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Williamson Worden 







Williamson Worden 




:..-' •>: 


i^. t-.v 

UB^m Of THE 

JUL 27 1900 




r. J. A.. . . P. J. Anderson. 

W. A. J. A. W. A. J. Akciiijolu. 

.1. A. A. . . The Rev. Canon Atkinson. 

>r. B Miss Batkson. 

U. 13 The Rev. Ronald Bayne. 

T. B Thomas Bayne. 

C. B Professor Cecil Bendall. 

T. G. B. . . The Rev. Professor Bonney, 


G. S. B. . . G. S. Bouloer. 

T. B. B. . . T. B. Browning. 

E. I. C. . . E. Irving Caiilyle. 

W. C-R. . . William Carr. 

J. L. C . . J. L. Caw. 

A. C-K. . . . The Ri:v. Andkkw Clark. 

J. W. C-K. . J. Willis Claiik. 

E. C-E. . . . Sir Eunkst Claiikk. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clkrke. 

A. M. e. . Miss A. M. Ct>uKE. 

J. C. The Rev. Professor Cooper, 


T. . Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

V -». . . W. P. Courtney. 

Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

D-n. . . . Charles Daltox. 

J. D Cami'Dkll DoiMisoN. 

K. K. D. . . Professor R. E. Douglas. 

J. A. D. . . J. A. Doyle. 

E. G. D. . . E. Gordon Duff. 

R. D Robert Dunlop. 

C. L. F. . . C. Litton Falkiner. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. Firtu. 

W. F William Foster. 

T. F The Rev. Thomas Fowxer, D.D., 

President of CoRi»U8 Christi 
College, Oxford. 

J. G Jamks Gairdner, LL.D. 

R. G Richard Garnett, LL.D.. C.B. 

A. G The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

J. C. H. . . J. Cuthhert H.adden. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

T. H The Rr.v. Thomas Hamilton, D.D. 

C. A. H. . . C. Alexander Harris, C.M.G. 

I M. H Professoic Marcus Hartoo. 

' P. J. H. . . P. J. Hartoo. 


T. F. H. . . T. F. Hendiiksox. 

J. K. H. . . The Rkv. J. Kino Hewison. 

W. H The Rev. Wiluam Hunt. 

C. K Charles Kent. 

J. K Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 

A. L Andrew Lancj. 

J. K. L. . . Professor J. K. Laughton. 


List of Writers. 

T. G. L. . . T. G. Law. 

I. S. L. . . . I. S. Leadau. 

E. L Miss Elizabeth Lee. 


0. H. L. . . C. H. Lees, D.Sc. 

E. M. L. . . Colonel E. M. Lloyd, B.E. 
J. H. M. . . J. R. Maodonald. 

iB. M. ... Sheriff Mackay. 
A. P. M. . . A. Patchett Martin. 
L. M. M. . . Miss Middleton. 
A. H. M. . . A. H. Millar. 

CM Cosmo Monkuouse. 

N. M Nobman Moors, M.D. 

A. N Albert Nicholson. 

G. Lb G. N. G. Lb Grys Noroate. 
D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'Donoohue. 

F. M. O'D.. F. M. 0*Donoohxjb, F.S.A. 
H. W. P. . . Major Hugh Pearse. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. Pollard. 

B. P Miss Bertha Porter. 

D'A. P. . . . D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 
F. B Eraser Bae. 

W. E. B. 
J. M. B. 
T. S. . . 
C. F. S. 

B. J. S. 
G. W. S. . 
L. 8. . . . 
G. S-H. . . 

C. W. 8. . 
J. T-T. . . 

D. Ll. T. 
M. T. . . . 
T. F. T. . 

B. H. V. . 

A. W. W. 
P. W. . . . 
W. W. W. 

E. F. W. . 
J. G. W. . 
B. B. W. . 
H. B. W.. 

. . W. E. Bhodes. 

. . J. M. Bioo. 

. . THoaiAs Seocohbe. 

. . Miss C. Fell 8mith. 

. . Beoinald J. S&nTU. 

. . The Bev. G. W. Sprott, D.D. 

. . Leslie Stephen. 

. . George Stronach. 

. . C. W. Sutton. 

. . James Tait. 

. D. Lleufer Tho^iah. 
. . Mrs. Tout. 
. . Professor T. F. Tout. 

. . Colonel B. H. Vetch, B.E., C.B. 

. A. W. Ward, LL.D., Litt.1). 

. Paul Waterhouse. 

. Captain W. W. Webb, Ml)., 


. General James Grant Wilhox. 

. B. B. Woodward. 

. H. B. Woodward, F.B.S. 






1798), lieutenant-general, governor of 
Jamaica and St. Domingo, bom in 1736, was j 
son of Lieutenant-general George William- 
son (1707 •'--1781), who commanded the royal 
artillery at the siege and capture of Louis- 
burg in 1758 and during the o])erations in 
North America terminating in the capture 
of Montreal in 1760. He became a cadet 

Sinner on 1 Jan. 1748, entered the Royal 
ilitarv' Academy at Woolwich in 1750, and 
was appointed practitioner-engineer on 1 Jan. 
1753. He went to North America in the 
following year, was engineer in Braddock*8 
ill-fated expedition to Virginia in 1755, and 
was wounded at the battle of Du Quesne on 
9 July. On 14 Oct. lie received a commis- 
sion as ensign in the 6th foot, was placed 
upon the statt' of the expedition to North 
America, and served throughout the war. On 
25 Sept. 1757 he was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant in the 5th foot, and on 4 Jan. 1758 to 
be engineer-extraordinary and captain-lieu- 
tenant. In August 1759 he was wounded at 
Montmorency at the siege of Quebec {London 
Gazette, 19 Oct. 1759). On 21 April 1760 
he was promoted to be captain in the 40th 
foot ; in August he distinguished himself in 
the repulse of the French, who were be- 
sieging Quebec, at Fort I^evis, L'Isle Royale, 
ana at the end of the year he accompanied 
his father to England on leave of absence. 

Williamson returned to North America 
in 1761, and went with the expedition to the 
West Indies, where he took a gallant part in 
the capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe 
in February 1762. He returned to England 
in 1763. On 16 Auff. 1770 he was promoted 
to be major in the l6th foot, and on 4 Dec. 
to be engineer in ordinary. He was trans- 
ferred to the 6l8t foot as major, and on 


12 Sept. 1775 was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel in the army. Brought into the 18th 
royal Irish regiment of foot as a regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on 9 Dec., he ceased to 
perform engineer duties, and joined his regi- 
ment, whicn was on active service in North 
America, taking part with it in the battle 
of Bunker's Hill, and returning with it to 
England in July 1776, when he was quar- 
tered at Dover. 

On 23 Dec. 1778 AVilliamson was ap- 
pointed d^uty adjutant-general of the forces 
in South Britain, on 15 Feb. 1782 was pro* 
moted to be colonel in the army, and on 
28 April 1790 to be major-general, on 16 July 
was appointed colonel of the 47th foot, 
and in the same year was made lieutenant* 

fovernor and commander-in-chief at Jamaica, 
n 1791 some of the inhabitants of St. Do- 
mingo made overtures to Williamson, pro- 
posing to place the colony under the protec- 
tion of Great Britain. The proposals were 
warmly advocated by Williamson, who re- 
ceived discretionary powers from the home 
government in 1 793 to take over those parts 
of the island of which the inhabitants might 
desire British protection, detaching from 
Jamaica a force sufficient to maintain and 
defend them. Williamson made a descent 
on St. Domingo in September with all the 
troops which could be spared, and established 
a protectorate. On 19 March 1794 he was 
transferred to the colonelcy of the 72nd high- 
landers, and on 24 Oct. of the same year he 
relinquished the government of Jamaica, and 
was appointed governor of St. Domingo, Port 
au Prmce, the capital, having capitulated to 
the British conjomt expedition under Com- 
modore Ford and Colonel John Whitelocke 
[q. v.] on the previous 5 June. Williamson 
was made a knight of the order of the Bath 





on IB Nov. He was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-goneral on 26 Jan. 1707. Yellow 
ftiver and mucli desultory fighting' made bucIi 
terriblH havoc among- the British troops that, 
in spite of all Williamson's enthusiasm and 
energy, the iaknd had to be evacuated in 
179S, and WilUsmson,whohadBauriliced bis 
private fortune and health iu tbis enterpriae, 
returned to England, Ho died from iLe 
immediate efiectR of a (all at Aveaburj House, 
"Wiltshire, on 31 Oct. 1798. 

[Ro^ EnginMrs' RecQida; Conolly Papora; 
DrapatehoB-. British Uilitnry Libraiy. UBS; 
BrjHD EdvHrdB'sBiat.of llieBritiflli rolonipaiii 
the West Indies ; Qeat. Mag. 1798; Knox'l Ui«- 
torioal Journal of tlie Canip»ign8 in North Ame- 
ficA, 1737-60. 2 vole. 4to, 1783.J U. H. V. 

IfflW), misBiDnary to Chilis, was born on 
6 Dec. lH:;d, at Falkirk, studied nt U1il&- 
gow, and was appointed miBsionarji to China 
under the London Missionary ^iociety. He 
vasordained at Glasgow in April l!^, and 
sailed in the following inoDth for tShangbai, 
having previously married Mias Isabel LJo«- 
g«ll. For two years he took part in mia- 
siouary work at Shanghai and F^ngbu ; but, 
hia health failing, be left China on aick 
leave, and arrived iu England on 1(1 April 
1868. His connection with the London 
Missionary Society terminated soon after his 
arrival in England. After some years spent 
in Scotland he returned to China as agent of 
the National Bible Society of (j-cotland, and 
arrived at Shanghai iu December 1663, He 
died at Cbefoo on 28 Aug. 1890. 

In 1379 be published a most interesting 
work on ' Joumeya in North China,' iu 
which he described the home of Confucius, 
and the district which is consecrated by 
Bssociationa with the sage. In addition he 
published a ' Treatise on Botany ' in Cbineae, 
entitled ' Chih wu hsio,' 1859. 

t Personal knniiledga ; and Memorials of Pro- 
tMtant Miasianaries to the Chiaeae, Hhsnghii, 
1887.] H- K- I>. 

(17ToN1836) colonel royal artillery, was 
bom about 1775. He entered the lioyjil 
Military Academy at Woolwich on 8 Aug. 
1791, and received a commission as second 
lieutenant in the roval artillery on 1 Jan. 
1794. The dates of his further commissions 
were: lieutenant, II March 1794; captain- 
lieutenaut, 12 Oct. 1799; captain, 12 Sept. 
1803; brevet major, 4 June 1811; brevet 
lieutenant-colonel, 13 Oct. 1814 ; regimental 
majiir, 20 Dec. 1814 ; regimental lieutenant- 
colonel, 21 March 1817; colonel, 29 July 

In June 179ii nilliamBon served on the 
const of France in the expedition to Quiberott 
Bay, to assist the French'royalists. Tn 1799 
he went to the Cape of Good Hope and 
served in the Hottentot and Kaffir war of 
(hat year, thence to Egypt and the Medi~ 
torraneun, was ut the siege of Ischia in 
June \>m. commanded the artUIery ot the 
capture of four of the Ionian islands in 
October of that year, and at the siege and 
capture of Santa Maura in April 1810. Ho 
subsequently went to Spain and commanded 
the artillery nt the battle of Costalla, under 
Sir John Murray (1788P-1827) [q. v.], on 
19 April 1813; at the sjegeof Tarruponain 
June; at the disastrous engagement of Ordal 
on 13 Sept., and at the combat on the fol- 
lowing day at Villa Francs. He was fre- 
quentlT mentioned in despatches. 

He returned to England in 1814, and in 
the following year went to the Netherlands 
aud commanded the artilleiy of the third 
division at the battle of Waterloo. He 
received the VVaterloo medal and waa made 
a companion of the order of the Bath, 
military division, in 1815. He served witb 
the army of occupation in France until his 
promotion to be regimental lieutenEnt- 
colonel, when he relumed to England. He 
waa for some time superiutendent of the 
Itoyal Military Repository at Woolwich, 
and prepared a new and extensive course of 
instruction iu artillery, which fanned ^e 
basis of the exercise of heavy ordnance and 
of all the miscellaneous instructions of the 
gunner for many years, and will alwavB 
remain a model for professional works uf tba 
kind. Williamson died at Woolwich on 
26 AprU 183(1. 

[War Office RecordH ; Rojal Artillpry Bo- 
cnrda; Despatches; Bojal Militarj Calendar, 
ISaUi Bunlmry's Narnilive of Military Traiw- 
Mlions in the Medilercaneaii 180S-181ii ; 
Napier'a History of the Feniasulnr War ; 
Sibome's lliarorv of the Waterloo CampnigD; 
Kane's List of OMci^rH uf the Royal Artilterv.] 
It. H. V. 

1701), statesman and diplomatist, was bap- 
tised on 4 Aug. 1633 at Bridekirk, a village 
three miles north of Cockarmouth. He was 
the youngest son of Joseph Williamson, who 
was instituted to the vicarage of Bridekirk in 
1625 and died while his son was an infant. 
His mother married as a second husband the 
Rev. John Arderj (Fain. Minamm Gentium, 
p. 424). 

After a good grounding at the grammar 
school of St. Bees, Joseph seems to have 
cone to London as clerk to Richard Tolson, 
lae member of parliament for Cockermoulb, 



through whoise influence he was admitted 
as a town-boj to Westminster school, then | 
under Dr. Bushy. Bushy recommended I 
him to Gerard Langhaine the elder [q.v.l as 
a deserving northern youth, and in Septem oer j 
1650 he entered as a bateller of Queen's Col- | 
lege, Oxford, whence he graduated B.A. on ; 
2 Feb. 1653-4. His college tutors were ] 
Dr. Lamplugh and Dr. Thomas Smith. After | 
graduating he went into France and the Low 
Countries as tutor to a young man of quality, 
possibly one of the sons o? the Marquis of 
Ormonde (Hist, MSS, Comm, 4th Rep. App. 
p. 546 ; cf. CaL State Papers, Dom. 1051-2, 
p. 300). In November 1057 he was elected 
a fellow of Queen's (graduating M.A. in the 
same month), and he held his fellowship 
until his marriage. Soon after the Restora- 
tion he quitted Oxford for political life upon 
obtaining a place in the ofhce of Sir Edward 
Nicholas [q. y.], an old Queen's man, at 
that time secretary of state. In July 1660 
Charles II sent to the provost and fellows of 
Queen's a special re<}uest that they would 
grant Williamson a dispensation for absence 
nt>m college; his loss was regretted both 
by the parents of his pupils and by his col- 
leagaes. Henry Denton, the successor to 
his rooms in college, alluded to his musical 
tastes when he wrote in October 1660* Your 
couple of viols still hang in their places as a 
monument that a genuine son of Jubal has 
been here.' 

His position in the secretary's office was 
not at first lucrative; but his status was 
improved on 30 Dec. 1661 by his appoint- 
ment as keeper of the king's library at White- 
hall and at the paper office at a salary of 
160/. per annum. The paper office work was 
performed by four or five clerks under Henry 
ball, Williamson's subordinate. They issued 
news-letters once a week to numerous sub- 
scribers and to a smaller number of corre- 
spondents, the correspondents in turn fur- 
nishing materials which were subsequently 
embodied in the 'Gazette' (see below; cf. 
Ball's curious report of 23 Oct. 1674 appended 
to Christie's Williamson Correspondence and 
Mrs. Everett Green's preface to Cal. State 
Fat>ers, Dom. 1665-6). 

Meanwhile in October 1662 Nicholas 
was succeeded as secretary by Sir Henry 
Bennett (afterwards Lord Ariington), and 
Williamson was transferred to him as 
secretary. Facilities for making money 
now became abundant, and he showed him- 
self no backward pupil in the generally 
practised art of exacting gratifications from 
all kinds of suitors and petitioners. Pepys 
met him at dinner on 6 Feb. 1663, and 
deccribes him : * Latin Secretary . . 


pretty knowing man and a scholar, but it 
may be he thinks himself to be too much 
so.' On the 28th of the following month 
he became one of the lave commissioners 
for seizing prohibited goods, and in Novem- 
ber 1604 he was one of the five contractors 
for the Royal Oak lottery, which became a 
source of considerable profit to him (the 
right of conducting and managing lotteries 
was restricted exclusively to the five * com- 
missioners ' in June 1665). In this same 
year (1664) Williamson seems to have been 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple. 

When, in the autumn of 1665, Charles II 
sought refuge in Oxford from the great 
plague, the lack of a regular news-sheet was 
strongly felt by the court. The ravages of 
the pestilence seem to have disorganised 
L'Estrange's * Intelligencer ' and * News.' 
Under these circumstances Leonard Lichfield 
[q.v.], the university printer, was authorised 
to bring out a local paper. On Tuesday 
14 Nov. the first number of the 'Oxford 
Gazette' appeared, and was thenceforth 
continued regularly on Mondays and Thurs- 
days. The Oxford pioneer of the paper was 
Henry Muddiman ; but, after a few numbers, 
Williamson procured for himself the privi- 
leges of editor, employing Charles Perrot of 
Oriel College as his chief assistant. When 
the court was back at Whitehall, Muddi- 
man made vain endeavours to injure Wil- 
liamson's efforts as a disseminator of news, 
and L*Estrange put forth a claim, which 
was rejected, to a monopoly in publishing 
official intelligence. Williamson's paper be- 
came the * London Gazette,' the first issue 
so named being that of 5 Feb. 1666 (No. 24) ; 
it soon outdistanced its rivals, and survives 
to this day as the official register of the trans- 
actions of the government. 

As secretary to Arlington, who was at 
the head of the post office, Williamson took 
an active part in its management. The 
amount of official work of all kinds that ho 
got through during the next fifteen years 
from 1665 to 1680 is enormous, and his cor- 
respondence at the Record Office is extra- 
ordinarily voluminous. Evelyn wrote that 
Arlington, * loving his ease more than busi- 
nesse (tho' sufficiently able had he applied 
himselfe to it), remitted all to his man Wil- 
liamson, and in a short time let him go into 
the secret of atlairos, that (as his lordsliip 
himself told me) there was a kind of neces- 
sity to advance him, and so by his subtlety, 
dexterity, and insinuation he got to be ]>rin- 
cipal Secretary . . .' Williamson found some 
compensation for his labours in the opportu- 
nities afibrded him of rapidly making money. 
Two instances of his gpnerosity £^re Afforded 




in August 1666 : he sent down money by a 
private hand to be applied to the relief of 
sick and wounded seamen, and also presented 
to his old college two pairs of banners wrought 
with silver thread, and a massive silver 
trumpet which was long used to summon 
the college to dinner (the summons has 
always been made by ' a clarion/ as ordained 
by the college statutes). The motive of the 
gift to the college appears to have been 
Williamson^s anxiety, though he was a non- 
resident, to retain and sublet his rooms in 
college, and he menaced the fellows with 
' inconveniences ' if they did not accede to 
his wish ; the college in reply diplomatically 
evaded the demand. In small matters, an^ 
especially in his management of the ' Gazette,' 
Williamson showed a decidedly grasping and 
penurious spirit. 

With the warm concurrence of his chief, 
Williamson made various ettbrts to get into 
parliament, without meeting at first with 
success. Ilis candidature failed at Morpeth 
(October 1606), l^eston (May 1667), Dart- 
mouth, and at Appleby, where in December 
16fJ7 his hopes were crushed by the inter- 
vention of Anne Clifford, the famous coun- 
tess of Pembroke [for the laconic letter said 
by Horace Walpole to have been written on 
the subject bv the countess, see Clifford, 
Anne ; that there is some truth in Walpole's 
story is rendered very probable by State 
PaperSf Dom. Charles II, xxxi. 170]. On 
22 Oct. 1669 Williamson eventually suc- 
ceeded in getting elected for Tlietford, and 
he was re-elected in February 1678-9, Au- 
gust 1679, February 1080-1, and March. 
1685. He did not sit in the Convention, 
but he was returned for liochester in March 
1690, while in October 1696, July 1698, and 
January 1700-1, being elected both for this 
city and for his old borough, he preferred to 
sit for the former. He seems to have voted 
steadily as a courtier, but, except in his offi- 
cial capacity as secretary, rarely opened his 
mouth in parliament. 

In January 1671-2 Williamson became 
a clerk of the council in ordinary and was 
knighted. The post of clerk, which had 
been held by Sir Richard Browne, John 
Evelyn's father-in-law, had been promised 
to Evelyn by the king, ' but,' explains the 
diarist, ' in consideration of the renewal of 
our lease and other reasons I chose to part 
with it to Sir Joseph Williamson, who gave 
UB and the rest of nis brother clerks a hand- 
fiome supper at his house, and after supper 
a concert of music/ He mentions elsewhere 
that Williamson himself was an expert per- 
fonner at j^u des gobelets. On 17 May 1673 
^ "i started, in company with Sir 

Leoline Jenkins [o. v.] and the Earl of Sun- 
derland, as joint British plenipotentiary to 
the congress at Cologne. There he remained 
until 15 April 1674 (the letters written to 
him during his absence were printed for the 
Camden Societv in two volumes, under the 
editorship of W. D. Christie, in 1874) ; but 
although the negotiations, which are detailed 
in Wynne's * Life of Jenkins,' were tediously 
prolonged, nothing in reality was effected, 
and the separate peace between England and 
Holland (which was suddenly proclaimed in 
April 1674) was made not at Cologne, but 
in London. 

Before he left England on his embassy it 
had been arranged between Williamson and 
his patron Arlington that upon his return 
Arlington should resign his ofiice as secretary 
of state, and that Williamson, if possible, 
should be offered the reversion of the post 
upon paying a sum of 6,000/. This arrange- 
ment was provisionally sanctioned by the 
king. Meanwhile, in March 1674, Arlington 
offered to secure the office for Sir William 
Temple, another of his prot6g6s, and to pro- 
vide otherwise for Williamson ; but Temple 
refused the offer, remarking to his friends 
that he considered it no great honour to be 
preferred before Sir Joseph Williamson. 

Williamson returned in June 1674, and 
was at once appointed secretary of state, 
being then not quite forty-one; Arlington 
obtained the more lucrative post of cham- 
berlain. A few days after his appointment 
Williamson was on 27 June 1G74 admitted 
LL.D. at Oxford, and on 11 Sept. he was 
sworn of the privy council. Except for the 
great industry that characterised all Wil- 
liamson's departmental work, there \a little 
to distinguish his tenure of office as secre- 
tary. In September 1674 the new secretary 
officially announced to Temple as English 
ambassador at The Hague that the affairs 
of the United Provinces would henceforth 
come under his special care. The announce- 
ment cannot have been especially agreeable 
to Temple, and it seems to have been no 
less distasteful to the Mnce of Orange, who 
saw in Williamson even more than in Arling- 
ton an instrument of complete subservience 
to the French sympathies of Charles II. 
With respect to another despatch Temple 
writes, on 24 Feb. 1677 : * The prince could 
hardlv hear it out with any patience. Sir 
Joseph Williamson's style was always so 
disagreeable to him, and he thought the 
whole cast of this so artificial, that he re- 
ceived it with indignation and scorn.' He 
said on another occasion, as on this, that 
Williamson treated him ' like a child who 
was to be fed on whipt cream.' Temple 



speaks elsewhere with compassion of Sir 
Leoline Jenkins lying under the lash of 
Secretary Williamson, who, upon old grudges 
between them at Cologne, never failed to 
lay hold of any occasion he could to censure 
his conduct, nor did Temple himself alto- 
gether succeed in escaping the lash. 

During 1676, at the instigation of Charles II, 
Williamson tried to induce the master of 
the rolls to remove Burnet from his place as 
preacher to the master of the rolls, but he 
encountered a determined opposition from 
Sir Harbottle Grimston [q. v.], and the out- 
spoken Burnet was enabled to retain his 
foothold in London. In 1 676 Milton's friend, 
Daniel Skinner, wished to print the de- 
ceased poet*s 'Latin State Letters' and trea- 
tise ' De Doctrina Christiana,' and applied to 
Williamson for the necessary license (that 
of the official licenser being apparently in- 
sufficient). The secretary refused, saying 
that he could countenance nothing of Mil- 
ton's writing, and he went so far as to write 
of Skinner (to a likely patron) as a suspect 

* until he very well cured himself from such 
infectious commerce as Milton's friendship.' 
Williamson managed eventually to lay his 
hands upon the original manuscripts, and 
locked them up for security among the state 
archives. The * State Letters* were surrep- 
titiously printed from a transcript in 1676, 
but the treatise was not published until 
1823 (see Lemon, IIobebt ; for the full com- 
plicated stoiT of the manuscripts, see Masson, 
Milton, iv. 158, vi. 331, 603, 616, 721, 729, 
774, 806). 

Dry and formal though Williamson may 
have been in his usual manner, it seems fair 
to infer that he was by no means deficient 
as a courtier, and his letters to several of 
the royal concubines show that he did not 
share Clarendon's scruples about paying 
court to the ladies whom the king delighted 
to honour. Upon the whole, however, he 
confined himself very closely to his official 
and administrative business and to the 
direction of foreign affairs. Ilis fellow 
secretary. Sir Henry Coventry, undertook 
the parliamentary work. lie had to take 
a decided line upon the subject of the Duke 
of York's exclusion, and on 4 Nov. 1678, in 
answer to Lord Kussell's motion to remove 
the Duke of York from the king's presence 
and councils, in a succinct and not ineffec- 
tive speech he declared that this would 
drive the heir to the throne to join the 
French and the catholics. Almost im- 
mediately after this he fell a victim to the 
panic excited by the supposed discovery of a 

* popish plot,' and on 18 Not. he was com- 
mitted to the Tower by the lower house on 

the charge of < subsigning commissions for 
officers and money for papists,' in other words 
of passing commissions drawn up by the 
king's order in favour of certain recusants. 
He remained in the Tower but a few hours, 
for Charles with unusual energy and deci- 
sion lost no time in apprising the commons 
that he had ordered his secretary's release. 
At the same time the offiensive commissions 
were recalled. Williamson's continuance in 
office, however, was not considered altogether 
desirable (cf. Wood, Life and Times, ii. 438). 
The newsletters on 10 Feb. announced * Sir 
Joseph Williamson is turned out, but is to 
be repaid what his secretaryship cost him.' 
As a matter of fact he received from his suc- 
cessor, Sunderland, 6,000/. and five hundred 

In 1676 Williamson was elected master of 
the Clothworkers' Company (presenting a 
silver-gilt cup bearing his arms) ; he was 
succeeded as master by Samuel Pepys. 

Williamson had been declared a member 
of the Royal Society by nomination of the 
original council on 20 May 1603, and on the 
resignation of Lord Brouncker on 30 Nov. 
1677 he was elected second president of the 
society, a post which he held until 30 Nov. 
1680, when he was succeeded by Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. The secretaries under him 
were Thomas Henshaw and Nehemiah 
Grew. On 4 Dec. 1677, being * the first day 
of his taking the chair, he gave a magnificent 
supper' at which Evelyn was present. Im- 
mersed in multifarious business though he 
was at the time, Williamson presided at 
every meeting of the council during his term 
of office, and generally managed in addition 
to preside at the ordinary meetings. He 
presented several curiosities to the museum, 
and a large screw press for stamping 
diplomas, as well as his portrait by Kneller, 
now in the Society's meeting-room. Olden- 
burgh dedicated to him the ninth volume of 
the * Philosophical Transactions.' 

Though he evidently took much interest 
in the society's work, researches of a legal, 
historical, and genealogical nature seem to 
have been more really congenial to him. He 
collected many valuable manuscripts relat- 
ing to heraldry and history, and he purchased 
the rich collections of Sir Thomas Shirley, 
which contained visitations of many counties 
of England written by the heralds or their 
clerks during the sixteenth and seventeenth 

Shortly before his removal from office in 
December 1678, Sir Joseph married Catha- 
rine, eldest and only surviving daughter of 
George Stuart, lord D'Aubigny (fourth, but 
second surviving son of Esme, third duke of 



Lennox), by Lady Catharine, eldest daughter 
of Theophilus Iloward, second earl of Suf- 
folk. Snc was baptised at St. Martin Vin- 
the-Fields, Middlesex, on 5 Dec. 1640, and 
married, first, Henry O'Brien, lord Ibrackan, 
who was buried in Westminster Abbey on 
9 Sept. 1678. As heiress to Charles Stuart, 
duke of Richmond and Lennox [q. v.], his wife 
brought Williamson a noble fortune. * Twas 
thought,' says Evelyn, * that they lived not 
80 kindly after marriage as they did before. 
She was much censured for marrying so 
meanly, being herself allied to the royal 
family.' The alliance ofl'ended Danby, who 
coveted the Richmond estates for one of his 
own sons, and it may have had something 
to do with the secretary's fall from office. 
When the Duke of Richmond died in 1072, 
Lady O'Brien succeeded to the bulk of his 
property, but his debts were so heavy that 
it was found necessary to sell somti of the 
estate.s to defray them. Under these circum- 
stances the Cobham estates, together with 
the fine old hall, were bought in bv William- 
son for 45,000/. In 1679 witl/ his wife's 
money he purchased for 8,000/. Wincliestor 
House in St. James's Square (No. 21), which 
he tenanted until 1084. 

In 1082 he became record»»r of Tlietford, 
and on his acquisition of the Cobham estate's 
interested himself not only in Rochester, but 
also in Gravesend, for wliich in 1087 he pro- 
cured a new charter (C uude x'.** Hi^t . uf(rra res- 
end, 1843, pp. 370 sq.) In May 1000 he was 
appointed upon the committee to take ac- 
count of ])ublic moneys since William's 
accession, and in February 1091-2 a false 
rumour was spread abroad that he was to be 
lord privy seal. On 21 Nov. 1090, however, 
Williamson was sworn of the privy council, 
and on 12 Dec. he was, together witli the 
Earl of Pembroke and Lord Villiers, accre- 
dited a plenipotentiary at the congress of 
Nimeguen. Owing to indisposition he did 
not arrive in Holland until 8 June. The 
peace of Ryswick was signed somewhat 
more than three months later, on 20 Sept. 
1697. Williamson stayed on at The Hague 
in the capacity of * veteran diplomatist ' (as 
he is termed by Macaulay), and on 1 1 Oct. 
1698 the first partition treaty was signed by 
him at Loo as joint commissioner witti Port- 
land. The secrecy with which the treaty 
had been negotiated excited the wrath of 
the commons in April 1099, but their full 
fury fell not upon Williamson but upon 
Portland and Somers. Williamson returned 
from Holland in November 1098, and next 
month it was reported that he would be 
sent as plenipotentiary to Versailles. He 
letamed. however, to The Hague until the 

middle of March 1099, when he finally re- 
tired from his diplomatic post. He received 
several visits from the king at Cobham Hall, 
and in the Rochester Corporation accounts 
are two heavy bills (May 1097 and 1701) 
for expenses in connection therewith. 

He died at Cobham, Kent, on 3 Oct. 1701, 
and was buried on 14 Oct. in the Duke of 
Richmond's vault in King Henry Vll's chapel 
in Westminster Abbey (Chester, Heg. of 
BuriaU, pp. 249, 251 ). Williamson's widow 
was buried in Westminst^»r Abbey on 1 1 Nov. 
1702, leaving no issue by her second hus- 

Rather a man of afiairs than a statesman, 
Williamson appears to have been dry and 
formal in his manner ; he was strictly me- 
thodical, scrupulous and exact in the transac- 
tion of business, subservient in all things to 
his chiefs, and severe and exacting towards 
his subordiuates. Music and historical anti- 
quities were his chief relaxations, but his 
multifarious correspondence can have left 
him but little time to indulge them. Like 
most of the statesmen of the day, he turned 
lus industry to good account and managed 
to accumulate a large fortune during his 
tenure of otKce. Some of his early stitfhess 
of manner seems to have worn off, and a 
gradual rise in I'epys's estimation of him is 
to be traced through the pages of the 
* Diary.' Anthony ii Wood had no love for 
the secretary, who on 23 May 1075 ignored 
Wood's application for the ]K)st of keeper of 
records in the Tower. But he was * a great 
friend,' Wood admits, to Queen's College 
and to Queen's College men. Williamson 
befriended Dr. Lancelot Addison [q. v.], a 
contemporary with the secretary at Queen's, 
who dedicated to Sir Joseph, in his capacity 
of curator of the Sheldonian press, his inte- 
resting * l^resent State of the Jews in Rar- 
bary.' The famous essayist was named 
Joseph after his father's benefactor. Wil- 
liamson also sent Dr. William Lancaster 
and Risho]) Nicolson (both Queen's men) 
abroad at the crown's exj)ense, in accordance 
with a plan of his own for training young 
men of promise for diplomatic work. Nicol- 
son, when a young tal>erdar of Queen's, dedi- 
cated to the secretary his * Iter Hollandi- 
cum ' in 1078 (still in manuscript in Queen's 

Evelyn's charge of ingratitude is refuted 
by the disjjositions of Williamson's will, in 
which all mstitutions and individuals who 
by blood, aflection, or service had any claims 
upon him were mentioned. To Bridekirk, in 
audition to a present of silver flagons and 
chalices for the church, he left 500/. to be 
distributed among the poor. To the library 



at St. B«es he gave his portrait: he hud 
already, in September 1671, givun two exbi- 
bitioas for scholars of Dovenby in his nativo 
Mrisb. To the provost and scholars of 
Queen's CoUege he left 6,000i. 'to be laid 
out in further new buildings to the coUedge 
and otherwise beautifying the said colledge,' 
as well as his 'library of printed books and 
books of heraldry and genaligy, as well manu- 
*cripta as printed ; ' to Christ's (i^hurch Hoa- 

tiital, London, he gave 3UU/. ; to St. UarthO' 
smew's (of which he had been a governor) 
300(. ; and to the Royal Society at Grasham 
College 200/. To Thetfocd, in addition to 
tnuniBcent gifts during bis lifetime (see 
Blohefigld, Norfolk, i. 463 eq.), he be- 
queathed :i,000/., and the income is now de- 
voted partly to a school and hospital foun- 
dation at Thetford, and partly m binding 
out apprentices and in local charities. To 
Itochester, besides 20/. for the poor, soma gilt 
communion plate, and a portrait of Wil- 
liam III to hang in the town-hall, he left 
5,000/. for the purchosingof londs and tene- 
ments to support a free 'mathematical school.' 
This was opened in 1708 under the master- 
ship of John Colson ["I'V.], and rebuilt under 
a new scheme in ISUs— I. As a mark of his 
loyalty to hi8 old college, Williamson chose 
for bis crest one of the Queen's eagles, and 
for hia motto ' Sub umbm tuarum alarum ' 
(his arms are still to be seen in a window 
at Clothworkers' Hall). Among Wood's 
pamphlets -n-aa a now rare 'Impressio secimda 
Carminis heroici in honorem .lo. William- 
son' [by Payne Fisher]. 

An interesting portrait (erroneously attri- 
bnted to Lely)waB acquired by the National 
Portrait Gftllery, London, in 1(<95. Besides 
the portrait at St. Bees, and the half-length 
by Kneller at Burlington House, there are 
portraits of Williamson in Queen's College 
Hall, in the town-hall, Ita^hester, and in 
Clothworkers' Hall. 

[A fill! Life of Williamaon would invalTO an 
almost exhaustir? sarrDy of political nnd aacinl 
England from I66S lo 1680, His local eonnoc- 
tioQB have been cunimcmoratcd ia a eerie!' of brief 
bnt useful smnmnries of hia coroor; that with 
Cobham UhU by Canoa Scott Robertwa in the 
Arehxologia CanCiana {li. 274-B4); (hat with 
Cumberland in Hutchinson's Hist, of Cumbec- 
land, ii. 244 sq.. in Nicholson SD<I Burn's W«st- 
morlaod, and in Peile's Annals of the Fciles of 
Strathelyds (cbap. iii.) ; thar with Roohester in 
Hr. CbarUs Bird's Sir J. Willitimson, rounder of 
tho Mathematical School (Rochester, 1891), nnd 
in Mr. A. Bhodex's Tsry careful nolice ot Wil- 
liamson in tho Chatbsm nnd Rootiester News, 
26 Nov. 1838; tlint with Thetford in Martin's 
Hist, of Thetford, 1779, pp. 220 sq.. and in 
Uilliag^D-a I'age in the Uist. of Thetford i that 

with the Iloyal Society in Weld's Hiat. of tha 
Roynl Society, i. 202 sq. ; and that vitb GraTe»- 
end in Crudan's Uisl. of (iravesend, 1843. pp. 
377 sq. The Cal. of Stats Papera, Duni. front 
1660 to 1671, contains frequent refereoc^a to 
Williamaon. The atnle pnpera relnting to the 
years 1672-9 (as yet uncali>nJiired) embody a 
vast number of Williamaon papera, diaries, and 
letters ; extracts from his official journal are 
printoil aa an appendii to the CHlrndars from 
1671 onwards, for the enormous bulk of Wil- 
liamson P.ipors previous to Iheir dispersion and 
rcMirrangement. see Thomas's Departmental Hist. 
1S4S, folio; and 30th Annual Hepurt of the 
Dppnty -Keeper of Public Recunis. A few 

(see espedally Addit. M.Sd. 5188 if. 1379, fiS31 
f. 87. 28040 f. 35, 28093 f. 214. 28945 f. 107, 
34727 (. 130), and Stowe MSS. (sec rapeciallj' 
200, 201, 203-10 passim, aod 549, f. 12} at the 
British Unseum. Sea also Christie'a Williamson 
Correep, {Camden Soc.). 1874 ; Foster's Alumni 
US. 5883, f. 83} ; Welch's Alumni Wcstmon. 
p. 171".: Jackson's Cumberland and West- 
morland Papers. IS92, ii. 203, 230; Lonsdale's 
Worthies of Cumberland, ri. 228; Life and 
Times of Anthony a Wood, toIb. ii. and iii, 
passim; Basted's Kent. Ii. 63; Evelyn's Diary, 
1895, i. 409, ii. 22, 42, fi7, 73, 101,11 1, 124, 180, 
Pepys'a Diary, ed. Whsatloy, it, 290, 383, v. 
psseim. ti. 33-4, vii. and riii. passim ; Lnttrell's 
Brief Hist. Relation, i. 8, 0, ii. -14, 156, 3S3,iii. 
5<iS. ir.paisim,r. 84, 04, 9S ; Leiinglon Papers, 
ed. Sutton, 1851; Anne Greenes Newi=s from 
the Dead, 1650, p. ; Official Returns uf Mam- 
h«rg of Pari.; Pari. Hiat. T. 1014, 1038; 
Enchurd'e Hist, of England, 1718, iii. 368, 479, 
498 ; Rapin's Hist, of EngUind, rol. ii.; Ralph's 
Hist, of England, rol. i. ; Bayer's William III, 
pp. 76 sq. ; Ranbe's Hist, of England, ir. 65 ; 
llist. MS3. Comm. 4ih Rep. p. 546, 7th Rep. 
p. 495, 8th Rep. p. 390, I5tb Rep. pp. 171, 
177; Courtena j's Life of Sir W. Temple ; Chria- 
tie's Life of ShalUabury ; Masaon'i Life of Mil- 
ton, vi. passim; Ashton's Hiit. of Lotteries; 
Evelyn's NumiBmatn.p.27 ; Nichols's Ut. Anecd, 
iv. 58-0 ; Daasnt's St. Jnmos's Square, pp. 6, 
31), 107: Wiild'i Cat. of Royal Society Portraits, 

piisaim; Notes and Querie", 1st per. vii. passim; 
notes from ftucen's College Registers, most 
kindly furnished by the Provost.] T. S, 

WILLIAMSON, PETEIi (1730-1799), 

author and pubiiahar, Bon of James William- 
son, crofter, was bom in theparigh of .\boyne, 
Aberdeenshire, in 1730. When about ten 
years of age be fell a victim to a barbarous 
traffic which then disgraced Aberdeen, being 
kidnapped and Irnnaportcd to the American, 
plantiitions, wlitro be was sold for a period 
o! seven years to a fellow countrj'man in 




Pennsylvania. Becoming his own master 
about 1747, he acquired a tract of land on 
the frontiers of the same province, which in 
1754 was overrun by Indians, into whose 
hands Williamson fell. Escaping, he en- 
listed in his majesty's forces, and after many 
romantic adventures was in 1 757 discharged 
at Plymouth as incapable of further service 
in conseauence of a wound in one of his 
hands. vVith the sum of six shillings with 
which he had been furnished to carry him 
home, he set out on his journey, and reached 
York, where in the same year he published a 
tract entitled * Prench and Indian Oucltj 
exemplified in the Life and Various Vicissi- 
tudes of Pet^r Williamson . . . with a Cu- I 
rious Discourse on Kidnapping.' Arriving j 
in Aberdeen in 1758, lie was accused by the 
magistrates of having issued a scurrilous 
and infamous libel on the corporation of the 
city and whole members thereof. lie was 
at once convicted, fined, and banished from 
the citv, while his tract, which had passed 
through several editions in Glasgow, Lon- 
don, and Edinburgh, was ordered to be pub- 
licly burnt at the Market Cross. William- 
son brought an action against the corpora- 
tion for these proceedings, and in 1762 was 
awarded 100/. damages by the court of session. 
He was also successful in a second suit brought 
in 1765 against the parties engaged in the 
trade of kidnapping. 

Williamson settled in Edinburgh, where 
he combined the occupations of bookseller, 
printei*, publisher, and keeper of a tavern, 
'Indian Peter's coffee room' (Ferqusson, 
Rising of the Session), In 177ti he issued 
the first street directory for Edinburgh. In 
1776 he engaged in a periodical work after 
the manner of the * Spectator,' called the 
* Scots Spy, or Critical Observer,' published 
every Friday. This periodical, which is 
valuable for its local information, ran from 
8 March to 30 Aug., and a second series, the 
'New Scots Spy,' from 29 Aug. to 14 Nov. 
// /. 

About the same time Williamson set on 
foot in Edinburgh a penny post, which be- 
came so profitable in his hands that when 
in 1793 the government took over the 
management, it was thought necessary to 
allow him a pension of 25/. per annum. 

Williamson died in Edinburgh on 10 Dec. 
1799. He married, in Novemberl777, Jean, 
daughter of John Wilson, bookseller in Edin- 
burgh, whom he divorced in 178S. A portrait 
of Williamson is given by Kay (Original 
Portraits^ i. 128), and another * in the dress 
of a Delaware Indian ' is prefixed to va- 
rious editions of his ' Life.' 

In addition to 'French and Indian Cruelty' 

and the ' Scots Spy,' Williamson was author 
of : 1. 'Some Considerations on the Present 
State of Affairs. Wherein the Defenceless 
State of Great Britain is pointed out,' York^ 
1758. 2. ' A brief Account of the War in 
North America,' Edinburgh, 1760. 3. * Tra- 
vels of Peter Williamson amongst the dif- 
ferent Nations and Tribes of savage Indiana 
in America,' Edinburgh, 1768 (new edit. 
1786). 4. * A Nominal Encomium on the 
City of Edinburgh,' Edinburgh, 1769. 5. « A 
General V^iew of the whole World,' Edin- 
burgh, n.d. 0. * A Curious Collection of 
Moral Maxims and Wise Sayings,' Edin- 
burgh, n.d. 7. *The Royal Abdication of 
Peter Williamson, King of the Mohawks/ 
Edinburgh, n.d. 8. * l^oposals for esta- 
blishing a l*enny Post,' Edinburgh, n.d. 

Among the works issued from his press 
were editions of the Psalms in metre (1779), 
of Sir David Lindsay's poems (1776), and of 
William Mcston's * Mob contra Mob.' The 
* Life and Curious .\d ventures of Peter Wil- 
liamson' (a reprint with additions of his 
'French and Indian Cruelty') was published 
at Aberdeen in 1 801 , and proved very popular, 
running through many editions, and appear- 
ing also in an abbreviated form as a chap- 

[Printed papers in Peter Williamson v. Cushnie 
and others, 1761-2. v. Fordyce and others, 17C6- 
1768, V. Jean WilHon, 1789; Robertson's Book 
of Bonaccord, pp,9l-3 ; Kay's Original Portraits, 
i. 131-9; BWkwoodH Magazine, Ixiii. 612-27 ; 
Chambers's Miscellany, vol. ii. ; Lang's Histori- 
cal Summary of Post Office in Scotland, p. 16 ; 
Scottish Notes and Queries, iv. 39, v. 87, ix. 29, 
47.] P. J. A. 

WILLIAMSON, SAMUEL (1792- 1840)» 
landscape-painter, was the younger son of 
John Williamson of Liverpool, in which 
town he was bom in 1792. 

Ilis father, John Willia.mson(17o1-1818), 
painter, was born at Ripon in 1761. lie was 
apprenticed to an * ornamental * painter in 
Birmingham, married in 1781, settled in 
Liverpool in 1783, and continued to reside 
there, practising as a portrait-painter, till 
his death, on 27 May 1818. Among his 
best known works are portraits of William 
Roscoe, Sir William Beechy, ll.A., H. 
Fuseli, ll.A., the Rev. John Clowes, and 
Nathan Litherland, the inventor of the 
patent lever watch. lie was a member ot 
the Liverpool Academy, and a constant ex- 
hibitor at the local exhibitions. In 1783 he 
exhibited a portrait at the Royal Academy. 
His portraits are correct likenesses and fairly- 
executed. He also painted miniatures, but 
they were not in the best style of that art. 

In 1811 Samuel had three landscapes hung 



in the first exhibition of the Liverpool 
Academy, of which body he was a member. 
In the subsequent exhibitions of that body, 
as well as at the first exhibition of the Royal 
Manchester Institution in 1827 and the an- 
nual exhibitions that followed each year, he 
was represented by a ItLTge number of land- 
scapes and seascapes. His pnly exhibit on 
the walls of the Royal Academy was a land- 
scape in 1811. He earned a considerable 
reputation as a painter of seapieces and land- 
scapes, and was highly esteemed by his fellow- 
townsmen. On his death, which took place 
on 7 June 1840, an obelisk to his memory 
was erected in the St. James's cemetery, a 
lithograph of which, by W.Collingwood, was 
published. His pictures are well composed, 
and are painted with an attractive charm of 
light and colour. There are three works by 
him at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 
and many more in private collections in the 

[Graves's Diet of Artists; Exhibition Cata- 
logues ; ioformation from Robert Williamson of 
Ripen ; note in Manchester City News, 7 Sept. 
1878, by the present writer.] A. N. 

FORD (1816-1895), naturalist, bom at Scar- 
borough on 24 Nov. 1816, was the second 
and only surviving son of John Williamson, 
gardener and naturalist, first curator of the 
Scarborough Museum, by Elizabeth Craw- 
ford, eldest daughter of a Scottish lapidary 
and watchmaker, who migrated to YorKshire 
when young. In his early boyhood he learned 
the lapidary's art in Crawford's workshop, 
and acquired a good knowledge of field natu- 
ral history from his father and his fathers 
fnends, notably William Smith (1769-1839) 
[q. v.], the founder of modem stratigraphical 
geology, and his nephew John Phillips 
(1800-1874) [q. v.], professor of geology at 
Oxford, who was for some time an inmate of 
John Williamson's house. His schooling, 
begun early, was inadequate, largely owing 
to delicate health. Between three and six 
years of age he went to three dame schools ; 
m 1822 he went to William Potters school, 
where he had meagre instruction in Latin 
and English. In 1831 he had his only real 
teaching, from the Rev. Thomas Irving at 
Thornton grammar school, where he stayed 
only six months. In the autumn he went 
for six months to the school of a M. Mon- 
tieus at Bourbourg, near Calais, with little 
intellectual profit, even in the acquisition of 
French, for the majority of the boys were 
English. This completed his school life : he 
never acquired ease in French speaking, 
though he read the language with ease, nor 

the knowledge of any other modem tongue. 
He was apprenticed as a medical student 
(1832) to Thomas Weddell, apothecary of 
Scarborough, where he discharged the func- 
tions of errand boy, dispenser, and clerk, 
according to the general custom. He con- 
tinued his natural history studies, and con- 
tributed a paper on birds to the Zoological 
Society, and two to the Geological. These 
were among the first pioneering attempts to 
analyse the strata into smaller ^ zones cha- 
racterised by their own proper groups of 
fossils, a field in which enormous advances 
have since been made. He also published a 
pamphlet, since twice reprinted, giving an 
account of the contents of a tumulus opened 
at Gristhorpe, and described a new mussel 
(Mag. Nat. Hist. 1834). To the/ Fossil Flora 
of Great Britain,' by John Lindley [q. v.] 
and James liutton (1726-1797) [q. v.], he 
contributed illustrated descriptions of fossils 
which had been discovered in an estuarine 
deposit by his father and his father's cousin, 
Simon Bean. His work attracted the atten- 
tion of many eminent naturalists, notably 
William Buckland [q. v.] Owing to their 
interest, and to that of naturalists visiting 
Scarborough, he received a call from the 
Manchester Natural History Society to the 
curatorship of their museum in 1835, W^ed- 
dell generously cancelling his indentures ; he 
held this office for three years, continuing 
especially geological research and publica- 
tion, and was a frequent visitor at the Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society, where he 
met among others John Dalton (1766-1844) 
[q.v.] In the summer of 1838, in order to 
raise funds for medical study, he gave a 
course of six lectures on geology in various 
towns of Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Dur- 
ham ; he studied one winter at the Pine 
Street medical school, Manchester, and en- 
tered in the autumn of 1839 at University 
College, London. In 1840 he attended a se- 
cond course of lectures there ; but before the 
close of the year had obtained the diplomas 
of M.R.C.S. and L.S.A., and in January 1841 
commenced practice in Manchester with the 
generous guarantee of two wealthy friends. 
Some successful operations on squinl brought 
him into note, and he was soon appointed 
surgeon to the Chorlton-on-Medlock dispen- 
sary, a post he resigned in 18(58. Ear troubles 
during his student days had interested him 
in that organ ; he profited by some vacations 
to study aural surgery under Meniere in Paris, 
Joseph Toynbee [q. v.] and Harvey in Lon- 
don, took active steps towards the creation 
of the Manchester Institute for Diseases of 
the Ear in 1855, and was surgeon to it until 
1870, when he became its consulting sur- 




geon. To his large general practice he thus 
added that of a specialist in this department. 
He continued professional medical work till 
about his seventieth year. He was present 
at that public demonstration of mesmerism 
which first attracted James Braid [q. v.] to 
the subject ; was the first to show from the 
contracted pupils that the hypnotised patient 
was' in a genuine and peculiar state ; and 
utilised Braid's services as a hypnotist later 
on in the successful treatment of epilepsy ; 
but finally abandoned the therapeutic use of 
hypnosis, regarding it as likely to undermine 
the will power of the patient. He devised 
the treatment of infantile convulsions by 
prolonged continuous chloroform amcsthesia, 
and wrote two papers on this subject, the 
first (not cited in the Hemiiuscfnres) in the 
' Lancet ' (185^3, vol. i.) A clinical observa- 
tion on the * Functions of the Chorda Tvm- 
pani * (also not cited ; Assoc, Med, Jour?t, < 
I800) as a nerve of taste, a view which still : 
has partisans, compl«tes with the three cited | 
papers (/MY. Med. Journ, 1857) his contri- 
butions to medical science. 

In January 1851 he w^as appointed first 
professor of * natural history, anatomy, and 
physiology ' in the Owens College, Manches- 
ter. His duties comprised instruction in 
zoology and botany in the widest sense, be- 
sides the geological sciences. In 1854, with 
Mr. Richard Cojjley Christie, he initiated at 
the college evening classes for working men. 
At first lie divided his subjects into two 
groups, on which he lectured in alternate 
sessions ; but ultimatelv the demands of uni- 
versity students made this impossible. In 
1870 a distinct lectureship had to be created 
in mineralogy. In 1>^72, on the fusion with 
the lioynl School of Medicine, geology was 
also separated, and Williamson became pro- 
fessor of ' Natural History.* A demonstrator 
to assist in the then new laboratory work 
was appointed in 1877 ; and in 1880 zoology 
was split off, leaving him the chair of botany, 
which he resigned in 1892, after forty-one 
years* continuous tenure of otfice, with the 
title of emeritus professor, and a year's 
salary as gratuity. His lectures to students 
were well arranged and well delivered, in- 
teresting and fluent, but lacked minuteness 
of accurate detail ; and from the ignorance 
of German which he dei)lored he never 
thoroughly assimilated the current language 
of the modern aspects of botany. 

Williamson added largely to his income 
by popular scientific lectures ; between 1874 
ana 1890 alone he gave, among others, at 
least three hundred in connection with the 
Gilchrist trust. For these, manv of which 
dealt with his own discoveries, he drew and 

painted beautiful and efiective diagrams. He 
was highly successful as a popular lecturer. 
Several of his popular lectures were printed, 
lie wrote a number of art.icles for the * Lou- 
don Quarterly Ileview,* published under Wes- 
leyan auspices, and some for the ' Popular 
Science Review.* Those on * Primeval Vege- 
tation in its relation to the Doctrines of 
Natural Selection and Evolution' in the 
'Owens College Essays and Addresses/ 
1874, and on * l^yrrhonism in Science * {Con- 
temporary Hev. 1881), show his cautious 
attitude, by accepting the descent-theory 
generally, but resenting all attempts at scien- 
tific dogmatism and intolerance. He was in- 
clined to demand something which escapes 
scientific analysis, in addition to the known 
natural factors of divergent evolution. 

Ho was on friendly terms with the Wes- 
leyans in Manchei^ter, and was for a time a 
member of that bodv. He was medical at- 
tendaiit to the Wesleyan Theological Col- 
lege, Didsbury, 1804-83, and a member of 
the committee of management. 

After an attack of ill-health in 1860. Wil- 
liamson settled in 1861 in the then outlying 
hamlet of Fallowfield. There he built a 
home, with a garden and range of plant-, and became a successful grower espe- 
cially of rare orchids, insectivorous plants, 
and higher cryptogams ; these were utilised 
in tlie later development of laboratory teach- 
ing at the colh»ge, which contributed an 
annual grant towards the expense. In 1883 
he suffered from diabetes, and had finallv to 
resign his chair in 1891. He removed from 
Manchester to Clapham Common, where he 
continued in harness nearly to the last, work- 
ing in collalx)ration with Professor K. D. 
Scott at his own house or at the Joddrell 
Laboratory, Kew. His last publication (in 
February 1895) was the obituary of his old 
friend, sometime opponent and recent con- 
vert, the Marquis de Saporta. He died at 
Clapham on 23 June 1895. He was spare 
and erect, with blue-grey eyes deep set in an 
oval face. He had an educated taste in 
music; and the watercolour sketches he 
brought back from his vacation trips were 
poetic in feeling and happy in composition. 

He was married twice : first, in 1842, to 
Sophia (d. 1871), daughter of the Rev. I^- 
bert Wood, treasurer to the Wesleyan body, 
by whom he left a son, Robert Bateson, 
solicitor, and a daughter, Edith; secondly, 
in 1874, to Annie C. Ileaton, niece of Sir 
Henry Mitchell of Bradford, who completed 
and edited his autobiography under the title 
of * Reminiscences of a "iorkshire Natural- 
ist;* by her he left one son, Herbert, painter. 

AVilliamson*3 scientific work was immense 




and invaluable. Early researches on the 
Foraminifera between 1840 and 1850 led to 
his preparing a monograph on the recent 
forms of this group for the Ray Society ; 
William Benjamin Carpenter [q. v.] asserted 
that his work introduced a new technique 
for their study (that of thin sections) and a 
new conception (that of the combination of 
a wide variety of forms hitherto ranked as 
of specific or generic rank in single indivi- 
duals), and that it gave a starting-point 
for all future investigations. Kesearches on 
Volvojc about 1850, only some thirty years 
later noticed and confirmed, demonstrated 
that this critical form is essentially vegetal, 
not animal, in its morphology. A very com- 
plete study of the wheel-animal, Melicertaf 
was published in 1853, and in consequence 
he was employed by Andrew Pritchard to 
write a monograph on the Rotifera for the 
third edition of his 'Infusoria* (18(51); this 
was an admirable compilation. Between 
1840 and 1850, largely provided with mate- 
rial by Sir Philip de Malpas Grey-Egerton 
[a. V.J, he produced two monographs on the 
histology of teeth, fish scales, and boue, of 

classical value. Herein he demonstrated 
two capital theses — the essential identity of 
teeth and of fish scales, and the distinction 
of bone formed directly in membrane from 
that preformed in cartilage. KoUiker, the 
great histologist, esteemed the work impor- 
tant enough to warrant his arduous pilgri- 
mage from central Germany to accept Wil-. 
liamson*s hospitality of board and study. 
This work gained Williamson the fellow- 
ship of the Royal Society (l8o-n. Fossil 
plants had engaged his earliest efix)rts. He 
resumed their study in 1854 with the enig- 
matic form Zamia giyas, called Willinmsonia 
by W. Carruthers, who says that Williamson 
has probably come closer to its determina- 
tion than any one else. But it was only 
towards 1858 that he really began that com- 
prehensive study of the plants of the coal- 
measures which is his greatest claim to rank 
as one of the founders of palaeobotany. He 
demonstrated that with certain characters of 
the higher existing flowerless plants — horse- 
tails, ferns, clubmosses, &c. — there were found 
at that period plants whose woody cylinder 
grew by external deposit of new layers, as 
m our forest trees. His results met at first 
with neglect and hostility. His drawings 
were exquisite and nature-true, made on 
lithographic transfer paper with the artifice 
of a quadrille eye-piece ; but they suffered in 
the processes of transference to stone and 
printing. His figures were distributed over 
the plates with a view rather to neatness and 
economy of space than to logical connection. 

In each successive memoir he described all 
the material he had studied completely up 
to date. To his uufamiliarity with modern 
botanical terminology he added a defective 
exposition. His text was a detailed descrip- 
tion of the specimens, with references to the 
accompanying plates and to those of pre- 
vious memoirs, interspersed with discussions 
of generalities and of controversial matter, 
without tables of contents, general introduc- 
tions, or final summaries and conclusions. 
To master such papers was, in effect, to con- 
duct a research on the figures with a mini- 
mum of eff*ective aid. In 1871 a discussion 
at the British Association was followed up 
in * Nature,' where a correspondent accused 
him of going back to the conceptions of 
Nehemiah Grew [q. v.] In France his 
results were systematically ignored, despite 
his constant invitations to his opponents to 
study his specimens as his guests, until 1882, 
when for the first time the facts and argu- 
ments on both sides were marshalled in a 
readily accessible form in a French essay, 
* Les Sigillaires et les L6pidodendr6es ' by 
Williamson and his demonstrator, Professor 
Marcus Hartog {Ann. Sc. Nat, 1882). Fresh 
evidence poured in. In 1887 Renault, his 
chief opponent, retreated honourably from 
one part of the field, and Grand' Eury and 
Saporta in 1890 avowed their general con- 
version. Only in respect of one minor point 
— the question of the interstitial growth of 
the centre of the woody cylinder — did Wil- 
liamson's views break down ; but it was 
through his own laborious investigations 
that the disproof was completed. A full 
investigation on the structure of compact 
coal was commenced in 1876 and continued 
to his death, but the examination of many 
thousand sections led to no publication em- 
bodying general results after the preliminary 
note (British Association Report, 1881). A 
valuable research in 1885 extended Nathorst's 
discovery that reputed animal and vegetable 
fossils were mere tracks of animals or of tidal 
currents. Williamson never spared money 
in the purchase of adequate apparatus and 
specimens ; one of the latter, a magnificent 
Sigillaria with stigmarian roots, from Clay- 
ton, near Bradford, now in the Manches- 
ter Museum, was long called * Williamson's 
Folly.' He met with generous help from 
the amateur field-naturalists of the north, 
often working men, who were proud to help 
him with the fossils they had collected or the 
sections they had cut and noted as worth his 
study. This help he always acknowledged. 
Williamson's scientific work lacked, of 
course, the method developed by personal 
academic training and by the laboratory in- 

Willibald » Willibald 

struction of pupils. He stands halfway be- and a sister Walburga [q. v.], who were also 

tween the scientific amateurs of genius like missionaries among the Germans. In his 

Cavendish, Ljell, Joule, and Darwio, and bovhood he was sent to the monastery of 

the modem professional savants of Cam- A\ altham to be educated ( Vita seu potius 

bridge and South Kensington. Averse from Hodctporicon Sancii Willibaldif ap. Tobler, 

excessive speculation and dogmatism, he took Dewriptiones Terra Sancia, p. 9). Here he 

no share in the formation of scientific theory, conceived the idea of a pilgrimage, and per- 

From 1865 to 1882 his reputation stood at suaded his father and brother to set out with 

the lowest among the new school of profes- ' him for Rome (ib, pp. 14-16) about 720-1. 

sional English biologists, trained when his At Lucca Willibald s father died, but he 

pioneering work had become the anonymous himself and his brother pressed on their dif- 

commonplaces of the text-book, while his ficult and dangerous journey, and finally 

recent work was ill understood or largely arrived in Rome. Here Willibald formed 

ignored. From that period onwards it rapidly the design of going on to Jerusalem, and 

rose, and at the British Association meeting after wintering in Rome, where he was seri- 

in Manchester (1887) he was an honoured oiisly ill, set out in the spring of 722 for 

member of the cosmopolitan grroup of hot a- Syria. It was a time when pilgrimage in the 

nists there present, many of whom were his east was fraught with infinite hardship and 

personal guests. Williamson was elected danger, when the old hospitals on the pilgrim 

F.R.S. in 1854. He became a member of routes had fallen into neglect, and when the 

the Literary and Philosophical Society of great Mahommedan empire stretched from 

Manchester in 1851, ser\'ea repeatedly on its the Oxus to the Pyrenees. The sufferings of 

council, and was elected an honorarv member Willibald and his party were therefore very 

in 1893; and he took a leading part in the for- great. At Eme$a they were taken prisoners 

mation in 1858 and in the working of the as spies, but were ultimately set free to visit 

microscopic and natural history section. His the pilgrim shrines still allowed to remain 

ninth memoir, 'On the Organisation of the open. Willibald seems to have wandered 

Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures ' (PAiV. aoout Palestine a good deal, and to have 

Trans,), was given as the Bakerian lecture visited Jerusalem several times, finally leav- 

at the Royal Society. A nearly complete ing Syria about 726 after a narrow escape 

bibliography is given in the * Reminiscences.' of martyrdom through smuggling balsam 

He received the royal medal of the Royal from Jerusalem (Beazlet, The Datm of 

Society in 1874, an honorary degree of J/tx/^m ^<^jyrflr/>A//, p. 152; but see Wright, 

LLD. of Edinburgh in 1883, and the Wol- BiiM/r. Urit. Lit. i. 342). In Constantinople 

laston medal of the Geological Society in he spent two years, from 726 to 728, retum- 

1890, besides foreign honours. A portrait ing to Italy after an absence of seven years 

by H. Brothers is in the Owens College, (i-6. p. 52> by way of Naples. At the great 

Manchester. i Benedictine monastery of Monte Casino he 

[Reminiscences of a Yorkshire Naturalist, remained for ten years {ib, p. 45), holding 

1896; obituaries ami notices by Count Solms various offices in the house. At the end of 

Laubach (Nature, 1895), A. C. Seward (Nat. Sc. this time he again visited Rome, where Gre- 

Manchwter L. and Phil. Soc. 1896), and Lester need of help in Germanv, and asked for 
Ward(Science vol.1. 1895); mtormation kindly Willibald, who was accordinglv despatched 

fv^'^S n-^r i,>^<^'r JT- K*";^"* ^V'. byGregorvIII to Eichstadt (?6. pp 48-9). 

^\.H^^DHll,Dger,l'.K.^.,Ke^^RJehapJ^^^^ Salzburg in 741 Willibald was conse- 

the WeslejHn Theological College, Didsbury), i , ,. ^u u- u r i?- i, ♦ j.. u i i 

Mr. Walter Brown (University College. London) I V^}"^ *^ the bishopric of Eichstadt by Arch- 
the registrar of Owens College. Manchester, and ' Y^^"""^ Boniface (ib. pp. ol-2) and after the 
P. J. Uartog ; personal knowledge.] M. H. , letter s death became the leader of the Ger- 
man mission. He built a monasterv at 
WILLIBALD (700P-786), bishop and Eichstadt, and lived a monastic life there 
traveller, bom about 7(X). was the son of a (ibX dying in 786. 

certain St. Richard who bore the title of Willibald's guide-book, entitled ' Vita seu 
king, and is conjectured to have been the son Ilodceporicon Sancti Willibaldi scriptum a 
of Hlothere, king of Kent, who died in 685. Sanctimoniali,' from which the details of 
His mother was Winna, sisterof Saint Bon i- his life are taken, was dictated bv himself 

face Tn. v.], the great apostle of Germany; 

related to Ine [q. v."!, king of 

ibald had a brother Wunebild 

(ib, p. .')2), and probablv written down bv a 
nun at lleidenbeim, tlie finishing touches 
being added by another hand after his death. 




Hi* book )^T» little general information, 
u the writer was intent upon his demotions, 
liut thrt^ws some li|;ht upon l»w and custom 
in the eastern lands in which he travelled. 
Its value is owini to the extreme scarcity 
«f pilgrim notices durinK the eighth century. 
It ia publislwd by Mabillon in the 'Acta 
&nctorum Ordinis Benedieti ' (iv. 3fe) seq.), 
but the most accessible edition is that of 
Tobler in the ' Deacriptiones Terrw Sancts ' 
(pp. 1-651. Other lives ba«eJ upon thia have 
been written, but have added to it nothing , 
of importance (Habdi, DtKriptht Catal. I 
i. pt. li. pp. 190-1). The chief of these— | 
the 'Vita aive potius Itinerarium SanctI i 
Willibaldi auclon> Anonymo '—is also pub- j 
liahed bjTobler (loc. cit. pp. mid). Willi- 
bald is said to have written the well-knoivn | 
lijB of St. Boniface published by Jall'6 in the 
'Monumenta Mogiinlina' in 'nibliotbeca. 
"'"'erum Oermanicarum' {Dmeript. Catal. loe. I 
t.p.478; butseeB»jfr.*ri(.i;rt.i.ai4-5). 

rAntluiriti<>s quoted in the iixt.l 

A. M.C-a. 

.rcbblshop of Utrecht and 
;le of Friaift, born about (157, was a Nor- . 
nHnbrian (Flob. Win. in Man. Hint. Brit. ■ 
63BD), the son of Wilgila, who, after ; 
'lllibnird's birth, retired from the world to ' 
Ihof theHtiinber(Au'ulN, 1 
"it. Will. Tol. i. chap, i.), where he lived the ' 
loritc'a life. His day woslatecobaerved 
_ feast day in Willibrord's own monastery i 
E^I«mBch lib. chap, xxxi.) Dedicated 
hia mother and father to a religious life, 
Itlibrord. as soon as he was weaned, was 
gCna to the monlis ofRipon, where became 
inder the inBuence of St. Wilfrid [n. v.l (ifi. 
dap. iii.; Eonitrs, Vita Wilfridt m Uit- 
-fc—t; — ^f Church of York, voL i.) In his 
1 year, the fame of the schools and 
loLars of Ireland drew him thither, and he 
it the next twelve years (677-90) at the 
"monastery of Hathmelsiiti with St. Egbert 
[q. v.], who in G90 sent Willibrord, after he 
b*d been ordained priest, to preach the gos- 
pel to the Frisians. 

Lauding at the mouth of the Rhine, Wil- 
libnird went thence to Trajectum (Utrecht), 
bat, finding the pagan 'king Rathbod and 
his FriaianB hoelile, he boldly went direct 
to Pippin of llerstal, ' duke of the Franks,' 
who had just (6t!T) established hia power 
over the I^ranks by the battle of Testry {ib.; 
ALOtns, Vit. M'lVV. i. chap. V.) Pippin wel- 
comed Willibrord, and thus identified hita- 
■«e^ and his house with the conversion of 
le parts of the (ierman settlements which 
i still heathen. The alliance between 

Pippin and ^^'illibro^d was the aalvation of 
the u'-w movement. Rathbodbeingexpelled, 
multitudes of the people of * Hither Frisia' 
received the faith {ib.-. Man. Hist. Brit. \. 
538D). Willibrord went probably in 093 to 
Kome to obtain the consent of Pope Sergiua 
to the mission, and in the hope of receiving 
certain holy relics of the apostles and mar- 
tyrs to place in the churches he wished to 
build in Friesland (Beds, Hist. Eccl. vol. v. 
chap.xi.i Alchis, Vit. WiW. vol. i. chapa. vi. 
vii.) Heobtainedboth, andonhisretumover- 
threw pagan idols, planted cliurches, placing 
in them the relics he had brought from Itome, 
and, thougb amid great difGcultiea, won the 
trust of the Frisians. He made a bold onset 
in Heligoland upon the pagan shrine of the 
god Fosite, who was a son of Balder, and, 
mviting the vengeance of the t^d by his in- 
fringement of the laws guarding the sacred 
fountain there, he won a remarkable su- 
premacy over the minds of the pagan Frisians 
( AiXUlN, vol, i. chaps, x. xi.) He destroyed 
the great idol of W alcheren, at the peril of 
his own life (ih. vol. i. chap. liv.) In 714 
Pippin and Plectrudis his wife gave Willi- 
brord the monastery of Suestra (Mionb, Pat. 
Lat. Ixxiix. 547) ; here occurred one of a 
series of miracles which won for the saint 
among the people the reputation of super- 
natural power (Alcuik. chapa. xv. xvi.) 

Extending his labours beyond the Frankisii 
lands, Willibrord went to lUthbod, but failed 
to convert him (i6. chap, ix.), and finally, 
recognising that as hopeless, went on ' ad 
ferocissimos Danorum populos,' and their 
king ' Ongendus, homo omni fera crudelior ' 
(possibly the Ongentheow of Beowulf), who 
was as firmly pagan as Rathbod. But Willi- 
brord took thirty Danish boys back with him, 
and baptised them, hoping to train them up 
as Christians, and to send them when men 
on a mission to their own land (i^. chap, ix.) 
Gradually Willibrord was able to organise 
his great 'parochia.' The faithful, in their 
gratitude to him, offered their patrimonies, 
which were devoted to religious foundations 
(ib. chap. xii. ; for the charters of the most 
famous of these grants see Mignb, Pa/. Lat. 
Isixii. 535-53). 

In 695 or 69t! Willibrord went to Rome a 
second time, in order that, at Pippin's re- 
quest, he might be consecrated archbishop 
of the Frisians by Sergius. He was conse- 
crated in the church of Santa Cecilia in 
Trastevere on St. Cecilia's day (32 Nov.), 
and on consecration received the name of 
Clement, a name which however, never 
came into general use (Bede, Hi»t. Eixl. v. 
1 1 ; Bebb, ' Cbron. sive de VI .Etatt. Sieculi " 
in Mwi. Hitt. Brit. p. 99 0; Chron. Flob. 







Wia. in Mon. ffitt. Srit.-p. 6S&B). Alcuin 
(chap, vii.) makes WilliDronl go to Home 
only onee, hut in thia he ie probably wrong. 
He alao says liis conBecration took placu in 
St. Peter's (16.), but this also seems to be 
a, slip. Bede, who places Willibrord's second 
journey to liome in 696, probably poatdutea 
It by a yeai (cf. Moaianenta Aleinniana, p. 
4fi n.) Hemaining in Rome only fourteen 
days, Willibrord on his return received from 
Hppin B seat for his cathedral at Wittabui^, 
a Btnall viUagea mile from Utrecht. Lat^r, 
"22, Charles Martel, confirminc hia father 

fiin's action, made a formal grant to 
librord of Utrecht and lands round the 
monastory (BouarKT, iv. (199; Mibnb, Pot. 
hat. IxKiix. 651, 552). In Utrecht Willi- 
brord built a church of St. Savionr'a (cf. 
Boniface to Pope Steplien III, Eji. 90, apud 
MieHG, Ixzzix. 787-9; Mon.Mog. pp. 2S9, 
260). He buUt many churchM ond some 
monasteries throughout his wideapread dio- 
cese (Bbdb, Hitt. E^l. vol. T. cbap. li. ; 
Alcdib, Vit. Wilt. chap. li.) Of the latter 
the most famous foundation waa that of 
Echternach on the Sauer in Luiemburp, 
near Trier, which he and the abbesa Irmina 
founded. It was richly endowed by Pippin 
and hia queen Plectrudis in 706, and lalcr 
by Cliarles Marlel in 717 (16. chap, ssii; 
MiBNE, Pat. Lat. Insii. 539-60). lie con- 
secrated Beveral biahope for Friaia. When 
St. Wilfrid [q. v.] made bis aeoond journey 
to Rome with Acta [q. v.] as his companion, 
they visited Willibrord, and Wilfrid was 
able to see the completion by Willibrord of 
the work of which he himself had partly 
laid the foundations (lA. iii. IS, v. 19; Ed- 
DJCain HiitnrianiofCkurckof ¥ork,-p.Sl). 
In 716, during the war between Kathbod 
andthoFranks,Christia:iity in Friaia endured 
a time of persecution. St. Boniface in that 
year went to Frisia, hopinc' to help Willi- 
brord and to win nathbocTa consent to his 
f reaching. But the latter was refused. On 
5 May 1 19 Bonifnee was apjiointed Willi- 
brord's coadjutor, his apedal work being to 
convert those of the uerman tribes who 
-were still pagan. On Kathbod's death 
Willibrord was joined by Boniface, nnd they 
worked together in Frisia for three years; 
but when Willibrord urged that at his death 
Boniface should siicceeiTto his archbiahoprie 
and tdiargc, Boniface's humility refused such 
honour, and he went on into HessH (lliaN~E, 
Ixxxix. 616, 616; BosiFACB, E/-. 90, in 
MiOKB, lixxii. 787, 788), 

"Willibrord baptised Pippin the Short, 

grandson of Pippin of HetBlal who had first 

-welcomed him, and he foretold that he 

overthrow the shadow of Mero- 

vingian rule and become king of the Franks 
(Alcpis, vol. i, ehaii. xxiii.) In extreme old 
age he retired to tlie monastery of Echter- 
nach, where he died and waa buried, ag<ed 
81, in 738 or 739. Bonifaee'a statement of 
hishavingpreached for 'fifty years' (Migsb, 
Pat. Lat. ixixii. SS-')) is appraiimate only. 
I Alcuin (chap. xxiv-jgivesBNov. as the day 
of bis death, but Theofrid gives 7 Nov., an& 
the latter is the day kept in hie honour in 
the Roman calendar. His remains were 
! translated in 1031 to a new and more 
( sumptuous church built at Echlemacb in 
his honour (Alccik, Vit, Will, chaps, xxiv. 
Kxv. ; Pebte, kv. 1307, ndii. 27, 34). The 
fame of miracles wrought at bis tomb and 
bv hie relics became general (ALcnif, Vit, 
Will. chap, xxvi.; Pektz.xv. 967, 970, 971, 
1371, &c.) Willibrord's work suffered a i»- 
aclion lesa than flity vears after his death, 
when Widikind ovcttlirew Chriatianitv in 
Friaia (PEinY,ii. 410). The cause of W'ilU- 
brord'a auccfas proved also tbo cause of hia 
failure ; his miasion had depended largely 
for its support upon the help of the ruler M 
the XI ate; once that support was withdrawn 
or overwhelmed, the work of the misaioa 
was not Bufficienllv independent to endure 
in its entirety, Willibrord had been not 
so much a missionary as the right band of 
Pippin and of Charles Martel in ibejr efforts 
to civilise the lower German tribes. Tbousb 
indefatigable in the work of his diocese, tha 
estahliahment of his bishopric at Utrecht, on 
the borders of the empire, and especially hia 
frequentretirement to Echternach in the ven' 
heart of the Prankish region, emphasise thia 
fact. It was in the wake of Prankish armies 
that his main work in Frisia was done. 

According to a will printed in Migne'a 
I Patrologia lAtina'{lixxii. 554~S), wherein 
is contained a long and detailed account of 
all Willibrord's possessions, mainly gifts from 
Pepnin and Plectrudis and Charles Martel, 
Willibrord left all he possessed to the abbey 
of Echternach, where he wi.shed his body td 
rest. The famous 'dancing procession,' still 
held at Echternach on Whit -Tuesday, fcr 
which pilgrims assemble, from Belgium, Qm- 
many, and France, sometimes to the number 
of ten thousand, is said to owe its origin to 
a pilgrimage mode Jh the eighth century to 
the relics of Willibrord. 

[The chief authority for Willibrord's lift is 
Bedu's Hiuturia EcclvstiisciuJt, bk. iii. chap. lit). 
I*. V. chaps. X. xi. xix. Thi- eariiest life was 
writton by an Irish motik, 'rostico atilo," but hi* 
iiaran and work hare periaha.l. The latter, how 
ever, wag the basiaof the two lives of Willihront 
by Alcuin. one in prosn for hid in iho church oY 
Eohtemach, the other in vcrae foe the (eachinj 

of the pupils in the monaBtic school. Both are 
priDLed in Honuinpnta Aleuinisni. pp. 39-79 
^vol. Ti. of Jaffi* Bill. Rbc. G=rni.) Alcuio 
nTule nt the requeht of Beornrad, archbisliop of 
Batu nod abbot of Eohtornaeb from 777 to 797. 
Next Beornnd himself, nt tbe ivqutst of CharUa 
th« Gruat, collected the tnulitionn cnOFerning 

IWntUirord which atiO dilated id tbe moousLerf 
,flt EcblflrnMh, and aa laid the fouodaliou of tlio 
'■0«tden Book,' Earlj io tha twelfth eeolupy 
Sura new lives were wrilUn b; Tbcofrid (if. 1 11 U), 
'Iktibot of EchtecDsdi, ons in prose and one iu 
'VBTap, together with aermanB far St. Witli- 
toord's day. Kilrai'ts from Thtofcida liTos nro 
11b Monameiita Eptvraacensift Germ., ia Pertz'a 
Hon.&riptores, Iom.ixiii.S3-30,BniltlieileU)iU 
pTec ttbore are from Welland's I nt rod action. 
pp. xi, lix. Next the abbot Theodorit?. who 
vrots the Chronicon EpLernapBiisB, a chronicle 
endiDK in 1192. vrote much of him. Migoe's 
At. I«t. TOl. tniii. contains DiplomatH ad 
^^A, Willibrordnm Tel ab eo colhita, which give 
^^Hbrther details, as doea Pertz's Mon. Scriptorea 
^^^MD. ii. XV. xxiii. Oth«r lirei and diacuaiiaDB 
^B Willibrord, his work, relics, and comn.emom- 
■Hpn,are Dederich'a Das Leben dea hcili^Da Wil- 
libloidiii nach Alcuin, in his Bcitrage zur 
iSniicb-dratfiehen Geechicht* am Niederrhein 
(IBM); EoKlinti'B ApostoUt da-i heilieen Willi- 
hionl im Xawle der Lnierabnrgar (1883); 
Kiier'a Die SprinRprozeseion in Echtemacb 
(1870) ; Lo Mire'a Cort Verhafl ran bet Utbo 
TudenH. Willibronius(iei3); Mnelleadorff'B 
Leben des heiligen Clemens Willibrord. &c. 
~ ' n BatttTia Sacra ; Bosachiiarf, I)e primis 
Friaiiv Aposlolia. The most modern 
Bthorily ia Thijm's 0«echipdenis dea Kerk io 
I NtderlaDde I. H. Willibrordns (1S61). of 
in enlarged German tmnahiiion was pub- 
a 1863. Plummer'spditiunofBeileRirra 
UiublB noMB. Fopalar booka of JoTotion are 
ItU pvbliabed. such ae Lebunxgeschichta dca 
WliffrQ Clemena Willibrord. em Andocbiabiich- 

B. &c. Trier, 18S4.] M. T. 

f "WILLIS. [See also Willes.] 

I "WlLLia, BItOWNE (1682-1760). anti- 

narjibomat Blandford St. Mary on 14 Sept. 

1688, wii» miidaon of Thomas WiUia ( 1021- 

lera) [q.-v.], and eldest son of Thomafl Willia 

(1658-1699) of Bletcbley, BuckinghamsUire, 

wlio married, at. Westminster Abbey on 

S6 Wajf 1681. Alice (i. 2 June 1863), eldest 

ki^nghter of Robert Btowdq of Frampton 

rind Blandfnrd in Domet. Tliomos Wlltia 

[]lndon llNoT.169».aKed41; hiawifedied 

£jtf pief on 9 Jan. 169^-1700. Both were 

FvBned in tht: chancel of Bletcliley church, 

d out of regard for their mtimory their son 

■■■mtt on the churcli tlie sum of 800/. betweeti 

^W04 »-ai 1707. 

'[^ BrowDG Willis was educated at first hy 
e Rev. Abraham Freestone, master of the 
lowed tcliool at Beachampton, Bucking 

haniahire. Then he was seat, to Westrain- 
flter school, which he left on his mother's 
death, and bin intense lore of antiquities was 
implanted in him by his nchoolboy rambleB 
in Westminstur Abbey, lie was admitted 
gentleman-commoner of Christ Chnrch, Oi- 
ford, matriculating on 23 March 1^99-1700, 
and in 1700 he became a student of the 
Inner Temple. At Oxford his tutorwaa Ed- 
ward Wells [q.v.], and on leaving the univer- 
sity he lived for three years under tha train- 
ing of Dr. William Wotton [q. v.] at Middle- 
ton Keynes, a few miles from Blettihley. 
Several years later Willis published anony- 
mously a tract of ' Reflecting Sermons Con- 
aider'd, on discourses in Bletchley Church 
by Dr. E. Wells, rector, and Dr. E. Wells, 

Willis passeased lai^fe raenns, owning 
Whaddon Hall, the adjoining manor and 
odvowson of Bletchley, and the manor of 
Burlton in Burghiil, Herefordshire. At 
Burlton ho frequently met John Philips the 
poet, who alludes to him in bis poem on 
'Cider "(CooKB, fierf/omiitAiVe, 'Qrimsworth 
Hundred,' p. 55). From December 1705 lo 
1708 he sat in parliament for the borough of 
Buckingham, a town for which he had a 
peculiar atFection ; be was returned by the 
casting vote of a man brought from pri- 
afa. After that dat« he wan immersed in 
the study of antiquities. His property was 
augmented in 1/07 by his marriage to 
KathBrinc, onlv child and heiress of Daniel 
Eliot of Port Eliot f4iir. St. Germans, Corn- 
well, on 28 Oct, 1702). She brought him a 
fortune of 8,000/. 

Willis's industry and retentive memory 
were suhject.s of general praise. He had 
visited every cathedml except Carlisle in 
England and "Wales, and was one of the 
first antiquaries to base his works on the 
facts contained in records and registers, but 
he was very inaccurate in detail. He was 
a great oddity and knew nothing of man- 
kind. Through his charitable gifts, liispor- 
tions to his married children, and the 
expenditure of 5,000/. on tha building of 
Water Hall at Bletchley, he ' ruined his fine 
estate,' aud was obliged towards the end of 
his days to dress meanly and to live in 
sq^ualor, becoming very dirty and penurious 
so that he was often taken for a beggar. He 
took an active part in 1717 in reviving the 
Societv of Antiquaries, and was formally 
elected F.8,A. in April 1718. By diploma 
from the university of Oxford he was created 
"' A. 33 Aug. 1720, and D.C.L. on 10 April 



I member of the Spalding 
illness of some months WiUia 


died at Wliaddon Hall on 5 Feb. 176D, and 
was buried bene-atb the allur in Fenny 
Stratford cliaptil on 11 Feb., where there 
is an ioBcriplina to hia memory, llis wife 
died at Whaddon Hall on 2 Uct. 1724, aged 
34, and was buried under a raised lable- 
tomb at Bletchley. Of their ten children, 
eight were alive in 1724, but only the twin- 
daughters Gertrude and CatUerine survived 
inlreo. andtbtyboth died in 1772. His 
grandson took the name of Fleming and 
Gved at Stoneham. Willia appointed liis 
eldest ^ndaon and beir the sole executor, 
and left him all his books and pictures, ex- 
cept Rymer's ' Futtdera,' which he gave to 
Trinity College, Oxford, and the choice of 
one book to the Bev. Francis Wise [q. v.] 
Qia inanascripta were t^ go within three 
months to the Bodleian Library, They con- 
sisted of fifty-nine folio, forty-eight quarto, 
and five octavo volumes, of much value for 
ecdeBiaatica! topography and biography, the 
hifltorr of Buckinghamshire and that of the 
fourWelab Mtbedrals. HelefttoOil'ord Uni- 
versity his ' nnmerona eilvcr, brass, copper, 
and ]iewter coin», also his gold coins, irpur- 
chased at the rate of il. in-r ounce,' which 
was at once done. In 1720 he gave to th«t 
library ten valuable manuscripts and bis 
grandfather's portrait, and between 17i39 
and 1750 he had given other coins. Many . 
of hia letters are among the Ballard and 
Rawlinson manuscripts (M4CB4V, Bodla'an 
LOtr. pp. 221 , 259-60, 483-4 ; MiDiif , iVegtem 
MS& lii. 1)78, 602). Large collections of 
letters and papers by or relating to him are 
in the British Museum, especially among 
the Cole manuscripta, Willis's benefac- 
tions included the revival in 1702 of the 
market at Fenny Stratford, a hamlet con- 
tiguous to Bletchley, and the raising, in 
concurrence with his cousin Dr. Martin Ben- 
son (afterwards bishop of Gloucester), of 
money for building there between 1724 and 
1730 the chapel of St. Martin. It was a 
memorial of his graudrather, whose portrait 
was placed over the entrance. Hnd, as he died 
on St. Martin's diiv 1(57 ■), Willia left a beiie- 
fsction for a sermon in the chapel evei^ 
year on that day. He contributed materially 
tawnrds the rebuilding of part, of Stony 
Stratford church in 1746; in 1752 he gave 
200/. for the repairs of Buckingham church, 
and in 1756he restored Bow Brickbill church, 
which had been disused for nearly 150 years. 
The chancel of Ihe church at Little Brickbill 
was repaired through his liberality, and he 
erected nt the cathedral at Christ CUurcli, 
Oxford, a monument for Canon Uea, who 
had helped his grandfather at the university. 
The celebration at Fenny Stratford of St. \ 

filartin'a day, regularly maintained by Willia 
during hia life, is still observed by its in- 
habit aats. 

The foibles and appearance of Willis were 
satirised in lines written by Dr. Darrell of 
Lillingston-Darrell. They were printed in 
the HJxford Sausagp' and, with Cole's notes 
' when out of humour with him,' in ' Notas 
and Queries' (;2nd ser. vi. 428-9). A amu 
CBstic description of his house is in Nichols's 
'Illustrations of Literature' (i. 882-4). 
fleame wrote ' An Account of my Joumer 
to Whaddon Hall, 1716,' which is printed 
in ' Letters from the Bodleian Library ' (ii. 

Willis's portrait was etched in I7S1 at 
Cole's request from a drawing made hv Rev. 
Michael l^ysou of the original paintuig by 
Dahl. It isreproducedin Nichols's ' Literary 
Anecdotes' (viii. 219) and Hutcliins's 'Dor- 
set ' (3nd ed. iv. 336). Portraits of his father, 
mother, and other members of the family 
were at Blelcbley, 

Among the literary works of \\'illis are in- 
cluded surveys of the four \\'elgh cathedrals, 
vir. St. David's (1717). Llandaff (1719), St. 
Asaph (1720), and Bangor (1721 1 ; but the 
description of St. David's is signed ' M, N,,' 
and was drawn up by Dr. William W'otton 
(the initials being the concluding letters of 
his names), and that of Llandaff, which was 
also compiled by Wotton, has his name in 
full. WiUis published in 1727 two volumes 
of ' A Survey of the Cathedrals of York, 
Durham, Carlisle, Cheater, Man, Lichfield, 
Hereford, Worcester.Olouceater and Bristol,' 
and he issued in 1730 a third volume on 
' Lincoln, Ely, Oxford, and Peterborough.' 
Thomas Oabome, the bookseller, purchased 
the unsold copies of this impression and 
advertised his issue in 1743 as a new edition 
containing histories of all the cathedrals, 
whereupon Willis denounced the proceed- 
ing in the 'London Evening Post,' S-8 March 
1743. The volumes of the 1742 issue at the 
British Museum have copious notes by Wil- 
liam Cole [([. v.], and tranacripte of Willis'a 
additions in his own copy. One impression 
at the British Museum of the volume on 
LlandalTCathedralbas many notes by Oough, 
and an edition of the survey of St. Asaph, 
enlarged and brought down to date, was pub- 
lished in 1801, The account of the ' Cathe- 
dral of Man 'is reproduced in Harrison's 'Old 
Historians' of that isle (Manx Soc. xviii. 
126-51), the survey of Lincoln Cathedral 
formed the basis of a volume on ' The Anti- 
quities in Lincoln Cathedral' (1771), and a 
' History of Gothic and Saion Architecture 
in Engfand'(179a) was compiled from his 
works and those of James Bentham [q. v.] 




"Willis oIm wrote : 1. ' Notitia Parliament 
n Ilistrtry of the Counliea, Cities, 
And Borouglu in Eugland and Wales,' 
1715, 3 vols., 1713, 1750 ; 2nd ad. with addi- 
tions, I73U, 1716, 1730 (but tLe last t«<ro 
Tolumes are of the original edition). A 
single sheet of thia work on the borough of 
Windsor was printed in folio in 1733, and 
is DOW very scarce. 3. 'History of the Mitred 
Parlisrot^ntary Abbies and Conventual 
Cathedral Churches,' 1718-19, 2 Tola. (cf. 
M*L Ileamiana, ed. Bliss, IA57,i. 42H). He 
" id previously drawn up 'A View of the 
(itrod Abbeys, with a Catalogue of their 
Abbots,' for Uearne's edition of 
Collectanea' (1716, Ti. 97-2(14), 
Latin preface of which is addressed to 
Boto the preface and the paper on 
abbeys and abbots are reprinted in the 
i(f 1774ediiion8. 3, 'ParoebisleAngli- 
i ortheNamesof alltheChurchea and 

KkintIurt«enDioceses,'1733. 4. 'Table 
Gold Coins of the Kiugs of England, 
;by B. W.," 1733, small folio a hundred copies, 
Bsd the same number on large paper, which 
are said to have been printed at the expense 
of Vertue; it wa^ included in the ' Votuata 
^loniimenta.' 5. ' Uistorr and Antiquities of 
the Town, Hundred, and Deanery of Buck- 
ingham,' 1756. Cole's copy, with notes 
copied from those by Willis, is in the Gren- 
ville Library, Kritish Museum. Cole ulso 
transcribed and methodised in two folio ro- 
Jnmes,Dow with the Cole manitscriptB at the 
fetitiih Museum, his ' History of tne ilun- 
Siwds of Newport and Cotslow ' to match 
^Us volume on Buckingham. Willis had 
circulated queriea for information on the 
county in li 12. 

In 1717 Willis published an 
'The Whole Duty of Man, abridi 
.benefit of the Poorer Sort,' and 

nymous address ' To the Patrons of 
lesiastical Livings.' Editions of John 
on's ' Thesaurus rerum Ecclesiasticanun,' 
with corrections and additions by Willis, 
came out in 1764 and 1763. He assisted 
in Samuel Gale's ' Winchester Cathe- 
dral ' (1710), W. Thomas's ' Antiquities of 
Woreesier ' (1717), Tanner's 'Notiiia Mone- 
"■ ' (1744), and Hutchina's ' Dorset.' He 
aided and corresponded with Francia 
[q. v.] Early in life be had made 
collections on Cardinal Wolsey 
(HfiiBNE, Collectiom, ed. Doble, i. 71, ii. 
261), and communications from him on 
antiquarian topics are inserted in the 
' Archffiologia'(j.60, 204, TJii. 88-110). 

John Nichols possesaed numerous letters 
of Willis, includmg a thiek volume of those 
to Dr. Ducarel. Many communications to 

ed for the 
D 1763 an 

and from him are printed in Nichols's ' Illus- 
trations of Literature' (i. 811-12, ii. 796, 
eOG-7, iii. 48fi-i}, 532-3, iv. 113), 'Letters 
from the Bodleian Library ' (1813), and in 
Uaanie's 'Collections' (Oxford liist, Soc.) 

[Nicholn's Lit. Anerdotes, ii. 36, vi. 130, ISR- 
211 (nnuntj from aoumoirby l)r. Doearel, road 
before Sue. of Aatiguarleb, 22 May and 12 Jane 
17SU, and printed in eight quarto pttgvs). liii. 
217-23; Hutehinss Dorset, lad ed. 1. iuO, 104- 
11)4, iv. S'i7-)t7; Ljpucomb's Buckinghamshiro. 
ir, 10-14, i8-37. 66, 75; Henine's Coll. ed. 
Doblo,i. It7.iii.3fi0; Mis?. Qeoeal. rl Hbral- 
dick, ii.45-6; Chester's Westminster Abbey, p. 
30: Ualkstt and Laing's Anon. Lit. pp. 2108, 
2MS, 2HU1. ;;ail : Riogr. Britnnniai; il^l. 
Heurainnse, ed. Bliss, ii. 570-81, OOa) 

W. P. c. 

WILLIS, FRANCIS (1718-1807), phy- 
sician, born on 17 Au^. 1718, was third son 
of John Willis, one of the ricars of Lincoln 

from Lincoln College, Oxford, on 30 May 
1734, migrated to 8t. Alban Hall, and pro- 
ceeded B.A. on 21 March 1738-9, and M.A. 
on 10 Feb. 1740-1 from Brssenose College, 
of which he was fellow and subsequently 
vice-principal. In obedience to his father 
he took holy orders, but he had so strong; an 
inclination for medicine that even while an 
undergniduate be studied it and attended 
the lectures of Nathan Alcock [q. v.], with 
whom he formed a lifelong friendship. In 
1749 he married Mary, youngest, daughter 
of the Rev. John Curl-ois of Bramston. Lin- 
colnshire, and took up residence at Dan- 
Bton in that county. He is said to have at 
firat practised medicine without a. license, 
but in 1759 the university of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the degrees of M.B. and M.D. 
In 1769 he was appointed physician to a hos- 
pital in Lincoln which he hau taken an active 
part In eatahliahing. For the six following 
yenrs he never ceased to attend it regularly 
twice a week, though distant nearly ten 
miles from his own home. In the course of 
this work he treated successfully several 
cases of mental derangement, and patients 
were brought to him from great distances. 
To accommodate them he removed to a larger 
honse at Qretford, near Stamford. 

When George III experienced his first 
attack of madness, Willis waa calleil in on 
5 Dee, 178S. He encountered considerable 
opposition from the regular physicians, 
being 'considered by some not much better 
than a mountebank, and not far diti'erent 
from some of those that are conlined la bis 
house' (Sheffield, Auckland Correspon- 
dence, ii. 2-36). From the first he maintained 




that the king would recover, and insisted 
that the patient should be more gently treated 
and allowed greater freedom than heretofore 
(Grexville, Buckingham Papen, ii. 35 ; 
Jesse, iii. 92). He soon became popular at 
court, ^[me. D^\rblay describes him as ' a 

frecjuently exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
British Institution, and Suffolk Street Ce- 
lery from 1&44 to 1862, and from 1851 to 
1857 was a member of the 'Free Exhibi- 
tions ' Society. In 1862 he was elected an 
associate of the * Old Watercolour ' Society, 

man often thousand; open, honest, dauntless, , and thenceforth was a constant contributor 
light-hearted, innocent, and high-minded* j to its exhibitions; in 1863 he became a fall 
[Diary, 1892, iii. 127) ; while Hannah More member. Willis painted in an attractive 
calls him 'the very image of simplicity, quite ' manner various picturesque localities in 

returned to his private practice, but his re- ■ and his 'Ben Cruachan Cattle coming South' 
putation now stood so high that he was | was at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. Four 
obliged to build a second house at Shilling- of his compositions were engraved in the 
thorpe, near Gretford, in order to accom- . * Art Union Annual,' 1847. He died at 

modate the large number of patients who j Kensington on 17 Jan. 1884, and was buried 
wished to be attended by him. He died on . in the cemetery at Hanwell. 
5 Dec. 1807, and was buried at Gretford, } i^R^get's Hist', of the * Old Watercolour' See.; 
where a monument to his memory was ^^^en^^^igg^ . Bpy^iis Diet, of Painters and 
erected by his surviving sons. His first wife , Engrarers, ed. Armstrong.] F. M. O'D. 

died on 17 April 1797, and not long before ' 

WILLIS, JOHN (d. 1628 .»), stenographa 
and mnemonician, graduated B.A. irom 

his death he married Mrs. Storer, who sur- 
vived him. 

"Willis had five sons by his first wife : of Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1592-5, 
these John (1751-1835), with his father, ; M.A. in 1596, and B.D. in 1603. On 12 June 
attended Georpe III in 1788, and again in ; 1601 he was admitted to the rectory of St 
1811 alone; Thomas (1754-1827) was pre- : Mar}' Botha w, Dowgate Hill, London, which 
bendarj- of Rochester, rector of St. George's, . he resigned in 1606 on being appointed rector 
Bloomsbury, and of Wateringbury, Kent; of Bent ley Parva, Essex. Prooably he died 

Richard (1755-1829) was admiral in the 
royal navy; and Robert Darling (1760- 
1821) became physician-in-ordinary to the 
king, whom he attended during his second 
attack of madness, wrote ' Philosophical 
Sketches of the Principles of Society and 
Government,' London, 1795, 8vo, and was 
father of Robert Willis (1800-1875) [q. v.] 

[Report from the Committee appointed to ex- 
amine the Physicians who have attended his 
3IajeHty daring his Illness touching the state of 
his Maje8ty*s Health, London, 1788, 8vo. in A 
Collection of Tracts on the proposed Regency, 
1789, 8vo, vol. i.; A Treatise on Slental De- 
rangement, by Fra. Willis, M.D., 2nd edit., Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vo. p. 86 ; WrHxaU's Memoirs, iii. 
197 ; Jesse's Life and Reign of King Geor^^e the 
Third, vol. iii. passim ; Life of Charles Mayne 

in 1627 or 1628, as it is stated that tho 
' Schoolemaster ' was completely fitted for 
the ninth edition of his * Stenography' (1628) 
by ' the aforesaid authour, a little before his 

Willis invented the first practical and ra- 
tional scheme of modem shorthand founded 
on a strictly alphabetical basis. The earlier 
systems devised by Timothy Bright (1588) 
and Peter Bales (1590) were utterly imprao- 
ticable, and had no result, whereas Willis's 
method was published again and again, and 
was imitated and improved upon by succeed- 
ing authors. 

The first work in which his system was 
explained appeared anonymously under the 
title of ' The Art of Stenographic, teaching 
bv plaine and certaine rules, to the capacitie 

Young, by his son, >• 843-60; inscription on . ^f ^he meanest, and for the vse of aU pro- 
the monument m Gretford church ; private m- A,«„i^„„ tV,o wa\r fr^ P/.m«anHm.,« W««?«i» 
formation.] J. W. C-k. 

1884), painter, was bom in 1810 at Bristol, 

fessions, the way to Compendious Writing. 
Wherevnto is annexed a very easie directioa 
for Steganographie, or secret writing,' Lon- 
don, 1602, 16mo. The only copies known to 
the son of a drawing-master in that city. : exist are in the British Museum and the Bod- 
He practised for a time in Bristol with little leian Libraries. The fifth edition is entitled 
success, and then went to the United States, ' * The Art of Stenographie, or Short Writing 
but after a brief stay was compelled by ill- by spelling charactene,' London, 1617. A 
health to return. In 1843 he settled in Latin version, * Stenographia, sive Ars corn- 
London, and gained a considerable reputat ion pendiose Scribendi,' was published at London 
as a paiuter of cattle and landscaps. lie , mlOlS. The sixth edition of the English w oik 

I Willis 

Appeared in ltl3.1, the seventh in 1G23 (not 
1^. as given in tome lists), the eighth in 
1623, tlie ninth in 1028, the tenth in 163i', 
the eleventh in 1636, the thirtetmtli in 1644, 
and the fnuMeenth in 1647. Willis also 
wrote • The Schoolemoster to the Art of Ste- 
naRTaphj, explaining the rules and teaching 
the practise thereof to the understanding of 
tbe meanest capneit]-,' London, 1Gl'3, 16mo ; 
2tid edit. 1621*; 3rd edit. 1647. This work 
U printed so as to be sold separately, cr in 
coaJDDCtion with the later editions of ' Tbe 
Art of Stenography.' Willis's shorthand 
■Iptuibet, the first introduced into German 
litenture,iseivfoin'Delici{e Fhiloaophicse,' 
Nurembe^, 1653, iii. 53. 

To students of mnemonics Willis in well 
known as the author of ' Mnemonics j sive 
An tteminiscendi : e purls artis natuncque 
fontibua hsueta, et tn tres libros digenta, 
necnon de Memoria naturali fovenda llbellus 
e vsriie doctisaimorum operibus sedulo col- 
lectus,' Lonilon, 1618, 8ro. The treatise 
* De Uemoria naturali fovenrta' was reprinted 
in ' Variorum de Arte Memorie Tractatue 
■ei,' Frankfort, 1678. The whole work was 
translated into English by Leonard Sowersby, 
a bookseller ' at the Ttim-Slik, near New- 
market, in Lincoln's Inn Fields,' and printed 
At London, 1661, 8vo. This book develops 
many of the principles of tlie local memory 
in an apt and intelligible maimer. Copious 
vxtracls from it are printed in Felnaigle's 
'Now Art of Memory,' 3td edit. 1813, up. 

' rCbuper's Pftrliaoiflatary Shorthand, p. 5; 

} \OibW* Historical Aeconat of Compaadioua and 
StriA Writing, pp. 38, 43; Gibson's Bibl. of 
ghortbuid. pp. 13, 237: Joamnlist, II Mnrch 
1887; Levy's Hint, of Shorthond; Leiria's Hist. 
.of Shonband: Nawconrf s Beperloriom j Not«s 
and QneriM, Tibser. ii. 306: Shorthsnil, ii. 160, 
188. 176; Watt's Bibl. Brit; Zeibig'a Gb- 
■ehwindichreibkunst.] T. O. 

1877), justice of the king's bench, Upper 
Canada, bom on 4 Jan, 1793, was thesecond 
Mn of William Willis (rf. 1809), captain in 
tbe 13th light dragoons, by his wife Mary 
(rf, 1831). oiJy daughter and heiress of Ro- 
bert Ilamillon Smith of Lismore, co. Down. 
n» entered Gray's Inn on 4 Nov. 1811, was 
called to the bar, and iolued the northern cir- 
cuit in lf>l". .Shortly a^erwards his first 
published work, a book on the law of evi- 
dence, appeared. There came out in 1830 
'Willis's Equity Pleading,' for m an v years 
■ ilandnrd work on the subject, and in '1837 
a valuable treatise on the ' Duties and Re- 
sponsibililies of Trustees.' The colonial 
owes ut tliis time intended to establish a 


pointment he received a puisne judgeship m 
Ihe king's bench. On 18 Sept. 1827 he pre- 
sented his warrant to the lieutenant-governor, 
SirFeregTineMait]aad[q. T.],but8O0n found 
that neither the governor nor the council, 
□either the asjtembly nor the bar, was disposed 
to assist him in organising a court of chan- 
cery. His chief opponent was (Sir) John 
Beverley Robinson [q. v.], afterwards chief 
Justice, then attorney-general and practical 
leader of the government. There arose dif- 
ferences between theiudgeond the lawolficer 
as to the conduct of crown business which 
waxed keen with time, and were plainly ex- 

Sressed on both sides. The ju<Ige was evi- 
ently the raore hasty, for within a year of 
his appointment he declined to sit in baneo, 
and declared his reasons openly. They wero 
that the act constituting the court directs 
tliflt ' achief justice, with two puisne.judges, 
shall preside in it; thatthechief justice was 
absent from the province on leave, and not 
likelv to return : and that, til! his successor 
was instituted, the court could not legally sit 
inbanco. The lieutenant-governor took nostep 

Justice Hagerman in hla place. Thereupon 
there was an appeal to the privy council on 
the ground that the amoval order was ' un- 
warranted, illegal, and ought to be void.' 
The assembly sided with the judge, chiefly 
because it was at that time struggling to 
make the executive resjionsible, and to 
change the tenure of judicial office from a 
holding ' at pleasure ' to a holding ' during 
^od conduct;' and in an address to the 
King it characterised the governor's action 
OB ' violent, precipitate, and unjustifiable.' 
The excitement in the province grew more 
intense when it was known that no positive 
nep'ect of duty, no actual malfeasance in 
oHice, was or could be established against 
Willis. The imperial government, on report 
from the privy council, dismissed the appeal, 
conhrmeci the amotion order, and refused to 
reinstate the judge, as the assembly had re- 

auested. But on reconsideration afterwards 
be order of amotion was set aside, because 
the appellant had no opportunity of a hear- 
ing before the orderwas issued. Willis was 
then given a judicial appointment in Deme- 
rnra, and afterwards in New South Wales 
(1841). Ha diapleasBd the governor of this 
colony also, Sir (Seorge Gipps [q, v.] ; and lie 
was again amoved in 1842 without notice. 
Appeal proceedings lasted three years, but 
tiusUy the order was quashed for the same 
in the Upper Canada case. Arrears 




of salary and costs, amounting to near 6,000/., 
were awarded to Willis, but he did not return 
to the colony, neither did he receive any other 
office in the gift of the colonial department. 
He died in September 1877. 

On 8 Aug. 1824 he married Mary Isabella, 
elder daughter of Thomas Lvon-Bowes, 
eleventh earl Strathmore. By her he had 
one son, Robert Bruce Willis (1826-1897). 
The union was an unhappy one, and was dis- 
solved by act of parliament in 1833. Willis 
married, secondly, on 15 Sept. 1836, Ann 
Susanna Kent {d, 1891), eldest daughter of 
Colonel Thomas Henry Bund of Wick Epi- 
scopi in Worcestershire. By her he had a 
son, Mr. John William Willis-Bund, and two 

Willis is sometimes said to have had an 
imperious temper. There can be little 
question as to his ability, industry, or the 
energy with which he carried his ideas into 
practice. The true reason for his unfortu- 
nate experience * over sea ' may be found in 
his conception of what an English colony is 
or should be. His latest work, 'On the 
Government of the British Colonies '(18o0), 
gives his idea. A colony is to be dealt with 
as an English county, presided over by a 
lord lieutenant ; on tlie one side possessing 
certain powers of internal taxation, on the 
other being represented in the imperial par- 
liament — a conception of self-government 
that no colonial party could adopt, and one 
which, if carried out in days when the judge's 
sphere was not confined strictly to matters 
legal, could scarcely fail to bring him into 
conflict with the local authorities for the 
time being. 

[Fosters Reg. of Admissions to Gray's Inn, 
1 889, p. 4 1 4 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, s. v. * Bund ; ' 
Read's Lives of the Judges of Upper Canada, pp. 
107-20; Dent's Srory of the Upper Canada Re- 
bellion, pp. 162-94 ; Mirror of Parliament (House 
of Lords), 14 May 1829, pp. 1610-11 ; Han&ird, 
new ser. xxiv. 551-5 ; Accounts and Papers re- 
lating to the Colonies (5), xxxii. 51 ; Blue Book, 
Papers relating to the Amoval of the Hon. J. W, 
Willis. 1829; Black woo<l'8 Mag. (• Cabot'), 1829, 
pp. 334-7 ; A pp. to Journals of the Legislative 
Assembly of Upper Canada, Istsess., 10th pari. ; 
Therry's Reminiscences of New South Wales, 
1863, pp. 341-5; 5 Moore's Reports (Privy 
Council), p. 379; Kingsford's Hist, of Canada, 
X. 258-79.1 T. B. B. 

WILLIS, rjCIIARD (1664-17a4), 
bishop of Winchester, the son of William 
Willis, a journeyman tanner, and his wife 
Susanna, was baptised at Ribbesford in Wor- 
cestershire on 16 Feb. 1663-4. He was 
educated at Bewdley free grammar school, 
matriculated from Wadham College, Oxford, 

on 5 Dec 1684, graduated B.A. in 1688, in 
which year he beoune a fellow of All Souls', 
and was granted the degree of D.D. at Lam- 
beth on 27 March 169o (Foster, Alumni Oxon, 
laOO-1714). After leaving Oxford he became 
curate to < Mr. Chapman at Cheshunt,' and 
was in 1092 chosen lecturer of St. Clement's, 
Strand, where he became well known as a 
preacher. Nash speaks of his famous 'ex- 
temporaneous preaching;' but Richardson, 
with greater probability, of his 'conciones 
memoriter recitandi.' He accompanied Wil- 
liam III to Holland in 1694 in the capacity 
of chaplain, and on his return on 12 April 
1695 (Hennesst, Novum Hepert, p. 448) was 
installed a prebendary of Westminster. He 
was one of t he original promoters of the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge in 1699, 
subscribing o/., and in December 1700 he re- 
ceived the thanks of the society for a charity 
sermon preached at St. Ann's, Westminster 
(Macluee, Journals^ pp. 5, 103). On 26 Dec 
1701 he was promoted to the deanery of 
Lincoln. Four years later was printed one 
of his most elaborate sermons ' preached be- 
fore the queen on 23 Aug. 1705, being the 
thanksgiving day for the late glorious success 
in forcing the enemy's lines in the Spanish 
Netherlands, by the Duke of MarlborougL' 
A good preacher and a good whig, having 
opposed the schism bill of 1714, Willis was 
made bishop of Gloucester by George I upon 
the death of Edward Fowler [q. v.] He 
was elected on 10 Dec. 1714, connnned on the 
loth, and consecrated on 16 Jan. following 
in Lambeth chapel. He was put upon the 
commission for building fifty new cnurches 
in and around London, was made a clerk 
of the royal closet, and allowed to hold his 
deanery tn commendam. The king was grati- 
fied by his sermon, * The Way to Stable and 
Quiet Times,' preached before the court on 
20 Jan. 1714-1"), * being the day of thanks- 
giving for bringing his majesty to a peace- 
able and quiet possession of the throne*,' which 
was translated into French for George's bene- 
fit. In 1717, when William Nicolson [q.v.l 
was translatal from Carlisle to Derry, ana 
had in consequence to resign the office of lord 
almoner, Willis was appointed to the post 
After seven years at Gloucester, upon Uifi 
translation of Talbot to Durham, Willis was 
on 21 Nov. 1721 translated to Salisbury, and 
thence he was on 21 Nov. 1723 promoted to 
the see of Winchester. His advancement 
was due, according to Bishop Newton, to the 
long and laboured oration which he made 
against Atterbury upon the occasion of ths 
third reading of the bill to inflict pains and 
penalties. This speech was published in 
1723. Willis, who was a martyr to the 

(put, died eudJfiily at AVinchester Uotise, 
ChelBea, on ID Aug. 1734, aad wu buried 
in the south aisle of Wiucheeter Cathedral, 
a little aboce Bishop ^A'jkeham. The tuoou- 
ment to him with a life-sire fipure of the 
bishop in pontificaii&iu ia described bv Mil- 
man lathe iDoeC finiGbed in ihe cathedral 
{Hi*t. of WiachftUr. i. 445 ; the long I^tin 
inseriptton is reproduced in Batx's Hitto- 
rieid Account of tt'iaeheiter,^. SI7). Dj hie 
wife Isabella, Trho was buried in the north 
niilt of Cheleeft church on -JQ Nor. 17i'7 
(of. FiCUCycK. CkfUta, p. 330). Willis left 
tvo Mins — John of Chelsea, who married in 
173Stheonly daughter of Coloael Fielding; 
I aad Williini, who marriod on 11 Feb. 1744 
L-* JliM Keod of Bedford How, with 40,000/. ' 
^fOmt. Mag. 1744, p. 108). 

. There is an oiUportraic of the bishop br 

9I Dalil in the palace at Salisbury, and 

e engraving of this in mezzotint bv J. Simon 

W^epeX* • hiuidsome man with tlie mobile 

"t^N of an orator (Smith, Mezso Portrait; 


[Chma'a Lives of the Bisbops of Salisbnrj, 

■"- 203-9, and Lipua of thn Bishoi^ 

r. 1827. ii. llS-31; Nash's Hist, of 

!♦. ii. are : w^dtiBm O'll. B«gi- 

atsM, al Oarilinar. p. 339 : Wood's Hist, and 
Anliq. of Ozfonl. ed. Ooteh. p. 274 ; Le Naves 
Futi Kc<'t. AnglicaDiF, i. I4ii. 146 ; Notes and 
Qosrira, 2ik1 rar. iv. 103, 4tb oer. ir. 4S0; 
Nicolsoa'a Kpist. Corresp. sd. Nichols, 1789. 
ji. 47T ; Nichols's Lit. Aonrd. ii. U ; Willis's 
CathcdnU. ii. 83 : Heane'E Colloet. ed. Poble, 
i i9 ; Abb«f's English Church and lis Bishops, 
lUT, a. 30; Noble's CoDCinuatioD of Grangsr, 
k 'iii. 78 : Bramtej's CM, of EDgntTsd Portnils, 
->3T3-1 T. S. 

^■WILLIS, ROBERT (1800-1875), pro- 
ir of mechanism and archfologist.soD of 
I of Ft»nci8 Willis [a. vX was born in 
~ n on 27 Feb. I8O6. The tastes that 
rds dislin^shed him became mani- 
a very earl)' age. When a mere lad 
a akilful musician, a good draugbls- 
id an eager examiner of every piece 
of machinery and ancient building that came 
nthiaway. In 1819he patented an improve- 
D the pedal of the harp, and in 18^1 
ibed ' An Attempt to analyse the Au- 
uton Chess Player '(London, 1631, Svo), 
* % raechnnicol contrivance then being ei- 
bilnted in London, which ' bad excited tbe 
adrntralioti tif the curious during a period 
iillle short of forty years ' (p. 9>. After re- 
peated visits to the exhibition in company 
with liis sister, he was enabled to show that 
itierv was ample room for a man of small 
statute 10 bo concealed within tbe figure 

and tbe box on which be sat, a 
the truth of which the < 

Uis health was delicate, and he waa 
educated privately till 1831, when be became 
a pupil of the Her. Mr. Kidd at King's 
Lynn. In 1P22 he entered into residence 
at Oonville and Caius College. Cambridge, 
as a pensioner. lie proceeded B.A. in 181%, 
when he was ninth wrangler. He was 
elected Frsnhland fellow of his college in 
tbe same year, and foundation fellow in 18:^, 

himself to the st udy of mechanism, selecting 
at first subjects in which mathematics wero 
blended with aoimal mechanism, as shown 
by his jtapera in the ' Transactions of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Societv ' * On the 
Vowel Sounds' (lfi2S| and '6n the Me- 
chanUmofthe Larynx' (1838-9). Thelast 
has been accepted by anatomists as contain- 
ing the true theory of the action of that 
organ. In 1830 be was made a fellow of 
the RotbI Societv. 

In 1837 he succeeded William Fari5h[q.v.] 
as Jackainian professor of applied mechanics 
at Cambridge, an office which he held till 
his death. His practical knowledge of car- 
pentry, bia inventive genius, and his power 
of lucid exposition mside him a most attrac- 
tive professor, and his lecture-room waa 
always full. Parish wasaman of great ori- 
ginality, whose lectures Wiliis had attended 
(as he told the present writer), and when 
he published his own ' System of .Apparatus 
for the use of Lecturers and Experimentera 
in Mechanical Philosophy' (London, 1851, 
4to) he described bis predecessor's method of 
building up a model of a machine before tbe 
audience, and gave him fidl credit for 'devis- 
ing a system of mechanical ncparatus con- 
sislingofthe separate parts of wli i cb macbin es 
are made, so adapted to each other that they 
might admit of being put together at plea- 
sure in tbe form of any machine that might 
be required' (p. 1). This system, as mo- 
demised and perfected by Willis, baa been 
largelv adopted both at home and abroad. 

In '1837 Willis read a paper ■ On the 
Teeth of Wheels ' ( TrarM. Iivit. Civ. Etig. ii. 
6{*l, with a description of a contrivance called 
an odontograph, for enabling draughtsmen 
to find at once tbe centres from which the 
two portions of the teeth are to be struck. 
He waa tbe first to point out the prncticnl 
advantage of constructing cycloidal toothed 
wheels in what are called 'sets' by using 
the same generating circle and the same 
pitch throughout tbe set, with the result 
that any two wheels of the set will gear 





together. This invention is in uniyersal 

In 1841 he published his ' Principles of 
Mechanism.* In this work he reduced the 
study of what he called pure mechanism to 
a system. It is the earliest attempt to 
develop, with anything like completeness, 
the science of machines considered from the 
kinematic point of view, without reference 
to the forces which are at work or to the 
energy which is transmitted. A machine, 
according to him, is a contrivance for pro- 
ducing a specific relation between the mo- 
tions of one of its parts and another. To 
express this relation completely the two 
elements velocity-ratio and directional rela- 
tion are required. Accordingly he groups 
machines in three general classes: (1) those 
in which both of these elements are constant ; 
(2) those in which one (a) is constant and 
the other (b) is variable ; (3) those in which 
this variability is reversed. In each class 
there are divisions depending on the mode 
in which motion is communicated, whether 
by rolling contact, sliding contact, link-work, 
and so forth. The first part oif the book 
expounds this system of classiOcation as ap- 
plied to elementary combinations of moving 
pieces ; the second part deals with what he 
calls aggregate combinations, in which two 
or more elementary combinations co-operate 
in producing a relation of motion between 
the driving and following parts of the ma- 
chine. A second edition of this work ap- 
peared in 1870. 

In 1849 Willis was a member of a royal 
commission appointed to inquire into the 
application of iron to railway structures, 
and contributed to the report of the com- 
missioners Appendix B, * On the effects pro- 
duced by causing weights to travel over 
elastic bars,' reprinted in Barlow's * Treatise 
on the Strength of Timber.' 

In 1851 he was one of the jurors of the 
Great Exhibition. In that capacity he drew 
up the report for the class of manufacturing 
machines and tools, and contributed a lec- 
ture to the series on the results of the exhi- 
bition, organised by the Society of Arts in 
185l\ He was also a vice-president at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1855, and reporter of the 
class for the machinery of textile fabrics. 
In connection with this office he published 
in iHfu a report on machinery for woven 
fabrics, for which he received the cross of 
the Legion of Honour. When the govern- 
ment school of mines was established in 
Jermyn Street in 1853, Willis was engaged 
as lecturer on applied mechanics. In 1862 
he was president of the British Association, 
which that year met at Cambridge ; and in 

the following year at Newcastle he presided 
over the medianical section. 

During all these years W^illis was study- 
ing arclutecture and ardueology with the 
same energy as mechamsm, and perhaps with 
even greater originality. In 1885, after a 
rapid tour through a purt of France, Ger- 
many, and Italy, he published ' Remarks on 
the Architecture of the Middle Ages, espe- 
cially of Ital^,' a work which first called 
serious attention to the Gothic style, and 
which in many ways is still without a rivaL 
He treated a building as he treated a ma- 
chine : he took it to pieces ; he pointed out 
what was structural and what was decora- 
tive, what was imitated and what was 
original ; and how the most complex forms 
of mediaeval invention might be reduced to 
simple elements. This publication was the 
starting-point of that portion of his career 
which was devoted to studies combining 
practical architecture with historical ana 
antiquarian research. For these he was 
singularly well fitted. He had no sentiment 
and no preconceived theory. His mechani- 
cal knowledge enabled him to understand 
construction, and his power of observation 
was so keen that he never failed to seize 
the meaning of the faintest indication that 
fell in his way. The industry that he 
brought to bear on these pursuits was amaz- 
ing. He learnt to decipher mediaeval hand- 
writing with rapidity and accuracy, and 
devoted much time to the study of manu- 
script authorities : he mastered not only the 
whole literature of the subject, but that of 
the history that bore upon it ; and, as the 
moss of notes bequeatiied by him to the 
present writer shows, he tabulated the in- 
formation thus gained with infinite care, so 
as to have it always ready to his hand when 

The * Remarks ' were succeeded by an 
elaborate paper * On the Construction of the 
Vaults of the Middle Ages' (Trans. Imt, 
Brit. Arch. 1841), an essay as remarkable 
for thoroughness of treatment as for the 
beauty of the illustrations, all drawn by 
himself. By this time his reputation tor 
architectural knowledge was established, for 
in this year the dean and chapter of Here- 
ford consulted him respecting the condition 
of their cathedral. He published the re- 
sult of his investigations in a * Report of a 
Survey of the Dilapidated Portions of Ilere- 
ford Cathedral in the year 1841 ' (Hereford, 
1842, 8vo; and London, 1842, 4to, with 
plates). In this same year he invented and 
described the * Cymagraph for copying 
mouldings' {Engineers Jouni. July 1842), a 
contrivance which he himself used exten- 

own rcBearchea, but whicli did 
not meet willi ^neral acceptuicp. In l^^ld 
he ptiblLshed his ' Architectural Nomencla- 
ture of the Middle Age«'(7VaTu'. Cait^r. Ant. 
Sor. vol. i.), A work of VMt research and great 
in^noity, useful alike to a lexicographer 
md an archicologist. 

The foundation of tlie Arehrcoloffical In- 
nitutt; in ISU opened a new li^ld for Willie. 
Ele wae one of the Iir«t members, as he wdb 
also one of the most energetic, andalectura 
im w»« the chief attraction at the 
annua! meeting. His method, as he states 
in his ' Architectural History of Winchester 
CathedrBt'(l846), was 'to'bring together 
■11 the recorded evidence that belong to the 
building; to examine the building ileelf for 
the purpose of investigating the mode of its 
coDBtriictiOn, and the successive changes and 
additions that have been made to it ; and, 
lastly, to compare the recorded evidencfi 
with the structural evidence aa much as 
poseible.' By this comprehensive scheme ho 
laid bare thu entire hislorvof the structure; 
the histoiT was elucidaltvi hv the buildin;f, 
nad the changes in thi: biiilJiug were made 
nanifest by ibe history ; while his own 
tliorough knowledjire of ilie diiferent styles 
of architecture enabled him to see through 
alterations, transformntions, and insertions 
which had puiilwl all previous investigator". 
In this way he elucidated the cathedrals of 
Canterbury (1844), Winchester (1845J, 
Yorfe (1S46), Chichester (1853), Worcester 
0802). Sherborne and Glastonbury (1865). 
Ilie^e have been published ; but he also read 
papers and delivered lectures on the follow- 
ing witiiont, however, finding luieure to 
pubtish what he had said : Norwich (1847), 
SalLBburv (18*8), Oxford (18r>0), W.'lls 
(1»5I), 'Oloueesler (1H60), I'eterbormich 
^aOl), Rochester (im3), Lichtield O"')')- 
^EA« ft lecturer Willis had cxtrnordiiiary 
^Pbl Bstuedneithermanuscript nor notesi 
^^L whetlier be wns describing a macliine or 

exposition flowed from his lips, carrying bis 
bearerii without weariness through the most 
, iolri'.'ate details, and making them gnwp the 
tt complex history or construction. In 
lotion to bis annual lectures at Cambridge, 
»ndon, or to the Archsological Insti- 
t, Willis lectured at the Itoyal Institu- 
KonMund in 1831, and on architecture 
H&IO and 1847. He also gave special 
■ws of lectures to working men in Lon- 
tbetween I8.t4 and 1867. 
JtriUi* aUopuhlisbed a 'Description of the 
JtryBam at Kly' (Tram. Cnmlir. Ant. 
fc 1843, Tol. i ) ; ' llisloryof the Great Seals 
England' (/ircA. Joura. 1846, toI. ii.); 

' Architectural History of the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem' (London, 
1841), 8vo), a remarkable achievement, as he 
had not visited it ; ' Uescription of the An- 
cient Plan of the monastery of St. Gall ' 
(Arch. Joum. 1848); 'A Westminsier 
Fabric Itoll of 1263' (Gen(. Alaff.lSm); 
' Un Foundations discovered in Lichfield 
Cathedrsr (AirA. Joiirn. 1860); 'On the 
Crypt and Chapter House of Worcosier 
Caihedral ' ( Tions. Imt. lint. Arch. 18B3) 

In the course of these studies be edited, 
or more correctly rewrote, a eonsiderablo 
portion of Parker's 'Glossary of Architec- 
ture ' (.5th ed. I860) ; and published a ' Fac- 
simile of the Sketch-book of Wilnrs de 
Ilonecort' (London. I86i>, 4lo), with a 
text partly from the French of M. Iassus, 
partly by himself. But perhaps his most 
remarkable arcbteoloEical work is hie last, 
'The ArchitBCtural History of the Conven- 
tual Buildings of Ihe Monastery of Clirist- 
cburch, Canterbury" (London, 1860, 8vo), 
He had promised to do this in 1844, when 
he lBeture<l on the cathedral, but other en- 
gan^ments had stood in the way of publica- 
tion. It is a minute and perfectly accuratu 
exposition of the plan of a Benedictine 
monastery, considered in relation to thu 
monastic "^life. 

His health did not allow him to complete 
his comprehensive work on the ' Arcbitec- 
turiil History of the University and Colleges 
of Cambridge," which originated in a lecture 
delivered before the Archieological Inatitute 
at its meeting at Cambridge in 1854. This 
was completed after his death by the present 
writer, and published bv the University 
Press in 1886 U voU. imp'. 8vo). 

Willis died at Cambridoe on 'iSFeb. 187fl 
of bronchitis; his health had been seriously 
impaired for some years previously. He 
married, on 26 July 1832, MoryAnne.daugh- 
tcr of Charles Ilumfrey of Cambridge. 

(Venn's Uiogr. Hist, of GonriUe and Oiiia 
College, 18!)S, ii. 1S2; Arcli. Journ. paHtm; 
private knowledge.] J. W. C-K. 

WILLIS, ROBERT( 1799-1878), medical 
writer, was bom in Scotland in 17!)», and in 
1819 gradiisted M.D. in the university of 
Edinburi^h. He became a membtT of the 
College of Surgeons of England in 1833, 
then began practice as a sui^feon in London, 
and was in 1&37 admitted a licentiate of the 
College of Physicians. Inl827,ontlie8iigge8- 
tion of John Abernethy (1761-1831) [q-v.], ho 
was appointed librarian of the newly formed 
library of the College of Surgeons, and held 
office till June 1846, after which he went to 
live at Barnes in Surrey, and there practised 




till his death. He translated in 1826 Ga»- 
pard Spunheim*8 'Anatomy of the Brain/ 
in 1835 Pierre Rayer's valuable treatise on 
diseases of the skin, and in 1844 Karl F. H. 
Marx's <0n the Decrease of Disease' and 
Rudolph Wagner's * Elements of Physiology.' 
His chief original medical works were 
' Urinary Diseases and their Treatment/ pub- 
lished in 1838 ; ' Illustrations of Cutaneous 
Disease ' in 1841 ; and ' On the Treatment of 
Stone in the Bladder ' in 1842. His practical 
knowledge of disease was small, and the pre- 
paration of works for the press his more con- 
genial occupation. His translation of the 
works ofWQliam Harvey (1678-1657) [q.y.] 
was published by the Sydenham Society in 
1847. In 1877 he published an historical 
study entitled ' Servetus and Calvin/ and in 
1878 'William Harvey: a History of the 
Discovery of the Circulation/ a work con- 
taining some facts not to be found in earlier 
lives of Harvey. He died at Barnes on 2 1 Sept. 

[Lancet, 12 Oct. 1878 ; Works.] N. M. 

master, wasthe son of Richard Willis of Fenny 
Compton, Warwickshire, and of his wife, 
whose maiden name was Blount. He was 
bom in 1582, matriculated from St. John's 
College, Oxford, on llJune 1602, graduated 
B.\. on 2 June 1606 and M.A. on 21 June 
1609, and was incorporated at Cambridge in 
1619. On leaving college he became school- 
master at Isleworth, and remained there 
teaching for about fifty years. He published 
two Latin schoolbooks, ' Vestibulum Linguie 
LatinsD/ London, 1651, and * Phraseologia 
Anglo-Latina/ London, 1655, published with 
the author's initials only. The latt^jr work ap- 
'^ared also in the same year under the title of 
* l*roteu8Vinct us.' It occasionally goes by the 
name of 'Anglicisms Latinized,* and some 
copies contain the three title-pages. Prefixed 
are some Latin dedicatory verses. In 1672 
William Walker (1623-1684) fq. v.] repub- 
lished Willis's book, reprinted the laudatory 
verses, omitting the headings * To Volenti us,' 
then adding his own * Paroemiologia Anglo- 
Latina; or a Collection of English and Latin 
Proverbs and Proverbial Sayings matclrd 
together/ and placed his name alone on the 
title-page. The whole book has in conse- 
quence been occasionally assigned to Walker. 
The true state of things is honestly explained 
in the preface. 

Willis died about 1660. He married Mary 
Tomlyn of Gloucester, by whom he had two 
sons and two daughters. 

The elder son, Thomas Willis (/L 1692), 
was educated first in his fathers school 

and afterwards at St. John's College, Oxford, 
where he was created M.A. on 17 Dec. 1^46, 
by virtue of the letters of Sir Thomas Fairfinx. 
He was possibly the 'Mr. Thomas Willis, 
minister, who was chaplain to the regiment 
of CoL Payne, part of the brigade under the 
command of Major-^neral Brown/ In 1646 
he was appointea minister of Twickenham in 
Middlesex, and was instituted on 8 Oct. In 
1651 he had his stipend increased by 100/. a 
year from tithes belonging to the dean and 
canons of Windsor. He was one of the com- 
missioners for the county of Middlesex and 
city of Westminster for the ejection of 
ignorant and scandalous ministers. In 
August 1660 the inhabitants of Twicken- 
ham petitioned parliament for his removaL 
In the petition he is described as not having 
been of either university, but * bred in New 
England/ and not ' a lawfully ordained 
minister.' In 1661 he was deprived of the 
living, but afterwards conforming he was 
instituted to the rector; of Dunton in Buck- 
inghamshire on 4 Feb. 1663, holding it in 
conjunction with the vicarage of Kingston- 
on-Thames, to which he was instituted on 
21 Aug. 1671 . At this time he was chaplain- 
in-ordinary to the king, and had been created 
D.D. in 1670. He died on 8 Oct. 1692, and 
was buried at Kingston, Surrey. 

He was twice married. By his first wife, 
Elizabeth, he had four sons ana one daughter; 
and bv his second, Susanna, who survived 
him, three sons and one daughter. Calamy 
says that he was a good scholar, like his 
father, * a grave divine, a solid preacher, of a 
very good presence, and a man zealous for 
truth and order in the churches of Christ, of 
great holiness of life, of a public spirit and 
much fervour in his work, and great useful- 
ness in the county of Middlesex.' 

He published: 1. 'A Warning to Eng- 
land ; or a Prophecy of Perilous Times/ Lon- 
don, 1659. 2. *Help for the Poor/ 1666. 
3. *The Excellency of Virtue disclosing 
itself in the A'irtues of a Good Life/ Lon- 
don, 1670. 4. * The Key of Knowledge/ 
London, 1682. 5, ' bfc< mts; Gt)d*8 Court ; 
wherein the dignity and duty of Judges and 
Magistrates is shew'd,' London, 1683. 

[Visitation of Warwickshire (Harl. Soc. Publ.), 
xii. 311 ; Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, iii. 406, it. 
698-9, Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 95, 326-7 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Cobbett's Memorials 
of Twickenham, pp. 110, 124, 188-9; Lysons's 
Environs, iii. 291-2; Palmer's Nonconformist's 
Memorial, ii. 470; Lipscomb's Bnckinghamshire, 
iii. 343 : Manning and Bray's Snrrey. i. 394 ; 
Aubrey's Antiquities of Surrey, i. 25 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. p. 128; Lords' Journals, liii. 
I 514, ix. 627; P. C. C. 193, Fane.] B. P. 


WILLIB, THOMAS, M.D. (1621-1675), 
phyaicUn, son of Thnraas Willis and his 
wife, Kachel Howell, vrta boTn at (iFreat Btsi- 
win, Wiltshire, on 27 Jan. 1620-1, and 
baptised on 14 Feb. following- Hia father, 

• nrmer at ' Church or Long Han dborough,' 
Oxfordshire, was, accordin); to Wood, 'a 
retainer of S. John's College,' and nfttirwHrda 
Bteward to Sir Walter Smith of Bedwyn, 
retiri^ in his old age to North Hlnkgej, 
near UEford, and losing hh life in the eiege 
of Oxford in 1646. Ilia mother vas a 
nativB of Uinksej. The hou was educated 
at, the private school of Edward Sylveeler 
in Oxford: 'in 1636 he became a retainer 
to the familv of Dr. Tho. lies, tanon of 
Chmt Churdi' (Wood): and on 3 March 
1636-7 he matriculated from Christ Church, 
graduating B.A. on 19 June 1639 and M.A, 
on 18 June 1843. He served the king in 
the unireraitT legion, and studied medicine. 
On & Sec. 164U he graduated M.B. He 
began practice in a bouse opposite Merton 
College, where, throughout the rebellion, the 
ofEcea of the church of England were regu- 
larly performed [see Owes, John, 1616- 
1663]. Ue there wrote 'Diatribw dua 
medico-phi losophiue,' one on ' I'tirmentation,' 
and the other on 'Fevers,' which, with his 

* DiHertatio Epistolaria di? Urinia," were pub- 
Uabed at The Hague in IS-'Sg. To this Ed- 
saund Meara [ci. v.] replied in 1665 in an 
' BxADien " whicn called forth a defence fmm 
Willis's friend. Dr. Richard Lower (1631- 
1691) [n.v.L entitled • Vindicatio Diatribce 
Willisii.' InJune 1600 Willis was apjioititcd 
Sedkian proftissor of natural philoaopliy, and 

■>Ii 80 Oct. 1660 was created M,D. 

