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Myllar NicnoLLs 






G. A. A. . . G. A. AiTKEN. 

J. W. A. . . J. W. Allen. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Abchbold. 

B. B-L.. . . RiCHABD Bagwell. 

G. F. B. B. . G. F. Bussbll Barker. 

M. B M188 Batesom. 

B. B The Rev. Ronald Batne. 

T. B Thomas Bayne. 

H. L. B. . . The Rev. Canon Leigh Bennett. 
W. G. B-k. W. G. Black. 
H. B. D. B. The Rev. H. E. D. Blakiston. 
G. C. B. . . G. C. BoABE. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 

I. B Professor Ingram Bt water. 

W. C-R. . . WiLLUM Carr. 

H. M. C. . . The late H. Manners Chi- 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clerke. 

A. M. C-B. . Miss A. M. Cooke. 

T. G Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Courtney. 

L. C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

A. D Austin Dobson. 

J. A. D. . . J. A. Doyle. 

B. D Robert Dunlop. 

J. P. E. . . J. P. Earwaker, F.S.A. 
F. E Francis Espinasse. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. Firth. 

J. G. F. . . J. G. Fotheringham. 

R. G Richard Garnett, LL.D. 

J. T. G. . . J. T. Gilrert, LL.D., F.S.A. 
R. T. G. . . B. T. Glazbbrook, F.B.S. 
G. G Gordon (Goodwin. 

A. G The Bey. Alexander Gordon. 

B. E. G. . . B. E. Graves. 

J. M. G. . . The late J. M. Gray. 
W. A. G. . . W. A. Greenhill, M.D. 


J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

T. H The Bev. Thomas Hamilton, 


T. F. H. . . T. F. Henderson. 

W. A. S. H. . W. A. S. Hewins. 

W. H The Bev. Willum Hunt. 

W. H. H. . The Bev. W. H. Hutton. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. Jackson. 

J. A. J. . . . The Bev. J. A. Jenkins. 

C. L. K. . . C. L. KiNGSFORD. 

J. K Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 

J. K. L. . . Professor J. K. Laughton. 

S. L Sidney Lee. 

B. H. L. . . BoBiN H. Leggb. 

W. S. L. . . W. S. Lilly. 

A. G. L. . . A. G. Little. 

J. E. L. . . John Edward Lloyd. 

W. B. L. . . The Bev. W. B. Lowther. 


List of Writers. 

J. XI. L. • . 
W. R. M-D. 
Jtj. M. . . . 

E. CM... 
L. M. M. . . 
A. H. M. . . 

N. M 

W. R. M.. . 
G. P. M-Y.. 
J. B. M. . . 
P. L. N. . . 
G. Le G. N. 

D. J. O'D. . 

F. M. O'D. . 
J. XI. O. • • 

W. P-H. . . 

C. P 

A. r . P. . . 

B. P 

E. G. P. . . 
D'A. P. . . . 

The Rev. J. H. Ldpton, B.D. 

W. Rae Macdonald. 

Shebitf Mackay. 

E. G. Marchant. 

Miss Middleton. 

A. H. Millar. 

NoRXAN Moore, M.D. 


J. Bass Mullinger. 

P. L. Nolan. 

G. Lb Grys Noroate. 

d. j. 0*donoohub. 

f. m. 0*donoohub. 

The Rev. Canon Overton. 

The late Wyatt Papworth. 

The Rev. Charles Platts. 

A. F. Pollard. 

Miss Porter. 

Miss E. G. Powell. 

D'Arcy Power, F JI.C.S. 

R. B. P. . . 
E. Xj. R. . . 
J. M. R. . . 

T. S 

R. F. S. . . 
iV. A. o. • . 
C F. S. . • 

L. S 

G. S-H. . . . 

C. W. S. . . 
J. T-t. . . . 
H. R. T. • . 

D. Ll. T.. . 
R. H. V. . . 

E. W 

F. W-N. . . 
W. W. W. . 

C. W 

H. G. W^. • . 
B. B. W. . . 
W. W. ... 

R. B. Prosser. 

Mrs. Radford. 

J. M. Rioo. 

Thomas Seccombe. 

R. Farquharson Sharp. 

W. A. Shaw. 

Miss. C. Fell Smith. 

Leslie Stephen. 

George Stronach. 

C. W. Sutton. 
James Tait. 

H. R. Tedder, F.S.A. 

D. Lleufbr Thomas. 
Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E. 
Edward Walford. 
Foster Watson. 
Surgeon-Captain W. W. Webb. 
Charles Welsh. 


B. B. Woodward. 
Warwick Wroth, F.S.A. 






MYLLAR, ANDROW (/. 1503-1508), 
the first Scottish printer, was a burgess of 
Edinburgh and a bookseller, but perhaps com- 
bined the sale of books with some other oc- 
cupation. On 29 March 1503 the sum of 
10/. was paid by the lord high treasurer 

* to Andro AliUar for thir bukis undirwritten, 
yiz., Decretum Magnum, Decretales Sextus 
cum Clementinis, Scotus super quatuor libris 
Sententiarum, Quartum Scoti, Opera Ger- 
aonis in tribus voluminibus.' Another pay- 
ment of fifty shillings was made on 22 Dec. 
1507 * for iig prentit bukis to the King, tane 
fira Andro Millaris wif.* The first book on 
which Myllar's name, appears is an edition, 
printed in 1505, of Joannes de Qarlandia's 

* 3Iultorum vocabulorum equiuocorum inter- 
pretatio/ of which the only copy known is 
in the Biblioth^ue Nationale at Paris. It 
has a colophon which states that Andrew 
Myllar, a Scotsman, had been solicitous 
that the work should be printed with admir- 
able art and corrected with diligent care. 
The second book is the * Expositio Sequen- 
tiarum,' according to the use of Sarum, 
TOrinted in 1506, the copy of which in the 
British Museum is believed to be unique. 
The last page contains Myllar's punning 
device, representing a windmill with the 
miller ascending the outside ladder and carry- 
ing a sack of grain upon his back. Beneath 
is the printer's monogram and name. These 
two books were undoubtedlv printed abroad. 
M. Claudin, who discovered them, and Dr. 
Dickaon have ascribed them to the press of 
Laurence Hostinfirue of Rouen; but Mr. Gor- 
don Duff has produced evidence to show that 
they should rather be assigned to that of 
Piem yiolette^ another printer at Rouen. 

1 TOL. XL. 

It was probably due to the influence of 
William Elphinstone [(j. v.], bishop of Aber- 
deen, who was engaged in preparing an adap- 
tation of the Sarum breviary for the use of 
his diocese, that James IV on 15 Sept. 1507 
granted a patent to Walter Chepman [q. v.] 
and Andrew Myllar ' to fumis and bring 
hame ane prent, with all stuff belangand 
tharto, and expert men to use the samyne, 
for imprenting within our Realme of the 
bukis of our Lawis, actis of parliament, cro- 
niclis, mess bukis, and portuus efter the use 
of our Realme, with addicions and legendis 
of Scottis Sanctis, now gaderit to be ekit 
tharto, and al utheris bukis that salbe sene 
necessar, and to sel the sammyn for com- 
petent pricis.* 

Chepman having found the necessary 
capital, and Myllar having obtained the type 
from France, probably fiom Rouen, they 
set up their press in a house at the foot of 
Blackfriars Wynd, in the Southgait, now 
the Cowgate, of Edinburgh, and on 4 April 
1508 issued the first book known to have 
been printed in Scotland, * The Maying or 
Disport of Chaucer,' better known as * The 
Complaint of the Black Knight,' and written 
not by Chaucer but by Lydgate. This tract 
consists of fourteen leaves, and has Chep- 
man's device on the title-page, and Myllar a 
device at the end. The only copy known is 
in the library of the Faculty of Advocates at 

Bound with this work are ten other unique 
pieces, eight of which are also from the 
Southgait press, but two only of all are peiv 
fect, 'The Maying or Disport of Chaucer ' 
and * TheGoldyn Targe ' of^ William Dunbar. 
Four of the tracts bear the devices both of 


Chepman and of Myllar, and three others 
that of Myllar alone. 

The titles of the other pieces, two only of 
which are dated, are as follows: 1. *The 
Knightly Tale of Golagros and Gawane/ 
8 April 1608. 2. * The Porteous of Noble- 
nes/ 20 April 1508. 3. * Syr Efirlaraoure of 
Artoys.* 4. ' The Goldyn Tarpe,' by William 
Dunbar. 5. * Ane Buke of Gude Counsale 
to the King.' C. * The Flyting of Dunbar 
and Kennedy.* 7. * The Tale of Grpheus and 
Eurvdice,' bv Kobt»rt Ilenrvson. 8. *The 
Ballade of Lord Barnard Stewart/ by Wil- 
liam Dunbar. 

Two other pieces, * The Twa MarritWemen 
and the AVedo/ also by Dunbar, and * A 
(Jest of Robyn Ilode,' are contained in the 
same volume, but they are printed with dif- 
ferent types, and there is no evidence to prove 
that thev emanated from the first Scottish 
press. About two years later, in 1510, the 
Aberdeen Breviary, the main cause of the 
introduction of printing into Scotland, was 
executed by the command and at the ex- 
pense of Walter Chepman ; but doubt exists 
as to the actual printer of this, the last but 
most important work of the primitive Scot- 
tish press. Neither in connection with the 
Breviary nor elsewhere does Androw Myl- 
lar's name again occur. 

[Dickson and Edmond's Annul'' of Scottish 
Printing, 1890; Gordon Duff's E^rly Printed 
Books, 1893; The Knightly Tale of Golagros and 
(rawane and other Ancient Poems, edited l»y 
David Laing, 1827: Breuiariiim Abcrdonense, 
with preface by D^viJ Ltiing (Bannatvne Club), 
1864.1 R. E.G. 


(1474-1548 ?), abbot of Cambuakenneth and 
president of the court of session in Scotland, 
probably a native of Angus, was the son of 
John Mylne (d. before 1513), who in 1481 
was appointed master-mason to the crown 
of Scotland, and served that office under 
James III and James IV. Alexander was 
educated at St. Andrews, where he graduated 
in 1494. Having taken orders, he became 
first a canon of the cathedral of Aberdeen 
and afterwards prebendary of Mon it hie in the 
cathedral of Dunkeld anil rector of Lundie. 
He was also scribe of the chapter and official 
of the bishop, George Brown. Brown having 
divided his diocese into deaneries made Myln 
dean of Angus, and on 18 May 1510 he Ibe- 
came master of the monks for the building 
of the bridge of Dunkeld, of which one arch 
was completed in 1513 (see his accounts pre- 
served in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh). 
After the death of Brown in 1516, Myln wrote 
a history in I^atin of the bishops of the see 
from its foundation to the death of Brown, 


which he dedicated to Gavin Douf^laa [q. v.l 
The work is well written, and contains a vivid 
description of the contest for the possession 
of the cathedral between Andrew Stewart, 
a brother of the Fj&tX of Atholl, and Gavin 
Douglas. Myln was recommended by the 
regent Albany for the important abbacy of 
Cambuskenneth, vacant bv the death of 
Patrick Panther [q. v.], and Leo X appointed 
him abbot in 151/ . About the same time he 
was appointed master-mason to James V. 

He was a diligent and reforming head of his 
chapter ; collected the records of the abbey, 
which were falling into decay, and preserved 
them in a new register : made an agreement 
with the abbot oi St. Victor in Paris for the 
better education of novices both in arts and 
theology, and enforced on the members a 
stricter observance of their rules. Hichard- 
son, one of these novices, afterwards a canon 
at Cambuskenneth, mentions in his ' Exegesis 
of the Rule of St. Augustine ' that Myln spe- 
cially required the reading of scripture during 
dinner, frequently preached himself, and gave 
the other monks an opportunity of preach- 
ing. He also erected the great altar and 
chapter-house of the abbey church, and two 
new cemeteries which were consecrated by 
the bishop of Dunblane in 1521. Like 
other leading churchmen, he took part in 
secular affairs, went in 1624 on an em- 
bassy to the English court to treat of the 
marriage of James V and Mary Tudor, and 
was one of the lords to whom parliament 
entrusted the custody of James V in 1625. 
James, after he obtained independence, gave 
Myln the administration of the abbey of 
Holyrood and the priory of St. Andrews 
during the infancy of the royal bastards, on 
whom the pope had conferred these rich pre- 
ferments. >lyln also served in successive 
parliaments from 1532 to 1542 as lord of the 
articles. When in 1532 the king instituted the 
court of session as the central and supreme 
civil court for Scotland, it was arranged that 
the president should be an ecclesiastic, partly 
because a large part, of its revenues were 
supplied by the church, and partly because 
the clergy were the only class at that time 
thoronghly trained in law. Myln presided 
over the court until his death in 1548 or 
1649, bein^ succeeded on 24 Feb. 1649 by 
Robert Reid, bishop of Orkney. 

Myln's capacity for judicial office was 
shown by the careful rules of court drawn 
up by him and embodied in the first Act of 
Sederunt. He was an example of the me- 
diaeval ecclesiastic who was a man of busi- 
ness and learning rather than a pastor or 
theologian. His brother Robert {d. 1549) be- 
came provost of Dundee, and was the father of 



Thomas Mylne (c^. 1605), master-mason [see 
under Mtlzhb, John, d, 1621]. 

[Vitae Episcopomm Dunkeldensinm, published 
by the Bannatyne Club in 1881 (the manuscript 
is in the Advocates' Library) ; Registrum Ab- 
baci» CSambuskennethensis, published by Gram- 

gian Club ; Epistolse Regum Scotorum, curante 
luddiman, ii. 72 ; R. Richardson's Exegesis, 
Paris, 1530 ; Acts of Sederunt of the Court of 
Session from 1532 to 1553, edited by Sir Hay 
Campbell, 1811 ; Acts of Parliament of Scotland, 
Record edition, rol. ii. ; Brunton and Haig*8 
Senators of the College of Justice ; Mylne's Mas- 
tor Masons, pp. 2, 5, 8, 17-34.] M. M. 

MYLNE, JAMES (d, 1788), poet, was 
laird of Lochill or Loch-hill, a small estate 
near Prestonpans, Haddingtonshire. His 
* Poems, consisting of Miscellaneous Pieces 
and two Tragedies,' were published pos- 
thumously (Edinburgh, 8vo, 1790) by his son 
George, who obtained a very long list of sub- 
scribers. Some of the verses are in dialect, 
and all show taste and reading ; the best is 

Sirhaps an invitation from the poet to Robert 
urns to visit him on his farm. The two 
tragedies, *The British Kings* and *Dar- 
thula,' dealing respectively with prehistoric 
Britain and prehistoric Ulster, are not so 
well inspired. Mylne died at Lochill on 
9 Dec. 1788. 

[Scots Magazine, 1 788, p. 623 ; Baker's Bicg. 
Dramatica, 1812, p. 537 ; Advocates' Library and 
Brit. Museum Library Catalogues.] . T. S. 

MYLNE or MYLN, JOHN {d. 1621), 
mason, was the son of Thomas Mylne, master- 
mason between lo61 and lo79 to the crown 
of Scotland, who was admitted a burgess of 
Dundee in 1593, and dying in 1605 was buried 
at Elffin. Robert Mylne («?. 1549), provost of 
Dundee, was his grandfather, while his great- 
uncle was Alexander Mylne [q. v.], abbot of 
Cambuskenneth. John, who liad succeeded 
his father as master-mason before 1584, com- 
menced in June 1584 the erection of Drum 
House, Edinburghshire,which was completed 
in 1585. He was afterwards engaged in 
several public works at Dundee, and was on 
12 Sept. 1587 admitted a burgess, ' for ser- 
vice done and to be done * to the burgh, but 
chiefly for his services in renewing the whole 
of the harbour works. He erected in 1 586 the 
market cross in the High Street, which was 
lemoved in 1777, and in 1874 was set up 
again in the grounds of the town*s church 
(c£ Thomson, Hist of Dundee, pp. 177-8 ; 
view in Mtlne, Master Meuons, p. 65). Its 
original position is marked by a circle in the 
paving of the street. In 1589 he contracted 
with Thomas Bannatyne, senator of the 
College of JuAtice, for a gallery and other 

additions to his house at Newtyle, of which 
portions still exist. In 1599 he went to 
rerth to undertake the erection of the bridge 
over the Tay ; in 1604* he entered as master- 
mason to the brig of Tay,* and on 17 July 
1605 he and his men commenced work 
(Chronicle of Perth, Maitland Club, 1831 p. 
11). In consequence of his connection with 
the work he was admitted * frelie ' a burgess 
in 1607. After considerable delay, the bridge 
appears to have been completed soon after 
1617. It was destroyed by a flood on 4 Oct. 

1621, and was not replaced. The present 
bridge, by J. Smeaton, 1770, is built over a 
broader part of the river. On 19 Jan. 1620 
Mylne entered into a contract with David, 
lord of Scone, to erect a church at Falkland. 
The work was to be accomplished by the 
following November (Gen. Meg. of Deeds, 
vol. ccclvi., 12 May 1624). As master of the 
lodge of Scone he entered James VI, at his 
own request, as * frieman Meason and fellow 
craft.* He died in 1621, and was buried in 
the Greyfriars churchyard at Perth, where 
there is a stone, originally the top stone of a 
table-monument, with a quaint epitaph in 
verse to his memory {Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. xii. 223). Robert Mylne (1734r-1811) 
[q. v.] placed a mural tablet near to the tomb 
m 17/4. The original stone was restored in 

JoHX Mylxe {d. 1657), his son (by his 
wife, Helen Kenneries), who had assisted 
him since 1010 as mason on the bridge at 
Perth, was called to Edinburgh in 1616 by 
the town council to complete a statue of 
James I at the Netherbow Port, and in 
acknowledgment of this and other works in 
the town was made a burgess of Edinburgh 
on 8 Aug. 1617. In 1619 he went to Falk- 
land to assist his father in the church there. 
He was engaged from 1622 to 1629 on the 
present steeple of the Tol booth at Aberdeen 
(Aberdeen Burgh Record*, Spalding Club, 
1848, ii. 379), and was in consequence made 
a burgess of the city ex gratia on 12 May 

1622. He made alterations at Drummond 
Castle, Perthshire, in 1629-30 ; constructed 
a water-pond by Ilolyrood Palace for the 
king in 1629; executed, with the help of 
his sons, John (1611-1667) [q. v.] and 
Alexander [see under Mylne, Joux, 1011- 
1667], the sundial at Holyrood Palace in 
1633; was principal master-mason of all 
Scotland to Charles I from 1631 to 1636 ; 
was engaged on the church steeple, tolbootb, 
and fortifications at Dundee from 1643 to 
1651 ; and on the steeple of the town-hall in 
1644. He was made fellow of craft in the 
lodge of Edinburgh in October 1633, and was 
master of the lodge at Scone £rom 1621 to 



16^7. He was admitted a burgess of Perth, 
gratis, on 24 March 1627, and of Kirkcaldy 
on 23 March 1643, having probably taken 
part in the design of Gladnev House in that 
burgh. He married Isobel Wilson of Perth 
early in 1610, and died in 1657. His daugh- 
ter Harbara, bom in Edinburgh, is frequently 
mentioned in the 'Canongat« and Burgn 
Records* as being accused of witchcraft- 
There is a portrait of John Mylne in Mylne's 
* Master Masons' (p. 104). 

[Diet, of Archit(H!tare ; Mylne*s Master Ma- 
sons, pp. 65-128 ; Lyon's Hist, of tho Lodge of 
Edinburgh, p. 92; Notes and Qneries, 3rd ser. 
vii. 198-9 ; Chronicle of Perth (Maitland Club), 
p. 22 ; Cant's Notes to Adamson's Muses Thre- 
nodie, 177-1, pp. i. 81-2, 96; Kennedy's Annals 
of Aberdeen, i. 403; Q-ateshead Observer, 20 Oct. 
1860, p. 6.] B. P. 

MYLNE, JOHN (1611-1^667), mason, 
son of John Mylne (d. 1657) [see under 
Mylne, John, d. 16211, was born in Perth 
in 161 1. On 9 Oct. 1633 he was admitted a 
burgess of Edinburgh, by right of descent, 
and on tlie same day was made fellow of 
craft in the Edinburgh masonic lodge. He 
succeeded his father as principal master- 
mason on 1 Feb. 1636, and in the same year, 
as deacon of tho masons of Edinburgh, was 
elected a member of the town council. In 
1637-8 he was appointed master-mason to 
the town of Edinburgh. He designed the 
Tron Church in Edinburgh, begun in 1637 and 
opened in 1647. The spire was not completed 
till 1663. A portion of it was burnt about 
1826, when it was rebuilt in its present form. 
In August 16^37 he repaired portions of St. 
Giles's Church. In 1642 he was employed 
in surveying and reporting on the condition 
of tho abbey church at Jedburgh, and was 
appointed a burgess of Jedburgh ; in 1643 he 
was appointed master-mason to Heriot's Hos- 
pital, and continued the works there till their 
completion in 1659 ; in 1646-7 he made ad- 
ditions to the college of Edinburgh, probably 
including the library; in 1648 he repaired the 
crown of tho steeple of St. Giles's Church ; in 
1650 ho was busy on the fortifications of 
Leitli, and in 1666 he commenced the erection, 
from his own designs, of Panmure House, 
Forfarshire, of which portions still exist. 
The town-hall, or tolbooth, at Linlithgow 
was erected from his designs in 1668-70 
(Plans in Mylne, Master MasonSj p. 240). 
He also made designs for a new palace at 
Holyrood, a plan of which (dated October 
1663) is in the Bodleian Library, and for a 
grammar school at Linlithgow. 

Mylne's activity was not confined to his 
professional work. He was ten times dea- 
con of the lodge of Edinburgh and warden 


in 1636. In 1640-1 he was with the Scottish 
army at Newcastle ; on 4 Sept. 1646 he was 
made by the king captain of pioneers and 
principal master-gunner of all Scotland, which 
offices were confirmed to him by Charles II 
on 31 Dec. 1664 ; and in August 1652 he was 
chosen by the ' Commissioneris from the 
schyres and burghes of Scotland convenit in 
Edinburgh ' to be one of the ' Commissioneris 
to ^ to Lundoun to hold the Parliament 
thair.' He returned to Edinburgh in July 
1653, and was present at Perth on 12 May 
1654 on the proclamation of Cromwell as 
lord protector. In 1655, when a member of 
the Edinburgh town council, he was accused 
of having led the town into much expense by 
a constant alteration of the churches. He re- 
tained his seat in the council till 1664. From 
1055 to 1659 he represented the city of Eldin- 
burgh at the convention of royal burghs. In 
1662 he was elected M.P. for Edinburgh in 
the parliament of Scotland, and attend^ the 
second and third sessions (till 9 Oct. 1663) of 
Charles II's first parliament in Edinburgh. 
Late in 1667 he was in treaty with the town 
council of Perth for the erection of a market 
cross in that town, but died in Edinburgh 
on 24 Dec. A handsome monument in the 
Greyfriars churchvard, erected by his nephew, 
Robert Mylne (1633-1710) [a. v.], marks his 
burial-place. He is described there as 

the Fourth John 
And, by descent from Father unto Sod» 
Sixth Master Mason to a Royal Race 
Of seven successive Kings .... 

A view of it is given in Brown's * Inscrip- 
tions in Greyfriars,' p. 248, and in Mylne s 
* Master Masons,' p. 160. Mvlne's portrait is 
given in Lyon's * Lodge of Edinburgh,' p. 
85, and in Mylne's 'Master Masons,' p. 133. 
His signature, as commissioner of estates, is 
appended to two letters, August and October 
1660, to Lord Lauderdale and Charles II 
(Addit. MS. 23114, fi*.42, 62). Before 1634 
he married Agnes Fraser of Edinburgh : she 
dying, he married, on 11 Feb. 1647, Janet 
I^imrose, who survived only a short time, 
when he married, on 27 April 1648, Janet 

Albxandbb Mylne (1613-1643), brother 
of the above, was a sculptor of some re- 
pute [see under Mylne, John, d, 16211 He 
worked on many of his brother's buildings, 
on the Parliament House and other public 
buildings in Edinburgh. He was made fellow 
of craft in the lodge of Edinburgh on 2 June 
163^>. He died 20 Feb. 1643, it is believed 
of the plague, and was buried in Holjrrood 
Abbey, where a monument, with Latin and 
English inscriptions to his memory, is fixed 


affainst the north-east buttress of the abbey 
church. In 1632 he married Anna Vegilman, 
by whom he had two sons and one daughter. 
Robert, the elder son (1633-1710), is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Mylne's Master Ma- 
eons, pp. 130-9, 146-8 ; Maitland's Edinburgh, 
pp. 166, 193.282; Wilsous Memorials of Edin- 
burgh, ii. 203 ; Groome's Ordnance Gazetteer of 
Scotland ; Grant's Story of the University of 
Edinburgh, i. 208. ii. 189 ; Ritchie's Report as to 
who was the Architect of Heriot's Hospital, p. 20 ; 
Monteith'a Theatre of Mortality, pp. 13, 14. 64 ; 
Chronicle of Perth (Maitland Club, 1831), pp. 
42-3 ; NicoH's Diarv of Public Transactions, 
1660-67 (BannatyneClub, 1836), pp. 98-9, 170; 
Lyon's Hist, of the Lodge of Edinburgh, pp. 
92-3; Hackett's Epitaphs, ii. 12; Members of 
Parliament of Scotland, p. 673; Hist, of Holy- 
rood House, pp. 68-9.] B. P. 

MYLNE, ROBERT (1633-1710), mason, 
eldest son of Alexander Mylne (1613-1643), 
[see under Mylne, John (1611-1667)], and 
of his wife, Anna Vegilman, was bom in 
Edinburgh in 1633. He was apprenticed to 
his uncle, John Mylne, and succeeded him as 
principal master-mason to Charles II in 1668. 
In 1665 he erected Wood's Hospital at Largo 
(rebuilt in 1830), and in 1608 entered into 
An agreement with the magistrates of Perth to 
build a market cross, the old one having been 
destroyed by Cromwell's army in 1662 (cf. 
Penny, Traditions of Perth, ^, 15). Mylne's 
cross, which stood in the High Street, between 
the Kirkgate and the Skinner Gate, was com- 
pleted in May 1669. It was taken down and 
dold in 1765, when increased traffic rendered 
it inconvenient. In 1669 Mylne was occupied 
in reclaiming the foreshore at Leith, where 
he constructed a sea wall, and on the land 
thus acauired he in 1685 erected stone dwel- 
lings, wnich are still in existence; in 1670 
he was assisting Sir William Bruce [q. v.] in 
the designs for Ilolyrood Palace, the founda- 
tion-stone of which was laid 15 July 1671 by 
Mylne, who directed the erection of the build- 
ing till its completion in 1679. Mylne's name 
and the date 1671 are cut on a pillar in the 
piazza of the quadrangle. Six of his original 
drawings prepared for the king remained in 
his family, and are reproduced in Mylne's 
* Master Masons,' p. 168. Lesl ie House, Fife- 
shire, which had been commenced by his 
uncle, was erected under his direction about 
1670. It was partially destroyed by fire in 
1763. As master-mason or surveyor to the 
city of Edinburgh Mylne constructed cisterns 
in various parts of the town in connection 
with the new water supply from Comiston , be- 
tween 1674 and 1681. lie effected one of the 
firat improvements in the old town by the 


construction of Mylne Square in 1689 (view 
in Cassell's Old and New Edinburgh, i. 237^, 
and in the same year assisted in the repair 
of Edinburgh Castle, one of the bastions 
being called after him, Mylne's Mount. 

At that time he was not only king's master- 
mason, but also hereditary master-gunner of 
the fortress. On 30 March 1682 he contracted 
for building a bridge of one arch over the 
Clyde at Komellweill Crags, now known as 
llam's Horn Pool, Lanarkshire. After the 
revolution he seems to have been superseded 
as master-mason by Sir A. Murray of Black- 
barony, but was employed on Holyrood 
Palace in June and July 1689. In November 
1708 he was petitioning for twenty years' ar- 
rears due to him as master-mason. In 1690 
he erected Mylne's Court, and about that time 
completed many buildings in Edinburgh under 
the new regulation for the erection of stone 
buildings in lieu of timber in the principal 
streets. In March 1693 he entered into a 
contract to complete the steeple of Heriot's 
Hospital, which had been begun in 1676. 
Mylne had been instructed on 3 May 1675 

* to think on a drawing thereof against the 
next council meeting;' it is not known 
whether the work carried out was entirely 
his own design. He executed the statue of 
Heriot over the archway within the court, 
from an original painting. After the great 
fire in Edinburgh in 1700 Mylne bought 
many sites in the town, and on them erected 
buildings, in which his style may still be 

Mylne was active in his connection with 
the masonic lodge of Edinburgh. He was 

* entered prentice ' to his uncle on 27 Dec. 
1653, made fellow craft on 23 Sapt. 1660, 
chosen warden in 1603, re-elected in 1664, 
and filled the deacon's chair during 1681- 
1683 and 1687-8. Till 1707 he took a leading 
part in the business of the lodge. He was 
made burgess of Edinburgh on 23 May 1660, 
and guild brother on 12 April 1665. As 
magistrate of Edinburgh his signature is at- 
tached to letters to the Duke of Lauderdale 
and to Charles II, dated 1674 and 1675 
{Addit. MSS. 23136 f. 206, 23137 f. 72). 

He acquired the estate of Balfarge in Fife- 
shire, and died at his house at Inveresk on 

10 Dec. 1710, aged 77. He married, on 

11 April 1661, Elizabeth Meikle, by whom he 
had a large family. He is commemorated on 
the monument to his uncle at Greyfriars. A 
portrait of him from a picture by Roderick 
Chalmers is reproduced in Mylne's *■ Master 
Masons' (p. 21/). 

William Mylne (1662-1728), master- 
mason, son of the above, was bom in 1662. 
He was entered in the lodge of Edinburgh 


Mylne 6 Mylne 

27 Dec. 1681, feUow craft on 9 Nov. 1685, 1 [Introduction to A Book of Scociah P^ffjiiils, 
1 freeman mason on 16 Julv 1687. He 1S27 ; Cat. of AdToeates* library ; Czawfnrd's 

children fsee under Mtlse, Robert, 17^^- MYLNE, ROBERT ^'^-l^H)* "reJ"- 
18I1~!. He aLio is commemorated on the tect and engineer, was the eldest son of 
family monument. Thomas Mtlxe {d. 1763 1 of PowderhaU, near 

[Diet, of Architecture; Mylne's Master Ma- S^^!?^ "!i^°' eldest son of ^illiam 
sons, pp. 171-249; Lyon's Hist, of the Lodge Mylnea662-1. ^\ mason see under Mtisb, 
of Edinbnrgh, pp. 93-4; Groome's Ordnance Robert, 163S-1 . 10 . The lather was city 
Gazetteer of Scotland ; Cant's notes to Adam- surveyor in Edinburgh, and, besides havrng 
son's Muses Threnodie, 1774, pp. 129. 134- an extensive private practice, designed the 
135; Builder, 1866. p. 187 ; Hist, of Holyrood < Edinburgh Inlirmary,compIeted in 1745, and 
House, pp. 89-94 ; Mai tland's Edinburgh, p. 20*5 ; . recently pulled down. He was apprenticed 
Steven's Hist, of Heriot's Hospital, pp. 87, 236; to the masonic lodge of Edinburgh 27 Dec 
Ritchie's Report as to who was the architect of 1721, admitted fellow craft on 27 Dec 17^, 
Heriot's Hospiul, pp. 23-4 ; Brown's Inscriptions | master in 1735-6, in which latter vear he re- 
at Greyf nars. p. 249.] B. P. presented it in the erect ion of the grand lodge 

MYLNE, ROBERT (ie43?-1747), writer of freemasons of Scotland, and was grand 
of pasquils and antiouary, said to have been [ treasurer from November 1737 to December 
related to Sir Robert Mylne of Bam ton. North 1 755. He was elected burnzress of Edinburgh 
Edinburghshire, was probably bom in No- on 26 March 1729. He died 5 March 1763 
vember 1643. He is generally described as at Powderhall, and was buried in the Jhrnily 
a * writer ' of Edinburgh, but also as an en- tomb at Greyfriars. By his wife Elizabetn 
graver; he ^ined notoriety by his bitter and , Duncan he had seA'en children. A portrait 
often scurrilous political squibs against the by Moesman, painted in 1752, is in the posses- 
whigs, but he also devoted much time and ' sfon of the family. A copy was presented to 
labour to copjing manuscripts of antiquarian the grand lodge in 185S, and it is reproduced 
and historical interest. George Crawturd, in in Mylne's * Master Masons ' (p. 251). The 
the preface to his * History of the Shire of ; old term * mason ' was droppea, and that of 
Renfrew,* acknowledges his indebtedness to * architect ' adopted, during his lifetime 

quities.' Among Mylne's other friends was , tice as honorary member* to the grand lodge 
Archibald Pitcaime [q. v.] Mylne died at , on 14 Jan. 1754, and was raised to the degree 
Edinburgh on 21 Nov. 1747, aged 103 ac- of master-mason on 8 April of the same year, 
cording to some accounts, and 105 according | He left Edinburgh in April 1754 and pro- 
to others, and was buried on the anniversary ceeded to Rome, where he studied for four 

of his birthday. 

Mylne married on 29 Aug. 1678, in the 
Tolbooth Church, Edinburgh,Barbara. second 
daughter of John Govean, minister at Muck- 
art, Perthshire; she died on 11 Dec. 1725, 
having had twelve children, all of whom, 
except one daughter, Margaret, predeceased 
their father. 

Many of Mylne's pasquils were separately 
issued in his lifetime, but others were cir- 
culated only in manuscript. From a collec- 

years. On 18 Sept. 1758 he ^ned the gold 
and silver medals for architecture in St. 
Luke's Academy in Rome — a distinction not 
previously granted to a British subject. The 
following year he was elected a member of 
St. Luke's Academy, but, being a protestant, 
a dispensation from the pope was necessary 
to enable him to take his place. This was 
obtained through Prince Altieri, himself a 
student of art. lie was also made member of 
the Academies of Florence and of Bologpia. 

tion brought together by Mylne's son Robert, He visited Naples and Sicily, and took care- 
James Maidment published, with an intro- , ful drawings and measurements of antiquities, 
duct ion and a few similar compositions by < His notes were still in manuscript at the 

Edinburgh, there is a pamphlet, apparently 
by Mylne, entitled 'The Oath of Abjuration 
0[)nsidered,' 1712, 4to, and a complete manu- 
script catalogue of My Ine'sprintea broadsides. 

Holland he reacned London in 1759, bearing 
a very flattering recommendation from the 
Abb^' Grant of Rome to Lord Charlemont 
(Hist. MS& Qmm, 12th Rep. x. p. 262). 



At the date of Mylne*8 arriyal in London 
designs for the construction of Blackfriars 
Bridge were being invited. Mylne, though 
a stranger in London, submitted one, which 
was approved in February 1760. His choice 
of eUiptical arches in lieu of semicircular 

fave nse to some discussion, in which Dr. 
ohnson took part in three letters in the 
* Daily Gazetteer,' 1, 8, and 16 Dec. 1759, in 
support of his friend John Gwynn [q. v.] It 
is to the credit of those concerned that the 
acquaintance thus formed between Johnson 
and Mjrlne developed later into a warm 
friendship, despite tnis difference of opinion. 
On 7 June 1760 the first pile of Mylne's 
bridge was driven. The first stone was 
laid on 31 Oct. (view of ceremony, from 
a contemporary print in Thobkbuby, Old 
and New JLondoriy i. 205), and it was opened 
on 19 Nov. 1769. During the years of 
construction Mylne was often abused and 
ridiculed, and the popular feeling was ex- 
pressed by Charles Cfhurchill in his poem 
of • The Ghost,' 1763 (p. 174). A view of 
the approved design was en^ved in 1760 ; 
an engraved plan and elevation by 11. Bald- 
win, a view of a portion of the bridge by 
Piranesi in Rome, and another by E. Hooker 
in London, were all published in 1766. 
Mylne*s method of centering has been much 
commended, and his desi^ has been fre- 
quently engraved. Despite the fact that 
the bndge was constructed for something 
less than the estimate, Mylne had to resort 
to legal measures to obtain his remuneration. 
The Bridge was removed in 1868. 

Among Mylne*s other engineering and 
architectural works may be mentioned : St. 
Cecilia's Hall in Edinburgh, on the model of 
the Opera House at Parma, since used as a 
school, 1762-5 (view in CasselFs Old and 
New Edinburgkj i. 252) ; a bridge at Wel- 
beck for the Duke of Portland, 1764 ; the 

?avilion and wings of Northumberland 
louse, Strand,1765;Almack*s(now Willis's) 
Rooms in King Street, St. James's, 1765-6 ; 
house for Dr. Hunter in Lichfield Street, 
1766; Blaise Castle, Bristol, 1766 (views 
in Neale, Seats, vol. iv. 1821, and Bbeweb, 
Gloucestershire, p. 104) ; the Manor House, 
Wormleybury, Hertfordshire, 1767; the 
Jamaica Street Bridge, Glasgow, in con- 
junction with his brother William, noticed 
below, 1767-72 ; offices for the New River 
Company in Clerkenwell, 1770 (elevation in 
Maitlaitd, London, Entick, 1775, vol. i. plate 
128); Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, 1770 
(view in Thoboton, Nottinghamshire, iii. 
405) ; City of London Lying-in Hospital, 
1770-3 (Maitland, tb, vol. i. plate 127) ; 
Tuamore House, Oxfordshire (plaii and eleva- I 

tions in Ricuabi>sok, New Vit. Brit, vol. i. 
plates 3-5); Addington Lodge, near Croy- 
don, since 1808 the residence of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 1772-9 (ib. vol. i. 
plates 32-3) ; the Bishop of Durham's portion 
of the bridge over the Tyne at Newcastle, 
removed in 1873 (Wooler being the archi- 
tect of the corporation of Newcastle's por- 
tion), 1774 ; house for himself at the corner 
of Little Bridge Street, 1780 (cf. Thobn- 
BUBT, Old and New London, i. 207), after- 
wards the York Hotel, taken down in 1863, 
and the ground now occupied by Ludgate 
Hill railway station; works at Inverary 
Castle, 1780 and 1806 [see Mobbis, Robebt, 
/?. 1754]; bridge over the Tyne at Hexham, 
Northumberland, 1784 ; hospital in Belfast, 
1792 ; Mr. Coutts's house in Stratton Street, 
Piccadilly, 1797 ; the east front of the hall 
of the Stationers* Company, 1800 ; Eidbrook 
Park, Sussex, about ] 804 (view in Neale, 
Seats, iv. 1 821 ). He made considerable altera- 
tions to King's Weston, Gloucestershire, and 
Roseneath Castle, Dumbartonshire (1786), 
and repairs to Northumberland House in the 
Strand, Syon House, Middlesex, and Ardin- 
caple House, Dumbartonshire. 

Two of Mylne's great engineering designs 
were that for the Gloucester and Berkeley 
Canal, which has recently been completed to 
Sharpness Point, and that for the improve- 
ment to the fen level drainage, by means of 
the Eau Brink Cut above Lynn, which after 
much opposition was carried out by Rennio 
in 1817. Mylne drew up manv reports on 
engineering projects, on which he was con- 
sulted. In 1772, after the destruction of 
the old bridge over the Tyne at Newcastle, 
he chose the site for a new one (many of his 
suggestions as to improvement in the ap- 
proaches have been carried out in recent 
years); in 1775 he sounded the harbour and 
bridge alt Great Yarmouth ; in 1781 he sur- 
veyed the harbour of Wells-next-the-Sea in 
Norfolk ; and in 1802 the Thames as far as 
Reading. In 1783 he reported on the disaster 
to Smeatou*8 bridge at Hexham; in 1784 on 
the Severn navigation; in 1789 on the state 
of the mills, waterworks, &c., of the city of 
Norwich ; in 1790 on the AVorcester canal : 
in 1791, 1793, 1794, and 1802 on the navi- 
gation of the Thames ; in 1792 on the Eau 
Brink Cut ; in 1799 and 1802 on the bed of 
the Thames in London, with reference to the 
reconstruction of London Bridge; in 1807 on 
the East London water works; and in 1808 
on Woolwich dockyard. He was unsuccess- 
ful in his design for the new London Bridge 
in 1800. 

Mylne was appointed surveyor of St. Paul's 
Cathedral in October 1766, and held the post 

Mylne « Mylne 

till h;.4 tkMh. In the cathedimL over the Moaeam ar^ two concerxuiv Mylne. Xo. 

«rnrntne^ to rhfr choir, he pat ap the inscrip- 3733. entitl^ed 'Jan arriT'diroin Italv The 

tion to .Sir Christopher A\'r*n. de$i2n«?d the Puffing Phenomenon with his Fiery Tail 

pu!p!t and filled up the hailding in 17^ for tum'd Bri-iir^ builier.* dated October 1760, 

thfi; vUit of the ho'j«e« of parliament i View reprv::sent« Mylne perched on anabatment of 

amor.z J. C Crowley's collection to illus- the brid^, with the rival competitora and 

Tra^PennAnt^'Iyjndon/xi.d-jjinBrit.Mas.), others down below, freely commenting on 

an'l a^'Ain in 17!]C. Aic for the charity chil- him. The plate was afterwards altered and 

lie was made joint-engineer <with the title changed to* The Northern Comet 

Mill ^q.v.j to the New River Com- with his Fiery Tail ic/ Xo. 3741, *The 

«;* •'jii. »» liAiaiu «^uauwvii ja\ iuk ^«|. * . lu i.cvio, ui «» u'jiu j>Ajkiae is one. oome aCCOm- 

I rll . In 1 ••OO he erected an urn witH in- panyin*: verse* rvtVr to the influence of Lord 
wrri prion at Amwell, Hertfordshire, to the Bute « Bmt » alleged to have been used inhb 

and clerkof the works to rireenwich Hospital Robert, was entered apprentice 
C where he executed improvements) in 1775. 1750. and was with his brother 

on 27 Dec. 
in Rome in 
He pul 
land and 

'•arlier maps , , ,. ... ^^^ w^.^**.*, 

1 '*10 an elevation was issued of the * Tempio architect to the city of Edinburgh^ member 
della Sibylla Tiburtina/ at Rome, restored of the town council, and convener of trades 
a^xjording to the precepts of Vitnivius and in 1765. <.>n '11 Aug. 17t^) he contracted for 
drawn by Mylne. the erection of the North Bridge, part of 

/A rcij iiecTs « . 1 u o, lounaea in i / vi . Jiy ine s me wont was aireaay weu aa vanced towards 

architirctural-tylewas almost too thoroughly completion. Differences aro«e between the 

i^iman to 8uit his time. He was the last town council and Mylne respecting the in- 

archit^rct of note who combined to any great creased expense of finishing the bridge, and 
d<rg'n*e the two av^-jcations of architect and en- ' the nuestion was brought before the House of 

jcin'-'-r. With his death the connection of the Lords in 1770. Terms were, however, agreed 

family with the ancient masonic lodge of £din- upon, and the bridge was completed in 1772 

burgh, which liad lx;en maintained for five (view in Cassell's Old and Sew Edinburgh^ 


to the degn^e of master-mason 8 April . . 

His name apy^'ars for the last time in 1759. , 1790, and was buried in St. Catherine's 
Myln*' married on 10 Sept. 1770 Marv, Church, Dublin, where a tablet to his memory 
daiight4-r of Rob^Tt Home (1748-1797) the wi . -^ - 

Hurgeon, nnd ni^ter to Sir Everard Home 

"I V % 9 ^ ^ V *V 1 it A 

was placed by his brother Robert. 

[Diet, of Architect ur«» ; My Ine's Master Masons, 

• q. V. , by whom he had ten children, four of pp. 250-83 ; Laurie's Hist, of Free Masonrv p 
whom Mirvuvd him. His wife died 13 July 514; Maitland'8 Edinburgh, p. 182; Scots Mag. 
1797. Myln»;died5Mayl811,andwas,athi8i 1758, p. 650; Geut. Mag. ISll, pp. 409-500; 
own (h's'insf buried in the crypt of St. Paul's ] Hist. 3ISS. Coram. 12th Rep. App. x. pp. 252-^ 
< Jithedral, near to the Hfmains of Sir Chris- ! 263 ; Cresy's EncyclopaKiia of Engineering, pp. 

years of his life ' 427-9, where is a history of the construction o 

IMiuVh ' Collection of Portraits.* Another 
]>ortrait is in Mylne*s 'Master Masons.' 
Among the satirical prints in the British 

well's Life of Johnson, ed. Birkbeck Hill, i. 251-2; 
Hawkins's Life of Johnson, pp. 373-8 ; Smiles's 
Lires of the Enffineers, i. 264-5; Builder, 1866, 
p. 429 ; Annual Register, 1760 pp. 74^, 122, 143, 



1761 p. 124. 1770 pp. 164, 176, 1771 p. 124; 
Cassells Old and New Edinburgh, i. 251-2; 
Thoroton*s Noltinghamsbire, Hi. 383 n.^ 406 ; 
Lysons's EoTirons, i. 4 ; Wheatlej's London, ii. 
604 ; Wheatlev's Bound about Piccadilly, pp. 
197,383; Wright's Hexham, p. 208; Brayley's 
Surrey, iv. 27 ; Gateshead Observer, 20 Oct. 
1860, p. 6; London Mag. 1760 p. 164, 1766 
p. 549; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 234; 
Scots Mag. 1769 pp. 461-9, 1770 p. 518, 1790 
p. 154 ; Prin. Probate Eeg. Crickett, p. 297 ; 
Nichols's Lit.Anecd. viii. 610 ; Lyon's Lodge of 
Edinburgh, pp. 94-5 ; Maitland's London (cont. 
by Entick), 1775, i. 34; Cat. of King's Prints 
and Drawings; Benn's Belfast, i. 608-9 ; Nash's 
Worcestershire, ii. Suppl. p. 8; inscriptions on 
tomb at Great Amwell, given in Cussans's Hert- 
fordshire, ii. 126-7; Lords' Journals, 1770, pp. 
411 6, 412a, 414 6, 436 6; Cleland's Annals of 
Glasgow, i. 71 ; Kincuid's Edinburgh, pp. 128- 
134; Picture of Dublin, 1835, p. 177.] B. P. 

1668), the last Scottish protestant martyr, 
in his early years visited Germany, where 
he imbibed the doctrines of the Reformation, 
and afterwards became priest in the church 
of Lunan in Angus. During the time of 
Cardinal Beaton information was laid against 
him as a heretic, whereupon he fled the 
country, and was condemned to be burnt 
wherever he might be found. Long after 
the cardinars death he was at the instance 
of John Uamilton, bishop of St. Andrews, 
apprehended in April 1668 in the town of 
Dysart, Fifeshire, where, according to Pits- 
cottie, he * was warmand him in ane poor 
wyfes hous, and was teaching her the com- 
mandments of God* {Chronicles, p. 617). 
After being for some time confined in the 
castle of St. Andrews, he was brought 
for trial before an assemblage of bishops, 
abbots, and doctors in the cathedral church. 
He was then over eighty years of age, and 
so weak and infirm that he could scarce 
climb up to the pulpit where he had to answer 
before them. Y'et, says Foxe, * when he began 
to speak he made the church to ring and 
sound again with so ^at courage and 
stoutness that the Christians which were 
present were no less rejoiced than the ad- 
versaries were confounded and ashamed.' So 
far £rom pretending to deny the accusations 
against hmi, he made use of the opportunity 
boldly to denounce what he regarded as the 
special errors of the Romish church; his trial 
was soon over, and he was condemned to be 
burnt as a heret ic on 28 April 1 568. Accord- 
ing to George Buchanan, the commonalty of 
St. Andrews were so offended at the sentence 
that they shut up their shops in order that 
they miffht sell no materials for his execu- 
tion ; and after his death they heaped up in his 

memory a great pile of stones on the place 
where he was burned. Mylne was married, 
and his widow was alive in 1673, when she 
received 6/. ISs. 4:d, out of the thirds of the 

[Histories of Lindsay of Pitscottie, Buchanan, 
Knox, and Calderwood ; Foxes Book of Martyrs.] 

T. F. U. 


(1781-1863), engineer and architect, bom on 
6 or 6 April 1781, was the second son of 
Robert Mylne (1734-1811) [q. v.] In 1797 
he was already assisting his father to stake 
out the lands for the Eau Brink Cut, and 
he also worked on the Gloucester and Berke- 
ley Ship Canal. In 1804 he was appointed 
assistant engineer to the New River Com- 
pany, succeeding in 1811 to the sole con- 
trol of the works. This appointment he 
held for fifty years. In 1810 he was em- 
ployed on the Colchester water works ; in 
1811 and 1813 he made surveys of the 
Thames; in 1813 he surveyed Portsmouth 
harbour for the lords of the admiralty, and 
was engaged in engineering works in JParis 
and the surrounding country in the autumn 
of 1816. In 1821 he designed and executed 
water works for the city of Lichfield, and in 
1836 those for Stamford in Lincolnshire. 
As surveyor to the New River Company 
he laid out fifty acres of land for building 
purposes near Islington, and designed St. 
Mark's Church, Myddelton Square, 1820-8. 
The property has since become a large source 
of income to the company. lie converted 
also, for the New River Company, Sir Hugh 
Myddelton*8 old wooden mains and service 
pipes between Charing Cross and Bishops- 
gate Street into cast-iron. In 1828 he con- 
structed many settling reservoirs at Stoke 
Newin^on, for the better supply of the out- 
lying districts of the north of London. Al- 
though undertaking architectural work, and 
making additions and alterations to many 
private residences, the bulk of his practice 
consisted of engineering projects in connec- 
tion with water-supply and drainage. 

In 1837 he designed Garrard's Hostel 
Bridge at Cambridge (plate in Hann and 
IlosKiNG, Bridges). In the fen country he 
was much occupied. He effected improve- 
ments in the river Ouse between Littleport 
and Ely in 1826, in the river Cam in 1829, 
and in the drainage of the district of Burnt 
Fen. He constructed the intercepting drain 
at Bristol, thus removing the sewage from 
the floating harbour. The Metropolis Water- 
works Act of 1862 necessitated extensive 
alterations and improvements in the works 
of the New River Company, which Mylne 




carried out, with the assistance of his son 
Robert William Mylne (see below). 

In 1840 he gave evidence before commit- 
tees of the House of Lords on the supply of 
water to the metropolis (again in 1860 before 
the sanitary commission of the board of 
health), and (with Sir John Eennie) on the 
embanking of the river Thames {Papers and 
Beports, xii. [2i>5-8] 63, [357-62] 83 ; xxii. 
[464-9] 42). With II. B. Gunning he was 
employed as surveyor under the Act for 
making preliminary inquiries in certain cases 
of application for Local Acts in 1847, at 
LeeaSy Rochdale, and elsewhere. His many 
printed reports include one on the intended 
Eau Brink Cut (with J. Walker), Cambridge, 

1825, and one addressed to the New Kiver 
Company on the supply of water to the city 
sewers, London, 1854 (cf. also Trans, of Inst, 
of Civil Eng, iii. 234). In 1831 he wrote an 
account to the Society of Antiquaries, Lon- 
don, of some Roman remains discovered at 
Ware in Hertfordshire. Mylne succeeded to 
the surveyorship of the Stationers* Company 
on the death of his father in 1811, and held 
the post till 1861. 

He was elected fellow of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society in 1821,F.R.S. on 16 March 

1826, fellow of the Institute of British Ar- 
chitects in 1834, member of the Institute of 
Civil Engineers 28 June 1842 (on the council 
from 1844 to 1848), and was for many years 
treasurer to the Smeatonian Society of En- 

He retired from his profession in 1861, 
and died at Amwell in Hertfordshire on 
2rj Dec. 1863. He married Mary Smith (1791- 
1874), daughter of George S. Coxhead, by 
whom he had three sons and three daughters. 
His widow died on 10 Feb. 1874. His por- 
trait, painted by H. W. Phillips in 1856, was 
engraved by H. Adlard in 1860, and is repro- 
duced in Mylne*8 * Master Masons.' 

His son, Robert William Mylne (1817- 
1890), architect, engineer, and geologist, was 
bom 14 June 1817, and practised as an archi- 
tect and engineer. He was occupied on the 
harbour at Sunderland in 1836, and travelled 
in Italy and Sicily in 1841-2. He assisted 
his father for about twenty years, and became 
an authority on questionsoi water-supply and 
drainage. He held the post of engineer to the 
Limerick Water Company for some time. His 
most noticeable work was the providing of a 
good supply of water for one of the sunk forts 
in the sea at Spithead. He succeeded his 
father in 1860 as surveyor to the Stationers' 
Company, and held the post till his death. He 
was associate of the Institute of British Ar- 
chitects in 1839, fellow in 1849, retiring in 
1889 ; member of the Geelogical Society in 

1848, was on the council from 1854 to 1868, 
and again in 1879, and was one of the secre^ 
taries in 1856-7. He was also a member of 
the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, of 
which he acted as treasurer for some time, an<^ 
belonged both to the London and Edinburgh. 
Societies of Antiquaries. He was preparing^ 
a work on the architectural antiquities of 
Eastern Scotland at the time of nis death. 
He married, on 1 7 March 1 852, Hannah (1 826- 
1885), daughter of George Scott, J.P., of 
Ravenscourt Park, Middlesex, and died at 
Home Lodffe, Great Amwell, on 2 July 1890. 
He published: 1. *0n the Supply of 
Water from Artesian Wells in the London 
Basin,* London, 1840. For this Mylne was 
awarded the Telford bronze medal by the 
Institute of Civil Engineers (cf. Minutes of 
Proceedings of the Institute^ 1839, pp. 69 et 
seq). 2. * Account of the Ancient Basilica 
of San Clemente at Rome,' London, 1845, 
and in Weale*s * Quarterly Papers on Archi- 
tecture,' vol. iv. 3. * Sections of the Lon- 
don Strata,' London, 1850. 4. * Topographical 
Map of London and its Environs,' London, 
1851 and 1855. 5. * Map of the Geology and 
Contours of London ana its Environs,' Lon- 
don, 1856 — a work which was used officially 
until superseded by the ordnance survey. 
6. * Map of London, Geological — ^Water- 
works and Sewers,' London, 1858. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Mylne's Master Masons, 
pp. 284-98; Builder, 1864,p. 8 ; Cooper's Annals 
of Cambridge, iv. 608 ; Inst, of Civ. Eng., 
Minutes of Proceedings, xxz. 448-«51 ; Cussans's 
Hertfordshire, ii. 126-7 ; Arcbaeologia, vol. xxiv. 
App. p. 360 ; Proc. of Royal Soc 1865, pp. xii, 
xiii ; Monthly Notices of the Astronomical So- 
ciety, 1 865, XXV. 82 ; Probate Registry at 
Somerset House ; Transactions of Inst, of Civ. 
Eng. iii. 229 ; Geological Magazine, 189U, p. 384; 
Quarterly Journal of Geological Soc. 1891, pp. 
59-61 ; Proc. of Royal Soc. 1890, pp. xx, xxi.] 


1666), vice-admiral, is said by Pepys to have 
been of very humble origin, * his father bein^ 
always, and at this day, a shoemaker, and 
his mother, a hoy man's daughter, of which 
he was used frequently to boast' (Diary, 
13 June 1666; cf. 26 Oct, 1665). This is 
certainly exaggerated, if not entirely false. 
His parents were of well-to-do families in 
the north of Norfolk. His father, John 
Myngs, though described in the register of 
Salthouse, where he was married on 28 Sept. 
1623, as ' of the parish of St. Katherine in tne 
city of London, seems to have been a near 
kinsman, if not a son, of Nicholas Mynnes, 
the representative of a good old Norfolk 
family (Blomefieli), Topographical History 




of Norfolk, Index; cf. Add, MS. 14299, ff. 
55, 143), one of whose sons, Christopher, 
was baptised at Blakeney on 8 March 1585 
(Mabsmall, Genealogist, i. 38-9). His mother, 
Katherine Parr (baptised at Kelling on 
16 June 1605), was toe daughter of Ohristo- 

Eher Parr, the owner of property in the neigh- 
ourhood. The son, Christopher, was baptised 
at Salthouse on 22 Nov. 1625 (Kelling and 
Salthouse registers, by the kinoness of the 
rector, the Rev. C. E. Lowe). It is probable 
that from his early youth he was Drought 
up to the sea in the local coasting-trade; 
but while still a mere lad he entered on 
board one of the stated ships, and served, as 
a shipmate of Thomas Brooks [q*v.], for 
* several years * before 1648 (State Papers, 
Dom. Interre^um, ciii. 128). In 1652 he 
was serving m the squadron in the Medi- 
terranean under Commodore Richard Badi- 
ley [q. vj, probably as lieutenant or master 
of the Elizabeth. On the homeward pas- 
sage in May 1653 the captain of the Eliza- 
beth was killed in an engagement with a 
Dutch ship (Cal, State Papers, Dom. 16 June 
1653 ; cf. Lediard, p. 551 n.), and Mynp was 
promoted to the vacancy. On arriving in 
England, the men of the Elizabeth, with 
those of the other ships, insisted on being 
paid off; but the ship was refitted and re- 
manned as soon as possible ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 24-27 June 1653), and, under My ngs's 
command, took part in the final action of 
the war, 29-31 July 1063 {Add. MS. 22646, 
f. 185\ On 3 Oct. she had just carried the 
vice-cnancellor of Poland and his retinue 
across to Dieppe, when, on her return voyage, 
she fell in with a fleet of Dutch merchant- 
vessels under convoy of two men-of-war, 
which, after a sharp action, Myngs brought 
into the Downs. He reported the afiair on 
the 4th, and on the Cth it was ordered by 
parliament ' that the Council of State take 
notice of the captain of the Elizabeth, and 
consider the widow and children of the 
master,' who had been killed in the fight 
{Cal. State Papers, Dom.) The Elizabeth 
afterwards carried Whitelocke, the ambas- 
sador to Sweden, to Gothenburg, where he 
arrived on 15 Nov. The ship was detained 
there by contrary winds, and her men became 
very sickly ; ninety men, Myngs wrote, were 
sick, and five had died. She was thus so 
weak that when, on her way home, she met 
a Dutch convoy, she was obliged to leave 
them after an interchange of shot (ib. 2 Jan. 
1654). Myngs continued to command the 
Elizabeth in the Channel and on the coast 
of France during 1654 and the early months 
of 1655. On 30 Jan. 1654-5 his old ship- 
mate and friend, Thomas Brooks, wrote to 

the commissioners of the admiralty, recom- 
mending him for preferment. 'He is,' he 
said, 'a man fearing the Lord; a man of 
sound principles, and of a blameless life and 
conversation ; he is one of much valour, and 
has shown it again and a^n in several en- 
gagements and by the prizes he has taken. 
Vice-admiral Goodsonn and Vice-admiral 
Badiley, if they were here, would under- 
write this writing from their knowledge of 
him and their love to him: more than I 
have written I have heard them say ' {State 
Pavers. Dom. Inter, ciii. 128). 

In October 1655 Myngs was appointed to 
the Marston Moor, which had come home 
from Jamaica, and whose men were in .a 
state of mutiny on being ordered back to 
the West Indies (cf. ib. 1 Oct. 1655). When 
Myngs joined the ship at Portsmouth, he 
found the men * in such an attitude as did 
not admit of further employment.' They 
were mostly all strangers to him, he said, so 
that he had. no personal influence with them 
(ib. 12 Oct.) Some of the worst were made 
prisoners; the rest were paid their wages, 
and within a few days the ship sailed for the 
West Indies, where during tne next six or 
seven years *he came into great renown' 
(Pepys, 13 Jime 1666), though the par- 
ticulars of his service there have not been 
preserved. In July 1657 the Marston Moor 
returned to England, was paid ofi^ and or- 
dered to be refitted. Myngs, meanwhile, 
obtained leave of absence and was married 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 7, 14 July, 31 Aug. 
1657) ; but by the beginning of December 
was again, with the Marston Moor, in the 
Downs, waiting for a small convoy he was 
to take to Jamaica. He seems to have been 
still in the West Indies at the Restoration, 
and to have been one of the very few who 
were not affected by the change of govern- 
ment. In 1662 he was appointed to the 
Centurion, in which he was again at Jamaica 
in 1663 (cf. Cal. State Papers, America and 
W^est Indies, 31 July 1058, 1 and 20 June 
1660, 25 May 1664). In 1664 he commanded, 
in Quick succession, the Gloucester, Portland, 
and Royal Oak, in which last he hoisted his 
flag as vice-admiral of a Channel squadron 
commanded by Prince Rupert. In 1665 he 
was vice-admiral of the white squadron, with 
his flag in the Triumph, in the battle of 
Lowestoft on 3 June ; and for his services 
on this day was knighted on 27 June (Lb 
Neve, Pedigrees of the Knights). When 
the Duke of York retired from the command 
and the fleet was reorganised imder the 
Earl of Sandwich, Myngs became vice-ad- 
miral of the blue squadron, and served in 
that capacity during the autumn campaign 




on the coast of Norway and at the capture 
of the Dutch East Indiamen [see Montagu, 
Edward, first Eabl of Sandwich]. After- 
wards, with his flag in the Fairfax, he com- 
manded a strong squadron for the winter 
Suard and the protection of trade. In 
anuary 1665-6 it was reported from Ports- 
mouth that * by sending out ships constantly 
to cruise about, he hath kept this coast very 
free from all the enemy*8 men-of-w^ar ' ( Ga- 
zette^ No. 18) ; and again, some weeks later, 
* his vigilance is sucli that hardly anything 
can escape our frigates that come throu£rh 
the Channer (ib. No. 39). In March lie 
convoyed the Hamburg trade from the Elbe 
to the Thames; and in April when the fleet 
Assembled for the summer, under Prince 
Kupert and the Duke of Albemarle, he 
hoisted his flag in the Victory as vice-ad- 
miral of the red squadron {State PaperSy 
Dom. Charles II, cliv. 128). On 29 May 
he was detached to the westward with the 
prince (tb. clvii. 40,41 ; cf.MoNCK, George, 
I)uKE OF Albemarle; Rupert, Prince), 
and was thus absent during the first three 
days of the great battle ofi^the North Fore- 
land, 1-4 June. On the fourth day, Myngs, 
in the Victory, led the van, and engaged the 
Dutch vice-admiral, De Liefde, broadside to 
broadside, the yardarms of the two ships 
almost touching. De Liefde's ship was dis- 
masted, whereupon Myngs made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to burn her with a fireship. 
The Dutch pressed in to support De Liefde ; 
the two admirals, Van Nes and Kuyter, 
brought up other ships, and the battle raged 
fiercely. Myngs was shot through the throat. 
lie refused to leave the deck, even to have 
the wound dressed, but remained standing, 
compressing it with his fingers till he fell, 
mortally wounded by another bullet which, 
passing through his neck, lodged in his 
shoulder (Brandt, Vie de Michel de Huiter, 
pp. 3')9, 363; State PaperfyDom.Cha.r\ii8 lly 
clviii. 48; Pbpys, 8 Junel666). The wound 
w^as, it was hoped on the 7th, * without 
danger;' but on the 10th Pepys recorded 
the news of the admiral's death. As he was 
buried in London on the 13th, it would seem 
probable that lie died at his own house in 
Goodman's Fields, Whitechapel. Pepys, who 
was at the funeral, noted that no person of 

fuality was there but Sir William Coventry 
q. v.], and described how * about a dozen 
able, lusty, proper men came to the coach 
side witli tears in their eyes, and one of them, 
that spoke for the rest, said to Sir W. 
Coventry, ** We are here a dozen of us that 
have long known and loved and served our 
mander, Sir Christopher Myngs, 
ow done the last omce of laying 

him in the ground. We would be glad we 
had any other to ofier after him and in re- 
venge of him. All we have ia our lives ; if 
you will please to get his Royal Highness to 
give us a fireship among us all, choose you 
one to be commander, and the rest of us, 
whoever he is, will serve him, and if pos- 
sible, do that that shall show our memory 
of our dead commander and our revenge " ' 
(Diary, 13 June; cf Cai. State Papers, 
Dom. l>8, 29 June 1666). 'The truth is,' 
continues Pepys, * Sir Christopher Myngs was 
a A^ery stout man, and a man of great parts, 
and most excellent tongue among ordinaiy 
men ; and as Sir W^. Coventry says, coul^ 
have been the most useful man at such a 
pinch of time as this. . . . He had brought 
Lis family into a way of being great ; but 
dying at this time, his memory and name 
will be quite forgot in a few months as if he 
had never been, nor any of his name be the 
better by it : he having not had time to will 
any estate, but is dead poor rather than 
rich.' By his will (at Somerset House, Mico, 
167) he left 300/. to Mary, his daughter by 
his first wife ; and his lands, in the parish of 
Salthouse, to his second wife, Rebecca, and 
after her death, to his son by her, Christopher 
Myngs, who commanded the Namur in the 
battle of Malaga in 1704; was afterwards 
commissioner ot the navy at Portsmouth, and 
died in 1725, leaving issue (Chabnock, iL 
188; Le Neve, Pedigrees of the Knights; 
Marshall, Genealogist,!. 38-9; will, proved 
February 1725-6). There was also a ciaugh- 
ter, Rebecca, bom of the second wife. The 
John Myngs whom he requested to have 
appointed surgeon of the (rloucester (CaL 
State Papers, l)om. 27 Mav 16(U) may nave 
been his brother. Myngs^s portrait, by Sir 
Peter Lely, one of those mentumed by Pepys, 
18 April 1660, is in the Painted Hall at 
Greenwich ; there is a contemporary en- 
graved portrait in l^iorato's 'Historia di 
Leopoldo Cesare' (1670, ii. 714). 

[The memoir in Charnock's Biog. Nav. i. 82 
is very imperfect ; the details of Myngs's career 
are only to be found in the Calendars of State 
Papers, Domestic; and, more fully, in the State 
Papers themselves. There are also many notices 
of him in Pepys's Diary. The writer has also to 
acknowledge some notes and sugs^estions kindly 
furnished by the Rev. G. W. Minns, himself a 
member of the same family, by Mr. G. E. 
Cokajne, and by Mr. Daniel llipwell. The 
spelling of the name here followed is that of 
Myngs's signature. It is not improbable that 
he adopted it as a difference from that of the 
elder branch of his family, which retained the 
form Mjnnes. But other writers have invented 
a very great number of diverse spellings — 
among them Minns, Mims, Minnes, Mennes — 




"which haTe led to occasional confusion with Sir 
John Mennes [q. v.] So far as can be ascertained, 
the two families were not related.] J. K. L. 

bom at Goudhurst, Kent, 19 Jan. 1807, was 
the fourth son of William Mynn, a gentleman 
farmer, whose ancestors were renowned for 
their ereat stature and physical strength. He 
was educated privately, and in 1825 removed 
with his family to Harrietsham, near Leeds 
in Kent, which at that time boasted of the 
best cricket club in the county. Here he 
learned his early cricket under the tuition of 
AVilles, the reintroducer (1807) of round-arm 
bowling, which had been invented by Tom 
Walker of the Hambledon Club in 1790. 
Mynn was for a time in his brother s business 
as a hop merchant, but appears to have ne- 
glected Dusiness for cricket, which he played 
continually. He made his first appearance at 
Lord*s in 1832, and thenceforwara for more 
than twenty years played in all important 
matches. He played with the Gentlemen 
against the Players twenty times, and for his 
county reffularly till 1854, and occasionally 
till 1860. Without him the Gentlemen could 
not have met the Players on equal terms, and 
their victories in 1842, 1843, and 1848 were 
mainly due to his fine all-round play. It was 
largely due to him also that his county was for 
twenty years pre-eminent in the cricket-field. 
He was a member of the touring All-England 
eleven formed by Clarke of Nottingham from 
1840 to 1854. His last appearances were at 
Lord's for Kent r. M.C.C., 1854, at the Oval 
in the Veterans* match (eighteen Veterans v, 
England), 1858, and for his county (Kent r. 
Middlesex), 18fiO. In his later years he lived 
altematelv in Thumham, near Maidstone, 
and Loncfon, where he died 1 Nov. 1861. 
He was buried at Thumham with military 
honours, the l^eedsand Hillingboume volun- 
teers, of which corps he was a member, fol- 
lowing him to the grave. He was remarkable 
for his genial temper. About 1830 he married 
Sarah, daughter of Dr. Powell of Lenham, 
by whom he had seven children. 

As a cricketer Mynn held high rank. He 
was a very powerful man, 6 feet 1 inch in 
height, and in his best day weighed from 
eighteen to nineteen stone. He was a fine 
though not very stylish batsman, and was 
especially good against fast bowling. He had 
a strong defence, and was a powerful and 
resolute hitter, especially on the on side of 
the wicket. Perhaps his most remarkable per- 
formance with the bat was in 1836, when he 
scored 283 runs in four consecutive innings, 
and was twice not out. 

It was as a bowler, however, that Mvnn 
made his chief reputation. He was the first 

fast round-arm bowler of eminence, and in 
the long list of his successors has had few if 
any superiors. His great strength enabled 
him to maintain a terrific pace for nours with- 
out fatigue. Before his appearance the chief 
round-arm bowlers, Frederick William Lilly- 
white [q. v.] and Broadbridge and their imi- 
tators, were slow bowlers, who depended for 
their success upon break, accuracy of pitch, 
and head bowling. It was Mynn who added 
pace to accuracy. He was also a great single- 
wicket player, beating twice each Hills of 
Kent in 1832, Dearman, the champion of the 
north, in 1838, and Felix [see Wanostbocht, 
NATHAiaBL], his old colleague, in 1846. 

Several portraits exist. The best is pro- 
bably that by Felix, now in the possession of 
Mynn's daughter, Mrs. Kenning, which repre- 
sents him at the age of forty-one. 

[Denison's Sketches of the Players; Lilly white's 
Scores and Biographies of Celebrated Cricketers ; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser. x. 68.] J. W. A. 

MYNORS, ROBERT (1739-1806), sur- 
geon, bom in 1739, practised with consider- 
able reputation at Birmingham for more than 
forty years. He died there in 1806. A son, 
Robert Edward Eden Mynors, student of Lin- 
coln's Inn, 1806, and M.A. of University Col- 
lege, Oxford, 1813, died at Weatheroak HUl, 
Worcestershire, on 16 Dec. 1842, aged 54 
(Foster, ^/Mmni O.ron. 1715-1886, iii. 1004 ; 
Gent Mag. 1843, pt. i. p. 222). 

Mynors wrote : 1 . * Practical Observations 
on Amputation,' 12mo, Birmingham, 1783. 
2. * History of the Practice of Trepanning 
the Skull, and the after Treatment,' &c., 8vo, 
Birmingham, 1785. He also contributed an 
'Account of some Improvements in Surgery ' 
to Duncan's ' Medical and Philosophical Com- 

[Cat.of Libr.of Med.andChirur;?. See; ReuFs'a 
Alphabetical Register, 1790-1803, pt. ii. p. 129 ; 
Diet, of Livinar Authors, 1816, pp. 247, 442; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.] G. G. 

MYNSHUL, GEFFRAY (1694-1668), 
author. [See Minshull.] 

MYRDDIN EMRYS, legendary en- 
chanter. [See Merlin Ambrosius.] 

MYRDDIN Wyllt, i.e. tlie Mad (/. 
580?), Welsh poet, is in mediaeval Welsh 
literature credited with the authorship of six 
poems printed in the ' My vyrian Archaiologv,* 
2nd edit. pp. 104-18,348. In two sets of tke 
Triads he is styled Myrddin mab Morfryn, or 
ap Madog Morfryn {My vyrian Archaiohgyy. 
pp. 394, 411). The searching analysis of 
Thomas Stephens (Literature of the Kymn/y 
2nd edit. pp. 202-70), though needing re- 
vision in some of its details, has clearly shown 

Mytens u Mytens 

It,..! I liratt Myrdilin pin'ms cannot be the work influenced by the style of Rubens. In 1610 he 

.r Mil / |mhM nf tilt* Hixth century, and are in was made a member of the {ipiild of St. Luke 

r .• I I li' |fniilu(*t of the Welsh national revival at the Ilas^ue. He came over to England be- 

■ j I III! iwi'Ifili and thirteenth. Stephens's fore 1618, and quickly obtained favour among 

«. MMi|iliiMi that the Myrddin Wyllt who is th*.' court and nobility. My tens received from 

ii..'liiiiiiiiillv associated with the authorship James I, in 1624, a grant of a house in St. 

'.r I III |MiiMiift is idcnt ical with Mynldin Kmrys, Martin's Lane {liiustr. London New9, June 

. ' Mirrliii iir .Mi'riimts Ambrosius q. a'.~. the 1S57>. and on the accession of Charles I was 

I'^'ij'ltiry iMirhanter, seems, on the other made * kind's painter,* with a pension for life 

l..i<i'l, iiii|»rolKi!»le. ( Uymer, /W^m, xxviii. 3). llis earlier por- 

A ' iiirly iiM the end of the twelfth century traits are with difficulty to be distinguished 

' i .1 .ililii-i ( 'ninl)n*nsis sharply distiniruishes from those byPaul A*an Somer[q^i v.],onwhose 

' Ml rliiiUH Ainhmsius' (Mynldin Kmrvs). death in 1621 Mytens was left without a rival. 

.. Ii'f wii'^ found at Carmarthen and ]in^pht*<ied There is no ground for Walpole's suggestion, 

l#i r-iiit Nurtij^n-rn, from an«)ther * Merlinus ' that the full-length portraits by these two 

rilli'l ' Silvi'ster* or * Celidonius/ who cam^ artists can be distinguished through those 

fi'iijj \\u: Nfifth (Albania), was a contem- standing on matting being by Van Somer, 

|.'/r.iiy of Arthur, saw a horrible portent in anil those on oriental carpets by Mytens. The 

I Pi' Axy \vliili> fiirhting in a battle, and sp^nt full-length portraits by Mytens, though stiff 

I III I'l-.-i ni' his days a madman in the wo )ds. In attitude and costume, haA'e great dignity, 

I. . II li uf tlujtwo legends appears to di-al with and are frequentlv painted with much care 

ij 'liti'irfnt ]M»rson, and while il is the former and excellence, lie was a versatile artist. 

l>aid ll>0/. in 1625 {.Ilht^tr. 

«'i l*«lii'v»', however, that Myrddin Wyllt 27 March 1 So8\ a st»t of copies of Raphaers 

\sikT^ ill no way connect«*d with «-itlj<-r of nirtoims (now at Knole), less than tne ori- 

«l».-i- MiTlins, and that ho may \»*i idi-ntifiLd jrinal size, and the full-length portraita of 

.", it h a not \\v.T person, who wax pffdiaMy <-ai!«;fl Margaret Tudor, queen of Scotland, and Mary 

Hi liin own lifi'timii Llallo;:aii. Joinlyn of (^inM.nof Scots (both now at Hampton Court), 

1 II. II.'.'..'*, in his * Lir«i of St. Kintigirrn ' diA and James IV, king of Scotland Tat Keir). 

«,t t willrli C'Mitiiry), Kays that ilii-n; wim at Many pictures by M^'tens are incluaed in the 

1 1., i-iuri of KhyddiTch lla"l, kin;? of tlic rat alogue of Charles Is collection. He also 

'ij.itljclydf Hritoiis about o^)^ii fool naini'd painted small portraits; on 18 Aug. 1618 he 

''iy\^*\i\\\\\w^T\yf;/vifnanAi'rhfiiolo;fij,'2\u\ narrati's in his M)iarv' (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
..ij. |i]i. !()>< l.*i), (Jwt'nddydd addn-HH-s Iht MS. 2:5070, f. 32) t hat* on the arrival of Van- 
i,j',ilji'r (Myrddin or Merlin) as * Llallo;:an.' «lyck in Kngland Mytens felt himself over- 
it i.T not too much to assunn* that a hard iiiat died, and lx»ggei leave from the king to 
i;j:ii*. 'I IJallugan lo.^t his wits in eninn'ction witlidrawinto Holland, but without success. 
.v.tli till, bat til* of Arderydcl (fought, about 1 1 wouhl appear, however, that he was on very 
',7^. :iiid trailitionally a.<sociated with .Myr- Irii'Mfliy terms with Vandyck, as the latter in- 
*i'\:u Wyllt >,and, wandmn;: in thi; fon-st . wa.s rhuh-d Mytens's portnut in his famous series 
• .i/--ijiiiMtly revered as a siht and ]>roph«'t. knuwu as the *(Jentum Icones,' and painted 
•I .\ /liiiii Ar^haiology; StrpliiTis's Liioraiim? a fin«* portrait of Mytens and his wire (now 
«.?« .«. Kymry; OiniMusCanihrifiiHiM' JtiiH'pariuiii at Woburn Abbey). 

'.'.j(i.i,j!;i ■ ff. art. on Mbumn.] J. K. L. Among the existing portraits signed and 

M yTENS, DAXIKL (loJK) ?- HU2), dat^.d by Mytens may l>e noted James, mar- 

P'/iiuii'-priihtir, son of Maerten Myt«'ns, a quis of Hamilton, i(i22 (Hampton Court 

i-a-idh.r, wa** !y>rn about 151K) at the IhigiH! and Knole); Lionel Cranfield, earl of Middle- 

•i<l. It is uncertain from what \ spx, \iV2\\ (Knole); Lodovick Stuart, duke 

^.-ceived his instructions in art, ' of Kichmond, 1623 (Hampton Court); Er- 

ry likely that it was in the school nest, count Mansfeldt, and Christian, duke 

;rait-painter Michiel van Mien*- ' of liru nswick, 1624 (Hampton Court), in the 

dft. Subsequently ho was much I year of their embassy to solicit help from 




James I ; the Countess of Newcastle, 1024 
(Duke of Portland) ; George Calvert, lord 
Baltimore, 1627 (Wentworth Woodhouse) ; 
Charles I, with architectural background 
by H. Steenwyck, 1027 (Turin Gallery); 
Charles I, 1629, and Henrietta Maria, 1630, 
both engraved by W. J. Delff ; Robert Rich, 
earl of Warwick, 1032 (Sir C. S. Rich, hart.) ; 
Anne Clifford, countess of Dorset, 1032 
(Knole, half-length); Philip, earl of Pem- 
broke, 1634 (Hardwick). Among others may 
be noticed a large picture of Charles I, Hen- 
rietta Maria, and the dwarf, Sir Jeffrey Hud- 
eon, with horses, dogs, and servants, of which 
versions exist at Windsor Castle, Serlby, and 
Knowsley ; Sir Jeffrey Hudson (Hampton 
Court) ; Charles I (Cobham Hall) ; Georjje, 
duke of Buckingham ("formerly at Blenheim 
Palace) ; William, second duke of Hamilton 
(Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edin- 
burgh, from Hamilton Palace) ; Charles 
Howard, earl of Nottingham (at Arundel 
Castle, Greenwich, and elsewhere); Henry 
Wriothesley, earl of Southampton ; and his 
own portrait by himself (Hampton Court). 
Portraits of Henry, prince of Wales {d. 1612), 
at Hampton Court and Knole, are ascribed to 
Mytens, and are probably copies from some 
older picture. 

Mytens returned to Holland in 1630, and 
died there in 1642 ; but there is great un- 
certainty as to the end of his life. Mytens 
married at the Hague, in 101 2, Gratia CJlej tser. 
He was remarried, on 2 Sept. 1628, at the 
Dutch Church, Austin Friars, London, to 
Johanna Drossaert, widow of Joos de Neve, 
by whom he had two children, Elisabeth and 
Susanna, baptised at the same church on 1 July 
1629 (MoENS, Register of the Butch Church, 
Austin Friars), Care must be taken to dis- 
tinguish his works from those of his younger 
brother, Isaac Mytens {d, 1632), his nephew 
(son of his elder brother, David), Johannes 
Mytens and his son, Daniel Mytens the 
younger, and another nephew (son of Isaac), 
Maerten Mytens, who all became portrait- 
painters, but in no instance worked in Eng- 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, ed. Womum ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Seguier's Diet, of 
Painters ; Catalogues of Exhibitions and Pieture 
Galleries; information from George Seharf^esq., 
C.B., and £. W. Moes (Amsterdam); authorities 
cited in the text.] L. C. 

MYTTON, JOHN (1796-1834), sports- 
man and eccentric, bom on 30 Sept. 1796, 
was the only son of John Mytton of Halston, 
Shropshire, by his wife Harriet, third daugh- 
ter of William Mostyn Owen of Woodhouse 
in the same county. Before he was two 
yean old his father died, and he became the 

heir to a fortune which by the time he came 
of age amounted to an income of more than 
10,000/. a year, and 60,000/. in ready money. 
On 5 June 1807 he was admitted to West- 
minster School, where he remained until 
1811. It is said that he was also educated 
at Harrow, that he was expelled from both 
schools, and that he knocked down the pri- 
vate tutor to whom he was subsequently sent. 
He became a cornet in the 7th hussars on 
30 May 1816, and served with them in 
France for a short time, but left the army in 
the following year. From 1817 to 1821 he 
was master of foxhounds, hunting what was 
afterwards known as the Albrighton country. 
He was on the turf from 1817 to 1830, but 
though he kept a large racing stable he 
never once bred a good horse. At a, by- 
elect ion in May 1819 he was returned in the 
tory interest for Shrewsbury, but resigned 
his seat at the dissolution in February 1820. 
He served the office of high sheriff for Shrop- 
shire and Merionethshire respectively, and 
in May 1831 unsuccessfully contested Shrop- 
shire as a reformer. * Jack Mytton,' as he 
was popularly called, was a man of great 
physical strength and foolhardy courage, with 
an inordinate love of conviviality and a 
strongly developed taste for practical joking. 
He was a daring horseman and a splendid 
shot. Of his foolhardiness there are num- 
berless stories. On one occasion he is said 
to have actually galloped at full speed over 
a rabbit warren just to try whether or not 
his horse would fall, which of course it 
did, and moreover rolled over him. On an- 
other occasion he drove a tandem at night 
across country for a wager, and successfully 
surmounted a sunk fence three yards wide, 
a broad deep drain, and two stiff quickset 
hedges. He would sometimes strip to the 
shirt to follow wild fowl in hard weather ; 
and once he is said to have followed some 
ducks in puris naturalibus. One night he even 
set fire to his night-shirt in order to frighten 
away the hiccoughs. His average allowance 
was from four to six bottles of port daily, 
which he commenced in the morning while 
shaving. Owing to his reckless way of 
living Mytton lost his entire fortune, and 
his effects at Halston were sold up. In the 
autumn of 1831 he was obliged to take re- 
fuge from his creditors at Calais. He died 
of delirium tremens in the King's Bench 
prison on 29 March 1834, aged 37, and was 
buried on 9 April following in the private 
chapel at Halston. 

Mytton married first, on 21 May 1818, 
Harriet Emma, eldest daughter of Sir Tho- 
mas Tyrwhitt Jones, bart., of Stanley Hall, 
Shropshire, by whom he had an only daugh- 




ter, Harriet Emma Charlotre, wh > married* 
on i»5 Jane l"^!, Cl*:m»:nt l»elves HilL a 
broti^r of ItowUnd. Hnjond vi»e>>ui.t ilill. 
Mvtton's fir«t wife die*l on 2 July 1S20. and 
onii^i^Jct. 1*51/1 he married s^rO^tidlT Caro- 
line Mall-it. sixth 'iau^htvr of Thomas Gif- 
fard of Chillington, .Sutf jrd«hire, bj whom 
he had with other issue a son. John Fox 
Mytton, who died in lS7."i. There is an 
enirrave^i portrait of Mvtton on horseback, 
bv W. Giller, after W.Webb. 


TNimrCfi's Memoirs of the Lite of John Mvt- 
ton, H^r ; Rice's HisVjry of the BHrish Topf, 
187r*, i. 170-Sl : Cecils Records of the Chase, 
1877, pp. 218-21 ; Thormanby's Men of the 
Turf. pp. 5.>-63 ; Borke's Vicisiiiudes of Fami- 
li*^. l%->9, i. 33«J-44; Barkrs Lmlei Gentry, 
IS70, ii. loOo; Gent. Mag. 1834, pt. i. p. 
6-37; .Shrew-jbnry Chronicle. 4 and 11 April 
1831 ; NoN-s and' Qaeri«-s. 5th ser. rii. 108. 197, 
230 : Officinl Return of Lists or* Members of 
Parliament, pt. ii. p. 276; .\rmvList for 1817.] 

G. F. R. B. . 

MYTTOX. THOMAS (1597h-165C^. 
parliamentarian, bom alxmt 1507, son of 
ilichard Mytton of Halston, Shropshirv, by 
Margan.'t, daughter of Thomas Owen of Con- 
dover, matriculate^l at Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, on 11 May 1*51 o. age<l 18 (CL\RK,i2^y. 
T^nic. 0.rf. ii. .TW ). He liecame a student of 
Lincoln's Inn in 1*510. In 1620 Mytton mar- 
ried Magdalen.daughtor of Sir Robert Napier 
of Luton, Be^lfordshire. and sister of the 
fi*?cond wife of .Sir Thomas Myddelton ( lo86- .. 
W^)) 'q.v.' of Chirk. This" connect ion was ! 
probably one of the reasons which led Mytton . 
to take th^' parliamentary side during the 
civil war. The gentlemen of Shropshire were 
mo-tly royalists, and Myttr)n was throughout 
th»'jruidiiigripiritofthe]»arliamentarian party 
in the county. On 10 April 1643 the parlia- 
in<'nt associated Shropshire with the counties 
of NVurwick and Statlord under the command 
of Basil, earl of Denbigh, Mytton being 
iianie<i ns one of the committee for Shrop- 
sliin* (HtrsBANDS, Ordinances, folio, 1646, 
}.'M)). On 11 S»*pt. 164:5 Myddelton and 
Slytton seized Wem, and established there 
the first parliamentary garrison in Shrop- 
shin*. Mytton was mnd** governor, and in 
Oj'tobfT dihtinguished himself by defeating 
Lr»rr! Cjip^d's attttmpt to r»;capture Wem 
(VifAitM. (iofVfi Ark, p. 6:5; Phillips, Ciml 
War in W'alt's, \. 172, ii. ^\). On llMan. 
Kilt lie Hurpri.s»?d the cavaliers at Elb'smere, 
eantunng Sir Nicholas Byron, Sir Richard 
W illirt, and a convoy r)f ammunition {ib. ii. 
122). On 2:Lhine HU4 Mytton, in conjunc- 
tion with Lord Denbigh, captured Oswestry, 
and Huccf'iidcrl in holding it against a royalist 
'pt at recnpturo (Jib. ii. l7 1-88; Vicabs, 


G'jtf* Ark, p. 260 1. He was appointed go- 
vernor of mwestry, and the newspapera are 
full of praises of his ri^ance and actiTitv. 
His most important serrice was the capture 
of Shrewsbory 1 22 Feb. 1645 >, though the 
honour of the exploit was violently contested 
l>*tween Mytton and Lieutenant-colonel 
Keinking. one of his coadjutors in the com- 
mand of the forces brought together for the 
assault. Both published narratives of the 
surprise { Phillips* L 2^7, ii. 235 : Faibfax, 
Correspondence, iii. 170: Vicars, Burning 
Bu*h, p. 113; OwEX and Blakewat, Hiit. 
of ShreiCihury,y 44^. ii. 49?^. 

On the ^Lssing of the self-denying ordi- 
nance Sir Thomas Myddelton was obliged 
to lay down his ot^mmission, and Mytton 
succetfded to hL< post as commander-in-chief 
of the forces of the six counties of North 
Wales. 12 May 1645 {Lord* Journals, vii. 
367 L He was also appointed high sheritf 
of Shropshire, 30 Sept. lt>45 (i"6. A-ii. 613). 
Henceforth he is frequently described as 
Major-general Mvtton. He took part in the 
defeat of Sir William Vaughan near Denbigh 
on 1 Nov. 1645, thus frustrating t he royabst 
attempts to relieve Chester, and after the fall 
of that city was charged to besiege the rest of 
the rovalist garrisons in North Wales {CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1645-7. p. 349 ; Phillips, 
ii. 2>2). Ruthin (12 April 1646). Carnarvon 
(5 June ltU6), Beaumaris (14 June 1646), 
Conwav town and castle (9 Aug., 18 Nov. 
1()46), Denbigh (26 Oct. 1646). Holt Castle 
(13 Jan. 1647 ). and Harlech Castle(15 March 
1647) surrendered in succession to Mvt ton's 
forces (ib, ii. 301, ;506, 312, 325, 328, 332; 
Cat. State Papers^ Dom. 1(545-7, p. 515). In 
return for these services parliament main- 
tained Mytton as commander-in-chief in 
North Wales when the army was disbanded 
(8 April 1647), and appointed him vice-admi- 
ral of North Wales in place of Glyn ( 30 Doc. 
1647). He was also granted 5,(XX)/. out of 
the estates of royalist delinquents (Lords'* 
Journal, ix. 622, 676, viii. 40:3, x. 656; 
Commons* Journals, v. 137; Collections for 
the History of Montgomeryshire, viii. 156). 

In the second civil war >iy tton was equally 
active on the parliamentary- side, and re- 
covered Anglesea from the rovalists (CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1648-9, pp. 128-31; 
Phillips, ii. 382, 401 ; Clarendon State 
Papers J ii. 418). The king's execution did 
not shake his adherence to the parliament, 
and in September 1651 he consented to act 
as a member of the court-martial which 
sentenced the Earl of Derby to death (Hist, 
MSS, Comm. 7th Rep. p. 95). He is said to 
have been a strong presoyterian, but his pub- 
lic action does not support this theory. It is 




fdso stated that he disapproved of Cromweirs 
govemment, but there is no evidence of this, 
and he represented Shropshire in the first 
parliament called by Cromwell {Old Parlia- 
mentary Hist XX. 302). 

Mytton died in London in 1656, and was 
interred on 29 Nov. in St. Chad's Church, 
Shrewsbury (Owen and Bla.keway, ii. 223). 
His portrait is given in * England's Worthies,' 
by John Vicars, 1647, p. 105. 

Mytton left a son, Richard, who was sheriff 
of Shropshire in 1686, and a daughter, Mary, 
married to the royalist Sir Thomas Harris of 
Boreatton {Collections for the History of 
Montgomeryshire, viii. 299, 309). Another 
daughter is said to have married Colonel 
Roger Pope, a parliamentarian (Babwick, 
Life of John Barmck, p. 50). 

[Phillips's Civil War in Wales, 1874; Pen- 
nant's Tour in Wales, ed. Rhys, i. 303, ii. 121, 
168, 184, 277, iii. 29, 126, 246; Owen and 
Biakeway's Hist, of Shrewsbury, 1825; Blake- 
way's Sheriffs of Shropshire, 1 831. A collection 
of Mytton's correspondence is in the hands of 
Mr. Stanley Leighton, and has been printed by 
him in the Collections for the History and Ar- 
chaeolojfy of Montgomeryshire, vii. 353, viii. 151, 
293 ; cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. iv. 374. 
Other letters of Mytton's are to be found in 
5th Rep. pp. 104, 421. and 4th Rep. pp. 267-9. 
in the Old Parliamentary Hist. xiv. 355, xv. 2, 
171. and in the Calendar of Domestic State 
Papers. The Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library contain twenty-two letters.] C. H. F. 

MYVYR, OWAIN (1741-1814), Welsh 
antiquary. [See Jones, Owex.] 


NAAS, Lord. [See Boubke, Richard 
Southwell, sixth £a.rl op Mayo, 1822- 


NABBES, THOMAS (/. 1638), drama- 
tist, bom in lOOo, belonfifed to a humble 
Worcestershire family. On 3 May 1621 he 
matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford 
{Oxf Univ, Beg. Oxf. Hist. Soc. il. ii. 387), 
but left the university without a degree. 
lie seems to have been employed subse- 
quently in the household of a nobleman near 
Worcester, and he describes in a poem 
' upon the losing of his way in a forest ' a 
midnight adventure in the neighbourhood of 
his master's mansion after he had indulged 
freely in perry. Another spirited poem * upon 
excellent strong beer which he arank at the 
town of Wich in Worcestershire ' proves 
Nabbes to have been of a convivial disposi- 

About 1G30 Nabbes seems to have settled 
in London, resolved to try his fortunes as a 
dramatist. He was always a stranger to the 
best literary society, but found congenial 
companions in Chamberlain, Jordan, Mar- 
mion, and Tat ham, and was known to many 
* gentlemen of the Inns of Court * (cf. Bride, 
Ded.) About January 1632-3 his first 
comedy, * Covent Garden,* was acted by the 
queen's sen-ants, and was published in 1638 
with a modest dedication addressed to Sir 
John Suckling. In the prologue he defendo 
himself from stealing the title of the piece — 
in allusion doubtless to Richard IBrome's 
' Covent Garden Weeded,' acted in 1632— 
and describes his ' muse ' as ' solitary.' His 


second comedy, *Totenham Court,* was acted 
at the private house in Salisbury Court in 
1633, and was also printed in 1638, with a 
dedication to William Mills. A third piece, 
* Hannibal and Scipio, an hysterical Tragedy,' 
in five acts of blank verse, was produced in 
1 1635 by the queen's servants at their pri- 
vate house in Drury Lane. Nabbes obviously 
modelled his play upon Marston's *Sopho- 
nisba.' It was published in 1637, with a list 
of the actors' names. A third comedy, *The 
Bride,' acted at the private house in Drury 
Lane, again by the queen's servants, in 1638, 
was published two years later, with a prefa- 
tory epistle addressed *to the generalty of 
his noble friends, gentlemen of the severall 
honorable houses of the Inns of Court.' One 
of the characters, Mrs. Ferret, the imperious 
wife, has been compared to Jonson's Mistress 
Otter. An unreadable and tedious tragedy, 
entitled * The Unfortunate Mother,' was pub- 
lished in 1640, with a dedication to Hi- 
chard Brathwaite, a stranger to him, whom 
he apologises for addressing. It is said to have 
been written as a rival to Shirley's * Politi- 
cian/ but was never acted, owing to the re • 
fusal of the actors to undertake the perform- 
ance. Three friends (Efdward] B[enlowesj, 
C. G., and R. W.) prefixed commendatory 
verses by way of consoling the author for the 
slight thus cast upon him. 

Langbaine recKons Nabbes among the 

Eoets of the third rate. The author of Gib- 
er's * Lives of the Poets ' declares that in 
strict justice ' he cannot rise above a fifth.' 
This severe verdict is ill justified. He is a 
passable writer of comedies, inventing his 





own plots, and lightly censuring the foibles 
of middle-class London society. His tra- 
gedies are not attractive. But Samuel Shep- 
pard in the sixth sestiad (Hhe Assizes of 
Apollo') of his * Times Displayed; 1(546, asso- 
ciates Nabbes's name with the names of 
D' Avenant, Shirley, Beaumont, and Fletcher, 
and selects his tragedy of 'Hannibal and 
Scipio * for special commendation. Xabbes 
displays a satisfactory command of the 
niceties of dramatic blank verse, in which 
all his plays, excluding the two earliest 
comedies, were mainly written. Although 
he was far more refined in sentiment than 
most of his contemporaries, he is capable at 
times of considerable coarseness. 

As a -^Titer of masaues Nabbes deserves 
more consideration. Ilis touch was usually 
light and his machinery ingenious. The 
least satisfactory was the one first published, 
viz. * Microcosmus. A Morall Maske, pre- 
sented with generall liking, at the Private 
House in Salisbury Court, and heere set down 
according to the intention of the Authour, 
Thomas Nabbes,' 1 637. A reference to the 
approaching publication of the work was 
made in * Don Zara del Fogo,' a mock 
romance, which was written before 1637, 
though not published till 1056. Kichard 
Brome contributed prefatory verses. His 
* Spring's Glory' (1638) bears some resem- 
blance to Middleton's ' Inner Temple Masque,' 
published in 1618. The * Presentation in- 
tended for the Prince his Highnesse on his 
Birthday' (1638) is bright and attractive, al- 
though it does not appear to have been ac- 
tually performed. It was printed with * The 
Springs Glory,' together with some occa- 
sional verses. The volume, which was dedi- 
cated to William, son of Peter Bulle, was 
entitled J The Spring's Glory, a Maske. To- 
gether with sundry Poems, Epigrams, Elegies, 
and Epithalamiums. By Thomas Nabbes,' 
1639. Of the poems, the verses on a ' Mis- 
tresse of whose Aflfection hee was doubtfull ' 
have a certain charm ; they are included in 
Mr. Linton's 'Collection of Rare Poems.' 
Nabbes contributed commendatory verses to 
Shackerlev Marra ion's * I^egend of Cupid and 
Psyche,' 1637; Uobert (Chamberlain's 'Noc- 
turnal Lucubrations,' 1(»38; Thomas Jordan's 
*Poeticall Varieties,' imo ; John Tatham's 
« Fancies Theater,' KUO; Humphrey Mills's 
'A Night's Search,' KUO; Thomas Bee- 
dome's * Poems Divine and Humane,' 1641 ; 
and the * Phoenix of these I-Ate Times; or, 
the Life of Mr. Henry Welby,Esq.' (1637). 
Welby was an eccentric, who was credited 
~-H\i living without food or drink for the last 
7-four vears of his life. To the fifth edi- 
of Rickard KnoUea's ' Gtonerall Historie 

of the Turkes ' (1638) Nabbes appended < A 
Continuation of the Turkish Hutorie, firom 
the Yeare of our Lord 1628 to the end of the 
Yeare 16«'}7. Collected out of the Dispatches 
of S^ Peter Wyche, Knight, Embassador at 
Constantinople, and others.' The dedication 
is addressed to Sir Thomas Roe, whom Nabbes 
describes as a stranger to him [see Knolles, 

According to Nabbes's * Encomium on the 
Leaden Steeple at Worcester, repayred in 
1628,' he desired to be buried in Worcester 
Cathedral ; but Coxeter was of opinion that 
his grave was * in the Temple Church, under 
the organ on the inner side.' The Temple 
burial register contains no record of Nabbes^ 
but the register often fails to mention the 
names of those who, although buried there, 
had, in the opinion of the authorities, no 
obvious claim to a posthumous reputation. 

All Nabbes's works, excluding only the 
continuation of KnoUes, were brought to- 
gether by Mr. A. H. Bullen in 1887. Thia 
collected edition forms vols. i. and ii. of the 
new series of Mr. BuUen's privately printed 
' Old English Plays.' 

[Mr. BuUen's preface to the collected edition 
of Nabbes's worlw ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum 
in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24487. f. 334; 
Brydges's Censura, i. 439; Langlwine's English 
Dramatick Poets ; Gibber's Lives of the Poets, ii. 
24 ; Fleay's Biographical Chronicle of the English 
Drama.] S. L. 

WOODHILL (1868-1889), poetess, bom on 
24 Jan. 1868 at 15 Francis Road, EMffbaston, 
Birmingham, was the only child of Thomas 
Naden, afterwards president of the Birming- 
ham Architectural Association, by his wife 
Caroline Anne, daughter of J. C. Woodhill 
of Pakenham House, Edgbaston. Her mother 
died within a fortnight of the child's birth, 
and Constance was brought up by her grand- 
parents. Mr. Woodhill was a retired jeweller 
of high character, an elder of a baptist 
church, and a man of some literary taste. 
From the age of eight till the age of sixteen or 
seventeen Miss Naden attended a day-school 
in Edgbaston kept by two unitarian ladies, the 
Misses Martin. She learnt flower-painting, 
and told fairy stories to her schoolfellows. 
After leaving school she remained with her 
grandparents. The rejection of some of her 
pictures by the Birmingham Society of Ar- 
tists, after the acceptance of a first attempt, 
turned her thoughts to other studies. Sne 
learnt French, German, Latin, and some 
Greek, and was much attracted bv the writ- 
ings of James Hinton [q. v.], and by R. A. 
Vaughan's ' Hours with the Mystics.' She 
wrote at odd moments her ' Songs and Son* 




nets of Sprinfi^ime/ which was published in 
1881. In 1879-80 and 1880-1 she attended 
botany classes at the Birmingham and Mid- 
land Institute, and acquired an interest in 
science. In the autumn of 1881 she became 
a student at Mason College. She there went 
through courses of * physics, chemistry, bo- 
tany, zoology, physiology, and geology.' She 
toot a very lively part m debating societies, 
and she was especially interested m a socio- 
logical section of tbe Birmingham Natural 
History Society, which was started in 1883 
in order to study the system of Mr. Herbert 
Spencer. She biecame a very eager and sym- 

fathetic student of Mr. Spencer's philosophy. 
n 1885 she won the ' Paxton prize ' for an 
essay upon the geology of the district ; and 
in 1887 won the * Heslop ' gold medal by an 
essay upon ' Induction and Deduction.' She 
also wrote in the 'Journal of Science,* 
' Knowledge/ and other periodicals (list in 
Memoir f pn. 29-31). In 1887 she published 
her secona volume of poems, 'A modem 
Apostle, the Elixir of Life, the Story of 
Clarice, and other Poems.' Mr. Woodhill 
died 27 Dec. 1881 , and his widow on 21 June 
1887. Miss Naden inherited a fortune upon 
the death of her grandmother, and in the 
autumn of 1887 made a tour with a friend 
through Constantinople, Palestine, Egypt, 
and India, where she was hospitably received 
by Lord Dufferin, the governor-general. She 
returned to England in June 1888, and soon 
afterwards bought a house in Park Street, 
GroRvenor Square. She joined the Aristote- 
lian Society, endeavoured to form a Spencer 
society, and belonged to various societies of 
benevolent aims. On 22 Oct. 1889 she de- 
livered an address upon Mr. Herbert Spencer's 
* Principles of Sociology ' to the sociological 
section at Mason College. Symptoms of a 
dangerous disease showed themselves shortly 
afterwards, and she underwent a severe 
operation on 6 Dec. She sank from the 
enects, and died on 23 Dec. 1889. She was 
buried beside her mother in the old cemetery, 
Warstone Lane, Birmingham. 

Miss Naden was slight and tall, with a 
delicate face and ' clear blue-grey eyes.' She 
was regular and active in her habits. She 
had a penetrating voice, and was thoroughly 
self-possessed in public speaking. She ap- 
pears to have been rather aggressive and 
sarcastic in discussion, but h^ very warm 
friendships, and was always fond of ^un and 
harmless frolics. 

Miss Naden's poems had attracted little 
notice until Mr. Gladstone called attention 
to them in an article upon British poetesses 
in an early number of the ' Speaker.' Mr. 
Gladstone named her as one of eight who 

had shown splendid powers. The poems 
undoubtedly show freshness and command 
of language. Miss Naden had in 1876 met 
Dr. Lewins, and became his disciple. The 
doctrine taught by both is called *Hylo- 
Idealism,' and has been described as * monist ic 
positivism.' It is an attempt to give a meta- 
physical system in accordance with modern 
scientific thought. Miss Naden's writings 
upon this topic, as an opponent of her theory 
(Dr. Dale) remarks, show great acuteness, 
gracefulness of style, and felicity of illus- 
tration. Her chief attempt in philosophy, 
however, the essay upon * Induction and De- 
duction,' though of great promise as the 
work of a student, is based upon inadequate 
knowledge ; and she died before her powers, 
obviously remarkable, had fully ripened. 

Miss Naden's works, besides the two 
volumes of poetry above mentioned, are col- 
lected in (1) * Induction and Deduction . . . 
and other Essays. . . . Edited by R. Lewins, 
M.D., Medical Department,' 1890; and (iM 
* Further Ileliques of Const^ince Naden,* 
edited by George M. McCrie, 1891. Two 
pamphlets, * Miss Naden's World Scheme,' 
by George M. McCrie, and * Constance Na- 
den and Hylo-Idealism,' by E. Cobham 
Brewer, LL.D., both annotated by Dr. 
Lewins, give accounts of her philosopliy. A 
selection from her writings, edited by the 
Misses Hughes of Birmingham, appeared in 

[Constance Naden: a Memoir, by W. K. 
Hughes, with an Introduction by Professor Lap- 
worth, and Additions by Professor Tilden aind 
Robert Lewins, M.D., 1890; article by the Rev. 
Dr. R. W. Dale (with personal recollections) in 
the Contemporary Review for April 1891 (also 
reprinted in * Further Reliques.'] 

NADIN, JOSEPH (1765-1848), deputy- 
constable of Manchester, son of Joseph 
Nadin, a farmer, was bom at Fairfield, Derby- 
shire, in 1766. At the age of twelve he 
began work at Stockport, and subsequently 
was successful in business as a cotton-spin- 
ner. During the time that the cotton opera- 
tives were making raids on cotton mills in 
Lancashire and elsewhere, for the purpose of 
destroying machinery, Nadin made himself 
conspicuous in detecting the plotters and 
bringing them to justice. He was prevailed 
upon in 1801 to taae the office of deputy-con- 
stable of Manchester, and he thereby became 
chief executive officer to the governing body 
of the town, which was then under the 
court-leet of the manor. 

His life as a public officer was eventful 
and dangerous, and he was a zealous, able, 
and courageous servant of the authorities. 
Some said that he was the real ruler of Man- 





chest er, and that the magistrates thought 
they exercised a wholesome authority when, 
at his suggestion, they sought to repress hy 
every means of coercion the rising demand 
for political and social rights. Tne course 
he took with regard to Samuel Bamford 
[n. v.] and other reformers, as well as in the 
* J'eterloo * meeting in 1819, rendered him 
very unpopular; but he earned the gratitude 
of the ruling classes, by whom he was pre- 
sented with costly testimonials. He figures 
as a sort of Jonathan Wild in Mrs. Banks*s 
novel of * God's Providence House.' lie had 
a magnificent physique, as is shown both by 
his portraits and by a graphic passage in 
J^amford's * Life of a Radical,' where, now- 
♦!ver, he is described as coarse, illiterate, and 
ill-mannered. He amassed considerable pro- 
p;rty, and on his retirement from office in 
l82i he went to live on an estate which he 
possessed at Cheadle, in Cheshire. He died 
ihc.Te on 4 March 1848, aged 83, and was 
buried in St. James's Churchy Manchester. 
lie married Mary Rowlinson in 1792, and 
left several children. 

[Hamford's Life of a Radioal, i. 82; Pren- 
iicoH Manchester, 1851, p. 34; Manchester Notes 
and Queries, vol. i.; Trans. Lancashire and Che- 
fihire Antiquarian Soc. vol. xi. ; information kindly 
supplifMl by Mr. W. S. Nadin.] C. W. S. 

NAESMITH. [See NASiiiTH and Na- 


NAFTEL, PAUL JACOB (1817-1891), 
painter in wuter-colours, born at Guernsey 
tm 1 Sept. 1817, was son of Paul and Sophia 
Naftel of Guernsey. He resided during the 
«jarlier part of his life in Guernsey, where he 
was educated; and, although a self-taught 
artist, was appointed professor of drawing at 
Klizabeth College. Becoming known for his 
flelicate and refined studies in water-colour, he 
was fleeted an associate of the * Old ' Society 
of Painters in Water-colours on 1 1 Feb. 1856, 
and a full member on 13 June 1859. He 
did not settle in England till 1870, when 
\ui resided at 4 St. Stephen's Square, "West- 
lK>ume Park, London, continuing to practise 
(Mt a drawing-master, and to be a prolific ex- 
hibitor at the exhibition of the * Old ' Societv. 
1 le subsequently moved to 76 Elm Park lioad, 
(yh<*lsea, and later to a house at Strawberry 
Hill, where he died on 13 Sept. 1891. Naftel's 
i»ubj(»cts were in his earlier days the scenery 
of iiis native Channel Islands, and latterly 
news in the United Kingdom and Italy. 
'I'hey were remarkable for tender and light 
««fiect8 rather than strength, and in his earlier 
« lavish in his use of body colour. 
) designs to illustrate Ansted and 
)ok on the < Channel Islands/ 

1862. Naftel married, first, Miss Robilliard 
of Aldemey ; and, secondly, Isabel, youngest 
daughter of Octavius Oaldey [q. t."], water- 
colour painter. 

Naftel, Maud (1856-1890), painter, 
daughter of the above by his second wife, 
was bom on 1 June 1856. At firat a pupil 
of her father, she afterwards studied at the 
Slade School of Art in London, and in Paris 
under M. CarolusDuran. She attained distinc- 
tion as a painter in water-colours, and was 
especially noted for her paintings of fiiowers. 
She was elected an associate of the 'Old' 
Society of Painters in Water-colours in March 
1887, but died in her father*s house at Elm 
Park lioad, on 18 Feb. 1890. She published 
a book on ' Flowers and how to paint them.' 

[Private information ; Roget s flist. of the 
* Old Wator-colour ' Society.] L. C. 

NAGLE, SiKEDMUXp(1757-1830),ad- 
miral, bom in 1757, is said to have been a 
nephew of Edmund Burke. It would seem 
more probable that he was a son of Burke's 
first-cousin. He entered the navy in 1770, 
under the care of Captain John Stott, on board 
the Juno frigate, in which he went to the Falk- 
land Islands, on the occasion of their being 
surrendered by Spain in 1771 ^Beatbon, Nar, 
and Mil, Menwirs, vi. 15 ; ci. art. Farmeb, 
George). He afterwards served in the Win- 
chelsea, Deal Castle, Thetis, and Bienfaisant, 
on the Mediterranean and home stations, and 
passed his examination on 7 May 1777 (Pas- 
sing Certificate). On 25 Oct 1777 he was 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Greenwich 
storeship, on the North American station. 
In 1779 he was in the Syren, in the North 
Sea, and from 1780 to 1782 was a^n on 
the coast of North America in the Warwick, 
with Captain Elnhinstone fsee Elphik stone, 
GeoroeKeith, Viscount Keith]. On 1 Aug. 
1782 he was promoted to the command of 
the Racoon brig, which was shortly after- 
wards captured off the Delaware by the 
French frigate Ai^le. A few days later, 
11 Sept., Nagle regained his liberty, the Aigle 
being in turn captured by the Warwick. He 
was then appointed to the Hound sloop, and 
on 27 Jan. 1783 was posted to the Grana, 
which he brought home and paid off. In 
1793 he commissioned the Active frigate, 
and early in 1794 was moved into the Axtois 
of 44 guns, in which for the next three years 
he was actively employed, under the com- 
mand of Sir John Borlase Warren [q. ▼.]» ®' 
Sir Edward Pellew, afterwards Viscount 
Exmouth [q. v.] On 21 Oct. 1794,off Ushant, 
the little squadron, then commanded by 
Pellew, sighted the R^volutionnaire, French 
frigate, alw of 44 guns, which was chased 




and brought to action by the Artois. On the 
other frigates coming up the R6volutionnaire 
surrendered. She was a new and very fine 
ship, and was for several years one of the 
crack frigates in the English navy. For his 
gallant service Nagle was knighted. The 
next year the Artois was with Warren in the 
expedition to Quiberon, and, continuinff on 
the French coast, was lost on a sandbank off 
Kochelle on 31 July 1797, when in chase of 
a French frigate. 

In August 1798 Nagle married *a lady 
of ample fortune — the widow of John Lucie 
Blackman of Craven Street * — after which he 
had little service at sea. In 1801-2 he com- 
manded the Majestic, and afterwards the 
Juste for a few months, and in 1803 was ap- 
pointed to command the sea fencibles of the 
Sussex coast. At this time, making his head- 
quarters at Brighton, he was introduced to 
the Prince of Wales, and, tilling a ffood 
story, and overflowing with rollicking Irish 
humour, became a great favourite. He was 
made rear-admiral on 9 Nov. 1805, and for 
a short time hoisted his flag on board the 
Inconstant at Guernsey. He was promoteci 
to be vice-admiral on 31 July 1810, and, 
again for a short time, was commander-in- 
chief at Leith. In 1813 he was governor 
of Newfoundland, and in 1814, when the 
allied monarchs reviewed the fleet at Spit- 
head, he was nominated aide-de-camp to the 
prince-regent. On 2 Jan. 1815 he was made 
a K.C.B., and on 12 Aug. 1819 was promoted 
to the rank of admiral. 

During all this time, however, with these 
few intermissions, he was in attendance on 
the prince, and in 1820, on the prince's ac- 
cession to the tlirone, was appointed groom 
of the bedchamber. He is described as a man 
of great good nature and a simplicity of 
mind whidi was said to make him the butt 
for some coarse practical jokes. He died at 
hishouse'at East Molesey, Surrey, on 14 March 
1830, leaving no issue. 

[Marshairs Roy. Nav. Biog. i. 277 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1830, i.469; Brenton's Naval History.] 

J. K. li. 

1784), foundress of the Presentation order 
of nuns, bom in 1728, was daughter of 
Garrett Nagle of Ballygriffin near Mallow, 
CO. Cork. The Nagles were of Anglo-Nor- 
man origin: a kinswoman (Miss Nagle of 
Shanballyduff', co. Cork) was mother of 
Burke. Nano's mother belonged to the 
Mathew family of Thomastown, co. Tip- 
perary, and was connected with Father 
Mathew [q. v.], the apostle of temperance. 
Nano was educated at home, and aft^rwiurds 
at Parisy where a glimpse, early one morning 

on her return from a ball, of some poor 
people waiting outride a church door in 
order to attend mass is said to have given a 
serious turn to her thoughts. 

She returned to Ireland about 1750, deter- 
mined to devote herself to the poor of her 
own country ; but, deterred by the penal 
laws, she went back to France with the in- 
tention of entering a convent. But again 
she was driven home by a sense of her voca- 
tion. Her father was dead, but she re- 
mained in Dublin with her mother and 
sister until their death forced her to take 
up her residence with her brother in Cork. 
There the poor Catholic population was desti- 
tute of all means of education. With her 
own fortune, and afterwards with the support 
of some members of her family, she secretly 
started a poor school for catholic girls. She 
also visited the sick, and at her own expense 
established an asylum for aged females^ 
which still exists. The narrowness of her 
own resources subsequently led her to charge 
fees at her school, and she herself collected 
them. But her health was bad, and, finding 
that her own energies were unequal to the 
task of carrying on the school, she deter- 
mined to put it under the care of a religious 
community — a dangerous expedient in face 
of the stringency of the penal laws, which 
proscribed all religious communities. Four 
young ladies entered a convent of the Ursu- 
line nuns in Paris to prepare themselves to 
undertake Miss Nagle's work, and after a 
period of training they reached Cork in 1771 
m the charge of Dr. Francis Moylan [q. v.], 
subsequently bishop of the diocese, and oc- 
cupied the convent founded by Miss Nagle. 
She did not become one of their number. 

The order of Ursuline nuns is mainly 
occupied in the education of girls of the 
well-to-do classes, but Miss Nagle interested 
herself mainly in the poor. The corpora- 
tion refrained from enforcing the laws against 
the new community in consideration of its 
beneficent objects. In further pursuit of 
her high aims Miss Nagle in 1775 laid the 
foundation of a new order, which was to 
devote itself exclusively (unlike the Ur- 
sulines^ to the education of the female chil- 
dren 01 the poor. To this congregation she 
gave the nameof the Order of the Presentation 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A convent and 
schools, specially erected by Miss Nagle, at 
her own expense, for the new order, were 
opened on Christmas day 1777, and the 
occasion was celebrated by a dinner to fifty 
beggars, on whom the foundress waited her- 
self. The rules of the community were 
approved of by Pope Pius VI in 1791, and 
confirmed on 9 April 1805 by Pius VII 

Na;jle 22 Nagle 

*«li-i I '«haliliit4"i t/j«r <yA'i/T*ri*fc'.<OSl tTi ' .' -'T L*? fe.fe T*:I IMSZiTTcfd thft' tLtT ^VT&ld have TO 

..I Mif. fiiili'ilir rJi'jf'.ii. Jt T»tk Tii ifc tLci: br c. ziipriLbfc^bd < 1%. p. oo4 . A: ilie ezid of 

. •, .'• Ill"' I' lA^fh^mu TR'afc, fcir.c: *h*: 'ity- ^f Au£~a*;: Tvrcoxmti m'ta: t:« Lioadon af&m to 

»t. IM'iriijiiii'in, fir*' l/.-yj^'Ll wiiLira r-j.',j hrrhij^*: wixL Ju&t$ for tL* sjpesse^on of 

'.f I In- \t',ur in Ir'rlufj'j. ^'ifcr^fiidMi, and for liit further a-epresaon of 

W fji ;i ','it bv h*:r Lard -w^-rk &ri'2 'r*y a j— tL«? prcn^iri^tiin: ini^reft in I*>eljind. Na^le 

»'f 'ii-.*. Ml-!* Na;.'J<- di<.-d &• h-r C'JiVi?:.' In h/y.ouapuiird Lim, and wa^ consulifri by the 

'■ .?i: '/ii JO AiinJ J7rJ. at the &::•: of j.:?v- kiiii' a-"w.:ll a* bv Sunderland. He returned 

•■' TO Ir^ I a Fid brfore TjTConnel. after addrese- 

'Jljifi- j- nn '.!j-].air/iii;r of L't in ':.'; l'.— ir;;:*o Lim iLe famous lerier. beAruur date 

.. \.f '-orjV'n*. l5Jjiifkr'y;k. ft'i. T-i.-k. :i»» Oct.. in wLich the rvpeal of the Act of 

J ii* rr-iiliii" 'iH'-r. '.vliich Mi— Njii''- :ri- Sfttieni'-iit iva* first seriously suc^ef^t^sl 

: r . : i f-'I i n • « » I p ■ I n n ^1 . h a s n » i !fi - r- • = i - f ■' ^ ; : - (' .////>//#/7<? .Vff rraticf^ j». 1 93 ». Clarendon did 

"^- li*- in tIuiT f'nin!rv, otf'ih'/'^T;- of li"- J"i :r:- not f-*-e a cot.v of ibis letter until Januarv 

'ifi'.-n: anl in 1-74 h'-r own or*!* r 'th*.- folio win;: ^ T'/rr^-/?. ii. 1421. Though dated 

iV'- - ■nTatinn Imd lil'ty-two Ijou-- in Ir-' fr /in ^"o ventre- and nominally written on the 

^i". :,'in' in Knj:! ind, twi-lv«-in Urlti.-Jj Ni.-Jii rou'i, tlii* document bi-ars no mark of hasto, 

.Vrr.-rir.j, fmr in Au-trulifiy thn': in :}i': und was probably com|>osed in London after 

i 7..w>d St:itr.«. nnd nni' in India. <-Jir-ful consultation with Tvrconnel and 

Hnti^liV Lifr i.f Niino .N*:il'1" : ^'"yy'.wj'v ^ Siindi:rlan«l ( 11 AKKis, p. 107). Na^le was 

'f \ji!ji> N;i^!«'; \Veli!»'.'s r'orii[/« f.liunj •>: kni:f}itwl by Jumef?, and at the end of ldS6 

1: *> . l^ : the Cntliolic l)'\rU' *u'^vy \ w;i.s apiKjinted atiomf-y-general for Ireland, 

\*. L. N. <Ii-p]a(:in|;^ a prnte>tant who luid held the 

XAOLE, Siu inCHAUI) (Jf. !'>!> -, »'- otlici- >ineii th« Ilest.iration. In Aupust 16.S7 

• :v. 'v-iTiMiortil for Irt'Lind^ \va- of nii :in- 'i'yrconni.-l, who hud then superseded Claren- 

• . r' family in the county of ('orli. i#y oM dun as vicToy, went to Chester with Nagle 

.'1 • : Vt-vs t \\o nuuie is oft ».'n inrrirp-rt ly writ I t-u and i tic*, and liishop Cartwright entertained 

N "iilo. Carripicunna CastIi*,oii t ii" ni.-K-K- tin* party during James lis visit (2)iV?ry, 

^* I •'r.botwi»t'uMallnwanrli''('rnioy,hfl'»n;i«'il pp. 7o 't). 

' ■ ■'•m.nuilsomo ueijjlihDUrinjr liilN^till lii-ar 'i'lnj anti-Knglish interest in Ireland was 

•V.-'I'-nuilynann'. Acconlin^rto tln'coujuinnly !'tri»n«:lln*ne(l by this meeting, and Xagle 

■ ' \im1 but vory sciinty aiilb«»rili<s. In* was wan uftivi? in the matter of the quo war- 

■ .-rifoil bv the j<»suits and intrn<b'«i I'mi' thi* rantfjs whicli destroyed the protestant cor- 
^*' itboml. Preferring th»i law, * hi- arriM'il poratinns, often by means of mere legal 
■ ' ■■* i:'»«»«l pi'rft'Ction, and was miphiM-'l by (jiiibbh\s (Kincj, eh. iii, sec. v. p.-). In the 
•*• »n\ pfuifstants, so that hi' kni'W thi- wi-ak spring of lOSH Naglo joined in the attempt 
V'- •»!' must of their tith-s' (KiNi;, eh. iii. to force Doyle upcm Trinity College, Dub- 

\\\ p. JM. lin, as ii feHow (*A. sec. -\v. p. 2). A little 

\ ^!n"^-'J II died (J Feb. lc»S| ."», and Or- later he was more friendly to the college 

— -''b'. thmi^rli * with dismal snihnss at liis (Sii mis, ]>. li^7). but its protestant charac- 
'■ X I.' piiirbiinied Jnnies II in Ibiblin. Me t it would have been destroyed if James had 
o • *\\ Hiiri' M-nioved, and lleui'\ ll\ili'. earl siieeeeth-d. Outlawries arising out of the 

■ 1 i'»»iiii.biu|n. v.',wasma(b' lonl lii'uienarit ri'liellion of Itill were reversed wholesale, 
• « *■ t.ibi-i, mid landed in Irebunl :!'.» Pi-e. ; and Nagle told those who were in a hurr>' 

r •■• Wii'bnnl Talbot, earl of 'l'\ reonnel «|. \. , to su«' lor their confiscated estates *to have 

,1 ■• » II .lo III Kdudon. thwarted him at ixrn a little patience, perhaps they would come 

e 'iMiJ oiinii look Nau'h' ii»l'» «'<»n>Mllaiii-n. mon* ea^ly * (, iii. sec. xii. p. 2). lie 

\.' » luii.iiy piK*) t) Nai:le ]>rop.'Si'il in iln* \Nent to Fran ee alN)ut the end of l0f^8, and 

• *i"Hiiiii,iiit that thi* oulh»\Mii-»i»n wliiih retunu'd with .lanuw (Jaroffitf AVi/t^/jV/', p. 

- t'* •< H<'ttbMnent ri'>le.l .sh.MiM lti» .■•lti),wholan«ledatKiu?alel2Marchl688- 
• • ".l \ I '/tn-fftf/o/t /'.'/T. >7-'/ii/, ■*..■. i. :I7.'»K hist*. Means were at once taken to carry 

\ • ^i'»i bM in'riiin*' a l'n\\ rouneill. r. but out the new ]Hdicy. A parliament was 

■ '' ««i III In; Kwoni. »'!*ten>ibl\ on aei'.mnt called, which met in Hnbliu on 7 May, and 
• Lhi: ^I'ljut profe^si'tnal loss liKi«l\ to I'ollow Nagle .sat tor the cimnty o\* Cork with Jus- 

V'l. i. the end of J n)\ hJMi Nai;le tin MaeCarthy ip v. as a colleague. He 

TClart^ndim and diiud wiih was ut omv chosen s|H'akor, and had a prin- 

itenant n»g'»rilin;; hin» a^the cipal part in repi'aling the Acts of Settle- 

i^niaiiveof the 1ri>b l^^mau uieut and Kxplanation. and in passing the 

(16 1. He was aln>!idy con- cri^at Act of Attainder, which deprived 2,4.">5 

.rUament \»y p. •*»,'»> ^ which landowners of their estates and vested them 

the English itt*l tiers, thou iih in the cr^^wn. King says that when Xagle 




presented the bill for the royal assent he re- 
marked that many of these persons had been 
attainted on common fame. Pardons granted 
after 1 Nov. were made null and void, and 
the act was not published, but kept carefully 
secret, lest absentees should return within the 
apecified time. We are told that James him- 
aelf did not know what was in the act, that 
he had read without understanding it, thus 
destroying his own prerogative by mistake, 
and that he upbraided Nagle for deceiving 
him (Kino, ch. iii. sec. xii.) The attorney- 
general was also zealous in depriving pro- 
testants of their churches {ib. sec. xviii.), and 
in making the position of their clergy in- 
tolerable {ib, sec. XX.) 

Schomberg landed at Carrickfergus in 
August, and advantage was taken of the 
subsequent mortality among his troops to 
tampjer with them. A letter bearing Nagle's 
imprimatur, and perhaps written by nim, 
was circulated among the soldiers reminding 
them of the fate of Sennacherib^s host, and 
exhorting them to return to their legitimate 
king (Jacobite Narrative, p. 251). At Tyr- 
connel^s request, James in September made 
Nagle his chief secretary as well as attor- 
ney-general, with Albeville for a colleague 
(Berwick, i. 360). After the Boyne, 1 July 
1690, he was one of those who urged James's 
immediate flight to France. In the Septem- 
ber following, if not sooner, he was at St. 
Germain with Tyrconnel and Rice, and re- 
turned with them to Galway in January 
1690-1 , bringing about 8,000/. and some in- 
ferior stores (Story, Cont. p. 51). Chief- 
justice Nugent acted as Jacobite secretary 
during his ■ absence. After the battle of 
Aughrim in July following, and the conse- 

fuent fall of Galway, Nagle remained at 
imerick with Tyrconnel, who trusted him 
in the most secret matters {MacaricB Exci- 
diunif p. 109), and he remained in the city 
during the siege by Ginkel. Tyrconnel died 
on 14 Aug., and a commission from James 
was produced which left the wreck of his 
authority in the hands of Fit ton, Nagle, and 
Francis Flowden, as lords justices, but with- 
out power in military matters (Jacobite Nar- 
ratiDCf p. 155). After the surrender of Lime- 
rick they all three sailed together in the same 
vessel with Sarsfield on 22 Dec, and reached 
France in safety (ib, p. 191 ; Cardinal 
HoRAN, Spicilegium Ossoriensej ii. 303). 
"With the title of secretary of state for Ire- 
land Nagle was for a time one of the junto 
of five who ruled at the melancholy court of 
St. Germain ^Clarke, ii. 411). He probably 
died abroad, out the date is uncertain. He 
had a lai]^e family, and one son at least was 
married in France to Margaret, younger 

daughter of Walter Bourke of Turlogh. 
Mr. Garrett Na^le, now a resident magistrate 
in Ireland, is Sir Richard's descendant. 

Berwick (i. 360) says Nagle was a ' very 
honest man, of good sense, and very clever 
in his profession, but not at all versed in 
affairs of state.' At the beginning of 1686 
Clarendon wrote of him as ' the lawyer, a 
Roman Catholic, and a man of the best re- 
pute for learning as well as honesty among 
that people* {Corresp, i. 273), and for some 
months after he often backs that opinion; but 
in his diary a year later is *• sure that he is 
both a covetous and an ambitious man/ and 
does not in the least believe his most solemn 
asseverations (ib. ii. 160). 

