nrai na med Need, who had enter^ intopart- 
neniiip with Strutt. Thelatterimmediately 
•aw tBe importance of Arkwright's inveU' 
neo, and Arkwright wag admitted into 
fai^eolup with hmiself and Need. 

Oa 8 JoIt 1769 Arkwright took out a 
^ateat tat nia frame, after incorporating 
aawal improrementa suggested bj Strutt. 
— ■ . « . , J ^^^ 


led the 



6 May 

illatt of 
' he had 



with great success at the Derbyshire general 
infirmary. He made considerable improve- 
ments in the method of constructing stoves, 
and ultimately, in 1806, invented the Belper 
stove which possessed greatly augmented 
heating powers. He also invented a form of 
self-acting epinnisg-mule. He was an inti- 
mate friend of Erasmus Darwin, lAok a warm 
intcrestinscientificquestions, and was elected 
a fellow of the Boyu Society, though he had 
not sought the honour. Among his friends 
ha also numbered Robert Owen, Richard 
Lovell Edgeworth, Samuel Bentham, and 
his brother Jeremy. He died at Derby on 
29 Deo. 1830. By his wife Barbara, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Evans of Derby, he had one 
son Edward, first lord Belper [q. r.], and 
three daughters (Baines, History of the 
Cotton Mant\facUiie, 1836, p. 205; BsRNAir, 
Sittory and Art of Warming and Ventilating, 
1843, u. 77, 87, 208-11 ; Silvbsteb, Pkilo- 
timhyff Domeatie Economy, \&\Q; Gen, 
1830, ii. 647). 

The third son, Joseph Sibtitt (1766-1844), 
waa well known for his benefactions to hll 
native town. His gift of the 'arboretum,' or 
public garden, to Derby is worthy of notice 
as one of the earliest instances of the bestowal 
of land for such a purpose. In 1836 he was 
thefirst mayor of Derby under the Municipal 
Corporations Act. The poet Thomas Uoore 
was on intimste terms with Joseph Strutt 
and with other members of the family (cf. 
EtTSSBLL,iiftii^Jlfiwre, passim). Strutt was 
also the friend and correspondent of Maria 
EMgeworth, who visited him in the company 
of her lather and stepmother, and in """ 

submitted to his criticism an account of 
spinning jennies written for the sequel to 
'Harry and Lucy' (Mbs. Bitchie, Intro- 
ductions to Popular Tales, 1896, Helm, 
1896, and Tht Parent^ Attittant, 1896). 
Joseph Strutt died at Derby on 13 Jan, 
1844. His house in the town waa long 
noted for iU museum and valuable collec- 
tion of pictures. 

[Private information; Satton's Nottiagbam 
Date Book, pp, 34-fi ; Geat. Mag. 1797, i. 416 ; 
Felkin's History of Machine- WMOght Hosiery 
Brit, 9th ed. ii. S41, xii. 29y ; Burke's Landed 
Gently, 6tli edit.] E, I, C. 

STBUTT, JOSEPH (1749-1802), author, 
artist, antiquary,and engraver, youngest son 
of Thomas Strutt hy his wift Ehiabeth, 

on 27 Oct. 1749 at Springfield Mill, Ohelms- 
ibrd, which then belonged to his &ther, 
a wealthy miller. When Joseph was little 
more thiui a year old, his bther died, Hia 



apbringing ftnd that of uiottieT bod, John, 
bom » jear or two earlier, and aftermarde 
a faBhionable physician in Westminster, de~ 
Tolved upon his mother. He was odncated 
at King Bdward's school, Chelmsford, and 
at the age of fourteen was apprenticed to 
the engraver, Witliam Wynne Ryland [q-».] 
In 1770, when he had been less than a year 
a student at the Royal Academy, Strutt 
carried off one of the first silver medals 
awarded, and in the following year he took 
one of the first gold medals. In 1771 he 
became a student in the reading-room of 
the British Museum, whence he drew the 
materials for most of his antiquarian works. 
His first book, > The Regal and Ecclesiastical 
Antic[uities of England,' appeared in 1773. 
For it he drew and engraved from ancient 
' manuscripts representations of kings, cos- 
tumes, armour, seals, and other objects of in- 
terest, this being the first work of the kind 
pnblished in England. He spent the greater 
part of his life in similar labours, his art be- 
coming little more than a handmaid to his 
antiquarian and literary researches. Be- 
tween 1774 and 177S he pnblished the three 
volumes of his ' Planners, Custoras, Anns, 
Habits, Sx., of the People of England,' and 
in 1777-8 the two volumes of his ' Chronicle 
of England,' both large quarto works, pro- 
fusely illustrated, and invotVinga vast amount 
of research. Of the former aTrenck edition 
appeared in 1789. The latter Strutt origi- 
natlv intended to extend to six volumes, but 
he failed toobtainadequatesupport. Atthis 
period he resided partly in Lonuoa, partlir at 
Chelmsford, but made frequent expeditions 
for purposes of antiquarian study. In 1774, 
on his marriage, he took a house in Duke 
Street, Portland Place. For seven years after 
the death of his wife in 1778 he devoted his 
attention to painting, and exhibited nine pic- 
tures, mostly classical subjects, in the Royal 
Academy. From this period date several of 
his best engravings, executed in the ' chalk ' 
or dotted style which had been introduced 
from the Continent by his master, fiyland. 

After 1786 Strutt resumed his antiquarian 
and literary researches, and brought out his 
'Biographical DictionaryofEngraverg' (2 vols. 
1785-6), the basis of all later works of the 

In 1790, his health having failed and his 
affaire having become involved, mainly 
through the dishonesty of a relative, Strutt 
took up his residence at Bacon's Farm, 
Bramfield, Hertfordshire, where he lived in 
the greatest seclusion, carrying on his work 
as an engraver, and devoting his spare time 
with great success to the establishment of a 
Sunday and evening school, which still exists. 

66 Strutt 

At Bramfield he executed several engravings 
of exceptional merit, includioe those — thir- 
teen in number, after designs by Stothard — 
which adorn Bradford's edition (London, 8ro, 
1792) of the ' Hlgrim's Progress.' He also 
gathered theroaterialsfor more thanonepos- 
thumouslj published work of fiction, besides 
writing a satirical romance relating to the 
French revolution, which exists in manu- 

In 1795, having paid his debts and his 
health having improved, Strutt relumed to 
London and resumed his researches. Almost 
immediately he brought out his 'Dresseaand 
Habits of the English People ' (2 vols. 1796- 
1799), probably the most valaabla of his 
works. This was followed by his well-known 
' Sports and Pastimes of the People of Eng- 
land' (1801), which has been frequently re- 

After this Strutt (now in his fifty-second 

Jear) commenced a rom an ce, entitled 'Queen- 
00 Halt,' after an ancient manor-house at 
Tewin, near Bramfield. It was intended to 
illustrate the manners, customs, and habits of 
the people of England in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Strutt did not live to finish it. After 
his death the incomplete manuscript waa 
placed by the first John Murray in the hands 
of Walter Scott, who added a final diapter, 
bringing the narrative to a somewhat pre- 
mature and inartistic conclusion. It wiaa 
published in 1808 in four small Volumes. 
acott admits in the general preface to the 
later editions of ' Warerley ' that his associa- 
tion with Strutt's romance largely suggested 
to him tbe publication of his own work. 

Strutt died on 16 Oct. 1803 at his house 
in Charles Street, Hatton Garden, and was 
buried in St. Andrew's churchyard, Holbom. 
On 16 Aug. 1774 he married -inne, daughter 
of BttTwell Blower, dyer, of Bockine', Eesex. 
On her death in September 1778 he wrote 
an elegiac poem to ner memory, published 
anonymously in 1779. Strutt's portrait in 
crayon by Ozias Humphrey,R. A,is preserved 
in the National Portrait Qailery (No. 323). 

Although theamount of Strutt'swork as an 
engrtver is small, apart from that appearing' 
in bis books, it is of exceptional ment and is 
still highly esteemed. In the study of those 
branches of archaKilogy which he foUovred 
he was a pioneer, and all later work on tha 
same lines has been built on the foundations 
he laid. Besides the works mentioned, tvtro 
incomplete poems by him, entitled ' The Test 
of Guilt 'and ' The Bumjikin's Disaster,' were 
published in one volume in 1808. Allhisillus- 
trated antiquarian works now feti:h higher 
prices than when published. 
Strutt left two sons. The elder, JiMBpn 


Strutt 6 

Srsm (1776-1833), was bom on 28 May 
1775. He WM educated at Cbriat's Hospital 
tod afterwards Irainsd in Nichols's printing 
aS(«, but eraiituallj became librariaji to tiu 
Duke of Nortbumberlaud. Beaidee editing 
Kjoia of Iiu father's posthumous works, he 
wtcite two ' Commentaries ' on the Hoi; 
Soiptures, whkhranto MToraleditions. He 
also Dontributed a luief sketch of his father's 
life to Nichok's' Literary Anecdotes' (1812, 
T.a^5-86). He died at Isleworth, aged 5B, 
on 12 Nov. 1833 {Gmt. Mag. 1833, ii, 474), 
l.iiing a widow and a large family. 

Strutt'a youneer aon, Wiluak Thokas 
SniTTr (1777-1850), was bom on 7 March 
]777. Ha held a position in the bank of 
Elng-land, but won a reputatioD as a minia- 
tere-painter. He died at Writtle, Essex, i 

22 Feb. 1860, 

One b^off &£r« 
Sojux, who, with his son, Mr. Al&ed Wl 
Stmtt.carriea on the artistic professioniu this 
family to the third and fourth generations. 

[Ni^U'« Lit. Aaecdot«a (u alioca); prirate 
infdmatioo.] M. C-T. 

IS48), governor of Quebec, baptised at 
"■ " ' 'd, Essex, on 26 Feb. 1762, was 
a of John Strutt, of Terling Place, 
Ettfs, by Anne, daughter of the Rev. Wil- 
LiamGooddayof MaldoD. Bnteringtbe army 
m 1778, he joined his regiment, the 6Ut, 
at Minorca. Lator he was appointed to a 
coafiany in the 91st, and took port in the 
def(fica of St. Lucia.' In 1782, having ex- 
dLsn^iuto the &7th, he served at the siege 
of Qibralt«r. On the signing of the pre- 
Itminaries of peace he pnrchased a majority 


on 13 May 1800 he was, as a reward for his 
services, appointed to the sinecure office of 
governorot Quebec, and he held that post 
until his death. He died at Tofts, Little 
Baddow, Esaes, on 6 Peb. 1848, haviugseen 
an exceptional amount of military service, 
both at home and abroad. 

8TEYPE, JOHN fl643-1787), eccle- 
siastical historian and oiographer, bom in 
Houodsditch on 1 Nov. luS, was youngest 
child of John Strype or van Strijp {d. 1618), 
by his wife Hester (d. 1666), daughter of 
Daniel Bonnell of Norwich. Her sister 
Abigail was mother of Captain Hobert Knox 
(1610 f-1720) [q. v.] The historian's father, 
a member of an old family seated at Her- 
togenbosch in Brabant, came to London to 
learn the business of a meidiant and silk- 
thcowster from his uncle, Abraham van 
Strijp, who, t4i escape religious persecution, 
had taken refuge in England. He ultimately 
set up in businees for himself, latterly in a 
locality afterwards known as 'Strype's Yard' 
in Petticoat Lane, became a freeman of the 
city, and served as master of his company. 
According to his will, he died in ArtiUeir 
Lane. His widow, according to her will, 
died at Stepney. 

John, a sickly boy, who was possibly bap- 
tised in St. Leonard's Church, Shoreditcu, 
was sent to St. Paul's school in 1667, whence 
he was elected Pauline ezhibLtionei of Jesus 
College, Cambridge, in 1661, matriculating 
on 6 July 1662 (Qabduter, lUff. of St. 
PauTt, p. 61) ; but, finding that society ' too 
superstishuB,' he migrated in 1663 to Catha- 
rine Hall, where he graduated B, A. in 1665, 
and M.A, in 1669 (Uat. MSS. Ccmm. 4th 
Itep. p. 423). He was incorporated M.A. at 
Oxford on 11 July 1671 (Wood, Fasti, it. 
8291. In accordance with what he knew to 
be nis father's wish, he subsequently took 
holy orders. His first preferment was the 
perpetual curacy of Theydon Boie, Essex, 
conferred upon him on 14 July 1669 ; but 
he quitted this in the followkg November on 
being selected minister of Leyton in the same 
Dounty. In 1674 he was licensed by Ur. 
Henchman, the then bishop of London, as 
priest and curate, to officiate there during 
the vacancy of the T'oarage, and by virtue of 
this license remained unmolested in. posses- 
sion of ite profits till his death, having never 
received either institution or induction. 
Stiype was alsQ lecturer of itackney from 
1689 to 1724 (Ltbohs, Enoimu, ii. 478). 
In May 1711 he was presented by Arch 
bishop Tenison to the sinecure reotory of 





West TarTing,Siusex,&n appointment wTiich, 
u Cole tuppoeee, he might be fairly said to 
owe to Dr. Henry Sacheverall {Addtt. MS. 
6853, f. 91). He spent bie later yean at 
Hackney with Thomas HaFris, a iurgeon, 
vho had mairied liis granddaugbter, Susan 
Oawforth. There he died on 11 Dec. 17S7 
at the patriaichal age of ninety-four, luving 
outlived luB wife and children, and waa 
buried in Leyton church (ffant. Ma$. 1737, 
p. 767), The Latin iDBCription on his nmnu- 
ment is from his own pen. By his wife, 
Susannah Lowe, he had two ^ughters — 
Susmmah, married in 1711 to James Craw- 
forth, a cheesemonger, of Leadenhall Street; 
and Hest«r. 

Strype's omiabilitr won him many friends 
in all sections of society. Among his 
numerous correspondents was Ralph Tho- 
resbj [q. T.^ who speaks of him with affec- 
tionate rererenoe (,Bian/, s.a. 1709, vol ii.) ; 
while Strype was always ready to de&ce any 
amount of letters &om famous Elizabethaas 
to enrich the other's collection of autographs 
CLetferi of Thoretby, vol. ii.) Another 
friend, Samuel Knight, D.D, (1676-1746) 
[a. T.l, visited him in 173S, and found him. 
though turned of ninety, ' yet very brisk and 
-well,' but lamenting that decayed eyesight 
-would not permit h:m to print nis materials 
for the livee of Lord Bui^hley and John 
Foxe the martyrologist {OenC. Mag, 1816, 
i. ^). As Knight expressed a wish to 
-write hie life, Stiype gave biw for that pur- 
pose four folio volumes of letters addressed 
to him, chiefly from relatives or literary 
friends, extending from 1660 to 1720. These 
volumes, along with Knight's unSnished 
memoir of Strype, are in the library of the 
university of Cambridge, having been pre- 
-eented in 1869-61 by John Percy Baum- 
-rotner, tho representative of the Knight 
family. An epitome by William Cole, with 
some useful remarks, is in Addit. MS. 5S68. 
Another volume of Strype'i correspondence, 
«f the dates 1679-1721, is also in the uni- 
versity library. 

Strype pUDlished nothing of importance 
till after he was fifty ; but, as he told 
Thoresby, he spent his life up to that time 
in collecting Uie enormous amount of in- 
formation and curious detail whioh is to 
be found in his booka. The greater part of 
his materials was derived from a magnificent 
collection of original charters, Ifttten, stat« 
napere, and other documents, mostly of the 
Tudor period, which he acquired under very 
questi<Hiable circumstances. His position 
at Leyton led to an intimaoy with Sir 
William Hicks of Ruckholt in that parish, 
who, as the grsM-grandaon of Sir Uichael 

Hicks [q, v.]. Lord Burghley't secretary, 
inherited the family collection of manu- 
scripts. According to Strype's account (cf. 
his will in P.C.0. 287, Wake), Hicks actually 
gave him many of the manuscripts, while 
the others were to be lent by Hicks to 
Richard Ohiswell, the elder [q.v.], for a 
money consideration, to be transcribed and 
prepared for the press by Stn^, afterwhitdk 
they were to be retumea to Ruckholt. Ohis- 
weU published Strype'a ' Life of Cranmer' in 
1694, the basts of -which was formed on the 
Hicks manuscripts {Qent. Mag. 1784, L 
179), but, flndinff it a heavy investment, de- 
clined to proceed, although Strype had sent 
him 'many ^reat packetts' of (rtJier anno- 
tated transcnpts for the press. Both ha and 
his son Richard Ohiswell, the youiuer [q.v,], 
not only declined to pay Strype t£e sum of 
fifty pounds which he demanded for his 
labour, but allied that they had 'bought 
outright' all the manuscripts from Hicks 
{Cat. qf Mamueript* «i Li6r. of Unin. of 
Cambr. v. 182). As Hicks was declared a 
lunatic in 1699 (_Lafud. MS. 814, f. 36), his 
representatives probably knew nothing of the 
manuscripts, and Strype, although he was 
aware of the agreement between Hicks and 
ChisweU, kept them. In 1711 he sold the 
Foze papers to Robert Harley, afterwards 
earl of Oxford (1661-1724) [q. v.], who 
complained of their defective condition 
(Hart. MS. 8782, now 8781, ff. 126-37); 
these are among the Harleian manuscripts in 
the British Museum. On Strype'a death his 
representatives sold the remainder, amount- 
ing to 121 in folio, to James West [q. v.] 
They were eventually bought by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne in 1772, and now form part i. 
of the Lansdowne collection, also in the 
British Museum. 

Strype's lack of literary style, nnskilfrd 
selection of materials, and immethodic&l ar- 
rangement render his books tiresome to the 
last degree. Even in hit own day his cum- 
brous appendixes caused him to be nicknamed 
the ' appendii-mongsr,' His want of critical 
&culty led him into serious errors, such «« 
the attribution to Edward VI of the founda- 
tion of many schools which had existed lon^ 
before that king's reign (cf, Lh*ck, Sngtiah 
Sehool* at tie S^armatiim, IB97). Nor was 
hs by any means a trustworthy decipherer 
of the documents he print«d, eapeoiadly of 
those written in Lattn. But t« students 
of the eccleuastical and political history 
of England in the sixteenth century thja 
vast accumulations of facts and dooumeats 
of which his books consist render them of 
the utmost value. The most important of 
Strype's publications are ; 1. ' Mamorials 




. . » Cranmer, Archbishop of Canter- 
taij' (with ■ppendix), 2 pts. fol. 1694. 
AnollieT edit., S vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1H48- 
18M, tMned under the ftuspices of the £c- 
dtMMtical HittOTj Societj, was severelj 
aitiieiaed bj Samuel RoSey Mait]and[q.T.] 
bi the' British Maguine' for 1848. Of other 
editioni ooe, with notes by P. E. Barnes, 
3 vob. 6to, London, 18K3, maj be tneu' 
tiawd. 2. ' The Life of the learned Sir 
ThocMS Smith,' 8vo, 1698. 3. ' Historical 
CoUeetiona of the Life and Acts of John 
Ajlmar, Lord Btihop of London,' Sro, 1701. 
4. * The IJfe <rf' the lesraed Sir John Cheke 
fwitb bia] TreatiK on Superstition 'Ttrans- 
Wd from ths Latin bj William Elatob], 
Bn, 1706. 6. 'Annals of the Reformation 
in En^and,' ii pts. fol. 1709-8. (' Second 

tioM, 4 Tol«. fol. 1735, 37, 31). 6. 'The 
Bitnorjot the Life and Acta of Edmund 
Grinds], Archbishop of Canterbur;,' 2 pts. 
lilL 1710. 7. 'The Life and Acts of Uat- 
tbew iWker, Archbishop of Canterburj,' 
SvU.k>L 1711. 8. ' The Lite and Acts of 
John WUbtift, Archbishop of Cant^rburT,' 
S pta. fol. 1718, 17. 9. ' Eccleeiastical Me- 
MrUls,'3rolB. fol. 1721 (reissued inl733). 
All the above works were repriutcd at the 
diRndon Press, Oxford, in 19 Tola. 8vo, 
J81S-M, with a genBral index bj; H. F. 
lAmoiee, 3 roll. 8to, 1828 (for criticisms ou 
thU aaitkin »e« Oatt. Mag. 1818, L 47 et 

StiTpe was also the author of a number of 
single asRnoiU published at varioua periods. 
He liknrisa edited toL a. of Dr. John Light- 
fcof ■ ' WoriES,' fbL 1684, and ' Some genuine 
" ' s'of the same divioe, 'with a large 

[Biogr-Brit, I7fl3,Ti.3847iI-;uiTis'BEDriH>Di, 

toIh. iii. IT.; Morant's Essex; Stows Snrrej, 
ed. Strjpe; Qeat. Mag. 17S4 i. 247,420, 1791 
i.223, 1811i.418; Lett«r»of Eminant Litararj 
Men (Camd. Soo.j, pp. 177, 180; Eemarks of 
Thomas Heame (Oif. Hist. Soe.}, who cod- 
iidered him an ' injadicioui writer;' Cat. of 
Lansdowae MSS. 1 B02, pFa&U, and index; Cat. 
of M3S. in Library of UniT. of Cambridgfl, Tols. 
iT. v.; Bromlej's Cat. of Engraved Brit. Por- 
traits, p. 281; Carta's Hint, of England, vol. 
iii., prcf. ; Maitlftnd's Remarks, 184S (the minn- 
nript is in tbeLibrarjof UuiT, of Cambridge) ; 
Maitland'sNotesoa Strype, 1868; Moens's Keg. 
of Loudon Dutch Church in Austin Friars, 1884; 
A. W. Crawley Boevey's Perrerse Widow ; other 
letters to Hod from Suype cot mentioned in the 
tait are in Btit. Muacnm, Hari. MSS. 8781, 
7000, Birch MSS. 4163, 42S3, 4276, 42T7 (mostly 
copies), Colo MSS. 683J-6-40-Si-3-6e ; Addit. 
MS. 28104, f. 23, Stowe MS. 748. ff. 106,111; 
while many of his raisceUaneons eollectiops, 
some in Bhorthand and scarcely any of impor- 
tance, are in the Lansdowne MSS. ; other lettera 
are to be found in Cole's Cat. Cod. MSS. Bibl. ir. p. 112fl,pt.f. fascii. p.980; Hist. 
HS3. Cnmm. 9th Sep. p. 470; will of John 
Strype, the elder, in P. C. C. 8 EssM ; will of 
Hester Strype in P. a C. IE Mico.] O. O. 


DB (1796-1873), Aufitraliao explorer, knows 
OS Count Stnelecki, of a noble Polish family, 
was bom in 1796 in Polish Prussia. He was 
educated in part at the High School, Edio- 
burgh. When he came of age he fiuallj 
abandoned his native country, and, encou- 
raged by Mends in England, commenced in 
1^ a course of travel in the remote East. 
On his way back from China he called in at 
Sydnej in April 1639, and was introduced 
to the govemor of Kaw South Wales, Sir 
George Qipps, who persuaded bim to under- 
take the exploration of the interior. Fol- 
lowingin the footsteps of Sir Thomas Living- 
stone Mitchell [q. v.], he devoted himself 
especially to the scientific examination of 
the geolof^ and mineralogy, fiora, fauna, 
and aborigines of the Great Darling Range, 
conducting all these operations at his own 
expense. Upon complating the surrey of 
the Darling Range, Stneledu and hie party, 
including James Macarthur and James 
Riley, decided not to return to Sydney, 
but struck out upon a "P"' "^ ^^^ range 
leading southwards into victoria. On their 
way, on 7 March 1840, they unexpectedly 
encountered the prospecting party or Angus 
MocMillan [q. v.] The latter had named the 
district, distinguished by its grand scenery 
and mild climate, Caledonia Australis; but, 
at the suggestion of Stnelecki, it was re- 
named Gippaland. Upon leaving Mao- 





Millan's camp, irith proTuions ruDning 
short, the count and his men attempted U. 
reacli Melbourne by a short cut across thi 
ranges. They had to abandon thair pack' 
horses and all tha botanical and other 
specimens, and for twenty-two days liberally 
cat their way through tha scrub, seldom 
adTancing more than two mites a day, and 
h«ing in a state of starvation. Their clothes 
were torn piecemeal away, and their flesh 
was lacerated by tha sharp lancet-like 
brambles of the scrub; but they succeeded 
in reaching Melbourne by the middle of 
Alay. During this memorable journey 
Stnelecki discovered in the Wellinglon 
district, two hundred miles west of Sydney, 
a la^ quantity of gold-bearing qnarti. 
He mentioned to Oipps upon his return to 
Sydney the probable eiistence of a rich 
goldfield in the locality ; but the governor 
earnestly requested bitn 'not to make the 
matter generally known for fear of the 
serious oonsegnences which, cousiderinE the 
condition and population of the colony, 
were to be apprehended from the cupidity 
of the prisoners and labourers.' The first 
official notice of the discoveiy of gold in 
Australia was thus actually entombed for 
twelve years in a parliamentary paper, 
jhmed upon a report communicated by 
GiopB ; and it was not until 1851 that the 
rich deposits were turned to practical ac-' 
count by Edward Hammond Hargraves 
and others. The priority of the discovery 
undoubtedly belonp to Stnelecki. 

The explorer returned to Ziondon in 1843, 
And two years lat«r issued his ' Physical 
Description of New South Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land, accompanied by a Geologi- 
-cal Map, Sections, and Diagrams, and 
Figures of the Oifnntc Remains ' (London, 
flro). The work, fliough lacking in arrange- 
ment and power of presentatioa, contains 
most valuable statiatical information ; it is 
dedicat«d to the author's friend, Sir John 
Franklin. The plates were engraTed by 
James De Carle Sowerby [q. v.] The (act of 
the discovery of ^Id was suppressed in ful- 
filment of a promise made to Governor Gipps, 
but a few specimens of the auriferous quartz 
were taken to Europe, and, having been 
analysed, ^Uy confirmed SCrrelecki'a views, 
which were further corroborated by the 
of MuTchison and other geologists. 
int waa not tempted to renew his 
colonial experiences. About 1860 he was 
naturalised as a British subject through 
the good offices of Lord Overstone. He 
was selected as one of the commissioners 
for the distribution of the Irish famine 
rriieffund in 1817-8, waa created aB. in 


consideration of his services (21 Not. 1848), 
was consulted by the rovernment upon 
aSkirs relating to Austraha, and assisted in 
promoting emigration to the Australian 
coloniee. He accompanied Lord Lyons to 
the Crimea in 1855, and became an actir* 
member of the Crimean army fund com- 
mittee. He was elected F.R.S. in Juna 
1863, and was created D.C.L. by the uni- 
versity of Oxford 00 20 June 1860, Ho 
was made a K.C.M.G. on 30 June 1869, 
and died in Savile Row, London, on 6 Oct. 
1873. His name is commemorated in the 
Stnelecki range of hills in the district of 
Western Port, Victoria, by the Strzelecki 
oreek in South Australia, and by several 
species among Australian fauna and flora. 
By way of a supplement to his ' Physical 
Description,' he published in 1866 a brief 
pamphlet giving an account of his original 
dieoovery of gold in New South Wales. 

[Foster'a Alumni Oxon. IT11-18U; Ann. 
Reg. 1873 ; Times. 7 and 17 Oct, 187! ; Blair'a 
Cjdopodia at AnstntlBsis, Melbourne, 1381, 

fp. 680-1 ; Mayi! ell's Anstralasi an Biography; 
alvert'>ExplorHtioQofAustraJia,i.l99; Weat- 
gonh's dJony of Victoria, p. SIS; Simpfon's. 
Hsny Memories, 189S ; Fraser'a Bis at libiqae ; 
Edinburgh Keview, July 1893 ; Brit. Mtu. Cat.] 
T. S. 
and SiBWim.] 

1888), premier of New South Wales, son of 
Alexander Stuart of Edinburgh, was Imm ia 
that city in 1826, and educated at Edin- 
burgh Academy and University. Embark- 
ing on a commercial career, he went into ft 
merchant's office in Glasgow, then to Beliast 
aa manager of the North of Ireland Linen 
Mills, and in 1S15 to India, whence, not 
flndinr the climate suit him, he moved to 
New Zealand, and eventually in 1851 to New 
South Wales. After about a year on the 
goldfleldi Stuart became in December 1862 
aaaistant secretary to the Bank of New South 
Wales ; in 1664 he was made secretary and 
inspector of colonial brancbea. HisabiUtieB 
attracted the notice of the head of the flnn 
of Towns & Co., which he joined in 1866 aa 
- Mrtner. 
In 1874 Stuart for the flrst time appeared 
I public life aa the champion of the oenomi- 
nstional system in primorv education, and 
as the ally of Frederick Earlier [q. v.], bishon 
of Sydney. In Decembw 1874 he entovd 
tbe colonial parliament aa member for E^ut 
Sydney. On 8 Feb. 1870 he became treasurer 
in the ministry of Sir John Robertson [q,T.], 
holding that post till 21 March 1877, when 
the ministry went out. In 1877 he waa t*> 



d«ctad tat Eut Sydney, but reeigned in March 
1679,npaakppcuiitmeiit as agetit>geneTal for 
ths mImij in London, though, ha did not, 
■&»»U.t*katliapostup. AttbeKcneralelec- 
tiaa of 1660 be wMretumed for lTawarTa,and 
bseaBw l«*der of the oppoaition againit the 
FcrlBa-Rob«rtson miiuBtry, defeating them 
OB the Uad biU of 1882 [s«e under Robert- 
an.SisJoKii]. The ininiatrj dissolved pat- 
liuneat and yna defeated at the polls, and 
Scnart on 6 Jan. 1883 became premier. 
He at oDoe, and without adopling toe usual 
foratal methods, amoKed for the appoiut- 
iBcnE of a iNHiiinittee oiinqnirj into the land 
Uwi, and in October brought in a land bill, 
bued on their recommendations, which was 
diar— led with heat and acrimony during the 
kamt MSBioD on record in New &iutii 
Wdea, and finallj paned into law in Uc- 
tohv 1884. The question of regulation of 
tba ciril eerrice was the other princijial 
BBtt« which had Stuart's personal attention 
in that leiBioa, but at the end of the fear 
tbe qwKticm of Australian federation was 
ohA debated, and he was a member of the 
eoaftmue which drew up a scheme of federa- 
uoo. £arl7 in 1886 he had a sudden para- 
lni« itroke, and after a holidaj in New 
Zealand he ceme back to office ao enfeebled 
that OB 6 Oct. 18SC he retired. He was then 
affminted to the legialative council, and later 
n the jear became ezecuUre commissioner 
far the eolonj for the Colonial and Indian 
ExlnhUieaof 1686; after being publicly en< 
tntaiDsd at benquets at "Woolongoog and 
Sjiaej, be cwne to England to carrj out his 
^eduscrriee, but died in London, afterthe 
onnii^of the exhibition, on 16 June 1636. 
Toe le^Iatire council adjourned on hearing 
of hii death ; but in the assetnblj Sir Henry 
hikea tocceiiflfully opposed a sinular motion. 
^jAarj Morning Hnald, 18 June ISSS ; Ksw 
SmhWalMParLDebalM, passim.] C.A.H. 



conductthecase against theclaimant. In the 
course oF Che suit, which was finaU; decided 
in the House of Lords in Februaiy 1769 in 
favour of Douglas, he distinguished himself 
highlT,but somuch feeling arose between him 
and Edward Thurlow (afterwards LordThur- 
low), the opposing counsel, that a duel took 
place. At^er the decision of the cose Stuart 
in 1773 published a series of ' Letters to 
Lord Uansfield' (London, 4to), who had 
been a judge in the case, and who had very 
strongly supported the claims of Douglas, 
In these epistles he assailed Mansfield for 
his want of impartiality with a force and 
eloquence that caused him at the time to be 
rwarded as a worthy rival Co Junius. 

From 1777 to 1781 he was occupied with 
the affairs of his younger brother. Colonel 
James Stuart {d. 1793) [q. v.], who had been 
suspended from his position by the East India 
Company for the arrest of Lord Pigot, the 
governor of the Madras presidency [see Pigot, 
ClEosoB, Babok Fioot]. He publidied 
several letters to the directors of the East 
India Company and to the secretary at war, 
in which his brother's case was set forth with 
great clearness and vigour. These letters 
called forth a reply from Alexander Dal- 
rymple [q. v.] 

On 28 OcC. 1774 Stuart was returned to 
parliament for Lanarkshire, and continued 
to represent the county until 1784. On 
6 July 1778, under Lord North's administra- 
tion, be wasappointed to Che board of trade 
in place of Bamber Gascoyne, and continued 
a member until the temporary abolition of 
the board in 1782. On la July 1790 he re- 
entered parliament, ailer an aosence of six 
years, as member for Weymouth and Mel- 
combe Begis, for wliich boroughs he sat until 
his death. 

On 23 March 1796, on the death of his 
elder brother, Alexander, without issue, 
Andrew succeeded to the estate of Torrance, 
and on 18 Jan. 1797 on the death of Sir 
John Stuart of Castlemilk, Lanarkshire, he 
succeeded to that property also. In 1798 ha 
published a ' Genealogical History of the 
Sitewarts ' (London, 4to), in which he con- 
tended that, failing the royal line (the de- 
scendants of Stewart of Damley), the head 
of all the Stuarts was Stuart of Castlemilk, 
and tliat he himself was Stuart of that ilh, 
heir male of the ancient family. This asser- 
tion provoked an anonymous rejoinder, to 
wbich Stuart replied in 1799. He died in 
Lower Grosvenor Street, London, on 38 May 
1801, without an heir male. Ho married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir William Stirling 
of Ardoch, hart. After his death in 1804 she 
married Sir William Johnson Pulteney, fifth 

Digitized byGOOgle 



bMonet of Wester Hall. By her Stuut had 
three daughters. The youngest, Charlotte, 
in 1830 married Itobert Harinf^ton, youtig«r 
eon of Sir John Edward Hanngton, eighth 
iMionet of Ridlington in Rutland; throuBh 
her, on the death of her elder sisters, the 
estate of Torrance descended to its present 
occupier, Colonel Robert Edward Hanngton- 
Stuart, while CostlemUk reverted to the 
family of Stirling-Stuart, deBCendanta of 
William Stirling of Keir and Cawder, who 
marriad, in 1781, Jean, daughter of Sir John 
Stuart of CastlemiUc. 

Andrew Stuart's portrait was painted by 
Reynolds and engraved by Thomas Watson 
(d. 1781) [a. T.] Some notes made by him 
m July 1789 on charters in the Scottish 
College at Paris are preserved in the Stowe 
MSS. at the British Museum, No. 651, f. 56. 

[Stuart's Works; Edinburgh Mag. 1801, i. 
41« ; Oent. Mng. 1801, i. S74, ii. 67U ; Foatei-'ii 
Scottish Members of Parliument, p. 322 ; Haydn's 
Book of DignitiflS, p. SAG ; Burke's VisitatioD of 
Seats of Noblemeo and Qsntlemen, 2Dd ser. 
ii. aS-T: Watford's County FaroillMi of the 
United Kingdom, ISQS, pp. 674, 983; Snrke's 
Landed Gentry, 8th ed. ii. 1989-30; Bromley's 
Cat of Engr. Portraits, p. 851.] E, I. C. 

or BERAULT, tliird Seiomeub of Attbisjtt 
(1447 P-1508), son of John, second aeigneur 
of Aubigny, by Beatrice, daughter of BSrault, 
seigneur of Apchier, was bom about 1447. 
Like his father and grandlather, Sir John 
Btuart or Stewart of Damley, first seigneur 
of Aubigny [q. v.], he was nigh in favour 
with the French sovereign and was captain 
of the Scots guard. Occupying a position of 

T;ial trust, and related to Scotland by ties 
descent and friendship, no more appro- 
friate envoy could have oeen chosen than 
e to announce to James III the accession of 
Oharles VIII to the throne of Fmnce, and 
to sign on 22 March 1483-4 the treaty re- 
newing the ancient league between the two 
countries. Not improbably the seigneur of 
Aubigny was also the medium of communi- 
cation with a section of Scots lords who 
favoured the enterpTise of the Earl of Rich- 
mond (afterwards Henry VU) against Ri- 
chard III; and in 1486 he was chosen to 
command the French troops who accom- 
psniod Richmond to England, and assisted 
bim to win his signal victory over his rival 
at BoBworth FieM. In 1489 he was em- 
ployed by Charles in negotiating for the 
release of Louis, duke of Orleans (afterwards 
Looia XIl), then a prisoner in the tower of 
Bourges ; but his career as a soldier dates 
woperty from 1494. When Charles VIII in 
utt year laid claim to the crown of the two 


Sicilies, he sent the seigneur of Aubigny to 
set forth his claim to the pope, and while 
returning from his embassy he received an 
order from the king of France to place him- 
self in command of a thousand horse, and 
lead them over the Alps, bf the Saint 6er> 
nard and Simplon passes into Lombardr; 
and after taking part with the king in t[i» 
conquest of Romagna that followed, he ac- 
companied him in the triomphal entry into 
Florence on 16 Nov, 1494. Thenafter he 
was made governor of Calabria and lieu- 
tenant-genwal of the French army, and in 
June 1496 he gained a neat victory near 
Semiaara over the king of Naples and Oon- 
salvo de Cordoba. In 1499 he took part in 
the campaign of Louis XII in Italy, and on 
its conclusion was appointed governor of tho' 
Milanese, with command of the French army 
left to garrison the towns of north Italy. 
In 1601 ne completed the conquest of Naples, 
of which he was then appointed governor. 
But after a few succesaee m Calabria in 1602, 
he was completely defeated at Seminan on 
21 April 1503, and shortly afterwards had 
to deliver himself up, when he was impri- 
soned in the great tower of the CastelNuovo 
at Naples until set free by the truce of 
11 Nov. In 1608 he was sent to Scotlandl 
to consult James IV regarding the propoaed 
marriage of the IMncease Claude with the 
Due d'AngoulSme. He was welcomed by 
the king of Scots with honours appropriate 
to his soldierly renown. He was placed at; 
the same table with the king, who called him 
the ' father of war,' and named bimjud^ in 
the tournaments which celebrated bb am val. 
William Dunbar also eulogised his achieve- 
ments in a poem of welcome, in which he de- 
scribed him sa ' the prince of knighthood 
and the flower of chivalry.' But not lon^ 
aft«r his arrival he was taken suddenly iU 
whilejoumeying from Edinburgh to Stirungr, 
and died in the house of Sir John Forrester 
at CoTstorphine. By hie will, dated 8 June, 
and made during his last illness, he directed 
that hit body should be buried in the ohurcb 
of the Bladoriars, Edinburgh, to the brothers 
of which order he bequeathed 14/., placing 
the rest of his property at the disposal of his 
executors, Matthew, earl of Lennox, and 
John of Aysoune, to be bestowed bv them for 
the good of bis soul as they should answer 
to God (Mitt. MS& Comm. 8rd Rep. p. 
S92). The seigneur composed a treatise upon 
' The Dutv of a Prince or General towards » 
conquered Country,' of which there exist 
copies in manuscript in Lord Bute's colls^ 
tion and in the Bibtioth^ue Nationale. 

By his first wife, Guillemette or Willel- 
tninedeBoiicard,he bad a daughter, Guyonna 

Digitized byGOOgle 

Stuart 7 

StvHt, who married Philippe de Brogne, 
mafBeat de Liiiat. Bj kig second wife, Anne, 
dftn^ter of Gny da Maumont, seigneur of 
Sunt-Quentin, he had a daughter Anne, 
ntnied to her cousin, Bobert Stuart, who 
bceama seigneur of Saint-Quentin in her 

AportiMt of Bernard Stuart, after a medal 
br Nieeolo Spinelli, engraved from Heiss's 
' MidaUleDrs de la Benaiiaance,' forme the 
finntiipeee of Lttdj EUiabeth Gust's ' Stuarts 
of AiUgtiy.' 

[Andnw Stoart'i Qraealagieal Hist of the 
StnHte; Ferbe^-LMtbySeotsGnaTdsiDFrann; 
Fnaenqaa Michel's Lee Ecoesaii cu Franea ; and 
apHuIlT Ladj Elizabeth Out's SLnarU of 
lil<gD7.] T. F. H. 

STUART, Lobs BERNARD, titular 
EaxL OF Licbuxlh f 1623 F-1645), bora 
ahoet 1623, was the sixth son of Esm^, third 
dnke of Lennox (1679-1624) [see under 
Sttut, Ltidoticx, second Di;ze op Lbn- 
»OXj. Hit mother Eatherine ((2. 1637), only 
daiAletandheireM of Gervaae, lord Clifton 
of LeightoD-Bromswold in Huntingdon- 
■bire, «■« after her father's death in 1618 
Banmen Clifton in her own right. James 
StBBTt, fimrth duke of Lennox [q-T.], was 
hi* eldest brother. Bernard was brought up 
ander the direction of trustees appointed bj 
the king, fakring a distinct reTenue aasiffneil 
Air his maintenance (CbJL StaU Papen, Dom. 
I«33-«, p. 488 J. On 30 Jan. 1638-9 he ob- 
tKBcd a Itcemee to travel abroad for three 
Tevi (A. 1638-9, p. S76). On the outbreak 
of the dril war in 1642 he was appointed 
captaiM at the king's own troop of lifeguards, 
and be was knighted on 18 April. 

Bersafd waa preseut at the battle of Edge- 
ISa, SS Oct. 1642, at which his brother 
Gen^ lord D'Anbigny, was killed. On 
9 Jme 1644, at the lead of the guards, he 
■upyurl ed the Earl of Cleveland [see Went- 
woBTB, Tboku] in his char^ on the parlia- 
iMisiiiiis at ^opredy Bridge, which re- 
salted ia tlM eaptni« of Waller's park of ai^ 
tatey. In 1645 Charles I designated him 
Bad td lieUield ; bat to such pecuniary 
Kcvta was be radnced that he could not pay 
the aeonu; fieee, and Sir Edwaid Nicholas 
f^ r.} ia eoaaeqnence wrote to the king le- 
nmtisiiiiliiiii him to command bis patent tA 
pHiwithoatfeaa (A. 1646-7, p,lllj. Before 
mjiUm WM d<me^ howerer, Bernard fell 

■ ktUt. After tlw defeat at Naseby, at 
vbeUewMpTMent, be accompanied Charles 

■ kv PTurrii to relier* Chest^, and entered 
Ik towa witb the king on 23 Scmt. On the 
Uowiag dar, while Sir Hamadnke Lang- 
4b aMWed th0 parliamentaiy foroes on 
immBftht StD«t headed a sally from 


the city. For a time he was successful, but 
he was eventnally driven back and elain in 
the ront that followed. ' He was,' says Cla- 
rendon, ' a very faultless young man, of a 
most ^tle, courteous, and affable nature, 
and ot a spirit and courage invintuble, whose 
loss all men exceedingly lamented, and the 
king bore it with eitraordinarj- grief.' He 
died unmarried, and his burial in Christ 
Church, Oxford, is recorded on 11 March 
1646-6. A portrait of Lord John and Lord 
Bernard Stuart by Vaudjck is in the possee- 
sion of the Duke of Richmond at Cobham 
Hall ; it has been engraved by R. Thomson 
and by McArdell. There was also a portrait 
of Bernard Stuart in the collection of the 
Dnkeof Kent, which was engraved by Vertue. 

[Doyle's OfSeial Bnroiiaf^ ; Clare adon's Hist, 
of the Civil War, ed. Macray, 1S88, ii. 348, 
368, iii. Ser, Iv. 1 IS ; Gardiaer's Hist, of the 
Civil War, ii. S4S; O. E. C[okfiyDe]'s Complete 
Peerage, v. 7*; Smart's Genealogical Hist, of 
the Stewarts, pp. £67, 276-7; Simms's Biblio- 
theea StoffordieDus, p. 410; Uoyd's Uemoirs, 
1668, p. 3fil.] E. I. C. 

STUART, CHARLES, sixth Dukb of 
Lekhox, third Dukb op Richmoub, and 
tenth Sbishbus d'Aubiokt (1639-1672), 
bora in London on 6 Mar. 1638-9 (Sloane MS. 
1708, f. 121), wfcsonly son of Geoi^ Stuart, 
ninth seigneur d'Aubigny, who was fourth 
son of Esmfi, third duke of Lennox [see un- 
der Stuabt, LinwriCK, second Duxi! op Lbt- 
HOi]. Charles Stuart's mother was Cathe- 
rine Howard {d. 1650), eldest dauebter of 
Theopbilus, second earl of Suffolk, who, after 
the death of her husband, Qeorge Stuart, at 
Edgehill in 1642, married Sir James Leving- 
stane, created Elarl of Newburgh in 1660. 

On 10 Dec. 1646 Charles was created 
BsTon Newbury and Earl of IJchfield, titles 
intended for Itis uncle, Bernard Stoart 
(1623P-164e) [q.T.] In January 1668 he 
crossed to France, and took up bis reu- 
dence in the house of his uncle, Ludovic, 

lowing year he fell under the displeasure of 
the council of state, and warrants were 
issued for seixing his person and goods (ib. 
1669-60, pp. V», 227, 229), This wounded 
him deeply, and when, after the Restoration, 
he sat m the Convention parliament, he 
showed great animouty towards the sup- 
porters of the Commonwealth. 

He returned to England with Charlea II, 
and on the death of his cousin, Esm6 Stuart, 
on 10 Aug. 1660, he succeeded him as Duke 
of Richmond and Lennox \aea under SrvAKI, 
Jambs, fourth Dues op Lbrkox and Srat 
Ddkb op Riohhohii]. In the same year 



ho was cre&ted heiedltaiy great cliamber- 
lun of Scotland, heredicarj great sdnural of 
Scotland, and loid-lieutenant of BqtmI. On 
16 April 1661 be was invested with the 
order of the Qorter, and in 1662 he joined 
Middleton in Scotland, where, accoramg to 
Buraet, hia extravagances and those of his 
stepfather, the Earl of Newbor^h, did much 
to discredit the lord high commissioner. 

The Duke of Richmond was on insatiable 
petitioner for favours from the crown, and, 
although be did not obtain all he desired, he 
was one of those who benefited moat largely 
by Charles's profusion (Cai. State Paper*, 
1)001.1660-71, passim). Among other gnnta, 
on 28 April 1663 he received » pension of 
1,000/. a Tear as a gentleman ot the bed- 
chamber (a. 1603-4, pp. 89, 121). The son 
of the royal fovour was, however, sametLmea 
obscured, for in 1666 he was incarcerated In 
the Tower from 30 March to 21 April on 
account of a difference with the king {ib. 
1664-5, pp. 280, 281, 822). On the death 
of hie uncle, Ludovio Stuart, he succeeded 
him as Seigneur D'Aubign;, and did homage 
by proxy to Louis XIV on 11 May 1670. 
On 26 May 1666 he received the ^nt for 
himself and his beirs male of the dignity of 
Baron Cobham, and on 3 July, when the 
country was alarmed by the presence of the 
Dutch in the Thames, he was appointed to 
the command of a troop of horse (ib. 1666- 

1666, pp. 417, 489). In July 1667, by the 
death of his cousin, Mary Butler, countess of 
Arran,he became Lord Clifton de Leigbton- 
Bromswold [see Stuaht, Bbbhasd, titular 
Earl of Liohfixli)], end on 4 May 1668 
hewaa made lord lieutenant and vice admiral 
of Kent jointly with theEarlof Wiuchilsea 
{ib. 1667-8, pp. 364, 374, 398). 

Shortly before this the duke had taken a 
Btep which shook him very much in 
ki ni^s fa vo up — his marriage, nam ely , in March 

1667, with Charles's innsmorata, 'La Belle 
Stuart ' [see Stdabt or Sthwabt, Fba: 
TsBBSAj. Richmond suffered less for his 
temerity than might have been anticipated, 
which IS easily eiplioahle if Lord Dart- 
mouth's assertion be true, that 'after her 
marriage she had more complaisance than 
before, as King Charles could not forbear 
telling the Duke of Richmond when he was 
ihrunk at Lord Townshend'a in Norfolk.' 

In 1671 he was sent as ambassador to the 
Danish court to persuade Denmark to join 
England and France in the proJMted attack 
on the Dutch. He died at EUinore on 
13 Deo. 1972, and was buried in Weetmin- 
ster Abbey on 20 Sept. 1673 (Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 6292, t 16). lie was thrice 
nanried, but had do children. His first wife, 

74 Stuart 

Elizabeth, was the eldest daughter and «>• 
heiress of Richard Rt^rs of Bryanstone, 
Doraet, and the widow of Charles Caven- 
dish, styled Viscount Mansfield. She died in 
childbed on 21 April 1661, and he married 
secondly, on 31 March 1663, Maigvet, 
daughter of Laurence Banister of Papeu' 
ham, Buckinghamshire, and widow of Wil- 
liam Lewis of Bletchington, Oxfordshire. 
She died in December 1666, and in March 
1666-7 he married Frances Teresa Stewart. 
By the duke's death all bis titles became 
extinct, except the barony of Olifton of 
Leighton-Bromswold, which descended to 
his sister Katherine. Charles II, however, 
thourh not lineally descended from any of 
the dukes of Lennox or Richmond, yet as 
their nearest collateral heir male wa« by in- 

Suisitionpcet mortem, held at Edinburgli on 
July 16B0, declared the nearest heir mala 
(CAaneen/ Bteordt, Scotland, vol. xxiviL 
f. 211 ; ap. Stuabi, Qmealog. Hist. 1798, 
pp. 281-^. These titles, having reverted 
to the king, were bestowed by him m August 
1676 on his natural son Charles Lennox, first 
duke of Ritduntmd [q.v.] The duke's will, 
dated 12Jan. 1671-3, waa proved on 14Feb. 
1673-3, and is printed in the ' Archfeolt^^ 
Oantiana'(xL 264-71). 

' An Elegie on his Qraoe the illtistrioiu 
Charles Stuart' was published in the year 
of his death, but is a work of slight merit. 
Five volumes of his letters and papers ars 
among the additional manuscripts in the 
British Museum (Addit. MSS. 21947-51). ■ 

S: E. crokayneya Peerage; Burnet's Hist. 
■ oimTiraM, lS23,i. 251-7,349,418, 629; 
Donglos's Peetage of ScotUad, ed. Wood, 1818, 
ii, lot; Fepji'i Diary; Evelyn's Diary and 
Letters; Archsologia Cantiana, xi. 361-S(; 

IS8, 330; Addlt. MSS. 23119 f, 160, 23137 L 
74, 231S4ff. 44, 116, ZSlt7pssslm.l&.I. C. 

STUART, Sir CHARLES (1768-1801), 
general, fourth son of John Stuart, third earl 
of Bute Rl-v.]. by Mary, only danghter of 
Edward Wortley Montagu, was Dom Id 
January 1753. He entered the army in 1768 
as eusi^ in the S7th foot, and in 1777 wu 
made lieutenant-colonel of the 26th foot or 
Cameconians, with which he served dnrinff 
the American war. In 1780 he was returned 
M.F. for Boasiney in Cornwall. In 1783 h« 
was promoted colonel, and in 1793 majop- 
general. In 1791 and 1706 he was employed 
m the Mediterranean, and made hinueU 
master of Corsica. In December 1796 )u 
was employed against the French in Porta- 
^, and secured it against invasion. Re- 
turning home in t798,he was made Ueuteaaat- 

Digitizcd by Google 


■cunl,Knd direeMd to takecommaiid of the 
Biiluk forces in Fortngsl Uid proceed with 
than M HiDiMca; and, iMuUug- on 7 Not., 
eonpriled tfaa Sp*aiah forces, nonilMriiig 
ihne tlwoHuid saveD hnudi«d, to capitukte 
witboot Um looa of % man. In recognltit 
«f hot Mrric^B hs was on 8 Jul. 1799 I 
natal with tho oriei of the Bath, and the 
■■mil jtmt ha waa appointed govenu^ of 
aCiaotca. Shortly afterwards be was ordered 
to Malta, where he captured the fortreBs of 
LftValette. He died at Richmond Lodge on 
S& Uairh 1801. Bjhiawife Louiaa, second 
dmagtita and coheir of Lord Vera Bertie, he 
had two KHis, the eMest of whom, Charles 
[q. T.^ became Baron Stuart de Rothesay. 

rG«nt.Maa. IS01,i.37ii AodenoD'a Soattiah 
Saboa] T. F. H. 

SrruT U BOTBSBkT (1779-1846), eldest 
■on of Sir Charles Stuart [q. t.\ general, by 
Ii™"'". KCond daughter and coheir of Lord 
VereBertie,waabornon2J"aa.l779. HsTing 
ecTmd the diplomatic service, he became 
joint chaig€ d'ia&ires at Madrid in 1808, 
aad, being- ia 1810 sent envoy to Portugal, 
vu oeated Count of Macbico and Marquis 
rf Angra, and knight grand cross of the 
Tcrwvr and Sword. On 20 Sept. 1813 he 
wu made O.C.B. and a privjr councillor. 
He *u minister^ at the Ha^ue 1815-16, 




February 1769 lecntly married James (after- 
wards Sir James) MaokiutOHh [q. v.] Bba 
died in April 1796. Daniel Stuart aasiated 
Mackintosh as secretarv to the Society of 
the Friends of the People, whose object waa 
the promotion of parliunentar; refono. In 
1794 he publishea a pamphlet, ' Peace and 
Beform, against War and Corruption,' in 
answer to Artbiu Yoong's ' The Example of 
France a Warning to Great Britain.' 

Meanwhile, in 1788, Peter and Daniel 
Stuart undertook the printing- of the ' Morn- 
ing Post,' a moderate whig newspaper, wUch 
waa then owned by Richud Tattersalliq.v.l, 
and wee at a low ebb. In 1795 TatteraaU 
diapoBodof it to the Stuarts fordOO^., which 
included plant and copyright. Within two 
years Stuart raised the circulation of the 

Saper &om 360 a day to a thousand, and gio- 
ually converted it into an oraan of tlio 
moderate tories. He bad the entire manage* 
ment almost from the first. By buyiiw in 
the 'Gasetteer' and the 'Teltgrap^by 
Bkilful editing and judiciooa management of 

iug Poet ' the equal of the ' Mornins Chro- 
nicle,'thentfaebe3t dailypaper. MacKintosh, 
who wrotereffularlvforitin its earlier days, 
introdaced Coleriiupe to Stuart in 1797. 
Coleridge became a frequent contributor, and 
when, in the autumn of 1798, he went to 
Qennany, Southey SDjtplied contribationa in 
bis place. On CoteridKe's return it was 
arranged that he abould give up hia whole 
time and services to the ' Morning Post ' and 
receive Stuart's latest salary. Stuart took 
rooms for him in King Street, Covwt Gar- 
den, and Coleridge told Wordaworth that he 
dedicated his nights and days to Stuart 

S'OEDSWOEtH, ^fe ttf WordticoTth, i. 160). 
leridge introduced Lamb to Stuart ; but 
Stoart, though be tried him repeatedly, de- 
clared that he 'never could make anting 
of his writings.' Lamb, however, writes of 
himself as having been closely connected 
with the'Poet'troml800tol80S('New». 
papers thirty-five years ago '). Wordaworth 
contributed some political sonnets gr^ 
tuitonsly to the ' Mwning Poet,' while under 
Stuart's managetnent. In August 1803 
Stuart disposed of tlie ' Morning Post ' fiw 
36,000/., when the circulation waa at the 
then ' unprecedented rate of four thousand 
five hundred a day. 

Stuart bad meanwhile superintended the 
foreigh intelligence in the ' Oracle,' a tory 
paper owned by his brother Peter, and in 
1796 he bad purchased an evening paper, 
the ' Courier.' To this, after his sale of the 
Morning Post,' he gave his whole atteattoo. 


Stuart j6 


•ereii thotuuid & day. The price was seven- 
pence, mi wcond KoA third editions were 
fiublished dailf tot the first time. It cireu- 
Ued laraeljunoDg the clergj. From 1809 
to 1811 Coleridge wu ui intermittent con- 
tributor. An utide which Stuut wrote, 
with Coleridge's ftssistance, in 1811 on the 
conduct of the princes in the rc^ncj ques- 
tion provoked ftn uigrj speech from the 
Duke of Sussex in the House of Lords. 
Mackintosh contributed to the 'Courier' 
from 1808 to 1814, and Wordsworth wrote 
articles on the Spanish and Portuguese 
navies. Southey also sent extracts from 
his pamphlet on the ' Convention of Cintra ' 
before its publication. For his support of 
Addinffton's government Stuart decuned a 
teward, desiring to remain independent. 
From 1811 he left the management almoct 
entirelj in the Lands of his partner, Peter 
Street, under whom it became a ministerial [ 
organ. In 1817 Stuart obtained a verdict j 

X'nst Lovell, editor of the ' Statesman,' 
I had accused him of pocketing six or 
seven thousand pounds belonging to ttie 
' Society of the Friends of the People.' In 
1823 he sold his interest in the 'Courier.' 
Stuart, in a correspondence with Heniy Cole- 
ridge, contested the statements in Oilman's 
' Life ' and in Coleridge's ' Table Talk ' that 
Coleridge and his friends had made the for- 
tune of hia paper* and were inadequately re- 
warded. Coleridge had no ground for dis- 
aatiafaction while he was actively associated 
with Stuart, and Stuart gave Coleridge 
money at later periods, 

Jordan contrasts Stuart's decorous and 
Nmple life with the profuse expenditure of 
his partner Street. Stuart, however, was fond 
of pictures. In 1806 he acquired Wilkie's 
'Blind Fiddler' for five guineas. After 
withdnwing from the ' Courier,' Stuart pur- 
chased Wykeham Park, Oxfordshire. He 
died on 26 Aug. 1846 at his house in Upper 
Harley Street. He married in 1813. 

Daniel's brother, Petbk Sutabt (jft 1788- 
1806), started the tory paper called 'The 
Oncle ' before 1788, and m 1768 set on foot 
the ' Star,' which was the first London 
evening paper to appear r^nlarly. Until 
1790 the ' Star' waa edited by Andrew Mac- 
donald [q.v.], and was carried on till 1831. 
Burns is said to have contemptuously refused 
a weeklv engagement in connection with it. 
In the 'Oracle,' in 1806, Peter publiilied a 
■tfoiw article in defence of Lord Helville 
[see DmnuB, Hehbt, first, Vibcottnt Mbl- 
tuxb], who had recently been impeached. 
In MBSequence of the inunuatioas which it 

made agunst the opposition, Gray carried a 
motion on 26 April that Peter Stuart be 
ordered to attend at the bar of the House of 
Commons. Next day Stuart apologised, but 
was ordered into the custody of the sergeant- 
Bt-arms. He was discharged a £aw days 
later with a reprimand. 

[OcDt. Mag. 1S38 i. 48S.e3, S77-90, ii. 2i-7, 
27i-6, 1847 ). 90-1 ; NichoU'i Lit. Illnitr. 
viii. 618-19; Lit. llsm. of Living Authors, 
1798; Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; Grant's 
Kew^papep Press, vol.1, ch.xiv. ; Hunt's Fourth 
Eitaca, iL lB-32; Andrevi's Brit. Jonrualiim, 
ii. 2S-6 ; Foi-Bonrna'i EugL Kewapapen, ch. 
ix-z.; Djlcai Campbell's Lifs of Coleridge; 
Biogr. Diamatiea, i. 690, ii. Itl, ISl, 166, 20B, 
266, 302, 833 ; OeuFst's A[:couDt of the StAge, 
vi. 205. 286.481.] G. La G. N. 

(1803-1864), advocate of the independence 
of Poland, bom in South Audley Street, 
London, on 11 Jan. 1603, was eighth son of 
John Stuart, first marquis of Bute fl744- 
1814), and the only son by his second wife, 
Frances, second daughter of Thomas Coutts, 
banker. Hie father dying during his in&ncy, 
his education was superintended by his 
mother, and it was fVom her words and ex- 
ample that he acquired hia strong feeling* 
of sympathy for tne oppressed. He waa a 
member of Christ's College, Cambridge, and 
graduated M.A. In 1823. Impressed with 
admiration of the character of his uncle, Sir 
Francis Burdett j^a. v.], he stood for Arundel 
on liberal principles m 1830, and was re- 
turned without opposition. He was re-chosen 
for Arundel at the general elections of 1831, 
1833, and 1836, but in 1837 was opposed by 
Lord Fitzalan'a influence, and deleat«d by 
176 votes to 106. For ten years he had no 
seat in parliament^ but in 1847, Sir Charles 
Napier having retued, he became one of th« 
candidates for the borough of Marylebone, 
was returned at ijie head of the poll, and 
retained the seat to his death. 

In 1831 Prince Adam Ciartoryski visited 
England. Lord Dudley teas gready int«- 
rested in the account which that statesman 
save of the oppression exercised in Poland 
by the Emperor Nicholas, which had driven 
the Poles to revolt. Soon alter his interest 
was further excited by the arrival in England 
of many members of uie latePolish army, and 

the rsliefofthelVilet. He then attwtivelT 
studied the question, and formed the con- 
viction that the aggressive spirit of Rnasik 
oould be checked only by the lettoration t>t 
Poland. At first ha waa asaoci«t«d in hm 
agitation with Ontler Fwgasson, Tbomaa 





1} but, death remov- 
ing Baa J of them, he wu left &lmMt alone 
toBgfatUwbftttle ofthePoIes. The grants 
OMd« bj tha House of Commons year by 
jMr wan not aafficlent to support all the 
nctnu of Bussian, Auatmn, and Pruwian 
Ottdtj'jbut Lard Dudlej was indefatigable 
(Bnltatiiur public Bubscriptioas, and when 
Xhtm (oola no longer be obtained, in r&- 
pleaishins the funds of the Literaij Asso- 
eataoa ol the Friends of Poland by means 
o( pablic entertftinments. For many jears 
•nual bkUa were given at the Mansion 
Howe in aid of the association, when Lord 
Dodlcj -WMM Always the most prominent 
Bcmber of the committee of management. 

The labour attending these beneTolent 
•xcitioBS was incredible, yet it was under- 
taktA in •ddition to a regular attendance in 
paHianMnt and an incessant employment of 
Lis pe> in anpport of the Polish cause. His 
viewi nspecting the danger of Russian 
Mgiwiiuu were by many laughed at as : 
iaie (beam*, and his ideas respecting the tc- 
nrtahlinhninnt of Poland were pronounced 
aiiixE>tie. In November 1864 he went to | 
atockbolm in the hope of persuading the 
king of Sweden to join the western powers ' 
in taking measures for the reconstruction of i 
Ftoltiid,bnt ha died there on 17 Nov. 1864 j 
hisbody wsa brought to England and buried ' 
M Rntfixd on 16 Dec He married, in 1824, j 
ChiiadBa AlazBndrina Egypta, daughter of 
Loeien Bonaparte, prince of Canino ; she 
died OB 19 Mftj 18l7f leaving an onlyson, 
I^ol Aaadeos Francis Coutts, a captain in 
tbt d8(h regiment, who died on 1 Aug. 1889. I 
Lord Dudley printed a 'Speech on the j 
PalievafRnsHO, delivered in the House of 
Ceancns,' 1S36 ; and an ' Address of the I 
Loodoa lito^^ Assouation of the Friends 
«f Poland to the Feopleof Great Britain and 

[Ei^uMT, 26 Nor. 18fi4, p. 747; Oent.Uag. 
UU, L 79^1 ; Time*, 31 Nor. 1SS4, 16 Dec ; 
TlhmuUi Lonlon News, 1S43 iii. 33S with 
|ntBk,lMS ziv. 124 *ith portrait; B«port 
ti FiDCMJBKS of Annual Gensiul Meeting of 
tk iwdnCitarary Aasociation of the Friends 
«/ ftiMai, 1S39 et sea- : EsttmstM of aams re- 
fatndlas^tile Hia Uajestf to grant Belief Co 
iktimmi PoSm, Parliamentuj Papers, annually 
IM*^] a. 0. B. 

STUABT, ESM£, eixth SEiaiixua or 
Ameji and first I>(7KBO»Lhi!(km(1642P- 
1K3), only Km of John Stuart or Stewart, 
VA Migneor of Aubigny, youngest son of 
Jcia Stewart, third or eleventh earl of Len- 
■M [q-T.! by hia wife, Anne de La Quelle, 
■■VKa abont 1512, and succeeded his 

father as seigneur of Aubigny in 1667. In 
1676 he was engaged in an embassy in the 
Low Countries (CaL State Papen, For. 
1576-8, No. 968) ; on 25 Nov. he was in- 
structed to go with all speed to the Duke of 
Alen^on and thank him in the name of the 
estates for his goodwill {ib. No. 1030); and 
a little later he was instructed to proceed to 
England (i6. 'So. 1036). 
After the partial return of Morton to 

Eawer in 1579 the friends of Uarv, whose 
opes of triumph had been so rudely dashed 
by the sudden death of the Earl at Athotl, 
resolved on a special coup for the restoration 
of French influence and the final overthrow 
of protestantism. As earlv as 15 May Leslie, 
bishop of Boss, informed the Cardinal de 
Como that the king ' had written to summon 
his cousin, the Lord Aubigny, from Prance ' 
(FoEBEa-LEITH, Narratim* ^ Scottish Ca- 
tholics, p. 136). He was, however, really 
sent to ScotLaiid at the instigation oi the 
Guises and as their sgent. C^derwood 
slates that Aubigny, who arrived in Scot- 
laud on 8 Sept., ■ pretended that he came 
only to confratulate the young king's entry 
to his kingdom [that is, his assumption of 
the government], and was to return to France 
within short space ' {HUtory, iiL 457). But 
he did not intend to return. As early as 
24 Oct, De Castelnau, the French ambassador 
in London, announced to the king of France 
that he had practically come to stay, and 
would be created £arl of Lennox, and, as 
some think, declared successor to the throne 
of Scotland should the king die without chil- 
dren (Tbulbt, Selatioju Politiquu, iiL 66). 
These sunuises were speedily justified : in 
fact no more apt delegate for the task Ike had 
on hand could nave been chosai. If he de- 
sired to stay, no one had a better right, for 
he was thekiuff's cousin; and if he stayed, 
he was bound by virtue of his near kinship 
to occupy a place of di^ty and authority, 
to which Uorton could not pretend, and 
which would imply Morton's ruin. More- 
over hia personal qualifications for the r61e 
entrusted to him were of the first order; he 
was handsome, accomplished, courteous, and 
([what was of more importance), while he 
impressed every one witn the conviction of 
his honesty, he was one of the adroitest 
schemers of his time, with ahnoat unmatched 
powers of dissimulation. It was impossible 
for the young king to resist such a fascinating 
personsUtT. On 14 Nov. 1679 he received 
hom the king the rich abbacy of Arbroath 
m eommendam {Reg, Mag. Sig. Scot. 1646- 
1680, No. 2920), and on 5 March 1579-80 
he obtained the lands and barony of Tor- 
bolton(i5.No.2070)j the lands of Crookston, 



Inchinnaii, ftc.^in ReDrrewelure(A.No. S791 J, 
and ths lordship of Lennox {ib. No. 2972), 
Robert Stewart hario^ resigried these lands 
in hU favour, and recfeiving instead the lord- 
ship of Mardi. 

Playine for such higli stakes, Lennox did 
not scruple toforswear himself to the utmost 
extent tiiat the cicoumstauceB demanded. 
According to Calderwood, he purcliased a 
«uper(e^re from bdng' troubled for a ;earfor 
religion (History, iii. 460) ; but the mini- 
sters of Edinburgh were so Tehement in 
their denunciation of the 'atheists and 
papists ' with whom the king consorted that 
the king was compelled to grant their reqaest 
that Lennox should confer with them on 
points of religion (Moiaia, Memoirt, p. 26). 
This Lennox, according to the programme 
arranged beforehand with tbe Guises, wil- 
lingly did ; and undertook to give a final 
decision by 1 June. As wss' to be expected, 
he on that day publicly declared himself to 
hare been converted to protestantism (Beg. 
f . C. Scotl. iii. 289) ; and on 14 July he 

God of his infinite goodness to csll me by 
his grace and mercy to the knowledge of my 
salrstioD, since my coming in this land ; ' 
and ending with a ' free and humble offerof 
due obedience,' and the hope ' to be partici- 
pent in all time coming ' of their ' godly 
pravers and(avouiB'(CALi)BKWoOD, iii. 469). 
A little later he expressed a desire to have 
a minister in his bouse for ' the exercise of 
true religion ; ' and the assembly resolved to 
supplv one from among the pastors of the 
French kirk in London (ib. p. 477). On 
IS Sept. he is mentioned as keeper of Dum- 
barton Castle (Seg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 806), 
and on 11 Oct. Lennox was nominated lonl 
chancellor and first gentleman of the royal 
chamber. In the excessive deference he 
showed to the kirk Lennox was mainly ac- 
tuated by desire for the oyetthroiv of Morton. 
Althougi) regarded by Hary and the catholics 
as their arch enemy, Morton was secretly de- 
tested by the kirk authorities. His sole re- 
commendation was his alliance with Elisa- 
beth and his onposition to Mary ; but the 
kirk having, as they thought, obtameda new 
champion in Lennox, were not merely con- 
tent to sacrifice Morton, but contemplated his 
downfall and even his execution with almost 
Open satisfaction. WhenMortonwasbrought 
before the council on 6 Jan. 1 590-1 and ac- 
cused of Damley's murder, Lenaox declined 
to vote one way or other, on the ground of 
his near relationship to the victim; but it was 
perfectly well known that the apprehension 
was made at his instance, and tkat Captain 

s Stuart 

James St«wart (afterwards Earl of Arraa 

SI- V.]) was merely bis instrument. Ran- 
olph, the English ambassador, had declined 
to add communication with Lennox, on the 
gronnd that he was an agent of the pope 
and the house of Guise (Randolph to Wal- 
flingham, 22 Jan. 1680-1, quoted in Tttles, 
ed. 1864, iv. 33), as was proved by an intei^ 
cepted letter of the archoishop of Gflasgow 
to the pope j but Lennox had no semple in 
flatly denying this, the king stating that 
Lennox was anxious for the fullest investi- 
gation, and would ' refuse no manner of 
trial to justify himself from so false a slander ' 
fthe kingand council's answer to Mr. Ran- 
dolph, 1 Feb. 1580-1 , ib.) After the execu- 
tion of Morton on 6 June 1661 the iuSuence 
of Lennox, not merely with the king but in 
Scotland generally, had reached its tenitb. 
So perfect was the harmony between him 
ana the kirk that even Mary Stuart herself 
became suspicious that he might intend to 
betray her interests and throw in. his lot 
with the protest ants(Hary to Beaton, lOSept. 
1581 in Labanoff, v. 258^; but the assu- 
ranees of the Duke of Guise dispelled her 
doubts (iS, p. 278). On 6 Aug. 1581 he was 
created duke (Urg. P. C. Sect!, iii. 413), and 
on the 12th he was appointed master of the 

As early as April 1681 De Tassia had, in 
the name of Mary, assured PhUip XI of 
Spain of the firm resolution of the younf 
king to embrace Roman Catholicism, and had 
sent an earnest request for a force to assist 
in effecting the projected revolution. It was 
further proposed that Jamea should meaa- 
while be sent to Spain, in order that he 
might be secure from attempts against his 
crown and liberty ; that he might be edu- 
cated in Catholicism, and that arrangementa 
might be . completed for his marriage to a 
Spanish princess. To the objection that 
LennoXjhaving special relations with France, 
might not be favourable to such a project, 
De Taesis answered that he was whdly de- 
voted to the cause of the Queen of Scots, 
and ready if necessary to break with Franca 
in order to promote her interests (De Taasis to 
Philip II in Selatians Politigua, V- 224-8). 
For tee furtherance of these aesi^s, Leanox 
early in 1582 was secretly visited by two 
Jesuits, Oieighton and Holt, who asked him 
to take command of an ajmy to be laiaed by- 
Philip II for the invasion of England, in 
order to set Mary at liberty and restore tat- 
tholidsm. In a letter to De Tassis, Lennox 
expressed his readiness to undertake tUo 
execution of the project (A. pp. 235-6) ; and 
in s letter of the same date to Mary he pro. 
posed that he should go to Fnnix to rain« 





ttoofB for tbia purpose, but Btipolated tliat 
itt no, the prince, abould retain the title of 
lm^(a. p. 237). Further, he mode its cou- 
diuoD th&t the Duke of Guise should have 
the dkief management of the plot (De Tassts 
to Phaip, 18 May, ib. p. 248). The Duhe of 
QiuM therefore went to Pans, where he had 
a ipeatl interview with Creighton and Holt, 
w)Ma it was arranged that a force should be 
taind on behalf of Catholicism under pre- 
text of an expedition to Biittanj {ib. p. 364). 
BiGenltiee, bowever, arose on account of the 
timidity or iealouev of Philip II, and the 
d^iT prored dial. 

The fact was that after Morton's death 
Lennox, deeming himself secure, ceased to 
""■"'"'" his snhmiaaive attitude to the kirk 
authodtie«, whose senaitirenegs was not slow 
to take alarm. Thus, at the assemblj held 
in October 1G81 the king complained that 
Waller Balcanqohal was reported to hare 
Rated in a aermon that poperv bad entered 
' not oolr in the court but in the king's hall, 
and Tas maintained bj the tyranny of a 
pttt ehamjnon who is called Grace (Cal- 
BEXWOOS, iii. 583). A serious quarrel be- 
lirtm the duke and Captain James Stewart 
(lately created Ear! of Arran) led also 
tn daDgeroos revelations. As earl of Arran, 
Aie doke'a henchman now deemed himself 
the duke's riraL He protested against the 
dnke'i tight to be«r the crown at the meet- 
ing of parliament in October, and matters 
*Eni so far that two ^ 
were held — the one under 
4bfaey, and the other under the duke in Dal- 
Mekb (ib. iii. 592-S; Spotiswood, ii. 281J. 
Thrr were reconciled after two months' 'vori- 
uiee;'bnt meanwhile Arran, to 'strengthen 
Wmsdf with the common cause,* bad given 

of the 

if had 




presence of God, approved with the holy 
action of the Lord's Table,' to maintain pro- 

tion might have been effectual but for the 
fact that in some way or other the kirk had 
obtained certain information of the plot that 
was in progress (ift. p, 684). This mforma- 
tion had reached them on 37 July through 
James CoIviUe, the minister of Easter 
Wemyss, who had arrived from FVance with 
the Earl of Bothwell ; and the news has- 
tened, if it did not originate, the raid of 
Huthven on 23 Aug., when the king was 
seized ne«T Perth by the prot«atant nobles. 

On leamingwhat had happened, the duke, 
who was at Dalkeith, came to Edinburgh ; 
and, after puiging himself ' with great pro- 
testations that he never attempted anything 
against religion,' proposed t» the town coun- 
cil that they should write to the noblemen 
and gentlemen of Lothian to come to Edin- 
burgh ' to take consultation upon the king's 
delivery and liberty ' (ib. p. 641) ; but they 
politely excused themselves from meddling 
in the matter. Next day, Sunday the 
26ch, Jamea Lawson depicted in a sermon 
' the duke's enormities ' (ib. p. 649) ; and, 
although certain noblemen were permitted 
to join htm, and were sent by him to hold a 
conference with the king, tne only answer 
they obtuned was that Lennox ' must depart 
out of Scotland within fourteen days ' (ii. 
p. ei7). Learing Edinburgh on 6 Sept. 1682 
on the pretence tb^t he was ' to ride to Dal- 
keith, the duke, after he had poftsed the 
borough muir, turned westwards, and rode 
towards Glasgow ' (ib. p. 648). On 7 Sept. a 
proclamation was made at Glasgow for- 
bidding any to resort to him except such 
as were mindedtoaccompany him to France, 
and forbidding the captain of the castle of 
Dumbarton to receive more into the castle 
than he was able to master and overcame 
(ib.) At Dumbarton the doke on 20 Sept. 
issued a declaration ' touching the calumnies 
and accusations set out against him ' (ib. p. 
66S). Meanwhile he resolved to wait at 
Dumbarton in the hope of something tum- 
itig up, and on the 17th he sent a request to 
the king; or a 'prorogation of some few 
days ' (». p. 678). A little later he sent to 
the king (or liberty to go by England (ib. p. 
689); but his intention was to organise a 
plot for the seizure of the king, which was 
accidentallv discovered. Thekmg, it is said, 
earnestly deslrud that the duke might be 
permitted to remain in Scotland ; but was 
'sharply threatened by the lords that if he 
did not cause him to depart he should not 
be the longest liver of them 811'(Fobbb»- 





Leith, Narraiiveo/Seottiih Catholict,^. 183). 
Finallj, after several mauceuTmigs, Lennoz 
did aet out on 21 Sec. from Dalkeith on his 
jountej south (Cildebwods, iii. 693). On 
reaching London he sent word privatel; to 
Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, that he 
would send his tecretan to him secretly to 

?iTe him an account of afTaiis in Scotland 
Col. SlaU Paperi, Spanish, ii. 435) ; and 
the information given to Mendoia was that 
Lennox had been obliged to leave Scotland 
In the first place in consequence of a promise 
made by King James to EUcabeth, and in 
the second place in conaaquence of the 
failure of the plot arranged iot the rescue 
of the king from the Ruthven raiders on his 
comingtothecastleof Blackness (ift. p. 438). 
On 14 Jan. 1683 Lennox had an audience 
of Etiiebeth, who ' chained him roundly 
with such matters as she thought culpable ' 
(Cal. &at« Ptmtri, Scottish, pp. 431-2); 
but of course tlie duke, without the least 
hesitation, af&rmed his entire innocence, and 
appears to have succeeded in at least ren- 
dering Elitabeth doubtful of his catholic 
leaning. Walsingham endeavoured through 
a spy. Fowler, to discover from Mauvisaifere 
the real religious sentimenta of the duke ; 
but as the didie had prevaricated to Mau- 
risai^re — assuring him that James was so 
constant to the reformed faith that he would 
lose bis life rather than forsake it, and de- 
claring that he ^fessed the same faith as his 
royal master — 'Walsinrham succeeded only 
in deceiving himself (Tttlhr, iv. 66-7), 

Early in 1583 Lennox arrived in Paris, 
resolved to i«tain the mask to the last. 
On the duke's secretary being asked by 
Hendoia whether bis master would pro- 
fess protestantism in France, he replied that 
he had been specially instructed by the duke 
to tell Meudoia that he would, in order that 
he might signify the same to the pope, the 
king of Spain, and Queen Mary {Cal. State 
Paperi, Spanish, Ji. 439). For one reason he 
had not given up hope of returning to Scot- 
land; and, indeed, although in very bad 
health, he had ' schemed out a plan ' of the 
success of which he was very sanguine (De 
Taseis to Philip II, 4 May, in Teitlbt, 
266), He did not Uve to begin its exe 
tion ; but, in order to Inll the Scots to 
curity, he at bis death on S6 May 1683 a 
tinned to profess himself a convert to the 
faith which he was doing his utmost to sub- 
vert. He also gave directions that while 
his body was to oe biiried at Aubigny, bis 
heart should be embalmed and sent to the 
king of Scots, to whose care he commended 
Ms children. An anonymous portrait of 
Lennox belonged in 18^ to tha Earl ' 

Uoma (Cat. lirtt Lorn Erhii.^o.iGff). By 

his wife, Catherine de Balsac d'Entraguea, 
Lennox had two sons and three daugh- 
ters; Ludovick, second duke [a.v.]i Esm^, 
third duke; Henrietta, married to Oaot^, 
first marquis of Huntlv; Mary, msrried to 
John, earl of Mar ; and Uabrlelle, ^ nun. 

[Cal. State Papers, Tor., Ehi., Scot., and 
S[aiiisti ; Teolst's BsUlions Folitiques ; Forbea- 
Laich's Narratires of Scottish Catholics ; Beg. 
Mag. Sig. Scot.; Beg. Privy Connoil 9cotl. ; 
liitauoff'a Letters of Mary Stuart; Histories 
by Cald*r»ood and Spotiewood ; Moysie'a Me- 
moirs and History of King James the Sezt 
(BannatynaClub); Bowes'a Correepondoiice (Sar- 

glas'B Scottish Poerage, ed. Wood, i. 91 

T, F. h: 

TERESA, Duchess oir RiCHHONn and Lev- 

HOX (1647-1702), ' La Belle Stuart,' bom oq 
8 July 1647 {Sloans MS. 1708, f. 121), v«a 
elder daugbterof Walter Stewart,M.D, Her 
father, who took refuge in France after 1649, 
andseemsto have been attached to the house- 
hold of the queen dowager, Henrietta Maria, 
was third son of Walter Stewart or Stuart, 
first lord BlantyreTq.T.] Her younger sister, 
Sophia, married Hen^ Bulkeley, master of 
the household to Charles II and James H, 
and brotherof Richard Bulkeley fq- v.] j and 
her sister's daughter Anne, ' La Belle Nanette,' 
was the second wife of James, duke of Ber- 
wick (see Frra*MEi, Jahbs ; cf. Boi7eLAA, 
Peerage tjf Scotland, ed. Wood, i. 214 j 
Lome, Peerage of Ireland, v. 26). 

Frances was educated in France, and im- 
bued with French taste, especially in matters 
of dress, Pepys relates that the French king 
cast his eyes upon her, and ' would fain have 
had her mother, who is one of the most cun- 
ning women in the world, to let her stay in 
F^»nce ' as an ornament to his court. But 
Qneen Henrietta determined to send her to 
England, and on 4 Jan, 1663-S procured 
for the young beauty, ' la plus jolie filte du 
monde, a letter of mtroduction to the re- 
stored monarch, her son (Baillos, Sett' 
riette-Arme, pp. 80 sq.) Louis XIV con- 
tented bim»all with ^ving the yountf lady 
a farewell present. Early in 1663 she was 
appointed maid of honour to Catherine of 
Hragann, and it was doubtless her influenca 
which procured for her sister Sophia a place 
as ' dresser ' to the queen mother, with m, 

Knsion of 300/. a year {Cat. State Paper; 
>m. 1663, p. S8). Lady Csstlemaiae 
affected to ^tronise the newcomer, and 
Charles is said to have noticed her while 
. she was sleeping in that lady's apartment. 


Stuart 1 

i»Aj in Jul; Pepja noted that the Icing had 
'beeoHe besotted with Mies Stewart, and 
win b« with ber half aa hoar together 
kiHifig h^.' ' With her hat cocked and a 
Ted plome, aweet eye, little Roman nose and 
«seell«iit talle,' she appeared to Pepjs the 
aioteit be&uty he had ever seen, and he 
'bneaed himself sporting with her with 
gnaX pleasure' (PBPIS, ed. Wheatley, iii, 
'JMX. The French ambawador was amaxed 
at 0» artleaaness of her prattle to the king. 
Hscharactar waa aummarised by Hamilton ; 
* It was hardly possible for a womaa to have 
leaa wit and more beauty.' Her favourite 
aamaonentB were bUndman's buff, hunt the 
■lipp«T, and card-building. Buckingham 
waa an ardent admirer ; but ber ' simplic ity ' 
pored more than a mat«h for all his arti- 
neei. AnotheraapirantwoaAnthonyHamU- . 
ton. [q. T.], who won her favour by holding 
two lighted tapers within hia mouth longer | 
than any other cavalier could manage to I 
retain tme. He waa &uaUy diverted from 
hi* daagerous passion by Qramont. More 
koptltm was tne case of Francis Digbj, | 
jounga son of George Bigby, second earl of : 
BaiUi [q. ▼•]. whom her ' cruelty ' drove to I 
despair. Cpon his death in a sea-fight with i 
tlte Dotch, Drjden penned his once famous 
'Farewell, fair Armida' (first included in 
'OcrTentGardonDrollery/167ii, and parodied j 
in aotne mses put into Armida's mouth by j 
Boddn^uun in the ' Rehearsal,' act ill. i 
ec 1). Ilt^ielees ^awiona are also rumonred < 
to haTa be«B cherished by John Roettiers, 
the nadallist, and by Nathaniel Lee. 

Tlw king's feeling for Hiss Stewart ap> 
pRMcfced nearer to what may be called love 
Xiaa any other of hia libertine attachments. 
Ai earlr aa November 1063, when the queen 
VBi BO lU tkst extreme unction was admini- 
Kctad, eoaaip waa current that Charles was 
detertDmed to marry the favourite (Jits- 
OKUV, A tyench Ambattador, p. 88). It 
ii eacUia that &om this date his Jealousy 
was Koto and ever on the alert. 'The lad v 
irfiyd titke, but waa smothered with 
tnfatl. The king was her valentine in 
lflH,aadtiieJ>akeof York in 1665. Yet 
Hm Stewart axaapsrated Charies by her 
amt^iMM to yitAA to his importunities. 
flBr^idnracr, aooordiug to Hamilton, was 
tnaof u e by th» airiTnl at court of a caltohe 
bam Fiaaee. The honour of the first drive 
m mmir conteatad by the ladiea of the 
tauCmdadiag &ren the queen. A bargain 
,^ (tra^ and JkCsa Stewart was the first 
bfeHCB in the no^ Tslucle. 

bJamoMry 1«6' Mi«» Stewart's hand was 
J^^ZtiMg^ by Charles Stuart, third 
2rfHichaioSd and eixth dnkeof Len- 

r Stuart 

noi [q. v.] His second wife waa buried on 
6 Jan. 1667, and a fortnight later he pre- 
ferred his suit to tbe hand of Iiis' fair cousin.' 
Charles, fearing to lose bis miatreas, offered to 
createUissStewarta duchess, andevenunder* 
took, it is said, ' to rearrange his seraglio.' 
More than this, he asked Archbishop Sbel- 
doninJanuary 1C67 if the church of England 
would allow of a divorce where both parties 
were coDsenting and one lay under a natural 
incapacity for having children (cf BimiraT, 
Oum Time, L 453-4 ; Clibbitdoh, Contmmi' 
Hon, ii, 478; LUDtOW, Memoirt, ii. 407). 
Sheldon asked time for consideration. In 
the meantime, about 21 March 1667, a 
rumour circulated at court that the duke 
and Miss Stewart had been betrothed (Cal. 
StaU I'apen, Dom. 1667, p. 676). A few 
days later, on a dark and stermy night. Miss 
Stewart eloped from her rooms in Wliito- 
ball, Joined the duke at the ' Bears by Lon- 
don Bridge,' and escaped into Kent, where 
the couple were privately married (cf. Lau- 
derdale Papen, iii. 131, 140). Charles, when 
he learned the news, was beside himself 
with rage. He suspected that Clarendon 
(' that old Volpone ') had got wind of his 
project of divorce through Sheldon, and had 
incited the Duke of Richmond to frustrate 
it by a prompt elopement. The suspicions 
thus engendered led, says Bumet, to the 
king's resolve to take the seals from Claren- 
don. The story helps to explain the deep 
resentment, foreign to Charles's nature, 
which be nursed gainst the chancellor 
(Burnet's account is confirmed in great 
measure by Clarendon's letter of 16 I' 

The duchess returned the king the jewels 
be had ^ven her ; but the queen seems to 
have acted as mediator (greatly preferriofr 
' La Belle Stuart ' to any other of the royal 
favourites), and she soon returned te court. 
On 6 Julv 1668 she waa sworn of Catherine's 
bedchamber, and next month she and her 
husband were settled at the BowlingOreen, 
Whitehall. In the same year she was badly 
disfigured by small-poi. Charles visited her 
during ber illness, and was soon more assi- 
dnous than ever. The duke was sent out of 
the way— in 1670 to Scotland, and in 1671 
aa ambassador to Denmark. In May 1670 
the duchess attended the queen to Ctuais to 
meet the Duchess of Orleans, and in the 
following October on a viait to AudleyEnd, 
where she and her royal mistress, oressed 
up in red petticoats, went to a country fair 
and were mobbed (see letter to R. Fasten, 
ap. JOHH Ives, Select Papen, p. 39). The 
duke, her hushand, died in Denmark, at 



Elainora, on 12 Dec. 1672. Hi« titlea ro- 
TertedtoObarlea II, who allowed Cheduche«s 
a small ' bounty ' of 160/. per annuin. Not 

' winiiinf!' to remain atCobh&m Hall in Kent, 
the sold her life-Lnt«re«t therein to Henry, 
lord O'Brien (as trustee for Donaf us, his son 
byKatherineStuBrt),for3,800;. Sheappears 

. to hare continued for many years at court. 
Bhe attended O.ueen Mary of Modena at her 
accouchement in 1688, and signed the certifi- 
cate before the councit ; and she was at the 
coronation of Anne. She died in the Roman 
catholic communion on 1 fi Oct. 1702, and was 
buried in "Westminster Abbey in the Duke of 
Richmond's vault in Henry YIFs chapel on 
22 Oct. (Chester, Riff. p. 250). Her effigy 
in wax, modelled by Antoine Benoist, may 
still be seen in the abbey, dressed in the robes 
worn by the duchess at Anne's coronation (cf. 
Gazttte da Beaux ArU, 1882, ii. 482 n.) 
From her savings and her dower she pur- 
chased the estate of LeChington, valued at 
60,000/., and bequeathed it on her death to 
ber impoverished nephew, Alexander, earl 
of Blantyre {d. 1704), with a request that 
the estate might be named ' Lennox love to 
Blantyre.' Lord Blantyre'sseat isstillcalled 
Lennoilove (cf. Oboovs, Qaxetteer ofSeot- 
land, iv. 466 ; LmrsELL, v. 225). She also 
bequeathed annuities to some poor gentle- 
women friends with the burden oi mun- j 
tainingeome of ber cats; hence Pope's satiric 
alluuon in his fourth ' Moral Essay : ' ' Die 
and endow a college, oracat.' The duchess's ' 
fine collection of original drawings by 
Da Vinci, Raphael, and other masters, to- 
gether with miniaturee and Engravings, was 
sold by auction at Whicehatl at the dose of 
1702 (London OaxttU, 17 Nov.) 

However vacuous 'La Belle Stuart' ap- 
peared to be in youth, she developed in later 
life a fair measure of Scottish discretion. 
Her letters to her husband (in Brit. Mus. 
Add. MSS. 21947-8) give evidence of ™d 
•enee and affection. She maintained her high 
rank with credit, and was kind to her re- 
tainers. Nat Lee, in dedicating to her his 
'Theodosius' (produced at Dorset Garden 
in 1680), speaks warmly of personal atten- 
tions to nimeelf. 

■ La Belle Stuart ' figures in numerous 
medals, notablv as Britannia seat«d at the 
foot of arock with the legend 'Favente Deo' 
in 'The Peace of Breda 'medal (1667), by 
John Eoettiers fq- v.] (cf. PEprs.ed. Wheat- 
ley, vi. 96), and in a umtlar ruise in the 
'Naval Victories' medal (1667), with the 
legend, ' Quatuor maria vindico,' whence 
Andrew Marvell'sallnsionto'femaleStewart 
' there rules the four seas ' {Latt InHmetiotu 
' to a Painttr, f, 714). A special medal was 

8a Stuart 

struck in her honour in 1667 with Britannia 
on the reverse. Both medals and die* an in 
the British Museum, where is also a further 
portrait in relief upon a thin plate of gold. 
Waller, in his epigram * upon the gtuden 
medal,' has the line, ' Virtue a stronger guard 
than brass,' in reference to Mies Stewart's 
triumph over Barbara Villiers, duchess of 
Cleveland [q. v.] The halfpenny designed by 
John RoettietB, bearing the ngure of Bri- 
tannia on the reverse, first appeared in 1672, 
and there is no doubt that the Ducbess of 
Richmond was in the artist's mind when he 
made the design (cf. Moinaeir, Copper 
Coinage of JSi^land, 1883, pp. 88-9; cf. 
FoSNHBOK, Lomte de Eerouaui). 

Of the numerous portraits, the beat ar« 
the Lely portrait at Windsor (engraved by 
Thomas Wataon, and also byS. Freeman in 
1837forMrs. Jameson's'Beauties'); another 
by Lely , as Pallas, in the Duke of Richmond's 
collection (engraved by J. Thomson); aa a 
man, by Johnson, at Kensinston Palace 
(engraved bv R. Robmson), and another as 
PalLss, by Lascar (see Smith, Meaotinto 
Portraits, passim). 

[HiiE StewE 

y almost bs consldsred tbe 

heroine of Himiltons Hemoirs of Orammont, thi 
saimated pages of vbich an largsly ownpied 
by her esrapsdes at coart; but all bis stories 
nepd coiToboration, Good, though rather stern, 
chaneterigBtioni are given in Mrs. Jameson's 
Beanties of tbn Court of Charles II, in Jssae's 
Conrtof England under the Stuarts, iv. 138-41, 
and in Strickland's Qneens, v. M6 sq. The 
amouDt of reapoDsibility due to the elopemeat 
for Clarendou I Ail! is carefiilly apportioned by 
Professor Mssson (Miltou, vi. STl). See also 
Ardueologis Caatiana, vols. zi. zii. ; B^Lillon's 
Henri ette- Anne d'Angletfrre ; Lady Coat's 
Stuarte of AnUgny ; fialton CoTTfapondance ; 
Dal rym pie's Appendix ; Uedsllielllnstradaua of 
Brit. Hist. 1885, i. S38-43 ; Pope's Works, od. 

" " i?; 

38 ; WalWs Poems, ed. Di 
pp. 193) S38 ; Dangesu'a Jonrual ; Walpols 

Aneedotei, iL 181.] 


STUART, GILBERT (1742-1786), hia- 
torian and reviewer, bom at Edinhur^ in 
1742, was the only surviving son of George 
Stuart, professor of the Latin language and 
Roman antiquities in Edinburgh UniveraiCT, 
who died at Fisber Row, near Musselburfffa, 
onie June 1793, aged 78 (<7enf.Jlf<V. 1793, 
ii. 672). Gilbert was educated at the grajs- 
mar school and university of Edinburgh in 
classics and philosophy, and then studiad 
jurisprudence at the univernty, bnt never 
followed tbe profession of the law. Ev«i 
at an early period io his life he worked by 
fits and starts, and wa* aauly dr»wn inw 


Stuart ( 

8tHTt^« talentsireK first displayed in bis 
jiKbaMU comctionB rad amendiiienM to the 
'Qntftl History ' (1766) of the Rev. Robert 
Wtit. Hia first independ^it work was the 
uooTBoas ' HiatoricBl Diuertatiou on the 
ABtiqnitf- of th« English Constitution,' 
•nUidtsd in the sprit^ of 1768, in which 
M tnced English institutions to & Oerman 
sooitt. The second edition, which came out 
ia JsBosry 1770, with a dedication t-o Lord 
X*iuf«Id, bore Stuart's name on the title- 
BM^ and it was republished in 1778 snd 
iTflft For this work he received from Edin- 
bvtgti University on 16 Nov.1769 the degree 
ef doctor of law (Cat. <^ Qraduattt, 1858, 
p. 257). 

Later in 1766 Stuart proceeded to Lon- 
doQ, putting his hcnw of preferment in the 
patroa^a of Lord Mans&eld, but his ex- 
pectations were disappointed. In 1769 he 
todged with Thomas SomerviUe [q. v.] in 
the bouM of Murdoch the bookseller, where 
be was erory day engaged on articles for the 
Bsvinapera and reviews, Stuart was already 
conifKaons amonv the writers in the 
'ifOBtUr Review, for which he worked 
firooi I76S to 1773. SomerviUe was sor- 
pnsed by his lack of principle — he would 
boMt that he had written two articles on 
tlM same public character, ' one a pane- 
gyric and the other a libel,' for each of 
which be would receive a guinea — and by 
his sussing rapidity of compOBition. After 
a visit's revel ne would, wttaoitt any sleep, 
eompoae in a few minutes an article whioh 
wmi MDt to the press without correction 
(SoKEKTUJX, I^e and Timet, pp. 148-60, 
■_. *' While residing in London he 

d the manuscripts of Nathsniet 

J (A 1763) [q. v.], and from them 

fisitliBd ths iburtb volume of Hooke's 'Ro- 
Bsn History' which was published in 1771. 