He published in Londoii in 1664 ' Cerebri 
.Lnatome Nervorumque descriptio et usua,' 
_ iirith a dedication to Gilbert Sheldon [q, v.], 
•rchbishop of Canterbury, and in the same 
voltune 'De ratione motiis musculorum.' He 
had dissected many brain; of both men and 
knimala, and worked with Dr. Richard Lower, 
Dr. Thomas Millington, and Sir Christopher 
Wren [q. v.], and many of ih« admirable 
diairing* in the book were the work of that 
great architect. It waa the most exact ac- 
Mintof the nervous svslera which bad then 
iwared, and in chapter viii. the nnntomlcal 
Uttions of the main cerybral arteries were 
ir the first time accumtely set forth, whence 
. IB anastomosis at (lie base of the brain 
between the branches of the vertebral and 
internal carotid arteries is tn llua day known 
u the circle of Willis. He was concerned 
in the meetings at Oxford which in part led 

tlo the formation of the Royal Society, and 
became a felbw after the society was esln- 
Uished. In December IWl he was elected 


a fellow of the College of Ph' 
house in St. Martin's Lai 

I leae, < 

L the ifivitation of tut; arcUbishoi 

the church 

of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. He soon at- 
tained a large practice. Ilishop Burnet states 
that when consulted about a son of James II, 
then Duke of York, he expressed his dia- 
gnosis in the words ' mala stamina vit»,' 
which gave such otfence that he was never 
called for afterwards. His resolute attach- 
ment to the church of England was perhaps 
a stronger reason that he was not favoured 
at court. He endowed a priest to read 
prayers at earlv moniiag and late evening at 
St.'Martin's-m.the-Fields lor the benefit of 
working people who could not attend at the 
usual bourn. In 1667 he published at Ox- 
ford ' I'athologiiB cerebri et nervoai generis 
specimen,' a treatise containing many valu- 
able reports of caaes of nervous disease 
observed by himself; and in 1670, in Lon- 
don, ' .^.tfectionum quic dicuntur hystericn 
et hypochondriaciB pathologia spasmodica,' 
which discusses the treatment of hysterical 
affections at great length, and also contains 
a few well-described cases. In the same 
volume are separate essays ' De sanguinis 
ascenaione' and 'De motu musculari. Ho 
published at Oxford in MTU ' De anima bru- 
torum,' and in 1674 ■ Phnrmaceutice ratlo- 
nalis.' He was the last English physician 
to quote with approval the practice of J' 
of liaddeaden [q. v.] 

The ancients and all physicians up to tue 
time of Willis included all diseases in which 
the quanlily of urine was increased, under 
the term < diabetes,' and Willis in this laat 
book was the first to notice that cases of 
wasting disease in which this symptom v 
associated with sweetness of the urinu 
formed a distinct group, and thus may 
justly be regarded as the discoverer of dia- 
betes mellitus. Uis views as to the effects 
of sugar on tho body were attacked by Fre- 
derick Slare [q.v.j in his * Vindication of 
Sugars against the CbHrge of Dr. Willis,' 
London, 1715, 8vo, Willis died of pneu- 
monia at his bouse in St. Martin's Lane 
London, on II Nov. 1U7S, and was buried it 
Westminster Abbey on the Iflth, an honour 
which he well deserved on account of Ills 
anatomy of the brain and his discovery of 
saccharine diabetes. The funeral charges 
came to 470/. 4». id., which bis grandson 
Hrowne Willis complains did not include a 
RTarestone. His portrait was drawn by 
Vertue and engraved bvEnoptou. Tbereis 
another engraving by Li^gan. 

Willis married, first, at Si. Micbael'fi, 
Oxford, on 7 April 1C57, Mary, daughter of 

if John 




Dr. Samuel Fell [q. v.] and sister of Dr. 

[q. v.l; slie c' " 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 

John Fell 

died on 31 Oct. 1670, 

3 Nov. A son Richard died on 2 May 
1667, and was buried in Merton College 
Chapel. The only surviving son, Thomas 
Willis (1658-1699), was father of Browne 
Willis [q. v.], the great antiquary, whose ac- 
count of his granafather^s life and charities, 
in a letter to White Kennett, is printed in 
Wood's * Athente,' ed. Bliss (iii. 1048-50). 
Willis married, secondly, on 1 Sept. 1672, 
at Westminster Abbey, Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Matthew Nicholas, dean of St. 
Paul's [see Nicholas, Sir Edward, adfin.\ 
and widow of Sir William Calley of Bur- 
derop Park, Wiltshire. After Willis's death 
she married, as her third husband, Sir Thomas 
Mompesson (rf. 1701) of Bathampton, Wilt- 
shire, whom also she survived, dying in her 
seventy-fifth year on 29 Nov. 1 709, and being 
buried in Winchester Cathedral. 

A collected edition of Willis's works, en- 
titled *T. W. Opera omnia cum . . . multis 
figuris teneis,' appeared at (teneva in 1(V<0 
(2 torn. 4to) ; an improved edition was pub- 
lished by Gerard nlasius in six parts at 
Amsterdam (16^«2, 4to). An English ver- 
sion, entitled 'The remaining Medical Works 
of ; . . T. W. . . .,' wos ])ubli8hed in Lon- 
don in 1081, folio, several of the treatises 
being translated by Samuel Pordage [q. v.] 

[VVork8; Munks Coll. of Pliys. i. 338 ; post- 
script to PlmrniJiceutice Kjitionalis, 1679, pt. ii. ; 
Burnct'H History of his own Time. London, 1724, 
p. 228; Wood's Atlienjo Oxon. iii. 1048; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. lo()()_17l4; Burro ws's Pjirl. 
Visit. (Canulen Soo.) ; Chester's iiepr. West. 
Abl)oy, pjissim.] N. M. 

WILLIS, TLMOTllY {f. Ifiir,), writer 
on alchemy, was the son of liichard Willis, 
leather-selh'r of London. lie was admitted 
to Merchant Taylors' school on 22 April 
1575, and thence was elected to a fel- 
lowship at St. John's College, Oxford, in 
1578. He matriculated on 17 Nov. 1581, 
but was ejected from his fellow.««hip the fol- 
lowing year * for certain misdemeanours.* 
He proceeded B.A. from ( Gloucester Hall on 
10 Jul v l5H2,and was afterwards readmitted 
to St. John's at the n^cjuest of William Cor- 
dell, and by favour of Qn(»en Elizabeth made 
* doctor bullatus,' and sent on an embassy 
to Muscovy. He publishi'd : 1. * Proposi- 
tiones Tentationum, sive Propnedeumata de 
Vitiiset Fcecunditatecompositorum natura- 
lium,' London, 1015. 2. * The Search of 
Causes; containing a Theosophicall Investi- 
gation of the Possibilitie of Transmutatorie 
Alchemie/ London, 1016. On the title- 

page of the latter work he describes himaelf 
as ' Apprentise in Phisicke.' 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, vol. i. cols. 22i)-l ; Reg. of Univ. 
of Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc.). 11. ii. 44. iii. 106 ; 
Itobiuson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 
24.] B. P. 

WILLISEL, THOMAS (rf. lC76?),natu. 
ralist, was a native of Northamptonshire, 
according to Aubrey, or, according to Ray, 
of Lancashire. He served as a foot-soldier 
under Cromwell. ' Lying at St. James's (a 
garrison then I thinke), he happened,* writes 
Aubrey, *to go along with some simplers. 
He liked it so well that he desired to goe 
with them as often as they went, and tooko 
such a fancv to it that in a short time he 
became a good botanist. He was a lusty 
fellow, and had an admirable sight, which is 
of great use for a simpler ; was as hardy as 
a highlander ; all his cloathes on his back not 
worth ten groat es, an excellent marksman, 
and would maintain himselfe with his dog 
and his gun, and his fishing-line. The 
botanists of London did much encourage 
him, and employed him all over England, 
Scotland, ana good part, of Ireland, if not all ; 
where he made brave discoveries, for which 
his name will ever be remembered in herballs. 
If he saw a strange fowle or bird, or a fish, 
he would have it and case it ' ( Aubrey, Na- 
tural History of Wiltshire, ed. Britton, p. 
48). He was employed by Merret for five 
summers to make collections for his * Pinax' 
[see MERiurr, ChristopherJ. Weld re- 
cords that in October 1609 Willisel, who 
had been engaged by the society to collect 
zoological and botanical specimens in Eng- 
land and Scotland, returned to London with 
a large collection of rare Scottish birds and 
fishes and dried plants (Hiftoryofthe Itoyal 
Society, i. 224). He also prints the sealed 
commission given by the society to Willisel. 
Evelyn, who was present at the meeting of 
the Roval Societv in October 1669, writes: 
*()ur English itinerant presented an account 
of his autumnal peregrinations about Eng- 
land, for which we hired him * {Diary^ vol. i.) 
In his * Catalogus Plantarum Angliir,' pub- 
lished in 1670, Ray styles Willisel * a person 
employed by the Royal Societv in the search 
of natural rarities, both animals, plants, and 
minerals ; the fittest man for such a purpose 
that I krtow in England, both for his skill 
and industry.* In 1671 the great naturalist 
took Willist'l with him on a tour through 
the northern counties {Memorials of Hay, 
ed. Lankester, p. 26). Pulteney says: **I 
believe he was once sent into Ireland by Dr. 
Sherard. . . . The emolument arising from 
these employments was probably among the 



principal rn^ajia of Iiis aubsUteDce' (^SkelcAeg 
^ the Prograi nf Botany, i. 3411). Ab Aubrey 
records tbnt ' all the profession lie had was 
to mabe pi^^ges for shoes' lloc. dt.), ibis 
Ikst supposition of Pultbnej's is highly pn>- 
b«blv. Aubrey is our authority for all else 
We know of Willisel, ' When," be says, 'ye 
Lord Jnho \'aughsji, now Earle of Carbery 
[aee under VauohaiTiRichabd, second Eikl 
ar CARBeRT], was made tcov^rnour of Ja- 
maica [in 1l^r4], I did recommend him to 
bis eicellencv, who made him his gnrdiner 
thne. He 3yed within a yeare after his 
liein^ there, but had m&de a fine collection 
•f plants and shells, which tli» Furle of 
CWrbery hath hy him^ and bad he lired be 
would have given the world an account of 
tint j^nts, nnimals, and lisbes of that island. 
He could write a hand indifferent legible, 
And had made himself mnsli>r of ait the 
'Latiue aame«: be pourlrByed but un- 
towardly'ftor. ciV.) Some plants collected 
fef Willisel are preserv-ed in Sir IliuiB 
SInane's herbarium. 

[.^uthoritios above ciled.] G, S. B. 

WILLISON, GEORGE (1741-1797), 
minter, bom in 1741, was a son of 
illison, an Edinburgh printer and 
nublisher, and a grandson of John Willison 
^. *.] In 1750 be was awordud a prize for 
• dmwing of flowers by the I-.^dinburgh So- 
^tmiy for Uie Encoungement of the Arts and 
ScienoeB, and in tli« two following years his 

Ilame ag»in figures in the prize-list. After 
Ulie his uncle, George Dempster [q.T.1 of 
Dunnichen, sent him to Home to contmue 
hia studies, and on his return he settled iii 
London, where, between 17(17 and 1777, he 
exhibited some six-and-twenty portraits at 
the lioyal Academy. But meetinff with 
little encouragement, he went to India nnd 
painTt'il many portraits, including those of 
wme native princes, one of which ( rhat of 
the nabob of Arcot) is now at Hampton 
Court. He pnaseEsed a certain knowledge of 
iDedicine, and cured a wealthy person of s 
dangpnius wound of long standing, in grati- 
tude for which he had some time afterwards 
k considerable fortune bequeatbed to him. 
Then be returned to Edinburgh, where he 
continued to paint, and where he died in 
April 1707. Ilis pictures are pleasant in 
cnlour and rather graceful in arrangement, 
bis fharoctcrisation fair, bis handling es>>y if 
Bomewhat thin. A number of his portraits 
were engraved by Valentine Green and 
Jatnes Watson. 

A medallion portrait of Willieon (dated 
179-^) by Guillome is in the Scottish Portrait 

[Scots May;ailne. ITdJ-S^ Milliir's Kminrut. 
UnrgesBea of Dundee. IS8T; Cat. Si'odiali Nh- 
tioDul Portrait Q«lliirj; Krnest Lbw'b Htiiuplon 
Court; Kedg rave's, Bryan's, and Gmrm'a Dic- 
tionaries.! J. L. C. 

WILLISON. JOHN (108O-I750),Scot^ 
tiah divine, was born in IGSti at or near 
Stirling, where his family bad been long 
settled and possessed considerable property. 
lie was the eldest son of James Willison 
Mill of Craigforth and Betbia Oourlay, his 
Epouse. He entered the university of Glasgow 
in 1695, and, though sometimes styled M.A.. 
ilis name does not appear in tlie list of 
graduates. He was licensed by the presbytery 
of Stirling in 1701,ftppointed to the parish of 
Brechin by the united presbytery of^Brechia 
and Arbroath in 1703, and ordained in De- 
cemberof that year. Many of his parish ionera 
were Jacobites and episcopalians, and he 
encountered much opposition from them. In 
1705 he reported to the presbytery that the 
former episcopal minister had retahen pos- 
eession of the pulpit for the afternoon ser- 
vice on Sundays, that the magistrates refused 
to render him any assistance, andthuthe was 
told that be would be rabbled if he tried to 
oust the intruder. In 1712 he published b 
pamphlet entitled 'Queries to the Scots Inuc- 
vators in Divine Service, and particularly I o 
the Liturgical Party in the Shiro of Angus, 
ByuLover of theCburchof Scotland;' and in 
1714 'A Letter from a Parochial Bishop tos 
Prelatical Gentleman concemingtbeOovcm- 
ment of the Church.' In 1716 Willison waa 
translated from Brechin to the South church, 
Dundee. In 1719 hepublisbedan ' Apology ' 
for the Church of Scotland against the Ac- ', 
cusatioiis of Prelotists and Jacobites," nnd in 
17:?1 a letter to an English M.P. cm the 
bondage in which the Scottish people wen 
kept from the remains of the feudal system. 
In 17iiS he preached before the general 
assembly, and from about tlus time he took 
a. prominent place among the lenders of the 
popular party in the church. In his own 
presbytery he Blrenuously opposed John Glaa 
kl, v.], minister of Tealing, who founded the 
ttlassiles,' otherwise called Sandemauians, 
and in 1729 Willison published a treatise 
against his tenets entitled ' A Defence of 
the National Church, and particularly of the 
National Constitution of the Church of 
Scotland,ftgainst the Cavils of Independents.' 
During the controversy which ended in 
tlie deposition of EbeneierErskine [q.r.jand 
his followers, Willison exerted himself to the 
xt to prevent a schism. At the synod 
of Angus in 1733 ho preached a wrmon 
urging conciliatory measures, which was 
published under the title * 'The Church's 


D&nger;' and after the sect^ilersbad formed a 
preabjtery of their own, it was tLroagh the 
inSuence of Willison and his frienda that 
the uaembl^ oF 1731 rescinded the acts 
which had given them offence, and nuthonBed 
the sj'nod of Stirling to restore them to their 
former siatkis. This assembly also sunt 
WillisoD and two others to London to en- 
deavour to procure the repeal of the act of 
1712 which restored the right of palrannge 
to the former patrons. For five years more: 
the aMembly persevered in its efforts to re- 
claim the seceders, and when at length it 
resolved to libel them, Willison with others 
disseuted. As the seceders now declined 
the authority of the church and declared 
that its judicatories were ' not lawful nor 
right constituto courts of Christ,' the as- 
sembly found that tbey deserved deposition -, 
but, on the earnest solicitntion of Willison 
■nd ills frionds,the execution of the sentence 
was postponed for a year to give them a 
further opportunity of returning from their 
■divisive 'courses. They still stood out, how- 
ever, and it is said that ' the failure of 
Williaon's efforts to prevent a schism so 
overwhelmed him with grief that he did not 
take an active share in church courts after 
that time.' In 1742 Williaon vlaited Cam- 
busUng to see for himself the nature of the 
celebrated religious revival there which i8 
aasociated with the name of WhiteSuld, and 
on his return journey he pri«iched a sermon 
at Kilsyth which was followed by a like 
movement in that parish. In 1744 he pub- 
lished 'A Fair and Impartial Testiniony (to 
which several ministers and elders adhered) 
against the defectionsof the national church, 
the lamentable schism begun and carried on 
by the seceders, the adoption of liturgical 
forms and popish practices by Scottish 
episcopal iane, and other innovations. In 
1745 he published ' Popery another Gospel,' 
whicli he dedicated to the Duke of Cumber- 
land. During the rising of 1745 hightanders 
belonging to Prince Cuurles's army twice 
entered his church and threatened to shoot 
llim if he prayed for King Gleorge, so that 
lie was obliged for a time to close the church 
and to officiate in private houses. Besides 
hie controversial works, Willison published 
numerous treatises on devotional and practi- 
cal religion, many of which were translated 
into Gaelic and were great favourites i 
the Scottish people. W'illison was on 
the most eminent evangelical clergymen of 
his time. He was remarkable for his com- 
Innation of personal piety with public spirit, 
and, though frequently engaged in contro- 
versy, ' there was no asperity in what he said 
or wrote.' Faithful in every departme 


duty, he was speciaUy noted for hie diligenca 
in catechising the young and in visiting the 
sick. He died on S May 1750 in the seven- 
tieth year of his age, and was boried tn the 
South church, Dundee. On II Nov. 1714 
he married Margaret, daughter of William 
Arrot, minister ofMontroso, and had Andrew, 
a physician in Dundee; a daughter, who 
became the wife of W. Bell, mioieter of Ar- 
broath, and other children. George W'iUi- 

iS his grandson. 

principal works, besides those 
mentioned above, are: 1. 'The Sanctifica- 
tion of the Lord's Dav." 1713. 3. ' A Sacra- 
mental Directory,' 17l8, 3, • Sermons before 
and after the Lord's Supper,' 17-22, 4. ' The 
Mother's Catechism : an Example of Plaiu 
Catechising on the Shorter Catechism,' 1731. 
6, 'The loung Communicant's Catm^ism,* 
1734. 6. 'The AtHicted Man's Companion,' 
1737. 7. ' The Balmof Gilead,' 1742. 8. ' Sa- 
cramental Meditations and Advices,' 1747. 
9. 'Gospel Hymns,' 1791. Most of them 
have been often republished, and there hare 
been several collected editions of his practical 

[Lile by Dr. Detherington prefixed to edition 
of Works, 1S44; Life pr«GieJ to bis Colleoted 
Works, AbenlMQ, 1817, and to edition of the 
Afflicted lUan's ConipHnion ; Chunibers's Biogr.; Murren'sADHnUof Oea. Aucmbly, 
1738-53; Wiidrow's Letters, vol. iii. ; Siutt's 
F«ali,ni u, fl02. 813; BobBooneviVKls ; Blu.-k's 
Brevhin ; inform xliim from Willisotrs descen- 
dants nnd from Mr. W. B. Cook, Siirliog.} 

G. W. S. 

(1800-lBti3), line en^aver, was born in 
1800 at Erdington, near Handsworth, when 
his father, James '^'illmore, was a manufac- 
turer of silver articles. He was appren- 
ticed at Birmingham to William Itadclyffe 
[q. v.], nnd, marrying at the age of twenty- 
two, came to London, where he worked for 
three years as assistant to Charles Heath 

' England and Wales,' 1857-38, and Brocke- 
don's 'Passes ofthe Alps,' 1828-9; and hia 
first large plate was executed from East- 
lake'a picture of * Byron's Dream,' 1834. 
Willmore was extremely successful in trans- 
lating the work of Turner, who greally ap- 
preciated his abilities, and his plates from 

The Old Temeraire,' ' ■\"enice' Cengraved for 
the Art Union, 1858). and ' Childe Hamld'a 
Pilgrimage' (Art Union, 1861), are among 
the finest examples of modem landscape 
work. Some of these he re-engraved oa & 



I smaller scale for tLe ' Art JournaL' The 
• Mercuty and Argus' was a joint specuia- 
I tion OD the part of Turopr and Willmore. 
■ Bis other large worka include 'Ruins of 
I Canhage,' after W. Linton (for Finden's 
I 'Gallerv of British An'); "Crossing the 
r Bridge/ after E. Landseer, 1847 ; ' Hifih- 
lBDdTerTy,'afterJ.Thomp»on.l848; 'Villa 
ofLucullus,'afterLeitch (Art Union, 1851); 
'Wbd Bgainst. Tide." after C. Stanfield; 
' Harvest in the Highlands,' after Landseer 
andUnllcott (Art Union, 18-j6) ; and ' Nearest 
Way in Summer Time,' after Creawick and 
Ansdall, 18ti0. WiUmore'8 small book illus- 
trations are also very numerous and benuli- 
ful. In 1843 he ezhibiled at the Itoyol 

B then elected an associate engraver. 
I'Throughout his life he was one of the most 
Hctive members of the Artists' Annuity 
Band Benevolent funds. Willmore died on 
1 12 March 1H63, and was buried in the HigU- 

£ Abthub Willmore (1814-1888), bom 
-at Birmingham on G June 1814, was a bro- 
ther of James Tibbitts Willmore, by whom 
he WAS trained. lie became an able line 
engraver, ei eel ling chiefly in landscape 
k' work. He was eitensively employed on 
■ Inok illustrations, and also executed many 
« for the ' Art Journal ' from pictures 
y Collins, Cooke, Creswick, Rubens, Stan- 
■'field, Tomer, Van Byck, and others. His 
fmost important work was ' The Return of 
■'the Lifelioat,' after E. Duncan, engraved for 
rtiie Art Union, 1878. Willmore frequently 
•tthibited at the Royal Academy between 
11858 and 18dd. He died on 3 Not. 1888. 
[Art Jouranl, 1803; Redgravo's Did. of Ar- 
m*: Gmvea's Diet. oF Artlstn, 1T6D-1B93; 
WSrjaa'a Diet, of Painters and Eni^Ten. ed. 
f ArmairuuKO t'. M. O'D. 

ll8«3), autlior— he invariably^ dropped his 
^■econd Christian name of Eldrtdge— was son 
' B eolicilor who married about 1803 Mary 
Q (rf. 18611, the only child of the Rev, 
■John Cleave of Kingwood, Hampshire, and 
•~ « few years later moved to Bradford in Wilt- 
«hire, where Robert was bom on 30 Jan. 1800, 
The father, of a somewhat impracticable dis- 
pOMtion, went to London, and afterwards be- 
came involved in pecuniary trouble. In 
hOctober 1819 tbe boy was admitted at Mer- 
lehftDt Taylors' school. He was entered at 
school in January or February 
There in March 1828 be brought out 
e first number of the 'Harrovian,' wbicb 
_n toais numbera, At the close of 1828 ho 
K-kcune tutor to Thomas Green,eud remained 

so for about two ^ears. Already in 1829-30 
he was contributing to the ' Church of Eng- 
land Quarterly Review,' ' Fraser'e Magaiine.' 
the ' London Magacine,' and the ' Asiatic 
Journal.' He waflenteredat.TrinityColli^, 
Cambridge, in 1832, but his matriculation 
was deferred until 17 Feb. 1834. While at 
Uambridse he earned his living bv his pen. 
He graduated B.A. on 26 May ISil. 

Willmott, on Trinity Sunday 1842, wm 
ordained deacon by Bishop Blomheld to the 
curacy of St. James, ItatcliUe, and be was 
ordained priest on 11 June 1843. After 
serious illness he took leave of St. James's 
on '2 June 1844, his farewell sermon being 
printed. For three months he was stationed 
at Chelsea Hospital, and in June 1845 became 
curate to the Rev. T. W. Allies at LaunCon, 
Oxfordsliire. The church of St. Catherine, 
Bearwood, which had been erected through 
the munificence of John Walter (1776-1847) 
fii.v,], was consecrated on '23 April 1846, and 
Willmott was appointed by him as its first 
incumbent. For many years he received 
much practical kindness from Walter and 
hig successor in the properly; but about IBHl 
diflVrencPH arose with the patron, and Will- 
mott roKigiiod ibe benefice in Mav 1862 on 
a pensiou of 100/. per annum. His publica- 
tions included funeral sermons for John 
Waller(rf,J847)and for Mrs. Emily Frances 
Walter (</. I8o8). 

Willmott retired to Nettlebed in Oxford- 
shire, and began writing for the ' Church- 
man's Family Magazine.' He was engaged 
in the preparation of three new books, in- 
cluding an edition of the works of Cowley, 
when he was incapacitated by an attack of 
paralysis. He died at Nettlebed on 27 May 
1863. He was buried, with his mother anH 
sister (Mary Cleeve Willmott, who died at 
Richmond on 9 May 1854, aged 47), in the 
churchyard of Rear wood. 

Willmott's literary work showed wide 
reading and a pleasing imagination, and 
he was an admirable preacher. His most 
popular productions were: 1. A Journal of 
Summer-time in the Country,' 1849; illua- 
troted ed. 1858 ; 4lh ed., with memoir by his 
sister, 1804. 2. 'Pleasures, Objects, and 
Advantages of Literature,' 1861; 6th ed. 
I860; b^ 185B five editions of it had ap- 
peared in German. His other works in- 
cluded : 3. ' Lives of Sacred Poets,' 18M ; 
2nd ser. 1838. 4. 'Conversations at Cam- 
bridge ' (anon.), 1830. G. ' Letters of Eminent 
PerBons, selected and illustrated,' 1839, 6. 
' Parlour Table Book : Extracts from various 
Authors,' 1840, dedicated to his old friend, 
James Moo tgomery. 7. 'Pictures of Chris- 
tian Life," 1841. 8. 'Poem8,'I84li2nded., 





much ttllered and enlnrged, 18J8. 9. ' Life 
of Jeremy Taylor.' 1947; 2nd ed. lUiB (cf. 
PtULirps, Esaafft from the Timet, 2nd ser., 

K. 103-17). 10. 'Precious Slones from 
ose Writers of the Sixteenth, S«Yenteenth. 
and Eighteenth Centuries,' 1850. ll.'Poeta 
ofthe Nineteenth Century ,"1867, an intereet- 
iag collection ; the original edition is finely 
illustrated by engruviiif^ by the brothers 
Dalziel, al^er Fuster, Gilberi, Tenniel, Mil- 
lais, and other artists. 1:^. ' English Sacred 
Poetrr.' 1861* ; 2nd ed. 1883. 

Willmott edited for Itouiledge's 'British 
Poets ' the poems of Gray, Pamell (cf. iftifow 
and Queriei, Sad ser., x. 111-2), Collins, 
Green, nnd Warton (18ri4 and 1883), the 
works of George Herbert in jirose and verse 
(1864; Herbert's poems, with WUlmott's 
memoir and notes, were also published nt 
Boston, U.-S., in 1855), the poems of Aken- 
udeand Dyer (1853), Cowpr( 1855), Bums 
(1858 ; reissued in 18(Jfl), Percy's ' Reliques' 
(1657 ; also publiaheii with a slightly altered 
title-page), and Kairfni's translation of 
TaB9o\ 'Jeruaalem Delivered' (1868). He 
edited selections from the poetry of Words- 
worth (1859) and James Montgomerv(la''jfi), 
and the poems of Goldsmith (1860). His 
' Dream of the Poets at Cambridge, from 
Spenser to Gray,' is inserted in J. J. Smith's 
'Cambridge Portfolio' (i, 47-53), and he 
contributed notea to Pegge's ' Anecdotes of 
the Ei^liah Language ' (1844 ed.) 

An engraved frontispiece of Willmott, by 
n. B. nail, is in Christmaa's ' Preachers and 
Preaching' (1868). 

[Gonl. Mag. 1851 ii. 338. 1803 ii. 311-2; 
■Welch's Harrow Sthool Keg. p. 71 : Kettli^'a 
HemoiraofC. Boner. 1H71. ■. lOS; informnlion 
from Mr. W. Aldis Wright of Trinity CoUrge. 
Cambridge, and from the Rev. 0. A Whitiuct 
of Bearwood.] W. P. C. 

WILLOBIE, HENRY (1674.M596?), 
eponymous hero of ' Willobiea Avia*.' [See 

1585). ycottish refonner, was a native of 
. Ayrshire, but nothing is known of hia 
parentage. He was educated at the uni' 
verity of Glasgow, and for some time was 
a friar in Ayr, according to Archbishop 
Spotiswood of the Franciscan, but according 
to Bishop Leslie of the Dominican order. 
Becoming, however, a convert to the doc- 
trines of the early reformers, he some time 
l^efore 1541 relinquished the monastic Iiahit 
and went to London, where he became 

C.eher at St. Catherine's Church, and chap- 
tn the Duke of Suffolk, father of Lady 
June Grey. On the accessiou of Mary he in 

1553 resigned his charge, and, retiring to 
the continent, commenced to proclise as a 
physician at Emden in Friesland. In 1555, 
and again in 1556. he was sent to Scotland 
on a commission to the queen regent from 
the Duchess of Frieeland ; but according to 
Knox bis principal purpose in visiting Scot- 
land was ' to assaye what God wald wirk 
to him in his native country ' ( Works, i. 245). 
While there he was present at the supper 
in the house of John Erskine (1509-15UI) 
[q. v.], laird of Dun, when a final resolution 
waa come to by the leading reformers againal 
attendance at the mass (t'A. p. ^47). Aft«r 
returning t« Frieslond in lo67, he finallr 
settled in Scotland in 1558, when, although 
' he contracted a dangerous sickness,' he held 
meetings with several of the nobility, barons, 
andgeullemeo, 't«achingttnd exhort ing&om 
hisbed'(ilfr. p, 256); and, occordinrto Knox. 
it was the encouragement and exborlationa 
cf Wiliock in Dundee and Edinburgh that 
made ' the brethren ' begin ' to deliberate on 
some public reformation,' and reaolre to send 
to the queen regent an ' oration and peti- 
tion 'on the subject (ifi. p. 301). 

Afterwards Wiliock went to Ayr, where, 
under the protection of the Earl of (llen- 
caim, he preached regularlv in St. John's 
Chunjh. On 2 Feb. 1&68-9 "he was indicted 
for heresy before the queen regent and her 
council, and for failing to appear and con- 
tinuing to preach at Ayr he was outlawed 
on 10 May following. In March 1559 a dis- 

Sitation was proposed between him and 
iientin Kenn^y, abbot of Crossroguel, at 
Ayr, but as they failed to agree on the 
method of interpreting scripture it did not 
take place (see correspondence between them 
in sppendix to Kisitu's Hiti. of Scotland, 
App. pp. 193-9, and in the Wodmip Mi»- 
cciUmy). The sentence of outlawry of him 
and others was passed, notwithstanding the 
assembly of a large body of armed reformers 
at Perth, to whom a promise had been mads 
that Wiliock and his friends would not be 
further molested ; but the outlawry could not 
beTendered effectiTe. Wiliock had come to 
Perthincompanywith theEarlofGlencairn, 
and while there be and Knox had an inter- 
view with Argyll and Lord James Stewart 
(afterwards Earl of Moray), from whom they 
received an assurance that should the queen 
regent depart from her agreement they would 
' with their whole powers ' assist and concur 
'with their brethren in all time to come' 
(Knox, i. 342). 

After the destruction of the monasteries 
at Perth, which followed the breach of 
agreement by the oueen ri'gent, Wiliock 
and Knox towards the close of June 1509 



Entered Edinburgh tlung with the lords of I 

''leeongregatiuii. Shortly aftem'ard a Kqox elected miniHter of St. Oilesi but after I 

k truce hftd been completed with the queen ' 

t v/as deemed advifiable that Knox j 

Aoiitd for B while retire from Edinbuiyh, 

Willock acting aa his substitute in St. Giles. ' 

■during' Knox's abaeoce Btreouoiia efforts , 

ere made by the queen regent to have the 

d fonn of worehtp re-eetablished, but Wil- 

>cl£ firmly resietud her iitteiript«; and in 

. . k — '—'-istered the Lord'asupper for 

1 Edinbui^h after the ra- 
ined manner. 
After the queen regent lind broken the 
trenly and begun to fortify Leith a conven- 
tion of the nobility, baront;. and burghers , 
was on 31 Oct. held in the Tolboolh to talce 
into consideration ber conduct, and Willock, 
on being asked his judgment, gave it as his 
' ipinion that she ' might ju9tlj be deprived 
i the government,' in wnicti, with certain 
irovisoe, he was seconded by Knox (16. pp. 
US-S). The result was that her authority 
IS suspended, and a council appointed to 
- mage the affairs of the kingdom until a 
P. neeting of parliament, Willoct being one of 
ktbe four ministers chosen to aaaist in the 
■dBliberations of the council. Not long after- 
Itrards Willock left for England, hut he re- 
■Sartwd with the English army in April 1660, 
■ And at the request of the reformed nobility 
Ktllt^ queen rtigent bad an interriew with him 
E.<m her deathbed in June following, wheu, 
■ticcnrding to Knox, he did plainly show her 
Ku well the virtue and strength of the death 
■of Jesus Christ us the vanity and abomina- 
* n of that idol the mass (I'fi, ii. 71). By 
le of parliament ho was in July 
ftlSOO named superintendent of the west, to 
Wbich be was admitted at Glasgow in July 
n July 1660 named one 
r a commission appointed by the lords of 
he congregation to draw up the first book 
K difoipline. 
Aa a Scottish reformer Willock stands 
o Knox in inilialive and in influence; 
is possible that the rigid severity of 
became distasteful to him, and, appa- 
■<TOntIy deemiug the religious atmosphere of 
Ei^Und more congenial, he about 15(L>— in 
wbtcbyearbe was, however, in Jun(! and 
Dacember moderator of the general assembly 
le rector of Loughborough in Leices- 

d friend the Uuke of Suf 

1 bv h 

e west, he 
ained his connection with llie Scottish 
I (burch, and be was elected moderator of the 
'geaenX nssembly on 2a June 1564, 25 June 

Ims, by continuinif for several years U 
Bie AlEce of superintendent of the wc 

1665, and 1 July 1568. W'hile he was li 
Scotland in 15G5 the queen made ondeavoi 
lo have bim sent to the castle of Dumbar- 
ton, but he made bis escape (Chi. State 
Paper/, For. 15(U-5, No. lolO). In Januarf 
1567-8 the general assembly of the birk 
sent him through Knox a letter praying him 
to return to bis old charge in Gotland 
{ Knoi, If or*«, vi. 443-6) ; but although he 
did visit Scotland and officiated as modirator 
of the assembly, be again returned to his 
charge in England. According to Sir Jamea 
Melville, the Earl of Morton made use of 
Willock to reveal to Eliiaheth, through the 
Earls of Huntingdon and Leicester, the deal- 
ings of the Duke of Norfolk with the regent 
Moray, for an arrangement by wbicb the 
duke would marry the queen of Scots {Me- 

borough on 4 Dec. 1585, and was buried the 
next day, being Sundayj his wife Catherine 
survived him fourteen years, and was buried 
fttl^ughbnroughonlOOct. 1699(Fi,ETCHBR, 
Pariih Rrgiatrrs of Loiwkboroiyh). Though 
Demster ascribes to him ' Impia quaHlam,' 
it does not appear that he left any works. 
Chalmers, in his ' Life of Ituddiman,' seeks 
to ideutify Willock with one ' John Wil- 
lokis, descended of Scottish progenitors,' who 
on 21 April 1590 is referred to in a state 

Eper as being in prison in Leicester, after 
ving been convicted by a jury of robbery. 
The supposition of Chalmers, sufficiently im- 
probable in itself, is of course disposed of by 
the entry of the rector's death in the parish 
register, but there is just a possibility that 
the robber may have been the rector's son. 

[Wodron'eBiograpbi<?a1 Collections [Uaitland 
Club), i. t)0, 418 sq. ; Hietories by Knox, Keith, 
and Calrlcrwood; CaL State Pnpera, Fur. 1S61- 
IS62,aad 1661-51 Cal. State PiiperB, Scottish, 
1547-1583: Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. ; Mait- 
knd Miscellany, vol. iii. : Sir James MelvilU'i 
Memoin in the Bannatyns Olnb; Chalmars's 
Ufo of Rudilimau: Nichols's L*ice9tershir« ; 
Hew Scott's Fnsti Ecclos. Scoticanw. ii. 37fi-8.] 

WILLOUGHBY. Sea also' WiL- 


Unus. [.■See Veknb 

BROKE, third 

ItlCHARD, 1621- 


WlLLOUSHBI OF rABHAJC (1613 ?-16tSe), 

flon of William, third baron Willoughby of 
I'arham, bv Frances, daughter of John lAan- 
ncrs, fourtii enrt of lEulland, was bom about 




1813. His grest-greal-grandfather, Sir Wil- 
liam WillouffUby of Parham, was nepliew 
of William Willoughby, ninth baron Wil- 
loughby da Eresby, whose daughter Katha- 
rine, ducheMorSiitTolk, married aa hersecomi 
husband Iticbard Bertie, and was mothur of 
Per^rine BBrtie,eleventh baron WUlougbby 
do Eresby [q. v.] Sir William waa created 
first baron WUloiighby o( Parham in Suffolk 
on 20 F«b. l546-7,and died iu August 1574. 
Uis BOD Charles, second baron, is Irequeutly 
confused (e.g'. Id indexes to Cal. StaU Papers, 
Doin., Cal. Untfitld MSS., and Leyotster 
Curre»p<mdntce) with his couBia, Peregrine 
Berlie; he waa grandfulherofWiUiam, third 
baron Willoughby of Parham, who died on 
28 Aug. 1617,aad was succeeded by his eldest 
son Henry. Henry died about IfllB, when 
little more than Sve years old, and the title 
passed Co hi« younger brother, Francis(Co[;- 
LIMB, Peeerage, ed. Brydgea, vi. fll3). 

la 1636 Francis Willoughby complained of 
partiality in the levyinjf of ship-money in 
Lincoliuhire ; in 1639 he answered with a 
great lack of zeal the king'fl summons lo serve 
against the Scotci: in the summer of 1640 
his name waa attached to some copies of 
the petition of the twelve peers to the king 
which led to the colli ne of the Long parlia- 
ment. Though not at all conspicuous among 
theopposition,itiseTidenChe was disatfected 
to the government {Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1636-7,1638-9p. 43.1,1040 p. 0411. When 
the breach between the king and toe parlia- 
ment widened, Willoughby waa appointed by 
tlie latter lord-lieutenant of the district of 
Lindaey in Lincolnshire, and, iu detiance of 
the king's direct orders,put into execution the 
militia ordinance {LordJ JoumaU, iv. 567, 
V. 115, 127, 155). He was given command 
of a regiment of horse uuder the Earl of 
Essex, but arrived too late to take part in 
the battle of EdgehUl (Peacock, Army LUtt, 

5.48; Whitklockb, Af«jiona/«, i. 187). On 
Jan. 1043 he was mode, by a special ordi- 
nance, lord-lieutenaut and commander-in- 
chief in Llncolmihire (HusBASD, OrAnnnw*, 
1643, p. 834). OnleJulyltMSheaurpriaed 
Gainsborough and took prisoner the Earl of 
Kingston, but was immediately besieged there 
by the royalists. Cromwell and Sir John 
Dfeldrum [q. v.] defeated the besiegers 
(28 July) and threw some powder into the 
town, but Willoughby was obliged to sur- 
render on 30 July (Mercurial AuHcum, 
27Jnly-3 Aug. 1%^ ; Life of Col. Hutchia- 
ton, i. 217, 223; Cablile, Cromwell, letters 
lii, liv.) A few days later he was forced 
to abandon Lincoln also, and to retire to 
Boston, which he expected to be unable to 
hold. ' Without we be masters of the field,' 

he wrote to Cromwell, ' we shall be pulled 
out by the ears one after another'(cf. Trant- 
actioni of the Royal Hitiorical Society. 1 899. 
p. 53). Lincolnshire was added to the easlem 
association on 20 Sept. 1&13, and recovered 
by Manchester's victory at \\'incehy on 1 1 Ocl- 
Willoughby joined Manchester just before 
the battle, ana captured Bolingbroke Castle in 
Lincolnshire on 14 Nov. ie43(VrcARS, Go^f 
Ark, pp, 44. 67), In March 1644 he took 
part in Sir John Meldrum'aaborlive attempt 
to capture Newark, and the m success of the 
siege was freely attributed to the refusal of 
Willouehhy's men to obey Meldmni (A 
Brief Relation of the Siege of yetcark, 
1643, 4to). 

Willoughby's mililsry career closed in a 
series of quarrels. On 32 Jan. 1044 Cromwell 
complained to the House of Commons of the 
license which Willoughby tolerated among 
his troops (Sakfobd, StuiHeg and Illwtra- 
tiotu of the Great Rebellion, p. 060 ; Mer- 
curiui.'lu/rcE», 2 April 1614). Angry at this, 
and at his supersession by Manchester, Wil- 
loughby sent Manchester a challenge, for 
which, as a breach of privilegi-, he was 
oblig^ to ask the pardon of the House of 
Lords (^Lordg' JmiritaU, vi. 405, 409, 413). 
He succeeded in getting Lieutenant-colonel 
Bury censured and Colonel Edward King 
committed to Newgate for their criticisms of 
his conduct as a general ; hut King was re- 
leased bv order of the House of Commona 
(it. vi. 628, 531, 657, 671-0, 595, 600, 60S, 
612). In consequence of these personal 
slights he became bitterly dissatisfied. 'We 
are all hosting to an early ruin,' was his view 
of public affairs in lftl4. ' Nobility and 
gentry are g^ing down apace ' (^Hiet. MSS. 
Comm. 4lh Rep. p. 268; Whitelockb, il 
366). In December 1645 parliament voted 
that the king should be asked to make Wil- 
loughby an earl, and employed him ss on* 
of its commissioners to the Scottish army 
(WmtELOCKB, i. 541, 548). Clarendon do- 
scribes him as of great esteem among the 
presbyterians, ' though not t«iuled with their 
principles ' (Rebellion, xi. 35). In 1647 he 
was one of the leaders of that party in par- 
liament, and on 30 July 1647, Mter the 
secession of the independent members of the 
two houses, he was elected speaker of the 
lords in place of Manchester (RrsHWoRTB, 
vi. 652). When the independents and the 
army triumphed, he was one of the seven 
lords impeached on 8 Sept. 1647, and re- 
mained for four months in prison. On 
19 Jan. 1648 the lords released the accused 
peers on the ground that no charge had been 
presented against them. Articles of im- 
peachment were sent up to the House of 

Wil lough by 


Wil lough by 

□ 1 Peb. IdiS, which ordered Wil- 

, to give bail for hia uppearance to 

wer them. He declined to gire bnil 

), fled to Holland, and openly joined 

__ roralifls ^Lords' JoutTiaU, is. 667, x. 1 1, ' 

11; WBtTELOCKB, ii. 270). i 

la Mav 1W8, when the fleet in the Downs 
' revolted from lheparliament,\Villoughby was , 
made it; rice-admiral by the Duke of York, ' 
and continued in that office bj the Prince 
of Wales, 'though he liad never been at sea , 
or was at all known to the seamen.' This , 
Appointment, which was attributed either to j 
an intrigue of Colonel Bampfield or to the 
deeipis of Lord Jermyn, greatly diMatisfied 
the royalists, but was welcomed with joy by 
the Presbyterians {Clabexdok, RfbrUion, 
li. 34-6 ; Nicholat Paper*, i. 97 ; Hamilton 
Papera). ' WiUoughhy is most honest and 
wholly ScQts,' wrote Lauderdale ; ' he solely 
engaged on our interest.' The prince also 
Mnnmiaaioned Willoughby to command in 
five of the eaatem counties where it was 
hoped that a landing would be effected. 
But the crewi were iusubordinate, the fleet 
ill provided, end the prince's council torn 
br aiaaensions. ' He stayed on board,' saya 
clarendon, ' purely out of duty to the king, 
though he liked neither the place he had nor 
the people over whom he was to command, 
who bad yet more respect for him than any- 
body else,' and he was glad to resign his 
poet to Prince Kupert (Nuveuiber l&18{iA. 
pp. 221, 22B, a49; Clabendok, xi. 139, 140). 
WQloughby's estates were sequestered by 
parliaineDt (3a Dec. 1649) for his adherence 
to the king's cause, and 2,000/, voted for his 
■iTMn of pay was converted to other uses Committffvf Compounding,-^. 1838; 
Zard/ JwnuiU, \x. 38, 67, 378). ' Since all 
ii RanB »t home,' said he, ' it \» time to pro- 
vide eUewhttre for a being,' and turned to 
die colonies. On 26 Feb. Tt>47 he had made 
with the second Earl of Carlisle, the pro- 

E'elor of Barbados, an agruemeiit by which 
rliale leaded to him for twenty-one years 
the pioGta ariaing from the island, half <if 
wliioU were lo go lo ihepnvment of Carlisle's 
debts, and ihe other holf to Willoughby 
«lf. Carlisle promised also to endeavour 
„ I commission as governor from 

e king, which was now procured. Wil- 
ighby arrived at Barbados on 29 April 
'", was received as governor on 7 May, 
caused (')iarlea 11 to be proclaimed thi 
e day ( Cril. Staff Papeft, American anc 
West Indii'S, |.^74-16fiO,p.327; Clarbndob 
\tiHuatlo<i.^\-2ti7: DarnbllDavis, Cava 
lllinv and IlnuitdJieadii of Bnrbadoft, p. 159) 
FSe found the colony half ruined by the dis 
■ensioas of the two parties, pursued a con- 


cilittlory policy, ousled the estremeroyRltttt 
from power, ' and was welcomed ns a blSM- 
ing sent from God' [cf. art. WalroSD, 
Humphbet]. Ileoriug that parliament was 
sending an expedition to reduce the island, he 
published a remarkable declaration {IH Feb. 
1651) denying the right of a body in which 
the islanders were not represented either to 
make laws for them or to restrict their 
commerce. ' If ever they zet the island,' ha 
wrote to his wife, ' it shall cost them more 
than it is worth. . , . Let me entreat theo 
to leave o9* persuasions to submit to them 
who so unjustly, «o wickedly, have ruined 
me and mme.' Already he contemplated 
establishing iiimself in Surinam as a last 
refuge, and sent men to found a settlement 
there, who reported it ' the aweet^at plat 
that ever was seen' (I'fi. p. 197; Cabt, Jlfe- 
■manaU <./ the Civil h ar, ii. 312; Gret, 
Annwer (o NeaPi Puritans, iv. 27, appendix). 
In October 1651 Sir George Ayscue arrived 
with a parliamentary fleet, and in December 
eflucted a landing. Defections followed, 
and in January Willoughby was forced to 
treat, for fear, as he said, lest further fight- 
ing ' should turn the face of a country so 
flo urishing and such an honour to our nation 
into desolation.' By the treaty, signed 
11 Jan. 1652, Barbados acknowledged The 
sovereignly of the parliament, and by ihe 
sixteenth article Willoughby wan pro- 
mised the restoration of his estates in Eng- 
land and the free enjoyment of his property 
in Barbados, Antigua, and Surinam. But 
an act of Ihe assemuly passed on 4 March 
1633 required him to leave Barbados 
within eight days, and not to return to it 
again (Dabnkll Davis, pp. 220-60). 

Willoughby arrived in England in August 
1052, and bis estate was duly discharged 
from seouestralion (1 Sept. 1652), though 
he coul(! not obtain his back' rents or his 
arrears of pay iCal. uf Committee of Corn- 
poiinding, p. 1840). 

In 1654 the king wrote urging bim 'to 
be ready upon any great occasion,' and in 
the spring of 1655 he took an active part in 
the preparations for a general royalist rising 
(_Cal. Clarendon Paperg, ii. 345, 413; iVr- 
ehola» Popen, ii. 218-22). Imprisoned for 

f lotting in June 1655, and agam in March 
656, he was offered liis liberty in November 
1656 if be would give security to the amount 
of 10,000/. that he would embark for guri- 
nnm within six months, hut, though released, 
lie never went {Cat. Slate Papers, Uom. 
1655p. 583, 1655-6 p. 680; ifi. Col. 1574- 
1660, PI). 414, 461. 467). In June 1659 he 
was again eagerly uromnting a new rising, 
and promising for nis part to secure Lynn 





u*i: Lho kiiig {I4i*t, MSS. Coram, 10th Rep. 

%'l -am- It). 

At itio llvktoriition Willoughby was paid 
ihi> 2,0iil^. feiiU duu to him for his services 
L-> iLo Iaiii^ parliament^ and obtained the 
kufcci*i'tu of Minu* crown lands in Lincoln- 
oLttu irora I ha king (Cal. State Paperg, 
iUtku. tiHH) \,mK fiO'Jf 67 S; Lords' JoumaU, 
Jki. n^M. In Hpite of some opposition from 
ihu i;<ihiniBtM themselves, he was restored to 
the ijiivoriunimt of Barbados, and also made 
^iivui'itor of St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, 
uitd Antigua. Half the crown revenue 
fvtiiu liarhadoa and half that from the 
CarihtNib iMlands were granted to him. He 
t'ccuived also, jointly with Lawrence Hyde, 
u grant of the whole of Surinam in free 
itii('4ige, excepting thirty thousand acres re- 
ttt'Tvtid for the king (^Cal. State Papers^ Col. 
1 574 1 «60 pp. 483, 486. 489, 1661-8 pp. 1 14, 
iJU, lai), 140). Willoughby arrived at Bar- 
bados on 10 Aug. 1663. His government 
was vigorous and arbitrary. One of his Hrst 
acts was to arrest Walrond, the president of 
the council, for embezzlement, and to appro- 
priate Walrond's house as his own official 
reisidence. He deprived Sir Robert Harley, 
the keeper of the seal, of his post on the 
ground of extortion and negligence. With 
the assembly of Barbados he carried on a 
long struggle, in the course of which AVil- 
loughby dissolved the assembly, arrested 
Hamuel Farmer, its speaker, * a great Magna 
Charta man/ and shipped him home to be 
punished. Petitions against his conduct met 
with no countenance in England, Charles 
gave him his full confidence, and Clarendon's 
stuadv support of his arbitrary acts was one of 
the charges against the chancellor at his im- 
inmchmont {ib, 1061->^,pp. 295, 309, 317, 339, 
\w\ \ Clakendon, Omtinuatiorij §§ 1287- 
J.*M)H). On the other hand, by his persistent 
nqtresentations of the hardships which the 
Navigation Act inflicted upon Barbados, 
W^illoughby succeeded in getting its non- 
oliHtirvance connived at by the home govem- 
nii-nt (Cal, State Papers, Col. 1601-8, pp. 
KJ7, 179, 234, 264). In spite of the limited 
int^ans at his dis])o.sal, he maintained and ' 
uvun extended British possessions in the 
ci)nt<;Nt with Holland and France. He 
or.cupied for a time both St. Lucia and To- 
biigo, though neither could be permanently 
h«tM. Barbados beat off an attack from 
l)i; Ituyter in April 166o, but the English 

Iiart of St. Kitts fell into the hands of the 
yr«.'nch in April 1666. W^illoughby got to- 
gether a small expedition and started to re- 
take it, but was lost at sea on board the 
ahip Hope about the end of Julv 1666 {ib, 
1(J61-H, pp. 410, 412, 414). 

Willoughby married, about 1628, Eliza- 
beth, third daughter and coheir of Edward 
Cecil, viscount Wimbledon [q. v.] She died 
in March 16(U, and was buried at Knaith 
in Lincolnshire (see A Sainfs Monument, 
&c., by William Fikth, chaplain to Lord 
Willoughby, 1662, 12mo). Of their two sons, 
Robert, the elder, died in February 1G30, and 
William, the second, on 13 March 1661. Of 
their three daughters, Diana became the wife 
of Heneage Finch, second earl of Winchilsea 
[q. v.l, and died without issue ; Frances mar- 
ried William, third lord Brereton, of Lough- 
glinn,co. Roscommon ; Elizabeth married Ri- 
chard Jones, first earl of Ranelagh (Collins, 
Peerage, iii. 384, vi. 613; Dalton, Life of Sir 
Edtrard Cecily ii. 366). By his will, dated 
17 July 1666, Willoughby left the greater 
part of his property in the colonies to tlie two 
last-named daughters and their children. 

He was succeeded in the peerage by his 
brother, William WiLLoroHBT, sixth 


' My brother,' said the latter, ' hath dealt un- 
kindly with me, but I forgive him ; he has 
done so by himself by giving large legacies 
out of little or nothing; I shall only say ho 
was honest and careless, for he hath left 
little behind him* {Cal, State Papers, Col. 
1661-8, pp. 398, 465). On 3 Jan. 1(W Wil- 
loughby was on his own petition appointed 
to succeed his brother as governor of PJar- 
bados and the Caribbee Islands (ib, p. 437). 
He arrived there in April 1667, and by his 
firm and conciliatory conduct gained imme- 
diate popularity. Antigua and Montserrat 
were regained, the French expelled from 
Cayenne, and Surinam recaptured from the 
Dutch. In 1071 AVilloughby, being in Eng- 
land, defeated an attempt to impose an addi- 
tional duty on sugar, which would have 
ruined Barbados, and he was praised by the 
representatives of the colony in Ix>ndon as 
* wonderfully aflectionate and zealous in all 
their concerns.* He returned to Barbados 
in October 1672, despatched an expedition 
which recaptured Tobago from the Dutch in 
December 1672, and died on 10 April 1673 
{ib. pp.437, 454, 619, 1609-74 pp. 213, 366, 
453, 493). By his marriage with Anne, 
daughter of Sir Philip Cary of Hunslet in 
Yorkshire, he left a numerous family, of 
whom the eldest, George, became seventh 
Baron AVilloughby, and John and Charles 
were the ninth and tenth holders of that 
title. Another son, Henry, was lieutenant- 
general under his uncle and his father in the 
West Indies, retook Surinam in October 
1667, was subsequently governor of Anti- 
gua, and died in December 1669 {ib, p. 204; 
Collins, Peerage, vi. 613). 


Wi I lough by 

1 Poerngp, sd. Brjiiges; Dnrnsll 

'a Cnvnlieraand RouniitieitilB oF Bnrlwloes. 

M>Tgftowo, British Quiunn, 1887; Sehora- 

^'s HJRtory uf Barl>iuioas, ISIS, pp. 268- 

; CnleiuJiiraofCuloumlStataPnpera; Addit. 


"INKi^ (1574 P-l.i96?), the eponymous 
1 of the poem colled ' Willobiea Aviaii,' 
) second son of Henr?- Willoughby, a 
_ intry gentleman of Wiltshire, by Jitne, 
touehler of one Dauntsey of Lttvinglon, 
Wiltshire. A younger brother was named 
Thamka. The father's father, Chriatophef 
Willoughby, was illegitimate son of Sir 
_WiUi«ni Willoughby, the brother of Sir 
Hobeit Willoughby, first baron Willouffhby 
ft Broke, [q. v.] (cf. Hoabb, Modrn Wilt- 
'^■— ■ V 38-9). Henry matriculated as a 
r from St, John's College, Oifonl, 
plODec. 1591, at the age of sixteen. Ac- 
o the report of a ' friend and cham- 
irfdlow,' he was ' a scholler of good hope.' 
e may be the ' Honey Willouj^bie" who 
ftdoaled B.A, from Eiteter College on 
> Fob. 1594 fi (Oj:ford Unie. Jlrg. Oxf. 
■ .8oc.n.ii, 18T,iii. 189). Soonafterthat 
'being desirous to sue Ihe fashions of 
r countries fur a time,' be ' departed 
intarily- to her maieatie's service ' ( Wil- 
rt Aviia, ed. Qrosart, p. 5). Before 

Jniw 169B he is ri^ported to have died (ui, 
.i 149). 

On aSept. 1594 there was licensed for the 
nieaa'abook entitled Willohy his Avisa, or the 
TrnePictuK nf a Modest Maid and of a Cliaate 

d Constant Wife ' (Akber, Statioiirri' Of- 
irf, ii, 6r>9), and shortly afterwards the 

_ . k issued from the press of John Wiodet. 

1 tbia Tolume, whiab nininly consists of 
■Tenty-two cantos in varying numbers of 

^^Jx4ine stanzas (fantastically called by the 
■i^tiiOF 'hexameters'), the chaste heroine, 
f-;^Tiaa, holds converse— in the opening sec- 
** » M ft maid, and in the later sections as 
_ ife — with a series of passionate adorers. 
In every case she firmly repnlaes thuir ad- 
vaaces. Midway through the book ' Henry 
Willofaie' is intrriduced asan ardent admirer, 
in his own person, chieHj- under the initials 
'H.W.' It is explained inaprose interpola- 
tion that Willobte has sought the advice of 
ainend, ' W. S.,' who had lately gone through 
the experience of a severe rebuff at the hands 
of a disdainful mistress. After ' W.S.' light- 
heartedly offers some tantalising advice in 
Terse, ' H.W.,' in the twenty-nine cantos 

^\rliieh form the last portion of the volume, 

^Bfe made to rehearse his woes and Ayisa's ob- 


^V^Two prefaces, one addressed to 'all the 

1 of Eng- 

conatant ladies and gentle< 
land that feare God,' and the other 
gentle and courteous reader,' are both signed 
' Hadrian Dorrell.' The second is dated trotn 
Dorrell's ' chamber in Oxford this first of Octo- 
ber.' Dorrell t-akea responsibihty for the 
publication, stating that he found the manu- 
script in his friend Willobie's rooms wliile 
he was absent from the country, DorruU 
says that he christened the work ' Willnbie 
his Avisa' becauaehesupposedit was Willo- 
bie's ' doing and being written with his own 
hand.' ile explains that the name ' Avisa ' 
was derived from the initial letters of tiie 
words ' amaiu rj'or inniolata afiiiper aninndn,' 
and that there waa 'something of truth 
bidden under this shadow.' 

In 15t>6 I'cter Colau produced a poem on 
the same model as ■ WillobieB .\visa,' which 
b'ti called ' Penelopes Complaint.' CoUe de- 
clares that 'seeing an unknowne author 
hath of late published a pamphlet calleil 
Avisa ' concerning the chastity of a lady of 
no historical repute, he deemed it fitting to 
treat of the chastity of Penelope. Oolse 
speaks approvingly of the unknown author's 
style and \'eise, which he closely imitates. 

To Colse'a effort ' Hadrian Dorrell ' at onou 
rsplied in 1590 in a new edition of ' Avisa,* 
t(i which he prefixed an 'Apologie shewing 
the true meiiniug of " Willobie his Avisa." ' 
This was dated irom Oxford 'this .SO ofJuno 
lu96.' Dorrell, in contradiction to his former 
statBment,declarestliat the whole of Avisa' 
was a poetical fiction which was written 
'thirty-five years since, and long lav among 
the waste papers in the authors study, 
with many other pretty things of his devis- 
ing,' including a still unpublished work called 
' Susanna.' The name ' Avisa ' he now nllirms 
either means that the woman desoribed liad 
never been seen, ' a ' being the Greek priva- 
tive particle, and ' eUa' the Latin participle; 
or was an irregular derivative from anw, a 
bird. At the close of the 'Apologie' he 
remarks that Willobie is lately dead. 

( Dorrell's general tone suggests that bis 
two accounts of the origin and intention of 

j the book are fictitious, while the conflict be- 
tween his statements respecting the author 

I renders it unlikely that either Is wholly true. 

', But that Dorrell had ground for his claim 
of intimacy with Henry WlUoby, the Oxford 
student, aeema supported by the fact that he 
adds to this edition of 1596 apoem in tba 
same metre as ' Avisa,' headed ' The Victorir? 
of Knglish Chsstitle under the falned name 
of Avisa,' and signed ' Thomas Willob? frater 
Ilonrici Wllloby luiper defuncti." Ihe Or- 

Willoughby 36 Willoughby 

Hadrian Dorrell was apparently assumed. No ISSO the first edition, with extracts from the 

Oxford student bearing that appellation is additions tirst published in lo96, although 

known to the university registers. It is pro- now only accessible in the editions of 1609 

babl'.* that ' Hadrian Dorrell * was sole author and 16i'^^. The portion supposed to refer to 

of * A visa.* and that he named his work after Shaki>speare was reprinted in 'Shakspere 

his friend Henrv Willoby, in the same man- Allusion Books' (pt. i. ed. C. M. Ingleby, 

ner as Xicolas lJn;*ton named a poem, *The New Shakspere Society, lS64,pp. 69 et seq.) 

Countess of Pembrokes Passion, after the m ^» * r rrn u- u* • • 

11 J i* 1 ^ [GrosHrt s reprint of W illobie his Ansa, 

m roness m whose honour and for whose ,gL jjij^ ^U-, ^if, „f Shakespeare. 1898.] 

delectation it was written. * j i L 

Thechief interest of the poem lie-in it sap- 

parent bearings on Shakespeare's biography. WILLOUGHBY, Sir HUGH (d. 15o4V 

In prefatory vt-rses in six-line stanzas, which sea-captain, was the grandson of Sir Hugh 

are sijrned* Contraria Contrariis : Vigilan- Willoughby of Wollat on, Nottinghamshire, 

tius: Dormitanus,' direct mention is made of and youngest son of Sir Henry Willoughby 

Shakespt.'aTt''s pofm of* Luorece,' which was of >iiddleton, who was made a knight-ban- 

licensed ft>r the pn*ss nn 9 May 1 ">94, only n»*ret at the battle of Stoke in 1487, and 

four months before *Avisa.' This is the died in 15-f*. He served in the expedition 

earliest open refen^nce made in print by a to Scotland in 1544, and was knighted by 

c»intempr»rary author to Shakespeare's name, the Earl of Hertford (afterwards Duke ot 

The notice of Shakespeare l«*nds substance Somerset^ at Leith on 11 May. He after- 

to the theory that the alleged friend nf Wil- wards had a commission on tne border, and 

loby, who is known in the poem under the was captain of Lowther Castle in 1548-9 

initials * W.S.,' may ]x» the dramatist himself (Cai. State Paprrf, l>om. Addenda, 1547- 

* W.S/ is spokt-n of as * the old player.' If 15<V"», p. 40J), but the downfall of Somerset 
this identitv be admitted, there is a likeli- m at eri all v altered his posit ion. and the friend- 
hood that the troubled amour from which ship ofsome persons connected with the navy 

* W.S.' is said in the pi>em to have n»cently is said to have turned his thoughts towards 
recovered is identical wiih the intrigue that the sea. It would seem that Sebastian Cabot 
forms one of the topics of Shakespeare's son- was one of these. It may be, too, that he 
nets. The frivolous tone in which * W.S.' was known as a capable commander, and at 
is made in 'Avis:i' to n-fT to his recent that time rank and authority were more con- 
amorous adventure sug^jfsts, moreover, that sidered than seamanship and navigation. 
the prof tossed t on r of pain which characterises He was app"^inted captain of the ship Bona 
the poet's addresses to a disdainful mistw'ss Esperanza and captain-general of the fleet 
in his sonneta i> not to bit interpreted quite for the intended voyage to Cathay; Richard 
frerioufcly. Chancellor 'q. v." was captain of the Edward 

• Willi jbies -\visa' proved popular, and Bonaventiire and pilot-general of the fleet ; 
rapidly went thrf»iii:h six editions, but very and with him, as master of the Edward 
few c.jii-s survixe. Of the first edition. Bv>na venture, was Stephen Borough [q. v.], 
piblished in l.'>iU. two perfect copies an* * who was accompanied bv his younger bro- 
Kn>wn — one in the British Museum, and the ther, William liirough ''q. v.l There was 
other in Mr. Christie Milh-rs library at a tliinl ship, the I^ina Confidentia (cf. *J. 
Brirw-'.; ; a slightly imp':'r feet opy is in the p. A^'2), The object of the Toyage, as laid 
Hu7:i Lir)T-arv. No cot»v is now known either down bv Cabot* in the instructions dated 
f'f tbe edition of loi^t). containing for the 9 May l.V>o, was to search for a north- 
fir-: ^'.znr I)'»rreri'> ' A]» ohyit. ' a id Thomas eastern ]M»ssage to Cathay and India, and on 
Willoby's c"», or of a third edition the next day the ships lef^ Ratclifie. They 
public hi- 1 after l.M»»i and ber»re ItJOo. A dn^pped down the river by easv stages, were 
iourtij edition rth*/ fourth time corrected detained for several weeks off Harwich, and 
an'liiarniented'j wa?. issu'^d by Windet, the did not finally get away till 23 June. On 
oricinul printer and puhlisvher. in ItH.)*); a 27 July they anrhon^d at one of the Lofoden 
uiii jue c'-ipy is Lt Brit well. lUgford. l^n- Isles, and ri^mained there three days. On 
jauiin Furley. and .ther cull'-ctors noted an 2 Aug., in latitude 70". a boat came off" from 
edition of im.K*. which was pr .bnbly a * re- the shore and promised to get them a pilot for 
maind'-r" is?-ue of xh^ fourth edition. The Vardohuus, apparently the onlv place they 
work wilt reprint'-d in Iti-Vi liv William knfw by name. But' the wini blew them 
Stans^Sy. and was described on the title-pajro off the shon^ and freshened into a violent 
■ as Mhe nrih time crjrrected an 3 ancrm^nl-d : ' gale, in which the ships were separated. The 
a copy, sjiid to be uniijue. is in t!ie Briii.-h Ks]»eranza and Contidentia met again the 
Museum. Dr. Orosart rejriLted privately in . next day. but they saw nothing more of the 


Wil lough by 



Edw&rd, which, as we now kiiow, gol into 
Wliite Sea and to St. Xiuhoias. 
On 14 Aag. Ibe ships discovered land, ap- 
parently uninLabited, in latitude 72°, but 
were unable to roach it b; roaMin of the 
sbosl water and the ice. From this position 
tliev ran seventy leagues S.S.E., llien steered 
N.W. by W. for a day, then for two days 
W.S.W., and on the 33rd they saw land, 
trending W.S.W. and E.N.E. ; lien, befnre 
k strong westerly gale, they ran to the 
N. by E. thirty leagues. It is well to note 
tbeee positions and courses, as they show 
jlearly than is otherwise possible the 

i8 i(piorancfl of all the responsible 

officers, Chancellor and Borough being ab- 
sent, not only of the pilotage but of the 
most simple naviMtion. If the latitude 73° 
is to be accepted as anything tike correct, 
they had been blown over Co the coaA of 
NovayaZemlya, but the courses sailed after- 
wards are incomprehensible. On 14 Sept. 
they again found themselves in with tne 
land, rocky and high, where were good har- 
boiira. For the next three days they ex- 
■mined the coast, and on the ISth went 
into one of the harbours, sfterwards known 
U Arxina, near to Kegor. where Norwe- 
gian lApland marches with Ru-saian. It 
wa« described as runninK'into the mainland 
about tw'i leagues, and in breadth half a 
league ; wherein were vary many seal Kahes 
And other great fishes; and upon the main 
we saw bears, great deer, foxes, with divers 
strange beasts ... to us unknoivn and also 
wonderful.' Here, considering the lateness 
of the season and the badneiwof the weather, 
they resolved to winter. But for wintering 
in an arctic climate they had no provision. 
The country was entirely desolate and unin- 
lubited, and Willoughby and his companions 
iferished miserably. 'When, some few years 
■^ rBrds,the ships and bodies were found, 

were found also Willoughby'a journal 

«id will, by which it appeared lliat he and 

moat of the party were still alive in January 

1554. The journal is printed in Hokluyt's 

'I^ncipal Navigations' (i. 232-7}, and a 

muiuscript copy of it is in the Oottanian 


"■"adissppeared. Neither it nor the will can 

iwbe traced; nor is anything clearly ki 

their discovery or of their being brought 

England. .\ll that can be said is that the 

iramonly received stories (FoJ Bourne, 

tlM Seamen, i. 99) are directl' 

Yi) that nothing certain was 
! summer of 155". 
By his will (Porch, 34), proved 1 July 
b638, Sir Henry left to Hugh * all my liui<£t 

in Mapurley in the county 
of Di'iby, Brokislow, and Basaeford in Not- 
tinghamshire, and a parcel of land at Wal- 
sall in Staffordshirv;' and further directs, 
as to certain sums due to him, ' that my son 
John shall receive the same, to the use to 
purchase orbuyamarriage for my son Hugh, 
if the same Hugh will be guided and ordered 
bv mv said son Sir John Willoughby ; or 
else the same sums of money to he disposed 
for the wealth of my soul.' Of the marriage 
so bought there does not seem to be any 
direct record ; but in the will of Sir John 
(Populwell, '12), proved 22 Jan. 1-548-9, 
mention is made of 'my niece liose, daughter 
of my brother Hugh,' as welt as a legacy of 
6/. 13». 4rf. yearly ' to my brother. Sir Hugh.' 
In the Wollaton accounts there is also men- 
tion of 20/. a year paid out of the Wollaton 
property to Henry, son of Sir Hugh (Col- 
VILB, p. 813). 

A portrait, full length, preserved al Wolla- 
ton, was lent by Jjord Middleion to the 
Tudor Exhibition of 1890 and to the Naval 
Exhibition of 1891. 

[Hakluyt's Pcineipal Navigations, i. 226-37; 
ThorolQo's Hist, uf Nottinghamahire, 1787. ii. 
2U<J ; Culvile's Warwickshiro Worthiiw. p. 813 ; 
Brown's Worthies nf Nottingbamsbire, p. 113; 
Benzley's John nod SetiBSCian Cabot, lft9H, pp. 
182, 186, 195; information from Lady Midifle- 
toti.] J, K. L. 

(1777-1849), rear-admiral, descended from 
a younger branch of tlie Wollaton family, 
And Hiin of Robert Willoughby of Cossatl, 
Nottingham shire, by his second wife, Bar- 
bara, daughter of James Bruce of Einlocb, 
vfas bom on 29 Aug. 1777. His christian 
names suggest some connection with the 
family of Lady Nelson's first husband [see 
Nblsok, Frincks Hbrbeet, Viscocntkss 
Nelson], but there does not appear to l>a 
any record of it. He entered the navy in 
Way 1790 on board the Latona, with Cup- 
tain (Sir) Albemarle Bertie ; he was after- 
wards in the Edgar and other ships on tho 
home station, and in January 1793 went 
out to the coast of Africa in the Orpheus 
frigate, which, after a successful cruise 
against the French trade, was sent round to 
the East India station, where she captured 
the French frigate Duguay-Trouin on fi May 
1794. At the reduction of Malacca in 
August K9ii Willoughby had command of 
e. boat, and in February -March 1796 was 
at the occupation of Amboyna and 
Banda (James, i. 414-15), from which even 
a midshipman's share of the prize-money 
musthavebeen considerable. He wasafter- 
wards in the Heroine and in the SuSblk, 



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Willottgbby distinftuialii>(l bimaelf through- 
out by bis d&nug oud the reckless oicposure 
of himself; frequeully, it was said, takiag 
his meala sitlinK >" b. chair upon the ram- 
pkrts or brenstwork of the battery (James, 
111. 295). Willoughbj seems to have denied 
the chair, and to have muiatained that in 
the circumstances the example was neces- 
evj. This vras perhaps an aftertbouffbt, for 
during the whole ol his service dangiir, 
whether from storm, the sea, or the enemy, 
seems by itself to have been siiHieient lure i 
but the instances of this are far too nume- 
rous to be even named here. In February 
1W)5 Duckworth hoisted bis flag in the 
AcasiB fri)fate and appointed Wuloughby 
her tir^t lieutenant, intending to promote 
him on bis arrival in England. The eircum- 
stADces of his quarrel with Captain (Sir 
James Athol) l\ood [q.v.] and the court- 
martial ansine out of them prevented this ; 
aud wuloughby was appointed to the Prince 
on 8 July I8O0, but was not able to join 
her tiU 8 Nov., eighteen days after the battle 
of Trafalgar. 

Wiiloughby was afterwards in the For- 
midable, antf in 1807 was in the Koyal 
Ueorg«, Duckworth's flagship, on tlie occa- 
aion of his forcing the passitge of the Dur- 
danelles ; on 14 Feb., when the Ajax was 
destroyed b^ lire [see Blackwood, Sir 
llBSBr], he, in the Roya! George's cutter, 
was one of the first to go to her assistance, 
and succeeded in saving many lives, but at 
the greatest personal risk. In July 1807 
be waa discharged to the Otter sloop for a 
passage to Monte Video and the Cape of 
Good Hope, where he was promoted to the 
rooimaQd of the Otter on 10 Jan. 1808, 
though the commission was not confirmed 
by the admiralty lill 9 April. The Otter 
then Bent for n cniise off Mauritius 
to Bombay under the orders of Cnp- 

., Bobert Corbet [q. v.] of the NOrtide; 

And on ber return to Cape Town in the 
following January, Wiiloughby was brought 
before a court-martial on charges of 'cruelly 
and unoKicer-likc conduct' preferred against 
him in a letter to the admiral, signed ' The 
■hip Otter's company, one and all.' It ap- 
liBeu«d from the evidence that there had 
■Been a great deal of flogging and starting — 
TjfRMoiwuous beating witli a stick or rope's- 
' — and that it had been commonly ace om- 
ied by violent threats; that Wiiloughby 
aaid that ' it was as much pleasure to 
punish a man when he comes to the 
;way as it wan to go to his breakfast,' 
'* ' ' ha would flog like hell and start 
The trial lasbj over live days, 
14 Feb., and in the end Wiiloughby was 

acquitted, but was recommended 'to adopt 
mare moderate language on future ooco- 
aions'(6Wri«Afar(ia/, vol. cxKV.) In view 
of the evidence, the acquittal appears strange, 
for the punishments had certainly been ex- 
cessive and irregular J atlll more open to 
censure seems the fact that one of the cap- 
tains sitting on this court was Corbet, who, 
on the days immediately preceding, had been 
tried for a similar o Hence, and had been simi- 
larly acquitted with a slight reprimand. 

After refitting, the Otter woa again sent 
ofT Mauritius, and on 14 Aug. Wiiloughby, 
in the sloop's boats, brought out a vessel 
strongly anchored under the batteries of the 
Black river. On ^1 Sept. he commanded 
the seamen who were put un shore at 
St. Paul's with the troops, and had an 
important share in the happy success of the 
operation [see Rowley, Sir Jobias}. For 
hiB exertions at this time the commander- 
in-chief at the Cape, his old patron Albe- 
ranrle Bertie, proutotud him to command 
the N£r6ide frigate; but his commission as 
post-captain wa« not confirmed till nearly a 
yeur later (5 Sept. 1810), ond then for 
another piece of service— the landing with 
a party of a hundred men on the night of 
30 April, destroying two Prciieh batteries 
at Jacotel, and utterly routing a strong 
body of militia, Wiiloughby himself leading 
the onslaught in full-dress uniform. A few 
weeks after this (15 June) he narrowly 
escaped being killed by the occidental burst- 
ing of a musket fired in exercise. As it 
was, his right lower jaw was shattered, and 
his neck so lacerated that the windpipe was 
laid bare. For nearly three weeks ne lay 
between life and death, but on 7 July he 
took part in the capture of Bourbon, and, 
with bis face and neck still bound up, 
superintended the landing of the troops. 

In August ISIO he was with Captain (Sir 
Samuel) Pym [q. v.] at the seizure of the 
Isle de la Posse on the 13th, and was left 
there when Pym went round to Port Louis. 
On the 20th the French squadron came in 
sight— four large ships and a sloop ; and 
though two of the former proved to oe East 
Tndiamen nriies, the other two were 40-gun 
frigates, wnich, by going round to Port Louis 
to join the French ships there, would have 
placed Pym in a position of very great danger. 
With equal good judgment and boldness 
Wiiloughby, by hoisting French flags and 
signals, decoyed the enemy into the passage : 
when they found out their mistake they 
were no longer able to turn, and were obliged 
to go into the Grand Port, after a sharp 
interchange of broadsides with the N§r6ide. 
At the very first Wiiloughby had sent oft' 





tLf; n«w9 to Ptm, who joined him on the 
tS'Jiid with three p^iwerful frigates ; the force 
wb.k ovf^rwhelminjrly superior to the French, 
hi A l*rm T*TV}\\*i*i to ffo into the port and 
t4£r or de'^tn'jv them. Jiut as he attempted 
tf/ 'io ^j on the i^'ird two of his ships ran 
a^TO'jrid and could not be moved ; a third, 
fify.Ti'/ on the wrong side of a shoal, was 
ur^b2e to get close enough in ; the N^r^ide 
alone »ucc>;ed«»'i in reaching her allotted 
ration, and found herself the target for the 
whole French force. After one of the most 
oh-t]nat^ defences on record, being reduced 
to a frhattered wreck and having lost 222 
men killed or wounded out of a total of 
2-1. fc^je f>truck her colours on the morning 
of the 24th. Tlje terrible loss of men was 
parly explained by the fact that the upper 
work* of the hhip — a French prize — were 
line'J with fir, which, on l>eing broken through 
by rrannon thot, jrave off showers of dangerous 
►plJnti:r**. At the very beginning of the 
hfr*i'm hJif, of these struck ^Villoujrhbv on 
tb'r l»rlt cheek and tore the eye completely 
o<it of the B'x;k«'t. The first lieutenant was 
kiile'J : the Mrcoiid lieutenant dangerously 
wounded; the lieutenant of marines was 
aly; wounded; two lieutenants of soldiers 
wer«- killwj. When, after the capture of 
the Irle of France in Dec€»mber,AVilloughbv 
r»-/!ov*-r«r*J his lib'-rtv and was tried for the 
lo-i- '»f the NV-reid'*, the court declared that 
th'* -hip had l>r«'n * curried into battle in a 
mo-r juflirioun. olficer-like, and gallant man- 
n*T/ and formally expr<'->s<.td * its high admira- 
tion of the noble r-onduct of the captain, 
<}\\\(, and chip's company during the whole 
of the uner^nal contest.' The snntence, con- 
cludJn/ with a * most honounibb* ' acquittal, 
has been correctly descriljed as * uuprece- 
denti'd * ( .Mar.- 11 ALL). 

On his rntum to England Willoughby 
was surveyed by a medical board, and on 
their rep^>rt was awarded (4 Oct. 1811) a 
jMrn'^ion of *KX>/. p-r annum, which was 
afrirward-. n July 1815) increased to TkiO/. 
M»*hntime, in I'^li', havinrr no immediate 
pro^p^-ct of Hmploym^'ut, he obtained leave 
to ;:o abroad, and went to the Baltic, where 
he offered his services as a volunteer to Sir 
ThonjJis JUam Martin Tn. v.], then com- 
mandin;r in the (lulf of'Kigu. learning, 
howtrwr, from Martin that there was no 
imiuediaTe proj-jM-ct of any active operations, 
he wf-nt on to St. IVttTsburg, whore his 
otr*-r to serve with the iJussian army was 
acc^j»ted. He was then s^mt to Kiga. from 
which, nn iJO »Sept.. he accompanied Count 
Steinheil, who, with a force of fiftotMi thou- 
sand men, was marcliinji to join Wittgonsiein 
at rulotzk. Before this could be ellV^cted 

, Steinheil wu FnrpriMd br m verj inferior 
: French detachmeiit, and utterly routed with 
i the loss of some two thousand men killed or 
taken prisoners. A mongtheie latter was Wil- 
loughby, who had put a wounded Russian 
. on his own horne. and was himself leading 
it when he fell into the hands of a party <h 
French hossars. A Dutch officer in the 
French service befriended him and supplied 
him with money, so that he was able to 
make the terrible retivat from Kussia with 
comparative comfoit. Even so, however, 
the hardships he underwent told severely on 
a constitution alxeadv tried bv wounds and 
a tropical climate, and at Kiinigsberg he was 
seized with a fever which confined him to 
bed for seven weeks. Special representations 
had been made on bis behalf by order of 
\ the czar, but Napoleon refused to exchange 
; him, and on his ivtum to France ordered 
him to be confined au tecret in the Chateau 
de Bouillon. Here he remained for nine 
months, till, on the advance of the allies, 
he was moved to Peronne, whence he 
. managed to escape. 

On 4 Jan. 1S15 Willoughby was nomi- 
nated a C.B. : from 1^18 to lh'22 he com- 
manded the Tribune frigate on the coast of 
Ireland and in the West Indies ; on 30 June 
18i'7 he was knighted at the instance of the 
Duke of Clarence, then lord high admiral, 
and again, by a curious blunder of the 
, king's, on 21' Aug. 1832, when he was in- 
: vested with the insignia of a K.C.H. ; on 
I 14 Jan. 1839 he was awarded a good-service 
: pension, and on 30 Nov. 1841 was appointed 
a naval aide-de-camp to the queen. He 
was promoted to be rear-admiral on 28 April 
1847, and died, unmarried, at his house in 
Montagu Street, Port man Snuare, after a 
fortnight's suffering, on 19 May 1849. It 
is said that by the seamen of his day he 
was known as ' the immortal.' 

A portrait of Willoughby is at AVollaton, 
the property of Lord Middleton, by whom 
it was lent to the Na%-al £.xhibition of 1891. 

[The Memoir in Marshairs Roy. Nav. Biog;r. 
vi. (^uppl. pt. li.) Ill is unusually long (eighty- 
four pages), written apparently from notes sup- 
plied by Willoughby himself; that inO'Bymes 
Nav. Biogr. Diet, is merely an abstract of Mar- 
^h;ll^s. See al.-so Gent, Mag. 1849, ii. 648; 
.Tames's Naval Hist. (1861 edit., in vol. vi. is 
anengnivingof thoWollatoD portmit); Troude's 
liatailUs Na vales de la Fninee ; oflicial docu- 
ments in the Public Record Office, more espe- 
cially the Minutes of Courts Martial.] 

J. K. L. 


lWi>\ judge, was the son of a Richard de 
Willoughby who acted as justice in eyre 

\Vi Hough by 


Wi Hough by 



ider UdwBfd IT, and purchased the manors 
Wollntun in Nnttioghsmshire niid liisley 
Derbyahiiv. The original aaaui cif the 
hmilj w&s Bugge. They tonk the name of 
Willou^hby from their lordship of t.h«t name 
h) NoiriDghamithire. In 1824 the younger 
Richard was substituted for his father ab 
knight of the shire for that county, and was 
about the sainu time appointed chief justice 
of the common pleaa in Ireland (Pari. Writ*, 
306. 312, 314 ; Cal. Rot. Pat. pp. 78, 94, 
97), He is mentioned as one of tne justices 
feppotnted for the trial of the persons who 
bad spoiled Ilenry le Deepensur's lands in 
1322 {Pari. Writi. ii. ISU). On the accea- 
siaii of Edward HI he waa removed from 
litt office and appears in the yeHr-book of 
the first year of that reign as an advocate. 
On 6 March 1328 be was made a justice 
of the common ^leas, and on 3 .Sept. 1329 
became second justice. On 15 Dec. 1330 
he waa removed into the court of king's 
bench ; and when Geoffrey le Scrope [q.v.l, 
the chief justice, went abroad with the King, 
Willoughby occupied the chief seat during 
his absence, at different times from 1332, 
till Geoffrey ie Scrope ultimately resigned in 
the middle of 1338. From this time he 
presided in the court until he was displaced 
on 24 July 1340 (Foes). 

In 1331 he was captured journeying 
towarda Grantham bv a certain Richard de 
Folville, and compelled to pay a ransom of 
ninety marks (Kkibhton, i. 4'60l. In No- 
Tember 1340 he was arrested by order of 
the hing, and imprisoned in Corfe Castle 
{French Chronicle of London, p. 84). He 
WKt tried on several charj^a at Westminster 
on 13 Jan. (Si. p. 87). But he was restored 
to office as one of the justices of the com- 
mon pleas on 9 Oct. following, and continued 
to hold the office of judge till 1357, but pro- 
bably retired in that year (DusDiLE, Originet 
:JiirulunaIft,f.4&). Jle died in 13(12. His 
Rctensive estates were situated in the coun- 
ties of Nottingham, Derby, and Lincoln, but 
he also had a house in London in ' le Balj ' 
itCat. Inq. pott niartfm, ii. ^56), He married, 
■ttret, Isabel, daughter of Sir Roger Mortein ; 
Ifecondly, Joanna; and thirdly, Isabellu, and 
ludsevernl children. Later members of the 
Uknilf were Sir Hugh Willoughby fq. v.], 
■Sir hesbit Josiah Willoughby [(]- v.], and 
icis Willughby, the naturjist [q. v.] 
'oss'a Judges of EafrluDd, and authorities 

BABOirWiiLoifOKBYDE Broke (14o2-1502), 
born in 1452, was son and heir of Sir John 
Willoughby, und great-great-grandson of 

Robert, fourth baron Willoughby de Eresby 
Id.nW). His father wasprubably the John 
Willoughby who was abenff of Somerset i 
1455. The ancestral seat was at Clutton J 
that county, where Sir Robert afterwards 
acquired other estates. His mother waa 
Anne, daughter and coheir of tjir Edmund 
Cheney or Cheynu of Broke, Wiltshire, and 
U p-Ottery, Devonshire. In or before 1475 he 
married Blanche, daughter and coheir of Sir 
JohnChampemowneof Beer Ferrers, Devon- 
shire, and Callinglon. Cornwall. Through 
her he became possessed of the Beer Ferrers 
eslate. His mother died in or before 147S, 
in which year he was found to be cousin and 
coheir, in her right, of Humphrey Statford, 
earl of Devon [q. v,] His mother's family 
were strong Lancastrians, and Willoughby 
joined them as one of the leaders in the 
abortive rising of lienry Stafford, second 
duke of Buckingham [q. t.], in October 
1483. After the dispersion of the insurgents 
"Willoughby, with three of the Cheneys, 
escaped to Brittany (Polvdorh Vbroil, 
p. /OO), where they joined Henry Tudor, 
earl of Richmond (lienry VII). An act 
of attainder was immedialety passed, in 
which Willoughby is described as ' late of 
Byerferrys, knight' (Rot. Pari. vi. 246). 
Probably under a gf^nt following on thia 
act, Humphrey Stafford of Grafton eeited 
"Willoughby's estates [see under Stafford, 
HuHFKBEr, Earl of Dgton]. 

Willoughby doubtless returned with Rich- 
mond when he landed at Milford on 7 Aug. 
1485. He is mentioned by the 'Croylaiid 
Continuator' (p. 574) among the fourteen 
leading generals of Richmond s army at Bos- 
worth. Immediately after the victory Henry 
detached him from the main army to march 
irom Leicester to Sheriff Ilutton in York- 
shire, and seiie the person of Edward, earl 
of Warwick, son of George, duke of Clarence, 
and nephew of Edward IV, and his cousin, 
the IVincess Eliiabetb, who hud both been 
imprisoned there by Richard III. Sheriff 
Ilutton apparently surrendered without re- 
aistsnce, and W^illoughby marched with 
Warwick to London (Poltdokb Vbkoil, 
p. 718). 

On 21 Sept. in the same year Willoughby 
was granted the receivership of the duchy 
of Cornwall and the office of steward of all 
manner of mines in Devonshire and Com- 
ws!l in which there was any proportion of 
gold or silver. He waa appointed high 
steward of the household preporatory to 
Henry VH's coronation on 30 Oct. (Camp- 
bell, Mat. ii. 3, &c.) Parliament met on 
7 Nov, 1485, and at once repealed Ri- 
chard IH'b act of attainder against WU- 


W'illoughby 42 Willoughby 

liiiinhbv niul olluT Lanoastrian^ {,Kot. Pari. [ as his enfoy to Brittany. Willoughby's in- 

VI. '.MO. nuiupU(\\v ScatVord was ate dinted, structions were to promise aid against the 

lull III* UuvIh wi^n^ o\i»mpi«\i t'wux torteiturv French if the duchess would refuse the 

III I ho ^l^»wu. niul WiUoiuhby, who apjwars French kinir's proposals. Willoughby was 

Id !m\o mouihI I horn v>n h-.s lu'irvh to Sa.-, riaf- at the s^me time (It) July 1490) appointed 

llultnu, ivuuunI thi'm ill ivAvViuI iKVssts- iiniLral of the fleet iRtmer, Fadera, xii. 

*•»"" 4.V»'. and left Enirland on 18 Aug. (Mk- 

\\ »lU»»i^hby IS tipst sryU^s * k-.i^li: :;r -he ckai>.\ J umaK p. il2>, at the head of a 

k»iu:'« IkhV» ' '»n a »:rH*',t dauv* 'J',* LVc. L4^'« ti:."i?acd arv'hers. whom he threw into the 

^r^M»tu:i I . M tf, J. -o. 4^o ^.. ^.^^ . .^^ ,.• M,,-:aix. Qn 21 .-^ept. he had audi- 

iil«» <iauu^l ou ;V J.;-; US- rV* :i:j:i*r :: -rco^r ^:' :*:ie dtichess at Hennes (i*6. p. 2:?0). 

I'ii»\. ik\i\ I iMxU \i\ Sv .vi.'c."' fiiv" '°^ ^"'- rirtri •Ir>?r.r5S 'this dijilomacv was proved 

Ili'ii'M \\oy»'^:t!... >s-:uci-v.\ •:;.-.'.:-'. :y :y :ir=:4Tr.,i:?rO!::heduohesstoCharle3VllI 

l.«li'«. U'i\l 'ouv'-i.v i;. ;.. ^ ^-^v: 'z f .- :c tIit I 11 .' wLnj '-* IW.. and the iucorpora- 

«m1 J u'l i?u' -vn: -. .■»!,• i i-:^:'> ;•:■ .r.::.".! -r ":> :i :: tir." Tiny with France. 
.vv«'T.M», I/, ^ :- ^,. ;*■ ^^7, -if A* i r:-«"iri ::r hi? s^-rvices Willoughby 

\ » t». M . p. ; : N. T^ ^^.j^ ..,.»:• ,..j4 „ -;. ,.^ ^j^i -_z::r -ztI : :■ pArliament by writ dated 

I,..)... ''!»■ '».. ..,.^ \ ■•; - \-..l-:- "■■..■.i 1_ A ^ -: Ii^-rr VII I Us*l^;' (see *Crea- 

I'x ' ' • «l i.;tv 1 ■■ t. ■•.":..: .7. :.:? :. ■.■.*. Iv**"-*:-*'" :r. hep.- Keeper Public 

^ . »■ I 'i r <''.\ .1 : • v< ■." \ ■ -4. z; ■-':.• r -*."-•••■. At^; 47:1'. Ke:». ; other authorities 

•' '» ■ ' * "' ^*^ . *"»'' « . • : ■ :4t.::".r : :V>- ^■. • li A:^ I«--"- . Ti-e defeat ofllenrv's 

^^ »..» <i.4'i ^^ . \\ ^."^y "'7 !-*■-> i... -L..'- Lzi .!> ri^Txu'ementa with the 

I' »■ " . •■^■'»' *. ^\ '.,>*■. ' Lr :ri:-^ ::' y_:iTH.r.-: '^. n — ' i-- :> whom Anne had 

K "' •" ' '- <•*■' v.«.-)L ': ;.'>::r:.: izr. : >•->—.■■; it^i. 3: r»rllrd him to an invasion 

I ■ • * ■ ■ ' .••".*••.-■;;:- -vl - . W .. : i :. . -v . • : ;' tlt- :v . *»V „ . .- ^liby was relieved of 

».i I . .« *"aI .■ .«..:.: -.. .s?*--^> :> .-. :_l- l.-'t^lI .-•■ =:T:.t 7- i. ::'■!! r ::■—:. th-Migh retained 

^ II. M \ ^^'\vv^!... V - . T*> •■ ::.->■ .7. :..* :-^:t l? iir:_rtl ±r.i nominated mar- 

, ..k- . '.•«.*'» ./■....:,:: t7 -J-'. .:-i.7 L ?■:.«_. :c :if ltzlj. Tbv campaign was 

^ ..» •«. ,v. , *\ A'.'..-.. 1^^ :y ll-.-ryXlZ *:. r A 7. ^-L^.-.x'tf*?:.:! *ir-re was laid to 

^ • ^ ^V\ V,*.. .i>" i: xri.> tTTi .:.■.:•! 2. :■•• ..;«:i'T. L7.I :i -' N v. a treaty of peace 

^ ..u.»» ■' .^■. .- .': j.x>.;: :. r 1»-. -. --:. "■. lt :. vl* r^r-i*:, i.: 5I.-tTlr-*. i :.^rmal request to 

y . .»\\ «.. V ' • •■' :•:.:.,• -;.-.r.f :!»:--.- z':.l' • f«:* :.L-'.r^ r^-fT. niie to Henry by 

I.. ..^ : *> >,:;.>-• N.v ' :j A: : t ■. *:.- - .M.-r ;-;.nnLr. l-rs 1 Nov. 1492, t A. 

^ ^». ,i.t. U' :.-•.. V :-. : :it 7 -."-•vi.. 7 -r^ r 'ir: ::V.:»izr IS Feb. Wil- 

.., !.. 1...*.^.!.;. ; NN .,....*;: :x >:-.=->:. l'- 1 ^; :-^ -^•>.^-'i & *-tj:i": 0: the office of 

tu « :. ■"' i.i.';'-« '.>>■'.'.*. ; i^", i-t . 7." 1.7 Vi .^-- <«:7r>. :.l1 ;■ ";.-^ "l7:->.- W 11: ^liine belonging 

l„i, \\ .iiH!.4.\ L.xr:^..;.-..-. ;:■ i: ■:!■. v*:.: - 1.-; r* :c **Vtrx.yi and Salisbury 
li. . I. Ml.' »l. -,..!«•„ :.> :i..»:-: ^V ...;..:- J - _•: > -^r::: v;i. ^', ii. m. ISV At 

, I 1 1 . . «, « u .■ V * ' ^ • -^ »'■*•■ •• --'^■* -•'' •>*-:•■- • " i '• ■ " * ■ • '^^ ~ • * - ■ . * -T r X ic: date being 

. • l«. . n'*> 7-iiL7. -iT.. L- "WL* ~Lif £ iTli^ht of the 

\, ill. -»ui.' ..'.*.* ^^ ■ ...::":v -i-?.* «:- -;.-- "i^:— ^i-f T=r*:>T-- i* l;ri steward on 

. i.i..i.u;\j.vx.,s'...: . : v.-.v :> .:l-.:^ 1 N i 1*-^ ->;./- Vt.z^t HrrjyiHenr>' 

Im .li. ,.M».\i..* .-. > ■ ^ .' -^ : '^^ >. Vlll T>-,.s ,"MTr..-. Iv.i- :: Y:rk. and took 

\\ ^ ,1 AwA \\'\ \yy . *: " ■' ^- ■ ="^- ■'"'■ " "-■ ^•-'"T" •- -' /i^'-ir.r.eof Arragon 

, ii.i>u(«^. ^^.* ... . ■■'■■ . >■ ■ • " ■ "'* ■ - v.f.TXs.--.. :..?::'> .:-;! Pajiers/i. 

i. II <• .,^«|s». .■ '.^ ■•' ^ « > - ; V* ^' ." >T.;.\-r77.Tl:y=:r:::wa5again5t 

t i- w.. ».« 1.1.1 .\.''v"."^" ■■ •• -^ . V -i ' *'^ }.-:••:•'*:..■ Iv-i-ilz Cornwall on 
f ■ I » '» . . % > ;•• V ^ -1 ■ S - ■ ^ * *»^ ."t- 7.t-«-s irrivrd that he 

J ,1,, ,u..„ ,...; ■ . . x» - - .• -^ .<•-•■:--- ::t .--.!.>: -k-.:'- a few ships, 

,.,,.. s\u .'. - * .' ^ ..«»'.■ V* ., :- .., i-^.-.T-Ll. "^ i command of 
\\ ' |,,li. .n.,l/«. 1 ■ -^ \ ' -. ". • ■ -►■ w-^ "->.■- il" . Hr took part 

,, , ,. .,, ,1.. »x.,. . .-. •» V ..." - - . . :a::t7 i irw days later 

)..u \ r- « \ ■ ^ . ■ X - 

, . ,. , ) ^^.^ . - * * ^ ^ .... - ^,v ■ . 7^ :■. : :.-• rx/i-rier in 1507 

..l. I, .,1.1 v- ' •'■ ' ^ ^ "^ ■ ■-■ ■-' ■•»^ Ml-- -:^'-by's death 

„i ,,» ,1, XV .. --^ , t .V • . ., ■». , ':> 11. •.•. io llr^n. VII, 

II , M ...X .. V V V -^ . > -'■..1. .:i:'r'i 19 Aug., 

,, . ,. J.,.., I .... ^ ^- "-^ :■■'■; IV-:. Hr 1-fi a s*in 

■ , ^.,„. 1.,.!. .:..-.».■. >•!.-', >:c.r..l bar>n W il- 

I'j".,., ^ III ||. ;.. ,.,.,:., .: W ' .>■*-« • .X '■ >•. * ».r,A i. i.i.;-^i:er Elizabtrth, 


dh) John, lord UfDhain. Onltobert's 
utDiii in 1522,without8un'ivin2 male issue, 
iliB baroDV fell into nbeyanop betwepn the 
two daughters of liia son Edn'nnl : Eliza- 
betfa, wife of Sir Fulke Orerille [see under 
(iREtiLLE, Sir Fdleb, first Lokd Bkookg], 
and Blanch, wife of Sir FranoiB Dawtrey. 
\ descendant of the elder daughter, Richard 
\'eniey, aucceBsfully claimed the barony in 
lt(Q6 [eee Vebket, liicHAKO, third BiROS 


{ BisUiria: Crojtaiidi'aBiB CoaUnualin in Gale's 
Sifriplnr^ (Oifard. IS84). pp. 1&1-B78 ; Poly- 
liom Vor(>il"« Historia Aoulica (ed. Leydva, 
1651); U«irsChroii.lS09: Machado's Jouroala 
ia Oairdocr's Memoriola of Henry VII (RoIIh 
tia. ISeS); Patent Bolls of UcDtjVU, KS. 
R.O,; HjmeT«F«dera(ed.I741); Rotuli Par- 
lianiBnlorum. vol. Ti. ; Gairdnar's LcttFm and 
F*pnt uf Richard 111 nnd Henry VII (2 vols. 
1881); Campbeira MatariuU for ft Hint, of 
H»nry VII (2 vols. 1873); Bncna's Hist of 
Btnrj VII. ed. Ellis and Spalding, I8fi8 ; Worka, 
to), ti.; AihmoU's Order of ihe Qartor, 1^72; 
AESlia's Begiater of the Garter, 3 vols. 1724; 
Btlii'a Order of the Garter, ISIt ; CallinBou'a 
Kim. of tkimMwt. 3 TOla. 1791; LpAos'a 
MiifEDA Britajinia, toI. vi. ' DaroDshlra' (18^2); 
Kiadnn'g Survey of Deronahire. 1811; Uoure'a 
SlMiorn Wiluhire. vol iv. ; Cullina's PooragP, 
Ed. lirrdgEa, 1812, rol. vi. ; G. E. C[oknyne]'s 
Complelfl PfirugB. 18S8; Buacb^B Konig Hein. 
rich VII (Staltgart. 1892).j I. S. L. 

WILLS, SiB CHAJiLES (1666-1741), 
freoeral, goa of Anthony Wills of St. 
Uorran, Cornwall, by ' Jenofer ' (Guinevere), 
his wife, was baptised at St. Oomin on 
2S Oct. 1666 (ParuA KegitUri. Hia father, 
whose Cimilv had been aetlled in Cornwall 
since «vlj in the aiiteenth century, farmed 
his own land, and, having encumbered 
Iiis e«t&t« with debtc, quitted the same 
at the revolution and oU'ered his ser- 
vices and those of six of hia eons to the 
IVince of Orange, who, it is said, gave tliem 
iJl commisiions {Paroehial Hint, of Gini- 
tcatt, pp. II, 101). Charles Wills appears 
\a have been appointed a subaltern in 
Colonel Thomas Erie's foot ret^iment (dis- 
banded in 10»8), with which corps he 
Berred in the Irish campaign. On I July 
1091 he was appointed cuptain in the regi- 
ment known as the 10th foot, tUe colonelcy 
of which had been bestowed on Erie on 
1 Jan. 1691. Wills served several campaigns 
in FUnders, including the battle of Landen. 
(In ti Nov. 1694 he was appointed major to 
Colonel Thomas Saunderson's foot regiment, 
and on I May 1697 was promoted lieute- 
nant-colonel. A few months later Saunder- 
•on's foot was disbanded and the officers 
placed on half-pay. On the Ibrmstion of 

3 Wills 

Viflcount Charlemont's foot regiment in Ire- 
land (:>8 June 1701). Wilts was appointed 
to the lieutenant-col (inelcy, and in the fol- 
lowing spring embarked with his corps for 

Thence Charlemont's regiment was sent to 
the West Indies, where Wills gained distinc- 
tion in theislsndofOuadeloune, and several 
towns were burnt ofler the French troop* 
had been defeated. In the action st La 
BayliiTe ' Colonel Wills behaved himself with 
great bravery' (London Gazette, 10 May 
1703. He succeeded to the command of the 
troops on shore in April 1703; and, aRer 
burning and destroviug the French towns 
and fortificatioDs along the coast, he em- 
barked his troops on board the squadron on 
7 May 1 TOS, bringing away all the captured 
French guns. After losing many otticers 
and men in the West Indies, Charlemont's 
regiment (36th foot) returned to Ireland 
in the winter of 1703-4. 

In 1705 Wills accompanied the Earl of 
Peterborough to Spain as quartermasler- 
ffeneral, and served almost unintemiptedlT 
in tbu Peninsula until December 1710. iTe 
was at the tokin? of Barcelona on 4 Oct, 
1705, and nine doya later was appointed 
colonel of a regiment of marines (%th 
foot), vice Thomas Fownall. Wills was 
subsequently second in command in the 
district of Lerida, and rendered valu- 
able service in the important action at San 
Estevan, where be commanded after Majoi^ 
general Conyngham was inortall;y wounded 
(26 Jan. 1706); again distinguished him- 
self at (he defence of the town of Lerida, 
n-liicli capitulated after an obstinate de- 
fence ; was appointed a brigadier-general on 
IJan. 1707; commandt-d 1,500 marines and 
a Spanish regiment in Sardinia (170S), and 
reduced Cagliari. He was promoted major- 
general on 1 Jim. 1709, and appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces on board Ad- 
miral Baker's fleet on 17 June in the same 

W'ills fought at Almcnaro in 1710, and 
commanded an infantry brigade at the battle 
of Sarogossa. He was thereupon recom- 
mended to Queen Annu for promotion to 
thegrade of lieutenant-genera! lAforWoroHiiA 
Dfi^tchm, T. 168), which rank had been 
already conferred on him in Spain by 
Charles HI, the titular king. In the unfor- 
tunate action at Brihuega on 1 Dec. 1710, 
Wills earned fresh laurels, and was men- 
tioned in General Stanhope's despatches as 
having been ' during the action at thu post 
which WB3 attacked with most vigour and 
which he as resolutely defended.' After 
sufiering a rigorous imprisonment of some 


months, \\'illa was allowed to return to 

When Preston was taken by the Jacobite 
forces in 1715, Witlg, wlio was then com- 
manding in Cheshire, asBcmbled his troops 
at Manchester, and then marched to Wiran, 
where be arrived on 11 Nov. He had at , 
hii disposal Che uavair; regimentB of PitI, | 
Wynne, Honeywood, Dormer, Munden, and ^ 
Stanhope, and Preston's foot reifiment. At 
WigBn Wills received intelligence thit 
Lieutenant-(feneral George Carpenter [<]■ v.l 
was ndvanciDg from Durham by forced 
marches with about nine hundred cavalrv, 
and would be ready to take the enemy in 
flank. Early on 12 Nov. Wills marched 
towards Preston, and at one in the after- 
noon he arrived at the bridge over the 
Ribble, and found thereabout three hundred 
of the rebel horse and foot who upon the 
approach of the royal troops withdrew 
hastily into the town, where barricades had 
been erected. On coming before Preston a 
reconnaissance was made by Wills in pet^ 
Eon, and, in consequence of his party bein? 
fired upon and two men killed, lie ordered 
an immediate assault by Preston's foot 
regiment, which corps behaved with ^reat 
hrayerr. At the anme time Wills ordered 
the whole town to be surrounded, to the 
right and left, by the cavalry. The rebels, 
being well posted behind the barricades, in- 
flicted great loss on Preston's regiment (the 
Cameroniana), which was commanded by 
Lieutenant-colonel Lord Forester. After 
two barricades had been gallantly charged, 
and the troops repulsed with equal courage. 
Wills drew offhismon, and, all the avenues 
to the town having been effect ual I v secured, 
the cavalry were ordered to stand at their 
horses' heads all that night. At nine o'clock 
next morning General Carpealer arrived 
with three dragoon regiments. The rebela 
witnessed the arrival of the reinforcements 
from the church steeple, and, losing heart, 
their commander was anxious to capitulate. 
' Unconditional surrender ' were the only 
terms that Carpenter and Wills would give, 
and after stormy debates within the be- 
leaguered town the rebels laid down their 
arms and sLirrendered morning [see 
FoBSTEJt. Thohas, 1675P-1738i and Ox- 


A good deal of friction occurred between 
Carpenter and Wills on this occasion, the 
former being the senior officer, and it 
■was increased by George I bestowing the 
rank of lieutenant-general on Wills 
directly news of the surrender of the rebels 
at Preston reached London, no notice being 
tlien talcen of Carpenter's share in the success. 

In .lanuary 1716 Carpenter sent achallengr 
by General Churchill to Wills (Li/e >^ 
Geoiye, Lord Carpmtrr), but the duel was 
honourably compromised by the generous 
intervention of tlie Dukes of Marlborough 
and Montagu. Wills was appointed 
colonel of Ibo 3rd foot on 5 Jan. 1716, 
governor of Portsmouth 1717, lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance on 22 April 1718, 
R.B. on 17 June 1725, colonel of the 
grenadier guards on 20 Aug. 1726, general 
commanding the foot in 1739, M.P. for 
Totnes (17U~41), and one of George I's 
privy council. 

Wills died unmarried in London on 3-5 Dec. 
1741, and was interred in Westminster Ab- 
bey ; there is a memorial inscription in the 
Guards' Chapel, Westminster). 

It appears from the 'Political State of 
reat Britain' for September 1726 that 
there was an intention, unrealised owing to 
'ge I'a (loath, of creating Wills a peer 
with the title of Baron Preston. With the 
— ^eptiou of a few legacies and an annuity 
of 200/. per annum to his nephew Kichard 
Wills, Sir Charles bequeathed all his for- 
tune, which was a very considerable one, to 
his executor, General Sir Kobert Rich, bart. 
This will was unsuccessfully contested by 
Sir llichard Wills in the probate court. 

ijohn Burcht^tt's Hist, of thp most remork- 
e Transflctiona at Sea ; Life of George Locd 
Carpuater; Dulboo's Eagllah Army Lista, iflCI- 
ITU, V'll. hi. ; Dr. John Friend's Xcmoir of tha 
E«rlof PeterimroughiGeorgiaQEfB; Hamilton's 
Hist, of the Grenadier Guards i Hist. MS3. 
Comm. nth Sep. App. pt. iv., wherein an 
socrral letters rebiting to Freston Sght. ITlf; 
London Qaxeltcs, eapraially those far 10 Uaj 
1T03 and 4 Oct, 1708; Bayer's Queen Anat, 
1736, pp. 2fli, 418, 48S; Lord Mahon's War of 
the Succei«ioa in Spain ; Parochial Hist. o( 
Comwnll, vol. ii,; Rapin's Hist, of EngUnd; 
VisiUUons of Cornwall, ed. Vivian (ISBT), 
which coutaia a pndigroe of the Willa fandty 
dmwnupby theltev. J.V.Wms; Warburtan's 
Memoir uf the Earl of Pet^rboroogh ; RegisM™ 
of Westminster Abbey.] C. D-m. 

WILLS, JAMES (1790-1808), poet and 
man of letters, born on 1 Jan. 1790, was Uie 
younger son of Thomas Wills of WilUgrove, 
CO. Roscommon, a country gentleman be- 
longing to afamily of Comish extraction long 
settled in Ireland, who had married as his 
second wife a daughter of Captain Jamea 
Browne of Moyne, co. Itoscommon. Ue re- 
ceived his education at Dr. Millers achool at 
Blockrock, CO. Dublin, and from privat« 
tutors. lie entered at Trinity Collie, Dub- 
lin, on 1 Nov. 1809, taking a high place at 
entrance. During his university career h* 

formed ooe of b brilliant circle of undergra- 
duates, which included Charles Wolfe [q.v.], 
John Sjdnej Taylor fq. v.], John Analer 
fu. T.], and Samuel O'SuUiTan [see under 
XySVLUVis, MusTiitEBl. He inherit«d aa 
joint'heir with his brother a very consider- 
kble eatsle, which came into bb family 
through his mother; and in enrlv manhood 
waa in very easy circumstances. &ut shortly 
niter leaving tlie university the improvidence 
of the elder brother, who managed to squan- 
der the property of both, left the younger 
with very slender resources, and W ills Wft3 
obliged to abandon the notion be had formed 
of embracing the profession of the bar, though 
be had taken the first steps towards getting 
called, and hod entered at ihe Middle Temple 
in 18il. 

Returning to Ireland, Wills spent several 
years at the neighbourhood of Dublin, 
BngBged in desultory literary pursuits, and 
wrote many of his subseauentir published 
poems at tills period. Here also he met 
Ctiarlea Itobert Maturin [q. v.], and wrote 
hiswell-knownnoen), 'The Universe.'which 
wu published by, and long attributed to, 
Maturin, and the authorship of which was 
long B subject of literary controversy (cf. 
Netet and Queries, Bth ser. iii. -JO. 172. 240, 
280,340; Dublin Unti: Mag. October 1875; 
Jrith Quarterly Eecieic, March 1852). For 
thia poem, which is now proved to have 
been entirely the composition of Wills, Ma- 
turin received 500/. from Colbum. 

In 1H22 Wills married Katbertne, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. W. Gorman, niece of Chief- 
justice Charles Kendal Bushe [q. v.], and 
graudniece of Sir John Doj'ie [q.v.j He 
took orders on bis marriage in the expecta- 
tion of receiving a presentation to a crown 
living through the chief justice, a hope 
which was defeated through a change of 
government. From the date of his marriage 
until 1638 he resided in Dublin. 

In 1831 he published ' The Disembodied, 
and other Poems,' in Dublin, and became a 
constant contributor to 'Blackwood's Maga- 
zine,' the 'Dublin University Magazine,' the 
'Dublin Penny Journal,' and other period! 
' , To the 'Dublin University Magazine, 
connection with which originated in a 
iriew of George O'Brien's criticism of 
ie's 'Round Towers' [see O'Bbibh, 
kt], he wns one of the earliest contri- 
TS; and later in his career he waa asso- 
it«d with Cicaar Otway Jq. v.] in founding 
e ' Iriali Quarterly' Review.' In 1835 he 
^ iblished the ' Philosophy of Unbelief,' a 
"work which was afterwards republished, and 
which acquired considerable popularity in 
America, Wills combined with a strong 

imarkable aptitude 
, is. Of several ess , 
read by bim before the Royal Irish Academy, 
nthe 'Spontaneous Association of Ideas' 
said by Archbishop Richard \\'hateiy 
[cj. v.] to overturn Dugald Stewart's theory 
oil the same subject. In 1835 Wills was 
nominated to the sinecure curacy of Suir- 
ville, CO. Kilkenny, of which parish he was 
appointed vicar in 1846. In 1849 he was 
further advanced to the living of Kilmacow 
in the same county, and ultimately, in 1860, 
to that of Attanaeh in co. Kilkenny. In 
1845 Wills published ' Drain ntic Sketches 
and other Poems,' which were followed iu 
1 S46 by ■ Moral and Religious Epistles.' But 
his most important literaiy venture was the 
valuable biographical work known as ' Lives 
of Illustrious and Distinguished Irishman,' 
of which the first volumes were published in 
1839 and 1840. Thiswork, which was com- 
pleted in 1847 and forwhich its author re- 
ceived 1,000/., aims at giving a history of Ire- 
land in a series of biographies ranging from 
the earliest to the most modem times, and is 
divided into six periods, to each of which 
Wills prefixed a valuable historical intro- 
duction. It was reissued subsequently under 
the title of ' The Irish Nation,' the con- 
cluding volumes of the revised edition ap- 
pearing after the author's death, under tne 
editorship of his son, Mr, Freeman Wills. 
The work has been accorded by a very com- 

Citent authority, John Thomas (afterwards 
ard-ebancellor) Ball, in the 'Dublin Uni- 
versity Magoiine,' the praise of ' great re- 
search, patient investigation, and sound iudg- 
naent, free alike from sectarian and political 
prejudices,' and as ' the most elaborate and 
the most complete record of the history and 
biography of Ireland as yet (1847) given 
to the Inali public' The book is, however, 
very deficient in point of style and arrange- 
ment, and, like all works of reference on so 
large a scale by a single hand, is In parts 

Wills was appointed Donellan lecturerin 
tbe university of Dublin for 1856-6, and 
delivered a course of sermons, published in 
1860 under the title of 'Lectures on the 
Antecedent Probability of the Christian Re- 
ligion.' Healso edited Chief-justice Bushe'a 
posthumously published ' Summary View of 
the Evidences of Christiauitv.' In 1868, 
shortly before his death, he published 'TTie 
Idolatress, and other Poems,' which, like the 
' Dramatic Sketches ' of an earlier date, was 
a collection of scattered contributions 
various periodicals. His verae is not with- 
out merit ; the shorter pieces breathe a strong 
spirit of Irish patriotism of the best kind ; 




W Wills < 

and atitramis IrUh nationalist ia said tohave 
embraced thfold cler^man on lt'ftrniiiBtl>at 
he was the aulhor of ' 'The MinBtrel's Walh.' 
He died at Attanagli in November IWS. 

Wills was aa iiuusually brilliant conver- 
aationlst, and some of hiS more ambitious 
poems show much of the dramatic power 
wliich descended to bis son, William Gorman 
Wills [q. v.] 

[Webb's Compendium; Dublio Unirersity 
Masuine; W.G. Wills, Drammiet and Painter, 
by FrBcmanWilla ; Iriab Quartcrljlteviov, March 
18S2; Alii bonu'H Dirt, of Engl. Lit.: Todd's Oro- 
diMtes of Dublin UniTereilj: Burke's Land.«d 
Gentry ; Brooks's UecolleetionB of the Irish 
Church. 2nd ser.] C. L. F. 

WILLS, JOHN (1741-1806), benefactor 
of Wadbaro Colle(fe, Oxford, the only son of 
John WillsofSHaborough, Somerset, was bom 
B.C Seaborough in 17-11. He matriculated 
from Hertford College, Oxford, on 18 March 
1758, aged 17, graduated B.A. in 1761, be- 
coming a follow of the society in 176.1. In 
the some year be proceeded nf.A. He w^s 
preferred to the college rectory of Tyd St. 
Mary in 1778, and in 1779 was presented to 
the rectory of Seaborough by Adam Martin; 
five years later he rebuilt the par^ionage of 
liignative village. W'illswaselected fifteenth 
warden of Wadham College on 7 July 1783, 
in succession to Dr. James Gerard. He took 
the d^ree of D.D. in the same year, and tLe 
office of vice-chancellor devolved u]ion him 
ia 179^. After an uneventful headship he 
died at Wadham on 16 June 1806, aged 05. 

In Wills Wadham found its grentest bene- 
factor since ita foundation. He left 400/. a 
year to augment the warden's stipend, at tbo 
same time bequeathing his books and furni- i 
ture to his successor, Dr. William Touma.y. | 
He left 1,000/. to improve the warden's 
lodgings : two exhibitions of lOOf. each an- ! 
nually to two fellows of the coll^, students | 
of law and physic ; two schotarBhipB of 20/. 
each for the same faculties; stipends of 
thirty guineas yearly for a divinity lecturer 
and preacher, and annuities of 76/. and 50/. | 
to superannuated fellows, besides a reoditiB ' 
prize and minor benefactions. He alio left 
an estate at Tyd St. Giles, worth about 150/. 
per annum, to the v ice-chance i lor for the 
tine being, ' in aid of the great burthen* of 
his olfice I ' 100/. per annum to the senior \ 
Bodleian librarian : 100/, per annum to tbe , 
theatre, and 100/. per annum to the Oxford 
Infirmary. After some private bequests ho 
made the residue of his estate over to the 
college for the purchase of livings. Owing 
to Willa's liberality the Wadham gardens 
reached their present eitent, the parterres 
■nd clipped yews and statuettes of Dr. 


Wi]kina'8time,Bs described hv .John Evclvn, 
giving plope to the ' romantic * garden de- 
igned by Shipley. Thf portrait of Wilb 
" >Tronr~ *' ''"" ""■ **''"-*' 

[Jackson's Wailbam College, pp. 121. 147, 
181, 187, 216; Gent. JUg. 1806, i. SS9-80 ; 
Fosters Alumni Oion. 1715-1886.] T. S. 

WILIS, RICHAnD (/. 1558-1573), 

author. [See Wieles.] 

WILLS, THOMAS (1740-1802), evan- 

gloa-justa-Camelford), who married Mmt 
Spry. Tbe mother and twio-alstpr, both of 
whom were buried in Truro church, died at 
his birth, The father died a year or tiro 
later, and was also buried there. The two 
surviving sons were adopted fay the eldHt 
aunt, Lucy Spry of Truro, who died in 17BB, 
leaving most of her fortune to Thomas. Tbe 
elder boy. John Wills (d. 11 Oct. 17U4), be- 
came a lleuti^nant in the navy uniltir fait 
relative. Admiral Spry. The younger son, 
after his aunt's death, was piit under the 
care of her brother-in-law, Tliorans Michell 
of Croft West, near Truro, and placed at 
Truro grnmmar sch'iol, where he attended 
the ministry of Samuel Walker [l. v.] 

Wills matriculated ^m Magdalea Hall, 
Oxford, on 28 Itlarch 1757, and graduated 
B.A. 11 Dec. 1780. While at the university 
he became friendly with Thomas Hawels 
[q. v.], a brother Coniisbman and pupil at 
Truro si-hool, and was numbered among his 
religious associates. He was ordained dea- 
con by the bishop of l.lxford in 1702, and 
priest by the bishopof Exeter on Trinity Sun- 
day 1764. In 17^ he was appointed tothe 
curacy of Perraniabuloe and St. Agnea, two 
parielicB on the north coast of Cornvrall, of 
which James Walker, a brother of Samuel 
Walker, was vicar. His connection with 
Peiranzabuloe ceased in 17B'), I>ut he re- 
mained at St. Agnes until January 177**. 

In the autumn of 1772 Wills made tbe 
of the Countess of Iluntini^aa 


city, and on 6 Oct. 1774 he married Selina 
Margaretta, third daughter of the Itev. Gran- 
ville Wheler of Otterden Place, near FaveP- 
sham, Kent, by his wife, Lady Catherine 
Maria Hastings, Lady Huntingdon, his 
wife's aunt, viaited them at St. Agnes in 
the autumn of 1775, and established her 
chapels In Cornwall. \\'ill8 was appointed 



chaplain in Januarv 177S, andtbereupon 
jmeJ hia curacy. 
_, Wills neit proceeded to Ladv niinting- 
"don's cotleife at Trevecca, and then to BriKU- 
ton. For hie irrcffular conduct in preaching 
U the S^ Fields chapet in 17S1 hn wus 
served with & citation ov the Rev, William 
Sellon of St. James's, Clerkenwell. Next 
year he took the oath of allegiance as a dia- 
seutinc minister, Sni was appointed mini- 
ater of Spa Field* chnpel. He officiiited 
there and in the several chnpela of I-ady 
Huiitingdon's connexion throughout Eng- 
land forseTeralyeai-s, Bndon9 March 1783 
be and another minister held ' the priisarj 
(Hdination' of Ijidy HuntinRdouB con- 
nexion in Spa Fields chapel. Ue took tem- 
porary leave of thatcongreeation on 12 Au)f. 
17^. DiOerences ensued between him and 
Lady Huntingdon, and he did not miniater 
"■"* »agBinmitil30Marchl788. Hepreached 
'net sermon in the chapel on July 1788, 
a few days liter was dismissed by her. 
After preacbtng occasionally at Surrey 
cliapel and elsewhere Wills was enffaged by 
the propiietorg of Dr. Peckwell's chapel, in 
tlie Great Almonry at Westminster, and 
alao by those of Orange Street chapel, 
Leicester Square, to officiate in their re- 
(pectiTe buildings. The chapel at Silver 
^leet, near Aldersgate Street, waa let to 
him firom Michaelmas 1789 for a lecture on 
Thursday evenings, and at the following 
Christmas he took the building on lease. 
Its interior was then altered, and the liturgy 
of the Engliflh church, an organ, and the 
hymns of the Countess of Ilnnlingdon were 
introduced. He ceased in 1789 to preach 
in Orange Street chapel, and in 1701 he 
vaie up Westminster chapel ; but tn 17t).^ 
he began preaching in lalington chapl. 
Tbera and at Silver Street chapel he re- 
matned preaching the doctrines of 
■with anabated popularity for several years. 
About 1797 his congregation dwindled, 
through the popularity of an Antinomian 
preacher in Grub Street, and his own health 
began to decline. His mental faculties 
nve way, and in 1700 a stroke of paralysis 
incapacitated him from prencliing. lie look 
leave of his congrcBnti"" nt Silver Street on 
28 Feb. 1800. and retired to Boakenna in 
the parish of St. llurvjin. dimwall, the seat 
of James Paynter. ITe dii-d there on 12 May 
1602, and was buried on the north side of 
Bury an churchyard in a vaulted grave 
which he had constructed for himself and 
hia wife. A monument to his memory was 
placed in the church by his widow, who 
died at Boskenna on 3 April 1814. 

Aa a popular preacher Wills was second 

only to George Whitefield, and hia preaching 
ia the open air, especially on Tower Hill, 
attracted great crowds, lie was the author 
of ; 1 , ' Aemarka on Polygamy 
Madan's " ThelyphthoraV" 1781. 2. 'Au- 
theutic Narrative of the Primary Ordination 
in Ladv Huntingdon's Chapel, 9 March 1788;' 
2nd e^. 178(1. 3. ' The Spiritual Register.' 
171*1-95,3 vols.; he bad previously sent some 
of the cases (o the 'Prolestajit Magazine.' 
4. 'A Farewell Address lo the Oouiitess of 
Huntingdon's Chapels, and especially Spa 
Fields,' 1788. He also published some singltt 
sermons, and edited several religious works, 
including 'Letters from the late I!ev. 
William Romaine to a Friend,' which passed 
through many editions. 

A portrait, by Sir Thomas Iiawrenco, of 
Wills was engraved by H, It, Cook, and on 
a larger scale by Fittler. A print of him, 
drawn and engraved by Ooldar, is prefijted 
to the 'Spiritual Register' and the 'New 
Spiritual MagBKJne,' vol. i. Another print, 
by Hidley. published by T. Chapman on 
1 May 17M, is ia the 'Evangelical Maga- 

Life lit the Countess of Huntingdon,!, 310, 3U3- 
331, ii, S3-0, 76. 203-4,310-18,414-33,479-81 ; 
Lifa of S. E. Pierce, pp. 59-92, B2-B; Wilson's 
DiBBPQtbg ChnrrheB, iii, 116-23: Nelson's 
Islington, pp. 273-S : Bennett's Silver Street 
Church, pp. 21-2; Foster's Alnmni Oron. : 
Gent. UHg. 1774 p. 494, 1S03 i. S8A, ISU i. 
^IH; Parochial Hist . of Cornwall, i. 162; Boaie 
and Counnoy's Bibl. Comub. ii. 890-1 ; Wlll- 
cocks'a Spa Fields Cbipul, pp 34, 38.1 

W. P. C. 

IPiH), dramatist, son of James Wills [q. v.], 
was bom Bt Blackwell Lodge, Kilmurry, on 
28 Jan. 1838. He was educated at Water- 
ford grammar school under Dr. Price, and at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he entered 
on 6 Nov. 1845. hia college tutor being Dr. 
Frank Sadleir [q.v.] lie did not proceed to 
a degree, but established a reputation among 
the Htiidenta by his poem on ' Poland,' for 
which he won the vice-chancellor's medal 
in 1848. He showed a strong bent for por- 
trait-painting, but received no training in 
art beyond that which the Royal Hibernian 
Academy, then in a very ilecreptt slate, 
could afford. Like Goldsmith when an un- 
dergraduate, he aeems to have rioted upon 
a minute allowance, earning a precariouR 
guinea now and again by a portrail 
contributing loan ephemera! magazine ealleJi 
'The Irish Metropolitan,' through the pages 
of which ran his first serial story entitled 
' Old Times,' published in volume iom 

reaching ^^H 
rer ^M 

e author ^^| 



^ Wills 

jean later, in IBST. AtDr. Anster'sboiise be 
met with u fellow-contributor and congenial 

3iirit, the brlUiunt univeraitv Boliemisn, 
barlea Pelham Mulvaaj [q, t.J 
In 1863, after sevpral years of very desnl- 
torv occupation, or, as he atyled it, ' daisy- 

B':king ' in Ireland, Wills settled in London, 
B took rooms with bis friend Elenry lluin- 
pbreysia Clifibrd'a Inn. His efforts to inalce 
alivelihood by hia pen were not (^ncourag-ing. 
In ]863BppeBredhiB'No1ice toQuit,' a story 
conceived after the manner of Eugene Sue, 
which was praised for itadramatic situations 
but met with little success. In October of 
this same year Wills obtained the Itoynl 
Humane Society's inedal for a brave at- 
tempt to rescue a drowning lad near Old 
Swan Wbarf. ' The Wife's Evidence ' (1861, 
reissued 1876), a story of considerable melo- 
dramatic power, gained him an introduction 
to the ntagazinea, and be wrote ' David 
Chantrey' (18651 for ' Temple Bar,' and fcr 
' Tinaley'^H Magaiine ' ' The Three Watches ' 
(1885), and 'The Uve that Kills' (1867), 
in which he remauipulates material already 
used in ' Old Times,' 

His father's death in 1608 impelled Wills 
to undertake the support of bis mother. He 
reverted to portraiture as his best means of 
earning' money, look a studio at 15 The 
Avenue, Fulbam Koad, and worked very 
successfully in paste! drawine^, mainly of 
children. He eihibited in the Grosvonor 
Oallery, and was soon oskinK twenty ^lineas 
for a small picture finished in three or four 
sittings ; and for a time there was no lack of 
fashionable sitters. Incurably unconven- 
tional. Wills, in response to a command to 
visit Osborne to draw the royal grand- 
children, pleaded a prior engagement. The 
Princess Louise wna inleroated in Willa's 

of his Htunio, which was haunted by stray 
C4ta, by monkeys and other unclean animals, 
&nd also by numerous parasites and loafers, 
attract«d by the painter's easy-^xng babit of 
inviting; visit^irB to stay, and keepin); his 
spore (jiange in a tobacco jar on the cbimnej- 
piBCe. Absent-mindedness, inherited, it is 
said, from his father, who once boiled bis 
watch in mistake for an egg, grew upon 
Wills to an extent which prejudiced hia 
career. He became oblivious of nodal ec- 

«ould not be found to reeeire them, for- 
(fot or travestied the names of people 
who entertained hira, and prided himself 
in being as diapoasionate b.^ Dr. Johnson 
on the subject of clean linen. In liis 

! Wills 

later years he did most of his composition 
in l>ed. 

MeanwhileW'ilU was turning bis attention 
to writing for the stage. A first dramatic 
attempt, an adaptation from the German 
of Van UolfKi, entitled -A Man and his 
Sbadow' (1865), was followed by the pa- 
thetic ' Man o' Airlie,' which was put on at 
the Princess's in July 186", with Mr. Her- 
mann Vei'm in the title-part. Though the 
receipts were small, the plav rarely failed 
to move its audience, and the author was 
eneoorsged to write two other plays, sug- 
gested and produced by Mr. Veiin : ' Uinba, 
or the Headsman's Daughter' (founded upon 
Ludwig Storcb's historical novel), produced 
at the Queen's Theatre in September 1871; 
and 'Broken Spells,' written in conjunction 
with Westland Marston, and produced at 
the Court in April 1872. A short time 
before this date Wills was introduced by 
Vexin to the Butemans, and after the ap- 
pearance of ' Hinko ' be was retained by 
Colonel Bateman as ' dramatist to the Ly- 
ceum ' at a yearly salary of 3001. Upon tbii 
endowment he produced in turn ' Mede* in 
Corinth' (JulylSra), 'Charles I' (38 Sept. 
1872), and 'Eugene Aram* (April 1878). 
The first two of these plays contain Willa's 
best work. ' Charles I,' though inferior to 
its predecessor in form, caught the taste of 
the public, and enabled Mr. (now Sir) Henry 
Irving to coniirm the reputation which he 
had made for himself in the ' Bells.' The 
portraiture of Charles was in harmony with 
v'ao Dyok, and the suggestion of calm and 
dignified suffering that disdained to resent or 
protest is decide<llT effective. Like Scott, 
Wills was a atauncli cavalier, and he was as 
little concerned with historical accuracy as 

In his next biatorical play, ' Marie Stuart' 
(Princess's, February 1874), he caricatured 
John KnoK with the same gusto with which 
he had defamed Cromwell, He was now in 
grent demand as a verse playwright, and 
produced in quick succession " Sappho,' given 
It the Theatre Royal, Dublin, in 1876j 
Buckingham ' (Olympic. November 187^; 
Jane Shore' (PrincGSs's, September 187^; 
and ' England in the Days of Charles U' 
(Drury Lane, September 1877). Hia second 
great success was with ' Olivia ' (based upon 
Goldsmith's' Vicar of Wakefield'), of wKeh 
the best that can be said is that it has rarely 
been surpaeaed aa an adaptation of a novet 
It was produced at the Court Theatre in 
March 1873 under the management of Mr. 
MHrp, with William Terrias [q. v.] as Squira 
nhiU and Miss Ellen I'erry as Livyj 
both players were seen in their original parts 

^phen the piece was Huceessfully revived at 

the Lyceum in 18S5. 

The dramatUt now produced with great 

npiditv a qiinntity of very inferior work. 

•Sell Owyime,' given at theKoyaltyin May 

1878; * VandenlecWtn,' based upon the le^nd 
of the 'Flying Dutchiuan' (Lyceum, June 
1878); 'Ellen,' aftrrwards called 'Braff" 
tHftvmarket,April 1879); 'Bolivar' (Tbeaire 
Hoyk!, Duhlin, Noveniher 187i>); 'Xinnn' 
(Adelpbi, Februari- 1880); 'Forced from 
Home' (Duke> Theatre, February 1S80) ; 
■lolanlhe' (Lyceum, Mav 1880); 'William 
and Susan' (St. James a, October 1880): 
•Jnaoa' (Court. Mav 1881); 'Sedgmoor' 
(Sadler's WeUs, Au^st 1881): and Jane 
Ettb' (Globe, December 1882). In ISBd 
Henry Herman, Mr. Wilson Barrett's 
manner, provided a ' plot ' on which Wills 
was coaxed into basing the play ' Claudian ' 
(socceMfully produced at the Princess's in 
December 1883), a strange compound of 
tinsel and faollow columns, in which the old 
legend of the Wandering Jew is turned to 
melodramatic pnrpnse. ' Grinpoire,' given 
at the Prince's Tliealre in June 1885, was 
followed in December by Wilb's version of 
' Faust ' for the Lyceum. In this, as in 
' Clandian,' he appeared merely as the 


his aub-arcbaic verbiage was not devoid of 
romantic resonance and was scrupulously 
cut into bUnk-verse lengths. Like qualities 
are conspicuous in his ' Melchior,' a blank- 
rerse poem in thirty-two cantoa, dedicated 
to Robert Browning and published in 1885, 
The long-drawn descriptions are often mere 
pinchbeck, but Will» had some of the faculty 
of an Irishman as a ballodist, clearly shown in 
(uch nongs as ' I'll sinpf thee sonjfS of Araby ' 
and ' The BaUad of Gnif Brum.' 

In the intervals of dramatic work Wills 
ipent much time at £:tretat and a few weeks 
occasionally at Paris, where he rented a 
studio. His real interest wbe still in oil- 
painting : his oil-psiniing of Ophelia is now 
10 the loyer at the Lyceum. His plays were 
a by-product, in which he took little interest 
after De bad furnished the manuscript. He 
wldom attended rehearsals, and his recom- 
mendations, even when feasible, were gene- 
rally uitheeded by the actors ; he was never 
present at the premiere of one of bis own 

On 3 April 1887 Wills'a mother died, and 
her loss removed one of the few incentives 
h« bad to exert himself. He moved his 
'studio' to Waihaoi Green, was henceforth 
Gllle seen by his friends at the Qarrick Club 
or elsewhere, and wrote little. His health 
began to breali, and at the close of 1891 

10L. LXII. 

he waa bv his own request removed to Guy's 
Hospital,' where he died on 13 Dec. 1891. 
Many of the leading actors and playwrights 
of the day were present at his interment 
in Bromplon cemetery. His lost piece, 'A 
Royal Divorce,' was being played at the 
Olympic at the time of his death. A previous 
play, on the subject of ' Don Quixote.' wns 
produced at the Lvceum with very motlerate 
success iu May 1895. ' Charles I ' and his 
adaptalion of the lirat. part of ' FausI ' are 
the only plays by Wills which were issued 
in printed form. 