[Archbishop King's State of the Protestants 
under James II, with Charles Leslie's Answer, 
1 692 ; Singers Clarendon and Kochester Corre- 
spondence ; Journal of the Parliament in Ire- 
land, 1689 ; Clarke's Life of .lames II ; Macarise 
Excidium, or Destruction of Cyprus, ed. O'Cal- 
laghan; Bishop Cart Wright's Diary (Camden 
Soc.) ; Stubbs's Hist, of DubL Univ. ; M^moires 
du Mar^chal de Berwick, Collection Petitot and 
Monmerqu6 ; Harris's Life of William III ; 
Story's Hist, and Cont. 1693; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, ed. Archdali ; Jacobite Narrative, ed. 
Gilbert, from Lord Fingali's manuscript. This 
last is the work quoted by Macaulay as ' light 
to the blind.'] R. B-l. 

NAIRNE, Bakoness. [See Elpuinstone, 
Margaret Mercer, 1788-1867.] 

Nairne (1706-1845), Scottish ballad writer, 
bom at Gask, Perthshire, 16 Aug. 1766, was 
the daughter of Laurence Oliphant. The 
latter, like his father, whom he succeeded in 
1767, was an ardent Jacobite, and married in 
1755 his first-cousin Margaret, eldest daugh- 
ter of Duncan Robertson of Strowan, Perth- 
shire, chief of the clan Donnochv. Carolina 
was named after Prince Obarles Stuart; in a 
list of births and deaths in her father's hand 
it is written * Carolina, after the King, at Gask, 
Aug. 16th 1760* (Oliphant, Jacobite Lairds 
of Gask. p. 349). She soon became * a sturdy 
tod* in her mother*s esteem, and a nonjuring 
clergyman, who was her tutor for a time, 
reported that she was a very promising 
student. Although somewhat delicate in her 
early years — * a paper miss ' her nurse called 
her — she became a skilful rider, and sang and 
danced admirably. Her beauty gained for 
her the title of * pretty Miss Car,* and subse- 
quently of * the Flower of Stratheam.* 

Carolina induced her brother Laurence to 
become a subscriber to Bums's poems, an- 
nounced from Edinburgh in 1786. She fol- 
lowed with eager interest Bums*8 improve- 
ments on the old Scottish songs in Johnson's 




* Musical Museum * and Thomson's * Songs 
of Scotland/ The first important result of 
this new stimulus was in i792, when she 
gave her brother in strict secrecy a new ver- ; 
sion of * The Pleuchman ' (ploughman) to 
sing at a gathering of the Gask tenantry. It 
inritantly became popular. She followed up 
her success by writing other humorous and 
Jacobite songs. In 1797 she joined her 
brother, who was about this time serving in 
the Perthshire light dragoons, when he went 
with his company to quarters in the north of 
England. There is a legend that during this 
sojourn she had the distinction of declining a 
royal duke in marriage. On 27 July 1797 
another brother, Charles, died, and the folio w- 
ingyear when her friend, Mrs. Campbell Col- 
qulioun, the sister of Scott's * Willie Erskine,' 
lost her firstborn child, Carolina sent her a 
copy of * The Land o* the Leal.' On 2 June 

1 806 she was married at Gask to her cousin, 
Major William Murray Nairne, assistant in- 
spector of barracks (son of Lieutenant-colonel 
John Nairne). Major Nairne's duties recjuired 
his presence at Edinburgh, and he and his wife 
settled first at Portobello and afterwards at 
Wester Duddingston, in a house named Caro- 
lina Cottage, presented to them bv their re- 
lative, Ilobertson of Strowan. llere their 
only child, W^illiam Murray, was born in 

Major Nairne was of a humorous, joyous 
temperament, but was restrained by the reti- 
cence of his wife, who was a victim of that 

* unseasonable modesty* impatiently noted by 
the historian of the family as a failing of the 
Oliphants (Jacobite Lairds of Gask, p. 225). 
They met Sir Walter Scott occasionally, but 
the acquaintance never became intimate. Al- 
though her friends admired her artistic ac- 
complishments (she could draw and paint), 
and her wide knowledge of Scottish songs 
attracted attention in private life, she con- 
cealed, even from her husband, lier poetic 
achievements. From 1821 to 1824, as Mrs. 
Bogan of Bogan, she contributed lyrics to the 

* Scottish Minstrel ' of R. A. Smith, but even 
the publisher was not made aware of her 
identity. Without committing herself she 
managed to write and copy Jacobite songs 
and tunes for her kinsman Robertson of 
Strowan, who died in 1822. That year 
George IV visited Scotland, and, on the in- 
vitation of Sir Walter Scott, interested him- 
self in the fallen Jacobite adherents. The 
result was the bill of 17 June 1824, which 
restored them to their birthright. Major 
Nairne thus became a peer (being the fiifth 
I/ord Nairne of Nairne, Perthshire), and his 

thenceforth known as Baroness 

Lady Nairne's chief object in life was now 
the trainmg of her only son. L^p to his fif- 
teenth year she mainly taught him herself. 
Then she selected tutors with the greatest 
care. On the death of Lord Nairne m 182^ 
she left Edinburgh with the boy, settling first 
with relatives at Clifton, near Bristol. It 
was probably at this time that she wrote her 
vigorous and touching * Farewell to Edin- 
burgh.' In July 1831 they went to Kings- 
town, Dublin, and thence to Enniskerry, co. 
Wicklow. Here, as at Edinburgh, her friends 
noticed her artistic tastes, and she drew a 
striking landscape, with common blacklead, 
on the damp back wall of her dwelling* 
(Rogers, Memoir, p. 60). The summer of 
1834 young Lord Nairne and his mother 
spent m Scotland. 

The young man's delicate health, however,, 
constrained them to move in the autumn, and, 
along with Mrs. Keith (Lady Nairne's sister) 
and their niece, Miss Margaret II. Steuart 
of Dalguise, Perthshire, they went to the 
continent, visiting Paris, the chief Italian 
cities, Geneva, Interlachen,and Baden. They 
spent the winter of 1835-6 in Mannheim ; 
but after an attack of influenza the young 
Lord Nairne died at Brussels on 7 Dec. 1837. 
From June 1838 to the summer of 1841, with 
a little party of relatives and friends, Lady 
Nairne again visited various continental re- 
sorts. In 1842-3 the party was at Paris, and 
in the latter year Lady Kaime returned ta 
Gask as the guest of her nephew, James Blair 
Oliphant, and his wife. Her health was grow- 
ing uncertain, but she corresponded with her 
friends, and evinced a deep interest in the 
great movementwhich was just culminating 
in the disruption of the church of Scotland. 
In the winter of 1843 she had a stroke of 
paralysis, from which she rallied sufficiently 
to be able to interest herself in various Chris- 
tian benefactions, to watch the development 
of the free kirk, and to give practical aid to- 
the social schemes of Dr. Chalmers. She died 
on 26 Oct. 1845, and was buried within the 
chapel at Gask. Her portrait at Gask was 
painted by Sir John Watson Gordon. 

Lady Nairne had in her last years con- 
sented to the anonymous publication of her 
poems, and a collection was in preparation 
at her death. With the consent of her sister, 
Mrs. Keith, in 1846, they were published in a 
handsome folio as * Lays from Strathearn, by 
Carolina, Baroness Nairne; arranged with 
Symphonies and Accompaniments by Finlay 
Dun.' In 1869 the ' Life and Songs of tho 
Baroness Nairne ' appeared, under the editor- 
ship of Dr. Charles Rogers, the life being 
largely written by Mr. T. L. Kington Oli- 
phant of Qask (Jacobite Lairds of Gask, 




p. 433). Dr. Rogers revised and amended 
this volume in a new edition published in 

Lady Nairne excels in the humorous ballad^ 
the Jacobite song, and son^s of sentiment and 
domestic pathos. She skilfully utilised the 
example of Burns in fitting beautiful old tunes 
with mt«resting words; her admirable com- 
mand of lowland Scotch enabled her to write 
for the Scottish people, and her ease of gene- 
ralisation gave breadth of significance to 
special themes. In her * Land o' the Leal/ 

* Laird o* Cockpen,' and * Caller HerrinV she 
is hardly, if at all, second to Burns himself. 
' The Land o' the Leal/ set to the old tune 

* Hey tutti taiti/ also used by Burns for 

* Scots wha ha'e/ was translated into Greek 
verse by the Rev. J. Riddell, fellow of Balliol 
College, Oxford. * Caller Herrin' * was writ- 
ten for the benefit of Nathaniel Gow, son of 
the famous Pertlishire fiddler Neil Gow [q. v.], 
whose melody for the song, with its ecnoes 
from the peal of church bells, has been a 
favourite with composers of variations. Two 
well-known settings are those by Charles 
Czemv and Philii) Knanton (1788-1833) [q.y.] 
Lady Nairne ranks with Hogg in her Jacobite 
songs, but in several she stands first and alone. 
Nothing in the language surpasses the exube- 
rant buoyancy of her * Charlie is my darling,' 
the swift triumphant movement of * The Hun- 
dred Pipers/ and the wail of forlorn desola- 
tion in * Will ye no' come back again?' 
Excellent in structure, these songs are en- 
riched by strong conviction and natural feel- 
ing. The same holds true of all Lady Nairne s 
domestic verses and occasional -pieces, *The 
Auld House/ *The Rowan Tree/ 'Cradle 
Song/ the * Mitherless Lammie/ * Kind Robin 
lo'es me ' (a tribute to Lord Nairne), and * Gude 
Nicht and joy be wi' ye a\' * Would you be 
young again P ' was written in 1842, when 
the authoress was seventy-six. 

[Bogers^s Life and Songs of Lady Nairne ; 
Kington Oliphant's Jacobite Lairds of Gask ; 
Tytler and Watson's Songstresses of Scotland.] 

T. B. 

NAIRNE, EDWARD (1726-1806), elec- 
trician, born in 1726, was probably a member | 
of the family of Nairne resident at Sand- I 
wich, Kent. He early interested himself in 
scientific studies, and established a shop at 
20 Gornhill, London, as an ' optical, mathe- 
matical, and philosophical instrument maker,' 
in which capacity he ehjoyed royal patronage. 
In 1771 he began to contribute papers on scien- 
tific subjects to the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions/ and probably about this time made the 
acquaintance of Joseph Priestley [q. v.] In 
1774 he contributed to the ^Philosophical 
Transactions ' the results of a series of experi- 

ments, showing the superiority of points over 
balls as electrical conductors, and constructed, 
on plans supplied by Priestley, the first con- 
siderable electrical machine made in England! 
(l*RiESTLEY,ilfemojr«,ed. 1809,p. 59; Nichol- 
son^it Journal f ii. 525-6). In the specification 
of the patent which he took out for this 
machine in 1782 it is described as a * new 
invention and most usefull improvement in 
the common electrical machine (which I call 
the insulated medical electrical machine) by 
insulating the whole in a particular manner^ 
and constructing the conductors so that either 
shocks or sparks may be received from them.^ 
Nairne published a description of this machine,, 
which reached an eighth edition, in 1796. It 
is still well known as 'Naime*s electrical 
machine' (Woodcroft, Specifications ofPa^ 
tents, Electricity and Magnetism, p. 3 ; Sib 
Humphry Davy, Works, v. 31 ; Deschanel, 
Treatises on Natural Philosophy^ p. 577 ; 
Gaxot, Physics, p. 741). 

On 20 Slarch 1776 Nairne was elected 
F.R.S., being admitted on 27 June (Thom- 
son, History of the Royal Society, p. 449). 
In the same year he made some experi- 
ments to determine the specific gravity of 
sea-water, the degree of cold at which it 
begins to freeze, and whether the ice be 
salt or not ; his results were published in a 
pamphlet dedicated to Sir John Pringle. 
lie also invented the process of artificial 
desiccation by means of sulphuric acid acting- 
under the receiver of an air-pump, of which 
he published an account (Phil. Trans, Index ; 
Edinburgh Phil. Journal, iii. 56-9). He im- 
proved the astronomical apparatus at Green- 
wich (Lysons, Environs), constructed many 
excellent scientific instruments, and contri- 
buted numerous papers, besides those already 
mentioned, to the * Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' (Nicholsons Journal, passim; Phil, 
Trans. ; Ronald, Cataloijue of Books and 
Papers relating to Electricity), 

In 1800 Nairne became one of the pro- 
prietors of the newly founded Royal Insti- 
tution, but does not seem to have taken an 
active part in its proceedings. In the fol- 
lowing year he gave up his business in Corn- 
hill and remov^ to Chelsea, where he died 
on 1 Sept. 1806, aged 80 (Gent. Mag., 1800,. 
ii. 880; London Directory, 1801-7). 

The electrician must not be confused with 
a contemporary Edward Nairne (1742.^- 
1799), attorney and supervisor of customs at 
Sandwich, who was born there about 1742,. 
and wrote: 1. 'Humorous Poems/ Canter- 
bury, 1791 ; 2nd edit., published as * Kentish 
Tales/ Sandgate, 1824. 2. ' The Dog-tax : 
a Poem,' Canterbury, 1797. He was known 
as the * Sandwich bard,' and died at Sand- 




wich on 5 July 1799 {Gent. Mag. 1799 ii. 
626} BBiDaBS, Ctfuura Lilt. Hi. 419). 

[Autborities qaotad ; vorke in Brit. Uub. , 
Iiibrarj; Limb of Roy&l Soclet;; Weld's Uist. 
of Bojal Soc. ii. S^ ; Royal lostication Collec- 
tion of Circulars, lie. ; fence Jones's Boynl lo- 
etitution : iti Founders And its first Professorti ; 
Journals of the Royal Institution ; Nichols's II- 
lustr. of Lit. i. 165; Hill's Boswell, iii.21,note; 
Rult's Life and Corresponiienee of Dr. Priestley, 
i. 79 ; Bolton's Correspondenca of Be. Priestley, 
p. 116; Monntuiau's Desoriplion of the Lines 
on Gunter's Scalo, as improrpd by ... J. Ho- 
bertson, and nxecuted b; Messrs. Kairua and 
Blunt, Loud. 1 779, Bro; LaUnde's Bibliograph':e 
Astronomique ; Nicholson's JoucnHl, ii. 1^0. &'lb- \ 
626, it. 265 (new ser.), ri. 235, Tiii. 81, xiii. SS; | 
Monthlv Review (or Literary JourniU), passini ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Royal Bociety's Cat.ofScien- 
tiflc Tapers; Notes sad aaeriee, 6lh ser. vii. 408.1 . 
A. i\ P. 

NAIBNE,JOnN,thirdLoKDNAiRyi3 (rf. 
1770), Jacobite, waa tho eldest son of Lord 
WilliainMurray,Becond lord Nairne, by Mnr- 
earet, only daiigliter and beireaa of Robert, 
first lord Nairne [q. v.] Wihiam Naibse, 
second Lord NAiByE^i/. 17^), who assumed 
his wife's surnanie and succeeded to her 
father'stitle.waathe fourth son of JohnMur- 
ray, first marquis of Atboll fq. v.] In I6do 
he accompanied his father in the expedition 
to ArRylUhirc {llUt. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
Appendix, pt. viii. p. 17). Some time after- 
wards he distinguished himself as a. navnl 
officer (I'ATTES, HUtoiy of (Ae Rebellion in 
1715, ed. 1745, p. 44). At the revolution ho 
did not take the oaths to the government, 
and refrained from taking his aeat in parlia- 
ment, yubsfiouently he strongly opposed 
the union, and he was one ot those who 
Billed a paper to support the prince '2 May 
1707 (lIooKt, Kegotuttiowi, Koxburghe Club, 
ii. '2m). At the revolution in 1715 he joined 
the standard of Mar, and having with his 
men crossed the Forth and marched into 
England, was taken prisoner at Preston on 
14 Nov. and sent to the Tower. At hia trial 
on 19 Jan. 1718 he pleaded guilty, and on 
9 Feb. he was sentenced to death, but he 
was reprieved, and in May, through the in- 
tenention of the Duke of AlhoU, obtained 
a retnission {Hiat. .MHS. Comm. 12lh Hep. 
App. pt. viii. p. 70). In 1718 Captain 
StraitOQ, deceived by a false messenger, sent 
an express to acquaint Lord Nairne in 
Perthshire that the 'Duke of Ormond was 
OD the coast, and certainly landed by that 
time, and desiring his lordship to forward the 
good newes to Mnriahall '(iocWnr( I'apfn,n. 
22); but Lockbart , discovering that the intel- 
ligence was false, sent word to Nairne in time 
to prevent him front joining Marijichal and 

thusendatigeringbielife(i6.p.33). TheDnke 
of Atholl attributed Naime's strong Jacobit« 
leanings to the influence of his wife, daugh- 
ter of the first Lord Nairne, and to her arti- 
fices he also imputed the 'ruin' of hia own 
three sons {IlUt. MSS. Camm. 12th Rep. Ap- 
pendix, pt. viii. p. 71). The second Lord 
Nairne fied in 1724. 

The third Lord Nairne, with his father, 
joined the rebellion of 1715, and becams 
lieutenant-colonel of Lord Charles Murray's 
regiment. According to Fatten he 'took a 
great deal of pains to encourage the High- 
landers by bis own experience in their hard 
marches, and always went with them on 
foot through the worst and deepest ways, and 
in highland dress ' (History of the Rebellion, 
ed. 1745, p. 44j. Like his father, he was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Preston, and 
was forfeited, but was reprieved end received 
hia liberty. Inl738 an act wasaleopassedby 
parliament enabling him to sue or maintain 
any action or eiut, and to inherit any real or 
personal estate that might descend to him. 
lie nevertheless remained a staunch Jacobite, 
and was thoroughly conversant with the 
plans for a rising in 1745. It was his daughter, 
Jlrs. Robertson of Lude, who, at the request 
of the Marquis of Tullibardine, prepared Blair 
Castle for the reception of the prince; and 
soon after the latter's arrival Nairne joined 
himat Blair with a number of his men. From 
Blair he and Cameron of Lochiel, with four 
hundred men, were sent forward to take pos- 
session of Diinkeld,and on the arrival of the 
prince there on 3 Sept. Nairne was again sent 
lorwnrd to take possession of Perth. On the 
daybefore the battle of Prestonpan8{21 Sept.) 
he was posted with five hundred men to the 
westoftheforcesof Cope, to prevent any ad- 
vance in that direction. The force was called 
; in at nightfall ; and at the battle Nairne held 
command of the second line, consisting of 
Glencoe, and the Meclachlaiis. He was chosen 
one of the prince's privy council, and during 
the march into England he held command of 
a lowland regiment of two hundred men. He 
was also present at the battles of Falkirk and 
Culloden. After Culloden he joined Lord 
George Murray at Uuthven in Badenoch, 
but on learning that the prince had resolved 
not to continue the contest further, he es- 
caped to the continent. He was included in 
the act of attainder passed in 1746, and 
died in FrancellJuly 1770. ByLadyCathe- 
rine Murray, third daughter of Charles, first 
earl of Dunmore, he had eight sons and four 
daughters. Five of the children died young. 
The sons who survived were James, who 
died unmarried ; John, who became « lieor 




tenant-colonel in the army, and to whose 
son, William Murray Nairne, husband of 
Caroline, lady Nairne [q. v.], the title was 
restored b^ parliament 17 June 1824; Charles, 
an officer m the service of the States-General, 
who died in June 1775 ; Thomas, who was 
an officer in Lord John Drummond's regi- 
ment, and was captured in October 1745 on 
board the French ship L'Esperance, on his 
way to join the prince in Scotland, but after- 
wards obtained nis pardon, and died at San- 
cerre, in France, 3 April 1777; and Henry, 
who was an officer in the French service. 

[Histories of the Rebellion by Patten, Rae, | 
Ray, Home, and Chambers ; Lockhart Papers ; . 
Nathaniel Hooke's Negotiations (Roxburghe 
Club); Hist.MSS. Comm. 12th Rep.App. pt. viii.; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 280-1.] 

T. F. H. 

NAIRNE, Sir ROBERT, of Strath- 
ord, first Lord Nairne (1600-1683), lord 
of session, was representative of a family 
which claimed descent from Michael de 
Nairne, who on 10 Feb. 1406-7 was witness 
to a charter of Robert, duke of Albany. lie 
was the eldest son of Robert Naime of 
Muckersie, and afterwards of Strathord, both 
in Perthshire, bv Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Preston of Penicuick, Midlothian, lord- 
president of the court of session. Like his 
lather, he became a member of the Faculty of 
Advocates. With other royalists he was 
captured by a detachment from General 
Monck at Alyth, Forfarshire, 28 Aug. 1051, 
and sent a prisoner to the Tower, where he 
remained till the Restoration. By Charles II 
he was appointed one of the lords of session, 
1 June 1661, receiving also the honour of 
knighthood; and on 11 Jan. 1671 he was 
appointed one of the court of justiciary. On 
23 Jan. 1681 he was created a peer of Scot- 
land by the title of Baron Nairne, to himself 
for life, and after his decease to his son-in- 
law, Lord William Murray, who assumed 
the surname of Naime [see under Nairne, 
John, third Lord Nairne]. At the trial 
of the Earl of Argyll in 1681 Naime was 
compelled from fatigue to retire while the 
pleadings on the relevancy were still pro- 
ceeding. The judges who remained being 
equally divided as to the relevancy, and the 
Duke of Queensberry, who presiaed, being 
unwilling to vote, Naime was sent for to 
give his vote. According to Wodrow he fell 
asleep while the pleadings for the relevancy 
were being read to him, but being awakened 
after this ceremony had been performed, voted 
for the relevancy of the indictment (Suffer^ 
inffs qf the Kirk of Scotland^ iii. 336). On 
10 April 1683 Lord Castlehill was appointed 
to be one of the criminal lords in place of 

Lord Naime, who was excused from atten- 
dance on account of his great age. * This/ 
according to Lauder of Fountainhall, ' pro- 
voked the old man to reflect that when he 
was lying in the Tower for the king Castle- 
hill was one of Oliver CromwelFs pages and 
servants, and Nairne died within six weeks 
after this ' {Historical Notices, p. 435). By his 
wife Margaret, daughter of Patrick Graham 
of Inchbrakie, Perthshire, he had an only 
daughter, Margaret, married to Lord William 
Murray, who became second Lord Nairne. 

[Wodrow's Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land ; Lauder of Fountainhairs Historical Notices ; 
Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of 
Justice ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 
279-80 1 T F H 

BiNANB (1731P-1811), Scottish judge, born 
about 1731, the younger son of Sir William 
Naime, bart., of Dunsinane, Perthshire, by 
his wife, Emelia Graham of Fintry, Forfar- 
shire, was admitted an advocate on 1 1 March 
1755, and in 1768 was appointed joint com- 
missary clerk of Edinburgh with Alexander 
Naime. lie was uncle to the notorious Ka- 
tharine Nairne or Ogilvie, whose trial for 
murder and incest attracted great attention 
in August 1765. He is supposed to have 
connived at her subsequent escape from the 
Tolbooth. He succeeded Robert Bruce of 
Kennet as an ordinary lord of session, and took 
his seat on the bench, with the title of Lord 
Dunsinane, on 9 March 1786. He succeeded 
to the baronetcy on the death of his nephew 
William, the fourth baronet, in January 1790, 
and at the same time purchased the estate of 
Dunsinane from another nephew for 16,000/. 
On the resignation of John Campbell of 
Stonefield, Naime was appointed a lord of 
justiciary, 24 Dec. 1792. He resigned his 
seat in the court, of justiciary in 1808, and 
his seat in the court of session in 1809. He 
died at Dunsinane House on 23 March 1811. 

Nairne was unmarried. The baronetcy be- 
came extinct upon his death, while his estates 
devolved upon his nephew, John Mellis, 
who subsequently assumed the surname of 

Naime was not a rich man ; and in order 
to clear off the purchase money of Dunsinane 
he had to adopt the most rigid economy. 
To save the expense of entertaining visitors, 
he is said to have kept only one bed at Dun- 
sinane, and upon one occasion, after trying 
every expedient to get rid of his friend 
George Dempster, he exclaimed in despair, 
* George, if you stay, you will go to bed at ten 
and rise at three, and then I shall get the bed 
afteryou*(KAY,i. 217-18). 

Two etchings of Naime will be found in 

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l'";;i/i.ii'l III Ji .i.J;il;,n'j Kij;f];Ji]awin l-OJ; NAISH. WILLI AM Iff. I>OU\ni^iniature- 

li).*'/ ^^. tii/iifi^ •JH- :-ih;^li' <:';fiij>«-titiv<: >^tud'.-nt' painter. wa< b*»ni at Axbridpo, Somerset, 

^)|||< ill' II ;.'i', « n l;v till- J//ii<]'iii J nil* of T'oiirt. and practist'd with fuccoss in London. He 

r.illnl 1 1, I},,- |,i..|, |,.,|. jij .Mi(:h:j<:lni:t.s t<^rm exhibited at the U«\val Academy almost con- 

'»! )>'.';•>, lH)«Mn<<l iJh: Mun'-tirr dn.'uit. IIi."» tinuously from 17>-i until his death in 1800, 

iii'lu.iry iih'l )<j|()wli-<l;."r h;on broii^flit him His ]>ort raits of Morton the dramatist and 
iiii'i [i»ntt\ |,niitir*-, iiimI in l'*70 li«! was r«- ' Mrs. Twi^leton and Mrs. Wells, actresses, 

iiiiiiii] III il)i! jni|i'iiinnt rni-ir of O'K*'*;!** f. w»?rc enpraved by Ridley for the * Monthly 

^'••lliii III l^/|,in rutijiitict ion with Mr. Mirror.* 

n.Mv. .I.mI^:. , I1....VI..V In.,li;.|H..! iiin.ati.s.f ; n{<..lpnive-s Diet, of Artists; Roval Academy 

HI! II,. I ..iiiMi.Mi Lfiw l'r.,r.-.Iuiv AitH,wlii(rli c'atulo^rues.1 F. M. O'D. 

I.. .1.11 .......i. .. -.1 I.. I. ...I I., luu/tl... I '^ J 

NAISH, WILLIAM (1 78o--l S60\ quaker 
writer, son of Francis \aish, silversmith, by 
Sii.»*aniia, his wife, was born in High Street^ 
IJaih, on \^ March ITH.'). Coming to London, 
he opentnl a haberdasher's shop in (Irace- 
chiirrh Street. He interested himself in the 
ant i-nlavery movement, and published a large 
number of tracts and ])amphlets in favour of 
t hat cause. During 1 829 and 1830 he opened 
a di'pository at his shop in Gracechurch Street 
for the sale of th(>se and other publica- 
t iouM. Ho aftorwanls liveil at Maidstone and 
At lluth, where ho died on 4 March I860, 

iM.-hll iiiiii-li ii.Mil 111 ii'ilnnd. In i>^H() he 
Imiti cilli, mill |ii:<-iiJiii* liiw ii(lviM«'r h) tin* 
i ii I li , ii |iii.-l Mhi-i- iiIkiIii-Iii'iI. In 
I imililiili.i liiiM(« I 111- iillirr i'iitiiili'(| r\ln'ni<'ly 
iiiiliitiii.* liitMiiii.-, mill III' \\ MM itimIiIimI by liis 
|iiihliiiil ii|i|iiiiii III ' i\itli lltl\lll^ uut'arlhi'd 
I In- iiii\^ liiiiiihm rhiliilK lit' l-lilward III, 
\^lilili t\ I1 1 iiiil III jiiiri- iitMiiiiril t lienii|i|KirterM 
ill iliii l.iiiiii l.iiif'iii-. lilt i\ii'< ii|iiii)iiili'il l»v 
l.ilniii: nnlirijiii ^fiii'iiil Ini" Irelaiul 
itihl ill lltn riiiiiir \ r m' htond aN H 

I' MulliiM, wlii-in I111 wart lii«aten by 
tiiiii U'lli It'll, ilin naliunnliNt nin- 
th htu'iutilinr (tt* I lilt ue\t yenr he 




Aged 75. He was buried in the Friends' 
burial-ground at Widcombe Hill, near Bath. 
He married Frances, daughter of Jasper 
Capper, and sister of Samuel Capper, author 
of *The Acknowledged Doctrines of the 
Church of Rome,' London, 1849. His son, 
Arthur John Naish (1816-1889), was co- 
founder with Paul Bevan [see under Bevan, 
Joseph Gubney] of the valuable *Bevan- 
^aish Library ' of Friends' books, now de- 
posited in the library, Dr. Johnson Passage, 

Naish's chief publications, nearly all un- 
dated, are : 1. * The Negro's Remembrancer,' 
in thirteen numbers; many of the later 
numbers ran to second and third editions. 
2, * The Negro's Friend,' in twenty-six num- 
bers. 3. * A Short History of the Poor 
Black Slaves who are employed in culti- 
vating Sugar, Cotton, Coffee, &c. Intended to 
make little Children in England pity them, 
and use their Endeavours to relieve them 
from Bondage.' 4. ' Reasons for using East 
Indian Sugar,' 1828: this proceeded to a 
fifth edition. 5. * A Brief Description of the 
Toil and Sufferings of Slaves in the British 
Sugar Colonies . . .by several Eye-witnesses.' 

6. 'The Negro Mother's Appeal' (in verse). 

7. ' A Comparison between Distressed Eng- 
lish Labourers and the Coloured People and 
Slaves of the West Indies, from a Jamaica 
Paper.' 8. * Plead the Cause of the Poor 
ana Needy.' 9. * The Advantages of Free 
Labour over the Labour of Slaves. Eluci- 
dated in the Cultivation of Pimento, Ginger, 
and Sugar.* 10. * Biographical Anecdotes : 
Persons of Colour,' in five numbers. 11. * A 
Sketch of the African Slave Trade, and 
the Slavery of Negroes under their Chris- 
tian Masters in the European Colonies.' 
12. * Sketches from the History of Pennsyl- 
vania,' 1845. 13. * The Fulfilment of the 
Prophecy of Isaiah,* &c., London, 1853. 
14. * George Fox and his Friends as Leaders 
in the Peace Cause,' London, 1859. A tale, 
*The Neffro Slave,' laSO, 8vo, is also attri- 
buted to^aish in the * British Museum Cata- 
logue;' but from the preface it is evidently 
the work of a lady. 

[Smith's Cat. ii. 210-14; registers at Devon- 
6hire House ; iDformation from Mr. C. E. 
Naish.] C. F. S. 

NALSON, JOHN (1638 P-1686), his- 
torian and royalist pamphleteer, bom about 
1638, is said to have been educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, but his name 
does not appear in the nst of admissions. 
He entered tne church, and became rector of 
Doddington in the Isle of Ely. In 1678 he 
took the degree of LL.D. (Oraduati Can- 
tabriffienses, p. 336). Nalson was an active 

polemical writer on the side of the govern- 
ment during the latter part of the reign of 
Charles II. In a petition addressed to the 
king in 1682 he describes himself as having 

Sublished ' a number of treatises for the vin- 
icating of truth and his majesty's preroga- 
tive in church and state from the aspersions 
of the dissenters ' ( Tanner MSS. ciii. 247). 
The first of these was * The Countermine,' 
published in 1677, which at once went 
through three editions, and was highly 
praised by Roger L'Estrange [q. v.] (Ni- 
chols, Illustrations of Literary History^ iv. 
69). Though published anonymously its au- 
thorship was soon discovered, and the parlia- 
ment of 1678, in which the opposition, whom 
he had attacked, had the majority, resolved to 
call Nalson to account. On 26 March 1678 
he was sent for on the charge of having 
written a pamphlet called * A Letter from a 
Jesuit in Paris, showing the most efficient 
way to ruin the Government and the Pro- 
testant lleligion,' a clumsy jeu dC esprit ^ in 
which the names of various members of par- 
liament were introduced. After being Kept 
in custody for about a month, he was dis- 
charged, but ordered to be put out of the com- 
mission of the peace, and to be reprimanded by 
the speaker (1 May). * What you have done,' 
said the speaker, * was beneath the gravity 
of your calling and a desertion of your pro- 
fession ' (Commons JoumalSy ix. 572, 676, 
592, 608; Grey's Debates, vii. 32, 103, 164- 
167 ; Preface to the 4th edit, of The Counter- 
mine, 1684, pp. ii-ix). Nalson, however, un- 
deterred by this experience, published several 
other pamphlets, undertook to make a collec- 
tion of documents in answer to Rush worth 
(1682), and printed the * Trial of Charles I ' 
(1684), prefixing to his historical works long 
polemical attacks on the whigs. He estimated 
the value of his services very highly, and 
lost no chance of begging for preferment. * A 
little oil,' he wrote to Sancroft, * will make 
the wheels go easy, which truly hitherto 
without complaining I have found a very 
heavy draught. It is some discouragement 
to see others, who I am sure have not out- 
stript me in the race of loyal and hearty 
endeavours to serve the king and church, 
carry away the prize ' (14 July 1683 ; Tanner 
MSS, xxxiv. 80). He asked on 14 Aug. 1680 
for the mastership of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, which heiustly terms 'preternatural 
confidence,' on 21 July 1680 for the deanery 
of Worcester, and to be given a prebend 
either at Westminster or Ely (t^. xxxiv. 79, 
135, xxxvii. 117, ciii. 247). In 1684 he was 
at length collated to a prebend at Ely. He 
died on 24 March 1685-6, aged 48, and was 
buried at Ely. His epitaph is printed in Le 




Neve^B ^ Fasti Anglicani/ iii. 75, in Bentham's 
' Ely/ p. 262, and in Willis's ' Cathedrals/ 
p. 388. His will is given in Chester Waters's 

* Chesters of Chicheley/ i. 320. 

Nalson married Alice Peyton, who married, 
after his death, John Cremer (d, 1703), of a 
Norfolk family, and was buried in Ely Ca- 
thedral in 1717. By Nalson she haa ten 
children, seven of whom survived their 
father. The eldest son, Valentine (1683- 
1723), was a graduate of St. John's College, 
Cambridge (B.A. 1702 and M. A. 1711) ; vicar 
of St. Martin's, Conyng Street, York ; pre- 
bendary of Ripon from 1713 ; and author of 
'Twenty Sermons preached in the Cathedral 
of York/ ed. Francis Hildyard (London, 1724, 
8vo; 2nd edit. 1737). Nalson's daughter 
Elizabeth married, in 1687, Peter Williams, 
her father's successor in the rectory of Dodd- 
ington (cf. Nichols, iv. 866). 

Nalson's only important work is the * Im- 
partial Collection of the Great Affairs of 
State, from the beginning of the Scotch Re- 
bellion in the vear 1639 to the murder of 
King Charles I. The first volume was pub- 
lished in 1682, and the second in 1683, but the 
collection ends in Januarv 1642. Its avowed 
object was to serve as an antidote to the 
similar collection of Rush worth, whom Nal- 
son accuses of misrepresentations and sup- 
pressions intended to blacken the memory 
and the government of Charles I. Some 
letters addressed to Nalson on the subject 
of Rushworth's demerits are printed in the 

* Old Parliamentary History,* which contains 
also Nalson's scheme for the next volume of 
his work (xxiii. 219-42). As the work was 
undertaken under the special patronage of 
Charles II, the compiler was allowed free 
access to various repositories of state papers. 
From the documents in the office of the clerk 
of the parliament ' he was apparently allowed 
to take almost anything he pleased, although 
in June 1684 the clerk of the house wrote 
for a list of the books in his possession be- 
longing to the office. Ho also had access to 
the Paper Office, though there he was ap- 
parently allowed only to take copies ' (ifc- 
port on the MSS, of the Duke of Portland^ 
Preface, p. i). Finding that the paper office 
contained very few documents on the Irish 
rebellion he applied to the Duke of Ormonde, 
and obtained permission to copy some of the 
papers ( Tanner MSS. xxxv. 66 ; Report on 
the Carte and Carew Papers, 1864, p. 9). 
Lord Guilford communicated to him ex- 
tracts from the memoirs of the Earl of Man- 
chester, and he hoped to obtain help from 
the Earl of Macclesfield, one of the last sur- 
vivors of the king's generals (Old Parlia* 
mentary History , xxiiL 232 ; (hllectionSj ii. 

206). By these means Nalson brought to* 
gether a great body of manuscripts illus- 
trating the history of the perioa between 
1638 and 1660, to form the basis of the docu- 
mentary history which he proposed to write. 
Had it been completed it would have been 
a work of the greatest value, in spite of the 
prejudices of the editor and the partiality of 
his narrative. On the death of Nalson both 
the manuscripts which should have been re- 
turned to the clerk of the parliament and the 
transcripts which he had made himself re- 
mained m the possession of his family. The 
collection was gradually broken up, and 
passed into various hands. Its history is traced 
m Mr. Blackbume Daniel's preface to the 
manuscripts of the Duke of Portland {Hist, 
MSS, Comm, 18th Rep. pt. i.) Some of the 
Irish transcripts came into the hands of 
Thomas Carte, and a considerable number 
of the parliamentary papers were abstracted 
by Dr. Tanner. These portions of the collec- 
tion are in the Bodleian Library. Of the rest 
twenty-two volumes are in the possession 
of the Duke of Portland, were discovered 
at Welbeck Abbey by Mr. Maxwell Lyte in 
1885, and are calendared in the report men- 
tioned above. Four volumes were purchased 
by the British Museum in 1846, and four 
others are still missing. Some documents 
from Nalson's collection were printed by Dr. 
Zacharv Grey in his answer to Neal's * His- 
tory of the Puritans' (1737-9), and others 
by Francis Peck [a. v.] in his 'Desiderata 
Curiosa' (1736). Nalson's only other histo- 
rical work was 'A True Copy of the Journal 
of the High Court of Justice for the Trial of 
K. Charles I . . . with a large Introduction, 
by J. Nalson, D.D./ folio, 1684. 

He was also the author of the following 
pamphlets: 1. * The Countermine, or a short 
but true Discovery of the Dangerous Prin- 
ciples and Secret Practices of the Dissenting 
Party, especially the Presbyterians, showing 
that Religion is pretended, but Rebellion in- 
tended,' 1677, 8vo. 2. * The Common In- 
terest of King and People, showing the 
Original, Antiquity, and Excellency of Mo- 
narchy, compared with Aristocracy and De- 
mocracy, and particularly of our English 
Monarchy/ &c., 1^77, 8vo. 3. 'The True 
Liberty and Dominion of Conscience vindi- 
cated irom the Usurpations and Abuses of 
Opinion and Persuasion,' 1677, 8vo. 4. * A 
Letter from a Jesuit in Paris,' 1678. 6. *The 
Project of Peace, or Unity of Faith and 
Government the only expeaient to procure 
Peace, both Foreign and Domestic, by the 
Author of " The Countermine/' ' 1678, 8vo. 
6. ' Foxes and Firebrands, or a Specimen of 
the Danger and Harmony of Popery and 




Separation/ 4to, 1080, published under the 
peeudonym of * Philirenes/ It was republished 
in 1682 and 1689, with a second and a third 
part added by Robert Ware. 7. * The Pre- 
sent Interest of England, or a Confutation 
of the Whigjrish Conspirators' Antinomian 
Principles,' 1683, 4to, by N. N. (attributed to 
Nalson in the Bodleian and British Museum 

Nalson translated from the French: 
1. Maimbourg's * History of the Crusades,* 
folio, 1686. 2. ' A Short Letter of Instruc- 
tion shewing the surest way to Christian 
Perfection, by Francis de la uombe ' {Itaio- 
linson MS. C. 002, Bodleian Library). 

Some letters from Roger L'Est range to 
Nalson concerning his pamphlets are printed 
by Nichols, iv. 68-70, and a series of news- 
letters addressed to him by JohnBr^dall, to- 
gether with letters from Nalson himself to 
Sancroft and others, are among the Tanner 
MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 

[A brief life of NhIsod is given in Athenw 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 283. under * Rushworth.' See 
also Nichols's Illustrations of the Literary His- 
tory of the Eighteenth Century, ir. 68, 865 ; Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 649, viii. 415; Waters's Chesters of 
Chicheley, pp. 320-1 ; other authorities men- 
tioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

NALTON, JAMES (1600P-1662), 'the 
weeping prophet,' bom about 1600, son of a 
London minister, was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. 
in 1619, and M.A. in 1623. According to Bax- 
ter, he acted for a time as assistant to a certain 
Richard Conder, either in or near London, 
and in 1632 he obtained the living of Rugby, 
in Warwickshire. In 1642 he signed a peti- 
tion addressed to Lord Dunsmore respecting 
the appointment of a master to the grammar 
school, which was not only rejected, but was 
apparently the cause of his leaving Rugby. 
lie subsequently acted as chaplain to Colonel 
Grantham's regiment ; but about 1644 he was 
appointed incumbent of St. Leonard's, Foster 
Lane, London, where he remained, with a 
short interval, until his death. On 29 April 
1646 he preached before the House of Com- 
mons at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on 
* The Delay of Reformation provoking God's 
further Indignation ' (London, 1646, 8vo), his 
fellow preacher on this occasion being I>r. 
John Owen [q. v.] In 1651 Nalton was in- 
directly concerned in Love's plot [see Love, 
Chbistopheb], and had to take refuge in 
Holland, becoming for a short period one of 
the ministers of the English Church at Rot- 
terdam ; but he retumecl to England by per- 
mission at the end of six months, and re- 
sumed his work at St. Leonard's until he was 
ejee^ in 1662. He died in December of 

that year, and was buried on 1 Jan. 1662-3. 
His funeral sermon, entitled * Rich Treasure 
in Earthen Vessels,' was preached by Thomas 
Horton {d, 1678) [q. v.] 

Nalton is described by Baxter as a good 
linguist, a man of primitive sincerity, and an 
excellent and zealous preacher. He was 
called the * weeping prophet ' because ' his 
seriousness often expressed itself by tears.' 
He seems also to have been subject to an 
acute form of melancholia. * Less than a 
year before he died,' writes Baxter, ' he fell 
into a grievous fit, in which he often cried 
out, " O not one spark of grace ! not a good 
desire or thought I I can no more pray than 
a post " (though at that very time he did pray 
very well).' 

He was the first signatory of the preface 
to Jeremiah Burroughes's * Saint's Treasury,' 
1654, and he himself published several sepa- 
rate sermons. Twenty of these, with a highly 
eulogistic preface and a portrait engraved by 
J. Chantrey, were issued by Matthew Poole 
[q. y.], London, 1677, 8vo. Another por- 
trait of Nalton preaching is mentioned by 

[Calamy and Palmer's Nonconformist's Memo- 
rial, 1802, i. 142-4 ; Baxter's Lite and Times io 
Orme's edition, i. 243-4 ; Colvile's Warwickshire 
Worthies, p. /)40 ; Inden^'ick's Interregnum,, 
pp. 286 §q. ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 
1 779, iii. 47 ; Bloxam's Register of the Vicars of 
Rugby, appended to Derwent Coleridge's edition 
of Moultrie ; M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclo- 
psedia, vi. 836 ; AUibone's Diet, of English Li- 
terature, 1397.] T. S. 

RICHARD (d. 1507), deputy of Calais, son 
of John Nanfan of Birtsmorton, Worcester- 
shire, belonged to a family which originally 
sprang from Tresize, Cornwall. His father 
was sneriff of Cornwall in 1451 and 1457, 
I and in 1453 became governor of Jersey and 
Guernsey, and collector of the customs there. 
Richard Nanfan was in the commission of 
the peace for Cornwall in 1485, and is said 
to have been esquire of the king's body in the^ 
same year. Throughout Henry VIFs reign 
he received frequent grants of stewardships, 
and must have become very rich in later life* 
On 21 Dec. 1488 he was elected, in company 
with Dr. Savage and Roger Machado [q. v.j, 
the Norroy king at arms, for a mission into 
Spain and Portugal. Before starting Nan- 
fan was knighted. The party left South- 
ampton early in 1489, and reached Medina 
del Campo on 12 March. They had inter- 
views with Ferdinand and Isabella, and left 
for Beja in Portugal on 22 April. After 
staying a month there and treating with the 
king tne party left for Lisbon, and Nanfan 

*IiiMjry il Attorn , . . of lii^hard III and 
ihnn/ VIL II/»11m S*-r. i. 2'5l ). He is men- 
tion'r'l ft« y>*\n^ at Calais in 14Ci:^, and in 

Nangle 32 Xanmor 

/*!««#: h'/r/»«- if» * >*lNlvl*'n fthip of Iwentv CT*dit*r<l doctor of diviriTT. »ai bKain« p*o- 
I '/Mi' l/iif I*'ii. vincial of bis order in tvltni. In loi»^ his 

\\ «/if/i«; tiffi'; '^I'/n afT«-r Wh'*'. O.e wa* Mimest solicitaTion* l*d :o th-e fr'-udaiion of 
•■J,*:f»rt of (^>/mwa;l in H'!^; Nanfan. a^ the Aiuru-^tinian fHarr at Galirav i Rn>Di- 
<;ftv<'f*'li*h *ay*, Mia^l a {fr»?at r^yjDQ inCalai.*!.' max. //i>/. of GalwKxy, p. ^72*. C»n the 
'Iho'jjrJi •orn*? have *aid that he wa.«» onlj death of Denis Mon?, bishop of Llonfert, in 
f f<rfta!nr<:r there, ir v.*emA certain that he wa* 15.'U. Itowland Burke wis appy:n:«l his siie- 

of liifhard III and ceMK>r by papal prorision : but Henry VIII, 

who had determined to assert his rifht as 
head of the church in Ireland, in l->36 ap- 
|,VX) was one of the witne«ft*r.H at a trea- p^)int<^i Xani?le, who was recommended to 
•<onftble convfrr«>fttion of Sir 1 1 ujfh Conway, him by Archbishop Browne as being 'not 
the tn-fiAurer, of whirh John Mamank sent onlv well learned, but a ri^ht honest man, 
horn*' an acount. At T'alaii* he was an early ami one will set forth the Word of God in 
l»ftt rr»ii of Wolsey, who wa» hi.s chaplain, and the Irish tongue/ Xangle, however, was ei- 
wlio t liroiigh Nanfan l>ecame known to the pelle<l from the see, and forced to remain 
kintf. i \*' 1^'t nrned to Birtsmorton early in shut up in (ialway * for fear of Burgh and his 
I he hixt«^»jiith centurj', and di^f^l in January complices' fOAiKDXER, Letterf and J^pem 
ir>(HJ-7. AVolsey was one of hi« executors, of Ilfinry VII I, XI I. i. 10-')2: Carew JIS&) 
HiH widow Marfraret die<l in lolO. He left Henry therefore directed the deputy, Lord 
no h'jfitimate children; but a natural son, ^iruy, to prosecute the intruder under the 
John, who went to Spain with him, to<jk his Statiiteof Provisors; but nothing was done, 
WoHM'stershire estates. and Burke remained in possession of the see. 

Ills great-^roat-prandson, John Xanfan ! Xangle died apparently in 1541, and Burke 
( ft. l«»'M),was grandfather of Captain Johx ' received Henry's assent to his election on 
Saman (//. 1710) of nirtsmorton,\Vorcester- 24 Oct. of the same year. 
Mhin?, who was captain in Sir John Jacob's j [Cal. State Papers, IrelHnd, la09-73; Carew 
rejfiment of foot, and sailed in HOT for Xew MSS. 1515-74; Letters and Papers of Henry VJll. 
York, where, by the influence of the governor, ed. Gairdner. xii. i. 1052, xiii. i. 114, 1450; 
Kirliard Coote, earl of Bellamont ^i\. v.], who Ijascelles's Liber Mnnerum. ii. 83 ; Ware's Ire- 
liad married Nanfnn's cousin (Catherine, he , land, i. 642; Mant's Church of Ireland, i. 163; 
was made lieutenant-governor. On Bella- Brae ly'» Episcopal Succession, iii. 212; Cotton's 
inr.nt'H death in 17(X)the ^rovernment of Xew ' ^^'^^'^ i^- 165-6 ; Froude's Hist, of England, iii. 
V(,rk devolved upon Xanfan till the arrival I *25; Ruddiman's Galway, p. 272.] A. F. P. 
nf Lord Cornbury in 170l^ In 1705 Xanfan I NANMOR, DAFYDD (Jl. 1400\ Welsh 
returned to Kn^land ; he died at (Jreenwich , bard, was a native of Xanmor, a valley near 
in I7KJ, and was buried at St. Mary Ab- Heddgelert. From a poem by Rhys Goch 
4'liurrli, London. His wife was Elizabeth, Ysvyvi {Gorchestioti lieirdd CymrUj 2ndL e^\t, 

a contemporary 
though possibly, 
love, somewhat 
l*rrr(iffp, od. Arclidall, m.v. * Itellamont ; ' younger. Tradition has it that Rhys Goch 
\\ I NsoK, 7//."/. of Anu'rirOj v. 1 05 : Hoork- gave Xanmor out of his estate of Ilafod Gare- 
vf.i.T, A>7/^ York, ]). HI ; Itairl. MS. in Hodl. i gog the holding subsequently known as Cae 
Libr. A. 272, 2H\)). i Ddafydd. His later years seem to have been 

(Not(.s and Qucri.H, 2nd w-r. viii. 228, 294, , 8?^"^ »" ^0"^^ Wiles, where he sang in 
nr,7 5th prr. viii. 472. ix. 120; I/»tt«M ... of , honourof the house of Gogerddan (Cardigan- 
Hirliard III and Uniirv VII, iM|.(ijiirdniT (Rolls shire), and, according to one (not very 

4'hurrh, London, liis wiie was jMizaiietn, iwyn {Uorcnesrion Jieiraa I 
daii^diter of William Chester of Ihirbados p. 126) it appears he was 
< \V ATI-: lis, Chester A *f ('hirfwlt';/, pp. l72-.'5; \ and neighbour of that poet, 
Nash, W'orcei^tcrnhirc^ i. H<>, iS:c. ; Lodok, , as his successful rival in 

^f^vX i. '-^31, 238, ii. 2»2. :iHO ; NiihU'h Worcester- 
uliiro, i. 86 ; ('avcanliMir« Lifo of WolHoy, ed. 
IIiilnH'H, p. 7 ; Ciiron. (jf (?iiliiiM M'arnd. S<mv), xl. 
M) ; Memorials of H«nry VII. ••»!. (hiinlnttr (Rolls 
H(>r.),pa8Mm ; MaUTiaUfor tin- HJHt.of Hon. VII, 
j^ (Jimnhell (RoIIm Sit.), i. 25. .'IK, 313, ii. 
clean's 11 int. of Trigg Minor, ])aH.sim.1 

W. A. J, A. 

JS, UK 'HA HI) (r/. 15 HP), bishop 

, canio of an old Irish family 

ayo and < Inl wa^, and early ontere(l 

& the Aust in Knars, from whom he 

jM'^ * U was subsequently 

trustworthy) account, won distinction at an 
Kisteddfod, said to have been at Carmarthen 
about 1443 (Cyfrinach y Beirddy pp. 239, 

The poet Rhys Nanmor i^fi, 1440) of 
Maenor Fynyw, Pembrokeshire, is generally 
believed to have been his son {lolo MSS. 
315), though Lewis Dwnn gives a different 
parentage ( Heraldic Visitations of Waies, ii. 
284). Rhvs had again a son who was a poet, 
and bore tke name of Daftdd Nanxob (Jl. 
1480), and much confusion has naturally 
arisen from this duplication of the title. 




Of the printed pieces attributed to the Xan- 
mors, (1) the Cywydd to the Hair of Llio, 
daughter of Rhydderch ab leuan Llwyd of 
Oogerddan ; (2) that to Llio^s brother David ; 
and (3) the ele^ upon the bardie dead love 
( Ct/mru Fyddf lii. 22-3) appear to belong to 
the elder Dafydd. A poem referring to the 
troubles of the Wars of the Roses (* Cawn o 
ddau arwydd barlamantcynddeiriog*), printed 
by Charles Ashton in * Cy mru/ ii. 85, is attri- 
l)uted to Rhys, and this seems also the better ' 
ascription in the case of the cy wydd to Henry 
of Richmond, ' when a babe in his cradle in 
Pembroke Castle ' (1457 ), which is printed in 
* Brython/ iv. 221 -± The cywydd to Rhys 
ab Maredudd of Tywyn, near Cardigan, the 
ode to the same person and the elegy upon 
his son Thomas (all printed, with 1 and 2 
above, in Chrchestion Beirdd CymrUy 2nd 
edit., pp. 132-42), must be assigned to the 
younger Dafydd, who was probably also the 
author of the poem to Henry VII, printed 
in the lolo MSS. 313-5. The fragments of 
a cywydd to * Rhys of Ystrad Tywi/ given 
in the introduction to Glanmor s ' Records 
of Denbigh ' (pp. vii, viii), do not enable 
the critic to assign the poem to either Dafydd, 
and the chronology of the three poets* lives 
must remain somewhat uncertain, pending 
the publication of a complete edition of their 
poems, the great bulk of which are still in 
manuscript in various collections of medioBval 
Welsh poetry. 

[Gorchestion Beirdd Cymni ; lolo MSS.] 

J. E. L. 

NANTGLYN, BARDD. [See Davies, 
KoBKRT, 1769?-183rj, Welsh poet.] 

NAPIER, Sir ALEXANDER (rf. 1473.J»), 
second of Merchiston, comptroller of Scot- 
land, was the elder son of Alexander Napier, 
burgess of Edinburgh and provost of the city 
in 1437, who made a fortune by his extensive 
dealings in wool, had money transactions 
with James I previous to 1433, and as 
security got a charge over the lands of 
Merchiston, which were then in the king*s 
hands. In 1436 he secured a charter of these 
lands, reserving a power of redemption to 
the king. But the redemption never took 
place, probably owing to the confusion caused 
by the king's murder at Perth on 20 Feb. 
1636-7 {Exchtquer RolU, iv. and v.) Alex- 
ander died about 1454. The son was one of 
the household of the queen-mother, Jane 
Beaufort (widow of James I, who after- 
wards married Sir James Stewart, called the 
Black Knight of Lorn), and was wounded in 
assisting to rescue her and her husband when 
thev were captured on 3 Aug. 1439 by Alex- 
ander Livingntone and others in Stirling 


Castle. As a reward for his conduct on this 
occasion Napier, after the forfeiture of Living- 
stone, obtained from James II on 7 March 
1449-60 the lands of Philde ^or Filledy- 
Fraser), forming part of the lordsliip of Meth- 
ven, Perthshire (Reg, Mag. Sig. Scot, 1424- 
1513, entry 324), and the charter was con- 
firmed to him and his wife Elizabeth, 9 March 
1450-1 (ib. entry 425). These lands were 
a^ain, however, in the possession of the 
Livingstones before December 1466 (ib, entry 
898). After the arrest, on 23 Sept. 1449, of 
Robert Livingstone, comptroller of the house- 
hold, Napier succeeded to his office (Rcche- 
quer /2o/6, v. 309), and he held this office, with 
occasional intervals, until 7 July 1461. He 
was one of the ambassadors to England who 
on 14 Aug. 1451 signed a three years' truce 
(Rtmer, JFoidera, xi. 293; CaL Documents 
relating to ScotL 1357-1509, entry 1139), and 
took advantage of his visit to London to make 
a pilgrimage to the tomb of Thomas Becket 
at Canterbury. 

Napier had a charter of the lands oi 
Lindores and Kinloch in the county of Fife, 
24 May 1452 (Reg, Mag, Sig. Scot, 1424- 
1513, entry 565), as security for the sum of 
1,000/. advanced by him to the king. In 
1452, 1453, 1454, 1456, 1469, and 1470 he 
was provost of Edinburgh (List of Provosts 
in Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of 
Edinburgh, 1403-1528, pp. 258-261, Burgh 
Record Society's Publications). During his 
tenure of office the choir of St. Giles's was 
building, and this may account for his arms 
appearing over the capital of one of the 
pillars. On 10 May 1459 Napier, along with 
the Abbot of Melrose and others, had a safe- 
conduct from the king of England to go to 
Scotland and return at pleasure (Cat, Docu- 
ments relating to Scotland, 1357-1509, entry 
1299). He was knighted and made vice-ad- 
miral some time before 24 Sept. 1461, when he 
was appointed one of the ambassadors to the 
court of England. By commission under the 
privy seal, 24 Feb. 1464-5, he was appointed 
one of the searchers of the port ana haven 
of Leith to prevent the exportation of gold 
and silver, and he had a similar appointment 
in 1473. In 1468 he was named joint- 
commissioner with Andrew Stewart, lord 
chancellor, to negotiate a marriage between 
James III and Margaret, daughter of Chris- 
tian I of Denmark. He w^as one of the 
commissioners appointed by the parliament 
of 6 May 1471 with power to determine all 
matters that should occur for the welfare of 
the king and common good of the realm. In 
1472 he was in Bruges ' taking up finance ' 
and purchasing armour for the King (Re- 
ceipt in WooD*8 Peerage, ed. Douglas, ii. 284 ; 





and Napier's Life of John Napier^ p. 26). 
He also held the office of master of the 
household, and in this capacity he provided 
'travelling gear' for the king and queen 
when, after the birth of an heir to the throne 
— James IV— 17 March 1472-3, they went 
on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Ninian 
at Whithorn, Galloway {Accounts of the Lord 
High Treasurer^ i. 44). In May 1473 he 
was sent on a special embassy to the court 
of Burgundy, with secret instructions from 
James III, respecting the king's claims to 
the duchy of Gueldres. He died some time 
between 24 Oct. 1473 and 15 Feb. 1473-4, 
when his son was infeft as heir. He was 
buried in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh. By 
his wife Elizabeth Lauder, probably a daugh- 
ter of the laird of Halton or Ilatton, he had 
three sons — John, his heir, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Menteith \ 
of Rusky, who on 19 June 1492 was declared ! 
legal possessor of a fourth part of the earl- 
dom of Lennox; Henry, who married Janet, 
daughter of John Kam'say of CoUuthie ; and 
Alexander — and a daughter, Janet, married 
to Sir David Edmonston of that ilk. 

The eldest son, John Tthird of Merchiston), 
known as John of RusKy, was killed at the 
battle of Sauchiebum on' 11 June 1488. His 
eldest son, Archibald, fourth of Merchiston ! 
(^. 1522), was three times married. By his ; 
first wife he had issue Alexander, fifth of 
Merchiston, who was knighted in 1507, and 
was killed at Flodden Field 9 Sept. 1513, 
leaving issue a son Alexander, who was killed 
at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, and left a 
son. Sir Archibald Napier (1534-1608) [q. v.] 
By his third wife Archibald, fourth of Mer- 
chiston, had two sons, Alexander and Mungo, 
of whom the elder settled at Exeter, where 
he was known as Sandy, and became father of 
Richard Napier (1559-1034) [q. v.] 

[Information kindly supplied by W. Rae Mac- 
donald, esq., of Edinburgh ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 
Scot.; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland; Accounts 
of tho Lord High Treasurer; Cal. Documents re- 
lating to Scotland ; Rymer's Foedcra ; Napier's 
Life of John Napier; Douglas's Scottish Peerage 
(Wood), ii. 284.] T. E. H. 


1608), seventh of Merchiston, master of the 

Scottish mint, bom in 1534, was eldest son 

of Alexander Napier, sixth of Merchiston, 

who was killed at the battle of Pinkie in . 

1547. His mother was Annabella, youngest 

''' • of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glen- 

Tis paternal grandfather was Sir 

fifth of Merchiston,who was killed 

Field on 9 Sept. 1513 (Cambwh- 

iarterSf p. 207 ; see art. Napibb, 

Sib Alexander, d. 1473 P). Archibald was 
infeft in the barony of Edenbellie as heir to 
his father on 8 Nov. 1548, a royal dispensation 
enabling him, though a minor, to feudalise his 
right to his paternal barony in contemplation 
of his marriage with Janet Bothwell, which 
took place about 1549. He soon began to 
clearhisproperty of encumbrances. On 1 Juno 
1555 he redeemed his lands of Gartnes, Stir- 
lingshire, and others from Duncan Forester, 
and on 14 June 1558 he obtained a precept of 
sasine for infefting him in the lands of Blair- 
waddis. Isle of Inchcolm (Reg, Mag. Sig. 
1540-80, entry 1285). In 1565 he received 
the order of knighthood. He seems to have 
sided with Queen ISIary after her escape fron^ 
Ix)chleven Castle (lieg. P. C, Scotl, i. 637). 
During the siege of Edinburgh Castle, held by 
Kirkcaldy of (irange for the queen, he was re- 
quired on 1 May 1572 to deliver up his houso 
of Merchiston (ib. ii. 730) to the king's party, 
who placed in it a company of soldiers to 
prevent victuals being carried past it to the 
castle. On this account the defenders of 
the castle made an attempt to bum it, which 
was unsuccessful (Caldebwood, History, iii. 
213). Napier^s name appears with those of 
others in a contract with the regent for 
working for the space of twelve years certain 
gold, silver, copper, and lead mines {Heg. 
P. C. Scotl. i. 637). He was appoint>ed gene- 
ral of the cunzie-house (master of the mint) 
in 1570 (Patrick, JRecords of Coinage of 
Scotland, i. 216), and on 25 April 1581 he 
was directed, with others, to take proceedings 
against John Achesoun, the king's master- 
coiner {Beg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 376). In May 
1580 he received a payment of 400/. for the ex- 
penses of his mission to England. On 24 April 
1582 he was named one of the assessors to 
prepare the matters to be submitted to the 
general assembly of the kirk of Scotland {Book 
of the Universal Kirk, ii. 548), and his name 
frequently occurs in following years as an 
ordinary member of assembly, and also as 
acting on special commissions and deputa- 
tions. On 8 Feb. 1587-8 the king granted 
to him, Elizabeth Mowbray, his second wife, 
and Alexander, their son and heir, the lands 
called the King's Meadow {Beg. Mag. Sig. 
1580-93, entry 1455). On 6 March 1589-90 
ho was appointed one of a commission for 
putting the acts in force against the Jesuits 
{Beg. P. a Scotl. iv. 463). On 25 March 1591 
his double claim for the assize of gold and 
silver as master of the cunzie-house was dis- 
allowed by the council, the money being 
ordered to be distributed to the poor (t^. 
p. 603): but on 15 Feb. 1602-3 the decision 
was declared to ' in no way prejudge him and 
his successors anent their right to the whole 




gold, silver, and alloy which shall be found in 
the box in time coming ' {ib, vi. 540). 

In January 1692-3 Napier was appointed 
by a convention of ministers in Edmburgh 
one of a deputation to wait on the kin^ to 
urge him to more strenuous action against 
the catholic nobles (Caldebwood, v. 216), 
and he was appointed one of a similar com- 
mission at a meeting of the general assembly 
of the kirk in April (ib. p. 240), and also by 
a convention held in October (t6. p. 270). On 
16 Nov. 1693 he obtained a grant of half the 
lands of Laurieston, where he built the castle 
of Laurieston. On account of the non-ap- 
pearance before the council of his son Alex- 
ander, charged with a serious assault, he was 
on 2 July 1601 ordained to * keep ward in 
Edinburgh ' until the king declared his will 
(72<y. P. a Scotl. vi. 267). In September 
16(X4 he went to London to treat with Eng- 
lish commissioners ' anent the cunzie,' when, 
according to Sir James Balfour, Ho the great 
amazement of the English, he carried his 
business with a ^at deal of dexteritv and 
skill * (Annals f iii. 2). He continued till the 
end ot his life to take an active part in 
matters connected with mining and the cur- 
rency. On 14 Jan. 1608 he was appointed 
along with two others to repair to the mines 
in succession to try the quality of the ore 
(Bm, p. C, Scotl. viii. 34). He died on 
15 May 1608, aged 74. 

By his first wife, Janet (d. 20 Dec. 1663), 
only daughter of Sir Francis Bothwell, lord of 
session, he. had two sons — John (156(>-1617) 
[q. v.], the mathematician; and Francis, ap- 
pointed assayer to the cunzie-house 1 Dec. 
1581 — and one daughter, Janet. By his 
second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
Mowbray of Bambougle, Linlithgowshire, he 
had three sons — Sir Alexander of Laurieston, 
appointed a senator of the College of Justice 
14 Feb. 1626 ; Archibald, slain m November 
1600 in revenge for a murder committed in 
self-defence: William — and two daughters: 
Helene, married to Sir William Balfour; 
and Elizabeth, married, first, to James, lord 
Ogilvie of Airlie, and, secondly, to Alexan- 
der Auchmoutie, gentleman of his majesty's 
privy chamber. 

[loformation from W. Hae Macdonald, esq. ; 
Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. ; Reg P. C. Scotl. ; Calder- 
-wood's Hist, of the Kirk of Scotland ; Sir James 
Balfomr's Annals ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage 
(Wood), ii. 288-9.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, Sir ARCHIBALD, first Lord 
Napier (1576-1645), ninth of Merchiston, 
treasurer-depute of Scotland, eldest son of 
John Napier of Merchiston [q. v.] by Eliza- 
beth, dauj^ter of Sir James Stirling of Keir, 

Stirlingshire, v^as bom in 1576. He was edu- 
cated at the university of Glasgow, where he 
matriculated in March 1593. He was infeft 
in the barony of Merchiston 18 June 1597, 
probably soon after attaining the age of 
twenty-one. At an early period he, under his 
fathers guidance, devoted special attention 
to agricultural pursuits, and on 22 June 1598 
he received from James VI a patent for 
twenty-one years for the manuring of all 
lands in the kingdom by his new method. 
In the same year he published *The New 
Order of Gooding and Manuring all sorts of 
Field Land with Common Salt, whereby the 
same may bring forth in more abundance both 
of Grass and Com of all sorts, and far cheaper 
than by the common way of Dunging used 
heretofore in Scotland.* For this work his 
father was doubtless mainly responsible. 

On 12 Dec. 1598 he had a charter of the 
lands of Auchlenschee in the lordship of 
Menteith (Iie(/. Mag. Sig. Scot. vi. No. 809). 
On 16 June 1601 Napier was brought before 
the privy council for assault on a servant of 
the lord treasurer on the stairhead of the Tol- 
booth, but was assoilzied through the pursuer 
failing in his proof (7?^y. P. C. Scotl. vi. 259). 
On the accession of James VI to the English 
throne in 1003 he accompanied him to Lon- 
don, and was appointed gentleman of the bed- 
chamber. He was sworn a privy councillor 
20 July 1615, appointed treasurer-depute of 
Scotland for life 21 Oct. 1622, and named jus- 
tice clerk 23 Nov. 1623 on the death of Sir 
John Cockbum of Ormi8ton,whomon25Nov. 
he succeeded as ordinary lord of session. On 
9 Aug. 1624 he resigned the office of justice 
clerk. On 14 Jan. 1625 he had a license to 
transport twelve thousand stoneweight of 
tallow annually for seven years *in remem- 
brance of the mony good services done to his 
m^esty these mony years bigane.* 

Nnpier attended the funeral of King James 
in London in May 1625 (Calderwood, 
J£iston/y vii. 634). After the accession of 
Charles I he was on 15 Feb. 1626 created 
one of the extraordinary lords of session, and 
on 2 March 1627 he was created a baronet 
of Nova Scotia. By warrant of the privy 
seal on 1 May of the same year he received 
a pension of 2,400/. Scots yearly, for having 
at the king's desire advanced 5,000/. Scots 
to Walter Steward, gentleman of the privy 
chamber. On 4 May 1627 he was created a 
peer of Scotland by the title of Baron Napier 
of Merchiston; he was also appointed a 
commissioner of tithes, and obtained a lease 
of the crown lands of Orkney for forty-five 
thousand merks annually, which he subleased 
to Sir "William Dick for fifty-two thousand 
merks. In March 1631 he resigned the lease 





of Orkney, the pension, and the office of 
treaaurer-ndepute, receiving a letter of appro- 
bation and an allovrance of 4,000/. sterling. 
The question of the resignation gave rise for 
a time to some misunderstanding between 
him and the king, which, however, was 
entirely removed by a personal interview 
(Napier, Life of Montrose, i. 107; Douglas, 
ed. Wood, ii. 293). 

Tlie political conduct of Napier daring the 
covenanting struggle closely coincided with 
that of his brother-in-law, the Marquis of 
Montrose, who was considerably under his 
influence. At first he by no means favoured 
the ecclesiastical policy of Charles, espe- 
cially in the political prominence given to the 
bishops, homing that, while to give them a 
competency is * agreeable to the law of God 
and man,' to 'invest them into great estates 
and principal offices of state is neither con- 
venient for the church, for the king, nor for 
the state' (ib. p. 70). With the members 
of the council he on 25 Aug. 1637 sent a 
letter to the king explaining the difficulty 
in enforcing the use of the service-booK 
(Balfour, Afinalu, ii. 230). He was one of 
those who subscribed the king's confession 
at Ilolyrood on 22 Sept. 1638 (Spalding, 
MenwnalUy i. 107), and he was appointed a 
commissioner for pressing subscriptions to it. 

In the list of commissioners in Spalding's 
* History ' the word duJbito appears opposite 
Napier's name, apparently to indicate dis- 
trust of the strength of his adherence to the 
policy of tlie kirk. W^hen the king's fleet 
with tlie Marquis of Hamilton arrived in 
Lcith Uoads in May 1639, he was deputed 
by the estates to make a conciliatory pro- 
posal, and the fltjct soon afterwards left the 
roads. In 1640 he was named one of three 
to act as commissioner to the Scots parlia- 
ment in the event of the absence of the king's 
commissioner Traquair, and on his order; 
but when Traquair was not sent down, he 
declined to act as commissioner on the ground 
that he had no order from Traquair. 

Along with Montrose Napier drew up the 
band of Cumbernauld, which was signed by 
them and others in August 1640. On this 
account they were on 11 June 1641 com- 
mit t(»d prisoners to the castle of Edinburgh. 
On 1 Julv he petitioned the estates that 
nothing might be read in the house * which 
might give the house a bad information of 
them, until tliat first they were heard to 
dear themselves ' (Balfour, iii. 14), and 
his petition for an audience having been 
^ he ])leaded that not only had nothing 
e by them contrary to the law, but 
r main motive had been a regard 
honour of the nation' (ib. p. 20). 

No decision was then arrived at, and they 
were recommitted to the castle; but on 
20 Aug. they were again brought before par- 
liament, when in presence of tne king Napier 
declared that in tne course they had pursued 
they thought they were doing good 8er\'ice 
to tiie king and to the estates and subjects 
of the kingdom. At the conclusion of his 
speech, theldng, he said, nodded to him and 
seemed well pleasc^d (manuscript quoted in 
Napieb, i. 355). They were, however, de- 
tained in prison until 14 Nov., when they 
were liberated on caution that ' from hence- 
forth they carry themselves soberly and dis- 
creetly,' and that they app^ before a com- 
mittee of the king and parliament on 4 Jan. 
(Balfoitb, iii. 158). By act of parliament 
the proceedings of this committee were to 
be concluded on 1 March 1642, but no pro- 
ceedings were taken, and on 28 Feb. tney 
presented a protestation to the effect that by 
the fact that thev were not granted a trial 
they must be held free of all cha^ (Napier, 
i. 307 ; Hist, MSS. Comm, 2nd Rep. p. 169). 

In October 1644, owing to the successes 
of Montrose in the north of Scotland, Napier 
together with his son, the Master of Napier, 
and his son-in-law. Sir George Stirling of 
Keir, was ordered to confine nimself to his 
apartments in Holyrood Palace, and not to 
stir from thence under a penalty of 1,000/. 
(Guthrie, Memoirs, 2nd ed. p. 170). This 
penalty he incurred on the escape of his son 
to Montrose on 21 April 1645 (t6. p. 185) ; 
and, in addition, he himself and his wife and 
daughter were sent to close confinement in 
the castle of Edinburgh {ib,) Thence, on ac- 
count of the pestilence in Edinburgh, they 
were transferred to the prison of Linlithgow 
(ib. p. 190), from which they were released 
by the Master of Napier after the victory' 
of Montrose at Elsytn on 15 Aug. Napier 
accompanied Montrose to the soutn of Scot- 
land, and after his defeat at Philiphaugh on 
13 Sept. escaped with him to Atholl; but 
there fell sicK and had to be left at Fin 
Castle, where he died in November. He 
'was so very old,' says Guthry, *that he 
coidd not have marched with tnem, yet in 
respect of his great worth and experience he 
might have been very useful in his councils ' 
(ib. p. 209). Montrose made special arrange- 
ments for a fitting funeral at the kirk of 
Blair. In 1647 the covenanting party gave 
notice to his son that they intended to raise 
his bones and pass sentence of forfaulture 
thereupon, but on the payment of five thou- 
sand marks the intended forfaulture was 
discharged (ib, p. 200). 

Napier is described by Wishart as ' a man 
of most innocent life and happy parts; a 




truly noble gentleman, and chief of an an- 
cient family; one who equalled his father 
and grandfather, Napiers — philosophers and 
mathematicians famous tnrouffh all the 
world — in other things, but far excelled 
them in his dexterity in civil business ' 
(WiSHART, Memoirs of Montrose), 

By his wife, Lad v Margaret Graham, second 
daughter of John, fourth earl of Montrose, and 
sister of James, first marquis of Montrose, 
Napier had two sons — John, died younff ; and 
Archibald, second lord Napier [q. v.J-— and 
two daughters : Margaret, married to Sir 
George Stirling of Keir ; and Lilias, who died 
unmarried. Both daughters, on account of 
their devotion to Montrose and the king, were 
subjected to imprisonment and other hard- 
ships, and ultimately took refuge in Holland. 

Napier was the author of * A True Rela- 
tion of the Unjust Pursuit against the Lord 
Napier, written by himself, containing an 
account of some court intrigues in which he 
was the suflferer,' which, under the title of 
* Memoirs of Archibald, first Lord Napier, 
written by himself,' was published at Ldin- 
bureh in 1793. In Mark Napier's * Memoirs 
of ^hn Napier of Merchiston ' (1834, p. 299) 
there is an engraving by R. Bell of a portrait 
of Napier by Jameson; and this is repro- 
duced in the same writer^s 'Memoirs of 
Montrose ' (i. 108). 

[Bishop Guthrie's Memoirs; Gordon's Scots 
Affairs and Spalding's Memorialls of the Tru- 
bles, both in the Spalding Club ; Robert BailUe's 
Letters and Journals in the Bannatyne Club ; 
Sir James Balfour's Annals ; Wisbart's Memoirs 
of Montrose ; Napier's Memoirs of Montrose ; 
Lord Napier's own Memoirs ; Brunton and Haig's 
Senators of the College of Justice; Douglas's 
ScoUish Peerage (Wood), ii. 292-4.] T. F. H. 

Napieb {d, 1658), tenth of Merchiston, was 
the second son ot Archibald, first lord Napier 
[q. v.], by Lady Margaret Graham. Some time 
before he had attained his majority he was or- 
dered, alon^ with his father, in October 1G44 
to confine himself within apartments in Holy- 
rood Palace ; but, notwithstanding the heavy 
penalty that his father might incur, he \eh 
nis confinement, and on 21 April 1646 joined 
Montrose at the fords of Caraross. He spe- 
cially distinguished himself at the battle of 
Aulaeam on 9 May ; and at the battle of 
Alford on 2 July he commanded the reserve, 
which was concealed behind a hill, and on 
beinff ordered up at an opportune moment 
by Montrose completed the rout of the cove- 
nanters. After Montrose's victory at Kil- 
flvth on 15 Aug. he was despatched with 
the cavalry to take Edinburgh under his 
protectioni and set free the royalist prisoners 

(GiTTHRT, Memoirs, p. 196) ; and on the way 
thither he also released his father and other 
relatives from Linlithgow prison. Alonff 
with his father and Montrose he escaped 
from Philiphaugh on 13 Sept. and found re- 
fuge in Atholl. On the death of his father 
in the following November he succeeded to 
the title. In February 1646 he left Mont- 
rose to go to the relief of his tenants in 
Menteith and the Lennox, and passing 
thence into Stratheam, garrisoned the castle 
of Montrose at Kincardine with fifty men. 
The castle was invested by General Middle- 
ton, but, although it was assaulted by can- 
non, the defenders held out for fourteen 
days, when the failure of their water-supply 
compelled them to capitulate. On 16 Marcn 
terms were arranged. Before the castle was 
given up Napier and his cousin, the laird of 
Balloch, left during the night by a postern 
gate and escaped on horseback to Montrose. 

After Montrose disbanded his forces, Na- 
pier, who was included in the capitulation, 
went to the continent. Before leaving Scot- 
land he on 28 July 1646 wrote a letter to 
Charles from Cluny, in which he said : * Now, 
since it is free for your majesty's servants in 
this kingdom to live at home or repair abroad 
at their pleasure, I have taken the boldness 
before my departure humbly to show your 
majesty the passionate desire I have to do 
you service ' {Hist, MSS. Co?nm. 11th Rep. 
App. pt. vi. p. 113; and printed also in 
Napier, Montrose, p. 645). On 18 Nov. he 
was served heir to his fatner in his proper- 
ties in the counties of Dumbarton, Edin- 
burgh, Perth, and Stirling, and on 10 May 
1647 he was infeft in the barony of Eden- 
bellie. Previous to his departure to the 
continent he granted a commission to John, 
lord Erskine, and Elizabeth, lady Napier, 
his wife, and others, to manage his estates. 

Notwithstanding a deliverance of the com- 
mittee of the estates, 23 Oct. 1646, against 
Lord Napier conversing with Montrose, he 

i'oined him in Paris, where, according to 
limself, the common report was *that Mont- 
rose and his nephew were like the pope and 
the church, who would be inseparable (Let- 
ter to his wife from Brussels, 4 June 1648, 
in Napier, Montrose, p. 666). According 
to Scot of Scotstarvet, rCapier was * robbea 
of all his money on his way towards Paris ' 
{Staggering State, ed. 1872, p. 67). When 
Montrose left Paris to travel through Swit- 
zerland and Germany, Napier proceeded to 
Brussels, where Montrose afterwards ioined 
him. So desirous was he to be near Mont- 
rose and aid him in any possible schemes in 
behalf of the royal cause that he declined 
the offer of a regiment from the king of 

Napier 38 Napier 

♦Sjmiii. Afti^r tho fXitMilion of (*harles he 

[liishop ( f uthrie's Memoirs ; Gordon's BritaDes 

^iiiiiiiiiiii.s lliiTo wliili* Mdiitmso proci'tMltnl 
In hi'iiiiiiirii anil SwriVii. After M out n>se 
u-niiiri-il nil hin (iiiixotii* i*\]>iMlition to Scot- 
IiiimI, Nitpu'i* ii])iiiii>il lor It'iivo to join liim 
iliii'i, wliicli wa-i ^ranli'il )iy (^harles ; but 


NAPIER, Sir CHARLES (1786-1860), 

admiral, Uorn on 6 March 1786, was the eldest 

stm of the Hon. Charles Napier (1731-1807) 

|m:1i<ii: III- ruiiM a Vail liinist'll" t»f this |HTmis- ' of Merchiston Hall, Stirlingshire, captain in 

ci'iii M Mill 1-1 iM-'rt M'lii'mi' hail nwt with irro- ] the navy, by Christian, daughter of Gabriel 

III! v.ililti ili^a^lfr, aiul Montrose himself had , Hamiltonof West Burn: grandson of Francis 

III 1 II tain II pri-uurr, ' ^colt Napier, tifth lord Napier; first-cousin 

...iliiiM- wa-i t»m' «»f tlioso who on IS May . ofthehalf-bWdofGeneral Sir Charles James 

lil-.ii wiiT, li\ ili»M>M' «iftlh' estates, exoludtHl Naiiierji.v.", of Henry Edward Napier [q.v.1, 

|(..iii I nil ling Senilaml ' I'rtmi lH»yond seas' | «]ul of General Sir William Francis Patrick 

mil il I liii\ ^:a\ I- ^al i«liu'tion to the i-hun-h ond Napier ij. v.] He entered the navy in 1799 

i:i.ii . ' I lUi.i iM 1!, Aitmila, iv. II ),and he was on lioanl the jlartin sloop, then on the coast 

111 I ■.III! iif iIki^i' who on 4 .1 line Wert* de- of Scotland: in ISOO he was moved into the 

li.iiii'i iVtiiii having aeeess to his nmjestvs ' Kenown, carrying the flag of Sir John Borlase 

|.ii.>.ii (iV*. p. I-). lie was also specially Warren j[. v.l in the Channel, and after- 

i..ii(.ii.| Iniin Cnmiw.'irs Aet of (Jrace iii wards in thi» Mediterranean, where, in No- 

iii . 1 111 .liiiu- l«i.'iil till' yearly valin* i»f his vember 18i.>L\ he was moved into the Grey- 

i.i.iii \\Ji:n r^iairil at t5l)o/,and the eliarges hound, and served for a lew months under 

i.ii M .liii.iiiMlid to i»,7Si»/. 1S*.4'/. ((Vi/. Statf Captain ( alt erwarvls Sir) William Ho8te[q.v.] 

i'..y.. I*, hum. Ser. ir».Vi (i. p. l\i\'J). Lady He theuserved in the Egjptienne in a voy- 

...4|.i. 1 \\as allowed out ot the forfeited a^'e to St. Helena in charge of convoy, and in 

i.i.iii , ail aiimiity o( UH.>/., and in July IS-U-o in the Meiliator and Henomm^'e off 

ih-i » .1 I'll It lier Mini (»f oO/. In lt>")S Napier lioido^rne. On :{*> Ni»v. IStVi he was pn>- 

,. ,. . .ii llni-'.'.i'N, whenn* on iM April he mot ed to be lieutenant of the Courageux, one 

. , ,1.. a liiiertoSeeivtury Nicholas, in which of the little si|iui<lron with WarrtMi when 

I, . 1 .jiiivni'd (III* ]uirpo>i.- wl' goiii;; to Fliish- ho captiiivd the M:in»ngoand JVllePouleon 

lu... .onl ibi'ie si jiyiui: until he ii**ard from Kl Maa*h lSH>. He afterwar^ls went out to 

i.i . hf n.l'«, and i-^jn'rially whelh»T tlie Puke tlie West Imlies in the St. George.and from 

.,1 I .ill vMuild have any »'mj!!oyment tor her was appMuted acting-commander of the 

I o.« ii^' lOoV S, p. :J7'o. He died in ll-^l- l*ulrusk bri^'. a pnnnoriou which the ad- 

|,... I n 'I Ni the lii't;iiinin;: of li'ti«> as ii<ually miralty contirmed to iX) Nov. 1S07. In IK*- 

.1.1 I, lull ill i»r bi'f.ire Scpremh* r lt»o> ci'inber IhC he wa^ pri»sent at the red uc- 

I I 1 1. I i.f I hi- third Napier to the king, tion of the Oanish islands, St. Thomas ond 

111 1. ...pi. h;.*>S 'V l»i'>'^ '.*, p. I UK liy Saiira Cru/. In August ISOS he was moved 

1 .. I, I li/.ilnth l'r>kiii'-. eldest dau^Iiter i»f intt> the l*^gun brig Uecruir, and in her, on 

I.I,.. lu-hth earl of .Mar — who alti-r the tJ Sept.. fouirht a spirited but indecisive action 

\: I ...iliMii, ill e«»ii>ivleraiiiin of h-T hus- with thr French sloop Piligeute. Napier 

I. .1.1 l-isallx, obtainel an allowuiiee of had hi < thi:;h bn^ken. but refused to leave 

.••I',' )..i 11111111111 he h:il t".v.> s-jri-i Archi- th*- deck till the eUirairement emM by the 

I... I I. I till. I loid Na;'i' r I w!:o >»'inj- iinmar- f;dl of the Uecruit*? mainmast. In February" 

,. I ,. i.ii.mI hi'* |Hrr:!^" nn !'•» N^v, liir«>, 1*^.''.* h*.' distiniTui shed himself at the reduc- 

,.i. I .» :i ii-'W pa:. Tit -'ft!:'- *:i!r." with tion i.^( .Marriniiiue : and still more in the 

(I, i-.iiii.-i pii'c d'-iu-y, :,ra:'r:r_: th»- title to capture, imi 17 April, oi the Haut|Knilt of 74 

I,,,,, il .III. I, fiilii?:: h'ir^iii I- ■ ii" hi- 1 ->-!v. t-i i:uns, wliich was brvuuht t> action bv the 

ill I.- .. • III \u> -:<ter<': a:il J"!::!, kill'jd iu I'omiKe. mainly by the gallant manner in 

,1 I I. .'hi M-n!>i t!.-- P'i"«h in \»'>7'J- and which the lirtle liecruit embiirrassed her 

,1,.. I ui.-hiiTN: J,-:iTi. ni:i"r:»-il r.i SirTli'^mas tliirht duriuLT the three davs of the chase 

\ , ■ .1 . ■ ■ *■ ' ' rnoc k . b' i J' ■ - ! I i r»' . w ! 1 1-1 • ■; . ui I > n \'V 1:0 v ii k, Jin tftii*e'< /ft rr : /V.* r /e /< i Frtxnve, iv . 

,1, " thir-l I.<»rl N.i-«i»T in l«;.Sl .*»-; cf. art. FvinK, Sir Willi vm Ciiarlesi. 

ird N.ijiv!*; M:irL':ir»-r. wh'^ Th»' comniaiider- in -chief. Sir Alexander 

'isbaiif. ►"•}.. and rtl'i»'r hi- F''rt»-Tr.r Iiuli* Civhrane '\\. v. . was so well 

rone'i* Napier in fh»' d-ath pleas*.«d with Napier's conQuct that he com- 

i Ui^tj : an. I Mar}*, dieil un- missioiu-il the Hautp«nilt as an English ship 

. under the name of Abercromby, with Napier 




as acting-captain of her ; the promotion waa 
confirm^ by the admiralty to 22 May 1809, 
the date of their receiving Gochrane's des- 
patch. He was afterwards appointed to the 
Jason frigate, in which he returned to Eng- 
land with convoy. 

Much to his disgust, he was then placed 
on half-pay ; and during the session 1809- 
1810 he attended classes in Edinburgh; but 
dancing, driving, or hunting, probably occu- 
pied more of his time. At the end of the 
session, resolving to pay a visit to his cousins, 
then in the Penmsula, he got a passage out 
from Portsmouth, landed at Oporto about 
the middle of September, and joined the army 
just in time to take an amateur's share in 
the battle of Busaco, in which he received 
a smart flesh wound in the le^. He after- 
wards accompanied the army in its retreat 
to the lines ot Torres Vedras, and remained 
with it till November, when he made his 
way southward to Cadiz, stayed some weeks 
with his brother there in garrison, took lessons 
in French and Spanisli under more charming 
professors than at Edinburgh, and so returned 
to England. 

Early in 1811 he was appointed to the 
Thames frigate, and in her lor the next two 
years was actively engaged on the west 
coast of Italy, and more especially of Naples, 
stopping the coasting trade, intercepting the 
enemy's supplies, and destroying their bat- 
teries. Sometimes alone, sometimes in con- 
junction with other frigates or sloops, the 
Thames during these two years captured or 
destroyed upwards of eighty gunboats and 
coasting vessels, generally after a sharp en- 
gagement with covering batteries or musketry 
on shore ; Napier also reduced the island of 
Ponza, which, though strongly armed and 
with a garrison of 180 regular troops besides 
militia, yielded in confusion when the 
Thames, followed by the Furieuse, ran the 
gauntlet of the batteries under a press of 
sail, and anchored within the mole. It was 
probably the credit of this success which led 
to Napier's transference in the following 
month to the Euryalus, a much finer frigate. 
The change took him away from his familiar 
cruising ground to the south coast of France ; 
but the work was of the same nature, and 
was well or, in some instances, brilliantly 
performed. Having driven all the coasting 
trade from Toulon to the eastward into Ca- 
valarie Bay, where it was protected by bat- 
teries and a 10-gun xebec, on 10 May 1813 the 
boats of the Euryalus and of the 74-gun ship 
Berwick went m, destroyed the batteries, 
and brought out the xebec and twenty-two 
trading vessels, large and small, with the 
very tnfling loss of one man killed and one 

missing. In June 1814 the Euryalus was 
one of a souadron convoying a fleet of trans- 
ports to North America, where Napier took 
a distinguished part in the expedition against 
Alexandria, and in the operations against 
Baltimore. In the summer of 1815 he re- 
turned to England, and on 4 June was nomi- 
nated a C.B. 

Shortly after this he married Frances Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Lieutenant Younghusband, 
R.N., and widow of Lieutenant Edward Elers, 
H.N. ; by Elers she had four young children, 
who afterwards took the name of Napier. 
For a few weeks he and his bride lived at 
Alverstoke, in Hampshire, but, on the news 
of the occupation of Paris by the allies, 
they started thither in a curricle, which 
they took across the Channel. They after- 
wards settled for a time at Versailles, where 
they were joined by the children; and, 
tiring of that, drove on — always in the cur- 
ricle, the children, with their nurse, follow- 
ing in a four-wheeled carriage— as far as 
Naples, where they spent a ffreat part of 
1816. Afterwards they went back tnrough 
Venice to Switzerland, where they stayed 
some time ; and in the winter of 1818 they 
. returned to Paris. Here Napier took a house, 
and, having succeeded to a handsome fortune, 
lived in good style. In 1819 he entered into 
a speculative attempt to promote iron steamers 
on the Seine, and being the moneyed man of 
the company, and at the same time quite 
ignorant of business, was allowed to spend 
freely for the good of the concern, without 
receiving any profit. 

In 18*20 he took a house near Alverstoke, 
and for the following years led an un- 
settled life, sometimes at Alverstoke, some- 
times in Paris, St. Cloud, or, later on, at 
Havre. In 1827 * the steam-boat bubble 
completely burst,^ and left Napier a com- 
paratively poor man. He settled down 
at llowland s Castle, near Portsmouth, but, 
after many endeavours to get employed in 
the navy, was appointed in January 1829 to 
the Galatea frigate, and, by special permis- 
sion, was allowed to fit her with paddles 
worked by winches on the main deck. Dur- 
ing the commission he carried out a series of 
trials of these paddles, as the result of which 
it appeared that in a calm the ship could 
be propelled at the rate of three knots, and 
that she could tow a line-of-battle ship at 
from one to one and a half; the paddles could 
be shipped or unship])ed in about a quarter of 
an hour, and were on one occasion shipped, 
turned round, and unshipped again in twenty 
minutes. Of the many attempts that were 
made to render a ship independent of the 
wind this seems to have been the most sue- 




cessful ; but it was rendered useless by tbe 
adoption of steam power in the navy. 

During the first two years of her commis- 
sion the Galatea was twice sent to the West 
Indies, and once, in August 1830, to Lisbon, 
where Napier was instructed to demand the 
restitution of certain British vessels which 
had been seized by Dom Miguel, at that time 
the de facto king of Portugal. In the sum- 
mer of 1831 he was sent to watch over Bri- 
tish interests in the Azores, where the par- 
tisans of the little queen, the daughter of 
Dom Pedro, had established themselves in 
Terceira in opposition to Dom Miguel. The 
queen's party gained strength, and ultimately 
organised an invasion of Portugal. Napier 
came into close intercourse with the chieis 
of the party, and took a lively interest in 
Portuguese affairs. The Galatea was paid 
off in January 18^32, and after a year on shore, 
during which he unsuccessfully contested the 
borough of Portsmouth in the general elec- 
tion, in February 1833 he was formally 
offered the command of the Portuguese fleet 
in the cause of Dona >faria and her father, 
Dom Pedro. After some negotiation he ac- 
cepted it, on the resignation of Admiral Sar- 
torius [see Sabtobius, Sib Geobge Rose], 
and, to avoid the penalties of the Foreign 
Enlistment Act, went out to Oporto under 
the name of Carlos de Ponza. He wrote to 
his wife on 30 April : * If nothing unexpected 
happens, in one month I hope either to be in 
Lisbon or in heaven.* But it was 28 May 
before he sailed from Falmouth, and 2 June 
before he arrived at Oporto. lie was accom- 
panid by a small party of English officers, 
mostly old shipmates, including his stepson, 
Charles Elers Napier, a lieutenant in the 
navy, and by a flotilla of five steamers, carry- 
ing out about 160 officers and seamen, and an 
English and Belgian regiment. 

On 8 June Napier received his commission 
as vice-admiral, major-general of the Portu- 
guese navy, and commander-in-chief of the 
fleet, and on 10 June he hoisted his flag. 
The force at his disposal consisted of three 
vessels of from 40 to 60 guns, 18-pounder 
and 32-i)ounder carronades, and two cor- 
vettes, besides some small steamers, the 
aggregate crews of which numbered barely 
more than one thousand, but were mostly 
English, with a large proportion of old men- 
of-war's men ; all tlie superior officers were 
English. On 20 June the little squadron 
sailed from Oporto, conveying a smaU array, 
^e command of Count Villa Flor, 
1 Duke of Terceira. The troops 
dd at the south-eastern comer of 
near the mouth of the Guadiana, 
ding along the coast, secured the 

seyeral southern ports without difficulty. 
At Lagos the sea and land forces separated. 
Villa Flor went north, and captured Liisbon ; 
Napier with the squadron put to sea on 
2 July, and on the 3rd sightea the squadron 
of Dom Miguel off Cape St. Vincent. In 
jnaterial force this squadron was yeiy far 
superior to that of the queen, although in 
fighting efficiency it vnis inferior. After 
waiting two days for favourable weather the 
action began. Napier's flagship g^ppled 
with one of the enemy's two line-of-battle 
ships, boarded, and hauled down her flag ; 
the other tried to make off, but was chased| 
and struck after a merely nominal resistance-. 
Two 50-gun ships were also captured ; the 
smaller craft escaped. The victory was credit- 
able to Napier and his officers ; but Napier's 
statement ' that at no time was a naval action 
fought with such a disparity of force' implies 
more than the fact : the disparity was only 
apparent. The Miguel officers were incompe- 
tent, the crews untrained, and both officers 
and men bore so little goodwill to the cause 
that most of them volunteered immediately 
for the queen's service. 

Napier returned to Lagos, and there or- 
ganised his force, now nearly treble what it 
was on the morning of 6 July, and, with his 
flag on board one of the captured line-of- 
battle ships, put to sea a^ain on the 13th. 
The next day he receivea official news of 
his promotion to the rank of admiral, and 
of his being ennobled in the peerage of Por- 
tugal as Viscount Cape St. Vincent. At 
the same time a virulent attack of cholera 
broke out in his squadron, and in the flag- 
ship worst of all. In five days she buried 
fifty men, and had two hundred on the sick 
list. As the best chance of shaking off the 
deadly infection, Napier steered away to the 
westward, and the ship ' had not proceeded 
many leagues ere the aisease most suddenly 
disappeared.' By the evening of the 24tn 
the squadron was off the mouth of the Tagus^ 
when Napier learned that Lisbon had sur- 
rendered to the Duke of Terceira the night 
before. He entered the river the next day, 
and paid a visit to Rear-admiral Parker, 
commanding the English fleet then lying 
there [see Parkeb, Sir William, 1781- 
1866 J, when he was much gratified at being- 
received according to his Portuguese rank. 
' When I came on shore,' he wrote to hi» 
wife, ' I was hailed as the liberator of Por- 
tugal, was cheered, kissed, and embraced by 
everybody.' Dom Pedro conferred on him 
the grand cross of the order of the Tower 
and Sword. In England his victory had 
been considered an &glish success, and at 
a large public meeting, with the Duke of 




Sussex in the chair, resolutions were now 
unanimously carried in favour of Napier 
being restored to his rank in the English 
navy. But, in fact| the removal of his name 
from the ' Navy List ' was a matter of course 
when it was officially known that he had 
gone abroad without leave. When he re- 
turned to England and reported himself at 
the admiralty, his name was, equally as 
a matter of course, restored to its former 

Meanwhile Napier's position in Lisbon 
was by no means easy. At first he exulted 
in having the full control of the dockyards. 
But evervthing was in a wretched conaition. 
* I soon found out,' he wrote, *that from the 
minister to the lowest clerk in the establish- 
ment I was opposed by every species of in- 
trigue.' AV'om out by insuperable difficulties, 
he sought relief in more active operations, and, 
though not without considerable opposition, 
obtained leave to make an attempt on the 
northern ports, which were still held for Dom 
Miguel. Accordingly, about the middle of 
March, he sailed from Setuval, and landing 
his men, about one thousand marines and sea- 
men, in the Minho, entered on a very remark- 
able campaign, with the result that ' in ten 
days the whole of the Entre-Douro-e-Minho 
was secured, the siege of Oporto raised, and 
the enemy cut off from one of the richest 
provinces of Portugal.' Miguel's garrisons, 
it must, however, be noted, offered no more 
than a pretence at resistance. Napier was 
none the less received in triumph by the 
populace at Oporto, and Dom Pedro raised 
nim to the dignity of a count, as Count Cape 
St. Vincent, a title afterwards changed to 
Count Napier St. Vincent, and invested Mrs. 
Napier with the order of Isabella. 

A few weeks later Napier conducted an- 
other expedition against Figuera, which was 
abandoned to him. He then marched inland 
and summoned Ourem, which also surren- 
dered. With the conclusion of the civil 
war Napier's work was done. He still hoped 
to carry out the reforms he had contemplated, 
but in June he went to England for a few 
weeks. On his return to Lisbon the queen was 
declared of age, and on 24 Sept. her father 
died. Napier submitted to the new minis- 
ter of war a scheme for the government of 
the navy, and on its rejection he sent in his 
resignation. The queen on 15 Oct. relieved 
him of the command, but desired him to re- 
tain ' the honorary post of admiral.' He 
struck his flag the same day, and on 4 Nov. 
sailed for England in the packet. 

Considered solely in reference to the busi- 
ness for which he mid been engaged, Napier's 
conduct was admirable, but it is incorrect to 

describe him as an enthusiast fighting in the 
cause of constitutional freedom ; he had, in 
fact, refused to stir till he received six months' 
pay in advance, and a policy of life insurance 
for 10,000/. His services were worth th© 
money, but have no claim to be ranked as 
patriotic. Napier employed himself for the 
next two years in writing * An Account of 
the War in Portugal between Don Pedro and 
Don Miguel ' (2 vols, post 8vo, 1836), a book 
in which the author's achievements and his 
share in the war are unpleasantly exagge- 

About the same time he purchased a small 
estate in Hampshire, near Catherington, 
formerly known as Quallett's Grove, but to 
it he now gave the name of Merchistoun, in 
memory of the old place in Stirlingshire 
which he had sold in 1816. 

In January 1839 Napier commissioned the 
84-gun ship Powerful, which was sent out 
to the Mediterranean in the summer, when 
the troubled state of the Levant made it 
necessary to reinforce the fleet under Sir 
llobert Stopford [q. v.] In June 1840 he was 
sent in command of a small sc^uadron to 
watch the course of events in Syria ; and on 
10 Aug. was ordered to hoist a blue broad 
pennant as commodore of the second class, 
and to go off Beyrout. It was then that he 
first learned the intention of the English 
government, in concert with Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia, to support the Turk, and to com- 
pel Mohammed Ah to withdraw. Notwith- 
standing the formidable name of the alliance, 
there was no force on the coast except Napier's 
squadron ; and though he could threaten J3ey- 
rout, which the Egyptians held with a force 
of fifteen thousand men, he could not do any- 
thing till, early in September, much to his 
disgust, he was Joined by the admiral. 
Brigadier-general Sir Charles Smith too had 
come out, with a small body of engineers and 
artillerymen, to command the operations on 
shore. But Smith fell sick, and the military 
officer next in seniority was a lieutenant- 
colonel of marines, a man of neither ability nor 
energy. The admiral consequently directed 
Napier to take the command of the forces on 
shore, and the commodore thus found himself 
general of a mixed force of marines, engi- 
neers, artillery, and Turks. Though in ap- 
pearance and manner a sailor of the old school, 
Napier had, since his experience at Busaco, be- 
lieved himself to be a bom general ; but vanity 
and desire for theatrical effect characterised 
much of his military work. On 20 Sept. h& 
wrote to Lord Minto, the first lord of the 
admiralty : ' I wish you would send out aa 
many marines as can be spared ; and if Sir 
Charles Smith does not return I trust an 




«n^ineer of lower rank may be sent out, 
who will not interfere with me. I have 
begun this businesd successfully, and I feel 
myself quite equal to so on with it, for it is 
nothing new to me/ iJut a few days later, 
wh<'n he learned that a detached squadron 
wan to be sent against Sidon, under the com- 
mand of Captain Maurice Berkeley fq. v.] of 
the Thunderer, he wrote very strongly to the 
admiral, comjjlaining that he should have all 
the * fag ' of the service, while a junior was 
to havetheo|)iK)rtunity of distinction. Stop- 
ford gave way, and appointed him to com- 
mand the expedition, wliicli returned within 
two days, having taken possession of Sidon 
without much difficulty. 

On :his return to the camp Xapier found 
the admiral intent on a combined attack on 
J{«*vrout. Tlie marines were sent to their 
nliips, and Napier, in command of the Turks, 
advanced through the mountains to the posi- 
tion of the Egyptian arrav, on the heights to 
Ihi- south of tile Xahr-el-Kelb. (hi 10 Oct., 
as h«' was preparing to attack, he received a 
formal order to retire and hand over the com- 
mand to Sir Charles Smith, who had just 
retiiriiijrl from Constantinople with a tirman 
ai»p')inting him commander-in-chief of the 
'I urkish army. Xapier judged that to at- 
tempt a retreat at that time might be disas- 
trous, und took on himself to disobey the 
onlur. /l*'or some time the battle raged 
fii'pwdy ; at a critical moment a Turkish bat- 
talion quailed and refused to advance; 
Napi<'r tlin^w himself among them, and, as 
he iixprtissed it, * stirred them up with his 
Mtick,' or pelted them with stones, till, to 
avoid the attack of the commodore in their 
Tear, they drove out the less furious enemy 
in their fnmt. I Tlie result of the victor^' was 
immediate. Tlie Egyptians evacuated Bey- 
rout; and X'apier, mollified by so brilliant 
A close to his command, went on board the 
Powerful without reluctance. 

Acre was now the only position on the 
OOOBt held by the enemy. By the end of 
October the admiral had instructions to take 
poeaession of it also, and accordingly the 
fleet went thither. On 2 Xov. the ships an- 
ehored some distance to the southward, and 
irent in with the sea-breeze on the after- 
noon of the 3rd. Tht;ir tire was overwhelm- 
ing ; within two hours most of the enemy's 
«is were silenced, and the explosion of the 
* pal magazine virtually finished the ac- 
The next morning the town surrun- 
_ Xapier*8 conduct, however, had given 
to much dissatisfaction. In order to see 
dMrly what was going on, Stopford 
h» ilMg to the riitenix steamer, and 
I 2(aBi«r in the Powerful to lead iu 

from the sout h against the western face. He 
was to anchor abreast of the aouthem fort 
on that side, the ships astern passing on and 
anchoring in succession to the nortli of the 
Powerful. Contrary' to his orders, and with- 
out any apparent reason, he passed outside the 
reef in front of the town, came in from the 
north, and anchored considerably to the north 
of the position assigned him, thus crowding 
the shi])s astern, and leaving the space ahead 
unprovided for. It was not till after some 
delay that the admiral succeeded in placing 
a ship in the vacant position (Codbingtok, 
])p. 'JO'2-3), The next morning he sharply 
expressed his disapproval of Xapier's con- 
duct, on which Xapier applied for a court- 
martial. The general wish in the squadron 
was that the dispute might be settled 
amicably, in order not to lessen the credit of 
the action. Stopford, who was a very old 
man, wrote that a ditierence of opinion did 
not imply censure, to which Xapier, in a rude 
note, replied : ' I placed my ship to the best 
of my judgmi-nt ; I could do no more.* Stop- 
ford condoned the oUence, but the many offi- 
cers in the fleet who had suffered by Xapicr's 
capricious disobedience neither forgave it nor 
forgot it. 

Ir was, however, necessary to strengthen 
the S(]uadron ofl' Alexandria, and Xapier was 
ordered to take command of it. He arrived 
there en 21 Xov., and understanding, by the 
copy of a letter addressed to Lord Ponsonby, 
the ambassador at G)nstantinople, that the 
government would approve of recognising 
Moliammed Ali as hereditary ])aslia, subject 
to his restoring the Turkish fleet and eva- 
cuating Syria, he forthwith proposed, agreed 
to, and signed a convention on these terms ; 
und that without authority, without instruc- 
tions, and without consulting the admiral, 
frf»m whom he was not forty-eight hours 
distant. The flrst intelligence that Stopford 
had of the negotiation was the announce- 
ment that the convention was signed. He 
immediately repudiated it, and wrote to that 
effect both to Xapier and the pasha. The 
Porte protested against it as unauthorised, 
and the several ministers of the allied powers 
at Constantinople declared it null and void. 
The home governments took a more favour- 
able view of it, and, though they refused to 
guarantee the succession to Mohammed Ali 3 
adopted son, the convention was othenv'ise 
accepted as the basis of the negotiations. 
Xa])ier himself considered this as a com- 
plete justi Heat ion of his conduct ; but Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir ) Henry John Codrington 
[q. v.], then commanding the Talbot, wrote 
with justice to his father of Xapier*s beha- 
viour : * It was not only disrespectful to an 




officer of Sir Robert Stopford's rank and ser- 
TJces, but it was highly un^teful. In this 
convention business there is not a s^k of 

rtititade to his kind old chief; but indeed 
don't think the soil fitted for a plant of 
that nature. I wonder what commander- 
in-chief will ever trust him airain ' (ib, p. 
213). ^ ^ ^ 

On 2 Dec. 1840, in acknowledgment of the 
capture of Acre, all the captains present 
were nominated (J.B*s., and Isapier, as second 
in command, was made a K.C.B. lie also 
received from the European sovereigns of 
the alliance the order of Maria Theresa of 
Austria, of St. George of Russia, and of the 
Red Eagle of Prussia. From the sultan he 
receivea a diamond-hilted sword and the 
first class of the Medjidie, with a diamond 
star. In January 1841 he was sent on a 
special mission to Alexandria and Cairo, to 
see the convention duly carried out. He re- 
joined the Powerful early in March, and being 
then sent to Malta obtained a month's leave 
and went home. His fame and his achieve- 
ments, with a good deal of embellishment, 
had been noised abroad. At Liverpool and 
Manchester he was cheered by crowds and 
entertained at civic banquets. He was pre- 
sented with the freedom of the city of Lon- 
don ; he was invited by Marylebone and by 
Falmouth to stand for parliament, and, as 
his leave was within a couple of days of ex- 
piring, he applied to Lord Minto for an ex- 
tension. * It takes time,' he said, * to make 
inquiries before pledging oneself.' For such 
a purpose the application was refused, 
whereupon Napier requested to be placed on 
half-pay. This was done, and at the general 
election he was returned to the House of 
Commons as member for Marylebone, 

During the next few years he was mainly 
occupied with parliamentary business, speak- 
ing on naval topics, more especially on pro- 
posals to improve the condition of seamen, 
and on the necessity of increasing the strength 
of the navy. His ideas, in themselves fre- 
quently sound, were spoiled by the extrava- 
gance or inaccuracy of their presentment ; 
and though some of them found favour with 
the ministers, they had little difficulty in 
showing others to be absurd or impracti- 
cable. He was busy, too, in writing his 
* History of the War in Syria ' (2 vols, post 
8vo, 1842), a book deprived of most ot its 
value by want of care and accuracy. On 
9 Nov. 1846 he attained the rank of rear- 
admiral, and in the following May hoisted 
his flag on board the St. Vincent, of 120 guns, 
in command of the Channel fleet. In August 
the fleet was sent to Lisbon, and Napier, on 
the ground that it would be a compliment 

to the Portuguese, applied for permission to 
assume his Portuguese title. Lord Palmer- 
ston refused in a semi-bantering letter : ' We 
cannot afford to lose the British admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, and to have him converted 
into a Portuguese count.' During the greater 
part of 1848 the squadron was on the coast 
of Ireland, and in December was sent to 
Gibraltar and the coast of Morocco, to restrain 
and, if possible, to punish the insolence and 
depredations of the Riflf pirates. 

In April 1849 the squadron returned to 
Spithead, and Napier was ordered to strike 
his flag. He had expected to hold the com- 
mand for three years, and the disappoint- 
ment perhaps gave increased bitterness to 
the many letters which he wrote to the 
* Times * denouncing the policy of the admi- 
ralty. Many of these, as well as some of 
earlier date, were collected and edited by 
Sir William Napier under the title of * The 
Navy, its Past and Present State' (8vo, 
1861). Many of the reforms which he urged 
were salutary, and many of his criticisms 
just ; but the tone of the book as a whole 
was ofiensive to the service. He had already 
applied for the Mediterranean station when 
it should be vacant ; but the admiralty and 
the prime minister were agreed that they 
could not trust to his discretion. This led 
to further correspondence, and to an extra- 
ordinary letter to Lord John Russell, in 
which Napier maintained that the appoint- 
ment of liear-admiral Dundas [see DuNSAS, 
Sib James Whitley DeansI to the com- 
mand was defrauding him of his just rights, 
and, recapitulating the several events in 
which he had taken part, arrogated to him- 
self the whole of the merit. This letter, 
with others which he published in the * Times * 
of 19 Dec. 1851, brought down many well- 
substantiated contradictions {Times, 23 and 
27 Dec), and was cleverly travestied in 
verse with historical notes {Morning Herald, 
9 Jan. 1862). 

On 28 May 1853 he was promoted to be 
vice-admiral, and in February 1854 was 
nominated to the command of the fleet to be 
sent to the Baltic. Popular enthusiasm in- 
dulged in the most extravagant expectations 
as to what the squadron might accomplish if 
war with Russia should be declared (Eabp, 
p. 14), and at a semi-public dinner at the 
Reform Club on 7 March there was a great 
deal of ill-timed boasting {Timed , 8 and 
9 March). It was reported that Napier pro- 
mised, within a month after entering the 
Baltic, either to be in Cronstadt or in heaven : 
words corresponding to those — then unpub- 
lished — whicn he had addressed to his wife 
twenty years before, on sailing to take com- 




mtmd of the Portuguese fleet. At the time 
lS*npier*8 idea, which was shared by the ad- 
miralty and the general public, was that what 
had been done at Sidon and at Acre was to 
1)0 rept^ated at Cronstadt or Ilelsingfors. But 
when the admiral got into the Baltic he 
rt^alised, in view of the frowning casemates 
of Sveaborgor Cronstadt, or lleval or Bomar- 
8und, that it was not for line-of-battle 
ships' to engage a first-class fortress. "What, 
under the circumstances, ships could do was 
done. The Russian ports were absolutely 
sealed; but beyond this most stringent 
blockade nothing was attempted, though 
Bomarsund was captured, mainly bv a land 
force of ten thousand men specially sent 

from France. - , . , , 

The reality fell so far short of what had 
been expected that everybody asked who was 
to blame. Napier, in no measured language, 
laid the blame on the admiralty, for not 
having supplied him* with gunboats, and on 
his fleet, as very badly manned and still 
worse disciplined (Earp, freq. ; Times, 7 Feb. 
1806 ; CoDRiNGTON, p. 407). The admiralty 
and public opinion, on the other hand, laid 
the blame on Napier himself, on his capri- 
cious humour or want of nerve, which— 
there were people who said— had been de- 
stroyed by too liberal and long continued 
Twtations of Scotch whisky ; while others 
referred to his own published words : 'Most 
men of sixty are too old for dash and enter- 
prise . When a man's body begins to 
aViftke the mind follows, and he is always the 

In July i»oo oir v^ui^xuo ,. ^^y .-.^ ^.=. 
lord of the admiralty, recommended Napier 
for the G.C.B. He dechned to accept it, 
and wrote at len^h to Pnnce Albert, as 
!^d master of tTie order, explaimng his 
S^ns and stating his grievances. His 
!^ies,real or imaginary were numerous 
eneiuico, lanffuacre which he scattered 

•*^ '^A iinu J^SdSd to them. In 1855 
f^^JSd IZp. for Southwark, and in 
^j^t (rf pBrliainent devoted himself to 
■r,gr!;«, fferJ«me« G«ham and the board 
•W""" ,^ paring the intervals of his 
•* *■ ' ilie Hoiwo of Commons he re- 

ix^y at Merchistoun, where 

^f ft«n great interest in ex- 

vgf considering himself an 

jgpecially on turnips and 

line an admiral on 6 March 

m 6 Nov. 1860. 

1 0|ten unaeemly quarrels of 

M an improssion of Napier 

1% ytal merits aa that pre- 

d wi* tl>0T6 them. As a 

man of action, within a perhaps limited 
scope, his conduct was often brilliant ; but 
his msolence and in^titude to Sir Robert 
Stopford, his selfish insubordination, and his 
arrogant representation of himself as the 
hero of the hour, left very bitter memories 
in the minds of his colleagues. 

As a young man, from his very dark com- 
plexion, he was often spoken of as Black 
Charley; and frequently, from the eccen- 
tricities of his conduct — many of which are 
recorded by his stepson— as Mad Charley. 
His portrait by T. M. Joy [cj. v.], now m 
the I'ainted Hall at Greenwich, is an ad- 
mirable likeness, though, as has been fre- 
quently pointed out, it looks too clean and 
too well dressed, points on which Napier 
was notoriously negligent. Another por- 
trait of Napier in naval uniform, by John 
Simpson, is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
Edinburgh. A partial obsen^er has described 
him in 1840 as ' about fourteen stone, stout 
and broad built ; stoops from a wound in his 
neck, walks lame from another in his leg, 
turns out one of his feet, and has a most 
slouching, slovenly gait; a large round face, 
with black, bushy eyebrows, a double chin, 
scragg}', grey, uncurled whiskers and thin 
hair ; wears a superfluity of shirt collar and 
small neck-handkerehief, always bedaubed 
with snufl^, which he takes in immense quan- 
tities ; usually his trousers far too short, and 
wears the ugliest pair of old shoes he can 
find' (Elers Napier, ii. 126). As years 
went on he did not improve, and in Novem- 
ber 1854 his appearance on shore at Kiel, in 
plain clothes, used to excite wonder amount- 
mg almost to consternation. 

By his wife {d, 19 Dec. 1857) he had issue 
a son, who died in infancy, and a daughter, 
married in 1843 to the Kev. Henr7 Jodrell, 
rector of Gisleham, in Suffolk. Of his step- 
children, who took the name of Napier, the 
eldest, Edward Delaval Hungerford Elers 
Napier, is separately noticed. The second, 
Charles George, who was with Napier through 
the Portuguese war, and both then and after- 
wards was spoken of as an officer of j^at 
promise, was captain of the Avenger frigate, 
and was lost with her on 20 Dec. 1847 

[The Life and Correspondence of Admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, by his stepson, General Elers 
Napier (2 vols. 8ro, 1862), loses much of its 
value and interest by the intensity of its parti- 
saDhhip; Napiers own work?, named in the 
text ; Earp's History of the Baltic Campaign of 
1854 ; Letters of Sir JI. J. Codringt on (privately 

Srinted); Times, 7 Nov. 1860, 23 Jan. 1862; 
[rs. Jodrell's Letter to the Editor of the Times 
in reply to an attack upon her father's oondoct 




of the Baltic Fleet; Hausard's Parliamentary 
Debates ; Gove's Sir Charles Napier in the Medi- 
terranean and the Baltic and elsewhere.] 

J. £. li. 

<1782-1863), conqueror of Sind (Scinde), 
eldest son of Colonel the Hon. George Napier 
[q. v.] and his second wife, Lady Sarah Bun- 
bury, was born at Whitehall, London, on 
10 Aug. 1782. George Thomas Napier [a. v.], 
Henry Edward Napier [q. v.], and William 
Francis Patrick Napier [q. v.J were his bro- 
thers. When he was only three, the family 
moved to Celbridge, on the Liffey ten miles 
from Dublin. His father was a very hand- 
fiome man, with a fine figure and great 
strength, both of body and of mind. His 
mother was, says Horace Walpole, *more 
beautiful than you can conceive . . . she 
shone, besides, with all the graces of un- 
affected but animate nature.' Charles Napier, 
owing to an accident, was sickly as a child, 
and never attained the fine proportions for 
which the family were remarkable. He was 
also short-sighted; but he had an admirable 
constitution and a high spirit. 

On 31 Jan. 1794 he obtained a commis- 
sion as ensign in the ddrd regiment, from 
which he was promoted to be lieutenant in 
the 89th regiment on 8 May the same year. 
He joined the regiment at Netley Camp,where 
it formed part of an army assembling under 
Lord Moira [see Hastings, Francis Raw- 
don-]. His father was assistant quarter- 
master-general to the force, and when it 
sailed for Osteud Napier was sent back to 
Ireland, ha^nng exchanged into the 4th regi- 
ment ; but, instead of joining his regiment, 
was placed with his brother William as a 
day-scholar at a large grammar school in 
Celbridge. When the rebellion took place in 
1798, Colonel Napier fortified his house, armed 
his five bo^8,and offered an asylum to all who 
were willmg to resist the insurgents. The 
elder Napier, with Charles at his side, used 
to scour the country on horseback, keeping 
a sharp look-out. In 1799 Charles became 
aide-de-camp to Sir James Duff [q. v.], com- 
manding the Limerick district. In 1800 he 
resigned his staff appointment to join the 
95th regiment, or rifle corps, which was being 
formed at Blatchington, Sussex, by a selec- 
tion of men and officers from other regiments. 
He was quartered for the next two years at 
Weymouth, H3rt he, and Shomcliffe. In June 
1803 he was appointed aide-de-camp to his 
cousin. General Henry Edward Fox [q. v.l, 
conmiander-in-chief of the forces in Irelana, 
and served against the insurgents. He accom- 
panied (General Fox to London when he was 
transferred to the command of the home dis- 

trict. While serving on the London staff he 
saw much of his cousin, Charles James Fox 

a. v.], and the cheerful society at St. Anne's 
ill was a pleasant interlude in his life. 

On 22 Dec. 1803 he was promoted captain 
in the staff corps, a newly organised boay of 
artificers to assist the royal engineers and 
the quartermaster-general. In 1804 he was 
quartered at Chelmsford and Chatham. In 
October his father died ; the family were lefl 
in straitened circumstances, but Pitt be- 
stowed pensions on the widow and daughters. 
In the middle of 1806 Napier went with his 
corps to Hythe, where he was employed in 
the construction of the Military Cfanal, and 
came under the personal supervision of Sir 
John Moore fq. v.], who was at that time 
training the 4ord, 52lid, and rifle regiments, to 
fit them for the distinguished part thejr were 
to play as the light division in the Peninsula. 
Napier's brothers William (in the 43rd) and 
George (in the 62nd) were thus in the same 

On 29 May 1806, on the accession of Fox 
to power, Napier was promoted to a majority 
in a Cape Colonial corps, from which he ex- 
changea into the 50th regiment, then quar- 
tered at Bognor, Sussex. During the next 
two years and a half he was moved about with 
the regiment to Guernsey, Deal, Hythe, and 
Ashford, and was frequently in command of 
the battalion. After the battle of Vimiera 
(August 1808) Napier was ordered to join the 
first battalion of tne 60th at Lisbon, and, as 
the colonel had obtained leave of absence, 
Napier found himself on arrival at Lisbon in 
command of the battalion. Sir John Moore 
at once incorporated the regiment in the 
arniy going to Spain. Napier's battalion was 
in Lord William Bentinck's brigade, and 
distinguished itself throughout the famous 
retreat. On 16 Jan. 1809, at Coruna, it be- 
haved splendidly, with Napier leading it. 
Napier was five times wounded : his leg was 
broKen by a musket shot, he received a sabre 
cut on the head, a bayonet wound in the 
back, severe contusions from the butt end of 
a musket, and his ribs were broken by a gun- 
shot. Eventually he was taken prisoner; 
his name was returned among the killed, but 
his life was saved by a French drummer. He 
was taken to Marshal Soult's quarters, where 
he received every attention. Marshal Ney, 
who succeeded Soult in command at Coruna, 
was particularly kind, and on 20 March set 
him at liberty, on parole not to serve again 
until exchanged, it having been represented 
to Ney that Napier's mother was a widow, 
old and blind. It was not until January 18 10 
that an exchan^ was effected, and Napier 
was able to rejom his regiment. Finding it 


in quarters in Portuf^al, he obtained leave of 
absence and permission to join, as a volunteer, 
the light brigade in which his brothers were 
serving. Ue acted as aide-de camp to Robert 
Craufurd [q. v.] at the battle on the Coa 
(24 July 1810), and had two horses killed 
iinder him. On the fall of Almeida the army 
retreated, and Napier was attached to Lord 
Wellington's staff; at the battle of Busaco 
(27 Sept. 1810) he was shot through the face, 
his jaw broken, and his eye injured. He was 
sent to Lisbon, where he was laid up for some 
months. On 6 March 1811 he started to rejoin 
the army, his wound still bandaged. On the 
13th he rode ninety miles on one horse and 
in one course, including a three hours' halt, 
and reached the army between Redinha and 
Condeixa. The light division was in advance, 
and in constant contact with Massena's rear 
guard under Ney. On the 14th, advancing 
with his regiment, Napier met his brothers 
William (of the 43rd regiment) and George 
bei ng carried to the rear ; both were wounded, 
the former, it was supposed, mortallv. He 
was engaged at the battle of Fuentes cl'Onoro 
(6 May 1811). At the second siege of 
Badajos he was employed on particular ser- 
vice near Medellin. 

On 27 June 1811 he was promoted to the 
lieutenant-colonelcy of the 102nd regiment, 
which had just arrived at Guernsey from 
Botuny Bay. He embarked for England on 
25 Aug., and spent some months with his 
mother before joining his regiment in Guern- 
sey. Lord Liverpool conferred on Napier the 
small non-resident and sinecure government 
of the Virgin Isles, in consideration of his 
wounds and services, and he held it for a 
year or two ; but when pensions for wounds 
were granted he resigned it. Napier went 
to Guernsey in January 1812. 

In July he embarked with his regiment 
for Bermuda, where he arrived in Septem- 
ber. In May 1813 he was appointed to com- 
mand a brigade, composed of his own regi- 
ment, a body of royal marines, and a corps of 
Frenchmen enlisted from the war prisoners, 
to take part in the expedition under General 
Sir Thomas Sydney Beckwith [q. v.^, which 
engaged in desultory operations agamst the 
United States of America. The expedition 
went with the fleet to Hampton Roads, when 
Cranov Island, at the mouth of the Elizabeth 
river, was seized, and the town of Little 
Hampton, at the attack on which Napier 
was in command, taken and plundered. In 
August Napior was detached, with Admiral 
Sir (^ — '^'^ Cockbum [q. v.], to the coast of 
f^ ^re various minor operat ions took 

) he proceiHied with the regi- 
ax, Nova Scotia. Anxious to 



serve again in the Peninsula, he exchanged 
back into the 60th regiment, and on leaving 
the 102nd regiment the officers presented him 
with a sword of honour. He sailed for Eng- 
land in September 1813, and arrived to find 
the war with France concluded. He served 
with the 50th regiment until December 1814, 
when he was placed by reduction on half- 
pay. Napier at once entered the military 
college at Famham, where he was joined by 
his brother William. 

When in March 1816 Napoleon escaped 
from Elba, Napier went as a volunteer to 
Ghent. He took part in the storming of 
Cambrai, and marched into Paris with the 
allied armies. He was mentioned in des- 
patches from the Peninsula and North 
America. For his services in the Peninsula 
he received the gold medal for Coruna, where 
he commanded a regiment, and the silver war 
medal with two clasps for Busaco and 
Fuentes d'Onoro. When the order of the 
Bath was reconstituted he was made a C.B. 
While on his way home from Ostend in 1815 
the ship sank at the mouth of the harbour, 
and Napier was nearly drowned. He re- 
joined the military college at Famham, and 
remained until the end of 1817, reading dili- 
gently, not only military and politicid his- 
tory, but also general literature, and study- 
ing agriculture, building construction, and 
political economy. 

In May 1819 he was appointed an inspect- 
ing field officer in the Ionian Islands, and in 
1820 he was sent on a confidential mission 
to Ali Pasha at Joannina. In 1821 he went 
on leave of absence to Greece, to study the 
military advantages of the position of the 
Isthmus of Corinth, as he had thoughts of 
throwing in his lot with the Greeks, and hoped 
to lead tneir army. He returned to Corfu in 
the beginning of 1822, and in March was ap- 
pointed resident of Cephalonia. This office, 
created by Sir Thomas Maitland [q. v.], the 
high commissioner, conferred almost absolute 
power on the holder, and was designed to 
protect the people against feudal oppression. 
This was probably the happiest period of 
Napier's life. He threw himself with all his 
determination and energy into the reform of 
abuses of all kinds, and into the development 
of everything that could conduce to the wel- 
fare of the Cephalonians. He carried out 
a number of public works and covered the 
island with a network of good roads. He was 
ably seconded by Captain (afterwards Major) 
John Pitt Kennedy [q. v.], who remained 
through life his attached friend. He did not 
lose sight of the Greek question, and received 
constant demands for advice from Prince 
Mavrocordato. Napier sent the Greek go- 




Temment a masterly memorandum on the 
military situation, including a ^lan of opera- 
tions and a strong recommendation to appoint 
Mavrocordato dictator. In the summer and 
autumn of 1823 he saw a good deal of Byron, 
who in January 1824, when Napier was going 
to England on leave, gave him a letter to the 
Greek committee in London, recommending 
him as * our man to lead a regular force or 
to organise a national one for the Greeks.' 
He made a deep impression on Byron, who 
spoke of him on his deathbed. Napier re- 
turned to England in the beginning of 1824, 
and nut himself in communication with the 
Greek committee. His services were, how- 
ever, declined. He wrote a pamphlet on the 
Greek question, and a memoir on the roads 
of Cephalonia. 

In May 1825 he was back again in Ce- 
phalonia. Maitland was dead, and Sir Fre- 
derick Adam [q. v.] had taken his place as high 
commissioner. Napier was promoted colonel 
in the army on 27 May 1825. He made the 
acquaintance of the missionary Joseph Wolff, 
who was wrecked off Cephalonia ; for Wolff 
he had a great admiration. 

In September 1825 Ibrahim Pasha was 
ravaging the Morea, and the Greeks turned 
to Napier for help. Napier sent his condi- 
tions ; but the Greek government were per- 
suaded by the London committee to spend 
on ships of war the money which would 
have furnished Napier with an army. They 
still desired to secure his services, and offered 
a larger remuneration than he had asked for ; 
but he was not inclined to be dependent on 
the mismanagement and intngues of the 
Greek government, and, failing to obtain com- 
plete power, he declined the offer, and tried 
to forget his disappointment in renewed 
efforts for the prosperitv of his government. 
In 1826 he was suddenly called to England 
by the death of his mother. In April 1827 he 
married, and in July returned to Cephalonia. 
He could not brook the interference of the 
new high commissioner, and a coldness arose 
between them, which soon grew into hos- 
tility. The roads and public works in which 
he delighted were taken out of Napier's hands ; 
and the feudal proprietors, from whom Napier 
had exacted the duties of their position wnile 
curtailing some of their privileges, aggpra- 
vated the ill-feeling by laying many com- 
plaints before the high commissioner. 