By Jnoe 1778 Stuart was back with his 
btlMT U IfoMelburgh, and was busy over 
'S for the issue of the ' Edin- 


sad conducted by him,' and for 

wkid hs engaged ' to famish the ureas with 

npr.* The £at number — that for November 

If7^~aa>e ont abotit the middle of October 

iatklyear,Bnd it msdisooatinued after the 

futlrilina of the number for August 1776, 

■-ka fire octavo Tolumes had been com- 

ftOti, Tlw chief writers in it, in addition 

Is ftnart, w«T« Professor Richardson of 

Qlsttrnw, Professor Williaa Boron, Thomas 

B^iock Rev. A- OiUies, and William 

fiwOtt, [he Scotti»li printer, and it was 

Mtad for Boma tinw 'with great spirit, 

I diraiUT of talent, snd eonspiououi 

■' XleefladT«iit*go«weresoonrendeTed 

3 Stuart 

nugato^ by the malevolence of Stoart, 'a 
disappointed man, thwarted in his early 
prospeetBofestabliahment inlife.' Thefame 
of the other hiBtoriant and of the leading 
writers at Edinburgh diseased his mind, 
and Smellie's energies were constantly em- 
ployed in checkmating his virulence. Ho 
wished to ornament the first number of the 
map;axine 'with a print of my Lord Mon- 
boddo in his quadruped form, but his pur- 
pose was frustrated. His slasbini; article 
on the ' Elements of Oiiticism,' toe work 
of Lord Kames, was completely metami!ir< 
phoaed by Smellie into a panecyric. In 
some matters, however, he had his own 
way. "When David Hume reviewed the 
second volume of Dr. Henry's ' History of 
Qreat Britain ' in very laudatory language, 
the article was cancelled and one bv Stuart 
substituted for it, which erred in tne other 
extreme (Sh BLLIE, David Hume, pp. 203-4 ; 
BUKTOIT, David Home, ii. 415-16, 468-70). 
The climax was reocbea in an article by him 
and Oillies, written in spite of the remou- 
strauces of Smellie, 'with shocking scurrility 
and abuse,' on Lord Monboddo's ' Origin and 
Progress of Language,' which ran trough 
several numbers of the fifth volume, and the 
m^zine was stopi>ed (a list of his reviews 
ana essays is given in 'K.'EX&, L^e of Smelli«, 
i. 403-8). 

After this Stuart temporarily abandoned 
review-writingfor the study of philosophy 
and bistoiy. He appended in 1776 to the 
second edition of francis Stoughton Sulli- 
van's ' Lectures on the Constitution and Laws 
of England ' the authorities for the state- 
ments and a discourse on the government 
and laws of our country, and dedicated the 
vol mne to Lord North ; the whole work was 
reissued at Portland, Uoine, in 1806. His 
most important treatise, ' A View of Society 
in Europe,' was published in 1778, and re- 
printed in 1782, 1783, 1792, and 1813, and 
a French translation by A. H. M. Boulord, 
come out in Paris in 1789, in two volumes, 
LetteiiH from Blackstone and Dr. Alexander 
Garden were added to the posthnmooa edi- 
tion of 1792 by Stuart's father. In this dis- 
sertation the author followed the guidance 
of Hontesquiea, whom alone, such was hia 
vanity, he recognised as a superior. It was 
confined to the early and medisaval ages, 
and its 1e«ming was not sufficiently deep to 
give it permanent authority. 

About 1779 Stuart was an unsnocessful 
candidate for the professorship of public 
law in ths university of Edinburgh, and he 
believed that his fauure was due to the in- 
fluence of Robertson (Bnofelop, Brit Tth ed. 
xz. 780-4). From this time he pursued that 


Stuart 8 

hiBtoriui with undying hatred (Bboitohih, 
JIfen ofLetUr». 1855, p. 274). In 1779 he 
brought out, with a. dedication to John, lord 
UouQt Stuart, baron Cardiff, ' Obsemitlons 
on the Public Law and Conatitutional Hia- 
tOT7 of Scotland ; ' and in 1780 he published 
hia ' Hiatoiy of the Eatabliahment of the 
Sefonnation in Scotland ' (reissued la 1796 
and 1805). It was followed in 1782 by a 
kindred work in two Tolumes, written in 

formation till the Death of Queen Mary,' 
which passed into a second edition in 1784, 
when he added to it his ' ObservationB on 
the Public Law ol Scotland.' It ia HMd to 
have been reprinted iu Germany^. 

These worlta were written with an easy 
flow of narrative in what wnsknownaa 'the 
balancbg atjle ' adopted from Johnson and 
Oibbon. Stuart boasted of hia impartiality 
and his desice 'to build a Temple to Truth,' 
but ho did not lose an opportunity of ffirdinff 
at Robertson, whom he openly ohaflenged 
to reply to his defence of Queen Mary 
(Letters appended to 1784 ed. of Bittory ; 
Oent. Mag. 1782, pp. 167-8). Robertson 
retorted with a charae of gross plagiarism. 
In 178S Stuart settled once more in Lon- 
don, where he again took up the work 
of reviewing. The 'English Review' was 
established by the first John Murray in 
January 1788 (Nichols, lAt. Anendotes, iii. 
731), and Stuart was one of the principal 
writers on its staff, Duriiu'1786-6heedited, 
1 conjunction with Dr. William Thomson 

with a criticism of Pitt's administration, 
which was not concluded in its final number, 
and it contained severe addresses to Henry 
Dundas and several other Pittites. It was 
probably the knowledge of these diatribes 
that prompted an anonymous writer to sug- 
gest that Stuart was the writer, on infor- 
mation supplied through one of Lord Cam- 
den s relatives, of the letters of Junius 
(ScoU Ma^ne, November 1799, p. 7S4; 
reprinted in Chaglbs Butlgb's Jf«mmi*- 
etnees,' pp. 838-8). 

Stuart was known, while engaged on his 
historical treatises, to have confined himself 
to his library for several weeks, scarcely ever 
leaving his house for air and exerdse. But 
these periods of intense labour were always 
followed by bouts of dissipation laatinK lor 
equal periods of time. When in England 
he often spent whole nights in company 
with his boon companions at the Peacock in 
Orar's Inn Lane (Dr. Uattbicb, Memoir), 
iii. 3), Theae habits destroyed a strong con- 

\ Stuart 

Btitution. He died at his father's houss at 
Fisher Row on 13 Aug. 1786. A print of 
him without artist's name or date passed in 
the Bumey collection to the British Mu- 
seum. Another portrait, executed in 1777, 
was prefixed to his ' Reformation in Scot- 
land, ed. 1805. A portrait engraved b^ 
John Keyse Sherwin, after Donaldson, U 
mentioned by Bromley (p, S96). 

A writer of great talent and learning, his 
excesses and want of principle ruined his 
career ; and his works, ' some of which have 
great merit,* sank into oblivion ' in oonse- 

Sence of the spite and unfairness that runs 
rough them and deprives them of all trust- 
wortbmess' (BBO[roHA.if, Autobiogrmht/, i. 
14-15, 637-8; CoALHSBa, Life qf huddi- 
man, pp. 288-92), 

[Gent. Mag. 1730 ii. 710, 808, SOJ-S, 994. 
1128, 1787 i. 121, 290, 397-0; D'IsraeU's 
CiUtnities of Authow, 1812 ed, 11, Sl-74 ; 
Chambera and Tbomsan'a Blogr. Diet, of Scots- 
men (1870 ed.), iii. 417-20 ; Kptt's Smellie, 
i, 00-7. S92-437, «9-fi04, ii. 1-12.1 

Vf. P. 0. 

STU"AET, GILBERT (1756-1828), por- 
trait-pa i ater, was bom in Narragansett, Rhodo 
Island, U. S. A., on 8 Dec. 1756. He ro- 
ceived some instruction from Cosmo Alex- 
ander, a Scottish portrait-painter then prac- 
tising in Rhode Island, and accompanied 
him to Scotland in 1772. The death of his 
master left him to shift for himself, and aft«r 
struggl i ng awhile at the un i versity of Glaagovr 
he returned home. In 1776 be came to Eu^- 
land, and found a friend and a master in 
Benjamin West [q. v.l In 1735 be set np « 
studio of his own, and attained conaiderabla 
and deserved success aa a portrait-painter. 
He returned to America in 1792, and after 
working for two years in New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Washington, he settled at Boston 
for the rest of bis life. He exhibited thirteen 

¥>rtralta at the Royal Academy (1777-1786). 
he bulk of bis work is in America — &t 
Boston, New York, Cambridge, Harvard, 
Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, and 
other places. He painted most of the lend- 
ina Americans of his time, including the pre- 
siaents, Washington (several times), John 
Adams, and Jefferson. He is considered the 
painter of Washington par exteUtnee. In 
the National Portrait OolleiT there are por- 
traits by Stuart of Benjamin West (two), 
William WooUett and John Hall (the en- 
gravers), John Philip Kemble, and George 
Washington. Lord Inchiquin has his por- 
trait of Sir Joshua Reynolds. His portraits 

n of their respectire families. One of lu» 

Digitized byGOOgle 




beat works is W, Grant of Congalton skatinir 
IB St. James's Park, in the collection of Lord 
CtwrieaPeUiam-Cliiiton. A jportr^t of Wash- 
ington, punted for the Marquis of Laiift- 
done, was Angraved bj Junea Heath [<]<t.] 
To hii English portraite belong also those of 
AUennan Bojdell and Dr. FothergilL He 
^«d at Boston on 27 Jul; 1828. 

^B(T*il^ Diet., ed. ArmstfODg ; Cjclopvdia of 
Punlmaiid PaJntingi ; MaMn's Liissod Woiki 
of Oilbvt Stuart. Miw York, 137fi-] C. H. 
STUART, HENRY, Lobb Dakklk 
[See Sthwabt,] 
HENRY, Duxa of GtoifCEB- 
Ttt (lew-ieeo). [See Hsmti.j 

LIKSS (1837-1696), of Bromana, politician, 
bora in 1827, was only son of Henij Villiers 
Scmrrt, baron Stuart de Deciee. Hie father, 
bom in London on 8 June 1603, wa§ the 
fiftb aoa of John Stiuut, fint marquie of 
Bute, bj his wife Qertrude Emilia, daugh- 
ter and heireas of George Mason Villiers, 
cad GiandiaoD. On the death of his mother 
on 30 Aog. 1809 he aacceeded to the estates 
of bia maternal nvndfather, and took b? 
rml licaue on 17 Not. 1622 the name o'f 
Tmimbefbia that of Stuart. HewasM.P. 
ia tb« liberal intereat for Wst«rford from 
1S26 to 1S30, and for Banboi; from 1830 
to 1891. On 18 May 1839 he was created 
Banm Stuart de Deciee. He died at Dro- 
maaa«a33Jan.l674. Madame deOtt, who 
vas mother of the aubject of this notice, is 
Mated to hsTV been married t« Lord Stuart 
de Dtdea in 1826, but on his death his son 
wai niaUe to eetaUiab his claim to the 

mission of reconstruction, and ia the spring 
of 1883 was commissioned to investigate the 
condition of the country. His work re- 
ceiied the special recognition of Lord Duf- 
ferin, and tus reports werepublished as a 
parliamentary blue-book. He took a keen 
interest in Egyptian exploration, and iras a 
member of the Society of Biblical Archieo- 
lo^. He was also a member of the com- 
mittee of the Royal Literary Fund. 

He was drowned on 12 Oct. 1895 off Vil- 
lieretown Quay on the Bl&ckwater, near his 
residence at Dromana, having slipped while 
ent«rinff a boat. He married, on 3 Aug. 
1866, Maty, second daughter of the Vene- 
rable Ambrose Power, archdeacon of Lis- 
more, and by her bad Bereral children. 

His works are: 1. 'Eve of the Deluge,' 
London, 1861. 2 'Nile Gleanings, ctm- 
cerning the Ethnology, History, and Art of 
Ancient Egypt,' London, 1879. 8. 'The 
Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen,' Lon- 
don, 1882. 4. ' Egypt after the War,' Lon- 
don, 1883. G. 'Adveuturea amidst the 
Equatorial Forests and Rirera of South 
America,' London, 1891. 

[Burke's Peer^a, ISTS, p. lllS; O. E. 
(^okaynel'i Peerage; ParlianiBntary Papers, 
Egjpt, No. 7, 1883; Crockford, 1880 p. 686, 
187*p.l003; Times. I* Oct. 1895.] J. R. M. 

STUART, JAMES, fourth DuiE op Lbk- 
not and first DUKK OP RioHvoiu (1612^ 
leSfi), son of Esmd, third duke of Lennos, 
t and Katherine Clifton, daughter and heiress 
of Gerrase, lord Clifton of Leighton Broms- 
wold, was bom at Blackfriors on 6 April 
1612, and baptised at Whitehall on the 26th. 
Esm^ Stuart, first duke of Lennox [q. t.], 
was his (grandfather ; Ludoyick Stuart, the 
Kcond duke [^-t.], was his nnde ; and Ber- 
nard Stuart, titular earl of Lichfield [q. v.], 
was hia brother. He succeeded his father 
in 1624, and King James, being the nearest 
heir male of the fanJly, became, according 
to Scots custom, his legal tntor and guarw 
dian. He was made a gentleman of the 
bedcbamber in 1626, and was knighted on 
29 June 1630. After studying at the uni- 
Tetaity of Cambridge he travelled in Franoe, 
Spain, andltaly, aod in Januarvl632 he was 
made a grandee of Spain of tne first class. 
In 1633hewa8chosenapriT7 councillor, and 
accompanied Charles I to Scotland. When 
the kin^ theaame yeariesolved to endow the 
bishopnc of E^dinburgh, Lennox sold to him 
lands for this purpose much cheaper than he 
could otherwise have obtained them (CuKfiir- 
Do^T, Biitcry qf th« Bebellion, l 182). It 
woiUd appear, however, that he was not re- 
garded in S«)tland as apedally fsTOuiable 





to episcopacy; for ffken in September 1637 
he came to Gotland to attend the funeral of 
hia mother, the minkters entrusted him with 
BupplicatioDB and remooatrances against the 
service book, being induced to do so by the 
ConBideration that he ' was a nobleman of a 
calm temper, and principled b; such a tutor, 
Hr. David Buchuian, as looked u[«n epi- 
scopacy and all tlie English ceremoniea with 
an evil eye' (Gokdon, SeoU Affair*, i. 18); 
he was also entreated by_ the privy council 
' to remonstrate to his majesty tne true state 
of the business, with the many pressing diffi.- 
cultiesoccurring therein' (BiJ-mva, AnruUt, 
iL23€). Itwouldseemtbat Lennox acted per- 
fectly honourablv in the matter, and, though 
he clung to Che King, it was more ftom per^ 
sonal loyalty than devotion to his policy. It 
is, however, worth noting that in November 
of the same year he received a grant of land 
in various counties amounting in annual 
value to 1,497A 7«. 4^., and making, with 
former grants, an income of 3,000/. {Cat. 
State Paper*, Dom. 1637, p. 676). 

lu 103S Tjennoz was appointed keeper of 
Richmond Park, and in I&IO warden of the 
Ginqiie Dorts. OnSAuf;. 1641 he was created 
Duke of Richmond, with a specific remain- 
der, failing heirs male of his body, to his 
younger brother. Shortly afterwards he ac- 
companied the king to Scotland, but, not hav- 
ing at first signed the covenant, was not per- 
mitted to take his place in parliament (Bit- 
Focs, AitnaU, iii. 44) until the 19th, when 
be subscribed ' the covenant band and oath' 
(iiL 46). On 17 Sept. he was chosen one of 
the Scottish privy council (i8. p. 66), 

During the civil war Lennox wag agenerous 
supporter of the king, contributing at one 
time 20,000/., and at another 46,000/. He 
was a commissioner for the defence of Ox- 
ford inI644-6, for theconferenceat Uxbridge 
in January 1644-6, and for the cooferenoe at 
Newport in September 1648. He was one 
of the mourners who attended the funeral of 
Charles I at Windsor. He died on SO March 
1665, and was buried in Westminster Abbey 
on 18 ApriL Although his personal devotion 
Co the kmg was unqueationed, he was never 
regarded by the covenanters with hoatilityj 
and while be is eulogised by Clarendon as 
always behaving honourably, and ' punuing 
his majesty's service with the utmost vigour 
and intentneas of mind' {Hittory of tht Ea- 
Mlum, iii. 237), Gordon affirms that, as re- 
gards Scotland, he ' never declared himself 
one way or other, never acted anything for 
the kii^ or against him, and was never at 
any time quarrelled or questioned by any 
party, but lived and died with the good 
liking of all, and without the hate of any' 

(Scoti Affain, i. 62). A p<ni:rait of tiennox, 
by Vandyck, belonged in 1866 to Mr. W. H, 
Fole-Carew, and an anonymous portrait to 
the Duke of Richmond (Cat. Firtt Loan 
Ezhib. Nos. 63*, 720). By bis wife Mary 
(d. 1686), dau([hter of George Villiert, first 
duke of Buckmgham, and widow of Lord 
Herbert of Shurland, he had an only son 
and heir.Esmfi (d. 1660), fifth duke of Len- 
nox and second auke of Richmond, on whoso 
death at Paris in his eleventh year the duke- 
dom passed to Charles Stuart, sixth duke of 
Lennox and third duke of Richmond [q. v.] 

f Clarendon's HiM. of the BebellioD ; Sir James 
Balfour's AddsIs ; Gordon's Scots A^rs, and 
Spnlding's Memorials in tbe Spalding (jlub ; 
ChI. State Popen, Dom. Ser. ; Robert Baillic'a 
Letten and Journals ia the Bannatyue Ctab ; 
Burke's Peemga.] "t. F. H. 

STUART, JAMISS (1713-1788), punter 
and architect, often known as 'Athenian 
Stuart,' bom in Creed Lane, Ludoate Street, 
London, in I71S, was the son of a mariner 
&om Scotland, who died when Stuart waa 
quite young, leaving a widow and two other 
children. Stuart, on whom the support of 
the family devolved, having shown an early 
taste for drawing, obtained employment in 
painting fans for Lewis Goupy [q. v.], tho 
well-known fan-painter in the Strand. As 
many of Goup^'s fans were decorated with 
views of classical buildings, Stuart's mind 
may have been thus first directed to the 
study of classical architecture. At the a^e of 
thirteen or fourteen he obtained a premium 
&om the Society of Arts for a crayon portrait 
of himself. Besides acquiring some suill as a 
painter in gouacheand watercolours, he was 
a diligent student of mathematics and geo- 
metry, and thus became a fjood draughtsman. 
After his mother's death, his brotherand sister 
bein^ provided for, Stuart effected a loug- 
cberished project of going to Rome to pursue 
his studies in art. This he accomplisned in 
1741, travelling a great part of tbe way on 
foot, and earning money as best he could on 
the way. At Rome tie became associated 
witli Qavin Hamilton [q. v.], the painter, 
Matthew Brettingham [q. v.], the architect, 
and Nicholas Revett [q. v.] In April 174S 
these four artists made a journey to Naples 
on foot, and it was during this journey that 
the project for visiting Athens, in oraer to 
take practical measurements of the remains 
of Greek architecture, was initiated. 'The 
idea seems to have originated with Hamil- 
ton and Bevett, but was warmly taken 
•io by Stuart, who had studied Latin and 
Greek in the College of Propaganda at Roma, 
and already written a treatise in Latin oa 
the obelisk found in the Campus Martina. 


Stuart 8 

Ttii Stout published in 1760, vith a dedi- 
ntioQta Cb&rles W^ontworth, ear! of Malton 
(tftcnnrda Marquis of Rockingham'), and 
thiougb it obtained the hoDonr of presenta- 
Cioo to Pope Benedict XrV. In] 748 Stuart 
nd Iterett issued ' Proposals for publiabing 
SA ■eeorate Description of the Antiquities 
of Athens.' Their scheme attracted the 
&ToiiiDf iheEnElishdilettauti theu resident 
Ln Knme, and ^rttb the help of soma of them, 
uatablr the Earl of MaltOD, the Earl of 
Charlmout, James Dawkins, and Robert 
Wood, the explorers of Palmyra, and others, 
thej were enabled to make their arrange- 
airata for proceeding to Athens. Stuart 
and Bevett left Rome in March 1760, but 
were detained for some months in Venice. 
There they met and were encouraged by 
Sir Janee Qray. K.B., the British resident, 
who mocnred their election into the Lon- 
don 'Dilettanti,' and Joseph Smith (168S~ 
1770), tlK British consul. Colonel Qeoi^ 
Oray, ksnther of Sir James, and secretary 
mad treasurer to the Society of Dilettanti, 
printed and issued in London an edition of 
Sc aart and Revett's ' Proposols,' and a fiir- 
ihrr edition was issued by Consul Smith at 
Venice in 1763. During their detention at 
Venice Stuart and RereCt visited the anti- 
qnitie* ot Polo in Datmatia. On 19 Jan. 
1751 ther embarked for Greece, and ar- 
HTed on 18 March following at Athens. 
Ther at once set to work, Stuart making 





nested by James Stuart, F.R.S. and F.8.A., 
and Nicholas Revett^ Painters and Archi- 
tects,' with a dedication to the kmg. The 
book prodnced an extraordinary effect upon 
English society. The Society of Dilettanti 
had for some years been endeavouring to in- 
troduce a taste for classical architecture, and 
the publication of this work caused 'Grecian 
Gusto 'to reign supreme. Under its influeace 
the classical style in architecture was widely 
adopted both in London and the proviuces, 
and maintained its predominance for the re- 
mainder of the century. The publication of 
Stuart and Revett's work may be said to 
be the commencement of the serious study 
of classical art and antiquities throughout 
Eorope. Its publication had been antici- 
pated by a somewhat similar work by a 
Frenchman, Julien David Le Eoy, who nad 
been in Rome iu 1746, when the proposals of 
Stuart and Revettwerefirstissued. Le Roy 
did not, however, visit Athens until 1764, 
after Stuart and Revett bad completed their 
work there, and although by royal patronage 
and other help he succeeded in gettii^ his 
book — 'Ruines des plus beaux Monuments 
de la Grace '—published iu 1768, it is in 
every way inferior to the work of Stuart and 
Revett. The views of Athenian antiquities, 
drawn for Lord Charlemont by Richard Dal- 
ton in 1749 and engraved by him, were not 
done irom accurate and scientific measure- 
ments, so that Stuart and Revett may fairly 
claim to have been the pioneers of classical 

The publication of the 'Antiquities of 
Athens mode Stuart famous, and he ob- 
tained the name of 'Athenian' Stuart. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
andtheSocieCyof Antiquaries. Althoughhe 
exhibited for some years with the Free 
Society of Artists, sending chiefly worked-up 
specimens of hie sketches in Greece, Stuart 
found the profession of architect in the new 
fashionable Grecian style more profitable. In 
this line he was employed by Earl Spencer, 
the Marquis of Rockingham, Lord Camden, * 
Lord Eardley, Lord Anson, and others ; Lord 
Anson's house in St. James's Square was 
perhaps the first building in the real Grecian 
style erected in London. Stuart became tbe 
recognised authority on classical art, and 
was referred to on all such matters as de- 
igning medals, monuments, &c. Re con- 
tinued one of the leading members of the 
Dilettanti, and in 1763 was appointed painter 
to the society, in tbe place of Oeoc^ Knap- 
ton Tq. v.] ; he did not, however, execute any 
work for the society, though he held the post 
until 1769, when he was succeeded by Sir ' 
Joshua Reynolds. For many years Stuait ' 


Stuart I 

was enga^ei] upon & second Tolume of the 
'Antiquities of Athens.' A difficulty oc- 
curring with Revett, who resented the some- 
what undue share of credit which Stuart 
had ohtained for their work, Stuart bought 
allhis rightsinthework. The second volume 
■was almost ready for press, and the drawings 
complet«d for a thirdvolume, when the work 
was interrupted by Stuart's audden death at 
hia house inXeicester Square on 2 Feb. 1788. 
He was buried in the church of St. Martin- 
in-the-Fielda. Stuart was twice married, 

The second volume of the 'Antiquities of 

A Stuart in the post (obtained 
for Stuart by Anson) of surveyor to Green- 
wich Hospiial. The third volume was not 
puhlished until 1795, when it was edited by 
WiUey Keveley [q.v.] In 1814 a fourth 
volume was issued, edited by Joseph Woods, 
containiog miscellaneous papers and draw- 
ings b^ Stuart and Bevett, and the results 
of their researches at Pola. A supplemen- 
tary volume was published in 1830 by 
Charles Robert Cockerell [q. v.1. R.A., an^ 
other architects. A second edition of the 
first tliree volumes on a reduced scale was 
published in 1825-80, and a third edition, 
atill further reduced in size, in 1841, for 
Bohn's 'Illustrated Library.' 

Miniature portraits of Stuart and his second 
wife were presented to the National Portrait 
Gallery in November 1858 by his son, Lieu- 
tenant James Stuart, R.X, 

[Biography preGisd to voI.iT.ofthe Acheniaa 
Autiqaitits; Hamilton's Historii^l Notieea of 
tbeSoc.afDiletlADtl; CueC and Colvin's Hiat. of 
ths Society of Dilettanti. 1897; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists 1 Micbaelis's Ancient Marble* la 
Great Britain ; Stuart's own Worlci.] L. C. 

* STUART, JAMES (d. 1793), majors 
Eenerel, younger brother of Andrew Stuart 
[q. v.], was appointed captain in the 66th 
foot on 1 Not. 1766. He first saw active 
service at the siege of Louisbur^ in Nova 
Scotia under Low Amherst in 1758. On 
9 May of the same year he was promoted to 
the rank of major, and in 1761 was present 
with Colonel Morgan's regiment at the re- 
duction of Belleisle. During the course of 
the expedition he acted aa quartermaster- 
general, and in consequence obtained the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. From Belleisle 
he went to the "West Indies, and served in 
the operations aeainit Martinique, which 
was reduced in February 1762, and on the 

8 Stuart 

death of Colonel Morgan took command of 
the reKiment. After the conquest of Marti- 
niquenis regiment was ordered t« join the 
expedition aeainst Havana, where he ^atly 
distinguished himself by his conduct in tho 
assault of the castle of Morro, the capture of 
which determined the success of the expe- 

In 1776 he received permission to enter 
the service of the East India Company as 
second in command on the Coromandel 
coast, with the rank of colonel. On his 
arrival he found serious difii^rences eiistinff 
between the council of the Madras Presi- 
dency and the governor, George Pigot, baron 
Pigot [q. v.], and on S3 Aug. 1770 he arrested 
the governor at Madras, at the command of 
the majority of the council. On tbia new» 
reaching England, Stuart was suspended by 
the directors from the ofEce of commander- 
in-chief, to which he had auccaeded, with th» 
rank of brigadier-general, on the death of Sir 
RobertFletcher in December 17 76. Althougli 
he repeatedly demanded a trial, he could not, 
despite perempto^ orders from England, 
succeed m obtainmg a court-martial until 
December 1780, when he was honourably 
acquitted, and by order of the directors re- 
ceived the arrears of his pay from the time 
of his suspension. On 11 Jan. 1781 he was 
restored to the chief command iu Afadras hy 
order of the governor aud council. He re~ 
turned to Madras in 1781, and, under Sir 
Eyre Coote (1726-1783) [q. v.l. took part in 
the battle of Porto Novo on 1 July, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his able handling of 
the second line of the British force. In the 
battle of Pollilore, on 27 Aug., behadhis leg: 
carried away by a cannon shot. On 1 9 Oct. 
he was promoted to the rank of m(yor-ge- 
neral, and on the return of Sir Eyre Ooot« 
to Bengal he took command of the forces io 
Madras. Lord Macartney [see Micasinbt, 
Geobqb, Eabl Macabinei], the govemor, 
however, would not allow hua that freedom 
of action which Eyre Coote had e^oyed. 
and on the death of Hyder on 7 Dec. ha 
urged him immediately to attack the Mysore 
army. Stuart declared his forces were not 
ready, and made no active movement for two 
months. While besieging Cuddalore he was 
suspended from the command by the Madras 

Sovenunent. He was placed in strict con- 
nement in JIadrae, and sent home to Eng- 
land. On 8 June 1786, though unable to 
stand without support owing to his wounds, 
he fought a duel with Lord Macartney iu 
Hyde Park, and severely wounded him. On, 
8 Feb. 179^ he waa appointed colonel of tha 
31st foot. He died on 2 Feb. 1793. Hi& 
portrait, painted by Romney, waa engraved 


Stuart I 

l;Tioifem(BaoitLST,Cat.f.S8l). Hemu- 
MdllBinrat Hume, daushter of Hiwh, third 
Md of Aueluncmt, but bad no cliildTen. 

Aaotber Jambs Stcabt (1741-1616), 
gtMnl, boqnentlT confounded with the pre- 
tf£ag, ma th« third son of John Stuut of 
BlMhall in Perthshire, by bis wife Anne, 
lisoghter of Francis, earl of Marraj, and was 
bom u Blairhall on 2 March 1741. He was 
edocated at tlie ecbools of CuItobb and Dun- 
fenslioe. In 1757 he proceeded to Edin- 
biD^ to study law, but, abandoning the pro- , 
jad, entered the armr, and served ' ' ' 
Amokan war of inde^udence. ] 
taioed the rank oTmajorin tbe78thfoot,Bnd 
anired in India with bis regimeot in 178^, 
when he waa appointed lieutenant-colonel 
OB 14 Feb. He took part in Sir Ejre Coote'i 
rsaipaign uainft Hyder, and was present a' 
the Bcge of Coddalore, when be conunanded 
tW at^ick on the right of the main position 
in the usanlt of 13 July 1762. In the cam- 
MisB CI 1790. under General Sir William 
JImows [q. V.J, against Tippoo Sahib, he re- 
doMdthe fortresses of Dindigul and Pal- 
IffaaaL He serred under Comwallia through 
tha campaigns of 1791-3, was placed in 
inBediat« charge of the siege of Seringa- 
■tun, and commanded the centre column 
ta the assault of 6 Feb. 1792. On 8 Aug. 
he was promoted to the rank of colonel, and, 
after a Tist to England, returned to Madras 
in 17»L On 26 Feb. 1796 he was appointed 
w a yr g ene ral, and in the same year took 
enouadof the expedition against the Dutch 
fMHSMMM in CerloD. The whole island 
waa Meai«d in 1 798, and Stuart in the same 
^ear baasie commandei^in-cbief of the forces 
mUadraa. On 230ct.l7dSbewasgazetted 
(olond of the 7Sth legfiment, and in the 
Uloving jear, in the last war against 
Tipfno, CMnmanded the Bombay anny, which 
Decried Coorg, and repulsed Tippoo at Seda- 
Mcr « 6 March. On 16 March he effected 
a jiBction with Major-general George Harris 
faAcmrdsLord Harris) ^<^. v.] before Seringa- 
laUa, and took charae ol the operations on 
iheantbem aide of the city. After it« cap- 
tBte he, with aeTeral other general officers, 
nceiTid the thanks of both houses of parlta- 
nsBL lalSOl he was appointed commander- 
i><kief at the Madras army ; on 29 April 
iB03 ha attained the rank of lieutenant- 
fcaoal, and in the following year took part 
n the Mahiattawar, Kajpr-general Wellealey 
hsag under his orders. In 1606 he returned 
mEoftaad in bitd health ; he was promoted 
tttheimak of gBnemI on I Jsn. 1812, and 
£ed wiifamt isaae at Charles Street, Berkeley 
SfMre;Lotidoti,cn30 AprilieiS. He was 

9 Stuart 

stead Road, London (NoU$ and QueriM, fitb 
ser. is. 170, 258, li. 91 ; WiLn, Hiilorical 
Sketche* of the South of India, 1869, index ; 
Wellington Dmatckei, India, 1814, index ; 
BuKKE, Zandtd Gentry, 4th edit.) 

[Andrew Stnart'i Genealogical Hiatory of the 
Stewarts, p. 378 ; Andrew SLaart's Iiettera to 
tbe Diractors ot the East India Company ; The 
Gate of Lord Pigot furly stated, 1777; betenea 
of Brigadier-genecal StnarL 1778; Letter tothe 
East India Company by Major-geaeral Stuart, 
1787; CorrespoDdeDce duiiuK tha iodiBpoiitioi] 
of tbe Commiuiiler-iD chief (colleeted bj Sciga- 
dJer-general Stuait), 1783 ; Wilks's Sketches of 
the Sonlb of India, 18G9, iodei; Corowallis 
CoireepoDdenco, ISSB, index ; Koteeand Qaeriea, 
Bthsec. it 170,268.] E. I. C. 

BTUAET, JAMES (1704-1842), histo- 
rian of Armagh, son of James Stuart, a 
gentleman of co. Antrim, was bom at Ar- 
magh in 1764. He was educated at Armagh 
Royal school, while Br. Arthur Gcueber, a 
pious and erudite scholar, was its master, 
and in 1784 took sixth place on entrance at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where Dr. Qeo»e 
Miller (afterwards master of Armagh school) 
was bis tutor. He speaks (^Armagh, p. 544) 
with gratitude of both his teocnets. He 
graduated B.A. in the spring term of 1789, 
and was soon after called to the Irish bat, 
but never practised. In 1811 he published 
' Poems on various Subjects,' some of which 
are on places near Armagh, some on his 
friends, none of more thui occasional in- 
terest. In 1B12 he became the first editor 
of the ' NewiT Telegraph,' and from 1816 to 
1819 also edited 'The Newry Magaiine.' 
He published at NewCT in 1819 'Historical 
Memoirs of the City of ArmaghforaPeriod 
of 1,373 Yeara.' Armagh is tbe ecclesiaft- 
tical metropolis of Ireland, and this book is 
perhaps the most learned and impartial in- 
troduction hitherto publisbed io the general 
history of tbe island. Besides general his- 
tory it contains a great collection of local 
information, is well arranged, and written in 
a lucid BtTle. He went to live inBelfkst in 
1821and became editor of tbe 'News Letter.' 
Some theological letters by him, which first 
appeared in this journal, werepublisLed as a 
separate volume in 1625 as ' The Protestant 
Layman.' In 1837 he founded and edited 
Guardian and Constitutional Advo- 
cate,' but iU-health soon obliged him to giv4 
it no. He married Ma^ Ogle, but had no 
children, and died in September 1842 in 
Belfast. His will is dated 26 Sept. 1840, 
and hie widow was univeru] legatee and sole 


Stuart s 

otVewrj, ISSTi JCitricaUtioa Book of Trinity 
Coltw, Dabllo, and origln&l vill, kindly sia- 
mined by the Rot. W. BeynelL] N. M. 

STOART, JAMES (1775-1849), of Dun- 
eam, writer to the signet, wu the eldest 
son of Cbarlea Stuart of Duneant in Fife- 
ehir«, for some years minister of the parisli 
of Cramond in Linlithgowshire, and after- 
words (1796-1826) phyaiciait in Edinburgh. 
James Stuait wiks bom in 1775. He at- 
tended, it is belieTed, the high school of 
Ediuburghiioml785tol780. Havingstudied 
at the university of Edinburgh and served 
en apprenticaship to Mr. Hugh Robertson, 
W.S., he was admitted a member of the 
Society of Writers to the Signet on 17 Aug. 
1798. He held the office of collector of the 
widows'fund of the society from ISlStolBSS, 
but * was man attached to agricultural pur- 
suits than to those of his profession ' ( AimiiB- 
eoH, SoottieA Nation, iii. R37). As a deputy- 
lieutenant and justice of the peace he took an 
active part in county busineea, but hii whig 
entbiuiasm ofibnded the authorities. In 
December 1816, when s new commission of 
the peace was issued for Fifisliire, the Earl 
of Morton, then lord lieutenant, omitted 
Stuart. On 4 Jon, 1816, bowerer, a meeting 
of the gentlemen of the western district of 
the county resolved ' to take steps for taeur- 
ing the continuance of Mr. Stuart's most 
important and unremitting services to this 
districtf'and hewasreappointed. Someysan 
later he *bad another difficulty with Lord 
Morton, who censured him for having, con- 
trary to a regimental order, assembf»l for 
drill a troop of the Fifesliire yeomanry, in 
which he was an officer. Stuart, who main- 
tained that he had never seen the order, 
resigned his commission on 7 Jan. 1831. 

Stuart was a keen politician on the whig 
side. On 28 July 1821 the ' Beacon,' an 
Edinburgh tory paper, the fint number of 
which had appeared on 6 Jan. 1821, (»n- 
tained a personal attack on him. He de- 
manded an apology &om the printer, Duncan 
5t«venson. This was refused, and oci 1 6 Aug. 
Stuart, meeting Stevenson in the Parliament 
Close, assaulted him. Lord Cockbum simply 
says ' he caned the printer in the street,' but 
St«Tensou and bu friends said there was a 
fight, and that Stuart behaved like a coward. 
Tne personal attacks were continued in the 
'Beacon,' and Stuart entered on a lung corre- 
spondence with Sir William Rae, then lord- 
advocate of Sootland, who in the end ex- 
pressed his disapproval of the 'Beacon's' 
system of personal attacks, and allowed 
Stuart to publish the correspondence. Soon 
after this tbe ' Beacon* ceased to appear, 

Ib the following year (1822) Stuut was 

5 Stuart 

involved in another and more serious quarrel 
with the tory press, Thefirstnumberof anew 
paper in Glawow, ' The Gla^w Sentinel,' 
appeoringonlOOet. 1821, coutaiUeda virulent 
attack on Stuart. Similar articles followed 
in subsequent issues, and it soon appeared 
that be had been especially singled out by the 
conductors of the journal for abuse. Stuart 
raised an action for libel against the pub- 
lishers, BorthwickS Alexander; but proroed- 
ings were stayed owing to a dispute between 
the two publishers. In the result Borthwick 
surrendered toStuart atGlaagow on 11 March 
1 822 the mouUBCripts of the obnoiious artides. 
The author of the most scurrilous among them 
proved to beSir Alexander Boswell of Auchin- 
ieck [q. T.l The Earl of Rosslyn, acting ia 
St uart s benalf, vainly asked Boswell for an ex- 
planation. A challenge from Stuart followed 
on 26 March; but in the couieeof that night 
Stuart and Boswell were arrested and taken 
before the sheriff, who bound them over to 
keepthepeacewithin the town and county of 
Edmbui^. It was then arranged that the 
duel should take place in Fifeshire, and on the 
following morning the parties met near the 
village of Auchtertool, Lord Rosslyn acting 
for Stuart, and the Hon. John Douglas for 
Boswell. Boswell fired in the air ; Stuart., 
whohad never handled a iHstoi before, fa tally 
woanded his opponent. Boswell died the 
next day (27 March). Stuart, on the advice 
of his friends, went to Paris, where he suiv 
rendered himself to the British ambawador. 
Itetuming to Scotland to stand hia trial, he 
was indicted for wilful murder before the 
high court of justiciary at Edinburgh on 
10 June. He was prosecuted by Sir Wil- 
liam Itae, and defended by leSrej, James 
Moucreiff, Cockbum, and other whig mem- 
bers of the Scottish bar. At 6 o'clock on the 
following morning the jury, without retir- 
ing, found Stuart uot guilty. ' No 3cot(±. 
trial in my time excited such interest,' Lord 
Cockbum says. In the indictment Stuart 
WIS also chained with having conspired with 
Borthwick to steal the mauuscripts from 
the proprietors of the 'Glasgow Sentinel.' 
Bortuwick had been arrested, but was re- 
leased on the acquittal of Stuart. These 
proceedings were afterwards discnjssed at 
great lengtb in parliament, and the lord- 
advocate, who had sanctioned them, escaped 
a vote of censure by a majoritv of only six 
(IfanMrd, yii. 1S34-48, 13c7,"l872, 1638- 

After hia acquittal Stuart lived in Edin- 
bu^h, and in Fifeshire at Hillside, * thi 
grounds of which he greatly beauti6ed ' 
(Boss, Aberdmir and Inehcolnte, p. 879), un- 
til 1628, when, his a&irs being •mbarrassed. 





bbTMifBed tlM OoIlectiOrship'Of rtie widows' 
foAdud wvnt to America. Le&viag Liver- 
pool oo 16 July 1828, he re4ohed New Yorit 
OB a Ang. H« B&iled &nni America on 
17 April 1831, and landed at Deal on 25 Hny. 
U 1833 he pnbliibed ' Three Years in North 
Ammca'(2 vols.), an account of his trareU, 
which ttiracted coDsiderable attention. Two 
nioie editions appeared in the following year. 
Stuart diaplayed astrongf bias in favour of 
the Amerieans, and he was involved in a oon- 
tio vw i y with Sir John Lambert and a Major 
Pnnfle regarding his account of the opera- 
tion* and eoudoct of the British army during 
the American campaign of 1814-15. 

SooB aftar his i«tum Stoart became ecKtor 
of the (LoBdon)' Courier 'newspaper. It was 
DM proepenKU at that time, and he tried to 
iDCPeaM ita popularity bv publishing once a 
-we^ a ioable nnmber or eight pa^, one of 
^iich he devoted entirely to raviews. He 
wu «ditcir ontil 1886, when Lord Melbourne 
appoiated him an inspector of factoriM. On 
S Nov. 1849 ha died of heart disease at 
IHctionary a/ Bnment Men of Fife). 

Sttiait married, on 39 April 1802, Eleanor 
Maria Anna, only daughter of Dr. Robert 
Manhny of Codiaimie, Fifeshire, hot tdt 

[Bceordt of the Soeisty of Writers to the 
SifaeC : OorvespondeiKe betiTMn Jamee Simrt, 
M^- Old the Eori of Morton. 1831; Lord Ccwk- 
■ " ' '■ of his Time; The BoiiMa, 

enteredthe office of Beid, the prothonotary of 
thecouTt of king's bench at Hontreal,to study 
for the law ; in 1796 he removed to Quebec, 
and becama a pupil of Jonathan Sewell [q.v.], 
who was theil attorney-general of Lower 
Canada. In 1800 he was mode by Sir Robert 
Shore Milnee assist ant-georetary to the go- 
vernment of Lower Canada, and, shortjy aner 
his call to the bar, on 28 March 1801, solicitor- 
general for the province, whsienpon he re- 
turned lo Montreal. 

In 1808 Stuart entered the House of As- 
sembly OS member for MontreaL In conse- 
quence of a disagreement with the governor. 
Sir James Henry Craig [q. v.], and the slight 
which he suffered in being passed over for the 
poet of attorney-general, ne joined the opposi- 
tion. In 1809 lie was compelled to resign the 
solicitor-geneTalship. He then devoted him- 
self exclusively, and with ^at succeas, to 
private practice and to politics. During the 
administration of Sir Geoi^ Preroat (1787- 
1816) [q.T.j he constantly opposed the govern- 
ment. The most prominent incident of this 
period of his career was the motion in the 
assembly for an inquiryinto the adminiatm- 
tion of the law courts, fliBt in 1812 and again 
in 1814, leading up to the impeoctunent'for 
impropeT practices of the ohiefj tut ices, Jona- 
than Sewell and Monk. Stuart pursued 
this matter with such relentless vigour as to 
alienate his beet frienda and to cause his re- 
tirement firam the house and from public life 
for several years (1817). 

In December 1822 Stuart was once more 
brought to the front by the movement for 
the union of Upper and Lower Canada. He 
drew up the petition from Montreal, and 
was sent to England by that city to advo- 
cate the union. In 1823 he returned to 
Canada, and again in 1834 visited England 
on the same errand. He attracted Lord 
Bathurst's attention, and on 2 Feb. 1825, on 
a vacancy occurring in the office, he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general for Lower Canada. 
On 18S6 he wa« elected to the assembly as 
member for William Heniy or Sorel, but 
against his own desire, for he felt that his 
i^uence in the assemblvhad gone. When 
in January 1828, on the aissolutiou of parlia- 
ment , there was a new election , he was beaten 
by Dr. Wolfred Nelson, and had to find a 
fresh seat; Airther, the contest with Nelson 
led to recriminations, and eventually, in 
1831, to his impeachment by the House of 
Assembly, resnltiM in March 1881 in his 
suspension from office by Lord Aylmer. The 
chief ground of the impeachment was an 
improper use of his position aa attorney- 
general and corruption in reirard to elec- 
tion8(CKSi0nB, iii. 47dseq.) Onthe matter- 





being re&md to Lord Qoderich, the mcto- 
tary of state, Stuart's defence on these counts 
waB deemed conclusive; but, on a. ground 
which had not beea raised — the question of 
the right to take certain fees— his suspension 
wss confirmed on SO Nov. 1832. Lord Qo- 
derich's action tcbs generallj condemned. 
After nearly two years further spent in Eng- 
land in the hope of obtaining justice, and 
after declining the o£Fer of the chief Justice- 
ship of Newfoundland in May ISSS, Stuart 
in 1634 returned to Canada and resumed his 
practice at Quebec, with a success which was 
proof of general confidence. 

In the political storm which was gathering 
during the ensuing years Stuart too£ no part; 
but Lord Durham, before closing his tem- 
porary administration of Lower Canada, on 
SO Oct. 1833 appointed him chief justice of 
Lower Canada, in succession to bis old 
master, Sewell, indicating in bis despatch to 
the home goremment that any other choice 
would be an act of injustice. In his new ^ost 
Stuart at once took an active part in affairs ; 
he was oneof Lord Sydenham's chief advisers 
in framing the act of union, and was made 
chairman of the special council which 
preceded the new regime. He prepared the 
judicature and registry ordinances passed 
prior to the union act, and subsequently 

Cmotad the grant of corporations to Que- 
and Montreal, and the institution of 
municipalities throughout the province. For 
these services he was created a baronet on 
6 May 1841, He had been created D.C.L, 
by Oxford University on 15 June 1825. 

On the union of tne two Canadas, Stuart 
became chief justice of C«nada(10Feb.l841). 
He was a profound lawyer, and fcr the rest 
of his career he devoted himself to his judicial 
duties, dying somewhat suddenly at Quebec 
on 14 Jidy 1853. 

Staart married, on 17 March 1818, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Alexander Robertson of 
Montreal, and left t^tree sons, the eldest of 
whom, Charles James, succeeded to his title, 
lind one daughter. 

[Christie's Hist, of Lower CaDods, upeeially 
V. 36S ; Morgan's Sketches of Celebrated Cana- 
dians; Bogen's Biit. of Canada, i. 254, 330-7 ; 
Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage.] 0. A. U. 


of Damley, Shisitbuk OP AUBiairr (1366 P- 
1420), son of Alexander Stewart of Dsmlev 
(descended from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, 
second son of Alexander, high steward of 
Scotland), by his wife Janet, daughter and 
heiress of Sir William Keith of Galston, was 
bom about 1366. In 13S6 he was made a 
knight, and on 4 Maj 1387 he is mentioned 

as lord of Castlemilk. He succeeded his 
father on 6 May 1401. With the Barls of 
Buchan and Wigtou he was appointed to tha 
joint command of a Scottish force sent to 
the aid of the dauphin of France against th« 
English, and for his distinguished services &t 
their defeat at Seaugg on 21 March 1420-1, 
he received a grant d' the seigneurie of Con- 
creisault in Berry, with one thousand iivrea 
of yearly rent. Shortly afterwards he for- 
mally entered the service of France, holding, 
command of a body of men-at-orma, for 
whose maintenance from November 1422 
to December 1423 he received a monthlv 
sum of one thousand livres. On 10 April 
he obtained a (prant of the seigneurie of 
Aubigny in Berry, which was confirmed 
on 80 Julj* 1426. While at the si^e of 
Crevant in June 1423 he was severely de> 
feated by the English, lost an eye, and was 
taken prisoner, but obtained not lon^ after- 
wards his exchange. A little later his men- 
at-arms were formed into the bodyguard of 
Charles VII, from whom in January 14SQ~ 
1427 he obtained the comt€ of Evreux in 
Normandy. For victories gained in 1426 
and 1427 he also in February 1427-8 ob- 
tained the privile^ of quartering the royal 
arms of France with his own. In 1427 he 
was sent on a special embassy to Scotland, 
first to obtain additional reinforcements, and 
secondly to demand the hand of the FrinceBS 
Margaret for the dauphin. Wliile in Scot- 
land he received on 17 July l4ii8 from 
James I a charter re-granting hi™ Tarbolton 
(SibWilliavFe&B£B, Xenniu-, ii. 62). On 
his return to France with reinforcements be 
was sent to Orieans, then besieged by the 
English under the Earl of Salisbnry, but was 
killed while attacking a con vot of provisions. 
He was buried behind the choir in the chapel 
of Notre Dame Blanche, in the cathedral 
church, Orleans, in November 1429. By his 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Duncan, earl of 
Lennox, he had three sons ; Sir Alan, who 
succeeded to the lands of Damley and Len- 
nox, but was slain by Sir Thomas Boyd in 
1489; John, second seignenr of Aubigny 
and father of Bernard Stuart (1447 F-16UB> 
[q.T.]; and Alexander, 

[Andrew Stuart's Hist, of the Stewarts ; Sir 
Wmiam Fnaei'a Lennox ; and especially Lndy 
EUubethOoft'sStiiatU of Aubigny.] T. P. H. 

BTUAST, JOHN, third EiKL or Btrm 
(1713-1792), bom in Parliament Square, 
Edinburgh, on 26 May 1718, was the elder 
son of James, second earl of Bute, by hift 
wife Lady Anne Campbell, only daughter oC 
Archibald, flrstdukaofArgylL His paternal 
grandfather, Sir James, afterwards first earl. 





tafftwnted Batesliira for sevenl years ii 
thm Scottuh parlUunent. Od 36 April 1693 
hi* plaes 'was declared vacant becaiue be 
had not taken tlie oath of allegiance and 
■gued th« aaaorance. He wi«, iLowSTer, re- 
dacted for Buteshire in 1703, was made a 
■tmhw of AsDe'a prtTj conncil, and on 
14 A^ 1703 was created Earl of Bute, 
ViaoooU of Kingarth, Lord Uount Stuart, 
Cddtb, and InchnuLmock. Though named 
me of the commissioners appoiulM in 1702 
to treat of a onion with England (which did 
not then take e%ct), he afterwards opposed 
that Beasore, and absented himseu from 
parliament when it waa carried. He died at 
Bach on * June 1710. 

Th« grandson succeeded as third earl on 
te death <a his father on 28 Jan. 172S, and 
waa cdocatod at Eton, where Horace Wal- 
■oie waa one of his contemporaries. On 
IS Ant;. 1736 he married Mary, only daughter 
rf Edward Wortley Montagu of Wortley, 
VorkAire, and I^ad* Mazy, his wife, the 
eMetf dsoKhter of Evelyn Pierrepont, first 
dab of Kingston [see Montioit, Luit 
Kui WoKTi.Ei]. an alliance which ulti- 
mately brouKht the lai^ Wortley estates 
iDtO lua &mily. He was elected a Scottish 
RfnmitatiTe peer in April 1737, and took 
Ua seat in the House of Lords for the first 
lirae on S4 Jan. 1738 {JoumaU of the Home 
ff Lardi, zxv. 97, 159). He occasionallv 
attended the sittings of the house, but took 
aa pan in the debates, and was not re- 
elected to the parlianients of 1711, 1747, 
and 1754. In 17S7 he was apjpoint«d one 
of ihe commissioners of police tor Scotland 
in tlw place of the Earl ot Hyudford, and on 
10 Jdy 1738 he was elected a knight of the 
'^■■''-, being invested at Holyrood House 
an 1$ Aug. following-. He appears to have 

yat the greaMr part of the nrst nine years 
bis married life in the island of But«, 
smasng himself with the study of agricul- 
lare, tetany, and architecture (Chbstee- 
nru, Zettera and Work*, 1845-63, ii. 
d),aitd to have removed to London soon 
•fler the outbreak of the rebellion in 1745. 
Hers 1m seema to have acquired a passion 
far fatonniaq ' at masqnerades in becoming 
Atmrn, and m plays which he acted in 
■rnale companies with a set of his own re- 
klM^ ' (BoBACE WaLPDLB, Memoir* of the 
M^ ^ Gtorge II, 1S47, L 47). For his 

I summoned to the royal tent to join in a 
I game of whist while the weather cleared 
I ( WmiALL, Hutorieal and Potthunum* 
Worhi, 1884, i. 319-20). Becoming a 
favourite of the prince and nrincess, he was 
noon constituted the leader of^ the pleaauresof 
that little, idle, frivolous, and dissipated 
court,' and on 16 Oct. 1760 was appointed 
bv Frederick one of the lords of his bed- 
chamber (Chbsteri'iblii, Lettvri and 
Work*, ii. 471). The prince's death in the 
following year rather increased than di- 
minished Bute's influence in the household, 
and on 16 Nor. 1766, at the desire of the 
princess and her son, he was appointed groom 
of the stole in the new establishment (see 
Addit. MSS. Brit. Mus. 3S684 B. 92-3, 
95, 96-7; LeUers and Work* of Lady M. 
W. Montagu, 1837, iii. 131). The king, 
who always spoke of Bute with the greatest 
contempt, refused to 'admit him into the 
closet to receive the badge of his office, 
but gave it to the Duke of Qrallon, who 
sllpt the gold key into Bute's pocket' 
( VValddsbatb, Memoir), 1821, pp. 64-8, 
76-80). Bute became the constant com- 
panion and confidant of the young prince, 
and aided the princess in her daily task of 
imbuing his mind with Bolingbroke's theory 
that a king should not only reign but 
govern. For the purpose of instructing 
him in the principles of the constitution, Bute 
is said to have obtained from Blackstone a 
considerable portion of the manuscript of 
the 'Commentaries,' the first volume of 
which waa not published until 1765 (AiKii-- 
FBVs, Hiitory ^England, 1840, i. 12). As 
the political adviser of the princess, Bute 
negotiated a treaty between Leicester 
House and Pitt against the Duke of New- 
castle in 1766, and he took part in the con- 
ferences between those statesmen in 1767 
(Waldbokave, ^enun-s.pp, 37-9, 112-13; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. pt iv. p. 893). 
The intimate relations of^ Bute with the 
princess gave rise to much scandal, which, 
though founded on mere conjecture, was 
widely spread and commonly believed {ib. 
pp. 83-9 ; Walpole, Mtmoirt qf the Retgn 
qf George II, ii. 304r-5t CHEaTEBRBUi, 
LetUr* and Work*, ii. 471). 

On the accession of George HI t« the 
throne, Bute produced the declaration to the 

t wliidt laid the foundation of his 
faton pi^tieal career, Bnte was indebted 
to a men aeetdent. A shower of rain after 
lbs lyi*™ race* in 1747 delayed the 
viMe's ivtnm to Cliefden, and Bute, who 
bill mil lo ba OB the race-ground, waa 

the privy conncil <» 27 Oct, 1760, and on 
16 &0T. following was appointed groom of 


Stuart 9 

the itole and flret eentlemtn of the hed- 
chamber. Thoogh ne only held office in 
the household, and had neither a seat in 
parliament nor in the cabinet, Bute was 
practically prime minister, and through him 
alone the king's intentions were made 
known (HlBRIs, Ufi <if Lord CkanceUor 
Hardaicke, 1847, iii. 216). Lord Qeorge 
Sackyille, who was an intimate Mend of 
Bute, much to Pitt's diagost, was received 
at court as if he had nerer been dii^raced, 
while I-egge, who bad quarrelled with 
Bute over a Hampshire election, was dis- 
missed from bis post of ebancellor of the 
exchequer. It was obvious that Bute could 
not long remain in this anomalous position. 
Lord Holdemesse was therefore dismissed, 
and he was succeeded as aecretary of state 
for tbe northern department by Bute, who 
leceiTed the seals on 26 March 1761. On 
S April bis wife waa created Baroness 
Mount Stuart of Wortley, Yorkshire, in the 

Eeragn of tbe United iQugdom, and in the 
Uowing month he was elected a Scottish re- 
K tentative peer (Joitntah <^ the Souk of 
rdi, xxz. lOS-8). Tbe chief objects of 
Bute's policy were to conclude a peace 
with France, to sever England from a con- 
nection with German politics, to break up 
the whig oligarchy, and to make tbe king 
supreme over parliament. Bute skilfully 
took advantage of the jetUousies among 
the ministers in order to get rid of Pitt, 
who hod no desire for any peace which did 
not completely humiliate France. After 
aeveiol lengthy discussions in the cabinet, 
Bute succeeded in defeating Pitt's proposal 
to commence hostilities against Spain, and 
on 6 Oct. Pitt resided office, refusing to 
' remain in a situation which made uim 
responsible for measures he was no longer 
allowed to guide' (Atolphus, History of 
England, i. 43), After an absence of more 
than twenty years Bute reappeared in tbe 
House of Lordsat the opening of thenewpar- 
lioment on 3 Nov. From the very commence- 
ment of tbe new reign he had been hated 
by the populace for being a favourite and a 
gcotsman. Pitt's down&ll still further in- 
ETASsed Bute's unpopularity, and be was 
mobbed on his way to the Ouildhall banquet 
on9Nov.(Ca«(Ao»»0)rTe«pon<fcnce, 1838-40, 
ii. 196-6). Before tbe year was over Pitt's 
policy was completely vindicated, and on 
1 Jan. 1763 Bute was obliged to declare 
war with Spain. On 19 Sva. 1762 Bute 
'hsnngued the parliament for the first 
time,' and 'the few that dared to sneer at 
his theatric fustian did not find it quite so 
ridienlous as they wishad ' (Walpolb, 
Memirt <^ the Ragn <if Oaotye III, i. 103). 

* Stuart 

While laying the Spanish papers before the 
house on 29 Jan., Bute pompously infoimect 
his audience that < it was the glory and 
happiness of his life to reflect tb^ the ad- 
vice he had given his majeaty lince he bad 
bad the honour to be consulted was juat 
what he thought it ou^t to be' (Catb^- 
DUE, Pari. Debata, 1841, i. fi6S, 66S}. On 
G Feb. he opposed the Duke of Bedford's 
motion for the withdrawal of the British. 
troops &om Qermauy, and declared that ' a 
steady adherence to our Qermon allies is 
now necessary for bringing about a speedy, 
honourable, and permanent peaoe.' His 
speech on this occasion is said to have 
been ' so manly, spirited, and firm' tiiftt 
' the stocks actually rose upon it half par 
cent. ' (a. i. 670-2 ; see also Ptvl. But. it. 
1218 n)) Bute bad for some time bean 
desirous of getting rid of Newcastle, who 
still clung tenaciously to office, thou^ he 
hod again changed his views and no longer 
supported Bute's foreign policy. When 
Bute proposed intbecabmet the withdrawal 
of the Prussian subsidy as- the readiest 
means of forcing Frederick into a peace, 
Newcastle threatened to resign unleaa 
2UO,000/. was raised for the prosecution of 
the war and the subsidy was contianed. 
On which Bute dryly remarked that if ' be 
resigned, the peace might be retarded i ' bnt 
he took core not to request him to continue 
in office (Haskis, Life <f L^rd ChattoeUor 
Sardwieke, i. 278-9). 

Bute succeeded Newcastle as first lord of 
the treasury on 26 May 1762, and on tbe 
following day was elected a kniffht of the 
Sorter, Eaving previously resigned the order 
of the Thistle. The changes mode in the 
administration were few. Sir Fraacia 
Bashwood was i^)pointed chanoellor of tbe 
exchequer, and Oeo^ Qrenville succeeded 
Bute as secretary of state for tbe northern 
department. Lord Henley reinained lord 
chanoellor, Lord Orauville lord president 
of the council, the Duke of Bedford lord 
privy seal, and the Earl of Egremont secre- 
tary of state for tbe southern department. 
Tbe expeditions to the West Indies which 
had been planned by Pitt were carried out, 
but Bute, in his eagerness for peace, ooold 
not wait for the result. Witboat the 
knowledge of tbe cabinet be had for several 
months been aecretly making overtures of 
peace to the court of Versailles through Uie 
mediation of Count de Viri, tbe Sarainian 
ambassador (Lobs E. FimiArxiCB, Z(fe 
<if William, Earl ^ Shelbumt, i. 137). 
When these negotiatious hod arrived at 
sufficient maturity, Bute entrusted them to 
the Duke of Bedford, who signed the pre- 





Vmunsiy trekty at Fontainebleaa on 8 Not. 
Durmg the progreu of the negotiationa But« 
btd hvqomt difference! with G«orge Qren- 
Tilla ^q. T.^ and he now began to doubt 
OrennUe's abilitj to defend the terms of 
tbe treftt; snceeMfully in the face of the 
fownfol oppoeition in tbe House of Com- 
Buatt. UnKole to find an; one elaa to help 
Un in tbe coining crisis, Bute induced 
Heniy Fox [q. t.] to desert his party, and 
to aeo^ the leadership of the House of 
Oowmone. With the aid of this new ally 
*ad by the employment of the grosseat 
knbery and intimidation, Bute was able on 
9 Dec. to carry addresses approving of the 
lenna of the preliminary treaty through ' 
bKh boiuea of parliameDt. According to 
ihe Dake of Cumberland, Bute's speech in 
the Honse of Lords on this occasion was 
'cue of the finest he ever heard in his life ' ' 
(Ba^fcfrf Oorregpmdmee, 1842-6, iii. 170). j 

X ue*is to have been somewhat leas pom- 
poos ihaa nsnal, and to have theatricallj 
dedmd that he daaired no more glorious epi- 
Ufk ea hia tombetone than the words ' Here 
lie* the Eari of Bute, who in concert with the 
kag** miiuHten made the peace' (Walfole, 
GBhoMened by snccees, Bute and Foz com- 
■r iM'«il a general proscription of the whigs. 
Kevcaatle, Orafton, and Rockingham were 
di^siwed from their lord-lieutenancies, and 
nm the hnmbleet of officials who owed 
(.bar appointnients to whig patronage were 
d^priTtd of their poets. The definitive 

1 by Bute were less advantaceons 
to this MHmtiy than they should have oeen, 
■nd the peace wme exceeding'ty unpopular. 
Inatead of the popularity which Bute had 
fcodh hoped to obtain as a reward for bring- 
ing tM war to a conclusion, he found himself 
the object of still stronger animosity. He 
'Was even accused of having been bribed by 
Fraaea; and though the Honte of Commons, 

the House of Lords on 28 Uarch 1783 
IParl. Hist. XV. 1311 «.) On 8 April, only 

eight days after the bill imposing tbe CJiIer 
tax hod received the loyol assent, Bute re- 
signed office. The resolution to retire had 
not been so suddenly taken as the public 
supposed. He had received a promise from 
the King that he should be allowed to re- 
sign as soon as peace had been obtuued 
(^Bt^ord Girramondenee, iii. 223-6), and it 
is evident that he meant to keep the king to 
his promise. Writing to Sir James LowUiar 
on 3 Feb. 1763, he says ' such inveteracy in 
the enemy, such lukewarmness (to give it 
no harsher name), such impracticability, 
such insatiable dispositions appear in those 
toi-diaant friends, that if I had bnt 60^ per 
annum I would retire on bread and water, 
and think it luxury compared with what I 
suffer' {Hut. MSS. Oomm. 13th Kap. App. 
vii. p. 182). To his friends BuU declared 
that ill-health and the unpopularity which 
he had entailed on the king were the causes 
of his retirement, but the real reason pro- 
bably was that, owing to want of support in 
the cabinet, he felt unable to bear any longer 
the labour and responubility inaeporable from 
the post of prime minister. 

Though no longer in office, Bute still re- 
tained the king's confidence. He recom- 
mended Qeorge Qrenville as his successor, 
and employed Shelbume as an intermediary 
in his negotiations with the Duke of Bedford 
andothers for the formation of anew ministry. 
Bute hoped to make ueeofGrenville asapou- 
tical puppet, but in this he was destined to be 
disappointed, for Grenville quickly resented 
his interference, and complained that he 
had not the fuU confidence of the king. In 
August 1763 Bnte advised the king to dis- 
miss Orenville, and employed Shelbume in 
making overtures to Pitt and the Bedford 
connection. On the failure of the n^otiatton 
with Pitt, Grenville insisted on Bute's re- 
tirement from court. Bute thsteopon re- 

Pttptrt, 1SS2-S, ii. 208, 210). .v mie m uie 
I country he appears to have kept up a corre- 
spondence with the king (id. iii. 220). 
I He returned to town at the close of 
I the session of 1763-4. His presence in 
: London, however, ^ve rise to perpetual 
jealousies between lum and the minialers, 
I which were greatly increased by the intro- 
duction of the Regency Bill in April 1766 
(see Hut. MSS. Oojimt. 12th Rep. App. ix. 
pp. 364-6). After the feUure of the Duke 
of Cumberland's attempt to form a new ad- 
ministration in Kay 1766, Grenville obtained 
the king's promise that Bute 'should narer 


Stuart s 

directly or indirectlj, publicly or privately, 
have anything to do with iut buamess, nor 
give advice upon anythina: whatever,' and 
that BdM's brother, James Stuart Uackenzte. 
ahould be diamitsed from hie office of lord 

frivy seal in Scotland (Orenviilt Paper*, iii. 
85, 187). Though tha whiga for years 
continued to denounce Bute's secret influence 
behind the throne, it wems iolerably certain 
that all communioationa wbatevar on politi- 
cal matters between Bute and the king 
ceased from this time (Corremonderuie of 
King Qeorge III tath Lord North, 1867, 
vol. i. pp. «-ixi«.) It is true that he con- 
tinued to visit the princess until her death, 
but ' when the king came to aee his mother, 
Lord Bute always retired by a back stair- 
case' (Ddtbsb, Memoir* of a Traveller now 
in Retirement, 1808, iv. 183). 

Bute twioe voted against the government 
on the American question in Febmaiy 1766 
(see Bitt. MSS. Comm. 9th Hep. App. iii. 
p. 23). On 17 March following he both 
spoke and voted agwnst the third reading of 
the bill for the repeal of the Stamp Act, 
' entirely frora the private conviction ne had 
of its veiT had and dangerous couMquences 
both to this country and our oolonvs' (CaW- 
vxU Paper*, Maitland Club, 1854,' vol. ii. pt. 
ii. p, 82). He was re-elected a Scottish 
representative peer in May 1768, and in 
the same year visited Bareges for the sake 
of his health. He subsequently went to 
Italy, where ha remained ibr more than a 
year travelling inc(»aito under the name of 
Sir John Stuart. He frequently complained 
of the malevolent attacks made on his cha- 
racter by his political opponents, and of the 
neglect and ingratitude of the king. ' Few 
men,' he writes to Home, 'have ever suffered 
more in the short space I have gone through 
of political warfare ( Work* qf John Sotne, 
ed. Henry Mackeneie, 1822, i._ 151). The 
death of the princess dowager in February 
1772 left him ' without a single friend nev 
the ronl person,' and ' I have taken,* he telis 
Lord Holland, ' the only part suited to my 
way of thinking — that of retiriM from the 
world before it retiree from me ' (Tre vblias, 
Earlp Life of C. J. Fox, 1881, p. 277). 
Early in 1776 his friend, Sir James Wright, 
and Dr. Addingtou, Chatham's physician, 
ennged in a fatUe attempt to bring about a 

Kutical alliance between Bute and Chat- 
in. Bute took the opportunity of un< 
equivocally denying his secret influence with 
the king, and declared that tie had no wish 
or inchnation to take any part in public 
affairs (Qaarterla Jieriew, l)tvi. 26r)-e). 
Though his attendance had 'not b«cn very 
oonMant ' in the bouts, Bute was again re- 


'a dowager Snt lord of tha treasury has ft 
claim to this distinction, and we do not now 
wont a coup d'itat to persuade the most ordi- 
nary newspaper politician that Lord Buta ia 
nothing more ' rHiet. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. 
App. p, 209). Bute retired from parliament 
at the dissolution in September 1780 on the 
ground of bis advanced age (iii. lOthRep. App. 
vi. p. 88). He spent most of his time during 
the last six or seven years of his life at his 
marine villa at Christ Church inHampshire. 
He died at his house in South Audley Street, 
Oioerenor Square, London, on 10 March. 
1793, aged 78, and was buried at Bothesay 
in the island of Bute. 

Bute's widow, who was bom at Pera in 
February 17 16, and succeeded on her father's 
death, in February 1761, to his extensive 
estates in Yorkshire and Cornwall, died at 
Isleworth in Middlesex on 6 Nov. 1794, agad 
76. Bute had a family of five sons and six 
daughters: (l>John, viscountMountStuart, 
born on 30 June 1744, who was created 
Baron Cardiff in the peerage of Oreat Britain 
on 20 May 1766. He succeeded to the earl- 
dom of Bute on the death of his father, and 
on the death of his mother to the barony of 
Mount Stuart. He was further advanced 
to the viscounty of Mountjoy, the earldom 
of Windsor, and the marquisate of the 
county of Bute on 21 March 1796. He 
held the post of envoy to Turin from 1779 
to 1783, was ambassador to Spain in 17S3, 
and died at Geneva on 16 Nov. 1814, leaving 
a large family, of whom Lord Dudley Coutts 
Stuart is separately noticed. (2) James Archi- 
bald (1747-1818), father of James Archi- 
bald Stuart-Wortley-Mackentie, first baron 
Whamcliffe [q. v.] (3) Frederick, bom in 
September l7ol, M.P. for Buteshire, who 
died on 17 May 1802. (4) Sir Charles Stuart 
(175a-1801) [q. v.] (5) William Stu»rt 
(1765-1822) [q. v.], archbishop of Armagh. 
(6) Mary, who became the wife of James 
Lowther, earl of Lonsdale [q. v.] (7) Jane, 
who became the wife of Gleorge Maturtney, 
earl Macartney [q. v.] (8) Anne, who became 
the wife of Hngh Percy, second duke of 
Northumberland [q-".] (9) Augusta, wha 
married Captain Andrew Corbett of the 
horse guards, and died on 6 Feb, 1776. 
(10) Caroline, who married, on 1 Jan. 1778, 
the Hon. John Dawson, afterwards first earl 
ofPortarlington. (11) Louisa, the authoress 

and Works of Lady Mary Wortlay Mont- 
a«ru ' (1837), who died unmarried in August 
1851, aged 94. 



Bote iTAfl ft proud but well-inMntioaed 
bdUmmo, 'with ft handiome person and 
DCDfOBi mftiuifln. He powessed soma talent 
Ik mtrigoa, bat his ftbilitiea ware meagre, 
udbu £spositioa irresolute. Though ad- 
Minhlj qiiftlified to manage thepettjdet&ils 
«( a btUa court, he was utterly unfit to 
dinct lite destiiiies of a great nation. He 
had no knowledge of public busineaa, no 

X'enca of pftrliamentarf debate, no skill 
in the manftgement of men or in the 
adminittrfttioQ of sBairs. Hewasboth'ra^h 
and timid, accustomed to ask advice of 
difeent penons, bnt had not eeoBe and 
tfatj to distinguish and digest, with a 
fRpKnal ftppreh^sion of being governed, 
vfaiA mftda htm, when he followed anj 
adriee, ilwft^ add something of his own in 
point of matter or manner, which sometimes 
took aw« J the UtCls good which was in it, 
ta changed the whole nature of it ' (Fiiz- 
TU-VKCM, L(feqf William, Earl of Shelimme, 
L 140). It is true that he succeeded in ob- 
taining peace, and in partially breaking up 
the vEig oligarchy, two objects upon mucti 
thft king had set his heart, but ue wanted 
^ Mtuftga and obstinacy which George 
IBWcwsi and demanded in others. Few 
■EBiiten hare ever been more unpopular in 
dui cmmtiy. He was incessantly mobbed, 
UnpooDad, and caricatared. He could not 
sffMT nnatt^ided or andis^ised in the 
stiMla without running considerable risks. 
The 'ScHth Briton,' Trtiieh was set up by 
Witkas in opposition to the ministerial or- 

Stlia ' Briton,' occupied itself with ahostng 
sad vrerjthing connected with him. A 
iadboot and ft petticoat, the popular em- 
UiBS of 6nt« and the princess, were fre- 
ijMiaflj burnt by ezdted mobs, and his house 
wia always the o^ect of attack whenever 
ihiiiii was a riot. The details of his admini- 
■latMB are peculiarly disgracefnl, and for 
consption and Bnancial incapacity it is not 
likely to be surpassed. Two chaives of bad 
ttA ««n bmnght against Bute during the 
■yitiatimis for peace. In January 1762 
•east t n tr tuni a were made by him to Maria 
ncnsairithoat tbe knowledge of Frederick. 
1% was aOegnd that in order to induce Austria 
to coDMBt to an early peace, But« held out 
Wifei (bat England wonld endeavour to 
muB far Asstria tarrttorinl compensation 
finD^WMa, and that with a like view after 
the anina's death he had nrged apon Prince 
*^''**Ti the neceauty of Russia remuning 
faa U) tbs AiHtrian alliance. Both these 
ihiijti vere folly beliered by Frederick, 
Wt wm poBtirriy ftwortwi^ Bute to be 
wbu (Lsoxr, SUtory tif S«fland, 1882, 



Bute was by no means without polite 
aceomptishments. He had a taste fbr lite- 
rature and the fine arts, was passionately 
fond of botany, and possessed a superfiual 
knowledge ot various kinds of learning. 
Though naught? and silent in society, ha 
was amiable and courteous when among bis 
friends. ' His knowledge,' says M. Duteus, 
' was 80 extensive, and consequently his con- 
versntion so varied, that one thought one's 
self in the company of several persons, with 
the advantage of being sore of an even tem- 
per, in a man whose goodness, politeness, 
and attention were never wanting towards 
those who lived with him ' (Memoirt of a 
Traveller now in Betirement, iv. 178). As 
a patron of literature he rarely extended 
his aid to writers outside of his party, and 
was somewhat inclined to show an undue 
partiality to Scotsmen. To him, however, 
Johnson owed his pension of SOW. a year. 
Through his instrumentality Sir James 
Bteuart-Denhom [q. v.], the jacobite poli- 
tical economist, obtained his pardon. By 
him John Shefabeare was pensioned to defend 
the peace, vhile Dr. Francis, Murphy, Mallet, 
and others were employed in the same cause. 

Bute was appointed ranger of Kichmond 
Park in June 1761 ; a governor of the 
Charterhouse and chanceUor of Marischat 

and president of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland in December 1780. He was also 
of Chelsea Hospital and a 

honorary fellow of the E oya l College of 
Physicians at Edinburgh. When Bute was 
appointed prime minister he was obliged to 
hold his public levees at tbe Cockpit, as his 
town-house was too small for official recep- 
tions. In 176S he purchased an estate at 
Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire, where Hobert 
Adam [q. v.] built him a palatial residence. 
There he formed a magnificent library, a 
superb collection of astronomical, phUo- 
sophical, and mathematical instruments, and 
a gallery of Dutch and Flemish paintings 
(see Autobiography and Corretpcndenet of 
Mri. Delam/, 2nd ser. i. 542, ii. 83-6, 317). 
Since then two fires have unfortunately 
occurred at Luton Hoo: one in 1771, when 
the library, including that purchased from 
the Duke of Argyll, perished ; the other in 
1348, when tbe house was destroyed, but tbe 
greater part of tbe pictures and books were 
saved. Bate also formed a botanic garden 

, bseai ■' 

bis valuable collection a 
church (Ltbobb, Mag. Brit i. 109). Lans- 
downe House, on the south side of Berkeley 
Square, London, was built by the brothers 


Stuart 9 

Adam between 176S and 1767 for Bute, who, 
boweTei', sold it before completion to Shel- 
bume for 22,000^. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds pkiotod portraits of 
Buta in J763 and 1773, and of Lsdy Bute 
in 1777 and 1779 (LBBttE and Tailob, JAfe 
and Tima of Sir Joahua Seunoidt, 1866, 
i. 221, ii, 203, 279, 281). The later portrait 
of Bute, which has been leproduced as a 
frontiapiece to the second Toliime of Wal- 
pole's 'HiatoiT of the Bergn of Qeorg^ III ' 
rsd. Barker, 1894), ia in the possession of 
the Earl of Whamcliffe at Wortley. There 
are engraTtngfi of Bate by Watson, Graham, 
and Byland, after Ramsay (see Mat. MSS. 
Comm. 10th Eep. pt. i. p. 380). 

Bute purchaBed for ois own litvarr 'the 
'Thomason collection ' of pamphlets published 
during tbe Commonwealth rsee Thouason, 
Okobsb], bat he subse^ nentl; sold it to the 
king, who presented thia valuable collection, 
now better known aa the ' King's Tracte,' to 
the British Mnseum in 1 763 (AnnvalJie^ta; 
176S,s.ll: ^wisnt, Ziva Iff Oe Founders 
^theBrittthMumum, 1870, pt. i. pp. SSO-S}. 
Bnte^s collection of prints, a part of his 
library, and daplioates of bis natural history 
'Oollectioii were eoid after his death (see 
oBtatoguee of aalee preserved ia tbe British 
Maaeum, press mark 1266, c. 16. 1-S). Tbe 
Pnblic Keoord Office and the British Museum 
poEseM a number of Bute's despatches and 
letters, and many of the latter are contained 
in -tbe Lsnsdowne and otber 

as, calandared in the reports of the 
historical manuscTipts commiaaion (cf. 3rd, 
91^, 10th, tSth, and I3th Reps. App.) A 
few numuscrtpte chiefly relating to botanical 
subjects, apparently in Bute's handwriting, 
Are in the poBseseion of the present Marquis 
of Bute (aiat. MSS. Comm. Srd Rep.) p. 
S06, see also p. 202). In or about 1785 
Bute, at tbe cost of some 12,000^., privatelj 
•engraved twelve copies of ' Botanical Tables, 
containing the diSereot Familys of British 
Plants, dwtinguiah'd by a few obvious Parts 
of Fructi&oation rang'd in a Synoptical 
Method,' &c, (I^ndon, 4to, 9 Tola.) A col- 
leation of the coatenta of this rare work is 
given in Drj^ander's * Catalogue ' (iii. ISS-S), 
while the original disposition of the twelve 
'OOpies is duly noted in tbe copy in tbe 
Banksian Library at the British Museum. 
Another privatdy printed work, called ' The 
Tabular Distribution of British Flants'(1787), 
in two parts — the first containing the genera, 

the aeoond tbe " '' "' 

huted to (Bute. 

[Authoritira quoted in the ttst; Lord Alb«- 
waiU'i Uamoin of tfaeMantnis of Bookin^am, 
JUl, tdL i.i Dodi^toa'i mazj, 178*; Wat- 

J Stuarl 

ele'a Letters, lSfi7-ei Tbs Eiitorr of thsLUe 
ieority, 1706; Burke's Woiis (1816), Tal.ii.; 
Boawell's Ufeof SsmnelJohnsan, 1887 ; Diaries 
and CorrecpoiidBnce of lbs Kt, Eon. George Btiaa, 
18S0, ii. 188-92; Memoirs of Eicbard Ouib- 
berisud, 1807, i. 206, 211-11; Extracts from the 
Correspondonoe of Kiebard RicbardBon, 183fl. pp. 
40S-7 ; Lord Mahon's Hist, of England, 1868, 
vols.iv-vi, ; Masaey's Hist, of Engknd, I85S, 
vol, i. ; Jasee's Memoirs of tbe Life and Beiga 
of George III, 1867; Earle's EngliBh Premie™, 
1871, i. 166-84 ; Georgian Era, 1S32, f. 807-9; 
Cunmngham aitd Wbentlpy'e Loedon Past and 
Frwenc, ISei, i. It, BO, 16S, 438 ; Oalendarof 
State Papers, Ham* Office, IT60--6, 173S-0, 
1770-2 i Colbus's Peerage of Eeglaitd, 1812, ii. 
675-9 ; DongWs Pestags of Sootland, 1818, i. 
2St-e0i G-. KOrokaTneJ'sGompleteFeerag^ii. 
91-2, V. 406-10 ;Foster'BPe«rage, 1SS3, p. 107 ; 
Poster's Members of Farliameut, ScolJADd. 1382, 
pp. 322, 324, 32a, S27, 328; Gent. Mag. 173S 
p. 487, 1748 p. 147, 1760 p. 477, 1783 p. 487, 
1792 1. 284-6, 1794 ii. 1061,1099, 1861 li. 324 ; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. fii. 181, Stb aer. 
I. 89, 176, 7tb Bor, iz. 230; Martin's Bibliogr. 
Cat of Privately Printed Books, 18B*, pp. 96-8 ; 
Haydn's Book of Dtgoitiea, 1890.] <3. F. B. "B, 

STUART. Slb JOHN (1759-181fi>. 
lieutenant-general, count of Maidn, colonal 
of the 20tb foot, son of Colonel Jobn Stuart, 
was bom in 0«orgia, Nofth Amerioa, in 

Stuart's father, John SruaBX (1700P- 
1779, was bom about 1700. He went to 
America in 1733 with General Joraes E. 
Oglethorpe, and was in Fort Loudoun dnriag- 
the Frenob war when it was inrasted by tiie 
Cherokee Indians. He made terms with 

have free passage to Virginia, treacberously 
massatxed them on the way ; but Stuart, wbo 
was popular with tbe Indians, was saved. 
In 176>) be was appointed gwiQral agent oad. 
superintendent of Indian afikirs for the 
southern department. He bad a deputy with 
each tribe, and exerted great influence over the 
eouthem Indians. He took a prominent part 
on the royalist side in tbe war of ind«pen- 
dence, and, returning to England, diea in 
1779. His property in America was oonfia- 
oated by tjbe American government in 1782. 
Edui^ted at Weetmmster school, yaaag 
Stuart obtained a commission as ensign in 
the 3rd foot guards on 7 Aug, 1776, «nd 
joining the battabon, then serving in the 
«rmy imder Sir Hoory Clinton at New York, 
took port in the opeiatioaB egainet the eolo- 
niets in the war m American independence. 
He was present at the siege and oaptors of 
Charleston on 6 iSig 1780, and remained id 
South Carolina witn the force imder Liord 





CoTDvtlli*. Se took part in tli8 battle of 
Ctm<i«ii on 16 Aug. and in the match into 
2{DRii Carol ma in Eeptembei and return in 
OcRiber. He was at the battle of Quildford 
<n IG March 1781, and at the surrender of 
tk laay at Yorktown on 18 Oct. following. 
He iT4a aevarelj wounded during the cam- 
piiru. He was promoted to be Ueutenant 
u th« Srd foot euards and captain in the 
MOT to 6 Nov. 1782. 

After ten jears of boine aerrice, lie went, 
on tiie outbreaJt of the war witji France, 
wok hi* regiment to Flanders, landing with 
tie tnxfia under the Duke of Tork at Hel- 
TuUlofB on 6 March 1793. On 25 April 
it wu promoted to be captain in the 8rd 
bot guuda and lieutenant-colonel in the 
umj. He was present at the battle of 
FtMtit on 23 May, at the inv eBtment and 
mp of Valencieiuiea, which capitulated on 
ttJidj.and at the operations on the line 
•f the Scheldt in A.ugast. He took part 
ID tkehrilliant action ntLinCAUes on ISAug,, 
VH pmMnt at the sieg« of Dunldrk, at the 
aetioMaf 6 and 8 Sept., and at the attack 
aa IiaimoT on SS Oct. He went with his 
baUalkn into -winter qnarters st Ghent in 
Sonmber. In 1794 he commanded his bat- 
talion at the aiege o( X.andrec^, which feU 
«n 90 Aroil, at the battle of Toumay or 
P<3Bt4.Chin on 23 May, at the retreat be- 
Uad the D;^ le on 6 Jiuyt ^°^ ^ Nimeguen 
4B e OeL, aTacaating it on 7 Nor. He served 
with Duulaa when the French were driven 
•aom the Waal on SO Dec. He was with 
the larj in ita painful retreat aoroes the 
Walowe waste, and in its embarkation at 
TlliMiin and retnzn to England in April 

SttuRt was promoted to be brevet colonel 
an 3 ICaj 1796. He was appointed to a 
■"—mand on 30 Nov. aa brigadier-general in 
tlM fame under General the Hon. Oharles 
Stnart in Portugal. He raised the queen's 
Oaman ncnaent in 1798, and was appointed 
Botntd of It OB 26 Dec This regiment was 
mwtAmti on 6 Jane 1808 the 97th foot, 
a^ WW diahanded hi 181S. He went on 
tte sqedition to Uinoiea, and tocdi part 
is in taptnie on 15 Nor. 1799, havine 
beeafuetted on 10 NaT. alirigftdieii-genenS 
n tie foice for Minorca. 

fnm HbiOTca Stuart wwit to Egyiit in 
1809 u bngadier-gMMnl, imdar Sir Ka^b 
Ah«Rnal^, Ha eommanded the foreign 
bn^Bda M the battle of 21 Utaxh on the 
Tliiaiif Wuiiiiiliia, and at a oritical moment 
»wglii op hia brigade to the assktaaoe of 
i^ will I II Staart'a action ma deidared, 
m itMnl orden <^ 33 Maroh, to have been 
' [to hara] 

entirely confirmed the fbrtunste issne of thst 
brilliant day.' At the close of the Egyptian 
campaign Stuart proceeded on a political mis- 
sion to Constantinople, and thence returned 
to Egypt to take command of the British 
troops at Alexandria. He received knight- 
hood of the order of the Crescent from the 
Sultan of Turkey ; he was promoted to be 
maior^eneral on 29 April 1802, and returned 
to Ensiand the same year. 

On 17 Oct. 1603 Stuart was appointed to 
command a brigade of the force maaaed on 
the east coast of Kent in readiness to repel 
the threatened French invasion ; he held the 
command until 24 March 1806, when he 
accompanied Lieutenant-^neral Sir Jamea 
Craig, who bad been appointed to the com- 
mand of the British military forces in the 
Mediterranean, He arrived on 13 May at 
Qibrsltar, where a protracted stay was made, 
and reached Malta on 18 July. On 3 Nov. 
he sailed with Craig's army from Malta to 
co-operate with the Russians under Gener^ 
I Lascy from Corfu for the protection and 
I assistance of the kingdom of Naples. The 
I British disembarked on 21 Nov. at Castella- 
j mare in the bay of Naples, and, wilh the 
Eussians, were distribnt«d across Italy from 
Feacara to Gaeta. The battle of Aueteriitc 
caused the Russian emperor in January 1806 
to direct Lascy at once to seek safety by 
embarkinif his force and returning to the 
Ionian Isunds. The Britidi fallowed suit, 
retired to Caetellainare, embarked on 14 Jan., 
and entered Messina harbour on the 23nd. 
The French, under Marshal Mass^na and 
General Rejnier, crossed the frontier on 
9 Feb., and oocnpied the kingdom of Na|dei, 
except the fortress of Qaeta, which was 
held for King Ferdinand by the Prince of 
Heesfr-PhiltprthaL andwasat first blockaded 
and then beaiu^ by Massfina. The king 
and qneen fled from N^les to FaleiBio. 
Stuart landed with the British troops at 
Messina on 17 Feb. By 24 March the iWob 
posts snd [ncqueta lined the straits of Mes- 
sina ott the Calabrian coast. In April, on 
account of ill-bealtb,'OTaig resigned his oom- 
mand, and Stuart sMDe^ed to it as next 
senior. t 

During May and /una Stuart ascertained 
that the French In the south of Ctaiabem 
WCM weak in numburs and exposed in por- 
tion, while the main Brmr itndei Hasstea 
was still occupied with Gasta. He there- 
fore decided to strike a saddcH Uow at 
R^nier's army. The decistcHi was k^ a 
pnrtbund secret. Stuart's arasy was con- 
centrated in or Bsar Uesaina, and was eaailv 
embarked in transports already prepared. 
UadK ctmvoy Staait proceeded en SO June 


Stuart It 

to ib« hay of St. Ilafemia with his main 
force, Beading the SOth regiment under 
Colonel Robert Roai [q. v.] to make a diver- 
sion hy threateaing Regeio and Scylla. 
Stuart disembarked, with alight opposLtion, 
on 1 July, and, in spite of & heavy surf, 
landed his guns sad stores by the 3ra, On 
the 4th he marched to attack Ra^er, who, 
with a superior toice, had occupied a posi- 
tion below S. Pietro di Maids, a few miles 
away. During a critiral part of the battle 
Boas, with the 20th i«giment, arrived from 
Itef^o, and Stuart gained a. decisive victory. 
Unfortunately Stuart (whose entire force 
amounted to no more tl^ 4,800 men) had 
DO cavalry with which to follow up his vic- 
tory, or Keynier's army might have been 
completely destroyed. WhSe the action 
was in progress Sir Sidney Smith arrived in 
his flagship. Stuart slept on board it that 
night, but neither he nor Sir Sidney Smith 
had the genius to grasp the possibilities of 
the situation, and to concert measures for a 
prompt move on Qaeta by land and sea to 
raise the si^. Stuart had intended only 
-to strike a blow at the French in southern 
■Calabria ; he had done it ably and success- 
iully, and he was content. Before return- 
:ing to Sicily he undertook the u^^ of 
■Scylla Castle. Operations were commenced 
on 12 July under the direction of Captain 
-Charles Lefebure, commanding royal engi- 
neer, and continued until 23 July, when tne 
,^ace capitulat«d. Stuart arranged for the 
repairs of the castle, and for its occupa- 
vtion by a British garrison, Having destroyed 
mother fortified posts, he returned with his ei- 

Sdition to Messina at the end of July, The 
citish minister at Palermo informed the 
government of the high seme entertained 
By the Palermo court of Stuart's merits. 
for his brilliant operations he received the 
thanks of both houses of parliament and a 
• pension ofljOOO/.ayear for life; he was made 
a knight of the Bath, created by the king of 
the two Sicilies Count of Maido, and be re~ 
.ceived the freedom of the city of London 
and a sword of honour. He wsa further ap- 
«oinbad colonel of the 74th foot on 8 Sept. 
1806. » 

On Stuart's arrival at Mesuna he found 
4hera General Fox, sent by the whig govam- 
ment totake thecommandof the land forces 
in the Mediterranean, and he learnt that large 
-reinforcements were on their way from 
England under Lieutenant-general air John 
Moore (1761-180m [q. v.], who was to be 
-second in command. Stnut quit« expected 
An ofBoer senior to himself to be sent to taice 
the command in succession to Craig, and he 
vould have bwn well content to serve as 


second to General Fox ; but to be relegated 
to a third place was distasteful to him, and 
soon after Moore's arrival he obtained leave 
to return home, arriving in England on 
24 Nov. 180fl. 

On 29 Sept. 1807 Stuart was again sent 
to the Meaiterranean as a major-general, 
and on 11 Feb. 1808 he was appointed to 
the chief command of the land forces in the 
Mediterranean, with the local rank of lieu- 
tenant-general. He waa, however, pro- 
moted to be a lieutenant-general on the 
establishment on 2S April, and shortly after 
that dat« he proceeded to Itlessina. In 
the early part of October 1808 he received 
intelligence from Colonel (afterwards SirJ 
Hudson Lowe [q. v.], commandant at Gapn, 
of Murat's attack on the island, and on 
n^nt application for assistance. Stuart at 
once sent off reinforcements without WBit>- 
ing for a convoy, but, meeting with a gale, 
they did not reach Capri untill? Oct., a teyr 
hours after Hudson Lowe had been obliged 
to capitulate. 

In 1809 Stuart, in conjunction with Col- 
lingwood, decided on an expedition to the 
bay of Naples. He sailed on 11 June 
with upwards of eleven thousand men, con- 
voyed hy the fleet. At the same time he 
sent a force to attack the castle of Scvlla to 
make a diversion, and for the better safety of 
Messina during his absence. This diver- 
sion was nnsucceesfiil, and the siege waa 
abandoned. In the meantime Stuart, de- 
layed by calms, did not arrive in the hay of 
Naples until 24 June. The following day 
he disembarked his troops on the island ot 
Ischia, and, with the exception of the castle, 
carried it by assault. Procida was then siun- 
moned and surrendered. The following day 
twenty-four of Murat's gunboats were cap- 
tured and five destroyed. The castle of 
Ischia was then besieged, and surrendered 
on 30 June. 

Collingwood having represented to Stnart 
that there was fresh activity at Toulon, 
where the French had a large fleet, and that 
the British ships and transports were not 
secure at the Ischia anchorage against the 
sudden attack of the superior fleet, Stuart 
re-embarked and returned with his army to 

Stuart's despatches to Lord Liverpool at 
this time showed gr»ve mistrust of the in- 
tentions of the court of Palermo and of the 
Sicilian troops. Murat was making con- 
siderable preparations for the invasion of 
Sicily, and Stuart pointed out to Lord 
Liverpool the inefficiency of the Sicilian 
army, militia, and marine. Some twenty- 
fire Uiousand French troops were massed at 


Stuart I 

Ae extremity of Lower Calabria, and more 
were behind them, white in the moDth of 
Juin 1310 BtuBit had leas than fourleen 
tboonadmen. NotwithBtandingthia trying 
itoU of kfikire, Stuart wsa directed to «ettd 
mj ioar b«ttftIiona of hia force to Oibraltar, 
K> MHB ka a smaller nomber of sicklj' soldiera 
Mnned from thewcpeditionatothe Scheldt 
ikmld amva bom England. Stuart rsmon- 
tfiiUd,and apoD T«it«nttedinftTuctioiisfroin 
lad Idverpool poaitival; declined to aend 
tk(B nslMa it wars nndeiatood that he could 
aotMd lumaalf rasponaible if hia force were 

Stuart's angineen in the meantime were 
Mt idle. A chain of heavy batteries con- 
Dtcted tbe Faro Point with the fortress of 
Mraniiia, and these were supported hj forti- 
icd mats and boiiscks, wnue a flotilla of 
Mam one hundred boats lay clustered round 
tiw Faro, ready to attack the enemy's tnuu- 
pcct boats wheneTer they should cross the 
atnita; and hardly a day passed without 
a ^Jmrsh more or less brisu between the 
"ff~~g flotillas. On the night of 17 Sept. 
ox baUalionfl of Corsicans and Neapolitaoe 
gowi,i the straits and landed seyen milea to 
the tooth of Messina, iutendinjr to gain 
the noontain ridge in the Bntish rear, 
Stoait at once deniatched troops to meet 
iham, and secured the mountainpstha. The 
nmj w«ca repulsed, a whole battalion 
c^tuvd, sad the rest driven to their hoats 
wnli psat loss. When the day broke the 
TnaA diriHODs were scan embarking on 
die offssite ahem, but, on finding that the 
dinnHa had failed, they disembarked. 

In the following montik Murst began 
■nistly to withdraw his troops from Lorrer 
Calabtia. Stuart, nnaware of this move- 
BsnC, TccapiitDlated in October in a despatch 
to Lord Liverpool his suspicions of the 
Mart of Palermo and the dangers of the 
■toatjoa to the British. He declared that 
ander the existing drcumstancea he could 
M« eoatioDe to be responsible, and resigned 
his MBmiand, His resignation was ac- 
ca|itad, sad he left Ifessina for England at 
tha end of October. He received &om the 
o(M3t gfhlermo the order of kni^thood of 
Sto Genaro. 

Scaatt was appointed lieutenant- governor 
tfOnaadsiDlSlL On 10 June 1813 he was 
wpJMsd to the command of the western 
mliutj district, with his headquarters at 
r i yinuMA . ^ia command he resigned on 
StJnae 1814,DWing to ill-health. On S Jan. 
UlS ba was mikde a military knight grand 
<HH of the Older of the Bath on its extan- 
iH sad reviaion. Be died at Clifton oq 
i A|nl ISlfi, and waa buried under the south 

•I Stuart 

choir aisle of Bristol Cathedral on \S Apiil. 
A small diamond-shaped marble slab let mto 
the floor marks the spot. A portrait was 
painted by W. Wood, and engraved by Free- 
man in octavo and quarto sixes. 

[Wsr Office Records; Despatchea; Anonal 
Beaister, ISOS-IS; OenCMag. 1800-16; Apple- 
tons CyelopMdia of Amerieaii Biography; Bnn- 
bniy'g Narrative of Paasages in the Great War 
with Franca from I7S9 to ISIO (bat Banbury's 
estiniHte of SCuait is prnjodiced by a strong 
antagonistic bias) ; Cannon's Historical Eocorda 
of the 20th Foot, also of the 74th Foot ; Evajn'a 
Cat. of Engrared Portraits, vol. ii.j Carmichasl 
Smyth's Chronulogioal Epitome of the Wars in 
the Low Conntriea ; Jones's Sieges in Sp^n, &c.; 
Stedmsn's American War of Independence ; Ali- 
son's HisL of Europe; Cuat's Annala of the Wars 
of the Eighteenth Cantor;; Lord Teignmonth's 
HeminieceDces, ii. 274 ; Orant's Adventures of an 
AJde-de-Cnmp contaiDS a spiritad accoant of tha 
batile of ]Uaida and the opsrations that followed.] 
B H. V. 

