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Hind marsh 


HIKDliARSH, Sir JOHN (d. 1860), 
TcatHidiDiral and colonial governor, entered 
the navj- in 1793 as a volunteer on board the 
IMlerophon, in which ship he remained for 
the ne.\t seven years, and in her was present 
at the battle of 1 June 1794, in Connvallis's 
retreat 17 June 1795 [see Cornwallis, Sir 
William], at the battle of the Nile 1 Aug. 
1798, and the capture of the forts at Oaeta 
in 1799. In the battle of the Nile the Belle- 
ropbon, while accidentally anchored, was ex- 
poeed to the full weight of L'Orient's broad- 
side, was di.^masted and sustained excep- 
tional loss. The captain. Darby, went below 
wounded, and for a few minutes Hindmarsh 
was the only officer on deck, just as L'Orient 
burst into flames. lie ordered the cable to be 
cut, and, settinf^ the xpritsail, got the ship 
clear of the imminent danger in a manner that 
elicited the warm approval of Captain Darby, 
who afterwards jiersonally introduced him to 
Nelson and Lord St. Vincent as having saved 
the ship by his prompt and judicious con- 
duct, lie lost, however, the sight of an eye 
from the effects of a wound which he then 
rweived. In May 1800 he followed Captain 
Darby to the Spencer, and in her was present 
in the actions at Algeziras on 6 July and in 
the Straits of tiibraltar on li July 1801 [see 
SAm.vaEZ, James, Lord de Saumare;!]. In 
18U^ he went out to the Mediterranean in 
the Victory, and in August was promoted 
by Neldon to be lieutenant of the Plux'be, in 
which he was present at Trafalgar, 21 Oct. 
180«>. In November he was moved into the 
Beagle sloop, actively employed during the 
next four years incniising against the French 
coasting privateers. In April 1809 the Beagle 
convoyed the firesbips to Basque road, and 
took part in what at one time promised to 
fc* ono of the most brilliant and decisive 


operat ions of the war [see Coohhakb, Thomas, 
tenth EarlofDcikdoxald; Gahbier, Jambs, 
IjORdI. Hindmarsh was afterwards apfxiinted 
first lieutenant of the Nisus, with Captain 
I'hilip Beaver [q. v.], and in her took part 
in the reduction of Mauritius and Java. In 
May 181;! lie returned to England inva- 
lided, and was promotisl to commander's 
rank IG June 1815. In March 1830 he was 
appointed to command the ScyUa in the Me- 
diterranean, and was posted from her on 
3 Sept. 1831. Ho is said to hare gone out 
to Ale.xandria in September 1834, ' for the 
purpose of assuming a high command in the 
Egyptian navy' (Marshall, xii. 474.) He 
seems to have gone out to Egypt, but can only 
liave held any command for a very short time, 
as in Februnry 18^36 he was apptiinted first 
governor of South .\u8tralia, and iu May was 
nominattnl a K.ll. In April he commis- 
sioned the Builali>, in which lie sailed for 
Australia in June. Un 28 Dec. he and his 
party landed at Holdfast Bay, and 'under a 
venerable gum tree, a short distance from the 
shore, the orders in council creating South 
Australia a British colony 'and Hiudmarsh's 
commission as governor were read ( Harctts, 
South Auftmlia, p. 12; Foster, fioiith Aui- 
Iralia, p. 49). With him was associated Mr. 
(afterwards Sir John) Fisher, as commis- 
sioner for the sale of crown lauds, but the 
dual government did not work well, angry 
disputes arose, and after only fourteen months' 
term of oflice Hindmarsh was recalled in 
February 18;18. F'isher was at the same 
time removed ; and the new governor, George 
Gawler [q. v.], was vested with sole authority. 
In September 18-10 Hindmarsh was appointed 
lieiitenant-govnrnor of Heligoland, a post 
which he held till 185tJ. On 31 Jan. 1860 
he was advanced to flag rank, and died on 

Hind mars! 


81 July 18tW; his wife had died at Brighton 
on 2 April 1859 {Gent. May. new ser. vi. 
651). lie left one son, John, a barriater, 
and two dnuf^hters, one of whom, Mary, 
married Mr. G. M. Stephen, brother of Sir 
Alfred Stephen, chief justice of New South 
Wales; the other, Jane, married Mr. A, J[. 
Mundy, colonial secretary for South Australia, 
and nephew of Admiral Sir George Mundy 
[q. T.] 

[O'BymK's Nnml Biog. Diet. ; Annual Re- 
gister, 1800, p. 448; Oeot. Mug. new ecr. ix. 
327.] J. K. L. 

HINDMAK8H, ROBERT (1759-1835), 
organiiier of the ' new phurch,' was born at 
Alnwick, Northumberland, on 8 Nov. 1759. 
His father, James liindmarsh, was one of 
John Wesley's pn'achers, and was in 1777 
under training by Wesley in London. Ilo- 
bert, who was never a methodist, became a 
printer, setting up for himself at Hi Clerken- 
•well Close. His mind early turned towards 
the writings of mystics ; in 1 778 he became 
acquainted with Swedenborg's ' Heaven and 
ilell; ' about 1781 he met with one of An- 
thoinette Bourignon's works, and afterward.^ 
■with those of Engelbrecht ; a methodist 
preacher complained of his lending about 
■works of this class. In December 17H3 he 
formed a society (originally consisting of five 
members) for the purpose of studying Swe- 
denborg's works. Next yearrooms ■weretaken 
for ' the theosophical society ' in New Court, 
Middle Temple. Among the members were 
John Flaxman [q. v.], the sculptor, Willium 
Sharp, the engraver, two clergymen, and 
Ilinumarsh's father, who left methodism in 
1785. Ilindmarsh printed for this soinety 
Swedenborg's '.Vijocalypsis Explicate '(1785- 
1789), and in 1786 he issued his own abridg- 
ment of Bourignon's • Light of the World.' 
A proposal made on 19 April 1787 to open a 

f>lace of worship was defeated byJohnClowes 
q. v."], who came from Mnnehester to oppose 
It. However, on 31 July sixteen worshippers 
met at the house of Thomas Wright, a watch- 
maker, in the Poulti-y. James Hindmarsh, 
Lis father, was eho!«eu by lot to administer 
the sacraments ; ten communicated, and five, 
including Robert Hindmarsh, were ba])tised 
into the ' new churcli.' On '21 Jan. 178^< a 
chapel in Great Eastcheap (bearing over its j 
entrance the words ' Now it is ailownble ') 
■was opened with a sermon by's 
father. On 1 June two priests, the elder ] 
Hindmarsh and Samuel Smith, another ex- 
methodist preacher, were ordained by twelve 
members, of whom Robert Hindmarsh was one 
selected by lot. In 1 780 Hindmarsh was ex- 
pelled (with five others) on the ground of lax 

views of the conjugal relation, perhaps only 
theoretical. He therefore vowed never again 
to be a member of ' any society ; ' but he con- 
trived to become sole tenant of the premises ' 
in Eastcheap, the majority seceding to Store 
Street, Tottenham Court Road. He got into 
controversy with Joseph IViestley, to whom 
he had lent (1791) Swedenborg's works, and 
attended annual conferences ot believers in 
Swedenborg'sdoctrine, advocating in 1792 the 
autocracy of the priesthood. Hindmarsh held 
a conference (of seven members) in 1793, at 
which a hierarchy of three orders was agreed 
on, and Great Britain parcelled into twenty- 
four dioceses ; but for want of funds the East- 
cheap cliapel was closed ■within the year. A 
few years later he got his friends to build a 
' temple ' in Cross Street, Hatton Garden, at 
a cost of 3,000/. It was opened on 30 July 
1797 by Joseph Proud [q. v.], removed from 
Birmingham. Proud left in 1799 o-wing to 
disputes with the projirietors, and the chapel 
subsequently bucame the scene of Edward 
Irving's labours. Meanwhile Hindmarsh tried 
stockbroking, with only temporary success. 
In 1811 William Cowherd [q.v.] invited him 
to Salford to superintend a printing office for 
cheap editions of Swedenborg's works. He 
soon broke with Cowherd, but some of the 
hearers of Clowes and of Cowherd persuaded 
him to stay. He preached in Clarence Street, 
Manchester, from 7 July 1811, holding on 
Thursilays in I8l2 a debating society, whicll 
ho called the ' new school of theology-.' Hi» 
friends built for him (1813) a ' New Jerusa- 
lem temple' in Salford. At the conference 
held in IJerby, 1818, over which Ilindmarsh 
presided, it was resolved that lie had l)een 
' virtually ordained by the divine auspices.' 
Hindmarsh preached at Salford till 1824. 
Afturhis retirement he wrote a history of the 
'now church.' lie died on 2 Jan. 18.35 in 
his daughter's liouse at Gravesend, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Mtlton-next- 
Graveseud. He married on 7 May 1782, and 
had five children ; his wife died on 2 March 

Among his publications are: 1. 'I^sttera 
to Dr. Priestley,' &c., 1792, Kvo. 2. ' Ueftec- 
tions on the Cnitarian and Trinitarian Doc- 
trines,' &c., 1813, 8vo. 3. ' .\ Seal upon the 
Lips of . . . all . . . who refuse to acknow- 
ledge the sole . . . Divinity of . . . Christ,' &c., 
Manchester, 1814, 8vo. 4. 'A Compendium 
of the Chief Doctrines,' &c., .Manchester, 1816, 
12mo. 5. ' Remarks on the Holy League,' 
Ac, Manchester, IMti, 8vo. «. 'A Key to 
the Spiritual Significance,' &c., Manchester, 
1820, 12mo. 7. ' .\ Vindication of . ■ . 
Swedenborg,' &c.. Manchester, 1821, 8vo. 
8. 'The Trial of the Spirits,' &c., Sunderland, 



1825, Sto. 9. 'Chrwtianity and Deism,' Sic, 
Manchester, 18i!6, 8vo. Posthumous were: 
10. 'Pr«>cious Stones,', lSol,8vo. ll.'Ri.'te 
and Progress of the New Jerusalem C'lmrch,' 
&c., 1 S«>r, 1 2mo ( portrait ; editetl by E. Made- 
ley). He translated Swedeiihorg's ' He L'l- 
fimo.Iudicio,' 1810, 8vo, and ' Coronia,' Man- 
chester, 1811, 8vo. He wa« editor of succes- 
MTe periodical publications in the interegts of 
his movement, the earliest being ' The New 
Jenisalem Magazine,' &c., 17£K), 8vo; issued 
s catechism, 1820; drew up a ' Liturgy of the 
New Jerusalem Cliurch,' 1827, 8vo, super- 
5<?ding Cowherd's of 1793; and published 
' Minutes ' of the general conferences, 1789, 
8vo,and 1793, 8vo. Ili.i fat her, James Hind- 
mar-ih, published a ' Dictionary of Corre- 
spondencies,' Sic, 1794, 12mo. 

[Hiodmanh'sRise and Progress, IS6I ; While's 
Eounarl Swedenborg, 1SS7, i. :2:J5 tq., ii. AU8 »q. ; 
Uiiiilnursh's edition of Bourijjnun'B Light of tho 
World. 1786, pp. 44 sq.; Priestley's Worki.. 1822, 
iii. 44; Tyermttn's Life of We»li>y. 1871, iii. '230; 
Snttoa's Liuicashire Authors, 1876, p. 65.1 

A. 0. 

HINDS, SAMUEL, D.D. (1793-1872), 
bishop of Norwich , son of Abel H in<l9 of Bar- 
badoes, was bom in Barbadoes in 1793, some 
members of his family having been among the 
earlier s<?ttler9 and chief landed proprietors. 
PMsing from n school near Bristol, in which 
from time to time were many young West 
Indians, he entered Queen's College, Oxford, 
in November 1 HI 1, and graduated B..\. l8lo, 
M.A. 1H18, and B.D. and D.D. 1831. In 
181^ he gainetl the chancellor's prire for a 
Latin «»4ay, and in 1822 he was admitted 
into holy orders. Early in life he was con- 
nected as a mi8.sionarv with the Society for 
the Conversion of Negroes. He was for 
some time principal of Codrington College, 
Barfaadries; became in 1827 vice-principal 
of St. Alban Hall, Oxford, imder Hichard 
AMiately, D.D., who had been his private 
Mifrir, .iml on VVhatfly's elevation to the 
|iric of Dublin in 1831, Hinds was 
! hi< domestic chaplain. Thisotlice, 
MIS obliged trom ill-health to 
. when he returned to England, 
lu 1 r"Jl be was presented to the vicarage of 
Yardlev. Hertfordshire, which benefice he 
■ ' ' Ii the rural deanerj' of the district 
iinry 1843, when he was collated to 
III' f the united parishes of Castle- 

bifi, a, and MulUhidart, with the 

pprU III ■ ii V ii-;leknockin St. Patrick'sCathe- 
unl, in the dioce«<.' of Dublin. At the same 
1 n«.. i,„ n. -,,■,! 1..rftii)(< one of .Vrehbishop 
^. In 1840 he was ap- 
L ^ .. , i lin to tht! Earl of Bess- 

borough, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and ia 
the foliowiug year to the Earl of Clarendon, 
who had succeeded to the lord-lieutenancy. 
He re.signed the beuelice of Castleknock lu 
September 1848, when he was presi'nted by 
the cro\v-n to the deanery of Carlisle. In 
October 1849 he was raised to the bishopric 
of Norwich, on the death of Bishop Stanley, 
and he held it until 1857, when foihng health 
induce<l him to resign. 

Hinds was a man of learning, ability, and 
engaging character. Jn politics be was a 
moderate liberal, white he was one of th« 
most 'advanced' school of thought on re- 
ligious q\iestions, especially during the last 
few years of his life. 1 le died on 7 ieb. 1872, 
at Notting Hill, I^^ndon. He married (1 ) a 
daughter of Abel Clinkctt of Barbadoes, who 
died in 1 834. J le married a second time some 
years before his death. 

Besides many sepjirato sermons and pam- 
phlets he was the author of tlie following: 
1. 'Quam vim in moribus conformandis ex- 
hibeant rerumpublicarum subita? mutationcs : 
a prize essay in the University of Oxford,' Ox- 
ford, 1818 (privati' impression only). 2. 'His- 
tory of the Rise and Early Progress of Chris- 
tianity ' (contributed originally to tho ' En- 
cvclopiedia Metropolitana'), 2 vols., London, 
1828; 2nd edit. 1846. 3. 'The Catechist's 
Manual and Family Lecturer,' Oxford, 1829; 
2nd edit. 1855. 4. 'The Three Temples of 
the One True Ood contrasted,' Oxford, laiO; 
3rd edit. London, 1857. 6. ' An Inquiry 
into the Proofs, Nature, and Extent of Inspi- 
ration, and into the Authority of Scripture,' 
Oxford, 1831. 6. 'Sonnets and other short 
Poems, chiefly on .Sacred Subjects,' London, 
18.34. 7. ' On the Colonisation of New Zea- 
land,' London, 1838. 8. 'Scripture and 
the Authorized \'ersion of Scripture,' &c., 
London, 1845; 2nd edit., with additions, 
1853. 9. ' Introduction to Logic ' (based on 
Whstely's 'Elements,' and reprinted from 
the ' Encycloptedia Metropolitana '). 

[Men of the Time, ed. 1868, p. 413; C«f. of 
Oxford Graduates, p. 323 ; Cotton's l's.«ti Kcclesic 
Hibernicie, ii. 168. v. 123; Ann. Keg. 1872, 
p. 141 ; Life and Currespomlence uf Archbishop 
Wbatsly, vol. i. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed 
Books.] B. H. B. 

HINE, WILLIAM (lf587-17.30), organist 
and compo8er,was born at Bright well, Oxford- 
shire, in Ifi87. He was chorister of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, in 1094, and clerk in 1706. 
Coming to London he studied music under 
Jeremiah Clarke [q. v.], whose executive sf yl« 
he closely imitated. In 1711 or 1712 Hine 
became organist of Gloucester Cathedral, and 
shortly afterwards married Alicia, the daugh- 

n 2 


IT. fcji ■« fci — « J y 17» . lC>e'« 

ItaB ' T.^ vtaM MM. Dr. n^ 

Haf«i iTiifl ■fin-rr--'"' — *- 

57odM4llMc School 

W Mhi hfriiiB *H«fr»ii Smen Giotto- 
tntM^or SdMCAatkaM iorl.S. nd S 
VaicM.' *e. TW volaaK coBteiM the aa- 
titMi • Sftw w^''Biyiiee M tk Lord, U Te 
iUmm*,' «i4 'I wtn ■MfMfyTbee.'aad tW 
JaUbte (wkk Hair* * Te Desbi *). 

[HcvkhM* Hi«. aT Vait. UL 770 : Btama't 
■««, of lUrL CoO. Osfci4. L 134. u. SJw Sll ; 
0lwi^an«.«<Ifau;i.7ML] L. 3L IL 

HXVG0XO9. JOHX (4. lfl8S\ 
mi oqpMnM, • popO « OAtatIo 
> t] (UAVcns), waa ■ wi Mii . ia« ia tke ; 

.• I ■Mriwirrijrnrff^aiVaf. TifTVw — 11 
.' i: JOOt • Mar aalarr), aad of Chailea IL < 
II if aaia (Wow, Jfjr. .Vo«o) tkat after 
th« PraUctar broojf^ the Ma^daka Ccrfleiee 
f Oslbri) arg»B to Haantoa Cooit he wo«Jd 
Ualaa with Might 19 Dtaiag* aoagt per- 
fera«ihfHiayrt«aaadtwoboTs; thatCrom- 
walTa iamifbUn had leaMoa from Hingston. 
Mid that OmavcU himelf would fieqnentlj ^ 
•afaf aaiie at Iliagfioo'a hoote. Sir Ro^ 
iJVMt^mgB, in hi* ' Troth and Loyalty rin- ' 
Jiratarl,' 1862, writ<» : ' Beinj: in St. Junea's i 
I'arh I heard an orrcao toiu;he<l in a little low , 
rrnm of one Mr. Ilinkion'* : I went in and 
toai^ a private company of fire or six per- 
aona ; tbe^r linmnd me to take up a viol and 
hear a part. I did ao. . . . By and by, without 
tha Icaat coloar of a de«ign, or expectation, 
in eomea Cromwell. He foand tu playing, 
and, aa I rt^mcmber, »o he left us.' 

From KKfl to UVV! Hins^ton was amottg 
till? Konllemen of tbe Chapel Royal; in July 
|IV1.'J hi« office i* upecifiM a^ ' keeper of ye 

■ r^'ifid,' lie wrote ' fiincie*,' and is said by 
1 1 a wkina to have l>een Blow's earliest master. 
III! died in WH't, and was buried in St. Mar- 

Krct'a, Wostminnter, 17 Dec. His nephew, 
'ler llini^ton (/>. 1721), wag teacher and 
orKsnisl at Ipuwicli. Hingxton gave bis por- 
trait to the Oxford Music .SchooL 

A fnw of 1 1 i ni{iiton'« compositions arc pre- 
anrvnd in the Briti>ih Museum .\(ldit. MS. 
nit'Ki: (I) A *i!t of twelve fantiuiaii named 
from ihn months, ifi four parts; (J) .\ set of 
fourfantiMiaH.avres, and palliards named from 
the Miasous, in four parts; and (>'<) Fantasias 



otO. GiV 

»«I. n. pC ii. 

li. SSI : Dice of 

THQIUS. MJ>. (1790- 
\SSBX ttTtm9i,limi mm *i J«km Uj^rtoD, 
€imk ImOm e a it — h — . aaJ Maiyawt hi* 
wife, waa haftked at Sc Iveat Corawall, on 
9 Mar 1798, aail i ilaraHiil ia hia aatire town 
■ad it Qmm* Col^a, Gnihri%e, where, 
hamvnr^hmiMmtLtl^ tMf ingiat. His 
Medical rtarSea coHaeaeed a tha boose of 
• geaanl pndili^cr, wheaee ia 1831 ha 
Ttmtntd ta riliafcw^h la l&23h*weB th« 
Medal oflEtcd Vr GtiKft TV to Ediatax^ 
Uaimmtj far a X«tia Ma ea the oceaaion of 
hia viait to SeotlHai. The anginal poem ia 
laat,hat a tiaariatioa Made hy hia hrotheria 
lac a uiwl ia'TW IVraia ol Fiaaria Hingea- 
tea^' 1857, ppi Ii9-Sl. Ia ISM he waa ad- 
■itted to tka dqgrae of MJ)., after pahlishinf; 
aa iaaogaial Jiaaulatina, ' Ike llorbo Comi- 
tJali,' anl ia the aaae ytmr be baoaght out a 
Mw cditioa at Williaai Harrey's 'De Motu 
Cordis at Sangaiaia,' with additions and cor- 
rectiona. Hiagatoa fiiat nnctiaed aa a phy- 
sician at Peaaance 163&-K, aad afterwards 
remored to Truro, lla eontrihated to the 
' Transactions of the Geological Society of 
Cornwall' a dissertation *On the use of Iron 
among the Earlier Nations of Europe,' iv. 
1 13-»4. To yoL iv. of Davie« tS ilbert's • Paro- 
chial History of Cornwall ' be furnished ' A. 
Memoir of \Villiam of Worcester.' and an 
e:i>say ' On the Etymoloev of Cornish Names.' 
Hediedat Falmouth, whither he had removed 
for the benefit of the sea air, 13 July 1K)7. 

[Polvbele's Rrminiseeoees, 1836, ii. 153 ; 
(rent. Mag. Septemlwr 1837, p. 318 ; Boase Kod 
Courtney* B,bl. Comub. p. 242.1 G- ^- B. 

HINTON, JAMES (182-2-167J1, surgeon 
and philosophical writer, second son of John 
Howard Hinton 'a. v.\ baptist minister, was 
bom in 1822 at Ueadin^;, where his father 
had a church, and was educated at a school 
kept by his grandfather, tbe liev. James Hin- 
ton, in the neighbourhood of Oxford, and af- 
terwards at the school for nonconformists at 
Harpenden. At school he gave promise rather 
of general capacity than special brilliance, but 
his powers of memory were in his youth ex- 
cept ional. He was a strictly religious and a 
somewhat meditative boy. In 1S38-9 he 
acted as cashier in a wholesale woollendrapery 



ip in Whitechapel. The degnd&tlon of 

aitecliapel life, especially in regard to the 
tiuus of the sexes, made an indelible im- 
on his mind. Afterward.* he ob- 
• clerkship in an insurance office. He 
deroted his nights to hard study, teaching 
himself in »ome «ort German, Italian, and 
KuMiuu.and dabbling in meluphysics, mat he- 
matics, and history. At nineteen he fell in 
love with Miss Margaret Haddon, proposed, 
and was rejected. After an illness cauiied by 
work and anxiet}-, he became a medical stu- 
dent at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and 
,de a voyage to China as the sargeon of a 
sengerahip. On his return he to<jk medals, 
diploma (1S47), and an assistant-sur- 
peoncy ot Newport, Ulatex. Meanwhile, at 
the cost of prolonged mental snfi'ering, he had 
lost his belief in Christianity; Miss Haddon 
n<jecte<l a second proposal from him on this 
account, and he became medical officer on 
board a ship chartered by government to 
carry free negroes from Sierra Leone to Ja- 

He reached Sierra I.*one on 15 Oct. 1647, 
and on 5 Nov. set sail for Jamaica. There 
he remained about two years, busily occu- 
pied in finding places for the negroes on the 
plantations, and studying the social life of the 
island. After paying a visit to some relations 
in New Orleans, he returned home in the 
cpring of ISiiO. On the homeward voyage 
he was oppressed by a sense of sin, read the 
Bible, Nelson on ' The Cause and Cure of In- 
fi<l-]itv/ ind some other apologetic books, 
a: iiost persuaded to be a Christian. 