Early in 1830 Napier was obliged to take 
his wife to England on account of her health. 
Some months after his departure Adam sent 
home charges against Napier, seized his official 
papers, and publicly declared he would not 
allow him to return. Lord Goderich, who 
thought there were, no doubt, faults on both 

sides, offered Napier the residencv of Zante, 
a higher post than that of Cephalonia. But 
Napier declined the offer ; he considered hia 
character was not vindicated unless he re- 
turned to Cephalonia. He lived with his 
family at one time in Berkshire, and at an- 
other in Hampshire, and then settled at 
Bath. During this interval of retirement he 
took an interest in politics, and occupied 
himself in writing a book on his government 
of Cephalonia. In 1833 he had a severe 
attack of cholera, and on 31 July of that year 
was completely prostrated by the death of 
his wife. He removed to Caen in Normandy, 
and devoted himself to the education of his 

In August 1834 a company received a 
charter to settle in South Australia, and the 
colonists petitioned for the appointment of 
Napier as governor. Many months of sus- 
pense ensued, during which Napier wrote a 
work on colonisation. In May 1835 he was 
informed that the terms which he proposed 
on behalf of the colonists were not acceptable 
to the company, and he declined the appoint- 
ment at the end of 1836. He married a 
second time in 1835, and again settled at 
Bath, where he entered eagerly into politics. 
He had a bitter controversy with O'Connell, 
which led to his publishing a dialogue on. 
the poor laws. He also published a book 
on military law, and edited 'Lights and 
Shadows oi Militarv Life,' from the French 
of Count Alfred de Vigny and Elzdar Blase. 
But his principal literary work at this t ime was 
an historical romance entitled * Harold,' the 
manuscript of which strangely disappeared. 
On 10 Jan. 1837 he was promoted major- 
general. In March 1838 he moved to Pater, 
Milford Haven. In July he was made a 
E.C.B. Ho applied for the command and 
lieutenant-governorship of Jersey, and, after 
considerable suspense, was refused, lie then 
made a short tour in Ireland, visiting his old 
friend Kennedy, and the model farm at 
Glasnevin. A pamphlet on the state of 
Ireland was the result of his visit. 

In April 1839 Lord Hill appointed Napier 
to the command of the troops in the northern 
district, comprising the eleven northern coun- 
ties of England. Chartism was rife at the 
time; outrages were not infrequent, and 
Napier's political opinions were on the side of 
the people. He felt the responsibility, and, 
while sympathising with tne distress that 
prevailed, determined to uphold law and 
order with a firm hand. He had excellent 
subordinates in Hew Ross, afterwards field- 
marshal, and Colin Campbell, afterwards 
Lord Clyde j^q. v.] Napier's well-organised 
measures judiciously mamtained the law in a 




time of considerable disaffection, and the 
crisis passed. 

In April 1841 he accepted an Indian com- 
mand offered to him by Lord Hill, and in 
October left for India. He assumed com- 
mand at Foona at the end of December. On 
the arrival in India of Lord EUenborough as 
^vemor-general in 1842, he applied to Napier 
for a statement of his view on the military 
situation. Napier sent him a memorandum on 
4 March, recommending as the first step the 
prompt relief of Sale, who was holding Jalala- 
bad, and the formation of two strong columns 
to move on Kabul — one from Peshawar, the 
other from Kandahar by Ghazni. 

In August he was ordered to take com- 
mand in Upper and Lower Sind. He sailed 
from Bombay on 3 Sept. Cholera broke out 
on the voyage, and fifty-four lives were lost 
before Karachi was reached. A few days 
after landing, at a review of the troops, he 
was severely injured in the leg by the burst- 
ing of a rocket. On his recovery he sailed 
up the Indus to Ilaidarabad and Sakhar. 
Here he found himself chief agent in Sind 
of the governor-general, as well as general 
officer commandmg the troops. Sind was 
divided under three distinct sets of rulers — 
the amirs of Khairpur or Upper Sind, the 
amirs of Haidarabad or Lower Sind, and 
the amir of Mirpur. The British occupied 
Shikarpur, Bakhar, and Karachi by treaty. 
The amirs were in a state of excitement, due 
to the recent British reverses in Afghanistan, 
while the return to India of General Eng- 
land's force through the Bolan pass, when 
both advanced on Kandahar, was interpreted 
as a retreat. The situation was critical. The 
governor-ffeneral had instructed Captain 
(afterwaras General Sir^ James Outram 
[q. v.], who was chief political officer before 
the arrival of Napier, in case any of the 
amirs proved faithless, to confiscate their 
dominions ; and Napier, after reading Lord 
Ellenborough*s instructions, and receiving 
reports from Outram and others of the dis- 
affection of the amirs, made up his mind that 
the practical annexation of Sind was inevi- 
table, and could not be long delayed. The 
chief complaint against the amirs was the 
continued levying of tolls in violation of the 
treaty, notwithstanding frequent protests. 
Then came the discovery that negotiations 
were ^oing on with neighbouring tribes for an 
offensive alliance against the British. Napier 
was impressed with the natural wealth of the 
country, and the oppression of the Pindis 
and Hindus by the governing class. * They ' 
(the poor people), he says, * live in a larder 
and vet starve . . . The ameers rob by taxes, 
the hill-tribes by matchlocks.' 

Napier moved at the end of November to 
Shikarpur. A fresh treatv, based on Napier's 
reports, was ordered by the governor-general 
to be offered as an ultimatum. The pro- 

Eosal produced strong remonstrances from 
oth Khairpur and Haidarabad. On 15 Dec. 
the British troops conunenced the passage of 
the Indus, in order to occupy the territories 
mentioned in the treaty. Napier fixed his 
headquarters at Kohri, where, with his right 
resting on the river and his left on the 
desert, he barred the amirs from Subzalkot 
and Bhang-Bara, which were taken posses- 
sion of by Benpd troops. On 31 Dec. 1842 
Napier determined to seize the fortress of 
Imamghar, the impregnable refuge of the 
amirs, in the midst of the great desert in the 
east of Sind. He mounted 350 men of the 
Queen's 22nd regiment on camels, two sol- 
diers on each, and, taking two 24-pound howit- 
zers and two hundred Sind horse, started on 

5 Jan. 1843. On arriving on 12 Jan. at 
Imamghar, it was found to have been eva- 
cuated only a few hours by a garrison of two 
thousand men. After three days' rest the 
fortress was blown up, and Napier made for 
the Indus at Pir Abu Bakar, where he halted 
on 21 Jan. for the main body of his troops, 
and whence he could fall, if necessary, either 
upon the amirs of Haidarabad or those of 
Khairpur. The masterly stroke by which 
Napier seized Imamghar before hostilities 
had actually commenced, and deprived the 
amirs of their last retreat in case of dan^rer, 
elicited the warm praise of the Duke of Wel- 

Napier at this time had the governor- 
general's authority to compel the amirs to 
accept the new treaty. Outram thought 
that its acceptance could be obtained by 
negotiations, while Napier knew that every 
day's delay would bring him nearer to the 
hot weather, when operations in the field 
would be difficult. He nevertheless was so 
far influenced by Outram that he decided to 
try what peaceable measures would do, and 
sent Outram to Khairpur as his commissioner 
to issue a proclamation calling on the amirs 
of both provinces to appear on 20 Jan. to 
complete the treaty. Tne time was extended 
to 25 Jan. and then to 1 Feb., and again to 

6 Feb. Meanwhile Napier sent Outram, at 
his own request, to Haidarabad, and himself 
moved with his army slowly southward. He 
reached Nowshera on 30 Jan. Outram was 
still sanguine of a peaceful issue, and, report- 
ing that not a man in arms was at Haidara- 
bad, suggested that the only thing wanting 
was that Napier should leave his army and go 
in person to Haidarabad. But Napier had in- 
telligence that some twenty-five thousand 




men were collected within six miles of Ilai- 
darabady that ten thousand of the Khandesh 
tribe were coming down the left bank of the 
Indus, that seven thousand men under Rustam 
were in rear of his left flank atKhunhera,that 
ten thousand under Shir Muhammad were 
marching from Mirpur, while in the moun- 
tains on the right bank of the Indus thousands 
were ready at a signal to pour down upon the 
plains. He therefore ridiculed Outram's pro- 
posal. On 12 Feb. 1843 Outram met the 
amirSy who, with the exception of Nasir 
Khan, signed the draft treaties ; but the ex- 
citement in the city was so great that Outram 
and his staff were threatened and insulted 
on their way back to their Quarters. Next 
day the amirs represented tnat they could 
not restrain their followers, and on tlie 15th 
the residency was attacked, and Outram 
and his gallant band, after some hours' 
sie^e, fought their way to the steamers, 
which carried them off* to rejoin the main 

Napier had waited at Nowshera until 
6 Feb. He then marched to Sakarand, where 
he halted on 1 1 Feb. After three days he 
reached Sindabad, and on 16 Feb. he was at 
Matari. Towards evening he heard that the 
enemv were ten miles off, entrenched in the 
bed of the Falaili river near Miani (Meanee). 
The lowest estimate of the enemy's strength 
was twenty-two thousand. Napier's force 
was less than 2,800, and this number was 
further reduced by six hundred men, of whom 
two hundred were sent with Outram to fire 
the forests on the enemy's flank, while four 
hundred men were in charge of baggage. Of 
the 2,200 men remaining, fewer than five 
hundred were Europeans. 

The enemy was discovered at daybreak of 
the 1 7th, and at nine o'clock in the morning 
the British line of battle was formed. The 
baggage, the animals, and the large body of 
camp followers were formed up in the 1 Bri- 
tish rear, and surrounded with a ring of camels 
facing inwards, with bales between them for 
the armed followers to fire over. This impro- 
vised defence was guarded by 250Poona horse 
and four companies of infantry. Napier's 
order of battle was — artillery with twelve 
guns and fifty sappers on the right, 22nd 
Queen's regiment next, and on the left the 
25th, 12th, and 1st grenadier native regi- 
ments in succession, the whole in echelon ; 
on the left of the line were the 9th Bengal 
cavalry and the Sind or Jacob's horse. The 
enemy had eighteen gima, and were strongly 

S)8tea on a curve of the river, convex to the 
ritish, with a skikargah on each side flank- 
ing their front. The skikargah, or woody 
enclosure, on the left was covered towards 

TOI*. XL. 

the plain by a stone wall ; behind the wall 
six thousand Baluchis were posted. 

Giving the order to advance, Napier rode 
forward, and noting an opening in the wall on 
his right flank, with an inspiration of genius 
thrust a company of the 22nd regiment and 
a gun into the space, telling Captain Tew to 
block the gap, and if necessary die there, thus 
paralysing the six thousand baluchis within 
with a force of eighty men. Tew died at his 
post, but his diminished company held the 
gap to the end. The main body of the 
British, advancing in columns of regiments 
in echelon under neavy fire, formed into line 
successively as each regiment approached 
the river Falaili, and charged up tlie bank, 
but staggered back on seeing the sea of tur- 
bans and of wavinff swor(£ that tilled all 
the broad, deep bea of the river, now dry. 
For over two hours the British line remained 
a few yards from the top of the bank, ad- 
vancing to deliver their fire into the masses 
of the enemy in the river-bed, and returning 
to load. The Baluchis, driven desperate by 
the increasing volleys of the British, pressed 
upon from behind, and unable to retreat, 
made frequent charges ; but, as these were 
not executed in concert along their line, the 
British troops were able to overlap round 
their flanks and push them back over the 
edge. The Baluchis fought stubbornly. No 
tire of musketry, discharge of grape, or push 
of bayonet could drive them back. Leap- 
ing at the gims, they were blown away by 
scores at a time, their pips being continually 
filled from the rear. Napier could not leave 
this desperate conflict. He saw the struggle 
could not last much longer, and, judging 
that the supreme moment had come, he sent 
orders to his cavalry on the left to charge on 
the enemy's right. He himself rode up and 
down his infantry line, holding, as it seemed, 
a charmed life, while urging his men to sus- 
tain the increasing fury of the enemy. The 
British cavalry swept down on the enemy's 
right, dashed through their guns, rode over 
the high bank of the river, crossed its bed, 
gained the plain beyond, and charged into 
the enemv's rear witn irresistible furv. Then 
the Baluchis in front looked behind, and the 
British infantry, seizing the opportunity, 
charged with a shout, pushed the Baluchis 
into the ravine, and closed in hand-to-hand 
fight. The battle was won. The Baluchis 
slowly moved off, as if half inclined to renew 
the conflict. With a British loss of twenty 
officers and 250 men out of 2,200, no less 
than 6,000 Baluchis were killed or wounded, 
and more than three times as many were in 
retreat. Napier was content. Quarter was 
neither asked nor given, but there was no 





desire to follow up the beaten foe. Haidar- 
abad surrendered, and six amirs gave up their 

Shir Muhammad, the Lion of Mirpur, con- 
fident in the defeat of the British, and un- 
willing to swell the triumph of his rivals, 
was a few miles off, with ten thousand men. 
lie now retreated on Mirpur, where he soon 
found himself at the head of twenty-five 
thousand men. The position was one that 
called forth all Napier's powers. His force 
was greatly reduced, the thermometer was 
1 10^ m the shade, he had no transport, and 
Ilaidarabad, in which he was obligea to place 
A garrison of five hundred men, was too far 
from the Indus to serve as a base or depot. 
Knowing that Shir Muhammad was a good 
soldier, but deficient in wealth, he resolved 
to give him time, hoping that a large army 
and no money would compel him to attack. 
Napier sent to Sakhar for all available troops 
to join him by river. These reinforcements, 
consisting of a regiment of Bengal cavalry, 
a regiment of native infantry, and a troop 
of horse artillery, duly arrived ; while Major 
Stack's brigade of fifteen hundred men and 
five guns joined him from the north on 
22 March. Napier had entrenched a camp 
close to thelndu8« with a strong work on the 
other side of the river to protect his steamers. 
In the camp he placed his stores and hos- 
pital, with every appearance of the greatest 
caution, in February, and sat down to wait. 
During this time of suspense he, in the words 
of his hero, the Duke of Wellington, * mani- 
fested all the discretion and ability of an officer 
familiar with the most difficult operations of 
war.* On 2.3 March reinforcements reached 
him from Bombay and from Sakhar. The 
Lion was slowly approaching, and sent en- 
voys to summon Napier to surrender. On 
the morning of the 24th Napier marched to 
attack the enemy. lie crossed diagonally the 
front of Ilaidarabad towards Dubba, eight 
miles to the north-west of the city. lie found 
the Lion posted nt Dubba with fifteen guns 
and twenty-six thousand men. Two lines of 
infantry were entrenched. The right rested 
on a curve of the river Falaili and could not 
bo turned by reason of soft mud in the bed of 
the river, while the bank was covered with 
dense wood ; in front of the position was a 
scarped nullah, behind which the first line of 
infantry extended for two miles to another 
wood, and then bent back behind a second 
nullah. The cavalry were massed in advance 
of the left, under cover of the wood. Behind 
the rijfht, where it rested in the Falaili, was 
the village of Dubba, filled with men. 
Napier's force numbered five thousand 
'f which eleven hundred were cavalry, 

with nineteen guns, of which five were horse 
artillery. The battle began about 9 a.m. 
Napier brought his horse artillery to his left 
flank and advanced by echelon of battalions 
from the left, the horse artillery leadin^^, with 
two cavalry regiments in support resting on 
the Falaili. The 22nd Queen's regiment 
formed the left of the infantry, then came 
four native regiments, and on the right were 
the 3rd caval^ and Sind horse. The horse 
artillery opened a raking fire, and the infantry 
pushed on for the village. TheBaluchis closed 
at a run to their right. It was soon dis- 
covered that neither the village nor the nullah 
in front had been neglected. The 22nd, who 
led the way, were met by a destructive fire, 
and the existence of the enemy's second line 
became known. Napier had undervalued the 
skill of the Lion, and there was nothing for 
it but to make up for the mistake by per- 
sistent courage. He himself led the charge, 
and, by dint of hard fighting and indomitable 
resolution, Dubba was at length carried. The 
Baluchis lounged ofi*, as at Miani, slowly, 
and with apparent indifference to the volleys 
of musketry which, at only a few yards' 
range, continuaUy rolled them in the dust. 
Five thousand of the enemy were killed, 
while Napier's loss amounted to 270, of whom 
147 were of the 22nd regiment. Napier's es- 
cape was marvellous, considering that he led 
the regiment in person. His orderly's horse 
was struck and his own sword-hilt. Towards 
the end of the battle a field magazine of the 
enemy, close to Napier, blew up and killed 
all around him ; but, although his sword was 
broken in his hand, he was not hurt. Sendine 
his wounded to Haidarabad, Napier pursued 
Shir Muhammad with forced marches in 
spite of the heat. He reached Mirpur on 
27 March, to find that the Lion had aban- 
doned his capital and fled, with his family 
and treasure, to Omerkot. Napier remained 
at Mirpur, and sent the Sind horse and a 
camel oattery to follow up the Lion. On 
4 April the troops entered Omerkot, a hun- 
dred miles from Dubba, and in the heart of 
the desert. The Lion had fled northwards 
with a few followers. On 8 April Napier was 
back at Ilaidarabad. So long as the Lion 
was at large in the country Napier felt that 
the settlement of Sind could not be effected, 
and all through the hot weather his troops 
were on his track. Napier surrounded him 
gradually by forces unaer Colonel Roberts 
and Major John Jacob [q. v.] Many men 
were lost, and Napier was himself knocked 
over with sunstroke, when Jacob, on 14 June 
at Shah-dal-pur, finally defeated Shir Mu- 
hammad, who escaped to his family across 
the Indus into the Kachi hills. 




The war was now at an end, and the task 
of annexing and settling the country was to 
begin. A great controversy took place as 
to the necessity for the conquest of bind, in 
which Outram and Napier took opposite 
fiides. On the one side it was allegea that 
Lord Ellenborough and Napier had made up 
their minds that Sind should be annexed, but 
that the amirs might have been safely left to 
rule their country ; and that, had they been 
differently treated, there need have been no 
war. On the other side it was stated that 
the disaffection of Sind could not be allayed 
by pacific measures ; that it was * the tail of 
the Afghan storm,' to use Napier's expres- 
sion, and that it was necessary to act with 
promptitude, decision, and firmness. Napier 
found a state of things bordering on war. 
For a short time he listened to his political 
adviser, then he acted for himself, and in 
the course of a few months Sind was con- 
quered. The conquered country had now to 
be organised. Napier had a great talent for 
administration. His administrative staff was 
composed principally of military men, who 
were naturally unfavourably criticised by 
their civilian brethren; but Napier knew he 
had the support of the governor-general, and 
he energetically pushed forward the work of 
settlement. He lost no time in receiving 
the submission of the chiefs, and he con- 
ciliated more than four hundred of them. 
He organised the military occupation of the 
country. He established a civil government 
in all its branches, social, financial, and 
judicial, and organised an effective police 
force. He examined in person the principal 
mouths of the Indus, with a view to com- 
merce, and entered enthusiastically into a 
scheme to make Karachi the second port of 
the Indian empire. He was a prolific writer, 
and, though twice struck down with disease, 
he maintained a large private correspond- 
ence, carried on a considerable public one, 
and entered into all the schemes for the 
government of the new state with an energy 
that never sank under labour. On 24 May 
1844 he celebrated the queen's birthday by 
holding a durbar at Haidarabad, and sum- 
moned all the Sindian Baluchi chiefs to do 
homage. Some three thousand chiefs, with 
twenty thousand men, attended, and ex- 
pressed their contentment with the new 
order of things. 

The hot contention on the question of the 
annexation of Sind had delayed the vote of 
the thanks of parliament for the success of 
the military operation, and the vote was not 
taken until February 1844. The Duke of 
Wellington had abeady written to Napier, 
congratulating him warmly on * the two glo- 

rious battles of Meanee and Hyderabad ; ' 
and in his place in the House of Lords 
he stated that he had 'never known any 
instance of an ofiicer who had shown in a 
higher degree that he possesses all the quali- 
ties and qualifications necessary to enable 
him to conduct great operations. He has 
maintained the utmost discretion and pru- 
dence in the formation of his plans, the ut- 
most activity in all the preparations to insure 
his success, and, finally, the utmost zeal and 
gaUantry and science in carrying them into 
execution.' Sir Robert Peel was enthusiastic 
in his admiration not only for Napier*s cha- 
racter and military achievements, but for the 
matter and form of his despatches. * No one,' 
he said, * ever doubted Sir Charles Napier's 
military powers ; but in his other character he 
does surprise me — he is possessed of extra- 
ordinary talent for civil administration.' To 
Edward Coleridge, Feel said that as a writer 
he was much inclined to rank Charles Napier 
above his brother William ; that not only he, 
but all the members of the government who 
had read his letters and despatches from Sind, 
had been immensely struck by their masterly 
clearness of mind and vigour of expression. 
Napier was made a G.C.B., and on 21 Nov. 
1843 was given the colonelcy of the 22nd 
regiment, lie was quite content, and, speak- 
ing of Wellington's praise of him, said: * The 
hundred-gun ship has taken the little cock- 
boat in tow, and it will follow for ever over 
the ocean of time.' 

At the end of 1844 Napier began his cam- 
paign against the hill tribes on the northern 
frontier, who had been raiding into Sind. 
He reached Sakhar the week before Christ- 
mas 1844. He made Sakhar his base for his 
operations against Beja Khan Dumki, the 
leading hill ciiief, and his eight thousand fol- 
lowers. Napier's men were attacked by fever, 
and the greater part of the 78th highlanders 
perished. Beja heard of the sickness, and, 
presuming that it would stop Napier's ope- 
rations, the hillmen remained with their 
flocks and herds on the level and compara- 
tively fertile land at the foot of the Kachi 
hills. Napier then suddenly sallied forth in 
three columns, moved by forced marches, 
surprised the tribes, captured thousands of 
cattle, most of their grain supply, forced the 
enemy into the hills, and waited at the en- 
trances to the passes for his guns and com- 
missariat. It was early in January 1845 
when the advance began. His energetic 
operations and the indefatigable exertions 
of Jacob and Fitzgerald with the irregular 
horse soon put him in possession of Fulaji, 
Shahpur, and Ooch, with small loss. But 
Beja Khkn was not easily caught, and it was 


Napier 5* Napier 

not until after many wearr marches, with • After a short risit to Ireland, where he 
little water to be had, and manT sharp lights, reoeiTed an enthusiastic welcome, he settled 
that Jieja and his men were driven into down at Cheltenham, and occupied himself 
Traki, a curious fastness, of a basin-like in writing a pamphlet advocating the orga- 
form, with sides of perpendicular rock six nisation of a baggage cor]^ for the Indian 
hundrfffl feet high all round it with onlv two army. Early in 18^ the ^ikh troubles pro- 
op^mings, north and south. Beja and his fol- duced a general demand in England for a 
lowers were captured on 9 March 184*5. Lord change in the command. The court of direc- 
Kllen)x>rough had been recalled, much to tors applied to the Duke of Wellington to 
Napier s grief; but Sir Henry Hardinge ^q. v.^. recommend to them a general for the crisis, 
the new gov*;mor-general, was lavish with and he named Napier. The suggestion was 
hi A praise. No word of recognition of his ill received, and the duke was asked to name 
arduous campaign reached him, however, some one else; he then named Sir George 
frf>m home. By the end of March Napier Napier, who declined. Sir William Maynard 
had returned to his administrative duties in Gomm [q^v.l was eventually selected, and 
Hind. sailed from Mauritius. Late in February 

Tlie first Sikli war broke out on 13 Dec. came the news of the battle of Chillian- 
ISJo, and on 24 Dec. Napier received orders wallah. A most unjust outcry arose against 
to ass'.'rnble with all speed an army of fifteen ' Lord Gough, and there was a popular call 
tliouMind men, with a siege train, at Rohri. for Charles Napier. The directors yielded, 
I5y ('} Feb. 1810 he was at Koliri with fifteen but tried to arrange that he should not have 
thousand men, many of whom had been a seat in the supreme council. Napier de- 
brouglit from Bomljay, eighty-six pieces of clined to go unless he were given the seat, 
cannon, and thrr,>e hundred yards of bridge, and thiswas at last conceded. Afterthe usual 
Mhe whole rf»ady to march, carriage and banquet at the India House, Napier left Eng- 
everything complete, and such a spirit in . land on 24 March, reached Calcutta on 6 May, 
the tn>op« ns cannot Ixj surpassed.' While '■ and assumed the command: the war was, 
he wns in the midst of his preparations the however, over, and Napier unstintedly praised 
battle of F«roze8hah was fought. Hardinge ' Lord Gough*s conduct of it. 
f»rderi!d Napier to direct his forces upon | In November 1840 a mutinous spirit ex- 
Hliawalpur, and to come himself to head- hibited itself in the native army, which Na- 
qiiarter;-*. Leaving his army on 10 Feb., he pier was determined to put down. The 66th 
rtm('.\u'(\ Lfthon* on f3 March, to find Sobraon , regiment, on its way from Lucknowinto the 
had b«'««n fought and the war was over. ■ Punjab in January 1850, halted at Gorind- 
lOiirly in April Napier was back at Karachi, ghur, where they refused their pay, and tried 
(/lioN-ra l>roke out, and seven tliousand per- j to shut the gates of the fortress, and were 
Honsdiedin Kurarhi, of whom eight hunared only prevented by the accidental presence 
wiTesoldioFH. lie lo«*t his favourite nephew, | of a cavalry regiment on its way back from 
.lolm Na])irr (an able soldier), and also a the Punjab. Napier ordered that the native 
favouriti? little grandniece. This affliction, ; officers, non-commissioned officers, and pri- 
with till' luirnHHing work and groat rcspon- , vate sepoys of the 66th regiment should be 
Hil)ility,bi'gan to tell on his health, and as marched to Ambala, and there struck off 
time wont on Im had many worries with the the rolls, and that the colours should be de- 

court, of (liroclorH of the Kast India Com- 
])any, for whom he had no allection, and who 
iHMitnd liim with little con8idenition. On 
1) Nov. IHIO 1h5 waR promoted lieutenant- 
gMUiTiil. In July IH-i/ ho n'signed the go- 
vornnwnt of Sind, and on 1 Oct. left India 

livered to the loyal menof theNasiriGhurkha 
battalion, who should in future be called the 
66th or Ghurka regiment. About the same 
time the regulation by which an allowance 
was made to the sepoys for purchasing their 
food was called in question. 

for Muropi', Htaying «om(^ time at Nice witli ; brigadier-general in command 

Hearst^, the 
[ at Wazira- 

liJH brotluT (h'orgt'. On his way to Eng- 
lan<l, in May 1H|H, he paid a visit to Mar- 
nhal Soult in Parin, and recalled Coruna. The 
niarMlial paid him the highest compliment, 
trlliiig him he had ntudied allhiR operations 

in ()hina(!) an<l entirely approvtnl tnem. He ' Raleigh Gilbert [q. v.], 
nu»t with a cordial reception, on arriving in Napier by the adjutan 
London, from Wellington and Pind, and Lord dian army, with a recoi 
Kllimlw^rough, whom, Htrango tosay, he had 
iro mi't, though they hacl worked 
ogethor in India. 

bad, where the regulation was unknown, 
deemed it unsafe to enforce it until it had 
been carefully explained to the sepoys on 
parade. Hearsey s opinion was endorsed 
ny the divisional commander. Sir Walter 

and was laid before 

ijutant-general of the In- 

recommendation that the 

regulation should not be enforced. Lord 

Dalhousie, the govemor-general, was on a 

sea Toyage, and the members of the supreme 




council separated from the scene by journeys 
of weeks. Napier therefore took upon him- 
self the responsibility of suspending the re- 
gulation pending a reference to the supreme 
council. Greatly to his surprise, three 
months later he received a severe reprimand 
from the governor-general for exercising 
powers which belonged to the supreme coun- 
cil. Napier resigned. He left Simla on 
16 Nov. 1850, ana went down the Indus. At 
Haidarabad the sirdars collected for many 
miles round, and presented him with a sword 
of honour. At Bombay a public banquet 
was given to him. 

In March 1851 he was back in England. 
He took a small property at Oaklands on the 
Hampshire Downs, a few miles from Ports- 
mouth. The disease which had settled on 
his liver ever since his ride to Lahore in 
1846 was making rapid strides; but he was 
not a man to remain idle, and he commenced 
a work entitled * Defects, Civil and Military, 
of the Indian Government,* which he did not 
live to complete, but which was eventually 
edited and published by his brother William. 
In February 18»52 he published a * Letter 
on the Defence of England by Corps of 
Volunteers and Militia,' which did some- 
thing to prepare the way for the great volun- 
teer movement of 1859. In spite of illness, 
he took his place as one of the pall-bearers 
at the Duke of Wellington's funeral, where 
he caught a severe cold, which could not be 
shaken off. He never recovered his health, 
and died on 29 Aug. 1 853. He was buried in 
the small churcliyard of the garrison chapel at 
Portsmouth. His funeral was a private one, 
but Lords Ellenborough and Ilardin^e and 
many distinguished officers attended it, and 
the whole garrison crowded to the grave. 

On the north side of the entrance to the 
north transept of St. Paul's Cathedral is a 
marble statue of Napier by G. G. Adams, 
with the simple inscription of his name and 
the words : * A prescient general, a beneficent 
governor, a just man.* In Trafalgar Square, 
London, is a colossal statue of Napier in 
bronze, by the same sculptor, which was 
erected by public subscription. By far the 
larger number of subscribers were private 
soldiers. A portrait of Napier, painted in 
1853 by E. Williams, is in the possession of 
Lady McMurdo; another, sketched in oils 
by George Jones, R.A., is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London, having been pre- 
sented by Napier*s widow. 

Napier was essentially a hero. With his 
keen, nawklike eye, aquiline nose, and im- 
pressive features, his appearance exercised a 
powerful fascination ; while his disregard of 
luxiuy, simplicity of manner, careful atten- 

tion to the wants of the soldiers under his 
command, and enthusiasm for duty and right 
won him the love and admiration of his men. 
His journals testify to his religious convic- 
tions, while his life was one long protest 
against oppression, injustice, and wrong- 
doing. Generous to a fault, a radical in poli- 
tics yet an autocrat in government, hot- 
tempered and impetuous, he was a man 
to inspire strong affection or the reverse, 
and his enemies were as numerous as his 

Napier was twice married : first, in 1827, 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Oakeley, 
and widow of Francis John Kelly ; she died 
on 31 July 1833. Secondly, m 1835, to 
Frances, daughter of William Philips, esq., 
of Court Henry, Carmarthenshire, and widow 
of Richard Alcock, esq., royal navy. She 
survived him, and died on 22 June 1872. 

Napier was the author of the following 
works : 1. * Memoir on the lloads of Cepha- 
lonia .... accompanied by Statistical Tables, 
State of the Thermometer,' &c., 8vo, London, 
1825. 2. *The Colonies; treating of their 
value generally, of the Ionian Islands in par- 
ticular .... Strictures on the Administra- 
tion of Sir F. Adam,' 8vo, London, 1833. 
3. * Colonisation, particularly in Southern 
Australia; with some Remarks on Small 
Farms and Overpopulation,' 8vo, London, 
1835. 4. * Remarks on Military Law and 
the Punishment of Flogging,' 8vo, London, 
1837. 5. *A Dialogue on the Poor Laws,'. 
1838 (?) 6. 'Lights and Shadows of Mili- 
tary Life,' a volume containing translations 
of Count A. de Vigny's * Servitude et Gran- 
deur Militaires,' and Elzear Blase's * Military 
Life in Bivouac, Camp, Garrison,' to which 
were added essays by Napier, 12mo, London, 
1840. 7. * A Letter to the Right Hon. Sir J. 
Hobhouse ... on the Baggage of the In- 
dian Army,' 3rd edit. 8vo, London, 1849; 
4th edit, same date. 8. * A Letter on the 
Defence of England by Corps of Volunteers 
and Militia, &c.,' 8vo, London, 1852. 9. * De- 
fects, Civil and Military, of the Indian Govern- 
ment. . . . Edited (with a supplementary 
chapter) by Sir W. F. P. Napier,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1853. 10. * William the Conqueror : 
a Historical Romance . . . Sir W. N^apier, 
editor,' 8vo, London, 1858. He also edited 
* The Nursery Governess (with the addition 
of two other stories),' London, 1834, 12mo, 
WTitten by his first wife, Elizabeth Napier; 
and contributed to * Minutes on the Resig- 
nation of the late General Sir Charles Napier,' 
London, 1854, 8vo. A compilation ol his 
general orders issued between 1842 and 1847 
was published in 1850 by Edward Green, and 
' Records of the Indian Command of General 


Sir 0. J. Nnpier, compriaintr all his General 
Ordew, Remarks on Courle-Martiftl,&c, with 
An Appendix containing Keparteof Speeches, 
Copies of Letters . . . extracted from Con- 
teraporaneoug Prints, by J. Mawaon,' ap- 
peared at Calcutta in 1854. 

[DeipatehM ; War OHIm ReeordB; India Office 
Keeords; Worka by hi« hrothar, Sir W. F. P. 
Napiar; Life by William Napiot Brace. I8S5: 
Ufs hy Sir W. F. Butler, leau ; Corroelians of 
ft fsvof tJie Errors mntained in Sir W. NapiacVi 
tafs of Sir Chnrlee Napier, by O. Buist, 1S57; 
Rtmarka on tbe Nntire Troops of the Indian 
Army, and Notes oa certajn Paaaagts in Sir 
Charloi Napier's Poslbnmous Work on the De- 
fectA of the Indian QovernmeDt, by John Jacob, 
C.B,, 18S4:&Fbw Brief Commenta on Sir Charles 
Napiof'B Letter on the Bnggnffe of the Indian 
AnnT, by Liputsnant-colonel W. Burton, 181S; 
Sir Charlei Napier's Indian BBegageCorps; Re- 
ply to Lieutsnant-eolouel Burton's Attack (i 

pamphlet by tbe former). 18Sn ; Finlay's F 
of Qrecee, vols. Ti. and rii.; Faar Famoiu 
diori. by T. B. E. Bolmeg, 1 889; The Career 
and Conduct of Sir ChnrleB Napier, the Con- 
qa«ror of Scinde, by W. MacColl, 1857 : General 
nJT C. J. Nnpier as Conqueror and Qoreraor of 
adnde. by P. L. MacDoogall. 1860 ; History of 
iho Ijidinn Adminiatratjon of Lord Ellenborongh, 
wlitod by Lord Coleheatcr, 187*.] It. H. V, 

NAPIER, DAVID (1790-1P69), marine 
engineer, was bom in 1790, and with his 
eouain, lUibert Napier (1791-1H76) [q. v.] 
laid the foundation of the well-knowu firm 
of Napier & Sods, abinbuilders and marinu 
engineers, of Goyan, Olasgow. In 1818 he 
was the first to introduce British coasting 
■teamers as well m ateam-packeta for the 
poat-ofiice sucvice. Ha was also the first 
to eetablisli a regular steam communication 
between Greenock and Belfast. For two 
winters bis vessel, the Rob Roy, of about 
DO tons burden and 30 borse-power, plied 
with regularity between these ports, and 
was then transferred to the English Chan- 
nel to serve as a packet-boat between Dover 
and Calais. ShottlyaftorwardsNapiercaused 
An elaborate Tessel, named the Talbot, to he 
built for bim, and, placing in ber two en- 
gines of SO horse-power each, thus made 
her the finest steam vessel of her tine. ITe 
employed her in running between Uolybead 
and Dublin. In 1822 he established a Tine of 
Steam yeasels between Liverpool, Greenock, 
and Glasgow, applying' to the purpose the 
Robert Bruce, ot 1 M tons, with two 30-horBe- 
power engines; theSuperb, of 240 tons, with, 
two 35-horae-power engines; and the Eclipse, 
of240ton8,withtwo 30- horse-power en gin ea. 
In 1826 Napier constructed machinery for 
the United Kingdom, the largest vessel yet 
designed ; she was built by Mr. Steele of 

Greenock, and was 100 feet long, 26^ 
beam, and 200 horse-power. 

Napier inyented the steeple engine, which 
was a great improvement on tbe side lever 
as occupying much Seas apace, and waa one 
of the first, if not the first, to try the appli- 
cation of the surface condenser in marine 
engines. Probably, with the exception of 
Robert Napier, no man individually did more 
to improve the steam navigation of the world. 
For many years previous to bis deadibe lived 
in retirement at Worcester. Late in Ufa 
be proposed a plan for the removal of the 
Glasgow sewage by means of barges, and 
offered to subscribe 600'. towards testing the 
scheme. He died at 8 Upper Phillimom| 
(.iardens, Kensington, London, on 23 N<wJ- 
1869, aged 79. 

[Glasgow DailyHeralci. 27 Nov. 1889, pp.*. S; 
Engineering, 3 Dec. 1869, p. 385 ; Illust. Lon- 
don News, II Dec. 1889, p. 602.] G. 0, B. 

HUNGERJ'ORD ELERS (1808-1870), 
lieutenant-general and author, bom in 1808, 
was elder son of Edward Elers, lieutenant in 
tbe royal navy, who was grandson of Paul 
Elers [see Elebs, John Philip], and died in 
1814. lIiamother,Frances Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Lieutenant George Youngbusband, 
R.N., married in 1815— after her first hiu- 
band's death — Captain (afterwards Admu 
Sir) Charles Napier [q. v.], who adopted 1 
four children, the latter takii^ the name 
N^ierin addition to that of Elers. 

Edwardwaseducatedat the Royal Mill tarj" 
CoUege, Sandhurst, and on 11 Aug. 182S was 
appointed ensign in (he 46ch foot, in whioli 
he became lieutenant on 11 Oct. 1826, and 
captain on 21 June 1831. He aerved with 
his regiment in India, and was present with 
the nizam's subsidiary force at the siege of 
Haidarabad in 1830. The regiment returned 
home in 1833, and in 1836 Napier entered 
the senior department of the Royal Military 
Colle^, but left in 1837, before passing his 
examination, on the regiment being ordered 
to Gibraltar. He commanded the light 
company for several years. While at Gibraltar 
he made frequent exciu'sions into Spain and 
Barbary in pursuit of field sports, and also 
took a cruise iu his stepfBther's ship, the 
Powerful, 84 guns, in which he visited Con- 
stantinople and Asia Minor, and acquired a. 
knowledge of Levantine countries, which led 
to bis Bubsequent employment on special 
service there. At this time he published 
some 'Remarks on the Troad," which at- 
tracted attention, and presented a highly 
finished map of the locality, from his own 
surveys, to the Royal Geographical Society, 





London. He obtained his majority on 11 Oct. 
18d9. When the British fleet was engaged 
on the coast of Syria in 1840, Napier was 
sent out with the local rank of lieutenant- 
colonel and assistant adjutant-general, and 
was despatched to the iNablous Mountains 
to keep the Druse and Maronite chiefs firm 
in their allegiance to the sultan. In the 
depth of winter, which was very severe in the 
mountains, he collected a force of fifteen 
hundred irregular cavalry, whom he declared 
to be ' as ruffianly a lot of cut- throats as ever a 
Christian gentleman had command of,' with 
which he watched Ibrahim Pasha, the leader 
of the Egyptians, who had opened hostilities 
with the Turks, so closely that Ibrahim 
retreated through the desert east and south 
of Palestine instead of occupying Jerusalem 
and ravaging the settled country round about 
as he had intended ; but Napier s cut-throats, 
coming suddenly upon an outpost of Ibra- 
him's cavalry, shortly afterwams decamped, 
leaving Napier and three other Europeans to 
themselves. Napier repaired to the Turkish 
headquarters, where he was appointed mili- 
tary commissioner, but the convention of 
Alexandria put an end to the war. In 
January 1S41 Napier was despatched to bring 
back the chiefs of the Lebanon, whom Ibra- 
him Pasha had sent to work in the gold 
mines of Sennaars, a service he successfully 
completed. He had not long rejoined the 
46th at Gibraltar when he was despatched 
to Egypt by the foreign office to demand the 
release of the Syrian troops detained by 
Mahomet Ali, and to conduct them to Bey- 
rout. In this mission he was also successful. 
It occupied him from May to September 1841, 
during which time the plague was raging in 
Alexandria. He escaped the pestilence, but 
contracted the seeds of ophtnalmia, which 
caused him much suffering in after years. For 
his services in Syria and Egypt he was made 
brevet lieutenant-colonel from 31 Dec. 1841, 
and received the Syrian medal and a gold 
medal from the Sultan. Being reported 
medically unfit to accompany his regiment 
to the West Indies, he retired on half-pay 
imattached in 1843, and afterwards resided 
some time in Portugal. In 1846 he was sent 
to the Cape with other special service field 
officers to organise the native levies, and 
commanded bodies of irregulars during the 
Kaffir war of 1846-7. He became brevet- 
colonel, while still on half-pay, on 20 June 
1854. Admiral Sir Charles Napier, then in 
command of the Baltic fleet, applied to Lord 
Harding for the services of his stepson 
as British military commissioner with the 
French force in the Baltic under General 
Baraguay d'Hillier8,but the letter was never 

answered, and Napier's applications for em- 
ployment in the Crimea were not accepted. 
With characteristic energy he did much 
good work during the firat winter in the 
Crimea in collecting funds for warm clothing 
for the troops, and personally superintending 
its shipment. He became a major-general on 
26 Oct. 1868, was appointed colonel of the 61 st 
regiment in 1864, was promoted to lieutenant- 
general on 3 Oct. 1864, and transferred to 
the colonelcy of his old corps, the 46th, on 

22 Feb. 1870. 

Napier married in 1844 Ellen Louisa, 
heiress of Thomas Daniel, of the Madras civil 
service, by whom he had two children. He 
died at Westhill, Shanklin, Isle of Wight, 
on 19 June 1870, aged 63. 

Napier was a man of literary and artistic 
ability, and a frequent and very practical 
writer in the public press and elsewhere on 
professional topics. Besides contributing to 
the magazines, chiefly 'Bailey's' and the 
* United Service Magazine,' for over twenty 
years, he was author of the following works : 
1. 'Scenes and Sports in Foreign Lands,' 
2 vols. 1840. 2. 'Excursions on the Shores 
of the Mediterranean,' 2 vols. 1 842. 3. ' Remi- 
niscences of Syria,' 1843. 4. ' W^ild Sports 
in Europe, Asia, and Africa,' 1844. 5. * Ex- 
cursions in South Africa, including a History 
of the Cape Colony' ('Book of tne Cape'), 
1849. 6. ' Life and Correspondence of Ad- 
miral Sir Charles Napier,' 1862. 

[Hart's Army Lists; Life of Admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, London, 1862 ; Memoir in Col- 
bum's United Service Mag., August 1870.] 

H. M. C. 

NAPIER, FRANCIS, seventh Lord 
Napier (1768-1823), bom at Ipswich on 

23 Feb. 1768, was eldest son of William, 
sixth lord Napier, who from 17 Jan. 1763 
until his death on 2 Jan. 1776 was adjutant- 
general of the forces in Scotland, by his wife, 
Mainie (or Marion Anne), fourth daughter 
of Charles, eighth lord Cathcart. He entered 
the army on 3 Dec. 1774 as ensign in the 
31st regiment of foot, and on 21 March 1776 
obtained a lieutenancy in the same regiment. 
Having accompanied his regiment to Canada 
imder General Burgoyne, he was one of those 
who surrendered to the American general, 
Gates, at Saratoga on 16 Oct. 1777. For sLx 
months he was detained a prisoner at Cam- 
bridge, but obtained permission to return to 
Europe on giving his parole not to serve in 
Ajnerica until regularly exchanged. This 
took place in October 1780. On 7^'ov. 1779 
he purchased a captain's commission in the 
35th foot, which, at the peace in 1783, was 
reduced to half-pay. On 31 May 1784 he 


7. ■ . T-T- Napu::. VI ■ 

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on the staff of Lord Carhampton, the Irish 
commander-in-chief. When the troubles 
broke out in 1798, Napier did not fly, like 
most of the gentry, but fortified his mansion 
at Celbridge, Kildare,and armed his sons and 
servants. Eventually he removed his family 
to Castletown. He commanded a yeomanry 
corps in the rebellion. Marquis Comwallis 
appointed him comptroller of army accounts 
in Ireland; and Napier, a man of varied 
attainments, set to work loyally to reduce 
to order the military accounts, which were 
in disgraceful contusion. He became a 
brevet-colonel on 1 Jan. 1800. He died of 
consumption on 13 Oct. 1804 at Clifton, Bris- 
tol. There is a memorial slab in the Red- 
lands Chapel there. 

Napier married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Captain Robert Pollock, by whom he had 
several children, all of whom, together with 
their mother, died in America, with the ex- 
ception of Louisa Mar}', wlio survived and 
died unmarried on 2(5 Aug. 1856 ; secondlv, 
the Lady Sarah Bunburv, fourth daugh- 
ter of the second Duke of Richmond [see 
Leitnox, Charlks, second Duke of Rich- 
mond, Len'Nox, and Aubigxy]. At the 
age of seventeen she captivated the youth- 
ful George III, and it was thought would 
have become queen. Horace Walpole speaks 
of her as bv fur the most charming of the ten 
noble maidens who bore the bride's train at 
the subsequent marriage of the king with 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg on 8 Sept. 1761 
{LetterSy iii. 374, 4.*i2 ; Jesse, Meinoirs of 
George III, i. 64-9; Thackeray, Four 
Georgefi). She married in 1762 Sir Charles 
Thomas Bunbury, M.P., the well-known 
racing baronet, from whom she was divorced 
in 17/6. By her marriage with Napier she 
had five sons and three daughters, among 
the former being the distinguished soldiers 
Charles James Napier fq. v.], George Thomas 
Napier "^q.v.l and William Francis Patrick 
Napier [q. v.], and the historian, Henry Ed- 
ward Napier [q. v.l George III settled 1,000/. 
a year on her ana her children at Napier's 
death. Lady Sarah, who had been long 
totallv blind, died in London in 1826, a^ed 
88. She was said to be the last surviving 
great-granddaughter of Charles II. 

[Burke's Peerage, under * Napier of Mer- 
chistoun ' and * Richmond and Lennox ; ' Napier's 
Life and Opinions of Sir Charles James Napier, 
i. 47-55; PasMiges in Early Military Life of 
Sir George Thomas Napier, p. 24 ; Army Lists ; 
Jesse's Life and Reign of Geo. Ill, vol. i. ; 
Walpole'e Letters, vols, iii-ix.] H. M. C. 

(1784-1856), general and governor of the 
Cape of Good Hope, second son by his 

second wife of Colonel George Napier 

Sq. v.], was born at Whitehall, London, on 
to June 1784. Unlike his elder brother 
Charles, he was a dunce at school. On 25 Jan. 
1800 he was appointed cornet in the 24th 
light dragoons (disbanded in 1802), an Irish 
corps bearing * Death or Glory' for its motto, 
in which he learned such habits of dissipation 
that his father speedily effected his transfer 
to a foot regiment. He became lieutenant on 

18 June 1800, and was placed on half-pay of 
the 46th foot in 1802. He was brought into 
the 52nd light infantry in 1803,'became cap- 
tain on 5 Jan. 1804, and served with the regi- 
ment under Sir John Moore at Shornclilie, 
in Sicily, Sweden, and Portugal. He was a 
favourite with Moore from the first, and one 
of his aides-de-camp at Coruna. Through 
some mistake he was represented in the army 
list as having received a gold medal in Fe- 
bruary 1809 for the capture of Martinique, at 
which action he was not present. He served 
with the 52nd in the Peninsular campaigns of 
1809-11. At Busaco he was wounded slightly 
when in the act of striking with his sword 
at a French grenadier at the head of an op- 
posing column. He and his brother William 
were two out of the eleven officers promoted 
in honour of Massena's retreat. He became an 
effective major in the 52nd foot in 1811, and 
volunteered for the command of the stormers 
of the light division at the assault on Ciudad 
Kodrigo on 19 Jan. 1812. John Gurwood 
[q. v.] of the 52nd led the forlorn hope. Napier 
on this occasion lost his right arm, which he 
had had broken by a fragment of shell at Casal 
Novo three days'before (Gurwood, Welling- 
ton Deapntches, v. 473-7, 478). Napier re- 
ceived a brevet lieutenant-colonelcv and a 
gold medal. lie went home, married his first 
wife, and was appointed deputy adjutant- 
general of the "iork district, tie rejoined 
the 52nd as major at St. Jean de Luz at the 
beginning of 1814, and was present with it at 
Orthez, Tarbes, and Toulouse. Immediately 
after the latter battle he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 71st highland light in- 
fantry, which he brought home to Scotland. 
On 25 July the same year he was appointed 
captain and lieutenant-colonel 3rd foot guards 
(Scots guards), in which he served until 

19 April 1821, when he retired on half-pay 
of the late Sicilian regiment. He was made 
C.B. on 4 June 1815, became a brevet-colonel 
on 27 Aug. 1825, major-general 10 Jan. 1837, 
K.C.B. 10 July 1838, colonel Ist West India 
regiment 29 Feb. 1844, lieutenant-general 
9 Nov. 1846, general 20 June 1854. He had 
the Peninsular gold medal for Ciudad Rodrigo, 
and the silver medal and four clasps. 

Napier was governor and commander-in- 

Napier 5^ Napier 

I'iiti't' :it rlit' Cipe ■»!* t i'od Hope :r m. t- ' ►•^t. '}r -sjL.mizni'i .-v "tie trrombv-iFenenl and 

\s:\T 10 \\1 IW. l**4^3. He 'niorcrti -tie lirorvrnrds 'n ',k' ^rnnflrnc 'ip betbm the Lords 

iibtilitmn -it* ?lavi»rv. .Lb« tils tie! inland -m- f.\ti. >taTe P^ptr*. Dom. L^J4U, pp. 55, LliO. 

in'ii. ii'pt'iidinir :'i»r »v.>iomai r!?r»»nue m rne -1:5 ». ' 'n. Jl • »<:r. .i^ -vTid ►^iected >LP. tor 

riwiiii!isi liitiei*. ;iiid mii^l 'lie ''^i-^nv :br McLcombe Ilciti.s. .md .n .rime l*M. iiavinir 

iniirlv "i^'vi'ii yi'urs ^vitiioiir :i Ivarfir Tar. made ud peace ir vioiirr. iie "ivaa created a 

111' 'UMii ;iilrT:u'limeiii i»t*t"nx»psri> P-rr XiitaL "iTiitfhi: ind l 'lamner . Metcajife- i?'W« '»/' 

:iiiu i!n' UiH'n« wi'w driven mr n' :iiar "t^r- KninhU, p. iLHi i. Hie HuiLse of Commons. 

niitrv linn til: lii* Lr«>vi»niiueiir ^^ Ann. Rr*i. javin^r .nedecrnailv -iimmoned him. ro at- 

I ^\'2 ; ^l^M^nl 13, /iittfit'i* hi Si,ur.h . i/rrca. ml. :. ; 'end :n lii* pLice :n .ridv iind :i(rain in * Jcrober 

Vrti-r Ins n»iuni \ii l>44 N.-ipier n?.-?id'jd I.t54i'. irriei^i 'har ke *)e -lent :br :iB a deiin- 

rliii'iU :il Nic«*. IvinirCIiiirles AibeiT 'irer»»ii luenr -n 1- N'"\-. ^f.'immoru' Jimmals, ii. 

iiiiii i ln' »Miium;iiid ■»£ rlie Sirt.iinian irmv, 'x**'>, ^J4. ^4-">i. ' >n ■') Jan. L^j-W lie was 

wliK-liUtMUvliiied. .Vih'rClidlianwailaVfipier required "o lend oi.Hj/. Tor rhe serrice ot 

wits piiipoM'^l tor the rhu'l'command ;n InLiia. pariiament ' in. .1. Uiif. "lut as he did noc 

• liui thoujjiii. in i*«»nmn»u with the TH^npie of •ompiT-. iireori-.n;* Ten? ^ven :n .ipprehend 

Mii^-liiiid. that it lwloiiir»Hi by riirhr "o -iii liim -n 10 ApnL /^. iii. :>». Ar lenirrh he 

bi'tt(li«^r i'hjirU**.* lit* dietl ar Lieueva ■)n -ienr a Icrter -xpniasinij his readiness ri» 

Mi S'pl. IS.V*. Napier inarri'-Hi, drsr. in maiie l ij'^nrnbution* wiiereup'Jn the »!om- 

^s I Vt. I>^l*J. Map.r«rL'r. tlaiiirhrer ■>f .Jnhn niuna. 'n JH M-iv. vore«i "iiar his attendance 

Trnix "l^''»'*U»*w : -i<H.'<uidly,iii l>'>iK FrancHs .n rii^* aouse V ii?pense<i -ritfa, 'o rhe end 

Piiiiiibrii. oldi'St. daiiirhter <U* II. W. Blen- -bar "le diL'u: "j^rr-^r ftirrher rheir interests 

I • , I %\ I •, lii t d widow I ) t" Willi am P'^n ' W "i- : n ' he '."^untrr •id. li i . 1 U5 : T inner .V-S. 

I iiiiii V iMioitiiiii nt" b*awU»v Court, ' »x:*«^aUhire. Ixii. !." n n. Aa a ■.'•immisisioner t'mra rhe kinu", 

\\\ hi i iii'"*i wilo \w liad' r\vi> dauirhtrrs and Napier, lionir Tirii Sir .!Lntht>ny .Vshiny 

ibmi' .oii^ { bobiio General Thoma:9 OmnLly C.^oper :md Sir Ji'tm Heie. ;iddre'««*ed a let- 

Nju»h-i. i'.l*., '^•mo time «>t the Late Cape :er m '■) Aac. "'» "he mavnr and c^irporation 

iii«>iiiiirtl rilbMiiiMi : 1. apraiu John Moore of Dnrckester. Dorwt, unrng "he iurreniier 

NiuiKM, o''iid rt«i;itneiir. who die<.l in >ind Ln of '■he town i fb. Ixii. 1*17 . Pae common:? 

I Mil. oiil iJoiii'nd William GnUij Emilius retaliared mi -L* Jan. 1»>44 bv votimr him 

N.ipH'i, iiov% ojlnnrl of rhe hLinir 'i L>wn >cot- incapable ^i '*itt:nir ' lurinji * his parliament ' 

ii.ib lUmU'rfi-H iliiti' '-.'"'th fiH>r ). i Oimmonn' Jfuni'tiif, iii. .$74 '. lie deemed 

NiiPirr wn»lo fur his childn*n * Pa^saifes In it pndenr ro make his submission to the 
i». I'.'juU Mdiiarv Life of iJeneral Sir <f. T. pa 

parliament >n 'JO Sept.. wiien he took the 

NAMWfti ^*" OKUARD (I«Od-H7:5», p. lOHlj. Duri n c the Co mm- ^n wealth Xapier 

■avttiu^ tHi|ilU«Hl at Steeple, Dors«?t., on i.-» <uiil to have st^nt by Sir Gilljert Tayl'^r 

wfTv** ^**^^ ^** Adwt son of Sir Na- o<)<V. to trharl^'* II. tayl«>r detained 'the 

JkL^ui *SMiiur» uf More Crichel, in the same mon»»y. and f.»r his dishi)ne!«ty he was prose- 

■^Jiri \>v KllMiMh, dau|;hter and heiress ciite<i by Napi»'r after the Kestoration. In 

gj tAh ChiHwii of Uyde, in the 1*1*; 9^' P'^r- December \*d^'2 he was appointed with eleven 

\ iHv»v****'**» l^rMft^ 3rd ed. iiL 1J5). others a commissioner for discovering all 

iubttHt Nawor C«i. U»l*5) Jl- ^-l ^'^^^ ^^^ waste lands belonirinjj to the crown in 

SySwik*^ kiiwrt Napier (161 1-16*?*3) twenty-three parishes in Dorset i CaL State 

lli» brother. During his father's Pnper\ Pom. ltiH;i-4, pp. 4:3, SI. 655). 

\^^ h 

.Sir U*H>i>tv Hastings, in pressing without f**e. He ^entertained the king and 

**^a*^lk* ll*W|C** service, but was not | queen at More Crichel. when the court re- 

A^^ mwHW^^* ^"^^'^f^ ^y ^^^ lord- moved to .Sali'^bury on account of the plague 

^***^^ |52Jjlilu# Howard." second earl in 1665. Napier died at More Crichel on 

g^jWP* rV^ln^ re|K>rted his remissness 14 May 1673, and was boried in Minteme 
^fc^l^ fcfcfc ^<» accordingly ordered to i Churcli, Dorset (^UrrcHisre, 

ir. 483). By 

Napier 59 Napier 

his wife, Margaret (d. 1660), daughter and diacoveries regarding paraflin, attended the 

co-heiieas of John CoUes of Barton, Somer- classes in Glasgow of Professor Thomas 

set, he left one sorriving son. Sir Nathaniel Graham, who was later master of the mint. 

Napier [q.T.]> "^^ ^^'^ daughters. Subsequently Napier went to England, and 

[Visitation of Corset, 1628 (Harl. 8oc.). p. ^"^ several years in London and Swansea. 

74; Barke'a Extinct Baronetage; will registered About 1849-50 he returned to Glasgow, 

in P. C. C. 128, Pye.] G. O. where he became closely associated with 

NAPIER, HENRY EDWARD (1789- f"''^"?"'* «>Uege and the technical sdiool 

1863). historian, bom on 5 March 1789, was founded byJamw Young ; he died at Both- 

sonof Colonel George Napier [q. v.], younger "^^^^ <>? ^ "^: ^^•, . „ , , ™ ^ 

brother of Sir Charfes James "Napiirfq. v.], „^T' ^^; ]: •^,^'5?l2l«F*'S*'^ 

conqueror of Scinde, of Sir Geo?ge Tfiomw Jf^^^^^^^A^^il^^t.^^*^ ediU876). 2. 'A 

Napier [q. v.], governor of the Ca^ of Good ?^"'j'„°' ^^^^^I^^T^'o^.^T' ^^^ 

Hope, J^d of Sir William FranSs Patrick ^^^ *f a "i?/^' ^^^'^ir ^; T^|«^?f ""^ 

Napier [q. v.], historian and general. He Workers and Artificers m Metal,' 1866, 12mo. 

entered the Rbyal Naval Acadlmy on 6 May f; ^^*i''T?.° ^f^i^ 'J?. H«tOE»<^-^«r 
1803, and, embarking on 20 Sept. 1806 on *1°'>*.' ?^^ «^'*- \^19' !««»• J', ?J?J*' *°^ 
board the Spencer, 7% guns, was present in ^i?'^«*°«^ J«^*?« t<>.P»rtid^: G}!^^, 
the expedition agiJnst Copenhagen in 1807, i^'^'^^S'.-^V^^'^'K'^JT^f'^'J'JS.A??**''* 
and asSsted at tfie destruction of Fleckero^ ^™«'' ^dmbur^, 1874, 8vo. /. 'FoUdore; 
Castle on the coast of Norway. From 1808 ?' SupewtitionslBebefs in the West <rf Scot- 
fdllSU he served in the East Indies, and ^dwith.n this Century,' Pjudey, 1879, 8vo. 
on 4 May 1810 received his commission as g^ this last work Napier wm behest remem- 
lieutenant. On 7 June 1814 he was promoted ^"^•. JV« ^ admirable example of folklore 
to the command of the Goree, 18 g^ins, and, of a distnct, honestly collected, and narrated 
soon after removing to the Rileman, 18 without ostentation. It is mvaluable to any 
. — . A,. . .Tj„_ui„ *: »_t...!.*„j Student of Scottish folklore. He also con- 

pay, naving previously declined a piece oi j ", --—._.. -~ , • "• — » 

plite whict Ld been voted to hinTfor his and numerous others to the Gks^ow Phdo- 

Jure in the conduct of convoys between the ^^P'^^f ^^ ^pciet/s ^Proc^ingsJ (cf. The 

port of St. John's, New Brunswick, and Cas- ^^^ Societies Cat of Scienttfic Papers). 

tine. On 31 Dec. 1830 he was gazetted to ^ *J.«^ published additions to Byrnes 

the rank of captain, and was put on half-pay. ' P«^ctical Metal-worker's A^wtant, 18W, 

His chief claim to notice is that he wis ®^?;. "^^ .'""'^T'l^S^i MacArthur's ' Anti- 

the author of 'Florentine History from the ^"'i'? of Arran, 1861, 8vo. 
earliest Authentic Records to the Accession [Brit. Mus. Cat.; AUibone's Diet, of EngL 

of Ferdinand the Third, Grandduke of I^t.; Athenseum, 1884. ii. 810; other neiropaper 

Tuscany,' six vok., 1846-7, a work showing °°li??'^Pf^°*ir™t^^']^^^ ^^^r. 

much independence of judgment and vivacity , Jl^^^ ^L •" ??ER, JOHN (1650- 

of style, but marred by prolixity. He was l^J^), laird of Merohiston, inventor of loga- 

elected a fellow of the Royal Societv on "^^^'^^ TIS I^K^^^Jif?* ^^ °/ Sir Archibald 

18 May 1820, and died at 62 Cadogan Place, Napier (1534-1 6(^) [q. v.], by his first wife, 

London on 13 Oct. 1853 Janet Both well. He was bom in 1550, before 

He married on* 17 Nov. 1823 Caroline his father had completed his sixteenth year, 

Bennet, a natural daughter of Charles Len- ?^ Merchiston Castle, near Edinburgh. There 

nox, third duke of Richmond : she died at ^® ^^?^e/ ^^^n? ^i\ childhood with his 

Florence on 5 Sept. 1836, leaving three chil- youthfulfatherandmother,a younger brother 

^^Yen. rrancis,and a sister Janet. The only brother 

r/^'T^ » XT 1 «. 1^. , ^. ,«.^ of his mother, Adam Bothwellfq.v. J, elected 

K?^^! ^^"^1?.'?^^-^^ £*f ^®*^' bishop ofOrkney in 1559, wrote to lis father 

p. 804; Gent. Mag. 1864. pt. ii. p. 90.] on SDec. 1560,^Iprayyou,8ir, to send John 

u. c. jj. ^Q ^YiQ schools either to France or Flanders, 

NAPIER, JAMES (1810-1884), dyer and for he can learn no good at home.' This 

antiquary, was bom at Partick, Glasgow, in advice was afterwards followed. In the be- 

June 1810, and started life as a * draw-boy ' pnning of 1561 the bishop executed a will 

to a weaver. Subsequently he became an m favour of his nephew, but nothing came 

apprentice dyer, and, being interested in of it, as he subsequently married and had a 

chemistry, he with David Livingstone [q. v.] son (Makk Napier, Memoirs, p. 63, &c.) 
and James Yoiing [q. ▼.], celebrated for his At the age of thirteen John went to St. 


i- -::.• :"—- . :':.r '.ir.ii ;: El-r-nWlie, Gartnt-?, 

, . . ^ ^* : -v . ..r N -.: i-.ra'.-; r-rOrivr'1'the landsfif M»T- 

• :- ;.-:•: - •" :. •v.*Li-»: -^vr ani the Pultrielands; 

. -i lil: ■".- lir. :* :' Arlrrwnan. \o., half th*.* 

. - '. •.- > : ii --kv. Tl :■■=:. xc, with the hou-o of 

- 1 .1::..-: il-; 'L-- :L ri ■:'::■.•.• lamls of I 'alzi*.'- 

^ ^ ^ ■ 1.: :: . "■;; ir. 1 :;.r *.ir. !» t' Aiiohiiilcsh.* The 

• -. '. .-7 :.* .:" ill •'..•- 1:L!: :» >iiVr thii*»» in o^n- 

;- — ■ .-.: :"t- •a.i.- r---.rvvi ::• >j: Archibald and 

< \. - 7'.. . r/.r ^ :!.u> pr-ividnd for, xh} 

■ 1 I •_: ■.:?_■- :'.".l w.. .1. an 1 N;ij'l«.r and his wile 

■. :■. • ""' 1 •-. *!.• Ir J r 'J- rty. A ea-:l»*. b»MU- 

. .., . ■■- - ■■...•■ -." :j.'- : Ti :!.'• I'.-ir.k* <.if th- Mndrii-k, 

, ■ .- 1: J.' « T-r:nrs w:::i, orchard, 

.•..'. '.- ;:;■ v*: i: w;iii.-imjdtrT»-d in l'>71, 

«... » ■••.--::■•■. a m'mIiiT :r-. l -t->ri»» bearing' 

:.■ . **.7. { r-^'.TVTi] i:i a wall of •«ne 

..".■..:■.:'* ■::' :.!! a:";ic--n^ mill. Two 

. ' : •:". 'l.* L. ■.':!■? li:iVf b-'.-n r».'cently 

^ ■- - :1- 1--.--. :r.:i. mil th»-.-e an? n-'W 

- ' ? 1- r--::.!i i'.::s 'if Napi^^rV hum". 
. . ---■•• -i I- 'f ::.v Kndrick wa* a 

. ■■.•. '1. ■ 1: •Sra::<!ical Arcinint <»f 

^ '.' \- ■ :"7' r»cr!s that r lie clack 

- ■• '.. J--. i'"y 'ii-V-irb-.d NapiiT, and 

■ •. -.11 - ru-'iin' s d-sip_* ih»' millt-r 

•■..11 " *!:..: :'iv train 'if his idi.-as 

.:-.■• 77;:;*- 1. Ili-s r'sid»*nCM jit 

- .-. - ■ 1- ; : ■ ::: l-'C-'i t'> i<.>J**, wh»ii 

: '.. " ;..''.;7 liim in ]». i>seS'«ion 

^ -• • 0>:lv. r war«K tlu* fnd 'if 

X " ...:.-: 'V ' c.iil'iri n. hi?* wi!^' 

. '. ' ^ :' '. ^ ■.-.!■.' 'y'i»-d Aprn*"S, 

:" >.: .' 111.- I'L.-h liii uf (^'ruiulix, 


./ ■ T.v/y i^f hi- fathiT-in-law, 
^ < ■ . X «." ^' \\v, invv'lvv I XapitT in 

-. I:: r-briiary 1-V.»J :J the 

^ . . :.-. '.■ 'v; :is M^- Spiiiiish IViank-*' 

. .. ., s '. ■■ :. .:: l riiUhnlni. Mht* kin;r's 

* > '■. II,* was'ply impli- 

. -^ '\ ". :'•' p *pi-h I'lirl.s An^iis, 

-:■ ... li • lunj". (li^inclmea to 

\ -■■.■>. l-'>:r.«l thiit tho Ci>n- 

^ » . X. • ■ 1 "v . ■.■■ ;l: "f thowavfnratinio. 

.• ■\ .:••..> r.tly. a b'Midnf caution 

, . . ^ ,.<,-. A.-s *-:'.ud, on 1**^ July and 

" 1^ » ^ V » ' ■ * ;'■••. \|>r and another, tliat 

A!*^^ • ■ ' . ^ * .* ■— ■ -Liv-: ::c-furilithi.-ri"alni, 

^^'^*" ^ o ■ •• ' * . . . ' ^ •••.■.''.>' v'<5 liconci.', sliall do 

'i . » * ' . . •'•■!■.> TTv.r* *:v, tlu- realm, or 

i^ ■ . ••,'••. . /»r ;. iniy Ojunnl, v. 

. \ • ' ■ ^ v' * ■••..■••. I :1::' v.irls. howt?vor. re- 

V" "v v' ■•■'•■,.•■' ■-■•.TV. Acc«>rdin;rlv, a small 

\J. . '« * * '" . . ... ..f ^•. •...-. •uis.-'i'^ntTs of the church 

».'-'. I- " ' * ■ .'.«..: '.'•..• \.:' to Jtslburirh in October, 

—••1.1 /Mr >i'ivdy trial and puni.-shraent. 

V^ • ■•" 1 *J v' \ .».?.• vVi • • i::cdcrii:icswas,accordinirtoHymer 

V : V**''-^ \?::;k\ \^ • '•-■ ■• '^:. l'^-^ ^vi. ^^. 'the lainl of 

Vv?^S* ■•^' ;■ '-"'^'a^Hismw"' Maikm*iou youngt< that is John Kapier, 




who is thus reDresented as urging the king 
to take proceeaings against his father-in- 
law {MetnoirSf p. 162). Calderwood (Hist, 
Church of Scotl. 1678, p. 292) calls the de- 
puty, however, * the Laird of Merchistoun,' 
that is, Napier*8 father. 

As a landlord Napier also had his troubles. 
There had been disputes of long standing, 
occasionally leading to violence (see Beg. 
Mag. Sig. 2 Nov. 1«583), between his 
father's tenants of Calziemuck and the Gra- 
hams of Boquhopple and other feuars of 
neighbouring lands in Menteith. In August 
1591 matters came to a crisis, with reference 
to the ploughing and sowing by Napier's 
tenants of land which the feuars alleged to be 
commonalty ; and on the 20th of that month 
Napier, who appears to have managed the 
Menteith property for his father, wrote to 
him from Keir describing how the feuars had 
summoned him and his tenants to find law 
burrows (i.e. sureties that they would not 
harm the person or property of the com- 
plainers) and had put an arrestment on their 
crops, *so that there is certainly appear- 
ance of cummer to fall shortly betwixt them 
and our folks.' As he had no mind 'to 
mell with na sik extraordinar doings,* he 
prayed his father to find caution for him in 
a thousand merks {Memoirs^ p. 148). This 
was accordingly done on 23 Aug". (Iteg. 
l^rivy Council, iv. 073). Disputes net ween 
the same parties were repeated in 1611,1012, 
and 1613 (ib. vols. ix. and x.), but at length 
on 14 Juno 1016 Napier obtained a disposi- 
tion of the lands of Boquhopple in favour of 
himself and his son Kobert (Douglas, Peer- 
agej ii. 291). In July 1594 he entered into 
a curious contract with Robert Lo^an of 
Restalrig. The document is in Napier's 
handwriting throughout. After referring 
to divers old reports of a treasure hidden 
in Logan's dwelling-place of Fast Castle, 
he agreed to go thither, and * by all craft and 
ingyne endeavour to find the same, and by 
the grace of God, either shall find it, or make 
sure that no such thing is there so far as 
his utter diligence may reach.' Should the 
treasure be found, Napier was to have a 
third as his share, and he further bargained 
that lx>gan was himself to accompany him 
back to Edinburgh to insure his safe return 
without being robbed, a contingency not 
unlikely if the laird of Restalrig were absent 
and free to give a hint to his retainers that 
money might be got by robbery {MejnoirSf 
p. 220). That Napier's experience of Logan 
was unsatisfactory seems proved by the terms 
of a lease granted by him at Gartnes, on 
14 Sept. 1^6, in which it was exnressl^ 
stipulated that the lessee should neitner di- 

rectly nor indirectly suffer or permit any 
person bearing the name of Logan to enter 
into possession. At the same time a like ex- 
ception was made with reference to Napier'a 
nearest neighbour at Ghirtnes, Cunningham 
of the house of Drumquhassil, with whom he 
had a dispute respecting crops in 1591 (ib, 
pp. 148, 223). Towards the close of 1600 his 
half-brother Archibald was murdered by the 
Scotts of Bowhill, and Napier and his father 
had much trouble in restraining the dead 
man's family from taking the law into their 
own hands (^ffiwoir*, p. 302; PiTCAiRN,CrtW 
Trials, ii. 339 ; Iteg. Privy Council, vi. 259, 
267). On 30 April 1601 he became cautioner 
for his father's brother, Andrew Napier, 
'touching the mass which was said in his 
house' {Iteg. Privy Council, vi. 632). On 
11 March 1602 he brought a complaint 
against the provost and baillies of Edin> 
burgh that they had caused * build scheillis 
and ludgeis to their seik personis infectit 
with the nest upoun the said complenaris 
yairdis of nis proper lands of the schenis ^ 
{ib. vi. 359). On 20 Jan. 1604 Napier's 
turbulent neighbours, AUaster McGregor of 
Glenstrae, Argyllshire, and four of the Mac- 
gregor clan, were brought to trial at Edin- 
burgh for making a raid on their foes the 
Colquhouns, and Napier was one of the assize 
of fifteen persons who found them guilty of 
capital crimes {Crim. Trials, ii. 430). On 
30 July 1605 he and another were named 
arbitrators by Matthew Stewart of Dunduft" 
concerning the slaughter of his brother {Iteg, 
Pri^y Council, vii. 106). 
^ On Sir Archibald's death, on 15 May 1608, 
Napier, who came into full possession of the 
family estates, at once took up his abode in 
the castle of Merchiston. Ilis position as 
laird was first publicly recognised by the 
lords of the privy council on 20 May, when 
he was appointed a commissioner to fix the 
price of boots and shoes twice a year for 
iSdinburgh {ib. viii. 93). A bitter quarrel fol- 
lowed between Napier and his half-brother 
Alexander and his naif-sisters as to their re- 
spective rights over the family property (Me~ 
moirs, p. 317). Alexander disputed Napier's 
title to the lands of Over-Merchiston, and a 
long litigation, which was not concl uded until 
9 June 1613, was necessary before Napier was 
served heir to that property (ib. p. 313). In 
another dispute regarding the temd sheafs of 
Merchiston, the privy council was informed 
on 1 Sept. 1608 that Napier and his relatives 
each intended 'to convoke their kin and 
friends and such as will do for them in arms, 
for leading and withstanding of leading of 
the said teinds/ Consequently the lords ap- 
pointed William Napier of Wrichtishousia 

Xapier 62 Napier 

as a neutral penoa to Lead and xZjjuk zhe ^ariyinlo^ In hudedicaCLoac<> JamesVI, 

said teinds in nis own bamvapi < Riy. Pricy da:ed :29 Jan. I->9-'2-4. Napier arsred tiie king 

Councils Tiii. 159k and Napit^r. in a Wrt^r M ^/ett 'that jiutice be done afain^t the ene- 

to his son. expn^^ded hinuelf aarUded wich mie^ ot <>3d's chorch,' and coonselled him 

this arran^ment i Memoirs, p. 315 •. 'to reform the universal enormities of hia 

In l^LU Xapier sold the PulthrLinds to eountrv. and first to begin at hi:» own house, 

Nisbet of Dean for seventeen hundreii merlu Tarn i I y. and court/ The volume includes nine 

(^Doi'GLas.Prtreij^^.ii. i*01 »: ami ro protect hii piures -jf Entriiah verse by himself. It met 

property at Gartner he enter»ii. loa J4 Dec. with success at home and abroad (MeTnoirt, 

lt>ll, into an a^r^iement with Campbtrll of p.oiltjr. In loOD MichlelPanneel produced a 

Law*rr$. StirLLn/. and hid brothers that * if Dutch translation, and this reached a second 

thtr Macs?*«^r« ^r other hieland broken men edition m l»iiJ7. In ItJOi the work appeared at 

frhoull :r: :::>[-; h.\A lands in Lennox or Men- La R<3che]Ie ina French version, by Georges 

teiTL.' *.!-: Ci::ip bells j^iioiild do their utmost Thoms<?n. revised by Napier, and that also 

to y\izlh'z. :iiH:m < Mffnujir^, p. 3J6 l went through several editions 1 1603, 1605, 

A z^az. ".:' ^c^iiie intellect ual interests and and Ir^?). A new editiim of the English 
frrvri: T^r»ari--*7. Xapirr. a.-* a landowner, ori^rinal was called tor in 1611. when it was 
un'^'i r.rLti-irri.'.Li* attention to agriculture, revwed and corrected by the author, and 
w:..:r)L- '/TB-.r-a' 'o tiie disturbed *tare of the enlarged by the addition of* A Resolution of 
c— --"irT. x^- lu A 10-:^ ebb, result iniT in ere- certain Doubts pnjponed by well-affected 
*^-r:i: **,>,7 ji (inm and cattle. He ap- brethren:' this app^ured simoltaneously at 
I'AT^ *o Li?-: ifL^.tlriireii experiments in tlie Edinbursrh and London. The author stated 
Ut^ '.f ni^ui .r-A, anil r.j have discov>^red the that he still intended to publish a loitin edi- 
\il.-. .:' oMZi.iion ^alr. tor tkw piirpi)^«?. The tion, but.* being advertised that our papistical 
r:rVill.= -.i L.A z^f.un'A are rxpLain-id in a adversaries were to write largely against the whrten bv hL»elile:?t s4~n edirions alreadv set out,' he deferred it till 
AT'iL.'.ali '■j. V. . ro whom a mou'-poly of he had seen their objections. The Latin edi- 
t'^'T n^i-; o: *.ll;Wi wa.* granral on :i:i jur.« tion never appeared, and his opponents* 
l'/.«- i/>. p. i<5i. FIw .wn's ihare in thrrse works pro vedunimpiirtant. A German trans- 
*'\l^r.ic.rr.T.*—rin was only rwenry-thre^ — lation. by Leo de Dromna, of the first part 
cur.Ti'r. Liv- Y^*',n zreat. Wirh j-omrwhAt of Napier's work appeared at Gera in 1611 
^^:I-:Llr•i^.■■Li [.1 v"rwlieinventedanhrdraulic isi^me copies are dated l^UlM. and of the 
f.-.'vw ar.i T^7 uvinsc axle, bv which, at a whole bv Wolfjjanar Mever at Frankfort-on- 
lily Lvrfitv expense, wat^r could be kept 'lown the-ilaine. in IrUo (new edit. 16i7). 
ill c 'al-pir-s whilr bring worked, and many But other instruments besides the pen 
tl»»»d-."i pi*..* could }a cie5ire<l of war»^r and sujjnrested themselves to Napier as a means 
r.c»vtTvd. to t!i»; gr»rat ailvanta.'e of the of confounding the t'.ies of his religion and 
ouritry. InoP.l»rr that he miifht in part reap coantr%'. On 7 June 1596 he forwarded to 
x\\v protits of his indention, the tinjsr, -m .VntLmy Bacon ~q. v.], elder brother of 
.*»o Jan. l5<*>-7, grante^l him a mon-'poly Francis, lord Verulam, 'Secret Inventions, 
for making, erecting, and workinj? tli^^se proti table and necessary in these Days for 
iiiaehines tJity. 3/"//. .V/y. vi. 172 ». In 151*9 Defence of this Island, and withstanding of 
Sir J«>hn Skt-ne publish^il his ' De Vrrrborum Stmnirers. Enemies of God's Truth and Re- 
Si i^Miiticutiune,* in which he mentions that liirion* (^the manuscript is at Lambeth), 
ht' had c<.»nsulte*l Napier — wh<im he there Four inventions are specified : two varieties 
htyh's •airontlenianof.sin^ularjuil:re3i»rntand of burning mirrors, a piece of artillery, and 
Iraniiufr, especially in mathematic sciences* a chariot of metal, double musket proof, the 

in refi-rencw to the prr>por methi>ls to be i mi'>rioii of which was controlled by those 

iiM'd in the measuring of lands. within, and ircm which shot was dischar^red 

To mathematics Napier chiefly devoted his throu;rh small holes. ' the enemy meantime 

ItMsiirt* through life; but soon after settlinsr beinz abased and altogether uncertain what 

at (Jartnes he interrupted his favourite study defence or pursuit to use against a moving 

in nnh'r to cross swords with Roman car ho- ! mouthof metar^.Veriiioi>9,p.:?47). A curious 

lie a]ioli)irists. In lo93 he completptl with story of a trial of the last invention in Scot- 

that object a work on * Revelation.' which land is given by Sir Thomas Urquhart in 

had oivnpied him for five years. lie had 'The Jewell '(^London, 167)2, p. 79). Napier 

tliiuiirht at first to write it in l^tin. bat the desired that these instruments of destruction 


of Papists determined him to should be kept secret unless necessity com- 

in English.' It was entitled pe lied their use. 

acoverv of the whole Uevela- Napier's permanent fame rests on his ma- 
in/ and appeared at Edinburgh thematical discoveries, llis earliest investi- 




gations, begun soon after his first marriajg^, 
seem to have been directed to systematieing 
and developing the sciences of algebra and 
arithmetic, and the fragments puluished for 
the first time in 1839, under the title ' De 
Arte Logistica/ were the result of his initial 
studies. He here mentions that he was con- 
sidering imaginary roots, a subject he refers 
to as a great fdgebraic secret, and that he had 
discovered a general method for the extrac- 
tion of roots of all degrees. After five years* 
interruption, while engaged on his theologi- 
cal wo», Napier again, in 1594, resumed his 
mathematical labours. A letter, presumably 
from a common friend. Dr. Craig, to Tycho 
Brahe, indicates that in the course of 1594 
he had already conceived the general prin- 
ciples of logarithms {EpistoUe ad Joarmem 
Keppleruniy Frankfort, 1718, p. 460; Athena 
Ox(maim«M, London, 1691, p. 469 ; Memoirs^ 
pp. 361-6) ; and the next twenty years of his 
life were spent in developing the theory of 
logarithms, in perfecting the method of their 
construction, and in computing the canon or 
table itself. While thus en^ged he invented 
the present notation of decimal fractions. 

]N spier's earliest work on logarithms ex- 
plained the method of their construction, but 
was written before he had invented the word 
logarithms, which were there called artificial 
numbers, in contradistinction to natural 
numbers, or simply artificials and naturals. 
This work, known as the * Const met io,* was 
not published till after his death. The de- 
scription of the table (known as the * De- 
scriptio '), throughout which the name loga- 
rithms is used, was composed later, but was 
given to the world in his lifetime. This 
famous work, ' Mirifici Logarithmorum Cano- 
nis Descriptio,' which embodied the trium- 
phant termination of Napier's labours, con- 
tained, besides the canon or table, an ex- 
planation of the nature of logarithms, and 
of their use in numeration and in trigono- 
metry. Published in 1614, with a dedication 
to Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I, it 
soon foimd its way into the hands of two 
enthusiastic admirers, Edward Wright [q. v.] 
and Henry Briggs [q. v.] The former at once 
translated it into English, and sent his ver- 
sion for revision to the author, who found 
it * most exact and precisely conformable to 
his mind and the original.' The translation 
was returned to Wright shortly before the 
latter s death in 1615, and was next year 
seen through the press by Wright's son. 

Briggs received the work with delight, and 
made it his constant companion. W^hile ex- 
pounding it to his students in London at 
Gresham College, he observed that it would 
facilitate its use were the canon altered 00 

that ' still remaining the logarithm of the 
whole sine or radius, the logarithm of one- 
tenth thereof should become 10 000 000 000' 
instead of 23025850, ss in Napier's table. 
He wrote to Napier concerning tnis change, 
and, having computed some logarithms of 
this kind, proceeaed to Edinburgh to visit 
the ' Baron of Merchiston,' in his own house, 
in the summer of 1615. There, being hos- 
pitably entertained, he lingered a month. 
Napier told Briggs that he had himself for 
a long time determined on the same change 
as Briggs suggested, but that he had pre- 
ferred to publish the logarithms already 
Prepared, rather than wait for leisure and 
ealth to re-compute them. But he was of 
opinion that the alteration should be made 
thus : that should become the logarithm 
of unity, and 10 000 000 000 the logarithm 
of the whole sine ; which, adds Briggs, ' I 
could not but acknowledge to be far the 
most convenient.' Briggs undertook the 
heavy task of computing the new canon, and 
Napier promised to write an explanation of 
its construction and use, but this he did not 
live to accomplish. In the following summer 
(1616) Briggs proceeded to Edinburgh a 
second time, and showed Napier so much of 
the new canon as he had completed. The 
first thousand logarithms of the new canon 
were published by Briggs, without place or 
date (but at London before 6 Dec. 1617), 
after Napier's death (Briogs, Logarithmorum 
Chilias Prima y 1617, title-page; Briogs, 
Arithmetica Loffarithmica, 1624, *To the 
Reader;' Napier, Mir, Log, Can, Construction 
1619, * To the Keader,' by Robert Napier). 
The original edition of Napier's * Descnptio ' 
was reprinted at Lyons, 1620, and in London, 
1807 (in Maseres's* Scriptores Logarithmici'). 
Copies of the 1620 edition are known, with 
date 1619, and the remainder-copies were 
reissued in 1658, with title-page and pre- 
liminary matter reset. Wnght's English 
translation, which first appeared in 1616, was 
reissued with additional matter and a sub- 
stituted title-page in 1618 ; another English 
translation was published at Edinburgh in 

In the * Descriptio ' Napier had promised 
to publish his previously completed *Con- 
structio' — i.e. his method of constructing the 
table — should his invention meet with the 
approval of the learned. Kepler, who largely 
helped to extend the employment of loga- 
rithms, had expressed a desire to see this 
work published, in a letter to the author 
dated 28 July 1619, before news of Napier's 
death had reached him. Kepler's letter 
was prefixed to his * Ephemerides ' for 1620 
{MeinoirSy pp. 432, 521). Shortly after Na- 

Xapier ^ Xapier 

piTr* -rATi *iia sea 3ij«=^ raasntrsei tae ^ Sr x ^^iar'jt &^vtss ' w afpeoded to hb i^sgTTgr r: Bc^2«^ ly wmh ir '•^i* * E*_«L-jFiijii lai T** rf Gaaic? « QoAdrmnt * 

Ti=. i-rr "rotf ::-> - ^^-^i*- Lccir^rfuBirna: C-nrrnju^ia^ ^rair ii£ tit cdnms work of 

CiiTE-a C'~a»vncti«r- i3a nai AaniKa- r.myi 'jTr-g. ▼iaca. Xxpidr s&xiiy • oazht to 

ti nisc* iIi;-Xf:c irirr^rs-n iirsxrsci Bcjs'i-' i*'^ '3«tt icr^inaia^i kxtiK- Uboor and 

XL lu: -r^ -jz WW? jEST'-ii scimr tbtt r-- leBs^ancv :c aaaV cooipcss^ bm had been 

n:AricLhi.e pr:pi»itit:iL* 5:r 'hi* a-'Ldt.-it ic mnaieced W tie scsaacti asd iDdasmr of 

Ki^^r.-ral triaaries* wiici N»i»*r tis -eo- T-irwi^ ilrcs*.* t. u£ *-r3s»!y on KU health. 

^a^-ri ji pifr^sccia? ai ta** r.-or^'zi "xa st^di: Li a yimpj«.V mciiass lik* 'Grahams of Bo- 

thrrr* ir^ iIa: adiied • Srsairss' lad "X :c-*' i^UTppu*. ki* :Li ,i ! y, a "iit 8w which was pre- 

bv Efeirr?. aai a jEvcfccrt bj ti* axtirrs searrni 33 tfi«r 7r■Ty*cxxIael':^fli^^ April 1613, 

etirft >: n bj ii* secccd wif-. 'iw:b«*r: N lauer. ie biased rta: i* wa* 'isarilTr dljieAsed with 

Tb-?T;li3ie wa* r»prlitei ir Lt-.-hs 12. l*5i»\ tie paia. :c tie r'Hit" 1 Rff'Pnry G>iwi/«i7, 

ani appeAr*ni ia aa Fjij-'--»h triT^'.triani at i. 4l ^ •J-.xtaeyil^prrofXrfchlstoiiiubeinsr 

Eiiinb'iTzh ia 1 S*9. ' sck ^ bcdr at tie put«4i:-zr of G->1, bat K*ni in 

Xipier prrbabiy c«?ni2acii««i z-* jjC w:ck. ajaji lai ?»r!^tt." a&aie hi* will and si^med it 

* Rahiijl>-!je <ea naar-rrati-rcj p^rr ri-nli* .hi I AscI ItIT. ' wiih mj hani at the pen 

libri d-io.'in Iril-x tha: da:e b»ri^^ ipc^r^iieri j*i V? th- arrrar* Tc-ierwrittine at my com- 

to his dr?t exaapl-*. He p<ibL?C'e-!i :t ia ataai ia rfspecc I i?w a.^t writ myself for 

La: in at Eiiiab'irxh early ia Ir'I?. witi a =Ly7r»KariairaLit3ea2feisvkiKS$*i AfriNoirjr, 

fcrmline; he there sta: 

dedicdtion to Chanctilor Set-rn. earl :t D'ia- ?> -t31.' •. Wm oa: by oivrwork and ^ut, 

ized that hr h*i always L? bc«)arh'<d hi* list a: Merchi^ton on 4 April 

pier'* bonHs'^c/.BrTLER.JGTifc/iSr'i^.ed- Grey, ani one daiurhrer, X.^aime, to whom he 
1^19. iii. -t^ ). By means of them miihiplica- ^ranted an annuity of KIV. 1 Soots » by charter 
tion and division c-^uld be performed by me- dated 13 Nov. 1 *»S>5. By his second wife, 
thods which, though they now se-m cumbrous A^nes Chisholm. he had five sons: John, 
enouch.were received throughout Europe as a Rob^?rt ito whom he granted the lands of 
valuable aid to the rude arithmetic of the day. Ballachame and T."»miarToch on 13 Xov. 
The extraction of the square and cube root loft5>, Alexander. William, and Adam: and 
could also be performed by their help, in con- five dan; htei^ : Manraret ^ who married Sir 
junction with two larger rods, the method of James Stewart of K.>ssyth before 1 Jan. 
^instructing which is described. In an ap- ltW»,Jean, Ai^nes, Elizabeth, and Ilelen. 
wndix, *de expeditissimo Multiplicationis On 13 April 1610 Xapier cranted the folio w- 
Promptuario,' he explains another invention ing annuities to the children of his second 
for the performance of multiplication and marriage, viz.: 250 merks to Robert, :?00 to 
division— * the most expeditious of all' — by Alexander. 800 to Jean, and fJOO to Eliza- 
means of metal plates arranged in a box. beth {Memoir*, p. 323; Douglas, Ptera*jfy 
This is the earliest known attempt at the ii. 291). 

invention of a calculating machine see MoR- Xapier appears, in the fragmentary records 

LAND, Sir Samuel, and Ba bb age, CnARLE3\ that have survived, as a man both just in 

There is also ad<l«<l l^is * Local Arithmetic,' his dealings with his neighbours and firmly 

wherein he describes how multiplication and resolved to obtain like justice from them. In 

divi8ion,and even the extraction of roots, may his disputes with his &ther. his step-brothers, 

be performed on a chessb^^ard by the move- the Grahams of Boquhopple, and the magis- 

oient of counters. The * Jlabdologia ' was trates of Edinburgh, he seems invariably to 

foprinted at Leyden ( 1 026), and copies of this have carried his point. He was a strict tal- 

« found, with substituted title-page, dated vinist, and a resolute opponent of papal ag- 

». An Italian translation was issued at gression. His powerful intellect and deter- 

rona(1623), and a Dutch on« at Gouda mined will are best indicated in his prolonged 

aO). In 1667 William Ijcyboum [q. v.] and successful efibrts to fiicilitate numerical 

dialled 'The Art of Numbering by Speak- calculation which resulted in his discovery 

• Hods, vulgarly termed Napier^s Bones.' of logarithma. The advantages of a table 

• enlmrged account by Lejboum of ' the j of logarithms are that by its employment 




multiplication and division can be performed 
by simple addition and subtraction, tbe extrac- 
tion ot the roots of numbers by division, and 
the raising of them to any power by multi- 
plication. By these simple processes the most 
complicated problems in astronomy, naviga- 
tion, and cognate sciences can be solved by 
an easy and certain method. The invention 
necessarily ^ve a great impulse to all the 
sciences which depend for tneir progress on 
exact computation. Napier's place among 
great originators in mathematics is fully ac- 
knowledged, and the improvements that he 
introduced constitute a new epoch in the 
history of the science. He was the earliest 
British writer to make a contribution of com- 
manding value to the progressof mathematics. 
The original portraits of Napier, known to 
the author of the * Memoirs' in 1834, were six 
in number, all in oil, viz. : (1) three-quarter 
length, seated, dated 1616, set. 66, presented 
to Edinburgh University by Margaret, 
baroness Napier, who succeeded in 1686, en- 
f^ved in • Memoirs ; ' (2) three-quarter 
length, seated, with cowl, set. 66, belonging 
to Lord Napier, and never out of the family, 
engraved in * De Arte Logistica ; ' (3) half- 
length, with cowl, in possession of Mr. Napier 
of Blackstone ; (4) a similar one in possession 
of Aytoun of Inchdairnie ; (6) half-length, 
without cowl, acquired by Lord Napier, the 
history of which is unknown; (6) half- 
length,with cowl, belonging to Professor Mac- 
vey Napier, and attributed to Jameson (Me- 
TnoirSf pp. ix, x). There is also an engraviujO^ 
by Francisco Delaram dated 1620, a half- 
length, with ruff, using his * bones,' of which 
an original impression is at Keir. From this 
a lithographic reproduction was executed for 
Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, which, how- 
ever, appears never to have been published. 

[Mark Napier's Memoirs, 1834; Registrum 
Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum ; Register of 
the Privy Council of Scotland ; Exchequer Rolls 
of Scotland; Douglas's Peerage, 1813, vol. 
ii. ; Crawford's Peerage, ' 1716; Mackenzie's 
Eminent Writers of the Scots Nation, vol. iii. 
1722; Earl of Buchan's (D. S. Erskine) Life of 
Napier, 1787. In an appendix to the English 
translation of the Mirifici Logarithmorum 
Canonis Construct io (Edinburgh, 18S9) appear 
full details of the editions of Napier's works, as 
well as an account of works by other authors, 
interesting from their connection with the works 
of Napier.] W. R. M-d. 

NAPIER, Sir JOSEPH (1804-1882), 
lord chancellor of Ireland, bom at Belfast on 
2(5 Dec. 1804, was youngest son of William 
Napier, a merchant of Belfast, and was a de- 
scendant of the Napiers of Merchiston. His 
mother was Ilosetta Macnaghten of Bally- 


reagh House, co. Antrim. His only sister 
Rosetta married James Whiteside [q. v.], chief 
justice of Ireland. He was educated in the 
Belfast Academical Institution under James 
Sheridan Knowles [q. v.], and in November 
1820 was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, 
under the tutorship of Dr. Singer, afterwards 
bishop of Meath. At the end of his first year 
he brought himself into notice by publishing 
a paper on the binomial theorem. Obtaining 
honours in classics and science, he graduated 
B. A. in 1825, and M. A. in 1828. After taking 
his bachelor's degree he resided within the 
walls of Trinity College, occupied himself in 
writing for periodicals, and tooK a conspicuous 
part in the establishment of an oratorical so- 
ciety outside the walls of the college, some- 
what resembling the Union at Oxford. He 
was also successful in reviving the old Col- 
lege Historical Society, and his connection 
with it lasted fifty-eight ^ears. From 1854 
till his death he was president, and he insti- 
tuted an annual prize— designated the * Na- 
pier Prose Composition Prize ' — ^for the best 
essay on a subject to be selected by himself. 

From the beginning of his career Napier 
adopted tory principles, while his religious 
views inclined to those of the protestant evan- 
gelical party. Through 1828 he actively op- 
posed the movement for Roman catholic 
emancipation. Marrying in the same year, 
he determined to go to the English bar. 
Having entered himself at Gray's Inn, he 
became a pupil at the law school of the 
London University, and attended the lectures 
of Mr. Amos. Affer a few months he passed 
into the chambers of Mr. (afterwards Justice) 
Patteson, then the leading practitioner in 
common law, and in 1830, upon the pro- 
motion of Patteson to the bench, successfully 
practised for a term as a pleader in London. 

Called to the Irish bar in the Easter term of 
1831 , he attached himself to the north-eastern 
circuit, and at once commanded an extensive 
practice in Dublin ; he was the only lawyer 
there who had pupils. He published in 1831 
a * Manual of Precedents of Forms and De- 
clarations on Bills of Exchange and Pro- 
missory Notes,' and a * Treatise on the Prac- 
tice of the Civil Bill Courts and Courts of 
Appeal,' and edited the law reports known 
as ' Albeck and Napier's Reports of Cases 
argued in the King's Bench' in 1832-4. For 
many years this volume of reports was the 
only Irish authority ever referred to in Eng- 
lish courts of justice. At this period, too, 
Napier delivered lectures on the common 
law, which attracted much attention both in 
Dublin and London, and was busy establish- 
ing a law institute. At the Lent assizes of 
1843, held in Monaghan, he was engaged for 





the defence in the criminal trial of the Queen 
V. Samuel Gray, when he was refused per- 
mission to challenge one of the jurors. A 
verdict of guilty was returned, but Napier 
sued out a writ of error to the House of 
Lords, on the ground that the jury had been 
illegally constituted, and his contention was 
upheld (CLA.RKB and Finnelly, Reports j vol. 
ix.) In 1844 he was engaged as counsel for 
the crown in a second case of writ of error, 
following the conviction of O'Connell and 
others for seditious conspiracy arising out of 
the Clontarf meeting. A brief was sent by 
O'Connell ; but the crown had sent theirs a 
few hours sooner, a fact publicly regretted 
by O'Connell. It was the latter who gave 
Napier the sobriquet of * Holy Joe,* as indi- 
cating a feature of his character which spe- 
cially attracted the notice of contemporaries. 
In November 1844 Napier received a silk 
gown from Sir Edward Sugden, lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, and thenceforth there was 
scarcely a trial of note in which he was not 
retained. In 1846 one of the most important 
suits entrusted to him was that of Lord Dun- 
gannon v. Smith. Lord Dun^nnon appealed 
from the Irish courts to the House of Lords, 
and Napier's conduct of his case there drew 
high commendation from Lords Lyndhurst 
and Brougham. He was subsequently much 
employed in appeals before tiie House of 

In 1847 he unsuccessfully contested the 
representation of his university in parliament, 
but in 1848 he was returned without a con- 
test. Lord John Russell was then prime 
minister, and Napier sat on the opposition 
benches, but he at first declined to identify 
himself either with Peelites or protectionists. 
He was constant in his attendance, and spoke 
whenever he deemed the interests of either 
protestantism or his country endangered. In 
his maiden speech, 14 March 1848, he argued 
in favour of capital punishment. In a speech 
delivered on 17 March 1848 he opposed the 
extension of the income-tax to Ireland, since 
Ireland, he argued, was already sufficiently 
taxed for the purpose of swelling the revenues 
of the imperial exchequer. When, on 5 April 
1848, the Outgoing Tenants (Ireland) Bill 
was discussed, he sought to prove, by a com- 
parison between the condition of Ulster and 
that of the southern and disaffected districts 
of Ireland, that the misery of the tenant was 
not due to the land laws or the greed of his 
landlord, but to the peasant's indolence and 
fondness for sedition. The efforts of Lord John 
Kussell in the cause of Jewish emancipation 
Napier strenuously opposed ; and ho disap- 
proved of opening diplomatic relations with 
Kome. He attacked the withdrawal of a grant 

called Ministers* Money — a tax for the support 
of protest^nt clergy levied upon the Roman 
catholics living in certain corporate towns 
in the south of Ireland. He next opposed 
the motion, brought forward by Sir Charles 
Wood, to grant 60,000/. out of the imperial 
exchequer for the relief of certain poor-law 
unions in Ireland. lie contended that the 
grant was inadequate, and that the system 
involved was vicious in principle. A select 
committee was appointed, largely owing to 
his action, to inquire into the state of the 
Irish poor law, and of this committee he was 
a member. Upon the issue of the report of 
the committee Lord John Russell introduced 
the Rate in Aid Bill. Napier opposed the 
resolution, denying the justice of making tJie 
solvent unions bear the defalcations of the 
insolvent, and censured the government for 
its persistence in temporary expedients. The 
speech won a high eulogy from Sir Robert 
Peel. In 1849 he revised and criticised the 
various acts to facilitate the sale of encum- 
bered estates in Ireland. The report upon the 
receivers under the Irish courts of equity 
was prepared by him, and in the Process 
and Practice Act he afforded valuable assist- 
ance, which was acknowledged by Sir John 
j Romilly [q. v.] ; while he prepared and carried 
! through the house the ecclesiastical code, a 
substantial boon to the Irish protestant church 
and clergy, which afterwards went by the 
name of Jsapier's Ecclesiastical Code. lie 
resisted Lord John Russell's suggestion that 
the office of lord-lieutenant of Ireland should 
be abolished, and in 1850 took part in the 
agitation against the assumption by catholic 
bishops in England of the titles of their sees. 
In March 1852 he was appointed Irish 
attorney-general in the administration of 
Lord Derby, and was made a privy councillor. 
He dedicated himself wholly to his duties, 
and in November 1852 was entrusted bv T-iord 
Derby with the reframing of the land laws 
of Ireland. His scheme consisted of four 
bills, a Land Improvement Bill, a Leasing 
Power Bill, the Tenants' Improvement Com- 
pensation Bill, and the Landlord and Tenant 
Law Amendment Bill, which he introduced 
on 22 Nov. 1852, in a lucid speech, but none 
of his measures became law, though most of 
his suggestions were adopted by later ad- 
ministrations. Upon the defeat of the go- 
vernment in December Napier returned to the 
opposition benches, and actively aided his 
party. He had proceeded LL.B. and LL.D. 
at Dublin in 1851, and on the installation 
of Lord Derby as chancellor of Oxford on 
7 June 1 863 he was created D.C.L. there. To 
the Question of legal education he had de- 
Yotea much attention, and he carried a motion 




in the house for an address to the crown for 
a commission of inquiry into the inns of court, 
which was followed by useful reforms. In 
February 1850 Xapier carried a resolution in 
favour of the appointment of a minister of 
justice for the United Kingdom. The dissolu- 
tion of parliament, however, prevented fur- 
ther steps bein^ taken. In the same session 
Napier spoke in opposition to the Sunday 
opening of the museums, and his speech has 
since been published by the Working Men's 
Lord's I)av Rest Association. 

When Lord Derby formed his second 
administration in February 1858, Napier be- 
came lord chancellor of Ireland, although his 
practice had been confined to common law. 
Among many letters of congratulation sent 
him was an address from three hundred 
clergymen of the church of Ireland, accom- i 
panied by a handsomely bound bible. His 
judgments as chancellor will be found in 
vols. vii. viii. and ix. of the * Irish Chancerv 
Reports ; * a selection was published under his 
supervision and with his authority by Mr. | 
W. B. Drury. Upon the fall of Lord Derby's | 
government in June 1859 Napier retired. An 
attempt was then made, with the approval 
of Lord Palmerston and Lord Campbell, the 
lord chancellor, to transfer him to the judi- 
cial committee of the privy council in London ; 
but it was found that the Act of Parliament 
under which the committee was constituted 
did not provide for the admission of ex-judges 
of Ireland or Scotland. 

Thereupon Napier, who was thus without 
professional employment, travelled on the 
continent, spending the autumn and winter 
of 1860 in the Tyrol and Italy. On his return 1 
he mainly devoted himself to evangelical re- | 
ligious work, but he incurred much adverse ' 
criticism by abandoning his early attitude of | 
hostility to any scheme of national education ; 
which should exclude the perusal of the i 
scriptures from the protestant schools in Ire- 
lana. He had come to the conclusion that 1 
state aid was essential to any good syst^^m | 
of education, and that no state aid could be 
expected unless the bible were omitted from 
the curriculum. He was vice-president and 
an eloquent advocate of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, and one of his best speeches 
(delivered at Exeter Hall on 30 April 1861) 
was in favour of the admission of the bible 
into the government schools of India. He 
also wrote pamphlets on the current topics 
of the day, penned the preface to John Nash 
Griffin's ' Seven Answers to the Seven Essays 
and Reviews,' and lectured on Edmund 
Burke and other eminent Irishmen to the 
Dublin Young Men's Christian Association, 
and published two volumes of lectures on 

Butler's * Analogy' (1862-4). When the 
Social Science Association met at Liverpool 
in 1858, and at Dublin in 1861, Napier was 
on each occasion chosen president of the sec- 
tion of jurisprudence. He was unable to 
attend the earlier meeting, and his address on 

* Jurisprudence and Amendment of the Law' 
was read by Lord John Russell. He was a 
constant attendant at the Church Congress 
until 1868, when the subject of his paper was 

* How to increase the Efficiency of Church 
Service.' Many of his suggestions have since 
been adopted. In 1864 he was appointed a 
member of a royal commission for consider- 
ing the forms of subscriptions and declara- 
tions of assent required from the clergy of 
the churches of England and Ireland. The 
commissioners issued their report in Fe- 
bruary of the following year. The ' declara- 
tion of assent' now made by priests and 
deacons is substantially the one drafted by 
Napier and submitted to his brother commis- 
sioners. At the close of the commission Dean 
Milman, in * Eraser's Magazine,' declared that 
subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles was 
objectionable, and that the only subscription 
required was that to the Book of Common 
Prayer. These views Napier tried to refute 
in a lucid pamphlet published in 1865. 

In the summer of 1866 Lord Derbv formed 
his third administration, but Napier was 
passed over, and Francis Blackbume Fq. v.] 
became lonl chancellor of Ireland. Sapier 
had made some enemies by his change of 
opinion on the church education question, 
and they had successfully urged that a slight 
deafness from which he had long suffijrcd in- 
capacitated him for the office, lie, however, 
accepted Lord Derby's offer of the lord jus- 
ticeship of appeal, rendered vacant by Black- 
burne's promotion. But the appointment 
excited hostile comment, and Napier retired 
so as not to embarrass the government. On 
26 March 1867 he received the dignity of a 

Napier was looked upon in England as the 
special champion of the Irish church, and both 
by speaking and writing he endeavoured to 
avert its disestablishment. From 1867 to his 
death he was vice-chancellor of Dublin Uni- 
versity, and he summed up the case against 
Fawcett's proposal to throw open the endow- 
ments of Trinity College to all creeds (June 
1867). In the same month he was appointed 
one of the twenty-six members of the ritual 
commission, and was constant in his attend- 
ance at the meetings. All the reports of the 
commission were signed by Napier, but the 
third and fourth with protests. 

On 28 March 1868 Napier was recalled by 
Disraeli to professional life by his nomi- 



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-.0 r.-r. "..d in 1>I4 wi;h an inrroductioi 




from Dugald Stewart to Francis Homer, in 
order to collect contributors. The under- 
taking brought him into friendly relations 
with some eminent writers, especially Mack- 
intosh, Malthus, and James Mill — Mill, in 
particular, writing some of the most valu- 
able articles in the * Supplement/ Napier 
had attended Dugald Stewart's lectures in 
1796, and in 1811 had contributed an article 
upon Stewart's * Philosophical Essays' to 
the ' Quarteriy Review.' When, in 1820, 
Stewart finally resigned the professorship of 
moral philosophy, upon the death of his col- 
league, Thomas Brown, he strongly recom- 
mended Napier as his successor in a letter 
to the lord provost. He stated that Napier 
agreed with nim in philosophy, and had given 
proofs of ability by his writings upon Bacon, 
be Gerando, and Stewart himselt. Napier, 
however, declined to become a candidate, 
knowing that his whig principles would be 
an insuperable objection. In later years 
Napier made arrangements with the pub- 
lishers for Stewart's last writings. 

In 1824 Napier became the first professor 
of conveyancing at the university of Edin- 
burgh. He had already, from 1816, held 
the lectureship, founded by the writers to 
the signet in 1793, and they congratulated 
him officially upon the erection ot the office 
into a professorship. His lectures were much 
valued, and he supplemented them by cate- 
chetical instruction. 

Constable wished Napier, upon the com- 
pletion of the * Supplement,' to become editor 
of a new (seventh) edition of the * Ency- 
dopfedia.' Constable's bankruptcy and death 
in 1827 interfered with this undertaking, 
the property in which was acquired by Adam 
Black Lq.v!] and two others. Napier was 
continued as editor, although he had some 
difficulty with the new proprietors, who 
wished to limit the new edition to twenty 
instead of twenty-four volumes. Napier 
completed the work in 1842, the edition 
containing twenty-two volumes, of which 
the first is formed of * dissertations ' by 
Stewart, Mackintosh, Playfair, and Leslie. 
The editor was to receive 7,000/., but he 
gave up 600/. of this in order to increase 
the sum payable to contributors from 6,500/. 
to 7,000/. 

Meanwhile, upon Jeffrey's resignation of 
the editorship of the * Edinburgh Keview 'in 
1829, Napier became his successor. The in- 
teresting volume of correspondence published 
in 1879, although it includes few of Napier's 
own letters, incidentally shows that he per- 
formed his duties with great tact and firm- 
ness. He had to withstand the overbearing 
pretensions of Brougham, who tried to drag 

the * Review ' into his own quarrel with the 
whig ministers ; while the mutual antipathy 
of Brougham and Macaulay — his most valu- 
able contributor — produced many awkward 
discords. Napier won the respect even of 
these powerful supporters without losing 
their help. The * Review ' had now many 
more rivals, and therefore occupied a less 
prominent position than under Jeffrey's rule. 
The articles, however, were probably superior 
in literary merit, and Napier obtained con- 
tributions from the most eminent writers of 
the day. In his first number he persuaded 
Sir William Hamilton to write the meta- 
physical article which made his reputation ; 
and the correspondence records assistance 
from Carlyle, J. S. Mill, Thackeray, Bulwer, 
Hallam, Sir G. Comewall Lewis, G. H. 
Lewes, Nassau Senior, Sir James Stephen, 
and many other distinguished authors. 

Napier's * Remarks on the Scope and In- 
fluence of the I'hilosophical Writings of 
Lord Bacon,' originally contributed to the 
* Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh,' was privately printed in 1818, and 
published, with a ' Life of Raleiffh,' in 1853. 

In 1837 Napier was appointed one of the 
principal clerks of session in Edinburgh, and 
thereupon resigned his librarianship, when 
he was warmly thanked for his long ser- 
vices. He was F.R.S. of London and Edin- 
burgh. He died on II Feb. 1847. 

Napier married Catharine, daughter of 
Captain Skene, on 2 Dec. 1797 ; she died 
17 March 1820. They had seven sons and 
three daughters. One son, Macvey, who 
edited his father's correspondence, died in 
July 1893. The sixth son, Alexander 
Napier (1814-1887), was born at Edinburgh 
in 1814, educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and was vicar of Holkham, Norfolk, 
from 1847 till his death in 1887. He was 
chaplain and librarian to the Earl of Leicester. 
He edited Barrow's * Works' in 1859 and 
Boswell's * Life of Johnson ' in 1886. He 
also translated and edited Elze's * Byron ' in 
1872 and Payer s * Arctic Circle' in 1876. 

[Introduction to Correspondence, 1879; infor- 
mation from his son, the late Mr. Macvey Napier; 
History of Society of Writers to the Signet, 1890, 
pp. Ixzi, Ixxix-lxxx, cxvii, cxxi, &c. ; Cham- 
bers's Eminent Scotsmen, 1855, v. 480; Gent. 
Mag. 1847, i. 436; Biographical Notice, 1847.] 

L. S. 

NAPIER, MARK (1798-1879), Scottish 
historical biographer, born on 24 July 1798, 
was descended from the Xapiers of Merchis- 
ton. His great-grandfather, Sir Francis 
Scott (fifth lord Napier), inherited the barony 
of Napier on the death of his grandmother, 
the Baroness Napier, in 1706, and through his 

Napier 70 Napier 

marriage with a daughter ofthe Earl of Hope- i Lord Macaulay, Patrick the Pedlar and Prin- 
toun had five sons, of whom the youngest, I cipal Tulloch,* 1863 ; and in * History Res- 
Mark, a major-general in the army, was the j cued, in Reply to History Vindicated fby the 
grandfather of the biographer. His father : Rev. Archibald StewartV 1870. Napier also 
was Francis Napier, a writer to the signet in , edited vols. ii. and iii. oi Spotiswood*s * His- 
Edinburgh, and his mother was Mary Eliza- j tory of the Church of Scotland ' for the Ban- 
beth Jane Douglas,eldestdaughter of Colonel | natyne Club in 1847. *The Lennox of Auld, 
Archibald Hamilton of Innerwick, Hadding- [ an Epistolary Review of *•' The Lennox" by 
tonshire. He was educated at the high school | William Eraser,' waspublished posthumously 
and the university of Edinburgh, and passed in 1880, edited by his son Francis. He occa- 
advocate at the Scottish bar in 1820. In 1844 sionallv wrote * very touching as well as very 
he was appointed sheriif-depute of Dumfries- spirited ' verse (Ath^ncBunif 29 Nov. 1879), 
shire, to wliich Galloway was subsequently ' and possessed a valuable collection of paint- 
added, and he held office till his death. Al- | ings and china. 

though a learned lawyer in all branches of ! >'apier died at his residence at Ainslie 
Scots law, his reputation was literary rather Place, Edinburgh, on 23 Nov. 1879, being 
than legal. His only strictly legal works the oldest member of the Faculty of Advo- 
are ' The Law of Prescription in Scotland,* cates then discharging legal duties. He 
1839, 2nd edit. 1854, a standard work, and ; married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of 

* Letters to the Commissioners of Supply of Alexander Ogilvie, and widow of William 
the County of Dumfries, in Reply to a Re- Dick Macfarlane, and by her had a son and 

Eort of a Committee of their Number on the < a daughter: Francis John Hamilton Scott, 
Subject of Sheritt* Courts,' 1852, 2nd edit, commander in the royal navy, and Frances 
185§. In 1835 he published a * History of Aime, married to Lieutenant-colonel Cecil 
the Partition of Lennox,' with which earl- . Rice. * Though a keen controversialist and 
domtheNapiers had an historical connection. ^ most unsparing in epithets of abuse, Mark 
In 1834 he published his valuable * Memoirs Napier was in person and address a genial 
of John Napier of Merchiston ; ' and in 1839 polished gentleman of the old school — a 
he edited Napier's unpublished manuscripts really beautiful old man, worn to a shadow, 
with an introduction. His works on the but with a never failing kindly smile, and a 
Marquis of Montrose and Graham of Claver- lively, pleasant, intellectual face, in which 
house are the fruit of much original research, : the pallid cheek of age was always relieved 
but as historical guides their value is much by a little trace of seemingly hectic or of 
impaired by their controversial tone and youthful colour' {Sfvtsjnafif 24 Nov. 1879). 
violent language His jucobitism was of * [Obituary notices in Athenaeum, Scotsman, 
theold-fashionedfanaticaltype, and although ^ Edinburgh Cournnt, and Dumfries Courier; 
in mnny cases his representations are sub- Fosters Peerage.] T. F. H. 

stantially founded on fact, his exaggeration ' 

necessarily awakens distrust, even when he ' NAPIER, SiR NATHANIEL (1036- 
has a good case. On Montrose he published ' 1709), dilettante, born in 1630, was the third 

* Montrose and the Covenanters,' 1838, 'Life son of Sir Gerard Napier [q. v.], of More 
and Times of Montrose,' 1840, * Memorials Crichel or Critchell, Dorset, by Margaret, 
of Montrose and his Times,' a collection of daughter and coheiress of John Colles of Bar- 
original documents edited for the Maitland ton, Somerset. He matriculated at Oxford, 
Club (vol. i. 1848, and vol. ii. 1850); and 10 March 1654, as a fellow-commoner of 

* Memoirs of the Mar(|uis of Montrose,' two Oriel College, to which he presented a fine 
vols. 1850,which comprehends the substance bronze eagle lectern, still in the chapel ; but, 
of the previous works and the results of being sickly, did not take a degree. In 1056 
later researches. His 'Memorials of Graham his father married him to Blanch, daughter 
of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee,' 1859-02, ' and coheiress of Sir Hugh Wyndham, jus- 
also includes a large number of the letters tice of the common pleas, and he lived (quietly 
of Claverhouse and other documents not at Edmondsham, Dorset. He was kmghted 
previously published. Its publication led to on 10 Jan. 1602, and in 1067 went for three 
a keen controversy in regard to the drowning months to Holland with his mother's brother- 
of the two women, Margaret Maclachlan and in-law, Henry Coventry {^q. v.], then ambas- 
Margaret "Wilson, known as the * Wigtown sador to the States ; on his return he wrote a 
Martyrs.' Napier had endeavoured to raise , * Particular Tract' describing his travels. In 
doubts as to whether the execution took 1071-2 he paid a visit to France, and wrote 
place ; and he replied to his objectors in the another * Tract.' 

* Case for the Crown in re the Wigtown Mar- In 1073 he succeeded his father as second 
tyrs proved to be Myths versus Wodrow and baronet, and settled down to the ordinary 




occupations of a country gentleman. He re- 
novated Middlemarsh Hall and Crichel Hall, 
and represented the county of Dorset from 
April 1677 to February 1(578, when he was 
unseated. He next sat as member for Corfe 
Castle in the two parliaments of 1679, and 
in those of 1681 and 1685-7. In 1689 he 
took his seat in the Convention parliament 
as member for Poole, for which town he had 
procured the restoration in 1688 of the char- 
ter forfeited in 1687 ; but a double return had 
been made for the second seat for that borough, 
and a committee of the House of Commons 
reported, 9 Feb. 1()89, that Thomas Chaffin, 
who had a majority of the votes of the com- 
monalty paying scot and lot, was entitled 
to the seat. The house, however, resolved 
that the franchise should be confined to the 

* select body,* i.e. the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses, wlio had voted for Napier by a 
majority of 33 to 22 (Ili/it. of Borovyhs, i. 
219). Napier continued to represent Poole 
till 1698. He sat for Dorchester from Fe- 
bruary 1702 until 1705. 

Lady Napier died in 1695, and, their first 
four sons havinjj also died before 1090, Sir 
Nathaniel married a Gloucestershire lady, 
Susanna (hiise, in 1697. In 1697 also he re- 
commenced his travels by a tour in France 
and Italy, the events of which he * noted in a 
journal in which he has given a full and true 
relation of all his travels ' (WoTio^jBaroiiet- 
agcy ii. 161-4). In October 1701 he revisited 
Holland, and in 1704 spent three months in 
Rotterdam, intending to proceed to Hanover. 
From March 1706 to September 1707 ho was 
at Spa for his health ; and eventually died in 
Enffland on 2\ Jan. 1708-9. He was buried 
with his ancestors at Great Minterne, Dorset, 
where he had erected a monument during his 
lifetime. A. mural inscription was added by 
Lis son. He was succeeded by his only sur- 
ving son, Nathaniel, who was member for 
Dorchester in nine parliaments between 1695 
and 1722. On the death of his grandson, the 
sixth baronet, in 1765, the estates passed to 
a cousin, Humphry Sturt, with whose re- 
presentative, Lord Alington, they remain. 

Napier is described by the author of the 

* Memoir' in Wotton's * Baronetage,* who 
seems to have been a member of the family, 
as * a gay, ingenious gentleman, well versed 
in several languages,' who *■ understood ver}* 
well architecture and painting; he has left 
behind him several pieces of his own draw- 
ing, besides many others of good value, which 
he had collected on his travels.' A portrait 
is at Crichel Hall. The whereabouts of his 
manuscripts and drawings is unknown. 

[Wotton's English Baronetage, ii. 161-4 (ap- 
parently a first-hand memoir); Foster's Alumni 

OxoD.; Shadwell's Oriel College Begister; 
Hutchins's Dorset, ed. 1868, iii. 123-5, iv. 483; 
Pari. Hist. ; Sydenham's Hist, of Poole, pp. 209 
8eq.2o9, 281.] H. E. D. B. 

(1559-1634), astrologer, bom at Exeter on 
4 May 1559, was third son of Alexander 
Napier, by his wife Ann or Agnes Burchley. 
The father, who was sometimes known by 
the alternative surname of * Sandy,* was elder 
son by a third wife of Sir Archibald Napier, 
fourth laird of Merchiston {d. 1522) [see 
under Napieb, Alexander {d, 1473)1 ; he 
settled at Exeter about 1540. Richard ma- 
triculated at Exeter College, Oxford, as a 
commoner on 20 Dec. 1677, but took no de- 
gree, although he was occasionally described 
at a later date as M. A., and he sent a donation 
to the fund for building the college kitchen 
in 1(524. On leaving the university he was 
ordained, and on 12 March 1589-90 was 
admitted to the rectory of Great Linford, 
Buckinghamshire, which he held for forty- 
four years. According to Lilly, he broke 
down one day in the pulpit, and thenceforth 
ceased to preach, * keeping in his house some 
excellent scholar or other to oiEciate for him, 
with allowance of a .good salary.' But he 
was always *a person of great abstinence, 
innocence, and piety ; he spent every day 
two hours in family prayer ... his knees were 
homy with frequent praying ' (Aubrey). 

In his youth Napier had been attracted by 
astrology, and before settling at Great Lin- 
ford apparently spent some time in London 
as the pupil of Simon Forman [q. v.] For- 
man * was used to sav he would be a dunce ' 
(LiLTA'), but Napier ultimately developed so 
much skill that I" orm an on his death in 1011 
be([ueathed to him all his manuscripts. He 
claimed to be in continual communication 
with the angel Raphael (Aubkey). With 
the practice of astrology he combined from 
an early period that of medicine, and thus 
made a large income, great part of which he 
bestowed on the poor (ib.) On 20 Dec. 1604 
he received a formal license to practise medi- 
cine from Erasmus Webb, archdeacon of Buck- 
ingham {AshmoL MS. 1293). Throughout the 
midlands his clients were numerous. His 
medical patients included Emanuel Scrope, 
eleventh baron Scrope of Bolton and earl of 
Sunderland [q. v.], who resided at Great Lin- 
ford in 162/ (//>. 421 ff. 162-4, and 1730, f. 
186). He also * instructed many ministers in 
astrology, would lend them whole cloak-bags 
of books ; protected them from harm and vio- 
lence by means of his power with [Oliver St. 
John, first] earl of Bolingbroke.* William 
Lilly, who occasionally visited him in 1632 
and 1633, describes his library ' as excellently 




fiirriialii-d with very choice books.' Like all | 
t ho |M»|Hiliir lutt roU)gera of the day, be had his I 
i.tittftMin, Miui John Cotta [<^. v.] is said to have ! 
nftftrknil him obliquely in his 'Triall of 1 
\Vil«-hrfiift/ KUtJ. He died, * prayinf( upon I 
bi« Uiiim'm/ at (Ireat Linford on L April 1034, ^ 
Mild WNM buried on 15 April. He left all 
hi« |ir<i|Mtrty to his nephew and pupil Ili- 
I linrd, Mturond Mon of his elder brother Kobert i 
I «rit Ih'Iow |. Napiers property included, be- 
fti<|i-.H tliH advowson of Great Linford, manu- 
ftrntii bnokn and notes of his astrological and ; 
itii^ilii'itl practice between 1597 and the year . 
tit hiM dimth, his correspondence, and some 
jjiniiUHcriiit religious tracts. A portrait is 
ill thd ANiimolean Museum, Oxford. 

Thit ithtrologer^s brother. Sib liovsxr 
NaI'JKH (iriiiO-iesr), bom in 1560, esta- 
blibliitd himnelf in Bishopegate Street, J>on- 
doH, 1111 It su(*cessful Turkey merchant, and was 
H iiMiu)t)(«r of the Grocers' Company. He pur- 
iliHiitMl nil ratate at Luton Hoo, Beflfordshire, 
and wiiH high sheriff of that county in 1611. 
ilo wn^ knighted in 1612, and was created a 
Immiuit on *2o Nov. of the same year. He de- 
ed i nod to serve the office of sheriff of London 
whim tditcted to it on 24 June 161 3, and was 
tiuml four hundred marks. On 24 Oct. 1614 
hii ])rotc8ted that he would be more beneficial 
lo thn city if the common council relieved 
liiiii of t he liability of serving either as alder- 
umn or slieriff (Overall, HemeTntfrnncia, 
pp. m -2). Sir Robert died in April lf>37. 
IJy hiH will, dated 15 April UW, he left 
rharlLJi'H to the poor of Luton. He married 
I \i rirn. I li". was succeeded in the baronetcy by 
UobtTt, liis eldest son by his third wife (cf. 
Aahntnl, MS. 339, No. 29). Sir Kobert, the 
(second hiirouet (1602-1600), matriculated at 
JOxelcr College, Oxford, in 1619, became a 
hhidcnt of (Cray's Inn in 1620, was knighted 
lit. Whitehnll in 1023, and was M.P. for Corfe 
C^hsIIh (1025 0), and AVeymouth and Mel- 
roinlx* I N*gia (1027-8). He represented Peter- 
borough in the I^ng parliament till lf>48, 
whfii hi» was secluded (cf. Ijftters of lAidy 
Ji. llarli'if^ Camden Soc, p. 8(>). Ikying in 
KkiO, he was succeeded by his grandson 
Uol)**rt, h«ir of his eldest son, who had died 
beforii him. With the death of the third 
Imront^t in 1075 the title expired. But mean- 
whili! a new baronetcy was granted, 4 March 
10<J()-I , to John, the second baronet's son by 
a set'oiid marriage. That title became extinct 
on the death of Sir John Napier, the grand- 
lir- ' * ** tlrst holder, in 1747. 

'ABD NAPiER(1007-1070),nephew 
the astrologer and second son of 
Robert Napier, was bom in Lon- 
. lie became a student of Gray's 
» ; entered Wadham College, Ox- 

ford, as a fellow-commoner in 1624 ; graduated 
B.A. on 4 Dec. 1626, and on 31 Dec. 1627 
was created M.A. by virtue of letters of the 
chancellor, which described him as a kins- 
man of the Duchess of Richmond. (The 
Napiers claimed connection with the Stuarts* 
earls of Lennox^ from whom the duchesss 
husband {d. 1624) was descended.) He was 
elected a fellow of All Souls College in 1028, 
and proceeded B.C.L. on 16 July 1630. He 
was the favourite nephew of his uncle Richard, 
who instructed him in astrology and medi- 
cine during his vacations. As early as 162'> 
he attended some of his uncle s patients at 
Great Linford. In 1633 he obtained from John 
Williams, bishop of Lincoln, a license to prac- 
tise medicine, and next year he inherited all 
his uncle's property and manuscripts. He 
settled at Great Linford, the manor of which 
his father appears to have purchased for him. 
On 1 Nov. 1642 he took the degree of M.D. 
at Oxford. He was knighted on 4 July 1647. 
He was incorporated M.D. at Cambridge in 
1663, and in December 1664 became an 
honorary fellow of the College of Physicians 
in London; he had given to the college 
library in 1652 the Greek commentators on 
Aristotle in thirteen finely bound Tolumes. 
Wood describes him as * one of the first 
members of the Royal Society, and a great 
pretender to virtu and astrology.' His name 
does not figure, however, in the lists of the 
members of the Roval Societv. He * made,' 
Wood adds, * a great noise in the world, yet 
he did little or nothing towards the public/ 
While on his way to visit Sir John Lenthall 
at liesselsleigh, near Abingdon, Berkshire, 
in January 1075-6, he rested at an inn where, 
according to Aubrey, as soon as the chamber- 
lain had shown him his chamber, he ' saw 
a dead man lying upon the bed: he looked 
more wistly and saw it was himself.' He died 
shortly after his arrival at Lenthall's house 
on 17 Jan. 1675-0, and was buried in Great 
Linford Church (Wood, Fofti Oxon, ed. 
Bliss, i. 437, ii. 47). He married, first, Ann, 
; youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Tyringham 
' ( Le Neve, Knights^ p. 24) ; and, secondly, in 
; 1045, Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Vyner, 
; lord mayor in 1053. The estate of Linford he 
' left, with all his medical and astrological 
books, papers, and correspondence, to Thomas 
(bom in KUO), his eldest son by his second 
; wife. Thomas sold the estate in 1679 for 
\ nearly 20,000/. to Sir William Prit<;hard, 
lord mayor in 1682. The manuscript col- 
, lections of his father and great-uncle he made 
over to Elias Ashmole, and they are now pre- 
served at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Sir Richard's eldest son by his first wife, 
Robert, after spending some time at Oriel 




College, Oxford, travelled in Italy, and gra- 
duated M.D. at Padua on 29 Aug. 1662. He 
was admitted an honorary fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians in December 1664, and, 
dying in 1670, was buried at Great Linford 
on 6 Oct. A few of his papers are among 
the Afihmolean MSS. 