STUART, JOHN (1743-1821), OaeUo 
scholar, aon of James Stuart, minist«r of 
Killin. and Elisabeth Drummond, was bom 
at Killin in 1743. He was licensed by the 
presbytery of Edinburgh on 27 Feb. 1771, 
was presented to the hving of Arrochar by 
Sir James Colquhoun in Ctetober 1773, and 
was ordaiuad on 12 May 1774. He was 
translated to Weem on 20 March 1776, and 
to Luas on 1 July 1777. He received the 
degree of DJ>. from Glasgow University in 

Stuart was an expert Gaelic scholar. His 
father had already translated the New Tes- 
tament into Gaelic, and at the time of his 
death had befiun a translation of the Old 
Testament. This work was continued by 
his son, and the complete translation was 
published at Edinburgh in 1767, under the 

lished in Loodon m 1807. For his valuable 
services as translator ha received &om the 
lords of the treasury 1,000/. in 1820, and the 
thanks of the general assembly were conveyed 
to him from the chair on 28 May 1619. He 
was also a devoted student of natural history 
and botany. He died at Loss on 24 May 

Br. Stuart married, 24 July 1792, Susan, 
daughtor of Rev. Dr. Mclntyre, Glenorehy. 
She died on 7 July 1846, leaving a son, 
Joseph, minister of Kiogartb, and a daugh- 

Besides bis Gaelic translation of the Scrip- 
tures, Dr. Stuart was the author of ' The Ac- 
count of the Parish of Luas ' in vol. xvii. of 
Sinclair's ' Statistical Account of Scotland.* 



i- 94.]. 

STUART, JOHN (1813-1877), Scottish 
frenealogiBt, was bom in Norember I81S at 
Forgue, Aberdeenahire, vLero his f&ther had 
a small iarm. He -was educated at Aberdeen 
Univeraity, and ia 1836 became a member of 
the Aberdeen Society of AdTocatea. In 1853 
he was ap]>ointed one of the official searchera 
of records in the Eegister House, Edinbuieb, 
and in 1878 became principal keeper of Mie 
register of deeds. In 1854 be was appointed 
secretary of the Society of SeottiA Anti- 
qoariea, and from that time he became the 
f^uiding spirit of the agsociation. In 1839, 
along with Jose^ Robertson (1810-1866) 
[q. vH^and Coamo Innes [q, r.l, he set on foot 
the ' Spalding Club,' of which he acted as se- 
cretary till the close of its operations in 1870, 
Of the thirty-eight quarto volumes iasued 
by the club, fourteen were produced under 
Stuart's editorship. Prominent among these 
were the two large folios on ' The Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland,' published in 1656 and 
1867, and r^arded % antiquarians as one 
of their moat important bocuB of reference. 
Another of the Spalding volumes is ' The 
Book of Deer,' pubUshed in 1869, a repro- 
duction by Stuart of a manuscript copy of 
the Gospels which belonged to the abbey of 
Deer — of great historical and linguistic 
value, especially with regard to the C^tic 
history of Scotland. Among the other ' 
worka which Stuart prepared for publication 
by the Spalding Olub were the three volumes 
of 'MiscelliuiieB'published in 1841,1843, and 
1849 J ' Ertracts from the Presbytery Book 
of Strathbogie, 1631-^,' published in 1843 ; 
' Extracts fifom the Council Begister of Aber- 
deen, 1898-1626/ 2 vols., issued in 1844-9; 
' Memorialls of the Trublea in Scotland and 
England from 1624 to 1646,' printed in 1850- 
1861 ; and ' Notices of the Spalding Club,' 
prepared in 1871 as a record of its labours. 
At the final meeting, on 23 Dec. 1870, Stuut 
was presented by tde clnb with a piece of 
plate and his portrait, the woric of Mr. 
Sir) George Reid. 

Stuart contributod largely to th« ' Trans- , 
actions of the Socie^ of Antiquariee of 
Scotland* (of which he was principal secre- j 
tary), especially on the subject of^ Scottish 


there remains the 'Rostrum de l' 
two quarto volumes, printed by the Earl of 
Dalhouaie in 1874. At the instance of ths 
historical records commisnon he examined 
the charter chests of the Scottish nobility 
and furnished reportB. Among the reconis 
at Ounrobin Casue he discovered the original 
dispensation for the marriage of Botbwell 
and Lady Jane Gordon. This find gave Stuart 
the ojmortunity of diecussing, as he did in 
his TohmiB, 'A Lost Chapter in the Histary 
of Hary Queen of Scots ' (Edinbuigh, 1874), 
the law and practice of Scotland relating to 
marriage dispensations is Bonuui oatbolio 

For the Burgh Records SooietT Stuart 
edited two Tolumea of 'Extraota &om the 
Burgh Records of Aberdeen, 1626-1747,' 
and he also edited an edition of ' Arclueo- 
logical Essays of the late Sir J. Y. Simpson,' 
1872. In 1866 the university of Aberdeen 
conferred on HItti the degree of LL.D. He 
was elected an honorary member of the 
Archeological Institute and of the Souety 
of Antiquaries of Zurich and the Assembleft 
di Storia Fatria in Palermo. 

He died at Ambleside on 19 Jol^ 1677. 
He was twice married, and was snmvad by 
his second wife and two dauf^teis of th« 
first marriage. 

Stuart's love of study lay for the most 
part within a limited Tsnge. In (ike more 
^neral bearings of arclueology ho took little 
,n»«~,=» K,,. ;„ tj,g deeiph^mg of records 


1 on the historf of tfie'crofiar of St. i 
Fillan, and an account of the priory of 
Restennet, near Forfar. For the society he 
«dited two volumes of ancient cbartularies, 
entitled ' Records of the late of May,' 1868, 
and ' Records of the Monastery of Kinloss,' 

edited for the Spalding Club: 1. 'Abrieffe 
narration of the services done to three nobis 
ladyes, by Gilbert Blakhal,' 1844. 2. 'Selec- 
tions from the Records of the Kirk Session, 
Presbytery, and Synod of Aberdeen from 
1562 to 1681,' 1846. He also wrote a ' Ma- 
moir of the late A. H, Bhind of Sibster,* 
Edinburgh, 1864, Svo. 

[Obituary notice in the Sootsman, 31 July 
1877; Irving'i EminsnC Scotsmen; ProMedings 
of the Society of Antiqnanea of Scotland, xii. 
363.4 (with portrait reproduced botn Notices of 
the Spalding Club).] Q. S-h. 

SMYTH (1746-1814), American loyalist, 
bom in 1746, claimed descent through both. 
parents from the Duke of Monmouth. Ac- 
cording to his own doubtful statement, his 
father, Wentworth Smyth, was son of the 
Duke of Monmouth bv Lady Henrietta 
Maria,gnuiddaughter of I'hom as Wentworth, 
earl ofCleTeland, and daughter of Thomas, 
lord Wentworth. She died eight mraitfas 
after Monmouth's exacutiou, wd hai mh* 


Stuart I 

DM Mid to liMiTe been, adopted bj Colonel 
SiDvth, an aide-d»-cainp of Moiunouth, 
wko mtde him hia heir. Wentworth Smyth 
jotDfd in the Tiainga of 1716 and 1745, and 
WIS kiHed in the htgblondB at some later 
it:e. At the Bffe of aix^-sii he is reputed 
to baT« mATiied Maria Julia Dolziel, a girl 
rf fiftrtn. She waa represented to be grand- 
iuiehter of Gencr^ Jamas Crofts, natural 
■m of the Duke of Moomoath, bv Eleanor, 
Jiimhtw of Sir Robert Naedham of Lftinbeth. 
b L* Tagaely stated that shepredecetsed her 
kmband, dying three jeaia after her mar- 

Ihe Tvmited aon, John Ferdisaad Smjth, 
«h> in 1793 adopted the nune of Stuart, 
Ksdied nedicine at Edinbnigh UniTereitv. 
He then emifrntted to America, and, settling 
■eu Williamsburg' in Virginia, practised as a 
ioctoc in the district. When Che rebellion 
koke out Smyth found himself the only 
loralirt in the neif;hbauihood, and on 16 Oct. 
1775 he was ccaapelled to abandon his home. 
Ha Krred in several regiments inch the rank 
of aptain, distinguishing himself, according 
to Ka own sooouut, by his leal and activity. 
Be showed equal capacity in the most dtf- 
fovnt sitnstions. At one time ha raised a 
fecial company of picked men for frontier 
work, and at another commanded an armed 
sloop in the bay of Chesapeake. He was 
WTCTii times m«de prisoner, and on on« oc- 

On pneeeding to England at the close of the 
war a peaaim of SOW. a year was sealed on 
him, a very partial compensation for bis 
hMwa. Set in 1784, on some insinuations 
manlf made a^inet him to the commia- 
m o B tf t for American claims, even this wu 
wptafed and never restored. In conae- 
fvesce he was reduced to extreme poverty, 
and was glad to af capt the position of barrack' 
■aster. He made strennons representations 
togo>enment,andin 1795 demanded justice 
faHn Pitt poemptorily. In the same year 
hewaaparaoaded to accompany Admiral Sir 
H«)fh Oobeny Christian fq. v.]to the Weat 
Iwea, where oa was thrice shipwrecked and 
was fCHsnt at the capture of St. Lucia. 
Ok hn r«nm to England he was informed 
that hi* dairas were of too ancient a date to 
be iMiiiiiiiiil He waa knocked down and 
killed by a carnage at the comer of South- 
SMfttB Street, fondon, on SO Dec. 1814, 
learii^B widow destitute, two sons, and a 
daotffater {Note* eatd Q»ait», 2nd ser. viii. 
«i ij^ 23a, S»4). 

He was the author of ; 1< 'A Tour in the 
Cniri States of Ajnarics,' London, 1784, 
lliis book iriTM an account of his 
^ ■ I North 

lliis book ffiTf 
t and traveu ii 

'3 Stuart 

of the share he took in the war. His delinea- 
tion of rural society tn the States is vigoiona 
but not fiattering. The republican opinions 
of the colonists were obnoxious to a loyalist, 
while their barbarous manners were repellent 
to a gentleman. 3, 'ALettertoLordHenry 
Petty on Coercive Vaccination,' London, 
1607, 6vo, a violent diatribe agsinst raectna- 
tion (CHiiiBBBS, £ook of Dayt, i. 6281. 
X 'Bestiny aad Fortitude: an oeroio poMB 

1866), explorer, the fifth son of Williai* 

Stuart, a captain in the army, was bom at 
DyBart,Fifeahire,on7aept.l815. Educated 
at Edinburgh, first privately and later at 
the Military Academy, he entered into busi- 
nees in Scotland, but emigrated to South 
Australia in 1838. There he joined tho go* 

: survey, and afterwards practised 
as a private surveyor, chiefly in the hush ; 
he also tried bis hand at sheep-farming. Ob 
12 Aug. 1844 he joined aa draughtaman 
Captain Sturt's expedition to explore CeuDral 
Australia [see Sthbt, OharlmJ. 

in 1866 Stuart led his first expeditba, 
equipped by William Finka, for the aiscovery 
of a path across Australia. It bad Uttlo 
practical result, and on S April 1869 Stuart 
^tn started with an expedition, equipped by 
Fmke and James Chambers, irp the eastern 
side of Lake Torrens. Passing Mount Hamil- 
ton, his farthest point in the preceding year, 
he proceeded northward, discovered several 
springs, and named the Hanson Range and 
Yonnghusbaad and Kingston, re- 

named Mount Anno, and surveyed a line at 
the Fanny Springs. Hia eyes troubled him 
greatly during this joumsy, and he retmned 
on 31 Jan. 18G0. 

On 3 March 1860 Stuart started, witli 
thirteen horses and two men, on a fourtb 
journey, in which, after ccoBsing the Neole, 
he finally reached the centre of Australia, 
end there he named Mount Stuart in the 
John Range. Turning to the north-west, he 
pushed on, in spite of illness, through several 
miles of new country, till an attack by native* 
forced him to turn Mck on SO Jane ; he waa 
now nearly blind, his horses and attendanta 
were worn out, and thus he arrived on 1 Sept. 
at Chambers's Creek. In October he cam* 
to Adelaide, and was reoeived with aeolama> 

The government voted the funds for a 



bourne, Stuut started again with twelve 
men and fiftf horeefl, a number reduced 
before the real work began. On 26 April 
1861 he reached Attuui Creek, where he 
hod been turned before ; he passed aeveral 
new ranges and Tivera, and named Stuit's 
Plains, which, however, he failed to cross 
on account of want of water. At a place 
named Howell's Ponds be turned on 12 July, 
and reached settled country on 7 Sept. 
On 23 Sept. he made a public entrj into 

Shortly afterwards the newa of the fate of 
Burke and 'Wills leached Adel^de. But this 
did not deter Stuart &om again starting north 
under the auspicea of the government on 
21 Oct. 1861. Though almost killed at the 
outset by a horse accident, he ordered the 
expedition to proceed, and rejoined it in five 
weeks. Fresh difBcultiee soon beset him: 
some of his party deserted, several horses 
died from the great heat, and the natives 
sho wed greaterhoatiltty than before. Striking 
northward across the Sturt Plains, he found 
water at Frew's Water, and later at King's 
Ponds, places which he named after two of 
bis companions. After many further hard- 
ships, they reached a river which Stuart 
named Strangway. Following it, they came 
to the Boper, and thence, through mountain 
passes, to the Adelaide River, and along it 
to the Indian Ocean, which they struck at 
Van Piemen's Gulf before the end of July 
1862. The return journey was almost 
&tal to Stuart ; the distress of the whole es- 
edition, chiefly firom want of water, was 

Stuart received from the goremment of 
South Australia the grant of 2,000^. which 
was destined for the first colonist who 
crossed the Australian continent. John 
McKinlay [([. v.l had actually crossed two 
months earlier, but the circumstances seem 
not to have been considered quite parallel 
(see Howirr, ii, 188-9). Stuart also re- 
ceived a gold medal and a watch from 
the Royal Geographical Society. He had 
previously received a thousand square miles 
rent free in the interior. He now en- 
deavoured to settle down to a pastoral life, 
but his health was broken, and in 1863 he 
was recommended to return to England as 
the only chance of recruiting his strength. 
Arriving here in September 1864, tie settled 
in London in Notting (now Campden) Hill 
Square, where he died on 6 June 1866. He 
was buried at Kensal Green. He was appa- 
rently unmarried. Stuart's Creek was named 
after him. 

4 Stuart 

[<3iambarB's BiognpUcal Dictionary of 'Rttif 
neot Scoumeo, iB7B; EovittB Hist, of Di>- 
corery in Aostralia, ii. 168-89; HBrdmia'a 
Joamala of McDonall Stnort's Explonliont ;: 
JohtdhIs of tbe Bojal Q«ographical Society fbr 
1861 and 1862; Eden's Aiutralian Heroes, p. 
27S; Davia'a Tiaoka of MeKinlay, 18S3, pp. 
4-20 ; cf. art, Siuht, Chabues.] C. A. H. 

BERG (1796 P-1872), and STUART, 
CHARLES EPWARD (1799 P-1 880), weiw 
two brothers who claimed to be descended 
from Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the 
young chevalier, and to ba heirs to the crown. 
of Great Britain and Ireland. Their grand- 
father, or reputed grand&ther, Admiral John 
Carter Allen, was connected with the Mar- 

Juisof Downshire,andissaidtohaveclaimed 
escent from the Hay earls of ErrolL Ho- 
died at his house in Devonshire Place, Lon- 
don, 2 Oct. 1800, and by a will dated eight 
months before left !i,WOl. to one son, CsptBla 
John Allen, R.N., and only 100/. to anotJler 
son. Lieutenant Thomas Allen, R.N. (Quar- 
terly, June 1847, pp. 76-6 ; will at Somerset 
Houso). Thomas was probably the elder of 
the two, for Admiral John Allen (1774- 
1B53), who died at Torpoint, near Plymouth, 
is called ' the youngest son of Admiral J. C. 
Allen' in his obituary (Oent, Mag. Septem- 
ber 1863, p. 310), and, moreover, be became 
a lieutenant in 1794, Thomas in 1791. On 
2 Oct. 1792, at Godalming, 'Thomas Allen, 
of the pariah of Egham, bachelor,' married 
Catherine MatUda Manning, second daughter 
of the Rev. Owen Manning fq. *■], vicar of 
Godalming. She was ba^sed at Godalming' 
27 July 1766, so at the time of hermarriage 
was twenty-seven years old. OfthismarriaR» 
were bom the two brothers who are the sud- 
jecte of this notice. The name of their 
father, Thomas Allen, is in the navy list for 
January 1798, but not in that for July or 

Where the brothera were bom is un- 
known, except that the younger says, ' I 
was an exile— bom in foreign laud ' {Lay*, 
i, 322; at Versulles perhaps, according to 
Mr. Jenner). The dates, too, of their buths 
are uncertain. Those given in the Eskadale 
epitaph— 14 June 1797 and 4 June 1799 — 
are seemingly incorrect, for John, in his 
lines 'To my Brother on his Mithday, 
written 4 July 1821 ' (Bridal of CbtUetora, 
p. 195), writes: — 

About 1811 the reputed secret of their de- 
scent from the Stnarts was, according t» 
their own story, revealed to them {Ij^t L 


Stuart !• 

822), tni, stirred by that startling news, 
ther Altered tfaa aervicu of the ' eagle mo- 
luivh' Napoleon, and fought in 1618 at 
Dresden &nd at Leipiig, where ' S — t swam 
tbewiTe uidPoniatowskiBoiik.' Napoleon's 
own Iwnd, the; aasert, pinned an ea^le on 
tbe ' throbbing breast of the ' child of 
Wtilea;' and for Napoleon both brothers 
cliimtobATe fought once again at "Waterloo, 
tttiied in ' dolmans green, pelisse of crimson 
d}«'(i;^^,L121,andii.S26; iWn«,pp.73, 
73, 169,- 193). When ' the great Imperial 
(mhad gone down,' they betook themselves 
to London, learned Cbelic there of Donald 
Xaq^terBon Tq . v.], compiler of ' Melodies 
fim Ote Gaelic' and in 1817 or 1818 came 
bv*M to Edinburgh. Argyllshire— probably 
InTenray — was their principal home for 
dme (v niitr yeara, and to the seventh Duke 
«f Argyll 'John Hay Allan, esq.' dedicated 
Ua'Bndal of Catilchaini, and other Poems' 
<LoBd«, 1822). Its forty-two Scott-like 
piaecs contain Mrreral allosions to descent 
&0M tlu H^ {pp. 120. 168, 206, 337), a 
nfatacm to Prince Charles Edward as ' the 
iMt of AltTD's Toyal race' (p. 169), a 
n^fCftion that the anthor belonged to the 
Engliih ehorch (p. 263), but no hint of 
I^apokooie campaigns. 'Stanzas for the 
Ein^a Landing (A Hiatorkal Account of 
Id* Mttje$t/t Vitit to Scotland, Edinburgh, 
1633, pp. 62-4) must have been written bj 
one c( the brotben. and Charles and his 
fiAcr were pariiape the ' Allans ' presented at 
Eiiabargh to Oflo^e rV. It ma; have been 
then that Scott ' saw one of the«e gentlemen 
wcw tfe [EnoU] Badge of High Constable 
gfSiMknd ' (Jomrnal, ii. 296). John says 
he «M absent fimu Scotland daring 1823- 
1636 (R^lf to the Quarterly, p. 4^ ; but 
Xisi Loniae Hscdonell speus of naving 
flfttn seen both brothers at Glengarry be- 
tween 1832 and 1828, where the &8t date 
pdhaua iaatoaaoaB^Blaekuxxi^tM^aa. April 
UK, ppt 633-4, 630). In London, on 
• Oct. 1822, 'Cfaarlee Stnart, youngest soq 
«f Thoaua Hay Allan, esq., of Hay,' mar- 
ii«lAana(fr. 1787), widow of Charles Oar- 
dmer, ho., and yonngeat daughter of the 
Ki^ Hob. John Beresford, the Earl of 
Trraui second eon, and brother to the first 
Ibraoisof Waterfoid (tA. Norembei 1822, 
f. Wl> Fnm aboot 1626 to 1888 the 
■ndHnwere liriiw i& Etginshire, first at 
W^ Hill« (now Hilton Brodie) in Alvea 
■niah, and then, troja 1829, at LogieHouse, 
■ EdinUIli« pMiflb. The Earl of Moray 
pn* Aem the fnll ran of Damawav Forest, 
wlenth^bnilt theii 'forest hat '^ of moss 
^mit the Kndboro, and during this period 
AtyadBtuaod protefltanta, fbr, dressed as 

5 Stuart 

always in full Highland ^th,they attended 
the Presbyterian worship in the pu*iah fcirks. 
But from their settling in 1838 on Eilesn 
Aigas, a lovely islet in the river Beauly, 
where Lord Lovat built them an antique 
shooting lodge, they seem to have been 
devoted catholics. Eekadale, where they are 
buried, is two miles above their islet, and 
every Sunday they used to be rowed up to 
mass, with a banner flying, which was carried 
before them from the riverside tothechnreh 
door. In 1629 they had come to style them- 
selves Stuart Allan. In 1841 the 'New 
Statistical Account' (xiv. 488) speaks of 
'Messrs. Hay Allan Stnart, said to be the 
only descendants of Prince Charles Edward ; ' 
and in 1643 a Frenchman, the Vicomts d'Ar< 
lincourt, first pablished their claims to reyal 
ancestry. In 1847 the brothers themselves 

Albany gave birth uneniectedly to a sou, 
who three days afterwards was handed over, 
for fear of assaesioation by Hanoverian 
emiasariea, to the captain of an English 
frigate, ' Commodore O'Haleran,' rightful 
' EmI of Strathgowrie ; ' how later that son, 
as 'Captain O'Haleran' or the 'lolair- 
dhearg' (Gaelic, red eagle) was himself in 
command of a frigate off the west coast of 
Scotland; and how in 1790 he married, 
under romantic circa mstances, an English 
lady, ' Catharine Bruce.' O'Haleran (in 
M. d'Arlincourt 'Admiral Hay ')here stands 
plainly for Allen or Allan — Erroll is in 
Strathgowrie; and the centeuarieu'Dr.Bea- 
t-on,' on whose testimony the alleged secret of 
their royal birth turns maia]y,may be safely 
identified with Robert Watson, M.D. (174ft- 
1838) [q. v.], the discoverer of the Stewart 
papers, with whom the brothers are known 
TO nave had some dealings. But the tale ia 
demonstrably false. Admiral (then Captain) 
John Carter Allen, the brothers' genuine 
grandfather, who figures in the narrative as 
Commodore O'Halleran, was not on active 
service, but on half-pay, from 14 Ang^ 1771 
to 6 Not. 1776. At the same time Bishop 
B. Forbes's ' Lyon in Mourning ' (Scot. Hist. 
Soc. 1886, iii. 329), under date 21 Sept. 
1774, has a curious passage telling how 
' lately a Scots fjentleman, son of a noble 
&mily, and captain of a ship-of-war in Bri- 
tain,' met Prmce Charles Edward at the 
opera in Rome. But then, threuKh Robert 
Chamben, this passage is sure to nave been 
known to the brothers, and may have sug- 
gested much that they admitted to their 
'Tales.' In"^hflHeirBoftheStuarts'(Q^l^»^• 
ttrlff JRevieie, June 1647), Professor Qeoreo 
Skene of Glasgow made a pitiless onslaught . 


Stuart 1 

»n both the ' Talas ' ftnd the ' Vestisriuni 

Sootieum, with &n lutroductioa sjid Notes 
hy John Sobieaki Stuart ' (folio, Ediubuivh, 
1842). The ktt«r piofesBed to be from the 
BizteeDth-centur;i muiusaript of & 'Schvr 
Bichard Ucquhwde, knyoht,' showing tfie 
tartauB of ' ye chieff Hieland and bordour 
olaiities.' John, or 'Ian,' or 'laa Dubh' 
(Gaelic, Black John), rejoined with 'A 
Itepljto the Quartecljr ' (Edinburgh, 1848), 
wlwe ha ascribes the reviewer's hostilit; to 
hie psTtiBansliip of a rival claimant, ' General 
Ghules EdwaM Stuart, Baron Bohenstart ' 
(1781-1854), a toi-digant graodgon of Mias 
Walkinahaw [q.v.J, who wu lulled in a coach 
acetdent at Dimkeld, and ia buried in the 
rained naTe of the oathedraL Other worlu 
by the brotherB were the Biuaptuous but gro- 
teaquelj illuetrat«d ' Costume of the Clans ' 
(foFio, Edinburgh, 1843), and 'Iatb of the 
Deer Forest ' (2 vols. 8vo, Edinburgh, 1848). 
Their kingly origin and Napoleomo eitploits 
are dwelt on largely in the latter work 
{which is not without merits) and in 'Poema,' 
by Gharlea Edward Stuart (8to, London, 

I his marriage 
ntut month, in London, to Miss Georglna 
Kendall, ' of a very old Saxon family.' She 
was the second daughter of Edward Kendall 
of Aufltrey, 'Warwickshire, J.P. 'My future 
lady,' he remarks, ' has onlv ten thousand 
pounds,' and he goes on to ask a loan of 100/. 
They seem never to have lived together, 
though she survived him sixteen years, 
dying at Bath on 18 Feb. 1888, and though 
in Bskadale church there is a tablet profess- 
ing to be erected by her ' to the dear 
memory of John Sobieskie Stuart, Count 
d'Albanie.' Charles's wife and a sister, Miss 
Betesford, who lived with them at Eilean 
Aigas, had between them 1,OOOJ^ a year ; 
but there seems to have been a break-up in 
1846 or 1846. Books were sold and Mrs. 
Stuart was even threatened with arrest. 
Charles waa at Prague in 1646-6, and 
for years the whole &mily lived in Austria- 
Hungary, chiefly there and at Pieaburg, 
where Charies's wife died, 13 Nov. 1862. 
Hr. Dunbar Dunbar ' was told by Baron Otto 
von Giba, diamberlain to the Emperor 
of Austria, that in His Imperial Majesty's 
diunimons the claim of the Count t^i royal 
descent was never doubted. ... At 
Prague, it is said, the military always 
saluted the brothers as royal personages, and 
those who were " presented " to them 
" hissed hands " ' (^DtMaananU relating to the 
Province of Moray, Edinburgh, 1896, 
pp. 166-171). Meanwhile Thomas Allen, 

* Stuart 

or "Thomas Hay Allan, esq., of Hay,' vt 
' J. 1. Stuart Hay,' or ' James Stuart, Coant 
d'Albanie,' their father, died mi 14 Feb. 
1862 at 22 Henry Street, Oleriienwell, whera 
he had resided for seven years preceding his 
decease, durine which time he never left hia 
apartments. Me was buried in old St. Pan< 
eras churchyard (Introduction to the 1893 
reissue of Co»tum« qf fA« Clattt, p. xrii). 

When or why the brothers left Austria 
is vmknown, but some time before 1868 
they both were living in London, where, 
although desperately poor, they went into 
society, and, with their orders and spurs, 
were well-known figures in the British 
Museum reading-room. A table was reserved 
for them, and their pens, paper-knives, fvpa^ 
weights, StB., were surmounted with minia- 
ture coronets, in gold. John died on 18 Feb. 
1873; Bjid Charles, who, after his brother'* 
death, himself assumed the title of Count 
d'Albanie, died suddenly at PauiUac, neae 
Bordeaux, on Christmas day 1S80 (Coxtb 
L, IiAFOKD, L'EcQtte jadi* et avjiMrcChai, 
1887, p. 293). Both ue buried at Eskadala 
under a Celtic cross, whose Latin and Gaelic 
epitaph was written by the late Colin C. 
Glrant, for twenty years priest of Eskadala^ 
and afterwards bishop of Aberdeen. 

John left no issue, bnt Charles had ono 
son and three daughters. The son, Charles 
Edward, bom in 1824, rose between 1840 
and 1870 to be a colonel in the Aastriau 
cavalry, and on 13 Aug. 1878 was captured 
with the yacht Deerhound off Fontarabi^ 
running Carlist municiona. On 16 May 
1874 he married Lady Alice Emily Mary 
Hay (1835-1881), daughter of the •even,, 
teenth Earl of Erroll, and granddaughter 
of "William IV. He died in Jersey without 
issue on 8 May 1882. Of the daughters, 
Marie (1823-1873) died at Beaumanoir ca 
the Loire I Louisa Sobieska (1827 P-1S97), 
married Eduaid von Flatt, of the Austrian 
imperial bodyKuard, and had one son, Al&eii 
Edbuard Chu-les, a lieutenant in the Austrian 
artillery; and Clementina (1880 P-1894> 
became a Passionist nun^ and died in a oon- 
vent at Bolton, Lancashire. 

The brothers were courteous and acoom- 
plished gentlemen. But apart from their 
Stuart I^eness, the sole strength of their 
pretensions would appear to reside in tha 
credence and countenance accorded them b^ 
men of rank and intelligeikce, such as tha 
tenth Earl of Moray, the fourteenth Lord 
Lovat, the late Marquis of Bute, Sir l^omaa 
Dick-Lauder, and Dr. Bobert Chambers. 

[Works already eitwi,- Tha Lnt of tha 
Stnarta, probably by the Vieomta d'AiiineDuK, 
iu Catholic Mag. for March 18*3, pp. lS2-9«t 



n;T:T:[ from CArLincoiut, which tba brothBra 
mJ CITS to K eonviee at & dinner p«rtj, md 
OS vficK fljli^r is a letter of date April 18t6, 
bjJ.B. BellpnuiDB, to ths JoorDal da U Bel- 
^u, aDDOnncing the praieaca in Belgium of 
•ertnl des<-endsnTB of the hoQBe of Staart ; 
Qllnber^■ EdiDbargb Jonmalfor ISMay 18i4, 
uJll; l«tters TrritteD by John about 184S to 
bt. Bobcit Chambers, andnovin the poasegaion 
of Charlte Edward Stuart Chombera, eaq.; Dean 
Bnrgoa'a Xomoir of fatridc Vnaer-ljiler, Had 
nil. l&iS. pp. 2S6-7, describing tbeir lisit in 
1U9 to Eilettn Aigna ; A. Von £«iunont,'s QraSn 
inAlbBDj, B«rliD, IB60,ii. 290-4; Dr. Doran'ti 
Ltmjaa io JaoubiU TimM, 1877, 'I 390-411 ; 
S(.m and Qneriex, under 'Albacie,' 'Stuart,' 
punni, bnt specially about 1877 ; Vernon 
tw't Coant^w of Albany, 1884, pp. 40-G ; Life 
of Agon Strickland, 1B87, pp. ISl, 192, 233; 
T. P.rrith'B John I^ech, 1891, ;ii. 7-8; The 
Alhnxuni, 30 Jnlv 1892 and 29 Jnly 1893; 
D«u Gtmlbnn's Life of Dean BncKon, 1892, J. 
T4-C: Y H. Groome'i Utmarchi in Partibos, in 
the BorAman, September 1S92, pp. 17S-S; 
DoaaM niUiam Slcwut'sOldand Rare aeottislt 
TuiAU, Ediobnrgh, 1893, pp. 42.GS ; Archibald 
ForbHs Keal Stoarta or Bogus Stuarts in the 
5*v Review. 1896, pp. 73-S4 ; Farcy Fitz- 
fcnU'i Memoirs of an Author, 189fi, ii. 8^-9 ; 
Jcsrmii of lAd:r EeiAlake, 1S95, i. S4-S ; five 
iitieli* to »tiibltah tbe genninenera of the ' Yes- 
tiaiiam,' by Andrew Rosa, in the Glasgow Herald 
IrSOXln'.. 14, 21, 28 Dec, 1896, aod 4 Jan. 
IBM ; TIw Sobieski Scatirt«, by Henry Jenner, 
is the Gniealopical Hngazine for S^y 1897, 
p. 11 ; John Ashtoo's Whea Williaai 17 was 
kiBt. 1SV6. pp. 222-S, for tbe brothers' vieit to 
IisiiKl. in kills Bttd with a piper, in May 1888; 
bH>df« infbnnatioD snpplied by Father Macrae 
•f Bdsdala. Dr. Corbet of Beanly, the lier. 
fifwp C. Watt of EdinHllie, Mr. B. TIrqnhart 
vi riirrts, tbe lst« Mi. Jotm Noble of InTernesi, 
tbe &*T. Sir David Hnntet^Blair, O.S.B., of 
Ten Ainatoa, Prof. J. E. Laughton, and the 
BtT. L. B. BoRows of Gadalming.] F. H. 6. 

8TUART, LUDOVICK, sacond Dbsb 
a Loxox *nd DiTKB or BiCHxoim (1674- 
l«^|,aldeflt •on of £aiD«, first duke of Len- 
ww 'n- T."", by hia irife, Catherine de Balsao 
iFjUnpet, was bom on 29 Sept. 1574. 
AAcr tie ijeath of the first duke in Paris, 
» X»r 1583, ' the king,' aays the author of 
t&e'Hktory of James Sext,' 'was without 
•H ^Birtness of Bpirit till he should aee eome 
<t hu posterity to possess him ia Me father's 
^mi/m and rent* ' (p. 193), He therefore 
»« Uw master of Gray to convoy the 
j^mae duk« to Scotland, &od they arnved 
B Lnth on 13 Not. (■'£■ ; Galdskwood, iii. 
7*»: MoTsi^ Memoir*, p. 47). He was 
ME^nd iato tbe king^B special favour, and 
■^t^Mi^ • mei« boy, was, as uezC in suo- 

■7 Stuart 

cession, selected to bear the crown at tha 
next opening of the parliament, 38 Hay 1^44 
(Calebkwoob, it. 621), On 27 July 1588 
he was appointed one of a commisHion for 
executing the laws against the iesuita and 
the papista {Reg. P. C. Scotl. it. 3bl), and on 
1 Aug. he was named chief commisgioner to 
keep watch in Dumbarton against the Spanish 
armada (ib. p. 307). When King James left 
Scotland in October to bring home his bride 
from Denmark, Lennox, though only fifteen, 
was appointedpresident of the council during 
hieal»ence. By his marriage, 20 April 1691, 
to Lady Jane Ruthven, d&u^ht«r ofthe Earl 
of Govtie, whom the previous day he took 
out of the castle of "Wemyaa, where she had 
been ' warded' ' at the king's command for 
his cause,' he gave great offence to the king 
fOAi.DEBWOOIi, T. 128) ; but naverthelesB on 
4 Aug. he was proclaimed lord high admiral 
inplaceof Bothwell(t%.p. 139). About Hay 
1598 he was reconciled with certain noble's 
with whom he was at feud, and was allowed 
to Tetom to court (tS. p. 249). 

When the king returned aonth from die 
pursuit of Huntly, Errol, and other rebels in 
the north in November I594,Ijennox, on the 
7th, obtained a commission of lieutenancy in 
the north {Rtg. P. C. Seotl. t. 187), that ha 
might continue the work of quieting the 
country. According to Calderwood, ' 1^ tr^ 
veiled with Euntly,' who was his brother- 
in-law, ' and Errol, to depart out of th» 
kingdom, which they did, more to satisfy Uie 
king thao for any bard porsuit' {UUtory, 
T. 357). On his return to Kdinbur^b an act 
was passed, 17 Feb. 1694-fi, approving of his 
proceedings as the king's lieutenant {_Rtg. 

of lieutenancy of the Island of 
Lewis (i6. p. 468), and on 9 JuIt 1699 acom- 
mission of lieutenancy over the highlands 
and islands (ib. vi. 8). 

Lennm: was one of those who accompanied 
the king from Falkland to Perth in 1600, 
when tha Earl of Oowrie and tha master of 
Buthven were elain ; and he took an active 
part on behalf ofthe king against his brother- 
in-law. On 1 July 1601 he was sent on an 
embassy to France, John Spottiswood [q. v.], 
afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews, being 
appointed to attend on him (Calserwoov, 
VI. 1S6; see espedaJly SpotiswoOD, ifutoiv, 
iii. 100). On nis way home he arrived in 
November in London, where for three we^ 
he was entertuned with great splendour by 

On the accession of James to the English 
throne in 1603, he attended him on the 
jonmey south, but was sent bsck with a wat> 
the young prince "Sxaajitami 


Stuart ic 

the Earl of Mar, and deliver him to the qneea 
(ti.iii. 140). Oa ISJunehe wu naturalised 
m England, and in the same year he woa also 
made a gentleman of the b«lchaniber and a 
privy councillor. On 6 Aug. 1603 he had a 
arrant of the manors of Settrington, Temple- 
^ewaam, and Wenalevdale, Yorkshire, and 
p. 28). He bIbo received a large portion 
of the Cobham estates upon the attainder 
of Henry Brooke, lord Cobham [q. v.] (see 
AfAaologiaCantiana,-xi.225). Inl60l-5he 
was ambasaadoi to Paris, and in August 1606 
he accompanied the king to Oxford, where 
be WS3 on SI Aug. made M. A. On 21 July 
ld07hewa8nRmedhighcommiBsioner of the 
king to the Scottish parliament. On 6 Oct. 

1613 he was created Baron Settrington in the 
county of Tork, and Earl of Richmond. In 

1614 he was named deputy earl marshal, and 
in November 1616 he was made steward of 
the household. In May 1617 he accompanied 
the king on his visit to Scotland. He was 
named Ueiitenant of Kent in November 1620, 
and &om May to July 1621 was joint oom* 
miseioner of the great seal. A strenuous 
supporter of the king's ecclesiastical policy 
in Scotland, he was one of thoaa who on 
5 July 1621 voted for the obnoxious eccle- 
siastical articles known as the four articles 
of Perth. On 17 Aug. 162S he was created 
Earl of Newcastle-upon-T^e and Duke of 
Hichmond. He died suddenly in bed in his 
lodging at Whitehall, on the morning of 
16Feb. l»23-4, the day fixed for the opening 
of parliament, which on that account waa 
deferred, and on 19 April his corpse was con- 
veyed 'with all ma^ificence from Ely House 
in the Holbom to interment in Westminster 
Abbey'(SiBjAiiEsBALFOUB,..lnnab,ii. 100), 
where a magnificeut tomb was erected, in 
Henry VII's chapel, by the widow. ' His 
death,' savs Calderwood, ' was dolorous both 
to Enelisn and Scottish. He was well liked 
of for nis courtesy, meekness, liberality to his 
servants and followers' (Hittory, vii. 695). 
The dukewas thrice married : first, to Sophia, 
third daugbterofWilliamRuthven, first earl 
of Gowrie ; secondly, to Jane, widow of Hon. 
Robert Montgomene, and daughter of Sir 
Mattbe w Campbell ofLoudon, father of Hu^h, 
first lord Campbell of Loudon ; and, thirdly, 
to Frances, daughter of Thomas Howard, first 
viscount Howard of Bindon and widow of 

Westminster Abbey, with her last husband 
(see Ardtaolcgia Oantiana, xi. 230^. As 
he left no issue the dukedom of Ricnmond, 
the earldom of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 
tlie barony of Settrington became extinct; 

s Stuart 

but he was succeeded in the dukedom of 
Lennox by his next brother, Esmfi Stuart, 
third Duke of LennoT (1679-1824), who 
in 1588 had succeeded hia father as eighth 
seigneur of Auhigny. He, however, had 
returned to this country in 1603, was 
naturalised an Englishman on 24 May 1603, 
and from that date principally resided in 
England. He did not lon^ survive his suc- 
cession to the dukedom, dying of putrid fever 
on 30 July 1624. By his wife, Kattterine 
Clifton, only daughter and heiress of Sir Qet- 
vase Clifton, created in 1608 Lord Clifton of 
Leighton Bromswold, he had six sons and 
thrM daughters : James Stuart, fourth dnke 
of Lennox [q. v.]; Henry, who succeeded 
his father as eigbtn seigneur of Aubigny, and 
died in 1632; Oeoree, who succeeded his 
brother Henry as ninm seigneur of Aubkny, 
and, while commanding a body of three hun- 
dred horse which he had himself raised for 
KingCharles, was killed at the battle of Edge- 
hill on 23 Oct. 1642; Ludovick, who took 
possession of the aeigneurie of Aubigny, in op- 
position to the rights of his nephew Charlee 
[q. v.], was educated for the church, and be- 
came canon of Notre-Dame, accompanied 
CharlesII to England at the Restoration, and 
died in Parison S Nov. 1666, while a cardinal's 
hat waa on its way to him from Rome ; Joha 
(see below); Bernard, titular Earl of Lichfield 
[q. v.] ; Elizabeth, married to Henry, earl of 
Arundel; Anne, to Archibald, earl of Angus j 
and Frances, to Jerome, earl of Portland. 

The fifth son, John, according to Claren- 
don, 'was a young man of extraordinary 
hope, of a more cholerick and rough nature 
than tLe other branches of that illustrioua 

Loni Forth'a army in 1644 as general of the 
horse. In the cavalry charge at Cheriton 
on 39 March he behaved with conspicuous 
bravery, and was mortall^r wounded. He 
died at Abingdon on 8 April, and was buried 
at Christ Church, Oxford. There are por- 
traits of the second duke at Cobham, at 
Longford Castle, and at Hampton Court. 

[Hiitories bv Caldsrirood and Spotiiwood; 
Si James BaUonr's Anaals; David Morsie'a 
Memoin in the Bannstyne Club ; Beg. P. C. 
Seotl. ; Col. Slate Papen, Dom. 8«r. in the reign 
ofJamefll; Sir William Fiaser's Lennox ; I^dy 
Elizabeth Onst'a Stuarts of Aubigny; Douglas's 
Scottish Fcemfa (Wood), i. 100; Complete 
pMrtigB ; Epiccdivm io Obitam Domini Ludovici 
Lenosin gt Richmondiv, 1624; A Nnir Lachry- 
loeatatl and FarewsU Ele^, or a Distillation of 
Great BritanH Teats eh^, &c, 1634; Frances 
Ducheua Dowager of Bichmond and Lentu« 
her FareweU Tears, 1631.] T. F. U. 



109 Stuart-Wortley 

ffnTAJtT {Stewaet), MAEY (1H2- 
1587), queen of Scots. [See Maet.] 

SnjABT, ROBERT, SMaKEtm of Af- 
BisiTT (1470 f-I&43). [Se« under Stewart, 
Bib Jobx, Lobo Daxniat uid first Eabl 

BTUART, ROBERT (1813-1848), author 
et'Ctledonia Ronthna,' wts the eldest son 
at Williant Stuut, a merchant in Glasgow, 
wbcK he w«a bom on 31 Jan, 1813. Owing 
to hk father'a abMnee abroad on business, 
u placed, when about a jear old, with 

erfcy, ed. 

jcHDcd his parent! at Nice, presentlj accom- 
panjmg them to Oibraltsr. In 1821 he was 
■est to a boArdlng^school near Perth, and ia 
ItfiShis parents returned to Glasgow, where 
besntled with them aud attended school. 
nvTtknt business depression in 1826 caused 
tb« bther to become bookseller and pub- 
lisher, with his son as assistant. In IB36 
the luher turned to some new enterprise, 
wbemroon Stuart undertook the busmeas 
hinuetTand married. His literarj' faculty 
RceiTed special direction in 1841 when his 
friend John Buchanan of Glasgow, after 
■howing him inscribed altars and other me- 
Bociali of the Roman occupation of Soot- 
laad, expressed surprise that authors should 
ban Mglected such a fascinating subject, 
Tbe iMult wvs Stuart's great work, ' Cale- 
dooia Samana' (1845). Stuart died at 
GImsuw of cholera, after a few hours' illness, 
«a S Dec. 1848. He was surrived by a 
vidow and bmilj. 

Stuart early contributed verses, in the 
Mu ef of Byron, to his father's 'literary 
RaniMer' and bis own 'Scottish Monthly 
Uicanne,' which be isaaed for a year in 
163^. fie also wrote for Blackwood's and 
Tih't magasines. In 1834 be published 
'In tad othar Fragments in Verse,' dis- 
fl^iag icspectAble workmanship but little 
pMtie dinmction. The ' Caledonia Romans : 
Asawa Antiquities in Scotland,' appeared 
■a ISia, It is methodical and accurate, 
if a little diffuse. After an introductory 
aad an historical chapter, Stuart devotes 
tfae tliird chapter to a careful conaidera- 
tkn fd tbe inflnence of the Romans in 
SeotlMul, and in the fourth he presents 
a BiMate aecoout of the wall of Antoninus 
Kaa. The Mcond edition, furnished with 
|wd mua, illoatntiTe plates, and a me- 
Mir by Dartd Tbomaon, appeared in 1853. 
&«rt pultliahod in 1&48 an interesting 

work, ' Views and Notices of Glasgow in 
former Times.' 

[Memoir prefixed to Oal«doDiaBomauB.1 

STUART, WILLIAM (1766-1822), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, bom in March 1755, fifth 
sonot JohnStuftrt, third earl of Bute [q.r.], 
by Mary, only daughter of Edward Wortley 
Montagu, was educated at Wincbesterechool, 
and St. John's College, Cambridge, where be 
obtained a fellowship, and in 1774 graduated 
M.A. Shortly after taking holy orders he 
was appointed vicar of Luton, Bedfordshire. 
On 10 April 1783 he was introduced to 
Johnson hy his countryman Boswell, who 
describes bim as ' being with the advantages 
of high birth, learning, travel, and elegant 
manners, an exemplary pariah priest in every 
respect,' which certiacate as to his highly 
res^table accomplishments and character 
indicates a common type of ecclesiastic and 
nothing more ; and as to his individuality 
nothing further is known than the dates of 
his promotions. He was made D.D. in 1789, 
and was promoted in the same year to a 
canonry in Christ Church, Oxford ; in 179S 
to the see of St. Davids, and in December 
1800 to the archbishopric of Armos'h, and 
the primacy of all Ireland. He died on 
6 May 1833 from accidental poisoning, bv a 
draught of an embrocation taken instead of 
medicine. His full-length figuie in marble 
is in the cathedral in ^dj'magli, 

[QanL Mag. 1S2!, i. 46S, 997; Staart's 
Hist, of Armagh ; Cotton's FasCJ Eccles. Hiber. 
ii.28.] T.F. H. 

1856), poetess and authoress, second daugh- 
ter of John Henry Manners, fifth duke of 
Butland,K.G., and his wife, Ladv Eliubeth 
Howard, fifth daughter of Frederick, fifth 
earl of Carlisle [q. v.], was bom on 2 May 
1806. She married, on 17 Feb. 1831, the 
Hon. Charles Stuart-Wortley, second son 
of James Archibald Stuart-Wortley-Mac- 
kenzie^ first baron Wharnclifie [q, V,l, by 
whom she had three children: Archibald 
Henry Rantagenet (b. 26 July 1832, d. 
SO April 1890), Adelbert 'William John (d. 
1847), and Victoria Alexandrine, who mar- 
ried, on 4 July 1668, Sir 'WilUam Earle 

Lady Gmmeline's earliest poems appeared 
in 183S, and for the next eleven years she 
published annually a volume of verse. Some 
were the outcome of her experiences of 
travel, as ' Travelling Sketches in Rhyme ' 
(1885); 'Impressions of Italy, and other 
poems' (1837); and sonnets, written chiefly 


Stuart- Wortley no Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie 

^hiring ft tour thcou^ Holland, Qtrmwaj, 
Italy, Turkey, and Hungary (1839). la 
1887 aad 1840 sbe edited Uie ' KeepaaJie,' for 
vbich she vrota many poema. Amon^ the 
coatiibutOTB was Teuoyeoa, who publiabed 
in the ' Keepsake ' for 1837 hie 'St. Agnes' 
(aftarwardB republished under the title of 
* St. Agnes' Ere ' in the volume of 1842). 
Others of Lady Emmeline's associates were 
the Countess of Blessington, Theodore Hook, 
Hicbard Monckton Milnes, the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton, and Mrs. Shelley. In 1849-^ Lady 
Emmeline visited the United States, and i 
publiflhed an account of her travels in three ' 
volumes in 1861, and ' Sketches of Travel in . 
America' in 1853. Herlast production, also 
a book of travel, ' A Visit to Portugal and 
Madeira,' appeared in 1854. 

While riding in the neighbourhood of 
Jerusalem on 1 May 1866, her leg was frac- 
tured by the kick of a mule. She was not 
in good health at the time, yet pemsted in 
journeying &om Beyrout to Aleppo, and in 
returning by an nnireguented road across 
liebanon. She died at Beyrout in Novem- 
ber 1866. 

In the quality and quantity of her literary 
work Ijady Emmeline hsfi been compared to 
Marearet Cavendish, ducheas of Newcastle 

tq.v!], and toLetitia Elizabeth Landon [q.v.jj 
iQt, aithou^ she possessed theii facility of 
memory, she had for less literary capacity. 
Manv of her poema first appeared in ' Black- 
irooj's Magazine.' 

Other works by her are; 1. 'London at 
Nirftt, and other Poems,' 1834. 9. ' Unloved 
of Earth, and other Poems,' 1834. 3. 'The 
Knight and the EnehanCress, with other 
Foema,' 1836. 4. 'The ViUage Chuich- 
vw^ and other Poems,' 1886. 6. 'The 
Visicma^, a Fr^ment, irith other Poems,' 
1833. 6. 'Fragments and Fancies,' 1887. 
7, ' Hours at Narfes, and other Poems,' 
1637. 8. ' Lays of Leisure Hours,' 2 vola. 
1838. 9. 'QueenBerengaria's Oonrtesy.and 
other Po«n»,' 8 vols. 1888. 10. 'Jairah: 
a Dramatic Mystery, and other Poems,' 1840. 
11. ' Eva, or the Error," a play in five acts 
in verse, 1840. 13. ' AJphonso Algarvec,' a 
playinfiveBctsinTerBe,1841, 18. 'Angiolina 
del AHano, or Truth and Treachery,' a play 
m Terse, 1841. 14. 'The Maiden of Mos- 
cow,' a poem, 1841. IC. ' Lillia Brani», a 
Tale of Italy,' m verse, 1841. 16. 'Moon- 
■hine,'aoamadv,'1843. 17.'Adelude,'1843. 
18. 'Emeat Monntioy,' a comedietta in 
ttoee acta is proee, 1844. 19. Two poems 
«n the Oreat Exhibition, 1861. 

[Alliboae's Diet, of £i^l. Ut; Oeat. Hag. 
16«, i. lS3i Burke's PMnge; Brit Mas. Cat.] 


WHiKKCLHTB (1778-1845), statesman, bom 
on 6 Oct. (or according to Burke, 1 Nov.) 1776, 
was the second but eldest surviving son of 
James Archibald Stuart (1747-1818), Uen- 
tenant-colonel of the d2nd regiment of foot, 
by Ma^aret, daughter of Sir DavidConyng- 
Iwm, bart. of MilncraiK) Ayrshire. John 
Stuart, third earl of Bute [q.v.^ was hia 
ffrandfather,andJohn, first marquis of Bute, 
his uncle. His faUier's mother (the countess 
of Bute) was Mary, only daughter of Edward 
Wortley-Montagu ; she had been created a 
peeress on 8 April 1761 as Baroness Monnt- 
stuart. In 1794 the father succeeded on her 
death to her Wortley estates in Yorkshire 
and Cornwall, and assumed the name of 
Wortley on 17 Jan. 1796. In 1803 he 
assumed the additional name of Mackenzie 

his nnole, James Stuart Mackenne ol 

'The younger James Archibald, who evon- 
tuall^ dropped the last surname of Mae- 
kenzia, was educated at Charterhouse. He 
entered the army in November 1700 as an 
ensign in the 48th foot. In the following 
May he exchanged into the 7th roya) fuei- 
liers, and on 4 May 1798 obtained a com- 
pany in the 72ad highlanders. He served 
m Canada for three years, and afterwards at 
the Cape. On 10 Ua; 179B he became lien- 
t«nant-coloneI, and on 1 Dec colonel of the 
l^th foot. In 1797 he was sent to the Cftpe 
with deapatebea irata George, lord MacKrb- 
ney [q. t.j, and on 3? Dec, purchased a com- 
pany in the lat foot guards. Q^a qaitCed 
the anny at tie peace of 1801. 

From 1797 till his father's death in 1818 
be aaC in the tory interest in the House of 
OoromoDfi for the family borough of Boeaiikey. 
On 21 Maj 1813 he Tnoved a resolution on 
his own initiative for an address to the 
prince regent, calliag on him to form an 
efficient administration. A few days before 
Perceval had been amassiuated, and the db-~ 
iect of the motion wan to compel his col- 
leagues to admit a more liberal element inW 
the administration. The motion, sscondad 
by Lord Milton, was carried against th» 
ministers by a majority of four (Pari, DA. 
xziii, 249-84). Next day ministers reugned, 
and Lord Wellealey was oommisnoned t* 
form a Rovemment. Negotiations with the 
whiga having come to aotbing, S^art- 
Wortley on 11 June moved a Mooad raeo- 
lution of like tenor, which was eventually 
negatived without a division (■}. pp. 897-'4S ; 
cf.C0L0aBaTBK,i)tary,ii.SS7; BcaEnrQBAH, 
QmrU aad Gabiatf q/'iAe Jtrffme^, i. 861). 


Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie m Stuart-Wortley- Mackenzie 

H«welbrtli Stnait-Wortle^ acted with 
libm nodento toiies W an independent sup- 
MUr of the liirerpool minietrj'. At firet 
M deprecated tbe prooeedJngB agauut the 
pnoecH To^' On 22 June 1S20 he a»- 
eoaied 'Wilfaeifbrce's motion for & parlia- 
metiUTj mediatioii between Oeoree IV and 
Qbmd Caroline, and was one of the foui 
mmJhen conuninioaed to eairj the resolo- 
tKS (o the queen (Pari. Deb. 2nd wr. 1228- 
1SS9,1331). When, howerer, she rejected 
Ikt orartare, Stnart-Wortlej sui^orted mL- 
MWn in BetUtur on foot an inTeetigation (ib. 
ip. 1381-8). Heconatantlj urged on mini- 
Men the neoeeeitj of economy, &nd in 1S19 
*M a nember of the parliamentuT com- 
MitCae to inquire into the ciril list (C(mrtt 
md CaHneU ff tht S^mtey, a. 326). 

In 1818 3ta»rt-'Wo«ley was elected for 
ths moat important oountT constituency in 
GMuBcftain, that of Yorkebire. His col- 
kafaa wu IJoid Milton (afterwards Earl 
Ktivilliam). Heprored aroost efficient re- 
pnttatatire. He conatantly opposed, in the 
iniwHU of his constituents and others, the 
iBpoadosi of duties on the in^iortation of 
firaen '^ool, and advocated the freeing of 
Sagiuttimxd from e^Kirt duties. He opposed 
spailiaBentarj inqouy into the ' Ifaocheater 
auuera,* tbinking it more fit for s court of 
bw, (nd atWcked radicals like Hunt and 
WooDsr; but at tbe same time he proposed 
a ^oftrxj tMX to relieve the poor fiiom the 
famsB of taxation. In Haj 1820 he declared 
•piaM Airtlier protection U> agrioulture, 
kniiliiii that Che £stress of that intaiest bore 
■0 jmsortioTk to that of manufactures (ParL 
MSad ser. i. 116, 117). 

la qnestiosis of foreign poltcj Stuart- 
Wdttlty tbared the views of Oanning. On 
S Jtae 1621 he moved for copies of the 
Mcalar issned b; tbe members of tbe holj 
sBiAee St LaybMh, stigmatisinff their pro- 
<m£^s aa dangerous to the liberties both 
of bxlaiid and Europe. The motion was 
aifUiTed br 118 to &i(ib. v. 1254-60). In 
Aanl 1823 1m defended the ministerial policy 
flt MMtuIity between France and 8pain, and 
arnvdaad carried an amendmeot lo a motion 
nMiliiiiiiiiH it. He also acted with the 
fibrfsl Metions of both parties in supporting 
tttioUe Mmancuation, to which he had an- 
ammttd himsen a convert u early aa 1812, 
Md OB 28 H»7 1833 be seconded Lord 
Sigeot'i mi>ti<»i for leave to bring in a bill 
TiMaHJlsiii tbe position of En^ish and Irish 
Si^ttn eatbolica. Bat his attitude on the 
psHiiii lost him bis aaat in 1826. 

Hie positicm toivards eoecomio questions 
inU^atw unfiwonrably affected his rels- 
laMwubbiseosaUtuents. InFebruary 1S3S 

On 7 July 1823, in opposing tbe Reciprocity 
of Duties Bill, be gave his opinion that ]t 
would be impossible I« retain for any con- 
siderable time the protection given to agn- 
cnltural produce (>i^. iz. 1439). 

In 1S24 Stoarb-Wortley, who deecribod 
himself as a strict preserver, brought in m 
bill to amend the game taws. Its ob^eot 
was twofold; to abolish the system by 
which the right to kill game was vested ina 
class and to make it depend on the owner- 
ship of tbe soil, and to aiminish the tempta- 
tions to poaching by legalising the sale of 
game. The bill was often reintroduced in 
sucoeeding yesxs, and it was not until 188? 
that a measure which embodied its man 
proviuons beosme law. 

On 12 July 1826 Stuart-Wortlev was 
created Baron Wbamcliffe of Wortley. Whita 
in the House of Commons he had repeatedly 
declared against the principle of parliamen- 
taryreform. On 36 Feb. 1624 he had moved 
the regeetton of Abeieromby's motion for the 
refcnn of the constituency of Edinburgh (A. 
464etseq.) Inl881,however,aftercM^ing 
an amendment raising the voting qualifica- 
at Ijeeds, he baa taken chaige of tbe 

lent raising the voting qualifica- 
eds, he baa taken chaige of th 
Qnunpoiind disfranchisement bill, the objee 

of which was to transfer its representation to 
that town. When tbe House of Lords tito- 
pcsed instead to give additional members 
to the county of 1 ork, Stuart- Wortl^ ad- 
vised the abandonment of tbe measure, Itei 
38 Meich 18S1, by moving for statistics of 
population and representation, Whamolifle 
initiated the first general discusnon of thtf 
refonnqDestionintneHouseof'Lords, While 
making an able and hostile analyais of tbe 
government bill, he declared bis conviction 
Uiat no body of men outaide parliankent 
would backreeistanaetoamodeiaMmeasiiae 
(tb. 3rd ser. iii. 988 et eeq. i Courtr and 
CabineU of William IV, i. 267J. Upon the 
rejection of tbe first reform oill in com- 
mittee of the House oi Commons, be an 
22 April 1831 moved an address to the kii^ 
praying him to re&ain from usiug his preroga- 
tive of proroguing or dissolving parliament. 
As Brougham was replying, tne king waa 
announced, and, after a scene of great oonia- 
sion, the prorogation took place (Pari. DA. 
8rd Bar. iii. 1806 et seq. ; cf. Max, Omit. MM. 
i. 141-2). When on 3 Oct. following th» 
second Jteform Bill came op for second read- 
ing in the upper bouse, WharnolifTa moved 
that it be ImH a seoond time that &kj six 
months. He objected that the proposed tan- 
pouud franchise "was a brans one, that the 
was designed to delnde the landad 


Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie 112 Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie 

interest, and he took exception to its popula- 
tional bBsis. He refrained, however, from 
any defence of nomination boroughs. After 
& brilliant debate the second reading was 
defeated by 199 to 158 (Pari. Dtb. 3rd aer. 
vii. 970 et seq.) Two days later he pre- 
wated petitiona agatnet toe measure uom 
bankers and merchants of London, and main- 
tained that the opinioB of the capital was 
opposed to the bill (». pp, 1309-16). But 
he had lost confidence m the possibility of 
successful resistance. In an interview with 
* Badical Jones ' [see Joitbs, Lbslis Obotb], 
he was impressed by his prediction of the 
dangers which would follow the rejection 
of the Reform Bill. Within a month of 
the defeat of the measure 'WhamclifiTe and 
Harrowby were approached bjr tbe whig 
government through their sons in tbe com- 
mons. After a meeting of the two fathers 
and SODS at Harrowby^ house in Stafford- 
shire, a memorandum was dtawn up as a 
basis tbr negotiation. Qreville, who heard 
it read, calls it moderate and says that it 
embraced ample concessions. The memo- 
Tandum was shown to the cabinet and ap- 
proved. But many toties declined to accept 
whamcliffo's compromise. The cityof Lon- 
don refused its adhesion, and Lord Grey broke 
off the negotiations. Orey sent the kii^ 
"Wbamclifie's memorandum, and William IV 
expressed regret at the failure of negotiations, 
but thought what had passed was calculated 
to be useful (Sir JI. Taylor to Earl Orey, 
SDec.) OnllUec.afurthermeeting between 
Whamclifie, Rarrewby, and Chandos on the 
one side, and Orey, BrouKham, and Althorp 
on the otherjTOved equJly ftuitlaas {Earl 
Orey to Sir M. Taylor, 12 Dec.) Neverthft- 
less, in January 1882, Whamclifie advised 
the toriea to support the second reading of 
the new bill and afterwards modify it in com- 
mittee. He impressed on Welliniton the 
danger of coming into collision with crown, 
commons, and people in a useless struggle. 
His remonstrance failed to move the duke, 
and Whamcliffe determined to act inde- 
pendently of him. In two interviews with 
William TV (on 12 Jan. and early in Fe- 
bruary), he assured the king that as he and 
his friends were determined to support the 
second reading there was do need of a creation 
of peers. On 27 March Whamcliffe and Har- 
rowby made their first public declaration of 
their intention to support the bill, Wham- 
clifie being, according to Qreville, ' ve^ short 
And rather embarrassed.' On 9 April their 
flopport secured for the second reading a 
' majority of nine. 

Whamcliffe felt acutely bis sepantion 
from the toi7 Jtixtj, uid on 7 Umj voted 

for Lyndhurst's amendment pos^ning the 

disfranchiNng clauses, by which the progress 
of the bill was affain delayed. His position 
was now very diffioull (Croker Papers, ii. 
174) ; he had offended both his own party 
andthewhigs. Orey resigned on the carrying 
of Lyndhurst's amendment, and Wellington, 
when seeking to form a govemment, was ad- 
vised by I/^ndhurst not only to offer office to 
Whamcliffe's son, but to consider well before 
he decided not to include Whamcliffe him- 
self, as 'he is gallant, and may be very 
troublesome against us ' ( WelUjtgUm Correip, 
viii. 3071. The whigs soon resumed office, 
and the oill was proceeded with. On 24 May 
Whamcliffe moved an amendment to pre> 
vent persons voting for counties in respect 

further than the occasion required. The 
following day be proposed that tlie ten-pound 
qualification should be hosed on the assess- 
ment for poor rate {Part. Deb. 3rd ser. xiii. 
19, 111 et seq.) He abstained from voting 
on the third reading, but signed the two pro- 
tests drawn up by Lord Melros (iS. pp. §77, 
378). Anxious to regain tbe favour of hia 
party, Whamcliffe in 1833 sent Wellington 
a sket4^ of a proposed policy in the new par- 
liament, in which the duke concurred. 

In February 1834 Qreville describes him as 
' very dismal about the prospects of the coun- 
try.' On 13 Dec. of the same year Wham- 
cliffe was invited by Peel to join his first 
niinistry,notwithsteDding thelukewarmneea 
of his ren^nt opposition to the Irish tithe 
bill (CourU andCabituU of William IV, u. 
119). He accepted the office of lord privy 
seal after receiving an assurance that the 
policy of the new ministry would be liberal 
in character (Qkevilli). In January 1836 
be acted as one of the committee to arrange 
the chureh reform bill. In April he retired 
with his colleagues, and remained in opposi- 
tion during the next six years. During 
these years Whamcliffe found time to edit 
the letters and works of his ancestress, 
Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu. His edition 
appeared m 5 vols, in 1837, and superseded 
Dtulaway's. It was reissued in 1661 and 

When Feel returned to office in tbe 
autumn of 1841, Whamcliffe became lord 
president of the council. In the conduct of 
his office he was, says Qreville, fisir, liberal, 
and firm. 'Hereallv, too, does tbe buainess 
himself.' On the other hand, he was not bo 
successful as leader in the upper house. Re 
was too liberal in education matters for tha 
high-church party,and had not weight enoogla. 
in the cabinet to enforce the ezeoution at 


Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie 113 


Ut TiewB. He took part anuut Feel in 
the cabinet diecuasions which preceded hii 
cbings of policy on the Bubiect of the com 
Utn, bttt the latter is mid to hare been 
Mnrnine u to his oltinute conveniou. On 
19 Dec 1S46 he died unexpectedly, of eup- 
precMdffont »nd ftpopleiy, «t Whimcliffe 
Home, Canon Street. Oreville, who knew 
him well, M*s no man ever died with fewer 
cwnieA. He had not fint-nta abilities, 
bat from his strong sense, liberal opinions, 
and ttt^^tforwaid conduct was much 
looted Tip to by the oountry g«ntlemea. 
Be gave signal proof of his personal conraf^ 
dtring the reform riots in Yorkshire. HiB 
party Bever forgave him his conduct daring 
the reform stmrole, and be was very un- 
jnstly charged with insincerity and double- 
dealmg; bat Feel clearly appreciated the 
■tnling worth of his character. He un- 
dodbudly did good service in obviating the 
Beeeaity for a creation of peers. Greville 
thinks be appeared to most advantage when 
be {R«TEDted the tory peers from overmling 
the kw lords in allowing (yConnell's release 
OB a writ of error. Ha had made a special 
(tody of erinuDal jorisprudence, and as a 
ifcsiiMii of qnaiter ■easions is said to have 

A poftnit of Whameliffe by Sir Francis 
Oiut,PJtA., belongs to the Earl of Wbam- 
diSe, Anotbar portrait was engraved after 
H. P. Briiwa by F. HolL 

'Wbancliffs married, in 1799, Ladv Caro- 
line ICuy Elizabeth Creighton, daughter by 
Ua sseood wife of John, first earl of Erne. 
She died OB 23 April 1S63. The iasae of 
the naRiBge was three eons and one daugh- 
ter, Oamline, who married the Hon. John 
Cbetwynd Tdbot. 

TIm eldest son, JOHff SlUABI-WOBTLBT, 

vcoBd Basou WEABiTCLirra (1801-1866), 
knson 20 April 1801, graduated B A. from 
Ckat Chncb, Oxford, m 1S32, with a first- 
«lMi iM mathematics and a second in classics. 
Be nnMBtad Boniney from 1833 to 1832, 
■ad Sb Weat Riding of Yarkshire from 
1811 tiH hia euoeeaaion to the peerage. He 
Kied with tba Uoskisson party till ap~ 
Mated seerMar7 to the board of control on 
18 FA 1830 in the last toiy ministry be- 
faetke BefoRB Bill. He shared his fiiUier's 
naws OB ^ n^orta queetion. He was an 
Hi Ml iMfiil eandidate for For&nhiie in 
18SS. lad twice failed to obtain election for 
Aa Wmt Biding of Yorkshire, but in 1841 
mt s seat triiunpli for his pwty in that 
woKiaaer. He "««• an enlighten^ ^- 
t^tmn and » cnltirated man. Besides 
_Uiifci«r pamphlP*" on the abolition of 
Stbitriceroyalty, <m «»• institution of 

tribunals of commerce, and a tetter to 
Philip PuBey on drainage in the 'Journal of 
the A^cultural Sooiety,' he was author of 
' A Brief Inquiry into the True Award of an 
Equitable Adjustment between the Nation 
and its Creditors,' 1633, 8vo, and translator 
and bditoT of Guiiot's ' Memoirs of George 
Uonk,' 1838, 8ro. He died at Wortley 
Hall, near ShefSeld, on 22 Oct. 1865. By 
his wife,GBOreiana, third daughter of Dudley 
Ryder, first ^rl of Harrewby [q. v.], he had 
three sons and two daughters. The eldest 
son, Edwsrd Montagu Granville Stoart- 
Wortley, bom on 16 Deo. 1827,'Traa on IS Jan. 
1876 created Earl <a Whamcliffe and Vi»- 
count Oarlton. 
The first Lord Whameliffe't youngest son, 


1881), was bom in London on 3 July 1806. 
He graduated B.A, from Christ Ohurch, Ox- 
ford, in 1828, and was soon after elected 
fellow of Kerton. He was called to the bar 
from tlie Inner Temple in 1831, and took silk 
tan years later. In 1844 he became counsel 
to the bank of England, and iu tbe following 
year was appointod solicitor-general to tbe 

Sieen-dowager and attorney-general to the 
Qchy of Lcmcaster. In 1846 he was sworn 
of the piivy council, and was judge-advocate- 
geneisl during the last months of Peel's 
second administration. In I860 he became 
recorder of London, and was solicitor- 
general under Lord Palmerston in 1866-7. 
From 1836 to 1837 he represented Halifax, 
and from 1843 to 1859 sat for Buteshire. 
He died at Beltou House, Grantham, on 
22 Aug. 1881. Stuart-Wortley married, in 
1846, tne Hon. Jane Lawley, only daughter 
of Paul Beilby, first lord Wenlock. Hia 
second son, Air. Charles Beilby Stuart- Wort- 
ley,Q.O., M.P. (6.1861), waBundeMecretarr 
for the home department from 1886 to 1892. 

Cfmwsp. vol. viii. ; QeoL Mag. lS4fl i. 302-4, 
18S6 il. 643 ; Corretrp. of Earl Grey with Wil- 
liam IV and Sir B. Ttjlos; Byall'^B Eminent 
CouaerratiTes (with portrait) ; Ann. B«g. 1881, 
ii. lB8-e ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] D. La O. N. 

STUBBS, OEORQE (1724-1806), animal 
painter and anatomist, tbe son of John 
Stubbs, a currier, was bom at Liverpool 
on 24 Aug. 1724, and brought up to his 
father's bnsiuess. He was scarcely ei^t 
years old when he began to study anatomy 
at his father's house in Ormond Street, 
liverpool, a neighbour, Dr. Holt, lending 
him bones and prepared subjects to draw. 
When fifteen bis fatoer gave way to his loa'a 
desire to be a painter, and died soon after- 
wards, leaving nis widow in comfortable cir- 


Stubbs i: 

cumatoncet. Shortlj afterward* George waa 
engamd b^ Hu^et Winatsnley to M«ist in 
copjmg pictQTM at Enowsl^ Hal), tiut 
•eat of the Bart of Derby. He ^as to ro- 
«eiTe inBtmetion, a nt*'!)! ^ a dar, and the 
choice of pictures to cop_7 ; but Winsbmlef 
afterwards rafiued to let him oopj the pic- 
turee be ehoM, and thej qnunellad, Stnbbs 
declaring that ' hano^onvord he would locli 
into nature for himself and consult and 
copT her only.' He lived witli hit mother 
at jQvoipool till he WM twenty. Ho then 
went to WigAQ) and stayed seven or eight 
months with Gt^tain Blaokbonme, who took 
* gr«at fancy to hiai firotn hia likeoesa to a 
eon whom he hod lately lost. After a brief 
rendence in Leeds, where he painted por- 
traita, he moved to York, where be studied 
■anatomy tinder Cniarlea Atkineon, and save 
lectures upon it to the students in the lios- 
pitAl. He also learnt fencing and French 
and maintained himself by his iiroteseion. I 
Being requestod by Dr. John Burto» to j 
illustrate his ' Euay towaids a complete new 
System of Uidwifur' (pnbUshed 1766), he 
taught himself etching, and executed tigk- 
teen small copperplates (a copy of the book, 
with the etchings, is in tiie libraij of the 
Rc^al College M Suigoons). From Yorii 
be removed to Hull, where he painted and j 
diaeeoted with his usnal assiduity, and after , 
a short visit to Liverpool set sail for Italy in I 
1754, in order to find out whether nature 
was Buperior to art. He went by sea to 
Leghorn, and thence to Rome, where he 
soon decided in favour of nature, and was 
noted for the strength and originality of hie 
opinions, which differed from thoee of every- 
body else. Though he did not copy any 
pcturea, he made many aketches from natme 
•nd life. 

"While in Italy he made fnends with an 
educated Moor, who took him to hia father's 
honse at Ceuta, from the walla of which, or of 
anotheFAfricantown,he saw alion stalk and 
seiie a wh ite Barbory horse about two hundred 
yards from the moat. This incident lormed 
the subject of many of his pictures. On his 
return ha settled at Liverpool for a while, 
and after his mother't deaUi came to Lon- 
don in 17S6, visiting Lincolnshire ou the 
way to point portraits for Lady Nelthorpe. 
He hod now a considerable reputation, and 
charged one hundred guineae for the por- 
trait of a horse. This was the price paid 
him by Sir Joshua Eeycolda for a picture of 
< The Managed Horse.' In 1768 he toc^ a 
formhonse near Barton, Lincolnshire, where 
ha began preparations for his great work on 
the ' Anatomy of the Horae, at which he 
was engaged for dghteen months, with no 

4 Stubbs 

other oompuion than his niece. Miss Marr 
Spencer. He ereoted an apparatus by whJob 
he could Buspand the body of a dead horse 
and alt^ the limbs to any position, as if in 
motion. He laid bare each layer of muscles 
one after the other until the skeleton was 
reached, and made complete and careful 
drawings of all. A great many horees 
were required before he had finished, and 
he carried the whole work through at hi* 
own expense tod without aesistanoe. At 
£rat he intended to oat his drawings en- 
graved by others, but he could not persuade 
any of the engravers of the day to take up 
the WDil, and so determined to execute aU 
the plate* with his own hand. This em- 
ployed his mornings and nights for six or 
seven years, as he would not encroach on 
the honra devoted to his ordinary profession 
of painting. 'The Anatomy of the Rorse' 
was published in 1766 by J- Purser (for tie 
author), and hod a great success. It was 
composed of eighteen tables, in folio, illus- 
trated br twenty-four lai^ ensraved platee. 
It was toe first to define clearly the struo- 
torol form of the horse. A second edition 
was published in 1863, and it is st^l an 
acknowledged authority on the subject. 
The original drawings for the plates wer» 
lefii by Stabbs to Miss Spencar; they sfter- 
wsrds belonged to Sir Edwin and Thomas 
Laudteec, by whom they were h^ly 

S'sed. Thomas Landseer left them to tho 
yal Academy, in whose library they ore 
now preierved. 

Meanwhile Stnbba's r^ntation as a painter 
of horaes had greatly increased. In 1760 he 
was at Eaton Hall, painting for Lord 
Groavanor ; and shortly afterwords he went 
to Goodwood on receiving a commission 
from the Duke of lUchmond, which is said 
to have been his first of importance. Hs 
stayed at Goodwood for nine months, during 
which time he executed a large hunting- 
piece, 9 feet by 6 fset, and many pop* 
traits. One of the lottei represented the 
Eori of Albemarle at loeokfast tha day 
before he embarked on his expedition to 
Havana in 1762. This was also the year 
of his picture of ' The Qrosvenor Hunt,' in 
which ore introduced portraits of Ixwl 
Qrosvenor, his brother tha Hon. Thomas 
Grosveno^ Sir Roger Mostyn, and 
others. He had now jmnad the Inocnr- 
porated Society of Artists of which ha was 
treasurer m 1760, and preudent (for on* 
year) in 1778. He vos a constant contribu- 
tor to the society's exhibitions from 1763 to 
1774, and was one of its stauncheet snp- 

Cortert. Besides numerous portrait* of 
ones, dogs, and other animals, ha ox- 


Stubbs I 

UUtel two pictures of ' Phaeton ' (1762 and 
17W1. 'HerculeB and Achelons' (1770), 
'Bone and Liion' (1763), 'A Lion seizing 
• e(«e'{1764),' A Lion Md Stag' (1766), 
*A Lion deronring a Stag' (1^^^)! ' * I-ion 
deromme a Horse' (1770), ftnd MTeral 
cthen of lions, lioneeaesj and tigen. In 
IT'S be bef[aa to exhibit at the Bo^al 
Acidemy, bis contiibutione cooaiating priu- 
dpoU; (^portraits of animals till 1780, when 
}ievu elected an associate. In the following 
Jtu he was elected to full honouis, but he 
resulted the application to himself of a rule 
made nibceqnent to his election, which re- 
qoina tbe presentation of a diploma work 
to the academy. He refused oi neglected 
to tend one, and liia election wu annulled 
ID • ■nrj ariiitTar7 manner, and another wu 
fleeted m his place. He alwsja maintained 
that he was entitled to the ranh of RA., 
bat Aa 17BS he appears in the cataloKues 
as an anoetate onlj, except in 1808, when, 
pn>fa«blj bj accident, the initials RA. are 
placed aft«r his name. Between 1782 and 
lr86 he did not send any work to the aca- 
^■Ky. The contribationa of his later years 
inHndad 'Reapers' and ' Haymakers ' (1786), 
a fair trf ;emre pictniee well known from his 

Xa 1771, at tJie si^geetioa of bla friend 
Ooawcf , the iiuniatnr»^int«r, he began to 
vaka cxpemnentB in enamel, with the view 
of eJM cutin y lai^ger pictmeB in that material 
tkan had bitbeito been attempted. His first 
wiaisnli w«m on copper, (me of which, ' A 
Uam dtronring a Horse,' was eihjMted in 
ItiC He ROW -went through a course of 
ihiMJirij, sad sncoeeded in obttuning nine- 
tMB etdovTS, kkJ, not being sBtlsfied with 
tha aie of toe sheets of oopper procurable, 
sf wUeb die lar^rest was ei^teen inches by 
tftw , he ap^ira to Wedgwood & Bentley, 
Aa eelebrated potters, who, after much 
tmaUe sod expense, succeeded in producing 
tahlrti at pottery three feet six mches by 
tva fwt six inches. Partly as a set-off to 
tfaae apeoMa, Wedgwood employed Stubbs 
t» |HM Us father, hie wife, and a family 
PMB^ od pitrcbaaad an enamel of ' La- 
•omu,' the whole transaction being con- 
eMad ud tb« balance paid on 7 May 1796 
fBauJlwrETAKDiIiifavJofia^ Wedfftoood). 
& alto paifft«d a tbxee-^uarter head of 
tmiik Wedgwood, life use, m enamel, which 
«w ownrad by his son Oe<wge Townlsy 
Btabb sod paUisbed in 1796. 

I» ITBO wilte undertook to punt for the 
'1W Rerivw' aQ c«debrated racehorses, 
tm tbe Oodolpl"" Aiahian down to his 
wn time, and 9,000;. was depoMted in a 
M far atf^>tm «> dxaw upon u hii work 

5 Stubbs 

progroesed ; but the outbreak of war caneed 
the scheme to be abandoned by its pnnnotera 
after Stubbs had completed sixteen pictures, 
indudine portraits of Eclipse, Qimcrack, 
8hark, Baronet, and Pumpkin. These were 
exhibited at the Turf Gallery in Conduit 
Street in 1794, and aH wen engraTed, four- 
teen out of the sixteen in two sites, one to 
auit the pages of the 'Reriew,' and in a larger 
sixe for framing (i^orfnijr Magaxine, January 
1794). After 1791, in which year he exhi- 
bited a portrait rf the Prince of Wales and 
three other worka, he did not contribute to 
the Royal Academy till 1799. He was now 
seventy-five years of age, but he went on 
exhibiting till 1 803, and m 1800 he exhibited 
the lai^«et of all his pictures, ' Hambletonian 
beating Diamond at Newmarket' (thirteen 
feet seven inches by eiaht feet two inches), 
which belongs to the Marquis of London- 
derry. His last exhibited work was ' Por- 
trait of a Newfoundland dog', the property of 
his royal highness the Duke of York,' In 
180S he was engaged on another anatomical 
work, of which only three of the six intended 
parte were completed before his death. It 
was to have been called 'A Comparative 
Anatomical Exposition of the Structure of 
the Human Boay with that of a Tiger and 
a common Fowl. In thirty Tables.' He re- 
tained the viaour of his mind and body till 
the last, and walked eight or nine miles 
the day before his death, which took place 
suddenly on 10 July 1806, at his house, 34 
Somerset Street, Portman Square, where he 
had resided since 1768. He was buried at 
St. Marylebone. 

Stubbs was a man of extraordinary energy, 
industry, and self-reliance. His talents were 
considerable and various, and his bodily 
strength very greiat, although we need not 
believe the tradition that he carried the whole 
carcase of a horse on his shoulders up three 
fiightsof a narrow staircase to his disaecting- 
room. Of his private life little is recorded, 
except that he was an intimate friend of Paul 
8andby[q.v.] George To wneley Stubbs [q.v.], 
the engraver, who was his son, reported that 
he drank only water for the last forty years 
of his life. As an animal-painter his reputa- 
tion was deservedly great, not only with 
the owners of the horses whose portraits 
he painted, but also with the pubBo. TTia 
' heroic' pictures Hike the 'Phaeton' and tha 
'Horse affrighted by a Lion') were veiT 
popular in thefonn of prints, some of which 
were executed by Woollet, Val Green, John 
Scott, and Hodges, and others by himself 
and his SOB. His rustic subjects, like the 
'Farmer's Wife and the Raven,' 'Labourers,' 
' Haymakers,' and ' Reapers,' all engraved by 


Stubbs I 

himself, were also popular. ButiBpe&king- of 
him M an artist, he was gieateat as a painter 
of animals, and greatest of all M a realietic 
painter of horses. He was probably the first 
painter who thoronghlv mastered their ana- 
tomj, and ha draw them with a lifaliks 
acourecj of form and moTement that hai 

StubWa moat important works 
chaoged hands since ther were painted. The 
king possesses fifteen, lour formerly in the 
stud house of Hsmptoa Court Palace (one 
of which contains a portrait of the Prineaof 
Wales on horseback), and eleven at Cumber- 
land Lodge, Windsor. The Earl of Rosebery 
has eleTen, including a portrait of Warren 
Hastings with his favourite arab,and another 
of EcUpsB. The Duke of Westminster has 
six, the Earl of Macclesfield eight, thoBuke 


six, including ' Whistle-jacket ' (li 
a bare canras), ' Horse attacked bj a Lion, 
and' Stag attaj^ed bja Lion,' both very laive 
pictures. Other posaesaors were Ur. B. N. 
Sutton Nelthorpe and Ur. Louis Huth. The 
king of Bavaria has the ' Spanish Pointer,' 
three times engraved, and the Duke of Rich- 
mood ha9 no less than three, which are all 
remarkable for their size (ten feet eight 
■Dches by twelve feet six inches). But the 
laivost collection of Stubbs's works belongs 
to Sir Walter Gilbey, who has no less than 
thirty-four (in oils and enamel) of famous 
horses and other subjects, including a ' Zebra,' 
Warren Hasting (enamel), and the large 
picture of Hercules capturingthe Cretan bull, 
which was painted, it is said, to show the 
academicians that he had as cousumnate a 
knowledge of the human form as of that of a 
horse. Stubbs presented to the Liverpool 
Society for the Encouragement of Acts a 
model of a horse executed by himself, for 
wbichthevawardedhimagoldmedal. There 
is a small out good example of Stubbs in the 
National Gallery (a white horse and a man 
in a landscape), and at South Kensington 
Musenm is a lo^e picture of alion and lioness, 
And another of a goose with outstretched 
wings. Thereareseveralportraitsof Stubbs: 
one by Thomas Chuhbord when he was 
young, and others by Olios Humphrey,Peter 
Falconet, Thomas Orde (Baron Bolton), and 
£liasj!iIartin(exhibitedattheRoyBl Academy 
in 1790 as 'An Artist and a Horse'). He 
ftlso painted a portrait of himself on a white 
hunter, which was sold at the sale of his 
[iroperty after his death. 

[Life ot Qeorgo Stubbs, B.A., by Sir Waltm 
Oilbey (prirately prioted) ; Memoir by Joseph 
Hayer; Sporting Alsg. Janniuy 1891 and So- 

6 Stubbs 

vember ISIO; Tjtndseer's Cuiuvors; MtaChly 
Bevier, 17B7; Usteyard'aUfe of Jonah Vtdg- 
wood; S«guier'B Diot. ; Bedgisva'a Diet ; B«d- 
graves' Caataiy; Pilkingtoo'sDict.; Brran'il^ct. 
ed. Armstrong; Sondby'aHist.of UieBonlAc*- 
demy; The Works of JamM Barry.] C. H. 

1816), engraver, bom in 1756, the son of 
George Stubbs [q. v.], engraved many of his 
father's pictures, and a few plates afterother 
painters, in meiiotint and in the dot manner. 
Between 1771 and 17S2 he exhibited five 
times at the Incorporated Society of Artists 
(mewotints and stained drawings), and once 
at the Koyal Academy. He died in 1816. 

[Bryan's Diet. ed. Armstrong; Bedgrave's 
Diet, i Graves's (Algernon) Diet. ; Qilbsj'a Lifa 
of Q«org« Stubbs, B.A. (privat«ly printed).] 

HENRY (16S2-1676), physician and author, 
was bom at Partney, Lincolnshire, on 28 Feb. 
1631-2, being son of Henry Stubbs or Stubbe 
(1606M67^[<].vJ At the commencement 
of the civil war m Ireland in 1641 his mother 
fied with him to Liverpool, whence she pro- 
ceeded to London on fooL She maintained 
herself by her needle, and sent her son to 
Westminster school. Therehe frequently ob- 
tained pecuniary relief from his scDootfellows 
as a remuneration for writing their exercises. 
Busby, the headmaster, was struck by his 
talents, and introduced him to Sir Heoiv 
Vane (1612-1662) [q. v.], who relieved his 
immediate wanta and ever afterwaida !»• 
mained his steady Mend. 

Stubbe matriculated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, 13 March 1650-61. While at the nnU 
veisity his reputation for learning increased 
daily, and he used to discourse fluently in 
Greek in the public schools. Afterproceed- 
ing B.A, 4 July 1663, he went to Scotland 
and served in the parliamentary army till 
1666. He commenced M.A. 13 Dec. 1656, 
and in 1657 he was appointed second keeper 
of the Bodleian Libra^ (Wood, Fatti Oxon. 
ii. 176, 193). About this time he was en.- 
gaged in writing against the clergy and the 
universities. For a ' pestilent boolc'of this 
sort, Dr. Edward Reynolds, dean of Christ 
Church [ij-V.], ejected him from his student's 
place and removed him &om the library to- 
wards the end of 1659, The works whicli 
he published before the Restoration -were 
directed against monarchy, ministers, uni- 
versities, churches, and everythins that Tvaa 
dear to the royalists ; yet it is said he wrote 
them oulof gratitude to his patron. Sir Henry 
Vane, rather than from principle or attach- 
ment to a party; for he gained nothing by 


Stubbs I 

th« ei*3 diflt arbancM, and ' was no frequenter 
cf KUTMiticlea.' 

Tpcn his ezpulaiOD from Christ Church he 
ntired to S tTAtfotd-upon- Avon and practiced 
pbjnc, which hod been bia study for aotue 
jaus. At the Restoisdou he tooli the oath 
of lUegUace {AddiL MS. 33669, f . 37), joined 
tlM ehurdi of Eiuland, bnd receiTed tue rite 
tt eoDfirination nrom George Morle; [q. v.], 
'bilkop of 'Woreester, who protected lum from 

ftweim •• king's phyaioiaD, but iU-health 
eoBpalled bim to return to England in 1665. 
Alts • (hort reudence in and near London, 

wdl aa at Bath, which he frsquent^d in the 
—— — *. ha enjoyed an exteneiTe practice. 
la 1973 hs was arreated and anfiered im-- 
priamment for writinn' and publiahing the 
' Puis Ossette,' in which he denounced the 
Hvkttd Torh'a marriafe with Princess Mary 
of Slodena. He was i&owned near Bath on 
IS Jily 1676, and was buried in the church 
at St Peter and St. Paul. His funeral aer- 
Bcn waa pre«dtod by the Bev. Joseph Glan- 
viQ (1636-1680) [q. v.], with whom he had 
be«B SMgaged in cODtrorereybyhiscoDtinusl 
■ttM^on the Boyal Society (BiBOH.i^^eii^ 
Ayfa, 1744, L 6&-60| ErxLJB,Diar!/, 1862, 

Hit friend Anthony i Wood deaeribea 
hha la ' the moat noted Latiniat and Qrecion 
ot hii aoe ... a ungular mathematician, and 
tbon^dy read in all political matters. 
'™"""'t, eccleaiastical, and profane histories. 
He wMalso 'accounted avery good physician.' 
Wiood adds : ' Had he been endowed with 
tammoa aobrie^ and discretion, and not 
Wfe "'*^** hiniaelf and his learning mer- 
eaoary and cheftp to every OTdinary and 
ifsnaat fellow, he would have been admired 
% all, aad tnigfat bftve pick'd and chus'd hia 
' 'tout all these thin^ bdng 


0. To 

ft Th. 


7 Stubbs 

dam Poemata,' Oxford, 1666, 8vo. Printed 

with the poems of Henry i3iri[head [q. v.] 
The same volume contains Stubbe's 'Deliciia 
Poeturum Anglicanorum in Grsecum tmns- 
latra,' which was reprinted at Oxford, 1668, 
8vo, with the addition of his ' Elegim Ronue 
et Veuetiarum.' 

Among his other works, which are ex- 
tremely numerous, may be mentioned : 4. 'A 
Severe Enquiry into the late Oneirocrittca i 
or, an eisct Account of the mmmatical 

g.rt of the Controverev between Mr, Thomas 
obbee, and John Wallia, DJ).,' Loudon, 
1657, 4to. 6. 'Vindication of . . . Sir Henry 
Tane from the Lies and Calumnies of Mr. 
Hichard Baiter,' London, 1669, 4to. 6. 'The 
Commonwealth of Oceana put in a Ballance 
and found too light. Or, an Account of the 
Bepublic of Sputa, with occa^onal Ani- 
madversions upon Mr. James Harrington and 
the Oceanistical Model,' Iiondon, 1660, 4to. 
7. 'The£adianNectar,oraDiscourBeconcem- 
ing Chocalata,' London, 1662, 8to. 8. ' The 
Miraculous Conformist; or an Account of 
several marvellous Cures performed by the 
Strooking of the Hands of Mr. Valentine 
Greatrakes,' Oxford, 1666, 4to. 9. ' Philo- 
sophical Observations made in his Sailing 
from England to the Carribe-Islouds, and in 
Jamdca, printed in ' Philosophical Trona- 
actions,' 1867, No. 27 and 1668, No. 36. 
10. 'Legends no Histories; or a Specimen, 
of some Animadversions upon the History 
of the Royal Society,' London, 1670, 4to: 
an attack on the ' History of the Royal So- 
ciety ' by Thomas Sprat [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Rochester. 11. ' An Epistolary 
Discourse concerning Phlebotomy, in opposi- 
tion to George Thomson, Faeudo-Chymist, a 
pretended Disciple to the Lord Verulam,' 
London, 167 l,4to. IS, 'Rosemary and Bavs; 
or, Ammadversions upon a Treatise call'd 
The Rehearsal transpros'd. In a letter to ft 
Friend in the Country,' London, 1672, 4to. 
18. ' A Justification [and a further Justifica- 
tion] of the present war against the United 
Net]ierliindsI'London,167a-3,4to. 14. 'An 
Accountof the Life of Mahomet,' manuscript 
in British Museum (ECarleian MS. 1S76), 

[Biogr. Scit, Supplement, p. ISG; Foster'v 
Alamni Ozon. 160D-1714, iv. 1439 ; J^wcdea'a 
Bibl. AIsn. (Bohn); Notes and Queriea, lat aer. 
vi. 391 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Macray's AnnaU of 
the Bodleian Libr. ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
(Phillimors), p. 133; Wood's Atheme Oion. iii. 
1068; Wood's Autobiogiaphy, p. ixxiz; Col- 
Tile's WarwiclBhire Wonhies, wi. 728-32.] 

T. 0. 
HENRY (1606 M678), ejected minUter, 
bom about 1606, waa eon of Henty Stubbes 


Stubbs I 

of Bltton in Olouceatenhire, and was bom t,t 

Upton in th&t county. He matriculated in 
April 1624, from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and 
graduated B.A. in 1628, and U.A. in leSO. 
He beoaniB Tector of Partney, LincolnsMw, 
but on the outbreak of the dvil wax he 
took the covenant, becoming mimBt«r of ^. 
Pbilip'a, Bristol, and afterwards of Ohew 
Ua^a, Somerset. In 1654 he was at Wells, 
acting as asaistant to the commissionen for 
ejecting acandaloua ministers. In 1662 bs 
was qected from Durslev, where he was 
{Usistant to Joseph Woodward. Be then 

{reached in I^ndou for some time. In April 
673 his house in Jewin Street was licensed 
as a pteabyterian meeting-house (Cai. State 
i^per»,Dom.l672,pp.27l,326). The bishop 
of Gloucester subsequently connived at lua 
officiating at Horseley,Glouceat«rshiTe. He 
died in posaession of the vicarage of Horse- 
ley on 7 July 1678, and was buried in Bun* 
hill Fields. His eon Henry is separately 
noticed [see Stubbs, Hewht, 1632-1676]. 

Stubbes's chief works were : 1. ' ABiseoa- 
aive from Conformity to the World,' London, 
1676, 8to, to which were appended < Ood's 
Severity agaJnst Man's Iniquity ' and ' God's 
QraciousineBenoe the Saints great Privilege.' 
2. ' Great Treaty of Peace. . . . Exhortation 
of making Peace with God,' London, 1678-7, 
tivo. 8. ' Conscience the best Friend upon 
Earth,' London, 1677, ISmo; 1684, 24moi 
1840, 12mo; and in Welsh, 17Ifi, I2mo. 

[Calamy's Accoont^, 31S ; Foster's Alamni 
Oxon. 1C00-1T14; Wood's Athenn Oxon. ui. 
12^5; Mnrch'a Preabyteriaaiam in the West of 
EuKlaod; Baxter's Funeral Sermon on Stnbbee 
in Practical Works, vol. iv. ; Holy and Profitabls 
Sayings of that TLey. Dirino Mr, S., London, 1878 ; 
J. A, Jones's Bimhill Memorials.] W. A. S. 