-M "ti now consented to an engage- 

ment, and Hinton began practice in London 
at Bartholomew Close, in partnership with 
his friend Mr. Fisher, devotmg special atten- 
tion to miral surgery. Through homceopatby 
' the serious study of physiology, 
Ji 1 icate problems which concern the 

relali jli.'- uf mind and body, and in particular 
of volition and cerebral action. He was now 
ui ' ' need by Coleridge, whose 'Aids 
:i ' was one of his favourite books, 
r'-covered, and for a time retained a 
in belief in Chriatinnilv. 
' -"■■' U<- married. In ISoShe dissolved 
but continued for the next few 
, ..icti.«e Bx a surgeon in Londun,and 
study aural surgery. His investigations 
him to deiote -ome attention to the 
TX of sound, on which he gave a course 
ur.-ii in IS.'V4-o. About this time he 
itlance of Dr. (afterwords 
\V I ■ ■ 1 1 1 ^ij. v.l, who continued his 

1 ihrougluiut life. Still busy with 
ihy, he thought he had discovered a 
method of transcending phenomena, 

which determined «U hia MiiMqaeBt cpecu- 
lation, viz. the nae ot the moral reaaon to in- 
terpret the resulta reached by sdence. A 
complete theory of the universe most (he 
argued) satisfy the emotions, and particularlv 
t htr religious emotions, no leas than the under- 

Hinton began his literary career in 18o6 
with the publication, in the ' Cliristiaa Spec- 
tator,' ot f". - on physiology and 
ethics. In ' ""' he contributed to 
the * Medico-C uinirzicol Review ' an article 
on ' Physical Mor^iology, or the Law of 
Organic Forms," in which he maintained that 
organic form is the result of motion in the 
direction of least reeistance, a conclusion ac- 
cepted provisionally by Mr. Herbert Spencer 
{tint Pri/triplrt, 3rd ed. J 78) 'as a large 
instalment of the truth.' In 16o9 he pub- 
lished a little book on the relatiorus of religion 
and science, entitled ' Man and his Dwelling- 
place,' which was favourably received. A 
series of papers on various topics in biology 
and physiologv followed in the ' Comhiil 
Magaxine.' I'Ley were afterwards reprinted 
as 'Life in Nature' (18<.i2) and 'Thoughts 
on Health ' (1871). He wrote the treatise on 
diseases of the ear for Holmes's 'System of 
Surgery' (1863), and was one of the editors 
of the ' Year-Iknjk of Mt;<iifiiie ' (New Syden- 
ham Soc.) in l^O^l In IbOti he published a 
little essay entitled 'The Mystery of Paiu,' 
which is probably the best known of his 
writings. He then joined the newly esta- 
blished Metaphysical Society. In the autumn 
of 1870 he visited the island of S&o Miguel 
in the Azores, where he had bought a small 
estate. On hiswaythither his mind wasmuch 
occupied with the consideration of asceticism. 
This led in the course of a few months to a 
change in his ethical views so thorough that, 
he was accustomed to describe it as a ' moral 
revolution.' The change consisted in the sub- 
stitution of ' altruism' for individualism as 
the basis of morals. To work out this idea 
he determined to retire from practice, and, to 
be the better able to do so, he f lirew himself 
on his return to England with redoubled 
energy into his professional duties. At the 
same time he prepared for the press several 
scientific works. In 1874, besides editing a 
manual of physiology entitled ' Physiology 
for Practical Use, by Various Writers,' n* 
publishetl 'The Place of the Physician, being 
the Introductory Lecture at Guy's Hospital, 
October ltf73,' with ' Essays on the Law of 
Human Life and on the Relations between 
the Organic and Inorganic Worlds ; ' also an 
' Atlas of the Membruna Tympuni, with IV- 
scriptive Text, being Illustrations of the 
Diseases of the Ear;' 'The (Questions of 



Aural Surgery ; ' translations of Von Tr(>lt8cli 
on ' The Surreal Diseases of the Ear," and 
Hflmholtzon 'The Mechanism of the Ossicles 
and the MetnbranaTympani'( New Sydenham 
Soc. ) In 1 875 he began to sutTer from a cere- 
bral disorder j)ro<luced by overwork, and in 
the autumn sailed for the Azores, lie had 
hardly landed, however, when he died on 
16 Dec. of acute intlammation of the brain. 
He was buried in the English church at 
Ponta Delgadtt in the island of Sao Miguel. 
His fugitive essays were edited by his son, 
Mr. C. H. Hinton, with an introduction by 
Mr. Shadworth Hodgson, under the title 
'Chapters on the Art of Thinking, and other 
Essays,' in 1879. Two volumes of selections 
Irom his commonplace book (printed for his 
own convenience in lt<74, and now in the 
Uriti.'ih Museum. 4 vols. Hvo) were published ; 
one entitled ' Philosophy and Keligion,' edited 
by Caroline Haddon in 1881, and another en- 
title<l 'The Ijiw Breaker and the Coming of 
the Law,' edited by his widow, in 1884. 

As a thinker Hinton, whatever his faults, 
lacked neither originality nor comprehensive- 
ness. Accepting from idealism tne doctrine 
that existence is limited by consciousness, 
he sought in the activity exhibited in voli- 
tion, which he identified with spirit, the key 
to the interpretation of the noumenal, or, as 
he preferreu to say, the ' actual' world, and 
the reconciliation of religion and science. The 
popular realism, which regards objects as 
material 'things in themselves,' together with 
the popular idea of Ood as the creator of the 
•world from nothing by successive acts, and 
its governor through secondary causes and 
miraculous interpositions, he treats as due to 
B certain 'spiritual deadness," the intellec- 
tiuil analogue of sin, to which man is prone, 
and as exploded by scientific materialism, 
■which, however, in its turn is proved by 
philosophy to have but a relative validity. 
Hence the ideas of matter and force, and also 
the ordinary theological idea of (iod, must 
give place to that of universal spirit as the 
• act uality ' of things. Accordingly he names 
his system ' actualism ' as opposed to idealism 
and materialism. He hoped for a time to 
save the essence of Christianity, though his 
rationalisation of its tenets led him nearer 
to pantheism. To the last, however, he made 
free and uncritical use of biblical phraseology. 

Hinton was also much occupied with the 
problem of the unification of knowledge, the 
Mlution of which he sought in the category 
of I equilibration.' The inorganic world ex- 
hibits motion and resistance in unstable 
equilibrium, the organic world 'vital force' 
and chemical artinity in unstable equili- 
' Function is the effect of the tem- 

porarj' preponderance of the latter over the 
lonner force. Structure results from func- 
tion modified by resistance. Thus chemical 
affinity being a mode of molecular motion, 
biology is atfillated to physics through the 
concei)t ions of mot ion, resistance, tension, and 
unstalDlo equilibrium. The weakest point in 
this theory is the obscurity in which it leaves 
the ' vital force ; ' nor can Hinton be said to 
have made out his revolutionary theory of 
function, which makes it not the cause but 
the effect of waste. Hinton finds the ana- 
logue of his biological tlieory in the mental 
and moral evolution of the race. Scientific 
procedure implies an unstable equilibrium 
between fact aud theory. In other words, 
the first step consists in placing upon the 
facts to l)e explained a provisional construc- 
tion, called bv Hinton a theory, but more 
usually termed an hypothesis. Both the sur- 
vey ofthe facts and the theory are necessarily 
inade<(uate, and as further facts are accumu- 
lated the theory is modified to suit them. As 
the result of this gradual articulation ofthe 
theory, it becomes at last so complicated that 
it sinks, as it were, by its own weight, and 
is replaced by some simpler theorj-. In this 
curious analogy ' theorj- ' corresponds to 'vital 
force," facts to ' chemical afiinity," their accu- 
mulation to the process of nutrition, and the 
final discrediting of the theory to ' function." 
Ilintou's analysis of scientific method coin- 
cides in u remarkable way with the Hegelian 
idea of a 'dialectic movement' inherent in 
thought itself, a coincidence the more strik- 
ing as lie was unacquainted with the Hegelian 

In the moral sphere Hinton traces the same 
process. .\8 an individual self, man is a ne- 
gation, a limitation ofthe divine Spirit, and 
can thus only attain his true life through 
unselfishness, whereby he transcends himself 
aud becomes one with (lod. In fact, however, 
he has done just the opposite, making him- 
self the centre of the universe, his own sup- 
posed interest, mundane or spiritual, his prm- 
cipul concern. The moral centre of gravity, therefore, be shifted from self-regard to 
regard for others, from egoism to altruism or 
mutual ser\Mce. Hinton 's premature death 
prevented him from giving orderly expression 
to his ethical system. 'The volume entitled 
' The Law-breaker and the Coming of the 
Law ' presents it in so ill-digested a aha|>e as 
to be hardly intelligible. The work is also 
marred by hints as to the need of a reform of 
the institution of marriage, which seem to 
jKiint in the direction of free love. 

[Life and Irftters, editrd bv Kllice Hoplrins, 
with introduction by Sir W.' W. OuU, 1878; 
Chapters on the Art of Thinking, with Hr. 



Shadworth Hodgson's introdiiMioB ; CuoliiM 
Baddoo'* LnTger Life — Studi» in Hmtoo's 
Elhic*. 1886, and her L&w of Der^IopBieBC, 
1883] J. M- B. 

HINTON, Sib JOHX, M.D. (1608?- 
168:{), royalist, waa bom in London about 
1603. On 10 April 1633 he entered Leyden 
University {Leyden Studentt, Index Soc., 

f, 49). where he probably proceeded M.D. 
I e presented hinuielf at the censor's board 
of the lloTol Collie of Physicians on Feb. 
l)S3t, but, a« he had not then been engaged 
in practice for the statutable period of four 

tears, waa not examined. On 7 Nov. 1640 
e again appeared at tho college, and pre- 
•ent«^ l^^ters from the Earl of Dorc-hester, 
testifying that he had be<m appointed physi- 
cian to the queen. After the outbreak of 
the civil war Hinton busied himself in pro- 
moting a petition to the Long parliament 
styltd 'The Inns of Court Pelicion fur Peace,' 
for which he was repeatedly e.xamined, as 
he alleffes, by the House of Commons, and 
before long found it expedient to fly from 
hcime. There '\* no mention of any such 
examination in the ' Journals ' of the House 
of Commons. He joined th* king at York, 
marched with the army to Beverley, Hull, 
and Nottingham, and was present at the 
battli* of Edgehill (1042). Accompanying 
the king to Oxford he was there created M.D. 
on 1 Nov. 1642 (Wood, FoAti Oivn. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 46), and was appointed phyeidan 
in ordinary to Prince Charles. By the king's 
command he attended the queen to Exeter, 
when' she gave birth in 1644 to the Princess 
Henrietta, and afterwards saw t he queen into 
Cornwall and safely embarked for France. 
lie W8» examined before the council of state 
on '.rr Aug. 1&49 (Cfl/. Statt Paper*, Dom., 
1649-50, p. Wo). Hinton appears to have re- 
side<l for some time at the iiogue in the suite 
of Charles II. On his ret urn to London he was 
pUce<l in confinement and frequently exa- 
mined, but, to use his own words, 'by the 
means and intcrcea^on of some zealous women, 
my patients,' who were afraid of dying from 
want of his treatment, was at length libe- 
rated. Acconling to his own account a close 
watch was, however, kept on him until the 

lie was certainly in London in July 16>}5, 
nd, although a 'suspect,' was allowed to 
nuutia there on account of his patients (i'^. 
Doo^ 165.5, p. 2-50). After the Restoration 
\» was appriintcd physician in ordinary to the 
king ona quren, and in December l(5t>4 was 
admit!*.! .inlionorary fellow of the Royal Col- 
Xv,: lans. ' At the latter end of the 

pli^; 1 1 he was knighted, in recogni- 

I of hii having procured a private advance 

of money for the [tafce et Albemarle to pajr 
the umj. In 1679 he pn'tnttiJ a memorial 
to the king in which he aetfcrth, in the form 
of an autotaography, the losses he had in- 
curred during the civil war and afWwaida, 
and praying that such might be made good 
eiih«' to him or his children. One hundred 
copies of these ' Memoires ' were printed 
from tliofungiiMl in«tin«CTipt \a 1814. A less 
accurate veraon is given in Ellis's ' Original 
Letters," 3td ser. iv. 296-31 1. H inton lived 
in the parish of St. Bride, London, but before 
his death removed to the parish of St. Mor- 
tin-in-the-Fields. He must have died in 

roverty during the autumn of 1682, for on 
4 Nov. of that year administration of his 
estate was granted to Humphrey Weld, a 
principal creditor ( AdmutUtratum Act Book, 
P. C. C, 1682, t 154). 

[Monk's CoU. of Pbys. (1878) i. 339; Martin's 
Cat. of Privately Priottd Books, p. 562 ; antbo- 
rities cited.] G. O. 

1 873 ), baptist minister, was bom at Oxford on 
24 March 1791, and baptised John Howard 
in commemoration of the philanthropist, who 
was a friend of his mother. His father, James 
Hinton, was bora at Buckingham on 3 Sept. 
1701, became a congregational minister at 
Oxford in 1787, established a school there in 
1790, received an M.A. degree from Nassau 
Hall, .America, in 1802, and died at Reading 
in 1823. He married on 23 April 1790 Ann, 
daughter of Isaac Taylor the engraver. The 
son was educated in his father's school, and 
was for some time with a surgeon at Oxford, 
with a view toenteringthe medical profession. 
The institution of the Baptist Mi.<<sionary 
Society and intercourse with John SutcUffe 
and Andrew Fuller led him to change his 
mind, and proceeding to Bristol College on 
8 Oct. 1811 he studied there for two vears. 
In 1813 he entered the university of Edin- 
burgh, where he graduated M..\. 4 April 
1816, and was called to the church at Haver- 
fordwest, where he preached his first sermon 
on 19 May. Here he remained till 1820, 
when he removed to Hosier Street Chapel, 
Reading. He took the lead there in erecting 
a much larger chapel in the King's Road. 
In 1837 he succeeaed to the charge of De- 
vonshire Square Chapel, Bishopegate Street, 
London, where he remained till 1863. At 
an early period he interested himself in the 
slave trade question, and became connected 
with the voluntary Church Society and the 
Liberation Society, and afterwards with the 
active work of the Mi8sionar\' Society. The 
Baptist Union also, of which lie was for many 
years the secretary, owed its preservation in 
times of comparative feebleness to his pers^ 




verance. As a writer he advocated the volun- 
tarj' principlt! in reliKioiig matters. He was 
aUo known as t he autuor of ' A History' of the 
United States of America' and u 'Systfem of 
Theology.' In the former, which includes 
topography as well as history, he was assisted 
by many w'riters, both European and Ameri- 
can. On his retirement Irom Devon-shire 
Square Chapel in 1863 he preached for a short 
time near London, and then by request went 
to Reading to serve a new church, but in 1868 
he removed to Bristol, and resided there for 
the remainder of his life. Ileemploved him- 
self in the collection and publication of hi.s 
theological works.which were printed in seven 
volumes crown octavo (18(14). In l-'ebruary 
1873, aa one of lli« representatives of the 
Baptist Union, he attended the thanksgiving 
for the recovery of the Prince of Wales at 
St. Paul's Cathedral, lie died at 1 Uedland 
Terrace, Clifton, Bristol, on 17 Dec. 1873, and 
waa buried in Arno's Vale cemetery. His 
son, James Hinton, is noticed separatelv. 

He was the author of: 1. ' A Biograyfiical 
Portraiture of James Hinton, Pastor ol Con- 
gregational Church in Oxford,' 1824. 2. 'A 
Vindication of Christian Mis-^ions in India,' 
1826. 3. ' Theology, or an Attempt towards 
a Consistent View of the whole Counsel 
of God.' 1827; i'nd ed. 1843. 4. 'On Com- 
pleteness of Ministerial Qimliticalion,' 1829. 
5, ' KlKments of Natural History, or an In- 
troiluction to Systematic Zoology,' 1830. 
0. ' The 1 1 istory and T(>pogru]>hy of the United 
States, ed. by J. II. Hinton and others,' 
2 vols. 18.30-2, 18;J4, and 1850; IWiil, 1 vol. 

7. 'The Work of the Holy Spirit in Con- 
version considered,' 1830 ; 3rd ed. 1841, 

8. 'The Harmony of Uoligious Truth and 
Human Keason asserted,' 1 832. 9. ' Memoir 
of John Howard Hinton,' 1836; 3rded. 18:37. 
10. 'Christian Sympathy,' IS;).*). 11. 'A 
Treatiw; on Man's Kesponsibilitv,' 1840; 2nd 
ed. 1842. 12. ' A Heview of the Bi.nhop ..f 
London's Three Sermou.'i on ihu Church,' 
1842, 13. 'The Epistle to the Hebrews freely 
rendered,' 1843. 14. ' A Plea for the Liberty 
of I'Mucation,' 1843. 15. 'Why not? or 
Seven Objections to the Kducational Clauses 
of the I'actories Ueguliition Bill,' 1843. 
16. ' Memoir of William Knibb, Missionary 
in Jamaica,' 1847, 17. ' Who will Live for 
EverP an Examination of Luke .vx. 36, with 
Notes,' 1848. 18. ' Athanasiia, or Four Books 
on Immortality,' 1849. 19. ' Letters written 
during a Tour in Holland and North tier- 
many,' 11*61. 20. ' The Tost of Exp>rience, or 
the Voluntary IVinciple in the United States,' 
18jM. 21. ' 'fheCase ofthe Manchester Edu- 
cational istji,' 1862-4, 2 pts. 22. 'Secular 
T» ' "^M, f> N 08. '23. • On .\cquaintance 

with God. Twelve Lectures,' 1866. 24. ' On 
God's Government of Man. Ten Lectures,' 
1866. 25. 'On Redemption. Eleven Lec- 
tures,' 1859. 26. ' Individual Effort and the 
Active Christian,' 1859. 27. ' Notes of a 
Tour in Sweden. By E. Steane and J. H. 
Hinton,' 1869. 28. 'The Principles and 
Practices of Baptist Churches. Bv F. ^\'ay- 
land, ed. J. H. Hinton,' 1861. 29. ' Mode- 
rate Calvinism re-e.vamined," 1 861 . 30. ' Stric- 
tures on some Passages in J. H. Godwin's 
Congregational Lecture,' 1862. 31. 'The 
Happiness ofthe Pious Dead. A Sermon on 
the Death of Mrs. M. Steane,' 1862. 32. 'An 
Exposition of the Epistle to the Roman.s,* 
1863. 33. ' The Theological Works of J. H. 
Hinton,' 1864. 'M. 'Anti-Ritualistic Tracts,' 
1860-7, 6 Nos. He also published many 
other lectures, sermons, and small works. 

[Times, 22 Dee. 1873, p. 4 ; Illustrated Load. 
News, 10 Jan. 1874, pp, 36-8, with portrait; Bap- 
tist Hiuidhoolt, 1875, pp. 277-80.] G. CJ|/ 

HIPPISLEY, JOHN (d. 1748),( ^acto^ 
and dramatist, was bom near Wookey Holer 
in Somersetshire. He seems to have belonged 
to a well-known Somerset family [see Hir- 
I'lsLEr, Sm JoHS CoxeI. He is said in the 
'Biographia Drumatica to have first come 
on the stage as a caudle-snuffer, and on tUfl 
deat^ of Pinkethman toJiave siiccg£ilii3-to 
hTs" parts . Doubt is thrown liy Genest on 
these latter statements. Hippisley "s first re- 
corded appearance took place at Lincoln'a 
Inu Fields, 7 Nov, 1722, as Fondlewife in 
the ' Old Bachelor.' He is aiuioirnceS in 
the bills as never having appeared on that 
stage before. This was loUowed in the same 
season bv Scrub, Sir Hugh Evans, Gomez 
in the ' Spanish Fryar,' Polonius, Pandarus 
in ' Tniilus and Cressida,' and other comic 
parts. At Lincoln's Inn Fields he remained 
until the season of 1732-3, playing among 
many other characters Sir Francis Gripe in 
the ' Busy Body,'Scapjn,_Parnabv Brittle in 
the 'Amorous \VT3o\v, Sir William Wise- 
wood in 'Love's Shift,' Corbaccio^ 
' VolpoiH',' ithl Woman in ' liule a Wife and 
have aWlfe,' Ubediahiullie'Committee,' and 
Caliana.i: in the ' Maid's 'J'ragedy,' and origi- 
nating one or two characters, the most im- 
portant of which was Peachum in the ' Beg- 
gar's Opera,' 29 Jan. 1728. He also for hw 
benefit, 23 April 1731, played David Shenkin 
in bis own farce, the 'Journey to Bristol, or 
the Honest Welshman,' 8vo, 1731. It is a 
fairly amusing production, and was probably 
first seen at Bristol, where Hippisley built 
a theatre, and whither ho was in the Imbit 
of taking annual! v a company in the summer. 
It was sold l)v 'John Hippisley, Comedian, 
at his Coffee House in Newcastle Court with- 


Hippisley ? 

oat Temple Bar,' thus esubli»hiiig the iiict i 
that, like many other comediuu, HtppUler . 
had a secoud occupation. This piece, witt i 
me alterations, and under the titlt? of 'The 
innaught Wife,' was given in ITtC at the 
Smock Alley Theatre, Dublin, and printed in ' 
London in 8vo in the game year, llippidey 
o took part, presumably in 1 730, in aji un- 
orded rHpre»seutation of his own 'Flora,' j 
Ivo, 17!iOll2mo, 176t). This wasanadapta- ' 
tion from the ' Country AVake ' of Thomas 
Doggett [q. v.] ilippisiey played Sir Thomas 
Testy, 20 March 1732, in his' sequel to the [ 
open of ' Flora, or Hob's Wedding,' 6vo, i 
17«fi. ' llob' s Wedi ^fn g ' is ano ther adapta- 
tion from th^C Sountry W ake ,^and is attri- 
but<:-d to John Leigli, the comedian. On ' 
14 April 1732 Ilippisiey gave an entertain- | 
ment, which bad uiuchsuccesa, entitle d •llit'- 
pisley's lirunkeu Man. ' In this, however, he 
hsd teen prece<le<l by John Harper (</. 1742) 
In 1732-;} Lincoln's Inn Fields and 
t Garden were under the same manage- 
[knd on 7 Dec. 1732, the opening night 
new Covent fiarden Tueatn?, Ilip- 
JeT played Sir Wilful Witwoud in the 
fHKHr.of ibe World.' On 15 Jan. 1733 he 
W>l<ord Pbiusible in the 'Plain I>ealer.' 
TTnJer the head of ' Bartholomew and South- 
wark Fairs,' and with the date 1733, Genest 
^^Ldctotmt of the Stage, iii. 401) mentions 
^Hpom hia own bills) ' Fielding and Ilippis- 
^^ey's booth.' At Covent Garden Hippisley 
remained for the rest of his life. Iiis nu- 
rrotis new ports included Sliallow in the 
|8eooDd I'art of Kin;; Henry IV,' Foresight, 
y, Ananias in the ' Alchemist," Clown 
f\N' inter's Tale," Lov ejiold in the ' Miser,' 
**rdiner in ' King Henry VIII.' On 
17 Jan. 1747 he was the original Sir Simon 
^^Loveit in Garrick's' Miss in her Teens." After 
^B^is time his name disappears from the bills. 
■■le died at Bristol 12 Feb. 174>>. Besidt^s 
I' Ua theatre in this city he had a second in 
•guise of erection at Bath. 

Da vies [Life of Garrick, i. 3.">6) speaks of 
flippislev as a ' comedian of lively humour 
anu droll pleasantry,' a sober ^^Iiuter ap- 
pmadiing extravagance but stopping «hort 
of offence. His appearance was co^nic, an d 
lw»y» elic iled lau ( {hter and appl»|iati It"'" 
T »mtwnc«. I'hia w asj in parTd ue-tfiA 

jrouth. He says of 
to t he 'Jou rney to 


Snngingup his 
> atage, when Quin replied, 'If that 
e, it is high time to burnJuH.^ X 
I of tilm iir ihH ' fii'iiileman's Maga- 

^diowsthat he hail much wit in pleasing 
as audience (cf. the epitaph suggested in 


Gtnt. Mag. XlUi, p. 92X His FooiUewif.:- 
waa onginal, and acarcely inferior to that of 
Cibber. His Corbaccio in * Volpone ' was a 
•uperb picture of eowfonaini and deaineaa, 
mzpaanng that of Benjaain JoiuiMo {d. 
I'tii) ~ij. v.\ with whom it wa> costomaiy 
to his disadvantage to compare him. By hia 
peifonnance uf rumble, a ridiculous old do- 
tard, in D'frfey's ' Plotting Sisters ' he saved 
the piece. His Fluellen was an artistic per- 
formance, with no trace of buffoonery orjj 
caricature. A pi^ure of Ilippis iey, atta -n 
buted to Hogarth, is in Ttie~31atfte"w& colT^ - H 
t ion at the t iar rtPlt C'luP . " 

Three of Hlpfi^leys "children went on the 
stage. John Iii 

iprisLEl (rf. 1767) appeare<l| 

at Covent Garden as Tom Thumb, 'Jti April! 
1 740. lie is credited w,i ')i th" ""l^'^ f ih'I 
a ' UiASt-rtation o " » -'""ffly hr 1 ^'" 
of OilVirU, lyjndon, 1 700, 8v o; 
llip[>l£]t^y aupeArs m tne *Ai umni Oxonienaes ' 
about that date. He was author of ' Essays : 
(1 ) On the populousness of Africa : (2) On 
the trade at the forts on the Gold Coast ; 
(3) On the necessity of erecting a fort at Cape 
ApoUonia. With a Map of Africa,' London, 
X'&X, Kvo (Brit. Miu. Cnt.), and waa pro- 
bably the ' Governor Hippj-rsley of Cape Coast 
Castle' who died 1 Jan. 1707 (Gent, Maif. 
17«57, p. 47). 

Jaxe II1PFISI.ET, subsequently MBi<. 
Gkces ((/. 17U1), made her first appearance 
at her father's benefit, Covent Garden, on 
18 March 17.35, as Cherry in 'The Strata- 
gem.' She rose to eminenm ; was Garrick's 
Ophelia in his firat season at Goodman's 
Fields ; waa, as Miss Hippisley, the original 
Kitty Prv in the 'Lying Valet," and Biddy 
in 'Miss m her Teens;' and aa Mrs. Green, 
which name she took in 1747-^, was thetirtt 
Mrs. Malaprop. Among her characters were 
Miss Prue, Anne Page, Perdita, Ophelia, Miss 
Hoyden, Nerissa, Jr'inilia, DioU Tearsheet, 
Duenna, and Mrs. Hardcastle. She played 
in Dublin in 1751-2, and probably in 1 1 53-4, 
and acted the ' Irish Widow ' at Bristol so 
late as 4 July 1761. But for the rivalry of 
Mrs. Clive.she would have been the best re- 
presentative on the stage of old ladies and 
abigails. Her farewell of the London stage 
took place 26 May 1780, as Mrs. Hardcn.-tlc. 
She oied at her house at Jacob's Well, Bri^ 
tol, in the winter of 1791. 

Miss E. Hippisley (J{. 1741-1766). sub- 
sequently Mrs. Fitzmaiiuce, came out at 
G(K)dman'sFieldsas.\ngelinain ' Love makes 
a Man ' to the Clodio of Garrick, 25 Jan. 1741 , 
her first appearance on the stage. She waa 
an actress of inferior talent, played in York 
in 1760 88 Mrs. Fitxmaiirice, went to Batli. 
and was a ' dresser ' at the theatre. 





[Genest's Account of th« Stage ; Biiker, Reed, 
and Jones's Biogniphia Dratnaticn : Theiitriia iJ 
.Biography, 1772 ; Kiclmrd Jenkios'a TSfenioirs of 
the Bristol Stage ; Daviess Lifo of Garrick and 
Dnimntic JVIiscellunit'S ; Victor's History of the 
Theatres of Loudon and Buljlin.] J. K. 