Wills was a bom writer of dramatic 
scenes, but his gifts were neutralised lo a 
large extent by bis inability to concentrate 
and by the essential lack ol firm taste and 
self-critical power. He Is ably summed up 
in the acute jud^ent of M. Filon: 'His 
Bohemian life, his impassioned character, 
his hasty methods of production, gave him in 
the distance the look of genius. But it was 
a misleading' look .... his pieces ore founded 
upon conceptions which crumble away upon 
analysis, and the versification is loo poor to 
veil or redeem the weakness of the dramatic 

[■W.G. Wills, DramrtliBtandPainlw,' a wpU- 
wnlten biognipliy by the dramntisi's broUier, 
Freomiin Wills, appeared in IHgH, with n good 
portrait nn4 facaimils autograph. See nl»a 
AiFher'i English Dramatists of To-day, ISHB, 
pp. 352-80; Arehi-i'sAh-iut theTlieatru. 1881. 
pp. 'iillaq. ; Pi Ion's English Stage, 1807; Pitx- 
gerald'g Hunry Irring, 1893, chaps, x'lv. xr. ; 
O'DonoEhue's Fuati of Ireland, p. 261; An 
Evening in Bohemia (Temple Bar, Jane 1890); 
CalBlritiaB of the Century; Times, lo Dec 1891; 
The Theatre. 1 Feb. 18B3 (with portrait) ; Era, 
15 Dec. IBSI.] T. S. 

1880^ miscellaneous writer, was born at 
Plymouth on 13 Jan. 1810. His father, at 
one time a wealthy shipowner and prixe- 
agent, met with misfortunes, and at his 
death the chief care of supporting his family 
devolved upon William Henry, or Unny 
Wills as he waa always called. Wills be- 
came a journalist, and contributed to 
periodical publications such as the ' Penny ' 
and ' Saturday ' ma^aiinea, and McCulIoch's 
'Geographical Dictionary.' He was one of 
the original literary statf of ' Punch,' and 
had some share in the composition of the 
draft prospectus. He contributed to the first 
number (17 July 1841) the mordant epi- 
gram on Lord Cardigan called ' To the 
Blackballed of the United Service Club.' 
He waa for some time the recrular dramatic 
critic, inwhich capacity he ridiculed Jullien, 
the introducer of the promenade a '- 


Urury Lane, and severely criticised the act- 
ing of Charles Kean. Among his other 
contributions ia prose and verse were 
' Punch's Natural Jlistory of Courtship ' 
(illustrated bySirJohn Gilbert), 'Punch's 
Comic Mythology,' ' Information for Ehe 
People,' and skits Buch as 'The Burst Boiler 
and the Broken Heart,' and ' The Uncles of 
England,' in praise of pawnbroker*. In 
lH46 he wrote for the 'Almanac,' hut his 
contributions were thenceforth iufrequent. 

Wills began his lifelong association with 
Dickens in 1S46, when he became one of 
the Bulj-edilors of the ' Dully News ' under 
him. Soon al^erwards he went to Edinbui^li 
to edit ' Chambcrs'a Journal,' but two years 
later returned to London to become Dickens's 
Gucretarv. In 1649, on John Forster's sug- 
gestion.'Wills wax made assistant editor of 
' HouBehold Words,' and was given the same 
position by Dickens when, ten years later, 
* All the \ ear Bound' was incorporated with 
it. Hia business capacity was invuluafala to 
Dickens, and he was one of the most inti- 
mate friends of the novelist in later life. At 
the end of 18S1 Wills accompanied Dickens 
on his theatrical tour in connection with 
the Guild of Literature and Art, to Iha 
temporary success of which Lis exertions 
laively contributed. 

In 1B68. while Dickens was in America, 
^\'iUs Buftered concussion of the brain from 
an accident in the hunting field, and was 
disabled from his duties as editor of 'All 
the Year Round,' lie never recovered, and 
retired from active work. The remaining 
veara of his life Wills spent at Welwjn, 
llerlfordshire, where he acted as magislrale 
and chairman of the board of gunrdiauB. 
Ue died there on I Sept. 1880. 

Wills edited, id 1850,' SirHogerde Cover- 
ley by the Spectator,' illustrated by en- 
gravings from designs by Frederick I'aylor 
(1851, IBmo; Boston, Massachusetts, IS5I, 
12mo ; reissued in the ' Traveller's Library,' 
1856, evo). 

Willsalso published ' Old LeavEB gathered 
from Household Words' (I860, 8vo), dedi- 
cated to Dickens. The book oonsistsof thirty- 
seven descriptive sketches of places and 
events. In 1801 he issued a quarto volume, 
' Poets' Wit and Humour,' illustrated by 
a hundred engravings from drawings by 
C. Bennett and O. H. Thomas. Two pieces, 
'A Lyric for Lovers' and an 'Ode to Big 
Ben,' the latterof which originally appeared 
in ' Punch,' were from his own pen. The 
l»ok was republished in 1882. Wills also 
republished under the title ' Light and Dark ' 
some of hi.* contributions to ' Chambers's 
Journal.' Ue was a fluent writer both in 

Wills ^^^m 

prose and verse, with a faint tinge of pedsn- 
t.ry, which atTorded Dickens much amuse- 
ment. Douglas Jerrold was fond of exer- 
cising his wit at his expense, and Wills 
hod enough humour to enjoy the aituation. 
The Baroness Burdett-Coutts had for many 
years the advantage of Wil la's judgment and 
experience in the conduct of her philan* 
throj)ic undertakings. 

Wills married Janet, youngest sister of 
William and Robert Chambers, the Edin- 
burgh publishers. She was a woman of 
strcmg character, and a great favourilp with 
Dickens, In whose correspondence her name 
frequently appears. She had an extensive 
knowledge of Scottish literature, and a large 
fund of anecdotes, and was for many years 
ihecentreof a wide literary and social circle. 
She died on 34 Oct. 189:;. At her death 
the sum of 1,000/. accrued to the newspaper 

Eress fund, in whiuh Wills had interested 
imself after the failure of the Guild of 
Literature and Art. 

{AthenBUm. 4 Sept. isa". 29 Oct. 1892. ud 
12 Nov, lSfi2; Fortter'sLifif of Dickena, )i.l2a, 
iii. 237, 454-fi ; Dickeoa's LeLtara, ed. Dickcvn 
nnd Hogarth, pnsstm ; Spielmana's Hisl. at 

lie's EIngl. Newi^pBra, ii. US ; AUibaDa'a 
. Engl. Lit. ; P. Fitzgerald's Memoirs of an 
Author, chap, iii., and BecrmtioDs of * Lit<iai7 
Man, i. 74.] U. La O. S. 

WIIJS, WILLIAM JOHN 11834-1661), 
Australian explorer, the son of William 
Wills, a medical man, was bom at Toloes, 
Devonshire, on 5 Jan. 1834, and educated 
At Ashhurton school till 1830, when he wss 
articled to his father, and at intervals from 
18S0 to 18ft:! studied medicine in Ijoodon, 
both at Ouy's and 9t. Bartholomew's hoi- 
pitals, Un 1 Oct. 18o2, carrying- out an 
idea which his father had already fOTmed, i 
he emigrated with his brother to Victoril, ' 
and started life as a shepherd at 30L a ' 
year and rations. In 1853 he was jnined 
by his father, and settled at Ballamt, where 
fur almost a year he acted as Uis father's 
assistant. He was, however, always pining 
for the open air and tlie bush, and in 1856 
he obtained admission as a volunteer to the 
office of the surveyor of crown lands for the 
district. Here his aptitude for astronomic^ 
work and surveying was soon recognised. 
In 1858 he was employed on his first fielil 
Bun-ey for the department. In November 
1858, on the institution of the magnetic and 
meteorological observatory at Melooume,h* 
was appointed to the staff. 

In 1860 Wills was appointed third in 
command of the exploring expedition sent 




t from ^'ictoTi& to iliecnver u route to ibti 

OSS Aiutralia. The party left Mel- 

iii 'iO Aug. 1860, and proceeded 

^_U)wly OS fer aa tbe Darling river, where a 

t diSirenccoci^uiTed between tueleuder.Kobert 

I'O'Hnni Burke [q. v.j, and Landella, the 

Dcond in command, rtMulting in the retire- 

-MiRt of Luidells and tbe appointment of 

■ WillH to be eecondincommand. OnlOOct. 

V Burke and M'ilU, with a portion of their 

' nten, left Menindie with sixtDen cameU and 

flftmn hones, to push on in advance of the 

aat of tbe expedition. Travelling about 

wenty miles a day, they made Torowoto on 

(Jet., whence they sent back a despatch 

irith a report by Witla. Thta was the only 

^ Arect mesaage ever received from them, and 

lis it Burke remarlts, 'I consider myself very 

[jfinunale in having Mr. Wills m my second 

in command. He is a capital officer, zealous 

nd untiring iu the performance of his duties.' 

f Aft«r leaving tbe Torowoto swamp the party 

I Wocenled by way of Wright's Greek to 

CooDcr'aCrevkiWhich was reached on II Dec. 

A. o^pot was formed, and on 16 Dec. Burke 

and Wills started northward with six cameU, 

« horse, and three months' provisions. Their 

rout« wasforthe moat part through a pleasant 

country and along good watprcouraes, and 

they reached the lidd waters of tbe Flinders 

tisrt on l-J Feb. 1861. Wills's own diarv 

is the source from which we learn the details 

of their advance, and he tells the tale in 

a simple and modest fashion. On 21 April 

they nrrired at the depot on their return 

journey, but only to find it abandoned. 

On 23 April they started down Cooper's 
Cnwk for Adelaide: hut after losing their 
remnining camels they began to fuel the 
anxieties of their position, without proper 
conveyance, and dependent on the natives 
or their own exHrtionsforsupplies. Between 
37 May and 6 June Wills made a journey 
on foot and alone to the depot at Coopers 
CrMk and back to the camp on the road to 
Jlouot Hopeless. No help had come, and 
they were all in a desperate position. Wills's 
journal l«IU the tale of gradual starvation 
during the month of June ; the last entry 
ii on '2^ June, when be records that Burlie 
and King, the only other Knglishmen re- 
maining, are to leave him in the search for 
kelp from the natives, and that he does not 
expect to lost more than four or five days. 
King, tbe only eventual survivor of the 
p«rtv, returned within that time, and found 
thai' Wills liad already died, probably on 29 
or 30 June. 

would have been 

attained without such loss of life. It is lii 
evidence that Wills on more than one occa- 
sion advised a course whieh would have 
eertainlv been rewarded by the safety of the 
partv (Uowiit). 

W^ills has been described by one of his 
friends as 'a thorough Englishman, aelf- 
relying and self-contained.' lie was modest 
yet strong of purpose, persevering, and to 
the last degree trustworthy. His passion 
for astronomy was remarkable, but study of 
all kinds was a part of his life. lie was 
thoughtful and religious. 

A national memorial of him and his 
leader stands in frant of the i'arliament 
House (it Melbourne. There is also a raa- 
morial of him at his native town of Totnes, 
and a tablet iu his old school at Ashburton. 
One of the streets in Ballarat is called after 
him. A print of a good portrait is given in 
his fathers memoir of his journey. 

London. 1863: Hewitt's Hist, of Liscovery ii 

Amtrnlia, ii. 13 1 K\q.\ Pari. Paper on the Burke 
and Willfl Exploring Expedition, Honsaaf Com- 
mons. 1882, No. 13D,1 C. A. H. 

WttLSHIEE, Sib THOMAS (1789- 
1862), bart., general, born at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, on 24 Aug. 1789, wag the eldest sur- 
vLrlng son of Captain John Willshire by 
Mary, daughter of Willium Linden of Dub- 
lin. The father was son of Noah Willshire, 
a merchant, and, as the latter would not bur 
him a commission, he enlisted in the 38tb 
foot, lie was made quartermaster in 1790, 
lieutenant and adjutant in 1793, and pay- 
master in 1801. He obtained commissions 
in the regiment for three of his sons while 
thev were still children : that of Thomas 
Willshire was dated 25 June 1795, and on 
& Sept. following he became lieutenant. 

Thomas Witlsmre joined his regiment at 
Saintes in tbe West Indies in January I "OH. 
It returned to England in 1800, and it was 
probably then Iliat he went to school, at 
King's Lynn and Kensington. He was pro- 
moled captain on 28 Aug. 1804, when a se- 
cond battalion was raised. The lirst batta- 
lion went to the Cape in 180i>, but he re- 
mained behind, and was second in a duel 
fought at Nottingham on 1 Jan. 1806. Ho 
joined the first battalion in South America 
'm 1607, and took part in the attack on 
Buenos Avres. He went with it to Portu- 
gal in 1808. and woa present nt Kolico, Vi- 
miero, and Coruiia. He served with it in 
Walcheren, where his father died on 26 Sept. 

In June 1813 tbe first battalion of the 
38th again embarked for the Peninsula, 



Willshire 5« Willshire 

Willshire commandinf!^ the light company. 
It joined the army three days before the 
battle of Salamanca ('2'2 July), and was 
brigaded with the royals and the 9th in 
the o\\i (Leith'») division. Willshire re- 
ceived two wounds in the battle. He com- 
manded the light companies of the brigade 
in tlie action on the Carrion on 25 Oct. 

chase in the 46th. (le had command of it 
for some time at BalUrv, and in December 
1824 he commanded a brigade in the force 
under Colonel Deacon which retook the 
fort at Kittoor. On 30 Auir. 1827 he was 
made lieutenant-colonel without purchase 
of the 2nd (queen^s), stationed at Poona. 
He served with it nearly ten vears, and 

during the retreat from Hurgos. In 1H13 , Sir Lionel Smith, after inspecting the regi- 
the division formed part of (iraham's corps ! ment in 1830, reported that he had 'never 

at Vittoria, and at the siege of San Sebastian. 
In the first aMuult tlie 38th was assigned 
the lesser hreacli. In the second assault it 

yet met so perfect a commanding officer.' 

On 10 Jan. 1837 he was made brevet 
colonel, with the local rank of brigadier- 

was at first in reserve, but was soon brought ' general in India. In 1838, while command- 
up in flnpy)ort of the stormers. Willshire's I ing a brigade at Poona, he was given one 

youngf'St brother was killed; he himself 
was given a brevet majority on 21 Sept. 
He commandfHl tlie light companies of the 


in the *army of the Indus,' formed for the 
invasion of Afghanistan. In February 1839^ 
the army was reorganised, Keane becoming 
brigade at the passage of tfie Bidassoa, . commander-in-chief, and AVilkhire succeed- 
which he is said to hav(? been the first man i ing him in the command of the Bombay 
to cross, and in tlie act ions on the Nive ; division of infantry. His troops were the 
(9 11 Dec.) and tlu' ropulse of the sortie last to cross the bolan, and were harassed 
from IJnyonne (14 April 1814). He received ; by the tribesmen; but he reached Quetta 
n br^'vct lieutenant-colonelcy, and after- ' on '^ April, and Kandahar on 4 May. He 
wards the Peniusular silver medal with took part in the storming of Ghazni on 
Ht'.vcn cbisps. j 23 July, and went on to Kabul. 

In 1H15 his battalion was sent to the ' On 18 Sept. — the day after a grand in- 
Netherlands, but was too lato for Waterloo, vestiture of the Durani order, of which he 
It went on to I*aris, and Willshire was em- received the second class — he began his 
)loyed for a short tim«» on the staff. In , march back to the Indus with the Bombay 
)e(;erab<'r he n'turnfd with the battalion to division. After passing C4hazni he marched 
Kn^dnnd, and in .Jun*.' 1^18 wfnt with it to direct on Quetta, punishing some of the 
tlir* T-apt^ On his way out he wrote a tribes on his way, and arriving there on 
manual of * li^^ht eompany mameuvres in 31 Oct. He had been told to depose Mehrab 
conr»Tt with liattalion manceuvres,* which Khan of Kelat, and sent a column from 
was srnt. to Sir Henry Torrc^ns [n.v.], and was Quetta for that purpose on 3 Nov. Leam- 
prohably us<'d bv him in pr(']>anng the drill- | ing from Major (afterwards Sir James) Out- 
book of IHiJt. karly in 1819 Willshire was ram that resistance was likely, he joined it 
H<*nt to th<» fronti^T as commandant of = himself two days afterwards. It consisted 
|{ritish Kallraria. A (juarnd between the . of the queen's and 17th foot, the 31st Ben- 
chi»'fH, in which th»! British aiithorities gal native infantry, some local horse, six 
int«'rv»*n«?d, hid to an attack on Grahamstown guns, and some Bombay engineers, number- 
by Mokanna with six thousand Kaffirs on ing in all 1,1()() men. 

22 Ajiril. Willshin; had only his own i lie reached Kelat on the 13th, and found 
company f»f thn *5^tli, with 210 local troops the khan's troops (about 2,000 men) posted 
and fivd guns. Tlu' attack was well planned on three hills north-west of the fort. He 
and d»!tormin<'d ; hut it was skilfully met drove them from these hills, captured their 
and n-pulsMfl with loss. Willshire followed guns, and tried to enter the fort along with 
up tin* Kuflirs, and forced Mokanna to sur- the fugitives. The gate was closed before 
rcudfT. Tin; territory between the Fish his men could reach it, but it was soon 
rivfT and the Keiskaninia was added to the opened by his guns, and after a determined 
coh)ny, anrl Fort Willshire was built in it. | resistance the fort and its citadel were 
He was hi^dily praiM'd by the governor, Lord , stormed, with a loss of 138 men killed and 
Charles Somerset, who was also commander ! wounded. Mehrab Khan died fighting at 
of the forces, and hv th(» Duke of York. the head of his men (Xo/ir/. Gaz. ErtrASreh, 

In 1HL>2 the :\Ht\\ went to ('alcutta, and , 1840). 
"Willshire was strongly recommended by The governor-general, in forwarding Will- 
Som(?rset to the jrovernor-peneral, I^ord i shire's report, commended his 'decision, 
Hastinpfs. He could not afford to purchase great nulitarv skill, and excellent disposi- 
his majority in the regiment, and on 10 Sept. tions ; ' and Outram speaks of * the cool 
1823 he was given a majority without ]>ur- I and determined demeanour of our veter n 

Eaecii: Ue bad been made C.B. ia 1838. 
ir the campaign in Al'gbauislan ke received 
ihe thanks of parliamtint, and was made 
K.C.B. oa 20 Dec. 1H39 ; and for the cap- 
ture of Ketat he was created a barunct un 
« June 1840, 

After tnstalliiiK a neir klian, who was 
aoou displaced, Wlllahire left Kelat on 
31 Nov. 1839, and resumed hia march to 
the Indiu. Ilia division iras broken up on 
27 Dec,, and he returned to the command 
of bis brigade at Poona. In October 1840 
• lunstroke obliged hioi to reairn this and go 
to England. On27NoT, 1841 he excbanjud 
from the queen's regiment to half-pay, hviag 
Appointed comniuidaat at Chalham. 
remained there till 1846, when he was pro- 
moted major-generat on 9 Nov. He wati 
Afterwards unemployed. He was made 
-colonel of the &lst foot on 26 June l»19, 
lieutenant-general on 20 June 18.54, general 
on 20 April 1861, and G.C.B. on 28 June 
1861. Be died on 31 May im-2 at UiJl 
House, near Windsor. On 1 1 May 1818 he 
married Annette Loiiitia, eldest daugliter of 
Captain Berkeley Maxwell, ILA., of Tuppen- 
deoe, Kent ; be had two sons and three 

Willshire was a tall, athletic man, with 
Aquiline features. Ilia portrait, painted by 
T. Heaphy, was lent by Lady WilUhire to 
the Victorian Eichibition. In the 3Sth he 
Lad the sobriquet of ' Tiger Tom.' As a 
disdplioarian be ' was strict, indeed severe, 
but always impartial andjust.' 

[Low'i Soldiers of the ViMortan Arb, i. 1-104 ; 
OaoLHag. 1H62. ii. 631 ; Kenoedy's Camixiiga 
of the Army of tbe ladus ; noldaniiil'B Life of 
Ontram ; Dutatid's rirst Afghau War ; Burke's 
jMRige.] E. M. L, 

^ WILLSON. [See also WiLSO-V.] 


^K|654), antiquary and architect, born at Lln- 

^bolti on 21 June 1787, was the eldest son of 

I ■William Willson of Lincoln by bis wife 

Clarissa, daughterof William Tenney. l^> 

bert William Willson [q. v.] was his younger 

brother. He was brought up a Roman 

[ catholic, and, aAer education at tbe grammar 

cbool, began to leam business an a builder 

'et his father, who had unusual know- 

« of theoretical construction. In a few 

s he abandoned building for tbe study 

f architecture, in which be obtained help 

n a local architect. He was engaged by 

rchdeacon Bayley in 1823 in the restora- 

{k>n of Messingham church, and euperin- 

Bnded repairs or restoratioua at llaxey, 

^uth, West Rosen, Saundby, Staunton, and 

ir churches in the counties of Lincoln aud 

Nottingham. He designed Roman catholic 
chaiiels at Noi:titu;haDi, Hainton, Louth, 
Melton Mowbray, tirautham, and elsewhere, 
some of which may be regarded as early 
examples of tbe Goifiic revival. In l«>26 he 
designed the organ cose for Lincoln Cathe- 
dral, but beyonulihis (and occasional informal 
suggestions) be was not engaged on the 
cathedral restorations, conducted at that time 
in a spirit of wholesale renovation whicb 
he deprecated. Between 1834 and 1845 he 
restoi^ the keep, towers, and walls of Lin- 
coln Castle, and bad for more than twenty 
years the charge of that fabric as county 
surveyor. The I'elham Column, 128 feet 
high, on a bill at Caboum betneen Caistor 
and Grimsby, was designed by Willson for 
the Earl of Varborough. About 1818 an 
acquaintance with John Britton [q.vj and 
Augustus Charles Pugin [q.v.} started him 
upon an industrioua career as a writer on 
the phase of architecture then becoming 
popular. For Britton's ' Architectural An- 
l iquities ' (4to, 1807-20) he supplied accounts 
of Boston church, St. Peters, Barton, and 
the minsters of Beverley and Lincoln, and 

firobably took a large share in the cbrono- 
ogica! table attached to the fifth volume. 
He was associated with the same author's 
' Cathedral Antiquities' (4to, 18I4-36J and 
' Picturesque Antiquities of English Cities ' 
(4to, 1830). 

The ' .Specimens of Gothic Architecture ' 
which Augustus Cliarles I'ugin began to 
p'abliah in 1821 owed much to \\'illson's 
suggestions, both in the delineation of mould- 
ings and det^is (an advance on previous 
methods of recording architecture) and in 
the selection of the esamjiles. Willson 
wrote the whole of the letterpress for these 
two volumes, and supplied a valuable glos- 
sary of Gothic architecture, tbe first of its 
kind. For Pugin's 'Examples of Gothic 
Architecture' (4to, 1826-31) he also wrot« 
the text, including essays on ' Gothic Archi- 
tecture' and 'Mi^ern Imitrttion.' He was 
intimately connected with the movement for 
the cultivation and nomenclature of Oothio 
architecture with which Thomas Rickman 
[q. v.] and others were then associated. 

He was the author of various pamphlets 
on local subjects, aud collected a wealth of 
material for the architectural history of his 
county and cathedral, which lack of lime 
and health prevented liis putting into print. 
All branches of ecclesiastical history claimed 
bis attention, and he left notes u^n the 
disputed authorship of tbe "De Iinitatione 
Cbristi.' He was honoured as a citizen in 
Lincoln, and became a cily magistrate in. 
1634 and mayor in 1852. 





Willeon died at Lincoln on 8 Sept. 1854, 
He wfiE buriud at Hainton. Ue married, in 
1621, Alan-, duughter al Thomas Mould. 
By her he lind two surviving sons. 

[Biiilder, IHfiS, liii iS ; inroTinHtinn from 
T.J. WillfioD, esq.: Gent. Mug. 185a, i. 321.1 
P. W. 


) 1791-181)6), Roman catholic bwhop of 
IIobHrt, Tasmania, bom nt Lincoln in 1704, 
was thu third son of William Willson of 
Lincoln. Edward James Willson [q.v.lwns 
hia ddeat brother, lie entered the college 
of Old Oscott in 1816, waa ordained to tJie 
priesthood bv Bishop John Milner (1752- 
1826) [q.v.]m Decumber 1834, and m Fe- 
bruary 1835 was stationed at Kottiagbatn, 
whera hs built thespaciouschurch of St. John, 
'which was completed in 16:^8. Subsequently 
he erected the tine group of buildings that 
now constitute the cathedral of St. Barna- 
bas, with its episcopal and clerical residence, 
schools, and convent. At the suggestion of 
William Bernard Ullathome [4. v.] he was 
made the first bishop of Hobort Town, Tas- 
mania, being consecrated in St. Chad's Cathe- 
dral, Birmingham, on 28 Oct. 1843 by Arch- 
bishop Poldinr of Sydney. Bishop (after- 
wards Cardinal) Wiseman ssermon, preached 
on the occasion, has heen printed. Willson 
arrived at Hobart Town in 1844. 

Besides Norfolk Island, othcrpenal settle- 
ments at Port Arthur and on Marin, Island 
came within the jurisdiction of the new 
bishnp. Great social evils had been de- 
veloped under the prevailing system of penal 
discipline, but Willson efiepted many ame- 
liorations in the treatment of the convicts, 
especially on Norfolk Island. Indeed his 
representations to the colonial and imperial 
governments, backed by Sir William Thomas 
I)enison rq,v.],ultimatelyohtainedathorout^h 
reformation of this part of the system. So 
earnest was he in his purpose that be resolved 
to come home in order to let the British Go- 
vernment know the truth with regard to 
the sufferings of the convicts and the aorrars 
of Norfolk Island. He arrived in England 
in the middle of 1847, and he was listened 
to with respectful attention both by her 
majesty's government and by the select com- 
mittee of the House of Lords, lie reached 
Hobart Town agoin in December 1847, and, 
in consequence of his continued exertions, 
Norfolk Island was eventually abandoned as 
R penal settlement. Willson brought ahont 
other reforms in the penal discipline of Tas- 
mania, and he likewise elfected various re- 
forms in the treatment of the insane. Ilia 
services oa chief pastor of his own com- 

munion, and as a public man in the develop- 
ment of various colonial and local institu- 
tions, were warmly acknowledged by suc- 
cessive governors and by the community at 
large throughout Tasmania. 

He finally left the colony, in shattered 
health, in the spring of 186^, and settled at 
the scene of his earlier labours. Having 
formally resigned his preferment, he was 
translated by the holy nee on 32 June 188U 
from the bisliopric of Hobart Town to tluit 
of RhodiopoHs, i» partitas injidelium. Qp 
died at Nottingham on SO June 1806. nnd 
was buried in the crvpt of the cathedral 
church of St. Bom abas. 

[MamQir by Bishop UIIathorDo, London, 1887 
(with Dhotagraphii.' portrait), reprinted from 
Dublin BBViflw. 3rd aer. iriii. 1-26 ; Cunsecra. 
linn Sennon by Cardinal Wiseman: Kelsli's 
PBraDn.ll Rei^ollretions of Bishop Willson, Ho- 
bnrt. 1882: Ullathorne's Autobioer. p. 282; 
Gent. Mjig. 1866, ii. 27U.] T. C. 

WILLUGHBY. [See also Willouohbt.] 
naturalist, was born at Middleton, Warwick- 
shire, in ItWo. He was eollaterally descended 
on his raalemul graudfather's side from Sir 
Hugh Willougbby fq, v.1, his father's &ther 
being Sir Percivall Willughby, the male 
representative of the Willoughbys of Eresby, 
and his father's mother the eldest daughter 
ond heiress of Sir Francis Willughby of 
Wolleton, Nottinghamsliire. His father, Sir 
Francis Willughby, who died 17 Dec. 1666, 
married Cassandra, daughter of Thomas 
Ridgeway, earl of Londonderry [q. v.], and 
Willughby was their only son. ' He was, 
from liis childhood,' savs llay, ' addicted to 
study. ... As soon as he had come to the 
use of reason, he was so great a husband 
of his time as not willingly to lose or let 
slip unoccupied tholeast fragment of it, . , . 
:cessive in the prosecution of his studies 
that most of his intimate friends wers 
of opinion that he did much weahen his 
body and impairhis health' (rAfOm/Motwy 
of Franca WUlughb^, 1678, pref.) Wif- 
lugbby entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1653, as a fellow-commoner, his tutor 
being James Duport [q. v.], who in 1660 
dedicated his ' Gnomologia Homeri ' to Wil- 
lughby and three others. Itay, who was 
eight years Willoghby's senior, had entered 
Trinity College in order to become Duport'a 
pupil, but in 1653 was already himself Greek 
lecturer, and became soon after matbemnti- 
cal lecturer, and in 1655 humanity reader. 
Isaac Barrow, to whom Willughby's mathe- 
matical tastes recommended him, had been 
elected to a fellowship at the same time as 

a tlie uotes and 

fcjUjinle49. WillughbvgnnlualedU.A. 
f^ 1655-6, andtircJwedeU M.A. in 1659. 

In 1860 Willughby spent a. short time i 

Oxford in gnler to consult EOtue rare works 

in tlie libniriea there; and in the preface 

to his 'Cstologua Planlarum circa Canta- 

brigiam,' published in that year, Ray alludes 

I to help received from ^Villugliby and to his 

Lsttceesa in the itudy of insects. In a letter 

Eto him, dat«d 1669, llay asks for his help, 

ffcr WarwickHhlre and Nottinghamshire, to- 

B wards a catalogue of British plants (Vorre- 

W-mon'Uitff of John Ray, Hay Soc., p. I ). In 

■ IBHI WitliighbT did not accompnny Itay 

P tax the second botanical journey described 

' in ' Mr. Itnv's Ilineruriei*/ published 

'Remaina' 'in 1700, though- -'- 

in Derham's ' Life of llay ' ne la Braiea in 
iisv« done ao, the naturalist's companion 
being Philip Skippnn («jr>. cit. p. 3), but in 
3fay and June 1II02 he did accompany Ray 
on his third journey from Cambridge through 
the northern midland counties and \\'alefi. 
He appears to have parted company from 
him ill Ulouceatershire, to have chanced upon 
a find of Roman coins near Dursley, and to 
have fallen ill at Malvern {op. eil. ji. 5). 
WUIughby was at this time much inte- 
rested In mathematical questious,a« appears 
firora two letters of his, dated March 1663 
and October 16()5, to Barrow, published by 
Barrow dedicated to him and others his 
edition of ' Euclid,' and is recorded in Cole's 
manuscripts to have said ' that he never 
hnew a gentleman of such ardor after real 
_ learning and knowledge, and of such ca- 
pacities and fitnesa for any kinde of learning.' 
~ ItnuM have been at this time that, as Ray 
i;|lft«r*r&rds told Derham {MemoriaU qf Say, 
"^ 88), he and Willughby 'finding the 
'? History of Nature" very imperfect . . . 
litgreed between themselves, before their 
*^vel8 beyond sea, to reduce the several 
of things to a method, and to give 
itato descriptions of the several species 
..I a strict view of them. And forasmuch 
Mr. Willughby's genius lay chiefl;f to 
i lmala. ihpwJore be undertook the birds, 
^CMts, fishes, and insects, as Mr. Ray did 
pbe vegetable^.' Ray, having been deprived 
^Vf hia fellowship in August 1162 by the 
meration of the Act of Uniformity, he and 
Willughby determined to go abroad, and 
iBft Dover for Calais on 18 April H)63, 
accompanied by Philip (afterwards Sir 
Philip) Skippon and Nathaniel Bacon, two 
of Ray's pupils. On 22 May Willughby 
WB8 included in the original list of fellows 
of the Royal Society, which had been in- 
corporated on 22 April. War with France 

compelled ibe travellers to turn a 
Flanders, after which they traversed Her- 
_ , Switferland. Italy. Sicily, and Malta. 
In August 16(U Willughby parted from tho 
others at Stontpelier, and accompanied a 
raercbant into Spain. His journey is siim- 
mariaed in a letter to Itay, written from 
Paris in December {C'wmwp. af Itay, p. 7). 
Many of the travellers' papers were tost on 
llieir return journey; ijut Itay published 
their ' Observations. . . . Whereunio id 
added a brief Account; of Francis Wil- 
lughbv, esq., his Voyage through a prent 
pnrt of Spain,' in 1673, and many of W;il- 
lugliby's specimens of birds, tishes, fossils, 
dried plants, and coins are still at Wollalon 

Recalled to England by the death of his 
fmher in Decemlwr Ittfift, Willughby vn» 
kept at Middluton Hall duringmnch of 1606; 
but on 22 July, in company with Itobert 
Hooke Bitd others, he observed the eclipse 
of the sun through Boyle's 60-foot telescopo 
in Ixindon (PAH. Ti-atu. 8 Sept. HMW). In 
October of that j-ear Dr. John Wilkins [q. v,] 
wrote aski[ig his assistance in drawing up 
tables of animals for hia ' Essay towards n 
RealChBracter,'which was published in 1668; 
and Ray spent the greater part of the follow- 
ing winter at Middleton, as he says in a letter 
tf) Martin Lister, ' reviewing, and helping 
to put in order, Mr. Wlllughby's collections 
. . . in giving what assistance I could to 
Dr. Wilkins in framing his tables of plants, 
quadrupeds, birds, lishes, &c., for the use of 
the universall character' {Memorialmf Ray, 
p, 17) ; in the dedication of his work, how- 
ever, Wilkins acknowledges his indebtedness 
to Willughby in respect of animals, and to 
Ray only in respect of plants. From June to 
September 1667 Willughby and Hay made 
a tour into the south-west of England iib. 
p, dl); but Willughby's marriage in 1668 
temporarily suspended their collaboration. 
Ray was, however, re-established at Middle- 
ton Hall in September 1608, and in the 
following spring the two fnends carried 
out some important experiments on the rise 
of sap in trees (.Phil. Tran». iv. 963). In 
tte autumn of 1669 Willughby sent letters 
to the Royal Society on the 'cartrages' of 
rose leaves made hy leaf-cutting bees. I 
1671 he wrote on the some subject and o 
ichneumon wasps, and from a letter from 
Ray to Lister in 1670 he see 
added considerably to the I at 
English spiders iCorreep. of Ray, p. 60). 
At the close of 1671 Willughby medilatrf 
a journey to .\merica to ' perfect his history 
of animals ; ' but, his health, never robust, 
failed him. He was token seriously ill it 




Jane 1672, ami died U Uiddleton Hall on 
3 Jdv 1QT3. lie »u buried in Middleton 
ebnrcn, his tomb being aurmouated by a 
bunt and bearing a Latin epitaph, probably 
by R«y. There is also a marble bust of 
him io Trinitj CkiUege Library, Cambridge, 
■ad an oil portrait at Wollaton, from wliicb 
that bT Liian in Sir William Jardine'a 
' Nftturaliiifs Libranr ' was engraved. The 
Kenaa WUhu/kbeia, an important group of 
Halsvan rubber plants, was d«di(«ted to 
him by William RoiburKh [q. v.] The ieat 
cutting bee dnscribed by liim bears bia name 
a« ' Megachile Willubuella.' 

WilJUKhb; married, ia l(itI8, Emma, se- 
cond daughter and coheiress of Sir Tbomag 
Bermird, by whom he had three children, 
Fnucis, Cassandra, and Thomas. FTancis, 
born in 1668, was created a baronet in iU7ti, 
no doubt as an honour to his father's me- 
mory, but died in 1688. Cassandra married 
James Brydges, first duke of Chandos ;[q. v.]; 
Kod Tbomai, who succeeded to the baronetcy 
in 1688, was created Baron Hiddleton in 
December 1711, being one of the batch of 
peers created in one day under Harley and 
St. John; he died in 1729. Mrs. Willughby 
in 1670 married Sir Josiah Child [q, v.] 

Ray was one of five executore of Wil- 
lughby'a will, under which he received an 
Annuity of sixty pounds. Until 1676 he 
acted as tutor Io tlie children of hifl friend, 
and, from letters printed in his ' Corre- 
■pondeoco' (pp. 101. 103), he seems soon 
to have decided Ibat it was his duty to pub- 
lish what Willughby bad done lowards bis 
history of animals. ' Viewing,' he says, ' his 
manuscript! after his death, I found the 
several animals in every kind, both birdu, 
and beasts, and lishes, and insectB, digested 
into a method of his own contriving, but few 
of their descriptions or histories so full and 
perfect as he lot-ended them ; which he 
io sensible of that when I asked him upon 
bis deathbed whether it was his pleasure 
they should be published, he answered tbitt 
he did not desire it, nor thought them bo coi 
siderable as to deserve it . . . though he C(JI 
fest there were some new and pretty observi 
tions on insects. But considering that the 
publication of them might conduce some- 
what to the illustration of Qod's glory . . 
the assistance of those who addict them- 
eetves Io this part of philosophy, aud . . the 
honour of our nation ... he not contradict- 
ing, 1 resolved to publish them and first took 
in band the Ornithology' (Preface to The 
fJmithiilogy of Franms Willtighhv. 1678). 
This WM published in 1676 as ■'Francisci 
"Willughbeii . . . Omithologire libri tres in 
quibtu aves omnes ... in methodum naturis 

deacribuntur . . . 
Totum opuB recognovit, digeeait, supplevit 
Joannes Rains. Sumptus in cbalc^ntpbM 
fecit illustris». D. Emma Willughby vidua,' 
IjOndoD, pp. 312, fol. Uf this work Neville 
Wood says Willughby was " the firet nalu- 
ralist who treated the study of birds aa a 
science, and the first who made anything 
like a rational classijication . . . His sys- 
tem ... is without doubt the basis on which 
the ornithological classification of Liniueiu ij 
founded '(OmiVA(i/£^Mt'» Texl-bo<ik, pp. 3, 4). 
Itay next prepared an enlarged edition of 
this work In English, which he published in 
HJ78 OS 'The Ornithology of Francis Wil. 
lughby . . .' his own share in which ia de- 
scribed by the words, 'tranalited into English 
and enlarged with many additions through- 
out the whole work. To which are addod 
three considerable discourses: I. On the Art 

'lin^ II, Of the Ordering of Singing 
niras. in. Of Falconrv,' London (pp.448, 
fol.) On 18 Feb. 1084 Hay, then settled at 
Black Notley, Essex, write« to Sir Tancred 
llobinson [q.v.] that be had extracted out of 
W i II ughby 'a papers,' re V ised , s upplied , aetho- 
dited, and fitted for the press,' the ' Ichthyo- 
logy.' The Willughby family not assist- 
ing in the publication of this work, as they 
had in the case of the former, it was issued 
at the expense of Bishop Fell and the Hoyal 
Society, various fellows of the society bear- 
ing the cost of the copperplate illustrations, 
and the work being prmted at the Oxford 
University Press underthe title of 'Francisci 
WiUughlieii . , . de Uiaturia Piscium libii 
quatuor . . . Totum opusrecognovit,coBptBvit, 
supplevit, librum etiam primum et seeimduni 
inti^ros adjecit Johanuea lUius . . . Oxonii,' 
1686 (pp. 373, fol.) In the last year of his 
life lUy resolved to complete WiUughhy's 
' History of Insects,' but, at Ilr. Tancred 
Hobinson'a suggestion, preceded it by his 
' Methodua Insectorum,' published in 1705, 
just after his death. In August 1704 ha 
wrote to Dr. Derham of the larger work: 
' The mKin reason which induce.* me to un- 
dertake it Is because I have Mr. WiUughhy's 
history and papers in my hands, who had 
spent a great deal of time and bestowed 
much nuins upon this subject . . . and it ia 
a pity nis pains should be lost ... I nly 
chiefly on Mr. "Willughby's discoveries and 
the contributions of friends ; as for my own 
papers on the subject they are not worth 
preserving.' Tbe ' Illstorla Insectorum' 
was published in 1710 as ' auctore Joanne 
Uaio,' edited by Derham for the Royal So- 
ciety : but it abounds throughout with ac- 
knowledgments of indebtedness to Wil- 
lughby, expressed in terms of the highest 

^M deference. 
^P clans l^y's 
^1 ATiiim et 1 





deference. There seems little reason to 
class liay's posthumous ' Synnjiaia Methodica 
ATiiiinet Pisciuni,' published id lTl3,araoag 
works raninly due to the Isboure of Wif- 
lughby: but when we remeinber the inti- 
mate friendship of the two men, their un- 
doubted collaboration in the tables prepan>d 
for Dr.Wilkins's work,aQd the definite slate- 
menla as to Lis own share in the work made by 
Ray, a man of unquestionable modesty, we 
recognise that it is futile to attempt to ap- 
portion the credit. When Sir James Edward 
Smith writes ' we are in danger of attribut- 
ing too much to Mr. Willughby, and too 
little to' Ray (Lirmean Trajuiactiong,yol. i.), 
he errs only in a less degree than does 
Swainson in sayiug that 'all the honour 
thot has been ^ivsn to Hay, so fur as con- 
cerns systematic xoology, belongs eiclusi Tel T 
to' WiUughby. 

[Memoir by JoBhna Frederick Deahurn in Sir 
W. Jurdine^s N«Hir«Iist'» Library, vol, ivi.; 
aQthafitieR cited.] G. 8. B. 


168.1), writer on obstetrics, was siith son of 

Sir Percivsll Willuifhby, knt., of WoUaton 

I Hall, NottinghamHbire, where he was bom 

tin 1596. Francis Willughby [q. v.] was his 
nephew. Percivall was educated at Trow- 
bnd|^. Rugby, Eton, and Oxford, where he 
mstnculaled from Magdalen College on 
23 March 1620-1, his age being given as 
twenty-two, and graduated B.A. on 6 July 
Jn 1610 he was, at the suggestion of his 
uncli; Robert Willughby, himself a medical 
man, articled for seven years to Feamer van 
Ott«n, after which he was to have joined 
Ilia uncle; but Van Otten dying in 1624, 
Willughby soon after coramencwl practice 
for himself, and in 1631 he settled in Derby, 
where be married Elixabeth, daughter of Sir 
Frsncis Coke of Trusley, by whom he had 
two or three sons and two daughters. 

On W Feb. 1640-1 he was admitted an 
extra licentiate of the Royal Collie of 
Ffcyaicians. In 1665 he removed to London 
' for the better education of his children,' 
but in 1660 he returned to Derby, where he 
lesumed his practice as a physician, enjoying 
a high reputation throughout the neighbour- 
iag counties for his skill in obetetrio opera- 
I tions. He deprecMedtheuseof the crotchet. 
Land, Cbamberlen's secret of the forceps not 
BliBving been an yet divulged, he endeavoured 
I'to overcome all diflicultiea by tumiug. At 
■ 4n]e period he was to some extent assisted 
1 by a daughter, whom he had trained us a 
nidwife to ladies of the higher claseei. lie 
Ji of high culture, powerful Jntel- 

; the secrecy ^^M 
'aries main- ^H 
and though. ^^ 

lect.and great modi-sty, scorning the secrecy 
which some of his contemporaries main- 
tained OS to their procedures ; and though, 
he committed to writing the conclusions at 
which he arrived after long years of study 
and observation, revising and transcribing 
the manuscripts in English and in Latin, 
be seems to bave hesitated to the lost at 
their publication, as if sensible of the want 
of some really scientific instrument (the 
forceps) for the perfection of his art. The 
earliest copy of his work is a closely written 
De Puerperio Tractatus,' in the Britiih 
Museum .Sloane MS. 629. The second, 
an amplification of this, and referred to by 
l)r. Denman in his ' Practice of Midwifery,' 
was then in the possession of his friend 
Dr. Kirkland ; while the third and greatly 
enlarged edition consisted of two exquisitely 
written copies in Latin and in English, 
which were quite recently the property of 
the late Dr. J. H. Aveling, the En^Visli 
version being in two parts, wiih the titles 
' Observations in Midwifery ' and ' The 
Countrey Midwife's OpuBculum or Vade- 
mecum, by Percivall Willughby, Gentleman.' 
It was pnvately printed in 1863 by Henry 
Blenkinsopp, but a Dutch translation had 
been printed as an octavoat Leyden in 1764, 
though no copy is now to be had in Holland. 
He was the intimate friend of Harvey and 
of most of the scientific men of the century, 
and died on '2 Oct. 1681), in the ninetieui 
year of his age, being buried in St. Peter's 
Church at Derby, where within the rails of 
the chancel is a tablet to his memory. 

I Monks Coll. of PhjB.; Fosler's Alumni 
Oson, lfillO-17U; Sloana MS. 620.] E. F. W. 

WILLYAMS, COOPER (1762-1816), 
topographer and artist, bom in June 1762, 
probabty at Plaiatow House, Essex, was the 
onlyaoD of John WillyBraa(170r-ir79), com- 
mander li.N., by his wife, Anne Goodere, 
daughter of Sir Samuel Ooodere, and fiist 

he was contemporary with Charles Abbott, 
first lord Tenterden, Bishop Marsh, and Sir 
S. E. Brydges. In 1769 he preached the 
annual sermon before the King's School Feast 
Society (SiDEBOTUAM, CanUrbmy ScAutil, p. 

Willyams was entered in October 1780 at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and gra- 
duated ]t.A. in 1784 and M.A. in 178a In 
the spring of 1784 ha was in France with 
his friend Montagu Pennington [q. v.], and 
in that year he was ordained to a curacy 
near Gloucester, where his mother lived, 



VV^illyams 58 Willymat 

ffA tvf«« ni/if*nu*."A in 17%^ to tbfr Tic&raff^ lie d:^ &: Bernard Street, Russell Square, 

t,f V.tinnyt^ ut-.tif \ «; w ffiAr j<fr t. acd Jn 17<^-* to London, on 17 July l&lt5. He is said to 

Mff- rfjh,r/ 'tt Hi. JVt'T, \W*t Lvnn. X .r- LaT*r Ui-n buriei at Fulham, near lii« sister, 

f/>llr \u »i!>*«rr4*.'?^i account of Ex nir.z bv Beaia WiUvams id. 1791). He married 

h'ftn mi,i^»tf^A ^^» f-.^*'? * Topograph^rr' fr Sep- at Chrltenham. on I'D July 1801, Elizabeth 

h-fn^^r-f \i''^t '.!'' V'fJ-it, and he fumishrl iCebecca. ihirvl daughter of Peter SnelL 

Mhff tllri«*.r%/.i'/r«> to that periodical uii. They had four childi«>n. 

a-Vi; ^>ti|^ »v. J 7. U^}. H«j contributed to Willy ams was a clever artist. His journals 

' 7 M.'r/f «;/h^;%l Mi'sC'rllanieb' < 179:^) a view and drawings of the expeditions in which he 

t^ K./'Kr«i^ Mail, n^rar Newmarket, lie r^ tookpartare* intelligent and useful.* Another 

tt^hf*} *Uf ^^rttiiiit:*T of Exning in 1**0*j. work by hi m was 'A History of Sudeley Castle' 

th tMfiy Uff. Willyams had imbibed a love ( 1791, folio), with an illustration of the ruins, 

t4 y\»f. ^M, and on 24 Nov. 1793 he started dedicated to Brvdges. It was reprinted in 

#4 / ha^Witi of the Ikjyne to the West Inditrs, octavo form, and without the view, at Chel- 

u* tUf, irxpe^iition under the command of tenham in lb03. Poems by Bryd^s referring 

l^i/.'ii'Tfiafit-jreneral Sir Charles Grey and to Willyams are in 'Censura Literaria* (iv. 

^ it H-hfUtk\rtk[ Sir John Jervis. Through 79-100, viii. ^7, 91 1, and are reproduced iu 

t\»iHi\ik ir*nn yellow fever the ranks of the his * Uuminator* {\. 5, :K)9). 

tMrt:f% w»rnr luuch thinned; he himself suf- [Boase and Coortneys BibL Comub. ii. 891-2 ; 

<itf*>d from it, and during the latter part of Boase's Collect. Comub. p. 1271 ; Gent. Mag. 

i\uK rafiipaifrn was the onlv chaplain in the 1779 p. 1 J4, 1797 i. 50, ii. 1137« 1801 ii. 672, 

fc*j/«-djiJoij/The Fr*inch soldiers at Fort St. 1806 ii. 1240, 1809 ii. 1171, 1810 ii. 91, 1816 

r'h«W/re,'iiJadeloupe,8urr»-'nderedon22April i. 91, 184; Brjdges's Antobiogr. i. 44-6, 147-9; 

<7'.M, and Willvams was appointed chaplain Annual Bio^r. i. G04-6(hy Br>-dge«); Faulkner's 

to th«- \'Mi[\\Ai "tffjops in that island, but the Fulham. p. 116; Reuss's Alphabetical Reg. of 

miHi^iry ai home would not confirm the ap- 4."'!*^"' ^®^^ ' Letters of Mrs. Carter (1817). 

i»>nntm*'Ut. He published in 1796, with »"• 216.] W. F. C. 

ijlijfttrations *An Account of the Campaign WILLYMAT, W11.LIAM (rf.l615),au- 

in l\i*.\\*'^i JndieK in 1794;* a German trans- thor, was probably a native of Cheshire. In 

l«ii«m of it came out at l^ipzig in Ift'OO. 1585he was presente<l to the rectory of Rusk- 

Hoiue detaiU of this war were instated from ington in Lmcolnshire by Thomas Howard 

hitt ♦ comprehensive and circumstantial Ac- (afterwards Earl of Suffolk) [q. v.] In 1603, 

I'oijfil' in Bryan Edwards's * Ilistor}' of the with the king's consent,he published a volume 

V\'<-ftt Indies '( 1891, iii. 414 et Heij.) of extracts from James I's * Basil ikon Doron,* 

Willyams U'came in 1797 domestic chap- which he rendered into Latin and English 

lain lo Karl St. Vincent, and from 24 May verse and entitled *A Prince's Looking- 

179"^ he wTVi'd as cliaiilain of the iSwiftsure Glasse, or a Prince's Direction, very requisite 

(Captain II alio well), a v«'s.sel in the sijuadron and necessarie for a Christian Prince. 


iiWU'T the eommand of Nelson, lie was , Printed by lohn Legat, Cambridge,* 4to. 
un-.^^.tiX. ill this vessel at the* battle of the The work was dedicatecl to Henry, prince 
S'Jiii, and liiH narrativ*', which was full of en- of Wales, for whose benefit the * Basilikon 
j/favingH frr>ni his own drawings, of * A Voy- j Doron' had been written. Encouraged by 
a(/«' iiji the .Mediterranean in the Swiftsure,' the favourable reception of his compilation, 
rontain<'d Mh'f first, tluMuost ])articular, and he published a companion volume in 1604 
I he nioht authentic account of the battle.' ' entitled *A Loyal Svbiect's Looking-Glasse, 
A <i'Tnnin version was published at Ham- or a Good Subiect's Direction necessar}* and 
it^un^ Hi IHO.'J. Alter the death of Willyams requisite for euerj^ Good Christian . '. . at 
iheri: ii|ipi-ure<l in 1K2:^ a volume containing London, printed by G. Elde for Robert Boul- 
* .i rti:liTii(in of Views in Egypt, Palestine, ton,' 4to. This work was also dedicated to 
Mljodeh, 1 1 Illy, Minorca, and ( Jibraltar, with Prince Henry. Willymat enforced by pre- 
diibi riiMions in English and FrtMich.* cepts drawn from ancient and modem writers 

VV»llyiiMihlan<led at Portsraouthon lOSept. the subject's duty of obedience to his rulers. 
jHMI, and stayed s m" weeks with Brydges, , He devoted a large portion of his book to 
wh" iu I'^On appoint^^d him to the rectory rebuking reluctance in paying subsidies and 
<»r' KiiiK'^ton, near ('anterbury. In tin ^ same customs, asserting that the subject's only 

^ , ioget her gious nature, which shows literary ability of 

yruduciidan income of over 1,000/. per annum. | a high order. It was entitled * Physicke to 

I tot Robert Boulton ' (8vo). and deditiled . _ 
his patron, the Earl of Suffolk (cf, AnoBR, 
TroTucripl of the Staliunenf jCg. iii. a69). 
A second edition wns puhlislied in 10U7. 
On 16 July itl!2 Willymnt petitioned the 
kin^ concerning the nrrears of a yearly pay- 
ment of 2/. to be made to the crown from 
the revenues of hia rectory, which had re- 
mained unpaid for forlj-seven years. He 
rmupBted the remission of the arrears due 
before the commencement of James I's reign, 
ofierinit to make ^ood aubseqiient arrears. 
HiB petition was granted, Willymat diedat 
Ituabinglon at tlie close of 161?, and his will 
waa proved at Lincoln on 19 Jan, I6I0-I6. 
By His wife Jlargaret he had two sons — 
miliam and James— and four daughters: 
Sai«h, ilargnret, Frances, and Anne. lie 
possessed land in Cheshire, which he be- 
queathed to hia brothers, James niid ItOR^r; 
in Kuskington, which he lefV to his son ^ViI• 
liam ; and in Bicker, which he bestowed on 
Ilia Kin Jamfs. The rest of bis poseessions 
I lu gave to his wife and three younger daugh- 
I ters, the eldest, Sarah, probably bein^ mar- 
[ned. Copies of all his works are m the 
,iah MWum Library. 
[HaddisoD'a Lincolnshire WiUs, 1600-17. pp. 
taOl. 132-91; Hiinur*9 Cboriis Vaium in Brit. 
Tlma. Addit. Ma. a«B9, f. 103; Corser* Col- 
iDsa {Cliethiiiii Sue), t. 1II3~I1 ; Cooper's 
enteCantHlir.iL. 402-3.] E. I. C. 

1 WILLYMOTT, WILLIAM (d. 1737). 

ian, born at Itoyston in Carobridge- 

s the second SOD of Thomas Willy- 

mott of lEoysIon, by his wife llnchoel, 

danriiteT of William i'indar. rector of Bos- 

■well Springfield in EsBo.x. He was educ«led 

^t Eton and admitted a scholar of King's 

I Oollege, Cambridge, on 20 Uct, 1603, gra- 

fAistin^ B.A. in 1H07, M.A. in 1700, and 

^ItL.D. in 1707. He became a fellow, and 

r taking his master's degree went as 

iuher t<i Kton, After some years be left 

Itoa and commenced a privet e school at Isle- 

ponh. In 1721 he was an unsuccessful can - 

idaie for the mastership of St. Paul's school, 

_eing rejected apporently because he was sus- 

EMCied of on attachment to the Pretender. 

r pome time before this he studied civil law 

Fknd entered himself of Doctors' Commons, 

' 'Irat, ebangiaghis mind, took orders, and in 

17^1 was made vice-provost of King's Col- 

Ieg«, of which he was then senior fellow. In 

1705 he was presented to the rectory of 

JAiiXtm, near Cambridge. He died, unmar' 

ried, on 7 June 1737, at the Swan Inn at 

Bedford, while reluming from «. visit to 

Willyraott was the author of n 
school books. Among ihem n _ 
tioned: I. ' English Particles exemplified 
in Sentences designed for Latin EjtercisM,' 
London,l"U3,8vo; Sthedit 1771. 2. 'The 
I'eculiar Use and Signification of certain 
Words in the Latin Tongue,' Cambridge, 
1705, 8yo; 8th edit, Eton, 1790, 8vo; new 
edit. Eton, 1818, l2mo. 3. ' I'hMednw [/a^J 
his Fables, with English Xotes,' 4th edit. 
London, 1730, 12mo; new edit. 1728. He 
al«u translated 'Lord Bacon's Essays,' Lon- 
don, 1720, 8vo; new eait. 1787; and 'Thomas 
B Kempis ... his Four Books of the Imi- 
tation of Christ,' London, 1722, 8vo. 

[Nichola'g Lit, Aneal. i. a3G-7, 705-8, iv. 
600; Hiirwoul's Alumni i:tflnensea, 1797, p. 
a97 ; Cu1l-b O'lleclions. ivi. 103.] E. I. C. 

WILMINGTON, Eabl op. [See Comp- 
Tos. Bpencee, l(jr3?-1743.] 

WILMOT, Sib CHARLES, first Vis- 
cousr WilmotopAthlone(1570!'-1644P), 
bom about 1570, was son and heir of Ed- 
ward Wilmot of Witnev, Oxfordshire, for- 
merly of Derwent, Gloucestershire, On 
S July 1587 he matriculated from Magdalen 
College, Oxford, oged 16, but left the uni- 
verslt J without a degree, and look service in 
I he Irish wars, probably in attendance upon 
liis neighbour, birThomis Norris [ij. v.], who 
was also a member of Magdalen College. In 
iri92 he became a captain, and early in 1695 
he was sent to Newry ; in the snme year he 
was also in command of sixty foot at Carrick- 
fergUB. In 1597 Norria, now president of 
Muasfer, made Wilmot aergeont-mnjfir of the 
forces in that province, which office he dis- 
charged ' with great valour and sufficiency,' 
being promoted colonel in 1698. He was 
knighted by Essex at Dublin on 6 Aug. 1&99, 
and on the 16tb was sent with instructions 
to the council of Munster for its government 
during Norris's illness. On 23 June 1600 
Mountjoy directed Curew to swear in Wil- 
mot as a member of the Munster council, 
and during the next two years he took n 

frominent part in suppressing the formidable 
risU rebellion. 
In July 1600 Wilmot was left by Carew 
in command of ' Carrygofoyle ' Castle on the 
Shannon; sborlly afterwards he was given 
command of a force of LOfiO foot and fifty 
horse,withwhiohin October be defeated Tho- 
mas Fitimaurice, eighteenth lord Kerry and 
baron Lixnaw fq. v.], and in November cap- 
tured Listowel Castle after sixteen days' 
siege. Florence Maccartby Keagh [q. v.] 
ia said to have urged Wilmot's aasaasinatioi 
at this time, but he wns warned bv Florence' 
wife. On 8 Dec. he was granted the offici 





of «y^ii*rablft of Cai^tlemaine Castle, and in j 
J-^lj l*^)\ WBA appointed governor of Cork. 
A T«Ar Utffr Car»;w l»;ft Munster, suggesting 
}S'A:iifA'» app<^>intmHnt an vice-president; 
f>^;;l, however, wrote that the queen would 
nrA 'luJOfpt Wilmot or any such* {Cal. 
Carev: MHS. J60l-;J, p. 274;, but Wilmot 
h^:OtmH r;^immander-in-chief of the forces 
durin^r Carews absence, and in Septemb#ir ! 
Iflfy'J wa% ma/Je governor of Kerry ; in the 
aame month he captured 'Mocrumpe,' and 
throughout the winter was engaged tn clear- j 
ing Kerry of the rebels. In the last week of 
liecember and first week of January 1602-3 
he inflict»;d a H*;riefl of reverses upon the 
Irish in IJeare and Jiantr^', completely over- 
running the country (ib. 1002 3, pp, 368, 
4^J4 o; Stafford, Pacata Hihernia, ed. 
WMS, ii. 281-4). Thence, in February, he 
turne^l north-west, again captured Lixnaw, 
and f^uUlued the iJingle peninsula, effecting 
a junction with Carew over the Mangerton 
pass HUowKLL, Jrfilanfl under the Tudors^ 
lij. 420). 

In the following March Wilmot was asso- 
ciated with Sir (ieorgo Thornton in the go- 
vernment of Munster during Carew's ab- 
0<;ncf*. Cork, however, refused to acknow- 
le<]ge his authority and proclaim James I, 
ana shut its gates against him. Wilmot sat 
down IjefDre it, and turned his guns on the 
inhabitants to prevent their demolishing tlie 
fort« erected against the Spaniards. He re- 
fused, however, to attack the city, and 
waited till Carew's return, when its submis- 
sion was arranged. Wilmot now settled 
down as governor of Kerry. In KKKJ ho 
was again acting with Thornton as joint- 
commissioner for the government of Mun- 
uter, and in Novemlxjr 1(K)7 was granted a 
pension of 200/., and sworn of tlie Irish 
privy council. On 20 May 1811 he was 

f granted in reversion the marshalship of Ire- 
and, but surrendered it on 24 Aug 1617. 
He sat in the English House of Commons 
for Launceston from 5 April to 17 June 
1614. On 3 June 1616 he was appointed 
president of Connauglit, the seat ol his go- 
vernment being Athlone ; and on 4 Jan. 
1620-1 he was created Viscount Wilmot of 
Athlone in tlie peerage of Ireland. Among 
the rewards for his services w^ere grants of 
the monastery of Hallinglass and abbey of 
Carriekfergus in 1614. 

While presidt^nt of Connaught Wilmot 
embarked on a scheme for completely re- 
building Athlone ; and in 1621 Sir Charles 
Coote accused him of leasing and alienating 
crown lands and reserving the profits to him- 
self {Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1615-25, 
pp. 4'i6-7). These charges were referred 

to commissioners, bat Wilxnot's defence 
accepted for the time being, and on 7 Xot. 
1625 he ruceired a pardon (MoKScr, CaL 
Patent RolU, Charles I, p. 41). Charles I 
also renewed hia appointment as premdent of 
Connaught, and in October 1(527 selected 
him as commander of a relief expedition to 
be sent to Rh6. His fleet was, howeTer, de- 
layed at Plymouth, first b^ want of supplies^ 
and then by storms, which damaged the 
ships and drove them back into port. Mean- 
while the English at La Rochelle had been 
compelled to retreat (Gabduter, yL 191> 
192 sqq.), and Wilmot returned to Ireland, 
where he was appointed on 6 Not. 1629 
general and commander-in-chief of the forces. 
On 11 Sept. 1630 Sir Roger Jones, first vis- 
count Ranelagh, was associated with him in 
the presidency of Connaught, and on 6 Aug. 
1631 he was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to govern Dublin and Leinster dur- 
ing the absence of the lords justices. 

tn 1631, when it was resolved to super- 
sede the lords justices of Ireland by the 
nomination of a lord deputy, Wilmot enter- 
tained hopes of being selected for the post 
(Strafford Letters^ i. 61). Wentworths ap- 
pointment he resented as a slight on his own 
long services, and the new lord-deputy's 
vigorous inquisition into financial abuses 
soon brought him into collision with Wil- 
mot. In September 1634 the latter's pro- 
ceedings at Athlone were again called in 
question ; a commission of inquiry was 
issued early in 1635, and the Irish law offi- 
cers instituted suits against Wilmot before 
the castle chamber on the ground of misde- 
meanour and in the court of exchequer for 
recovery of the crown lands he had alienated. 
Wilmot, in revenge, abetted Barr*s petition 
against Wentworth {ib. i. 369,377,399,402, 
421), but on 3 Oct. 1635 was forced to sub- 
mit, and on 13 July 1636 besought the lord- 
deputy's favour. W^entworth insisted on 
restitution of the crown lands, but appa- 
rently failed to make W^ilmot disgorge before 
his recall from Ireland. W^ilmot's age pre- 
vented his serving against the Irish rebels in 
1641, but he retained his joint-presidency 
of Connaught till his death, probably in 
the earlv part of 1644. He was alive on 
29 June' 1643, but dead before April 1644, 
when his son Henry and Sir Charles Coote 
were appointed joint-presidents of Connaught 
(Lascellbs, Liber Mun, Hib. ii. 188-90). 

Wilmot married, first, about 1605, Sarah, 
fourth daughter of Sir Henry Anderson, 
sheriff of London in 1601-2 ; by her, whose 
burial on 8 Dec. 1615 is registered both at St. 
Olave's Jewry and at St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, he had issue three sons — ArthuTi 



I Charles, and Henry —who were all IWina in 
1 imi ( HoRKiy, Car. Patent Solh,Chaxlee I, f. 
6*5). Arthur married the wcond daughter of 
I Sir UojSM Uill, proToat'iuarshal of I'Isttr, 
I but divd without issue on 31 Oct. 163:;, and 
Vas buried in St. NicLoliu'B Church, Dublin 
' iLoT>eE,PKragfofIri-land,ii.S2l). Charles 
ftlao died without issue, the third, son, 
Henrv (afterwards first Earl of lioolinsler) 
[q. v.], aucceeding to llie viscountcy. Wil- 
Bot married, secondly, Mary, daughter of 
Sir Henry Collcy of Caatle Cnrberry and 
widow of Garret, first viscount Moore [q. v.], 
who died in 1637; she survived till 3 June 
1664, being huried on 3 July with her first 
bnsband in St. Peter's, Droghuda; her cor- 
respondence vilh the parllaiDCintarians dur- 
ing the Irish wars gave Hrmonde some 
trouble (GiLBBttT, Cant. Sist. of Affairs, 

TOl. i 




[Cdl. State Fnpera, Ireland. 1S!)2>4. 1603- 
I63JS panini: Cal. Ciirew USA. 1980-1603; 
StrafTonl Le-tera, i. SI. Se", 3T7.390-i02, 421- 
43a. 406, ii. 9-10, 81-:!, 102, 206, 280; Morrin's 
Cnl. Pntent Kollf, Irclnnd: L'nl. FianU (Dep- 
Kwper Rer. ITth Rep., IrrUnd); CaI. Stnle 
pBpen, Oom. : Lnsni'ln's Libcir Mnnenim Hi- 
liernieoruni ; Lorcla' JourDnl?, Iiplsad, i. 17, 63 ; 
Bowlioaon MS. D. 81. If. 12, 92; Egerton MS. 
1687. f. fil ; OfficinI Retiims Memljcrs of Purl. ; 
fitafibrd'a Pnrntii Uibemia, <•!, 1806 pnssini; 
BigwfU'i Ireland onHcr Ihe Tudors, vol. iii.; 
Oardiner's Uist. of Englunil; Foster's Alumni 
dan, 1500-1714; Lodge's Irish, Burke'a Ex- 
tinct, and O.E.C[okfl)ne]'B Complete PeBraseB.] 

A. P. P, 
- WILMOT, SiH EDWARD (1693-1786), 
iMtmnct, physician, second ean of Robert 
Wilmot and Joyce, daughter of William 
Socheveretl of Staunton in Leiceslershire, 
was bom at his father's seat, of Oiiadd<'«den 
near Derby on 29 Oct. 1003. Bis ances- 
tors were of account at Sutton-upon-Soar, 
Nottin^amshire, for some centuries, and in 
IS39 migrated into Derbyshire, lie entered 
8t, John's, Cambridge, and graduated 
O.A, in 1714, was elected a fellow, took bis 
M.A. de^rree in 1718 and M.D.inl72fi. He 
vrB.i admitted a candidate or member of the 
CotUge of Physicians on 30 Sept. 1725, and 
wase!ectedRfellowou30Sept.l726. Inl739 
■fid 1741 he -nas a censor, and a Harveian 
omior in 1785. He was elected F.R.S. on 
29 Jan. 1790. From 1725 he practised as a 
physician in London, and was elected physi- 
cian to St. Thomas's Hospital, ar ' ' '""'' 
appaint.ed physician-general to the : 
April 1731 he was appointi^d physic 
ordinary to Quean Caroline, and soon became 

fbysician in ordinary, and physi 
'rederick, prince of Wales. He became 
physician to George II on the queen's death 

in 17.'!7. lie had a large practice for many 
venra. In 1730 John Fothergill [q, v.], who 
in afler life spoke with respect of his skill, 
became hispupil. When Henry Pelham bad 
lost two sons by sore throat in 1739, Wilmot 

f reserved the life of his wife. Lady Catharine 
'elham, by lancing her throat (Nichols, 
Lit. Anted, ix. 738). In March 1761, with 
Matthew Lee [q. v.], h« attended Frederick, 
prince of Wales, in his last illness, and does 
notseem to have anticipated his death (Bubb 
DODIKOTOS, Diary, p. 98). Archbishop 
Thomas Herring [q. v.] was his patient in a 
serious attack of pleurisy in 1753 (letter of 
Herring in NiCliois's llliutrationn, iii. 457). 
He was created a baronet on 15 Feb. 1759. 
On the death of George II, Wilmot, with 
John Ranby [q. T.], acquainted George III 
with ttvo wishes whicii the late king had 
confided to them — that his body should bo 
embalmed with a double quantity of per- 
fumes, and that it should be laid close to 
that of the queen. Geor^ III at once 
assenled flloEACE Walpolb, ,l/em"(V#, 1894, 
i. 7). Wilmot became phvsician in ordinary 
to George III in 1760, 'left London nert 
year, and lived in Kottingliam, but moved 
ihence to Heringstone in Dorset, whfere he 
died on 21 Nov. 1786 (Gent. Mag. 1786, 
p. 1093), and wna buried in that county in 
the cliurcb of Monkton, where his epitaph 
remains. He married Sarah Marsh, daiign- 
ter of Richard Mead [q. v.] She died on 
II Sept. 1765, aged 63; her portrait, painted 
by Joseph Wright, A.K.A., belongs to the 
family, as does a portrait of Wilmot by 
Thomas Beach (Cat. Second LaoH Exhib. 
Nos. 610, 615). He was succeeded in his 
baronetcy by his son, llobert Mead Wilmot, 
and had also two daughters, Ann and Jane. 
[MuBk's Coll. of PhjB. ii. 106 ; Burke's Peer- 
age Aud BuronlJige.] N. M. 

WILMOT, HENRY, first Easl of Ro- 

CHESTur (1612f-1658). third but only lur- 
viving SOD of Charles, first vtscoimt Wilmot 
[q v.], by his first wife, wns bom on 2 Nov., 
prohabh in 1612(0. F,. C[oK»rsBJ, CompMe 
Peerage, vi, 480; Dotle, Ogieial Baronage, 
iii. 151). In 1635 Wilmot was captain of a 
troop of horse in the Dutch service ( Strafford 
Zefierc, i. 423, ii . 1 1 5 ; Co/, .S/a(e Prt«(T«, Dom. 
1635, p. 54). In the second Scottish war ha 
-was commissary-general of horse inllie king's 
armv, and distinguiabed himself by his good 
conduct at Newbum, where be was rakeit 
prisoner by the Scots (I'A. 1640, pp. 4.3, 645; 
Tehri, ii/fl of Aleiander Leilir, pp. 118- 
138), He represented Tam worth in the I^ong 
parliament, end took part in the plot fur 
bringing up the army to overawe the parlia- 






ment, for which he was committeJ fa the 
Tower on 14 Juno lil4l, and expelled from 
the house on Dec. following (CVimnwi/u' 
JoumaU, a. 175. 337 ; Styiort on thr Duke 
of Portland"! MSS. i. 18; Hcshand, Oi-di- 
7u»n™#, 1643, pp. 318-20). 

Wilmotjoinedtheltingin Yorlohire when 
the civil wur beESn, eommandud a. troop of 
horse, and held tue posts of miisCer-m&ateT 
and com miasary-wn oral tPEACocit, Army 
Luts,p. 16; Old Parliamtntniy ffii(or!/,xi. 
260). Clarendon blHme.i him for not prevent- 
ing' the relief of Goventrv in Atigfust 1643 
(a. xi. 397 ; CtiBESDON, JUhtlUon, v. 446 «.) 
lie was wounded in the skirmish at Wor- 
cestor on 23 Hent. 1642, and commnnded the 
cavalry of the Icing's left wing nt the baltle 
of EdgehiU (ib. vi. 44, 85). \yiliuot cap- 
tured ihe town of Marlborough in December 
164^, but his greatest exploit daring the 
war was the crushing defeat he inSicted on 
Sir WiUiam WaUer (1597 ?-1668) [a. v.] at 
Boundway Dowu, near Devizes, on 13 July 
1643 (ih. vi. 156, vii. 1 15 ; Waylb.-j , Hittonf 
0/ Marlbomugh, p. 160). 'In April 1S13 
Wilmot was appointed lieu tenant-gen pral of 
the horse in the Icing's army, and on 39 June 
1643 he was created Baron Wilmot of Adder- 
bury in OKford»hire( Black, Oj-/ur(iZ)wjwi"(j, 
pp. 26,53), Clarendon describoH Wilmot' OB 
an orderly officer in marches and governing 
his troops,' while nlao very popular with his 
officers on account of his good fellowship and 
companionable wit. The comparison, after 
the manner of Plutarch, between Wilmot 
andOoring is the most amusingpassoge in the 
' Histoiy of the Itebellion ' (vm. 169). Ex- 
tremely ambitions and perpetually at feud 
with the king's civil counsellors, Wilmot 
was apccially hostile to Lords Digby and 
Colepeper. Prince Kupert, on the other 
liand, cherished a personal 
Wilmot, and Charles I had no great liking 
for him (». vi. 136, vii. 121, viii. 30, 94). 
In 1644 these diSerenC causes led lo Wilmot 'a 
fait. During the earlier part of the cam- 
paign the absence of Rupert and the hiGrmi- 
ties of the Earl of Brentford made him 
practically commander-in-chief of that part 
of the army which was with the kin^. 
According to Clarendon he neglected mili- 
tary opportunities and spent hia energy in 
cabals. At Cropredy Bridge, however.' on 
39 June Wilmot again defeated Sir William 
Waller, In the battle he was wounded and 
taken prisoner, but was rescued again almost 
immediately (ii. viii. 05; Walkbb, Hiaftirical 
Daeourteir, p. 33 ; Dinry of Bichard Sy- 
mondt, p. 23). Afier this success the king 

Sues. The king, he was rpprled to 
, was a&aid of peace, and ibe only 
end the war was to set up the Prince 
of \Vales, who had no share in the causes of 
these troubles. A private message which 
he sent to Essex by the bearer of an official 
letter from the king to the parliamentary 
commander roused suspicion that be was en- 
deavouring by the concerted action of the 
two generals to impose terms on the king 
and porliameut, and on f Aug. he was ar- 
rested and deprived of his command. He 
also lost his joint presidency of Connaught, 
to which he had been appointed in April 
1644, succeeding his father in that olface, 
and as second Viscount Wilmot of Athlone 
(LASCGLr.BS, Liber Mitn. Hibrmimrum, a. 
189, 190; GiLBEBT, CoHl. Hut. vol. i.) His 
popularity, however, with the officers of the 
royal army, who petitioned the king on his 
behalf, prevented any further proceedings 
— ■- ~ '-'m, and he was released and allowed 

October 1647 Wilmot fought n duel 
with his old enemy, Lord Digby, and was 
slightly wounded (Cabik, Oriyinal Lftteit, 
i. 63, 146, 159). 

When Charles II succeeded his father 
Wilmot became one of the new king's chief 
advisers. He was appointed b genlleraan of 
the bedchamber on 3 April 1649, and con- 
sulted on questions of policy, though not a 
memljer of the privy council [ Baitlie Lettert, 
iii. 8H; Carte, Ori'jinal Lellert, i. 339). 
He accompanied Charles to .Scotland, at- 
tached himself to the Marquia of Argyll's 
faction, and was allowed to st-ay in the 
country when other English royalists wet« 
expelled. Rumour credited him with be- 
traying the king's design to join MiddletOD 
and the Scottish royalists tn October 1650 
(Walker, Hieton'cal Diteottrta; pp. 158, 
101,197; lilchotai Paperi,\..2a\-%). Wil- 
mot fought at Won:ester, accompanied the 
king in the greater part of his wauderinga 
after that battle, and helped to procure the 
ship in which both escaped to France in 
October 1651 (Clibbsdox, Ilehellim, siii. 
87-106; Fe*, TheFliyhtoftkeKins,\Sen, 
passim). The common perils they had en- 
dured strengthened bia political position, 
and Wilmot, 'who had cultivated the king's 
afl'ection during Ihe time of their per^rina- 
tion and drawn many promises from him," 
was one of the committee of four whom 
Charles thenceforward consulted with in all 
his affairs (Clakenhos, RrbtlHon, xiii. 123; 
Clarendon Stale Papen, iii. 46). On 13 Dec. 
1652 he was created Earl of Rochester 
(D0YI.B, iii, 153; CLAaENSOS,if«ie//iu», siiL 

I4T). Chscles also employed him od many 
diplotaktie misaioiu. Id Mav \ab2 tie was 
Bent to neroCiate witb the Duhe of Lorraine 
(NirholatPaptra, \, 30lJ. itnd in Deceraber 
of the same year he was despatclied to 
negotiate with the diet of tlie empire at 
Ratisbon, from whom he suceeeded in ob- 
taining a eubsidf of about lO.tiOU/. for the 
J(ing"> service (Cr.iBESDOif, Eebeltion, xiv. 
6fi, 103). In imi, be watt sent on a misginn to 
the elector of Brandenbiirfr, from whom 
the king hoped for assiatance Co further the 
Tuing attempted bv the Scottish royaliBtH 
iCIarmdon Stnfe Papm, iii. 904, 220, 230, 
25I>. In February 1656 Rochester went to 
England to direct the moTemenla of the 
nnalist coDspirators against the Protector, 
■with power to postpone or to authorise an 
insurrection, aa it seemed advisable. He 
•utctioned the attempt, but at tbo rendei'.- 
Toiis of the Yorkshire cavaliers on 8 March 
kt Msraton Moor found himself with only 
about a hundred followers, and abandoned 
the bopeleiu enterprise. Clarendon iin- 
tuirly blames him for deeieting, hut royalists 
in general did not (Bebellioii, xiv. 1S5). 
Imnlcs to his skill in disgulaes, Rochester 
contrived to eflect bis escape, and, though 
MTested on suspicion at Aylesbury, (tot back 
to the continent earlv in June (Engluh Hit- 
torieal JUvkrr, 1888 p. 337, 1889 pp. 315. 
aifl. ;i3i). In 1656, when Charles II raised 
m lillle army in Flanders, Rochester was 
colonel ofoneofits four reKlment8{Cl.lRBK- 
Bov, Reiellwn, xv. 68). He died at Sluya 
on II) Feb. 1657-8, and was buried at 
Bruges bv Lord Bopton (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1659, pp. 297, 300). After the 
Bvstoratioit his body is said to have been 
mm erred at Spelabury, Oxfordshire. 

Rochester married twice : lirdt,on31 Au^. 
I6,'13, at Chelsea, Frances, daughter of S^ir 
George Mopon of Clenston, Dorset, by 

'Catherine, daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton 
of Witham, Somerset ; secondly, about 1044, 

'Anne, widow of Sir Francis Henry Lee, bart. 

'(A 13 July 16;»;, and daughter of Sir John 

'St, John, hart., by Anne, daughter of Sir 
noma* Leigbton. Portraits of hor and her 

'Snt husband are reproduced in ' Memoirs 
of tliB Vemev Familv' (i. 24\, iii. 464). 
8be wa* the friend of Sir Ralph Verney 
and of Colonel Hutchinson, and helped to 
Mve the life of the latter at the Restoration 
(Vebsbi, Mftnoin, i. 247, iii. 4ft4 : Life of 
Colonel Hufokiiuon, 1885, il. 258, 208. 396). 
She was also the mother of John, second 
©arl of Rochester [q. v.], aun-ived her son, 
and was buried at Spelsbury, Oxfordshire, 
onl8Marcbl696(G.E.Cf0KAVNEl, Complete 
Jferaye, vi. 481). 

[Doyln's OfficiHl Baronnge, iii. 
C[okayn8]"8 Compl-to Peerage, vi. *H0 ; Clareu- 
lion's History of ihe BelniUioQ ; Clarendon Siata 
Papers , Nicholas pHpers. Many of Wilmol'a 
Isltera nra smong the correapondeoca of PrinCB 
Rupert in tbe lirlti'sh Museum, some of whith 
ars printed in Warburton's PrincB Hupert.l 

WTLMOT. JAMES {d. 1808), alleged 
author of ' The Letters of Junius.' [See 
undi-r Sgrres, Mes. Olivia Wiluot.] 

WILMOT. JOHN, second Earl of 
RoouEsTKB (1647-1680), poet and libertine, 
was the son of llenty "W ilmot, first earl of 
Rochester [q. vj, by "bis second wife. He 
was horn ut Ditcbley in tlifordabire on 
10 April 1647. and on the death of his father 
on 9 Feb. 16r(7-8 succeeded to the earldom. 
He was left witb little besides the pretensions 
In the king's favour bequeathed him by his 
father's services to Charles after the battle 
of Worcester. Afterattending the school at 
Burford. he was admitted a fellow commoner 
of Wadham College, Oxford, on 18 Jan. 
1659-60. His tutor was Phineaa Bury. 
He showed aa an undergraduate a happy 
turn for English verse, and contributed to 
the university collections on Charles Il'a 
restoration (1660) and on the death of 
Princess Mary of Orange (lOlilj. He was 
created M.A. on 9 Sept. 1661, when little 
more than fourteen. Neit year be presented 
to his college four silver piut pota, which 
Hre still preserved. On leaving (he univer~ 
sity be travelled in France and Italy under 
ihe care nf Dr, Balfour, who encouraged bis 
love of literature. In 1664 be returned from 
liis travels while in bis eiffhteentb year, and 
presented himself at Whitehall, In tbo 
Bummer of 1665 he joined as a volunteer Sir 
Thomas Teddeman fq. v.] on board the Royal 
Katharine, and toot part in too unsuccessful 
nssBiilt on Uutcb ships in the Danish har- 
Ijour of Bergen on 1 Aug. He is aaid to 
have behaved witb credit, lie again served 
nt sea in the summer of the following year 
in the Channel under Sir Edward Spraffge 
[q. v.], and dielinguiahedhimself by carrying 
IL measagii in an open boat under the enemy's 

Rochester bad meanwhile identified him- 
self with the most dissolute set of Charles II's 
courtiers. He became the intimate associate 
of Oeorge VilliHra. second duke of Bucking- 
ham; Charles SackviUe, duke of Dorset; Sir 
Charles Sedley, and Henry Savile, and, 
although their junior by many years, soon 
excelled all of them in profligacy. Burnet 
aays that be was 'naturally modest till the 
court corrupted him,'but befell an unresist- 
ing prey to every manner of vicious example. 



His debaucheries and 
were often the outcome of long spelli 
drunlceniiesB. Towards the end of bis mi 
he declared that he wa9 under the inSuenci 
of drink for five couBecutive years. At thi 
game time lie cultivated a brilliant faculty 
for amorous lyrics, obscene rhymes, 
mordant sntires in verse, and, although he 
quickly ruined his physical health by his 
eicceases, his intellect retaiaed all its vivacity 
tiU death. 

The king readily admitted him to the 
closest intimacy. He was Charles's com- 
panion in many of the meanent and most 
contemptiblo o^ the king's amorous adven- 
turea, and often acted as a spy upon those 
which he was not invited to share. But 
although his obscene conversation and scorn 
for propriety amused tbe king, there 

love lost between them, and Rocbester's 
position at court was always precarious. His 
biting tongue and his practical jokes spared 
neither the king nor the ministers nor the 
royal mistresses, and, according to Oramont, 
he was dismissed in disgrace at least once 
a year, It was (Pepya wrote) ' lo tbe king's 
everlasting shame to have so idle a rogue 
his companion' (Pbpys, viii. 231-2). He 
clearly exerted over Charles an irresistiblQ 
iascinntion, and he was usually no sooner 
dismissed liie court than be was recalled. He 
wrote many 'libels 'on the king, which reek«d 
with gross indecency, but his verses included 
the familiar epigram on the ' sovereign lord ' 
who ' never said a fonlisb tbintr and n 
did a wise one' ('Miscellany Poems' 
pended to MitaUlaneota H'vrki of Rovhetttr 
and Ruscommon, 1707, p. t3J)). He lacked 
all sense of phame, and rebulTs bad no m 
ingfor him. On 18 Feb. 1608-9 be aci 
panied tbe king and other courtiers 
dinner at the Uulch ambassador's. Oifended 
by a remark of a i'ellow-pueat, Thomas Kilii- 
grew, he bosed bis ears in the royal presence. 
Charles II overlooked tbe breach of etiquette, 
and next day walked publicly up and down, 
with llocbester at court lo ihe dismay of 
aerioiisly minded spectators. When he at- 
tempted to steal a Kiss from the Duchess of 
Cleveland as she left her carriage, he was 
promptly laid on his back by a blow from 
her hand ; but, leaping to bis feet, he recited 
an impromptu compliment. 

On oiw occasion, when bidden to with- 
draw from court, be took up bis residence 
under an assumed name in the city of London, 
and, gaining admission to civic society, dis- 
closed and mockingly denounced thedugraded 
Subsequently he Bi.'t up as a quack doctor 
under the name of ,\ieiander Gendo, taking 

frolics lodgings in Tower .Street, and having a alall 
-"- -■■ I on Tower Hill. He amused himself by dis- 
pensing advice and cosmetics ainong credu- 
lous women. A speech which he is said to 
have delivered in tne character of a medical 
mountebank proves him to have acted his 
part with much humour and somewbat less 
freedom than might have been anticipated 
(prefixed to the ' Poetical Works of Sir 
Charles Sedkv," 1710; GRkMom. Mrmnin). 
At another ti'me, according to 9olnt-£vre- 
mond. he and the Duke of Buckingham took 
an Inn on tbe Xewmarket road, and, while 
pretending to net as tavern-keepers, con *pi red 
to corrupt all the respecluble women of the 
neighboiirbood. On relinquishing the ad- 
venture 'they joined tbe king at Newmarket, 
and were welcomed with delight. 

With the many ladies of doubtful reputa- 
tion who thronged tbe court Hochester had 
numerous intrigues, but he showed their 
waiting women as much attention as them- 
selves. Elirabcth Barry [q.v.l, 'woman to 
the Lady Shelton of Norfolk,' he look into 
his keeping. He taught her to act, and in- 
troduced her to the stage, where she pursued 
highlyaiiccesaful career. Some of his letters 
her were published after bis death, A 
daughter by her lived to the ajfo of thirteen. 
Despite his libertine exploits, Kochester 
succeeded in repairing his decaying fortune 
a wealthy marriage. Tbekingencouraged 
him to pay addresses to Elizabeth, daughter 
of John fllalet of Enmere, Somerset, by Eliia- 
beth, daughter of Francis, baron Ha'wley of 
Donamore. Pepys described her as' tbegreat 
beauty and fortune of the north.' Gramont 
called her a ' melancholy heiress.' Not uih T 
nat urally she rejected R(]che8t^«Buit,wlu 
upon he resorted to violence. On 26 " 

1 6(55 the lady supped with the kingf's mis , 

Frances Teresa btuart. (or Stewart) [q.T.], '' 
and left with her grandfather, Lord Hawley. 
At Charing Cross Rochester and his nganla 
stopped the horses and forcibly removed her 
to another coach, which was rapidly driven 
out of London, A bue and cry was raised, 
Hochester was followed to Uxbridge, where 
hewasarrested,and,onbeing brought to Lon- 
don, was committed lo the Towerby order of 
Miss Molet was not captured, and illocbester 
was soon released with a pardon. In lfW7 
he married the lady, and remained on fairly 
good terms with her till his death (cf. hw 
letters to her in HTtartoniarta, 1727, vol. li.) 
Rochester's marriage did not alter his 
relations with the king or tbe court. In 
1686 he was made a gentleman of tbe king's 
bedchamber. On 5 Oct. Id67, although still 
■■ider age, he was summoned to the House 




1 Lords, and in 1U74 lie received a npecial 
I nark of myal favour lij being appointed 
F lueper of Woodstock Pnrk, with a lodRe 
' called * High Lodge ' for residence. On 
34 Not. 1670 Evelju met him at dinner at 
the lord treasurer's, and descrilx-d him as ' a 
proranewit' (Evelin, Diofy, ii. 254), In 
June 1676 he, (Sir) Qeor^ Etherege, and 
three friends engaged in a drunken frolic at 
Epaom, ending in a skirmiBh with ' the watch 
At Epsom,' in the course of which one of the 
roisterers (Uownee) rect^ived a fatal wound 
iSiit. JUSS. Comm. Tth liep. p. 467 ; Hat- 
ton Comnpondeace, i. 133). 

Meanwhile Rochester played the role of 
a ^tran of the poets, and showed character- 
istic fickleness in Ills treatment of them. 
He was a shrewd and exacting critic, as hia 
eaoetic and ill-natured remarks in his clever 
imitalion of the 'Tenth Satire' of Horace, 
bk. i,, and in the 'Session of the Poets' 
(printed in his works), amply prove. About 
1670 he showed many attenlionsto Dryden, , 
who flattered bim extravagantly when dedi- | 
catins to him his 'Marriage h la Mode' 
(1673). But Rochester fell out with Dry- 
den's chief patroD, John Sheffield, earl of 
MulgT«Te [(J-v.l; he is said to have enga^ 
in a duel with MulrraTe and to have slio 
the white feather. By way of retaliating 
Hulgrave, he soon ostentatiously disparaged 
Drf den and encouraged Drydon'sfeehle rivals, 
Elkausb Settle and John Crowne. Ill 

wrote a prologue, which he spoke himself. 
Crowne dedicated to him his ' Charles VIII 
of Franca ' next year, and at the earl's sug- 
gestion he wrote the ' Masque of Calistd,' 
which Rochester recommended for perform- 
ance at court in 1675. The youngerdrama- 
tut« Nathaniel Lee and Thomas Otway also 
•bared his favours for a time. In ]675 he 
commended Otway's ' Alcibiades,' and in- 
Wreated the Duke of York in the young au- 
diOT. Otwuy dedicated to bim his 'Titus 
and Berenice ' in 1677 ; but when the drama- 
tist ventured to make advances to liochester's 
mistress, Mrs. Barry the actress, Rochester 
sbowedbimsmallmercy. Lee.whodedicatnd 
to Rochester ' Nero," his first piece, com- 
memorated his patronage in his description 
of Count Rosidorein his' Princess of Cleves,' 
which was first produced in November 1681. 
Aaotlier protfigfi, whom Rochester treated 
with greater constancy, was John Oldham 
(1653-1683) rq. v.] Sir George Etherege is 
Mud to have drawn from Rochester the cha- 
racter of the libertine Dorimant in the ' Man 
1 1676 

fETHBHBGE, Workt, ed. Verity, p. xiv; el. 
WsUkHK, I^ Public ft let Hommrf de Lettret 
n, AnsMrrre, ltWO'1744, Paris, 1881, pp. 

02 sq.) 

In 1670 Rochester's beallU failed, although 
he was able to correspond gaily with his 
friend Henry Savile on the congenial topics 
of wine and women. During his conva- 
lesceuce in the autumn he, to the surprise 
of his friends, nought recreation in reading 
tbe first part of Gilbert. Burnet's ' History 
of the ReiormaCion.' Ue invited the author 
to visit him, and encouraged bim to talk of 
religion and morality. Rochester, in his 
feeble condition of body, seems to have found 
Burnet's ciinvprsation consolatorv. In April 
1680 he lea I.ondon for the High Lodge at 
Woodstock Park. The journey aggravated 
his ailments, and he began (o recognise that 
recovery was impossible. He showed siains 
of penitence for his misspent life. After lis- 
tening attentivelv to the pious exhortations 
of his chaplain, Robert Persons (1(M7-17U) 
I [q. v.], be wrote on 26 June to Burnet 
begging him to come and receive hia death- 
bed repentance. Burnet arrived on 20 July, 
and remained till the 34th, spending tbe four 
days in spiritual discourse. ' I do verily be- 
lieve,' Burnet wrote, 'he was then so en- 
tirely changed that, if he had recovered, he 
would have made good all bis resolutions.' 
Rochester died two days after Bumet left 
him, on 26 July. He wajs buried in the north 
aisle of Spelabury church in Oxfordshire, but 
without any monumeut or inscribed stone 
todistiuguishhis grave (cf.MABHHiLL,iriioiJ- 
ttock, suppl. 1874. pp. 25-36). His bed is 
still preserved at High Lodge. 

Rochester's will, with a codicil dated 
22 June 1680, was proved on 23 Feb. 1680-1. 
His executors included, besides hia wife and 
mother, whom he entreated to live in amity 
with one another, Sir Walter St. John, his 
mother's brother, and Sir Allen Apsley 
(1610-1683) [q. v.] Settlements had already 
been made on iiis wife and sun; 4,000/. was 
left to each of his three daughters ; 
annuity of 40/. was bestowed on an infant 
named Elizabeth Gierke; and other sums 
were bequeathed to servants ( WUU from 
Doctort' t'ommom, Camd, Soc, pp. 139-41). 
Sympathetic elegies came from the pens 
of Sirs. Anne Wharton, Jack How [i.e. 
John Gruhham Howe, q, v.], Edmund 
Waller {Rcamai Mucellaneum. 1702), Tho- 
mas Hatman, and Oldham. Hia chaplai) 
Robert Parsons, preached a funeral sermo 
which gave a somewhat sensational accoui 
of his ' death and repentance,' and attracted 
general attention when it was published. A 
edifieatory account of Rochester's coo- 





Terabn, which tnade even greater tensatton 
than Parsons'ssitTmon, was pablifhed by Bur- 
net umier the title ' Some Pussaifea ot the 
Life and Death of John, Earl of Rochester,' 
1680,Uto. Like Parsoiu's volume, it was con- 
Btantly reisaued. A modeni reprint, with, a 

;reface b; Lord Ronald G'lwer, appenreil in 
875. or the episode nf hia viait to RoeheS' 
ter'g dealhbt-d Burnet wrote : ' Nor was the 
king displeased with my being aent for bj 
Wilmot, earl of Uocbester, when he died. 
lie fancied that he bad told me many Ibinjj's 
of which I might make an ill use j jet be 
had read the book that I writ concerning 
him, and spoke well of it ' (Ddbnet, Oten 
7ime», 1823,ii.t'88). 

Rochester's widow aurvivod liim about 
thirteen months, dying suddenly of apoplexy, 
and being buried at SpeUburj' on 20 Aug. 
1681 (cf. Hutton Corrinjtondence, u. 0). By 
her he left a son and three daughters. The 
Bon, Charles, third and last earl of Rochester 
of the Wilmot family, baptised at Adderbury 
on2 Jan. 1870-1, aurvivedhis father scarcely 
two years, dying on I'i Nov. and being buried 
on 7 Dec. 1 68 1 by his father's side. The earl- 
dom thus became mtinct, but it was recreated 
in favour of Lawrence Hyde fq. v.] on 39 -S'ov. 
166J. Rochester's eldest daughter and heiress, 
Anne, married, first, Henry Bayntun of 
Bromham, Wiltshire ; and, secondly, Francis 
Greville, leaving issue by both husbands, 
and being ancestre^ by her second husbaad 
of the GrevillcB, earls of Warwick. Elisa- 
beth, Rochester's second daughter, who is 
said to have inherited much of lier father's 
wit, married EMward Montagu, third earl of 
Sandwich, and died at Paris on 2 July ITS7, 
Rochester's third daughter, Malet, married 
John V'aughan, second viscount Lisbnme. 

The best portrait of Rochester is that by 
Sir Peter Leiy at Hinchinbrooke, the seat of 
the Earl nf Sandwich. In a jwrtrait at 
Warwick Castle he is represented crowning 
a monkey with laurel. A third jiortrait, by 
WlHsing, is in the National Portrait Gallery. 
A fourth portrait of Rochester in youth be- 
longed in 1866 to Col. Sir E. S. Prideaux, 
bart.(aif. Natiimal Portraitt al South Ken- 
tington, 1806V Twaengravingsof him were 
made by R. Wliite^one in large size dated 
1081, and the otheronasmaUer scale, which 
was prefixed to the first edition of Burnet's 
'Some Passages.' 1080. There is also an en- 
([Taved miniature signed ' D[atid] L[oggan] 

RocheHter had as sprightly a lyric gift, as 
any writer of the Restoration. Aa a satirist 
he showed much insight and vigour, and, 
according to Aubrey, Marvell regarded htm 
ks the best satirist of his time. But he was 

fowley his lyrics were often deeply indebted. 
His literary work was disfigured by hia in- 
corrigibly ficentiouB temper. The sentiment 
in bis lova songs is transparently artificial 
whenever it is not offensively obscene. Nu- 
merous verses of gross indecency which have 
been put to his credit in contemporary mis- 
cellanies of verse may be from other pens. 
But there is enough foulness in his fully 
authenticated poems to give him a title to 
be remembered as the writer of the filthiest 
verse in the language. His muse has been 
compared to a well-favoured child which wil- 
fully and wantonly rolls itself in the mud, 
and is BO besmeared with dirt that the ordi- 
nary wayfarer prefers rather to rush hastily 
by than pause to discover its native charms 
(Sir. EfUnund Gosso in Wisd's Enytith 
Poett, ii. 425). 

It is said tliat on hia deathbed Rochester 
directed all hia licentious writing* to be de- 
stroyed, and that after his death hJs mother 
ordered a scandalous history of contempo- 
rary court intrigues to be burnt (Cibber). 
Uf that work nothing is known, and the order 
may havo been carried out, hut much else 
survives. The bibliography of Rochester's 
poems is difficult owing to the number of 

Coems that are attributed to him in miscel- 
ineouB collections of verse of which he was 
probably not the author {of. Ponn* on Affnin 
of Stale, passim; Kr/imen Alitcelloneuia, 
1703). No complete critical collection ef 
bis works has been attempted. His 'Satires 
against Mankind,' his poem on ' Nothing,' aitd 
otiiers of ' his lewd and profane poems ' and 
lil>els appeared bk penny broadsides in single 
folio sheets at the close of his life — in 1679 
and 1080— doubtless surreptitiously. Ac- 
cording to the advertisement to Parsons'* Mf- 
mon, ' they were ery'd about the street." The 
letter in which he summoned Burnet to his 
deathbed also appeared aa a broadside in 168U. 
Within a fewmonths of his death a short 
series nf ' Poems on several Occasions bjthe 

Right Honourable the E. of R ' was 

issued, prore-ssedlyat ' Antwerpcn,' but really 
in Lonclon(1080,8vo). The volume was re- 
printed in London in 16S5, with some omis- 
sions and modifications, as ' Poems on seve- 
ral Occasions, written by a late Person of 
Honour.' Some additions were made to 
another issue of 1691, in which are to be 
found all hia authenticated lyrics. This was 
reissued in 1696. 

Meanwhile there appeared an udaptalion 
by Rochester, in poor taste, of Beoiunont 
and Fletcher's trajredy of ' Valentinion,' 
under the title ' Valentinian : a Tragedy. 




I As \ia Altet'd hf the lute Earl of Rochester 
l.snd Acted at the Theatre Royal. Together 
' with a Preface concerning tlie Author and 
his Writinga. Bj one of his Frienda' (i.e. 
Robert "WoUeley, eldest Bon of Sir Charles 
Wobeley [q.v.]), London, 1685, When the 
play was produced in 1G86, Better! on played 
Aecins with much success, and Mrs. Barry 
appeared aa Lucina (Downbs, Roicaa, p. 65). 
Tliree prologues were printed, one heing hy 
ilr*. Behn. I 

tolerable foulness hoa been put to Itochester's 
discredit. It is entitled ' Sodom,' and was 
>ub)iahed at Antwerp in 168i as ' by the 
E. of R. ; ' no copy of this edition is known ; 
to have been burnt by Richard 
Heber. Two manuscripts are extant ; one 
IB in the British Museum (Ilarl. MS. 7312, 

S>. 118-4-'], B volume containing many of 
ocheflter's authentic compositions), and the 
Other is in the town librory of Ilsmburg. 
^e piece is improbably said to Iiave been 
■cted at court; it was doubtless designed 
te a Kurriloiis attack on Charlea II. In a 
■bort poem purporting to be addressed lo 
"^e author of the play (in Rochester's col- 
'~ '«! poems), he mockin|;ly disclaimed all 
jwngihilily for it, and it has been sltri- 
Diled to a youngbarrister named John Fish- 
lioume, of whom nothing is practically 
faionn (Baker, BL'yr. Drain.) Internal 
aridence unhappily suggests that Rochester ! 
^d the chief hand in the production. French 
Sdaptations are dated 1744, 1752, and 1767 
'itt. PlHAHOs Frixi, Cmtvria Libtvrum A/i^ 
~TOiufi*(<»rwiii, London, privately printed, 1879). 
An edition of Rochester's ' Works ' which 
iraa issued by Tonson in 1714, 12mo, included 
Us letters to SaTile and Mrs. * * *, the 
'Ingedy of ' A'alentinian," a preface by Ry- 
mer, and a pastoral elegy by Oldham. There 
WNsaportraitbyVau^Qucht, Thefourth 
edition of this is dated 1732. Rochester's 
' Remains,' including his * Satyres,' followed 
■ft 17ia Probably the completest edition is 
■ ' Poetical Worlis of the Earl of Rochester,' 
|l73l-2, 2vo1b. 

A leas perfect collection of lus ' Works ' 
' icludfnl the poems of the Eitrl of Roscnm- 
. The first edition appeared before 1702, 
jiobsceneappendixwas called 'The Delights 
t Venus, now first published.' The eecond 
s dated 1702 ; others appeared in 
lB'07 (and in 1714) with Saint'-Evremond's 
neraoir of Rochester and an additional poem 
r outrageous groosness called 'The Dis- 

[ A volume containing not only Rochester's 

OK, but also those of this Piarls of Roa- 

Btnmon and Dorset and the Dukes of 

Devoushire aud Buckingham, first appeared 
in 1731, and waa frequently reissued, often 
with an obscene appendix by various hands, 
entitled 'The Cabinet of Love," London, 
I 1739,2 vols. 12mo; 1757,1777. A privately 
printed reissue of excerpta from the 1757 
edition appeared in 18M. Itochester's poems, 
expureated by George Steevens [q.v.], ap- 
peared in Johnson'a collection, and were 
reprinted in the collections of Anderson, 
Chalmers, and Park. 

Rochester's letters to Savile and to Mrs. 
Barry were published, with a varied corre- 
Bpondence collected bv Tom Brown, in 
'FamiUar Letters,' 16SG, 1697, and 1699, 
and seven letters — two to his son, four to 
his wife, and one to the Earl of Lichfield— ' 
are in ' Whartoniann," 17^7, ii. 161-8. A 
few more are appended to ' A New MtseeU 
Inny of tirigina! I'oems,' 1720 (with preface 
by Anthony Hammond [q. v.]) 

[3nint-i:rri-nioQd'a Memoir. prpHxad to Ho- 
chester's MieeellnnBouB Works. 17U7; Savilo 
Correspond enoa {Camden Soc); Ciiiber's Lives, 
it. 260-3UU ; Grnmont's Memoirs; Burnet's 0*n 
Times; Aubrey's Lives, «l. Andrew Clark; 
Poems on Affairs of Stale, passim; Marshaira 
Woodstock, with Suppltment. 1 873-1 ; Uunter'a 
Chonia Vntum in Brit. Mna. Addit MS. ^4*61 ; 
Jofansan's Liies of the Foeti, ed, Cunniiighain ; 
Q. K. C[okiijDe]'s Cooiplelo PeflrBge. Kouhua- 
ter's deiklli in desoribed for ndiHcalory pBrposes 
■ onljinPareooB'sSecmon, 1680,andBurnet'H 
IB FusBaeu<i. IGBO, Irnt also ia The Libertine 
Overthrown, 1680, and in The Two Noble Coq. 
verts. 1681). His career is depirtud in no inlen- 
tiotinllj onBdifying light in J. G. M. Ruther- 
ford's Adventures of tbs Duke of Buckint;ham 
Cbnrtes II, and the Earl of Itochester, 18S7, am 
in Singulsr Life ... of the ronowoed Earl ol 
Kochester, 1864?] S. L. 

(1709-1792), chief justice of the com: 
pleas, second son of Robert Wilmot of Os- 
maston, Derbvahire, by Ursula, daughter of 
.Sir Samuel Niarow, hart., of Berkswell, 
Warwickahire, was bom at Derbyon 16 Aug. 
1709. Sir Robert Wilmot, hart, (so created 
on 19 Sept. 1772 in recognition of long ser- 
vice as secretary tosuccessivelords-lieutenunt 
of Ireland) was his elder brother. The bro- 
tliers were grandsons of Robert Wilmot, 
M.P. for Derby 1690-5, who married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Edward EardLey of Eard- 
ley, Staffordshire. Their great-grandl'ather 
WON Sir Nicholas "Wilmnt, serjeant-at-law 
(knighted at Hampton Court on 20 July 
1674), whose elder brother Edward was 
grandl'ather of the eminent physician ijir Ed- 
ward Wilmot [q.v.] 

The future chief justice received his earlier 
education at the free school, Derbi', and, like 




Bevere] other judges [cf. Nobi., Wir.r.nw; 

Ht Kiag Edward'ti school, Lichlield, where he 
wttBBlig-htly senior to David Garrici and con- 
temporary with Samuel Jolmson. In 1724 
he was removed to Weatminster achool, 
where lie formtd n lifelong friendship with 
Henry Bilson Leggo, tlin future chancellor 
of the exchequer. At Cambridge, where he 
Hoon afterwards matriculaled from Trinitj 
Ilall,he did not graduate, but ncquireda taste 
for learned leisure which he never lost. His 
predilection was for the church, and it was 
only in deference to his father's wishes that 
he adopted the legalprofession. During biB 
residence at Trinity Hull, however, be duti- 
fully studied the civil law, and in June 1732 
he was called totbebaratthelnnerTempte. 
In 1745 he was elected F.S.A. 

Wilmot BOan made a distinguished 6gani 
both in the courts of common law and at 
the parlitunent-ary bar (in election petition 
coses), but found the profesiion uncongenial. 
In 1753 he refused silk, and in the following 
year be retired to bis native place with 
the intention of confining himself to local 

firactice. Early in 1755, however, he ■was 
ured back to Weatmitister by the offer of a 

Euisne judgeship in the king's bench, and, 
aving Been knighted and iaveated with the 
coif, was sworn in as justice (11 Feb.) lie 
proved BO efficient a puisne that when, on 
the resignation of Lord Hardwicke, it be- 
came necessary to put the great seal in 
inated one of the 

STiFTOBD, - , - , -- 

office he held with increasing credit from 
19 Nov. 1766 to 20 June 1757, when the 
seal was delivered to Lord-keeper Ilenley 
[see IIcKLEr, Kobbbt, first Eabl of Nobth- 

Afler eight years more of service in the 
king's bench, Wilmot began again to ililnk 
of retirement; but the easy post of chief 
justice of Chester, which he hoped to secure, 
proved unobtainable, while that of chief 
justice of the common pieaa was literally 
thrust upon him on the elevation of Lord 
Camden to the vrooUack. After soine 
demur he accepted the proffered dignity, 
and was sworn in accordingly on 20 Aug. 
1766, He was sworn of the privy council 
on 10 Sept. following. As puisne Wilmot fol- 
lowed Mansfield's lead in the cases which 
arose out of the publication of Wilkes's 
Jouk]. As chief justice assistant ta the 
House of Ijords during the proceedings on 
Wilkes's writ of error he sustained (16. Ian. 
1769) Mansfieid's judgments in the king's^ 

bench. Tn the common pleas, when Wilkes's 
long-delayed action against Lord Halifax 
came on for hearing 1,10 Nov. 1769), he 
sought to temperjustice with mercy bydirect- 
ing the jury that, though precedent did not 
justify the issue of the general warrant, it 
ought to be taken into account in miti- 
gation of damages. 

Wilmot thrice declined the great seal : 
once on the dismissal of Lord Camden, 
again on the death of Charles Yorke [q. v.] 
and once more pending the subsequent com- 
mission (cf. BiTiicHST, Hbxbt, 1714-1794]. 
Unlike Yorke, Wilmot bad no such party 
ties— he had held aloof from i>oli tics through- 
out his coreor — aa rendered his refusal of 
office obligatory ; and no one but himself 
doubted his capacity. His refusal was dic- 
tated by the same pococurantism, now in- 
veterata and reinforced by failing health, 
which he had twice before exliibited. It 
was the more to be regretted by reason of 
the glaring incompetence of the commis- 
sioners. But there is no reason to suppoce 
that in Wilmot the country lost a great - 
chancellor. His understanding was indml 
sound and strong and his learning exten- 
sive, but there is no evidence that he pos- 
sessed tfie subtlety and originality which 
characterise the masters of equity. 

Wilmot resigned the chief-justiceflbip 
on 26 Jan. 1771. He at finit declined afl 
recompense for hia services, but at length 
accepted a pension of 2,400/. He continued 
to take part in the judicial business of the 
privy council until 1(82, when he withdrew 
entirely from public life. He died at his 
house in Oreat Ormond Street, London, on 
6 Feb. 1792. His remains were interred 
in Bcrkswell church. By his wife Saisb 
((«. in 1743), daughter of Thomas Rivel^ 
M.P. for Derby 1748-54, Wilmot had, with 
two daughters, three sons. The second son, 
John Kardley-Wiimol fq. t.1, succeeded to 
bis estates. Bobert, the eldest son, died 
married in the East Indies. 

Wilmot'sdeoieionsarereported by Burrow 
and Wilson. His own Tuotcs of Opinions 
and Judgments delivered in different Courts,' 
edited by his son John Eardley-Wilmot, ap- 
peared at London in 1802, 4to. Some o[ 
his letters are printed in his' Memoirs' (sm 
wfra: and cf. Biet. MSS. CoTam. 5th Rep. 
App. p. 369, Cth Rep, App. p. 242). 

Engravings from portraits by Reynolds 
and UancB are in the British Museum and 
prefixed to the works above mentioned. 

[John E^rdlej-Wilmol's Memoirs of the Lifr 
of iho Right Hon. Sir John E«rdley Wilmot, 
Knight, with some Oriffinat LatUrs. 1B03, Loo- 
dun, 4tQ (Sud edit, with additions. IBU); L« 





Kero's PedigrwB of lbs Knigbts (Hiirl. Soc.}. 
p. 291 ; KLmber md Jobosoa's Baniuetagc, iii. 
ISl; Gept. Mag 17SS p. 92, 1792 i- IS7; Ann. 
Reg. 1765 p. 69. 1766 pp. 165. IB6, 1771 p- 71, 
1772 p. 162; Lj»OBBBMiig. Brit. Tol.T.p,livi; 
Hanrood'* Lichfield, p. 199; WalpoVa Memoire 
ot xbe Rflign of George II, ed. Holland, ii. 273 ; 
Slemoira oJ the Reign of Goorgp III, e<l. Lo Mar- 
fhimt, and Rusbi'U Barker, 1894, and Letters, ed. 
Cunninghnm ; Grenvills Piipen, ed. Smitb. iii. 
4S, IT. 110, 115,392 ; Grnftoo's Autobiography, 
«L Adsod ; CorrespODdence of George III with 
Lord North, ^. Donne, p. 53 ; Hnrria's Life of 
Lord Chaneallor Ilardwiclie ; Wj-nne's Serjesnt- 
JU-Liiir ; Uofdji Cat. of Cbancellon ; Huwells 
SUte Trials, lit 1027, 1127, U07 ; L»w Mag. 
»iii. 3o6; Cmnpbell's Chief Juatie™ : Foss's 
Lives of tlie Jiirtges ; Eurke'a Peerage and B«ro- 
celiige; FuHler'a BHrouGlnge.J J. M. R. 


1815), politician and author, second son of 
Sir Jobn Eardlev -Wilmot [q. t.], lord chief 
Justice of the common pleas, by Sarab, 
daughter of Thomas llivelt of Derby, waa 
bom in 1750. He was educated at Derby 
tfnunmar school, Westminster school, the 
Ituyal Academy, Brunswick, and the uni- 
Tereity of Oxford, where ha matriculated 
from UniTersitT College on 10 Jan. 1706, 
and graduated ll.A. in 1769, being elected 
fellow of All Souls' College in the same 

?B«r. He WM called to the bar at thelnner 
emple m 1773, and In 1781 was appointed 
to a mastership in chancery, which he held 
ontll 1801. He represented Tiverton, De- 
TODAhire, in parliament from 1776 to 1781, 
and eat for Covenlry in the parUaments of 
17W-90 and 1790-6. la the House of ( 
mona he aeldotn spoke, but from his ' Short 
Defence of the Opposition, in Answer 
Funpblet entitled " A Short History of the 
Oppowtion "'(London, 1778, 8 vo), it appears 
tbat he was an independent whigwhostrongly 
condemned the {lolicy which precipitated the 
American war. In 1783 he was appointed 
by act of parliaxoent commissioner to inquire 
.islo the claims of the American loyalists to 
iflotnpensation for their losses suffered during 
'*' . In 1790 he organised the Free- 

Hall committee for the relief of the 
French refugees. He retired from public life 
inI804. Inl813heaisumedbyrovallicense 
(20 Jan.) the additional surname o'f Eardley. 
He died at his bouse, Bruce L'aatle, Totten- 
ham, on 2S June 1815. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society on 18 Nov. 177a, 
and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1791. 

Wilmot married twice: (1) on 30 April 
177(i, Frances, only daujfbter of Samuel 
Sainthill ; (2) on 29 June 1793, Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Haslam. He had issue only 
fay his first wife. 

Letters from and to Wilmot are preserved 
n Additional MSS. 5015 f. 29, and 9828, 
and Lord Lansdowne's collection I Hut. 
MSS. Comm. eth Hep. app. i. 242). From 
materials collected bv Wifmot, John Rayner 
edited Kaoulf de Glanville's 'Trnctalus de 
Legibua et Consuetudinibus Regni Anglis' 
(London. 1780, 8vo). Wilmot edited ' Notes 
of Opinions and Judg;mentB delivered in dif- 
ferent Courts' by his father (London, 1802, 
4to). fiesidesthe pamphlet mentioned above, 
he was author of: 1. 'Memoirs of the Life 
of the Ri^ht Hon. Sir Jobn Eardley Wilmot, 
Knt., with some original letters, London, 
180S, 4to; 2nd ed. with additions, 1611, 8vo. 
2. 'The Life of the Rev. John Hough, D.D„ 
Bucoesuvely Bishop of Oxford, LichHeld and 
Coventry, and Worcester,' London, 1812, 
4to. 3. 'Historical View of the Commission 
for Inquiring into the Losses, Services, and 
Claims of the American Loyalists at the 
close of the War between Great Britain and 
ber Colonies in ]78>'t; with an Account of 
the Compensation granted to tbem by Par- 
liament in 1786 and 17Se,' London, 1815, 8vo. 
By bis first wife Wilmot had, with four 
daughters, a son, John Eardley (1783-1847), 
bom on 21 Feb. 1783, educated at Harrow, 
and called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 
9 May 1^08. He resided at Berkswell Uall, 
WarwickshirBjthenorthem division of which 
county he represented in purliament in the 
liberal interest from 1832 lo 1843. On 
23 Aug. 1821 he was created Sir John 
Eardley Eardley-W'ilmol, bart. In 1843 
(27 March) he was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Van Diemen s Land, but, in con- 
sequence of his supposed indifference to the 
morals of the convicts under bis charge, was 
superseded on 13 Oct. 1846. He died at 
Hobart Town on 3 Feb. 1847. He was 
D.C.L. (Oion.), F.R.S., and F.L.S., and 
author of ' An Abridgment of Blnckstone'a 
"Commentaries'" (London, 1822, l2mo; 
2nded.,byhi8 son Sir John Eardley Eardley- 
Wilmot [q. v.], 1853, 8vo: 3rd ed. 1855). He 
married twice : first, on 21 May 1808, Elisa- 
beth Emma {d. 1818), fourth daughter of 
Caleb Hillier I'arrj-. M.D., of Batb, and 
sister of Admiral Sir Edward Parry; se- 
condly, on 30 Aug. 1819, Eliza (d. 1869), 
eldest daughter of Sir Robert Cheater at 
Bush Hall, Hertfordshire. He had issue by 
both wives. 

[Fosters Alnmni Oioa. and Baronetage ; 
Burke's Peemga snd Baronetage; Lnn List; 
Gent. Mug. 1776 p. 191, 1793 ii. 670. 1808 i, 
45S, iei5ii. B3, ISId ii. 272, lS47ii. 20fl ; Aon. 
Bee 1743,11,333; Menioiraof Sir John Esrdlej- 
Wilmol(l802),p. .18; Pari. Hibt. lii. 37, 787, 
axiii. til ; Madams D'ArbUy's Diary, vi, 





Georgiau Era; Cbilniert's Biogc. Diet.; List of 
Itoyal Socjoty. 1797; hist of Kocinty of Aoli- 
qii«ries(18i 2) ; Korthcote's Cniteof Sir Dirdloy- 
Wilmot (1847); HiulUid's Austmliim UicL of 
Ihttee.] J. M. R. 

EARULEV- (_1810-I892), bBCQnet.burrialer 
and politician, bom on 16 Nov. ISIO, waa 
eldest wm of Sir John Enrdley Eiirdky- Wil- 
mot, first baronet, and grandson of Jolin 
Eani ley- Wilmot [q. v,] He was educnted 
at Wincliesler, wnere he received the gold 
medal in 1828, and at BaUiol College, Ox- 
ford, where he matTiculated on 22 March 
1828, and obtained a scholarship. Regained 
the chancellor'a gold medal for Latin Terae 
in 1820, gmdusting B.A. in 1831. On 
18 May 1830 he became a student at Lin- 
coln's Inn, and he was called to the bar on 
28 Jan. 1843; h« joined the midland circuit 
and Warwick, Coventry, and Birmingham 
HBHsiona. From ia]2 until 1874, when he 
rttsiffned the post, he was recorder of War- 
wicfe, and he was judge of the county court 
at Bristol from January 18o4 to 18(13, and 
subsequently trom 1863 to 1871 of the Mary- 
leljone district in London. He represented 
Bouth Warwickshire in parliument in the 
conaen-ative interest from 1874 lo 1885, 
where he introduced hilU in 187& and 1876 
to amend the criminal law by diiferentiatinc 
two claases of murder, and to furthar extend 

vocate, thougli a practised speaker. He took 
great interest in the Question of local govern- 
ment foe Ireland, advocating the develop- 
ment of IriEli industries aud the establish- 
ment of B royal residt'nce in Ireland, and 
acting as chairman of a harbour board in 
Ireland. His persevering efforts procured 
the release of Edmund Oalley, who had 
been wrongly convicted of murder and sen- 
tenced to penal servitude for life. Wilmot 
died at hin residence in Tburloe Sqiiarf, 
London, on 1 Feb. 1893. He married, on 
27Aprill839,Eliia Martha, afth daughter of 
8ir Robert Williams, ninth baronet. She 
died on 23 Oct. 1887. and had issue six sons 
»nd two daughters. He was succeeded in the 
title by bis eldest son, WiUiam Assheton 
Enrdley Wilmot, of the Northumberland 
Fusiliers, who was bom in 1841, married in 
1876 Mary, third daughter of David Watts 
Russell of Biggin, Noithamptoushire, and 
died in 1890. 

Wilmot was author of ; 1. 'A Digest of 
the Law of Burglary,' Liondon, 18-"il, 12mo. 
'2. ' Lord Brougham's Acts and Bills from 
1811 to the present time, now first collected 
and arranged, with an Analytical Review, 

sliowing their n-suits upon the Amendment 
of the Law,' London, 1837, 8vo. 3. ' Remi- 
niscences of the late Thomas Assheton 
Smith,' Loudon, 1860, 8to; 5th edit. 1893, 
4. ' A Safe and Constitutional Plan of 
rarliamenlary Reform,' London, 1865, Sro. 
He also edited his father's ' Abridgment of 
Blackstone's Commentaries,' London, 1863, 
8vo; 1855, 12mo. He frequently contri- 
buted letters to the ' Times ' and other newi 
papers on the legal and poli 
which he was interested, besides writJngi 
publishing various pamphlets. 

[TiinoB, 2 and y Feb. I8B2; Law Tli 
6 Keb. 18B2; Law Journal, 6 Feb, 1892; 
brett's House of CommoDS and Judicial Bencb; 
Burke's PeoTago ; Foaler's Alomni Oion. 1715- 
1886; FoBtor'sMenat tbeBnr; Official Retunu 
of Members of Parliament ; private inrormatioa.] 
R. J.8. 

1378), governor of New Brunswick, 1 
on 31 Jan. lt<09 at Sunbiiry.on theSt. J( 
"' '" Brunswick, 

daughter of Daniel' Bliss (1740-1800); 

chief justice of the court of common pleas in 
New Brunswick. On his father's aide he was 
descended from a New England family, his 
Krandfathor, Major Lemuel Wilmot, being a 
loyalist refugee. Lemuel Allen was portly 
educated among the French community at 
Madawasha, and he aflerwards entered the 
university of King's College at Fredericton. 
He was a successful student, and had the dis- 
tinction of being ' the best swimmer, skater, 
runner, wrestler, boatman, drill-master, 
speaker, and musician ' of his time. In 1830 
he became an attorney, and two years later 
was called to the bar of New ftrunswick. 
On31 July 1834 he was elected to the houst- 
of assembly for the province of York. He 
declared himself a liberal in politics, advo- 
cating responsible government and opposi- 
tion to the system of family compacts, and 
soon was acknowledged the liberal leader. 
In 1830 he moved an address to the governor 
for a detailed account of tbe crown land 
fund, and be and William Crane were sent 
to England as delegates to obtain for the 
representative assembly the control of the 
crown lands. They were cordially received 
by the colonial secretary, Sir Charles Grant, 

Sir Archibald ('ampbell 
(1769-1843) [q.y.],withheld his approval and 
tendered his resignation. The delegates wem 
again sent to England, where their eflijrts 
wore finally successfuL Campbell's resigns- 

lion w«e accepted, and the control of t!ie 
rcvetiue of lh« crovrn lunds was vested in 
the lusembl; oa coadiliait of calablishing a 
{wrmBnent civil list out of it. 

lu 1838 Wilmot waa made a queen's 
couiiael. In 1814 he accepted a sent in ihe 
exwiilire council without a portfolio ; but 
when thii lieutenant-governor, Sir Willinin 
Colebrooke, without consulting liis advisers, 
appoiuted hia aon-in-law 1o the office of 

Jrovincinl secretary, Wilmot, with three col- 
■oguBs. rrsJened bis place in the cabinet. 
Ill 1(*47 Ekrl Grey, the colonial secrctsrj", 
ileclart>d that mombers of the executive 
council should bold office only whili! the; 
possessed tha confidence of llio niajoriiy 
of Hie people. In 1848 the New Bruns- 
'wick bouse of oEiemblj- passed a reso- 
lution approving of Enrl Grey'a despatch, 
and Wiunot, who mudi> a grent speech on 
the occaiion, was culled on to form u go- 
Temment- He accepted the task, and bis 
eatuDHt bflciunn b, coalition ministry with 
liberal tendencies. He himself held office 
a« attontey-genernl, a post which he first 
till«doii24 M:ayl848. In this capacity and 
as prvmier he took au active part in the 
eoiuolidalion of criminal and muuicipal law. 
la 1850 he attended the international rail- 
way convention at Portland in Maine. In 
the Male year he took part in negotiations 
in Waahiugton on tbe subject of comtuer- 
eial reciprocity, A treaty waa concluded 
fcur years later by Lord Elgin. 

In Jannary I8.7I Wilmot was appointed a 
Jodge of tbe supreme court. While holding 
I-Jlus office he received ibe honoran' defjree 
iflf D.CL. from the university of King's 
jOeihege. When the question of federation 
*tKam» prominent in ifitili be espoused the 
<«*aBs of union, and after federation was ac- 
^tompltshed hu was nominated to the post of 
iBwitenanr-govemor of New Brunswick on 
}«7 July 1868- Ho held office till 14 Nov. 
'3S7S,irhen he received a pension as a retired 
Ifttdge. In 1875 he became second com- 
liiissioner under tbe Prince Edward Island 
{ISttchase Act, passed in that year, and he 
iWU mlao nominated one of the arbitrators in 
'^e Ontario and north-west, boundary com- 
lauwion, but deatb prevented bim serving. 
'Ma died at Fredericton on 20 May 1878, 
■ad was buried near tha town. Wilmot 
waa twice married : first, to a daughter of 
tbe Rav. J. Balloch ; and, secondly, to a 
daughter of William A. Black of Halifax, a 
member of tbe legislative council. 

[Lutbern's Hon. Judgo Wilmot, 1881 ; Do- 
mi nionAnnaiil Register, 1878. p. 371 ; Applslon's 
Cytl. of Amorican Biogr. ; Withrow'a Hi«t. of 
Ciuuula, 18S8, p. 606 ] E. 1. C. 

WILMOT, ROBEBT {/, 1568-1608), 
drauinlist, was presented by Uabrie] Poynlx 
on 38 Nov. 166:i to the lectory of North 
Okendon, now Uekiindon, aboui six milea 
from Romford in Espfi, and by tbe dean 
and chapter of St. I'nut's Cnthedrul, on 2 Dec. 
1 58ii, to tbe vicarage ofHorndon-on-the-lIill, 
a few miles away from Ockendon. He is 
described in l^iHS as M.A. (NRWtocBT, /ffr- 
perlorium, ii. 447, 343), It does not appear 
when tbe vicarage at Homdoo waa vacaled, 
but in 1608 the crown, by lupso of the 

! laCroii'srigb t, appointed to Ockendnnanothee 
iobert Wilmot, whose death took place in 

Wilmot puhlisbed, in 1591, ' Thelragcdie 
of Tiincred and Gismund, compiled by tha 
Gentlemen ofthelnnerTempIe, and by them 
presented before her Majeatie. Newly re- 
vived and polished according to the decorum 
of these dales. By K. W. London,' 1591 
( lfi92 in some copies), 4to. The pkv is dedi- 
cated by ' Robert Wilmot ' to ■ Liidy Mnrie 
Peter and Ihe Lady Annie Graie ; ' the latter 
was the wife of Henry Grey, esq., of Pirgo. 
After the dedication comes a letter 10 the 
authorfrom Guil. Webbe[see WKoaE, W'li,. 
LTam], dated ' from Pyrgo in Eases, August 
tbe Eight, 1691.* Webbu claims from Wil- 
mot the performance of an 'old intention' 
of publishing this play. He refers to the 
gentlemen of the Inner Temple, 

'by Ihfn 


that the play 

framed and no less eiyiously acted ii 
of her Majeslie, by wuoin it was then aa 
princely accepted as of tliu whole honorable 
audiencenotably applauded.' After this letter 
follows an address by Wilmot to the ' Gentle- 
ment students of the Inner Temple and 
Gentlemen of the Middle Temple,' in which 
he mentions his doubt ' whether it wore 
convenient for the commonwealth, with the 
indecorum of my culling (as some thinke it ), 
that the memorie of Taucred'a Truftedie 
should be agaiue bv my meanes revived.' 
This seems a reference to his clerical profea- 
aion. He apeaka of hia acquaintance with 
the Temple us having lasted twenty-four 
years. Before the play there are compli- 
mentary eonnelB to ' the Queenes Maidens 
of Honor.' Tbe play was acted before Queen 
Eliinbeth in 1568. In Wilmot'sversiun Ihe 
initials of five composers are given at llie 
end of the five acte as follows : Itod. Staf. t 
Hen, No (Henry Noel P) ; O. Al. ; Ch. Hat 
tChristopber Haltonl : R. W. (Robert WJI- 
mot). "The play Is taken from Boccaccio, 
It ' mar still claim to be designated tha 
oldest known English play of which the 
plot is certainly («ken from an Italian novel.' 
The story is told in Painter's 'Palace of 



I'leaaure,' tale 39, The original Tersion ia 
extuiit in seveml manuscripla, of which 
Lansdowne MS. 78(i is the buat. From this 
it appears thnt originally the pUy was in 
decasyllabic rhyming quatrains, Wilmot in 
1591 macUi it into blank verse, by that time 
fiuhiouablej but tbe play must be classed 
along with early plays like ' Uorboduc ' and 
Other imitationB of Seneca. It has dumb 
shows to commence and choruaes to termi- 
nate the acts. It ' poanesses no mean lite- 
rary merit ' (Ward), The 1691 edition was 
reprinted in Dodsley's 'Collection,' to), il., 
in 1780 (4th edit, by Hailitt, 1874, vol. vii.) 
Hunter mentions a second work by Wilmot, 
' Syrophenisia, or the Canaaultiah Woman; 
con Diets at Qorndon-on-the-Uilt in the 
County of Essex,' 1598. 

(WbhI's EnRlish Uramntie Lil«rature, 1898. i. 
2U; Collier's History otUrAOialic Poetry, ii. 399; 
Arber's Intri)diii;lion to reprint of Wrbbe'a Dis- 
eoursB of Engliiih Poetrie ; Balliini'a Lit. of 
Europe, ii. 16Tl Inderwicks Ciil. InaerTomple 
BKurds, 1890, vol. i. pp. liii-Uiii ; Bnntrr's 
miauscript Chorus Vacam ; Warton's English 
Postry.iv. 269, 338 rFleay'sHialory of the Stage, 
p. 1 7, and English Drama, ii. 271.] R. B. 

"WILMOT, ROBERT (d. IfllK), commo- 
dore, is first mentioned in July I6&9 as 
second lieutenant of the 70-gnn ship Exeter, 
then fitting out in the Medway. In the fol- 
lowing March he was promoted to command 
the Cygnet fireship, in which be was present 
at tbe battle of Beachy Dead on 3U June. 
Un 19 Auff. he was moved to the newly 
named fireship Hopewell, and shortly afteov 
words to the Dreadnought, to take that vessel 
round from Portsmouth to the river. The 
Dreadnouglit, an old 6:i-guu skip, built in 
16i>4, was no longer seaworthy, and ' foun- 
dered bv her leakmessin her passage.' off the 
South j'orelaud, By thecourt-martial held 
on 8 Dec. I6SK) Wilmot was fully acquitted, 
and on <i Jan. 1690-1 he was appointed lo 
command the Crown of 48 guns for cruising 
■ervice in the Channel. In Iti92 he com- 
manded the Wolf, hired ship, also of 48 guns, 
and convoyed the trade to Virginia and 
home. EInrly in 1(193 he wa.'^ amminted to 
the 70-gun ship Eliiabeth, one of the grand 
fleet which, after accompanying Bir George 
Uooke [q. v.] past Ushant, returned to Torbay 
on 21 June, and remained there for a couple 
of months. During this time WUmot quar- 
relled with Ensign Roydon of Ingoldsby's 
regiment, a detachment of which was serving 
Oil board the Elizabeth as mnrinca. The 
quarrel resulted in a due! fought on shore, 
andRoydoit was kOled. Wilmot wascharsfed 
with manslaughter, arrested by tbe marshnl 
of the admiralty, tried at the assizes in 

Devonshire in ihe following March, and ac- 
quitted. On25Aprit lti94he waareappointed 
lo theEliziboth^ED-iE, Suron/af t/ie Soyal 
Marina, i. 387; Admiralty Minute liookt, 
30 Aug., 4 Sept. lB9il, h March I6()3-4). 

In the following October he was appointed 
to the 00-gun ship Dunkirk, and tlie com- 
mand of an expulition sent to the Weet 
Indies, where it was to co-operate with the 
Spaniards against the French settlements In 
Ilispaniola. The squadron appointed for 
this service, consisting, besides the Uuniiirk, 
of three 60-gun ships and some smaller 
vefljels, together with transports carrying 
twelve hundred soldiers commanded by 
Colonel Luke Lillingston [q.v.j, sailed from 
Plymouthon22 Jan. IB95. InWarehitwaa 
at St. Christopher's, and after some corre- 
spondence with the Spanish governor of St. 
Domingo It sailed for Savana on tbe 38th. 
At Savana, however, it was found thBt.can- 
trarv to the hopes the governor had held oat, 
the Spaniards were not ready, and it was the 
end of April before Cape Fnuifab could ba 
attached. This the French evacuated after 
setting on fire, and It was some weeks before 
the different eleniealB of the assailing force 
could agree on what was next to be dona 
and how It was to be done. At length they 
attacked and on 3 July look Port de la Paix, 
out of which they collected a booty e.'itimated 
as worth about 200,000/. This seems to 
have been the cause of the bitter quarrel 
which broke out between Wilmot and Lil- 
lingston, though the particulars are unknown. 
Wilmot was anxious, late as the season was, 
to go on and capture Petit Goave and Leo- 
gane ; but the eichly state of the troops, and 
probably also Lillingston's ill will, rendered 
tliis impossible, and leaving the 50-gun ships 
behind for the protection ofJamaica, Wilmot 
sailed for England on 3 Sept. But the fever, 
which had killed so many of the soldiers, 
had now spread to the shi]is, and very many 
of the seamen died, Wilmot himself among 
the first, on 15 Sept. Lillingston afterwards 
published a pamphlet accusing Wilmot of 
several irregularities, none of which, how- 
ever, he could substantiate by any evidence 
except his own assertion ; and Wilmot waa 
dead! In the account of the expedition pub- 
lished by Burchett, who, as secretary of tlie 
admiralty, was in abetter position for learn- 
ing the truth than any other man could pos- 
sibly be, the accusations of LilLngston tuv 
passed over with contempt. 

[ListbooksintiiePublieReeordOffiu; Char- 
nock's Biogr. Nar. ii. 375; Burchntl's Ttms- 
nctions at Sm. pp. 631-7; LillinReton's Ro- 
HeptioneouBiirchutt's Memoirs; Ledianl's Naval 
Hist. pp. 700-3.1 J. K, L. 