[For the astrologer and his relatives Black's 
Cat. of the Ashmolean MSS. is the main authority. 
See also for the astrologer Lilly's Life, 1774, 
pp. 23, 77-80 ; Aubrey's Miscellanies, 1867, pp. 
90, 16^-61 ; Lysons's Bedfordshire ; Lipscombe's 
Buckinghamshire, iv. 222 seq. For other mem- 
bers of the family see Overall's Remembrancia, 
p. 76; Burkes Extinct Baronetage; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. i- 328-9 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Wadham Coll. Reg. ed. Gardiner, and the au- 
thorities cited.] S. L. 

NAPIER Sib ROBERT (d, 1615), judge, 
was the thira son of James Napier of Punc- 
knowle, Dorset, and his wife, whose maiden 
name is variously given as Ililliard, Hillary, 
and lUery ; he was a distant cousin of the 
Napiers of Merchiston (Hutchins, Dorsetf 
ii. 784). Robert joined the Middle Temple, 
and in 1586 was elected member of parlia- 
ment for Dorchester, Dorset. He was 
knighted by Elizabeth before 1593, when he 
was appointed chief baron of the exchequer 
in Ireland, under a writ of privy seal dated 
10 April. He was not satisfied with the ap- 
pointment, and complained that there was 
' little profit incident to the office, dealing in 
an honest and upright course ; * he conse- 
quently managed to obtain additional grants. 
He arrived at Dublin in August 1593, and 
seems to have found hischief occupation in re- 
ceiving information from spies, and troubling 
the home government with complaints about 
the grants he had received. In 1595 he ob- 
tained leave to return to England for three 
months after Easter, and was again at the 
Middle Temple in June 1597, in wluch year he 
was recommended for the chief justiceship of 
common pleas in Ireland. This recommenda- 
tion was not adopted, but Napier received 
further grants of lands from the government 
in 1599, and in 1600 was complimented on the 
valuable services he had performed. In 1602, 
however, his frequent absences in England 
caused dissatisfaction, and his administration 
does not appear to have been successful ; in 
consequence he was discharged, and Sir Ed- 
mund Pelham [q. v.] appointed in his stead. 
He sat in the parliament of 1601 for Brid- 
port, Dorset, and in that of 1603-4 for Ware- 
ham; he died on 20 Sept. 1015, and was 
buried in Great Minteme Church, Dorset, 
where there is an inscription to his memory. 

Napier was a considerable benefactor to 
Dorchester, where he erected a handsome 

almshouse, called Napier's Mit«, which he 
endowed with a fourth of the manor of Little 
Puddle, Dorset. Middlemarsh, which he 
purchased, became the family seat. He mar- 
ried, first, Catherine, daughter of John Ware- 
ham, by whom he had one daughter, who 
married Sir John Ry ves ; secondly, Magda- 
len, daughter of Sir Anthony Denton. She 
died in 1635, and was buried by her hus- 
band's side in Great Minterne Church. By 
her Napier had one son, Sir Nathaniel, whose 
sons, Kobert (1611-1686) and Sir Gerard, 
and grandson. Sir Nathaniel (1636-1709), 
are separately noticed. 

[Hutchins s Dorset, ed. Shipp and Hodson, 
passim ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage; Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland, 1589-1603, passim ; Carew 
M88. ; Morrin's Cal. Close and Patent Rolls, 
Ireland; Lascelles's Liber Mun<»rum Hibemi- 
corum ; Smyth's Law Officers of Lreland, p. 1 38 ; 
Visitation of Dorset (Hurl. 8oc.); Official Re- 
turns of Members of Parliament.] A. F. P. 

NAPIER, ROBERT (1611-1686), 
royalist, born in 1611, was second son of Sir 
Nathaniel Napier of More Crichel, Dorset, 
grandson of Sir Robert Napier (d, 1616)rq.v.], 
and was younger brother of Sir Gerard Napier 
[q. v.] On 21 Nov. 1628 he matriculated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, but did not graduate, 
and in 1637 he was called to the bar from the 
Middle Temple, being then seated at Punc- 
knowle, Dorset (Foster, Alumni Oxon, loOO- 
1714, iii. 1062). lie was subseouently ap- 
pointed receiver-general and auoitor of tne 
duchy of Cornwall. During the civil war 
he busied himself in collecting money to 
maintain the king's forces. He lived in 
Exeter while it was held as a royalist gar- 
rison, and afterwards at Truro. On the sur- 
render of Truro to the parliament in March 
1646, Sir Thomas Fairlax, in a letter to 
Speaker Lenthall, recommended Napier to 
the favourable consideration of the house, 
' as well in respect of the treaty as that he is 
a gentleman of whom I hear a very good 
report' (Cal. State Papers j Dom. 1645-7, p. 
381 ). On 30 June 1646, having in the mean- 
time taken the national covenant and nega- 
tive oath, he begged to be allowed to com- 
pound, and was, on 12 Feb. 1649, fined only 
605/. 1 1*. ( Cal, of Committee for Compoundint/f 
p. 1372 ; cf. Cal. of Committee for Advance 
of Money, p. 1377). After the Restoration 
the king, in February 1663, granted him a 
renewal of the office of receiver^neral (Cal, 
State Papers, Dom. 1603-4, p. 62). 

Napier died at Puncknowle in the winter 
of 1686, his will (P. C. C. 170, Lloyd) being 

f»roved on 4 Dec. He married, first, by 
icense dated 12 July 1637, Anne, daughter 
of Allan Corrance of Wykin, Suffolk (C£ 




TER, London Marriage Licenses, ed. Foster, 
col. 958) ; secondly, Catherine, sister of 
Lord Hawley ; and thirdly, by license dated 
18 March 1668, Mary, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Evelyn, bart., of Lonff Ditton, Sur« 
rev, and widow of Edmond Ironside of 
Rickmans worth, Hertfordshire, who survived 
him. By his first wife he left a son and a 
daughter, Anne, who married John Fry of 
Yartv, Devonshire, son of the regicide John 
Fry (1609-1657) [q. v.] 

llis son, Sir Robert Napier (1642.^- 
1700), bom about 1642, matriculated at 
Oxford from Trinity College on 1 April 
1656, but did not ffraduate, and became a 
member of the Middle Temple in 1660. He 
is wrongly stated to have been master of 
the hanaper office. On 27 Jan. 1681, being 
then high sheriff for Dorset, he was knighted 
(liUTTRELL, Brief Historical Relation^ i. 64), 
and on 25 Feb. 1682 became a baronet. He 
was M.P. for Weymouth and Melcombe 
Regis in 1689-90, and for Dorchester in 
1690 till unseated on 6 Oct. 1690. He was, 
however, re-elected in 1698. Napier died 
on 31 Oct. 1700. By license dated 25 Oct. 
1667 he married Sophia Evelyn of Long 

[Hutchins's Dorset, 3rd ed. ii. 770; Burke's 
Extinct Baronetage.] G. G. 

NAPIER, ROBERT a 791-1876), marine 
engineer, born at Dumbarton on 18 June 
1791, was the son of a well-to-do blacksmith 
and burgess of that town. After receiving 
a good general education at the Dumbarton 
grammar school, and acquiring considerable 
skill in mathematical and architectural 
drawing under the instruction of a friend 
of his father, named Traill, who was con- 
nected with Messrs. Dixon's works, Napier 
was in 1807, at his own request, apprenticed 
to his father for five years. He occupied his 
spare time in making small .tools, drawing- 
instruments, guns, and gun-locks, and exe- 
cuted the smith's work for Messrs. Stirling's 
extensive calico-printing works. At the end 
of his apprenticeship in 1812 Napier went to 
Edinburgh, where, after precarious employ- 
ment at low wages, he obtained a post in 
Robert Stevenson's works. A blunder in his 
first attempt to construct the boiler of a steam- 
engine led to Napier's return to his father, 
and in 1815 he purchased a small blacksmith's 
busbiess in Greyfriars' Wynd, Glasgow. He 
succeeded so well as to be able to remove 
his business to the Camlachie works in Gal- 
lowgate, which had been previously occupied 
by his cousin, David Napier [o. v.] Here he 
engaged in ironfounding ana engineering, 
ana in 1823 constructed his first marine 

engine for the steamship Leven, which was 
to ply between Glasgow and Dumbarton. 
In 1826 he constructed the engines for the 
Eclipse, for the Glasgow and Belfast route ; 
and in 1827, in a steamboat race on the 
Clyde, two vessels with engines provided by 
Napier proved the fastest. The following 
year Napier took over more extensive works 
at the Vulcan foundry in Washington Street, 
near the harbour, tne deepening of which 
enabled vessels of larger size to be built, and 
providedwithengines at Glasgow. In 1830 he 
joined the Glasgow Steam-packet Company, 
and supplied the engines for most of its 
vessels running between Glasgow and Liver- 
pool. Three years later he was consulted 
as to the practicability of running steamships 
between England and New York ; his report 
was favourable, but the project was aban- 
doned for lack of funds. In 1834 Napier 
engined three steam-packets to ply between 
London and Dundee, and in the following 
year succeeded his cousin David at the Lance- 
field foundry on Anderston Quay. 

In 1836 Napier supplied engines of 230 
horse-power for the Last India Company's 
vessel Berenice, and soon after engines of 280 
horse-power for the same company's Zenobia 
(drawings of the Berenice are given on plates 
xcv. and xc vi. in Tredgold, The Steam Engine , 
ed. Woolhouse). In 1839 he engined the Bri- 
tish Queen,which was to run between England 
and New York, and the Fire King, a steam 
yacht belonging to Mr. Assheton Smith, which 
proved the fastest vessel then afioat. In 1840 
he became member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, and executed his first commission 
for the government by supplying engines for 
the Vesuvius and the Stromboli. About the 
same time he contracted to supply Samuel 
Cunard with engines of 300 horse-power for 
three vessels of 1,000 tons, to carry mails to 
North America. Convinced that these were 
not large enough, Napier induced Cunard to 
order four vessels of 1,200 tons and 400 horse- 
power ; and, to meet the expense, others were 
induced to join in the contract. This was 
the origin of the Cunard Company ; and for 
fifteen years Napier engined all their paddle- 
wheel ships. 

Hitherto Napier had confined himself to 
constructing engines, but in 1841 he opened 
his shipbuilding yard at Govan, and in 184r3 
he built his first ship, the Vanguard, of 680 
tons, for the Glasgow and Dublin route. In 
1850 he began constructing iron ships, his 
first being one for the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company in 1852 ; in 1851 he was a juror at 
the Great Exhibition, London. In 1854 he 
built for the Cunard Company the Persia, of 
3,300 tons ; in 1855 he was a juror at the Pans 




exhibition, and received the gold medal and 
decoration of knight of the Legion of Honour 
from Napoleon III. In 1856 he constructed 
for the government the Erebus, and in 1860 
the Black Prince, of 6,040 tons, one of the 
two armour-clad vessels first built ; and from 
this time onwards built more than three 
hundred vessels for the government and great 
companies, first paddle-wheel, and then 
screw steamers. Among them was the troop- 
ship Malabar, the Scotia for the Cunard 
Company, the Hector, Agitator, Audacious, 
and Invmcible. lie also built men-of-war 
for the French, Turkish, Danish, and Dutch 

In 1862 Xapier was chairman of the jury 
on naval architecture at the London inter- 
national exhibition ; from 1863 to 1865 he 
was president of the Institution of Mecha- 
nical Engineers, of which he had become a 
member in 1856. In 1866 he took out two 
patents — one for a new method of con- 
structing the upper deck of ships of war, the 
other for an improved method of constructing 
turrets. In 1867 he was royal commissioner at 
the Paris exhibition, and in 1868 the king of 
Denmark conferred on him the commander- 
ship of the most ancient order of Dannebrog. 
Napier died at West Shandon, Glasgow, on 
23 June 1876, and his valuable collection of 
works of art was sold by Messrs. Christie. 

lie married in 1816 the sister of his cousin 
David, and by her, who died in 1875, he had 
three daughters and four sons, two of whom 
died young. The other two, James Robert 
and John, were t aken into partnership in 1 853. 
An engraving of Napier is given in' Engineer- 
ing/ iv. 594, and another in * The Clyde,* &c., 
p. 209. 

[Engineering, 1867, pp. 594-7; 1876, pp. 554- 
5oo ; Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers, xlv. 246-51 ; 
Proc. Inst. iVIechiinicnl Engineers, 1877, pp. 3, 
20-1; Scotsman and Times, 24 June 1876; 
Imperial Diet, of Biography ; English Cyclo- 
paedia ; Men of the Time, 9th edit. ; Men of 
the Reign ; Griflin's Contemporary Biograph/ 
in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 28511; Armstrong's 
British Navy; Pollock's Modern Shiplmilding; 
Wo<xicroft'8 Abridp^ments of Specifiiations for 
Patents (Shipbuilding, &c.), pp. 613, 687]. 

A. F. P. 

Napikr of Magdala (1811-1890), field- 
marshal, son of Major Charles Frederick 
Napier, royal artillery, and of Catherine, his 
wife, daughter of Codrington Carrington, 
esq., of the Chapel and Carrington, Barbados, 
West Indies, was bom in Colombo, Ceylon, 
on 6 Dec. 1810. His second name commemo- 
rated the storming, on 26 Aug. 1810, of Fort 
Comelis in Java, in which his father was 

engaged. It was during this campaign that 
his father was wounded, and he died on his 
way to England. Napier entered the military 
college of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe in 1824, and on 15 Dec. 1826 received 
his commission as second lieutenant in the 
Bengal engineers. After the usual course of 
instruction at the royal engineer establish- 
ment at Chatham, during w^hich he was pro- 
moted first lieutenant, he sailed for India, 
and landed at Calcutta in November 1828. 

After a few months spent at Alighur, then 
the headquarters of the Bengal sappers and 
miners, N apier was sent to Delhi to command 
a company. In 1830 a serious illness com- 
pelled him to take sick leave to Mussori, 
where he made an extensive collection of 
plants, which he presented to the govern- 
ment museum of Saharunpur. In March 
1831 he was employed in the irrigation 
branch of the public works department on 
the Eastern Jamna Canal with Captain (after- 
wards Sir) Proby Thomas Cautley [q. v.] At 
the time of his arrival the canal was in a 
critical state, and it was a daily fight against 
time and nature to save it. Napier's recrea- 
tions were the study of geology, under the 
guidance of Falconer the palaeontologist, 
whose discoveries in the miocene beds of the 
Siwalik hills he followed up, and made the 
first drawing of a Siwalik fossil. At Addis- 
combe he had been a pupil of Theodore Henry 
Adolphus Fielding [q. v.], brother of Copley 
Fielding, and showed some skill both in land- 
scape and portrait painting. The former was 
a favourite amusement to the end of his life. 
In 1835 he had another severe illness, brought 
on by exposure, and in April 1836 he ob- 
tained three years' furlough, went to Europe, 
and was indefatigable in visiting all sorts of 
engineering works, both civil and military. 
He made the acquaintance of Steplienson and 
Brunei, and visited with them the railways 
on which they were engaged. He spent 
some time in Belgium, Germany, and Italy, 
and, as he was proiRcient in French, he gained 
valuable knowledge about irrigation. 

Early in 1838 he returned to Bengal, and, 
after a tour of travel, was sent to Daijiling, 
the beautiful station in the hill country of 
Sikkim, which at that time consisted of a few 
mud huts and wooden houses, cut oft* by the 
dense forests from the world, and without 
roads or even regular supply of provisions. 
Napier laid out the new settlement and 
established easy communication with the 
plain, some seven thousand feet below. To 
supply the deficiency of skilled workmen 
and of labourers he completed the organisa- 
tion of a local corps, called * Sebundy sap- 
pers,' which owed its origin to Gilmore. 




t lif« i't«r|i« WA» ('niii|M»iMHi of mountaineersy 
^ifitti liw liiMiMitf 1 lint rii(*t«Ml, although only 
..#•1. "f *liuiii iiiiditrMtiNHi Hindustani, and his , 
if,u» tin Hun Ii4d tu bt« interpreted. Thecorps 
.^.14 .ifiMutl, ami i4\)HH*tiKl to fi^ht if neces- 
u.irr Ni(iiiif' drilliMi them him:»elf, and was 
fur I'X'H Iii4 iiwii iM*r);i*ant. At a later date, I 
^ Iti.n Ititidiir Inthmh* plentiful, the * Sebundj 
«^|f| ' wnrn diMhnnutHl. Napier lived in a 
|.,ir lint, ntui hiM tart) was rice and sardines, 
viiri'-'l <H-4'a«ioiially hy a jungle fowl. 

Iff Hlti hti wan ai>{H)inted to Sirhind, but 
Im4 cir > irti« ai Oarjilin)^ were in such request 
fKnl i» will IK ft. until September 1842 that he 
«r«i« ikUnwi'il to litavt). In the meantime, on 
:;•: J rt II 1 h 1 1 , h«t wan promoted second captain. 
At Mil hind hirt duty was to lay out a can- 
it itrjii to lako the place of that at Kamal, 

whi<dt ii wnM intendtHl to abandon on ac- 
i,oiiiil of it 14 unhealthinesit, and also to pro- | 
vkIi) imiiiifdiat(;a(*commodation for the troops 
Itittn rot timing from Afghanistan in gpreat 
iiuiiititifH. Napier chose a stretch of land 
uitttul four miles south of Ambala, and, im- 
pn^abiid with the importance of the free cir- 
iMilulioaof air unmud dwellings as a pre- 
\iin\ i vn uicaMun^ against sickness, he arranged 
tlio IniildiiigK in echelon on the slopes. This 
uri'^iit was freely adopted by the go- 
vi.'i-itiiii'iit in many other cantonments, and 
went hy tho name of* Napier's system.' 

Thu work at Ambala was progressing when, 
on IT) l)iM*. IHIT), Napier was ordere<l to join i 
I \n^ iiriiiy of t h(^ Satluj under Sir Hugh (after- 
wardb liord) (iough [([.v.^ on the outbreak 
iff I ho tiiNt Sikh war. He left Ambala on 
lioretthiicli, iiud (*ovcred loO miles in three 
iUiyn, iiiTiviiig just in time to take command 
ol' (hit <«iiginiM*rH at tint battle of Mudki, 
vvhtuii hti hud a Unna kiUed under him. At 
lUt'. tiiiith' of Keroxeshah on 21 Dec. he again 
\nn\ II homo, and, having joined the ^{iHtregi- 
iiiiMil on foot, hi* wiiHrie Vilely wounded when 
hloniiin^ thniMitn^nrhi'dSiklicamp. Napier 
Viii<Y|iriiniiiii at thitbuttleof Sobnionon lOFeb. '' 
1 h 1<I, fin hm^iT in command of the engineers, I 
Hi\ olliriM'n Hi'tiior to himM*lf had joined, but he 
vvan hi'i^adn major of enginiN^rs, and accom- 
)i.iniitil I ho hi'mlquarter forci! in its advance 
on liiihori*. Napier wiu) menti<med in des- 
|<iiti-him, and for his services ri'Ceived the 
iiiiuIhI with two clasps and was promote<l 
hriivnl major on >i April 18 40. 

Thn part, of the Punjab l>et ween the Bias 
and Hnlhij rivers was annexed to the Ifritish 
doniinioti and administenKl by John (after- 
Hai'dn Lord) Lawrence fn- v.] The rest of 
"as ruled by Henry I^wrence, as 



nt, with assistants in different 
'Ountr>', acting with the Sikh 
Bcil of regency, on the part of 

the young Maharaja Dhalip Singh. This new 
order of things was naturally distasteful to 
the old Sikh soldiery of Raniit Singh, and 
the garrison of the strong hill fort of Kote 
Kangra, 1;30 miles east of Lahore, determined 
to resist; and in May 1846 Napier served as 
chief engineer in the force sent under Briga- 
dier-general Wheeler to reduce it. Napier's 
extraordinary energy in dragging thirty-three 
guns and mortars by elephants over mountain 
paths, and the skilful execution of the engi- 
neering work, secured the capitulation of tne 
fort, r^apier was mentioned in despatches, 
and received the special thanks of the govern- 

Napier returned for a time to Ambala and 
the construction of the cantonment. His 
charge also included the hill cantonments of 
Kasauli and Subathu. He took great in- 
terest in Lawrence's asvlum for children of 
European soldiers, which was being built at 
Sanawar, near Kasauli. Li October 1S46 
Napier selected the site of Dagshai for a new 
cantonment. Napier was at this time one 
of a group of men who were destined to be 
famous, and who were thrown together for 
some days at Subathu and Kasauli — Henry 
Lawrence, Herbert Edwardes, John Becher, 
William Hodson, and others. On the esta- 
blishment of the Lahore regency Henry 
Lawrence obtained for Napier the appoint- 
ment of consulting engineer to the resident 
and council of regency of the Punjab, and 
Napier set to work with vigour to make 
roads and supervise public works. 

The murder of Vans Agnew and Anderson 
at Multan brought on the second Sikh war 
in 1848, and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) 
Herbert Benjamin Edwardes [q. v.] recom- 
mended that *Napier should be sent to aid in 
the siege of Multan. The siege accordingly 
began under Napier's direction as chief en- 
gineer. Napier took part in the storming of 
the entrenched position on 9 and 12 Sept., 
and was wounded. The Sikh army through- 
out the Punjab was eager for an opportunity 
of a fresh trial of strength with the British. 
Shir Singh, who had a large bodv of men in 
the field, openly joined Diwan >i[ulraj, who 
was shut up in Multan. This made it diffi- 
cult to carry on the siege without a much 
stronger force, and although Napier was in 
favour of an immediate concentrated attack, 
his opinion was overruled, and it was decided 
to await reinforcements. With the reinforce- 
ments came Colonel (afterwards Sir) John 
Cheape [q. v.], of the engineers, who, as senior 
officer, took over the direction of the siege 
operations. Napier was engaged in the action 
of Surjkund, in the capture of the suburbs, 
storm of the city, and surrender of the fortress 




of Multan on 23 Jan. 1849. He was also pre- 
sent at the surrender of the fort and garri- 
son of Cheniote. The troops then j oined Lord 
Grough, and Napier was in time to take part 
as commanding engineer of the right wing in 
the battle of Gujrat on 21 Feb. 1849. Napier 
accompanied Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert 
[q. v.] as civil engineer in his pursuit of the 
defeated Sikhs and their Afghem allies, and 
was present at the passage ofthe Jhelum, the 
surrender of the Sikh army, and the surprise 
of Attock. He was mentioned in despatches, 
received the war medal and two clasps, and 
was promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel 
7 June 1849. 

At the close of the war Napier was 
appointed civil engineer to the board of ad- 
ministration of the annexed province of the 
Punjab, and during the time he occupied the 
post he carried out a great scheme oi impor- 
tant public works, among which was the 
construction of the high road from Lahore 
to Peshawar, 275 miles, a great part of it 
through very difficult country, together with 
many thousands of miles of byways with 
daks ; the great Bari-Doab canal, 250 miles 
long, which transformed a desert into culti- 
vated country, was partly completed; the old 
Shah Nahr or Hash canal was repaired and 
many smaller ones dug; the principal towns 
were embellished with public buildings ; 
the great salt-mines of Pind Dadur Khan 
were made more efficient ; new cantonments 
were laid out ; the frontier defences were 
strengthened and connected with advanced 
posts; bridges were placed in order; and 
all this was done in a country where the 
simplest tool as well as the more complicated 
apparatus had to be manufactured on the 
spot. The board of administration reported 
in 1852: 'For the energetic and able manner 
in which these important works have been 
executed, as well as for the zealous co-opera- 
tion in all engineering and military ques- 
tions, the board are indebted to Lieutenant- 
colonel Napier, who has spared neither time, 
health, nor convenience m the duties en- 
trusted to him.' 

In December 1852 Napier commanded 
the right column in the first Black Mountain 
Hazara expedition, under Colonel Frederick 
Mackeson [q. v.], against the Hassmezia tribe. 
Napier's services were highly commended by 
government. In November 1853 he was 
employed in a similar expedition under 
Colonel S. B. Boileau against the Bori clan 
of the Jawaki Afridis in the Peshawar dis- 
trict, was mentioned in despatches, and re- 
ceived the special thanks of government and 
the medal with clasp. On his return to 
civil work he found the board of adminis- 

tration had ceased to exist, and John Law- 
rence reigned supreme. Napier's designation 
was changed to chief engineer, in accordance 
with the practice in otner provinces. He 
pushed on the works as before ; but the out- 
lay made the chief commissioner uneasy, and 
Lawrence endeavoured to check it. This 
led to a difference between the two men, and 
some friction ensued. Each, however, ap- 

freciated the other ; and some years later 
iawrence, in writing to Lord Canning after 
the mutiny, acknowledged that the large 
and energetic development of labour, and the 
expenditure by which it was accompanied 
under Napier's advice and direction, was one, 
at least, of the elements which impressed the 
most manly race in India with the vigour 
and beneficence of British rule, and tended, 
through the maintenance of order and active 
loyalty in the Punjab, to the recovery of 
Hindustan. Napier was promoted brevet 
colonel in the army on 28 Nov. 1854, in re- 
cognition of his services on the two frontier 
expeditions, and regimental lieutenant- 
colonel on 15 April 1856. In the autumn of 
1856 he went on furlough to England. On 
Napier relincjuishing the post. Lord Dal- 
housie wrote m the most flattering terms of 
the results of his seven years' service at the 
head of the public works department of the 

Napier left England again in May 1857, 
before news had been received of the Indian 
mutiny, and his intention was to retire after 
three years* further service. On arrival at 
Calcutta he was appointed officiating chief 
engineer of Bengal. When General Sir James 
Outram [q. vj returned to India from the 
campaign in Persia, and was appointed chief 
commissioner in Oudh and to command the 
force for the relief of Lucknow, Napier was 
appointed military secretary and chief of the 
adjutant^general's department with him. 
They left Calcutta on 5 Aug. 1 857. Sir Henry 
Havelock [q. v.] was then at Cawnpore at the 
head of the force intended for the relief of 
Lucknow, and was awaiting reinforcements 
before marching. Outram arrived at Cawn- 
poreon 15 Sept., and relinquished the military 
command to Havelock, accompanying him 
in his civil capacity, and giving his military 
services as a volunteer. Napier was engaged 
in the actions of Mangalwar, Alambagh, and 
Charbagh. The entry to Lucknow was made 
on 25 Sept. The rear ^uard of Havelock*s 
force, witn the siege train and the wounded, 
had, however, become separated from the 
main body, and was not in sight on the fol- 
lowing morning, while the enemy intervened. 
On the 26th 250 men were sent to their 
assistance, but could neither help the rear 

Napier 79 Napier 

nearly four thousand men. Brigadier-gene- was stamped out. For his services in Cen- 

ral Smith, commanding at Sipri, advanced 
towards Paori, but, finding himself too weak 
to capture the place, applied to Napier for 
reinforcements. Napier started at once with 

tral India and the mutiny Napier 'received 
the medal and three clasps. He also re- 
ceived the thanks of parliament and of the 
Indian government, and he was made a 

a force of six hundred men and artillerv, and K.C.B. 
by forced marches reached Smith on 19 Aug. | In January 1860 Napier was appointed to 
Operations against Paori commenced on the , the command of the second division in the 
following day. when, having singled out the ' expedition to China. He went to Calcutta 
only possible point of attack, Napier opened | and superintended the equipment and em- 
fire with his 18-pounders and mortars, and j barkation of the Indian troops; and it was 
maintained the bombardment continuously due to the great care he bestowed upon the 
for thirty hours. When ho was about to storm I sanitary arrangements and ventilation of the 
he found the enemy had evacuated the place i transports that the men arrived at their des- 
in the night. A column was despatched in tinat ion in good condition. Hong Kong was 
pursuit, and, having demolished the fortifica- reached in the middle of April, and here 
tions of Paori, Napier returned to Gwalior. Sir Hope Grant fq. v.] assembled his force and 

On 12 Dec. Napier took the field against | arranged his plans. On 11 June Napier 
Ferozeshah, a prince of the house of Delhi, , started for Tahlien Bay, which had been 
who, having been driven out of Rohilkund selected as the rendezvous. On 26 July the 
and Oudh on the restoration of order, crossed expedition sailed for the Pehtang-ho. " The 
the Ganges and Jamna, cut the telegraph I first division disembarked between 1 and 
wires, and joined Tantia Topi. Napier had 3 Aug. on the right bank, and seized on the 
thrown out three small columns to intersect town of Pehtang. Napier's division landed 
the anticipated route of the enemy, and held a j between the 5th and 7th, and was ordered to 
fourth ready to act under his own command, attack the village of Sin-ho, strongly occu- 
Ile was at this time very ill and hardly able pied by the enemy. They had to cross with 
to sit a horse; but on learning that the rebels | great labour a mud flat, making a road with 
would pass through the jungles of the Sind fascines and brushwood; but the Tartars, 
river south-west of Gwalior, he set off finding themselves taken in fiank, were 
through the jungle to cut them off. At speedily driven out. The French were now 
Bitowar, on the 14th, he learnt that Feroze- desirous to attack the south forts of the Peiho, 
shah was nearly nine miles ahead. Con- while Grant, who was cordially supported 
tinuing his pursuit through Narwar he there by Napier, preferred to attack the north 
dropped his artillery, and, mounting his forts. Eventually the French general Mont- 
highlanders on baggage animals, pressed for- auban yielded; and on 21 Aug. Napier's 
ward with his cavalry and mounted infantry division, with Collinot*s French brigade, at- 
through the jungle and struck the enemy at i tacked and took the first upper fort. The 
Ranode. So unexpected was the onslaught, second north fort was taken without oppo- 
and so extended was the front of Feroze- sition, and then the whole of the I'eiho forts, 
shaVs army, that Napier completely routed north and south, were abandoned, witli up- 
it. The rebels lost 460 men killed, while wards of six hundred guns. Napier had his 
only sixteen British were wounded. field-glass shot out of his hand, his sword- 

At the end of January IS-'O Tantia Topi, hilt broken by a shell fragment, three bullet- 
beaten in the north-west, fled southward holes in his coat, and one in his boot, but 
to the Parone jungles, a belt of hill and he escaped unhurt. 

jungle little known, flanked at each end by j The forts were dismantled by Napier, who 
a hill fort, with plenty of guns and a gar- ., had been left behind for the purpose, while 
risen the reverse of friendly. Tliis tract the remainder of the forces of the allies 
Napier determined to control. He caused ' advanced. His work accomplished, Napier 
the forts of Parone to be destroyed and clear- I reached Tientsin on o Sept., and remained 
ings to be cut through the jungle past the there while the expedition pushed on to- 
most notorious haunts of the rebels. The wards Pekin. On Napier devolved the duty 
policy proved successful ; and on 4 April Na- ' of seeing to communications and pushing on 
pier reported to Campbell, * Man Singh has supplies to the front. After the battle of 
surrendered just as his last retreats were laid Chang-kia-wan Grant summoned Napier to 
open by the road. . . . Since the days of the front. He reached headquarters on the 
General Wade the efticacy of roads so ap- i 24th, having marched seventy miles in sixty 
plied has not diminished.' Shortly after hours, and brought a supply of ammunition, 
Tantia Topi was also caught. The two rebel which was much requirea. Although not in 

leaders were tried and executed. The mutiny 

time for the battle of Pa-le-cheaon, he was 




able to take part in the entry to Pekin on 
24 Oct. Napier and his staff embarked for 
Hong Kong on 19 Nov. for India. Napier re- 
ceived for his services in the expedition the 
medal and two clasps. He was thanked by 
parliament, and promoted major-general on 
15 Feb. 1861 for distinguished service in the 

In January 1861 Napier was appointed 
military member of the council olthe go- 
vernor-general of India. For four years he 
did a great deal of valuable work. With 
the aid of a committee he arranged the de- 
tails of the amalgamation of the army of 
the East India Company with that of the 
queen. On the sudden death of Lord Elgin, 
Napier for a short time acted as governor- 
general until the arrival of Sir William 
Thomas Denison [q. v.] from Madras. In 
January 1865 Napier was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the Bombay army. In 
March 1807 he was promoted lieutenant- 

Meanwhile the English government was 
arriving at the conclusion that a military ex- 
pedition to Abyssinia would be needful to 
compel Theodore, king of that country, to 
release certain Englishmen who were con- 
fined in Abyssinian prisons. In July 1867 
Napier was asked by telegram how soon a 
corps could be equipped and provisioned to 
sail from Bombay to Abyssinia in case an 
expedition were decided upon. Long before 
Napier had carefully considered the question, 
and amassed information on the subject,which 
enabled him to reply promptly and satisfac- 
torily. It was, however, some months before 
his advice was acted upon. It was due to the 
personal influence of the Duke of Cambridge, 
warmly supported by Sir Stafford Northcote 
(afterwards Lord Iddesleigh), that Napier 
was appointed to command the expedition. 
He was allowed to choose his own troops, 
and he naturally selected those with whom 
he had had most to do ; for, as he put it in 
an official minute, in an expedition in which 
hardship, fatigue, and privation of no ordi- 
nary kind may be expected, it is important 
that the troops should know each other and 
their commander. 

The equipment of the troops occupied 
Napier till December, and on 2 Jan. 1868 
the expedition to Abyssinia landed at Zoulah 
in Annesley Bay. Napier worked indefatig- 
ably on the hot sea coast until all was ready 
for the march, and he instilled activity and 
zeal into everyone. Two piers, nine hundred 
feet long, were constructed, and a railway 
laid, involving eight bridges, to the camp 
inland some twelve miles. Reservoirs were 
constructed and steamers kept condensing 

water to fill them at the rate of two hundred 
tons daily. The march to Magdala com- 
menced on 25 Jan.; 420 miles had to be 
traversed and an elevation of 7,400 feet 
crossed. On 10 April the plateau of Mag- 
dala was reached, and the troops of Theo- 
dore were defeated. On the 13th Magdala 
was stormed, and Theodore found dead in his 
stronghold. The English cantives were set 
at liberty, Magdala razed, ana the campaign 
was over. On 18 June, in perfect order, the 
last man of the expedition had left Africa. 
In this wonderful campaign Napier displayed 
all the (qualities of a great commander. 
He orgamsed his base, provided for his com- 
munications, and then, launching his army 
over four hundred miles into an unknown 
and hostile country, defeated his enemy, at- 
tained the object of his mission, and returned. 

Napier went to England,where honours and 
festivities awaited him. A new government 
had just come into power, and both parties 
competed to do him honour. He received the 
war medal. Parliament voted him its thanks 
and a pension. The queen created him a 
peer on 17 July 1868, with the title of Baron 
Napier of Magdala, and made him a Q.C.S.I. 
ana G.C.B. The freedom of the city of Lon- 
don was conferred upon him and a sword of 
honour presented to him. The city of Edin- 
burgh also made him a citizen. He was 
appointed hon. colonel of the 3rd London 
rifle corps. Subsequently, on 26 June 1878, 
he was created D.C.L. of Oxford Universitv. 

In December 1869 Napier was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. In January 
1870 he was appointed commander-in-chief 
in India, and in May he was made, in addi- 
tion, fifth ordinary member of the council of 
the governor-general. During the six years 
he was commander-in-chief he endeavoured 
to raise the moral tone and to improve the 
physique of the soldier, both European and 
native. He bestowed much personal atten- 
tion on the new regulations issued in 1873 
for the Bengal army. He encouraged rifle 

Practice, and gave annually three prizes to 
e shot for. He advocated the provision of 
reasonable pleasures for all ranks, and insti- 
tuted a weekly holiday on Thursday, known 
in some parts of India as St. Napier's Day. On 
1 April 1874 Napier was promoted general 
and appointed a colonel-commandant of the 
corps of royal engineers. 

Early in 1876 Napier was nominated to 
the government of Gibraltar, and on 10 April 
he finallv left India, to the regret of all 
classes. 'He was present in 1876 at the Ger- 
man military mancBU^Tes, when he was the 
guest of the crown prince, and was enter- 
tained by the Emperor William. In Sep- 




tember he went to Gibraltar as governor. 
In 1879 he was appointed a member of the 
royal commission on army reor^nisation. 
In November he was sent to Madrid as am- 
bassador-extraordinary to represent her ma- 
jesty at the second marriage of the king of 
Spain. Napier was much opposed to the ces- 
sion of Kandahar, and his memorandum on the 
subject in 1880 was included in the Kanda- 
har blue-book. On 1 Jan. 1883 Napier was 
made a field-marshal on his retirement from 
the government of Gibraltar. He spoke 
occasionally in the House of Lords, and 
always with effect, for he had a charming 
Yoice and ease of manner. He left no means 
untried in 1884 to induce the government 
to do its duty to General Gordon at Khar- 
toum. In December 1886 he was appointed 
constable of the Tower of London and lieu- 
tenant and custos rotulorum of the Tower 

Napier was a man of singular modesty and 
simplicity of character. No one who knew 
him could forget the magic of his voice and 
his courteous bearing. He had a great love 
for children. His delight in art remained to 
the last ; and, always ready to learn, at the 
age of seventy-eijjht he took lessons in a 
new method of mixing colours. He had a 

Seat love of books, especially of poetry, 
e never obtruded his knowledge or attiiin- 
ments, and only those who knew him inti- 
mately had any idea of their extent and 

rfapier died at his residence in Eaton 
Square, London, on 14 Jan. 1890, from an 
attack of influenza. On his death a special 
army order was issued by command of the 

Sueen, conveying to the army her majesty's 
eep regret, and announcing a message from 
the German emperor, in wnich his majesty 
said ; * I deeply grieve for the loss of the ex- 
cellent Lord Napier of Magdala. . . . His 
noble character, fine gentlemanly bearing, 
his simplicity and splendid soldiering were 
qualities for which my grandfather and father 
always held him in high esteem.' 

Napier 8 remains were interred on 21 Jan., 
with all the pomp of a state military funeral, 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. No funeral since 
that of the Duke of Wellington in 1862 had 
been so imposing a spectacle. 

When Napier finally left India an eques- 
trian statue of him, by Boehm, was erected 
by public subscription in Calcutta ; and after 
his death a repbca of this statue, also by 
Boehm, was erected by public subscription 
in Waterloo Place. In tne ro^al engineers' 
mess at Chatham are two portraits of Napier, 
a full-length by Sir Fnuicls Grant, and a 
three-quarter length by Lowes Dickenson. A I 

TOL. XL. ' 

medallion, in the possession of Miss A. F. 
Yule, was the original model for the marble 
memorial in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. The corps of royal engineers erected a 
large recreation-room for the Gordon Boys' 
Home at Chobham, in memory of their bro- 
ther officer. 

Napier was twice married : first, on 3 Sept. 
1840, to Anne Sarah, eldest daughter of 
George Pearse, M.D., H.E.I.C.S. (she died 
on 30 Dec. 1849) ; secondly, on 2 April 1861, 
to Mary Cecilia, daughter of Major-general 
E. W. Smythe Scott, royal artillery, in- 
spector-general of ordnance and magazines 
in India. Lady Napier survived him. 

By his first wife he had three sons : Ro- 
bert William, second and present peer, born 
on 11 Feb. 1845; George Campbell (twin 
with his brother Robert), major-general, 
Bengal, and CLE. ; James Pearse, born on 
30 Dec. 1849, lieutenant-colonel 10th hus- 
sars and deputy assistant-adjutant- general. 
Also three daughters : Catherine Anne Ca- 
ringtou, born 12 Oct. 1841, married in 1863 
to Henry Robert Dundas; Anne Amelia, 
bom on 11 Nov. 1842, married in 1864 to 
Henry R. Madocks, late Bengal civil ser- 
vice ; Clara Frances, who died in childhood. 

By his second wife he had six sons, three 
of whom are officers in the army, and three 
daughters ; the eldest of whom, Mary Grant, 
married in 1889 North More Nisbets, esq., 
of Caimhill, Lanarkshire. 

[Despatches; India Office Records; Royal 
Engineer Corps' Records ; Royal Engineers' 
Journal, rol. xx. ; Memoir by General R. Macla- 
gan. R.E. ; Porter's Hist, of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers; FeUimdrschall Lord Napier of Mag* 
dala, Breslau, 1890.] R. H. V. 


(1790-1863), general, second son by his 
second wife of Captain Charles Napier of 
Merchiston, Stirlingshire, and brother of 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier [q. v.], was bom 
on 10 May 1790. On 3 July 1805 he was 
appointed ensign in the 52nd light infantry, 
and on 1 May 1806 he became lieutenant. He 
served with the 52nd at Copenhagen in 1807 ; 
was aide-de-camp to Sir John Hope [see 
Hope, John, fourth Earl of Hopetoun) in 
the expedition to Sweden in 1808, and after- 
wards served at Coruna and in PortugaL 
On 27 Oct. 1809 he was promoted to be cap- 
tain in the Chasseurs Britanni(jues, a corps 
of foreigners in British pay, with which he 
served in Sicily, at Fuentes d*Onoro, at the 
defence of Cadiz, and in Spain in 1812-13. 
When Sir John Hope joined the Peninsular 
army in 1813, Napier resumed his position of 
aide-de-camp ; in the great battles on the Ni ve 
he was slightly wounded on 10 Dec. 1813, 





and he lost his left arm ou the foUowinpr day. 
The Chasseurs Britanniaues were disbanded 
at the peace of 1814, ana Napier was placed 
on half-pay. He received a brevet majority 
26 Dec. 1813, and became brevet lieutenant- 
colonel 21 June 1817, and colonel 16 Jan. 
1837. He was for some years assistant 
adjutant-general at Belfast. He became a 
major-general in 1846, and was f^eneral ofhcer 
commanding the troops in Scotland and 
governor of Edinburgh CJaatle from May 1852 
until his promotion to lieutenant-general 
20 June 1854. He became a full general 
20 Sept. 1861. He was appointed colonel 
IGthfootin 1854, and transferred to the7l8t 
liighland light infantry on the death of Sir 
James Macdonell [n- v.] in 1857. He was 
made a CD. in 1838, K.C.B. in 1860, and 
had the Peninsular silver medal, with clasps 
for Corunna, Fuentes d'Onoro, Salamanca, 
Vittoria, Pyr6n6es, Nivello, and Nive. 

Napier married Margaret, daughter and 
coheiress of Mr. Falconer of Woodcot, Ox- 
fordshire, and by her had one daughter, who, 
with her mother, predeceased him. He died 
at Polton House, Lnsswade, near Edinburgh, 
5 July 1863, aged 73. 

[Burke's and Foster's Peera!*e«», xmder ' Napier 
of Merchistoun : ' Hart's Army Lists; Gent. 
Mftg. 1863, pt. ii. p. 240. Incidental notices of 
Napior will be foun<l in the Life and Corre- 
spondence of Admiral Sir Charles Napier, Lon- 
don, 1862. and in the published letters of his 
cousins, Charles James, George Thomas, and 
William F. P. Napier.] H. M. C. 

PATRICK (1785-1860), general and histo- 
rian of the Penin.sular war, born at Oelbridge, 
CO. Kildare, on 17 Dec. 1785, was third son of 
Colonel the Hon. George Napier [q. v.] and of 
Lady Sarah Bun bury, seventh daughter of the 
second Duke of Richmond. His ifather was 
sixth son of Francis, fifth lord Napier. His 
brothers, Charles James, George Thomas, and 
Henry Edward, are noticed separately. Ad- 
miral Sir Charles Napier fq. v.] was his first- 
cousin. William received some education at 
a grammar school at Celbridge, but mainly 
spent his youth in field sports and manly 
exercises. When the insurrection of 1798 
broke out. Colonel Nnpier armed his five sons 
and put his house in a state of defence. At 
the early age of fourteen William received 
his first commission as ensijrn in the Royal 
Irish artillery', on 14 June 1800. He was soon 
after transferred to the Oi^nd regiment. He 
was promoted lieutenant on 18 April 1801, 
and reduced to half-pay at the treaty of 
Amiens in March 1802. A few months later 
his uncle, the Duke of Richmond, brought him 
into the * Blues/ and Napier joined the troop, 

then stationed at Canterbury, of Captain 
Robert Hill, brother of Lord Hill. 

In 1803 Sir John Moore (1761-1809) [q. y.], 
who was forming his celebrated experimental 
brigade at Shomcliffe, projjosed that Napier 
should take a lieutenancy m the 52nd regi- 
ment, at which young Napier caught eagerly. 
Moore was pleased by his readiness to learn 
his profession in earnest, and, on 2 June 1804, 
obtained for him a company in a West India 
regiment, whence he caused him to be re- 
moved into a battalion of the army of reserve , 
and finally secured for him, on 11 Aug., the 
post of ninth captain of the 43rd regiment, 
belonging to Moore's own brigade. Napier 
threw himself into his duties with ardour, 
and his company was soon second to none. 

At this time Napier was exceptionally 
handsome, high-spirited, and robust. Six 
feet high, and of athletic build, he excelled 
in outdoor exercises, while his memory was 
unusually retentive, and he had a rare facility 
for rapid reading. In 1804 he made the ac- 
quaintance of Pitt, on the introduction of the 
latter's nephew, Charles Stanhope, an oflicer 
of Napier's regiment. He spent some time 
at Pitt's house at Putney, where he was 
treated with great kindness by Lady Hester 
Stanhope, and the great man was wont to 
unbend and engage in practical jokes with 
the two young oflicers. In 1800 Napier was 
selected to procure volunteers from the Irish 
! militia to serve in the line. In 1807 he 
I accompanied his regiment in the expedition 
against Copenhagen, was present at the siege, 
and afterwards marched under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley to attack the Danish levies as- 
sembled in the rear of the besieging force. 
He took part, in the battle of Kioge, and in 
the subsequent pursuit of the enemy. On 
the return of the 43rd from Denmark in No- 
vember, Napier accompanied the regiment to 
Maldon, ana in the summer of 1808 moved 
to Colchester. 

On 13 Sept. 1808 he embarked with his 
I regiment at Harwich for Spain, and arrived 
at Corufia on 13 Oct. He reached Villa 
Franca on 9 Nov., and took part in the cam- 
paign of Sir John Moore. Napier's com- 
pany and that of his friend Captain Lloyd 
were employed in the rear-guard to delay 
the French pursuit by destroying the com- 
' munications. Napier spent two days and 
nights without relief at the bridge of Castro 
j Gonzalo on the Esla river, half his men 
I working at the demolition, and the other 
! half protecting the workmen from the enemy's 
I cavalry. Then he retired to Benavente, and 
to regi&in the army had to make a forced 
march of thirty miles. During the subse- 
quent retreat to Vigo, Napier was charged 




with the care of a large convoy of sick and 
wounded men and of stores, with which he 
crossed the mountain between Orense and 
y igo without loss ; but the hardship suffered 
during this retreat, in which he marched for 
several days with bare and bleeding feet, and 
only a jacket and pair of linen trousers for 
clothes, threw him into a fever which nearly 
proved fatal, and permanently weakened his 

On his return home in February 1809 
Napier was appointed aide-de-camp to his 
uncle, the Duke of Richmond, lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, but gave up the appointment to go 
with his regiment to Portugal in May. On 
the march to Talavera he was attacked with 
pleurisy, and was left behind at Placentia ; 
but, hearing that the army had been defeated, 
and that the French, under Soult, were clos- 
ing on Placentia, he got out of bed, walked 
forty-eight miles to Oropesa, and, there get- 
ting post-horses, rode to Talavera to join the 
army. He fell from his horse at the gate of 
Talavera, but was succoured by an officer of 
the 46th regiment. Ho was soon carried off 
by his brother George to the light division 
at the outposts of the army, and was 
afterwards m quarters at Gampo Mayor, 
where his regiment in six weeks lost 160 
men by the Guadiana fever. 

At the fight on the Coa in July 1810, Na- 
pier highly distinguished himself. On the 
occasion General Robert Craufurd [q. v.], 
with five thousand men and six guns, stood to 
receive the attack of thirty thousand French, 
having a steep ravine and river in his rear, 
and only one bridge for retreat. Napier rallied 
his company under a heavy fire, and thereby 
gave time to gather a force to cover the pas- 
sage of the broken troops over the bridge. 
He received on the field the thunks of his 
commanding officer. His company lost thirty- 
five men killed and wounded out of the three 
hundred, the loss in the whole division. To- 
wards the end of the action he was shot in 
the left hip; but the bone was not broken, 
and, although suffering considerably, he con- 
tinued with his regiment until the battle of 
Busaco, 27 Sept. 1810, where both his bro- 
thers were wounded. He took part in the 
actions of Pombal and Redinha. At the 
combat of Casal Novo on 14 JIarch 1811, 
during Massena's retreat, Napier was danger- 
ously wounded when at the head of six com- 
panies supporting the 62nd regiment, and his 
brother George had his arm broken by a 
bullet. It was after this fight t hat his brother 
Charles, hastening to tlie front with the 
wound that he himself had received at Bu- 
saco unhealed, met the litters carrying his 
two wounded brothers, and was informed 

that William was mortally injured. Na- 

Eier rejoined the army with a bullet near 
is spine and his wound still open. He was 
appomted brigade major to the Portuguese 
brigade of the light division. He took part 
in the battle of Fuentes d*Onoro on 6 May 
1811, and on the 30th was promoted brevet- 
major for his services. He continued to serve 
until after the raising of the second siege of 
Badajos,when he was attacked by fever. Ill as 
he was, he would not n uit the army until Lord 
Wellington directed his brother to take him 
to Lisbon in a headquarter caliche. Welling- 
ton took a g^eat interest in the Napiers, and 
himself wrote to acquaint their mother when- 
ever they were wounded. From Lisbon in the 
autumn of 1811 Napier was sent to England, 
and in February 1812 he married Caroline 
Amelia, daughter of General the Hon. Henry 
Fox and niece of the statesman. 

Three weeks after his marriage Napier 
sailed again for Portugal, on hearing tnat 
Badajos was besieged. Before he reached 
Lisbon Badajos was taken, 6 April 1812, 
and his dearest friend. Lieutenant-colonel 
Charles Macleod of the 43rd regiment, had 
been killed in the breach. Napier was deeply 
affected by this loss. He took command of 
his regiment as the senior officer, having 
become a regimental major on 14 May 1812. 
At the battle of Salamanca on 23 July 1812, 
the 43rd, with Napier at its head, led the 
heavy column employed to drive back Foy*s 
division and seize the ford of Huerta. Napier 
rode in front of the regiment, which advanced 
in line for a distance of three miles under a 
constant cannonade, keeping as good a line 
as at a review. After Salamanca Welling- 
ton with his victorious army entered Madrid 
on 12 Aug., and hero Napier remained with 
his regiment until the siege of Burgos was 
raised, when the 43rd joined the army on its 
retreat into Portugal. 

Napier obtained leave to go to England in 
January 1813, and remained at home until 
August, when he rejoined his regiment in the 
Peninsula as regimental major. He landed 
at Passages, and found the 43rd regiment at 
the camp above Vera, in the Pyrenees. On 
10 Nov., at the battle of the Nivelle, Colonel 
Heam fell sick, and the command of the regi- 
ment devolved uponNapier, who was directed 
to storm thehog*s back of the smaller Rhune 
mountain. This position had been entrenched 
by six weeks' continuous labour on the part 
01 the enemy. Napier and the 43rd carried 
it with great gallantry. When Lord Wel- 
lington forced the passage of the Nive, the 
light division, in which was the 43rd regi- 
ment, remained on the left bunk, and on 
10 Dec. the divisions on the left bismk were 





suddenly attacked by Soult. Napier and 
the 43ra were on picquet duty in front, and 
fortunately detected suspicious movements 
of the enemy, so that General Kempt was 
prepared. When the picquet was attacked, 
Napier withdrew without the loss of a man 
to the church of Arcanffues, the defence of 
which had been assigned to him. Here he 
was twice wounded; but he continued to 
defend the church and churchyard until the 
13th, when the fighting terminated by Lord 
Hill's victory at St. Pierre. Napier was pro- 
moted brevet lieutenant-colonel on 22 Nov. 

Napier was present at the battle of Orthez 
on 27 Feb. 1814, but his wounds and ill-health 
afterwards compelled him to go to England. 
On his recovery from a protracted illness he 
joined the military college at Famham, where 
his brother Charles was also studying. On 
the return of Napoleon from Elba, Napier 
made arrangements to rejoin his regiment, 
and embarked at Dover on 18 June 1815, too 
late for Waterloo. He accompanied the 
army to Paris. Napier, with the 43rd, was 
quartered at Bapaume and Valenciennes. On 
the return home of the army of occupation, 
the regiment was sent to Belfast. Want of 
means to purchase the regimental lieutenant- 
colonelcy of his regiment determined Napier 
to go on half-pay, and he accordingly retired 
from the active list at the end of 1819. He 
received from the officers of the 43rd a very 
handsome sword, with a flattering inscrip- 
tion, and was granted the gold medal and 
two clasps for Salamanca, Nivelle, and Nive, 
and the silver medal with three clasps for 
Busaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, and Orthez. He 
was also made a C.B. 

Napier took a house in Sloane Street, 
London, and devoted himself to painting 
and sculpture, for which he had considerable 
talent, spending much of his time with the 
sculptor Chantrey, George Jones, R.A., Mr. 
Bickersteth (afterwards Lord Langdale), and 
several old friends of the Peninsula. He 
contributed to periodical literature and wrote 
an able article which appeared in the * Edin- 
burgh Review * in 1821 on Jomini*8 'Principes 
de la Guerre/ In connection with this con- 
tribution he visited Edinburgh, where he 
made the acquaintance of Jeffrey and other 
literary celebrities. He also visited Paris with 
Bickersteth, and was introduced to Soult. 

In 1 823, on the suggestion of Lord Lang- 
dale, Napier decided to write a * History of 
the Penmsiilar War.* He lost no time in 
collecting materials. He went for some time 
to Paris, where he consulted Soult, and then 
to Strathfieldsaye, to be near the Duke of 
Wellington. The duke handed over to him 

the whole of Joseph Bonaparte's correspon- 
dence which had been taken at the battle of 
Vittoria, and which was deciphered with in- 
finite patience by Mrs. Napier. 

In the autumn of 1826 Napier moved with 
his family to Battle House, Bromham, near 
Devizes. Here he was only a quarter of a 
mile from Sloperton, the resiaence of the well- 
known poet, Thomas Moore, and a warm 
friendship sprang up between the two families. 
At the end of 1831 he settled at Freshford, 
near Bath. 

In the spnng of 1828 the first volume of 
his * History ' was published, and Napier 
found himself at a bound placed high among 
historical writers. The proofs were sent to 
Marshal Soult, who had arranged that Count 
Dumas should make a French translation. 
Although the book was well received, John 
Murray the publisher lost money by it, and 
would not undert^e the publication of the 
second volume on the same terms. Napier 
determined to publish the remairider of the 
work on his own account. The second volume 
appeared in 1829, when he had a very large 
subscription list. The third volume was 
issued in 1831. Early in 1834 the fourth 
volume was published, and the description of 
the battle of Albuera and the sieges ot Bada- 
jos and Ciudad Hodrigo elicited unqualified 
admiration. Towards the end of 1836 Napier 
was introduced to the King of Oude*s minis- 
ter, then in London, who told him that his 
master had desired him to translate six 
works into Persian for him, and that Napier's 
* History * was one. In the spring of 1840 
Napier completed his ' History ' by the pub- 
lication of the sixth volume. The French 
translation by Count Mathieu Dumas was 
completed shortly after, and translations ap- 
peared in Spanish, Italian, and German. The 
work steadily grew in popularity, and has 
become a classic of the English language, 
while the previous attempts of Captain Ha- 
milton, of Southey, and of Lord Londonderry 
have been completely forgotten. It is com- 
mended to the general reader no less bv its 
impartial admiration for the heroes on both 
sides than by the spontaneity of its style. Its 
accuracy was the more firmly established by 
the inevitable attacks of actors in the scenes 
described, who thought the parts they had 
played undervalued. 

Napier was promoted colonel on 22 July 
1830. In April 1831 he declined, on account 
of his ill-health, his large family, and his 
small means, an offer of a seat in parliament 
from Sir Francis Burdett. Other offers 
came in succeeding years from Bath, Devixes, 
Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, West- 
minster, Oldham, and Kendal, but Napier de- 




clined them all. Nevertheless, he took great 
interest in politics. He was extremely demo- 
cratic in his views, and spoke with great effect 
at public meetings. Owing to the wide in- 
fluence exerted by his speeches, the younger 
and more determined reformers thought in 
1831 that Napier was well fitted to assume 
the leadership of a movement to estabhsh a 
national guard whereby to secure the success 
of the political changes then advocated by 
the radicals, and to save the country from 
the dangers of insurrection. Burdett was 
the president of the movement, and both 
Erskme Perry and Charles Uuller wrote to 
Napier pressing him to undertake the mili- 
tary leadership. Napier refused. * A military 
leader in civil commotions,* he said, * should 
be in good health, and free from personal 
ties. I am in bad health, and I have a family 
of eight children.' 

An insatiable controversialist, Napier, in 
letters to the daily papers or in pamphlets, 
waged incessant warfare with those who 
dissented from his views, besides writing 
many critical articles on historical or mili- 
tary topics. In 1832 Napier had published 
a pamphlet, 'Observations illustrating Sir 
John Moore's Campaign,' in answer to re- 
marks on Moore which appeared in Major 
Movie Sherer's * Recollections in the Penm- 
sula.' Napier offered to insert, as an appen- 
dix to his *Ilistory,' any reply Major Sherer 
might desire to make. 1 he offer was declined. 
Napier entered the lists on every occasion 
against the real or supposed enemies of Sir 
John Moore ; and when a biography, written 
by Moore's brother, appeared, Napier ex- 
pressed his dissatisfaction with it in a severe 
article on it in the * Edinburgh Review ' for 
April 1834. 

In the summer of 1838 Marshal Soult 
visited England as the representative of 
Louis-Philippe at the coronation of Queen 
Victoria. Napier wrote a very warm letter 
to the * Morning Chronicle' in defence of the 
marshal, who had been attacked in the * Quar- 
terly Review,' and he accompanied Soult on a 
tour to Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, 
and other places. In December Napier de- 
fended, in a letter to the * Times,' the cha- 
racter and intellect of Lady Hester Stanhope. 
Lady Hester appreciated his intervention, 
and a long and kindly correspondence ensued. 
During 1839 the Chartist agitation reached 
its climax in the deplorable Bull-ring riots 
at Birmingham. Napier regarded these pro- 
ceedings with abhorrence ; out in a letter to 
the Duke of Wellington he expressed the 
belief that the rioters were treated with a 
severity unjustifiable in a whig government, 
which, as he thought, had been ready to avail 

itself of the excesses of the people for its own 
advantage in 1832. 
On 29 May 1841 Napier was given a 

special grant of 150/. per annum for his dis- 
tinguished services. On 23 Nov. he was 
promoted major-general, and in February 
1842 was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Guernsey and major-general commanding 
the troops in Guernsey and Aldemey. lie 
landed at Guernsey on 6 April, and threw 
himself into his new duties heart and soul ; 
but he found much to discourage him. The 
defences were wretched, the militia wanted 
complete reorganisation, and the adminis- 
tration of justice was scandalous. In the 
five years of his government, despite local 
obstruction, he devised a scheme of defence 
which was generally accepted by a special 
committee from London of artillery and en- 

fineer officers, and was partially executed, 
le reorganised and rearmed the militia. He 
powerfully influenced the states of the island 
to adopt a new constitution, by which feuds 
between the country and town parties, which 
had lasted eighty years and impeded improve- 
ment, were set at rest. Finally, he procured 
the appointment of a royal commission of 
inquiry into the civil and criminal laws of 
the island, whose recommendations tended 
to remove the evils in the administration of 

At Guernsey he devoted his spare time to 
writing a history of the * Conquest of Scinde,' 
the achievement in which his orother Charles 
had recently been engaged. On the return of 
Lord EUenboroughfrom India he wrote, offer- 
ing to publish the political part of the his- 
tory first, and after some correspondence 
which established a lifelong frienaship be- 
tween him and EUenborough, this was done. 
In November 1844 the first part was pub- 
lished, and was read by the public with 
avidity; but, as with the * History of the 
Peninsular War,' it involved Napier in end- 
less controversy. There was this difference, 
however : the * History of the Conquest of 
Scinde ' was written with a purpose. It was 
not only the history of Sind, but the defence 
of a brother who had been cruelly misrepre- 
sented. The descriptions of the battles are 
not surpassed by any in the Peninsular war, 
but the calmness and impartiality of the 
historian are too often wanting. The publica- 
tion of the second part of the * Conquest of 
Scinde' in 1846 drew upon him further at- 
tacks, and the strength of his language in 
reply often exceeded conventional usage. 

At the end of 1847 Napier resigned his 
appointment as lieutenant-governor of Guern- 
sey. In February 1848 he was given the 
colonelcy of the 27th regiment of foot, and in 




May he was made a K.C.B. In the same 
year Napier wrote some * Notes on the State 
of Europe.' Towards the end of 1848 the 
Liverpool Financial Reform Association pub- 
lished some tracts attacking the system by 
which the soldiers of the army were clothed 
through the medium of the colonels of regi- 
ments. The association sent its tracts to 
Napier, himself a clothing colonel, upon which 
he wrote a series of six vindicatory letters to 
the * Times newspaper, dating 29 Dec. 1848 
to 1 Feb. 1849. They form Appendix VII. to 
Bruce's * Life of General Sir William Napier.' 
Napier moved in 1849 with his family to 
Scinde House, Clapham Park, where he 
spent the rest of his Fife. In 18o0 his brother 
Charles, then commander-in-chief in India, 
resigned his command because he had been 
censured by Lord Dalhousie. He arrived in 
England in March 1851. Napier was indig- 
nant, and, after Sir Charles Napier*s death, 
defended him in a pamphlet. 

In 1851 Napier completed and published 
the ' History of the Administration of Scinde.' 
This work, recording the gradual introduc- 
tion of good government into the country, 
contains some masterly narratives of the 
hill campaigns. In 185G Carlyle read it, and 
wrote to Napier : ' There is a great talent 
in this book, apart from its subject. The 
narrative moves on with strong, weighty 
step, like a marching phalanx, with the 
gleam of clear steel in them.* 

When the Birkenhead transport went 
down in Simon's Bav, Cape of Good Hope, 
Napier, impressed with the heroism of tiie 
officers, and seeing no step taken to reward 
the survivors, wrote letters to every member 
of parliament he knew in both houses. The 
result was that Henry Drummond brought 
the matter before the House of Commons, 
and the two surviving officers were promoted 
and all the survivors received pecuniary com- 
pensation for their losses. 

Napier was much affected by the death of 
the Duke of Wellington in September 1852. 
He was one of the general officers selected to 
carrv banderoles at the funeral. He watched 
at tlie death-bed of his brother Charles in 
August 1853, and succeeded liim in the colo- 
nelcy of the 2*2nd regiment. He had been 
Sromoted lieutenant-general on 11 Nov. 1851. 
•n 13 Oct. 1853 followed the death of his 
brother Henry, captain in the royal navy. 
Napier solaced himself in his grief by prepar- 
ing for the press the book which Charles had 
left not quite completed, viz. * Defects, Civil 
and Military, of the Indian Government,* and 
by commencing the story of Charles's life, 
which he published in 1857. The work is 
that of a partisan. 

During 1857 and 1858 Napier became in- 
creasingly feeble. He had long been unable 
to walk. In October 1858 he had a violent 
paroxysm of illness, and, although he rallied, 
he never recovered. He was promoted gene- 
ral on 17 Oct. 1859, and died on 10 Feb. i860. 
He was buried at Norwood. His wife sur- 
vived him only six weeks. She was a woman 
of great intellectual power, and assisted her 
husband in his literary labours. 

His only son, John, was deaf and dumb, 
but held a clerkship in the (][uarterma6ter- 
general's office at Dublin. His second sur- 
viving daughter married in 1886 the Earl of 
Arran. The third daughter died on 8 Sept. 
1856. In 1846 his fifth daughter married 
Philip Miles, esq., M.P., of Bristol. His 
youngest daughter, Norah, married,in August 
1864, H. A. Bruce, afterwards Lord Aberdare 
and Napier's biographer. 

Napier was noble and generous by nature, 
resembling his brother Charles in hatred of 
oppression and wrong, in a chivalrous defence 
of the weak, and a warm and active benevo- 
lence. He was an eloquent public speaker, 
but sometimes formed his judgments too 
hastily. He had a great love of art, and was 
no mean artist. His statuette of Alcibiades, 
in virtue of which he was made an honorary 
member of the Royal Academy, received the 
warm praise of Chantrey. When at Strath- 
fieldsaye, obtaining information from the 
Duke of Wellington for his * History,* he 
copied some of the paintings very success- 
fully, and made two very fine paintings of 
the duke*s horse Blanco. The activity of his 
mind to the very last was extraordinary, con- 
sidering the helpless state of his body. He 
was one of the first to advocate the right of 
the private soldier to share in the honours as 
he had done in the dangers of the battlefield. 
On the south side of the entrance to the north 
transept of St. Paul's Cathedral is a statue 
by G. G. Adams of Napier, with the simple 
inscription of his name, and the words, * His- 
torian of the Peninsular War.* On the other 
side of the entrance is a statue of his brother 
Charles. A portrait in crayons, by Mr. G. F. 
Watts, R.A., is in the possession of Napier's 
son-in-law. Lord Aberdare. 

Napier's chief works are : 1. * History of 
the War in the Peninsula and in the South 
of France from the year 1807 to the year 
1814,* including answers to some attacks 
in Robinson's • Life of Picton ' and in the 
* Quarterly Review ; ' with counter-re- 
marks to Mr. D. M. Perceval's * Remarks,' 
&c. ; justificatory pieces in reply to Colonel 
Gurwood, Mr. Alison, Sir W. Scott, Lord 
Beresford, and the * Quarterly Review,' 
6 vols. London, 1828-40, 8vo; 2nd edit.. 

Napier 87 Napier 

to which is prefixed a * Reply to Various i Napier in his History of the War in the 
Opponents, together with Observations Peninsida to the late Kight Hon. Spencer Peiv 
illustrating Sir John Moore*s Campaign/ 1 ceyal ; Beresford's Kefutation of Colonel 
vols. i. to ill., London, 1882-3, 8vo. No more Napier's Justification of his Third Volume, 1834 ; 
appears to have been published of this edition ; ^"g*« Reply to the Misrepresentations and 
3rd edit, of vols. i. to iii.. London, 1836-40, Aspersions on the Military Reputation of tlie 
8vo; 4th edit, of vol. i., London, 1848, 8vo. ! 1*^?, Lieutenant-general R. B. Long, contained 
A new revised edition, in 6 vols., appeared in IJ Further Strictures on those parts of Colonel 

London, 1861, 8vo; aUher edition, 3 vols. ^^^l'\'' ^^"^^^^ °V^%^^j^^°'^^^^,',!^"^^ 

T ^«,i^« ««j it V u lOTT Qo \- ' relate to Viscount Beresford,&c., 1832; Buist s 

London and ^ewlork 1877-82 J.arious Correction of a few of the Errors contained in 
epitomes and abridgments of the 'History' sir W. Napier's Life of Sir C. Napier, 1857; 
have appeared, the most valuable being Cruikshank's (the Elder) A Pop- gun fired off by 
Rapiers own* English Battles and Sieffesm George Cruikbhank in defence of the British 
the Peninsula,* 1862, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1866. Volunteers of 1803 against the uncivil attack 
2. * The Conquest of Scinde, with some upon that body by General Sir William Napit-r, 
Introductory Passages in the Life of Major- ' 1860 ; Uolme»s Four Famous Soldiers, 1889. 
general Sir Charles James Napier,* &c., An admirable critic-sm of Napier's History. 
2 vols. London, 1846, 8vo. 3. * History of in which Napier is described as the compeer of 
Sir Charles Napier's Administration of Thucydides, Csesnr, and Davila, was contributed 
Scinde and Campaign in the Cutchee Hills,' ^>' ^'- ^^^^ Stephens to the 9ih edit, of th« 
with maps and illustration, London, 1851, Encyclopaedia Britannica.] K. H. V. 
Hvo. 4. * The Life and Opinions of General NAPIER, WILLIAM JOHN, eighth 
Sir C.J. Napier,' 4 vols. I^ndon, 1867, 8vo ; Lord Napier (178(>-1834), captain in the 
2nd edition same year. In addition Napier navv, eldest son of Francis, seventh lord 
wrote innumerable controversial pamphlets Napier [q. v.1, was born on 13 Oct. 1786, 
and articles in the * Times ' and other news- and entered the navy in 1803 on board the 
papers. He contributed * an explanation of ChifFonne, with Captain Charles Adam [q. v.] 
the Battle of Meanee* to the tenth volume , During 1804 and 1805^ he was with Captain 
of the * Professional Papers of the Royal En- ; George Hope in the Defence, and in her was 
gineer8'(1844). present at the battle of Trafalgar. He was 
[The main authority is Bruce's (Lord Aber- then for a year in the Foudroyant, carrying 
dare's) Life of Geneml air W. F. P. Napier, with the flag of Sir John Borla^?e AVarren [q. v. , 
portraits, 2 vols. London, 1864; but War Office and was present at the capture of Linoiss 
Kecords and Despatches have been consulted for squadron on 13 March 180iJ. From November 
this article. The ccmtroversies excited by Napier's 1806 to September 1809 he was in the Im- 
wri tings are mainly (Jealt with in the following perieuse with Lord Cochrane, during his re- 
works:— Smythes LoixT^trangford : Observa- markable service on the coa>ts of France and 
tionson^ome passjigesin Lieutenant-colonel Na- ^ Spain, and in the attack on the French fleet 
piers Hist, of the Peninsular War, 1828; Further j^ Aix roads [see COCHRANE, Thomas, tenth 
Observat^ns occasioned by Lieutenant-colonel g^^^j^ ^^ Dundoxald]. He was promoted to 
J^apiersReply &c 1828; Sorells^ lieutenant on Oct. 1809, and for the 
Campaitrn of 1808-9 m the ^orth of Spam m . . j • ^i Y- *. ^i 
reference to some passages in Lieutenant-c.-lonel next two years served in the Kent, on the 
Napier's History of the War in the Peninsula, Mediterranean station. He was afterwards 
1828; Strictures on Certain Passages of Lieute- 
nant-colonel Napier's History of the Peninsular 
War which relate to the Military Opinions and 

with Captain Pringle in the Sparrowhawk, 
on thecoast of Catalonia, and being promoted, 
on 1 June 1812, to the command of the 

Conduct of General Lord Viscount Strangford, ; Goshawk, continued on the same ser\'ice till 
1831 ; Further Strictures on thoseparts of Colonel ; September 1813. He then went out to the 
Napier's History of the Peninsular War which '. coast of North America in the Erne, and, 
relate to Viscount Beresford, to which is added ' though promoted to post rank on 4 June 1814, 
a Report of the Opemtions in the Alemtejo and . remained in the same command till Septem- 
Spanish Estramadura during the Campaign of i jj^r 1816. when the Erne returned to England 
1811, hy Sir K. P'Urban, 1832 ; Gurwoods and was paid off. 

Major-general Gurwood and Colonel Gurwood, 
1 846 ; Reviews of the work entitled * The Con- 
quest of Scinde * ... by ... W. F. P. Napier, 
&c. (republished from the 'Bombay Monthly 
Tiroes' of March 1845), Bombay, 1845, 8vo ; 
The Scinde Policy — a few Comments on Major- 
general W. F. P. Napier's Defence of Lonl 
£llenborough'8 OoTemment, 1845 ; Perceval's 
Remarks on the Character ascribed by Colonel 

In the following March Napier married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Hon. Andrew 
James Cochrane Johnstone [q. v.], and cousin 
of his old captain, Lord Cochrane, and, set- 
tling down in Selkirkshire, applied himself 
vigorously to sheep-farming. In January 1818 
he was elected a tellow of the Iloval Society 
of Edinburgh. With great personal labour, 




After quitting the uniTeraitr he issued : 
8. ' Advice to a Student in tte University 
concerning the Qualifications and Duties oi' 
« Minister of the Gospel In the Church of 
England,' 1795. 4. 'The Duty of Church- 
wardens respecting the Church,' 1799; 2nd 
edit. 1800. 5. 'Sermons for the Use of 
SchooU and Families/ 1800, 180a, and !8(W. 
6. ' Advice 10 a Minister of the Gospel in 
the United Church of England and Ireland,' 
1801. 7. 'Sermons for the Use of Colleges, 
Schools, and Families,' 1806 and 1809. Xa- 
pleton contributed a set of Greek verses to 
the Oxford ' Epithalamia 'on the marriage of 
Oeorge III, and was the author of manv | 
single sermons, the most important of which , 
was that on the consecration of Bishop , 

(Foster's Alumni Oion. ; MancheBlfr School j 
KBKi8ter(ChethamSoc.).i.l53; Nichols's I llostr. 
of Lit. vi. 727-8 ; Gent, Mag., 1817,pt. ii.p.BSU; 
BoBse'a Collertanea Comob. p. 611 ; IlavorgHl's I 
Horeford luaoriptions. pp. xxi, 61-2 ; Ilavergiil'B 
Fssli Hereford, p. 66 ; AtU-n'a Bibt. Hrrelord. 
p. 96 ; Polwhelas Reminiscences, i. 107, Ji. 182 ; 
information through Mr. F. Madnn, Bodleian 1 
Lib. Oiford.] W. P. C. ' 

1803), United Irishman. [See Tasdi.] 

1839), Canadian insurgent, was bom in 1806 I 
Canadian family. He took an active part in 
the events preceding the Lower Canadian I 
rebellion of 1837, and was among the insur- 
senta defeated at St. Charles on 23 Nov. 
1837, but managed to escape to American 
soil. He now entered a band ot insurgents 1 

NARBROUaH, Sib JOHN (1640-1 688), 
admiral, son of Gregory Narbrough of Coct- 
thorpe, Norfolk, was baptised at Cockthorpe 
on 1 1 October 1640, His early career in the 
nav^ was closely associated with that of Sir 
Christopher Myngs [<j. v.], who was probably 
a relation or connection. Whether he first 
went lo sea with Myngs is, however, doubt- 
ful. He has himself recorded that he mada 
more than one voyage to the coast of Guinea 
and to St. Helena, apparently in the mei^ 
chant service ; he mentions also having been 
in the West Indies, presumably with Myngs. 
In 1064 he was appointed to he lieutenant 
of the Portland, and during the n 

) Hoyal Oak, 

feated and driven beck by the loyalists at 
Moore's Comer on 28 Feb. 1838. He then 
joined another body of insurgents, and with 
them made afresh attack on Canada in March 
1838, He was taken prisoner at St, Eustaclie, 
nineteen miles from Montreal, and brought 
a cajitive to St, Jean, 

harbonnewas released from prison in July, 
but immediately joined the fresh rebel army 
organised across the frontier bv llobert Nel- 
aon in the autumn of 1838. 'He took part 
in a number of raids on the Canadian terri- 
tory, the chief of which was checked bv the 
loyalists at Odeitown Church on 9 Nov, 1838. 
Narbonne was captured aftert he Ittlterdefent, 
and taken lo Montreal. He was tried there 
for high treason, convicted, and hanged on 
16 Feb. 1839. 

[Applston's Cyelopsdia of American Bio- 
graphy; HiMorlet of Canada by Qaracau and 
Wilhro*; Canadian State" ' " 

Dada by Qaracau am 
Triali.] Q. P. M-i. 

, Triumph, Fairfai and Victory, and when he 
I was mortally wounded on 4 June 1666. For 
I bis conduct in this battle Narbrough waa 
I promoted to the command of the Assurance, 
irom which he waa moved some mouths lat«r 
to the Bonaventure. In May 1669 he waa 
appointed to the Sweepstakes, of 300 tons, 
with 36 suns and 80 men, for a voyage to 
I the South Seas, and sailed from the ^amea 
on 26 Sept. In Xovember 1670 the Sweep- 
stakes passed through the Straits of Magel* 
Ian, and on 15 Dec. arrived in Valdivia Bay, 
where, after some friendly intercourse with 
I the Spaniards, two of her officers, with the 
interpreter and a seaman, being on shore with 
a message, were forcibly detained. The go- 
I remor alleged tliat he was acting on orders 
from the governor-general of Chili, and de- 
clared his inabilitif to let them go. Nar- 
brough attributed it to the old prohibitive 
policy of (he Span iarda, and believed that 
chey wished lo sei;:e the ship. It is probable 
that there was also some idea of reprisal for 
the ravages of the buccaneers in the \\'o8t 
Indies and on the Spanish Main [cf.MOBOAN, 
Si K Henri]. Being unable to recover his 
men, having neither force nor authority to 
wage a war of reprisals, end finding the 
Spanish ports thus closed tohim, Narbrough 
judged it beM to return ; and accordingly, 
repassing the Straits in January, he arrived 
in England in June 1671. 

In 167:^ be was second captain of the 
Prince, the flagshlpof the Uuke of York, and 
in the battle of Solebay, 28 May, was left in 
command when Sir John Cox, the first cap- 
tain, was slain, and the Duke of Vork shifted 
his tlsg to the St, Michael. By Narhrough'a 
exertions the ship was fit for service again 
in a few hours, and the duke rehoisted hia 
flag on board the same evening. Narbrough 
wastl • - '- - .,, „ . 

but 01 




November he sailed for the Mediterranean in 
charge of convoy. By the end of May 1673 
he was back in England, and was appointed 
to the St. Michael, but was shortly after- 
wards moved into the Henrietta, which he 
commanded in the action of 11 Aug. On 
17 Sept. he was promoted to be rear-admiral 
of the red, and on the 30th was knighted by 
the king at Whitehall. 

In October 1674 he was sent out to the 
Mediterranean as admiral and commander- 
in-chief of a squadron against the Tripoli 
corsairs. As the bey paid no attention to the 
complaints which were laid before him Nar- 
brough blockaded the port, and through the 
summer and autumn of 1076 captured or de- 
stroyed several of the largest Tripoli frigates ; 
on 14 Jan. 1676-6 the boats of the squa- 
dron under the immediate command of Lieu- 
tenant Shovell of the Harwich, the flagship, 
forced their way into the harbour of Tripoli, 
and there burnt four men-of-war; ana in 
February four others were very roughly 
handled at sea, though they managed to es- 
cape into port. These successive losses brought 
the bey to terms ; he consented to release all 
English captives, to pay 80»000 dollars as 
compensation for injuries, and to grant seve- 
ral exclusive commercial privileges. The 
treaty was afterwards ratified by the new 
bey whom a popular revolution placed at the 
head of the government, and Narbrough re- 
turned to England early in 1677. 

Within a very few months he was ordered 
back to the Me(iiterranean to punish and re- 
strain the piracies of the Algerine corsairs. 
In the autumn of 1677 and during 1678 he 
waged a successful war of reprisals against 
the ships of Algiers, blockading their ports, 
destroying their men-of-war, seizing their 
merchant ships, and finally, in November 
1678, capturing five large frigates which the 
corsairs had newly fitted out in the hopes of 
recouping their losses. This so far oroke 
the spirit of the Algerines that in May 1679 
Narbrough was able to leave the command 
with Vice-admiral Herbert [see Herbert, 
Arthur, Earl of Torrington], and return 
to England with a g^reat part of the fleet. 

In March 1680 he was appointed a com- 
missioner of the navy, and so he continued 
till September 1687, when he hoisted his 
flag in the Foresight as commander-in-chief 
of a small squadron sent to the West Indies. 
In the end of November he was at Barbados, 
and, at the desire of the Duke of Albemarle, 
went to the scene of a wreck near Cape 
Samana in St. Domingo, where an attempt 
was being made to recover the treasure [see 
Phipps, Sir William; Dartmouth MSS.; 
Hist, MSS. Comm. Uth Rep. v. 136-6]. 

Here he was joined by Lord Mordaunt, then 
in command of a Dutch squadron, and wish- 
ing, it has been supposed, to sound Narbrough 
as to his adhesion to the reigning king [see 
MoRDAUKT, Charles, third Earl op Peter- 
borough]. This * treasure fishing * was carried 
on with some success for several months ; 
but the ships became very sickly. Narbrough 
himself caught the fever, and died on 27 May 
1688. It was proposed to embalm the body, 
and so take it to England ; but, that being 
found impossible, it was buried at sea the same 
afternoon, the bowels being carried to Eng- 
land and buried in the church of Knowlton, 
near Deal, in which parish he had acquired 
an estate, where a handsome monument 
bears the inscription, * Here lie the remains 
of Sir John Narbrough.* 

Narbrough was twice married. First, on 
9 April 1677^ at Wembury in Devonshire, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Josias Calmady ; she 
died on 1 Jan. 1677-8, being, according to 
the inscription on her monument in W' em- 
bury Church, 'mightily afflicted with a cough, 
and big with child.* "Secondly, on 20 June 
1681, at Wanstead in Essex, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Captain John Hill of Shadwell ; 
she survived him, afterwards married Sir 
Clowdisley Shovell [q. v.], and died lo April 
1782. By his second wife he had five chil- 
dren, of whom two sons and a daughter sur- 
vived him. The elder son, John, born in 
1684, created a baronet 15 Nov. 1688, and 
his brother James, bom in 1686, were both 
serving with their stepfather, Shovell, as 
lieutenants of the Association, and were lost 
with him on 22 Oct. 1707. The daughter, 
Elizabeth, bom in 1082, married in 1701 
Thomas d'Aeth, created a baronet in 1716, 
in whose family the Knowlton property still 
remains. A portrait of Narbrough, believed 
to be the only one, is at Knowlton Court. 

[Chamock's Biog. Nav. i. 245 ; A particular 
Narrative of the burning in the Port of Tripoli, 
four men-of- war belonging to those Corsairs by Sir 
John Narbrough,Adniiralof hisMajesty sFleet in 
the Mediterrunc>in,on the 14th of January 1G75-6, 
together with an Account of his taking afterwards 
five barks laden with corn, and of his farther 
action on that coast, published by Authority, 
1676. Narbrough's Journal is printed in An 
Account of several late Voyages and Discoveries 
to the South and North : Printed for Samuel 
Smith and Benjamin Walford, 1694. The original 
is in tlie Bodleian Library. See alj*o Duckett's 
Naval Commissioners, 1 660-1 760, and Hist. MSS. 
Comra. 12lh Rep. App. vii. passim (Fleming 
MSS. at Bydal). The family history is jjiven 
in a very full notice by the Hon, Robert Mar- 
sham-Townshend in Notes and Queries, 7th scr. 
vi. 602. The Mariner's Jewel, or a Pocket Com- 
pass for the Ingenious . . . from a MS. of Sir 




John Narbrough's and methodised by James 
Lightbody, seems to be partly pocket-book 
memoranda and partly common -place book]. 

J. K. Li. 

NARES, EDWARD (1702-1841), mis- 
cellaneous writer, bom in London in 1762, 
was the third and youngest son of Sir George 

master of the rolls. Edward was admitted 
at Westminster School on 9 July 1770, but 
was not upon the foundation, and left in 1779. 
On 22 March in that year he matriculated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 
1783, M.A. 1789. From 2 Aug. 1788 to his 
marriage in 1797 he held a fellowship at his 
college, and about 1791 he was living, as libra- 
rian, at Blenheim Palace, where he played in 
Erivate theatricals with the daughters of the 
>uke of Marlborough, and one of them, with 
whom he is said to have eloped, subsequently 
became his wife. In 1792 he was ordained, 
and was almost immediately appointed to the 
vicarage of St. Peter-in-the-east, Oxford. On 
the nomination of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury he was collated to the rectory of Bid- 
denden, Kent, in 1798, and retained it until 
his death. Xares was Bampton lecturer in 
1805, and select preacher in 1807, 1814, and 
1825. From 1813 to 1841 he filled the regius 
professorship of modem history ftt Oxford, to 
which he was appointed by the crown, on the 
recommendation of Lord Liverpool. G. V. Cox 
remarks that he took his prolessorial duties 
easily, not always attracting an audience, 

* though he was an accomplished scholar, a 
perfect gentleman, and an amusing writer.* 
His range of knowledge was wide, and he is 
said to have been a friend of J. A. l)e Luc 
[q. v.], the geologist. He died at Biddenden 
on 20 Aug. 1841. Nares married at Henley- 
on-Thames 16 April 1797 Lady Georgina 
Charlotte, third daughter of George Churchill 
Spencer, duke of Marlborough. She died at 
Bath on 15 Jan. 1802, at the age of thirty- 
one. His second wife, whom he married in 
June 1803, was Cordelia, second daughter of 
Thomas Adams of Osbome Lodge, Cran- 
brook, Kent. He had issue by both wives. 
He was nephew, as well a§ trustee and exe- 
cutor under his will, to John Strange, British 
resident at Venice, a great collector of hooka 
and curiosities. 

Nares's best known work was his monu- 
mental * Memoirs of the Life and Adminis- 
tration of William Cecil, Lord Burghley,' 
1828-31, in three volumes. These enormous 
tomes were reviewed by Macaulay in the 

* Edinburgh Review ' for April 1832, and were 
described by him as consisting of about two 

thousand closely printed quarto pages, occu- 
pying fifteen hundred inches cubic measure, 
and weighing sixty pounds avoirdupois. The 
author tried to retaliate in ' A few Observa- 
tions on the " Edinburgh Review '* of Dr. 
Xares's Memoirs of Lord Burghley.' 

His other writings are: 1 * Thinks-I-to- 
myself. A serio-ludicro, tragico-comico tale, 
written bv Thinks-I-t o-my self who?* 1811, 

2 vols.; 8th edit. 1812; another edit. 1824. 

2. * I says, says I. A Novel, by Thinks-T- 
to-myself,* 1812, 2 vols.; 2nd edit. 1812. 
These novels, which contain much censure of 
fashionable and social life, have been praised 
for their * drj' humour and satirical pleasantry.' 

3. * Heraldic Anomalies. By it matters not 
who,' 1823, 2 vols. 2nd edit, (anon.) 1824. 
A work of many curious anecdotes. 4. * eU 
0€Of eU fie<riTriSf or an Attempt to show how 
far the Notion of the Plurabty of Worlds is 
consistent with the Scriptures,* 180L The 
first impression was issued anonymously in 
July 1801. 5. 'View of the Evidences of 
Christianity at the Close of the Pretended 
Age of Reason.* Bampton lectures, 1805. 
6. * Remarks on the Version of the New 

. Testament latelv edited by the Unitarians,' 
1810; 2ridedit.l814,with letter to the Rev. 
Francis Stone, oriffinally written and pub- 
lished in 1807 on his support of unitarianism. 
Some portion of these remarks appeared in 
the * British Critic* 7. * Discourses on the 
three Creeds and on the Homage offered to 
our Saviour,* 1819. 8. * Man as known to 
us theologically and geologically.* 

Nares added in 1822 to Ijord Woodhouse- 
lee 8 * Elements of General History, Ancient 
and Modern,* a third volume, bringing the 
compilation down to the close of the reign of 
George III, which was reissued and continued 
by successive editors in 1840 and 1855. He 
supplied in 1824 a series of historical pre- 
faces for an issue of the bible, ' embellisned 
by the most eminent British Artists,' 1824, 

3 vols, fol., and he contributed a preface to 
an edition of Burnet's * History of the Re- 
formation,' which came out at Oxford in 1829. 
He was also the author of many single ser- 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag., 1797» 
pt. i. p. 349, 1802 pt. i. p. 93, 1803 pt. ii. p. 689» 
1841 pt. ii. pp. 435-6; Welch's West. School, 
p. 406 ; Barker and Stenning's West. School Re- 
gister, p. 168; Le Neve's Fasti, iii 630; Nichols's 
lUnstr. of Lit. vii. 614, 634-6; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 230, 6th ser. ix. 63-4, 275, 
8th ser. ii. 91-2; G. V. Cox's Eecollections of 
Oxford, 2nd edit. pp. 9, 162.] W. P. C. 

NARES, Sir GEORGE (1716-1786), 
judge, bom at Hanwell, Middlesex, in 1716, 
was the younger son of George Nares of 




Albury, Oxfordshire, steward to the Earl of 
Abingdon. James Nares [q. v.] was his elder 
brother. He was educated at Magdalen Col- 
lege School, and having been admitted a 
member of the Inner Temple on 19 Oct. 1738, 
was called to the bar on 12 June 1741. He 
appears to have practised chiefly in the crimi- 
nal courts. He defended Timothy Murphy, 
charged with felony and forgery, in January 
1763 (Howell, State TriaU, 1813, xix. 702), 
and Elizabeth Canning, charged with per- 
jury, in April 1754 (ib, xix. 451). He^ re- 
ceived the degree of the coif on 6 Feb. 1759, 
and in the same year was appointed one of 
the king's Serjeants. He was employed as 
one of the counsel for the crown in several 
of the cases arising out of the seizure of 
No. 45 of the * North Briton * (1*. xix. 1153; 
Harris, Zi/<? of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke^ 
ia47, iii. 349^. At the general election in 
March 1768 ne was returned to the House 
of Commons for the city of Oxford, of which 
he was already recorder. He spoke in favour 
of Lord Barrington's motion ior the expul- 
sion of Wilkes on 3 Feb. 1769, and declared 
that he would * rather appear before this 
house as an idolater of a minister than a 
ridiculer of his Maker' (Cavendish, De- 
bates, i. 156). On the delivery of the great 
seal to Bathurst, Nares was appointed a 
justice of the common pleas, and was sworn 
in at the lord-chancellor's house in Dean 
Street, Soho, on 26 Jan. 1771 (SiR William 
Blackstgne, Reports, 1781, ii. 734-5). He 
was knighted on the ifollowing day. 

Nares took part in the hearing of Brass 
Crosby's case (Howell, State Trials, xix. 
1152), Fabrigas v, Mostyn (ib, xx. 183), and 
Sayre v. Earl of Rochford (ib, xx. 1316). A 
number of his judgments will be found in 
the second volume of Sir William Black- 
stone's * Reports.' After holding office for 
more than fifteen years, Nares died at Rams- 
gate on 20 July 1786, and was buried at Evers- 
ley, Hampshire, where there is a monument 
to his memory (Nichols, Illustrations of the 
Literary History of the Eiyhteenth Century, 
vii. 635). He married, on 23 Sept. 1751, 
Mary, third daughter of Sir John Strange, 
master of the rolls, who died on 6 Aug. 1782, 
aged 55. Their eldest son, John, a magistrate 
at Bow Street and a bencher of the Inner 
Temple, died on 16 Dec. 1816, and was the 
grandfather of Sir George Strong Nares, 
K.C.B., the well-known Arctic explorer. 
George Strange, their second son, became a 
captain in the 70th regiment of foot, and 
died in the West Indies in 1794. Their 
youngest son, Edward, is noticed separately. 
Nares was created a D.C.L. 01 Oxford 
University on 7 July 1773. He is ridiculed 

by Foote in his farcical comedy of the * Lame 
Lover,* under the character of Serjeant Cir- 
cuit. There is a mezzotint engraving of 
Nares by W. Dickinson after N. Hone. 

[Foss's Judges of England. 1864, viii. 348-9 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1751 p. 427, 1782 p. 406. 1786 pt. 
ii. p. 622; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1716-1886; 
Martin's Masters of the Bench of the Inner 
Temple, 1883, p. 92; Alumni Westmon. 1852, 
p. 405; Official Return of Lists of Members of 
Parliament, pt. ii. p. 14 1 ; Haydn's Book of Dig- 
nities, 1890; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ii. 29, 
91, 173,478.] G. F. R. B. 

NARES, JAMES (1715-1788), composer, 
son of George Nares and brother of Sir 
George Nares [q. v.] the judge, was bom at 
Stanwell, Middlesex, in 1715, and baptised 
19 April (parish register). The family re- 
movea to Oxfordshire, and he became a 
chorister in the Ghapel Roval under Dr. Croft 
and Bernard Gates. He subsequently studied 
under Dr. Pepusch, and, after acting as 
deputy organist at St. George's Chapel, 
"Windsor, was in 1734 appointed organist of 
York Cathedral. By the interest of Dr. 
Fountayne, dean of York, he was in 1756 
chosen to succeed Dr. Greene as organist 
and composer to the king ; and in 1757 gra- 
duated Mus. Doc. at Cambridge. In the same 
year he succeeded Gates as master of the 
children of the Chapel Koyal, and held the 
post until ill- health compelled him to resign 
in July 1780. He died 10 Feb. 1783, and 
was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
He married Miss Bacon of York, who sur- 
vived him forty years, and by her he had 
four children. The eldest son, Robert, is 
noticed separately. 

It is as a composer for the church that 
Nares is now known, and, although he has 
left nothing of great merit, several of his 
anthems and other pieces are still in use. 
They include three sets of harpsichord lessons, 
two treatises on singing, * A Regular Intro- 
duction to Playing on the Harpsichord or 
Organ ' (1759), six organ fugues, and twenty 
anthems composed for the Chapel Royal 
(1778). A * Morning and Evening Service 
and Six Anthems' were published in 1788. 
This volume contains his portrait, engraved 
by W. Ward after Engleheart, setate 65, and 
a biographical notice by his son, which is 
reprintea in the * Harmonicon,' 1829. His 
compositions are to be found in Arnold's 
i ' Cathedral Music ' (vol. iii.), Steven's * Sacred 
Music,' and Warren's collections. 

[His soD*R biographical notice and Harmoni- 
COD as above ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; Didot's 
Noarelle Biographie G^n^rale, xxxvii. ; Biogra- 
phical Diet, of Musicians, 1824 ; Brown's and 
Groves Dictionaries of Musiciani; Love's Scot- 

Nares 93 Nares 

tish Church 
AbJy Williams' 

J. C. II. 

following preferment 
Le was vicar of Dalby, Leicestershire, 1796 ; 
rector of Shamford, Leicestershire, 1798 to 

NARES, ROBERT (1753-1829), philo- 

legist, was bom on 9 June 1753 at York, of 1799; canon residentiary of Lichfield from 
the minster of which city his father, James '• 1798 till his death; prebend of St. Paul's 

Nares [q. v.], M us. Doc, was then organist. Cathedral, 1798; archoeacon of Stafford from 

He was tne nephew of Sir George Nares [q. v.] 28 April 1801 till his death: vicar of St. 

the judge. He was sent to Westminster Marys, Reading (having in 1805 resigned 

School, where in 1767 he was elected a king's Easton-Mauduit), from 1806 till 1818, when 

scholar. In 1771 he was elected to a student- he exchanged to the rectory of Allhallows, 

ship at Christ Church, Oxford, where ho gra- London Wall. There he ministered till 

duated B.A. 1775, M.A. 1778. From 1779 
to 1783 he was tutor to Sir Watkin and 

within a month of his death, which took 
place at his house, 22 Hart Street, Blooms- 

Charles Williams Wynn, living with them bury, London, on 23 March 1829. A monu- 
in London and at Wynnstuy, Wrexham. ' ment bearing some verses by W. L. Bowles 
Qeorge Colman the younger mentions him ■ was erected to him in Lichfield Cathedral. 
as one of the actors in the Wynnstay thea- Nares is described by Beloe (Nichols, Lit, 
tricals of that period. In 1782 he was pre- ! Illuatr. vii. 685-7) as a sound and widely 
seated by his college to the 8mall living of ; read scholar, and as a witty and cheerful 
Easton Mauduit, Northamptonshire, and in { companion to his intimates (cp. ib. vii. 584). 

From 1780 to 1788 he was usher at West- youngest daughter of Thomas Bay ley of 
minster School, act ing as tutor to the Wynna, Chelmsford, died 1 785 ; secondly, a daughter 
who had been sent to the school. In 1787 of Charles Fleetwood, died 1794; thirdly, the 
he was appointed chaplain to the Duke of youngest daughter of Dr. Samuel Smith, 
York, and from 1788 till 1803 was assistant head-master of Westminster School, who 
preacher at Lincoln's Inn. survived her husband. He left no children. 

In 1793 Nares established the * British i Nares's principal publications, excluding 
CritiCj'and edited the first forty-two numbers separately issued sermons, are: J. * An Es- 
(May 1793-December 1813), in conjunction ; say on the Demon or Divination of Socrates,' 
with the Rev. William Beloe [«i. v.], his life- ' London, 1782, 8vo. 2. * Elements of Or- 
long friend. In 1795 he was appointed as- thoepy, containing. . .the whole Analogy of 
sistant librarian in the department of manu- the English Language, so far as it relates to 
scripts at the British Museum, and in 1799 Pronunciation, Accent, and Quantity/ Lon- 
was promoted to be keeper of manuscripts, i don, 1784, 8vo. 3. * General Rules for the 

Nares was a member in 1791 of the Na- I 8vo. 5. * A short Account of the Character 
tural History Society in I-*ondon {ih. vi. and Reign of Ix)uis XVI,' 1793, 8vo. 6.* A 
835), and was elected" fellow of the Society i Connected and Chronological View of the 
of Antiquaries in 1795, and fellow of the ' Prophecies relating to the Christian Church' 
Royal Society in I8(U. He was a founder (the Warburtonian I^ecture, 18(XJ-2), Lon- 
of the Royal Society of Literature and vice- don, 1805, 8vo. 7. 'Essays. . .chiefly re- 
president in 1823. In 1822 he published his printed,' 2 vols. London, 1810, 8vo. 8. ' The 
principal work, the * Glossary ' (rso. 9 below), Veracity of the Evangelists demonstrated by 
a book described in 1859 by Halliwell and a comparative View of their Histories,' Ix)n- 
Wright as indispensable to readers of Eliza- ' don, 1816, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1819, 12mo. 9. * A 
bethan literature, and it contains nume- Glossary, or Collection of Words, Phrases^ 
Tous sensible criticisms of the text of Shake- Names, and Allusions to Customs, Proverbs, 
speare. Nares says that he collected the &c., which have been thought to require 
Tarious illustrative passages in a somewhat Illustration in the Works of English Authors, 
desultory way during a long course of reading, j particularly Shakespeare and his Contem- 
The correspondence of Nitres with Bishop poraries,' London, 1822, 4to; another edit. 
Percy and others, dealing with a variety of Stralsund, 1825, 8vo ; edit, by Halliwell and 




Wright, London, 1869, 8vo; also London, 
1888, 8vo. * A Thanksgiving for Plenty and 
Warning against Avarice,' published in 1801, 
was reviewed by Sydney Smith in the * Edin- 
burgh Review for 1802, and ridiculed as 

In 1790 Nares assisted in completing 
Bridges' * History of Northamptonshire/ In 
1798, in conjunction with W. Tooke and W. 
Beloe, he revised the ' General Biographical 
Dictionary,' himself undertaking vols. vi. 
viii. X. xii. and xiv. He also edited Dr. W. 
Vincent's 'Sermons' (1817), and Purdy's 
* Lectures on the Church Catechism' (181.5), 
writing memoirs. He was a contributor to 
the * Gentleman's Magazine,' the * Classical 
Journal,' and the * Arcnseologia.' 

[Preface to Nares's Glossary, ed. Halliwell and 
AVright; Gent. Mag. 1829, pt. i. pp. 370, 371 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustrations, vii. 698 ff. : Biog. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 248 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. ; 
Boswell's Johnson, ed. Hill, iv. 389 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] W. W. 

FORD, ROBERT {d. 1226), constable of 
Dover Castle, was the son of Sir Richard de 
Nerford, by his wife. Christian, and inherited 
from his parents Nerford Manor in Norfolk 
(Blomefield, Hist of Norfolk^ v. 119 ; he 
does not name his authority). He married 
Alice, daughter and coheiress of John 
Pouchard, and so came into possession of 
lands between Creyk and Burnham Thorp. 
On a meadow there called Lingerescroft he 
founded a little chapel (1206) called Sancta 
3Iaria de Pratis {^lon. Anf/l. vi. 487). His 
wife's sister Joan married Reyner de Burgh, 
and her two sons were Hubert de Bui^h [q. v.] 
and Geoifrey de Burgh, bishop of Ely {Dod^- 
worth MS. cxxx. f. 3, and the Harl, MS. 
294, f. 148^; see, too, Blomefield, x. 260, 
quoting Pliilipps MS.) To his relationship 
with Hubert, Karford no doubt owed the 
favour of King John ; in October 12 1 o John 
ordered Hubert de Burgh to give Narford 
seisin of lands in Kent (Hot, Claus. i. 280). 
On 18 March 1210 John addressed a patent 
to Narford as baililT at one of the seaports 
(Rot. Pat. p. 170^); probably he was a cus- 
todian of Dover Castle, of which Iluljert de 
Burgh was chief constable (Richard de 
Coot} esh ALL, ed. Stevenson, p. 185 ; cf. Hot. 
(laus. p. 2o9). When Hubert de Burgh 
deft'Hted Eustace le Moine in the naval battle 
of the Straits of Dover, fought on St. Bar- 
tholomew's day (24 Aug. 1216), Narford was 
present ; and, to commemorate the victory, 
he founded, at his wife's desire, a hospital for 
thirteen poor men, one master, and four chap- 
lains, by the side of his earlier foundation at 

Lingerescroft. His cousin Geoffrey, bishop 
of Ely, dedicated the house to St. Bartholo- 
mew in 1221 (Mon. Angl. vi. 487). After 
Nar ford's death the master, at his widow's 
wish, took the Austin habit, and was called 
Prior of the Canons of St. Mary de Pratis ; 
in 1230 Henry III accepted the patronage of 
the house and made it an abbey (ib. vi. 4yB8). 

When Hubert de Burgh became chief 
justiciar, Narford was made chief constable 
of Dover (ib, vi. 487), and received a salary 
of twenty marks a year (Rot. Claus. i. 614). 
In 1220 he received a precept to summon 
the barons of the Cinque Ports to his court 
at Shepway (Pat. 5, Hen. 3, quoted by J. 
Lyon, ii. 203). 

In March 1224 he received payments as 
an ambassador to foreign parts (Rot, Claus. 
i. 582 seq.) Narford died in 1225, and his 
son Nicholas succeeded to his estates (ib, 
ii. 40). 

[Rotuli LiterArum Clausarum, vols. i. ii.; 
Rot. Lit. Patentium, ed. Hardy; Lyon's Hist, 
of Dover, ii. 203; Blomefteld's Hist, of Nor- 
folk, vols. V. X. ; Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 
486 seq ; Harl. MS. 294, f. 148 b, No. 2898.] 

M. B. 

NARRIEN, JOHN (1782-1860), astro- 
nomical writer, was the son of a stonemason, 
and was born at Chertsey, in Surrey, in 1782. 
He kept for some years an optician's shop in 
Pall Mall, and his talents having procured 
him friends and patronage, he was nominated 
in 1814 one of the teaching staff of the Royal 
Military College at Sandhurst. Promoted 
in 1820 to be mathematical professor in the 
senior department, he was long the virtual 
head of the establishment. His useful and 
honourable career terminated with his re- 
signation, on the failure of his eyesight, in 
1858. He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1840, and retired from the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1858. He died at 
Kensington on 30 March 1860, aged 77. He 
had lost his wife eight years previously. 

He published in 1833 * An Historical Ac- 
count of the Origin and Progress of Astro- 
nomy,* a work of considerable merit and 
research; and compiled a series of mathe- 
matical text-books for use in Sandhurst Col- 
lege, of which the principal were entitled 

* Elements of Geometry,' London, 1842 ; 

* Practical Astronomy and Geodesy,* 1845 ; 
and * Analytical Geometry,* 1846. He ob- 
served the partial solar eclipse of 6 May 1845, 
at the observatory of Sandhurst College 
(Monthly Notices, vi. 240). 

[Monthly Notices Koyal Astron. Soc. xviii. 
lOu, xxi. 102; Ann. Reg. 1860, p. 475; Alli- 
bone's Critical Diet, of Eiifflish Literature ; Ob- 
servatory, xi. 300 (W. T. Lynn).] A. M. C. 




NARY.CORXELILJS (1660-1738), Irish 
catholic divine, was bom in co. Kildare in 
1660, and received his early education at 
Naas in the same county. He was ordained 
jiriest by the Bishop of Ossory at Kilkenny 
in 1682, and soon afterwards entered the 
Irish College in Paris, of which he was sub- 
sequently pro visor for seyen years. While 
in Paris he graduated doctor of divinity in 
the university in 1694, and he was also twice 
appointed procurator of the German or Eng- 
lish * Nation ' at the university of Paris, and, 
OS such, was for the time being a member 
of the academic governing body. Leaving 
France about 1006, he went to London, where 
he acted for a while as tutor to the Earl of 
Antrim, an Irish catholic peer ; but after- 
wards removing to Dublin, he was arrested 
and imprisoned for his relisrion in 1702. In 
the ; Registry of Popisli Clergy ' for 1703-4 
he is described as popish parish priest of 
St. Michan, and so he remained until hi 3 
death, at the age of seventy-eight, on 3 March 
1738. He is described by Harris, the editor 
of Sir James Ware's * Works,* as * a man of 
learning and of a good character.* 

An anonymous mezzotint portrait is men- 
t ioned by Bromley. 

He was the author of the following works : 
1. *A Modest and True Account of the 
Chief Points in Controversy between the 
Koman Catholicks and the Protestants,* Ant- 
werp and London, 1699, 8vo. 2. 'Prayers 
nndMeditations,*Dublin,1705,12mo. 3.*'The 
New Testament translated into English from 
the Latin, with Marginal Notes,' Ijondon, 
1705 and 1718, 8vo. 4. * Rules and Godly 
Instructions,* Dublin, 1716, 12mo. 5. *A 
Brief History of St. Patrick's Purgatory 
and its Pilgrimages ; written in favour of 
those who are curious to know the Particu- 
lars of that famous Place and Pilgrimage, so 
much celebrated in Antiquity,* Dublin, 1718, 
12mo. 6. * A Catechism for the use of the 
Parish,* Dublin, 1718, l2mo. 7. * A Letter 
to His Grace Edward, I^rd Archbishop of 
Tuam, in answer to his charitable Address 
to all who are of the Communion of the 
Church of Rome,* Dublin, 1719, 1720,1728, 
8vo. 8. *A New History of the World, 
containing an Historical and Chronological 
Account of the Times and Transactions from 
the Creation to the Birth of Christ, accord- 
ing to the Computation of the Septuagint,* 
Dublin, 1720, fol. 9. ' The Case of the 
Catholics of Ireland,* Dublin, 1724. 

He was also the author of several contro- 
versial pamphlets and the translator of 
others, and left in manuscript a work en- 
titled * An Argument showintr the Difficul- 
ties in Sacred Writ as well in the Old as 

New Testament ; * he is also stated by Ander- 
son (Sketches of the Native Irish) to have 
published a short ' History of Ireland.* 

[Harris's Works of Sir James Ware; Bat- 
tersby's Dublin Jesuits ; Anderson's Sketches of 
the Native Irish; Bolleshoim's Greschichte der 
Katholischen Kii*che in Irland, vol. ii.; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography.] P. L. N. 

NASH, FREDERICK (1782-1856), 
water-colour painter, was bom in Lambeth, 
London, on 28 March 1782. He was the son 
of a builder, and at an early age became a 
pupil of Thomas Malton the younger [q. v.], 
although a wealthy relative had offered to 
give him a legal education. He studied also 
at the Royal Academy, and began to exhibit 
there in 1800 by sending a drawing of ' The 
North Entrance of Westminster Abbey.* 
He was afterwards employed by Sir Robert 
Smirke [q. v.] the architect, and between 1801 
and 1809 he made some of the drawings for 
Britton and Brayley's * Beauties of England 
and Wales,* and for Britton's' Architectural 
Antiquities.* In 1807 he was appointed 
architectural draftsman to the Society of 
Antiquaries. He had three drawings in 
the first exhibition of the Associated Artists 
in Water-Colours in 1808, and in 1809 ex- 
hibited six drawings as a member of that 
short-lived society. These included two in- 
teriors of Westminster Abbey, the west front 
of St. Paul's, and a large drawing of the 
choir of Canterbury Cathedral. In 1810 he 
was elected an associate, and six montlis 
later a full member, of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours ; he seceded in 
1812, in consequence of his disapproval of 
certain changes made in its constitution, but 
he was re-elected in 1824. 

His first published work was * A Series of 
Views of the Collegiate Chapel of St. George 
at Windsor,* 1805, drawn and etched by 
himself, and finished in aquatint by Frederick 
C. Lewis and others. This was followed 
by 'Twelve Views of the Antiquities of 
London,* 1805-10. In 1811 he exhibited a 
fine drawing of the * Interior of Westmin- 
ster Abbey,* with a funeral procession, which 
was highly praised by Benjamin West, and 
in 1812 some of the drawings which were 
engraved in Ackermann's * History of the 
University of Oxford,* 1814. In 1813 and 
1815 appeared the drawings of Glastonbury 
Abbey and the Tower of lx)ndon, in 181(5 
those of Malmesburv Abbev, and in 1818 
those of the Temple Cliurch, all made for 
the * Vetusta Monumenta.* He visited 
Switzerland in 1816, and in 1819 began the 
series of drawings of Paris and Versailles, 
which were engraved by John Pye, John 




Wright, London, 1859, 8vo; also London, 
1888, 8vo. < A Thanksgiving for Plenty and 
Wamingagainst Avarice,' published in 1801, 
was reviewed by Sydney Smith in the * Edin- 
burgh Review for 1802, and ridiculed as 

In 1790 Nares assisted in completing 
Bridges' * History of Northamptonshire/ In 
1798, in conjunction with W. Tooke and W. 
Beloe, he revised the * General Biographical 
Dictionary,' himself undertaking vols. vi. 
viii. X. xii. and xiv. He also edited Dr. W. 
Vincent's * Sermons' (1817), and Purdy's 
* Lectures on the Church Catechism' (1815), 
writing memoirs. He was a contributor to 
the * Gentleman's Magazine,' the * Classical 
Journal,' and the * ArchaBologia.' 

[Preface to Nares's Glossary, ed. Halliwell and 
AVright; Gent. Mag. 1829, pt. i. pp. 370, 371 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustrations, vii. 698 ff. ; Biog. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 248 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. ; 
Boswell's Johnson, ed. llill, iv. 389 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] W. W. 

FORD, ROBERT {d. 1225), constable of 
Dover Castle, was the son of Sir Richard de 
TCerford, by his wife, Christian, and inherited 
from his parents Nerford Manor in Norfolk 
(Blomefield, Hist, of Norfolk, v. 119 ; he 
does not name his authority). He married 
Alice, daughter and coheiress of John 
Pouchard, and so came into possession of 
lands between Creyk and Burnham Tliorp. 
On a meadow there called Lingerescroft he 
founded a little chapel (1206) called Sancta 
Maria de Pratis {Mon. Anf/l. vi. 487). His 
wife's sister Joan married Reyner de Burgh, 
and her two sons were Hubert de Burgh [q. v.] 
and G^eoifrey de Burgh, bishop of Ely (nods- 
worth MS. cxxx. f. 3, and the Ilarl, MS. 
294, f. 148 b ; see, too, Blomefield, x. 265, 
quoting Philipps MS.) To his relationship 
with Hubert, Narford no doubt owed the 
favour of King John ; in October 1215 John 
ordered Hubert de Burgh to give Narford 
seisin of lands in Kent (Rot, Claus. i. 230). 
On 18 March 121G John addressed a patent 
to Narford as bailiff at one of the seaports 
{Itot. Pat. p. 170 A); probably he was a cus- 
todian of Dover Castle, of which Hubert de 
Burgh was chief constable (Richakd de 
CoGGESiiALL, cd. Stcveuson, p. 185 ; cf. Rot. 
Cifws. p. 259). When Hubert de Burgh 
deft'ated Eustace le Moine in the naval battle 
of the Straits of Dover, fought on St. Bar- 
tholomew's day (24 Aug. 1216), Narford was 
present ; and, to commemorate the victory, 
he founded, at his wife's desire, a hospital for 
thirteen poor men, one master, and four chap- 
lains, by the side of his earlier foi^ndation at 

Lingerescroft. His cousin Geoffrey, bishop 
of Ely, dedicated the house to St. Bartholo- 
mew in 1221 (Mon. Angl. vi. 487). After 
Narford*8 deatli the master, at his widow's 
wish, took the Austin habit, and was called 
Prior of the Canons of St. Mary de Pratis ; 
in 1230 Henry III accepted the patronage of 
the house and made it an abbey (t6. vi. 488). 

When Hubert de Burgh became chief 
justiciar, Narford was made chief constable 
of Dover (ih, vi. 487), and received a salary 
of twenty marks a year (Rot. Claus. i. 614). 
In 1220 he received a precept to summon 
the barons of the Cinque Ports to his court 
at Shepway (Pat. 5, Hen. 3, quoted by J. 
Lyon, ii. 203). 

In March 1224 he received payments as 
an ambassador to foreign parts (Rot. Claus. 
i. 582 seq.) Narford died in 1225, and his 
son Nicholas succeeded to his estates (ib. 
ii. 40). 

[Rotuli Literarura ClKUsarum, vols. i. ii.; 
Kot. Lit. Patentium, ed. Hardy; Lyon's Hist, 
of Dover, ii. 203; Blomefield's Hist, of Nor- 
folk, vols. V. X. ; Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 
486 seq ; Harl. MS. 294, f. 148 6, No. 2898.] 

M. B. 

NARRIEN, JOHN (1782-1860), astro- 
nomical writer, was the son of a stonemason, 
and was born at Chert^ey, in Surrey, in 1782. 
He kept for some years an optician's shop in 
Pall Mall, and his talents having procured 
him friends and patronage, he was nominated 
in 1814 one of the teaching staff of the Royal 
Military College at Sandhurst. Promoted 
in 1820 to be mathematical professor in the 
senior department, he was long the virtual 
head of the establishment. His useful and 
honourable career terminated with his re- 
signation, on the failure of his eyesight, in 
1858. He was elected a fellow of the Roval 
Society in 1840, and retired from the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1858. He died at 
Kensington on 30 March 1860, aged 77. He 
had lost his wife eight years previously. 

He published in 1833 * An Historical Ac- 
count of the Origin and Progress of Astro- 
nomy,' a work of considerable merit and 
research ; and compiled a series of mathe- 
matical text-books for use in Sandhurst Col- 
lege, of which the principal were entitled 

* p]lementa of Geometry,' London, 1842 ; 

* Practical Astronomy and Geodesy,' 1845 ; 
and * Analytical Geometry,' 1846. He ob- 
served the partial solar eclipse of 6 May 1845, 
at the observatory of Sandhurst College 
{Monthly Notices, vi. 240). 

[Monthly Notices Hoyal Astron. Soc. xviii. 
lOu, xxi. 102; Ann. Reg. 1860, p. 475; Alii- 
bone's Critical Diet, of English Literature ; Ob- 
seryatorj, xi. 300 (W. T. Lynn).] A. M. C. 




NARY, CORNELIUS (1660-1738), Irish 
catholic divine, was bom in co. Kildare in 
1660, and received his early education at 
Naas in the same county. He was ordained 
priest by the Bishop of Ossory at Kilkenny 
in 1682, and soon afterwards entered the 
Irish College in Paris, of which he was sub- 
sequently provisor for seven years. While 
in JParis he graduat<*d doctor of divinity in 
the university in 1694, and he was also twice 
appointed procurator of the German or Eng- 
lish * Nation * at the university of Paris, and, 
as such, was for the time being a member 
of the academic governing body. Leaving 
France about 1096, he went to London, where 
he acted for a while as tutor to the Earl of 
Antrim, an Irish catholic peer : but after- 
wards removing to Dublin, he was arrested 
and imprisoned for his religion in 1702. In 
the ; Registry of Popish Clergy* for 1703-4 
he is described as popish parish priest of 
St. Michan, and so he remained until hi3 
death, at the age of seventy-eight, on 3 March 
1738. He is described by Harris, the editor 
of Sir James Ware's * Works,' as * a man of 
learning and of a good character.* 

An anonymous mezzotint portrait is men- 
tioned by Bromley. 

He was the author of the following works : 
1. *A Modest and True Account of the 
Chief Points in Controversy between the 
Roman Catholicks and the Protestants,* Ant- 
werp and London, 1699, 8vo. 2. 'Pravers 
and Meditations,*Dublin, 1705, 1 2mo. 3. 'The 
New Testament translated into English from 
the Latin, with Marginal Notes,* London, 
1705 and 1718, 8vo. 4. * Rules and Godly 
Instructions,' Dublin, 1716, 12mo. 5. *A 
Brief History of St. Patricks Purgatory 
and its Pilgrimages ; written in favour of 
those who are curious to know the Particu- 
lars of that famous Place and Pilgrimage, so 
much celebrated in Antiquity,* Dublin, 1718, 
12mo. 6. * A Catechism for the use of the 
Parish,' Dublin, 1718, 12mo. 7. * A Letter 
to His Grace Edward, I^rd Archbishop of 
Tuam, in answer to his charitable Address 
to all who are of the Communion of the 
Church of Rome,* Dublin, 1719, 1720, 1728, 
Svo. 8. *A New History of the World, 
containing an Historical and Chronological 
Account of the Times and Transactions from 
the Creation to the Birth of Christ, accord- 
ing to the Computation of the Septuagint,' 
Dublin, 1720, fol. 9. * The Case of the 
Catholics of Ireland,* Dublin, 1724. 

He was also the author of several contro- 
versial pamphlets and the translator of 
others, and left in manuscript a work en- 
titled * An Argument showing the Difficul- 
ties in Sacred Writ as well in the Old as 

New Testament ; * he is also stated by Ander- 
son (Sketches of the Native Irish) to have 
published a short * History of Ireland.* 

[Harri8*8 Works of Sir James Ware; Bat- 
tersby's Dublin Jesuits ; Anderson's Sketches of 
the Native Irish; Balloshoim's Greschichte der 
Katholischen Kirche in Irland, vol. ii. ; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography.] P. L. N. 

NASH, FREDERICK (1782-1856), 
water-colour painter, was bom in Lambeth, 
London, on 28 March 1782. He was the son 
of a builder, and at an early age became a 
pupil of Thomas Malton the younger [q. v.], 
although a wealthy relative had offered to 
give him a legal education. He studied also 
at the Royal Academy, and began to exhibit 
there in 1800 by sending a drawing of * The 
North Entrance of Westminster Abbey.' 
He was afterwards employed by Sir Robert 
Smirke [q. v.] the architect, and between 1801 
and 1809 he made some of the drawings for 
Britton and Brayley's * Beauties of England 
and Wales,* and for Britton's* Architectural 
Antiquities.* In 1807 he was appointed 
architectural draftsman to the Society of 
Antiquaries. He had three drawings in 
the first exhibition of the Associated Artists 
in Water-Colours in 1808, and in 1809 ex- 
hibited six drawings as a member of that 
short-lived society. These included two in- 
teriors of Westminster Abbey, the west front 
of St. Paul's, and a large drawing of the 
choir of Canterbury Cathedral. In 1810 he 
was elected an associate, and six months 
later a full member, of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours ; he seceded in 
1812, in consequence of his disapproval of 
certain changes made in its constitution, but 
he was re-elected in 1824. 

His first published work was ' A Series of 
Views of the Collegiate Chapel of St. George 
at Windsor,* 1805, drawn and etched by 
himself, and finished in aquatint by Frederick 
C. Lewis and others. This was followed 
by 'Twelve Views of the Antiquities of 
London,* 1805-10. In 1811 he exhibited a 
fine drawing of the * Interior of Westmin- 
ster Abbey,* with a funeral procession, which 
was highly praised by Benjamin West, and 
in 1812 some of the drawings which were 
engraved in Ackermann's * Historv of the 
University of Oxford,' 1814. In 1813 and 
1816 appeared the drawings of Glastonbury 
Abbey and the Tower of London, in 1816 
those of Malmesburv Abbev, and in 1818 
those of the Temple Church, all made for 
the * Vetusta Monumenta.* He visited 
Switzerland in 1816, and in 1819 began the 
series of drawings of Paris and Versailles, 
which were engraved by John Pye, John 




Bynie, Edward Goodall, Robert Wallis, 
VV illiam R. Smith, George Cooke, and others, 
for his * Picturesque Views of the City of 
Paris and its Environs,' published between 
1820 and 1823. In 1821 he exhibited his 
drawings of Tewkesbury Abbey, also made 
for the ' Vetusta Monumenta/ He was 
again in Paris in 1824 to make a series of 
drawings of its environs for M. J. F. d'Os- 
tervald, and in 1825 he returned thither 
with Sir Thomas Lawrence, whom he as- 
sisted by painting the accessories in a por- 
trait group of Louis XVIII and the French 
royal famfly. He had previously painted in 
oil, and among the works whicn he con- 
tributed to the British Institution between 
1812 and 1852 was a picture representing 
'The Enthronation of King George the 
Fourth,' exhibited in 1824, and engraved 
in mezzotint by Charles Turner. In 

1824 he exhibited at the Society of Painters 
in Water-Colours a very large drawing 
of the 'Interior of Westminster Abbey,' 
this time with a royal procession, and in 

1825 a * View of Calais Harbour/ A view 
of * Paris from Pere-La-Chaise,' engraved by 
Edward Finden, appeared in the * Literary 
Souvenir* for 1825. In 1828 he sent six 
drawings of Durham Cathedral, and in 1829 
seven drawings of the ruins of St. Mary's 
Abbey, York ; the latter he drew on stone 
for the * Vetusta Monumenta.' In 1830 he 
"was sketching in Normandy, and he ex- 
hibited some views in the Netherlands, of 
which * The Packet Boat entering the Har- 
bour of Ghent ' was engraved by Edward 
Goodall for the* Literary Souvenir ' of 1831 . 
Nash retired to Brighton in 1834, but con- 
tinued to send drawings to the Royal 
Academy until 1847, and to the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours until 1856, his 
contributions to the latter exhibition num- 
bering in all n3arly five hundred. 

The subjects of Nash's later works were 
generally drawn from the locality in which 
he lived^ and the adjacent parts of Sussex. 
While painting a view of Arundel, in 1837, 
he had a narrow escape from being killed by 
the fall of a stack of chimneys through the 
roof of the room in which he was at work. In 
1837 he made a tour on the Moselle, and in 
1843 visited the Rhine. His usual practice i 
was to make and colour on the spot three j 
drawings of the subject which he had in \ 
hand, one representing the effects of early 
morning, another that of midday, and a 
third that of evening. His later style, 
which commenced with his Paris views, ; 
although lighter in touch and brighter in 
colour, did not equal that of his earlier 
drawings, whose grandeur of effect led 

Turner to pronounce Nash to be the finest 
architectural painter of his day. 

Nashdiedat4 MontpellierRoad, Brighton, 
from an attack of bronchitis, on 5 Dec. 1856, 
and was buried there in the extra-mural 
cemetery. The contents of his studio, in- 
cluding the palette of Sir Thomaa Lawrence, 
were subsequently sold at Brighton. 

The South Kensington Museum pos- 
sesses four examples of his art : * The 
Waterworks at Versailles,' * Tintem Abbeyf 
'Distant View of London from HoUoway,' 
and a * View of the Mansion House and the 
Poultry, looking down Cheapside.' 

[Art Joamal, notice by J. J. Jenkins, 18-57, 
p. 61 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 1878 ; Roget's History of the Old 
Water-Colour Society, 1891 ; Royal Academy 
Exhibition Catalogues, 1800-47; Exhibition 
Catalogues of the Society of Painters in Watei>- 
Colours, 1810-1856; British Institution Ex- 
hibition Catalogues (Living Artists), 1812- 
1852.] R. E. a. 

NASH, JOHN (1752-1835), architect, of 
Welsh extraction, was bom in 1752, at Car- 
digan in Wales, or, according to another 
account, in London. He was placed by his 

Earents as pupil to Sir Robert Taylor [q. v.], 
ut on leaving him he discontinued the pro- 
fession of an architect, and retired to a pro- 
perty near Carmarthen. About 1793 he was 
induced by his former fellow-pupil, Samuel 
Pepys Cockerell [q . v.], and others, to resume 
practice as an arcnitect. He soon obtained 
a large local practice in public and private 
architecture, extending rapidly throughout 
the country. Among his early works were 
the county gaol,Cardigan (1793), the county 
gaol, Hereford (1797), the west front and 
chapter-house of the cathedral at St. David's 
(1798), and various private commissions, such 
as Sundridge in Kent, Luscombe in Devon- 
shire, Killymore Castle in county Tyrone, 
Childwall Hall, Lancashire, and alterations 
or additions to Corsham House in Wiltshire, 
Bulstrode in Buckinghamshire, Hale Hall in 
Lancashire, &c. In 1814, at the celebration 
of the peace by fireworks and other enter- 
tainments in St. James's Park, Xash de- 
signed the temporary bridge over the lake 
(which remained for some years after), and 
also the Temple of Concordia in the Green 

Nash had by this time obtained as an archi- 
tect a lar^e share of the patronage of royalty, 
the nobility and gentry, and public bodies, 
and became the favourite architect of the 
prince regent. He designed or remodelled 
numbers of mansions, brid^, market-places, 
&c. It is, however, with his share in Liondon 
architectural improyements that his name 




will be inseparably connected. When the 
crown in January 1811 re-entered into pos- 
session of the land known as Marylebone 
Park, an act of parliament was obtained to 
form a public park there and to build on the 
ground adjoining it. The plans were made 
by Nash, who obtained the premium of 1 ,000/. 
offered by the treasury in 1793. Nash also 
designed the terraces along the ed^e of the 
park (except Cornwall and Munster Terraces) ; 
in these he followed out a design previously 
adopted by the brothers Adam, of uniting 
several houses in a single facade, faced with 
stucco. A special clause was inserted in the 
leases whereby the lessees covenanted to 
renew the stucco exteriors every 4th August 
during their lease. Thepark was christened 
the Regent's Park. Park Crescent and 
Square, with Albany and other adjoining 
streets, were also erected from Nash*s designs. 
He also projected the Regent's Canal, con- 
necting the Thames at Limehouse with the 
(^rand Junction Canal at Paddington. This 
was commenced in October 1812, and finally 
completed in August 1820. 