18:J5), {>oliltcal writer, Iwm in 1748, was 
the only surviving son of William Hippisley 
. pf Yatton, Somerset (great-great-grandson of 
John Hippisley of the same place, who was re- 
corder of Bristol in the reign of Kdward Vl), 
by Anne, eldest daughter of Robert Wi'bb of 
Oromhall, Gloucestershire. He matrieulnted 
ttt Hertford College, Oxford, 3 Fe)). 17114, 
aged 16, and was created D.C.L. S July 177<i 
(FosTKU, Alumni O.ion. ii. 6(56). He was ad- 
mitted a student of the Inner Temple in 1766, 
was called to the bar in 1771, and became a 
bencher in IS03 {BenrAers of Inner Temple, 
1883, p. HO). During a residence in Italy in 
1779 and 1780 he was engaged in confidential 
commtiniwition with the English government. 
Early in the latter year he married his first 
wife at Rome. Returning home in 1781 he 
was recommended by Lord North, first lord 
of the treasurj', to the directors of the East 
India Company, from whom lie received 
an appointment in India as paymaster at 
Tanjore in 1786, with the advanced rank of 
four years' service (Prissep, Madra» Civil 
Strvant»,f.'ii). In 1789, having helil offices 
of trust and importance during the war with 
Hyder Ali and his son Tippoo, he resigned 
and returned to England. 

From 179:? to 179tJhe resided in Italy, and 
was there again engaged in negotiations with 
the Vatican, the ell'eet.s of which were ac- 
knowledged in tlatrering terms by tlie Eng- 
lish government. In 1796 he successfully 
negotiated the marringeof the reigning Duke 
of Wtirtemberg witli the Princess Royal of 
England. For this service he was created a 
baronet 30 April 179«. The duke granted 
him the privilege of bearing the ducal arms, 
with the mottii of the order of Wtirtemberg, 
' Amicitite virtutisque fcedu-s,' and the grant 
was confirmed by royal sign-manual 7 J iily 
1797. Hippisley was appointed a commis- 
sioner and trustee of the royal marriage settle- 
ment. The pecuniary distresst's of the last 
survivor of the Stuarts, Henry Benedict, car- 
dinal York [q. v.], were first brought under 
George Ill's notice through letters addressed 
to Hippisley by Cardinal Borgia. Hippisley 
successfully pressed the cardinal's claims for 
relief. The cardinal beijueathed him several 
mementoes, now owned by a descendant. 

lie became recorder of Sudbury and M.P, 
for the borough in 1790. .\t the general 
elections of 1796 and 1801 he was not re- 

turned to parliament, but he was successful in 
1802. He contmued to represent Sudbury 
until 1819, when he finally retired from the 
House of Commons. 

Hippislev served in 1800 as sheriff of Berk- 
shire (in wiiich county Warfield Grove, then 
his country seat, is situate), and in the same 
year he b«>came one of the first managers of 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain. In 
1811, when the Duke of Gloucester was in- 
stalled chancellor at Cambridge, Hippisley 
received the honorary degree of M.A. as of 
Trinity College (Cat. Orad. Caniahr. p. 257). 
In 1816 he waa appointed treasurer of the 
Inner Temple. He was also a vice-president 
and .steady stipporter of the Literary Fund 
Society, one ot the principal promoters of the 
literary institutions of Bath and Bristol, a 
member of the government committee of the 
Turkey Company, and a vice-president of the 
West of England Agricultural Society. For 
many years he was an active magistrate for 
Somerset, He died in Grosvenor Street, 
London, 3 May 1825, and was buried in the 
Temple Church. Hi]>pisley married (1) in 
1780, Margaret, second daughter of Sir John 
Stuart, hart., of Allonbank, Berwick.shire; 
she died in 1799; by her he had three daugh- 
ters and one son, John, his successor; (2) on 
le Feb. 1801, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Homer of McUs Park, and widow of Henry 
Hippisley Coxo, M.P. for Somerset ; by her 
be became owner of Stou Enston House, but 
had no issue. There is a monument with a 
long inscription to his memory in the parish 
church of Sttm Eoston. 

While a member of the House of Commona 
Hippisley strenuously supported Roman ca- 
tholic emancipation, and wrote in favour of 
the policy : 1. ' Observotions on the Roman 
Catholics of Ireland,' 1806. 2. ' Substance 
of Additional Observations, intended to have 
been delivered in the House of Commons, ou 
the Petition of the Roman Catholics of Ire- 
land,' 1800. 3. ' Substance of his Speech 
on seconding the motion of the Right lion. 
Henry (Jniltan, to refer the Petition of the 
Roman Catholics of Ireland to a Committee 
of the of Commons,' 1810; second 
edition same year. 4. ' Correspondence re- 
specting the Catholic Question,' 5. 'Letters 
to the Earl of I'inga! on the Catholic Claims,' 
1813. He was also deeply interested in the 
tnmdmil! question, and published an octavo 
volume in 1823, recommending as a substi- 
tute the hand crank mill. 

[Authorities quoted ; Gent. Mag. 182S, pt. i. 
p. 643 ; Diary and Correap. of Lord Colchester, 
passim; Annual Register. 182.5, Chron. p. 246; 
Hist. M&S. Comm. 10th Sep. Appomlix, pt. vi. 
pp. 242-51.] B. H. B. 




\eh]i j>oet, ^Hoerally supposed to have 
Titten from 15:20 to 1550, waa a native of 
Lkosann&n in the hundred of Tegengl in 
Denbighshire, and lived at the foot of the 
hiraethog range of mountains in that county, 
rhence be assumed his bardic name. He 
Wis a pupil of the poet Tudyr A led, and he 
bimj-elx instructed the poets William Lleyn, 
^mwnt Vychan, William Cniwal,and Sion 
udyr, all of whom attained to local emi- 
tnce in the difficult rules of Welsh pro- 
Ir. William l^leyn wrote an elegy on his 
eat teacher, ' liardd ben bardd byd,' as 
be calb him. This elegy confirms the state- 
ment that Qruft'ydd liiniethog was buried 
in the cbancel of the church of Llangollen, 
also suggests that llirnethog was among 
use invited to I'las lolyn, the house of 
Ellice Price, counsel of the marches of 
lies, at the time of the Caerwys Ki.stedd- 
in 156^, and that he died suddenlj' about 
bat date. Lleyn's elegy, two manuscripts 
T which are among the Hengwrt MSS. at 
eniarth House, is printed in Kees Jones's 
)i)n.'hestion Beirdd Cymru,' 1773, pp. 98, 
Hi, aa well a.* one by llirnethog himself 
I • Grxifl'ydd ab Rol)ert Fychan.' Most of 
iraethog's poems still remain in manu- 
ript. The titles and first lines of sixty-four 
f them are given on the cover of the ' tireal,' 
nd to many more might be added, 
lie Myfyr M.SS. in the British Museum 
ftntain no fewer than sevent^'-eight. In the 
lie of the Hengwrt MSS. at Peni- 
louse, Merionethshire, the projierty of 
.E. Wynne, esij. (cf. Ilitt. MHH. Comrn. 
Rpp. p. 10(j), twenty volumes contain 
lious poems of Hiraethog, ranging in date 
tween loSS) and 1.56.'> (see Archaol. Cavibr. 
set. vol. XV., 4th ser. vols. i. and ii.) 
aetliog wrote many of his poems in a 
J contest with Sion Brwyuog, who in 
bis replies refers to Hiraethog as a 
pU'( cripple) (see extracts inO. abKhts, 
et Llimyddiafth (itpnreiij, pp. 2S)9-30*i). 
' C'vw\dd vr Eiddiges ' was printed in 
' tiweithiw'r Cymreig," 11 July 1889. 
Hams, in his ' Eminent Welshmen,' says 
Ote a history of all Britain and other 
B».' Probably this may bo one of the 
cjibed to Hiraethog which remain in 

at IVniarth. 
»'» Literatiiro of Wiilps, pp. 153, 208; 

Eniiosut WcUhmen.] H. J. J. 

:HEL, SOLOMON (1761-1841'), 

bbi, born in London in 17til, wasson 

Hirsch Levin Berliner, at the time 

l>bi of the lireal Synagogue. His 

ho was lineally connected with many 

I Jewish rabbis in Qermany or Poland, 

was appointed to the chief rabbiiiate of Hal- 
l)crstadt in 1705, and subsequently to that of 
Berlin. While at Berlin Rabbi Hirschjoined 
Moses Mendeliviohn, at the request of r rede- 
rick tlio Great, in translating the rabbinical 
codeof Jewish onlinances into German. Solo- 
mon Ilirschel left England with his father in 
17C5, zealously applied himself to biblical 
and Tttbnudical study, married at the age of 
seventeen, and in 1793 became chief rabbi of 
I'reiulttii in Prussia. In 180:i be succeeded 
Tewele Schitf, as chief rabbi of the German 
and Polish congregation of Jews in Loudon. 
He performed tLe duties of his oliice for forty 
venrs with much wisdom and tnet. Under 
his rule tho JewLnh community in England 
was emaocipated from almost all legal dis- 
abilitie.s. Ilirschel was a pious observer of 
Jewish customs, and was much troubled in 
bis old age by the cry raised by a section of 
his congregation for a reformed ritual. ITie 
agitation led to a secession in the last year of 
his life. Some of his sermons were printed ; 
one on tho death of Nelson in 1805 attests 
his simple fnitli and political loyalty. His 
latest published sermon is dated 1837. He 
died in I^ndou on 31 Oct. 1842, and was 
buried in the Jewish cemetery in the Mile 
End Road on 2 Nov., amid notable de- 
monstrations of respect. A memorial sermon 
preaclied by Henry Ilawkes nt Portsmouth 
on L'7 Nov. 184i, and published in 1843, 
proves the veneration felt for him throughout 
the country. His library was purchased for 
the Beth Ilnmedrash, London, where it is 
still preserved. H irscliel was of verv digni Ked 
presence, and his portrait, painted Lv Barlin, 
was engraved by IIoll. He left lour sons 
and four daughters, tweuty-eight grandchil- 
dn-n.and twcntj-four great-grandchildren. 

[Kumpeiin Mag. March 1811 (with purtniit); 
Picciotto's iSkelilies of Anglo-Jevish Hist, 
pp. 307-10; Dr. H. Adler on the Chief 
of Knclund, in papers read at the Anglo-Jewi&b 
Eihiliition, 1888, p. 287; Voice of Jacob, 11 Nov. 
1842; MomiK'a Kmineot Israelites, pp. 142-4; 
Jewish World, 16 Jan. 1888 (pedigree).] 

HIRST, WILUAM (rf. 17(!9?), astrono- 
mer, was the eldest son of William Hirst, 
I). 1). (rf. 17lX)), master of Hertford free school, 
vicar of Beiigeo, and rector of Sacomb, Hert- 
fordshire, lie was educated at Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, where he went outB..\. in 1750-1 
as fiftiienth junior optime, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1754. He became u navy chaplain. 
lu.'Vpril 1754, beingthen resident at Ilornsey, 
Middlesex, he communicated to the Royal 
So<'iety an ' account of a fire-ball ' seen there 
yPhH. Trans, vol. xlviii. pt. ii. pp. 773-6), 
which led to his election as fellow on 20 Feb. 
1755. In 1755 he sailed in the Htunpton 

Goart to Laboa after the caitbqoAlke, maA 
made a drawing of tb« city in it« ruio*. In 
1750 be waa chaplain o^ the Lenox and 
aecretaiy to lUar-admitml Cornish. ^Vhi]e■he 
waa on the coast of Coromandcl he was 
preaent at the «ieges uf Pondicherry and 
Vellour. On 6 June 1761 he made an ac- 
cnrate obeerration of the transit of Venue 
over the sun at the GoTemmifnc IIoum- at 
Madraa, in company with the governor, after- 
ward* Lord Pigot, of which he^.^ave an account 
in the * Philoaophical Transact ions ' < vol. lii. 
pt. i. pp. 396-8). In March 1762 he was ap- 
point«a chaplain to the factory a: Calcutta 
by the favour of Henry Vansittart '(\. v.], 
then governor of Bengal, and in November of 
that year sent to the Royal Society an 'ac- 
count of an earthquake in the East Indies, 
of two eclipsea of the sun and moon,' ob- 
served at Calcuttta (ib. liii. :2o6-6:2l. In 
December 1764 he returned to England with 
Vansittart in the Panther. In their passage 
ILrst took a view of the Cape of Good Hope, 
which was engravetl in 1766 by Peter Charles 
Canot. At tne second transit of Venus on 
3 June 17tJ9, Hirst, attended by Vansittart. 
acted as one of the assistants to the astrono- 
mer-royal, Xcvil Mttskelvne, at Cireenwich. 
At Maskelyne's reijuest he drew up a parti- 
cular ' Account of several phenomena ob- 
served during the ingress of Venus into the 
8olar Disc,' accompanied by capital diagrams 
(*. lii. 2:J8-;J3 ; also Gent. Mng. sX. Wi). 
He Lad now taken chambers in Fig Tree 
Court, Inner Temple. Though in comfort- 
able circumstances, his old friendship in- 
duced him to accompany Vansittart, sent out 
a« one of three commissioners by the East 
India Company in 1769. Hirst was chaplain 
to tbe commission, and ArVilliam Falconer 
v.] WBspunser. A Lat in fxle, ' Ad Amicum 

avigaturum,' addressed to Hirst on the 
occasion by James Kirkpatrick, M.D., is 
printed in the 'Gentleman's Magazine ' ( xxxix. 
TjoO). The frigate, after leaving the Capeof 
(lood Hope oul!" Dec. 1 769, was never again 
heard of. Hirst's interesting letters to John 
Diincombe and William Fazakerlt-y are 
printed in Duncombe's collection of ' Inciters 
by Several Eminent Persons deceased,' 2nd 
c<"lit. 1773 (iii. ftl, 94, 142, l.'a, 159) ; another 
addressed to Emanuel Mendes da Coeta in 
176.''. is Addit. MS. 28538, f. 158. 

[Dunconibe'g Letters, 2iid (dit. ii!. 84 n., 
Appendix, pp. xcviii-c] G. G. 

HISLOP, JAMES (1798-1827), Scottish 
poet. [See Htslop.] 

HISLOP, STEPHEN (1817-1863), mis- 
sionary and naturalist, bom at Duns, Ber- 
wickaliire, 8 Sept. 1 81 7,was the youngest child 


of Stephea Hidop, a ibmimi and elder of the 
Relief dwrdi, bjr kis wife, Maigaret Thom- 
son. Yoong Stephen waa educated at the 
parish sciiOM of Dons, and while still a boy 
save much of his tim« to insect-hunting or 
toasil-coUectiiig. Fran IsSl to 1838 Hislop 
studied in the arts £uQltT at Edinburgh 
I'niTenttT, mad afterwards spent a year at 
Glasgow, bat retained to Edinburgh to study 
divinity nnder Thomas Chalmers. During 
these years he sujiprirted himself bv acting 
as a tutor in the summer, and iiept uu 
his ke^n interest in nature. Hislop had 
joined the established church, but took part 
in the secession in 1843. He was attracted 
to mission work bv acting as secretary to a 
Ladies' Society for Female Ed ucal ion in li ndia , 
and in January 1>44 was accepted by the 
foreign missions of the Free church as a mis- 
sionary for India. He was soon afterwards 
licensed to preach by the ft«e presbytery of 
Edinburgh. In November 1844 he sailed for 
Bombay, accompanied by bis wife. Erasma 
Hull, granddaughter of Ge<>rge Whitefield'» 
friend. Hislop was a:isigned to Nagpoor, and 
settled at Sital.>alJi. a mile and a half west 
of that city, on 13 Feb. 184.5; his first year 
wus spent in studying tbe native languages, 
but in May 1846 he opened a school at Nag- 
poor, which has grown into the presient llisi- 
lop College. Except for a thirteen month.-i' 
change, to take charge of the mission at 
Madras In 1850, Hi.'lop's first twelve years 
in India were passed in active mission and 
educational work, combined with studies in 
botany and geology. He acquired consider- 
able iuiluence with the natives, and a warn- 
ing conveyed to Hislop by a Mahoinme<lau 
friend in July 1857 was the means of saving 
the Europeans at Nagpoor during the mut iny . 
At the end of 1858 he returned to England 
for a rest of two years; he occupied himself in 
establishing mission agencies, and for a time 
was in charge of Craig or Ferryden in For- 
farshire. At the meeting of the British As- 
sociation in September 1859 he read a paper 
on the Qonds. In January 1 8»>1 Hislop was 
again at Nagpoor. Previously he had not 
much concerned himself with the political 
administration of the count ry, except to pro- 
test against anyotticial recognition of heathen 
customs ; but the province had suffered much 
frnra weak administration, and Hislop now 
set himself to expose the scandal and bring 
about a reform through the medium of lettera 
to the ' Friend of India ' newspaper. Earl 
Canning was at last induced to organise tli« 
central provinces as a single government, 
and to appoint Sir Richard Temple as chief 
commi.isioner. The new governor freely con- 
sulted Hislop ou schools, civil reforms, and 





object* of scientific interest. In September 
\AC>3 Hislop accDinpanied tlie chief uominis- 
t.ii3ner on a tour of inspection ; on the evening 
of the 4th, whil<' riding alone from Takalghal 
to Bori, he was drownea in the attempt to cross 
a small utream which was swollen through 
rain. Ili^ body was found the same night, 
and was buried in the Xagpoor cemetery. 
His wife, three daughters, and a son survived 
him. A large ■ium, to which many natives 
(if India contributed, was raised for their 

IIii>lop'8 work was much more than that of 
an ordinary mi-i^ionary. Sir Richard Temple 
d'wTibes him ns" among the most gifted and 
accomplished missionaries whom this gene- 
Tstion has set-n in India. Besides having 
much ability for organisation and education 
generally, for philology and antiquarian re- 
eeareh, he had a taste andapt itude for physical 
gciencH, efipecially botany and geology '(■^f"i 
and Erent* of my Time in India, p. 241). 
Hislop carefully studied the languages of the | 
ab<iriginal tribes of his district, and in par- 
licular of the Oonds, and made a collection | 
of their folklore. Geolofnf was his chief 
study, and his labours in this direction were 
of much importance in the natural history 
of central India ; for botany, however, he 
bad a special taste; he also gave attention 
to xoology, working chiefly as an entomolo- 
gist and conchologist ; his notebooks are full 
of minute records of observations, illustrated 
by drawings in his own band. 

Ilislop's ' Papers relating to the .\boriginal 
Tribes of the Central Provinces' (NagjKMJr, 
1S66) were edited after his death by Sir R. 
Temple. In his lifetime his only indepen- 
dent publication was a sermon printed in 
1860. But in 1853 he contributed to the 
'Royal Asiatic Society's Journal' a paper on 
the ' Geology of the Nagpoor State i ' he 
afterwards wTote two other papers for the 
vame journal : • t>u the Age of the Coal Strata 
in Western Bengal and Central India,' and 
• Remarks on the Geology of Xagpoor.' Be- 
tween Ifi-M and 18fil he contributed five 
papers to the ' Quarterly Journal of the Geo- 
logical Society.' 

r-;.„;.i,', Lif^ of Hislop, with a portrait after 

Uken in 1844 by D. 0. Hill ; John 

>I»moriiil Discourse, Bombay, 1861; 

4>*oti>giciil Society's Journal for 1864. pp. xxxiz- 

aJ.J C. L. K. 

HISLOP, Sir THOM.VS (17<U-1843), 

gmral, born 5 .Tiily 1764, was third and 

Toungest Bon of Lieutenant-colonel William 

■ ' val artillery, who served in India 

I. and died at Woolwich in 1779, 

iii= in J eJd^r brothers were killed in India, 

James at the Inttle of Pollilore in 1761, when 
acting as aide-de-camp to Sir Eyre Coote 
[q. v.] ; William, a captain, royal artillery, at 
Cundapore, in 1783. Thomas entered the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, as a 
cadet, 31 March 1778, and on 28 Dec. in the 
same year was appointed ensign in the 39th 
foot. In this regiment he served through 
the siege of Gibraltar, 1779-83, and obtained 
his Leutenancy. lie appears to have made 
sketches of the siege (Heriot, Sketch of Gib- 
raltar^. Ho purchased a company in the old 
llWth foot in 1785, exchanged back to the 
3'.Hh, and in December 1792 was appointed 
aido-de-camp to Major-general David uiindaa 
[q. v.], on whose staff he served in Ireland, at 
Toulon, and in the expedition to Corsica. He 
brought home the despatches announcing the 
capture, on 19 Feb. 1794, of San Florenro, for 
which he received promotion, and inMay the 
same year was appointed aide-de-camp to 
Lord Amherst [see Amhkkst, Jeffrey], then 
commander-in-chief He was employed by 
the Prince of Wales on a special mission in 
Germany, and on his return was appointed, 
on 2o April 17!).), lieutenant-colonel of the 
115thfoot(or Prince WiOiam of Gloucester's 
Hanoverians), from which heexcbanged once 
more to the 39th. He accompanied the 39th 
to the \\'est Indies, and commanded it at the 
capture of Demerara, Rerbice, and Essequibo 
in 1796. He remained in military command of 
t hose settlements until their restoration to the 
Dutch at the pence of Amiens. During that 
period he raised a corps of negroes, known 
as the lltii West India regiment, and after- 
wards disbanded. .\fterhis return home he ob- 
tained the colonelcy 8fh West India regiment, 
was reappointed to the West India staff, and 
became lioutenant-gfovemor of Trinidad. He 
oined the army under Sir George Beclnvith 
"q. v.l at MartiniquL' in 1809, commanded the 
irst division at the capture of Guadeloupe 
in 1810, afterwards returning to his govern- 
ment at Trinidad, which he left tii ill-health 
in 1811. On 28 March 1812 Hislop was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief at Bombay, and 
sailed in the Java frigate, which in Decem- 
ber 1812 was captured by the United States 
frigate Constitution of!' the coast of Brazil. 
Hislop, whose bravery was conspicuous dur- 
ing the action, was put on shore on parole at 
Sun Salvador, whence he returned home. On 
27 May 1813 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief at Madras (fort St. George), and on 
2 Nov. was created a baronet. 

Hislop arrived at Madras late in 1814, and 
in 1815 commanded a corps of observation 
called the ' army of reserve,' collected on 
the Madras frontier. He was commander- 
in-chief of the ' army of the Deccau ' in the 


Blahratta war. After a detention from ill- 
ness he assumed the command at Hydera- 
bad on 10 Nov. 1817, and on '21 Dec., with a 
loss on the British side of eight hundred 
killed and wounded, signally defeated the 
combined Mahratta forces, under the nomi- 
nal command of the youthful Mulhar liao ' 
llolkar, before Mahidpore. The surrender by ! 
the Mahrattas of certain border fortresses 
followed. The division under llislop'a per- , 
sonal command arriveil before the fort of Tal- 
ner, the governor of which, a Mabratta of 
rank, after a parley, refused to obey the order 
to surrender. By flislop'sorderhewashanped 
as a rebel, and the garrison of three hundred I 
men put to the sword. When the chief ob- | 
jects of the campaign had been accomplished, 
the army of the Deccan was broken up at ' 
Aurungabad in March 1818, and llislop re- 
sumed to his command at Fort St. tJeorge, 
><rhicb be held until 1820. Explanations of 
his severities at Talner had been called for by 
Lord Moira, the governor-general [see Has- 
TiJfos, Francis Rawdon], and the nome go- 
vernment, and the House of Commons, in 
voting thanks to the army of the Deccan, 
specifically excepted llislop in consequence, 
llislop alleged the contumacy of the garrison 
to be due to treacheryon thepart of the Arab 
soldiery. Blacker, the historian of the war, 
supposes them to have been apprehensive of 
foul play ; Prinsep believes that the officers 
sent to parley did not make themselves in- 
telligible, which is probable. The Duke of 
Wellington defended llislop in the House of 
Lords on the ground of his previous high 
character. The explanations eventually sent 
home were never made public, anil the sub- 
ject dropped. The conflipting claims of the 
Bengal and Madras armies to the spoils known 
as the Deccan prize became a celebrated case. 
Portions of this valuable booty were acquired 
by the enterprise of small independent de- 
tachments, in some coses after the army bad 
been broken up. Much the largest iiortion 
was captured by the army of llie Deccan. 
The whole booty, from all .'iources, thrown to- 
gether under the name of the Deccan prine- 
pjoney, was admitted to hiivt" ve.iitiHl in the 
crown by virtue of tlie royal prerogative, and 
wa.i claimed by llislop and his army as ac- 
tual captnrs. The privy council, after hearing 
counwil, dL»cided that the Bengal army under 
the Marquis of Hastings, thougli at a great 
distance from the scene of captur<>, were co- 
operating by their presence in the field, and 
by keeping native powers in check, and ulli- 
mately declared (he Bengal troops construc- 
tive captors, entitled to share equably with 
the troops under llislop's command. The 
Duke of Wellington remarked that the sole 

satisfaction he felt at the decision was that 
had the sum thus put mto the pockets of the 
army fallen to Sir Thomas Hi.«lop's share it 
would have vanished in Me.\ican bonds or 
Columbian securitiex, like ILslop's private 
fortune ( WfUinyton Dtfpatchea, Currrrpund- 
enee, Sfc. iv. 133). 

Hislop was made K.C.B. in li^l4, and 
G.C.B. in 1818. He was colonel in succes- 
sion of the late 8th West India regiment, 
the old 96th, disbanded as 95th in 1816, and 
the 48th foot, and was many years equerry 
to the late Duke of Cambridge.' In 1822 His- 
lop received an ' honourable augmentation ' 
to his arms in recognition of his distinguished 
services in India. Hislop died at Charlton, 
Kent, 3 Mav 1843, aged 79. He married 
30 Oct. 1823', Emma, daughter of the Kight 
Hon. Hugh Elliot, governor of Madras, by 
whom he had one daughter. 

[Niir. and Mil. Gazette, 6 May 1843, p. 276 ; 
Mill's Hist, of India, with marginal reiereoccs 
there given ; Memorial of Sir Thomas Hislop, 
commander-in-chi^f at Fort St. Oeoige, and eom- 
manding the army of the Deccau, tec, toe nnder 
' Hislop' in Brit. Mns. Cat. Printal Books ; Geot. 
Mag. 1843, ii. 317-19.] H.M. C. 