JOILS (17R4-1B41), politiciil inuniilikteer. 

WILSON. Mrs. (d. 1786), actress, wIiobb 
[iiuiden naine vim Adcock, wits presumsbly 

■ milliner in the llsyniarket [flee A\'b8ton, 
, Tuauk6,i7-d7'\77fi]. She ia first heard of in 

York, wlierv, as Mrs. WcsCod, iu iLh suid- 
[ iner of 17"^ she played Lucy l^ockit in the 
* Beggar's Upera,' Miss Notahle in the ' Lady's 
LiLst Stake, and other comic parts. After 
Appearing in Leeds, where she became a 
fiivuurito, and in Glasgow in 1774, she came 
to London. There she come to know Richard 
Wilson (see helow), and aa Mrs. Wilson she 
played at the IJaymarket on 19 May 1773, 
Betay Bloflsom in the " Coienera,' and Lucy 
in the * \'irgin Unmasked.' The name of 
Wilson she henceforward retained, hut is 
once and again heard of as Mrs. Weston. 
Weslon and Wihton were iu the same com- 
|Mny with her. Weston died in 1770, but it 
u known that he quarrelled with and forsook 
his wife no long time aflermarriage. Under 
ame or other she was seen in her first 
latket season oa Lucy in the ' Mirror,' 
Devil to Pay,' Lydia in the 
Bankrupt,' Sophy in the ' Dutchman,' and 
Juletta(annriginal part) in 'Metamorphoses' 
(30 Aug. 1776). 

for Wilson's benefit, Uoydeu in the ' Man of 
Quality.' In the summer of 1776 and that 
of 1777 she was in Liverpool, where, among 
Many other parts, she enacted Miss Hard- 
caalle in 'iShe atoons to conquer,' Lady 
Jtaekct in 'Three Weeks after Marriage,' 
llahana in the ' Miser,' Charlotte Kusport 
in the ' West Indian,' Jenny in the ' Pro- 
Tobed Husband,' Mrs. Sullen in the ' Beaux' 
Stratagem,' Estifania in * Rule a Wife and 
have a Wife,' Phsdra in 'Amphitryon,' 
<^helia, Alaria in the ' Twelfth Night,' 
Lady Harriet in the ' Funeral,' Oamet in 
the Good-natured Man,' and Mrs. Sneak in 
the ' Mayor of (iarratt.' At Covent Garden 
•he had played meanwhile Polly lloncj- 
comhe in Colman's piece so named, Mrs. 
Pinchwife in the ' Country Wife,' and Kilty 
in ' High Life below Staim.' Un 2 Feb. 
17B0 she was the tlrst Betsy Blossom in 
Pilon'a * Deaf Lover,' and on 6 Aiij^. at the 
Uaymarket the first Bridget in Miss Lee'a 
'Chapter of Accidents.' She was also seen 
at the Heyraarket aa Xerissa and Miss Prue 
in ' Love for Love ; ' and at Covent Harden 
aa Jacinths in the '.Mistake,' Mrs, Page in 
the ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' Margery in 

■ Love in a Village,' Edging in the ' Careless 
Husband,' Damarii in ' Barnaby Brittle ' on 

18 April 1781, and on 10 May Betty Hint 
in the ' Man of the World,' the lost two 
oricinal parts. 

At the Eaymarket she was on 16 June 
1781 the original Comfit in O'Keefie's ' Deod 
Alive,' and played Filch in the ' Beggar's 
Upera,' with the male parts played by women 
and viae vena; she played also N^sa in 
' Midas ' (16 Aug.), and Flippant-a m the 
' Confederacy.' Mias Tumbull, an original 
part in Hofcroft's ' Duplicity,' was seen at 
Covent Garden, 13 Oct. ; Kitty in Mrs. Cow- 
ley's' Which is the Man,' 9 Feb. 1782; Nancy 
in O'Keeffe's ' Positive Man,' 16 March; and 
Kil tyCarringt on inCumherland'a 'Walloons,' 
^0 April. She was also Miss Leeson in the 
^ School for Wives,' and Jenny in the ' Pro- 
voked Husband.' Her original parts in the 
next season (at Covent Garden) included 
Catftlina in O'KeelTe's 'Castle of Andalusia' 
on 2 Nov., and Minette in Mrs. Cowley's 
' Bold Stroke for a Husband ' ou 25 Feb. 1783. 
ShealsoappearedaaMrs.Cadwallader in the 
' Author,' Floretta in the ■ Quaker,' and Foi- 
ble in the ' Way of the World.' Viletta in 
' She would and she would not,' Fatima in 
' Oymon,' Lucetta in ' Two Gentleman of 
Verona,' and Mrs. Haughty in ' Epiccene,' 
were given during the next season, in which 
she was on 8 Nov. the first Corisca in the 
'Magic Picture,' altered from Mossinffer; 
Miss Juvenile in Mrs. Cowley's ' More W ays 
than One' (fl Dec.); and 17 April 1784, 
Annette in ' Robin Hood,' In 1781-5 she 
is credited with Tilburina in the ' Critic,' 
Muslin in the ' Way to keep Uim,' Parly 
in the 'Constant Couple,' Nell in the 'De\-il 
to Pay,' and Fine Ladv in 'Leihe.' She was 
on 29 March 178fi tue original Mary the 
Buxom in Pilon's 'Baratario,' on 2 April 
Grace in Macnally's ' Fashionable Levities,' 
and on 23 Oct. Fish in Mrs. Inchhald's ' Ap- 
pearance is against them." She also played 
Lucetta in the ' Suspicious Husband,' Susan 
in ' Follies of n Day,' aud Margery in ' Lovo 
in a Village.' 

She did not act after this season, and died 
in Edinburgh in 1788. A Mrs. Wilson, ac- 
cording to Oenest, ' carefully to he distin- 
guished fromhernamesake at Covent Garden,' 
^laved at Drurv Lane the same class of parts 
from 1783 to IVOO. Mrs. Wilson or Weston 
was a good actress, but ' died a martyr to her 
own fully,' snya Tate Wilkinson, who adds 
that she was ' past reclaiming.' Mary Julia 
Young, in the 'Memoirs of Mrs. Crouch,' 
says of her Filch : ' Though a very pretty 
little woman, [she] appeared to bo in reality 
as complete a young pickpocket as could bo 
found among the boys who lurk about the 
doors of a theatre, and song her songs as if 





ehe bai] always freqticiited bucL Hael(>t;. Gay 
himHelf could nuver Luvb wisbed for a bettor 
Filch' (i. 115). 

Her husband, niCHARD Wilson (Jt.mi- 
1792), barn In Durham, played duritie mnny 
years comic characterB at Covent Garaea anil 
the Hay market. He wad a good actor in 
comedy, taking parts such as IlardcaattH, 
Justice Woodcoclt, Sir Anthony ,\bsolute, 
Tony Lumpkin, Slalvolio, Touchstone, Fal- 
Btaff, Ben in ' Love for Love,' Scapin, Shy- 
lock, Fluellen, Poloniua, Sir Pertlnax Macsy- 
copliant, and Sir llui;h Evans. His original 

nlfl included Don Jerome in the ' Duonna.' 
rd Lumbercourt in the ' Man of the World,' 
Father Luke in the ' Poor Soldier,' Mayor in 
' Peeping Tom,' John Dory in ' Wild Oats,' 
and Sulky in the ' Road to Ruin.' According 
to a rather extravagant and scarcely credible 
account of Lee Lewes, he marrli'd in the 
country, as a seventh husband, a Mra. Grace, 
who ia said to have been the original Jenny 
in the ' Provoked Huaband." She was, in 
fact, Myrtilla, Mre. Cibber playing Ji'uny. 
She must have been fifty years of age, and 
Wiloon little over twenty. Wilson then 
married, it is said, a daughter of Charles l^ee 
I«wea [q. v.], and aflerwarda, it is to be pre- 
sumed, Airs. Weston. Richard WiUon wae 
a good actor. O'Keeffe (Srcotlfielimin, 11. Sffil) 
says he succeeded Shulcr at Covent Gorden, 
that ' hia mannerwas broad, full, and power- 
ful,' and that he was ' ever true in loyalty to 
bis poet, his manager, and his audience.' 

[OnneslB Aci-ount of the EiigliBh Stage, vols. 
T. and vi. pHEHim ; Young's MeniuirA of Mrs. 
Cmueh ; Tate Wilki a nan's Wandering Pufntee ; 
Oallou's U'story of the lAodun Theatres ; Lee 
Lewss's Mnmoira ; O'KsoBTb's Rctiillectionii ; 
Doran's Singe Aiimis, ed. Lnwe; Notes nod 
Qaeries, Sth ear. ii. 349.] J. K. 

WILSON, SiK ADAM (1814-1891), 
Canadian judge, was bom at Edinburgh on 
S2Sept.iei4, and educated inthatcitv. He 
emigmted in 1830 to Trafalgar, co. Haltou, 
in Upper Canada, and went into the employ 
of his uncle, who owned milla and stores at 
that placo ; but after three years he decided 
to go to the Canadian bar, and in 1834 be- 
came articled to Robert Baldwin Sullivan ; 
he was called in Trinity term 1839 to the 
bar of Upper Canada, having already made 
such an impression on his tutor that he was 
in 1840 admitted into partnership with him 
and Robert Daldwin, the reform leader. He 
waa successful in practice, and became Q.C 
in 1600; he was shortly afterwards elected a 
bencher of the I^aw Society of Upper 
Canada. In mtHS he was appointed to the 
committee for revising the public statutes of 
tiiB Canados. 

Wilson removed to Toronto before 1955, 
and in]8C9and l^^OOwasmayorof that city. 
In 1639 he entered the legislative aasembly 
of Upper Canada as member for the Konn 
Riding of York. Joining the reform party, 
he becmne an uncompromising opponent of 
the Cartier-Macdonald ministry, chiefly on 
the question of their views as to popular 
representation. In 1800 he waa again re- 
turned, but in IBOl was defeated in tbd 
election for Weet Toronto. In ] 803 he waa 
elected for his old constituency, and oa< 
24 May of (hat year became solicit ur-genenl4 
in the coalition ministry led by John •Sani'f 
held Macdonald. 

On 11 May 1H63 Wilson resigned jiolitical 
life on his appointment as puisne judge of 
the court ofqueen's bench for L'pper Canada. 
On S4 Aug. he was transferred to the court 
of common pleas ; but at Easter 1866 he 
again returned to the court of queen's bench. 
In 1871 he was a member of the law reform 
commission. In 1676 he wus appointed 
chief justice of the court of common plea*, 
and m 1834 chief justice of the court of 
queen's bench of Ontario. He wa$ knighted 
in 1888. He died at Toronto on a9 Dec. 
1891. He was author of ' A Sketch of the 
Office of Constable,' 1861. 

Wilson married the daughter of Thomufl 
Dalton, editor of the Toronto 'Pair . 

adopted daughter, Julia Isabella Jorda^J 
married George Shirley. 

wnaoN, ALEXANDER (iTiJ-iraem 

first professor of astronomy at Qlaegow Um-J 
rersily, and the father of Scottish lettord 
founders, son of Patrick Wilson, town dtA- I 
of St. Andrews, was bom at St. Andrews in 
1714. He studied at the university therti, 
and graduated M.A. on 8 May 1733. In 
ITitT he became assistant to a London 
surgeon and apothecary. I Ine day he [Miid a 
visit to a type-found IT, and, after examining 
the proceBses,theideaof an improved method 
of manufacture of types struck him. He 
relinquished his profe»siou and returned to 
St. Andrews in 1739. In 1742, with a 
friend named Bain, he started n letter- 
foundry at St. Andrews, which wag removed 
in 1744 to Camtachie, near Glasgow. In 
1747 Bain settled at Dublin, butin 1749 the 

proved production of type.'. He furuiahed , 
Ilia friends, the brothers Foulia, with t 

tht! b«suly and artUttc finitib 
of the Foulia press [a«e Foolih, Robebi]. 
lie is specially referred to in the prEfsce to 
the ' Iloiner.' In 1760 Wibon was spiKiinted 
first profeaeoT of proctical astronomy in the 
uuiyersitv of Glasgow, tlirougli the influBnca 
of Ihtt Diike of .Irgyll. In ITUSI he mad< 
fais celebrated discovery regarding the solai 
■pots, on account of which appeured in tht 
'Philosophical Transactions' of tho Hojal 
Society of Loudon, 1774. His view was that 
the spots ore cavities or depressions in the 
luminous matter which surrounds the sun; 
u)d he was the hrst to establish this by a 
rigid induction. Wilsoa was also the author 
of a speculation in answer to the question, 
' What hinders the fixed stare from falliug 
u^n one another.''' His viewwiis that this 
might depend upon periodical motion round 
aouus grand centre of gravitation. It was 
given to the world in an auonymous tract, 
'Thoughts on Oentfral Oravitation, aud 
Views thence arieinui aa lo the State of the 
UniTBT*;.' Assisted by his sons, whom ho 
took into partnership, Vilsonstill continued 
and extended the buniness of tyiie-lbunding, 
ftnd in 1773 he published 'A specimen of 
some of the .Printing Tj'Pes cast in the 
Foundry of Alexander Wilson & Sons.' 
Wilson resigned the profesaarshtp in 1784, 
mddiedat EdinburghoiiieOet. 1786. He 
received the honorary degree of M.D. from 
St. Andrews on 6 Aug. ITtiS, and was one of 
the oi%inal wemben of the Huyal Society of 

He was succeeded in his chair at the 
tybv his son Patrick Wilson (1743- 
ll^iWQohadmucb of the original thought 
d inventive genius of his fatner. He left 
1,000/. to Glasgow University, the interest 
m which is used to purchase instruments 
for the professor of astronomy. His por- 
tnut, a medallion by James Taasio, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. The 
tvpH-foandiue business was continued by the 
W lUon family for many years, a branch 
being opened in 1632 in bdluburgh, while ill 
1834 the bosinesa WOE removed from Glasgow 
to London. 

[Andenan'a Scottish Nation : Irring's Emi- 
Wnt Scotsmsn ; UuivDrsity of Glasgow, Old and 
Sew, IBSl. pp. 6S-S; London Literary Oaxattr, 
jut. p. 10; Rogera's Hist, of Rc. Andrens ; 
Addison's Roll of Glastjow Gradustos, ISSS.] 
G. 8.H. 
WILSON, ALEXANDER (1766-1813), 
ornithologbt, the son of Aluxaiider Wilson, 
a distiller, and afterwards weaver, of Paisley, 
was bom in that town on ij July 1766. lie 
was educated for a short time at a Bcbool in 
Paisley, but, owing to hie mother's death and 

^nad luvei 
V],000/. U 

^ mi wliinV 


liis father's remarriage, had to be removed, 
and on ill July 177SJ was apprenticed for a 
term of three years to his eldest sister's 
husband, William Duncan, a weaver in 
Paisley. On the expiration of his appren- 
ticeship in nii2 lie continued weaving at 
Lochwinnoch and Paisley, but subsequently 
for nearly three years Lo triivelled as apack- 

From a very early period he had evinced 
a strong desire for learning, and had deve- 
loped a literary taste, especially for poetry. 
Ue had composed many poems himself, and 
nnsuccessfully sought when travelling to ob- 
tain subscribers towards their publication. 
These verses were nevertheless issued, and 
went through two editiona in 1790, reappear- 
ing in 17yl, under the title of ' Poems, 
bu morons, satirical, and serious.' Ilisliterary 
ed'orts being financially unsuccessful, he re- 
sumed weaving in Lochwinnoch, and after- 
wards in Paisley, but went to Edinburgh to 
take part in the debate held in the Pantheon 
by a society of literati culled 'The Forum' 
on the question whether Allan Komsay or 
lEobert I'ergusaon had done more to honour 
Scottish poetry. In his poem, which was 

Sthlished with that ou the same theme by 
beneior Picken [q. v.] in 1791, under the 
title of 'The Laurel disputed,' Wilson gave 

Preference to Hamaay, a verdict from which 
is audience dissented. Two other poems 
were composed and recited by him on this 
Ciccasion. He also, alter corresponding witli 
Burns, paid a visit to that poet in Ayrshire. 
In 1792 his poem 'Watty and Meg' appeared 
anonymously, and was at ilrst ascribed to 

A little later, having written a piece of 
severe personal satire against an individual 
131 Paisley, he was sentenced to bum it in 

Rublic and impriaoned. After his release he 
'ft for the American colonies, sailing from 
Helfast on 28 May 1794, accompanied by his 
nephew, William Duncan. The ship being 
full, they obtained passage only by agreeing 
to sleep on deck. On his arrival, literally 

Eennilea8,at Newcastle, Delaware, on 14 July, 
e shouldered his fowling-piece and walked 
to Pbiladelphin, shooting l>y the way his first 
American bird, a red-headed woodpecker. 
In Philadelphia he obtained employment 
with John Aitken, a copperplate printer, but 
afti.irwards took to weaving at I'eunypaek, 
and for a time in Virginia. In the autumn 
of 1795 he became a pedlar once more and 
travelled through New Jersey. On his return 
he opened a school near Frankford, Penn- 
sylvania, whence he removed to Millerstown 
and taught in the schoolhouse of that village. 
Here he studied hard, principally at mathe- 





opeaeii a aclioot at BloomSelil, New Jersey, 
miere he remained till early in 1302, when 
he received an appointment from the truBteea 
of the Union s^ool, close to Qrny'a Ferry, 
near Philadelphia. Here be mH<le the sc- 
quaintauce of William Bart ram, the botanist 
and naturalist, who owned an extensive 
garden on the west bank of the Schuylkill^ 
where ^\'ilson was able to gratifT to the full 
hia love of nature. His friends, becoming' 
anxious for his health, perausded him to re- 
lini^uiah poetry for drawing, and he took 
leaaona from the engraver, Alexander La waon. 
Failing in hia altempta at the human figure ', 
and at landscape-drawing, he was induced I 
by Burlram to attempt the Illustration of 
birds. In this he succeeded beyond his nn- | 
ticipat ion, and presently proposed the schema i 
of illustrating the ornithology of the United . 
States, for which he at once began to collect 

In 1804, with two friends, be took a wait- 
ing tour to Niagara, which inspired the poem 
of 'The Foresters, ' published in the 'Port- 
folio,' In February 1806 ho made an un- 
Bucceaaful application to Treaident Jefferson 
(with whom he had previously had corre- 
epondence on ornithological matter.';) for the 
post of naturalist to the expedition then (it- 
ting out to explore the valley of the Mia- 

In April of the same year he waa engaged 
at a liberal salary by the publisher, Samuel 
F. Hrndford, to assist in editing the Ameri- 
can edition of Rees's ' Cycloptedia.' This 
Esve him the opportunity of proceeding with 
is cherished scheme— the risk of which was 
taken by Bradford— and in September 1808 
the first volume of ■ The American Ornitho- 
logy' appeared, the original edition of two 
hundred copies being augmented to five hun- 
dred before a year had elapsed, while the 
second volume was issued in 181U. In order 
to carry on thia work he made extensive 

i' (umeys through theStates, ononeof which 
e descended the Uhio alone in an open skiff 
from Pittsburg to near Louisville. iTie hard- 
ships and exposure he had endured on these 
travelsand hiaanxietyto complete the eigbtli 
volume brought on an attack of dysentery, 
A'om which lie died at Philadelphia, after 
ten days" illnesa, on 23 Aug. 1S13. He wae 
buried in Iho cemetery of the old Swedish 
church in that city. Wilson was unmarried. 
Wilson's portrait was painted by J. Craw ; 
another portrait, which is anonvmous, is 
in the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 
Engravings by W. H. Lizars are prefixed to 
Jameson's and to Jardine's editions of Wil- 
son a 'American Ornithology." 

In March 1812 Wilson was elected 1^3 
member of the Society of Artiste of tha" 
United States.and the following year of ths 
American Philosophical Society of Phila- 
delphia. With respect to his great work it 
has been pointed out that in bis specific 
definitions be was loose and unsystematic, 
but that passages in his prefaces and de- 
scriptions are fine, and at the same time 
simple and natural. With perspective he 
was imperfectly acquainted, but his figures 
were superior to most of hia day. Vol. viii. 
of the 'American Umithology' was com- 
pleted, and vol. ix. brought out under the 
editorship of Qeorge Urd in 1814, A second 
edition of vols, vii-ii., the last with a lifo 
of the author, was brought out by Ord in 
I824-G, while a second AmericaJi edition in 
three vols, appeared in 1828-9. Between 
18:^5 and ISS^J Prince Oharles Lucien Jules 
Sonaparte published four volumes containing 
figures and descriptions completing Wilsona 
work. An edition of ibeir united! works in 
four volumes, edited by Kobert Jameson 
[q. v.], waa issued in 1831 (8vo, Edinbuiiih 
and London), and another edition, with 
notes by Sir William Jardine fq, v.], in 
three volumes, in 18S2 (8vo, London). An 
octavo edition in one volume, edited hv 
T. M. Brewer, was Issued at Boston in l»li} 
and New York in lS6:i, other issues appear- 
ing in l8o6 and 1865. Tiie last edition of 
his 'Poems' seems to have been issued in 
1816, ' WattyandMeg' went through several 
editions, but the last by the author appeared 
in the • Portfolio' in 1810. Of hia other 
poems 'The Foresters' {Paisley, 1855, l2mo), 
and ' llab and liingan' (Paisley, 1827, ]6mo), 
were issued separately ; the rest appeared in 
various journals [see Aixuone), and of these 
the best known is 'The Solitary Tutor,' 
which was published in ' Brown's Literary 

[Mumoir by William MuxwbII Hetherin^on 
[q.v.]. proflitd to JnmeBon's ed. of Amerif'ao 
Ornilh.; MsTnoir by O. Ord in vol, iz. Snd eJ. 
of Amsr. Ornilh. ; JHemoir in jBrdine'i ed. of 
Amer. Ornilh.; Brit, Mus, Cnt. ; Nat. Hist. 
MuBtrnm Cbi. ; Appletoa's CyolopiBdia of Aineri- 
con Biogmphv.] B. B. W. 

(1770?-I85I F), physician. [See PHILIP, 
Ai,ESAHnBR Philip Wilsos,] 

WILSON, ANDREW (1-1&-1792), 

philosophical and medical writer, bom in 
1718, was the only son of Gabriel Wilson 
Roxburghshire, by his wife, Ilacbel Co»an. 
After studying medicine at the university 
of Edinburgh, he graduated M.D on 29 Juno 

1749 witb a tbeBia, 'Ue Luce,' Edinburali, 
1749, 4lo. He was licensed to iirnctise by 
the RoynlCoUegeofPbyHicLana of Edinburgh 


. . ' Aug. 1764, anil was admilled 
on Nov. or the same ;ea,r. He exercised 
hb profession at Newcastle and afterwards 
in London, where be was appointed physician 
lo the medical aiylum before 1777, Wilson 
was a ronn of sotne mental power, and a de- 
cided Ilutcbiasonian in his views. Besides 
medical treatiies be publislied anonymouelj 
aevernl pbilosopbical works. He died iu 
London on 4 June 1792. 

Hewos the author of: 1. 'The Creation 
tbe Clroundworlc of Herelalion, and Revela- 
tion the Language of Nature, or a Brief 
Attempt to demonetrate that the Hebrew 
Language is founded upon Natural Ideas, and 
that tht> Hebrew Writings transfer them to 
Spiritual Objects,' Edinburgh, 1750, Svo. 
2. ■ tluman Nature surveveil by Pliilosopby 
and Revelation,' London. 1758, 8vo. 3. • An 
E«aayon tbe Autumnal Dysentery," London, 
1761,8vo: 2tidedit.l777. 4.'ShortOb3en-a- 
tiona on the Principlea and Moving Powers 
Msumed by the present System of I'hilo- 
Bopbv,' 1764, 8vo. 5. ' An Explication and 
VinJication of tbe First Sect ion of the " Short 
0baervation9,'"London,176t,Bvo. 6. 'Short 
Itemnrks upon Autumnal Disorders of the 
Bowels,' Newcastie-upon-Tyne, 170o, 8vo. 
7. ' Reflections upon sorai' of the Subjects in 
Dispute between the Author of the " Divine 
Legation " and a late Professor in the Uni- 
TCrsilr of Oiford,' London, 1766, 8vo. 8. -On 
the Nioving Powers in tbe Circulation of the 
Blrtod,'1774,8yo. There is an Italian trans- 
lation of this treatise in Carlo Amoretti and 
Rranceseo Soave's ' Opnscoli scelti sulle set- 
enw esuUi arti,' ii. 255-72 (Milan, 1779, 4to). 

9. * Medical Researches, beine an Enquiry 
into the Nature and Origin of Hysterics in 
the Female Constitution,' London ,1777,8vo. 

10. 'Aphorisms on the Constitution and Dis- 
eaws of Children,' London, 1783, 12mo. 

11. 'Bath Waters: a conjectural Idea of 
their Nature and Qualities, in three Letters, 
To which is added Putridity and Infection 
unjustly imputed to Fevers,' 1788, 8vo. 

[ScoU's Fusti Ecdes. Scotioans. i. ii. 5s7 : 
Scots Maga. I7D2 p. 310; Reuss's Peg. of 
Living Autbors, 1770-90; Allibone's Diet, of 
Kngl. Lit.: Onus's Bibliolh. Bibljcs, IS24; 
Kdinb, Medical Graduates, 1706-1 B66,p. 4 : Hist. 
Skeicb and Laws of \ho Rojd Coll. of Phjs. of 
blinb. 1882, p. 4.] E. I. C. 

WHflON, ANDREW (1780-1848), land- 
•cape-pointer, born in Edinburgh in 1780, 
came of an old familv wbo had suffered in 
the Jacobite cause. His father's name was 
Archibald Wilson, his mother's Elizabeth 

Shields. When quite young he commenced 
tostudyart undBrAle.xanderNasmyth[q.v,], 
and then, at the age of seventeen, went to 
London, where he worked forsometimeintbe 
schools of the Royal Academy. Proceeding 
to Italy, he studied the ^at works of the 
Italian masters, thus laying ibe foundation 
of a knowledge which afterwards proved of 
great use, and he became acquainted with 
the weil-known coUeolors Champemown and 
Irving. He also made many Bkeljih us, prin- 
cipally of the architecture in tbe neighbour- 
hood of Rome and Naples, Returning to 
London in 1803, he at once saw Ibe advan- 
tage of importing pictures by the old mas- 
ters, and went back to Italj for that pur- 
pose. The troubled stale of Europe made 
travelling difficult, but be reached Genoa, 
where he settled under tbe protection of the 
American consul and was elected a member 
of tbe Ligurian Academy. As n member of 
that society he was present when Napoleon 
Bonaparte visited ils eibibition, and on 
some envious academician informing the 
Inller, who had panned to admire Wilson's 
picture, that it was by an Englishman, ha 
was met bj tbe retort : ' Le talent n'a pas 
de pays.' In 1805 he returned through 
Germany to London with the pictures (over 
fifty in number) which be had acquired. 
Among tliem were Hubens's ■ Brazen Ser^ 

E'nt' (now in tbe National Gallery) and 
assano's " Adoration of the Magi ' (in the 
Edinburgh Gallery). 

Settling in London, he painted a good 
deal in watercolour, was one of the original 
members of the Associated Artists (I80S), 
and held for a period tbe position of teacher J 
of drawing in Sandhurst Military College; I 
but being in 1818 appointed master of th« >l 
Trustees Academy, be removed to Edin- 
burgh, where he exercised a considerable 
and beneficial influence upon bis pupils, 
among whom were Robert Scott Lauder 

g. v.], William Simson [q. v.], and Bavid 
ctavius Hill [q, v.] While in London ha 
contributed to !he Royal Academy, and in 
Edinburgh he supported tbe Royal Institu- 
tion, of which he WHS tbe manager as well 
as an artist associate member. But his pre- 
dilection for Italy was loo strong to be re- 
sisted, and in 1826, ti.king bis wife and 
family with bim, he again went south, and 
for the twenty years following lived in 
Rome, Florence, and Genoa, During this 
period bo was much consulted on art mat- 
ters, collected pictures for Lords Hopetoun 
and Pembroke, Sir Robert Peel, and others, 
and was instrumental in securing for the 
Royal Institution some of the most impor- 
tant works, which later helped to form tbe 


^r Wilson 78 

National Oillery of Rcotliind. He also 
painted much in both oil and watercoloum, 
and his work, Rome of the finest of which 
never came to this country, was ia (Treat re- 
quest by artistic visitors to Italy. His pic- 
tures are delicate in handling, reHned in 
colour, pleasant 111 composilinn, and serene 
in effect. He is represented in the Scottish 
National Gallery by two Italian landscapes 
und a ' View ol" Burntisland " in oils, and iiy 
three walereolours in the watercolour col- 
lection at Bouth KensinKton. In 1817, 
leaving his family in Itnly, he revisited Scot- 
land, but, on the evo of returning, he died in 
Edinhurffh on 27 Nov. 184S. 

In 1H08 he married liachpl Ker, daujAtei 
of 'William Ker, descendant of the Inglis of 
Uanuer, and Lad a family of four sons and 
three daughters. The eldest Eon, Chnrlca 
Heath Wilson, is separately noticed, 

[RdiDbargh Annunl lUgister. IBIS; Cstu- 
logaoof thB Eihibliion of Worts l.y Stfollish 
jlrtists, Ediabur(>h.l863; Rederavp'RandBryaa'i 
Dictionnries ; Armslroog's Smttish PaiatBra. 
18SS; Brydatl's Art in Scollnnd, 1889; Cnta- 
If^nes of Royal Initlitnlion, Edinbargli, Iloja! 
Aeademy, Sottish Nalional Oallprv. Huutb 
Keasinglon; intormalioafKim C. A. WiUon, esq., 
QBnojL] J. L. C. 

WHjSON, ANDUEW(;1831-188I>, tra- 
veller and author, bora in 1831, waa the 
eldest son of the learned missionary John 
Wilson (1804-18r5) [q,.v.l He waa edu- 
cated at the universities of Edinburgh and 
Titbingen, and afterwards lived iome time 
in Italy. He then went to India, where 
he began his career as a journalist by taking 
charge of the ' Bombay Times ' in the ab- 
sence of Qeorge Buist [i]. v.], and aa an 
oriental traveller by a tour in Baluchistan. 
After hie return to England he contributed 
to ' Blackwood's Magasine ' some verges en- 
titled ' Wayside Songs,' and in ]6a7 at- 
tracted gome attention by a paper ' Infante 
Perdu to." published in* Edinburgh Essays.' 
He maintained his connection with ■ Blaek- 
tvnod ' throughout his life. Returning in 
1860 to the east, he edited for three years 
the ' China Mail,' accompanied the expiv 
dition to Tientsin, and vieited Japan. In 
1880 he issued at Hongkong a pamphlet en- 
titled ' England's Policy in China,' in which 
he advocated that change of policy which 
waa afterwards carried out by Sir Frederick 
William Adolphua Bruce Tq- v.] at Pekin, 
by Mr. (now 3ir Robert) Hart at Shanghai, 
and by General Gordon in the field. He 
travelled much in southern China, and sent 
descriptive contributions to the ' Daily News" 
Pall Mall Gazette ' on eastern quea- 
tiona, aa well as to • Blackwood.' At the 


beginning of the civil war he paid a visit to 
the United Stales, and afterwards pasted 
some years in England, during which be 
wrote for papers and magUEines. Returning 
to India about 11^73. be edited fora time the 
' Times of India ' and the ' Bombay Gaietle." 
Ill-lieallh deinved the publication til! 1^78 
of his book ' I'he Ever-V'ictjiriouB Army T a 
History of the Chinese Campaigns under 
Lieutenant-colonel C. G. Gordon, O.B., R.E., 
I and of the Suppression of the Tai-Ping Re- 
j hellion,' which ia still the best account of 
the suppression of the movement of l^i()3-4. 
Wilsons chief source of information was 
Gordon's' Pri vale Journal," then unpublished. 
The clear and animated style in which the 
work is written gives it an additional value. 
In 1876 WiUon published an aceoimt of a 
veryadventurousjoumey under the title'The 
Abode of Snow: Observations on a Journey 
from Chinese Tibet to the Indian Cnucisus 
through the Upper Valleys of the Himalaya.' 
The hook ia based on articles in 'Blackwood's 
Alagazine.' A second edition was issued next 
year. 'TheAbode ofSnow'ia not only a 
vivid record of very arduous travel, it con- 
tains also valuable ethnological observations, 
and displays intense feeling for natural 
beauty expressed in excellent prose. Before 
his final departure from India Wilson made 
an excursion into the wild state of Kathia- 
war. His last contribution to ' Blackwood, 
written in the spring of 1877, was e, retro- 
spect of African travel (' Twenty Years of 
African Travel'). The last years of his life 
were passed in England m the Lake district. 
He died at Howtonon Ullswatcr on 9 June 

[Mon of tho Tims, lOth edit.; Blackwood's 
MiigaiinB, July 1881 (oliiluary notie*') ; Al^fr- 
nsum. 18 Juno 1S3I ; Wilson's ft'orks; Alli- 
bone's Dipt, of Engl. Lit. Suppl. vol. ii. ; Ann. 
Beg, June 1S81 (obituary) ; Mea of the Reign.] 
G, Le a. N. 
WILSON, ANTHONY (J. 1793), better 
known by his pseudonym ' Henry Bromley," 
author of the ■ Catalogue of Engraved Por- 
traits,' was born at Wigan in 17nO. He 
was perhaps connected with the Wilson 
family of kendal, which intermarried with 
that of Bromley, Wilson belonged to a 
mercantile firm In the city of London, and 
was a regular attendant at Hulchins'a »uc- 
tion-rooms, where he was detected on one 
occasion abstracting prints. He also fra- 
quent«d the sale-room of Nathaniel Smith, 
lather of the antiquary, John Thomas Smith 

(iree-ia-w) (q. v.] 

In 1793, stimulated by the increased de- 
mand for prints consequent on the publica- 
tion of James Grangers ' ]3iographical His- 


(1 709), "Wilson, under the 

xrj Bromiey, pabUshed ' A 

£iigritved Britisli Portraits' 

■ ' ■ ■ I the 

Iroiu many leadini; antiquaries 
rfuosi, including Sir William Jlus- 
BTiive, Jameu Bindley [q. v.], and Anthony 
Morria Slorer [q. v,] In tlie ' CatalnguB ' 
WiUon ftimed at furnishing a complete list of 
engmveil British portraits, neglectina; only 
tbo»e which could not be iduntifled with 
their originals. lie divided his list into 
liisloric periods, and suhdivided it into 
pvtips accord in)^ to the rank or calling of 
the persons portrayed. Tlie date of Wilson's 
deatli b unknown. His portrait was en- j 

Suved by Barrett. There is a copy in the 
ntish Museum. Edward Evans (178»- 
'ISM) [q. r.l the printseller. states that he 
was acontrihutor to the 'Qentlemun's Mugu- 
sine' (cf. a letter signed * A Oothamite,' in 
July I8U). 

[MiiDaacript note bj Eraaa, the printseller. 
inhij) co|y of Bromley's CutiilrieuB, HflentntiiB 
in the pOEseaaioa ef Sir Qeoi^e Schorf [q. v.] : 

C'«e to Bromley's Catalogiis; Evnna'a Caiii- 
e of Knprnved Portraila. vol. i. Kos. 13o2, 
,11860; IU<)g race's Diet, of Artists, ».v. - Brom- 
ley.'] E. I. C. 

WII£ON, Sir ARCHDALE (1803- 
Jfiti), bart., lieutenant-general and colonel-' 
commandant roval (laie Bengal) artillery, 
bom on 3 Ang.'lSOa, was fifth son of the 
Ke*. fleorge Wibon of Kirby Cane, Norfolk, 
, youngest brother of the first Lord Itemers, 
I »ndrectorofBidlinglon, Norfolk, by his wife 
, Anna Maria, daughter of Charles Millard, 
chancellor of Norwich. Afterpassing through 
the oiililarv college of the East India Com- 
, pany at Aidiscombe, he received a commis- 
aion AS eecond lieutenant in the Bengal 
lutiUery on 10 April 1819. He arrived in 
India in the following Seplember, and was 

Emoted to be lieutenant on 7 April 18:J0. 
took part in the sit-ge of Bhartpnr in 
December lS:la and January 16:26 and in 
its capture by storm on 18 Jan., was men- 
tioned in despatches, and received the medal 

"n'tlson next had charge of the Saugor 
magazine: in May 18iK bei'ame adjutant of 
the Nimach division of artillerv ; was pro- 
moted to be brevet captain on I'O April 1834 
and captain on 15 Oct. of the same year ; 
Jed (lie left wing of the second bat- 
rtiilery from March to August 
appninl«d on 2 Oct. to officiate 
adjutant-general of artillery ; in 
anded the artillery at I.ucknow, 
and in the following year the 5th hiittaliou 
at Cawnpore : from 12 Aug. 1840 acled 


as superintendent of the gun foundry at 
Kosaipur until 11 Nov. 1841, when he be- 
come su[ierintendent. liismanogeweulof it, 
until his resignationonlO Aug, 1S45, caused 
by promotion to the rank of major on 3 July, 
was considcnHl eapecisliy satisfactory and 
creditable by the court of djrectorg. After 

following promoted to be lieutenant-coloneL 
Wilson served in command of the artil- 
lery in the force under Brigadier-general 
(afterwards Sir) Hugh Mnssy Wheeler [q. v.] 
in the Jatandar Doab during the Punjab 
campaign, assisted in the reduction of tort 
Kalawaia in Uctober 1848 and in the capture 
of the heights of DuJlo in the following 
January, was mentioned in deiipatches, re- 
commended for honorary distinelion, and 
received Iho medal (see iojirfmi Ga::elte,7 aad 
'20 Miircli 1843). He served with the horse 
artillery in the Jalandar from IS.'K) to lbQ3. 
In January 1854 he was appointed com- 
mandant of the artillery at Dum Bum, with 
a seat on the military board, promoted to ba 
colonel on ^8 Nov., and given the command 
of the artillery at Mirat on his return frottt 
a year's furlough in March ISoB. 

When the mutiny broke out at Mirat, on 
9 May lJS57, Wilson was in temporary com- 
mand of the Jlirat division. In obedience 
to ordera he marched towards Baghput, on 
the river Jamna, with a column to co-operat« 
with the force which the commander-in- 
chief was bringing from Amhala. On ap- 
E reaching Uhazi-ud-din-Nngar on the 30ui 
e was attacked by the rebels in force. Ha 
drove them from their giins, which he cap- 
tured, and fought brilliant and successful 
actions both on that and the next dny, when 
he wan iigain attacked. He joined Sir Ilenry 
Barnard [u. v.] and the Ambala column at 
Alipur on 7 June, The combined force routed 
the rebels at Badli-ke-Serai on the following 
dny, and then, fighting its way through the 
Sabii Mendi, established itself on the Itidge 
before Delhi. Wilson, who was mentioned 
in despatches for his services (see ib. 13 Got. 
1857), now commanded the artillery before 
the city. On the 9th it was proposed to 
take the place by assault: but a misunder- 
standing on the part of Colonel Graves pre- 
vented the atlempt. When, on 2 July, all 
the reinforcements from tlie Punjab had ar- 
rived, and the efl'ective force amounted to 
over six thousand men, the proposal to 
atlempt a coup dr vuiin was revived, and 
the details of the assault were settled, hut 
the attempt was ultimately abandoned by 
Barnard in defi'rence to the criticism of 
Wilson and Reed. 




On 17 July Majot^^ueral (Sir) Thomaa 
lleed [<j.v.], wlio bad asaumed the command 
of the Delui lieiil force on the death of Bar- 
nard (5 July), was compeUed to resign on 
»ccountofill-health,(ind made over the com- 
mand to Wilson, conferring upon him the 
rank of brigadier-genenJ, in anticipation of 
the sanction of the government, as he n&a 
not the senior officer in camp. The selection 
was eoafirmed, and Wilson was promoted 
by the govern or- general to be a major-gene- 
ral for special service on 29 July. He wos 
promoted to the eatablisliment of ntajar- 
geoerals oii 14 Sept. I&'i7. 

The details of the lightii^ outside Delhi 
are authoritatively given in Norman's ' Nar- 
rative of the Campaign of the Delhi Army,' 
1858, while those of the aiege and the fight- 
ing inside will bu found in the works quoted 
at the end of this article. On 25 Aug, Wilson 
was still occupying the Ridge in front of 
Delhi, preparing for the siege operations, 
and awaiting the arrival of the siege guus, 
when he learned that a body of the enemy 
had moved out to attack his rear. He 
despatched Brigadier-genernlJohnNicholaou 
[q. T.], with 2,200 men and twelve guns, to 
meet them at Najofgarh, where a most sue- 
eessful action was fought. Both the governor- 
general and Sir John Lawrence now wrote 
to Wilson to urge the political importance 
of the capture of Delhi as soon aa an assault 
was practicable after the arrival of the siege 
train. Bui Wilson ' was ill ; responsibility and 
anxiety had told upon him. He had grown 
nervous and hesitating, and the longer it 
was delayed the mora difficult the task ap- 
peared to him' (LoBD ROBEETH, Forty-one 
Years in India, chaps. Ttvii. and iviii.) The 
siege train had arnved by 5 Sept., and the 
reiaforcemenls by the 8lh. The siege proper 
began on 7 Sept., when W^ilaon issued & spi- 
rited order to the troops. He was neverthe- 
less reluctant to incur the hazard of assault 
without more European troops. Colonel 
Hiehard Baird Smith [q. v.], the chief en- 
gineer, then Bent him a memorandum em- 
phatically in favour of immediate action; on 
this Wilson wrote a minute to the etl'ect that 
to him it appeared that the results of the 
proposed operations would be thrown on the 
baiard of a die, but having nothing better 
to suggest be yielded to the judgment of the 
cliief engineer {KlYB, Hint, of the Sepny 
War, iii. 653), The breaches became prac- 
ticable by the night of 13 Sept., and the 
assault ne^t day placed Wilson within the 
titj. When, however, he realised the failure 
of one column, the falling back of another, 
and the heavy losses sustained, bo anxiously 
'<vd whether he could hold what had 

been taken. Baird Smith's 

prompt and decisive, ' Wemtuf doso' (Kifb, 

lii. Gli^). The captureof the city was triun- 

Ehantly completed on 20 Sept., after much 
ard ughting, and the first decisive htoiv 
struck at the mutiny. 

Wilson's conduct as a commander at Delhi 

taking over the command, written in French 
to Sir John (afterwards first Lord) Lawrence 
(Katb, nist. of the Sepot, War, li. 689), 
threatening to withdraw to Kamal unless 
speedily reinforced; his draft to the governor- 
general of 30 Aug., holding out no hope of 
taking the ylace ' until supported hv the 
force from below ; ' and his contemplation of 
the possibility of a retirement to the Kidge 
on the afternoon of 14 Sept., when the suc- 
cessfid assault had placed bim within the 
city — these have been given as instances of 
a want of that energy, determination, and 
dash which have always carried with them 
victory over the natives of India, and the 
want of which, had it not been for strong 
and resolute advisers, might have proved 
fatal to success. 

On the other hand, it bas been maintained 
that, ill informed of what was going c, 

juntry, V 

and could be obtained if sufficiently pressed 
for. I^wrence. while deprecating delay, 
moat earnestly impressed upon Wilson the 
disastrous and far-reaching consequences 
that would result from failure, and it ia 
contended that the strongest minded man 
might have well hesitated to attack under 
such circumstances without adequate means. 
Moreover, a Fabian policy led the mutineers 
to continue to pour into Delhi instead of 
moving about the country in small bands, 
attacking weak places and murdering Euro- 
peans. Had there been a capable commander 
in the city, he could, without weakening 
the defence of the quarter attacked, have 
sent thousands of men to capture the Ridge 
camp, with the hospital, ammunition, and 
stores ; and it is adirnied that if any hesita- 
tion were shown bv Wilson as to holding 
on to Delhi on 14 Sept. it was due to his 
supreme anxiety for the safety of the Ridge 
and bia sick and wounded there, together 
with a desire for encouragement to proceed. 
The responsibility which rested uuon the 
general was indeed a heavy one, and Wilson, 
good soldier as he was, with all his expe- 
rience and distinguished service, was not a 
man of strong character. Fortunately he 
had with him resolute men who supported 
him, and upon whom he wisely, although 

For his services at Dellii Wilson ■was 

" mad? a K.C.B. on 17 Not. 185T, and was 

«o 6 Jan. 18fiS created a liaronet as Sir 

Archdale Wilson of Dulhi ; he received the 

thanks of both houses of pBrliament and the 

«ourt of direct ore of the East India Company, 

a pension of 1,000/. a year and the war 

medal and clasp iLondon Gw^tti; 17 and 

27 Nov. 1857 and 2 Feb. 18581, He was 

appointed lo the divisional staff, Danapur, in 

Ljunary 1858, and commanded the whole of 

^the artillery of the army of Sir Colin Camp- 

riieli (afterwurds Lord Clyde) [q. v,] at the 

I ^ege of Lucknow in March 1858 and ita 

FlKpture on the 17lh. Ue iras mentioned in 

■ ^Mpatehes and received t he clasp for Ijuck- 

W no^ ('A. 2.5 May ISoS). He went on furlough 

1 .to Enjflajidin April ]858,anddidnotretum 

to India. He waa nominated colonel-com- 

muidant of horse artillery in October 1858, 

decorated with the grand cross of the order 

«f the Bath, military division, on 13 March 

I 1867, and was promoted to be lieutenant- 

' nCMarchlSeS. Hediedon9May 



Wilson married, in IB42, Ellen (who sur- 
vived him), daughter of Brigadier-general 
Wnrren Hustinga Leslie Frith, colonel-com- 
mandant Bengal artillery. He left do issue, 
and was succeeded in tbe baronetcy by 
Roland Knyvet, second son of hia elder 
brother, Rear-admiral George Knyvet Wil- 
wn (1788-1800). 

[India OSiCB Raconla; Dpspatehes ; Times 
<LaDdon). 11 May 1874; United Serri™ Journal, 
IB74 ; Annnal Register, ISTl; Burke's Baronet- 
aft* : Boswonh Smith's L\te of Lord Lawreace : 
MBdl»jr'BA Venr'sCimpHignine in India, 18S7-8; 
The Chaplaio'e Narratire of the Siege of Delhi, 
by Ibe Rer. J. E, W. Botlon ; Shudwell's Lifo 
of Lord Clyde ; Colonel Da«£ White's Complele 
History of the ladiiin Mutiny; Fortnightly Jle- 
TiBW. April 1883 ; Thackeray's Two Indian Com- 
HJgns; Malleson's History of the lodisD Mutiny; 
KHje's lIlHory of the Hepoy War ; Normaa's 
Narmi ire of the Ciinipiilgn of the Itelhi Army, 
I85S ; Holmes's History of Ibe Indian Mutiny. 
1888 ; atnbbs'sEiatory of Uie Beniwl Artiilery.l 
B. H. V. 

WILSON, ARTIItJR (l.)95-lfl52), bis- 
' " n and dramatist, baptised 14 Dec. 1595, 
the son of .lohn Wilson (according to 
tfl baptismal register, hut of Richard accord- 
to the entry in tbe matriculation re- 
er) of Vannonth (Wood, Athena O.ron. 
Blitts, iii. 318). A.t tbe age of sixteen 
^spending two years in France) Wilson's 
er aent him to John Davis of Fleot Street 
i laam courthand, after which he became 
■ vol.. LXII. 

one of the clerks of Sir Henry Stiiller in the 
exchequer ol£ce, but was discJiarged two 
years later for hia quarrelsomeness (Peck, 
Desiderata C'uriosa, p. 481). He lived then 
for a year in London, writing poetry and 
reading, till his money was nearly spent. 
In 1619 he made the acquaintance of fAi. 
Wingfield,flteward to Robert Devereux, third 
earl of Essci [q, v.], and Wingfleld invited 
him down to Chartley in Slalibrdshire. 
While there Wilson saved a woman-servaut 
from drowning, and Essex, who saw the 
scene, took a liking to biro and made him 
otie of hia gentlemen-in-waiting. Wilson 
diatinguisbed himself by duels and feats of 
strength, which be relates in his autobio- 
graphy, and was selected b^ his master to 
accompany him in his foreign travels. He 
waa with Easel in Vere'a expedition for the 
defence of the palatinato (1320), in the wars 
in Holland (1621-23), at the siege of Breda 
(1624),and in the expedition to CadiE(1035). 
In 1630 Essex contracted hia second mar- 
riage, of which Wilson disapproved, and tbe 
countess taking in consequence a great dis- 
like to him, he was forced to leave Essex's 
service. Resolvine- to complete his some- 
what neglected education, ne now matri- 
culated at Oxford (25 Nov. 1631), as a. 
gi^ntleman commoner of Trinity College 
(Foster, ^;«mni Ojmju. 1500-1714; WooB, 
Athenit!). At Oxford he chieay devoted 
himself Co the study of physic, alternating it 
by sometimes disputing with ChiUingworth 
about absolute monarchy, and at other times 
driukinff ' with some of tbe gravest bache- 
lors of divinity there ' (Pbgi, p. 470). 

In 1633 Wilson left tbe university and 
entered the service of Robert Rich, second 
earl of Warwick [q. v,] In 1637 he accom- 
panied Warwick to the aiege of Breda, thus 
witnessing its capture by Spinola and its re- 
conquest by Prince Maurice. During the civil 
war Wilson lived peaceably on the estates of 
his master in Essex, his only adventures 
being the rescue of the Countess of Rivers 
from a mob in August 1642, and an attempt, 
to prevent the plunder by tbe cavaliera of 
the Earl of Warwick's armoury in June 164B. 
His autobiography ends in July 104a He 
died about the beginning of October 1652, 
and waa buried in the chancel of Felsted 
church, Essex {ib. p. 482). 

Wilson married, in November 1654, Susan 
Shitty of BromBeld, Essex, the widow of 
Richard Sjitty (lA. p. 471) ; Chesteb, Lon- 
don Marriage Licences, col, 1462). An abs- 
tract of his will is given by Bliss in bia 
additions to Wood's 'Atheofe Oxonienses,' 
wbich shows that his wife died before him 
aud that be left no issue (iii. 320j. 


Wilson 1 

Wilson wToUi several plays, whicii, iw- 
cording- to Wood, ' were ncted at the ISlack 
Friars in London by the king's pky«ra, 
and is tlie act time at Oxford, witb cood 
■pplauxe, himself there present.' Of these 
onlv one is extant, Ti«. 'The Inconstant 
Lttiy,' which was entered at Sitttionera' 
Hall on 9 Sept. 1603, and was printed by 
Dr. Philip BIIm at the C^larendon Pr^ss, 
Oxford, in 1814. The titles of two others 
survived: (I) "The Corporal!,' liconsed for 
acting at BUckfriars by the kine'a men 
(a fragment exists in manusoript); (2) ' The 
Switier.' Both these wero entered in the 
' Stftlioners' Kegister ' on 4 Sept. 1646 (3\'ood, 
iii. 322 ; FlraI, Chronicle ,■/ the English 
Dmna, ii. 378). 

Wilson's prose works consist of (1) an 
autobiOTTftphy of himself, atyled ' Observa- 
tions of GTod^ I'roTidence in the Tract of 
my Life,' which was first printed in Peck's 
'Desiderata Ciiriosa' in 1735, and is re- 

Erinted in the appendix to ' The Inconstant 
lady;' (2) "The History of Great Britain, 
being the Life and lleign of Kin^ James I,' 
1653, folio, with a portrait of l^ng Jamea 
hy Vaughan. This is reprinted in the second 
volume of Kennef.t's 'Complete History of 
England,' 17(Ht. As an historian Wilson is 
very strongly prejudiced against the rule of 
the Stuarts, but his work is of value be- 
cause it records contemporary impressions 
and reminiscences which are of considerable 
interest. At times he speaks as an eye- 
witness, especially in his account of the 
foreign expeditions in which he took part. 
lie quotes at some length the speeches of 
the king, the petitions or remonstrancee of 
the parliament, end other originnl docu- 
ments. ^^'illiam Sanderson's ' Iteign and 
Death of King James,' 1656, contains a de- 
tailed criticism and refutation of Wilson's 
attacks on that king and his government. 
He describes the history as ' truth and false- 
hood linely put together,' and asserts tliat 
Wilson's collections were 'shaped out' for 

Sublicfttion by on unnamed presbyterian 
octor. Heylyn, in his ' Examen Histori- 
cum,' 1659, calls Wilson's book 'a most in- 
fiimous pnsi^uil,' classing it witb ^'eldnn's 
' Court of King James,' as libels in whicli ' it 

Wilson, be says, 
the English tongue, as well in writing as 
Bpeofaing. And lind he bestowed his en- 
deavours on miother subject than that of 
history, th<7 would without doubt have 
aeemed better. For in those things which 
he hath done are wanting the principal 

Wilson ^^^^H 

matters conducing to the completion of that 
faculty, Til. matter from record, exact time, 
name and place; which bv his endeavouring 
too much to set out his bare collections in 
an affected and bombastic Elyle are much 
neglected,' He concludM by complaining 
of ' a partial presbyterian vein that con- 
stantly goes through the whole work, it 
tieing the genius of those people to pry more 
than they should into the caurtA and com- 
portments of princes, to take occasion ther*- 
upon to traduce and bespatter them.' 

Wilson intended to complete his history 
by narrating the reign of CharlesI, hut died 
before he could carry out his plati. 

[Peck's DeBiiicratit Cnriosn, ed. 1770: Wood's 
Athens Oxon.. ed. Blits, iii. 318; Wilson's In- 
conslaot Lady, «4 Bliss, 18H.] C. H. F. 

WILSON, BENJAMIN (1721-1788), 
painter and man of science, bom at Leeds in 
the latter part of 1721, was the fourteenth 
and youngest child of a wealthy clothier 
named Major Wilson, hy his wife, Eliiabeth 
Yates. He WM educated for a short time at 
Leeds gmmmar school, but after a disagrve- 
raent between his father and the headmaster 
he was removed to a smaller school in thn 
neightioarhood. Hisloveof art wasawakened 
at an early age by tlie decoration of his 
father's house on Mill Hill, near Lt^eds, by 
ttie French artist Jacques Parmentier, and be 
afterwards received nearly twelve months' In- 
struction from another P>ench artist, named 
Longueville, who was engaged in executing 
historical paintings for Thomas Lister of Git- 
burn Park in Craven. While Benjamin wia 
still a youth his father fell into poverty, and 
he resmved to seek a livelihood In London. 
He walked most of the way, and on his 
arrival rt'ceived from a relative a suit of new 
clothes and two guineas as a start in life. 
The money, he states, kept him in food for a 
twelvemonth, and at the end of ihat time 
he gained employment as a clerk in the 
regialry of t!ie prerogative court in Doctors' 
Commons, where he saved two-thirds of his 
salary of three hair-<:rowns a week. ThuH 
achievements rest on Wilson's personal state- 
ments, but as he esteemed frugality the Gnt 
of virtues, it is possible that in his old t^ 
he exaggerated the abstemiousness of his 
youth. When he had amassed SOI. he ob- 
tained a more romuneraliva post as clerk to 
the registrar of the Charterhouse, and, find- 
ing his duties les.s laborious, he resumed )us 
artistic studies. In these he received tome 
encouragement from the master of the Char- 
terhouse, Samuel Berdmore [q. v.], and soma 
instruction from the painter Thomas llud- 
son(I701-177y)[ii.v.] Byperseverauceand 

y he msde himself hnnvni, and became 
Ae friendof Hogarth, Qtcrge Lsmbert [q.v.], 
* and otherleadingpoinlers. In August 1746 
he visited Dublin, and in the spiing of 1748 
returned ta Ireland to paint soine portraits 
for vrliich he had received com missions. lie 
remained tlii:re lill 1750, when he went back 
to Loudon, and established hineelf in Great 
Queen Street, I-incoln's Inn Fields, in the 
house previously occupied by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller ||<)_,Y.], to which he afterwards added 
the sdjominKhouse,fonnerly the dwelling of 
the great physician Join Radcliffe (1650- 
1714) [t ■^■] AmonfT his first sitters were 
Btartin FolKes [q. v.], Lord Orreir. Lord 
Iheaterlield, David Gnrrielc, Samuel Foots, 
^ in 1759 John Iladley, the physician. In 
it Queen Street also he pointed Garrick 
.omeo and Miss Bellamy as Juliet in the 
\t scene;, the picture was engraved hy 

tobert Laurif. His reputation as a por- 

Elnit-painter steadily increased, and it is 
pwd ttiat be enjoyed nn income of 1,oOO/., and 
lecltnud partnership with Hogarth. John 
ioSknv [qiV,] painted draperies for him, and, 
jcconfinp to common bebef, frei^uenlly ren- 
Udered him more material assistance (cf. 
Smith, XolUkeru and kii Timet, 1828, ii. 

Among ^\'ilBon*a poriraits may 
tioned those of John Parsons in the Nstional 
Gall«ry, of the poet Gray at Pembroke C'ol- 
l»e, Cambridge, of Lord Lytteltun, Lord 
luxbrough, Sir Francis Dalaval, Lord Scar- 
hrough, Clive. the Marquis of Rockingham, 
and two of Sir George Snvile at Osberlon 
and at Rufford. He pointed a portrait of 
Shakespeare for the town-hall at Stratford 
on the jubilee of 1760; and in 1779, on the 
outbreak of the Spsoish war, he executed a 
statue of Queen Elizabeth on horseback, 
which was placed in the Spanish armoury at 
the Tower. Several of his works were eu- 

E«ved, among them Garrick as Ilatniet, 
enjamin Franklin, and Simon, earl Har- 
court, by James McArdell : Rockingham, 
John Thomas, bishop of Winchester, and 
Komeo and Juliet hy Richard Houston ; Gar- 
rick as t^iug Lear and Lady Stanhope as 
the Fair Penitent by Buire: and John Dol- 
land by John Itaphael Smith. He made 
seveml drawings after pictures by the old 
masters for Alderman John Boydell [ti. v.] 
Uc also engraved in meuotint, and of his 

trait from life of Maria Gunning dated l7'il. 
Wilson, who was a student of chemistryi 
took a great interest in the problems of 
electricity, and in 1740 he published 'An 
Efisay towards an Explication of the Phfe- 

of Electricity deduced from the 
.Ether of Sir Isaac Newton' {London, 8vo), 
which he followed iu 1750 by 'A Treatise 
Electricity' (London, 8vo: 2ndi-dit. 1752). 
} invented and exhibited a large electrical 
apparatus, and on 5 Dec. 1751 was elected 
tt fellow of the Itoyal Society. In conjunc- 
tion with the phvsician Benjamin Hoadly 
(1706-1757) [q. v.] he carried on other 
electrical researches, the results of which 
were mode public in 'Observations on a 
Series of Electrical Experiments' (London, 
1756, 4to ; Had edit. 175y). About 1767 ha 
visited France, and repeated many of his 
experiments at St.Germain-en-Laye. Uehad 
a long controversy with Benjamin Fmnklin 
on thequeslion whether ligbtning-conduciors 
should be round or pointed at the top, and 
was supported in his view hy George III, 
who declared bis esjieriments were sufficient 
to convince the apple- women in Co vent 
Garden. He was nominated by the Royal 
Society to serve on a committee to regulatn 
the erection of lightning-conductors ou St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and was requested by the 
board of ordnance at a later period to inspect 
the gunpowder magaiines at PurBeet. In 
1700 he received the gold medal of the 
Royal tiociety for his electrical experiments. 
His reputation as an electrician won hiro 
many friends among contemporary men of 
science both at home and ou the continent 
(cf. ^nn. Heg. 1760 i. 14U, 1761 i. 128-9, 
1769 i. 85). 

In 1760 and 1761 Wilson exhibited por- 
traits in the Spring Gardens rooms. About 
this time the versatility of his talents gained 
influential patron. Through Sir 
John Savile, earl of Meiborough, he became 
known to the Duke of York, and won his 
favour as manager of his private theatre in 
James Street, Westminster, On the death 
of Hogarth in 1764 he succeeded him us 
serjeant-painter ; and on the death of Jnmes 
Worsdale [q. v.] in 1767 the Duke of York 
procured for him the appointment of painter 
to tbe board of ordnance. He shared tbe 
emoluments of the position with Worsdnle's 
natural son until 1779, when his colleiigus 
died, and he received a complete investment 
of the office. In 1767 'Wilson lost his great 
patron by death ; but in 1776 he attracted 
the notice of the king, who, after carefully 
ascertaining that he was not the landsca^- 
painter Richard Wilson [q. v.l treated him 
with great kindness, patronised his electrical 
researches, and encouraged him to come to 

Wilson, according to a friendly critic, en- 
deavoured to introduce a new style of chiaro- 
scuro into his paintings, and hb heads had 





more warmtb and nuture tbau thnae uxccut«d 
by tlif! gcnecality of bis contemporBriea, He 
(itched with great ability, tind is snid to have 

firoduced & Inndacspe in imitation of Iti^m- 
imndt's ' Companion to tbe Coacli' which 
deceived TbomoB Hudson and several other 
connoisseuro. Early in 1766, to please Rock- 
ingham, who Imd made him some promises 
of patronage, he elcbed tbe caricature el\- 
titled tbe ' Tomb-Stonu ' on ibe occasion of 
the death of the Dube of Cumberland, in 
which he represented Bute.Georgeftrenville, 
and Bedfanl dancing 'tbe Haze' on Cum- 
berland's tomb, and beld several oilier mem- 
bers of their party up to ridicule. The print 
met with much applause, and Gdmiind 
Burke and Grey Cooper besought him for 
another. The result was the famous carica- 
ture etched in 1766 at tbe time of tbe repeal 
of tbe American Stamp Act, in ridicule of 
the same political party, called ' The Repeal ; 
or, the Funeral of Miss Ame-Slamp. It 
was Bold at a shilling', and brought him 100/. 
in four days. On the fifth day it wa« pirated, 
■nd two inferior versions produced at Bin- 
pence. Copies of several versions of these 
prints are in the British Museum {Cat. qf 
iSatirkal Printt, iv. 366-7, 368-73). 

Wilson from the hardships of bis early 
days acquired habits of parsimony. He vas 
also fond of speculation, and in 1766 was 
declared a defaulter on the Stock Eichange. 
Some years before bis death he found himself 
compelled to resign tbe post of painter to tbe 
board of ordnance on reiusinff to allow a de- 

Endent of tbe Uuke of Richmond to share 
t salary. After tbeae reverses he was ac- 
customed to bewail his poverty, but to the 
surprise of his friends he left a good fortune 
at his death. He died at 66 Great Russell 
Street, DIoomsburv'. on 6 June 1788, and 
was buried in St. Ueorge tbe Martyr's bury- 
iug-BJound. He was a member of seveml 
foreign learned Bocielies, among them of the 
Inatituto delle Science ed Arti Liberal! at 
Bologna, of which he was the first English 
member. His portrait, painted by himself, 
is in the possession of Earl Spencer. He 
made more than one engravingirom it. One 
of them is prefixed to the edition of his 
' Treatise on Electricity ' which appeared in 
1762. About 1771 liemurriedMissHethering- 
ton, whom he devotedly admired, ond whose 
excellences be characteristically summed up 
in the statement thafheeaved more money 
trony the time he first knew her than he bad 
ever done in the same space nf time.' By 
her he bad seven children. His third eon, 
Oeneral Sir Robert Thomas Wilson, is sepa- 
rately noticed. 
Besides the worlis already mentioned, 

WiUon was the author of: 1. 'ALetter la 
Mr. yEpinuB,' on the electricity of the Tour- 
malin, London, 1764, 4to. 2. 'A Letter to 
tbe Marquess of Rockingham, with some 
Observations on the Effects of Lightning,' 
I^ndon, 1766, 4to. 3. ' Observations Djpon 
Lightning and the Method of securing 
Buildings from lis Efiects,' London, 177S, 
4to. 4. ' Further Observations upon Light- 
ning,' London, 1774, 4to. 5. ' A Series of 
Experiments relating to PhofT)hori,' London, 
1775, 4to; ^nd edit. 1776, 4to, This work 
was communicated to several foreign leaned 
bodies, and was the subject of a memoir by 
Lconbard £uler,read at tbe Academia Scien- 
tiarum Imperialis at St. Petersburg ( HaoeH, 
inrffj Openim L. Eulrr, 1896, p. 481, and of 
a ' Letter ' from Giovanni Battista Beccaria 
of Bologna, to both of which Wilson replied. 
6. * An Account of Eixperiments made at the 
Pantheon on tbe Nature and Use of Con- 
ductors,' l^ndon, 1778, 4io; new edit. 1788, 
4to. 7. 'A Short View of Electricity,' 
London, 1780, 4to. Wilson also published 
fifteen communications on electricity in tbe 
'Philosophical Transactions' between 1763 
and 1769. A manuscript volume of letters 
lo Wilson from leading men of science and 
others, including John Smeaton fq, v.], Wil- 
liam Maaon (1724-1797) [q. v.], the poet, the 
Abb£ GuJllaume Moidax, Hugh Hamilton 
(1729-1805) [q. v.], and Tobenv Bergman, 
professor of chemistry at Upsala, is preserved 
in tbe British Museum (Addit. MS. 30094), 
as well as a letter to Hogarth (Addit. MS. 
27995, f. 14). Wilson left a manuscript 
autobiography, which he had carried down 
to 1783, but he strictly enjoined that it 
should not be published. This injunction 
was disobeyed in the spirit by his son-in- 
law , Herbert Randolph, who gave an abridge 
ment in 'The Life of Sir Robert Wilson,' 

[Lifa of Sir Robert WilBon, 1 862 : Thoresbj's 
DuCHtUB Leod. nd. Wbitaker, 1816. pp. 3-1; 
Smitb'sCat. of Munmtinto Portraits; Redgrave') 
Diet, of Artists. 1878; Gent. JUoj;. 17S8 i. SM, 
ii. 6S6, 1791 ii. 819; Notes and Qaerira, 3nl 
ser. i. 488. ii. 339. 6th Sfr. lii. 407. 4Sa ; Watt's 
Bill. Brit.; Tbonuon's Hist, of tbe Royal Soc 
App. p. ilvi ; Edwarda's Anacdotss of Psiolera. 
1808. pp. 146-50; AtbenKum, 1863, L ISO: 
Wbeattoy and Canniogham's taadoa Past ud 
Present, iii. 193.] K. I. 0. 


(1689-1772), divine ond author, bom in 
1689, was the son of Barnard Wilson, a 
mercer of Nevrark-oa-Trent. His mother 
was descended from Sir A\'illiftni Sutton, 
bart.jofAverham, Nottinghamshire (B.Wit- 
SON, Vindication). The father failed in 

buBinaw nboot the period of Bernard's birth, 
liut was so respected by hia tieighboura that 
some of them subscribed a fund forltieeduciL- 
tion of his sod. The Utter was admitted at 
Westminster in 1704, and five years later 
proceeded to Trinity UolleEe, Cambridge. He 
gnduated B.A. In 171:i, M.A. in 1719, and 
D-D. in 1737. At the university Wilson 
Haiduouely cultivated bts social superiors. 
By one of these, Thomas Pelham-llolles, 
dulie of Newcastle [q. v.], he was presented 
in 1719 to the vicamge of his native place, 
Newarti. Some years afterwords, when he 
hkd attained an independent position, Wil- 
Mt) quarrelled with iiia patron. WiUon'a 
otlier chief patrons were Sir Oeoive Mnrk- 
liain, M,P. tor Newark, and Bisbop Reynolds 
of Lincoln. He laid the foundation of his 
&Toar with the former by an exceedingly 
fulsome dedication to him of a translalioa, 
published in 1717, of ' harangues by the most 
eminent members of the French Academy' 
(probably the Abb* Fleury's ' Discours Aca- 
Mmiques'). Markbam soon afterwards gave 
him the management of his large estaies, and 
recommended him as a husband to bis niece, 
Miss Oele, That lady induced ber uncle to 
leftve Wilson almost the whole of his pro- 
perty, to the detriment of her own brothers. 
After Markham's death in 1736 the elder of 
them disputed thewill, and Wilson retorted 
bj prosecuting ibe younger for libel, at the 
" e time issuing a 'vindication of bis own 
"at'erswere compromised by the 
It of 30,000/. to the Ogle family. But 
pTilson did not marry Miss Ogle, wbo subse- 
sntlybecamealunatic. After bavingbeen 
rejected by Lady Elizabeth Fane (afterwards 
wife of Lord Manslield) 'with marks of 

Euliar disdain,' he married privately at 
jpole, near Nottingham, a lady named 
Bradford, 'of reputable connections' and a 
fortune of her own, with whom be bad long 
been intimate. In 1747 a Miss Uavia of 
Holborn recovered from him 7,000/. damages 
for breach of promise of marriage. 

On 3 3I«v 1727 Wilson was presented to 
ihe prebend of Scamlesby, and on 18 Nov. 
1730 to that of Louth in Lincoln Cathedral, 
In ibe latter year he also received a canonry 
U Lichfield, where Bishop Chandler gave 
him B house, and on 13 Oct. 1734 was nomi- 
nated to one at Worcester. He was also 
Ticarof Frisby, Lincolnshire. In July 1735 
be was presented to the benefice of Bottes- 
ford ill the same county, but never took pos- 
Muion. At Newark he was now a person of 
great influence, being not only vicar, but also 
the master of St. Leonard's Hospital. Uis 

frivnte fortune amounted to not less than 
00,000/. He was liberal in bis earlier years, 

but latterly became a miser, and at bis dejith 
5,000/., in guineas and half-crowns was found 
in his house. He deserves the credit of 
having discovered and restored by means of 
litigation to their proper nses local charity 
estates left to Newark, He published a 
' Discourse ' on the aubjecl in 1768. He left 
40/. a year to be distributed among the poor 
and necessitous families of Newark, and 10/. 
to the vicar for preaching sermons on the 
days of distribution, 11 Jan. and ^1 Aug., 
his own and Markham's birthdays. 

Wilson died on 30 April 1772, and was 
buried in the south aisle of Newark parish 
church. His monumeut, described by Dick- 
inson as ' a splendid display of sepulchral 
girandeur,' bears a highly eulogistic Inscrip- 
tion by his nephew, Itohert Wilson Cracroil.. 
" ' children. 



ber of the Gentleman's Society at Spalding, 
nischiefpublicationwasan English version, 
which appeared in two folio volumes in 
1729-30, of part of De Thoii's ' Historia sui 
Temporis.' The first was dedicated to the 
Dukcof Newcastle, the second 1o John, duke 
of Rutland. The translation is made from 
the Geneva edition of 1620, and includes 
only the firit twenty-sii books. 

[Dii'kinsna'a H>«t. of Nanark-oa-Trent, 1S19. 
pp. 236,268.303-1 3; Brown's Annals of Newark, 
pp. 209. 217, 21P-21 ; GenL Mog. 1747 p. 2B3, 
1773 p. 247: Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. Anglic. ; 
Wflch'a Alnmoi WestniDn. 1863; Thorofon's 
NDtnn((hsm»Iiire ; Green's Survey of Worcester 
and Wilts; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. vi. 07 »., 120, 
121; Clialmers'a Bto);r. Diet.; Allihoue's Diet. 
Engl. Lit.; Wilsoo's Vindication, 1736, and Dis- 
cour«, 1;B8,1 O. Lk G. N. 

1846), author, was bom at Tunbridge 
Wells on 31 Dec. 1787. She was the ninth 
child of .lohu Fry, a farmer in easy circum- 
stnncea. lie was ambitious for bia children, 
and gave the elder ones an excellent educa- 
tion. The eldest son, John (a. 1849), be- 
came rector of Dcsford, and had some repu- 
tation as an author. Caroline was instructed 
by her elder sisters, and read widely. Shortly 
before hiadeath, about 1803, her father printed 
end published at theTunhridgeWellslibrary 
a few hundred copies of a history of Eng- 
land in verse. Caroline had composed it for 
lierown schoolroom, atidthe production had 
a successful sale. During her father's life- 
time she led a very secluded life, and im- 
bibed high-church principles. At the age 
of seventeen she was sent to a London school 
for a year and a quarter, and then went to 
reside with a solicitor and hiswife at Blonraa- 
bury ; they iutrodiiced ber into society, and 




ehe characrerUea the three joarB speat with 
ilii-m a« witliout serious interests or much 
religion. But, as \» shown by the chsract'er 
nf her writings, the friTolities of this period 
b&d little effect ou her deeply religious 
mind. In 1823 she commenced tringin^ 
out the ' Afisistsnt of Educaliou,' b perio<li- 
cal puljlication edited und ulmost wholly 
written by herself, In & letter to her 
brother in lS'J(i she says that ei^ numben) 
of her magazine ore ordered moutlily for his 
majeatv's library. It tilled ten volumes. 
•The 'Listener' (2 vol*.), the work by 
wJiicL she is best known, was compiled 
from the ' Asaistant of Education,' and con- 
tains moral essays and tales on such sub- 
jects as education, conduct, and practical 
reJigion. It parsed through thirteen editions 
between 183U, the dale of the first edition, 
and 1863, was printed In America, and tmns- 
lah-d into l-'rench (Paris, 1844). In 1631 she 
Tisited Paris, and in that year married Mr. 
Wilson. After her toarriage she lived at 
Bluekbeath and Woolwich, She continued 
to write Iiymns and religions hooks, ' Christ 
OUT Example' (8rd ed. 1632) had nine edi- 
tions between its first appearance and 1873; 
in a preface to the nmth edition Cnnon 
Christopher gives it the highest praise. Of 
her hymns the best known are ' For what 
shall I praise Thoe, my God and my King. 
and ' Often the clouds of deepest woe,' Sht 
died at Tunbridge Wells on 17 Sept. 184G. 

Tier portrait, painted in 1827 by Sir 
Tlirioias Lawrence, shows her to have been a 
very handsome woman. An engraving of 
her portrait by H. Robinson forms the frouli- 
Bpiece of the ' Autobiogruphy ' edited by heT 
husband in 1848. 

Other works by Mrs, Wilson are ; I 
Poetical Catechism,' 1821 ; 5th ed. 18[J7. 
•2. 'Serious PoeWy,' 1823; 2nd ed. 1823. 
4. 'Death, and other Poems,' 1823. 5. 'The 
Scripture Reader's Guide," 1828; 16th ed, 
1849; new edition, 1864 {this is part of the 
'Assistant of Education'). 6. 'Scripture 
Principles of Kducalion,' 1833 ; 4th ed. 
1839; new edition, 1864. 7. 'The Gospel 
of the Old Testament,' 1834. 8, 'Daily 
Scripture Readings,' 183o; 2nd ed. 1840. 
B, ''rheTableortbeLord,'1837. lO.'Gatber- 
ings,' 183D, 1849. 11. 'The Listener' ii 
Oxford, 1839, 1840, 12. ' AWordto Women, 
1840. 13. ' Christ our Law,' 1842 ; Oth ed. 
1893. 14. 'Sunday Afternoons at Home,' 
1844 ; 2nd ed. 1847. 15. 'TbeGreat Com- 
mandment,' 1847. 

[Alliboae's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; .Tulians Diet- of 
Hyninalo^, p, lS25i An Autobiography. Lottera 
andBemHiris of the author of Tba Listonar.ed. by 
b«i husband, IBiS.] E. L. 

1882|, art teacher and author, eldest son of 
Andrew Wilson (1780-184B)[q. v.], theland- 
scape-pa inter, was bom in London in Sep- 
tember 1809. He studied art under bis father, 
in 1823 accompanied him lo Italv. 
Aftersevenyearsjhe returned to Edinburgh, 
where be practised as an architect, and was 
forsome time teacher of ornament and design 
in the school of art. His pictorial work vas 
principally landscape in watercoloiir, but he 
also etched a number ot book illustrations, 
of which the more important are In Pij&ri's 
'Viaggio Antiqiiario' (Roma, IS32), and 
James Wilson's ' VovBge round the Coaais 
of Scotland' (Edinbursh, 1842). In 1835 
he was elected A.R.S.A., but resigned 
in 1858. While in Edinburgh be wrote 
and published, in collaboration with Wil- 
liam Dyce [<I.'v.], a pamphlet (addressed to 
Lord Meadowhank) upon 'The Best Means 
of ameliorating the Arts and Manufactures 
of Scotland,' which attracted much attention. 
A copy in the British Museum is annotated 
by W ilson himself. Shortly afterwards Dyca 
was made director and secretary of the re- 
cently establLshed schools of art at Somerset 
House, but resigned in 1843: and Wilson, 
who had meanwhile been director of the 
Edinburgh school, was appointed his suc- 
cessor. His position there was not much 
more comfortable than Dyce's had been, and 
ill 1848 he also resigned, but the following 
year accepted thoheadmaster«hip of the new 
Glasgow school ot design. In 1840 he bad 
visited the continent to make a report la 

Sivomment ou fresco-painting, and while in 
Insgow he was occupied for nearly ten yenra 
under the board of trade in superintending 
the fillingof the windows of Gla^ow Cathe- 
dral with Muuich pictures in coloured glass. 
lie selected the suDJects and wrote a descrip- 
tion ot the work (prefaced by some account of 
the process), which went through many edi- 
tions. In 1864 the board of trade masl^r- 
hhipB were suppressed and Wilson was pen- 
sioned, but continued to live in Glasgow for 
some years longer, doing architectural work. 
In 1869 he and his family finally left Scot- 
land and settled at Florence, where he be- 
came the life and centre of a large lil>erary and 
artistic circle. Much interested in Italian 
art, on which he wrote occasionally, and par- 
ticularly in Michael Angelo, of whom he 
published a life (London and Florence, 1676; 
2nd edit. London, 1881), which, b^in as a 
compilation from Gotti, developed into a 
quite independent work, ' enriched with not 
a few ingenious criticisms,' he had, for these 
and other services, the cross of the 'Corona 
d' Italia' conferred upon him by Victor 

•Ktta twice married: first, on 3 Oct. 

n Edinburgh, to Louisa Orr, daughter 

f HiiTgeon John Orr, E.I.C, with iasua one 

>n and two daughters ; and, secondly, on 

Au^. It<18,alao in Edinburgh, to Johannii 

"uthenne, daughter of William JohnThom- 

, portroit-paint^r, issue a son and a 

' «r. A portrait of Wilson, as a jouiig 

y Sir John Watson Gordon, is in the 

n of his sun, C. A. Wilson. 

■ Century of Paintare, ISflfl; 
JIIM, 17 July IS82 ; Academy, 22 July 1K82 ; 
ni. 16 Julyand 19 Ang. 1882 ; iuforaia- 
. (' A wfi^oo, esq., Qanoa.] J.L.C, 

ivTioae maiden name was AIARGA.BBT IIakbiES 

p797-l&46|, author, bom in Shropshire in 

1707, WB« the only child of Roger llarcieB of 

Canoobuiy Place, Islington, and afterwards 

of Woburn Place, Russell Square, by his 

wifo Sophia, daughter of Matthew Arbouia 

m «f MiociDg Lane (cf. Pabey, Wdsh Melodie», 

LffoL iii.) Iter literary attainments were ver- 

Uile ; she wrote poems, romantic dramas, 

Dmic interludes, tioTels, and biogTBiihies. 

pBur first book of poems, ' Melancholy lloura,' 

F ^as published anonymously in lbl6i her 

Mcond, ■ Aslarte : a Sicilian Tale ; with other 

' Pnems,' to which she prefixed her name, at- 

l_ tracts some altention. It reached a second 

Jition in 1818, a fourth in 1827, and was 

spnbUahed in 1«40. Un 15 April 1819 she 

Tied Comweil Ilaron Wilson of Lincoln's 

n Kelds, a solicitor. In 1829 Mrs. Wilson 

iOt« the words for the third volume of 

ry'» 'Welsh Mplodies.* Mrs. Hemans 

contributed the verses for the first 

^plume. In 1833 she commenced an ephe- 

verftl publication, ' La Kinon, or Leaves for 

Ftfie Album,' which ran to three numbers. A 

fcurth number, entitled 'TheliasBleu'sScrap 

' Sheet, or La Ninon improved,' appeared in 

tlie ume rear. In 18S3 «be also commenced 

to edit ' f he Weekly Belle Assembllc.' In 

I8S4 the title was chnnsed to 'The New 

ifonthly Belle Assemblfe. It continue<l to 

appeu- until 1870. In leSl Mrs. Wilson 

nined a prize for a poem on the Princess 

Victoriai awarded at the CurditT bardic festi- 

tbIj there were two hundred candidates. 

In Jnne 1836 her ' Venus in Arms, or the 
Petticoat Colonel,' a comic interlude in one 
act, adapted from the French, was pe^rformud 
»t thu Strand Theotre, l.ondon, with Sirs. 
Stirling in the title r6Ie(cf. Dukconbk, fn'f. 
^Tkeatrt, vol. xxvi. ; Cuhberlahd, Minor 
^htatre, rol. sit.) Her other dramatic ven- 
'The Maid of Switierland,' a 

romantic drama in one act in prose (1630?) ; 
I, a Vestal,' a mythological drama 
in twoacts(lAlO). 

Her excursions into biography include 
' Memoirsof Harriot, Duchess of St. Alban'e ' 
(3 vols. 12mo, l9Sd: 2ad edit. 1840; 3rd 
edit. 1886). In 1839 also appeared in two 
volumes her ' Life and Correspondence of 
Monk Lewis.' They are useful compilations, 
without much literary merit. 

Mrs. Wihwn died at Wobum Place, Lon- 
Jon, on 12 Jan, 1846. leaving several children. 

Other works byMrs. Wilson are: 1. 'Hours 
at Home : a Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems,' 1826 i 'laA edit. 1827. 2. 'The 
Cyprees Wreath : a Collection of Original 
Ballads and Toles inverse,' 1828. 3. 'Poems,' 
1831. 4. 'A Volume of Lyrics,' 1840. 
5. ' Chroniclesof Life,' 1840. 3 vols. 6. ' Popu- 
larity: and the Destinies of Woman: Tales of 
the World,' 1842, 3 vob. 7. ' Our Actressos; 
or Glances at Stage Favourites past and 
present,' 1844, 2 vols, 

[AlliboDe'e Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Osnt. Mag. 
17U1 i. 480. iai!l i. 368. 181S i. GQ2.] G. L. 

"WILSON, DANIEL (1778-1858), fifth 
bishop of CiUcuttft, son of Stephen Wilson 
{d. I8l3), a wealthy London silk mauufac- 
t urer, by Ann Collett (d. 1829), daughter of 
Daniel West, one of Whit^field's trustees, 
was bom at Church Street, SpitalSelds, on 
2 July 1778. He was intended for the silk 
businesa, and apprenticed to his uncle, Wil- 
liam Wilson, but in October 1797 he felt a 
call to the ministry, and, consent having 
been wrung from his ifither, he matriculated 
from St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, on 1 May 
1 798, and graduated B. A. in 1602, and M. A. 
in 1804 (he was created D.D. by diploma on 
12 April 1832). WhUe a graduate ot Oxford 
he won the chancellor's priie in 1803 for an 
essay on ' Common Sense ;' iiwinald Heber 
won a prize for his poem on 'i*alestlne' in 
the same year. Having been ordained, ho 
became curate of Richard Cecil [q. v.] at 
Chobham and Bisley in Surrey, was to a 
large extent moulded by Cecil, and became 
a strong evangelical preacher. He returned 
to Oxford a short while before 1807, when 
he became vice-prtncipal or tutor of St. Ed- 
mund Hall, at the same time taking mini- 
sterial charge of the small parish of Worton, 
Oxfordshire. In 1808 he wits licensed as- 
sistant curote of St. John's Chapel, Bedford 
Itow, Bldorasbur;^ (formerly the chief sphere 
of Cecil's great influence), and in 1812 he 
resigned his college othcea on becoming sole 
minister of that chapel, which during the 
tifelve years of his incumbency was well 
known as the headquarters of the evange- 



lioil party in Ijondon. Among his liearera 
at St. John's were CliBrles Grant (afterwards 
Lord Glenelff), Bishop Hjder, John Thorn- 
ton, Zachary Macaulay, the Wilberforcee, 
uidSirJamesStephen. In June 1824 Wil- 
son was appointed to the vicariige of St. 
Mary's, Islington, t)ie living being in the 
pttlronnge of his fumily. In 1832, mainly 
through the influence of Lord Glenelg and 
his brother, Sir Kobert Grant, Wilson wua 
nomin&tedbiabop of Calcutta, with a diocese 
extending over the entire presidency cf Ben- 
gal, and exercising a quasi-met ropulitan 
lurisdiction over the other sees of iiomhuy 
and Madras. He was apitointed visitor of 
Bishop's College, Calcutta, and insured an 
incomeof5,OO0Aa year. He was consecrated 
at Lambeth by the archbishop (Ilowley), 
assisted by Bishop Blomfield and other pre- 
lates, on 29 April 1832. On 16 May be 
rke at the East India banquet at the Lon- 
1 Tavern, and on 19 Juno he embarked in 
the ship James Sihbald, sailing from Ports- 
mouth, and landing at Calcutta on 6 Nov. 

India bad been thrown open to mis- 
sionaries through tlie influence of Wilber- 
foTce in 1813, and in the following year 
Thomas Fanshaw Middleton [q. v.] bod be«n 
appointed English bishop of Calcutta. lie 
was succeeded in 1823 hy Reginald Ileber 
[q. r.], since whose death in 1826 the see hftd 
twice been vacated by death. Upon his 
arrival in Calcutta Wilson found the juris- 
diction of the bishop ill defined, the reins of 
authority much relaxed owing to the frequent 
vacancies in the see, and the records very 
deficient. Wilson, however, was a strong 
and masterful man, and, after a preliminary 
encounter with the presidency chaplains, he 
lost no time in showing his determination t,o 
establish his authority upon a firm basis. 
He made a large outlay upon the palace and 
of state, and was accused of 
L, as his predecessors Heber and 
Turner had been blamed for neglect in mat- 
ters of etiquette. Eventually, byslrict habits 
of business, in which he took delight, and by 
genuine administrative capacity, Wilson suc- 
ceeded in establishing his own sl^ndnrd of 
episcopal propriety. His relations with the 
govemor-goneml, Lord William Bentincli, 
were excellent, and, having been once ac- 
climatised at Calcutta, be enjoyed robnet 

The chief events of his epiacopste were the 
sevea visitations, in the first of which, in 
l^^,lieirisited Malacca and Ceylon, white in 
the last he net Dalhousie at Rangoon in 
November ISfiii, and foundud an English 
church there. On U Feb. 18.^3 he visited the 
venerable missionary William Carey (1761- 

1834) [q, v.l and received his blessing. In 
January 1835 the bishop visited the scene of 
Schwartz's labours at Taniore, and took the 
important st«p of altogether excluding the 
caste system from the native churches of 
ioulbem India, in which it bad hitherto 
survived. In March 1839 the idea of build- 
ing a new cathedral for Calcutta first took 
posseasionofhismind. The foundation-stone 
was laid on 8 Oct. 1839, and henceforth the 
bishop dedicated a large portion of his income 
to this object. In 1845, having been attacked 
by jungle fever, he wiw ordered to England, 
and on 19 Match 1846 be woa introduced by 
Peel, and bad a private audience with the 
queen, to whom he submitted plans of the 
cathedral. The queen undertooii lo present 
the communion plate. He collected con- 
siderable sums for the building, and, after a 
farewell sermon at Islington on 31 Aug. 
1846, he sailed for India the same evening. 
The cathedral church, St. Paul's, was finally 
consecrated on 8 Oct. 1847. During his later 
years the bishop spent much of hie time 
at Serampore, and he was there when the 
mutiny broke out in the spring of 1867. His 
last sermon upon 'Humiliation 'was preached 
in the cathedral on 24 July 1867, and was 

fnuttid with a dedication to Lord Canning, 
le died at Calcutta on 2 Jan. 16.^, and an 
extraordinary gazette requested the prindpal 
oSicers of the government to attend at his 
interment in the cathedral on 4 Jan. The 
cotfin WOA home by twelve sailors of tba 
warship Hotspur, and his remains buried at 
the east end of the chancel. A memorial 
was erected in St. Mary's, Islington, while 
four scholarships and a native pastorate fund 
were founded at Calcutta in his memory. A 
' Bishop Wilson Memorial Hall ' was inaugu- 
rated at Islington in Januaiy 1891. 

Wilson married, on 23 ^ov. 1803, at St. 
Lawrence Jewry, Ann, the daughter of hia 
uncle, William Wilson; she died at Isling- 
ton on 10 May 1827. The yrogress of the 
courtship was thus recorded in his Latin 
journal; 'Ap. 1. Rem patriexposuide more. 
25. Literaa ad patrem dedi. Mail 7. Con- 
senait avunculus. 14. Voluit consobrina 
mea. 17 Nov. Londininm perveni. 23. Nup- 
tin celebratiG felicissimis auspiciis.' Of a 
large family two survived him. Of these 
his eldest son, Daniel, bom in November 
1805, graduated B.A. from Wadham College, 
Oiford, on 14 June 1827, and became vicar 
of Islington, in succession to hia father (1832). 
He became rural dean (1860), and prebendary 
of St. Paul's (Chiswick) in 1872, and died 
on 14 July 1886, aged 80. 

Both OS a parish priest and bishop Wilson 
was distiaguished for independence, resolu- 


tion, and caexgy, and be accomplished much 
Tiiluable work both at borne and abroad. 
He was a tealous opponent nf the principles 
Daaiatained in the Oxford tracts, agBinst the 
tendencies nf which be both Bpoke and 
preached with vehemence. His style of 
preaching whs vigorous ; bis short pithy sen- 
tences were meant to have the effect of 
goads, and tbey were often punjient ; but, 



jher admits, * things 
Bald m&tiy times that might have better been 
left unsaid. Hut though men might smile, 
thev never slept. India is a sleepy place, 
■nd he e&ectuallj roused it.' As a European 
traveller bin narrowness is often conspicuous, 
uid he is too frequently congratulating his 
fellow counlrymen upon their freedom from 
'gross popish impostures.' In bis spiritual 
egotism and his eminently technical view 
of religion he was a typical evangelical. 
But he did not pride himself upon bis taste 
or his tact; his (qualities were more of the 
primitive apostolic order, and for his pure 
umplicity of mind and artlessness of demea- 
nour h« has been termed ' a Dr. Primrose in 
lawn sleeves.' 

A portrait of Wilson by Claiton, now in 
the Town Hail, Calciittj*, was engmved by 
W, HdII for the ' Life ' by Josiah Bateman, 
-who married one of the bishop's daughters. 

1. ' Sermons on various Subjects of Christian 
Doctrine and Practice,' London, 1818 and 
1827,8vo. 2.' Letlecsfromanabseut Brother, 
containing some Account of a Tour through 
P«rt«oftheNetharlands,SwitMrland, North- 
em lUly.and France in theSummer of 1823,' 
London, 1825, 2 vols, (several editions). 
S.' The Evidences of Christianity: Lectures,' 
183&-30, 2 vols. 8yo; 4th edit, i860, 12mo 
(ft rfchaufiii of Paley, praised by Mcllvaine 
in his aubscfjuent 'Lectures'). 4. ''rheDi- 
TJne Authority and Perpetual ObliMtion of 
the Lord's Day/ 1831, 1840. 6. 'Sermons 
in India during a Primary Visitation,' 1838, 
8vo. 6, ' Sufficiency of the Scripture as a j 
Bule of Faith; 1841, 8vo. 7. 'Expository 
Xectures on St. Paul's Epistle to the Co- 
, 184.j,8voi New York, 1846; Lon- 
.don,3rdedit. 1853. In these lectures the writer 
protests against the erroneous teaching of 
the Oxford tracts. A similar view was 
Schoed in bis son's 'Our Protestant Faith in , 
Daager' (Ijjndoo, IS'iO). 8. 'The Bishop ' 
ot Calcutta's Farewell lo Engliind,' five ser- I 
ttons, Oiford, 1840, 12mo. | 

[Bateman's LifeoF the Rt. Rev. Or 
D.D , London, I BS<i, aud condcnaod, 

grtrait) ; Biehop Wilion's Journal Letters, mt- 
ated tn his Family during the first nine j«ar!i 
tit his Episcopalo. edited by his son, Daniel 

el Wilson, 

Wilson, London. 1863; Foster's Alumni Oion. 
1716-1886; Oardiner's Wiulhani College Itigi- 
BlfTs; Gent, Mug. 1858, i. o52; Times, 4 Feb. 
IBfiS; Smith's Lifa of William Carey. 1887, p. 
871; Hist, of ChriBtiaDity in India, Hiidras, 
1 8Bfi ; Stock'e History of the Charch MiBsiooary 
Society, 1699, vols. i. and ii. passim ; Allen sod 
McClure'a History of the S.P.C.K. 18D8, pp. 
208 cq, ; Smith's Life ot Aleiander Duff. 1879, 
ii.334; London BerJew. July 18S0; QuHrtarly 
Reriew, October 18B3; QoodWonlB, 1878, pp. 
19B, 371 (an interesting chanctcr sketch by Sir 
John Kaje) ; Illustraled London News, 6 Fob. 
1958 ; Anderson's Culonial Church, ii. 870 ; 
Whenlley and Cunningham's London, iji. 293 ; 
Brit, Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

WILSON, SiH DANIEL (1816-1892), 
archfeologist and educational reformer, was 
the son of Archibald Wilson, wine mei^ 
chant, of Edinburgh, who married, on 2 June 
1812, Janet, daughter of John Aitken of 
Greenock, a land surveyor. He was one of 
eleven children: a younger brother was 
George Wilson (1818-'l859J [a. t.I He was 
bom in Edinburgh on 5 Jan, ISlo, and edu- 
cated first at the High School, then at the 
university of Edinburgh. Embarking on a 
literary career, he went to London in 1837, 
Bndwrote with varying success for the press; 
hut in 1842 he returned to Edinburgh, and 
g;ave special attention to archiBolcgical aub- 
jects, publishing in 1847 his ' Memorials of 
Edinburgh in the Olden Time,' which he 
illustrated with his own sketches ; arevised 
edition anpeared in 1891. In 1846 he was 
appointed honorary secretary of the Scottish 
Society of Antiijuaries, and in 1851 pub- 
lished his great work on the archteology of 

In 1853 Wilson was appointed professor 
of history and English literature in Toronto 
University. From his arrival in Canada he 
devoted himself with marked success to the 
furtherance of education in the colony. In 
1854 he was olfered, but did not accept, the' 
post of principal of McGiU UnivBrHity, 
Montreal. In 18>4 be became editor of the 
journal of the Canadian Institute, and in 
1859 and 1860 was president of the institute. 
In 1863 he received the first silver medal of 
the Natural History Society for original 
research. In 1881 ne became president of 
Toronto University, in 1882 vice-president 
of the literature section of the Canadian 
Royal Society, and in 183.5 president of that 
section. He was knighted m 1888. 

Wilson's work in Canada is fairly de- 
scribed in his own words; 'I have reso- 
lutely battled for the maintenance of a 
national system of university education in 
opposition to sectarian or denominational 



Wilson s 

__ _. Js OuB I have beon auccesaful, 
IfliitngfaA it as the great work of my 
U(e<' The potition now held by Toronto 
TTniveraity ia largely due lo Wilson. He 
diet! at Toronto on 6 Auff. 1802. He mar- 
ried, ill 1840, Margaret, dnugliter of Hugh 
Mackaj of Glasgow, A daughter survivt»l 

Apart from papers of high philosophic and 
Bcianti fie merit in journals of various learnod 
Bocietios, and articles in ihe ' Encyclopicdia 
liritannica,' Wilson's cliief works were : 
1. 'Oliver Cromwell and Ihe ProUictoratu,* 
Edinburgh, 1848. 2. ' The Archteology and 
Prehistoric Annals of Scotland,' Edinbiirg-h, 
1851 ; 2nd edit. 1863. 3. ' PrebUtoric Mao : 
Researchea into the Origin of Civilisation 
in the Old and New Worlds,' Cambridge, 
1862 [ 3rd edit. London, 1876. 4. ' Ohatter- 
lon ; a Bio^phicol Stud^,' London, 1869. 
B, ' Caliban, the Missing Link," Oiford, 1873. 
6. 'Spring Wild-Flowers: a collection of 
poems,' London, 1875. 7. ' Reminiscences of 
Old EdLnburgh,' Edinbiirffh, 1878. 8. ' An- 
thropologj-,' 1885, 0. ' William Nelson : u 
Memoir '^{privately printed), 1890. 10. 'The 
Right Hand: Left-handedness.' 1891. 

fTimes, Aug. 18112: Montraal Qazi-ttB, 
9 Aag. 1892 ; Rose's CyclopieJia of Caaadiiul 
Biofjr. 2Qd edit.; Appleltin's Cyclap»dU of 
Ain«ricnn Biogr. ; Moruan's Bibl. CitiiadauBis ; 
Proceedings of Jtoyal Society of Oanada, xi. ii. 
S6.1 C. A. H. 

WILSON, EDWARD (d. 1694), ' Beau 
Wilson," WHS the fiftbsouof Thomas Wilson 
(d. 1609) of Keythorpe in Leicestershire, 
by Anne (d. 1723), eldest daughter, by hia 
second wife, of Sir Cbristopher Packe [q. v.] 
The Wilson fnmilv was of old standing at 
Didlingtou in West Norfolk, bul had beconm 
somewhat impoverished (for pedigree, sea 
Nichols, Zeicaifers/iire, iii. 523). About 
1693 Edward, or, as lie was styled, ' Beau' 
Wilson, became thetalkofLondonon accou nt 
of the expensive style in which he lived t the 
younger son of one who had not above 200^. 
a year estate, it was remarked that ' he lived 
in tbe garb and equipage of the richest no- 
bleman for house, furniture, coaches, saddle 
horses, and kept a table and all things ac- 
cordingly, redeemed his father's estate, and 
gave portions to his sisters.' 'The mystery 
IS,' wrote Evelyn, ' how this so young a gen- 
tleman, very sober and of gootl fame, could 
live in such an expensive manner; it could 
not be discovered by all possible industry or 
■Qtreaty of his friend to make him reveal it. 
It did not appear that he was kept by women, 
play, coining, padding, or dealing in che- 
mistry; but ]ie would sometimes say that 
■hould be live ever so long, he hud wliure- 

He V , 

no great force of understanding. This wsa a 
subject of much discourse' (DUtrj/, '22 April 
1094). Some people siud that he was sup- 
plied by the Jews, others that be had dis- 
covered Ibe pbiloGopber's stone, while certain 
good-naturedfolk averred that he bad robbed 
the Holland mail of a quantity of jewellery, 
an exploit for which another man had suffered 

On 9 April 1694 Wilson and his friend. 
Captain Wigbtman, were in the Foiintain 
Inn in the Strand when John Law, after- 
wards the celebrated financier, came in and 
fisedaquarrelupott Wilson. Thejprocepded 
to Bloomsbury Square, where after one pass 
the Beau fell wounded in tbe stomach, and 
died without speaking a single word. The 
quarrel arose, it was said, from Wilson re- 
moving bis sister from a lodging-bouse where 
Law had a mistress (one Mrs. Lawrence). 
Law was arrested and tried at the Old Bailej 
on 18 10 20 April 1694. Tbe prisoner de- 
clared that the meeting was accidental, but 
some threatening letters from him to Wilson 
were produced at the trial, and the jury, be- 
lieving (with Evelyn) that the duel -was 
unfairly conducted, held Law guilty of 
murder, and on 21 April be and ' four other 
criminals only,' says Lutirell, were con- 
demned to death. Law pleadnl benefit of 
clergy, on tbe ground that hia oiTence 
amounted only to manslaughter, and bis 
punisbmentwas commuted to a fine. Against 
this commutation Wilson's family used all 
tbeir iufluence, and on 10 May Law was 
'charged with nn appeal of murtber at the 
king's bench bar ;' be escaped from tbe clut cbes 
of the Wilsons only by filing through the 
bars of the king's bench prison. 'Beau' 
Wilson lefl only a few pounds behind liim, 
and not a scrap of evidence to enlighten 
public curiosity as to the origin of his eitm- 
ordinary resources. An ' Epitaph on Bmu 
Wilson' by Edmund Killingworth appealed 
in the ' Gentleman's Journal' for May 1"' 

In 169(> appeared ' Seme Letters b«ti 
a certain late Nobleman (the Earl of I 
derlaud) and the famous Mr. Wilson, di^' 
covering the True History and Siirpassinr 
Grandeur of that celebrated Beau,' printed 
for A. Moore, near St. Paul's. Tbe work is 
curious, but tbe solution of the mystery is 
only hinted at ill the rumoured scandal of 
the day. 

In 1708, as an appeiidi.\ to the second 
edition of tbe Rnglisb translation of Mme. 
de La Mothe's (D'Aulnoy) ' Memoirs of ibe 
Court of England in tbe Ueign of Charles It,' 
entitled 'The Unknown Lady's Pacquet of 

■eaied |h 


. du- ■ 

I Letters' 

■ Mauley) 






Mauley), tbi; first letter is described as ' A. 
I)iacovei'y and Account of Beau Wilson's 
eKcret support of liia public maimer of living 
and the occasion of bis Death.' According 
to the improbable story here related at great 
length, th« secret Bnancier of Wilson was 
nu other than Elizabeth VilHers [q. v.], the 
miatress of William III, and afterwards 
Countess of Orbney. Her arranf(emenls for 
assignations with the Beau were made with 
such extreme core, accordiog to this narra- 
tive, OS to reduce the chance of detection to 
It minimum. The lady itupplied Wilson 
Uvishly with money, stipulBting only tlmt 
the ineetingB should always take place in 
darkness, qualified with the light of but one 
candle, uud that be d n y hould be per- 
fectly concealed. Vi hen a leng h Wilson 
became incumlily nqui e he lady ar- 
mnged for his eu hanaa a and fnally sup- 
plied John Law n b he m ana of escaiM 
and a Urge sum of money 

W^hether this sto y was a mere nvention 
by an enemy of Lady Orkne> (as seems most 
probable_), or whether it be founded upon 
lact, it IS impossible to determine. Beau 
Wilson's mysterious life and death are woven 
with considerable skill into the early chap- 
s of Harrison Ainswortli's ' John Law, 
the Projector' (1804). 

[W.Kid'a Mamoire of Joha La*. 1824, p. 6 ; 
Wood's Hist, of Cnmond. I Ti)4, p. 1 S4 : Lundoa 
Juumal, 3 Dec. IT21; NichoU's Leicestershire, 
iii. 487; Cochut's The Financier Law. iHA9; 
ErelypB Diary, ed. Wheiillej; Lnttrell's Kriet 
Hi«t. Belntion, iii. 291,296: Chnmbars'H Book 
of Dara. ii. 6B0 ; Barke's Vicitsituden of Nuble 
Fiunlliea, 3nd ear. p. 3S4 ; Tiiabs's RomaDile of 
Loadoa, i. 4ZI> ; Kates aud Queries, 2nd ser. ii, 
4O0. iv. 96, 219, 3r<J ser. r. 160, 2Si, vi. 4.'i9.] 
T. S. 

Australian politician, was born al Hampstead 
ill 1814. .\fter completing his education he 
wu employed in the London branch of a 
Mandiester firm. Finding this occupation 
not to his taste, he proceeded to Australia 
in 184:2. His first intention was to settle at 
Sydney, but on arriving at Melbourne he 
bought a small place ugion Merri Creek, and 
lununed there until 1844, when, in cou- 
jnnclion with J. E. Juhnston, he took up a 
cattle station near Dandenong. While thus 
empWed he wrote a series of letters, signed 
* Iota, aeverely criticising tlie administration 
of Charles Joseph Lalrobe [q. v.] Their 
nceptton encouraged him to turn to jour- 
nalism, and in l&ir he and his partner pur- 
chased the' Argus 'from William Kerr, who 
had founded it in the preceding year. In 

1861 t he V also incorporated the Melbourne 
' Daily News ' with the ' Argus,' Notwith- 
standmg the disorganisation of society pro- 
duced in 1853 by the discovery of gold, 
Wilson succeeded in continuing the oaily 
issue of his paper, and its circulation became 
in consequence extremely large. Prior to 
this Wilson took a leading part in opposing 
the inSux of convicts from Tasmania, co- 
operating with tlie Anti-transportation 
League founded in 1851 , and supporting the 
passage of the Ooovicts Prevention Act. 
lie advocated the separation of Port Phillip 
from New South Wales, denounced the con- 
duct of the governor. Sir Charles Holham 
[q. v.], towards the miners, and strongly op- 
posed the tendency of Earl Grey's order m 
council of 1847 to convert the temporary 
licenses of the crown's pastoral tenants into 
the equivalent of an assignable freehold. Hia 
vigorous attacks in the' Argus'on all kinds 
of abuses involved liimiu several libel actions, 
notable being that brought against 

closed Stephen's political career in Victoria, 
and that occasioned by hia exposure of the 
Qarra Bond lunatic asylum. Finding hia 
sight failing, Wilson relumed to England, 
and in 1864 published ' Rambles in the Anti- 
podes.' Iul»Oybe was one of the founders of 
the Colonial Institute, and in the same year 
he settled at Haves in Kent, where he died 
on 10 Jan. 1678. He was butned in the 
Slelbourne cemetery on 7 July. Wilson 
was the founder of the Acclimatisation Bo- 
ciety of Victoria in 1861 ; and while he ia 
credited with having introduced the lark 
and thrush into Australia, and with attempt- 
ing to naturalise the llama, he is also accused 
of having brought over the sparrow. 

[Heaton's Australian DietioDnrj, 1879 ; Hen- 
Dell's Diet, of Austnlian Biogr, 1892 ; Basden'a 
Hist, of Australia, 1S83, ii. A27. SlUi McCombie'a 
Hint, of Victoria, 1659, p. 320 ; Westgarth'a 
Colony of Vii:loria, 1884, pp. 297, 341', 371, 
374, 383.] E. 1. C. 

WILSON, Sib EI! ASMUS (1809-1884), 
surgeon. [See WiLSO.s, SiH. Whliak 
Jdies EBiauiTA.] 

WILSON. FLORENCE C!504?-1547P), 
humanist. [See \'oi.178bsb.] 

WILSON, GEORGE (J. 1607), writer 
on cock-flgliting, was vicar of Wcetton in 
Norfolk. In spite of his profession he took 
a keen interest In the pastime of cock-fight- 
ing, and in 1607 he wrote ' The Coinmeudo- 
tion of Cockes and Cofk-fighling. Wherein 
is shewed that Oocke-tigbting was before the 
Commingof Christ . . . London. Printed for 


Wilson c 

Henrie Tometi, and are Ui be sold at bia Shop, 
ouer agftiusl firaiw lune Gate iu Holburne, 
1607,' 4Co. Iu this work, after descanliDg- 
with Home learning on the antiquity of the 
amuMment, he launches into a eulogy of tlie 
inanl; qualities wliich it fostered, and con- 
cludes with some instances of prowess which 
he himself had witnessed, mentioning with 
especial commendation a gamecock named 
Tarlton aftpr the famous comedian, bei^ause 
before combat it was accustomed lo drum 
loudlywith its wings. The tract was written 
partly with the object of reviving public in- 
terest in the sport. It was dedicated to Sir 
Henry Bedingfleld, and was aeveral times 
reprinted, reaching a third edition in 1631, 
and a tenth in 1655. 

[Wilson's CamiDendation of Coclies: Collier's 
Bibtiogr.CsLii. 529: Uadi It's Handbook 

re of Ore 

; AUibo 

Engl. Lit.; Blackwood's Mug. 1827, xiii. 687.1 
E, 1, C. 
■WILSON, GEORGE (1818-1859), che- 
mist and religious writer, Hon of Archibald 
Wilson, a wine merchant — who came from 
Argvltsbire — and his wife Janet, was born 
at Edinburgh on 21 Feb. 1818 with a twin- 
hrotber, John, who died in 1836. Hia elder 
brother, (Sir) Daniel, is noticed separately, 
Wilson went to school first to a Mr. Knight, 
and, with Philip Maclagan and John Alex- 
ander Smith, founded a 'juvenile society for 
the aflvancement of knowledg'e.' He went 
in 1828 to the high school, which he left in 
1632 to enter the university as a medical 
student. He was apprenticed at the same 
time for four years at the laboratory of the 
Itoval Infirmary. He attended the classes 
of Thomas Charles Hope [q.v.] and Kenneth 
Kempforchemistry, and tnatof(Sir) llobert 
Chriatison [q. v.J for materia medics. In 
September 1837 Le passed the examination 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edin- 
burgh, ' fell over head and ears in love ' with 
chemistry (A/nnoir, p. 08), and became assis- 
tant to Gliriatison. About this time he con- 
tributed to ' MagB,' a university magazine 

shortly after became unpaid 
masGrabam (1805-1869) [q. Univer- 
sity College, the other assistants being James 
Young (1811-1883) [q.v.] and Lyon (after- 
wards Baron) I'lajfair. With David Living- 
stone [q. v.], wlio was a student, Wilson 
ionnad a friendship. In Graham's laboratory 
heprepared his doctor's thesis, 'On the Exis- 
tence of Haloid Salts of the Eleetro-nega- 
tive Met«ls' in solution, an ingenious inves- 
tigation of the action of hydrobromic acid 
on ^Id chloride. 

I Wilson 

Somewhat disappointed with his position 
in London, he returned to Edinburgh in 
April 1839, and in the following June pro- 
ceeded M.D. In the autumn be went to the 
Ilritish Association meeting at Birmiagbam, 
and was present at the first ' Red Lion ' 
dinner. He was elected in ibe same year to 
the 'Order'inEdinburghfounded by Forbes, 
which included many of the most brilliant 
students of the university (I'A. pp. 2:15 etseq.) 

For medicine Wilson had no taste what- 
ever, and, after some futile applications for 
other chemical posts and the rejection of a 
chemical leccureehip in one of the smaller 
schools in London, be received iu 1840 a 
license from the Uoyal College of Surgeons 
of Edinburgh to lecture on chemistry, at- 
tendance at these lectures being recognised 
on behalf of candidates for their diploma. 
His lectures were the first chemistry lec- 
tures in what has developed since into the 
' e\Era-muriil ' school. Simultaneously with 
the beginniug of his professional career his 
health began to fail, and be writes of himself 
about this time as ' bankrupt in health, 
bopes, and fortune.' A slight injury to his 
left foot, followed by severe rheumatism, 
led to its amputation at the ankle by James 
Syme [q. v.] in January 1843. In a letter 
to (Sir) James Young Simpson [q. v.] in ad- 
vocacy of the use of anesthetics — then 
strongly combated by some, who regarded 
them as ' needless luxuries '— (Simfson, Ob- 
atelric Memoirs, ii, 706), be speaks of ' the 
block whirlwind of emotion, the horror of 
great darkness, nnd the sense of desertion by 
God and man' that 'swept through' him 
during the operation. A little later he was 
attacked liy phthisis, of which he realised 
the gravity, and the rest of bis life is the 
record of an extraordinary and cheerful tight 
against ill-henlth. He soon won success as 
a lecturer, obtained private work as an 
analyst, and in 1843 was appointed lecturer 
at several Edinburgh institutiona— the Edin- 
burgh Veterinary tiJollege, the School of Arts, 
and the Scottish Institution, a girls' school. 
In 1844 he joined a congregational church 
belonging to \h.e independent section, al- 
though he still considered himself a baptist. 
In 1845 he was elected fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. To the Royal Scot- 
tish Society of Arts, of which he became 
president later, among other papers he con- 
tributed in 1845 one ' On the Employment 
of Oxygen as a Means of Resuscitation in 
Asphyxia.* In the same year he b^an m 
long series of researches on the distribution 
of Huorides, which lie showed to be present 
in small quantities in animal nnd vegetablo 
tisanes, in many minerals, and in sea-water. 



In ISTfl he published in the collection of 
the ' Cavendisli Society' a 'Life of Henry 
CftTendish ' [ij. t.J. his most notable per- 
formance in scientilic liislory. which became 
hia favourite pursuit, Wilion fully eata- 
bliahed the priority of Cavendish with re- 
gard to the experimental results on which the 
theory of the composition of water is based ) 
he showed that the advocates of James 
Watl'a chiims, including James Patrick 
MuirheAd and Francis, lord Jeffrey [q.v.], 
had overestimated Watt's merits; but, in 
spite of much knowledge and labour, he 
djd not fully master the mass of material he 
bad accumulated relating to the ' waler con- 
troversy.' Their common interest in this 
matter "had already in 1846 (Life of Caven- 
(iMA,p.Titi)led to awarm friendship between 
Wilaon and Jeffrey. In 1852 Wilson pub- 

lished a 

IS letter addressed to Spencer 

___ 'The Grievance of University Tests,' 
with reference to the chair of chemistiy 
vacant at Glasgow by the death of Thomas 
Thomson (irTS-lSSSi [q.v.] He published 
in the same year the > Life of Dr. John Reid ' 
[q. v.] (a personal friend), which reached a 
aacond edition immediately. In November 
1863 Wilson published in the 'EdinbuTKh 
Monthly Journal of Medical Science ' the 
first of a long series of papers on ' Colour- 
Blindness,' continued in the 'Transactions 
of the lioyal Scottish Society of Arts,' and 
repnhliEhe'd with additions, under the title 
' Kfcsearchee on Colour-Blindness,' in 1855. 
Wilson examined personally 1,164 cases of 
colour-blindness, and was the first in Eng- 
land to point out the extreme importance 
of testing railway-servants end sailors for 
this defect. The researches of the Abb& 
Moigno (1804-1S84), who claimed to have 
preceded Wilson in this, were unknown to 
bim. The Great Northern Railway at once 
ndopted Wilson's recommendations, and 
other bodies followed suit. James Clerk 
Sfaxwell [q.v.], then workinff at liis colour- 
top, contributed an appendix to Wilson's 
booh, of which he thought highly. 

In February ISK Wilson was appointed 
director of the Scottish Industrial Museum 
About to be founded, and, later in the same 
year, regius professor of technology in the 
Edinburirh University. Ilis inaugural lec- 
ture, ' What is Technology ? ' was published 
in extento. In the autumn of 185fi he pre- 
pared for the presa at Melrose his ' Five 
Gateways of Knowledgj," a popular and 

ing lecture for the session of 18-16-7, ' On 
the Physical Sciences which form the Basis of 
Technology,' written about the same time,' 

far more maturethaD Wilson's other popular 
lectures, and shows a real grip of the cor- 
relation of the various sciences, while his 
natural exuberance of imagination and dic- 
tion is chastened. In 1808 William Gre- 
gory (1803-1858) [q. v.], then professor of 
chemistry in the university, died, and Wilson 
became a candidate for the vacant chair; 
but, although assured that he would be 
elected unanimously, he withdrew hia can- 
didature on account of hia iU-bealth (Me- 
moir, p. 4fifl). His salary as director of the 
museum was at the same time increased 
from 300/. to 400/. a year. 

He had weakened steadily from year to 
year; in November 1859 a cold brought on 
by exposure proved fatal, and he died on 
22 Nov. A public funeral was decided on, 
and he was buried in the Old Calton burial- 
ground on 28 Nov. 1859. lie was unmarried ; 
bis mother, his brother Daniel, his sister 
Jessie Aitken Wilson (now Mrs. James Sime), 
Ilia biographer, and another siater, survived 

Wilson's experimental work, although in- 
genious and solid, contains little of marked 
originality ; it is by his ' Life of Cavendish' 
and his work on ' Colo ur-Blindn ess ' that 
be will be chiefly remembered. From the 
literary point of'^ view his writings, both 

Erose and verse, show a fertile imagination, 
ut little judgment or reserve, although 
here and there the expression is striking, 
lieligion plaved an essential part in Wilson s 
life, and witliout a trace of either pedantry 
or unction he was genuinely anxious to exert 
religious influence over others. He pro- 
tested strongly against the existence of evil 
being' regarded as other than an unsolved 
problem ; but his religious views do not 
otherwiaediffermarkedlyfrom those of ortho- 
doxy. By hb popular lectures and writings, 
and still more by his force and charm of 
character, he exerted considerable influence 
on his Edinburgh contemporaries. 

A steel engraving of Wilson by Lurob 
Stocks, A.R. A., precedes tbe 'Memoir' by 
his sister; and there is another engraved 
portrait prefixed to the ' Counsels of an In- 

Besides the works mentioned Wilaon waa 
the author of: 1. 'Chemistry,' 1st edit. 1850; 
2nd edit, revised by Stevenson Macadam, 
1866; 3rd edit, revised by H. G. Madan, 
1871. 2. 'Electricity and the Electric Tele- 
graph.'lstedit.lSM; 2nd edit. 1869. S.'The 
FiveGatewaysof Knowledge,' Ist edit. 1866; 
Sthedit. 1880. 4.'MemoirofEdw8rdForbea' 
(completed by Sir Archibald Qeikie,F.R.S.), 
1862. 6. * lieligio Chemtci,' essays, chiefly 
scientific, collected posthumously and edited 




by Jewio Wilson, 1862. 6. 'Counsels of an 
Invalid,' letters on reliKioussiibjectH collected 
poBthumauslj and edited by his friend, Dr. 
John Cairnit, 1802. The ' British Museum. 
Catalogue ' also containB a list of single lec- 
tures published separately. Tha Royal So- 
ciely'scatalogiiecontain«alistof fort^r-three 
paper* published by Wilson alone, one in con- 
junction with John Crombie Brown, and one 
with Jobann Oeorg FoFchhammer. Miss 
Aitken's 'Memoir' (original edition 18t(0, 
condensed edition l&fl6) contains a list of 
Wilson'spapersandof his contributions to the 
'British (juarterly Review,' which include 
biographical sketclies of JohnDalton (17116- 
1844) [q.v-l (I84fi), William Hyde Wol- 
laston [q. v.] (1849), Robert Boyle [q. t.] 
(1849),and of his verses piiblUhed in 'Blnck- 
wood's Slniaiine ' and ' Slacmi Han's Maga- 
zine.' William Charles Henry's ' Life of 
Dalton ' (1854) contains an appendix by Wil- 
son on Dalton s ' Colour- Btinda ess.' 

[BoBidra the noureoa qaoiBd, the Memoir of 
Wilson, by Jes«io Aiiken WiUon, 1870 (■hiirh 
*ontnin» roany letifrs To his hrothar Ituniel, his 
frisnd Daniel MncmillsD [q. v.], and others), 
with an appendii by John Henry GlftHftona, 
y.E.S., on WilFfOQ'H sdentiBc work ; Wilson's 
books and scientific (inpers: Brit. Mas. Cat,; Hac- 
millaa j[ Co.'s Bibhugmphy ; Trans, Rot. Soc. 
of Edinburgh, 1BA7, ixi. 069 ; Lord JeSrey's 
art. cm ' Watt or Cavendish ' in Edinbnrgh Ko- 
TJeir, 184S, Iziidi. 67 ; Jubilep of the Chemical 
Booioty, 18B6, pp. 25. 18* ; Nolo by J. 3yme in 
London and Edinburith Journal of Medical 
Science, 1843, iii. 274; North British 
by Sir David Breirstfli'(?), INfiS. xxiv. 32fi, nud 
Ohiluary. 186U. mxii. 226; Obitnary by Dr. 
John Cairns in Mnirniillaa's Magaiiiie, 1B60, i. 
IBS; Brown's Hone SnbaecivEe, 2nd ser. p, 
161 ; Kopp's Beitrage znr Oesch. der Chemie. 
dritt«s Stiick, 1876. p. 239 : information kiudly 
given by Mrt. Jainoa Sime,] P. J. H. 

■WTLSON, GEORGE (1808-1870), chair- 
man of the Anli-Cnrnlftw League, born at 
Ilalhersage, Derbyshire, on 34 April 1808, 
was the son of John Wilson, com milter, 
who removed in I8l9 to Manch<»tcr, where 
Le established a com merchant's busineaa. 
George was eiiucaled at the Manchester 
commercial school and in evenior classes, 
and wns ut otie time a pupil of Dr. John 
Dalton [q.v.], the ehemisl. 

He started businesa in the com trade, 
afterwards he becnmo a starch and gum 
manufacturer, but the greater part of his 
life waa taken up with political and railway 
work. He was, when young, president of 
the Manchester Phrenological Society, and 
an occasional wTiter for the preBs. He wna 
secretary to the committee which obtained 
the charter of incorporation for Manchester 

in 183(), and sat as n member of the town 
council from \Sl\ to 1M4. On the founda- 
tion of the Anli-Comlaw Association in 
January 1639, he became a member of the 
executive committee, and in 1841. when the 
title was changed to that of the Anti-Com- 
law League, he was elected chairman, and 
occupied that position until the nrpesl of tba I 
com laws was obtabed in February 1&4C, « 
During those five years Wilson presidedifl 
over larger public meetings than had eror^ 
before been held to agitate constitntionaUr " 
for a change in the law. The tact witi 
which he controlled a gathering of men at a 
time of great political excitement, and the 
patience and good humour with which he 
directed matters from tha chair, earned for 
him the reputation of being the best chair- 
man of the day; and when the league was 
dissolved the council of that body presented 
him with IO,OUO/. in recognition of the great 
ability with which he had organised its 
political action. The origination and orga- 
nisation of the great baiaars in aid of the 
cause in Mnnchester and London were diM I 
to kim. In 16.52, when Lord Derby's gOvV 
vummunt proposed to reimpose a 'raoderata'M 
duty on corn, the league, resuscitated undap^ 
Wilson's guidance, by a short campaign dis- 
posed of the protectionist reaction. Hb 
subsequently turned his attention to pap- 
liament^iry reform, particularly to the fair 
redistribution of seats, without which he 
believed that extension of the franchise 
would be futile. He kept the question in 
the front at the numerous public meetings 
and reform conferences at which he presided, 
and be became chairman of the Lancashire 
Keformera' Union in 1858, and in ]8IU was 
appointed president of the National Reform 
Union. In its operations be took on nctiva 

Cart until the time of his death. Wilaon 
ad many requisitions to become a candidate 
for parliament, aa well as overtures to take 
government office, but he declined alL A» 
a director of the Electric Telegraph Company 
he assisted in developingihe telegraphic sys- 
tem. With Joseph Adshead he established 
llie Manchester Night Asylum. Wilson 
joined in 1647 the board of directors of the 
Manchester and I«eds Railway, of which 
company he was deputy-chairnian in 1848. 
In 18(t0 he became managing director and 
deputy-chairman of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway Company. In 1867 he 
wns appointed chairman. 

He died suddenly on 29 Dec. 1870 in the 
train, and was interred In Ardwick cemetery, 
Manchester. Wilson attended a Sandem an iati 
chapel, but was mo^t tolerant in his religious 
views, lie married, in 1837, Mary, daugh- 






t«r of John RawsoD, mercliflDt and manii' 
tacturer, of Maoclieetcr, bj whom he had 
Bevea chiJdn^n- 

A portrait and a bust of Wilson, the 
former by Oeor^ Pntlen and the Intter by 
H. S. Leifchild, are preserved at the Mau- 
cheeler town-hall. Another portrait ap- 
prora in J. H. Herbert's picture of the coun- 
cil of the learue, now in Peel Park Mu«eum, 
Solford. Thii picture was engraved by 
IS. Dellin. Another portrait ia in the group 
of notables ennnected with the negotiation 
of the French treaty ofcommerce, which was 
engraved by Du Val. 

[MaDcheatei auardtnn, 3D Dec. 1870, and 
6 Jan. ISTl: Preotii^e'ti History of the Aoii- 
Cornlaw Le«g;ue. 1853; Holjonke's Siity 
Tcwsofun Agitator'* Life ; Sir B.W, Wntkin's 
AldBimsD Cobden; llarloy'a Life of Cobdm; 
Stugg'tBemiii.ofMiDt^hDatrr, IKBI.p. 1U9 ; in- 
formation kindly supplied by T. Bright WilsoD, 
wqO C. W. S. 

WILSON, IlAimiETTE (_/(. 1810- 
1635), woman of fashion, born about 178U, 
wa« tbedaughlerof John James Dubouchet 
or l>e Boucliet, of Swiss origin, who kept a 
small shop in Mayfair. She inherited Rond 
manners and looks from her mother, a lady 
to whose channa she tells us that few men 
(U«r father unhappily among them) were in- 
sensible, and she seems to have been brought 
up to apeak English and Prench, both in- 
differently. The ccmrsis of her early career 
would appear to be indicated in the title 
of a small uhapbook thrown out towards 
the close of her 'public life' as a sample of 
her • Memoirs ; ' it was called ' The Amorous 
Adfantures of llarriette Wilsoii ; ' her first 
introduction into private life as the kept 
mistrT'Ss of Lord Craven, her intrigues with 
the Hon. Frederick Lamb, and how she 
hecamekept mistresBof theUukeof Argyle' 
[18351. 'I think I supped once in her so- 
ciety, wrote Scolt in 1825, 'at Mat. Lewis's 
in Argvle Street, where the company chanced 
to bo fairer than honest. . . . ^he was far 
from beautiful, but a smart, aaucy girl, with 
good oyes and dark hair, and the manners of 
■ wild schoolboy '(LocKHABT, Zi/r, lt*93, p. 
Sa.)). After about 1820 she resided to a large 
extent in Paris, whence by the kindness oi 
Sir Cliorles Stuart she was enabled to des- 
patch her correspondence throughthemedium 
of the foreign office bag. She was occupied 
" ' ' igue with the 

timed pwaimony of the Duke of Beaufort, 
who thought to compound b promised an- 
nuity of 6(X)/. by a single payment of I,:i00;., 
excited in llarriette, whose temper was 

impatient, a lasting sense of ill-treatment. 
Taking Tercsia Conatanlia PhiUips [q. v.] aa 
her model, she announced her inteution of 
publishing her memoirs, and she found a 
sympathetic publisher in John Joseph Stock- 
dale of the Opera Colonnade, Haymarkot 
[see under Stocedale, Joun]. The book 
was avowedly written to extort money. 
' The Hon. fVed. Lamb,' wrote Harriette, 
' has called on Storkdale to threaten us 
with prosecution ; had he opened his purse 
to give me but a few hundreds, there would 
have been no book, to the infinite loss of all 
persons of good taste and genuine morality.' 
The booK duly appeared in four small 
volumes in IS2S as ' Memoirs of Harriette 
Wilson, written by Herself,' andcreated such 
ten deep on the mornings announced for the 

C' "ication of a new volume, and a special 
er had to he erected to direct the passage 
of the applicants. Over thirty editions were 
stated to nave been issued within the year. 
A French version, in six volumes, was pub- 
lished ' ehez L'lluillier, Itue Poup£c, Paris,' 
iu 1835. The translation is stated to have 
been ' corrig6e par I'outeur,' though the 
title 'Mfmoires d'llenrietteWilson ' is some- 
what misleading. A set of coloured plates 
were executed to accompany the test, and 
copies with these illustrations are now scarce 
(one was sold in 1896 for six guineas ; an 
uncoloured copy sold for 3/. 5b. in 1890), The 
work was denounced nsamoet'diBgusting and 
gross prostitution of the press \seeapamphlet 
tailed A t'ammmfan/ an tAe. JJcentiouM 
Liberty uf thf Prfi», Loudon, 18SG), but aa 
a mailer of fact the book is on the whole re- 
markably freefrom lubricity, while in point ol 
coarseness it does not approach the ' Memoirs 
of a LaJv of Quality ' interpolated in ■ Pere- 
grine PicEte.' Thediatogue is often amusing, 
but the loose and slipshod style does no 
credit to the editor, ' Thomas Little' (f Stook- 
dale). Tho pseudonym would seem to have 
been daringly borrowed from Tom Moore, 
and woa also employed for the ' Confessioiw J 
of an Uxoniau,' 1826, and for some pseudo-l 
medical works issued from the Opera Coloit- 
unde. 'Tlia gay world,' wrote Sir Walter 
Scott on !) Dec. \M5, 'has been kept in hot 
water lately by this impudent puhlicatiou... 
the wit is poor, but the style of the interlo- 
cutors exactly imitated, . . . She beat« Con 
I'hilips and Anne Bellamy and all former 
demireps out and out.' Among the well- 
known names that figure promiuentlv in the 
narrative arethose of the Uuke of Wellington, 
Wellesley, the Eiirl of Fife, Prince Ester- 
hozy. Lord Granville Leveson-Oower, liord 




Ebrinslon, Beau Hrummetl, Henry \,\i 
and 'bis inseparable fat Nugenr, Vi* 
Ponscmby, Itichsrd Meyler, Lord Frederick 
Bentinck, Lord IJyron, and Flenry 
(wbo inattgated the writer, aa she inrarms ub, 
touDdertaKebercampaiKnagaiusttbe 'paltry 
conduct of bis grace of Beaufort'). Actions 
were brought by Mr. Blore, a stonemaaon of 
FlccBdillr, who was awarded 300/. damages, 
and by tlugh Evans Fisher, who received 
heavier daraagta in the court of common 

K" as on 21 May 1826 (Timrt, 23 May), 
rther iuatalmenla of the 'Memoirs' were 

threatened, but their appeaiunce was averted. 

Harriette's former ariBtocratic admirers 

appear to have made her np a purse, upon 

the strength of which she buried her past 

and married a M. Rocbefort or Rocbfort. It 

is doubtful whether she had any shore in 

'Paris Lions and London Tigers' (London, 

1826, Svo, with coloured plates, aereral edi- 
tions), a farcical narrative, dosctibing the 

TJsit of an English family to Paris. Nothing 

further is known of llarriette's career. 


and are frequently alluded to bynamein the ._. __ 

' Memoirs,' may bo mentioned Fanny, who I lors', and from 1803 to 1824 woa second 

lived for many years as Mra. Parker, but master. He became curate and lecturer of 

■whose last hours (described by llarriette St. Michael's Bassishaw, and lecturer of St. 

with an appearance of feeling) were soothed Matthias and St. John the Baptist, London, 

by tbe kindness of Lord Hertford (Thacke- 'n 1807, and in 1814 received in addition 

ray's 'Marquis ofSteyne'); Amy, whohaving the Townsund lecturership at St. Michael'a, 

relinquished the protection of Count Pal- ) '^-'-'- ' ■ - " -^ ' "— - ■ 

mella and 'JOOl. a month, 'paid in advance. 

' married' the disreputable musician, Robert 

Nicolas Charles Bochea ; and Sophia, who 

married as a minor, on S Feb. 1812, at St. 

Marylebone, Thoma.a Noel Hill, second baron 

Berwick,anddiedat Leamington, aged 81, on 
29 Aug. 1870 (/WiMfr.iourfonA'rtc?, 11 Sept. 

1875). An engraving of Harriette is in tte 
British Museum print-room (_no name or 

[MamoiTB a( Harriettr Wilaon in British Mqs. 
Library: tbis is the RO'cnlted sti'oad edition, 
compleiG in faar ralumos, with an appendix. 
Other sets v«re ifsued by Slockdsls in eiglit 
volumes, considerably eipBDiled by tba Dominal 
editor, ' Thoniaa Littla.' and in 1831, as by the 
sams eJitor, wss isiiiied nn ' Index. Analytical, 
Referentinl, and Eiplanatory, of Persona and 
Matter.' which is very acarce. It is doubtful 
whether aoy selt wore issoed by SMwkdale subaf- 
quentlolh>''tbirty-tbird'e>lit)onof 182S, forttie 
proteclion of copyrigbt whb nnt oitended to the 
Tolamea, which Were pirated by T. Douglas and 
nrobably by others. Some of tho sets wers 
JBDed with plates, both plain and coloured, aad 
•ome have lu fnintispieces portraits of the four 
B'stars, ' Hurri ctlc,' ' Vnn ey.' ■ Amy,' and ' Hophy ,' 
with antogrHphs. .Slockilalc M>ught to coniinue 
tha blackmniling canjpsign io a wevkly periodi- 

ca! colled Stockdate's Budget, December 1826- 
.Tnoe 1B2T, which coDtaina several letters attri- 
buted to Harriette Rorhfort. .See also Biogmphio 
des Con temporal OS, Paris, 1831, vol. v. (Snppl.) 
p. B04; Amorous Adventaro* aod Intrigues of 
Tom Johnson, 1870, vol. ii. chap, i.; Cntena Li- 
brornm Tacendorom, 1888: A Commentitry on 
thi> LiceoiiouB Liberty of (he Pre™, London, 
1825. 8vo: Times, 2 July 1829, 12MRylg26; 
British Lion. 3 April tSl.i: Blackwood's Mag. 
November IB29, p. 739; Book Prices Current; 
[Qay's] Bibliographie des OuvroKes relatifs iL 
I'amour, Nice, 1872, v. dl.) T. S. 

1853), divineandantiquarv, bomon23 Aug. 
ir7j „.. . ...„ of w'iui^ Wilson of iho 

He left 

admitted commoner of Lincoln College, Oi- 
ford, on 12 Feb. 1793. Elected scholar 
on the Trappes foundation in the following 
year (30 June), be graduated B.A. on 
10 Oct. 1796, and M.A. on 23 May 1799. 
He proceedeil B.C. on 21 June 1810, and 
D.D. on 14 Jan. 1818. In February 1798 
he became third master at Merchant Tav- 

Crooked Lane. On 3 /iug. L . 

collated by Archbishop Manners-Suiton to 
the united parishes of St. Marv Aldemary 
and St. Thomas the Apostle. There he was 
continually involved m litigation with his 
parishioners. Rut in apile of these dif- 
ferences he established a parochial lending 
library, and abolished fees for baptism. 