A desire was now felt to make a wide 
street as a means of communication from 
Carlton House, the residence of the prince 
regent, to the Regent's Park. An act of par- 
liament for this important work was obtamed 
in 1818, and the new street was nearly com- 
pleted in 1820. The street started from 
Carlton House, sweeping away St. Alban*s 
Street and the rest of the small streets known 
OS St. James's Market ; it then crossed Picca- 
dilly, and, following the course of the old 
Swallow Street, was originally intended to 
open straight into Portland Place. Foley 
House and its grounds, on which the Lang- 
ham Hotel now stands, were purchased by 
Nash for this purpose at a price of 70,000/., 
but he subsequently altered his plan through 
A disagreement with Sir James Langham, 
and diverted the new street so as to make 
a sharp turn into Portland Place. At this 
turn Nash built All Souls' Church, to ter- 
minate the view up the new street, which 
was christened Regent Street. This church, 
with its pointed spire and round colonnade, 
which was advanced unduly forward towards 
the street, was the butt of many caricaturists 
of the period. For the buildingsNash adopted 
his former principle of several single facades; 
these gave a continuous architectural effect, 
but owing to the great length of the street 
became featureless and monotonous. Among 
the important features of Nash's design was 
the Quadrant, extending from Glasshouse 
Street to Piccadilly, consisting of two rows 
of shops with projecting colonnades. The 
colonnades, however, in themselves a very 


striking piece of architecture, were removed 
in 1848 at the request of the shopkeepers, and 
for other public reasons. Among the build- 
ings erected by Nash in this street were the 
Argyll Rooms (burnt down in 1834), and a 
spacious residence, situated halfway between 
Piccadilly Circus and Waterloo Place, on the 
east side, which he built for himself; he re- 
moved to it from his former house at 29 Dover 
Street, Piccadilly, and resided there imtil he 
retired from the profession. To this house 
he added a picture gallery, decorated with 
copies of pamtings by Raphael, to make 
which he obtained the special permission of 
the pope, and employed artists for four years 
at Rome. The house subsequently passed 
through various hands, was known at one 
time as ' The Gallery of Hlustration,' and 
was the temporary home of the Constitu- 
tional and Junior Constitutional Clubs. 
Nash also altered and enlarged the opera- 
house in the Haymarket (pulled down in 
1893^, and added the arcade and colonnade. 
He desigpaed the Haymarket Theatre; the 
Gallery of British Artists, Suffolk Street 
(with James Elmes [q. v.l) ; the Church of 
St. Mary, Haggerston ; the United Service 
Club, Pall Mall ; the east wing of Carlton 
House Terrace ; and he completed the laying 
out of St. James's Park. Nash was employed 
by the prince regent to repair and enlarge 
Buckingham House ; contrary to the inten- 
tion of parliament in voting the money, this 
resulted in its complete reconstruction as 
Buckingham Palace (again altered by Ed- 
ward Blore [q.v.] after the accession of 
Queen Victona). One of the features of 
Nash's design was a large entrance archway, 
modelled on the arch of Constantine at Rome ; 
but this was removed to Cumberland Gate, 
Hyde Park, in 1850-1, and is generally known 
as the Marble Arch. Nash cuso designed the 
entrance to the Royal Mews in Buckingham 
Palace Road. He was further employed 
by the prince regent in making extensive 
alterations and additions to the Pavilion at 
Brighton. About 1831 Nash retired from 
business, and went to reside at East Cowes 
Castle, Isle of Wight, which he had erected 
in earlier days for himself. He died there 
on 13 May 1836, in his eighty-th^d year. 

Few architects have been given such 
opportunities of distinction as Nash, but it 
cannot be said that he proved himself quite 
worthy of them. Regent Street ranks among 
the great thoroughfares of the world, but its 
architecture is its least satisfactory feature. 
Never original in his ideas, Nash seemed de- 
void of any sense of grandeur or freedom in 
his 6tyle. No one of the buildings designed 
by him qualifies him to rank as a great archi- 





imw iit>( v'liT.' Ill 'tViM*: ^I'^iliiUrv.iinl mas- 
ii\.« Mjii'*!!* ■■* pr.»iiiii'i«tl. it :s niarri"»(l Wr iius 
pftnti.f.iMi :i».i' ii' -iiiiri'i^ 111 *lu» wmt» Tiimnrii- 
lUMiH .HI riuM 4:iv* :vsH ro rln* vv-»ll-knowri 
•«pti::Miii I '^iutr'.'r ij Ri''it*:r, Time L -*::«': 

.\utf!iHtMM It IJiwiiM w:is I'lir 'iiiiMinu: mnotml. 
i«'>\r >!(' iiar'tlc !i«» 'I'l^ trliur it' hriek .m j;ui funnii. 
liii!. H 'itii ^iir N:isli, Mi>. I vf»ry !jrf»:ir Tia»ri*r':' 
Ho ;{ litis -ui .ill 'jiick .uiii lie leaven 'u .ill piiur^'r. 

N:isli ruudi* jreat; !W»» t)t' tiasr-imn in 11 i.-* 
buiMiiiiT*. and ti)ok our -wv^Tal piirenrj fur 
this piirp" i^Hf. Fie liiid m:in7 pnpil.-^ .-niil ;u»j»u;r- 
tmr.s, :imi)nir rhr^m heiutr Aiiir'wfiw Piirin 
[a. V.]. wlio wa;» le<l V'*ry miicii by NiU»h"«« 
aavioe and enooiiraiT^mKiic r.i tlie '^nitiy ot 
iiothic arL'liitecture. X;wli was in ev^^rv wav 
a libenil »*ncotiri;r»*r ot' arc and arriara, iind 
in private lii'e wiw hijhly esreem»*ii; bur the 
excessive patTOnadre Livid bed .on Xai*b hy 
Gei-irv:*? IV brDU^jht him many enemies, espe- 
cially after the kin^':3 death. IUa bnok.^. 
prints, and drawin^ri. in<: lading a birze num- 
ber ot' his original an^hirecturai design."*, "wen* 
$old bv auction at Evan^'^. Fall >[all. -in 
lo July l:?3o. and fulliiwinir days. A p<orT.rair, 
of Nast by Sir Thoraa-* Lawrence i.^ at J-^^ua 
Collejje, Oxlord, place* i there at h'lA -^trn ^^^- 
i^uest, instead ot* pecuniary recnmpen.*** tor 
work done on b»-'half ot' the coUec-e : ;in«l a 
bust of him is in the Koval Inj^rif i:r.=r or" 
liritish Architect.*. II" frt^quenrly rx hi hired 
his designs at the Royal Aca<iemy. 

[Papwijrth's Did. r,( Arr:hir.»^nrni"-^ (whi'ir? an 
extensive list of aurhoririe?* :■» :r.V'^n): f' 
Mag. 183.5, ii. 437; Ite-icrave^ Dii:t. «,f Arriit^.] 

L. C. 

NASH, JOSEPH (l^rifj-I^TS). water- 
colour painter and lithographer, *«on of the 
Kev. Okey Nash, who kept the Afanor Hou.^e 
Si'hool at Croydon, was b<^im at f i r^-at Mar- 
low, Buckinghamsliire, on 17 I)»:c. l-<()9. He ' 
was educated by hi« father, and nt the ftf(e of 
twentv-one commence^l the fttudv of arrhi- 
tecture under the elder Pu;(in ■«♦•« Pr'oiN, 
AvousTTS, 1702-18'J2], whom he accompa- 
nied to France, and for whose work, ' ParJM 
and its Environs/ IH.'W), he mnde fv^me of 
the drawings. In the early ntnge of bin 
career Nash was much occupied on figure j 
hubjects ilhistrating the jkm'U and nov*?lists, j 
and exhibitetl many drawitigM of that class 
with the Society of Painters in Water- 
Cidours, of which he wan elected nn b»- 
sociate iti IS,*} t ; of tln^se fw»nie were engraved 
for tlie * Kei^psake,* nnd similar publications. 
IJut \iv en"""'! celebrity liy his ])icturesqiie 
view 'tbic biiildingH, Knglinh nnd 

^ le enlivened with figim^s 

trato the habits of their 

ixvniTB in ivjnne days, somewhat in the 
manner u' Car rermoir. HaviuiT at in "ariy 
period ma.'iterfMi "iir irtif LithouTaphv. X^iih 
iriiistMi 'r in "he nm(iufrum n' -*»verai "xcei- 
lenr nuiiiic.inons : ill^ • .Vi-chitet-r-iuv u' rhe 
M!iiidli' \jf7i' inpearp(i in !>*:>, ind her^vwn 
I."*.*I!) and L.^-W) ins jr^'iir worii. in tVnir «*r!e9. 
• .Manriinns if Enirhiud in riii- * 'Idi-n Time,' 
whieii T'ls iiiiriiiv suiM't^s-iiui. in«i iiua main- 
'ainetl ir.^ reputarinn. Li l-^^S iie lirliogmniiKHi 
Wllliif"^ "i.trienral '^kert-iie.-*." uul in L"?4> i 
^er of view:? ^t' ^V:niis«>r L'.isii.u rnim -lis own 
■Irawinny*. • >fher works ".) wiiicii X.-isii «r-in- 
rrihun-tl wer** Law-wms" Sc-Jtlami LViiue:ir*?d,' 
1'* 47—14. • ♦ omprMii^nsire ?ii^rur*s n' rhi? 
< rrear Exliibiritm ot l-."L." iliiDHrmnr'-i -The 
i[t»rr!e Dn^-* it Emihimi.' Ir-LT-'-i. .imi • Eng- 
lish Ballads.' It^U. Hr? oncame 1 !':ill mem''j»?r 
.-c rhe Water-* I'o Li >ur "^ocii^tr ^n I-j-ki, nnd 
WTL" a <'rinstanT ►»xhihi'-T 'ip '■> I'?7-'). ^^-miinir 
nuiny ')t the oriirinai inwinirs I'^r *he abi-ve 
puhlicarions, with "^ccaciionjiilv -iiLbiect.-« troco. 
Sh-ikespearw. i.\ Ir his ri»-w< ot build: nizs 
Xa.'jh aimed chiedy ;in picciir"S[:ie eli'ecr. pay- 
inj lirrle irren'i'-n ro 'tricrurrd tier ail : lie 
toilow.*d James DiiiR-ld Haniino" ~ j. v." in 
his:'r»H» use-^t'l his lirli'^irrarh* 
are exei^urrHl in rhe rin-^^ii ^ryl^? made p«?pii.l:ir 
by rhat arrisr. He di»*d ar Il^retbrl Koad,. 
Baviwari-r. Londt>u. VJ I>ec. l'*7'*. having a 
few m.'r.rh-"* b»»t'>re h*^n mn-ed a civil-li^r. 
pi--nsii-»n •■"f ICX'/. Hi- ■'■[li;- *«-n. J-^s^^ph. i> 
a painter -r-f m;irln»f ?'ir Vi.'Tj, an-l has '.»H»?n a 
member of rhe Royal la-rirr.-r of Pain'»-rs in 
\Vafi-r-<.''ili>;Lrs sinci- l^-S*"^. P:i'^S""irh Ken- 
'injTon MiL=e"im pr-ssrssos ^♦.■'r.'-e '.' sample? ot 
Xa-'h'.-a arr. 

[riosK-t'<» Hi^r.of rhe •"': ! Witer-O: *.■?': rSi:o:e-v, 
ISOI. ii. 240 : RoizriT*'* IH..-:. or Artis:<: I'r."-- 
V'ir«al B>jk3on Art : Grea: Mirl-Mr r^irish 
re^i.sTrir.] r. 31. 6'D, 

NASH, MICHAEL (^fi. i:9^\ prores- 
te^i'tant con vers ialist. may have b^en th*^ son 
of Richard Xash. who marri*.d Sarah Joyce 
on '2(» AuiT. 1753 at Sr. James's, Clerkenwell, 
lymdon ( Ilarl. Sor. Rrtf. xiii, 1*4** K though a 
pn.*«a?e in one of his C'.mtmversial pamphlets 
( Thti Windmill Overturned, p. 43") reads like 
a conff^ssion of illegitimate birth. Nash is 
conjecturally credited with the authorship 
of * Stenography, or the most easy and concise 
Methofl of wri'tincT Shortliand, on an entire 
new Plan, adapted to every Capacity, and to 
tho lift*? of Schools,' Norwich, 17S3. In 1 784 
one 'Michael Nash of Ilomerton, Middle- 
sex, gentleman,' was granted a patent speci- 
lication for making blacking. No. 14:?1. 

Although often described as a methodist 
minister, Nash was a member of the church of 
England. In December 1791 he was ap- 




pointed a collector of subscriptions or can- 
vasser for the Societas Evangelica, a society 
for the maintenance of itinerant preachers ; 
but he soon embroiled himself with the com- 
mittee by publishing an attack on the well- 
known Dr. William Romaine [q. v.] It was 
entitled 'Gideon's Cake of Barley Meal, a 
letter to the Rev. William Romaine on his 
Preaching for the Emigrant Popish Clergy, 
with some Strictures on Mrs. Hannah More's 
Remarks, published for their Benefit, 1793,' 
London, 1/93. A second edition of the same 
year contains * another letter sent to Mr. 
^maine prior to this, and sundry notes 
and remarks, wherein all the objections and 
replies of opponents that have come to the 
author's knowledge, are fully answered.' * The 
Barley Cake defended from the Foxes . . . 
addressed to the editors of the " Evangelical 
Magazine,"* apneared a few months later. 
It seems that Nash was also secretary of 
the Societv for the Promotion of the French 
Protestant Bible, and in that capacity called 
on Romaine in November 1792, and railed to 
induce him to preach on behalf of the society. 
But he found shortly after that Romaine 
had preached in his own church, and made 
a collection on behalf of the French catholic 

The committee of the Societas Evangelica, 
disapproving of Nashs attacks, dismissed 
him on 17 Jan. 1794. Subsequently one of 
the committee, a Mr. Parker, * of the Mews,' 
denounced Nash in * A Charitable Morsel 
of Unleavened Bread for the Author of 
. . . Gideon's Cake of Barley Meal,' 1793, 
and Nash retaliated in 'An Answer . . . 
provingthat Pamphlet to be a Beast with 
Seven Heads, and Thirty Horns or False- 
hoods,' London, 1793, and in * The Windmill 
Overturned by the Barley Cake . . . with a 
Faithful Narrative of the Dark Transactions 
of a Religious Society called Societas Evan- 
gelica,' London, 1794. On page 19Nash claims 
to be extremely loyal, and to have sent 
through Lord Salisbury to the king expres- 
sions of loyalty in a manuscript which he 
himself valued at fifty guineas, and which 
was graciously received. Nash's strong pro- 
testant sympathies are revealed in his latest 
extant tract, ' The Ignis Fatuus or Will o' the 
Wisp at Providence Chanel Detected and 
Exposed, with a Seasonable Caution to his 
infatuated Admirers to avoid the Bogs of 
hLs Ambiguous Watch Word and Lving 
Warning,' London, 1798, an attack on Wil- 
liam Huntington [q. v.] Other tracts by 
Nash of the same kmd are extant. 

[Cadogan*8 Life of William Romaine in Works, 
▼oL vii.; Nash's Tracts nt supra; Evangelical 
Magasine, 1793, i. 85, oontaiDS a short review 

of Gideon's Cake of Barley Meal ; Renss's Alpha- 
betical Register; Watt's Bibl. Brit; West by- 
Gibson's Bibl. of Shorthand.] W. A. S. 

1762), bom at Swansea on ] 8 Oct. 1674, was 
the son of Richard Nash, a native of Pem- 
broke, who, as partner in a glass-house at 
Swansea, had earned the means of giving his 
son an excellent education. It was commonly 
stated, by Dr. Cheyne among others, that 
Nash had no father, and the Duchess of Marl- 
borough once twitted him with the obscurity 
of his birth ; but Nash rejoined with charac- 
teristic felicity, * Madam, I seldom mention 
my father in company, not because I have any 
reason to be ashamed of him, but because he 
has some reason to be ashamed of me.' The 
* Beau's ' mother was niece to Colonel John 
Poyer [q. v.] 

After some years spent at Carmarthen 
grammar school Nash matriculated from 
Jesus College, Oxford, on 19 March 1691-2; 
but he left the university without a degree. 
His father next purchased him a pair of 
colours in the army, and Nash dressed the 

Eart, says Goldsmith, ' to the very edge of 
is finances;' but he soon found that Hhe 
profession of arms required attendance and 
duty, and often encroached upon those hours 
he could have wished to dedicate to softer 
purposes.' He accordingly reverted to the 
law, for which profession he had originally 
been intended, and entered as a stuaent of 
the Inner Temple in 1693. There he dis- 
tinguished himself by his good manners, by 
his taste in dress, and bv leadiny so gay a 
life yithou^ vi^ible^ me ans o f suroort tKt 
his most i ntimate fr iends su spected Tum o f 
stuaenfs Of tll6 Middle Temple to superin- 
tend the pageant which they exhibited before 
William ill in 1695, and displayed so much 
skill in the matter that W^illiam offered to 
knight him. Nash, however, evaded the 
honour by the remark, * If your majesty is 
pleased to make me a knight, I wish it may 
be one of your poor knights at Windsor, for 
then I shall have a fortune at least able to 
support my title.' He is said to have been 
ofi^red a knighthood subsequently by Queen 
Anne, but refused to receive the distinction, 
simultaneously with Sir William Read [q. v.], 
the empirical oculist. Bet ween 1 695 and 1 705 
he must have been reduced to strange ex- 
pedients in quest of a livelihood. A favourite {tie a** 
resource was the acceptance of extravagant] 
wagers, such as that he would ride through 
a village on c o wback nak ed. Onone_occa-J 
k i6n he w on fifty guineas; 6y standing 
neat door of York Minster as CheT^hgrega- 
uon came out, clad only in a blanket. To 

■ }r2 





the gaming tables he was soon indebted 
for a handsome addition to his income, and 
his addiction to gambling drew him to Bath 
in 1706. 

Bath had been rendered fashionable as 
a health resort by Queen Anne's visit in 
1703. But the wealthy and leisured people 
who visited the springs found no arrange- 
ments made for their comfort or amusement. 
Dancing was conducted on the bowlinff- 
green; there was no assembly, and no code 
of etiquette, nor of dress ; men smoked in 
the presence of the ladies who met for tea and 
cards in a canvas booth ; gentlemen appeared 
at the dance in top-boots, and ladies in white 
aprons; the lodgings, for which exorbitant 
prices were charged, were mean and dirty ; 
the sedan chairmen were rude and imcon- 
trolled ; there was no machinery for introduc- 
tions ; the gentlemen habitually wore swords, 
and duels were frequent. In 1704 Captain 
Webster, a gamester, had endeavoured to im- 
prove matters by establishing a series of sub- 
scription balls at the town-hall ; but Webster 
was killed in a duel shortly after Nash's ar- 
rival. Nash soon resolved to correct the pro- 
vincial tone of the place, and, as an agreeable 
and ingenious person of organising capacity, 
he obtained a paramount inBuence among the 
visitors. He readily obtained the goodwill 
of the corporation, and engaged a sood band 
of music ; he then set on loot a subscription 
of a guinea, subsequently raised to two 
guineas, per annum, provided an assembly 
house, drew up a code of rules, and caused 
them to be posted in the pump-room, which 
was henceforth put under the care of an 
officer called ' the pumper.' The company 
consecjuently increased ; new houses of a more 
ambitious type began to be built, and in 1706 
Nash raised 18,000/. by subscription for re- 
pairing the roads in the neighbourhood of the 
I city. He also conducted a successful crusade 
against the practice of habitualljr wearinjy^ 
swords, against duelling, against informali- 
. ties of dress, promiscuous smoking, the bar- 
/ barities of the chairmen, and the exorbitant 
charges of the lodging-house keepers. His 
command of the band gave him tne control 
of the hours for the balls and assemblies, and 
his judicious regulations were despotically en- 
forced. Royalty in the person of the Princess 
Amelia was compelled to submit to his au- 
thority, and deviations from his code by per- 
sons of inferior rank were severely dealt with. 
It is related how on one occasion the Duchess 
of Queensbery came one night tu the as- 
sembly in a white apron. Nash, on perceiv- 
ing this infringement of his rules, promptly 
approached her grace, and, with every ges- 
ture of profound respect, untied her apron, 

and threw it among the ladies' women on the 
back benches, observing that such a garment 
was proper only for Abigails. By such dis- 
plays Nash arrived at the position of un- 
questioned autocrat of Bath an d * arbiter, 
elegantiarum.!. He became formally imown 
as master of the ceremonies, and informally 
as king of Bath. The corporation hung his 
portrait, by Hoare, in the pump-room, be- 
tween the busts of Newton and Fope, a pro- 
ceeding which occasioned Chesterfield's epi- 

This picture plac'd the basts between, 

Gives satyr all his strength ; 
Wisdom and wit are little seen, 

Bat folly at full length. 

(The various reasons given for disputing 
Chesterfield's authorship in 1741 are quite 
inconclusive. See Not^ and Queries, 5th ser. 
xi. 857). 

Nash now had his lev6e, his flattere rs^ his 
hy flV^n g^^und ftven hia dedioAt^rH. His vanity 
was proportionately large ; he habitually tra- 
vellea in a post chariot, drawn by six greys, 
with outriders, footmen, and French horns ; 
his dress was covered with the most expen- 
sive embroidery and lace ; he always wore an 
immense cream-coloured beaver hat, and as- 
signed as a reason for this singularity that 
he did so to secure it from being stolen. In 
1787 his reputation suffered considerably by 
his failure to recover the commission due to 
him on winnings at the gaming tables from 
Walter Wiltsmre, lessee of the Assembly 
Rooms, the court deciding that the compact 
was immoral. In 1788, however, Nash took 
a leading part in the welcome given by the 
city to Frederick, prince of 'V\^les, in me- 
mory of whose visit he erected an obelisk, 
for which, after some correspondence, he in- 
duced Pope, who had described him as an im- 
pudent f^ow, to write the inscription. 

In addition to being a sleeping partner 
in Wiltshire's, and very possibly in other 
gambling-houses in the city, Nash was him- 
self a regular frequenter of the gaming tables, 
at which he made large sums, imtil by the act 
of 1740 severe penalties were enacted against 
all games of chance. He managed to evade 
the law for a time by the invention of new 
games, among which one called £ O became 
the favourite ; but in 1745 a more stringent 
law was passed. His income now became 
very precarious, and as a new generation 
spranff up, to which Nash was a stranger, his 
splendour gradually faded. Embittered by 
neglect, he lost the remainder of his popu- 
larity, and about 1758 the corporation voted 
him an allovTance of 10/. a month. He long 
occupied a hoiue in St John's Court, known 




as the Garrick's Head, and subsequently 
rented by Mrs. Delaney, but moved to a 
smaller house near to it in Gascovne Place, 
before his death, at the age of eighty-seven, 
on 3 Feb. 1762. The corporation having voted 
60/. towards his funeral, he was buri^ with 
great pomp on 8 Feb. in Bath Abbey, where a 
monumental tablet bears an epitaph written 
by Dr. Henry Harington [a. v.] A long epi- 
taph was also composed by Nash's old friend, 
Dr. William Oliver, and an elaborate ' Epi- 
taphium Ricardi Nash ' by Dr. William King, 
prmcipal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford (all thr^ 
are prmted in Richard Warner's 'Modem 
History of Bath,' 1801, pp. 370-2). 

reK^htf t'^yet, ' even with" TEese 


versal admirer, and was universally admired. 

He was possessed at least of some requisites 
as a lover. He had assiduity, flattery, fine 
cloaths, and as much wit as the ladies he 
addressed.' His successes with the fair sex ex- 
tended to Miss Fanny Murray, whose charms 
were supposed to have inspired Wilkes's 
famous ' Essay on Woman ' (see Notea and 
Queries, 4th ser. iv. 1). 

Nash's foibles were compensated by many 
sterling qualities. According to Goldsmith, 
his virtues sprang from an honest, benevolent 
mind, and nis vices from too much ^ood 
nature. With Ralph Allen and Dr. Oliver, 
he was mainly instrumental in establishing 
the mineral-water hospital at Bath. He is 
praised for the great care he took of young 
ladies, whom he attended at the balls at the 
assembly-room, and warned against adven- 
turers like himself. HfiL5iras_free alikQjGcQin 
meannfl as ^nH hratftljt^p &n^ the stories 
of his generosity at the gaming table are 
numerous. The humorous author of the 
anonymous life of Quin, published in 1768, 
describes Nash as in everything ori^nal : 
' There was a whimsica l refin ement m his 
person, dress, and oenaviouf, which was 
habitual to and sat so easily upon him that 
no stranger who came to Bath ever expressed 
' any surprise at his uncommon manner and 
appearance.' Many of his sayings have found 
their way into {aBJ HiiiV collections. His^ow 
of conversation was irresistible, and examples 
of his monologu e en wconade h ave been pre- 
^.^'^tserve^m xhe ^ Uentleman's Magazine ' and 
^§|bewhere. He was notorious as a scoffer at 
^^ igion, but on o ne occasion he was erfec- 
tually silenced' 1^ John Wesley (Wbslbt, 
Joumalj 5 June 1739). 
Nash's portrait, byHoare, engraved by A. 

Walton, is prefixed to Goldsmith's 'Life.' 
Another portrait, painted by T. Hudson in 
1740, has been engraved by Greatbatch and 
b y J. Faber. 

"nitP jfcad mirably writte n Life of Richard 
Nash, b6ughrby Newberyfor 14/., and published 
in 1762j was added by iJr. Johnson to his select 
library, and remains a classic; bnt the amount of 
information contained in it is, like Nash's own 
gold, 'spread out as thinly and as far as it would 
go.' Goldsmith speaks, however, as if he had been 
personally acquainted with the * B€au.'j!Ln ex(^el- 
l OTtf mem oir appeared in the Gentleman's Ulaga- 
ziaaiicaJLZ^2. See also Anstey's New Bath Guide 
for 1762; Newbery's Biog. Mag. 1776, pp. 499, 
600; Hist. MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. v. 327 
(a letter from Lord Orrery giving an account of 
Bath in 1731); Wright's Historic Bath ; Peach's 
Historic Houses in Bath, pp. 44-6 ; Doran's Me- 
mories of our Great Towns, 1878, pp. 83-9; 
Williams's Eminent Welshmen, pp. 355-6 ; Lon- 
don Mag. xxxi. 515-17; Univ. Mag. xxxi. 265; 
Blackwood's Mag. xlviii. 773 - Gwu*^ Wtytr^nn' a 
Wits and Beaux of Society ; LeckVs Hist: of 
EBpSroTu. i* ; idcliard ff amer's Literary Re- 
collections, vol. ii. passim ; Chambers's Book of 
Days, i. 217-18; Lett<»r8 of Henrietta, Countess 
of Suflfolk, ed. Croker, ii. 114 sq.; Elwin and 
j Courthope's Pope. Nash's history has also been 
treated with discernment in two modern novels, 
Mrs. Hibbert Ware's King of Bath and Mary 
Deane's Mr. Zinzan of Bath.] T. S. 

1601), author, son of William Nash, * mi- 
nister,' and Margaret, his second wife, was 
baptised at Lowestoft in November 1567. 
According to Nash's own account the family 
was of Herefordshire origin, and boasteli 
'longer pedi^ees than patrimonies' {Lenten 
Stuffe). His father, who is called in the 
Lowestoft parish register * preacher' as well 
as 'minister,' seems to have been curate 
there, and never obtained preferment. Tho- 
mas describes him asputtmg 'good meat in 
poor men's mouths ' {Mve with i/ou to Saffron 
fValden, ed. Grosart, iii. 189). Two older 
sons, Nathaniel (1563-1565) and Israel (b. 
1565), were bom at Lowestoft, as well aa 
four daughters, Mary (A. 1562), Rebecca (b. 
1578), and two named Martha, who both died 
in infancy. The nomenclature of the chil- 
dren suggests that the parents inclined to 
Puritanism. The father sur\'ived his son 
'homas, and was buried in Lowestoft Church 
on 25 Aug. 1603. 

In October 1582 Nash matriculated as a 
sizar at St. John's College, Cambridge, having 
possibly resided there a year or two before. 
In his youth he descril>ed his college (in 
Roger Ascham's phrase) as at one time ' an 
university within itself (Epistle to Afeno- 
ph4m) ; and in his latest work he declared 




that he * loved it still, for it ever was and 
is the sweetest nurse of knowledge in all 
that university ' (Lenten Stuffey v. 241). 
Some Latin verses on Ecclesiastes (xli. 1), 
by himself and fellow-scholars belonging to 
the Lady Margaret Foundation, are preserved 
at the Record Office {Cal State Papers^ Dom. 
Addenda, 1680-1 625, p. 166). He graduated 
B.A. in 1585-6, and remained at Cambridge, 
he states, for * seven yere together, lacking a 
quarter.* * It is well known,' he wrote, * I 
might have been a fellow if I had would ' {Have 
with you to Saffron Walden^ iii. 189). His 
malignant foe, Gabriel Harvev, represents his 
academic career as briefer ana less creditable. 
He is charged by Harvey with habitually 
insulting the townsmen, ' insomuch that to 
tliis day [they] call every untoward scholar of 
whom there is great hope ** a verie Nashe." ' 
After graduating (Harvey proceeds) he *had 
a hand in a show called ^' Terminus et non 
Terminus," for which * his partner in it was 
expelled the college.' Nash * played in it ' 
(Harvey conjectured) * the varlet of clubs. . . . 
Then, suspecting that he should be staied for 
egreffie dunstis, and not attain the next degree, 
said he had commenced enough, and so forsook 
Cambridge, being bachelor of the third year ' 
(Harvey, Trimming of Thomas Nashe), In 
Gierke's * Polimanteia' (1691 ) the university 
of Cambridge is reproached with having been 
* unkind 'to Nash m * weaning him before his 
time.' The words may merely mean that he 
left before proceeding to the degree of M.A. 
That he contrived to make a hasty tour 
through France and Italy before seriously 
seeking a profession in his own country is 
to be inferred from a few passages in the 
works assigned to him (cf. The Unfortunate 
Traveller, v. 65 so.) 

By 1588 Nash had settled in London. A 
fair classical scholar, and an appreciative 
reader of much foreign and English literat ure, 
he resolved to seek a livelihood by his pen. 
Robert Greene, Lodge, Daniel, and Marlowe, 
whose acquaintance he early made, were at- 
tracted by his sarcastic temper and his over- 
mastering scorn of pretentious ignorance and 
insincerity. But with these stem character- 
istics he combined some generous traits. Sir 
George Carey [q. v.], heir of the first Lord 
Huiisdon, recognised his promise, and to Sir 
George's wife and daughter respectively he 
dedicated in grateful language his * Christes 
Teares ' and his * Terrors of the Night.' He 
seems to have resided for a time at Carey's 
houi^e at Beddington, near Croydon. In 1592 
he wrote that * fear of infection detained me 
with my lord in the country ' (Pierce Penni- 
lesse, 2nd ed. Epistle). Naahalso made deter- 
mined efforts to gain the patronage of the 

Earl of Southampton. He once tasted (he 
wrote) * in his forsaken extremities * the 
* full spring ' of the earl's liberality, and paid 
him a visit in the Isle of Wight, of which 
the earl was governor and Sir George Carey 
captain-general ( Terrors of the Night, 1594). 
To Southampton Nash dedicated his * Unfor- 
tunate Traveller,' his most ambitious produc- 
tion. Nash essayed, too, to attract the favour 
of the Earl of JJerby, but he did not retain 
the favour of any patron long. Till his death 
he suffered the keenest pangs of poverty, and 
was (he confesses) often so reduced as to pen 
unedifving * toyes for gentlemen,* by winch 
he probably meant licentious songs. 

His first publication was an epistle ad- 
dressed * to the Gentlemen Students of both 
Universities,' prefixed to Greene's romance 
of * Menaphon.' Although written earlier, 
it was not published till 1589. It is an acrid 
review of recent efforts in English literature, 
and makes stinging attacks on poetasters like 
Stanihurst, the translator of Virgil, and on 
some unnamed writers of bombastic tragedies 
in blank verse. Kyd seems to have been the 
dramatist at whom Nash chiefly aimed. His 
appreciative references to Marlowe elsewhere 
render it improbable that his censure was in- 
tended for tnat poet. Nash always appre- 
ciated true poetry, and his denunciation of 
those whom he viewed as impostors is in this 
earliest work balanced by sympathetic refer- 
ences to * divine Master Spencer,' to Peele, 
to William Warner, and a few others. 

At the close of the essay Nash announced 
j that he was engaged upon his * Anatomie of 
Absurdities,' whicli was to disclose his * skill 
in surgery,' and to further inquire into the 
current * diseases of Art.' It was entered on 
the * Stationers* Registers' 17 Sept. 1588, but 
appeared only late in 1589, with a flattering 
dedication to Sir Charles Blount (afterwards 
Earl of Devonshire) [q. v.] The title, which 
was doubtless modelled on Greene's * Ana- 
tomic of Flatterie ' or the * Anatomie of 
Fortune ' (the second title of his * Arbasto'), 
ran : * The Anatomie of Absurditie, con- 
tayning a breefe Confutation of the slender 
imputed Prayses to Feminine Perfection, 
with a short Description of the severall Prac- 
tises of Youth and sundry- Follies of our licen- 
tious Times,'* London, 1589. The book, which 
the author describes as * the embrion of my 
infancy ' and the outcome of a disappointment 
in love, consists of moral reflections of a 
euphuistic type, and a further supply of sar- 
castic reflections on contemporary writers, 
some of whom it is difficult to identify. One 
reference to * the Homer of W^omen' appears 
to be an unfriendly criticism of Nash^ ally, 
Robert Greene; and a contemptuous comment 




on those who ' anatomize abuses and stub up 
fiinne by the roots ' is an attack on Philip 
Stubbes, the puritan author of the ' Anatomie 
of Abuses ' (1583). 

At the time puritan pamphleteers under 
the pseudonym of Martin Mar-Prelate were 
waging a desperately coarse and libellous 
war upon the bishops and episcopal church- 
government. Nash's hatred of puritanism 
was ingrained. His powers of sarcasm ren- 
dered him an effective controversialist. The 
fray consequently attracted him, and he en- 
tered it with spirit. The publisher John 
Danter doubtless encouraged him to engage 
in the strife, and Gabriel Harvey afterwards 
sneered at Nash as * Danter*s gentleman.' All 
the actors in this controversial drama wrote 
anonymously, and it is not easy to describe 
with certainty the part any one man played 
in it. Internal evidence shows that Nash's 
customary nom de guerre was Pasquil. This 
pseudonym he probably borrowed from the 
eatiric * Pasquil the Playne* (1540) of Sir 
Thomas Elyot [q. v.], a writer whom he fre- 
quently mentioned with respect. The earliest 
of the tracts claiming to proceed from Pas- 
quiFs pen seems to have been circulated in 
August lo89; it was entitled * A Counter- 
cufle given to Martin Junior, by the ven- 
turous, bardie, and renowned Pasquill of 
England Cauiliero. Not of olde Martin's 
making, which newlie knighted the Saints in 
Heauen, with rise uppe Sir Peter and Sir 
Paule. But latelie dubd for his seruice at 
home in the defence of his Countrey, and for 
the cleane breaking of his stafie >'pon Mar- 
tins face. I*rinted between the skye and the 
grounde, wythin a myle of an Oake, and 
not manie Fields off from the vnpriuiledged 
Presse of the Ass-ignes of Martin Junior,* 
4to, 1589 (cf. Brit. BibL ii. li^4). Nash re- 
entered the combat in October, with *The 
Retume of the renouned Cavaliero Pasquil, 
of England from the other side of the Seas 
and his meeting with Marforius at London 
upon the Koyall Exchange, where they en- 
counter with a little houshold Talke of Mar- 
tin and Martinisme, discovering the Scabbe 
that is bredde in England, and conferring 
together about the speedie Dispersing of the 
Golden Legende of the Lives of the Saints 
. . .' 4to, 1589. The latest contribution to the 
controversy that can safely be assigned to 
Nash was * The First Parte of Pasquils Apo- 
logie. Wherein he renders a reason to his 
Friendes of his long Silence, and gallops the 
fielde with the treatise of Keformation, late 
written by a fugitive, John Penrie, Anno 
Domini, 1590,' 4to. 

Freauent references are made by Pasquil 
and otner wiitexs to Pasquil's resolye to ex- 

pose exhaustively the theories and practices 
of the puritans in a volume to be entitled 
* The Lives of the Saints' or the new * Golden 
Legend.' He also promised in the same in- 
terest an * Owls' Almanack ' and * The May- 
game of Martinisme,' but the battle seems to 
have ceased before these pieces of artillery 
were constructed. That Nash was respon- 
sible for other published attacks on Martin 
Mar-Prelate is, however, very possible. A 
marginal note in the * Stationers' Registers' 
tentatively assigns to Nash ' A Mirror for 
Martinists ' (22 Dec. 1589). This was ' pub- 
lished by T. T.,' doubtfully interpreted as 
Thomas Thorpe, and * printed by lohn Wolfe, 
1590 ' (Lambeth and Britwell). Two other 
clever pamphlets which did notable havoc on 
the enemy nave been repeatedly assigpaed to 
Nash, with some plau8H)ility. ' The first is 
' Martins months minde that is, a certaine 
Report and true Description of Death and 
Funeralls of olde Martin Marre-prelate, the 
great Makebate of England and Father of the 
Factious, containing the cause of his death, 
the manner of his buriall, and the right copies 
both of his will and such epitaphs as by sundrie 
his dearest friends and other liis well wishers 
were framed for him . . .' August 1689, 4to. 
But the fact that the dedication is addressed 
by a-pseudonymous Marphoreus to *Pas(juin,' 
i.e. Pasquil, renders it probable that it is by 
an intimate associate of Nash, but not by 
himself (cf. Brit BibL ii. 124, 127^. To the 
same pen should probably be allotted one 
of the latest of the Martin Mar-Prelate lucu- 
brations: *An Almond for a Parrat, or 
Cuthbert Curry-knaues Almes ' (1590). This 
is dedicated to William Kemp [q. v.] the 
actor, and the writer claims to have travelled 
in Italy. John Lyly [q. v.] was closely as- 
sociated with Nash during the controversy, 
but it is unlikely that he was resiponsible 
for these two sparkling libels. To Lyly, 
however, should oe ascribed the * Pappe with 
a Hatchet,' which often figures in lists of 
Nash's works. 

In the opinion of the next generation, 
Nash's unbridled pen chiefly led to the dis- 
comfiture of the * Martinists.' Many pam- 
phleteers claiming to be his disciples at- 
tempted to employ his weapons against the 
sectaries of Charles I's reign. In 1640 John 
Taylor the water-poet issued * Differing Wor- 
ships ... or Tom Nash his ghost (the old 
Martin queller) newly rous'd and is come to 
chide . . . nonconformists, schismatiques, 
separatists, and scandalous libellers.' In 
1&12 another disciple published * Tom Nash 
his Ghost to the three scurvy Fellowes of the 
upstart family of the Snufiiers, Rutllers, and 
Shufiiers ... a little revived since the SO 


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'Written by Thomas Nash, Gentleman, Lon- 
don, by Richard Jhones, 1592.' Of this 
' long^tailed ' verbiage Nash disapproved, and 
he contrived that Abel Jeffes, another sta- 
tioner, should issue at once a second edition 
with the first seven words alone upon the 
title-page, along with the motto ' Barbaria 
granois habere nihil.' In a ' private epistle,' 
Nash here explained that fear of the plague 
kept him from London while the book was 
ffomg through the press, and that he had no 
intention oi attacking any save those who 
attacked him. The work was well received ; 
it was six times reprinted within the year, 
and was * maimedly translated ' into French. 
In 1696 H. C. (perhaps Henry Chettle) pub- 
lished a feeble imitation, entitled ' Piers 
Plainnes seaven yeres Prentiship.' About 
1606, after Nash's death, an anonvmous 
writer issued an ineffective sequel, * The Re- 
tume of the Knight of the Post from Hell 
with the Devils Answeare to the Supplica- 
tion of Piers Penniless.' Nash had hiinself 
contemplated the continuation of his ' Piers ' 
under some such title. Dekker, as the cham- 
pion of Nash's reputation, adversely criti- 
cised this effort in his 'Newes from Hell 
brought by the Divells Carrier ' (1606). 

In one bitter passa^ of 'Pierce Penni- 
lesse,' Nash pursued his attack on the Har- 
veys. Immediately afterwards Gabriel Har- 
vey descended into the arena, avowedly to 
avenge Greene's attacks in his * Quip on 
himself and his brothers. Greene was now 
dead, but Gabriel had no scruple in defam- 
ing his memory in his ' Foure Letters and 
certain Sonnets,' which was licensed for pub- 
lication in December 1592. Nash sprang to 
the rescue, as he asserted, of his friend's repu- 
tation. In his epistle to ' Menaphon ' he had 
written respectfully of Gabriel Harvey as a 
writer of admirable Latin verse, and Gabriel 
Harvey had hitherto spoken courteously of 
Nash. He numbered him in his 'Foure 
Letters ' among ' the dear lovers and professed 
sons of the Muses,' and had excused hb on- 
slaughts on Richard Harvey on the groimd of 
his youth. But Nash now scorned compli- 
ments, and wholly devoted his next publica- 
tion to a vigorous denunciation of Gabriel. 
He was seeking free play for his gladiatorial 
instincts, and his claim to intervene solely as 
Greene's champion cannot be accepted quite 
literally. In the second edition of his ' Pierce,' 
issued within a month of Greene's death, he 
had himself denounced Greene*s ' Groatsworth 
of W it ,' his friend's dy inp utterance, as ' a scald 
trivial lying pamphiet.*^ His new tract was 
entitled ' Strange Newes of the Intercepting 
certaine Letters and a Conuoy of Verses as 
they were going priuilie to victuall the Low 

Countries,' i.e. tobe applied to very undignified 
purposes, London, by John Danter, 1593. The 
work was licensed for the press on 12 Jan. 
1592-3, under a title beginning 'The Apolo^e 
of Pierce Pennilesse,' and the second edition 
of 1593 was so designated. The dedication 
was addressed to ' William Apis-Lapis,' i.e^ 
Bee-stone, whom Nash describes as ' the 
most copious Carminist of our time, and 
famous persecutor of Priscian ' (Christopher 
Beestone, possibly son of William, was a 
well-known actor). Harvey replied to Nash's 
strictures in his venomous * Pierce's Super- 
erogation.' But a novel experience for Nash 
followed. He grew troubled by religious 
doubts ; his temper took a pacific turn, and 
he was anxious to come to terms with Har- 
vey. On 8 Sept. 1593 he obtained a license 
for publishing a series of repentant reflec- 
tions on the sins of himself and his London 
neighbours, called ' Christes Teares over 
Jerusalem.' The dedication is addressed to 
Elizabeth, wife of Sir George Carey. There 
he affected to bid ' a hundred unfortunate 
farewels to fantasticall satirisme, in whose 
veines heretofore I misspent my spirit and 
prodi^Uy conspired against good houres. 
Nothing IS there now so much in my vowes as 
to be at peace with all men, and make submis- 
sive amends where I have most displeased.' 
Declaring himself tired of the controversy 
with Harvey, he acknowledged in generous 
terms that he had rashly assailed Harvey's 
' fame and reputation.' But Harvey was deaf 
to the appeal ; ' the tears of the crocodile,* 
he declared, did not move him. He at once 
renewed the battle in his * New Letter of 
Notable Contents.' In a second edition of 
his ' Christes Teares ' Nash accordingly with- 
drew his offers of peace, and lashed Harvey 
anew with unbounded fury. Thereupon for 
a season the combatants refrained from hos- 
tilities, and in 1595 Clarke in his ' Poleman- 
teia ' made a pathetic appeal to Cambridge 
University to make her two children friends. 
In the inter\'als of the strife Nash had 
written a hack-piece, *The Terrors of the 
Night, or a Discourse of Apparitions,' London, 
by John Danter, 1594, 4to. It was dedicated 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir George Carey, 
and he acknowledges obi igations to her family, 
but was obviously writing in great pecuniary 
difficulties. The dedicat ion is rendered notable 
by its frank praise of Daniel's ' Delia.' The 
work was licensed on 30 June 1593. A new 
literary experiment, and one of lasting in- 
fluence ana interest, followed. In 1594 ap- 
peared Nash's 'Unfortunate Traveller, or 
the Life of Jack Wilton,' which he dedicated 
to the Earl of Southampton. It was entered 
on the * Stationers' Register,' 7 Sept. 1593. 


1 06 


1: is « ?»*:uaii%v of ivckless adventure, and. 
**.;hoi!j:-; •.: is di work of fiotion, a few histo- 
noA*. tvrv.*ii!«i\** and episode* are introduced 
\^ iilv.»',;: •.lsuv•^. rt*a:»nl to strict accuracy, but 
jiWAT l\ to the a»ivHn;aj^» of the ATaisemblance 
01 ii:o sE.*rv. rhe hero is a page, *a little 
Miporior i!». mnk to the onlinnn- picaro; ' he 
lt»N MTVtsl in t!ie Kn^rlish army at Tournay, 
but li\os on his wits and prosj»ers by his im- 
|Midont do\ ioos. 1 lo visits Italy in attendance 
oil the Karl of Sum\v the inWit, of whose re- 
Ulion.'t with the Mnir lieraldine' Nash tells 
u iviuuuiiohui u ntnist worthy story, lonpac- 
*v»»t^^l as H\itheutio by Surrey's biographers. 
ArtxT luiirhrtNidth esoa|H»s from the punish- 
luoui due to his* niHuifold offences, Jack^Vil- 
lou uuirrirs a rioh \enetian lady, and rejoins 
i\w Kukjlish army while Francis I and 

I lourv \\i\ niv ot^lebrating the Field of the 
ri»»ni of ludd. Thomas l>eloney [q* v.] may 
ba\o ji'i^m'sii'd such an effort to Nash by 
\\\^ ^H»de>inau 'Jack of Newbery' or *Tho- 
luii^ of Kendiutf.' but Nash doubtless de- 

ling, i>ui *>asn aouoness de- 
nik^iuHl III!* rt»nmnoe as a parotly of thost 
uiedui'\nl storv-lM>oks of King Arthur and 
*<»v ri'j^triuu \\hirh he had aln»ady ridicult»d 
III iw* • \iuiioniie of Al«urelitie.* AVhutever 
Na^liH \»hirot, the minute details with which 
ho \lofi*"nbef* eaeh episode and character 
auUi'iputo the manner of Defoe. No one of 
.N.inh'ii .^urei'Nsors In'fore Defoe, at any rate, 
dt-iptiiM'd Muiihir nowersasa wTiter of renlis- 
4 10 lirl lou. rh«» * I n fortunate Traveller' was, 
iinttii|>pi)\, Nash's stde excursion into this 
j^mmhxo lii'M of literature. 

hi loJHi Niish returned to his satiric vein. 
Uo had h'anu'dthat Harvey boasted of ha v- 
«ut: Mlouerd him. To prove the emptiness of 
lh.« Mumt. he aeeonlingly issued the most 
inovul'ul o( all his tracts: * Ilaue with you 
lv» S.iiliou NVahh'U, or Gabriel Ilarueys Hunt 
1^ \ p.ronlaiiiiuga Full Answere to the Eldest 
Sv»uuo of tho Hatter-Maker . . . lo96.* The 
\\»mK \\i\t* dediealod, in burlesque fashion, to 
Ku luud I .it eh Hold, barber of Trinity College, 
\'aiuhri»lm», and includes a burlesque bio- 
oi,ii»lv\ »»f Harvey, which is very comically 
dox»^'d. Ilarvry sought to improve on this 
«udl> h> publishing his * Trimming of Thomas 
\ji^ho ' late in loJ)?, while Nash was suffer- 
ing impriMOMinent in the Fleet. The heated 
0\mlbe( now attracted the attention of the 
|uvii«(tpi of t he press. The two authors were 
duM^Unl to desist from further action; and 
lA \tW it^ ^'(^ ordered by the Archbishop of 
if^rv nnd others ' that all Nashe*s 
lllil l)r. Harvey's bookes be taken, 
^fff they may be, and that none of 
I book(« be oner printed hereafter.' 
kubtedly won much sympathy from 
HOUton of this ^protracted duel. 

I -«.- 

Francis Meres wrote in his * Palladis Tamia * 
(lo9S\ *A8 Eupolis of Athens used great 
liberty in taxing the vices of men : so doth 
I Thomas Nash. Witness the brood of the 
! Har\eys.' Sir John Harington was less 
complimentan- in his epigram (bk. ii. 36) : 

The proverb says who fights with dirty foes 
MQ>t needs be soil'd, admit they win or lose; 

Then think it doth a doctor's credit dash 
To make himself antagonist to Nash. 

Thomas Middleton in his * Ant and the 
Nightingale,' 1604, generously apostrophises 
Nash, who was then dead : 

I Thou hadst a strife with that Tergemini ; 

' Tiiua hurt'bt them not till they bad injured thee. 

Dekker wrote that Nash * made the doctor 
Ilarvev^ a flat dunce, and beat him at his 
two sundrv tall weapons, poetrie and ora- 
torie ' (.Ve<w/ro;w ife//, 1C06). 

Like all the men of letters of his dav, Nash 
meanwhile paid some attention to the stage. 
Tlie great comic actorTarleton had befriended 
him on his arrival in London, and he has 
been credited with compiling * Tarltons 
Newes out of Punratorie,' 1590. AUeyn he 
had eulogised in his * Piers Penniless.' In 
1593 he prepared a * Pleasant Comedie, called 
Summers Last Will and Testament.' It was 
privately acted a)x)ut Michael mas at Bedding- 
ton, near Crovdon, at the house of Sir George 
Carey. It was not published till KXX). The 
piece is a nondescript masque, in which Will 
Summers, Henry ^ Ill's jester, figures as a 
loquacious and bitter-tongued chorus (in 
prose), while the Four Seasons, the god Bac- 
chus, Orion, Harvest, Solstitium,and similar 
abstractions soliloquise in competent blank- 
verse on their place in human economy. A 
few songs, breathing the genuine Elizabethan 
fire, are introduced; that entitled 'Spring* 
has been set to music by Mr. Henschel. For 
Marlowe's achievements in poetry and the 
drama Nash, too, had undisguised regard, and 
in 1594 he completed and saw through the 
press ^larlo we's unfinished * Tragedie of Dido ' 
[see Maklowe, CHiasTOPHEK] (cf. Lenten 
iStuJfe, V. 2()2). Nash's contribution to the 
work is bald, and lacks true dramatic quality. 
But Nash was not discouraged, and in 1597 
attempted to convert to dramatic uses his * fan- 
tastical ' powers of satire. Ilenslowe agreed 
to accept a comedy for the lord admiraFs com- 
j)any to be called* The Isle of Dogs.' At the 
time Nash was in exceptional distress, and 
had to apply to Henslowe for payments on 
account. • Lent the 14 May 1697 to Jubie,' 
wrote Henslowe in his * Diary ' (p. 94), *uppon 
a notte from Nashe, twentie shellinges more 
for the Jylle of dogges, w*"* he is wiytinge 




for the company.' The play duly appeared 
a month later. 13ut Nash asserts that, as far 
as he was concerned, it was ' an imperfect 
embrio.' He had himself only completed 
' the induction and first act of it ; the other 
five acts, without my consent or the least 
guess of my drift or scope, by the players 
were supplied ' {Lenten Stuffe, v. 200). The 
piece, however, attacked many current abuses 
m the state with so much violence as to 
rouse the anger of the privy council. The 
license to Henslowe^s theatre was withdrawn, 
and Nash, who protested that the acts written 
by others * bred ' the trouble, was sent to the 
Fleet prison, after his lodgings had been 
searched and his papers seized {Privy Coun- 
cil MS. Reg. October 1696-September 1697, 
p. 346). Henslowe notes (p. 98) : * P* this 
23 of auguste 1597 to harey Porter, to carye 
to T Nashe no we at this in the ilete, lor 
wrytinge of the eylle of Doggesteu shellinges, 
to oe paid agen to me when he canne.' The 
restramt on the company was removed on 
27 Auff., but Nash was not apparently re- 
leased for many months ; and, when released, 
he was for a time banished from London. ' As 
ActflBon was worried by his own hounds,' 
wrote Francis Meres in his * Palladis Tamia,* 
• so is Tom Nash of his Isle of Dogs. Dogs 
were the death of Euripides, but be not dis- 
consolate, gallant young Juvenal ! Linus, the 
son of Apollo, died the same death. Yet God 
forbid that so brave a wit should so basely 
perish ! Thine are but paper dogs, neither 
IS thy banishment like Ovid's, eternally to 
converse with the barbarous Getce. Therefore 
comfort thyself, swtet Tom! with Cicero's 
glorious return to Rome, and with the coun- 
sel -^Eneas gives to his sea-beaten soldiers 
{Lib. i.yEneid).^ But persecution did not curb 
Nash's satiric tongue. In the printed version 
of his * Summers Last Will' (1600) he in- 
serted a contemptuous reference to the hubbub 
caused by the suppressed play : * Here's a coil 
about dogs without wit ! If I had thought 
the ship of fools would have stay'd to take 
in fresh water at the Isle of Dogs, I would 
have fumish'd it with a whole kennel of col- 
lections to the purpose.' The incident was 
long remembered. In the 'Ketume from 
Pemassus' one of the characters says * Writs 
are out for me to apprehend me for my plays, 
and now I am bound for the Isle of Dogs.' 

In 1697 Nash, in despair of recovering 
his credit, and being * without a penny in his 
purse,' appealed for assistance to Sir Robert 
Cotton, but, with characteristic eflrontery, 
chiefly filled his letter with abuse of Sir 
John Harington's recentpamphlet, 'Meta- 
morphoftifl of A-jax.' He signed himself 
' Yours, in acknowledgment of the deepest 

bond,' but his earlier relations with Cotton 
are unknown (Colueb, Annals^ i. 802). In 
1592, in the second edition of his ^ Pierce 
Pennilesse,' he had complained that 'the 
antiquaries,' of whom Cotton was the most 
conspicuous representative, 'were offended 
without cause ' by his writings, and had pro- 
tested that he reverenced that excellent pro- 
fession ' as much as any of them all.' Nash's 
bitter temper certainly alienated patrons, and 
no permanent help seems to have reached him 
now. Selden, in his * Table Talk ' (ed. Arber, p. 
71),tellsastory of the scorn poured by Nash — 

* a poet poor enough as poets used to be ' — on a 
wealthy alderman because ' the fellow' could 
not make ' a blank verse.' In 1599 he showed 
all his pristine vigour in what was probably 
his latest publication, 'Nashe's Lenten 
Stufie, containing the description and first 
procreation and increase of the towne of 
Great Yarmouth, in Norfolke.' This is a 
comically burlesque panegyric of the red 
herring, and is dedicated to Humfrey King, 
tobacconist and author. Nash had, he ex- 
plains, recently visited Y^armouth, and had 
obtained a loan of money and very hospi- 
table entertainment there (v. 202-3). Hence 
his warm commendation of the town and its 
industry. In the course of the work he an- 
nounced that he was about to go to Ireland 
(v. 192). Next year he published his * Sum- 
mers Last Will, and he has been doubtfully 
credited with a translation from the Italian 
of Garzoni's * Hospitall of Incurable Fooles,* 
a satiric essay published by Edward Blount 
in 1600. But JUount seems to claim the 
work for himself. At the same time Nash's 
name figures among the 'modem and ex- 
tant poets ' whose work is quoted in John 
Bodenham's * Belvedere, or Garden of the 
Muses ' (1600). In 1601 Nash was dead ; he 
had not completed his thirty-fourth year. 
A laudatory * Cenotaphia ' to his memory 
is appended by Charles Fitzgeftrey to his 

* Ananite ' (p. 195), which was published in 
that year. A less resi)ectful epitaph among 
the Sloane MSS. states that he * never in his 
life paid shoemaker or tailor ' (Dodsley, Old 
FlaySy 1874, viii. 9). 

Nash's original personality gives him a 
unique place in Elizabethan literature. In 
rough vigour and plain speaking he excelled 
all his contemporaries ; like them, he could 
be mirthful, but his mirthful ness was always 
spiced with somewhat bitter sarcasm. He 
was widely read in the classics, and was well 
versed in the Italian satires oif Pietro Are- 
.tino, whose disciple he occasionally avowed 
himself. Sebastian Brandt's ' Narren-schiff ' 
he also appreciated, and he was doubtless 
familiar with the work of Rabelais. He had 

Mf . 


Nash u 

ie*l tjiiipalhj at the same time with great 
English poetrv, &ad be nerer vsvered in his 
■duiimtion of Surrej, Sp«nser, Sir FbiUp 
Iffidnpf, and Thomas Wataon. 'The poeM 
of onr time . . . have cleansed out language 
from bwbsrism.' he trmte in his ' Pierce 
Penniloase.' His own excuraiona into verse 
are few, but some of the Ijrics in ' Summers 
l-ai't Will ' eome from a poet's pen. His 
ich prone vocabularv van peculiar to him- 
" as far aa his bnglinb contemporaries 
1 ooncerned, and he boasted, with some 
ct>, thai he therein imitated no man. 
. UT style,' he asks, 'like Greene's, or mv 
jiBrts like Tarleton's P ' On euphuism, with 
Its 'talk of counterfeit birds or herbs or 
Btones,' he poured unmeasured scorn, and 
lie lolnratod none of the current English 
•fl'eclations. But foreign influences— the in» 
flnimrt'H of Itabelais and Aretino — are por- 
ceptililK in monj of the eccentricities on 
■whioli he chieHy prided himself (cf. Habtbt, 
Ai-ir l^tUr. in Grosart'a edit. i. 272-3, 289). 
l.iku Itabelnis and Aretino, he dejiended 
latvely on a free use of the vernacular for 
hia burlesque effecU. But when he found 
11(1 wiinl quite fitted to his purpose, he fol- 
lowed tlie example of his foreign masters in 
Oniiiiiiir one out of Greek, Latin, Spanish, or 
Italian. 'No iii»echor wordes.'he wrote, 'of 
nuv piiwiT or force to confute or persuade 
bkli inunt be iwelling and boisterous,' and he 
vrin (■"nilHiliitl to resort, he explained, 'to 
liu> U'lulonms compound words in order to 
iH.nuH'H»ate for the great defect of the Eng- 
li.hloiiK«"'. which, 'of all languages, most 
KttMriiK'tli will' •'"' single monev of mono- 
nHiiMiw.' ' Itiilisnale' verbs ending in Ue, 
JuAx at ' tyrnniiiM "' tympanjie,' he claims 
la liwVK iiitr.Klucud to 'the language. Like 
IUU'UIn, IiH). Nash sought to develop em- 
»Jut,ii. bv lunr-halling columns of synnnyms 
Hul liv" rnnstant reiteration of bindred 
uhntH-a Hi* writinfffl have at times some- 
ih.ntf ..f llii> fiiMination <>' Rabflaia, but, as 
' T hl« nubj.icts are of too local end topi- 
;j»Uuinle«-l to appeal to Rabelais's wide 
-W t>f W«ii<'r»- 1''8 romance of 'Jack 
Vnlu<« ' wl>i''l' inaugurated the novel of ad- 
\»«tttw' l» Ki'icli""'. "■" •*«**■ preser\e hia 

'"'Kir w«l«tnP<"*"'« acknowledged tlie 

.Jllk J hi. Individuality. Meres uncriti- 

!!S« »«fcMWd Ulm among ' the best poets 

STli ».' lMAg» described him more con- 

•" r^ Knglish Aretine' (WiU 

If bile Greene suggest i 

viWt with that of Juvenal. 

from Pemassus' (ed. Mae- 

itioe is done him. ' Ay, 

m untie declares, ' tlu,t 


carried the deadly stock [i.e. rapier] in hia 
pen, whose muse was armed nitlia^gtooth 
[i.e. tuskl, and his pen possessed wttb Her- 
cules' funes.' Another student a 

Let all his faults elecp vith bis mournful chest. 
And then for ever with his ashes rest. 
His style was witty, tho' be hnd eomB gall, 
mended, so i 
have over seen tbe like of it. 
Middleton very regretfully lamented that he 
did not live to do his talents full justice 
(Ant and Nightingale, 1604). Dekker, who 
mildly followed in some of Nash's footsteps, 
itrenuDusly defended his memory in bis 
Newes from Hell,' 1606, which waa directly 
it\spired by ' Piers Penniless,' and was ro- 
issuedas' KnigliteConjuring' in 1007. Into 
Nash's soul (Dekker asserts) ' the raptures 
of that fierce and unconfineable Italian spirit 
'vaa bounteously and boundlessly infused.' 
Ingenious and ingenuous, fluent, facetious,' 

on his dead friend. Later Dekker described 
Nash as welcomed to the Elysian fields by 
Marlowe, Greene, and Peele, who laughed to 
see him, ' that was but newly come to their 
college, still hunted with the sharp and satiri- 
cal spirit that followed him here upon earth, 
inveighing lujainst dry-fisted patrons, accus- 
ing them of^ his untimely death.' Michael 
Drayton is more sympathetic : 

Surely Nash. thou;;h lie a proaer were, 

A branch of lanrel well deserred to boar; 

Sharply satiric vias be. 

Iznak Walton described Nash aa ' a man of 

a sharp wit. and the master of a scofllng, 

satirical, and meny pen.' 

Besides the works noted, Nash was author 
poem of the boldest indecency. 

among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library. Oldys in bis notes on Langbaine'a 
' Dram'atick Poets ' asserts that the work 
was published. John Davies of Hereford, 
in his ' Paper's Complaint ' (' Scourge of 
Folly') mentions the sham elesB performance, 
and declares that ' good men's hate did it in 
pieces tear ; ' but whether the work met this 
fate in manuscript or print Davies leaves 
uncertain. In his ' New Letter of Notable 
Contents ' Harvey had denounced Kaah for 
emulating Aretir'io's licentiousness. In hie 
' llaue with you to Saffron Walden ' ^iii. 44) 
Nash admitted that poverty had occasionally 
forced him to prostitute his pen ' in hope of 
iniin' by penning 'amorous V'illanellos and 
Quipai<sas for ' new-fangled Galiardoa and 
seaior Fontuticos.' TheM exeiciaee are not 

Nash " 

known to be extant, but the poem ia the 
Taimer MSS. ma^ perhaps be reckoned 
«iiiong them. An indelicate poem, ' The 
Choowng of Valentines by Tbomaa Nashe,' ia 
in Inner Temple MS. 538. A few of the 
opening lines only are printed by Dr. Gro- 

A caricature of Noeh in irons in ihe Fleet 
is engraved in Harvey's 'Trimming' (1597), 
■nd is reproduced in Ur. Oroaurt'a large-paper 
edition of Hsrvey'a ' Works,' iii. 43. Another 
very rough portrait ie on the title-page of 
'Tom Nash bis Ghost ' (1842). 

All the works with certainty attributed 
to Nash, together with ' Martins Months 
Mind,' whidi is in all probability from 
another's pen, are reprinted in Dr. Grosart's 
' Iluth Library ' (6 vols,), 1883-^. The fol- 
lowing list aupplies the titles somewhat 
abbreviated. All tbevolumesarevervrare; 
1, 'The .Anatomieof Absurdi tie,' London, by 
I. Chariewood for Thomas Ilacket, 1589, -Ito ; 
the only pDrfeEt copy is in Mr. Christie 
Jliller'a library at Britwell ; an imperfect 
copy, the only other known, is at the Bodleian 
Library ; another edition, dated 15!X), is in 
the British Museum. 3. ' A Countercuil'e 

S'uen to Martin lunior. . . . Anno Dom. 
i89,' without printer's name or place (Brit. 
Mus. and Iluth Libr.) 3. ' The Returoe of 
the RenownedCaualierPasquill of England. 
. , . AnnoDom. 1589,' without printer's name 

4. ' The First Parte of Paequils Apologie.' 
Anno Dom. 1590, doubtless printed by James 
Robert for Danter (Huth Libr,, Britwell, and 
Brit. Mus.) 6. ' A Wonderi'uU strange and 
miracDlous Astrologicall Prognostication,' 
London, by Thomas Scarlet, 1691 (BodL) 
6. ' Pierce Pennile.'tSB his Supplication to the 
DfiTill,' London, by Richard J hones, 1593, 
an unauthorised edition (the only known 
eopies are at Britwell and in Mr. Locker 
Lampson's library at Rowfant) ; reprinted 
for the Shakespeare Society by J. P. Collier, 
inl&t^i theauthorisededittonbyAbclIeffea, 
1593 (Bodl., Trin. Coll. Camb., Rowfant, 
Brit. Mus., and Huth Libr.); 1593 and 1695 
(both in Brit, Mus.). 7. 'Strange Newes of 
the Intercepting certaine Letters ... by 
Tho. Nashe, Gentleman,' printed 1592 (Brit. 
Mus.) ; London, by John Danter, 1593, with 
the title 'An Apologia for Pierce Pennilease' 
<Huth Libr.) ; reprinted by Collier in 1867. 

5. 'Christs Teares over lerusalam, London, 
by James Roberta, and tobesotdeby .Andrewe 
Wise,' 1593 (Brit. Mus., Britwell, and Huth 
Libr,) ; 1594, with new address ' to the 
Reader," printed for Andrew Wise' (Fluth 
Libr.); 1613 (Bodl.), with the prefatory 
matter of 1693. 9, ■ The Terrois of the 


Night,' London, printed bv John Danter 
for William Jones, London, 1594, 4to 
(Bodl., Britwell, and Bridgwater Libr.) 
10. 'The Unfortunate Traveller, or the Life 
of lacke Wilton,' London, printed bv T. 
Scarlet for C. Burby, 1594, 4to (Brit. Mus. 
and Britwell); reprinted in 'Chiswick Press 
Reprints,' 1893, edited by Mr. Edmund 
Qosse. U. ' The Tragedie of Dido ... by 
Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nash, 
Gent.' London, by the Widdowe Orwin for 
Thomas Woodcocke, 1594 [see under Mi'b- 
LOWB, CHEisTOpaEBJ. 13. 'Hauewithyou 
to SafFron-Walden,' London, by John Danter, 
159« (Brit. Mus., Britwell, and HutU Libr). 
13. 'Nashe's Lenten Stufl'e,' printed for 
H. L. and C. B., 1599 (Huth Libr., Bodl., 
Britwell, and Brit. Mus.) ; reprinted in 
"Harleian Miscellany.' 14. ' A pleasant 
Comedie called Summers Last Will and 
Testament,' London, by Simon Stafford for 
Walter Burre, 1600 (Brit. Mus., Britwell 
Huth Libr., Rowfant, and Duke of Devon- 
shire's Libr,)i reprinted in Dodsle/s 'Did 

[BibHi>graphipal information most kindly sup- 
plied by Mr.H. E.Graves of Brit. Mus,; Grossrta 
introductioas to his odltion of Nash's Works, 
in vols. i. Had vi.; Collier's pretiice Ui hia reprint 
of Fierce Pennilesae, for Sluikiepeare Soe. 18-12 ; 
Sir. Goese's preface to his reprint of Ihe Unfortu- 
nate Traveller, 1892; Cunningham's XevFneta in 
the Life of Na»h, ia Shakspeare Society's Papers, 
iii. 178 1 Pleay's Biog. Cbron. of English Dnima ; 
Collier'a Bibl. Account of £>irly English Lit. ; 
Cooper's Athene Cantabr, vol. il.; Jusserand's 
English Novel in the Time of Shatespere (Engl, 
tranal.}, 1800; DTaraoli's Qnarrels of Authors ; 
Herfoid's Lit. Rplariona of England and Qsr- 
mauy. pp. IBS, 372; Dodsley-s Old Plays, od. 
Hailitl. 187*. viii. 1 aeq. ; Harvtiy's Works, 
cd. Groaart ; Hunter's manuscript (ihorns V«- 
tutn, in Addit. MS. 21489, f. 3BT; OUIys's 
tnannscript nol«s on LanglMine's Dramstick 
Poets, 1691, f. 382, in Brit. Mas, (C. 28.^.1.): 
Simpson's School of .Shakspere ; Anglis, \ii, 223 
(Sbukspero and Puritanism, by F. G. Fleuy, 
whole conclusiona there respecting N.ish seem 
somewhat bntsstic) ; Maskell's Martin Marpre- 
lat« ControVBray; Arber'a Introduction to the 
Martin Marprelata Controversy. A third-rat? 
mem in Sloano MS., called 'The Trinimin;^ of 
Tom Nashe,' although its title is obvionaly bor- 
rowed from Harvey's tract, doea not concern 
itaelf with either Harvey or Nash. See arts. : 
GaEKHB, RoasBt; HittVEV, GinaiKL; HAUVKr. 
Bicn.iBD ; LvLY, JouH ; and Marujwb, Chris- 


NASH, THOMAS (1588-1048), author, 
Worcestershire. Hematriculatedos' Thomas 
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vicarage of Eynsham, Oxfordshire, and be- 
came tutor at Worcester Ck)llege, but resigned 
both positions on the death of his brother in 
1767. In 1768 he cumulated the degrees of 
B.D. and D.D., and soon afterwards Quitted 
Oxford. In October 1768 he married Mar- 
garet, youngest daughter of John Martin, esq., 
of O verbury , near Tewkesbury. Immediately 
afterwards he purchased an estate at Bevere, 
in the parish of Olaines, Worcestershire. 

On 18 Feb. 1773 he was elected a fellow 
of the Society of Antic^uaries of London 
(GouGH, Chronological List, p. 26), and on 
23 Aug. 1792 he was instituted to the vicar- 
age of Leigh, Worcestershire. Some of his 
parishioners told * Outhbert Bede * (the Rev. 
Edward Bradley) that he used to preach at 
Leigh once a year, just before the tithe audit, 
his text invariably being * Owe no man any- 
thing.' On these occasions he drove from 
his residence at Bevere in a carriage-and-four, 
' with servants afore him and servants ahind 
him ' (Notes and Queries^ 2nd ser. vii. 326). 
On 23 Nov. 1797 he was collated to the 
rectory of Strensham, Worcestershire, and 
in 1802 he was appointed proctor to repre- 
sent the clergy of the diocese. He died at 
Bevere on 26 Jan. 1811, and on 4 Feb. his 
remains were interred in the familv vault 
at St. Peter's, Droitwich, of which rectory he 
and his ancestors had long been patrons. 
Margaret, his sole daughter and heiress, was 
married in 1785 to John Somers Cocks, who, 
on the death of his father in 1806, succeeded 
to the title of Lord Somers. 

The doctor's penurious disposition gave 
rise to the foUowmg epigram : 

The Muse thy genius well divines, 

And will not ask for cash; 
But gratis round thy brow she twines 

The laurel, Dr. Nash. 

Of his great topographical work, * Collec- 
tions for the History of Worcestershire,' the 
first volume appeared at London in 1781, 
fol., and the second in 1782, the publication 
being superintended by Richard Gough [q.v.] 
A 'Supplement to the Collections for the 
History of Worcestershire' was issued in 
1799. To some copies a new title-page was 
affixed, bearing the date of 1799. To these 
an ov^ portrait of Nash is prefixed. A com- 
plete index to the work is about to be issued 
to members of the Worcestershire His- 
torical Society as supplementary volumes of 
the society's publications during 1894 and 
1895 {AthemBum, 2 Feb. 1894, p. 248). 

In 1793 Nash published a splendid edi- 
tion of Butler's 'Hudibras,' with enter- 
tainip^ notes, in three vols. 4to. His own 
portrait, engraved by J. Caldwell from a 

painting by Gardner, is prefixed. This edi- 
tion is embellished with many engravings 
after Hogarth and John Skipp. It was re- 
published in two vols., Louaon, 1835-40; 
and again in two vols., London, 1847, 8vo. 
Nash communicated to the Society of Anti- 
quaries papers * On the Time of Death and 
Place ot burial of Queen Catharine Parr 
{Arclusoloffia, ix. 1) and *0n the Death 
Warrant of Humphrey Littleton ' (ib. xv. 130). 

[Addit. MSS. 29174 f. 283, 32329 ff. 92, 99, 
101 ; Bromley's Cat. of Engr. Portraits, p. 366 ; 
Chambers's Biog. Illustr. of Worcestershire, 
p. 469 : Gent. Mag. 1811, i. 190, 393 ; Gough's 
Brit. Topography, ii. 385 ; Granger Letters, p. 
171 ; Ix)wndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn). pp. 336, 
1653 ; Nash's Worcestershire, vol. ii.. Corrections 
and Additions, pp. 51, 72; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
vii. 282, Tiii. 103; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
vii. 173, 326, 3rd ser. viii. 174. 4th ser. ix. 34, 
96, xii. 87. 154, 6th ser. vii. 67. viii. 128; 
Pennant's Literary Life, pp. 23, 28 ; Upcott's 
Engl. Topography, iii. 1330.] T. C. 

NASMITH, DAVID (1799-1839), origi- 
nator of town and city missions, horn at 
Glasgow on 21 March 1799, was sent to the 
city grammar school with a view to the uni- 
versity, but, as he made no progress, he was 
^ apprenticed about 1811 to a manufacturer 
there. In June 1813 he became secretary to 
the newly established Glasgow Youths* Bible 
Association, and devoted all his leisure to 
religious work in Glasgow. From 1821 un- 
til 1828 he acted as assistant secretary to 
twenty-three religious and charitable socie- 
ties connected with the Institution Hooms 
in Glassford Street. Chiefly through his 
exertions the Glasgow City Mission wa» 
founded on 1 Jan. 1826. He afterwards pro- 
ceeded to Dublin in order to establish a simi- 
lar institution there. He also formed th& 
Local Missionary Society for Ireland, in con- 
nection with which he visited various places 
in the country. In July 1830 he saileafrom 
Greenock to New York and visited between 
forty and fifty towns in the United States 
and Canada, forming in all thirty-one missions 
and various benevolent associations. In June 
1832 he went to France, and founded mis- 
sions at Paris and Havre. In 1835 he ac- 
cepted the secretaryship of the Continental 
Society in London. There he organised the 
London City Mission, with the assistance of 
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton [q. v.], as trea- 
surer, the Philanthropic Institution House, 
the Young Men's Society, the Adult School 
Society, the Metropolitan Monthly Tract 
Society, and finally tne London Female Mis- 
sion. In March 1837 he resigned his office 
as gratuitous secretary of the London City 
Mission, and with a few friends he formed, 




on 16 March, the British and Foreign Mis- 
sion, for the purposes of correspondmg with 
the city and town missions already in exist- 
ence and of planting new ones. While pro- 
secuting this work P^asmith died at Guild- 
ford, Surrey, on 17 Nov. 1839 {Qent, Mag. 
1839, pt. ii. p. 665), and was buried on the 
25th in Bunhill Fields. He died poor, and 
2,420/. was collected by subscription and m« 
vested on behalf of his widow and five chil- 
dren. In March 1828 he had married 
Frances, dau^^hter of Francis Hartridge, of 
East Farleigh, Kent. There is a portrait of 
him by J. C. Armytage. 

[Dr. John Campbell's Memoirs of David Nas- 
mith (with portrait); Chambers's Eminent 
Scotsmen, iii. 204.] G. G. 

NASMITH, JAMES (1740-1808), an- 
tiquary, son of a carrier who came from Scot- 
land, and plied between Norwich and London, 
was bom at Norwich late in 1740. He was 
sent by his father to Amsterdam for a year 
to complete his school education, and was en- 
tered in 1760 at Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 1764, M.A. 
1767, and D.D. 1797. In 1765 he was elected 
to a fellowship in his college, he acted for 
some time as its sub-tutor, and in 1771 he 
was the junior proctor of the universitv. 
Having been ordamed in the English churcn, 
he served for some years as the minister of the 
sequestrated benefice of Hinxton, Cambridge- 
shire. Nasmith devoted his leisure to anti- 
quarian research, and he was elected F.S.A. 
on 30 Nov. 1769. He was nominated by his 
college in 1773 to the rectory of St. Mary 
Abchurch with St. Laurence Pountney, Lon- 
don, but he exchanged it before he could be 
instituted for the rectory of Snail well, Cam- 
bridgeshire. He was then occupied in ar- 
ranging and cataloguing the manuscripts 
which Archbishop Parker gave to his col- 
lege, and he desired for convenience in his 
work to be resident near the university. The 
catalogue was finished in February 17/5, and 
presented by him to the master and fellows, 
who directed that it should be printed under 
his direction, and that the pronts of the sale 
should be given to him. When the head- 
ship of his college became vacant in 1778, he 
was considered, being ' a decent man, of a 

food temper and beloved in his college,' to 
ave pretensions for the post ; but he declined 
the offer of it, and was promoted by Bishop 
Yorke in 1796 to the rich rectory of Lever- 
ington, in the isle of Ely. As magistrate for 
Cambridgeshire and chairman for many years 
of the sessions at Cambridge and Ely, he 
studied the poor laws and other economical 
questions affecting his district. He was also 

for some time chaplain to John Hobart, second 
earl of Buckinghamshire [q. vj After a long 
and painful illness he died at Leverington on 
16 Oct. 1808, aged 67, and was buried in the 
church, where his widow erected a monu- 
ment to his memory on the north side of 
the chancel. He married in 1774 Susanna, 
daughter of John Salmon, rector of Shelton, 
Noitolk, and sister of Benjamin Salmon, fel- 
low of his college. She died at Norwich on 
11 Nov. 1814, aged 75, bequeathing * con- 
siderable sums ioT the use of public and 
private charities.' His character was warmly 
commended by Cole, in spite of differences 
of opinion in ecclesiastical matters, and Sir 
Egerton Brydges adds that he was much 
respected. 'His person and manners and 
habits were plain.' 

Nasmith edited: 1. 'Catalogus librorum 
manuscriptorum quos collegio Corporis Christi 
in Acad. Cantabrigiensi legavit Matthaeus 
Parker, archiepiscopus Cantuariensis/ 1777. 
2. * Itineraria Symonis Simeonis et Willelmi 
de Worcestre, quibus accedit tractatus de 
Metro,' 1778. 3. ' Notitia Monastica, or an 
Account of all the Abbies, Priories, and 
Houses of Friers formerly in England and 
Wales.' By Bishop Tanner. 'Published 1744 
by John Tanner, and now reprinted, with 
many additions,' 1787. The additions con- 
sisted mainly of references to books and 
manuscripts. Many copies of this edition of 
the 'Notitia Monastica' remained on hand, 
and, after being warehoused for twenty years, 
were consumed by fire on 8 Feb. 1808. 

Nasmith was also author of : 4. * The Dut ies 
of Overseers of the Poor and the Sufficiency 
of the present system of Poor Laws con- 
sidered. A charge to the Grand Jury at Ely 
Quarter Sessions, 2 April. With remarks on 
a late publication on the Poor Laws by Robert 
Saunders,' 1799. 5. * An Examination of the 
Statutes now in force relating to the Assize 
of Bread,' 1800. Saunders replied to these 
criticisms in * An Abstract of Observations 
on the Poor Laws, with a Reply to the 
Remarks of the Rev. James Nasmith,' 180:?. 
The assistance of Nasmith is acknowledged 
in the preface to Henry Swinden*s * History 
of Great Yarmouth,' which was edited by 
John Ives in 1772. 

[Gent. Mag., 1808 pt. ii. p. 058. 1814 pt. ii. 
p. 610; Masters*8 Corpus Christi Coll. (ed. Lamb), 
pp. 406-7 ; Lysons's Cambridgeshire, pp. 228, 
260 ; Watson's Wisbech, p. 464 ; Brydges's Resti- 
tuta, iii. 220-1; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 164, 
viii. 693-9, 614, ix. 647.] W. P. C. 

(rf. 1619 P), surgeon to James VI of Scot- 
land and I of £ngland, was second son of 




Michael Xaesmith of Posso, Peeblesshire, 
and Elizabeth Baird. The family trace their 
descent to a stalwart knifjrht, who while in 
attendance on Alexander III was unable to 
repair his armour, but so atoned for his 
lack of skill as a smith by his bravery in the 
fight that after its conclusion he was knighted 
by the king with the remark that, although 
' he was nae smith, he was a brave gentle- 
man/ Sir Michael, who was chamberlain to 
the Archbishop of St. Andrews, came into 
the possession of Posso, with the royal eirie 
of Posso Craig, by his marriage to Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Baird. lie was an ad- 
herent of Mary Queen of Scots, and fought 
for her at Langside. The second son, Jonn, 
was surgeon to King James. He was with 
other attendants of the king in Ilolyrood 
Palace when on 27 Dec. 1591 Both well [see 
Hepburn, Francis Stewart, fifth Earl of 
Bothwell] made an attempt to capture the 
king there. David Moysie says : * Ho was 
committed to ward within the castle of Edin- 
burgh, and found thereafter to have been the 
special plotter and deviser of that business ' 
( Memoirs, pp. 87-8). On Wednesday, 16 Jan . 
1591-2, he was brought to Glasgow, * where,' 
says Calderwood, *he was threatened with 
torments to confess that the Earl of Murray 
was with Bothwell that night he beset the 
king in the abbey. But he answered he 
would not damn his own soul with speaking 
an untruth for any bodily pain' (^History, 
v. 147). Subseauently he was confined in 
Dumbarton Castie, and on 8 April caution 
was given for him in one thousand merks 
' that within twenty days after being released 
from Dumbarton Castle he shall go abroad, 
and shall not return without the king*s li- 
cense ' (Retf, P. C. Scotl iv. 741). This 
caution was, however, deleted by warrant 
of the king 1 Aug; 1593 iib,) Naysmith was 
riding with the king while he was hunting at 
Falkland on 5 Aug. 1600, the morning of 
the Gowrie conspiracy, and was sent by the 
king to bring bacK Alexander Ruthven, with 
whom the Sing determined to proceed to 
Perth (Caldbrwood, vi. 31). He was one 
of those to whom in 1601 the coinage was 
set in tack (J2ey. P. C. Scotl, vi. 314). 

Naysmith accompanied James to London 
on his accession to the English throne in 
1603, and appears to have received from him 
a yearly ^a of 66/. (Nichols, Progresses of 
James I, \i, ^), He attended Prince Henry 
during his fatAl illness in 1 612 (ib, p. 483). On 
12 July 1612 Home of Cowdenknowes sold 
to him the lands of Earlston, Berwickshire, 
under reversion of an annual rent of 3,000/. 
Scots {Hist, M88. Comm. 12th Bep. App. 
pt.viii. p. 120), and the tale was confizined oy 

TOL. xu 

the king 17 June 1613 {Beg, Mag. Sig. Scot 
1009-20, entry 861). He died some time 
before 12 June 1619, when Helen Makmath 
is referred to as his widow {ib. entry 1962). 
Among other children he left a son Henry, 
to whom on 12 Feb. 1620 the king conceded 
the lands of Cowdenknowes (Jb. entry 2130). 
On 10 Nov. 1620 Charles I, among other in- 
structions to the president of the court of 
I session, directed him * to take special notice 
of the business of the children of John 
Nasmyth, so often recommended to your 
late dear father and us, and an end to be 
put to that action' (Balfour, Annalsj ii. 
151). Nasmyth devoted special attention 
' to botany, and is referred to m l^rms of high 
I praise by the botanist Lobel, who acknow- 
I ledges several important communications 
I from him (Adversaria, 1605, pp. 487, 489, 

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. ; Reg. P. C. Scotl. ; 
Histories of Spotiswood and Calderwood; David 
Moysie 8 Memoirs (Bannatyne Club); Nichols's 
Progresses of James I; Birch's Life of Prince 
Henry; Chambers's History of Peebles ; Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation ; Pulteney's Hist, and 
Biog. Sketches in the Progress of Botany.] 

T. F. H. 

1840), portrait and landscape painter, second 
son of Michael Nasmyth, a builder, and 
his wife, Mary Anderson, was bom in the 
Grassmarket, Edinburgh, on 9 Sept. 1758. 
He was educated in the high school, re- 
ceiving instruction from his father in men- 
suration and mathematics; and he studied 
I art in the Trustees' Academy under Alex- 
ander Runciman, having been apprenticed to- 
Crichton, a coachbuilder, by whom he was 
employed in painting arms and decorations 
upon the panels of carriages. His work of 
this kind attracted the notice of Allan liam- 
say the portrait-painter, while he was on a 
visit to Edinburgh, and he induced Crichton 
to transfer to hmiself the indentures of his 
apprentice. Removing to London, the youth 
was now employed upon the subordinate 
portions of itamsay's portraits, and he dili- 
gently profited by the study of a fine col- 
lection of drawings by the old masters which 
the artist possessed. 

In 1778 Nasmyth returned to Edinburgh 
and established himself as a portrait-painter. 
His works were usually cabinet-sized full- 
lengths, frequently family groups, and in- 
troducing landscape backgrounds and views 
of the mansions of the sitters. One of his 
best subjects of this kind is his group of 
Professor Dugald Stewart with his first wife 
and their child ; and other examples are in 
the possession of the Earls of Minto and 





Rosebery. He had already begun to mani- 
fest that interest in science which distin- 
guished him through life. His pencil was of 
much service to Patrick Miller [q. v.] of Dal- 
swinton in connection with his mechanical 
inventions, and he was present on 14 Oct. 
1788 when Symington and Miller first ap- 
plied steam power for propelling a vessel on 
Balswinton Lake ; his sketch of the boat 
is engraved in James Nasmyth^s * Autobio- 
graphy.' From that volume we learn that 
Miller, as a reward for his aid, advanced a 
sum of 500/. to enable the artist to visit 
Italy. He left in the end of 1782, visited 
Rome, Florence, Bologna, and Padua, and 
returned to Edinburgh in the end of 1784 
with increased skill and many studies and 
sketches from nature. On 3 Jan. 1786 he 
married Barbara Foulis, daughter of William 
Foulis of Woodhall and Colinton, and sister 
of Sir James Foulis, seventh baronet of 

He was introduced by Miller to Robert 
Bums, and in 1787 executed his celebrated 
cabinet-sized bust portrait of the poet, which 
he presented to Mrs. Bums. This portrait 
was bequeathed by her son, Colonel William 
Burns, to the National Gallery of Scotland. 
It was engraved in stipple by John Beugo, 
with the advantage of three sittings from 
the life, for the first Edinburgh edition of 
the * Poems,' 1787, and the plate was re- 
peatedly used in subsequent editions. There 
are various other engravings from this pic- 
ture, the best being the mezzotint, on the 
scale of the original, executed by William 
Walker and Samuel Cousins in 1830, of 
which the painter stated that * it conveys a 
more true and lively remembrance of Burns 
than my own picture does.' Nasmyth made 
two replicas of this portrait. One is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Ix)ndon, the other 
in the possession of the Misses Cathcart of 
Auchendrane, Ayrshire. Nasmyth became 
intimate with the poet, and frequently ac- 
companied him in his walks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh. On one of these 
occasions he executed a small full-length 
pencil sketch, formerly in the collection of 
Dr. David I^aing, which served as the basis 
of a cabinet-sized full-length in oils, which 
he painted, apparently about 1827, * to enable 
him to leave his record in this way of the 
general personal appearance of Bums, as 
well as his style ot dress.' This picture is 
deposited by its owner. Sir Hugn Hume 
Campbell, in the National Gallery of Scot- 
land. Its subject was engraved in line by 
W. Miller,with alterations in the background, 
in Lockhart*s * Life of Bums,' 1828. 

Nasmyth's liberal views in politics having 

alienated his aristocratic patrons, his em- 

Eloyment as a portrait-painter declined, and 
e finally restricted himself to landscape 
subjects, modell'mg his style chiefly upon tue 
Dutch masters. His work of this class is 
admirably represented in the National Gal- 
lery by a large view of Stirling Castle, and, 
less adequately, in the National Gallery of 
Scotland by a smaller view of Stirling. 
Among other works, he painted the stock 
scenery of the Theatre Royal, Glasgow, which 
greatly impressed David Roberts in his youth, 
produced in 1820 the scenery for * The Heart 
of Midlothian ' in the Theatre Royal, Edin- 
burgh, and published in 1822 a series of 
views of places described by the author of 
* Waverley.* He was an original member 
of the Society of Associated Artists, Edin- 
burgh, contributing to their exhibitions 
1808-14. He exhibited in the Royal Insti- 
tution, Edinburgh, 1821-30, appearing as an 
associate of the body in 1825, and receiving 
an annuity from the directors in 1828 ; and 
he exhibited from 1830 to 1840 in the Royal 
Scottish Academy, of which he became an 
honorary member in 1834. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of British Artists, Lon- 
don, and exhibited in their rooms, and in the 
Royal Academy and the British Institution 
between 1807 and 1839. 

He devoted considerable attention to archi- 
tecture, designing the Dean Bridge, Edin- 
burgh, and the Temple to Hygeia at St. 
Bernard's Well, Water of Leith, submitting 
a design for the Nelson Monument, Calton 
II ill, and affording so many valuable sug- 
gestions regarding the laying out of the 
New Town of Edinburgh, that the magi- 
strates presented him with a sum of 200/., 
with a complimentary letter addressed * Alex- 
ander Nasmyth, architect.' Most of the 
illustrations in the essay * On the Origin of 
Gothic Architecture,' by Sir James Hall of 
Dunglass, are from his pencil. Nasmyth was 
also much employed by the Duke of At hoi 
and others regarding the laying out of parks 
and ornamental grounds. In construction 
his most important discovery was the * bow- 
and-string bridge,' which he invented about 
1794, and which has been much used for 
spanning wide spaces, as in the Charing 
Cross and Birmingham stations. His draw- 
ings of this bridge, dated 1796, are repro- 
duced in James Nasmyth's * Autobiographv.* 
He died in Edinburgh 10 April laiO. 

In addition to his sons, Patrick [q. v.] and 
James [q. v.], Nasmyth had six daughters, all 
known as artists — Jane, bom in 1778, Barbara 
in 1790, Margaret in 1791, Elizabeth in 1793, 
Anne in 1798, and Charlotte in 1804. They 
contributed to the chief exhibitions in Edin- 




burffhy London, and Manchester, and aided 
their father in the art classes held in his 
house, 47 York Place. Elizabeth Nasmyth 
married Daniel Terry the actor about 1821, 
and her second husband was Charles Richard- 
son [q. v.], author of the well-known dic- 
tionary. A collection of 166 works by Nas- 
myth, his son Patrick, and his six daughters, 
was brought to the hammer in Tait's Sale- 
room, Edinburgh, on 13 May 1840. 

The portraits of Nasmyth are : (1) an oil- 
sketch of him as a youth by Philip Reinagle, 
K.A.., engraved in James Nasmyth's * Auto- 
biography/ from the original in the author's 
possession ; (2) an admirable dry-point by 
Andrew Geddes, A.R. A. ; (3) a water-colour 
by William Nicholson, U.S.A., reproduced 
in a very scarce mezzotint by Edward Bur- 
ton ; (4) a cameo by Samuel Joseph, R.S.A., 
engraved in James Nasmyth's 'Autobio- 
graphy.' He is also included in a picture 
of the Edinburgh Dilettanti Club by. Sir 
William Allan, P.R.S.A.,which was acquired 
by Mr. Ilorrocks of Preston. 

[James Nasmyth's Autobiography, London, 
1883 ; Wilkieand Geddes's Etchings. Edinburgh, 
1875; Chambers's Life and Works of Bums, 1 89 1 , 
ii. 31, iv. 161; Art Journal, vol. xxxiv. 1882; 
Redgrave's Diet of Engl. Artists, London, 1878 ; 
Cataloguesof Exhibitions, &c., mentioned above.] 

J. M. Or. 

NASMYTH, CHARLES a820-1861), 
major, ' defender of Silistria,' eldest son of 
Robert Nasmyth, fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, Edinburgh, was bom in 
Edinburgh m 1826. He entered the East 
India Company's military seminary at Ad- 
discombe in 1843, and subsequently was 
appointed direct to the Bombay artillerv» in 
which he became a second lieutenant 12 Dec. 
1845 and first lieutenant 4 Feb. 1850. 
Having lost his health in Guzerat, he went 
on sick leave to Europe in 1853, and was re- 
commended to try the Mediterranean. From 
Malta he visited Constantinople, and was sent 
to Omar Pasha's camp at Shumla as * Times ' 
correspondent. He visited the Dobruscha 
after it had been vacated by the Turks, and 
furnished some valuable information respect- 
ing the state of the country to Lord Strat- 
ford de RedclifFe [see Canning, StbatfobdI. 
His letters in the * Times ' attracted a good 
deal of notice, and he was sent on by that 
paper to Silistria, which he reached before 
it was invested by the Russians, on 28 March 
1854. Nasmyth and another plucky, light- 
hearted young English officer, Captain James 
Armar fiutler [q.v.], attained a wonderful 
ascendency over the Turkish garrison, and 
were the life and soul of the famous defence, 
which ended with the Russians being com- 

pelled to raise the siege, on 22 June 1854. 
The defence gave the nrst check to the Rus- 
sians, and probably saved the allies from a 
campaign amidst the marshes of the Danube. 
Nasmyth received the thanks of the British 
and Turkish governments and Turkish gold 
medals for the Danube campaign and the 
defence of Silistria, and was voted the free- 
dom of his native city. He returned to 
Constantinople in broken health and having 
lost all his belongings. He was transferred 
from the East India Company's to the royal 
army, receiving an unattached company 
15 Sept. 1854, and a brevet majority the 
same day ^ for his distinguished services at 
the defence of Silistria.' He was present 
with the headquarters staff at the Alma 
and the siege of Sevastapol (medal and 
clasp), and in 1855 was appointed assistant 
adjutant-general of the lulkenny district, 
and was afterwards brigade-major at the 
Curragh camp, and brigade-major and de- 
puty-assistant adjutant-general in Dublin. 
His infirm health suggested a change to a 
southern climate, and he was transferred to 
New South Wales, as brigade-major at Syd- 
ney. He was invalided to Europe at the 
end of 1859, and, after long suffering, died at 
Pau, Basses-Pyr6n6es, France, 2 June 1861, 
aged 35. 

Kinglake, who knew him in the Crimea, 
wrote of him as ' a man of quiet and gentle 
manners and so free from vanity — so free 
from all idea of self-gratulation — that it 
seemed as though he were unconscious of 
having stood as he did in the path of the 
Czar and had really omitted to think of the 
share which he had had in changing the 
face of events. He had gone to Silistria 
for the " Times," and naturally the lustre of 
his achievement was in some degree shed on 
the keen and watchful companv, which had 
the foresight to send him at tne right mo- 
ment into the midst of events on which the 
fate of Russia was hanging' (Kinglake, 
revised edit. ii. 245). 

[For the defence of Silistria see Nasmyth*8 let- 
ters in the Times, April to June 1854 ; Annual 
Reg. 1854, [267] and 103; Fraser's Magazine, 
December 1854 ; Kinglako's Invasion of the 
Crimea, rev. edit. vol. ii. passim; see also East 
India Registers, 1846-63 ; Hart*s Army List, 
1860; Gent. Mag. 1861, ii. 92.] II. M. C. 

JAMES {d. 1720), lawyer, was the son of 
John Nasmyth and his wife, Isabella, daugh- 
ter of Sir James Murray [q.v.Jof Philiphaugh. 
He was admitted advocate m 1684, and be- 
came a successful lawyer, known by the sobri- 
quet of t he * De*il o' Dawick.' He acquired the 
estate of Da wick from the last of tne Yeitch 


Xasmyth n^ Xasmyth 

faiii.-v. H- Lac L crv»wii cuari*^ of !ij»- 'J'hi- wa* gucceB^iuliy uccomplished. and in 

bar ■::>■ o!" l»avi..-i: ic !7Ui'. ra:itj»fri in purlib- l»»:!7-^iT wasiriedmiiny Time>ontlit*roadf?iii 

iiifii: ii: \T0': H- wtt> oiviii'rG u bariij*-: f»f tL*- nviffbUmriiood of tdinbunrU Htjarinr 

S.v»: land i»n iH July 17v.k;. an«i dinri m .July fn»iL * of his ucqllainTan(^e^ of tIi*- iasn*^ of 

\7'J.' 11» marrii'd ihrt^.- Tim-i^: tir^^ JaiR- Jl»fijrr MuudTijiyq. v/..b'.'d»»Tennined iopt*ek 

S: ..'War. . wi .u'W of Sir Luduv ic (juTfinv.. bur: .. •frnplnyni'^n: witLhim a: Lam bet b. and in Ma v 

of I i.»rd-.iu<Tv»iii:. Ei^iii : w-eoiidly. Jaiiff*. Iriii* bt be'jamr ussigTant T* Maudslav in bis 

dauciit*'' of :i>ir Wiliiaiii Murray uf .Staiili'.i|>fr-. iirivatt Wirk*bop. C^n Maudslay's deatb. in 

JV''l«.'><birr; and. thirdly. Barbara [fi. J7<>). rVbruary }*^y>\. be pas^d intn tiie fierviev of 

daukThj-r '»f Aiidr«rw IViufcTle uf C'lifiuii. Ko.\- Jr>i:hua Ki*rld. Maud slay V ])ar:n«?r. iritb whom 

bur^rhsiiir*'. b».' rt^maiued un:ii the lollowinr Aufuiv. 

I ! ^^ *'\di'< sioii Jami> I </. ] TTi* I. by hi^ first Naj^mythVenfrafiremfn: with Maudskv was -if 

wiff. ^ucct1•dt•d biui. and apptjarr to bavt jrn-at K^rvicf to him. and bf- alwuy-i cpokr in 

nticinod «i'»mf m»ii' in bifr day a^ a b^j^aniet. the hiffbest terms of bir^ • dt^ar old muster/ 
buxiUfcT Ktudit^l under Linm*.ub in .Sw»-d»ju. Il»iturninp to Edinbunrh. btrsjnnt a coupl- 

llo iji ^aid to have made trxtcii^iv*.' oolite- of yearr? in making a stock of tools and 

Tioii<. and ti» have be^n amoiig- the first In machin^'.-^. and at the eamv tim*- b*/ executt-d 

hSrotland to plant birch and silver lirft. 'J'he any small ord«:?r-- which came in bi> "wav. In 

^:»Mlu^ -V(M«<y^///</ (- /iV/<A.« «/■'// J waf! mo>«t }h'ji he start^-d in but^inesc^ on bis' own 

prohahly named in hi^ honour by JJud-»<jii awount in J>ale Street, Manchester, bis total 

( 177*^).' Jle wa* memljer of parliament for capital amounting;: to only 6?»/. He received 

IVflili'jsshiri" from 17'i*J to 1741, and di«.-d on much help and encouraffement from friends 

4r.'h. !77J^. He had married Jean, daughter then.-, amon^ or here from the brothers 

of 'J'li<>ma& Keith. Tirant, tlie oritrinale of the 'Brothers 

|l{uik.'VPe,ra;ft;In'ings?R>^jkofS..ot.HMtn; ^-li'-^-rvble ' of IUckene. Hiff bufdness in- 

Hu Ib'.iib yijvd Anglica, 2ad ed. 1778] cniaMn;r, he UmAz a lease m lS3ti of a plot of 

Ji. B. W. land, hx acres in extent, at Patricroft, near 
Manr-ljesi er, and commenced to lav the 

NASMYTH, JAMEJ5 a>O8-lH90j, en- foundations of what eventually became the 

j;in<.-*r, son of Alexander Na!<m\ih ^|. v. , JJrid/ewater foundry. A few' years after- 

nrti*t. and of lils wife J Barbara touli?:, was wards he took into partnership Holbnx)k 

born at 47 Vorkrhi(M*,Edinburjfli,oniyAu;f. (ia^k«-ll; and the firm of Nasmvth A: Gas- 

1SU>. After bein;r for a short time under a kell a^yjuired in time a very hicrh reputatinn 
private tut<»r he wtui tmiit to the Edinburgh an couhtnictors of machinen- of au kinds 

iti II hirjre iron-foundry own<i<l by the father himself Ke«'ms to have been most proud, is 
of one of his schoolfellows, or in the rhenii<!al that of the ^ team-hammer. This was called 
lalMU-Mtory of anoth»?r school fri«.*n'l. His fortli in IKW by an order for a large paddle- 
frith'T taught him drawing, in whieh he shaft for the (ireat Jiritain .steami^hip, then 
iiUnined great proficiency. Jiy the age of. l>»'ing built at JJristoI He at once applied 
neventeenho had ac«juired ho much hkill in ' his mind to the (question, and < in little more 
liMiidling tools that he was able to construet, than half au hour I had the whole contri- 
„ r<iiinll steam-engine, which he used for tlie yance in all its executant details before me, 
iMirpose of grinding hisfather's colours. He in uiMigeofmyscheme-ljookY-iM^o^ioN^r/riJ^y, 

^^ho^^lvehim a free ticki»t for his lectures 
„„ nriiural philosophy. In \H'J\ hi* became a 
uhiil<*tit lit the Edinburgh Hchool<if arts, and, 
Ifia del-making business pniving very re- 
in uiin rut ive, ho was a))le to attend some of 
nffcH at the university. \Vhi*ii (mly 
I \w was commissioned by t hu Scot t ish 
(if Arts to build a steam-carriage 
of cairyLDg half o dozen porsons. 

padcHe-shaft was eventually not required, 
the j)roj)rietors having decided to adopt the 
s(Tew-pro])eller, and, as there was no induce- 
ment to go to t h»» expense of making a steam- 
hammer, the matter remained in abevance. 
'riu.» sketches seem to have been freely sliiown, 
and in 1840 they were seen by Schneider, 
the pr«)prietor of the great ironworks at 
Crouzot, during a visit to Patricroft. He 




appears to have immediately rasped the 
importance of the invention, and the infor- 
mation which he and his manager obtained 
was sufficient to enable them to construct a 
fiteam-hammer, which was set to work about 
1841. Nasmyth first became aware of this 
in April 1842, when he saw his own hammer 
at work on the occasion of a chance visit to 
Creuzot. Upon his return to England he 
lost no time in securing his invention by 
taking out a patent (No. 9382, 9 June 1842), 
but Schneider had anticipated him in France 
by patenting the hammer in his own name on 
19 April. 

The first steam-hammer set up in this 
country was erected at Patricroft in the 
early part of 1843, and, after working for 
«ome time, it was sold to Muspratt & Sons 
of Newton-le-Willows for breaking stones 
(cf. R0WLAND8ON, History of the Steam 
hammer, Manchester, 1875, p. 9). The valves 
of the early hammers were worked by hand, 
and much time was spent in making the 
machine self-acting, so that immediately 
upon the delivery of the blow steam should 
be admitted below the piston to raise the 
hammer up again. This self-acting gear was 
patented by Nasmyth in 1843 (No. 9850), 
Dut the invention is claimed for Robert Wil- 
aon, one of the managers at Patricroft (op. 
cit. p. 6). Self-acting gear is now generally 
discarded, except in small hammers, where 
atraightforward work is executed. Large 
hammers are now universally worked by 
hand, according to Nasmyth's original plan, 
the introduction of balanced valves giving 
the hammer-man perfect control, even over 
the most ponderous machines {Pract, Mech, 
Jcum, July 1848 p. 77, November 1855 
p. 174). The patent of 1843 contained a 
claim for the application of the invention 
as a pile-driver, and the first steam pile- 
driver was used in the Ilamoaze in July 1845. 
In that year Napier took out a further patent 
for a special form of steam-hammer for work- 
ing and dressing stone. So much was the 
machine in his mind that he designed a 
ateam-engine in which the parts were arranged 
as in a steam-hammer, the cylinder being in- 
verted. For this en^ne he received a prize 
medal at the exhibition of 1851, and the de- 
sign has since been largely adopted for marine 
engines (cf. Enffineer, 3 May 1867, p. 392^. 

Attempts have been made to deprive 
Nasmyth of the credit of the invention of 
the steam-hammer, and it has been pointed 
out that James Watt in his patent of 1784 
<No. 1432), and William Deverell in 1806 
(No. 2939), had both suggested a direct- 
acting steam-hammer. In 1871 Schneider 
gave evidence before a select committee of 

the House of Commons, in the course of 
which he stated that the first idea of a steam- 
hammer was due to his chief manager. 
Thereupon Nasmyth obtained leave to be 
heard by the committee for the purpose of 
placing his version of the matter before 
them. The question of priority is fully dis- 
cussed in the ' Engineer,' 16 May 1890, 
p. 407. A working model of the hammer, 
with the self-acting gear, made at Patri- 
croft, may be seen at South Kensington, 
together with an oil-painting by Nasmyth 
himself, representing the forging of a large 

The fame of Nasmyth's g^reat invention 
has tended to obscure his merits as a con- 
triver of machine-tools. Though he was not 
the discoverer of what is known as the self- 
acting principle, in which the tool is held by 
an iron hana or vice while it is constrained 
to move in a definite direction by means of 
a slide, he saw very early in his career the 
importance of this principle. While in the 
employment of Maudslay he invented the 
nut-shaping machine, and in later years 
the Brid^ewater foundry became famous 
for machme-tools of all kinds, of excellent 
workmanship and elegant desi^. He used 
to say that the artistic perception which he • 
inherited from his father was of singular ser- 
vice to him. Many of these are figured and 
described in George Rennie's edition of Bu- 
chanan's 'Essays on Millwork' (^1841), to 
which Nasmyth contributed a section on the 
introduction of the slide principle in tools 
and machines. Most of his workshop contri- 
vances are included in the appendix to his 
* Autobiography.' As far back as 1829 he in- 
vented a flexible shaft, consisting of a close- 
coiled spiral wire, for driving small drills. 
This has been re-invented several times since, 
and is now in general use by dentists as a 
supposed Amencan contrivance. He seems 
also to have been the first to suggest the use 
of a submerged chain for towing boats on 
rivers and canals. He proposed the use of 
chilled cast-iron shot at a meeting of the 
British Association at Cambridge m 1862, 
some months before Palliser took out his 
patent in May 1863. Having been requested 
by Faraday to furnish some striking example 
of the power of machinery in overcoming 
resistance to penetration, he contrived a 
rough hydraulic punching-machine, by which 
he was enabled to punch a hole through a 
block of iron five inches thick. This was 
exhibited by Faraday at one of his lectures 
at the Royal Institution. Subsequently 
Nasmyth communicated his ideas to Sir 
Charles Fox, of Fox, Henderson, & Co., and 
a machine was constructed for punching by 




hydraulic power the holes in the links of a 
chain bridge then being constructed by the 

From a very early age he took great in- 
terest in astronomy, and in 1827 he con- 
structed with his own hands a very etfective 
reflecting telescope of six inches diameter. 
His first appearance as a writer on the sub- 
ject was in 1843, when he contributed a 
paper on the train of the great comet to the 
* Monthly Notices of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Soiiety ' (v. 270). This was followed 
in 1846 by one on the telescopic appearance 
of the moon (^Mem, lloyal Aatron. Soc. xv. 
147). The instrument with which most of 
his work was done was a telescope with a 
speculum of twenty inches diameter, mounted 
on a turntable according to a plan of his 
own invention, the object being viewed 
through one of the trunnions, which was 
made hollow for that purpose. He devoted 
himself more particularly to a studv of the 
moon's surface, and made a series of careful 
drawings, which he sent to the exhibition 
of 1851, and for which he received a prize 
medal. In 1874 he published, in conjunc- 
tion with James Carpenter, an elallorate 
work under the title of *The Moon con- 
sidered as a Planet, a World, and a Satellite.' 
This work embodied the results of many 
years' observations, and its obj'ect was to 

§ive * a rational explanation of the surface 
etails of the moon which should be in 
accordance with the generally received theory 
of planetary formation.' The illustrations 
consist of photographs taken from carefully 
constructed models placed in strong sun- 
light, which give a better idea of the tele- 
scopic aspect of the moon than photographs 
taken direct. He was the first to observe in 
June 1860 a peculiar mottled appearance of 
the sun*8 surface, to w^hich he gave the name 
of * willow leaves,' but which other ob- 
servers prefer to call * rice grains.' He com- 
municated an account of this phenomenon 

Miss Hartop, daughter of the manager of 
Earl Fitzwitliam's ironworks near Bamsley. 

[James Nasmyth : an Autobiography, ed. 
Smilos, 1883 ; Griffin's ConU^mporary Biog. ia 
Addit. MS. 2851 1, f. 2 1 2. A list of his scientific 
papers is given in the Royal Soc Cat., and his 
various patents are described in the Engineer, 
16 and 23 May 1890.] R. B. P. 

NASMYTH, PATRICK (1787-1831), 
landscape-painter, bom in Edinburgh on 
7 Jan. 1 / 87, was the eldest son of Alexander 
Nasmyth [q. v.] the painter, and his wife 
Barbara Foulis. He early displayed a turn 
for art, and was fond of playing truant from 
school in order that he mignt wander in the 
fields and sketch the scenes and objects that 
surrounded him. He receiyed his earliest 
instruction in art from his father, and studied 
with immense care and industry, painting 
with his left hand after his ri^ht had been 
incapacitated by an injury received while on 
a sketching expedition with the elder Nas- 
myth. He also suffered from deafness, the 
result of an illness produced by sleeping in 
a damp bed when he was about seventeen 
years of age. From 1808 to 1814 he exhi- 
bited his works in the rooms of the Society 
of Associated Artists, Edinburgh ; and he 
contributed to the lloyal Institution, Edin- 
burgh, 1821-8, and to the Scottish Academy 
in 1830 and 1831. In 1808 he removed to 
London, but he did not exhibit in the Royal 
Academy till 1811 (compare catalogues),wheii 
he was represented by a * View oi Loch Ka- 
trine,' and he afterwards contributed at inter- 
vals till 1830. In 1824 he became a founda- 
tion member of the Society of British Artists^ 
with whom, as also in the British Institu- 
tion, he exhibited during the rest of his life. 
His earliest productions dealt chiefly with 
Scottish landscape, but in the neighbourhood 
of London he found homely rustic scenes 
better suited to his brush. He delighted to 
render nature in her humbler aspects, paint- 
ing hedgerow subjects with great care and 

Manchester in 1861 {Memoirs j 3rd ser. i. 
407). The discovery attracted much atten- 
tion at the time, and gave rise to consider- 
able discussion ; but no satisfactory explana- 
tion of the willow leaves has yet been 

In 1 856 he retired from business, and settled 
at Penshurst, Kent, where he purchased the 
house formerly belonging to F. R. Lee, 
R.A. This he named Hammerfield, from his 
* hereditary regard for hammers, two broken 
hammer-shafts having been the crest of the 
family for hundreds of years.* He died at 
"Bailey's Hotel, South Kensington, on 7 May 

90. Nasmyth married, on 16 June 1840, 

to the Literary and Philosophical Society of delicacy, his favourite tree btjing the dwarfed 

oak. He also closely studied the Dutch land- 
scape-painters, and imitated their manner 
with such success that he has been styled 
* the English Ilobbema,' so precise and spirited 
is his touch, so brilliant are the skies that ap- 
pear above the low-toned fields and foliage 
in his pictures. In all monetary matters 
he was singularly careless, and he seems to 
have fallen into habits of dissipation which 
undermined his constitution. While re- 
covering from an attack of influenza he caught 
a chill as he was sketching a group of pollard 
willows on the Thames; and he died at 
Lambeth on 17 Aug. 1831, propped up in 
bed at his own request, that he mignt witness 




a thunderstorm that was then raging. He 
was buried in St. Mary's Church, where the 
Scottish artists in London erected a stone 
over his grave. Patrick Nasmyth is one of 
the characters ' brought upon the scene as 
sketches from the life' in John Burnet's 
'Progress of the Painter' (London, 1854). 
Since his death the reputation of his works 
has greatly increased. One of the finest, 
' Ilaselmere,' sold for 1,300 guineas at Chris- 
tie's in 1892, and his * Turner's Hill, East 
Grinstead,' realised 987/. at Christie's in 
1886. He is represented in the National 
Gallery by five works, in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum by three, and in the National 
Gallerv of Scotland by one. His portrait, 
a chalk drawing by \Villiam Bewick, is in 
the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

[James Nasmyth's Autobiography, London, 
1883; Kedgravfi's Diet, of Artists, London, 
1878; Anderson's Scottish Nation; Catalogues 
of Exhibitions, &:c., mentioned above ; Academy, 
29 May 1886; Scotsman, 20 June 1892. His 
name is duly entered as ' Patrick ' in the City of 
Edinburgh Baptism Register, 6 Feb. 1787, though 
he appears as ' Peter Nasmyth ' in some of the 
catalogues of the Society of Associated Artists 
and of the Koyal Institution of Edinburgh.] 

J. M. G. 

SAVAGE (1756-1823), bibliophile, bom 
on 5 Sept. 1756, was second son of the Hon. 
Richara Savage Nassau, who was second 
son of Frederic, third earl of Rochford. His 
mother, Anne, was only daughter and heiress 
of Edward Spencer of Rendlesham, Suffolk, 
and widow of James, third duke of llamilton. 
Under the will of Sir John Fitch Barker of 
Grimston Hall, Trimley St. Martin, Suffolk, 
who died on 3 Jan. 1766, he inherited con- 
siderable possessions. In I8O0 he served as 
high sheriff for Suffolk. He died in Charles 
Street, Berkeley Square, London, on 18 Aug. 
1823, from the effects of a paralytic seizure, 
and was buried in Easton Church, Suffolk, 
where a monument was erected to his 

Nassau was a man of considerable attain- 
ments and culture. His literary tastes found 
gratification in the formation of a fine 
library, rich in emblem books, early English 
poetry, the drama, topography, and his- 
tory. In the two latter departments his 
collection comprised many large-paper copies, 
which were extra-illustrated by the inser- 
tion of numerous drawings, prints, and por- 
traits, and were accompanied by rare his- 
torical tracts. For the history of Suffolk he 
made extensive collections, both printed and 
manuscript, which he enriched by a profu- 
sion of portraits and engravings. He like- 

wise employed the pencils of Rooker,Heame, 
and Byrne, and many Suffolk artists, parti- 
cularly Gainsborough, Frost, and Johnson, 
to depict the most striking scenes and ob- 
jects in his favourite county. Of this re- 
markable library only the volumes of Suffolk 
manuscripts, thirty in number, were reserved 
for the library of the family mansion at 
Easton. The bulk was sold by Evans in 
1824 in two parts, the first on 16 Feb. and 
eleven following days, and the second on 
8 March and seven following days. Tho 
catalogue contained 4,264 lots, and tho 
whole collection realised the sum of 8,500/. 
A few of the most remarkable articles of 
Nassau's library are noticed in Adam Clarke's 
^ Repertorium Bibliographicum.' 

[Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. vi. 327.] G. G. 

NASSAU, HENRY, Count and Lord of 
A.TTVERQUERQrB (1641-1708), general, bom 
in 1641, was third son of Louis, count of 
Nassau (illegitimate son of Maurice, prince of 
Orange, grand-uncle of William III, king of 
England), by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Count de Horn. Henry accompanied 
William, prince of Orange, on his visit to 
Oxford in 1670, and received from the imi- 
versity the degree of D.C.L. (20 Dec.) He 
attended William with great devotion during 
his illness in the spring of 1675, and saved 
his life at the risk of his own at the battle 
of Mons, 13 Aug. (N.S.) 1678. In recognition 
of this service he was presented by tho 
States-General with a gold-hilted sword, a 
gold inlaid pair of pistols, and a pair of gold 
horse-buckles. He came to ICngland in 1 685 
as William's special envoy to congratulate 
James II on his accession, attended William 
to England in 1688 as captain of his body- 
guard, was appointed in February 1688-9 his 
master of the horse, and the same year was 
naturalised by act of parliament. He fought 
at the battle of the Boyne, 1 July 1690, and 
afterwards occupied Dublin with nine troops 
of horse, and served at Limerick. Advanced 
to the rank of major-general 16 March 1690- 1 , 
he served in the subsequent campaign in 
Flanders, and distinguished himselt by the 
gallant manner in which he rescued the re- 
mains of Mackay's division at the battle of 
Steinkirk, July 1692. 

In F'ebruary 1692-3 he was appointed 
deputy stadth'older, and in the summer of 
1697 was promoted to the rank of general in 
the English army. William on his death- 
bed thanked him for his long and faithful 
services. In command of the Dutch forces, 
with the rank of field-marshal, he co-operated 
with Marlborough, whose entire confidence 
he enjoyed, in the earlier campaigns of the 



xot tW Snuiish succession, and died in 
thawnp before LiUe on 17 Oct. (N.S,) 1708. 
n> WM bttried at Owerkerk ( Auverquerque) 
in ZcvUnd, of which place be was lord. 

KiBwa m&TTied Isabella van Aersen, 
dauf^bter of Cometius, lord of Somnftlsdyck 
utA Plaala, who survived him, and died in 
Jonuarr 17A), Bt ber Nns&au bad issue fire 
sons, the (^IdMl of wbom died in bis life- 
tinip. and one daughter. Nassau's onljdaugh- 
t«T, Isabella, b«CBine in 1691 tbe second wife 
of Charles Ori'nvi lie, lord Lansdowoe, after- 
witrds second Earl of Bath. His second son, 
Henry (if. 17->1), was raised ti> the peerage by 
Ixlten patent of 24 Dec. 1698, by the titles 
cf Boron Alford, Viscount of Boston, and 
Earl uf Grtkiilham. He married Uenrietta, 
daughter of Thomas Butler, stjled Earl of 
Ossory, by whom be had issue two sons, who 
died witbout issue, and three daughters, of 
whom the youngest, Ilenrietia, married, on 
27 June 1732, William, second enrl Cowper. 

rFosWr'sAlomniOioii.; Woods Fasii Oion. 
(BVln). ii. 324: Harris's Life of William III, 
i;«9. p. eo ; Harl. Miso. ii. 21 1 ; Clarendon imd 
Rochiswr Corresp. i. 1 Ifi, 118 n. : Dal^mplii's 
Mrtnoin of Great BcilaiD sod Irelaed. ii. llfi; 
Fdi's Hisi. of the Early Part nf the Sei^ of 
Jaiues 11. App. p. xl et »eq. ; Hist. USS. Cumra. 
fith Bep. App. p. 381, 7th Rsp. App. p. TG9, 
lOth Itep. App. r. 130 et seq., Ilth Hep. 
App. V. 178 ; Dtrrni Daries's Jouni. (Camd. Soc.) 
p, 144; OrimWot's Letters of William III nod 
Louis XIV, i. 323. 4S7, ii. 236 ; Bumet'a Own 
Time, fol., ii. 78, 3U3. 381 : LuUrell's Relntiou of 
State AflairB ; Coxe's Marlborough, ii. fi.'i6-8 ; 
Carte's Ormonde, ii. SUT : Hist. B^g. Cliron. 
Diai7(I728). p. 6 : Nolos and QaerieH, Sth ser. 
ir. C26 ; CornmoDs' Joum. x. 130; Lords' Joum. 
xri. S&7; Oraeu Vac PrinstBrer's Archives de la 
Uaison d'Omugc-Nussau. 2"' e^Hp, v, 34S, 
8i0: Barke'H Eitinct PeoragB ; Imhof's No- 
UtiaS. Bom. German. Imp. Procer. (169B),l.v. 
c. 6, S30; Eg. MS. 1707, f. 328; Kobua and 
Rirecaurt's Biog. Handiroordcnbook van Neder- 
land; Van der An's Biog. Woordenboefc dcr 
Nederlanden; Pepragu of England. 1710,'GrBnt- 
ham;' and Complete Feemge, I8S2, 'Gmnthnm.'l 
J. M. R. 

1S76?), translator, probably came from Nas- 
sington in Northamptonshire, and ie de- 
ficnbed as proctor in the ecclesiastical court 
of Yorli. That he lived in the north of 
England is proved by the dialect in which 
bis work is written, but hia date hns been 
very variously given. IVarton puts him as 
Ute as 1480j but ns the transcript of bis 
■work in the Royal MSS. is dated 1418, it is 
almost certain that be lived in the latter 
half of the fourteenth centurj-. He is pro- 
bably distinct from the William of Ni 

who is mentioned in 13r>5 in connection with| 
the church of St. Peter, Eieter (CaLInq.pMt 
mortem, ii. 1906). Na^yngton's one claim to 
remembrance is his translation into English 
verse of a 'Treatise on the Trinity and Unity, 
with a Declaration of God's Works and of the 
Paseionof Jesus Christ,' written in Latin by 
ono John of Waldehy or Woldly, who had 
studied in tbe Augustinian convent at Ox- 
ford, and became provincial of the Austin 
Friars in England. The ' Myrrour of Life." 
BOmetimesattributed to Richard Rolle[q. v.l 
of Hampole, is identical with Nassyngton'a 
translation. Three manuscript copies of it 
are in tbe British Museum, vit. Keg. MS. 
1 7. C. viii, Additional MS. 22666, and Addi- 
lional MS. 22-i83, ff. 3a-0l ; two are in the 
Bodleian Librarv, Oxford, viz. Rawlioson 
MSS. 884 and 89b i another, said by Wnnon 
to be in the library of Lincoln Cathedral, is 
really D different work. Tbe British Museum 
MSS. show some variation at the end of the 
work, and Additional MS. 22283 is imperfect, 
lacking about flJO lines at the beginning. 
Additional MS. iSooS, which appears to 
be the most complete, ccntaina nearly fifteen 
thousand lines. It begins with a commentor^ 
on the Lord's Prayer, and ends with the Beati- 
tudes. The sentences from lbs Lord's Prayer 
are worked in in Latin, but the commentary 
Latin sentences only appear in the margin. 
The authorship is determined by the c"" 
eluding lines, which ask for prayers 

For FHere Johnn saule of Watdly, 
That fftti stndyd day and nyght. 
And made this tjile in Latyn right. 
Prayer also w' denooion 
For William sauU of Naesynetone. 
OTanuscript works [n Brit, Mns. Lihr. : Tan-' 
ner's Bibl. Angltf-Hibprnica : Warton'a Engli " 
Poets, ii. 3e7'fi ; Ritson's Bibt. Anglo-Poetii 
pp. 91-2 ; Cox's Cnt. Codicnm in Bibl. BodLj 
Morley's English Writers, ii. 442; Kol« 
Queries, 4tb aer. iii. Iflfl.] A. F. P. 


(rf. 154»), master of Clare Hall, Cambridj 
bom in Richmondshivt' (Yorkflhire), was 
mitted probably to Patharine Hall, Ci 
bridge, about 1496. He graduated B.A. 
16O0. M.A., by special grace, 1502,RD.r 
end D.D. 1516. He became a fellow 
Catharine Hall, and in 1507 was a 
proctorsfortheuniveraity. Seven yi 
20 Opt. 1514, be was elected master of Ch 
Hall, and held that post till his resignatii 
libera cassatio) in 1530. Duringbismasti 
ship the master's chamber and the colIeA: 
treasury were burned down (1621). TEo 
whole buildingB now belongitig to the mastar. 
were erected four years later at Natarea^, 



exptnee {Clare Colt. MSS. ; see Willis and 
Claxx, i. 79). Durinfr these years he was 
four times vice-chancellor of the universitj, 
1518, 1521, 1526-7 ; and in this capacity he 
presided at the preliminary trial for neresj of 
Robert Barnes [q. v.] for his sermon preached 
on 24 Dec. 1625, at St. Edwards Church 
(Cooper, Annalt of Cambridgr, i. 314, seq.) 
Foxe styles ' Br. Notaries ' a rank enemy to 
Christ, and one of those who railed against 
Master Latimer. 

In 1517 he became rector of Weston 
Cotville, Cambridgeshire, and on 20 June 
15^2 was presented at Winchester to the 
rectory of Middleton-upon-Tees, Durham, 
void by the death of John Falswell (Stale 
Pajxrrf, U Henry VllI, 23.")6). In August of 
the same year he was included in a list of 
twenty people appointed to he surveyors in 
eunivorship of mines in Devonshire and 
Cornwall (i"A. pp. -Ji, 82). Natares's suc- 
cessor (William Bell) in the Middleton- 
upon-Teea rectory was instituted in 1549, 
' poat mortem Natres.' ' He gave an estate 
or iiioney to Clare Hall for an annual ser- 
mon at Weston Colville (Coopeb), 

[Cooper's Athenee Cantabri^EienSBH quotes 
manuscript niilhoriliea ; Le Neve's I'osti ; 
lalimer'B Works, ll. lii. (Parker Society); 
Sobert Bnrnce's i^npplicalion to HfnTy VUI, 
1531 ; Willis and Clark's Architect. Hist, of 
Cambridge ; Cooper's Annals of Cambriiigi 
i. 314 »eq. ; State Papers, Henry VIII ; Foib's 
Acts and hlonameDts. v. H6. rii. 451 ; Hatchin- 
aoD'B Durham, iii. 278 ; eitraet from MS. regis- 
ter St Clare College, communicated bv tlie Eav. 
the Master of Clara College, Cambridge ; infor- 
nution from the Rev. John Milaet, rector of 
MiddletoQ-in-Teosdale. and the EeT. the Master 
of St. Cathunae's College, Cambridee.] 

W. A. S. 


452 F), Scottish saint, said to have been 
bora at Tullich, Aberdeenshire, was well 
educated as a member of a noble family, but 
devoted himself wholly to divine contem- 
plation, and adopted agriculture as an occu- 
Stion best suiteii to tliis object. During a 
nine he distributed all the grain he had 
ftccumuloted, and there being none left to 
aow the Gelds with, he sowed them with 
aand, which resulted in a plentiful and varied 
grain-crop. Subsequently, as a penance for 
murmuring against God, he bound his hand 
and leg together with a lock and iron chain, 
and threw the key into the Dee, with a vow 
not to release himself until he had visited 
Home. Arrived there, he found the rusty 
key inside a fish be had bought, and the 
pope thereupon made him a bishop. lietum- 
atg in his old age to Scotland, be founded 

the churches of Bothelney (now Meldrum), 
Collie (now Cowie), and Tullich, where he 
died and was buried. He is the patron saint 
of the churches he founded. At the old kirk 
of Bothelney is Xaughlan's Well, and his 
name is preserved in Kilnaughlan in Islay, 
and by the fishermen of Cowie in the 
rhyme — 

Atwsen the kirk aod the kirk-ford 

There lies Saint NaachlaQ's hoard. 

Dempster {IlUt. Eccla. Scot. Bannatjne 

Club, ii. SM) attributes to Nathalan fiTe 

treatises, none of which are extant. 