1691), puritan lealot, bom about 1543 in 
Norfolk, waa son of John Stubbe, a countiy 
gentleman of Buzton, Norfolk, by his wife 
lUixabetb. AsisterwaswifeofThomasCart- 
wright the puritan [q.v.J John matrionlated 
at Cambridge as a pensioner of Trinity Col- 
lege on IS Nov. 1665, and graduated BA. 
esj-ly in 1561. Although he studied law at 
Lincoln's Inn, be chiefly resided in Norfolk, 
and made his home in the manor-house of 
Tbelveton, which he inherited from his fiither, 
together with other estat«s at Buxton and 
elsewhere in the county. An ardent puri- 
tan of some learning and literary taste, he 
in 1674 seems to have published s trans- 
lation of the 'Lives of the Archbishops of 
Canterbury' which John Joscelyn [q. v,], 
Archbishop Parker's secretary, had drawn 
np in Latin, and incorporated in the arch- 
bishop's ' DflAatiqtiitttitBBttiuiiMP Eonlfltigt ' 

[6 Stubbs 

(1673), SnbMqnently Stnbbe developed » 
fiery zeal agunst Catholicism which led him 
into • dangerons mtoation, He viewed with 
dismay the negotiations for Queen Elisabeth^ 
marriage with tlie Duke of Anjoo, whidi 
were in progress from 1678 onwards. la 
August 1679 he pulilished a protest in a 
pamphlet wliich he entitled ' The Biacoveii* 
of a gaping gulf whereinto England is like 
to be swallowed bv another French maria^ 
if the X«rd forbid not the banes by lettmg 
her maiaatie see the mn and puntshment 
thereof. Stubbe wrot« of die queen in 
t«Tma of loyalty and affection, but fieely dis- 
cussed questions of policy, vimlently de- 
nounced the French duke, and especially 
rcrussd the queen's rSBentmsnt by referring 
to die undue influence that a husband would 
be likely to assert over her, and the impro- 
bability that at her age she could besz 
childrao. On27Sept.l579aroyalpToolama- 
tion prohibited the cdrcnlation oi Stubbe'a 
panqinlet, and on 18 Oct. following Stubbe, 
wiUi his publisher, "Williain Page, and his 
printer, Hugh Singleton, was tried at Wesb- 
minster on a charge of disseminating sedi- 
tions writings, under the act 2 PhiBp and 
Mary, which was passed to protect 'the 
queen's husband'&om Ubellousattack. He 
court held that the statute applied equally 
well to ' the queen's suitor.' The three do- 
fendant* were found guilty, and were sen- 
tenced to have their right handa cat off. 
Many lawyers questionea the legality of the 
proceedings on the ground that the statute 
under which the men were indicted waa * 
temporary measure passed for the protection 
of Iiiilip during Queen Mary's lifetime, and 
was abrogated by Qusen M^'s death. On« 
of the judges of the eommon pleas, Robert 
Monson[q.v.l, openly asserted this vieWjOnd, 
having been ia consequence sent to the Fleet 
prison, was removed from the benoh on i»- 
fuung to retract (cf. Cum B]f'8,^nnalM,tran»- 
laud 1625, bk. iii. 14-16). Meanwhile Sin- 
gleton was pardoned, but on 3 Nov.^tobba 
and Page were brought from the Tower to 
a scoflbld set up in the market-place at Wee^ 
minster. Before the barbarous sentence was 
carried out Stubbe addressed the bystanders. 
He professed worm attachment to the queen, 
and the loss of bis hand, he added, would ia 
no way impair his loyalty (see his speeoh in 
EABUfOIOir's Nug» Antigua). V/bea ha 
ceased speaking-he and Page' had thsirright 
hands cut off by the blow of a butcher's 
knife (with a mallet) struck thvongh theis 
wrists. ' I can remember,' wrote Stow tba 
ohronicler, who was present, 'standing by 
John Stubbe [andlso soon as bis right hand 
was off, [he] put off hift hot with hia left, and 


Stubbs i: 

eryed aloud " God save the queen." The 
people round about stood mule, whether 
stricken -with fesr at the first si^t of this 
kiul of ponishment, or for commiserfitiDQ of 
the man 'whom they reputed honest ' (Stow, 
Antule»,ie06, p.lieS; the dato iBwrouffl; 
^ren 1581). Page, when his bleeding 
ttmnp was being seared with hot iron, ex- 
dniined, ' There lies the haad of a true Eng- 
lishman.' Stubbe was carried bftck to th« 
Towtc in a ttate of inMnsibllitj. Hia wife 
ninlr petitioned the queen for his release. 
On 81 Ang. 1580 he appealed to Lord 
BaTEhler for his discharge, on the ground 
«f hia wife's ill-health. He repeabed the 
Tt'qiiext on S Doc. in an appeal to the lords 
of the council, and he was set at liberty 
•ana moDtha later, after an iaprisonmeut 
of eigtit«en months. 

Srabbe's fidelity to his soTereira answered 
an tuts. Persecution bo brutal and unde- 
•emd £uled to excite in him any lastini 
rambnent. He could now write only witi 
his kft hand, and added the word 'SciBTa 
to bit signature. But he leadil}' accepted 
theiiTitation of his former perseentor Burgh- 
I^T to pen an answer to Cardinal Allen'i 
* DeftoOT of the English Catholics.' He it 
also stated to have aided William Chaike 
'a. T.l in his ' Anaweie to a Seditions Pam- 
i^Iei' by Edmimd Campion {a. t.] (1680), 
and J^in Nicholls [q. v.] in his ' Recanta- 
tioa'(168I). EieBS coDtroversial, but equally 
indicatfTe of his puritan piety, was bis trans- 
latim fi«ni the French of Theodore Beia' 
' M«ditatkMU on Eight of the Psalms,' which 
fce dedicated from his house at Thelveton, 
«■ SI May 1682, to Anne, wife of Sir 
Kichidas Bacon, the lord Icesper. It was 
not printed, and the manuscript ia now at 

Meanwhile Stubbe played some part ia 
aamopal and political affain is Norfolk. 
He was sub-steward of tihe borough of Great 
Tsimonth in 1688-9, and was elected mem- 
h<T of pariiauient for the borough early in 
UW. He paid occasional risite to France, 
mi is laid to hvra at length volunteered for 
■ifit a ty s at ice there in behalf of Henry IV. 
He fad in 1591 at HaTn,soon after hia 
■ninL He was buried with militaiy 
bpooam on the seaehoie. 

By his wift Ajine he had two sons, 
Cdanad and Francis. Two sons of the 
Utter, Edmund (d. 1669) and Wolham (d. 
171S), were f^lows of Trinitj' College, 
Chnbidgei Jobn'e widow is sftid to have 
HRsd one Anthony Stapley. 

rOwper'B Athenjo Cantabr. JL 1 1 1-1 3 ; etrype'B 
Jbnl); HaUsm's Conetitational Hiat ; Betn> 
»«i«BaTWw. Bowew. ",407.] ». L. 

9 Stubbs 


1681-1593), puritan pamphleteer, bom pro- 
bably about 1666 ' of genteel parents,' is said 
by Wood to have been ' abrother or near kina- 

that of his father. He 'was mostly educated 
IK Cambridge, but, having a restless and hot 
head, left that muTersity, rambled thro' 
several parts of the nation, and settled for a 
time in Oion, particularly, as I cooceire, in 
Qloster Hall' (Wood, AOmte, ed. BUsg; 
i. 646). He did not gi^duats at either uni- 
versity, and soon resumed his roving habits, 
his object being, in his own words, ' to tee 
fashions, to acqaainte myeelfe with naturea, 
qusiitiee, properties, and conditions of all 
men, to breaJce myselfe to the worlde, to 
leame nurture, good demeanour, and cyuill 
behaviour; to lee the goodly situation of 
citties, townes, and countryes, with tbeu 
prospects aad oommodities ; and finally to 
leame the stats of all thingea in geneisl, all 
which I could neuer haue learned in one 
place' (Anatomie qf Abiust, ed. FornivaU, 
p. 23). In 1688 ha declared tJiat he had 
spent ' seven winters and more trsuailing 
from place to place euen all the land ouer? 
Stubma's career as an author began before or 
in 1681, about which year he published in the 
form of a braadaide a ballad entitled ■ A 
feareiiill and terrible example of Gods iuste 
iudgement executed vpon a lewde FeUow, 
who vsually accustomed to svreare by Soda 
Blood. ... A copy belonged to Payae 
Collier, who reprinted it in hia ' Broadeida 
Blad(-letter Ballads,' 1868. A copy of a 
second edition, dated 1681, is in Lambeth 
Library ; it is bound up witli Stubbes's 
second work, also a ballad, the two being 
mtitled ' Two wunderf uU and rare esamplea 
of the undeferred and present approching 
iudgement of the Lord our Ood . . ,' Iion- 
don, 1681, 4to. The titles sufficiently indi- 
cate the character of the ballads. The second 
ballad treated of one Joan Bowser of Don- 
ington, Leiaaaterahire, who inatjtuted legal 
proceedings against Stnbbesfor his reflections 
on her (Zom&utm M8. 819, ff. 86-BA). Of 
a thiri work, ' A View of Vanitie, and 
Allainm to England or Batrait &om Sinne, 
in Si^Ush verse \ef Phil. Sbibe, London, by 
T. Purfiiot,' 1563, 8vo ; no copy is known to 
be extant. 

Id 1688 was puUiahed Stubbes's most im- 
portant book. It was entitled ' The An»- 
tomia of Abuses; containiag a IHseoverie, 
or Briefe Summarie of such Notable Vices 
and Imperfections as now raigne in many 
Countreyes of the World ; but (eapeoiallye) 
famoaaUaadeoalledAitgna [t.a. Aiigua] 


Stubbs I 

. . . together with . . . exftinplet of Gods 
JudKementB . . . made Dialoguewise . . .' 
blat^ letter, R, Jones, London, 1 Maj 16S8, 
4to-, dedicated to Philip, eul of Arundel. 
The success of this book evoked a second 
edition on 16 Aug. in the Bame year. A 
third edition 'newly augmented' appeared 
in l&84[-6], and a fourth edition in 1695. It 
was reprinted in 1836 by W. D. Tumbull, 
and again in 1870 with an introduction by 
J. Payne Collier, and «dit«d with elaborate 
'forewords' and notes for the NewShak- 
spere Society by Dr. F. J. FurnlTall, 2 pts. 
1877, 1683. In the preface to the first edi- 
tion Stubbea protetta that his object is not 
to abolish all amusements, but only abuses 
of them ; he admitted that some plays were 
useful, ^t dancing in private was allow- 
able, and that gaming was only wrong 
when ' inflamed with coTeytousnesa.' But in 
all subsequent editions this preface was 
omitted, and Stubbes's atricturea and inveo- 
tives marked him out as a typical exponent 
of extreme puritanic views. He waa popu- 
larly Bsaociated with the Martin Mar-I^late 
lealots, and was mercilessly abused in 'An 
Almond for a Parrat,' a pamphlet published 
in 1689 and attributed both to Lyly and to 
Maahe. In the aame year Naahe published 
an equally vehement attack on Stubbes in 
his ' Anatomie of Abeurditie,' while Gabriel 
Harvey in his ' Pierce's Supererogation,' 
169S, defended him and classed bim with 
' Mulcaster, Norton, Lambert, and the Lord 
Henry Howarde, whose seusrall writings, 
the siluer tile of theworkeman recommendetJi 

the encyclopedic information it supplies as 
to manners, customs, and fashions in Eng- 
land towards the end of the sixteenth cen- 


.n the same year 0^83) Stubbes published 
other works, ' The Rosarie of Christian 
Praiers and Meditations . . .,' London, by 
John Charlewood, ISmo, ofwhich nocopy is 
known to be extant, and ' The Second Part 
of the Anatomie of Abases.' He also con- 
tributed verses to the 1583 edition of Foxe's 
' Actes and Monumentes.* In 1684 he pub- 
lished ' The Theatre of the Pope's Monarclue, 
by Phil. Stubhee,' London, 8vo, of which no 
copy is known to be extant, and in 1686 
' The intended Treason of Doctor Parrie and 
his Complices against the Queenes Most 
Excellente Maiestie, with a Letter sent from 
the Pope to the same effect,' London, 4to 
[see Pakki, Williau, d. 1685]. lliis was 
reprinted in the 'Shakeapeare Society's 
IWrs,'iiL 17-21. 
For six yeusStubbea's pen remuned idle. 

o Stubbs 

In the autumn of 1686 he married. In the 
license, which was dated 6 Sept. 1580, 
Stubbes was described as ' gentleman, of St. 
Mary at Hill, London,' and his wife as 
'Katherine Emmes, spinster, of the same 

r'lh, daughter of William Emmes, late of 
Dunstau in the West, cordwainer, de- 
ceased.' Emmee was also a freeman of tho 
city of London, and befmeathed some pro- 
perty to his children, of whom Katherine 
was the third child bat eldest daughter. 
She was onl^ fifteen years of age at hei 
marriage, which she survived four years, 
being buried on 14 Bee. 1590 at Barton-on- 
Trent, six weeks after the birth of a son 
named John, who was baptised in the sum 
church on 17 Nor, 

Stubbes now resumed literary work, and 
bis first book was a life of his wife, entitled 
' A Christal Glosse for Christian Women, bv 
P. S., Gent.,' London, 1691, 4to. The book 
proved even more popular than the ' Ana- 
tomie of Abuses ; ' a second edition appeared 
in 1692, and others in 1600 (?), 1606, 1629, 
1633, and 1646. Lowndes mentions an edi- 
tion of 1647 with portnut by Hollar. In 
1592 Stubbes issued ■ A Perfect Pathway to 
Felicitie, conteining godly Meditations and 
praiers fit for all times, and necessarie to be 

fractized of all good Christians,' London, 
6mo ; another edition, with fifteen new 
prayers, was issued in lolO, and some of the 
prayers were printed by Dr. Fumivoll with 
the ' Anatomie ' in 1877-82. Stubbea's last 
book was 'A Motive to Good Works, or 
rather, to true Chriatianitie,' London, 1593, 
8vo ; reprinted 1883, 4to, from a manuacript 
copy in the library of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge (cf. Colubr, Bibliogr. Cat. U. 
400-401). In that year (1693) Stubbes waa 
lodpn^ ' by Cheapside ' on 8 Nov. Collier 
maintained that be died of the plague soon 
afterwards ; but it is probable that he waa 
alive in 1610, and that he himself added the 
fifteen new prayers to the edition of his 
' Perfect Pathway to Felicitie ' published in 
that year. 

iUoat of ths information available haa bean 
ected in Dr. Faroivall's ' Forevorda ' to bia 
edition of the Anatomie of Abusoa. See alao 
Slubbea's Works in Brit. Hns. IJbr. ; Bodlaian 
Cat. ; Cat. Huth Libr. ; Collier's Bibliogr. Cat^ ; 
Hulitt's Handbook, Ckillectiona, and Notes; 
Arber'a Transcript of the SCationeia' Resiatera; 
Wood's Alhon* Oion. ed. BIi«s, i. 645 ; Chest«r'» 
Loadon Marriage Licences.] A. F. F. 

STDBBSL PHILIP (1665-1738), Moh- 
deacon of St. Albans, was son of Philip 
Stubbs, citizen and vintner of London. Bom, 
on 2 Oct. 1666, during the plague, in the 
parish of St. Andrew Undershait, Loadon, 


Stubbs I 

be «u edacued fkiiD 1678 to 1662 at iler- 
cbiint Tajlon' school, uid oroceedcd m 
K ccmiBOner to Wadtuun College, Oxford, 
on 33 Much 1682-S. la the fallawiog ye^r 
he WH elect«d acholar of that college, gnr 
dii>l«d B.A. in 16S6, M.A. in 1689, Wime 
bUow in 1091, and proceeded B.D. in 1722. 
Ob taiang holj orders be was appointed 
nnte in the united pariahsB of St. Benet's 
GtM«cl>iirch ud St. Leonard's Eaetcheap, 
■nd VI* aftarvarda chaplain successively to 
Dr. Robert Grove, bishop of Chichester, and 
t« CiMTge, «arl of Himtmgdon. From 1694 
to liiSf h« was rector of Woolwich, and, 
owiiss: doubtless to the keen interest which 
hr tiieiweforth evinced in seamen and their 
wtUm, waa chosen first chaplain of Green- 
wich HJospital, an ofBce which he held until 
his daath. Oa lesiTing Woolwich he was 
pTMCnted br the bishop of London to the 
recto; of St. Alphsfte, London Wall, to 
which «■• added in 1705 the parish of St. 
JaoMS QarUckhithe. Steele, happening one 
SimdiT to be present in the latter church 
wbn Stabbs was officiating, was so im- 
jamjij that he highly eulc^ised him in the 
' ^eelator,' uid proposed him as an example 
In all fcr his rvatTing of the service. In 1715 
he WH pm&rTed to the archdeaconi; of St. 
Albwu, utd four years later the bishop 
of Londoo collated him to the recton oi 
LaantoD, Oxfordshire, which he held for 
■iartftm yaftTS, and was absent only when 
■lahiai the vearly visitation of his arch- 
deMUuij , and when his duties as chaplain 
called him to Greenwich. He died at the 
latter ^ac« on 13 Sept. 1738, and was buried 
in tbe old burialr^TODnd of the hospital, bis 
tanUtme being still preserved in the meuso- 
Isoa. A stained glass window has recently 
hsaa erected to his memory in Launton 
cbach. Bia portrvt was painted W T. 
llatny in 1713, and engraved Dy John laber 

StaUM married, in 1696, Mary, daughter 
efJaha Itlllis, rector of West Homdon, 
Ebo. Sia nwived her hnsband for twenty- 
«■• yean, dtuio^ which she lived in the 
BnnkT CoUwe for clergymen's widows, 
^ £(d ia 17&, aged 96. By her he had 
two nrriring aons and one dauf^ter. The 
snhlianMi'ii oalj sister, Elizabeth, married 
Aalaase Boawicke [q. tA the elder, non- 
inor, bead master <» Merchant Taylors' 

StaU« warn an earnest and eloquent 
■liiilii I j~A setive minister at a time when 
wiinw at a low ebb in the church of Eng- 
U. Ha published many separate serm 
mi addreM («e« -Wx-rfs Sibt. BHt.), 
«fl u a ooDected Tolnme of 

I Stubbs 

1704 (8vo). His sermon, ' God's Dominion 
over the Seas and the Seaman's Duty,' 
preached at LoDgreoch od board the Royal 
Sovereign, reached a third edition, and woa 
translated into French and distributed among 
the French seamen who were prisoners at 
the time. He was one of the earliest pro- 
moters of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and drew up 
the first report of its proceedings in 170S, 
for which he received a special vote of thaiLbs, 
and was selected to preach the sermon in 
St. Paul's on Trinity Sunday 1711, the day 
appointed by the queen for a collection in 
the city for that society, afterwards pub- 
lished under the title 'The Divine Mission 
of Gospel Ministers.' Ha also took an active 
part in the development of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge. He inte- 
rested himself in the education of the poorer 
children of his flock, and he was instrutnen- 
tel in founding dav schools in the parishes 
of St. Alphage and St. James, as well as in 
Bicester, near Launton. 

Stubbs was elected F.R.S. on 30 Nov. 
1703, and was interested in literature and 
areheeology (cf. Hgisne, Collectanea, ed, 
Doble. U. 33,S4,39). Some manuscript let- 
ters ii«m him are preserved in the Bodleian 
Library, addressed to Dr. Robinson, bishop 
of London; Heame,the antiquary; Walker, 
the author of ' Tlie Sufi'erings of the Clergy,' 
and others. There are also several in the 
British Museum, some to X>r. Warley, arch- 
deacon of Colchester. 

[Wood's AtbeDEE Oion. ii. IIOS; Spectator, 
No. 147 ; Koblnsoa'B Iteg. of Merchant Taylors' 
School; MoClurs's Minutes of S.F.C.K. for 
laeS-lTOi; LjBuas's Environs of Loudon, ii. 
425, S14, 591; Mayor's Ambrose Itonwieke 
(18T0); Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
Arth^ologia CautiaDS, vol. xviii.; private in- 
formation.] H.8. 

STUBBS, THOMAS C^.1373),chronicler, 
is said by Bale to have beenanative of York- 
shire and a Dominican ftiar. Canon Baine 
thinks he may possibly be identical with the 
Franciscan lliomas de Stoubbee who was or- 
dained priest st Dnrham on 13 Jan. 1314 
(HUtonam of Yi^k, ed. Raine, toL ii. p. 
xxiii). If so, he must have cban^d hie 
order. He was certjunlv a Dominican in 
1381, when Bishop Hatneld made him one 
of the executors of his will {Tettamenta 
Eboracetttia, i. 122). The reference confirms 
Bale's statement that Stubbs was a doctor 
of divinity, bnt it ia not known of which 
university. A number of works are attri- 
buted to him by the sixteenth-century literary 
biographers, but the only one that appears to 
be now extant is his ' Chronicle of the A rch- 





tiahops of York.' Nona of the mumscripts 

ixentioD him as the author, but Bale's 
jucriptioa is gener&llj accepted for the latt«i 
part of the chronicle from Paulinus to 
TboTeaby, the whole of irhich he asaigned 
to Stubbs. ly^eden did the same in his 
edition of the chronicle in the 'Decent 
Scriptores ' (1662), but the subsequent dls- 
«over7 of a twelfth-century man uscript end- 
ing with Archbishop ThucEtan {Bodl. MS. 
Digby, 140} pTOTsd that Stubbs onlj con- 
tinued the work from 1 147 (Taknbb, p. 697 j 
StbtriaTit of York, Tol. ii. p. zxi). It ap- 
pears from the preface in some of the manu- 
scripts (a list of which ia given by Canon 
lUina) that Stubbs had originallj intended 
to CMTV it down only to the death of 
Archbishop Zouche in 135S, but ha after- 
-wards added a Lfe of Archbishop Tboresby, 
which brought it down to 1378. It was 
afterwards continued to Wolsey. A critical 
edition of the whole chronicle was published 
%y Canon Saine in 1886 in the Rolls Series 
as part of the second volume of the ' His- 
torians of the Church of York and its Arch- 

The odier works attributed to Stubbs by 
Leiaud, Bale, and Fits are: 1. 'Statutum 
«ontra impugnantes ecclesiasticae constitu- 
'tiones' or 'Contra statutorum eocleeisa im- 
ptignatores.' 3. 'Do Stipendiisprtedicatori- 
hus verbi debitis.' 3. ' De perfectione vitn 
solitarite.' 4. ' De arta moriendi.' 6. 'Madi- 

tationea qutedam pro coosolationa 
plativorum,' 6. 'In revelationes Brigidw.' 
7. 'Be Miaaricordia Del' 8. 'Super Cautica 

<!anticorum.' 9. ' Sermoaes de Sanctis.' 
10. 'Sermones da tempore.' 11. 'OlEcium 
■completum cum missa de nomine Jesu.' 
13. ' Officium de B. Anna.' 13. 'De pcenis 
-peregrinatiouis hujus vitae.' 

[Lelacd'sCommciitarii deScriptoribnsBritan- 
oicis; Bale, Da Scriptonbns SlajoriB BritanniEe, 
od. ISSe ; Pits, Da lUustribns Angliie Soriptori- 
buB ; Taanei's Blbiiothacs Scriptorimi Brit.'Hib. ; 
flthar anthoritiesio the text.] J. T-r. 

(ff. 1630), vice-admiral of Devonshire, was 
eldest son of John Stucley of Affeton in 
Devonshire, and Frances St. Legei, through 
whom he was related to all the laadinv 
familiee of the west of England. His gran£ 
fether Lewis (1530P-1681) was vounger bro- 
ther of Thomas Stucley [q-v,] The younger 
Lewis was knighted by James I when on 
liis waj to London in 1608 (Mbtcaut, 
£ook of KniqhU),nni iiil617wasappointcd 
ntuurdian of Thomas Rolfe, the infant son of 
Pocahontas [sea Rolfh, Johs]. In June 
1618 he left London with verbal orders 

from the king to arrest Sir Walter Ralegh 

[q. T.], then arrived at Pl^onth on his n~ 
turn from the Orinoco. He m«t Ralegh at 
Aahburton, and accompanied him back to 
FIvmouth, where, while waiting for farther 
oraers from the king, Ralegh att«mpt«d to 
escape to France ; but, relinqniehiuff tba 
idea, Ralegh returned to his arrest, aaa wad 
taken up to London, where he was fbr a 
short time a prisoner at laige. Aft«rwards, 
on attempt!^ to esc^e, he was lodged ia 
the Tower. 

Stucley, in whose charge Ralcoh was, hai 
been greatly blamed for his conduct in this 
matter. He has been represented as a mean 
spy, professing friendship in <»deT to worm 
himself into Ralegh's confidence, which ho 
betrayed to the king. For this there do«a 
not appear to be any solid foundation. On 
the contrary, it appears that Stucley, althoogli 
Ralegh's cousin, was appointed his warden 
not only as a vice-admiral of I)eTondiira,but 
ashavinganold grudge against Raleghdating 
from 1684, when Ralegh did his fhtli«r, John, 
then a volunteer in Sr Ridiord Oreynvile'a 
Virginia voyage, 'extreme injury' by de- 
ceiving him of a venture he had in ths 
Tiger [see GfiBtiviLLB, Sib Biosabd]. It 
has been said that Stucley wiabed to let 
Ralef^ escape in order to gain credit for r«- 
srresting him. But a gaoler does not gain 
credit by allowing his prisoner to escape, and 
Stucley's refusal of the bribe which Ralef^b 
offered him at Salisbury on the way to Ltm- 
don may be taken as evidence that Rolegli 
knew that Stucley was not on his side. l£, 
aft«r that, he chose to give Stucley hia con* 
fidence, he could only expect it to be ))•• 
trayed. Stucley certainly gave hostile, but 
not neoessarilj tklse, evidence against Ra- 
legh. Noone will pretend that Stuclaj'scini- 
duct was ehivalrooa, but it aeons to have 
been very much what might have been ex- 
pected from an honest but narrow and vulgnr 
minded man who belisved that he had an 
injurydouetohisihtherto redress. Popular 
opinion, however, ideoliung Ralegh, vented 
on Studey the indignation which conld not 
be exproased against the king. To the public 
he was Sir Judas Stucley, and it was r*> 

Krted, ptobably folsMy, that eren the kin^ 
d said to him ' hia blood be on thy head? 
As vice-admiral of Devonshire he had occa* 
sion to caii on the old Barl of Nottinahanti 
who, addressing him as ' Thou base f^owl 
thou scorn and contempt rfmeat' threatenecl 
to cudgel him for b^g 'so saitcy'aa to 
oome into his preienoe. Stacley complaiiiM] 
to the king, who answered, 'What wouldst 
diou have me doP Wonldat thou hvr* 
me bang bimP On my soul, if I ahoul^l 



buif til that speiOc ill of thee, all the trees 
inth<?M)iintTywoiildnotBuffica.' iDJanoary 
ItllS-lS Stuclej and hie $on ware charged 
with dipping coin. Hie enemies exulted ; 
fcr tiam at least the Kallowa would claim 
hiiD aa theic own. The eha^ ma; have 
bMB trae, tfaon^ he Menu to have been 
coodemned b^ acdamati<ai on the very 
dombtful evidence of a eerrant who bad for- 
nMcW been nnployed as a epj on Ralegh. 
Th> tug p08»blT took this into eonaidera* 
bon: poesiblj ne thought that he owed 
Stncief aomethbg for hii service agaJnet 
Sale^ Ho pardoned him, and Studev, an 
«u>eaM from aocie^ in London, weot down 
to DVTDMbire. The popular hatred pursued 
hna aval to Affeton, ana he fled to hide his 
riiane in the lonely ieland of Lnndj, where 
he diad ia the coma* of 1620, iSTing mad it 
vaa nid. 

Stmisj mumd IHnces, eldest danghter 
of Auheny Monck of Fotheridge in Davon- 
■hire, lad aister of Sir Thomas, the father of 
OecB^ Monck, doke of Albemarle [q.v.l 
^ her he had iasne, and the family is still 
StDclej otASIotoa. 

[ChL State Papen, Dom. ; The Humble Peti- 
tMD asd iDfonnsticn of Sir Z^wti Stucley, knt., 
Tk»*dmirml of Deronahire, in Har). Misc. iii. 
W-S; VtriuM'm Viaitationi of Btnon, ISSS. pp. 
rxi-S; Gaidinar'a HUtoir of England; Bped- 
dBg'i lib of Bseon ; Boiie'a Baronetage.] 

J. K, L. 

sruouErr m stukelt, thomas 

(IG^F-1&7&), adTenturer, btnn probaUy 
■bom WaSf iras third of the five sons of 
Sir Hv^ Stncley or Stukely (d. 1660) of 
A&tan, sen Dnaoombe, DeTODSbira, and 
til wife Jan^ second dau^ter of Sir Lewia 
PtAaid [a. T.J (ViTIAlT, Vititatiofu t>f Be- 
mmUn. ISM^ p. 721). It was reported 
dariiy StiMlsy** lifetime that he was an iUe- 
ptiiMte son of Seiaj VXEI, an hypothesis 
tbat ree M Tea aome alight support from the 
faailiarifj- with which Stncley treated, and 
waa tnated by, the rarioua sovereigns with 
wkon he esne into contact (SuFsoir, pp. 
&-ff). Hia early life IB obecuro ; the author 
•f ^ -LA and Death of Captain Thomas 
Stnloltr^' mabee hini 'a member of the 
Tiaafk ; ' tb« bBllad-ivrit«r saya he was ser- 
not to a bislum in the west, and Maurice 
GiUwtt. tbe arcbbuhoip of Caahel, describes 
kiBMhaTing beentt retainer to the Sukeof 
SiftA (La. Olwrlee Bnndon [q. v.]), until 
tttdiik^sdeMtlifail646. He probably served 
kiSUSat&o ^egeot Boulogne, where he 
Mi a iUMlard-bearer witli wages of 6f . 6ii. a 
in bom 1M7 until its eBrrendei to the 
Fl«ch in Mareb 1549-fiO. He was acting 
hsnilar oijMMity on the Scottish borden 



in IG60, and in May he escorted the Marquis 
du Maine through England to Scotland 
(AcU of the Priinf Onaidl, ed. Dasent, u. 
412, iii. 26, 48), Before 1651 he had 
entered the service of the Dnke of Somraset, 
and on 21 Nov. a month after the duke'a 

France. There his conduct, possibly at the 
nega of Metz, brought him under the notice 
of Henry II, who in August 1563 strongly 
recommended him to Ed^ntrd VI ( Cal. Stat* 
Papers, Foreign, 1647-58, pp. 92, 218, 
221). The French lung's design in sendiu; 
Stucley to England was to obtain tluough 
him information that might be useful in bJis 
projected attempt on 0ami8,but Stucley d^ 
leated the scheme by confessing hia errand. 
On 16 Sept. he laid before the Engliab 
government details of Henry's plans, and 
on the 19th Cecil drew up an account of hia 
iixiD\Da.^oa (^Lit. Semaina of Edtsard VI,a 

be sent back to france to acquire flirthcv 
information, bnt Northumberland preferred 
a more Machiavellian scheme. The designs 
of Henry H, being known, were no longer 
dangerous, and the duke thought to seenre 
the French king's friendship by revealing to 
him Stuule/s communicatioiu and affectina 
to disbelieve tbem. Henry naturally denied 
Stucley's sto^, and Stucley was sent to the 
Tower (jKt. -fiemoMM, p. 462), llie^yment 
of hie debts, which had been promised him 
OS a reward, was refused, and he remained in 
prison until the end of Edward's reign. 

He was released, with Gardiner and Tun- 
stal, on 6 Aug. 1653 {AoU P. C. ir. 812), 
but his debts compelled him agwi to leave 
England. Naturally precluded from re-eo- 
termg Henry H'e semee, he betocdt bimeetf 
to the emperor. He was at Brussels in De- 
cember, and in February 1653-4 be was 
serving in the imperial army at St. Omer. 
Tbence he wrote to the English government 
offering information about the French Hnp'a 
designs, and the services of himself and his 
whole band, to Queen Mary, probably for the 

farpose of suppressing wyatt'B rebelUoB 
Cal. State Paper/, For. 1558-8, p. 35). Hie 
ofier was not accepted, and throughout that 

Sear he served in Flanders vndw Philibert, 
uke of Savoy. In October Philibert wished 
Stucley to accompany him to England, and 
Stucley accordingly wrote to Mary on the 
7th, begging for security sgainst azreat for 
debts which, he pleaded, had been inenrred ta 
the service of Henry VIII and Edward VI, 
On the SSrd a patent was made ont givins 
the requisite secnnty &r six month^ and 


Stucley I 

towards the end of December Stucley er- 
rired in England with the Duke of Savoy. 
It was no donbt during hia visit that 
he attempted to retriave his foTtunes by 
marrying Anne, granddaughter and sole 
heiress of Sir Thomas Curtis, a wealthy 
alderman of London. On 13 May 1655, 
howerer, the sheriflB of Devon and Cheshire 
were ordered to arrest him on a chaive of 
coining false money (Aett P. C. v. 125, 131). 
Stucley escaped over sea, and on 14 June 
the council ordered his goods to be ' prayeed 
openly and delyuered ' to bis wife, who was 
to give security to appear when called u]Kin 
(ib. p. 162). Stucley again took service 
under the Bulie of>Savoy, and shared in the 
victoTT of tlie imperialists over the French 
at St.'Quentin on 10 Aug. 1557. Thanhs 
appears to have resorted to piracy, and on 
80 May 1668 he was summoned before the 
council in London on a charge of robbing 
some Spanish ships. On 7 July he was or- 
dered to present himself on penalty of 
600^ in the court of the lord high admiral, 
who, however, reported on the I4th that ' he 
did not find matter sufficient to charge 
Stucley withal ' (State Papera, Dom. 27 Aug. 
1666). On 7 Nov. foUowing Studey in- 
duced a Spanish admiral — possibly Juan de 
Femandei — in whose service he was, to in- 
tercede with Queen Mary with the olgect of 
securing part of his father's property so that 
he might ' be the better able to serve her 
miyesty.' This scheme, which aimed at de- 
frauding his four brothers, seems to have 
fiiiled. In the same year Serjeant Piideaui, 
who bod married Stude/s sister Mary, died, 
and the Marqnis of Saria persuaded Queen 
Mary to grant Stucley the wardship of Fri- 
deaui's son. In his haste to profit by the 
transaction Stucley seized Prideaux's house, 
which again brought him into trouble with 
the privy council (_AcU P. C. vii. 8). On 
26 Nov, 1569 Chaloner reported that his 
wife's grandfather. Sir Thomas Curtis, was 
dead, and Stucley was busy in the midst of 
his coffers. 

For a time this new source of wealth kept 
Stucley to comparatively respectable pur- 
soits. In May 1560 he was employed in 
rainnff levies in Berkshire, and in April 
1561 Be wag given a captaincy at Berwick. 
In the fbllowuw winter he entertained and 
formed a close niendsbip with Shane O'Neill 
[q. v.] during his visit to England -, and on 
14 June 16^ he amused Queen BUtabeth 
with a sort of sham fight on the Thames off 
Limehouse (Maceik, Diaru, p. 3U9). 

By this time StucW had squandered the 
greater part of hia wile's fortune, and he de- 
tennhiea to seek a new source of wealth by 


privateering. The pretended olgect of hia 
expedition was to colonise Florida, and ho 
was to be accompanied by Jean Ribault, • 
Dieppe sailor, who had previously been in 
EugUsh service (see Cor. Pol. dt Odet de 
Seine, passim). Rilisult had in 166S made ft 
voyage to Florida. Queen Eliiabeth engaged 
in the venture, and supplied one of the six 
ships that [formed Stucley's force. He had 
three hundred men, and was well furnished 
with artillery (De Quadra to Philip II, io 
Simancat Paperi, i. 322). He took leave of 
the queen on 25 June 1563, sailing with 
three vessels from London, and picking up 
the other three at Plymouth. Abroad ic 
was generally known that Florida was S 
mere pretext for piracy (cf. Lettret dt CatAe- 
rinedeMidwu,l8S5,h.2m). Fortwo years, 
though Stucley is stated to have actually 
landed in Florida (^Simancai Papert, iii. 
349), his robberies on the high seaa were ft 
scandal to Europe. Spanish, French, and 
Portuguese ships suffered alike,and Chaloner, 
the English ambassador at Madrid, confessed 
that ' he hung his head for shame ' (Cai. 
Slate Papers, For. 1564-6, p. 272). On ona 
occasion Stucley cut out two French ships 
worth thirty thousand ducats from a port in 
Oalicia. At length the remonstrances of 
foreign ambassadors compelled Eliwbelh to 
disonn Stucley and take measures for his 
apprehension. Some ships with this object 
were sent early in 1565 to the west coast of 
Ireland, and Stucley's g^ey was seized in 
Cork harbour in March. He seems to hava 
landed and surrendered beforehand. On 
19 May the privy council ordered his removal 
to London, reprimanding the lords justices 
of Ireland for not having sent him before, 
and the queen informed Philip that ' there 
was no English pirate left upon the seft.' 
Stucley arrived inLondon at the end of June ; 
hut Shane O'Neill, Lord-iuettce Arnold, and 
Hugh Brady, bishop of Meath, interceded in 
his favour, and on 27 Sept. he was released 
on recognisances. No charge, it was said, 
was brought against him except by soma 
Portuguese, who, with the Spanish ambaa- 
sador, acquiesced in his liberation CAoU 
P. a vii. 261). 

Stucley nowfound employment in Ireland. 
Shane Neill asked for his services against 
the Scots, who had landed in Ulster, and 
Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.], the lord-deputT, 
thought Stucley^s help would be invaluabla 
in keeping O'Neill to nis engagements witlt 
the government. On 4 Nov. he was sent to 
Ireland with a letter of recommendation 
fromOe(ul,and he was immediately employed 
by Sidnev to negotiate with O'Neill. Shane 
refused the terms offered him, and in M^rffh 




1E6&-S Stucley pnrckaaed from Sir Nicholas 
BifCBil, for 3,OOOf. Irish— probiiblT the iU- 
gMtaiguna of piney — his office of marshal 
of bcUnd And all BagetuL's ettates in the 
tantrj. Tbeae included lands of consider- 
■hk extant bordering on (yNeill's territor]'. 
SHaej and C«cU ^rere both favourable to the 
icmnition of this transaction, but Elizabeth 
wiMT tad rasoluteljr x«fiued her sanction. 

Hiere waa p)od causa to distrust Stucley. 
Ue queen's reli|fioua policy had excited lus 
letin hostility, and for three years he had 
tniJDtiined treasonable relatione with the 
Sfaoiih ambasaador. Before his piratical 
eipeditiao he had informed Da Quadra that 
iMf 'were seadin^ him on • had and 
loaTigfa hn«ines«, but ... he woald show 
hat a trick that -would make a noise in the 
^Kdi' {Simaneia* Fapert, i. 322). On his 
RleaM, in October 1665, lie had renewed hi* 
TcktiiBS with the ambBSsadot, professing a 
denre to serve the king of Spain, and ex- 
connghis acts of piracj against Spanish mer- 
duBtfc Before setting out for Ireland he 
Hid he coold do Philip great service there. 
Ba accepted a pension ^m Philip, and it 
is probanle that his relations with O'Neill 
ana anxiety to necare s strong position in 
Iidasd were prompted by treasonable mo- 
^ifta. Instead, therefore, of aauctioning 
Etwler's faarvain with Bagenal, Elizabeth 
onicted Sttu^y home to answer charges 
bno^fat sgsinst him in the admiralty courts ; 
and SMrMt y lamented Stucley's ' evil plight,' 
w^i iillj as he ivas juat settling down and 
i^dhatiiw a maTrisffe -with a daughter of 
Will|aia3<>ttexa«t, tLiid earl of Worcester 

For tbe present, however, StucleT's pro- 
IRti wen ooly suspected, and in 1567 he 
wai tllowsd to retnm to Ireland. UndeCer- 
xd bj hia previous £ailiire,he now purchased 
■f Sir NleholRS Heron the offices of^seneschal 
a( Wexford, constable of Wexford and 


Dublin Castle. He bad in that same month 
pioposed the invasion of Ireland to the 
Spanish ambassador, and demanded twenty 
fully armed ships for the purpose. But suffi- 
cient evidence was not forthcoming to convict 
him, and, after seventeen weeks imprison- 
ment, Stucley was on 11 Oct. released by 
the privy council on sureties for 600/. ('Acts 
of the Privy Council in Ireland' in Sitt. 
MSS. Comm. 16th Rep. iii. 233-S). 

These misfortunes strengthened Stacley'a 
determination to turn traitor. While in 
Dublin Castle he had found means to com- 
municate with Richard Creagh [q. v.], Roman 
catholic archbiahop of Armagh, then a pri- 
soner in the castle, and also with Don Oueran 
de Spes, the Spanish ambassador in London. 
Soon after his release he visited London, 
and apparently offered his services to F6n»- 
lon, the French ambassador, in February 
1669-70. In March he returned to Ireland, 
and on the 13th he began to make arrange- 
ments at Waterford for escaping to Spain. 
He sailed on 17 April, and on tbe24th landed 
at Vinero in Oahcia. On 4 Aug. he was 
summoned to Madrid; he was received with 

knighted by Philip ; he was generally stvled 
Uarquis or Duke of Ireland, and the lung 
was reported to have allowed h't" five hon- 
dred reals a day and a residence at Las 
Rozas, a village nine miles from Madrid. 

Meanwhile Stucley was busy scheming 
the invasion of Ireland. Five thousand men 
were promised him under the command of 
the notorious Julian Romero (see 'Julian 
Romero — Swaahbncklet'inHnHB, 7%s Year 
a/Ur the Armada, pp. 96-7). Stuole/s 
character, however, soon inspired distrust of 

Maurice Gibbon, archbishop of Cashel, whose 
quarrels with Stucley divided the Spanish 
court into factions, one supporting the arch- 
bishop and the other Stucley. Eventually 
' an honest excuse was found to divert him, 
and he left for Bivero (in Sicily), having 
dismissed the people who came from Ireland 
withhim and dismantled his ship ' {Simaneat 
Papen, a. SOU). The archbishop went to 
Paris and informed Walgingham of Scucley's 
plots, drawing up at the same time an ac- 
count of his career. Stucley's proposed inter- 
vention in the Bidolfi plot accordingly mis- 
carried. The ' honest excuse ' was some 
mission to the pope. It is not clear what it 
was, but on 7 Oct. 1671 Studey was present 
in command of three galleys at Don John's 
victory over the Turks at Lepanto, where 
hia gtulant conduct rehabilitated him to some 





oxtent in Philip's ejea. Early in 1573 
fitncU^ Tisited Paris apparently with the 
object ot negotiatijig accnnbinad French Bod 
Spanish invasion of England. The scheme 
cmme to natJiiitg, u did another ai^^ted for 
StQcley by Nicholas Sandere [q.T.J Through- 
ont 157S and 1574 Stucley seems to hare lived 
in Spain immersed in plots against England 
and quaneb vith his fellow renegades. 
In October 1676 he was at Rome, where, 
according to Anthony Uuoday [q. v.], he 
waa ' in great credit with tie pope ' {Englith 
Somayne Life, 1682). In the spring of 1676 
he was back at Madrid with Dr. (afterwards 
Cardinal) Allen, negotiating for the deli- 
verance of Mary Queen of Scots and for the 
reduction of Ireland ; but before May he le- 
tumed to Home, whence he made a pilgrim- 
sge to LoKitto. Earlv in 1677 he went with 
Dob John by way of Florenoe to the Nether- 
lands, but his principal bnsiiteas was at ' 
Bome, where, having given up Philip aa 
hopeless, he was negotiating witn the pope 
for the means for an invasion of Ireland. 
He claimed for hinuelf the title of Archduke 
of Ireland, which he was to hold of the 
holy see. At length he aecursd material 
aid. On 4 March 1677-8 it was repcmied 
that he had left Civita Vecchia with a gtd- 
leon carrying six hundred men, and on 
4 May the English consol at Sut Lucai in- 
formed his government that Stucley had 
arrived there with ships and men anpplied by 
tbepope. The news created great alarm, and 
ftefaisher was sent to the west of Ireland to 
intATcrat him. The precaution was needless. 
Stnoley's dups were so unseaworthy that he 
■was compiled to put in at Lisbon and beg 
frelh ones feom Sebsatian, king of P<n:tugaX 
Sebastian, however. Induced Stocl^to join 
his ezpeditim against Morocco. Th«« he 
fought in command of his Italian soldiers at 
die fotal battle of Alcazar on 4 Aug. 1678, 
being killed, like Sebastian, on the field. 

Stud^B first wife died ^^arently before 
I66S. Colonel Vivian erroneously nves the 
aoaidennameofthiswifesaPoulet. Possibly 
this waa the name of his second wife, who 
was living in Ireland in 1666. Stucley'a 
youngest brotlier, Lewis Stucley, who served 
as standard-bearer to Queen ELizabeth, and 
died on 1 Dec 1681, was grandfather of Sir ! 
Lewis Stucley [q. v.] ( ViniH, VuitatiMt of i 
JDevontMre, p. 721). 

Studeyat once became the hero of dramas ' 
and ballads, ^ere is no evidence as to when 
' The Famous History of the Life and Death 
of Captain ThomasStukeley'was first acted. 
It waa printed 'as it hath been acted' at 
London, 1605, 4to, and was reprinted in 
°'™-""'- 'School of Shakespeare.' 1878, 

The printed rernon is, however, very incom- 
plete. A baUad, probably based on the play, 
became popular, and four copiee of it are m 
the Roxborghe collection in Uie Brituh Mu- 
seum, none of them witii any date. Stucley 
also figures in Peele's 'Battle of Alcasar,' 
whicb was probably acted before the spring 
of 1589, and wss printed in 1694 (for other 
poetical references to Stuoley see Dtce's 
IntrodvetAm to tie JBattie (f Alcaxar). Ea- 
ference is made to his Bt<nry in Einolej'B 
'Westward Hoi' (chap, r.) 

JCal. State Popors, Dom., Ireland, Foreign, 
Vanetiau Ssr. ; CaL Oarsw M8S. ; Colliiu'a 
Letters and Usmoiiala of State ; Hudin and 
Hajnes'sBoTghlsy State Papari; Diggw'sOom- 
pleat AmbsMador; Wrigbt'a EUtabeth; Lit. 
Samaioa of Edwud VJ (Itozbu^he Clab); 
Thnaoui, TbeiQeT, Mariasa, and Sanders's Uia- 
torissi O'Sullevan'a Hist. CatboL IbeniiB; 
Holinshed, Stow, and Camden's Ancal* ; Strype'a 
Works ; Fnller'i Worthies. Thaas and oUira- 
aoorces were uaed 1^ Bichard Simpson in hia 
] ubaustiveoDdisareful biography of Stucley pre- 
fixed to his School of Shakespeare, 1ST6. Some 
farther parldcnJors of veins may be gleaned from 
thaCal.ofSimanesaPapen, 8 vols, ISSS-T; Acta 
of the Privy Conndl, ed. Daasnt ; CoL Hatfleld 
MSB.; Cal. of Fianta. Ireland (2Snd Sepert <« 
the Deputy Keeper of Kecorda in Ireland).] 
ffnTDLEY, JOHN (1646 P-1690 P), 
translator, bom about 1645, was one of ijie 
original ecbolors of Westminster school, and 
the earliest to be elected to Oambridra 
lAltaimi Wutmonatt. p. 46, where the 
Christian name is given erroneously aa 
Joseph). He matriculated from Trinity- 
College, Cambridge, in 1661; he graduated 
KA. m 1666 and M.A. in 1570, being elected 
a fellow of the college in the interraL Ha 
was a good olassioal scholar, and at a very 
early age prepared, in oontinoation of thA 
labours of Jasper Heywood, translations of 
four of Seneca's tnwediee — 'Agamemnon,' 
' Medea,' ' Hippolytus,'and ' Hercules <Et«na.' 
He employed the common ballad metre for 
the dialogue, and rhyming decasyliabica for 
the choruses, but freely and tediously pora- 
phrased bis text with tudicroufily tooM 
and bathetic eSecte. Occasionally he made 
deliberate changee. To the 'Agamemnon' 
he added an unneceMarv ecMie at the close, 
in which he re-narrated the death of Cas- 
sandra, the imprisonment of Electra, and the 
flight of Orestes. To the 'Medea' he pre- 
fliod an original prologue and amplified the 
chomsee. The ' A^memnon ' and the 
' Medea ' vrere both licensed for publication 
to Thomas Colwell in 1666, and lie ' Hippo- 
lytus' to Henry Denham in 1667. No copy 
w the original edition of either tlw ' Hedek * 




n the 'Hippolytiu' it axfant. The 'Agar- 
BMtuMn' WM pnUiahed in 1G86 with b 
dedktdan to Sir WiUUin Cecil, and maoj 
ooameDdatoTT Teraea. The title-page nn : 
■ Tka E;gkt Trag«die of Saneca eutitnled 
Ag»»wimon tranalatad ovt of Latin into 
Engtiah' (Xjondon, 12mo). SCudley'a four 
inuuhtjoiu irere included in the edition by 
ThoBtas NewtOB [q. t.] of ' Seneoa hia tenne 
irucdiea tnuulated into Eogliah,' Londou, 
)■>! (ef. reprint hf the Spenser Society, 

Sttidl«T wrote Latin elegies on the death 
of Sieliolas Cair [q. ».]• *•» Ore* professor 
■c C«iabr)dK«, which vers printed with the 
Bn>t <— o t 's Latin tiaaalaticin of Demoirthenes 
n l&n. la 1674 he published, 'with xon- 
irjt additioDS,* a traaeUtion of Bale's < Acta 
I^Mitiieum Romanonnn' under the title of 
'Tbhgeantof the Popes, contej^ing the 
k^'na oC all the Bishops of Rome from the 
tc jtumin gcof riiam to the yeaie 1565,' Lon- 
don, 1674, 4to. It was dedicated to Thomas 
BaddiSe, third earl of Sussex [q. t.] Some 
Latin iiiiaiii faj Stadley addrataed to Sir 
WiUian Oecil abont 1664 are among the 
doBMtic itote papers (eC Oal. 1647-60, 

Stndler'a religious opinions were stoutly 
Oalnnislao. On 1 Feb. 1673-3 he wa« sum- 
moacd before the heads of colleges at Gam- ; 
hcidga OBI ft ehaiee of noncomormity. A < 
few """*''« later ne vacated his fellowBhip. 
H* is donbtTnlly said by Chetwood to hare 
eroid to the Low CSonntriee, to have joined 
the jnay ot Prinee Manriee, and to have met 
kis [jtwth at tha riago of ^eda. That siege 
toek plaea in 1690, but no contemporary 
aiirlwiiij siiBiin to mention Studley*! share 

{CiMp<^a AtktoB CanUbi. iL tOO; Wood's 
tthiaai OxoB. ed. Bliss, ij. 10; laiuMi'sBibL 
BhL; Walton's fiiat. of English Foetiy ; Ool' 
iw*! Ksfwtvrs of StUimsr*' Ooaipany ^ake- 
fmn aoeji i. 127. 140, 147-] S. L. 

WnTKXLEY. [See also Snroiar.] 
aiUKKLEY", WILLIAM (1687-1765), 
■itifHij, bom at Holbeach, Xiincolashire, 
7 Sot. 1687, waa the sen of John Stuk&- 

1 the free 

whiTTJ at Holhrwfth. and as a bay was fond of 
nain^ tt rf^ tba woods to read and to col- 
fact iJ*»f OccoAionAlly be listened behind 
am^ to tlw la mm ed oonrewation of his 
fctW with BCr. BebinTe, 'an ingeuiotis 
IMC,' ia lefiatatiou of whoaa atgun>ents he 
>iatt a afnall mkonsoript book. He col> 
If^ fnimm boogbt miaraecopea and bnm- 

ing-ylasees, and learnt something of wwod- 
camag, dialling, ' ondsome astrology withal. 
On 7 Nov. 1703 he was admitted to Bon- 
net (Corpus Chrietl) College, Cambridge, 
became a acholar in the following April, 
and tooic the degree of M.B. on 21 Jan. 
1707-8. Inhieunae^TadiiBto days he'went 

home, he ' made a handsome aceleton ' of •■ 
aged cat. St«phen Holes of the Bi^al 
Souety and Dr. Jolin Qray of Canterbury 
were among his botanical associates, and h« 
made large additions to Ray's ' Catalogna 
Plantanun circa Cantabrigiam.' 

On leaving Cambridge he studied a^»- 
tomy under Rolfe, a surgeon in Chonoerf 
Lane, and medicine under Dr. Mead at St. 
Thomas's Hospital (1709). In May 1710he 
went into medical practice at Boston, Lin- 
colnshire. In May 1717 he removed to Or- 
mond Street, London, where he lived aext 
door to Powis House. On 20 March 1717- 

1718 he became afsltow of the Boyal Society, 
and in January 1718 took pait in establishing 
the Society of Antiquaries, of which body h* 
acted as secretary for nine yeazi. On 7 Jnlj 

1719 he took the degree of M.D, at Cam- 
bridge, and on 80 Sept. 1720 was admitted 
a fellow of the College of Physicians, and 
became a freemason, suspecting fraemaaonry 
to be ' the remains of the mysterys of th» 
antients.' In the same rear he published 
an account of Arthur's Oon and Or^uun'* 

7" ke. In 1722 he was elected a member 
the Spalding Sooietjr, and at a later time 
(1746) founded the Brosen Nose Sociaty 
(NiOHOLS, I4t Aiteod. vi. 4). 

In March 1722 he read as the Oalstoniaa 
lectoie a discourse on the epleen, publisfaad 
in 1728. About this time he sufiered from 
p>nt, which he cured pwtly by using Dr. 
BogcTs's ' oleum arthnticum,' and partly 
by long rides in search of antiquities. The 
flrst-fniits of his antiquarian expedition* 
appeared in 1724 in his ' Itinerarium Ourio- 
sum.' He was now well known to th» 
Earl of Feml»^)ke, the Earl of Wiochilaea, 
and *all the virtuosos in Loudon' and had 's 
particular friendship ' with Sir Isaac New- 
ton. Hii greatost n'iends were R^er Qal* 
fq. v.] and Samuel Gale [q. v.] With th« 
former he went on long antiquarian tour* 
in TariouB parts of England, and in 172& 
traversed the whole length of the Roman 
Wall, and ' drew out (for he was a respec- 
table draughtsman) and described innumer- 
able old cities, roads, altars,' &c. His fre- 
quent visits to Ston^euge furnished mat^ 
rial for his book on Stonehenge, published 
in 1740, and accounted at the tune hisprio- 



cipftl work. Drnidism was to him *the 

Aboriginal pstriarch&l relinon,' and liia inti- 
mates called him 'Chyndonax' and 'the 
nreh-druid of this age.' 

Inl726 Stukeley weDttoliTestOTanthiun, 
Lincolnaliire, where he had a good practice. 
Here he laid out a nrdea and a Bylr&a 
' temple of the Druids, with an old apple- 
tree, overgTowQ with mistietoe, in the centre. 
Beiog encouraged by Archbishop Wake to 
take orders, be waa ordained at Croydon 
on 20 July 17S9, and was ^i«Bent«d in Oc- 
tober to the living of All Saints at Stamford, 
a town to which he removed in February 
1730. At Stamford, where he chiefly lived 
till 174B, he fcequeDt«d the musio clubs and 
hAd a beautiful garden, wherein he set up 
(circa 1746) a gat« with 'an inscription in 
vast capitals ' commemorating Culloden and 
' a delicate marble statue of Flora aa white 
as milk, l&tg6 as life [and] well cut.' In 
1736 he published hia'Palsographia Sacra' 
(pt. i.) to show ' bow heathen mythology is 
derived from sacred hietor^, and that the 
Bacchus of the poets ia no other than Jehovah 
in Scripture." 

Inl739hewaBgiTenthelivingof Somerby* 
by-Orantiiam. He resigned this living and 
that of All Saints, Stamford, in 1747, when 
be accepted from the Duke of Montana the 
rectory of St. Georee-the-M'artyr in Queen 
Square, London. From 1748 he lived in 
Queen Square and at his house at Kentish 
Town. He was an unconventional clewy- 
man, and once (April 1764) postponed the 
service for an hoar m order that his congre- 
gatioQ might witness an eclipse of the aun. 
When hewa^ nearlyaeventv-six he preached 
for the first time in spectacles, from the text 
'Now we see through a glass darkly,' the 
sermon being on the evils ot too much study. 
On 27 Feb. 1765 ha waa seized with para- 
lysis, and died in Queen Square on 3 March 
1766 in hia seventy-eighth year. He was 
buried in the churchyard of East Ham, 
Esses, and, according to his deaiie, without 

Warburton, bishop of Olouceater, one of 
Stukeley 's oldest acquaintances, describes 
him as a learned and honest man, but aatrange 
compound of 'simplicity, drollery, absurdity, 
ingenuity, superstition, and antiquarianism ' 

SICHOLS. lAi. Anted, a. 60, cf. ib. pp. 1 ff.) 
omas Hearue says he was ' ve^ fanciful ' 
and 'amightyconceited man.' Stukeley,in 
an autobiography written (in the third per- 
Bon) for Masters s ' Histwy of Bennet Col- 
lege,' B8JS of himself: 'He has traced the 
origin of Astronomy from the first ages of 
the world. He has traced the origin of 
Architecture, with many designs of the Mo- 



aaie Tabernacle . . . and an infinity of sacred 
antiquities . . . but the artifice of booksellera 
diacorages anthois from reaping the fruit of 
their labors.' Stukeley's plan of 'Ctsaar's 
Oamp,' at the Brill (Somera Town), seems to 
be purely imaginary; and Evana (Ajtdeat 
BntM OoiTU, p. 7) pronounces his drawings 
and attributions Of British coins notnis&- 
worthy. Qibbon says concerning his ' Hia- 
toiT of Carausius,' ' I have used hia mate- 
riala and rmected most of hia &nNful con- 
jectures.' Stukele/s favourite discovery of 
Oriuna, the wife of Carausius, was due to 
his misreading the vord ' Fortuna ' on a coin 
of this emperor. A more serious error was hi» 

Sblicatton in 1767, as a genuine work of 
chard of GirencesUr, of the ' De Situ Bri- 
tannia,' forged by Charles Bertram [q, y,] 
(Nolet and Quena, 8th ser. viU. 1^0, p. 

Stukeley married first, in 1728, Frances 
(d. 1737), daughter of Robert Williamoon, 
of Allington, Lincolnshire ; secondly, in 
1739, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gale. 
deanofYork and father of Roger and Samael 
Oale. By his first wife he had three daugh- 
ters: oneofthem,EliiBbeth, married Richard 
Fleming, a solicitor, and Stukele^s executor j 
another married Thomas Faircmld, rector of 
Fitsea, Essex (Nichou, Lit. lUuttr, ii. 
47 n.) 

Some volnmes of Stukeley's manuscripts 
and letters came into the pouession of Jonn 
Britten, but afterwards passed to a de- 
scendant of Stukeley's, the Key. H. Flemmg 
St. John, of Dinmore House, near Leonun- 
ster, who lent them to Mr. W. C. Lukia for 
bis careful edition of the 'Family Menuurs 
of Stukeley.' These memoirs consist of 
diaries and autobiographical notices, written, 
somewhat in the style of Pepys, and of com- 
monplace books and of a mass of correspon- 
dence touching on antiquities, numismaties, 
and astronomy. Other manuscnpta are la 
the possession of Mr. R. F. St. Andrew Su 
John of Ealing. 

Stukeley's coins (chiefly Roman), foaaila, 
pictures, and antiquities were sold at Essex 
House, Essex Street, London, on 16 and 16 
May 1766. < An antediluvian hammer, 
sundry Druids' beads, &&,' and a model of 
Stonenenge, carved in wood by Stukeley, 
were amongthe obiectssold(^^ Catalogum 
in Department of Coins, Brit, tlus.) 

There ia a meaaotint half-tength portrait 
of Stukeley, by J. Smith, 1721, after a painb- 
ing by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1721 (repn>- 
dueed, ' Family Memoirs of StukeW, fron- 
tispiece). A portrait, by Wills, of Stukeley 
in his robes, a miniature, and a bust are also 
mentioned. In the Britiah Moseoin ia % 





■adil CMt BDd citaaed bj Gub [1765] : (ob- 
ymti) bMd of Stokeley wreathed with oak, 
Kt. U; (reverae) Tiew of Stonehenge, ob. 
Mir. 4 ^rexl 3] 176B, »t. 81 [read 781 

The following ia a selection from SCuke- 
itft pablications : 1. 'An Account of a 
BcDian Temple [Arthut'a Oon] and other 
Aatiqnitiea, iLe«r Grabam'a Dia in Scot- 
bad,' 1720, 4to. 2. 'Of the Spleen,' London, 
1723, kH S. ' Itinaraiium Corioeum ; or an 
Aeeoant of tha Antiquitys and lemarkebla 
dnoMtja ID Nature or Art, obeerr'd in 
UaTd* thro* Groat Brittan,' 1724, fol. ; 2nd 
•Ut, 1776, foL 4. ' A Treatise on the Cause 
wd Cure of the Gout, with a New Rationale,' 
1731, 8to (aaveral editiona). C. ' Pai»o- 
Ri^ia Sacra,' 1736, 4to; el«o London, 
I7ra (a differeat work). 6. ' Stoneheni 
Kd^ lestor'd to the British Druids,' J 
inc. 1710, foL 7. 'Abury, a Temple of the 
BiitLibDniid«,'L>andon,l743,foL a'Palffio- 
iraphia Britanuica, or Bisconnea on Aa- 
^nticain Brit«un,' 1743-52, 4to. 9. 'The 
niloMnlij of Karth^aake8,Naturaland Re- 

U. 'An Account of Richard of Cirencester 
• . . with his Antient Map of Roman Brittain 
... the ItineraiT thereof,' Sic, London, 1757, 
to. 12. 'lloMedallicHistoryofM. A.V. 
Cnauitu,'Londoii,1757-&,4to. IS.'Twentj- 
tkiee Ratea of the Coins of the Ancient 
Ikitiih King*,' London, T. SnellJng; pub- 
liabed poathamoosly, withont date. 

[hadr ICaaoin of Stnkale; (Sniteea Soc.), 
Ub. (d. Lokia ; Jtfonk'i Coll. of FhTudan*, it. 
71 sq- : inefaota'a lit. lUoitr. and Lit. Anecd. 
ttrttaOjT, 499-510; GeoL Mag. 1765, p.311 
(matoit br P. CoUinKm); Lowndea'a BibL 
)hi»*l : Brib Mos. Cat.] W. W. 

SrUKP, SAMUEL JOHN (d. 1668), 
fuato', att^ied in the achools of the Royal 
Aadeuf , and for manj jears held a pToroi- 
■Bt poaatioa aa • nunlature-paiater ; he had 
a Urgt lltealiii ■! clientele, and his portraits 
«' ifiga celebrities, aome of tbem in charac- 
Ut, an maaaooB. He waaan annual exhi- 
hiui M ^ BojtaI Academy from 1802 to 
1845, tfa£ag eliiafl r miniatures, with a few 
aQ prtniti and views ; he also exhibited 
—'^tli irai with the Oil and Watercoloor 
Bacic^ Amng ita brief existence from 1813 
to ia%. Stomp prsctiaed landscape-paint- 
Bf la^gdy, ana fi«qaentlj sent viawa of 
Eafliih, Italtsa, and Swiaa scenair to the 
■^'^^^^^laBtiintion vv to 1819. He was a 
I it the Sketching Society, and his 
^— Bted lale ' w^e lithographed for the 
'•f'EmungSItetchee'iBsawlby it, Hia 
"^^a of Lady Audle?, Mrs. Gulston, 
A Milf (tne collector), Q. F. Cooke, 

Harriot Mellon, Louisa Bruntoa, and others 
were engraved, some of them by himself in 
stippte. Stump died in 1863. His miniatuis 
portrait of himaelf belongs to tbe corporation 
of London {Cat. VioU>nan ExMb. No. 464). 

[Bedgrare's Diet, of Artiita : Qiavw's Diet. 

of Artiits, 1 760-1893 ; Hoget's Hist, of the 'Old 

Watereolonr' Society ; £xbibition Catali^tiMa.] 

F. M. O'D. 

8TDE0H, WILUAM (1763 P-1 838), 
theological writer, was born at Newport, Isle 
of Wight, about 1763. Hia great-grand- 
fether, William Sturch (_d. 1728), was a 
general baptist minister in London. His 
grandfather, John Sturch, general baptist 
minister at Orediton, Bevonshire, published 
'A Compendium of Truths,' Eseter, 1731, 
8T0,and a sermon on persecution, 1730, 8vo. 
{ His father, John Sturch, ordained (21 June 
1763) minister of the general baptist con- 
gregation, Pyle Street, Newport, wrote ' A 
View of the Isle of Wight,' 1778, 12mo, 
which passed through numerous editions, 
and was translated mto German by C. A. 
Wichman, Leipzig, 1781, 8to. He died in 
1791. One oi his daughters married John 
Pottioary (1763-1820), the first schoolmaster 
of BoDJamm Disraeli, earl of Beaconsfield. 

William Sturch was an ironmonger in 
London, and an original member of the uni~ 
tarian chapel opened by Tlieophilus Lindsey 
rq-v.l at Essex Street, Strand, in 1774. In 
1799 he published anonymously a thin octavo, 
entitled 'Apeleutherus ; oran Effort to attun 
Intellectual Freedom.' It consists of three 
essays ; the third, ' On Chriatlanity as a Super- 
natural Communication,' written with great 
abilit; and beauty of style, is intereeting 
as exhibiting the sceptic^ side of a devout 
mind. A fine sonnet is prefiied to the work. 
In 1819 it waa reprinted (anonymously), with 
a dedication to Thomas Belanam [q. v.], a 
fourth essay ' On a Future State,' and three 
additional sonnets. Sturch wrote one or two 

, and was a frequent contributor 
to the ' Monthly Repository.' He published 
also a very able pamphlet, with a view to 
Roman catholic emancipation, 'The Grie- 
vances of Ireland: their Causes and their 
Remedies,' 1826, 8to. He took the chair 
at a dinner given in London (6 Jan. 1829) 
to Henry MonlgomeiT, LL.D. [q. v.], when 
Charles Butler (17SO-16S2) [q^v.] waa one 
of the speakers. He died at York Terrace, 
Regent's Park, on 8 Sept. 1838, aged 8S, 
leaving a widow Elizabeth (d. 28 Feb. 1841, 
aged 61) and family. He was buried in tbe 
graveyard of the Hew Gravel-Pit chapel, 
Hackney. His second daughter, Elizabeth 
Jesser (i. 26 Dec. 1789, i. 30 March 1866), 




married JohnReid [q.-*.] sttd founded Bed- 
Ibrd College, London, in October 1849. 

fObri«tian Boformer, 1B!8, p. 740; Taylor'* 
Bint, of Engliali Gen. Btptists, ISIS, ii. 93 ; 
AaFJand's Memoir trfll. Aff^aad, 18M, pp. lOS, 
164, S6T ; Inqnirar, T April 1880 p. 321, 6 HUj 
1S66 p. 284 : Cslendu of Bedtbtd OoUege, 1BS8 ; 
torabetonM *ti HaeknaT ; private mforouitiDii.] 
A. Q. 

BTtTRGE, JOSEPH (1793-1869), phi- 
luithcopist, son of Joseph Stui^, b farmer 
and grasier, of the Manor Hoose, Elberton, 
GlouoeBt«TBhire, bj bis wife Uarj Marahnll 
of AleaatOT, Worcestetahire, was bom at El- 
berton on 3 Aue. 1793. After a ^ear at 
Tbombur; day sehool, uid three at Sidcot, 
Sturee at fourt«(iB oommanoad Hu^ngwith 
bis &ther. Aiterwarda b« farmed on bia 
own account. Befuaing contcientioualj to 
find a proxy or to aerre in (be irilitia, for 
which ne waa drawn when eighteen, b« 
watched his flock of sheep driven off to be 
•old to covet tbe delinqaency. About 1818 
he settled at Bewdlev as a com-fbotor, and 
toon made raoaej. Hia finn^ bowsTer, re- 
duced their returns bj refusing to receive 
eonaignments of nuUtingbailej, Waose they 
would have no share in the profits ot drink. 
Eie romored to Binningfaam in 1832, be- 
came one of th9 town commianoneis, and, 
whe» the charter was granted in 1835, alder- 
nmn tor the borough. He warmly enwnsed 
ttke aoti-slaiTery cause, eorreaponded from 
lftS6 with ZacWy Hacaulay [q. v.], and 
was on4 of the ftiunden of the agency com-* 
mittee of the Anti-Slavery Society, whose 
programme was entire uid immediate emui- 

Stu^ and his friends engaged lecturers, 
and tniTellad through Scotland and Ireland 
uotuing popular interest. A measure passed 
hy tbe govomment, 8 Aug. 1838, granting 
compensation io slaTe-owSerH and establish- 
ing a system of apprenticeahip, was regarded 
by the committee as entirely inadequate, 
and upon Lord Brouf^ara complaining to 
Stmi«« of the difficulty of obtaining proof 
of the evils of the apprenticmhip system, 
Sturge quietly remarked, 'Then I mum 
supply t&ee with proof,' packed his port- 
manteau, Uid started fbr tbe West Indies. 
In six months he retnmed, pablished ' Tbe 
West Indies in 1837' (London, 8to), the 
first edition of which rapidly sc^d, and ^ve 
evidence foTBevau days before the CMsmittee 
of the House of Commons. En a speech before 
the lords.onlSJuly, Lord Brougham paid a 
high tribute to Sturge'a work. After several 
defeats tbe bill abolishing stavery waa carried 
onSSMay by three votes. Sturge advanced 
MflH «f mesey to t&« fined HegrMe, assisted 

schemes tor their education, and pnrc^iased 
an estate in the West Indies. In 18il h* 
travelled through the United States witk 
the poet Whittier, to observe the condition 
oir we slaves there, and published on hia 
return ' A Viwt to the United St«tea in 1841' 
(London, 1842, 6vo). 

Meanwhile political agitation iu England 
was rising. One of the fint m^nb^ ot 
the Anti-Oomlaw League, Sturge wa« re» 
proachcd by the ' Free Trader ' for bis de- 
sertion of repeal when, in 1842, ha lent 
active support to the movement, inaugurated 
by tbe chartists, for the wide extension of 
the anfii^e. He stood for Nottingham i« 
August of that year, but waa defeated by 
John Walter of the ' Times' by eigbty-foor 
votes. Hisco-operationwithFearguaO'CoB- 
nor[cj.v.], Henry Vincent [3, v.^, and other 
chartists alienated many of his friends. With 
a view to uniting the cbartists and the 
middle-class radicals, he summoned a eon- 
ferenoe to disouss the question of 'comptotv 
sufirage ' at Birmingham on 27 Deo. 1843, 
but tbe violence and incounsteney of the 
chartist leaders led Stur^ and hts Moada 
to withdraw from tlie tmrtist movemeot. 
From this time Sturge gradn^y relinquiebod 
political lifb and devoted himself to phiUu- 

After tbe ezhilrition of 1801 ha received, 
at his house in Hyde Park, all fbceignmv 
interested in peace, anti-slavery, and tem- 
perance. He attended the peace 1 iiiiijimnni 
of Brussels, Paris, and Frankfort [see under 
KlOHABD, Hbnbt], and visited Scbleswig- 
Holsteiu and Gopenh^n with the object ol 
inducing t^e governments of Denman amX 
Scbleswig-Holstein to submit their diapate 
to arbitration. In January 1854 he 'wss 
appointed one of the deputation fWim the 
Society of Friends to carry to the tsar theif 

Kotest against the Crimean war Tsee under 
USE, HBUSil. Largely through 9tnrge'» 
BOpport, the 'Morning Star' waa founded ia 
I806 as an ot^R for the advocacy of non- 
intervention and arbltntion. 

In 1866 he visited Finland to arraaffe for 
distribntion of funds from the Friends to* ' 
wards relieving tbe fkmine CROsed by the 
British fleet's destruction of nrivate propert y 
dnring the war. He founded the Pnenda' ' 
Sunday schools in Birmingham (wtiere. In 
1898, there w«s a weekly attendance of oYsr ; 
three thousand). He died suddenl*' ^t 
Edgbaston, Birmingham, on 14 May f8G9 
as be was prepadng to attend the annua{ 
meeting of the Peace Society, of which fa» 
was pnsident. 

Stuige's philantbmpy was the mainsprincF 
of his political actions, which were unfavooiw 





■Uy Twired hy m&nj of tke Friends to 
■wkon ha was all Ma lifa attached. The 
■ctira tad often nnpopulai psrt he took lie 
eoueiTed to b« his duty as a Christian. Al- 
though no epeaJier, his powel met numbers 
-VM shown in 1850, when he succeesfuJlj 
iHiiT~f^ th« tide of snti-papal agitation in 
agraat maeting' at BiiminEliW. He illus- 
toted his coDsistencT b; his opposition to 
iIh bviUing of the Bintiiii^hun town-hsll 
fct t^ triannial fettiTsJe, from a conscien- 
tioosolgectioii to oratorio, while hopriratelT 
g>T« to this faods of the General fiospital, 
irhid the CeatiToI was founded to assist. 

He mairied first, in 1S84, EUes, onlj 
■^'-gM-r of James Cropper [q. t,], the phi- 
Iinuio^st. She died inlSSS. Secondly, he 
maxnu^oa 14 Oct. 1846, Hannah (d. 19 Oct. 
IiO(^, daughter of Barnard Didunson of 
Coaucookdale, Shropshire, hy whom he left 
a acn Joseph aad four dsu^titera. Sturm's 
elder utar, Sophia, was his oonstant com- 
panicD from 1619 uutdl her death in 184S, 
■ad t0 her jadgnaent and ability be owed 
ibimIl His bntlter and partner, Charles 
Scu^ (1802-1868), was associsted with him 
B most of his philanthropio acta. 

Stvrge's laboora for the town of Biimiug:- 
hmta are eommemoiated W a fountain and 
mmtn», erected at Five Waya, Edgbaaton, 
■ad inanguxal^d by the borough members, 
J(du Biwrht and William Scholefield, on 

His portrait is included in B. B. Haydou's 
I^m pactore of the anti-slsTeiy convention 
IBW, at the National Portrait GaUery. It 
WW also drawn by W. WjUis. A third 
ftmit. painted by Barrett, bel<wgs to the 
leaiimiiiiH of Birmin^aat. 

(9tBi|«'B Lifc waa writun hj Eeoej Richard, 
laalni. ISM, STO;a ahortmamoirbjW. Catch- 
pai 1877, WM reprinted is Six Mm of ths 
Pao^, 188S. See also Pedcover's Life of J. 


second lieutenant in the royal artillery oa 
1 Jan. 1796. He became lieutenant on 
21 Aug. 1797. He served in Pulteney's 
expedition to Ferrol in 1600, and in the ex- 
pedition to Egypt, and was wounded in tht 
battle of Alexandria on 13 March 180L 
On 2S June 1803 he was transferred to the 
royal atafT corps with the rank of osptaii^ 
and became major in it on 1 June 1809. Ha 
eerred throughout the war in the Peninanla, 
always ahowmg himself ' a clever fellow,' as 
Wellington desorib«d him (to Lord Lirer- 
pool, 19 Dec. 1809). At Ciudad Bodrigo 
his exertions and ability from the commence- 
ment of the aiege were very conspicuous. He 
reconnoitred the breaches before the assault, 
and guided a column which was told off, 
at his suggestion, to moke a demonatration 
on the right of the m&iu breach. The column 
afterwards joined the stormere at that breadii. 
Sturgeon was specially mentioned in Wellri 
ington's deapatcn, bothforhia Berricea dnriiig 
the aiege and for his construction of a bridgv 
orertbe Agueda, which was an indispeasaMa 
preliminary to it. He was made farerct 
lieutenantKsolonel on 6 Feb. 1813. Ha was 
again specially mentioned in the Salamanca 
deapatch, and was sent three months after* 
wards to make a bridge at Almarai. In 
April 1813 he was placed in charge of tim 
eorps of guides, and the post-office and oom- 
muoications of the army. In February 1814 
he took a prominent put in the bridging cf 
the Adour, and was one of the offioers praised 
by Hope iu his report for the leel they 
showed in the execution of that bold pro- 
ject. Napier, who speaks of it as a ' stn- 
pendous undertaking, which must always 
rank among the pro^;ies of war,* attribute! 
its conception to Sturgeon. 

A few weeks afterwards, on 19 Uarch, 
Sturgeon waa killed by a bullet as he was 
riding through a vineyard during the action 
near Vic Bigorre. ' Skilled to exoellenoa in 
almost every branch of war, and posBfasing a 
variety of acoomplishments, he used his g»t8 
ao gently for himself and so usefully tor the 
service tnst envy o^red no bar to admira- 
tion, and the whole army felt painfiilly morid-- 
fied that his merits werepossed unnotioed is 
the public deepatohes ' (Naubb). 

[Duncan's Hiit. of ths Bo;al ArtiUaty ; Wal. 
lington Daspatehei ; Napier's War in the Paoin- 
Bulai Londondeny'B Narntive, ii. 256 ; Fortar'a 
History of tha Mojal Bn^nean, i. t&Z] 


STUBOEON, WILUAM (1788-1860),; 
electrician, was bom on 33 May 1783 aft 
Wkittinetan in I^ncashiK, a villaga neer 
Kirkby Lonsdale. His father, Johit Stm- 
bol idk nan, ft fibm^ 



maker by trade, who negflected hia I'&mily 
while poaching fish and rearing gamecocks, 
migratod finm DumMea to whittingtan, 
where hemairied Betsy Adcock, the daug;hter 
of asmaUabopkeepei. Young Sturgeon was 
Apprsaticod to hia father's trade at Old 
fiutton in 1796, under a master who starred 
And ill-iiaed him. The deiteritj which he 
acquired as a shoemaker proved of service to 
Jiim in many ways; but in 1802, seeing no 
•hope of advancement in hia trade, he ea- 
4isted in the Westmoreland militia, and two 

J ears later, being then twenty-one, he en- 
sted aa a private in the royal artillery. 

Sia attention is said to have been directed 

. to electrical phenomeDs by a terri&c thunder- 
fltorm which occurred when he was sta- 
tioned at Newfoundl&nd. He determined to 

. study natural science ; bat, finding himself 
unable to understand what had been written 
on the subject, he set himself, amid all the 

' disadvantages of barrack life, to acquire the 

. rudiments of an education. A sergeant lent 
him books, which he studied at night with 
the connivance of the officers ; he is said 

-to have ingratiated himself with the mess 
by his skill u a cobbler. In this way he 
worked at mathematics, and learnt sufficient 
Latin and Greek to grapple with scientific 
terminology. While stationed at Woolwich 
hia models and electrical experiments seem 
to have attracted considerable attention. 

' The cadets of the Royal Military Academy 

' ' used to Bwarm on the barrack field to get 
shocks from hia eiploring kites,' which were 

.constructed after Franklin's pattern, but 
with some modifications and improvementa 

■ of his own, Stuigeon left the army on 
I Oct. 18S0, at the age of thirty-seven, his 
conduct, according to the testimony of his 

.commanding officer,having been 'altogether 
unimpeaohanle.' In spite, however, of the 
remarkable talent that he had shown he 
never rose above the rank of gunner and 
driver, and his pension ondischarge amounted 
to no more than one shilling a day. For a 
time he resumed his old trade of bootmaker, 
opening a shop in Artillery Place, Woolwich 
(No. 8). Here, during his leisure time, he 
taught himself turning and lithography, and 
devoted a good deal of attention to the con- 
struction of acieotiflc apparatus. He supple- 
mented bis income hy lecturing to achoola 
ud teaching officers families. He also 
began to contribute to the scientific press, 
especially the ' London Philosophical Mago- 
sine,' and in 183S took a prominent port In 
founding the Woolwich ' Literary Societv,' 
among the original members being tne 
chemist James Mush [^. v.] His first 
ori^nal contribatioa to scienco seema to hare 

;2 Sturgeon 

been the production of a modified form of 
Ampere's rotating cylinders, described in the 
■PhiloBophical Magoiine' for 1823, and this 
was followed in 1824 by four able papers on 
thermo-electricity. His ceal, amounting to 
a perfect passion, for chemical and electncal 
experiments aroused the interest of such men 
as Olinthus Gilbert Gregory [q. v.], Samuel 
Hunter Christie [q. v.], and Peter Barlow 
[q. v.], through wnoseinfiuencehewasattbe 
close of 1824 appointed lecturer in science 
and philosophy at the 'East India Company'* 
Royal Military College of Addiscombe. 

In 1625 Sturgeon presented to the Society 
of Arts the set of unproved apparatus for 
electro-magnetic experiments, including his 
first soft-iron electro- magnet, for which he 
was awarded the silver medal of the society 
and a premium of thirty guineas. To him is 
undoubtedly due, says James Prescott Joula 
[q. v.], the credit of being the original dis- 
coverer, he having constructed electro-mag- 
nets in soft iron, both in the stnught and 
horseshoe shape, aa early aa 1828. In 18:M 
Sturgeon was busied with the firing of gun- 
powder by electric discharges, and in IS30, 
in his fragment called 'Experimental Ra- 
aearchea,' be describes for the first time the 
nowwell-kuownprocesB of amalgamating the 
line plate of a batte^ with a film of mercury. 
Shortly afterwards he began to experiment 
on the phenomena of the magnetism of ro- 
tation (Tisoovered by Aiago, and came to the 
conclusion that the effects were probably 
due to a disturbance of the electric fluid by 
magnetic action, a kind of reaction to that 
which takesplaceinelectro-magneCism. The 
publication of Faraday's brilLant research 
on magneto-electric induction in 1831 fore- 
Stallea the complete explanation of which 
he was in search. In 1832 he constructed 
an electro-magnetio rotary engine, the first 
contrivance, according to Joule, bv means of 
which any considerable mechamcsl force was 
developed by the electric current. 

In 1833 the Adelaide Gallery of Practical 
Science (upon the site of what is no-w 
Messrs. Qatti's restaurant. West Strand) 
was open for the exhibition of models and 
inventions to be illustrated hy means of lec- 
tures, and Sturgeon was nominated upon tha 
lecturing staff of this short-lived matita- 
tion. A few years later, in 1836, he es- 
tabUshed a new monthly periodical, 'Tha 
Annals of Electricity,' which was the first 
ioomal exclusively devoted toelectrical Bal>> 
jects in this country. He supported this 
with immense industry and great ability,and 
with some aid from Joule, down to 1843, 
when lack of support compelled its discon- 
tinuance, though ita ten octavo volumes 





■till mnain valuable «s a woik of lefe- 

.T giving 

docki, uid in the came ;ear eiamLiied the 
■M of the &eqaeat finctiire of Lejden. iar« 
h dtttrical explosions. He discovereJ an 
imatl mj of obviating theae accidents b; 
hmh of a connecting rod Buppoiting tha 
Ul to the apper ed|^ of the inner coating 
ij mm Btri|is of metaL Aided by this con- 
triruo, daring twelve yean of active ex- 
pcnBHtting -wTtli heavr charges and dia- 
chu^ he did not break a Biusle jar of his 
butctr. In 1836 be diacoverea the unequal 
Wat^ efiecta found at the two poles of the 
nktie arc Nor did he during this period 
■Unnit his experiments in atmospheric clec- 
tikit;. As a result of no less than five 
haadnd kite observations, in one of which 
ha wM nearly killod, he succeeded in esta- 
Mi«timy the important fact that the atmo- 
sfbcR IS in serene weather uniformlv posi- 
tins with regard to the earth, and that the 
bgbcrm ascend the mora positave does it 

In 1840 Btmq;eon qoitted Woolwich for 
MaBthtaUa, upon an invitation to act as 
— f ■ iii>t*inlTOt of the Bofal Victoria Gal- 
Ic^ of Practical Science, on institution 
iateadad for the dissemination of popular 
s eJMie and a fooueer of the highest class of 
lirfciiii ■! BChooL Stnrgeon, now fifty-«even 
J iMi I old, entered npou his new duties with 
ckar«cteri*tic ardour. Exhibitions, conver- 
ib'miiiiii, and lecture courses were oi^nised. 
Bat tbe institution was too much in ad- 
ranee of ita time to prove a financial success, 
^■d, like ita ill-fated predecessors in Lon- 
d^a^ tbe Adelaide Gallerj and the Bojsl 
IHiijl a Jm ic, it came to a premature end 
sAKraaexiatenceof about four jeare. Stur- 
gena cndearoared to establish another insti- 
tvtisaof a similar chaiactei, called theUan- 
ckaHcr Institntion of Natural and Expert- 
SiKHtBl Beience, but met with little support, 
dmag 1843 Sturgeon also brought out six 
p«>ta ot a new periodical venture, named 
*TliaABB«ls of Philosophical Discovery and 
Sf CHtUr Reporter of the Progress of Pntc- 
taeal ScKoee.' llMnceforth he had to depend 
tar ■ ^riag npon precarious earnings as an 
it«aaa( lectaier on scientific subjects in 
ihm towns aKHnid Manchester. The railway 
^Bnee •( that time was rudimentary, and 
ht bad to oODTery his apparatus in a cart. 
S> piofita cannot have been large, but his 
liwiliiiiai waa extended by hie expository 
■V. Hi* style was manly and vigorous, 
Baarm aimed at mere effect, though not 
■■■Ale to the unconunon beauty of many 

of hie experimental illustrations, which weio 
tendered doubly impressive by their novelty. 

From 1845 to 1850 Sturgeon felt keenly 
the pinch of poverty. After many exertions 
Bishop Prince I^ee and Dr. Bmnej, pre- 
sident of the Manchester Literary and PIulo- 
sophicol Society (of which Sturseon was a 
mem ber\ succeeded in obtaining &t him from 
Lord John Russell a grant of SOOJ., and in 
1849 this woe supplemented by an annuity of 
60^ His health woe now beginning to fail. 
A bronchial attack had led him in 1817 to 
remove for a time to his native air near 
Kirkby Lonsdale. There he continued his 
observations upon atmospheric electricity, 
as exhibited in several auroral displays, 
which he minutely described. Upon his re- 
turn to Manchester he removed to the ele- 
vated suburb of Preetwich, where he died 
on 4 Dec 1860. He was buried in tbe 
graveyard of Prestwich church. A marble 
tablet was subsequently placed to his me- 
mory in Kirkby Lonsdale church. 

Sturgeon married, soon after entering the 
royal artillery, a widow named Hutton, who 
kept a shoe shop at "Woolwich. They had 
three children, who all died in infancy. In 
1829 he married again, Uory Bromley of 
ShiewsbuTV, who died on 2 Oct. 1867, aged 
77, and was buried beside her husbancTat 
Prestwich. Their only child also died an 
infant; whereupon they adopted Stur^reon's 
niece, Ellen Coatee, who married Luke 
Brierley, and died on 19 Jan, 1884, aged 51. 

Sturgeon woe of a tall and well-built 
jrame of body ; his foreheod was high and 
his features were strongly marked. Hie ad- 
dress and conversation were animated. His 
literary style was vigorous and lucid. A 
small photograph (probably copied from a 
doguarreotype) was enlarged and engraved 
for the 'Electrician,' 13 Sept. 1895. An 
oil painting of Sturgeon is also in the pos- 
session of Mr. Luke Brierley of 1 Chorlton 
Road, Manchester. None of Stu^^n's 
manuscripts or apparatus have been pre- 

It has been urged against Sturgeon that 
hie work did not result in the discovery of 
any great generalisations in electrical science. 
His phraseology, in accordance with ideas 
current in his day, was &om the modem 
point of view faulty. He spoke of ' magnetic 
effluvium,' of ' caloric' particle, electrical 
fluid, and electric matter. But a glance at 
the list of his published works will ^ow 
that, while extending tbe boundaries of elec- 
trical science by the observation of pheno- 
mena and the furnishing of facts, he took a 
high and broad view of electrical manifesta- 
tions and powers. By his extensive series of 




bzperiiDMitB upon 'The Tbermo-Hagnetism 
of HomogeneouB Bodiea ' he endeavoured to 
ducorer a definite law of action, and in hia 
{nper 'On the Thecay of Magnetic Eleo- 
tridty ' be trtWinjited ' to rednce the pheno- 
tnena of magnetao eleotrioitj' to a definite 
code of phTdottl laws.' But he moved very 
cantioualy, beioKconaoioua, as he saye, of the 
' ionc eUent piooatiou ' that is needed before 
llffoad ettttemeots ' cui be of any account be- 
yond expanding the region rf philoaophieal 

Petersboi^ ctdimed for Sturgeon, 
junction ■with Oerst«d, the disotiTery of the 
•lectro-m^netic engine. No leea firmly 
Mtabliatied^ says Joule, is his prioritv in 
regard to the magneto^lectrieal maonine. 
He was the first who devised and executed 
«n apparatus for throwing the opposing cup- 
nata into one direction, thua accomplishing 
for this machine exactly what James Watt 
•ceomplished for the steam engine. This 
•contrivance, known as the commutator on 
the continent, and formerly unitress in Ame- 
Irica, is now uitiversally employed in every 
msgnet^>-electrical machine. Stuweon was 
without doubt the constructor of the first 
lotary eleotro-magnetic engine. The (now 
univerBally adopted) amalgamation of sine 
plabee in the voltaic battery was originated 
in' him, while his discoveries in the thermo- 
electricity and msgrietism of homogeneous 
bodies have placed his name higher than that 
of any other man of science who, after 
Seebech, has cultivated thermo-electricity. 
Sturgeon dearly perceived the possibilities of 
the electro-magnet as a motor. And this 
same invention of the soft-iron electro-mag- 
net baa long been the leading feature of the 
instramentworking the Morse system of eleo- 
trioity, while it has also proved the parent 
of the dynamo machine, which has exerted 
lenormous influence upon modom industrial 

Sturgeon's inventive efforts were con- 
stantly directed towards the stmpli^ring and 
cheapening of apparatns, and so rendering 
his cuscoveries more practically svailaUe in 
the development of the scientific industries. 
Thus, for example, a Qnive's battery, costing 
a.t the time 7/., and a Daniel's SI., were 
superseded by Sturgeon's batteries of equal 
power for 8/. Kb. 

With the prevision of genius. Sturgeon 
foresaw that electricity would become the 
^vaUing illumiuant. Exhibiting tbeeleo- 
eric light actuated by a galvanic oattery of 
one hundred jan at one of hia lectures in 
1840, he aud that he 'quil« anticipated that 

the electrio ligbt-wonld supersede gaa fiv 
public, whatever it might do for private, 
purposes.' He also showed the process of 
electro-gilding by a magnetic machine ot hit 
own construction, and translated from tjte 
German of Professor Jacob! ' CHie Whi^ 
Galvanopltw^ Art or Uethod of fcnning 
Electrotypes of Medallicms, Coins, Statuary, 
Bronzes, Ornaments, fto.' Several of these 
inventions were afterwards patented at 
Woolwich and Birmingham ; but Stnrgeoa 
was not benefited, as his desire was to plaee 
'this apparatus in the hands of the public^ 
and {to make it] alike available to all ortisam 
wishmg to employ it.' 

Only a few weeka before his death Stiii> 
geon completed, in one large and handsome 
volume, a reprint of his original oontriba- 
tiouB to science (scattered through numeniiu 
mriodicals) under the title of 'Scientifie 
tteseaiches.' This volumewas published by 
subscription (Manchester, 1850, 4to), and 
was illustrated 1^ a number of finely en- 
graved plates. Of the papers contained ia 
this volume, the earlier ouee bad first seea 
the light in the ' XiOudon Philosophical Maga- 
cine.' To this periodical Sturgeon's cbiof 
contributions, alien electrical subjects, wbtb 
as follows : September 1833 fa descnptioB 
of the revolving ' Sturgeon's disk,' a modifi- 
cation of the pendulum of Marsh and the 
etai-wheel of Barlow); Februaiy, April, 
October 1824, May and Jane 1826, Jnna 
1836 (ignition of gunpowder by eleotrioal 
discbarge) ; January 1^, July, August 1831, 
March 1832 (on elactriMnagnete) ; Api^ 
May, July 1833, January, February, Mianili, 
May, November 18S3, November and De- 
cember 1834(hit« expertmente) ; April and 
November 1636, sod August 1836. To the 
'Edinbur^ FhilcsAphical Journal' (Jaly 
1826) Sturgeon contributed an inveetig^tion 
of the action of mognete upon non-femi^- 
nous metals. His ' Researchee in Eleotro- 
dynamics,' a wper read before the Royal 
Sodetv on 16 June 1836, was not printed in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions,' bat tt ia 
given in full, with an explanation ttf' a 
temporary friction between StuigeoD and 
Faraday, in the quarto 'Kesearchea' (Ni 
xii.) Stuireon's 'Address to the Londo _ 
Electrical Society on 7 Oct. 1837,' and fyax 
papers read before the society, are printed in. 
the ' Electrical Society's TrauBaotions,' 1837 
and 1838. From 1836 to 1843 Sturgaon'a 
activity is best tioced in the fwges of hM 
own periodical, the ' Annals of Eleotrioity,' 
In October 1839 a paper which there Kp. 
peared upon ' Marine Lightning ConduetoTa ' 
led to an animated controveny with. 8ii 
William Snow Harris [q. v.] BtnEig«oa 





Vfrsd Ui«t the conduotoTf should not follow 
ike nait down into the hold, but paas over 
tha sidM outside the shiouds, the ve«ael 
bdiiig moN or leas encloaed in a network (rf 
ecHiductMv. la the ooune of thisdiacuaaiau 
£ciugMn Moutljr muntaiDed that the so- 
ttUed IttAnl enects of lightning flaaheB in 
•ejehboiiring bodies were due not, as Harris 
muDiaiB«d, to uaperfeot neutralisation in 
the dischki^e, but to tba actual generation 
<if iadaction-cuiTeiita, a view now fullj bo- 
CKptsd. Sto^wm's later papes appeared for 
tb« BoK p*n ia the 'Memoira oi the Mau- 
eheMar Lit«rBZ7 and Fhiloaophical Society' 
il»U, 1&46, and 1848). 
In addition to the quarto Tolume of ' Ii«- 

of the grestwt pmwaneut value 
ig bis inTeatigatioiu, Sturgeon published 
telf ' Ezpenmental Sesearches in 
»'n«giietisin, QalTauiauL, ftc./ Loo- 
I, isao, 8vo; 'Lectures on Electricity 
L tbe Royal Victoria Gallery, 
■,'London, 1842,870 J and'Twelve 
J liMtUTee on Qalvanisni,' Loo- 
tico, 1U3, 8T0. He also edited, in 1843, a 
iriffTT of the ' Hagnetical AdTertiaemenU ' 
sf William Barlow or Bacbwe [q. v.] 

f^miiam 8t>n;Mi], a Biognphical Kota by 
Sfdnaiu] P. T[hi»]p«xi], printely priDt«d, 
l((»li GeocMaff. I8£l, i. 102; Vibart'a Addis- 
oowba. 18M, pp. 77-80; Manduster Ezamioai, 
14 Dte. lUO; Maochcstei CbroiiicU. 9 April 
•B^KandSSOct-lSil; MsodiuUr aaaidiaD ; 
M-wniJT of Lit. aad Phil. Soc Manchgttet, vol. 
KIT. ; Angna Smith'i CeDltoary of Sciantui in 
XaochMter, liSO; ElactHcion, 13 £«pt. 189fi, 
by V. W. Haldans Om. B.5c ; Atheiuenm. De- 
fMiber ISM ; Allibone's DicL of English Lite- 
ttm«.] W. Q-a. 

arUBO^, OCTATIUS, M.D. (1833- 
IS&fi)^ fliyaiciaD, eightb son of John Sturgas 
rf Cuuiaagbt Square, londou, was bom 
in London ia 1833. He obtained a com- 


there sucoessiTEJy on forensio medicine, 
materiii medic*, and niedicioe. He was 
elected aasistant'phyBician to the Hospital 
for Sick Children in 1873, and physician in 
1884. At tiie time of his death he was 
senior phyucian there and at the Westmii^ 
Hter Hospital. He deUvered the Lumleian 
lectures at the College of Physiciant on 
diseases of the heart in childhood, and waa 
senior censor in the same year. He died 
unmarried on 3 Sat. 189S fiom injuriee dne 
to his being knooited down by a hansom cab 
while crossing a atveet eight days before. 

SturgeadeaaribedhisBxpaiienoeaat Addisr 
combe and in India in a norel written in 
collaboration with a niece, entitled ' In tjie 
Company's Serriee,' and published in 1888. 
He alao puMiahed ' An Introduction to tb0 
Study of CUnical Medicine ' in 1873, ' Tba 
Natural History and Relations of Pnenr 
mooia ' in 1876, and ' Chorea and Whooping 
Cough ' in 1877. His book on pneumonia 
contains many original obaervationd, and is 
of permanent value ; while bis treatise on 
duma, in which that disease is regardfid aa 
a diaeaaa of function, shows cloee obsarrar 
tion of the mental and moral as well as the 
physical condition of the young, and luoidlj' 
expounds a oonaiatMit theory of the nature 
and causation of the diaease. He was # 
physieiAn of wide obsarratioD and azcallenf 
Sanaa, and Us abilities ware profoundlr re^ 
^ected in his university and m the College 
of Physicians. 

[Memoir b<r Br. W. fi. IKokiiwon ia St 
(iwrga'B Hospital Oaastte, toL iii. ; Works ; pai> 
•Dial hnowledge.] S. U. 