Wilson was a learned adherent of the 
evangelical school, with more ot the scholar 
than the divine. His chief theological 
works were a pamphlet ngainst the catholic 
claims ('An Earnest Address respecting the 
Catholics,' 1807, Svo), and a volume of ser- 
mons issued the same year. But he published 
some valuable antiquarian books. The chief 
of these was bJs ' History of Merchant Tav- 
loTs' School,' issued in two quarto parts in 
1812 and 1814 respectively. He received a 
subsidy from the company of 100/. t-owards 
the expenses of publication. The work is 
scholarly, if somewhat diffuse. 

In 1831 Wilson published another quarto 
on ' the History of the Parish of St. Laurence 
Pountney, including four documents unpub- 
lished, an account of Corpus Cbristi or 
Pountney College,' within which Merchant 
Taylors' school was established in l.-,61. The 
work remained unfinished on account of the 

Wilson also publisbed : ' Obaervntions on 
the Lnw and Practice of the Sequeatration 
of Ecclesiastical Benefices,' ISSS. 8v-o; and 
' Brief Notices of the Fabric and Glebe of 
St. Mary Aldermary,' 1640, Svo. The copy 
of the latter work in the British Museum 


Harv Anne, daughter of John Moure(17'12- 
1821 ) [(]. v.], by whom he Imd two sons and 
a dauf^hter. The elder son, Henry Bcistow 
Wilson, is separately noticed. 

[Gent. Miift. 1854. i. fl3.^. 536; Clnrk"> Uint. 
of Lincoln Coll. p. 187: Fo«ttr'H Alnmoi Oion. 
1713-1886 ; Ah Aged Rfctora Valedirtory Ad- 
dresH. ISS3; Allilone's Diet. Enil. Lit.; Brit. 
Mas. Cat.] G. La G. N. 


1888), diviue, horn on 10 June 1803, was 
elder son of Harry Briatow Wilson [o.v.], 
by his wife Mary Aune, daughter of John 

was elected to St. John's College, Oiford, 
in lB-i\. Matriculating on 25 June 1821, 
he graduated B.A. in 1825, M.A. in 1829, 
and B.D. in 1834, and received a fellowship 
in 1825, which he retained until 1850. In 
1S3I he was appointed dean of arts, and he 
acted as tutor from 1833 to 1835. He also 
filled the office of Rawlinsonian professor of 
Anglo-Saxon IroiQ 1839 to 1844. In 1850 
he was prcsunted by St. John's CoUfgu to 
the vicarage of Oreat Staughton in Hunting- 
donshire, which he retained until hia death. 
I Wilson identified himself in theology with 
I tlie school of which Benjamin Jowett (after- 
I wards master of Balliol) and Frederick 
Temple (afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury) became the best-known members. In 
the spring of 1841 Wilson joined Archibald 
Campbell Tait [q. v.] in the 'protest of the 
fitnr tutors' against 'Tract XC In the 
Lent Itsrm of l&l he delivered the Bamptou 
Lectures, taking as his subject 'The Uom- 
munion of the Saints; an Attempt to illus- 
trate the True Principles of Christian Union' 
(Oxford, 1851, 8vo), His lectures were re- 
markable for eloquence and power, and stiU 
more as ' the first clear note of a demiind 
for freedom in theological enquiry.' The 
widening of theological opinion and of 
Christian communion was thenceforward the 
main interest of his life. In 1857 be con- 
tributed 'Schemes of Christian Compre- 
hension' to ' Oxford Essays,' and In 1861 he 
published a dissertation on 'The National 
Church' in 'EsaaysandEeviewa.' Passages 

in the latter essay were regarded as inculca- 
ting erroneous doctrine, particularly in regard 
to the inapiralion of scripture and the future 
state of the dead. John William Burgon 
(afterwards denn of Chichester) was especially 
disaatifified with his views, and in 18ti2 
proceedings for heresy were instituted 
against Wilson in the court of arcbes. On 
35 June Wilson, whose case was tried to- 
gether with that of Rowland Williams 
[q. v.], was found guilty on three out of 
eight of the articles brought against him, 
and was sentenced to suspension for a year 
by the judge, Stephen Lushington [q. v.] 
Wilson and Williams both appealed to the 
judicial committee of the privy council, and 
their appeals were heard together in 1863. 
Wilson's defence occupied IS) and 20 June, 
and WAS afterwards published. The appeal 
was successful, and on 8 Feb. 18tJl the 
judicial committee reversed Lushington'a 
decision. Wilson's health, however, was 
broken by the anxieties of hie position, and 
he never completely recovered from the 
strain, During later life he did not resi<Ie 
in his benefice, lie died, unmarried, at 
1 Lawn Villas, EUhamltoad, Lee,on 10 Aug. 

Wilson wrote an introduction to ' A Brief 
Examination of prevalent Opinions on the 
Inspiration of (heOldandNewTestamenw' 
(London, 1801, 8vo). 

[Funeml Sermoi) by li. B. Kennard, 18S8; 
Faaler's YorkBhirf Pedigrsoa. 187*. vol. ii., a.r. 
' FouDtayue WtUon ; ' Bohinson's Urg. of Mei^ 
chant Tailors' School, 18B3. ii. 188; Poster's 
Alamni Oxun. 171S-1S86 ; Mrs. Wilson's Life 
and Letters of Itowlaad WilliamB, 1874, vol. it.; 
Abbott and Camplx-ll's Lifs and Letters of Ben- 
jamin Jowett. 1897, i. 200. 273. 300-1. 404; 
BrodHck Hcd Fresmantle's Jud^nneats nf the 
Judicial Commitipe of tbe Privy Council. 1865, 
pp. 317-90 ; Liddon's Lite of Puaey, ii. 187, iv. 
3^-68 ; Pri'thero's Life and Letters of Denn 
Stanley, 1893, ii. 30-«, 157-8; Kannard's 
Ksiays and Reviews, 1S63; Peterboroniih nnd 
Huntingdon ah ire Rtandard, 18 AoE. 1888 ; Men 
of tlie Time, 1887; AlUbooe's Diet, of Engl, 
Lit.] K I. C. 

18(!0), orientalist, was bom in London on 
23 Sept. 1781). Receiving his general edu- 
cation in Soho Square, Lnndon, he com- 
menced medical studies in 1801 at St. Tho- 
mas's Hospital, and in 1808 was nominated 
aesistant-eurgeon on the Bengal establish- 
ment of the East India Company. The 
voyage occupied six months, and during it 
he commenced his oriental studies by learn- 
ing Hindustani. On his arrival he was 
appointed, owing to his proficiency in 



oliemistrv aiul metallurgy, aasistiLnt to John 
Leyden fq. v.] at the CiUcuttii mint, wliere 
in 1816 he becaice agsit;-master. ' Excited 
by the example and biography of Sir Wm. 
Jones' (to use hia own ivords), he 'entered 
on the atudy of Sanskrit with warm interest, 
as Boon after' his 'arrival in India in 1S08 
MS official occupations allowed.' In 1813v-e 
find him publishing hia limt Sanskrit work, an 
annotated text of the ' Mpghaduta of Kilt- 
dasa.' It is still more remarkable to note 
that as early as 1819 he complet^^ the lirst 
' Sanskrit^Knglish Dictionary.' Itwasgreatlv 
improved in the second edition (1831), which 
remained until the completion of the great 
German lexicon in 1875 the slandard refe- 
Tence-book for European scholars. In the 
tame year (1819) he was sent by government . 
to Benares for tUe inspection of the college 
there, a visit which he utilised for the collec- 
tion of materials for bis great work on the 
Indian drama. 

During nearly the whole of hia stay in 
India Wilson held the oltice of Mcretary 
to the Asiatic Society of Bengal (appoint- 
ment dated 2 April 1811), contributmg to 
ita journal some of his most imporUnt 
papvrK. He was also secretary to tbe com- 
mittee of public instruction and visitor to 
the lAtnakrit College of Calcutta. 

In 1832 he was selected to fill the chair 
ofSanakritatOiford, which had been founded 
by Joseph Boden [Q^v.] in IS27, lie resided 
in Oxford from 1833 to 1836. when he suc- 
ceeded ^ir Charles Wilkins [q.v.] as HbraHan 
to the East India Company, and moved to 
London, merely visiting Uiibrd for a part 
of each term, but giving instruction to nil 
who needed hia help. lie became likewise 
examiner at the company's college at Hailey- 
burj, vixiting it twice yearly. In London he 
was an original meml>er of the Royal Asiatic 
Society (1823), in which be held (he office 
of director from 1837 till his death. Wilson 
was elected F.R.S. in 1834, and was member 
of numerous foreign learned societies. 

He died on 8 May 1830 in London at 
Upper Wimpole Street. He married a 
dausbter of George Siddons of the Benj^l 
lervice, who was a son of the ^at actress. 
Several descendants of this marriage survive. 

An engraving, dated 1851, by William 
Walker, gives bis portrait from a painting 
(now at the Royal Asiatic Socielv) by Sir 
John Wataon-Gordon. A portrait by Sir 
George Hayter is in possession of Wilson's 
grandson ai. Brighton, and several other pic- 
tures(including one by KobertTait), sketches, 
and drawintrs are extant. In the National 
IVjrtrait Gallery, IjOndon, is a sketch from 
life by James Atkinson. There is also a 

bust by Chantreyin the Bodleian library.and 
another bust on the fa;ade of the India office. 

Wilson did much to promote a real know- 
ledge of the verv numerous branches of In- 
dian learning wliicb he made hia own. Be- 
neath his writings and leaching tb^rc flowed 
an undercurrent of enthusiaHm which, in 
spite of a certain drniess of maimer and 
boldness of style, often communicated itself 
to pupils or readers. His point of view, 
natural to an early scholar educated in India, 
and the limitations of his scholarship were 
shown in an appreciation b^ Biithlingk and 
Roth, the greatest of Sanskrit lexicographers, 
who, while expressingtbeirsenae of Wilson's 
immense eruuition, lamented that be had 
taken the point of view of native scholars 
rather than advanced in thepalh of European 
students (^Sanshit Worlerlmdi, Bd. I., Vor- 

A complete list, mainly compiled by him- 
self, of his separate works, editions, joint pro- 
ductions, and papers in journals, is given with 
Ilia obituarv in the ' Annual Report of tlie 
Royal Aaia'tic Society' for 1S60. Bendes 
the 'Dictionary' (1819, 1832, and ISi4) 
olreadv mentioned, the moat important are: 
1. ' Select Specimena of the Theatre of the 
Hindus,' 182H~7, L' vols, (tbis haa gooe 
through several editions, and was transSited 
into French ; Wilson, himself an accom- 
plished actor, seems to bava entered into 
tblsworkwithspecialenthusiosin). 2. 'Cata- 
logue of the Mackenzie MHS..' Calcutta, 11*38, 
8vo. 3. ' Sjiu-khya-kiiriliii,' London, IS37, 
4to. 4. ■ Vishnupurnna,' London, 1810, 4to. 
b. ' Lectures on the Religious and Philoso- 
phical Systems of the Hindus,' 1840. ti. • Con- 
tinuatiou of Mill's British India, 1805-35,' 
London, 1844-6. 7. 'Translation of ike 
Rig-Yeda ' (according to the native school of 
interpretation), 6 vols. ; voL i. was published 
in 18i)0, and vols. v. and vi. have been com- 
pletedandpublisbedsiacehis death. 8. '(ilos- 
aarv of Judicial and Revenue Terms of . , ■ 
India,' London, I860, 4to. A collected edi- 
tion (IS vola.^ of his works was also pub- 
lished in London (18f!3~7I) under the editor- 
ship of Ueinbold Host jfl-v-], one of his suc- 
cessors at the India office. Wilson was a 
great collector of Sanskrit manuscripts, No 
fewer than fire hundred and forty, compris- 
ing both vedic and classical works, were 
brought together by bim, and form the moct 
important part of the Sanskrit manuscripts 
now in the Bodleian Library. 

[Annual Report of Royal Asiatic Society for 
1860, andoihorrecordsof the Society; Memiiriala 
ot H^leyhury CoIIpRo (biogrBphy by Sir M. 
Slonier-Williiiras, Wilson's pupil and suMvsnr 
at Oiford); English Cydoped'a; Asiatic 3oc. 






Bennl, CeatHitary ml.; mmmiuii rat ions from 
familr and from Profeasur Cowell. his pupil 
WkI fnend.] C. B. 

WILSON. Sir JAMES (1780-1847). 
major-geneml. bom in 1780,recei»ed a com- 
ensign in the 27tb footon 12 Dec. 
17M8. Ilia flirt tier commission a weru diit«d : 
IJeiiMu&Dt, 31 Aug. 1799; captsin, 27 May 
ISOl ; maji)T,20 June 1811 ; brevet lieutenant- 
colonel, -27 April 1812; colonel, 32 J11I7 
1630; tnaior-general, 28 June 1838. He 
eerred with hia reffimeDt iu the erpedition 
to the Helder in 1799, look part in the action 
on landing on 27 Aug',, in Ine actions of 10 
•nd 19 Sept., ia the battle of Alkmaar or 
Bergen on 2 Oct., and the action of Bc- 
verwyk on 6 Oct. In July 1800 he accom- 
umied the expedition under Sir Jamea 
Pulteney to Ferrol, and under Sir Ralph 
Abercromby to Csdii, and in the followinc 
year want with Altercromby to Byypt, took 
pan in the battle on landing in Aboukir Bay 
an 8 March 1801, in the action at NicopoliB 
on the 13th, in the battle of Alexandria oa 

21 March, and in the further operations of 
the campaign. 

Wilson exchanged into the 48th foot on 
July 1803. He served with Sir John 
Moore in Leon during the campaiign of 1808. 
In 1800 he accompanied the 48th to the 
Peninsula, and was at the battle of Talavera 
on^ and :}8 July, and of Bu9acoon37Sept., 
took port in the retreat to Torres Vedraa, 
and in the subsequent advance in 1810 in 
purauit of MasB^na. At tUu battle of Albuera 
OD 16 May 1811 Wilson succeeded, on the 
death of Lieutenant-colonel Duckworth, to 
the command of the 48th, and was twice 
severely wounded. He a^in commanded 
bis regiment at the aiege ot Ciudad Uodrigo 
in January 1812, taking part in the storm. 
He commanded the column of assault on the 
ravelin of Son Roque at the storm of Badajoz 
<m 6 April 1812, when he carried the gorge, 
And.withtheoasistance of Major John Squire 
[q.v.Jofthe royal engineers, established tiira- 
«elf in the work. lie was particularly men- 
tioned in despatches by Sir Thomas Picton 
and by the Duke of Wellington. 

Wilson commanded his regiment in the 
advance to the Donro, in the retreat to Cas- 
tnjon, and in the battle of Salamanca on 

22 July 181J, when he succeeded to the 
command of the fusilier brigade, and was 
mentioned in despatches. He commanded a 
light battalion at the battle of Vittoria on 
21 Jnne 1813, and during the operations in 
the Pyreaera, until he was twice severely 
wounded at the battle of Sauroren on 28 July 
1813. Hewasagainmentinnedindespatchea. 
In 1814 he commanded th\i 4Sth in the 

I advance to the Oaronue, and was present at 
the battle of Toulouse on 10 April, was again 

' wounded.and again mentioned in despatches. 
For his services he was made a knight com- 

: mauder of the order of the Bath, military 

' division, on 2 Jan. 1815, and received the 
gold crosB, with clasp, for Albuera, BadajoK, 
Salamanca, \'ittoria, and Toulouse, and the 

I reward for distinguished service. He was 
also presented with a sword of honour by 
the officers of the 48th foot in memory <rf 
his having bo often led them to victory. 'He 
died at Bath in February 1847. 
[Desputehes ; RoyalMilitarjCal.1820; QBnl. 

Expedition to Egypt.] It. H. V. 

WILSON, JAMES (1795-1666), iroolo- 
giat, the youngest son of John Wilson {d, 
1796), a game manufacturer, and hia wife 
Margaret (bom SymV was bom at Paisley in 
November 1795. 'Coristopber North' (John 
Wilson, 1785-1854 [q.v.J) was his eldest 
brother. The father having died during 
James's first year, the famUy removed to 
Edinburgh, where young Wilson passed his 
school and college days. In 1811 he began 
to study for the law, but bis health did not 
allow of his following this for long. In 1816 
be visited Holland, Oermany, Snitxerland, 
and Paris. He afterwards returned to Paris 
to purchase the Bufresne collection of birds 
for the museum of the Edinburgh University. 
These he arranged in their new home, a con- 
genial employment for one who from boy- 
hood had had a great love for natural his- 
tory. In 1S19 he visited Sweden, soon 
after which symptoms of pulmonary disease 
appeared that compelled him to reside ia 
Italy during 1820-1. In 1824 be married 
and settled down at Woodville, near Edin- 
burgh, devoting himself to scientific and 
literaiy pursuits. Losing his wife in 1837, 
he took a winter residence in George Square, 

In 1841, with Sir Thomas Dick Lauder 
[q, v.], he made a series of excursions round 
the coasts of Scotland, at the request of the 
liaheriea board, to study the natural history 
of the herring, and make other observations 
of interest to the fishing industry, Other 



followed at intervals between 1843 and 

I80O, besides which he took many fishing 
excursions inland. In 1854 he was offered 
but declined the chair of natural history in 
the Edinbiirffb University, then vacant by 
the death of Profeasor Edward Forbes [q. v.] 
He died at Woodville on 18 Mav 1856. 


when only seventeen, and was aUo a, fellow 
of the Royal Sociely of Edinburgh. 

lie wiu author of: 1. 'Illustrations of 

EntoiDologia Ei 

junction with James Duncan, Edinburgh, 
8vo, 1834. 3. ' Treotifie on InsectB,' Edin- 
burgh, 1836, 8to. 4, • Introduction to the 
Natuml History of Quadrupeds and WhalfS.' 
Editiburgh, 1838, 4to. G. ' Introduction to 
the Natural History of Fishes,' Edinburgh, 
1838, 4to. 0, ' tnlroductiou to the Natural 
History of Birds,' Edinburgh, 1839, 4iu. 
7. -The Rod and Gun,' Edinburgh, 1840, 
8vo; new edition, 1844. 8. ' A Voyage round 
the Coasia of Scotland,' Edinburgh, 184^, 
2 vols. Svo. 9, ' Illustrations of Scripture. 
By an Animal Painter, with Notes by a 
Naturalist' [signed 'J. W.'], Edinburgh 
[1855], fot. For the 'Edinburgh Cabinet 
Library' he wrote the Koology of ludia, 
China, Africa, and the northern regions of 
North America; while he contributed thv 

S renter part of the natural history and el 
ife of IVofessor Forbes to the seventh edi- 
tion of the ' Encyclopsdia liritannica.' He 
moreover published many articles in the 
'Quarterly,' in ' Blade wood,' and in other 

o \\"ilson 

cholera in London 1832), a thriving woollen 
manufacturer. His mother's maiden name 
was Elizabeth Richardson, and she died at 
Hawiclf in 1815. WiUon was placed from 
1H16 to 1819 in the school at .^^kwortb 
belonging to the Friends, of which religious 
l)ody his father was a member, and then for 
six months in a similar school at Earl's 
Colne in Essex. His taste at this time 
was for books, and he wished to become a 
sohoolmaster. A desire for a more active life 
next iuspired him, and he wanted to practise 
at the Scottish bur, but the rules of the 
Society of Friends did not permit of this 

', Heski^tta Wilsos (if. 1863>, 
was a daughter of Andrew Wilson of Main 
HouBf. She lost her mother in early life, 
but found a home with her grandmother and 
her uncle, Professor John Wilson (181^- 
3688) [q. v.], in Edinburgh, Subsequently 
■he went to live with her other uncle, 
James Wilson, at W'oodvUle, where, after 
the death of her aunt in 1837, she took 
charge of the house and remained till her 
• -^ "pt. 1863. 

Shu V 

r of: 1, ' 

(anon.), Edinburgh, 1851, 
through two German editions. 2. 'Things 
to he thought of '(anon.), Edinburgh, 185;), 
I'Jrao. 3. ' Homely Hints from the I'ireside ' 
(anon., the first edition of which appeared 
probably about 18-58 or 1859) ; Snd edit. 
Edinburgh, 1860, 12mo; new edit. ]86i. 
4. ' The Chronicles of a (larden : its Pels,' 
London, 1863, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1864. 

[Memoi™ of 3. Wilson (with n poitrsit), by 
tba ReT. J. Hamilton : Encycl. Brit. 8th aiic. 
I»i. 871; Memuirof Hrnrietta Wilson, by tliB 
lUv. J. Hiimiltun. prelliedto her ■ Chroniclei ; ' 
Bill. Mas. fnl. ; AUiboii<i's Did. of Kngl. Lit,] 

■WILSON, JAMES (1 80-J-l 860),pol'it ician 
•nd political economist, bom at Hawick in 
in a family of fifteen children, was the son 
Ot William WiUou (4, at Hawick 1764, d. af 

At the age of siiteen Wilson was ap- 

Ereuticed to a hat nianufacturer at Uawick, 
ut he still pursued far into the night the 
practice of reading and study. Aft«r n short 
time his father purchased the business for 
him and an elder brother named William. 
The two young men prospered in their 
undertaking, and their native town proved 
too small for their energies. In 1824 theji 
removed to London, and commenced busi- 
ness with a partner, the Srm being known 
as Wilson, Irwin, k Wilson. Their pecuniary 
gains were considerable, and James Wllsoo 
acquired a thorough practical knowledge of 
commeTciat life, both at home and in foreign 
countries. The firm was dissolved in 1831, 
but he continued, as James Wilson & Co., 
to carry on the business. On S Jan. 1833 
he married EliEabeth I'reston of Newcastle, 
and voluntarily ceased to be a member of 
the Society of Friends. Ue moved to Dul- 
wioh Place, then a secluded spot, though 
only about four miles from the city. Hera 
be entertained his friends, and was fond 
of conversing with them on politics and 

For twelve years Wilson succeeded in 
business, but about 183(1 be was tempted 
into large speculations in indigo, and within 
three years nearly all his capital had vanished. 
He called his creditors together and made a 
proposition to them, which was accepted. 
aome time afterwards the property which he 
hud assigned to them was realised and did 
not produce the sum which he had antici- 
pated. He thereupon in the most honour- 
able manner, without any ostentation, mad^ 
good the deficiency. The firm was unaffected 
by his private failure, continuing itso^m- 
tions under another name and with Wtlson 
as a partner. In 1844 he retired from buai- 

Three works published before his retire- 
ment made Wilson's name conspicuous in 
financial circles. The first of Ibem, called 
' Influences of the Corn-laws as Bt}*ecling all 



Classes of the ConuDUoily,' came out in the 
"ig- of 1830, and he third edition was 
sd in the nuit yenr. Its object was to 
show liiBt the duty on com did not beoBlit 
the agricultural interest any more than that 
of the manufacturers. The argutaent was 
rlearlj threshed out, and he fallowed \t up 
by frequent epeeches in the same sense. Hia 
reaeoninghad considerable inHiienoe over the 
mind of Cobden, and, by renjoving from the 
agitation the stigma that its obji-ct was to 
promote the interests of one class nt the ex- 
pense of another, had mucii elTect on the 
■uccesa of the auti-cornlaw movement. 

In the second of these pamphlets, that on 
the ' HuotTiutions of Currency, Commerce, 
and MBDiifactures' (1840), Wilson traced 
their rise and fall to the artificial operation 
of the com laws. The third of them, ' The 
Revenue, or what shall the Chancellor do ^ ' 
1841, was all but written in a 'single night,' 
«iid it contained an outline of the changes 
■absequently introduced by Sir Robert I'eel 
and his follower in finance, Uladstone, lie 
urged the increase of direct taxation through 
the medium of the assessed taxes and the 
TeductioQ of the tnriH' regulating the custom 
and excise duties, as these had largely di- 
miniahed in yield from the decreased re- 
■ourcesof themusBof thepeople. lie showed 
in detail how the consumption of colVee and 
«agBr had been augmented by the diminu- 
tion of the duties thereon. 

Wilson about 1643 wrote the city article 
and occasional leaders for the ' ftlorning 
Chronicle.' I'or several years he contri- 
bnted letters and articles to the 'Examiner,' 
and he was denirous of increasing his papers 
ia its columns, but the space was denied 
iiim. He thereupon, after consultation with 
Cobden and Yilliers, as the spokesmeQ of 
the Anti-Comlaw League (Moni.Er, Qibdrfi, 
i, 291-2), determined on estnbliahing a 
>reekly paper for linsncJal and commercial 
men. He invested in it moat of his capital 
and obtained some help from Lord Radnor, 
An ardent free-trader. ' The Economist,' 
which appeared for the first time on 2 liept. 
184S, at once became a recognised power in 
the newspaper world, and has maintained its 
position ever since. It advocated the repeal 
of the com laws, and strenuously upheld 
the prboijiles of free trade. In the early 
stages of Its existence Wilson wrote nearly 
the whole of the paper. It was as a prac- 
tical nan, writing for those engaged in the 
dailf routine of business life, that he pri- 
marily expounded his Tiews, but the effect 
of his opinions was not limited to any single 
section in society. Under thetille of 'Capital 
Currency and Banlting' he published in 1847 

a volume containing 'his articles ii 
Economist" in 1845 on the Bank Act of 1844, 
and in 1847 on the crisis. With a plan for 
a secure and economical currency.' A. second 
edition came out in 1850; it was issued in 
1857 in the 'Biblioteca dell' Economista' 
(■2nd ser. vi. 455-662) ; and a tronslation 
was publisbedat Rio de Janeiro in I860. It 
embodied his criticisms on the currency acts 
of Peel, with an analysis of the panic of 1847 
and of the railway mania which preceded it- 
He was a strenuous advocate for the sure 
convertibility of the banknote, but ' opposed 
to the technical restrictions of the act of 
1844.' lie also advocated the repeal of the 
navigation laws, regarding them as ' restric- 
tions on our commerce.' A pamphlet by him 
on the ' Cause of the present Commercial 
Distress, and its Bearings on Shipowners,' 
was printed at Liverpool in l!H4-J, sad he 
printed in 1849 ft speech on ' The Navigation 

A chance conversation at Lord Radnor's 
table induced Wilson to become a candidate 
for parliament at the general election of 1847 
for the borough of Westburr in Wiitahire. 
He was returned by 170 voles against 149 

B'ven to his tory opponent, Matthew James 
iggins [q. v.], well known as 'Jacob Om- 
nium.' Hewas re-elected in 1852, when he 
wonby si.tTOtesonly. From 18.^7 until his 
departure for India he represented Devon- 
port. Wilson's first speech in parliament 

I the E 

ihtained consider- 
able influence as a speaker. Within six 
months of the date on which he took hie 
seat office was ofi*ered to him, and from 
16 May 1848 to the dissolulion of Lord John 
Russell's ministry he was one of the joint 
secretaries to the board of control. 

'.)n the formation of the Aberdeen ministry 
Wilson was offered the important post of 
financial secretary to the treasury, and he 
remained in this place, dealing ably with tbo 
vexed questions doily referred to the holder 
of that position, from January 1853 until the 
defeat of Lord Falmerston's administration 
in 1858. During bis tenure of this office he 
was offered, but declined, first the vice-presi- 
dency of the board of trade inl856, secondly 
the chaii^mansbip of inland revenue in 1866. 
This was ' B. good pillow,' he said, ' but ho 
did not wish to lie down.' 

Lord Palmerstan returned to power in 
June 1859, when A\'ilson accepted the vice* 
presidency of the board of trade, coupled 
with that of payma*"ter-gen'-ral, and was 
created a privy councillor. He had scarcely 
beenseated in office when he was offered ths 




fast of SDUDcial member of the council of 
adia, 'whicli bad just been created. He 
hesicated about accepting it, for he Ap- 
preciated his inftueuce iti uxe House of Com- 
inona, recognised the ' ^gnntic difficulties' 
whicli awaited him in India, and was not 
tempted b; the high salary, as through the 
Biiccees of his paper, aided by some prudent 
investments^ he was possessed of atlluence. 
Uu public grounds, however, he determined 
upon going thither, and on 20 Oct. 1659 he 
left Kagknd for bis new position. Through 
n ' fortunate accident' he visited immediately 
after his arrival the upper provinces of Hin- 
dustan. He travelleJ from Calcutta to 
Lahore, and back again, visiting every city 
and town of importance within that urea, 
tind returned much impreseed with the un- 
develoj>ed resources of the country. The 
piinciplea of his budget were explained b^ 
liira on 18 Ftb. ISOO. He found himself 
face to face with a great deficiency of re- 
venue and an enormous increase in public 
debt. He proposed certain increased import 
duties with a tax on home-grown tobacco, 
a small and uniform license duty upon traders 
of every class, and the imposition of an 
income-tax on all incomes above 200 rupees 
a year, but with a reduction for those not 
eiceeding 600 rupees per annum. Tliese 
propositions met with considerable opposi- 
liou.mainly through the action of Sir Charles 
Edward Trevelyaa [q-v.], but that official 
was promptly recalled. Wilson's budget 
and Trevelyan's recall BxciteUmuchcriticisna 
in England. 

Wilson's next act woa to establiiih a paper 
currency. He set up at Calcutta a govern- 
ment commission charged with the functions 
exercised in this country by the issue d^ 
partment of the Bank of England. Brancb 
latablishmenla were erected at Madras and 
ree presidencies were 
) and redemption of 
notes iuto convenient districts called cur- 
rency circles. The notes were to be for 5, 
10, 20, 60, 100, 600, or 1,000 ruwea, and 
they were to be redeemable with ailvor. 
Wilson then commenced a reformation of 
the tnjstem of public accounts. He it wae 
' that first evoked order out of the chaos of 
Indian finance, and rendered it possible for 
ihe future to regulate the outlay by the in- 

For some time after his arrival in India 
Wilson remained in good health, but with 
(he advent of wet weather his phvsical 
Btrength declined. Under the pressure of 
work h.- nei;l<s7t(Hi his condition, but about 
the niL<ldl..-,jf July I860 he went for aweek'a 
Uarrackpore. He returned to 

labour with only a slight improvement ia 
his Slate. The dysentery increased, on 
y AUB. he took to bis bed, and on the even- 
ing o? 11 Aug. ho was dead. Mourning for 
his loss was universal in Calcutta ; he was 
buried in the Circular Road cemetery, where 
a monument was erected to bii memory. 
His widow died in London in 1886, and was 
buried in the churchvard of Curry Rivel, 
Somerset. Tiiey had sis daughters: the 
eldest, Eiimbetli, married Walter Bageliot 
[q. v.] ; the next, Julia, was the second wife 
of WiUiamRalhbooeGr^[q.T.]; the fourth 
daughter, Zenobia, married Mr. Orby Ship- 
ley ; the fifth, Sophia Victoria, married Sir. 
Stirling Halsey of the Indian civil service, 

Erivate secretary to his father-in-law until 
is death, 

Wilson was very active in his tempera- 
ment, fertile in ideas, and lucid in exposi- 
tion. To the last hour of bis life Ue was of 
a sanguine disposition. His memory was 
marvellous, his judgment was remarkably 
even, and an iron constitution enabled him 
to accomplish a vast amount of work. In 
society his vivacity of conversation was 
always conspicuous. He was a foreign asso- 
ciate of the Institute of France. 

A full-length atatue of Wilson, by Sleel" 
of Edinburgh, the cost of which was defrayed 
by the mercantile community of the city, is 
in the Dalhousie Institute at Calcutta. A 
marble bust, by the same sculptor, ia in the 
National Qallery of Edinburgh ; it was 

{ilaced there by the Royal Academy of Scot- 
and, in recognition of his services in ob- 
taining a grant from Ihe treasury for the 
erection of the buildings in its occupation. 
'fhat body presented Mrs. Wilson in I8&9 
with tt portrait of him by Sir John Watson 
Gordon. It is now in Mrs. Bagehot's pos- 
session ; a copy of it was given by Wilson's 
children to the gallery of local worthies in 
Hawick town-hall. A pen-and-ink sketch 
by Richard Doyle of Wilson, together with 
Sir William Moleaworth, is in the print- 
room at the British Museum. They are botli 
drawn with flowing hair, and underneath 
are the words: ' Is that your own hair, or 
is it tt whig?' He is also represented in 
J. R. Herbert's picture of the leading mem- 
bers of the Anti-Cornlaw Iieague, 

[Economist, snpplement by Waller BageUot 
to niunber for 17 Nov. 1B60; it was reprinted 
BBS separate publiealion in 1861. and included in 
his Literury Studios (1679), i. 367-406(1838 
eiiit.), iii. 3<M-67 i Gent. Mng^ 1880, ii. 432; 
VaparoBU, 1868 ed. ; Entyclop. Bril. 8thed..a' 
by Mr. Bagehot ; information from Mrs. Wal 
Bagehot of Henia Hill, Langport, Somerset.] ^ 
W. P. 0. J 

I 1682), phiBician, son of Jamua Wtlaou, the 
r sni^on and teacher of anatomy at the Uun- 
terian school in Great Windmill Street, waa 
' born in Great Queen Street, Lincola'B Inn 
I f ii^lda, in 1795. His mother was a daugliter 
of Juba Clarke of Wellingborough, and sister 
I to Sir Charles MausSeld Clarke [q. v.] Ue 
f was admit ted a king's scholar at Wu3'minat«r 
[ Kbool in 1808, and was elected to Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 9 May 18la. He gra- 
daat«d B.A. on 6 Dec. 1815, and obtained a 
first class in both classics and mathematics. 
On leaving Oxford temporBrilj-, he entered 
bis father's school in Great Windmill Street, 
and during the winter of 1817 be studied at 
Edinburgh. HeprocoededM,A.atOxfardoD 
13 May 1818, M.B. on 6 Mav 1H19. and M.D. 
on 17 Mbj 1823. Ha was elected a Radcliffe 
tisvelling fellow In June 1831, and, having 
been nominated to a ' faculty studentship,' 
remaineda student of ChristGhurcb. In 1819 
and 1820 he travelled through France and 
8witierland to Italy as physician to Geurge 
Jobn Spencer, second earl tipencer, and 
bis wife, and in the enrly part of 1822 be 
left England for the continent, in compliance 
with Ibe requirements of bis Kadcblfu fi/l- 
lowsbip, and, with occasional intervals, was 
•broad for the five following years. He 
was admitted a candidate of the Cotle;i!e of 
Pbyeicians on 12 April 1824, a fellow on 
|_^_Marcb 182o, and was censor in 1828 and 
" ■ He delivered the materia medico 
X at the college in 1829, 1830, 1831. 
3S2, the Lumleian lectures in 1847 
i 1848 'on Pain,' and Ibe Harveian ora- 
I 1850: the last-named waa one of 
Mt original and noteworthy in matter 
i style of any that have been delivered 
■' 'n the present cfnCury. Ue was elected 
cian to St. Oi^rge's Hospital on 39 May 
I, and held the office until 1867, when 
waa appointed cousulting physician. Wil- 
li died at Holmwood, Surrey, on 29 Uec. 

Wilson was author of: 1. 'On Spasm, 
I J^nguor, Palsy, and other Disorders termed 
' IS of theMviBcular System,' London, 

3mo. 2. ' Oratio Harveiana in Mdt- 
« Collvgii Kegalis Hedicorum babila die 
^_ iiiiiicxix.,iii>ccCL., 'London, 18fjO,8vo. His 
. eoQtribntions to periodical literature were 
valuable and important. Among tbem were 
pBMrs on ' erysipelufl and rheumatic feverc," 
published in the ' Lancet.' Under the signa- 
ture of 'Maxilla' he contributed totbe'Lon- 
j doiiGai«lt«'of 1833aseriesofcbaracteristic 
LiUd interesting letters addressed to his friend 
tVeitibulua <Dr. George Hall of Brighton), 
dThese letters ure memorable in the nistory 

of the College of I'hysiciana, for they struck 
the keynote fur its reform. 

[Mnnk's Coll. of Phv^t. ; Roll of Westminater 
Scliuol; Foster's Alumni Oinn. 17l5-iB8B; Cat. 
Urit. MuB. Libr,} W. W. W. 

WnaON, JOHN (l.'39o-lfi74), musician, 
born at Faversham in Kent on 5 April 
1S95, was distinguished as a lutenist, anil in 
1835 succeeded Alphoneo Bales as musician 
to the kin^. Personal popularity won for 
his compositions something more than a just 
appreciation both at the court of Charles 1, 
when Oxford was the stronghold of the 
royal cause, and among the young men of 
the university. Wilson s intluenco in spread- 
ing the love of music bos been acknowledged 
aa far-reaching. ■ The best at the lute iu 
all England," be sometimes played the lute 
at the music meetings of Oxford, but more 
often presided over 'the consort' (Wood, 
JJ/e, p. xiiv). In 1644-5 Wilson graduated 
Mus. Doc. Oxon.; in 1046, on the surrender 
of the Oxford garrison, be entered the house- 
hold of Sir William Walter of Sarsden. 
On the re-<!8tahlisluuent in 1658 of the Ox- 
ford professorship of music, Wilson was ap- 
pointed choragus, the lectureship having by 
this time been diverted from the intention 
of its founder. In 1661 he resigneii Ibis post, 
for that of chamber musician to Charles II, 
and in 1662 he WHsappointed gentleman of the 
Chapel lioyal in the place of Henry Lawes. 
llelodgedat the Horseferry, Westminster, 
died there — ' aged 78 yeares, 10 months, and 
17 dayes'— on 22 Feb. 1673-4, and was 
buried in the little cloister of Westminster 
Abbev. lie married bis second wife, -^nne 
Peniall.onal Jan. 1(!70-1. 

Wilson's portrait is among others belong- 
ing to the Oxford Music School. An ea- 
rving bv Coldwall (1044) was published 
Hawkins (Hitl. 2nd edit. p. 682; cf, 
Bhoulut, Cat. Eiiyr. Portr. p. loJl). 

The theory has been raised by Dr. liim- 
bault, but baa never been seriously accepted, 
that Dr. John Wilson waa identical with 
Shakespeare's Jack Willson, who sang ' Sigb 
lore, ladies,' and other lyrics. The folio 
i23 gives the stage direction, 'Enter the 
ce, Leonato, Claudio, and Jack Willson ' 
(Much Ado, act ii. sc. 3). That Wilson had 
frequent intercourse with contemporaiy com- 
posers of Shakespearean Ivrics, and himself 
set to music ' Take, ob ! take those lipe 
away,' sra known facts. That he bod a 
humorous nature and a love of practical 
joking, such as would better beseem an act or 
of those days, was commonly reported, and 
he was the Willson who, in company 
with Harry and Will Lawes, raised a tavern 



^ Wilson 104, 

Ijrawl, is jHWaible {Harl. MS. 6395, quoted 
by RfMBAUi-T, Who was Jack IvUivn t 
IBJd). But tlieee coincidences are not of 
BulBcient weight to establish identity. On 
the other hand, there is a letter of SI Oct. 
16^2 from Mandeville to the lord mayor 
and aldermen, soliciting for John Willson 
the place of one of the aerTants of the city for 
music and voice, vacant by the death of 
Richard Kails (lUnKmbram^a, \m. 46, 121 ), 
and a list of musiciane for the ' waytea,' 
17 April 1641, records the same name. It 
is unlikely that Wilson commenced his 
career by these city appointments, which 
may be presumed to have been enjoyed by a 
humbler namesake, John Wilson, actor and 

The Playfords published aire and glees 
hy Wilson in (1) 'Soled Ayres," 1653; 
(2) ' Catch that cat«h can ; ' aud (3) ' Plea- 
sant Musical Companion,' 1667. In Clif- 
ford's 'Collection' (^nd edit. 1604) are the 
words of (4) Wilson's ' Hearken, Uod ;' 
(r>) ■ Psalterium Cujolinum, the devotions uf 
Uia Sacred Msieatie in his solitude and suf- 
fering, rendered in verse bj- T. Stanley, and 
set to musLck for three voices and an organ 
or theorbo," 1667; (6) 'Cheerful Ayre-s or 
Ballads, first composed for one single voice, 
and since for three voices,' Oxford, 1600, 
3 vols. Tills was the first attempt at music 
printing at Oxford. In manuscript there 
are at tne British Museum many of Wilson's 
songs in Additional MS. 29396, most of 
which is said to bo in the handwriting of 
Ed. Lowe; an Evening SerTice in O (vol. v. 
of Tudway's 'Collection') and nine songs 
and part-songs in Additional MStj, 103^7 
and 1KS08; and at the Bodleian Library 
music to several ' Odes ' of Horace and to 
passages in Ausonius, Claudian, Petronius 
Arbiter, and Statius. Among Wilson's com- 
positions was the air 'From the fairLavinian 
shore," from which (and Savile's ' The Waits') 
Sir Heniy Bishop compounded the popular 
glee ' O, by rivera.' 

[Burugy'a Hist, of Mnaic, iii. SSO ; Havliiii 
Hiat. ii. fiS2 ; OravaB Did, iv. 482 : Ch<-ii 
book of tbe Chapi^l Rojnl. p. 13: Abdy Williim 
Degn-aa of Mnaic, pp. 36, 82 ; Davey'a Hiat. 
pp. 279. 284, et tv^. ; Cal. SUie Papers. Dom. 
CUarlw I and Charlra II ; will in WBatmlnatDF 
Act Book, fol.Sfl; Notamnd Queries. 3rd »er. il. 
ITI.viii.4IS.6th ser. i. 465 ; Coll. Tap. st GeD. 
vii. 104; aalhoritiBB cited.] L. M. M. 

WILSON, JOHN (1627P-1090), play- 
wright, tbe son of Aaron Wilson, anatlvt 
of Caermarthen, who has, however, been 
claimed as of Scottish descent, was born ' 
London in 1637. 
Tbe father, Aaboh Wilbos (1589-1643), 


mntriculnted from Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 16 Oct. 1607, as 'cler. til. let. 18.' Ue 
graduated M. A. in IB15, and D.D. on 17 May 
1639. He was collated rwtor of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook, in December 1636, was 
appointed chaplain to Charles I and in- 
stalled archdcacoo of Exeter in January 
IfKU ; in this same year be became vicar of 
Plymouth (St. Andrew's), to which benefice 
be was instituted byCharles I. He and his 
flock quarrelled over temporalities, and he 
took proceedings in the Star-chamber, but 
failed to prove the alleged encroachments. 
The corporation, nevertheless, thought it wise 
to surrender the right of presentation to tha 
king, who regranted it under conditions. 
When the civil war broke out, the vicar 
was sent prisoner by the townsfolk to Ports- 
mouth ; he died at Eieler in July 1&13, be- 
queathing to his son an unswerving faith in 
tlie greatness o f royal preroga ti ve (see WoBTH , 
Plymouth, p. 241; Lamd. MS. 986, f. 31; 
HBiraBssT, Noi-um Sepert. p. cliv). 

John Wilson matriculated from Rxet«r 
CoUege on 5 April 1641, aged 17, but 
did not proceed to a degree; he was admitted 
of Lincoln's Inn on 81 Oct. Ifi46 ( li^i'ter, 
i. 254), and was called to ijie bar from that 
inn about 164!). His plays mads his name 
known to the courtiers, and bis high views 
on the subject of tbe prerogative commended 
him to James, duke of York, who recom- 
mended him for a place to James Butler, 
first duke of Ormonde. He may have ac- 
companied Ormonde to Ireland in 1677; in 
any case, he was appointed about 1681 te 
the office of recorder of Londonderry, and 
in 1682 he issued tvom a Dublin press bla 
' Poem. To his escellenee Richard, Earl 
of Arran, lord deputy of Ireland.' Two 

Bjars later he dedicated to Ormonde 'A 
iscourse of Monarchy, more partlcalarly 
of the Imperial Crowns of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland . . . as i( relates to ths 
Succession of His Royal Highness James, 
Duke of York,' London, 8vo, Esrly in the 
following year ha was ready with 'A Rn- 
darlque to their Sacred MajeEtifs Jamea U 
and bis Royal Consort Queen Mary, on 
thelrjoyntCoronation at Westminster, April 
23, 1686,' London, folio. James pmbaUy 
mentioned his deserts to Richard Talbot, 
earl of Tvrconnel, and there is a suggestion 
that Wilson was employed by the new 
")y during 1087 in the capacity of secre- 
His loyalty was equal to everv strain, 
a 16B8 be produced his erudite and 
itical 'Jus regiumcorouK, or the King's 
Supream Power in Dispensing with Penal 
Statutes' ([.^ndon, 1688, 4to), which be dedi- 
cated ' to the Honorable Society of Lincoln' 


^K Ian.' A sec 





I Inn.' A serond part w&s projocted, butnevur 
appeared. Ileprobablj' returned thu recorder- 
snip until the sie^ of Uerry (April- August 
16h9), during' vhich period^ in the absence 
of mayor and sherilf, the office muEt have 
been a dead lulter. It is evident thatWilaon 
Bhortlyafterwardawent to Dublin with a view 
to j oini nf^ Jamue Chere,BndtbRr.,countingupon 
the uUimate Irlumpb of the Jacobiti.- cauae, 
he stayed there for one or two years. He is 
said to have written his tragi-comedy of 
* Belphegor' in that city during 1690. He 
Dtftj have returned to London to see it pro- 
duced Bt Dorset Garden in the October of 
that year. Langbaine, writing in 16i)9, status 
that he died ' near LeiceBter Fields about three 
-S since.' There is a somewhat obscure 

[reference to John Wilson in (BiickiiiKham 

Land Rochester's?) * The Session of the Poets, 

I to the Tune of Cock Laure!.' 

Wilson was the author of two prose come- ^ 
i^ of merit, besidi^a a five-act trapidy in ( 
blank verse and a tragi-comedy. Lilie the ; 
SUodwells in the next generation, he was a ; 
follower of 'the tribe of Ben.' Ha was a j 
•choUr, and his plays are full of adaptations 
from the antiijue comedy ; but as a delineator j 
of rascality, if rarely original, he is always 
vieorons and often racy, with a strong moa- ' 
euline humour. His plays in order of pro- 
duclionare: l.'TheCheats: aComedy,'Lon- , 
A)n,1664,4to(1671,4tOi 3rd edil. 1684; 4th ' 
«dit. 16fl3, with a new song). This excellent | 
fiircica) comedy was written in 1662 (so we ! 
ftn; told in 'The Author to the Reader,' dated 
Lincoln's Inn, lU Nov. IdtiS), and performed 
with great applause by Killigrew's company 
»tVere Street, Clare Market, in 1663. Lacy 
played Scruple, the nonconformist minister, 
-who in bis fondness for deep potations 'too 
ffocid for the wicked: it may strengthen 
Uiem in their enormities,' strikingly antici- 
pates the Shepherd in ' Pickwick.' Both 
this character and Mopus the astrological 

t Quack are strongly suggestive of Jonson 
thiougboul. The time appears not to huve 
been quite ripe for the breadth of the sntire, 
1663, Abraham Hill remarks, ' The new play 
' called " The Cheats '' has been attempted on 

the stage ; but it is so ectuidaluus that it is 
torbiddan ' (Familiar Jitters, p. 103). The 
piece is just mentioned by Downes in bis 
'Roacius Anglicanus.' 2. ' AndronicusCom- 
TOenios: aTragedy,' Lotidon,1064,4to. The 
history is derived from the ' Cosmography ' 

I of Fet«r Heylyn [q. v.l and coincides with 
the narrative given in tne forty-eighth chap- 
tetof Gibbon. An anonymous play of little 
merit upon the same subject, written in 
1643, had been published in 16(J1. The 

passage between Andronicus and Anna, the 
widow of his victim Alesius (act iv. sc. iji.) 
seems to have been inspired by the famous 
scene in ' Richard III.' The play was dedi- 
oated{i6Jan. 1663-4)'To ray fri-nd A.B.' 
3. "Tliu Projectors: a Comedy,' Loudon, 
1665, 4to. This comedy of London life 
was licensed for the press by L'Estrancra 
on 13 Jan. 1664-6, but Genest doubts if it 
were ever acted. U betrays more clearly 
than Moliere's 'L'Avare' its debt to their 
common original, the ' Aulularia'ofPIautus; 
Sir Gudgeon Credulous apain bears consider- 
able re8emt)l8Bce lo Fabian Fitadottrell in 
Jonson's 'The Devil ia an Ass,' while the 
She-Senate scene between Mrs. Godsgood, 
Mrs. Gotam, and Mrs. Snuceai is strongly 
reminiscent of the ' Ecclesiaiusie' of Aristo- 
phanes. The fault of the play remdes, not 
in the characters, which are excellent, espe- 
cially the Miser, Suchdry and his servant 
LeancUoi>s, but in the dearth of incident. 
There appears to be no connection between 
' The Projectors ' and ' L'Avare,' which was 
hastily written in 168iil and ' transplantnd ' 
many years later by Henry Fielding (' The 
Miser,*^ February 17*33). 4. 'Belpbegor, or 
the Marriage of the Devil: a Tragi-comedy,* 
London, 1691, 4t«; the British Mueeumhaa 
a second copy with a slightly variant title- 

fage. Licensed by L'Estrange on 13 Oct. 
690, this play was probably performed at; 
Dorset Garden at the close of 1690. The 
scene is laid In Genoa, and the story, which 
appears in tbe'Notti' of Straparola, was da- 
rived by Wilson from the English version of 
MachiavelU, published in 1QT4 (iJ. 1,65). 

A collected edition of Wilson's dramatio 
works was edited by Maidment and Logan 
for tbeir series of dramatists of the Hestora* 
tion in 1874. 

Besides his four plays and the tracts meit- 
tioned above, Wilson brought out in 1668 
' Moriie Encomium, or the Praise of Folly. 
Written originally in Latin by Des. Erasmus 
of Rotterdam, and translated into Englisb. 
by John Wilson,' London, l!2mo. 

[Wilson's Works. 
Characters of the Ec 
n. 149: Wntfs Bi . 

nid Englist) Plujs. 18flO : (renent'a Hist, 
of the English Stags, i. 31, 4SS, x. 13S-9: 
Dowuos's HuBoiuB Ansliesiiusi Ward's En^ish 
Dmm-itic Lit., 1898. iii. 337-40; BHker's Bio- 
gruphia DramHtica; Fost«r'a AInmni Oxen. 
lSOII-l7Ur NolBs aadQi 

Hailiit's Bibl. Hnndbook 
idCollirctionsiinil NfllPs: Poems on AtT^i 
Swto, 1716, i. 210-11; Adroootea" Libr. Ci 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

rith Memoir, in Dramiitlsta ^B 
H71 1 Langbains's Lives nod 
llish OramfttickPoBtB. 1712, 
I. Britanniea: HalUweU's 
Plujs. 18flO : (renent'a Hist. 

igB, i. Zi. 4S9, X. 13S-9: ^ 

iglicanusi Ward's Endish ^H 

, iii. 337-40; BHkcT's Bio- ^M 

; Fost«r'a AInmni Oxan. ^^| 

ad QaeHp>< ; Haeaon's Mil- ^H 

: Hailiit's Bibl. Hnndbook ^H 

■{fllPs: Poems on AtTnirs of ^H 

U; Adrocatea'Libr. Cikt.; ^H 



WILSON, JOHN (rf, 1761), bolanUt, 
was born nt Lau^leddal, neur Kendal, Wust- 
mocluad, and began lift: as a joumejmiiii 
BLoumnker, or, according to another account, 
M a stocking- maker. Being Dsthmntic, how- 
ever, he required an outdoor life, and acted 
as Bssiatant to Isaac Thompson, a well-known 
land survejor of Nuweastle-on-Tyne, while 
fais wtfu carried on a baker's shop. Probably 
in connection with this last trade he obtained 
the nickuame of ' Black Jack.' He possibly 
learnt his botonvinpart from John Robinson 
or FitiHobertB of the Gill, near Kendal, a 
correspondent of Ray and PstiTcr ; but with 
■ ' uncommon natural parts ' ho made himself 
' one of the most knowing herbalists of his 
time' l^Neweagtle Jountal, 27 July 1761), 
and is said at one time to have earned 00/. 
n year by giving lessons in botany once a 
week at his native place and at Newcastle, 
many pupils coming to him from the soutli 
of Scotland. It ia recorded of him that, 
being anxious to possess Morison's ' ilistoria 
Plantarum,' he determined to sell his cow, 
almost the sole support of his family, but a 
lady in the neighbourhood, hearing of the 
cireumstance, gave him the book. This 
anecdote and the character of his work show 
that Wilson must have acquired a knowledge 
of Latin. In 1744 he published " A Synopsis 
of British Plants,iii Mr, Ray's Method: . . . 
Together with a Botanical Dictionary. Illus- 
tTal«d with several Figures' (Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 8vn). This book is based upon, 
but not a mere translation of, DiUenius's 
edition of lijiy's 'Synopsis Stirpium Brilan- 
nicarum' (17^4), but is the first syBtematic 
account of British plants in English, and 
shows considerable original observation and 
thought (I'n.TBHBT, SkelvAei of the Proven 
<^Dutany, ii. a*>l-9). The introduction of 
the artificial Litin*ansystemled to Wilson's 
work being overlooked ; but Robert Brown, 
in his ' I'rodromiis Flora Novte Ilollandire ' 
(p. 490), dedicated the con volvulaceous genus 
toris operis hand spemandi.' The descriptions 
of trees, grasses, and cryptogams, which were 
to have formed a second volume, were left in 
manuscript, whLch,in 1762, it was, according 
to I'ulteneyfop. cit. p.269), proposed topub- 
liah. Wilson (IiedatKeodalonl6Julyl7Gl, 
the last three or four j'ears of his life having 
been spent in so debilitated a state of health 
a» to entirely unlit him for work. 

[Hone"sY««r.Book,p.8a7; NichoUonB Annals 
of Keudal, p. 313.J G. S. B. 

WILSON, JOHN (1720-1789), author 
of 'The CIvdt',' son of William Wilson, 
farmer and blackBmith,wasbomin the parish 

of Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, on 30 Jane 
17^. lie was educated at Lanark grammar 
school till the age of fourteen, ^en the 
death of his father and the strwtened cir- 
cumstniices of his family constrained him 
to teach for a living. In 1746 be was 
appointed parish schooltniuter of I^esmaha- 
gow, whence Uo was invited in 1764 to 
superintend the education of certain familiea 
in Kuther^len, near Glasgow. In 1767 be 
was appointed master of the Greenock 
grammar school, a stipulation of his engi^^ 
ment being that he was to forsake 'the 

Srofane and unprofitable art of poem-making.' 
;eferring to tais in 1803 as a survival of 
the puritanical covenanting spirit, Scott 
writes, ' Such an incident is tion as unlikely 
to happen in Greenock as in London' {Min- 
Kfrelty i(f thr Scottish Border, u. 1T6 n.> 
Wilson, burning his manuscripts, faithfully 
observed the conditions of his appointment, 
though conscious of passing ' on obscure 
life, Uie contempt of shopkeepers and brutish 
skippers' (Letter to his son, 21 Jan. 1779). 
He was a diligent and popular teacher, 
retaining office till two years before liia 
death, which took place at Greenock on 
3 June 1789. 

Wilson married, on 14 June 1T51, Agnea 
Brown, by whom he had nine cliildren. 
James, tbeeldeat son, becoming a sailor, wu 
killed in 1776 in an engagement on Lake 
Champlain, his heroism on the occasion 
prompting government to bestow a small 
penaion on his father. A daughter ^'iolet, 
wife of Robert Wilson, a Greenock ship- 
master, supplied matter for Leyden's memoir, 

In 1760 Wilson printed 'A Ilramatic 
Sketch,' which he afterwards elaborated into 
' Earl Douglas,' and issued along with ' The 
Clyde' in 1764. From an imperfectly 
amended and enlarged copy Leyden pub- 
lished the final version of ''The Clvde' in 
' Seotish Descriptive Sketches,' IS03. The 
dramatic poem ia important mainly as an 
exercise, exhibiting in its two forms the 
author's skill and copiousness of expression 
and his growing sense of style. ' The Clyde ' 
is distinctly meritorious. Its heroic couplet* 
are dexterously managed, its historical allu- 
sions are relevant and su^stive, and il« 
descriptive passages reveal independent out- 
look and genuine appreciation of natural 
beautv. It ia, in Leyden's worde, ' the first 
Scottish loco-descriptive poem of any merit.' 

[Blograiihicul sketch uf Wilxon preRled to 
Scutish Descriptive Poema. od. Jofiu Leydsn, 
1803; Lives of SBottish PufU by tlift Society 
of Ancient Scots; Grant Wilsou'a Pofu and 
Poetry of ScoUand.] T. B. 

WILSON, Sir JOHN (174l-1793),iudge, 
bom «i Tlie How, Applethwaite, ia Wesi- 
morland, on (> Aug. 1741, wm the sod of 
John Wilson, a niiin of proparty in the parish. 
He was educated at Stave!ey| near Ken'Jal, 
■nd ea I ered feterhoiise ,Cambridge,pn^&Jaii. 
17&B, graduating B.A. in 1761 m bi 
■wrEJigler, 17fti, and beinz elected 
to a fuilowBhip on 7 July 1764. Wliile still 
ftn undergraduate he is sud to have made 
^^m able repl^ to iLe otlacli on Edward 
^BVPiuinrs ■ Miscellanea Analylicn' bv Wil- 
Bbm ^iamuel Powell [q. v.], muter' of St. 
HKtbo'B College (Nichols, Lit. Anecrl. 
^HlT). He entered the Middle Temple 
^^J»naftry 1763, and. after being called to 1 
b&r in 1766, he joined the northern circ 
in 1767, and noon acquired a considerable 
pnctic«. He was patronised by John Di 

Ining (nfler wards GrsC Baron AGhburtan) 
fg. v.], and in his turn he befriended John 
Kolt (afterwards Lord EldonJ (Twiaa, Life 
^ Lord Eldon, 1846, i. 88). On 7 Nov. 
3786 he was 8p])ointod by Thurlow to fill 
Che vacancy in the court of common pleas 
occasioned by the death of Sir George hares 
Jq. v.], and on \n Nov. he was knighted. On 
toe retirement of Thurlow he waa made a 
eoDunisfioner of the great seal on 15 June 
1792, and held that om^e until 1>8 Jan. 1793, 
-when Lord Loughborough became lord chan- 
eellor. He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on VA March 178:^. He died 
Kendal on 18 Oct. 1793, and wna buried 
tlie church, where a monument was erected 
to hie memory, wilh an inscription by his 
friend, Kichard Watson (1737-1816) fq-v.], 
hiahop of Llandafl". On 7 April 1788 lie 
married a daughter of James Adair [q. v.], 
Beljeant-at-law, By her he had a sod and 
two daughtera. 

[Atkin(ion"B Worlliies of WeslcnorliiQd, 1850, 
il.lUtl-8; Osnt. Miig. ITD2 i. 39, 1793 ii. 9^5. 
1 794 ii. 1051 ; Townwnd'H Cat. of Knighu. 1833 ; 
Fosb'd Jmlgeg of Englsad, 1861 viii. 408-9.] 
KI. C. 
WILSON, JOHN (1800-1849), Scottish 
Tocalist, son of John Wilson, coach-driver, 
was bom in Edinburgh on So Dec. 1800. 
At the age of ten he waa apprenticed lo a 
printing hrm, and was aubsequenClv engaged 
wilh the Ballantynes, where he nelpd to 
•et np the ' Waverley Novels.' During the 
building of Abbotsford he was often chosen 
as one of the armed messengers who had to 
ride weekly to Tweedside wilh money to pay 
the workmen. He conceived an early liking 
for music, studied under John Mather bdo 
Benjamin Gleadhill of Edinburgh, and was 
« member of the choir of Duddingston parish 
church during the ministry of JohuTbomaoa 

(1778-1840) [q.r.], the painter. For soma 
time he was precentor of Roxburgh Plocs 
relief church, where his fine tenor voice 
drew great crowds, and from 1825 to 1830 
ho held the same post at Si. Mary's Church, 
Edinburgh. After this he devoted himself 
entirely tomuaic teaching and concert giving. 
He studied singing in Edinburgh under Fin- 
lay Dun [q. v.], and afterwards in London 
under Geaualdo Lan/a [q, v.] and Crivelli, 
taking harmony and counterpoint lessons 
fromGeorge A^ull [q.v.] In March 1830 
he appeared in Edinburgh as Harry Bertram 
in ' Guy Mannering,' and was subseqiiently 
engages in other operas — notably in Balfe's, 
in some of which he created the principal 

fart— at Covent Garden and Drury I^ane. 
lis acting wua, however, somewhat stiff, 
and he abandoned the stage to become an 
exponent of Scottish song ; in thatcharacter 
he appeared before the queen at Taymouth 
Castle in 1842. Hts Scottish song entertain- 
ments, both in this country and in America, 
were an itnmense success, and brought him 
a large fortune. He died of cholera at 
Quebec on 8 Jul^ 1849. David Kennedy 
[q. v.], the Scottish vocalist, restored his 
tomb there, and made a bequest for its perma- 
nent preservation. Wilson published an edi- 
tion of ' The Son^ of Scotland, as sung by 
him at hi* Entertainments on Scottish Music 
and Song,' London, 1843, 3 vols.; and 'K 
Selection of Psalm Tunes, for the use of tho 
Congregation of St. Mary's Church, Edin- 
burgh '(1825), in which appears the popular 
tune ' Howard,' generally attributed to him, 
although it is anonymous. He composed 
several songs, notably ' Love -wakes and 
sleeps,' and at bis entertainments introduced 
many which, though unclaimed, are under- 
stood to be his own. 

[Love's Scotlish Charch Masic : Baptrs'i 
MuBienlScotlaad; Dibdin's Annnlsof thn Edin- 
burgh Stage; GroTea Diet, of Music. Hodden's 
George Thomson, the Friend of Burn».p. 249; 
BniM'a John Tliomsnn of Dnddingston : Records 
of Canongate Parish. Cdinbunb ; informution 
from the lale Jamea Stillie, Edinburgh.] 

WILSON, JOHN (1785-1854), author, 
the 'Ohrialopher North' of 'Blackwood's,' 
and professor of moral philosophy in the 
university of Edinburgh, was bom at Pais- 
ley on 18' May 1785. His father, John Wil- 
son {d. 1796), was a manufacturer of gauxe, 
who had made a fortune in business; bis 
motlier, Margaret Sym (1763-1825), a lady 
of remarkable diguity of manners and im- 
periou.1 strength of character, was descended 
'~ the female line from the Marquis of Mont- 



9 the fourth child but eldest 

Wilson n 

son, being one of & family of ten. Hie 
youngest brother, James Wil90n(179'5-1856), 
IS noticed separately. John recoived bisfirat 
education In the grftramar school of Puisley 
and in tlie manse of Mearns, and in 1797 
proceeded to Glasgow UnivecBily, where he 
was especially influenced by Jardioe, thepro- 
fesioT of logic, and Young, the professor of 
Greek. Ha obtained several prizes in logic, 
&nd Ilia career aa a student was in general 
highly creditable to him, though be was still 
more distinguished as au athlele. 'I con- 
aider Glasgow College as my mother,' he 
wrote, ' aTid I have almost a son's affection 
for her.' From Glasgow he migrated to Ox- 
ford, where he became a gentlemnn commoner 
at Magdalen College, and malriculated on 
2(5 May 1803. llu bad previously, in May 
ISOl'.aflbrded an indication of the direction 
wbicb bis thoughts were taking by addressing 
a long letter, partly reverential, partly ex- 
postulatory, to Wordsworth, who returned 
the boy an elaborate answer, inaerted in his 
own memoir, and re-printed, with Wilson's 
letter, in Professor Knight's editions of his 
works. At Oxford ' he waa considered the 
strongest, the most athletic and most active 
man of Chose days, and created more interest 
among the gownsmen than any of his con- 
temporaries.' He also studied methodically, 
and obtained considerable distinction in the 
achoola, besides winning the Newdigate prize 
in 1806 (with a poem on ■ Tbe Study of Greek 
and Roman Architecture '). He made many 
university friends (among them ReginalH 
Ileber and Henry PLillpotls), bot none 
whose ecqitaintance appears to have been 
especiallv influential upon bis life. During 
the vacations he wandered over Great Britain 
and Ireland, associating with characters of 
all descriptions; buttheatory related by the 
Howitts of bis having actually married a 

S'psy is entirely devoid of foundation. In 
ct his deepest concern during the whole of 
his Oxford residence was his tender atta<?h- 
ment to the lady he celebrates as ' Margaret,' 
' an orphan maid of high talent and mental 
graces, which came to nothing from the 
violent opposition of his mother. Hearts 
broken from sorrow ond disappointment, 
Wilson went up for his B.A. examination 
in the Easter term of 1807, under tbe full 
conviction that be should be plucked, but 
on the contrary passed 'the most illustrious 
examination within the memory of man.' 
He graduated M.A. in 1810. Hohadalreadv 
nurchased a cottage and land at Ellerav on 
Wmdermere, and thilber he betook himself 
to lead the life of a country gentleman, not 
at the lime contemplaliug the pursuit of 
any profeasioi" ^ o r 

The first four TearB of Wilson's life at 
Elleray were diviaed between improrementa 
to bis estate, outdoor recreation, and tbe 

composition of poetry. ' The Isle of Palms' 
and other pieces were written by ISIO, 
and pablished at the beginning of 1613. 
He also contributed letters to Coleridge'* 
' Friend ' under tbe signature of ' Matheies.' 
On II May 1611 he had married Jane Penny, 
the daughter of a Liverpool merchant and 
' the leading belle of the lake country,' who 
had removed to Ambleside to be near her 
married sister. The union was most fortu- 
nate; but four years afterwards a calamity 
overtook A\'il8on by the loss of his property 
(est imatedat 60,000/.) through tbediahonesty 
of an uncle who had acted aa steward of thi 
estate. Wilson, so fearfully excitable when 
the affections were in question, bore the lost 
of fortune with magnanimity, and even con- 
tributed to tbe Bupjiort' of the delinquent 
uncle. The blow was indeed in great measUTB 
broken by the hospitality of hia mother, who 
received bim and his family into her bouse; 
norwas he even obliged torelinquish Ellerav, 
though he removed from it for a tima. He 
WHS called to tbe bar at Edinburgh in 1815, 
but made little progress in a profes«ion 
in which neither taste nor ability qualified 
bim to excel ; of the few briefa which cam* 
to bim he afterwards said, ' I did not know 
what the devil to do with them,' He culti- 
vat^d literature to better purpose, follawioK 
lip ■ The Isle of Palms ' with ' The City o? 
the Plague' and other poems (1816). la 
1S16 ho made a pedestrian highland tour in 
company with his wife, in those days an 
almost unparalleled undertaking for a lady- 
Encouraged by Jeffrey, who hod reviewed 
■ The City of the Plague ' very kindly, Wil- 
son contributed on article on the fourth cant« 
of ' Childe Harold ' to the ' Edinburgh,' but 
was almost immediately afterwords caught 
in the vortex which swept tbelilerarytalent 
of ticottish toryism into the new tory organ, 
'Blackwood's Magazine,' established in April 
1817, Up to this time periodical lileratuTB 
in Scotland had been a whig monopoly : all 
the loaves and fi«bes had been on one aide, 
and all the pen and ink on tbe other. Thit 
was now to be altered, and although Wilson 
was not in reality a fierce, much less a bitter 
or intolerant, partisan, tbe vehemence of bi« 
temperament and the unwonted elrength of 
his language sometimes made bitn appear 
the very incarnation of political ferocity. 

The early management of 'Blackwood' 
was designedly involved in mvsterv, but 
Mrs. Oliphant's 'Annals of the' Publishing 
House of Blackwood ' has recently made it 
clear that the sole editor was William Uiactn- 



■wood [q.T.] himself, BE d that, contrary to the 
Keneralbelirf at the time, neither Wilson nor 
Lockhart was ever entrusted with editorial 
fanctiona. The first six numbers had ap- 
peared as 'The Edinburgh Monthly Magazine,' 
under the nominnlconduct of James Cleg horn 
[q. T.] and Thomas Pringle [q. y.] The en- 
desvoiirs of theje gentlemen lo make them- 
lelTes Bomething tnore than editors by cour- 
nay epeedily^ estranged them from Black' 
irood : they seceded lo the riral publiHher 
Constable, and Blackwood organised a new 
■lall', of which Wilson and John Gibson 
Lockhart [q. v.] were the most conspicuous 
■Dentbcrs. Seluom has so great a sensation 
been produced by a periodical as that which 
atlendpd their first number (October 1817), 
overBowinr with boisterous humour and at 
the same time with party and personal ma- 
lifniity 'oo degree to which Edinburgh so- 
lely wai utterly unused. Beaides attacks 
on Coleridge and Leigh Hunt, able and tell- 
ing, but disgraceful lo the writers, the num- 
ber contained the renowned ' Chaldee Maau- 
•cript ' (afterwardB suppressed), which was in 
fact a satire, in the form of biblical parody. 
upnn the rival publisher and his myrmidons. 
l^e autiiorship was claimed by James Hogg 
^q. v.], tbn 'Ettrick Shepherd;' but Fro- 
leaaor Farrier authentically slates that, al- 
though riogg conceived the original idea, not 
more than forty out of the 18U verses are 
Ktuall^ from hia pen. It may be added that 
the British Museum possesses a proof-sheet 
with numerousadditions suggested in manu- 
•cript by Hogg, not one of which was 

■Blackwood,' now fairly launched, pur- 
fued a headlong and obstreperous but irrc- 
ttstibla course for mon^ years, Wilson's 
overpowering animal spirits and Lockhart's 
deadly sarcasm were its main supports, but 
'The Leopard' and 'The Scorpion' were 

Cawerfullv assisted hj the ' Eltrick Shep- 
pnl,' bv William Mi^inn [q.v.], and Itobert 
Vaine 'Uilliea [q.v.} No one but BUckwood 
liimaelf, however, can bear a general respon- 
tibilily; liis correspondence with Wilson in 
the latter's life shows how invaluable he was 
to his erratic contributor, and also what fric- 
tion often existed between them. The at- 
tacks on Keats and Leigh Hunt, applauded 
at the lime, were in after days justlv re- 
garded as dark blots on the magazine. "Wil- 
ton luauredly was not responsible, and may 
even be deemed lo have atoned for them by 
the enthusiaslic yet discriminating enco- 
B of Shelley in tbe articles ha wrote at 
Itliia time, undtr the inspiration, us now 
lown, of Be Quineey, an old associate in 
e lake district. These were days of fierce 

exasperation on all sides, and much sllow- 
aneo should be made for the attitude of 
' Blackwood,' which was nevertheless dis- 
approved even in friendly quarters. Jefirey 
was driven to renounce all literary connec- 
tion with Wilson ; and Murray, though the 
publisher of the tory ' Quarterly,' gave up 
hia interest in the magaiine. An unpro- 
voted attack by Lockhart on the venerable 
Professor John Playfair [q.v.] was especially 
resented. Wilson's temperament continually 
carried him beyond bounds. His correspond- 
ence with Blackwood reveals him as at least 
once in a condition of aWect terror at having 
committed himself, not from any fear of per- 
sonal consequences, but from the perception 
that be had spoken in a manner impossible 
to justify of men whom he really revered. 

During 1819 Wilson left his molber'sroof 
and removed with bis wife and family to a 
small house of his own in Ann Street, where 
Watson Gordon was his immediate neigh- 
bour, and where he also enjoyed ihe society 
of Itaebum and Allan. Next year the chair 
of moralphiloBOphvin Edinburgh L'niversity 
fell vncant.and Wilson, who had no obvious 
qualification and many obvious diaqualificoi- 
tions, was elected by the town council over 
the greatest philosopher in Britain, Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, by twenty-one volM to nine, 
given him on the one sufficient ground that 
he was a tory [see art. Stew art, BuaALS], 
Having so freely assailed others, his own re- 
putation was not likely to pass unassailed 
through the excitement of the contest. Hia 
wife 'could not give any idea of the mean- 
ness and wickedness of the wliigsif she were 
to write a ream ol paper;' and Wilson found 
it necessary lo get not only his literature but 
ills morals altested by Mrs. Grant of Laggan 
as well as t-ir Walter Scott. Opinion on the 
other side is summed up by James Mill, 
when he says, writing to Macvcy Jiapier, 
' The one to whom you allude makes me sick 
to think of him.' The appointment was 
certainly an improper one, but turned out 
much better than could have been expected, 
' He made,' says Professor Saintsbury, ■ a 
very excellent professor, never perhapa 
attaining to any great scientific knowledn 
in his subject or power of expoundinf ■* 
but acting on generation after generatio._ __ 
aCudenls with a stimulating force that is far 
more valuable than Ihe most eJihaustive 
knowledge of a particular topic' It is only 
to he regretted that his professorship was 
not one of English literature. There he 
would have been entirely at home ; hii 
geniality, magnanimity, and ardent appre- 
ciation of everything which he admired 
would have found an eager response from 


bis young auditon ; while the diffuseness 
and extra vssnnceoF diction which eogreutly 
mar his critical writinf<« would liave passed 
unnoticed in an oral address. 

For some years Wilson's more elsborati' 
efforts in 'Blackwood' beloDgedtotbe di-pitrt- 
inent of prose fiction. M<ml of tlic ' LiEhr^ 
and Shfulows of .Scottish Lit«' ajipeaTed in 
the magazine prior to their ci'llective publi- 
cation in 1822. 'Tlia Trials of Margaret 
Lyndnay'woa puhtished in 18:>3, aad 'The 
Foreatera' in I8:;5, Thew were all works 
of merit, but are little read now, and would 
acarcoly be read at all but for the culebrity 
of their aullior in other gelds. It was not 
until 1822 that Wilson found where his real 
strength lay, and began to delight the public 
with tis ' Soclta Arabrosianoe.' The idea of 
a symposium of coii){enial spirits is as old as 
I'klo, and Wilson's application of it bad 
been in some measure anticipated by Pea- 
cock. Bui Plato's banqueters keep to one 
■abject, while Wilson's range over intermi- 
nable fields of discussion, usualir siif^etitMl 
by the topics of the day. As Plato created 
a Socrates for his own purposes, so WiUon 
embodied his wit and wisdom, and, more 
important than either, his poetry, iu the 
' Ettrick Shepherd,' a character for which 
James Hogg undoubtedly sat in the first 
instance, but which improved immensely 
upon the original in humour, pathos, and 
dramatic force ; while the dialect is by 
common consent one of the finest examples 
extant of the classical Doric of Scotland. 
Wilson himself, as ' Christopher North,' ads 
in a measure as prompter to the Shephei^I ; 
yet many splendid pieces of eloquence are 
put into his mouth, and he frequently enacts 
the chords, conveyin); the broad common- 
sense of a subject. The literary form, or 
rather absence of form, exactly suited WilKon. 
Here at last was a great conversationalist 
writing as he talked, and probably few books 
so ^ell convey the impreasion of actual 
contact with a grand, primitive, and most 
opulent nature. The dramatic skill shown 
in the creation of the ' Shepherd,' though it ' 
has been much e\a^(erated, is by no means 
incouMderable : the othercharocters, Tickler 
(Mr. Robert Sjm, Wilson's maternal uncle), 
'the opium eater,' De Quincev, and Ensign 
O'Dohertv, are comparatively insignificant. 
The original idea of the ' Noctes' seems to 
bnvo been Maginn's, and between 1832 and 
183S they were the work of so many hands 
that Professor Ferrier has declined to include 
these early numbers in Wilson's 'Works.' 
Afterthisdate until their terminationinlfiSu 
they are almost eiitir*ily from bis pen. Their i 
coucluaion was probably thought to be ne- ' 

cesaifated by the death of IIoj^. who could 
no longer appear before the world as a con- 
vivial philosopher. But a blow was impend- 
ing upon Wilson himself which must have 
destroyedhispowerofcontinuinga work the 
first requisite of which was exuberant animal 
spirits. In 1837 he lost his wife, and was 
never the same man again. For nearly 
twenty years he had been enriching ' Black- 
wood, wholly apart from the ' Nocte*,' with 
a torrent of contributions^critical, descrip- 
tive, political— so representative of the gene- 
ral spirit of the periodical as fully to warrant 
the erroneous inference that he was its con- 
ductor. The death of William Blackwood 
in September 1834 was a severe blow to him, 
but he ' stood by the boys,' and bis relations 
with them continued to be much the same 
as they liod been with the father, troubled 
by occasional sugpicions and miHunderstand- 
ings, but on the whole as consistently ami- 
cable as was possible in the case of one so 
wayward and desultory. 'He was,' Mrs. 
Oliphant justly says, ' a man for an eraer- 

Kncy, capable of doing a piece of super- 
man work when his heart was touched,' 
but not to be relied upon for steady support. 
In some years the abundance of his contri- 
butions was amuiing, and in 18^3 he wrote 
no fewer than fifty-four articles for the 
' Magaxine.' Among the most remarkable of 
his contributions before the death of Black- 
wood were a series of mpers on Homer and 
his translators, abounding in eloquent and 
just criticism ; similar series of essays on 
Spenser and British critics, and the memo- 
rable review of Tennyson's early poems, 
bitterly resented by the poet, hut which, in 
foci, allowing for ' Mogn's' characteristic 
horseplay, was both sound and kind. Of 
a later date were some excellent papers en- 
titled the ' Dies Boreales,' his loht literary 
labour of importance, and an edition of 

Wilson's spirits bod greatly waned ofler 
the death of his wife, and hia contribut'ions 
to 'Blackwood' became irregular, but he was 
unremitting io his attention to the duties of 
his professorsliip, and continued to fill tie 
conspicuous place he held in Edinburgh aa- 
oiety until ]8»0, when his constitution gave 
manifest signs of breaking up. In 1651 hs 
resigned his professorship, and a pension of 
SOOL was conferred upon him in the hand- 
soniBBt spirit by Lord John Kusaell, the 
object of ao many bitter attacks ftvim him. 
W ilson eihibit«d the same spirit by record- 
ing bis vote at the Edinburgh election of 
1852 for his old political opponent Alacaulay. 
This was his last public appearance. Chi 
I April 1854 at his house in Gloucester 


PUce, Edinburgh, his home since 1826, be 
had k pkmWtic strolie, which tenniimted hia 
life t-wo days aflerwards. lie was buried in 
tbe Dean cemetery with an imposinK public 
foneral on 7 April, nnd a etmtuB of hun by 
John Steell was e^reuted in I'rinces Street 
la 1866. WilBon left two Bf>ns, John and 
BUir, one a clergyman of tbe church of 
£agland, the other for a time secretivry to 
the university of Edinburgh. lie had tbree 
dmughtersr Margaret Anne, married to l*ro- 

Ifector James Fredt^ric^ Ferrier [q-v.]; Mary, 
hia biographer, married to Mr, J.T. Oordoii, 
^(rilF of Midlotbian ; and Jane Emily, I 
marri^ to William Edmonstoime Avtoun 
fa- H 
%Vi]aon was a man of one piecre. His 
personal and literary characters were tbe 
BABU. Tbe chief uhiiracteristic of both is a 
nuuTclIoualy rich endowment of fine qua- 
lities, marred by want of reislraining jndg- 
Uent and symmetrical proportion. As a 
fnanhe was the soul of generosity and mog- 
nnnimity. Init Bxaggerated in everything, aud 
by recklessness and wilfulness van fre- 
quently itajust where he intemled to he the 
reverse. As an author be must have at- 
tAJned high disltnction if his keen perception 
of and intense delight in natural and moral 
boautji luid b»en accompanied by any re- 
cAgnition of the value of literary form. In 
thu 'Noetea' this is in some measure enforced 
npon him by tbe absolute necessity of main- 
taining consistenKy and propriety among his 
iramatif penona. Elsewhere the perpetual 
freniyof rapture, although pe^ectly genuine 
irith liim, becomes wearisome. Ills style is 
undoublmlly colloquial and sometimes mere- 
tricious. Nassau Senior thought ho badly 
of both ' his dtilcia as well as bis frutia 
titia' t\att 'be would almost as soon try to 
read Carlyle or Coleridge.' Such a, verdict 
has no terrors now. Yet it is true that ibere 
are f»w vrriters of Wilson's calibre who dis- 
course at such length, and from whom so 
little ran be carried away. His descriptions 
both in prone and verso read like improvisa- 
tions, leaving behind n general sense of 
beauty and splendour, hut few definite im- 
pressions, lie will lire nevertheless by his 
ujitf^ imilnted but never rivalled ' Noctes,' 
vai should ever be held in honour for the 
DllinlineM and generosity of his character as 
Bn'Siilbor. The asme qualities characterised 
the mans of his criticism, although at times 
some insupembk prejudice or freak of pep- 
vertity intervened, as when in his old.oge he 
recanted his former sentiments respecting 
•Wordsworth in an essay which fortunately 
Biiver saw the light. Such wijre aberra- 
tions orjiidgmont: he was entirely free from 

malice or vindictiveness, and never cherished 
resentment. His review of his former ad' 
versnry Mocaulay's 'Idiys of Ancient Kome' 
aliect«d Mauaulay 'as generous conduct 
atfecta men not ungenerous.' Irf)ng before 
his death he wus entirelv reconmled to 
Jeffrey, aud he wrote in 18»4 of his bypine 
enmity with Leigh Hunt, 'The animosities 
die, hut the humanities live for ever.' Ilia 
own function.whether'at a painter of nntural 
or an expositor of Jiterarv beauty, moy ho 
truly and tersely summed up in another 
dictum, that it was to teach men to admire. 
Portrnits of Wilson, painted by Haehum 
and Watson Gordon, are in the National 
Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, and in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London, respec- 
tively ; an engraving of the latter is prefixed 
to 'I'Tofessor Wilson: a Memorial and a 
Sketch' [by George Cupples], Edinburgh, 

biography of her father, Thomas Duncan 
painted ' Christopher in his Sporting Jacket ' 
(engraved by Armytage for the collected 
works), and a sketch from a statue Iw 
Macdonald, with a caricatured bal:kground, 
api^eared in tbe Maclisa Gallery in > Fraser'a 

Wilson's works were collected in twelve 
volumes by his son-in-law, ProfesfMir Ferrier, 
185r)-9. Four volumi'S are occupied by the 
' Noctes Ambroaianw ; ' four by ' Esaaya, Cri- 
tical andImaginBtive;'two by 'The Recrea- 
tions of Christopher North,' one by the 
poems, and one by tbe tales. The col- 
lection is not complete, the earlier numbers 
of the 'Noctes' being omitted, as well aa 
tbe papers on Sjienser, 'Dies lioreales,' and 
other matt«T which but for space might well 
have bcrai reprinted. A complete and elabo- 
rate edition of the ' Noctes ' was published 
Rt New Vork by Dr. R. Shelton Mackenii» 
(in five volumes with an excellent index) 
and revised in 1868. 

{Chrigfiphor North: a Memoirof John Wilson 
by his Daughter, Mrs. Gordon, IH62 ; Mrs. Oli- 
phnnt's AiinnlB of the Fiiblishin!{ Hoasn of 
Blarkwoud, William BWJtwoml and Ha Soul, 
1807; CuppWa Fraressor Wilson, a Hemorisl 
Htid EatimnlB by one of his Stiidenta. 18.«i 
BlflchvoDd's Mm;, Hny and Becember IBfi^; 
AtlmnMum, April 1851 and 8 July 1879 <a bril- 
liant but severe estimate of the ' Noctes,' which 
are proooimtad to ba 'dying of dropsy'); 
Quarterlj' Review, vol. ciiii.; Profeswr Forriar'a 
prefaces in Wilson's Works; Lang's Life of John 
Gibson Lockhart, lB97i De Onincey's Portrait 
Oallery and Aulobiograpbic Skslfbea; Oillies'a 
Memoirs uf a Literary Vueran, 18A1 ; DoaglaaTs 
The ' Blackwood ' Group, 1807 ; -Se lections fiom 
tile ComapaQdente ot Macvey Napier; Lock- 





hi* KinBfolk, toI. 1 

ban's PpUt'b Letiara 

\a.y'» Peraonnl 
Msclise Portmit 

[DeQuincsy] io the Ediubafgh UtirrarjGuBtte 

of 1829] R. G. 

WILSON, JOHN (1774-1866), set 

paint«^r, son of Jamea Wilson, shipi 

ftther's pTofessiaa, chooaiiig 

llfryof Liierery PorlraiU; Find- I landacupeBndfamiTMdsubiecto withfiiturei. 
R«,,ll«tio..ofD.Qmn«j.l98B; I [oiUon'^ Viaw of the Ar.. of Desiga. 1816; 

R«igrBTe»' Century c 
Unive'B, Bryan's, Bnd Gravea'a 
AmiBtrong's Scottish PaiDtcra, 1888; Brydall's 
Art in Scaclarid, ISSS; Catalogae of Nation&l 
Oollery of Scitland.] J. L. C. 

WILSON, SiRjOHS{178O-l&50),g«ie. 

ml, bora ill 1760, was commissioned as ensign 
the 28th foot on 26 Murch 1794, and be- 

and Eleonora Mnaterton, hia wife, wan bom 
»t Ayr on 20 Aug, 1774 (Aifr ParUk Regii- 

ter). When tbirlMn years of y[e he was . . 

■pprenticed to John Norie of Edinburgh, I camelieutenant on ISAug. 1796. lie went 
who, although by business a houso-paint«r, | wilhpartof the regiment to ihe West Indies 
not infrequently executed landscape panels | in 1796, and was present at the capture of 
of some merit in the rooms ho decorateo. On St, Lucia in May and of St. Vincent in June, 
the completion of his apprenticeship, which > He was made prisoner and taken to Guada- 
■was not without influence upon his future, I loupe in July, and, after he had been ei- 
he had aome lessons in picture-painting from | changed, he was again made prisoner in the 
Alexander Nosmyth [q.v.], and then prac- nritish Channel in \1W7. He rejoined his 
tised as a drawing-master in Montrose fori regimentatQibraltar,andlookpartintheeap- 
two years, at the end of which he went to | lureofltinorcainNovember 1798.0nl8Jaa. 
Lonuun, There he soon found employment ' 1799 he ' 

I scene-painter at Astley's Tne 
IjAmbetb Koad, and his scenery is said tn 
have been good. Ilia name appears for the 
flrat time in the Itoyal Academy catalogut 

„ . _.. a company in the newly 
I formed Slinorca (afterwards the 97th, or 
I queen's German) regiment, lie served with it 
in the expedition to Egypt in 1801, and waa 
present at the battle of Aleiandria on 

of 1807, hnt, although he eihibiled a good 21 March, where the regiment greatly dis- 
manj pictures there, his principal works tinguished itself. He was promoted major 
were sent to the British Institution and the j on 27 May 1802. 

Society of British ArtisU. In 1826 he was ' In 1808 the 97th was sent to Portugal, 
awarded a 100/. premium for a picture of the It landed on 19 Aug,, and two days after- 
battle of Trafalgar (purchased by Lord wards fouiht at Vimiero as part of An- 
Northwick), painted in competition for a struther's brigade. Wilson was severely 
priie offered by the directors of the former , wounded. On 22 Dec. he obtained a lieu- 
society, and in the formation of the latter in tenanl>-colonelcy in the royal York rangeTH. 
1S23-4 he took a leading part. He was also In January 1809 he went back to the PenJn- 
etected an honorary member of the [lioyall ' aula and joined the Luaitanian lenon raised 
Scottish Academy in 1827, and contributed by S'lrBobert Thomas Wilaon[q.v?) Hi 

regularly to its eihibiliona. His later yi 
were spent at Folkestone, where he founu 
congenial subjects for his pictures, which 
usually represent coast scenery and the saa 
with shjnping. His work is fresh and vigo- 
rous, and, if somewhat lacking in delicacy, 
pictorial in motive and arrangement, while 
It is marked by much truth of observation 
and directness of expression. He was n 
prolific painter, and between 1807 and 1856 
showed 0^5 pictures at the three London 
exhibitions already named. There are two 
pictures by him in the National Ciallery of 
Scotland and one at South Kensington Mu- 
seum, On 20 April 18Q2 he died at Folke- 
Btone. Wilson, who was familiarly known 
BS 'Old Jock,' wasof asociabledlsposilion,a 
keen observer, a brilliant converSHlioniat,anii 
his storied of liohen Burns [q. v.] and other 
famous men he hod met were in great request 
among (hose who knew him. 

In 1810 he married a Mias Williams, and 
their son, John W. Wilson, whodied in 1875, 

employed with it in the neighbourhood of 
Ciudad Rodrigo, harassing the French posts, 
one of which he surprised at Barbara de 
Puerco, atthe end of March In 1810 he 
was made chief of the staff of Silveira, who 
commanded the Portuguese troops in the 
northern provinces. In August he saved 
the rear-guard of the corps, ' in circumstances 
of such trying difficulty that he received tha 
public thanks ' of Beresford (Napibb, bk.xi. 
chap, vj. In October orders cameout forhim 
to rejoin his regiment (York rangers), but 
Wellington represented that ' the loss of his 
services will be seriouslv felt ' {DespatiAer, 
vi. 543), and he remained with the Portu- 
guese army, At this time he was harassing 
the rear of Mosafna'a army at Coimbra, in 
concert with Colonel (afterwards 'Sir' Xi- 
cholos) Trant [q. v.] 

In 1811 he was made govemorof the pro- 
vince of Minho, At the head of the Minbo 
militia he had a successful affair at Celorico 
on 22 March, and was actively engaged on 


the fronlier throughout that year and 1813. 
In June 1S13 Le joined \V'ellington's army, 
and commanded an independent Portuguese 
brigade at the »iege of San Sebaatian, the 
paseaee of the Bidassoa, and the battle of 
Hive lie. He was severely wounded on 
18 Nov. during the establishment of the 
outpoats before Bayotiue. He was made 
knight-commander of the Portuguese order 
4lf the Totver and Sword, a distincllon 
which, it Beemti, he would have received two 

4SS). He was made brevet colonel on 4 June 
1B14 and was knighted, and in 1815 he was 
made C.B. He received the gold medal for 
Sbh Sebastian, and afterwards the silver 
medal vith clasps for Vimiero and Nirelle, 

He was placed on half-pay on 3o Dec. 1816, 
thod promoted major-general on 27 March 
1825. He commanded the troops in Ceylon 
from December 1830 till hia promotio 
lieutenant-general on 28 June 183H. 
waa mode K.C.B. on 6 Feb. 1837, and colo- 
nel of the 82nd foot on 6 Dec. 1836, from 
trhJch he was transferred to the llthfoot 
on 10 May 1841. He became general 
11 Nov. 1851, and died at 67 Weathou; 
Terrace, London, on 22 June 1850, aged 70. 

[Annual Register, 18d6, p. 2011 ; Timsa, 2a Juno 

ISoS; eent. Mag. 1856, ii. 267: Narsl and 

Military Oaiette, 23 .luna IGaS; Narrntivo of 

tbs Campaigns of the Loyal LnHitauinu Legion.] 

E. M. L. 

WILSON, JOHN (1804-1875), mis- 
slanary and orientalist, bom at Lauder in 
Berwieksbireonll Dec. 1804, was tbeeldeat 
of Andrew Wilson, for more than forty 
a councillor of the burgh of Lauder, 
his wife Janet, eldest daughter of James 
inter, a farmer of Lauderdale. When 
aboat four years old he was sent to a school 
in Lander taught by George Murray, and 
about a year later be was transferred to the 

eriah school under Alexander Peterson. 
hisfourteenth year he proceeded to Gdln- 
bnrgh Cniveraity with a view to studying 
for the tninislry. In his vacations he was 
employed at first as schoolmaster at Horn- 
dean on the Tweed, and afterwards as tutor 
in Midlothian. While at the university he 
became more and more inspired by Christian 
seal, and on 22 Dec. 1825 he founded the 
'Edinburgh Association of Theological Stu- 
dents in aid of the DitTusion of the Gospel.' 
His attention was drawn to the mission 
field, and in the same year he offered him- 
self to the Scottish Missionary Society as a 
miasionsry candidate. In 1828 he published 
anonymoualy ' The Life of John Eliot, the 




I while acting as tutor to Cormack's nephews, 
the sons of (Sir) John Ituse, an Indian sol- 
dier, and by the influence of Brigadier-gene- 
ral Alexander Walker [q.v.J, former resident 
at Baroda ; and to prepnre himself for work 
in that country he studied anatomy, surgery, 
and the practice of physic at Edinburgh in 
1827-8. In 1828 he was licensed to preach 
by the presbytery of Lauder, and on 21 June 
was ordained missionary. In the same year 
be was married, and sailed from Portsmouth 
in the Sesostrls, East Indiamnn. 

On his arrivol at Bombay In 1^*29 Wilson 
devoted himself to the study of Marat hi, and 
made such rapid progress that he was able 
to preach in tlie tongue in six months, de- 
livering his first sermon on 1 Nov. After 
visiting the older stations of the Scottish 
Missionary Society at HarnnI and Bankot, 
Wilson and his wife returned to Bombay on 

26 Nov. 1829. Wilson immediately com- 
menced to labour energetically among the 
native population, and ly 4 Feb. 1831 be 
had formed a native church on presbyterian 

Erinciples. In 1830 he founded the 'Oriental 
hristian Spectator,' the oldest Christian 
periodical In India, which continued to ap- 
pear for thirty years. 

About 1830 an important undertaking 
was begun by Mrs. Wilson with her hus- 
band's ad vice^the establishment of schools 
for native girls, the first of their kind in 
India. The first school was opened on 

27 Dec. 1829, and half a vear later six others 
had been set on foot. These, and some ele- 
mentary schools for boys established by 
Wilson, were supplemented on 29 Marcu 
1832 by the foundation of a more advanced 
college for natives of both aeses, Wilson's 
institution invites comparison with that 
founded almost contemporaneously in Cal- 
cutta by Alexander Duff [q. v.] Wilson 
devoted more attention to female education, 
and gave more prominence to the study of 

langungea. While Duff's instrument 
e English tongue, Wilson employed 
■maculars of a varied population — 
Marathi, Gujarathi, Hindustanf. Hebrew, 
and Portuguese; with Persian, Arabic, and 
Sanskrit for the learned classes. Both sys- 
18, however, wore equally adapted to tlieir 
'ironment: neither could have flourished 
amid the surroundings of the other 

same differences with the Scottish Missionary 
Society, Wilson and bis colleagues in India 
were transferred to the church of Scotland, 
and the school was denominated theScottlsh 


MiMJ on School. In 1888 the arrival of John 
Mumy Mitcliell,B student, of Marlachal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, nnd the return of the mis- 
Bionsry Robert Nesbit (d. 18ij5l, rt^iidered it 
[lowible to organiBe the school on a more 
extended ba^is, and it became kaown m the 
General Asaembly's Institution. A new 
buildiDg was completed in 1843, but Wilson 
was immediately afterwards oblired to re- 
linquish it on quitting the church of Scot- 
land at the time of the disruption. He cur- 
ried on his school in another buildingwhicb 
was finished in 1865. The present ' Wilson 
CollefTB ' was completed about 1887. 

Wilson did not, nowever, confinehis efforts 

with the Miiharamiidans and Partis, ills 
courtesy and knowledge of oriental litera- 
ture made no less impression than his logic, 
and by familiarisiog the native mind with 
Chrietian modes of thought he prepared the 
way for further progress. In 1837, however, 
a dispute arose which threatened serious 
coneequences. Some of the Pars! pupils at 
the institution having shown an intention, of 
becoming Christians, one of them was carried 
off by his friends, while two others evaded 
capture by taking refuge in Wilson's house. 
After various violent attempts a writ of 
habeas corpus was taken out for one of 
them, and on 6 May 1839 he appeared in 
court and declared hia intention to remain 
with Wilson. The consequence of these 
proceedings was the removal of all but fift^ 
out of :^84 pupils at the institution, and it 
was Bome years before the former numbers 
were regained. 

In the meantime Wilson sought to spread 
the influence of the mission beyond Bombay 
by tours through various parts of the coun- 
try. In 1831 , with Charles Pinhom Farmr, 
the father of Dean Farrar, he proceeded to 
Niisik on the Godavari, through Poona and 
Ahmadnagar. In the following year be 
went eastward to Jalna and the caves of 
Ellora in Jlaidarabad, and in ibe cold season 
of 1833-4 he visited the south Marjithi 
country and the Portuguese settlement at 
Goa. In 1835 he journeyed through Surat, 
Baroda, and Kathi&war; and between 1686 
anil I&12 he visited the Oairsoppa Falls and 
Rajputina, besides returning to E£tliiawar 
and Somnath. These frequent expeditions 
were used by Wilson as opportunities fnr 
spreading religious teaching, while at the 
same time he collected oriental manuscripts, 
and by constant intercourse with tbenatives 
increased his slock of oriental knowledge, 
which hew ^ 

tion. Be w 

bav Literary Society in J 830, and became 
president in 1835. On 18 June 1636 he 
was elected a member of the Itoyal Asiatic 
Society. He was the first to partially de- 
ciphertbe rock inscriptions of Asoka at Gir- 
nar, which had so loug remained an enigma 
to weetern sarants, and on 7 March 1838 
James Prinsep [q.v.] made a full acknowled^' 
ment of his services lo the Itoyal Asiatic 
Society. From I83t? onward he was fre- 
quently consulted by the supreme court and 
by the executive government on qiiestioiu 
of Parsi law and custom. In 1843 he pub- 
lished 'The Parsi lieligion unfolded, refuted, 
and contrasted with Christianil; ' (Bombay, 
8vo), a work which obtained the favourable 
notice of the Asiatic Society of Paris, and 
which on 7 Feb. 1815 procured his election 
as a fellow of the Royal Society. 

In 1843 WUson was compelled by ill- 
health to take a furlough, and visited Egypt, 
^ria, and Palestine, on hia way to Scotland. 
The fruit of his observations was the 'Landa 
of Ibe Bible visited and described' (Edin- 
burgh, 1847, 2 vols. 8vo). He arrived in 
I Edinburgh immediately after the disruption 
j of the church of Scotland, and without oesi- 
I tfttion he joined the free church. After 
addressing the general assembly at Glasgow 
in Uctaber he accompanied liobert Smith 
j Candlish [q. r.] to England, and advocated 
the cause of Indian missions at Oxford and 
I London. The establishment of the Kiigpur 
I mission under Stephen Hislop was largely 
' the result of bis insistence of the need of a 
mission in Central India. 

Wilson returned to India in the autumn 
of 1847, and in 1849 he commenced a tour 
in Sind, in which he was joined bv Alex- 
ander Duff in the following year. The con- 
quest of Sind had just been achieved, and 
Wilson was the first Christian missionary 
to traversethe country. 

From 1846 to 1862 was inteUectually the 
most fruitful period of Wilson's career. 
About 1848 he was nominated president of 
the 'Cave Temple Commission' sppoinled 
by government, chiefly through his instances 
and those of James Pergusson ^1808-1880) 
[q. v.], to examine and record the antiquitieg 
connected with the cave temples of India. 
To this commission he gave hia labour gra- 
tuitously for thirteen years, receiving the 
hearty co-operation of the leadiug orienta- 
lists in India. He published in the ' Journal 
of the Bombay Asiatic Society' (vol. ili.) 
' A Memoir on the Cave Temples and 
Monasteries, and other Buddhist, Brahmn- 
nicul, and Jalna Henjains of Western India,' 
which was reprinted In 1860, and circulated 
by government to all the difltrict and pollti- 


col oificers in ond around the province of 
Bombiij'. With tlifcirBsaistanceliBpubliahed 
ft secoad memoir in 1852, embodying Ihe 
KhuUb of the commissioo'a work on the 
luver C&ves, libe ElephantA. In 1840 lie 
dedined the appointment of permanent presi- 
dent of liio civil and military eiamination 
committee of Bombay, and in 1854 refused 
the post of government translator, fearing 
that acceptance mJKht injure his misaionnry 
usefulness. In 1853 he published hie ' Hia- 
tory of the Suppression of Infanticide in 
■Western India '^(Bombay.Svo), and in 1858 
'India Three Thousand Years Ago' (Bom- 
bay, 8to), a description of the social state of 
the Aryans on the banks of Ihe Indus. At 
the time of the Indian mutiny his know- 
ledge of dialects was of great service to the 
Krummest, for whom he deciphered the 
urgents' secret despatches written to 
oracle detection in various archaic characters 
&nd obecitre local idioma. In 1857, when 
the university of Bombay was constituted, 
he waa oppointed dean of the faculty of arts, 
tt memb^ of the syndicate, and examiner in 
Sanskrit, Persian, Hebrew, MarithI, Ouja- 
rathl, and Hindustani, and he snoa after was 
nude vice-chancellor by Lord Lawreneo, 

In 18(30 Wilson made a second tour in 
Rajpntana, and in 1B64 he was consulted 
by government in regard to the Abyssinian 
expedition. In 1870 he made a second visit 
tJ) Scotland, and was chosen moderator of 
the general assembly. He returned to 
Bombay on 9 Dec. 1873, and laboured un- 
weariedlr until his death at his residence, 
• The aiir,' near Bombay, on 1 Dec. 1S75. 
He was buried in the old Scottish hurial- 

Kund. His portrait, engraved by Joseph 
iwn, is prefixed to his 'Life' by Dr. 
Georgn Smith, CLE. Wilson was twice 
married: first at Edinbu^h, on 12 Aug. 
1828, to Margaret, daughter of Kenneth 
Bavne, minister of Greenock. She died on 
19'April 1835, Uavingaaon Andrew flSSl^ 
1881), who is separately noticed. Wilson 
married, secondly, In September 1846, Isa- 
belLt, second daughter of James Dennistuun 
of Denniatoun. She died in 1807| leaving 
no isKue. 

Wilson's abilities as an orientalist were 
(Treat, and would hnre earned him yet higher 
fame had he not always subordinated his 
■tudies to his mission work. It is not easy 
to overeat imate the importance of his labours 
for Christianity in western India. During 
later life Indian officials, native potentates, 
•nd European travellers alike regarded htm 
with esteem and affection. Lord I^wrence, 
the governor-general, and Lord EJphinatone, 
governor of Bombay, wereamonghis personal 

friends. Through his educational establish^ 
ments and hia wide circle of ocquaiiitancM 
his influence radiated from Eomlmy over the 
greater part of India, and natives of Africa 
I also came to study under his care. Besides 
1 the works already mentioned be was the 
' author of: 1. 'An Exposure of the Hindu 
Religion, in Reply to Mora Bfaatta Dande- 
kara," Bombay, 1832, 8vo. 2. 'A -Second 
Exposure of the Hindu Religion,' Bombay, 
1834, 8vo. 3. ' Memoirs of Mrs. Wilson,* 
Edinburgb,1838,8vo;5thedit. 1868. 4.'The 
Evangelisation of India,' Edinburgh, 1840, 
16mo. 5. ' Indian Caste,' edited by Peter 
Peterson, Bombay, 1877, 2 vols. 8vo ; now 
edit, Edinbut^h, 1878. 

[Wils-iD's Works; Smith's Life of Wilson. 
1878 ; HuDtor'a Hist, of Freo Churrb Missions 
ia India and Africa, 1S73 : Smith's Life of AUi< 
Boder Duff, IBSl ; Marrat's Two Standard 
Bearers in the East, 1882.] E. I. G, 

WILSON, JOHN {181-2. 1888), agricul- 
turixt, was born in London in November 
1812. He was educated at University Col- 
lege, London, and afterwards completed hia 
training in Paris, where he studied medicine 
and chemistry under Paycn, Bousslngault, 
and (lay Lussac. In 1845-3 he was in 
charge of the admiralty coals inveatigation 
under Sir Henry de la Beche. From 184S 
to 1850 be was principal of the Royal 
Agricultural Coll^;e, Cirencester. His term 
of office was distinguished chiefly by an 
attempt to convert the college farm from 
pasture to arable land, which involved much 
expense and met with considerable opposi- 
tion. InlSoOasuggeatioaonthepatt of the 
council for a thorough change of the orga- 
nisation of the college into that of a school 
for farmers' sons led to Wilson's i^gnation. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. J. S. Hay- 
garth, and the colIeEe continued its work 
much on the former lines. 

In 1854 Wilson was. on the death of 
Professor l^ow, elected to the chair of agri- 
culture and rural economy in the university 
of Edinburgh. This professorship had been 
founded in 1790 by Sir William Pulteney, 
but the salary attached to it at this time 
was little more than nominal. In 1868 he 
aiicceeiled Profes.iur Kelland as s( 
the senate of the Edinburgh University, 
and in the course of the same year, chiefly 
owing to the exertions of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society, the endowment of the 
chair of agriculture was increased (Jc 
Soy. Agr. Soe. Engl. 1885, ui, 525). ' 
son's methods as a teacher were severtdy 
criticised, partly no doubt because some of 
the EngHsli systems of farming which he 
advocated ran tioiintertoScotti^ prejudices. 





The fact, however, tliKC mnslofthe importaiil 
ehmin of Bftriculture in Scotland &n<l maivr 
elsewhere were filled bjr hU pupils if sutli- 
cient ttatimony lo hia merit aa a teacher. 

In 1883 Wilson resif^ed his chair at 
Edinburgh, and was appointttd emeritus 
pTofessoc. In ths spring of 1886 the hono- 
rarj' dwree of LL.D, was conferred apoo 
him. He died at Snndlield, Tunbridge 
WelU, on 37 March 1888. 

An impoTtant characteristic of Wilson's 
career was his inlercourse and relations with 
forei)^ agricultural authoritieeand societies. 
In 1851 be fillud the position of deputy juror 
at the Internationa! Exhibition j in 1853 be 

States, and in the same year was appointed 
knight of the French Legion of Honour. In 
1855 he acted as commissioner to the British 
agricultural department in the exhibition at 
Paris. At different periods he also rendered 
important services to the agricultural de- 
partments of Canada, Austria, Denmaric, 
and Germany. He waa a corresponding 
member of numerous foreign agricultural 
societies, and in 1885 he was created knight 
commander of the Braxilian order of tbe 

Wilson wrote: 1. 'Catalogue de la col- 
lection des produils agricolea, v£g6taux el 
i. de I'An^leterre . . . enposfs par 

de Paris 

Agriculture of the French Exhibition: an 
Introductory lecture delirered in tbe Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, Session I., 1855-6,' 
Edinburgh, 1855, 8vo. 3. 'Agriculture, 
Past and Present ; being two Introductory 
Lectures delivered in the University of Edin- 
burgh,' Edinburgh, 1856, 2nd edit. 8vo. 
By far the most valuable, however, of his 
writings is 4. ' Our Farm Crops, being a 
popular ScientiSc Description of the Cultiva- 
tion, Chemistry, Diseases, Remedies, ftc, of 
the various Crops cultivated in Groat Britain 
and Ireland,'London, 1860, 3 vols. 8vo, This 
is still a standard work of reference, and 
nothing better of its kind has ever appeared 
in agricultural literature. 

Wilson edited a ' lEejiort on the Present 
State of tbe Agricul ture of Scotland ,'arranged 
under the auspices of the Highland and Agri- 
cultural Society, to be presented at the inter- 
national congress at Paris in June 1^78. 

[Scotsman, 29 March 1888; Tlmos, 2 April 
1888: Agrionltural Oszette, 9 April 188^, 
p. 333.] E. C-B. 

1835), author of the ' Tales of the Borders," 
was the son of a millwright, and was bap- 

tised at Tweedmouth, Berwick-on-Tweed, on 
15 Aii^. 1804. After rpceiving elemeniaiy 
education at Tweedmouth he completed his 
apprenticeship as a printer in Berwick, and 
then settled for a time in London. Here 
be experienced hardship, and is said to have 
paid iiis last two shillings on one occasion to 
see Mrs. Siddons in Covent Garden Theatre. 
X-earing London, he lectured in the pro- 
vinces for a time on literature with in- 
different succ*w. In 163^ he became editor 
of the ' Berwick Advertiser,' workinc- there- 
after steadily in the cultivation of his literary 
talent and Ina advocacv of political reform. 
He died at Berwick on'2 Uet. 1835, and was 
buried in Tweedmoulh churchyard. 

Wilaon wrote various lyric and dramatic 
poems of little consequence. ' The Oowrie 
(.'Onspirscy,' a drama, appeared in 1829. 
There was another drama, ' Mai^sret of 
Anjou,' besides several poetical publications — 
' The Poet's Progress,' 'The Border Patriots,' 
&c.— of smaller account. On 8 Nov. 1834 
\\'i!8on began tbe weekly publication, in 
threehalfpenny numbers, of 'The Tales of 
the Borders,' which speedily attained an 
t Bri- 

simple sentiment and impressive situations, 
these stories made a direct appeal to the 
general reader, and the weekly circulation 
steadily rose from two thousand to sixteen 
or seventeen thousand. Wilson published in 
all forty-eight numbers, comprisiiif seventy- 
three tales. Favourites among ms stories 
are: 'Tlie Poor Scholar' (with manifest auto- 
biographical touches), ' Tibbie Fowler,* ' The 
Vacant Chair,' and ' My Block Coat, or the 
Breaking of the Bride's Chain.' The aeries 
was continued by Wilson's brother, and much 

?rolonged by Alexander Leighton (IJW- 
874) [q. v.] Several collected editions have 
been iiublisned. In 1834 appeared Wilson's 
'Enthusiast; a metrical tale, with other 

[Berwick Advartiser, S Oct- 1835; Border 
Magaiine, 1863; Irving'a Diet, of Eminoal 
Sootsmeu ; informntion from Rev. James Kena, 
Berwick-on-Tiread.] T. B. 


South Shields, was born at that town on 
24 .Sept. 1813. lie received his eariy edu- 
cation aa a day scholar at the grammar 
school of Newcastle-on-Tyne, under Dr. 
Alortimer, subsequently headmaster of tbe 
City of London school. On 15 June 1832 
be was elected to a scholarship open to 
natives of the bishopric of Durham at Cot- 

B.D. in 

1847, While etiU a bachelor Bcholur he be- 
came tator in 1838, anil succeeded to a 
fellowship on 28 April 1841. la 1846 he 
was elected to While's professorship of 
moral philoBophj, then a terminable office, 
re-elected in 1851, and finallj re-elected in 
1858, after it had been converted into a per- 
manent chair. Hia lectures given in this 
capncitj, and perhaps still more the stimu- 
lating OBsistanca in theirprivate work which 
he ungrudgingly afibrded lo his pupils, pro- 
cured him a considerable reputation in the 
nniveisitj as a teacher. In the fifticH and 
aixtles many of the best men in Oxford 
pasaed under his hands, and he gave a great 
impetus to the inductive study both of 
morals and psychology. This office be con- 
tinued to bold till 1874. Meanwhile, as 
aleading member of the Hebdomadal Coun- 
cil, to which he was elected soon after its first 
institution, he hod taken a proimnent part 
in the business of the university, for which 
his shrewd common eense specially tilted 
him, and, as an ardent university reformer, 
he wae largely instrumental in bringing 
about the abolition of religious tests and in 
procuring the issue of the parliamentary 
eommissioDB of 18&4 and 1877. From 1668 
to 1872 Wilson held the college living of 
BfSeld, North am ptoneh ire, in conjunction 
with his profesaorsliip, but this eceltisiaslical 
preferment be resigned on being elected to 
the presidentship of bis college, 8 May 1872. 
He entered on the duties of this office with 
much zeal and energy, but, unfortunately, 
■con after his election to the presidency his 
liealth ifave way, and during the last few 
years of his life he was largely incapacitated 
from taking part in the administration of 
the college. After a long illness be died on 
lDec.l»81. lie was buried in the Holj-well 
cemetery, Oxford, but ia commemorated by 
kmaral tablet in the college cloisters. 

Though Wilson was a Huent talker and 
an impre«sive lecturer, he was singularly 
■low in composition, a circumstance due 
partly to his fastidiousness, and partly to 
the wont of practice in early life. He did 
not produce any independent book, hut was 
engaged for many years, in conjunction with 
the writer of the present article, on a work 
entitled ' The Principles of Morals,' the first 
part of which appeared in the dftli year after 
bis death, 188B, under their iointnames, and 
the second part in 1887 under the name of 
Dr. Fowler alone, The share taken by Wil- 
son in the first part is indicated in the pre- 
face to the second part, and that taken in 
the second part itself in the adv' 

at the beginning of the volume. The t' 
parts were reissued with additions and ci 
rections, in 1894, under the rniines of Fowler 
and Wilson. 

Wilson was a man of marked personality. 
Physically he was of elrong build and com- 
manding presence, lie had a determined 
will, and possessed (i^at skill in bringing 
overother people to his own opinions. Though 
he did not lay claim to any entonaive erudi- 
tion, he was full of intellectual life and 
interests, a shrewd observer, and an acute 
thinker, who, to use a favourite phrase of 
Iiocke, tried to ' bottom ' everything. These 
qualities, combined with a deep sonorous 
voice, a frank outspokenness, a keen sense 
of humour, the knacu of saying ' good things,' 
and a genial manner, made him highly 
popular among his friends, and, duriug the 
more vigorous period of his life, one of the 
greatpfit powers in the university. He was 
unmarried. Two sisters, who had lived with 
him for many years before his death, sur- 
vived him. 

[Fowkr's History of Corpns Christi Colleae ; 
CoilegB Rrgiaters ; Foster's Aiumai Oiob. I71&- 
18S6; porsonol kUQvledge ; private informatioa.] 
T. F. 

0783-1868), commandant of the Royal Hos- 
pital, Chelsea, son ol John Wilson, rector 
of Whitchurch, Yorkshire, was bom in 1783. 
He entered the royal navy, and served as a 
midshipman on the coast of Ireland during 
the rebellion of 1798, in the expedition to 
the Helder in 1799, and in the Mediterranean 
and E^ypt in 1801. He received a medal 
from the captain-pasha of the Turkish fleet 
cIT Alexandria in 1801 for having saved 
the lives of the boat's crew belongrag to a 
Turkish man-of-war. He was thrice wounded 
during his naval service, the third time so 
severely in the head that it produced total 
deafuesH, in consequence of which he was 
invalided and quitted the navy in 1803. 

After the restoration of his health he en- 
tered the army as an ensign in the let royala 
on 1 Sept. 1804. The dates of his further 
commissions were : lieutenant, ^8 Feb. 1805 j 
captain, 1 Jan. 1807; major, Q July 1614; 
lieutenant-colonel, 27 Nov. 1816; colonel, 
10 Jan. 1837, He served with the third 
battalion of his regiment at Walcheren in 
1809, and was twice wounded at the siese 
of Flushing. He afterwards served in the 
peninsular war, was present at the battle of 
Busaco, the retreat within the lines of Torres 
Vedras, the sctions of Pomlml, Redinha, 
Condeiia, Casal Nova, Fo* d'Aronce, and 
Sabugal, the blockade of Almeida, and the 
battle of Fuentes d'Onor, 



Soon ufter the outbreak of wnr willi the 
United SUtes of America in 1812, Wilson 
joined the iirst battaUoa of the 1st royola in 
Canada. lie HrriTed towards the end of the 
year, «nd on 29 May 1813 na* enffaged in 
the attack under Sir George IVevoet on the 
American depot at Sackette' Harbour, and 
on 17 June on a etronr fort occunied bj the 
Amoricatin at Great Sodua, -where ne received 
a severe bayonet wound. lie took part in 
the expedition against Black Hock on Lake 
ODtario, which was captured and burned on 
12 July, He wM at the capture of Fort 
Niagara on W Dec. and distinguished him- 
self in the action near BulTalo on 29 Dee. 
1818, In the following jear he was engn^ned 
in the fichtin^ on the Ohippcwa under Major- 
^nerall'hineas Itjall on 5 June 1814, and 
iQ the desperate victory of the Chippewa on 
2fi July, when Lieutenant-general Sir Gor- 
don Drummond commanded the British. 
Riall WHS taken prisoner, and Wilson, 
wounded seven times and lefl for dead on 
the field of battle, fell intti the enemy's 
hands, and remained a prisoner until after the 
treaty of Ghent terminated the war in 
December 1814. 

For his distinguished conduct and bravery 
at Buffalo and Chippewa he received two 
brevet steps of promotion. lie was aLto 
awarded the peninsular raedal with clasps 
for Busaco and Fuentes d'Onor. He was for 
some time aide-de-camp to Major-general 
Kiall at Grenada in the West Indies. lie 
went on the half-nay list on 25 July 1822, 
and on 16 Nov. following he was appointed 
adjutant of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea. 
He was gentleman usher of the privychauiber 
to Queen Adelaide for nearly twenty years 
till her death in 18-19. He was mode a'com- 
panion of the order of the Bath and a knight 
of the myal Hanoverian Ouelphic ordar. 
On 14 July 1865 he was appointed major 
and commandant of CheUea Hospital, where 
he died on 8 May 1868. He married, in 
1824, Amelia Elizabeth Bridgman (J. 1864), 
daughter of Ootonel John Iloulton. 

(DespatchM ; Army Lisis ; Chrjatia's War in 
Canada; Gc-nt. Mag. 1868; Royal MililaryCal. 
182U; Alison's Hint, of Eunips ; M-Qudail's 
CatnpaignHuf 1812, 1813, nndlSU; Carmi.-bnel 
amjth's Wan in Canada.] R. H. V. 

WILSON, MARGARET (1667-1685), 
the ' martvr of the Solway,' elder daughter 
of Gilbert Wilson {d. 1704), a yeoman of 
Penninghame, Wigtownshire, was born at 
Qlenvemock in that parish in 1667. Though 
her parents conformed to episcopacy, Mar- 
garet and her younger sister Agnes refused 
to do so. Un 18 April 1685 the eisters, 

together with a much older person, Mar- 
garet MacLachlan (aged 1)3), were tried at 
Wigtown oasize, before the sheriff-depute, 
David Graham (brother of Claverhouee), and 
three other judges, upon a charge of rebel- 
lion and attenifaDce at field conventiclee. 
All three having refused the abjuration oath, 
they were sentenced to be tied to stokes 
fixed within the flood-mark in the water of 
Bladenoch, where the sra flowed at high 
water, so that they should be drowned by 
the incoming tide. The prisoners were con- 
fined in the tower of Wigtown church. 
Agnes, who was but thirteen, was bailed out 
by lier father upon a bond of 100/. (duly 
exacted upon her non-appearance), but on 
the other two sentence was carried out on 
11 May 1685. Major Windram guarded 
them lo the place of execution, whither 
they were attended by a throng of spec- 
tators; Margaret appears to have token rhe 
load throughout. ' The old woman's stoke,' 
says Wodrow, ' was a good way in beyond 
the other, and she was the first despatched 
. . . ' but Margaret ' adhered to her pnnciplee 
with an unshaken steadfastness.' After the 
water bad swept over her, but before she was 
dead, another chance of taking the oath was 
afforded her. ' Most deliberately she refused 
and said, " I will not. 1 am one of Christ's 
children; let mega." Upon which she was 
thrust down again into the water, where shs 
finished her course with joy. She died a 
virgin-martyr, about eighteen years of age.' 
An elaborate efibrt has been made (Napiek, 
Case far the Croien) lo show that the sen- 
tence was never really executed, but that a 
recommendation to pardon, made by the lords 
of the privy council (which appears in the 
council registers), was carried into effect. 
Wodrow himself refers to the signature of a 
letter of repriere, but there is abundant evi- 
dence to prove that the death sentence was 
carried out in all its barbarity — probably 
before the notice of remission hod time to he 
conveyed from Edinburgh to Wigtown. A 
horizontal slab, upon which Margaret's name 
and seven rude couplets were inscribod, wu 
set up in Wigtown cemetery early in the 
eighteenth century, and a monumental 
obelisk was erected on Windy Hill to the 
memory of the martvrs in 1^61. Millais^ 
well-known picture, ''1'he Martyr of the Sol- 
way ' (1871), was purchased by Agnew for 
472 guineas, and was subsequently given by 
Mr, George Hoit to the Walker Art Gallery, 
Liverpool (1896). A statue of Margaret 
Wilson was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1889 by 0. B. Birch, A.R.A. 

[WudroVs SnfTBrings of tbe Church of Scot- 
lanJ, 1S30, ir. 318 ; ^teivart's History vitidi- 





csted in the Ciua of Iha Wigtown Mnityn. 
Edinburgh, 1S6T. 2ad edit. ISSS [aOijrdiQg a 
complete aoswer to] Napier's Cnae for the 
Crown in re the Wigtown Miiftynt. proved to be 
Hjlh, I8S3: Scott's Tales oT a UrBiidfHther, 
18*7. p- 237; Macnulaj's Uietury, chap. iv. ; 
J&mes AudereoD'a Lailies of the Cocenant, ISSI, 
pp. 427-48; Oroome's OnlDance Uautteer of 
Scutknd ».v. ' Wigtown ; ' NoMs Mnd Ouaries, 
4th Bur. V. 640: see alao art. (jH^luu. Joa.v, 
Viscount DnHDEK.] T. S. 

WILSON, MAIIY ANXE (1802-1867), 
vocalist. [See under Wbj-sh, Thomas, 

WILSON, MATTHEW (1582-1056), 
eeuit. [See Ksott, EijwiBD.] 

WILSON, NICHOLAS {d. 1548), Ro- 
man catholic diviue, bom nesr Beverley in 
Holdemeaa,wa£ educated at Obrist'a College, 
Cambridge, grnduatang B.A. in 1508-9, Htid 
commencinjt D D. in 1533. He was related 
to John Witson, prior of Mount Grace in 
XIT. ii. 748), Before 1527 he was appointed 
chaplain and confesaor to Henrv \ III (ii. 
hr. 2641). On 7 Oct. 1528 he was collated 
art^deacoQ of Oxford, and in the same ;enr 
receired from the king the vicarage of Thaxted 
in £B8ex (lA. iv. 4476, 4521, 4548 ). 'W'ilson 
wu a friend of Sir Thomas More and of 
John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and was a 
aealoos Roman catholic, frenuentlyacting as 
an examiner of heretics (Potb, Actes imd 
Monument), ed. Townsend, iv. 680, 703, 704). 
On 28 March 1531 he waa presented by the 
king to tlie church of St. Thomas the Apostle 
in London (Lellen and Paperi, v. 166), and 
in 1533 he was elected master of Uichael- 
houee at Cambridge. In the latter year, 
however, when the divorce of Catherine of 
Aragon was debated ineonvoeation,hejoined 
the minority in asserting that the pope bad 
power to ^raut a dispenaetion in case of 
nuuriagowith a deceased brother's widow. 
About that time he was employed by the 
papal party as an itinerant preacher in York- 
ahire, Lancafihire, and Cheshire. He also 
visited Bristol, where he encountered Lati- 
ner, and threatened him with burning unless 
he mended his wuys (Strife, EtxUf. Mem. 
1822, I. i. 245; Letteri and Papers of 
JJmiy nil, vi. 247. 41 1, 433, Sii. li. 9.i2). 
His opposition to the king soon involvol 
him in peril, and on 10 April 1534, a week 
before the arrest of Fisher and More, he was 
committed to the Tower for refusing to take 
the oath relative to the succession to the 
Cii.Tu. 483, 603, rj7rj,viii. 666, 1001 ; 
FoXB, V. 08). He was attainted of misprision 
of treason by act of parliament, deprived of . 

all his preferments, and condemned to pa^ 
petual imprisonment. Confinement soon 
caused his resolution to falter. Before bia 
own execution More wrote him two kindly 
letters, telling him that he heard that he 
was going to take the oath, and that he for 
his own part should never counsel any man 
to do otherwise (Mobb, English Works, i. 
443). Wilson, however, hesitated for many 
months lonifer.and on 17 Feb. 1635-6Euslace 
Chapuys, the imperial ambassador, wrote to 
Granvelle that it was reported that Uenry 
intended putting him to death (Lutttra and 
Papers, x. 308). In 1537 he took the oath, 
and on 29 May he received a pardon ijb. xil. 
i. 1315, 1330, ii. 181). On 7 June 1537 he 
was presented to the deanery in the col- 
legiate church of Wimborne Minster in Dor- 
set, receiving a secnnd grant of the same 
office on 'MS May 1538, and retaining the 
office until the dissolution of the deanery in 
1547 0*6. XII. ii. 191, uu. i. 1116). a)on 
after his release, however, he incurred the 
suspicion of communicating with recusants, 
and on 25 Aug. 1537 he wrote a submissive 
letter to Cromwell, professing his desire to 
conform to the king's wishes (ift. xii, ii 679). 
In September he and Nicholas Heath [q. v.] 
were appointed to confer with Cardinal Pole 
in the Netherlands, and to endeavour to per- 
suade hira to acknowledffe the king's eccle- 
siastical supremacy in England. 'They re- 
ceived written instructions, in which they 
were ordered to address the cardinal only as 
• Mr. Pole ; ' but Pole's sudden return to Italy 
prevented the mission, and Wilson was abfo 
to appertr at Hampton Court on 15 Oct., at 
Prince Edward's christening (ift, xii. ii, 619, 
620,635,911). On 20 Dec. he was admitted 
rector of St. Martin Outwich in London, 
and earlier in the same year he was elected 
master of St, John's College, Cambridge, in 
opposition to the king's nominee, Qeorgo 
Day [q. rf], an event which nearly proved 
fatal to the college. Wilson did not venture 
to accept the ofGce, and in a letter to Thomaa 
Wriothesley, now in the record office, he 

joined the majority of the lower house of 
convocation in declaring his intention to 
accept the determination of the king and 
bishops in regard to points of doctrine and 
discipline similar to those contained in the 
six articles (ft. Xlv. i. 1065). 

Although Wilson professed to act only in 
complete submission to the king, yet accord- 
ing to Charles de Marillac, the French am- 
bassador, he was suspected of secret commu- 
nicutiona with Rome (ib. xv. 736). In May 
1540 he was arrested for being privy to the 



^m Wilson 

flight of Kichard llilliard, Tunstall's chsp 
lain, to Scotland, Biid for ' relieviDD; certi — 
traitorous penons which denied tue kin 
supremacy (Hall, Chron. 1548, p. 6^ 
On 4 Junu he wrote an entreaty to Cromwell 
Ut intercede for him ( Letters and Fapen, 
747), but he remained in the Tower until 
1641, when, although excepted from the 
general pardon of the previous year, he was 
released bj the king (i*. xvi. 678; Hall, p. 
841). On 20 July 1542 he wae collated to 
the prebend of IJolton in York Cathedral, 
and on 1 4 Dec. to that of Hoxton in St. Paurs. 
He died before » June 1548, his will being 
proved in the same year (P. C. C. 14 Popul- 
well), Ha wrote a prefatory epiatle, dated 
1 Jan. 1521, to a sermon preached by F"iaher 
on the burning of Luther's books, which was 
printed iu the Latin edition of Fisher's 
'Works,' published at Wiiraburg in lGfl7. 
He was also the author of s book printed at 
Paris before 1636 against Hen^s divorce 
{Letters and Paperx, viii. 859). ^veral ma- 
nuscript treatises bv him of a theological 
nature are preserved in the record office, and 
■were probably seiied at the time of his first 
arrest (I'fi. viii. 162, vol. ix. index, a. v. ' \Vi3- 
Bon '). John Leland hftx some lines to Wil- 
Bon in his ' Encomia ' (1589, p. 51). 

[Letters and Piipfrsof HBury VIII, ed. Brewer 
and Qnirdner ; Cnoper'e Athene Cantnhr. i. 91 ; 
Tanosr'B BiUiolh. Brit.-Hib.; Le Neves Fasti 
Ecclw. AngL od Hardy; Buker'. Hist, ot S*. 
John's Coll. Cambr. ed. Mayor, i. 70, 110-12, 
301; Nowconrt's BeperL Ecelos. Londin. 1710 
i. 164. 419, ii. £82; Works of Hugh Latitupr 
(Parker Soc-), ii. 36a ; Bale's Select Works 
(Parkar Soc.). p. AIQ; HenoeBa/i Noram Re- 
pert. Londin. 1697; Foie's Actcs and Monu- 
tnente. ed. Tnwnaend. v. 430, fiBB, rii. 466, 476, 
490, 605. 116-, Fiildes's Life of Wolsey, 172*. 
pp. IBS, 203; Ziirlch LetCem (Parker Soc). 
1848. pp, 20H, 211 ; Burnet's Hist, nftheRofoi^ 
matioD, IsaS ; Halcbins's Dorset, 1S68, iii. 186, 
ISO; DemauB's Life of Latimer, 1881, p. 13j.] 
E. I. C. 

"WILSON. mCRARD (1714-1782), 
landscape-painter, was horn at Penegoea in 
MonlgomerysUire, of which hU father held 
the living, on 1 Aug. 1714. Ilia mother 
■was one of the Wynnes of Leeawold. His ' 
fatberwaa collated to Mold after Wilson's 
birth, and gave his son, who does not seem 
to have gone to achool, an excellent classi- 
cal education. With the asaiatonce of Sir 
George Wynne, Wilson was sent to London 
in 172^, and placed with Thomas Wright, a 
portrait-pointer, of whom little is known. 
Wilson began bis artistic career as a portrait- 
painter, find attained some position in that 
orancb of the profession. A portrait by him 

!o Wilson ^B 

of John Hamilton Mortimer was valned by 
John Britton [q. v.] at l.W guineas in Iftl^. 
There are several portraita by him at the 
Oarrick Club, and he painted (about I74r') 
a grroup of the young Prince of Wales 
(George III), his brother Edward Augustus, 
duke of York, and their tutor Dr. Ayacough. 
Tbia picture is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery (London), as well as nnolber of the 
two pnncea by themselves, evidently taken 
for or from thelargerpicturc. In 1749 Wil- 
aon went to Italy, and there he painted a 
landscape which excited the admiration of 
Francesco Zuccarelli [q.v.], who advised him 
to take to landaeape-painting. Tliis was at 
Venice, and either there or at Rome Horace 
Vemet encouraged him to do the aBm<*. The 
French painter also exchanged landscapes 
with him and showed Wilson's in bis own 
studio with generous praise to all comers. 
Wilson aoongained a considerable repu tat ion 
iu Italy aa a landscape-painter, and Raphael 
Mengs painted his portrait in exchange for 
one of hia landscapes. When at \'eniee he 
made the acquaintance of William ly>cke of 
Korbury [l.v.l (the patron of George Barret 
the elder [q. v.l Wilson's rival), for whom he 
painted some sketches and laudscapes. Wil- 
son was six ^ears in Italy (principally at 
Rome) painting and giving leasone. He 
seeme to have mixed with the best society. 
In 1 764 he sketched Mrecenas Villa in com- 
pany with the Earls of Pembroke, Thanet, 
and Essex, and Viscount Bolingbroke. He 
travelled from Rome to Naples with Lord 
Dartmouth, for whom he painted some land- 
scapes, and reached England again in 1766. 
His reputation had preceded him to England, 
and bis return excited much interest amonf^ 
hia brother artists, but it is said tliat his 
merit was not at once appreciated even by 
them. Paul Sandby[q.v.] is noted aa an 
exception. He recommended ^\'ilson to the 
Duke of Cumberland, for whom W'ilson 
painted hia celebrated picture of 'Niobe,' 
which wasexbibitedat the Society of Artist* 
in 1760, and engraved by WooUett in 1781. 
Wilaon painted the subject three times: his 
earliest painting of it belonged to Sir George 
Beaumont, and was engraved by S. Smith 
(%ure8 by William Sharp), and is now in 
the National Gallery ; another was bought 
by the Marquia of Stafford. Hia picture of 
a ' View of Rome from the ViUa Madama ' 
(exhibited 1T66) was bought by tbe'Mai^uis 
of Tavistock. These and other works brought 
him the reputation of the greatest landscape- 
paiuter of the day, but bis fame guned bun 
scantv emploTmenl. 

Between 1^60 and 1708 Waaon exhibited 
over thirty pictures at the Society of British 




AniHts, including some of his best known 
pictures. Besides the works already men- 
tioned there were 'Temple of Clilumuus' and 
'The Lake nf N'emi' (171)1) i a landBcapo 
with bennita (17U2) (possibly that engraved 
under the title of ' The White Monk*) ; ' A 
Urge landscape with Phaeton's petition to 
ApoUo,' exhibited in 1(63 aJid afterwards 
repeated ; 'A Summer Storm, with the Story 
of the two Lovers from Thomson (Celadon 
and Amelia)'(1765),ftnd 'ASlormnt Day- 
break, with the Story of Ceyx and Aluioue 
— CIvid's Metam.'(thepicture,port of which 
ivis B&id to have been painted from a pot of 
porter and a Stilton cheese), Many of his 
jncturee of this period were engraved by 
Woollett, William Byrne, J. Roberts, and 
Others, most of them for Boydell. Although 
the subjects were principally Italian, he ex- 
hibited a few English and Welsh scenes, 
including ' View near Cheater,' 'Camurvon 
Caatle,' and ' Snowdon,' and ' A View of a 
Ruin in Her Royal Highness the Princess of 
Wales's Garden at Kew.' 