HITCHAM, Sir ROBERT (1572?- 
1(^6), serjeant-at-law, was born at I..eving- 
ton. Suifolk, about 1572. He was educated 
at the free school at Ipswich and at Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, and was a barrister 
of Gray's Inn. In 1597 he represented West 
Looe in parliament, Lvnn in Norfolk in D'l 4, 
and Orford in Sutiblk in 1()25. In 16(» he 
was made attorney-general to Anne of Den- 
mark, the queen consort, with a patent of 
precedence next after king's counsel, and was 
knighted. He was made a serieant-at-law 
25 June 1614, and king's serjeant 4 Jan. 
1616. On 15 Aug. 1636 he died, and was 
buried at Framlingham, where he was lord 
of the manor, He had often acted, says his 
epitaph, as a judge of assize. Tliere wa.s a 
portrait of him in Serjeants' Inn Hall down 
to the dis-solution of the inn. He left larga 
funds to pious uses, especially tn Pembroke 
Halt, Cambridge, and to the foundation of a 
.school at Framlingham. 

[Loder's Hist, of FraraUngham, ej. J. Hawcs; 
Fuller's Worthies, ii. 346 ; Willis's Not. P«rl. 
iii. 138, 171, 204, 214 : Bond's East and West 
Iftoe, p. 238; Diigdale's Chron. Ser. p. lO.'i: 
Wynne's .Serje.mts, pp. 57-8; Woolrych's Emi- 
nent .Serjeants,] J. A. H. 

HITCHCOCK, RICHARD (1826-1856'), 
Irish iirclueolngist, son of Rodney Hitchcock 
of Spring Vale, co. Cork, Ireland, was bom 
at Blennerville, near Tralec, co. Kerry, in 
March 1825. Early in life he devoted him- 
self to the study of arclueology, especially of 




the monuments of bis native county, which 
h« examined with unceiwing ardour, using 
both pen and pencil in minute and accurate 
descriptions of them. His researches soon 
brought him tinder the notice of Dr. Charles 
Graves, the present bishop of Limerick, Ard- 
fert, and Aghadoe, by whose influence he was 
appointed an assistant librarian in the library 
lit" Trinity College, Dublin. While thus em- 
pliived he made good use of his opportunities 
and contributed many papers to the 'Pro- 
ceedings of the Kilkenny Archieological So- 
ciety.' These were widely appreciated, and 
wer« invariably characterised by accuracy. 
I);:)i(im literature was his favourite study. 
II:'' licock died at Round wood, near Dublin, 
J Uec. 1S'»6. 

{.Authority moAtly comtnaoicated liy Mrs. 
Hitchcock (hiswidow), who still (1891) Burvives.] 

W. R-L. 

' HITCHCOCK, ROBERT {d. 1809), dra- 
matist, was at one time an actor of small 
parts at York, but wos afterwards prompter 
at the llaymarket in the elder Colman's time 
( 1 777 -)^8). I Lis wife and daughter both acted 
at the Ilavmarket, the latter making her first 
»5>p«-araiice in the ' Silver Tankard' in 1781. 
!.. 1788 he had become prompter at the 
1 " . lire Itoyal, Dublin, and his wife and 
• ! 1 i^hter were great favourites on the Irish 
^ -J'-. He died in Clarendon Street, Dublin, 
at the end of 1609 (European May. Ivi. 478). 
His daughter retired from the stage on her 
marriage to a Dublin barrister. His son 
K"lwrt, LL.B. of the university of Dublin, 
wa" also a member of the Irish bar. He was 
author of: 1. 'The Macaroni, a comedy' 
( onrin.), 8vo, York, 1773 (also \'2mo, Dublin, 
177 4 1, performed at York, ond once at the 
llii\-market. 2. ' The Coquette ; or the Mis- 
t«k^.( of the Heart; a comedy' (anon.), 8vo, 
Hath, 1777, acted at York and Hull. It is 
not without merit ; the plot is taken from 
Mrs. I lay wood's novel of ' Betsy Thought less.' 
3. ' .\n Hijtorical View of the Irish Stage 
from the earliest period. . .with theatrical 
anecdotes,' 2 vols. I'imo, Dublin, 1788-94. 

[Baker's Biogniphia Dramatica (Rc«d and 
Jooes), i. 348, ii. 128, iii. 1.] G. G. 

HITCHINS, MALACHY (1741-1809), 

astronomer, son of Thomas Hitchins, was 

bom at Little Trevince, (Jwennap, Cornwall, 

and was baptised on 18 May 1741. His 

mother was a sister of Thomas Martyn, the 

...m filler of a map of Cornwall, and Henry 

\l vin ''|. V.J was his cousin. According 

'", Hitchins when a boy worked as 

i'. nent to Ebteter to assist Ben- 

i v.] in the construction of his 

ui 1^' -liire, which was published in 


176j). Hitchins had previously contributed 
mathematical replies to ' The I.Adies' Diary ' 
for 1701. In December 17(1- he was residing 
at Bideford. On 10 Oct. 1763 he matricu- 
lated at Ejieter College, Oxford. Polwhele 
says that the expenses of his university educa- 
tion were met by his wife, Joanna Hawkins, 
whom he married on 10 Jan. 1764 ot Biickland 
Brewer, Devon-^hire. Hitchins did not, how- 
ever, graduoto B. A. till 27 Feb. 1781 ; in 178r> 
he was incorporated iit St. John's College, 
Cambridge, wuere he graduated M.A. in the 
same year. In 17C7 he obtained an introduc- 
tion to Neville Maskelyne Ut. v.], and became 
computer ot Greenwich, ror some time he 
resi(led at the observatory, and during 1709 
observed the usual stars und planets, and the 
transit of Venus (Hitchins's observations are 
recorded in MASKtit.TNE, Observntiom made 
at Greenicich, i. ISl-liL'). In 1768 Hitchins^ 
became compnrer, and in this capacity verified 
the calculations for the 'Nautical Almanack,' 
a work which he performed till his death. 
^^'hile at Greenwich he entered holy orders, 
and removing to E-xeterwas for a short time 
vicar of Hennock. On 6 Nov. 1775 Bishop 
Keppel presented him to the vicarage of St. 
Hilary, Cornwall, and on 23 May 178,") to 
that of Gwinear. Hitchins retained both 
livings till his death, which took place on 
28 March 1809 at St. Ililiirv, in the church 
of which parish lie was burled. 

Hitchins was a frif'nd of Polwliele, whom 
he assisted in his ' History of Cornwall,' and 
of Davies Gilbert [i\. v,] The reputation 
which the 'Nautical .Vlmiiuack ' obtained wn.* 
largely due to his care, and after his death 
there was a marked deterioration (Nature, ix. 
123). Hitehins's other publications consisted 
of contributions to the 'Annual Register,' the 
' Philosophical Transactions,' and ' Archieo- 
Iogia'(fordetail8sce/?i6/. Vontuh.) Polwhele 
states that he translated the ' Hero and Lean- 
der' of MusiEus into English verse when a 
young man. Three letters from Hitchins to 
John Croslev are preserved in Addit. MS. 
16947, pp. 25-7. 

By his wife Hitchins had four sons. The 
eldest son, Richard Hawkins Hitchins (17(V4- 
1»27), was a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, 
and rector of Uaverstock in Wiltshire. The 
youngest, FoRTE8crKHiTCHixs( 1784-1814), 
imrn at St. Ililarv on 22 Feb. 1784, became 
a solicitor at St. Ives, and died at Marozion 
on 1 April 1814. He published : 1. ' Visions^ 
of .Memory, and other Poems,' Plymouth. 
1803. 2. 'The Seashore, with other" Poems,' 
Sherborne, 1810. 3. ' The Tears of Comubia : 
a Poem, 'Sherborne, 1812. Hewas also author 
of some fugitive pieces.nnd compiled material 
fora liistory of Cornwall, which after his death 



was edited by Samuel Drew [q. v.], and pub- 
lUhed in 1824. His poems are praised for 
Iheir'judgraent, vigour, and elegance' in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1814, ii. 86). 

[RotiM Hod Courtner's Bibl. Cornub. i. 242-3, 
iii. 1231; NichoU'h Lit. Illustr. vi. •»»-6; Oil- 
!>?rf'B Parochial Hist, of Comwnll, ii. 221-5; 
I'olwhple's BioK- 8ketehe», i. 80 ; Pari. Debutes, 
6 M«rch 1818. vol. xxxvii. col. 879.] C. L. K. 

1757), physician, son of Benjamin Iloadly, 
bishop of Winchester [q. v.], was born on 
lOFeD. 1706 in Broiid Street, London. He was 
sent to Dr. Newcome's academy at Hackney, 
and thence to Coqius Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted on 8 April 
1722. He read mathematics, and att<>naed 
the lectures of the blind professor, Saunder- 
8on. Ho graduated M.B. 1727, and M.D. 
April 1728, having already been elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. He wii.s re- 
gistraroflleniford while his (at her was birihop 
^1721-4). He settled in London, and Wii.s 
elected a fellow of the College of Physicians 
y9 Dec. 1736, and in the following spring ho 
delivered t he Gulstonianlecturos on the orgam* 
of respiration, which were printed, hut are un- 
mti'resting. A copy bound in red morocco, 
presented by the author, is preserved in the 
college library. In 1 739 he was elected censor, 
and in 1742 delivered a commonplace Ilar- 
veinn oration, which was printed. ( )n It June 
1742 be was made physician to thi* king's 
liousebold, and on 4 .Tan. 1746 phy.siciau to 
the household of the Prince of Wales. 

Iloadly was fond of the stage, ami was 
author of 'The Suspicious Husbund,' a 
comedy, w^Iiicb was first acted at Covent 
Oarden on 12 Feb. 1747. fJarrick wrote a 
prologue for it, and acted the part of Uanger. 
It hit the jpopular taste, wa.s often repeati'il 
Mn the stajre, and was published in 1747 
with a di'dication to George II, who sent 
Hoadly 100/. Foots praised it in his' Itoman 
and English Comedy Compared,' 1747 ; f ie- 
iie.«t calls it ' one of our very best comedies.' 
A farce by Charles Macklin, • The Suspicious 
Husband Criticiited,' was produced at Drury 
Ijane on 24 Miircli 1747. The comedy was 
perhaps more justly called by a contemporary 
' Hoadly 's iirofligate pantomime,' consisting 
«8 it does of entrances and exits through win- 
dows at night, and of dissolute small talk. 
Hoadly also wrote a comedy, 'The Tatlers,' 
■which was acted at Covent fiarden on 
29 April 17117 for Holman's benefit, but was 
never printed. In 1756 he published ' Obser- 
vations on a series of Electrical Kxperiments 
ty Dr. Hoadly and Mr. \Yilson.' lie died at 
Chelsea on 10 Aug. 1707. He married, first, 
ICliubetb, daughter of Henry Betts, and by 

her had one son, Benjamin j secondly, Anne, 
daughter of General Armstrong. 

[Munks Coll. of Phys. ii. 132; Works; Da- 
vias's Life of Oarrick ; Baker's Biog. iDinm. ; 
Genest'a Hist. Stage, iv. 205, 215, vii. 31U.] 

N. JM. 

HOADLY, BENJAMIN (1676-1760, in succession of Bangor, Hereford, 
Salisbury, and Winchester, was bom at 
Westerhnm in Kent 14 Nov. 1670, being the 
second son of the Bev. Samuel Hoadly [q. v.] 
by Martha Pickering, his second wife. John 
Hoadly, archbishop of .Vrmagh [q, v.], waa 
his brother. Benjamin Iloadly was educated 
by his father until bis admission to Catharine 
Ilall, Cambridge, where he entered as pen- 
sioner 18 Feb. 1091. He graduated B.A. in 
Jan uaryl696,having lost seven terms thro ugh 
ill-health. He was thenceforth crippled, and 
was obliged to preach in a kneeling iKisture. 
On 23 Aug. 1697 Hoadly waa elected fellow 
of Catharine Hall ; proceeded M..\. in 1699, 
and was college tutor (1699-1701). He 
vacated bis fellowship by his marriage with 
Mrs. Sarah Curtis on 30 May 1701, and took 
holy orders. From 1701 to 1711 Hoadly was 
lecturer of St. Mildred's, Poultry. In"l704 
he obtained the rectory of St. Peter-le-Poor 
in Broad Street. 

Hotttlly's first publication was a letter to 
William Fleetwood! afterwards bishopof Ely) 
[q. v.], occasioned by his ' E.ssay on Miracles' 
( 171*3). Hoadly mniutains, in opposition to 
Fleetwood , that some miracles were and othera 
were not within the powerof angels, bothgood 
and had. In 1 703 he took part in the contro- 
ver.«y as to conformity to the church of Eng- 
land. Strongly OS he ad vocatcdconformity,ho 
was opposed to the bill against occasionalcon- 
furmity, and when it was thrown out a third 
time in the House of Lords he defended the 
bishops who had voted for its rejection (^Lettfr 
to a Clerffyman cttncerning the w^m of tie 
liinhoiu' itc. 170;?). About the same time 
he published the first of his treatises on the 
' Ue&sonablenees of Conformity to the Churcli 
of England.' This was directed against the 
tenth chapter of Calamy's ' Life of Baxter,* 
which was admitted to contain the strongest 
case against the Act of Uniformity. Hoadly 
met the objections to the prayer-book, and 
then argucQ that even if tenable they would 
not justify nonconformity, because of its fatal 
effect on unity and concord. In 1701 he pub- 
lished ' A Persuasive to Lay Conformity,' 
urging upon lay nonconformists the obligu- 
tiontobeconstant conformists. By occasional 
conformity they admitted that conformity 
was not smful, and therefore in the interesta 
of peace it might be constant. Calamy having 
answered the ' Rcasooableness ' with some 





rather contemptuous expressions, Hoadly re- 
plied in two treatises. The first of these 
( 17*Vi), culled ' A Serious Admonition,' &c., 
waa designed to f{et rid of irrelevant topics in- 
troduced by Cttlamy, and complained of 'un- 
handsome treatment.' In the second treatise 
(■ A Defence of the Reasonableness of Con- 
formity l/> the Church of England '), which 
■wu« published in 1707, Iloadly laboured to 
prove that the declaration of ' assent and 
consent' to be made to the litur^v was only 
equivalent to a promise to use it, and did 
not imply a formal approval of every part. 
Appended to this treatise was 'A Brief De- 

ce of Episcopal Ordination ' (which, how^- 
•*r, extended to ninety large folio pages). 
Tt was a work of considerable power, and ex- 
hibited lloadly's almost unrivalled controver- 
sialabilities at theirbest. Two other treatises, 
' .\ Ufply to the Introduction of the Second 
rnrr ' iirwl /I ' PostScript relating to the Third 
r ' 'alamy'sDefenceofModerateNon- 

c ( 1707), brought this controversy 

to an end. Hefore the conclusion of it Hoadly 
w»« engaged in another contest with the 
leader of the high church party, Francis 
Alterbury \q. v.], upon the interpretation of 
the tf« 1 Cor. XV. 19. This had been ex- 
plained in a Ameral sermon by Atterbury as 
implying that Christians, while losing happi- 
ntrss in this world, were to be compensated in 
the future, Hoadlv, taking much higher 
ground, demons! rated that thegreatest happi- 
ness in this life wii« attained by those wiio 
rightly used the highest parts of their nature 
(1706). Atterbury replied to his strictures 
and «'as answered in a more full and elaborate 
ittanner in a secon<l letter ( 1708). In a post- 

pt to thin letter Hoadly attacked aiu)ther 

«friii,,ii f,( tilt, same divine, in which he had 

ci • :iken the meaning of 1 Peteriv. 8 

y covering a multitude of sins 

n»'xt year (17ft9) brought Hoadly , 
III - 'na of political churchman.ship, | 

«i 'in the leader of the ' low church' 

divUuv> who upheld 'revolution principles' 
■gainst the clinnipioas of hereditary right and 
passive Dhe<li'nce. In l?*^*-") Hoadly had 
prt»cliMi as<'nnon before the lord mayor and 
«1 ' 11 which he maintained that the 

ti St. Paul in Romans xiii. only 

»! ' :•• 10 obey rulers who 

g' ■ 'f their people. This 

<3 <r V. . .-.iuikIv distasteful to the 

h 1 party. The lower house of 

tl. ■'■"> of Canterbury voted a re- 

<jii'-' »ynodical notice might be 

tak- • nour done to the church by 

• '• <•■ I by Mr. R-njnmin Hoadly 

M ■■"' ' Jewry,' and Hoadly was 

TOt xzrn. 

strongly attacked by Atterbury in a tract 
called ' An Enquiry into the Nature of the 
Liberty of the Subject.' He immediately re- 
plied to this in a 'Review of the Doctrine of 
the Sermon ' (1705). Having entered upon 
this controversy, which, as he said, 'he t bought 
himself under somi- sort of obligation to 
prosecute,' he was next engaged in it with 
Dr. Oftspring IMackall [q. v.], bishop of 
Exeter. Blackall had preached a sermon 
before t he queen ( 1 708 ) in which he had main- 
tained that rulers were ' ministers of Qod,' 
and hence that ' none upon earth had the 
right to question or resist them.' Hoadly 
replied to this in ' Some Considerations 
humbly oftiered to the Bishop of E.xeter,' in 
whicJi he maintained that 'the ( lospel of 
Jesus Christ hath not utterly deprived men of 
the right of self-flefense.' The bishop re- 
sponded somewhat angrily, complaining of 
being mi.srepre.Hente<l, and to this 1 loudly re- 
plied in an ■ Humble Reply to the Bishop of 
Exeter's Answer' (17(lt)). Meantime, Atter- 
bury preached the Latin sermon to the 
1/ondon clergy at Sion College on 17 May 
1709, advocating the highest doctrine as to 
the rights of governors, and asserting that 
subjects when injuriously treated were bound 
to suffer in silence. This sermon was pub- 
lished at oiice at the request of the clergy. 
Iloadly had long had a bitter feeling against 
Atterbury, both on account of former con- 
troversies, and because .V tterbury hud charged 
him in a published tract ('Some Proceedings 
in Convocation,' &c. 1705) with ' imputing 
rebellion to the clergy in the church, while 
he himself preached it in the State.' Hoadly's 
answer to the sermon was severe and long, 
extending to nearly one hundred folio pages 
(1709). An ' Essay on the Origin of Civil 
Government ' was appended, and the effect of 
all hLs writings on this subject was to raise 
Iloadly to the highest point in the estima- 
tion of the whig party. This was demon- 
strated when on 14 Dec. 1709, immediately 
after the publication of his book on civil 
government, it was moved in the House 
of Commons by Anthony Henley [q. v.] that 
Iloadly for his strenuous assertion of re- 
volution principles had merited the favour 
of the house, and that the queen shouhl be 
addressed to bestow some dignity upon him. 
The queen answered that she 'would take a 
proper opportunity to comply with their 
desires.' The accession to power of the tories 
was fatal to Hoadly's claims for the time. 
Mrs. Howland, however, widow of n rich 
London merchant, pre8enfe<l him to the 
rectory of Streatham (1710), which he was 
enabled to hold with his other benefice by 
being made chaplain to the Duke of Bedford. 



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|T.1 tjkwV ' Letters' are rightly said by ' 
hnvc 'rmued aim at once 
i«st nink in controrersul 
ovERTos, Uff of Late). For the 
^e tncts written in this contro- 
of no great merit or importance. 
"ifesses that after looking over 
of them be felt a difficulty in 
the propositions in dispute ( Oaiut. 
II. -fiVt). In fact all the topics in di»- 
twwn whig and torv, high and low 
♦iD.werebrought into the controversy, 
unusual amount of heat and bitterness 
the writers. The numbt^r of the 
igioua, amounting probably to 
dred. The catalogue of them as 
In Hoadly's works occupies eighteen 
ifes. The list of the writers' names 
_> -three ; most of these wrote several 
its, and t here were also a great number 
ymous publications. Iloadly made 
lowing i-ontributions to the contro- 
tween 1717 and 1720: 1. ' An An- 
Dr. Snape's Letter to the Bishop of 
'J. ' Advertisements in the " Daily 
ir%M " and " Evening I'ost." ' 3. ' Preface 
la Pilloniere's Answer to Dr. Snape.' 
ter to Dr. Snape prefixed to F. de la 
Beply.' o. ' Some few Remarks 
'• Letter Ix'fore Mr. Mill's Book.' 
ript to Dr. Sherlock, dean of 
r.' 7, ' An Answer to the Itepresen- 
iWn upbv a Committee of the Lower 
W of Convocation.' 8. ' Answer to a 
iBV cast upon the Bishop of Bangor by 
lock.' 9. ' Answer to a late Book 
by Dr. Sherlock, intituled "The 
ion and Example of Our Blessed 
rindicated." ' 10. 'Tlie Common 
(ject* vindicated, and theNaturo 
ntal Test-. considered' (1718). 
nswer Xn Dr. Hare's Sermon, in- 
alad "Church Authoritv vindicate<l."' 

■ >> -- r.{ \V r still the same, or 

■• -if the I/)rd Bishop of 

II cnnsidere<l ' (1720). The 

i»t^ wliiim Hoadly selected foratlack 

I ■!,.■- 11,1 r. .ind Sherlock. The two 

,<taius, and as such their 

. I to reijui re notice from 

under royal piitrouage. They 

ffl of fhoir otKce for their attacks 

Meg. Sherlock was cer- 

' of the writers in oppo- 

uui, m. II an old opponent 

Uy at (. but the bishop, 

"ently, iili.-.t:iiiiril from answering 

if powerful of all his critics. 

* 1 the highest favour at 

i lend of Mrs. Clayton, 

l,„u. -iMi'lon, the favourite of the 

auees, aad ought expect high preferment. 
In 1721 be was tnjislated to Hereford, 
having previously reeigned th« rectory of 
St, Peter Poor. During his occupancv of 
this :«« occurred the famous triu of" his 
old oppooeat, Atterbury, for high treasiin. 
Hoadly cordially acquiesced in the sentence] 
passed on the bishop, but he did not take 
any prominent part in the debate on the 
trial, as he was a poor orator. For tbia, 
however, he made ample amends to his pa*l 
trons by the letters published in the ■ London 
Journal' underthesignature of ' Britannicus.' 
These letters (42-55) attack and dissect with 
great vigour and minute criticism the defeno 
made by Atterbury in the House of Lords, f 
and labour to damage the reputation and cha- 
racter of the bishop in every way. The whole 
series of the • Britannicus letters, which oc- 
cupy nearly a folio volume in Hoadly's works, 
must have been most valuable to the govern- J 
ment. In October 1723 Hoadly was tran**| 
lated to t he see of Sal isbury , having previously 
resigned his benefice of Streatham. Beiiu 
now the occupant of a prominent English 
see, Hoadly thought it necessary to make some 
episcopal utterances for the guidance of his 
clergy. In 1726 he delivered his primary 
charg>.> at Salisbury, a jejune composition, 
very different in spirit and power from the 
' Britannicus ' letters. He is much more at 
home in his tract on the ' Enquiry into the 
Reasons of the Conduct of Great Britain,' in 
which he criticises the proceedings of the 
emperor and king of Spain in making the 
secret treaty of Vienna (172.t), and defends 
the action of England and the other powers, 
which had responded by the Alliance of Hano- 
ver (3 Sept. 1725). This performance was 
very severely criticised by Hoadly's political 
opponents, and was defended by him in a 
tract published two or three years afterwards, 
'.\ Defense of the Enquiry,' &c. In 1732 
the bishop wrote an ' Essay on the Life, Writ- 
ings, and Character of Dr. Samuel Clarke ' 
[q. v.l, prefixed to the edition of his ' Ser- 
mons in 10 vols. Hoadly, being almost in 
entire sympathy with the refined Arianism 
of Clarke, and greatly admiring his learning 
and power, desired that for a memorial ' he 
may be thought and spoken of in ages to 
come under the characCer of the friend of 
Dr. Clarke.' 

In September 1734 Hoadly was advanced 
to the rich see of Winchester, this being his 
fourth bishopric in succession. In the charge 
which he delivered to hisclergfy twoyears after 
his translation (1736) he entered into an 
apology for his life and WTitings, and strongly 
repudiated the conclusions drawn from his 
writings by others. He sUuded in particular to 


Hoadly a 

*A Plain Account of the N&ture and End of 
the Sacrament oftheLord'§Sup|)er,' published 
(1735) anonj-mously, but never disowned by 
the bisho]), and include<i in his win's edition of 
his works. This treatise, which eauned pn-al 
theological excitement, was an elaborate at- 
tempt to explain the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper as in no sense a mystery, and as 
having no special benefits attached to it, 
but OS a mere commemorative rite. Bishop 
Van Mildert mentioned, among a host of emi- 
nent writers who controverted the ' Plain 
Account,' the names of AV'arren, Wheat ly, 
Whiston, Ridley, I.**liu, l.^w, Brett, John- 
son, and Stebbing (JAff of Waterland, p. 
ItlS). Dr. Waterland's great treatise, ' A 
Review of the Doctrine of the Eucharist,' 
was no doubt due in part to this publication. 
It was thought by many that Socinianism 
was plainly to be detected in Hoadly's treat- 
ment of the subject, and it may be added 
that the prayers published in tlie bishop's 
works go tar to substantiate this charge. 

Iloadly's literary activity declined with ad- 
vancing years. In 1736 was published (ano- 
nymously) a short tract on'The Repeal of the 
Cor]>oral ion and Test Acts.' This, which was 
an answer to Bishop Gibson's pamphlet, did 
not see the light till some years after it was 
wrilt<?n, when it was published with a preface 
by Dr. Avery. It was an enlightenedargunient 
against the retention of these objectionable 
restrictions. Nothing more from the bishop's 
pen came out for nearly twenty years. In 
1754 and 1755 were published two volumes of 
sermons. Hoadly, so dexterous as a contro- 
versialist, does not shine as a teacher of posit i ve 
theology. There is a coldness and heaviness 
Blx>ut his utterances, andhisstyleissometimes 
BO involved that we can appreciate Pope's sati- 
rical dewriptionof ' Ilnadly with hispt^riodsof 
a mile.' The bishop's literary life was brought 
to a conclusion by a very remarkable produc- 
tion published when he was eighty-one years 
old (1757), in which he was said by Horace 
Walpole not only to have got the better of 
hig adversary, but to have conquered old age 
itaelf. The occasion of this publication — ' A 
Letter to Clement Chcvallier, Esq.' — was as 
follows: One Bernard Koumier, a convert 
from popery, and a curate in Jersey, had come 
into England to appeal to the Bishop of Win- 
chester (ordinary of Jersey) on some matter. 
He was kindly received by Hoadly, and ob- 1 
tallied from him his signntiire as a frank to 
a letter. Over thi.i he wrote a forged pro- ■ 
missory note for 8,8CK)/, The bishop might 
have prosecuted him for forgery, and would | 
no doubt have obtained his condemnation, i 
But ihrinking from this he brouuhl the forged [ 
promissory note into chancery, and obtained 


n decree that it was ' a gross fraud and con- 
trivance.' Foumier continued to betrouble- 
stime, and met with some support ; the bishop 
thought it necessary to write the letter, ia 
whien he e.xposed f'oumier with great skill 
and acuteness. Hoadly died at his palace of 
Chelsea, at the age of eighty-five, on 17 April 
1761. He was twice married. 