STUBOION, JOHN iJl. 1661), pam- 
phleteer, was at one time a private in Croui- 
well's lifeguards. On 27 Aug. 1666 ha waa 
arrested as the author of a pamphlet againat 
the Protector, called ' A Short Discovery of 
hia Highness the Lord Protector's Intention* 
touching theAnabaptis tain the Army '(TAtvv 
Im Paperi, iii. 738). He was discharged 
from the lifeguards ondfor a time imprisoned. 
In 1656 Major-general Gofie complained that 
Sturgion's preaching attracted large crowds 
at Beading (ib. iv. 762). About July 1656 
Stuigion and other anabaptista aent an ad- 
dress to CharlesH complaining of theirsuffer- 
ings under ' that loathaome hypocrite,' tho 
Protector, and announcing thair return to 
thur allegiance to the kmg, begging him 
also to establish liberty of conscience and 
abolish tithes (Clibgkikik, Sebeliion, xt. 
106 ; QU. Clarendon Paperi, iii. 146). Be 
was suspected of a share in Sindercombe's 
plot against Cromwell, became one of Sexby'a 
chief agents, and wag arrested on 26 May 





1667 with two bundlee of ' Kaiing no Mur- 
der' under his arms [eeeSEXBr,EliWiED, and 
SlNDERCOMBE, Milbb]. Fot this he wbb com- 
mitted to the Tower, where he remoined till 
February 1659 (Thuelob, ti. 811, 317; 
MatBlirwm MS. A Wii. 413). At the Re- 
storation he was appointed one of the mee- 
sengers of the court of exchequer {Cal. State 
Papert, Dom. 1660-1, p. 104). In October 
1662 he petitioned for leave to resign his 
place to Thomaa Benbow, on the ground of 
bodily infirmity (ib. 1661-3, p. 613). Stui^ 
(pon was the author of • A Plea for Tolera- 
tion of Opinions and Persuasions in Matters 
of Religion differing from the Church of 
Eng'land' (4t«, 1061). It is addressed to 
Charles II, consists largely of extracts from 
Jeremy Taylor's 'Liberty of Prophesying,' 
and is reprinted in ' Tracts on Liberty of 
Conscience,' edited by E. B. Underbill for 
the Hanserd KnoUvs Society in 1848 (p. 

[AnUioritisf mentioDed in the srticle.1 

8TUKT, CHARLES <1796-1869), Aus- 
tralian eiplorer, was bom on 28 Apnl 1795 
in the Bengal Presidency, where his father, 
Thomas Lenox Napier Sturt, of an old Dor- 
set family, was a puisne judge in the East 
India Company's serrtce. His mother, Jan- 
nette, daughter of Dr. Andrew "Wilson, was 
descended from the border families of Scott, 
Kerr, and Elliott. Educated first at Ast- 
bury in Cheshire, and later at Harrow, and 
with a Mr. Preston near Cambridge, Sturt 
obtained a commission as ensign in the 
S9th regiment on 9 Sept. 1813. In Fe- 
bruary 1814he joined the Ist battalion of the 
S9th regiment, then serving in the second 
army corps under Sir Rowland Hill (Vis- 
count Hill) in the I^enees, and fought 
at Garris, at the passages of the Qaves, at 
Orthea, Garin, Aire, and Toulouse. Later in 
that year he saw service in Canada during 
Sir George Prevost's operations at Chazy 
and on Lake Champlam. Returning to 
Europe on Bonaparto^a escape from Elba in 
1616, Sturt with his regiment entered Paris, 
and remained for a time with the anny of 
occnpation in the north of France. From 
1819 to 1826 he served in Ireland, and took 
an active part tn some stirring episodes 
during the 'Whiteboy' riots. He became 
lieutenant on 7 April 1825, and captain on 
16 Dec. 1826. In command of a detachment 
of his regiment he arrived at Sydney in May 
1627. There he was appointed to the stKFF 
of Sir Ralph Darling [q, v.], governor of 
New South Wales, as military secretary 
and brigade-major, acting also for a time as 
liiDling a private secretary. 

Between November 1828 and April 1629, 
in command of a government party of ei{^ 
men, and accompanied by A iejiander Hamil- 
ton Hume [q. T.J, Sturt thoTougblv examined 
the hitherto impenetrable marshes of th» 
Macquarie, and, after forcing a way throQgh 
them and crossing vast plains, discovered t£e 
Barling. Though the saltness of this rivor 
at severaldistantpointsafter a long drought 
checked further advance, Sturt proved that 
it received those westward streams from the 
Blue Mountains (the Macquarie, Castlereagh, 
and Bogan), whose destination had hitherto 
been undetermined. According to Arrow- 
smith, he at this time explored 1,272 miles. 
la November 1829, accompanied by George 
(afterwards Sir George) Macleay [q. T.J 
Sturt led an expedition, for further invertt- 
gation of the Darling, along the unknown 
Cour«e of the Murrumbidgee, till stopped 'by 
vast reed-beds. Here a aep6t was formed, 
and two boats were built, ui one of which 
Sturt and Macleay, with six men, embarked. 
The other was soon swamped on sunkeo 
rocks, and with it were lost all provisions 
except flour, tea, and sugar. £1ve days of 
risky navigation through a narrowing chan- 
nel brought the party to a broad river, named 
by Sturt the Murray. Its parent stream wae 
later identified with the Hume, so named 
by Hume when discovered and croflsed 
by him in 1824 at a point three hundred 
miles higher up. But to Sturt the Murray 
river solved the problem of the whole south- 
eastern water system. So clearly did he read 
its meaning that on presently reaching the 
junction of another river he rightly assumed 
that to be the Darling, Thirty-three days 
after entering the Murray he crossed Lake 
Aleiandrina, and found its outlet to these* 
impracticable. A survey of the coast dis- 
peUed all hope thataome vessel might be on 
the look-out, and want of provisions forbada 
him to explore the fine region now in view. 
Notwithstanding the adverse current and 
rapids and the dangers fiom hostile tribes, 
Sturt and hia seven companions spent on the 
desperate return voyage only seven days 
more than had been occupied by theirdown- 
Btream course. Eachmanhed to subsist on 
a daily pound of flouiand a weekly qusrtei^ 
pound of tea. Sturt and Macleay shtired 
fully in every peril and privation, toiliag 
at the oar from dawn to nightfcll. They 
reached the depAt late in April 1830, all in 
very weak condition ; Sturt was nearly blind. 
Arrowsmith computes the distance esplored^ 
to and along the Murrumbidgee and dovrn 
the Murray to the lake, at 1,950 miles, and 
considers that by the opening up of these 
riversandof their junction witA the DaiUng 



VTCT two thousand miles of wat«r comma- 
aiwtioa wore gn«a to the irorld. 

For KHne monthi ia 1830 Start wu em- 
alojed ta Norfolk lalood on trpna servicsa, 
flrvbiehberMetved the thonkg oi the New 
Ehwtlt WaIm governtnenC. The effect of 
MMtaaed atnun on bis health and ejesig^kt 
tkn obliged him to seek advice in Enffluid, 
■Md nltimUely, on 19 July 1833, to quit the 
B»T. Sariiw thii forced insctivitv, and 
wUle Mill too bUod to read, he pablished in 
1S33 the ' Jouroals ' of hia fint two expedi- 
oon* in 1828 and 1631, ' with obeervatione 
CD the colony of New South Wales '(2 vols.) 

Ia 1834 he married Charlotte Christiana, 
da^iitCT of Colonel William SheppejGreene, 
mi^aij anditor-gtneral, Calcutta, and, re- 
taming to Anctralia, settled in New South 
Wale*. In May 1838,iDahar^ofthethird 
' owcdand ' ftrtj with cattle for South Aus- 
tn)ia,M)d eager at the eame time to further 
Mogn^iic*! research, he traced the Hume 
nam where Hume had left it, till, after join- 
ing the Ooulborn, the Ovens, and the Mur- 
mmhidgee, it becomes the Murray. He ez- 
flored mocb country along the latter rifer, 
till St Hoorundi be struck westward and 
OMMd tho Uount Lofty ranges to Adelaide, 
noUDg «pe«3ally the fine mineral promise of 
the mottntaiuB. This expedition was fol- 
lowwl in September by duing attempts to 
enter tlie Hurray mouth in a whsleboat. 
His ivpoTt on the dangers of that estuary, 
hf di^elling visions of a new capital at 
EMOMBter Bay, raised the price of land 
nond Adelaide twenty-five to thirty per 

On S April of tfaat year, aft^r the resignation 

iai metpteA that poet at the request of the 
pncnor, Colonel George Oawler [q.v.], who 
wia Bot aware that meantime toe borne 
nnmment hnd appointed Captain fVome, 
ILBn to the same office. On the arrival of 
the krttar officer in the colony, Sturt on 
S Oct *H nude umstant oommissioner of 
Inda Tb» work of the survey, as well as 
Art of aDottiaff the land to settleis. was at 
ttu time putieolariy difficult in tna new 
'ftonnee.' Stnrt and FMkm did exceUent 
woik in redncins to order Hm chaos of the 
fat rwb of aettlers, and tlie two men were 
fat &M^ vrh3e thus working together and 
ttw Mhoat their lives. On 29 Aug. 1843 
8tnt wM Bored to the pott of registrar- 

■ in JniiuaTyl848hevoluntaered 

, t&a centro of tbe continent, but 
B delajed till dangerously late 

Is txjAon t 


;7 Sturt 

in the following year of drought. Yet lie 
started in August 1844 with Mr. Poole and 
John Harris Browne and twelve other men. 
faking as draughtsman John McDouall 
Stuart [((.v.] (who in 1863 finally croesed 
the continent). The Darling was followed 
upwards from its junction with the Murray, 
1/6 miles to Cawndilla. Thence Stanley 
Bange woscrossedintothe depreased northern 
interior. The party auffered greatly from 
want of water. No rain fell from November 
to July. In JanuoiT I84C, at latitude 
29° 40' and longitude 141° 46', a good creek 
was found in the Bocky Qlen, and at this 
dep6t they remained for mi months. They 
dug underground chambers for relief from 
the heat, and to make possible St urt's writing 
and mapping. The officers were attacked by 
scurvy, of which Poole died. Sturt's pre- 
caution in taking sheep with his party prored 
invaluable in saving life. On the first rainfall 
in July, Sturt sent nomea third of his party, 
moved forward tbe depAt, and rode sixty- 
nine miles westwards. Here progress was 
stopped by a large lake-bed, dry but for salt 
pools, yet too soft to cross. This lake is 
now known in its two branches as Lake 
Blanche and Lake Gregory ; and, though not 
joined to Lake Torrens, as Sturt sunnosed, it 
yet forms part of the same remarkable seriea 
of central salt lakes. Baulked in a direction 
which in a better season might have led him 
to success, Stnrt, on 14 Aug., with Browne 
and three men, eet out for the north-west. 
On the 18th he diRcovered tbe watercourse 
named by bim Stizelecki Creek, after Sir 
Paul Edmund Straelecki [q. v.J Though 
partly dry, it contained large pools of water, 
and was Sufficiently important for him to 
follow it up for over sixty miles. Croesing 
in succession three smaller creeks at distances 
of from fifteen to eighteen miles apart, Sturt 
and Browne plunged into a terrible district 
of sand ridges and stony desert, till at lati- 
tude 24° 30' they were forced back by want 
of grass and water. On their return on 
3 Oct. to their depAt at Fort Orey, they had 
ridden over nine hundred miles in seven 
weeks. After six days' rest Stnrt, with 
Stuart and two fresh men, on 9 Oct. went 
nortb-eaetwards, and, crossing Stneleeld 
Creek, he, on the 16th, discovered some forty 
miles fiuther, in good country. Coopers 
Creek, a fine stream. Then, turning nmth- 
westwards, ther were again baffled by sand 
ridges and bt^Ieesdeeert. Before returning 
to tbe depit Sturt followed up the Cooper 
fbr over a hundred milee. But it was left 
to tbe later explorers, Kennedy and Gr^ory, 
to prove that we Cooper, the Strselecki, and 
their dependent ' Greeks ' all form port of on* 


StUrt i; 

Isciutrine ddta, 'whose upper w&ten, found 
by Sir ThomM Livingstone Mitctell [q.T.l in 
QuMHAl&nd on 14 Sept. 1S45, wore £7 him 
inist«lien for the Victoria of U^ north. This 
t'iYOt it now known as the Cooper or Barcoo. 

On letunung to the de^ot Sturt felt ill 
with scQiry, but by long trying stages gained 
tha Duling — 270 miles distant — and uiallf, 
after an absence of nineteen mouths, his 
putyairived at Adelaide. Arrowsmith puta 
the mileage of this expedition at ' over 8,450,' 
and saye that Bturt attained to within 150 
miles of the centre of the ooutiuent. In 
1849 ha publiahed his ' Kanative of an Ex< 
pedition into Central Australia, 1844^1648, 
with a notice of the Provinne of South 
Australia in 1847 ' (2 vols.) 

ButSturt's explorations were only episodes 
in his activa lite. From 18S0 to 1842 ha 
held his appointment of commissioner of 
lands. From 1848 to 25 Aug. 1849 be was 
legistrar-genaraliWith a seat in the eseoutira 
and legisMtive councils, and from 28 Sept. 
1846 he waa also colonial treasiuer. On 
26 Aug. 1849 he became colonial aecretaiy, 
and held that office till the clwe of ISSl, 
when ho retired on a pension granted by the 
eolony. In March 1868 be returned witi 
his family to England, and till hi* death on 
16 June 1869 he lived at Cheltenham, main- 
taining to the last his keen interest in Austra- 
lian exploration, and actively aiding hy his 
counsels in the preparations of later erpfr- 
dititms, Ha was a fellow of the BoyalOeo- 
graphical and of the Ltnuean Societies, and in 
May 1847 tha former society presented him 
with their founder's gold medal In 1869 
he was nominated K.C.M.G., but he died 
without receiving that honour. He left four 
c^dien-— three sons and a daughter. Colonel 

I^ chief results of Sturt's explorations 
were the general survey of the larf[eat livw 
^Btem of Australia and the opening up of 
SoutJi Australia and of its extensive water 
conununiciLtion ; while he waa the first tra- 
Teller,foi a long time the onlyone, to approach 
the centre of AuetraUa. The volumes in 
which he racorded his journeys, written amid 
faardshipaaudunderthe drawback of impaired 
«yesight, aim at do literarv effect, yet charm 
by their vivid narrative. They contain many 
illustrations £rom his own hand which give 

Eof of ills artistic talents, and especially of 
rare skill in drawing and colouring birds 
^ud uTiimalB , TTift attainments in varioiu 
brancbM of natural science, especially in 
iwitithcdogy and botany, w«re considarabla. 
Bis fallow explorers, £yie and Harrie- 
BrowiH) wrote with enthusiasm of the quali- 

» Sturt 

ties which enabled hiia to punaa among 
savages a path never stained by bkx>dshiBd. 

Duplicate portraits of Stmt by Croaeland 
are respectively in the council cbambw ait 
Adelaide and in the possesaion of Miaa Sturt. 
Another portrait by the same artist haogs 
in the art gallery, Adelaide. A crayon draw- 
ing, exeouted by Koberwein in 186S, is now 
in the posaaaaioB of Colonel Ifapier Qaoi^ 
Sturt. Of two busts by Sammera one is ta 
tha art galleay at Adelaide, and the other 
behwgs to C. Halley Knight. 

[Oapt. Start's Joomals, Sic, above mentioned, 
also tons asoiiaeriptpapetsbjhiaiaBdBmans- 
Ktipt Jonm^ of his 'ovoland' joumeydovn 
tbn Home and Murray ; Boyal Oaofprs^iieal 
Sodety"* Joomals, voU. mv. and xrii. (t8*7)t 
Caumm's Histoacal Becon) of the SBth Foot; 
Address by Sir Samuel DaTenport at InangUBd 
Meatiag of the Soatb Anittalian Branch of the 
Qeographical Sodetv of Australasia ; Kapier** 
ColoaUation ; HoTall and Hume's Joamey oiI)is> 
covery iu 1S24 ; A Short Account of the Publis 
Life sad Diacovsries in Australia of Capt. Sturt 
(repriated in 1839 &om a South Austmlian 
paper) ; John Arroirsmith's mapa and msnu)- 
randa.] B. U. 8. 

STUBT, JOHN (1668-1730), engravBC, 
was bom in London on 6 April 165B, and M 
the ag« of aevantaen -was ^pnentioed to 
Bobert White [q. v.], in whose manner bm 
engraved a number of sioall portraits aa 
frontispieces to books. Becoming associated 
with John Avres [q.v.], he engraved tha moat 
important of that mmous writiiu-maat^a 
booka on calligra^y, and aoquiraA oelabrity 
for bis skill in such work ; he engraved tli« 
Lord's Prater within the space ol a silrer 
halfpenny, the Creed in that of a ailver penny^ 
tmd an el^y on Queen Jdary on so small a 
scale that it could be inserted in a fingas* 
ring. Sturt's most remarkable productioii 
was the Book of Common frayer, executed 
on 188 silverplates, all adorned with b(u:dei« 
and vignettes, the froatispieoe bain^ a 
trait of George I, on which are inscriba . ._ 
characteis so minute as to be legible onlv 
with a magnifying glass, the Creed, tha Xiord^ 
Prayer, the dommsndments, the prayer fast 
the royal iamily, and the twenly-nmt rsnlro. 
This was published in 1717, and in 1721 h* 
engraved, in a similar manner, the 'Orthodox 
Communicaat.' He was extremely indus- 
trious, and executed the illuotrationa t« 
many of the reli^us and artistic publico- 
(ions ofthe time, including BraggarerpMsioa 
of Our Saviour,' 1694; the Mder Samu^ 
Wesley's 'History of tha Old and Na-ar 
Teatament in Verse,' 1704 and 1716; Um 
English editions of Audran's ' Perspectin gf 
the Human Body,' Fosio's 'Bulea of Paik 




yttiw/md Pgn-anh'a 'Twfttiaa on the Fi?c 
Ord«nof Archtteetnre;' Lkureiiee Howell's 
• Tiew of the Pontificate/ 1712 ; J. Hamond'e 
"Historicftl Nuntive <n the'WhoIe Bible,' 
ir?T; and Banjan'e 'Pilgrim's ProgroM,' 
1728. He also engraTed the ' Geneslogy <a 
Occrge I,' in two sheets, 1714; 'Okrono- 
lopal Tables of Europe,' 1726 ; and a. pUte 
tit the 'SeTen Bishops,' from a calligraphic 
dwwing b; T. Rodway. Sturt wae the in- 
TeUor of the quaiot clase of prints known 
a* ' median,' the first of which he published 
in 1706. BU* last amploynient was upon t!ie 
fittes to James Audatsou's valuable work 
'Selectua Diplomatum et Numismatum 
Thennras.' He St one time kept a drawing 
■okool in St. Paul's diurohjard in paitnei- 

awith Beniard Lens (1659-1725) [see 
rLB!ra,BEiur&SD, 1631-1708} He died 
IB London in reduced circumstances in 
Aagam 1730. A portrait of Sturt, meuo- 
tioted by W, Humphrey from a painting by 
Faichonie, was published in 1774. 

[SdvU'i Diet, of Eogrsrers ; Walpole'a Aneo- 
iota, ed. DaUavaj andWoninm; Vertne's ool* 
ktiiM* in Brit. Uni. Add. MSS. 8SDT0 f. 29, 
mrs r. 3», nOIS t. tt-, Dodd's uanDseript 
^ti. of Eoglish Bngattf, Brit. Mas. Add. MS. 
SHBS.] P. K O'D. 

UTUTEVILIiE, EOBEST ob (d. 1186), 
baioB and justiciar, was son of Robert de 
SbtSTtlle, one of the northern barons who 
eMmanded the Enslish at the battle of the 
SlB^aid in AugnstllSS ( Orufa Sii^hani, p. 
16D). His grand&ther, Bobert Orundebeof, 
bad sB P pOTted Bobert of Normandy at 
Toidiemi in 1106, where he was taken cap- 
tire and Irapt in prison for the rest of his 
£&( 117-18). Dugdale makes 
mn of the Bobert Stuteville who 
t the battle of the Standard and the 
n this he was no doubt in error. 
BriMSt de Stoterille the third occurs ss 
ill II Hill to a charter of SsarjU. on 8 Jan. 
IIU at Newcastls-on-TyDe (Errov, p. SS). 
He *M a JBStice Itinerant in the counties of 
Cnsbsland and Iforthumberland in 1170- 
nn (M±BOi, Hist. Exeheguer, i. 144, 146), 
aad Affiff of Yorkshire from Eutei 1170 to 
£sf(cr 1176. The king's castles of Enares- 
haroa^ and Appleby were in his custody in 
Afril 1174, when they were captured by 
I)and,«ari of Hnntingoon. Stuteville, with 
kii hMbcn nnd sons, was active in support 
«f tto king' daring the war of 1174, and 
It uok a nromtnant part in the capture 
rfWflliam &• lAon (1143-1214) [q. v.]at 
Akwick on 18 J-aty (R<»- Hot. ii 60). He 
*« ooa of die -witnesses to the Spanish 
•.«d on 16 M.Kh 1177 (». ii. ISl^, and 

from 1174 to 1181 was constantly in at- 
tendance on the kin^, both in England and 
abroad (Enoir, passun). He seems to have 
diedintheeariypartofll86(i2.p.276). He 
claimed the barony, which had been forieited 
by his grandfather, from Roger de Mowbray, 
who by way of oompromise gave him Eirby 
MooTside (Boo. Hov. Iv. 118}. Stuteville 
married twice ; by his first wife, Helewise, 
he had a son WiUiam (see below) and two 
daughters; 1:7 the second, Sibilla, sister of 
^iUp de Valoines, a son Eustace. He was 
^hably the founder of the nunneries 1^ 
Keldhoune and Rossedale, Yorlahire (Dns- 
i>Ai.B, Mowut. Angl. iv. 816), and was a 
benefootorof Bievaulz Abbey. 

Bobert de Stuteville was probably brother 
of the Roger de Stuteville who was sheriff 
of Northumberland from 1170 to IISS, 
and defended Wark Castle against Wil- 
liam the Lion in 1174 (Jobdah PurrosiCB, 
passim). Rogerreceived charge of Edinbnrgh 
Cartlein 1177 (Eitojt, p. 214). 

WuxuK DH STUTEVILI.B {d. 1S03) wat 
rovernor of Topclive Castle in 1174, and of 
Boxbnigh Castle in 1177 (Boa. Hot. ii. 58, 
133). He waa a justice itinerant in York- 
shire in 1189, and in the following year waa 
sheriff of Northumberland. He remained 
in England during the third cniaade, and 
was at first a loyal supporter of Biohard's 
interests. William de I^ngchamn sent him 
to BTTest Hugh de Puiset [q. T.J in April 
1190, and in 1191 made bim sheriff of Lin- 
colnshire. Afterwards he seems to have 
been won over by John, and in Uarch 1193 
he joined with Hugh Bsrdolf in preventing 
Archbishop Geofeey of York from besieging 
Tickhill {&. iii. 36, 135, 206). Stuteville 
was nevertheless reconciled to the king, and 

Richard appointed to settle the dispute be- 
tween Archbishop Geoffrey and the canons 
of York (MiMX, Hitt. Exch. i. 83). On 
the accession of John, William de StntevlUe 
received charge of the coontiea of Northum- 
berland and Cumberland (Roo. Hov. tv. 91). 
From the new king he received a grant of 
feirs at Buttei><!rambe and Cottingham, and 
by his influence at court waa able to obtain a 
settlement of his dispute with William de 
Mowbray (iB,iv,117-18). John visited him 
at Cottingham in January 1201, and in thM 
same year made him sheriff of Yorkshire <fb. 
iv. 158, 161). Stuteville died in 1203. leav- 
ing by his wife Berta, niece of Banulph de 
Glanville [q. v.], two sons— Robert (J. 1206) 
and Nicholas (d. 1219) ; the latter had a son 
Nicholas, who died in 1236, and with whom 
the mala line of William de Stuteville came 
to an end. From a eolUteial bianch of the 





funilrthere deeeended Sir William de Skip- 

■with [q. T.] 

[Roger Horeden'a Chronicle (Eolls Sar.) ; 
Oesta StsphaDi and Chroniqne de Jordui Fan- 
tonne ap. Chionicte* of St«phan, Benry II, and 
Ridurd I (HoUs Ser.) ; Dngdale'a Baronatfe, i. 
t&S ; NioaUs'i Historic Pasnge, ed. Courtbops, 
pp. 4S7-8i EjtoD's Itiaenirj of Henr; II; 
Fou'e Jiidges of England : anthoti^ea quoted.] 
C. L. K. 

STYLE, WnXIAM (1604-1679), legal 
autlkor, eldest aon of William Stjie of 
Langlej, Beckeuham, Kent (grandsoiiof Sir 
Hamphrey Style, eaquire of tha body to 
Henn' VIII), by his Mcond wiie, MBry, 
danghter of Sir Robert Clarke [q-v.], waa 
bom in 1603. He matriculated at Oxford, 
ftom Queen's CoUegre, on. 13 June 1618, and 
leaided for a time at BrsBenoae Collwe, but 
left the uniTBraityirithout a degree. He'waa 
admitted in November 1618 a student at the 
Inner Templa, where he waa called to the 
bar in 162S. After the death without iaaue 

gl669) of ble half-hrother, Sir Humphrey 
tyle, bart., gentleman of the privy chamb^ 
to James I, and cup-bearer to Charles I, he 
reuded on the ancestral estate of Langley. 
He died on 7 Dec. 1679, and waa buried m 
Langlsy church. By bis wife Elizabeth, 
daught«r of William Quleing of Rochester, 
heuid issue two sons; William, who died in 
his lifetime unmarried, and Humphiey, who 
died without male issue. The present ba- 
ronet. Sir William Henry Margham Style 
of Glenmoie, co. Donegal, is descended from 
Sir Humphrey Style's second aon, Olirer, 
and thus represents a younger bmnch of the 

Style translated from the LaUn of John 
Michael Dilherr 'Contemplations, Sighes, 
sad Qroanes of a Christian,' London, 1640, 
12mo. He compiled t I. ' lU^estum Frac- 
ticale, or the Practical Roister, consisting 
of Rules. Orders, and Obaerrationi con- 
cerning the (Tommon Laws and the practice 
thereof,' London, 1667, 8to, 3rd edit. 1694. 
2. 'Narrationes Moderaea, or Modem Ke- 
ports begun in the now Upper Bench Court 
U Westminster in the beguining of Hilary 
Term 21 Caroli, and continued to the end oif 
'Mi''hfii'l"'B^ Term, 1666, as well on the cri- 
minal as OD the pleas side,' London, 1658, fol. 
He also edited, with additions, Olisson and 
Gulston's 'Common Law Kpitomiz'd,' Lon- 
don, 1679, 8to. Style's Reports are the only 
published records of the deuuons of Henry 
Bolle [q<v.] and Sir John Qlynne [q. v.] 

[Fostst's Alnmsi Oxon. ; Hastsd'i Kant, i. 
86 ; Braty's Oonnty QeneaL (Kut) ; lunar 
Temple Books ; Wood's Athan» Oxon. (Blin), 
UL 470; Wallace's Bsportars; Uarrin'a Legal 

Bibliugraphy; Brit. Mo*. Oat.; Wotion's B^ 
roti«tage, 11. 22 ; Foster's Boionetage.] 

J. M. B, 

(1815-1862), art amateur. [See La 

1856), historian of Suffolk, bom on 31 Jan. 
1796, waa the only son of Alexander Fox of 
Norwich, by his wife Ajina Maria (d, 1S48), 
daughter of Robert Suckling of Woodton- 
Cum-Langhale in Suffolk, by his wife, 
Susannah Webb, adescendant of Inigo Jones 
fq. T.l Robert Suckling was of an ancient 
SuffoUc family, which included among ita 
members the poet Sir John Suckling [q. t.1 
and Nelson's uncle, Maurice Suckling [q. tJ 
On the dealji of Robert's son, Maurice Wit 
liam, without issue on 1 Dec. 1820, Alfred 
Inigo took the surname and arms of Suck- 
ling and succeeded to the estates. He waa 
educated at Pembroke College, Cambridire, 
whence he graduated LL.B. in 1824. On 
10 July 1839 he waa instituted on his own 
petition to the rectoryof BarsbaminSufiblk, 
which he held until his death. He died at 
40 Belmont Road, St. Helieis, Jersey, on 
8 May 1856. On 31 Jan. 1816 he married 
Lucia Clementina, eldest daughter of Samuel 
Clarke, by whom he had four aons^Robert 
Alfred, MauHce Shelton, Charles Richard, 
and Henry Edward — and six daughters. 

Suckling was the authorof: 1. 'Memonsls 
of the County of Essex,' London, 1645, 4to ; 
originally printed in ' Quarterly Papers on 
Architecture,' 1845, vol, iii., edited by John 
Weale [q. rj 2. ' History and AntiquitJea 
of Suffolk,' London, 1816-8, 4to. The latter 
work was not completed. His ' Antique and 
Armorial Collections,' 1821-39, 16 vols. 4to, 
consisting of notices of architectural and 
monumental antiquities in England and 
Picardy, form Additional MSS. 18476-91 
(Brit, Mus.) {Notes and Qutriet, ith. ser. ii. 
612,Tui. 622). He also edited 'Selections 
from the Works of Sir John Suckling, with a 
Life of the Author,' London, 1836, 8yo. 

[Bnrke'e Landed Oentry, 1S94 ; Lnard's Qiad. 
Cuntalir. p. SOS ; Foster's Index Ecclesias^cna, 
p. 188; Notfsaad Qneries, 4th ear. iLfil2, viii. 
522, 8tb ser. xii. 6 ; ITorfolk Chronicle, 10 May 
ISflSiNorwich Mercury, 10 May 1890; lUns- 
tratsd London News, 17 May ISSS; Dav/a 
Suffolk CoUectioDs in Addit. MBS. 191S0 ff. 20S, 
29B, 808, 19168 f. 180.] K I. 0. 

SUCKLING, SiB JOHN (1609-1642), 

poet, wasbominhis father's house at Wh it ton, 
m theparisli ofTwickenham, Middlesex, and 
was baptised there on 10 Feb. 1608-9. His 
, grand&ther, Robert Suckling (<£. 1689), ths 





kvndtnt of ui ancient Norfolk family, ■wae 
Buraof Sorwich in 1582 (see ^ertim MS. 
iii3\ u)d represented that city in pftrlia* 
mhi in 1586. He married in 1669 Elita- 
iuh (i 1569), daughter of William Bar- 
viek. Their eldest son, Edmond Suckling 
(ih'poet's uncle), -was dean of Norwich &om 
1614 until his death, Kt tho age of seventy- 
nro, in July 1628 (Lh Nhtb, Fatti, ii. 476). 
In 1813 he drevr up a protest against Arch- 
li)hap Abbot's vi«it&tion of the see (cf. 
Aida.M a. S20&2,f. 308). The poet's father, 
&T John Suckling {1669-1627), entered 
Otit's Itm on 22 May 1690 (Fobteb, Regitier, 
f. T 1), and -WA* returned to parliament for 
Ills borough of Dunwioh in 1601 (Membert 
^ Pari. 1. 440). In 1602 he waa act- 
ing u secretary to the loid treasurer, Sir 
Eobert CecU, and in December 1604 he 
became receiver of fines on alienations, in 

IstbeparliBment of 1614 he appears to htiTe 
Kt for lUigate (^Mem&ert ofPaA. App.p. il). 
He iraa knighted by James I at Theobalds 
on 22 Jan. 1615-16 (MBTCiLFB, KntghU, p. 
106); in February 1620 he became a master 
of n^DvEts, and m 1622 he was appointed 
oomptroller of tLe 'oy'l household, 'paying 
'Well for the post.' The position was doubt- 
leaa % tvrj lucrative one in the hands of a 
^Ma like Sucklinr, who had hitherto let alip 
■n opportunity of accumulating manors, fee- 
fatus, and advowsons in rarious parts of the 
CMintTT {StaU Paper*, Dom. 1619-33, pp. 
161,434; aeTeral of his official commissions 
~ nAddU. MS. 34334 ff. 330-2). 
1621 he had been mentioned 
m'a moat serious competitor for 
thdsncellorship of the exchequer {Sydney 
A^m, 1746, ii. 368, 364), and in March 1622 
Im waa sctnally promoted to be secretary of 
aUte, while ChBrlsa I, upon his accession 
thne ynn later, created him a privy conn- 
clBv. In 1623 he elected to serve in par- 
KanwDt ai member for Middlesex, having 
heia dected not only for that countv, but 
also lor Lichfield and Kingston-on-Hull. In 
ISM ks Mpieeented Yarmouth, and in 1626 
ka eb^ed to sit for Norwich in preference 
to Saochrich ( MaiAert of Part. pp. 466, 470, 
•VSi. TtoM waa in Charles's second pailia- 
^toA, and ho died 00 37 March 1627. 

Tte poet's motbar was Martha, daughter 
•f naaaa Cruifleld, ^tiien and mercer of 
Leodott, W Martha, daughter of Vincent 
lt-«-<.n* ■ the was thus oister to Lionel Cran- 
ieU^.r.], who was in 1633 created first Earl 
■flfHdifnrT ThopoetiBsaid,uponthesome. 
wUt dnbions testimony of Anbrey, to have 
MiiiitLil bia wit &oin her, hi* comely person 

from his father. Dame Martha Suckling died 
on 28 Oct. 1613, aged 36, her son Johnbeing 
then but four and a half years old (see in- 
scriptions upon family tombs in St. Andrew's, 
Norwich, ap. Blohefield, Noifblk, It. 307- 
311). She also left Martha, who married 
Sir Qeorge Southcott of Shitliugford, Bevon- 
Bhire,Bnd,afterhissuicide in 1638, married as 
her second husband William Ckgett of Isle- 
worth, and died at Bath on 29 June 1661 
(she is said to have been the favourite sister 
of the poet, who sent her a consolatory letter 
in 1638) ; Anne, who married Sir John Davis 
p. 162), and died on 24 July 1659; Mary 
and Elizabeth, who died unmarried (cf monu- 
ment in Pangboume church, OxfordsluTe). 
Aft«r his first wife's death the elder Sir John 
married Jane, widow of Charles Hawkins, 
and oiiginaUy of the Suffolk family of Reve 
or Keeve. At her instance about 1600 he 
purchased the estate of Boos or Hose Hall, 
near Beccles, and to her he left this manor, 
together with his house in Dorset Court, 
Fleet Street. He waa anxious that after 
his death hia son should purchase irom his 
stepmother the rerersion of the manor of 
Boae Hall ; but the poet failed to do so, and 
when the widow took as her third husband 
Sir Edwyn Rich, knight, of Mulbarton, 
Norfolk, she carried the estate into that 
family (for this somewhat obscure transfer 
of property, see Socklinb, Ritt. of SuffoUc, 
i. 29 ; of. Davy, ftyfott ai««twn*, vol. lixiv.) 
The only reason for supposing that Suck- 
ling was educated at Westminster seems to 
be that .Aubrey made a memorandum to 
question Dr. Busby about the matter. At 
sixteen he went to Cambridge, matriculating 
from Trinity College as a lellow-commoner 
on 3 July 1633. He took no degree, and, 
though Davenant speaks in extravagant 
torms of his proficiency as a scholar, it seems 
safer to conclude with Isaac It«ed that hia 
learning was polite rather than profound. 
He is said to nave had a very good ear for 
music, and with this went, as is often the 
case, a marked lingnistlc faculty. Suck- 
ling waa admitted of Gray's Inn on 23 Feb, 
16&-7 (FosTHB, SfgUter, p. 180). His 
father'a death, on 27 March following^, made 
him heir to rich estates in Suffolk, Lmcoln- 
shire, and Middlesex, and enabled him to cut 
a considerable figure at court. Among his 
associates would appear to have been Sir 
Tobie Matthew [q. v.], Thomas Nabbes (who 
dedicated his play of ' Covent Gtarden' to 
him in 1638), Wye Saltonstall [q.v.] (who 
dedicated to him liis translation of Ovid's 
' Epistolffl de Ponto ' in 1689), ' Tom ' Carew, 
'Dick'Lovelace, and 'Jack' Bond. He waa 





more intimately allied with William Dave- 
nant (to irbom He addreased eeveral copies 
of Terse, and from iThom he may have de- 
rived tiU speoial Tenaration of Shakeepeare 
by which he waa distinguished), and ' the ever 
memorable ' John Hales, to whom he also 
addressed verses in the form of a poetical 

His connection with the Middleaex fiMnil; 
served as an introduction to the higher 
official circles. But the aojoum of the 
vouthfiil gallant at oonrt was intermpted 
before the end of 1628, when he is said to 
have commenced his travels. From Paris, 
whither he went first, he proceeded tc 
ItaW, but he was bach in England before 
19 Sept. 1630, when he was knighted hy the 
king at Theobalds (Ubicalfb; Walklbi 
in his Catahffue of 1689 says 19 Bee) 
In July 16S1 he aaems to have attached 
himself to the force of six thousand men 
who set out from Yarmouth under the Mar- 
quis of Hamilton to rdnfbree the ansy of 
Gustavus Adolphus. Under these leaders 
he is said to have taken {lart in the defeat 
(rf Tilly before Leipsig on 7 Sept. 1681, and 
to have been present at the siegeb of Croesen, 
Ouben, Gl(^u,audMagdeburaf. Returning 
hom these adventures in 1633, Suckling 
ftang himself with a passion of prodio^li^ 
into all the pleaeores of the court. Oards 
and dice had an irresistible fascination for 
him, and he is fain to admit that he prized 
a pair of black eyes or ' a lucky bit at bowls 
above all the trophies of wit ' (^Stitum of the 
Poett, Btan2a 19). Aubrey has a picturesque 
stoiy to the effect that his sisters came one 
day to the ' Peccadillo bowling-green crying 
for the fear he should lose all their portions' 
(this is one of the earliest references to Pic- 
cadilly; of. Whbatlbi and Ocvkinsbax, 
ii, 483). At times, however, ha had his 
rerenge, eBwbeninl6S6atTunbridgeWells 
he won the beat ;^aTt of 2,0001. &om Loid 
Dunbill at niuepma {Cal. State Papen, 
Dom. 1685, p. 385 ; of. Sjbitcb's Aneodotu, 
ed. Singer, pp. 2-4). One of bis fevourite 
haunts in London was the Bear tavern at 
the Bridge Foot, whence he dated his letter 
'from the 'Wine-drinkers to the Water- 
drinkem.' His gay career as a courtier was 
interrupted in th« autumn of 1684 by an 
unpleasant episode, or, as Garrard saya in S 
letter to Strafford dated 10 Nov. 1634, by 
' a rodomontado of such a natnre as is scaioe 
credible.' Suckling had been p^ing assi- 
duouB oourt to the daughter of ^ Henry 
Willou^hby, a considerable heiress, and his 
pretenstons were approved by Charles I, with 
whom he was a favourite. The progress of 
the negotiktiwu was regarded with disfavour 

by the lady, who was determined to thwaii 
the match. In order to effect this abe ap- 
pealed to another suitor. Sir John Digby 
(younger brother of Sir Kenelm), to whom 
she assigned the task of procuring Suckling's 
signature to a written renunciation of all 
cl«im to her hand. IHgby, who was • 
powerful man and an expert swordsman, pro- 
ceeded to London in quest of his rival. Aa 
it happened, he met him on the road, and, 
after a brief argument, proceeded to Uows, 
wbereu^ion the unfortunate poet was cud- 
gelled ' into a handful, he never drawing his 
sword.' The tame manner in which ho 
■ubmitted to the gross outrage loosened the 
tongues of many detractors at court, and 
consequent tattle may have led to the greater 
interest which he manifested about this 
time in the eedate avocations of men such aa 
Lord Falkland, Boger Boyle, Thomas Stan- 
ley [q. v.], and other TihiloBOnhers orechoIaM. 
I^ was present with Falkland and others 
at the ftmnol debate, held in the rooms of 
John Hales at Eton, lentecling the Conit>- 
parative merits of Shakespeare and thje 
classical poets, when the decision was given 
unanimously in Shakespeare's favour (Gix- 
soB, Miicellaneotu Ltttert and E*tay», 1691, 
^. 86-6). Early in 1687 was written and 
circulated (in manuscript form) the well- 
known 'Seesiou of the Poets, in which 
Snckling enshrined with ha^y ingenuity the 
names of the most interestinK of hie conteia- 
poraries. The idea has been often imitated br 
Bocheeter (Trial for tie Bayt), Sh^Bebl 
{EUctioK of a Poet Lattreate'), and by hulm 
others, of whom the best perhaps is Lei^ 
'SMiiX,{FiMitofthePoeU). In this same year 
Suckling made, in company with Davanant, % 
journey to Batb. ' Sir John,' Aubrey aayst 
■came Uke a young prince for all meaner of 
equipage;' he'hadacartload of bookes carried 
down, and it was there he wrote the little 
tract about Socinianism.' The winter that 
followed saw the production of his first plaj, 
' Ariaurs,' respecting w^iicb Garrard writea 
to StraSbrd on 7 Feb. 1637-8, 'Two of ths 
king's servants, pnvy chambermenboth, have 
writ each of them a play. Sir John Sutlia 
and Will Barclay, which have been acted in 
court and at the Black Friars widi tsueh 
api^use. Sutlin's play coat three or fbur 
hundred pounds setting out. Bight or tan 
suits of new cloathea he gHve the players, an 
nnheord of prodigality.' There is httle doulit 
that the king was present, and erpreesed 
concern at the unhappy endutg, for Suokiine 
modified hia tragedy and called ib a teagi- 
comedy, a plan ' so well approved by that ex- 
cellent poet Sir Bobert Howard that b» haa 
foUovea this pceaident [«k] in his " TwCal 


Suckling u 

Tirgia'*' (l>»ir«»AJira). The success waa 
fwEsbly dii« in Um measure to the norelt; 
<f iHt teentrj, nrely, if erer, seen before on 
thMtage,exceptiiithemT>dnction of masques. 
It WM t«Tived at the RestoratioD, -when 
Ftpft called it * k mean play,' and Flecknoe, 
(ruodr Bors polite, said that it seemed 
'Ml <n tower*, but rather stuck in than 
mwing there' iSh^rtSueourie on lAe En^' 
*«*)■ 'Aglaura' waa published m 
Mk> in 1688 with some prefttorf Tersas bj 
BcoBe. The wide marpne proToked the 
feiskiB of tbe wits, who compared the text 
to'acliildin the neat bed at Ware' {Um- 
wnc^ POMtu, 1666, p. 67 ; Mutarvm Be- 
Kei», 1817, p. 68). 

In Jannan 16S9, whm the Scottish eam- 
Mign was first mooted, Suoklinr and his 
tneoi OeoT)^ Goring [q, t.] offerea and un- 
dertook to bring a hundred horse each to 
the iwdciiTons within three daje if Boceo' 
Miy. Snckling's contingent was duly raised 
«S a eoat, it is eaid, of ]3,000I., and accom- 
Mnied C3wriee on hie march to the border 
m Hay 1689. Ilongh he shered in Kol- 
Iab^s precipitate retreat from Kelso, no 
^edal act oi cowxrdioe van be laid to the 
poeA etiare- What exposed him in par- 
tkelar W the raillerj of the rhymesters 
WM the eoMly hnvMy of scarlet coats and 
■fimm Old whit« doublets with which he 
Me^«d hifl tioopcrr*. The maker of the 
nrig^itlT Teraea ' Uptm Sir John Suckling's 
Heat Wulik* Prernrations for the Scottish 
War'(*.p,81; cf. For ^orwiu, 1641, ap. 
BoW. Mite. 1609, iiL 2&6) would ha^e been 
MiQ more sKrcastic had be known how 
LmBc had M|rtared Snckling'B prirate coach 
coBtaiBiiig a quantity of sumptuous clothes 
Hd 800L in money (ptt 8tittePapert,lk.m. 
16II>-1, p. 176). Bat Suckling aeems to 
late pined rather than loirt ^und in the 
feiif^ eoUeta br his conduct in this cam* 
faign. On SS leb. 16S9-40 he waa given a 
conmiMtoB a» eaptun of carabineers (I'fr, 
MM to, p^ 481), and about this time ap- 
Mndin qtiano hie play 'TheBiecoutented 
OakMl' ^640], in wtnch the disloyalty of 
tte Snta wu isfleeted upon not obscurely. 
This «« ib» 'first draft of the play which 
WM fih tod hi 1646 aa ' Brennoralt.' It must 
kne teta sbartl;r "''^^ ^^i "^ '*' ^°^ *^**' 
imm tfa» wint«r of 164&-1, that he drew 
^l£ iMter of connsel to ttie king in the 
fiwMof a letter to the queen's omfidant, Sit 
HemyJertn7n(i''^*^'P"''*^'°^^^ as 'A 
" f of » IiCtter found in the Rivy 
n at Wirit«ball,' and subsequentlT 

_Tm the 'fVagmenta' of 16*6; cf. 

OtL IStete Paper*, Dom. 1640-1, p. 631). 
bf^w adne* to Ohaiies waa pcimtrily 


to quit his pnesire attitude and 'doe some- 
thing extraordinary,' The king waa to out* 
bid the parliamantery leaders by grantii^ 
ell, and more than all, that was desired 
About the middle of March the poet sup- 
plemented his advice by a scheme for a eavp 
dt main. This waa the ' firet army plot ' or 
plon to secure the command of the annyfor 
the Ung. But dieseneiona took place among 
its promoters, and one of them, George 
Gcnng, communicated aa much of the de- 
sign as it suited his purpose to reveal to the 
leaders of the opposition (see lyEWBa's Diajy 
ap. Bart MS. 163, f. 816; see GoBius, 
Geobob, 1606-1667). A committee was 
promptly appointed to investigate the plot. 
The leaden of the opposition were specially 
eiaspereted against Suckling, as he wee 
known during the past fortnight to Imve been 
busily engaged in enlisting pretended leviee 
for Portugal. On 2 May the king's agents 
had tried to procure admission for a hundred 
of these men into the Tower, with a view, it 
was believed, to the liberation of Strafiturd. 
On the same day Suckling had brought sixty 
armed men to a tavern in Bread Street (RuBK- 
woKTH, iv. 260 i Moobb's Diary, ap. Sari. 
MS. 477, i. 26 ; GABDnraB, But. of England, 
ix. 849). On 6 May it waa expected that 
Sucklinrand his associates would be charged 
before tee lords' committee, but they fwled 
to put in an appearance, and on 8 May a 
Reclamation was issued against them. 

The king had promised the parliament to 
detain the courtiers ; but Suckling was 
already beyond tbe seas, and bis friends had 
found concealment. Shortly after his escape 
there appeared ' A Letter sent by Sir John 
Suckling from Fiance deploring nis sad Es- 
tate and Flight, with a Biscoverie of the 
riot and Couspiracie intended by him and 
his adherents against England,' a metrical 
tract containtug a burlesque account of the 

Bet's life in forty-two stanzas, the manner 
ing very much that of Efir John M enner. 
This trifle was printed in quarto at Lon- 
don, thongh dated from Paris, IS June 1641, 
and is important aa proving that SucUii^ 
waslivingatParism Jane 1641. A ungular 
pamphlet in proee alao appeared in 1641, en- 
titled ' Newee from Sir John Sucklin, being a 
relation of hie conversion from a Papist to a 
Protestant; also whattonuent he endured by 
those of the Inquintlon in Spaine ; and how 
the Lord Lekenx, his Accuser, was strucken 
dumbe, hee going to have the Sentence of 
Death passed upon him. Sent in a letter 
to the Lord Conway, now being in Ireland. 
Printed for M. Rookee, and are to be sold 
in Grub Street, 1641/ This rare tract de- 
serves small meume of credit, but some porw 



tions ntay be true. It reUtes how Suckling 
BA«r hia flisbt took up bis residence at 
Bouen, and thence removed to Paris. Hera 
be commenced on amour with a lady of dU- 
tinction, but was soon compelled to malce 
bie escape ia order to avoid tta twej of Lord 
Loqueux, the lad^s former lover. Suckling 
fled to Spain, wbither be waa followed by 
tbe nobleman, wbo accused bim of having 
conspired the death of Philip IV. After 
suffering various tortures he was condemned 
to tbe gallows, hut was saved by the re- 
morse of bis enemy, wbo confessed to the per- 
jury and was sentenced to die in his stead. 
The tract concludes, ' Sir John and bis ladv 
are now living at The Hague in Holland, 

Eiously and reliRiously, and nieve at nothing 
ut that be did tbe kingdom of England 
wrong.' ■ Somewhat similar in its tone is the 
squib, also dated 1641, entitled'Four Fugi' 
tives Meeting, or the Discourse amongst my 
Lord Finch, Sir Fran cis W indebank. Sir John 
Sucklin, and Dr. Roane, as tbe^ accident- 
ally met in France, with a detection of their 
severall pranks in England ' (London, 4to). 
Much more intellifribie in its general aim 
and purport than taese roundhead fabrica' 
tions is a satire launched about tbe same 
time agunst the levities of Suckling's gilded 
youth, under tbe title ' Tbe Sucklington Fac- 
tion, or Suckling's Roaring Boyes.' Here in 
the centre of a lai^e folio sheet an engrav- 
ing represents two cavaliers, sumptuously 
dressed, and provided with such emolems of 
debauchery and profusion as long hair and 
wreaths of tobacco-smoke, dice-boxes and 
drinlcing-cups ; while the paper, which is 
closely printed, condemns in strong language 
all such incitements to evil conversation. 

Some uncertainty exists as to the circum- 
stances of Suckling's death. One story, of 
which there ore several variants, recounts 
bow having been 'robbed by his valet, that 
troacberous domestic, on finding his odence 
discovered, placed an open raxor [Oldys 
sajB a peiuinife] in his master's boot ; who, 
by drawing it hastily on, divided an arterv 
-which caused his death through loss of blooj' 
(see RiKB^DIiT, ap. Notei and Querta, 3nd 
eer. i. 316). This story, which reached its 
disseminator Oldja in a very circuitous 
manner, may quite safely be rejected in 
favour of Aubrey's account of the poet's 
death, which also has tbe support of family 
tradition. Reducedin fortune and dreading 
to encounter poverty, he purchased poison of 
an apothecary in Paris, and 'produced death 
by violent fits of vomiting.' This solution, 
which be bad condemned strongly enough in 
the case of his eldest sister's husband, was 
probably reached by him in May or June 

♦ Suckling 

1612. He was buried, says Aubrey, in tb* 
cemetery attached to the protestant church 
at Paris. The news of hu death elicited 
' An Elegie upon the Death of tbe Renowned 
Sir John Suckliu [by William Norris F},' 
1642, 4to i and also ' A copy of two remon- 
strances brought over the Kiver Stix in 
Caron's Fenj-boate, by the Ghost of Sir 
John Sucklin' (London, 1643, 4to; Brit. 

Upon lus death, unmarried and without 
issue, the patrimony passed to bis father's 
half-brother, Cborlea Suckling. Hia great* 
grandson, Dr. Maurice Suckling, prebendary 
of Westminster, was father of Captain Mau- 
rice Suckling [q. v.] and of Catherine, the 
mother of Lora. Nelson (see Bubxe, ClMn- 
monen, liL 460). 

Only B small fraction of Sucklins's writing 
appoured during his lifetime. XU that is 
of importance in bis literary legacy appeared 
four years after bis death in a volume en- 
titled 'Fragments Aureo. A coUectioD 
of all the Incomporablo Peeces written by 
Sir John Suckling; and published by a 
friend to perpetuate his memory. Feinted 

K' his owne copies, London: forHumpbrej 
)seley,'1648,8vo; 2nd edit, unaltered, 1648, 
8vo. Thia contains his ' Poems,' ' Letters to 
divers eminent personages written on several 
occasions,' the three pmys 'Aglauro,' 'The 
Goblins,' and ' Brennoralt,' and tbe tract on 
Socinianism already mentioned, entitled ' Aa 
Accountof Religion by Reason. ADiscouna 
upon Occasion presented to tbe Earl of Dor- 
set ' (a manuscript copy of this remarkable 
essav is in the Record OiEce). Prefixed ia 
ully enonved bj 
lines &om the pen of Thomas Stanley (see 
SiANLBi, Potmt, 1651) (the original edition 
with the portrait is scarce ; it fetched 81. 10<; 
in 1897, Book Prices Current, p. 37). Among 
tbe ' Poems,' of which tbe lyncs are stated 
to have been ' set in music ' by Henir Lawea, 
appeiu«d forthefirettimeinprint'ASession 
c» the Poets,' together with ' I prithee send 
me back my heart.' ' The Ballad upon a Wed- 
ding,' that 'mssteipiece of sportive gaiety 
ana good humour, had already seen tb« 
light in ' Witts Hecreations' (1640). Har- 
leian MS. 6917 conUins a copy of tbo 'Bal- 

an indiOerent portrait, skilfully enonved 
William Marshall, and accompanl^ by S< 

fact Roger Boyle (afterwards Earl of Orrery 

SI- vj) and Lady Morniet Howard, third 
aughtei of the Earl of Suffolk, and the wed- 
ding took place at Nortbimiberland House 
(where now stands the Oraod Hotel), henca 
the allusion to Charing Cross in the second 
stanza (see Nottt mi Queriet, 3nd Mt, xi. 




STS). Snctling celebrated the same event 
m hu DiatoKue ' Upon mj Lord Brohall'a 
Wedditw.' An imitation of tha ' Ballad ' by 
BofaRt Flet<^ier, entitled ' A Singsong on 
CUrind«'t Wedding,' waa printed in Ma ' Ex 
Otio NMOtiam ' (1666,pp. 226 sq.) ; another 
■Bpaared in 1667 in ' FoUt in print or a Book 
<f B7tnM'(pp.ll6-2i:|. 

Toi livelieat (d SncUing's dramatio efibrts 
Mv the ligbt tat the flnt time in the poathu* 
hdu ' Fragmenta.' ' The Ooblina ' waa 
acted at Blackfriars bj the lung'a men in 
1038, and rarived at the Theatre Rojal on 
H Jan. 1667; a tew copies with separate 
titlfrfage, of which the British Musenm 
■nwiiiiiiii an imperfect example, were circu- 
laUd ia 1646. The 'goblins ' are thieTes 
irho, nndei tbeir chief, Tamoren, frk-hten the 
kingdom of ' Francel ia'b^theirdevile' praoks, 
and deal out a rouffh kmd of Justice in the 
faflhrm of Bobin £u>od and his men. The 
eotuae at the action is bewildering, though 
agpaztmaty is found for some passages that 
■paAte and for some smart touches of lite- 
nrj and social criticism. Its eprightlj 
&Be7 mod lirel^ admixture of dialogue nitli 
moBgs and muaic, and a superabuoosuce of 
■cCwii,ae«in to have commended it to Sheri' 
dan, wba is stated to have hod theintentioa 
Dt renodellini it (^Oent. Mag. 1840, i. 127 j 
a. Wua>, iL 349. ' The Goblins ' ia printed 
IB Dodekr'a 'Old Plays,' 1744, vol. vu.) 

'The Tragedy of Breonoralt' (a revised 
ami expands Terslon of * The Discontented 
Colond ' of 1640), though it contains some 
ba rhetorical passages, is less effective than 
«tW * A|{4aan ' or ' The Goblins,' the point 
heiag conaidemblj lost when the relation 
between Almerin end Iphigene, after sppa- 
zvntljr tesemhlins; that Between the ' Two 
Sohk Kinsmen, turns out to be one of 
■ttiaetion between a man and a disguised 
wman. It ia curious as containing some 
p.1— ki,. ailnaions to the ^litical situation 
m 1639, tha Lithuanians in the piece, the 
aena of which is laid in Poland, being evi- 
^ntlf meant for the Scots (t6. p. 351). 
'Bnnnoralt' was revived at the Theatre 
Bojal on 6 March 16G8 (see Ghrest, x. 88). 
SocfcliBf did not hesitate to introduce into 
tbs piued t«zt without acknowledgment 
aims whole lines from Shakespeare. Wordft- 
vorth made a note in manuscript in his copy 
*f S^*Hi»g upon the markeil extent to 
vhidiSaekung' praised, q,uoted,and imitated 
Glttk«ffieara (Hazlitt, vol. L p. Ixvi)- 

SxMiBg't unfiniahed tragedy, 'The Sad 
<V,'iru pablished, tf^etherwith someother 
mak^nbuypoema and letters, in the third 
Muanof' FrBffinentai A.urea , . . with some 
Kw AiUitionau ' of 1658. lAter editions, 

entitled ' The Works of Sir John Suckling,' 
appeared In 1696, 1709 (for Jacob Tonso^, 
1719, 1766 (Dublin), and 1770. In 1836 
appeared ' Sdections from the "Works of Sir 
John Suckliu;' (with a very fine portrait 
engraved by James Thomson after Vandyck), 
with anelahorata life by Alfred Inigo Suck- 
ling [q. v.]^ upon which, as far aa the critical 
apparatus le concerned, is based the standard 
edition of ' The Poems, Plays, and other Re- 
mains of Sir John Suckling,' edited byW.C. 
Hoilitt in 1874 (London, 2 vols. 8vo j Mr. 
Qailitt is not fortunate in the additional 
poems which he inserts and ascribes to Suck- 
ling. One of these, ' Cantilena,' &c., i. 102, 
is by Dr. Richard Corbet, and is inscribed in 
' Corbet's Poems,' 1807, p. 94, as ' Dr. Corbet's 
Journey into France.' There is equally little 
reason for ascribing to Suckling the verses 
' 1 am confirmed a woman can, which first 
appeared in the ' Musical Ayres and Dia- 
logues ' of 1652). A decorative edition of 
the ' Poems and Songs ' was published in 
1896 fLondon, 6vo). 

HaUam, with hia usual rood judgment, re- 
marks of Suckling that, though deficient in 
imagination, he left former song-writers far 
behind in caiety and ease. It ia not equally 
clear, be adds, tnat he has ever since been sur- 
posBed. His ' Epithalamion ' ' is a matchless 
piece of liveliness and facility ' {Lit. Hitt, of 
Europe, 1854, iii. 44), The pre-eminence of 
'natural, easy Suckling,' as Millamant calls 
him (CosenEvB, Way of tha World, act iv. 
sc. iv.), in the quoLties of fluency and brio 
is beat shown by the contrast of his minor 
pieces to those of contemporaries with whom 
he bad most affinity, such aa Lovelace and 
Carew. The chief merit of his somewhat 
dreary plays ifl that of harbouring a (few 
poems of price, such as 'Why so mle and 
wan, fond lover f (in the fourth act of 

Aubrey obtained a minute description of 
Suckling from hie intimate friend Davenant. 
' Be was incomparablv ready at reparteeing, 
and Ilia wit most sparkling when most set on 
and provoked. He was the greatest gallant 
of his time, the greatest gamester both for 
bowling and carda ; so that no shopkeeper 
would trust him for sixpence, as to day for 
instance he might by winning be worth 2001. 
and the next day he might not be worth 
half so much, or perhaps be sometimes minus 
nihilo. He was of middle stature and slight 
strength, brisk round eye, reddish-faced and 
red-nosed (ill-liver), his head not very big, 
his hair a kind of sand colour. His beard 
turned up naturally, so that he had a brisk 
and graceful look' (AUBBEI, BrUf lAvu, 
1898, ii. 242). Aubrey adds that Suckling 


Suckling I: 

inTentEil tlie game of cribbag^e, and tliat he 
made 2O,O0OA by sending ' liU cards to all 
gnmeing places in tbe country -whirfi were 
marked With priTate niMkes of his' (tb. p. 


The best portrait of Sncltling is by Van- 
dyfik, ai)diBiiowfttHanwell,nearAyleBbni7. 
It represents tbe poet, in a blue jacket and 
scarlet mantle, leaning agsinst a rock, and 
holding in hie hand -ivhat ia evidently Jn- 
teoded to be the first folio of Shakespeare. 
The head only has been engraved by Gfeorgo 
Vertue, whose work has been copied by 
W. P. Sherlock and others. A second Tan- 
dyck portrait, preserved by the Suckling 
family at "Woodtos, was engreved for the 
' Selections ' in 1896, Thebeadengraved for 
the 1719 eelition by "Vandergncht was token 
from a third portrait by Vandyck, of vrhich 
the National Portrait Gallery possesses a 
copy by Theodore Rnssel (reproduced in tie 
■Academy,' 28 Not. 1896). The Aebmolean 
Husenm at Oxford oontaitis a half-length 
portrait of the poet as a young; 
graving by Newtor -*~ - ^- 
Thurston, is prefi^e 
Suckling's ' Works. 

[The valaable life of SacUing prefixed to the 
SeWtioHB hv Alfred U^ff, SucVlIag in 1B3S 
is not baaed Qpon any aingle aathoritj, bnt 
rather upon the acentjons that have grown 
round the sean^ noUces of IPhillips, Langbaine, 
and Wood, espeeially the notai of 01<)t« and 
HaEtewood,and the aneedotea related by Aubrey, 
tit. Hatlitt faaa enpplenecrted this life, in the 
edition of 1874, by some valaable Tefsreness to 
the State Aipan and oUier doenmenta. See 
also Davy's SaffoUi Collectioai, vol. luiv. ff. 
S8T-303 (invaluable for the genealogieel iofoT' 
maticm Ihsy eontain) ; Hnater'e Chorus Vatnm 
(AddiuMS. 24489); BromBeld'i Hiat. of Nor- 
wich ; Blomefleld's Hist of Norfolk, iy. 807 aq., 
andz.IQDsq.; Straflbrd Lettera, 1739,i.33S> 
337 ; Nicholi'a frogremm of jatnee I, iii. 
132; Fepye's Diary and Correspondence, 1&49, 
]. 253. 11. S7S, iii. S83, iv. 51, SI ; Waller's 
Poems, 1694, p. 146; Oardiner's Hist, of 
England, iz. 811-SO; lAngbaine'i Dramatic 
Poets, 1391 and 1899 (Britlsb Hiuenm eopies 
with Botes by Oidys and Hailevood) ; Mor^n'a 
Phoinix BritasnieoB, 1732; Ellis's Orig. Letters, 
Sid aer. iv. 191 ; Ellis's Bailr English Poets, 
iii. 24Si Drake's Literary Hours, ii. 2S3 1 
'Wheatley and CnDningbem's London, 1. 136, 
613, ii. 4S3 ; Husband's Calleatioti of Orders, &a. 
1643, pp. SlGsq.; Vemey Papers (CaaideoSoe.), 
p. 236; Brj-dges's Reslituta, iii. 8, and Cenaura, 
iii. 116,120; I^ioqb's EnTironB of London, iii. 
688 ; Geoest'! Hist, of the British Stnge, x. 66- 
88 Hnda.'IO; Baker's Biogr. Dnm. 1812, i. 697; 
Pleej's Biogr. CbrOD. of Rngl. Drama, ii. 266; 
.leasB'B Memoirs of the Court of the Stuarts, iE. 
472; Monro's Acta Cancaaaria, 1847, p. 277; 


Burka's Hist, of Commoners, iii. 468-9; Uann'* 
Lifeof Milton, i. 608, ii. 62, I83,Ti.61Bj Retre- 
epeetire Beview, ix. 19-33 ; Note* and Qaeriea^ 
3nd eer. xi. 303 ; Graoger'a BlogT. Hist. ii. 243 ; 
Harl. MS. 6071 ; notes iiodly fttroiehtd bj S. 
Thorn Dmiv, esq. The J5f« in Lk^'s HaaoiiM 
is jiUtly celled by Oldya * a ehaile of Hyp«^ 
bolips'.] T. a. 

StTOSUNG, MAtntlOE (173^1778), 
comptroller of the navy, second son of 
Manrioe SncHing, prebendary of Westmin- 
ater and rector of Baraham in9aflblk, whom 
wife Anne, daughter of Sir Charles Tomer, 
Was a niece of Bobert Walpole, first Mrl of 
Orford [q. v.], was bom at BaTsbam on 
14 May and baptised on 27 Mav 1735. His 
sister Catherine married the Rev. Edmund 
Nelson, and was the mother of Horatia 
(afterwards Lord) Nelacm [q.v.] Suckling 
was promoted to be a lieirtenMit io the navy 
on 8 Mansh 1744-6, and in May 1747 waa 
appointed by Byngto the Boyne, tbm in the 
Mediterranean. In November 1748 hewas 
appointed to the Qlouceater : in 1768 hs 
waa iA the Somerset. On S Dec. 1756 he 
was promoted to the rank of captAln and 
appointed to the Dreadnought, of 60 guns, 
in which he went out to tbe West Indies. 
The Dreadnought was one of the three 60-g)in 
ships det-ached in October 1757, under Cap- 
tain Arthur Forrest [q. v.] of the August 
and on the 2lBt fonght a spirited aetioB 
with a vaatly superior French squadron, la 
1761 Suckling returned to England, when 
the Dreadnought was paid off and Snckliog 
was appoinl«d to the Lancaster, which was 
employed in the Channel under Lord Hawke. 
After the peace he was for some yean on 
half-pay, but on the imminenes of war with 
^ain consequent on the dispute about the 
f^kland Islands [see Fabues, Oeorob}, be 
was appointed in November 1770 tj) the 
Raiaonnable, and from her waa moved ia 
April 1771 to the Triumph, guardsUp in th« 
Medway. In April 1776 he was ainratnted 
comptroller of the navy, a post which he 
held tillhisdeath on 14 July 1778. He waa 
buried in the chancel of Barsham chnrch. 

Suckling married, on 20 June 1764, fan 
couain Mary, daughter of Horatio, lord Wal- 
pole of Wolterton. She died in 1766 withont 

[Information Aram the fiimily; Chornocb's 
Biogr. NaT. vi. 149; NaT. Chron, (with portrait;, 
liv, 266; Burke's Feeragp,s.n.'OrfbTdj' official 
documents in the Poblie Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

SUDBUHy, SIMON OF (a. 1881), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, son of Niffel TneobtLM 
and his wife Sarah, people of respectable 
position (Afonoftuon, vi. 1370), was bom 





at Sadkiry m SvffcAk in the F«mh of St. 
Orwir^. He studied ftt the nairermtj' 
erf Pani, TeeeiTed die degree of doctor of 
kwi, mad practised canoa law. Entering 

1 auditor of the papal 
pabce, and was sent by Innocent as nuncio 
t» Edmid m in 1366 iFadtra, Ui. SS8, 
4(M). H«yiii^ b«en appointed chanoellor of 
Ae church of S«lisbnrj, he was sent hy the 
king, who ttien epeaks of him as his clerk, 
(Bmsfas representation on his behalf to the 
me in Mkt 1S67 (tA. p. S66). In Out fol- 
towis* Oetober he was appointed one of the 
pneun of D«Tid aruce (1S24-1371) [q. t.] 
U tha papal comt. The pope rewarded hie 
wernem aj proridinff him to the see of Lon- 
don is October 1301 (it. V^S). He was 
eoiuMtatod on SO Huoh 1802, and racsiTed 
■ka tHBfcnslitiea on 16 May. He was ap- 
pai>t«d joiiit uabsMador to treat with the 
OottBt M Flanders in 1864 about the pro- 

pOMd I 

LDglef , flnt dulce of York [see 
Lununr], He appears to have held advanced 
i«lw)oas (pinions, for it is a^d that being 
M kii WS7 to Cantetbnry in 1870, at Che 
tine of a jabilee of St. Thomas the Martyr, 
he addreoaed a pa^ty of the pilgrims that 
tkrangod the road, telling them that the 
plmaij indulgence that tney sought would 
M of no aTaiL His woi^ were received 
WTti anger, and an 
<r AldoD in Kent, 

'My lord bishop, why doyou seek 
«nr sp Ute people against St. ThomasP '. 
mj aool, yoor life will be end«d by a foiil 

' (A^&i Saera, i. 49). Nevertheless 
bthat year he had aheretic named Nicholas 
Dw^tOB in hie primn {F<Bdera, iii. 689). 
Mai^ abnaea tverailed in his cathedral 
dndi, umI on 26 Jan. 1371 the king wrote 
(okiai,h(ddti^ him reform them, and blaming 
Ufa feir not hsving done so before (t6. p. 908). 
Beth in 1872 and 1373 he was employed 
wn^ others in negotiations with Fiance. 
HtvTBg, in cOBJonctioa with his brother John 
rf CliiMeT, bou^t the ohnrch of St. Oregoir 
h kii oatrro pwnsli, ha rebuilt the west end, 
caawd it to M made coll^iate, and joined 
Ui ImAor in building a college for a warden 
■nd fin priests where tlieii father's houae 

Is PebniaiT of tbatrear Sadbnry was ap- 
tested widi Jolin of Gaunt, duke of Lancas- 
im'a. T.Vand odnrs to treat with France. 
T3Sta WitUsse r [q . v.], archbishop of Can- 
Itrhny, haTiog mea cm 8 June, and the 
riMtkn of Ordinal Simon Langham [q. v.] 
Wtiw been qnasbed, Sudbury was trans- 
kNd i7 papal baU to Oaaterbuy in 1876, 

and recmved the temporalities on 6 Jane|i}. 
p. 1028). In Anguat, by the king's appoinb- 
ment, he accompanied Lancaster to the conr 
ference at Bruges, and must there have been 
in constant communication with Wyclif, who 
wasoneof theEnglisboommisaioneia. Whila 
in Flanders be received his pall. He returned 
to England in 1376, and was enthroned «n 
PalmSunday,13 Apnl. Hewas&member of 
LanCBSter'a party, was blamed b^ the enemies 
of Alice Perreri [q. vj for causing her ' ma- 
gician,' a Dominican friar, to be remitted to 
the custody of bis order instead of having 
him burnt, and fbr not ezoommucicatii^ 
Alice iierself for breach of an oath that she 
had made before him {Chromam AngUte, 
j>p. 99-100). At the meeting «f convooatiov 
in JenuB^ 1377 he tried to t^pose th« 
demand of^the clergy that William of Wykfr. 
ham, bi^op of Winchester, than in dismce, 
owing to the triumph of Lencaster, should 
be specially called upon to attend, but waa 
forced by their insistence, and by Williaia 
Courtenay [q. v.], bishop of London, to send 
for him. He was held to be neglectful of 
his duty with respect to "Wyclif, and to 
have been ui^ed to activity by hi* su&sganB, 
and qreciolly hj Courtenay, who seems to 
have acted independently of him at the 
abortive trial of Wyclif on 19 Feb. 

Sudbury crowned Richard II on 16 July 
1377, and at the meeting of parliament on 
IS Oct. exponnded the needs of the kingdom 
in a speech founded on the text Matt. xzi. 6. 
Having received the bulls of Gregory XI 

Tinst Wyclif, he wrote to the chancellor 
the university of Oxford, notifying W 
intention of holding the inquiry demanded 
by the ^pe, and askmg for doctors of divinity 
to bo his assessors. Actingwith Courtenay, 
he directed on 18 Dec. that an examination 
of the chaif^ against Wyclif dionld be held 
at Oxflsrd, and that he should be sent to 
London to appear before him and Gonrtenav, 
in aeoordanoe with their citation ,- but the 
hearing was postponed until after Christmas, 
and the place cnan^d &om St. Paul's to 
Lambeth, where ewly in 1878 Wyclif ap- 
peared before the arohbisht^ in his chapd. 
Either during or before the opening of the 
proceedings the Princess of Wales sent the 
judges an order that theywera not to proceed 
to sentence. While the inqui^ was in jso- 
grees the Londoners appeared in the ch^teft 
and made a disturbance. Sadbnry bade Wyclif 
keep silence on the matteis in question, and 
not suffer others to discuss them, and the 
proceedings ended. During that year he 
continued his visitation, begun in 1876, and 
was reusted by the abbey of St. Augustine's, 
Cantsrbnry, ovar which, though an ez«n|f 




nonMterj, he clBimed jurisdiction aa ' lega- 
tus natus,' The eonTeut appealed to the 
pope, aDd the matter wu not settled at Sud' 
burj's death (Thosn, cols. 2155-6). Sanc- 
tuarr having been violated at Weetmtnater 
by the followers of Laucaster, who slew a 
man in the abbey charcb, Sudbury, after 
some hesitation, excommunicated all con- 
cerned in the ofience, excepting Lancaster 
br Dame. He was prompt in upholding 
ifrban VI against the cardinalsjond preached 
agunat the schism. In a coQvocation held 
in November some constitutions were pub- 
lished in his name, one of them regulating 
the stipends of priests engaged to celebrate 
private masses. In Uarch 1879 be was ap- 
pointed on a commission to examine the 
accounts of the last subsidy and the state 
of the revenue. 

He succeeded Sir Richard Scrope [q. v.] 
as cbanaollor on 27 Jan. 1380 (Hxdtrc 

announced the need of a grant, which was 
met by a poll-tax. On the rising of the 
commons in 1881 the Kentish rioters broke 
into the archbishop's prison at Maidstone 
on 11 June, releasing and carrying off with 
them the priest, John Ball (d. 1381) [q. v.], 
whom Sudbury had caused to be imprisoned 
asezcommunicate apparently about six weeks 
before. At Canterbury they destroyed the 
archbishop's goods, and on the 12th sacked 
his manor-house at Lambeth. Sudbury was 
with the king and the other ministers m the 
Tower, and the rebels by their messengers 
demanded that he should be delivered up to 
them, declaring that he and the other mmi- 
(ters were traitors, and being specially hostile 
to him because they were excited against him 
by John Ball. He resigned the chancellor- 
ahip. Incommonwith the treasurer, Kobert 
de Holes, he urged the kinff not to meet the 
rebels, whom be is said to nave styled bare- 
footed ruffians, but to take measures to subdue 
them, and, this being reported to the mob, 
they swore that they would have bis bead. 
On the 18th the Kentish men occupied Tower 
Hill, and loudly threatened bis life. Early 
on Friday, the 14th, he celebrated mass 
before the king, and remained in the chapel 
after Kicbord itad left the Tower. As soon 
OS the king bad aoae the Kentish men entered 
the Tower, and mode one of the servants 
show them where the archbishop was. He 
had passed the previous night in prayer, 
■nd was awaiting their coming. As they 
rushed into the chapel they cried 'Where 
is the traitor to the kingdom, where is the 
spoiler of the commons f' To which be re- 
plied, ' Xou have come right, my sons ; here 

am I, the archbishop, neither a traitor nor 
a spoiler.' They dragged him forth, and 
took him to Tower Hill, where a vast crowd 
greeted him with yells. Seeing that they 
were about to slay him, he warned them 
that if they did so he would certainly be 
avenged, and that Elngland would incur an 
interdict. Altai he had spoken further, and 
granted, so far as in him lay, absolution to 
the man, one John Starling of Essex, who 
stood ready to behead him, he knelt down. 
Ha was horribly mutilated by the axe, and 
was not killed until the eighth bb>w. The 
treasurer and two others ware slain with 
him. Hia head was placed on a pole, with 
a cap nailed upon it to distinguish it from 
thoseoftheothervictims, was carried through 
the streets, and finally placed on London 
Bridge ; bis body remained where it lay for 
two days. Six i^ys after his death Sir Wil- 
liam Walworth [q.v.l, the mayor, caused both 
hia head and his body to he conveyed reve- 
rently to Canterbury, and the archbishop was 
buried in the cathedral on the south aide of 
the altar of St. Dunstan, where a oouopied 
monument, which still exists, was erected to 
him. A large slab of marble was placed to 
his memory in St. Gregory'a, Sudbury. A 
portion of his epitaph has been preserved 
(Wbetbb, I\m^al JUonumentt, pp. 224-5, 

Though learned, eloquent, and liberal, 
Sudbury lacked independence of character. 
Adhering to John of Qaunt rather than, as 
became his office, taking bis own line, ha 
was led to neglect bis duty as archbishop, 
and was only stirred to activity hy CouTte- 
nay, to whom he sometimes acted a secon- 
dary part. He seems also to have been in 
the habit of speaking with too little thought 
forthefeeltngeof others. His murder caused 
him to be re^rded as a martyr, miracles wero 
worked at nts tomb, and he was compared 
to his predecessor, St. Thomas (Gowbb, Vox 
Clamantia,i.c, 14), Nicholas Hereford [ae« 
Nicholaa]_ is reported to have said that he 
deserved his death for blaming "WjcUt, 

Besides his workat Sudbury he rebuilt the 
west gate and a great port of the north 'waU 
of the city of Canterbury, and, the nave of 
the cathedral being in a ruinous state, pullad 
down the aisles, and laid the foundation ol^ 
and perhaps began, the two new aisles of the 
nave that were afterwards finished, probably 
with money that he had provided. In 1378 
he set on foot a collection for the rebuilding', 
promising forty days' indulgence to those 
who helped in it. In 1379 the archdeacon of 
Canterbury (Audomarus de la KocheJ being 
an alien and an adherent of the French Idn^, 
Sudbury received &om Richard the tempo- 


Sudbury i- 

nlitiM of the urchdeaconrf to help him in 
ibu work, on which he was spending lai^ 
mu of hia own monej. 

pFiluiigham, Chrou, Austin, Cont. Ealogiii 
Mil. Taenu, Fmcic. Ziian. (all Holla Ser.) ; 
jfaikif ETMham'i Hist. Riordi II, ed. Hmrne ; 
Knigbtao, «d. TiriideD: Stew's Aannles; Frois- 
ait'i Chron. cd. Bncboa ; Rymei's Frnders 
(Buoni adit.); Hook's Archbiohops of Caa- 
wtanj; Foa's Jndges ; Stnbbs's Coosl. Hist.] 

. er, and sniduated M doctor of divinity 
II Oifind, whera he was an opponent in 
tkeolon in 1S8S. He wrote: I 'De Pco- 
mttibva Sanctorum,' no com of which is 
laawn to be extant. 2. ' He nimls Regali- 
toitgni An^lie od Richardumll.' Leland 
■SBtirau this sa extant at Westminster 
(CUlHfaMa,iiL46). S.'Tahulssnperomnes 
fibra S. Thome de AoQino,' extant in MS. 
fief.9,F.tV.atehBBritishHuseuni. 4. 'Tabula 
•tperPuiiillam Oculi editun per Ma^. Joh. 
BueIi,' extant in MS. University Libraij, 
CuSndge, Be. v. 11. 
[Tiinet'a BiU. Brit.-Hib. p. BBS.] CLE. 

SUEFRED (Jt. 695), king of the East- 
Sunu. [See nnder Siqhabd.] 

StTBTT, RICHARD (1755-1806), actor, 
•u bora in Chelsea in 1766, and at ten 
THIS of age entered the choir at Wastminster 
i-Httj as a P°F^ <>' ^- Benjamin Cooke 
4. T.J In 1769 he sang; at the Ranelagh 
tiudma, the Grotto Qarden, and at Mdrffe- 
VaaeOard0na,&nd waeiuMay 1770 employed 
hf Foote at the Haymarket m some juvenile 
ndBBaoted paita. On 24 Jnly 1771 at that 
bsN Ihater SaettiraB the orinnol Cupid in 
'Dido,' n ooinie open assign^ to Thomas 
Ud^rq.T.l Ohariet Banmister [q. T.lthen 
■MuMa Iht Eim an engagement on the York 
nrait with Tftte Wilkinson, with whom he 
WTMJBad aa aingeraod second low comedian 
t" aiaa jeaia, «t tlio latest lalaiy Wilkin- 
■« net paid. His &st appearance was 
■ada n & I?ot. 1771 in Hull, where he 

Sia«e&Toaiit«son^'Chloe'smy myrtle 
/sBov'a my rose.' w'iUdnson thought 
MgUy of him, Mllinghlm his pupil, speaking 
(faiia aa ahoat the ageof seventeen, known 
mij {tub having' song one season at Sane- 
hft, and pronounced Mm the possessor of 
'• taoK nnpromiaing pair of leqa.' Suett 
I<vrad 'of ra«l importance' to Wilkinson; 
it the doae of thie engagement a further en- 
p giaiMt fin two y^srs, with a penalty of 
Vni- far forfeiture, waa drawn np. On find- 
■( hnrerer, that Soett bad handsome oflers 

9 Suett 

from Linley for Drury Lane, Wilklnaon 
generously destroyed the bond, 

Saett's first appearance at Drury Lone 
took place in October 1780 as Ralph in the 

' Maid of the Well." On 27 Dec. he created 
a moet favourable impression as the ori- 
ginal Moll Flagon in Burgoyne's 'Lord of 
the Manor.' On 9 March 1781 he was the 
first Metaphor in Andrews's ' Dissipationr 
and he was seen during the season as Tipple- 
in Bates's 'Flitch of Bacon.' InJackmonV 
farce 'Divorce,' 10 Nov., he was the ori- 
ginal Tom ; on 13 Dec. the original Piano i«> 
Tickell's successful opera, the 'Carnival of: 
Venice;' and on 18 May 1782 the original' 
CorbineinPilon's 'FairAmerican.' He also- 

?layed Squire Richard in 'The Provoked 
Insband,' Wutwell in the ' Way of the 
World,' and Hobbinol in the 'Capricious. 
Lovers,' From the records of 1782-3 his- 
name is absent. On 14 Nov. 1783 it reap- 
peared to Marrall in ' A New Way to pay 
Old Debts.' Suett also played the Puritan, 
in 'Duke and no Duke,'and Grizzle in 'Tom< 
Thumb,' with one or two insi^iflcant o 

g'nal parts in no less insignificant operas, 
r which his voice, impaired by dissipation, . 
gradually unfitted him. To 1784^6 belong- 

Rlch in the 'Beggars' Opera,' Lord Froth 
in the ' Double Dealer,' Binnacle in the ' Fait 
Quaker,' Clown in ' Winter's Tale,' and Sir 
Wilful Witwould in the 'Way of the World.' 
He was also the original Sir Ephraim Rupee 
in T.Dibdin's 'Liberty Hair on 8 Feb. 1786. 
To the following seasons are assigned the 
Clown in 'Twelfth Night,'and Blister in the 
< Virgin Unmasked.' Many similar parts 
were assigned him, including Robin in the 
' Waterman,' Dumps in the 'Natural Son,' 
Lord Plausible in the 'Plain Dealer,' Snip ' 
in 'Harlequin's Invasion,' Allscrap in the 
' Heiress,' Trappanti, Mungo, First Grave-- 
digger, Gibbet in the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' ' 
Djggory in ' All the World's a Stage,' Colonel ' 
Oldboy in the 'School for Fathers,' Obe-- 
diah in the ' Committee,' Moneytrap in the 
' Confederacy,' Lanncelot Gtobbo, Doctor Bi-- 
lioso{anorigiaal part) iu Cobb's 'Doctor and' 
Apothecary,'260ct.l788,Gardiner in 'King- 
Henry VIII,' Oliver (an original part) iu 
Cumberland's 'Impostors,'2e Jan. 1789, Bar^ 
tholo in 'Follies of a Day,' Muckworm in. 
' Honest Yorkshireman,' Touchstone, Pistol 
iu ' King Henry V,' Booie in ' Belpheeor,' 
Solomon in the ' Quaker,' Thurio in ' Two 
Gentlemen of Verona,' Old Hardcastle, and 
Mawworm. He was on 16 April 1790 the 
original Endless in 'No Song no Supper,' 
and on 1 Jan. 1791 Qie original Tusepn in 
Cobb's ' Siege of Belgrade.' 
When Drury Lane was demolished Suett 


Suett i'. 

in 1791-3 accompanied the company to ihe 

HajTnarket Opera-house, where dormg two 
■easona he plajed many iosi^ificant original 
ftitB, besides appearing as Sancho in ' Love 
makes a Man,' Tiphin m the ' Tender Hub- 
tnud,' Thrift; in the ' Cheats of Scapin,' Old 
Gobbo, Foresight in ' Lore for Lijve,' Sir 
Felix Fridndlj in the ' Agreeable Surmise,' 
and Label (an originalpartlin Hoara'a ' Priie' 
on 11 March 1798. On 28 June he made, as 
the original Whimmf in O'Keeffe's ' London 
Hamiit,' his first tracOabie appearance at the 
little house in the Hajmarket. A winter 
tseOBon at the same house under Colmui fol- 
lowed, and Buett, besides playing Obediah 
Prim and Bullock, was on I Oct, 1793 the 
frst Apathy in Morton's 'Childien in the 
Wood.'^and on 16 Dea. the first Dicky Gossip, 
abarber,in Hoore's 'My OrandBiotuer.' (m 
the reopening of DruryLane in the spring of 
1794 Suett played a Witch in ' Macbeth,' 
and was on 8 Mar 1794 the orinoal Jabal, 
a part in which be scored higMy, in Cunt- 
bwland'a ' Jow,' In Kemble'a ' Lodotska,' on 
9 June, he was the first Vsfbel. 

Suett remained at Drury L&ne until his 
death, although he appeared each summra 
down to 1803 at the Haymarket. His pMte 
were mainly confined to Shakespearean 
olowns and other aharactera principally be- 
longing to low comedy. Soma few might 
'perhaps be put in onotJier category. The 
Shakespearean parts assi^nted him mcluded 
Clown in ' Measure for Meftsuie,' Polonius, 
Peter in ' Borneo and Juliet,' Dt^beny, Trin- 
cnlo. Sir Andrew Agueobaek, and Shallow 
in the 'Merry Wives of Windsor.' Other 
rdles of interest were I>oti Pedto in the 
' Wooder,' Don JertHne in the ' Duenna,' 
Crabtree, Antonio in 'Follies of a Day,' 
Silky in the ' Boad to Buin,' Don Manuel 
in ' She would and she would not,' and Sir 
Bobert Bramble in the 'Foot Oentkman.' 
Out of many original parts taken betweeti 
1794 and 1805 the fc^owing deserve nooidc 
Kobin Gray in Arnold's ' Auld Robin Gray/ 

28 Pab. 1796; Fustian in the younger Col- 
man's ' New Hay at tha Old M^et,' Kay> 
tnarket, 9 June 1796. la the famous pro- 
duction at Druiy Lane of Ooltuan's ' uon 
Chest,' 12 Man^ 1796, SueU was Samson. 
In the ' Will' by Reynolds, 19 April 1797, 
he waa Rsoliie. Hia great original part of 
Daniel DowUs, aiitu Lord Duberly, was 

Kvod at the Haymarhet on 15 July 1797. 
24 May 1799 at Drury Lane ha pUyed 
Biego,a nort comic part, on the first ap- 
pearance of Sheridan'a Piiuro, and nearly 
oamaed tha pieos i the pott was promptly 

e Suett 

cancelled. On 1 Feb. 1800 Suett was, at 
Drury Lane, the first Baron Pifflebei^ in ' Of 
Age to-morrow,' adapted from Kotiebue by 
T. Dibdin ; on IS July, at the Uaymarket, 
the first Stonberg in C. Eemble's ' Point of 
Honour;' and on 2 Sept. the first Depal^ 
Bull in the ' Review' of Arthur Griflonhoof 

i George Oolmon the younger). On 24 Fab. 
801, at Drury Lane, he was the origmnl 
Dominique in Holcroft's adaptation 'Deaf 
and Dumb.' On 10 June 1806 be played at 
Drury Lane Lampedo in the ' Honeymoon,' 
the last part in which his name con be traoed. 
He died on 6 Ju^ at a small public-housa in 
Deniell Street, Claie Market, and was buried 
in St. Paul's churchyard, on the north aids. 
A Bon, 'nieophilua Suetl^ waa a good miut- 
cian, and was cast for Samson in ' The Iron 
Chest' at Covent Garden on 23 Ajiril 1799. 
The port, however, waa taken by his &thei, 
who appears to have made on uiat oooatton 
his only appearanoe at that house. 

Suett followed in the wake of William Fax- 
sons (1786-1796)[q.v.] A st«ry is told that 
Parsons, being unwell, could not play hia 
part of Aldermen Uniform in Milea Peter 
Andrewa's'Dissipationj'which had been oom- 
monded by the king. On being told of this 
fact, George III said that Suett would be able 
to jday it. This Suett did with so much auo- 
cesB that he became tba'understudy'of Par* 
sons, whose delieate he&lth furnished him 
vritb many opporlunitiea. Suett was not ac- 
cepted as the equal of Parsons. In a lika 
fasiiion Oharlea Mathews, who enoceeded 
Suett, was held his inferior. Suett, howvvear, 
waa not difficult to imitate, and Mathawi 
frequently cHught bis tone. Among SuetfB 
best parts wwe Moll Flacon, Tipple, Apatbyi; 
Di(^ Gossip, the drtuikeu Port^ in 'Pan- 
dal Times,' and Weasel in CumbeiUnd't 
' Wheel of Fortnna.' The last w&t muck 
admired by Eemble, who, discussing Soett'R 
death, a^ to Kelly: 'Penruddockhu lort 
a powerful ally in Suett; I have acted Um 
put with many Weocels, and good onaa 
too, but none of them oould work up taj 
passions to the pitch Suett did; lie had » 
oOmical, impertinud Way of thruatiiw hia 
haad into my face, which oallsd forth all nj 
iTritabl«aeiuationa'(GBraBi^vii.654). SaaU 
depended a good deal Upon niake-np,at -wkidi 
be was an adept. He was given to dieta^ffr 
ing hia features, and saying more than Waa 
allotted him. EaaCtt ctdishim'thedeli^t- 
ful [Jd croaker, the Dvarlaating Dicky Qoaaip 
of the stage.' Ol^eefTe dedsMd that be vnu 
'the most natural actor of his times' and 
Lei^h Hunt speaks of him aa ' the very pec. 
sCmifioation of weak whimsicality, with t 
laugh like a peol of gigglea.' It is, how- 





•nr, am the pcais« of L&mb that Suett'a 
RipatUion Tests. Lamb declares him ' the 
EobinOoodfoUowofthestaga. Hec»meinto 
boilile kll tluugs with a wdcome perplexitr, 
kiaielf DO wliit troubled for the matter. Us 
«M known, like Puck, bj hia note, " Ha I 
btl hal" aometimai deepeutug to "Hoi 
bs I ho 1' . . . Thousands of bMirts vet nt- 
fload to the chuDklicg La I of Dickej 
SoBU. . .He diolledupontheatookof these 
vm* (fUAblea richer than the cuckoo. . . 
ShakaaMftTO ibreaaw him when be framed 
kitfiiou uid jeatan. The; have all the true 
Swtt stMap, a loose and ohanthling ^t, a 
lUlftzj tongue^ thia lost the lead; midwife 
tD ■ without-pun delivered jest, in words 
i^A aa aIt, venUntf tcuths deep aa the 
(■atn,witk idleuT^fmea taggiufj conceit 
wbsB bosiMt, unging wi^ Lear m " The 
IWpeat," or Sir Toby at the butteiT-hatch.' 
Sliett, who lived latterl; at Chelsea, waa 
kad of tow company, and used to spend 
Hodi time in public-housee. He was a good 
■agar and atoiy-teller in social circles. His 
tnikfast-tAble was always garnished with 
faoUlaa of rum and brandy, and he frequently 
and, it ia said, to quaUfy himself for his 
«Qik on dnatage by getting diimk. Stories 
lingBoett a wit are Kot eonvino- 
, i, howBTer, with some humonf 
a follies and vice*. 
Qe Ikthawa ooUection of pieturea in the 
Ganick fflab has three portraits of Suett by 
DtwSdfl — iin« ia <»dinary dress, a second as 
mieMJii 'MoSongooSupper.'andatbirdaa 
pBKian in 'SylveateT Duigerwood' to Uia 
Daomwood of Sanniatra. A poitcait by 
Davildai, engraved by Oawthorae, ia in the 
Kationftl J^Mt Xfihraiy, South Kensington. 

{GweafaAaDovntof thafuBlishBttgai Oil- 
Baad'a Dravsde Uinoai Oxhtrrft Siamatio 
'~ Hoathiy Hutor, varioiu vaaia; 

&; Kotlj'aBamiiBaaBneM; O'SaefTs's 
. Lunb'a Ss3a;i; Leigh Huat's 
n; Hazlilt's Dnoiatic Essays; 


Co. of Engr*T«d ITational Partiaita; Doran's 
iMdi of the Sbaga, ed. Law ; TliMpian Vkt. ; 
Tiu WllkinacKi'B Wandtfisg facenta*; M»- 
tkn^i labU T«Uc] 3. K. 

{i 1307), who is sOao called WiX3B£ Citr 
t^W, tiahrr *f Norwich, was a native of 
Se^ft, attil atudiod at the univeiaity of 
Ana, whare be was ' rwens in daotetia.' 
B«wMelM>tMl bUhog of M'orwich towarda 
tUaidof 13<3, but Sataj XU withheld his 
vaeat (ill 8 July 12M, hopi»g to prerent 
iW tnaaktim of kha fonnBi Bishop William 
it Baktgh [a. -r-1 S« ""^ coolrmed by 
'^' , tha tlae* of Cmtwbury, at St. 

i c uuc*ir a in gBnei 
;; Hepl^ed,hoii 
ga hia own follies 

e BsMrsi 

Albana the aame year, and consecrated at 
Norwich by Fulk Basset, bbhop of London 
on 19 Feb. 1245 (Stobbs, Sof. Sacr. Aral. 
p.41; Man.FaBiB,iv.261,378;.4Mi. Jfm. 
il 336, i. 16e). Soon afterwards he went t9 
the Roman curia at Lyons, returning about 
March 13^6 (Mm. Pasis, iv. 565). Su&ld 

! reached the leimon at WeetmineteT on 
3 Oct. 1247, when the vaae containing the 
holy blood was brought thither by tjie kin^> 
He attended the parliament at London w 
February la^B, and in the following Octo- 
ber went to the papal court, whence about 
a year later he returned with ' a shameM 
privilege for extorting money in hia biflhoprio' 
lib. iv. 642, T. 6, 36, 80). He waa one of 
the bishops who attended the meeUn^ at 
Bunatahle on 2i Feb. 1251 to proteat against 
the archbishop's right of visitation. SuSeld 
attended the parliament at London in April 
1263, when thekjng promised to observe the 
charters. At the end of the year he was 
appointed by the pope to collect the tenth 
of ecclesiastical property which had been 
granted to the king. He waa busy wij;h thk? 
during all the Bubse^^ueut year, and the new 
valuation of ecclesiastical property which 
was made under his direction was known 
as the ' If orwich taxation,' and became the 
bsaie of nearly all later clerical aaseasmeuts 
(3>. V. 461, yi. 296 ; Ann. Man. i. 326, 363-4, 
iii. 191). 

1257,andt.__ _ . ._.... 

Miracles are said to have be^ worked at 
his tomb, for in a time of famine he lud 
given all hia plate and treasure for the use 
of the poor (Uatx. Fasib, v. 686). He 
founded the hospital of St. Ua^ aud St. 
-Giles at Norwich for poor piiests and 
scholars iCal. Papal lUgtetere, t. 312), and 
built the lady-chapel of the cathedral, A 
synodal constitution and soine statutes of 
lus are printed in Wilkins's 'Concilia,' i. 
708, 731. A document, 'Do potestate 
arcniepiscopi Cantuariansis in priortatu Can- 
tmaiiensi,' which vras drawn up by Suffeld, 
is printed in Wharton's ' Aoglia Sacra,' i. 
,174-5. There are two of his lettara in the 
additamenta to Matthew Paris's ' Chronica 
l[«o«a,' jL BSl-3. The substance ot hia 
wiU is given at length % BlomeSeld in hia 
'History of Neriollt.' His bequeata in- 
cluded one to the achol&n of Oxford. 
William de CaUhoip, hia nepbew, was hi* 

[Uatthaw Farii^a Ann. Mcnaat. and FImm 
SiatoriHtUB, Oatun Da Bsiaooua Narvuaiiai- 
bna (all tbtae in Jtolh S«(.) ; .Komettld'a Hist. 
«<Marfolk,iiL4ie-Baj WhutoD'adogUaSBara; 
Tannai'fl Bibl Srit-m J. 780.1 afclC. 


Suffield i. 

BUFFIELD, third Babos. [See Hab- 
BOBD, Edwakd, 1761-18S6.] 