Wilson was one of the first members of 
the Royal Academy who were nominated by 
George III at its institution in 17<>8, and 
be contributed regularly to its exhibitions 
till 1780. During this period there was 
little change in his art. In 1770 he sent his 
picture of 'Cicero and his two friends ATticus 
mndQaintus at his vIIIb at Arpinum' (en- 
Krared by Woollett for Boydell). In 1771 
he sent 'A View near Winstay, the seat of 
Sir WalkinsW.Wynn, Bart./ one of Crow 
Castle, near Llangollen ; and another of 
}Iougbton, the seat of the late Marquis of 
Tavistock. In 1774 hu painted a lai^e 
picture, six feet by five, of the * Cataract 
(rf Niagara, from a drawing by Lieutenant, 
ISerie of the Royal Artillery ' (engraved by 
William Byrne), and a view of Cader Idris, 
perhaps the picture taken from the summit 
of this mountain which was engraved hy 
£. and M. Hooker. In 1776 he eihibiled 
' Passage of the Alps at Mount Oenia ' and 
tliree others, including a ' Lake of Xemi,' 
ft favourite subject with bim and his few 
Giulamera. In 177G he sent 'A View of 
Sion House from RichmondQardenSg'possibly 
the picture which at this date or before is 
said to have been the cause of the loss of 
eaurt patronage. He asked sixty guineas for 
it, to which l.^rd Bute objected as too much, 
Dpon which the artist replied that if the king 
conid not pay the sum at once, he would take 
it in instalments. Thisstoir is generally told 
of a date previous to the mstitution of the 
Rdjal Academy, but there is no trace of the 
picture before 1776, Afterthis the only pic- 
ture of importance by him which appeared at 

the academy was 'Apollo and the Sei 
exhibited iu 1779; but another celebrated 
picture, ' Meleager and Atalants,' which waa 
not exhibited, was engraved by Woollett 
and Pouncey and published in this year. 
The figures in this picture were supplied by 
Mortimer. A meuotint by Earlom from 
the same picture, or a replica of it, appeared 
in 1771. In 1780 he sent a ' View of Tabley, 
Cheshire, the seat of Sir F. Iieicester,' bia 
last contribution to the exhibitions. 

This waa probably one of his commissions, 
and thej were very few ; for in spite of his 
reputation, which waa always high, he had 
to suffer from almost continuous neglect— a 
neglect increasing with hia years. At last 
the pawnbrokers were his principal custo- 
mers, but he found it difficult to sell even 
to them. While lie could get scarcely suf- 
ficient employment to live, other inferior 
nrtiats, like George Barret the elder, Qeorga 
exceedingly. Moreover, he had to suffer 
special mortifications. In a contest for fame 
with Smith of Chichester before the Royal 
Society that au^st body decided against 
Wilson. His picture of Kew Gardens waa 
returned to him hy the king, and, worst of 
all perhaps, he bad to listen to a deputation 
of artists headed by Edward Penny [q. v.], 
who recommended bim to adopt the ughter 
style of Zuccarelli. He is said to liave 
offended them by thewarmth of his remarks 


For many years Wilson lived in the Great 
Piaiia of Covent Garden, and from 1771-3 
hewasst 36 Charlotte StreetjFitzroy Square, 
from which he was able to enjoy the view 
of ihecountryaway toHampstead and High- 
cate. During 1777-8 he was al 24 Norton 
Street,andin 1779 in Great Titchfield Street, 
hut as he grew poorer he had to seek more 
modest quarters, until at length be lived in 
a wretched lodging In Tottenham Street, 
Tottenham Court Road. He was reduced to 
such straits that when one day a young friend 
introduced a lady who gave him a commia- 
sioii for two iiictures he had not money to 
buy paints and brushes to execute them. On 
another occasion he asked Barry [see BlBBT, 
Jahbb, 1741-1806] if he knew any one mad 
enough to employ a landacape-painier. 

In 1776, on the death of Francis Uayman 

&. v.], he applied for and obtained the post 
librarian to the lioyal Academy, for which 
be was well fitted by his education and taste, 
and its slender stipend was a welcome addi- 
tion to his resources. A few years after this 
he inherited from hia brother a amall estate 
at LIunheris, which enabled him 
comfort for the short remtiant of hia days. 





He retired into WhIbh in 1781, and died 
niddenlj at Colomondie, the residence of bis 
reUtire, Mrs. Jonea, near Llanberia, on 
IS May 1782. He wiu buried in llie church- J 
yard at St. Mary-at-Mold. \ 

Wilson ii now acknowledged to be one of 
the greatest of English landscape-pa inters. 
Hid art was based upon that of balvator 
Rosa, Gaepar Pouuin, and Claude. Il was 
inspired by the scenery of Italy, and espe- 
cially of tbe C'ampaf^a, with its clear brio'ht 
skies and ancient ruins. It was Mtmewhat 
formal and careteas of detail, but in grandeur 
of design, in breadth of trsalment, in the 
barmonv of its rich but quiet colour, and in 
the rendering of space and air, WiUon bas 
fewrivala. His pictures of his own country, 
like the noble 'Snowdon from Nantlle,' lent 
b^ Mr. F. Worsley-Taylor to the 1899 exhi- 
bition in tbe corporation of London art gal- 
lery,are amongbis finest works ; and, though 
they have a strong resemblance to his pio- 
turvs of Italy, they contain much local truth 
of form and atmosphere. He used a very re- 
stricted palette, and painted with one brush. , 

In person Wilson was slout and robust, . 
and above the middle eize. In later vears j 
his face was blotchy and his nose reti, the 
result possibly of large potations of port«r, 
which IS said to have been his only luxury. I 
His fondness for this beverage was so well I 
known that Zoflany introduced him with a 
pot of it at Lis elbow into his picture of the 
royal ncnderaicians (1773), but painted it < 
out when Wilson threatened to thrash him. 
He was shy of society, especially when years j 
of neglect and poTertf bud emoittered him. 
He lived in and for his art, confident in hts | 
own genius and scornful of the opinions of : 
othera. His spirit never broke; his faith 
never fa)t«red ; he made no concession to 
popular opinion, but fought for his own 
ideals to the last. Even among artists he , 
seems to have had few friends except Sir Wil- 
liam Beechey, Paul Sandby, James Barry, I 
and J. H. Mortimer. With Bir Joshua 
Reynolds he was not on cordial terms, but 
there seems to be no suflicient ^rounds for 
Cunningham's charges of hostility on the 

Eirt of Reynolds. They seem principally 
aaed on llie story of Wilson's retort to | 
Reynolds when, ignoring Wilson's presence ' 
at a social gathering of academicians at 
the Turk's Head in Gerrard Street, Sir 
Joshua proposed tbe health of Gainsborough 
as ' Che best landscape-painter,' on which 
Wilson added aloud, ' and the hest portrait- 
pointer too." On the other hand, Reynolds 
obtained commissions for two pictures by 
Wilson when tbe latter was in sore straits. 
Of his manner and character CuaniDgham 

teils UB 'he loved truth and detested flattery; 
he C'uld endure a joke, but not contradio- 
tion. He was deficient in courtesy of speech. 
His conversation abounded with iofomation 
and humour, and his manners, which were 
at first repulsive, gradually smoothed down 
as he grew animated. Those who enjoyed 
the pleasure of his friendship agree in pnv 
Douncing him a man of strong sense, intelli- 
gence, and refinement.' 

Mengs's portrait of Wilson was engraved 
by W.Bond for John Britton's 'The Fine 
Arts of the British School,' and appears as 
a frontispiece to Wrights 'Life of the 
artisi. A caricature profile of him with a 
red nose, and a maulstick on his shoulder, 
was drawn bj Sir Qeor^ Beaumont, and 
etched for the title-page of Thomas Hnst- 
ings's ' Notes from Etchings from the Works 
of R. Wilson,' 162.5. 

It must have been when Wilson was dead 
or dyinp that Dr. Wolcot (Peter Pindar) 
wrote his celebrated lines about ' Red-nosed 
Wilson,' which were published in his fiiat 
volume of ' Lyric Odes to tbe Royal Am 

■ (1783), and conclude as follow»H 

t, hone 

: Wile 

Ifnmartal praises tliQU sbalt God, 

And fur s dioaer hare no cause ta fear. 
Thoti Bturt'st at my prophetic rhymes ; 
Don't be impatient for those times; 

Wnit till thou host been dead a hundred year. 
This prophecy has been more than justified. 
In lebti a ' Nlobe ' (belonging to tbe I>uke of 
Gloucester) was sold to Sir F. Baring for 
830/. In 1814 the Exhibition of Deceased 
Masters at the British Institution contained 
over eighty of Wilson's paintings. In 1827, 
at Lorf de Tabley's sale, 'On the Amo' 
fetched 493<. IOj, These prices have been 
exceeded since, especially during tbe last 
five-and-twenty years, during which many 
of his finest pictures have been exhibited at 
tbe Royal Academy, the Grosvenor Gallery, 
and other exhibitions all over the country. 
Ac the Duke of Hamilton's sale in 1882 a 
'View of Rome— Sunset' fetched 1,050/, 
Besides the ' Niobe' there are several small 
works by Wilson in the National Gallery, 
and two tine pictures in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum. At the British Museum are 
a large number of AVilson's sketches in Italy. 
The^ are very slight— mere intimations irf 
subjects for pictures. There is also the fine 
early drawing of a large head referred to Jn 
Edwards's ' Anecdoles.' 

Wilson had several pupils, the most im- 
portant of whom were Joseph Earingtoa 
[q.v.] and William Hodges [q.v.] 

[Some Aeomni of the Life of Itichai^l Wilson, 
bj T. Wright of Norwood, 1824; Hastings'* 

Notes from Elehlngs from Works of R. Wilson ; 
CuDninghnm's Lives, ed. Hmton ; EdwnrdBs 
Aoecdutis: Smith'* NollrkenB and hia Times; 
Red^Tftres' Cenlnry; Ksdunre's Diet.; Laslis 
and THvlur's Life of Sir Joshm RejnoldB ; Hen- 
ton's Conoise HiBtory of ed. Monk- 
bouBe : Cucalogues of the Society of ArtiaiB, 
RoT&t Aoademy, nnd BciLish Institution.] 

C. M. 

WILSON, ROBERT, the elder (rf. IflOO), 

act4]rand plsvwrighl, was one of tho players 

who joined the Earl of Leicester's company 

on its eeUblishmcnt in 1674. He at once 

equal to ttiat of Richard Tarltou [q. v.] 
Gabriel Harvey wrote in 1579 to the poet 
Spenser, complaining that his friends were 
(Dgtimtirely speakin?) thrusting him ' on. tiie 
stBRetomaketTyallorhieextuniporall faculty 
and to play \\'yUoii'9 or Tarleton's parla' 

SIlABVEt, JToritt, ed, Qrosarl, i. \'2(i). In 
663 Wilson was chosen to beone of twelve 
octorswho were formed into the Queen Eliza- 
beth's company. With the queen's company 
he WM connec'ted till 1688. Stow remarked 
that among the twelve players of the queen's 
original compitDy the most efBcient were 
the 'two rare men' Wilson and Tarlton. 
Stow credited Wilson (to whom he erro- 
□eoiulygave the christian name of Tbomfts) 
with a 'quick, delicate, refined, extemporal 
wit' (Stow, Chronicle, ed. Howes, London, 
1631, p. 698, sub anno 1683). Aher 1.^88 
"Wilson seems to have transfercwi his ser- 
vices to Lord Strange's company of actors, 
"which EUbacquently passed to the patronage 
of the lord chnmberlain, and was joined by 
BbAkespeare. Wilson maintained his repu- 
tation tor extemporising until tho end of the 
century. In 1598 Francis Meres, after re- 
calling the triumphs of Tarlton, whn died 
in 16^, noted that his place had since been 
filled by 'our witty Wilson, who for learning 
d extemporal wit in this faculty is with- 
t compitre or compeer; as to his great 
and eternal commendations, he manifested 
n hia chBllengo at the Swan, on the Bonk 
Kde.' No other reference is known to 
Wilson's ' challenge ' at the Swan Theatre. 
Merea also mentions ' Wilson ' among ' the 
best poets for comedy,' but there he pro- 
bably refers to a younger liobert Wilson (see 
below). Thomas Hey wood, in his ' ApologiQ 
I ibr Actors,' 1612, numbers the elder ' Wil- 
P son' omongEnglishplavers of distinction who 
I flourished conspicuousiy 'before his time.' 
Wilson also made a reputatiou as a 
r of plays. In 1680 Thomas Lodge 
replied in a 'Defence of Poetry, Muaiii, 
nnd Stage Pluys' to Stephen Go9«on's 
'Schoole of Abuse.' Lodge incidentally 

charged Gosaon with plagiarism in a lost 
play on the subject of ' Cat i lines Con- 
spiracy,' and declared that he preferred 
to Oosaon's effort ' Wilson's shorta and ' 
sweete [drama on the identical topic], a 
peece surely worthy prayse, the practise 
of a good scholler' (Hunterian Club edition, 
I«(9, p. 43). No play by Wilson dealing 
with Catiline ia extant, but on 21 Aug. lOw 
the theatrical manager Philip Henalowe 
advanced to ' Robert Wilson ' ten shillings 
on security of hia play of ■ Catiline,' which 
he wa« writing in coiyunction with Henty 
Chettle (Hbnslowb, Dian/, p, 132). This 
piece, like its forerunners, is lost, but it was 
poMibly n version of Wilson's earlier play, 
revised by the younger Robert, who regu- 
larfy worked for Henalowe. 

Tha four extant plays which may be 
assigned to tbe oomic actor with some 
conHdence are loosely constructed moralities 
in which personified vices and virtues 
play the leading parts. The chancten 
are very numerous. There is hardly any 
plot. The metre employed ia various, 
and includes ballad doggerel, short rhyming 
lines, rhyming heroics and blank verse, 
beside.s occasional passages in prose. The 
earliest of the ejtiant pieces for which 
Wilson may be held responsible bears tbe i 
title, ' A right excellent and famous 
Comedy called the Three Ladica of London. 
Wherein is Notablie declared and setfootth, 
hnw by the mttanes of Lucar, Loue and 
Conscience is so corrupted, that the one is 
married to Dissimulation, the other fraught 
with all abhomination, A Perfect Fat t*>rne 
for all Estates to loolce into, and a works 
right wortliie to be marked. Written by 
R. W,, as it hath been publiquely played. 
At London [by Roger Warde]!" 1584, black 
letter, 4to. A second edition, with soma 
variations, followed in 1692. Of the 15H4 
edition copies are in the British Museum, 
the Bodleian, and the Pepysian (Magdalene 
College, Cambridge) libraries. Of ihe 
second edition a perfect copy is at Bridg- 
water House, and an Imperfect copy at thJa 
British Museum. At the end of both im- 

S-essions appear the words. ' Fiuis I'aul 
ucke.' Bucke was probably the copyist 
employed by the acting company which fint 

Sroduced the piece ; he seems to have been 
imself an actor. 'The Three Ladies' of 
tbe play ere Lucre, Love, and Conscience. 
Love end Conscience are perverted by the 
machinations of Lucre and Dissimnlalion. 
A few concrete personages appear with the 
allegorical ubstractioos. One episode deals 
with the effort of a Jewish creditor, Geron- 
tus, to recover a debt from an Italian mei^ 



* > --ri-il 


djuii: Ai-rr-jiinr-, Ana*' •j:nTPe»*£-m- a :it^«* 

uui t-ii'ii»iiii II ~it- Ai'frimxzr n" "^--1:11^. 

"wu' luni.iui' ▼! i ^ ij^iH t I'lrm-Tu. it ~-iis 

m*^''* ■ -li^ •:ii^vi if '.If. iiK*:v if a-lfc-t 
fexnu'ijt:!"' uiit "Uir -h*- nu" ui't i*:-n 
lUiti'r^'.uii-n IV -Xit isir.ii:r. 
li . 'i\*. Mi^-* wm vuuMitfi n rTir-niufc- 

!?*ijt Jr*i*s«*i;i; uiit r«'*iu>:'* jii.n.1 ir "Oi- 

y* :■ I Ml? irvir .'.«T toiL ? ;nin»r. r«:i«nxnia-: 

▼ ::i n.utn.**?: jiL:r_i- 3ir iit-us>uTT laiL 
Tv.r-'-L.'.t.ti. i;iij:n;r 1111.17 JL.trul in^tr'^- 
'U.nit uii: .r.u-^r jini.rr*:ir mu— -rt :r tut 
J^-in-r:. 2-7 ^- "*» - l-:niD.n. ttji:-: 17 !• 

lil*fl:t--l ■■.r 'JUt -rvr* .a I_ »l^J IT::*.. A 

• • ■ * - 

hiZjt* Lt Ji '.lit }'r^.«-^^ ;:ir*:*:^ lt* 1 

•.-,* »- .- *-" 

to "1- :^r.-f -'-il-r L.-.T -u-lvc. 

'. - . - .••-r'- -• .— T «».I. — J.— T '_ - - - — 
J ...•-. •^- -1. / ^^- w^-— A j^ . .ii^ r- ». _» 

O,.. r. i'.-,::.r-r. Wr.:-T= It i::l^r: 

fcl^y.r.'il. *.r.'j :r-:. .;:- i-:rs-.n:r:?a::.r.f -:: 
C>i :. * «r ::. y . N •: » r\ r. t'l -^I nr ^^ - . F : '. I v. a r. i the 
J i k - . */ . ♦ r:- 4 r. v '.f • h e i.' ■ -c * & r. d zckI ies^-s of 
vAst^'.f.h] Ti.yti'/.^-iry h.^'j t:2''ir>=r in the dra- 
yntfl'iP jtfTfon^f-. ^^'-y^t of T}i:« rare q^jarto 
ar«r ;r. t/j.: i,r^.-;ir;«-- '/f the I'rirUh Mu^e'xni, 
til" ii'Al'.nu. Hrl'i^.f'.vat'rr Ho'j.«*. an-i the 
lVj,vs.ifiri O/il'T'ti'/ij ht Mai"jal»-ne College, 
Chru\in*i'^t'. John i'ayn'r Collier rleacril>rd 
a coiiv in wlji':}j a ftr*' lirif-s had Uren sup- 
pi i'-a in rfjftiiijr/:ri[;l by d^'Or/f: Cliapman 
(NoffM and Qu^rifff 'ird s'T. ii. 4i'lM. A 
flimilar pr^iduction, licenf^^yi for the press 

Ti TTunnittf Cn'i^at dl jf> Mar lliS4, and 
imiJiHU^L ini(ixr"ZDnufiL*T nex; T«ar imder the 
"in** & Tirt J'-diffl* JVrrjmeFT." mar on 
nri-^niu *^'\iksus^. ih anzitixnied t^ Wilson. 
. Trn>^ u*^ n "Uis ZirmBL Unsemn and Bod- 
jh*2ui iimiTie!: 

iLT Fif-c^ inr Tausnoif tiat ai* not con- 
^msmi ir«un4f ti 'W'lifinii TaH- TpiT of • Fair 
♦Lax- lilt jLIlHTf Ifuurii-.flr nf Jianchest^fr; 
■^r.i -_i*? jpfTr, tif TTlliiiat thf Conqneror,' 
iT "V'liiia. "Uit ii?w 131 rwx I m^ ' j ' jafei on ap- 
iftic^-L n. I ^*J _ Tu* pKsssft- ira* in exift^nce 
i«tii;rt \'-\r .. vLiEL it "ira* Ofscvanced by 
iAiOi-r- r-m-nif. n. iuf ' Fa^fwell to FollyV 
i.T ^h-.tiiir :n. U3n«*«j: ci S^CTSoy. School 

Tii-j?? i? l~-uci £i:iLii; tJxtt Wilson the 

ur-iT Liii^iiik-^^-rririr, wu iteitacal with 

Zm : u**!— w liS TI. y -miiiT k lutyer I.* vho was 

"inr-»-L l: fr .- J«* K Ci^iTTiut^rk:*. on 20 Nov. 

>-nrr.itfr^ Wnsc-y "1579-1610), 
mi* rt "Lit? "iiii!"j:-'wr:Tfc« T^apiliriT employed 
t7 "It* Ti«t~*irAl niLXih^E? H^enslowe from 
ITir*?' *: 1:MI^ -vl* Tr.-rtifciLT the ccvmedian*s 
>fi ««:ii. LUi -r-L* tiLTtrjies at St- Botolphs 
rr- ?iizr::'r- ro*iii •!}»««:+, .tc fifj Sepi 1579. 
Z'lK ■ "S^lrfca ' nrriij :iD*«£ W Meres among* 
-iit ■ :tftp; wT-'-jr? .-'f cocne^y of the day 
irLT:* -i iC-tr***'? -f: ir ci»e conjunction 
w-i ritTij^- latiliwiT. Mnnday, and 
icIt^? :;f iiTi.fJ.-w*'* Li^i-writ^rp. The 
rt>:rT-.:*r wl* 5'-'.tItt» *iri«?ed by the 
fri=.t".": '•".•■ri £:■-* ry :be yotuurer Wilson 
iz ^1 T -Kr : T- "* j^r^oe. L^nly one of t he pieces 
1=. -vi^i- K;>i=r: 'W"-*:-::- Henslowe's drudge, 
Lli 4 la=.i f irr.Tts. azl that—' The First 

Fir: : : S-r J ;>- «y.ic*5tle ' — has no resem- 
clir.-^ :- 5ty*.T :■;■ -.i* m^ral interludes 
:Li: LTV iA?ir=A*' '.r t : the c^r^mic actor. The 
Irst a.-£ *e^:=:i pir:* of 'Sir John Old- 
ca.rlr * were c-mrleted for llenslowe on 
!•$ '.^rt. l.Vy tv X\"':'.>?n in collaboration 
with DriT^ri:. llathawav, and Mundav. It 

• • « 

wi? s-rrv-^t'Ti by the puritan protest raised 
ariiiist Shake^phear?'* plays oi • Henry IV,' 
in which the character Falstaff originally 
b?re the apperation of Sir John Oldcastle. 
The nrst rar: — an historical drama — is alone 
extant. It was published in two editions 
by T]h- -mas] P'avirr" in IGOO, and was im- 
pudently described on the title-page of one 
edi:ion as the work of Shakespeare. * Cati- 
line's Conspiracy .'which Wilson and Chettle 
prepared for Ili^nslowe in August 1599, may 
be based on the earlier effort by the elder 
Robert Wilson, of which Lodge makes 
mention. In many other productions the 
vounger man's collaborator? were Chettle, 
bekker. and Dravton : but his contributions 
seem to have been the smallest of the four. 



Lost pieces for which Robert Wilson and 
lbe«e three eoUeag-iieB were pnid by Ilfme- 
lowe were called ' The first part of Godwin 
Mid his three Bona ' (2h and SO March 11)98) ; 
' Piers of Eiton ' (28 March 1698) ; ' Black 
Batman of the North ' (22 May 1508) ; and 
the second part of 'Godwin' (May-June 
lASS). Wilson's coikborators in ' Richard 
CcBur de Lion's Funeral' were Chetlle, 
Drayton, and Mimdav (June 1698); in the 
second part of 'Black Balmau/ Chettle 
(June-July 1698) ; in the 'Madman's Morris,' 
in * Hannibal and Hermes, or one Worse 
Feared than Hurt,' and in ' Piers of Win- 
chester,' Dekker and Drayton (June-July 
1596); in 'Chance Medley,' Dekker and 
Mundsy (19-21 Auk. 1598)-, and in 'Owen 
Tudor,' Drayton, Uathawsy, and Monday 
(10 Jan. 1599-1000). OnSNov. 1699 Ilens- 
lowe paid Wilson for a piece called < Henry 
Richmond,' which he seems to have produced 
■inglfr-handed (cf. Wabnbe, Dulwich Cata- 
bffUe, p. 16). Wilson was usually in pecu- 
niary distress. He owed Henalowe money 
in June 1698, and borrowed ten shitHngs of 
him on I Nov. 1590; a receipt for this loan 
in his autograph is QEtanl at Dulwich (Hens- 
I.OWB, Diajy, ed. J. P. Collier, pHMim). He 
•ppears to bare married Mary Eaton at St. 
Sotolph's Church, Biahopsgate, on 24 June 
1606, and to have died on 22 Oct. 1610, 
being buried in the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew the Leas. 

[Collier'i IntfMductioa U) Fire Old Plays 
Ofosbat^ Club), 18S1, reprinted in Dodsley's 
Old Plays, ed. Hulitt, pp. 3 aeq. ; Collier's Me- 
nuHis of the Principal Actors, p. iviii ; Cnllier'g 
BJstory of Dramatic Portry : Ward's Gn^liah 
Bmmalif Lileralurp, 1S98; FlsBy's ChronicU 
of the Eoglisli Dnnnu ; Lea's Life of Shnke- 
■peare.] S, L. 

WILSON, ROBERT (1803-1882), engi- 
neer, was bom in 1803 at Dunbar, Had- 
dingtonshire, where his father, a Haherman, 
was drowned in 1810. When quit« a child 
fae became an expert sculler, and he con- 
ceived the idea of making a propeller to be 
fixed to the stern of vessels. After a meagre 
education, he removed from Dunbar on 
being apprenticed to a joiner. The problem 
of his propeller continued to occupy his 
attention, and in 1837 his model was brought 
by James IIunt«r under the notice of the 
^Bit of Lauderdale, who, after satisfying 
himself as to the feasibility of the invention, 
promised to introduce it to the admiralty. 
In the following year a committee of the 
Highland Society proved the succees of the 
I plan, and granted Wilson 10/. on condition 
I frf receiving the model. In 1832 he was 
IswRtded a silver medal by the Scottish. 

Society of Arts, and the invention was 
brought by them before Ihe admiralty. 
It was discussed by the ollicials with scant 
courtesy, though they afterwards, in 1840, 
adopted the similar invention of Sir Francis 
Pettit Smith [q, v,] Wilson, after spend- 
ing a few years in Edinburgh as an 
e'ngineer, removed to Manchester, and in 
1838 was manager of James Naamyth's 
Bridgwater foundry at Patricroft, near that 
city, He had an important share in per- 
fucting the steam-hammer invented by James 
Nasmyth [q. v.] Wilson's nbare in the tool 
was its sell-actingmotion, which waspaten ted 
by Nasmyth in July 1843. The first ham- 
mer was in use at the Low Jloor ironworks, 
near Bradford, Yorkshire, from August 184S 
to 1853, when Wilson, who was then en- 
gineer of that establishment, added to it ths 
' circular balanced valve.' In 1856, on tho 
retirement of Nasmyth, he left Low Moor 
and became managing partner of the firm of 
Nasmyth, Wilson, & Co, He afterwards 
constructed the CTcat double-aoling hammer 
at the Woolwich Royal Arsenal, this Im- 

f roved action being patented in 1861, In 
880 the war department made him a grant 
of 600/. for the use of his double-action 
screw-propeller as applied to the fish tor- 
pedo.^ The history of his first great inven- 
tion is contained in a pamphlet which he 
published in 1860, and republished in 1880, 
entitled 'The Screw Propeller: who in- 
venteditP' Between 1842 and 1880 he look 
out twenty-four patents for valves, pistons, 
propellers, and hydraulic and other ma- 
chinery, His first patent for an hydraulic 
packii^-presB was taken out in conjunction 
with Nasmyth in 1856, and he subsequently 
made many improvements in this successful 

He was elect«d a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh in 1873, and was a 
member of the Royal Scottiah Society of 
Arts. He died at Matlock, Derbyshire, on 
28 July 1882, and was buried at St. Cathe- 
rine's, Barton-on-Irweli, not far from his 
residence, Elleemere House, PalrJcroft;. He 
was twice married, and left four sons and 
four daughters. 

He is to be distinguished from another 
Robert Wilson, inspector for the Manchester 
Steam Users' Association, and author of a 
'Treatise on St«am Boilers,' 1873, and 
' Boiler and Factory Chimneys,' 1877. 

[Maneho»tarGuacdian,l Aug. 1882; Enginerr, 
4 Aug. 1883 I Aion's LaEcoshirs Qleaninga. 1883, 
p.297; RowlaiidanD'a History of thoSleam Ham- 
mer, E^Ibs, 1884; ClinmljerH's Encyclopadin 
1892, ii. 7U6; Specifications of Patents; Mm- 
chester City Newe. IS Jan. 1898.] C. W. 8. 



Wilson i: 


p ■ " ■ ' '''* fatlier, 

Arthur Wibon, vos a coMtgimrdsmati, about 
ISai). HU mother, whow maiden name was 
Catheriue tlunler, a native of Islandmante, 
CO. Antrim, contrived to give him a fairly 
good education st honiL' bnt'ore sending him 
to RayiDuntcrdoney nthool. He became a 
teacher at BuUycastle, Antrim, atler leaving 
Bchool, but only for a iihort period. About 
1810 he emigrated to America, where he re- 
mained some jvan, working as a journalist. 
On hie return to Ireland he joined the stuiF 
of a paper in Enniikilbu, whence be pro- 
ceeded to Dublin to take up the position of 
sub-editor of the * Nation, under Charles 
Gavan UuSy. Ilia knowledge of the teoaiit- 
right question was found particularlv useful 
in his new employment. But his restlesanesa 
prevented him from remaining long in Dub- 
lin, and be went hack to Euniakillen, editing 
there gucceeaively ' The Impartial Reporter ' 
and ' The Fermanagh .Mail.' In 1865 he 
went to [telfiiat, where he became the lead- 
ing writer on the ' Morning News.' In a 
ahurt time he waa recognised aa the most 
popular of Ulster writers. His' Letters to 
my Cousin in Ameriky,' which appeared ia 
the paper under the «ignature of ' Barney 
Hoglone,' made the fortune of the ^aper, and 
were read with dtlight, not only in Ulster, 
but OTBr the rest of Ireland. The circulation 
of the ' Morning News' was enormously in. 
creased, and for some years Wilson's clever 

firose satires on local celebrities and humorous 
yrics proved the most popular literature in 
the north. To the ' Ulster Weekly News' 
and other journals, under ihe signatures of 
'Young Ireland,' ' Erin Oge,'and 'Jonathan 
AUman,' he contributed racy poems in 
northern dialect, many of which are still 
familiar to Ulster men. His eccentricities 
and irregularities, however, prevpnted him 
from doing any enduring work, and his ten- 
dency to drink became more and more pro- 
nounced as he grew older, and finally led to 
his death. W'hile on a visit to Dublin during 
the ffConnell centenary celebrations in 18T5, 
he drank more than usual, and on 10 Aug. 
was found dead in his mom. His body was 
removed to Belfast, and buriul, in the 
presence of a vast number of people, in 
the Borough cemetery, where a monument 
lias been erected to bis memory by public 
subscription. Some of his poems are admi- 
rable — all are racy of Ulster. A small se- 
lection from them was published in Dublin 
and Belfast, lrt94, under the title of ' Reliques 
of Barney Maglone.' The volume, which 
was edited by F. J. Bigger and J. S. Crone, 


portrait and ■ biag:^hical intro- 

ducrion by tbepresentwriter. Theonlywork 
issued by Wil»oa himself was a hosDorous 
'Almeynack Cir all Ireland, an' whoever else 
wants it,' London, 1*71. 

[O'Donnghut's Poels at Irf Und : BolfaM 
Mnroin); News, ll-IA Ang. 187a; infarmutjan 
from Mr. John WilkiQwiii, Fulftragh. en. Dnat- 
eal.] D. J. OD. 


(1777-1849), general and governor of Gi- 
braltar, fourth child and tliinJ son of the por- 
trait painter Benjamin Wilson [q-v.], wag 
bom in Great linssell Street, Bloomsbnry, 
London, on 17 Aug. 1777. Ha was educated 
at Westminster school, and also under Dr. 
Joseph Warton at Winchester. After the 
deatli of his father and mother, bis elder 
sister, Frances, married early in 1793 Colonel 
Bosville of the Coldstream guards, who was 
killed on 15 Aug. 1793 at l£e battle of Lin- 
celles ; with her assistance Wilson joined 
the Duke of York in the foUowing year at 
Courtra^, furnished with a letter of recom- 
mendation from the king, lie was at once 
enrolled asacornet of the ISthlighldrogoons. 
He took part in the storm and capture of 
Prfmont on 17 April 1791 and the action 
of the 18th. Oq the 24th he was one of eight 
officers with the two squadrons of the 16th 
light dragoons who, with two squadrons of 
Leoiiold'a hussars, mustering altogether 
under three hundred sabres, attacked and 
routed a very superior French force at Vil- 
liers-en-Couche. This action prevented the 
capture of the emperor Francis II, whom the 
French were endeavouring to intercept on 
his journey from Valenciennes to Catillon, 
and had already cut off by their patrols. The 
resultsof ihis magnificent charge, undertaken 
with thefullknowiedgeofthe'danger incurred 
and of the obieet to be attained, were twelve 
hundred of the enemy killed and wounded, 
three pieces of cannon captured, and the with- 
drawal of all French posts from the Setle, 
with the consequent safety of the empwror. 
Wilson's horse was wounded under him. 
Four years later the emperor caused nine 
commemorative gold medals to be struck— 
the only impressions — one to be depowted in 
the imperial cabinet, and the others to be 
bestowed upon the eight British officere of 
the 15th light dragoons. George III gaye 

Carmission for them t* be worn 'as an 
onorary badge of their bravery in the field* 
{London Gaj^tfc, 9 June 1798). In 1800 the 
emperor conferred upon the same officers the 
cross of the order of Maria Theresa, which 
George III on '2 June 1801 permitted them 
to accept, with the rank of baron of ihe holy 
Roman cm]>ire and of knighthood attached. 

Two dBTS after tlie affair of VillierB-en- 
Cuucli^, Wilson was en^foged niCh hie reei- 
ment inthe action atCateau(26 April). He 
also tooh part in the battle of Toumaj, or 
the Marque, on 10 May; in the capture of 
Lsnno7,lloubaix,andMoufeauxon the 17th; 
in the disaetroua retreat on the 18tL to 
Templeuve, when he commanded the rear- 
suaril, and when the light carftlrr. accord- 
lag to an eje-witne*", ' jierformed wonders 
of valour ' (Bbovn, •/ouraa/); at the battle 
of Pout h Chin on 22 May ; and at the action 
of DutTel on 16 July. lie greatly Uiatin- 
guifibed himself in September at Boitel-on- 
the-Dommel, when, with Captain Calcraft 
and the patrol, hu penetrated to the French 
beadquart^rs, captured an aide-de-camp of 
General Vaudamme and two gendarmes, 
mounted them on the general's horses, and, 
notwithstanding that a regiment of red 
huesara and a regiment of dragoons pursued 
for iix milea by Beparale roads to cut him 
off, mode good his retreat with the captivusj 
and on the game evening fulling in with a 

f»rtT of French infantry cut it to pieces, 
be British army having retreated into Ger- 
many, Wilson returned to England at the 
end of 17B5, and joined the depot at Croydon 
in February ITOti. 

He waa promoted to be lieutenant, by 

furchase, on 31 Uct. 1794, and on 21 Sept. 
796 he purchased bi« troop. He married 
in 1797, and in Afav 1798 accompanied 
HAJor-general St. John to Irelanil, and 
a«rved aa brigade-major on his staff, and 
•A«rwards as aide-de-camp during the re- 
bellion of 1798, He rejoined his regiment 
in 179d, and accompanied it to the Helder; 
in tliia campaign the Ifith light dragoons 
weregTBatlydiatin^iishedat Egmont-op-Zee 
on 3 Oct. Wilson alao took part in the 
netiema of 6 and 10 Oct., and returned with 
the regiment to England in November. 

On 38 June 1800 he purchased a majority 
in Hompesch's mounted riflemen, then serv- 
mder Sir Ralph Abercromhy 

Mediterranean, a 

a the 

n travelled 

to Lord ALinto, by whom he was sent to the 
Aiutrian army in Italy. Having communi- 
cated with General Jlelle^arde and Lord 
William B«ntinck, he proceeded to join 
Abercroiaby. He landed at Aboukir Bay 
on 7 March 1801 , and took part in the actiou 
of The 13th and in the batt/le of Alexandria 
on the 21n. when Abercromhy fell and was 
succeeded by Moj or-genera l(afterwardaLord) 
Hutchinson; the Inl tor employed Wilann on 
several missions. In July be entered Cairo 
with Hutchinson, was at the siege of Ale<c- 
andria in August, and its capitulation on the 

25tli. Wilson left Eg:vpt on 11 Sept. and 
returned to England by Malta and Toulon, 
arriving at the end of December. He waa 
made a kuigbt of the order of the Crescent 
of Turkey for his services in Egypt. 

In 1803 Wilson published 'The History 
of the British Expedition to Egypt ' (l.p. 4to), 
which went through several editionii, waa 
translated into French in 1803 from an oc- 
tavo edition in two volumes published that 
Year, and also appeared in an abridged form. 
The fourth edition iu 1803 contained ' A 
Sketch of the Present State of the Country 
and its Means of Defence,' with a portrait of 
Sir Ralph Abercromhy. Lord Nelson wrote 
a characteristic letter to Wilson, on receipt 
of a presentation copy, which is printed in 
llandoipb'a ' Life of ^lelaon.' The work de- 
rived especial popularity from the charges 
of cruelty which it brought against Buona- 
parte, both towards his prisoners at Jaffa 
and his own soldiers at Cairo. Of these 
charges the emperor complained to iha 
British government, but, receiving no satis- 
faction, caused a counter report to be issued 
by Colonel Sebastian!. Wilson was ap- 
pointed insoecting tield-olficer in Somerset 
and Devonshire under General Simcoe. 

In 1804 Wilson published an ' Inquiry 
into the Present State of the Kilitary Force 
of the Britiflh Empire with a View to its 
Ileoi^Buixation,' 8vo, in which he made his 
first public protest against corporal punish- 
ment in the iirmy, and was compUmentcd 
by Sir Francia Burdett in a letter dated 
1^ Aug. 1804 for the service thus rendered 
to humanity. 

Wilson purchased a lieutenant-colonelcy 
in the 19th light dragoons in this month, 
and on 7 March 1805 exchanged into the 
SOth light dragoons. Be sailed with 230 . 
of them in the e.tpeditiou under Sir David 
Baird and Sir Home Popliara on 27 Aug, 
from Cork harbour for the Cape of Good 
Hope, and after a voyage to Branil, where 
he purchased horses for the cavalry, and a 

Saldanha Bay, Cape of Good Hope, as an ad- 
vanced guard. After the battle of Blaauw- 
berg, which took place just before his at- 
rivu, Wilson was employed in command of 
the cavalry on outpost duly until the terms of 
the capitulation were settled, and in receiv- 
ing arms, colours, guns, and horses at Simon'a 
Bay until Oeuerai Janaaen and the Dutch 
troops were deported in February. In June 
he obtained leave of absence and returned 
to England in the Adamant, but was nearly 
lost at sea in pa.isiug from one ship to an- 
other of the fleet. 



On 3 Nov. ISO! Wilson havinp been 
t«ched to the BtnlTof l^rdHiitclimf^on. then 
going on a, Bpecial mission 1o ihe Pvusgi 
court, embarked with him at Yarmouth 
the frigate Aatrca, and was nearly wrecked 
in the CaCtegat on the Anhslt shore, ihe 
guns havins to be thrown overboard. IJe 
accompanies Lord Hutchinson and the king 
of Prusaia to Memel in Janiiarj 1)WT, and in 
February joined General Beningsen at the 
Russian headquarters of the armv at Jnrnovs. 
He wan present at the battle of Eylau on tlie 
7th and 8th, and accompanied Ihe headq^uar- 
lers to HeiUberg in March, and in April to 
BartenBlein, where on the 36th the emperor 
of RiiBsia bestowed upon him the cross of 
St. George for hia servicei at Eyiau. Wil- 
son took part in the cnmnaign of June, wb« 
S resent at the action of the I'ltssarge on the 
th, at the battle of Heilsberg on the lOtb, 
»nd the battle of Friedland on the Uth. after 
which he retreated with Ihe army to Tilait. 
On the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit 
lia went to St. Petersburg, and thence to 
England with despatches, arrivingon 19 Sept. 
On 2 Oct. he left England with a confiden- 
tial communication from Canning to the 
emperor of Hussia, arriving at St, Peters- 
burg on the SOth. He left again on 8 Not. 
wilh despatches from J^ord Granville to 
Canning, containing intelligence which Wil- 
son had himself been the tirat to procure, 
that the emperor of Russia wns about to 
invade Swedish-Finland and declare war 
against England. Notwithstanding the fact 
that a Russian courier had preceded him by 
thirty-sii hours (Wihon's passport having 
been expressly withheld to give the courier 
the advantage), Wilson pushed from Abo 
across the Gulf of Bothnia, in very bad 
weather, reached Stockholm before the 
courier, arranged that the courier should be 
delayed, sailed for England, landed in the 
Tees on the eveninir of the !29lh, posted lo 
London, and saw Canning in bed at four 
c'clock in the morning of 2 Dec. lie waa 
directed to keep quiet until Canning's ordi^rs 
to the naval authorities at Portsmouth had 
been executed ; and an his return to break- 
fast with Canning the following morning be 
was complimented upon his activity, which 
had resulted in the seizure of the 'Russian 
&igat« Sperknoi, with money to pay the 
Raasian fleet, while a fast vessel had been 
despatched to Sir Sidney Smith to intercept 
the Russian fleet. 

In 1H08 Wilson was given the command 
of the Inyal Lusitanlan legion, a body raised 
out of Portuguese refugees in England under 
British oflicors, and in August went to Por- 
tiwml as a brigadier- genera I m the Portu- 

guese army. He w«a engs^ in rarion* 
encounters with the enemy in Caetille and 
Estramadura during the retreat of the British 
to Coruna in 1808-9; sod after the batlleof 
Coruna on 16 Jan. 1809, acting in conjunc- 
tion with the Spaniards beyond the .\gueda, 
by a aeries of spirited and judicious move- 
ments, he kept open the commiuii cat ions 
withCiudad Rodrigoand Almeida, and held 
the enemy in check. He had a goml deal 
of desultory fighting, took part in the pur- 
suit of Soult, and with the Lusitanian l^on 
and three thousand Spaniards advanced to 
within nine miles of Madrid. After the 
battle of Talavera on 27 and 28 Julv Wilson 
found himself at Escatona, cut off bv the 
enemy from Anobispo; crossing the fietar, 
he scrambled over the mountains, and with 
diHiculty gained the pass of Baoos on 8 Aug., 
as Key's corps was approaching on ite march 
from Placentia to tue north. Wilson en- 
deavoured to stay its advance, and defended 
the pass with spirit for some hours, but whs 
eventually dislodged, and retreated to Cas- 
tello Branco. 

When the British army went intfl winter 
quarters, Wilson returned home, and, as the 
Lusitanian legion was absorbed in the new 
organisation of the PorlugueBe army, offered 
himself to Lord Wellesley for special aer- 
viee on 6 May 1810. For his services in the 
Peninsula he was promoted on ^5 July to 
be colonel in the army, and appointed aide- 
de-camp to the king, and in 1811 received 
the Portuguese medal, end was made a 
knight-commander of the Portuguese order 
of the Tower and Sword. In this vear 
Wilson pnbtished, in quarto form, ' Brief' Re- 
marks on the Character and Composition of 
the Russian Army; and a Sketch of the 
Campaign in Poland in 1806 and 1807." In 
"' autumn of 181 1 his offer of service was 
ipted, and on 26 March 1612 he was given 
Ihe local rank of brigodier-geneml in the 
British army, and accompanied Sir Robert 
Li8ton[q. v.], the newly appointed ambassador 
to the Porte, to Constantinople, with instruc- 
tions to assist in the conduct of negoliationa 
for peace between Turkey and Russia (see 
Wilson's diary of the journey in Addtt. MS. 
3D1<!0). He arrived at Constantinople on 
1 July, and on 27 July went on a mission 
from LiatoQ to the grand viiier at Shumla, 
to the Russian admiral Tchichogoff, com- 
manding the Danube army corps at Bu- 
charest, and finally to the emperor of Russia 
at St. Petersburg. He reocned the heod- 

3 Darters of the Russian army under Barclay 
e Tolly in time to take part in the ballle of 
Smolensk on 16 Aug,, arrived in St. Peters- 
burg on the 27th, and had an audience with 




theempeK>ron4Sept. HavingrBatisfactoriiy 
eompleled all the afiairs entrusted to him, and 
Teoeived the thanks of I.iston and of Lnrd 
Cathcut, British nmbnssador at St. Pelers- 
bius, he proceedi^d on the 15th, accompanied 
bj niB aide-de-camp, Baron Brinken, and by 
Lord Tyrconnel, to Join the HusHian army ' 
Krasnoi Pakra, near Moscow, as British cor 
misaioner, with instructions to keep both 
Lord Cathcart and Liston informed of the 
proeKSS of events. 

Wilson took part in the Biiccessful attnck 
OD Murat at W iiikowo on 18 Oct., in the 
battles of Malo^aroHlawitz on the !24th, of 
WiaAma on 3 Nov., of Krasnoi on 17 Nov., 
«ad in all the affaire to the cesuition of the 
pumiit of the French. Jle exchanged into 
the 32nd light dragoons on 10 Dec. 1812. 
Earl; in 1813 be marched across Poland to 
Kalisb, and thence to Berlin, where he ar- 
rived on SI March. On 8 April Le proceeded 
hy Dessau and Leipiig to Dresden. On 
S May he took a prominent part in the battle 
of Liitien, where, aided by Colonel Camp- 
bell, he rallied th« Prussians, carried ttie t3- 
bige of Gtos Gorachen, which he held until 
night, and Buhjequenlly drove the enemy 
back on LUtzen. He further distinguished 
himself at the battle of Bautzen on 20 and 
SI May, and at the action of Reichenbach 
on the 22nd, During a review of the troops 
near Jauer on the 27th the emperor of 
Russia decorated Wilson in front otthe im- 
perial guard with the cross of the third class 
or knight commander of the order of St. 
George, taking it from his own neck and 
making a most complimentary Sffeech, in 
which he stated his desire to mark hjs esteem 
fin* Wilson's courage, zcat, talent, and fidelity 
tilTOUKhout the war. 

Wilson was promoted lo be major-general 
<m4JDne 1813. During the armistice he 
travelled about the country inspecting the 
fortreases. When Austria joined the alliance 
Buonaparte and liostilitiee were re- 
imed, Wilson was conspicuous in the 
tack upon Dresden on 26 Aug., when he 
part in storming the grand redoubt, and 
toe Slat to mount the parapet, followed 
._, CapUin Charles. On this occasion he 
lost his cross of the order of Maria Tlieresa 

him with a complimentary letter IVom Count 
M«temich (dated Ti)pIiti!,24Sept. 1813). In 
the battle of 27 Aug. Wilson was with the 
emperor of Russia and General Morenu when 
tbclatter was mortally wounded. He wosalso 
present nt the battles of Eiilm and Kraupen 
on the 20th and SOtli, and charged repeatedly 
with the Austrian cavalry on the 30th. 

On 7 Sept. Wilaon joined the Austrian 
arm^ at Leitmerit^ as British commiaaioner, 
having been transferred from the Russian 
army. On the 27th he received from the 
king of Prussia the grand cross of the order 
of the lied Eagle, of wh ich order he had re- 
ceived the fourth class in the last war. lie 
WAS with the stafT of Marshal Prince 
Schwarti^nberg, commanding the allied 
armies, at the battles of Leipzig on 16 and 
18 Oct., and at the capture ot the city oaths 
19th. Schwartrenberg wrote to Lord Aber- 
deen, the British ambassador, attributing 
the success at Leipzig on the Itith chiefly to 
Wilson's intelligence and able dispositions. 

Shortly after the battles of Leipzig Lord 
Castlereogh appointed Lord Burghereh to be 
British commissioner ivich Schwart^euberg, 
and transferred Wilson to the Austrian 
army in Italy. Both the emperors and also 
the king of Prussia desired to retain Wilson 
with them. Mettemich wrote to Aberdeen 
that he was commanded by the emperor to 
eipresa his sense of Wilson's great services, 
and his wish that he should remain with the 
army, and Schwartienberg told him that 
conspicuous as were Wilson's services in the 
field, they fell short of those he had rendered 
out of the field. Aberdeen wrote to Castle- 
reagh (Despatch, 11 Nov. 1813) ; ' From his 
intimate knowledge of the Russian and 
Prussian armies, and the great resjiect in- 
variably shown him by the emperor of Itussia 
and the king of Prussia, he is able to do a 
thousand things which no one else could do. 
He was the means of making up a diSerBnce 
between the king and Schwartzenberg which 
was of tbe utmost importance.' Castlereagh 
was, however, firm ; he deemed the appli- 
cations of the foreign sovereigns an unwar- 
rantable interference, and observed that if 
Wilson had Iheconfidence of all other govern- 
ments he lacked that of his own. Party 
politics alone account for the fact that, 
although loaded with distinctions by allied 
foreign sovereigns, he received none from 
his own. In November the emg 
Russia bestowed upon him the . 
medal for the campaign of 1813. 

On 23 Dec. 1813 Wilson went lo Basle 
by Aberdeen's direction to join the allied 
commission, but on the 25th his instructions 
arrived from Castlereagh to join the Aus- 
trian army in Italy, and to report direct lo 
him, keeping the British ambassador to 
Austria informed. Before leavir 
peror of Russia presented him with the first 
class or grand cross of the order of St. Anne 
at Freiburg on 24 Dec, and the emperor of 
Austria promoted him to be knight com- 
mander of the order of Maria Theresa on 


Wilsoa r^c Wilson 

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ami "wij" ?r^^:*enc -n "hi=! -rii ir -iw narrii* 'it ia jjj puurti .a parlioznenr Wil^oa zored lor 

ViliVj-xii*. "▼iier's in* ir^azir iisnz^uih»tti paper«. laii .n & li;ixtf imi Able 5p»i«ch i ae^ 

hiartKi:' laii ▼'w a**ar'.7 !«i 17 :!ie '£Li:ij»ft.-i rmiiicazeii aU ictioxi. an^i called 

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frini pri^-.n. bj -:hanx-nj' irrs.«* -^-.r'li h--* w:5*. pi^LirioLda. aaii t.'ok a promlaen*: part in the 

WL j«",a pa.aaed "he harrier? in a -?abrL- let :':raLit.i:a :c "he Caoain^ miaist rr i <«« 

w ; • h f ji 7 iLer r .5 iliiTx '..^» l* i B rl: i*h *: r£t:»»r . W ; Lff4: y. Ci?i .7/ iy ' « ^ /« iniAtmti'j .1 .• ' ^ a r- 

ani oonT-j-»<i h;3i tafelr ^i M jI13. H* *»nt r^ti:t ./ Fjrmatinn^ rit\ Corrfjfc^jn^inu^, 

a r.amt.7^ -<,f rhe adT-*n:ar» Vi EarL »>r»y jrr., '^V*. •?iLr*i by the Rev.* Herbert 

I'r-rprln'rd ia fr-nf. .Ifi*;. 1^L»5 . whLch -wu fLia«i:Lph. l??-. ?rO'. He was a^aia re- 
in r..rr:i-p'"'*<x. If-i wta arr«*sr<ii La Pirlj -a * irari'i to par .im eat for >3athw.-irk in 1S30. 

13 J in. Thi "iir^e EnjilAh2i»*n Trrr» tr-ri «l»n "he a^ctr*ai-a cc WiHIaai IV W'il«n 

in PirLi on i* -\prli and »enTrni»i :n "he "wu rrinirjtrrd La the arsiT with rhe rank 

:i4':h :■■> 'riree m'vnrh*' imprlv/nment . r^te :t '.L-'reaiat-renenl. :o Jk^e froni -7 Mav 

A.'>nu/tl R^Jit^r, ItsI^;.. «'jn lo >lajr a irj-i Ln d..n O-ts^rt^^irl JiiLj I'KX^y. Th^ 

sr-n-nl ordt-r wm iinird bv rh-i L»^ike of Ke::mi B.I1 wii LaTrdaced fatheHouse of 

\'tr\i, r.-.-^inianier-Ln-chL-f. rTpT»««inz 'h-r C-jtamorj ra I March 1S31. Wilkin re- 

prL.r.r.*: r-jr-r.''? hirh ■iL.-pl-a.Tir'^ 1: "he ci;n- rariei Lt a.* * rhe laLtLatorv mea*-are of a 

d;:", f W;i4,-jn 1- i If ;*o'..:n«.r.. rvp I'l^caatrra: :: rrvrramen:.' and in con- 

Ir. l*'.r WLli-.n p :hlL4h-ii ■ .V >"A-r".:h :f smj irn'W. La spLre of ^7«at pr««iir»r, refii«^d 

Th- M.LiMrj ar.i P-.lL"::aI Vy^rT 'i ilrissLa.' to vre wL'h :Li-» c>"-rraiaent and resyrn*-.! 

w:.;j:i T^rn" thr- ;rh — v-rni - il-L-.n.-. a-i hi* *r:i*. IsLnr for a tL=:e rhecjl^nelcvof a 

w^- -:•- -r-> a""a.?k-ni hy th- • Qiir-rLj li— r*^,r=:e=.t and ill :rp.:rt .laitira of aiefal em- 

v.r^" 'T-,.. x:x.. .'v-r^ rmr.^-r Ir.- . In i?.^ p. vm-nt. 

\V.>. r. -• irr.*^ i-zi-m-^-T -i.iTLiin-rnt « '- iV D.:<r. Is^* W-l-soa wa? app-Vinted 

fo- - ;:..-:«r4rk. ir:-:i*Lr.r'.":-.irl * Uir ! 17. :h- ocl :r.-l -f hL* li rfjiment. thtr l'»:h hu.sear>. 

Kr-'-vT. i.-.i '-iTi •hi* 'O;^*: r: h- r-p'..ri "■■ r»n -^J N:r. 1-^1 h-e wa< pr^>moted to bf 

t:.- \":\::'< r,: 'h-r * i^ li-v.-'R' * Ln r-n-rril. and in l'?4-* he was app-»inteil 

*A [^■■•••r Vj hL- r'.r.-r>i;- r.r- ir. Kr-r*:M*L n .rjv-emor ani o.-nxmander-in-ohief at Gi- 

r: \* : :. i -/-r f I .- '! - - pi' *-r.:r.z i Fa ! i - 1 1 rp- ; rt bral tar. 1 1 - ha i nlv rw^irntl v ret umed hon;e 

f.f H. V . - ' ■ . r.- t > ^ h r r' '.^[1 T..1 r. Ir r- : r.- ■ h ! - 1 <"' f wh r n h -r d : ei I S'^d d-al v on Mav 1 <i9 at 

t'i : I;- '.-r.'A-mT in t!..- !*•::.>. -:li ir. I'?*''.*.' Marshall Tt:onipi?.in's hotel, Oxford Street, 

Jn irJ'j :.-: "wv- arilr* r-.* .rr.-l for ??oi-h- Lonlon. H- was buried on 15 May beside 

wM-zi. -i-'ri'.Lr.^ r'ir Th -niii T :rr'»n. his wif- in th-* north aisle near the western 

t/ ."T. Car j! r.«r ■ 17''"'-1 ^L'l > ij. v.', who entrance "f W-stminsrer Abbev. and a fine 

).j : V- ■:. fr;-r: lly :o \V:I--..n ;ini ♦ 1 wh -m mrmorial brass, n-.-xt to the frrave of John 

). - •!:•■■* -'jTi wv- «r-j i-rr;.-. di- i on 7 Auj. H ;i::»rr. mark* the vault vfiVr his will cf. 

l-j). \V.;i,n &'*«;nd-'l rh- f:n-ril on the I'll est EB, Weftifiiniti^r Abbey He^^ister, y, 

I >••.. •'. . -. '.n Tr.^iiTi'-r ro-Jic pl.ioe b-twr^n ol3». 

rhv }. > i- ;.'/'! '^■fiv^lrv arid th*.- mob at I'um- Wils-n married Jemima (1777-1>23^, 

l>'r;ftr.'! 'f -.r-, Ifvd : Park", ."^hot* '.vr re tired, daujhtrr of Colonel AVilliam IWforJ of 

ari'l \\';.- /fj in'rry/ii-d to pr^rv-nt blxnlih-d. Ilarbledown, Kent, eldest son of General 

II*: "■■■■'. por'-rnpr-cily di-mji-ed from thv William Belford "n. v.] of the royal artil- 

armv m. ].', .S-p*. wlrho-it any r».as m 1^- ler\-. She was coheiress with her sister, 

in;? ft" :';:'d, ^r .':ny oyip>rtnn.*y of ^-xpla- Mr*. Christopher Carleton, of their uncle, 

naii'iii a;riri-'J. Jlavi:i^' puruhav.-d all but .*?Lr Adam Williamson ^q. v.] Both Wilson 



and MiM Belford were w&rds of chancerf 
and under age, and the marriage ceremony, 
with the consent of bolh families, took place 
on 8 Julj 1797 at Gretna Green and again 
on 10 March 1796 at St. Geoi^re's, Hanover 
Square, London. They had a family of seven 
sons andsli daugtiturB. Of the latter, Jemima 
married, as his second wife, Admiral Sir 
Prove WUiiam Parry Wallis fq. v.] 

There are several engraved portraits of 
Wilson ; one hy Ward, from a paintinfc by 
PicVera^l, represents him in uniform with 
all Ilia order* ; another is by Cooper after 
Wivell. A miniature wm painted hy Cos- 
way and engraved hy William Uoll, and ia 
reproduced for the frontispiece of Randolph's 
'Life.' He also figures in the well-known 
painting of the death of Abercromby. 

The following aro works by Wilson not 
mentioned above: I. 'An Account of the 
Campaign in 1801 between the French -\nny 
of the East and the English and Turkisn 
Forces in Egypt," tranalaled by Wilson from 
the French of General Regnier, with obser- 
TBtions, London, 1803, 8vo. 2. ' Narrative 
of Events during the Invasion of Russia hy 
Napoleon Bonaparte and the Retreat of the 
French Army,' 1&12, edited hy Wilson's 
nephew and son-in-law the Rev. Herbert 
Bsndolph, London, 18<10, 8vo. The intro- 
duction gives a brief memoir of Wilson up 
to 1814 : 2nd edit, the aame year. 3. ' Pri- 
TftteDiary of Travels, Personal Services, and 
Public Events during Missions and Employ- 
ment with the European Armies in theCam- 
nigna of 1612, 1613, and 1614, from the 
_. InvHsion of Russia to the Captun? of Paris,' 
L«d]tedby the same, London, 1861, 2 vols. 
" — . 4, 'Life from Autobiographical Me- 
. IS, Journals, Narratives, Correspondence,' 

C, edited hy the same, London. 18fl3, 2 vols. 

8vo. This work was never completed, and 
•tops at the end of 1807. 

[BeiidB tbe maiotinls for a biography «np- 
pli*d by Wilton himaelF ia his works, nii'l in 
election and other pamphlets, see especially A 
Latter in reply to Wilson's Enqnirj, J 804 ; 
Foi^ea's Ouerre de Rasais m IS12, 1H61 ; 
Dnpin'a Proems drs trois Anglais, IS16 : Night- 
iDgslft'a Trial of Sir R. Wilson, fzc. IB16 ; a«a 
alao War Office Records ; Despntchc*; Alison's 
History of Europe (frequent alltuiioDs} ; Aliaou's 
IdTM of Loid Caatlereagh and Sir Charles 
Stswait (frequent allusions) ; Quarterly Re- 
view, vols. V. niii. ivi. irii. and lix. ; Gent. 
Hag. ISie. 1812, and 1819^ Ana. Reg. ISI6, 
1832, 1830, IS49 : Blackwood's Mng. vols. viii. 
xiv. ivi, ni. iiii. nnd Etviii.; Hall's Allnatic 
Monthly, April 18(15: Mayne'slfarraliveoflhe 
Canpaians of the Loynl Lusitsnian Lc^nn under 
Sir R. Wilson, Ac. 1312, 8to : Public Cliaraclers. 
180S-7, vol. ii, ; Barke's Colebrnlcd Navnl and 


Military Trials ; Royal M tli tary Calendar, 1 820 ; 

Royal MiliMry Cbronicla, vols. iii. and v.; 
Notes and Queries, 4th aar. vols, viii. and ix. 
6th ser. vols. i. ii, iii. and v.; Tait's Edinburgh 
Mag. 1849 (obituary notice); Lavalette's Mi- 
moires et SoQvenim; Loudon Times, 10 May 
1849; Cathcart's Commentaries on the War in 
Russia and Oerninny, 18)2-13; Londoarleny's of the War in Germany aud Francs. 
1S13-U; Odie ban's Campaign in Saxony, 1813, 
translaied by Kempe ; Phillippart's Koithera 
Campaign, 1813-13; Porter's Campaign in 
Rnsain in 1812; Walsh's Camiwign in Efeypt, 
I«OI ; Andoraon's JournnI of Iha Kipgdition to 
Egypt, 1801 ; Gleig'a Leipsie Campuign.] 

R. H. T. 

WILSON, ROttXAXD (IfilS-lflfiO), 

Sarliamentarian, bom in 1(113, aud descended 
■om a family established at Qresegart.h in 
the parish of Kendal, Westmorland, was son 
of Rowland Wilson {d. 16 May 1654) of 
Gresegatth and I.*ndon, bv Mary, daughter 
of John Tiffin of London ( Figitatian q/io«- 
<?on,1633^;SiiTTH, Oiituary, p.37). The 
elder Wilson was a wealthy merchant, 
elected sheriff in 163^), but excused on pay- 
ment of a fine of KK)/. {Semembrancia, 
p. 18), The younger Wilson was lieutenant- 
colonel of the orange regiment of the Lon- 
don trained bands, and commanded it ia 
October 1643, joining the army of the Earl 
of Essei after the first battle of Newbury, 
and taking part in the occupation of New- 

fiort Pagnell. ' This gentleman,' aavsWhite- 
Dcke, 'wastheonlysonofhiswealthyfather, 
heir to a large estate of 2,000/. per annum 
in land, and partuerwith his father in ngreat 
personal estate employed in merchandise ; 
yet in conscience he held himself obliged to 
undertake this journey, as persuaded that 
the honour and service of God, and the 
flourishing of the gospel of Christ and the 
true proteataut religion, might in soma 
measure he promoted by this service, and 
that bis example in the city might be a 
means the more to persuade othera not to 
decline it. Upon these grounds he cheer- 
fully marched forth" (Whitelocie, JUe- 
monnfr, 18o3,i. 323; DiiLON.iu(o/ O^rs 
of the London Trained Sandt). 

Wilson was colonel of the orange regiment 

ia 1646, and in June of that ;Fear be 

elected member for Calne. Bemg an i. 
pendent, he was left out of the committee of 
the militiafoT the city of London when that 
bodv was renewed in April 1647 (Wuith- 
LOCIE, ii. 136). On 28 Nov. 1648 Wilson, 
who was a member of the Vintners' Com- 
pany, was elected alderman of Bridge Within 
(JltmMnhraHcia, p. 18n.) A month later he 
was nominated one of the coniinissianer 
the trial of Charles I, but refused to 





( Whitelocke, ii. 495). Nevertheless he con- 
sented to take part in the proclamation of 
the act for the abolition of monarchy in 
London, and was elected a member 01 the 
council of state in February 1649, and 
a^in in February 1650 (Commons^ Journals^ 
vi. 141, 361 ; NoBLE, Lives of the RegicideB, 
ii. 333). In July 1649 he was elected sheriff 
of London, and the House of Ck>mmons in 
giving him leave to serve declared that they 
would regard it as ' an acceptable service to 
the Commonwealth if he took the office' 
{Common^ Journals, vL 259). 

Wilson died on 19 Feb. 1650, and was 
buried on 5 March (Smtth, Obituary, p. 28). 
' lie was a gentleman of excellent parts and 
great piety, of a solid sober t-emper and judg- 
ment, and very honest and just in all his 
actions. He was beloved both in the house, 
city, and army' (Whitblockb, iii. 158). 

Wilson married, in January 1634, Mary, 
daughter of Bigley Carleton of London, grocer 
(Chester, London Marriage Licences, col. 
1484). In the contemporary notes appended 
to the ' List of Officers of the London rrained 
Bands ' he is erroneously described as son- 
in-law to Alderman Wright. His widow 
became the third wife of Bulstrode Wliite- 
locke [q.v.l (R. Whitelocxe, Memoirs of 
Bulstrode Whitelocke, 1860, p. 284). 

[Noble's Lives of the Regicides, ii. 332 ; 
W hi telocke*8 Memorials, 1853; other authori- 
ties mentioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

WILSON, THOMAS (1525 .»-l 581), 
secretary of state and scholar, bom about 
1525, was son of Thomas W^ilson of Strubby, 
Lincolnshire, by his wife Anne, daughter 
and heiress of Roger Cumberworth of Cum- 
berworth in the same county (cf. Ilarl. MS, 
6164, f. 42 b). He was educated at Eton, 
whence in 1541 he was elected scholar of 
King's College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. 
in 1(345-6 and M. A. in 1549. Sir John Cheke 

Sq.v.] was elected provost of King's on 1 April 
548, and Wilson came under the influence 
of the revival of the study of Greek led by 
Cheke, Sir Thomas Smith (1513-1577) 
[q. v.], and others, through whom he be- 
came intimate with Roger Ascham. His 
Ijincolnshire neighbours Katherine Wil- 
loughbv, ducht'ss of Suffolk, Sir Edward 
Dymock, and Cecil also furthered his ad- 
vance, and the Duchess of Suffolk appointed 
him tutor to her two sons, Henry and 
(^harles Brandon (successivelv dukes of 
Suffolk), who divided their time between 
Cambridge and Ilolbeach's episcopal palace 
atBugden (Afldit. MS. 5815. f. 41). On 
their death Wilson collaborated with Walter 
Haddon [({, v.], another Etonian, in produc- 

ing ' Vita et Obitus Duoram Fratrum Suf- 
folciensium, Henrici et Carol! Brandoni . . . 
duabus epistolis explicata,' London, 1551, 
4to. Wilson wrote the dedication to Henry 
Grey, created Duke of Suffolk on 11 Oct. in 
that year, the first epistle, and several of 
the copies of verses at the end of the 
volume. It was published bv Richard Graf- 
ton [q. v.], who had helped Wilson at Cam- 
bridge, and suggested to him his treatise 
' The Rule of Reason, conteinynge the Artd 
of Logique set forth in EngUshe . . . ' which 
was also published by Grafton in the sam^ 
year (London, 8vo) and dedicated to Ed-, 
ward VI. The first edition is very rare, and 
the copy in the British Museum has manu- 
script notes by Sir Thomas Smith ; a 
second edition appeared in 1652, a third in 
1653, and others m 1667 and 1580 ; it con- 
tains a passage from Nicholas Udaira ' Ralph 
Roister Doister,' which is reprinted in 
Wood's *Athen»' (ed. Bliss, 1. 213-14). 
W^ilson also wrote in 1662 a dedication to 
Warwick, the Duke of Northumberland's 
eldest son, of Haddon*s ^Exhortatio ad 

According to John Gough Nichols, Wil- 
son's * Arte of Rhetorique ' was published at 
the same time as, and uniform w^ith, the 
' Rule of Reason,' but the earliest edition of 
which any copy is known to be extant is 
dated ' mense Januarii 1663.' It is entitled 
' The Arte of Rhetorique, for the use of all 
suche as are studious of eloquence, sette 
forthe in Englishe by Thomas Wilson,' 
London, 4to; it bears no printer's name. 
Wilson describes it as being written when 
he was 'having in my country this last 
summer a quiet time of vacation with Sir 
Edward Dymock.' The copy of the first 
edition in the British Museum was given to 
George Steevens [q.v.] by Dr. Johnson. A 
second edition appeared in 1662 (London, 
4to ; prologue dated 7 Dec. 1660), and sub- 
sequent editions in 1667,1680, 1684, and 1685, 
all in quarto. Warton describes it as ' the 
first system of criticism in our language/ 
though in the common use of the word it is 
not criticism at all, but a system of rhetoric 
without much claim to originality, the rules 
being mainly drawn from Aristotle, Cicero, 
and Quint ilian. Wilson, however, did good 
service by his denunciation of pedantry, 
'strange inkhorn terms,' and the use of 
French and * Italianated' idiom, which * coun- 
terfeited the kinges Englishe ' (Hallah, Lit, 
of Europe^ ii. 193, 209; Bbtdges, Censura 
Lit. i. 339, ii. 2). In this way Wilson may 
have stimulated the development of English 
prose, and it has been maintained that Shake- 
speare himself owes something, including 



bints for Diigberry's ch»raeter, to a study of 
Wilson's book (DR.tKB, fSkakempeare and hi* 
TinK,\. WO A, i72-i). 

The ' Arte of RheCoriqite ' was dedicftted 
toNortbutaberland'aeldest son, John Dudley, 
earl of Warwick, and from this time WiUoD 
bec»mt! H staunch adherent of the Uudlej 
family. Ills especial patron in later veara 
being the Earl of Leicester. On Northiim- 
. bertand's fell he sought safety on the con- 
tinent ; in l<>65be was with Chekuat Padua, 
where on 21 Sept. 1566 ha delivered, in 
St. Anthony's Church, an oration on the 
death of Edward Courtenay, earl of Devoii, 
which is printed in Strype'a 'Memorials' 
(toI. iii. App. p. Ivii), Thence he seems to 
have proceedsd to Kome before December 
lfi57, when be was implicated in some in- 
trigue at the papul court against Cardinal 
Pole (Cat. State Paperi. For. 1553-8, pp. 
a46. 374, 880), On 17 March 1557-8 Philip 
and Mary wrote commanding him to return 
Iiome and appear before the privy council 
before lo June following (ifi. Dom. 15-17-80, 
p. 100). The English ambassador, Sir Ed- 
ward Came, delivered liim this letter in 
April, but Wilson paid no attention; and 
it was possibly at Mary'ii instigalion that 
be was arrested and charged before the in- 
flaiaition with haviog written the books on 
logic and rhetoric, and with being a here- 
tic. He is said to have been put to torture, 
1 he owed liis escape to a riot which 
ike ont on the news of Paul IV's death 
ii 18 Aug. 1559, when the nob, enraged at 
"ties of the inquisition, broke open 
IB and released suspected heretics 
1558-9, No. 1287; WltsOH, The 
L^|lrl« </ Hhttorique, ed. 1562, pref.) He 
Ljuw t«ok refuge at Ferrara, where he re- 
^^Tod hia diploma ns LL.D. on 29 Nov. 
"8 ittitt. MSB. Comm. 5th Itep. App. p. . 

■■ ■" s incorporated in this degree at i 

Sept. 1586, and at Cambridge ' 
I 30 Aug. 1671 iLamd. MS. 982, f. 2; 
Ses- Unie. Oxort. i. 204 j Addit. MH. 5815, 
f. 41). 

In 1-560 Wilson returned to London, 
irhence on 7 Dec. he dated the preface to 
die second edition of bis ' Arte of Hheto- 
rique;' he was admitted advocate in the 
court of arches by a commission from Arcb- 
biabop Parker dated 38 Feb. 1560-1 (LaHsd. 
MS. 982, f. 3); and Parker also seems to 
have appointed him dean of the college he 
founded at Stoke Clare, Sullblk (Addit. MS. 
S816, f. 42). In January 1560-1 he spoke 
of being ■ summoned to serve abro«d'(Ca/. 
Slatt Papers, For. 1560-1, No. 930), but no 
trtce of the nature of this mission has been 
found. In the same year he became master 

of St. Catherine's Hospital in the Ti 
and also master of requests (Lg\da.h, Court 
nf Reqaeitt, 18S7, pp. ilv, cvii, cix, 
In the former capacity he incurred 
odium by taking down the choir of St. 
Catherine's, sstd by Stow to have bnen as 
large as that of St. Paul's, and apparently 
it was only Cecil's intervention that pre- 
vented his selling the franchises of the hos- 
pital. Ue was returned for Michael Borough 
m Cornwall to the parliament summoned 
to meet on U Jan. 1662-3 and dissolved 
on 2 Jan. 1666-7. In April 1664 be was 
commissioned with Dr. Valentine Dale [q.T.] 

his book advocating the claims oi 
rinu Grey to the succession {Hatfield MBS. 
vol. i. passim). On newyear's day 1566-7 ho 
presented to the queen an ' Oretio de Cle- 
mentia,' now extant in the British Museum 
{Royal MS. 12 A. 1). 

In 16U3 Sir Thomas Chaloner had urged 
Wilson's appointment as ambassador to the 
court of Spain, but Wilson's liret diplomatic 
employment of any note was hia mission to 
Portugal in 1507; it dealt mainly with 
commercial matters, and Wilson's energies 
were largely devoted to furthering in Portu- 
gal the mercantile interests of his brotlieivin- 
r,iw. Sir William Winter [q.v.] His com- 
mission was apparently dated 6 May 1667 
{Cat. Clarendon Papert, i, 494), but it was 
October before be bad his first interview at 
Lisbon (G,(ton. MS.Jien B. i. 112). While 
there he entered into relations with Osorio da 
Foiiseca,thewell-knownbishopofSilve8, and 
on his return in 1608 Wilson brought with 
him the bishop's reply to Haddon (cf. 
Hitt. MSS. CoTHvi. 5th Kep. App, p, 363, and 
art. H4DD0N, Waltrr), In July he addressed 
some Latin verses to Cecil on his recovery 
from illness. On 13 May 1569 he vainly 
requested to be again sent as agent to Por- 
tugal {Lantii. MS. xii., art. 3), and he gene- 
rally acted as intermediary between Portu- 
guese envoys in London and the English 
government. As a thoroughgoing adherent 
of Leicester he also participated in the earl's 
secret negotiations with the Spanish am- 
baa8&doi{Cal. Siiaancat Papert,16ii^-7&,-pp, 
01 «iq.^ 

In the intervals of these occupatloi 
his duties as master of requests Wilson 
busied himself with his translation of ■ The 
Tbree Orations of Demosthenes, chiefe orator 
among the Grecians in favour of the Olyn- 
thians . , , with those his four Orations . . . 
against King Philip of Macedonia ; most 
nudeful to be redde in these daungerous dayes 
of all them that loue their countries libertie 
and desire to take warning for their better 

Wilson 134 Wilson 

auaylo . . . After those Orations ended, 
Demosthenes lyfe is set foorth ; ' it also con- 
tains a description of Athens and various 

received a warrant to put two of Norfolk's 
servants to the rack (Elus, Orig, Letters, i. 
ii. -61), and so engrossing was this oocupa- 

paneuryrics on Demosthenes. The transla- tion that he took up his residence, and wrote 
tion uad been begun at Padua in 1556 with j letters 'from prison in the Bloody Tower' 
Choke, and Wilsvm seems to have resumed ! (Co«<m. MS, Calig. C. iii. f. 2oO; Hat^ 
it in November 15t)9 {^Lansd. MS. xiii. art. Jieid MSS, i. 571 sqq.) He also conducted 
15 ; Letters 0/ Eminent Lit. Men, pp. -5^9), ; many of the examinations in connection with 
but the preface was not dated till 10 June | the liidolfi plot, and in June 1572 was sent 
1570, in which voar the lHX)k was published 1 with Sir lialph Sadler [q. v.] to Mary Queen 
with a deilication to Cecil (London, 4to). ] of Scots * to exp|OStulate witli her by way of 
The preface contains * a remarkable compari- , accusation ' (t6. ii. 19; instructions in her- 
eon of England with Athens in the time of ton MS. 2124, f. 4). lie was returned for 
Demosthenes/ the part of Philip of Macedon Lincoln city to tne parliament that was 
being tilled by Philip of Spain (Scelet, | summoned to meet on 8 May 1572 and was 
Jiritish iV/iVy, 18iU, i. 156) ; it is similar to ; not dissolved till after his death, and on 
the ' Latin trvatiso on the Dangerous State of : 8 July he was commissioned to provide for 
England/ on which Wilson speaks of being the better regulation of commerce (Lansd. 
engaged on 13 Aug. 1569 {^Lansd. MS. xiii. MS. xiv. art. 21). In the summer of 1573 
art.l)), and which is now extant in the Record ' he had many conferences with the Portu- 
OlUco instate Prt/xr,*, Dom. Eliz. cxxiii. 17), guese ambassadors (Harl. MS. 6991, arts. 24, 
btnng dated 2 April 1578, and entitled * A , 26, and 27). 

Discourse touchiniif the Kingdom*s Perils with I In the autumn of 1574 Wilson was sent 
thoir Uomoilies.* To this is to beattributtnlthe on the first of his important embassies to the 
curious storv cmitributi^d probably by Dr. Netherlands ; he left London on 7 Nov. 
Johnson to the * Litorarv Magazine '\l758, p. (Walsixghaji's Diary K^.Camden Soc. Muac. 
151 ), to the effect that \Vilson was employed iv. 22; his instructions, abstracted in Cat. 
by the government to translate Demosthenes State Papers, For. 1572-4, No. 1587, are 
with a view to rousing a national rt^sistance printed in full in Relations Politiques des 
to Spanish invasion {Addit. MS 5815, f. 42). jRays^Bas et <JC Angleterre, vii. 349-52 ; there 
Apart irom itsiH>litioal signiticanco. Wilson's are others in Cotton. MS. Galba C. v. ff. 51- 
translation is notablo as the earliest Eng- 216, and Hart. MS. 6991). While at Brus- 
lish version of Domost hones, and attains a sels he is said to have insti^ted a plot for 
high lovol of scholarship ; no second edition, seizing Don John and handing him over to 
however, appi^ars to have bet»n called for, the insurgents {Cal. Simancas MSS. 1568- 
though a Latin \'ersion by Nicholas Carr 1579, pp. 543-4). lie remained in the Low 

iq. v.i, who died in 15(v8, was published in Countries until 27 March 1575, when he 
.o71. At the same :inio Wilson was en- sailed from Dunkirk (Act P. C. 1571-5, p. 
gngi>d upon his * Disi'ourso uj»p«.m usurye by 361). His second embassy to the Nether- 
WAvo ot Dialogue and Oracions,' which he lands followed in the autumn of 1576 ; he 
dtHlioattHl to Loicostor. The pn^face is dated left London on 25 Oct. (Camden Soc. Misc. 
20 July 156l>, but the book was not pub- iv. 28), and spent nearly nine months in 
lishod until 1572 (London, 8vo; 2nd edit. Flanders, mainly at Brussels, Bruges, Ant- 
1584). It was one of the numerous six- werp, or Ghent. His despatches are printed 
toonth-century attacks up^m interest based in *Kelat ions Politiques* (ix. 1-414; see also 
mainly on biblical texts which proved abso- Cat. State Papers, For. 1575-77 ; Hatfield 
lutoly unavailing against the ea>nomie ten- MSS. vol. ii. passim; Cotton. MS. Gralba C. 
doncios of the time, but it is of some value v. ff. 272-358; Harl. MSS 36 art, 34, and 
as illustrating various phases of contempo- 6992 arts. 36, 37 ; and Lansd. MSS. civ. art. 
rary opinion on the subject (^Ashley, Econ. 67). The ostensible purpose of his mission 
Hist. li. 467-9) ; Jewel bt^stowed up^m it his was to negotiate some modus vivendihet'ween 
warm commendation, and on Jewel's death Don John, with whom he had various inter- 
WiUou contributtxl a v.\>py of verses to the views (e.g. on 1 May 1577, Cotton. MS GUbn 
collection published in his memory (^London, C. v. f. 306), and the Dutch insurgents; but 
157;^ 4to). " he soon came to the conclusion that such 

Loss congenial work occupieil Wilson schemes were impracticable, and urged a 
during the autumn of 1571; on 7 Sept. he complete understanding between England 
convoyed tho Duke of Norfolk to the Tower, and William of Orange (Hatfield MSS. ii. 
and for the next few weeks he did * nothing 150-4 ; cf. PnyAM, William tKe Silent, ii. 
else but examine prisoners' (Cal. Siman- 172-212). He also took part in the negotia- 
cas MSS. 1568-79, p. 339). On the 15th he tions for a marriage between Elizabeth and 

During his absence Wilson 
S3 April lo77 nominated a commit 
ft special nBitalion of Oiford University, but 
he VM d-iBtined for more itnportftut work. 
In September the Spanieb ambaaeador 

■, and Matthew 

Wilson w»s one (Cal. Sinanea» MSS. 1568- 

tSTO, p. MO). WiUoD does not, however, 

" privy council I ur until 13 Nov., 

|Taacce«»ion to ^ir Thomaa Smith (AcU P. C 
ed. Duent, iri77-8, p. S5). From thretdat^ 
lie wu conatant in atteodance on thu coun- 
cil, but he was somewhat overshadowed by 
tbe superior ability of hia colleague in the 
secretariate. Sir Francis Walsin^Lam Iq. v. J, 
ojid the nature of his political inSuence is 
not easy to distinffuish, more particularly as 
he tempered kia adherence to Leicester with 
'^m* firm desire to stand well with Ilur^hley. 
^KBe was, however, the principal authority on 
^^VonugueEe afTairs, and was the main eup- 
Hnorter of Don Antonio's ambassadors in Lon- 
■■loii (Cal. S.'monws MSH. l-^SO-fi, p. 183). 
In 1560 he became one of Eliinbuth s lay 
deoas, beinff installed dean of Durham un 
6 Feb. 1679-80, a prsferment for which he 
■was a candidate in 1503, when William 
Whittinj^ham [q. v.] waa appointed (Lb 
Nbvk, Fiut!, iii. 29it>. Ralph Lever [q.v.l 
protested against Wilson's election (Cal. 
StaU Paper; Dom. 1547-80, p. 644), and 
~'' lamination of a layman to the deanery 
a rude assertion of the royal suprBroaey 
it those who had cavilled at Wilaon'a 
«ssor on the (rround of his invalid or- 
ation (cf, Add. MS. 23235, f. 5). 
I Wilson's last attendance nt the council 
' Ud was on 3 May 1681. Ho died at St. 
therine's Hnapit^ on 16 June followine, 
I buried there on the 17th. He 
in his will that he should be buried 
'vilhoat charge or pomp,' and no trace of 
Us monument, if there was one, remains. 
A poitrwt of Wilson, dated 1575 but re- 
L J*!**^ in 1777, representing him in a black 
t'ttro and dark furred dress, belonged in 1806 
Od Sir Thomas Maryou Wilson, bart. (OK, 
gJVrH Loan Krm. ^o. 2)4, where Wilson is 
Roneoualy styled ' Sir Thomas^). Another, 
n old copy of an anonymous painting, was 
K 1879 transferred from the British Museum 
..O the National Portrait Gallery, London. 
tAcopy of his will, dated 19 Mav 1581, is 
t'^vserwed at Hatlield (,Cal. HatfUtd MSS. 
pjd. 391). He left hia housu at Edmonton to 
" 9 overseers of hb will. Sir Francis Wal- 

Smith, t 

dred marks to his daughter Mary o 
marriage or coming of Bge, and a like sum t< 
liis daughter Lucrece ; his son Nicholas wa 
to be sole executor. No successor was ap 
pointed to Wilson, Walsinghom acting ua 
sole secretary until Davison's eelection on 
30 Sept. 15b6. His death waa the occasion 
nf various poetical laments (cf. Uitt. MSS. 
C'omm. 2nd Kep. App. p. 97, ith Rep. App. 
pp. a.i2^). 

Wilson was twice married : first, to Jane, 
daughter of Sir Richard Empson [u. v.l, and 
widow of John Pinchou of Writtle, Essex 
{Baker, Norihamptotuhire, ii. 141). By her 
Wilson appears to have had no issue ; and he 
married, secondly, Agnes, daughter of John 
Winter of Lidney, (Jlouceatersbire, sister 
of Sir William Winter, the admiral, and 
widow of William Brooke ( Vitit. GloucetUr- 
shire, 1823, p. 374); of her three children, 
the only son, Nicholas, settled at Sheepwash, 
Lincolnshire (see pedigree in Coll. of Amu 
MS. U. 23); Mary married, first, llobert Bur- 
dett (d. 1603) of Bramcole, by whom she 
was mother of Sir Tbomaa Burdett, first 
baronet.ancestor of Sir Francis Burdett[q. v.] 
and of the nnroacss Burdelt-Ooutls ; and, 
Christopher Lowther of Low- 
ther, Westmorland. She was buried in the 
ciioir of Penrith parish church {Lantd. MS. 
"'"'"' f. 2), Wilson's second daughter, Lu- 
, married Sir George Belgrave of Bel- 
grave, Leiceaterehire. 

Wilson has generally been confused with 
e or more cont^mporariea of the same 
me ; a confusion of him with Sir Thomaa 
Wil»oni'lSflOP-1629)[a.T.]h»a led to his 
beiug frequently styleii a knight. Other 
contemporaries were Thomas Wilson {d. 
158ti), a fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, who took refuge at Frankfurt during 
Mary's reign, was elected dean of Worcester 
in 1571, and died on 20 July 1580 (Coopek, 
Athena Cantabr. ii. 5~ti) ; Thomas Wilson 
(d. 1616), canon of Wind8or(Bee£oJMd. AfS. 
983, f. 147); and Thomas Wilson (1508- 

[A miiHB of Wilson's correspondence remains 
in the Record Oliicci, prinnpnllj amung the 
foreigD state pupers, and in the British Musfam; 
the portions tlmt hnve lieen primed or caleo- 
dured are indiistcd in tli« t«2t. Ree also Cat. 
Cotton., Harleian, Liuiaduwne. and Add. MSS. ; 
Cut, State PuporSi Dum., Forrign, and Spanish 
tarion; Acta of the Privy ConQcil, od. DaaHDt; 
Hnyaes and Murdin's Burghley Stats Papers ; 
Cal. HatSell MSS. voU. i. and ii. ; Collins's 
Letters Slid Memorials of StnU; UigKBa'a Com- 
pleat AmbiiBsador, 18SS; Kervyn da Lelten- 





hora'e Rel. F0I. dee Puts-Bos at d'Angleterre, 
1882-1801. vols. xi-x. : WrishtV Quaen Eliw- 
'belli and hcF Timet; Kam's Lifu of Burghley, 
3 toIb.. Hume's Qrpal Lord Burghtrj. 1898 ; 
f roodd'a Hist, of Enflliiad ; CuIb'b Atheiue 
<Bnt. Mu*. Add. MS. agio. tt. iO-6); Fuller'a 
Uiat. of Cambrid)!;e, p. 75, and Wartliies, sd. 
1836 ; Tinnafe Bibl. Brit.-Uil). ; Ritsoo'i Bibl. 
Angto-Pootiloi ; Stripe's Works (Gunemt Index, 
1827) ; OourIi's Qenoml Index to Parker See. 
Pub!. ; Daoitei and Nichnla'i Uiat. of St. Cathe- 
line'a Hospital; Oeat. Mag. 1833, i. leS-Tfi; 
£)1)b's OHginnl Liters; Lodfte'a 111 uat rations, 
ii. I91-fi: LiL Remains of Elvard VI (Roi- 
barghe Club) : Atchom'a EplBtolea, pp. 42S, 426 ; 
Otl)riel Harrey's Worka, od. Grosart, i. 18'.!, ii. 
84 : Q'Rwes's JoacnnU ; Burgan'a Lift< and Times 
of Greabam : Cooprr's Atlienir Cantabr. i. 431-7, 
«6B ; Foster's Alnmm OiOD. U00-17U ; OlBml 
Bet. Members of Pari. ; Natra nail Qaeriea, 
2nd ser. vi. 243 ; Wilaon's Works in Brit. Mua. 
Libr.] A. F. P. 

WILSON, TnOMAS(1563-1023),divine, 
born iu the couutr of Durham in IMS, ma- 
triculated from (Jueen's Colle^, Oxford, 
CD 1: Nov. IMl, aged 18, graduated B..^ 
on 7 Feb. 1583-4, and was licensed M..X. 
on 7 Julv 1&66 (Clike, Indexes, ii. 103, iii. 
119). lie was elected chaplain of the col- 
lege, apparently before he was ordained, on 
S4 April I58r>. In July lr>86 he was 
appointed rector of ISt. Oeore^ the .Xartyr at 
Canti'rburj' through the influence of Henry 
Robinson (155SP-1C16) [q. v.], provost of 
Queen's College and afterwards bishop of 
Carlisle, to whom WiUon also owed his col- 
lege education (cf. the epistle dedicatory 10 
the Christian Dictionarie). He remained at 
Canterbury for tUe rest of his life, preaching 
three or four sermons every week, and win- 
ning the affections of the puritan section of 
his people, although more than once com- 
ploiiied of by others to Archbishop Abbot for 
nonconformity. He was acting as chaplain 
to Thomas, second lord Wotton, in 1611. 

Wilson died at Canlerbury in January 
1621-'2, and was buried in his own church- 

J'ard, outside the chancel, on the 35th. A 
uneral sermon was preached ( London, 1 Q2'2, 
4to) by William Swift of St. Andrew's, Can- 
terbury, great -grandfather of Dean Sivift. 
His portrait, engraved by Cross, prefixed to 
the ' Commcntnrie,' shows him to lie a lean, 
sbarp-visaged man ; he was married and left 
a large family. 

Wilson's chief work was liis 'Chrislinn 
Dictiouarie ' (London, 1612, 4lo), one of the 
earliest attempts made at a concordance of 
the Bible in English. Its usefulness was 
soon recognised, an<l it ran through many 
edilions. The fourth was much enlargell 
by John Bagwell (n.d., London) ; the fifth 

appeared in 1&17 ; the sixth <165£, foL) was 
still further augmented by Andrew Synwon. 
Over bis * Commentarie ' on Romans, a work 
written in the form of a dialogue between 
Timothens and Silas, Wilson spent seven 
years. It was reprinted in 1627 (fol.), and 
reached a third edition in 1653 (4to). In 
leil hepublUhed in octavo a volume con- 
taining (a) 'Jacob's Ladder; or, a short 
Treatise laying forth the severall D^rees 
of Gods Kiemall PuTpoae,' (6) ' A Dialogue 
about JvstiEcation by Faith,' (c) 'A lieceit 
against lleresie,' and two sermons. Besides 
some further sermons and other worka ap- 
parently lost, he wrote ' Saints by Calling ; 
or, Called to be Saints,' X/)ndon, 1620, 4to, 
[Drook'sLiTesoflheParitani. ii. 282; Oran- 
ger's Biogr. Hist. i. 3S9 ; Huated'a Eeut. iii. 
471 ; Cbalmars's Biogr. Diet. ; Registers of St. 
Gforgo the Mnrlyr, Canterbury, ed. Coirper, 
1391,pp. iii. vii, 19, 20. 21, 23, 182; informa- 
tion from the Provost of Queen's College. Ox- 
ford.] C. F. S. 

WILSON, Sir THOMAS n560?-1629-i. 
keeper of the records and author, born pro- 
bably about 1560, is described in the admis- 
sion register of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, as ' Norfolciensis,' and is said to hare 
been ' nephew ' of Dr. Thomas Wilson ( 1 62.5 .'■- 
1561) [q. v.], Eliiabeth's secretary of stale 
(Caf. State Papers, Ireland, 160:1-6, p. ix>. 
No confirmation of thb relationship has been 
traced, and the younger Wilson la not men- 
tioned in the elder's will. Possiblv he was 
the ■ Thomas Wilson of Willey, Ilertford- 
shire, son and heir of Wilson of the same, 

Snt.,' who was admitted Etudent of Oray's 
n on 11 Feb. I59i-5. He was educated 
apparently at Stamford grammar school, 
and matriculated from St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on 26 Nov. 157fi. In 1583 he 
waa elected on BuT^hley's nomination to a 
scholarship on the foundress's foundation at 
St. John's (Burghley in Lansd. AfS. 77, f. 20; 
St. John's Coll. Begister, per Mr. U. F. Scott). 
He graduated B.A. in 1583 from St. John's 
College, but migrated to Trinity Hall, whence 
he graduated M.A. in 1667. For fifteen 
years, according to his own account, he 
studied civil law at Cambridge. In 16SU 
he procured a letter from Burghley r 

and Wilson betook himself to foreign travel. 
In 1596, while sojourning in Italy and Ger- 
many, Wilson translated from the Spanish 
Gorge de Montemayor's ' Diana,' a romance, 
from which the story of 'Two Gentlemen of 
Verona' was partly drawn (Lgb, Shale- 
tpeare,^. 63); it was dedicated to Shake- 


L'q>ean;'s frieiii), t!io Karl of SoutlmmptoD, 
' 'then upon ihu Spanish vaiage vrith mj Lord 
of Ee»ex.' Tho origin&l translation does not 
appear to be eitont, but about 1617 Wilson 
nitide A <^'^PT< extant in British Museum Ad- 
ditional MS. 18038, which he dedicated to 
Fulke Orei-ille, cLancellor of the exch(<quer, 
«nd afterwards Lord Brooke [q, v.j ; he re- 
marhs that Brooke's friend Sir Philip Sidney 
[q. v.] 'did much afiect and imitate' 'Diana,' 
ftDd possibly Wilson took part in publish- 
ing some of Sidney's works, for on 12 April 
16U7 he asked Sir Thomas Lake to further 
hiB petition for the privilege of printing 
'cerUtin books [by Sianey] wherein myself 
Uid my late dear friend Mr, QoIdinR have 
taken pains ' (Cal. State Papert, Dom., Ad~ 
denda, 1680-1626, p. 496 ; of. art. GoLDlNo, 
Akthitb). He is possibly also the Thomas 
"Wilson whose name appears at the foot of 
the first page of the manuscriDt ' Booke on 
the State of Ireland,' addressed to Essex by 

* II. C (? Heiiry Cuffe [q. vj) in 1599 (Co;. 
State Fapiri, Ireland. 1599-0. p. fia5) ; 
owing to Its being-a dialogue ' between Fere- 
frryn and Silvyn,' the namps of Kdraund 
Spenser's two sons, it has been iTonsidered 
the work of the poet himself [cf. art. Sfen- 
a£B, EDtlUKtl}. 

Ill spite of these indications of a connec- 
tion with Southampton and Qsaox, Wilson, 
fortunately for himself, remained faithful to 
the Cecils, and during the later years of 
Eliaabeth's reign he was constantly em- 

tloyed as foreign intelli);encer, On '21 Feb. 
600-1 Sir Robert Cecil wrote to him ;' I 
tike so well many of your letters and dis- 
coDFses to the lord treasurer [Buckhurst] 
l\uA I wish you not only to continue the 
Mme couise of writing to him. but uino to 
me ' {Cal. Slate Paper*, Dom. 159&-1(X)1. p. 
,<00). Among these discourses was one 
" an on 1 31arch following ' on the state of 
jlond i.D. 1600,' giving the claims of 
|t»relve competitors for the crown, ' with a 

* sription of this country and of Ireland, 
conduct of the people, state of the re- 
tie and expenses, and the military and 

rs4Tal forces; it is extaut In the Iteeord 
Office {Stale Papei-i, Dom., Elizabeth, vol. 
oclxxx.) In December he was at Florence, 
and he speaks of being employed on various 
negotiations with the Dulie of Ferrara, the 
Venetians, and other Italian states (Ui. 
James I, cxxiv. 1 J ; for details of his move- 
ments, see bis diary in ib. xi. 45). He was 
obriously a thorough Italian scholar (cf, 
Addit. its. 11676, tf. 2sqq.), and the main 
abject of bis residence in Italy during 1601- 
1B02 was to ascertain the nature and extant 
of the Spanish and papa! designs against 

England (ffl/. State Papen.Tiota. 1601-S, i 
pp. 127, 234). Ue returned to England ' 
during the winter, and was at. Greenwich on 
13 June 1603 (Co(Coti. MS. Calig. E. x. 360; 
Ellis, Orig. Letten, u. iii. 201-2), but 
early in 1604 he was sent to reside as consul 
in Spain {Cal. Stale Papert, Dom. Jamea I, 
flnxv, 14; WiswooD, iMei7i.ii.45; Nichols, 
Frogr. Jama I, i. 475}. He was at Bayonne 
in February 1603-4 {Cotton. MS. Cafiy, E, 
zi. 78^9), and remained in Spain until the 
arrival of the Eurl of Nottingham and Sir 
Charles Oomwullis [q. v.] us ambassadors in 

On bis return to England Wilson defi- 
nitely entered the service of Sir Robert 
Cecil, who teased to him a house adjoining 
liis own, called ' Britain's Burse,' in Durham 
I'Uoe, Strand (see sketch in SttiU Paperi, 
Dom.. Charles I, xxi. Ui). He look a con- 
siderable part in supervising the building of 
Salisbury s house in Durham Place and also 
Bt HatUeld, in the neighbourhood of which 
lie received from Lord SalLibury the manor 
of Iloddesdon. In 1606 he is said to have 
been returned to psrliament for Newton 
(P Newtown, Isle of Wight); the official 
return does not mention this bv-election, 
but that Wilson fat in this parliament is 
probable from the frequent notes of its pro- 
ceeding with regani to such matters oa 
Bcutases and the ' post-natl ' with which he 
supplied the government. He also kept the 

made a collection of the objections likely ti 
be urged against the union in parliament. 
About 1606, on the surrender of Sir Thomas 
Lake [q, v.], Salisbury procured for Wilson 
the post of keeper of the records at White- 
ball, with a salary of 30^ ; he also obtained 
the clerkship of imports, worth 40/. a year, 
but lost it when Suffolk became treasurer in 

Wilson was a zealous and energetic keeper 
of the records, and made many euggestiona 
with regard to them, which, if they had 
been adopted, would have saved subsequent 
students an infinity of trouble. One of these 
waa the creation of an oHice in which char- 
tularies of dissolved abbeys and moQasteries 
should be transcribed and kept for the use 
of 'searchers,' and to prevent needless liti- 
gation for want of access to title-deeds 
(Cal. Slate Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 608). 
Another, inspired more by self-inl^rest, was 
the creation of an office of 'register of 
honour,' to be filled by himself, so as to 
obviate froqiii^nt disputes for precedence 
among knights and their ladies. He also sug- 
gested the publication of a gasette of n 





'as is already done in Germany, France, 
Italy, and Spain,' and the grant of a patent 
to himself for printing it. His main diffi- 
culty was with secretaries of state and other 
officials, who refused to deliver to him public 
documents to which he considered the state 
entitled, and with highly placed borrowers 
who neglected to return the documents they 
borrowed. Among the latter was Sir Robert 
Bruce Cotton [q. v.], and in 1015 Wilson pro- 
tested against Cotton's appointment as keeper 
of the excheauer records, complaining that 
Cotton already injured the keepers of the 
state papers enough by * having such things 
as he nath coningly scraped together,' and 
fearing that many exchequer records would 
find tneir way into Cotton's private collec- 
tion. Similarly, when Ralph Starkey [^.v.] 
acquired the papers of Secretary Davison, 
Wilson procured a warrant for their seizure, 
and on 14 Aug. 1619 secured a sackful, con- 
taining forty-five bundles of manuscripts 
{Harl. MS, 286, f. 286). He rendered valu- 
able service in arranging and preserving 
such documents as he did succeed in ac- 
quiring (cf. Cat, State Papers, Ireland, 1603- 
1606, pref. pp. xx, xxii, xxxv, xli ; Edwards, 
Founders of the British Museunif p. 149). 

Wilson's interests were not, however, con- 
fined to the state paper office. He was an 
original subscriber to the Virginia Company 
(Browx, Genesis, i\. 1054), and kept a Keen 
watch on discoveries in the East Indies, 
maintaining a correspondence with persons 
in most quarters of the globe (see Pubchas, 
Pilf/rimes, i. 408-13 ; CaL State Papers,EtiSt 
Indies, vols. i. and ii. passim). He petitioned 
for a grant of two thousand acres in Ulster 
in 1618, and drew up a scheme for the mili- 
tary government of Ireland ( Cat. State Papers, 
Ireland, 1015-25, p. 202 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
4th Rep. App. p. 284). He thought he 
' could do better service than in being always 
buried amongst the state papers ; ' his especial 
ambition was to be made master of requests, 
an office for which he repeatedly and vainly 
petitioned the king. He also procured royal 
letters to the fellows of Trinity Hall and of 
Gonville and Caius Colleges in favour of his 
election as master of their respective societies 
at the next vacancy; but the letters seem 
never to have been sent, and Wilson re- 
mained keeper of the records till his death. 

He was, however, knighted at WTiitehall 
on 20 July 1618 (Nichols, Progr. of James I, 
iii. 487), and in September following was 
selected for the dishonourable task of worm- 
ing out of Ralegh sufficient admissions to con- 
demn him. lie took up his residence with 
Ralegh in the Tower on 14 Sept., and was 
relieved of his charge on 15 Oct. He ap- 

pears to have entered on his duties with 
some zest, styling his prisoner the 'arch- 
hypocrite' and * arch-impostor/ and ad- 
mitting in his reports that he had held out 
the hope of mercy as a bait ; there is, how- 
ever, no ground for the suggestion thrown 
out by one of Ralegh's biographers that the 
real object of Wilson's employment was 
Ralegh s assassination (Wilson's reports are 
among the Domestic State Papers, see CaL 
1611-18, pp. 669-92; some are printed in 
Speddinq 8 Bacon, xiii. 425-7). On lialegh's 
death Wilson urged the transference of his 
manuscripts to the state paper office, and 
actually seized his * mathematical and sea- 
instruments' for the navy board, and drew up 
a catalogue of his books, which he presented 
to the king. 

Wilson died some time before 31 July 
1629, when letters of administration were 
granted to his widow Margaret, possibly 
sister of the Peter Mewtys or Mewys whom 
Wilson succeeded in 1605 as member for 
Newtown. His only child, a daughter, mar- 
ried, about 1614, Ambrose Randolph, younger 
son of Thomas Randolph (1523-1590) [q.v.l, 
who was joint-keeper of the records with 
Wilson from 1614. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Wilson compiled a * Collection of Divers 
Matters concerning the Marriages of Princes' 
Children,' which he presented on 4 Oct. 1617 
to James I ; the original is now in British 
Museum Additional MS. 11576. On 10 Aug. 
1616 he sent to EUesmere a 'collection of 
treaties regulating commercial intercourse 
with the Netherlands ' {Egerton Papers, Cam- 
den Soc. p. 476) ; he drew up a digest of the 
arrangement of documents in nis office 
{StoweMS.6^,K 2sqq.),and left unfinished 
a history of the revenues of the chief powers 
in Europe (Cal, State Papers, Dom. 1623-5, 
p. 557). Much of his correspondence is pre- 
served among the foreign state papers in the 
Record Office, and among the yet uncalen- 
dared documents at Hatfield. 

[Wilson gives an acconiit of his services in his 
petitions in State Papers, Dora., James I, xciiL 
131, and czxxv. 14, and of his movements io 
160U4, if), xi. 45. See also Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1600-28, passim, Ireland, 1603-25; 
Cotton. MS. Calig. E. xi. 81 ; Lansd. MS. 77> 
f. 20 ; Harl. MS. 7000, f. 34 ; Hist. MSS, Comm. 
2nd Rep. App. pp. 55, 283, 284, 9th Rep. App. 
ii. 373 ; Winwood's Memorials, ii. 45 ; Nichols's 
Prrgr. of James I, i. 188, 246, 475, iii. 487; 
Brewer's Court and Times of James I ; Sped- 
ding's Bacon ; St. John, Edwards, Oayley, Steb- 
hing, and Humes Li ves of Ralegh ; Gardiner's 
Hist, of England, ii. 143; authorities cited in 
text] A. F. P. 





)N, THOMAS (16ti;i-175.i), bishop 
and Mun, Eixth of seven childrea 
of Nalhaniel [d. 29 May 1702) 
and Alice (d. 16 Aug. 1708) WilBon, was 
bora at Burton. Cheshire, on 20 Dec. 1663. 
Jlta mother was a sister of Richard Sherlock 
[q. v.] From the King's school, Chester, 
under Francis Harpur tCRinrWBiL ; hut a 
local tradition identifies his master witli 
Edward Unipiir of the grammar school, 
Frodsham) he entered Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, as a sizar on i'9 Mny ISS3, his tutor 
being John Barton, afterwards dean of Ar- 
dagh. Swift entered in the previous month ; 
other contemporariea were Peter Browne 

S.V.] and Edward Chandler fq. v.] He was 
ectedscho!aron4Junel683. InFebruary 
1686 he graduated B.A. The inQuence of 
Uichael Ilewetson Id. 1709} turned his 
thoughts from medicine to the church. 
was ordained deacon before attaining the 
canonical age by William Moreton [n. v.], 
bishopofliildare.on St. Peter's day (29 Ji ' 
1686, He left Irelnnd to become cui 
(10 Feb. 1687) to his uncle Sherlock, in 
obapelryof NewchurchKenyon,nowa sepa- 
rate parish, then in the parish of Winwick, 
Lancashire. He was ordained priest by 
Nicholas Stratford [q. v,] on 20 Oct. 1689, 
and remained in ctiarge of Newchurcb till 
the end of August 1692. He was then ep- 

Kiintod domestic chaplain to William George 
ichanl Stanley, ninth earl of Derby {d. 
1702), and tutor to his only son, James, lord 
Strange (1680-1699), with a salary of 30/. 
Eftrly in 1693 he was appointed master of 
the almshouse at Latham, yielding 201. more. 
At Eaater he mnde a vow to set apart n fifth 
of his slender income for pious uses. especiiiUy 
for the poor. In .June he was offered by 
Lord Derby the valuable rectory of Bads- 
worth, West Hiding of Yorkshire, but re- 
fused it, having made a resolution against 
non-renidence. He graduated M.A, in 1696 
(Cat. tif Graduates Unit: of DubUrx, 1669; 
Btubbs says 1693). 

On 27 Nov. 169? Lord Derby offered him 
the bishopric of .Sodor and Man, vacant since 
the death of Baptist Leviuz [q. v.], and in- 
sisted on his taking it, On lU Jan. 1698 he 
was created LL.D. by Archbishop Teniaon 
{his own statement ; Foster aava the entry 
is of ' John' Wilson). On 16 Jan. 1698 he 
was cflDsecrated at the Savoy (Lb Neve, 
Fatti, ed. Ilardv, 1864, iii. '328 ; Stubbs, 
On 26 Jan. the rectory of Badsworth was 
again offered to him in eommendam, and 
again refused, though the see of Man was 
vorth no more than SOO/. a year. His first 
business was to recover the arrears of royal 




bounty (an annuity of HXll. granted 1675). 
On 6 April he landed at Derby Haven in 
ihe Isle of Man, and wosetulledon 11 April 
in the ruins of St, German's Cathedral, Peel, 
and at once took up his residence at Bishop's 
Court, Kirk Michael. He found it also in a 
ruinous condition, and set about rebuilding 
tlie greater part of it, at a coat of 1,400/.. irf 
which all but 200/. came from hisown pocket. 
He soon became 'a very energetic planter' 
of fruit and forest trees, turning ' the bare 
slopes' into ' a richly wooded glen.' He was 
on equally zealous farmer and miller, doing 
much by his example to develop the re- 
sources of the island. For some time he was 
' the only physician in the island ; ' he set up 
a drug-shop, giving advice and medicine 

Sraiis to the poor (UEUTTWEtL. p. ici), He 
ad not been two months in the island when 
he had before him the petition of Christopher 
Hampton of Kirk Braddon, whose wife had 
been condemned to eeven years' penal servi- 
tude for lamb stealing, and who asked the 
bishop's license for a second marriage in 
consideration of his ' motherless children.' 
Wilson gave him (26 May 1098) ' liberty to 
make such a choice as may be most for yo' 
support and comfort.' Yet his views of 
marriage were usually strii^t { marriage witli 
a deceased wife's sister be regarded as incest. 
The building of new churches (beginning 
with the Castletown chapel, 1698) was one 
of his earliest cares, and in 1699 he took up 
the scheme of Thomas Bray (1656-1T30) 
[q. v.], and began the eatabtisument of paro- 
chial libraries in his diocese. This led to 
provision in the Manx language for the neada 
of his people. The printing of 'prayers for 
the poor families' is projected in a memo- 
randum of Whil-Sunday 1699, but was not 
carried out till 30 May 1707, the date of 
issue of bis ' Principles and Duties of Chris- 
tianity ... in EngHsh and blanks . , . with 
short and plain directions and prayers,' 1707, 
2 parts, Hvo. This was the first book pub- 
li8liedinMani,ftnd is often styled the 'Manx 
Catechism ' It was followed by ' A Further 
Instruction;' 'A Short, and Plain Instruc- 
tion. , .for the Lord's Supper,' 1733; and 
' The Gospel of St, Matthew,' 1748 (trans- 
lated, with the help of his vicars-general, ia 
1722). The remaining Gosiiels and the Acts 
were also translated into Manx under hii 
supervision, but not published (MoOKE, p. 
218). lie freely issued occasional ordersfor 
special services, with new prayers, the Uni- 
formity Act not specifying the Isle of Man. 
A public library was established by him at 
Castletown in 1706, and from that jrear, by 
help of the trustees of the ' academic fund.' 
and by benefactions from Lady Elizabeth 





Hastings [q. v.], he did much to increase the 
efficiency ot the gprammar schools and parish 
schools in the island. He was createa D.D. 
at Oxford on 3 April 1707, and incorporated 
at Cambridge on 11 June. In 1724 he 
founded, and in 1732 endowed, a school at 
Burton, his birthplace. 

The restoration of ecclesiastical discipline 
was, from the first, an object which Wilson 
had at heart. Scandalous cases, frequently 
involving the morals of the clergy, gave him 
much trouble. The 'spiritual statutes' of 
the island (valid, where not superseded by 
the Anglican canons of 1603) were of native 
growth, and often uncouth in their pro- 
visions. Without attempting to disturb these 
(with the single exception oi abolishing com- 
mutation of penance by fine), Wilson drew 
up his famous ' Ecclesiastical Constitutions,' 
ten in number, .which were subscribed by 
the clergy in a convocation at Bishop's Court 
on 3 Feb. 1704, ratified by the governor and 
council on 4 Feb., confirmed by James Stanley, 
tenth earl of Derby (d, 1736), and publicly 
proclaimed on the Tinwald Hill on 6 June. 
Of these constitutions it was said by Sir 
Peter King, first lord King [q. v.], that * if 
the ancient discipline of the church were 
lost, it might be found in all its purity in 
the Isle of Man.' 

The discipline worked smoothly till 1713, 
* when it came into collision with the official 
class' (MooRE, p. 192), owing to an appre- 
hended reduction of revenue through Wil- 
son's practice of mitigating fines in the spi- 
ritual court. Robert Mawdesley {d. 1732), 
governor from 1 703, had been in harmony 
with Wilson; his successor in 1713, Alex- 
ander Home, became Wilson's determined 
opponent. The first direct conflict began in 
1716. Mary Henricks, a married woman, 
was excommunicated {22 Oct.) for adultery, 
and condemned to penance and prison. She 
appealed (20 Dec.) to the lord of the isle, and 
Home allowed the appeal; Wilson, rightly 
maintaining that there was no appeal except 
to the archbishop of York, did not appear 
at the hearing (23 Dec. 1717, in London), 
and was fined (19 Feb. 1719) in 10/.; the 
fine was remitted (20 Aug.) The episcopal 
registrar, John Woods of Kirk Malew, was 
twice imprisoned (1720 and 1721) for re- 
fusing to act without the bishop's direction. 
The governor's wife (Jane Home) was or- 
dered (19 Dec. 1721) to ask forgiveness (in 
mitigation of penance) for slanderous state- 
ments. For admitting her to communion 
and for false doctrine Archdeacon Robert 
Horrobin, the governor's chaplain, was sus- 
]>ended (17 May 1722). Retusing to recall 
* ' ^s, Wilson was fined (26 June) 

50/., and his vicars-general 20/. apiece, 
and in default were imprisoned in Castle 
Rushen (29 June). Wilson appealed to the 
crown (19 July); they were released on 
31 Aug., but the fines were paid through 
Thomas Corlett. The dampness of the prison 
had so affected Wilson's right hand that he 
was henceforth unable to movd his fingers 
in writing. In 1724 the bishopric of Exeter 
was offered to Wilson as a means of reim- 
bursement. On his declining, G^rge I pro- 
mised to meet his expenses from the privy 
purse, a pledge which the king's death leit 

Part of Horrobin's false doctrine was his 
approval of a book which Wilsoij had cen- 
sured. On 19 Jan. 1722 John Stevenson, a 
layman of Balladoole, forwarded to Wilson 
a copy of the 'Independent W^hig,' 1721, 
8vo [see Gordon, Thomas, d. 1750, and 
Trenchard, John, 1602-1723], which had 
been circulated in the island and sent to 
Stevenson by Richard W^orthington for the 
public library. Wilson issued (27 Jan.) a 
pastoral letter to his clergy, bidding them 
excommunicate the * agents and abettors' of 
' such-like blasphemous books.* For sup- 
pressing the book Stevenson was imprisoned 
in Castle Rushen by Home, who required 
Wilson to deliver up the volume as a con- 
dition of Stevenson s release. This he did 
(21 Feb.) under protest. When the book 
reached William Ross, the librarian, he said 
' he would as soon take poison as receive that 
book into the library upon any other terms 
or conditions than immediately to bum it.' 
Horrobin, on the other hand, affirmed (De- 
cember 1722) that the work 'had rules and 
directions in it sufficient to bring us to heaven, 
if we could observe them ' (cf. Letter to the 
publisher, by W^[alter] A[wbery], prefixed to 
Independent Whig, 6th edit. li^32). 

Home was superseded in 1723. Floyd, 
his successor, was generally unpopular. W' ith 
the appointment of Thomas Ilorton in 1725, 
began a new conflict between civil and eccle- 
siastical authority. Lord Derby now claimed 
(5 Oct. 1725) that the act of Henry VHI, 
placing Man in the province of York, abro- 
gated all insular laws in matters spiritual. 
The immediate result was that Horton re- 
fused to carry out a recent decision of the 
House of Keys, granting soldiers to execute 
orders of the ecclesiastical court. A revision 
of the 'spiritual statutes' was proposed by 
the House of Keys, with Wilson's concur- 
rence. Horton took the step of suspending 
the whole code till * amended and revised.' 
He further deprived the sumner-general and 
appointed another. Unavailing petitions for 
rearess were sent to Lord Derby ; the House of 

Wilson I- 

Keys appenled (6 Nov. 1728) to tlie king in 
eouocU, but nothing came of it. 

On the death ll F^b. 1T36) of the t«ntb 
lord Derby, the lordship of Man passed to 
Jnmes Murray, second duke of Atholl (_d. 
1764). The revision of statutes proposed 
in IT25 was at once carried through, with 
the result of ' a marked absence of disputes 
between the civil and eccleaiaatical courts' 
(MooRB, p. 207). The intricate suit about 
impropriations (to all of which Atholl had a 
legal claim) jeopardised for a time the tem^ 
poralitiea of the church, and was not finally 
settled till {7 July 17o7) after Wilson'H 
death ; but with the aid of Sir Joseph Jekyll 
[q. v.] Wilson and his son were able to 
recover (1737) certain deeds securing to the 
clentv au eaulvalenl for their tithe. Between 
d Atholl (and thegovemorsof his 
appoiDtment)there seems nevertohsTebeen 
any personal friction, lender the reviBed 
ecclesiastical law presentments for moral 
offences were less frequent, procedure being 
less Hummary. But, while health lasted, 
Wilson was sedulous in administering the 
discipline through the spiritual courts, and 
there WOE an incruuse of clerical cases(MoosE:, 
p. 207). Tbee.Ttreme difficulty of obtaining 
suitable candidates for the miserably poor 
benefices led Wilson to get leave from the 
orchbishop of Vork to ordain before the 
canonical age. 

W'ilson was not by nature an intolerant 
nan, nor were his sympathies limited to 
the Ai^Iican fold. It is said that Cardinal 
Fleuiy (d. 23 Jan. 1743) wrote to liim, ' as 
they were the two oldest bishops, and, he 
believed, the poorest in Europe,' invited him 
o France, and was so pleased with his reply 
that he got an order prohibiting French 
privateers from ravaging the Isle of Man. 
Roman cathoLcs ' not unfrequently at- 
tended ' his services. He allowed dissenters 
'to Bit or stand' at the communion; not 
being compelled to kneel, they did so. The 
qiukers ' loved and respected him' (Crfit- 
WBLL,p.xcii). Int73dhemet JamesEdwtird 
Oglethorpe |q.v.] in London, and this was the 
banning ofnis practical interest in foreign 
missions, though he was an early advo- 

< cst« of the Society for the Propagation 
j of the GoHpel, and still earlier of the So- 

< ciety for promoting Christian Knowledge. 
His ' Essay towards an Instructioa for the 
Indians. . . in . . . Dialof^ues,' 1740, 8vo, 
wos begun at Oglethorpe's infltance,and dedi- 
cated to the Georgia trustees. Wilson's son 
was entrusted witli its revision for the press, 

I and he submitted the manuscript to Issdc 
B Watts. It must he remembered that most 
I of theOeorgiii trustees were dissenters. Since 





1738 Wilson had been interested In Zinten- 
dorf, through friends who had met him at 
Oxford and London in 1787. Ha corre- 
sponded ( 1 739) with Henry Cossart, author of 
a ' Short Account of the Moravian Churches,' 
and received from Zinzendorf and his coad- 
jutors a copy of the Moravian catechism, 
with a latter (28 July 1740). Zinzendorf 
was again in London in 1749, holding there 
a synod (11 to 30 Sept.) News come of the 
death (23 Sept.) of Cochius of Berlin, 'ar- 
tistes' of the 'reformed tropus' (one of three) 
in the Moravian church. The vacant and 
somewhat sLadowy office was tendered to 
Wilson (with liberty to employ his son as 
substitute), Zinzendorf sending him a seal- 
ring, On 18 Dec. Wilson wrote bis ac- 

From 1760, his eighty-aixth year, Wilson 
wasburduned with gout. He died at Bishop's 
Court on 7 March 1765, the fiftieth anni- 
versary of his wife's death. His cofBn was 
made from an elm tree planted by himself, 
and made into planks for that purpose some 
years before hia death (ib. p. ici). He had a 
strong objection, mentioned in his will, to 
interments within churches, and was buried 
(II March) at the east end of Kirk Michael 
ch urchyard .whereasquaremarble monum ent 
marks his grave, Philip Moore preached 
the funerol sermon. Hia will (21 Dec. 1740 ; 
codicil, 1 June 1748^ is printed by Keble. 

Ti . — . , :_..,j ... '■'«"'=" „as engraved 

^d, 1819, by 
black skull-cap and 
hair flowing and silvery.' For his shoes ho 
used 'leathern thongs inntead of buckles' 
(HojfE, p. 240). On 27 Oct. 1898 he waa 
married at W"inwick to Mary (6. 16 July 
1674 ; d. 7 March 1705), daughter of Thomas 
Patten. By her he had four children, of 
whom Thomas (see below) survived him. 

Wilson's rare unselfishness gives lustre to 
a life of fearless devotion to duty and wise 
and thrifty beneficence. The fame of his 
ecclesiastical discipline is rather due to ths 
singularity of its exercise by an Anglican 
diocesan than to anything special either in 
its character or its fruits. "The details fur- 
nished by Keble, with nauseous particu- 
larity from year to year, may be paralleled 
from the contemporary records of many a 

?resbyterian court or anabaptist meeting. 
hat W'ilson acted with the single aim of 
the moral and religious improvement of hit 
peoplewasrecoenised by them, and his strict- 
ness, joined with his transparent purity, his 
uniform sweetness of temper, anu his self- 
denying charities, drew to him ihe affectionate 
veneration of those to whom he dedicated 
his life. 

Hisportrait (painted in I7.^2P) was 
(17a5) by Vertue (reproduced, : 
Sievier). It shows his black skul 





Wilson's 'Works' were collectad (under 
hil Mn's direction) by Clement Cruttwell 
[q. v.l, 1781, '2 vols. 4to, includior a 'Life' 
(repnnted 1786, 3 vols. 8to), and bv John 
Kebla [q.v.], wiib additions, in tlie 'Librarj 
ofAnglo^atliolicTheolofty/lftl7-63, 7vol«, 
8vo, preceded by a ' Life,' 18C3, 2 vols, 
8vo (ot partt"), to which Keble had de- 
voted sixteen jeare' labour. Besides warkc 
noted above, many sermons and devotional 
pieces, he pnhlished: 1. ' I^re,' prefixed to 
the "Practical Christian,' 1713. 8vo, by 
Richard Sherlock. S. ' History of the Isla 
of Man' in Gibsons (3ndl edit, of Camden's 
' Britannia,' 1722, fol. vol, ii. 3. ' Observa- 
tions' included in ' Abatracloftbe Elistorical 
Part of the Old Testament,' 1735, 8vo (his 
' Notes' are in an edition of the Bible, 178.>. 
4lo). PosthnmouB were : 4, 'Sacra PrJvata,' 
first published in Cruttwell, 1781, vol. i. 
(the Oxford edition, 1838, has a preface by 
Cardinal Newman; the original manuscript 
of the 'Sacra Privata' waa exhibited, by 
the president and fellows of Sion College, 
in the loan collectiou at the liondon church 
congress, 1890). 5. 'Afaxims of Piety and 
Christianity ' (ditto). Many devotional 
manuals have been framed, by extraction 
and adaplalion. from Wilson's worts. Of 
his writing Cardinal Newman says (1838) ; 
'There is nolbinR in him but what is plain, 
direct, homely, for the most port prosaic ; 
all is sober, unstrained, rational, severely 
chastened in style and language.' 

His son, Thomas Wilsos (17ft*J-1784>, 
divine, was bom at Bishop's Court on 
24 Aug. 1703. He was the second son of 
the name, a previoiia Thomas having died an 
infant in 1701. His father taught him till 
he waa sixteen, when he was placed with 
Clerk at tlie grammar school of Kirk Leathoin , 
North Bidmg of Yorkshire. He matricu- 
lated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 20 April 
1721, was elected student on 8 Julv 1734, 
and graduated B.A.on 17 Dec. 1724 (Keblb, 
p. 660); M.A. 16 Dec. 1727, B.D. and D.D. 
10 May 1739. He waa ordained deacon 
(1729), and priest (1731) by John Potter 
(1674?-1747) [q.v.], then bishop of Oxford. 
From Christmas 1739 to September 1731 he 
assisted his father in the Isle of Man, and is 
etid to have suggested the ' cle^y, widow, 
and orphans' fund ' (Cruttwell), One re*- 
aon Bssiffntd for his leaving the island is 
that he did not know Mam (Keblb, |i. 739), 
He declined (November 1732) an invitation 
to the Georgia mission. In June 1737 he 
was made one of the king's chaplains. Oa 
6 Dec. 1737 he was presented lo the rectoiy 
of St. Stephen's, Walbrock, and held this 
preferment till death. He was made pre- 

bendary of Westmins:er on 11 April 1743, 
and held the rectory of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, from 17o3. During the Manx 
famineand pestilence (1739-43) be petitioned 
the kii^for a grant of breadcomfor the island. 
In 1743 and 1750 he visited his father in the 
IsIeofMon. With John Leland (1091-1766) 
[q.T.] he correisponded from 1742, inviting his 
criticisms on his father's manuals of religion. 
He suggested to Leland that he should 
answer Dodwell (as he did in 1744), and 
Bolin^broke(l7S3); and Letand'schief work, 
'A View of the principal DeisUcal Writers' 
(1754-6), was written as letters to Wilson, 
and published at his expense. He rebuilt 
(1776) the chancel of Kirk Michael churiji. 
Till her second marria0^ (1778') he was a 
great admirer of Cathsnne Hacaulay fq. v.], 
having placed (1774) his residence, Alfred 
House, Bath, at her disposal, and having 
erected (8 Sept. 1777) a marble statue of 
her, by J. F. Moore, within the altar-rails of 
St, Stephen's, Walbrook.which he afterwards 
boarded up. He wosa man of much benevo- 
lence, a considerable book collector, in poli- 
tics a follower of ^^'ilkes, and in religion 
anxious for the union of ' jl proteisianis.' 
He died at Alfred House, Bath, on 15 April 
1784; his bady was brought to London 'in 

Cnd funeral procession, with ' near two 
idred fiambeaux,' and buried (37 April) 
in St. Slephen'fi, Walbrook. He married 
(4 Feb. 1734) his cousin Marv, daughter of 
WilliamPatteu,aud widow of William Hay- 
ward, of Stoke Nevringlon, and had one son, 
who died in infancy. He left his property 
to bis relative, Thomas Patten, father of John 
Wilson-Patlen, baron Winmarleigh [q. v.] 
He wrote ' A Beview of the Project for . . , 
a new Square at Westminster ... By a Suf- 
ferer,' 1757, 8vo J and an introduction to ' The 
Ornaments of Churches . . . with a . . , view 
to the late decoration of St. Margaret, West- 
minster," 1761,4to(by William Hole). 

[Life by CmtiweU. 'iTSI; Lifa by Stnvell, 
1B19; Lifa by Hone, in Lives of EmiDent Chm- 
tiana,1833,p. 161; Life by Keble. 1863, very fall 
and ciinrt, and Bmbodyiog a large qaaDlitvof 
previously UDpnblished material; tienl. ^ng. 
1784, i. .117, S79 ; Butler's Memoin of Hitdesley, 
1799 : Sinbbs's Hil^ of Univ. of Dnblia, 1889. 
pp.143. 347; Foster's Alamni Oiod.; Moan's 
Sodor and Man, 1893. pp. 1S6 sq.] A. O. 

WILSON, THOMAS (1747-1813), 
master of Clitheroe grammar school, son of 
William and Isabella Wilson, was bom at 
Priest Hutton, in the parish of Warton, near 
Lancaster, on 3 Dec. 1747. and educated at 
the grammar schools of Warton and Sed- 
bergh. At the latter school he was an 
assistant under Dr, Wynne Batemen from 

1768 to 1771. He WM ordainud di 
"Westminster on 13 Jnn. 1771, and priest at 
Chester on 2 Xa^. 177'2. In the following 
June he was licensed as headmaster of 
Slaidbum grammar school, and in June 1775 
became master of the Clitheroe pprammar 
school, Lancashire, and incumbent of the 
parochial chapel of ihe town. In 1779 ha 
entered himself of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and looli the degree of B.D. there in 
1794, under a statute now abolished, In 
1807 he was appointed rector of Claughton, 
near Lancaster. Towarda the end of the 
eighteenth century he formed an intimat« 
■oquaintanee with' Thomas Dunham Whita- 
Iter [q. t.], and joined a literary club formed 
by him. He was a successful schoolmaster, 
a ready TersiHer, and a social favourite on 
account of his amiability, genial wit, and 
copious fund of anecdote. His besettiug 
wt^aknesa was punning. 

He died on 3 March 1813, and was buried 
in ihechaneel of Boiton-bj-Howland church, 
where a tablet was afterwards erected with 
a Latin inscription by W'hitaker, copied 
from a monument erected by Wilson's pupils 
•in Clithetoe church. He married, on 29 April 
17i5, Susannah Tetlow of Skirden, widow 
of Ilenn' N'owell, rector of Bolton-by-Bow- 
lAnd. She was forty-four, and he only 
twenty-eiffht. A portraitof Wilson. painted 
by J. Alien, is engraved in the Chelham 
Society's volume. Another portrait bji the 
aam<) artist was engraved by W', Ward in 
Wilson's lifetime : and a third poitrait. came 
out as a Utbograph. 

His onlv literarr publication, in addition 
to two assiie sermons {1789 and 1804), was 
an ' Archieoloaical Dictionary, or Classical 
Antiquities of Jews. Greeks, and Romans,' 
1783,6vo, dedicated to Dr. Samuel Johnson ; 
but his ' Lancashire Bouquet ' and other oc- 
casional verses were circulated in manu- 
script, and were collected and printed, along 
with his correspondence, bjr Canon F, U. 
Haines for the Clietham Society iu 1857. 

[Haines's Memoir, profiled to Wilson 'i- Mia- 
celianiss; Gent. Mag. 18IB, i. 391.] C. W. H. 

WILSON, THOMAS (I764-18-W1. non- 
conformist benefactor, seventh child of 
Thomas Wilson (i, 3 Jan, 1731 ; d. 31 March 
1794) by Mary (1729-1816), daughter of 
John Remington of Coventry, was bom in 
Wood Street, Cheapside, London, on 11 Nov. 
1704, and baptised on 3 Dec, by Thomas 
Gibbons [q. v.] His mother was a dissenter; 
his fatlier became one on his marriage, and 

ibsequently built a chapel at Derby (1784), 
beeidea assisting in opening several closed 

bapels iu the Midlands. He was at school 

ington Green under Cock bum, but bad 
classical education, and never acquired any 
literary tastes. In 1778 he was apprenticed 
lo hia father, a manufacturer of ribbons and 
gnuies, and in 1760 was taken into partner- 
ship. He left busino^ at Michnelmns 1798, 
having attained a moderate fortune, to which 
he received a considerable accession on the 
death (26 March 1813; of his mother's only 
brother, John Itemington. In 1794 he huc- 
ceeded his father as treasurer of Hoston 
Academy, and held this post till bis death; 
when the academy was removed to High- 
bury he kid the first stone (28 June 1825) 
of the college building. His first experiment 
in chapel building was in 1799, when he 
erected a new chapel at Hoxton (opened 
24 April 1800). From this time he devoted 
himself for some years to the repairing or re- 
buildin^t of dilapidated anc^ closed chapels, 
e.g. at Brentwood, Harwich, Iteigate, Lynn, 
Guildford, Dartmouth, Liakeard, and else- 
where. Most of these buildings had for- 
merly ranked as presbyterian ; Wilson's 
llbrts introduced into their management 
the congregational system. From 1804 he 
occasionally acted as a lay preacher. To 
meet the needs of a growing population he 
aet himself to procure the erection of new 
chapels in the outskirts of London, among 
others at Kentiah Town (1807), Tonbridge 
Place, Euston Road (1810), Maryleboue 
Ruad, Paddington (18l3),Claremont Chapel, 
Pentonville (1819). Craven Chapel, Regent 
Street (1822), the last three built at bis sole 
cost. Ilesides giving largely towards the 
purchase or building of chapels in all parts 
of the country, he erected at his own ex- 
pense chapels at Ipswich (1829), Northamp- 
ton (1829), Richmond, Surrey (1830). and 
Dover (1838). In Januory 1837 he was 
chairman of a meeting which formed tlia 
' Metropolis Chapel Fimd Association ' for 
the provision of further buildings. His 
inumflcence went also in other directions; 
there were few, if any, aocietiea connect«d 
with his own body, or with the cause of 
evangelical religion generally, which did not 
benefit by his aid. He was one of the first 
directors (23 Sept, 1795) of the London 
Missionary Society. He was also one of the 
originators of the London University (now 
University College), and was elected(19 Dec. 
1826) a member oflta first council. In the 
HewW case [see Hewlby, Saiuh] he was 
one of the relators in the action (begun 
18 June 1830) against the unitarian trustees, 
He died at Highbury Place on 17 June 1843, 
and was buried in Abney Park cemeteir, 
where is a monument to UJs memory. He 







married (31 March 1701) ElUabeth, voiin^er ' and made himself actjaaiated with eveiy 
daughter oCArthur Clegg, timber merchant, aspect of mJainK life and chancier. ' The 
of Manchester, who survived him with Pitnisn's Pay,' his chief lit«rary work, ap 
aeveral children. Daniel W ikon (ir7tJ-lf*58) peared on^nsUv in Mitchell's • Newcastl 
[q.TJ, bishop of Calcutta, was his firstcousin. Maguine ' in the yean 1826, 1828, and 183a 
His eon, Joshpa Wilso.v (179.5-1874), It was reprinted by G.Wat«.n of Gateshead, 
barrister of the Inner Temple, was bom in but this mconvct edition wvi soon out of 
London on 27 Oct. 1795,anddiedat4XeTill print. Other poems ware contributed to 
Park, TunbridKe Wells, on 14 Aug. 1874. the 'TjTie Mercury," and some of them 
He married (18;i71 Mary W.iod.onlydaugh- were reissued with notes by John Sykes, 
ter of Thomas BuUey of Teignmouth, and compiler of ' Local Records.' A. collective 
left sons, Thomas and John Kemlngton. In edition of Wilson's works, entitled * Ths 
connection with the litigation of which the Pitman's Par, and other Poems,' was issued 
Hewleycnse wasaBample.hedevotedmiich in 1843, and reprinted in lei72. Thesecond 
time to the investigation of early dissenting edition contains some additional poems and 
history. His fine collection of puritan divi- notes by the author, with a portrait and me- 
nity uid biography is at the Memorial Hall, moir. ' The Pitman's Pay ' is a metrical 
Forringdon btreet, London. He published, description, much of it in mining patois, of 
besidessome religious tractates (one of them the incidents and conversations of the colliers 
■igned ' Biblicus ) : 1. 'An Historical In- on their fortnightly Friday pay nights. The 

J mry concerning , . . English Presbyterians,' poem enjoys a wide popularity in the north 
835, 8vo; 3nded. 1836, 8vo. 2. 'English of England. Some of Wilson's compositions 
Presbyterian Chapels ... Orthodoi Founda- show him to have made a clow study of 
tions, 1814, 8vo. 3. ' Calumnies confuted Bums, and the poem entitled ' On seeing a 
, , , in Answer to the Quarterly Keview mouse run across the road in January ia 
on the Bicentenary Celebration,' 1863, 8vo. 1 a highly creditable Imitation. In the 
4. 'AMemoirof . . . Thomas Wilson,' 1846, I 'Tippling Dominie' Wilson is perhaps seen 
8vo. at his best. 