His first wife, Sakah Curtis, achieved 
before her marriage some reputation as • 

S>rtrait painter. She was a pupil of Mary 
eale [q. v.], and among her sitters were 
Whiston, Burnet, and her husband. Her por- 
trait of Burnet wajs engraved by Faithonie. 
The picture of her husband, which was, ' as iA 
believed, touched up by Hogarth,' is in the 
National Portrait ( lallery. She died in 1743. 
By her the bishop had five children, all sona, 
two still-born, ond Samuel, Benjamin ( 1 706- 
1757) [q. v.], and John (1711-1770) [q. v.], 
afterwards the editor of his works. The 
bl3hoj)'s second marriage (23 July 1745) was 
with Mary, daughter and coheirejss of Dr. 
John Newey, dean of Chichester. 

I'robably no divine of the church of Eng- 
land has been more violently attacked than 
Hoadly. As the prominent and aggressive 
leader of the extreme latltudlnarian partv 
in church and stote he naturally attracted all 
the stnmgest assaults of the tory and high 
church party. Asa minimising divine, writ- 
ing down mysteries and dogma, he was e»- 
pecially offensive to churchmen, whether of 
the nonjiiring school or not — to Waterland 
equally ns to Brett. Probably the attacks 
made on him were not altogether unwelcome, 
as they enabled him to display his great skill 
as a controversialist. His controversial writ- 
ings are remarkable for their temper, but 
there is in them a good deal of plausible so- 
phistry. His dogmatic theological writing* 
Lave no great merit. HI* political essayB 
are clear and forcible, but they are disfigured 
by frequent adulation of the king and royal 
family. The letters to Ijidy Sundon show 
that he was well able to flatter Influential per- 
sonages in the state. As a bishop he was 
certainly negligent in the performance of his 
duties. He never visited the diocese of 
Bangor, and probably not that of Hereford ; 
at Salisbury, however, he acted creditably 
on one occasion. John Jackson ( ItWS-l 763) 
[q. v.], being presented to a prebend at Sallst- 
bury, desired Hoadly to admit hiui without 
requiring subscription to the prayer-book and 
articles. Hoadly, though himself disliking 
subscription, refused on the ground that sub- 
scription was the law of the church. He did 
not, as many other clergy did, omit the Atha- 
nasian creed in using the service. .-V poem 
of somewhat fulsome praise of Hoadly was 



'WTinen by .Vk«a^ie. J:iii lvsir-:a j_. - ]^ 
commends 'his znr-i v:'u^nr -ni^tv^ Soiti- 
iou# cont«m{mi3<L» Bi.d>9is :t Hjwijt u?r '■: 
be found in the wTrEai* :i Arr-wnnrr. *w:r:. 
«nd his ratioas hifs. es. ir:a rvwnuair^ 

[Works of B«n;.i3iir H:aii.7 I 1 . jn;:i:i!Oiri 
bj bis jon. JoC2 H^^iIt. 11.Z-. I -rii^ 3ik:>i. 
LDDdon. 17TS. wsix lif* fnai 2«>:iErt=aut 3r~ 
tADniea ; NieboU'i Liienrr A^vir^ic^ :i '. ?rx 
CentniT'. roli i-T. : An^r ju;- » Zsise .1^17 r-:c- 
resfrsiiezce, 5 T.i_ ir>; . '"^iin -ini-" 11 
&o.. ToL ir., 1721: Tii ILll-r-'* l.f« :i Tr».-aw 
land. Oxford, 1S23; I-ciiir'-* Hist- rr .cOia- 
Tocation. 1853: Bzziiiti Li^-t i "Z.'T.-jek. IrW. 
Overt on'» Life of Law. ;^.^; . ~'-^''" ? Cocn- 
tiosa! HistoiT. toL ii_ IM2. Pirr? * Hjt c? :c 
the Church cf Eu'lir-i t:.. ;■ _ :*44. Hxrt* 
History of B«-li£rioaf T-.iZ'.: ■— ~-t"'''' t:L 
iii.. 1860 ; AbbeVs Th* E=i-:.»c "."^tts jii :-3 
Bishops, 1887.ii.'l-20: Le*::- Si:rj--t;» zjucJ^is. 
Thonaht io the Eiz!):<r>&:h Cearirr. iL I-5i-<I 
(x. 37-41).] ' 'O. ■>. ?. 

HOADLT, JOHX .l^-virv.. »-•«.- 
bishop of Armai^h. ira« \y/ra a: T.'>r:ecbkz. 
Middlesex. 27 Sept. IdT*. ani ■w%t r>anrer 
brother of Benjamin H>?ailT 'I'.Tr— ir<<l 1 
fq. T." He was a member oi St. C»'i*rtne"» 
lull. Cambridge (B..\. lij^r>. and in Sr^ 
tember 1700 was appoint<ed under-master of 
the frrammar school of Norwich, of which 
his father was head-master, .\iter passinz 
«ome Tears there he l>^came chaplain to 
Bishop Burnet, who gave him the rectory 
of St. E^dmondV, Salisbury, and made him 
successively prebendary (il Feb. 1705-6 1. 
Archdeacon (0 Nov. 1710), and chancellor 
(16.\.pril 1713) of Salisbury. Burnet's esteem 
for him is further confirmed by an adversary, 
the author of a pamphlet entitled ' The Salis- 
bury Quarrel Ended ' ^1710], relating to 
eome local squabbles, in which whatever the 
high church party thought obnoxious in 
Burnet's conduct was attributed to the influ- 
ence of his chaplain. He was also attacked 
for his friendship with Chubb by pamphle- 
teers on the controversies provoked by the 
latter. In 1717 LordKing, then chief justice 
of the common pleas, presented him to the 
rectory of Ockham in Surrey : and in 1727 
he was consecrated bishop of Leightin and 
Ferns. Whiston says that he remonstrated 
violently against this appointment on account 
of the ignorance which lieimputed to Hoadly. 
If, however, Hoadly knew little of the sub- 
jects which interested Whiston, he possessecl 
other accomplishments. 'I know,' wrote the 
primate, .-Vrchbishop Boulter, ' his affection 
for his majesty, and that he has spirit to > 
help to keep up the English interest here ; ' 
and when in July 1729 a vacancy occurred 
in the archbishopric of Dublin, Boulter again 
wrote to Wslpole : ' There is nobody on the | 

~j~ :i "Oii- r >arr» inr la^ » Mr.>DC.Ouf 

aa I itrwoi -J ±rajr a ik-j^c id*.&r-<i jx 
lI jiuilj: idiw:^ 17 ut .ok JKn. b^ yv I'm 
ounii D ;i: ^.^ns. H-itii-y "»t» *cj".t'£li,ct 
znrrisiir-i -■: ■utr »r'."ij;oi.-!<.".Tni. jws .a Jiai:- 

»I-r '.~X. ll .•r".*rr l~*lit ]««L3IK »K!l- 

j-Ti-iliiTrTSiiar. :i.- l»x.fc .-c I«;T-.-ni!a_rs. wic 
iia^atfi T: >: ir r.>i:r: ■wiira :ik thw^ »>■ 
—"•*•— tv" -i\c '.^K JCAf "Jit: "iK .-.-"iji ii.-e i." 
"•"-■Ui.-'iT i_3i. AsirjitfrT it Lsct^iT'rtiivI*- 
rii- str.- :y .-jiSi-o-L-ii :." »i.-L-.::-.-e .t" 
rv!rrj:':j:c* :a :. (2.1.1 n:i.i.'."*rT-xt!«f. A* 
iriitisai.j i I*i";_z. zk ;>^.- Ti? r^sjicice 
;t .illvii.- 4.T k .■•.«: fi.->Xi^-riir'".y s.-r ti* 
«!-■'>*!•: cs. :ci* ;c ••■•.■■(^ -'g^-t--'..- ::. jartly 
- «* -ir =>;i».- ^jirr£ lii r»:;-:cjLl =n;ci.>i of 
i^:zv'.r::z^ -ir i.c-rs; tz.i -j:>iis-:T.->-is pxT." 
• B-: ir nl»i>i I =: ii-.T ■=:x.:L=>i-z: to him^'lf.' 
«»Ti "iii z-rzzjrie. ■ i- tie imr:* ••: :he Irish. 
•T irirfitji.-ly rr.=i:i:i=i:i» ixprovement 
:. *»rl:i.tir<r Vy"L-.s »kill. tis purs*, and his 
rxa^plr." Ht iai Eirrle>i his daughter to 
thr s. •:: •: Spriirr Hrcry B..-«yle. aiVerwat>b 
Earl of Sia£n.-'= [q. v.". and was. with Beyle. 
f.jr many yr*r* the chief director cf Irish pi>li- 
ti-s. In a Irttrr to the Ihike of Newcastle. 
22 .\.pril 17-1>) { yf Kxtuttf Papfrt. Brit. Mus. 
vol. iiiL '.he <»ys: • I have b«»nheieeighte«>n 
years an i more, and have constant ly . wit hout 
ou'T failure, attended, what I by principle 
thought ri^ht. the kinar's service. For sixteen 
ve«rs of that time I nave chiedy borne the 
l)urthen of the privy council and of the 
Hou<e of Lords, and sore against my will, 
if it bad not been for the ease and quiet of 
the government, of the university.' lie adds : 
' I never asked anything liefore" for «nv r*"- 
lation of mine own, and but one small tiling 
for a dependant.' He died at Kathfaniham, 
19 July 1746, of a fever caught while .Huwr- 
intending workmen, and was burit>d at TaU 
laght. ' He gave universal rontent and satis- 
faction,' says a writer in the • Publin (\m- 
rant ' of the following week, • by his ea.siness 
of access, his knowte<)ge of the true state 
of affairs, his sound judgment and quick 
penetration, and his oapacitv and dexterity 
m the despatch of business.^ However in- 
ferior to Ills famous brother in learning mid 
controversial ability, he poHS<>ss(><l tlie iMmo 
qualities of head and lieurt. His writingN 
consisted only of oocnHioiml seruioiiM, n pas- 
toral letter on the rel>t>l!ion of 17-15, n ihi- 
fencpof Burnet's work on thenrticlnHNgninNt 
Binckes, 17(K{, an<l n view of KiKliop lievc- 
ridge's writings, * in a hiiinoroiiN way,' iidcU 
his nephew, in citing till' iNiok. Kishop Mnni, 
however, thinks it increilihle that HiHJiop 





-li.lji.. ...iilit luY? b<*n taken otherwise 


\iou» words were 

'iTiiutt title. 


f, . ii» to Kippis's Me- 


,, • n«il fo fh.< !ntt*T'i 


' ■'.' 


,1 ■' 

,1 ■. w..i«r- 


,, : his omn 


.. . - — * -.---•ry au.l 


„ l>ul.linCi>iinu>i.2aJuly 


R. G. 


|Al>tY, .K>IIN ^ ini ir7t$>. poet and 


p;.. I ... r.i.m.l Sin-.f. London, on 


r -111 lit' H«>njtt- 


T . , tiUhop of 


iirti*. Al^er 

it llafknpy, 

• ■■!•- 

^ 1,; in ir.;o to 


, sA^li; und Bt 


, iinriil at the 


I . ijimlify liimself 


^, '■•v.tlifr lienjii- 


1 111" 'TtieCon- 


, . (iptiil of two 


1 , \ of Epami- 


j It t lift beat r<! 


,, 111 ir.Sl.and 


n <ii.-e.'*s. It 


,1 Thom- 


\ It was 


k, to 


r , a. Ueod 


[S ,; j;rudu8te<l 


U (.1 liw.inie a 


K , 1 r of the 


1, .1. On 


; .llor of 


1 iilnined 


„ .7IVc., 


, li. He 


" "f 


1 '-r- 


) .v..^er, 


V .tory of 


1, ^. -ih 17;'i7, 


ivu t* Sept., 


1 '!■. und the 


\ (.'athe- 


1. .V)June 


1 \ of St. 


i>t l\oc. 


i 'Ti'. 






I ■-'. 




^k< ii >l Hli ' ■ ■ -' Silt ^a I. tii). 

except the rectory of Wroughton and the 

Srebend of Wincheiter, which he resigned in 
une 1760 (^Le Neve. Fatti, ed. ITardy, iii. 
40|. Such WB» his fondness for theatrical 
exhibitions that no viaitors were ever long in 
his hoii«e before they were f>olicited to accept 
a part in i<ome interlude. He himseJf, along 
with f larrick, who was a great friend and cor- 
respondent of Hoadly'*, and Hoparth. once 
enacted u vulgar parody on the ghost scene in 
Shakesp^'ttre's'JuliusCffsar.' Bet-ideshissliare 
in ' The Contrast," which was never printed, 
he wrote: 1. 'Love's Revenge: a dramatic 
pastoral ' ( anon. ), 1734 ([ 1 737] and 1 74.'i i ; #et 
to music by Maurice Greene. '2. 'Jephtha-an 
oratorio' (anon.), 17.'i7; music by Greene. 
3. • Phuebe, a pa.storal opera ' (anon. ), 174t> ; 
music by Greene. 4. ' The Force of Tnith, 
an oratorio' (anon.), 17<>4. He composed 
the fifth act of J. Miller's tragedy of ' Ma- 
homet,' 1744, and completed and revised G. 
Lillo's ' Arden of Feversham,' 1762. He is 
said to have assisted his brother IVnjamin in 
thecompiwitionof 'The Suspicious Husband.' 
He left several dramas in manuscript : among 
other* ' The Housekee]>er, a farce,' on the plan 
of J. Townley's ' High Life below Stairs,' in 
favour of which piece it was rejected by (War- 
rick, and a tragedy on the life of Thomoa 
Cromwell, earl of Essex . Some of his poem» 
are in Dodsley's ' Collection ; ' the best is a 
translation of Edward Holdsworth's ' Mu«- 
cipulu ' in vol. v. He also edited his father's 
works in three folio volumes in 1773, to which 
he prefixed a short life originally contributed 
to the ' Biographia Britannica.' 

[Authoritie,s quoted ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet, 
XTil. 618-20; Baker's Biog. Dram. (R«ed ami 
.loiii's), ii. 306, iii. U8 ; Foster's Life of Oold- 
smith (1886). ii. 10'2, 187, 362; Garrick Corre- 
spoiidenfc, (Hiksim.] G. G. 

HOADLY, SAMITEL (1643-17C»5), 
schnolDiustcr and writer of educational 
books, was born 30 Sept. 1(J43 at Guildford, 
New England, whither his parents had fled 
at the outbreak of the great rebellion. In 
UV)5 his iiarents returned to Great Britain 
andsettleu in Edinburgh, where Samuel was 
educated, matriciilating in 1H59 in the uni- 
versity. In 1H62 his parents removed to 
Itolvenden in Kent. Next year Samuel be- 
came an assistant-muster in the Cranbrook 
freeschool. He was in holy orders, but never 
held any l«'nefiee. Hoadly established a pri- 
vate schtK)! at \Vest€'rham in lti71, whence 
in 1678 he removed to Tottenham Highf^ross. 
In lt)8<5 he removed to Brook 1 louse, Hackney. 
He was appointitl in 1700 head-masterof Nor- 
wich gTHmuiar school, an appointment which 
he held till his death on 17 April 1705. He 


■w»s twice nk«iTi«d: firsr in >-«:«5 :■: Stirr 
Wood, who died Lb chil-iCLri. ji 1-«?»m 
KCondlT. in 1«5J». to Martha, -ii^iiit-r :c -'stt 
Rev. B. Pickering. By hi* «c"C'i -s-Je i-r 2dii 
a large familr of niiw chiMr^c azi-:iu vit.iii 
were Bishop Benjamin H radlv "i. ».' »afi 
Archbijihop John n-*d> "j. t." 

Hoadly 's • Natural M>jth'i«£ ': T-aciizj. 
beingthe Accidence iiiQu»*t; rciia-iArsw-frs 
&c..' a kind of English an<i Lirji jrax-^.tr 
combined ( 16e;J ), wa* the m-vt p^p-ilar ici-:t:I 
manual of the ajptr. and beforv 1773 T'raeiiid 
it« eleventh edition. In 17' .O h^r p<ifcLi£Ri£ 
aschool edition of ' Ph:edru»*anithe ' )Lixiz5 
of Publiu£ Syrus." Ue had s<:me ojrrv*f">!i-i- 
ence with (irseviu.*. in which occur n';-tior# 
of Bentlev's projected editi-m of ' He«ycb.i i* ' 
and of tLe controversy upon the PiALirl* 
question. It was probably owinz to 
commendation of Gneviuf that several youcz 
foreign scholars became boanJvrs in Hoadly'* 
bouse in order to learn English. 

[Bishop Hoadlv's Works. 3 vols . Mi:«d l-r 
his son ; Life of the Bivbnp pnrfix<:<i to roL t_ icd 
appsndix for Siimnrl Hoadlr's correspocdeooe 
with J. (i. Gnevios.] ' T. K J. 

HOADLY, fJAIi.\II (//. 17431. portrait 
painter. ''See under IIo.\dlt. Besjamvs. 

HOAB, LEONARD (16.W.'=-lrt75>. pre- 
sident of Har>'ard College, New Cambridge. 
America, bom in Gloucestershire about lt>:iO. 
was the friurthson of Charles Hoare,byJoanna 
Ilinkesman of Gloucester (Edwabd IIoare. 
Pedufrer »f Hon and Ilnare, pp. 63-4 ) . Some 
time after the death of his father in 16^)6 he 
emigrated with his mother to America. Iloar, 
as he thenceforth called himself, graduated at 
Harvard College in 16i>0,and in 1653 returned 
to England, where he beca roe ' a preacher of t he 
gosjiel in divers placets.' Through the interest 
of Sir Henry Mildma v he was afterwards bene- 
ficed at Wanstead, Essex, from which he was 
ejected bv the Act of Uniformity in 16(ti. ' 
On 27 March 1661, while at W'a"nstcad, he 
wrote to his nephew, Jo.iiah Flint, then in 
the freshman cluss at Ilarrard, a long and 
interesting letter on the true methods of 
study, which is printed in the ' Collections' , 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society (vi. 
100-*<). In 1671 he received the degree of 
M.I), from Cambridge by roval mandati*, and 
in 1672 went again to Massachusetts to ' 
preach, by invitation, at the third or Old 
South Church, Boston. lie brought a letter, 
dated 5 Feb. 1672, addresse<l to thi! magis- 
trat>-i* and ministers in Ma-ssachusetts Bay ' 
by thirteen nonconformist ministers in anil 
about Ix)ndon, friends of the colony and 
Taluable agents in raising funds for a new | 


?;L_-a^ ii:_':',Tj -vi'' ir:".-n»ry :^vnIa^;^»^a^^l 
ii:ar 5 c li- i«.>j- :t iprsiiira'r .-c iiirrari a« 
sii.'e~*i<.-r -. .lurir» '."hxccy ^;. t '. »a,.> 
fa-i 1 f ; fj. Irr::. Tii prscr*! .-. .ir^ -v-.-ciic 
11 jii3^a=« .-f Ai^i^ry ."c \33i .•'.■c-iit^.o :i.t: 

H.'itr -Bk- :j-cr*«i. Hr -w-L* ♦■■^••-f ■— ;'y 

JCt-lie!!. iTvar.T -; -tit ijSirci.lzt3t-:Ct ."f 

Traz. '.tLirs. wi; w-kj^ xjir-i-o ty :»# 
st":»ieo."* tci TTi^y j^jrt'iil rerscc* a« 
Oil '.z.>yf>'^^.:-jLir.i <;>?.'r<oT. Y-t *:.iiT::*. 
iccrrirj :■•. 0:";c Mi:i-r. •»■;•.• was ti-n 
at tit ?:llTyr. ■ -e-- ti-rssrlTi* t-: tra^rsci* " 
whAtcTrr ii.iir £:£ »:•; siii. lai :o 'aiyri- 
Ta:e ■rT-Hryti::.; ir i.- twiiv-.o-ur isiirrwdKe 
to th.T=. witi 1 irfiji t:- ■ZLXt.i hia: vxti.>'j.i»" 
inwrioicTiii-.tti-ry wrre ibectrd by io»>r>- 
fiil -rCTi^TS ■.•>'^:*i ir 1 .V ;/i.;.'ki. bk. t v. p^ i :.V '. 
Ti^** A tc-T >.--:p.rat:.^= co3t:=t\i a»:»ir*: 
ti=i w-l:i: f-ich rCrc: -lit all the studt-uts, 
wi-h the ricejti :: •.-: tLrr<e.'.eft.a:'.vl in Miwh 
1675 H'.>ir r^-iced. tt iS Nov. loilowinjt 
h* died, a^vii -l-l. and was buried a: Brain- 
tr:e.Ma$Siich.:s<rtts. H;sw-i"eBridjet.daui:h- 
ter of John Lisle the resricide. died' at IWton, 
Massachusetts, on l'-5 May 1723. By her he 
had two daughters: Bridget, who marriev). on 
21 June 16i>>l>. the Rev.~ Thomas Cotton of 
London, a libeml benefactor of Harvard Col- 
lege : and Tryj>hena. 

Hoar was author of: 1. • Index Biblious : 
or. the Historical Books of the Holy Scrip- 
ture abridged. With each book, chapter, and 
sum of diverse matter distinguished, and a 
chronology to every eminent e]H>cha of time 
superadded. With an Harmony of the Four 
Evantrelists and a table theieuiito, Jcc' by 
L. IL", 12mo, Ix^ndon, Uiti8 ^another«Hlit'ion 
1069). It was afterwanla reissued as * Index 
Biblious Multijugus : or. a Table to the Holv 
Scripture. Theseconde<lition,v^-c.'''bv L. ll.\ 
8vo, London, 1672. 2. 'The First Cnin- 
logue of Members of Harvard Colleei',' 
1674. The only copy known was fouiufin 
1842 by .lames" Saviigt' in the State I'njH'r 
Office in Ixindon. and has betMi printed in the 
'Proceedings 'oft he Massaehuwtts llislorioal 
Society for Octob«>r 1864 (p. 1 1 ), a few copies 
with a title-page b«>ing issued separately. 
3. 'The Sting of Death and Death rustling, 
delive«>d in two Sermons, preached on the 
occasion of the death of the iiixlv .Mildiim\,' 
4to, Boston [Mass.], KM), iniblished \i\ 
Hoar's nephew, .losiali Flint. 

[Sililpy's ItioK. Sketch** of OrHiliiiitt-H of Iliir- 
rard I'niv. i. •J'JS-.Vi; (JuIih-.v'h HIm. of Har- 
vard Univ. i. .'U-.>; Stiriigc's (li-iictilog. Diet. ii. 
431-2.1 n. tl, 

HOARD, S.VMrKLCIWW* l«.')H),divlni., 
born in l^mdon in 15101, lM>caiiii' i-itliiTrliTk 
or chorister of All Soiilh' ( 'olli'gc, ( ixford, iti 
1614, was matriculated on lU Oct. 1617, anil 

I Uure 



iiii,;i.»i.'.l !.• SI \l.ii% U.ill. \\lu>i>> he jrnidu- 
■II. '.1 It V •■»• \|'nl liils, aiul oxmmenced 
M V III lii.'l. II.- w lis iiuvriv>rtttoii in the 
lull. I .l.-i;"H< .11 ('iiiiilirul^\MU It!-;.', llo bi>- 
1 .nil.. >.li.i|>tiiiii ii> KviIk'ii, oarl of Warwick, 
ttli." |m-.i<iiiii..l liiiii III l('>-'t> totlio r»vti>ry of 
Ml. 1,. I. .11. iii'iti Oiii;iir, K«so\. l>n l'> June 
III i\i III sv.ii iiiliiiiiii-il It.tV a( Ovfonl, aiulin 
Ini; li.. nit, iiif,>i|h>i'iili-<l lu that dfjtrtH' at 
t '.iiiiliiiil^;.- Ill l(W lu> was oollati'd to 
ill.. |.i>'iirii.l III' \\ illi'.vlon in thf ohim-h of 
.11 I'liiil III' iliisl oil l'> Fob. lt>.">r 8. and 
Mil ■ liiiiii il III I III. I'liiiiiivl v«l" ^l.>r^'tou Ohurch. 
N\ .. ..I ..i\ . II.. tt.i.s • well r\-«vl in tho fathers 
uii'l .1 li.mliiii.ii. wiM :i i^iKHl disimtaut and 
III 1 .11 lii'i, 1 /.i<.'iloui t'liKiiust iuiht-Wi;tuuiui:, 
iiii. .1'i \i miiii;iU!iri<-r\var\l<' (Athcme 
(<....; . .1 nil.., Ill ll)>V 

III. »>-. mo I Miod-. l.ovc to Man- 
Itiiil iii,iiiilr,.|i',l li\ ilis|>i\>\iiii; lli< aKiolutf 
II.... I.. I ilii'ii I >iiitiii.'ii I. >M ' 1:111011.), Loud. 

Ill 1 1 II, I, tii,i.-i I 'ill.., Ill, 'iS\ii. li i-ithoiii^ht 
ill. I ll<iii\ \l I ..III li.i.l II -lian- III thi-i nork, 
i\ III. ii W.I . .Ill .« li\ W illiuni rNvis<o an.l 
I. Jill I i.ii. II ml. Ill .li.>|>>mv. Moraiit 
I II. 1. 1> . ill il I l...iul ll:|.l llli- |-<>lir:l;;>Mo |>ul>- 
li ti 1 ti I1....U II II Inn.. \\ lii'ti It \v:l.< ;u'- 

. ..... 1 .1 1-.. <ii.-i . I nil. I li'iti li>Ms.ia tol)i>:;^^lo 

.ii III I...I1111. ..I li. ...lull. )>l\<ttMalioil, 

. .11, ill II III. I |.1| 111 .11 .1 ..II .i'.llH'lUVi\ //("<^. 