According to Adam King's 'Kalendar' 
(g;iven in Forbes, ScottUh Samtg, p. 141), 
^atha]an died on 8 Jan. 452; hut Skene, 
Forbes, and O'Hanlon have identified him 
with Nechtanan or Nectani, an Irish saint, 
who appears in the ' Felire* of Oengus as 
' Nechtan from the East, from Alba,' and is 
said to have been a disciple of St. Patrick 
(Tripartite Life, Itoils Ser. ii. 506), becBmn 
abbot of Dungeimhin or Dungiven, and died 
in 677 according to the Four Masters, or 
679 according to the 'Annals of Tighearnach.' 
But there were no less than four Irish saints 
of this name, and tlieir chronology is very 

tO'Hanloii's Irish SMnts, i. 127-30; Forbea's 
Kaleadnrs of Scottish Saints, pp. 141, 417-iei 
I Dempster's HistoHa Eceles. Qeotis Scolomni 
{B«Enatyne Qub), ii. 604 ; Skene's Celtic Scot- 
land, ii. 170; Colgan'sActa Sacctoram ; Tri- 
Eirtite Life of St. Patrick; Diet, of Christian 
log. ; Chambers's Days, i. 73.] A. F. P. 

NATHAN,ISAAC(1791P-ie64), musical 
composer, teacher of singing, and author, was 
bom at Canterbury, Kent, about 1791, of 
Jewish parents. Being by them intended 
for tlie Hebrew priesthood, he was i 

made rapid progress, with one Lyon, a t«acher 
of Hebrcwinthe university; but in his leisure 
he diligently practised tbeviolin, and showed 
such uncommon aptitude for music [hat his 
parents were persuaded to give their consent 
to his abandoning the study of theology for 
that of music. With this object, Nathan 
was taken away from Cambridge and articled 
in London to Domenico Corn (1746-18i!5), 
the Italian composer and teacher. Under 
Corri's guidance Nathan advanced rapidly. 
Eight months after the apprenticeship began 
the young composer wrote and published his 
first song, ' Infant IiOve.' There followed in 
quick succession more works in the same 
style, the best of which was 'The Sorrows 
of Absence.' 
About 1813 Nathan waa introduced by 

PoaglaB Kinnainl [4. v.J to Lord Bvron, and 
tbua eommenced a fnundahip which w»a 
onlj diesolrod by tlie death di the poet. At 
Kinnaird'o BugEestion Bjroa wrote the 'He- 
brew Melodies for Nathan to set to muaic, 
und Nathan Bubaequeutl^ bought the copy- 
right of the work. He intended to publish 
the 'Melodies' by subscription, and Braham, 
on putting his name down for two copies, sug- 
gested that he should aid in their arrnngemBnt, 
and sing them in public. Accordingly the 
title-page of the ^ret edition, publisned iu 
181B, stated that the music was newly ar- 
ranged, harmonised, and revised bj I. Nathan 
and J. Brabsm. ButBraham's engagements 
did not allow him to shore actively in the 
iindertaking, and in later editions his name 
was withdrawn (cf. Pref. to \8-Jf> ed.) The 
melodies were mainly ' a selection from the 
favourite airs sung in the religious cere- 
monies of the Jews (cf. Nathan's ' Fugitive 
Pieces,' Pref. p. ii.ed. 18:i9p. 144; cf. adver- 
tisement by Bvron in bis collected worksjLon- 
don, 18-'lJ. Lady Caroline Lamb [q.v.] was 
also among Nathan's friends.and wrote verses 
fur him toseC to music. In 1829 he published 
' Fugitive Pieces and Reminiscences of Lord 
Byron . . . together witii his Lordship's 
Autograph; also some original Poetry, Let- 
ters, and RecoUectiona of Lady Caroline 
Lamb.' Despite Nathan's claim to long in- 
timacy with Byron, Moore avoids men- 
tion of him in his 'Life' of the poet. A 
note affixed to the earlier editions ot'Bvron'g 
works stated thiit the poet never ' alludeB 
to his share in the melodies withcomplucency, 
and that Mr. Moore, having on one occasion 
rallied him a little on the manner in which 
some of them had been set to music, received 
the reply, "Sunburn Nathan! Why do jou 
always twit me with hia Ebrew nasalities P 
Have I not already tjDld you it was al! Kin- 
naird'e doing and my own exquisite facility 
of temper? "" (see Notes and Quei-ies, blh aer. 
1884, IX. 71). Nathan's 'Fugitive Pieces' 
gave him a wide reputation, but the success 
of the volume was not suiHcient to keep him 
out of financial difficulties. He contracted 
a lar^e number of debts, was compelled to 
quit London, and for a time lived in retire- 
ment in the west of England and in Wales. 
On returning to London he was advised to 
appear on the stage in an attempt to satiBfy 
his creditors. He accordingly made his d£but 
in the part of Uenf^ Bertram in Bishop's 
opera, ' Guy Maunenng,' at Covent Garden 
about 1816. His voice was, however, too 
small in compass and strength to admit of 
this bein^ an entirely successful experiment, 
though his method wosdeclnredbycompetent 
' ' '~ have been decidedly good. Ait his 


he essayed opi 
several operas, pantomimes, and melodramas 
of his composition were produced at Covent 
Garden and Drui^ Lane Theatres, one or 
two of which obtained a certain amount of 
favour. Among them may be mentioned 
' Sweethearts and Wives,' a comedy with 
music bv Nathan andlibretto Ly James Ken- 
ney [q. v.], which ran for upwards of fifty 
nights after its production at tUeHajmarket 
Theatre on 7 July 1823. It included two of 
Nathan's most popular aonirs, ' Why are you 
wandering here P and ' ril not be a maiden 
forsaken.' Nathan's comieapera, 'The Alcaid, 
or the Secrets of Office,' the words also by 
Keaney,was produced at the Haymarket on 
10 Au^. 1834. Nathan's musical farce, 'The 
Illuatrioua Stranger, or Married and Buried," 
the words written for Liaton by Kenney, was 
first given at Drury Lane in October 18:.'7 
{%6ii Cat. SacrfdHarmonk Soc. Library, ISiiJ, 
p. 95). 

In 1833 Nathan published 'Musuiyia Vo- 
calis : an Essay on the History and Theory 
of Music, and on the Qualities, (capabilities, 
and Management of the Human Voice, with 
an Appendix on Hebrew Music' (London, 
4to), which he dedicated to George IV. The 
iasue of an enlarged edition was bi^un in 
1830, but of ihia ouly the first volume seems 
to have appeared, Contemporary critics con- 
aidered the work excellent (see Monthly Jlr- 
fi>'K',June 1823; Quart. .Viw.ifpn. vol. six.; 
JiiiTue Eneychpidiqw.-p. 1*56, October 18:>3; 
LaBelUAufMbUeJaX^'lB-lS). Nathanalso 
gave to the world a ' Life of Mme. Malibron 
de Beriot, interspersed with original Anec- 
dotes and critical Remarks on her Musical 
Powers" (let and 3rd ed. London, 1836, 
l2mo), lie was appointed musical historian 
to George W, and instructor in music to the 
Princess Charlotte of Wales. 

In 1841 Nathan emigrated to Australia, 
because, itiasnid,ofhis (ail uru to obtain fivm 
Lord Melbourne's ministry reci^nition of n 
claim for 2,326/. on account, he asserted, of 
work done and money expended in the service 
of the crown. The precise nature of the work 
is not stated by Nathan, hut his treatment 
at the hands of the' Melboiimiliflh Ministry' 
weighed heavilv upon him. The odd 32U/. 
was ptud him, but the remaining sum was 
disallowed {Nuten and Querief, 6th ser. ix, 
355). The matter is fully dealt with by 
Nathan in ■ The Southern Euphrosyne,' 
pp. 161-7, though again the precise nature of 
the business is omitted. He first took up hia 
abode in Sydney ot 105 Hunter Street, but 
later removed to Rand wick, a suburb of that 
city; and there, and indeed iu the entire 
colony, he did a great deal to benefit church 




music and choral societies. In 1846 he 
published Bimult&neoiulj in Sjdney snd 
ID London ' The Southern Euphrosyne and 
Australian Miscellan;, containing Oriental 
Horal Tales, original Anecdotes, Poetry, and 
Music ; an historical Sketch with Examples 
of the Native Aboriginal Melodies put into 
modem Rhjthm, and harmonised as SoloB, 
Quartets, &c., together with several other 
vocal Pieces arranged to a Pianoforte Ac- 
companiment b_v the Editor and sole Pro- 
prietor, Isaac Xothan.' He also frequently 
lectured in Sydney on the theory and prac- 
tice of music. The first, second, and third of 
ft series of lectures delivered at Sydney Pro- 
prietary College were published in that city 
in 1846. 

"While resident at Randwick, where he 
named his house after Byron, be took great 
interest in the Asylum for Destitute Children, 
for whose benefit be arranged in 1869 a monster 
concert at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
Sydney. He subaetjuenlly went to live at 
442 Pitt Street. lie was killed in Pitt 
Street, ' in descending trom a tramcar,' on 
15 Jan. 1864. lie was in his seventj;-fourth 
year. His lust composition was a piece en- 
titled ' A Song of Freedom,' a copy of which 
was sent, through Sir John Young, to the 
Queen. Nathan's remains were interred on 
17 Jan, 18ft4 in the cemetery at Camper- 
down (Syrfnfy.tfof7(i'n9ire/-a/<i, 19 Jan. 1 861), 
He was twice married, and left a number of 
children. One son, Charles, was a F.R.C.8,, 
enjoyed a wide reputation as a Burgeon, and 
died in September 187d. Another son, 
Ilobert, was an officer in the New South 
Wales regular artillery, and aide-de-camp to 
the governor. Lord Augustus Loft us. 

In the music catali^ue of the British 
Museum no less than twelve pages are de- 
voted to Nathan's compositions and literary 
works, all of which savour strongly of the 
dilettante. Of those not hitherto mentioned 
the best are : 1 . A national song, ' God save 
fol. 1818). 2. ' Long live our Monarch,' for 
Bolo,chorus,andorcheatra(London,fol. 1830). 

[Anthorities citwi abore ; aleo Koles and 
Qneries.flthser.Tiii. 494, ji. 71, 137, 178, 197, 
3aS ; Cat. AQglo-Tewish Hist, Eihib, ; Latturs 
from Byron to Moore, 22 >eb. 1815; Alllbone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. 1870, Philadelphia; Gooc- 
gian Em, iv. 281 ; Beaton's AuBtrsliim Diet, of 
Dalei, 1879, p. 1 50 ; Jewish Chronicle, 2.5 M«tch 
1864.] B. H. L. 

NATTER, LORENZ (1705-1763), gem- 
engraver and medallist, was bom 21 March 
1706 atBiberach in Suabia (Natter, Treatue 
Ac, p. xzii). At his native place he for six 

years followed the business of a ieweller, and 
then worked for the same period in Switzer- 
land, where he had relatives. At Berne he 
was taught by the seal-cutter Johann Ru- 
dolph Ochs [q.T.j He next went to study 
in Italy, and at Venice finally abandoned 
bis jeweller's busineas and took to gem- 
engraving. His first productions were prin- 
cipally seals with coats of arms. On coming 
to Rome he was, he tells us (ib. p. xxviii), at 
once ' employed by the Chevalier Odom to 
copy the Venus of Mr. Vettori, to moke a 
' DaniE of it, and put the [supposed engraver's] 
name Aulus to it.' For this engraved atone, 
as well as for others copied by him from the 
antique. Natter found purchasers. Writing 
in 1764, he says that he is always willing to 
receive commissions to copy ancient gems, 
but declsres that he never sold copies as 
originals. It is fair to notice that Natter's 
productions frequently bore a signature. His 
usual signature on gems is NATTEP or 
NATTHP. He also often signs YAP02 or 
YAPOY, a translation of the Qermen word 
natter, a watei^nake, and this was by some 
supposed to be an ancient Greek name. At 
Florence he was employed by Baron De 
Stosch, who doubtless was not scrupulous 
about disposing of Natter's imitations. Here 
also from 1732 to 1735 Natter was patronised 
by the Grand Uuke of Tuscany, for whom he 
one of Cardinal Albani. In 1733 ha made at 
Ilorence a portrait-medal of Charles Sack- 
ville, earl of Middlesei (afterwards of Dor- 
set). This is signed i_ nattbb f, flokbht. 
(Hawkins, Med. Illiutr. ii. 504; reverse, 
HaipocrateB). In 1741 (or earlier) he cama 
to England to work as a medallist and rem- 
engraver, bringing with him from It^y a 
collection of antique gems and sulphur casts. 
In 1743 he left England and visited, in com- 

Eany with Slartin Tuscher of Nuremberg, 
lenmark,Sweden,andSt. Petersburg. Chris- 
tian VI, king of Denmark, gave him a room 
in his palace, where he worked at gem end 
die cutting for nearly a year. He was well 
paid, and presented by the king with a gold 
medal. Walpole (Anecdota of Painting, 
'Natter') says that Natter visited Holland 
in 1748. Natter does not mention this visit, 
but he was certainly patronised by Wil- 
liam IV of Oran^ anil his family, and mode 
for them portraits in intaglio and portrail>- 
medala, the latter eiecutri in 1751 (Haw- 
kiss, Med. Illmtr. ii. 663, 666). He returned 
to England in or before 1754, and appears 
to have remained here till the summer of 

During Natter's two visits to England he 
was patronised by the loyal family, and in 




1741 made the mt?dal • Tribute toGeoijrell' 
^Hawkins, op. cit. ii. 566, signed L. nat- 
ter, and L. y.) He was much patro- 
nised bv Sir Kdward AValpole (U. AValfolb, 
Ijtttert, ed. Cunningham, ix. 154) and by 
Thomas HoUis. lie engjaved two or three 
M'ttU with the head of Sir Robert Walpole, 
and pn>duced a medal (Hawkins, op. cit. ii. 
56l>, rM»7 ) of him with a bust from Rysbrach's 
motiel. and having on the reverse a statue 
of Cicero with the legend, 'Regit diet is ani- 
iiios.' This medal was engraved in * The 
Mfilttlist ' (Hawkins, u.s.), with the legend 
iiltertnl to 'Regit nummis animos.' Natter, 
when at Count Moltke's table in Denmark, 
mentioned this alteration, and someone sug- 
i^esited * Regit nummis animos et nummis re- 
git ur ipe/ a motto which was afterwards en- 
ifniviJon the I'dge of some specimens of the 
imnliiLs one of which is in the British Museum. 
For Hollis (who speaks of this artist as 
•a worthy man') Natter engraved, for ten 
iruineas, a seal with the head of Britannia, 
and also a cameo of * Britannia Victrix,' with 
A head of Algernon Sydney on the reverse. 
He i\\^ engraved a iK)rtrait of Hollis in in- 
taglio, and a head of Socrates in green jasper, 
which latter Hollis presented to Archbishop 
;Seckor in l757(NiCH0L8,XiY.///M«^r.iii. 479- 
4S1)). A |)ortrait of Natter drawn by him- 
helf, • excetnling like,' is mentioned in Ilollis's 
• Memoirs/ p. 1S3. Natter also worked for 
tlu» Pukes of 1 )evonshire and Marlborough, 
and dn»w up for the latter a catalogue of 
the Hessborough gems, which were incor- 
porateil with the Marlborough cabinet. This 
M-ns published in 1701 as * Catalogue des 
i»iern'j* grnvees tant en relief qu'eu creux de 

of t \w Su'iet V of Ant iquanes of London, i le 

l^^^^i,HM^d. but did not carry out, a work on 

•Ix'rtoiiraphv, called * Museum Britannicum.' 

VomMi"^: <*» Kuding(--iw/m/*»o/Mc Coinage, 

, \:s\, Nallt»r was employed as engraver or 

rt,.»v«rtnl-eMgraver at the English mint at the 

is^. \nuinK' *»»' <*»»^ r^'^S" "^ <^^eorge III, but he 

,.,j;^xot W rifiht in stating that he was so 

\,vrloved in the fourth year of this reign, i.e. 

'o\lvi r«<U*l 111 t)ct. 1704. Inthesum- 

0I 1"^^- Natter went in the exercise of 

• . !s,>xt'i'Hsion to St. Petersburg, and died | 

.^ ..vxNfrt'»thiimlatointheautumnofl763(ac-| 

oN^^Ml ^» NVAi.rtu.K,^wm/o^<**,on 27 Dec; 
' s^m\|Th|| <*» AUyrmvine deiitifche Bioy, on | 

I tftnuH engraved by Natter are 
|iiiii|Ki in his ' Catalogue of the 
lioti** Among these may be 
'^^ 1700, pi. xxv., 'Birtli of 

Athena ; ' No. 9116, pi. Ii., * Bust of Paris 
in Phr\'gian Cap,* apparently copied from a 
fine silver coin of Carthage (B. V. Head, 
Guide to Coins of Ancients, iii. C. 41) ; No. 
1 1043, * Head of Augustus ; ' No. 15787, onyx 
cameo with portrait of the Marchioness of 
' Rockingham ; Nos. 15785-6, cameos of the 
j Marq^uis of Rockingham. Among Natters 
I best imitations of the antique was his copy 
of the Medusa, with the name Sosikles, at 
that time in the cabinet of Ilemsterhuvs, 
a correspondent of Natter's on glyptography 
(Ki^Q, Antique Gems, Sic, p. xxviii). He 
I also copied the 'Julia Titi of Evodus,' A 
; description of his works preserved in the 
Imperial Cabinet at St. Petersburg is given 
• in J. Bemouilli's ' Travels,' iv. 248. Natter's 
: talents as a gem-engraver were warmly eulo- 
I gised by Goethe ( Winrkelmann und sein 
Jahrhundert, ii. 100). II. K. K6hler(t?e- 
I smnmelte ScAri/te, 1851, p. 119) remarks on 
I his freedom from mannerism. Charles "Wil- 
liam King (Antique (j«n^, &c., i. 467), while 
calling him * one of the greatest of the modem 
practitioners of the art,* considers that his 
works * differ materially from the antique, 
. particularly in the treatment of the hair * {jb. 
. p. 430). 

I Asa medallist Natter was decidedly skilful, 
I though he produced comparatively few works. 
Natter published in 1754 * A Treatise on the 
Ancient Method of Engraving on Precious 
i Stones comjMired with the Modem,* London, 
I fol. This was also published in French in 
the same year (* Trait 6 de la m6thode antique 
de graver en pierres fines,' &c., folio). In 
this interesting treatise Natter gives fn)m 
, his own experience practical instructions in 
gem-engrraving. He strongly advises be- 
ginners to copy from the antique. Godefrid 
Kraft of Danzig is menticmed by him as a 
pupil of his in the glyptic art. 

Aagler and Bolzeuthal {Skizzenf p. 251), 
followed in Hawkins's * Medallic Illustra- 
tions,* give Natter's name as ' Johann Lorenz.' 
There seems no authority for the * Johann ; ' 
flatter on his gems and medals and on the 
title-pages of his publications uses only the 
christian name * Lorenz * (Laurent, Laureii- 
tius, &c.) 

[Natter's writings; P. Beck's art. 'Natter* 
in Allgemeiue deutscho Biographio ; HolhVs 
Memoirs, pp. 81, 182-4; Hiiwkin«s MHiallic 
Illustrations, od. Frunks and (iruober; King's 
Antique Gems and Kings, and his Handbook of 
Engraved Gems; Walpole's Anecdotes of l*aint- 
inp, ed. Womum. iii. 763, 764.] W. W. 

1822), topographical draughtsman and water- 
colour painter, is stated to have been bom in 
17G5, and to have been a pupil of Hugh 




Primrose Deane, the Irish landscape-painter. 
Nattes worked as a topographical draughts- 
man, travelling all over Great Britain and 
also in France. His method of colouring 
causes his drawings to be ranked among the 
earliest examples of water-colour painting in 
this country, though there is little artistic 
merit in his productions. He published the 
following works, illustrated by himself: * Hi- 
bemia Depicta,* 1802; * Scotia Denicta,'1804; 
• Select \ iews of Bath, Bristol, Malvern, 
Cheltenham, and Weymouth,' 1805 ; * Bath 
Hlustrated,' 1806; * Views of Versailles, 
Paris, and St. Denis,' 1809 (?). Other draw- 
ings of his were engraved for the * Beauties 
of England and Wales,* the 'Copperplate 
Magazine,' and Hewlett's * Views in the 
County of Lincoln.' Nattes was an occa- 
sional exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 
1782 to 1804. In the latter year he was 
one of the artists associated in the founda- I 
tion of the *01d' Society of Painters in i 
W'ater-colours. He contributed to their ex- ! 
hibitions up to 1807, in which year he was ; 
convicted of having exhibited drawings 
that were not his own work. Nattes was 
therefore expelled from the society. He re- 
sumed exhibiting at the Royal Academy up 
to 1814, and died in London in 1822. He 
lived at No. 49 South Molton Street. 

[Roget'8 History of the • Old Water-Colour' 
Society ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. C. 

i^Ji. 1574-1605), secretary of Mars- Queen of 
Scots, was descended from an old French 
family originally settled in Touraine, but 
subsequently in raris under the patronage of 
the house of Guise. He was educated for 
the law, and for some time practised in the 
courts of parliament. After acting as secre- 
tary to the Cardinal of Lorraine, he entered 
the service of the king of France, by whom 
he was made counsellor and auditor of the 
Chambre des Comptes (M. De La Chenaye- 
Desbois, Dictionnaire de la Noblesse, Paris, 
1775, s.n.) On the death of Queen Mary's 
secretary Raullet, in 1574, he was, on the re- 
commendation of the Cardinal of Ijorraine, 
chosen to succeed him, and entered upon his 
duties in the spring of 1575. Mary was 
then a prisoner m the Earl of Shrewsbury's 
house at ShefEeld. Besides succeeding to the 
secretarial duties of Raullet, he was entrusted 
with the management of the queen's accounts. 
He was also her confidant and adviser in 
all important matters of policy. He showed 
himself both zealous and able, but a letter to 
his brother in 1577 indicates also supreme 
devotion to his own personal interests. He 
advised his brother, for whom he was de- 

sirous to obtain the office of treasurer to the 
queen, whenever he talked to any of the 
kind's servants about him, * to always com- 
plam of my stay here, and that I am losing* 
in this prison my best years, and the reward 
of my services and all hopes of advancement * 
(Leadeb, Captivity of Mary Stuart, p. 397). 

In 1579 Nau was sent by Mary on a mis- 
sion to Scotland, the removal of Morton 
from the regency having aroused hopes that 
her cause might win the support of the new 
advisers of the king of Scots. On 17 June 
he presented himself at the castle of Edin- 
burgh, desiring to speak with the master of 
Gray, but was refused an audience (Moysie^ 
Memoirs, p. 23]). He therefore, on the 19thy 
passed toStirlmg; but as the communica- 
tion sent by Mary to King James was merely 
addressed * To our Son the Prince of Scot- 
land,' the king, with the advice of the privy 
council, declared ' the said Franscheman un- 
worthy of his Hienes presence or audience^ 
and to deserve seveir puneisment for his 
presumptioun, meit to be execute presentlie 
upoun him war it nocht for the respect of 
his dearest suster, the Queene of England^ 
and hir servand that accumpanyis him ' {Reg, 
P, C. Scot I. iii. 186). He again undertook 
a mission to Scotland after the final fall of 
Morton, leaving Sheffield on 4 Dec. 1581 
(CaL State Papers, Scott. Ser. p. 932), and 
returning again on 3 Dec. 1582 (ib. p. 935). 
In 1584, after long negotiations, he was per- 
mitted an interview with Elizabeth, chiefly 
to present complaints of the Scott isli queen 
against Lady Shrewsbury (Sadler, State 
Papers, ii. passim). After a favourable re- 
ception he returned to Wingfield on 29 Dec. 

Nau, aided by his subordinate. Curie,, 
was supposed to be the chief agent in 
carrying on the correspondence with An- 
thony Babington [q. v.] in connection with 
the conspiracy against Elizabeth. Both 
were apprehended, along with Mary Queen 
of Scots, on 8 Aug. 1586. They were 
sent up to London, and were several times 
examined as to their knowledge of the plot. 
Nau was stated to have confessed that Mary 
wrote the letter to Babington with her 
own hand (CaL State Papers, Scott. Ser. p. 
1010), and that he admitted her knowledge 
of the plot is substantially borne out by the 
report of the trial (evidence against Mary 
Queen of Scota in Hardwicke, State Papers, 
i. 224-57) ; but he nevertheless, on 10 Sept.^ 
addressed a memorial to Elizabeth, in which 
he protested that Mary * had no connection> 
or concern with the designs of Babington 
and others* (Labanofp, Letters of Mary- 
Stuart, vii. 194-5). Mary asserted that Nau 
had been induced by threats of torture to 

N\iu :-^ Naunton 

...r-^a^i. iis i-Ti-^''* --' ^i- ' -»■'■' ^:it-3ii-?"l to Write an account of the 

.^•ra..*.L>.v •>:V::vi--i .i:=:>-r'.; ttiI hv;*r» >t Stuart firom the accession of 

M.^ >*. .11 't >:nv.r^ r.-r. cv K.r^ R *'rrr II r.-* his own time, and that 

^ .. *..^ .1 .•.Mi:Vs>.-.:'i.* 1* '-- ^i* -x^.'L 'Ia' view • he be^n his colWtions by 

^. \^..-v. -*.^l.y :~ -TV rir-Tr.:.'.! •ri->l.i--::^ :n:.5 French the Latin history of 

'^. . ; ■. •»..' tKv The :i."."_:'v- B>".-t l.*::*!:'* ' i MS. Cot. Vesp. Calig. xvi. 

.^- .*^\i i •* '.?' rv wii/.T *i- :'" 4'.'. :V:=: v d. l-ti6 to 14o4), to which * he 

xi,..!!-* • ■■: .-d'.e :':v w.:V. j.: :-•: j. ^^.:-::a•ntion, a few fragments of 

, ■■ :i>, ■ -iv. ■:•. WIS "...s "^rr: ^■.....■!i rv=:d::i.' Besides his skill a<» a finan- 

N . . .. . .- I", i-avrrs ••• MiTv -i-r-Xi- '.-. I i -sreoial liniTuistic qualifications 

, . *•: •: '.■..* ^'7. ::". *' r Mirv'* f-rv-.ce. ci'^uld read and speak 

: vr T \ iziir.-L"^ " ". * ■ F." j". O. xr. i I-iliin. and was al«o a specially 

^■•■■: l-.".n->". Fie w:ls reputed to be 'quick 

I * ■ « 

• • •. .• I •»■• 4 •■■-■- 

.>;.**•• .: 

V * . v'.v- ••'* -U"! :■»" N '. : '^"- >- *T r.--: ' ir.i • rrdif.' but riven to ostenta- 

,t x ■ ' . • > .11 

XAUCHLAX . :'. 4.'iir). Scottish saint. 

ti • 

! I • % 



N V' . n.-' * y. •'. -i-...-.* ?iT--^. lc::ers •:: Mary Stuart, ed. La- 

,. ■ : I ". . -.v. :• T-. >? . ■ r. im r. j ,- * . ^ ;^ - « ^-i.^ p ipers : M. De Li Chenayo- 

. \i , * »\:i>, >. 'w.vr. :'.:.■.: >'.-.u '_ ^" .- ^^ I .-:■=- lire de La Xoblr'sse, Paris, 

«■.!< a!>^ »'.i"--: ■--•.■: 1 rr' >:: — * -"* rrr:»e* :o Xau's Hist, of 

^ ^ ■.:"..> ■::'"" •" '■ "^- —^'' ^- '*^-''-' T. F. H. 

. \l i V ^ ••••.IV..V.: ^ : r.7 '_ ! m- 

• L-i":vW-:- C- - XAUXT 'X.5:sK0BEUTilo*i:^ltWo), 

^. x v: \".\\- >:"'.. I ■: "^..r- j -*■ -". '- '" i" Al-.irron. Suffolk, in liVW, 

■ •■.IV..V ■ .• 0.177 : I 'v.-'.. •v.ii '-•.-: *r. ::nrr.rrX:ii:n:on«.>fAIdert on. 

,. .:'• ' \-.'<,.ir.\:\'..\: *■.-. '.ilr7 - '• v K. ii'-"": Aj*.-*v. an i wi.< crandson of 

* • ••.••.::•.' : ."• 0".' ••-.:" it^ l W./.. ir.\ Ni :::: t.. wb.:;?e wi:V Elizabeth was 

. , ,. .1 . I • r .1 >.* vl w ■ : : . ■ ". • 'v ■ *. V r • L « *..: > 7 . :' S .7 Ar.: 1: }r.y Winjdeld, K.G. 

\^ . .: . ; I K.yv..' J.'K. ;?.^-.' ::: i» '. 7" '.v.-» v..::j.:r'ii: Cambri-i^e. wherehe 

, (>•; * '. \ ::: . " ' : ■. " - .1 .'. ^ -i : • '. 1 -^^-c ^i:: m» ^ n-r • >f Trini ty 

. •....■ X .iV«'m: 7 >-'.". '"^r •"...:. » '" II N.'-. l'*-*- he was elected a 

, . V, 1 '■•".: S' 7. 1~"*1 ■"•.:'. - '. .7. jr. ■.•/.•".::« Pi. A- ::: r he same year; 

: ,' I .'\ K'T'.V'k'iV. v^\-7 ■ ' I-'t-'.- ^ . . J. ■ • -.■a-".- ••'. - ' '-.■:. 1 ■'•■>-> a :::".r.or U-ll^w. and 

■ «.iN V. "'.'.iv.-i: ' i .:*..*'.'. 7 "■ *.•' M .7;'-. 1 ■">■»-' j. ri:-; :7lV/-ow, andpro- 

. ••••.■'.'■.•>. :.:*. I .*" 1 J./.y "■ - - ^1- V.<'- " .ifriTwaris. In !.">«*« JXaun- 

, •" i-\ .»:':*>» c "•..«. v.:''- 7 ^: " v. • vv- ■• .•::•.> :",.•'.-,• William A>hbv to 

•:» 'I.'vx IN !".-.' "v-.i-s .. ••.!'. '• ' i <; ''.A- •.. wli.7\ A>*i."." y t\-is iic*ix:5c:isEnglL<h 

s\ Jk'. r ".iMiv. ■ I-;r' '.:i M -'■' :i"'.'. >- ■ i 7. N. -■.::'.!.' ii ?*.e:'.i>rn have carried 

, . I .-,• \ . ir l-.i* v-.T.;:- I l>'.." •.-.•. !'.: -- u- s ■ • '..w-:-. ''Iv aul :he En^irlish 

. : ■ , .,x.J. .1 f.:-":r. : ^ J.i::>s I « '■ rv:v.::'. :^ti I *p-*::: r.iu.^h of hi.< time at 

. . ,.• ■: X ^v.ulao: in r*. :Vr.!:v.'v :: v" .;— :-. \.::\\ n ::i J:;>. He n^tumed to 

'^ ■ "*. •.". I i:i Ai:j-.:>: : Y ;" A>libv dit-d in the 

^^■1, Vm'i.' dii J nTvI-v.. N;i': h;i.l i :'.'.■. rviv.j: ,U:v.:.i7v. an. I Ndi;iiton's oonnec- 

, . ul 1 1 1 '.>'< ' ^hi iiiT ' i ' t' ^* • C ! .1 : 1 .1 .' . • ■ *: w : •: * ■. S .. ■ • • '... :: I ov .l**. d . S-^: : I i ni: a^ain in 

■*^|V^ ^^ .Sivil.i»id, ohietly in Vir.divM-i:'. .' .''7'mI r.^ .<* o ^nv.:>.-.tai p./.itioii ami 
^L *Ci •v^ ^** SiVCs' ^C'alijTiihi IV iv. iU- :"^7». ..::i ' i:*ju.i.:-*. E^^' x ■■*b:ainril f-^r him 
^■•^^ ^ * kHiWinhisl by Jost'ph Sr-.v. •:>•:•.. •'.- I'^irivi .^:' tr.ivr.y. ::j^r :.^ a yomh 

iho wovk of Nau. uikKt :■•." ::''.v v. .'■.•.•■, I Vf-.i'v.. iv.xl Nii.i-r.^n i:nJerti>^k, 

^* ^ \l:4r\ Stfwart frv>m ili** M.;7.1 7 u '.•.■* • h- • 'u-f.oy-Al a'-'.:: Ei:r.^p' with hi-* 

**^i* uulil h«'r tliirhc iiit»> ET:.:l.r.: I." c'^v'. t' r*'jM'..irly sr. ni ;o Es*-\ all the 

•K ISSA -Mr. Stevenson i> »'f i^: "- | ■'.':».■. ;l iri't : '.:.:■■•• vv 1:^^ c iM 5orap».» tOiTt^ 

t ii ^«i* authoritatively th-* wor\ ^!' :h - NV7-.:':i.: : ^ hi< |'a:r^:i frm the Ila^ue 

^A£^ Uc »l*'«* Stat cs t hat N a u ?et m > i : i N ^ v j ni Iv r 1 •" hH\ ho coiuplaiiie .1 that his 




appointment combined the characteristics of 
a pedagogue and a spy, and he could not 
decide which office was * the more odious or 
base, as well in their eyes with whom I live 
as in mine own' {Harl. MS, 28S, f. 127). 
Early in 1597 Naunton was in Paris, and 
Essex genially endeavoured to remove his 
scruples. ' I read no man's writing ' (Essex 
wrote to him) * with more contentment, nor 
ever saw any man so much or so fast by any 
such-like improve himself. . . . The queen is 
every day more and more pleased with your 
letters.' In November, however, Naunton 
was still discontented, and begged a three 
years' release from his employment so that 
he might visit France and Italy, and return 
home through Germany. Such an experi- 
ence, he argued, would tlie better fit him for 
future work in Essex's service at home {ib. 
288, f. 128). It is probable that he obtained 
his request, and Essex's misfortunes doubt- 
less prevented him from re-entering the earl's 
service. At anv rate, he returned to Cam- 
bridge about 1600, and resumed his duties as 
public orator. In 1601 he served the office 
of proctor. A speech which he delivered in 
behalf of the university before James I at 
Ilinchinbrook on 29 April 1603 so favourably 
impressed the king and Sir Robert Cecil that 
Naunton once again sought his fortunes at 
court (cf. Sydney Papers, ii. 325). A few 
months later he attended the Earl of Rut- 
land on a special embassy to Denmark, and, 
according to James Howell, broke down while 
making a formal address at the Danish court 
(IIowBLL, Letters, ed. Jacobs, i. 294). On 
bis return he entered parliament as member 
for Helston, Cornwall, in May 1 606. He was 
chosen forCamelford in 1614,and in the three 
parliaments of 1621, 1624, and 1625 he repre- 
sented the university of Cambridge. He 
sat for Suffolk in Charles I's first parliament. 
Although he never took a prominent part in 
the proceedings of the House of Commons, 
Naunton secured, in the early days of his 
parliamentary career, the favour of George 
Villiers. He retained it till the death of the 
favourite, and preferments accordingly came 
to him in profusion. On 7 Sept. 1614 he was 
knighted at Windsor. In 1616, when he 
ceased to be fellow of Trinity Hall, he was 
made master of requests, in succession to Sir 
I^ionel Cranfield (Cabew, Letters, p. 60, Cam- 
den Soc.), and afterwards became surveyor 
of the court of wards. The latter post had 
hitherto been held *by men learned in the 
law,' and Sir James AVhitelocke complained 
that Naimton was ' a scholar and mere 
stranger to the law' {Liber Famelicus, pp. 
54, 62, Camden Soc.) 

On 8 Jan. 1617-18 Naunton, owing to 

Buckingham's influence, was promoted to be 
secretarv of state. Sir Ralph Winwood, the 
last holder of this high office, had died three 
months earlier, and the king had in the in- 
terval undertaken, with the aid of Sir Thomas 
Lake fq. v.], to perform the duties himself. 
But the arrangement soon proved irksome 
to the king, and Buckingham recommended 
Naunton as a quiet and unconspicuous per- 
son, who would act in dependence on himself. 
In consideration of his promotion, Naunton 
made Buckingham's youngest brother, Chris- 
topher Villiers, heir to lands worth 500/. a 
year. In August Naunton was appointed a 
member of the commission to examine Sir 
Walter Raleigh. Popular report credited 
Naunton with a larf^e share of responsibility 
for Raleigh's execution on 29 Oct. 1618, and 
a wealthy Londoner named Wiemark publicly 
declared that Raleigh's head ' would do well ' 
on Naunton's shoulders. When summoned 
before the council to account for his words, 
Wiemark explained that he was merely al- 
luding to the proverb, * Two heads are better 
than one.' Naunton jestingly revenged him- 
self by directing Wiemark to double his sub- 
scription to the fund for restoring St. Paul's 
Catnedral, of which Naunton was a com- 
missioner. Wiemark had offered 100/., but 
Naunton retorted that two hundred pounds 
were better than one (Fuller). * Secretary 
Naunton forgets nothing,' wrote Francis 
Bacon (Spedding, Life, vi. 320). 

Through 1019 Naunton was mainly occu- 
pied in negotiations between the king and the 
council respecting the support to be given 
by the English government to the king's son- 
in-law, the elector Frederick in Bohemia. 
Naunton was a staunch protestant, and such 
influence as he possessed he doubtless exer- 
cised in the elector's behalf. In May 1620 he 
wrote to Buckingham that he had not had a 
free day for two years, and that his health was 
suffering in consequence. In October Gon- 
1 domar complained to James that Naunton 
was enforcing the laws against catholics with 
extravagant zeal. The king resented Gondo- 
mar's interference, and informed him that * his 
secretary was not in the habit of acting in 
matters of importance without his own direc- 
tions.' In the January following Naunton for 
once belied the king s description of his con- 
duct by entering without instructions from 
James into negotiations with Cadenet, the 
French ambassador. He told Cadenet that 
the king was in desperate want of money, and, 
if the French government desired to marry 
Princess Henrietta Maria to Prince Charles, 
it would be prudent to offer James a large por- 
tion with the lady. The conversation reached 
Gk)ndomar*s ears, and he brought it to James's 




knowltnlpe. Xaunton was sharply repn- 
inandtHl, and threatened with dismissal. His 
wife was frijrhtened by his peril into a miscar- 
riafi^N and, although the storm passed away, 
Xaunton had lost interest in his work. All 
tlu* n.votiations for the Spanish marriage 
woir distasteful to him. In September 1622 
ho lH»srgiMl Buckingham to protect him from 
immtHliate rt»moval from his post, on account 
of his wife's condition, but in January 1623 
ho voluntarily retired on a pension of 1,000/. a 
vear. Huckingham remained his friend, and, 
Hlthmigh in April he made a vain appeal for 
tho pn)Vo«tship of Eton, in July 1623 he 
nHvlvt»d the lucrative office of master of the 
court of wards. He sent the king an effu- 
nivo h»ttor of thanks for the appointment 
{Hart. MS. 1581, No. 23), but practically 
ri'tiriHl from further participation m politics. 
Althoiigh ho was still a member of the 
oouiumI, ho was not summoned (in July 1623) 
wlu'u the oath was taken to the articles of 
tho Spanish marriage, and some indiscreet 
oxpn^HMion of opinion on the subject seems 
to Imvo UhI to his confinement in his own 
lu>»iMo in the following October. But he sent a 
warm lot tor of congpratulation to Buckingham 
on bin n»tum from Spain in the same month 
( tortrih'ur Papers, pp. 192-3, Camden Soc.) 
Am nuiHtor or the court of wards he dis- 
oliinvotl Insduties with exceptional integrity; 
but ChiirloH I's advisers complained that it 
i»n»v«Ml under his control less profitable to 
t \\o\u t ban it might be made in less scrupulous 
biuuN. I n March 1635 Xaunton was very ill, 
tint Cottington vainly persuaded him to re- 
piHU. At hMigth Charles I intervened, and, 
niVor roooiving vague promises of future 
finniirH, Naunton gave up his mastership to 
t'ninugton on 16 March. A day or two 
IntiM' ho H(mt a petition to the king begging 
for iIh' payment of the arrears of the pen- 
nioii jrrantid him by James I. But his ill- 
iir«M look an unfavourable turn, and before 
hi« ppiition was considered he died at his 
\^^^^^Av lit Lotheringham, Suff(:)lk, on 27 March. 
N iniuton had inherited, through his grand- 
mioIImt Klizabeth Xaunton, daughter of Sir 
Viillioiiy Wingfield, a residence at Ixither- 
iH>{)iMUi, which had been formerly a priory of 
niiioli canons. This Sir Robert converted 
\s\\o iin imiK)sing mansion, and he added to 
\\ n iiirt iiro-gallery. He was buried in Lether- 
(MMbiiiM ( :hurch, where in 1600 he had erected 
M Hiniiumont to his father and other members 
\\\ \\\n laniily. An elaborate monument was 
iilmi uliiced there to his own memory; it is 
•\ Nichols's * I^icestershire,' iii. 
1789 the church was destroved, 
contents. Naunton built alms- 
etheringham, but he failed to en- 

dow them, and they soon fell into neglect. 
His property in the parish he bequeathed to 
his brother WQliam, who died 11 July 1635. 
William's descendants held the property till 
1758, when the Leman family became its 
owners. The old house was pulled down in 
1770. Xaunton married Penelope, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Thomas Perrot, oy Dorothy, 
daughter of Walter Devereux, first earl of 
Essex, who survived him. Naunton's only 
son, James, died in infancy in 1624, and a 
long epitaph was inscribed by his father on 
his tomb in Letheringham Church. An only 
daughter, Penelope, married, first, Paul, vis- 
count Bayning (d. 1638); and, secondly, 
Philip Herbert, fifth earl of Pembroke [see 
under Herbert, Philip, fourth Eabl]. 
When Lady X'^aunton, Xaunton*s widow, 
was invited by the parliament in 1645-6 to 
compound for her estate, which was assessed 
at 800/., mention was made during the pro- 
tracted negotiations of a son of hers, called 
Sir llobert. Xaunton, who was at the time 
imprisoned in the king's bench for debt. The 
person referred to seems to be a nephew of 
Sir Robert X'aunton {Cal. Committee for 
Compounding, pp. 188, 600). 

Naunton left unpublished a valuable ac- 
count of the chief courtiers of Queen Eliza- 
beth, embodying many interesting reminis- 
cences. Although he treats Leicester with 
marked disdain, he made it his endeavour to 
avoid all scandal, and he omitted, he tells us, 
much information rather than *■ trample upon 
' the graves of persons at rest.' He mentions 
the death of Ldward Somerset, earl of Wor- 
cester, in 1628, and Sir William Knollys, 
who was created Earl of Banbury on 18 Aug. 
1626, and died in 1632, he describes as an 
earl and as still alive. These facts point 
to 1630 as the date of the composition. 
Many manuscript copies are in the British 
Museum (cf. Harl. MSS. 3787 and 78^3 ; 
Lansdowne MSS. 238 and 254 ; Addit. MSS. 
22951 and 28715) ; one belongs Xo the Duke 
of Westminster (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 
p. 21 4, cf. 246). The work was printed for the 
first time with great carelessness in 1641, 
and bore the title, *Fragmenta Regalia writ- 
ten by Sir Robert Xaunton, Master of the 
Court of Wards.' An equally unsatisfactory 
reprint appeared in 1642. A revised edition 
I was issued in 1653, as * Fragmenta Regalia; 
I or Observations on the late Queen Elizabeth, 
I her Times and Favourites, written by Sir 
! Robert Xaunton, Master of the Court of 
Wards.' James Caulfield reprinted the 1641 
edition, with biographical notes, in 1814, and 
Professor Arber the 1653 edition in 1870. One 
or other edition also reappeared in various col- 
lections of tracts, viz. : ' Arcana Aulica,' 1694, 




pp. 157-247; the * Phoenix/ 1707-8, i. 181- 
221 ;' A Collection of Tracts/ 1721 ; * Paul 
Hentzner*8 Travels in England/ 1797, with 
portraits ; ' Memoirs of Robert Gary, Earl of 
Monmouth,' edited bv Sir Walter Scott, 
pp. 169-301 ; the * Harleian Miscellany,' 
1809, ii. 81-108, and the * Somers Tracts.' 
A French translation of the work is appended 
to Gregorio Leti's ' La Vie d'Elisabeth, Reine 
d'Angleterre,' Amsterdam, 1703, 8vo, and an 
Italian translation made through the French 
appears in Leti's ' Historiao vero vitadi Elisa- 
betta,' Amsterdam, 1703. Another French 
version, by S. Le Pelletier, was issued in Lon- 
don in 174^. 

Some Latin and English verses and epitaphs 
by Naunton on Lor(& Essex and Salisbury, 
and members of his own family, are printed 
in the ' Memoirs,' 1824, from manuscript not«s 
in a copy of Holland's * Hero<)logia,' once in 
Naunton's possession. Several of Naunton's 
letters to Buckingham between 1618and 1623 
are among the Fortescue Papers at Drop- 
more, and have been edited by Mr. S. K. 
Gardiner in the volume of Fortescue Papers 
issued by the Camden Society. Others of his 
letters are in the British Museum (cf. HarL 
MSS, 1681, N08. 22-3) ; at Melbourne Hall 
{Cowper MSS,)f and at the Public Record 

A fine engraving by Robert Cooper, from 
a painting dated 1615 * in possession of Mr. 
Read/ a descendant of Naunton's brother 
William, appears in * Memoirs of Sir Robert 
Naunton,' 1814. Another engraving is by 
Simon Passi. 

[Memoirs of Sir Robert Naunton. knt., Lon- 
don. 1814, fol. ; Weever's Fanerall Monuments, 
1631, pp. 756-7; Fuller's Worthies, 1662, pt. 
iv. p. 64; Birch's Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth; 
Lloyd's Memoirs, 1665; Nichols's Leicestershire, 
iii. 515 seq. ; Page's Suffolk, p. 119 ; Spedding's 
Life of Bacon; Cal. State Papers, 1618-35; 
Gardiner's Hist. ; Strafford Papers, i. 369, 372, 
389,410-12. A paper roll, containinga *8temma' 
of the Naunton family made by James Jermyn in 
1806, is in Brit. Mus. Xddit. MS. 17098.] 

8. L. 

NAVARRE, JOAN op (1370 P-1487). 
[See Joan.] 

NAYLER, Sib GEORGE (1764P-1831), 
Garter king-of-arms, was fifth son of George 
Navler, surgeon, of Stroud, Gloucestershire, 
ana one of the coroners of the county, by 
Sarah, daughter of John Fark of Clitheroe, 
Lancashire. The Duke of Norfolk gave him 
a commission in the West York militia, and 
in recognition of his taste for genealogy ap- 
pointea him Blanc Coursier herald and ge- 
nealogist of the order of the Bath on 15 June 
1792. His noble vellum volumes of the 

VOL. zi^ 

^nealogies of the knights of the Bath, now 
m the library of the College of Arms, 
are eulodsed by Mark Noble in the last 
paragraph of his * History ' of the college 
(1804). Nayler became an actual member 
of the college when appointed Bluemantle 
Pursuivant in December 1798. On 15 March 
1794 he was made York herald. When the 
Emperor Alexander of Russia was to be in- 
vested with the Garter in September 1813, 
Nayler, greatly to his disappointment, was 
not included in the mission. By way of 
consolation, the Duke of York, to whom he 
was a persona grata, persuaded the regent 
to knight him (28 Nov. 1813). At the ex- 
tension of the order of the Bath in January 
1815, Nayler was confirmed in his position 
in connection with that order, ana every 
knight commander and companion were re- 
quired to furnish him with a statement of 
their respective military services, to be en- 
tered by him in books provided for that pur- 
pose. No salary was assigned to him in 
that capacity ; lus fees were trifling, and the 
'services,' according to Sir Harris Nicolas 
(Hist, of the Order of the Bath, 1842, pp. 
248-9), * after the lapse of twenty-five years 
still, it is believed, remain unwritten.' When 
the Hanoverian Guelphic order was esta- 
blished in August 1815, he was appointed 
its first king-of-arms, and in the following 
year a knight of the order. Again, when an 
order was instituted for the Ionian Islands 
by the title of the Distinguished Order of 
St. Michael and St. George, he was also 
nominated its first king-of-arms on 17 April 
1818. On 23 May 1820 he was promoted 
Clarenceux king-of-arms, in which capa- 
city he ofiiciated as deputy to the aged Sir 
Isaac Heard (then Garter) at the coronation 
of Georoe IV, and succeeded him as Garter 
on 11 May 1822. He went on four missions 
to foreign sovereigns with the Garter : to 
Denmark in 1822, to Portugal in 1823, to 
France in 1825, and to Russia in 1827. 
From John VI of Portugal he received the 
insignia of a knight commander of the 
Tower and Sword, which he was licensed 
by George IV to wear (5 June 1824). He 
also received from Spain the order of 
Charles HI. 

Nayler died suddenly at his house, 17 Han- 
over Square, on 28 Oct. 1831, aged about 67, 
having just survived the abridged ceremonial 
of the coronation of William IV and Queen 
Adelaide, and was buried in the family 
vault at St. John's Church, Gloucester, on 
9 Nov. He left a widow and four daugh- 
ters. His portrait, painted by Sir William 
Beechey, was engraved in mezzotint by 
Edwara Scriven. 




Nayler was elected F.S.A. on 27 March ! 
1794, and in the following year sent a paper 
to the society on 'An Inscription in the 
Tower of London/ which is printed in the 
* Archseologia * (xii. 193), accompanied by 
a plate representing the tablet erected in > 
the Tower in 1608 by Sir William Waad, \ 
the then lieutenant, to commemorate the | 
Gunpowder plot (cf. Arcfueohgia^ xviii. 
29). I 

He also undertook a * History of the Co- ' 
ronation of King George IV,* which he did 
not live to complete. For this work he en- I 
gaged the services of Chalon, Stephanofif, ' 
Fugin, Wild, and other able artists. Parts 
i. and ii. were published in 1824, in atlas ; 
folio, price twelve guineas each. After 
Nayler s death the plates came into the 
hands of Henry George Bohn, and he made 
up parts iii. and iv., combining another 
contemporary work on the same subject by 
Whittaker, and republished the whole at 
twelve guineas in 1839. 

In Lowndes's * Bibliographer's Manual ' 
(ed. Bohn, 1860, p. 1655) there is attributed 
to Nayler an anonymous publication en- 
titled * A Collection of the Coats of Arms 
borne by the Nobility and Gentry of Glouces- 
tershire,' 4to, 1786 (2nd ed. 1792) ; it was 
in reality the work of one Ames, an en- 
graver at Bristol, Nayler being merely one 
of the subscribers. 

Nayler formed a collection of private acts 
of parliament, which is now in the library 
of the city of London at Guildhall. It is 
in thirty-nine volumes, and each act is illus- 
trated in manuscript, with a pedigree de- 
noting the persons named in it. The series 
commences about 1733 and extends to 1830. 
Each volume is indexed. Nayler likewise 
made a collection of impressions from coffin- 
plates, which fills fourteen volumes, and is 
now in the British Museum, Addit. MSS. 
22292-22305. They extend from 1727 to 
1831, inclusive, and each volume has an index 
and a few biographical notes made by him. 
This collection was for some time in the pos- 
session of W. B. D. D. TurnbuU [q. v.], who 
added a few impressions down to 1842. 

[Nichols's Herald and Genealogist, vii. 72-80 ; 
Gent. Mag. December 1831, p. 667; Barham's 
Life of R. H. Barham, 1870.] G. G. 

NAYLER, JAMES (1617 ?-1660),quaker, 
was bom at Ardsley, near Wakefield, West 
Ridinfir of Yorkshire, about 1617. His father, 
antial yeoman, gave him a good Eng- 
ication. About the age of twenty- 
married and settled m Wakefield, 
is children were bom. In 1642, on 
reak of the civil war, he left his wife 

in Wakefield (he never lived with her again) 
and joined the parliamentary army, serving- 
first in a foot company under Fairfax, then 
for two years as quartermaster in Lambert's 
horse. Lambert afterwards spoke of him as 
* very useful ; * he * parted from him with 
great regret.' "WTiile in the army he became 
an independent and a preacher. He was at 
the battle of Dunbar (3 Sept. 1650). An 
officer who heard him preach shortly after- 
wards declares, *I was struck with more 
terror by the preaching of James Nayler than 
I was at the battle of Dunbar' (Jaffkat^ 
Diary, 1833, p. 543). In the same year he 
returned home on the sick list, and took to 
agriculture. He was a member of the con- 
gregational church under Christopher ^lar- 
shal {d, February 1074, aged 59), meetmg 
in the parish church of WoodchuTich (other- 
wise West Ardsley), also at Ilorbury (where 
Marshal had property), both near Wake- 
field. He became a quaker during the 
visit of George Fox (1624-1691) fq. v.] 
to Wakefield in 1651. Some time after he 
had left the independents he was excom- 
municated by Marshal's church. Earlv in 
1652 Fox attempted to preach to the inde- 
pendents in the * steeple-house ' at Wood- 
church, but was forcibly ejected. Hence 
Nayler's letter (1654 ?) ' To the Independent 
Society ' ( Collection j^^. 697 seq.), in which he 
denies their church standing. This church 
afterwards met at Topcliffe, near Wakefield. 
Miall represents Nayler as expelled from the 
Topcliffe church on a charge of adultery, and 
says that, removing to London, he became a 
member of the baptist church under Han- 
serd Knollys [q. v. J, from which also he was 
expelled. The Topclifl'e records, to which 
Miall refers, do not begin till 15 Feb. 1653-4. 
His real source is Scatcherd ; and Scatcherd 
relies upon Deacon, who, on Marshal's autho- 
rity ana that of his church, tells a gossiping 
story of Nayler's familiarity with one 3lrs. 
Roper, whoso husband was at sea, whence 
arose suspicions of incontinence. 

Nayler was ploughing when he became 
convinced of a call to the travelling ministr\'. 
Not immediately obeying it he fell ill ; re- 
covering, he left home suddenly (1652) with- 
out leave-taking, and took his journey towards 
Westmoreland. At Swarthmoor Hall, Lan- 
cashire, he found Fox, who introduced him 
to Margaret Fell [q. vj He accompanied 
Fox on a mission t^ Walney, Lancashire, 
and was present at Fox's trial at Lancaster^ 
of which he wrote an account on 30 Oct. 
1652. At Orton, Westmoreland, he was 
arrested for preaching unsound doctrine. 
He had maintained against Francis Higgin- 
8on (1587-1680) [q v.], vicar of Kirkby Ste- 




phen, Westmoreland, that the body of the 
risen Christ is not fleshly, but spiritual. He 
was carried to Kirkby Stephen, where Francis 
Howgill was arrested, and the two were sent 
next day to Appleby. He was tried at the 
Appleby sessions in January 1653 by Anthony 
I'earson [q. v.], who became a quaker, and 
other justices, for the blasphemy of alleffing 
that * Christ was in him, and remitted to 
prison for about twenty weeks. Margaret 
Fell ' sent him 2/., he took but 6s,* She also 
despatched (18 Feb. IO^jS) his tract, * Spi- 
ritual Wickednesse,' with some others, to her 
husband in London, to be printed. This 
appears to be the first batch of quaker tracts 
that was sent to press, llegaining his liberty, 
Nayler resumed preaching in the north. He 
went to London early in 1655, and soon 
became famous for a fervid oratory, rich in 
pathos, and with more cohesion of matter 
than was common in quaker appeals at that 
period. In July 1655 he held a public dis- 

{)utation in one of the separatist meeting- 
louses (possibly that of Ilanserd KnoUys) ; 
in November he addressed ' a meeting at the 
house of Lady Darcy,' when several of the 
nobility and presbyterian clergy, and Sir 
Harry Vane, were present. Meanwhile he 
had been holding successful meetings with 
Fox in Derbyshire, and had engaged in a 
discussion at Chesterfield with John Coope 
the vicar. 

He was idolised by the quaker women, and 
their enthusiasm turned his head. Quaker- 
ism had not yet emerged from its ranter 
stage; Fox's discipline was as yet only in 
course of gradual formation. Nayler was a 
man of striking appearance. The arrange- 
ment of his hair and beard aided the fancv of 
those who saw m his countenance a resem- 
blance to the common portraits of Christ. 
Foremost among his devoted followers was 
Martha, sister of Giles Calvert, the well- 
known publisher, and wife of Thomas Sim- 
mons, or Simmonds, a printer. Early in 
1 C56 she proposed (in his absence) that Nayler 
be set at the head of the London mission. 
Tlie women's meetings were not yet esta- 
blished ; but Martha Simmons and her 
friends rebelled against Edward Burrough 
[q. v.] and Howgill, and were rebuked for 
disturbing meetings. They went to Nayler 
with their grievance ; he declined to support 
them against Burrough and Howgill, but 
was overcome by their passionate tears, and 
put himself into their hands. 

Fox was at this time imprisoned in Laun- 
ceston gaol, Cornwall. Nayler's connection 
with him had been very close. He was Fox's 
senior by about seven years. During the first 
three years (1653>5) of Fox's authorship 

Nayler had joined him in the production 
of tracts, and Fox had greatly encouraged 
Nayler's preaching and disputations. At this 
crisis Nayler set out for Launceston to see 
Fox. His * company ' went with him, making 
a sort of triumphalprogress through the west 
of England. At Bristol they created a dis- 
turbance, and thence moved on to Exeter, 
where in June Nayler and others were thrown 
into gaol by the authorities. 

Keleased from Launceston gaol (13 Sept. 
1656), Fox made his way to Exeter, and on 
the Saturday night (20 Sept.) of his arrival 
visited Nayler. He at once perceived that 
Nayler * was out and wrong, and so was his 
company.' Next day Fox held a meeting in 
the prison ; Nayler did not attend it. On 
the Monday he saw Nayler again, and found 
him obstinate, but anxious to be friendly. 
Fox, however, refused his parting salutation. 
* After I had been warring with the world,* 
he writes, * there was now a wicked spirit 
risen up among Friends to war against.' He 
wrote two strong letters to Nayler, warning 
him * it will be harder for thee to set down 
thy rude company than it was to set them 
up.' But a series of extravagant letters 
reached Nayler from London. John Stranger, 
a combmaker, wrote (17 Oct.), * Thy name is 
no more to be called James, but Jesus.' 
Thomas Simmons styled him * the lamb of 
God.' His followers came to Exeter in in- 
creasing numbers just before his discharge 
from gaol. Three women, Hannah Stranger 
(wife of John), Martha Simmons, and Dorcas 
Erbury of Bristol, widow of William Erbury 

iq. v.], kneeled before him in the prison and 
[issed his feet. Dorcas Erbury claimed that 
he had raised her from the dead ; she had 
been two days dead, when he laid his hands 
on her head in Exeter gaol, saying, * Dorcas, 
arise.' In ranter language this merely meant 
that he had revived her spirits. Vague 
charges of immorality with these women are 
made in the gossip of the period, but they 
rest on no evidence. 

Set free from Exeter gaol, Nayler returned 
with his following to Bristol. At Glaston- 
bury and Wells garments were strewed on the 
way. On 24 Oct. 1656, amid pouring rain, he 
rode into Bristol at the Redcliffb gate, Timo- 
thy Wedlock (Sewel calls him Thomas Wood- 
cock), a Devonshire man,preceding him bare- 
headed, the women Simmons and Stranger 
leading his horse, and a concourse of ad- 
herents singing hosannas, and crying ' Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God of IsraeL' Julian 
Widgerley was the only quaker who remon- 
strated. They made for the White Hart in 
Broad Street. Nicholas Fox was the land- 
lord, and it was the property of Dennis 





HoUiftter (d. 13 July 1676) and Heniy Row, 
both leading ouakers. The magistrates at 
once arrested ?^'ayler and seven of his fol- 
lowing. Among" them was 'Rob. Crab/ 
not improbably Roger Crab [q. v.] the 
hermit ; he was discharged with another on 
,S1 Oct. Tlie rest were forwarded to Lon- 
<lon on 10 Nov., to be examined by the 
UoiiM' of Commons on the report of llobert 
Aldworth, town clerk of Bristol, and one of 
t ho members for that city. They were not 
^nt to prison, but kept under guard at an 
inn, where they received numerous visitors, 
Aud the homage of kneeling was repeated by 
Sarah Hlackbury and others. 

On 15 Nov. they were brought before a 

4*ommittee (appointed 31 Oct.) of fifty-five 

members of the commons in the painted 

chanibiT, Thomas Bampfield [q. v.l, recorder 

o( Kxeter, being the chairman. After four 

nit tings the committee reported to the house 

on 5 l)ec. The report mentioned the Roper 

business in a review of Nayler's life, lie 

diallcngi'd a full inquiry into his past cha- 

mot(*r ; no witnesses were examined on oath. 

'Na\ler whh brought up at the bar of the 

lu»u»»» on Dec, and adjudged, on 8 Dec, 

^'uilty of* horrid blasphemy.' The blasphemy 

wai« Vonstructive; Chalmers observes that 

4t dot'H not unpeiir that he uttered any words 

at 111! i» t'»^' nicriminated transaction. Under 

oxHUiiiiiition ho maintained that the honours 

hitd been pnid not to IiimHelf, but to * Christ 

xvithin'him. Tet it ions ur^ring severity against 

oUrtKiTH wen* pn'Monted from several English 

l«ount iiH. I''or Hoven days the house debated 

whet ht»r t he sentence should be made capital; 

\\ was earritnl in tho negative by ninety-six 

xx»teH to lughty-two on 16 Dec, when the 

follow ing in^t^nious substitute was devised 

t!v the legislaluri\ On 18 Dec Nayler was 

4x« Ih* |»illoritHl for two hours in New Palace 

\a\>l. and then whipped by the hangman to 

lUe I'Xohange. ( )n 20 Dec he was to be pil- 

I wuul for two hours at the Exchange, his 

t'xiKcue pienMMl with a hot iron, and the letter 

n vtor bliiHplienier) branded on his forehead. 

Vrtov\>*r«ls he was to be taken to Bristol by 

A I *herirts of London, ridden through the 
i\ with his face to the horsetail, and then 

II isuivt^vwl back to London, and kept m 
T^Agiff ^1 during tlie pleasure of parliament, 
^ktfd WmI •oUtary labour, without use of 

li hU food to be dependent on the 
* \li earnings by labour. Nayler 

a I to receive this sentonce on 
d he did not know his offence. 
'f|l0ina8 Widdrin|]rron, told him 
irhUnirence by his punishment. 
I pilloried and whipped on 

1 8 Dec. He was left in such a mangled state 
that on the morning of 20 Dec. a petition for 
reprieve was presented to parliament by out- 
siders, and a respite granted till 27 Dec. On 
23 Dec. a petition, headed by Colonel Scrope, 
sometime governor of Bristol, for remission 
of the remaining sentence, was presented to 
parliament by Joshua Spri^, ibrmerly an 
independent minister. Parliament sent five 
divines (Caryl, Manton, Nye, Griffith, and 
Reynolds) to confer with Nayler, who de- 
fended the action of his followers by scrip- 
ture. The petition was followed up by an 
address to C^mwell, who on 25 Dec. wrote 
to the speaker, asking for the reasons of the 
house's procedure. A debate (26, 27, 30 Dec.) 
on this letter was adjourned to 2 Jan. and 
then dropped. It was a moot point whether 
the existing parliament had power to act as 
a judicatory. Meanwhile Nayler was sub- 
jected to the second part of his punishment 
on 27 Dec, when Robert Rich {d, 17 Nov. 
1679), a quaker merchant (who had appealed 
to parliament on 15 Dec.^ stood beside him 
on the pillory, and placea a placard over his 
head, with the wonis, * This is the king of 
the Jews.* An officer tore it down. Nayler 
'put out his tongue very willingly,* says 
Burton, * but shridced a little when the iron 
came upon his forehead. He was pale when 
he came out of the pillory, but high-coloured 
after tongue-boring.' * Rich . . . cried, stroked 
his hair and face, kissed Nayler's hand, and 
strove to suck the tire out of his forehead/ 
The Bristol part of the sentence was carried 
out on 17 Jan. 1657, amid a crowd of Nayler's 
sympathisers, Rich riding in front bareheaded, 
singing ' Holy, holy,' &c. Nayler was again 
immured (23 Jan.) in Bridewell, to which 
his associates had been sent. On 29 Jan. the 
governors of Bridewell were allowed to give 
his wife access to him ; and on 26 May, owing 
to the state of his health, a * keeper ' was 
assigned to him. After a time pen and ink 
were allowed him, and he wrot« a contrite 
letter to the London Friends. He fell ill in 
1658. Cromwell in August sent William 
Malyn to report upon him, but Cromwell's 
I death occurred shortly after (3 Sept.) Not 
till 8 Sept. 1659 was Nayler released from 
prison on the speaker's warrant. 

He came out sobered and penitent. His 
first act was to publish a short tract, * Glory 
to God Almighty' [1659], 4to, and then he 
repaired to George Fox, who was at Reading 
and ill. He was not allowed to see him, but 
subsequently Fox sanctioned his return to 
mission work. He went on to Bristol, and 
there made public confession of his offi^nce. 
Early in 1660 (so Whitehead's date, 1657, a 
misprint for 1659, may be read, in modern 

Nayler 133 Nayler 

reckoning) he was preaching with George For a defence of his special mysticism, see 

AVhitehead [q. v.] in Westmoreland. Some- his * Satans Design Discovered,' 1666, 4to. 

what later ne lodged with Whitehead in A full bibliography of hispublications is 

Watling Street, London. given in Smith's ' Catalo^e ofRriends' Books/ 

In the autumn of 1660 he left London in 1867,ii.2168eq. His writings fell into neglect^ 

ill-health, intending to return on foot to his but an admirable * Collection' of them (omit- 

family in Yorkshire. A friend who saw him ting his controversial pieces of 1666-6) wa8> 

sitting by the wayside near Hertford offered edited, 1716, 4to, by Whitehead, with an 

him hospitality, but he pressed on. A few 'Impartial Account 'of his career. His* How 

miles north of Huntingdon he sank exhausted, Sin is Strengthened, and how it is Overcome,' 

and was robbed by footpads. A rustic, find- &c., 1657, 4to, one of the many tracts written 

ing him in a field, took him to the house of during his long imprisonment, has been very 

a quaker at Holme, near King's Ripton, frequently reprinted ; the last edition, 1860,, 

Huntingdonshire. Here he was visited by is edited by W. B. Sissison, who reprinted 

Thomas Pamel, a quaker physician. He died another of his tracts in the same year. His 

in October 1600, aged about 43, and was ' Last Testimony,' beginning * I'here is a 

buried on 21 Oct. in Pamel's grave in the Spirit which I feel,' has often been cited for 

Friends' burying-ground (now an orchard) the purity of its pathos. Bernard Barton 

at King's Kipton. He left a widow and [q.v.J paraphrased it (1824) in stanzas which 

children. The Wakefield parish register are not so poetic as the original prose, 
records the baptisms of Mary (28 March 

1640), Jane (8 May 1641), and Sarah [ABrief Account of James Nayler, the Quaker, 

(26 March 1643), children of James Naylor. 1656 (published iinth the authority of parlia- 

A Joseph Naylor of Ardsley was a prominent "if °^); ^^.^^ « ^£?°f . ^'"P^.^^.^^^l^"?^- 
local quaker in 1689-94. A small contem- 1656 (repnnted jn Harleian Miscellany 1810, 
^ • * i»i- -^u 4.1 -n I,' ^ vol. VI.); Deacon 8 Exact History, 1657; A True 
porary print of him, with the B on his fore- Narrative of the. . .TryaU, &! 1667 (by Fox, 
Lead, IS reproduced in Epl^im Pagitt s rj^j,^ ^^^ willism Tomlinson) ; A Trie Rela- 
'Heresiography, ed. 1661. l^rona this his tion ofthe Life, &c., 1657 (frontispiece) ; Grigge's 
ortrait was painted and engraved by Francis The Quaker's Jesus, 1658 (answered in Rab- 
lace (d. 1728). Later engravings are by shakeh's Outrage Reproved, 1668) ; Blome's 
T. IVeston and Grave. A small engraving Fanatick History, 1660 (answered by Richard 
was published (1823) by W. Dalton. Hubberthom [q. v.] and Nayler in A Short 
Richard Baxter [q. v.], in his account of Answer, 1660) ; Wharton's Gesta Britannorum, 
the Quakers {ReliquicB Ba.rtenan€B, 1696, i. 1667 ; George Fox's Journal, 1694, pp. 64, 70„ 
77), does not mention Fox, and specifies 167, 220»; Croese's Historia Quakenana, 1696, 
Nayler as * their chief leader' prior to Penn. PP- 1^9 seq. ; Whitehead's Impartial Accounts 
It seems probable that the authorities shared ^716 ; Memoirs of the Life, &c. 1719 (by an ad- 
Baxter's mistake, and supposed that in crush- ^\^^^ ^""^ T^^^'^^l °°^ ,^0!"^" Vo .®®'^®^ * 
ing Nayler they were suppressing quakerism. ^f^^l ^/, ^^^^"*^«"^ 726. pp. 134 seq , 
nrP -^ .' 1 *• • '^^^rxT r ^ J « * Salmon 8 Chronological Histonan, 1733, p. 130; 
The emotional mysticism of Nayler s devotes 3^^^^,^ ^ife. &c, 1800 ; State Triah, (Cobbett) 
was one of the untrained forces, active in the j gio, v. 801 seq. (from the Commons' Journals ; 
religious field, and antenor to quakerism ^^^^ ^^^ argument of Bulstrode Whitelocka 
proper. To Fox, m his early career, was against the capital penalty); Hughson's (i.e. Ed- 
addressed language as exalted as any that ward Pugh's) Life, &c., 1814, also in M. Aikin's 
was offered to Nayler (see Leslie, Snake in (i.e. Edward Pugh's) Memoirs of Religious Im- 
<^tf (?ra^«,1698,pp. 369seq. ; BuGG,Pr7ynW« posters (sic), 1821; Tuke's Life, &c., 1815; 
Progress^ 1700, pp. 45 seq.) With very little Chalmers's General Biog. Diet. 181 6,xxiii. 37 seq.; 


would have gone as far as Hannah Stranger. PP- 205 seq. ; Webh^s Fells of Swarthmoor Hall, 

dupe, lie exuibits notliing 01 it m nis own Be^^/wells and Cbalkley°s Bio^. Cai." 1888 

writings, which for depth of thought and pp. 459 seq.; Turner's Quakers, 1889, pp. 113 seq.; 

beauty of expression deserve a plwse m the f^^^ g^jth^g gteven Crisp and his Cori- 

first rank of quaker hterature. His contro- gpoudents. 1892, pp. 60 seq. (portrait) ; infor- 

versial pamphlets compare favourably, in mation from D. Travers Burges, ewj., town 

their restraint of tone, with those of many of clerk, Bristol, and the Rev. E. Greene, rector of 

bis coadjutors. Some of his other pieces bear King^s Ripton ; extracts from the parish register, 

the stamp of spiritual genius of a nigh order. Wakefield Cathedxal] A. G. 




1815), author. [See Harb-Natlob.] 

NEADE, WILLIAM (/. 1625), archer 
and inventor, began experiments in James 1*8 
reign with a * warlike invention of the bow 
and the pike,' a simple arrangement by which 
a bow could be attached to a movable pivot 
in the middle of the pike, thus making a com- 
bined weapon for ofi^nce or for close quarters. 
In 1624 he exhibited his invention before the 
king in St. James's Park, and the Honourable 
Artillerv Company soon afterwards made 
trial 01 it (Double-armed Mcmne, Epistle 
Ded.) In July 1683 {State Papers, Dom. 
ccxliii. 70) he petitioned the council to ap- 
prove 'a direction for a commission to 
authorise the inventor to teach the service 
and for a proclamation to command the 
general exercise thereof.' On 12 Aug. follow- 
ing (Record Office, Collection of Proclama- 
tions, Car. I, No. 106) the proclamation was 
issued at Oatlands, and five days later a com- 
mission was given toNeadeand his son Wil- 
liam to instruct lieutenants of counties and 
justices of the peace in the exercise. The 
specification of the patent which was granted 
to Neade in the lollowing year (16 May, 
Patent Specifications, 1634, No. 69) recites 
that he had spent many years in practising 
the weapon. In 163o and again in 1637 
Neade informed the king that he had laid 
out his whole estate of 600/. on his inven- , 
tion, * but by tlie evil example of the city of j 
London the service is now wholly neglected,' 
although three hundred of the Artillery Com- 
pany had given an exhibition of the weapon 
m action before King Charles in St. James's 
Park. The council seems to have meditated 
some fresh concussions to Neade, but no 
further reference to the matter exists {State 
Papers, Dom. May 1637). 

Neade wrote : * The l)ouble-armed Man, 
by the New Invention, briefly showing some 
Famous Exploits achieved by our British 
Bowmen, with several Portraitures proper 
for the Pike nnd Bow,' Ivondon, 1025 (Brit. 
Mas.), with six plates, which have all been 
reproduced in Grose's * Military Antiquities.' 
Ward, in his * Animadversions of Warre,' 
1639, gives an engraving of a similar weapon, 
end Captain Venn, in his * Military Observa- 
tions,' 1672, strongly recommends * the gal- 
lant invention of the Half Pike.' 

[Hewitt's Ancient Armour in Europe, Supple- 
ment, p. 705 ; Grose's Military Antiquities, i. 
354; Ward's .Animadversions of Warre ; Venn's 
Military Observations; Specifications of Patents, 
1634, No. 69; State Papers, Dom. ubi supra; 
Epistlo Dedicatory to Neade's Tract; Cat. of 
Ilutli Library, iii. 1020-1; Lowndes's Biblio- 
graphical Manual.] W. A. S. 

NEAGLE, JAMES (1760P-1822), en- 
graver, is said to have been bom about 1760 ; 
he worked with ability in the line manner, con- 
fining himself almost entirely to book illus- 
trations, of which he executed a very large 
number, from designs by Stothard, Smirke, 
Fuseli, Hamilton, Singleton, R. Cook, and 
other popular artists. They include plates 
to BoydelFs and other editions of Snake- 
speare ; Sharpe's and Cooke's ,* Classics,' For- 
ster's ' Arabian Nights,* 1802 ; * Gil Bias,' 
1809 ; * Ancient Terra- Cottas in the British 
Museum,' 1810 ; and Murphy's * Arabian 
Antiquities of Spain,' 1816. Neagle's most 
important work is * The Royal Procession in 
St. Paul's on St. George's Day, 1789,' from a 
drawing by E. Dayes. In 1801, in the action 
brought by Delattre the engraver against J. S. 
Copley, R.A., to recover the price of a plate 
made from the latter's * Death of Chatham,' 
Neagle was a witness for the plaintiff. To- 
wards the end of his life he emigrated to 
AjDaerica, and, according to a statement on a 
crayon portrait of him in the print room of 
the British Museum, died there in 1822. He 
had a son, John B. Neagle, who practised as 
an engraver in Philadelphia until his death 
in 1866. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists : Dodd's manu- 
script Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 33403) ; Baker's American Engravers 
and their Works, 1876.] F. M. O'D. 

NEAL. [See also Tseale, Neile, and 

NEAL, DANIEL (1678-1743), historian 
of the puritans, was born in London on 14 Dec. 
1678. His parents dying when he was very 
young, he, the only surviving son, was brought 
up by a maternal uncle, to whose care he 
frequently in after life expressed himself as 
deeply indebted. On 11 Sept. 1680 he was 
sent to the Merchant Taylors' School, and 
became head scholar there. Thence he 
might have proceeded as exhibitioner to St. 
John's College, Oxford, but he declined the 
oifer, preferring to be educated for the dis- 
senting ministry. About 1696 he entered 
a training college for the ministry in Little 
Britain, presided over by the Rev. Thomas 
Rowe, to which Isaac Watts, Josiah Hort 
(afterwards archbishop of Tuam), and other 
distinguished men were indebted for their 
more advanced education. According to a 
family tradition, Neal was honoured at this 
time by the notice of William III, and was 
even allowed to use a private entrance into 
Kensington Palace in order to gain admit- 
tance with less ceremony. If such were the 
case, it may possibly have some connection 
with Neal*8 subsequent visit to Holland, 




w^hither be went about 1699, studying first 
at Utrecbt for two years, in tbe classes of 
D'Uries, Grsevius, and Burman, and subse- 
quently for one year at Leyden. In 1703 be 
returned to England in company with two 
fellow students, Martin Tomkins [q. v.] and 
Nathaniel Lardner [q. x.j In 1704 be Avas 
appointed to act as assistant to Dr. John 
Sinffleton, pastor of an independent congre- 
gation in Aldersgato Street, and on Single- 
Con's death was elected to succeed him, being 
ordained at Loriner's Hull on 4 July 1706. 
The congregation, increasing considerably 
under his ministrations, removed to a larger 
chapel in Jewin Street, and this became bis 
sphere of labour for life. He was at once an 
indefatigable minister and student, preaching 
regularly twice on each Sunday, and visiting 
the members of his tiock two or three after- 
noons every week, while all the time he 
could spare from these duties was devoted to 
literary research. In 17:^0 he published his 
first work, the * History of New England,* and 
the favourable impression produced by the 
volume in America led to liis receiving in 
the following year, from the university of 
Harvard, the honorary degree of M.A., * the 
highest academical degree they were able to 
confer.* In the same year he published * A 
Letter to the He v. Dr. Francis Hare, dean of 
Worcester, occasioned by his Keflections on 
the Dissenters in his late Visitation Sermon 
and Postscript.' In 1722 Ladv Mary Wort- 
ley Montagu [q. \.] was entleavouring to 
introduce the practice of inoculation into this 
country, but her eflurts were strongly con- 
demned by the majority of the medical pro- 
fession, as Avell ns by the clergy, and popular 
prejudice generally was roused to vehement 
opposition. Neal, however, had the courage 
to publish * A Narrative of the Method and 
Success of Inoculating the Small Pox in New 
England, by Mr. Benj. Colman; with a Re- 
ply to the Objections made against it from 
Principles of Conscience, in a l^etter from a 
Minister at Boston. To which is prefixed an 
Historical Introduction.' The* Introduction' 
"was from Neal's own pen, and in it he mo- 
destly disclaims all idea of dogmatising on 
the question, declaring that he has only * acted 
the part of an historian 'in order that the world 
mignt be enabled to judge * whether inocula- 
tion would prove serviceable or prejudicial to 
the service of mankind.' On the appearance 
of the volume, the Princess Caroline sent for 
him in order to obtain further information 
on the subject. He was received by her in 
her closet, where he found her reading Foxes 
* Martyrology.' The princess made inquiries 
respecting the state of the dissenting body in 
£ngland, and of religion generally in New 

England. The Prince of Wales also dropped 
in for a quarter of an hour. On 1 Jan. 1723, 
Neal preached at the request of the managers 
of the Charity School in Gravel Lane, South- 
wark, a sermon (Job xxix. 12-13), on ' The 
Method of Education in the Charity Schools of 
Protestant Dissenters : with the Advantages 
that arise to the Public from them.' The school 
in Gravel Lane is said to have been the first 
founded by the dissenting body. It num- 
bered over one hundred children, who were 
taught gratuitously and instructed in reading 
and arithmetic and the assembly's catechism. 
They were required to attend public worship 
on Sundays. Neal urged on his audience 
that the surest foundation of the public weal 
Avas laid in the good education of children. In 
1730 he preached (2 Thess. iii. 1 ) on • The Duty 
of l*raymg for Ministers and the Success of 
their Ministry.' In his discourse he said, ' Let 
ns pray that all penal laws for religion may 
be taken away, and that no civil discourage- 
ments may be upon Christians of any denomi- 
nation for the peaceable profession of their 
faith, but that the Gospel may have free 
course.' In 1732 the first volume of the 

* History of the Puritans ' was published. The 
work originated in a project formed by Dr. 
John Evans [q. v.] of writing a history of 
nonconformity from the Kelbrmation down 
to 1(J40, Neal undertaking to continue the 
narrative from that date, and to bring it 
down to the Act of Uniformity. Dr. Evans 
dying in 1730, Neal found it necessary him- 
self to write the earlier portion, and in doing 
so utilised the large collections which Evans 
had already made. The first volume was 
favourably received by the dissenting public, 
and was followed in 1733 by the second. 
The third appeared in 1730, and was followed 
in 1738 by tlie fourth, bringing the narrative 
down to the Act of Toleration (1(389). The 
whole work was warmly praised by Neal's 
party, but his occasionally serious misrepre- 
sentation or suppression of facts did not pass 
unchallenged. Isaac Maddox [q. v.1, after- 
wards bishop of St. Asaph, ])ublished m 1733 
*AVindication of the Doctrine, Discipline, and 
Worship of the Church of England, esta- 
blished in the lleign of Queen Elizabeth, from 
the Injurious Keflections of Mr. Neal's first 
Volume of the Ilistorv of the Puritans.' Neal 
replied in *A Review of the Principal Facts 
objected to in the first Volume of the History 
of the Puritans,' and his party claimed that 
he had completely vindicated himself, and 

* established his character for an impartial 
regard to truth.* A far more formidable 
criticism, however, was that which proceeded 
from the pen of Zacharj- Grey [q. v.], who in 
1730, 1737, and 1739, published a searching 

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'•-..-. •-..•. 

Neal .; 

1590, but whether at Casiington or Yeate is 
uncertain (see his epitaph as put up hy hiin- 
sKlf inCofSington church during his liletimci 
IltiAKKB, Di'diee/l). 

Neal isr^ardedas the ultimate authority 
for the ' Nat's Head Storv.' But the slate- 
mentB that Bonner sent him to Uishop An- 
thony Kitchin [q. v.] to dissuade hiin from 
aasifltiug in the consecration of Parker, and 
that he was present at the pretended ixk- 
jnony at the ^ag's Head, rest on the doubtful 
assertion of Pile. 

Neol's works are : 1. ' Dialocus in ad- 
Tentum sereniasimiB Keginte Elizabethte 
eratiUatorius inter eandem Ileginom et U. 
Jlob. Dudleium comitem Leicestrim et Acad. 
Ox. cancellarium ' (Tanner speaks of this as 
' Gmtulationem Hebraicam'), together with 

* Collegioruni scholarumque publicarum Ac. 
Oi. Tnpogmphica dellneatio,' being verBes 
-written to accompany drawings of the col- 
leges and public schools of Oxford by John 
Bearblock [q. v.] Xeal's work was first 
printed imperfectly by Miles Windsor in 

* Acodemiarum Cntalogus,' London, 1590; re- 
printed by Heame, Oxford, 1713, at the end 
of his edition of Dodwellde Parma Equestri ; ' 
also by Nichols in his ' Protases of 
Elizabeth,' i. 225; by the Oxford Historical 
Society (vol. viii.), and reproduced in fac- 
simile, Oxford, 1882 (cf. Wood, Athene 
Ojron. i. 576). 2. ' Commentarii Kabbi Davidia 
KJmhi in Haggatum, Zachariam, et Ma- 
lachiam prophetea ex Hebraico idiomate in 
Latiiium sermonem Iraducti,' Paris, 1557, 
dedicated to Cardinal Pole. Tanner also as- 
signs to Neal : 3. A translation ' of uU the 
Prophets' out of the Hebrew. 4. A trans- 
lation of ' Commentani Kabbi Davidis Kimhi 
euper Hoseam, Joelem, Amos, Abdeam, Mi- 
cheam, Nabum, Habacuc, et Sophoniam' 
(dedicated to Queen EliMbeth). Tanner 
quotes this and No. 5 thus: 'Mlj.Ribl. Reg. 
"vVestmon. ^ D. xxi.' 6. 'RabbiniciB qusdara 
obsen'ationcs ex prtedictis commentariis ' 
(possiblv identical with, although Tanner 
distinctly separates it from, 'lireves quiedam 
observatioiies in eosdem prophetea partim ex 
Ilieronymo partim ex aliis probatte fidei nu- 
thoribuB deeerpta).' Tlie latter is appended 
to No. 'J aboTe. 

S Wood's AtheDR Oion. i. &TS, ot passim; Fii<<Ii, 
Hiat.BDd Anliq. of Oiford; Oxford Univ. 
Pi'gisters ; Kirby'e Winrhester Scholnrs, p. 
]17; Plommer's Elizabethan Oiford (Oxford 
Hist. Sac.); HeaTDo's Kemnins, ii. 19a, and 
his edition of Dodwell de Parma Equfslri (con- 
tnins A life of Neal by Haame, bnspd on Woo*]); 
State Papers, Dom. lfi47-80 ; Hisl. MSS. Com. 
4th Rep, p. 217 a; Le Neve's Fasti ; Strype's 
AiiiiaU,i.i.48; Tnnnvr'iBibl.Brit.; Pits,Ds il- ' 

7 Neale 

Instribufl Angliff Scrijitoribus; John Bearlilock'a 

Oxfotd, 1729 ; Fuller's Chiireh History, ii. 367, 
W. 290, and Worthips, i. 334 ; Foster's Aluinni 
Uxon.; Watt's Bill. Brit.; Lunsdowne MS. 982, 
f. 160; Hurl. MS. 168, f. 20; information from 
the itor. G, Moutagu, rector of Thanford.l 

W. A. a. 

NEALE, ADAM, M.D. (d. 1832), army 
physician and author, was bom in Scotland 
and educated in Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.D. on IS Sept. 1802, his thesis 
being published as 'Dispulatio de Acido Ni- 
tricD,' 8vo, Edinburgh. He was admitted & 
licentiate of the Koyal College of Physicians, 
Ixindon, on 25 June 1806, and during the 
Peninsular war acted as physician to the 
forces, being ako one of the physicians extra- 
ordinary to the Duke of Kent. In 1809 be 
published, in ' Letters from Portugal and 
Spain,' an interesting account of the opera- 
lions of the armies under Sir John Moore 
and Sir Arthur Weilesley, from the landing 
of the troops in Mondego Bay to the battle 
of Comiia. Neale subsaquentlj visited fler- 
many, Poland, Moldavia, and Turkey, where 
he was physician to the Ilritish embassy at 
Constantinople, and in I6I8gBve lothe public 
a description of his tour in 'Travels through 
some parts of Germany, Poland, Moldavia, 
and Turkey,' 4to, London, 1818, with fifteen 
coloured plates. About 1814 he settled at 
Exeter, but removed to Cheltenham in 1820. 
There he attempted to attract notice by pub- 
lishing a pamphlet in which be cost a doubt 
on the genuineness of the waters as served 

in the University of Edinburgh respecting 
the Nature and Properties of the Mineral 
Waters of Cheltenham,' 8vo, Ixindon, 1820. 
This discreditable pamphlet was soberly an- 
swered by Dr. Thomas Jameson of Chelten- 
ham, in 'A Kefutation,' &c., and more cate- 
gorically in 'Fact versus Assertion,' by Wil- 
liam Ilenrv Halpin the younger, and in * A 
Letter' by'Thomas Newell. The controversy 
was ended hy a satirical pamphlet entitled 
' Hints to a Physician on the opening of hi» 
Medical Career at Cheltenham, 8vo, Stroud, 
1820. As the result of these tactics, Keale 
was obliged in a few months to return to 
Exeter. In 1834 he was an unsuccessful 

went to London, and resided for s 

at 58 Guilford Street, Uussell Square, but 

died ht Dnukirk od 22 Dec. 1833. His aoii% 




Erekine and William Johnson Neale, are 
noticed separately. 

Neale, who was fellow of the Linnean 
Society, published, besides the works men- 
tioned: 1. 'The Spanish Campaign of 1808,' 
contributed to Yol. xxvii. of * Constable's 
Miscellany,' 18mo, Edinbui^h, 1828, which 
is entitled * Memorials of the late War,' 2 

?art«. 2. * Researches respecting the Natural 
listory. Chemical Analysis, and Medicinal 
Virtues of the Spur or Ergot of Rye when ad- 
ministered as a Remedy in certain bt ates of the 
Uterus,' 8vo, London, 1828. 3. ' Researches 
to establish the Truth of the Linnsean Doc- 
trine of Animal Contagions,' &c., 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1831. He also translated from the 
Erench of Paolo Assalini * Observations on 
. . the Plague, the Dysentery, the Ophthal- 
my of Egypt,' &c., 12mo, London, 1804. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, iii. 37-8; Gent. 
Mag. 1833 i. 191; Cat. of Advocates' Library at 
Edinburgh.] G. G. 


(1810-1892), Christian socialist and co-opera- 
tor, of Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, and of Alles- 
ley Park, Warwickshire, was the only son of 
Edward Vansittart, LL.B., rector of Taplow, 
Buckinghamshire, by his second wife, Anne, 
second surviving daughter of Isaac Spooner 
of Elmdon, near Birmingham. The father 
took thesumameNeale in compliance with the 
will of Mary, widow of Colonel John Neale of 
AUesley Park. George Vansittart of Bisham 
Abbey was Xeale*s paternal grandfather. 
Bom "at Bath in the house of liis maternal 
grandfather, Isaac Spooner, on 2 April 1810, 
he was educated at home until he matricu- 
lated at Oriel College, Oxford, on 14 Dec. 
1827. After graduating B.A. in 1831, he 
made a long tour, principally on foot, 
through France, Germany, Italy, and Switz- 
erland, and tlioroughly mastered the lan- 
guages of those countries. He proceeded 
M.A. in 1836, entered at Lincoln s Inn in 
1837, and was called to the bar. * But he was 
too subtle for the judges, and wearied them by 
taking abstruse points which thev could not 
or did not choose to follow ' (.1. M. Ludlow, 
JEconomic Joutmalj December 1892, p. 7o3). 

Keenly interested in social reform, Neale 
had obtained a firm grasp of the theoretical 
bases of the systems of Fourier, St. Simon, 
and other writers. In 1850 his attention 
was attracted by the Working Tailors' As- 
sociation, which was started in February of 
that year by the Society for Promoting 
Working Men's Associations. He became 
acquainted with the work of the Christian 
socialists, and, on the invitation of F. D. 
Maurice, joined the council of promoters. 

' ready to expend capital in the cause, and 
with many new ideas on the subject ' (^Life 
of F. D, Maurice f ii. 75). The efforts of the 
promoters had hitherto been directed to the 
establishment of self-governing workshops 
on the lines of the Paris Associations 
Ou vridres. Neale's accession to their ranks im- 
mediately had an important influence on the 
movement. He desired to try experiments 
in co-operation on a larger scale, and his 
wealth enabled him to realise his wish. He 
founded the first London co-operative stores 
in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Siquare, and ad- 
vanced the capital for two builders' associa- 
tions, both of which ended disastrously, al- 
though the first of them began with a profit 
of 250/. on their contract for Neale's own 
house in Hill Street. So far there had been 
no marked divergence between Neale's views 
and those of the other members of the coun^ 
cil. In 1851, however, on his own initiative, 
and without the direct sanction of the council, 
(Hughes in the Economic Review^ January 
1893, p. 41), he established the Central Co- 
operative Agency, which, so far as the state 
of the law at that time admitted, anticipated 
the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Some 
of the promoters strongly disapproved of this 
experiment. The publication of an address 
to the trade societies of London and the 
United Kingdom, inviting them to support 
the agency as * a legal and financial institu- 
tion tor aiding the formation of stores and 
associations, for buying and selling on their 
behalf, and ultimately for organising credit 
and exchange between them,' brouglit matters 
to a crisis, and an attempt was made, but 
checked by Maurice, to exclude from the 
council both Neale and Hughes, who. with- 
out undertaking anj pecuniary liability, was 
associated with him as co-trustee of the 
agency {ib. p. 42 ; Co-operative News, 1 Oct. 
1892, p. 1103). The promoters and the 
agency continued to work side by side, on the 
understanding that the former were in no 
way pledged to support the latter ; but two 
years later Neale and the agency had ac- 
quired the chief influence in the movement 
{Life ofF. D. Maurue, ii. 75, 220). 

On tlie great lock-out of engineers in 
1852, Neale not only presided at a meeting 
of the metropolitan trades, held at St. Mar- 
tin's Hall on 4 March, in support of the 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers, but 
gave them pecuniary aid. He also published 
* May I not do what I will with my own ? 
Considerations on the present Contest be- 
tween the Operative Engineers and their 
Employers,' London, 1852. When the men 
were forced to return to work on the em- 
ployers' terms, Neale purchased the Atlas 




Ironworks, Southwark, where he established 
several of the leading engineers as a produc- 
tive association. The scheme ended m total 
failure. The Central Co-operative Agency 
was at the same time involved in difficulties, 
and the loss on both schemes fell entirely on 
Neale, who is said to have spent 40,000/. in 
his efforts to promote co-operation {Economic 
Joumalj December 1892, p. 753). From 
this time until he succeeded to the Bisham 
Abbey estate (November 1885) he was a 
poor man ; but failure seemed only to make 
nim cling more tenaciously to the cause of 
co-operation, in which he saw the promise 
of great improvement in the condition of 
the working classes. 

Meanwhile Neale's activity in other direc- 
tions was incessant. lie had already (1850) 
given evidence before the select committee 
on the savings of the middle and working 
classes. When the Industrial and Provi- 
dent Societies Act, which was the outcome 
of the inquiry, led to a great development 
of co-operation, Neale closely associated 
himself with the northern movement. This, 
however, did not prevent him from keeping 
in touch with the Society of Promoters, now 
merged in the Working Men's College, 
where he took a class in political economv for 
two t«rms. He frequently acted as legal ad- 
viser to co-operative societies, which sought 
his aid in the revision of rules for registra- 
tion. Until 1876 he prepared, wholly or 
in part, all the amendments proposed in the 
act of IBo^; the Consolidation Act (1862) 
and the Industrial and Provident Societies 
Act (1876) were almost entirely due to his 
efforts. He was a member of the executive 
committee appointed by the London confer- 
ence of delegates from co-operative societies 
(July 1852), which was the germ of the 
central co-operative board ; and, in addition 
to lectures and pamphlets, he found time to 
write * The Co-operator's Handbook, contain- 
ing the Laws relating to a Companv of 
Limited Liability,' London, 1860, 8vo, which 
he gave to Mr. G. J. Holyoake to publish for 
the use of co-operators, and *The Analogy 
of Thought and Nature Investigated,' Lon- 
don, 1863, 8vo. He also spent some months 
in Calcutta winding up the affairs of a branch 
of the Albert Insurance Company with which 
he had unfortunately been connected. 

In the establishment of the central agency 
Neale had given practical expression to his 
view that associations of producers could be 
best promoted by concentrating the whole- 
sale trade of the coHDperative stores. Natu- 
rally therefore he was keenly interested in 
the formation of the North of England Co- 
operative Wholesale Society (1868), of which 

he drafted the rules for registration. He 
was one of the founders of the Oobden 
Mills in 1866, and of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association in 1867, the ob- 
ject of which was to introduce co-operation 
into agriculture (Social Economist , 1 Nov. 
1868, p. 131). From 1869 he was one of 
the most active promoters of the annual co- 
operative congress. On the establishment 
01 the central board at the Bolton congress 
(1872), he was elected one of the members 
of the London section, a position which he 
held until 1875. When, in that year, WU- 
liam Nuttall resigned the post of general 
secretary to the board, Neale, mainly on the 
suggestion of Mr. G. J. Holyoake, undertook 
to succeed him. That position required the 
exercise of great tact and patience. Some 
of his friends indeed re^rded his ap- 
pointment with anxiety, for it was doubtful 
how far he would be successful as the paid 
servant of working men. He received a 
salary of 250/. a year for his official work, 
acting gratuitously as legal adviser to the 
central board, until 1 878, when his remunera- 
tion was increased to 350/. Devoting him- 
self entirely to his work, he took lodgings 
in Manchester, visiting his family at Hamp- 
stead once a week. His succession to the 
Bisham Abb^ estate made no difference in 
his habits. Though he was for some time 
treated * with a studied disrespect,' long be- 
fore he resigned the secretaryship he had 
completely won the confidence of the work- 
ing classes, who regarded him with reve- 
rence and affection. 

Neale was for seventeen years a director 
of the Co-operative Insurance Company, and 
for sixteen years a member of the committee 
of the Co-operative Newspaper Society. 
Throughout nis life he kept up a large 
correspondence with foreign co-operators, 
and frequently attended the continental 
congresses. In 1875 he visited America, 
with Dr. Rutherford and John Thomas 
of Leeds, on behalf of the Mississippi 
Valley Trading Company, with a view 
to opening up a direct trade between 
the Englisn co-operative stores and the 
farmers of the Western States. A diary of 
this visit was published in the ' Co-opera- 
tive News.' In August 1890 Neale took part 
in a conference at the summer meeting of 
university extension students at Oxford on 
the relation of the university extension move- 
ment to working-class education. He re- 
signed the general secretaryship on 11 Sept. 
1891 , at the age of eighty-one. Even then 
he did not entirely give up work in the 
cause of co-operation. On tne formation of 
the Christian Social Union, he became a 




member of the Oxford University branch 
of that organisation. He wrote an article, 
'Thoughts on Social Problems and their 
Solution/ for the * Economic Review ' (Octo- 
ber 1892), which was passing through the 
press at the time of his death ; and a few 
months before that event he read a paper 
before the ' F. D. M./ a private society, named 
after Frederick Denison Maurice^s initials, on 
* Robert Owen,' which showed no diminution 
of his intellectual powers. He had been for 
some time suffering from a painful malady, 
aggravated by earlier neglect of his own 
health. He died on 16 Sept. 1892, and was 
buried in Bisham churchyard. A ' Vansittart 
Neale' scholarship for the sons of co-opera- 
tors was founded at Oriel College (February 
1890), with the subscriptions of co-operators 
in various parts of the country. 

With rare generosity Neale devoted his 
wealth and energies to co-operation when 
it was a new and struggling movement, 
In his judgment, the two systems of co- 
operation — viz. collective control of pro- 
duction by combinations of consumers, and 
production by self-governing workshops — 
were not mutually exclusive, but comple- 
mentary. The experiments of the Christian 
socialists, in which he took so prominent a 
part, showed that the workshops could not 
stand a]one. On the other hand, although 
Neale was fully alive to the advantages 
which the working classes obtain by becom- 
ing their own shopkeepers, and although he 
himself had initiated the first wholesale 
society — the Central Co-operative Agency, 
such a system of combination among con- 
sumers with a view to their controlling pro- 
duction afforded in his own view no security 
that employds would receive better treat- 
ment from co-operative societies than they 
would under a competitive regime. It was 
his object to raise the condition of the work- 
ing classes in their character of producers. 
When, therefore, the wholesale society un- 
dertook the manufacture of commodities, he 
urged that it was the duty of co-operators 
to grant a share of the profits to the opera- 
tives in their factories, and so take an impor- 
tant step in the direction of what he regarded 
as complete co-operation. He failed, how- 
ever, to convince the wholesale society of 
the desirability of this course. 

Neale married on 14 June 1837, at St. 
George's, Hanover Square, Frances Sarah, 
eldest daughter of James William Farrer, 
master in chancery, of Ingleborough, York- 
shire, and widow of the Hon. John Scott, 
eldest son of John, first lord Eldon, by 
whom he had issue Edward Ernest Van- 
sittart, bom 23 Jan. 1840 ; Henry James Van- 

sittart, bom 30 Nov. 1842, married, 16 April 
1887, Florence, daughter of His Honour 
Judge Shelley Ellis, and has issue George 
and Phyllis; Henrietta Vansittart, married, 
5 Oct. 1864, Henry Dickinson, and died 1879, 
leaving issue ; Constance Vansittart and Edith 

Neale published, in addition to the works 
already mentioned, nineteen pamphlets is- 
sued by the Co-operative Union, model rules 
for societies intending to register, the con- 
gress reports, with prefaces and statistical 
tables, and articles contributed to the ' Co- 
operator,' the 'Co-operative News,' &c. 
1. 'Feasts and Fasts: an Essay on the Rise, 
Progress, and present State of the Laws re- 
lating to Sundays, and other Holidays and 
Daysof Fasting,^ London, 1845,8vo. 2. 'The 
Real Property Acts of 1846 . . . with intro- 
ductory Observations and Notes,' London, 
1846, 8vo. 3. 'Thoughts on the Registration 
of the Title of Land; its Advantages and the 
Means of effecting it,' &c., London, 1849, 
8vo. 4. 'The Characteristic Features of some 
of the principal Systems of Socialism,' Lon- 
don, 1851 , 8vo. 5. ' Genesis critically analysed 
and continuously arranged ; with Introduc- 
tory Remarks,' Ramsgate, 1 869, 8vo. 6. ' Does 
Morality depend on Longevity?' London, 
1871, 8vo. 7. 'The new Bible Commen- 
tary and the Ten Commandments,' London 
[1872], 8vo. 8. ' The Mythical Element in 
Christianity,' London [1873],8vo. 9. ' Reason, 
Religion, and Revelation, London, 1876, 
8vo. 10. ' A Manual for Co-operators. Pre- 
pared at the Request of the Co-operative 
Congress held at Gloucester, April 1879,' 
London, 1881, 8vo, in collaboration with 
Judge Hughes, who wrote the preface. 

[Berry*8 Buckinghamshire Genealogies, p. 53 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 1009 ; 
Honours Register of the University of Oxford ; 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1837, ii. 82 ; Life of 
F. D. Maurice, ii. 75, 167, 220, 232 ; Fumivall's 
Early History of the Working Men's College 
(reprinted from the Working Men's College 
Mag?izine), 1 860 ; Holyoake's History of Co-opera- 
tion, i. 189, ii. 55. 58, 59, 393, 435, his Co-opera- 
tive Movement to-day, pp. 25, 29, 47, 51, 96, 
103, 127, and his Sixty Years of an Agitator's 
Life, 3rd edit. ii. 6; B«itrice Potter's (Mrs. Sid- 
ney Webb) British Co-operative Movement, eh. 
v.; Brentano's Christlich-soziale Bewegung in 
England ; Laveleye's Socialism of To-day (trans- 
lated by G.H. Ophen),p. 302 ; Sidney and Beatrice 
Webb's Hist, of Trade Unionism, pp. 198, 826 ; 
Burke's Landed GenUy, 1894, ii. 2087; Report 
from the Select Committee on the Savings of the 
Middleand Working Classes, 1860, pp. 14, 24, 39, 
40 ; The Christian Socialist, 1850-1 ; The Social 
Economist; Co-operator; Almanach de la Co- 
operation FraD9ai8e, 1892, p. 19 ; Daily Chronicle, 


IS Sept. 1892; Cu-opocaliva News, OBpscially 
the noLicesof Neale by Holvonke. Haghei, nnd 
alhere in tha nunibors for 24 Sept., 1 and 8 Oct. 
1892; Agricultural Eoonomist, Octobsr 1892; 
obiludry notice by J. M. Ludlo* (Economic 
Jonrnul, Decemher 1892, pp. 7fi2-4) ; Hughes's 
Neale as a Chriatlan Socialist (Economic Review, 
January 1893 pp. 38-94, April 18B3 pp. 174, 


W. A. S. H. 

NEALE, ERSKINE (1804-1883), divine 
and author, bom on 12 March 1804, waa son 
of Dr. Adam Neale [q. v.], and brother of 
William Johnson Nealo \a. v.] He waa 
educated at Westminster School 1815-16, 
and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, whore 
he HTBduMedIJ,A. 1828, and M.A. 1832. On 
24 June 1828 he became lecturer of St. Hilda 
Cburch,Jarrow,iD the county of Durbaai,wa3 
appointed Ticar of Adiingfleet, Yorkshire, on 
19 Oct. 1835, rector of Kirton, Suffolk, in 
1tl44, and vicar of Exning with Lanwade, 
Suffolk, in 1S54. lie possessed a very curious 
collection of Hut<igraptis, including n number 
of letters written by the Duke of Kent re- 
ferring to his public life, and elucidating the 
mutiny at Gibraltar. His knowledge of hand- 
writing led to his being aubpcBDaed on the 
part of the crown at the trial of Kyvea v. the 
Attorney-General in June 1866, when it was 
sought without success to establish the claim 
of Sire. Serres, the mother of Mrs. Ryves, to 
be the Priocess Olive of Cumberland. Ha 
died at Eining vicarage on 23 Nov. 1883, 
after an incumbency of twenty-nine years. 

In his day N'eale was a well-known author, 
possessing a ready nnd graphic pen and con- 
siderable stores of information. Ilia chief 
work, 1. 'The Closing Scene, or Christianity 
and Infidelily contrasted in the Last Hours 
of Remarkable Persons' (Istser., 18+8; 2nd 
ser., 1849), ran lo several editions, and was 
reprinted in America; but it is not aworkof 
authority. lie waa also author of: 2. ' The 
Living and the Dead,' 1827 ; 2nd ser., 1829. 
:). * Beaaon for Supporting the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parta,' 
1830. 4. 'Sermons on the Dangers and 
Duties of a Christian,' 1830. 6. ' Whycotte 
of St. John's, or the Court, the Camp, the 
Quarter-Deck, and the Cloister,' 1833, S vols. 
6. 'The Life-Book of a Labourer: Essays,' 
1839: 2nd edit., I860. 7. 'The Bishop's 
Dau^htCT,' 1812; 2nd edit., 1853. 8. 'Setf- 
8ncniice,ortheChancellor'B Chaplain,' 1844; 
2nd edit., 1858. 9. ' Experiences of a Gaol 
Chaplain,' 1847, 3 vols.; three editions: a 
fictitious work. 10. ' The Track of the 
Murderer marked out by an Invisible Hand: 
Reflections suggested by the Case of the 
Mannings,' 1849. 11, ' Scenes where the 
Tempter has triumphed,' 1849. 12. 'The 


Life of Edward, Duke of Kent,' 1850 ; L'nd 
"■ ,1850. 13. 'The Earthly Resting Place 
of the Junt,' 1851. 14, 'The Hiches that 
bring no Sorrow,' 1852. 15. 'The Summer 
and Winter of the Soul,' 1852. 16. ' Risen 
from the Ranks, or Conduct ver»us Caste,' 
i. 17. ' My Comrade and my Colours, or 
Men who know not when they are beaten,' 
1854. 18. • The Old Minor Canon, or a Life 
of Struggle and a Life of Song,' 18-54 ; 2nd 
edit., 1&>8. 10. ' Sunsets and Sunshine, or 
Varied Aspects of Life.' including notices of 
Lola Monte8,Neild,IIone, and Cobbett, 1862. 
[Notes and Qaories, 1885, 6tb ser. xii. 463, 
1888. 7th ear. \. 31, US, 16B ; Men of the Time, 
1872, p. 716.] Q. C. B. 

(1765-1840), admiral, horn on 16 Sept, 1765, 
was the eldest son of Lieutenant-colonel 
WiUiam Burrard (1713-1780), governor of 
Yarmouth Castle in the Isle of Wight, whose 
elder brother, Harry Burrard (d. 1791), waa 
created a baronet in 1769. HewnaGrat-cousin 
of General Sir Harry Burrard [q. v.] He 
entered the navy in 1778 on board the Roe- 
buck with Sir Andrew Snape Hamond [l-V.], 
and in her was present at the reduction of 
Charlestown in April 1780. lie was after- 
wards in the Chatham, with Captain Dou- 
glas, Ilamond's nephew, and took part in 
the capture of the French frigate, Magi- 
cienne, off Boston, 2 Sept. 1781. In 1783 
he relumed to England, acting lieutenant of 
the Perseverance. He was afterwards with 
Sir John Hamilton in the Hector, and in 
1785 was in the Europe in the West Indies, 
and waa officially thanked for his conduct 
in saving five men from a wreck during a 
hurricane. On 29 Sept. 1787 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant of the Etpedition, 
In 1790 he was in the Southampton with 
Keats, and afterwards in the Victory, Lord 
Hood's flagship. On 3 Nov. 1790 'he waa 
promoted to be commander of the Orestes, 
employed in the preventive service. 

On the death 01 hia uncle, Sir Harry Bur- 
rard, on 12 Anril 1791, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy, ana on 1 Feb. 1 793 he was ad- 
vanced topostrank. He wastben appointed to 
the Aimable frigate, in which he accompanied 
Lord Hood to the Mediterranean, where he 
was actively employed both in attendance on 
the fleet and in charge of convoys for the I^e- 
vant. He returned to England towards the 
end of 1794, and by royal license, dated 
8 April 1795, assumed the name and arma of 
Neale, on his marriage (15 April) with Grace 
Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Boltert 
Neale of Shaw House, Wiltshire. He was 
shortly afterwards appointed tothecommand 
of the San Fioreuo of ii guns, stationad 




for some time at Weymouth, in attendance 
on the king. On 9 March 1797 the San 
Fiorenzo, in company with the Nymphe, cap- 
tured the French frigatea Resistance and 
Constance off Brest [see CJookb, John, 176^ 
1805]. She was afterwards at the Nore 
when the mutiny broke out. Iler crew re- 
fused to join in tne mutiny ; she was ordered 
to anchor under the stem of the Sandwich, 
but a few days later she effected her escape, 
running through a brisk fire opened on her 
by the revolted ships. Her escape was a 
fatal blow to the mutiny, and on 7 June a 
meeting of London merchants and ship- 
owners, held at the Royal Exchange, passed 
a vote of thanks to Neale and the officers 
and seamen of the San Fiorenzo for their 
spirited conduct. Neale continued in the 
San Fiorenzo, and was, on 9 April 1799, in 
company with the Amelia of 38 guns, off 
Lorient, where three large frigates were 
lying in the outer road, readv for sea. In 
a sudden squall off the land the Amelia was 
partly dismasted, and the French frigates, 
seeing the disaster, slipped their cables and 
made sail towards the San Fiorenzo. The 
Amelia, however, cleared away the wreck 
with promptitude, and the two ships, keeping 
together, succeeded in repelling the attack, 
and the French, having lost severely, re- 
turned to Lorient (Troude, iii. 153 ; James, 
ii. 376). 

In 1801 Neale was appointed to the Cen- 
taur of 74 guns, from which he was moved 
into the royal yacht. In May and June 1804 
he was one of the lords of the admiralty, but 
in July returned to the yacht. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed to the 98-gun ship 
London, one of the small squadron under Sir 
John Borlase Warren [q. v.j which captured 
the French ships Marengo and Belle Poule on 
13 March 1806. The two ships were actually 
brought to action by the London, but after 
an hour the Amazon frigate [see Pabker, Sir 
William, 1781-1866] coming up, engaged 
and captured the Belle Poule, while the 
Marengo, of 74 guns, under the personal 
command of Admiral Linois, seeing the 
Foudroyant, Warren's flaphip, drawing near, 
struck to the London after a running fight 
of more than four hours [Troxxdb, iii. 456 ; 
James, iv. 130]. 

In 1808 Neale was captain of the fleet 
under Lord Gambler, with whom, in 1809, 
he was present at the abortive attack on the 
French ships in Basque Roads [see Coch- 
rane, Thomas, tenth Earl of Dundonald]. 
On 31 July 1810 he was promoted to the 
rank of rear-admiral, and from 1811 to 1814 
commanded a squadron on the coast of France, 
with his flag in the Boyne, and afterwards 

in the Ville de Paris. On 4 June 1814 he 
was advanced to be vice-admiral, and on 
2 Jan. 1815 was nominated a K.C.B., and 
G.C.B. on 14 Sept. 1822. He was com- 
mander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, 1823- 
1826, a post which, by the rule then in force, 
carried with it a nomination as G.C.M.G. 
In 1824 his prompt action enforced the ob- 
servance of the treaty of 1816 on the Dey 
of Algiers, though not till a considerable 
force of bombs had been sent from England, 
and the squadron was actually in position 
for openingfire (Ann. Reg. 1824, pt. i. pp. 207- 
208). He became an admiral on 22 July 
1830 ; and in January 1833, on the death of 
Sir Thomas Folev, was offered the command 
at Portsmouth, on the condition of resign- 
ing his seat in the House of Commons. 
Neale refused the command on these terms, 
pointing out that the condition was unpre- 
cedented and therefore insulting. The case 
was brought up in the house, but Sir James 
Graham, then first lord, maintained that as 
the admiralty was responsible for its ap- 
pointments, it had and must have authority 
to make what stipulations it judged neces- 
sary (Hansard, 3rd ser. xv. 622). Neale 
died at Brighton on 16 Feb. 1&40; and, 
having no issue, was succeeded in the baro- 
netcy by his brother, the Rev. Georpre Bur- 
rard, rector of Yarmouth (I.W.) His wife 
sun'ived him for several years, and died at 
the age of eip:hty-three, in 1855. His por- 
trait, by Matthew Brown, has been engraved. 
A handsome obelisk was erected to his me- 
mory on Mount Pleasant, opposite the to\%Ti 
of Lymington, of which he was lord of the 
manor, and which he had represented in 
parliament for forty years. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. ii. (vol. i.) 433; 
G^nt. Mag. 1840, i. 640 ; Foster's Baronetage. 
8.n. * Burrard ;' James's Naval History (edit, of 
1860) ; Troude's Batailles Navales de la France.] 

J . A.. Li. 

NEALE, JAMES (1722-1792), biblical 
scholar, baptised on 12 Nov. 1722, was son of 
Robert Neale, druggist, of St. Paul's, Co vent 
Garden. On 14 May 1731 he was elected to 
Christ's Hospital {List of Exhibitioners, ed. 
Lockhart), whence he proceeded with an ex- 
hibition to Pembroke College Tthen Pembroke 
Hall) Cambridge, being admitted a sizar on 
4 July 1739 (College Register). He graduated 
B.A. in 1742, M. A. in 1746. From 1747 until 
1762 he was master of Henley-upon-Thames 
grammar school (^Bukn, Menley-upon- 
Thames^ p. 97), which flourished greatly 
under his superintendence; he also served 
the curacy of Biz, in the neighbourhood, 
under Thomas Hunt (1696-1774) [q^ v.], the 
rector, whom Neale describes as having oeen 




* a father to me in a thousand instances ' (Prse- 
monition to Funeral Seitnon on John SameVy 
1760). He was subsequently curate of Ala- 
bourae, Wiltshire. Neale died in 1792. He 
left a son, James Xeale, who graduated B. A. 
in 1771 as a member of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, became perpetual curate of Aller- 
ton Malleverer, near York, and died on 10 Nov. 
1828 at Botley, Hampshire ( Gent Mag, 1828, 
pt. ii. p. 571). 

Neale was an excellent classical and orien- 
tal scholar, but want of means prevented him 

out division of verses, accompanied by a 
scripture commentary, to whicn a few per- 
tinent notes were appended. 

His grandson, William Hexby Neale 
(1785-1855), theological writer, baptised at 
Little Hampton, Sussex, on 12 May 1785, was 
third son of the Rev. James Neale (</. 1828) 
mentioned above. He was elected to Christ's 
Hospital in April 1793, where he gained an 
exhioition, was admitted sizar of Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, on 11 Feb. 1803, and 
j^aduated B.A. in 1808, M..^. in 1811. On 
8 Feb. 1808 he was appointed to the master- 
ship of Beverley grammar school, Yorkshire, 
but resigned it in December 1815 (Oliver, 
Beverley^ p. 279). In November 1823 he be- 
came chaplain of the county bridewell in Gos- 
port, Hampshire {Gent, Mag, 1823, pt. ii. p. 
463), where he continued until 1850. On 
5 March 1840 Neale was elected F.S.A. 
{Gent, Mag, 1840, pt. i. p. 416), but had 
withdrawn from the society by 1847. In 
1853 he accepted nomination as a poor 
brother of the Charterhouse, and died on 
20 Jan. 1855 {Charterhouse Register^, 

Besides re-editing his grandfather's trans- 
lation of * Ilosea,' with much oripfinal matter, 
in 1850, Neale wrote: 1. *The Mohammedan 
System of Theology; or, a compendious Sur- 
vey of the history and doctrines of Islam ism, 
contrasted with Cliristianity,' 8vo, London, 
1828. 2. ' The Different Dispensations of 
the true Religion, Patriarchal, Levitical, and 
Christian, considered,* 8vo, London, 1843. 

[Information from the master of Pembroke 
College, Cambridge ; W. H. Neale's Preliminary 
Observations to J. Neale's Prophecies of Hosea, 
2nd edit. pp. 6-*6.] G. G. 

NEALE, JOHN MASON (1818-1866), 
divine and author, bom at 40 LamVs Conduit 
Street, London, on 24 Jan. 1818, was only 
son of the Rev. Cornelius Neale. The latter 
was senior wrangler and first Smithes prize- 
man at Cambridge in 1812, fellow of St. 
John's College, of evangelical views, and a 
writer of allegories, sermons, and various com- 

positions in prose and verse, which were col- 
lected and published after his death, with a 
memoir of the writer prefixed, by his brother- 
fellow of St. John's, the Rev. William Jowett 
[q. v.], a leader of the evangelical party at 
Cambridge. His mother, Susanna Neale, was 
a daughter of John Mason Good fq. v.], and 
her religious opinions resembled those of her 
husband. Cornelius Neale died at Ch is wick 
in 1823, and the widow, with her son and 
three daughters, went to live at Shepperton, 
where the little boy was placed unaer the 
charge of the rector, William Russell, with 
whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. 
In 1829 the family removed from Shepperton, 
and Neale was educated sometimes at home 
and sometimes at school, first at Blackheath^ 
next at Sherborne, Dorset, and then for a 
short time at Famham, Surrey. Early in 
1836 he read with Dr. Chnllis, professor of 
astronomy, at Papworth Everard, of which 
village Challis was incumbent, and in October 
1836 he won a scholarship at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He was accounted the best clas- 
sical scholar of his year ; but, although the 
son of a senior wrangler, he had so root-ed a 
distaste for mathematics that he would not 
qualify himself to become a candidate for 
classical honours by gaining a place in the 
mathematical tripos. The rule which ren- 
dered this necessary was rescinded in 1841, 
but Neale took an ordinary degree in 1840. 
He won the members* prize in 1 838, and after 
his graduation he was elected fellow of 
Downing College, where for a while he acted 
as chaplain and assistant tutor. In 1845 he 
won the Seatonian prize for a sacred poem, 
an achievement which he repeated on ten 
subsequent occasions. The religious move- 
ment which is usually identified with Oxford 
was proceeding in a diflferent way, but with 
scarcely less force, at Cambridge, and it 
i deeply aflfected Neale. He warmly espoused 
high-church views, and in 1830, while yet 
an undergraduate, was one of the founders of 
the Cambridge Camden Society, which was 
afterwards, on its removal to London, called 
the Ecclesiological Society. Neale was or- 
dained deacon at St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol 
(Dr. Monk), on Trinity Sunday, 1841, on the 
title of his fellowship. He began parochial 
work at St. Nicholas, Guildford, Surrey, as 
assistant curate, or rather locum tenens, for 
his friend Hugh Nicolas Pearson [q. v."] ; but 
as a ' Camdenian' he was now a marked man, 
and the Bbhop of Winchester (Dr. Sumner) 
would not license him in his diocese. On 
Trinity Sunday 1842 he was ordained priest by 
Bishop Monk at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
and the next day he accepted the small living 




of Crawley in Sussex. But the climate was 
unsuited to his frail health, and he was not 
instituted. A visit to Penzance proved no 
more satisfactory, and with his wife, Sarah 
Norman Webster (whom he had married on 
27 July 1842), he went in the first week of 
1843 to Madeira. The next three years were 
spent between Madeira and England, and 
diiiring this time he was busy with his nen. 
In the autumn of 1845 Neale removed to 
Reigate, and in the spring of 1846 he was 
||presented by the Ladies Amherst and De la 
Warr, coheiresses of the third Duke of Dorset,' 
to the wardenship of Sackville College, East 
Grinstead. Sackville College was a charitable 
institution founded in 1608 by Robert Sack- 
ville, second earl of Dorset, for the shelter and 
maintenance of thirty poor and aged house- 
holders, under charge of a warden, not neces- 
sarily in holy orders, and two sub-wardens. 
The stipend was only between 20/. and 30/. 
a year; and this was the only preferment — 
which was not really any ecclesiastical prefer- 
ment at all — that Neale held, in spite of his 
high claims on the church. In 1 860 he declined 
an offer of the deanery, or, as it was called, 
the provostship, of St. Ninian's, Perth, and 
he remained at East Grinstead for the rest of 
his life. Scotland, America, and Russia all 
showed themselves more appreciative of him 
than his own country. Harvard University 
conferred the degree of D.D. upon him, and 
in I860 the Metropolitan of Moscow showed 
the appreciation in which his liturgical 
labours were held in Russia by sending him 
a valuable copy of the Liturgy of the Staro- 
vertzi (Old I^aith dissenters), with an inte- 
resting inscription. 

Node's avowal of high-church doctrines 
and practices and his support of Puseyism 
raised against him much opposition, and even 
subjected him occasionally to mob violence. 
Altnough extremely gentle in manner, he ad- 
hered to his principles with iron inflexibility. 
When the college Duildinm, which were in a 
ruinous state, were restorea early in his career 
at East Grinstead, he rebuilt the college 
chapel, adding such ornaments as are now 
the rule rather than the exception in every 
well-ordered church. The aoditional orna- 
ments were brought to the notice of the 
bishop of the diocese (Dr. Gilbert), who, in a 
painful controversy, denounced Neale's acces- 
sories to worship as * frippery ' or ' spiritual 
haberdashery,' and inhibited him from offi- 
ciating in his diocese. Sackville College 
chapel had not been under episcopal jurisdic- 
tion. Neale had desired to place it under the 
bishop, but the patrons objected. Indepen- 
dently of his natural desire to minister to the 
spiritued wants of his flock, he now felt bound 

to contend for the privileges of the college. 
A suit was instituted, and Neale was de- 
feated. The episcopal inhibition was not 
formallpr removed until November 1863. * So, 
I hope,' writes the warden, * ends a battle of 
more than sixteen years; I having neither 
withdrawn a single word, nor altered a single 
practice (except m a few instances by way of 
going further).' Bishop Wilberforce inter- 
ceded warmly with Bishop Gilbert in behalf 
of the college. Finally friendly relations 
were establisned between Neale and his dio- 
cesan, to whom he dedicated the volume of 
his collected ' Seatonian Poems.' 

While at East Grinstead Neale founded a 
well-known nursing sisterhood. It began in 
a very small way at Rotherfield, Neale work- 
ing in conjunction with Miss S. A. Gream, 
daughter 01 the rector of the parish. In 1866 
it was brought back to East Grinstead, where 
it still flourishes under the name of St. Mar- 
garet's Sisterhood. An orphanage, a middle- 
class school for g^lSi and a home at Alder- 
shot for the re^rmation of fallen women 
were one by one attached to the sisterhood ; 
but the home, after having done much useful 
work, was abandoned in consequence of the 
protestant prejudices raised against it. The 
work grew upon his hands, and he was anxious 
to see the buildings of the sisterhood en- 
larged. His last public act was to lay the 
foundation of a new convent for the sisters 
on St. Margaret's day (20 July) 1866 ; Imt 
he did not live to see it completed. His 
health utterly broke down, and, after a period 
of severe suffering, he died on the Feast 
of the Transfiguration (6 Aug.) 1866. His 
domestic life was eminently happy; he left 
behind him a widow and five children. He 
had also a circle of devoted friends, among 
whom may be especially mentioned the Revs. 
Benjamin Webb and E. J.Boyce (co-founders 
of the Cambridge Camden Society), E. Has- 
koll, and Dr. Littledale. 

Neale is best known to the outer world as a 
writer. As a translator of ancient Latin and, 
still more, Greek hymns he has not an equal ; 
but he was a most voluminous writer on an 
infinite variety of other subjects. His lin- 
guistic powers were enormous; he knew 
more or less of twenty languages ; he was a 
true poet, and his Latin verses are not less 

rceful than his English. A story is told 
^ Gerard Moultrie [see under Moultrie, 
John] of Neale's placing before Keble the 
Latin of one of Keble's hymns with the 
words, ' Why, Keble, I thought you tdd me 
that the " Cluristian Year " was entirely origi- 
nal.' Keble professed himself utterly con- 
founded imtil Neale relieved him by owning 
that he had just turned it into I^atin* Ilia 




prose style is pure and lucid, and the ran^e 
of his historical knowledge was very wide. 
In 1861 he undertook to write three leaders a 
week for the ' Morning Chronicle/ which he 
continued to do till the end of 1863, while at 
the same time he was contributing important 
articles to the * Christian Remembrancer,' and 
afterwards, at the invitation of Mr. J. H. 
Parker, to the * National Miscellany 'and the 
' Penny Post,* and to the ' Churchman's Com- 

Xeale's more important works, many of 
which appeared after his death, chiefly under 
the direction of Dr. Littledale, are here ar- 
ranged under four chief headings : I. Theo- 
logical and Ecclesiological ; II. Hymno- 
logical ; III. Tales and fiooks for the Young; 
IV. Miscellaneous. 

I. TnBOLOGiCAL and Ecclesiological : 
1. ' A History of the Jews/ 1841 (a supj^le- 
ment to this work appeared in the following 
vear). 2. *An Historical Outline of the 
Book of Psalms' (originally written by 
his father, but revised and edited by him), 
1842. 3. ' A Translation of Durandus on 
Symbolism, with Introductory Essay, Notes, 
&c.,' 1843. 4. * A History of Alexandria/ 
1844. 6. 'Tetralogia Liturgica, sive S. 
Chrysostomi, S. Jacobi, S. Marci, Divinee 
Mi8S8B/1848. 6. ' The Patriarchate of Alex- 
andria' (the first instalment of his great 
work on tne Eastern church), 1848. 7. * Eccle- 
siological Notes in the Isle of Man,' 1848. 
8. * An Introduction to the History of the 
Holy Eastern Church ' (an important work 
in two thick quarto volumes), 1860. 9. *Life 
and Times of Patrick Torry, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane,' 1866. 
10. ' A History of the so-called Jansenist 
Church in Holland,' 1858. 11. * The Litur- 
gies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. 
Chrysostom,and St. Basil,' 1859. 12. ' Voices 
from the East : Documents on the present 
State and Working of the Oriental Church, 
translated from the original Russ, Sclavonic, 
and French, with Notes,' 1859. 13. * A Com- 
mentary on the Psalms from primitive and 
mediaeval Writers/ 1860. 14. 'History of 
the Council of Florence/ 1861. 15. ' Essays 
on Liturgiology and Church History,' 1863. 
There appeared posthumously : 16. ' Twenty- 
eight Sermons for Children,' 1867. 17. ' Ser- 
mons for the Black-Letter Days ; or Minor 
Festivals of the Church of England,' 1868 
(a most valuable andinteresting volume, quite 
unique of its kind). 18. ' Thirty-three Ser- 
mons fop Children/ 1869. 19. ' Via Fidelium, 
being Litanies, Stations, and Hours, com- 
piled by J. M. N.,' 1869. 20. ' Catechetical 
Notes and Class Questions, Literal and Mys- 
tical, chiefly on the Earlier Books of Holy 


Scripture,' 1869. 21. * The Venerable Sacra- 
ment of the Altar ('De Sacramento Altaris' 
of St. Thomas Aauinas), translation com- 
menced by J. M. N./ 1871. In 1874 was 
published for the first time the full * Com- 
mentary on the Psalms from primitive and 
mediaeval Writers,' compiled partly by Neale 
and partly by Littledale, in 4 vols. In 1873 
was pubbshed for the first time, in 5 vols., all 
that Neale wrote — and that on jv a fragment 
— on *The History of the Holy Eastern 

II. Hymnolooical : 1. ' J. M. Nealii 
Epistola Critica de Sequentiis,* in the fifth 
volume of the * Thesaurus Hymnologicus,*" 
1841. 2. 'Hymns for the Sick/ 1843. 
3. ' Hymns for Children, in Accordance with 
the Catechism ,' 1 843. 4. * Hymni EcclesisB e- 
Breviariis quibusdam et Missalibus Gallica- 
nis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis desumpti. 
Collect et recensuit J. M. N.,' 1851. 5. *Se- 
quentisB ex Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, 
Gallicb, aliisque Medii ^^vi coUectse. Re- 
censuit notulisque instruxit Johannes M. 
Neale' (a companion volume to the pre- 
ceding), 1852. 6. * The Rhythm of Bernard 
de Morlaix ... on the Celestial Country' 
(Latin and English), 1859. 7. 'Hjrmns, 
chiefly mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of 
Paraaise/ 1865. 8. ' Hymns for Use during 
the Cattle Plague/ 1866. 9. * The Invalid's 
Hymn Book ' (with a preface by Dr. Little- 
dale), 1866. 10. 'Sequences, Hymns, and 
other Ecclesiastical Verses/ 1866. 