[Leifchild'i Faoersi Sermon Tor Thomas Wil- Wilson died at his home, Fell-house, 
BOD, 1813; WiUoa'i Memoir of Tbomas Wiison, j Gateshead, on 9 May 1858. lie was buried 
IMS {portrait) ; MoOree's Thomas Wilson ths . in the family vault at Si. John's, Glateshead 

Silkman, 1879; ComwaU's Funeral Sernion for 
Joshua Wilwra, 1874; Timai'.aiAog. i87<.90ct. 
187*;Halley,iBCongregiilioiialist, 1875, p. 9^9 ; 
information froni T. Wilson, esq., Harpenden.] 
A. Q. 
WILSDN, THOMAS (1773-1858), 
Tyneside poet, was bom at Gateshead Low 
Fell on 14 Nov. 1773, the eldest son of 
George and Mary Wilson. The father was 
a miner, and both parents were devout Wes- 
leyans. He received very little education, 
and was early sent to work in the mines. 
After devoting his scanty leisure to study, 
and making two efforts t« establish hlmsulf 
as a schoolmaster, he was from 1799 to 1803 
employed in the office of John Head. aNew- 
castle merchant and underwriter. In 1803 
he entered the counting-house of Losh, Lub- 
bin, & Co. (afterwards Losh, Wilson, & Bell) 
of Newcastle. Within two years he becaine 
a partner, and remained in the business till 
near the end of his life. In 183o he was 
elected one of the first town councillors of 
Gateshead, to which he returned after a resi- 
dence of some years in Newcastle. Through- 
out his life W'ilson devoted as much time as 
he could spare to intellectual pursuits, and 
collected an excellent library, which was 
especially rich in chapbooks. He contri- 
buted to the local ' Diaries ' for sixty years, 

Fell, the mayor and town council attending 
his funeral. He married, in 1810, Mrs. 
Mary Fell, who died in 1839. 

A bust by Dunbar is in the large room 
of the Gateshead Fell public rooms. 

IGenl. Mag. 1838, i. 887-9 ; Ann. Beg. App, 
to Chron. p. 410; Mamoir preSiol to ths 
Pitman's Pay, 1872.] G. La Q. S. 

WIiaON, WALTER (1781-1847), non- 
conformist biographer, was bom about 1781. 
Originally intended for the law, he became 
a bookseller, with Maiwell of Bell Yard, 
Temple Bar, l»ndon. In 18CKI he t«ak tho 
bookshop at the Mewegate, Charing Ctoss, 

vacated by Thomas Payne the younger [q. v.] 
llie perusal of the ' Memoira' of Daniel Neol 
[q.v.], prefixed by Joshua Toulmin [q.v.] to 
ins edition (1793-7) of Neal'a 'History of 
the Puritans,' had led 'fl'iUon to coUect 
notices of dissenting divines, and examine 
manuscript sources of information. He pro- 
jected a biographical account of the dissent- 
ing conBTegations of London and the vicinity. 
Soon after beginning the work he became 
possessed of a considerable income, and en- 
tered at the Inner Temple, but does not 
appear to have practised at the bar. For 
his projected worlt he obtained scarcely three 
hundred subscribers. He published an in- 


AtalmeDt of ' The History and Aotiqalties o 

eluding' the Lives of their Ministi 
S voIb. 8vo. He wb9 then living at Camden 
Town, from which he removed to Dorset, nnd 
again to Burnet, near Bath, where he did 
some fannioK- Here he had a congenial 
neighbour in Joseph Hunter [q.v.]; they ei- 
«liBitged copies of collections relative to dis- 
•enting antiqiiitieB. A third volume of hia 
'Dissenting Churches' appeared in 1810; a 
■iburthinlSU.with a preface (1 May 18 U) 
Lflliowing his personal interest in the older 
ie of nonconformity. The later volumes 
is work exhibit a more softened attitude 
towards the free-thinkers of dissent than is 
ftppBrent in the earlier ones; his facta are 
always given with scrupulous fairness. By 
1SI8 be WM readv to publish a. fifth and com- 
pleting volume if Hve hundred subscribers 
«Ould have been obtained; but it never ap- 

d a life of Daniel 
Defoe [q. r-], of whose publications he had 
made a much larger collection than had pre- 
viously been brought together. His ■ Me- 
moirs of the Life and Times of Daniel Defoe,' 
1830, 3 vols. 8to, is heavy, but allowed by 
Hacaulay to be 'eieelleut' {Edinb. Ret: 
October 1&15). He had projected a supple- 
roentiuy work dealing with Defoe's literary 
Antagonists. About 1834 be moved from 
Burnet to Pulteney Street, Bath. During 
the progre«s of the Hewley suit [see Hew- 
tBT, Sabah], Wilson's judgment went en- 
tirely with the defendants, and his religious 
views, probably under Hunter's influence, 
underwent a considerable change in the uni- 
tarian direction. 

Wilson died on 21 Fob. 1847. At the 
time of bis death he was one of the eight 
registered proprietors of the ' Times.' He 
■was twice married, and left a non, Henry 
Walter Wilson of the Inner Temple, and 
A daughter, married to ^'orman Oarstin, 
colonial chaplain at Ceylon. His library 
-wu sold {5-17 July) bv Leigh, Sothebv, 
ii Wilkinson; the 3,438 lots reallsi^ 
1,993/. 3f. 6d., the Defoe collection going to 
America for oOl. His coins and jirints (sold 
2« July) produced S70;. 15». and 19/. 14jr. 6d. 
IMDectirely. He bequeathed his manuscript 
collections for the history of dissent to Dr. 
Williams's Library (now in Gordon Square, 
London). A complete list of these, by the 
then librarian, Ricbard Cogan, is printed in 
the 'Christian I(eformer'^(lB4r, p. 758). 
The most important articles are the notes in 
an interleaved copy of Iiia ' Dissenting 
Churches,' and (separately) a complete topo- 

g:raphical index to the i 
lating to dissenting churches; a folio of 
dissenting records; two folios and six quartos 
of biographical collections. Several of his, 
manuscripts are transcripts from originals 
also preserved in Dr. Williams's Library. 

[Gent. Mag. 1847, ii. 438; Christlin Re- 
former, 1847. pp. 371, oOB, 758,] A. G, 

WILSON, WILLtAM (1090-1741), 

Scots divine, born at Glasgow on 19 Nov. 
1090, was the son of Gilbert W'iUon (rf. 
1 June 1711), proprietor of a small estate 
near East Kilbride, who underwent religious 
persecution and the loss of his lands during 
the reign of Charles II. His mother, Jm- 
bella id. 1705), daughter of llamsay of 
Shielhill in Forfarshire, was disowned by 
her father for becoming a iiresbyterian. 
William, wbo was named after William III, 
was educated at Glasgow University. He 
was laureated on 27 June 1707, and was 
licensed to preach by the preshvtary of 
Dunfermline on 33 Sept. 1713. On 21 Aug. 

1716 lie was unanimously called to the new 
or west church at Perth, and on 1 Nov. be 
was ordained. He soon obtained great in- 
fluence in the town by the disini crested nesa 
of bis conduct, refusing to contest at lawhis 
claim to his grandfather's estate, and declin- 
ing to receive bis stipend because the town 
council desired to pay it out of money placed 
in their hands for charitable purposes. On 
the commencement of the ' marrow contro- 
versy ' [see B08T0!f, Thomas, 1077-1732] in 

1717 he sympathised with the ultra-Cal- 
viniatic views of Boston and Ebeneier 
Erskine [o. v.], concurring with these mini- 
sters on 11 May 1721 in the 'rcOTesentation' 

T.inst the condemnation of 'The Marrow 
Modem Divinitie ' by the general aaeem- 
bly. In 1733 a further cause of difference 
ftioae. The general assembly passed an act 
ordaining that when the right of pres( 
was not exercised bythe patron, tnei 
should be elected by the heritors and elders, 
and not by the congregation. This displeased 
Erskine, Wilson, and others, who regarded 
the congregational right as sauretl, and 
Erskine preached a vehement si 
subject, lor which he was censured by the 
synod of Perth and Stirling, The censure 
was confirmed by the general assembly, and 
on 14 May 17.^1 Wilson joined with Alexan- 
der Moncrieff and James Fisher [q. v.^ ' 
protest. The assembly, indignant i 
terms of the protest, required a retractation, 
and failing to obtain it, the standing com- 
mission suspended ^\'ilson and his three 
associates on B Aug. 1733, refused to hear a 
representation offered by Wilson and Mon- 

crieff juBtifving thfir conduct, and 
12 Kov. declared them no longer mi iiisterH 
of the Scottisli church. On 16 Nov. Ihe four 
mlnUters put their namea to a formal act of 
seceHBion, and on 6 Dec. they constiluted 
themselves an ' associate presbytery.' 

14 May 1734, however, the assembly, re- 
penting their action, empowered the syaods 
to reinstate the four ministers. Wilson was 
anxioufl for reconciliation, but further dif- 
ferencea had arisen, especially through the 
support afforded by the assembly to patrons 
against the congregational veto. On S Nov. 
1736 the associate presbytery appointed 
Wilson their professor of divinity, and on 

15 May 1740 the secedera, now eight in 
number, were finally deposed. Wilson en- 
joyed the support of a large part of the people 
of Perch, who built a church for him &Dd 
thronged to hear him. He was, however, 
deeply affected by the controversy and broken 
in health by his labours. He died at Penh 
on 8 Nov. 1741, and was buried at Perth, 
in tireyfriars' cemetery, where a monument 
was erecled to his memo^ with an epitaph 
byRalphEr8kine[q. v.] Wilson mamed, on 
aO Juno 1721, Margaret (i. 1742), daughter 
of George Alexander {d. l7IS), an advocate, 
of Pepper Mill, Edinburgh. By her he had 
a son John, and two daughters, Isabella and 
Mary, who reached maturity. 

Besides single sermona, Williams nuh- 
liahed 'A Defence of the Reformation Prin- 
riples of the Church of Scotland,' Edinburgh, 
1739, 6vo i new ed. Glasgow, 17B9. 8vo, and 
several collections of sermons: 1. 'The Day 
of the Sinner's believing in Christ a most 
remarkable Day,' Edinburgh, 1742, 12mo. 
3. 'The Father's Promise to the Son, a clear 
bow in the Church's darkest Cloud,' Edin- 
burgh, 1747, 8vo. 3. 'The Lamb's retinue 
attending him whithersoever he govth,' 
Edinburgh, 1747, 8vo ; 2 and 3, with a few 
single sermons, were rebound in a iargft 
collection, (4). ' Sermons,' Edinburgh, 1748, 

[Wilson's Works; Scott's Fasti Ecc\ea. Scoti- 
eanie, ii. 11. 617.18; Mutes and Queries, 2ad asr. 
xiL 233; New Stat. Act. of Scotland,!. Ill; 
FeirierB Meiaoira of Wiiaon, 1830; Endia's 
Lite of Wilson in United Presbyterian Fathers, 
1840; Wilsons Presbytery of Perth. 1860, pp. 
211-14; Brown's Hiat. Account ot the RiBO and 
Progress of the Secession, 17Q3; The Ri^pre- 
EBD tat ions of Ebencaer Rrskine and Jan« 
jribher HPd of WillMm Wilson and AUiartder 
MoDoriefflo the Commission of the late Reaeral 
AMembly, 1733; A Reviow of the Narmlivo 
and Stats of the Proceedinizs of the JuJifntories 
agiuDst Erskiae. Wilson. MoucriefT, and Pishep. I 
I'8* ; Piliilic Spleneticle : or, a IJiugh from a 
true blue Presbyterian, 1738 ; X. Y.'s Obsorva- | 

tions apon Church Aflaira, 1734; Uuuimenla 
OlaBguoD. (Mnitland Club), iii. 43; S[rullter''s 
Hint, of Seolland fnun [heCnion to 17*8; Gib's 
Present Truth : a Display of the SeeessioQ 
Teslimony, 177*-] E. I. C. 

W1I.30N, WILLIAM (1801-1860), 
poet and publisher, bom in Perthshire on 
25 Dec. 1801 . WB* the son of Thomas WUson, 
by hiawife, Agneslloss. Atoneorlyage he 
was imbued with a passionate love of poetiy 
derived from his mother, who sang with 
great beauty the Jacobite songs and ballads 
of Scotland. While a schoolboy he lost his 
father, so that WiUon'e early life was accom- 
panied by many privations, including the 
completion of hia education. At twenty- 
two he became the editor of the Dundee 
'Literary Olio,' a large proportion of which, 
both in prose ond verse, was from his pen. 
In I83tt he removed to Edinburgh, where he 
established himself in buainese. flis con- 
tributions were welcomed in tbe' Edinburgh 
Literary Journal,' thirty-two of his poems 
appearing in its columns in the course of 
three years. At this period the young poet 
was well known to the leadiug literary men 
of the day, including his kinsman Professor 
John Wilson (' Christopher North '), and he 
was a constant visitor at the bouse of Mrs. 
Grant of Lftggan, who possessed his portrait 
by Sir John Watson Gordon, now owned 
by his son, General Wilson. In 1833 he re- 
moved to the United States and settled at 
Poughkeepsie, on the Hudson, where he en- 
gaged in bookselling and publishing, which 
he continued till his death. Wilson was the 
lifelong friend and correspondent of Bobert 
Chambers (1802-1871) [q. v.], and he was one 
of the few persons in the secret of the au- 
thorship of the ' Vestiges of Creation.' lie 
died on 25 Aug. 1860. He was twice mar- 
ried : first, to Jane Mackenzie, and, secondlv, 
in 1830, to the uiece of James Sibbald (1745- 
1803) Tq. V.J 

In the hew World W ilsoa occasionally 
contributfd in prose and ve«e to American 
periodicala, and sometimes sent a contribu- 
tion lo ' Blackwood's,' 'Chambers'sJoumal,' 
and ' Eraser's Magazine.' Selections of hia 
poems appeared in the 'Cabinet,' 'Modem 
Scotliah Minstrel,' Longfellow's 'Poems 
of Places,' and hia eon's ' Poets and Poetty 
ofScotlnnd ; ' but he never issued them in a 
volume nor even collected them, and it was 
nntil 1809 that a portion of his poetical 
tings was published, with a memoir by 
Benson J. Loseing. A second edition wiib 
additional poems and a portrait appeared in 
1875, and a third in 18S1. Willis pro- 

L Bt^Ie that be bad ever met with ;' and Bryant 
I. Mud that ' the song in wbieb tlie writer per- 
I sonHtes Richard t.lie Lion-hearted during 
y Lis impriaonnient is more spirited than «nj- 
I of tbe Dallsds of Ajtoiin.' 

[Bogen's Modern Scottish Minxlrsl ; Wilson's 
I PmM and Poetry of Scotland, vol. ii. ; MBiaoira 
I of Wiltiam and Itobort Cbnmben ; Appletoc's 
[ Cyelojwdis of American Biogmphy.] 

J. G. W. 
WILSON, WILLIAM (1799-18n), 
botanist, second eon of Thomas Wilson, 
■ drugfrisf, was bom at Warrington or 
7 June 1790. He was educated at Prest- 
buiy gRunmar »:hDot and under Dr. Rej- 
noIoB at the Disaeutera' Academy, I.eaf 
Square, Mancbester, and was then articled 
to a firm of solicitors in Mancheater; but 
intenee application to the study of con- 
T^fancins brought on headaches which were 
followed by serious illness. This led to hia 
taking much outdoor exercise, in the coarse 
of which he acquired hia love of botany, and 
nltimatelv, when he was about five-and- 
twenty, his mother gave him a small 
allowance so that he could devote himself 
entirely to this pursuit. As early ae 1621 
tie had discovered the CotoAeatter on Qn>Bt 
Orme's Head. This brought him into cor- 
respondence with Sir Jaraes Edward Smith 
[q. V,], who encouraged bim to devote him- 
self to botany. In 1827 Professor John 
Stevens Ilensiow [n. vj introduced bim to 
PnofeBBor (afterww^s Sir William Jsckson) 
Hooker [a. v.], and at the invitation of 
the latter ha joined a five days' excursion 
of tJie Glasgow botanical students in the 
Breadalbane IUIIh. lie afterwards spent 
nearly two years in Ireland, where, no doubt 
under HooKer's influence, be attai^hed bim- 
•elf to the study of mosses, which from 1830 
L'ttigroased his whole attention. From 1839 
Annward he is frequently quoted in Hooker's 
B^British Flora ; ' and, becoming well known 
I a bryologist, he entered into corre- 
Mndsnce with such specialists as Lindberg 
I Helsingfors and Schimper of Strnabitffr, 
i entrusted with the description of 
sses collected in the voyages of the 
rebus and Terror and the Herald, before 
tno publication of his mngniimoptiJi. This 
orfc, Ihs 'Bryologia Britannica,' intended 
» a third edition of the ' Muscologia Bri- 
a ' (first isaued in 1918) of (Sir) W. J. 
Mker and Thomas Taylor {d. 1848) [q. v.], 
Hbut Rubetantially a new work of the highest 
^Derit ' (JACSfioif, Oidde to the Literature of 
jBoftwyiP. 241), was published in 1855 (Lon- 
■don, 8vo), and was pronounced by Lindl>erg 
ifone of the most exact works in botany.' 
Jleverthelees over a hundred new species of 

Britieh mosses were adde'l to the list be- 
tween its publication and his death, and he 
is reporied to have said that 'the only 
thing he wished to live for was to bring out 
a revised edition,' which, however, he was 
unable to do. 

Wilson died at Paddinpton, two miles 
from Warrington, on 3 April 1871, and was 
buried In (be nonconformist burial-ground, 
Hill Cliff. Warrington. Ha married in 1838 
a widowed cousin, Mrs. Lane. 

Besides the Cotoneatter, Wilson added a 
new species of rose, a fern, and many mosses 
to tbe British list, the rose Boaa Wittora 
being named after him by William Borrer, 
and theKillarney filmy fern named .flyniFno- 
phyllum Jf.*/mnibjSirW. J.Hooker. Wil- 
son described many new species of exotic 
mosses in the ' Journal of Botany,' his papers 
being enumerated in the Royal Societv's 
'Catalogue' (vi. 389, viii. 1249). and his 
herbarium and botanical correspondence pre- 
served at the Natural History Museum. 

[Cash's Where there's a Will there's a Way, 
1873, p. 145.] G. S. B. 

WILSON, WILLL\M (1783P-1873), 
canon of Winchester, bom in 1782 or 1783, 
was the son of John Wilson of Kendal 
in Westmorland. He matriculated from 
Queen's College, Oxford, on 15 July 1801, 
and graduated B.A. on 30 May 1805, M.A. 
on 17 Dec, 1808, B.D. in 1820, ond U.D, in 
1824. He was a fellow of the college from 
11 May 1816 to 162C, and filled the offices 
ofdean and bursar in 1823. In 1829 be was 
senior proctor. He was ordained deacon in 
1805 and priest in 1800, and in 1608 was 
curatp of Colne Engaine in EsseK. He was 
appointed headmaster of St. Bees ^ammar 
school on 5 Jan, 1811, and during hi8l«niire 
of this ollice discovered grave abuses in the 
affairs of (he school, especially in regard 
to the lease of the coat royalty in 1742. 
His efforts to obtain redress rendered his 
position untenable, and he was driven by 
the persecution of the governors !o resign 
bis i)oeton20May 1816; but he had a large 
share in calling Lord Brougham's attention 
to tbe mismauagemeut of educational cliuri- 
ties, and thus in bringingabout their reform. 
lu regard to the miningroyalty. Sir William 
Lowther, second earl of Lonsdale, the repre- 
sentative of the original grantee, was ordered 
■ 1827, by a decree of the lord chancellor, 
to pay into court fi.OOOi. for the benefit of 
the school. 

On 38 July 1824 Wilson was instituted, 
on the presentation of Queen's College, I o 
the vicarage of Holy Rood, Southampton, a 
benefice which he retained till bis death. 


On 3 Feb. IR32 he was collated To this 
BBCoaJ Htatl in Winchester CBthedr»l. As 
canon liu gave very effectual aBsiatanee to 
John Bird Sumner fq. v.] in tho work of the 
diocese. In IBSO hu published ■ The Bible 
Student's Guide to the more correct under- 
BtAnding of the Old Testament bj reference to 
the Original Hebrew '(London, 4to), a second 
edition of which anpeared in 18f)6 under the 
title 'An Engliah, Hebrew, and Chaldeo 
Lexicon and Concordance tothemore correct 


was a considerable llebrew schoUr, and hi 
'work luu not yet been superseded. He 
died on 22 Aug. 1873 in The Close, Win- 
chester, and WHS buried on 27 Aug. at 
Preston Candover. In February 1830, at 
Godftlming, Surrey, he married Maria (1794- 
1834), daughter of Robert Sumner, near of 
Kenil worth, and sister of John Bird Sumner, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and Charles Ri- 
chard Sumner [q. v.], bishop of Winchesler 
(ffCT!(. Mag. 1830, i. 266), By her he had a 
son, Sumner Wilson, now vicar of I'rcston 

Besides the work mentioned he published ; 

1. ' D. J. Juvenalis Satiroj, cum notis 
Anglicis, expurgatiF,' London, 1815, 12mo. 

2. ' The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church 
of Enffland, illuBtraled hy copious Extracts 
horn the Liturgy, Homilies, Nowell'a Cate- 
chism, and Jewell's Apology, and confirmed 
by numerous Passages of Scripture,' Oxford, 
1821, 8to; enlarged ed, Oxford, 1840, 8vo. 
S. ' Parochial Sermons,' Oxford, 1826, 8vo. 
4. 'The Attributes of God,' selections from 
Ohamock, Goodwin, Bates, and Wishatt, 
London, 1835, 8vo; republished 1836 in 
'The Christian Family Library,' vol. xv. 
B. ' The Book of Psalms, with an Exposition 
Erangelical, Typical, and I'rophetical of the 
Christian Dispensation,' London, 1860,2 vols. 
8vo. He edited the 'Christianffi Pielatis 
Institutio' of Alexander Nowell, London, 
1817, 12mo. 

ppformation kindly given by the Prorost of 
Queen's College, Oxford; Jacksun's Papers itad 
FiuligroeB mainly rotating to Cambertand and 
Westnioiland, 1892. ii. 217-21; Gonrdiati. 
27 Aug. 1BT3; HampBliiro CbwniclB, 23 and 
30 Aug. 1873; Sumner's Life of Cbarlai Richnrd 
Biimner, ie76.p. I : Foster's Alumni Oion.lTlfi- 
1886; Fonter'ti Indei Eceles.; Allibono's Diet. 
of Engl. Lit,] E. I. 0. 

WILSON, W'lLLIAM (1808-1888), 
Scots divine, was bom in ISOSat Blawearie, 
Bossendean, in Berwickshire. He was edu- 
cated at the parish school, and in 1825 en- 
tered the university of Edinburgh, where he 

took the arts and theolofpcal closeas, study- 
ing under Chalmers, David Welsh [q.T.], and 
Alexander Brunton. Licensed by the pms- 
bytery of Dumfries on 2 March 1830, Wilson 
was early recognised as a powerful preacher. 
Till 1837 he acted as a parochial missionary 
in Olasgow, and from 1836 to 1837 he was 
editor of the ' Scottish Guardian.' On 
22 Sept. 1837 he was ordained minister of 
Carmyllie, Forfarshire. In the conflict which 
ended in the disruption, Wilson tookan active 
part. Ilejoined the freechurch and preached 
in a wooden building till 1848, when he was 
called to the mariners' church, Dundee, where 
heofflciated till 1877. He was elected mode- 
rator of the free^hurch assembly on 24 May 
1866, junior principal clerk of assembly in 
1868, and senior clerk in 1883. On 20 April 
1870 he received the decree of D.D. from 
Edinburgh University. In 1877 he was ap- 
pointed secretary of the sustentation fund 
committee. He also held the oBieeof Chal- 
mers lecturer. Hediedonl4.Tan.l688,sur' 
vived by one son and live daughters. Hia 
remains were accorded a public funeral in 
Dundee. In 1840 Wilson married Eliia, 
daught er of A le xander WhiteofDrimmieter- 
mont, near Forfar. She died in February 

Wilson wrote: 1. 'Statement of the 
Scriptural Argument against Patronage,' 
Edinburgh, 1842, 8vo. 2. 'The Kingdom 
of our Lord Jesus Christ,' Edinburgh, 1859, 
Svo. 3. ' Christ setting his Face towards 
Jerusalem,' Dundee, 1878, 8vo. 4. ' Me- 
morials of R. S. Candlish, D.D.,' Edinburgh, 
1880, 8vo. Wilson also edited with a pre- 
face and notes Daniel Defoe's 'Memoirs of 
the Church of Scotland,' 1844, and contri- 
buted a preface to Sir James Stewart and 
James Stirlinft's'Surveyof Naphtnly,' 1845. 
He wrote the history ofthe parish o f Carmy Ilia 
for the 'New Statistical Account of Scot- 
land,' and contributed to the ' Free Church 

[Scott's Fosli, in. ii. I&i; .T. M. McBnin'g 
Eminent ArbroaCbians, 1897 : Scalsmnn, 16 JttU. 
188B; Smilh'sSi.'al. Clergy, vol. iii.; Brit. Uu. 
Cat.] O. S-B. 

ERASMUS (1809-1884). surgeon, generally 
known as Sir Erasmus Wilson, was son of 
William Wilson, a native of Aberdeen, wLo 
had been a naval surgeon, and afterwarda 
settled as a parish surgeon at Dartford and 
Greenhithe in Kent. Erasmus was born on 
25 Nov. 1809 in High Street, Marylebone, at 
the house of his maternal grand&ther, Eras- 
mus Branadotph, a Norwegian. He was edu- 
cated at Dartford grammar school, and after- 
wards at Swonscombe in Kent, but he wu 

Wilson I. 

. won called upon to help in tUo practice of 
bis father. At the age of sixteen he Lccame 
a resident pupil with George Langstaif, sur- 
geoa to the Cripple<Bte dispensarj, and he 
tAen began to attend the anatomicallecturea 
given by John Ahemethy [i^. v.] at St. Bar- 
tbolomew's Uoe^itul. Athis master's house 
and Sir William Lawrence [q. t.], while his 
akill a» a draughtaman and the nualneas of 
his dissection soon attracted general atten- 
tion. Un the establisbment of the Aldersgate 
Street school of medicine, under the leader- 
thip of Willism l^wrence, Wilson became 
one of the first pupils, gaining the pmes for 
■nrgeiy and midwifery in the session 16^9-30. 
t Be teas admitted a licentiate of the Society of 
' Apothecaries on h is twenty-firstbirthdav, and 
iiithefoUowingyear(S.5Nov. 183nbebecaroe 
m member of the Royal CoUese of Surgeons of 
England. In thesameyear Wilsonwasaslied 
by Jones Quein, then professor of anatomy 
and physiology at University College, to be- 
come ma assistant. He accepted the post, 
and was soon afti^rwards appointed demon- 
strator of anatomy to Kichard Quain q. v.] 
Tbia office he filled until Jones Quato re- 
tired from University College in \S36, when 
"Wilson established a school of anatomy, 
called Sydenham College, which eventually 
proved unsuccessful. In 1640 be lectured 
upon anatomy and physiology at the Middle- 
sex Hospital, and in the name year he began 
to act aa sub-editor of the ' Lancet.' lie was 
also consulting surgeon to the St. Pancras in- 
firmary, and on 20 Feb. 1846 he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society. 

At the suggestion of Thomas Wahley 
[q. \.], the editor of the ' lancet,' 'Wilson be- 

the treatmentof di 
1S40 almost to the end of his long life the 
cares of an extensive practice occupied most 

At the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land he was elected a feUow in 1843, and in 
1869 be founded, at his own expense, a pro- 
fessorsbip of dermatology, endowing it with 
a cum of 5,000/. This chair he held from 
ISeS lo 1S77, and when he resigned it the 
conditions of the trust were so modified as 
to include the whole domain of pathology. 
In 1809 and again in 1883 Wilson made 
large and valuable presents tn the museum 
of the College of Surgeons, He was elected 
a member of the council in 1870, and held 
Qiffice until 1884. He was vice-presidpnt in 
1879-80, and president in I88I. In 1884 he 
was awarded the honorary gold medal of the 

Wilson was particularly fond of foreign 


iddle life he travelled much in the east. 
He became particularly interested in the 
study of Egyptian antiquities, and in 1877-8 
he defrayed the expenses (about \Q,000l.) 
connecled with the transport of ' Cleopatra's 
needle ' to London. In 1881 he received 
the honour of knighthood. He also tilled 
the oifice of master of tlia Cloth woriiera' 
Company, and he was president of the Bibli- 
cal ArcbiEological Society. 

He died on 7 Aug. 1884, after two years' 
ill-health, at Westgate-on-Sea, Kent. He 
married Miss Doberty in 1S41, who sur- 
vived him, but he left no children. 

Wilson ranks ae one of the first and beat of 
the specialists in»bin diseases. He found tbe- 
field of dermatology almost unworl(ed,aud he 
toiled with such assiduity, and obtained such 
rewards, ikS soon induced a host of fi-llow 
Inlwurers to follow in his footsteps. To Wil- 
son's teaching we owe in great measure the 
use of the bath, which is so conspicuous a 
feature in our national life, and to bis advo- 
cacy is to be attributed the spread of the 
Turkish bath in England. Skilful invest- 
ments in the shares of gas and railway com- 
panies made bim a wealthy man, and be de- 
voted his riches to various charitable objects, 
fur be was a distinguished freemason. He 
restored Swanscombe church, and he founded 
a scholarship at the Royal College of Music. 
H e was a I arge Bubscri bertotheUoyalMedical 
Benevolent College at Epsom, where he built 
at his own cost a house for the head-master. 
At on expense of nearly 30,000/. he built a 
new wing and chapel at the sea-bathing in- 
firmary, Mar^te, where diseases of the skin 
are e-Vtensively treated, and in 1881 he esta- 
blished a cbair of pathology in the university 
of Aberdeen, where the degree of LL.D. had 
been conferred upon him. 

After the death of Lady Wilson the bulk 
of his property, amounting to upwards of 
200,000/., reverted to the Royal College of 
SuTgeouB of England. 

A bust of Wilson, executed by Tbomaa 
Brock, R,A., stands in the new library of the 
Royal College of Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. A three-quarter length in oils in 
the robea of a lecturer at the Uojal College 
of Surgeons of England, painted by Stephen 
Pearce, hangs in the ball of the Medical 
Society's Rooms in Chandos Street, W. 

Wilson's more important works were : 
I. 'Practical and Surgical Anatomy,' Lon- 
don, 1838, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1853; issued in 
America, 1844 and 1866. 3. 'The Anatomist's 
Vade Mecum/ London, 1840, 12mo ; 2nd edit. 


1842; lUh L'dit. 1892. 3. ' A rractical and 
Theoretical Treatise ... on Diseases of the 
Skin,' London, 1842, &vo; 2nd edit. 1847 ; 
tr«tuJatedintoGMman,Leipiig,lB50. i.'The 
Enetern or Turkish Bath : its History,' &c., 
London, 1861, 16mD, 5. 'The Vessels of the 
Humni) Body, in a Series of Plates ' (with 
Jonas QuiJn), London, 1837, fol. Wilson 
edited the * Journal of Cutaneoas Medicine 
and Diseases of the Skin,' Lundon, 16<i~'70. 

[Brit. Mod. Journal. 1SB4. ij. 3*7; Trans' 
Medico-Chir. Sue. ISSS, linii. 20-2.1 

D'A. P. 

1849), author of • Travels," wna a member of 
A Haddington family nuned Roc, and was 
boniinr*i»le^onrJunel772, Ha learned 
law under his uncle, John Wilson, toirn 
clerkof Glasgow, and for a time practised 
as a solicitor before the supreme courts of 
Scotland, His uncle, who died in 1806, left 
him his fortune, and he then, by letters 
patent, added Wilson to Lis name, and re- 

stimulated at the moment by his wife's ^ 
mature death. He travelled in Egypt and 
Palestine, and through most of Europe, pre- 
paring as he went minute and interesting 
records of his experience. As he was in some 
respects a pioneer, Iiis publications had an 
immediate popularity, and they retain a cer- 
tain historical interest, He became a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1844 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Glasgow. In recognition 
of this academical distinction he bequeathed 
to the unireraity 300/. to provide an annual 
prixe for an essay on Christ and the benefits 
of Christianity. An upright man, a writer 
and a distributor of tracts, he was not of a 
specially tolerant spirit. One haplees stric- 
ture provoked Hood's discursive andpiingent 
' Ode to Rae Wilson, Esquire,' published in 
1837 with characteristic prefatory note ad- 
dressed to tlio editor of the 'Athenssuni' 
(Hood, Pum*, edit. 1867, i. 61), Rae WiL 
son di«d in London, in South Crescent, Bed- 
ford Square, on 2 June 1849, and was buried 
in Glasgow necropolis, where his grave is 
marked by a conspicuous monument of ori- 
ental design. 

In 1811 Rae Wilson married Frances 
Hiillipn, daugiiter of a Glasgow merchant. 
Her death, eighteen months later, prompted 
Bi privately circulated memorial 'tribute, 
afterwards published in Gisborne's ' Christian 
Female Biography.' He married, a second 
time, Miss Oates, who accompanied lii"i in 
his travels and survived him. 

Roe Wilson's publications include : 
1. ' Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land,' 

I8ii3. 2. ' A Journey through Turkey, 
Greece, the Ionian Isles, SIcilv, Spain,' 1824. 

3. ' Travels in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
Hanover, Germany, Xetherlonds,' ISSG. 

4. 'TravelsinRussia,'18-28,3vDls. 5. 'Re- 
cords of o Route through France and Italy; 
with Sketches of Catholicism,' 183S. The 
work on Egvpt and the Holy Land waa very 
popular, anil ran through se^-eral editions. 

[Chambers's Blogr. Diet, of EmiDoat Seots- 
meB ; Andersun'a Scolliah Xalion - Ining'B Itict. 
of EmiaeDt Sooleman ; tiltagoir Unlrorintj 
Ciilondar; Addison's ItoU of Glasgow Gmdnalee, 
18B8.] T. B. 

1842), lieutenant-general, colonel-comman- 
dant royal artillery, bom in 1762, was se- 
cond sonof Mwor Wiltshire Wilson of Wol- 
lock Grange, Northumberland, formerly of 
the 1st droooons, by a daughter of Ralph 
Phillips of Col cheater. After passing tlmiugh 
tlie Royal Military Apademy at Woolwich 
be receiveda commission assecond lieutenant 
in the royal artillery on 9 July 1779. The 
dates of his further commissiana were : lien- 
tenant, 28 Feb. 1782; captain -lieutenant, 
1 Nov. 1793; captain, 1 July 1796; brevet 
major, 29 Aug. 1802; regimental inajor, 
20 July 1804 ; Ueutenant-eolonel, 10 March 
1806; brevet colonel, 4 July 1813; regi- 
mental colonel, 20 Dec. 1814 ; major-general, 
12 Aug. 1819 ; colonel-commaridant of royal 
ariillery, 21 Jan. 1828; lieut«nant-general, 
10 Jon. 1837. 

Wilson went to the West Indies in 1780, 
whence in 1780 he took a detachment of 
artillery to Canada, and in 1790 returned to 
England. He served with the Duke of 
York's army in Flanders in 1793, and was 
for some time attached with two S-pou&der 
jfuns to the 53rd foot. He was employed 
in Mov, June, and July at the siege of 
Volenc^iennea, which place capitulated on 
28 July. He was dangerously wounded at 
the attack on Dunkirk on 24 Aug, In 
October he was thrown into Nieuport witk 
his two guns in company with the S3rd foot 
and two Hessian battalions, where they 
were attacked by the whole French army 
under General Vandamme. Vandamme met 
with an obstinate resistance, the sluices 
were opened, and bis siege balteriea inim- 
datcd, and wht.'n, abandoning the regular 
Bttack, he attempted a niffbt assault on 
25 Oct., hia front was so Imiited between 
the river and the inundation that '\^'iIson, 
with his two guns placed to command the 
enemy's approach, was nhlo, by firing rapidly 
into the advancing foe over one nundred 
rounds of gmiK! and round shot, to create 
such fearful havoc that the French with- 




drew just at. thecriticaJ time wheu enlarged 
giiii'Vents Hnd distorted muzzles were 
derin^ WiUon's guns useless. The ar 
of liniieh forces oa the 29th caused Vaa- 
damme to raise the siege on the following 
dnj, leaving his battering guns behind. The 
succt^saful defence was ascribed by all 
cenied to the urtillery and the 63rcl i 
ment. Wilson's services were rewardei 
promotion to the rank of captain-lie utei 
In consequence of the gallantry displayed 
bj the flaherrnen of Nieuport the Uuke of 
Vopk incorporSited them into a company of 
artillery, and gave the command of it to 
Wilson iu June 1794. 

Wilson took part ta the battle of Tournaj 
on '2A May 1794. Ho commanded the 
artillery at the defence of Nieuport thia 
year, when General Diepenbcook with 1,500 
men held the French army of 40,000 men 
under Geuernl Moreaii at bay for nineteen 
daye. On the capitulation Wilson became 
a prisoner of war, and was not CKchaaged 
for nine inonths. Jle commanded the royal 
artillery in the eroedition under Major* 
ijeneral Welbore Ellis Uovle to Qoiberon 
Bay in l"9fi; shortly after the capture of 
Isle Dieu he returned to England. lu 179(1 
he went to the Cape of Good Hope with a 
company of artillery, but returned home 
the following year. In May 1798 he went 
to Ostend in the expedition under Mujor- 
general Sir Eyre Coote, where he was again 
taken prisoner and sent to LiUe. He was 
exchanged in 1799. In 1800 he was sent 
to tlM West Indies, where he remained for 
five years, in the lust three of which he 
commanded the artillery. He commanded 
big- arm at the capture of St, Lucia on 
23 June 1803, of Tobaro on 30 June 1803, 
and of Surinam on 6 May 1604. 

On hia return to England in 1306 WlIsod 
commanded the royal artillery in the northern 
district until It<10, when he went to Ceylon 
to command hia regiment there. lie re- 
tnmed home in 181o, and two years after- 
mrda went to Canada, where he commanded 
the royal artillery until W-20. Hia services 
were rewarded in 1838 b^ the dbtinction 
of a knight pommanderthip of the Hoyal 
Hanoverian Guelphic order. He died on 
-8 Hay 1812 at Cheltenham. WiUon was 
twice married; first, in 1789, to a daughter 
of John Lees ; and, secondly, in 1S35, to a 
daughter of Jacob Glen of Chambly, near 
UontreaL There was no iesae of either 
marriage. There is s black-and-white por- 
trait en Wilson in the Royal Artillery Insti- 
tution at Woolwich. 

[War Office Recoids; Itoyal Artillery Itenirds; 
3}Mpatehe8 ; Slcmoin in the Boyal Military 

Calendar, 1820, Gent. Mag. 1B12, United Serri<^e 
Mag. 1843; Militjiry Annual, 1811; Times, 
II May I84S; Costs Annuls of the Wars of 
tilt Kightecuth CL-ntury ; Carmichacl Smyth's 
Wars in the Low Countries ; Journal and Corra- 
Bpondflnce of General Sir Harry Caliert; Can- 
ron's Uistorical Rreords of the 53rd Foot.] 
R. H. V. 
WiNMAELEiGH(l80a-lH92),boruon 26 April 
1802, was eldest son of Thomas Wilson-Pat- 
len of Bank Hall, Wiirrington, Lancashire. 
His father had in 18U0 assumed the addi- 
tional name of Wilson at the request of Tho- 
mas Wilson (1063-1755) [q. vTj, bUhop of 
.Sudor and Man, to whose estates Patten 
succeeded by the testamenlarv djspositii 

tlie bishop'i 

, Thomas VVilson. John'« 

mother, Elizabeth, was eldest daughte 
Nathan Hyde of Urdwick. Ilia »:hooldays 
were passed ut Eton, and he went thenca 
to Magdalen College, Oitbrd. Here he be- 
came intimate with many men who after- 
words rose to great eminence, among others 
Lord Stanley, afterwards fourteenth earl of 
Derby. After leaving Oiford he travelled 
forsomeyears on the continent, but returned 
in 1830, and in August entered parliament 
as representative, with his friend Lord Stan- 
ley, of his native county of Lancaster. He 
voted for the second reading of the Keform 
Bill, end did not seek re-election in 1831, 
giving place to (Sir) Benjamin Heywood 
[g. v.], but at the first election under that 
bill in 1832 he re-entered parliament as ool- 
league again of his friend Lord Stanley for 
the ncivly creati-d division of North Lan- 
cashire. This constituency he continued to 
represent till, on the return of Disraeli to 
office in 1874, he was created Baron Win- 
marleigh. His long career in the House 
of Commons was remarkable for the fact 
that, though a strong conservative, he was 
an advocate of reforms that would afi'ect 
the operatives, and could always be relied 
upon to rote for measures for the benefit of 
the industrial population, whichever party 
brought them iorward. He support^ an 
eurly bill for dealing with the evila of the 
truck system, and look a most important 
part in obtuining the removal of tne lax 
printed calicoes, which led to great deve- 
, mentB in the manufacturing trade of 
South Lancashire. In 1»33 he opposed Lord 
Ashley's bill to limit the hours of the em- 
ployment of women and children in fac- 
tories, carrying by a majority of one his 
motion for a royal commission to inquire 
fully into the question [see Cooper, ANTOur 
AsBLiit, seventh Eakl of SHAiTESBirEr]. 
He held for a fow months in 18.52 the ap- 







pointment of chairman of committees of the 
whole house during the short administration 
of his old colleague, who had become Earl of 
Derby. As colonel ( 1842-72) of the 3rd royal 
Lancashire militia, he went in command of 
his regiment on the outbreak of the Crimean 
war in 1854 to Gibraltar, and on his re- 
turn was appointed an aide-de-camp to her 
majesty. On the cotton famine relief com- 
mittee formed in Manchester to cope with 
the terrible distress caused by the war in 
America, he took an active and important 

Eart, inducing the president of the poor-law 
oard to accept a resolution of the House of 
Commons enabling boards of guardians to 
raise loans on the security of the rates. 

In Lord Derby's government of 1867 Wil- 
son-l'atten was appointed chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster, and was made a privy 
councillor. In the year following he became 
chief secretary for Ireland, a post he held 
till the resignation of Lord Derby, three 
months later. After liis elevation' to the 
upper house as llaron Winmarleigh in 1874 
he seldom took part in its debates, but in 
1882 he appeared there to deliver what was 
his last speech, in warm advocacy of the bill 
for the construction of the Manchester Ship 
Canal. lie died at his seat near Garstang, 
Lancashire, on 12 July 1892. lie married, 
in 1828, Anna Maria, daughter and coheiress 
of his paternal uncle, Peter Patten-Bold of 
Bold. By her he had a son, Eustace John, 
who became a captain in the lifeguards, but 
died in 1873, leaving an only son, John 
Alfred, who died in 1889. The barony thus 
became extinct on Winmarleigh's death. In 
the museum at Warrington there is a bust 
of Winmarleigh in marble, by G. Bromlield 
Adams, which is a good likeness. There is 
also a life-sized recumbent figure in marble 
in the parish church of Warrington, and at 
Lancaster there ia a portrait in oil in the 
lloyal Albert Asylum. | 

[Annual Register, 1892, p. 179; G. E. C[o- '■ 
kaync]8 Complete Peenige, viii. 189; Times, 
July 1892.1 A. N. I 

WILTON, JOSEPH (1722-1803), sculp- 
tor and royal academician, born in liOndon 
on 10 July 1722, was son of a worker in 
ornamental plaster, who carried on a large 
manufacture of plaster decorations in the 
French style at Iiedge Lane, Charing Cross, 
his extensive workshops being in Edward 
Street, Cavendish Square. Here Wilton was 
grounded in that skill for decorative sculp- 
ture which was the strongest feature of his art 
in after life. He was, howt^vcr, first educated 
at Iloddesdon, Hertfordshire, for the pro- 
fession of a civil engineer, but showed an 

early taate for the sculptor^a art. His father 
therefore placed him under Laurent Del- 
vaux [q. vT], the sculptor, who had returned 
to hia native country, and resided at Nivelles 
in Brabant. In 1744 Wilton left Delvaux 
to go and study in the French Academy 
at Paris under the French sculptor, Jean 
Baptiste Pigalle. Here he made great pro- 
gress, ^ined a silver medal, and learnt to 
work in marble. In 1747 Wilton went, in 
company with his fellow-sculptor, Louis 
Francois Roubillac [q.v.], to Rome, and three 
years later gained the gold medal given to 
sculpture by Benedict XlV on the occasion 
of his jubilee. He found many patrons in 
Home, among the most generous and in- 
fluential of vvhom was William Locke [q.v. J 
of Norbury Park. After visiting Naples, 
Wilton went to Florence in 1751, where he 
resided for about four years. He received 
many commissions for copies from the an- 
tique and for completing mutilated statues. 
In May 1755 he returned to England in 
company with his lifelong friends Sir Wil- 
liam Chambers [q. v.], the eminent architect, 
and Giovanni Iwttista Cipriani [q. v.], the 
decorative painter. He settled in his father's 
house at Charing Cross, and his talents were 
soon in spreat requisition. In 1758, when 
Charles Lennox, third duke of Richmond 
and Lennox [q. v.], opened his gallery of 

Eainting and sculpture in his house at White- 
all for gratuitous instruction to students^ 
Wilton and Cipriani were chosen by the 
duke to be directors of the gallery. Wilton 
was also appointed state-coach carver to the 
king, and in consequence of his increase of 
business he erected extensive workshops in 
what was after\i'ard8 Foley Place, occupy- 
ing himself a large house at the corner of 
Portland Street close by. The state coach 
used by George III at his coronation was 
constructed from Wilton's designs. Wilton 
was appointed sculptor to his majesty. He 
contributed a marble bust to the first exhi- 
bition of the Society of Artists in 1760, and 
in the following year sent busts of Roubillac 
and Oliver Cromwell. He continued to ex- 
hibit busts and bas-reliefs with them up to 
176(3, in which year ho sent another bust 
of Oliver Cromwell, * from the noted cast of 
his face preserved in the Great Duke s gal- 
lerv at Florence.* Wilton was one of the 
original foundation members of the Royal 
Academy, and contributed to its first ex- 
hibition in 1769. Succeeding to a large for- 
tune at the death of his father, Wilton ceased 
to be dependent on his profession, and was 
but an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Aca- 
demy. His work, too, became more and 
more confined to the modelling alone. He 

>, however, miicli Bought ofler for bust« 
1 monuments, tUougli by fur his best work 

■nlky in the chimney pieces and decorative 
Msolpture which ha executed, in conjunctiun 
witJi Cipriani, to adorn the architectural 
isof Sir Williftm Chambers. Among 
it penoDB of whom he modelled 
busts were Lord-chancellor Bacon, Lord 
Camden, Admiral Holmes, Sir Isaac New- 
ton, Dean i^wift, the Earl of Chesterfield, 
Qeueral Wolfe, and the Earl of Chatham. 
The much~criticised moniuDsnt to General 
Wolfe in Westminster Abbey was designed 
and modelled by Wilton, and there are other 
monumente by him in the some building. 
Wilton WB9 less succeasful with the statues 
modelled by him, and two in London — those 
or George 111 at the Royal Exchange and of 
ibe same king in Berkeley Sqtiare, executed 
under Wilton h direction — had subsequently 
to he removed and superseded. After thirty 
jears, as the taste for ornamental and monu- 
mental Bculpturu began to decline, Wilton 
■old his premises and property by auction 
in 1766, and retired into private life. He 
accepted, however, the poet of keeper of the 
Boyal Academy, and held it from 1790 until 
hie death, which look place in bis apartments 
as beeper on 2i> Nov. 1803. He was buried 
at Wanstead in Essex. Wilton tvae a noted 
and popular h^re in artistic and intellectual 
society, and his large private means enabled 
tumUiplay aleadingpartinsociety. Among 
bis personal friends was John Francis lli- 
gand [q. v.l, who executed a. tine portrait 
ffioup ol Wilton, Sir W. Chambers, and Hir 
Joahua Reynolds, which is now in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery. Wilton had an 
only daughter of great personal charm, who 
in 1774 married Sir Robert CbDmbers [q. v.], 
chief justice of Bengal. A bust of Wilton 
by Roubillac was presented by Lady Cham- 
faen to the Royal Academy. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Smith's Kolle- 

_ ten and his Times ; Sandbj-'aHist. of tlio Rojnl 
, ; Genl. Miig. 1803, ii. 1099 ; CulaloguoB 
fftbe Society of Alti«lsaud the Royal Aoudemy.] 

WILTON, WILLL4.M de (d. 1264), 
ge, had tines levied before him in 1247, 
sct«d as justice itinerant in 1348, 1249, and 
1350, again in 1253, 1255, and 1259-61. In 
the intervals his name does not appear in 
the lists of justices. He seems to have been 
chief justice on II Dee. 1^61, as be received 
tha pay of that otiice, lOOl. He was pro- 
bably chief justice of the king's bench. He 
*n be tracea tn the execution of the functions 
i the office till November 1263 (Bxceryt. e 
Sot. .ffoi. ii. 407). 
[ According to Kishanger (p. 28) he was 

slain at the battle of Lewes on the king's 
side (14 May 1264). 

[Foss's Judges of EogUud, and authorities 
cited in text.] W. E. R. 

WILTSHrRE, Earlb of. [See Scbope, 
William le, 1351 'r'-lSUO; Bdtlbk, Jambs, 

WIMBLEDON, Viscocirr. [See Cecil, 
Sir Edwahd, 1572-1638.] 

1625), judge, bom in 1554 or 15^, was the 
younger son of John Winch (d. 1682) of 
Northill in Bedfordshire. He entered Lin- 
coln's Inn on 19 July 1673 {lUcordi of 
Lincoln' B Inn, Ifi'M, i. 80), and was called 
to Ihe bar on 26 July 15S1. In 1506 he 
became a bencher, and in August 1598 
acted as autumn reader. lu 1593 he repre- 
sented the borough of Bedford in parlia- 
ment, retaining his seat until his appoint- 
ment to the office of chief boron of the 
exchequer in Ireland on 8 Nov. 1806. To 
qualify him for this appointment he was in 
liie same year made a Beneanl>at-lBw, and 
on 10 Nov. be was knighted {Cnl. State 
i'oyera,Dom,1603-10,p.334), On8Dec.l608 
he succeeded Sir James Ley (afterwards 
first Earl of Marlborough) [c], v.] as lord 
chief justice of the king's bench in Ireland, 
with a salary of SOOi. a year. While fol- 
lowing this office he earned the commenda- 
tion of Bacon by his ' quickness, industrv, 
and despatch ' (Bacok, Workt, ed. Spea- 
ding, Ellis, and Heath, xiii. 205). On 
7 Nov. 1611 be was transferred to England 
and appointed a judge of the common pleas, 
a post which ha held till his death. In 
August 1613 he and three others were 
nominated on a commission to examine 
into the popular complaints in Ireland. 
In 1616 he and Sir Randolph Crewe Fq. t.] 
fell into deserved disgrace for conaemn- 
ing and executing nine women as witchea 
at Ihe Bummer assizes at Leicester, on 
the evidence of a boy who pretended that 
he bad been tormented by them. The 
king, while visiting the town a month 
later, examined the boy and detected th» 
imposture (Nichols, Progrma of Janieg Z, 
iii. 192; Cal. State FaperK, 1610-18, p. 
398). In 1616, on the death of Sir Augus- 
tine Nicolls [q. T.], he was appointed a 
referee of the patent for innkeepers' licenses, 
and on 6 Aug. 1623 he was appointed a 
member of the council of Wales, the hing 
judging it 'fit that the justices of the four 
shires should belong thereto ' (ib. 1623-5, 
p. 46). He was seised with apoplexy while 
in his robes, and died in Chancery Lane on 

^m Winch 154 

6 Feb, 1624-5. He was buried in the 
'8 of Pembroke Ilnll, Cambridge, and 
aaenX wiib erectc-d to his memor; at 
Evurton in Bedfordshire, where hia fiimilv 
resided forsereral eenerationa. Bj bis wita 
Cicely, daughter of Kiehsrd Onslow (1538- , 
1571) [q. v.], be left a son Onslow and a , 
dBU);bter Dorotbj. married to Oeoree Scott 
of Hawkhurst in Kent. His msle Une t^r- ' 
minaCed about 1701! on the death of Sir 
Humphrej Winch, created a baronet ia 

Two legal compilations b_v Winch were 
published after bis death. The first, which 
appeared in 1657, was ' The Keporta of Sir 
lluraphrv "Winch, sometimes one of the 
Judges of the Court of Common I'teas, con- 

taining many choice cases in the foure 

last jears of King James, faithfully trans- 
lated out of an exact french Oople,' Lon- ' 
dcm, 4to. The orlgianl manuscript is iu ' 
the Cambridge Universitv Library {Cat. i 
Cambr. MSS. Hi. 491). The second and 
more voluminous treatise appeared in 1680. j 
entitled ' Le Beaii-l'ledeur. A Book of 
Eatrius, containing Declarations, Informa- 
tions, and other Select and Approved Plead- 
ings,' London, 4to. 

[Fom's Judges of Enaland, 1867, ti. 21)1-2; 
Harl. Sdp. Pabl. lii. ISB; Smyth'i lavOffieira 
of Irelnod, 1839, pp. 8S. 140; BedfonUhiro 
Notes uad QuariaB, i. i>6. 3ie, 243, 2G6, iii. 
26S-7 ; Baoju's Works, ed. Spedding, Ellis, and 
Heath, tiii. 8S, xir. 187, BlnydM's Qeneol. 
Bedford, 1S9U. pp. 3UB, 350, 360. 420, 439; , 
Hist. MSS. Caiani, (Bep, on Buw!aurh MS.S. I, i 
250); O'Byrue's IteprescutDtire History. 184B, , 
p. 7*; Hatl, MS. 6121. f 65,] E. I. C, 

183S), botatilal, was bom about 1763, \ 
He was throughout his life devoted to ' 
the study of plants, especially those of 
North umberlana, Cumberland, and Durham, 
and was one of the earliest writers to take 
philosophical views of geographical distribu- 
tion. He studied cryptogams, especially 
mosses, as well as flowering planla, and 
accumalated an berberium of some twelve 
thousand epeciea. He was elected a fellow 
of the Linne an Society in 1^03 and an asso- 
ciate in 1821. For more than twenty years 
he acted as secretary to the Newcastle In- 
firmary. He died at his residence, Ridley 
Haoe,Newca8tle-upon-Tyne,on SMay 1838, 
aged 68. His manuscripts, library, and 
herbarium were bequeathed to the Linneon 
Society, but the greater part of them was 
TObaequently handed over to the Natural 
History Rociety of Northumberland and 
Durham. Ills name was commemorated 

principal publications were: I. 'The Bola- 
niat's Guide through . . . North umberland 
and Durham,' lfl05-7, 3 vols. 8vo, written 
in conjunction with John Thomhill and 
Itichard Waugh, arranged according to (he 
Linneaa Bvetem and including cryptogams. 
2, 'Observations on the Geology of North- 
umberland and Durham,' 1814, 4to. S. ' Es- 
say on the Geographical Distribution of 
Plants through . . . Northumberland, Cum- 
berland, and Durham,' 1819, 8vo; 2nd ed. 
1825. 4, ' Remarks on the Flora of Cumber- 
land,' 1825, 8vo, contributed to the ' New- 
castle Magasine ' during the preceding year, 
and reprinted as 'Contributions to the Flora 
of Cumberland,' 1833, 4to, 5. • Flora of 
Northumberland and Durham,' 1831, 4tO{ 
reprinted from the ' TmnBRCtiona ' of the 
Natural History Sociely of Northiunbei^ 
land, Durham, and Newcastle, to which 
addenda were issued in 1836. ^ 

G. a B. I 

WINCHOOMBE, aliat Snalwoodg, 
JOHN ((f. 1520), clothier, popularly known 
as Jacs of Newacbt, describes himself ia 
his will as 'John Smalewoode the elder, 
aiiai John Wynchcombe, of the i>arishe of 
Seynt Nicholas in Newberry.' He is said by 
Herbert to have been descended from a 
Simon de Wincbcombe, a rich drapi 

Candlawyk Street, London, who ' 

of London in 1379 {Livery 
894, 401 ; Man. Francucana, ii. 157). 
was, however, associated with Newbury 
his earliest years, was there apprenticed 

lio was Bheri£^^_ 

157). E^^l 

prenticed to i^^H 

De CandoUe i 

the genus HVncAin. Winchs 

clothier, and subsequently acquired great 
wealth through bis successlul pursuit of that 
trade. The chapbook stories of his having 
led 100 or 2ii0 men, equipped at his own 
expense, to the battle of Flodden Field; of 
his having entertained Henry Vlll and 
Catherine of Aragon and refused a knight- 
hood; of the doings of William Sommers[q.T.] 
and other courtiers at Winchcombe'a house, 
are unsupported by contemporary evident, 
and are probably as apiicryphal as the 
logendswhichgalWed round Richard Whit- 
tington [q. v.] There is, however, no doubt 
that WinchEombo was a pioneer of tha 
clothing manufacture, and possibly h« was, 
as Fuller stales, the ' most considerabU 
clothier England ever beheld.' He ia said 
to have kept five hundred men at work, and 
' Winchcombe's kerseys' were long con- 
sidered the finest of their kind (BtrBia.GT, 
Jfut. of It'ool and Wool-combing, p. 69). 
He is said in an ejutaph in Newbury pariui 
church, for tha ' edification ' of which he left 
a large bequest, to have died on IQ Feb. 





1619-[30]. He was buried in the chuticel of 
tlie chorcb with bis lirst vriiv, Alice, and a 
bnu effigy with luscriptian is fiied to the 
east wall of the north lisle. lie wa^ sur- 
Tired ly his eecoQil wife, Joan, and apparently 
on only eon. His will, dat«d 4 Jan., was 
proved on 24 March 1519-r:i0] {Brit. M>u. 
Aiidit.MS.mS3, f.i6; Hittoryuf Newbury, 
liS3J>, p. 78). 

His son, John Wischcombb (1489 P- 
150S ?), carried un his father's trade, but 
took more part in politics. In October 1 536 
he was onu of those to whom littters were 
Addressed for aid in view of the northern 
rebellions. In February 1538-9 Miles Co- 
verdale [q. v.], when at Newbury, employed 
lum Its B means of communication with 
Cromwell, who in the sume month gave 
Winehcombe an order for a thousand kerseys 
(CovBsniLB, lUmaim, Parker Soc. pp. COO, 
602; Letters and Paperi of Henrii VIII, 
xrr.t.396). In December following he was 
ODS of the ' squires ' appointed to receive 
Anne of Clevea, and on 12 Feb. 1539-10 be 
-was granted Buchlebury and Tbatcham, be- 
sides some lands in Reading, all previously 
the property of St. Mary's Abbey there ; 
on 4 Feb. 1540-1 he was placed on tlie com- 
mission of the peace for Berkshire. In March 
1541 he was leader of a movement among 
dotbiers to protest against the provisions of 
tbestatnte of 1535 dealing: with the manu- 
fccti«eofoblh('27Henrjr\lII,c.lL»). The 
couocil stayed the execution of the statute. 
and directed Sir Thomas Dresham and others 
who had procured it to prepare far its tle- 
teoee (Nicosia, Actt P. C. vii, 158 ; Letters 
and i%«-», xvi. 625). On 20 Jan. 1544-5 
' John Winehcombe, gent., of Newbury,' was 
returned to parliament for West Bedwin, 
Wiltshire. In 1 549 he was granted a coat 
of arms, and on S Feb. 1552-3 was returned 
to parliament for Reading. Three portraits 
of the younger John Winehcombe, all dated 
1550,were exhibited at the Tudor Exhibition 
io 1^7. An original portrait, erroneously 
ascribed to Uolbein, belongs to Mrs. Webley 
Parry, a copy to Mrs. Dent of Sudeley, and 
•notoer original portrait to Mr. Walter 
Money (,Cat. Tudor Kchib. Nog. «8, 201, 

It was probably his son who, as ' John 
Wiochcombe, jun.,' represented Ludgersball 
in 155S-^ and 15.S5 with Dr. John Story 
[q. v.], was directed in the latter year to 
maintain order at Iteading fair {Acta P. C. 
1554-6, p. ItiS), and in Elixahelh's relgu 
wu suggested by Parker as a commiEisioner 
in Berl^fiire to prevent the scarcity of com 
(Stbtfb, i^ntcr, iii. 121). Ills descendant, 
Sr Henry Winohcotube, was created a baro- 

net in IG61, and died in 1867, leaving a son 
Henry, on whose death in 1703 the baro- 
netcy became Kxtiuct, The estates passed 
to his eldest daughter, Frances, who was 
married in 1700 to Henry St. John, the 
great viscount Bolingbroko [q. v.] 

The cult of the legendary ' Jack of New- 
bury' began before that of Whitiington. 
Wood mentions {Addit. MS. 603a, f. 46 i) 
having bought from a pedlar in Warwick- 
shire the ' Life and Tihests of Jack of New- 
bury ' printed in black letter, of which no 
copy now appears to be extant. Late in the 
siiteenth century Thomas Deloney [q. v.] 
published his ' Pleasant History of John 
Wincbcomb, in his younger yeares called 
Jacks of Newberie, the famous and worthy 
clothier of England.' The earliest edition 
extant appears to be the eighth, published 
in 1630 : a copy in the Douce collection 
in the Bodleian Library contains a note by 
Douce to the effect tlint the first edition 
was published about 1697, and on his flyleaf 
ia ' a sketch of Jack of Newbury's house 
from recollection, made by Flaxman for F. 
Douce.' A ninth edition appeared in 1633 
(London, 4to), a fourteenth about lfi80, and 
a fifteenth about 1700 (both London, 4 to). 
A shortened version of the story, ornamented 
with rough woodcuts and entitled ' The 
History of Jack of Newbury,' was published 
about 1760 (Loudon, 12mo; another edit. 
London, 1775? 13mo), and another version, 
entitled 'The History of Mr. J. W.,' ap-^ 
peured at Newbury (1780? 8vo). 

[Letters and Ripera of Henry VIII. ed. Gaird- 
ner ; Acta of ths Privy Council, cd. Nicolsa and 
Uaai-nt; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. SSSO; Official 
Returns of Members of Parliament; Celooey's 
and other Hisluriea ia Brit. Has. Libr, ; Fuller's 
Worthies, ed. IBll. i. 66; Barry's Berkshire 
Genealogies, p. UB; AshmoU'e Antiquities of 
IterkHhtre, ii. 289, iii. SOU; Lysona's Hsgna 
Britaania, 1S06, i. 329; tliat. and Antig. of 
Kewbury, 1639, pp. 77-SO ; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetciea : Kirby'a Winchester 3ah(ilan, p. 
136 i Ashley's Economic History, i. 229, 236, 
25A 1 Conninghani'a Growth of English Indastry 
and Commoroc, 1896, i. filfi. 533; Notes and 
Quelle, 2nd Eer. viii. 31)4 ; authorities cited.] 
A. F. P. 

1313), archbishop of Canterbury, derived 
bis name from Old Winchelsea in Kent, 
where be was probably bom. He studied 
arts at Paris, where he look bis master's 
de(free, becoming rector of tlie university 
before 7 July 1367 {Dbkiflg and Ckatb- 
i,AIN, Cartii/rtrium Unu-ereitatui ParmeniU, 
i. -168). He afterwards studied theology 
Oxford, where he proceeded D.D., and w 




Win Chelsea 


chwjcellor in 1288 (Wood, Fatti Oxon. 
p. 16, ed. Gutch). A confuBioa of him 
with & namesAke, John Winclielaea, has led 
to the improbabla Rssertion that he w&g a 
fellow of Merton Colle^ (Beodeick, Me- 
morialt of Merton Coll. pp. 197-8, Oxford 
Hist. Soc.) He enjoyed a great reputation 
as scholar and administrator both at Paris 
and Oxford (BiBCHiRaTON in Anglia Sacra, 
i. 12). He was appointed prubundary of 
Leighton Manor in Lincoln Cathedral, but 
hii rights there were contested by the 
litigious Almeric of Montfort [q. v.] {Feck- 
fiam't Letters, \. 90). Winchelaea gained 
the Buit, and held the prebend until he be- 
came archbishop (Lb Nbtb, Fa>li Feel. 
Angl. ii. 170, ed. Hardy). About 1283 Win- 
chelsea was appointed archdeacon of Essex 
and prebendary of Uxgate in St. Paul's {ib. 
ii. 333-4, 420; Nbwcodkt, ii-yertonum 
Eeeheituticum Londin. i. 71, 190). He 
resided constantly and diligently visited hia 
archdeaconry. He preached frequently and 
resumed the delivei^ of thuological lecturer 
in St, Paul's (BiECtitnoTOir, p. 12). 

PeckhamdiadonBDec. 1292. Thepapacy 
was vacant, and for once there wu a chance 
of a canonical election to Canlerburv. On 
22 Dec. Henry (rf. 1331 )[q,v.] of Eaatr^, prior 
of Christ Church, sought license to elect, and 
tvo of his tnonks visited Edward at New- 
castle, whence they were sent back on 6 Jan. 
1203 with the necessary permission. The 
election took place on 13 Feb., and was 'per 
vinm compromissi,' a committee of seven 
being entrusted with making the appoint- 
ment on behalf of the whole chapter ( vVlI.- 
Kl»9, Concilia, ii. 189-90). Throi^h Eaatn^'s 
influence, and probably with Edward I's 
goodwill, Winchelsea was unanimouslv 
elected. The king gave hia consent aflsr 
three dnrs (Bircrihoidv, p. 12), whereupon 
Winchelsea at once prepared to start off 
for Home (cf, Cat. Pat. Soils. 1292-1301, 

f. 7). He reached Rome on ^Tiit-Sunday, 
7 May. The papacy being still vacant, be 
was delayed at the curia more than a year 
before he could obtain confirmation and ci 
secmtion. He made bo good an impress! 
on the cardinals that it was believed — "■ 
land that he was thought of 
pope (BiRcHraoTOK, p. 12). At 
election of Celestine V terminated the long 
vacancy on fi July 1294. The new pope 
thought BO well of Winchelfica that he offered 
htm a cardiualale, which Winchelsea refused. 
Despite the opposition of the Franciscans 
(Wonfgtfr Ann. p.518),Celpstineconfim>ed 
Winchelsea's election. On 12 Sept. he 
GOnwcrated bishop at Aquila, where the papal 
' — Tt then was (Wilkimb, Concilia, ii. " ~' 

a possible 
t last thi 



He left Rome on 5 Oct,, and travelled home 
by way of Germany, Brabant, and Holland, 
(o avoid Ihe terrilories of Philip the Fair, 
with whom Edward I was thi^n at war. 
He reached Yarmouth on 1 Jan. 129i5 
{ Wnnvtler Ann. p. 618). Besides the sura 
ofU2i. 19#. expended in England, his out- 
lay at Rome hod amouolcd to the huge 
Bum cf2,5U0 marks (BovSEB, .^ii/iy. of Cant. 
Appendix M Supplement, pp. 18-19). The 

troctors of the chapter had spent 
fllf as much besides. 
Edward I waa in North Wales suppi 
ing the revolt of Modog ab Llywelvn .^ 
Madoq], Winchelsea at once repaired to 
royal camp at Conway, where on 4 Feb. 
order for the restoration of Ins temporalitii 
was issued (Cat. Pat. BoiU, 1292-1301, p. 
129). On 6 Feb. Winchelsea excommunicated 
Madog (OiNci/iR, ii. 20S), and on 18 March he 
made nissoleninentryintoCauterbury, where 
he received the pallium. He was enthroned 
on Sunday, 2 Oct., in the presence of the king, 
Edward's brother and son, and a ercat gaihi 
ing of clerks and mapnatea, Thedetailsoff 
ceremony were carefully recorded ('Fonnftl. 
thronizationis archiepiscopi Yl Non. Oct., 
Henrico priore,' kc, in Somneb, J, 57-8). 

A secular priest, canonically elected by an 
English chapter, Winchelsea was anxious 
from the beginning not to fall short of his 
two mendicant predec6ssors(Ki!wardbyand 
Peckham), whom the papacy had forced upon 
the English king and courch. In personal 
holiness he was in no wise inferior to them, 
and he was probably their superior in ability. 
He continued to be assiduous in preaching. 
He attended the canonical hours as recutarty 
as a monk. lie freijuently shut himself up for 
prayer and meditation, and, as his intimates 
suspected, for severe corporal discipline. His 
charity atid almsgiving were magnificent. 
Many poor scholars partook of hia bounty, 
and he was careful to reserve many of his 
best benefices for needy masters and bachelors 
of divinity. Hewasbountiful to the mendi- 
cant friars, though be sought to restrain them 
from exercising paBtoral functions without 
the consent of the local cler^ ^ Worcester 
Ann. p. 540; cf. however Condlia, ii. 257-84). 
He constantly distributed his rich garments 
to the poor, and never kept more than two 
robes for himself. He partook sparingly or 
not at all of the costly meats set before bim, 
and habitually gave them away to the poor 
and sick, much to the disgust of bis servants, 
who tliought that coarser food would have 
sulticed for pauper needs. Vet he seldom 
gave way to the escesses of asceticism. He 
was cheerful in temperament, corpulent in 
body, a hard worker, and a good man of 

Win Chelsea 




faoaineM. He was tenocioua of bis precedence 
and ]>ersonal dignity on public occwions, but 
associated on ttirms of friendly equality with 
hia clergy. He was affable, kind, and jocular. 
He hated flatterers, traitors, and prodigals. 
He rarely spoke to ■women save in conf'ea- 
eion (BiBCHisoTOH, pp. 12-14 collects, per- 
haps with too much desire for edilication, his 
personal characteristics ; cf. also Florn Hist. 
lii. 1.55, CAron. de MeUa, ii. 338; Monk of 
Malmeabury in Chron. Edv). I and Edir. II, 
ii. l9L'-3). 

WincheUea was an uncompromising 
cliurchmao and a zealous upholder of the 
papal authority. Yet his love of power and 
loniience was so great that it brought bim 
into conflict with his clergy, his eunrogans, 
many of the nobles, the king, and sometimes 
«Ten wilh the pope. With longer English 
experience than Peckham, and the wider 
outlook of a secular priest, Winchelsea did 
not limit his interests so strictly to the 
ecclesiastical side of things as his predecessor. 
He thought it his business to protect nation 
and church alike. The growing dil&culties 
in which Edward I's too arabiiious policy 
bad involved him enabled '\^'inchel8ea lo 
combine with the purely ecclesiastical an- 
tBgoniam inherited Dy him from I'eckham a 
atrong political opposition to the king's 

Even before his enthronement Winchelsea 
hadtokenuphisline. He summoned a council 
of his suffragans to meet on 15 July 1295 at 
ii. 215), and the proceedings of this body 
seemed to be a menace to the king. At the 
autumn parliament in London Edward on 
38 Nov. personally pleaded with the clergy 
for a large war subsidy. Winchelsea offered 
him a tenth, which Edward rejected SB inade- 
onate. Strong pressure was brought to bear, 
out the archbiBliop made a merit of offering 
the tenth for a second year if the war still 
continued ( Woretitfr Ann, p. 534). Neit 
jear Edward's embarrassments grew worse, 
while Winehelsea's posit ion was strengthened 
by Boniface VIII issuing the bull clrridt 
laieoi, on 24 Feb. 1396, by which the clergy 
ime forbidden to pay taxes to the secular 
authority. In November parliument met 
Bury St. EWmund's, and tfie laily ([ranted 
litMral subsidy. Next day VVinchelaea 
luurangued the clerical estate in the chapter- 
house of the abbey. Admitting the realitv 
ofthedanger from France, he urged the pupal 
prohibition and the impoverishment ot the 
clergy through former exactionif, and denied 
that the clei^ bad promised any fresh tax 
(COTTOir.pp. 314-1.^). At last he persuaded 
Edwaid to wait until January 1297 for the 

final answer, tfeanwhile parlii 
up, and Winchelsea summoned 
convocation for 13 Jan. at St. I'aiiVs, which 
took up the business that the clerical estate 
had evaded. Before this met on 5 Jan. Win- 
chelsea by papal order published the bull 
clericis laicos in every deanery in England 
{C<mcilia.ii.222; CorrON, p. 316). 

Winchelsea opened convocation by a scr* 
non. ' We have two lords over us,' Le sud, 
the king and the pope, and, though ' 
obedience to both, we owe greater obedience 

the spiritual than to the temporal lord ' 
(Heminqbukoh, ii. 116). The clergy there- 
must And, if possible, a way inter- 
mediate between the subversion of the realm 
and disobedience to the pope. The clergy, 
though much divided, refused a general sub- 
aidy, and Edward threatened them with 
outlawry. ThoUKh individual clerks made 
personal gifts lo the king, who announced his 
willingness to accept a fifth, Winchelsea 
remained firm, and kept the clergy aa a body 
on his side. On SO Jan. the sentence of out- 
lawry was formally promulgated against the 
clergy by John of Metingham, the chief 
justice, in Westminster Hall. On 10 Feb. 
Winchelsea, who bad gone lo Canterbury for 
the consecration of John of Monmouth aa 
bishop of Llandaff, preached to the people in 
the cathedral after the consecration, anu then 
solemnly pronounced excommunicate all 
who in any wise trangreesed the papal hull 
(Cotton, p. 320). On la Feb. Edward 
answered by ordering the sheriffs to take 
possession of the lay fees of all the clerev of 
the province of Canterbury. But within a 
fortnight the resistance of the baronage under 
Norfolk and Hereford at Salisbury further 
strengthened Winchelsea's position. 

The strain was too great to last. Winchel- 
sea, who had all through admitted the neces- 
' y of the war and the leg: timacy of the king's 

imands for help, found it judicious not to 

of the edict conliscating their lay fees. 
summoned another con vocation lor 24 March, 
but on its assembling the king sent to it aix 
commissioners, who warned it not to attempt 
anything against his authority. TwoBomi- 
nicans upheld the king's rights to raise war 
taxes (F/<.iv»-ff£r(.iii. 100), and Winchelsea 
himself abandoned bis heroic attitude. He 
kept the council from coming to any formal 
decision, but before it separated said, ' I leave 
each and all of you to your own consciences. 
But my conscience does not allow me 
offer money for the king's protection 
any other pretext ' ( H''ortvster Ann. p. 361 j 
cf. Flores Silt. iii. 101, ' UDUsquisque 


sell S 





;'). It waa subslnntially 
I to each clerk to make hi9 
own terms of submission. 

Winchelses'sestateB remained in tlie king's 
Hands for more than five monthB (Anfflia 
Sacra, i. 51), during which he depended 
on cbaritj for Bubsistaace. RotbI agents 
seized liis horees at MsideCone and compelled 
him to travel on foot i_FIoret Biit. iii. 293). 
On 27 Feb. the king seized Christ Church 
and sealed up it« storehouses to prevent the 
monks giving him any help (BiECHittoTOK, 
i. li-lQj Sixt. MSS. Comm. 5th Bep. i. 
453). But even the clerical partisans who 
hailed Winchelsea as a second St. Thomas 
admitted that bis worst sufferinga resulted 
not from Edward's direct orders but from 
the officious xeal of the royal underlings. 
The king's self-restraint made ureconcilialion 
the more easy, and Edward'a wrath was over 
'when most individual clerks had made their 
Toluntary offering, and the baronage hud 
agreed to fight tor him beyond sea. On 
14 July the reconciliation of church and 
State waa publicly brought home to Lon- 
doners in the afmctiiig scene of farewell 
enacted outside Westminster Hall. Win- 
chelaeo burst into tears at the king's appeal 
to the emotions of his subjects, and pro- 
mised that he would be faithful to him in 
future {Floret Rht. iii. 296). Two days 
(14 July) afterwards WittcheUea summoned 
another convocation to deliberate as to the 
means of obtaining the pope's permission to 
pay the king a grant. On 19 July his lands 
and goods were restored. 

Winchelsea now exerted himself to per- 
suade the earls of Norfolk and Hereford to 
make terms with the king. On 27 July he 
had personal colloquy with the earla' agents 
at Waltliaui, and next day took them with 
him to see the king at St. Albans. It was 
no fault of his if the two earls held aloof. 
On 31 July Edward received the elergv hack 
to his protection, and before his embarkation 
wrote to the archbishop begging his prayers 
for the success of the army. 

On 10 Aug. Winchelsea opened convoca- 
tion at London by informing it that the king 
had promised to confirm the charters if tliu 
clergy would make an adequate grant for the 
French war. The assembly agreed, however, 
that no grant could be made without obtain- 
ing the pope's leave, but promised the king 
t« apply to Boniface at once. Curioualy 
enough the bull of 28 Feb. 1297, by which 
the pope excepted &om his prohibition all 
Toluntory gifts and sums raised for national 
defence, was referred to by neither partv 
in the discussion. But on 20 Aug. Edward, 
without waiting for a grant, ordered the 

immediate collection of a third of the cleri- 
cal temporalities. On 23 Aug. be sailed for 
Flanders. The reconciliation, ader alt, was 

Despite Edward's prohibition, Winchelsea 
excommunicated the infringers of the liber- 
ties of the church. Meanwhile the baronial 

nchelsea, who was present at the 
tumultuous parliament which preceded the 
baronial triumph, was in full sympathy with 
their action, though not taking a leading 

Siart in it himself. A devastating Scottish 
bray now made odious the unpatriotic atti- 
tude of the clergT. On 38 Nov. a new con- 
vocation granted a tenth, raised by each 
diocesan through clerical machinery. As 
Edward had not asked for a tax, and a« the 
money was for occasions recc^nised by the 
bull of explanation, Winchelsea felt himself 
secure both from the king and the pope. 
On the same day the charters, which Edward 
had confirmed in London, were recited pub- 
licly and handed over to the custody of Win- 
chelsea. Thus peace waa nt last restored. 

Wincheisea'a vigorous and successful re- 
sistance to Edward gave him a great repu- 
tation among all lovers of high clerical 
authorily. Boniface VIII called him 
' solus ecclesiie Anglicanro pugil invlncibilis, 
inflexibiliEC|ue columna' (Birchihoton, i. 
101. Despite hia preoccupation in politics, 
Winchelsea had found time for plenty of 
other work. He had numerous qnorrels on 
his hands. A dispute with Gilbert de Clare, 
ninth earl of Gloucester [q, v.], which broke 
out before the archbishop's enthronement, 
could not be settled by arbitration, and was 
ultimatelj- referred to the bishop of Durham 
{Cal. Pat. ItolU, 1297-1301, p. 152). He 
bad a fierce controversy with the abbot and 
convent of St. Augustine's, Canterbury. In 
the course of it he was cited to Rome in 
1299, and in 1300 Boniface VIH issued a 
bull exempting the abbey from all episcopal 
iurisdicliou (Co/. Papal Lettfrt, i. 585-.6). 
But Winchelseo's atreniious remonstrances 
led the pope to issue in 1303 a further hull 
that minimised the privileges that he had 
ioiisly granted {Literir Cantuar. I. Lti- 
; Thorn in TwfeDEii,I>«wHiScn»(or(w, 
u. 2004-5, who is bitterly hostile to Winchel- 
sea). The pope played Winchelsea even a 
worse trick when in 1297 he exempted the 
bishop of Winchester for life from all his 
archiepiscopal jurisdiction (Cat, Papal Let- 
ten, i. 569). Winchelsea strove to increase 
the number of monks and improve the dis- 
cipline even in the faithful convent of Christ 
Church {Uut. MSS. Comm. 5th liep. i. 446). 





1 episcopal oleeiionB, 
lot always aiiBtaincd 

He frequently objected 
but his obJectioDSwere 
on appeal toKome. U 
holder of the melropolitnn'a rights of 
tion. He began in 1299 
of the diiicese of ChichcBter, and in 1300 
™*8odontothQtofWorce8ter. In 1300 he 
and an unseemly dispute with St. Albans 
Abbey (Oata Abbatum S. Albani, ii. 47-8, 
Rolls Ser.) In tho same year he extracted a 
tax of 4r^. in the mark from all his clergy to 
ueiet the execution of his numerous plans 
of refomifttion ( Woneaier Ann. p. 547). On 
8 Sept. l:2&9 Winchelsea officiated in his 
own cathedral at the king's second marriage 
(is. p. bii). He was in 1300 entrusted by 
■ Boniface VIII with the delivery of the 
* npoatolic mandate to withdraw from attack- 
I Ing the Scots, whotn the pope bad taken 
under his protection. A letter of Winchel- 
sea to Boniface (Ann. Landin. pp. 104-8) 
relates in detail his long journey to Carlisle, 
bis diiGculty in reaching the king, his perils 
from the sea and the Scots, and bis final 
interriew with Edward at Sweetheart 
Abbey on 27 Aug. The king refused the 
pops any final answer until he had consulted 
the magnates. Butitseemedtobeinobedience 
to the mandate that he now withdrew from 
Bcotland. Winchelsea returned southward. 
He traversed slowly the province of York, 
ostentatiously bearing his cross erect before 
him even when close by the city of York. 
In September he was in Lincolnshire. In 
October be was back at Otford in bis own 

At the parliament of Lincoln of January 
1301 the troubles between Winchelsea and 
Edward were renewed in a more violent 
form. On Winehelsea's adTice the barons 
presented through Henry of Keigliley, 
knight of the shire for Lancashire, a bill of 
twelve articles, demanding an immediate 
•ettlement of the forests question and certain 
other outstandicig grievances. The in- 
fluence of the primate is almost certainly to 
be traced in the bishops' fresh declaration, 
with the assent of the barons, tliut ihoy 
could not agree to any clerical ta.i eon- 
trarv to ihe pope's prohibition, and in the de- 
mand for the removal of Winehelsea's enemy, 
Walter Langton [q. v.], bishop of Lich- 
field, from the treasury. Edward yielded 
to tho pressure, but never forgave Win- 
chelsea, whom he looked upon as the real 
instigator of the movement. Even in this 
porlinment he managed to isolate the arch- 
bishop from his baronial allies. The barons' 
famous letter of protest addressed to Boni- 
face was a repudiation of WincheUca as 
well as of the pope. Edward made the 

split more emphatic by rejecting Winehel- 
sea's addition to the articles of the borons 
limiting clerical taxation without papal con- 
sent. Another cause of quarrel soon arose 
between Winchelsea and Edward. Burinr 
the vacancy ut Canterbury the king had 
presented Theobald, brotherof Edward s own 
son-in-law, the count of Bar, to the Itving 
of Pagham in Sussex, of which the orcU- 
bishop was patron. lu 1298 Winchelsea de- 
prived Theobald on Ihe ground of an infoi^ 
malily, and conferred Pagham on Itolph of 
Mailing. Before this, in 1^97, Edward had 
induced Boniface to reappoint Theobald by 
papal provision (Cat. Papal Lftteii, i. 572), 
VVincuelsea paid no heed to the papal action, 
whereupon Boniface on 15 Jan. 1300 renewed 
the grant of Pagham {Cal. Papnt Zettert, 
p. 591). The abbot of St. Michael's, in the 
diocese of Verdun, was sent to England to 
secure for Theobald the eiectition of tho 
papal provision. As Winchelsea still resisted 
(he appointment of a non-residenl pluralist 
in sutMleaeon'a orders, he was on 15 Oct. 
solemnly excommunicated by tbe abbot. 
Unly after Winehelsea's submission was tho 
sentence removed, in 1S02. 

During this lime Winchelsea revenge- 
fully continued his attack on Langton. Hig 
Kome supported the monstrous 


February i: . _ 
Boniface put Winchelsea in a difficult posi- 
tion by associating him with the provincials 
of the Franciscans and Dominicans on a 
commissionappointedtoinvestigate the accu- 
sations. Winchelsea was forced to report 
to Rome that Langton was innocent, and in 
June 1303 Boniface formally acquitted the 
archbishop'sgreat enemy (C(i/.Pi/^(i;l^«?r», 
i. 810). The collapaa of the papacy after tho 
fall of Boniface VIII removed Winehelsea's 
best support against his sovereign, for Boni- 
face, if sometimes hostile, might be relied 
upon to uphold all who maintained the cleri- 
cal against the civil power. Sleanwhila 
Winclielseo was busy visiting his province 
and constantly giving fresh causes of irrita- 
lion. Uo olfended Edward once more by 
exercising through an unworthy stratagem 
tbe right of visiting the king's free chapel 
within Hastings Castle, and by visiting 
almost by force the king's hospital of St. 
Gi I es-with out- London {Oil. Patent Ralls, 

1301-7, pp. 189. 397). 


slant claim, ... _ 

Canterbury mob broke open his palace while 
he was residing there, and brutally ma1< 
treated the dean of Oepringe at Selling fop 
no other offence than serving the orcbbishop'i 

astle, and by visiting 
I king's hospital of St. 
m (Oil. Patent Ralh. 

IT). He liad incurred ^H 

nrity through his con- ^^| 

uliction. In 1S03 th« ^H 

[e open his palace while ^H 

ere, and brutally ma1< ^H 

Ospriuge at Selling for ^H 

serving the orcbbishop'a ^H 


1 60 


citations {ii. p. 1D7). He was ouarrelling 
with the archbishop of York on tUc oncifnt 
question of therij^ht of the northern primate 
to have hia cross home erect hefore him in 
the Bouthem province, and it is signiticant 
that Edward wrote to the curia upholding 
the archbishop of York's claim. Bnt Win* 
cheUea still controlled the clerical estate, 
and won his Inst triumph when he induced 
the clergy to reject, the law proposed by Ed- 
ward in the parliament of April 1305 for- 

In Sovetober 1305 the election of Kd- 
Tcard's vassal and dependent, Bertrand de 
Ooth, fts Clement V, gave the signal fnr 
Edward's long-deferred att-ack on Winchel- 
Bea. Among the special ambassadors sent 
to the new pope's coronation on 14 Nov, 
1305 wBre Bishop Langt«n and the Earl of 
Lincoln, who very effectively poisoned the 
pope's mind against Winehelaea. By ab- 
solving Edward from his oath to the forest 
charters Clement destroyed the result of 
Winclielsea's most bard-won victory, while 
by decreeing that Edward should not be 
excommunicated or censured without papal 
permi^ion he deprived Winchelsea of hia 
most effective weapon. In Januair 1306 
W'iachelsea sent Walter Thorp, dean of 
arches, to Lyons to counteract Langton's 
machinations (^iin. Xontli'n. p.l44). But on 
12 Feb. Clement suspended Winchelsea from 
his spiritual and temporal functions, and 
cited bim to the curia within two months. 
On 24 Feb. the envoys came back to London. 
Neit day Winchelsea also arrived, having 
terminated a visitation of the diocese of 
Winchester that he had eagerly undertaken 
on the death ofthe exempt biBbop. lie was 
now unable to resist Archbishop Greenfield 
bearing hiscrosB erect through London streets 
(Ann. Londin. p. 144; cf. Lit. Cantmr. i. 

Winchelsea received intelligence of his 
deprivation on 25 March, and at once visited 
the king to beg for his intercession. A 
stormy scene ensued. Winchelsea showed 
some confusion and craved the king's beno- 
diction, just as if bis sovereign were his 
«cclesiaaticiil superior, Edward overwhelmed 
him with reproaches, accusing bim of pride, 
treason, and pitilessness, and declaring that 
either he or the archbishop must leave the 
realm. On d April Edwud declared to tlie 
pope that Winclielsea's presence threatened 
the peace of the land. Winchelsea went 
idown to Dover priory, where on 18 May the 
citation to the curia wns delivered to bim 
(Ann. Lnndin. pp. 144-5). Early next day 
ue took ship for the continent. lie remained 
in exile for the rest of Edward's life. 

Winchelsea found the papa! court esta- 
blished at Bordeaux, ao that even in his 
banishment he did not iiuit Edward's domi- 
nions. The worry and fatigues in which he 
had been involved culminated in a stroke of 
paralysis, from which lie never wholly re- 
covered. He scornfully rejected the pro- 
posal to resign his archbishopric or to accept 
translation to another see. He felt that be 
wag hut treadingmore completely in the 
footsteps of St, Thomas (Birchikbton', i. 
16). His reputation for sanctity became 
greater, and it was believed that the death 
of bis enemy, Edward 1, was revealed to 
bim at Bordeaux in a vision IFloret But. 
iii. 328). 

Winchelses's suspension was so much & 
political measure that, the accession of Ed- 
ward II and the disgrace of his arch enemy 
Langton removed the only obslBcles to liis 
reinstatement. On 16 Dec. 1307 the new 
king urged Clement to restore Winchelsea, 
and on 22 Jan. 1306 the pope issued from 
Poitiers letters removing his suspension (iiV. 
Canttiar. iii. 386-6 ; Cal. Papal Letten, ii. 
33). On the same day Clement, at Win- 
cbelsea's request, revoked a former nomina- 
tion of a commission of English bishops to 
crown Edward, on the ground thai the right 
of coronation belonged exclusively to Can- 
terbury. On 28 Jan. Winchelsea appointed 
the bishop of Winchester to act on his behalf, 
as he was unable through ill-health to be 
back in time to olficiate in person. This 
punctiliousness necessitated the postpone- 
ment of the coronation from 18 Feb. to 
25 Feb. The archbishop returned to Eng- 
land inMarchor April (CtsuN OP BRiDLiKa- 
TOiT,p.33; Ann. Paul. p. 263). On 14 Ajiril 
he made a long-deferred composition with 
the Count of Boulogne, who hsd been irri- 
tated by not obtaining his usual dues from 
a new archbishop, through Winchelsea not 
having passed through bis territories on bis 
earlier journeys to the continent (Lit. Can- 
luar. ii'i. 388). 

Within a few weeks of Winchelses's re- 
turn Piers GBveaton [q. v.] was hnnisbed. 
The archbishop headed his suffragans in 
threatening excommunication to the fa- 
vourite if he disobeyed the baronial edict 
(Ann. Londin. p. 156). He thus renewed 
from the first his relations with the opposi- 
tion, and was soon more hostile to Ed- 
ward II than to his father. His goods were 
not restored until November, but during hia 
absence William Testa, tlie papal admini- 
strator, had taken such care of his estates 
that he was now 'a richer man than ever 
he had been before ' (MpKiimTH, p. 13 ; cf. 
Anglia Sacra, \. 61). At the parbanent of 




April 1309 be refused to attend until the 
KTclibisbop of York, disguBled at not being 
kilowed to bear bis cross, went back to the 
north. In his teal for clerical privile)^ 
WinchelBea had even taken up the cause of 
his old enemy Langton, who was still im- 

?irisoned bj royal authority alone. He re- 
useil to have any dealings with the king as 
long' OS Langton was uulawfully detained 
(MtTKlMiTH, p. 14). In March 1310 Wiu- 
cbeleea was on« of the lords ordninera, 
though in April Edward was still lupnc 
him to persuade convocation to make tresh 
grants iroin its spiritualities. After the first 
dnftof the ordinances was issued in August 
1310, Winchelsea on 1 Nov. published in St. 
Paul's a solemn excommunication of all who 
ahould itapede their execution or publish to 
the world the secrets of the ordainers. When 
Edward broke the ordinances by recalling 
Gaveston in January 1312, Winchelsea at 
once eicommunicaieu Piers and his abettors. 
Langton was released and restored to the 
treasury in March, despite Winchelsea's 
strenuous opposition. But in April the or- 
dainers turned him out of bis post, and Win- 
chelsea eicommuninatedhim for toking office 
against the provisions of the ordinances. On 
umgton going to the papal court to remon- 
strate against the sentence, Winchelsea des- 
patched thither his clerk, Adam Murimutb, 
the chronicler, to represent his interests 
against the bishop (Muriudth, p. 16). 

Winchelsea'a weak health makes hin poli- 
tical activity the more remarkable. He did 
not, however, neglect the more spiritual 
tide of lua office during these years. He 
was much involved in the proceeding for 
the suppreesion of the templars (Cnl. Papal 
Lettrm, ii, 48, 49), though he took no per- 
sonal part in the council that he summoned 
for 2» Nov. 130B to St. Paul's. He was 
associated with the papal commissioners 
Knt to investigate the charges affainst them, 
but again he did not act. ifowevcr, on 
29 Dec. 1809 he opened anothersynod at St. 
Paul's by preaching a sermon. Ill-health 
preventea him from attending its later pro- 
ceeding. He showed himself anxious to 
check toe exceSBive leal of the enemies of the 
order, and absolved by commission all the 
templars who profcassd penitence and ac- 
cepted the declaration mamlnininB' their oi^ 
IhodoKV {Flores HUt. iii. 14o). He died at 
Otford on II May 1313. and was buried on 
16 May at Canterbury, in the south part of 
the choir, near the sltar of St. Gregory, 
a^iost the south wall. The tomb has noW 

In his will Winchelsea left his books and 
nan; rich vestmeuts to the monks of bia 

\0L. LXU. 

cathedral and some legacies to 
\BJi\& {Ilitt. MSS. CWm. 5thli 
There was, however, much delay in carrying 
out his testament, and in 1325 Prior Easlry 
urgently entreated Archbishop Reynolds to 
suUer (he administration to be completed on 
account of the scandal caused by the delay 
{Lit. Cantuar, i.44, 64, 134). 'fhis si ' ' 
WBB all the greater since popular veneration 
had already made Winchelsea an object of 
worship. The wounds discovered on his body 
had been attributed to self 
(BiRCHiNOTON, p. 13). Many n 
been worked at his tomb, and hi 
the ordainers, pressed strongly for bia ei 
sation. In 1319Thoma8of Lancaatersent a 
report of his miracles to Avignon, and Rey- 
nolds ordered the bishops of London and 
CLichester to investigate their authenticity. 

John XXII a 

the deliberate nature of the procedure 
such matters, and nothing 


have been done in Thomas, 
lifetime. After the fall of Edward II the 
agitation was renewed, and in March 1327 
FCeynolds sent the pope a long schedule of 
miracles worked by him (Lit. Cantuar. 
iii. 3(W-40i, gives the correspondence ; cf. 
SoHKBR, App. i. 56; Cal. JPapal Letteri, 
1 306-42, p. ii2). Nothing, however, came 
of the elibrt to make him a saint. 

[Wharton's Anglia Sacra, espeoiallv Birch- 
ington in i. 11~1T. Annalea Monoalici (Osney, 
Wykea, Dunstaple. sod Worcester], Chron. 
Edw. I and Edr. II (Ann. Londin. and St. 
Paul's, null Canon of Bridlington), Cont. Osrross 
of Canterbury, nortbnlamvw Cotton, Risbanger, 
Lmgtoft. Murimath, Flares Hist., Chrua. da 
Mtilsa. LiteriE Cantuarienses (all in Bolls 8»r.) ; 
Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc,) ; Thorn in 
Twjsden's Dscem Scriptores; Chron. delAner> 
cost(BaDnotyiieC!ub); Rymer's Fiedera; Hist. 
MSS. Comm, fitb and Bth R»p.; Pari. Writs; 
Rolls of Pari. vol. i. ; Cal. of Fnpol Letters. 
vols. i. and ii. ; Cal. of Patent and Close Bulls, 
Edw. I and Ed«. II ; La Nave's Fasti Eccl. Angl. 
ad. Hard^: Godwin. DePrsaulibus, 1743 : Son 
ner's Antiqoities of Canterbury. The best mod er 
accoaniB are in Stnbbs's Const. Hist. voL ii. and 
prefaces to the ChroD. of Edw. 1 and Edv. II 
(Bolls Ser,); Hook'sLifo in ArohbiBhope of Can- 
terbury (iii. 309-454), though elaborate, is care- 
leas in details and onhtslorlcal in tone; many 
eitrncts from Winchelsea's register, stIU at 
Lambeth, are given in Wilhins's Concilia, ii. 
185^23 : tbe whole nelldeservasralendanngoi 
publishing.] T. F. T. 

WINCHESrER, Katwimses op. [See 
PiCLBT, WiLLiiM, I485P-1573, first Mab- 
qitih; PiCLET, William, 1536 P-150S, third 
Marqdis ; Paclct, John, 1598-1675, fifth 


WIHOBBSTEB, Eablb i>p. [See 
DE, d. 1219; Dbspessek, 
M, 12^-1326.] 


1107), Lnlia poet. [See Godfrey.] 

1270), hiatorian. [See Gbegoki.] 

(rf. 1460 'f), bishop of MorBj, la said to hsTS 
be«n an EngliehmaD who came into Scot- 
land in the retinue of James I on his return 
from Eagland in 1424. His name (ihougb 
there are contemporary instances of it as a 
Bumame in Scotland) suggests that he ma; 
have been spriest of the household of Cardi- 
nal Beaufort^bifiliopof Winchester, who was 
the UDcie of James's queen and eolemnised 
their marriage. From the beginning of James's 
actual reign Winchester appears ae his trustud 
friend, and ia constantly in attendance at 
court. In the church he is chaplain to tho 
king, prebendary of Dunkeid, canon of Gl««- 

Kw (1428),and provost of Lincluden(14So). 
the same year he ia bishop-elect of 
Horaj, and receives certain pavmente for 
^omoting the king's affairs at tho court of 
Rome. His eleclioo wai confirmed by the 
pope in 1436, and next year he was con- 
secrated at Cambuskennetli. He held the 
aee for twenty-three years (not thirteen, as 
Spottiswoode nays), and obtained for it 
certain valuable privileges. His men were 
not to be distrained for ' wapinschaw or 
hosting ' by either of his powerful neigh- 
bours, the eaHs of Moray and Huntly, but 
were to rise and pass with bis own Wlies, 
as other barons' men (1445). His town of 
Spvniu was erected Into a burgh of barony, 
and the churcb-lands of his diocese (which 
were in six coimties — Elgin, BanH', .Aber- 
deen, Inverness, Ross, and Sutherland) 
were erected into one regality (1451), the 
latter being given him (says James II) in 
(tratitude for ' a multitude of services ren- 
dered to our late father, of cherished 
memorv, and faithfully continued to our- 

The records teem with notices of these 
services, rendered in the household, the ex- 
chequer, as lord-register, and as lord-trea- 
aurer,and ranging from payments ' pr«£ucure 
I gingibero ad usum regis' to ' ' ' 

(which he visited along with James I 
1434). Stirling (1434). Urquhart (on Loch 
Ness), and Inverness (1458); andinthede- 
molishing of the Douglases' island fortress of 
Lochiudorb (14oS) his deputy at the latter 

place, Calder of that Ilk, carried the gre&t 
iron door of Lochindorb to his seat, Cawdor 
Castle, where it may tttiU be seen. The 
8t nsngt li I' ning and demolishing of tt)e«e casti es 
respectively formed part of the policy of 
James I and James II, and Winchester was 
their adiiser in regard ta that policy, as well 
as ia the acts by which it was carried out. 
From July 1457 to April 1468 Jamw II spent 
his time mostly in the bishop's diocese, and 
Winchester entertained him at his palace of 
Spynie. On the king's return to the south, 
Winchester complained that the Earl of 
Huntly had aeiied his lands and was draw- 
ing his rents. 

Winchester died on 1 April 14o9 or 1460, 
and was buried in his csthedisl at El^in, 
in St. Mary's Isle, where his effigy renuuns. 
There are still in the north of Scotland 
families of the name who claim descent &Dni 
him ; thev spring more probably from mem- 
bers of his household, who, following a 
northern custom, had, as his 'baron's men,' 
assumed his surname. He is said to have 
been a bachelor of the canon law. Spottis- 
woode, who, like Shaw and Keith, is in 
error in regard to the dates of his life, 
describes him as ' a man of good parts.' 

[ExeheqDcr RoIU : Oront Seal Rr^st^: 
Hegistmin UorsrieDS« ; Eeitfa'i Cataloipie of 
Srultish Bishops; Q rub's Ecclesiastical History: 
Shaw's Hiftory of Moray ; Yonng's Aanili rf 
Elgin.] J. C. 

Hexbaue, d. 1689, second Eabl; Fiscii, 
DisiEL, I&i7-1730, siith Eakl; Fisob- 
HiTTON, Gbohoe Willuk, 1791-1868, 
EvRt OF WiscttiLsEi ASD NomsattAM.] 

F1.VCFI, AssF-,rf. 17i'0.] 

1646), secretary of stale, bom in 1563, was 
the only son of Sir Thomas Wlndehank and 
his wile Frances, younger datighler of Sir 
Edward Dymoko of Scrivelsny, Lincoln- 
shire (METCiiFK, Vint, of Lincolnihirt, p. 
42; Lome, ScnrfUbv, 1893. p. 71). His 
grandfather. Sir Richard Windebank, was 
aen-ing at Calais in 1533 (CSren. qf Calaii, 
p. 137; Lfitfri and Paprn, sv. 750), at 
Guisnes in 1541, and was knighted in 1644. 
He acquired lands at Hougham, Lincolnshire 
{A. XV. 831 [IS]), and in 1547 was one of tho 
council at Boulogne ; he was deputy of Guisnes 
at the end of Edward's reign, and procUmad 
Mary on 24 July icr,3. He was in 1656 

GHnted an annuity of a hundred marks foe 
9' age and long service,' but was still acting 
as deputy of Ouisnes in 1660. His wife Mar- 
garet, daughter of Griffith ap Henry, was 




buried in St. Edmund's, Lombard Street, on 
10 Dec. 1558 (Steype, Eccl. Mem. in. i. 22, 
jL 174, AitnaU, i. 4fl ; CoU<m MS. Titus B. 
_ii. f. 206 ; Cat 8taU Papers, For. 1547-63, 
■5. 294 ; Aett P. C. 1564-6, p. 3S3 ; Notet and 
■■ "^ "M, 8th ser. i. 23, 150). His son Sir 
la owed his fortanes largely to bis Lin- 
■e neighbour. Sir William CecH, who 
(cured bU sppointmeDt to the fourth Etall 
i Worceatec Csthedral ia 1559, and sent 
L as travelling companion to his eon 
imas (afterwards Marquis of Exeter). 
Manj of WindebanVs lelters, describing his 
Tain efforts to keep his chai^ stroi^t aud 
teach him French, and their travels in France 
lUidOennany during 1561 and 1662, are ex- 
tant ia the Record Otnco. lie also took every 
opportunity of sending his patron lemon 
trees, myrue trees, and tracta on canon and 
1580, pp. 177-202). After his return he 
wai made clerk of the signet, and occasion- 
ally acted aa clerk of the privy council. He 
Dontinued his ftiendly relations and corre- 
spondence with Burghlej until the latter's 
at^lh, and afterwards with Bir Robert Oecil 
(c£ ITari. JlfS. 6995, arts. 31 , 39, 47, 49, letters 
wrongly ascribed to Sir Francis Windehiuk), 
He was knighted by James 1 on 23 July 1603, 
settled at Haines HBll,Berkshire,anddiedon 
24 Oct. 1607. He left one eon, Francis, and 
three daughters, of whom Mildred (d. 1630) 
iDArned Robert Read of Linkenholt, Hamp- 
shin, and was mother of Thomas Read or 
Reade [q. v.] the royalist (Inq. poaf morfeni, 
e James I, pt. ii. No. 200; Harl. MS. 1551, 
t 6Tb; Egerlim Paperi, pp. 134-6; BVR- 
MHT, Oretkam, i. 422 sqq. ; Court and Tintet 
o^Jam**/, i.175; VaLSlnte PapeT»,lrA7- 
1610, passim ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. vols, i- 
nl. passim). 

Francis was baptised at St. Mortin's-in- 
the-Fielde, London, on 21 Aug. \bm{Bfgiii- 
Ur, Harl. Soc.. p. 15), and on 18 May IWVi 
nsiriculated from St. John's College, Ox- 
ford. He gmdiiated B.A. on 20 Jan. 
1601-3, and in the same year was entered 
a Student in the Middle Temple. While 
at St. John's Windebank came much into 
contact with Laud, who exercised great 
inHuence upon his views and subsequent 
eareer. On 21 Feb. 1604-6 his father pro- 
cured for him a grant of a clerkship of tlie 
Bignet, in reversion after Levinus Munck 
and Francis Qage, who themselves held only 
ft rever«onaTy interest in the otTice,- and 
this somewhat distant prospect was no bar 
to a few years' sojourn on the continent. 
In the autumn of 1606 Windebank was at 
Paris, which be proposed to leave on 29Jaa. 
1605-6 'to avoid the profligate English;' 

spent in Germany, and the 
foilowing winter in Italy; he was at Lucca 
in July 1607, and at Piacecia in October, re- 
turning to England in February 1607-ti, 
Though the clericahlp of the signet did not 
fall to him for some years, he was almost at 
once employed in that office. In 1629 ha 
spoke of having served ' nigh three appren- 
ticeslups' (probably nearly twenty-one years) 
in the clerkship, and having passed through 
' the active and strict times of Lord Salis- 
bury without check ' {Cat. State Paptrt, 
Dom. 1628-9, p. 252), and he first got access 
to the king in 1011 (ib. 1611-18, p. 71). Ha 
was placed on the commission of the peace 
for Berkshire, and became clerk of the signet 
before 1021, He also served on various 
other commissionB, in one of which Deurge 
Wither [q. v.] was a colleague (12 Feb, 
1627-8; rl 1627-8,p.557),and wnsableto 
befriend John Florio [q^ '■] ""d Laud, who 
aftervrurds spoke of Windebank's ' great 
love and care ' during his ' great extremity,' 
probablv in 1614 (ib. 1619-23 p, 101, 1629- 
1631 p.'397). 

Windebank's political importance had, 
however, been very slight, and the court 
was c-onsiderably surprised when, on 12 June 
1632, Sir John Coke [q. v.] informed him 
that the king had ' taken notice of his worth 
and long service,' and selected him as Coke's 
colleague in the secretaryship in succession 
to Dudley Carleton, lord Docchealer [q. v.] 
He was sworn in ' in the inner Star Cham- 
ber,' took his seat at the council on the 16th, 
and was knighted on the 18th. Sir Thomas 
Roe [q. v.], himself a disappointed candi- 
date, wrote, 'There is a new secretOfy 
brought out of the dark.' Windebank owed 
his appointment partly to Laud's friendsliip, 
but more to the influence of Richard Weston, 
Brat earl of Portland [q. v.], and Francis, lord 
Cottlngton [a, v.], with whose Spanish sym- 
pathies and RomDu catholic tendencies be 
WHS in partial if not in full accord. The 
three formed on inner ring in the couacil, 
by whose advice Charles was mainly guided 
till 1640, and with whose help he frequently 
carried on negotiations unknown and in 
opposition to the rest of the council. He 
was one of those of whom Fontenay said in 
1334, ' L'interest les fait espaguoli, tirana 
pliisieurs notables avantages du commerce 
et des posseportB que le C" d'Olivorfia ac- 



dor Necololde (see Addit' MS. 32003. ff. 
57-91), and in March 1635 with Richelieu's 
envoy, the Marquis of Seneterre. On Port- 


Windebank 164 Windebank 

Und'n deftth, in that month, he was one wu one of the committee of the coancil 

of :he commiiMionen to whose hands the consulted by GiarleA with resmid to Scot- 

tmtAMTj wail fsntniHted, and hia conduct in land. and. like Arundel and Cortington* he 

thin office led to a brnu^h of hia long stand- voted fur instant war. In Mar 1639 he was 

in or tnendjihlp wir.h I^ud. The cause was directe<i bv the kin^ to spread exagzerated 

WinfiKbank'.4 con^iittHnt .support of Cotting- reports &• to the number of men at nis dxs- 

ton ov*tr the jtoap monopoly and his opnoei- posal. and in June supported a scheme for 

tion fo the archbi-^hop's endeavours to check compelling the city of London to contribute 

the p^nilation and corruption rampant in toward.^ their equipment and maintenance. 

hiflfh '{ Mart en. On 9 March 16^J9-40 he was retnraed to the 

VV indf-bank'A Roman catholic tendencies Short parliiiment as member f?r Oxford Uni- 
frii J r.d v^nt in hi j) negotiations with the papal ver^ity. and on 16 April he rtrad to the 
a^^Tkr, Oregon o Panzani, with whom he was houstr the ^cots* letter to Louis XHI. In 
ki,ynntf^\ by Charles in liecember 1634 to May he conveyed a letter from the queen to 
*iiM;ni».n the possibility of a union between ' Rossetti. asking him to write to Rome for 
th': Anfrlican and I^'iman churches. ' Mo- help in money and men: and even in June 
rally snd intellectually timid, the secretary he saw no dilEculty in collecting an army 
waM thoroughly aUrmed at the progress of to fight the Scots. His unpopularity waa 
puritaniAm, and Iry^k^d anxiousilv about for so ^rreat that in the elections to the Lonf 
a ^hf'lter against the Atorm, of which he parliament even Oxford University preferred 
could avail himself without an absolute 23ir Thomas Roe and John Selden, and 
surrender of all the id^-a.** which he had im- ' Windebank found a seat at Corfe. for which 
hi\i4'A in his childhrxid and youth. Hy the he was returned on 1^2 Oct. He did not re- 
side of Portland and C'ottington he shows to tain it long: for on 1 Dec. Glynne reported 
a/lvantagf;. If he wa^ a weak man, he was to the house that Windebank had signed 
not without a certain honesty of purpose: numerous letters in favour of priests and 
and if he misf-ed the way in his searcnings Jesuits, and llvde declared that ' it was not 
after truth, it was least truth that he in the wit o? man to save Windebank' 
Kjught, and not pelf in this world and ex- (Cal. Clarend'jn ^State Papen, i. f?12; cf. 
emption frr^m punishment in the other' , Pktx^^e. PopUh Boyal Favmrit^, 1643, p. 
((iAiib\yniyiVi.(iO), Anxious for the reunion 22, and Home's Manterpiecf, 1644, p. 33). 
of th^ churches, he thought it possible, were The house drew up ten articles, and sent for 
it not for jesuifn and puritan5i, and su^- Windebank to answer them. The mes- 
ge.«ted that the latter might b«f got rid of by seneers were told that he was ill in bed, 
sending them to the wars in Flanders. He and that night he fled with his nephew and 
profx'ised the despatch of a papal agent to secrt-tary. Robert Read, to Queenborough, 
re«ide with Queen Henrietta Maria, pointed wh»^nce he made his way in an open shallop 
out to Charles the advantage of having some to Calais (Addit. MS. 29o89, f. 336 b ; HarL 
one to excommunicate unruly subjects, and MS. 370, f. To ; Letter$ of Em. Lit. Mm, 
referred to the sacrih-ge committ^.d bv * that p. 3»>4 : for th»* articles see Lanjtd. MS. 493, 
pig of a Henry VIN ' Later on, in August f. I'^S. ffarl. MS. 1219 art. 29, 1327 art. 34, 
1039, he talked to Rossf;tti, Panzani's .sue- and 176'j art. 3). 

cessor, Mike a zealous catholic/ and offered Windebank's flight was the subject of 

to give him any information of which he snme contemporary- satire. In the * Stage- 
stoofl in need. .players Complaint' Quick refers to 'the 

Meanwhile, in 103^», Juxon vainly en- times when my tongue have ranne as fast 

deavoured to eflect a n.-conciliation between upon the scaene as a Windebankes pen over 

Laud and Windebank, and in July of the the ocean '( J>Ve^ and Queries^ 4th ser. iii. 

same year the s<.'cretary was in temporary 01 ) : and in a print by Glover to illustrate 

disgrar.'e. He was confined to his house in *Four fugitives meeting, or a Discourse 

August for issuing an order for the convey- amongst my lord Finch, fcir Francis Winde- 

ance of .Sijanisli money to pay the Spani.-rh banke, sir John Sucklin, and Doctor Roane' 

army in the Netherland.s, but was soon at < London, lt>41, 4to, Brit. Mus.V Winde- 

liberty. In 1037 Charles sent him to the bank is represented with a pen behind his 

Spanish ambassador r)nute to propose one ear. He was coupled with I^ud in popular 

mop; secret and abortive treaty for the hatred, and in a ballad against the pair is 

settlement of the palatinate difficulty, and described as *the subtle whirly Windebank' 

in tlie &ame year ho was engaged in an {ib. 2nd ser. x. 110; cf. Cat, Brit. Mut. 

equally ineffectual attempt to induce Dutch Satin'c Pn'/ifi). 

fishermen to take out English licenses to From Calais Windebank wrote an elo- 

^'^ "^'arrow Seas. In July 1638 he , quent appeal for compassion to Christopher, 

first lord Hiilton [q. v.] He dt'fended hira- 
selT from the charge of having been bribed 
bT the Rom&niete to introduce popety into 
England, dechired that he held the English 
church to be ' not oiily a, true and orthodox 
«bnrch, but the most pure and neere the 
primitive of any in tlie Christian world,' 
And thnt he had not added one foot of land 
to the fire hundred pounds' worth left bim 
by his father — a poor return for their eighty 
jears spent in the service of the state 
l^Addit. MS. 59569, ff. 336^7). He wrote 
in a similar strain to Robert Devereux, third 
earl of Essex [q. v.] ; but at Paris, where he 
amred early In January 1S40-1, his be- 
L ibsTiour belied the pitiful tone of his letters. 
K'^fie ia as merry us if he were the con- 
■4teitedest man living,' wrote Ayleabun to 
P Bfde; and the lettersof introduction whiah, 
m spit* of his hastv llight, be Imd obtained 
from Charles land Henrietta Maria smoothed 
his way in the French capital, whore he was 
not likely to be popular on account nf his 
Spanish sympathies. Probably with a view 
to increB.sing his difficulties, parliament in 
1643 published an account of an alleged 
plot hatched by Windebank against the life 
of Louis XIII and Richelieu because they 
1 aid lo the royalists (Neie 
aiplottfl in France, Mng the Project 
fFindt and Windebntik . . ,,' London, 4to). 
ealso appears to have had a hand with 
' 'end Walter Montagu [ii. t.] iti a 
I for rescuing Strafloril from the 
r {Marl MS. 379, f. 88 ; Letferi of 
I. Lit. Mm, p. 369). 
r In spite of the dangers on which Winde- 
tank ifiUted to bis son (Addit. MS. 27383, 
tK 239-44) he remained in Paris till his 
P^nth, with the exception of a visit to Eng- 
land in the autumn of 1643, when he was 
refiued access to the king at Oxford. He 
-wu back at Paris in July 1643 (cf. Cal. 
ClarendoH St4iU Papers, i. 243), and died 
V on 1 Sept. 1046, having shortly before 
1 received into the Roman catholic 
porch ('Mem. of the Capuchin Mission' 
Wud Cciurt and Timet of Charles I, ii. 
jDO-1 ; DoDD, Church Silt. iii. 59). 

By his wife, whose name has not been 
■certsined, Windebank hod a large family. 
_i,ADd referred in 1630 to bis ' many sons ' 
jKSi/. fflate Papert.Voro. 1629-31, p. 297). 
Be h»d five at least, and four survived him. 
The eldest, Thomas, bom about 1612, was 
intended to follow in bis father's footsteps. 
Ha matriculated from St. John's College, 
Oxford, on IS Nov. 1629, aged 17, but did 
not graduate. In 1631 his father secured 
tot him the reversion of a clerkship of the 
vgnet, and Boon afterwards he entered the 

sertiee of the earl marshal. In 1635-6 ha 
was travelling in Spain and Italy, whence 
he returned to Take up his duties as clerk of 
the signet, He was M.P. for Wootton 
Basset in the Short parliament of 104U, 
sided with the king in the civil war, and 
was created a barottet on 25 Nov. 1645. He 
compounded on the Oaford articles (Cal. 
Comm. for Camp. p. 1465), and left a son 
Francis, on whose death in 1719 Che ba- 
ronetcy became extinct (BcHKE). The 
Becond son, Francis, was admitted a student 
of Lincoln's Inn on 19 March 1032-3 (Seg. 
1896, i. 220), entered the service of Thomas 
Wentworth, first earl of Straflbrd {Strafford 
Lctterg, i. 256, 301-2, 369, 410), was made 
usher of the chamber to Prince Charles 
(I'fi. ii. 167), became a colonel in the royalist 
army, and was appointed governor of Itletch- 
ingdon House, near Oxford. This he sur- 
rendered at the first summons to the par- 
liamentary forces in April 1645, and was 
consequently tried by a royalist court-martial 
and shot. He wss married, and left a daugh- 
ter Frances (Cabtb, Original Zettert, i. 84; 
DoDD, iii. 69; Nota and Queries, 8th ser. i. 
150; Cal. State Papr-rt, Horn. 1661-2, p. 
631). Another son, Christopher, bom in. 
1S15, was a demy of Msgdalen College, 
Oxford, from 1630 to 1635 (BLOSiM, I(eg. v. 
124-7). He was than sent to Madrid' to un- 
derstand that court,' and lived for a time 
with the English ambassador. Sir Arthur 
Hopton [q. v.] In 1638 he made an 
imprudent marriage, which cost bim hia 
post, and on 5 Aug. 1639 Hopton aug- 
gested that his wife should be placed in 
a convent. Subsequently, being 'a per- 
fect Spaniard and on honest man,' be was 
found useful as a guide and interpreter by 
English ambassadors at Madrid (Clarbrvon, 
Rebellion, ed. Macray, bk. xii. § 103 note). 
The fifth son, John, baptised at St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, on II June 1618, waa 
br Laud's iutluence admitted a scholar of 
VV'incheater in 1630 (KiBBy, p. 174; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1629-31, p, 297). He 
matriculated from New College, Oxford, on 
23 Sept. 1634, graduated B.A. on 5 April 
103SandM.A. on 22 Jan. 1641-2. Ke waa 
fellow from 1630 to 1643, when apparently 
hewent abroad. He compounded on9Aug. 
1649, being fined only 10«., and was created 
M.D. on 21 June 1654 on Cromwell's letters 
as chancellor. In these letters it was stated 
that he had spent some time in foreign parts 
in the study of physic, end had practised 
for some years with much credit and reputa- 
tion. He practised at Oiiildford, and was 
admitted honorary fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians on 30 Sept. 1680. He 


'WBsbmied in Westminster Abtwjoii IGAiiz. 
1704 (Foster, Alumni Oj.<m. 1500-17U; 
MunK, Coll. of Pkij/. i. 409; Ohebtbr, 
Wiwim.. Abbay Reg. pp. 202, 204, 254, 347), 

Uf Windebmik'B duugtitfirs, Margaret mar- 
ried Thomas Tamer (loSl-ieTiJ) \a. -v.], and 
was mother of Thomas Turner (l64J>-i714) 
[q. v.], preeident of Corpus Cliriati, Oxford, 
and of Francis Turner [q. v.], bishop of 
Ely; Franew married, on 12 July 1689 
(CHBSTEa, Marr. Lie. col. 605), Sir Edward 
Hales, titular lord Tent«rdon [q. v,]; one 
died unmacried at Parie about 1650, and 
two became nuns of the Calvary at the 
Marttis du Temple, Paris, 

[The principal authority for Windebank's 
biography is his owuTolumiaoDacomMpondBnce 
in chB Record Office, of whiBb only the DoniPstic 
pcRioa has been calendared. See alao Bnt. 
Hub. Uarleian HSS. 2S6 art. ITS, 1216 artii. 29, 
107, 1327 art. 34, IfiSl, f. 87. 1768 art. S. 4713 
art. 12fi, 7001 art. DO; Laosd.; 
Addit. MSS. 273S2 ff. 339^4, 1^669 S. 333-7; 
Bodldao U3S. Bavlinaon A. 148 passim, B. 
224, f. 40 (notes of dates in hii life), f. 41 
(' daily derotioDs ei autOKiaplio ') ; Tanner MS. 
Uv. f, 224. liTi. f. 104. and ccie. t. 58 : Cal. 
Clarendon StalB Pnpeis, ed. Macray, yoX. \. ; 
Rushworth'a Colioction of State Papers; Wiu- 
VQoJ's Memorinla; liiud's Works, vols, iii-rii. 
passim; D'Ewes'H Aulobiograpby ; CoDtmnng' 
JournaU ; Clarendon's Hist, of the Great fie- 
bellion; Court and Times of Jamas I and of 
Charles I ; Anthony Weldon, Arthur WiUon, 
and Sir WiUism Sandpnoa'a Histories ; Pan- 
lani's Memoirs, ed. Berington, 1703. pp. 190, 
337, 241-S. and the Panuni traascripts iD the 
Hecoid Office; Dodd'a Church History ; Deve- 
Mox's Eirla of Eseex, i. 489 ; Wood's Fasti, ed. 
Bliss; Foster's Alumni Oion. 1500-1714 ; Off, 
Ret. Members of Pari, ; Moison's Hilton ; 
Gardiner's History of Englnnd, vols, vii-ii.; 
Notes and auerics, Ist ser. iii. 373, 2Dd ser. i. 
lia,4thBDr. ii. 394, 494, and 8th ser. i. 123, 
IGU; tracts catalogued e.v. 'Wiodebank' in 
Brit. Has. Libr.] A. F. P. 

WINDELE, JOHN (1801-1865), Irish 
antiquary, was bom at Cork in 1801. Earij 
in Hie heahowed a strong love of antiquarian 

{ursuits, and made an especial study of 
rJsh antiquities. lie became a contributor 
to ' Bolster's (juurterly Magatine,' an aatl- 
quarian journal published at Cork, and tliua 
bitcame aequainted with a number of Irbh 
archteologists and literary men, including 
Abraham Abell, William Willea, Matthew 
H org-an ,audFrancisSylvesterMahoay[q.v.], 
better known as ' Father Prout.' With these 
antiquariesj Windele made many excursions, 
examining and sketching ruins and natural 
curiosities. His favourite pursuit wassearch- 
iag for the primitive records engraved on 

stone known as Ogham inscriptions, and be 
saved many of them from ^struction by 
removing theiu to his own home, where 
they formed what he termed his megalithic 

Windele also devoted much time txi the 
study of ancient Irish literature. He was 
himself a good Erse scholar, and made a 
large collection of manuscripts in that lan- 
guage. In 1839 he published an antiquarian 
work entitled ' Historical and Descriptive 
Notices of the Citv of Cork and its Vicinity ' 
(Cork, 12ina), which in 1^9 was abridged 
and published as a ' Guide la Cork' (Cork, 
12mo). Windeie died at his residence, Blair'a 
Hill, Cork, on 28 Aug. 1865. 

Besides the work mentioned, Windele 
wrote ' A Guide to Killarney,' and frequently 
contributed to the ' Dublin Fenny Journal ' 
and to the 'Proceedings' of the Kilkenny 
Archtoological Society, of which he was a 
member from it« foundation in 1849. He 
also edited Matthew Horgan's ' Cahir Conri,' 
an Irish metrical legend, with a translation 
into English verse by Edward Vaugban Hyd* 
Kenealj [q. v.] (Cork, 1860, 8vo). He left 
a collection of manuscripts extending to 
130 volumes, which were purchased by the 
Royal Irish Academy in 1865. They in- 
cluded copies of many ancient Irish manu- 
scripts. Selections from a manuscript joui- 
nal of hia archfeotogical expeditions which 
was found amongthem were published in tha 
'Journal of the Cork Historical and Archso- 
lo^calSociety'beCweenUayl897and March 

[Gent. Mag. 186S, ii. S19; Allibone'e Diet. 
of Engl. Lit. ; Proceediogs of the Boyal Irish 
Academy. 1804-6. is. 308. 381.] B. L C, 

WINDER, HENRY (1693-1762), di*. 
aenting divine and chronologiat, son of Ilenry 
Winder (iJ. 1733), farmer, by a daughter 
of Adam Bird of Penruddock, was bom at 
Hutton John, parish of Greystoke, Cumber- 
land, on 16 May 1693. 

His grandfather, Henry W"inder, farmer, 
who lived to be over a hundred (he was 
living in 1714), was falsely charged with 
murdering his flrst-bom son. The accusa- 
tion was supported by two of his wife's 
sisters, and the case attained some celebrity 
(see Winder, Spirit of Quaktrunn, ICltS, 
l6mo, and Penitent Old Uitdple. 1699, I6ma; 
XfniLA.SB,^irit of Quakerism Clovenfooled, 
1707, 4to, drawn up by Henry Winder se- 
cunduB, and prefaced by Thomas Dixon, M.D. 
[q. v.]; on the other side, Coole, Quaker* 
Cleared, 1696, 16moj Cuiit, Old ApoataU, 
1698, 16mo, Truth premilinff vritk HeoMn, 
1706, 16mo, and Lying-Tongue Beproved, 
1708, 16mo). 



through tlio I'^nruildouk grsmmiir 
Ifider John Atkinson, entered (1708) the 
Wbilebaven Academy under Tbomas Dixon, 
where Caleb Kotheram [q, v.] aad Jolm 

T»ylora6&4-1761)[q.v.], th. 
■mong his fellow atudei 


For two years 
i713-l4) be studied at Dublin under Jo«epb 
[q. v.] In Dublin he was licensed to 
In 1714 he succeeded Edward 
^hwell [q. v.] as minister of the inde- 
pendent congregation at Tnnley, Lancashire, 
and was ordained at St. Helen's on 11 Sept. 
17 16, Christopher Bassnett [q. v.] preiehing 
on tbe occasioD. In 1718 (liia first, sacra- 
ment wb« 16 Not.) he was appointed mini- 
ster of Castle IIbv congregation, Liverpool. 
Tbe first entry in the extant minutes of the 
WHTington classis (33 April 1719) records 
liis admission to that body, ' upon his 
maldag an acknowledgment of his break- 
big in upon the rules of it, in tbe way & 
manner of his coming to Lirerpoole.' A 
Htrong advocate of non-subscription in the 
CODtroverey tbeu pending both in England 
Bud in Ireland, he brought round biscongn;- 
gtktion to that view. His niinistry was 
successful; a new chapel was built for him 
in Benn's Gardi^n, lied Cross Street, and 
opened in July 1727. From 1732 he corre- 
opoDded with the London dissenters, with a 
Tiew to the repeal of the Test and Corporation 

He married the widow of William Shawe 
of Lirerpool, and educated her son William 
Shawe, afterwards of Preston, On taking 
him in 1740 to study at GImbow, he re- 
ceived tbe diploma of D.D. For young 
Suwe's use he had drawn up ("about 1733), 
but did not publish, 'a short general system 
of chronology ' on ' the Newtonian plan^' 
Hub was the germ of his bulky work, the 
leealt of twelve ywira'labcur, " A Critical and 
Ohronological History of the Rise, Progress, 
Declennon, and lievival of Knowledge, 
chiefly Religious. In two Periods. I. , . . 
Tndilion, from Adam to iVloses. II. . . . 
Letters, from Moses to Christ,' 1745, -2 vols. 
era (dedication to William Shawe). Ke 
pmfen Moses to all secular historians, as 
Mrlier and more authentic. In vol. ii. chap. 
zxi, S 8, is an animated eulogy of British 
Ubeniea, with evident reference to the 
vrents of 1746, during which Winder had 
•iert«d himself in helping to raise a 
ment for the defence of Liverpool. 
-work did not sell, and was reissued us a 
■eeond edition in 1756, with new titie-page, 
■ud 'Memoirs' of the author by Ueorgc 
Benson [q. v.1 

In September 1746 he had a stroke of 


paralysis, and never agiun entered the pulpil 
though he preached twice from the reading- 
desk in January 1747, and occasionally 
assisted at the sacrament in that year. John 
Henderson (J. 4 July 1779), who tnok 
Anglican orders in 1763, and was tbe first 
incumbent of 8t. Paul's, Liverpool (see 
Memoin of Gilbert Wakejitld, 1804, i. 204), 
became his assiatant and successor. Winder's 
faculties failed, and ha died on Sunday 
9 Aug. 1762. He was buried on the south 
side of the churchyard of St. Peter's, Liver- 
pool (now the cathedral); the memorial 
stone was earthed over when tbe church- 
yard was laid out as a garden. Henderson 
preiicbed his funeral sermon. No portrait 
of Winder is known; he outlived bis wife, 
and left no isene. His library (n remark- 
able one, with a valuable collection of tracts) 
and manuscripts were bequeathed to bis 
congregation. The library was transferred 
to Renshaw Street chapel, to which the 
congregation removed in 1811 ; ofthemanu- 
Hcri[itB, a, catalogue with excerpts was 
drawn up by the present writ-er in 1669i 
between 187:^ and 1864 the papers were 
scattered and the bulk of them lost. A 
very important letter (now lost) giving an 
account (6 Aug. 1723) of the non-eubscrip- 
tion debates in the Belfast sub-synod, which 
W^inder had attended as a visitor, was 

Kinted in the ' Christian Moderator,' Octo- 
r 1827 (p. 274), from a copy by John 
Porter (1800-1S74), then minister at Tox- 
teth Park chapel, Liverpool. 

[Memoirs by Benson, 17SI1; Thorn'* Liver- 
pool Churches aad Chapels, ISSt. p. 67; Hal- 
ley's LaTicHshire, 1869. ii, 323; Nigbci a gale's 
LiiQcasliire Nonconformity [1892] iv. 28. 1863 
vi. 112; Addison's Oradiiiiios of the Univarsity 
of OIhiuiow. 1S9S, p. 056 ; Winder's nuianacripls 
in KbdbLiiw Streut thapal library, Liverpool.] 
A. Q. 
WINDET, JAMES (rf. 1664), physician, 
is erroneoualy said to have been originally 
of Queen's Collie, Usford (FosTEB). He 
graduated M.D. at Leyden on -26 June 1666, 
and was incorporated at Oxford on 27 March 
1656. He became candidal* or member of 
the College of Physicians of London on 
25 June 1660. He at first practised at Yar- 
mouih, but after 1660 in London. In 1660 
he published in London two Latin poems, 
Ad majestatem Caroli secundl Sylvreduie.' 
Tbe first begins with the word ' occidimus,' 
ind is on tlie eieeution of Charles I j the 
«cond begins with the word ■ vivimus,' and 
B on the Restoration. In 1663 he published 
De vitafunctorum statu,' a long Latin letter, 
vith numerous passages in Greek, Hebrew, 
and Arabic, addressed to Dr. Samuel Hall, in 






reply to a letter from him. It begins with 
a general discussion of the word ' Tartarus * 
and of the Greek and Hebrew words and 
phrases used in describing the state of man 
after death, and goes on to consider the 
Greek and Hebrew views on the state and 
place of the good, on a middle state, and 
on the place of the wicked with related 
subjects. A second edition was published 
at Rotterdam in 1693. lie was a friend 
of Sir Thomas Browne [q. v.], and Simon 
Wilkin [q. v.], who had examined Windet's 
letters to Browne, states that they are un- 
interesting and pedantic. He died in Milk 
Street, London, on 20 Nov. 1604 (Smyth, 
Obituary, p. 62). "Wood (Fasti Oavn, ii. 
790) states that he left a quarto manuscript 
of Latin poems. 

[Munk*8 Coll. of Phys. i. 273 ; Works ; Wil- 
kin's Sir Thomas Browne's Works, vol. i.] 

N. M. 

WINDEYER, CHARLES (1780-1855), 
first recognised reporter in the House of 
Lords and Australian magistrate, son of 
Walter Windeyer, descended from the Swiss 
family of Wingeyer, canton of Berne, was 
bom m Staffordshire in 1780. He was law 
reporter to the *Law Chronicle,' and also 
connected with the * Times.' Even after the 
House of Commons recognised the press 
gallery, the lords professed to ignore the 
presence of reporters, who wert^ debarred 
the use of paper and pencil. Charles Win- 
deyer was the first reporter * who had the 
courage to rest his notebook on their lord- 
ships' bar.' Lord Eldon, who had strenuously 
opposed verbatim reporting, * proceeding to 
the bar to receive a deputation from his 
majesty's faithful commons, caught Mr. 
Windeyer*s notebook with his robe, and it 
fell within the bar ' {Phonetic Journal^ 
19 Dec. 1885). The great tory chancellor 
picked up the scattered leaves (knowing full 
well what they contained) and courteously 
returned them with a smile to the young 
reporter. From that time forth the pre- 
sence of the press was virtually recognised 
by the peers. 

When Benjamin Disraeli was busy launch- 
ing the ill-iated * Representative,' he in- 
formed John Murray, the publisher, that he 
'had engaged S. C. Hall and a Mr. Win- 
dyer (?), sen., both of whom we shall find 
excellent reporters and men of business ; the 
latter has been on the " Times " ' (Memoir 
of John Murray, ii. 206). 

Charles Windeyer emigrated to New 
South Wales in 1828, with the intention of 
taking up land and becoming a settler ; but, 
owing to the lack of oflicials with legal 
training and experience, was induced to ac- 

cept the office of clerk of petty aessiona, and 
afterwards became police magistrate for 
Sydney. His affairs suffered in the financial 
crash following 1&42 ; but aa a magistrate 
he was universally esteemed ; he converted 
what was mere chaos into an orderly system, 
and the cause of public justice in Sydney 
was greatly advanced by his patient unre- 
mitting efforts. On his retirement the legis- 
lative council, in recommending a super- 
annuation allowance, passed a vote advert- 
ing in high terms to his long and useful 

Windeyer died in 1856. He married Ann 
Mary {d, 1864), daughter of Richard Rudd, 
on 8 Aug. 1805, by whom he had a son, 
Richard Windeyer [q. v.], the Australian 
politician. A bust of Charles Windeyer was 
placed in the central police office, Sydney, 
as a mark of public esteem. 