(1S21-1691), BUceeMiTely Dominican friar 
and unitiuian minJBter, eoa of Oeorga Suf- 
field, a member of ui old Roman catbotic 
famiij in Norfolk, and his wife, Suaan TuUey 
Bowen, was bom on 6 Oct. 1821 at VeTey, 
Switzerland , and was baptiBedthereasa catho- 
lic by a lay relative, though on the return of 
the family to England he waa baptised again, 
for legal purposes, in hts own parish church, 
St. Peter's, Mancroft, Norwiii, on 27 Dec. 
1821. He ne-rerwent to school, but accom- 
paitied his parenta in their traTela in Eng- 
land and on the ccntinent. In 1841 he was 
admitted a commoner of Feterbouse, Cam- 
bridge, being at that time a member of the 
establiabed church (cf. Life, p. 98). After 
a resideace of less than two yean he left the 
nnivereity, and became a communicant in 
the Roman catholic church (cf. five Letttri 
on a CoKotraon to Soman CaCholiciam, 1873, 

Lll)i He spent some time at St. Culh- 
rt't Colle^, Ushaw, and then entered the 
seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris, where he 
had Hyacinthe Loyson for a fellow-student. 
On the outbreak of the revolution in 1848 
he returned to Uahaw, and on 25 Aug. 1860 
he was ordained priesL 

After ayear's experience of parochial work 
at Sedgefield and Thomley, Sufiield joined 
a commtuiitT of secular priests who had 
established themselves at St. Ninian's, near 
Wooller, and placed missions in every part 
of the United Kingdom. In 1868 he was 
stationed at St, Andrew's, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne^ and while there he revived the old 
Euglish custom of collecting ' Peter's ^nce ' 
for the pope. Ha joined the Dominican 
order at Woodcheater on 21 Sept. 1860, and 
a year later be pronounced the solemn vows. 
For two years after this he was engaged in 
parochial duties at Kentish Town, London. 
His seal and activity caused him to be 

Ctly esteemed by the members of the 
lan catholic church throughout the 
United Kingdom. With the assistance of 
Father C. F. R. Palmer, he compOed the 
well-known manual of devotions pnblished 
anonymously in 1862 under the title of 
* The Crown of Jesus.' In 1863 he returned 
to Woodcheater, and was appointed parish 
priest, master of the lay brouieTB, and ^eat- 
master. About this period lie instituted 
'Our Lady's Guard of Honour,' or 'Per- 
petual Bosaiy.' In 1866 he issued ' The Do- 
minican Tertiai;^a Chiide,' also compiled in 
coUaboratiou with Father Palmer, and in 
Febnuif 1686 he delivered at West Hortle- 


pool a lecture on 'Fenianism and the En^ 
iiah People,' which was published permUiu 
tuperionan. Subsequently he was stationed 
St Husbands Bosworth in LeiceBtershire 
(10 Oct. 1868). Doubts had at this time 
arisen in his mind as to the truth of the 

10 Aug. 1670 from his order and 
the church. A few months later he settled 
down as a unitaricn minister at Groydon> 
In 1874 he published 'The Vatican Decrees 
and the " Expostulation" [of Mr. Gladstone, 
entitled " The Vatican Deoees in their Bear- 
ing on Civil Allegiance"].' He left Croydon 
in 1877, and in F^hruary 1879 he nndertoob 
the cha^ of the Unitarian Free Church at 
Reading, where he remained till his death on 
13 Nov. 1891. His remains were cremated 
at Woking. Hemarried,on7Dec. 1871, the 
eldest daughter of Edward Bramley, town 
clerk of Sheffield. 

[Lifa (anoa.), London, 1SS3, Bro, written l^ 
tha iiev. Charles Hargrove, neiti^lan minislerat 
Leeds, and previonBly n DomiDimn friar ; Times, 
le Nov. 1861 ;8aDdiiy3uD,ieNav. 1891.] T.C. 

SUFFOLK, DctM oy. [See Polb, Wii/- 
LUH SB LA, first DcxG, 13^1460; Pole, 
JoBir DB LA, second Duke, 1442-1491 ; Bban- 
DOK, Obabibs, first Dckb of the Brandon 
line, d. 1546 ; Bbandoit, Hessf, second 
DuXE, 163o-1561 ; BBAHi>oir,CHASL£S, third 
DirxB, 1637F^1561jQKBr,HBKBT,d.l554.] 

SUFFOLK, Ddorebs op. [See Bbbtu 
Oathakikb, 1520-1680.] 

SUFFOLK, Eaelb of. [See Uftobd, 
ROBEBT DB, first Eabl, 1298-1369 ; Uffobs, 
WiLLiAK DE, second Eabl, 1339P-1SBS; 
Pole, Miobael db la, first Eabl of the Pole 
family, 1830 P-1389 J Pole, Hiohabldb la, 
second Eabl, 1861 P~-141fi ; Polb, Edkubd 
db la, 1472P-161S; Howabd, Thomas, first 
Eabl of the Howard &mily. 1661-1626 ; Ho- 
ward, Theophilub, secoadEABi,1684-1640; 
HowABD, James, third Eabl, 1619-1688.] 

SUFFOLK, CocNTESS OF. [See Howard^ 
Hbhbibtia, 1681-1767.] 

Babob St. Lbohahub (1781-1876), lord 
ckancellor, second son of Richard Sugden, 
hairdresser, of Duke Street, Westminster, bj- 
his wife, Charlotte Burtensbaw, was bom ob 
13 Feb. 1761. From a private school he 
passed at once into a conveyancer's chambers, 
and was admitted on 16 Sept, 1803 a student 
at Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the 
bar, after two years of practiceas a certificated 
conveyancer, on 25 Nov. 180 

bencher cm 23 Jan. ] 

r. 1807, was elected a 
S2, and treasorer ia 




IBSei WbXlo h» was itill below tlie bar he 
Ud tb« fonndAtion of his succeea in life by hia 
■Pnetksal Tmtise of the Law of Vendors 
ind Pnrchuen of Estetet,' London, 1806, 
8to, k iraA which became the BUndord 
teitbook on it* aobject ; it resched a foor- 
twDth edition in 1(163. 

Upm his c»U Sugden united court with 
daMber practice, and was soon retained, as 
a matter of conise, in all cases of important^ 
wbctber in the common law or the cbancerj 
eoorta, which tomed on the construction of 
w3li or deeds. Hia profound knowledge of 
tb« M^n^ne of convejraucing is displayed in 
bii 'Practicnl Treatise of Powers,' L^idon, 
1S08, Bto (Stb edit. 1661), and his learned 
edhioB of Gilbert's ' Law of Us«s and Trusts ' 
PGoBiBr, Sib Gboffbei or jBFraiT]. His 
Altgence was unremitting, his mastery of bis 
^coalitj nnriTalled, his physic^ strength 
podi^ona. Already, in 1817, be held a eom- 
■andntfpoaitioD at the bar, and in Hilary 
um I&3 Lord Eldon conferred unon him 
tke then Terr rare distiuctionof asilkgown. 
Afior several unsuccessful attempts to enter 
paHJKmoit ha was retomed in the tory inte- 
mt on 20 Feb. 1838 for Weymouth and iUel- 
esMbe Regis, Dorset, which seat he retained 
OB his appointment to the office of solicitor- 
gmeral, when he was knighted, i June 1829, 
and at th«general election of Aurast 1830. 

In the House of Commons Sugden carried 
«Mae minor, but useful measures, chiefly 
Rkdng to the law of trusts and wills, Til. 
1 WiU. IV, cc. 36, 40, 46, 47, 60, 66, and 
i WilL IV, c. 68, 6, and 6 Will. IV, ec 
]«, 17 (Kr K B. Sugden'a AcU, ed. Atkinson, 
LaDdon,1830,eTo). A strong protestant, he 
pta a reluctant support to catholic emanci- 
fatkn aa K political necessity; but in the 
Mate on the Clare election (16 May 18^9) 
be advocated the excluaion of O'Gonnell from 
4e hoaae. On the formation of Earl Grey's 
idnhiiEtration he was sncoeeded as solicitor- 
Moal <a6Nav. 1880} by Sir William Home 
^.v.];iwrdidheagamtakeminoroffice. In 
the paiiiameiit of 1831-S he represented St. 
)I(«M,OamwBll, after which he was without 
a Ntt antil 1687, when he was returned, 
MJily.lbrlUpon, Yorkshire, Theelevation 
«f Bn^jfaAinto the woolsack Sugden Tiewed 
with the disgtiit natural to a consummate 
Iswyo', and Tented his spleen in a peculiarly 
Utter h* wiot, ' If,' he said, ' the lord ebon- 
nUor (mIt fai«w a little law, he would knew 
tfoleaf ararytliuig-' He had no faith in 
' — ' '• pn^ecta for the reform of the 

d syrtom of which Brougham un- 

.id to little, HewMveiedbyhisappa- 
ni iaattantion in coart. While Sugden was 
' ' K of Kicb tBKttais at temttlla juri* 

or the doctrine of springing' uses, the lord 
chancellor sometimes seemed to be writing 
letters or an article for the ' Edinburgh Re- 
view,' or perusing papers disconnected with 
the case. On one such occasion Sugden fairly 
lost patience and paused in bis argument until 
Brougham, hardly raising his eyes from hia 
papers, bade him continue. An altercation 
then ensued, Sugden complaining that tjie 
lord chancellor &A not nve him his atten- 
tion, and Brougham reMying that be wa* 
merelr signing formal documents, and that 
Sir Edward miaht as well object to hia 
taking snuff or blowing his nose. In the 
end Sugden sat down, Having administered 
a reproof which, though treated forthe time 
with nonchalance, was not wholly lost upon 
the chancellor. Less discreet was an at- 
tempt which he mode to embarrass the 
chancellor in parliament. Brougham had 
conferred, provisionaily, as it afterwards 
appeared, a certain chiuicery sinecure upoa 
his brother. Su^en asked a pointed ques- 
tion on the subject in the House of Com- 
mons. Incensed at what he not unnaturally 
deemed a malignant insinuation of jobbery, 
Brougham ma^ a veiled attack upon Sugden 
in the House of Lords, in a style so peculiarly 
ofTensive that it wsa impossible for the 
House of Commons to ignore it (26-27 July 
1832). Feeling that he bad gone too &i. 
Brougham afterwords offered Sugden a place 
on the exchequer bench, and, when he de- 
clined It, made him a private apology, which, 
being at once accepted, laid the oasis of a 
duraole friendship [Mitripretentationi in 
CampbeiVa Lives ofLyndkurit and Brougham 
eorreeted by Lord St. Leojuxrds, 1869, 8to), 

Sugden held the great seal of Ireland in 
Sir Bobert Feel's first administration, being 
sworn of the privy council on 16 Dec. 
1631. The advent of a stranger was at first 
resented by the Irish bar; but, though his 
tenure of office was of the briefest — the go- 
vernment fell in April 1836— his great 
judicial qualities were soon cordially appre- 
ciated, and his departure was viewed with 
regret. Onthequestion of pnTilegeinTolved 
in the caseof Stockdole t>. Hansaid, Sugden, 
in supporting the jurisdiction of the queen's 
bench (17 June 1^9, 7 Feb., 6 March 1840), 
only expressed the general sense of tbelegal 

Eofsssion [see TiSSKtX, Thoxab, first LoBD 
eshah]. He ^ain held the ^at seal 
of Ireland in Peel's second administration 
{S Oct. 1841-JuIt 1846), during which 
period he conferred on chancery suitors the 
boon of a svstematic code of procedure. B^ 
cancelling the commissions of certain mogi* 
strates who had countenanced the agita- 
tion tai repeal of the nnion, he gaT6 great 




ofisDce to the nation&liaC puty; but bis 
action v/ae saataiued la parlmment by Wel- 
lingtonftDdLyDdbirrat (14: July 1843). Sug- 
den mored at a county meeting held at 
Epsom on 17 Dec. 1860 a resolution pro- 
Vesting agunst the so-c&Ued papal aggTe»~ 
toon; but othenrise took little ^art in pub- 
lic life during the administration of Lord 
John HuaselL On Lord Derby's accesBion to 
po'vrer, he iucceeded Lord Truro cm the wooU 
eack (i March 1B52), hanng been appointed 
lord cbancelior 27 Feb., and laisad to the 
peerage (1 JUarch) as Baron St. Leonards 
of Slaugbam, Sussex. His tenoie of office, 
'which was marked by the pasaing of meaBuras 
in amendmeat of tne law <^ wills, trusts, 
lunacy, and chancery and common-law pro- 
«edare (15 and 16 Vict. cc. 24, 48, 66. 76, 
80, 87), was cut short within the year by 
the fiiU of the government (SO Dec. 1862). 

St. Leonards declined omoe on the return 
of bis party to power, in February 1868, but 
continued for many years to take an active 
part in the judicial deliberations of the House 
of LordaondprivyoouDcil, Within his limit* 
]]« aa nearly as possible realised the id^al of 
an infallible oracle of law. His judgment!, 
always delivered with remarkable readinesg, 
were verv rarely reversed, and the opinions 
expressed in hia textbooks were hardly less 
aatlioritative. As a law reformer he did ex- 
cellent work in the cautious and lentatire 
Sirit dictated by hia nature and training, 
e would deserve to be had 'in grateful 
remembrance were it only for the abolition 
of the absurd rule which, before IB63, 
annually defeated a host of wills for no 
better reason than that tJie testator had not 
placed his signature precisely at the foot of 
the document. His Last legialBtive achieve- 
ment was the measure in farther amendment 
of the law of trusts passed in 1869, and 
commonly known as Lord St. Leonards' Act 
<22 and 23 VicL c. 85). 

His last years were divided between his 
country seat, Tilgate Forest Lodge, Slangham, 
Sussex, and his vilia, Bovle Farm, Thames 
Ditton, whea«hediedon29 JBn.l8TS. The 
myeterious disappearance of his will, which 
he had made some years before his death, 
occasioned a lawsuit which established the 
admissibility of secondary evidence of the 
.contents of such a doooment in the absence 
of a presumption that the testator had de- 
«troyed it onuno rewumdi (Jannan on WitU, 

St. Leonards was LLJ>. (Oambridge, 
18S5) and D.C.L. (Oxford, 1863), high 
-steward of Kingston-on-Tliames,and deputy- 
Ueatenant of Sussex. An engraved portrait 
of hia singolady reSned features, nram a 

He married, on 23 Deo. 180S, WiniM 
(d. 19 May 1861), only child of John Knm, 
by whom he had seven sons and laven dauaa- 
tera. Ha was succeeded in ^ title by oil 
grandson, Edward Burtanshaw Sugden, th* 
preaent Lord St. Leonards. : 

Besides the works mentioned above, St. : 
Leonards was author of the foUnwiog tr«s> .': 
tisea and minor pieces, all of which war» 
published at London; l.'ASeriesofLsttan i 
to a Man of Property on the Sale, Piuchase, 
Lease, Settlement, and Devise of Estatea,' 
1809, 2nd edit. 8vo; Srd edit. 1816. 3. 'A , 
CuTBOiy Inqniry into the Expediency of le- 
pealing the Annuity Act and raising tJu 
Legal Bate of Interest,' 1812, 8vo. S. 'A 
Letter to Sir Samuel Bomilly on the lata i 
Decisions upon the Omission of the word i 
"Signed" in the Attestation to lustriuneuU 
executingPowars, andontheActforamend- i 
ing tlie Laws in that respect,' 1814, Svc. < 
4. ' ConsiderotionB on the Aate of Inteiaet < 
and on Redeemable Anuuities/ 1816, Svo; 
Srd edit. 18X7. fi. 'A Letter to Cbarlu 
Butler, Esq., on the Doctrine of preauming 
a Surrender of Terms asaignadto attendlhs 
Inharitance/ 1819, 8vo. 6. ' A. Letter to 
John Williams, Esq., IkLP., in reply to tut ; 
Observations upon the Abuses of the Court ; 
of Chancery,' 1826, 8vo. 7. ' A LaUw to ■ 
James Hum^ireya, Esq^ on hia Proposal to 
repeal the Laws of Keat Property and 
substitute a New Code,' 1826, Svo. 8.'Es- , 
tracts jrom the Acta of Parliament relating 
to the Oaths to be token by the U«mbBis 
of the Imperial Parliament,' 1B29, 8vo. 
9. ' Speech delivered in the Houae of Com* 
mens, 16th December 1830, upon the Court 
of Chancery,' 1831, Svo. 10. 'Obsarvations 
on a Oeneral Register,' 1834, 8vo. IL 'A 
Letter to the Bight Hon. Viscount Melbouiu 
on the Present State of the Ai^eUata Juri»- 
diction of the Coun of Ghanoery aod House 
ofLord3,'l&36, 8vo. 12. 'TreabiM on tlie 
Law of Property as adminiistwed by the 
House of Lords,' 1849, 8to. 13. ' Essay cm 
the New Statutes relating to Limitations of 
Time, Estates Tail, Dower, Desosat, Opera- 
tion of Deeds,' &c., 1853, Svo ; 3ad o^t. 
(enlarged, with title ' A Practioal 3>e*tiM 
on the New Statutes relating to ^^operty '), 
1802, 8vo. 14. <ShaU w« Begiatec out 
Deeds F' 1662, 8vo. 16. 'In^owame&ta in 
the AdminiatntioB of the Iaw,' 1863, 8v<x 
16. ' Life Peerages : lubetaneo oS &pe»ob ilk 
theHoosaofLordson7Fab.l6»Q,' 17.'Nuw 
Law Courts and the Fuada o€ the Suitors^ 
the Court of Chancery,' 1861, Svo. 18. ' A 
Handy Rook oa Property Law, in « awie* 


Suidbert ij 

tf Letttn,' 1866, &ro ; 8th edit. 1869. 
19. 'Buonies by Tenure: 8p«ecb in the 
Hmm of Lwds, 26 Feb. 1661, on ths Ca&im 
M tlM Butmj of Beriielef,' 1861, 8vo. 
aH'Cue of the Alexandra: Speech in the 
Hens ot Lordo, 6 Awil 1664.' 21. 'Ob- 
m an Act &r amending the Law 
t of £^Utee,' 1867, 8ro. His 
diaaaiii are reported — the Iiiflh bj ZJoyd, 
QoMiDrxaj, Wanen,JonBB,aiidLatoncbe; 
1^ Engbwh by De Gok, Macnaffhten and 
Gttdon, Clark and Moore. 

[Fratn'B A1nmniOxon.l71S-tSSB; Uncotn'i 
lu Kig.i a. E. CTokaTiieJi Oomplets Peerage. 
B«Ui PMnge ; XimM, 18 Dee. ISfiO, 30 Jan. 
1*71 ; La* Tim«i^ S Feb. 187S ; SoliotoTB' Joop- 
H ■ Fib. 187Si Ann. Bag. 18B% ii. SIS, isrc 
B. Ill, 183; Vendon and PordiawiM, I4th 
i&pTebee; Loodoa Gaialtt, 23 Jnna 1826; 
luki'a BiM. of the Lord CaianceUon of Ireland ; 
Huanfi ParL Deb. new lei. xxi. at uq. ; 
lodf'Jeoni. IxTT. ir. ZS; Qrerille'e Hemoira 
Gn. ir and Will. IV, li. 312, iij. 22, 178, 231, 
tU; hapl ObaerreE, zi. 103; Ia« Il[ag. new 
iw, iriii. JS; Solicilon' Joon^ and Iteportai, 
siL 4iS, xix. 3fiO. 299 ; Ealdy's Memoin of 
L]cd lacgdale, i. 419; Lotd CunpbtU'i Life, 
ti. SMidoMle, a. S81; Sroogham's Antobity- 
mAr, iii. t2S; Hutin'i Life of Lord Lynd- 
An,p.4(M; Aznonld'eMemoirof LordDacman, 
lat; Kaah'a Life of Lard We(tboc7 1 Ccoker 
hpto, ad. JanniiflB, iii. 8fi3 ; Duke of Bnckiog- 
bia^CMrtt and CMineta of Will IV and Tlot. 
i. «M: Bkdnood'i Mas. Febnuir ISd&l 

J. M. B. 
SntDEEB.T {d. 718), apostle of the 
Fnttant, was one <rf the twelve mi^ionaries 
MB by St. Egbert to work in Northern 
Encfe. He went to Frieia in 690, and wne 
wi o a aaafu l thftt ha waa ohoaen biahop and 
Mat to fiigland fix ooBaecration, which he 
mrred at tbs hatida of St. Wtl&id on 
ttJoaa 60S. His aea a> refpAuary biahop 
»/ Raia was at Soroetadiiuo, now Wijk- 
^)4^B>n(ede, on the Rhine. He pre&ohed 
■WfthaBrncteri in Westphalia; hut when 
AnwottoabdHed by the Saxona he repaired 
to npa of ECeriatal, and from him end hia 
«ifc Fleetnidia be reoeired the island 'In 
htii< w Kaiaezetwertht near Diisaeldoif. 
fim b* built a mooastei^, and died in 713. 
latbdd Stiftakiiebe bu relies are shown 
ii « ikoM of the thiiteeuth century. He 
*|fMis to hare leapt of a taste for otassical 
waiiig, ftr a fine copy of livy, probably 
«f tke GOh ceotor^, now In the Vienna 
Baral Libnij, waa in hia poiaeasion. 

rik Hb ef him attribntad to BbKhslmtu, 
*r KanlEaw [Sorioa, Aeta SaasCanun, ii. I, ed. 
V«ioi, 1181), ia a apsriona podnctioQ of a mneh 
bMr \imm. Sco Oiekatnpf 'a Eiit. Jahrbneh, ii. 
m.ulSaddau and Smbba'aCeondls.iil. 326. 

;s Sulien 

Early b the tenth eeiitiiry6t. Bodbod, bishop 
of Utrecht, prnched a sannon en SuJdboit, 
which ia eztaat. Acta S3. BoUond. I Murch, 
p. 07 ; Bads, Hist. Etxlea. ed. Flummer (whete 
tbe Tsrioug aptUings of ths nams ore dren); 
PaleogT. Soo. plate 1 83 {(rom ths VieEna LLtj) ; 
Alcuin'a De Saoctis Ebor. t. 1073; BoDqnet, 
ii. Sll ; Diet. Chr. Biogr. and aothorities 
quoted.] M. B. 

STTLCABD or SULQABD (/. 1075), 
chronogTftpher, probably of Norman origin, 
was a monk of WsstmioBter in the time of 
Edward the Gonfeeaor. He wrote a biatory 
of the monastery, which he dedicated to tbf 
Abbot Vitalia (1073-1082). Two copies are 
extant among the Cottonian KSS.Jmua A. 
viiL ff, 1-60 and Faustina A. iii. S. 11 seq.) 
A passable horn the latter maniucript ia 
printed in Dngdale's ' KonaatJcon.' Oudin 
ascrihea to SiJcard a chronicle by "William 
of Uahnesbnry. Alost collection of general 
hiatorr, sennons, and letters is also ntcribed 
to Suloard. When Henry III rebuilt the 
Westminster monoatery, he moved the bonea 
of Sulcard to the south aide of the entry to 
the old chapter-hoaae, and put up a marble 
tomb with an inscription, of which the last 
two lines ware : 

Abbaa Bdwynua et Sulcardna cenobita : 

Saleardua ma^"^ est; Dsus auit eii. 

Acc^nding to Fits ihate waa in his day a 

atone to be seen at Weetminater bearing the 

inwription : 

SnlcardiiB monaohni it chionagraphiu. 
[Dart's Hist, of Westminster Abbey; Pits. Do 
ninitr. At^lliG Sdipt-l M. B. 

SULIEN, SULGEN (the old Weldi 
form), or StTLGENUS (1011-1091), biahop 
of St. David's, was bom of a good (perhaps 
clerical) &mily settled at Llanbadam Fawr 
in Canliganahire in 1011. He studied in 
monastic schools in Wales, Ireland (where he 
spent thirteen years), and Scotland, and then 
returned, with a great store of learning, to his 
native district, where he soon made a repu- 
tation as a teacher. The four sons bom to 
him during this period, Bhygyfarch [q. v.j, 
Arthen, Daniel, and leuan, Decame (witn 
the exception, possibly, of Arthen) clerics 
like himself and scholars of the same type. 
La 107S. on the death of Bleiddud, SuUen 
waa chosen bishop of St. David's, but in 1078 
he resigned tbe office and betook himself 
again to hia studies. On the death of bis 
successor, Abrahun, in 1080, he waa per- 
SBoded to become bishop once again, and 
in that capacity no doubt received William I 
when thM monarch visited St. David's in 
1081. In 1086 he resigned a second time. 
Ha died on 1 Jan. 1091, < Brut y Tywyso- 





gion ' styles him ' the wieeat of Welslimen/ 
and refers to his circle of disciples. There 
is Mime mBnuscript evidence of the literary 
BCtivity fostered by his school. It was at 
his request that his son leuaa wrote, about 
t&te,' extant in CorpusChristi ColleKe, Cam- 
bridge MS. 199. Of the eons, Donid become 
archdeocoa of Powys (d. 1137), and leuan 
tfchpresbyter of LlaDbadaiD (d. 1137); Ar- 
Ihen left a son Henry (rf. 1163), who woe 
celebrated as a scholar. 

[Aonnles Cambriie ; Brut ; Tywysogion and 
Bmt J Saeson; Poem of lenan's printed by 
Haddaa ond Stubba, Conneilp, i. 6fl3-7 ; Arclueo- 
logia Cambrensis, i. i. (18411), 117-26.1 

JAMES (1810-1890), admiral and hjdro- 
grapher, eldest son of Eear-admiral Thomas 
Ball Sulivan [q. v.], was bom at Tregew, 
nearFalmonth,onl8No7.1810. On4Sept. 
1623 he was entered at the Koyal Naval 
CoUei^ at Portsmouth, where he passed 
through the couroe with distinction, and was 
appointed to the Thetie. In her, with Sir 
Joon Phiilimore [q- v.] and afterwards with 
Captain Arthur Batt Bingham, he remained 
till 1828, when the Thetis happening to 
come into Rio just as one of her former 
lieutenants, Robert Fitiroy [q. v.], was pro- 
tnoted to the command of the Beagle, Fiti- 
Kiy obtained leave for Sulivan to go with 
him. In the end of 1829 he returned to 
England in the North Star, passed his ex- 
ammation on 29 Deo., and on 3 April 1330 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. In 
June 1831, at Fitzroy's request, he was again 
appointed to the Beagle, and remained in 
her during the whole of that voyapfe so cele- 
brated in the annals of nautical and natural 
science. The Beagle returned to England 
in November 183S, and Sulivan, after a 
year's rest, in the course of which he married, 
was appointed in December 1837 to the com- 
mand of the Pincher schooner, going out to 
the west coast of Africa ; but a few weeks 
later he was moved from her to the Arrow, 
>v the Falkland Islands. 
■a him, and the Chris- 
Ihland given to big eldest 
■on marks the belief of the family that he 
was the first British subject born in the 
Falkland Islands. The Arrow came home 
in 1839, and on U May 1841 Sulivan was 
promoted to the rank of commander. 

In April 1842 Suhvan was appointed to 
theFhiloraelbrig,inwhichhewassent outto 
continue the survey of the Falkland Islands 
during the summer montlis, and to return 
each winter to Rio, There, however, the , 

dlatutbed state of the country rendered it 
necessary to consider the Philomel rather 
a ship of war than a surveying vessel, 
although such surveys of the nver as were 
practicable were made, and proved after- 
wards of extreme value. In August 1846, 
when the English and French Bqusdrona 
were obli^d to undertake hostile operations, 
Mrs. Suhvanandher family were sent home, 
and the Pliilomel formed part of the squa- 
dron, under Captain Charles Hotham, wnich 
forced the passage of the Parana at Obli- 
gado on 20 Nov. 1846. In this and aU other 
measures found necessary Sulivan acted at 
the pilot of the squadrcm, chartina; or cor- 
recting the charts of the river as they went 
on. His account of this short campaign, 
and of the action at Obligado, as written at 
the time to his wife {Z^e, pp. 73-87), is the 
best, almost the only one at all satisfactory, 
thnt has yet been printed. 

In the early spring of 1846 Sulivan re- 
turned to England, and in March was posted 
by a commission dated back to 16 Nov. 
1846. In 1847 he was appoinad super- 
numerary to the Victory tor surveying 
dutiesand to organise the dockyard bri^de, 
composed of the dockyard workmen, then 
enrolled and drilled as a sort of militia. At 
this time, too, he paid great attention to the 
formation of a naval reserve, his ideas on 
which were prominently brought forvrard 
ten years later, and aeem to have formed the 
basis of the present system (H. N. Sulivan 
in the Jbumol of tie jR,U.8.I., October 
1897). Towards the end of 184S, seeing 
no prospect of immediate employment, he 
obtuned three yeara^ leave of aljsenee, and 
went with his whole fiunily to the FaUdand 
Islands, where he remained till 1851. On 
his way home in a merchant ship the cre^v 
mutinied, and till they were starved into 
■ubmission the captain, the mate, and Suli- 
van worked the ship, going aloft and bring. 
ing her under easy soQ a* a timely precAu- 
tion. After a passage of ninety ^ye they 
arrived at Liverpool. 

On the imminence of a war with Kussia 
in the beginning of 1854, Sulivan applied 
for a command ; but his reputation as a Bar- ' 
veying officer stood in his way, and it waa not 
till 26 July 18£4 that he was appointed to 
the Lightning, a small and feeble ateamer^ 
for surveying dntiea in the Baltic, and more 
eepecjally in the gulfs of Finland and 
Bothnia. It was thus distinctively as a «aT<- < 
veying officer that he served in tne Baltio I 
during the cam^gns of 1864 and 1856, in 
the course of which he reconnoitred and Bur- I 
veyed the approaches to Bomarsund and 
Sveaborg [see Napibb, Sib Chables ; DtriF- 





■U.3tB BtCHABB SAITHDBBfl], and accom- | sion Sulivan wu promoted to becommandar 
piucd his reports by auggestioDR ss to the ! on 2S Feb. 1807. He came home in thn 
VkT ia wfaicl) these pUcea might be at- Aiuon, and was ia her as a volunteef when 
tiaid, suggestions which were to some ex- she was lost, with Captaiii Lydiard and sixty 
tHt aft«nrards carried oat. OufiJuljlSdfi ' men, in Mount's Bay on 27 Dec. 1807. Id 
ht «*• nominatfld a C.B., and in December | January 1S09 he was appointed chief agent 

1866 was ^^oiated as the ' naval offioer of 
the marine dapartment of the board of 
tnds,' which office be held tilt April 1866. 
Kdt hariag completed the necessary sea 
tbH,h«wason3 Deo.1868 placed on the 
rKfaid list with the rank ol rear-admiral, 
•ad on his retirement from the board of 
tradein 1866 settled at Boamemouth. On 
aJiDe1869hewasmadea K.C.B; he be- 
SIM rice-admiral on 1 April 1870, admiral 
« m Jan. 1877, and died on 1 Jan. 1890. 

daliran married, in January 1837,a daugh- 
ter of Vice-admiral James Young, and by 
kabad a Ui^ family, the eldest of whom, 
JaB«s Yonng Falkland SultTan, became a 
MTsl officer. 

[B. N. SaltTan*a Life and Letters of Sir Bar- 
tbolamsv James Snlinn (with a portrait) ; 
Fhonj's Toyage of the AdTesCura and BeaglB, 
isL ii.] J. K. L. 

16£7), Tear>«dmirBl, bom on 6 Jan. 1780, 
•MSBteiod on the books of the Triumph, 
luiihtp of Ijord Hood at Portsmouth in ' 
I'lJ^ He was afterwards borne on the 
looks of different ships on the home station 
till the oatbreak of the war of 1793, when 
b wfnt out to the Mediterranean, and was 
a midihipman of the Southampton when 
*t captured the Utile on Q June 1796. He 
m afterwards in the Royal George, the 
lijvhip ia the Channel, and on 26 April 
17^ was promoted to be a lieutenant of the 
Qsaei Charlotte. In March 1798 he was 
sppNnted to the Kite, brif;, in which he con- 
taaed for seven years m the North Sea, 
Ihkic and Channel. In May 1798 he was 
■ Sir Home Riggs Pcn)ham'B expedition to 
duttoy the locks on the Bru)^ canal [see 
AnUH, SlB HoKB Rloos], and in Septem- 
bv 1803 was at the bombardment of Gran- 
«iDt. In May 1805 he was appointed to 
tk bisk, and oa 26 Dec. to the Anson, 
finite, with Captain Charles Lydiard, on 
>b Jaaaka station. In the Anson he 
tsok wrt in the captoze of the Spanish fri- 
|Ka Pmona on 23 Auk. 1806 [see Bkis- 
un,8iB GHa.BLBBl,ana agun in the en- 
HEMot with tba Fondroyant, bearing the 
■f of BsttHidmiral Willaumei, on ISSept. 
(Jun, IT. 113-16). On 1 Jan. 1807 Uie 
MM waa one ot the four frigates with 
C<fUin fTisrloo Brisbane at the capture of 
(«(«a, and fix his Mrricss on this occa- 

of transports, and sailed for the Peninsula 
with reinforcements. In November he was . 
appointed to the Eclipse for a few months, and 
inFebruarv 1813 to the Woolwich, in which 
he escorted Sir Jamea Lucas ¥eo [q.T.j with 
troops and supplies to Canada for service on 
the Lakes. On 6 Nov. 1813 the ship was 
wrecked in a hurricane on the north end of 
Barbuda, but without loss of life, Sulivan 
was honourably acquitted bv the subsequent 
court-martial, and m the following February 
was appointed to the Weser, troopship, em- 
ployed on the American coast, and oom- 
mauded a division of boats at the destruction 
of the United States flotilla in thePatuient 
on 23 Aug. 1814 (JiWEs, ii. 168-76). At 
the battle of Bkdenaburg [see CoOEBimn', 
Sir GBoaaB, 1772-1853 ; and Ross, Robhbt] 
he commanded a division of sesmen, and for 
his services in the expedition against New 
Orleans was advanced to post rank on 19 Oct. 
1814. On 4 June 1815 he was nominated a 
C.B. After being on half-pay for many years 
he was appointed in March 1 836 to the Tala- 
I vera at Portsmouth, and in November to the 
Stag, in which he served as commodore on 
the South American station till the spring of 
1811. Onl Oct. 1846 he was placed on the 
retired list, and died at Flushmg, near Fal- 
mouth, on 17 Nov. 1857. On 19March 1808 
Sulivan married Henrietta, daughter of Rear- 
admiral Borthomaw James [q. v.], and by her 
bod fourteen children, four m whom entered 
the navy. The eldest son. Sir Bartholomew 
James Sulivan, is noticed separately. 

[O'Byme's Nav. BEo^. Diet ; Jamas'* Nav. 
Hist. ; H. N. Snlivan'i Xife sod Letters or Sir 
B. J. Sulivan, chap. i. ; iDformation from 8ali- 
vao's yoongest sod, AdDiiral O-eorgs Lydiard 
Sulivan.] 1. K. L. 

SULLIVAN. [See also OBnixivAir.] 
(1830-1884), Irish politician, second son of 
Daniel Sullivan of Dublin, was bom in 1830 
at BantiT, on the aoutii-west coast of Cork. 
He was the second of six sons, all of whom 
attained distinction in Irish public life, jour- 
nalism, and at the bar. He was educated in 
the local national Bchool. During the great 
fiunine of 1846-7 Sullivan was employed as 
a clerk in connection with the relief works 
started by the government. Deeply in- 
fluenced by the distress he then witnessed, 
he afterwards joined the Coufedeiate Club 





fonned at Bantry in support of the revolu- 
tionaiy movement of the Yoang Irelanden, 
and nas the orgoniier of the e&thtuiaetic re- 
oeption given by the town to William Smith 
O'Brien in Jnly 1848 during the inBoment 
leader's tour of the sonthem counties. iSirly 
in 1853 Sullivan vrent to Dublin to aeekem- 

DubKn that jear, and he whs enmg«d to 
supply pencil sketehea to the 'DaBlui Ex- 
positor, a journal issued in connection with 
the ffichibition. Subseqnendy ha ohtained 
a post as draughtsman in tlie Irish yalua- 
tion office, and afterwards as reporter on tha 
'Liverpool Daily Post.' 

In 1856 he returned to Dublin aa aasiatant 
editor of the ' N ation,' a nationalist dailypaper 
founded by -Charles (now Sir Charles) Gavan 
Du^inl»43. Three years later he succeeded 
CashelHoey aa editor, becoming also sole pro- 
prietor. A weeklypaper.called'TheWeekly 
News,' was soon issued, also from tha'Nation ' 
office. In the summer of that year James 
Stephens laid the foundations of the fenian 
eonspiracy, of which the obgect was to esta- 
blish an Irish republic. The 'Nation,' which 
fkvoured constitutional agitation, was per- 
haps the most -powerful opponent that the 
movement had to contend with, andSulli-van, 
during the years that the fenian conspiracy 
retained a hold on the country — from 1360 to 
1870— was the object of the oitter enmity of 
its leaders. In 1866 an order for his asBBBsi- 
nation was passed by a small majority at a 
fenian council meeting in Dablin ; but, not- 
withstandine his opposition to the conspiracy, 
he was highly respected bythe rank and file, 
who made no attempt to execute the order. 
On 23 Nov, 1867 three Irishmen named 
Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien, known as the 
'Manchester Martyrs,' were executed in 
front of Salford gaol for the murder of a 
police-officer during the rescue of two fenian 
leaders, Colonel l^Uy and Captsjn Deasy, 
and for an article on the executions which 
appeared in the ' Weekly News ' Sulli- 
van was sentenced in February 1868 to sis 
months' imprisonment, but -was released when 
half the term had expired. During his im- 
prisonment a committee was formed to pre- 
sent him with a national testimonial. He 
stopped the movement on his release, and 
a sum of 4001. which had been collected 
was appropriated, at his request, towards a 
statue of Henry Orattan, which now stands 
in College GIreen, Dublin, fronting the old 
houses of parliament. 'The site had been 
assigned by the town council in 1864 far 
a statue ot the prince consort, but the pro- 
ject had been defeated by Snllivan, -who 

was at the time a member of the eorfta^ 

Sullivan was present at the renurkaUs 
meeting of conservativea, repealera, end 
fsntans held in the Bilton Hotel, iWbUn, 
on IS May 1870, at whiidi the hom»4uU 
movement was initiated under the leadership 
of Isaac Bntt [q. v.] He was returned to 
parliament as a home'ruler for the oountyof 
Loutb at the general election of 1874. Eii 
muden roeech, which was delivered on 
20 March 1874, waa praiaed for its fervid da- 
qnence and intellectoal power by meinfaeis 
of all parties, and established hia fame as ■ 
debater in the House of Commons. In 1376 
he came to the conclusion tbatButt's' policy 
of conciliation,' which had then been tried 
for five years, had failed in produung any 
pjod legislative results forlreland, and ncged 
in the 'Nation' that the leadership of tha 
Irish party needed more vigour and T^ 
lance. The following vear witneseed the in- 
auguration of Pamdl'a 'policy of obstrao 
tion,' or the policy of active interference by 
Irish members in English and imperial legii- 
lation (-with a view to resist and delay it« 
course), in which they had hitherto ondffl 
Butt taken no interest. Sullivan never 
thoroughly identified himself with Paxnsll'i 
new policy. He thought it -waa occasionally 
pushed to eitremea. But he refused to sop- 
port Butt when tha titular leader of idt 
Irish party in 1877 indignanUy denounced 
the conduot'of Pamell in the House of Com- 
mons. At the general election of 1880 SnUi- 
van was again returned at Uie top of tbt 
poll for county Louth. But as the second 
seat waa won by Philip Callan, who was 
run by the licensed traders with a view to 
defeat him fbr the strenuous sumxirt he bad 
given to temperance legislation, na declined 
to represent uie county with audi a colleague 
and resigned the seat. He was then ofwed 
aseatinMeath — one of three forwhiohPar- 
nell had been returned— provided ha pro- 
mised ' to 00-operate oordiall J aa a fellow- 
labourer ' with the new leader of the Iriab 
party. He refused to stand for the coDtti- 
tuenoy under these circumstances ; but nlti- 
mately, at the request of Pamell, ha was »- 
turned unpledged. 

Meantime Sullivan tnmed hia attention 
to the profes^on of the law, He was called 
to the Irish bar in November 1876, and in 
November 1877 the exceptional distinotioa 
of a 'special call' to the Bnglish bar was 
bestowed on him by- the benchers of the 
Inner Temple, Having decided to praotiB« 
is England, he at the end of 1876 severed 
hia oonnection with the ' Nation,' which then 
became the property of hii elder bretbe*^ 





Mr. Timothy Dmniel SolliTsn, and took m 
Ui raiidence in London. He appe&red, how' 
mi, tea the defendants in some important 
ittte pnwecntioni in Dublin dnnnr tne land 
iMgae agitation. At the English bar hie 
HTvicea u an advocate were also frequently 
ntained. Bm hia health brolc» dovn under 
t^ double BtRiin tif hia parliamentary and 
frofeKional troA in lA81,asd he rwifrned his 
MUforHemtb. Declining an appointment 
u a nib-cominiB«i(mer nnaer the Land Act 
of 1881 which iraa indirectly offered him, he 
ieratrd himself to the parliamentary bar. 

SoBiTan died on 17 Oct. 1884 at Dartry 
Lodit, Ratlimhiee, Dublin, and was int«rrecl 
i>'Ui«0'Coniiell CSrcle'of Glasnevin came' 
tay. He married, in 1861, Francea Gene- 
ritre, only (mrriTing daughter of John 
Dounran of Now Orleans, and left iaaue. 

Amoo|fSiiniTan'B publications are: l.'The 
SloiT oHreland ' (1870), a deliBhtfnl com- 
pmfcnn of Irish history which nae atill an 
tDotase circulstion among the Irish people 
■t bom« and abroad. 2. ' New Ireland ' 
nSTT), a «erie« of vivid sketches of Irish 
Lb dvnug the past half-centuTy. 3. ' A 
ICitriMllHistOTTof Ireland,' 1883. Hewas 
■OK diftingmuied as an orator than as 
I "titer. An intereating collection of his 
ifasches wu pnblished in 1884. 

[A VsmMT hj 1. D. SutliTan; O'Connor's 
IvadI SCarement ; Sallivaa's Naw Inland.] 
M. ]!ilAcD. 

SUIUVAIT, BARRY (1821-1891), 
tcur, whoM fall name waa Thomaa Barry 
Wlina, waa bom at Howard's Placa, Bir- 
■iuhaBi,(»GJul7lS21. Hia father, a native 
sf Cstk, MKTsd aa a private soldiar in the 
iacntan war oC 1812-14,«nd was wonnded 
ia the Waterloo campaign; marning the 
Imakia ot a CaA &nneT named Barry, be 
wtMd Ant *t Birmingham and then at 
BrittoL At Brutal tho son waa edacal«d, 
vi « feartecoi entered an attonMj^'a office. 
ArajtafMaoraadytoBriatcl stirred in voung 
MSnn a panoai for MStinB, and he joined 
•t itiaatuit oompany. H^nng hi* way to 
Mt, ht waa tcnnporarily encaged by the 
Maager, Fkanh Beymour, at the old theatre 
<• OMne'a S&«M, to pUr, for « benefit. 
EMatt B BickeratafiTa ' Love in a Village.' 
<h 7 Jane 1837, al«o Etr a benefit, he pUyed 
« tte Tkaatre Ri^al the Prompter in Ool- 
a«'a ' Managar in Diatreas,' Obarlea in the 
' Vanaiaa HniainT ' to the Jim Orow of Rice 
AaAamcaB, and Vanilah in the farce of 
'Botheration.' At the same hoase, 14 Jnne 
UV, be played his flnt Sh^tespaarsan part, 
■iTiauU to Cbariea Kean's Hamlet, and 
■ Ae aaaw montli Seyton to Kem'a Mac- 

beth. Sullivan played various other parts 
tilt the season ended (23 SepL 1S87). In 
January 1888 Sullivan joined a new 'ht-np' 
theatre at Cork, known as Collins's Pavilien, 
which was devoted mainh to melodrana, 
and where ha gained proficiency in atage- 
combata. In 1^9 he toured throng Mna- 
ater, and in January 1840 was re-engaged at 
the Theatre Royal, Cork, playing with Mib> 
Honey [q. «,] and James BhvtdaD Knowle> 
[q-V.] The theatre waa burnt down 11 April 
1H40, when Sullivan joined bis old manager 
Seytnour at a recently -built theatre, the Vic- 
toria (nowrenamed Theatre Royal), in Cwrk 
Street. He took tenor part« in Engliah 
op»a as well as varied dramatic r^les. In 
October 1841, aa Duke Frederick, he sup- 

Smted Ellen Tree (Mre. Charles Ksan) and 
amsB Andereon in ' As You Like It. On 
11 Nov. 1841 he left Cork for Edinburgh. 

Engaged bv William Henry Murray {a. v.], 
9nllivan made his first appearance in £din> 
bnrgfa on 34 Nov. 1841 as Retl Itody in 
Pocock's ■Robber's Wife.' Hia saluywaa 
SOi. a week, the leading man, John Ryder, 
receiving 40«. Batea in the 'Gamester' to 
Charlea Kean's Beverley, Gaston in 'iUche- 
lieu,' Sir Lucins O'Trigger to Mm. Glover"* 
Mre. MaJaprop were among the parts he 
played at the Theatre Royal or the AdalphL 
After the departure of John Ryder (1814- 
1885) [q. v.] Sullivan waa promoted to the 
principal heavy parts, playing Drayton in 
'Grand&ther Whitehead,' Antonio in the 
' Merchant of Venice,' and Beauseant in the 
' Lady of Lyons ' to the PauUne of Helen 
Faucit[q.v.] ForhisfareweUbenefitSOMay 
1844 he waa seen as Kirkpatiick in ' Wallace,' 
and Alessandro Massaroni in the 'Italian 
Brigand.' After appearing in Paisley and 
other Scottish towns, he played leading busJ- 
neas at the City Theatre, Glasgow. He then 
managed for two years( 1 845-7) the Aberdeen 

After making at Wakefield his first ^ipssr- 
ance in England, he accepted an en^gement 
under Robert Roxby [q. v.] at LiverinoL 

lowed by Hamlet, Shylock, Othello, 1 
Jaffier in' Venice Preserved,' He then went 
the Amphitheatre, at which house to the 
close of hia career be remabed a favourite. 
On Oct 1847 be appeared at the Theatr« 
Royal, Manchester, as Stukeley in the 
'Gamester.' On theSBthheplayed Hamlet, 
with O.V.Brooke as the Ghost. After being 
seen in a round of leadins characters (in- 
dnding Wola^ to Macready's Henry VIII, 
27 Nov. 1847, and Melnotte to Fanny 
Kemble'e Pauline), Sullivan quarrelled with 




Wallock, his maoa^er, and resigned hU en- 
gftg«meat, taking his benefit in Claude Mel- 
uotte and Patruchio at the Queen's Theatre. 
From 1 Dec. 1849 to 28 Jan. 18S0 he leased 
the Bolton Theatre, and subsequently sup- 
ported Macread; in his farewell performances 
at Liverpool. After revisiting Edinburgh, 
where he played Romeo, Hotspur, NorTsJ, 
and FalconDndge, he was recommended by 
Phelps to WelMter, and made his first ap- 

earance in London at the Haymarhet aa 
amlet on 7 Feb. 1852. He was then 
credited with picturesqueness and pathos. 
On 14 Feb, he was the tirst Angiolo m Miss 
Vandenhoil's drama 'A Woman's Heart;' 
on 24 March was Evelyn in a revival of 
' Money ; ' on 12 Feb. 1863, on the first pro- 
duction at the Haymarket of Bui wer-Ly tton's 
'Not so bad as we seem,' he was Hardman, 
and in the following April the first Valence 
in Browning's ' Colombe's Birthday,' to the 
Oolombe of Miss Helen Faucit. He re- 
mained at the Haymarket under Buckstone 
until 16 July 1803. Among original parts 
in -which he was seen were Travere in Robert 
Sullivan's 'Elopements in High Life,' and 
Giulio in Mrs. Crowe's ' Civil Kindness.' 
After visits to the Standard and the Strand 
in London, as well as to Belfast, he accepted 
an engagement in Jan. 1866 at the St. James's 
Theatre, London, where in Henry Spicer'a 
' Alcostis' he played Admetus to the title- 
idle of Miss Vandenhoff. On 11 June fol- 
lowing he was again at the Haymarket as 
the first Franklyn in ' Love's Martyrdom ' by 
John Saunders, and on 23 July as the hero 
of Heraud's ' Wife or no Wife.' He also 

flayed Jaques to the Rosalind of Miss 
'aucit in June. In October he appeared at 
Drury Lane as Tihrak in Fitibftll's ' N itocris.' 
He remained at Drury Lane till 14Bec., and 
soon returned thither for twenty-five nights 
after a visit to Liverpool and Manchester. 
In February 1857 he made a tour of the pro- 
viDces. After acting with Phelps at Sadler's 
"Wells he went to America, appearing on 
22 Nov. 1858 at the Broadway Theatre, New 
York, as Hamlet. He was seen as Claude 
Melnotte, Macbeth, Shylock, Petruchio, and 
Ricbardlll; tbenwent to Burton's theatre, 
NewYork, where he acted as Beverley, Bene- 
dick, and Lear. After visiting many American 
cities, including San Francisco, and amassing 
8,0p0f., he returned after a year and a half 
to London and appeared at the St. James's 
on 20 Aug. 1860 as Hamlet, aflerwardH ful- 
filling engagements at the Standard (Lon- 
don) and the Amphitheatre (Liverpool). In 
January 1882 he was at Belfast, where he 
maintained a remarkable popularity. In the 
r he visited Australia, beginning in 

Melbourne, where and in Sydney he wa* 
enthusiastically received. In January 1863 
he leased for three years the Theatre Royal, 
Melbourne, and achieved a great anccess in 
his Sliakespearean revivals. 

In June 1666 he was back in England, and 
on 22 Sept. played at Drury Lane Falcon- 
bridgetotheKing John of Phelps; Macbeth, 
Macduff, and other parts. Including Charles 
Surface, followed. Vext month he was at 
Liverpool, and at Christmas in Belfast. He 
was again at Drury Lane in October 1867 
and J^bruary 1888. On 1 May 1S69 he 
became manager of the Holbom Theatre, 
reviving ' Money,' in which he plaved Al&ed 
Evelyn, ' The Gamester,' and ' School for 
Scandal.' The result waa unremunerative. 
In March 1870 he made a first appearance 
at Birmingham (as Hamlet at the Theatre 
Royal), and next month at Dublin at the 
Theatre Ro^al. Here his popularity, due in 
partto poliCicalcauEes,reacheditsclimax. In 
1876-6 he was again in America for nine 
months, playing in thirty-three cities and re- 
ceiving 140,000 dollars. On 23 Sept. 1876 he 
was back at Drury Lane, playing altematolj 
In 'Richard III 'and 'Macbeth? "When the 
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford- 
on-Avon opened 23 April 1879 with a per- 
formance of 'Much Ado about Nothing,' 
Sullivan was the Benedick to the Beatrice 
of Miss Helen Faucit (Lady Martin). 

During later years he was never seen in 
the London bills, but continued a remark- 
able favourite in Lancashire and in Ireland. 
The first signs of failing health developed 
themselves in 1886, and when, with a per- 
formance of Bichard m, be brought, on 
4 June 1887, to a close an engagement at 
the Alexander Theatre, Liverpool, ha had 
unconsciously trodden the stage for the laJit 
time. He soon Bft«r retired to 46 Albany 
Villas, Hove, Brighton. For a while he 
gave signs of recovery, and urged on his boh 
to make arrangements for a tour in 1888— 
1889. A stroke of paralysis came on, and th« 
last rites of the catholic church were admini- 
■tered to him on 23 Aug. 1838. He lingered 
on for three years, and died on 8 May 1^1 of 
infiuenia. His remains were buried inOlas- 
nevin cemetery, Dublin, where a statue of 
Sullivan as Hamlet by Sir Thomas FarrsU 
marks his grave. He married Mary, daughter 
of Lieutenant Amo^ (of the 28th rwiment) ; 
aha died at Hove 16 Aug. 1908. They had 
foursonsandthreedanghters. Theyoungeet 

I, John, adopted his father'a profession, 
and died 30 Sept, 1897. 

SnlUvan was a good though never agreM 

an inspired actor, of an old-fashioned 
kind, and held aloft the banner of tragedy in 




troabloQi timea. In InUndlte Mood, thanks 
iipwtta bis birth Mid hu religion, foremott 
iipabliefaTour. Adinintioaforbimwaanot 
confined, hointTer, to the esthotic «oiith,but 
Mlended to the north and aorou the «e& to 
Unrpool and MukcbeMoi. Id theea places 
hfkjed iriih aaTory'uig success a very wide 
ruJiiB of tragic jiarts, twether with some 
cdbIc ch«nctera. ilis Ilamlet was there 
mJ to be an institution. He cl&imed to 
hn played that part and Richard UI each 
3/iOO time*. In Australia and America he 
vuilso welcome. In the south of England, 
tad especially in London, his reputation did 
act Aand high in tragedy, while in comedy 
it Tu eren lower. Vigorous action and 
l»nble declamation were his chief oharac- 
MriKiai, and he found difficulty in the dif- 
faaotiation of characters such sa Macbeth, 
EQchMd, Bjid Lear. Uie face, seamed with 
tbe imall-pox, lent itself with some difficulty 
U make-up, and his performances of cbarao- 
Ut* sach as Charles Surface were unsatift* 
&etoiy ti much through his appearance and 
IS through the ahaence ofuglitnees and 
t of style. 
[8. M. Sittaid's Barry SuUiran and hia Con- 
U^nnriM,I901.aTaU.. ia themsiaaDthority. 
9m iboabioeTaphical sksteh by Mr. W. J. Lsw- 
ntct.Loaioa, 1883. Panooal reeoUectioDi are 
bM dn*n apon, of. Scott and Howard's Blan- 
4ud ; Dntton Cook's Nights at tha Play ; and 
IhiafdwAthaiMeamaDdSmidsyTiiDM.] J. E, 
1835), lord chancellor of Ireland, was bom 
It MsUow, CO. Cork, on 10 July 1829. He 
*ai the eldest son of Edward Sullivan by 
)m wife Aniifl Snrflen, r& Lvncb. His 
^ther, a locftl merchant, rsalised a eubst&n- 
liil fartuna in bnainesa and was a friend of 
i^pixt Mfiore. SuUiran received his earliest 
•tuition at a school in hia native town, and 
bftr oa was sent to the endowed school at 
Iftflym, an institution in which many dis- 
tisfiiiihed Irishmen, Currau and Barry Yel~ 
*wv» amoig tliem, bad been trained. In 
lHlheenCM«)dTnni^Gollege,Dublin. Hia 
cMHtst the mtivereity was distinguiahed. 
B* "<itsinpd first clasaical scholanhip in 
iHS,tBdmdnat«dB.A.inl846, Re was 
dn ihclM saditor of the ooltege historical 
Maty in 184C, in sueceasion to William 
t^flor HagM [q. T.J (afterwards bishop of 
PMrtotoaf^ and archbishop of York), and 
|Mid the gold medal for oratory. In 1848, 
^brtvo jtmn of preliminary studv at oham- 
^ ■• l.widcm, SoUiTMi vrss eidled to the 
kii W, where bis wdl-trained and richly 
■Mdaiad,)^ gvs** readinece, indomitabte 
^■oqr, aad iBTj eloquence vary quickly 
hwiki b^ into notice. Within ten yeara 

»H. TO, 

of hiacall to thabar (18S8) hewBsappoint«d 
a queen's counsel, and two years later, during 
the viceroyalty of Lord Carlisle, became one 
of the three seHeant»«t'law. In 1661 he 
was appointed law adviser — an office sub- 
ordinate to the attorney and solicitor ^neral, 
which hassince been abolished — andut 186S 
became for a brief period solicitor^feueialfor 
Ireland in Lord Palmerston's last admini' 
atratiou. In this capacity he was called on 
to deal with the fenian conspiracy. In 1305 
he was letomed in the liberal interest to 
represeut his native town in partiament. 
From 1666 to 1868, while his partv was in 
opposititm, he applud himself maimy to his 
professitn, and acted, about this puiod, in 
ooniunction with James Whiteside^q. v.], as 
lesdinR- counsel for the plaintiff in the cele- 
brated Yalverton trial. 

In December 1868, on the return of the 
liberal party to power, Sullivan became 
attorney-general for Ireland in Ur. Glad- 
stone's nest administration. He took an 
active — nazt to the prime minister, the lead- 
ing — part in the oondnct of the Irish Church 
BUI in the House of Commons. His ser- 
vices on this occasion, the debating ability 
he displayed in the stormv discussions which 
the bul provoked, and his knowledge and 
grasp of the details of s moat intricate sub- 
ject, raised him to a hieh place in the esti- 
mation of the House of (^Hnmons, and earned 
him the complete conMence of his leader. 
He retired from parliament in 1870 to be- 
come master of the rolls in Ireland. Until 
1662 he was mainly ongroaaed by his judicial 
duties; but he was also an active member of 
the privy council. His advice was often 
sougnt on critical ocoaaiona by the Irish 
government. Mr. Gladstone placed muoh 
reliance on his judgment and knowledge of 
Ireland, and it was mainly at his instance 
that the important step of arresting Charlea 
Stewart Paruell fq. v.] was adopted by the 
government in 18^1. 

In December 1681 Sullivan was created 
a baronet on the recommendation of Mr, 
Gladstone, in recognition of his services both 

ajndge and as a confidential adviser of 

i servants of the crown in Ireland j and 
shortly afterwards the premature death of 
Hu^h Law [q.v.1 opened the way for his ele- 
vation to the Irish chanceUorship, to which be 
wss qipotnted in 1883. In this capacity he 
displayed govaming qualities of the highest 
order, and duriog the troubled period of Lord 
Spencer's second viceroyalty he may be said 

out the Invincible conspiracy. He enjoyeu 
his office for a comparativ^y brief period, 




S April 1885, 
In the list of Irish ohancellora of the 
nineteenth centnrv SulUTsn U one of tbe 
most eminent. But he was more distjn> 
guished u a statesman than SB a judge. His 
thorouffh knonledn of Ireland, combined 
with the courage, urmneaB, and dedaion of 
his character, qiuliBed him to be what during 
the period of his chanoellorahip he was — an 
active champion of law and onfer throughout 
the country. SulUvan was also a man of 
Taried accomplishments and scholarly taatee. 
Throngh life be was an ardent book-collector, 
and at his death had amassed one of the 
most valuable private libraries in the king- 
dom. Fart of this libraiT, when sold by 
auction in 1890, realised 11,000^, Besides 
being a sound classical scholar, he was a 
skilled linguist, and familiar with Qerman, 
IVench, Italian, and Spanish literature. 

Sullivan married, on 24 Sept. 1850, Bessie 

Josephine, daughter of Robert Bailey of 

Cork, by whom he had issue toxa sons and 

one daughter. 

rBnrWs Baroaetags ; private infonnation.] 

C. L. r. 

(1719-1776), jurist, the son of Francis Sul- 
livan, was bom at Oalvray in 1719. He 
iras educated at Wsterford and subsequently 
at Trinity College, Dnfalin, which he entered 
in 17S1 as a boy of twelve. His academic 
career was most successful, and he achieved 
the unprecedented dis^etion of gaining a 
fsllowslup at nineteen in 1788. In the year 
(bUowing bis vote at a parliamentary election 
for his nniversi^was disallowed by a com- 
mittee of the House of Commons on the 
ground of his Imng a minor. In 1750 Sul- 
livan became rerius professor of law in the 
university of Dublin, and in 1761 pro&ssor 
of feudal and English law. He enjoyed a 
very high reputation as a jurist, and his 
booK, entitled 'An Historical Treatise on 
the Feudal Iaw, and the Constitution and 
Laws of England, with a Commentary on 
M^ua OharU' (London, 1772, 4to; 2nd 
edit. 1776; Portland, U.&A. 1806, S vols. 
8vo), was long recognised as an authority. 
Sullivsn died at Dublin in 1776. 

His son, WnxUK Fnixcis Sdltjvut 
(1766-1830), bom iu Dublin in 1766, was 
educated for the church at Trinity Collie, 
but entered the navy upon hia &ther's death, 
and served throngh the American war. In 
1783 he settled in Eogland. He produced a 
&rce called ■ The Rights of Han ' (printed in 
the'ThespianMunime,'1792) ;' The Flights 
ofFancy, a misoeUaneous collection of poems. 

epi^me, and trifles, Leeds, 1792, 8vo; 'The 
Union and Loyalty, i» the long-threatensd 
French Invasion,' a patrioticpoem, London, 
1803, several editions; and 'Pleasant Stories,' 
London, I8I8, 12mo, He died in 1830. 

[StnbWs Hist, of the Uuiveinty of Doblin ; 
Todd's List of Qmdaatss of Dublin Uninrutj ; 
Collegs Caleodars] C. L. F. 

SULLIVAN, LUKE (d. 1771), engraver 
and miniature-painter, was bom in eo. Louth, 
his father beine a groom in the service of tbs 
Duke of BeauioTt Showing artistic t^ent, 
he was enabled by the duke^s patronage to 
obtain instruction, and Strutt states that he 
became a pupil of Thomas Major [q.v.l; bnt 
he was certainly Major's senior, and it is 
more probable that they were fellow-students 
under the French engraver Le Bas, whose 
style that of Sullivan much resembles. His 
earliest work was avLewof the battle of Cul- 
loden (after A. HecVel,1748), and soon after- 
wards he was engaged as an assistant by 
Hogarth, for whom he engraved the oele- 
br^ed plate of the ' March to Fmcbley,' pnb- 
Ushed in 1750; also his 'Paul before Felii,' 
1762, and bis frootispiece to Kirby's ' Per- 
spective,' 1754. Subsequently Snllivan en- 
graved a fine plate of the ' Temptation of St. 
Antony' (after D. Teniers), which he dedi- 
cated to the Duke of Beaufort. In 1759 he 
published a set of six views of noblemen's 
seats, viz. Oatknds, Wilton, Ditchley, Clief- 
den, Esher, and Wobum — all drav^n and en- 
graved by himself. Sullivan practised minii- 
ture-painting with considerable ability, and 
from 1764 to 1770 eihibited portraits with 
the Incorporated Society, of which he was a 
director. He led a disreputable life, and died , 
at the White Bear tavern in Kccadilly early 
in 1771. 

[Stnitt'i Diet, of Engravers ; Redgrave's INct. 
of Artists : Dodd's mannscript Hist, of English < 
Eugravsrs in Brit. Mas. Ad£ 1C3. 83405.1 

F. M. &D. 

BFIiLrVAII, OWEN a700P-1784), 
Irish poet, called in Irish Eoghan Ruadh, or 
Bed-haired Sullivan, was hmo about 1700 
in Slieve Luachra, co. Kerry, and was one of 
the chief Jacobite poets of the south of Ire- 
land. Poetry proved inadequate to sustain 
him, and he earned a living as an itine- 
rant potato-din;er, always corttinaiiw the 
Btudiea which he had begun in a hedge 
school The pototo-di^er, resting in. a farm- 
kitchen, interposed wiUi success in aclaesical 

French college. The fanner sat him nn in 
a school at Annagh, near CharleviUe, but 
after a time he fell in love with Mary Oaseyi 





whoM divnu ho lus celebrated, uid look 
lo u UIb life. Hfl wrote nnmerona Bonga, 
ofwUehmuiymuiiuonpt copiaa &n extant, 
ud Mnnl are printed ia John O'Dal^'s 
<iU)qnaiofJBeoMtePoetry'(1344). When 
bOfened hia school he issued a toachins 
focn of four stanxas addressed to the pariah 
f(wU He wrote utires on the Irish volun- 
Wnind naraeroiu poems denonucing the 
Bi^dL He died of fever at Knockn^ree, 
n.KeR7, in 1784, and was buried at Moho- 
nl ia the Tidnit^. 

naatit in OTtelj's Jacobita Poetry, Dub- 
Bi,IW;WotU.l N. M. 


S7G2-ieOS), miscelluieoaa writer, bora on 
I Dae. 1752, waa the thbd son of Ben- 
aaia Snlliran of Dromeragh, co. Cork, by 
Uwife Bridget, daughter of Paul Limrio, 
DIt. Hi* ddart brother, Sir Benjamin 
SiDiTan (1747-1810), waafrom 1601 tiU his 
' ' ' ■ ' • the aupreme court of 
The second brother, 

isne judge ot the aupreme court of 

« at Madras. The second brother, 

livan (1749-1839), WM nndeMaere- 

017 at war &caii 1801 1« 1806, and married 

a&anue al 

HaristU AnneB«bara (1760-1828), daugh- 
tvirfOeoiga Hobart, third eul of Bucking- 

nutMiglt the influence of Laurence Sulll- 
m, dkatrman of the East India Oompanj, 
nd probably hia kinsman, Richard Joeeph 
vu early in life aent to India with his 
hvtber John. On hia return to Europe he 
Hda a tour through TaHoua partA of Eng- 
k^ Scotland, and Wales. He was elected 
a bOow of the Society of Antiquaries on 
9 June 1786 (GoireH, Ckronologiail Lut, p. 
4(^and a fellow of the Royal SocieW an 
tj Dee. following (Thomson, Siat. qf Soyal 
Aacte, App.F.ljx). On 29 Jan. 1787, being 
Am dasenbad as of Cleveland Bow, St. 
JuM^i, London, he was elected M.P. for 
S«w Bomnej in place of Sir Edward Bering, 
MigBed. He was returned for the same con- 
Bkaaej at the general election on 19 June 
ina He loot hia seat in 1796, bnt on 
i Jnlf 1803 waa elected, after a sharp 
MMnt, for 8e«ford, another of the Oinque 
patL On 38 Hay 1804, on I^tt'a return 
to gfice, SaUiran was created a baronet 
of the VBHad Kingdom. Ha died at hia 
Mt, TlianMa Dittm, Surrey, on 17 July 

•( Tboua Lodge, eaq., of Leeds ; she died 
■ 31 Bee. 18S2. Their eldest son died 
^og in 178&, and the title devoWed on 
iki BMondson, Heniy (1785-1814), M.P. for 
^atjat Lincoln (1812-14), who feU at 
MoMe m 14 AprU 1814. He waa sue- 

ceeded as third baronet byfais brother. Sir 
Chailee Sulliyan (1789-1868), who entered 
the navy in February 1801, and eventually 
became admiral of the blue (cf. Oeitt. Mag. 
1863, i. 127). 

His works are: 1. 'An Analysis of the 
Political History of India. In which is con- 
sidered the present situation of the East, and 
the connection of its several Powers with the 
Empire of Qreat Britain' (anon.), London, 
1779, 4to; 3nd edit, witJi the author's 
name, X7B4, 8vo; translated into German 
by H. 0. Bprengel, Halle, 1787, 8vo. 

5. * Thoughts on Martial Law, and on the 
proceedings of general Coiirte-Martial ' 
(anon.), London, 1779, 4to; 2nd edit, en- 
larged, with the author's name, London, 
1784, 8vo. 3. ' Obserrations made during a 
Tour through parts of England, Scotland, 
and Wales, in a series of Letters' (anon.), 
London, 1780, 4to; 2nd edit., 2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1786, 8vo ; reprinted in Mavor's ' Bri- 
tish Tourists.' 4. ' Philosophical Rhapso- 
dies : Fragmenta of Akbur of Betlis ; con- 
taining Reflections on the Laws, Manners, 
Customs, and Religions of Certain Asiatic, 
A-ftic, and European Nations,' 3 vols., Lon- 
don, 1784-6, 8to. 6. 'Thoughts on the 
Early Ages of the Irish Nation and History, 
and on the Ancient Establishment of the 
Mileeian Families in that Kingdom ; with a 

g.rtieular reference to the descendants of 
eber, the eldest son of Milesiue,' 1789, 8vo. 
Of this curious work two editions of one 
hundred copies each were privately printed. 

6. ' A View of Nature, in Letters to a Tra- 
veller amongthe Aim, with ReflectiDns on 
Atheistical Philosophy now eznmplifled in 
France,' 6 vols., London, 1794, 8vo; trans- 
lated into German by K. B. G. Hebenstreit, 
4 vols., Lei_piig, 1795-1800, 8vo. 

To Sullivan have been inaccurately as- 
signed two anonymoas pamphlets ; ' History 
of the Administration of toe Leader in the 
Indian Direction, Shewing by what gi^&t 
and noble effiirts he has brought the Com- 
pany's afikirs into their present happy situa- 
tion,' London [1766 p;], 4t«; 'A Defence of 
Mr. Sullivan's Propositions (to serve as the 
basis of a negociation wiUi goTemment), 
with an answer to the objections against 
them, in a Letter to the IViprietois of East 
India Stock,' London, 1767, 8vo. 

[Barke's Pserage, 1896, p. liSfi; Foster's 
BaiDiietags, 1882, p. 589 ; Qgnt Hag. 178S i. 
4S, 1806 ii. 687, 871, 896, 1832 ii. 658; Lit. 
Uemoiis of Living Authors, 1798, ii. 287; 
Lovnd^a Bibl. Miin. (Boha), p. 254S ; Kichota's 
Lit. Anted, ii, SI ; RensB'g Rsgiater of Aathors, 
ii. sea, Stippl. p. 3SS; Watt'a Bibl. Brit. s.d. 
' Sulivan,'], T. 0. 





SULLIVAM, ROBERT (1800 1868), 

educstioutil writer, sod of Daniel SuUiv&n, a 
publican, was bom in Holjwood, co. Down, 
m jBniiai7 1800. He wm educated at the 
Beifast Ac&demical Institute and at TriniCy 
College, Dublin, where heoraduated B.A. in 
1829, MA. in 1833, LLJB. end LL.D. in 
1800. Oa the iDtroductionof national educa- 
tion into Ireland he was appoint«d an in- 
lector of schools, andwasejterwaida trans- 
Jerred to the tnuning department ■■ prafeasor 
of English literature. He died in Dublin on 
11 Jul^ leCS, and was buriod at Holywood. 
Sullivan was author of: 1. ' A Manual of 
Etymology,' Dublin, 1831, 12mo. 2. 'A 
Dictionary of Derivations,' Dublin, 1834, 
I2mo; 12Ui ed. 1870. 3. 'Lectures and 
Letters on Popular EducatioD,' 1842, IZmo. 
4. 'The Spellmg Book Superseded,' Dublin, 
1842, 12mo ; iSCth ed. 1869. 5. ' Ortho- 

nihy and EtymologT,'6th ed. 1844, Idmo. 
A Dictionary of tue English Language,' 
Dublin, 1847, 12moi 23rd od. by Dr. Patrick 
"Weston Joyce, 1877. 7. ' The Literary Class 
Book,* Dublin, 1850, lemo; 11th ed. 1868. 
8, ' An Attempt to eimplify English Gram- 
mar,' 17th ed. Dublin, 1862, 12mo; 85th ed. 

Introduction to Geography,' 23rd ed. Dublin, 
1853, 12mo; 82nd ed. 1869. 11. 'Manual 
of EtymoloCT,' 1880, 16mo. 12. ' Papers 
on Popular Education,' Dublin, 1863, 8to. 
13. ' Words spelled in Two or More Ways," 
London, 1867, 8to. 

[Webb's CampeDdium of Irish Biography, p. 
iOi ; O'DoDCgbDe's Irish Poets, iii. 3S8 ; Alii- 
bone's Diet, of EngL Lit. ; Oisdoitee of Dablin 
University, p. G40.] E. L C. 

SUIilVAN, TIMOTHY (1710 P-1800), 
Irish poet, called in Irish Tadbe Gaolach, 
or Irish Teague, was bom in co. Cork about 
1710, and, after school education, bncame an 
itinerant poet, living chiefly in Fauracha, a 
district of co. Waterford. He wandered 
&om house to house composing panegyrics, 
of which the beet known are ' Nora ni 
Ainle,' in praise of Honora, daughter of 
O'Hanlon; 'Do Sheoiree agusdoDhomhnall 
OTaoloin,' to the brothers O'Phelan of the 
Decies, co. Waterford; 'Chum an athar 
Taidhg Mhie Carrthaidh,' to the Rev. T. Mac- 
Oarthy ; and sometimes satires. The subject 
of oneof his satires ciLBt the poet's wig into the 
fire, whereupon he wrot« the poem'Ar Iowa 
a liath wig,' on the burning of his wig. He 
also wrote an address to Prince Charles Ed- 
ward, called ' An Finuighe,' the wanderer, 
and several laments for Ireland, of which 
that in which bis country is personified as a 

beautiful younr woman,' Sighileni Qhadhra,' 
was long popular in Munster. Later in lin 
he wrote only religious poems, addresses to 
the Trinity, to Christ, and to our Lady, a 
poem on St. Declan, patron of Ardmo[e,co. 
Waterford, and in 1791 a pc«m on the world, 
entitled 'Buain an Domnaln.' Those were 
often set to popular tunes, and had a wide 
circulation throughout the soutb, of Ireland. 
Sullivan died at Waterford in May 1600, and 
was buried fourteen miles off at Ballylaneen. 
Hie epitaph was written in Latin verse by 
Donchadh Euadh MacConmara,! celebrated 
local poet and schoolmaster, AcollectJonaf 
Sullivan's poems was published as' ASpiritusl 
Miscellany ' at Limerick during his hfe, and 
another at Olonmel in 1816. John O'Daly 
publitihsd a fbller collection as ' The Picas 
Miscellany ' in Dublin in 1868, with a skort 

[O'Daly's Memoir ; Adventorea of Doonebadk 
Boadb MacCoDinans Dublin, ISS3 (this mA, 
of which the author was StaodishHayaaO'Otady, 
de«cnb«( the literary society in which Saliivsn 
lived).] N. U. 

BULMO, THOMAS (JL 1640-1S60), 
proteatant divine. [See SoHB.] 

8UMBEL, MARY (A. 1781-1613), 
actress. [See Wells, Mbs. Mast.] 

OS THE Isles (J. 1164), was, according to 
the Celtic tradition, the son of Gillebrede, 
eon of Oilladomsa, sixth in descent from 
Godfrey MacFei^us, called in the Irish 
ehronide Toshach of the Isles; but some 
suppose him of Norse ori^. His Dither, a 
reputed thane of Argyll, is said to have been 
expelled from his possessions, and forced to 
conceal himself for a time in Morven; bat 
having placed his son at the head of the 
men of Morven to reast a band of Noras 
pirates, the son defeated them, and the 
prestige thus won enabled him afterwaida 
not only to r^ain his father's possessioni^ 
but to make hmiself master of the greater 

part of Argrll, of which lie claimed t 
lord or regulus. Alongwith tbepretenderHi 
the maarmorship of Rosa, he rebelled against 
Malcolm IV in 1163, but found it necessary 
to come to terms with him. About 1140 hs 
had married Ragnhildis or EAnca, daoghttf 
of Olave the RM,kinK of Man, by whom ha 
had three sons ; Dugall, Reginald or Ranald, 
and Aiu^us. By a former marriage he had a 
son Gillecolm; and, accordinr to the ' Chro- 
nicle of Man,' he had a fifth son, Olave. 
After the death of Clave, king of Man, Thcv 
fin, eon of Ottar, one of the lords of Man, 
resolved to depose Godired the Black, king oi 
Man, as an oppressor, and offered to Some^ 



kd, if lie wonld asaut him, to make his son 
D«giU laag in Oodfred's stead. SomerI»d 
WHoMhiiig loth, tad Thorfln carried Dugall 
tknwgh all tlia mm, exmpt Man, and forced 
tk inhalntanU to aoknowled^ bim, bos- 
HgM being tAkan for their obedience. Tbere- 
^QodQ«d collected a fleet and proceeded 
■giiatt the gallevs of the rebels, reinforced 
ud commanded vy 8omerled. As tbe result 
it ibloodr and indecisive battle fonght in 
11S6, God&od was indaoed to come to terms 
h ceding to the eons of Somerled tbe south 
iHitod letaining to himself the north islee 
ndMan. Two Tears later Somerled invaded 
Hu with fiftf'three ships, and laid vraste tbe 
•kole island, Godfred being compeUed to flee 
UNanrar. The power wielded oy Somerled 
Hoand ute jaalon^ of Malcolm IV, who 
dnqaoded that Sometted should resign bis 
|iwwsium to bim, and hold them in future 
MSTSMalof the king of Scots. ThisSomer- 
lof dedined to do, anci, war being d eclared , he 

■ 1164 saOed with 160 galleys up the Clyde 
sad ludBdhiaCoroes near Renfrew. Hardly, 
kmnrMV had they disembarhed, when they 
•wa attacked and put to flight with great 
■Ingbtar, Somerled and his son Gilleoobn 
Ung among the alain. According to one 
HMOBt, King Mslxxtlm sent a boat to con- 
nj the OOTMO to Icolmkill, where it was 
Wned at tns royal expense, but according 
to aaotber account it was buried in the 
tiveh of Sadall in EinlTTe, where fiegi- 
sald, tbe son of Somerled, afterwards erected 

■ OHHiasteiy. According to Celtic tradition, 
wUls a eon at OiUecolm became supedor of 
Aig;Il,tlM iaUa w«fe divided among nis other 
■face tima, Dngall, B^inald, and Angus. 

PAnsiea da Mwlroe, and Chroaicon Ccenabii 
MrtB Craria Edinborgeiuris in the Bannatjna 
(M ; Ctuvoiele of Han, ad. Unnch ; Wjntoun's 
Chnoiela; Skane'a CelUs SaotlAiidi dngnifa 
Smotj of tha Wostam Highland*.] T. F. H. 

EUUMEB8. CHAHLES (1827-1878), 
Kolptot, BOB of Qeorge Summers, a mason, 
m bom at East (^tarlton, Somerset, on 
IT Joly ISS7. One of his brothers attamed 
■n ec tss aa a masician. Charles received 
little education, but showed early talent for 
toriiing portraits. While employed at 
VcstOD-sopei^MaTe on the erection of a 
BuoHait be attracted tbe attention of 
HsBif Weekss [q. v.], who took bim into 
b itadio and gave him his first lessons in 
■ndaUiag. Be also received leesons from 
Haignve Lewthwaite Watson [q.v.], and 
*•• em^yed after that artist's death in 
enpleUng the immense group of Eldon and 
SMril now in the libraiy of University 
Cdsge, Oxford. In 1850 he won the silver 
Mu of tha Boyal Academy, and in 1851 



, 'Mercy interceding 

tbe gold medal for a niei 
for the Vanqnisbed. 

In 1853 Summers went out to Australia 
as a gold-dig^r at Tum^ulla, Victoria, but, 
meeting with no success, he obtained em- 
ployment as a modeller in connection with 
tbe Victorian houses of parliament, then in 
course of erection, and began work at his 
old art in Melbourne, where be gradually 
made progress. He was selected in 1864 for 
tbe important task of designing the memo- 
ri^ to Burke and Wills which now stands 
at the comer of Bussel and Collins Street, 
Melbourne; the group was in bronce, in 
which be had never worked before, so that 
his success was the more remsrknble. 

In 1866 Summers returned to England, 
and from that time exhibited regularly in 
the Boyal Academy. In 1876 be executed 
statues of the quecu, the prince consort, 
and the Prince and Princess of Wales for tbe 
public liijrary at Melbourne. He resided 
chiefly at Rome. He died on 30 Nov. 1878 
at Paris, and was buried at Rome. He was 
married and left one son, an artist. 

[Thomas'a Hsro of tbe Worlahop ; Melbonron 
Ai^ns, I Dec 1878 ; Mflnnells Diet, of Anstnv 
lasiao Biography.] C A. H. 

SUMMERS, Sib GEORGE (1654-1610), 
virtual discoverer of tbe Bermudas. [See 
Sou BUS,] 

SUMMERS, WILLIAM (d. 1560), 
Henry VIlI's fool. [See Sommebs.} 

(1790-1874), bishop of Winchester, bom at 
kenilworth on 22 Nov. 1790, was third son 
of the Rev. Robert Sumner, vicar of Kenil- 
worth and Stondeigh, Warwickshire {d. 
9 Oct. "■"-"" ■ " " " ■ '■ - 

Sumner [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, 
was his elder brother. 

Charles Richard was educated by his father 
at home until June 1602, when he was sent 
to Eton as an oppidan. In 1804 be obtained 
a place on the loundation, and remained at 
Eton until 1600, during which time he made 
many iriends destined to be well known in 
af^ryears. Amongthem were Dr, Lonsdale. 
bishop of Licbfleld, Dean Milmon, and Sir 
John Tajlor Coleridge. While at Eton be 
wrote B senastionsl nnvol, ' The White Nnn : 
or the Block Bog of Dromore,' which he sold 
for 6t to IngoJton, the local bookseller. It 
was issued as by 'a young gentleman of 
Note,' the publisher eiplainingto the author 
that every one would see that ' note ' was 
' Eton ' spelt backwards. 

There were but two vacanciee at King's 


Sumner n 

College, Cunbridge, dnring: 1809-10, uid in 
the Utter year Simmer was Hupennanated, 
having previously been elected Davia's 
scholar. He wu consequently entered at 
Trinity College, CambridBe, on 17 Feb. 1810, 
and then went to Sod bergh for a few months to 
read malJiemsticswithapopulaTtutor called 
John DawBon, after trhich he made a abort 
tour in the Lakes, calling on Ooieridire and 
"Wordsworth. He matnculat^d on 13 No*. 
1810, and was admitted scholar on 10 April 
1612. He graduated B. A. in 1814 and M. A. 
in 1817. On 5 June 1814 he was ordained 
deacon, and on 3 Harch 1S17 priest. At 
Cambridge he was the last secretary of the 
'SpeculatiTe' Society, afterwards mei^ed 
in the body known as the ' Union.' 

In the summer of 1814 Sumner accom- 
panied Lord Monnt^Cbarles (who had been 
a fellow undergraduate at Trinity College), 
end Lord Francis Nathaniel Conynghsm, 
theeldestand second sons of Marquis Oonyng- 
ham, through Flanders and by the Rhine to 
Geneva, where he unexpectedly met J. T. 
Coleridge ; Coleridge introduced them to 
J. P. Maunoir, M.I)., pTofessor of suigerf 
in the college of that city. The profeasor'e 
wife was an English lady, and to the eldest 
of their three daughtera, Jennie Fanny Bar- 
nabine, Sumner became engaged in January 
1816. Ooasip asserted that be took this step 
« forestall similar action on the part of the 
" ' ' ' '' vhose father secured 

n the church by way 
of thowinghisgratitude. Daring the winter 
months of 18f4-]6 and the autumn and 
winter of 1816-16 he ministered to the Eng- 
Ibh congregation at Qensva. On S4 Jon. 
1816hemarriedMissMaanoir at the English 
chapel of Geneva. From September 1816 
tc 1621 Sumner served as curate of High- 
clere, Hampshire, and took pupils, Lord 
Albert Conyngham and Frederick Oakeley 
being among them. 

In 1820 Sumner was introduced by the 
Conynghama to George IV at Brighton, 
where Le dtnad with the king, and twlbed 
with him afturwards for three houra. His 
handsome presence, dignified manners, and 
tact made a most favourable impression. In 
April of the following year George, without 
waiting for the approval of Lord Liverpool, 
the pnme minister, announced to Sumner 
that he intended to promote him to a vacant 
canoniT at Windsor. The prime minister 
refused to sanction the appointment, and an 
angry correspondenoe took place betweenking 
And minister (YOHaBjXi^c of Lord Liverpool, 
iii. 161-4). For a time it seemed as it the 
offer of this desirable preferment to the young 
tantB might joopardiae the life ot the 

6 Sumner 

ministry, but George IV reluctantly gave n ay. 
A compromise was effected. The canonry 
was given to Dr. James Stonier Clarke 
[q. v.j, and Sumner aucceeded to all Ctark^a 
appomtmeuts. These included the posts of 
historiorrapher to thecrown, chaplain to the 
househmd at Carlton House, and librarian 
to the king, and Gteorge IV also made him 
his private chaplain at Windsor, with a 
sala^ of 3001. a year, ' and a capital house 
opposite the park gates,' Other promotions 
foUowed in quick succesaioo. From Septem- 
ber 1821 to Uarch 1833 (in 1822 his first and 
last aermons in the church were published 
in one volume) he was vicar of St. Helen|», 
Abingdon { he held the second cononn in 
Worcester Cathedral from 11 Marti 1823 
to 27 June 1825, and from the last date to 
16 June 1837 he was the second canon at 
Canterbury. Hebecamechaplaininordinaiy 
to the king on 8 Jan. 1833, and deputy 
derk of the closet on 26 March 1824. In 
January 1834 the new see of Jamaica was 
offered to him, but Qeoi^ IV refused to 
sanction hia leaving England, asserting that 
he wished Sumner to be with him in the 
hour of death, and in Julr 1826 be took at 
Cambridge, by the king^ command, the 
degree of D.D. On 27 Dec 1824 he was with 
Lord Mount-Charles when he died at Nioe. 
On 21 May 1826 Sumner was consecrated 
at Lambeth as bishop of Llandaff, and in 
consequence of the poverty of the see be held 
with It the deanery of St. Paul's (26 April 
1836), and the prebendel stall of Portoools 
(27 Ai>Til 1826). Within a year he made his 
firet viutation of the diocese. When die 
rich bishopric of Winchester became vacant 
in 1827 by the death of Dr. Tomline, the 
king hastened to bestow it upon Sumner, 
remarking that this time he had determined 
that the see should be filled bya gentleman. 
Sumner was confirmed in the possession of 
the bishopric on 12 Dec 1827, and ne«t day 
was sworn in as prelate of the order of the 
Garter. He was just 37 years old when he 
became the head of that enormous diocese, 
with its vast revenues and its magnificent 

Though he opposed the Beform Bill inl833, 
the strong tory viewawhich he held in early 
life were soon modified. He vot«d fbr the 
Roman Catholic Relief Bill of 1829 (a step 
which he re^tted later), with the result 
that he forfeited the affection of George IV, 
and another prelate was summoned to at- 
tend the kings deathbed (Sottthbt, in Lt^ 
Uri tifLoMe PoeU to Stuart, p. 427). 

One of the first acts of Sumner as bishop 
of Winchester was to purdiaae with thef unds 
of the see a town house in St. Jamee'e Square, 





ueae «ett of qaenea 
cleroy of the diocese to 
don nsTiii^ been obtained 
IB Ibat my since 1788, and in Aa^ruit and 
B^tanber 1839 be made hia first viaitation 
tt the oanutiea under bis cbai^. He pressed 
ratn the clei^ the neoessity of providing 
tatOtiU for the poor, pleaded vitli landlords 
fbr tiie proriaion of better booaes for tb^ 
tnsBts, and protested against tradinr on 
Sndsjv. Durintf bis occupation of the 
Mt^rie vS 'Wiacuster he made ten Tisita- 
tioM, the last being in October and November 
ISn, sad he twice inoed a ■ Conspectus' of 
ibdioeeM (1864 and 1864). By 1807 there 
VMS 747 permanent or temporarj churches 
k ike dioeese, SOt being new and additional, 
nd 119 Iw^ing been rebuilt since 1829. 
Dvtag the SMne period there bad been pro- 

^pabiaa formed into separate benefices, 
■■ooDted to SIO, while nearly every tiviog 
hid been snppUed with ■ panonage-house. 
He prored tumself ut admirable admini- 

Samner's mtmiflcence and energy were 
bsfmd naise. His revenueH were great, 
bit kit liberality was equal to them. In 
I8S7 be formed « ehnrcb bnildins society for 
the dioceM, in 184€ he instituted a ' South- 
wnk fimd for achoob and choiches,' and in 
1660 1m set on foot the 'Surrey Ghnich 
AModation.' When the lease for tivee of the 
Gontbwark Park estate lapsed in the summer 
tf 1883, he refoaed to renew it, and entered 
iato Begotiatims with the ecclesiastical corn* 
usioners. They bought out bis rights for 
t capital som of lS,370i., and for en annuity 
tt i^OOt. daring the tona of his episcopate. 
Iha whole of this sum, both capital and 
■enme, he placed in the hands of the two 
■nlwWtmii and the chancellor of the dio- 
MM Idc the pnrpoee of angmenting poor 
bsHAees. It altimately amounted to 84,gO(M. 

Tbe rviigions Tiews of Sumner ware evan- 
plical, and most of the preferments in his 
pft were conferred upon members of that 
(arty. Bathe bestowed considerable patron- 
•pifm Samuel Wilberforce, who succeeded 
ha ta the see, and he eonferred a living 
<■ George Hoberly, afterwards bishop w 
MJibuTT. He wptnntmeut of Dr. Hamp- 
fa to the see of Hereford was not approved 
rf by him, and he wrtta vehement against the 
*Biaa of the pope in 1860 in eatablishing 
tohf u ii ic s in England. He was attAched in 
IM as being loSemtrm over the revival of 

nnualiuu. Thoogh he stnmglj^ opposed 

h maUiabnisnt of the ecclesiastical com- 

* a, he loyally aided in carrying out its 

designs, and £rom I806 to 1864 was a member 
of its church estates committee. 

The bishop was seized with a paralytic 
strobe on 4 March 1868, and in August 1869 
he sent to the prime minister the resignation 
of his see. John Moultrie [q. v.} addressed 
some lines to him on this event, beginaiug, 
' Last of our old prince bishops, fere thee well. 
He took a smillBr peiuion from the revenues 
of the see than he might have claimed, and 
an order in council continued to him the 
poBseesion of Famham Castle as his residence 
tor life. He died there on 16 Aug. 1674, and 
was buried on 21 Aug. in the vault by the 
side of his wife under the churchyaid of 
Hale, where he had built the church at hia 
own cost. Hia wife was bom on 2S Feb. 
1794, and died at Farnham Castle on 8 Sept. 
1849. They hod iaaue four aona and three 

To Sumner was entrusted the editing of 
the manuscript treatise in Latin of the two 
hooka of John Milton, ' De Doctrina Ciiris- 
tiana,* discovered by Robert Lemon (1779- 
1636) [q. v.] in the state paper office in 1823. 
By the command of George IV it was pub- 
liuied in 183S, one volume beingthe original 
Latin edited by Sumner, and another con- 
aisting of an English translation by him, 
WiUiam Sidney Walker [q.v.], then a re- 
sident at Cambridge, vhere the work was 
printed, superintended the passing of the 
work through the press. In this task he 
took upon himself to revise 'not only the 
printer's, but the translator's labour' (Moui^ 
TMH, Memoir of Walktr, 1852, p. lixviii ; 
KnSHT, Patmga frma a Working Life, ii, 
29-Sl), Macaulav highly praised the work 
in the 'Edinburgh Review,' August 1826 
( Work*, ed, 1871, v. 2). The Latin version 
was reprinted atBrunawickin 1827, and the 
English rendering was raissued at Boston 
(United States) in 1826, in two volumea. 

Sumner published many chflrges and ser- 
mona, as well as a volume entitled ' The 
Ministerial Character of Christ practically 
considered' (London, 1824, 8to). It was an 
expansion of lectures which he bad delivered 
beloce Geoi^ IV in the cbapel at Cumber- 
land Lodge, and it passed through two edi- 
tions. Bernard Barton [q. v.] dedicated to 
him in December 1828 his ' New Year's Eve,' 
for which he was quizzed by Charles Lamb 
{Lettert, ed. Ainger, ii. 21 0), and visited him 
at Famham Cattle in 1344, The world in- 
sisted on identifying Sumner with Bishop 
Solway in Mrs. TroUope's novel of 'The 
Three Cousins,' but she had no knowledge 
of him (Xift ofMn. TroUojje, ii. 79). 

Sumner H portrait was painted in 1883 by 
Sir Martin Archer Shee; it was presented 



by hiB fftmilj to the diiMMse, and now hangs 
in the noble hall at Farnham. An engniT- 
inff of it was made b; Sunuel Cousins in 
1^. At the request of the authorities of 
Eton College he sat for the poTtrait, which 
is presenea in the college hall. A print of 
him drawn on stone by C. Banraiet is dated 

[A Life of Sumner was published by hii 
son, G»or^ Eenrf Bumnsr, in 1B7S; et. Le 
Kbto's Fnsti. i. 49. ii. 261, 317, 439, iii. 31, 81 ; 
Stapjlton's Eton Liits, p. 42 : Lady GhrsDTilla'i 
Letters, i. SfiS ; Burke's landed Qantn; Fos- 
t«c's Alanrni Oioa. ; Qent. Hng. IBOSu. 1066, 
1817 i- 108; Times, 17 and 18 Aug. 1874; 
Oitardian, 19 and 26 Aug. 1874 ; Pennington's 
Befnllections, pp. 149-6^; Ashvell and Wil- 
berfotce's Bishop Wilberforce, i. 65-82,103-4, 
ifiO, 160, 263-4, S17, 401, ii. 248, iii. 61-2; 
Lneas'a Bernard Barton, pp. 108-9, 161; in- 
rormation from Hi. W. AldiaWrigbt.1 

vr. P. C. 

SUMNER, JOHN BIRD (1780-1863), 
archbishop of Canterbury, eldest son of the 
Bev. Robert Sumner, and brother of Bishop 
Charles Richard Sumner [q. v.], was bom at 
Kenilworth on 25 Feb. 1760. He was edu- 
cated at Eton from 1791 to 1798, when he 
OToceeded, being the first of his year, to 
King's College, Cambrid)^. He was elected 
scholar {5 Nov. 1798) and fellow (5 Nov. 
1801). In the second quarter of his residence 
at Cambridge he was nominated to a ' King's 
Betbam Bcbolarship,' and held tt until 1603. 
In 1800 be won tbe Browne medal for the 
best lAtin ode, the sal^ct bdng ' Hysorei 
Tyranni Mors,' and he was Huliean priseman 
in 1802. He graduated B.A. in 1803, M.A. 
in 1607, and D.D. in I8Sa 

In 1802 Sumner retunted to Eton asassie- 
tant master, and in 180S he was ordained 
by John Douglas, bishop of Salisbury. On 
31 March 1803 be married at Bath Marianne, 
'daughter of George Robertson of Edin- 
burgh,' a captain in tbe navy, and Bl«t«r of 
Thomas Campbell Koberteon [q.T,] (Gent. 
Afoji- 1803, i. 380). He thuBTaeal«dhifl fel- 
lowship at King's Colle^, but be was elected 
to a fellowship at Eton in 1817, and in the 
following year was nominated by the college 
to the valuable living of Mapledurham, on 
the banks of the Thames, in Oxfordshire. 
Through the favour of Sbute Harrington 
[q. v.], tbe bishop of the diocese, he was ap- 
pointed in 1820 to the ninth prebendal stall 
m Durham Cathedral. In 1836 be succeeded 
to the more lucrative preferment of the fifth 
■tall, and from 1827 to 1846 he held the 
tecond stall, which was still better endowed, 
in that cathedral. Bishop Phillpotts, bis 
eontempoTUy and opponent, had previously 



held the ninth and the second canonryat 

From 1816 to 1828 Snmner publiehad a 
number of volumes <hi theological sulyecta. 
which enjoyed much popularity, and were 
held to reflect the best traits in the teaching 
of the evangelical party within tbe church 
of England. The soundness of Bumner'a 
theological views, combined with his ripe 
•cholarship and his discretion in speech and 
action, marked him ont for elevation to the 
episcoiml bench. He was also aided in his 
rise by the influence of his brother, at whose 
oonsecration at Lambeth on 21 May 18S6 he 
preached the sermon. In 1827 he declined 
the offer of the see of Sodor and Man ; but, 
on the promotion of Bishop Blomfield, he 
accented in the next year the nomination by 
the Duke of Wellington to the bishopric of 
Cheater. He was consecrated at Bishoqp- 
thorpe on 14 Sept. 1828, the second of the 
oonsecntors being his brother. Though he 
was known to be opposed to any eoncessiona 
to the Bomon catJiolics, and had bean ap- 
pointed to his see by the Duke of WellingUm 
partly on tbe ground of bis ant ipathy to meir 
claims, he voted, as did his brother, for the 
repeal of the diaabilities which pressed upon 
them. He then addressed a circular letter 
to his clergy in vindication of hia vote. He 
voted in favour of the second reading of the 
Kefonn Bill (13 April 1832), and he was on 
thepooT-law commission of 1834. 

The enenrgy of the new bishop soon made 
itself felt Uuonghoat tbe (then undivided) 
diocese of Chester. He was inde&tiffable in 
obtaining the erection of more churcnes and 
the provisiou of schools, and by 1847 hod 
consecrated more than two hundred new 
churches. A remarkable tribute to hia eeal 
was paid in the House of Commons on 6 Ma; 
1648 b]f Sir Robert Peel, when introdncing 
his resolutions for the constitution and en- 
dowment of Peel' district* in parishes where 
the population was in excess of church ac- 
commodation (ifariMriJ, Izviii. 1287). The 
charges which Sumner delivered at the visi- 
Mticns of his diocese in 1629, 1632, 1835, 
and 1888 were niblishsd in one volume in 
1639, and five edidons were sold. 