In 1861 appeared the first part of the 
' Hymnal Noted,' the second and more popu- 
lar part appearing in 1854. The great 
majority of the hjrmns in both parts were^ 
translated by Neale. In 'Hymns Ancient 
and Modem' no less than one-eighth of the- 
hymns are from his pen, either originals or 
translated (this is exclusive of the last ap- 
pendix). N o other hymn-writer is so largely 
represented in this the most popular of alF 
English hymnals. Two admiraole volumes^ 
of carols collected by Neale, with music by 
Helmore, * Carols for Christmastide ' and 
' Carols for Eastertide,' were issued in 1863'- 
and 1864 respectively. 

III. Tales and Books fob the Young: 
1. 'Herbert Tresham: a Tale of the Great 
Rebellion,' 1842. 2. * Agnes de Tracey: a* 
Tale of the Times of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury,* 1843. 3. * Ayton Priory ; or the re- 
stored Monastery,' 1843. 4. ' Shepperton 
Manor : a Tale of the Times of Bishop An— 
drewes,' 1844. 5. ' A Mirror of Faith : Laya*. 
and Legends of the Church of England/ 1845. 
6. * Annals of Virgin Saints,' 1 845. 7. * Stories- 
of the Crusades,' 1845. 8. <The Unseem 
World/ 1847. 9. < Duchenier : a Tale of th» 





Revolt in La Vendue/ 1847. 10. ' Victories 
of the Saints/ 1850. 11. * Stories for Children 
from Church History/ 1850; 2nd series, 1851. 

12. *The Followers of the Lord/ 1851. 

13. * Evenings at Sackville College: Legends 
for Children/ 1852. 1 4. * The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress for the Use of Children in the English 
Church/ 1853. 15. * History of the Church 
for the Use of Children/ pt. 1. (no more pub- 
lished), 1853. 16. * The Egyptian Wanderers: 
a Story for Children of the Great Persecu- 
tion/ 1854. 17. ' Lent Legends: Stories from 
Church Histor>%' 1855. 18. 'The Farm of 
Aptonga,' 1856. 19. * Church Papers : Tales 
illustrative of the Apostles* Creed/ 1857. 
20. * Theodora Pliranza ; or the Fall of Con- 
stantinople/ 1857 (an excellent story of the 
events preceding 1453). 

In 1845 he commenced a series of tales in 
the Juvenile Englishman's Library, includ- 
ing *The Triumphs of the Cross: Tales and 
Sketches of Christian Heroism * (vol. vi.) ; 

* A History of Portugal* (vol. xvi.), * Stories 
from Heathen Mythology and Grreek History 
for the Use of Christian Children' (vol. xix.), 

* A History of Greece for Young Persons ' and 

* English tlistory for Children ' (* Triumphs 
of the Cross/ 2nd ser.), and * Tales of Chris- 
tian Endurance' (a'oI. xxii.) In Parker's 
series of tales illustrating church history, 
' The Lazar House of Leros/ * The Exiles of 
the Cevenna/ * Lily of Tiflis/ * Lucia's Mar- 
riage/ &c., were from his pen. 

IV. Neale's Miscellaneous Writtn'gs, 
translations, and editions include: 1. 'Hiero- 
logus ; or the Church Tourists,' 1843. 2. * Sonpfs 
and Ballads for the People/ 1843. 3. * Sir 
Henry Spelman's Historv and Fate of Sacri- 
lege ' (edited by J. M. N.'), 1846. 4. * Songs 
and Ballads for Manufacturers/ 1850 5. * A 
Few Words of Hope on the present Crisis of 
the English Church ' (in reference to the Gor- 
ham controversy), 1850. 6. * Handbook for 
Travellers in Portugal,' 1855. 7. * The Moral 
Concordances of St. Anthony of Padua, trans- 
lated by J. M. N.'(*Medifeval Preachers'), 
1856. 8. 'Notes Ecclesiological and Pic- 
turesque on Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, Stvria, 
with a Visit to Montenegro,' 1801. 9. *'Sea- 
tonian Poems ' (written many years before), 
1864. In 1848 he issued a volume called 
* Headings for the Aged,' and this was fol- 
lowed by a second series in 1854, a third 
series in 1856, and a fourth in 1858. 

To the Cambridge Camden Society's pub- 
lications he contributed * A Few Words to 
Churchwardens on Churches and Church 
Ornaments/ ' A Few Words to Church 
Builders,' ' A History of Pews,' and a ' Me- 
moir of Bishop Montague,' dedicated to his 
tutor at Trinity, Archdeacon Thorp, and pre- 

fixed to a reprint of Bishop Montague's 
' Visitation Articles ' (1839-41). 

[St. Margaret's Magazine from July 1887 on- 
wards (where the fullest and most accurate 
account of Neale*s life and writings will be 
found) ; Littledale's Memoir of Dr. J. M. Neale ; 
Neale's own Works, passim ; Memoir of the Rev. 
Cornelius Neale by the Rev. William Jowett ; 
Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, pp. 785-90; Hunt- 
incton's Random Recollections, 1893, pp. 198- 
223 ; Newl)ery House Magazine for March 1893 
(A Layman's Recollections of the Church Move- 
ment of 1833); private information.] J. H. O. 

architectural draughtsman, was bom in 1780. 
Neale's earliest works were drawings of in- 
sects, and the statement that his father was 
a painter of insects seems due to a misinter- 
pretation of this fact. While in search of 
specimens in Homsey Wood in the spring of 
1796, Neale met John Varley [q. v.] the water- 
colour painter, and commenced a friendship 
which lasted through life. Together they 
projected a work to be entitled * The Pic- 
turesque Cabinet of Nature,' for which Varley 
was to make the landscape drawings, and 
Neale was to etch and colour the plates. 
No. 1 was published on 1 Sept. 1796, out no 
more appeared. In 1797 Neale exhibited at 
the Royal Academy two drawings of insects, 
and sent others in 1799, 1801, and 1803. 
Meanwhile he was discharging the duties of 
a clerk in the General Post Office, but eventu- 
ally resigned his appointment in order to de- 
vote his whole time to art. In 1 804 he sent to 
the Royal Academy a drawing of the * Custom 
House, Dover,' and continued to exhibit topo- 
graphical drawings and landscapes until 1844. 
He contributed also to the exhibitions of the 
Society of Painters in Oil and Water Colours 
in 1817 and 1818, and from time to time to 
those of the British Institution and of the So- 
ciety of British Artists. Some of his works 
were in oil-colours ; but his reputation rests on 
his architectural drawings,which are executed 
carefully with the pen and tinted with water- 
colours. In 1816 he commenced the publi- 
cation of the * History and Antiquities of the 
Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster,' 
which was completed in 18^3, in two quarto 
volumes, with descriptive text by Edward 
W. Brayley. He next began, in 1818, hU 
'Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentle- 
men in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ire- 
land,' of which the first series, in six volumes, 
was completed in 1824. The second series, in 
five volumes, was published between 1824 and 
1829, and the entire work comprised no less 
than seven hundred and thirty-two plates. 
He likewise in 1824-5 undertook, in colla- 
boration with John Le Keux [q. v.], the en- 




jrraver, the publication of ' Views of the most 
interesting Collegiate and Parochial Churches 
in Great Britain/ but the work was discon- 
tinued after the issue of the second volume. 
Besides these works he published ' SixViews 
of Blenheim, Oxfordshire/ 1823 ; ' Graphical 
Illustrations of Fonthill Abbey/ 1824; and 
* Aji Account of the Deep-Dene in Surrey, 
the seat of Thomas Hope, Esq.,' 1826. Many 
other works contain illustrations from his 
pen and pencil. 

Neale died at Tattin^tone, near Ipswich, 
on 14 Nov. 1847, in the sixty-eiffhth year of 
his age. The South Kensington Museum has 
a drawing by him of * Staplehurst, Kent/ 
made in 1 830. 

[Ipswich Express, 23 Nov. 1847 ; Gent. M.ig. 
1847, ii. 667; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886-9, 
ii. 202; Roget's History of the Old Water- 
Colour Society, 1891, i. 168-70; Royal Academy 
Exhibition Catalogues, 1797-1844.] R. E. G. 

NEALE, SAMUEL (1729-1792), quaker, 
born in Dublin on 9 Nov. 1729, was son of 
Thomas and Martha Neale. He succeeded 
to an estate in ivildare county at seventeen, 
and spent his youth in hunting, coursing, 
and ' frequenting the playhouse.* In his 
twenty-second year he was deeply impressed 
by the preaching of Catherine Peyton and 
Mary Peisley at Cork. He accompanied them 
on their mission to Bandon and Kinsale, and 
returned to Cork a changed man. Becoming 
a quaker minister, he started in March 1752, 
with an American Friend, on a journey 
through Ireland, attended the London yearly 
meeting, and travelled in Holland and 
Germany. He held many meetings on his 
own account. In 1766 he visited Scotland, 
and stayed at Ury, near Aberdeen, with the 
grandson of Robert Barclay (1048-1690) 
Lq. v.] the apologist. He many times subse- 
quently visited England, but his home was at 
Kathangan, near lOdenderry, King*s County. 

In August 1770 he sailed for America on 
a ministerial visit, accompanied by Joseph 
Oxley [q. v.] He travel lea on horseback to 
most of the meetings in Pliiladelphia, Mary- 
land, Virginia, North and South Carolina, 
East and West Jersey, New England and 
New York, and returned to Cork on 16 Sept. 

He died at Cork on 27 Feb. 1792, and was 
buried in the Friends' burial-ground there on 
2 March, having been a minister forty years. 
Neale married Mary Peisley (A. 1717) on 
17 May 1757. She had long been a minister, 
and in her youth had a similar experience 
to Neale's. She travelled in England and 
America, and exerted much influence. She 
died suddenly three days after the marriage. 

Three years later Neale married Sarah Beale 
(d, 7 March 1793). Before his death he pre- 
oared the journals and lettersof Mary Peisley 
for publication, Dublin, 1795. His own jour- 
nals were first published in Dublin in 1805. 

[Some Account of the Lives and Religious 
Labours of Samuel and Mary Neale, forming 
vol. viii. of Barclay's Select Series, London, 1845. 
Reprinted in vol. xi. of The Friends* Library, 
Philadelphia, 1847; Leadbeater's Biog. Notices, 
pp. 291-306.] C. F. S. 

NEALE, THOMAS (d, 1699 ?), was mas- 
ter of the mint and groom-porter in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Nothing 
seems known of his early life, but he is said 
to have run through two fortunes, doubtless 
through his gaming and speculative tenden- 
cies. He was appointed master and worker 
of the mint in the thirtieth year of Charles II 
(30 Jan. 1677-8—29 Jan. 1678-9), and held 
the office under James II and William III 
till about January 1699. His name in this 
capacity appears on certain medals of Wil- 
liam III (Hawkos, Med, lUustr. ii. 13). His 
salary in 1693 was 600/. per annum (Cham- 
BBRLATNB, Present State of England, 1694, 
p. 618). 'A Proposal for amending the 
Silver Coins of England,' 1696, 8vo, by 
Neale is in the British Museum Library, and 
also the following proposal, printed 20 Feb. 
1696-7: 'The best wav of disposing of 
Hammered Money and l^late, as well for 
the advantage of the Owners thereof as for 
raising One Million of Money in (and for 
the service of) the year 1697 by way of a 
Lottery, wherein the benefits will be the 
same ... as were had in the Million Ad- 
venture, and the blanks will be prizes be- 
sides, to be paid sooner or later, as chance 
shall determme, but all to be cleared in one 
year.* Hammered money and plate were by 
this scheme received at 6«. an ounce, and 
tickets of 10/. each given as an equivalent. 

In (or before) 1684 Neale was appointed 
groom-porter to Charles II {London Uazette, 
24-28 July 1684). He held the same post 
under William III till about 1699. His duties 
were to see the king's lodgings furnished 
with tables, chairs, and firing; to provide 
cards and dice, and to decide disputes at the 
card-table and on the bowling-green. His 
annual salary was 2/. \Ss. Ad,y witli board- 
wages 127/. 15«. (CUAMBERLATNK, op. cit. 

p. 239). In 1684 he was, as groom-porter, 
authorised by the king to license and sup- 
press gaming-houses, and to prosecute un- 
licensed keepers of ' rafflings, ordinaries, and 
other public games ' {London Gazette, 24-28 
July 1084 ; Malcolm, Manners and Customs 
ofLmdon, 1811, pp. 430-1). 
In 1094 the government proposed to raise 





a million by a lottery-loan, on the security 
of a new duty on salt, &c. (5 Will. & 
Mary, c. 7). The plan — a loan and lottery 
combined — appears to have originated with 
Neale, who was appointed master of the 
transfer office established in that year (in 
Lombard Street) for conducting the busi- 
ness of the lottery. He acted in this way 
till about January 1699. The loan was di- 
vided into a hundred thousand shares of 
10/. each. The interest on each share was 
20«. annually, i.e. ten per cent, during six- 
teen years. As an additional inducement to 
the public to lend, some of the shares were 
to be prizes, and the holders of the prizes 
(determined by lot) were to receive not only 
the ten per cent, interest on their shares, but 
to divide among them the sum of 40,000/. 
annually during sixteen years. A million 
was obtained for the state in this way (cf. 
AsHTON, Hist. ofEngL Lotteries, p. 49). Neale 
conducted at least two other public lotteries. 
Several of his printed prospectuses are pre- 
served in the British Museum, that of the 
lottery-loan of 1694 being headed : ' A Pro- 
fitable Adventure to the Fortunate, and can 
be unfortunate to none ' (London, 1693-4, s. 
sh. fol.) Pepys {Diary, ed. Braybrooke, v. 
344) speaks of Neale's project for a lottery as 
the chief talk of the town, and Evelyn (whose 
coachman won a prize of 40/.) mentions * the 
lottery set up after the Venetian manner by 
Mr. Neale' (Evelyn, Dtary, ed. Bray, ii. 326). 

Neale's name appears in the list of sub- 
scribers to the National Land Bank proposed 
by Briscoe in 1695, and carried into effect by 
Robert Ilarley [q. v.], afterwards Earl of Ox- 
ford, in the following year, his subscription 
being entered as 3,000/. On 24 Feb. 1095-6 
Neale printed a proposal entitled * The Na- 
tional Land Bank, together with Money . . . 
capable also of supplying the Government 
with any sum of Money ... as likewise the 
Freeholder with Money at a more moderate 
Interest than if such Bank did consist of 
Money alone without Land * (copy in Guild- 
hall Library, London). Two millions were 
to be raised by a subscription of money, and 
one million by a subscription of land. 

lie also engaged in building and mining 
schemes, and was interested in the East India 
tra<le (Neale's tract * To Preserve the East 
India Trade,' &c., 1696, s. sh. fol. in Brit. 
Mus.) He projected and began the build- 
ing of the London streets known as the 
Seven Dials. On 5 Oct. 1694 Evelyn (Dw/y, 
ii. p. 332) went * to see the building beginning 
near St. Giles's, where seven streets make a 
star from a Doric pillar placed in the middle 
of a circular area' (cp. Pope, Works, ed. El win 
and Courthope, x. 281 ). The streets were not 

all completed till after 1708 (Walpobd, Old 
and New London, iii. 204). Before 1695 
Neale obtained from Sir Thomas Clarges 
[q. v.] a large piece of land on the road from 
Piccadilly to Hyde Park. The rent was 100/. 
per annum, and Neale undertook to expend 
10,000/. in building on the land. He, how- 
ever, left the ground waste for ten years, and 
died insolvent, owing 800/. for rent to Sir 
Walter (son of Sir Thomas) Clarges (Mal- 
colm, Londinium JRediv, iv. 828-9). Clarges 
Street was subsequently built on this site 
in 1717 (Walfokd, Old and New London, iv. 
292). On 28 Aug. 1697 Neale (and another) 
obtained by letters patent a lease for thirty- 
one years of the coal-mines in Lanton, alias 
Lampton Hills, in the common fields of 
Wickham,' Durham {Col. State Papers, Trea- 
BVLTj Ser. 1720-8, p. 466). 

ft is sometimes stated that Neale died in 
1706, but a report of the commissioners of 
the lottery made to the lord high treasurer 
in 1710 refers to his death as having taken 
place * about January 1699' (ib. 1708-14, 
p. 517). It is moreover certain that his 
connection with the mint and with the trans- 
fer office ceased just about that time. A rare 
medalet (or lottery ticket ?), existing in the 
British Museum, m silver and copper, is en- 
graved, and described in Hawkins s'Medallic 
Illustrations,' ii. 104-6. It has on the obverse 
a bust of Neale inscribed tho. neale ar- 
MIGER, and on the reverse a figure of Fortune 
on a globe, and the motto non eadeic sempeh. 
The portrait bears out Matthew Prior's ob- 
servation (made in France in 1701) as t<? the 
likeness between James II, ' lean, worn, and 
rivelled,' and ' Neale the projector * (Ellis, 
Letters of Eminent Men, p. 265). 

Another Neale, Thomas {Jl. 1643), was 
eldest son of Sir .Thomas Neale, knt. {d, 
1620), of Wamford, Hampshire, one of the 
auditors of Queen Elizabeth and James I. 
Walter Neale [q. v.] was his uncle. Neale 
was author of * A Treatise of Direction how 
to Travell safely and profitably into forraigne 
Countries,' published m London in 1643, 1 2mo 
(Brit. Mus, Cat. ; Hazlitt, Bibl. Coll. and 
Notes,STd8eT. 1887,p.l69). This work, which 
was originally written in Latin, is ded icated to 
the author's brother, William Neale. It is a 
pedantic little treatise, full of quotations from 
the classics, but devoid of a solitary hint 
from the writer's own experience. A second 
edition appeared in 1664, London, 12mo 
(Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Lowndes, Bibl. Manual). 
Complete copies have a portrait of the author 
by W. Marshall. Neale married on 15 Sept. 
1632 Lucy, third daughter of Sir William 
Uvedale of Wickham, Hampshire (Nichols, 
Herald and Genealogist, iv. 42). 




Neale, Thomas {fl. 1667), enffraver, 
worked in the style of Wenceslaus Hollar 
[q. v.] He engraved, copying Hollar, twenty- 
four plates of Holbein's * Dance of Death/ 
The first plate is dated 'Paris, 1667,' and 
the plates are signed ' T. N.,' or with his 
name in full. Nagler supposes him to have 
engraved the plates for the eighth edition of 
John Ogilby's ' Fables of i£sop,* and states 
that he engraved some of the plates for Bar- 
low's * Divers® Avium species,* Paris, 1659 
[see, however, under Bablow, Francis], 

[Neale's trncts and prospectuses in Brit. Mus. 
and Guildhall Library; Rudings Annals of the 
Coinage; Cal. State Papers, Treasury Ser.; Lon- 
don Gazette ; Hawkins s Medallic Illustrations, 
ii. 104-5, &c. ; Macaulay's Hist, of Engl. ch. zx., 
• 1694 ;' authorities cited above.] W. W. 

NEALE, WALTER (fl, 1639), New 
England explorer, was son of William Neale, 
one of the auditors to Queen Elizabeth, of 
AVamford, Hampshire, by his first wife, 
Agnes, daughter of Robert Bowyer of Chi- 
chester (Berry, Genealogies f * Hampshire,' p. 
149). In 1618 he fought under Count Ernest 
of Mansfeld on behalf of the elector palatine, 
both in Bohemia and in the Rhine country, 
and rose to be captain. His difficulties com- 
pelled him in February 1625 to petition for a 
^^nt of two thousand decayed trees in the 
New Forest in lieu of a month's pay (460/.) 
due to his company {CaL State PaperSj Dom. 
1 623-6, p. 487), and in February 1629 he again 
prayed for relief (ib. 1628-9, p. 480). In 1630 
lie sailed for Piscataqua, or the lower settle- 
ment of New Hampsnire, to act as governor 
of the infant colony there, his commission 
being signed by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, John 
Mason, and others. He promised to discover 
a reported great lake towards the west, so as 
to secure to his employers a monopoly of the 
beaver trade (Winthrop, Hist, of New Eng- 
land^ ed. Savage, 1826, i. 38). During a stay 
of three years ne * exactly discovered, accord- 
ing to his own account, all the rivers and 
harbours in the habitable part of the country, 
reformed abuses, subdued the natives, and 
settled a staple trade of commodities, espe- 
cially for building ships. On 16 Aug. 1633 
Neale embarked for England, and in 1634, 
at the request of the king, was chosen cap- 
tain of the company of the Artillery Garden 
in London {CaL State Papers^ Dom. 1633- 
1634, pp. 230, 443). He applied soon after- 
wards for the place of muster master of the 
city {ib. 1611-18, p. 340). After carefully 
drilling the company for four years, Neale 
asked to be appointed sergeant-major of 
Virginia, but George Donne, second son of 
the dean of St. Paul's, obtained the post 
(ib, GoL Ser., American and West Indies, 

1674-1660, pp. 134-6, 285). He was ap- 
pointed in 1639 lieutenant-governor of Ports- 
mouth {ib. Dom. 1689, pp. 32, 391). 

[Feirs Eccl. Hist, of New England, i. 156. 
165, 190-1 ; Neill's Virginia Carolorum, pp. 
87, 132 ; Neill's Founders of Maryland, p. 184.] 

G. G. 

NEALE, Sib WILLIAM (1609-1691), 
royalist, belonged to the Neales of Wollas- 
ton, Northamptonshire, who came originally 
from Staffordshire, and were the elder branch 
of the Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire 
family of the same name (Noble, Memorials 
of Cromwellf pp. 11, 16 note, and 32). His 
father was probably John Neale, grandson 
of Richard Neale of Staffordshire, whose 
will was proved in 1610 (Northamptonshire 
and Rutland Wills, 1610-1662, Index 
Library). Sir Edmund Neale, knt., who 
I had to compound for his estates as a royalist, 
and who died in 1671, aged 73, must have 
been his elder brother {CaL State Papers, 
Dom. 1645, 1647, 1648 ; Bmdgbs, Hist, of 

William took an active part in the civil 
war as scoutmaster-general in Prince Ru- 

Eert*s army. On 3 Feb. 1643 he was knighted 
y the kinff at Oxford for bringing the news 
of the takmg of Cirencester by the royalist 
army ; at the relieving of Newark, which 
was besieged by Sir John Meldrum [a. v.] in 
March 1644, he fought close to Prince Rupert, 
who was attacked at once by three * sturdy 
souldiers,' one of whom, ' bein? ready to lay 
hand on the Prince's CoUer, had it almost 
chopt off by Sir William Neal.* At the 
end of the light he was employed in a parley 
to draw up the terms upon which Meldrum s 
forces should retire. He was still in the 
army in 1669, in which year he seems to 
have been taken prisoner (Ob/. State Papers, 
1669, 26 Aug.-4 Sept.) 

Presumably as a reward for his services 
a baronet's warrant was made out for him 
on 26 Feb. 1640, in which he was specially 
exempted from the 1,096/. * usually payd in 
respect of that dignity ; ' but the grant was 
never completed. A second warrant of 
8 Aug. 1667 (made out to William Neale of 
WoUaston, omitting the title of knight) 
seems equally to have failed to procure nim 
the honour which he sought. 

He died in Gray's Inn Lane on 24 March 
1691, and was buried in St. Paul's Church, 
Co vent Garden. His arms were the same as 
those of the Neales of Dean, Bedfordshire, 
and of Ellenborough, Berkshire: per pale 
sable and gules, a lion passant guardant or. 

[Metcalfe's Book of Knights ; Hist. Memoirs 
of the Life and Death of that Wise and Valiant 
Prince Rupert, &c ,1683; His Highnesse Prince 



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v, -..■ Vie '.r, i^", V',v ;^:>:. H-. -rJ:r.- "lie 
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iifi/| ' l'Ir«» irr«ri'l/-hi]/l an'i r;//h*;:r'rtA of V:.t- 

liifpf/ 'Hi' ir f»M<-4 ftn- : i. * r'av-n'Jiflh, or 
til/. I'll' f 1/ lun ttl H«<i ' finon. , *J voj^. I'Jmo, 
\,nw\'itt, l"/il ^r"pririf«'J in I'*.', J, Ii<>X> a.- 
'//tl It •rit. <if fill-' I'firloiir f/i^rnrv,'anr] I'*^Jl 
nq v'll V 'if Up*-' Nnvulnn/] Milit/iry Lihr/irv';. 
' ''I I.I- V',T\. A'lMiiriil, ft Tnlir of th*f War* 
|ii»i'i»i ,, I'l v'il«<, liJrno, fxMirIr>n, I8.'{i{ CiiUo 
mi«Im'I»'I III v'll. IV. '»r l)if*'.\uvftl find Mili- 
hiiy' IM(J| ,. ;j. ' Will-Wiitcfi: from 
I fill A iitnlii»p|/iii|»liv of a KriliHh OIHciir/ 
i\ v"l>i 1 'IIP'., Lnfiil'iii, |h:U. -1. « TIh' PriorH 
III' ririjiiii-,' I'i vhIm. I:!iiio, liiinrioii, |M.*W>. 
ti MliMitli.Miiiti .liu'l*, II Nnvnl Htory/ ij voIh. 

nv»., Li.M.i'.ii. iM.r/. n. •TiiM rivin>( Dmch- 

lii.ili • PI liiifniiil iif llin lll^'ll Hi'lIM,' JJ voIh. 

I" I.mimI..ii. \h\\\), 7. •till. Niiviil Siir- 

jiiKiii,' .1 wiln I 'iiiii, Ifiiiiildii, |H|I (iiipriiitod 
ill I'lii'*., mill Miniiii III JMMI, in vol. vi. of (in* 
'fMiiuil PMiil MihiMt'v l.ilimrv '). H. « I'lnil 

t*i>iM« iiiliii'. Ill lliii I'lrnM^iiti^,* Mvo, London, 

Inll. uHli (.Mix ..iiInii^.M liv • IMii/.* D. •Tlu' 
i'ii|iiiiiu.. \N til..' ;i >ii|u r»M»,i, Lomlon. IS|l» 
(nihil III. I .ilii I'm 'I In • Tho I. am Ship, 
111 till* \ I I'liHip .'i||i|iiih«i/ ;t xoIn. I'.*nut, {.on- 
ilfii, I'iM pui.iIIipi imIiI ISfUM. ll.'Sonpo- 
):ii«ii> III .i-.i , ,ti. N.iMiiMi iitlont inul Sjiilors 
tih.ti. Si.l i^.lii Mxoli I'^ui\ j.ouilon. lS<ut. 
I ' 'III i.'M i«« till' Mutiin at Spit hcnd ami 
f K^ \,»,,» ^.,uiM» \, s\,». I ondon, IsrJ, 

\M^«t«« nt^i* ' riio l.iiurt'AlK n . . . 
|lo.»U \\w i\\^\\t<\\\>\\\^\\\ Iamw 

..:is . i2lL ^--j. Bidil 

= -_- 1^-r :f rir- 

- y±. ' "TiiT. Liiniii'.iL, 

2_kr5- . 

^:r>r in-iTr TitiiL 

*-lf "vi.ilEl JijT "•>«■' ■■*—' - i Lr»r 

Jl — CiL. El 

±- n. # tzi»r- "^"iiifj.T :•: 

:: }LL."-ii It*V V^ijice was 
■-■ .i-r TLa in-* :: the jn- 

•-VI ■ " • ^ ■ 

lUT :r mi ar who^e 

»l'.rAlIj :::-ii:'::T. Iz. l^lo z.-r spent eurht 
n--.-*:!.-? i=. Vi-r*.!. w'i-rr»r ii* c-onrracted a 
•:lc-rc 1z.-:=:j.o7 ^--- B.=*^:i:v.r::. and for five 
ai'.n'.hj «i-.-r^j--r=.-lv j-uii-i ci^unterpoint 
Ttrrh. Win^rr a: MizLch. .Vfrer spending' 
•wo 7'rars abr:.i.i ':.t rvrtum-ed to London^ 
wLer»; t* r»:drr»i tr^: in Foley Place, and 
afr erTraris in Ch irl : ::e S: rv-it. Bt this time 
h«;Lad acj'iir^i a, eo:i*:.irr^ble reputation as 
& pianist and t*?ai:-L'^rot'mu*ic. lie was the 
fir-t to inrri-yluc'.- 1- ■ En^Ii*h audiences, at the 
I'hilharmonic .S-'ci-: y'? concerts, Beethoven'* 
pianofort*^ conct-rt'js in C minor and E llat^ 
Weljer's Concert ^tiick. and llummeFs con- 
certo in E and Prptuor in D minor. As a 
compow.T he lack».'d fancy and originality. 
Ilo di*;d at Bri^rhton on 30 March 1(^77, after 
a retirement of many years. His wife pre- 
deceased Iiim, and he left one son. 

His compositions include a sonata in C 
minor for pianoforte, Op. 1, 1^08; a sonata 
in 1) minor for pianoforte, 1822; a fantasia 
for jiianoforte, with violoncello obbligato, 
1H:>5 (p) ; a hundred Impromptus for piano- 
fortif, 1K.'50; two trios for pianoforte, violin^ 
and violoncello; and various quadrilles, fan- 
tasias, and minor j)ieces for ])ianoforte. 

lie was the author of * An Essay on 
Fingerinp. . . . To«rether with some General 
Observations on l*iant»forte Playing,' I^n- 
don ( IS.Vj1. 

[(irove'H I)iot. of Musio, ii. 450; Records of 
Koval S<H\ of Miisioians : Musical Directory of 
187S. p. \ix'; Qn-'»rtirly Musical Magazine and 
Koviow. ii. ;i8l ; Brii. Mus. t'ataloirwes.] 

^ K. F. S. 

misi and political writer, was the fifth of 
the eleven oliildriMi of Thv^mas Neate, wctop 




and squire of Alvescot, Oxfordshire, and Ca- 
therine, his wife. He was bom at Adstock, 
Buckinghamshire, on 18 June 1806, and, 
after remaining long enough in his rural home 
to acquire a lifelong love of field sports, he 
was sent to the College Bourbon m Paris. 
There Sainte-Beuve was one of his school- 
fellows, and he obtained a prize for French 
composition, open to all the schools of France. 
He was matriculated as a commoner of Lin- 
coln College, Oxford, on 2 June 1824, aged 
17; he was scholar 1826-8, and graduated 
as a first-class man in 1828. The same year 
he was elected fellow of Oriel College. Neate 
was called to the bar at I^incoln's Inn in 
1832, but an unfortunate fracas with Sir 
Richard Bethell, afterwards Lord AVestbury, 
terminated his career there. It was charac- 
teristic of Neate that, when at a subsequent 
period member of the House of Commons, 
he opposed the vote of censure which was 
passed upon his former opponent. By sup- 
porting Lord Palmerston's motion for the 
adjournment of the debate, Neate voted for 
the * old scoundrel,' as he was in the habit 
of styling Westbury {TimeSy 4 and 6 July 

In 1857 he was appointed Drummond pro- 
fessor of political economy at Oxford, but at 
the end 01 the five years for which the profes- 
sorship is held he was not again a candidate. 
Several pamphlets on economical subjects 
bear witness to his learning and activity at 
. this period. He was also examiner in the 
School of Law and History at Oxford in 
1853-4-5, and was appointed lecturer on the 
same subjects at Oriel in 1856. 

In earlier life Neate acted as secretary 
to Sir Francis Thomhill Baring (afterwards 
Ivord Northbrook) [q. v.] when chancellor of 
the excheauer (^183^-41), and he was elected 
member ot parliament for the city of Oxford 
in the liberal interest in 1857. He was, how- 
ever, a few months later unseated for bribery. 
His second election was to the parliament 
which sat from 1863 to 1868 ; and on the dis- 
solution he did not seek re-election. As a 
speaker in the House of Commons he was 
effective from his evident sincerity, but made 
no special attempts at eloquence. On re- 
tiring from parliament he lived wholly at 
Oxford, amia a large circle of friends, who 
esteemed him on account of his fearless 
honesty and outspokenness. He died senior 
fellow of his coUege on 7 Feb. 1879, and 
was buried at Adstock. 

Neate's writings convey an inadequate idea 
of his powers. Oxford residents still remem- 
ber the spare, somewhat ^aunt figure, and 
the keen eyes which flashed with wit. Many 
good sayings by him have been preserved. 

Thus, when speaking of some political leaders 
of a then failing party, he added : * Wherever 
I look I see only brilliant political sunsets.' 
He was a liberal of the old school ; inclined to 
reform, Ibut with certain paradoxical ten- 
dencies. His chivalrous disposition led him 
always to range himself on the weaker side. 
When he managed the estates of the college, 
he was always on t he side of the tenants, fi e 
favoured university reform till it was taken 
up by the government, and then resented its 
being forced upon the university, in his pam- 
phlet entitlea 'Objections to the Grovem- 
ment Scheme for the present Subjection and 
future Management of the Umversity of 
Oxford,* 1854. He opposed t he lavish outlays 
upon the new museum at Oxford, and when 
they had been voted, said : * Gentlemen, you 
have given science a laced shirt, and you must 
pay for it.' In the same way his opposition 
to free trade was very characteristic. He 
was by temperament somewhat a * laudator 
temporis acti.' Owing to his French educa- 
tion he had an exceptional mastery of that 
language. He wrote it with an eWance 
which elicited admiration from Frenchmen 
themselves. He was also a good Greek and 
Latin scholar of the old-fashioned type, and 
many humorous copies of verse in the latter 
language are familiar to old Oxonians, some 
of the happiest being directed against Lord 
Beaconsfield, whose policy and character he 
thoroughly disliked. He was at one time a 
well-known rider and steeplechaser. A good 
portrait of him, engraved on steel, is to be 
seen in one of the Oriel common-rooms. 

The pamphlets written by Neate chiefly deal 
with political questions. The most remark- 
able is that entitled ' Considerations on the 
Punishment of Death,' in which the bene- 
volence of his character was shown by his 
arguments for its abolition. His most im- 
portant pamphlets, besides those already 
mentioned, are: 1. 'Game Laws' (anon.), 
London, 1830. 2. * Arguments against Re- 
form ' (anon.), London, 1831. 3. 'Quarrel 
with Canada ' (anon.), London, 1838. 4. * Sum- 
mary of Debates and Proceedings in Parlia- 
ment relating to the Com Laws,' 1842. 

5. 'Dialogues des Morts; Guizot et Louis 
Blanc' (anon.), Oxford, 1848; Paris, 1849. 

6. 'Remarks on a late Decision of the Judges 
as Visitors of the Inns of Court,' 1848. 

7. * Introduction au Manuel Descriptif de 
rUniversit^ d'Oxford' (anon.), Oxford, 1851. 

8. * Observations on College Leases, Oxford, 
1853. 9. ' Remarks on the Legal and other 
Studies of the University,' 1856. 10. * An- 
swer to a recent Vote of Convocation,' 1858. 
11. *The proper Share of the University in 
the Board ofotreet Commissioners' (no aate, 



*• ■ 

^ 'r'^ 

' ' . -^ . .- ^^ 

^^ .* / // - . ;>-. - ^'-o' - - --! - .: ~:^\-z. - .-r^^ '. 'rr. :2i£ -iit. I??! . Hi* w.i.* 
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' '//» p '••/',, •>//•:-'. ^ .':/.-•,.'..-.'/ ^'r.Ar>i f:r.:-. r> .- K:.- 1 -r;:"— H- wa.* prt?t?nr at 

", /. '/,..' .*'.• ',f f '..-fA-. r ;. , f 1^ ,:-^r- -ir TL-ri:rl:il F:n i fc^aniu-rr in ImT. when 

.. :././•• ',♦ •r./ ,..♦,/,;,.-•. '■,..-. fy::r.- >.:■..-• \^'£z. -^'.-^z-ri the^surhopj-hip of the 

I. ./ ., V .','./"] *', ;ii. ',^' f ',-f;sr-:..r- firr..." • \V%T-r.'T Xvrlr :' i: the t-an-^wrrC pven in 

I '. / ' '."J ,f, *K/ •', /. f. of J orf>».-. 'J;.»-or.- hor. . ;r ■f" I»:ckr-* in 1S41 : at the similar 

,. .. r. .»/,' ',f ' ift-.f y/;,^ ftJ*«T«'l*'; N«.>.v«:i liTi'^*; :. Ir. Trc jTiition ofThackerav in lSo7 ; 

r •;.' \.,s\.t t f \,:tfl! ^, Kor/i .fi f>JjrJ/ ..vfj arj'i }.r j-r-v^ir-i at the L»-yden centenan' 

■ .. n*fi* !;•'/», /,ii^ «'}!jr;i«i'i ;i» M.'hiirh f;*-I^hr;i";on in l^r'i. H»- received the de^rree 

# '. .',i ..»•'! Kfiivi r. .1 7 Ml' f , utt'i uU*T ;i hnl- of rj..I». from Edinbunrh Univ»'rsity in 1mJ*J 
I . ' ..* ii/li n,if i,\ t itf(4 f //ii^ r;j|I''l t/, t|j«- liar and w^- eltc^ed li»r^l rector of St. Andrews 
•" '■' ' ' ''' "''"• ifttttn'l nil i'vfiri-i\<; pr:io- I'niv«r-iry in 1^7'J. Many of the voluminous 

• ...,•,».. 1 1 .1 ,1 in In ^ I Iff I y yi ;,r w/m .■iij.'iipf^rfj riiHnuscriprs which he left behind, especially 
III niiifi/ fliilii III! iirift iiii],',ihiul rn-i'^. At his translations and notes on Greek epigrams 
III. I iiuit Iff/Ill pliM'lini' 111 r,,n: fJH- (■/>iirl not ini-lud*xl in hi.s SVnthology,' would be 

iHiin, nri«| Mm jif.nirv iiliilily <if w»)rtliy of puMiaition. 

j M 1 . 1 1 1 ■/ I li f I ri 1 1 1 1 1 1 .J I i'. In i H II I SrfivusH princi pal works besides those 

I.- M ii|i|iiiiiifii| ndv'M Mf' til pull' wlii'ii Sir iioti<'cil are: 1. M)n Fiction as a Means of 

W .IJMM.i l(.i.. .| V I \MiM l.iiil iifUi.cnti., and Topiilar 'IVaching/ Kdinburprh, 1809. 1>. *A 

If I. I. Mill .1 Mill |M...ihiiii Inr liiiir yiiir-i. I'Voni (ilnnci^at some of the IVinciplesof Compara- 

• ' • •'" '"" ' !'«' w Ii.iiir ,,j Oi'liiirv iiii.l tivi' riiilolo^ry,' Kdinburgli, 1870. 3. *Lec- 

■ '" '' ' "" <••" ••■ii'imliMii III" Lnril Tn- turronC 'In'up ami Accessible l*leasures/Kdin- 

'I iH Mhm.I n.iji '.| * iiiMmx I'-i.'.i'Ni'MVrM ' Imr^rli, Ih7l>. 1. Mnaujjural Address as Lord 

|»|""ii«..l 'iMJii III. I ,m<iii.imI Snitlaiiil " |{«M'tor of th«' Tnivcrsitv of St. Andrews/ 

ti. I mmI |Ii.iIi\".. MiiiMiiiintriitiiMi. ||i< lirlil Kdlnliurirli, ls7M. 

"III.. I ill I ii>Mi\ 'ill. >iiiui|ihii)iii.liiniiMrv ISiVt: i^i • n c, ..1. 1,-.^. i *i -h^ 

. ,. .1. , ,, \ , 11 1 "ii • , (\iiin»l»Hl Smith M A\ritincs bv the ^\av. pp. 

iii-i III ilii- liillnuHif: \|'n Will niiulii a iudin» i.-L lh -■ . • *• ^- i * * 11 >f 

•'« ''"■ "MiM hI ii>.iiiih. iiiLiiu'. Mh« hilii ,if * ■" 

\ .1 I., till til,. x.uMn.\ nms.d liy NK^HTAN. a Tictish personal name, of 

Hi Ii till .«i t nt liliiini t n •< \i':n •alirrwiirds whirli ihrrc aro many examph'S variously 

'' n I ipii.Miii.Ml II I, .1,1 ,.( pi.ihMiHx.and ho >polt in tho •llironioloVof the Ticts in Soot- 

i.i! .1 Mil. oih, ,< \\\\\y\ hi. iI.'iMi .Ml '.':i iVc, Inn.!.' bcsidi's oihrrs in IMand : it i> sui>- 

\ •' Hi Mu|.>x\ . x^lt,» '.uixmd liim.\xa<a p»»Msl 10 survive in thr Irish and Scottish clan 

I .,.. Ill . . .<M .til M (, ,h«u.»M,M h.ili\o«.s.\\nicr namr> Macnaiihtcn or Macnaui:hton,and the 

* ■ '■ •••'■> o«,l i»M.' ,M his il.uii:h<iM'« xx.i'i pl.i\v uau;os Ihinuiclu'n « IV.n-ntvhcan t and 
Hx,^ I. .1 1.« «..».\\ M,;; u.\.M>tri.u.;hdKa judo* S»ch!a«s Mi^rt^ in l-Vr:AT>'hir»\ and jy^rhap^ 

■•' • "" -'^ , iMi NaiuMon in r;tt*shiT\\ l>:' the 

IX h. J- s» . .»,Mx \,xx*v x\ii« x^xnixUsl «> >o caV.isl. ov.K two arx* of his:,'»rici\ imjvr:- 




ance, both of whom were kings of the Plots 
— Nechtan Morbet or Morbreac, son of Erip, 
and Nechtan, son of Derelei or Bernard. 

Nechtan Morbet (d, 481 P) is said in the 
earliest verses of the Pictish chronicle or 
manuscript of the tenth century (Imperial 
Library, Paris, 4126) to have reigned * twenty- 
four years. In the third year of his reign, 
Darluffdach fq. v.], abbess of Kildare, came as 
an exile to Britain for the sake of Christ. 
The second year after her arrival Nechtan 
dedicated Abemethy to St. Brigit [q. v.], and 
Darlugdach, who was present, shouted Alle- 
luia in respect of that offering.' The same 
legend is repeated in the additions to the 
Irish Nennius. The cause of the offering is 
said by the Pictish chronicle to have been 
that Nechtan had been driven to Ireland 
during the reign of his brother Drust, and, 
having sought St. Brigit, she prayed God for 
him, and promised that if he returned to his 
country he would possess the kingdom of the 
Picts in peace. It is not possible to reconcile 
the probable date of Nechtan Morbet's reign 
(467 -8D with the probable dateof St.Brigit's 
life, as her death is recorded in the Irish 
annals in 523, 624, or 625. Still the circum- 
stantiality of the above statement as to the 
dedication of Abernethy appears to point, 
as so often happens, to a fragment of true 
historv, the dates of which have been mis- 
placea. Mr. E. W. Robertson (Early Scottish 
Kings, i. 10) conjectures that the foundation 
of Abemethy was antedated, and that its real 
founder was Nechtan MacDereli. This would 
accord better with its geographical position, 
but is inconsistent with the introduction of 
Darlugdach into the story and with the con- 
nection assigned to Abemethy with the Irish 
and not with the Roman church. 

Nechtan, son of Dereli or Dergard, king 
of the Picts (d. 732), is first mentioned as 
king of the Picts in 717, when he is said to 
have expelled * the family of lona* — that is, 
the clerics who followed the Irish customs 
— across the mountains (trans dorsum Bri- 
tanniae). He reigned, according to the earliest 
chronicle of the Picts, fifteen years, which 
synchronises with the date of his death in 
732 in the * Annals of Tighemach.' According 
to the legend of St. Boniface (Chronicles of 
Picts and Scots)^ that saint baptised him at 
Restenet, Forfarshire, along with his nobles 
and whole army. Bede, who narrates contem- 
porary facts, informs us that in 710 Naitan, 
as he calls the king, conformed to the Roman 
date of the observance of Easter, and sent to 
Ceolfrid, then abbot of Yarrow in Anglian 
Northumbria, with a request that he would 
supply him with the best arguments in 
favour of the Roman rule both with regard 

to Easter and the shape of the tonsure, in 
order to confute the heretical practices of the 
Celtic church. He also begged that archi- 
tects might be sent to instruct his couutrv- 
men how to build a church of stone after tne 
Roman fashion. The answer of Ceolfrid has 
been preserved, and was perhaps written by 
Bede nimself, at that time a monk of Yarrow. 
The adoption of these two svmbols of the 
Roman church throughout the territory of 
the Pictish king was the cause of the ex- 
pulsion from the Pictish territory of those 
Celtic monks who continued to recognise the 
Celtic customs. Skene conjectures that it 
was the publication of Nechtan's edict on 
these points which procured for the Moot- 
hill and Castle of Scone the titles of the Hill 
and Castle of Belief (Caislen Credi). A few 
years later Nechtan, after the fashion of so 
many early Celtic chiefs and kings, became 
a monk, and he was supplanted in the Pict- 
ish throne by Drust in 724 ; but, like the 
monks of that age, he did not abandon 
secular ambition or cease to fight for tem- 
poral power. In 726 he was tf^en prisoner 
and bound by Drust, as a son of Drust had 
been by Nechtan in the previous year. In 
728 Nechtan, after two victories over Drust's 
successor, Elphin or Alpin, one at Moncrieff 
and the other at Scone, both within a few 
miles of Perth, regained the kingdom. On 
12 Aug. 729 Drust was slain in a third battle 
at Drumderg or Mount Camo, the Cairn o' 
the Mount in Kincardineshire or the Meams, 
by Angus, another king or chief of the Picts. 

In 732 Nechtan died. Wyntoun in his 
* Chronicle 'credits Nechtan with the founda- 
tion of the church of Rosmarkiein Ross-shire, 
which afterwards became the cathedral of 
Moray (Cronykil of Scotland, v. 5819), 
but, by an error either in transcription or 
chronology, dates this foundation in 600 a.d. 
It would appear that the error is in the latter, 
for he places the foundation in the reign of 
Maurice, the emperor of the East, who was 
killed by Phocas in 602. It is not likely that 
Nechtan's power extended so far north as 
Ross ; Scone was his capital. Perthshire and 
the adjacent counties of Forfar and Fife 
were tne probable limits of his kingdom. 

The fact of his converting his subjects, as 
the result of his own conversion, to the Roman 
customs, and his consequent submission to 
the Roman see, appear to be clearly proved, 
on the authority oi JBede, to have taJsen place 
in the first or second decade of the eighth 
century, which substantially agrees with the 
dates in the Irish annals. This conversion 
and submission were almost contemporaneous 
with that of the monks of lona itseu through 
the influence of the example of Adamnan 

* > 

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K^^! ^r..! rje: .f* 'r.»r I J .r.-*.i'.lr- i-:!. •• 1 :* r i jrar. Al'"d-*. Nr^jk^zi ^^esi* ils*:- 1.? have been the 

sr.'J ' ..T. V, ha-. -■• ipp..-- : i .••■-.•=: Ei.i.-i'-'Ti.i-.p "t" .ii:'*""7 : : in-:!- • -rlri^uv: roem on. the m-mas- 

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''j .;irr.,' "o •Rr.i'ih j.^ r-:^!;-il :r. tL-; 'An:- ?pLr* wi-rk*. *.'f Li* :Tti:".?lat:C'n f * . Ea4?p*s Fabltrs ' 

/ ^/Vy/// Ahhnfi/tYi S. A ihoni. i. li*^) : if rhis **ory in'o elr£:ia«.'?. fix i\\ I-5 Lav- !y en printed fn.)m 

\< •'» ^/<: .•'■'-;•,• '1 a? ali, r!ii.-. vvr-ion of i:i? ■"'! a Pan? M.S. in K.'o.r'? 'Fables int-diie?,* 

J»«^*ir ;r»' r,'/.-."/ ^i.a.'i r},ar. ^^liot^d byTann-rr v.-L i. <>herp'>j2:>. as one * Dtr Conversioue 

^r,ui Pf ' , ' * o n '» f f J r i ry I . i f *• i > - 1 ip f ;' • ^^rd t o ha ve M ;i*:da Ir n .t .' ar»? kn >^\t: by name . but are iH?r- 

)fiti j^fj'rf of Hf. Nirihola*". Fx*-r*:r. hut of rhi* hap* n-t now irxranr. Ncn^kam also wrote 

\\,*r- M no \iTfi^tf. \\i\y\u'j[ h»-comean Aiigiii- trenris^rs on *rramm:ir. si.>m»:* i.>i' which are ex- 

Mri!;pn 1 ;iut,Uf h«; 'A fiy. in I Jl^i. fho=»;n abJy>r of tant. Uf Iiis I^-amin^ in r!ii> direction Uoiier 

f xri'uo *\f'.r. ft. U h^-t^rrt.*;'! that he visit ^-d Bacon said th:ir, though ' in many things he 

Wnuif with t}i«; Iri^hop of \Vorc*:"at*.'r '<k-v wr^tewhat was true and useful, he neither has 

f'*VA,f or ^#i:av, \V.w;m;k I>f;, archbishop of nor oukrhi to ha vt? any title to be reckoned an 

York , bpif flji--. i-< unlik'-Iy: for in his 'He authority' ( 0/>r-rff //ir///Y^, p. 4o7). Grammar 

f iiiii'hhir-t Iiivinfi;Snpi*rnt.i>i:/writt*.*n towards stems to have b*?enhis favourite pursuit, and 

th'- 'fi'l of hiK lif*', \\*: .ip'-nk.H of til*' upproacli when writing on other subjects he sometimes 

of i,\i\ mrc ii-i II l»jir to Huch a jouniey. lie stops to note >ome derivation which now 

v/im II j/H'/if. fiffil lit. rr,urt, at Komo period of apj)ear8 strange, lie also wrote a kind of 

hi! Iifi', Ifofhc'l fit. Kprnp-My in \V orc'.'Stf;r- j vocabulary in the form of a reading book, 

»liir'- in I '17, firirl wfm huri"d at \Vorc*?ftter ' entitled * De Utonsilibus/ of which there are 

i liiHff/r^ t/r /r///o/-///V/, Hiihnn.) IliH nick- I manuscripts in the British Museum (MS. 

iMimi', .Nifjiiiim, w/i.M Ko fn-'pi'-ntly uMod that Cotton, Titus D. 20), and at Caius College 

h( i;(iil|i(l hv ii ill ihn n-corr! of hiH d«.?ath and Pet erhouse, Cambridge. Some extracts 

iiimI III I ho i|iitii|ih Miid to havM liron placed from this have been printed bv Wright, llis 

*iii hi I'imh ( Wkiomt, /fiof/. Lit. ii. 4oO). other works arc commentaries on parts of 

till ifiii|ri> n\' Icfirninff whh wide, and lie ! scripture, theological tracts and sermons, and 

wifiii' niiirh mill fill vnrlouH HuliJertH. Botli ! commentaries on Aristotle, Ovid's 'MctAmor- 

»ii pMMsi' iiiiil viTHp h<' wniti' iM'lter Latin than | phoses/ and a portion of Martianus Capella. 




. 449-fi9 ; tbpre ia nothinji additional in the 
shonnoticeiaMorley'i English Wri Mrs, iii. 1S6; 
Itale', ed. 1687iTBLDer'a 
Bibl. Brit. pp. 639-42 (ft fall list of bis works) ; 
Hardj'B Cac Mat. iii. 67, SS (Rolls Ser.) ; Du 
Boalsj'a Hist. Uoiv. Faii>. ii. 427. 725; Hist. 
LitL de France, iriii. 621 ; Qwla Abbiitam 
Man. H. AllMDi, i. 196 (Rolls Ser.) ; Annals of 
Tewlieabni7, Hn. 1217, of DuHiUMe, ui. 1213,of 
Worcester, an. 1217, ap. Ann. Monastici, i. 63, ii. 
40, IT. 409 (RoIIb 8cr.)] W. H. 

PHItEY(d.l303),Cannelite,wBSB native of 
Norfolk according to Leland, of Suffolk ac- 
cording to Bale. Ha joined the Carmelite 
order while it was new in England. De- 
voting bimself to study, he went to Cam- 
bridge in 1259, and was tlie first Carmelite 
who took the decree of doctor of theology 
there. His preachingagaiust heretics in the 
BchooU and to the poputaca met with praiae 
(Bale, Sari. MS. 3838, f. 534). He was 
chaplain to William da Luda, bishop of 
Ely (1294-8) (Blombhelb, vi. 49). He 
died and was buried in the Carmelite house 
at Norwich 1303 (Bale, MS. loc. ci(.) His 
works, according to Bale, were : 1. Fourteen 
' Sermonea Uominicales,' or ' Sacrte Con- 
ciones,' in one book, beginning ' Omne dabi- 
tum dimisi tibi,' which some attribute to 
John Foulsliam (see Lelaud, Comment, ii. 
■MB). 2. 'Quiestiones ordinaria),' in one 
book. 3. ' Lectures ScbotasticK,' in one book. 
4. ' Super articulis tbeologicis,' in one book, 
No copies of these works are known to exist. 

[Pit», De Angliie ScHpt^irihus, p. 3SS ; Bale's 
Scriptorutn Cutiilogns, iv. 24 ; Tniiner's Biblio- 
Ibeca, p. G42 ; Leland's Commentani de Seripto- 
ribna,ii. 313.] M. B, 

NEEDHAM, CHARLES, fourth Vis- 
count KlLMOKBY (d. 1660), descended from 
Thomas, elder brother of Sir John Needham 
[q. v.], was second son of Robert (d. IB.'iS), 
second viscount, bj hie second wife, Eleanor, 
daughter of Thomas Button of Dutlon, Che- 
ahire, and widow of Gilbert, lord Gerard of 
Gerard's Bromley, StafTordshire. He suc- 
ceeded to the title in January 16o7 on the 
death, without issue, of his brother Robert, 
third viscount, who had three years pre- 
viously surrendered to him his interest in 
the family estates at Shavington, Shropshire. 
He was a staunch royalist, aud these es- 
tates suffered in consequence by sequestra- 
tion and otherwise (cf\ Act of Parliament 
for the Payment of the Debts of Charles, 
late Lord Vitcmmt Kilmorey, 29 Charles II, 
ch, T.) In August 16o9 he joined with Sir 
George Booth and the Earl of Derby in an 

attempt to restore Charles to the throne,which 
was defeated by General Lambert [q. v.]; and 
Lord,Kilmorev was taken prisoner to London, 
where he died suddenly tee followins year. 
He married, in February 1064, Bridget, 
eldest daughter of Sir William Drury of 
Drury House, London (which occupied the 
sita of the present Drury Lane theatre), and 
Beesthorpe, Norfolk, bv whom he had five 
sous (Charles, who died in infancy; Robert 
and Thomas, who succeeded to the family 
honours as fifth and sixth viscounts respec- 
tively; Byron, and a second Charles) and on» 
daughter. His widow remarried Sir John 
Shaw, bart. His descendant, Francis Jack 
Needham, twelfth viscount Kilmorey, is 
noticed separately. 

[Can nncl Pedigree of Robert viscount Kilt- 
morey on Claim to vote at Elections of Irish 
Peers, April 1813; Harrod'sHiat. of Shavington, 
pp. 90etseq, ; Lodge's Peerage, iv. 224 ; informa- 
tion kindly supplied by ^V. H. Weldon, esq., 
Windeor Herald ] T, H, 

known as 'Mother Needham '(d. 1781), a 
notorious procuress, kept a house in Park 
Place, near St. James's Street. She is said 
to have been employed by the infamous 
Colonel Charteris [see Cha uteris, Francis], 
and in ' Don Francisco's Descent into the 
Infernal Regions '^a satire published upon 
Charteris's death in February 1733— she is 
represented as proposing in hell to many the 
colonel, much to the tatter's horror and dis- 
gust. She is represented in (he first plate of 
Hogarth's ' Harlot's Progress,' in the courts 
yam of the Bell Inn, Wood Street, cajoling 
with flattering promises the then innocent 
Kate Hackabout on her first arrival in 
London. She is depicted as a middle-aged 
j woman, simpering beneath her patches, and 
well dressed in silk. The male figure lean- 
I ing on his stick, and leering at the maid 
I from the inn door, is supposed to represent 
I Charteris himself, while behind him stands 

Needham was committed to the Gate House 
on 24 March 1731, convicted of keeping a 
disorderly house on 29 April, and ordered to 
stand in the pillory over against Park Place 
on 30 April 1731, She is described in the 
contemporary ioumals as lying upon the 
pillory on her face; notwithstanding which 
evasion of the law, and the diligence of 
a number of beadles and other persons who 
had been paid to protect her, she was so 
severely pelted by the mob that her life 
was despaired of. She actually died on 
3 May 1731, declaring that what most 
affected her wts the terror of standing in the 



n .i rKHv ■ aa: sle • wn i zxiirr.c c rrr^a.' 

'. : ij ..- .i_i^ 'jL.Li, i 'zk r retu."** -rr. 1 ' > :i L * M : r ier 
j»h\-i . vkx> mclLv ^i-rti Ji Xj.t ir-:_. 

J .^i-u^i ■> Hir*.-:. i'i Air- iz-i •! Xij ::::. 

SL'.-k\v;'>'» »^'u:. -•: Si-rr-.-a- Prz"? >':»♦. Isi-j tiii 
■-'« '..< '. . tl -cakIi"* ''Vori?. el. N . :^:-_4 la: S>*i- ■s'L'*. 

N Kba>HAM. F^L\V. IS JTA IX. tt^ nl 

\ iM.\»i NV *::■.: dr?: Kiil ■. y 5 rut. 5:^1 

<*vMi ot" Joint. te:i:h viiOj in:. '17 Ai-r. ii::jii- 
iorv»f Jv»hti Hur'.-rs: c. rSi.. :: Xttt: -. »1\it- 

17 *S, Knroriri^ :*ir irzij Li IT-'i' l* 1 : :r:i-- 
III the ISth virao»r.T. b.* Ti^Lin^^i :-•.. ■■:■; 
l'*! vtni»^v»ii3 in 17»^y. 1:1 i '^j^rt^Az:.-. LriTr:::^::: 
III iliHt r\';ri''«':*ri' i" 177^5. ani cap'Ain :s ".ir 
l.lhvlra«^>m>:a 1774. H-:i*:rTr<i iir>^*h.r 
\\ h\»lo ot* t!ie Anivr:cj>n war ■■.:' ir-i^^-r. irr.'^r. 
Hiul wus takt'ii pri> r.rra' rL- -i-j-: . f Y rk- 
|x»\Mi. ^V!ion i-^tc-r -nr-ti r.r-.c'.ii:::-:^: ':> •«ri« 
|»l;ii*v\l t>ii hali-pAV. .>h"r.Iy ir'Tr^iri* :.r 

t'uivhast'U a maj-.'rltv in t:.-r "^.rL :' .•■•. Ir. 17"*;? 
ii* Invanu' lk-'-it»:aant-»:'.il-.'r-r:I in tlv l».4*ii 
i\Mt,anvl in the .sii:::':' v-irrxoLanzTi in'o'h*: 
l'»i fovit-iTuauls. In 17'-.<* hr [>:Ci=:-r ar. a: :-.- 
xlo v'jiuip tv> the kinj. In ii.-. rwo foII'Trir.iT 
vi'jirs \w SrTved in th*^ war with Fntn'^r. 

Ntvilham is )ksX kn i-.\-n for hi- aii-ri jn in. 

Irrlaml ilurin? tlir- r-Urllion of I7Il*-. Hr 

toiiiiunnJod the lovalijt tr''/*"^p-i a: thrr d-^ 

iM-iive battle of Arklow -"»n 1-* Jun- of thi- 

\ ear ; and it was hirjtrrl y owin:: to his Ci'-'anizr 

niitl skilful arrant:»'m».Tir* thar a b-dy of 

ivIk'Is. variouslv ••srimati^l at fmm nin-'^r-n 

(hi Ml sand to tliirty-f<nir thoiL*and. K-d by 

Father Michael Murphy '<j. v." iwho wa* 

iilleil in the batth- ), wu*. aft».-r thrt-v hours of 

lianl tiirhtinjr. defeat»^d by a furc^* not mor».* 

(hall sixteen hundn.d stronp-, and comf>o**."d 

fliietiv t>f militia and vcomfn. Dublin was 

( hus saved, and the back of the rfMlion ♦.•ffec- 

Oially broken in that part of the country*. 

Ni'fdham also crininianded one of the live 

v'olip*^ — "'hich, a little later in the same 

1 despatched by Tieneral l^ke 

EBAKD, first Viscount Laee^ 

rebel encampment at Vinejrar 

^r from some misunderstanding 

yith the actual desi^ of t<'m- 

aent with men^, an opening, 

i±-tr'v~Lr"i* icxir^vT. lif • V-****^^*?^'-* tjrAp/ was 
iiin :7 i-i* TTirg* irr^iir Lls*. *> cbir. wh-fn 
'z.-** Tim»i«£ lax^iai^. zzxtnL. rj^ss^h^rs of 
*«ir rt!:»*Lrf -MC:t2e«L S'-r^iiiiaa: b*K:fczi«^ colonel 
:r -ij* ri-irj. 5:i:c ::i l^l ;. |j,i ^--inl in I^I± 
I- I»ii:?*J2.:i*r I'Hi*: V-f^^rMT: •*E.:f»red the 
ri:-*^ :c' '^:c2Ji>:ii;* jj r^rsibtrr for the 
•:i:r: -Miii :c yt-vry. •v'L.^yz. '-•* u'^rrLtiniied to 

' .1 —•■ts.".*. y^w* •iin'j *iji-±sz trrch-er, Th«> 

zu.-- iibi Lei izj^ia^j^L lz 177:5, and in 
N:--r~ !»rr l*lr. :n '~zjz ieA:ii :n hi* second 
r:r:«*j.-*r ?-":»ir:. rvTTTC"[iTi.*c:'iz.: Kilmopf-T. 
'zr: * :v^.^:*T?>Hi : " ■:ii»* Terror?. In Februarr 
1*1^ hr- TTL? :?»?a:ei F.irl ::' Kll=::*rey and 
V_^:.:.i^-y-TT-rL:..£>I: iTZif: in i. In memorv 

■ ■ » r » - ■ • « I 

.- •ri'T piLT-ji :!i iT'il ::' Ai i-rr'.-f j. SLpjpehire, 
1" -k'^^i'z. S-u-T-Jir: rn Hxll. :-r Msai oi the 
>"--tr :'-.' — « ?ln>f 1V?>. > *i:ii:.fii. lie died 
1: 7fli"inx^:c :c. -L N:v. IsJ:i?, and was 

birlr-i in Aiirrlry Ciir:h, ^Le^r a menu- 
m-n: *:j.n i* :■' n_* m-rm ry. He was r^mem- 
'e^ri is 1 L"r»rrtl Linil ri ±ni a kind friend 
::' "Jir ro.r :n ni* -rxr-rn-five rsrares. 

H- mirr:-:-: :n i"-.' F-rC. 17?7 Anne, second 
ii:jn:r7 :: Pi:=li* F.^hrr of Ac^^n. Mid- 
ilr-^x. OT wz.-n: l-r b.A.itw;' juin? — -.^f whom 
tir e. ir*r. Frinri* Jack ■ 1 7>7-l >?•>), suc- 
c^T-I-ri : : :i.T -eirli :=: — ir.d eir-: iao^hters. 

\'u-^ -.n • ?■:•: ^rf-r :f ?. : ' r. V•5..-.^:l^.: Kill- 
r-.:>:y. .;- y'..^ -..- v ■:- ;.: r7.-.o:i:T:i of Ir.sii 
P:r:r?. Att:". 1>13. Lf-Az-*- r'e-r j-:-. ed. Arvrh- 
l:... \T :;_■?: H.Lrr:-!- K:?:':ry .■: <>-iTirirr.»n, 
I?-l. rp. II.' e: *«^;_ : Lc'.'iy* K:>:'-ry of Enj::- 
Li:. i ::.':>.-• K:«-'2*.r-_::: C-i::iry. riii. 13S et 
S/ij. ; Fn- ir's EejtIsI: :n Ir'-j^i. iii. 41i> rt seq.; 
M--jriv.'» Mt^I-Its i I':-ene~: Ketelliorji in 
Ir-:'. i:: i. -= : «■!. : : . 4.v«. 473 e: >c'^. : ri>wden'3 
H:-*-:r:.Mi :: :"-* Srav.- of Irv;iLd. vol. ii. 
p. i:. rp. 7->i*. 7-34. 'r>T : J .■-nL.*! .in L Correspond- 
»::.:■. :' Wii.iAr'. Lt: Ai:.k'.,vr:i. :v. 14 et ^e^. ; 
>-.-:z\ t:- T-tI nj:"* rc:>.r.dl Niirrririve, p. 114 ; 
Mtxweii's ll's'ory o: the Irisi: Ktiellion. pp. 
l-il -: sr^.{.: G:r ion's H:*:ory of th# Irish Ko- 
l •.- i i i • :■. , pi. 1 6 e : s^:; . ; in f.rm;i:i. >a ki ndl v 
pujiiiel Ly t;;e {ro-^.r.: E,ir: of Kiiaiorey and 
K'.V-rt Ntri-ILani Ca^^ e*:.: T.'H. 


ijl. 1-"^^)), archit«i*t and master-carpenter, 
l.i^loniTed to a IVrbvshire familv iCl'ss.vxs, 
Ilertfonhhire, ii. i V 1 . In 17)23 he acc»:>m- 
panied the Duke of Suifolk's army to France, 
and hi-i name npjiears amonj^; the pioneers 
and artificers in Sir William Skevington's 
retinue as a master carpenter in the receipt 
of twrlve pence a day. In September 17)25 
he was appointed by prrant a punner in the 
Tower of l^ondon. After 1-5:30 Xeedham's 
name frequently occurs in the State Papers 
in connection with the building operations of 
the king and Cromwell. He was appointed 




clerk of the king's works on 30 April 1630, 
and during that and the two following years 
was engaged in devising and superintending 
the building alterations which were carried 
out at Esher. York Place, and Westminster 
Palace. In September 1532 he was engaged 
in the * re-edifying* of St. Thomas's tower 
within the Tower of London, and was oc- 
cupied on that and other works in the Tower 
during the next three years. In April 1533 
he was appointed by grant clerk and overseer 
of the king's works in England. An entry 
among the records of the Carpenters' Com- 
pany shows that Needham was master of 
the company in 1536. From 1537 to 1541 
large sums of money passed through his 
hands for works and alterations at the king's 
manors of Otford, Knole, Pet worth, and 
More {Arundel MS, 97); and about this 
time he signs himself as ' accountant, sur- 
veyor-general, and clerk of the king's works ' 
{Addit 3f/S. 10109, f. 173). Needham is 
doubtfully said to have died in 1546. 

On the dissolution of the monasteries the 
priory of Wymondlev in Hertfordshire was 
granted to James Needham for a term of 
twenty years, and subsequently an absolute 
grant 01 this property was made to his son, 
and it continued in his family until 1731. 
There was a brass plate in Wymondley 
church erected by his grandson to the memory 
of Needham, in which mention was made of 
his services to the king in England and 
France, and of the fact that his body ' lieth 
buried in our lady-church of Bolvine.' 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom. Hen. VIII ; 
Jupp's Hist, of Carpenters' Company; Diet, of 
Architecture ; Cussans's Hertfordshire, vol. ii.] 

W. C-B. 

NEEDHAM, Sir JOHN (</. 1480), judge, 
was third son of Robert Needham (d. 1448) 
of Cranach or Cranage, Cheshire, and brother 
of Thomas Needham, from whom was de- 
scended Robert Needham, created Viscount 
Kilmorey in the peerage of Ireland in 1625 
[see Needham, Charles, fourth Viscount 
Kilmorey]. His grandfather William mar- 
ried, in 1375, Alice, daughter of William de 
Cranach, whose family had long been settled 
in Cheshire ; she brought her husband, as her 
dowry, half the manor of Cranage (Ormerod, 
iii. 78). John's mother was Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Savage, K.G., of Clifton, 
Cheshire (Visitations of Shropshire, Harl. 
Soc. ii. 371 ; Harrod, History of Shavington, 
pp. 18-21). 

On 28 Dec. 1441 John was elected M.P. for 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, being again returned 
for that constituency in 144^7 and 1448-9. 
On 6 Oct. 1449 he was elected member for 
Londoiii for ,which in the same year he was 

common Serjeant ( Official Returns, i. 333, 336, 
339, 342). On 1 Feb. 1453 he was caUed to 
the degree of the coif, and on 13 July in tho 
same year was appointed king's serjeant ; pro- 
bably this last appointment was temporary, 
for in 1454 he was again made king's serjeant 
* pro hac vice tantum ' {Cat. Rot. Pat, p. 296). 
His arguments in this capacity are reported 
in the year-books until 9 May 1457, when h& 
was appointed justice of common pleas. He 
retained his post under Edward IV, received 
a fresh confirmation of it and was knighted 
on 9 Oct. 1470, when Henry VI was restored, 
and was again appointed in May 1471, after 
Edward IV's return (Dugdale, Chronica 
Series, pp. 65, 70). He was a trier of peti- 
tions from England and Wales in 1461 , 1463, 
1472-3, and 1477 (Rolls of Pari. v. 461 b, 
496 b, vi. 3^ 34«, 167^, \8\b, 296 a); he 
also frequently acted as justice of assize in 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, and was chief 
justice of Chester (Notitia Cestrensis, i. 258). 
His judgments are recorded in year-books as 
late as Hilary term 1479, and he died on 
25 April 1480; he was buried at Holmes- 
Chapel, Cheshire, where a monument was 
erected with an inscription to his memory. 

Needham married Margaret, youngest 
daughter of Randal Manwaring of Over- 
PeVer, Cheshire, and widow of AVilliam, son 
of Sir John Bromley of Baddington ( Visita-- 
tions of Shropshire, Harl. Soc. ii. 371). He 
left no issue, and settled his lands in Holme, 
called Hallum-lands, Cheshire, which he had 
purchased in 1471 from Thomas Chickford, 
with all his estate, on his next brother, 
Robert Needham of Atherley (Ormerod, i. 
544). He also had a seat at Shavington, 
Shropshire, which subsequently descended to 
the Earls of Kilmorey. His sister Agnes 
married John Starkey of Oulton (Lancashire 
and Cheshire Wills, 1. 11). 

[Rolls of Pari. vols. v. vi. ; Ciil. Rot. Pat. 

pp. 296,316; Rymer's Foedera, ed. 1745, vii. 

178; Dugdale's ChroDica Ser. pp. 65, 70, and 

Origines Joridiciales, p. 46 ; Official Returns of 

Members of Parliament ; Notitia Cestrensis and 

I Lancashire and Cheshire Wills, published by the 

I Chetham Soc. ; Visitation of Cheshire (Harl. 

! Soc.) ; Ormerod's Hist, of Cheshire, i. 370, 544, 

iii. 71, 78, &c. ; Philipps's Grandeur of the Law ; 

Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, iv. 

219 seq. ; Harrod's Hist, of Shavington, pp. 18- 

21 ; Foss's Judges of EngUind.] A. F. P. 

(1713-1781), catholic divine and man of 
science, bom in London on 10 Sept. 1713, 
was eldest son of John Needham and Mar- 
garet Lucas, his wife, both of whom were 
well descended. His father was a member 
of the younger and catholic branch of the 




family of Needham seated at Hilston, Mon- 
mouthshire ; the head of the elder and pro- 
testant branch was Lord Ealmorey, created a 
viscount in 1625 [cf. Needham, Charles]. 
The father, a barrister in London, died young, 
leaving a considerable fortune and four chU- 
dren, two of whom became priests. 

John prosecuted his studies under the se- 
cular clergy of the English College at Douay, 
where he arrived 10 Oct. 1722. He was 
absent in England from ill-health between 
31 May 1729 and 12 June 1730, received 
the tonsure at Arras on 8 March 1731-2, 
and was ordained priest at Cambrai on 
31 May 1738. From 1736 till 1740 he taught 
rhetoric in the college. In 1740 he was 
ordered to the English mission, and direct^ 
with great success the school for catholic 
youth at Twyford, near Winchester. About 
1744 Needham went to Lisbon to teach philo- 
sophy in the English College, but, disliking 
the climate, he returned to England after a 
stay of fifteen months. 

Needham had always interested himself in 
natural science, and during the following 
years, spent partly in London and partly in 
Paris, he made important microscopical ob- 
servations, which he described in the * Pliilo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society 
of London * in 1749. An account of them 
was also given in the first volumes of his 
* Natural History ' by Needham's friend i 
Buffon, the French naturalist, with whom 
Needham did much scientific work. On 
22 Jan. 1746-7 Needham was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society of London, being 
the first of the English catholic clergy who 
was admitted to that honour (Thomson, 
Hi/it of Royal Soc. App. p. xliv). On 10 Dec. 
1761 he was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries of London. 

In 1751 Needham travelled abroad as 
tutor to the Earl of Fingall and Mr. Howard 
of Corbie. Subsequently he accompanied 
Lord Gonnanston and Mr. Towneley in the 
same capacity; and lastly Charles Dillon, 
eldest son of Henry, eleventh viscount Dillon, 
with whom he spent five vears in France 
and Italy (1762-7). At the end of 1767 
Needham retired to the English seminary at 
Paris, where he devoted himself solely to 
scientific pursuits; and on 26 March 1768 
he was chosen a member of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences. In 1768 a literary society 
was founded at Brussels by the government 
of the Austrian Netherlands. Needham was 
appointed chief director of the new society 
in February 1768-9. It rapidly grew into 
the Imperial Academy, which was established 
in 1773, and Needham held the same office 
in relation to it till May 1780. The govern- 

ment also appointed him to a canonry in the 
collegiate church of Dendermonde^ and he 
afterwards exchanged it for another canonry 
in the collegiate and royal church of Soignies 
in Hainaut, being installed on 29 Nov. 1773. 
He was elected a member of the Royal 
Basque Society of Amis de la Patrie, esta- 
blished at Vittoria in Spain, 19 Sept. 1771 ; 
of the Soci6t6 d'Emulation of Li^ 10 Oct. 
1779; and of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland 28 July 1781. He died at Brussels 
on 30 Dec. 1781, and was buried in the 
vaults of the abbey of Coudenberg. 

According to his biographer, the Abb6 
Mann, Needham was a pattern of piety, 
temperance, and purity; passionate in hiis 
opposition to infidels, and so simple and can- 
dia as to be often the dupe of the dishonest. 
For more than thirty years he enjoyed a 
high reputation as a man of science. He was 
a keen and judicious observer, and had a 
peculiar dexterity in confirming his observa- 
tions by experiments; but he was some- 
times too precipitate in his generalisations. 
*His pen,' observas the Abb6 Mann, *was 
neither remarkable for fecundity nor method ; 
his writings are rather the great lines of a 
subject expressed with energy and thrown 
upon paper in a hurry than finished treatises.' 

His works are : 1. ' An Account of some 
New Microscopical Discoveries founded on 
an Examination of the Calamary and its 
Wonderful Milt-vessels, &c./ London, 1745, 
8vo ; translated into French (* D^couvertes 
faites avec le Microscope,' Leyden, 1747, 
12mo) by a professor at Leyden, who added 
remarks of his own ; and again by Lavirotte 
(* Nouvelles Observations Microscopiques,* 
Paris, 1750, 12mo), with a letter from the 
author to Martin Folkes. 2. * A Letter from 
Paris, concerning some New Electrical Ex- 
periments made there' (anon.), London, 1746, 
4to. 3. * Observations upon the General 
Composition and Decomposition of Animal 
and Vegetable Substances ; addressed to the 
Royal Society,' London, 1749, 4to. In this 
work he laid the foundations of the physical 
and metaphysical system which he main- 
tained throughout his life with little varia- 
tion. 4. ^Souvelles Observ'ations Micros- 
copiques, avec des d6couvertes int6ressantes 
sur la composition et la decomposition des 
corps organises,' Paris, 1750, 12mo, pp. 524. 
This work contains the development of the 
author's system. The *Biographie MMicale' 
says: 'Needham maintains tnat nature is 
endowed with a productive force, and that 
every organised substance, from the most 
simple to the most complex, is formed by 
vegetation. He undertakes to prove that 
animals are brought to life from putridity, 




that they are formed by an expansive and a 
resistent force, and that they degenerate into 
vegetables. Generally speaking, his ideas 
arc difficult of comprehension, TOcause they 
are set forth without lucidity or method/ 

6. * Observations des Hauteurs faites avec le 
baromdtre au mois d'Aoust, 1761, sur une 
partie des Alpes,' Berne, 1760, 4to ; reprinted 
in Needham's 'Xouvelles recherches sur les 
D^couvertes Microscopinues,' ii. 221. 6. *De 
Inscriptione quadam ^gjrptiadL Taurini in- 
venta, et Characterlbus JEgyptiacis, olim 
Sin is communibus, exarata, laolo cuidam 
antiquo in Regia universitate servato, ad 
utrasque Acadumias, Londinensem et Pari- 
eiensem, rerum antiquarum investigationi et 
studio prsepositas, data Epistola,' Rome, 
1761, 8vo. In this work, which produced a 
fCTi*at sensation among the antiquaries of 
Europe, Needham endeavoured, by means of 
the Chinese characters, to interpret an Egyp- 
tian inscription on a bust, supposed to be 
that of Isis, wliich is preserved at Turin. 
His ingenious theory was completely refuted 
by Cluignes and Bartoli in the * Journal des 
Savans ' (December 1761 and August 1762) ; 
also by Winckelmann and Wortley Mon- 
tague. The Jesuits, assisted by the Chinese 
literati, decided that the characters in ques- 
tion, though four or five bore a sensible re- 
semblance to as many Chinese ones, were 
not genuine Chinese characters, having no 
connected sense nor proper resemblance to 
any of the difierent forms of writing, and 
that the whole inscription had nothing 
Chinese on the face of it ; but, in order to 
promote discoveries, they sent an actual col- 
lation of the Egyptian with the Chinese 
hieroglyphics engraved on twenty-six plates. 

7. 'Questions sur les Miracles,' Greneva, 1764, 
8vo, Lond. 1769, 8vo ; a collection of letters 
which passed between Needham and Vol- 
taire. 8. * Nouvelles recherches sur les d6- 
couvertes Microscopiques et la g6n6ration 
des corps organises ; traduites de Tltalien de 
M. rAbb6 Spalanzani ; avec des notes, des 
Recherches physiques et m^taphysiques sur 
la Nature et la Religion, et une nouvelle 
Th§orie de la Terre, par M. de Needham,' 
2 vols. London and Paris, 1769, 8vo. Ap- 
pended to the second volume is Needham's 
* Relation de son voyage sur les Alpes, avec 
la mesure de leurs hauteurs, compar6es k 
celles des Cordilleres.' 9. * M^moire sur la 
maladie contagieuse des betes k comes,' 
Brussels, 1770, 8vo. 10. ' Id6e sommaire ou 
Tue g6n6rale du syst^me Physique et M6ta- 
physique de M. Needham sur la g6n6ration 
oes corpe organises/ first printed at the end 
of 'La vraie Philosophic' of the Abb6 
Monestier (BnuselB, 1780, 8vo), and after- 

wards separately (Brussels, 1781, 8vo). In 
this work he modifies, and even retracts, 
some of his ideas which seemed to tend 
towards materialism ; but he does this in an 
obscure and embarrassed manner, and he 
complains particularly of the consequences 
which had been deduced from his system by 
the Baron von Holbach. 1 1. * Principes de 
I'Electricit^, traduits de TAnglois de Mylord 
Mahon,' Brussels, 1781, 8vo. 

A list of his communications to the * Phi- 
losophical Transactions of the Royal Society * 
will be found in Watt's *Bibliotheca Britan- 
nica.' His contributions to the 'M6moires 
de TAcad^mie Imp6riale et Royale des 
Sciences et Belles Lettres de Bruxelles ' in- 
clude treatises on the nature and economy 
of honey-bees ; a collection of physical ob- 
servations, and observations on the natural 
history of the ant. A complete list is given in 
Namur's * Bibliographic Acad^mique Beige,' 
pp. 6, 21, 36, 43, 56. 

Needham edited the translation into French 
verse by John Towneley of Butler's * lludi- 
bras,' London (Paris), 3 vols. 17o7, 1 2mo, and 
* Lettre de Pekin, sur le g6nie de la langue 
Chinoise, et la nature de leur 6criture sym- 
boUque, compar^e avec celle des Anciens 
Egypt iens ; en r6ponse h celle de la Soci6t6 
Royale de Londres, sur le meme sujet : avec 
un Avis Pr61iminaire de M. Needham, et 
quelques autres pieces/ Brussels, 1773, 4to. 
This was written by Father Cibot, S.J. 

[Life by the Abbe Mann in * Memoires de 
TAcad^niie de Bmxelles,' 1783, vol. iv. introd. 
pp. xzxiii. seq. ; Ellis's Letters of Eminent Lite- 
rary Men, pp. 418, 422 ; Button's Philosophical 
and Mathematical Diet. 1815; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man.(Bohn). p.3.36; Monthly Review, 1784, Ixx. 
624; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 605; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. vii. 283, 636 ; Nouvelle Biog. G6n^- 
rale, xxxvii. 602 ; Nouveau Diet. Hist.] T. C. 

CHAMONT (1620-1678), journalist, was 
bom at Burford in Oxfordshire, and baptised 
there 21 Aug. 1620. His father, also named 
Marchamont Nedham,bom of genteel parents 
in Derbyshire, matriculated at St. John's 
i College, Oxford, 16 June 1610, and took the 
{ degree of B.A. from Gloucester Hall 19 Feb. 
1611-12. He was afterwards an attendant 
on the Lady Elizabeth Walter (wife of Sir 
William Walter of Sarsden, near Burford), 
and died in 1621. Nedham's mother was 
Margery, daughter of John Collier, the host 
of the George Inn at Burford, who took as 
her second husband, in 1622, Christopher 
Glynn, vicar of Burford and master of the 
free school there (Wood, Athena Oxon, iii. 
1180; Foster, Alumni Oxon, 1st ser. p. 
1055). Nedham was educated at Burford 

Ncedham i6o Needham 

pearci ill t lie subiicriptlon book under 22 Jan. week sacrifidng to the beist of muiT heads 
1<5«'50 ^^f and he took hU bachelor s degree the fame of some lord or person of qnalitTy 
on 'I^ Oct. 1637 (ib,) After a short stay nay, even of the king himself/ '^^ " 

presided by one Mr. Will. Staple ; * and between the two Honaes of Parliament, and 

lal4'r, * upiH the change of the times, he be- other scandaloos paiticolarB not fit to be 

cam<f an under clerk in Orray's Inn, where, by tolerated.' He was arrested by order of the 

virtue of a good legible court-hand, he ol^ lords, owned the authorship of the last 

tained a comfortable subsistence' (Wood), eighty numbers of 'Britannieos' (which 

JIu was admitted a member of Grav's Inn on seems to show that Audley was the sinthor 

7 July lf5o2, as 'of the city of \Vestmin- of the earlier numbers), and was committed 

ster, gent * (Foster, Oray'$ Inn Itegisterf to the Reet (23 May 164C). Xedham ap- 

p. 261 ). During the early part of his career pealed to the Earl of Denbij^h to present his 

>'odlmm also studied medicme, but soon dis- petition for release, protesting his loyalty to 

covf^red that his natural vocation was jour- the House of Lords in spite of any eiron 
nalism. - which might have fallen nom his pen, and 

The ' Mercurius Britanicus ' («ic) is dis- was relei^ed on 4 June 1646. But he was 
tinguished by several marked character- ' obliged to give bail to the extent of 200/. 

tion of the people,* but was in reality little 
more than a railing commentary on the 
news of the day. Its object was to answer 
the statements of the royalist * Mercurius 
Aulicus,' and to refute the charges brought 
there against the parliamentary cause and 

Comm, 4th Rep. iv. 273). Debarred £rom 
journalism, Ne^am turned to medicine, and 
describes himself on the title-page of a 
pamphlet published in 1647 as ' Med. Pr.' 

In 1647 Nedham, for some unexplained 
reason, resolved to change sides. ' Obtaining 

its leaders. The first number is dated the favour of a known royalist to introduce 
16-22 Aug. 1643. Of this journal Nedham him into his Majesty's presence at Hampton 
was from the Ixjginning the chief, if not the Court, he then and there knelt before him and 
sole, author, tliough its nisjwnsible editor desired forgiveness for what he had written 
seems to have Ixion Captain Thomas Audley, against him and his cause ; which being 
aiul it is not always easy to decide whether ' readily granted, he kissed his Majesty's hand 
Audley or Nedham is referred to in the at- (Wood). In defence of the king he published 
tacks of the royalists u]K)n * Dritannicus.* i a newspaper, entitled * Mercurius Pragmati- 
The scurrility and boldness of Nedham's cus,' * communicating intelligence from all 
writings soon made him notorious. One | parts touching all affairs, designs, humours, 
number parodied Charles I's 8])e»'ch to the and conditions, throujjfhout the kingdom, es- 
inhabitants of Somerset ;iinotlier commented j pecially from Westminster and the Head- 
wit h the greatest frwdom on the king's Quarters.' The first number is dated 14-21 
h»ttt'rs taken at XaHoby (Mercuriin* liritanni' \ Sept. 1647. Like ' Mercurius Britannicus/ 
vv!* ( J- 13 May 1644; 21 -H July 1645). In it consists mainly of commentaries on the 
thi«* number for 4 Aug. 1645 N«Klham printed news of the day, but it does contain a good 
n • Hue and Cry after a Wilful King . . . | deal of information not to be found else- 
whirh hath gone astray these four Years where, especially with regard to proceedings 
(Vmn his Parliament, with a guilty Con- in the two houses of parliament. It is for 
■iniince bloody Hands, and a Heart full of that reason frequently quoted by the com- 
li«>ken'Vow8 and Protestations.* For this | pilers of the * Old Parliamentary History.' 
|p '^ monarchy Audley was committed One of the characteristics of this newspaper 

4tehouse, and Nedham seems to is that each number begins with four stanzas 
d the same fate {Lords' Joumahj of verse on the state of public affairs. Its 
19; Hut, MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. ' royalism is combined with bitter hostility 
Jicus his Hue and Cry (^ter Bri- to the Scots, shown even after they had 

invaded England to restore the king, and in 

615, 4to; Mercurius Anti-Britan- 
he second part of the King's Cabinet 
ifnmt^ *' ^^an impoten t 

4 t 

the scurrility of its attacks on political 
enemies it matched ' Britannicus.' Crom- 

Qate-Housef well, for instance^ b referred to as ' Copper- 




Nose/ * Nose Almighty,* and * The Town- 
bijl of Ely.* Nedham*8 journal, says Wood, 
' beinjBf very witty, satirical against the pres- 
byterians, and full of loyalty, made him 
known to and admired by the brayadoes and 
wits of those times.* The goyemment sought 
to suppress it, and Richard Lownes, itspnn- 
ter, was committed to prison by the House 
of Commons on 16 Oct. 1647 (CommoTW* 
Journals, y. 335). Nedham was obliged to 
leaye London, and for a time lay concealed in 
the house of Dr. Peter Heylyn [q. y.] at Min- 
ster Lovel in Oxfordshire (Wood, iii. 1181). 
In June 1649 he was caught and committed 
to Newgate, but was discharged three months 
later (14 Noy.) on taking the ' engagement ' 
{CaL State Papers, Dom. 1649-60, pp. 537, 
554). According to Wood, Speaker Lenthall 
and John Bradshaw sayed his life, procured 
his pardon, and engaged him to adopt the 
cause of the Commonwealth. Thefirstfruitof 
his conyersion was the publication, on 8 May 
1650, of *The Case of the Commonwealth 
of England stated: or the equity, utility, and 
necessity of a submission tx) the present 
Goyemment cleared, out of Monuments both 
Sacred and Ciyil . . . With a Discourse of 
the Excellency of a Free State aboye a 
Kingly Government.* In his address *To the 
Reader * Nedham boldly begins : * Perhaps 
thou art of an opinion contrary to what is 
here written ; I confess that for a time I myself 
was so too, till some causes made me reflect 
with an impartial eye upon the affairs of 
the new goyemment.* For this thorough- 
going and cynical yindication of the goyem- 
ment, the council of state yoted Nedham 
a gift of 50/., and ordered him for the future 
a pension of 100/. a year, • whereby he may 
be enabled to subsist while he endeavours the 
service of the Commonwealth* (24 May 
1650 ; Cal State Papers, Dom. 1650, p. 14). 
Nedham next unaertook the editorship of 
a new weekly paper, entitled 'Mercurius 
Politicus,* the ffrst number of which was 
published on 13 June 1650. * Now appeared 
in print,' writes Heath, ' as the weekly 
champion of the new Commonwealth, and to 
bespatter the King with the basest of scur- 
rilous raillery, one Marchamount Needham, 
under the name of Politicus, transcendently 
gifted in opprobrious and treasonable droll, 
and hired therefore by Bradshaw to act the 
second part to his starched and more solemn 
treason ; who began his first diurnal with an 
invective against Monarchy and the Presby- 
terian Scotch Kirk, and ended it with an 
Hosannato Oliver Cromwell* {Chronicle, ed. 
1663, p. 492 ; cf. The Character of Mercurius 
Politicus, 1660, 4to). The most character- 
istic feature of ' Meieurius Politicus ' was 

the leading article, sometimes a commentary 
on the situation of public affairs, sometimes 
a short treatise on political principles in 
general, which was frequently continued from 
number to number. Milton was charged^ 
from about March 1651, with the general 
supervision and censorship of 'Mercurius 
Politicus,* and Professor Masson suggests 
that certain passages in these leading articles 
may have been written or inspired by him 
{Life of Milton, iv. 324-35). 

The government also employed Nedham*s 
pen in connection with its foreign policy. 
On 14 Oct. 1650 he was instmcted * to put 
into Latin the treatise he wrote in answer to 
a Spanish piece written in defence of the 
munierers of Mr. Ascham * ( CaL State Papers, 
Dom. 1650, p. 387). On 10 Feb. 1653 he 
was voted 1200/. * for his great labour in trans- 
lating Mr. Selden's " Mare Clausum ** * (ib. 
1652-3, p. 486). Cromwell continued Ned- 
ham's pension, and maintained him as editor 
of ' Mercurius Politicus.* To this he added 
also the editorship of the * Public Intelli- 
gencer,* an official journal of the same nature 
as the * Mercurius Politicus,* but published 
on Mondays instead of Thursdays (Masson, 
iv. 52). 

Nedham was also conspicuous as a cham- 
pion of the Protector's ecclesiastical policy. 
He attended the meetings of the fiftn- 
monarchy men at Blackfriars, and reported to 
the Protector the hostile sermons of Christo- 
pher Feake [q. v.] and other leaders of that 
sect {Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1653-4, 303, 
393; cf. Thurloe, iii. 483^. When John 
Goodwin [q. v.] attacked tne Triers, Ned- 
ham took up their defence, and treated 
Goodwin with his usual scurrility (Han- 
BiTBY, Historical Memorials relating to the 
Independents, iii. 432). Goodwin retorted 
by describing Nedham as having * a foul 
mouth, which Satan hath opened against the 
truth and mind of God,' and as being 'a per* 
son of an infamous and unclean character ' 
( Triumviri, 1658, Preface). The charge against 
Nedham*s morals was also repeated in a 
defence of Goodwin, entitled * A Letter 
of Address to the Protector,' by a writer 
styling himself D. F. (4to, 1657, p. 3). After 
Cromwell*s death these attacks redoubled. 
Nedham was denounced as ' a lying, railing 
Rabshakeh,anddefamerof the Lord^ people.' 
His removal from all public employment 
was demanded. * They that like him, or are 
like to him, will say: '*He is a man of 
parts, and hath a notable vein of writing." 
Doubtless so hath the Devil ; . . . must 
therefore the Devil ... be made use of P ' 
{A Second Narrative of the Late Parliament, 
1658, p. 37 ; .^ True Catalogue of the Places 


,i::i 102 Need ham 


V .». 

». \ 

V. • - * 


'1 . • 

■...:. ■,: / /Vi- I ouintoniuice it in the scluwls/ and answers: 

.■ . : .' : ■-.:'>:* *!i-nun- * It' t hese sckismatic schoolmasters were given 

■; '..-^T^.i-.Tir:!!. on I ]\v thf vicar-prenoral licence to pnictice 

\.s'...s:v. tn^ni the ■ phvsii* instead of teach fichools/ it would W 

.* '• *.:' ;•'/. 1 j;»iu'iT.' s:il'fr lor t he public. Xedham's orthodoxy was 

\..^. iAl^w in»: probably i>nly skin-deep; in medicine, at all 

'S>v IVolVs- t'Vfnts. lu» remained an opt'U heretic niifl 

. • .■ \\.»rvi:n»: of MMlVtT. His * Medela Meaicina?/ publii^h^Hl 

■ • ■.\..:'. * n't a in in ltU».'>. w:is *a plea for the frfC profi-ssiun 

» :\'. . >-.i>Miirini: and renovation of the art of physic,' an at- 

X ■•.-... -i ■■•. il NVood Xiw\i im the College of Physicians and it? 

« u^:vr %':;r;.'l methods, and a complaint of the neglect of 

/ « .V'. :h:' tlrs: ohomiMrytor anatomy. This attracted several 

.» ■ S" :* V ^^ v>'*,»\. ri»l'nrati.^ns. due rather to its viirour than its 

O: .. iii. inirins'i- value. * Four champions/ hoa<te<l 

No.lhrim, * wr»re employed by the (!^ollriire of 

.•■'o .*r.-/ A^n o!* r]i\ >ii^i:ins to write ajrainst this book/aiMinp 

.X. \x ;. v..^: -.o." that twodif'd shortly after wanls, the third 

V\ :lu' ! v^k t/i drinlc, and the fourth asked his pnr- 

»1 »:i piiMioly. ' i-onfessiii^" that ho was si*t on 

bx v.w brnhorhoixl of the confederacy' 

•. -.^vx- . \\\:oii. .■l^^';^^ ()p'?i.iii.llS7>. Th»»provem- 

:v.- !i: of rharl-»s 11 s-^farc-^ndoned Nedliam's 

11. i».>: ].\ otiVnovs that it even employeil 

!.> 'jvn T "» a:tai-k th*- parliamentary* oppo>i- 

T: 'T. av.s'. !:> l:\i.ior?. Ne.lham assailed thfm 

1 ■,■.:•■.•■ .V. :.i'i *lVior;': of Advi.v* to the Men of 

W .\ \' V ■ S".'*/:;>Vurv "i 1»C'>». f^r which s^*rvict^ h»* is 

V >■ i x x- ".'•.■-- v\:.: :^ V.r/vr- K v. paid -VKV.. and po«sil>ly 

"' . ': A : ■ * V '■: T:- -/^, p". :n2». A cir- 

X . •• • V. . ^- .•-.>•;.••:■...". .•■,.\".;::: .;:' his in!r">tluctioii to 

:..>■.■. V..-'. :* 1 »;.:•/■ y ry .Tr,>*ioe Warcup is 

■ X ^x '■ ^ ■..'■>•. :\ ^^ -.Trr.'.rT.'.rv '.■■:r.::i»hlot i'N<^Pro- 

V ; ' .• V ;. >:..-: r; :;:r-:?. -i:\i^. :ii*.p.oS». Buthe 

X . X , ■ . \ .'. ,'..•■;: 1 *:v ■*"."v :li:- :ri;:!s of this new 

\ ■ \\- i N .•■•.■' XV.-.; v.: • r.. ■>'.:: "s* *-• mMtabl*?. 

^^ ^ , - % :■ :-...'. r.^ .s ;•'.. r." <:.ys W.^.v^, • .livd sud- 

. \ V: ■ .■ v. X . :'. ■.;.:^v :' ::■ K: lVv.'r»Mix 

•..•■» • v" .. •• r ":-.-:•*. 'R-.r.l. -v. :^r.. in l»>rs and 

'^ ■ »* V . » ^ xx-.> '. :-. .; - -}:.-: i'*-":: i" N vrinV-er a! the 

^ ' , N. : ■ ■ - ■ ■ 'V ■ . * " :" ■"■..■ V-;:v :' •'::•■ ohv.rt^h of St. 

■'•n ' X '•■■•■. > "v. ■■..>. r.-.-.T v.-.-. •:::r^\r.O'e into the 

^ * \'.^.».- •'*• ■ • . ••.-.■ -v.- :v Y-A7- '..■•■■r. wht-n the 

S.^""^* !!r . 1^^ . "*. ■• ' ^ »..■■* • ," ■.••'•A'--. ■.'-,'-..?:::.•••.■.:---=? was: akeii 

V' ^"^ ^ * ^ •• . ^ .' ■ ox .X . - .. . X.-..-. W.vv. .4 r :-■':. f O^^-.^j. iii. 

•fcT^" V * ^ .. X . X-, . ' » . v 

k * '^ ' • ■ ^ . ■ • *. '.•'■4-" . Nr-.ii'.am 

L" "^ ' ^^ ,■ \ ■ '■• -• * ^ * "^ V'- •* v :v'- -i ••^■: w.:-. . L :oy. he 

w"^ . ..,.».• X X . .' 'i- » X *- v« ^.<-■ ■:-;.-.- '. •' May 

' X-*^ W-.v.-l ■ •■ -^^ -^' V .VK X : ■ -■ V .v.^^v-.His 

* ^ 'txv''* • ■ '•'^^ .•-.-.-. vvv XX N-xi.^ i •.V..--.V r ■:"-■.: K'-iu>v-th 

^ . >^' \^,^> .^sv.> ^ > X-. I '. ■ • ■>'. / X--S. : ■ l/---:-.v Li' 

*• > A V \\.*» k"*^' x% .. .". .. »-.x ■• -ii. '.. .r",> -i :LL.->:i i> Avr;l 

.■ '^ ■ "• I ■ • • ^ 

%> V"V^ ' * "k-'v.^ •»• • .*• -"^x.*' fv""* .-.,.•••- ■.•._-.^ .»» • »",i 

*X» ■ . V .^ « ' • ■ X" *• • 

X.. -5V " ^'^•" •*'*•' ^ ;<i * » • • ' '. . ' X -.^ * 1 . S" ■: ^r-^r.ATliS 

: ATf.-v.x .».- .>.■ V.-^K'.iT ±rl Inre^rrirv of 

^Vo*^* ■* ^' x^^'»'» '«-»- 




Col. Nath. Fiennes revived,' 1644, 4to. 

2. * Independency no Schism ; or an Answer 
to a Scandalous Book entitled " The Schis- 
matic Sifted/' written by Mr. John Vicars,' 

1646, 4to : said to be * By M. N., Med. Pr.' 

3. * The Case of the Kingdom stated accord- 
ing to the proper Interests of the several 
Parties engaged/ 1647, 4to ; anon. 4. * The 
Levellers Levelled ; or the Independents' 
Conspiracy to root out Monarchy : an Inter- 
lude, 1647, 4to (said to be by Mercurius 
Pragmaticus). 5. * The Lawyer of Lincoln's 
Inn refuted ; or an Apology for the Army,' 

1647, 4to: attributed to Nedham by Barlow 
in the Bodleian copy. 6. * A Plea for the 
King and Kingdom, by way of Answer to a 
late Remonstrance of the Army,' 1648, 4to. 
7. * Digitus Dei ; or God's Justice upon 
Treachery and Treason exemplified in the 
Life and Death of the late James Duke of 
Hamilton, 1649, 4to. This tract closely re- 
sembles another on the same subject, pub- 
lished in June 1648, entitled ' The Manifold 
Practices and Attempts of the Hamiltons 
... to get the Crown of Scotland,' which 
Wood in consequence attributes also to Ned- 
ham. 8. * The Case of the Commonwealth 
of England stated. . . . AVith a Discourse 
of the Excellency of a Free State above a 
Kingly Government,' 1649, 4to; 2nd edit. 
I60O. 9. ' The Excellency of a Free State,' 
12mo, 1656, anon. A reprint edited by 
Richard Baron, in 8vo, appeared in 176/ 
(cf. Life of Thomas Hollis,l7S0,^. 366). It 
was translated into French by T. Mandar 
(2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1790). This work is a 
compilation from the leading articles of Mer- 
curius Politicus. 10. * Trial of Mr. John 
Goodwin at the Bar of Religion and Right 
Reason/ 1657, 4to. 11. *The g^eat Accuser 
cast down ; an Answer to a scandalous Book, 
entitled **The Triers Tried and Cast, by Mr. 
John Goodwin," ' 1657, 4to. 12. * Interest 
will not lie; or a View of England's true 
Interest ... in Refutation of a treasonable 
Pamphlet entitled " The Interest of England 
stated," ' 1669, 4to. The tract answered is 
reprinted by Maseres, * Select Tracts relating 
to the Civil Wars/ 1816, ii. 273, who attri- 
butes it to John Fell. 13. * News from Brus- 
sels, in a Letter from a near Attendant on 
His Majesty's Person to a Person of Honour 
here/ dated 10 March 1659. Answered by 
John Evelyn in * The Late News from Brus- 
sels unmasqued,' and reprinted with the An- 
swer bv Upcott in Evelyn's * Miscellaneous 
WorksV 4to, 1825, p. 193. See also ' Baker's 
Chronicle/ continued by Phillips, ed. 1670, 
p. 721. 14 'A Short History of the Eng^ 
lish Rebellion^ completed in Verse,' 1661, 
4to. This 18 a collection of yerses printed in 

* Mercurius Pragmaticus,' now republished to 
curry favour witn the royalists; 2nd edit. 1680. 
Reprinted in J. Morgan's 'Phoenix Britan- 
nicus,' 1732, p. 174 ; and in the * Harleian Mis- 
cellany,' ed. Park, ii. 621. 15. * A Discourse 
concerning Schools and Schoolmasters/ 1663, 
4to. 16. *Medela Medicina), a Plea for the 
Free Profession and a Renovation of the Art 
of Physick,' 8vo, 1666. Answered by John 
Twysden in ' Medicina Veterum vindicata,' 
8vo, 1666 ; Robert Sprackling in * Medela 
Ignorantise,' 1666, 8yo ; and by George Castle 
in 'Reflections on a Book called ''Medela 
Medicines," * printed with ' The Chjrmical 
Galenist' in 1667, 8vo. 17. 'An Epi- 
stolary Discourse before " Medicina Instau- 
rata, by Edward Bolnest, M.D.," ' 1666, 12mo. 
18. Preface to * A New Idea of the Prac- 
tice of Physic/ by Franciscus de le Boe- 
Sylyius, 1676, 8vo. 19. ' A Pacquet of Ad- 
vices and Animadversions sent from Lon- 
don to the Men of Shaftesbury. . . . Occa- 
sioned by a seditious Pamphlet entitled *' A 
Letter tcom. a Person of Quality to his 
Friend in the Country/" 1676, 4to. 20. ' A 
Second Pacquet of Advices,' 1077, 4to. On 
these two pamphlets see Marvell's * Account 
of the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary 
Government in England ; ' Marvell's ' Works,' 
ed. Grosart, iv. 316. 21. ' Christ ianissimus 
christianandus ; or Reasons for the lieduc- 
tion of France to a more Christian State in 
Europe/ 1678, 4to. 

Nedham also wrote several minor pieces 
which have not been identified. His trans- 
lation of Selden's ' Mare Clausum,' 1652, fol., 
suppressed the original dedication to the 
king, and added an appendix containing 

* additional evidences ' of the sovereignty of 
the kings of Great Britain on the sea, * which 
he procured, as 'twas thought, of John Brad- 
shaw ' ( Wood). The translation w^as re-edited, 
and the original dedication restored by 
Jfames] Hfowell] in 1662 (cf. Pepys, Diary, 
ea. Wheatley, iii. 93^. 

Satires against Neoham in prose and verse 
are very numerous. The following may be 
added to those already mentioned : ' Mer- 
curius Aquaticus ; or the Water Poet's An- 
swer to all that shall be Writ by Mercurius 
Britanicus/by John Taylor, 1643, 4to; 'Re- 
bels Anathematised and Anatomised,' 1646, 
4to, by the same author. Sir Francis Wort- 
ley's 'Characters and Elegies/ 1646, 4to, 
contain ' Britanicus his Pedigree ' (^p. 26) ; 
and Wortley also wrote ' Britanicus his Wel- 
come to Hell,' 1647, 4to. Cleveland has a 
poem on 'Britanicus his Leap three-story 
nigh, and his Escape from London ' {Poems y 
ed. 1687, p. 247). ' The great Assizes holdcn 
on Parnassus l^ Apollo/ 1645| 4to, reviews 


\ .\\: \: •! : ?^ Needham 

_ ■■■».■*■>» 

u^ ' an ixur^nioiLs learned gentleman/ and 

^ •■ . . " . .. N V. V % -. ^- .\i:n.n«*d many Greek manuscripts for him 

■^ ** - * ■ *»**-..> 1 -'..r Ixxileian Library (Hearnt:, Collect 

^^ ^ - «■.*. ^ ^ : ".<. ■ rs. iii. ii3>. ITeame credited him 

\' * : >. > in*: a ' m<>st rash whig ' (ii. 93). A 

» ,' . N . .. - . , -. T . ir rr.* 31 Xeedham to Richard Rawlinson, 

\ - ».- :hrr '.'xt'^rd scholar, dated 18 Oct. 171o, 

> - •: -h- Ixxileian Library (MS. RawL 268, 

-> N -. ' .*r . Colt», the Cambridge antiqiiarr, 

-» vr- 'i* r.: « Needham as * a great epicure/ and 

■ ^ .4. :> «.^2:-.» anecdotes by way of proof. 

NVi-L^H VVi * ' • ^N. *>'•,.>■> 4 sermon preached at Cambridge 

..:». IN. V . . v: "v » ■. • 'V, ■ ■ ' . •. Needham published: 1. ' rcoiromd. 

via- -. .: . » • "^ V ■-.•.'■.«■ . -r. :vr. ,*-'r^m sive de re rustica libri xx., 

t.r • \- • :. . ,1 .»■>...... i:^..- ■ • , ■ . *-.»!.i:'..* ^vis^ju^ Scholastico Collectore, antea 

> '.".». » •■" V .'• - ■ '^ • .^.- . v; X * ;:>.:i::'.::? IVrphvropesmeto a quibusdam 

■1. r ,'^. r- !..» N» ■ - ■■•..■..■..■ N , >^— y. . '•?. ef 1-at. cum notis et emenda- 

::i. 1- " - ^ • ■ ■ » •: » '■ ■■ '-^ ^ ■ .- .*-.v Cir.rab. Typis AeademiciA. Im- 

-.:... ■: : ^ -^ 1 ^ /. . ^- . . •. . . V • ■i-!>.x V • J . Ch'-irchill Bibliopolanim Lon- 

'. - V:'r* ■',',' Vv*. ■-». ». «:n»- •■>. .1 .?■•:>. .•::. '.rvU:' dedicated to John Moore 

• ■ • 

!'.• . ' y '\'\> ..\ - V. »■ >>. V . » X ■ . . 

'*.^ ■"'. • ".:. x.\ bishop of Xorwich. 
"'. •.'■?v*5 :':i:*'>5«">phi Alexandrini Com- 

ir". :uisi I ■;::.:.* m x. ■ . . i ., ^» % x i •.'..■. i -;>.-♦ .V-.i?e:i Carmina de Providentia 

:*i :! w !^ •.■. V ■• .'I V-.- V> >i .• ; ;.v >;:pers:int et reliqua fragmenta 

:r.v". ^l..:T■ ■ ' ' » v\ •*. • • v . ' -*vv \,\:.v.'\ lineoa cum MSS. collata 

■.'-■.. A* .*■ *■■,». . X. ■». V ! >».'.. o- ^ *.:**.■ *rv'ni rvoensuit notas et In- 

.r>v ^l A rt ■ \\ V ' ■■■ .- ' ' . .- •! »?-o- l\-. N'vdham. Cantab. Typis 

fi "'. ' '.:i ' " 'v u -■ ■ . ■ ' ^- • •. V i/.-. i. c :< l-i!:vi:Tii* A. et J. Churchill Bi- 

■\\-'..'-' -r \'^'*j;' ■ '. N ■ ■ * ** -x •' •;^*. i-'.*:t I. •tr-.v.r:en<ium/ 1709, 8vo; dedi- 

. ^i . : , • . , v: .' \X ". Alv.. '.Ttl Cowper, lord chan- 

^- : *i \\ '• I •■■'... X •. , - . *. ■ iW:' /.'i: i-r-'f Xa^itcrr^ftt^ UBiKOt. 

•:,-.TT. .::v. ■ -.-x . ■ V " . • ' *. ',.!',>. \.*'*.t-'.j"'. TV* f'thici Grivce et 

..■■ t •■• \" : • ■ . . • ■, /i". :*"'. V^v. Acrid.,' bv Cornelius 

■■ - ::.'•. ■/ -v • "i.-x ■ ■■ X* ., . . ■ -. ■■. x»M :. : ", 'J. \\'\\ :he notes of L<aae 

■■• .•■..'. :i ' ■ ■-■•*• 1 . ^ . ',^. . % ». I'.-.: :".'.•■ ■ IVvI'.vtiones* of James 

. . V — -..i:::"- ■t.<!-'»- ". ■ , ^ •. . . ; '. . w": oil Nee^lham printed fur 

■x» i: ; ■ ".x-. ■: .\\'. ... : v: » • * ^. !i- I" ^ n r.r.e >pei*imen of typ(.>- 
, ■>•. . \ . :." -^ :* n»."arly live hundred 

« . ••! 

.1 ■ . ■. • ' 

"» ■ ■ '• '\" . 

• . ' ■! 

; .r ..,, VIS i-i ii-.--r''. .•■.= .. • • t ...»■ ^ ,■'. : ^ :,■.■. ..-.iT^v: :. 'I Jo lia Moore, bishop 

.. t : . .»: "1 lu.i ■ •^*:-\. ' ■ • ■ ■: ^ • ■,■ ■.: '. '■ \ V*! X \:- A-ri \v»s rhrioe reissued at 

"- r \'^ ^-MA-:; . '■. •• v'.v •■■■ ' i \ .; ..X,. ■■\\ ■"% ".i -Lvr- K *i:'. is ill 174^3, 1748, and 

■1 ■ ... ■;.' .«i»'i \ ■^,"i M "\ M^" ix, -x >.«, ■..».■■♦. :-.ii<- w ■•.!.:■;;:: Duport*s*Pn)elec- 

. .'■■ .■ "i ■ ;♦• :Tt'.'i'ia; 'TVi" r* •. •. *" • -.■ '.n v 

,1 ■,-■>.- ^-i-i.T.-x." :'.■■■■ ■.■^ XX.,; . ^\.. , v< V ■.,.-..e C.iar.ib. ia Brit. Mus. 
TiM'-r'.! x.'m;,» -'.••.'x ••• ■'.■ S '••■»■■ X V . ^l<. ?ci*7. : 7; TM^Lsorip" epitaph in 

• '• \ I i.'fx. .'/.' .{/.'■■'■■.-■% '. l" N .-.■ '"•■ ■ x.« M ixi' .■•! .». y -c' NVc'i.Mnrs iiKi-iponiLM, 

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x|.r-,..! .-".Mr .-r ."'t "^.'i* • V ". I-.: •■!'. \ s ..-i.i-i I'?..: .i:t.i: -rt!.*", Ivm about ItxJl, 

.:■.'') .':■..■ mHi-M .1 '■'-'■.:■ v'i.: . M^ .;■ ■. , x • -.x^-F-'.v.' :!-'♦■•>«.•■ I *!ars* r»-'ciscer of Trinity 

;...^:,r.xf ;->-v»:-'. i.- ^( •"'■'.i ;,■ •". ■ 'v v\'."--u*.'. Oi'.«r?r-'-^'\ a< * 8al.>pensis/ and it 

. : : -.r ■♦' "■•^ ;■.»••■:, vTt'T w -.'. ' '". r' • <• . "•..■••.■ -jv xioi^i.x vr^'babl.' riiat he was dis- 

(' • -. • jr ^ I - -n ■'.-'■. I.' rt . : . • V . .»■ i ^- ■■ 1 -r. . . • ■ ' .1 -v '. V ^.•. •:• • ! r V ■ •.«■. ^^ ■. " "i " \ le N -:edhams of 8ha- 

,^,..^. I .:.-,. '•■.'•.". ^ .^.!-..rv.. -.v '■:,■'•■. ':r* :-s*'-"'i-.: %■-._;< -•.. X \-".i^: ':i rli'.- i.'Ueshire borxler of 

H ■ " • : .»■'' --. ■■■ ; • »T. . -^si'V. .<r. :.*.' S'.r-T^^ -•.♦. I*'.-. ioi'-aI is aj'ieeu'* scholar at 

.V •,■:..< '.-I vw \ ;r 'I, ;ti-.- .'. "r-x^i-n.^.iy.- .- \V ->r ^ :■♦ xr.'rSi.*!'...Vi.''''.'W"is -elected to Trinirv 

7 ':.■•■.•. .1 ■• "n^* ; . '■ ■ . ■ V .. . -r : n: -■ . .1 . r.'-t : i ■ -: i " ■ v ' I'l;* ■, l ':i • •.! '.» r '.vU? • . ■ ii l f>V. t he ?«:' nior Cam- 

; 7 )'- I «^-' "'"• * •' * -■"■ *^ i -'i-*- i" :: i* br-.. •;^.' scb.-*.ir lor c:*t' \ earU'inj John Ih^-den . 

• « hn 1 p ^ r. K .-. . • i -r: V -. ; : r m N ■ .ed baui w as ad :u i c : fd t o Tri ni: y Co lle^ as 

imtafr-irrirU ie?-onh^ihi=i a p^^nsiouer on 17 Ji-ne It5o0. Dry den did 

Need ham 



not enter till 2 Oct. In 1654 he graduated 
B.A., and on 25 July 1655 he was admitted 
a fellow of Queens' College. He seems to 
have resided in Cambridge until 1659, when 
he left the university to practise for a short 
time in Shropshire. In 1660 he was living in 
Oxford and attending the lectures of Willis, 
Millington, and his old schoolfellow Lower, 
who was his senior by a year. There he made 
Anthon^r h Wood*s acquaintance, and asso- 
ciated with the men who shortly afterwards 
founded the Iloyal Society. Keedham sub- 
sequently returned to Cambridge, and took 
the degree of doctor of physic horn Queens* 
College on 5 July 1664. lie was in Decem- 
ber 1664 admitted an honorary fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians — a grade of 
fellows instituted in September 1664 at the 
suggestion of Sir Edward Alston, the presi- 
dent. On 4 Aug. 1667 his ' Disquisitio ana- 
tomica de formato Foetu ' was licensed to be 
printed ; in this work he states that he was 
living a long way from London. lie was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society on 
6 April 1671, and on 7 Nov. 1672 he was 
appointed physician to Sutton's Charity (the 
Cfharterhouse) in succession to Dr. Castle. 
In 1673 he read a paper before the Royal 
Society giving the results of some experi- 
ments he had made in conjunction with 
Mr. Sergeant-surgeon Wiseman on the value 
of Denis's newly discovered liquor for stop- 
ping arterial bleeding. In 1681 he was 
living in Oreat Queen Street, Broad Sanc- 
tuary ; on 30 Jan. of that year Wood incor- 
rectly recorded that Richard Allestree [q. v.] 
died there in his house. He was created a fel- 
low of the Royal College of Physicians under 
the charter of James II, and was admitted on 
12 April 1687. He died, Wood tells us, on 
5 April 1691, and was buried obscurely in 
the church of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, near 
Ijondon (Wood, Life and Times, Oxf. Hist. 
Soc. iii. 358). Executions were out against 
him to seize both body and goods. 

Needham was held in high esteem by his 
contemporaries, and, according to Wood, had 
much practice. 

His chief published work, apart from 
papers in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
was 'Disquisitio anatomica de formato Foetu,' 
London, 1667, 8vo, dedicated to Robert 
Boyle, and published by Radulph Needham 
at the Bell in Little Britain. It was re- 
printed at Amsterdam in 1668, and was in- 
cluded by Clericus and Mange t us in their 
* Bibliotheca Anatomica,* issued at Geneva 
in 1699, i. 687-723. The book treats of the 
structure and functions of the placenta or 
afterbirth in man and animals. It is written 
in excellent idiomatic Latin. Sydenham 

speaks of him in the dedicatory epistle of 
his * Observationes Medicse * to Dr. Maple- 
toft, an old Westminster boy, as ' tam 
MedicaB Artis, quam rei literarise decus et 

[Wood's Life and FASti ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
1. 472; additional facts kindly given to the 
writer by the presideut of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge ; by the librarian of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; and by Mr. A. Chune Flf tcber, the present 
medical officer to the Cbarterbouse.] D'A. P. 

NEEDLER, BENJAMIN (1620-1682), 
ejected minister, son of Thomas Needier, of 
Laleham, Middlesex, was bom on 29 Nov. 
1620. He was admitted to Merchant Taylors' 
School on 11 Sept. 1634, was head scholar 
in 1640, and was elected to St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 11 June 1642, matriculating 
on 1 July. He was elected fellow of his 
college in 1645, but appears to have been 
non-resident, as his submission is not regis- 
tered. Joining the presbyterian party, he 
was summoned to assist the parliamentary 
visitors of the university in 1648, and was 
by them created B.C.L. on 14 April of tlie 
same year. On 8 Aug. he was appointed to 
the rectory of St. Margaret Mose^, Friday 
Street, London. It is not known whether 
he took episcopal orders or not. He was one 
of the ministers in London who in January 
1648-9 signed the * Serious and Faithful 
Representation ' to General Fairfax, petition- 
ing for the life of the king and the main- 
tenance of parliament. On his marriage in 
1651 with Marie, sister of Nathanael Cul- 
verwell [q. v.]. Needier resigned his fellow- 
ship at St. Jofin*R College. 

In August 1662 he was ejected from his 
rectory by the Act of Uniformity, and after- 
wards retired to North Wamborough in 
Hampshire, where he preached privately till 
the time of his death. He was buried at 
Odiham, near Winchfield, on 20 Oct. 1682. 
Needier had several children. The baptisms 
of six are recorded in the registers of St. 
Margaret Moses between January 1651-2 
and May 1662, and the burials of two of 
them in 1658 and 1659 respectively. 

He was an able preacher, and, according to 
Baxter, a very humble, grave, and peaceable 
divine (Sylvester, Be/iq. Baxt, iii. 94). He 
published * Expository Notes with Practical 
Observations towards the opening of the five 
first Chapters of Genesis,' London, 1655, and 
three sermons which are reprinted in various 
editions of * Morning Exercises' (cf. these of 
1660, 1661, 1675, 1676, 1677, and 1844). 
Dunn speaks highly of all these sermons. 
Needier also wrote some verses on the death 
of Jeremiah Whitaker, which werepublished 
in Simon Ashe's funeral sermon on Whitaker, 




entitled * Living Loves between Christ and 
Dying Christians/ London, 1654. 

CuLVERWBLL Needlbr (fl, 1710), son of 
Benjamin (baptised 5 March 1650 at St. 
Margaret Moses), was appointed additional 
writing clerk to the House of Lords on 
25 March 1079, and later on clerk-assistant 
to the House of Commons, which latter post 
he retained till December 1710, when he was 
'disabled by palsie.' He published 'De- 
bates of the House of Commons in January 
1704,' London, 1721 (2nd ed.) 

[Wood's Athenae (Blis8\ vol. ir. col. 48 ; 
Wood's Fasti (Bliss), vol. ii. col. 110; Robin- 
son's Reg. of Merchant Taylors* School, i. 136 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714; Burrows's 
Reg. of Visitors of Univ. of Oxford (Camden 
Soc.), p. 550 : Wilson's Hist, of Merchant Taylors' 
School, pp. 257-8, 295-8, 303, 316, 732, 825-6, 
1196: Dunn's Divinei^, P« 17; Lords' Journals, 
X. 428a, xiii. 487a ; Hist. MSS. Comra. 1 1th Rep. 
App. ii. p. 1 72, App. iv. p. 143 ; parish register of 
Odiham per the Rov. W. H. Windle, of St. Mar- 
garet Moses per the Rev. C. Lloyd Lngstrom.] 

B. P. 

NEEDLER, HENRY (1685-1760), ama- 
teur of music, the last of the Needlers of 
Surrey, was born in London in 1685. As 
a youngf man he entered the excise office, 
and in March 1710 was appointed accountant 
for the candle duty, but through life he 
managed, without neglecting his profession, 
to practise music, 'his only pleasure ' (Haw- 
kins). His father, an accomplished violinist, 
give him his earliest lessons. Daniel Pur- 
cell taught him harmony (Grove), and the 
younger John Banister, first violin at Drury 
Lane Theatre, carried on his training. In 
due time Needier performed at the house of 
Thomas Britton [q. v.], * the musical small- 
coal man,* and at weekly private concerts in 
noblemen's houses. He came to know I Ian- 
del, who visited him in Clement's Lane, behind 
the church in the Strand, and he was an ac- 
tive member of the Academy of Vocal Music, 
a society meeting at the Crown Tavern in 
the Strand. Here he led the violins, and 
undertook librarian's and secretary's duties, 
cataloguing the music. 

It is related that a volume of twelve of 
Corelli's concertos came accidentally into 
Needler's hands during a musical meeting, 
and that he and his friends forthwith played 
through the whole number. His admiration 
of Corelli led Needier to study his violin 
music until he excelled in its interpretation. 
He was in fact a fine and delicate performer, 
and equal to any difficulty before his arm 
grew stift*(HA wkins). Twenty-eight volumes 
of Needler's extensive transcriptions from 
the Oxford and other libraries are in the 

British Museum Addit. MSS. 5035 to 5062. 
He died on 8 Aug. 1760, in his seventy-fifth 
vear, and was buried at Frindsbury, near 
Kochester, where, in the previous century, the 
Needlers had owned for a time the famous 
quarry house and lands. He married late 
in life, and had no children. Needier had 
inherited property at Horley, Surrey, of which 
he left by will the life interest to nis widow 
Hester, and to his sister Elizabeth, and the 
reversion to other relatives and rightful heirs. 
A portrait of Needier, engraved by Grignion 
after Mathias, is given in Hawkins's ' History 
of Music,' 1776. 

A volume of anthems composed by Mrs. 
Needier, and dated 1751, is in Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 5053. 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music, pp. 791, 806; 
Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 450; Autobiography 
and Correspondence of Mrs. Delany, i. 228; 
Archseologia Cantiana, zvii. 1 77 ; Kecords of the 
Acad, of Vocal Music, Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
11732; Registers of Wills, P. C. C. Lynch, 333 ; 
Official Registers of the Excise Office; inscrip- 
tions at Frindsbury Church, kindly supplied by 
the Rev. W. H. Jackson.] L. M. M. 

NEELE, HENRY (1798-1828), poet and 
miscellaneous writer, was bom on 29 Jan. 
1798 in the Strand, London, where his father 
carried on business as a map and heraldic en- 
graver. He was educated at a private school 
at Kentish Town, and afterwards articled to 
a solicitor, and admitted to practice after 
the expiration of the usual period. He never 
relinquished his profession, but his attention 
must have been mainly devoted to literature. 
In January 1817, while yet serving his 
articles, he had published at his father s ex- 
pense * Odes, and other Poems,' betraying 
the influence of Collins, which attracted the 
attention of Dr. Nathan Drake, by whom 
they were highly commended. A second 
edition was printed in July 1820 ; and in 
March 1823 appeared * Poems, Dramatic and 
Miscellaneous,' inscribed to Joanna Baillie. 
This volume obtained considerable success, 
and made Neele a popular contributor to 
magazines and annuals, for which he con- 
tinued to produce tales and poems during 
the remainder of his short life. He pre- 
pared in 1826, and delivered in 1827, a 
course of lectures on English poetiy, which 
were published after his death, and which, 
if in no way original, exhibit a sensitive per- 
ception of poetical beauty and a correct ta«te. 
An edition of Shakespeare, issued in parts, 
was soon discontinued for want of support. 
In 1827 he published a collected edition of 
his poems (2 vols. 16mo), and in the same 
year produced his 'Romance of English 
History/ in three volumes, a collection of 




tales illustrative of romantic passages in Eng- 
lish history, one of a series of works on the 
histories of the chief nations of the world, 
composed hy various authors as commissions 
from the publishing firm of Edward Bull. 
The *Iiomance* of France was by Leitch 
Ritchie [q. v.], of Italy by Charles Macfar- 
lane [q. vg, of Spain by bon T. de Trueba, 
and oflndia by John Hobart Gaunter [q. v.] 
The five have been republished in the Uhan- 
dos Classics. Notwithstanding the extent of 
Xeele*s contributions, it was written in six 
months, and the overstrain of composition 
and research was believed to have been the 
cause of the untimely fate of the author, who 
was found dead in bed on 7 Feb. 1828, having 
cut his throat in an access of insanity, under 
the delusion that his private affairs had be- 
come hopelessly embarrassed. No symptom 
of a disordered mind appears in his writings, 
which, although tinged with poetical melan- 
choly, are always lucid and coherent ; and 
his conversation is represented to have been 
cheerful and vivacious, while he was irre- 
proachable in every relation of life. His 
* Literary Remains,' published in one volume 
in 1829, included his * Lectures on English 
Poetry ' and a number of tales and poems, 
some never before published, others collected 
from the 'Monthly Magazine,' * Forget me 
not,' and other periodicals. 