[The Three Windeyers, Reporters, in Phonetic 
Journal, 19 Dec. 1885; Henniker-Heatoa's Diet, 
of Australian Dates; private sources.] 

A. P. M. 

WINDEYER, RICHARD (1806-1847), 
Australian reformer and statesman, son of 
Charles Windeyer [q. v.], was bom in Lon- 
don on 10 Aug. 1806. He was educated 
partly in France, became writer and parlia- 
mentary reporter for the * Morning Chronicle,' 
the *Sun,' and *The Times.* He is said to 
have helped to originate Dod's * Parliamentary 
Companion ' (Ueaton). 

He was intimatelv associated with Thomas 
Perronet Thompson [q. v.], with whom he co- 
operated as one of the first secretaries of the 
Anti-Comlaw League, was called to the bar 
at the Middle Temple in 1834, and occupied 
2 Pump Court until he emigrated to Aus- 
tnilia in the following year, arriving in 
Sydney on 28 Nov. 1835, where, after the 
retirement of William Charles Wentworth 
[q. v.], he became a leader of the bar. 

In August 1843 he was elected for the 
county of Durham to the first representative 
legislative council, and in conjunction with 
Wentworth, and afterwards with Robert 
Lowe (Viscount Sherbrooke) [q. v.], took a 
most prominent part as one of the popular 
leaders against the bureaucratic government 
of Sir Geoiye Gipps [q. v.], who feared his 
uncompromisingly raaical opposition more 
than that of anv other member of the coun- 
cil. * There is a barrister,* wrote Mrs. Ro- 
bert Lowe, before her husband had definitely 
decided to join the opposition, * a Mr. Win- 
deyer, an undoubtedly clever man, who has 
a strong party opposed to the government — 
and the home government also ; this man is 
a popular [elected] member ; to oppose him 
and to conquer if possible is to be Robertas 



K the 

nuia point ' (lAfe and Lftteri of Lord Shfr- 
Arooke, i. 189). 

At this time New South Wttles, will 
province, Port Phillip (now the colony of 
Victoria), was in a. state of financial depres- 
uon oioouatine BlmosC to general bank- 
ruptcy; and Windeyer brought forward his 
monetary confidence bill, based on the 
port of hia select committee, which rec 
mendt^d the Pruitsian Pfandhriefe Bysti 
the bill was earned ia the council but vetoed 
by I he governor. 

By his never-ceasing criticism and par- 
flistent attaclcs on the public expenditure ' 
earned the flobriquet of lUe ' Joseph Hi 
of the council.' His reforming zeal was as 
unselfish as it was thorough ; and, in pur- 
of this policy of economy, he voted 
Against the salary of bis own lather, then 
police magistrate of Sydney, He held that 
Sir George tiipps's assessment for quit-rents 
VBS illegal, and refiuing to meet the demand, 
an execution was put into his house, and his 
newly imported wine-vat seized. Acting 
on the advice of Lowe, he entered into an 
Action against the gorernment for trCFpaas, 
but lost It. lie originated the present jury 
act as well as the libel act of Now South 
Wales. Throughout his public career he 
was an earnest supporterof public education, 
and a consistent advocate for the introduc- 
tion intoNewSoulh Wales of representative 
institutions and responsible government. 

Aa a colonist Windeyer was one of the 
agricultural pioneers on the Hunter, and de- 
voted much time and money to scientific 
farming and the draininff of his land at 
Tomago. He was one of the first settlers in 
Aiistmlia to embark in the wine industry, 
and to import German and other foreign 
viff«fron». He also introduced the first 
rea^ng-machines. Hewaaalways much tie- 
loved by the 'emancipist' class, and never 
bad the slightest difficulty with his convict 
'asiigned servants;' while he was one of 
the very few pioneer settlers who displayed 
'A sjtnpatlietic interest in the well-being of 
■flie aboriginal race. Windeyer's broad huma- 
Ility in this respect is commended by an 
kble writer who is altogether hostile to his 
political creed. ' One of the hardest worked 
men in the colony took up the cause of the 
weak. Richard Windeyer, a barriater over- 
-whelmed withbriel's,wh]chhe conscien t iously 
'-toiled at by da^ or by night, was at all 
iJbourB in the legislative council as unfiinch- 
' ing as in the supreme court. In the course 
of the session of 1845 he obtained a select 
committee of eight members to consider the 
undition of the aborigines ' (llcsDEir, Hist. 
^AuOraUa, ii, 217-8). Despite his great 

practical ability and unremitting industry 
(though doubtless partly due to his devotion 
to public affairs), Windeyer's estate never 
recovered from the financial depression of 
1S42 and the two or three succeeding years. 
Uis health entirely broke down, and he was 
compelled to leave Sydney and relinquish 
his public work and private affairs. He died 
at the residence of his brother-in-law, Wil- 
liam Henty, near Launceston, Tasmania, on 
Ij Dec. 1847. After hia death his estate was 
compulaorilv sequestrated, andhis father was 
also compelled to go through the insolvent 
court ; but the legislative council showed 
their practical respect for his memory by sub- 
scribing a sum for the benefit of the family, 
while the Tomago property was secured by 
the sac ritice of his widow 'a inheritance. When 
the news of his death reached Wentworth, 
he declared that 'he had lost his right hand.' 

Hicbard Windeyer was married at Speld- 
hurst church to JIarion (rf, 1&T8), daugh- 
ter of William Camfield of Groombridge 
Place and Burswood, Kent, on 26 April 
1^32. His only son. Sir William Charles 
Windeyer, is separately noticed. 

[Personal information, kindly supplied by the 
Into Sir William Wiudeyer, and reiiear<.-hes mads 
spocially by Mr. Edward A. Fethsrick. Also 
UuiideD's Hist, of Austmlio. rol. ii. ; Patchett 
Marlin'a Lifa and Letters of Lord Sherbrooke, 
Tul. i.; Burke's Colonial Uentry.] A. P. M. 

CHARLES (1834-1897), Australian legis- 
lator and judge, only eon of Richard Win- 
deyer [q. v.], bom in Westminster on 29 Sept. 
1834, and taken by his parents the following 
year to New South Wales. On the death i« 
his fiither in 1847, which left the family in 
embarrassed circumstances, his mother was 
advised by Robert Lowe (Viscount Sher- 
brooke) to give bim a classical and profes- 
aional education, in which he undertook to 
assist her. lu a letter of condolence to Lady 
Sherbrooke on her husband'sdealh, Windeyer 
wrote (Sydney, 15 Aug. 1892): 'After my 
father's death, when my mother was lere 
very badlv oil', he proved himself a most 
generous friend, and to hlj kindness it waa 
owing that my interrupted education wai 
continued. ... It was he who ui^d me to 
go to the bar ss soon aa I was old enough; 
the act which enables Australians to go to 
the bar of the colony having been passed by 
bim ' (Life aitd Letters of Lord SAerbrookt, 
ii. 477). 

Educated at King's school. Paramatta, 
he entered the university of Sydney on its 
first opening [see Wentwobth, Williah 
CHAiiLi:8],where, after adiatinguished career, 
be became the first Australian graduate (M. A. 




with honours in 185!)). Admittt^il to tbe 
bar in ISriT, he at first fuDowed in the foot- 
BtepB of his father and grandfather, and be- 
came law reporter on the staff of (Sir) Henry 
Parkes's journal, 'The Empire.' Heentered 
ywliament M a liberal for ihel^ower Hunter 
in Aurust 1853, and on the diiteolulion is 
the following jear was relumed for West 
S;dnej, for which he aat from 1860 to 1862 
andfrom 1866 to 1872. In 18ti0 he initiated 
thevolunteermovenient in New South Wales, 
beiug ^luetted major in I8G8. 

Uariog' on aix occasiona declined oiBce, 
Windejer became solicJtor-KBueral, under 
Sir James Martin [q.v.l on 16 Dec. 1870. Ho 
■was elected first mewoer for the universiw 
of Sydney on 8 Sept. 1876, and occupied this 
seat until his retirement from politics. Ha 
wftBaltomey-generiil from 1877 to 1879. He 
introduced the act enabling Australiun bac- 
risters to become judges, the Married 
Women's Property Act (1879), and the 
Copyright Act. (1879). He originated the 
Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society (1874), 
and he took a very active part in scholastic 
institutions and the public charities, and was 
chairman of the College for Women in the 
Sydney University, of which institution ho 
became Tics' chancellor in 1883, and chan- 
ceUor in 1895. 

From 1878 Windeyer was judge of the 
divorce and matrimonial causes court, and 
deputy judge of the vice-admiralty court. 
Great public commotion arose in New South 
Wales in connection with his verdicts in 
what oreknowD aa the 'Mount Kennie' and 
the ' Deane ' cases, during which the judge 
was exposed to much adverse newspaper criti- 
cism and not a little unmerited abuse. In 
1891 he was knighted. He resigned his 

New South WaJes government desirini; hi 
elevation to the judicial committ«e of the 
privy council : but, ia deference to the pub- 
lic opinion of the other colonies, Chief-justice 
Samuel James Way of South Austraua was 

At the desire of Mr. Chamberiain, secre- 
tary of state for the colonies, Windeyer con- 
sented to act as temporary judge of the 
supreme court of Newfoundland to try a 
Hpeciol case of conspiracy, but he died sud- 
denly at Bologna from paralysis of the heart 
on 11 Sept. 1897. Windeyer was an hono- 
rary JJ,,D. of Cambridge. Ho married, on 
31 Dec. 1857, Mary Eluabeth, daughter of 
the Kev. B. T. Bolton, vicar of Padbury, 
Buckinghamshire, who survives him, and by 
whom he leaves seTeral children. 

[Fersonnl kuoTlsdgp, nnd datji snpplisd by 
Lady Wiudoyer aud Jlisg Bullon, Sir Henry 

Pirkes's Fifty Years in the Making of Anatra- 
littO Hijiury; IlcHtoD'a lliot. of Australiim 
Dntea : Meunetl's Did. uf Australaann 
graphy ; Burki-'B Coloiiiot Gentry.] A. P. 

WINDHAM. [See also Wikdhax. 

(1810-1870), lieutenant-gensral, bom at Fel- 
briggonSOct. 1810, was fourth son of Ad- 
miml WilUam Windham of Felbrigg Hall. 
Norfolk, and a greai^nephew of X\'iiliam 
Windham [q. v.] Ha was educated at the 
Uoyal Military College, Sandhurst, and en- 
tered the Coldstream guards at the age of 
sixteen. His regimental commissions bore 
the following dates: ensign and lienteuaat 
3D Dec. 1836, lieutenant and captain 31 May 
I833,captain and lieutenant-colonel 29 Dec. 
l&4(i. Windham accompiinied the 'Jnd bat- 
talion of the Coldstream guards to Canada 
in January 18S8, and served with them in 
that country during Fapineau'e rebellion, 
returning to Eugland in theaulumn of 1842. 
On -22 June 1849 he retired on half-pay. 

On the outbreak of the Crimean war 
Windham was still on half-pay, but, having 
on 30 June 1854 been promoted to the rank 
of colonel, he was appointed assistant 
qusTtermaster^geoerul of the 4th division of 
ilie army of the east, and accompanied his 
divisional commander, Lieutenant-genurnl 
Sir George Cathcart [q. v.], to Constantinople 
and thence to the Crimea. 

Windham landed with the 4th division on 
14 Sept. 1864, and immediately attracted 
notice by his energetic performance of hia 
duties, Ue was present at the battle of the 
Alma on 20 Sept., but the 4th division, being 
iureserTe.was very slightly engaged. During 
the hazardous march of the ulied armies 
from the valley of the Belbek to the position 
south of Sebostopol, Windham was sent by 
Cathcart to inform the senior naval officer 
on the Katcha station of the change of base 
to Balaclava, a service involving considerabli; 
risk. The 4th division was slightly eng^ed 
at the battle of Balaclava (25 Oct. 1854), 
occupying two of the redoubts from which 
the Turkish infantry had been driven. Wind- 
ham highly distinguished himself at the 
battle ot InkenDan(5Nov. 1854), and, owing 
to tbe death of Catbcart and to tbe death of 
one brigadier of the division and the disable- 
ment of the other, he succeeded at an early 
period of the battle to tbe command of the 
4thdiviMon. Aftertheengagement he wrote 
the official report of the proceedings of the 
divisiou during tbe battle. 

Throughout the terrible winter of 1864 
Windham exerted himself U> the utmost to 
alleviate the sufferings of his own division 






nnd of the anoj generally. Never absent 
I fromilutj', he devoted Ills apare time to making 
daily personal visits to the base at Balaclava, 
with the object of obtaining supplies for ' ' 
starving and froxen division. At the sa 
time be iacesssntlj plied both his Immediate 
superiors and the headquarter BtaiT of the 
armj vrith advice and suggestions. In July 
1866 he was made a companion of the order 
of the Bath, and in the following month he 
was given command of the 2nd brigade of 
the 2nd divieiuii, but did not receive the rank 
of hrigadier^neral. 

Windham was selected to lead the storm- 
ing party of the 3nd division at the assault 
ontheRedanonSSopt, 1865. Although the 
assault &i!ed, the gallantry of WiniUiam's 
oonduet earned the warm commendation of 
General (Sir) James Simpson [q. v.], who bad 
■uoceeded Lord Raglan in thH command of 
the army in the Crimea, Extraordinary 
anthusiasm was aroused when the descrip- 
tions of the assault, -written by the special 
eorrespondents of the ' Times ' and other 
naperB, were published in England, and 
Windham became, in a moment, the best 
known and most popular man in his antive 
ooontry. On i! Oct. 1655 he was promoted 
to the rank of major-general ' for his dis- 
^guished conduct.' On tile day following 
the fall of Sebastopol bo was appointed com- 
mandant of the portion of that town which 
wa« allotted lo our armv ; and on the news 
of his ipromotiou to roa|or-gener(il reaching 
the Crimea he was given command of Che 
4tb division. A month later ihe command 
of the army was resigned by General Simp- 
•on, who waa succeeded by Sir William John 
CodrinKlon [q.v.], with Windham as bia 
chief of the staff. He exerted himself inde- 
btigably to fulfil the duties of hia post and 
to render the Crimean army ethcient and 

On his return from the Crimea he was 
Mceived with great honour, particularly in 
his native county of Norfolk. The gift of a 
■word of honour and the freedom of the 
city of Norwich were followed by hie return 
to parliament as one of the two liberal repre- 
•ent«tive«QfE(ifitNorfolk(6Aprill867). His 
parliamentary cBreer,however, was short. On 
thaoutbre&kof the Indian mutiny he offered 
bit eerrices, and almost immediately was 
directed to proceed to Calcutta, where he 
•niv«d on 20 Sept. 1857, shortly after the 
capture of Delhi. Finding that Sir Colin 
CMnpbell [q. v-], the recently appointed com- 
mandei^-in-chief in India, destined him for the 
command of the Sirhind di via ion, far from the 
•cene of action, Windham volunteered to keep 
t^en the lines of communication if given the 

oma of the disiirmed regiments 
of the Bengal army. This oiler was declined; 
but while proceeding to Umballn to join his 
division, Windham was placed by Sir Colin 
Campbell in command of the troops at Cawn- 
pore. Sir Colin was about to move from 
this base to carry out the operations known 
generally as the second relief of Lucknow ; 
and, considering it necessary that his force 
should be strengthened as rapidly as poasiblc, 
lio left Windham little freedom of action. 
Windfaem'a force consisted at the time of 
the commander-in-chief 'b departure (9 Nov. 
11*67) of no more than live hundred mixed 
troops ; but five days later, when it became 
dear that Cawnpore would be attacked by 
the Gwalior army before Sir Colin could 
return from Lueknow, Windham was autho- 
rised by the chief of the staff, Sir William 
Mansfield, to detain troops that arrived from 
down country. Thus it waa that on 26 Nov., 
when Windham fought his lirst action aa an 
independent commander, his forces consisted 
of abotit fourteen hundred of all arms, to- 
gether with three hundred men left to gar- 
rison the Cawnpore entrenched position. 

^'indhom hod been directed by the com- 
mander-in-chief to jilacB his troopa within 
the unl renched position, and not to attack the 
tnemy unless by so doing he could prevent 
a bombardment of the entrenchment. But 
on completing his arrangements for defence, 
he found that he would inevitably be bom- 
barded if he awaited the attack of the enemy 
in the entrenchments, and that the only 
course that would enable him to preserve 
the bridge over the Ganges would be to 
take up a more advanced line of defence. 
ITje loss of this bridge would have rendered 
Sir Colin Campbell's position la Oude one of 
the utmost peril. 

Windham asked (on 10 Nov.) permission 
to hold a line outside the town of Cawn- 
pore, and the reply of the ohief of the staff, 
written on the following day, clearly autho- 
rised him to do so, provided that he could 
secure hia retreat from the advanced posi- 
tion to tlve entrenchment. 

On IQNov.alt communication with Luck- 
now suddenly ceoeed, and Windham dis- 
covered that the Gwalior contingent was 
rapidly ap|>roaching Cawnpore in three di- 
visions. So reply reached him to several 
letters in which he begged for pennission to 
Bttuck the advancing enemy in detail, and 
thua it was that he decided at last to do go 
resposibility, aeeingin this action 
his only chance of holding the tov^n, bridge, 
and entrenchment of Cawnpore against the 
- -erwhelmin^ force that was about to attack 
m. On24Nuv. he marched sixmiles to the 







south-west of Cawnpore, and two days later 
he there fought a successful action against 
the centre division of the Gwalior troops 
under Tantia Topi, three thousand men, with 
six heavy ^uns, three of which were captured. 
After this successful action Windham 
marched back and took up a position from 
which he hoped to be able to cover Cawn- 
pore against the attack of tlie combined 
forces of the three bodies of the Gwalior 
troops. Two days of severe fighting fol- 
lowed, in which he was forced back through 
the town of Cawnpore and lost his baggage, 
but held safelv the bridge and entrenchment. 
The reason wfiy he was not successful in pro- 
tecting the town has never been generally 
known. It lies in the circumstance that one 
of his subordinate commanders seriously 
failed in his duty. Windham treated the 
oflender with remarkable generosity, and it 
was not until several davs later that the 
circumstance came to the knowledge of Sir 
Colin Campbell, who had meanwhile omitted 
all mention of Windham and his troops in his 
despatch of 2 Dec. 1 857 describing the opera- 
tions. This omission was repaired to a certain 
extent by a private letter from Sir Colin 
Campbell toli.U.II. the Duke of Cambridge 
(published in *The Crimean Diary and Let- 
ters of Sir Charles Windham ') ; but the 
public slight wasnever publicly withdrawn, 
nor was Windham again entrusted with a 
command in the field. 

On the termination of the operations about 
Cawnpore, Windham was directed to leave 
the field army and to assume command of 
the Lahore division, to which he had been 
transferred. lie remained in command at 
Lahore until March 1861, when he returned 
to England. 

In June 1801 Windham was appointed 
colonel of the 4(5th regiment, and on 5 Feb. 
186:J he became a lieutenant-general. In 
18()5 he received the honour of K.C.B., and 
on 3 Oct. 1867 was appointed to the command 
of the forces in Canada, which appointment 
he held until his death at Jacksonville in 
Florida on 4 Feb. 1870. 

Windham married, first, in 1849, Marianne 
Catherine Emily, daughter of Admiral Sir 
John Beresford; and secondly, in 1866, 
Charlotte Jane, sister of Sir Charles Des 
V(jeux, bart. His eldest surviving son is 
Captain Charles Windham, R.N. 

[Tho Crimean Diary and Letters of Sir Charles 
'Windham, od. Pearse, 1897; Official Kecords and 
Despatches ; Adye's Cawnpore ; ShadweU'fi Life 
of Clyde, 1887, ii. 24-30 ; Ix)rd Roberts's Forty- 
one Years in India, 1897. i. 361-9, 377-80; 
Times, war correspondence (Sir W. H.Russell).] 

H. W. P. 

WINDHAM, JOSEPH (1789-1810), 
antiquary, bom at Twickenham on 21 Aug. 
1739, at a house which was afterwards the 
residence of liichard Owen Cambridge [ci-^0» 
was related to the Windham family of j^or- 
folk. He was educated at Eton, proceeding 
to Christ's College, Cambridge, but did not 
graduate. In 1769 he returned from a pro- 
longed tour through France, Italy, Istria, 
and Switzerland, lie had a strong interest 
in matters connected with art, was well read 
in classical and mediseval writers, and made 
numerous drawings both of natural objects 
and of antiquities. He was also an ex- 
cellent Italian scholar. While residing in 
Rome he made many sketches and plans of 
the baths, which he presented to Charles 
Cameron, by whom they were published in 
1772 in his work on the 'Eiaths of tho 
Romans ' (London, fol.) Windham contri- 
buted a considerable part of the letterpress 
of the work as well as most of the letter- 
press of the second volume of 'Antiquities 
of Ionia,' published in 1797 by the Society 
of Dilettanti. He also assisted James Stuart 
(1713-1788) [({. v.l in the second volume of 
his * Antiquities of Athens.' Windham was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries on 6 April 1775, and of the Royal 
Society on 8 Nov. 1781. He was also elected 
a member of the Society of Dilettanti in 
1779. He possessed some knowledge of 
natural history, and acquired one of the best 
antiquarian libraries in the country. He 
died at Earsham House, Norfolk, on '21 Sept. 
1810. He married , i n 1 769, Charlotte, daugh- 
ter of Sir William de Grey, first baron Wal- 
singham [q.v.] Windham's only publication 
in his own name was * Observations upon a 
Passage in Pliny's Natural History, relating 
to the Temple of Diana at Ephesus,' which 
appeared in * ArchoDologia ' (vol. vi.) 

[Gent. Mag. 1810, ii. 390, 488-90; Hist. 
Notices of the Soc. of Dilettanti, 1855; Gust's 
Uistory of the Society of Dilettanti, 1898, 
passim.] E. I. C. 

WINDHAM, \\^LLIAM (17oO-1810), 
statesman, came of an old Norfolk family 
settled at Felbrigg, near Cromer, since the 
fifteenth century, whose name was the same 
originally as that of the town of Wymond- 

His father. Colonel William Wixdham 
(1717-1761), son of Ash Windham, M.P. for 
Sudbury and for Aldeburgh between 1721 
and 1727, was a man of distinguished military 
talent. Disputes with his father had caused 
him to live much on the continent. He 
travelled with Richard Pococke [q. v.] in 
Switzerland in 1741, and his * Letter from 





English Gentleman to Mr. Arland, eiv- 
5 an Account of a Journev to the Glacierea 
Ice Alps of Savoy ' (1744), is one of the 
earliest printed accounts of Chamonix and 
Mont Blanc (eee Cokk, Life of Stillingfiat ; 
C. E. MiTHBWS, AnnaU of Mont Blanc ; C. 
DUBIEB, Le Mont Blanc. 1897, pp. 60-63 ; 
Th. Dufoijb, WilHam Windham et Pierre 
Marid, Geniee, 1879). He also visited 
Hungarj, and for gome time was an officer 
in one of Queen Maria Theresa's liussar 
regimente. Returning to England, he vigo- 
rously supported Pitt's scheme for a national 
militia in 175Q, and helped the Marifuis 
Townshend to form the Norfolk militia 
re^ment in 1757. He published in 1700 a 
' Plan of Discipline ' in quarto, with plates, 
which came into general use, and he sat in 
parliament for Aldeburgh in 1754 and Ilel- 
ston in 1766. He married Ssrah Hicks, 
vidow of Bobert Lukin of Dunmow, Essex, 
and died of consumption on 30 Oct. 1761 at 
the age of forty-four. 

William, the only son, was bom on 3 May 
(0. 8.) 1750 at No. 6 Golden Square, Soho. 
From 1762 to 1766 he was at Eton, where 
be was a contemporary of Foi, and was then 
placed with Dr. Anderson, profesaor of natural 
philoaophjintheuniversityofGlasgow. He 
attended the lectures of Robe rf. SLniBon [q. v.], 
professor of mathematics, and pursued the 
itudy in later life, even composing three 
mathematical treatises, which, however, he 
never publiahed. On 10 Sept. 1767 ha 
entered Univaraity College, Oxford, as a 
eentlenan commoner, and became a pupil of 
Jtobert Chambers. He was created M.A. 
on 7 Oct. 1783, and on 3 July 1793 he be- 
came an hoDoraij D.C.L. Hoth at school 
and at college he was quick andindustriouB, 
hut as a young man be was completely in- 
(tifferant to public affairs, though distin- 
guished both as a scholar and a man of 
fashion. Accordingly he re fused Lord To wus- 
hend's offer of the secretaryship to the lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, made while he was 
Still at college, and left Oxford in 1771. 
IVo years later he started with Commodore 
Conetantine John I'hipps (afterwards second 
Iwron Mulgrave [q. v.]) upon a voyoge of 
pcilftr exploration, but was I'OmpelledbvBea- 
atckneas to land in Norway and make his 
way home. He afterwards spent some time 
with the Norfolk militia, in which he at- 
tained the rank of major, and passed a couple 
of years abroad, chietlj in Switzerland and 
Italy. He ahio became known to Johnson 
and Burke. He was Johnson's favoured 
friend, attended him assiduously in his last 
days, and was a palUbearer at his funeral, 
Huj attachment to Barke was such that he 

became his political pupU. He joined the 
Lilerary Club and attended its meetings 
almost till lie died, and was also a member 
of the Essex Head Club. 

Meantime he was gradually drawing to- 
wards a public career. He made his first 
public speech on 28 Jan. 1778 at a publio 
meeting colled to raise a subscription to- 
wards the cost of the American war, and 
opposed the project. He won some local 
repute b^ personal courage and nromptitude 
ill quelling a mutiny at Norwich, when the 
Norfolk militia refused to march into Suf- 
folk, and in September 1780 he unsuccess- 
fully contested Norwich. In 1781 he was 
a member of the Westminster committee, 
and came very near standing for West- 
minster in 1782. He, however, gradually 
drifted away from his earlier reforming 
opinions into a fixed antipathy to any con- 
stitutional change. In 1783 be became 
chief secretary to Nortbington, lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland in the Portland admini- 
stration, but resigned the post in August, 
nominally owinj^ to ill-health, but in reality 
because he desired to ^ive Irish posts to 
Irishmen, a policy not in favour with bis 
suporiora. After the dissolution ia March 
1784 he was one of the few coalition candi- 
dates who were successful, and was elected 
at Norwich on 5 April. ~ 

time he 

acted steadily with the opposition, and Burke 
chose liim in June to second his motion on 
the state of the nation. He spoke in 1786 
on the shop tax and the Westminster 
scrutiny ; he strongly supported the right of 
the Prince of Wales to be regent without 
restrictions in 1788, and in 1790 killed 
Flood's reform bill by the happy phrase that 
' no one would select the hurricane season iu 
which to begin repairing his house.' Hewas 
also one of the members charged with the 
impeaclimentof Warren Hastings, and under- 
took that part of the case which dealt with 
the breach of the treaty of 1774 with Faiiulla 
Khan. He was re-elected at Norwich in 
1790, and in February 1791 supported Mit- 
ford's catholic relief bill for England. Fol- 
, lowing Burke, by whom he continued to he 
largely guided, he took alarm at the French 
revolution, and in 1792 and 1793 was one of 
the most ardent supporters of the govern- 
ment's repressive legislation'. . He supported 
the proclamation against seditious meetings 
and the aliens bill, bad a plan for raising 
ft troop of cavalry in Norfolk, and on II July 
1794, on Burke's advice, he somewhat re- 
luctantly consented to take office under Pitt, 
with the Duke of Port land, Lord Fitjewilli 
and Lord Spencer (Priok, Life of Burke, ii. 
264), A secretaryship of state was at first 






■Ugf^ed for him, but eventually he became 
eeatetary for war, with n seat in the cabinet. 
This yits the first time that the cabinet was 
opened to the holder of the geeret&rjehip at 
war. Ills cbang-e of front waa somewhat 
resented at Norwich, bat ba necured re- 
election, and from August to October was 
with the Duke of York a army in Flanders, 
lie held that the royal istsinthewestof France 
deserved aseistonce, and was the person most 
responsible for the Quiberon eipedxtion in 
July 1795. Vigorously supporling the con- 
tinuance of war, and ateadily opposing pro- 
jects of reform, he only after a sharp figbt 
saved his seat at Norwich, 26 May 1796. 
He held office till February 1801, when be 
resigned with Pitt. To the Irish union he 
hod been at first opposed altogether, but 
consented to it in consideration of the pro- 
mise that catholic disabilities should be 
removed. lie had by no means always ap- 
proved of Rtt's war policy, and had held 
that, as the war was fought for the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons, more efforts should 
have been mode to e«aist the royalists la 
France. Much was done under his admini- 
stration to increase the comfort of the troops. 
Their pay was raised, pensions were esta- 
blished, and the Koysl Military Asylum was 

Windham's chance ia opposition soon 
come. He had a rooted distnut of Napoleon, 
and strongly opposed the peace of 1802, lie 
assisted Cobbett, whom he greatly admired, 
to found the ' Political Kegister,' and tho- 
roughly agreed with its attacks on Addin^- 
ton. He spoke against the peace prelimi- 
naries on 4 Nov. mOl, and moved an address 
I against the peace on 13 Alay 

Grenville family tho borough of St. Mawes 
in Cornwall, where he was elected on 7 July. 
This seat he held till November 1806, when lie 
was elected for New Itomney , and later in the 
some month for the county of Norfolk. This 
latter election was afterwards declared void, 
upon a petition alleging breaches of the , 
Treating Act, and, Windham being thus in- 
eligible for re-election for the same seat, hia 
friend Sir Jacob Astlev was returned at the 
naw election on 4 March 1807. He took 
refuge at Higham Ferrers, where he was 
elected on S May 1SU7, and held that seat 
till bis death. 

Windham welcomed the renewal of hos- 
tilities with France, lie had never sup- 
Ert«d a policv of fortifications or of large 
id forces, and when in office bad considered 

the erection of mnrtello tnweis a sufficient 
defence for the coast, bis chief reliance being 
upon the fleet. He doubted too the value 
of volunteers, and made somewhat savage 
attacksupon them, but tookportinlbegeneral 
movement in 1803, and raised a volunteer 
force at Felbrigg, and became its coloneL He 
now became leader of the Grenville party in 
the House of Commons, and en^^ged in the 
attack on Addington, but declined to join 
Pitt again in May 1604, owing to the kinor's 
objection to the admission of Fox to the 
mmblry. He then found himself once more 
acting with Foi and opposing Pitt, and at 
the time of Pitt's death ho incurred some 
hostility in consequence. He accepted the 
war and colonial office in I,ord Greaville'a 
administration, and on 3 April 1800 intro- 
duced a plan for improvine the condition of 
the military forces, and making the army an 
attractive profession. With thia object he 
passed bills for reducing the term of service 
and for increasing the soldiers' pay. He had 
begun the arrangements for the South Ame- 
rican expedition when, with the rest of tlia 
ministry, he was dismissed in March 1W7. 
In the previous year he had refused the o9'er 
of a peerage, preferring a career in the House 
of Ciommons, and he continued to devote 
himself to the conduct of the war and to 
criticism of the policy of his successor Caatle- 
reagh. On general policy, however, he held 
aloof from debale, and, from growing dislike 
of London, lived much in the country. His 
only conspicuous speeches in the later yeais 
of fiia life on civil topics were (14 May 1805) 
in favour of the Roman catholic claims, to 
which subject he returned in 1810, and on 
Curwen'sbillfor preventingthe sale of seats 
in May 1809, As Castlereagh's proposals 
with regard to the militia ran counter to his 
own plan of 1606, he opposed the local 
militia biU in 1808, and, as he was adverse 
to a policy of scattered and, as be thought, 
aimless expeditions, he spoke against the 
Copenhagen expedition in 1807, and the 
Scheldt expedition in January 1810. On the 
other hand, he was a very warm supporter of 
the Spanish cause, and even began to learn 
Spanish with a view to a personal visit to 
Spain. In his view, however, the objective 
of the English force should have been the 
passes of the Pyrenees, and uot Portugal, so 
as to cut off the French from Spain, and he 
thought that Moore ought to have been sent 
with a much larger force to the north of 
Spain, and there could and should have held 
hisground. ThePeninsularwar.oncebMiin, 
was to be pressed with vigour, and such an 
expedition as that to Antwerp did not seem 
to Windham consistent with the succeasful 




prosecution of tbe Spanish war. He con- I 
UDued to eipreaa these views energetically, 
but, by Hupporting a. proposal made early in 
ISIO for the excluaion ot reporters from the 
House of Commons, he provoKed the hostility 
of the press, which for some time refused to 
leport hia speeches. 

Windham's last speech was made on 
11 Mot 1810. In July of the previous year 
he had ii^ured his hip by his eSbrta in re- 
moving the bouka of his friend the Hon. 
Frederick North (afterwards fifth Earl of 

Gailford) fq.v.l out of reach of a Brt'. On 
— " y 1810 Cline operated ui 

I him for 

17 May 

the removal of a tumour, but 
«OTered&omtbefihocli,anddiedat bis house 
in Pall Mall on i June, and was huried at 
Felbrigg. He married, on 10 July 1798, 
Cecilia, third daughter of Commodore Arthur 
Farrest [q.v.], but bad no children. 

Windham'spersonal ad vantages were many. 1 
He was ricli, and had an income of 6,000^ a 
year. He was tall and well built, graceful 
and dignified in manner, a tborougli aporta- 
man, and in his youtli, like his father, was 
very athletic and a practised pugilist. He 
hada good memory, and was widelv and well 
informed i he was an ardent Greeli and 
Latin scholar, and fluent in French and 
Italian. Though his voice was defective and 
sbrill, he was, when at his best, a most elo- 
quent orator, and was always a clear speaker 
and a keen debater ; but his speeches were 
marred by occasional indiscretions of temper 
and want of reticence. He waa pious, clii- 
yalrous, and disinterested, and his brilliant 
social qualities made him one of the finest 
gentlemen as well as one of the soundest 
sportsmen of his time. His diary, published 
in 1866, shows him to have been Tacillaling 
and hypochondriacal in private, but beseems 
to have relieved his feelings by this habit of 
private confession ; and in public, (hough 
somewhat changeable, he was not irresolute. 
In an age of great men bis character stood 
high, and although his conduct on two occa- 
■ions in his pobtical Ufe led t.o charges of 
inconsistency, and earned for him tbe nick- 
name of ' Weathercock Windham,' his per- 
sonal integrity was unimpugned. Tbe army 
nndoubtedly owed much to his labours in 
improvingitaefficiency andcondition. Pane- 
gyrica were pronounced upon him in the 
House of Lords by Lord Grey on 6 June 
1810, aad in the House of Commons by Lord 
Milton the following day, and Brougham 
paints him in laudatory terms in bis ' His- 
toricalSketcheeof British Statesmeu'(i.219). 
A portrait of him by Hoppner was placed in 
thepublic hall, Norwich, and there is another, 
by sir Thomas Lawrence, at Univeraity 

College.Oxford ( Cat. GuelpkEihib. No, 150). 
A priut from the portrait by Hoppner was 
engraved by Say, and was publishecf. Thero 
are also a portrait of him by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds and a second by Lawrence, both 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London, 
and a bust by Nollekens. 

[WiBdlism'x SpoecbBB, with Momoir hy bta 
secretarj, Thomas Ainjot (3 vole. 1808); Wind- 
ham 'b Diary, 1784-1810, ed. Mm. Hoiiry BdriBg, 
186S; Malone's Memoir of WiDdbnm, 1810, re- 
printed from Gent. Mag. 1810. i. 688 (rf. ib. 
n6B) \ M^moires dn Comte Joseph de Pnisayo; 
Lccky's llial. of Englaad in the Eighteenth 
Cent.; Hardy's Lord Charlemont. ii. 82, 88; 
Colbura's Nav Monthly MHg.xnii. 565; Edin* 
burgh Itevtew, cxxiii, £57; Bomilly's life; 
Bluohopo's Life of Pitt; Boswell's Lifeof Joha- 
eoQ, ed. Hill ; Cooke's Hist, of Party, iii. 4S3 ; 
Harris's Bodicol Party in Parliament.] 

J. A.H. 
WINDSOR, ALICE bb (d. 1400), mi»- 
treas of Edward 111. [See PBEKEKS.] 

WINDSOR, formerly Hickhas, THO- 
MAS waNDSOR, seventh Bahon Wibmok 
or Stanweli. and first 'Elrl of PLTMonra 
(1627 P-1687), bom about IBli' and baptised 
under the name of Tliomaa Windsor, waa 
eon and heir of Dixie Hickman of Kew, 
Surrey, by his wife Elizabeth, eldest sister 
and coheir of Thomas Windsor, sisth baron 
Windsor of Stanwell. 

No connection has been traced between 
the Windsors of Stanwell and Sir William 
de Windsor, baron Windsor [i\, v.], the 
husband of Alice Perrers. The Stanwell 
family claim desceot from Walter Fitz- 
Other (fl. 1087), who held that manor at the 
time of Domesday and was warder of Wiud- 
soi Castle, whence he derived the name 
Windsor. His third son, Gerald ob 
WiHDsoK { /!. 1116), was constable of Pem- 
broke Castle (/(in. Kambria, pp, 89, 91), 
and steward to Amulf, earl of I'embroke 
[see under RoofiR se Muntsouebt, d, 
1093?], in whose service he saw much flght- 
ing in Pembroke. He waa sent to king Mur- 
tagh in Ireland to ask his daughters hand 
I for Amulf, married Nest or Nesta fq, v.], 
I mistress of Henry I, and was father ot Wif- 
, liam FitEgerald, Slaurice Fitzgerald Ui. 117«) 
[q, v.], David id. 1176) [q. T.J, bishop (J 
I St. David's, and Angharad, mother of Oiral- 
' duB Cumbrensis fq. v.J, the historian ; he was 
thua the reputed ancestor of the numerous 
Oeraldine families (see, besides tba articles 
referred to, Freeuak, Norman Conquett, v, 
id »'iV/tnmifij/iM,ii. 96-7, 101,108- 







descent. That manor remained in the handg 
of the family until Henry VHI compelled 
Andruw Windsor (1474 f-l'>43), whom be 
had in 1529 summoned to parliuiuent as first 
Baron Windsor of Stanwell, and made 
keeper of his wardrobe (see Letferi and 
Pajirre of Henry VIII, vols, i-xvi. pasi * ~ 
to exchange it for Bordeslev Abbey, T , _. 
ceatershire. By his wife Eliiabeth', eldest 
sister of Edward Blount, second lord Mounts 
joy, he was father of William Windsor, 
second bnroa (1499?-1(>69), whose widow 
married George Putlenham [q. v.], and pes- 
tered the council for many years with suits 
against him for maintenance {AcU P. C. 
voIb. xii-xvi. passim) ; William's son Ed- 
ward, third baron (1532-1575), was father 
of Fredericlt, fourth baron (1569-1585), and 
of Henry, fifth baron (1602-1616). The 
latter's son, Thomas, sixth baron (1590-1 64 1 ), 
Tfas created K.B. in June IfllO, and was 
rear-admiral of the fleet sent to fetch Prince 
Charles from Spain in 1623; he marrifd 
Oalheriue, youngest daughter of Edward 
Somerset, fourth earl of Worcester [q- v.], 
but died without issue. The barony thus 
fell into abeyance between the heirs of his 
two sistem, while the estates passed to his 
nephew, Thomas Windsor Hickman, who 
assumed the surname Windsor in lieu of 
Hickman, and was commonly known as 
Lord Windsor (ef. Cai. State Papfr», Dom. 
1649-50, p. 70; Cal. Comm.for Compounii- 
inff.-p. 1260). 

Though tittle more than fifteen at the 
outbre^ of the civil war, Windsor is said 
to have been capUin of a troon of horse in 
the rovalist army in lft42, and lieutenants 
colonel in May 1645 ; these commissions do 
not appear in Peacock's 'Army Lists,' but 
possibly he was the Windsor serring ifl 
Bard's regiment of foot who was captured at 
Naseby on U June 1645 (I'mcocK, 2nd 
edit. p. 98). He compounded for his 'delin.- 

3uency in arms' on 30 April 1646, and was 
escribed as having been 'concerned in' the 
articles for the surrender of Hartlebury 
Castle, Worcestershire (Cal. Comm. for 
Gtmpoundinff, ^. 1360). His fine, fixed at 
a sixth of his estate, was 1,100/,, which 
aeems to have been paid. On 4 April 1649 
he was reported to have gone to Flanders 
'upon challenge sent him by an English 
l^ntleman named Griffith ' ( Cai. S/afePapem, 
Dom. 1649-50, p. 380). According to Sir 
Kenelm Digby, who gives the challenger'H 
name as Griffin, the latter's letters to Wind- 
sor caused mucjimerriment among the exiles 
at Calais (16. p. 380), and the council of 
state requested the Spanish ambassador to 
preveal the duel. On IB May 1G6I he was 

summoned before the council of state and 
required to give a bond of 4,000/. with two 
sureties of 3,000/. to appear when called upon 
and ' not to do anything prejudicial to the 
present Kovemment'(i6. 1651, p. 207). On 
2 Aug. 1653 ho was Gjanied a pau to go 
beyond seas, but for the raoat part he lived 
quietly in England, absorbed in & fruitless 
scheme to render the river Salwarpe navi- 
gable by means of locia, for the benefit of 
the salt trade at Droitwicb. On 13 May 
1666 he married at St. Qeorge's-in-the- 
Fields, I^ndon, Anne, sister of George 
Savile (afterwards Marquis of Halifax) 
[q. T.] 

After the Hestoration "Windsor received 
on 16 June 1660 a declaratory patent deter- 
mining in his favour the abeyance into which 
the barony of Windsor o'f Stanwell had 
fallen (G. E. C[oKiTVR], Complete Peerage, 
vi. 257 ; EgeHon MS. 2551, f. 27). He took 
his seat as seventh Baron Windsor in the 
House of Lords two days later, and in the 
sameyearwas made lord lieutenant of Wot^ 
cesCershire. On 20 July 1661 he was ap- 
pointed governor of Jamaica, with a salary 
of 2,000/. a year, though his commission was 
dated only from 2 Aug. followinK. He did not 
set out till the middle of Aprill662 (Pepis, 
Diary, ed. Braybrooke, i. 342), but during- 
the interval seems to have developed some 
fairly enlightened views upon the govern- 
ment of colonies (Egerton MS. 2395, ff. 301 - 
303). He arrived at Barbados on II Julv, 
and there published his proclamations for tfie 
encouraeement of settlers in Jamaica. Lands 
were to be freely granted ; no one was to b» 
imposed npon in point of religion, provided 
he conformed to the civil govemmenC; trade 
with foreigners was to be free ; and all handi- 
crafts and tradesmen were to be encouraged 
( Cn/.A/ni* PapKr», America andWest Indies, 
1661-8, Nos. 324, 3.35). He left on 1 Aug. 
for Jamaica, where he acted b« governor (or 
little more than ten weeks, part of which 
was occupied by an expedition to Cuba and 
the seieure of a'Spanish fort there called St. 
Jago. But during this brief period Windsor 
claimed to have establishea an admiralty 
r, disbanded the roundhead army in Ja- 
a and remodelled its forces, called in 
immiaaions to buccaneeis and 'reduced 
them to certain orderly rules, giving tham 
nieaiona to take Spaniards and bring them 
into Jamaica ' (lA. No, 379 ; cf. arts. Mobt- 
FOBD, Sib James and Sib Thouas; Moboait, 
Sir Henry). 'Being verie sick and un- 
easie,' he embarked for England on 20 Oct, 
1662, leaving Sir Charles Lyttelton (1629- 
1716) [q. v.] as his deputy governor (Presmf 
State of Jamaica, 1688, p. 39). His com- 



■nas revoked on 15 Feb. 166^-4, Sir 
lomas Modjford bein|; Appointed hia siic- 
isor(Ca/. 6'(afffi(/Jer»,AtDericft and West 
Indies, 1661-S, No», 656, 735). Windaoc's 
snddea retura provoked from I'ep^a the re- 
muk that ' these young lords are not fit tu 
do any service abro&d,' and Itu wae sceptical 
aa to the reality of Windsor's scliievementa 
(Diary, ed, Braybrooke, ii. 109, 11", 131). 
Windsor himself pleaded ill-health, and his 
eUtement that he came back 2,000/. worse 
off than he went out supplies a further ex- 
^anation {Hattm Cormipondmier, i. 4ti). 

On 9 July 1(W6 Windsor was commia- 
aicmed captain of a troop of sixty horse 

SiLTOH, Arm}/ Luti, i. 76; Cat. State 
pert, Dom. 11565-6, p. 490) ; it was, how- 
ever, only a miiitia force, and was disbanded 
soon afterwards (Sadie Correip, p. 15). In 
June 1671, in return for a chnllentre which 
be believed John Berki;Iey, lord Berkeley of 
Stratton [q. v.l, the lord lieutenant uf Ire- 
land, had sent tiim, Windsor challenged him 
at Kidderminster on his nay to London 
(Berwick, JtatcdoH Paper*, 1819, pp. ^50-1 ; 
C'al. State Papen, Dom. 1671, pp. 346,387). 
Berkeley declined the challenge and informed 
the king, who sent Windsor to the Tower. 
He was 'mightily complimented by viaitts 
from all the towne, and stayed there, I think, 
about a fortnight, and then, relensed, came 
to Windsore and kissed the king's hand there. 
The councill would heare nothing in favour 
of lum. They looked upon his challenge to 
a person in the employment of h' of Ireland 
U iucb an affront to ye king aa nothing 
should have made him presume to resent it 
[«t that rale ' (^Uiittim Oorreep. i. 68). 

In 1676 Windsor was appointed master of 

horse to the Duke of York, and on 

4 July 1681 was made governor of I'orts- 
moutb (LuTTRBi-t, i. lOtt). On U Nov. 
ie»a he was made governor of Hull, and on 
« Dec. following was created Earl of Ply- 
month, takin|[ his seat on 19 May 1685. 
On 80 Oct. I6S5 he was sworn of the privy 
eouncil (I'A. i. 3(12), a few daya after the ex- 
pulsion of his brother-in-law, the Marrguis 
of Halifax, with whom he can have hod but 
Bt^ sympathv {FoiCBOlT, Li/e of Halifax, 
■489). Hedi^un3NoT.1687(^drff(..«S. 
~se»,f. 180), and was buried on the 10th 
Tanlebigg, Worcestershire. 

louth's first wife, Anne Savile, died 
March 1606-7, and was buried at 
Tardeingg on I April following. He msr- 
ried, secondly, at Kensington on i> April 
lees, Ursula, daughter of Sir Thomaa Wid- 
drington [q, v.l, with the consent of her 
guardian, John" Rush worth (1612P-1690) 
[q. v.] She was bom on 1 1 Nov. HH7, and 

died on 22 April 1717. Bv her Plymouth 
had issue (1) Thomas {d. 1738), who seri'ed in 
tfae war in rianders, waa on 19 June 1699 
created Viscount Windsor in the peerage of 
Ireland, and on 31 Dec. 1711 Baron Montjoy 
in the peerage of the United Kingdom, and 
left a don, Herbert, on whose death in 1758 
these peerages became extinct; (2) Dixie 
{1075-1743), who was scholar of Westrain- 
8ter, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
member for that university in six successive 
parliaments, ond brother-in-law of (Sir) 
\^'illiam Shippen [q. v.] (Welch, Queen'* 
SeAolart, V. ^'Ji) ; (3) Ursula, who married 
in 1703 Thomas Johnson of Walthamstow ; 
and (4) Etiiabeth, who married Sir Francis 
Dashwood, hart. 

By his first wife Plymouth had issue a 
daughter, Elirabetb, and a son. Other Wind- 
sor, styled Lord Windsor from 1682 till his 
death on 1 1 Nov. 1684 ; his aon Other (1679- 
1727) succeeded his grandfather as eighth 
Baron Windsor and secotid Earl of Ply- 
mouth (cf. LuTTRBLL, Bri^f Relation, passim ; 
BCKNET, Chen Time, 1766, iii. 376). His 
grandson, Other Lewis, fourth earl (1731- 
1777), maintained a voluminous correspon- 
dence with Newcastle, extant in British Mu- 
seum Additional MSS. 32724-983. The 
earldom became extinct on the death of 
llenry.eighth earl, on 8 Dee. 1843. The ba- 
rony eventually passed to Harriet, daughter 
of the si.xth earl, who married Robert Henry, 
grandson of liobert, first lord CHve [q. v.] j 
her grandson is the present Baron Windsor. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650-72, America 
and West laAifa. 1691-8, pouim ; Brit. Mus. 
Lnasd. MS. cclv. 112; Addit. MSS. fiSO't f. lOG, 
HSiO f. 82. 6707 f.55, 12614, 39SfiO-61,paisini: 
Hiot. MSS. Comm. lit Rep. App. pp. 37. AS. 
2nd Rep. App. p. 1A; Lords' and Coromana' 
Jonraata ; Hatton Corresp. and Snrile Corresp. 
(Camden Soc.),pa9siiu : Luttrell'ti lirirf Relation; 
Pepys's snd EtoIjd'b DiarioB ; Pcncock'a Army 
Lilts ; Dnllon's Army Lists, i. 76, 298 : Chiistar'a 
London Marr. Liconcea. col. 1*88; History of 
Jnmuica, 1771, 3 vols. 4to ; Tracts rotating lo 
Jamaica, ISnO. 4Io ; Nosh's Woreeslershire ; 
Tii-ksll's History of Hull ; J. M. Woodward's 
Hist, of Bordosley Abbey ; Foicroft's Lifo of 
Uiilifai, pa-isim ; Lodge's Poerago of Irclond. 
ed. Arcbdall ; Burke'i Peeraga uiid Eitini 
pHprni^ ; Doylf's Oflii^iHl BarnaspH ; Q. ] 
G[okiivne]'8 Complete Peerage, s.vv. ' Plymouth ' 
anil ' Windsor.'] A. F. P. 

WINDSOR, Sir WILLIAM i>b, B*bos 
■Windsor (rf. 1384), deputy of Ireland, was 
tlie son of Sir Alexander de Windsor of 
Ciravrigg, Westmorland, and of Eliaibeth 
{d. 1349), his wife. No connection has been 
proved between this family and that of tha 






Windsors of Stanwell (G. E. CTokatxeTs 
Complete Peerage, viii. 183-4; SiB G. T. 
DuCKETT, Duchetianay gives a full account 
of the descent of the Windsor family). 
William was of full af e in 1349, and served 
in the French wars of Edward III. 

Before 1369 Windsor had held a command 
in Ireland under Lionel of Antwerp, and 
claimed lands in Kinsale, Inchiquin, and 
Youghal {King's Council in Ireland, p. 326). 
In tnat year he was appointed the king's 
lieutenant in Ireland, ana had a grant of a 
thousand marks a year (Dugdalb, Baronage, 
i. 509). He at once set to work to reduce 
the Dublin border clans, but in 1370 had to 
leave them in order to attempt the rescue of 
the Earl of Desmond, who had been taken 
prisoner by the O'Briens (Gilbert, Viceroys 
of Ireland, p. 230). To secure even partial 
order Windsor had been compelled to adopt 
measures of doubtful legality ; at a parlia- 
ment of 1369, failing to induce its members 
to promise new customs to the king, he ex- 
torted from the prelates, who met separately, 
a grant for three years, and afterwards had 
enrolment made in the chancery records that 
they were given in perpetuity to the crown. 
The colonists appealed to Edward III, and, 
in answer to their petition, the king on 
10 Sept. 1371 forbade Windsor, who haa re- 
turned to England in March, to levy the 
sums for which he had exacted grants, ordered 
the enrolment to be erased, and on 20 Oct. 
formally rebuked him for his extortions, which 
he bade him make good {Fcedera, vol. iii. pt. 
ii. pp. 922, 924, 928, 942). The mayor of 
Drogheda, arrested by Windsor's command, 
was released {ib. p. 930), and on 20 March 
1373 an inquisition was held at Drogheda 
into Windsor's extortions in Meath and Uriel 
{ib. pp. 977, 978, 979). Alice Ferrers, who 
afterwards became Windsor's wife, had in 
1369, when he first became viceroy, received 
from him the amount destined for the ex- 
penses of his expedition and the payment 
of his men (for date of her marriage with 
Windsor, see art. Perreils, Alice). 

Oil Windsor's withdrawal from Ireland 
anarchy broke out. Accordingly on 20 Sept. 
V'VI'.j Edward reappointed him to the vice- 
royalty {Fadera, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 990). He 
was commanded to levy the grants formerly 
promised at Baldoyle and Kilkenny, and to 
co-operate with Sir Nicholas Dagworth [cf. 
art. Tekrers, Alice]. In 1374, on the re- 
fusal of a parliament at Kilkenny to make a 
grant at Dagworth's request, Windsor issued 
writs bidding clergy and laity to elect repre- 
sentatives, finance them, and send them to 
England to consult Edward on an aid to be 
taken from Ireland [cf. art. Sweetkan, 

MiLol Meanwhile Newcastle, on the frontier 
of W icklow, was taken by the Irish. The 
^vemment sent help by sea to the garrison 
in the castle of Wicklow, but the council, 
meeting at Naas, forbade Windsor to move 
further south because it left the north in 

Eeril. W^indsor could carry on the war only 
y levying forced subsidies of money and 

Early in 1376 Windsor gave up his vice- 
royalty, and was summon^ to England to 
consult with the king. On 29 Sept. 1376 he 
was granted 100/. a year for life from the 
issues of the county of York. On 14 Dec 
pardon was granted him 'for having har- 
boured Alice Ferrers, who was banished in 
1377, and license granted for her to remain 
in the realm as long as she and her husband 
please.' On 23 Oct. 1379 Sir John Harles- 
ton was directed to deliver up to Windsor 
the custody of Cherbourg (Walsinoham, 
Hist. Angl, i. 427 ; Chron. Anglia, p. 265 ; 
Fadera, iv. 73). In the same vear Windsor 
was sent on the eicpedition to help the Duke 
of Brittany against France ^Walsinghaji, 
ffist, Angl, i. 134), receiving large grants of 
land, most of which had been forfeited by 
Alice Ferrers (Dugdale, Baronage, i. 609 ; 
CaL Pat. BolU, 1377-81, p. 603 ; Bot. Pari. 
iii. 130 a). 

In 1381-2, 1382-3, 1383-4, Windsor had 
summons to parliament as a baron (Dugdale, 
1. 509). In 1381 and 1382 he took a leading 
part in putting down the peasants' revolt, 
especially in the counties of Cambridge and 
Huntingdon, being granted special autnority 
with this object, and made a special justice 
and commissary of the peace in Cambridge. 
On 13 March 1383 he was referred to as a 
* banneret.' Further grants, previouslv made 
to Alice Ferrers, were in 1381, 1383, and 1384 
extended to him. 

Windsor died at Heversham in AVestmor- 
land on 15 Sept. 1384, heavily in debt to the 
crown. The oarony became extinct. His 
will was dated Haversham, 15 Sept., and 
proved on 12 Oct. 1684. He left no legitimate 
issue. His nephew, John de Windsor, who 
was one of his executors, seized most of his 
estates, and had many disputes with his 
widow [see Fbrrebs, AliceJ. He left cer- 
tain lands to William of Wykeham [q. v.], 
which the bishop eventually appropriated to 
the use of his great foundation at Win- 
chester {Cal. Pat. Bolls, 1381-2, p. 577). 
In Ireland John de Windsor did not succeed 
in obtaining his uncle's lands; for William's 
estates in Waterford were adjud^d to his 
two sisters — Christiana, wife of Sir William 
de Moriers of Elvington, Yorkshire ; and 
Margaret, wife of John Duket, 'his nearest 

Wind us 


Ii^is u>d of full ege' (King'x Council in Ire- 
land, p. 3^). 

[BjniDr's Fixdera, vol. iii. (Rcwrd edit.); 
King's Coancil in Ireland, Walsinghuni's Uesta 
AbboCum S. AlbuDi and Hist. AngL i. (a!l nbove 
inBoUs Ser.]: Cal. Fat. KolU. 1377-Bl and 
1381-5 ; Eot. Pari. ii. iii. ; Nieolnis TpBtomonln 
Vetusta; Du^le'a Baroan^e, i. aOB ; G. E. 
C[oka;nej'e CompleUi Peeftgo, Tiii. 183-4 ; Gil- 
liert'aVioerojB of Ireland; LuckBlt'sDuchetiana, 
pp. 38S-83; Ouckon'B 'Manorbeer Custle and 
lU Early Owaerf' in Archiealogia CambrenBia, 
4th ser. xi. 137-4S ; Nulee and Queries, Tth esr. 
ToI.TiL] M. T. 

"WINDUS, JOIIN iJ. 1735). aiithorof 
'A. Journey to Moquinei,' was tlie historian 
of ft nitsian despulched bj George 1 in 1720 
under Commodore Charles Stewart, with a 
Bmall «quadron and the powers of a pieni- 
poWntiary, to treat for a puate with the 
emperor of Morocco. The squadroii sailed 
on 'Ji Sept. 1T:K), and in the following May 
a conference was held between the ambas- 
Eador*a party and the Bosha Hauet Ben All 
Ben Abdallah at Tetuan. A treaty of peace, 
by which pirucy -kss prohibited and tbe 
tnglish prisooerB released, v/m signed at 
Ceuta in January 1721, and Windus there- 
upon returned to England in Stewart's flag- 
ship, the Dover, Windus utilised tbe four 
months he spent on land iu ' Barbary ' to 
collect mntenals for an account of the Moors, 
and in 172Q, with a dedication to 'James, 
eail of Berkley, vice-admiral of England,' 
he published ' A Journey to Meqiiinez, the 
n^dence of the present Emperor of Fez and 
Morocco' (Albumazer Muley Ishmaet), Lon- 
. don, for Jacob Tonson, 17:25, 8vo. 
I No work on Morocco had hitherto ap- 
I peared in English, with the exception of the 
•omewbat meagre 'West Barbary' (1*171) 
of Ifftncelot Addison [a. v.], and much inte- 
rest was excited bv Windus's hook. An 
influential list of subscribers was obtained, 
•ad the volume rapidly went through several 
, editions, and was pirated in Dublin. The 
■uathoT was assisted in his task by M. Cor- 
■'biirv, who had at one time resided at t)ie 
r-Sfooriah court, and the work was iliuatrated 
Ikkf engravings by Fourdrinier, tlio plates 
Kbring dedicntedto William Piillaney, Lord 
BGobbom, the Duke of Argyll, and other dis- 
Ftinguished persons. It was reprinted in the 
^ ' Collection of Voyages ' of 1T07, in the 
' "World Displayed ' (1774, vol. xvii. 12mo), 
aad in Pinkerton's ' Collection of Voyages ' 
(1808, vol. 'cv-'t'o). It was drawn u*]ion to 
A lafge extent bv Thomas Pellew [q. vj in 
his 'History anS Adventure in South Bar- 
bary,' written in 1739, and to some extent 
klfio ID Thomas Shaw's ' Travels or Ubserva- 

tiona relating to several parts of Barbary 
and the Levant ' (1738, folio). The descrip- 
tion of the manners of the people and the 
methods of the government renders the book 
' a curiosity,' as it was pronounced by James 
Boawell and by Slevensoa {Cat. of Voyagri 
and Travel), No. fiSB), 

[Windus's Journey to Miquinei; Blackiraod's 
Magiuioe. xxti. 205 ; Budgett Msakin's Moorish 
Empire. 1899; Plajfiiir'a Bihliograpljy of Mo- 
rocco. 1S02; an intrreetiug lapplsmenl lo Win- 
dus is supplied iu JoIiq ^ruithwalte's History 
of tbe Rocolutiona in tbe Empire of Morocco, 
172B.] T. S. 

1 -WTNEFRrDE (Welsh, Gicenfrewi) is 
the name of a legendary saint supposed to 
have lived in the seventh centurv. She is 
said Co have been the daughter of Teuytli or 

land to St. Beino, and put his daughter under 
his teaching, A chief tain, Caradoc ap Alaric 
j or Alan, cut off the maiden's head, and when 
' it touched the ground a spring appenred, 
' namely, St. Wiaefride'a Well or Holyw<?lI, 
Flint. The head waa reunited to the body, 
and Winefride became abbess of Gwytherin. 
There is no evidence that this legend is 
older than the twelfth century, in the course 
of which, about 1140, Robert of Shrewsbury 
[q. v.] found her relics, claimed them for 
blirewsbury, and wrot* her life. Leland's 
statement that a monk Elerius wrote a con- 
temporary life is uncorroborated. A Welsh 
life, probably of the middle of the twelfth 
century (printed by Rees in Camhro- British 
&iiH(».pp. 16, 17, 198-209, 303), does not 
mention the translation of the relies, but 
otherwise closely resembles Robert's life. 

[Rdbert's life is giren iu Surius, iv. 20, und 
dtpgrave ; Fleetwond's Life and MiraiUss of St. 
Winchide, with her LitaniM;Hurdy'BDeecr. Cat. 
I. i. ]7fl-S4, and the acticb Iu tbr Dirt, of 
Christian Biogr.] M. B. 

WINTRID, afterwards called Bosifach 
()j80-755), siiiiit. [See Bontj'ace.] 

WING, VINOEST (1619-1668), astro- 
nomer, was the eldest son of Vincent Wing 
(1667-1660) of North Luflenham. Rut- 
land, where he was bom on 9 April 1619. 
The family was of Webb origin. By his 
own exertions he acquired some knowledge 
of Latin, Greek, and mathematics, ' con- 
suming himself in study.' In 1648 be 
became known as joint author, with William 
l.evbourn [q.v.], of ' Urania I'roctica.' In the 
following year ho published independently 
'A Dreadful I'rognosticatioii ,' containing 
predictions ' drawn from the efl*ects of 


1 80 


several celestial configurations/ His ' Har- 
monicon Coeleste ' appeared in 1C51 ; his 
chief and a most useful work, entitled 
'Astronomia Britannica/ in 1652 (2nd ed. 
1069). This was a complete system of 
astronomy on Copemican principles, and 
included numerous and diligently compiled 
sets of tables. A portrait of the author 
was prefixed. It was followed in 1656 by 

* Astronomia Instaurata/ and in 1665 by 
'Examen AstronomisB Carolinse/ exposing 
the alleged errors of Thomas Streete, who 
promptly retaliated with *a castigation of 
the envy and ignorance of Vincent Wing.' 

Wing issued ephemerides for twenty years 
(1652-1671), the * exactest ' then to be had, 
according to John Flamsteed, who main- 
tained * a fair correspondence ' with him 
(RiOAUD, Correspondence of Scientific Men, 
ii. 86). He also wrote for the Stationers' 
Company an almanac styled 'Olympia 
Domata, the annual sale of which averaged 
60,000 copies. The publication was con- 
tinued by nis descendants at irregular inter- 
vals until 1805. 

Wing resided at North Lufienham, but 
occasionally 'sought the society of the 
learned ' in London. He attended so zea- 
lously to his business as a land surveyor 
that, ' riding early and late, in all kinds of 
weather,' he contracted a consumption, of 
which he died on 20 Sept. 1668, aged 49. 

* He was a person,' says his friend and 
biographer John Qadbury, * of a very ready, 
ripe, and pungent wit; and had good judg- 
ment and memory thereunto annexed.' 
Although of an uncontentious disposition, 
he defended himself with spirit against the 
attacks of * troublesome and ambitious per- 
sons.' Sides were taken in these disputes ; 
Flamsteed speaks of Wing's * sectaries.' 
A convinced astrologer, he edited in 1668 
George Atwel's * Defence of the Divine Art,* 
drew the scheme of his own nativity pub- 
lished in Gadbury's * Brief Relation,* and is 
said to have made a correct forecast of his 
death. His will was dated a fortnight be- 
fore'. He was buried at North Lufienham. 
The * Olympia Domata * for 1670 was edited 
bv his elder son, Vincent Wing; and the 
numbers for 1704 to 1727 by his nephew, 
John Wing of Pickworth, Rutland, coroner 
of that county, who published in 1693 

* lloptarchia Mathematica,' and in 1699 
an enlarpfod version of his uncle's * Art 
of Surveying,' supplemented bv *Scientia 
Stollarum,' the * Calculation of the Planets' 
riaoes,' &c. 

Ttcho Wing (1696-1750^, astrologer, a 

oTf^nHson of John Wing, taught the * arts 

^es mathematical ' at Pickworth in 

1727, and edited the ' Oljrmpia Domata ' 
from 1739 onward. He was coroner of 
Rutland from 1727 to 1742. WiUiam 
Stukeley [q. v.] notes in his diary that he 
'spent many agreeable hours at Stamford 
and Pickworth with Mr. Tycho Wing and 
Mr. Edmund Weaver, the ^at Lincolnshire 
astronomer.' Tycho visited Stukeley in 
London in March 1750, and died at I'ick- 
worth on 16 April ensuing. He married, on 
18 April 1722, Eleanor, daughter of Conyers 
Peach, of Stoke Dry, Rutland, and had a 
family of five sons and one daughter. A 
portrait of him, painted in 1731 by J. Vander- 
Dank, is in the hall of the Stationers' Com- 
pany, London. One of his descendants, John 
Wing (1752-1812) of Thomey Abbey, Cam- 
bridgeshire, a^nt to the Duke of Bedford, 
became in 1788 the object of scurrilous 
attacks in connection with a proposed new 
tax on the North Jjevel. Another Tycho 
Wing (1794-1851), also of Thomey Abbey, 
married Adelaide Basevi, niece of Lord 
Beaconsfield's mother. 

[Gadbury's Brief Relation of the Life and 
Death of Mr. Vincent Wing, London, 1669; 
Green's Pedigree of the Family of Wing, 1486- 
1886; Notes and Queries, 3rd aer. x. 374, 424, 
8th ser. ii. 48 ; Button's Phil, and Math. Dic- 
tionary (1615^; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits; Weidler's Bist. Astronomiie. p. 515; 
Lalandes Bibl. Astr.; Watt's Bibl. Brit; 
Granger's Biogr. Bist. of England.] A. M. C. 

WINGATE, EDMUND (1596-1656), 
mathematician and legal writer, second son 
of Koger Wingate of Sharpenhoe in Bed- 
fordshire and of his wife Jane, daughter of 
Henry Birch, was bom at Flamborough in 
Yorkshire in 1596 and baptised there on 
11 June {Par, Beg,) He matriculated from 
Queen's College, Oxford, on 12 Oct. 1610, 
graduated B.A. on 30 June 1614, and was 
j admitted to Gray's Inn on 24 May. Before 
1624 he went to Paris, where he became 
teacher of the English language to the Prin- 
cess (afterwards Queen) Henrietta Maria. 
He had learned in England the rule of pro- 
portion recently invented by Edmund Gun- 
i ter [q. v.], which he introduced into France 
' and communicated to the chief mathema- 
' ticians in Paris. Being importuned to 
' publish in French, he agreed to do so; but 
nis book had to appear in a hurried and 
incomplete form in order to obtain priority 
of appearance, an advocate in Dijon to 
whom he had communicated the rule in s 
friendly manner having already commenced 
to make some public use of it. He was in 
England on the breaking out of the civil 
war, sided with the parliament, took the 
covenant, and was maae justice of the peace 



Dtr of Uedfard. lie was then re- 
Woodend in the [iKri?h of Harlin^ 
B 166U he took the * engagement,' be- 
Omeintimate with Cromwell, and one of the 
cominiHi oners for the ejection of Ignorant 
And acandaloiiH ministers. He represented 
the county of Bedford in the parliament of 
l«64-e. He died in Gray's Inn Lane, and 
waa buried in St. Andrew's, Uolhorn, on 
IS Dec. 1656. HeleftnowiU. Adminiatra- 
tionwas(p«iiti»l to hiseon, Button Wingate, 
«n 36 Jan. lOTiT, 
I Wingate marriei], on 28 July IB28, at 
I Mftulden, Elicabelh, daughter and heir of 
Biehard Button of Wooltoo in Bedfordshire, 
hy whom ha had live sons and two daughters. 
Hia publications, which were numerous, 
incliide: 1. * L' usage de la r^le de propor- 
tion en ■rithmfitiqnt!,' PariB, l<i34 ; in Lng- 
lUb as 'The Use of the Rule of Proportion,' 
I^ndon. leao, 1629, 1645, 1658, lfi»3(recti- 
fied by Brown and Alkinfon), 2. 'Arith- 
m^ique Logarichmetique,' Paris, 1626. In 
English as * AnyBpiSiurrix'ia, or the Con- 
struction and lise of the IiOgaritbtneticall 
Tables,' London, 1636 (compiled from 
Henry Briggs [q. t.]) 3. 'TheConstruclion 
and Cbo of the Line of Proportion," Lmdon, 
1628. 4. ' Of Natural and Arlificiall Arith- 
metiqui),' London, 1630, 2 parts. Part i. had 
been designed ' onely as a key to open the 
secrets of the other, which treats of artificial 
arilhmetique performed by ]c«arithnis,' and 
had therefore not been made sufficiently 
complete to stand alone as a text-book of 
elementarr arithmetic. This defect was 
nmedied oy John Kersey the elder fq. v.l 
under the mperin ten deuce of Wingate, antl 
a second edition appeared in 1650 ai ' Arith- 
netique made emie.' Wingate himself re- 
edited part ii., which was published in 1652 
aa ' Anthmetique made easie. The second 
hook.' The first book ran through many edi- 
tions, the eiqirewion 'natural arithmetic' 
being discarded for that of ' common arith- 
metic,' London, 1656, 1673 (6thedit.) ; 1678 
(7th edit.); 1683 (8th edit, and thelastedited 
by Keraey the elder) ; ie9§( 10th edit, edited 
by Kersey ths yoiingpr); 1704 (11th edit, 
with new supplement, by George Shelley); 
1708.1713, 1720. 17f.3(edited by J. Bodson), 
and I7IS0. 6, 'Slaluta Pacis: or a Perfect 
Tablo of all the Statutes (now in force) 
which any way concern the office of a 
Justice of the l-eace.' London, 1641, 1644 
(nndpr the initials ' H. W.') 6. 'An Exact 
Abridgment of all the Statutes in force and 
nie from the beginning of Magna Carta,' 
London, 1642. 1655, l«6n (continued by 
■\ViUiara iliwhea), 1670, 1675, 1680, 1681, 
1684, IC94, 1703, 1704, 1708. 7. 'Justice 

country ^^H 
&44. 1661 ^H 

lis Hathe- ^^^ 

Revived: being the whole offii 
Justice of the Peace,' London, 1644, 
(under iuit.ials ' E. W.') 8. ' Ludua Hathe- 
matlcus,' London, 1664, 1661. The book h 
the description of a logarithmic instrument, 
of the nature of which it is difficult to form 
an idea without even a drawing of it (under 
initials ' E. W.') 9. 'The Body of the Common 
I-aw of England,' London, 1055 (2iid edit.), 
1658, 1662, 1670, 1078. 10. 'The Use of 
a Qauge-rod,' Iiondon, 1658. 11. 'Maximes 
of Reason, 'London, 16fi8(cf. Prestos, Pi^k- 
lar and Practicat Introduction to Lok Stuilif/i, 
1846, p. 579). 12. 'The Clarks Tutor for 
Arithmetickand Writing . . . beinglhere- 
maias of Edmund Wingate,' London, 1671, 
1C76. 13. • The Exact ConsUble with his 
Original and Power in the OKice of Church- 
wardens,' London, 1660 (2nd edit.), 1682 (0th 
edit.) (under initials ' E. W,') 

In 1640 he published an edition of 
' Britton ' [see Bretok, John LB]. In this he 
made corrections from gome better manuscript 
than that used in the 1530 publication, but 
unfortunately placed them in an appendix, 
reprinting the text in its corrupt form. He 
supplied on entire chapter (lib. iv. chap. 5) 
which had previously been omitted, placing 
it also iu the appendix. He also edited the 
works of Samuel Foster [q, v.], and Wood 
assigns to him a work entitled 'Tactometria 
, . . or the Geometry of Itegulars," probably 
arepublicationof John Wyberd'shooK, whicn 
appeared under the same title in 1650 (Woon, 
AtAentt, ill. col. 425 ; cf. Chalmers, Sioffr. 

[TiailationsofBadfonlBhirtCtfarl. Soc.):Fdi- 
t«rsAliimni Oion. lJiOO-1711; Foater's Admis- 
BiDDs to Gray's Inn. p, 134; Wood's Athfuie 
(Bliss), iii. 423-4 : Hiitton's PbiloMphiml mid 
MHthemalical DicUonary iWillia'xNiiiitiaPaclia- 
meutaria, iii. JS9; praracee to WingHte's worki 
DeMorpao'a Arithmetic Books; BUjdn'sQenea- 
logia Bedfordiensis. pp. 2, 3, 1B6. 204, 3'2D-30, 
337 ; BittgraphtBUnirrnkslle; Ksnnett's Register, 
p. (87; Worrell's Ilibliolh««Lfi3iini; Registers 
or Fliimbunmgh parish, per the llev. H. W, 
RigUj-.] H.P. 


(1518-1592), controversialist. [See Wix- 

1-552), comptroller of the household, bom 
probably about 1485, was son of Sir John 
Wingfield of Letberingham, Suffolk, by hia 
wife Anne, daughter of John Touchet, sixth 
baron Audley laeo under TotrcHET, JiHBS, 
seventh Baron J. The father, whose younger 
brothers, Sir Humphrey, Sir Richard, and 
Sir Robert, are sejiarately noticed, w 

Wingfield 182 Wingfield 

eldest son of Sir John Wingfield [see under | on the 2l8t, apparently at Stepney (Macht^t, 
Wingfield, Sir IIumphret], was sherifi* of ; pp. 23, 24, cf. note on p. 326). A memorial 
Norfolk and Suffolk in 1483, in which year inscription is extant in Letheringham church, 
he was attainted, but was restored on ' and a fine portrait, by Juan JPantoza, pre- 
Ilenry VIFs accession in 1485, and served ! served at Powerscourt, is reproduced in Lord 
as sherifi* in 1497. I Powerscourt^s ' Muniments of the Wingfield 

Anthony first appears as commissioner for i Family.' His will, dated 13 Aug. 1552, was 
the peace m Suffolk on 28 June 1510. Like : proved on 15 April 1553. 
his uncles, he served in the campaign in I Wingfield married Elizabeth, eldest daugh- 
France of 1513, and was knightecf for his ter of Sir George Vere and sister of John de 
bravery on 25 Sept. {HarL MS, 6069, Vere, thirteenth earl of Oxford, and left a 
f. 112). On 7 Nov. following he was pricked lar^e family ; the eldest surviving son, Sir 
for sheriff" of Norfolk and Suffolk, but six Robert (d. 1597), was &ther of Sir Anthony 
days later was discharged from holding the > {d. 1605) and grandfather of Sir Anthony 
office ; his name appears on the roll in 1514, i (d, 1638), first baronet; another son, Richard, 
and he served as sheriff* from November i was father of Anthony Wingfield (1550 P~ 
1515 to November 1516. He accompanied \ 1615.^) [q. v.] and of Sir John Wingfield {d. 

Henry VIII to the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold and to his subsequent meetings with 
Charles V in 1620 and 1522. He served 

1596) fq.v.], and a third, Anthony (d. 1593), 
was usher to Queen Elizabeth. 

[Letters and Papers off Henry VIII, vols. 

under his cousin, Charles Brandon, duke of ! i-xri. ; State Papers, Henry VIII, 11 vols.; 

Suffolk, in the campaign in France in 1523, ■ Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80 ; Addit. MSS. 

approved of Henry's religious changes, 26114 ffl 333. 344, 346. 27447 f. 77; Cotton, 

and officiated at the coronation of Anne and Ha^l. MSS. passim ; Nicolas s Proc. Privy 

Boleyn. He represented Suffolk in the * Re- Council, vol. vii.; Dasent's Acts P. C. vols, 

formation' parliament from 1529 to 1535, l;."'-! ^^- ?f™- °*LJ^r*^ ^t^^u*'''^^! 

but on 15 Dec. 1544 was returned for Hors- ^'^^) ^ ^®*^'?i ^f; ^^f"' f |^^ • J p^°- ^^ 

ham. He again served under Suff-olk during ^*^^%^A P?! ^2^ ?Vu ^^' *^. K^^^land Papers. 

4.1 -4.1, --? u IT c ico^ J ** PP- 32, 37. Wriothesleys Chron. ii. 27, 33, 

the northern rebellions of 1536, and was a ^^^^^^j^g connected with^the Prnyer-Book, edl 

commissioner for the dissolution of the p^cock. passim (all these in Camden Soc.); 

monasteries in Suffolk, receiving in 153/ Strvpe^s Works (General index) ; Goujsh's Index 

grants from the lands of Campsie Priory and, to Parker Soc. Publ. ; Davy's Suffolk Collec- 

in 1539, the priories of AVoodbridge and tions; Ellisj's Original Letters; Notes and 

Letheringham. In the latter year he be- Queries, 1st ser. passim ; Barkers Extinct Baro- 

came vice-chomberlain, captain of the guard, nets; Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. Archdall; and 

and member of the privy council, at which Powerscourt'sWingfield Muniments, 1894, which, 

he was a constant attendant for the rest of though *fiated* as correct by the College of 

his life. He was elected K.G. in April 1541. -Arms, con tains various errors.] A. F. P. 

His capacity as vice-chamberlain necessi- WINGFIELD, ANTHONY (1550?- 

tated his presence at the court functions of 1615 ?), reader in Greek to Queen Elizabeth, 

the time, and as captain of the guard he bom probably in or soon after 1550, was the 

arrested Cromwell at the council-board in third son of Richard Wing^field of Wantis- 

August 1540, and conducted Surrey to the den, Suffolk, by his wife Marv, younger 

Tower on 12 Dec. 1546. Henry VIII made sister of the famous * Bess of ilardwick,* 

him an assistant-executor of his will, and countess of Shrewsburv [see Talbot, Eliza- 

left him 1^00/. betuJ. SirAnthonyWingfield(1485?-1552) 

Under Edward VI he represented Suffolk [q. v.] was his grandfather, and Sir John 

in parliament from 26 Sept. 1547 till his Wingfield (d, 1596) [q. v.] was his brother, 

death, arrested Gardiner on 30 June 1548, He matriculated as a pensioner of Trinity 

joined in Warwick's conspiracy against College, Cambridge, in 1569, appears to have 

Somerset, and was despatched by the coun- been entered as a student of Gray's Inn in 

cil on 10 Oct. 1549 to arrest the Protector 1572, and was elected scholar of Trinity in 

at Windsor. This he effected on the morn- 1573. He graduated B.A. in 1573-4, was 

ing of the 11th, conveying Somerset to the elected fellow of his college in 1576, and 

Tower three days later. He was rewarded commenced M. A. in 1577. Possibly through 

by being promoted comptroller of the house- the influence of his uncle Anthony (</. 

hold on 2 Feb. 1549-50 in succession to 1593), usher to Queen Elizabeth, he was 

Paget, and in May 1551 was appointed joint appointed reader in Greek to the queen, 

lord lieutenant of Suffolk. He died at Sir On 16 March 1580-1 he was elected public 

^'ites s house in Bethnal Green on orator at Cambridge, and in 1582 he accom- 

">52, and was buried in great state panied Peregrine Bertie, lord Willoughby 




de Erasbjr [q. v.], on Lis embaasy to Denmark, 
but in October of the sumo year lie was up- 
pomteil proctor at Cambridga. On il M&rcii 
1568-9 he wa-s granted leave of absence by 
his university on going abroad in tiie queens 
aervice, and on condition that lie supplied n 
deputj public orator; tbie post he rei^igned 
on 25 Sept. 1589. On 19 Jan. 1592-3 the 
archbishop of York wrote to the Earl of 
Shrewtburv promiBing- to ' take care that 
Anthony Wingfield «hall be returned a bur- 
gess for one of the towns belonging to the 
atxi' {Talbot MSS.I, fol. lo«), and in the fol- 
lowing month he was elected for liipon. 

Wingfield's relationship to Bess of tlard- 
wick makes it probable that he was ihe cor- 
respondent of the earls of Shrewsbury, whose 

•cripts in the Col legeof Arms (cf. MUt. MSS. 
Otanin. 13th Hep.^pp. ii. 21) ; and he n 
have been the Anthony Wing^eld who 
3S Jan. 1C94-5 became joint lessee of the 
prebends of Sutton, Bucldnf^ham, Uorton, 
and ICorley, all in Lincoln Cathedral (Cal. 
State Paprrt, Dom. 1595-7, p. 6). About 
(he end of Elizabeth's reign, through the in- 
finence ot the Countess of Shrewsbury or of 
her Bt«pson, William Cavendish (afterwards 
Bret Earl of Devonshire), to whom ^^'ing- 
field was related on his father's side, he was 
Bimointad tutor to Cavendish's two sons, 
WiUiiim (allerwards second Karl of Deron- 
■hire fq.v.J) and (Sir) Charles, the mathe- 
mAlicuin. About 160H Thomas llobbea[q. v.], 
the philosopher, succeeded to this position, 
and Wingfield drops out of notice, though 
he is mentioned in the 'Talbot Papers 'm 
1611 (X<uDoii, Illiatratioju, iii. -JSl-M). He 
probably died about 1616, leaving no issue, 
and being unmarried, unless he was the 
Anthony Wingfield who was licensed to 
many Anne Bird on 4 April 16T5(Chc9teii, 
Zondon Marriage Lkeneet, col. 1489J. 

Cooper {Athena Caniabr. ii. 448) suggests 
that Wingfield was author of • Pedantiua, 
Gomcedia dim Cantabrig. acta in Coll. Trin.' 
(London, 163], l2mo), on the inconclusive 
ground that it is generally assigned to ' M, 
Wingfield' (Hazlitt, Uandbook,-^. 660, Col- 
ketioiu, i. 459, iii. 190), while Anthony is 
the only Wingfield of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, who could have written it. There 
Menu to be more reason for attributing it to 
ThomasBeard [a.v.] Wingfield has Latin 
iMtere in'Epistolie AcademiiB'(ii.4tt8»qq.), 
La^n verses in the university collection on 
the death of Sir Philip Sidney, and an epi- 
sramon 'ThePeerContent,' which has often 
■ Seen printed (Lodge, lUuitratiotu, iii. 176). 
[ It la almost impossible to distinguish the 
f icholar with certainty from his uncle, two 

first cousins, two nephews, and several se- 
cond cousins (one .of whom was created a 
hnronet in 16l'7 and died in 1633), all of 
them named Anthony, and it is possible that 
the member for liipon was (Sir) Anthony 
Wingfield {d. 1605), who had previously sat 
for Uiford in 16"2, Dunwich in 1684 and 
1586, and SutTolk in 1588 iqmciai Return, 
i. 411. 415, 420, 425 ; cf. D'Ewes, J<mmal, 
p. 432 ; he was sheriff of Suffolk in 1597-8). 
The Anthony Wingfield who was employed 
with (Sir) William Waad [q.v.] in collecting 
evidence against Philip Howard, first eoA 
of ,\rundel [q. v.], was probablv the usher to 
Queen Elijabelb (Egerton Ms. 2074, ff . 9 
Bqq.) The Captain Anthony Wingfield who 
saw much service in the Netherlands, and 
went on the ex]>edition ta 1J)89 against 
Spain, of which he wrote an account (printed 
in HiKLTJYT, Voiages, 1599, 11. ii. 134-55, 
where he is styled ' colonel '), probably he- 
longed to a diiTerent branch of the family, 
the Wingfields of Portsmouth (cC AeU P. C. 
vol. xvi-xii. passim; Cal. State Piipers,Uoni, 
1591^, p. 405), 

[Davy's Suffolk CoUwtions, n.r. • Wingfield of 
CrowHold," io Brit. Mua, Addit. MS. 10156; 
Talbot MSS. in thn CoUege of Arms, H. f. 
167, I. {. IflB, L. ff. 364, 398, O. f. IU6, P. 
r. 1016; Coopar'a Athens Cantubr, 13.448,656; 
I^o'a IlluBtralions : Foster's Alumni Oxen. 
1S0(I-17H; PawBracourt's Wiaglieli! MudI- 
mFDtH, 1804.1 A. F. P. 


1600), colonist, bom about 1560, was the 
son of Thomas-Maria Wingfield of Stone- 
ley, IIuTilingdonahire, who married a lady 
named Kerrye of a Yorkshire family. He 
was grandson of Sir Richard Wingfield 
(1469P-1525) [q. v.] of Kimbolton Castle, 
lord deputy of Calais. Thomas was the son 
of Sir Ricuard Wingfield, and was godson 
of Cardinal Pole and Queen Mary, whence 
the second christian name, Maria, which sur- 
vived in the family for several genemtions. 

Bdwsrd served in Ireland and in the Low 
Oountries, and was one of those to whom 
the original patent of Virginia was granted 
on 10 April 1606. He alone among those 
patentees whose names are mentioned in 
the instrument sailed with the first party 
of colonists on New Year's dov 1607 [see 
Smith, Johh, 1580-1631]. The' list of the 
council was sealed up, to be opened aftar 
landing, Wingfield was among its members, 
and on 13 May was elected president. On 
27 May, while leading an eiploring parly, 
WinEDeld was ' shot clean through hia 
heard ' by an Indian, but escaped unhurt. 
He soon fell out with his colleagues, and o 
lOSept. 1607 was deposed. Soon after thi 



Wingfield 184 Wingfield 

he was sued by John Smith and another of • was appointed a oommissioner to treat with 
the party for slander, the case was tried by | the French ambassadors at Amiens. He 
the council and Wingfield was cast in heavy { died on 10 May 1481. His wife*s will, dated 
damages. Althouflrh a good soldier and an j 14 July 1497, was proved on 22 Dec 1500. 
honourable man, Wingfield seems to have i Humphrey was educated at Gray's Inn, 
been wholly unfitted for his poet. He was where he was elected Lent reader in 1517. 
evidently self-confident, pompous, and pufied ; He had been on the commission of the peace 
up by a sense of his own superior birth and both for Essex and Suffolk since 1609 at 
position, unable to co-operate with common least. Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk 
men and unfit to rule them. Moreover, as rq. v.], was a cousin of the Wingfields [see 
the Spanish government was known to be Wingfield, Sib Richard], Humphrey being 
bitterly hostUe to the colony and to be one of his trustees; and probably through 
plotting against it, those interested in the his influence Wingfield was introduced at 
undertaking were naturally distrustful of a court. In 1515 he was appointed chamber- 
Roman catholic. In April ItJOd Wingfield lain to Suffolk's wife Mary, queen of France, 
returned to England, lie appears to have and was apparently resident in her house, 
been living, unmarried, at Stoneley in On 28 May 1517 he was nominated upon' the 
Huntingdonshire in 1613. royal commission for inouiring into illegal 

Win^eld wrote a pamphlet entitled ' A inclosures in Suffolk (see Leadax, Domesday 
Discourse of Virginia/ This was a complete of InciomreSf 1897, i. 3). He appears to 
account of the proceedings of the colonists have acted in 1518, together with his eldest 
in Virginia from June 1607 till Wingfield s brother. Sir John Wingfield [see under 
departure. It is in the form of a journal, Wingfield, Sib Anthoxt], as a financial 
but is in all probability an amplification of agent between the government and the 
a rough diary kept at the time. Though Duke of Suffolk. On 6 Nov. 1520 he was 
cited by Purehas in the second edition of pricked high sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
his ' Piipimes* (1614, p. 757), the work re- and on 14 Nov. was appointed a commis- 
mained in manuscript till it was discovered sioner of gaol delivery for Essex. In 1523 
in the Lambeth Library by the Rev. James and 1524 he was a commissioner of subsidy 
Anderson, author of the ' History of the for Suffolk and for the town of Ipswich. 
Church of England in the Colonies.* The On 26 June 1525 he was appointed a corn- 
discovery was made between the publication missioner of assize for Suffolk. On 5 Feb. 
of the first edition of Anderson's 'Ilistorv' 1526 he was a legal member of the king's 
in 1845 and that of the second in lSoi\. The council. He is mentioned in a letter dated 
manuscript was then edited by Dr. Charles 25 March 1527 as *in great favour with the 
Deane, the New England antiquary, and cardinal ; * and he took an active part in the 
published in the ' Archieologia Americana* establishment of the 'cardinal's college' at 
(1860, iv. 67-163\ a hundrt'd copies being Ipswich in September 1528. On 11. June 
also issued separately on large paper. . 1529 he was nominated by Wolsey one of a 

[WingPeld pedigree in the ViMtation of commission of twenty-one lawvers presided 
Huntingdonshire, ed. Ellis (Camd. See.) 1849, over by John Taylor (d. 15^) (q. v.] to hear 
p. 112; Lord Powerseimrt's Muniments of the cases in chancery, and on the following 
Ancient Family of Wingfield, 1894. pp, 5, 7 : 3 Nov. he was returned to parliament for 
Wingfield's own Discourse ; Smith's History of Great Yarmouth. 
Virginia; Cal. Sta?e Papers, Colonial, Amer.. ■ In 1530 the fall of Wolsey brought with 

^"^P* 'J ^' ^' ^' exemption of the college from the penalties 

WINGFIELD, Sir HUMPHREY (d. , of Wolsey's praemunire. On the other hand, 
1545), speaker of the House of Commons, he was nominated by the crown on 14 Julv 

was the twelfth son of Sir John Wingfield of 
Letheringham, Suffolk, by Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir John FitzLewis of West Homdon, 

1530 a commissioner to inquire into Wolsey *s 
possessions in Suffolk. In this capacity he, 
sitting with three other commissioners at 

Essex. Sir John Wingfield, the father of \ Woodbridge, Suffolk, returned a verdict on 
four daughters and twelve sons, of whom 1 19 Sept. that the college and its lands were 
Sir Richard (1469P-1525) and Sir llobert are j forfeited to the king. He was at the same 

noticed separately, had been sheriff of Norfolk 
and Suffolk in 1443-4 and again in 14()1. 
He was knighted by Edward IV in 1461, 
and made a privy councillor. In 1477 he 

time high steward of St. Mar}- Mettingham, 
another Suffolk college, and under-steward 
in Suffolk of the estates of St. Osyth, Essex. 
On 9 Feb. 1533 the commons presented 




Wingiield to the king- om their speaker. Ac- 
cording to C'bapuvf, tlie kiiiR 'conferred on 
him the order olkuiglithciod' on this occnsion. 
He ie stjied ' Sir ' in a petition of this feur, 
and frequentlj aftemards, (bough, HCCor<li:ig 
to the list ID Metcalfti'R ' Book of Knights' 
(p. 71), be was not dubbed before 1537. 
During bis speakership were poseed the acta 
MTering ibe church of England from the 
Koman obedience and affirming the royal 
supremBCv. There can be little doubt tbat 
wingHel^waa in full sympalhy with Henry's 
policy. He appears to have received from 
thecrown a anlary of 100/. a year ' for atten- 
dance,' an addition, doubtless, to the ' wages' 
found by his cunslituencj. 

Parliament waa dissolved on 4 April l!>36. 
On tbe outbreak of the northern rebellion 
in 1636 Wingiield vks one of the SuDblk 

rtry upon whom tbe govemmenl relied 
aid. He justified CromweU's opinion of 
him by his leal to suppress the seditious in-j 
cit^menta of the friars and other disafl'ected 
ecclesiaatics. He was nominated in 103<^ a 
commissioner for the valuation of Ibe lands 
and goods of religious bouaes in Norfolk and 
Suffolk. For these services he was rewarded 
by a grant in tail mate, dnt^ed '29 June 1537, 
of tbe manors ofNetherhall andOverball in 
Dedbam, Essex, and all the lands in Ded- 

jungball in Slutton, SuBblk, and all lands 
there belonging to tbe late prioiy of Colne 
Comitis (Earls Ckilne) in Essex. According 
to a. letterwritten by him to Cromwell soon 
after Iliis grant he would, but for it, ' have 
lia^ to begin tbe world again,' having 'lost 
half his living by his wife's death.' On 
4 July lfiS8 he was nominated upon a special 
OODunission of oyer and terminer fortreasona 
in sis of the eastern counties. He was also 
commisaioned to survey the defensive points 
of the coast when in 1639 tbera were appre- 
ItenaioitH of an invasion. He was among tbi 
Imighta appointed to receive Anne of Olevei 
in January 1540. After tbe conviction o 
the Marquis of Eieter he received a grant of 
a lease of bis lands in Lalford Savs, Arde- 
legh, Colchester, and Mile- End, in tlssex and 

Wingfield died on 23 Oct. I.'i45 (Inij.poit 
tiwrtem, lA Jan. 15J(t), He married between 
1603 and 1513 Anne, daughter and heiress 
of SirJohn Wiseman of Essex, and widow of 
Gregory Adgore, Edgore, or Edgar, serjeant- 
at-law. His son and heir. Robert, married 
Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas Partiffer, 
lent,, alderman and lord mavor of Ixindon in 
1530. His daughter Anne married Sir Alex- 
ander Newton. Wingfield's arms are still 

1 side of ^H 

Itorg and ^H 


the fourth window on the north side of 
Gray's Inn Hall, 

[Brewer and Gairdner's Cal. of Leitorg and 
Papocs. For. sad Dom. Hen, VUI, vola. i-ivi, ; 
Metcalfs's Vioitation nf Saffblk (1882), ISSl p. 
80. 1612 p. 176: Visltntioa uf HDatiDgdonahirG, 
iai3 (Cxmdeu Soo. 1849) ; Anslis's Register of 
the Qanoc (1724). ii. Z30; Ludgoj Paerago of 
Ireland, ed. Arcbdall, 1789, v. 26S; ManDiog'a 
Lives of the 3poiikera (18511), pp. 177-82 ; Dou- 
thwaitfl's Uniy'a Idq (1886). pp. 47. 1:27. 131 ; 
Official Belum Momb. Pari,; PowerscoHrl'B 
WiDgGelJ MusiBiiintB.] I. S. L. 

soldier, was the third son of Richard Wing- 
field of Wantisden in SuffiDlk, and Mary, 
daughter and coheiress of John Hardwick 
of Derby, sister of Eliiabelh (Talbot), (^rand- 
countess of Shrewsbury [<]. v.] (Visiiatin'i 
of Huntingdon, Camd, Soc. p. 120). His 
brother Anthony, reader in Greek to Queen. 
Elizabeth, is separately noticed. Having 
apparently for aome time previously served 
ae a volunteer against the Spaniards in 
Holland, be was appointed captain of foot 
in tbe expedition conducted thither by the 
Earl of Leicester in December 1685 {Cal. 
IMfiftd MSS. v. 2J0), and, being wounded 
in the action before Zutpben on 22 Sept. 
11)86 (i£. vi. 570), he was for his bravery (ai' J 
that occasion knighted by Leicester (Stow, I 
Amialt, p. 739). lie was one of the twelve " 
knigbts ' of his kindred and friends' that 
walked at the funeral of Sir Philip Sidney 
on 16 Feb. 1587, and, returning to ibe 
Netherlands, was appointed governor of 
Gertruydenberg. His position, owing to 
the jealousies existing between tbe English 
auxiliaries and tbe States, and the mutinous 
condition of the garrison for want of pay, 
was neither an easy nor an agreeable one. 
Nevertheless, with the assistance furnished 
bim by his brother-in-law. Peregrine Bertie, 
lord Willougbby de Eresby [q.v.], he managed 
to hold out successfully during 1588, and even 
to assist materially in forcing Parma to raise 
the siege of Bergen in November. But a 
rumour early in tbe following year that he 
intended to band over the place to the 
Spaniards bronght Maurice of Nassau before 
tbe town with a demand for its surrender. 
Wingfield indignantly denied the intended 
treason imputed to bim, offering to prove its 
falsehood with his sword against unv man 
and in any place whatever. Nevertheless, 
either because he bad not tbe will or tbe 
power to prevent it, Gertruydenberg was 
on 10 April 1'j89 delivered up to the 
Spaniards (Motlbt, United Netherlandt, ii, 
389, 517, iii, 97 ; MAKKIiAJf, FigAtiPff FfrMj'.l 
pp. 138-40). ■ 



Returning to England witli his wife and 
newly born child, Wiii|rtield served as mast tr 
Qf Ihe ordnance under Sir Jolin Norria 
(1547C-1697) [q. V,] in Brittany against 
the forces of tne league in 1691, and the 
following year he is mentioned as being in 
charge of the storehouse at Dieppe {Vat. 
Stale Paperi, Dom. 1591-4, pp. 57. -JIB). 
He was one of the committee appointed in 
1593 for conference touching the relief of 
poor maimed soldiers and mariners ( Hatfirld 
MSS. iv. 295) ; and in June 1506 be sailed 
on board the Vanguard, as camp-master with 
the ranlc of colonel, in the eipediiion under 
the Earl of Essex against CadiJi. After thu 
attadc on the Spanish fleet, in which be 
bore his share (Mabsiiam, Fiyhtiig Vfret, 
p. 327), he was oae of the first to enter the 
town ; but despising the warning of Sir 
Francis V'ere not to expose himself reck- 
lessly without his armour, hu was struck 
down by a shot in the market-place just 
when all resistance ceased (Cat. State 
Fapern, Dom. 1595-7, pp. 191, 249, 272; 
MotLEI, fniCret Nrtherlandi, iu. 364). He 
was buried with military honours in the 

frincipal church in Cadix (Cshdbx, AanaU, 
S15, ii. 119), and the folhiwing year tho 
?ueen pantud his widow an annuity of 
00/. (Cal. State Paprrx, Dom. 1595-7, p. 
454). Wingfield married, about lnS:i, 
Susan, sister of Peregrine Bertie, lord Wil- 
loughby de Eresby, and widow of Reginald 
Orey, fourth earl of Kent, bv whom he had 
one son, Petcgrine, born in Ilotlaud. 

[Authorities quoted ; Powrrscourt's Wingfield 
Munimeats, p. 30.] B. D. 

(1842-1891), IraveUer, actor, writer, and 
painter, tliird and youngest son of Richard 
Wingfield, sixth vIrco lint Power»court,bv his 
wife, lAdy Elizabeth Frances Charlotte, 
eldest daughter of Robert Jocelvn, second 
earl of Roden, was bom on 25 Feb. 1842, 
and educated at Eton and Bonn. He was 
intended for the army, which he relinquished 
only at the re(|uest of his mother, sub- 
sequently Marchioness of Londonderry, who 
knew the delicacy of his constitution and 
feared the risks of the profession. Of a re- 
markably adventurous disposition and vola- 
tile nature, he engaged in a strange and 
varied succession of pursuits, few of which 
were prosecuted long. On 21 Ang. 1865 he 
was at the Uaymarket Theatre Roderigo to 
the Othello of Ira Aldridge. (he lago of ; 
"Walter Montgomery, and the Deademona of ^ 
Madge Itoberlson (Mrs, Kendal). Hehadpre- i 
vioualy played in burlesque. Resides making 
many whimsical experiments, such as going 

lo the Derby as a negro minstrel, spending 
nights in workhouses end pauper lodgings, 
becoming attendant in a madhouse and in a 
prison, be travelled in rarioua parts of the 
east, and was one of the first Englishmen to 
journey in the interior of China. His first 
published work was ' Under the Palms in 
Algeria and Tunis,' 1868, 2 vols. During 
the Franco-German war he went to Puis, 
where he stayed through the aiege, attend- 
ing the wounded and qualifying as a surgeon. 
During the siege he communicated by balloon 
and otherwise with the ' Times,' the ' Daily 
Telegraph,' and other newspapers. After re- 
turning to London he went back to Paris 
immediately on hearing of the trouble with 
the commune, and remained there until its 
suppression bylheVersaiUestrwxps. Having 
taken a house. No. 8 Maida \'ale, with a 
large studio attached, he devoted himself to 

fainting, and became a member of the Royal 
libemian Academy, Between 1869 and 
1875 he exhibited Tour domestic scenes at 
the Royal Academy, and one at the Suffolk 
Street Gallery. He arranged during lus stay 
in Paris for a panorama of the siege tn bo 
exhibited in London, and forwarded to Eng- 
land designs executed by various French 
artists. The failure of an American financier 
brought the scheme to nothing. 

Afterabandoning painting, Wingfield took 
lo designing costumes for the theatres, and 
was responsible for the dressing of many 
Shakespearean revivals, including ' Romeo 
and JiUiet' at the Lyceum for Miss Mary 
Anderson, and 'Antony and Cleopatra' at 
(he Princess's for Mrs. Laugtry. For a time 
W'ingfield contributed theatrical criticisms 
to the 'Globe' newspaper, under the title 
' Whyte Ty^he." For Madame Modjeska he 
adapted Schiller's ' Mary St uart,' produced at 
the Court on 9 Oct. 1880. He also wrote 
some unacted dramas. He tempted fortune 
in many other forms of literature. ' Slippery 
Ground,' a novel in 3yols„ followed in 1878 ; 
'Lady Griztle: an Impression of a mo- 
mentous Epoch,' 1878, 3 vols. ; • My Lords of 
Strogue; a Chronicle of Ireland from the 
Convention to the Union,' 1879, 3 vols, i 'For 
Good or Evil ' appeared in ' Eros ; Four Tales,' 
vol. i. 1880; 'In Her Majesty's Keeping.' 
1880, 3vols.: 'Gehenna, orHavensof Unrest," 
1882, 3 vols.; '.\bigail Kowe: a Chrooiclu 
of the Itegency,' 1883, 3 vols. ; ' Notes on 
Civil Costume in England,' 1884, 1 vol.4to: 
' Barbara Philpot : a Study of Manners.' 
l8Se,8vols. ; ' Lovely Wang: aBitofChina,' 
1867, 12roo; 'The Curse of Koshia: a Ro- 
mance,' 1888, 8yo; 'Wanderingsof a Globe- 
trotter in the Far East," 1 889. &i-o ; and ' The 
Maid of Honour : aTale of the Dork Days of 




Fmnc«,' 1891, 3 voU. Som« of the foregoing 
works Teacherl second editiona, Wingfield 
is also respODBible for ' Her English Dksb,' 
leetiirea issued bv the latemationnl Health 
Exhibition, 1881.' la the course of his travels 
he brought home many curios, the most im- 

Krtant ueing a life-size figure of a tnountetl 
pani^se soldier in armour, said to be imiqua 
in tHurope. WingSeld delighted in military- 
service, and whenever war seemed imminent 
applied to be attached ns war correspondent 
to the Btftfli a privile^ more than once granted 
him. After loining the English anny in the 
Soudan in 18&4, he was long in hospital in 
Egypt. From this illness Le never quite re- 
covered, lie look, for his bealtli, a voyage 
to Awstralio, from which he returned, as it 
teemed, fortified. He died, however, at 
14 Montague Place, London (whither he 
bad moved from Mecklenburgh Square), on 
12 Nov. 1891, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. He married, on IG June 
ISes.CeciliaEmraa.fourthdaujiliter and fifth 
child of John Wilson J'it^patrick, first baron 

In everything hut his friendships Wing- 
field was eaprii:iDU9 and unstable, turning 
from one pursuit to another, and wearjing 
of everything, eicept writing, so soon as ha 
had mastered its dilticultLes. His work 
iioder the conditions is creditable, and though 
it was never held to show his bwt, probably 
did 10. His life was a sustained romance. 
In appearance be was slim anddelicalc-look- 
in^, and possessed a clenr complexion and a 
tiun and feminine but musical voice. 

[Persona! kaowledgs and coTHmuniFnteil m- 
fonnation; Timoe, 14 Nov. 1891; AtlmniEiiui, 
SI Nov. 1801 ; Grnvos'* Diet, of Arlisla. 1H06; 
Saott and Honard's Rlsnchord.] J. K. 

1535), soldier and diplomatist, bom about 
1469, is vnti OH si V given as the tenth, eleventh, 
twelfth.and thirteenth eon of Sir John Wing- 
field of Letheringham, Suffolk, by Elizabeth, 
daaghter of Sir John FitiLewis of West 
Homdon, Essex [see Wingfield, Sir Uv«- 
rRHET]. Sir Robert Wingfield [q, v.] was bis 
elder brother. Cooper states that be was edu- 
cated at the university of Cambridge, though 
■t what college does not appear. A parage 
in a letter of 10 July 1516 suggests thai he 
sl^erwanls proceeded to the university of 
Ferrara. After the universitv he probably 
Studied law at Gray's Inn, in tlie windows of 
which hall his arms were in Dugdale's time 
twice blazoned (Oriff. Juriil. pp. 300. 307). 
According to Polydore Vergil lie was one of 
the commanders against the Cornish rebels 
in 1497. He was an esquire of the body 

). apparently 


at the meetingof Ilenrv VII with the Arch- 
duke Piiilip in IfiOO. On 10 March 1005 he 
arrived at Itomc on a pilgrimage, accom- 
panied by an illegitimate brother, Richard 
TIrry < Collect. Top. v. 68). Before 14 Nov. 
15II he was a knight, bein)^ on that data 
appointed marshal of Calais, i. 
ut' the castle there. His first app< 

^ WHS on 20 Dec. 151^ as junior 
with Sir Edward Poynings, 
John Yonge, master of the rolls, and Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, to arrange a holy league 
between The pope, England, Arnigon and 
Castille, Maxijallian.^ Prince Charles, and 
Margaret of Savoy. WingSeid with Poynings 
was despatched to the Netherlands [see 
PoTNiNos, Sib Edward]. From February 
to April I0I3 he resided at Malines, keeping' 
Wolsay informed from time to time of the 
state of the military preparations. The treaty 
providing for a joint invasion of France was 
eigned by the four commissioners at Valines 
on S April 1513. 

Wingfield then returned to hia post at 
Calais, and was appointed knight-marshal 
there. Un 16 May he was at Brussels, to 
which place he was probably despatched to 
further the suit of Charles Brandon, duke of 
Sufiolk [n. T.], for the hand of Margaret of 
Savoy (cl. Cotton. MS. Titus, B. 1 ; CAron. 
of Caktin, pp. 68-76). From Brussels he 
hastened back to report his mission to Henry, 

He was again at Brussels on 4 June, when 
he left for Antwerp to arrange for the passage 
of German mercensnes to Calais. These 
arrived on 18 June, probably under his com- 
□land (C4ro». 0/ Calaii.-p. 13^. His services 
were recognised byhis promotion to bejoint- 
deputv, or, as it had formerly been styled, 
captain of Calais, with Sir Gilbert Talbot on 
6 Aug. 1613 (ib. p. xx-iviii ; cf. art, WlKo- 
FiKLB, Sir Robert). The pay of the deputy- 
ship was 'JOil, per annum, and the deputy 
exercised general military jurisdiction excejM: 
over the coslle. On 19 Feb. 1514 he was one 
of the commiesiouern appointed ' to levy men 
for the king's army in the dominions of the 
emperor and the Prince of Castille.' But ho 
WHS soon entrusted with a more delicate mis- 
sion, beingsent in June to Margaret of Savoy 
with the ostensible object of concludinp 
arrangements for the marriage of the king% 
sister Mary with Prince Charles (afterwanls 
Charles V). Overtures for the hand of the 
English princess had, however, already been 
made by Lauis XII. By 27 June the rumour 
bad reached the Netherlands. Un 11 Sept. 
Henry sent his excuses, but Margoret's vexa- 
tion made Wingfield's situation intolerable, 
and he sent urgent requests for recall. 
desire was not granted until on 14 Jan. 1616. 







t«mi Awgndited wiili the Duke of Suffolk 
■Sd NWImIM Wesl [q.v.] on B Hpecial em- 
buiyto n«lUMto coDgratulnte Francia I on 
his ftocesaion. It was on tbia occoaion that 
Suffolk marrirf the French qiiesn (widow 
of Louis XII), but that step was known to 
neither of bis brother envoys. 

Wingfield sccompanied Maty of France 
jiom CalftiB to England on 2 May (Lelten 
and Paperi, iii, 4406; Chron. o/'Calau,^. 
IT), perhaps to press his claim to exemption 
from the act just passed resuming rojal 
grants. The claim was not allowed, but he 
remained at Calua, apparently discharging 
his former duties, and sppnars to have been 
the ' master deputy ' instructed to report on 
the French naval preparations in August 
1515. About the same time he wssiiistructed 
by Henry, in a despatch addressed to him as 
' deputy of Calais,' toproceed on a fresh mis- 
aion to Francis I. He was directed among 
other matters to advance the project of an 
interview between the two sovereigns, and 
to pave the way for overtures for the surren- 
der of Toumay. He was back at Calais in 
September. Hewasbvnomeansasubservient 
o&cial, for he more than once refused to exe- 
cute orders he judged prejudicial to Calais 
until after reconsideration by the king. 

In June 1516 Wingfield, with Cuthbert 
Titnatall [q. v.], was again accredited to the 
court of Tlrussela. Charlea had on S3 Jan. 
succeeded to the crown of CastiUe, and Henry 
was aniious to secure his friendshiji, Win^ 
field was commissioned to invite him to visit 
EDgland on his way from the Netherlands 
to Spain, and to ofier him a loan of 20,000 
marks (13,333/. Bt. 8if.) towards his expenses. 
The offer was declined, and on 1 Sept. Wing- 
field returned to Calais, resuming his functions 

05 deputy and as continental intelligencer to 
Wolsey. On 3S Aug, he was appointed com- 
missioner to sit at Calais on 1 Sept. 1617 and 
adjudicate the disputes between English and 
French merchants. On 5 May and again on 

6 Nov. 1518 Wingfield was nominated, to- 
gether with the treasurer and secretary of 
Calais, to receive payment of instalments of 
50,000 francs each due to Henry under the 
convention with Louis XII on his marriage 
with the Princess Mary. On 4 March 1519 
Wingfield received a gmnt in tail male of the 
reversion of the manors of Donyngton, Cre- 
iTngham, Olopton Halle, and Ilkettyshall, 
:^iif)oUt,upon the death of Elixnbeth, countess 
of Oxford. Before 15 Sloy he resigned his 
post as deputy of Calais, receiving a grant of 
200/. a year 'for life. On the 25th he left 
Calais ' most honourably spoken of by all 
there,' amid the ' weeping eyes' of the in- 
habitants. He proceeded to Montreiul, pro- 

bably t 

confer with the French commis- 
to the meeting of the two kings. 
Un Ills return to England he was one of chs^ 
four 'sad and ancient knights 'placed by tl 
council in the king's privy chamber with ll 
duly of checking his extravagance (Hall,b 
J398). Ha was also appointed, with a 
Edward Belknap and Str John Cutte, an h 
spector of ordnance. 

Wingfield's high favour with the i 
who designated him one of his ' trusty m 
near faradiars,' led to bis appointment eu 
in 1520 as successor to Sir Thomas Bolejj 
the English amhai>sador at the court < 
France. His salarywas fixed at l/.aday. B-_ 
left England on 4 Feb. Hia despafch to 
Wolsey, giving an account of his reception by 
Francis I at Cognac, is datedSMarcu. The 
arrangements for the projected interview be- 
tween Henry and Francia were incorporatad 
in a treaty which Wingfield negotiated by 
means of constant personal interviews with 
Francis. At the Field of the Cloth of Gold 
(7 June) Wingfield rode as a knight of the 
king's chamber. When Francis grew sus- 
picioiiB of the purport of the subsequent in- 
l«rview between Henry and the emperor at 
Oravelines (5 July), Wingfield employed all 
his diplomacy to keep him in good humour, 
protesting on his knees by his bedside for a& 
hour at a time the devotion of Henry and 
Wolsey to his person and his interest. Frknoia, 
who had vainly hoped to be admitted totiar> 
ticipate in the meeting, rivalled Wingfield 
in the extravagance of his assurances. Id 
August Wingfield received permission to re- 
turn home on privateaffairs, but before doing 
so was instructed, together with Jemingham, 
hia successor, to communicate to Francis 
Henry's version of the overtures made by 
Chievres at Gravelines to detach him from 
the French alliance. Ho was now employed, 
as before, in the inspection of militarystores. 
On 10 Jan. 1521 he and Sir Weston Browne 
reported on the armament of the king's great 
ship, the Henry Grace h Dieii. 

In the spring of 1521 Wingfield was se- 
lected to act as Henry VIH's representative 
in mediating between Francis and Charles V. 
His instructions were to urge on Charles the 
impolicy of war and the advantages of Eng- 
land's mediation. Wingfield ortived at 
Worms at the close of ^lay, and obtained 
the emperor's consent to Henry's mediation. 
But on 1 June he wrot« from Sloyence Ihat 
Charles had just heard of the invasion of 
Navarre by the French, and demanded ' such 
aid as was secured by the treaties between' 
Henry and himself. At the end of a foit^ 
night Charles's passion on account of tbrifl 
French invasion had had time to cool, andoi' 



1-5 June Wio^Geld wrote from Brussels that 
Charles TCciuld ni^cept mediatinu proviiled n^ 
eticutionweremnde. On'2J June the eraveror 
requestedWingHeld torelumtoEnKlainlauJ 
preeenttoH.enrj'a memorial of Ills case ngainul 
Frsncis. It is apparent from the enpt^ror'a 
Languare IhatWiuffHeld had tngraliateJ htm- 
RelfVim him m successfully as he had done 
with Francis I and Louise of France. He 
]eh Brunaela on 22 June. But a few days 
■ftei his return to England two envoys from 
the emperor STTived with the intelligence that 
Charles had reverted to his first mind and 
daiined Henrj'a aid in active hostilities 
•ninst the French. Wolsey remarked that 
' Wingfield'* despatch disagreed with their 
diarge,' and resolved to send Wingfield bach 
again to persuade Charles to a more paciGc 
tomper. wingfield arrived at Antwerp on 
10 Julj 1521, accompanied by the emperor's 
two envoys, and found Charles still bent on 
•n InraMon of France, and still insisting on 
the active aid of England. By 2ii July Wing- 
&ldseemslohavebecomeaivarethat Wolsey 's 
>t intention was to cajole Francis, and 
prepare to act with the emperor. Towards 
the end of October Wolsey sent Sir Thomas 
Botevn and Sir Thomas Docwra to Charles to 
■olicit him to enter into a truce with France ; 
they were instructed to take Win gfi eld's ad- 
vice on the method of executing their mission. 
The three ambassadors followed the emperor 
to Courtrai on 24 Oct. In the same month 
Knight was appointed to succeed ^^'inglleld, 
but the latter still remained at Oudenarde 
with his two colleagues, wrestling with the 
emperor'a obstinate refusals of truce, and 
■writing almost dailv despatches to Wolsey, 
Trho was determined not to let him go until 
some conclusion was brought to the negotia- 
tions. About 16 Dec. Wingfield and Spinelly, 
, who acted as his colleague after the departure 
of Boleyn and Docwra on 17 Nov., accom- 

rnied the emperor to Ghent. At last, on 
Jan. 1523, the emperor himself requested 
Wingfield to leave at once for England upon 
a diplomatic mission. Wingfield replied, as 
Ite bad done on the similar occasion in the 
previous June, that for him to leave his post 
withontHenry's permission would bea breach 
of rule ; but, as before, he consented, Charles 
explaining to Henry the circumstances of the 
case. Charles further requested Wolsey to 
lestow the Garter upon Wingfield, and 
announced his intention of pensioning him. 
Wingfield's promotion to the Garter took 
place in the following year (Akbtis, ii. 232). 
He returned toAntwerp on 4 May 1632, with 
instruct ions to persuade the emperor to accept 
fVolsey's offer of mediation. He was also to 
■arrange for the emperor's visit to England on 

bis wnytoSpain, Wingfieldprobnblyaccon 

fanied Charles, who reached l»overon i'6 May 
^■2->. His services were now emploved by 
Henry upon a commission under the Earl of 
Surrey, lord hijjb admiral, for recruiting the 
royal navy by imprenaing ships of the mer- 
chant service and certain Venetian vessels to 
act as convoy for the emperor's voyage to 
Spain. Ho also accompained the fleet which 
burnt Morlaix and the English army on ita 
incursion into France. At the end of 1523 
Wingfield probably returned to England 
with Sufi'olk and the principal military o 

Wingfield utilised the opportunity of his 
return to claim and receive rewards for his 
services. On 20 Nov. 15*2 he was granted 
the castle and manor of Kimbolton, and on 
1 Sept. 1623 the neighbouring manor of 
Swyneshede, lands in Swyneshede and Tyl- 
brook.Huntingdonshire, the manor of Harde- 
wyke.and lands inHBrdewyke,Overdene, and 
Netherdene, Bedfordshire, also forming part 
of the late Duke of Buckingham's forfeitwl 
estates. At Kimbolton he built ' new fair 
lodgings and galleries ' (Lblakd, Itla. v. 2). 
I.)n 14 April lr>:J4 he was made chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster. In the course of the 
years 1523-4 he was nominated upon the 
commission of the peace for no fewer than 
twenty-five southern and midland counties. 
Wingfield had, according to his friend Hugh 
Latimer, 'a regard for literary men.' Ontta 
death (25 May 1524) of Sir Thomas LoveU 
rq.v.],hiBrhsteward of the university of Cam- 
bridge, Wingfield solicited Henry's influence 
to procure him thepost. The university had 

Eromised it to Sir Thomas More, but at the 
ing's instance More withdrew his candida- 
t ure and Wingfield was appointed. ' Who,' 
wrote Latimer to Dr. Grene, master of St, 
Catharine's, ' has more influence with the 
king thon Wingfield F" 

On 24 Feb. 1525 Francis I was defeated 
and captured at the battle of Pavia, At 
the end of March Wingfield and Tunslall 
were despatched by Henry to Spain [see 
under Tithstall, CuthbestI. During this 
embassy Wingfield died at Toledo on 22july 
1626 (/nj, pott mortem), and was buried by 
his own request at the church of the friars 
obseri-ants, San Juan de los Heyes. 

Win^eld married, as her third husband, 
Kathenne, daughter of Kichard Woodviie, 
earl Rivers [q^, v.], widow of Henry Sf afibrd, 
duke of Buckmgbam [q. v.], and afterwarda 
of Jasper Tudor, duke of Bedford [q. t,1 
This double connection with the king 
accounts for the confidence reposed in him. 
The marriage also supported bis claims to 
share in the forfeited Buckingham estates. 






The duchess died some time before 1 
Wingfleld's second wife was Bridget, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir John VViltBuira, comp- 
troller of Calais. He hsid no children hj the 
ducheea; by hie second wife be left four 
SODS luid four dougbterB. The ' In^uisitiones 
post mortem ' found th&t at the time of Sir 
, Iticbard's death his eldest eon Charles was 
twelve years old ; he obtained livery of bis 
lands on U July 1535. Sir Richard's will 
is preserved in the prerogative routt of Can- 
terbury, and is dated G April !6^5. His coat 
of arms ia engraved in Atistis (ii. 235). At 
the time of his death ho must have been at 
least Hfty-six years of age (see Hall, CAnm. 

5. 699). His widow married Sir Nicholas 
iervey (Collins, ed. BryJges, iv. 145). 
[Slate Papers (11 vols. 1 830-62). vols. i. ri. ; 
Brewer's Cal. of Lattsrs aud Papers, Foreign 
and Domettio, Henry VIII, vdIb. i-lv. ; Oiirt!- 
Qer's Letters and lepers of Richard III and 
Hanry VII, 1863. 2 vols. (KolU 8er.) ; Anetii'a 
Begiator of the GaHar, 172J, ii. 230-i; HaU'a 
Chron. IS'JS; Visitation of HuntingdoDshire 
<Camd. Soc.), 1849; Metcalfe's VisitationB of 
Suffolk, IS82 ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. 
Afchdall, 1789.yoi. v.; Itntland Papara (Camd. 
Soc.), 1843 ; Chron. of CalaislCamd.Soc), 184S ; 
Polydore Vargil, Biiala, 1670; ElliaB OripiQal 
Letters, 1826; Fiddea's Lifa of Cardinnl IVoIsey. 
1726 i Morant'a Hist, of Essei. 1768 ; Cooper's 
Athens Cantabrigi easts ; Hasted's Kent, vol, i.; 
Dugdale's Origines Juridicisles, 16BU: Powcis- 
caart's Wingfield UnnimGnU.] L 3. L. 

ViBCOUST I'owBRScotTKT (d. 1034), was the 

elder son of 8ir Richard Wingfield, governor 
of Portsmouth in the rtign of Eliiabeth (who, 
in turn, was the son of Lr'lovic, ninth son 
of ^r John Win^Geld of Letbertngham in 

of Sir William Fitiwilliam, lord-deputy of 
Ireland {VUitation uf lluatingdun, Camden 
8oc. p. 129). 
Trained up from his youth to the profes- 

william, in Ireland. For some years (1580- 
1586?) he held the post of deputy to the 
vice-treasurer of Ireland, Sir Henry Wallop. 
On 9 May 1684 he was specially appointed 
' to make enquiry during sue years ... of all 
bishops and other spiritual necsous who have 
obtained any benefice without poying the 
first-fruits since the second vear of the queen, 
and to compouud or proceed against ihem or 
their executors . . . retaining half the profits 
for himself {Cal. Fianti, Eliz. No. 4378 ; cf. 
Ca/.5(a((! P«/ifr3,Irel.Elii.iii.340,403). He 
offered himself unsuccessfully as on under- 

taker for lands in the plantation of Munster 
in 1586, and, quitting I relaad oppnrentlv in 
this year.served for some time underSir John 
Norris (1547 P-1507) [q. v.] in the Nether- 
lands. In' 1669 he took part in the expedi- 
tion to Portugal, and, in 1391 accompanied 
Norris into BritWny to assist Henry IV 
against the farces of the league, returning 
in December with despatches to England 
{ei. A Journal 'if the Service in France agaiail 
the Leagufn, 1591, pp. 126, 131; Behw 
MSS. i. 291). Coming again to Ireland In 
159^, he was wounded in the elbow during 
a skirmish with Tyrone's forces betweeu 
Armagh and Newry on 4 Sept., in cousp- 

Sjuence of whieh he was invalided and sl- 
owed to retire to England (Cal. State 
Paperi, Irel. Eliz. v. 382, 438), being before 
his departure knighted by the lord-dopmy, 
Sir 'William Russell, in Christ Church, on 
9 Nov. {Cat. Carew iUSS. iii. 238). Re- 
coverinic shortly from bis wound, he took 
part, with the rank of colonel, in the ex- 
pedition against Cadiz, under the Earl of 
Essex, in June 1596 (Cal. State Paotrs.Iloa. 
1595-7, pp. 321,275). 

Wingfield returned lo Ireland apparentlv 
in 1000 with Lord-deputy Mountjoy. On 
29 March in that year he was appointed mar- 
shal of the army in succession to Sir Richard 
Bingham, and at the same time admitted a 
member of the privy conncil (Uorrik, Cal. 
Patent ItolU, ii. 570). He took part that 
year in the campaign in Ulster (Cal. Carew 
MSS. iii. 465), and was present the year 
following at the siege of E^naale. He was 
confirmed in his office of marshal by James I, 
and having in July 1008 been instrumeDIsl 
in suppressing the rising of Sir Cahir O'Do- 
glierty [q. v.] by killing that chieftain, he 
was rewarded on 29 June 1609 by a grant 
of the district of Fereullen in co. Wioklow, 
erected into the manor of Powerscourt on 
35 May 1611. As a servitor in the planta- 
tion of Ulster he obtained two thousand 
acres of land in the precinct of Dungannon, 
CO. Tyrone, called the manor of Benburb; 
and from Pynnar'a 'Survey' (Hakkis, Hi- 
bemica,\.'i\\), it appears that he did bis 
duly in planting ana building. He repre- 
sented Oownpatrick in the parliament ot^ 
1013, taking a prominent part in the ec 
tested election of Sir John Davies (I5( 
1026) [q. v.] as speaker; and in tlus 
year be obtained a grant of lands in the 

Elantation of WeifoS, in the neiebbour- 
ood of Arklow, afterwards erected into the 
manor of 'Wingfield. In March the follow- 
ing year he was associated with Thomas 
Jonua, archbishop of Dablin, ia the govern- 
ment of Ireland during the temporary ab- 




.f Lord Ohicheaier ( Cat. State Pa/,er>, 
ttB. I, iv. 470), and on 1 Feb. Ifil9 
Mtent 10 Feb.) he wbb created viscount 
Werscourt. In feference to tbia dignity 
iwaberlfuu wrote to Carleton on 6 Feb. : 
Sir llichai^lWinirfield, though eighty-eight 
MIS old and chitdleas, has given Lord Hod- 
ingloa S,000/. foron Irish viicountC7'(Ca/. 
t4iterapfn, Dom. 1619-23, p. 11). Pro- 
•lilj ei(!ht-«ight is a miBtalie for sixty- 
ight, otfaervira Wingfield muet have lived 
D the age of a hundred and three. On 
OSepl. 1319 he was appointed a commi»- 
iener for the plantittion of London! and 
Qy O'Carroll, and was ngnin lord justice on 
be retirement of Lord Urandi»oti in May 
822 (Cal. Stale Papen, Icel. Jas. I, v. 360). 
Win^eld died on 9 Sept. 16S4, and bav- 
ag no issue by hia -wife Elizabeth, widow 
I Edward, lord Cromwell of Oakham in 
Jutland, was succeeded in the estate (the 
itia becoming extinct) by hia coiuin. Sir 
Hwsrd Wingfield, son of Hichai 



third w 

I of Lodovic. 

Portraits of Wingiield and hU wife, by 
lomelius JaTiasen(P), are preserved at 
hwerscourt, That of Wingfield represents 
lim wearing a scarf, in connection with 
rhich there la a family tradition bow on re- 
nming to England in 159S, and being asked 
ly Queen EHzabethwhat he expected as his 
ard, he replied, 'The scarf which your 
i^esty wears round your neck will be suf- 

' It reward for me. 

ILodge's PwragB, ed. Archdall, v. 288-72; 
hTsrscovrt'a^'iiigGetdMuiiiinauts.pp. :t8-9(not 
Iwaja accnlats), and a^th^^ili'■a qnotod. There 
t a nnmber bf WingllBld's lellurs in the Cecil 
Imspondeaee preserved at Batfield Houm. and 
fcer refrrcnecs itre Webb'sCompMidiuni of Irish 
feftrapby; Meehan's Pnte and Forlunfs of thd 
bIs of Tyrouo nnd Tyrconnat : Hist. MS9. 
Bmm. Tth Rep. p. 6aa, 8th Rep. p. 397.] 

R. D. 

W9), diplomatist, born about l-ll}4,was the 
TentJison of Sir JohnWinfifield of Lelher- 
(hatn, SuSblk. Hi? brothers Sir Humphrey 
d Sir Richard (1409.''-iri26) are separately 
^_ticed. He was broufrht iip by Anne, 
idy Scrope,. his stepmother (Blomspield, 
n^A^i, 1. 321). lie first rose to favour 
~ * r ETeoiy VIl, to whose aid he came, 
her vrilb bis brother Richard, against 
i Comiah rebels in 1497 (Obaptoh, CArvn. 
f SrS; PoLTBORB VEKOIt, p. 760). On 
'HanJi IftOS be arrived at Rome on a piU 
nage (CclUct. Top. v. 66). He was em- 
loyed by Heorv VII on a mission to the 
Imperor Maiimilian before 1508, in January 
if which year he is mentioned aa returning 

lo England (BBBNiRD Akub. p. 108). On 
2 July 1509 he is mentioned as a knight, the 
occasion being a graut to him by Henry VIII 
of a rent of 20/. from the castle and town of 
Orford and the manor of Orford, and of the 

patronage of the 
being part of the 

of the August in 



fallowed, and o 

'councillor and knight of the body.' 

In the same month Wingfield was Aaa- 
patched again on n mission to Jlasimilian, 
and in August following he and Silvester de 
Giglis [q. v.], bishop of Worcester, were 
nominated ambassadors to a council con- 
voked by Julius II at the Lateran. The 
ultimate intention of the pope was to form 
a 'holy league' against France, to which 
Henry signified his adhesion on 17 Nov. 
The council was not actually opened till 
May 1513(CRBi8HroN,iv.l50). Wingfield 
remained with the emperor at Brussels and 
elsewhere, and does not appear to have at- 
tended its sittings. On SO Sept. Maximilian, 
hearing: that Julius U was ill, appointed 
Wingfield and the bishop of Gurk his envoys 
to support the candidature of his nominee at 
Rome i but, eiasperaled at being left without 
means, Wiugfield unceremoniously disap- 
peared from the court of Brussels, ostensibly 

^ on a pilgrimaffe, but in reality to join bis 
brother Sir Uicuard at Calais. Meanwhile he 
had been ordered to repair to the emperor, 
then in Germany, and on 9 March 1618 he 

I waa at the imperial court at Worms. On 
18 April 1-^13 he was agsiu at Brussels, 
whence he was on that day despatched 
back to the emperor at Augsburg to secure 
his adhesion to Kenry VIII's scheme of a 
generol confederacy against France. Aa 
a reward for his services be had already 
(14 July) received a joint grant in survivor- 
ship with his brother Sir Richard of the office 
of marshal of the town and marches of CaloiH. 
During the early autumn of 1613 he paid a 
brief visit to England, but in May Idl4 be 
was at \'ienna, whence be despatched re- 
peated hut generally vain appeals for money 
and for Jiis recall. The success of the 
French arms in Italy in 1515 had, however, 
aroused the jealous resentment of Henry, 
who became yet more eager to unite Maxi- 
milian in a confederacy against France. 
Maximilian on his part was ready to sell 
himself to the highest bidder, whiloWing- 
field, with whom hatred of the French was a 
master passion, was always persuaded that 
the emperor was devoted to the English in- 
terest. \\'olaey, perceiving that the ambas- 
sador was duped by Maximilian, sent Ri- 
chard I'ftce [q. v.] to act aa a check upon 

_fc l_ 




■WingfielU's credalous indigcrelion. An 
acTirooniouH oorrespoudence ensued between 
Wolser and Wingneld. Pace, too, ridiculed 
SvingBeld'! credulity, n circuniMtnce which 
Wingfield discovered by opening Pace's cor- 
re«pondeni« during tbc> latt^fg illnit»g. He 
&1m feigned Pace's signature and neal to arc- 
ceipt lor money Bent to Pace, by which 
devicn Ue obtained «ole control of its distri- 
bution. He was perhaps reckoning for con- 
donation of this audacious act on a splendid 
ofier whicb the euperur commissioned him 
to lay before Ilenrv. This was the crea- 
'' 1 of Henry as fiuke of Milan and the 

to plunder the 
Pace's insight 

resignation of tb« empire 
Maximilian's real intention 
Bupplies from Henry and 
ducUy of Milan in bis name. 

frevented Henry falling 
lenry in reply refused to provide any more 
money, and expressed his diajdeasiire with 
Wingfield for naming advanced sixty thou- 
sand llorins to the emperor on his own re- 
sponsibility. In the summer of 1516 Henry 
himself wrote to Wingfield an extraordinary 
letter of censure upon his credulous coaK- 
dence in the emperor and his ' envy and 
malice ' towards Pace, wbom bo had accust-d 
of betraying the secret of Maximilian's oO'er. 
A treaty was, however, drawn up between 
Henry and the emperor, dated 20 Oct. 1516, 
providing, inter alia, for the advance of forty 
thousand crowns bj" Henry, in return for the 
offer of the imperial crown, to be formally 
made by Wingfield and the cardinal of Sion. 
Wingtield received the emperor's oath on 
8 Dec. 1516 with much self-gratulation on 
his success. Yet the ink was scarcely dir 
when Wingfield heard rumours that Maxi- 
milian had secretly subscribed to the ob- 
noxious treaty of Noyon. 

Wolsey, however, continued to employ 
Wingfield, and despatched him, together 
with Tuustall and the Earl of Worcester, to 
Brvissels to negotiate with Charles (after- 
wards Charlei V) a policy favourable to 
English interesta. The mission succeeded 
in obtaining from Charles on 11 May 1617 a 
raliScation of Henry's treaty with the em- 

Eror of the previous October. Winglield 
't Brussels on 16 March to return to the 
imperial court, then in the Netherlands. 
On 5 June, having received instructions from 
Henry to follow Maximilian back to Ger- 
many, WingHeld wrote to the king a point- 
blauK refusal. He was unpaid, his servants 
refused to remain with him, and be was 
under vows to make pilgrimages in England. 
^ On 18 Aug. he n-ns at Wenhara Hall, Suffolk. 
Exasperation and gout bad made him reck- 
less. ' Infamy,' ho wrote to Wolsey, ' would 

hang over' the king and cardinal if a 
merchant who had adraneed money on his 
guarantee as ambassador were not satislied. 
The arrears of Wingfield'a salary, amounting 
to 224/. for seven weeks, were paid in the 
following December. 

During the next two and a half year* 
Wing+ield appears to have remained in re- 
tirement in bngland. The first sign of tha 
king's returning favour is a grant, in which 
he is recited to be ' a king's councillor,' of 
an annuity of a hundred marks out of the 
tonnage and poundage in the port of Lnn- 
don, on 14 Aug. ISIH. In November 16M 
, he vacated his post of joint-deputy of Calais 
( CAroa. uf Calaii, p. iixviii), and apparentlv 
in December 1 521 was appointed ambassador 
at Charles V's court. He was now not 
only a king's councillor b