.' I I III I ■ • I'll.. .s.iiili-H Mist-rio 

..1.1 1: ...11. ...ill I Jii.\ Ills; ."I'llii' S|>irit. 

1 1 . I .111 III .« u-.lli'>v>l. WhiTlMIl 

1 I. . I III I li. I I !iiM,; .. ilu' ii.imn' of 

I ,1.1... ... « .1 II (III' .•ix;iliM'».rti,'aiiist 

■I h I I- ... It. I.. I Ml- 111.' I .>llvl.>ll, ItWitl, 

I I.. .1 I . . I; .'.. II .-.111 ..| W iirw i.-K. 
!■ I ..1I......M 1II1M..11,, l.i.llvl. l|!.'iS. 

I I. I li.i., Il \iiili,.nl\ .i^N,iIi>vl ; 

I > ... M\ I pviMllu'd at 

. I. I . I ■■ I II . ti- III ' ..i...!in.'.il \ is'.ta*. i.>ii 
I .\ .11 I ...I ...M.i li.i|ii>l t';ini,'ilmT-v 

II .. Ii I l!. ;i.. I .11.1 11..!", . 11... 1{(>- 
|. . I .11 I., I,!... I.. 1 ■'! I i|.i..;'iiiii l\-olosi;»' 

'i .. 1 ... . r. .• 1, I I >i' .'It'.. 

< I \! \l".. i.srL". t. i.!7 ; 

1; . -i ....... . ;.ii. ]■ t;i. l.o Nevf"> 

1 ■ .1 II . I. 1 . I . • . 'vl . .1 I n V. lie,;.! Oxf. 
• I 1 > .1 I . .. ,. ;ii.;. |.-, ..-. |.. :>i;3.] 

T. r. 

. . 41.1 . . II VI. 1. 1... I WIKS ,i:-<l- 

.1 li 1. I. .! '■.. .. \ . I1..111 ill 1..I11- 

' I 11,! I I ... lil.d -.111 ,.|' Hfurv 

■ .1.1. ■ ' I I. I.,!. I...ii.l,>ii. ..?u> 

.... I . .' .'. I 1|..k'i \1-v..I!..|VV 

' 1 . \l . .'. I- '. V II U 111 nl,..,.«as 

, . 11 .. . ' ! ' li.'v '^liH. a.auh- 

• ' ■ ^J.l'" i.i- ■■!' ILiiKv- 

I ■ I . '. . ■ ni.;l!.-.> .1 l!lU\-» 

1 I , ;'i li. I li.}i.| 

of Paul's Cray, Kent, and at St. John's Col- 
I lege, Cambridge, where he was admitted a 
I jiensioner on 7 May 1 799. Here among hig 

friends were Henry Martyn, the two Grant*, 

■ Archdeacon Dealtry, and J. W. Cunning- 
ham. In 1803 he passed as second wrangler, 
second Smith's prizeman, and second classical 

■ medallist, graduated B.A. in the same year 
and M.;V. in 180(i,BndwasSeatonian prizeman 
in 18()7. On ii March 1806 he was chosen 
Lady Margaret fellow of his college, and was 
ordained in ISOlas curate to Dr. Thomas Ren- 
nt'U. dean of Winchester and vicar of Alton, 
Hampshire. In 1807 he was appoint«d vicar 
of IMandford Forum, Dorsetshire, where he 
won numerous friends. He removed to the fa- 
mily living of Godstone,near Keigat«, Surrey, 
in Man-h 1 821,whichhe held forthe remainder 
of his life. In 1829 he became rural dean of 
Siiiith-<'ast Ewell, on 10 Nov. in the same 
yt'ar ari'hdeaeon of Winchester, and on 2 Dec. 
l.-^'U a canon r^'sidentiary of Winchester Ca- 
thcdral. He interested himself in the defence 
of t ho I risli church, the maintenance of cathe- 
dral t'stablishmonts in their integrity, and the 
cause of education. He was a great supporter 
of reliirious s<Kieties, and held a yearly mis- 
sionary irathering at Oodstone vicarage. On 
14 Nov. 1847 he was transferred to the 
arehde!ic.>nrv of Surrev. He chiefly directed 
his ent'fjries to jmividing further church ac- 
comtuivlation for the populous districts on the 
s.iuth side of London. Among his more 
intimate acquaintances were Hannah More, 
W il KtI". inv, t lie Thorntons. Venn, Macaulay , 
mill Sime.)n. lie resigneil his archdeaconry 
in K"<t><V He died at Gixlstone vicarage on 
l."i .Ian, Ht>."). and was buried in a vault in 
the churchyard on il .Ian. He married, on 
4 July 1 >«1 1 . Jniif Isabella, only daughter 
o( Iiicliard ll.dden of Mo<.irgate. Yorkshire. 
She died on !•") Nov. 1874, having had seven 

Hoar.' Wii< author of : 1. 'Tlie Shipwreck 
of St, Paul. A Seatonian Prize Poem.' 1808: 
aiiiuher edition l'*i», iV 'Thoughts suited to 
till' Pre»f-nt ( 'ri>is, in three St'rmons preached Xntional Schools." l-^lV, 3. 'Sermons 
■>n file Christian rhanicter. with Occasional 
Disc.iurses." I'-i'l, 4. 'The Course of Divine 
Jiulirmeiit'i. eiiiht L-viure-i on the ImjH^nd- 
iuv' IV-crilenre.' 1»:>:.'. .">. 'The IV-bendary 
or Ciitheilrnl K-itiiblishinents, Ancient and 
M.vleru," l<:i7. 1 ■■.•{.<. i» pans. ti. • Remains 
^'f C. J. Piiters..>n.' eil. by C. J. Hoare, 18;Jt!. 
7, ■ A Letter to the lV.-;!iop of London on the 
Cathedral i^ii.'stion.' IMO. 8. 'The Holy 
Scriptures, tht'ir Nat lire, Auth.'ritv, and I'se,' 
1^4.">: <ec.>ii.l ed. l^-"i7. '.». • Baptism, or the 
Ministration of Public Baptism of Infants 
scripturally illustrated," 1818. 10. "Church 



Bates, the Qo«!m<«i of ii»r Ity. mnmia-st.' 
1856. He mko piifc.lai.«i nr*-:T* Enrit- ^ts- 
mons, six chmnres vbea tniiysmciL ■x Wjir- 
chester, and four ckasE»« -siiis is^tvatffa. 
of Surrey. 

[Gent. Mag. Frfnttry ISAi. y^. ±«V-»»; im- 
■ex Ezpresa. 2« Jan. IS65. ;. «.. •>- C. L. 

HOABE, CLEMENT . ir*-:T4«- ..t^bs- 
grower, was bom in 17rS». H* rrhmc«d 
a rineyard at Sidle^Ham zHar C^.i:a>>3SM=i 
whence he remored. between IrSo Lui 1^1 
to' Shirley Tineyard.'nsarSKi'athaacj&ra- H* 
died at VauxhalL rsurrrj. co 1~ Ave- iSIi". 
aged 60 {Gent. Mag. nsw spr. 

He was author of two TkJuabn'e hajt^vx-iaz 
1. ' A Practical Treatise en. ti«e C-ahzmxxm 
of the Grape Vine on open waHt.' «t<x Laci- 
don, 1835; 2nd editi<M. 1^37: Zsi tci-dive:. 
Ift41. 2. ' A Descriptive Aeooijm of an iai- 
proved Method of Plantin* and Man ag in g tit 
Roots of Grape Vines.' &to. Ixmi'-jo. I'Ai- 
[Hoare's Woii».] O. O. 

HOAKE, PRINCE (irS-V-lsM udiaaEssic 
author and artist, bom at Bath in 1755. was 
the son of William Hoaiv. R_\. '_q. r/ Hit 
was educated at the Bath granunar scLckiL 
and instructed in art by hi< fiitber. In 1772 
he gained a Society of Arts prvrminm. and in 
that Tear came to London to srudr ax the 
Roval Academy. In 1776 he Tisitea Rome, 
and there studied under Men^s. together with 
Fnseli and Northcote. C>n nrtumins to Eng- 
land in 1780 he painted for some tioK. ex- 
hibiting at the Royal .\cademT in 17^^1 and 
1782. His exhibited work included a classi- 
cal picture called '.\loeste,' and a portrait of 
Sir T. Lawrence when a child. He ceased to 
exhibit after 1 785. In 1 788 he took a royage 
for his health to Lisbon, whence he returned 
in June to London. During his absence his 
first play, a tragedy, 'Such things were," was 
actedat Bath, 1 Jan. 1 78*, and afterwards (as 
'Julia, or Such things were' I at Drury Lane, 
2 May 1796, for the benefit of Mrs. .Siddons. 
His best known production, ' No Song. No 
Supper' (a farce, with music byStorace),was 
first acted at Drury Lane on 10 April 1790, 
and often subsequently. Other productions 
by Hoare are : ' The Cave of Trophonius ' 
(miLsical farce), Drur\- Lane. 3 Mav 1791; 
'Dido '( opera), Haymarket,23Mayl792:'The 
Prize ' (musical farce), Haymarket, 1 1 March 
179.3, and often subsequently ; ' My Grand- 
mother ' ( musical farce), Haymarket, 16 Dec. 
179.'i; 'The Three and the Deuce' (comic 
drama), Haymarket, 2 Sept. 1795; 'Lock 
and Ker' (musical farce), Corent Garden, 
2 Feb. '1796; 'Mahmoud' (opera), Drury 
Lane, 30 April 1796 ; ' The Italian ViUagers,' 

*rt '^ftH Xttf. 1*JJ5- tifw «E iL *i ; jnt. 

■•^■laa^'wii!-*. »«!__' iulxt i.rr {iriniHCSMic 1. 
Ii l~itr .:a3c^ wiii ian«rar-s»£ iirmrcsry 
T.rviCi. ssswiry " : tiit 5.-ai; Aaiisnry. H* 
wkf k ialiiiw nf "ji» SnEiiCy -.( AzruiiDSK. 
L3>£ af ■a* 2i:7Tl Sriewry ;c L^eacict. ■» 
wT:irT it WiruMK-jisiiis iTtcu^. Ht £»£ srs 
Betci-'tii. atii !•«. '.rfS.A. A^xsfcS af V-», 
N :r:jiB3S& s jicuj^if-: 3. ^ilt - Ecnqttaa 

■ Ijaax ";■!■■• j»s3Tv ItLusr :3. irii» wi 


:c I*ui9t'* 

OL ^r.<:x 

-:ntSii irz'B. a rarr^tjonisiist wni liie A»- 
iKaJs -.if V^ixiia ta; >t. P«!:«3.t.:>=;x.' !*»;»*. 
t- -Aeiiitnu: C;rr<=*5>:oi4ai»,' I*»>4. -teiix 
-.- -.VsfcisLir AT.THif ^c Pa^T^r." 1^<6 tea. 
Kti* tt:. Tiest lire* w-re jisblisbec Ij- 
H -MP: ir Lit 9i^-.2y as s*«rr:*ry ■;.:. the Royal 
Atfcat:sT. t "Ar tis^iry iato tL* . . . An 
'■* l»«i£r i= ETtnarii.''l»>?. .5. -E^ocis c* 
tLt Artt ■ > :i ja-— rng »ii sr£!ptar»- i= Gtbbx 
Briitir . l^os-.s. >:3. ?t:. 0. •Maaxrj of 
Gras-IIit S-iar}^' L-.oi:c. I riSJ. 4to. 7. • L-.'ve's 
Vir-.i^.. : a j«:>r=.' H-^rr «>ii:<d • The An- 
i«.' 1' T-.lf. 4r:. Ii»;t'-i0 la collects^ of 
et«ayt. *.>=»t »t Hoart i. 

>t-t.ll« ]*4.5. a4Tr»eT-).«l-2; Ecraf«an 
X»z. FTlTiiTT i7i'4. f- 7-i; B«i£T»T»-'» I>i« <rf 
.irtiKs; Bixer'f B:wi. In»a. L iis; Briu Mas. 
Ca:. : Geies's Hist 'Si*« ] W. W. 

HOARE, .Sib PJCH-\RD i1648-171«>, 
lord mayor of I»ndon. bom in 1618. pro- 
bably in London, was grandson of Henrr 
H'MK, a Buckinghamshire farmer, and onlV 
son of Henrj- and Cicely Hoare of the parish 
of St. Botolpb's. .\lderigate. The &ther was 
a yeoman and • dealer of h':«rges * in Smith- 
field t Le Nete. Ptiigrtt* of Km'gktf,ja. 481 ). 
After serving an apprentic^hip to Richard 
Moore I indentures dated 9 June 1665), Hoare 
was admitted to the freedom of the Gold- 
smiths' Company on 5 July 1672. He sub- 
sequently became an assistant and warden, 
and served the office of master in 1712. He 
set up in business as a goldsmith in or 
near Lombard Street, probably about 1672 
(cf. Bbooke and Hallex, Reffuten of St. 
Mary Woolnoth, \m\, p. 62). Thence he 
removed to Goldsmiths' Row, in the parish 
of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, before 6 May 
1074 (cf. baptismal register of St. Vedast^. 
Here he joined his cousin, James Hore, sur- 
veyor, warden, and comptroller of the mint, 
who carried on business as a goldsmith at 
the (lolden Bottle at the western end of 
Cheapside. He was still living in the parish 
in August 1690 (ib.), but had removed to 

i in or before 11)93 (ef. baptismal 
i. DunsUnVin-tbi-West f. Like 
his contemporary. Sir Francis Child ^q. v. j, he 
added the business of a banVer to that of a 
goldsmith, and the bank (which stillpres^rre* 
the original i'ign of the Golden Bottle) has 
e-xisted in the same spot (No. 37) until the 
present dav. Iloare was one of the gold- 
smiths aiitlorised by the trea^iury in 16&4 to 
receive contributions for raiding 1,CII)0,IKK»/. 
ou the duty arii^ing from salt, and the uew 
rates of exchangv {Limd. Oaz. 9 .\pril 1694). 
In lt}95-6 be subsoribcxl the assix-iation roll 
of the fiolilsmiths' Company congratulating 
AVilliaiD III on bis escape from assassination 
(WiljiiRD, Memoriah an4 Charaeten, 1741, 
f.'2\ n.) lliiare's financial transact ions were 
on a large scale. In March lH9«>-7 he joined 
Child and otbers in advH>. ■;..,■ r/imKi; topay 
ready money for wn.>ii- t into 

the mint to be coined ii <-/]{(-. 

lotion, IT. 195). Samuel Pepy* was one of 
hi* customers, and left him a mourning-ring 
»t his death in \70ii ( iJiary, 4th edit., 18&4, 
ir. 900-1 ). He and Child aiv said to have 
united to make a run upon the Bank of Eng- 
land in 1 707 during the alarm caused by the 
Pretender's rumoured invasion, but he refuted 
the charge in a broadsheet dated 10 March 
(ct Tie AnaUFiKti of ExrJi^tur Alley, a con- 
temporary pamphlet quoted in IVice"*' Iland- 
booK of London Bankers'). ( )n 28 Aug. 1710 
he contracted, with three other merchants, 
to supply the treasury with 350,(XX)/. for the 
nae of tiie army in Flanders ( Lijtteell, \\. 

Iloare was knighted by Queen Anne when 
■he dined at Guildhall on Lord Mayor's dar. 
29 Oct. 1702 (I'i. y. 231 ). On 16 Sept. 1703 
be was elect<.tl alderman for the ward of 
Bread .''treet.aud sheriff on Midsummer day 
1700, He was an unsuccessful court candi- 
date at the parliamentary elections for the 
city of Iwondon in 1705 and 1708, but repre- 
•ented the city in parliament from 1710 to 
1715 iib. y. 6.52, yi. 295, 633 ). On Michael- 
maa day 1710 an unsuccessful attempt was 
made by the tory party to secure his election 
a« lord mayor, in oppcaition to Sir Gilbert 
Heathcote [q. y.], but be succeeded to the 
office by seniority in 1712. Hoare was presi- 
dent of Christ's Hospital and of the London 
workhouse, and one of the committee for 
boilding fifty new churches in London. He 
died on 6 Jan. 1718 at his hou-se at Ilendon, 
Middleeex, and was buried on 13 Jan. at St. 
Dunatan's-in-the-Wect, where his monument, 
erected by his son Henry in 1723, still exists. 
He left a bequest of 200/. to the Goldsmiths' 
Company for an annual pension to eight poor 
yndiawt of freemen. 

I Ha naaied, by licence dat«d 27 July 1672, 
SuMniia,danghterofJolin.\ustin of Brit tons, 
Elssex, by whom he had eleven son" and six 
I daugbterts, the eldest being born in 1673, and 
' the youngest in lt594. Of these children four 
sons and two daughters survived him, yii. 
Richard, John, Henry (who succeeded him 
in business), Benjamin (who also joined the 
linn). Mary (married to Sir Edward Littleton 
of Pillaton Hall, StalTordshire, bart.), and 
Jane. His wife died on 24 Sept. 1720, and 
was buried in St. Dunstan's. His character 
is eulogised by Wilford {^MimoriaU and CAa- 
ractert, 1741 ). 

His grandson, Sir Kichard Hoahe yd. 
1754), was elected lord mayor of 1.4)ndon in 
1746, the year of the rebellion, and in 1741 
wrote a journal of his shrievalty, which was 
printed privatelv by his gramUon, Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare. in l>lo. He liveil at Bam Kims, 
Barnes, on the banks of the Thames, and died 
in 17^. Some letters from him to the Du 
of Newcastle are in Brit. Mug. Add. MSS. 
32t596, (. 44, and 32725, {. 303 (see also Mafi- 
LAXr. nUt. of Lundon, i. 6&4-l> ; Gent. Mag. 
1841, pt. ii. p. 425; nut. MSS. Cumm. 11th 
Rep. App. pt. ii. p. 20). 

Portraits of Sir Richard Hoare and his 
grandMin Sir Richard.engraved by Worthing- 
ton, appear in Sir R. Colt Hoare's' Pedigrees/J 
&c., taken from paintings in the authors f"" 
aeuion at Stourhead. 

[Records of the Ooldsmiths' Company; Pedi- 
grees and Memoirs of the Families of Bore of 
Rishford, Walton, London, &e.. by Sir R. Colt 
I How. 18!*; Hist, of the Huare Faniilv, by 
I Edvanl Hoare. 1883; Davy's Suffolk Collections. 
T. 69 (.Idd. MSS. 19lS3).p. 352 ; Handbook of 
London Binkerss b; F. U. Hilton Price, I8i>0-1 ; 
Nichols's Liter«ry .Ineolotca; Raikes's Hist, of 
thf Hon. .Vnillcry Company, i. 260, 313; antlio- 
rilies nienlionitd «Ipov<i.] C. W-jj. 

18.SS), historian of >Vilfshire, bom on 9 Dec. 
1758, was only son of RichanI Iloare, esq., 
of Bam ElmK, Surrey (created a baronet in 
178<^), by -Vnne, second daughter of Henry 
Hoan-. e.s«|.. of Stourhead, Wiltshire, and of 
Susannah, daughter and heiress of Stepbei 
Colt, esq. His grandfather was Sir Richapil 
Iloare (rf. 1754) 'see under Hoare, Sir Ri 
CHARD, 1648-17181 He was educated at 
private schools, first at Mr. IVvis's school on 
\VandsworthCommon, and aft erwardsaf that 
of Dr. Samuel (ilasse, at Greenford, near Har- 
row. He was at an early age introduced into 
the family banking-hotise, 37 Fleet Street, 
but continued hisriassical studies under the 
tuition of the Rev. Joseph Eyre. The liberal 
allowance of his grandiatber, Henry Iloare, 
\ MOD placed him in a position of independence. 




He Mtablished luma«lf in Lincoln's Inn 
i^elds, where his father had long resided. 
On 18 Au^. 1~(*S he mnrried Hester, only 
daughter of WiUiiiin Ilenrj- Lyttelton, lord 
Westcotr (ofttTwurds creat«*d Lord Lyttel- 
ton). ilottre lost his wife on 22 Aug. 17f/j. 
To alleviate his prief lie resolved to travel. 
I alwr 17N"> he left Kngknd, passed 

! ance and Italy tii Naples, and, after 
•"ijiiiiriii^' the classic ground in the vicinity 
of thftt city and Rome, returned by Genoa 
., .1.,. ..,11th of France. Me then visited 
■ I, afterwards made an excursion 
ua, went a second time to Rome, 
i.<l til Kngland in .Iiily 1787. In 
t; he succeeded bis father in the 


In 1788 Hoare left Kngland a second time. 
After passing through Holland, the Aus- 
trian Netherlands, Hanover, Prussia, Saxony, 
and Bohemia, he arrived at Vienna the same 
autumn. Thence he proceeded to Trieste, ex- 
amining the most interesting objects on the 
coaj't of the Adriatic. He devoted a con- 
siderable time to the exploration of Rome 
and Naples and their vicinity, visited Sicily, 
Malta and (iozo, Capri, Ischia and Elba, and 
rrtuming lhri>\igh the Tyrol reached Eng- 
land in -August 1791, In the course of these 
tour* he filleil a portfolio with drawings of 
the most interesting objects seen, and de- 
*cri>ieil them in print ' for the gratification of 
his family and friends.' When the French 
revolutionary wars put a stop to continental 
ttuv'!. Ill' made a tour, for artistic and ar- 
I purposes, tlirough Wales, taking 
' imbrensis as a guide, and follow- 

rough his 'Iter laboriosum.' Soon 
. - be made the tour of Moiimouth- 
•liir>' With Archdeacon Coxe, and contributed 
uxty-lhrw; drawings to his friend's descrip- 
tion of that county published in 1801. In 
1607 hr visited Ireland. 

■' next devoted himself, with extra- 

Mi, to the illustration of the his- 
iifiquities of his own county, and 
li>' 'Ancient History of North and 
.^.11,1. .i.lishire,' i! vols. London, 1812-21, 
with i*7 plates. Small-paper copies were 
puV.lished at 21/. anri large-paper copies at 
:'!.' 1U». The tirst volume of this splendid 
■A I, h \< (■•inrm. ,1 III .Sotith Wiltshire and to 
<\ iiii-ludes several plans 
iihenge. Of the second 
ich coniiuenccs with North W^ilt- 
1. is confined to the British era, 
uixl a lull account is given of the wonder- 
ful rirrle of A bury. Part ii. of the second 
■ '' ■•], ■ il! iMcd to the Roman period, 
,. : , , iN' survey is taken of aU the 

iwuiuau riudf .ind tesselated pavements in 

J the county. He chronicled the position and 
I contents of himdreds of barrows among the 
' Wiltshire hills, which he had explored with 
I the assistance of William Cunnington [q.v.l 
I Hoare, who was a fellow of the Hoval 
Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, 
Buffered greatly from rheumatic gout in the 
latter part of his life, and was deaf for some 
years. He continued, however, his anti- 
quarian pursuits and the improvement of his 
Sicfuresque demesne at Stourhead, where he 
led on 19 May 1838. His remains were de- 
posited in a mausoleum in Stourton church- 
yard. A cenotaph from the chisel of R. C. 
Lucas has Iwen erected to his memory in the 
north transept of Salisbury Cathedral. 

In consequence of the death of his. son, 
Henry Richard, on 19 Sept. IH.W, the baro- 
netcy devolved on his eldest half-brother, 
Henry Hugh Hoare, of Wavendon. Ihick- 
inghamshire, the head of the banking-house 
in Fleet Street. In 1825 Hoare presented 
to the British Museum a collection of btxiks 
on the history an<l topography of Italy, of 
which he printed a catalogue in 1812. 

The ' Historv of Modern Wiltshire,' which 
was left unfinished at the lime of Hoare 's 
death, now consists of fourteen parts, usually 
bound in six vols., 1822-44, folio, published 
at the price of 42/. It deals only with the 
southern portion of the county. In this 
branch of the work Hoare was associated 
with the Rev. John Offer and other coad- 
jutors, including Lord Arundell, Richard 
Ilarris, Henrv Wansey, Charles Bowles, Wil- 
liam Henry filack, George MatchBm,LL.D.. 
and Henry Hatcher. 