As a poet, Neele can hardly claim higher 
rank than that of an elegant and natural ver- 
sifier, whose compositions are the fruit of a 
genuine poetical impulse, but who has neither 
sufficient originality of thought nor force of 
expression to produce any considerable effect. 
Ills sincerity and spontaneity plead in his 
favour so long as he confines himself to 
lyric ; his dramatic attempts are grievously 
defective in truth of representation. His 
short stories frequently exhibit considerable 
power of imagination and description, espe- 
cially one in which the legends of the Wan- 
dering Jew and Ap-ippa's Magic Mirror are 
very happily combinecf. His romantic illus- 
trations of English history were popular in 
their day, and might please in ours were not 
the curious dialect which was then considered 
to represent mediaeval English now entirely 
out of date. A portrait, engraved by Neele 
after Archer, was prefixed to the * Literary 

[Mi'moir prefixed to Neele's Literary Rc- 
mains, 1829 ; Georgian Era, vol. iii. ; Times, 
11 Feb. 1828 ; Gent. Mag. 1828, i. 276 ; Nathan 
Drake's Winter Nights.] R. G. 

1486), judffe, was son of Richard Neele, who 
waa elected member of parliament for Leices- 
ter on 21 Dec. 1441 (Official Returns, i. 333), 

and died in the following year. Before 1461 
Neele had evidently received grants from the 
crown, as he was specially exempted from 
the Act of Resumption passed on Edward I V's 
accession {RolU of Pari. v. 475 a). In 1463 
he was a member of Gray's Inn, whence he 
was called Serjeant on 7 Nov. On 12 Aug. 
1464, according to Dugdale {Chron. Ser. 
p. 69), he was appointed king*s Serjeant, but 
the ' Calendar of Patent Rolls ' records this 
promotion in 1466. When Henry VI was 
restored on 9 Oct. 1470, Neele was made a 
justice of the king's bench ; but on Edward's 
return he was, on 29 May, transferred to 
the common pleas. To this post he was re- 
appointed on the accession of Edward V, 
Richard III, and Henry VII. Before 1483 
he was knighted, and in that year served as 
a trier of petitions from England, Wales, 
, and Ireland. He died on 11 June 1486, and 
i was buried in Prestwold Church, Leicester- 
shire, where an alabaster monument was 
raised to his memory. He married Isabella 
Butler of Warrington, Lancashire, by whom 
he had two sons, Christopher and Richard, 
whose great-grandson married a sister of 
Chief-justice Coke. Prestwold, which was 
acquired by Neele, became the family seat. 

LCaI. Rot. Prtt. pp. 308, 312 A, 316, 316 6; 
Rolls of Piirl. V. 476 a ; Dugdale's Origines, p. 
47, and Chron. Ser. pp. 67, 70, 72; Burton's 
Description of Leicestershiro, pp. 211-12; 
(rough 8 Monumeots, ii. 94 ; Foss's Judges of 
England, v. 69.] A. F. P. 

DOVICO (1817-1879), optician, was bom at 
Como in Italy in 1817, and came to London 
in 1 829. As a glass-blower and thermometer 
maker, in partnership with M. Pizzi, he 
established himself at 19 Leather Lane, 
Holbom, in 1843, and thence removed to 
9 Hatton Garden in 1848. In 1860 he took 
Joseph Warren Zambra into partnership. 
At the Great Exhibition of 18.51 they re- 
ceived prize medals as opticians, spectacle- 
makers, and constructors of almost every kind 
of scientific or mathematical instruments, 
and were then appointed meteorological 
instrument makers to the queen, Greenwich 
Observatonr, and the British Meteorological 
Society. In 18o2 Negretti took out a patent, 
No. 14002, for thermometers and barometers. 
The firm obtained a world-wide reputation 
for the excellence of their work and the up- 
rightness of their dealing. In 1868 they 
remo^-ed to 107 Holbom Hill, and in 1869 
to Holbom Circus. Among the Italians in 
London Negretti enjoyed an almost patri- 
archal popularity : his purse was open to the 
poor, and his time, already overtaxed by his 
I business, was never wanting in their service. 




On 26 Dec. 1864 Serafino Pelizzioni was 
charged with killing Michael Harrington in 
a public-house, was tried, found guilty, and 
sentenced to be executed on 22 Feb. I860. 
Through the interest of an Italian committee, 
headed by Negretti, the man was respited ; 
and in another trial on 2 March it was 
clearly proved that the murder had been 
committed by Gregorio Mogni, and Peliz- 
zioni was liberated on a free pardon ( Times ^ 
81 Dec. 18^, 5, 12, 24 Jan., 9, 10, 20 Feb., 
6, 7, 9, 13, 16 March 1865; J. D. Bar- 
ITBTT and A. Buckler's Central Criminal 
Court Sessions Paper — Minutes of Evidence, 
I860, Ixi. 283-302, r)90-636). Negretti was 
also on terms of friendship with Garibaldi. 
The Italian hero was his guest in 18o4, when 
he was coming from South America; and 
when in 1864, after the conquest of Sicily, 
he revisited London, Negretti was chief of 
the Italian reception committee. On 1 1 April 
1862 he was naturalised as a British subject, 
under the name of Henry Negretti. He died 
at Cricklewood House, Cricklewood, Middle- 
sex, on 24 Sept. 1879. 

[Times, 29 Sept. 1879, p. 11; Nntiire, 1879, 
XX. 642.] a. C. B. 

NEGUS, FRANCIS {d, 1732), reputed 
inventor of negus, is believed to have been 
connected with the Norfolk family of Negus. 
From 1685 to 1688 he was secretary to the 
Duke of Norfolk, and in that capacity made 
the acouaintance of Elias Ashmole (of. AsH- 
HOLE, Diarxfy 1 April 1685). He served in 
the French wars under Marlborough, and at- 
tained to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
25th or Suffolk regiment of foot. He was 
in 1715 appointed joint commissioner, and on 
27 June l7l7sole commissioner, for executing 
the office of master of the horse, which office 
he held until the death of George I. He 
was appointed avener and clerk- martial to 
George II on 20 June 1727, and master of his 
majesty's buckhounds on 19 July in the same 
year. He represented Ipswich in parliament 
from 1717 until his death, at his seat at Dal- 
linghoo, Suffolk, on 9 Sept. 1732. His death 
occasioned a copy of verses in the * Ipswich 
Gazette,' commencing ' Is Negus gone? Ah ! 
Ipswich, weep and mourn.* Negus was also 
ranger of Swinley Chace, lieutenant and 
deputy warden of Windsor Forest, and one 
of the commissioners of the lieutenancy of 
Middlesex and liberty of Westminster. 

It is related that on one occasion, when 
the bottle was passing rather more rapidly 
than good fellowship seemed to warrant over 
a hot political discussion, in which a number 
of prominent - -nd tories ' 'ng 

party Negu^ ^jsa b* 

ingtheoil e 

and sugar. Attention was diverted from the 
point at issue to a discussion of the merits 
of wine and water, which ended in the com- 
pound being nicknamed * negus.' A corre- 
spondent of the 'Gentleman's Magazine' 
(I799y i. 119) states that the term first ob- 
tained currency in Negus's regiment. A 
contemporary, Thomas Vernon of Ashton 
(1704-1753), thus recommends the mixture: 
'After a morning's walk, half a pint of white 
wine, made hot and sweetened a little, is 
recond very good. Col. Negus, a gent" of 
tast, advises it, I have heard say ' {Notes and 
Queries f 1st ser. x. 10). Malone in his * Life 
of Dryden ' (prefixed to * Prose Works,' 1800, 
i. 484) definitely states that the mixture 
called negus was invented by Colonel Negus 
in Queen Annes time. The term was at first 
applied exclusively to a concoction made with 
port wine, and hence the ingenious but im- 
probable suggestion made by Dr. Fennell, 
that the name may have a punning connec- 
tion with the line in * Paradise Lost,' xi. 397, 

* Th' empire of Negus to his utmost port ' 
(Stanford Dictionary, p. 569). The word 
appears in French as nigus, and is defined by 
Littr6 as a kind of ' limonade au vin.' 

A portrait of Francis Negus was in 1760 
in the possession of his nephew, a Mr. Potter 
of Frome. 

In 1724 Colonel Francis Negus's patronage 
was solicited by Samuel Negus, who was 
probably a poor relation. This Samuel Negus, 
who had been since 1722 a struggling printer 
in Silver Street, near Wood Street, in the 
city of London, published in 1724, through 
William Bowyer, * A Compleat and Private 
List of all the Printing Houses in and about 
the Cities of London and Westminster, to- 
gether with the Printers' Names, what 
Newspapers they print, and where they are 
to be found : also an Account of the Print- 
ing Houses in the several Corporation Towns 
in England, most humbly laid before the 
Right Honourable the Lord Viscount To wns- 
hend.' For this work, which also professes 
to be a key to the political principles of the 
printers enumerated, Negus was rewarded by 
a letter-carrier's place in the post office. 

[Historical Reg. 1727, Chronological Diary, 
pp. 26, 28 ; Gent. Mag. 1732, p. 979 ; Notes 
and Queries, let ser. x. 10, 6th ser. xi. 189; Official 
Returns of Members of Pari. pt. ii. pp. 44, 56, 67 ; 
Timperley's Encycl.ofLit. and Typograph. Anec- 
dotes, p. 631 ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, i. 
288, 292 ; Doran's London in Jacobite Times ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby, p. 302 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. iv. pp. 102, 
839, and App. vii. 105-7; Whitney's Century 
Dictionary,s.v. • Negus.' For the analogous term 

* grog ' see art. Admiral Vebnon]. T. S. 

Negus 169 Neild 

NEGUS, WILLIAM (1559 P-1616), Lee in Essex ' (pp. xxii, S41), London, 1619, 

puritan minister, bom about 1559, matricu- 4to (dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith by 

lated as a sizar of Trinity College, Cam- Jonathan, son of William Negus, and with a 

bridge, in June 1573, and graduated B.A. preface signed by Stephen ^^rton and by 

1577-8. lie was lecturer or beneficed in John Syme, rector of Leigh in succession to 

Essex (probably Peldon) soon after 1581. In Negus). 

1582 he b«»me a member of an as«)ciation [T^e main authority is the original Acts of the 
of Essex mmisters which was formed in that association referred to, formerly in the posses- 
year, and he continued with it until at least gion of Sir Henry Spelman, now in that of J. U. 
1580. He was first suspended (1588-4) Gumey, esq., of Keswick, Norwich. A transcript 
for refusing Whitgift's three articles and the belongs to the present writer. This manuscript 
oath, but m October 1584 he informed the proves that the statements that Negus was made 
meeting of the association that the bishop rector of Leigh in 1581, and was suspended at 
had proceeded against him contrary to law, Leigh in 1684, are incorrect, as also Newcourt's 

* and that he might preach again.' In Fe- date (31 March 168,')) of his institution to Leigh, 
bruary 1585 he * took his journey to London ^^ *!'» ^g«^r Norrice MSS., A686, and "^ , p. 92 
for his restoring to libertV in his calling, and C^^- W*^!^^™**'^ ^jl'^iy).' Wodderspoon's Ips- 
he was at that time restored to his public J'^^' P- ^?^L^^V' ^""^"r^'' ^^^J B'ook« 

ministry again before he came back to us.' I'^'Tk '' f ' r^"" p , f^ ^^9 ' 

ii J.U "^ ^^ i.^1 1 i. T • I. » David 8 Nonconformity in blssex, pp. 115,132; 

He thereupon settled at Ipswich on a years Newcourt'sRepertorium; Foster's Alumni Oxon.! 

agreement with the people, probably as information from n. W. King, esq., Leigh Hall, 

assistant to Dr. liobert ^ orton [q. v. J,common ^ssex, and J. C. Gould, esq, Loughton, Kssex.] 

preacher there. Troubles arose between the W. A. S. 
two, and Negus seems to have displaced 

Norton. But his own agreement with the NEILD, JAMES (1744-1814), philan- 

town was broken by the people before its thropist, was born on 4 June (N.S.) 1744 at 

expiry, and Negus ' accepted a good call * to Knutsford, Cheshire, where his family had 

the church at Leigh, where he entered shortly some property. His father died, leaving five 

before 3 May 1586. Papers preserved in children, and his mother supported the 

the Norrice MSS. relating to his suspension, family by carrying on business as a linen- 

and a petition of the inhabitants of Leigh draper. After a very brief education Neild 

pressing him not to stand on trifles in matter lived two years with an uncle, who was a 

of the ceremonies, must refer to a second farmer; but at the end of 1760 he obtained 

suspension, doubtless in 1587. If 80,thissus- a situation with a jeweller in London, and 

pension also was recalled, and Negus lived was afterwards employed by Hemming, the 

quietly till James's reign, when * he was again king's goldsmith. Neild developed great me- 

in trouble, and at length deprived before chanical skill, and also learned to engrave, 

August 1609,' at which time nis successor model, and draw, as well as to fence. In 

was instituted to Leigh. Negus continued to 1770 a legacy from his uncle, the farmer, 

live in the parish, where he had a house, and enabled him to set up in business as a jeweller 

was buried in Leigh Church on 8 Jan. 1615- in St. James's Street. The venture proved a 

1616. His will (apparently holograph], in success, and in 1792 he retired on a fortune, 

which he ^ve 3/. to the poor of I^igh, is in Since his first settlement in London Neild 

theCommissary Court of Essex, dateal6 Jan. devoted his leisure to endeavours to reform 

1615, and proved 4 March. His gravestone the prisons of the country. "When visitinjr 

was ejected from the church in l£ltl. in 1762 a fellow-apprentice who was confined 

Jonathan (miscalled John in Newcourt's for debt in the King's Bench, he had gained 

* Kepertorium'), one of the sons of William his first impression of the necessity of re- 
Negus, was vicar of the adjoining parish of form. Subsejquentlv he inspected Newgate, 
Prittlewell, and died in 1633. the Derby prisons, fiverpool, Bridewell, tlie 

Another William Neffus matriculated from Chester dungeons, and before 1 770 the prisons 

Christ Church, Oxford, on 13 Oct. 1598; at Calais, St.Omer, Dunkirk, Lille, ana Paris, 

graduated B.A. 1601, and M.A. 1604. He was The barbarous treatment to which prisoners 

rectorofGayton-le-Wold, Lincolnshire, 1611, were subjected in nearly all these places 

and rector of Spelsbury, Oxfordshire, 1613 stirred Neild's energies, and on the formation 

(see FoBTEB, Alumni Oxon, 1500-1714). in May 1773 of a Society for the lielief and 

Negus ' of Leigh ' was author of ' Man's Discharge of Persons imprisoned for Small 

active Obedience, or the Power of Godliness Debts, Neild was appointed treasurer, and 

... or a Treatise of Faith worthily called remained associated with the society till his 

Precious Faith ... by Master William death. Inhiccapacity of treasurer he visited 

Negus, lately Minister of Gk)d's Word at prisons in and about Ix>ndon, and made weekly 

Neild 170 Neild 

reports. Fifteen months after the formation ' with such harshness by his father that he 
of the society 986* prisoners had been dis- left England for the W est Indies. He prac- 
charged, at a cost of a little less than 2,900/. tised as a barrister at Tortola in 1809, and 
In 1779 Neild extended his inspection to was appointed in the following year king's 
Flanders and Germany. In 1781 ne caught advocate at St. Thomas's. Bad health, how- 
gaol fever at Warwick, and his ill-health, ever, compelled him to return to England, 
combined with business cares, for a time inter- and he died immediately after his arrival at 
rupted his philanthropic work. But in 1800 , Falmouth on 19 Oct. 1810. Xeild*s treatment 
he published his * Account of Persons confined of his elder son resembled the similar conduct 
for Debt in the various Prisons of England of Howard, his predecessor in the work of 
and Wales . . . with their Provisionary Al- prison reform. Lettsom found the st^to 
lowances during Confinement, as reported of public opinion on the subject an insur- 
to the Society for the Discharge and Ke- mountable obstacle to his efibrts to raise a 
lief of Small Debtors.' In the third edition, ' statue to his friend. The second son, John 
published in 1808, the results of further | Camden Xeild, is separately noticed, 
investigations in Scotland, as well as in Eng- A portrait of James Xeild by De Wilde, 
land, were incorporated. He kept a diary of engraved by Maddocks, appears in Nichols's 
his tour, and wrote to his friend. Dr. John ' Literary Illustrations ' and Faulkner's 
Cookley Lettsom [q. v.], accounts of his ex- * Chelsea.* 

periencBS. These the latter prevaUed on him [j^ j q Pettigrew's Memo'rs of J. C. Lett- 
to publish in the ' Gentleman s Magazine, gom,ii.l91-2l8,i»n lull Hutobiogrnphical sketch 
under the form of 'Prison Remarks.* They of Neilds life up to 1806, to which are appended 
were prefaced by communications from Lett- some lines on Neild by Miss Porter, and various 
som, and led to a great awakening of public letters written to Lettsom between 1807 and 
interest. Gaolers were on the alert, and 1811. There are other scnttered references to 
magistrates showed a keener sense of their re- him in Lettsom s Correspondence. See alsj 
sponsibilities (cf. Gent, Mag. 1805 ii. 892-4, ; Nichols's Literary Dlustrations, ii. 689-706. and 
1019, 1020, 1124-5, 1806 i. 19-24). In the Anecdotes, ix. 225; Lipscomb's Hist, of Bucks, 
latter half of 1809, during a four months' >• 341-2 ;Faulkners Hist of Chelsea, 1829. i. 
excursion in England and Scotland, Neild 399 403, u 67 ; Tattams Memoir of John Camden 
.ntPil with tliA frPPrlom of 01n«frmv. ^^^^ J» PP' V' 2 ; Ijiog. Diet, ot Living Authors ; 

1406-7; Gent. 
492, &c.; 

Weeden Butler, he published in quarto his '"'^""^ ..wx«„.j 

* State of the Prisons in England, Scotland, NEILD, JOHN CAMDEN (1780?-18o2), 
and Wales, extending to variousPlaces therein eccentric, son of James Neild [q. v.], was 
assigned, not for the Debtors only, but fof probably born in St. James's Street, Lon- 
Felons also, and other less criminal Otfenders; don, about 1780. He was educated at Eton 
together with some useful Documents, Obser- , from 1793 to 1797, and then at Trinity Col- 
vations, and llemarks, adapted to explain and lege, Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. 
improve theConditionot'Prisoners in general.* 1801 and M.A. 1804. On 9 Feb. 1808 he 
The first part exposed the absurdity of the was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. Suo- 
jirevuiliug system of imprisonment for debt, ceeding in 1814 to the whole of his father's 
The book was favourably noticed in the property,estLmatedat2o0,000/., he developed 

* Edinburgh Review,' January 1814. j into a confirmed miser, and the last thirty 

During the latter part of his life Neild ; years of his life were solely employed in 
lived chiefly at 4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, accumulating wealth. He lived in a large 
where he died on 10 Feb. 1814. He had pro- house, o Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, but it was 
pcrty in several counties, and was high sheriif so meanly furnished that for some time he 
of Buckinghamshire in 1804, when he was also had not a l:K3d to lie on. His dress con- 
a J. P. in Kent, Middlesex, and Westminster, sisted of a blue swallow-tailed coat with 
He moreover hold a commission for several i gilt buttons, brown trousers, short gaiters, 
years in the Bucks volunteer infantry. | and shoes which were patched and generally 

Xeild married in 1778 Elizabeth, eldest down at the heels. He never allowed his 
daughter of John Camden, esq., of Battersea. ' clothes to be brushed, because, he said, it 

excursion m iiingiana ana i^cotiana, J>eiia "*'.::'• V *""— "".*-^-*"^"' vt' 
was presented with the freedom of Glasgow, ^f,\l^' PP- ^ • ^ ; liiog. Diet ot Liyi. 
P^rth Piiislev Invpmess and Avr ' . Allibonos Diet. Lngl. Lit. u. 140( 

T i^iT ^.N .7 V^ V^^^ T> Mag. 1814 i. 206, 18r)2 ii. 429, 

^J^l^^h '^'^^ )^'^ assistiince^ of the Rev. ^^^^ \Sox\is^ G. J 

She died on 80 June 1791, and was buried in 
Batt(*ra(»a Church. Besides a daughter Eliza- 
beth, who died young, he had two sons. 
William, the elder (1779-1810), predeceased 
his father. He was educated at Eton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, but was treated 

destroyed the nap. He continually visited 
his numerous estates, walking whenever it 
was possible, never went to the expense of 
a great-coat, and always stayed with his 
tenants, sharing their coarse meals and lodg- 
ing. While at North Marston, in Bucking- 




hamshire, about 18:^8 he attempted to cut 
his throat, and his life was only saved by the 
prompt attention of his tenant's wife, Mrs. 
Keale. Unlike other eminent misers — Daniel 
Dancer or John Elwes — he occasionally in- 
dulged in acts of benevolence, possessed con- 
siderable knowledge of legal and general 
literature, and to the last retained a love for 
the classics. He died at 6 Cheyne Walk, 
Chelsea, 30 Aug. 18o2, aged 72, and was 
buried in the chancel of North Marston 
Church on 9 Sept. By his will, after be- 
queathing a few trifling legacies, he left the 
whole of his property, estimated at 600,000/., 
to * Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Vic- 
toria, begging Her Majesty's most gracious 
acceptance 01 the same for her sole use and 
benefit.* Two caveats were entered against 
the will, but were subsequently withcCrawn. 
The queen increased Neild's bequests to the 
three executors from 100/. to 1,000/. each, 
she provided for his servants, for whom he 
had made no provision, and she secured an 
annuity of 100/. to Mrs. Neale, who had 
frustrated Neild's attempt at suicide. In 
18oi) her majesty restored the chancel of 
North Marston Church and inserted a win- 
dow to Neild's memory. 

[Chambers's Book of Days, 1864, ii. 285-8 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1817 vol. Ixxxvii. pt. i. pp. 306-9, 
1852 xxxviii. 429.31, 492, 1853 zzxix. 570; 
Illustr. London News, 1852 xxi. 222, 350, 1855 
xxvii. 379-80 ; Timbs's English Eccentrics, 
1875, pp. 99-103; Times, 8 Sept. 1852, p. 7, 
26 Oct. p. 6.] G. C. B. 

NEILE. [See also Neal, Neale, and 

NEILE, RICHARD (1562-1640), arch- 
bishop of York, bom in Westminster in 1562, 
was son of a tallow-chandler, but his grand- 
father had held a considerable estate and an 
office at court under Henry VIII, till he was 
deprived for non-compliance with the Six 
Articles. Richard was educated at Westmin- 
ster School, under Edward Grant [q. v.] and 
W'illiam Camden [q. v.] (Wood, Athence 
Oxonienses^ ii. 341), hut never became a good 
scholar. When he was bishop of Durham he 
reproved a schoolmaster for severely flogging 
his boys, and said that he had himself been 
so much chastised at Westminster that he 
never acquired a mastery of Latin (Leighton, 
Epitome, p. 75). Dr. Grant would have per- 
suaded his mother to apprentice him to a 
bookseller, but he was sent by Mildred, lady 
Burghley, wife of the lord treasurer, on 
the recommendation of Gabriel Goodman 
fq. v.], dean of Westminster, to St. John's 
OoUeffe, Cambridge, as ' a poor and father- 
less (£ild, of good hope to be learned, and to 

continue therein' (letter of Dr. Goodman, 
given in Lb Neve, Lives of Bishops since 
the Heformation, p. 187). He was admitted 
scholar of the college on 22 April 1580, and 
matriculated on 18 May. He continued to 
enjoy the patronage of the Burghley family, 
residing in their household, and became 
chaplain to Lord Burghley, and afterwards 
to his son, Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury. 
He took the degree of doctor in divinity in 
1600, when he * kept the Commencement Act,' 
and therein maintained the following ques- 
tions: 1. 'Auricularis Confessio Papistica 
non nititur Verbo Dei.' 2. * AnimsB piorum 
erant in caelo ante Christi Ascensum.' He 
preached before Queen Elizabeth, who was 
' much taken with him.' Among his early 
preferments was the vicarage of Cheshunt, 
Hertfordshire (resigned in 1609), and on the 
memorable 5 Nov. 1605 he was installed dean 
of Westminster. He resigned the deanery in 
1610. While at Westminster he took great 
interest in the progress of the school, and 
yearly sent two or three scholars to the uni- 
versities at his own cost, *in thankful re- 
membrance of God's goodness,' through the 
beneficence of his patrons the Cecils. 

In 1608 he was nominated bishop of Ro- 
chester. He was elected on 2 July, con- 
firmed on 8 Oct., and consecrated at Lambeth 
on 9 Oct. In August he appointed Laud his 
chaplain, and it was by his introduction that 
the future archbishop first preached before 
the king on 17 Sept. 1619. He interested 
himself keenly in the advancement of his 
chaplain, and g^ve him several valuable pre- 
ferments. It was his interest with the king 
which procured the royal license for Laud^ 
election to the presidency of St. John's Col- 
lege, in spite of the representations of the 
chancellor of the university of Oxford. 

On the translation of Abbot from Lichfield 
to London in 1010, Neale was elected bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry on 12 Oct., and 
confirmed on 6 Dec. In 1612 he was con- 
cerned in the trial for heresy of Edward 
Wightman. The unhappy man was con- 
demned for blasphemy on the doctrine of the 
Trinity, and finally burnt at the stake by the 
secular power (State TriaU, ii. 727 ; CaL of 
State Papers, Dom. 1639-40). 

In 1613 Neile sat on the commission ap- 
pointed to try the Essex divorce suit, and 
with Bishop Andrewes and the majority he 
voted in favour of the dissolution of the 
unhappy marriage [see Dfvereux, Robert, 
third Earl of Essex]. He continued in high 
&vour with the king. In 1614 he was 
translated to Lincoln. In the debate in the 
House of Lords on the commons' demand for 
a conference on the impositions (24 May 


/ / 


it »• ' I . ' 

• ■* 

■ • ■ -■»•- 

* ■ « - Abb »m^ 

' 1 ;;~i" ■■■ 

'.T ■■• luLi.' : 
• ■ • ■. f • I * ■• -* I I -*■■•■* - 

■ « • ■ V r.i'- 




lay officers interfering in ecclesiastical mat- 
ters in a highhanded way.* By January 1636 
he had ordered his province much more suc- 
cessfully. In his own diocese he * scarce finds 
a beneficed minister stiffly unconformable/ 
and very large sums had been spent in repair- 
ing and adorning churches. The report of 
the diocese for 1636-7 states that ne had 
not found * any distractions of opinion touch- 
ing points of divinity lately controverted.' 
He declared himself a ' great adversary of the 
puritan faction . . . yet (having been a bishop 
eight and twenty years) he never deprived 
any man, but has endeavoured their retorma- 

Though an old man, he continued till his 
death to be active in political as well as in 
ecclesiastical business. Till within a fort- 
night of his death his correspondence was kept 
up with Laud, Windebanke, and Sir Dudley 
Carleton. Neile died ' in the mansion house 
belonging to the prebend of Stillington, within 
the close of the church of York, on 31 Oct. 
1640, and was buried at the east end of the 
cathedral, in the chapel of All Saints, without 
a monument. He was a man of little learn- 
ing, but of much address and; great capacity 
for business, and he possessed in a marked 
degree the power of influencing and directing 
the work of others. He was popular both 
at court and among his clergy, lleady and 
humorous of speecn, conscientious in his at- 
tachment to the principles advocated by men 
more learned than himself, hard working and 
careful of opportunity, he became prominent 
and successml where greater men failed. 
His best quality was a sound common-sense, 
his worst a lack of prescience. He was * a 
man of such a strange composition that 
whether he were of a larger and more public 
soul, or of a more uncourtly conversation, it 
were hard indeed to say ' THeyltn). Laud 
spoke of him as ' a man well known to be as 
true to, and as stout for, the church of Eng- 
land established by law as any man that 
came to preferment in it* ( Works, iv. 293). 
Baillie mentions him on his death as * a great 
enemy to us* (Baillie, Letters, ed. Lang, 
i. 270J. He left one son, Paul Neile of 
'Bowdill/ Yorkshire, who was knighted 
27 May 1633, and was father of WUliam 
Neile [q. v.J 

He published : 1. Articles for his primary 
visitation as Bishop of Winchester, printed 
by R. Young, London, 1628. Containing in- 
quiries as to the ministering of the sacra- 
ments, ordering of penances, and mainte- 
nance of church discipline. 2. Articles for 
his metropolitical visitation, London, printed 
by John Norton, 1633. Almost exactly the 
Bame as the above. 3. ' By commandment 

of King James he printed in English and 
Latin the conference that he had with th^ 
Archbishop of Spalatro after he had disco- 
vered his intention to return to Rome* (Lb 
Neve, Lives of the Bishops since the Refor^ 
mation, p. 149, quoting from Neile*s manu- 
script defence or himself in parliament). 

[Calendars of State Papers. Dom. 1625-40 ; 
Laud's Works ; Anthony Wood's Athense Oxoo. ; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England ; Le Neve's Lives 
of Protestant Bishops since the Reformation; 
Heylyn's Cyprianus Anglicus ; Perry's Hist, of 
the Church of England ; Gardiner's Reports of 
Cases in the Courts of Star Chamber and High 
Commission (Camd. Soc), 1886.] W. H. H. 

NEILE, WILLIAM (1637-1670), mathe- 
matician, was the eldest son of Sir Paul 
Neile and the grandson of Richard Neile 
[q. V.J, archbishop of York, in whose palace 
at Bishopsthorpe he was bom on 7 Dec. 
1637. Entering Wadham College, Oxford, 
as a gentleman-commoner in 1652, but not 
matriculating in the university till 1655, he 
soon displayed mathematical genius, which 
was developed by the instructions of Dr. 
Wilkins and Dr. Seth Ward. In 1657 he 
became a student at the Middle Temple. 
In the same year, at the age of nineteen, he 
gave an exact rectification of the cubical 
parabola, and communicated his discovery — 
the first of its kind — to Brouncker, Wren, 
and others of the Gresham College Society. 
His demonstration was published in Wallis*8 
* De Cycloide,* 1659, p. 91. Neile was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society on 7 Jan. 1663, 
and a member of the council on 11 April 
1666. His theory of motion was communi- 
cated to the society on 29 April 1669 (BiBCU, 
Hist, of the Royal Society, 11. 361). He pro- 
secuted astronomical observations with in- 
struments erected on the roof of his father's 
residence, the * Hill House,* at White Walt- 
ham in Berkshire, where he died, in his 
thirty-third year, on 24 Aug. 1670, * to the 
great grief of his father, and resentment of 
all virtuosi and good men that were ac- 
quainted with his admirable parts' (Wood). 
A white marble monument in the parish 
church of White Waltham commemorates 
him, and an inscribed slab in the floor marks 
his burial-place. He belonged to the privy 
council of Charles II. Heame says of him, 
' He was a virtuous, sober, pious man, and 
had such a powerful genius to mathematical 
learning that had he not been cut off in the 

Erime of his years, in all probability he would 
ave eaualled, if not excelled, the celebrated 
men of that profession. Deep melancholy 
hastened his end, through his love for a maid 
of honour, to marry whom he could not obtain 
his father^s consent.' 




the expedition under Sir James Outram [q .v.] 
He was preparing to start for Bushire to join 
it when, on 6 April, intelligence arrived that 
the war with Persia was over, and on 20 April 
the Madras fusiliers reached Madras. Colonel 
Stevenson, who was in command, left for 
England on sick leave on the 28th, and Neill 
took over command of the regiment. 

On 16 May news came from Calcutta that 
the troops at Mirat and Delhi had mutinied, 
and Northern India was in a blaze. Neill 
embarked his regiment at once, fully equipped 
for service, in accordance with instructions 
received, and arrived at Calcutta on 23 May. 
They were * entrained ' by detachments en 
route for Banaras. 

Neill arrived at Banaras on 8 June 1857. 
The following day the 37th native infantry 
and a Sikh regiment mutinied. They were at- 
tacked and dispersed by the artillery, some 
of the 10th foot and of the Madras fusiliers. 
Thrice the rebels chared the guns, and thrice 
were driven back witn grape shot ; then they 
wavered and fled. Never was rout so com- 
plete. Brigadier-general Ponsonby, who 
was in command, was incapacitated by sun- 
stroke, and Neill assumed the command. He 
was duly confirmed in the appointment as 
brigadier-general to commana the Haidara- 
bad contingent. II is attention was at once 
called to Allahabad, where the 6th native 
infantry mutinied on 5 June and massacred 
their olKcers. The fort still remained in our 
hands, but was threatened from without by 
the mutineers, who were preparing to invest 
the place, while the fioelity of the Sikh 
troops within was doubtful. Neill at once 
despatched fifty men of the Madras fusiliers 
to Allahabad by forced marches. They ar- 
rived the following day (6th), and found the 
bridge in the hands of the enemy, but got in 
by a steamer sent from the fort for them. 
Another detachment sent by Neill arrived 
on the 9th, and on the llth Neill himself, 
having made over the command at Banaras 
to Colonel Gordon, appeared with a further 
reinforcement of forty men. Neill experi- 
enced considerable difficulty in getting into 
Allahabad. He was nearly cut off en route 
from Banaras, and when he got near Allaha- 
bad it was blazing forenoon. A boat was ob- 
tained by stealing it from the rebels, and 
Neill and his men had to wade a mile through 
burning sand in the hot sun. Two of his 
men died in the boat of sunstroke. NeilFs 
energetic measures soon altered the position 
of afiairs. The beat was terrific, but Neill 
on 12 June recovered the bridge and secured 
a safe passage for another detachment of a 
hundred men of the fusiliers from Baniras. 
On the 18th he opened fire on the enemy in 

the adjacent villages, and on the 14th, a 
further detachment of fusiliers having ar- 
rived, the Sikh corps was moved outside the 
fort, and with it all immediate remaining 

On the evening of the 14th and during the 
15th he continued to fire on the enemy in the 
villages adjoining. He also sent a steamer, 
with some* gunners, a howitzer, and twenty 
picked shots of the fusiliers, up the Jamna. 
They did a great deal of execution. The Sikhs, 
supported by a party of the fusiliers, cleared 
the villages of Kaidganj and Matinganj. 
The insurgents were thoroughly beaten. The 
Moulavie fled, and the ringleaders dispersed. 
* At Allahabad,* wrote Lord Canning to the 
chairman of the East India Company, Hhe 6th 
regiment has mutinied, and fearful atrocities 
were committed by the people on Europeans 
outside the fort. But the fort has been 
saved. Colonel Neill, with nearly three 
hundred European fusiliers, is established 
in it ; and that point, the most precious in 
India at this moment, and for manv vears 
the one most neglected, is safe, thank God. 
A column will collect there (with all the 
speed which the means of conveyance will 
allow of), which Brigadier Havelock, just re- 
turned from Persia, will command.' Before 
Havelock came, cholera suddenly appeared. 
It did not last long, but within three days 
carried off fifty men. Neill set to work 
energetically to equip a small force to push 
into Cawnpore to relieve Wheeler ; he also 
collected guns and material for a large force 
to follow. For his services at Allahabad he 
was promoted colonel in the army and ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to the queen. 

Havelock arrived on 80 June. The column 
which Neill had prepared for Cawnpore 
started under Major Kenaud on 8 July. News 
had just arrived from Lucknow of the terri- 
ble tragedy enacted at Cawnpore, but it was 
not fully believed ; at any rate, hopes were 
entertained that the story might be the in- 
vention of Nana Sahib. Captain Spurgin 
of the Madras fusiliers, with one hundred 
men and two guns, also left Allahabad on 
8 July on board a river steamer to co-operate 
with Renaud. Havelock was delayed by 
want of bullocks for a few days, but finally 
left Allahabad on 7 July. Neill was left at 
Allahabad to reorganise another column. It 
was a great disappointment to Neill that, 
after his successes at Allahabad, he should 
be superseded by a senior officer ; but be was 
somewhat consoled on 15 JuW by a telegram 
from the commander-in-chief'^ directing him 
to hand over the command at Allahabad to 
the next senior officer, and to join Havelock 
as second in command. Neill reached Cawn- 




pore in five dayp* Wis instructions were, to 
say the least, injudicious. They led him to 
think, rightly or wrongly, that the authorities 
had misgivings as to Havelock, and had com- 
plete confidence in him, while it led Have- 
lock to regard Neill with some suspicion. 
On NeilFs arrival at Cawnpore he was at 
once met hy Havelock, who desired that 
there might be a complete understanding be- 
tween them. Neill waste have no power 
nor authority while he was there, and was 
not to issue a single order. When Havelock 
marched on Lucknow he left Xeill in com- 
mand at Cawnpore. 

One of Neilrs first acts on assuming the 
command at Cawnpore was to inquire into 
the particulars ofthe dreadful tragedy. When 
he became aware of its full horror, he was 
determined to make such an example that 
it might be a waminf to the mutineers at 
Lucknow and elsewhere. The following 
order was issued : * 25 July 1867. The well, 
in which are the remains of the poor women 
and children so brutally murdered by this 
miscreant, the Nana, will be filled up, and 
neatly and decently covered over to form 
their grave; a party of European soldiers 
will do so this evening, under the superintend- 
ence of an officer. The house in which they 
were butchered, and which is stained with 
their blood, will not be washed nor cleaned 
by their countrymen ; but Brigadier-general 
Neill has determined that everv stain of that 
innocent blood shall be cleared^ up and wiped 
out, previous to their execution, by such of 
the miscreants as may be hereafter appre- 
hended, who took an active part in the 
mutiny, to be selected according to their 
rank, caste, and degree of guilt. Each mis- 
creant, after sentence of death is pronounced 
upon him, will be taken down to the house 
in question, under a guard, and will be forced 
into cleaning up a small portion of the blood- 
stains ; the task will be made as revolting to 
his feelings as possible, and the provost 
marshal will use the lash in forcing any one 
objecting to complete his task. After pro- 
perly cleaning up his portion the culprit is 
to be immediately hanged, and for this pur- 
pose a gallows will be erected close at hand.* 
This was carried out. The sentence was 
severe, but * severity at the first,* Neill wrote, 
* is mercy in the end.* 

Neill had only three hundred infantry, 
half a battery of European artillery, and 
twelve veteran gunners with him in Cawn- 
pore when Havelock endeavoured to advance 
to the relief of Lucknow. NeilFs instruc- 
tions were to endeavour to defend so much 
of the trunk road as was then in British 
possession in the neighbourhood of Cawnpore, 

to aid in maintaining Havelock*s communi- 
cations with Allahabad and with Cawnpore, 
to strengthen the defences on both sides of 
the river, to mount heavy guns in them, and 
to render the passage of the river secure by 
establishing, m co-operation with the two 
steamers, a boat communication from en- 
trenchment to entrenchment. Havelock com- 
menced the passage of the river on the 20thy 
but it took a week of labour and difficulty 
before the whole column was assembled on 
the Oudh bank. On the 29th Havelock ad- 
vanced on Onao and routed the enemy. 
He gained another victory at Bashiratganj 
and then fell back on Mangalwar. On 
31 July he informed Neill that he could 
not advance to Lucknow without further 
reinforcements, and desired Neill to furnish 
workmen to form a bridgehead on the Oudh 
bank, to collect rations for his troops, and 
get ready two 24-pounders to accompany his 
advance, and push across any British infiEm- 
try so soon as they might arrive. Havelock 
no doubt was right to risk nothing in order 
to make sure of relieving Lucknow efiectu- 
ally, but his retrograde movement created 
bitter disappointment in Cawnpore, and Neill 
chafed so much under his mortifications that 
he wrote a very insubordinate letter to Have- 
lock, complaining bitterly of his action. He 
received a severe reply. Havelock again 
pushed forward, but once more, after further 
successes in the field, felt compelled to 
await reinforcements before he could make 
good his advance upon Lucknow. 

While Havelock was thus advancing and 
waiting, Neill was threatened at Cawnpore 
by large bodies of insurgent sepoys. He sent 
the steamers up the river with a small foree 
and two field guns and a mortar, and checked 
the rebels to some extent, but on 10 Aug. 
they approached nearer. A part of Neill 8 
small force was sick in hospital, and Neill 
sent word to Havelock that he could not 
keep open his communications, as his force 
was barely sufficient to enable him to hold 
on to Cawnpore, and that four thousand men 
and five guns were at Bithor, already threat- 
ening Cawnpore. So Havelock, having struck 
another blow at the enemy at Burhiya, re- 
turned, attacked the enemy at Bithor on 
16 Aug., dispersed them, and established 
himself in Cawnpore. Then came cholera. 
The treops were not adequately provided 
with shelter during the rainy season, and 
Neill thought they were unnecessarily ex- 
posed. Neill, who was a friend of the com- 
mander-in-chief. Sir Patrick Grant, kept up 
a correspondence with him, in which he 
seems to have criticised Havelock's doings 
freely, and Ghrant, on relinquiBhing the com- 




mand-in-chief to Sir Colin Campbell Rafter- 
wards Lord Clyde) [q. v.], wrote a friendly 
letter to Neill, impressing upon him the 
necessity of loyally supporting his immediate 
superiors. Unfortunately Neill did not act 
upon this advice. He opened a correspond- 
ence with Outram, who was coming up with 
reinforcements to take command, and ex- 
pressed his opinions as freely to him as he 
had done to G rant. Havelock and Neill were 
essentially unlike both in character and dis- 
position, and neither sufficiently appreciated 
the other. But despite Neill's attitude of 
disloyalty to IlavelocK, which is the one blot 
upon Neiirs fame, Havelock was ma^ani- 
mous enough to take Neill with him in the 
advance to Lucknow, with the rank of bri- 
gadier-general to command the right wing of 
the force. On the 15th, on Outram*s arrival, 
the arrangement was confirmed, and orders 
issued, the right wing consisting of the 5th 
and 84th foot, the Madras fusiliers, and 
Maude*s battery of artillery. 

The advance commenced on 19 Sept. On 
the 21st the enemy opened fire, but were 
driven off the field. Then it rained inces- 
santly, but the column marched on until 
half-past three, when the troops were quar- 
tered in a small serai. It rained all night 
and all the 22nd, when a similar march 
was made without any fighting, and on the 
arrival of the force at their bivouac the 
guns at Lucknow were distinctly heard. 
On the 23rd there was a bright sun, and the 
men felt the heat greatly. On approaching 
the Alambagh, where a considerable force 
of the enemjr was posted, fire was opened 
by the British force advancing in line as 
soon as they came within range. While 
crossing a deep watercourse NeilFs horse 
plunged and nearly fell, and as he did so a 
round shot grazed the horse's quarters, pass- 
ing a few inches behind Neill. The line was 
exposed to a heavy fire, and many fell. Neill 
roue in front of the Madras fusiliers, and 
cheered on the men, waving his helmet. The 
enemy were driven back a mile beyond the 
Alambagh, and the force occupied the Alam- 
bagh for the night. The baggage had not 
come up, and a pouring rain for an hour 
caused discomfort to the force. Neill at once 
got permission for an extra dram for the 
men. On the morning of the 24th the enemy's 
fire was annoying, and the force was ordered 
to move a thousand yards to the rear, to be 
more out of range of the enemy's guns ; but 
in executing the movement there was much 
confusion among the baggage animals and 
carts, and the rebel cavalry charged the rear- 
guard and baggage-guard, killing a good many 
men. NeUl ordered up two guns and the 

TOL. xu 

volunteer cavalry. The rebel cavalry gal- 
loped off again, leaving fifteen of their num- 
ber dead. Then Ha velock's force rested , and 
arrangements were made for the attack. On 
the morning of the 25th Neill marched off 
at 8 A.M. with the first brigade in advance. 
The brigade consisted of Maude's field bat- 
tery of artillery, the 5th fusiliers, a detach- 
ment of the 64th regiment, the 84th foot, 
and the Madras fusiliers. They had not ad- 
vanced two hundred yards when they were 
met with a murderous cross-fire from the 
rebel guns, and also with a heavy musketry 
fire. Neill pushed on, telling Maude to do 
his best to silence the guns. Neill directed 
his infantry to clear the walled enclosures 
on each side of the road, whence came the 
enemy's musketry fire. On turning into a 
village they were met by two guns firing 
straight down the road. Neill, at the head 
of the Madras fusiliers, charged the guns. 
Numbers of Neill's men were mowed down, 
but the guns were captured. Neill then led 
his men round the outskirts of the city with 
very trifling opposition until thev reached 
the road alon^ the bank of the Giimti to- 
wards the residency. They halted once or 
twice to let the guns come up, and thought 
the worst was over. But as they approached 
the Mess-house and the Kaisar Bagn a sharp 
musketry fire was opened upon them. The 
fire was returned, but for some two hundred 
yards the column was exposed to an inces- 
sant storm of bullets and grape shot. It was 
now nearly sunset. As they passed out of 
the lane into a courtyard, fire was opened 
from the tops of the houses on each side. 
Neill was on his horse giving orders, trying 
to prevent too hasty a rush through the 
archway at the end of the court, when he 
was shot dead from the top of a house. 
Spurgin, of the Madras fusiliers, saved his 
body, and, putting it on a gun-carriage, carried 
it into Lucknow. As the churchyard was 
too exposed to the enemv's fire to admit of 
funerals in the daytime, he was buried on the 
evening of the 26th. 

Great was the grief of the brigade for 
the loss of their commander, and both 
in India and in England it was felt that 
the death of Neill was the loss of a very 
resolute, brave, and energetic general, wlio 
had been the first to stem the torrent of re- 
volt, and who had, when in command for a 
short time, shown a capacityfor the position, 
a fertility of resource, and a confiaence in 
himself that had been equalled by few. Lord 
Canning, in publishing tne despatches on the 
relief of Luctnow, wrote: * Brigadier-general 
Neill, during his short but active career in 
Bengal, had won the respect and confidence 





of the Government of India ; he had made 
himself conspicuous as an intelligent, prompt, 
and self-reliant soldier, ready of resource, 
and stout of heart/ 

The * Gazette ' announced that, had Neill 
lived, he would have been made a K.C.B., 
and his widow was declared to enjoy the 
same title and precedence to which she would 
have been entitled had her husband survived 
and been invested with the insignia of a 
K.C.B. The East India Company gave a 
liberal pension to the widow. 

Memorials were erected in India in Xeill^s 
honour, and a colossal statue by Noble was 
erected in Wellington Square, in his native 
place, Ayr, in S<x)tland. Neill married, 
on 31 Oct. 1835, Isabella, daughter of 
Colonel Warde of the 5th regiment of Bengal 
cavalry, then employed as assistant to the 
resident at Nagpore. He left two sons. 

[India Office Records; Despatches; Marsh- 
man's Life of Havelock ; Kaye's History of the 
Sepoy War, and Lives of India Officers ; Malle- 
son's nist. of the Indian Mutiny.] K. H. V. 

NEELL or NEIL, PATRICK (d, 1705 ?), 
first printer in Belfast, was a native of Scot- 
land. He was originally a printer in Glas- 
gow. In 1694 he was brought over to Bel- 
fast by William Crafford, or Crawford, sove- 
reign (mayor) of Belfast. Crafford, who was 
an enterprising merchant and a presbyterian, 
was placed on the burgess roll in 1686, and 
removed in 1706 in virtue of the act of par- 
liament disqualifying dissenters ; he sat for 
Belfast in the Irish parliaments of 1703 and 
1 707. To encourage Neill to introduce the 
printing business into Belfast, he entered 
into partnership with him. Neill's books are 
very rare ; a few dated 1697 and 1698 are 
presumed to be his, but none bearing his im- 
print are known before 1699. Of that year 
there is an edition of * The Christian's Great 
Interest,' by William Guthrie (1620-1665) 
[q. v.], 'Belfast: Printed by Patrick Neill 
and Company,* and an edition of *The 
Psalms of David in Meeter,' with similar 
imprint. Appended to the latter is a list of 
three reli^ous books * Printed and Sold by 
Patrick ^eill.' Of his press work in 1700 
four small volumes are extant. * The Psalms 
of David in Meetcr ' (of which a copy, bound 
in tortoiseshell and silver, belongs to the 
First Presbyterian Church, Belfast) bears 
the imprint, * Belfast, Printed by Patrick 
Neil (sic) and Company, 1700.' An adver- 
tisement at the end of the * Psalms * specifies 
a New Testament and six more religious 
books, including the * Pil^m's Progress,' as 
printed * by and for ' Neill ; it is not pro- 
bable that the New Testament was of his own 

printing. To 1700 also belonsr his edition 
of Matthew Mead's ' Almost Christian/ and 
Bunyan's ' Sighs fromHell,'a small volume of 
sermons by John Flavel (1630 P-I69I) [q. v.], 
with life. At the end of the ' Almost Chris- 
tian ' is an advertisement specifying six more 
reli^ous books as printed by Neill. In 1702 
his imprint appears on a local work (the only 
instance), viz., 'Advice for Assurance of Sal- 
vation,' by Robert Craghead (d. 22 Aug. 1711), 
presbyterian minister of Derry. No later im- 
print of his is known. Neill's will bears date 
21 Dec. 1704; hence it is presumed that he 
died in 1705. IJe mentions as executors his 
brother-in-law, James Blow [a, v.], who mar- 
ried his sister Abigail, and died on 16 Aug. 
1759, leaving 40/. to the poor of Belfast 
(tablet formerly in the old church, now in 
the Old Poor House, Belfast), and Brice 
Blair {d, January 1722), bookseller and 
haberdasher, a prominent presbyterian and 
agent for distribution of regium donum in 
1708. Blair was probably one of Neill's com- 

Jany. Neill left three young children, John, 
ames, and Sarah, of whom John was to be 
brought up to his father's business by Blow. 
Patrick Neill (1776-1851) [q. v.] is said to 
have been a descendant of Neill. 

[Benn 8 Hist, of Belfast, 1877, pp. 425 sq. ; 
Historic Memorials of First Presb. Church of 
Belfast, 1887, pp. 14, 76 ; Anderson's Catalogue 
of Early Belfast Printed Books, 1890, pp. 6 sq. ; 
Young's Town Book of Belfast, 1892, pp. 231, 
236 sq. 337; Scottish Antiquary, October 1893, 
p. 65; Belfast News-Letter, 19 Jan. 1894, art. 
by Andrew Gibson.] A. G. 

NEILL, PATRICK (1776-1851), natu- 
ralist, was bom in Edinburgh on 25 Oct. 
1776, and spent his life in that city. He 
became the nead of the large printing firm 
of Neill & Co., but during the last thirty 
years of his life he took little active part 
in its management. Early in his career he 
devoted his spare time to natural history, 
especially botany and horticulture. The 
W emerian Natural llistorv Society was 
established in 1808, and in 1809 the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society was founded. 
Neill was the first secretary of both societies, 
holding the latter post for forty years. In 
1806 appeared his *Tour through Orkney 
and Shetland/ 8vo, a work which gave rise 
to much discussion, owing to its exposure of 
the then prevalent misery. In 1814 he issued 
a translation, 'An Account of the Basalts of 
Saxony, from the French of Dubuisson, with 
Notes,' Edinburgh, 8vo. He was the author 
of the article * Gardening ' in the seventh 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
which, subsequently published under the 
title of 'The Flower, Fruit, and Kitchen 




Garden/ ran through several editions. In 
1817 NeiU, with two other deputies from the 
Caledonian Society, made a tour through 
the Netherlands and the north of France, 
and he prepared an account of it, which was 
published in 1823. 

Edinburgh is indebted to Neill for the 
scheme of tne West Princes Street gardens. 
In 1820 that portion of the north loch was 
drained, and nve acres of ground were laid 
out and planted with seventy-seven thousand 
trees and shrubs under his direction ; it was 
also due to his public spirit that several anti- 
quities were preserved when on the point of 
bein^ demolished. 

Ills residence at Canonmills Cottage, near 
the city, was always open to visitors who 
cared for those pursuits in which Neill took 
an especial interest, and his garden was noted 
for the character of the collection and its 
high cultivation. A short time before his 
death he became enfeebled by a stroke of 
paralysis, and after several months of suffer- 
ing he died at Canonmills on 3 Sept. 1851, 
and was buried in the cemetery at Warriston, 
Edinburgh. His tombstone states that he 
was 'distinguished for literature, science, 
patriotism, benevolence, and piety.' 

He was fellow of the Linnean and Edin- 
burgh lloyal Societies, and honorary LLD. 
of Edinburgh University. He died un- 
married, and among his various charitable 
bequests was one of 500/. to the Caledonian 
Horticultural Societv to found a medal for 
distinguished Scottish botanists or culti- 
vators, and a similar sum to the lloyal 
Society of Edinburgh for a medal to distin- 
guished Scottish naturalists. He is bo- 
tanically commemorated by the rosaceous 
genus Neillia, 

[Particulars famished by his nephew, Patrick 
Neill Fraser; Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. 191 : Gard. 
Chron. 1851, p. 663; R. Grevi lie's Alg» Brit., 
] ntrod. pp. 4, 25 ; Gent. Mag. 1 85 1 , p. 548 ; Flem- 
ing's Lithol. Edinb. 1859, pp. 15, 16; Crombie's 
Modem Athenians, 1882, p. 115; Descr. Testim. 
pres. 22 June 1843, Edinb. 1843, l2mo; Joum. 
Dot. 1890, xxviii. 55.] B. D. J. 

(1792-1865), inventor of the hot blast in the 
iron manufacture, was bom on 22 June 1792 
at Shettleston, a village near Glasgow. His 
father, Walter Neilson, originally a laborious 
and scantily paid millwright, became ulti- 
mately eng^ne-wright at the Govan coal 
works, near Glasgow ; his mother, whose 
mai den name was Marion Smith, was a woman 
of capacity and an excellent housewife. Neil- 
son's edacation was of an elementary kind, 
and completed before he was fourteen. His 
first employment was to drive a condensing 

engine which his father had set up, and on 
leaving school he was for two years a * gig-boy * 
on a winding-engine at the Govan colliery. 
Showing a turn for mechanics, he was then 
apprenticed to his elder brother John, an 
engineman at Oakbank, near Glasgow, who 
drove a small engine, and acted as his brother's 
fireman . Some attempts by the two brothers 
at field preaching came to an end through 
the opposition 01 his father, and John de- 
voted his leisure to repairing the deficiencies 
of his early education. His apprenticeship 
finished, Neilson worked for a time as a 
journeyman to his brother, who rose to some 
eminence as an engineer, and who is said 
(Chambers) to have designed and constructed 
the first iron steamer that went to sea. At 
two-and-twenty Neilson was appointed, with 
a salary of from 70/. to 80/., engine-wright 
of a colliery at Irvine, in the working of 
which he made various improvements. A 
year later he married Barbara Montgomerie, 
who belonged to Irvine. She brought him 
a dowry of lioO/., which enabled them to 
live when the failure of his Irvine master 
threw him out of employment, and they 
migrated to Glasgow. Here, at the age 
of twenty-five, he was appointed foreman 
of the Glasgow gasworks, the first of the 
kind to be established in the city. At the 
end of five years he became manager and 
engineer of the works, and remained con- 
nected with tliem for thirty years. Into 
both the manufacture and the utilisation of 
gas he introduced several important improve- 
ments, among them the employment of clay 
retorts, the use of sulphate of iron as a puri- 
fier, and the swallow-tail jet, which came 
into general use. In these early successes 
as an inventor he was aided by the new 
knowledge of physical and chemical science 
which he acquired as a diligent student at 
the Andersonian University, Glasgow. At 
the same time he was exerting himself zeal- 
ously for the mental and technical improve- 
ment of the workmen under him, most of 
whom, Highlanders and Irishmen, could not 
even read. By degrees he overcame tlieir 
reluctance to be taught, and, with the aid of 
the directors of the gas company, he suc- 
ceeded in establishing a thriving workman's 
institution, with a library, lecture-room, 
laboratory, and workshop. In 1 825 the popu- 
larity of the institute rendered enlargement 
of the building necessary, and Neilson de- 
livered an excellent address to its members, 
which was published. 

It was about this time that he was led 
to the inquiries which resulted in the dis- 
covery of the value of the hot blast in the 
iron manufacture. The conception was en- 


Neilson iSo Neilson 

tirely opposed to the practice which an erro- invention. Ultimately the partnership ap- 

neous tneory had caused to be universally pears to have consisted of >ieilson, Macin- 

adopted. Finding that iron, in greater ouan- tosh, and Wilson; Neilson being entitled to 

titj and of better quality, was tumea out six-tenths of the profits, Macintosh to three- 

by the blast furnace in winter than in sum- tenths, and Wilson to one-tenth (^Neilson 

mer, the ironmasters had come to the con- and Harford, p. 2). Separate patents were 

elusion that this was due to the greater cold- taken out in 1828 for England, Scotland, and 

ness of the blast in winter than in summer. Ireland,that for Englandbeing dated 11 Sept., 

So strongly were they convinced of the truth those for Scotland and Ireland 1 Oct. The 

of this theory that they had recourse to specification was dated 28 Feb. 1829. To 

various devices for the artificial refrigeration encourage the employment of the hot blast 

of the blast. It is one of the chief merits of by the trade, the charge for a license to smelt 

Neilson as an inventor that he discovered iron with the hot blast was fixed at a shilling 

the baselessness of thb theory, and convinced a ton on all iron produced by the new pro- 

himself that the superior yield of the blast cess. In 1832 Neilson joined the Institution 

furnaces in winter was to be accounted for, of Civil Engineers in London, 
partly at least, by the increased moisture of ; Neilson and others soon improved the 

the air in summer. It was, however, the apparatus. After five years' trial at the 

comparative inefficiency of the blast in a Clyde ironworks it was found that with 

particular case, in which the blowing-engine, the hot blast the same amount of fuel pro- 
instead of being near the furnace, was half duced three times as much iron, and that 

a mile distant from it, that drew Neilson's the same amount of blast did twice as much 

attention immediately to the experiments work as the cold blast formerly. A subsi- 

which led ultimately to his great invention, diary benefit was that, whereas with the cold 

Neilson concluded that the effects of distance blast coke — at least in Scotland — had to be 

between the furnace and blowing-engine used, with the hot blast raw coal could be, 

would be overcome if the blast were heated and was, substituted, with a great saving of 

by passing it through a red-hot vessel, by expenditure. To Scotland the invention was 

which its volume, and therefore the work an inestimable benefit. It made available 

done by it, would be increased. Experi- the black band ironstone which, since its 

menting on gas and on an ordinary smith's discovery by David Mushet [q. v.], had beeu 

tire, he found in the one case that heated almost useless in the iron manufacture. In 

air in a tube surrounding the gas-burner in- ' 1839 the proprietor of one estate in Scotland 

creased the illuminating power of the gas, derived a royalty of 16,600/. from the black 

and in the other that by blowing heated air Vjand. although before the invention of the 

instead of air at its ordinary temperature hot blast it had yielded him nothing (Smiles, 

into the fire its heat was much more in- p. 101). In the course of time the anthra- 

tense. Of course, the cause of the increase cite coal of England, which could not be used 

was that the fire had not to expend a por- in smelting iron with the cold blast, was 

tion of its caloric to heat the cold air poured made available for that purpose by the in- 

into it in the ordinary way. Neilson was vention of the hot blast. By 1836 the hot 

now on the verge of the fruitful discovery blast was in operation in every ironwork in 

that the blast was to be made more efficient Scotland save one, and there it was in course 
by heating it, not by refrigerating it. Owing of introduction. Except in the case of a few 

to a deep-seated belief in the erroneous theory special bands of iron, it is now in general 

that cold benefited the blast, the ironmasters use in Great Britain and out of it. It has 

were reluctant to allow Neilson to try in been justly said that Neilson did for the iron 
their furnaces the effects of a substitution of manufacture what Arkwright did for the 

the hot for the cold blast ; and even those ^ cotton manufacture. 

wlio were disposed to permit it strongly ob- Like Arkwright, Neilson was not allowed 

jected to the alterations in the arrangements ' to enjoy undisturbed the fruits of his inven- 

of their furnaces which Neilson thought tion. He and his partners, by beginning 

necessary for a fair trial of his invention. A legal proceedings, had compelled at least one 

trial under anj-thing like adequate condi- firm to give up infringing their patent and 

tions was consequently long deferred. Its to take out a license lor using it, when to- 

effects were first fairly tested at the Clvde wards 1840 an association of Scottish iron- 

ironworks, and with such success that masters was formed, each member of which 
Charles Macintosh [q. v.], the inventor of i bound himself, under a nenalty of 1,000/., to 

tlie well-known waterproof, Colin Dunlop, ' resist, by every method which a majority 

and John Wilson of Dundyvan entered into * should recommend, any practical aclmow- 

a partnership with Neilson for patenting the | ledgment of the yididity of Neilson^s patent. 




At the same time several English iron- 
masters were individually making use of the 
hot hlast while refusing to take out licenses. 
The first action brought by the owners of 
the patent after the formation of the Scottish 
association was a test one^ Neilson v. Har- 
ford, tried in the Court of Exchequer in May 
and June 1841. The most plausible of the 
pleas urged by the defendants was a vague- 
ness in that part of the specification which 
described the air-vessel or receptacle in which 
the blast was to be heated before entering 
the furnace. The * form or shape ' was said 
to be * immaterial to the effect.' The presid- 
ing judge considered that the specification 
should have here been more explicit, and on 
this issue ent«redjudgmentfor the defendants, 
although the jury had pronounced a verdict 
generally favourable to the validity of the 
patent. The full court, however, decided in 
favour of the plaintiff's, and the lord chan- 
cellor granted an injunction against the de- 
fendants. With this terminated the contest 
between the patentees and English iron- 
masters. It was renewed in Scotland in 
April 1842, when a Scottish jury gave a ver- 
dict against the Household Coal Company, 
mulctmg them in 3,000/. damages for liaving 
infringed the patent. Nevertheless in May 
1843 the validity of the patent was again 
tried in the court of session, on a scale 
which made the action Neilson v. Baird a 
cause c^lebre. The defendants were the 
Bairds of Gartsherrie, who, after taking out 
a license for the use of the blast, continued 
to use it while ceasing to pay for it. The 
trial in Edinburgh lasted nine days, more 
than one hundred witnesses were examined, 
and the costs of the action were computed 
to have amounted to 40,000/. at lea^t. It 
was admitted, on the part of the defendants, 
that during ten years tney made 260,000/. net 
profit on hot-blast iron. The lord president 
summed up strongly in favour of tne plain- 
tiff's, and the jury gave a verdict against the 
defendants. The plaintiff's claimed 20,000/. ; 
the jury granted them 11,876/. This was 
the last lawsuit in which the validity of the 
patent was tried. In a memoir of Neilson, 
which claimsto be authoritative (Chambers), 
he is described as discouraged and broken 
down at the time when he received news of 
a * final decision of the House of Lords * in 
his favour. There is no record in the Law 
Keports of any such decision. The last re- 
ference in them to proceedings in the House 
of Lords belongs to February 1843, when that 
house affirmed one clause in a bill of excep- 
tions tendered, on the part of the Household 
Coal Company, to the summing-up of the 
Scottish judge who presided at the trial 

already mentioned. This decision of the 
House of Lords was unfavourable ' rather 
than favourable to Neilson, and might have 
led to a new trial, which was actually talked 
of but did not take place. The Scottish 
patent had expired in September, and the 
English patent in October 1842. 

liesigning, in easy circumstances, the ma- 
naj^ership of the (jilasgow gasworks, Neilson 
retired in 1847 to a property in the Isle of 
Bute, belonging to the Marquis of Bute, 
whose friendship he enjoyed. In 1851 he re- 
moved to an estate which he had purchased 
in the Stewartry of Kircudbright, where he 
was active in promoting local improvements, 
and founded an institution similar to that 
which he had established for the workmen 
of the Glasgow gasworks. Among the 
honours conferred on him was his election in 
1846 to fellowship of the Royal Society. 
In 1859, in the course of a discussion on Mr. 
H. Martin's paper on * Hot Ovens for Iron 
Furnaces,' reaa at Birmingham before the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Neilson 
gave an interesting account of the steps by 
which he had arrived at his invention. Neil- 
son was a man of strict integrity and of 
somewhat puritanical rigour. At the dis- 
ruption he left the established church of 
Scotland, and joined the free church. He 
died 18 Jan. 1865 at Queenshill, Kirkcud- 

[The chief nccount of Neilson is in Smiles's 
Industrial Biography, chap. ix. This is sapple- 
men ted by the memoir in Chambers's Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, which is said to 
be based on information supplied by Neilson's 
son. See also Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, 
xzx. 451. There is an excellent account of the hot 
blast and its history in the volume on Iron and 
Steel in Percy's Metallurgy. In the article Iron in 
the ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
p. 317, the respective merits of the hot and cold 
blasts are succinctly stated. A full report of 
the trial Neilson v. Harford was published in 
1841, and of Neilson v. Baird in 1843. There 
is a copy of the former, but not of the latter, in 
the library of the British Museum. The library 
of the Patent Office contains copies of both. 
Adequate notices of the various lawsuits in which 
Neilson and his partners were involved are given 
in Webster's Patent Cases, in Clark and Fin- 
nelly's Beports of Cases decided in the House of 
Lords, and in the Reports of Cases decided in 
the Court of Session, sub annis.] P. E. 

NEILSON, JOHN (1778-1839), bene- 
factor of Paisley, bom in Paisley on 14 Dec 
1778, was the younger son of John Neilson 
grocer in Paisley, and Elizabeth Sclatter, 
his wife. John entered his father's business, 
and before 1812 became, with his elder bro- 
ther Jame6| a partner in the firm, which was 




then styled John Neilson and Sons. James 
died on 12 Nov. 1831 ; John, continuing to 
(^rrj on the business, amassed a consiaer- 
tm\e fortune, and purchased the lands of 
Nethercommon, where he died on (5 Nov. 
1839. He was buried in the churchyard 
beside Paisley Abbey. A tombstone was 
erected to his memory and to that of his 
brother. lie was a man of reserved habits, 
and entirely given up to business. By his 
deed of settlement he set apart a sum of 
17,187/. ' to form and endow for the edu- 
cating, clothing, and outfitting, and, if need 
be, the maintaining of boys who have resided 
within the parliamentary boundary of Paisley 
for at least three years, whose parents have 
died either without leaving sufficient funds 
for that purpose, or who from misfortune 
have been reduced, or who from the want of 
means are unable to give a suitable educa- 
tion to their children.' Although the trustees 
were required to feu or purchase a piece of 
ground in Paisley for the erection of an in- 
stitution at any time within five years, yet 
they were forbidden to commence building 
till after the expiry of that time. As a site 
for the building the trustees secured the 
town's bowling-green, the most conspicuous 
situation in Paisley, formerly the praetorium 
of a Roman camp. On this they erected a 
building which forms one of the chief archi- 
tectural adornments of the town. The John 
Neilson Institution is now one of the best 
schools in the west of Scotland. There have 
been nearly nine hundred pupils educated as 
foundationers. The attendance at the open- 
ing of the institution in 1852 was about five 
hundred ; it is now over nine hundred. The 
trustees are invested with ' the most ample 
and unlimited powers,' the only restriction 
being that * the education shall be based on 
the scriptures.' The school was incorporated 
in 1889 in a scheme made by the commis- 
sioners under the Educational Endowments 
(Scotland) Act, 1882. 

[Brown's History of Paisley, ii. 324-8 ; Re- 
ports of the Neilsoii Institution ; Hoctor's Vau- 
duara.] G. S-h. i 

NEILSON, JOHN (1776-1848), Cana- 
dian journalist, bom at Balmaghie, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, Scotland, 17 July, 1776, was 
sent to Canada in 1790, and placed under 
the care of his elder brother, Samuel Neilson, 
then resident in Quebec, and editor of the 
* Quebec Gazette.' Samuel Neilson died in 
1793, and in 1796 John Neilson became editor 
of the paper. Tlie * Quebec Gazette,' published 
both in English and French, had a wide cir- 
culation. John Neilson, though really of con- 
servative views, vigorously championed the 

cause of the French Canadians, and in 1818 
he was elected member of the assembly of 
Lower Canada for t he county of Quebec. He 
held his seat for fifteen consecutive years. 
He assumed the attitude of an independent 
member, paid great attention to agriculture 
and education, and, in order to have his 
hands completely tree, ceased to edit the 
'Quebec Gazette,' which enjoyed the pri- 
vilege of publishing public advertisements. 
In 1823 he was sent, with other delegates, 
from Lower Canada to England, to protest 
against the proposed union of Upper and 
Lower Canada mto one government. The 
mission was successful, and the proposal 
for the time withdrawn. In 1827 much dis- 
satisfaction arose in Lower Canada, owing 
to gross malversation on the part of Sir 
John Caldwell, the receiver-general, and 
to the refusal of the executive to allow cer- 
tain crown duties to pass into the hands of 
the assembly. In 1828 another mission, of 
which Neilson again formed a member, was 
sent to England to complain. Neilson care- 
fully stated his aversion to any fundamental 
changes. His representations were therefore 
readily accepted, the crown duties being re- 
signed, and a board of audit established to 
supervise public accounts. On 29 March 1830 
Neilson was publicly thanked for his services 
by the speaker of the assembly, and in Ja- 
nuary 1831 a silver vase was presented to 
him by the citizens of Que bee. Fromthisdate, 
however, Neilson began to separate from 
the French Canadian party. The assembly, 
under the leadership ot Louis Papineau [q.v.], 
had refused to provide funds for the govern- 
ment expenses, and was loudly demanding 
an elective upper house. Both these demands 
were opposed by Neilson, who declared that, 
as the administration had been purified, no 
furthep change was necessary. As a re- 
sult he lost his seat at the general election 
of 1834. A constitutional association was 
now formed in Lower Canada, by those per- 
sons who wished to maintain the existing 
system. Neilson became a member of it, and 
in 1835 accepted the appointment of delegate 
to England to protest against the violent de- 
mands of the advanced party. He retunu^d 
to Canada in 1836, and did his utmost to 
deter his fellow-countrymen from entering 
on the rebellion of 1837-8. On its suppres- 
sion the constitution was suspended, and a 
special council was created for the govern- 
ment of the two provinces by the high com- 
missioner. Lord Durham, a seat thereon being 
given to Neilson. Neilson, true to his ola 
principles, bitterly opposed the reunion of 
the two provinces. He thus regained some 
of his old popularity with the I<rench party, 



and in 1841 lie waa elected tu tlie 
legislature for hia former suat of the county 
of Quebec, llo hod now become a Etiong 
conservative, and resolutely opposed the de- 
mand for refponaible govermnent, promoted 
mainly by the inhabitants of Upper Canada. 
In 1844 he was made speakerof tbe assembly. 
Ill Uctober 1647 lie headed a deputation of 
ciliMUB of Quebec, and read a ione address 
to tbe governor, Lord Elgin. A chill caught 
on this oceosion settled on his !un|^. He 
died on 1 Feb. 1848, and was buried in the 
cemetery attached to the preebyterian church 
at Valcartier, near Quebec. 

liiries of Canndu, !>y GsnieBU and Withrow ; 
Ciujadian Parliameotary Eoports; Enelish Pnr- 
liamoatiuy Hoporta.] Q. P. M-t. 


( 1760 P-l 830), organist, was bom in London 
about ITtiO. At the age of seven be weut 
■with bis parents to the West Indies, where 
his father died. Iteturtting with his mother 
to London, he studied music under Valeu- 
line Nicotai, and began teaching at Notting- 
ham and Derby. He was organist for two 
-It, Dudley, Worcesterslure, and in 1808 

in 1830. His compoajtionn, none of which 
(ire important, include pianoforte BonatM, 
<]uets,eongs,a' Book of Psalms and Hymns,' 
(ind some flute music. His son, E. J. Neil- 
son, was one of tbe ten foundation students 
of the Itoyal Academy of Music. 

[Biographionl Dietionpiry of Mmiciana, 1824 ; 
Brown's Dictionary of MosiciaDS.] J. C. II. 

(1848-1880), whose real name was Elizabeth 
Ann Brown.actress, WAS duughterof a some- 
what obscure actress named llrown, subse- 
quently known as Mrs. Bland. She was 
bom at 35 St. Peters Square, Leeds, on 
3 March 1848, lived as a child at Skipton, 
nnd subsequently worked as a mill hand at 
Guiseley. Uer father's name is unrevcaled. 
ISefore she was twelve years of age she used 
to recite jmssoge-s from her mother's play- 
fcooks. At the parish school of Guiseley she 
{showed herself a quick child and an ardent 
reader, Sbe then became a nurse girl, and, 
on learning the particulars of her birth grew 
FL-stlesH and, ultimately, under the name 
Lizzie Ann Bland, made her way secretly to 
Irfindon. Uor early experiences were cruel, 
(iiid remain unedifying. During a portion of 
tbe lime she was behind tbe bar at a public- 
bouse near the Hnymarket, where sue had 
a reputation as a Shakespearean declaimer. 
Sbe WM flnt Men on the stage in I86& at 

Margate us Juliet. Lizzie Ann Blend then 
blossomed into Lilian Adelaide Lessont, 
aftenvards changed to Neilson, a name she 
maintained after a marriage contracted about 
this time with Mr. Pliilip Henry Lee, tbe 
son of the rector of Stoke iirueme, near Tow- 
cester. from whom she was divorced in 1877. 
Her first appearance in London was made as 
Juliet at the Royalty Theatre in Dean Street 
inJulyl8tlS,her performance beingwitnessed 
bv a scanty audience, including two or three 
theatrical reporters or critics, whom it pro- 
foundly impressed. Such knowledge as she 
possessed had been obtained from John 
Kyder, a brusque but capable actor, whose 
pupil she was. She possessed at that time 
remarkable beauty, of a somewhat southern 
type, girlish movement, and a ^oice musical 
and caressing. Tbe earlier scenes were given 
with much grace and tenderness, and in the 
later scenes she eshibiled tragic intensity. 
Sbe was then engaged for the Princess's, 
where she was, 2 July 18(MI, the original 
Qabrielle de Savigny in Watts Phillips's 
' Huguenot Captain,' and the same year she 
played Victorine in a revival of Ibe drama of 
that name at the Adelphi. On 10 March 
1867 she watt, at tbe same house, the original 
Nelly Armroyd in Watts Phillips's ' Lost in 
London.' On 25 Sept. 1868, at the Theatre 
Royal, Edinburgh, she was seen as Rosalind 

1 like il 

Lyons,' and 
Julia in tbe ' Hunchback? On -2 Oct. she 
was tbe heroine of ' Stage and State,' an un- 
successful adaptation of ' Beatrix, ou la Ma- 
done de I'Art, of Legouvfi. In November 
she played at Birmingham in ' MJllicent,' an 
adaptation by Mr. C. ^Viliiams of Birming- 
ham of Miss Draddon's novel the 'Captain 
of the Vulture.' Returning to London she 
' created,' 6 March 1889, at the Lyceum, the 
part of Lilian in Westland Marston's ' Life 
forLife.' At the Gaiety she wos, on 1 1 Oct. 
1809, the first Mme. ^"idal in • A Life Chase,' 
byJobnOxenford and Horace Wigan, adapted 
from ' Le Drama de la Uue de la Poix,' and on 
13 Dec. tbe first Mary Helton in H. J. Byron's 
' Uncle Dick's Darling.' At the same house 
she appeared the following April as Julia in 
a revival of tbe ' Hunchback,' and on ^6 Mav 
1 870 she St. James's HaU.a series of 
dramatic studies consisting of passages from 
the ' IVovnlied Husband,' ' Ijove for Love,' 

' Taming of tbe Shrew,' ' Wallcnstein,' 
and ' Pbedre,'withaccompanying comments. 

appeared as Amy Rohaart in Andrew 
HftUiday's adaptation of 'Kenilworth' at 
Drury Lane 24 Sept. 1870, Rebecca in Hal- 
liday's version of Ivanboe' on 23 Sept. 1871, 
and Rosalind on. 18 Dec. A geriee of fare- 




well performances at the Queen*8 Theatre, 
in which she played Juliet and Pauline in 
tlie * Lady of Lyons/ preceded her departure 
for New York, where, at Niblo*s Theatre, she 
performed for the first time 18 Nov. 1872. 
In America she was extremely popular, act- 
ing, in addition to other parts, Beatrice in 
* Much Ado about Nothing,' Lady Teazle, 
and Isabella in * Measure for Measure.' Ame- 
rica was revisited in 1874, 1876, and 1879, 
and she added to her repertory Viola in 
'Twelfth Night' and Imogen. During an 
engagement at the Hay market, beginning 
17 Jan. 1876, she reappeared as Isabella, ana 
was the first Anne fioleyn in Tom Taylor's 
play of that name. She played at the same 
house in 1 878, in the course of which she acted 
Viola. Her Queen Isabella in the * Crimson 
Cross ' was seen for the first time, 27 Feb. 
1879, at the Adelphi. This was her last ori- 
ginal part. Her latest visit to America ended 
on 28 July 1880, and soon after her arrival 
in England she left for Paris, complaining of 
illness, but with no sign of disease. But she 
took farewell of one or two intimate friends, 
declaring in unbelieving ears that she should 
never return. On 16 Aug. 1880 she drank a 
glass of iced milk in the Bois de Boulogne, 
and was seized with a sudden attack, appa- 
rently gistric, from which she died the same 
day. 11 er remains were brought to London 
and interred in Brompton cemetery. 

As a tragedian she has had no English 
rival during the last half of this century. 
Her Juliet was perfect, and her Isabella had 
marvellous earnestness and beauty. In Julia 
also she has not been surpassed. In comedy 
she was self-conscious, and spoilt her efiects 
by over-acting. Her Viola was pretty,' and 
her Rosalind, though very bright, lacked 
poetry. The best of her original parts were 
Amy Robsart. and Rebecca. It is not easy 
to see how these could have been improved. 
She was thoroughly loyal, and quite devoid 
of the jealousy that seeks to belittle a rival 
artist or deprive her of a chance. In the 
popularity she obtained her antecedents were 
forgotten. Her social triumphs were remark- 
able, and but for her unhappy marriage it is 
certain that she would have added another 
to the long list of titled actresses. Many 
portraits of her have appeared in magazines 
and other publications. A miniature on 
ivory, a little idealised, but effective, is in the 
possession of the present writer. 

[Personal knowledgo; Smith's Old Yorkshire ; 
Piiscoe's Dramatic Notes; Scott and Ho^vard's 
Life of E. L. Blanchard ; Winter's Shadows of 
the Stage ; Era Almanac ; Times, 1 7t 1 8, 2 1, and 
26 Aug. 1880 ; Athenaeum, August 1880 ; Aca- 
demy, August 1880.] J. K. 

NEILSON, PETER (1795-1861), poet 
and mechanical inventor, youngest son of 
George Neilson, calenderer, was bom in Glas- 
gow on 24 Sept. 1795. Educated at Glas^w 
High School and University, he received 
a business training in various city offices, and 
then joined his father in exporting cambric 
and cotton goods to America. In 1820, on 
returning from a visit to the United States, 
he married his cousin, Elizabeth Robertson. 
From 1822 to 1828 he was in America on 
business, and amassed a store of information, 
which he published on his return in ' Six 
Years' Residence in America,' 1828. The loss 
of his wife about this time turned his 
thoughts strongly towards religion,|and poems 
on scriptural themes — ' The Millennium * and 
'Scripture Gems' — which he published in 
1834, interested Dr. Chalmers and Professor 

In 1841 Neilson settled in Kirkintilloch, 
Dumbartonshire, where a maiden sister man- 
aged for him and his family of three daugh- 
ters and one son. In 1846 he proposed im- 
provements on the life-buoy, which the lords 
of the admiralty deemed worthy of being 
patented (Whitelaw, Memoir), but he 
shrank from the expense. Continuing his 
literary efforts, he wrote a remarkable little 
work on slavery, published in 1846, and en- 
titled * The Life and Adventures of Zamba, 
an African King ; and his Experiences of 
Slavery in South Carolina.' Ostensibly only 
edited by Neilson, this work in some respects 
anticipated * Uncle Tom's Cabin.' He also 
contributed to the ' Glasgow Herald ' a series 
of practical articles on * Cotton Supply fcwr 
Britain.' On 8 Jan. 1848 he wrote a patriotic 
letter to Lord John Russell, suggesting iron- 
plated ships, and enclosing a plan of an inven- 
tion by him. In 1855 he further corre- 
sponded on the subject with Lord Panmure 
and Admiral Earl Hardwicke, and appa- 
rently his proposals wore adopted, though 
not formally acknowledged (ib.) After the 
building of the Warrior and the Black Prince 
according to his plan, Neilson suggested 
inside as well as outside plates, and summed 
up his views in * Remarks on Iron-built 
Snips of War and Iron-plated Ships of War,^ 
1861. Shortly afterwards he published an- 
other pamphlet, on the defence of unfortified 
cities such as London. In his latter years 
he suffered from heart, disease, and he died 
at Kirkintilloch on 3 May 1861, and was 
interred in the burying-ground of Glasgow 

Neilson's * Poems,' edited with memoir by 
Dr. Whitelaw, appeared in 1870. The pieces 
in this posthumous volume are vigorously 
conceived and marked by strong common- 




sense, but they are not specially poetical. 
The most ambitious effort in the book, * David : 
a Drama/ is a somewhat slim expansion of 
the Bible story. 

[Dr. Whitelaw's memoir as in text.] T. B. 

NEILSON, SAMUEL (1761-1803), 
United Irishman, the son of Alexander Neil- 
son, a presbyterian minister, was born at 
Ballyroney, co. Down, in September 1761. 
lie was educated partly by his father, partly 
at a neighbouring school, and displayed con- 
siderable aptitude for mathematics. About 
the affe of sixteen he was apprenticed to 
his elder brother John, a woollendraper in 
Belfast. He married in September 1785 
Miss Bryson, the daughter of a highly re- 
spectable and wealthy merchant of that town, 
and, starting in business for himself, esta- 
blished one of the largest woollen warehouses 
in Belfast. But, becoming absorbed in poli- 
tics, his business gradually declined to such 
an extent that it was eventually abandoned. 
In 1790 he was particularly active in pro- 
moting the candidature as M.F. for the county 
Down of Kobert Stuart, afterwards Viscount 
Castleroagh [q. v.], in opposition to Lord 
Hillsborough, in the tory interest. In 1791 
he suggested to Henry Joy McCracken [q. v.] 
the idea of a society of Irishmen of every 
persuasion for the promotion of a reform of 
parliament, and he may therefore be regarded 
as the founder of the United Irish Society, 
though the real organiser of it was Theobald 
Wolfe Tone [q. v.J, with whom he in this 
year became acquainted, and with whose re- 
publican views, involving a complete separa- 
tion of Ireland from England, he cordially 
concurred. In order to propagate the prin- 
ciples of the society a bi-weekly newspaper, 
the * Northern Star,* was started under >(eil- 
son's editorship, the first number of which 
appeared on 4 Jan. 1792. At first only a 
shareholder, with a salary of 100/. per annum 
as editor, he eventually in 1794 became sole 
proprietor. Without possessing the literary 
qualities of its successor, the 'Press,' the 

* Northern Star* soon became a very popular 
and influential paper in the north of Ireland, 
and at the time of its suppression in 1797 
had attained a circulation of 4,200 copies of 
each issue. According to Tone, its object was 

* to give a fair statement of all that passed 
in France, whither every one turned their 
eyes; to inculcate the necessity of union 
among Irishmen of all religious persuasions ; 
to support the emancipation of the catholics ; 
and finally, as the necessary, though not 
avowed, consequence of all this, to erect Ire- 
land into a republic independent of England.' 
With 8uch aims the paper naturally became 

an object of suspicion to government. In 
1792 the printer and proprietor were prose- 
cuted and acquitted. In January 1793 six 
injunctions were filed against them for sedi- 
tious libels, and in November 1794 they were 
prosecuted for publishing the address of the 
United Irishmen to the volunteers. After 
this Neilson became sole proprietor. In Sep- 
tember 1796 the offices of the * Northern Star' 
were ransacked by the military and Neilson 
arrested. A full account of the affair ap- 
peared in the next issue of the paper on 
16 Sept. He was at first placed in solitary 
confinement in Newgate, Dublin ; but, being 
shortly afterwards removed to Kilmainham, 
the rigour of his punishment was relaxed. 
During his imprisonment his neighbours dis- 
played ^eat kindness to his wife and family. 
After his arrest the * Northern Star* was at 
first edited by Thomas Corbett, and after- 
wards by the Rev. Mr. Porter, author of the 
highly treasonable articles * Billy Bluff and 
the Squire,* but was finally suppressed with 
great violence in May 1797. 

After seventeen months* confinement,which 
told seriously on his health, Neilson was, 
on 22 Feb. 1798, three weeks before the 
arrest of the Leinster Directory at Oliver 
Bond*s, released on his own recognisances 
and those of his friend John Sweetman, on 
condition that he would for the future abstain 
from treasonable conspiracy. After his release 
he was, according to the younger Grattan 
(Life of Henry Grattan^ iv. 368), ' sent for 
and closeted with Mr. Pelham, on an inquiry 
by the secretary as to the probability of 
conciliating the north of Ireland by granting 
reform, and at the period of his release he 
was in habits of intercourse with the people 
of the castle. They sought him in oraer 
to obtain intelligence, as he was an open- 
mouthed person.* Neilson was probably more 
astute than either Grattan or Pelham fancied. 
Mr. Leckv, who has no high opinion of him, 
suggests (England in the Eighteenth Cejitury^ 
viii. 44 n.) that in communicating with go- 
vernment he only did so in order to betray 
them. It is certain that he did not long aa- 
here to the conditions of his release. This 
he admitted in his examination before the 
secret committee, but pleaded in extenuation 
that he took no part in politics till he found 
that government had broken faith with him, 
and that he had reason to know that it was 
intended to arrest him ag^n. Anyhow he 
soon entered into communication with Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald [q. v.], and was verjr 
active in filling up the vacancies in the Di- 
rectory caused by the arrests at Bond*8 on 
12 March. His intimacy with Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald, by whom he was greatly esteemed. 


1 86 


and his extraordinary behaTiour on the even- 
inc; of that unfortunate nobleman*8 capture, 
leu to a widespread but unfounded belief that 
it was he who betrayed him (Thomas Moorb, 
Life of Lord B. Fitzgerald), On 22 May 
a reward of 300/. was offered for his appre- 
hension, and on the evening of the following 
day he was captured, after a desperate re- 
sistance, in which * he was cut and scarred 
in upwards of fifty places, and was only saved 
by the number of his assailants,' while recon- 
noitring Newgate, with a view to the rescue 
of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. When placed 
in the dock on 12 July he vehemently pro- 
tested against the indignity of being loaded 
with fetters, which the turnkey excused on 
the ground of his extraordinary strength and 
ferocity. He declined to name counsel, ' lest 
he might in any degree give his concurrence 
to the transactions of a court which he looked 
upon as a sanguinary tribunal for conviction 
and death, and not for trial.' 

According to Roger O'Connor, who claimed 
to have special knowledge of the transaction, 
it was Neilson who, in order to save his own 
life, set on foot those negotiations which 
resulted in the famous compact of 29 July 
1798 between government and the political 
prisoners, whereby the latter, in order to stay 
further executions, consented to disclose the 
plans and objects of the United Irish So- 
ciety, and to submit to banishment to any 
country in amity with Great Britain. Taken 
by itself, Roger O'Connor's statement would 
carry little weight; for, as Secretary Marsden 
said, whatever the equality of his guilt might 
have been, he stood very low in the estima- 
tion of his companions ; but it receives some 
confirmation from a passage in a letter from 
Henry Alexander to Pelham (Leckt, Hist, 
of England^ viii. 196 n.) ,The truth is that, 
though satisfied beyond a doubt of Neil- 
son's guilt and fully prepared to hang him 
for it, the government felt uncertain of se- 
curing a conviction, owing to the escape 
of McCormick. upon whom they depended 
for evidence of direct communication with 
Edward John I^ewins [i{. v.], and the un- 
willingness of their principal witness to come 
forward in open court, and consequently were 
fain to make a virtue of necessity, and include 
him in the compact (Cornwallis, Correspon- 
dence, ii. 370). He was examined before the 
committees of the lords and commons on 
9 Aug. 1798, and wrote a letter strongly pro- 
testing against the statements contained in 
the preamble to the Act of Banishment (.*38 
Geo. Ill, c. 78), which he was with difficulty 
restrained from publishing. 

iVfter ten months' imprisonment in Dublin 
he was on 19 March 1799, although confined 

to bed with a high fever, removed with the 
other prisoners on board ship, and trans- 
ported to Fort George, in Scotland, where, 
after a tedious voyage, during the greater 
part of which he was quite delirious, he 
arrived on 14 ApriL During his detention 
at Fort George he was treated with great 
consideration by the governor. Like Tone, 
he was a hard drinker, but his weakness in 
this respect has probably been exaggerated. 
Certainly he was able, in order to procure 
the necessary means to obtain permission for 
his son, whose education he wished to super- 
intend, to live with him, to deny himself the 
customary allowance of wine. On 21 July 
1799 he wrote a remarkable letter to his wife, 
in approbation of the scheme of the union, 
which Madden (United Irishmen, 2nd ser. 
i. 247) improbably suggests did not represent 
his real opinion. On 4 July 1802 he was 
landed at Cuxhaven, and restored to liberty. 
But a rumour, originating probably with 
Roger O'Connor, having reached him reflect- 
ing on his conduct in regard to the compact 
of 29 July 1798, he formed the immediate 
resolution of revisiting Ireland. He suc- 
ceeded in eluding the vigilance of the autho- 
rities — though the captain of the ship in which 
he sailed was arrested and imprisoned — and 
about the end of July 1802 landed at Drog- 
heda, whence he made his way safely to 
Dublin. He lay concealed for some time in the 
house of Bernard Coile, at IG Lurgan Street, 
and then, with the assistance of James Hope 
(1764-1846?) [q. v.], proceeded to Belfast, 
whereheremaiued for three orfour days, being 
visited in secret bv his friends and relatives. 
He returned to Dublin, and was sheltered 
' by Charles O'Hara at Irishtown for some 
weeks, till the American vessel in which his 
' passage was taken sailed. He landed at New 
I York apparently early in December 1802, and 
I was contemplating starting an evening paper 
when he died suddenly of apoplexy on 29 Aug. 
1808, at Poughkeepie, a small town on the 
Hudson, whither he had gone in the autumn 
to avoid the plague in New York. His remains 
were interred in the burial-place of a gentle- 
man of his name, though no relation of his, 
and a small marble slab was subsequently 
erected to his memory. 

An engraved portrait of Neilson, from a 
miniature bv Byrne, is prefixed to the memoir 
of him by Madden (ib, 2nd ser. i. 73). He 
was a man of pleasing appearance, tall, well 
built, of extraordinary strength, boldness, and 
determination. In politics he aimed at the 
absolute separation of Ireland from England ; 
but, like the Belfast leaders generally, he 
relied more on native exertions than on foreign 
I intervention. His widow embarked in buainess 



in iklfast, and her live children attained 
respectable positions in life. She died in No- 
vember 1811, and was buried at Newtown, 
Breda. Neilson'a only son, William Bryson, 
died in Jamaica of yellow fever on 7 Feb. 
1617, aged 22. 

[A sliort sketch of Neilsoo's life by Barnard 
Durnin «iu published in New York in lSii4, and 
was reprinted nbave the iiigiiatnre ' Uibernus ' in 
the Jneh Mognzine of September 1311, edited by 
AVitller Cuz, to whom it van Httributod. Another 
ekelch Hppeured in tiie Dublin Moming Register 
of 2!> Nov. 1S31. by s'ime one who p»i>B»»«i an 
intimate knowledge of his early life. Buth these 
BOUrces have since been snpeiseiled by the Tsry 
full, but in some respects partial, memoir in 
MHdden's United Irishmen, 2nc] ser. toI. i. (1842- 
1846). For specijil inrermatjoa the following 
may bo consulted vith odrantngs : Teeling's Per-. 
eonnl NarmtiTe of the Irish Itebellion; Mad- 
dens Hist, of Irish Periodieal Litemtura, 1867 ; 
Tones Autobiography; OrMttan's Life of Henry 
Orattan it. 368-71; Fitipatriek'sSerrotSerrice 
under Pitt; Cnrran's Life of Currao, ii. 134; 
the published Correspondenee of Jobii Bercnford. 
ii. 1 79. and of Lords Comwallis. Csstlerengh, and 
AuckLind ; Froude's English in Ireland; Lecky's 
Hist, of England in tbe Eighteenth Century; 
Pelham's Corre-pondcnee in Addit. MSS. Hrit. 
Mils., particularly 33119* ; Webb's Compendiam 
<if Irish Biography.] It. D. 

1821), ^immmarian, was bom in co. Down 
about 1760, and received his classical educa- 
tion underJobnYouDg[q.v,],afterwards pro- 
fessor of Greek at Glasgow. Their friend- 
ship continued throughout life. Neilson 
dedicated one of his books (' Eletuenta ') to 
Young, and Young occasionally gave one of 
Neilson's books aa a prize in his clasa at Glae- 

Kw (James Yates's copy inBritiah Museum). 
3 was ordained in the presbyterian church, 
And became minister of IJundalk, co, L-outh, 
where he was also master of a school. In 
lJi04 he published at Diindalk, bv subscrip- 
tion. ' Greek Kxerciaes in Syntax, Ellipsis, 
Dialects, Prosody, and Metaphrasis.' The sub- 
scribers were about three hundred, and the 
list shows that he was esteemed by the chief 
landowners of his district, as well as by 
members of the popular party, such as John 
Patrick, the patriotic surgeon of Ballymena, 
eo famous for his care of the wounded during 
the rebellion of 1798. The book was credit- 
ably printed by J. Parks in Dundalk, and 
is dedicated to Dr. John Kearney, provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin. It shows consi- 
derable echokrehip, and became popular as a 
school-book. A second edition appeared at 
Dundalk in August ISCI, a third in April 
1800, a fourth in November 1813. a fifth in i 
Edinburgh in March 1816, a sixth in Edin- | 

bui^h in 1824, a seventh in London in 1824, 
and the eighth and last in Loudon in 1S46. 
His next work was ' An Introduction to the 
Irish Language,' published in Dublin in 1808. 
Irish was then the vernacular of a large part 
of the country people of Down and Louth, 
and Neilson had had good opportunities of 
becoming acquainted with it. ile was 
assisted (Introduction to O'Doitovan's Gram- 
mar, p. 60) by Patrick Lynch, a native of 
Inch, CO. Down, a local scholar and scribe. 
The book is printed, except two eitracts from 
literature, in Roman type, and is valuable aa 
a faithful represental ion of Irish aa spoken at 
the period in Down. The power of arrange- 
ment and ^ood taste in selection of examples 
exhibited in the author's Greek books are 
noticeable in his Irish grammar. The dia- 
logues and familiar phrases which form the 
second part are a complete gfuide to the ideas 
as well as the phrases of the peasantry. 
Part of the fourth is taken from the dialogues 
in a rare Irish book called ' Bolg an teolair,' 
published in Belfast in 1795, but the others 
are original. Tbe third part was to have con- 
tained extracts from literature, of which only 
a chapter of Proverbs from the Irish Bible 
and part of the series of stories known aa 
'The Sorrows of Storytelling' were printed. 
A second edition, altogether in Irish type, 
was printed at Achill, co. Mayo, in 184;j. In 
1810 he published in Dublin 'Greek Idioms 
exhibited in Select Passages from the best 
Authora.' The curious frontispiece, entitled 
Ki^fTot nirad was drawn by hia brother, 
J. A. Neilson, a doctor of physic in Dun- 
dalk. Neilson became professor of Greek 
and Hebrew in ' Belfast College,' that is in 
a training college for presbyterian minsters 
in connection with the Belfast academical 
institution in 1817, an office which he held 
till bis death, and which caused him to re- 
aide in Belfast. In 1K20 be published ' Ele- 
menta Linguio Orreeie,' of which a second 
edition appeared at Edinburgh in 1821. 11a 
died during the summer of 1821. 

[Work! ; Heid's Hialory of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland, ed. W. D. Kiilen. London, 
1853, vol. iii. ; O'Donovan'a Grammar of the 
Irish language, Dublin. 184S.] N. M. 

NELIGAN, JOHN MOORE{1815 18t<3), 
physician, son of a medical practitioner, 
was bom at Clonmel, co. Tipperary, in ISIS, 
He graduated M.D. at Kdiiibui^h in 18.1G, 
and began practice in his birihpltLce. Thence 
he moved to Cork, where be lectured on ma- 
teria medica and medical botany in a private 
school of anatomy, medicine, and surgery in 
Warren's Place. In 1640 he took a house 
in Dublin, and in 1811 was appointed physi- 


1 88 


cian to the Jervis Street Uospital. He also 
gave lectures on materia medica from 1841 
to 1846, and on medicine from 1846 to 1857, 
in tlie Dublin school of Peter Street. He 
published in 1844 ' Medicines, their Uses and 
Mode of Administration,' which gives an 
account of all the drugs mentioned in the 
London, Scottish, and Irish pharmacopoeias, 
and of some others. Their sources, medicinal 
actions, doses, and most useful compounds 
are clearly stated ; and the compdation, 
though containing no original matter, was 
useful to medical practitioners, and went 
through many editions. He enjoyed the 
friendship of Robert James Graves [q. v.], 
the famous lecturer on medicine, and in 1848 
edited the second edition of his * Clinical 
Lectures on the Practice of Medicine.' In 
the same year he published ' The Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Eruptive Diseases of the 
Scalp,' which was printed at the Dublin Uni- 
versity Press. He describes as inflammatory 
diseases herpes, eczema, impetigo, and pity- 
riasis, and as non-inflammatory porrigo, and 
gives a lucid statement of their characteristics 
in tabular form ; but he was ignorant of the 
parasitic nature of herpes capitis, as he calls 
ringworm, and seems not to have noticed 
the frequent relation between eczema of the 
occiput and animal parasites. From 1849 
to 1801 he edited the 'Dublin Quarterly 
Journal of Medical Science,' and published 
many medical papers of his own in it. In 
1852 he published * A Practical Treatise on 
Diseases of the Skin,' and, like most men 
who attain notoriety as dermatologists, issued 
in 1855 a coloured * Atlas of Skin Diseases.' 
His treatise is a compilation from standard 
authors, with a very small addition from his 
own experience. The subject is well arranged, 
and so set forth as to be useful to practi- 
tioners. It was much read, and led to his 
treating many patients with cutaneous affec- 
tions. Ilis house in Dublin was 17 Merrion 
Square East. He married in 1839 Kate 
Gumbleton, but had no children, and died 
on 24 July 1863. 

[Cameron's Hist, of the Koyal College of Sur- 
geons in Ireland, Dublin, 1886; Webb's Dic- 
tionary of Biography.] N. M. 

CROMBY (1816-1893), lieutenant-general, 
born at \V aimer, Kent, in 1816, and educated 
at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, 
was, on () March 1835, appointed ensign 40th 
foot (now Ist batt. South Lancashire), in 
which regiment his two brothers, and subse- 
quently his son, also served. He became 
lieutenant on 15 March 1839, and was in 
sole charge of the commissariat of the Bom- 

bay column during the operations under Sir 
William Nott [q. v.] at Kandahar and in 
Afghanistan in 1841-2 (medal). He accom- 

Eanied the Bombay column, under Colonel 
tack, which proceeded from Ferozepore to 
join Sir Charles James Napier [q.v.l in Sind, 
was present at the battle of Haidarabad, 
24 March 1843 (medal), and was thanked by 
the governor-general of India and the Bom- 
bay government for the manner in which the 
duties of the commissariat were performed. 
He was aide-de-camp to Sir Thomas Valiant 
at the battle of Maharajpore, 29 Dec. 1843, 
and had a horse shot under him (mentioned 
in despatches and bronze star). On 31 July 
1846 he obtained an unattached company. 
He was appointed adjutant of the Walmer 
depot battalion, 7 April 1854, but imme* 
diately afterwards was made deputy assistant 
adjutant-general, and subsequently brigade- 
major, at Portsmouth, which post he held 
during the period of the Crimean war and 
the Indian mutiny. He became major un- 
attached 6 June 1856, lieutenant-colonel 
9 Dec. 1864, and colonel 9 Dec. 1869. In 
1865, when deputy adjutant-general in Ja- 
maica, he was appointed brigadier-general to 
command the troops at St. Thomas-in-the- 
East at the time of the insurrection, for his 
services in suppressing which he received 
the thanks of government, and was unani- 
mously voted a sum of two hundred guineas 
for a testimonial by the Jamaica House of 
Assembly. He was lieutenant-governor of 
Guernsey from 1870 to 1883, and was a J.P. 
for Middlesex. Nelson became a major- 
general in 1880, and a retired lieutenant- 
general in 1883. He was made C.B. in 1876 
and K.C.B. in 1891. He married in 1846 
Emma Georgiana, daughter of Robert Hib- 
bert, of Hale Barns, Altrincham, Cheshire. 
She died in 1892. Nelson died at liis resi- 
dence near Reading on 28 Sept. 1893. 

[Army Lists and London Gazette; Debrett*8 
Knightage ; Times. 30 Sept. 1893.] H. M. C. 

C0UKTES8 Nelson (1701-1831), baptised May 
1761, was the daughter of William Wool- 
ward (rf. 18 Feb. 1779), senior judge of the 
island of Nevis in the West Indies, and, by 
her mother, niece of John Richardson Her- 
bert, president of the council of Nevis, On 
, 28 June 1779 {Notes and Qtieries, 8th ser. v. 
222) she married Josiah Nisbet, M.D., who 
shortly afterwards became deranged, and 
died within eighteen months, leaving her, 
with an infant son, dependent on her uncle. 
W^hile living with him she became acquainted 
with Nelson, then the young captain of the 
Boreas, and was married to him at NeTis on 




12 March 1787 [see Nelson, Hokatio, Vis- 
couin']. The irregularly kept register at 
Nevis gives the date as 11 March (Mrs. 
Gamlin in Notes and Queries , 8th ser. iv. 
413); but in a letter to her husband on 
11 March 1797 Mrs. Nelson wrote: * To- 
morrow is our wedding day, when it g^ve me 
a dear husband, and my child the best of 
fathers * (Nicolas, L 217). 

When the Boreas was paid off Mrs. Nelson 
lived with her husband at Bumham-Thorpe 
till February 1793, and during his first 
absence in the Mediterranean corresponded 
with him on most affectionate terms. When 
he returned home after losing his arm at 
Teneriffe,she tenderly nursed him during the 
months of pain that followed, and through 
1798 Nelson's letters to his wife appear as 
affectionate as ever. Lady Nelson, how- 
ever, seems to have been early disquieted by 
rumours which reached her from Naples, and 
on 7 Dec. Davison wrote to her husband : 
* Your valuable better half ... is in good 
health, but very uneasy and anxious, which 
is not to be wondered at. . . . She bids me 
say that unless you return home in a few 
months she will join the standard at Naples. 
Excuse a woman*s tender feelings ; they are 
too acute to be expressed' {ib, iii. 138 n). 
Any reports of wrongdoing which she had 
receiveci at that time were certainly exagge- 
rated, though it may readily be understood 
that a lady of delicate taste disapproved of her 
husband's extreme intimacy with a woman 
of Lady Hamilton's antecedents, and felt in- 
sulted by that woman's presuming to write 
to her in terms of friendship (ib,) Later 
on it would seem that Nelson persuaded him- 
self that, as Sir William Hamilton did not 
object to his intimacy with Lady Hamilton, 
Lady Nelson had no reason to do so, and he 
was painfully surprised, on arriving in Lon- 
don in November 18()0, to find that his 
wife received him with coldness and marks 
of disapproval. 

We know from Nelson's letter to Davison 
(23 April 1801) that the weeks which fol- 
lowed were rendered miserable by frequent 
altercations ; and, though the oft^n quoted 
statement of Mr. Haslewood (ib, vii. 392) 
has been held to prove that the quarrel was 
a sudden outburst of anger on the part of 
Lady Nelson, goaded past endurance by the 
iterated reference to ' dear Lady Hamilton,' 
such a statement made forty-six years after 
the date by a very old man has but little 
value when it implies a contradiction of Nel- 
son's letter written at the time. On the other 
hand, Harrison asserted that there were mftuj^ 
differences between the husband and wiie 
respecting Nelson's nieces and nephews; that 

Nelson loved the companionship and the 
prattle of the children, which annoyed his 
wife ; that thev (quarrelled, too, about Lady 
Nelson's son, jTosiah Nisbet, at this time a 
captain in the navy, whom his mother wished 
to be considered as her husband's heir ; and 
that after * one of these domestic broils' Nel- 
son ' wandered all night through the streets 
of London in a state of absolute despair and 
distraction' (^Life of Lord Nelson, ii. 27G-8). 
It is well established that Nisbet was rude, 
quarrelsome, and intemperate (Nicolas, iii. 
195, 239, 383, 375, iv. 50) ; that he had much 
annoyed his stepfather while in command 
of the Thalia, and that when that ship was 
paid off he was never employed again. Harri- 
son's story is thus not m itself improbable, 
and is partly confirmed by Nelson's letter of 
23 April 1801, already referred to (ib, vii. 
p. ccix) ; but the source from which it comes 
IS tainted, and there is no direct evidence in 
support of it. Even admitting serious differ- 
ences on the subject of Nisbet and the chil- 
dren, there can be no reasonable doubt that 
Lady Hamilton was the actual cause of the 
separation ; and it is quite certain that Nel- 
son's friends and society at large so under- 
stood it (Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert 
Elliot, iii. 284 ; Hotham MS,) 

After separating, early in 1801, from her 
husband, who settled 1,200/. a year on her. 
Lady Nelson lived a quiet, uneventful life, 
mostly in London, where in later years she 
was frequently visited by her brother-in-law, 
Earl Nelson, with whom she was to the last 
on friendly terms. She had been for some 
time in feeble health, when the death of her 
son in August 1830 proved a blow from which 
she did not recover. She died on 4 May 1831 
in Harley Street, London. 

[Nicolas's Despatches and Letters of Lord 
Nelson, passim ; Clarke and M' Arthur's Life of 
Lord Nelson ; Gent. Mag. 1831, pt. i. p. 571 ; 
manuscript of Sir William Hotham, q. v. ; art. 
Hamilton, Emma.] J. K. L. 

NELSON, HORATIO, Viscount Nel- 
son (1768-1806), vice-admiral, third sur- 
viving son of Edmund Nelson (1722-1802), 
rector of Bumham-Thorpe, in Norfolk, and of 
his wife Catherine (1725-1707), daughter of 
Dr. Maurice Suckling, prebendary of West- 
minster, was bom at burnham-Thorpe on 
29 Sept. 1768. His father was son of Ed- 
mund Nelson (1693-1747), rector of Hil- 
borough, in Norfolk, of a family which had 
been settled in Norfolkfor several generations. 
His eldest brother William is separately 
noticed. His mother^s maternal granmnother, 
Mary, wife of Sir Charles Turner, bart., was 
the sister of Robert Walpole, first earl of 
Orford [q. v.], and of Horatio, first lord Wal- 





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r'/':k- arrl -arj'!-. 

t}j': North I'o!" w'l- firrina' out un'l*rr the 
ro:/jffjarj'l '>f ('ii]tUtiri I'hilip-i '-*rfr PHiri>. 
Or. [ sMi.sL John. Loki* Slr.j/.KWK". N»-l- 
•'iri i/i»i'l<; Jiiti:p'-l v/i^h <^ip*;i:ii L'it '.vid/*^. 
wli// v.;!- to rornrfj.'iii'J ?}]■- ^'jirrH^-^ in th«;».-X- 
|i«'li'ioM, :ifi'l,t|ioii;:h only fo-irti'-rj. wa- j#»rr- 
iijitt«-.'l to j,'o II- fr;jfitiiii'- coxswain. ill*.* 
!-lii[i-. r»'! urrp'l in Ortoh' r, ari'l N**l-'»n was 
i/iiiii''li;ii«'ly;i|»i*'*iritf"J t it !p-S':;ihor-;*'t'rijrar«.% 

liMifi;' lo {/O out. to t!|.; IOsi-» Ill'li*'* uii'l'.-r 

I 111- roiiiiiniri'l iA'( 'aiit;iiii ^ i^-or^''? J''jirin«;r q. v. 
'I li'iMiri'. Troiihriii^'*' nift*-rwjirrl.- Sir) i|. v.^, 
•.vii iin'ii)i«rorii<rr!fji'U}iiliin<-ii. At'tf^r he Imd | 
hi'tMi I w«i V'-arK in I In* !'ji-t Iii*li»\*, ancl liarl 
: I il'-'l i-viTV Pftrf of th«' '■tut ion 'fnini Jli.'ntrJi] 
I'l Km :<«»riih/N"<'!'-on*'- h'-alth l»rok»;<lr>wn,nnfl ■ 
I h«- romino'lop', Sir IvUviinl IIii;(li«'*,or«l»THfl ! 
hiiii II. pM^Mi;'!' to I'lii^hind in th<' I)ol]))iin of j 
''OjMinM. Thi- Dnljihin pjiid olKiit Woolwich in ! 
.S'l»t«iiihir l77<J,iind Ni-lson want run ^tfi-rn.Mlti 
thf \Viin'i*>i«T, ( ■iiiihiin .MarU l%ohinson,with : 
Mil net in^in'tli'riiM liiHitoniinl. 'Vh**. VVrircitHtur 
wii.i .I'Ml lo(JihniIliir ill rharj^nt of convoy, 
iMi«] nil Idt return Ni-Uon piiK^cd his c.vanii- 
iiiiiinii, i> April 177/. Ity tin' of 
III I iiMcli', linn iMiniplroMcr of lh«> navy, liu 
wilt |iriiiii(itri| tl|i> iu'\l day, 10 A]M'il, to 
Ik- Mi-iiiiil In-ntiMianl <if llio Lowestoft, a li'J- 
I'liii rii^oiin.cDiiiniiitidiMl hy (*a|>tain William 
l.tM-lur |«|. \.| 'l'hi« iiiiwiHtofl wtMit. to Ja- 
niMini, iiml \<'|m)m Innl tor Noniit months tho 
rniiiiiiiind III' hiT tiMidrr, a si'hooncr niimod, 
iil'ii'r i.<irliri'''i dau^hti*r, tlio Ijittlt* Ijucy. Ill 
hi r III* nmdnliimHi*lfiir(|miin((Ml wit lit Iiu very 

^1, - --••-N-:^ --«T.*=:Tr.£:ySlrPr-er 

* -^r*:. - ~T* ■B'Li 1 r ~ :t— £ \ y '--'^ t> be C521- 
n^"- !-• :' •_- ri- Ltt r ': r.z. iz. "xll *h hr was 
-r-: 1" -_-. Ji-T : H «£-r^:>rtl:r•p^*^:HL"- 
" . - :" "-'. 'T- i' IT- -*• A=.TrlMT: r-riTaterrs. 

•.^ ! 1 J _r.' 177.- _T —if prtsTtri ^ y Parker to 

*»■--* I*'rl--_.:^. -x-.-'l zLr F>:neh flt*t. came 
:: '."ir*: Frj.-;' >. ir. : a.:: a::4?k on JaxEsica 
fr-ziT-i ;— n r.r-T. N->:~ "wa* apTfcjintrd to 
■?: 2i=.,.r. : : n-r : :' * -r '■; itt-rrlrs : 'T ilie d-^lVnce 
: :' K : 1 r** ". r.. Af- -. nv ir i* Lv wr nt for a t liree 
Hi n*Li" cr-il-rr. tnl =:*i- a few prize?, hi* 
?Lir- -f -^tL:?:;. l.rr wt::^ t-» L-xiker. would 
h^: aVjr: u- y» '.'. In Jinuarv 17*^J he wa* sent 
a* ?^n'. .r r.-vil n;?rr in a j'^int expedition Sin J^ir.. wher^ lie tt>yi£ an active 
parr in tl.-.- h -i* w.>rk up the river, and in 
th- a:'a-:-k n :•:- — v-rral fort?. But the wet 
■frrason >*■: in. and i:if ffVt-r conseijuent on 
exj^'-fiire and »?xlidu?ring la)>*>ur in a pesti- 
1^-ntiril clin4i:«^ k^llei by far the erreater part 
oi" rl:»- -..-iiis-n. ar.d wmil 1 havM kilW Xel>on 
L:id h»* M'-t b— :•!! liipi'ily recalled trt Jamaica, 
on app 'inTin-r-rit to tin* 44-£riin ship Janus. 
II*.* wa-. liow-'v* r. tOM ill ti"» tak«.' up the com- 
mand, and fur the rt:*toration nf his health 
wa> comjiell" 1 t > rt^tum to England as a 
pa*-f.*ni:^r in th** Ijioii. with his friend Cap- 
tain 1 al't^rward? ."^ir) William Cornwallis 

"ij. V. 

On arrivin;r in Enjrland Xelson went to 
Jiath; but it wa> not till near a year had 
passed that he was able to accept another 
command. In Aujrust 1781 he was ap])ointed 
to the Albemarle, a i?^-pun frijrate employed 
in convoy service in the North Sea. Being- 
sent to Elsinore to brin;? homo the trade fn)m 
the Baltic, he was able to make some observa- 
tions on the naviiration of the Sound, which 
were to prove useful t went v years later. In 
I^ ebruarv I i ^'2 he was urdered round to Ports- 
mouth to ])repare for a voyajr*' to America, and 
sailed in April, in com])any with the Djedalus 
fri;,aite and a larp^e convoy. Ilavinjjf brought 
his chartye safely to Newfoundland and into 
the Saint Lawrence, on 4 July he sailed for 
a cruise which lasted till 17 Sept., when he 
ret umed to (Quebec! * knocked up with scirn'v.' 
For eipht weeks he himself and the other 
olHctTS had lived on salt beef, and the men 
had done so since 7 April. In other respectjt, 
too, the cruise had proved of no benefit bevoud 

Nelson 191 Nelson 

giving him experience. Of several prizes that 
were made not one came into port ; and, with 
the exception of being once chased by a 
squadron of French lina-of-battle ships, there 
seems to have been no excitement. In No- 

November 1784, when Nelson was sent to 
that part of the station as senior officer, he 
found that the Americans were trading there 
on the same footing as formerly, and that 
American-built and American-commanded 

vember he went in the Albemarle to New . ships were freely granted colonial registers. 
York, where Lord Hood [see Hood, Samuel, The commander-in-chief, Sir Richard Hughes 
Viscount] formed a high opinion of him, and , [q. v.], had sanctioned this irregular traffic, 
took him and his ship back witli him to the and had given orders that it was to be per* 
West Indies. Hood also introduced him to i mitted at the discretion of the governors. 
IVince William (afterwards William IV), I Nelson, however, conceived that in so doing 
telling the prince ' that if he wished to ask the admiral was exceeding his power ; and, 
questions relative to naval tactics, Nelson , rightly considering the trade an infringe- 
could give him as much information as any '- ment of the navigation laws, he promptly 
officer in the fleet' (Nicolas, i. 72). At this ' suppressed it, and seized five of the ships 
time Nelson had never served with a fleet, so , which were engaged in it. This drew on him 
that whatever knowledge of the subject he I the anger of the merchants, who took out 
had couldonly be theoretical, learnt probably I writs against him, laying the damages at 
in conversation with Locker; but to have any i 4,000/.; and for eight weeks Nelson avoided 
at all, beyond the Fighting Instructions, was arrest only by remaining a voluntary pri- 
then remarkable, especially in a young officer, soner on board his ship, llugheshadat first 
In March 1783, when cruising on the north intended to supersede him, and to try him 
coast of San Domingo, Nelson had intelli- I by court-martial for disobedience of orders, 

fence that the French had ca{)tured Turk's < but changed his mind on ascertaining tliat 
sland. With the llesistance frigate and two ' all the captains in the squadron believed that 
brigs in company he at once went there ; but the orders were illegal. Nevertheless, he 
in an attack, on 8 March, the brigs were un- j declined to undertake the cost of Nelson's 
equal to the tire of the enemy's batteries, and I defence, which was finally done by the 
the garrison, strongly entrenched, repelled i crown, on special orders from the king ; but 
the landing party. Conceiving nothing more the measure of Nelson's disgust was filled in 
could be done, Nelson drew off his force. In | March 1786, when Hughes coolly accepted 
!May he was ordered for England, and on ! for himself the thanks of the treasury for his 
3 July the Albemarle was paid off, when I activity and zeal in protecting the commerce 
Nelson was placed on half-pay. In October, ', of (treat Britain. * I feel much hurt,* Nel- 
in company with Captain Mocnamara, an old ! son wrote,* that, after the loss of health and 
messmate in the Bristol, he went tu France risk of fortune, another should be thanked 
to economise and acquire the language, for what I did against his orders.' But this 
The two took up their abode at St. Omer, was not the onlv matter in which Nelson 
and no doubt learnt some French, though felt called on to disobey the admiral. Hughes 
Nelson was never able to speak it with any had ordered Captain John Moutray [q. v.], 
ease. He describes himself in his letters as the commissioner of the navy at Antigua, to 
avoiding English society; in reality he seems hoist a broad pennant as commodore, and to 
to have gone little into any other, and he carry out the duties of the port. As Moutray 
was frequently at the house of an English 
clergyman, Mr. Andrews, with one of whose 

daughters he fell deeply in love. It would ,, ^ ^ ^ ^ 

appear that Miss Andrews rejected his pro- thebroad pennant flying on board the Latona, 
posals, for in the middle of January 1784, a sent for her captain and ordered it to be 
few days after consulting his uncle, William 1 struck, at the same time writing to Moutray 
Suckling, he returned suddenly to England ; 1 that he could not obey his orders or put 
nor was the intimacy renewed, though he ' himself under his command. This action 
continued on friendly terms with the family; j led to a correspondence with Hughes, who 
and when in March he was appointed to the I reported the matter to the admiralty, when 
Boreas, he took one of the boys, George I Nelson was reprimanded for taking on him- 
Andrews, with him as a * captain's servant/ ; self to settle the business, instead of referring 
In the Boreas Nelson agam went to the it to them. Notwithstanding this unplea- 
AVest Indies, where public opinion was un- sant episode Nelson was on the best possible 

was on half-pay, the appointment was abso- 
lutely illegal ; and Nelson, on arriving at 
Antigua early in February 178o, and finding 

willing to accept the change in the com- 
mercial position of the United States. This 
was more especially the case at St. Chris- 

terms with Moutray, and was a warm ad- 
mirer of Mrs. Moutray, of whom he wrote 
in enthusiastic terms as 'my dear, sweet 

topher*8 and the adjacent islands ; and in • friend,' * my sweet, amiable friend.' On her 

Nelson 1^2 Nelson 

** .*•/.> /r.T.v: ,-- ••-*: l»jfcf.'i>?. a- ■: pr-r'^nTiT k-i *f:-rT v.^eLi^z &i Cft^iiz And G:bnlur. 
V, V, / •. • c'/fi fo r. . T: • :*T 'r-y r- •. r r*4r 1 . r. ^.i'Slz^. trrl T-i^i -..5 T . :;! irS in : b* sd iil* of J alj. On 
-'^'-t'A-', « ':'*'''i * i '-'■»' .•-•Idlr.^ fc* N-tvi*. ii3 Aij. T-:::I>n t^s u^r^j^-ssi by ihe allies: 
? /y ■» .•. ';.'/. u^, k :, ■. r . y f>:<arr-^ *-t. z%z*-i. fcs 1 in i r.a : Lc :i->:h. N el^^n. in the Agamenmoiu 
^. *.'>•/. r»", v«:4-> i*r*rr h«: 2BArr:*<3 »*. N^tI-.'jH wm 5*rn: to Xiple* to brinz ap a coiitot of 
J ^ M tf ':.'! J 7r7 /'N J'.o;.* *. \.'2\7. bit t h*: «ik:-fe Neaj>'jI:TMi troopf. It ir** a: this time thai he 
<*'yf»*'.'i;riv«rft*>» Jl Mir'::.: iKYLEy/Jaro/iay^. fir»t ni&d«r tb* ac:|Tiain:anc^ of the Engrlidi 
*?*'j Mr«j, OfcOiI.n ifj A''/^>^ and (iwtr*^*. rrh mici^t^r. Sir William Hamilton < 17^0-1^03) 
wr.'. iv. <I'5>; K'jij<:*r W iM Urn. thirn captain ]q. t.\ and of hi* wife Emma, lady Hamilton 
of ih'r l'«rj(**'j* fri /*»«:, ;r4v«; th«: bridf awav 'q.v,': but the details of their meeting, and 
'w>T SkiMfS, l-hhS*:h*i. Viv:or;5Tp>5\ ' the conTersations as afterwards related by 
TowaH* th'; •ffi'i of 51 ay th*; IV>r*r»« wa« her, a»e demonstrably apocryphal ( Habri- 
*tr\t^r*A hftttw., arid on h'rr arriial at .SpitL^ra/l soy, i. lOS : Memoir* *•/ Lady Hamilton, p. 
wait M'Nt r>und to t)i<; Nore, wh^rP*, in ex- 137^. It was arranged that the Agamemnon 
p-'/' iofi of a war with Franc*?, fehe lay for was to escort six thousand troops to Toulon ; 
iM;v«;ral month* ««» a n:C':ivin;r i^hip. In lie- but the news of a French man-of-war on 
rjrtu^ft'f iih'f wa* j*aid off, and aff^r some the coa^t of Sanlinia sent her to sea at two 
monthf at Hath, Nel-^^n, with hi<* wif'% w*rnt hours' notice. The Frenchman, however, 
to liv<; with hif fat h'rr at I Sunj ham-Thorpe, a 40-jrun frigate, got into Lesrhom, and was 
wb«:r<; Ut' rernaifKr'], with little interruption, therr; blockaded for a few days by Nelson, 
f'lr upward H of four ytmrHf erniiloying him- til] he was obliged to rejoin the admiral at 
fMrlf, It In *>aid, in reading ana drawintff or Toulon in the early days of October. On the 
out of d'M»r« in j^ard^-nin^f. During thistim*;, '>th he was sent to join Commodore Linzee 
too, H(;v«'riil fi':tionH against, him wen.' brought at Cagliari, and on the way, on the 22nd, 
or flinraf'fncd on arr/^oiint of his conduct in fell in with a squadron of four French 
the W'rht I ndie**; and though assured that his frigates, one of which, the Melpomene, of 
di'f<'nr;«'i-houM beat the chargis of the crown, 40 guns, being separated from the others, 
and 1 hough ifvnf ually th'; nhips h»f had 8eiz«»d was handled very roughly. The Agamem- 
wi-n* <'on'ii'rnn«"'J as prizr^H to tlie llr^n^HS, the non's rigging was so much cut that she was 
|iro(;<'<fdingH w<rr«; a coritinuiti HOiirce of irri- not able to follow up her advantage, and the 
lui ion find finnoyiin('«\ He nei'ms tr» have Melpomene's consorts coming up carried her 
thought that hin Z''tLlouM Hervice and the off. Kvcntually, in an almost sinking state, 
worri»'K il, had brought, on him gave him a she got into Calvi. Xelson joined Linzee on 
jii'^t rhiini for furt hi^r employment ; and when the 24th, and accompanied him on a mission 
liJH repent ediipplicationK met with nosncceHs, to Tunis, the object being to persuade th^ 
hi> cnneeived tliat JA>rd Hood, then at the })tiy to let them take possession of a French 
iidniiralt V, had Home picjiie iigiiinHt him. On Kjilgun ship which had sought the shelter of 
1 hn inunineiK!!) of wiir with Knniee, however, the neutral port. Nelson thought that they 
liin proHpectN brightened. On Jan. 171)'J ■ should have seized her at once, and quieted 
he waM Hiininioned to London, when Lord the bey's scruples with a present of 50,000/.; 
('Iiiitimm ollered him the command of a but Linzee preferred to negotiate, and, when 
ii\ gun Mhip, if he would iircept it. till a 74 the lx*y refused to yield her, did not consider 
wiiH reiidy. * Tin; admiralty HO smile upon : himself authorised to use force. The sq na- 
me/ 1m< wrote to hin wife, * that really 1 am ' dron therefore returned without effecting 
iiH niiK'li NurpriHe<I um when they frowned.* anything. But Nelson, much to his satisfac- 
A ffW diiyM lat<T it wiim settled that he was tion, was sent with a few small frigates to 
to hiive the Agnmemnon, to which he was ' look for the French ships he had met on 
iirtniilly niipointed on MO Jan. Hojoined the 22 Oct. Two of them were at San Fiorenzo; 
idtip on 7 reh., nnd,in his joy at thejirospect 

of netive service, wrol»< that * the ship was 
without exception the fini'st (>-l in tho ser- 
vice;' and a couple of months later, just as 
they were ready for si»ii: * I not only like 
theNlii|), lull think I am well appointed in 
olliciTH, and we are manni>d exceedingly 
Widl.' * \Vi« ur»» all well,* he wrote to his 
wife fnun Snitlien^l <m 20 April; *nol)ody 
Clin he ill witli my ship's company, they are 
so line a sot.* 

one was at Hastia. The Melpomene remainetl 
at Calvi, and he could do nothing more than 
keep 80 close a watch on them that they 
could not put to sea without being brought 
to action. 

After being driven out of Toulon, Ilood 
resolved on ca])turing Corsica as a base of 
oj)eration8. On landing the troops, San 
1* ion'nzo was tnken with little dithculty on 
17 Feb. 1794, but one of the imprisoned 
frigates was burnt ; the other, the Alinervei 




though sunk, was weighed, and, under the 
name of San Fiorenzo, continued in the Eng- 
lish service during the war. Hood was then 
anxious to march at once against Bastia, 
which he helieved would fall as easily as 
San Fiorenzo had done. The general in com- 
mand of the troops judged the force to he 
too small, and reiused to co-operate. There- 
upon Hood, partly at the suggestion of Nel- 
son, who had made himself familiar with 
the ap]^earance of the place, resolved to at- 
tempt it with such forces as he could dispose 
of, and on 4 April landed about fourteen 
hundred men — seamen and marines, or sol- 
diers doing duty as marines — and with these 
and the ships in the offing formed the siege 
of the town. Nelson was landed in command 
of the seamen, and under his personal super- 
vision the batteries were built and armed 
and manned. On 21 May Bastia surrendered, 
and with it a third of the frigates. On the 
24th General Stuart, who had succeeded to 
the military command, arrived from San 
Fiorenzo, and it was then resolved to attack 
Calvi. The operation was necessarily de- 
ferred by the news of the French fleet being 
at sea ; but when it took shelter in Golfe Jouan, 
and there was no prospect of an immediate 
engagement, on 10 June the Agamemnon 
was sent back to Bastia, to convoy the 
troops to the western side of the island. On 
the 19th they were landed in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Calvi, Nelson himself tak- 
ing the command of two hundred seamen, 
who with infinite toil dragged the heavy 
guns into position, and afterwards served 
them in the batteries. On 12 July (* Nel- 
son's Journal, written Day by Day,' Nicolas, 
i. 435; but in a letter to his wife on 18 Aug. 
he says the 10th, tift. 484) a shot from