Tbe leader of the tory party had selected 
Sumner for the see of Chester. The arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury became vacant on 
11 Feb. 1848 by the death of Dr. Howley, 
and Snmner was chosen by I.ord John 
Russell, the premier of the whig government, 
to succeed to the Tsoont place. Ha waa 
confirmed at Bow church on 10 March, 
and enthroned at Canterbuiy Cathedral on 
28 April 1848. Despite the strength of hii 
evangelical aouviotions, ha acted upon them 




witbotttanjr prepadice to opponents or any 
udne biu t« mends. His Tnoderstion in 
Uoe nude liiin at timea euepacted of a want 
of Knonb. Bishop Wilbeiforce spoke of 
Ufifcedi at the Huuion House forn church 
mocct u ' like bimeeU, good, gentle, loving, 
ud weak' (Xire,ii. 246). 

Samaer 'deudedty repudJAtad' tbeBsiiiip- 
toa leetorM of St. Hampden, but he declined 
to nrtidp&te in tlie action of seTeral of the 
bi^op* in prot«etiiig against the doctor's ap- 

Sbsent to the see of Hereford, and his 
public act, as primate, was to take the 
ktifii^piaceiatbeconsecration of Hampden. 
Hkascimd action wa« to preside at theopen- 
ivof 3t. Augnstine'a College at Canteiburj, 
vfcich had recently been purchased and re- 
Hcnd by Alexander James Beiesford-Hope 

S' . T.] as a coll^ for misBionary cler^, 
J cheae acts he illuBtTated the impaitiality 
•d his attitude to the two groat parties in 
lit ehureh of England. 

Daring tKe period from 1847 to 18S1 the 
dBrch irf EngUnd was rent in twain by tbs 
dinitea arez the refusal of Dr. Phillpotte, 
Inuop of Exeter, to institute the Bev. George 
Condim Gorbam [q. tJ to the yicsrage 
of Btampfliwd-Spdce m I^vonshire, on the 
pound tliat his views on baptismal regene- 
lUioD wvre not in agreement with thoae of 
the Baglish church. The case came before 
tlu pirj council, when the archbishops of 
CiBteibnry and Tork concurred in the ludg- 
Bnt by which it was 'determined that a 
donnian of the church of England need 
oxbelieTe in baptismal regeneration.' This 
jadgnent led to toeseceeeion from thechondi 
'i ntmy of the leading members, both lay 
ad derical, of the high-church party, and 
R prorcfted the pablieation by the bishop of 
EotiT of his celebnit«d letter to the arch- 
Wfcop, which irent through twenty- one 
e£ti«tu. In this vigoroas protest the bisht^ 
niHwtratad agninst the action of the pn- 
■■te in supporting heresy in the church, 
ui declined any further communion with 
^ bat announced bis intention of praying 
tn Idm as ' an affectionate friend for nearly 
t^j years, and your now afflicted servant.' 

Th archbishop w^s & oonaistent opponent 
if tlu toll for remo'vinK Jewish disabilities, 
nd of that for legnlismg marriage with a 
^WMsed wife's aiat^. He supported the 
pifoMk for a <x>mpromise on the vexed 
qxatioa of church rates, and was favourable 
'o tke pasn'ng of the divorce bill, but t»- 
■ited »D measurea for alterioK the language 
^ tbs payer-book. On 12 Nov. 1853 con- 
■WtioD met for the first time for 135 years 
b th« despatch of bnainess. The upper 
^NK WIS under his presidency. 

The archbishop was taken ill in May 1661, 
but recovered. He was one of the commie- 
sioners at the opening of the exhibition on 
1 May 1662, and the fatigue of the proceed- 
ings proved too great a strain for his en- 
feebled frame. He died at Addington on 
6 Sept. 1863. A kindly messM^e was sent to 
him on his deathbed by Dr. PhiUpotta, and 
warmly reciprocated (SuifirEB,£i/i9 0/£MA(>p 
Sumner, pp. 333-4_). He was buned with 
extreme simplicity in Addington churchyard 
on 12 Sept. The archbishop, two daughters, 
and some other relatives are interred at the 
north-east comer of the churchyard. His 
wife died at the Manor House,Wandsworth, 
on 22 March 1829. Two sons and several 
daughters survived him. 

Sumner's works comprise ! 1. ' Apostolical 
Preaching considered in an Examination of 
St. Paul's Epistles,' 181S (anonymous) ; it 
was reissued, with the author's name, in 
1817, after being corrected and enlaived. 
and passed into a ninth edition in 1850. 
A French translation from that edition was 
publUhed at Paris in 1866. On4Aug.iei6 
Sumner won the second priie, amounting to 
400;., of John Burnett (1729-1784) [q. v.], 
for a dissertation on the Deitv. It was en- 
titled ; 2. ' A Treatise on the ttecords of the 
Creation and the Moral Attributes of the 
Creator' (1816, 2 vols.), and seven editions 
of it were sold. Ho rested his principal 
evidence of the exist«nce of the Creator upon 
the credibilitv of the Mosaic records of the 
creation, ana accepted the conclusions of 
geological science as understood in 1816 
(Omt. 9faff.lB15,iul65; Quarterly JSeview, 
xvi. 87-«9). Sir Charles Ljell afterwards 
appealed to it in proof that revelation and 
geology are not necessarily discordant forces. 

3. ' A Series of Sermons on the Christian 
Faith and Character,' 1821 ; 0th edit. 1837. 

4. ' The Evidence of Christianity derived 
from its Nature and Reception,' 1824, in 
which he contended that the Christian roli- 

fion would not have preserved its vitality 
ad it not been introduced by divine autho- 
rity ; a new edition, prompted by the appear- 
ance of ' Essays ana Reviews,' came out in 
1861. 6. 'Sermons on the principal Festivab 
of the Church, with three Sermons on Good 
Friday,' 1827; 4th edit. 1831. 6. 'Four 
Sermons on Sul^ects relating to the Christian 
Ministry,' 1828; reissued in 1860 as an ap- 
pendix to the ninth edition of ' Apostolical 
Preaching.' 7. ' Christian Charity : its Obli- 
gations and Objects,' 1841. 

Between 1831 and 1851 Sumner issued ft 
aeries of volumes of 'Practical Expositions' 
on the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, 
and the epistles in the New Testament, 



Sumner 15 

Many editions were sold, and in 1849, 1660, 
and 1861 the Rev. Geoif^ WUiinson pub- 
liihed selections from tliem in four Tolumm. 
Sumner himself iMued in 1869 aBummarjin 
' Practical Reflectiona on Select Faeeages of 
the New Testament.' He contribnted to the 
' Enc;clopcedia Britannica' (Suppl. 1824, 
vol. vi.) an article on the poor laws, and to 
Cbariea Knight's serial, 'The Plain English- 

in* (KinsHT, PoMagei from a WorMng 

fe, i. 193, S47); and he was the author 
many single aermons, speeches, and 

A portrait of the archbishop hangs in the 
hallof UuiTeT8it^ColIege,Du»iem; anothei, 
in his convocation robes, b^ Eddisj is at 
Lambeth; of this a rephca is in the 
hall at King's College, Cambridge. A 
portrait, by Margaret Oarpenter, was on- 
graved bv Samuel Cousins in 1839. A later 
portrait by the same artist was engraTed bj 
T. Richardson Jackson. Francis Holl exe- 
cuted an engraving of another portrait of 
him bj Oeorge Richmond. A recumbent 
effigy by H. Weekes, E.A., is in the nave of 
Canterbury' Cathedral. 

[Q«iit. Mag. 1329, i. 383 ; La TTeve's Fasti, i. 
81, iii. 363, 310, S13, 317; Stapjlton's Eton 
ijBts, p. 6; SaniDsr'H Bishop Samner. pp. 403- 
404; Times, 8 Sept. 18S2 pp. 8, 12, IS Sapt. 
1362 p. 8 ; GnardisD, 10 Sept. I BS2, Snppletnsnt, 
and 17 Sept. IBS3 p. 883 ; Life of Bishop Blom- 
field, w. 126-7; AbHwoII and Wilberforco's 
BiahopWlIberforce, pouim; informatioafiomthe 
ProTOst of Eing'i Collega, Combiidge.] 

W, P, C. 

1771), master of Harrow, bom on 9 March 
1728-9 at Windsor, was grandson of a Bristol 
merchant and nephew ofJohn Sumner, canon 
of Windsor and head master of Eton College. 
Robert was educated at Eton College and at 
King's College, Cambridge, where he was ad- 
mitted a scholar on 18 Dee. 1747 and a fellow 
on 28 Dec. 1750, graduating B.A. in 1763, 
and proceeding MiA. in 1766. He became 
oatdstaut master at Eton in 1761, and after- 
wards master at Harrow, On 3 Aug. 1760 
he married a sister of William Arden 'of 
Eton,' a scholar of King's College. In con- 
sequence of his marriage he vacated his 
fellowship. In 1768 he obtained the degree 
of D.D., and, dying on 12 Sept. 1771, was 
buried in Harrow church. He was the 
friend of Dr. Johnson and the mast«r of Dr. 
Parr and Sir WiUiam Jones, both of whom 
in later years celebrated his praises (Fibld, 
Zjft of Parr, i. 16-18; JovSB, Poe*eo» 
Amaiica Commentariarum ZUri, p. t). He 

fubliehed 'Concio ad Clerum' (London, 
768, 4to), which Pur declared equal in 

o Sundon 

point of latinitj to onv composition by vdj 
of his countryman in the century. 

[Harvood's Alnmoi Btonenses, p. 334 ; Qiad. 
Cantabr. 1S60-1786, p. 875; Qent. Hag. ITSO 
p. 391, 1326 1. 388; Regitters of Eton College 
and King's College.j £. L 0. 

SUNDERLAND, Eutu or. {Bern 
Sfbncbk, Robebt, second earl, 1640-1702} 
SrsHCHB, Ghaslbb, third earl, 1674-1723.] 

SUNB£RLIN, Lord. {See under 
UtLONB, Bdhund, 1741-1812, critic and 

Last {d. 1742), woman of the bedchamber 
to Queen Caroline, was granddaughter of Sir 
Lewis Dyve [q-vj of Bromham,BodfordBhito, 
and daughter of Sir Lewis's youngest son 
John, who married, in 1678, Frances, third 
daugliter of Sir Robert Wolseley of Wolselmr, 
Staffordshire. John Dyve was clerk of the 
privy council inl691,anddiedin the follow- 
ing year; his widow died in 1702, and both 
were bimed at St. James's, Westminster 
(W. M. Habvbi, Bundred qf Willey, pp. 44 

Before the end of Queen Anne's reign 
their daughter, Charlotte Djt^, married « 
Bedfordshire gentleman of family and fortune, 
"William CUyton (1672 P-1762) of Sundon 
Hall, afterwards Baron Sundon of Ardseh 
in the Irish peerage. He was M.P. tor 
Liverpool from 1698 to 1707, and &)m 1713 
to 1716. Afterwards he was M.P. for New 
Woodstock (1716-22) and St. AlbanB(1722- 
1727), by the influence of the Duke of Marl- 
borough, and for Westminster (1737-41), 
Plympton Earl (1742-47), and St. Mawea 
(1747-53). In 1718 he was deputy auditor 
of the exchequer, and he became a lord of the 
treasury in 1718 {Gtnt. Mag. 1762, p. 240). 

In 1713, when the Duke of Marlboroiigh 
left England, Clayton, a confidential friend, 
was appointed one of the managers of the 
duke's estates, and afterwards he was an 
executor. On the accession of Gbor^p I and 
the return of the whigs to ofBce in 1714 
Mrs. Clayton was appointod, through the in- 
fluence of her Ariend and correspondent, the 
Duchess of Marlborough, bedchamber woman 
to Caroline of Anspach, now Princess of 
Wales. Lady Cowper, another lady of the 
bedchamber to the princess, was soon on 
terms of great intimacy, and sought to turn 
her influence to account in behalf of Mrs, 
Clayton's husband. Mrs. Clayton obtained 
much influence over her royal mistress (Diary 
of Mary, Cowatem Oowper, psssim). Sir 
Robert Walpole, who was constantly in oppo- 
sition to Mrs. Clayton, said that her as- 
cendency over the nincess of Wales was due 


Sundon i 

to ier knowledge of the secret that her mis- 
mu nifved Uom a. rapture ; but the falsity 
<f cIm ttary ii shown bj the hct that there 
««ino*ynptoiiis of the trouble until 1724, 
ilMn Mm. Cutytou h^d been in the princess's 
bTNt for tan yean (Lokd Hbbtbt, Memoir* 
If tk StigH <f Qeorgt II, i. 90, iii. 810). 
iaoiSag to Walpole ehe accepted from her 
iiad, the Coontess of Pom&et [see Febkor, 
HnuEiTA Louisa], a pair of eanings worth 
liUOL to obtain for Lord Pomfret the post 
id auttr of the horse (Walpolb, Letter*, 
nL i pp. czli, 1 16). The princess's attach- 
ihM to eleT^jmen whom Walpole held to 
b« heterodox waa attributed byliim to Mrs. 
QiTtai'i influence. Benjamin Hoadlyfq.T.], 
iftetwardatHafaop of Winchester, Dr. Alured 
aiifa(1696-1742)rq.T.iDT.8amDel Clarke 
(Je7i-I729) [q. T-I and Robert Clayton 
(|. T.^ bi»b^ of KillaU, a Idnsman of her 
iMUiid,wet«amoBgMrs. Clayton's greatest 
6icub. Among literary men to whom she 
ihrntd sttentioDS were Stephen Duch [q.T.], 
SMle (Amnr, Life of MAard Steele, ii. 
71, 138, 297), Bichard Savage [q.v.]. ^^ 
VUtaiitt,who thanked her for her kindness 
wUe fas was in England. 

lange a* Bwoa Sundon of Ardagb. Lord 
oodaa always Mded with the court party 
is fariisinent, and hia candidature tot West- 
uMcr in 1741 resulted in a riot, in which 
Us hb WM endangered. The high baiUff 
tMt the nnnauki step of auinnioning the 
■ifitMT to his aid, and this, upon the re- 
■iMiililiiin of parliament, enabled the oppo- 
•iciM to £•! K Buccessfal blow at Walpole. 
Wilpole said that Lord Carteret had in 17S6 
(foed two canals to the queen's ear, Bishop 
!Moek and His. 01ayU>n, but hoped to 
invBit either of them injuring him (Lobd 
Ham, Memoirm, ii 128). U is stated in 
>h lewspapcn of the day that Lady Sundon 
nEtccdcd Lady Sofiblk as misttesBofthe robes 
ii K» 1736; bat this all<f^ promotion, 
tkotthperiiaiiacontemplstediwas not carried 
fW (A a. a^ 886, iii. 300). WhenWal- 
fit band that the queen would make a 
'A.allj about Hadame Wslmoden, the mis- 
t«l«f Oeoige II, bun^ brought to England, 
W Md it was ' tbos« bitches, Lady Pomfiret 
■flddy Sundon,' who were influencing their 
■■LLsi^in Older to make theor court to her, 
Wa^iJe told kis son Horace that Lady 
^da«,in tlwendinsiaatn of herTanity,lisd 
F*fOMd that tbey should unite and govern 
Ac hincdani f^sther. Wslpole bowed, 
|BKd bar patnmsge, but said be knew 
■■H; fit to g u rma the kingdom but the 
%*«l4|iieaB(WAU0U,£e«cn,L 116). 

I Sunman 

Lady Sundon was very ill at Bath in 1737, 
durii^ the queen's fatal illness; but Walpole 
associated Caroluie's refusal to Teceive the 
sacrament to the influence over her of Lady 
Bundonand 'the less believing clergy' whose 
cause she espoused (Lobd Hbhtht, Jtf emtnrt, 
ii.ll3,281,iii. 800, 333). After the queen's 
death Lady Sundon was pensioned. In 1738 
she was reported to be dragging on a mise- 
rable life, with a ' cancerous humour in her 
throat' (Ladx M. W. Uokiasu, Letteri, ii, 
37, 56). She died on 1 Jan. 1743. Her 
husband survived her for ten years (see 
Walpolb, Letter*, i. 114). 

Though most of Lady Sundon'e corre* 
spondsnts Battered and fawned, in the hope 
oi obtaining favours through her influence, 
it is clear that some of them were real friends. 
Hoadlj Bpeakaof her sincerity and goodness; 
Lord Bristol said she was ' a simple woman, 
and talked accordingly ' (Nichom, Lit. Aveod, 
T. 87, iz. 69S). Horace Walpole calls her 
'an absurd, pompous simpleton' (Letterf, i. 

S. (Azx, cxxiii), Herrey's verdiot is on 
9 whole extremely favourable. She de- 
spised, he says, the dirty company surround' 
ing bei, and had not hypocri^ enough to tell 
them they were white and clean. She took 
great pleasure in dcring good, often forpersona 
who could not repay her. Mrs. Howard 
and Lady Sundon hated each other 'very 
civilly and very heartily' (Jlf«noir»,i. 89-91). 

A number of letters addressed to Lady 
Sundon from 1714 by aspirants to heifavour 
are in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 
20102-6, 80616) ; many are printed in Mrs. 
Thomson's ' Memoirs of Viscountess Sundon, 
Mistress of the Robes to Queen Caroline,' 9 
vols. 1847. This title is typical of the general 
inaconraoyofthework; for Lady Sundon waa 
neither a viscoontess nor mistress of the 
robes. Lady Sundon was notfoud of letter^ 
writing, but one letter to the Duchess of 
Leeds is in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS.S8061, f.804). 

There are portraits after Kneller of Lord 
and Lady Sundon, with an inscription stating 
that they were presented in 1728 bv Mis. 
Clayton to Dr. Freind, who had attended her 
husband in a dangeiousillness. There is also 
a whole-length portrait of Lady Sundon on 
Lord Iloheeter's staircase at Melbury (Hak- 
THI, Mtmdred of WiOey, p. 109). 

[WoAs mted ; Fopa'sWorks, tii. 338, viil. 800 ;; Baker'sNorUi- 
amptoD, i. 82, 160, 163, I6B, iL 364 ; I?80db's 
Ha«na Brit. i. SI ; Blayda'a Geoealogia Bed- 
fbrdieniiB, pp. £5-7. 3fi7.] 6. A. A. 

(d. 1708), portrait-painter, waa (»ie of the 
Netherlaiid artists who followed Sir Peter 


Surenne »: 

Let^ into England. After tlie death of Lely 

lie obtained permission to paint the king's 
portrutfbut, the work of John Riley [q. v.] 
being praferred to his, he retired to O^rd, 
where ne found constant employment ; there 
be always resided during term tune, spending 
the Teat of the year in London. He was com- 
missioned bf the uniTersitf authorities to 
paint the senea of portraits of foondera now 
nune; in ' Duke Humphrey's ' library in the 
Bodleian. All the portraits are imaginary, 
' John Balliol' beinv that of a blacksmith, 
and ' DoTorffuilla ' uiat of Jenny Seeks, an 
Oxford apothecary's pretty daughter { 
niana, iii. 16, 16). At Wadham there U a 
portrait of a college serrant named Mary 
Oeoi^, aged 130, which was punted and 
presented by him. Sunman's portrait of 
Itobert Monson [q. t.], the botaniat, was en- 
graved by Robert White as a front iapiece 
to his ' Pkntarum Hiatoria Universalis Oxo- 
niensis,' 1660, for many of the plates in 
which work SonmanalHo made the drawings. 
He died in Greek Street, Soho, in July 1708, 
and was buried in St. Anne's chnrchyard 
on the 16th of that mcmth. 

[Bedgrarfl's Diet, of Artists ; Tortae'B mana- 
Knpt coUeetJons in Brit. Hdi. A>]d, HS. 23068, 
f. 30 ; Walpols'a Anecdotes, ed. Dallaway and 
Woninm; Boriol Beg. of St. Anna's, WsBt- 
minstsr.] F. U. O'D. 

1878), organist and professor of music, bom 
in 1614, was the son of Gabriel Surenne, a 
Ftenchmanj who came to London in 1800, 
and settled m Edinburgh in 1817 as a teacher 
of French and professor of military history 
and antiquities in the Scottish Naval and 
Military Academy. 

In 1631 Snrenne, a pnjnl of Henri Hen, 
became oi^anist to St. Mark's Episcopal 
Ohapel, Portobello, and in 1844 be was ap~ 

g>inted or^nist to St. George's Episcopal 
hapel, Edmburgh. He became a popular 
and respected teacher of mnsicand the com~ 
poser of arrangemente for the pianoforte, 
pBalm-tanes, chants, and the catch ' Mister 
Speaker.' In. 1641 he compiled 'The Dance 
Music of Scotland,' which reached fife edi- 
tions ; in 1853 ' The Songs of Scotland.' 
without words ; and in 1864 ' The Songs of 
Ireland.' Surenne was also associated with 
George Farquhar Graham [q. v.], the music 
historian, in the publication of the national 
music of Scotland. 

Surenne died in Edinhnrgh on 3 Feb. 
1878, in his sixty-fourth year. 

[Baptie'g Hnsicnl Biogntphy, p. 2S7 ; Scota- 
Siiin.i Feb, ISTSt Unsicat SiMtUnd. p.lSS; 
iDfonnatwn from Hr. D. S. Snramu ; Suranns's 
weeks.] L. M. AL 

2 Surrey 

1847), novelist, baptised on 20 Oct. 1770, was 
the son of John Surr, citiien and wheal- 
wriffht, a grocer by trade, of St. Botolph's, 
Alt&ragate, by his wife Elisabeth, sister of 
Thomas Skinner, lord mayor of London in 
1794. Surr was admitted to Christ's Hospital 
on 18 June 1778, and after his discharge on 
7 Nov. 1786 became a clerk in the bank of 
England, where he rose to the position of 

Sincipal of the drawing office. He married 
iaa Griffiths, eister-in-law of Sir Richard 
Phillips (1787-1840) Jq. *■]• "^^ ^^^ •* 
Hammersmith on 15 Feb. 1847. 

He wrote several novels which eontuned 

?irtrutB of well-known persona of his time. 
he celebrated Georgiaua Cavendish, dnchees 
of Devonshire [q. v.], is said to have been so 
mortified by being introduced under a fic- 
titious name into his ' Winter in London ' 
(1806) in the character of an inveterate 
gambler that it hastened her death. The 
work went through numerous editions, and 
was translated into French by Madame de 
Terrasaon de Sennevas. 

Sorr's other works are : 1. 'Christ's Hos- 
pital; aPoem,'London,1797,4to. 2.'Bam- 
weU ' (founded on Lillo's ' Ixjndon Mer- 
chant'),London,1798, 12mo. 3. <Splendid 
Misery,' London, 1801, 12mo; 4th edit. 1607. 
4. 'Refutation of certain MisreprDsentations 
relative to the Nature and Influenctt of 
Bank Notes and of the Stoppage of Specie at 
the Bank of England on Wie Price of Pro- 
visions,' London, 1801, 8to. 6. ' The Mame 
ofWealth,' London. 1816, 12mo. 6. 'Ri3i- 
mond, or Scenee in the IJfe of a Bow Street 
Officer,' London, 1827, ISmo. Several of his 
novels were translnted into French and Ger- 
man. The allegation that to Surr Lord 
Lyttcn owed the materials for his novel 
' Pelbam ' has not been substantiated. 

[Private infomifttion; Gant. Meg. 1797 ii. 
871, 9S3. 1847 i. US ; Notes and Q,ueriaB. fith 
KT. vii. 48, 174, 265, 330 : Biogr. Diet, of Liv- 
iDg Authors, p. S3S ; Fsnttisoa of the Age. Vl. 
463.1 E. I, C. 

BTTEtHEY, Eablb of. [See Wasennb, | 

'WiLUAH VB, first earl, d. 1066 ; Wakkhnb, i 

WiLiil&K DB, second earl, d. 1138; Wa- ' 

BBHiTE, WiuJAU SE, tbird earl, d. 1148; | 

Wakbhhe, Hauius SB, first earl of Surrey \ 

and Warenne, d. 1202 ; Wabbnhb, Wzi<- ' 

MAX SB, second earl of Surrey and Wa- [ 

renne, if. 1240; WABBimE, JoH» DB, third ; 

earl of Surrey and Warenne, 1231 P-1804 ; i 

Wabehnb, JobR pB, fourth earl of Surrey ! 
and Warenne, 1286-1347; FtiULU, lU- 



CHUB, Mii c£ Arundel and Suirej, 1346- 
1397 ; FntJtLUf , TaoMlS, earl of Aiundel 
ud Siunj, 1S81-1416; Howakd, Thovab, 
nd of Surrey and duke of Norfollc, 1148- 
]^i; UoWAJtD, Hbkbt, earl of Surra;, 
lDl7f-1647; HoTrxBi), Thomas, earl of 
dvnj tad diik« of Norfolk, 147&-ie54.] 



I, ROBERT (177&-18at), anti- 
gnUT and topographer, was only surviving 
cbiJd of fiobert Surteec of Munaforth, by 
Iw wife and fint cousin Dorothy, daughter 
' ' i of 'William Steele of Laml 

Abbej, Kent, a director of the £ast India 
Cgnpanj. Hewu bom in the South Bailey 
d tlw citj of Durham on 1 April 1779, nearly 
'^litcen years after hia porenta' muriage. 
ii« vas educated first at Kepyer grammar 
Khxil, HoughtoD-le-Spriag-, under the Rev. 
William Flaming, and subsequently (1793) 
u^ Dr. Bristow at Neasdon, where he 
guaed the biendahlp of Reginald Heber 
i^ificnraida biafaop of Calcutta). He matri- 
cilaUd from Cnrist Church, Oxford, on 
:f4 Oct 1796, gndu&ting DA. in November 
l^andJkLA. inl803. In 1800 he became 
■ ttadtul at the JUiddle Temple, but was 
Mrar called to the bar, for on the death of 
btbtW on 14 July 1802 he relinquiahed 
'lie ftoteaiioa and eatabliBhed himsalf for 
lilg tt Mainsforth, being then in hia ttrenty- 

fnm childhood Surteea aeema to have 
^lUhilad a natural taste for antiquities, being 
wImd a boy on asaiduous coin collector, and 
ilkrviag apeculiar attraction for every Epeciea 
•d b^mre. Eren in his undergraduate days 
^ n)atemplat«d writing that ' Hiatorv of 
Dufham * to which he practically devoted his 
'Jtc OD«e having- detannined on his task, 
t> boogfat to bear on it an exceptional power 
<J MiBiitc iiuaiff and cotuiderable critical 
s^akBhipTThroughoat his task be was sus- 
itBod by a real love of the work. Hia plan 
«u to drive about the county with a gproom 
"■niaing carefully oil remains of antiquity, 
■ad noting all inoeriptions, regiatera, and 
117 MceaaSila documents. The groom, says 
kk friotd James Raine [q. vH {Memoir 
i SvUtt, p. 17), complained that it was 
'nuy work,' for noaster always stoppad the 
^ tad 'we never could get past an auld 
t«ldia(.' Surtees aufiered &om almost con- 
tasHi ill-bealth, vrhich made hb habit of 
•ndy Kdiewhat desultory ; bis great work 
■u vrittoi piecemeal, paragrBph by par^ 
IBnk, and tha copy so produced despatched 
tt ■tenlar intervals to the printers. The 
■■« 'niito^' was advertiaed on 14 April 
'"* ■' " volume apDeared in 1816, the 
1 1623, and the 

fourth after Surtees's death in 1840, edited 
by Raine, Although the work was band- 
Bomely subscribed for in the county, yet the 
magnificent style of printing, paper, and 
illustration entailed upon its author a heavy 
eipenditure. The ' History ' contains an 
immense amount of genealogical informa- 
tion for the most pert very accurate, and this 
is doubtless due to the fact that Surtees's 
local position and reputation secured for him 
alibenl access to famitydeeds and documents. 
A playful humour, not generally to he ez' 
pected in a learned work of such magnitude, 
characterised the style, ' every now aud then 
breaking out like a gleam of sunshine . . . 
and exciting the reader to a smile when 
least expecting to be surprised' (Quarterly 
Mmi. XKiii. 861, review by Southey), Tbe 
fragments of poetry interwoven with the 
notes and the poems generally entitled ' the 
superstition of tbe north,' are of Surt«ee's 
own invention. ' He was imbued with tha 
very " spirit of romauut lore," ' says Dibdin 
(Nortiem Tow, p. 266V and was an apt 
ballad-writ«r. Indeed, he inaugurated hia 
acquaintance with Sir Walter Scott by im- 
posing upon him a spurious ballad of his own 
oompoaition. This production, called the 
'DeatbofFeatherstonehaugh,' and describing 
the feud between tbe Ri<Ueys aud Feather' 
Stones, was published in tbe twelfth note to 
the 1st canto of ' Marmion ' (ed. 1806), and 
was inserted, with notes by both Scott and 
Surtees, in the ' Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Bordor'(ii. 101,ed. 18S1J. Probably from 
fear of woxmding Scott, Surteea never re- 
vealed the playful imposture, which was not 
divulged until af^r Surtees's death. 

Surteea lived aa much as possible in tbe 
quiet seclusion of Mainsforth, where he kept 
an open house for antiquaries, scholars, and 
geneaU^ts. He was very generous in the 
use he permitted others to make of tbe many 
documents and transcripts which he accu- 
mulated throughout life. 

He died st Mainsforth on 11 Feb. 1834, 
and was buried on 16 Feb. in the churchyard 
of Bishop Middleham. He married Anne, 
daughter of Ralph Robinson of Middle Her- 
ruigton, Durham, on 2S June 1807. 

Scott, writing to Southey in 1810 (LooK- 
HABT,i^e,ii. SOI), described Surtees as 'an 
excellent antiquary, some of tbe rust of 
which study has clung to his manners ; but 
he is good-hearted, and you would make the 
summer eve short between you.' To provide 
a fitting memorial for Surtees, the society 
which bears his name was founded on 37 May 
1834 with the object of illustrating tbe his- 
tory and antiquities of those parts of Eng- 
land and Scotland included in the ancient 


Surtees i: 

Ungdoin of North ombrio, br publiihing in- 
edited manuscripts mainly of & data ant«rior 
to the Reetoration, and relating^ to the hia- 
toiT and topography of northern England. 

A silhouette portrait of Surtooi U pre- 
flied to the ' Life ' by G. Taylor. 

[Life of Surteaa, by Qsargs Taylor (Surtees 
Soc.) 166-1; biographical notice of Surtaee in 
BichardBon'a OiHlection of Beprint* and Im- 
priDts, Neweastle, 1814 ; Sortees'a Uiet. of Dor- 
hwn.] W. 0-B. 


1664), sportJDg novelist, of an old Durham 

< second eon of Anthony 

^ Surtees 

)uggest«dto aoommotifrieDd,'Nii[irod'(i.& 
Oharlaa James Apperley), that Surtees ought 
*fl try his hand at a novel. The result was 
HandlayGroEs,'inwhichJoiroeks reappears 
isamastor of foxhounds and the p~ 

1864), sporting nc 
&mily, was the 

grandfather, Bobert Surtees (1741-1811), 
was of Milkwell Bum in the pariah of 
Byton, »n estate purchased by his ancestor, 
Anthony Surtees, in 1626; the estate of 
Hamsterley Hall was acquired about 1807 
from the executors of Thomas, eldest sorviv- 
ing son of Henry Swinburne £q. v.] the 
traveUer (of Subiebs, Durham, ii. 290), 

Bom in 1803, Bobert was educated at 
Durham grammar school, which he left in 
1819 for a solicitor's office. Having qualified 
as a solicitor, he booght a partnership in 
London; but the businees was misrepresented, 
and he bad difficulty in recovering the pur- 
chase money. He took rooms in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, and began contributing to the 
old 'Sporting M^oiine.' During 1830 he 
oompilad a iT ftnnnl for horse-buyers, in which 
he combined his knowledge of the law with his 
taste for sporting matters. In 1831 his elder 
broUier, Anthony, died unmarried at Malta 
on 24 Maidi, thus materially altering his pro- 
spects. Before the close of the same year, in 
conj unction with Rudolrii Ackermann [q.v.], 
he started the 'New Sporting- Magar- — ' 
which Surtees edited down to 1836. 
tween July 1831 and September 1834 he de- 
veloped in these pages the humorous charac- 
ter of Mr. John Jorrocka, a sporting grocer, the 
quintessence of Ck>ckney v ulgarity, good hu- 
mour, absurdity, and cunning. The succesf 
of the sketches led to the eimception of s 
similar scheme by Ohapmon and Seymour 
which resisted in the ' Pickwick Papeis. 
The papers of Surtees were collected as 
■ Jorrocks's Jaunts' in 1836, in which year, 
by the death of his father on 6 March, 
Burtoes succeeded to the estate of Hamster- 
ley Hall. He became a J.F. for Durham, a 
majorof the Durham militia, and high sheriff 
of the county in 1856. In the meantime 
Lodihart, having seen the ' Jonocka Papers, 

county seat. The coarseness of the 
text was reoeemed in 1864 by the brilliantly 
humorous illustrations of John Leech, who 
utilised a sketch of a coachman made in 
diurch as his model for the ez-grocer. Some 
of Leech's beat work is to be found among 
his illustrations to Surtees's later novels, 
notably 'Ask Mamma* and 'Mr. Romford's 
Hounds.' Without the original illuHtraticciS 
these works hare very small interest. At 
the time of his death Surtees had jnst pre- 
pared for appearance in serial parts his laat 
aorel, * Mr. Fscey Bomford'a Hounds.' 
Leech himself died during its issue, and the 
illoBtrations were completed by Hablot K, 
Browne ('Phii '). The novelist was a keen 
observer, very tall, but a good horseman, who, 
' without ever riding for efibct, nsually saw a. 
dealof what hounds were doing.' He died at 

righton on IS March 1864. 

Surtees married, on 19 May 1841, EUia^ 
bath Jane (d. 1879), daughter and coheir of 
Addison Fenwick of BishopWearmouth, and 
had issue Anthony, who died at Rome on 
17 March 1871 ; and two daughters, Eliia^ 
beth Anne and Eleanor, who married, on 
28 Jan. 1886, John PrendergastVereker,heir 
to the viscounty of Gort. 

Surtees wrote : 1 . ' The Horseman'sMannal, 
being a IVeatise on Soundness, the Law of 
Warranty, and generally on the Laws relat- 
ing to Horses. By R. a. Surtees, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields,' Loudon, 1881, 8vo. 2. <Jop- 
rocks's Jaunts and JoUities, or the Hunting, 
Shooting, Racing, Driving, Sailing, Eating, 
Elceentnc and Extravagant Exploits of that 
renowned Sporting Citiien, Mr. John Jor- 
rocks of St. Botolph Lane and Great Coram 
Street,' with twelve illustrations by 'Phis,' 
London, 1838, 8vo (a copy fetched 11/. in 
1895) ; Srd edition, revised, with sixteen 
coloured plates after Henry Aiken, 1843, 
8vo, and, with three additional papers from 
the pages of the * New Sporting Magaxine,' 
1869 and 1890. 8. ' Handley Cross, or the 
Spa Hunt: a Sporting Tale. By the author 
of "Jorrocks's Jaunts,"' 3 vols. 1843, Lon- 
don, ISmo. This was expanded into'Hand- 
ley Gross, or Mr. Jorrocks's Hunt,' London, 
1664, 8vo (first issued in seventeen monthly 
parts, March ie53-October 1864, in red 
wrappers designed by Leech ; a complete set 
is valued at 91.), with seventeen aamirable 
engravings on steel, coloured, and eighty- 
four woodcuts by John Leech ; reprinted 
with ooloured plates by Wildrake, Heath, 




ai JdlicM [18881; other editions 1891, 
1801 ud 1898. i. ' milinadan Hall, or 
tlu Cocknej Squire i aTftleolCoimtnLife. 
^ the kutnor of " Handley Orou," ' 8 toIs. 
]ftMi^IiOudoD,12iiio;uiotW edition,LoDdMi, 
ISS8,8to. JoTMcka &gtirefl once more in this 
KiTtl, iriiich first Kppe«Ted in serial form, 
lad W ftn ironickl dedicatiOD to the Boju 
AfBMltonU Society. 6. ' Hawbuck Qrange, 
K Uh Bpoitiuff AdventuiM of Thomas Scott, 
B^, With eight illnstration* by Phit,' Lon- 
doB, 1647, 8vo ; other editioni, Loodoo, 
leei, 8to, wd London, 1892, 8vo. These 
tmu appeared originally as by Thomas 
Sratt in 'Bell's Life in London.* 6. ' Mr. 


original parte fetch about 6/.); 

,9ro; and aa'Soapey Sponge's Sporting 
im,' 1893, 8td. 7. 'Ask Mamma, or the 
BidMt Commoner in England ; with iUna- 
BUiaBS by John Leech ' (thirteen engravings 
ga tteA, ooloored, and fizty-nine wooa- 
oti), London, 1868, 8To(isaDed in thirteen 
■oatUy parts) ; another edition, London, 
1^ Std. 8. ' Plain or Ringlets f By the 
utborof "Handley Cross;" with illuitr»- 
tiw by John Leech,' London, 1860, Sto 
{the thirteen monthly parts, in red pictorial 
vnnian alter I.eech, fetch bl. to 61.) ; 
•astber edition 189S, 8vo. The fbrty-three 
•oodents by Leech are exceptionally good, 
tad t^n are thirteen coloured plat«s. 
l ' Mr. Faeey Eomford's Hoonds j with 
iDMrations by John I^eeeh and Hablot E. 
Bnnnie,' London, 1866, 8vo (in twelve 
tails i the first fourteen coloored plates by 
Lereh, the remaining tan bv Browne); the 
'Jomieks edition,' illuBtrBt«d, London, 1893, 

ftit ' Jorrodu Birthday Book,' being selee- 
aat from ' Hand W Oross,' ^ipeared in 1897, 
in. S<ii1«e« ' had a poeitive olgection to 
wi^ Ui name in print,' and his 'Hoiee- 
■n'l Manual ' was the only one of his books 
U vkich he affizod his name. 

[OnL. Hag. IBM, i. S«3, fl7I ; Bnikc'i landed 

W. laai, cIm, XT., xriL ; Scott's Book 8alM, 
>*l4|T.91,279;SUt«r'aEarlTBditioDi, 18B4, 
It no-f ; HalkMtaDd Laiog'i Diet, of Aoonjm. 
Md PMadonytt. lit. ; Brit. If ns. Cat.] T. S. 
BUiKiUL, KuTSs or. [See South Saxons.} 
SUSSEX, DuzB or. [See Auovbtus 
fUBKUCK, 1778-1843-3 

BC88EZ, Eaku or. [See Radoliffb, 
KMm, fitrt EamL, 1488-1643 ; RlDCLEFTB, 
T»nu, third Kakl, 1626 M688; SiTiui, 
Tmias, 1690 f-1668 f] 

1639), dean of Ezet«r, bom about 1650, 
wa* the second son of John Sutclifie 
of Mayrojd or Melroyd in the parish of 
Uali&s, Yorkshire, by his wife, Margaret 
OwUworth of Ashley in the same county 
(Notet and QuerUi, Ist ser. iv. 163, 239), 
He was admitted a scholar of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, on 80 April 1668, pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1670-1, and was elected a 
minor fellow of his college on 27 Sept. 1672. 
He commenced M.A. in 1674, and became a 
m^or fellow on 8 April in that year. In 
1579 he was appointed lector mathematicus 
in the college, and in the next year, at Mid- 
summer, the payment of his last stipend as 
fellow of Trinity is recorded. He graduated 
LL.D. in 1681. Some writers style him 
D.D., but it is clear that he never to<^ that 
derree either at Cambridge or elsewhere. 

On 1 May 1682 he was admitted a mem- 
ber of the college of advocates at Doctors' 
Commons (Cootb, Engluh CivHimu, p. 64) ; 
and on 30 Jan. 1686-7 he was installed 
archdeacon of Tauttton, and granted the 

Kibend of Milverton in the church of 
th and Wells (Lb Nivb, Fatti, ed. Hardy, 
i. 168). On 13 Oct. 1688 he was installed 
prebendary of Exeter, and on the 27th of that 
month he was confirmed in the dienity of 
dean of Exeter, which position he held for 
more than forty years. As be was also vicar 
of West Alvington, Devonshire, the arch- 
bishop of CanterbniT on 10 March 1589 
granted him letters of dispensation allowing 
him to hold that vicara^, the deaneiy, ana 
the prebend, together with another b^efice, 
with or without cure. He was instituted to 
Harberton vicarage on 9 Nov. 1690, and to 
the rectory of Lezant on 6 April 1594, as 
well as to Newton Ferrers on 27 Dec. 1591. 
He was also made prebendary of Bnckland 
and Dynham in the church of Bath and 
Wells in 1692 (Lb Nbtb, v, 188). 

The most noteworthy event of SutclifTe's 
life was his foundation of a polemical college 
at Chelsea, to wluch he was a princely 
benefscfor. This establishment ' was in- 
tended for a spirituall garrison, with a maga- 
line of all books for that purpose ; where 
teamed divines should study and write in 
muntenanca of all controverues against the 

Kpists ' (FuLtBE, CAurcA Biit. bk. x. p. 61). 
mes I was one of its best patrons, and 
supported it by various grants and beuefao- 
tions ; he himself laid the first atoue of the 
new edifice on 8 May 1609; gave timber 
requisite for the building out of Windsor 
forest; and in the original charter of incor- 
poration, bearing date 8 May 1610, ordered 
that it should be called 'King James's 





OoUega at Chebej.' Bj tba some cliarter 
Ae number of memben was limited to ■ 
proToet and niDeteen fellow^ of whom ae 
teen were to bo in holy orders. The kiog 
hitnaalf nominatsd the members. Sutolifre 
-was the Brat provost, sud Overall, Morton, 
Field, Abbot, Smith (fLfterwsrds bishop of 
Gloucester), Howeon, Fotherbie, Spencer, 
and Boys, were among the original fellowe, 
while Camden and Heywowi were ap- 
pointed ' faithfully and laamedly to record 
and publisb to pastecit;y all memorable 
passo^ in church or commonwealth .' The 
buildmg was beRun upon a piece of ground 
called Thune-SboC, and was to have con- 
sieted of two quadrangles, with a piatsa 
•long tile four eides of the amaller court. 
Scarcely an eighth part was erected, as only 
one side of the first quadrangle was ever 
Complet«d ; and this range of buildings 
coat, accordinirto Fuller, above 3,000/. The 
scbtune proved to be a complete failure. In 
consequence of a letter addreased by the 
king to Archbishop Abbot, collections in 
aid ot the lan^iahisg institution were 
made in all the dioceaaa of England, but the 
amount raised was small, and was nearly 
■wallowed up in the chaiges and fees due 
to the collectors. Atler Sutclifie's death 
the coUeice sank into insignificance, and no 
vestige of the building now remains. A 
{H;int of the original design is prefixed to 
'The Glory of Ohelsey College revived,' 
publUhed in 1662 by John Darley, B.D., 
who, in a dedication to Charlea It, urged 
that monarch to grant a fixed revenue to 
the college. Anotnet print is to be found 
in the second volume of Grose's 'Militarf 
Antiquities' (1788). 

Sutclifie was early interested in the set- 
tlementof New England, and Captain John 
Smith (1580.1631) [q.v.l mentions, in his 
' Generall Hlstorie ' (1624^, that the dean 
assisted and encouraged imn in his schemea 
(of. J. W. Thokntoit, Tie Landing at Capa 
Ame, 1864). On 9 March 1606-7 he be- 
came a member of the council for Virgmia, 
and on 3 Nov. 1620 of that for New Eng- 
land. In July 1621 he was one of the com- 
misuoners appointed to wind up the affairs 
c^ the Vimnia Company (Bbowh, Qenaia 
U.S.A. u. 1029). 

For a long time Sutcliffe was in high 
favour at court. He bad been appointed 
one of the royal chaplains in the reign of 
Eliiabeth, and is stated to have retained 
the office under James I. But he fell into 
disgrace in consequence of his opposLtion to 
the Spanish match. Camden, in his 
'Amialti,' under date of July 1621, says 
*lbe Earl of Oxford is sent into custody 

for his prattling, so is Sir G. Leeds, with 
Sutcliffe, dean of Exeter ' (cf. Tonsb, Diary, 
Camden Soc p. 41). 

SutAlifis died in 1629, before 18 July. Hii 
will, dated 1 Nov. 1628, is printed in Un. 
Frances B. Troup's ' Biographical Notes.' 

He married Anne, daughter of John Brad- 
ley of Louth, Lincolnshire, by Prances, bis 
wife, daughter of John Fairfax of Swarby. 
They bad only one child, a daughter named 
Anne, who married Uichard Hals of Keuo- 

Sutcliffe'e works, manv of them published 
under the anonym *0,E.,'' are: 1. 'ATreatisa 
of Ecclesiosticall Discipline,' London, Ii)9I, 
4to. 2. ' De Presbyterio, ejusque nova in EiO- 
clesia Christiana Foliteia, adversus cujusd&n 
I.B.A.C.dePoliteiaciviliet ecclesiastics ... 
Disputationeni,' London, 1591, 4to, 3. 'An 
Answer to a certaioe Libel Supplicatorie,' 
London, 1C92, 4to ; this work relates to the 
alleoed wrongful condemnation of John 
U^l [q.t-I oi> an indictment for libel. 
4. ' De Cathiriica, Orthodoxa, et vera Ghrist* 
Eccleeia, libri duo,' London, 1692, 4le. 
6. ' The Practise, Proceedings, & Lswee of 
Armes,' London, 1S93, 4to; dedicated to 
the Earl of Essex. 6. ' An Answer Tnt« a 
certain Calumnious Letter published by Job 
Throckmorton, entitled " A Defence of J. 
Throckmorton against the Slanders of H. 
Sutolife,"' London, 1694, 1695, 4to;acurioas 
tract containing much information respect- 
ing the intrigues of the puritam^ and ■ de- 
fence of the government version of the 
treason of Edward Squire [q. v.] 7. ' The 
Examination of T. Cartwngntalata Apo- 
logia, wherein bis vsine . . . ChaUenge ccm- 
ceming certaine supposed Slanden prs- 
tended to have been published against Mb 
is answered and refuted,' London, 1696, 4to. 

8. ' De Pontifica llomano, eiusque iniostis- 
aima in Ecclesia dominstione, adversus R> 
Bellarminum, & universum Jebuaitamm so- 
dalitium, libri quinqua,' London, 1699, 4to. 

9. ' De Turcopapismo, hoc est De Turcarum 
et Papistarum adversus Chrlsti ecclesiam et 
fidem CoDJuratione, eorumque in rellgione 
et moribus conseusione et simiUtudine, 
Liber unus,' London, 1699 and 1604, 4to. 

10. ' Matthcei Sutlivii adversus Roberti 
Bellarmini de Purgatorio disputationem. 
Liber unus,' London, 1699, 4to. 11. 'Da 
vera Christi Ecclesia contra Bellarminum,' 
London, 1600, 4to. 12. < De Conciliis et 
eorum Authoritate, adversus Rob. Bellar- 
miuum et belloe ejusdem sodales, libri duo,' 
London, 1600, 4to. 13. 'De M:onacbie, 
eorum Institutis et Moribus, adversus Rob. 
IleUarDtinum universomque monachorum 
et mendicautium fratrom colluuiem, dispu- 





tnnea & PrACtisai, published first against 
Bob. Fmrsona, and now ogaiue reuiowed, 
ailBTfed, and fortified, &nd directed to him, 
to Fn«r Garnet, to the Archpriest Black- 
wrll, mud mil IheJr Adhnrents,' Londun, 
1602, 4to. 1&. ' Be recta Studii Tfieologici 
■uioDe liber uuus; eidem etiam adjunctm 

■ Mcm acriptune Tarispro auditOTum captu 
tractAtiooe, libelliu,' London, 1602, 8to. 
1& 'Religionis Chriatiiuife piimainstitutio i 
ttd^ etiun sdJunctES aunt orationum for- 
■■Ie,' London, 160*2, 8vo. 17. 'Bo Miua 
hpistics, Tariisque SyuagogeB Rom. circa 
Eschar iatiie SacrameDtiun Erroribus et Oor- 
iBptelis, adTenaa Kobertum BullaTmiaum 
•t niiversam Jebusseorum et Oanameorunt 
Sodaiitium, libri quinque,' Loudon, 1603, 
4U). 18. 'A Ful and Round Answer to 
N. D., alios Robert Paraoiu, the Noddie, his 
tnliah and rude WuTie-woid [entitled " A 
temperate Wazdword to the turbulent and 
Mdttious Watch-woid of Sir F. Hastings.. . 
bf N. D.," i-e. Nicholas Boleman, a pseu- 
iimjm for Robert PaiBonsJ,' London, 1S04, 
Ito; niaeaed in the same year under the 
title of ' The BleMioge on Mount Uttriiiim, 
Md the Caraea on Mount Ebal : or the 
hapoie Batata of Piotestauts compared 
witn the miserable Estate of Papists under 
ibe Popes Tyrannie;' it wab reprinted 
■adiT tW title of ' A True Relation of 
Eiglands Happin««ee uuder the Reigue of 
Unecne Eliubetli,' London, 1629, 8vo. 
IS. ' Bzamination aud Confutation of a 
MMaine Scurrilous Treatise, entituled "The 
Sorrej of the newe Religion, published by 
XattlMW Kellison, in Disgrace of true Re- 
ligian professed in the Church of England," ' 
Laaiaa, 1000, 4lo. 20. ' The Subversion 
if & Paiaona his . . . Worke, entituled "A 
Tieatiw of tbreo Conversions of England 
faa Paganisma to Christian Religion," ' 
Ludon, 1600, 4to. SI. 'A Threefold 
Answer onto the third Part of a certaine 
T^iolNdar Treatise of three supposed Con- 
maioas of England to the moderue Romish 
Sdigion pabhsHed by R. Parsons under 
tW oonlinued Maske of N. D.,' London, 
IflOS, 4u>. 23. 'A briefe Examination of 

■ eenaine . . . dialeal Petition presented, as 
it frctended, to the Kings moat excellent 
Matwtie, by oertoine Laye Papistes, calling 
ibcweliM, The Lay Catholikes of Eng- 
liad. snd now lately printed . . . by . . . 
I, Leoey,' London, 1006, 4to. 22. ' De 
laUgentiis st Jubileo, contra Bellarminum, 
bi Ln,' 1606. 23. ' The Unmasking of a 
K11 iiiiwimir. who u> ^ Counterfeit 

Habit at 3. Augustine hath cunningly erupt 
into the Closets of many English Ladies: 
or the Vindication of Saint Augustine's 
Confessions, from the . , . calumniations of 
a late noted Apostate ' [Sir Tobie Matthew, 
in his translation of the ' Confessions '], 
London, 1626, 4to. 

Nicholas Bernard, D.D., preacher at 
Gray's Inn, presented to Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, Sutcliffe's manuscript works in 
fourteen volumes. Some extracts from 
them will be found in Kennett's MS. 35 
f. 179. 

[Biogtaphieal Notes of Dr. Sutolifie, by Mrs. 
Fiancee B, Troup, 1891, reprinted from the 
TnusaaiioDi of the DeroiwhirB AaaoGiMion for 
the Advancement of Science, Literature, aod 
Art, xiiii, ITUISS; Addit. M3. SS80 f. 6Sb; 
Faulkner's Chelaei, ii. 218-31; Hejlyn's Hist, 
of the PrenLytBriiins, p. 312: Lowndes's BibU 
Man. (BohaJ; Lysonu's Environs, ii. 49, 163; 
Life of Bishop Motton, by R. B., p. S6 ; Notes 
and Qneriea. 2nd sei. iit. 388, Sth asr. viii. S48 ; 
Olirer's Lives of the B'sbopa oF Exeter, p. 276; 
atoVs London, p. 827 ; Watt's Bihl. Brit. ; 
Winwood's MBmorisIi, iii. IflO.] T. C, 

8UTCUFPE, THOMAS (1790 ?-l 849), 
adventurer, sou of John Sutcliffe of Stana- 
field, parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, and great- 
pandson of John Kay [q. v.l of Bury, the 
inventor, was bora about 1790. He entered 
the royal navy and was on board the King- 
fisher in the blockade of Corfu in 18U0, and 
about that time fell into the enemy's hands, 
hut managed to escape to Albania. He 
afterwards held a commission in the royal 
horse guards blue, and was with his regi' 
ment at the battle of Waterloo, where ne 
was severely wounded. In 1817 he formed 
one of a band of adventurous Englishmen 
who went out to aid the patriots of Colombia 
in their struggles with Spain, and was 
appointed lieutenant-colonel of cavalry in 
the army of the republic Here again he 
was made a prisoner of war, and was de- 
tained at Havana. Returning to England in 
1831, he set out again for South America in 
August of the following year. He offered 
his services to Che republic of Chili, and re- 
ceived the appointment of captain of cavalry. 
For sixteen years he remained in the military 
service of the republic, and took part in the 
operations of the liberating army in Peru. 
Id 18S1 he was appointed political and mili- 
tary governor of the island of Juan Fer* 
nandei, then used as a convict station by 
ChilL He witnessed the destructive earth* 

Slake there in February 163£, when he lost 
Bgreater portion of bispossessioDS. Shortly 
afterwards an insurrection took place on the 
island, and SutcUff« wm recaUea. Eventu- 




ally, tliroueh a change of administration, 
he waa cashiered in March 1838, and he 
returned to England in January 1839, with 
Ter^ slender means, heaTv cliums for arreare 
of pay Temaining unHettied. Hb then en- 
deavoured to improve hie circumstances by 
literary pursuits. After living in the neigh- 
bourhood of Manchester, he remoTed to Lon- 
don about 18M, and died in great indigence 
in lodjirings at S67 Strand on 22 April 1849, 


Sutclifffl published: I. 'The Earthqnake 
at Juan Femandei, as it occurred in the year 
1836,'Mancheater,1839, 2. 'Foreign Loans, 
or Information to all connected with the 
Republic of Ohili, comprising the Epoch &om 
1822 to 1839,' Manchester, 1640. 8. 'Six- 
teen Years in Chile and Peru, from 1822 
to 1889,' London, 1841. 4 ' Cruaoniana; 
or Truth veraus Fiction, elucidated in a 
iriatory of the Islands of Jnan Femandei,' 
Manchester, 1843. 6. ' An Exposition of 
Facte relating to the Aise and Progress of 
the Woollen, Linen, and Cotton. Manufao- 
tures of Great Britain,' Manchester, 1843. 
6. ' ATestimonial ki behalf of Merit neglected 
and Genius unrewarded, and Record of the 
Services of one of England's greatest Bene- 
factors,' London, 1347. The Uattwo works 
■were published with the object of obtwning 
public support for the descendants of John 
Kay, an aim for which he laboured unsucfieaa- 
fully for several years. He also published 
lithographed portraits of John Kay and John 
Greenhalgh, governor of the Isle of Mod, 
1640-61, AS well as a pedigree of the Oreen- 
balghs of Brandlesome, 

[Sutcliffe'i works ; Oent. Mag. 1840, ii. 102 ; 
StniDBB'i Bemia. of an Old Bohemian, 1833, p. 
17i; HnlbaH'B English in South America, p. 
246.] C. -W. S. 

SUTHERLAND, Duxes ov. [See 
Levebon-Gowek, Obobob Gbahvillb, first 
duke, 1758-1833; LBVfisoN-GowBBjGEOBGB 


1892, under first duke.] 

SUTHERLAND, DucnEsa or. [See 
Leveson-Gowek, Habbibi Elizabeth 
Geobqiana, 1806-1863.] 

HON, John, tenth or eleventh 
1£67 ; GoBitON, John, fifteenth or sixteenth 
earl, lfifiOP-1733.] 

aUTHEBLAWD, JOHN (1808-1891), 

'omoter of sanitary science, vas bom in 
iDdinhurgh in December 1808, and educated 
at the High School. He became a licentiate 
of the Royal College of Surroons of Edin- 
burgh in 1627, and graduated M.D. at the 


university in 1831. After spending much 
time on the continent hepractised for a short 

Biriod in Liverpool, where he edited ' The 
Lverpool Health of Towns' Advocate' in 
1848. In 1848, at the request of the Earl of 
Carlisle, he entered the public service as aa 
inspector under the first board of health. He 
conducted several special inquiries, notably 
one into the cholera epidemic of 1848-9 

forei^ countries to inquire into the law and 
practice of burial, and he went to the Paris 
conference on qoanntins lav in 1861-2, 
when Louis Napoleon presented him with a 
gold medal. 

In 18S5 be vas engaged at the home 
office in bvinging into operation the act for 
abolishing intramural interments (ii. 1853, 
No. 148). He was also doing duty in the 
reorganised general board of health when, at 
the request of Lord Palmerston and Lord 
Fanmure, he became the hood of the com- 
mission sent to the Crimea to inqnire into 
the sauitarv condition of the English 
soldiers. <5n 26 Aug. 1865 he came to 
England for consultation, and was snmmoued 
to Balmoral to inform the queen of the Bteps 
that had been taken for the benefit of the 

He took an active part in the preparation 
of the report of the royal commissioR cm the 
health of the army dated 1868 (ib. 1867-68, 
No. 2316), and also of the report on the 
state of the army in India, dated 19 May 
1608 (tb. 1883, No. 3184). Both reporte 
were of vast importance to the welfare of 
the soldiers, and most of Sutherland's re- 
commendations were carried out. One of 
these was the appointment of the barrsck 
and hospital improvement commission, with 
Sidney Herbert as president and Captain 
(afterwards Sir Douglas) Galton, Dr. BurreU 
of the army medical department, and Suther- 
land as members. This committee visited 
every barrack and hospital in the United 
Kingdom, and the aanitary arrangements of 
each were reported on. Defects were brought 
to light and remedied, and the health of the 
troops consequently improved fift. 1861, No. 
2839). Subsequently Dr. Sutherland snd 
Oaptain Gallon visited and made reports on 
the Mediterranean stations, including the 
Ionian Ishuids {ib. 1863, No. 3207). 

In 1662 the barrack and hospital improve- 
ment commission was reconstituted with 
the quartermaster-general as president and 
Sutherland as a prominent member. The 
title was altered to the army sanitary com- 
mittee in 1866 (ib. 1S6&, No. 424). Two 
Indian officers were added, and all sanicary 





Rports were submitted to the committee and 
n^CBtioiu for improviiiff Indian stations 
ira[«nd. This amn^iaeiit TemBined in 
bnt BDtil SutherUnd's TetirementimSOJuue 
J8S3, when he was appointed a medical 
wrintMidinK inspector-genenl of the board 

.. health and aome office. 

Sotheriand continiied his beneficent work 
tavithin a few years of hia death, which 
toot place at Oakleigh, Alieyne Park, Nor- 
wooA, Surrej, on 14 July 1691. 

Sutherland published 'General Board of 
Httlth Report on the Sanitary Condition 
rftk Epidemic District* in London, with 
rawial relerence to the threatened Visitation 
tf Cholera,' 1852 ; and a reply to Sir John 
tUr« ' Obserrationa on the Report of the 
l^tary Commission despatched to the Seat 
rf the War in the East," 1857, to which Hull 
mnle a rejoinder in 1S58. Sotherland edited 
tka'Jonm&I of Public Health and Monthly 
Bteord of Sanitary Improvement,' 1847-8. 

[LtBcM, 2S Jaly IBSl, pp. 21)5-6 ; Times. 
UJtlj' tS91, p. 8; Illustrated London Neirs, 
I lof. IB9I. p. IS6, with portrait.] Q. a B. 

BiK, or (d. 1326), eldest son of WiUiam, 
tnt MtL sooceeded bis father in infancy in 
Mia. Hm fine earl was the son of Hugh 
Fnikin,who Abtaioed the district of Suthra- 
bDd&nm William the Uon in 1106. The 
KHMd eari wms proaent at the parliament of 
Seen <n 6 Feb. 1384, and he also attended 
iki eonrention at Brighum en 14 March 
liSn (Dmvmm^ iUuttratiBt of the Hittory 
i S»llmd, L No. 129). In 1292 be gave 
liii oath to aid Robert the Brace in his 
(Uva to the crami (_CaL Doeianenti rtlat- 
Mf lo Scotland; L No. 648) ; and although 
«S8Aiifr. 1396 he did homage to Edward I 
■t Bowtek-OD-Tweed (0. ii. No. 196), he 
Aortlj afterwards took part in excursions 
■piast England. Ha also fought on the 
aihof Bmce at Bannockbum in 1814, and 
hcMibKribed on 6 April 1320 the letter of 
the Scots nobles to tna pope assarting the 
biepaadrace of Sootland. He died in 1S26, 
liaTiag a aoa, Kenneth, who aucceeded as 
Uitd ear], fell at Halidon Hill in 1333, and 
*H ^her of William, fourth earl of Suther- 

[DvaBents illiMtratin of the History of 
Bistkad, ad. SterensoD, vol. i.; Calendar of 
DwaocDta rsUtiD; to Scotland, sd. Bais, toIb. 
i ud ii. ; Gordon's History of the Enrldora of 
Svhnhad; Ooi%]M'sBi!otti*hPeaTage(Wood), 



Etu or (d. 1370), was the son of Kenneth, 
iUidtari,b]r Kaiy, dnughteiof Donald, tenth 

earl of Mar fq.v,] He married Margaret 
younger daughter of Robert Bruce by his 
second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
de Burgh, earl of UUter, and on 10 Nov, 
J846 David II granted a charter of the earl- 
dom of Sutherland to bis sister Margaret 
and her husband. He was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to treat for the ransom 
of David II from the English. On 13 July 
1363-4 he and John, his eldest son, were 
named hostages for David {Cat. Documentt 
relating to Scotland, iv. No. 1676), and on 
16 Oct. 18Q7 they appended their seals to 
his ranBom(i'd. No. 1660). John was named 
by David II heii to the throne, in nreference 
to the high steward, but while still detained 
a hostage in England he died of the plague 
at Lincoln in 1361. The father was also 
detained a hostage in England until 20 Mav 
1367. He died at Dtmrobin in 1870, enS 
was succeeded bv his second son,, fifth Eabl or Sutubbuhd (if. 
1398 P), who, according to Froissart, was 
present at the capture of Berwick in 1381, 
and took part in the invasion of England in 
1388. In 1895,duT!nga discussion with the 
chief of the Macliavs and hia son about their 
differences, he sudJenlv, in his castle of Ding- 
wall, attached and killed them both with his 
own band, Dying towards the close of the 
century,he left two sons — Robert, sixth earl, 
and Kenneth. 

ROBHBT, sixth EutL or SUTHBBLUtD (if. 

1442), was present at the battle of Homildon 
in 1402, and on 9 Nov. 1427 was sent into 
England aa hosta^for Jamesl. He died in 
14&, leaving by bis wife LadyMabilie Dun- 
bar, daughter of John, earl of Moray, and 
gianddaaghter of Agnes Randolph, conn- 
teas of March and Moray, three sons— J'ohn, 
seventh earl, Robert, and Alexander. 

[Cal. Documrats relating to Scotland, vol. iv. i 
Fraiasart's Cbronide«; Qordon's Earldom of 
Sutheclaod ; Dougloa'a ScotUsh Peerage (Wood), 
ii. 873-8.] T.P. H. 

SUTHFIELD, WALTER bb (d. 1267), 
bishop of Norwich. [See StmEU),] 

SUTTON. [See also MAmraBS-SnTTOH.] 

SUTTOir, SiK CHARLES (1776-1828), 
colonel, bom in 1776, was the eldest son of 
Admiral Evelyn Sutton of Screveton, near 
Bingham, Nottinghamshire, by his wife, a 
daughter of Thomas Thoroton of Screve- 
ton. He was nephew of Mary Thoroton, 
the wife of Charles Manners-Sutton [q. v.], 
archbishop of Canterbury. He entered the 
army aa an ensign in the 3rd foot guards in 
1800, and in 1802 becamelieutennnt and cap- 
tain. In 1808 he exchanged into the 2'''rd 
foot, and became major in 1807, and lieu- 



teaaiitH»>loQel in the artnj in 1811 and the 
reaplment in 1813. After Berving with Sir 
John Moore in hU last campaign, Suttou 
entered the Pottugueae service. At the battle 
of BuBaco(27 SepL 1810) he commanded their 
9th regiment, and was meutioned in Welling- 
ton's despatch for his conduct. On 8 May 
1811 he waain the hottest part of theactioD 
at Fuentes d'Onoro in command of the light 
companies in Champelmond's Portuguese 
brigade. Two days later he was recom- 
mended for the brevet rank of lieutenant- 
colonel in the English army on the ground 
of his distinction m the Portuguese sen-ice. 
At the siege of Badajos he wan attached to 
the third division under Picton, and vm 

a cross and three clasps for his services. Id 
1814 he attained the nuih of colonel in the 
PoTtuKuese army, and was made a knight of 
the order of the Tower and Sword. He sub- 
sequently became colonel in the English 
army, and was created K.C.B. on 3 Jan. 
1816. After the peace he was appointed an 
inspectmc field officer of the militia in the 
loman Islands, and had Colonel (afterwards 
Sir Charles) Napier as a colleaciie. While 
on leave from Zante he died suddeuly of an 
apoplectic stroke on 20 March 1828 at Bottes- 
ford, near Belvoir, in the house of his uncle, 
the Rev. Charles Thoroton. 

[Geut. Mag. 182S, i. SSS-B; Hart's Army 
Lists ; WelliDgton's Beapetchea, ed. Qnrwood, 
iv. 308, 797, V. 7, 200.] Q. LaG. N. 

1629), divine, bom of humble parentage 
about 1665, was, according to Wood, a 
Hampshire man. He matriculated ss a 
batler from Hart Hall, Oiford, on 1 March 
1682-3, and graduated B.A. from Lincoln 
College on 12 Oct. 1686. He proceeded 
M.A. on 18 June 1589, B.D. on 29 May 
1598, and D.D. on HO June 1608. He 
became incumbent of Woodrising, Norfolk, 
in 1591, and from 1598 held with it the 
rectory of Caston in tbe same county 
(Blomefibld), not, as Wood says, Caston 'in 
his own county of Hampshire.' During 1697 
he was also vicar of Rainham, Essex. On 
30 April 1606 he was installed canon of West- 
minster, a piece of preferment given him by 
James I for his ' excellent and florid preach- 
ing.' He preached in the abbey the funeral 
sermon on William Camden [q. v.] In 1612 
he was presented to the recto^ of Great 
Bromley, Essex, to which he added in 1618 
that of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, and in 
1623 (misprinted 1632 in BLOXEfiELo) that 
of Cronwortb, Norfolk. The iirst and the 

Jo Sutton 

last he continued to hold till his death. On 
23 Oct. 1616 he was alse installed canon 
of Lincoln. He died in May or June 16:29, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey ' be- 
fore the vestry door' (Wood). His name, 
however, does not appear in the register. 

Sutton was author of some fervently devo< 
tional works which had great popularity in 
the seventeenth century, and were again 
brought into vogue by the leaders of the Ox- 
ford movement. Their titles ore : 1. 'Uisca 
Mori, Leame to Die. A Religious Discourse 
moving every Christian Man to enter intu 
a serious Remembrance of his Ende,' 1600, 
12mo. It was dedicated to Lady Elizabeth 
Southwell. An enlarged edition appeared in 
1609, and the work was reprinted iu 1616, 
1618, and 1662. Editions were also issued 
at Oxford In 1839 and 1648, aud iu America 
inl846. " " 


to Live ... a brief Treatise . . . wherein ii 
shewed that the life of Christ is and ought 
to be the most perfect Patteme of Direction 
to tbe Life of a Christian,' 1608, 12mo. In 
1634 it was issued bound up with 'Disce 
Mori.' In 1839 it was reprinted at Oxford 
from the edit ion of 1623, will) a preface eigned 
with CardinalNewman'e initials, and was r«- 
issued in 1848. An American edition ftp- 
peared in 1853. 3. ' Godly Meditations upo& 
the most holy Sacnment of the Lord's Supper 
. . .together with a short Admonition touduDg 
the Controveraie about the Holy Euduurisl:. 
Also Godly Meditations concernuiff the Di- 
vine Presence,' 1613, I2mo; a tbira edition 
appeared in 1677. The book was dedicate 
to * the two vertuoua and modest gentle- 
women, Mrs, Katherine and Mrs. Francla 
Southwell, sisters.' John Henry (afterwards 
Cardinal) Newman, who wrote a preface for 
the Oxfordreprint of 1838 (reissued in 184:8, 
24mo, and 1866, 8vo), describes it aa writtaa 
in the devotional tone of Bishops Taylor 

[Wood's Athens Oion. (Bliss), ii. 450 ; 
Satton's Works; Blomafield's Hist, of Horfolk, 
ii. 288, 1. 21)2. SBO ; Le Here's Fasti Eccl«s. 
Anglic, ii, 1 ta, iii. 35S ; Foetsr's Alumni Oxoa. 
1600-1714 ; AlUbooa's DicL Eogl. Lit] 

G. Lh a. N. 

SUTTON. JOHN pb, Babon Dudcbz 
(UOl P-1487>. [See Ddduhi, Johu.] 

SUTTON, OLIVER {d. 1299), bishop of 
Lincoln, was related to the Lexington, 
family long connected with Lincoln[8ee 
Leiintoh, Jousl On 19 Dec, 1244, &« 
rector of Shelfora, Cambridge, he had Kn 
indult to hold another benefice with cure of 
souls (Bliss, Cai. Papal Reg. i, 211). ^^ 


Sutton I 

bfctme canon of LiuMtln in 1370, &nd deux 
oa 30 Jane 1 276. His biographer, Jolia de 
Eetlb^ or Schdiby, says that he had been re- 
RDt in arte (perbaps at Oxford), hud studied 
m the canon and civil law, and would 
l»Te proceeded to lecture in tlieologj but 
fai his promotion to the deanery. On the 
deatb of Richard de Oravesend [q. v.] Sutton 
wu elected bishop of Lincoln on 6 Feb. 
ISSO. He was consecrated by Archbishop 
Peekbam at Lambeth on 19 Mny 1280, and 
eaAronod at Lincoln on 8 Sept. (Ann. Mon. 
it. S84 ; Pbckha^, Registnim, i. 116). 
Snttim occupied himself chiefly with the 
■dminutration of bis diocese. His official 
fMition as bishop bmuoht him into relations 
with the nnirersity of Oxford, then in the 
dioctae of Ijncoln. He was first involved 
in ■ dispnCe with the masten in 1281, and 
b Sorember of that year Pechham wrote ' 

bishop conld not support the masters en- 
tiiely, and, by his advice, they snbmitted to 
tbe bbhop next year (tS. iii. 867^, 887). 
la 1388 a dispute again arose as to tbe pre- 
MBtation of the chancellor for the bishop's 
■pptoral, vhich Sutton insisted should he 
Bade in person. The masten resisted bia 
daim, bnt the matter was arranged next 
ymi. Howeverthe dispute was renewed on 
the electioa of a new chancellor in 1290, 
vl« the question was settled before tbe 
1m^ at Weetminster, and it was arranged 
that the eluutcellor should be presented in 
•moa to the bishop (^Ann. Man. iv. 817-18, 
134^ Sutton was consulted b^Peckham as 
to Ui dispute with the Dominicans and the 
dRnmataac^a of Kilwardby's condemnation 
rfenoraat Oxford (A^ufrum, iii. 806, 944). 
H« olfidated at the funeral of Eleanor, the 

tMm of Edward I, at Westminster on 
17 Dec. 1290 (/liwi. Mim, iv. 826). In 1291 
3 of the collectors of the tithe 

iraoied by the pope to the kins' for the 
owade (A. iii. 367, 383, 386; Cal. Papal 
Jbg. L 5M). In 1206 he joined with Arch- 
MMp Winehelsey in resisting the bing'e de- 
■Udafor a enbsidy from tbe clergy, and, as 
1 MxuequeDce, his goods were confiacated 
(Amu Mm. iv. 407). His friends arranged 
tbat the ahniff of Lincoln should accept a 
Ifty onafifUi ofhia goods (HEunisBtrKSH, ii. 

SattoB died at a great nge on St. Hrice's day, 
It Nor, 1399, whue his priests were sin^ng 
Htini (ScHALBr, p. 212). He is descnbed 
VSeh^by, who "was hb registrar for eigb- 
tsn nars, as a learned man, charitable, and 
tw (mm eoTetousnesa. The fines which he 
MHTad ttani delinquents, he divided among 

I Sutton 

thBpoor,andbewotildnot permit tbe villains 
on bis demesnes to be burdened with more 
than their lawful service. In Schalby's eyes 
bia one fault was that he permitted tbe pre- 
bends in his church to be too highly rated 
" " " .de. Het 

under the 

for the crusade. . 


vicar's court, which vras completed b^ his 
executors. He also provided the pansh of 
St. Mary Mi^alen, which had previously 
used the nave of the cathedrnt, with a 
separate church. From Edward I he ob- 
tained, in 128€, license to build awall round 
the cathedral precinct (Cal. Pat. SolU, Ed- 
ward r, 1281-92, p. 161). One of bia first 
acts OS bishop was to endow a chaplain for 
his old parish of Shelford {ih. p. 81). 

[Annalea Monnstici; Pcckhnm's RegiBtrnni ; 
Schalby'i Lives of the Blshopa of Lincoln, np. 
Opora Oir, C&mbrcniiiB, rii. 208-12 (Rolls Sot.); 
Honiingburgh'sChroniclotEngl.HiBt. Soc.);Lo 
Nave's Fasti Ecd. Aug], ii. 12,31; Cal. of Patent 
HoUb, Edward I.] 0. L K. 

SUTTON, Sib MCHAKD (d. 1624), co- 
founder of Brasenoae College, Oxford, is said 
by Cburton to have been related to William 
Sutton, D.D., who in 1468 was principal of 
Brasenose Hall, and bore the coat-of-anns of 
tbe Buttons of Cheshire, also home by Sir 
Richard Sutton. This conjecture is corrobo- 
rated by a pedigree entered at Glover's visi- 
tation of Cheshire in 1580, which represents 
Richard as the younger son of Sir William 
Sutton, knt., of Sutton in the parish of 
Presbnry, master of the hospital of Burton 
Lazors, Leicestershire, a preferment which 
seems at this time to have been hereditary 
in the ftmily (Ohtikton, p. 411; Lettert 
and Paper* of Hvnry VIII, iv. i. 154). 
Nothing ia known of his education, bnt he 
must have become a member of the Inner 
Temple, his name appearing with twoothers 
in the 'Oatalogus Ghibematorum ' for nine 
years between 1506 and 1533; in 1530,1532, 
and 1533 it heads tbe list (DitaDAts, Orw. 
Jurid. p. 173 ; Inner Temple JUcordt). He 
isetated to have repaired the Temple Church, 

That be early acquired affluence, presum- 
ably by the exercise of his profession, may be 
inferred from the circumstance that in 1491 
and 1400 he purchased land at Somerby, 
Leicestershire. In 1498 he appears as a 
member of the privy council, possibly as a 
kind of legal assessor, since he is styled in 
the dockets of the court of requests 'Sutton 
jurisperitus.' He also became, though at 
what date is unknown, steward of tbe monas- 
tery of Si on, a valuable preferment ; in 1522, 
on the occasion of ' an annual grant by the 
spiritualty ' for the French war, we find the 


Sutton li 

entry ' Mr, Sutton of Sion 100/.' (LetUrg and 
J'apert cf Henry VIII, m. ii. 1049). In 
this capacity he displaced hia love of literar 
turo by bearing the expenses of the publica- 
tion of 'The Orcharda of S7011,' a folio printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde in 1619, and a ' most 
Bupeib and curious specimen of ancient 
EngltBh topographjf.* He also gave certain 
estates purchased in the ne^hbourhood to 
the monastery. 

Sutton's project of partirapatiug in the 
foundation of a college appears tonftTB be- 
come known in January 1506, when Edmund 
Croston,wbo had been principal of Brasenose 
JIall, bequeathed the sum of 6^ t3«. Ad. to- 
wards 'the building of Bmsynnose in Ox- 
ford, if such works as the bishop of Lyncoln 
and Master Sotton intended there went on 
during their Lfe 01 within twelve years 
after [see Smith or Surra, Wiluaii, 
14eOP'1514]. In October 1608 Sutton ob- 
tained from University College a lease of 
Brasenose Hall and Little University Hall 
for ninety-two years at 31. a year, the Aite- 
rest of the grantors to he released upon con- 
Teyance by Sutton to Univereity College of 
land of tne aame net yearly value. The 
aite, however, was not absolutely conveyed to 
Brasenose College till May 16S3, the year be- 
fore Button's death. In the same year (1508) 
he acquired, with a view to the endowment 
of the future collie, lands at Borowe in the 
pariah of Somerby, Leicestershire, and in 
the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand, Middle- 
sex. In 1612 he added the manor of Oro- 
nredy, Oxfordshire, and in 1613 an estate at 
North Ocliingtan or Wokyndon in Essex. 
All these estates he conveved to the college 
in 1619, the value of them being nearly equal 
to those given by Bishop Smyth. In 1612 
be was auo instrumental in obtaining an 
endowment for the college of lands in Berk- 

at Oarsington and Cowley, Oxfordshire. AU 
these properties had heen recently purchased 
by him, which proves him to have acquired 
a Ibj^ amount of personalty. The presence 
of his arms over the gateway of^ Corpus 
Christi College, of which the first president, 
John Claymond [q. v.], was a benefactor to 
Brasenose, iodicAtes that Sutton was pro- 
bably nlso a contributor to the expense of 
the building of Corpus in 1616. 

No record exists of the date at which 
Sutton woa knighted. He was esquire in 
May 1622, but a knight before March 1624, 
when be made hia wilL The will was proved 
on 7 Nov. 1624, and, as he was long com- 
memorated by Brasenose College on the 
Bonday after Michaelmas, it is probable that 

a Sutton 

he died at that period of the year. An in- 
ventory of his goods in the Inner T«mj;ile 
was presented to the parliament of that inn 
on 22 Oct. 1624. He lived in the inn and 
was unmarried. The place of his burial is 
unknown, but it may possibly have been 
Macclesfield, where, or alternatively at Sut- 
ton, he ordered the endowment of a chantn 
for the repose of his soul, and of the sou^ 
of Edward IV and Elizabeth his wife, and lA 
sundry other eminent persons, most of whom 
appear to have been members of the Yorkist 
party. Sir Richard bequeathed money to the 
master of the Temple and to the abbe«s of 
Sion for pious purposes, to Clement's Inn and 
to Macclesfield grammar school. He left 40^ 
for making a uighway about St. Qiles-in- 

Sutton was the first lay founder of a col- 
lege, and that he was a man of piety and 
letters is evidenced by his bene^tiona. His 
relaxation of the severity of the college 
statutes after Bishop Smyth's death shows 
that his piety was &ee &om the austerity <£ 
the ecclesiastic. With Smyth he may be 
taken to have eutertelned acme distrust of 
the new learning of the renaissBnce, if we 
may rely not only on the etatutes of tiie col- 
lege but on a saying of his recorded by the 
Duke of Norfolk in 1637 ; ' Non est amplius 
fides super t«rram ' (Letters and Fapert 0/ 
Henry VIII, in. ii. 291). The portrait of 
Satton, clad in armour and surcoat quarter- 
ing the arms of Sainahury with tliose of 
Sutton, hongs in the hall of Brasenose. By 
his mde ia the open visor of a knight's helmet. 
It is difficult, uowever, to believe that the 
benevolent and somewhat weak face, appsi- 
rently of a young man under thirty years of 
age, was the likeness of a man who in 1522 
or 1623 had passed a long and active career. 
If, as may be supposed, the portrait is 
genuine, tW face was prolrably a copy of an 
earlier porb^t with the knightly acceaaoiies 
added, possibly after his death, 

[Stnta Papers, Dmn. Hen. VUI, vols, ii, ttA 
iii. ; Churton's Live* of Williani Smyth, bishop 
of Lincoln, and Sir Richnrd Satton, Knight, 
1800 ; Indorvii:t's Caleadnrof the Inner Temple 
Hecorfs. 1BB6, vol. i,J L S. L. 

SUTTON, Sib KIOHARD (1798-1855), 
Becondbaronet,sportsman,8onof John Sutton 
(who was the eldest son of Sir Richard Sut- 
ton, first baronet), by his wife Sophia FriMiceB, 
daughter of Charles Chaplin, was bora at 
Brant Broughton, Lincolnshire, on 16 Dec. 
1798, The fiist baronet, Sir Richard Sutton, 
who was great-grandson of Henry Sutton, a 
younger brother of Robert Sutton, first baron 
Lexington [o. v.], received his title on retiriiig 
from uie oince of under-secretary of stato 





m 14 OcL 1773. Tu 1802 Sutton succeeded 
hit gnndfkther, tha first baronet, ia tlie 
liile utd estates when oqI^ four Taan of &ge. 
DinDga lonj; minoritj his wealtb occumu- 
bud ud he becune one of the most ireatthf 
MB b Lhe country, owning larce estalas in 
Noninglumeliire, Norfolk, and Leicestei- 
■Ur, and also in London, ivhere a large 
poRionofMsYrair belonged to him. Ileivaf 
•dfflilted a fellow-commoner of Trinity Col- 
1^ Cambridge, on 22 Oct. 1816, graduating 
K.A. in 1818. As soon as lie came of age 
h devoted himself with great enthusiasm to 
ieU iporta. The familj seat was Norwood 
■1 Nottinghamshire, but lie took Sudbrooke 
Hall, Lincolnshire, for his hunting residence, 
ad Wellins, Norfolk, tor his shootin^-boz, 
■ad rented h^ie moots in Aberdeenshire for 
gimte-ghooting and deer- stalking. Sc 
■nui was be to shooting that he seldom 
niaed a day during the season, except when 
bms hunting. 

!■ 1822 Sutton became master of fox- 
konds, BQce«eding Thomas Assheton Smith 
r^ T.l as master of the Burton hunt in 
Uicolnshire. He frequentlj hunted six days 
4»Mk, excepting for a time in 1829, when 
It hake his thigh. He then took a bouse 
•t Lincoln, exercising profuse boBpitality 
dsBw his londence there. In 1844, on 
Lord lAHcUle's death, he removed hie bunt- 
■■I establishment to Cottesmore Park in 
lUtlmd, where he hnnted for five seaaons. 
Is 1818 he again removed to Leicestershire, 
Midit>j> at Quom Hall, which be purchased 
m liJta. 1848 from the Oliver family for 
l3flX)L Hera he hunted for eight vears, 
tki Qnom countiy being considered the 
&aMt Bcid in England, and under his lead 
I'iettttrriure enjoyed sport unsurpassed in 
iukoiqioituig: annals. AtQuomhekepta 
Kid (rf seventy to eighty horses and saventy- 
■iaa cooplee of hounds, and for some years 
h km the ec4e cost of the Quom Hunt. 

Sutm was an ardent lover of the chase, 
t food rider, fimd of ridiog ' difficult ' horses, 
nd s Sfoni shot. He was never idle, but 
liter his day's «part occupied himself with 
b late or his books. He Iiad a great talent 
Ic MBsic. For politics he had a contempt, 
>*d, though often solicited, refused to stMid 

He died suddenly on U Nov, 186J> at his 
t^n feaidaice, Camt»idge House, No. 94 
f^odilly. He iras bnned on the Slst at 
'•■M, Nottiiwhamshire. His stud was 
"UmlSand 14 Sec following. On the 
fax day thirty-two hones fetched fi,812 
[■BUS, and the remainder over 1,200/. on 
tk neoad day. Seventy couples of hounds 
pdaccd 1,606 guiiiea*. After his death 

the Quom Hall estate was sold to Mr. Ed- 
ward Warner, and the Quorn hunt was re- 
moved to Melton Mowbray. 

Sutton married, a few ilays after he came 
of age, at St. Peter's in Eastgate, Iiincoln, on 
17 Dec. 1819, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of 
Benjamin Biirton, esq., of Biuiou HaU, co. 
Carlow, and bv her had aevan sons and four 
daughters, llis wife predeceased him on 
1 Jan. 1842. Hia will was proved in the 
prerogative court of Canterbury on 12 Dec. 
I8S6. An ec^uestrinn portrait of Sutton was 
painted by Sir F, Grant, R-A., and was en- 
graved by Graves. 

[field, 24 Nov. ISSfi; Leicester Journal, 
IS Nov. 18fi6; Times, 15 Nov. 1885; Gent. 
Mag. ISSe, i. 80-2; Annual RraiaCer 18fi5t 
icvii. 317-18; Bnrke'sand Fotlor'sBuroDelagea; 
infonnalioQ fmra W. Aldis Wright, asq., D.C.L.] 
W. a. D. F. 
SUTTON, ROBERT, first Babok Lbxisg- 
TON (1594-1668), bom in 1594, was the sou. 
of Sir William Sutton of Aramor Averham, 
Nottinghamshire, by Susan, daughter of 
Thomas Cony of Basingthorpe, Lincolnshire 
(Complete Peerage, by (J. E. 0, v. 73 [ Lexing- 
ton Paperi, 1861, pref.) Sutton represented 
Nottinghamsbire in the parliament of 1625, 
and in the two parliaments called in 1640. 
Ho took the side of the king when the civil 
war began, but at first endeavoured to uegtv 
tiate a treaty for the neutrality of the 
county with Colonel Hutchinson and the 
local parliamentAry leaders (Life of Col. 
Sulclunmn, ed. 1885, i. 167, 200, 357-62). 
He served throughout the war in the garrison 
of Newark until its surrender in 1646 (CoK- 
us Bbowic, AnnaU of Newark, pp. 164, 
,, On 21 Nov. 1645 the king created ■ 
Sutton Boron Lexington of Aram (Black, 
O-yfori Doaguett, p. 278). Sutton's loyalty 
involved him in great losses. Hia estate 
was sequestrated, and parliament ordered 
5,000;. to bo paid out of it, to Lord Grey_ of 
Wark ( tiU it was ^aid Grey was to eujoy 
all the profltB of his estate (Caieadar of 
'''Tmpmaider*, V. 1336). Lexington had he- 
me one of the securities for a loan raised 
Newark for the service of Charles I, which 
i to further embarrassments (CaUndar of 
Committee far Adeance of Money, p. 881 ; 
Zife qf Col. Rutckinton, ii. 139). In 1654 
' na a prisoner in the upper bench on an 
. ition for 4,000^., having incurred heavy 
debts by his composition, and conveyed 
away all hia estate except 300/. per annum 
(Calendar of Gmpouaderi,p. 1337). In 
1665 Major-general Edward W'haUey fq. v.] 
and the county committee demanded pay- 
ment of the decimation tax of ten per cent, 
of his income. Sutton pleaded inability to 


Sutton • 

f»j, and petitioned the Protector. The ids' 

beiDg ehowa to him, saying : 
county tenned the devil of Newark; he 
exercised more cnieltj than any, nay, than 
all of that gairrison, to the parliament boI- 
diera when tliey fell into hjs power '(TAurftM 
Papers, iv. 345, 854, 364), At the Reat<ira- 
tion Lexington made sereral uuguccesefdl 
attempts to get compensation for his losses 
out 01 the estate of Colonel Hutchinson, and 
after many petitions succeeded in obtaining 
the repayment of the Newark loan (Life of 
Col. nuttAinmm, ii. 260, 268, 973; Bbowh, 
Annate of Newark, p. 187). 

T^xington died on 13 Oct. 1668, and was 
buried at Aram. He married three times : 
flrat, on 14 April 1616, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Geoive Manners of Haddon HaU, and 
sister of John, eighth earl of Rutland ; 
eecondlv, Anne, daughter of Sir Guy Palmes 
of Lindlej, and widow of Sir Thomas Browne, 
bart., of Walcott, Northamptonshire; and 
thirdly, on 21 Feb. 1601, Mary, daughter of 
Sir Anthony St. Leger, warden of the king's 
mint j she died in 1669, leaving a son Ro- 
bert, second baron Lexington [q. t.] 

SUTTOIf, ROBERT, second Baeoit 
Lbunotok (1661-1728), bom at Averham 
Park, Nottinghamshire, in 1661, was the 
only SOD of Robert, first haron Lexington 
fq.T.l.hy his third wife, Mary, daughter oi Sir 
Anthony St. Leger, knt. He succeeded his 
father as second Baron Lexington in October 
1668, and his mother died in the following 
year. He entered the army when young, 
and took his seat in the House of Lords for 
the first time on 9 May 1636 (Joumalt of 
the Howe of Lordt, xiv. 4^. He appears to 
have resigned his commission in June 1686, 
OS a protest against the illegal conduct of 
James II (LnrEHLt, Bri^ Sistorical Se- 
lation of State Affaire, 1857, i. 881). He 
attended the meetings of the Convention 
parliament in 1689, and gave his Yot« in 
favour of the joint sovereignty of the Prince 
and Princess of Orange. In June 1689 he 
was sent by William on a mission to the 
elector of Brandenburg, and on 17 March 
1692 was sworn a member of the privy 
council. Lexington had been appointed 

rsntleman of the horse to Princess Anne; 
ut ' when the difference happened between 
her and King William ' he left her service, 
and shortly afterwards became a lord of the 
king's bedchamber (Memmri of tht Secret 
Servicet of John Macky, 1783, p. 101). In 
ltf93 Lexington served as a volunteer in 

U Sutton 

Flanders (LrrrsELL, iii. 99, 96), and later 
on in the same year was selected with H»>p, 
the pensionary of Amsterdam, to mediate 
between the rival claims of the bouse (rf 
Lunenburg and the princes of Anhalt with 
respect to tlie succession to the estates of 
the Duke of Sase-Lunenburg, In Janusiy 
1694 Lexington was nominated colonel of a 
horse regiment (t6. iij. 250), and in June 
following he went as envoy-extraordinary to 
Vienna, where he remwned in that capacity 
until the conclusionof the peaceof Byawiii 
in 1697. Though appointed one of the iobt 
plenipotentiaries, Lexington remained at 
Vienna while his colleagues were at Rys- 
wick (Calendar of TreaevruPapere, 1697- 
1701-2, p. 528 ; Lexington Papers, p. 286). 
He was nominated a member of the council 
of trade and plantations on 9 June 1699, and 
continued to sen-e on that board until his 
dismissal in May 1702. As one of the lords 
of the bedcliamber he was in ^quent at- 
tendance upon the king, and was present 
when William died, on 8 March 1702 (see 
Ripnt and Tikval, HUtory of England, 
1732-47, iii. 607). 

Lexington appears to have lived in re- 
tirement during the greater port of Queen 
Anne's reign. After the opening of the 
congress of Utrecht he was sent ss ambas- 
sador to Madrid to conduct the negotiations 
vrith Spain. He arrived there in August 
1712, and obtained from Philip V the re- 
nunciation of his claims t« the crown of 
France, returning to England, on aceountof 
h!shealth,towardsthecloBeofl718. Tindol 
states that, on Oxford's removal from the 
post of lord high treasurer, Lexington was 
named as one of those who were likely to 
hold high office in Boliitgbroke's ministrr 
(ii. vol. iv. pt. i. p. 368 ; see also Sw^t 
ITorfts, 1814,xvi.l96). Whatevermayhavo 
been Bolingbroke's intentions, which were 
frustrated by Anne's sudden death, it is 
certain that Lexington waa by no means 
disposed to promote the cause of the Pre- 
tender (ZeniiytonPa^iera, pp. 8-9). ThoDgfa 
he was severely censured in the report of 
Walpole's secret committee for his snare in 
the peace n^otiations, no proceedings were 
token gainst him (Pari. Hitt. vol. vii. app. 
pp. ii-ccxxii). From an undated letter in 
the British Museum, it appeare that Lexing- 
ton declined a post of honour offered him by 
the king through the Duke of Newcastle, 
thinking that it would not ' look well in th« 
eye of the world to be seeking new honours ' 
when he was 'incapacited to inioy even 
those that ' he had (Addit. MS. 32686, f. 
217). Lexington died at Averham Park on 
19 Sept. 1728, aged 63, and was buried in 



Kefluin chnrch, '^here a monument was 
tRCted to hie metnoir. 

LfTington married, ia 1691, Margftret, 
dioglitn- and heiress of Sir Oilee Hunger- 
feriafOoDlston, Wiltshire, bj whomhe nad 
ibw children, via. (1) "William George, who 
died at Madrid in October 1713, aged 16, 
lod vaa buried at Kelham ; (2) Eleanon 
Uirgaretta, who died uamarried in 1716; 
nd (3) Bridget, who married, in 1717, John 
Huners, margaia of Granby, afterwaidB 
ttiid thike of Rutland, and became mother 
rf Ibe famons Marquis of Granby. On her 
teth, in 1734, her second son. Lord Robert 
Xmners, in accordance with the will of his 
mitemal grandfather, assumed the surname 
rf Sutton, and succeeded to the Lexington 
ettuee. On his death, in 1762, he was sue- 
(tedcd by his next brother, Lord George 
Mraners, who thereupon ssBiimed the addi- 
tinul Bomame of Sutton, and from him are 
dsKcoded all those who bear conjointly the 
nmei of Mannen and Sutton. The title 
beeuae extinct upon Lexington's death. 

Micky describes Lexington as being 'of 
food mdcratanding, and very capable to be 
a the ministry ; a well-bred gentleman and 
a tgne»ble companion, handsome, of a 
howB complexion, 40 years old ' {Memoirt 
if tin Secret Servica qf John Afacly, p. 101), 
^ft, however, makes the amendment that 
beh»d only 'avery moderate degree of under- 
(tanding ' (Swnr, Jforke, i. 309). 

Leiir^ton entered nine protests in the 
House of Lords (RoaEBs, Omplete Collec- 
<*■ ^ PmtrsU, 1875, vol. i. Nos. 86, 127- 
131, 136-6, 186), but there is no recorc 
rf any of tus speeches. Extracts from his 
■Acial and private correspondence during his 
Binian to Vienna were published in 16^ 
vaiet the name of 'The Lexington Papers.' 
Hi« letters during his residence at Madrid 
M iffibaesador &re in the possession of Mr, 
J- H. Uumers-Satton, the present owner of 
Kdhun Hall, Six of Lexington's letters 
■reweserved in the British Mueeum {AMit. 
JT&SL 27457 f. 9, .^2686 ff. 117, 216, 317, 239; 
*«r M8. 760, f. 238). 

[AnUioritiH qnot«d in the tost; Bumet'i His- 
>«T of his ovn Time, 1B33, vi 138-9 ; Burke's 
EniDttFerrage, 1 883. p. 633 ; O. E. C[okajDB]'s 
f^l** Peerage, 1898, ». 73 ; Qnarterly E»- 
*". Indx. 393-412; Calendar of Treasory 
P*p»f». 1M7-1698 pp. 42, 393, 16e7-I7tl!-2 
n- U-4. 418-19. 1708-14 pp. 422, 602; 
&>4a't Book of Di^tiea, 1890; Kotea and 
Qmw, Itfa KT. 7X. 30, 104, 6th aer. xij. 89, 
Hi liT, 7th n. zii. 388, 466.] G. F. B. B. 

SOTTON, THOMAe (1632-1611) 
^sdet of tl^ Charterhouse, Bon of Richard 
imm of the parijsh of St. Swithun in Lin- 



coin, steward of the courts of that city, and 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Brian Stapleton 
(CHBTWiND-tiTiPTLTOir, The Stapgltom q^ 
Torkihire, pp. 154, 158), was born at Knaith, 
Lincolnshire, in 1632, and, according to 
tradition, received his school education at 
Eton. It is improbable tbat he is identical 
with the Thomas Sutton who was admitted 
a siiar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
3 Nov. 1651, and matriculated on the 27th 
day of the same mouth, but did not graduate 
(COOPBB, .^MfnfsCantair.iii, 49). Be was, 
however, a student of Lincoln's Inn, but 
during Queen Mary's reign was abroad, 
visiting Holland, France, Spain, and Italy, 
His father made a nuncupative wilt, doted 
27 July 156B, and probably died soon after- 
wards. By this wiU he bequeathed to his sod 
Thomas his lease of Cockerington, and also 
half the residue of his goods. As the will 
was not proved until 22 Feb. 1562-3, it is 
probable that Sutton was up to that date 
travelling on the continent or engaged in 
military serrice at home or abroad. He 
had friends among the nobility, and he may 
possibly have been distantly related to the 
Sutt«n family to which belonged the Lords 
Ambrose and Robert Dudley, alias Sutton, 
afterwards Earls of Warwick and Leicester 
respectively. He is said to have been in 
early life secretary to each of these noble- 
men, as well as to Thomas Howard, fourth 
duke of Norfolk [q.v.l On 12 Nov. 1569 the 
Earlof Warwick andtheLady Anne, his wife, 
graaled to their well-beloved servant Thomas 
Sutton for life an annuity of 3/. 1«. &d. out 
of the manor of Walkington, Yorkshire, and 
suheeqnently granted him a lease of the 
manor for twenty-one years at the rent of 

But his early ambition was to follow a 
military career, and he saw some active ser- 
vice in the north. Doubtless he was the 
Captain Sutton who, from December 1668 to 
November 1669, formed part of the garrison 
of Berwick. His wages were At. a day, and 
he had under him a petty captain, an ensign- 
bearer, a sergeant,adrum, forty-six armed sol- 
diers,and fifty-four harqnebnsiers. Although 
during 1666-7 he was acting in the civil 
capaaty of estreator of Lincolnshire, he was 
apparently an oiBcer in the army sent for 
the suppression of the rebellion in the north 
in 158B. There is a letter from him in the 
record office, dated Darlington, 18 Dec. 
1669,narratingthofiight of the rebels on the 
preceding night from Durham to Hexham 
(StaU Papers, Dom. Add. xv. 107). Pro- 
motion to a military post of high respon- 
sibility followed. 