He wrote many works, most of which were 
printed for private circulation only, in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned. Tlie prin- 
cipal are; 1. ' Description of the House and 
Gardensat Stourhead, Wiltshire, with a Cata- 
logue of the Pictures," Salisbury, 1800, 12mo. 
2. ' Itinerarium Cambriic, seu lalioriosfe Bald- 
vini Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi per Wal- 
liam Legationis acciirata Descriptio, auctore 
Silv. Giraldo Camhreiise. Cum Annotationi- 
bus Davidis Poweli, S. T. P.,' London, 1804. 
3. ' The Itinerary of Archbish()p Baldwin 
through Wales, A.B. 1188, by Giraldus de 
Barri. translated into English, and illustrated 
with Views, Annotations, and a Lite of Gi- 
raldus,' 2 vols., London, 1806, 4to. A few 
separate copies of a portion of the second 
volume were reprinted under the title of 
' The Progress of Architecture from the time 
of William the Conqueror to the sixteenth 
century; illustrated by designs selected from 
examples in South Wales' [by John Carter, 
F.S.A.j A new edition of this tract was 
printed for sale in 1830. 4. ' Journal of a 




Tow in IrrUna, k.». \rO\,' L^Mkion, 1907, 
{fro. Atoorof iatcreu totke^eanmlnada; 
B8 wcU M lo tlw amammij. &. *A To« 
through the Ide of Eua. UlBStalnl bjr 
Me«« of the most mtcfeattaeSeeMrf, dnwa 
from Natnfe, far Sir B. C. Hoare awl Joha 
Smith,' hoodoo, I8I4, 4l<>. 8. 'Hiiiu to 
Travellen in Italv,' London, Idlo, 12iiio. 
7. 'A Oktalonie of Books rdatuff to tha 
History and Tonwra^f of EnclaBd, Wales, 
Scotland, and bdaBd. . .at StoariMad in 
Wilt>Jiinf,' London, 1815, 8yo. 8. 'Journal 
of the ShrieTalty of Richard Hoare, esq. 
[sheriff of London and Middlesex], in 1740-1, 
printed from s nunodcript in his own hand- 
writine,' Bath. 181.J, 4to. 9. ' Recollections 
Abroad ; Journals of Tours on the Continent 
between 1785 and 1791,'4 vols.. Bath. 1817. 
8ro. 10. 'AClaMical Tour thr • ■•■ '- !r 
aadSiciljitendingtoillustrateso > 

which hare not beendescribedby .\i.. ...^■,.-*.«; 
in his Classical Tour,' liOndon, 1819, 4to; 
2 vols., London, 1819, r<MO. 11. 'Pedigrees 
and Memoirs of the Families of Hore, of Rish- 
ford. com. Devon; Hoare, of Walton, com. 
HiicW" ; Hoare, of London, com. Middlesex; 
HiiHiv, of Mitcham, com. Surrey; Hoare, of 
Stourton, com. Wilts : Hoare, oi" Bam- Elms, 
com. Surrey; Hoare.ofBoreham, com. Essex,' 
1S19, 4to, with nine portraits. I'J. ' Monas- 
ticon Wiltiuiense: containing a List of the 
Religions Houses in North and South Wilt- 
shire; ivimpiled chiefly from Hishop Tanner's 
Notitia .Monastit-a,' .Shaftesbury, 1821, fol. 
13. ' flunjferforJiana; or, Memoirs of the 
Family nf Hiingerford,' 1823, Svo. 14. ' Mo- 
nastic Ilemains of the Htligious Houses at 
Witlmm, Brutou, and Stavordale, com. So- 
raersrt.' Fromc, 1H24, 4to. 15. 'Registrum 
Wiltunense.Saxonicumet Latinum.inMiiseo 
Britunnico asw-rvut um, ab anno Regis .\lfredi 
802, ad annum regis Edwardi 1045. Nunc 
demumn'itisilhistraverunt J.Ingram,S..\.S., 
Sharon Turner, S.A.S.,T. D. Fo»broke,S.A.S., 
Thoma* fhilllpps, Bart., S..\.S., Richard 
Hoare, Bart.., S.A.S. Sumptibiw R.C. Iloare. 
Typis Nieholsianig, lOOexomplaria Impressa,' 
Loudon, 1827, fol. 16. ' Treatise on the 
antieiil Roman Tnwn of (.'amulcxlunum, now 
Colrliesti'r, in Essex,' Shnfte.sbury, 1827, 8vo. 
In BiKWiT tothe Rev.JohnSkinner.who fixed 
tlint Roman station nt Oamerton, Somerset- 
shire. I". ' Tumuli "Wiltunenses; a (iuide 
to the Barrows on the Plains of Slonehnngc,' 
SliitOesbury, 1829, 8vo. 18. 'Tlie Pitney 
Pavmiiiinls, discovered by Samuel llasell, 
esq,, of Littleton, A.n. 1828, and illustrated, 
with his Notes, bv Sir R. C. Hoare,' Frome, 
IK:i1,8vo, reprinted forsale in 1832. l9.'Cata- 
logup of the Hoare Library at Stourhead, 
'•<>. Wilts, Til which are added, An Account 

aftkm XaseoBi of British Antkjuii tea, a Cata- 
logaa of the Paiatini and Onwingsi, and a 
DBtenption of the Mawinn,' Londott, 1&40, 
8to, fo. 78a PHTUely nraited. Edited by 
J.a>iehalsL At ope 548,644 » an account 
ot the mmmavm luge dnwings made by 
Hoare on the eaatiaent. They number in 
an abo«t nine hiiuJiwl dnwiiigs either by 
kii ova haads or copied by superior artt*ts 
from Ua rfMchea, and they are wonderful 
ptoo* of hie taste and penevennce. The 
'ChnMiiooa Viloduaeaae : sive de Vita et 
Miracnlis Snnctje Ediths R^is Edeari filiie 
carmen vetus Aofilicum ' was first published 
and edited by William Henrv Black [q. v.] 
at Hoare's eipense, London, 1830, foL" One 
hundred copies printed. 

An engraring by H. Meyer of his portrait, 
painted by H. Edridge. .A..R.A.. is in the 
• PedigTw!« of the Families of Hoare,' and in 
vol. i. of the • History of Modem Wiltahii*.' 

[.\atobio^. sketch printed by J. B. Nichols in 
the Cut. of the How Library; Gent. Mag. 183S, 
ii. 96, S46 ; Edinb. R»t. viii. 399 ; Eclectic Kev.' 
xiir. 105 ; Mutin's Privately Print«i Books, 
Sod edit. ; Lowndes's BibL Man. (Boho), pp. 896, 
1076; Quart. Rev. v. 440, ciii. 108-11 ; 
Biog. Diet, of Living Anthors, p. 1.58; Upcotts 
English Topog. iii.809. 1286, 1314 : Handb-iok 
to Salisbury Cathedral ( 1 8.W). p. 28 ; Hoare' 
PedigTe«aand Memoirs uf the Families of Hi 
p. 16 ; Anderson's Brit. Topog. p. 287 ; Walcott' 
Memorials of ^isbury, p. 33.] T. C. 

HOARE, WTLLIA.M (1707?-1792>, 
known as ' Hoare of Bath,' portrait-painter, 
was bom, according to his son's account, 
about 1707 at Eye in Sufl"olk, but more pro- 
bably, as his name does not occur in the 
church register of that place, in some neigh- 
bouring parish. His father was a prosperous 
farmer, and he received an excellent educa- 
tion at a school of some repute at Faring- 
don in Berkshire, where he developed so 
great a talent for drawing that he was al- 
lowed to adopt art as a profession. He was 
placed under Grisoni, an Italian artist then 
resident in London, at whose suggestion he 
proceeded to Rome to complete his studies. 
He is said to have been the first English artist 
who visited Rome for this purpose. There he 
lodged with Scheemakers the sculptor, and 
his mipil Delvaux, whose acquaintance he ha<l 
made in England, and entered the school 
of Francesco Femandi, called ' d'lmperiali," 
an historical painter. Pompeo Batoni, with 
whom he formed a lifelong friendship, was his 
' fellow-pupil. His father was ruined by the 
I .South .>fB scheme, and young Honresoon 
I found himself thrown on his own resources. 
To maintain himself he made cnpies of famous 
^ masterpieces, which he executed skilfully, 

Ib-Mk I 




they sold readily. After a sojourn of 
Be yeius in Itnly, he estnbliiihed himself in 
London, hoping to obtain employment as a 
{Mtiuter of historical subjects, but, failing in 
thia, he turned to portrait-painting, and mot 
with much success. On his marriage with a 
Muw Barker, -whose family was connected 
with Bath, he removed to that city, and re- 
mained there till his death. Hoare soon ob- 
tained a large and lucrative practice ; for 
many years he was without a rival, and most 
of tfie distinguished persons who uniiually 
visited Bath sat to him ; among them was 
the elder I'itt, who presented hi.^ portrait to 
Lord Temple in 1764, and wrote in high 
terms of the artist's powers. He seems to 
have been specially patronised by the mem- 
bf r» of the Pelham family, whose portraits he 
frwjuently painted. At on early period Hoare 
practised crayon drawing. Bu->alba Carriera 
had made the art popiilar.and Hoare obtained 
from her two examples of her work, in order 
to master the technique of the method. His 
crayon portraits are very numerous, and per- 
" apsmore highly esteemed than his works in 
il. In I74V» he made a tour through France 
ltd the Netherlands for purposes of study. 
^ertue mentions that he came to Ixindon in 
752 to execute some commissions, but he does 
Dt seem to have staved long. Hoare e.xhi- 
ed occasionally witli the Society of Artists 
I the Free Swiefy, and was one of the com- 
' of artists who made the abortive at- 
npt to i«»tablishan academy in 1755. On 
« roundaf innof the Royal Academy in 1768, 
loare wils chosen one of the original mera- 
ers, his diploma l;eing the lost signed by the 
Bg, ond he was a frequent contributor to 
eshibilions up to 1783, sending chieilj' 
Drka in crayons. At Both Hoare painted 
few religious subjects. He pre.sented a 
•rge picture of the Saviour to St. Michael's 
Church, and for the Octagon Chapel, built 
, I7H7, executed an altar-piece representing 
' Pool of Bethesda.' 'these were ambi- 
» compositions in the style of his master 
Bperiali, but possessed little merit. The 
Kt-nameil is now in the vestry of St. ' 
Itchael's, the second remains ' in situ.' In 
be Bath Oeneral Hospital is a work of a | 
'ffereni class, ' Dr. Oliver and Mr. Pierce i 
aining patients aHlicted with paralysis, I 
tism, and leprosy,' 1742. I 

was a man of scholarly tastes, and I 
, thx personal friendship of many of | 
jneut sitters. He wiis a con.<itant vi- 
IVior Park, the seat of Ralph Allen I 
where he met Pope and other men of | 
era. He died at Bath in December 1792. 
Bach Abbey is a mural tablet to Hoare's 
wiih a medallion of him. He bad i 


a numerous family ; one son, Prince [q. y.l, 
was the well-known artist and dramatist, ana 
a daughter. Mnrj', married Henry Hoare, 
brother of SirlUchard Hoare,bart.,of Stour- 
head. Another daughter exhibited pictures 
with the Society of Artists and the Free So- 
ciety between 1761 and 17H4. lie had a 
brother who practised as a sculptor at Bath, 
and executed the statue of ' Beau ' Nash in 
the Pump Room. 

The corporation of Bath possesses portraits 
by Hoareof the Earl of Chatham, Cliristopher 
Anstey, ' Beau ' Nash (engraved for his ' Life,' 
17ti2), Samuel Derrick, and Governor Pow- 
nall ; in the National Portrait Gallery are 
those of Tjord Chesterfield, the Duke of New- 
castle, Henry Pelimm, Lord Temple, and Pope, 
all in crayons, and u whole length of the Duke 
of Grafton in oils. His portraits are solidly 
painted, natural in attitude, and full of cha- 
racter ; those in crayons are fine and har- 
monious in colouring; many of theoi have 
been engraved by Faber, Houston, McAr- 
dell, Dixon, and others. He etched heads of 
Charles, fourth duke of Beaufort, Bishop 
Warburton, Sir Isaac Newton, Ralph Allen, 
and Peter Stephens, together with Reynolds's 
profile portrait of the Countess Waldegrave. 
A portrait of Hoare, painted by his son, has 
been engraved by S. W. Reynolds, and he ap- 
pears in Zoftany's picture of the ' Ijfe School 
of the Royal Academy,' engraved by Eariom. 

[Chalmers's Biog. Diet. (materiuU snpplieti by 
Pnnce Iloare) ; Mwards's Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Pye'a Patronage of Bri- 
tish Art, 184fi: Grerivllle Correspondence, ed. 
W. J. Smith, 1862 ; Vertue's M.S. Collections, 
Brit. Mus.; Dodil's nianusrript memoirs of Eng- 
lish Enenivern, Brit. Mas.] F. M. O'D. 

1888), divine, born on 31 Oct. 1^09, was 
second son of William Henry Hoare (1776- 
1819) of Broomtield House, Bottersea, Sur- 
rey, by I.,oui8u Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Gerard Noel Noel, hart., of Exton, Rutland- 
shire (Edward llo\Rti,Pi;dii/rref)/IIoremiil 
Hoare, p. 49). He graduated B.A, in 1831 
as a member of St.. John's College, Cambridge, 
waa a wrangler, obtaineil a lirst in the 
classical tripos, and was hrncketed with Dean 
Blakesley for the chancellor's medals. In 
1833 he was elected fellow of his college, and 
jiroceeded M.A. in 18.'34. He became in 1K41 
curate of All Saints, Southampton, but ill- 
health prevented him from accepting any of 
the livings which were offered to him. lie 
devoted himself to study, became a good 
Hebrew scholar, and took part in the Colenso 
controversy. Subsequently he acted for some 





time a^ commissary to the Bishop of New- 
cttstlf, New South Wales, wiis Jioceson in- 
spector of the dioct'w of Chichester, and the 
founder luid secretary of the Worth Clericftl 
Association. He died on -22 Feb. 1888 at 
Oakfield, Crawley, Sussex, which he had 
purchu!>ed, and wliere he lived after 184s, 
and wo.s buried on the 29th in Worth church- 
yard ( flunrdinn, 7 March 1888, p. 3;16). By 
Lis marriage on 17 July 1834 to Arnminta 
Anne, thinl daughter of Lieutenant-general 
Sir John Flamilton, bart., K.T.S. [q. v.], he 
had three sons and one daughter. 

Hoare was author of: 1. ' Harmony of the 
Apocalypse with the Prophecie.s of Holy 
Scriptun'. with Notes,' 8vo, London, 1848. 
i. Tliree pamphlets, rei«sued together in 1850 
with the general title of ' Present Position 
of the Church,' &c. 3, 'Outlines of Eccle- 
sia-stical History before the Iteformation,' 
ISmo, London, 18/)2; 2nd edit. lHii7. 4. 'The 
Veracity of the Book of (ienesls, with the 
Life and Character of the inspired Historian 
(with au appendix by Dr. Kurtz),' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 18tj0. 5. ' Letter to Hisliop ('olenso, 
wherein his objections to the Pentateuch are 
examined in detail,' 8vo, I^ondon, 1863; 4th 
edit, same year, printed with the 2nd edit, 
of the tn-atise which follows. 6. 'The Age 
and Authorship of tlie Pentateuch con.sidered: 
in further reply to Bishop Colenso; part II.,' 
8vo, London, 1863. 

[Times. 25 Feb. 1888, p. 7 ; Crockford's Cle- 
rical Directory, 1888, p. 805; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

0. G. 

HOBART, (JEOROE, third Earl of 
Bii:kinoila}|shire( 1732-1 804 ),eldeHt son of 
John, first earl [q. v.], by his second wife, 
Elizabeth Bristow, was bom in 1732, and 
became a king's scholar at Westminster in 
1746. In 1754 he was elected member of 
parliament for St. Ives, and in 17(S1, 1768, 
and 1774 for Beeralston. Hobart was fond 
of dramatic entertainments, and for a time 
was a manager of the o|>era in London. He 
was made in 1 ^i^^i secretary to the embassy 
at St. Petersburg, where his half-brother 
John, second earl of Buckinghamshire, was 
ambassador. On 3 .•Vug. 1793 he succeeded 
as third eurl. In 1797 he became colonel 
of the 3rd regiment nf Lincolnshire militia, 
and in 1799 colonel in the army. He died 
on 14 Nov. 1804, at Nocton in Lincolnshire, 
and was buried in the family vault there. 
Hobart married on 22 May 1757 Albinia {d. 
1816), eldest daughter of Lord Vere Bertie, 
granclduughter of Robert, first duke of .\n- 
CBSter, by whom he had four sons and four 
daughters. < )f the sons, the eldest is sepa- 
rately noticed [see Hobart, Hqbekt, fourth 

Earl of BucKiNoiiAMsniRii] ; Cicorge Vere 
(1761-1802) was for some time governor of 
(irenada ; Charles, a lieutenant in the navy, 
was killed in 1782 in the action with the 
Coratede Grasse ; and Henry Lewi8(<2. 1846) 
became dean of Windsor in 1816. 

[Cient. Mng. 1804, ii. 1170. 1793, ii. 868; 
Doyle's OSic. Baronage, i. 373 ; Burke's Paara^ ; 
Welch's List of the Queen's Scholars of. . . 
Westminster, pp. 337 sqq. ; Lo Nere's Fasti, 
iii. 337.] W.A.J. A. 

HOBAKT, Sir HENRY {d. 1625), chief 
justice of the common pleas, of a family long 
settled in Norfolk and Suffolk, was great- 
grandson of Sir James Hobart [q. v.], attorney- 
general to Henry VII, and son of Thomas 
Hobart of Plumstead, Norfolk, by .\udrey, 
daughter of William Hare of lit>eston, Nor- 
folk. He was admitted a membt^r of Lin- 
coln's Inn 10 Aug. 1675, and called to the bar 
24 June l,'j84; ho became a governor of the 
inn in 1591, and Lent reader in litOl and 
1003 (Black Book, v. 19{l, 359). He repre- 
sented St. Ives, Cornwall, in parliament in 
1588 and 1589, Yarmouth in 1597 and 1601, 
and Norwich from ltX)4 to l<i]0 { ^ff)H/>frs 0/ 
Pnrlianu-nt, Officiiil Rrtunu, i. 422, 434, 4M, 
414). In 1595 be was steward of Norwich. 
In Febnuiry 1603 with ten others he was 
made a aerjeant-at-law, and was knighted on 
the accession of James 1. On 2 Nov. 1605 
he received a relea«e firnm his office of ser- 
jeant-at-law, and next day was granted the 
attorney-generalship of the court of wards 
and liveries for life. He became attorney- 
general 4 July Ui06, and continued in that 
office, barring Bacon's way to promotion, for 
I seven years, to Bacon's intense annoyance. 
He was also chancellor to Henry, prince of 
Wales. He appeared for the plaintiffs in 
the case of the Post-nati (Stnti' TriaU, ii. 
009), and conducted the proceedings against 
Dr. Cowell's ' Interpreter ' (Pari. Hint. ii. 
1 124). In May 161 1 he was created a baronet. 
In 1613 ho appeared against James WTiit«- 
locke,when Whitelocke was summoned before 
the council for contempt in giving an opinion 
on the niivy commission. On the death of 
Sir Thomas Fleming, Oike was removed from 
the chief justiceship of the common picas to 
thiit of ihi' king's bench, and Hobart was 
appointed chief justice of the common plean, 
26 Nov. 1613. tn 1617 he became chancellor 
and keeper of the great seal to Charles, prince 
of Wales, in succession to Bacon, and accord- 
ingly on 29 March he was discharged from so 
much of his oath of office as chief justice as 
prevented him fmm taking any fees except 
Irom the king. The Lord-chancellor Egerton 
being then ill, he, with bacon and the Bishop 




of Winchester, was considered a poaeible suc- 
ceaeorKiRcaK, Cat. State Papers, uomAti^'). 
Tliis w»B again the case on Bacon's disgrace 
in 1021 (mcKBT, IJMop mUianu, p. -201). 
Hobart protested against the outrageous 
sentence whicli Coke proposed to inflict ou 
the Earl of Suflolk in 1619, and carried the 
majority of the court with him. In Novem- I 
ber 1019 a petition of the justices of Norfolk 
against permitting the imi)ort of foreign grain 
until the price of corn, then much depressed by 
too plentiful harvests, should have risen again, 
was referred to him andthe chief iuaticeof the 
king's bench, and they advised that the peti- ' 
tion should be granted. He was j udge of assize 
in Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Northampton- 
shire, Nottinghamshire, and Warwickshire 
in the spring of 1620, and made inquiries of 
the various justices about the necessity of 
providing local magazines for the storagt- of 
corn, ree»>iving aiiverse replies in every case. 
()n 5 June 1624 he was appointed a commis- 
sioner to mediate with the creditors of poor 
prisfiners for debt owing less than 2()()/. in 
»iid near London, except those in the King's 
Bench and Heet prisons, who had been other- 
wise provided for. In September of that 
Tear he was joined as a law-assessor with the 
privy council in committee upon the Am- 
bijyna business. His patent was renewed 
on Charles's accession, but he died at his 
boiuio at Dlickling in Norfolk, 26 Dec. 1625. 
lie was a very modest and learned lawyer, 
•nd OS a judge escaped the charge of subser- 
▼iency to the crown. He was ' a great loss 
to the public weal,' says Spelman ; and Croke ' 
< Revorlt, temp. Car. 2ft) calls him ' a most 
iirudeut, grave, and religious judge.' 
• wever, accuses him of falsely aft'ect- 
ui;.' 111! iiuiicy with great persons (Bacon, ii/i? 
ami I^ttrrn, Ellis and .Spedding, iv. 93). 

A volume ofHobart's reports was published 
in quarto in ItUl, and subsequent editions 
appeared in 1650, 1671, 167.S, und 1724. 

Hobart married Dorothv, daughter of Sir 
n.,l..ri Bell of Beaupr/; Hall. Norfolk, lord 
in under Elizabeth, by whom he had 
liildren, twelve sons and four daugh- 
ters. From him descended John Hobart, first 
e»rl of Buckinghamshire q. v.] , 

A portrait of Hobart in liis judge's robes, 
bv C. Janxen, is in the ptMscssion of Viscount 
I*<>Wfr>ti"Ourt [Cat. Tudor Kvhihitian, 1890, 
p. 1 10 1. Another, either bv Mytens or Van 
noisur, was presented by Serjeants' Inn in 
1877 to the National Portrait Gallery. I 

'- Judges; Blomefield's Nur- 

^ Orig. pp. 254, 262; Green's 

■ *. U'lm.. Oaidiner's Hist. Engl. ; 

, Modern Reports, vol. v. pref.l 

J. A. H. 



HOBAKT, Sir JAMES (rf. 1507), at- 
torney-general, the voungest son of Thomas 
Hobart of Leyham in Norfolk, was entered 
at Lincoln's Inn early in the reign of Ed- 
ward IV. He is fre<niently referretl to in 
the Paston letters. John I'aston was his 
intimate friend, and several times consulted 
him, and he was apparently employed in 
some legal cajMicity bv John Mowbray, duke 
of NorfoUf {Paston Letter*, ed. (lairdner, ii. 
344, 368, 378, iii. 110, 140, 164, 220,243, 
338). In 1479 he was elected Lent reader 
at his inn. Probably he is the James Hoberd 
who represented Ipswich in parliament in 
1467 and 1478. On 1 Nov. 1480 he was 
appointed attorney-general by Henry VII, 
and afterwards sworn of the privy council. 
In the same year he was appointed one of 
the commissioners to take Calais into the 
hands of the king, and inquire into the pos- 
sessions of the crown there {Mat. Hist. 
Henry VII, i. 34)6). In April 1487 he was 
a commissioner of array for Norfolk, and in 
September was appointed with others to 
superintend the east coast fisheries (I'A. "li. 
135, 193). In this year there was also a 
grant made for the repair of Yarmouth har- 
bour under his supervision {ib. ii. 218). In 
1489 he was on the commission of peace and 
oyer and terminer for Suffolk, and the com- 
mission of gaol-delivery for Ipswich and 
Norwich (ih. ii. 479, 482). In August 1501 
he was appointed to try a suit at York, when 
he is styled seijeant (Plumvtun Correspond'- 
ence, p. 1 61 , Camden Soc.) lie was knighted 
at the creation of Henry, prince of ^^■ale8, on 
18 Feb. 1502-3. He continued in his office 
until his death in 1507. According to some 
authorities he was buried in Norwich Cathe- 
dral. His first wife was a sister of John 
Lyhert; his third, Margaret, daughter ol 
Peter Naunton of Letheringham, Suffolk, 
wlio predeceased him in 1494. He bought 
and resided at Hales Hall in Norfolk. Sir 
Henry Holmrt [q. v.], the chief justice, was 
his great-grandson. The name is also spelt 
Hoberd and Hubbard. 

[AuthoritiMi quoted ; Materials for Historj 
of Henry VU, Rolls Serin ; Dugdale'a Orig. 
p. 249 ; Chronica Series, p. 75 ; Blomefield's 
Hist, of Norfolk, iv. 25; CoUins's Peerage, iv. 
362.] J. W-<.. 

HOBART, JOHN, first EiKL ok Bdok- 
ISOHAMSHIBK (1694 ?-17.56),son of Sir Henry 
Hobart, fourth baronet, who was killed in a 
duel early in 1699, was in his fifth year at 
the time of his father's death. He was edu- 
cated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and was M.P. 
for St. Ives, Cornwall, in 1715 and from 
1722 to 1727, and for Norfolk from 1727 to 
1728. In 1721 he was a commissioner for 

lloKut ji Hobart 

tvmli'nii'l )••■'»'■«<'•"" ''" '" •'""•■ 1 "'■-•'' !•.<' »iil«Hl at the RuKun coart antil JaanirT 

wiia I ifiiu.l « liii«..:lii ••! til.- Ii.iili V; sl-.o I rtCi. wWn he resigned hu pi-)ec ud retonui 

(It t'toaiott .•! li.'.'if II '•'■ » '» '"■•'•■-•'•I- '■!" ••■> Kn^litiul in the foUoirinf Xaxeh. Two 

ill.' .Iiiiiiil'.!. •<"••' ill- i.'ii..«iii.; f.Mi , ■•» M.<< I-<n:v tolio volumes, contaiiiinz copiM of Iet> 

I; '■i)n.i>.i«-.ii,.l ll.ii.'ii II..Imii .m IJ: .i':-.;. !i»r>. ttUin>iiville, Ix>rd Haliftxland tiw Eul 

N»ll.>ll> Oil '1 •■•11 I ■ '" |i' !i.- « l« -l.-lll:- .'t'Sittulwii-ll fmm ltiio1f;iiyt<«m»l|;T»wti;i«l» 1,11,1 li. 111. "■>"i ■•< N."i-"i» •'•< «:«« « »-'' :>mlvi.-t8ad»r at St. Pet^nboig. ue p»- 

»\\iiiii kI ill.' l•ll^« ...1111.'! .." .'• 'in I "i» -■ »'<°«i<>i by iheMarqui^ofLothianatBIiekuv 

I >i> .1 .'ii'in I lull.' « IS. 1.11.. i li:; .•! H.:,-x U ill. Norfolk. These letteis. the dates (^«ui9liii. >'ii,- .-1 ill.- ..:•.■' i M r..u-»-.-v «;-.'.H raii^> from 24 Sept. 17d2 ro li Jul 

liiitiisliii. n4^U.-iiii.-ii • iiKin «i,ii»'-vv ". '(■>\ throw considerable light apon thepoli- 

■ii ^iiOiilK ,-,■ U.'« M.p lli.M,-.fn r*'-- ' .':>i iiiiii -^ vial intrigues M the cooR oiCk. 

isi\,i«i Willi wlu.ii i't,- «<= n'.-H-,V .1 '•» '''''">' 11, and its relations niththisooaiitir 


v^ ,V .' W,<iS. Comm. let Rep. App. p. 14i. I> 
% y .-N-r I Titti ItuckinKhamshiie refused Lord 

*<,-.iii;%- W f ~in>|,.-!. .1 <i 

,1,11 i(» .ill,', I ..11 !i. 1 l'i,.i;-,i . '-ii- .i --.■■ :•• >V .-'.vr ir«i»illuckin({h 

li.iii.'iii ^«'i>M .' , - -^ V "i . . "■■•' ^ '.''.-'^nxo'snHiuost that he would uadertiks 

Jill, Vi»\..!iaiii-!. ,.!.,! -11 ■"» .. •. V-. '■'< * «•■■ ^^:t>, :..Sj>aiu(frrenwV/<l\q»«r»,18.ia,in. 

|i,uii.ii» «.i- |,...'.i..-.! '.•» t''.,5..«. n ..^ -:• •■>■'*■ 1:*. -^-f-.toof the king'sresolntioB'notto 

»>,i.\.iu!nui~;..u i.'i ! -^ •. "" ^-^^r •■''■■■•M\Uift.MSS.Comin.lOthlief. 