On 28 Feb. 1669-70 Snttonwaa by patent 



Burveyor of the ordnance in the northern 
parts of the letha {Border Papert, i. 10, 86, 
86). 3y the teme of the patent his wages 
were computed from the Ladv-day pre- 
cediof^. TTiH experience aa an artilLery officer 
was put to thetestat the siege of Edinburgh 
Castle tu May 157S, when he commanded 
one of the batteriea. He retained the maa- 
tership of the ordnance until 27 May 1594, 
when he aurrendered it to the queen. But 
the siege of Edinburgh was his last military 

During hia reudence in the nortlk Sutton 
seems to hare noted the abundance of coal 
in Durham, and he obtuned, Sret from the 
bishop and afterwards from the crown, leases 
of lands rich in coal. These posseeuons 
proved a source of great wealth and the 
ibundatioD of an immense fortune. It 


one of the richest EngUshmeo of the dav 
that he won hia reputation. In 1680, with 
a view doubtless to increasing his already 
TBst resources, he settled in London. 

On 17 Sept. 168S, being then described as 
' of Littlebury, Eeisx, esq..' he obtained a 
license to marry Elizabeth, the wealthy 
widow of John Dudley, esq., of Stoke New- 
ington (Ckbbtbb, London Marriaat Licauxs, 
col. 1304). She woe daughter of John Oaiy 
diner, esq., of Orove Place in the parish of 
Chalfont St. Qiles, Buckinghamshire. Her 
daughter hy her first husband, Ann Dudley, 
married Sir Francis Popham [q. v.] Stoke 
Newington, the site of nis wile's property, 
was Sutton's ordinary residence for many 

iars, though be occasionally resided in Lon- 
' Littlebury, and at Ashdon, Elssex, 
ana at Balsbam, Cambridgeshire. At a 
somewhat later period he had a residence at 
Hackney and also lodgings at a draper's near 
the nether end of St. Dunst-an's Onurch in 
Fleet Street. One SuttonofNewington,esq., 
appears in a return of S8 Not. 1695 of the 
names of gentlemen of account, not being 
citizens of London, in the ward of Farring' 
don Within. Sutton has been inaccurat^y 
represented aa a merchant in London. He was 
not even a freeman of that city. Possibly 
he increased his means by lending money, 
but there is no proof that be was, as has 
been stated, one of the chief victuallers of 
the navy and a commissioner of prixee. He 
bas been claimed asafreeman of the Oirdlers' 
Company, but the records of the company 
relatmg to his time are not accessible. The 
Durham coal mines and his wife's poeaessions 
■were the chief sources of Sutton's great 

On 18 Feb. 1687-8 SattoD contributed 

MS Sutton 

100/. towards the defence of the realm, then 
threatened with invasion fr^m Spain. One 
of the many vessels fitted out to resist the 
Spanish armada was called the Sutton. It 
has been suggested that it belonged to Sutton, 
and more than one author bos stated that he 
commanded it in person. The Sutton wbs a 
barque of seventy tons and thirty men ; it 
belonged to 'Weymouth, with which port 
Sutton is not known to have been connected, 
and it was commanded by Hugh Preston. 
No reliance can be placed on the assertion 
that this small ship captured for Sutton, 
underlettersof marque, a Spanish vessel and 
her cargo estimated at the value of 2O,00(M., 
nor is there any mention of the Sutton 
taking any part in the defeat of the armada 
(see LtT79HTOtr, Dtftat of the ^anith Ar- 
mada, 1894). 

In 1607 Sutton purchased the manor of 
Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, for 10,^X>1. 
The transaction was instigated by Sir John 
Harington, who had lent Sir John Skinner, 
the former owner of Castle Camps, 3,000i. 
The claims of Skinner and others on the 
estate involved Sutton in much litigation. 
In the same year (IfXiT) Harington m vain 
endeavoured to persuade Sutton to bequeath 
his estate to Charles, duke of York (after- 
wards Charles I), in exchange for a peerage 
(aee correspondence on this proposal m Hiia 
Bbown, The Charterhtmte Fast at»d Preient, 
pp. 41-60). 

With patriotic magnanimity Sutton !«• 
solved to devote a portion of his great pro- 
perty to public uses. On 30 June 1594 he 
0^ deed conveved, but with power of revoca- 
tiou, to Sir Joan Popham,lord chief justice. 
Sir Thomas Egerton (afterwards Lord Elles- 
merej [q. v.], master of the rolls, and others, 
all hia manors and lands in Es£ex, in trust, 
to found a hospital at Rallingbun Bouchers 
in that county. In 1610 an act of parliament 
was passed to enable him tofoundahoBpital 
and free school at HoUingburj Bouclieis. 
On 9 May 1611, however,hepurchasedfrom 
Thomas, earl ofSuffolk, for 13,000/., Charter- 
house in Middlesex, then called Howard 
House. The original Charterhouse, founded 
by Sir Walter Manny [q.T.] in 1371, had 
been dissolved in 1635, the lost prior, John 
Haughton [q. v.], being executed. Thehonsa 
passed auccesaivaly into the hands of Thomas, 
lord Audley, Edward, lord North, the Dnka 
of Northumberland, Thomas Howard, duko 
of Norfolk, and Thomas Howard, earl of 
Suffolk. On 22 June following letters patens 
were granted authorising Sutton to erect anil 
endow hishospital and free school within ttta 
Charterhouse insteadofatEallingbury. Ha 
had intended, if his health permitted, to ba 


Sutton ■! 

lb Ent muter of tlie hoajMUl, but on 

nOct he conferred the poston John Hut ton, 
Kjl^Ticar of LittlebuTT, and on the fol- 
bwisg lU; ezecntod the deed of endowment. 
Ibiiut object of the foandation seems to 
bn been left for the goTemtnent to deter- 
■iiii,ud Bacon wrote a paper of advic« to 
IhUoffoa the subject (printed in Workt, 
liSpedding, toI. iv.) The scheme flnallj 
tiipttd was that there should be, fint, a 

alal for porerty-stricken ' ffentlemen,' 
m who had bomo arms b; land or sea, 
MTckuts who had been ruined hj ship- 
nek or piracy, and aervanta of the liingor 
r. The number was limited to eighty; 
■ho h&d bcon maimed could eater at 

(Uian uid tcaiateoance of fort; bof s. In 
IfTi tbe school was moved from London to 
G«dihiiiiig, the vacant premises being' pur- 
daud by tbe Merchant Taylors' Company 
i* ibeii school. The hospital remains in its 

XI home, 
in died at Hackney on IS Dec. 161 1 , 
adliia bowels were buried in the cbnrch of 
I IkUpariih. His embalmed body remained 
' ii Ui boQM at Hackney tUl 28 May 1Q12, 
I vhea it was romarad in solemn procession, 
[ vilk heraldic attendance, to Christ Church, 
uniim, where the funeral was Bolemniaed. 
TWnce his body was, on IS Dec. 1614, 
tttntd by the poor brethren of his hospital 
taihecbapel in Charterhouse, and depoeitod 
'a i Tsutt on the north side. Otst his 
Muins a magnificent tomb was erected in 
161S 1^ Nicholas Stone [q. v.] 

Bkwife died in June 1602 at Balsham, 
udwts buried at Stoke Newington, where 
tkoB it a monument to her and her first 
Mud, John Dudlev. 

Hs had a natural son, named Boger 
Sittan, whose name does not figure in nts 
■nH On8 June 1611-12 Sir John Bennet 
*nte to Carleton that there nas ' much talk 
ibam Tkh Sntton's bequest of 200,000(. [nc] 
b cbiritable naea, which is so great that 
tie law^rs are trying their wits to find 
<Me Saw in the conveyance ' (Cat. State 
V". Dom. lOH-18, p. 110). In June 
ln3 the jndgea by ten to one decided in 
fcrow ot iU validity, hnt James I then 
^omandid the executors to make Roffer 
^vtton a competent allowance out of ois 
faWsestafeeCa. p. 188). 
, f^attrnwasesteemed therichestcommoner 
■ Eviand. Hi« real estate was computed 
■■ SmXML per annum and his personalty at 
^1(U, 9>. 9d. Besides numerous other 
bequest*, he left five hundred 
b to Sfagdalone and Jesus Col- 

7 Sutton 

leges, Cambridge. A portrait of him is in 
the master's room at the Charterhouse school, 
Godalming. It was engraved by Vertae. 
There are also several other engraved por- 
traits (cf. Bbohi^t). 

(Addlt. M3S. 4160 art. 7«, «7S4 ff. 68, 72. 
T4 ; Cal. StAte Paper*, Dom. and Add. passim ; 
Border Papers, rols. i. sad ii. ; Canon Haig 
Brown's Chart^rhouaa Fast and Ptwent, 1879 ; 
Adlard's Sutton— Dudleys, p. 1S6; Life bf 
Bearrroft; Bingr. Brit.; Brand's Newcastle, ii. 
268, 369; Cbron. of Charterhouse l Coke's 
Grporti^ ii. 1; Collect. Top. et Qenea]. Tiii. 
206; Fuller's Worthies (Lincolnthire); Gent. 
Mng. 1839 i. 3<0, 1813, i. 43; Henie'i Dootus 
Carthnslana, 1877; NotcB and Qaeriea, 1st ser. 
iii, 84, 3rd ser. z. 393, dthscr, ii. 409. 45S, 492, 
r. 37 ; Bobinion's Hackney, i. 3fi7 ; Robinson's 
Stoke Newint^on, pp. 31, 49, 169, 193; Sadler 
Slate Papers, i. 886, SfiB, ii. 6 ; Shnrpe's Northsro 
Babellion, p. 109 ; Smythg's Cbarterhonse ; Oal. 
State Papers, Dom. ; Stow's Annalas, 1616, 
pp. S76, 940; Sirype's AddsIs, iii. 27, foL : 
WilTord'a Memorials, p. 617.] T. C. 

BUTTON, THOMAS (1686-1623), 
divine, was bom in 1566 of humble paren- 
tage at Sutton Gill in the perish of fiamp- 
ton, Westmoreland. In 1603 he was made 
' a poor serving child ' of Queen's College, 
Oxford, whence he matriculated on 15 Oct, 
He was afterwards tabarder, and graduated 
B.A.on SO May 1606. He proceeded M.A. 
on 6 July 1600, B.D. on 16 May 1616, and 
D.D. on 12 May IdSO. In 1611 he was 
elected perpetual fellow of the college. 
Having taken orders he became lecturer of 
St. Helen's, Abingdon, Berkshire, and 
minister of Culham, Oxfordshire; and was 
afterwards lecturer of St. Mary Overy, 
Soutbwark. He was 'much followed and 
beloved of all for his smooth and edifying 
way of preaching, and for his exemplary 
life and conversation.' In 1623 he went to 
bis native place, and there 'put his last 
hand to the finishing of a free scnool' which 
he had founded and endowed with 600^. 
raised in St. Saviour's. South wark, and else- 
where. Edmund Gil»on [q. v.], bishop of 
London, who had been educated at Bampton, 
afterwards rebuilt the school When re- 
turning by sea from Newcastle to London, 
Sutton was dranned with many others on 
St. Bartholomew's day, 24 Aug, What was 
supposed to be his body was buried in 
' the yard belonging to the church ' of 
Aldebu^h, Suflolk. Robert Drury [q. v.], 
the Jesuit, 'did much rejoyce'at the news 
of his death, as a 'great judgment' upon 
him ' for his forward preaching against the 
papists.' Sutton pnbhsbed in 1616 two eeis 
mens preached at Paul's Gross, under tho 

Digitized by Google 



title ' England's First and Second Summons.' 
They had originally been printed separatel;. 
A third impression appeared in 1633, 12mo. 

After his death his orother-in-law, Francis 
Little, student of Chriat Church, published 
'The Good Fight of Faith: a Sermon 
preached before the Artillery Company,' 
1636, 4to ; and in I6S1 a sermon said to 
have been tabes down in shorthand, which 
hftd been preached before the iudg^a at St. 
SaTioar's, Southwark, on 6 luarcb 1621, 
appeared under the title ' Jethroe's Council 
[hic] to Moses; or a Direction for Magi- 
strates.' Anotherposthnmous work, 'Iiecturea 
upon the Eleventh Chapter of the Epistle 
to the Romans,' was published by John 
Downham [q. t,], who married Sutton's 
widow. In nis npiatls to the reader Down- 
ham promised to issue other lectures left in 
manuscript by the author if the present 
series ' took with the men of the world.' 
No more appear to have been published. 

Sutton married adaughter of Francis Little 
the elder, ' brewer and ioholder ' of Abingdon. 
A son, liiomae, at the ageof seventeoii, gra- 
duated B.A. ^m Corpus Christ! College, 
Oiford, in 1640, and obtained a feUowship, 
from which he was ejected on SO Oct. 1648 by 
the parliamBntary visitors. Wood obtained 
information from him about hia father's life. 
A small head of the elder Sutton is repre- 
sented on a sheet entitled 'The Christian's 
Jewel ' (QluneEB, Biogr. JSut. of England, 

[Wood's Athene Oxon. (BUbb), ii. 338-9; 
Bntton'g Beauties of Engliind, vol. xf. pt. ii. pp. 
131-2; Whellan's Cnmberlond and Wostmore- 
land, p. 776; Foster's Alumni Oion.; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; BorroWs Reg. 
of Pari. Tisitors, pp. U2, ISO, 16S. IRS, 197.] 
G. Lk G. N. 

SOTTOS, THOMAS (1767 P-183B), 
medical yniter, was bom in Staffordshire in 
1766 or 1767. He commenced to atudy 
medicine in London, nhence he proceeded 
to Edinburgh and finally to Levden, where 
he graduated M.D. on 19 June 1787. He 
was admitted a licentiate of the College of 
PhysicianB on 29 March 1790, and soon ^er- 
wards was appointed physician to the armv. 
Sutton eventually aettled at Groenwica, 
where he became consulting phyaician to the 
Kent dispensary, and died in 1S35. He was 
the first modem British physician to advo- 
cate bleeding and an antiphlogistic treat- 
ment of fever, and to him is due the dis- 
crimination of delirium tremens from the 
Other diseases with which it had previously 
been confounded. 

He was the author of: 1. ' Oonuderations 
regarding Pulmonary Consumption,' Lon< 

don, 1799, 8vo. 2. 'Practical Account oft 

Remittent Fever frequently occurring among 
the Troops in thisClimate.'Oanterbafy.lSOe, 
8ro. S, 'Tracts on Delirium Tremens,' 
liOndon, 1813, 8vo. 4. ' Letters to the Duke 
of York on Consumption,' London, 1814, 

[Muok's Coll. of Phys. ii. 1199 ; British and 
Foreign Medical Review, 1838, i. 4*.] B. I. 0. 


1670), royalist di^e, bom in Worcester- 
shire in 1600, was matriculated at Oxford, 
as a member of St. John's College, on 15 Not. 
1613, and graduated B.A. on 4 Feb. 1618-- 
1619. In 1636 he was appointed curate 
of St. Botolph, Aldgate, London, where he 
obtained celebritv as a preacher, and ' was 
much frequented by the orthodox parl^* 
(Nbwcourt, SepeHoriam, L. 916). ti the 
beginning of the great rebellion, being re- 
garded as one of 'Laud's creatures' and « 
malignant, he was imprisoned in Crosby House 
from 39 Oct. to 26 Dec. 1642, and afterwards 
in Gresham Oolite and in Newgate. Hjb 
living was sequestered, and his wife and 
children were turned out of doors. Onnining 
his liberty he retired to Oxford, where he 
was created D.D. on 17 Juno 1646 (Fosteb, 
/4iumniOJWi. 1500-1714, p. 1446). Aboat 
this time, according to Wood, ' he taught 
school in several places, meerly to gain bread 
and drink, as in London, and afterwards &t 
Paddington.' AttheRestomtionhewaarein- 
stated in the church of St. Botolph, Aldgate, 
but, being wearied out by the contentious- 
ness of the parishioners, he resigned the bene- 
fice. At oneperiodhewascuraleof Maryle< 
bone. In 1662 he was collated by Arch- 
bishop Juxon to the vicarage of St. James, 
Dover, and to tlie neighbouring rectory of 
Hougham ; but the yearly valuation of Doth 
livings did not exceed 80t. a year, and he 
grow 'craiy and infirm.' In 1604, by the 
favour of Lord-chancellor Clarendon, he 
became rector of St. Pet«r and vicar of All 
Saints, Stamford, where he remained till hia 
death on 9 Feb. 1669-70. 

He obtained a license on 21 April 1682, 
being then a widower, to marry Hester 
Harper, widow, of St. Margarets, West- 

Swadlin'sworksare: 1. ' Sermons, Medit«r- 
tions,and Prayers upon thePlaguej'London, 
1636-7, 8vo. 2. ' The Boveraigne's Desire, 
Peace : the Subject's Duty, Obedience ' [in 
three sermons J, London, 1643, 4to; some 
passages in these sermons were the cause of 
his imprisonment as a malignant. 3. ' The 
Scriptures vindicated from the unsound Con- 
clusiooa of Cardinal Bellarmine, and the con* 


S waff ham 


bVKTted Paints between the Cburch of 
Boow ind the Reformed Oliurcli stated 
lewtJing to the Opinion of both Sides,' 
L(iadoo,lM3, 4to. 4. 'A Manual] ofUevo- 
tiouiuitiiig each Day; with Prayers autl 
IbdiUtiont answerable to the Work of the 
Dif,' London, 1(U3, ISmo. 5. ' MercimuB 
Jfideioieus,' * news-eheet writteu fof the 
bu; ud ha party, December 1645 

I Feb. 

1U8. 0. 'The Soldiers Catechieme, com- 

rad for tbe King's Armie. . . . Written 
tl)e incouragement and direction of all 
lbi> hare taken up Armes in iho Cause of 
Oail,IIi«Church, and His Anointed; espe- 
ddlj the Common Soldiers. Bj T. S.,' Oa- 
hi, [9 July] 164.5. This is by way of 
Tto 'The Soldio " - •■ 

nted for the Parliameiits Army,' 1644, by 
Kobart Ram [eee under Ham, Thomas]. 
. 'ALetter of an Independent to M. John 

GtjnM, Recorder of London ' (auon,), 164d. 
8. 'The Jesuite the chiefe, if not the onaly 
Stite-Heretique in the World ; or the Vene- 
liu Qoarrell digested into a Dialogue,' 2 
pwli, London, 1647, 4to. S. 'Two Letters : 
lb One to a lubtile Papist ; tbe other to 
t Mtloui Presbyterian,' London, 1653, 4ta 
JH 'Oinnity no Hnemj toAstroIo^,' Lod- 
<)aa,1653,4to. 11. 'To all, Paupertattsergd 
•epeream Fame. To some, Qratitudinis ergd 
M piteani Infiunia. Whether it be better to 
uiB PreabyteriaD, Romane, or to continue 
TMIan, Catholiqnein matter of lieligion,' 
Lnidoii [20 Feb. 1657-81 4to. IS. 'Six and 
AirtyQueations propoimded for Resolution of 
oleanied Protestants,' lesd, 4to. IS. ' Kins 
C^ulas his Funeral. Who was beheaded 
... Jan. 30, 1S48. With his anniversaries 
matiauMl nntill 1659,' London, 1661, 4t0. 

[Auilwn'a Woieaatsrshire Biogr. p. 129; 
Veod'i Atheiua Ozod. ad. Bliss, iii. 887; 
K(«(Mn'( Bcpsrtoriam, i. 696.] T. C. 

8WAFFHAM, ROBERT of (A 1273P), 
kMorian of the abbey of Peterborough. [See 


SWACr, CHARLES (1801-1874), poet, 
a of John Swain and hie wife Caroline, 
^i^hlet of Dr. Duiiel KiinM de TaTarei, 
ntbwn in Erery Street, Manchester, on 
(J«. 1801, and educated at the school of 
^ Bar. William Johns [q. v.j At the age 
tfirftaaahB began work as clerk in a dye- 
ii^i^whicli hie uncle, CharlesTsTBr^, an 
Mon^iahed linguist, was p&rt>-proprietor. 
1> dii oeaqation he remained until about 
leSi Senas time afterwards he joined the 
te of Loekett & Co., ALanohestec, a portion 
^vkoae butdnesa, that of eagraviiig and 

lithographing, he soon purchased and carried 
on to the end of his life. The leisure hour* 
of bis long business career he occupied in 
literary pursuits. His first published poem 
came out in the ' Iris,' a Manchester maga-. 
line, in 1823. His first volume of verse 
appeared in 1827 and his last in 1867. In 
tbe interval be acquired a wide reputation as 
a graceful and el^nt Though not a powerful 
writer. Robert Southey said that ' if ever 
man was bom to be a poet, Swain was.' 

Many of his songa were set to music and 
attained wide popularity, among them being 
' When the Heart is Young, ' I cannot 
mind my Wheel, Mother,' ' Somebody's 
waiting for Somebody,' ' 'Tapping at the 
Window,' and ' I wailed in the Twilight.' 
He was held in. great esteem in his native 
city, and was honorary professor of poetry at 
the Manchester Royal Institution, where in 
1846 he lectured on modem poets. He re- 
ceived a civil listpensionof 50'. 1 Dec. 1866. 
He died at hia house, Prestwich Park, near 
Manchester, on 22 Sept. 1874, and was 
biiriedin Prestwich churchyard. A memorial 
is in the church. 

He married, on 8 Jan: 1827, Anne Glover 
of Ardwick. who died on 7 April 1878. A 
daughter, Clara, who married, as his second 
wife, Thomas Dickins (1815-1895), J.P. for 
Lancashire, published four volumes of 
poems. There are oil portraits of Swain by 
William Bradley [q, v.] at the free library 
and the City Art Gallery in Manchester, 
and at the Salford museum. 

Svraiu published, besides contributions to 
periodical literature: 1. ' Metrical Essava, on 
Subjects of History and Imagination,' 1827 ; 
2nd edit. 1828. 2. ' Beauties of the Mind, 
a Poetical Sketch, with Lays Historical and 
Romantic,' 1831. 3. < Dryhurgh Abbey, a 
Poem on the Death of Sir Walter Scott,' 
1832 ; new edit 1888. 4. ' The Mind and 
other Poems,' 1833. Of this, his moat am- 
bitious work,a beautifully illustrated edition 
came out in 1841, and a 6tb edit, in 1873. 
6. 'Memoirof Henry Liverseege'[c|. v.], 1836; 
reprinted 1S64. 6. ' Cabinet of Poetry and 
Romance,' 1844, 4to, 7, ' Rbvmes for Child- 
hood,' 1846. 8. ' Dramatic Cnapters, Poems 
and Songs,' with portrait, 1847 ; 2nd edit. 
1850. a 'Engliah Melodies,' 1849. 10. 'Let- 
ters of Laura D'Auveme,' with other poems, 
1853. 11. 'Art and Fashion: with other 
Sketches, SongaandPoema,' 1863. 12. 'Songs 
and Ballads,' 1867 (6th edit. 1877). A col- 
lected edition of his poems was publisbad at 
Boston, U. S., in 1867,and ' SehMtbns,' with 
portrait, appeared in 1906, 

[Uauchaator literary Club Papers, 1879, i. 
96, with ptatrait; Evana'a Laocashire Auittors 



and Oratow, 1880; ProeUr'i Byegono Mun- 
ohestar; Axon'i ADnaU of UanchesUir; Haw- 
tbonie'i Eogliih KoU Booka, ii. 286 ; 3otithe;^s 
LetMrs of Eapriells; AUEbooe's Diet. oTEngLLit. 
ii. 3307; HoDcIieater Qoudiaii, 8 Deo. 1841, 
23 Sept. 1B74, 14 Feb. ISSO; HancheAer 
Eumiusr, 23 Sopt. 187^ ; MaaobeMer Wseklf 
Times Sapplemeut, 4 Feb. 1871; Manchester 
Oitj News NotBg and Qaflries, 1879; informa- 
tion supplied b; Mr. Fnd L. Tbt^t^.I 

0. W. 8. 

SWAIN, JOSEPH J[1761-1796J, hymn- 
writer, wu bom at Birmingham in 1761, 
and was apprenticed to an eugmv&t of that 
town at an early a^e. The latter part of 
hia apprenticeship, howeTW, he served in 
London with his brother. In 1782 heoame 
under conviction of sis, and on 11 Maj 1783 
was baptised hj John Rippon [q. v.] lu 
Decembar 1791 a baptist congregation was 
formed at Walworth, and Swain^ being 
unanimously chosen pastor, was ordained on 
8 Feb. 1792. As a preacher he was ex- 
tremelj acceptable, and his meeting-hoiue 
was three times enlawed during his mmietry. 
He died on 16 April 1796, leaving a widow 
and four children, and was buried ax Bunhill 

Swain was the author of: 1. ' A Collec- 
tion of Poems on Various Occasions,' Lon- 
don, 1781, 4to. 2. ' Bedemption : a poem in 
five books," London, 1789, 8»o. 9. ' Es- 
perimental Essays,' London, 1791, 12mo; 
new edit, with memoir, 18S4, 8to. 4. 
' Walworth Hymns,' London, 1792, IBmo; 
4th edit. 1810. 6. 'Redemption: a ^m in 
eight books ' (a different work from No. S) ; 
Snd edit. London, 1797, 8vo; Sth edit. 
Edinbui^h, 1822, 12mo. Many of Swain's 
' Walworth Hymns ' and some of those in 
his eariier ' Redemption ' became Teiy 
popular and are still in common use. The 
best known are those commencing ' Brethren, 
while we sojourn here,' 'How sweet, how 
heavenly is the ei^ht,' 'In expectation 
sweet,' and ' Thou in whose presence my 
soul takes delight' {JuLUB, Diet, qf 

SWAINE, FRANCIS (d. 1782), marine, 
painter, was one of the earliest English 
artists whose sesr-views possess any merit. 
He was an imitator of the younger Vande- 
velde, and his works ma; be classed with 
those of his contemporaries, Charles Brook- 
ins> [q. v.] and Peter Monamy [q. v.l He 
enjoyed a considerable reputation, ana was 
awarded premiums by the Society of Arts in 
1764 and 1766. Swaine exhibited largely 



with the Incorporated Society and the Free 
Society from 1762 until his death, sendinjr 
chiefly studies of ahippiag in both calm and 
stormy seas, harbour views, and naval eu- 
gagements. He was ve^ partial to moon- 
right effects. Some of his works were en- 
graved by Canot, Benazecb, and others, and 
there is a set of plates of fights between 
English and French ships, several of wkich 
are from paintings by him. Swaine resided 
at Strutton Ground, Westminster, until 
near the end of his life, when he removed to 
Chelsea. He died in 1782, and seven works 
by him were included in the exhibition of 
the Incorporated Society in the following 
year. Two pictures by Swaine are at Hamp- 
ton Court. 

[Edwards's Aneodotes; Bedgnve's Diet of 
Artists; Sscuier's Diet. ofPiuntSBii Exhibition 
Catalogaes.] F. M, O'D, 

SWAINE, JOHN (1776-1860), drauriite- 
man and engraver, son of John and Mar- 
garet Swaine, was bom at Stanwell, Ulddle- 
sex, on 26 June 1775, and became a pupil 
first of Jacob Schnebbelle [q. v.] and after- 
wards of Barak Longmate [q. v.1 He is beat 
known by his excellent facsimile copies of 
old prints, of which the most noteworthy 
are the Droeshout portrait of Shakespeare, 
FMthorae's portrait of Thomas Stanley, 
Loggan's frontispiece to the Book of Common 
Prayer, and the plates to Ottley's ' History 
of Engravinar,' 1818, and Singer's ' History 
of Playing Cards,' 1816. He was also 
largely engaged upon the illustrations to 
scientific, topographical, and antiquarian 
works. He drew and engraved the whole 
series of plates in Haraden's 'Oriental 
Coins,' 1823-6, and many subjects of natural 
history for the transactions of the Linnean, 
Zoological, and Entomological societies. 
There are a few contemporary portraits 1^ 
him, including one of Hanhal Blucher, after 
F. Rehbeig. Swaine was a constant cra- 
tributor of plates to the ' Oeutleman's Maga- 
zine ' for flity years, commencing in 1W4. 
He died in Dean Street, Soho, l>}ndon, on 
26 Nov. 1860. In 1797 he married tho 
daughter of his master, Barak Loninnate. 
She died in October 1893. 

Jorh Babik Swuhb (1816 P-I836), hia 
only son, studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, and whilestilt s boy did some good 
antiquarian work. DrBwinnbyhlm,iUastau- 
ting papers by Alfred John Kempe [q. w.X 
appeared in 'Arohteologia,' 1832 and ISS-i. 
In 18S3 he was awatded the Isis ^Id medal 
of the Society of Arts for an etching, and in 
that year drew, etched, and publish^ a lor^ 
plate of the east window of St. Uargarat^ 




In 18^, haTing taken up 
(ilpuating, faevuitedThe Easue and PuiB 
to ttud; and copj* in the guleries there, 
li Puii he painted much and ateo tried hit 
lind nieceasfully at wood engraTins. Ha 
nmT^ in meuntint Rembraadt's ' t^niah 
Officer/ also a picture hj himself entitled 
'The Ihit^ Goremeas,' and a portrait of 
A. J. Kempe. In 1637 he etched a plate ol 
ibe ihar window at Hampton-Lucy in War- 
wickshire. Swaine waa a varsatile artist of 

C promise, but died at tbe aireof twentj' 
m Queen Street, Qolden Square, Lon- 
don, on ffi March 1838 (Omt. Mag. 1838, L 


(Gat. Hag. 1861 i 3ST ; B«dgTaTe'> Diet, of 
UHm; Stanwell Par. Beg.] F. U. O'D. 

(1830-1887), tb«ologian, waa the second aon 
rf Anthony Swainson, a descendant of an 
dd I^neashire fiunitj, and a merchant and 
ildennan of IiirertMol, where the aon waa 
iaa «n S9 Vtj 18S0. After passing some 
tins at a priTate school at ChriBtleton, ncAT 
Chctfer, wherei he was an uniuaallr studious 
hij, he entwed that of the Rojal Institn- 
li« It liveniool, under Dr. lUff, Joseph 
BuW LightToot [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
al Daiham, became a pupil at tbe same 
Kbool a faw years later, and was a lifelong 
bad. Swainson began residence at Trinity 
Cetl^, Cunbridge, in October 1837, under 
tfaetnititm of George Peacock (1791-1858) 
'«. r.l afterwards dean of Ely. Ha became 
idtolv of his coUeg^ in IBVi, and in 1841 
grajoated aa sixth wrangler in a distin- 
piilied year, irhen the senior wrangler was 

ilof *t Chrtat's CollMfe. In 1847 he became 
eee of the tntoTB. He was ordained by the 
biAof of £Iy on his call«re title, deacon in 
Wi, and pnen in the following year. In 
ISW BiAop Blomfield appointed him Cam- 
bidge preacher at the chapel royal, White- 
UIL £) 1861 he reeigned his tutorship, 
oi after serving curociee at St. Qeorge^ 
Hinmo' Square, and at Mortlake, he as- 
Hnad tbe post of pnncipal of the theoloci- 
a] nA^e at Chichester in Febmary 1864. 
Be wM Bppmnt«d br Bishop Gilbert to a 

Standi] sUll in tbe 'cathedral in 1666. In 
17 nd 18S8 he delivered the Hulseaa 
Vtares at Cambridge. Unwilling to re- 
iaiqaidi altogetber the practical work of the 
UHtrT, he nadertook in 1661 the charge 
■f two' small psriaheB, St. Bsrtholomew'a 
■1 St. Martin's, at Chichester. fVhen, in 
1 W,the beantifiil s^re of Chichester Cathe- 
M HI, be becain» secretaiy of the com- 

mittee for its restoration. While this work 
was still in progress the dean and canons 
residentiary, ezeroiaing a privilege which 
probably they alone among the English 
chapters retained, co-opted Swainson as a 
residentiary. For several years he repre- 
aented the chapter in conTocatiou. In 1864, 
on the preferment of ProfesaorHarold Browne 
to the see of Ely, Swainson succeeded him 
aa Norrisian professor of divinity. Ilesign- 
ing his other appointmenta, he retained uis 
canonry, and also became warden of St. MstV s 
Hospital in Ohicheater, where he spent the 
whole of the income of hia office in adding to 
the comforts of the aged inmates and restor- 
ing tbe chapel. In 1879, on the preferment 
of Dr. Li^tfoot to the see of Durham, 
Swainson was chosen, without opposition, to 
succeed him as Lady Margarets reader in 
divinity. In 1881 he was elected by the 
fellows of Christ's College to the mastersbln. 
and thereupon resigned his canonry. 

dfby personal visits with the condition 
of the college estates, and giving creat at- 

an active and genial master, acquainting 

tention to the business occasioned by the 
introduction of the new code of sCatates, 
which came into operation immediately after 
his accession to the mnatarshin, and required, 
among other things, a complete change in 
the method of keeping the accounts. He was 
chosen vice-chancellor in 1886. EUs heallJi 
from this time declined, and he died on 
15 Sept. 1887. 

In 1863 he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Charles Inman of Liverpool, and uster of 
Thomas and William Inman [q. v J 

In his theological opinions Swainson, 
though he waa not untouched by the phi- 
losophy of Coleridge and by the tractarian 
movement, was alwaya in the main a disciple 
of Hooker and the older English divinea. 
He had remarkable power of work, and was 
one of the most generous and nnaelfish 
of men. He exercised a beneficial influence 
on his pupila, and drew ahont him a lai^ 
circle of atta<uied fiienda. 

In tbe midst of his constant labours aa a 
theological teacher he produced a Toluable 
series of hooka. His first publication, in 
conjunction with Albert Henry Wratialaw 
[q.T.], also fellow of Christ's College, was 
■Commonplaces read in Obrist'a College 
Chapel,' 1848. In 1866 he published ■ An 
Easay on the History of Article izii,' a 
work of considerable research. HisHulsean 
lectures for 1867 were published (1868) 
under the title ' The Creeds of the Church 
in their relation to the Word of God and the 
Conscience of the Christian ; ' those for 1856 
CO 'The Authority ot the New Testament, 





the Conviction of Ri^hteouanesa, aud the 
MinistiT of Keconciliation' were published in 
1859. In 1871 he contributed to the 'Susaax 
ArchEeoloKical Collectiona' (vol. xxiv.) an 
account of St. Mary's Hospitul at Chichester. 
In 1869 tha intaraBt which he took in the 
creeds, shown abeady in hi« Huleean lec- 
tures, led him to join with some warmth in 
the controversj as to the use of the so-called 
AUianasiancrtied in divine service. Without 
in aaj wa^ imputing ita Jokduu, he thought 
a confession of likith ho full 01 technical terms 
of theology ill fitted for the u»a of ordiniiry 
congregatiouB. On this subset he published 
a ' Letter to the Dean of Gbichester on the 
Original Object of tlie Athaaasian Creed,' 
1870, and ' A Hea for Time in dealing with 
the Athanaaion Creed,' 1673. Theae were 
but preliminarieB to a larger and much more 
important work, ' The Nicena and Apostles' 
Creed, their Literary History, together with 
an Account of the Growth and Baception of 
the Sermon on the Faith commonly called 
the Creed of St. Athanasius,' 1876. This was 
the fruit of great labour and research, in- 
volving a tongjourney on the continent for 
the purpose ol visiting the Ubnuies where 
the pnncipol ancient manuscripta of the 
Athanssian 'Ejtpositio Fidei' were to be 
found. In 1875 he also published "The 
Parliamentary History of the Act of Uni- 
formity [of 1662], with Documents not 
hitherto publiehef;' in 1880 'The Advei^ 
tjaement of 1566, an Historical Enquiry,' 
and 'The Constitution and History of a 
Cathedral of the Old Foundation, illustrated 
by Documents in the Uuoiment-room at 
Chichester,' pt. i. (no more published). His 
last literary prodnction was 'The Greek 
Liturgies, chiefly from Oripnal Sources,' 
1834, edited for the syndics of the Cam- 
bridge University Press. For thb very im- 
portant work, which, in the opinion of so 

Sueut critical inquiry into the history of the 
Ireek liturgies, besides the labour which 
be himself bestowed on collating accessible 
manuscripts, he procured at his own expense 
tranecriptSj facsimiles, or photographs (now 
deposited in the divinity achool at Cam- 
bndge) of manv manuscripta previously un- 
known in England. He also wrote elabo- 
rate articles on 'Creeds' and 'Litunpea' in 
Smith and Oheetliam's ' Dictionary of Chris- 
tian Antiquities,' and another article on 
'Creeds considered historicallv' in Smith 
and Wace's ' Dictionary of Christian Bio- 

[Private infonoatmn ; personal knowledge.] 
B. C-M. 

SWAINSON, WILLIAM (1789-1866), 
naturalist, was bom on 8 Oct. 1789 at Liver- 
pool, where his father, who died in 1826, was 
collector of customs. His family had ori- 
ginally been ' statesmen ' at Hawkhead in 
Westmoreland; but his grandfather had 
also been in tJie Liverpool custom-house. 
His mother, whose maiden name was Stan- 
way, died soon after his birth. At fourteen 
he was appointed junior clerk in the liver- 
pool customs i but, to grati^ his longing for 
travel, his father obtained him a post in 
the commissariat, and in the spring of 1807 
he was sent to Malta, and shortly afterwards 
to Sicily, where he was mainly stationed 
during the eight following years. Before 
going abroad he drew up, at the request o( 
the authorities of the Liverpool museum, 
the ' Instructions for Collecting and Pre- 
serving Subjects of Natural History' (pri- 
vately printed, Liver^l, ISOg), which was 
afterwards expanded m 1832 into his ' Na- 
turalist's Guide ' (London, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1821), While in Sicily he made large col- 
lections of plants, insects, shells, fish, and 
drawings ofnatur^ history objects, risitiug 
the Marea,Naplea,Tuscany,and Genoa. On 
the concluuon of puoce in 181S he brought 
hie collections to England, and retired on 
half-pay as assistant commissary-general. 
In the autumn of 1816 he started for Braxil 
with Henry Koster. A revolution prevented 
their penetrating far into the interior, and 
Swwnson devoted himself mainly to collect- 
ing birds in the neighbourhood of OUnda, 
the Rio Son Francisco, and Rio de Janeiro. 
Returning to Liverpool in 1818, he puhlis}ied 
a sketch of hiajoumey in the ' Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal,' and devoted himMlf 

working out his loolo^cal u 
the suggestion of his friend William E^ford 
Leach [q. v.]of the British Museum, he learnt 
lithc^raphy, »o as to make drawings of ani- 
mals suitable for colouring, and in 1820 
began the publication of ' Zoological Illus- 
trations,' in which the plates ore by himself 
(3 vols. 1820-3, with 182 coloured plates ; 
2nd ser. 3 vohi. 1833-3). After five years' 
residence in London, Swainson went, on hia 
marriage in 1825, to live with his father-in- 
law at Warwick, and, not receiving as laig« 
an access of fortune as he had expected oa 
the death of his own father in 1826, he 
adopted authorship as a profession. H.e 
partly revised the eatomology in Loudoa^B 
'Encyclopeedia of Agriculture and Qarden- 
ingi'and arranged a companion encyclopedia 
of loology. This plan was, however, merse<3. 
in Lordner's ' Cabinet Cyclopiedia,' to which 
Swainson contributed eleven volumes from 
his own pen, published between 1834 and 





Wa, hmitm ona on 'The HiBtoiy and 
Kitonl Amngement of Insects' (1640), 
vnttMNieonjiUietiMlwithWilliAni Edward 
Sadud [ftiT.] In prapuatiou for this 
MM of wans he visiteq the museums of P^ 
M B 1638 niidttr the guidnnoa of CuviBT and 
SL-SHain, lod, to be within reach of Lon- 
iKi, settled at TittcohugwOteen, near St. 
AUus. Fran the fliat he adopted a qninura 
tjatm based on the cirenlar sjetam of Wil- 
ka Sbm Hadeaf [q. t.I, and aeretal t^ 
laMS in uifl ' Cabinet Pycu^Modia ' series an 
Jnolad to elaborate expositions of these 
Mbmel^ artificial but ^feaaedlf natonl 
ntiaM of daaaification in various groups 
Nsaimala. Beudes writing that portitm 
«f Sir John Biehatdsut's ' Fanaa Boreali- 
fiBwriaa ' tliat relates to birds, with in- 
Mdactoar ' ObserratiniB on the Natural 
Sfrfen ' printed aeparatclTj and fumiahing 
usaRiele on the gecwrapnical distribution 
^naaaad nwimals inllagh Mnmty'a ' En- 
q d cpn d ia of Oeograph;^, SwaiuMn contri- 
hatM three ▼olnmes to Sir William Jardine's 
'Satataliat'B Libiar^,' one dealing with the 
tfCBldias (toL ztu. 1836), and the others 
nth the buds of Western Africa (vols. xxii. 
nuL 18S7>. In 1837, having Buffered pecu- 
■aiT kinafis, he emigrated to New Zeiuand. 
th tha Toynge out be lost a large portion of 
U* edlMtkniai but he took adTantage of 
^nhiim at Rio to take various plants to his 
■aw home (o naturalise. In 1663 he was 
isgiiil W the govemmenta of Van Diemen'a 
Lud and Victoria to report on the timber 
tiMs of tboM coloniea. Swunson died at 
a, Farn Orove, Hutt Valler, New 
I, 7 I>ae. 1666. 

M elected a fellow of the Lin- 
Maa Soeie«7 in 1816 and of the Royal 
Soartj, on tbe recommendation of Sir 
JoMph Baaka, in 1630, and he 
my foreign 

fw eUUna. of whom four mns survived 
ki% and hf U» second wife, who also buf- 
med Urn, ba had diree daughters. An 
IIS I ail portrait of him by Edward Franoie 
Aden, firaaandrnwing by Mouses, formB the 
iMAisfieea to bin volume on ' Taxidermy ' 
■ ^ ' Oahtaet pTclopse^a.' Has coUectioa 
rfOrrcfc plantn i* in the hMfaarium of the 
Ufvpoolbotanicnl nrden. 
As a aoologienl dnugl 

r with artistic skill, and 
le 'Hemoin of the Wer- 

J, TiUoch's 'Philosophical 

./ tlM Journal of the Royal Insti- 
MM,'Loidoss'n ' MngaainB of Natural Hi»< 
my.'lha ' Mafsnan of Zoology and Botan y,' 

the ' Entomolosical Ha^^nne,' and the 
' Papers of the Royal Society of Van Die- 
men s Land,' of which thirty-six, dealing 
with ornithology, concholi^, entomoltwy 
and trees, are enumerated in the Royat So- 
ciety's ' Oatalogue ' (viii. 893), contain de- 
sonptions of many speoiee new to science. 

Beaides the works already mentimed, 
Swainson was the author of; 1. ' Ornitholo- 
gical Drawings,' series 1, < Birds of Braail,' S 
parts, 183i-S, Svo. S. ' Exotic Conoholwy/ 
6 parts, 1834-fi, 4to. 3. ' Preliminary Du- 
eouree on the Stody of Natural History,' 
1634, 6vo. 4. 'Elements of Conohology,' 
1636, ISma 6. < Treatise on the Oeogra^T 
and Oiassifications of Animals,' 1836, 8vo. 

6. 'Treatise on the Natural History and 
Olaasification of Quadrupeds,' 1836, Svo, 

7. ... 'of Birds' S vols. 1836. 8. . . . 
' of Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptilw,' 9 
vols. 1838. 9. ' Animals in Menageries,' 
1888, 8vo. 10. ' The Habits and InstinoU 
of Animals,' 1840, 8vo. II. 'Taxidermy, 
with the BiographyefZootogistsand notices 
of their works,' 1840, 6to. l9.'ATrHtiae 
on Halaoology,' 1840, Svo. 

A work on New Zealand is sometimes as- 
ei^ed to the naturalist in error. It is by 
his n amesake, who is noticed below. 

[Autobiography in THxidsnny, ISiO; OsbL 
Mag. ]86e, i. 633-3 ; Proesedingi of the lin- 
nean Society, IfiSS-S, p. zliz.] Q. 8. B. 

SWAINSON, WILLIAM (1809-1883), 
first attomey-genecal of New Zeidand, b<wn 
in Lancasteron 26 April 1809, was the eldest 
son of William Swainson, merchant. Ha 
was educated at Lancaster grammar school, 
and, entering at the Inner Temple in 1636, 
was called to the bar in June 1636. He 
practised as a conveyancer, and rarely attended 
the Lancaater sessions. 

In 1B41 Swainson was appointed attorney- 
general of New Zealand, partly on the recom- 
mendation of hia friend (Sir) William Uartin 
(1807-1880) [q. v.], who had just become 
chiefjuBtice. During the voyage out he as- 
jsisted Uartin to draft the measures required 
to Bet the new le^ machinerv in motion. 
He brought out with him the framework <^ 
the bouse in which he took up his residence 
at Taurama, Judge's Bay. The le^idation 
which be carried tiirouffh the council between 
December 1841 and April 1842 was com- 
prehenuTB, lucid, and compact. In 1843 he 
adviaed the governor, Willoughb^Shortland 
[q. vj, that in his trpinion the jurisdiction of 
the British crown did not ^uo /acto extend 
to the Maoris. This opinion drew a aevere 
rebuke from Earl Orey. 

In 1864, on the introduction of an electiv* 


Swiale I' 

Mfeistiiutiioiif SwaiUon became the first 
ap««ker 6t tlio legieltdiiTa council, eneous-- 
Ming rather * itormlj political pcoiod. In 
1606 B* pud m Tint to Engluid, end took 
Bevenl oppoAunitlee of leotuiiiiff on the at> 
tnction* of N«w Zeelaod ia Lottoon, Bnstol, 
L>aicwt«r, and eleewhera. In Mmj 1866, 
ythea. re^ooeible gOTemment wU demanded, 
he refinquialied tM offioa of att(»ne;'^(eneral; 
and, though he bectune a member of the new 
tegtelAtixe CouDwl, he was no longer aotire 
in politiee. H« devoted much of nis energr 
to the fartiieranca of Bishop Selwrn's work 
in the foundation of the oharch in i^ew Ze^ 
laad[eee SurWiv, Qbobsb Avaumre]; he 
iwa tnembAof t^ eonferende of June 1867 
and of 1^ fiivt general Bjnod, taking a large 
dune in trunii^ the organic meaaurae intro- 
duped to the synod. He wae also chancellor 
of the diocese of Auckland. He bad been 
fy>v the fint fi great friend to the Maoria, 
learning to know them by lonjr etpeditions on 
foot thniugh the bueh. He oppoied the war 
of 1862 as impolitic. 

Aftw 1866 Bwainaon lived in compuative 
retirement, though his keen interest in the 
colonjr'e welfare gave him much poblic in- 
fluence I he wae a member without poiifolio 
of Sir Oeorae Grey's miniatry from April 
to July 1879. Swftinson died unmarried at 
Taurarua on 1 Dec 1883, and was buried in 
the cemetery at that place. Estimates of 
Swainson's character and influence in New 
Zealaild vary crsatly; Busden praisea bim 
highly, while (Ksborne as st>on^I<r condemns 
lum, more paiticnlarly aa a poutician. 
' Swainson wrote the following works on 
New Ze^uid : 1. ' Observations on the 
OlimAte ot New Zealand,' London, 1840. 
' Auckland, the Cajutal of New Zealand 

4. < N«w Zealand and its Oolonisation,' Lon- 
don, 1869. fi. ' New Zealand and the War,' 
London, 1863. 

[Menndl'a IMet. of Anabalanan Biography ; 
LucMter Qnardian, 17 Jan. ISM: Oiiboroe's 
Haw Zialand Bain and SUttamon, and ad. 
1187 [ Bnadeo'i Hiakny of Nav Zealand, i. 
274. 338, wtq.] C. A H. 

8WALE, Sib KIOHABD (1646 P-1 608), 
civilian, bom in Yorkshire about 1646, waa 
the son of ThomasSwale of A skham-Biehard 
in Yorkshire. He matriculated as a siiar 
of Jeaua Oolite, Oamhridgn, in June 1666, 
itaat out BA. m 1668-9, became a fellow in 
1&71, and commenced U.A. in 1672. He 
waa admitted a fellow of Caius Gollega in 
May 1676, and, becoming well known as a 
tutor, he tau^t among <^erB the celebrated 
lanGruterCCaMDHB, .^t«A*,p.ia5). In 

4 Swale 

1681 the fallowB i«qiust«d a notation, •«- 
ousing Swale and Thomas Ls^a (q. v.],tlM 
master, of leanings towards papery, and 
alleging that the catholic gantlanMo of tha 
north sent th«r sons totham to tw ednoatedt 

tor for the succeeding year, and, tbrongb the 
sup^rt of SirOhriaCopher Hatton [q. v.], he 
attamed his object. Bu^hley,thedianeetlar 
of the oniTetsity, howevev, who was incenaed 
by some opposition which Bwale had oB^md 
to the visitors, canceUed die af^iatment 
and DomDelled Swale to apologiBe {Hax- 
wooD and Whiskt, Cambndffe UtdMrtUfr 
Tnouactiau, i. 240, 814-69; OU. Slate 
Papar*, Dom. 1581-90,pp.70,72). In 1682 
he was appointed president of the oolite, in 
spite of a proteet from the Mlows (JLtou- 
dovme MS. 88). In 1683 Swale was aa 
olficiBl of the ^chdeaconry of Ely, and one 
of the taxors of the univenity. In 1GB5 
he became bursar of his colle|(e. On 16 Hay 
1687 he was ^pointed a maater in ohaaoery 
throng the influence of Sir Chriatopher 
Hatton, w^ is said to have relied on Swala'a 
legal knowledge for guidance in the dia- 
oharge of his duties aa lord chancellor. In 
July he was created LLP., and on 20 Oct. 
waa admitted an advocate. On 20 Feb. 

Swale and John I 
the dioceee <^ Ely, and Swale shortly afteir 
became chancellor, vicai^^eneral, and official 
principal of the dioceae. 

On 37 Jane 1688 he obtained a dis^nn^ 
tion to hold the rectory of Emneth in the 
Isle of Ely. He was retnmed for Hi^iam 
Ferrers to the parliament which met on 
4 Feb. 1688-0 {Official Rettthu of Member* 
of Parliament, i. 424), and cm 16 Feb. h« 
was appointed to the prebend ofNeiVbsld in. 
the dioceae of York (Lb Nets, F^ti, iii. 
206). He thereupcm resigned hi« oollegB ^- 

In 1600 ha was s^t to Enden, togethar 
with Biohard Bancroft, hiahopof London, and 
Sir Oliriatopher Perkins, to treat with tha 
Daniah commissioneraMi oonunemial matters, 
but returned withcmt efiecting utything 
(GuraBB, AxtuiU v/ JBHtabeth, ed. Nwton, 
1836, p. 028). His name ooeurs on a special 
commiasian touching piracies, issued 2 April 
1601, and he was one of the hish commis- 
sioners for ecclesiastical causes about 1602. 

Swale was knighted by James Z at White- 
hall on 23 July 160S (Mnoi.L»B, Beak ^ 
EnigkU, p. 146). Ha attended (h* Han^ 
ton Oouit conference In January ld08~-4, and 
was soon aft^watds on a eommisuon to regu- 
lat« bodu printed without pnUic aathon^ 


Swan 11 

MVfMMtmlof thadioesMof Elv. Hedied 
m X Uaj 1608. He manied SuMuma, 
iu^Mc at JuoM BoUa of St. Albuu in 
H«d»dilun, who diad aigkt dsjs after him, 
haUd BO iMoe. 

Swile waa the antltor of 'A Deolantioa 
W Biobaid Swale, in ajuwer to Bichard 
Btidfviter' [chancellor of the diocese of 
Qt] (Sxeeh, Oat. tif Caim OoOtge M8S. p. 

ICoDw'a Athnas Oantabr. ii. 4»3 ; Tenn'i 
Ktp. Hiat. of QoaTiUeaBd Ouns Oallega, 189T, 
I.UiBkauileld'* Norfolk, Tiii. 409; OaidmU'i 
S«. a OonfaNOCw, p. 201 ; PUoUfcaaM-HaT^ 
ma'i Hutoij of Yorkihin, p. 286 ; itymsi'i 
hdtn, in- 41S; Stsreiwoo'a Snp^emsat to 
fiMtbtm'l EI7, pp. 0, 19, 2S, 3S.] K L a 

BVAN, JOSEPH (1791-1874), anatonuat, 
hflind OB 30 Beyt. 1791, was son of Heni^ 
Sna, a Mi^ieon to the Lincoln Coiiutf Hoa- 
piul,uda general practitioneT io that cltj, 
wkoehiaanraaton had carried on their pro' 
Mdu for more than a centurj. Joeeph, 
•Hb tarring an apprenticMhip to his father, 
*■ Bat in 1810 to the nnited honiitala of 
On ud St. Tbomas In the Boroogh, where 
W aaeatte a punl of Henrjr Cline the younger 

tr.], and gained th« warm friendship of 
■att«aadaf[8ir]A«thTOo<^. He 
•M •dmiUad k memW of the College of 
8«|MM on 1 Oet. 181S, and then he went 
■kmdteaahorctime, altar whioh he settled 
■ T^i»iin md waa elected sn^eon to the 
Uaeofai0oant7 Hospital on 8 Jan. 1814. He 
^ tlie Jadaooinn pnia at the College of 
^■Vaoaain 1817 fothiseasa^'On Dea^iees 
■a Diae as es and Iniuriea of the Organ of 
Hwiiig .' In 1819 ue won the prbe a se- 
e«d ti»e with a dissertation ' On the Treat- 
MM <£ HiRfaid Looal Affections of Nerres.' 
lit «aa Bwtvdea In 1833 the flnt coUege 
■tiauaal prise torn ' A ICnnta Dissection of 
4a Nwrea of ths Medulla Spinalis flrom 
lUr OrigiR to tbek Tenninadona an< 
tiav Comunetiona with the Oerehral and 
^•Mal Naraa, aothenticated br Prepara- 
Mm oftbelNsaected Futsi' and tfie triennial 
■K «ai aifain given to bim in 1826 for ' A 
I Uate Diaaertion of the Cerebral Nerree 
^ tWr Origin to their Termination, 1 
<• thair CoqtmetioD with the Nervee of 
KtWla Spinalia and Viaeera.' SwUi's a 
^iathanorerenurkable whan it is borne 
■ SMd that tlte triennial prite has tieea 
^Moah aaraa timee aince its fonndation 
>*lttl. neeoIlegalHul 80 hifhaaopimon 
'(■ ■crits that ba wna voted its honorary 
kariattOBeat tlia diSeult^ of obtuv- 


ing anbiecto for dissectioa at Lincoln, Si)r 
Astler Cooper eant Swan erer^ Christmas k 
large bunperlabBlled'glssa, with care,'con- 
taining a well-eelected human subject. The 
example aet bv Sir Astley ia said to have 
been followed by Aberaetny, and Swan was 
thus enabled to proceed unintemiptedly with 
his work. 

Swan resigned his ofltce of snrgeon to' the 
Lincoln County Hospital OQ 36 Feb. 1827, 
moved to London, and took a house at 
6 Tavistock Square, where he converted the 
iNlLard-room mto a dissecting-room, ' Here 
he oontinned his labours at leisure till the 
end of his life, never attaining anv practice 
aa a surgeon, bnt douig much for the science 
of anatomy. 

He was elected a life member of the Royal 
Colli^ of Surseons In 1831, and in 1843 \h 
was nominated a fellow of the CoU^e. He 
resigned his office of member of the council 
after a seven attack of illness in 1869, and 
died unmarried at Filey on 4 Oct. 1874. Ha 
ia boried in Filey churchyard. 

Swnn was a bom anatomist, practical 
rather than theoretical, and with a native 
us for dissection. Of retiring and modeet 
diapoaition , he remained personally almost un- 
known ; and the value of his work is only; 
now beginning to be appreciated. 

Swan's chief work was 'A Demonstration of 
thitNerveaaf the H^man Body' (in twenty- 
five plates, with explflnationB, imperial tonoj 
London, 1880; republished, 1865 ; translated 
into French, 1838). It is a clear exposition 
of the course and distribution of the cerebral, 
spinal, and aymjiathetic nerves of the human 
body. The plates are admirably drawn by 
E. West, and enrraved by the Stewarts. The 
original copperplates andengravings on steel 


ion of the E( 

of Surgeona of England, to whom they were 
presented in 1895 by Mn. Machin of Gate^ 
ford Hill, Worksop, widow of the oephew 
and residuary legatee of Joseph Swan. A 
cheaper edition of this work wa^published 
in 1834, with plates engraved by londen. Tt 
was translated into French, Paris, 4to, ISSa 
Hia other worka are ; 1 . * An' Account of 
a New Method of making Dried Anatomi- 
cal Prepa ' " " - - • - ~ -j. 
edit. 1820 

tiona of tl r 

for 1819), I, 

German, ! 



editioa), LondoD, 1834, 8to. 4. 'An En- 
quiry into the Action of Mercury on the 
Living Body,' London, 1823, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 
1847. S. 'An Essay on Tetanug,' Jjondon, 
182fi, 8vo. 6. 'An. Euay on the Connec- 
tion between . . . the Heart . . . and . . . the 
Nerrous SjBt«m , . , pftrticuUrlj its Influ- 
ence . . . on Respiration,' London, 1638, 8to; 
reprinted 1829. 7. 'lUuitrationsof theCom- 

K-fttive Anatomy of the Nervoiu System,' 
Ddon, 1836, 4to, pUtea. 8. ' The Pnnapal 
Offices of the Brain and other Centres,' Lon- 
don, 1844, 8vo. 9. ■ The Phyiiology of the 
Nerres of the Utenu and its Appendages,' 
London, 1846, 8vo. 10. 'The Nature and 
Faculties of tie Sympathetic Nerve,' Lon- 
don, 1847,8vo. 11. 'Plates of the Brain in 
Explanation of its Fbyaical Faculties,' &c, 
Loudon, 1863, 4t«. IS. ' The Brain in its 
fielstion to Mind,' London, 1S54, 8vo. 
13. 'On the Origin of the Visual Powers of 
the Optic Nerve,' London, 18.'>6, 4to, 
14.' Papers on the Brain,' London, 1862, Svo. 
Ifi. ' Betineatim of the Brain in relation 
to Volnntary Motion,' London, 1864, 4to. 

[Obituary notioea in the Msdieal Times and 
QawLte, 1S74, ii. 460, and the I^iut, 1B7<, ii. 
93B i ndditioosl iofonnation kindly given by 
Dr. Huuel SympsoD. surgeon to the Uncoln 
County HospitjJ, by Mr. W.B.Dan by,»ecr«lary 
of the Lincoln County Hospital, and by Hi. 
AVessBjMsebiii.] D'A. P. 

SWAN, WILLLVM (1818-1894), pro- 
fessor of natural j^ilosophy at St. Andrews, 
son of David Swan, engineer, and his wife, 
Janet Smith, was bom in Edinburgh on 
13 March 1818. Hia father having died in 
18S1, Swan became his mother's chief care. 
Carlyle, in quest of lodgings, found them in 
Mrs. Swan's house ' at the north-east angle' 
of Edinburgh, and admired her ' fortitude and 
humble ^tience ' (Earlff Letter* of Thomaa 
Carl^lt, li. 7, ed. Norton), After school and 
OoUt^ education in Edinburgh, Swan be- 
came a acience tutor, and during 1860-2 was 
natbematieal master in the free chunsh uor- 
m*l achot^ Edinburgh. In 18G&-9 he taught 
mathematics, natural philosophy, and navi- 

Sition in the Scottish Naval and Military 
cademy, Edinburgh. In 1869 he was ap- 
Siinted profesaor of natural philosophy at 
t. Andrews, retiring in 1880 owing- to fail- 
ing health. Besides being a fellow of the 
Royal Society of Edinbuwh, Swan received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from Edin- 
burgh University in 1809, and from St. 
Andrews in 18M(. He died i 
Dtunbartonshire, on 1 March 
1 June 1869 Swan married Geomna (d. 
1882), daughter of John CuUen, a Qlaagow 
manufacturer. There was no family. 



Between 1843 and 1871 Swan contributed 
a score of papers on various subjects in 
physics — those on optics being specially im- 
portant — to periodicals end the ' Truisao- 
tions ' of learned societies. Of these, two 
on the ■ Phenomena of Vision ' appeared iB 
the Edinburgh Royal Society's 'Tntnsac- 
tions' in 1848 and 1861; one in the ' Traiu< 
actions' of the same society for 1666 de- 
scribed the ' Prismatic Spectra of the ^smes 
of Compounds of Carbon and Hvdrogen ; ' 
and one ' On New Forms of Lighthouse Ap- 
paratus' was eontribut«d to tbe Edinburgh 
' Transactions ' of the Scottish Society ot 
Arts. For the eighth edition of the ' Ency- 
clopedia Britannica' Swan wrote the articla 
' Mensuration.' In ' Nature ' (vol. iv.) ha 
wrote on 'Pendulum Autographs,' and in 
vol. vii. he described the great meteorio 
shower of 27 Nov. 1872. 

naval commander, is probably to be iden- 
tiBed with the Richard Swanley, a com- 
mander in the East India Company's ser- 
vice, who in 1623 went out as master of the 
Great Jamea with Captain John Weddell 
[c^. v.], and was in her in the four days' fiffbt 
with the Portuguese near Oimui, on 1-4 Feb. 
1626 ; but there was another captain of the 
name in the company's service at the sam« 
time, and the identiflcation cannot be aacer^ 
tained beyond doubt. In the summer of 
1842 Swanley commanded the Charles in tbe 
Narrow Seas, and took a prominent p«rt in 
the operations af^nst ChicDe8ter,aod in tba 
reduction of the Isle of Wiriit for the parU»- 

.. TT •„J fVL UT..!!..- >.^>:_.A 

summoned Southampton. In the fleet of 
1643 Swanley commanded the BimaTentura 
of 34 gims as admiral of the Irish seas, aad 
for good service in capturing the Fellowship 
of 28 guns in Milford Haven both he and 
William Smith, the vioe-admiral, wwe 
granted by the parliament a chain of tha 
value of 200f. In February 1644 he came 
off Milford Haven in the Leopard, and hia 
squadron landed two hundred men to aiaiat 
(Lionel Laugharne against the royalists; 
9xA he was next ordered to cruise againstaB 
expected attempt from Brittany (CM, Staim 
Paptrt, Bom. I and 16 June 1044). Ha 
continued serving throughout tba aummor, 
co-operating with the army in PembrolM- 
shire, and taking care that reinfbroementa 
from Ireland should not leacb the royalists. 
One vessel laden with tiocw ha denied, 
offered the covenant to the ^iglisfa on board. 




ui long the Iriflh into the «ea (Qabbirek, 
OM IF«r, i. 337). Intbefollowmgsummer 
ha wM agsin aBoat, but in Auf^t was, on 
nuB dtugea which aeeminslj could not be 
mtiined, supeTBeded by Robert MouUod. 
Ob mTBrtigalion it was determined to rein- 
Mate Richard Swanley, and he waa accord- 
ii^ appointed to the Lion, in which he con- 
tituwd, atill on the same station and on 
■■DaraeiTice, till towards the end of 1647. 
He waa afloat in July, but in November had 
Ut the aea, and in the following Januiktr 
wu petitioning to have hit accounts passea. 
Pbr the next few yean he resided at Lime- 
iMNist, where he died in September 1660. 
He waa boned in the churchyard of Stepnev 
(LnontBiBiroiuq/ London, iii, 434, Suppl. 
1811, p. 441). In his will (in Somerset 
Hovae : Penbioke 149), dated 26 May 1649, 
and proved on 11 Sept. 1650, he mentions 
b wife Elizabeth, a daughter Alary, and 
two aooa John and fiichud, the latter of 
whMB auv prohebly be identiSed with the 
KAard Swanley bound apprentice to the 
Etrt India Corapanjl in December 1633, who 
mmd aft«rwarda in the navy, and was 
Mrter of the Revenge in 1669. 

[CUMidaza of Sute Papon, East Indiss and 
Dm.; Oraanlle Pmn's Memorinls ofSicWil- 
faa r*mn, <n>L i. ; Hist. H3S. Comio. I3th Rep. 
Iodl L : aotM kiadlj fomiahed bv WiUiam 
rout, eaq.] J. K. L. 

SWANSEA, LoBD. [See Vivuir, Sib 
Hdxi HrvKT, 1831-1894.] 

', ROBERT (1785-1886), horti- 
ealtniat, the eon of WiUiam Sweet and his 
wife 3k^,. waa bora in 1783 at Cockington, 
■ear Ttnqnay, Devonshire. When aixteen 
rears old M was placed under his half- 
•ntkw, Junes Sweet, at that time gardener 
to Ridard Bright of Ham Green, near Bris- 
lal,with wbombeTeraaioed nine years. He 
•abseqaentlj bad chargn of the coUection of 
■laMa at Woodlands, Uie residence of John 
JaEaa Aiig«nt«n [q. v.] 

la 1810 8w«et entered as a partner in the 
fltackwell Bimeiy, and when that was dis- 
■ihwl in 1816, became foreman to Messrs. 
WUtkj, Bramea, ft Hilne, nnrserymen, of 
Ti&am, till 1819, when he entered the ser- 
neeofHeaara-Colvil). Whileintfaeirempkiy 
hi waa d ut iygd with having received a box 
<f ^ants knowing them to have been stolen 
fas tlia fonl nideos, Eew, but was ac~ 
nntted aft«rtriJ at the Old Bailey on 24Feb. 
m. In I83S be left the GolviDa, and till 
Un wLuq iie J bimaelf almost wholly in 
k pradnetiaB (rf boUnieal works, while 
tAaidntiag » fimited munher of plants 

in his garden at Parson's Green, Fulhani. 
In 1830 he moved to Chelsea, where he had 
a larger garden and cultivated for sale to his 

In Jane 1631 his brain gave way. He 
died on 20 Jan. I83S, leaving a widow but 
no family. He had been elected a fellow of 
the Linnean Society on 14 Feb. 1812. The 
botanical genos Stneetia was named in hia 
honour by De Uandolla in 1825. 

Sweet was author of: I. 'HortusSubur- 
banus Londinensia,' 8vo, London, 1618. 
2. ' Geraniaceeo,' 6 vols. 8vo, London, 1820- 
1830. 3. 'The Botanical Cultivator,' 8vo, 
London, 1821 ; 2ud edit, entitled ■ The Hot- 
house and QiP4nliauseMaaual,'12mo. 1826; 
6th edit., 8vo, 1831. 4. < The British War- 
blers,' 8vo, I«ndon, 1823. 5. * The British 
Flower Garden,' 6vo, London, 1823-9 j 2nd 
series, 1831-8. 6. 'Cistinete,' 8vo, London, 
1826-30. 7. 'Sweet's Hortus BriUnnicus,' 
4to, London (1826)-7 ; 2nd edit. 1830 ; Brd 
edit. 1838. 8. 'Flora Australasica,' 8vo, 

The Florist's Guide and Cultivator's 
Director," 2 vols. 4to, London, 1627-32. 
10. In conjunction with H. Weddell, ' Bri- 
tish Botany,' No. 1, 4to, London, 1831. 

[Oaidenen' Mag. xi. ISB, with bibliographj; 
Maig. Sat. Hist, mi, ilO ; Brit. Mas. Cat.] 
B. B. W. 

SWEETMAN, JOHN (1762-1826), 
United Irishman, was born of Roman catbo- 
lic parents in Dublin in 1762. The family 
had for more than a century conducted in 
that city an eittenaive brewery, to which 
Sweetman succeeded on the death of bis 
father. He became identified with the move- 
ment for the removal of the civil and re- 
ligious disabilities of the catholics, and wan 
one of the chief supporters of the vigorous 
policy initiated by John Eeogh (1740-1617) 
[q. v,J in 1791, which led to the secession of 
most of the catholic ^ntry. He waa also a 
delegate at the catholic convention which as- 
sembh^ in Dublin on 3 Dec. 1792. In the 
same year asecret committee of the House of 
Lords accused certain 'ill-dispoeed members' 
of the Roman catholic church of contributing 
mone^ in support of the ' defenders,' a secret 
Syrian society. They founded this asser- 
tion upon the discoTery of a letter by Sweet- 
man, enclosing money to defend a pensant 
accused of ' deienderism.' Sweetman imme- 
diately published ' A Refutation,' in which 
he denied the accusation, and stated that he 
had offered assistance because he believed the 
man to be innocent. He described hiniaeU 




M ' Secietarj to the Bub-committee of the 
G>tholic8 of Ireland.' 

Sweetman irasAntctire United Irislunu). 
He was a member of the L^nster diroctorj of 
the rerolatioDaiy organiution, and sotne of 
the moat unportant meetioga of ite executive 
committee tookplBCeathiabrewerjinFranciB 
Stieet, Dublin. He was arreBted with other 
leaders of the movement on 12 Marcb 1798. 
Seeing that all hope of a successful inaiirreC' 
tion was over, thej entered into a compact 
with'thegorenunentfby which, in oonsidera- 
tion of a pronvBO of the suspensian of the exe- 
cutions of United Irishmeo, they mode a full 
disclosure of their objects and plana, without 
implicating individuak, before committees 
of' the lorda and conunons. Sweetman 
-was one t^ the eioup sent to Fort George in 
Scotland early m 1799. In June 1802 they 
were deported to Holland and set at liberty. 
Aft«r eighteen yean of exile Sweetman was 
permitted to return to Ireland in 1820. He 
died in Mar 1826,and was buried at Swords, 
outside Dublin. He married, in 1764, Mary 
Atkinscn, the daughter of a Dublin brewer. 

Sweetman wu one of the few catholics of 
position who belonged to the or^w^iaation of 
United Irishmen as a revolutionorj con- 
spiracy. Of the twenty leaders consigned 
to Fort G)«orge, t«n were episcopalians, six 
were presbyteriaos, and only four (including 
Sweetman) were catholics. Wolfe Tone, 
writing in bis jonmal in France under date 
1 Marchl798,onhearingarumourofSweetr 
man's death, sud : ' If ever on eiertion was 
to be made for our emancipation, he would 
have been in the yeiy foremost rank. I had 
counted i^n his military talents.' 

[Madden's United Irishmen ; Wabb's Com- 
psndinm of Irish Biograpby ; UncKsTiii'a ^eoes 
of Irish History ; Woue Tone's AntoHography.] 

nglo-Irish family (cf. Cai.Jtot. Clam. 
et Pat. Mibemia, Index Nominum). A 
Maurice Sweetman was archdeacon of Ar- 
magh in 1306 (Conon, Fasti, iii. 44). Milo 
was appointed treasurar of the cathedral of 
Ossoiy or Kilkenny before 1360, in which 

5 ear the chapter elected him bishop of that 
iocese. He proceeded (o tihe papal court for ' 
.confinnBtioB, but on lus arrivaT found that 
Innocent VI had already provided John do 
Tatenhale to the yacant see. The arcb- 
biahopric of Aroiagh, boweyer, being also 
vacant ^irouKh the cteath of lUcbard Fitz- 
nlpb Pq, T.X «io pope, as a oonsoiation, be- 
Btowecl it on Swaetman. Tbjee years later 
Innocent's successor. Urban V, by a bull 
^atad 8 Nor. 1868, tnnslaUtd Patrick Ho- 

goDoil, bishop of Raphoe, to the see »f 
Armagh, either in ignorance of Swoettnon's 
appointiment or on a false report of hie death. 
Ko notice was token of this bull, and M»- 
gonoil remained bishop of Haphoe until his 
death in 1366. 

In IS66 Sweetman became invtdved in 
the perennial strug^e of the archbishops of 
Armagh to assert their rights of primki^ 
over tne other Irish archbishops, and enie- 
cially the archbishop of Dublin. The dis- 
pute about bearing the cross in esch other's 
province became so acute between Siroet- 
man and Thomas Minot, archbishop of Dub- 
lin, that on 9 June 1366 Edward IH wrot« 
ordering the two arcbbishope to observe dm 
com{ffDmise arrived at between the aroh- 
bishops of Canterbury and Yoric, ^hereby 
each was entitled to nave his croeier home 
before him in the other's province. Sweet- 
man refused, asserting his superiority over 
the diocese of Dublin (BvjtEB, yi^ 467) ; 
he seems to have carried his point, and ou 
S Oct. following Minot was summoned bo- 
fore the deputy, lionel, duke of Clarenc«, 
for contempt in not meeting and agreeing 
with Sweetman. From that data the con- 
troversy subsided until the time of Richard 
Talbot {d. 1449) [q. v.], archbishop of Dub- 

Sweetman was present at the parliament 
of 1367 which passed the famous statute of 
Kilkenny. Inl374 Sir Williamde 'Windsor 
[^. v.], the lord deputy, acting on instruc- 
tions from the Knglisn govemmeat, maife 
an attempt to dispense with the Irish par- 
liament, and issued writs ordering the (dergy 
and laity to elect representatives and send 
them to Westminster. Sweetman took the 
lead in opposing this demand; in a letter 
(printed in SruABT's Armagh, pp. 190-1, 
from Eawlauon MS. SS. 7) he matntoinad 
that the inhabitants of the Pale were not 
bound t4> send representatives to Westmio- 
ater, and, tliough in deference to Edward III 
the clergy elected representatives who re- 
paired toWestminster, they were instructed 
by their constituents to refuse their assent 
to any subsidies or other impost^. This wov 
the main object of their being sununoned, 
and the attempt was not repeated (Lbiarv, 
Stit. of Ireland, i. 328 ; BiOHU, Leeturtm 
m Irith Sua. I 19»'^00). 

In 1376 Sweetman, as raetropoUtsfh 
visited the diocese of Meatli and confirmecL 
the charter* of St. Mary's Al^y, Dublin. 
On 20 Nov. in the same yeei', and again on 
32 Jan, 1877-8, in the first yeai of Richard O, 
he was summoned to parliament (Oil. Jtat, 
S3), pp. 90 et seq.) He died at his manor 
of DroBieokyn, oo. I^nttb, on U Aug. I8B9 




(OcrtaMw ^ St. Marj^t, JhUiUit, Bolla 
Btt. iL 384), beiiw nuoeeded oi uchbidiop 

[BoMi Otm. et Rtt. BibsniiEi, Reeord edit., 
» SI, M, M, IH ; Sjmer'i Fodero, arig. *d. 
tl 4M, M7, B«Mrd tdit. in. ii. T6S ; LasceUoe's 
lAw Sud. ffibanieorniii. pL ir. pp. 88. 90, 
■k T. ». S, 44 ; CturtnUriea of St, Hniy's, 
N)Iu(BallBSBr.),ii. 283-4; Wire's Bisbopt, 
id. Hwria, pp. 76-7, Si-i, 411 ; Cotion'iFuti 
&<1m Hib. li. 301, iii. 15; Gudb'b aeries Epi- 
Hipanin, p. 307 ; Stiiwt'*M«ni. of Armnali,pp. 
190-1; Bookof Hi>vth,pL399; WiUnDl'B CoD- 
•Bi, iii. 68, M-] A. F. P. 


al7«?-l2*S),imtm at tin, exchequer And 
inflated Mmpilarrf the 'Red Book of the 
Bidioqaar,' wae probebly bom and bred is 
tke wast M Engjutd, p^^ps At Sweirefonl 
n Oi£>rdaluTe, tbe puish iroin which hu 
nn«H« ia d^ved, sod of which he wu 
tiwnelf iiirrrmni iinly Tiou and rector on the 
KMUuUiim erf' the moiuuter]' of Oeenej. 
Ib this CMe it ia lihelf th&t he was educat«d 
M tbe ftbbej with which hia neioe is othei- 
WM eoBiwoted. On Uie other hand he was 
» eqoBUr close relationship wilJi the mona- 
ttaj ti St. PetOT of Gloucester, one of the 
Weston of which was an Emma de 
Sweiefiird, while he had a nephew Simon of 
QldMMtar. His west-oooBtiy extraction 
sMucHtIv oceotints for bis on^diaoonato 
a Shrofsliire and his diplomatic missions ia 
Ik* "Wttdi mnehm. The graoter port of 
Us lifc WW noaaed in residence at West- 
natter Mid 8t. Peal's, jn the performance of 
kia bbqrwiu daties «« clerk and baroD of 
As anbMaer, and canon and treasurer of 
ihs ckaica. Like so many other clerical 
I of the period, Swereford acquired 

1 BtHoted chiefly in the 

'Wkea Alexander de Swereford entered 
^mbialon^ period ofservice at the exchequer 
I* WM petlupe engaged in the service ofone 
Wtka AMuberlaiiis u^der William of Ely, 
Oa kiv's trounrer ( 119»'1232), and he mar 
PbW>& be identified during thia period 
^**- -^ 'Alexander Clericns Theeaurarii 
'' -frbo was emplo]red on various 
B with the 

^Ih tb ' 

la IS16 h» 'waa acting aa chaplain ta tiie 
UAoB of Coventrj, with whom he went 
(koad. It was jn.tba sane connection prt^ 
taUj that ba beld a prebend in the church 

lathe fifth 7«ftr of Henry HI (1220-1) 
hi was aaot oa a diplomatic miaeiou to 
Uailjn, prine» of Nortii WalsB, and about 

iJie same time ha is descrihed is arohdeacds 
of Salop. In 1227 ha was present at a« 
important council held at Westminster, and 
in a report of the proceedings heicat entecel 
bj himself in the ' red book of theeidiequer' 
^tsstTled'theking'sdBrlc.' InthetwaUth 
yeatoiibe Bamereignhewaasenton another 
diplorqatic mission to tJie court of Borne. 
At this time be was a canon of St. Panl'i^ 
holding the notorious prebend of 'Con- 
eumptapei Hare 'in Walton, Biido« 16 Jan. 
12S2 he was appointed treasure of St. Faul'i^ 
an office whick he retained until hjs deatJi^ 
and not, as generally stated, luttil 1349 
only. The fsmous ' Liber PtloCus,' one of thf 
r^tstcie of St. Paul's, eoiitains several iots- 
reating notices of his administratioD as trea- 
aurer, apd his name frequently accdTH as w 
official witness in the deeds otecutad by tba 
church during the period of his office. At 
the same time there are uniMrona iDaieatKmp 
of the orOhdeacon-treas wec^ eontuwed favour 
at court and of his prefanasMt ia the es- 

In the twdiUi year (1^7-^ be reoaived 
a grant of twelve muka aanuolly as a pro^ 
visional maintenance in the king's aerviee, 
together witJl several nanta ia subsequent 
years of oaks from the king's forests for fud, 
of wine, end of the tower hi the city watt 
nearest to l4idga(«, U^etiier with license Ia 
erect a buildii^ there. 

In the aixtcenth year (1281-2) lie reoetred 
the custody of the ooiutty <tf BerkaUre during 
pleasure, and he was employed in' fbe sam6 
year in another diplomatic mission to the 
Welsh marches. In the eighteaatji year 
(1333-4) he sat as one of the long's comnu»- 
sionera to bold an inquiry respecting tiiB 
chambwlainship of London. On6Jnlyl331 
he received another provisional mainteoonce 
— namely, forty morlrayearly — and on 21 Nov. 
following ha was appointed baron (^ tfaa 
exchequer. The rolls of the court during Ihfe 
next twelve years bear ample witness to his 
legal industry, and among the cases heard 
before the barons are Beversl that concerned 
his own interest as a landed proprietor. La 
this connection he seems to nave held lands 
in Tewin, Hertfordshire, in Fobbing, Essex, 
in Tolwwth, Surrey, as well as in Bedford- 
shite and Oxfordshire. In 1243 the arah- 
deocon received a grant of tbe revenion of 
any living in the king's gift that Aould ba 
worth a hundred mwKs. He wss still occa- 
sionally employed by the crown in afiaira of 
state. He waS one of the commission^* 
appointed in IS46 to investigate a case con- 
cerning the liberties of the London Mint, and 
he took part in superrising the returns mad^ 
to the great feudal inqueata of the middle ia 




tb« UuiteenUi oentmy faiown u the ' Teata 
da NflTiU' [mo Nbtuxe, Jolun db]. 

8w«nfbia died id hcnieM. He sat u 
Won throQghODt Trinity term lS46, bat hia 
de*th ia reoorded dnring the Midiaelmaa 
sittings, prolwblj on St. FrideBwide'e d&j, 
19 Oct. He wBB buried in front of the altar 
of St. Chad in the church of St. Panl's, which 
he had endowed with a chantry of one 

Like hi« great predecaasora, whose ' science ' 
he is ao fmi of recalling, Swerefofd waa 
■ot only learned in eiduquer lore, but a 
collector of hiatortcal precfldents and state 
p^era. He has been generally regarded, 
on the stieogth of an aatograpli dedtcation 
uid other personal allnaiona, as the compiler 
of the ' Rod Book of the Exchequer,' a mis- 
oellaaeoas collection of official pracedeots, 
statntea, oharten, and accounts which nnks 
next to Domesday Book amon^ onr hooka 
of remembrance in age and historical import- 
ance. The manoscript, whudi is preserved 
in the Public Record Office, was Hnrt pub- 
lished in the Bolls Series in 1696 (8 vols.), 
and was edited by the present writer. The 
' Red Book ' eontains possibly only a portion 
of the ' Farri Rotnli ' coUeotod by Swereford. 
These were placed at theawviee of Matthew 
iparis, who oaa referred to their hislorical 
Taloe in tereral passages, and has given ns 
the following olntoaty notice of their author : 
' In elegance of figure, in beauty <rf features, 
and a mind endured with many forma of 
learning, he baa not left his like in England.' 

[Satml esuyi ban haan writt«T> upon 
Swarefoid'a Ufa and work, and the leattared 
BOtieas oooluiMd in Uadoz'i History of ths 
SidisqiMr, La Sere'a Futi, and Newcourt'a 
B^ntorinm hare been brooght togvUier in 
Hudy's CaUloKuei iii. 107, with aome additional 
inllgcmation. Theia acconnta ara, homrer, not 
only exeMdingly imperfect, but alao freqneDtl; 
•Ronaona. The troth ia that the facts of 
Svareford's Ufa, like those of moat of the great 
ma^ienl eleiks, moat be laborionily gleaned 
from mannaeript raeorda. These fkets are givBD 
in tbe edition of the Bed Book of the Exeheqaer 
in the BoUi Seriea (pt. i. pp. zzxf-ilix) liom 
the Patent and Close BoDa, the Meoonnda 
Sdla, aneieDt deeda and other records of the 
Chanteiy and Exchequer, bom mooastie eertu- 
lariaa and coDtampoTary chronicles, and bom the 
Idber Pilcsaa of St. Paol'a. An extremely nn- 
feTonmble eatimata of Sweraford'a work and 
historiMl anthoriM, br Hr. J. H. Bound, ap. 
pearad in the Eogliah Hiatorical Beriew for July 
and October 1881. Baferanoe ahonld alao be 
made toUie Hiat. H33, Comm,is.App.,ArcIu«>- 
logia, zxriii. 2S1, lii. 189, to Prc^ F. Liebai- 
naun'a Einlsitnng in den IKslogna, aod lo the 
•ditioD of Matthew Faila in VUm, Oenn. xsriil.] 

BWBTB or T«fb, JOHN (1762 P- 
1821), antiqnarr, bom about 1763, waa the 
son of Nicholas Tripe of Adibniton in Deron- 
sitire. John (who aAwrwarda aasumed the 
surname of Swete) matriculated from Uni' 
reraity CoUego, Oxford, on 19 Oct. 1770, 
mduated B.A. in 1774, and proceeded H.A. 
ml777. He took holy orders, and on 37 Aug. 
1781 he waa made a prebendary (rf the 
diocese of Exeter (Lb Nbvb, Fa*ti, i. 481, 
438). In later life he resided at Oiton 
House, near Kenton, in the neighbourhood 
of Exeter. Hediedin 1831, leaving several 
children. His son, John Beaumont Swel^ 
succeeded to bis extatea. 

He published : 1. Three poetical pieoea in 
Polwhele's 'Traditions and Recollections,' 
, pp. 240-2. 2. Seven poetical necee 
sinied'S.,' in 'Poemschiefly oy Ghntlemen 
of Devonahiie and Cornwall' od. Polwhele, 
1792, ii. 34, 205-9, 233. 3. Time antiqna- 
rian articles signed ' N. E. ' in ' Eways by > 
SocietyofGentlemenatEietflr,'1796. These 
essays occasioned a quarrel between him 
and Polwhele, who regarded their publica- 
tion as a breach of confidence and as oalen- 
lat«d to injure his own work on Devonshire, 
then approaching completion. The misunder- 
etanding was increosed by some strictures on 
Swete's essays which appeared m the ' Euro- 
pean Magawne' under the aignature ' W.,' 
and which he mistakenly attributed to 

Swete also left a manuscript descnption 
of Devonshire in the possession of his family. 
It forms an itinerary of the county, com- 
mencing in 1792 and terminating in 1B02, 
and contains a full description of the places 
visited in hisjoumeye, illustrated by sketches 
made and dated at the time. The |iottion 
relating to Torquay was published la the 
' Torquay Directory ' in 1871. 

[Weatcni Antionaiy. vi 389-70, 303; Pol- 
whele'e Hiat. of Deron.pref. L 81, ii. 183-8; 
Davidaon'a Bibliothec« DaTonimaia, pp.3, 184(i 
Traoaactions of the Deronahire Aaaocintion, ztr. 
6I-S; Qent. Mag. 1796 ii. 7S9, BH, lOIT; 
Oomme'a Gent. Mag. library, Englinb T<^o- 
tn».viU, iii. 83< I'l. >^> ^08; Polwhele's Bemi- 
SiaMmeea, 1. 48; Polwhele's Traditiona and B«- 
eollMtioaa, pp. !I43-4, SSS-1, 443, 47S-8I. 
710-11 ; Waras's Beadleetions. ii. 144 ; Pol- 
whele's Biographical Sketebea. iiL 139, 132-S; 
Foater'a Alumni Oxon. 171fr-lSSe, iv. IMS.] 
E. L C. 

SWETNAM, JOSEPH (JL 1617), called 
the woman-hater, kept a fencing school at 
Bristol, as appears from an eiceasivoly nur« 
woric by him, entitled ' The Schoole of tha 
Noble and Worthy Science of Defence. 
Being the first of any English-nuna in- 




■■liiiii. vfaicti profeMed the ujd Sdraee 

1617,4to. His principkl work, 

« Araignment of lewd, idle, 

nm, U 'The i 

fanraid, utd vnconatant Women ; 
VnhietrfllieniidiooM jouwhstber. With 
•MWHendation of wite, vertuons, and honeet 
WfHco,' London (T. Archer), 1616, 4to, 
nd lain 1619, 1638, 1634, 169DP ' to which 
ii idded a Mcond part, containing many 
£tkigaefl. . .and jovial sonffs,' 1702, 8vo; 
1707, 13mo ; 1733, 12mo ; and 1807,reprinted 
W Smeeton. A Dutch tranalatiou by a 
Mtgyaan named William Ohristaens was 
■tiated at Leyden, 1611, and Amsterdam 
flHSr]. THut ooane and violent attack on 
Bc bit aex dieited the following indignant 
Kfliaa: 1, ' Aajlnm Vensria, or a Sanctiui^ 
fcr l^iea, jnaUj protecting them, their 
nrtaN and anfficienciea, Irom the foule as- 
nioBB and forged imnutationa of traducing 
Bftrita,' London, 1616, 12mo. 2. 'The Worm- 

B Redargntion of the bajter of 
Wamm. Bj Oonstantia Muoda,' London, 
U17,4ta S.'Ettarhathhang'dHaman; or, 
■a aaawoe to a lewde pamralet, entitnled 
tha AnmigwnentorWoo>eD,'br Ester Sower- 
MH(pwnd<nTm), London [1617 j,4to. 4. 'A 
MaoeU for Melastomva, the pTmcall Baxter 
tt, ud fool* noathed Ku'her against Evaha 
to. Br lUchelSpeght,' London, 1617, 4to 
[«i imiW 8PBaHT,TH0Ku]. 6. ' Swetnam, 
tka WoHMk-hater, arraigned b; Women. 
A, aew Conedie [in foar acta and in verse] 
■dad at the Ited Boll, by the late Qneenee 
SmmU,' London, 1620, 4to; privately le- 
jaUtd in an edition limited to sixty-two 
■ " ' ■ r, 1880, 4to, with intpoduc- 

He mnat be dJrtipgniahed tntta his cod- 
iim foi uj nameaahe, /osbpb Swetnax, 
SwwKOiAM, or SwsBnfiv (1677--1632), a 
Min of Nortbamptouhire, who entered 
tW Boaotf of Jeans in Portugal in 1606, 
va MBt to the English mission in 1617, but 

HO. 'H« wrote : 1. < The Proffresa of St. 
Mar MagdaleBe into Pandise,'^ St. Omer, 
in8,8TO. 9. 'Tha Paradise of Pleasnm in 
lb liMniea rf Loratto,' 8t Omer, 1630, and 
taidttad ftmn tlie Spanidi Anthony Mo- 
faa'a tnatiae ' On Mental Prayer,* and 
fiiiiiAiiaa'ii *1heatiseorExhortation,'ptib- 
Uil in OM Tolme, St. Omer, 1617, ISmo. 
[hbr^K(i)tr.I>raai.l8I3,iii.Siai HazlitCi 
InJiuMlL to Lit. IM7. p> fiSa; Lowndra's BtbL 
lb. (Mb), ppL 347S, UK. Foe the j«nit 

Bceords; Ohver's CoUeetaBea: Soathwelrt 
Bibl. Smiptt. ; Wiawood'i UMBariila, iii. 41.} 
T. 0. 
SWEYN or 8VE1N (d. 1014), king of 
son of Harold Blaatand, kiof of Denmark, 
probably by his queen Ounhild, though it 
was said that his mother was a Slav, a ser- 
vant in the house of Palna-Toki, or Tokko, 
in Fiinen. He was baptised in childhood 
along with hie father and Gunhild, in ful' 
filment of the conditions of peace dictared 

S' the Emperor Otto the Great in 905. 
e emperor was his godftther, and he re- 
ceived the baptismal name of Otto (Adax 
or Bbsxeit, II. c. 3). His life and deeds 
in the north are involved in much obeeority, 
and their dates can at beet only be mat- 
ters of inference. He ia said to hare been 
brought up by Palna-Toki, the heathen cap- 
tain of the buccaneer settlement at Jomaburg 
on the Slavonic coast of the Baltic. He 
cast aside Christianity and became head of 
the heathen partv among the Dane*. He 
rebelled gainst his father and made war 
upon him, and there is some groond for 
thinking tliat he at one time expelled him 
Bfom Denmark (Wimiif or Jtruikeee, iv. 
cc 7, 9 : thonEb the chronolosy of the event! 
there recorded does not fit ^reyn's life, the 
passage proves a tradition, adopted by Stbk 
AoGEsoN ap. LursEBEK, i. G3). Harold was 
finally wounded in a battle with his son, and 
died at Jomsborg on 1 Nov. 986 (Adik, 
ii. 25,26; Saga^OU^Try^jpoMontcSS). 
Sweyn was then accepted as king in Den- 
mark, and peieecated nis Christian snlgectB. 
Eric the Victorious invaded Denmark in 
revenge for the help that Harold had ffiv«B 
to his enemies, and oftersome fighting oroTe 
Sweyn out. He is said to hare sought help 
in vain fran Olef Tryggvisson, who was 
at that time leading a viking's life, and of 
Ethelredll -^^-'-'--- 
king of England, and t4 
by the king of Scots. He OTidently had a 
luge following, and became a sea-rover. In 
conjunction with Obf, he invaded England 
witn a powerful fleet in 994, He two allies 
made an assault on London on SSept. which 
was repulsed, and they then ravaged the 
south-east. They entered Hampabire, and 
were bought off ^ the English witti a tribute 
of ie,OOCU Their fleet lay at Southampton 

a lasting peace with jEtiwIred, received the 
rite of oonflrmation, and sailed to Norway in 
995, where he was chosen Ung. Bweyn 
remained for a time, and that year qpean 



to b4Ts MTi^ed tiie lale of Hui (Fkebkah, 
Norman Canquett, \. S19). At Rome time 
After lua father's death he was engaged in 
war with the Jomsburvers, who were pnv 
bablf 1(1 alliance witJi the Swedes and the 
Wende, and was twice taken prisoner by bis 
enemiee and ransomed with lar^ sums. 
IDiere ia a legend that he was taken captive 
% third tiiM ; that all the wealth of the 
conatTT having been ndiausted, the women 
gave their jewels asd otlier ornaments £>r 
nis ransom, and that In return he made a law 
that daught«n as well u sons should share 
in the ri^ts of inhuitanoe (SiJco, y. 187). 
About 1000, ^psrentlf as a condition of 
peace, and periiaps of his libwatimi, he mar- 
ried tlie OBU^tar of Mieoislav, duke of 
Poland, sister of BolesUv, afterwards king of 
Poland, Uie widow of Eric of Sweden, and, 
it ii aaul, the mother of his son Olaf Skot- 
kOBBung, or 'the Swede.' This ntaniage led 
to his leetoration to Denmark after having, 
it is said, been fourteen ^eara in exile ; he 
made a close alliance with Olaf, which is 
said to have provided for the establishment 
of Christianity in Denmark and Sweden 
(Adu(, ii. c 87; TkibtmiBj vi 

it is also said that Bw^n began the quarrel, 
being at[n«d i^ by his wife Signd the 
Haughty, who IS ie|ireaeoted bf the Ice- 
Undtc writer as Uie widow of &ic the Vic- 
Inriona, thonf^ not the daughter of Miedslav 
(*&. 0. 107). Swevn was helped by Olaf the 
Swede, by Earls Erie and Sweyn, the sons 
of Hakon, the former ruler of Norway, and 
iKgwaliL the leader of the Jmisbura pirates; 
«M Olaf of Norw^ was defeated anddrowned 
ik the battle of Swold, 9 Sept. 1000. The 
jfiotms divided Norway : Sweyn kept tie 
■outhem jiart called the Wick, and assianed 
large dominiou to the two eons of Halcoo, 
^ving Erio his daughter Qytha to wife. 

When Swvyii heard of the massacre of 
the Danes on St. Brice's Dav, 18 Nov. 1002, 
in which his aister Gunhild, her husbsjid, 
aud her wn ms said to have perished, he 
wa* greatly moved, and he and the Danish 
iuls swore to be Kvenged on j£the]red 
^WUiL. Muji. iL c. 177; WiLUui orJv- 
MiteBB,T.& 6). Accordingly in lOOS he 
tgm inraded Englandi, stwmed Bseter, 
moiled the mty, and took great bootv. He 
lioen nvuwl Wiltahire, and, a local foica 
irUdigUhendlo meetUm hating di«p«ned 
witikNit a hatlle, sacked and biuned Wil- 
im and SaUsbw^ (Old Saturn), and then 
Ntonksd to hie Mipa. In lOM he sailed to 
Havwieh, whish m ptundwad and burned. 

>3 Sweyii 

Ulfcytol [q.v.J, Ute eail of Ka