.lii.l.ili .l...ij,;.i. . .■! K-;-.-!! !'• ' •■ :s...,— « VjV- »■ r l"'*- lUickinghanishire was ip- 

<li..-.i>. .11 \.. ..''.Ik •!..•.•..,! t.'.:' "■ :■>' -'.--' '-v>I:outen»ntofIrelandintheplMe 

,.v...i;\ .1, '. ■> |.....',..:i ".J.-ts- • ■■ ^ •'.••••. I'.Arl Harcourt [q. T.l, on 18 Dee. 

li. .>;,•« <.■.;.-.-. V. -.-.■'. ■■\'- '.• --.-■•ti... ■\*".v»-T'.\«\l at Dublin on & Jan. 1777. 
>......•...-.. J- '.<.:.:. .,..'. , .. '.s '..'« ■ «-■.• ■' • "\ '""^wnivaltT free trade wasgiantcd 

iv...'..s,i Jl,-'.,... ,. \ - . .' ■■ ■.•v'.t",-. snJ a Aoman Catholic Relief 

i-iv ...,'........•, ...v '.wi... .',..' '-• ' >^ «-'" AS a bill for relieving Irish di>- 

,' ., ;•... .. . , ' ., .V. >•■ ■• ■•^•■•■•n'. t'-.i-Maonunentaltest.paMed. He 

V-L. .".•.■..-.<>. .vi -.''s '». . > ■"■■■^•" •■•.■-:«:•■.,: rse of the volunteer move- 

i". . .o.v,.. : ^ :i ». . . V .. • . ■" '"--^vti-nt dismay, and it waa onlv 

i" « " - ■>» ■ ■■' » .•• '.".•o miwt dagrant and lavish 

HOHAKl" \<V,\ 1.^.' .. ^l^ .' ■• "v ■. I v.. ns.< able to pus the Perpetual 

V«. . v.\. :. »v»-. .5,; ^. ■• . -•>■- V ■■» S. ■; U*\-.n<; 'lo$t the countenance 

•...•.■.i.-..". ,-.. '..•.. t . .-.v. .-.>.■ .-'V- 0,->.-;—.>!i*tfvvunt of your address 

TO.:...: ;i.,-i. »:»..>.. v .,..>■ - , ••-■ « .—.r s'.vrt money bill, and, above 

».;-.. «j.> ...... . \.. ;; »,. »' -•<•••«■-■• .•vh<>*rmedsocietiea,andthe 

- U.-.;*"»..'t ISrliament' (Gbat^ 
.... .-._ .' V Mutm^ BiU, tcith 

• « ■.. '•■/-.»■ HuekmffAamtkirt't 

' .. » .'■»•.■-•«»£■. Aid edit. 1781, p. 

-^v-.«'".x'.. ar-.d was succeeded by 

» ■••• «ak* *woni in on 23 I)et 

•v. \- ■v.'»7';:T'.a:to[rf>rdGeorBe 

= Vlo ' 'S^VsayfchatLordBucE- 

n::.'.-. S" 1 .1'W U'rd-Ueutensnt 

wvauievtions and hit 

bu: Mr. ConoUv and 

w . 

■.V»¥. >-> J. 


■ y. 

' -n-.II-itones about 

:•■. ■■•■.'.: - .• v.- ■ . . . I -, . V Sjk. .' m7». ^h Rep. App. 

.' .1-- *v- « *■, nw--' •■ * '. ^. . '.» ,.- V--' ;-M-n:fC*.'.Tv wjut anamiaDle 

- :•..- ■. .'.'.Nv.-v . , •.■ ■ •'■ ' .» • « ' -, -o.^ -i^ rE4:'r.rrrs and good 

V.I-' ■;'• .-4 , ■• 1 ■ ^ • ■ •'■••. ■•. -.Tio' y^ »■>•.".•? -jaed to call 

i". -I" • ■ .v-v *' -.-.^.i * I '■ -n- ■ " * , *• .. ■.;"■'• '.^.i • 'iii Clearvake; 

.•■■rjj •;,""'■' •<■ • ■■ 
*iiiii:r i;:'i z: 

■l . ■». *' 

■.■\ , ,(.' 

,"i'; 1 »♦ 


'.-•.•'iC-i :n a mo- 

Ui w»*i^uite 

.• •ficu.hws ot hi« 

Vj>. •■.- 1 

'. . . I'f.' 

1 ',.■. 


1 >-:rer written 


■ >^' ^.'s.- 

•■ Itf-X 


■u-vlz %i • a man 

\ '' .V ;. ■• 

.• '...» )», :i 

1 1'.' 


•C •*-:3.4T»ri«:tT 

' i *,. ■ v 

i.-^vii' I'l ". ■• 

■. '..! 


> -vvilu-v a-.-crh*." 

"'' V ■" 'n 

.■vv'".^' 'it-^ 

Ii.- <* 



!'.ill'.- ,••■•■. 

. >t -Uv u . . . 

,* '.'ii. 

•Miv i wcvv which 




WM opposed to his own judgawnt, aod in • 
JtU«T to Lord Geor)^ Ciennain dated 5 Febi 
^^^ complains of mi:«represeatations which 
Wmi injure<l him in ' I>ord North'* interior 
cabinet ' ( Hut. MSS. Cumm. 5*th Rep. AppL 
iii. p. 63). A number of his official letters 
written while be wa.') Iord-lieut«nsjit of Ire- 
land are printed in 'imt tan's ' Life ' (vols. L 
and ii.) ; and several letters written br him 
between 1777 and 17(*to Lord Georj^ Ger- 
main are in the po«»ession of Mr. Stopford 
Sackville of Drayton House, NortLamptoo- 
shire ( Hut. MSS. 0>mm.9th Kep. App. iii.pp. 
l,oH-07). Biickint^hamshirediedat Blickling 
Hall on 3 8«'pf. 1793, aged 70, and was suc- 
ceeded in the earldom bj his brother Creorge. 
iie married, first, on 14 Julvl/tJl, Mary Anne, 
daughter and heiresa of Sir Thomas Drury, 
bart., of Dverstone, Northamptonshire, by 
whom he had four daughter». llis first wife 
died on 30 Dec. 1789, and on 24 Sept. 1770 
he married, secondly, Caroline, daughter of 
William ConoUy of .Slmtton Hall, Stafford- 
shire (Ret/inter of Mntriaye* of St. Oforgf't, 
HanovtT Squarf, i. :.*01), by whom he had 
three sons, all of whom died in infancy, and 
one daughter, Kmily Anne, who, on 9 June 
1794,wa« married to the Hon. li-)l)ert Stewart, 
afterwards second marnuis of Londonderry, 
but better known as Viscount Castlereagh. 
Ilissecond wife died on :M Jan. 1617. Buck- 

f^mshire was elected F.S.A. on 1 April 
W. Until the creation of the marquisate 
Buckingimm in December 1784, he used 
ftlways to sign and call himself Buckingham, 
k practice which has be<.'n the souree of much 
confusion. Only two 8i)e«?ches of his are re- 
cordod in the volumes of ' Parliamentary His- 
tory ' (xviii. 45.V-6, 627). His correspondence 
with his aunt, Ilenrictta Howard [q. v.], 
eouoteas of Suilblk, i.s printed in the second 
volume of Lady Suffolk's 'Letters,' &c., 
18^. Portraits by Gainsborough of Buck- 
inghamshire anil his first wife were exhi- 
bited by the Marquis of Lothian at the 
Louii Collection of National Portraits in 18(57 
.Tie, No«. 706, 701 ). They were again 
' d at the winter exhibit ion at t he Koyal 
^^miKtay in 1887 (Catalogue, Nos. 150, 148), 
llfti have both boen engraved by Simmuns. A 
^■Million of Buckinghamshire, done by order 
WWMMiety of ladies when be was amba.v>ador 
at St. PeteBthiirg, was engraved by G uericiih- 
noff in 17iW I BuuMLET, p. .'J24). 

' ■enige, 1812, iv. 369-71 ; Doyle's 

Ofti .gc, 1880, i. 272; Lipsmjmb's 

Hi v|uilles of the County of Bnckin);- 

h» .'74.27(5-7; Blomefiild's Norfolk, 

IJiW, II •...f>. I*cky'» Hist, of Kngland, 1882, 
IT. ifiSli , Memoirs of Henry GrattJin by hi* 
MO. lM9, vols. i. il.; CorrespuDdenco of the 
Tot. XXTII. 

BisiK Btm.MiMBtttnlat4.ltH, nL L; Ho 
Walpote'* Mtmair at the Kagt at 0«icga UX. 
lMi,\». lM-13; GeaC Xa^ ITCI uxi.3M, 
17«S xxxiL rnt. S42. 1770 zl. 4W. I»3 voL 
IxiiL pt. ii. pp. M7-4. 1049, 1 794, toL Uiv. pL i. 
p. Sji. 1817 Tot. Isxxrii. pt. i. p. lU ; Alaaai 
WmUbml IS6S. p. 61a : Ofieia] BMnm of Lbls 
of JCcabersof ii. pp.99, 103. 114- 
Uayda's Beak of I>igtiitiea, 1851.] (i. F. B.B.' 

HOBART, Sim MILES ( d. 1633), poli- 
tician, was the soo of Miles Hobart of Lon- 
don, by his third wife, Elizabeth, and was de- 
scended from William, brother of Sir James 
Hobart [q. T.~ He appears to have been 
knighted' at Salisbury on 8 Aug. 1U23 (Meti- 
CALlx, Book ofKi>igkt»,f. 181 1. In the par- 
liament of 1027-8 he was retume<l for Great 
Marlow, Buckinghamshire. During the me- 
morable debate of 2 March 1628-9 Hobart, to 
prevent the more timid members from leaving 
' the house, locked the door and pocketed tha 
I key. For this he was arretted and examined 
I before the council. He refused to give an ac- 
I countof his actions in parliament as being con- 
trary to precedent, but did not deny having 
locked the door. On 2 .\pril 1029 he wa* sent, 
probably from the Gatehouse, close prisoner 
! to the King's Bench, with four other mem- 
bers. Each sued out a writ of habeas corpus 
I (6 May). < >n o June application for bail was 
I made to the court of king's bench, and the 
judges, who were willing to grant the request 
in spite of the king's oppo-iition, were readjr 
to give judgment on 23 June. But on 22 June 
Hobart, like other of the prisoners, had been 
suddenly removed, under a warrant signed by 
the king, from the King's Bench to the Tower. 
The keeper of the former prison was there- 
fore unable to produce his prisoners on tb« 
23rd, and on the 24th Sir .\lleu .^psley [q. v.], 
the lieutenant of tlie Tower, was directed by 
the crown not to produce them on any ac- 
count. On 26 June the term ended, anil the 
ease was postponed till after the long vaca- 
tion. In the following term it was agreed 
that the prisoners might be discharged upon 
bail, provided thev also found sureties for 
good behaviour. This they unanimously re- 
fused to do. In the meantime the king pro- 
ceeded against them in the Star-chamber, but 
eventually took nofurtheraction. In Michuel- 
mas term 1629 Hobart vainly applied to the 
court of king's bench for some allevialioii of 
the harshness of his imprisonmi'ut. Twoyeani 
afterwards, in a time of plague, Hobart, 
having at length consented to give the re- 
quired sureties, was discharged. He was 
killed on 29 .Tune ltl32 by the overturning of 
his coach, and was buried on 4 July attiruat 
Marlow. On 18 Jan. UU6 7 parliament vottd 
oOUf. to erect a monument tu his mumory 



lOwMMr^ IBiwy. Tii. :«. M. »« OnK. 
«MH»a »». i. *»-*. H*H«.«. «:-M. a^- 

SS3: Barii^ ^•••^C' * V*****^"'"**'*^" 
WKM^H mmIm fiir llila B*h«t « «M aT air 
ll««rt>l.>Urt U »1 1 •••• 

HORART, KCklUSKT. LMt» n mm m . 

iai«V »4JMt ■»* «f O ww u s i^i}4 mH of Uthm 
■I WMflmiMlw ScbooL 


■•Mar Ami (rajNl 

•trrad intlw A«M«i 

of ouMm M AMi Ikwi mmmM SS'i^X 

1778, Mia «M m^ n l&k mV i n l «! 

«r SMiurf. I wi Wm iMM T rf lMlnd» a 
ITM. m4 i» ItMliMO 11 1 k Omm 

«lMl^ tf.P.lir hMtutw«K« Md «» Ar- 
■MWti in Uw Imk ytriiMMM ii 1T97 «M 
17W T<MMe«iT«lT. M*i ht I k Mi W w4 LiM> 
Mb w Um Bi^ik fuKwMNBt » ir^ Ml 
ITWX. Hal W> »wia»< tyrfly i» ln>>»Wl mJ 
«lmMlik*i«MiMrf)MMt mW 
taiWM. Qatar ■| ie>ti Mir »*iMy>«. 

mM Uw ateNiM* of rikMt;. 

In 17W awl 178» W mm4 M teifMWr «t 
nvrmUMtialr»k»A,aadhnW lal lw y iMm 
OMdMl WdliaM ttttk at waNttiT «• IMk- 
iafluMB. Ui* ha«14M«MMM, aa4 ««• afadU 
aa Irak ftirr cwmmUov. OMtnrr ta tlM 
MMalcwaiNB. a« eoaliaaad lokoU Ika aiciv* 
tatraluB aai)«r BaoUacUM'^ m tw a aa r . Joka 
ITkna. taaik tari oTWai M w rtw JI [«j. t] 
Hobart «rM • naa of aKvatWat araaaer*, 
wkieh fMKlMvd kirn VJ"^ ot^ ^t^ ^ 
{K«liti<«l oppMM^u. «• i»M aot wUWmm 
»biluy, l>ut his vWwawiw aamMc, aaJ kb 
inrtu.<n.v -m IriiU aSum at • tvtt crtlica) 
]if riiw) w»4 >'\". n-owly ■uackk'TvMU. 1I» look 
k iir\miin.>nt i'»'t in th« dtfbalM ia lh# l»isk 
i; llo wa« MioaRly o^ 

Y >n of poUti«al powr 

111 tht> Uoui«i> o»!Uv>lu-., im>> «lhl hi* uUaoM 
to fnwtraU' tW lilrol ^jiJipv of l*itt a».l 
Duadaib Ho g«v<> a fwblo kiuI rvlurUot 
•aaporl to tlu< »li^'hc ui^«.«urt> of tooial n^- 
liof introtliutsl hv Sir llcreulw LaB|iti*k« 

[q. v.] in ITV*;^. but bo joined WmImot- 
Kml knj Kitijihbon in trrinjr to tvndM fU»- 
lliiT o«uct>!w«"rt iim>*«.*»Wo »«J in »^'•lu<tn;^ 
an anu-oatholio nentimpnt in the ivuntry. 
Hi* aoUvaa w«t« probably qvitio !iiiutM<n>, but 
it WM iCMwlr decoBt, and wrtaiaK wmriM 

Jo entrust him with 
It of the KeUef BiU of 17 
Itke measure with ill-oonceoli 
tAwards it, and he was largely 
Cor it< fikilure to satisfy the a^pii 
ltd iW catholics and for the evLU t' 
tfcwiifiiiiii Consequent on the 
af Lord Wwtaorland in the autumn of 1 7i 
Uabazt (hnrtke d«ath of his uncle now 
H-okartt waigac d his socretarysbip. He 

_ aa ui^ish privy eoimcillor 1 Mi 
ITM^ aad ia th« following October was a]^ 
faiMad gMMuur of the presidency of MadraSi 
aiilkaanviMcaalaaeeession to the govemor- 
faaaMikif of India. 

Blkait azriTed at Madras in the summer 
ITt^aadaanuaily conducted an expeditioi 
•■llMI Tfalanca. which resulted in the de- 
laftkeDutchsettlementd there. lit 
; attitade. hnwerer, soon brougl 
iwith the governor-gene 
Sir Joka ShoM^ afterwards Lord Teignmout 
TW ibftttt was due mainly to the cmbai 
laaMlif aMfe* of affairs in iho Camatic and 
T kuj wavkt it was intensified by the fad 
ikak Um kaad of tke supreme government 
«aa Jlfcriw IB pezaonal rank to the head of 
iha aakarfiaate government. Shortly after 
Hokait^ amTal. Mohammed Ali, nabob of 
tka Ouaaftic, died, and his death seemed in 
HokaiO* <iyiiiina to present a favourable 
_> to iatroduce certain necessary r^ 
i ia tie iaiacial administration of that 
aiaiiaiw fcr tke pnrpose of relieving the 
aayKf (7<ela team tke oppressive tvraimy 
ika MlBi^-lmdera. Vr.' ''ly, tbene' 

aa k a k t Oiat ai Omrah. consent 

HokaiOikMaaiaapolicy.iiua luju^iitication 
kia wfcwl affeakd to the agr^ment of 17 
Wtm iwi kis pcedacaeioc and Lor.1 Cornwall 
wkiek it wa* tke larr object of Uobort's plan 
to aaaaL TViwwpwi Ilobart, without con^ 
Miliar SkBR^aMKMueed kis in ten t ion of se! 
iaf tka diMlkt of Tlaaervlly in liquidati 
vf dw aakeki'a dekl to tka company, and of 
iaitiHag aaea tke aanaader of the'Camatic_ 
feeta. T»tVi*,kowa» u .tke8upTvme govei 
■Mtl o M e at ad, a* aa imjust invasion of i. 
Ttfkts arkiek kad been srcnred to the nabob 
ky tke ttwatT of ITtti. An appeal was made 
to tke co«n of dinctors. aod, after a careful 
oxaMiaatioaof tkaeaeeythe court decided to 
ttvkoM tkeir ■ Want O I'-y.'nfnil and to recall 
lloban. FsoSiartkcarnvaloftheirdecision, 
• ftwik dia^te oi a like kind arose betw 
tke tvo gOTevainents in cv^aid to Hobi 
d««lit»(rs^>ththenij«kofTanjore. Inthisci 
kowvver, Ilobart was soccessful in persuading 
the rajah. Amet-r Sing, to surrender the mort- 
pk^cd territorr; and, though Sir John Shore 
penisted m his opinion that the rajah 






been' diwooned' into the treaty, the directors I 
thouglit fit to sanction Ilobart '3 policy. These 
differences did not, however, prevent a cordial 
co-operation between the governors of Fort 
William and Fort St. Georg-e against Tippoo ' 
Sahib, the sultan of Mysore: and when Lord 
Hobart, in the exercise of his discretionary j 
powers, countermanded an expedition fitted ' 
out by Sir John Shore against the Spanish 
settlement of Manilla, the latter warmlv ap- | 
plaaded his conduct, and privately declared 
that with the experience he had gained he was ] 
admirably qualified to fill the post of governor- 
general. But the order for his recall shortly 
after arrived, and amid the regrets of the 
inhabitants of Madras, who were much at- [ 
tached to him for his uncompromising oppo- ' 
•ition to usury and corruption, he sailea for 
England in August 179S. In consideration ' 
of his services, and in compensation for his 
disappointment in not succeeding to the 

fovemor-generalsbip, which was the sole in- 
ucement that had taken him out to India, 
the company conferred on him an annual 
pension of 1,600/. | 

On 23 May 1798 he was made clerk of the 
common pleas in the Irish exchequer court, 1 
and on ;W Nov. following ho was summoned | 
to the House of Lords as Baron Hobart of | 
Blickling. He was chiefly occupied during ' 
1799 with Lord Auckland in arranging the 
details of the Act of Union, and spoke and 
voted in its favour in the House of Lords. He 
was atrongl 7 opposed tocAtholic emancipation 
aa part of the union scheme, but he seems to 
have been in favour of a libend endowment 
of the catholic clergy. In March 1801 he ' 
was appointed secretary of state for the ! 
colonial and war department in the Adding- 
ton administration. .-Vcircularletterissued by , 
him in August 1803 deprecated any extensive 
volunteer movement, and gave great oflence 1 
He continued to hold office on the recon- ] 
struction of the miuistrv under Pitt in May j 
1804, in which vear hobart Town, Tas- , 
wni», was founded and named after him, 
reaigned with Sidmouth in l.'^0t5, in con- 
tience of Pitt's attitude over the Melville 
aBair. In November 1804 he succee<led his 
father in the jieerage, and rejoined Pitt's 
admiiiisimtion as chancellor of the duchy 
of Lancaster from 14 Jan. to 10 July 180.3, 
and from February 1800 to May in the 
followin<j year he held the office of joint 
p -.jenenil in the 'All the Talents' 

» )n, but without a seat in the 

c ^elusion which he resented. On 

t! in of the Liverpool ministry in 

1 - ■ ! president of the board 

©f lirt'airs, and continued 

to iii>i'j i.uiT! j<'i>. lui IU3 death. From 23 May 


to 23 June 1812 he also held the chancellor- 
ship of the duchy of Lancaster. His most 
important speech was probably that on the 
renewal of the East India Company's charter 
on 9 April 1813, which was remarkable for 
the liberality of its tone. He died on 4 Feb. 
1816, in consequence of being thrown from 
his horse in St. James's Park. He married 
first,on4 Jan. 1792, Margaret ta, daughter and 
coheiress of Edmund Bourke, esq., of Urrey, 
and widow of Thomas Adderley, esq., of 
Innishannon, co. Cork, who died in 1796, 
and by her had a daughter, Sarah Albinia 
Louisa, who married Frederick John, first 
earl of Ripon ; secondly, on 1 Juno 1799, 
Eleanor Agnes, daughter of William Eden, 
first lord Auckland, who died childless in 
18.51. He was succeeded by his nephew, 
George Robert Hobart, fifth earl of Bucking- 
hitmshire. His portrait was painted by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence. 

[Doylo's Official Baronage; Burke's Peerage ; 
Irish Parliamt-nuiry Debates ; Buckingham's 
Courts and Cabinets of Qeorge III, vol. iii. ; 
GrutWn's Life of Henry Grattan ; Lei^ky's Hist, 
of England ; Memoirs of tho Life of Sir John 
Shore, BanjD Teignmouth; Mill's British India; 
Asiatic Annual Register; Parliamentary Papers 
relatinz to the Afiain of the Camatic, No. 2 ; 
Addit. MS3. 13470. 33108 33109, 33112; Par- 
liamentary History and Debates ; the published 
correspondence of the Marquis ComwHllis, Lord 
Auckland, Lord Cvitlereagh, and Lord Col- 
chester; Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth, and 
Hist. MSS. Comm. Reports, vi. 406, viii. 296, xi. 
426 (Earl of Dartmouth's MSS.)] R. D. 

bart (I8l8-I87."j), governor of Madras, son 
of the Hon. and Rev. .\ugustu8 Edward Ho- 
bart (later Hobart-Hampden), afterwards 
sixth earl of Buckinghamshire, by Mars-, 
daughter of John Williams, was bom 8 Dec. 
1818, at Wclboum, Lincolnshire. He went 
to Dr. Mayo's school at Cheam, Surrey. In 
18:J6 he was elected to an open scholarship at 
Trinity College, Oxford, proceeded U..\.3 Dec. 
1840, and was appointed in the same year to a 
clerkship in the ixiard of trade. In 1842 he 
accompanied Sir II. Ellis as eeoretarr on a 
diplomatic mission to the emperor of brazil, 
and about 1 850 began to write many political 
articles upon Irish questions. In 1849, on his 
father's accession to the earldom , he succeeded 
to the courtesy title of Lord Hobart. In 1854 
he became private secretary to Sir George 
Grey [q. v.], who was then secretary of state 
for the colonies,but resigned this post in 18.55 
in order to be free to oppose the continu- 
ance of the Crimean war. He advocated 
peace in a striking letter to the 'Times' of 
22 Feb. of that year. lu 1861 he was pro- 

D 2 

Hobart-Hampden 36 Hobart-Hampden 

moted from the senior clerkship at the board 
of trade to investigate and advise on the 
condition of Turkish finance, together with 
Air. Foster, ' deputy paymaster-general,' his 
superior in office, and after making a report 
returned to Constantinople to carry out the 
measures he had proposed. Subsequently he 
•was director-general of the Ottoman Riink, 
and in February 187d was appointed governor 
of Madras. At Madras, despite hia shy manner 
and scholarly tastes, he secured the esteem 
alike of the natives and of the English resi- 
dents. He was anxious to improve the social 
status of the natives, and exerted himself in 
the promotion of education among all classes. 
He also busied himself in agitating for a har- 
bour and an improved drainage systt^m. He 
died at Madras of typhoid fever on '27 .\pril 
IHTH. Hobart appears to have been an un- 
affected loverof nature; hewosa fluent, lucid, 
and forcible writer on political question.'*. 
He married, 4 ."Vug. 185."j, Mary Catherine, 
daughter of Tboraaa Carr, bishop of llombay. 
His works are: 1. ' llemarks on the l.rfiw 
of Partnership Liability,' a pamphlet, IfoS. 

2. ' E.ssay on the Alabama Claims,' 1 870. 

3. 'Political Es.says,' 18G6; reprinted (with 
short biographical sketch), 1877. 4. 'Frag- 
ments, &c.' (in prose), Madras, ] 875. 5. ' Es- 
says and Miscellaneous Writings ' (a collec- 
tion of many of his articles and letters), with 
biographical sketch, ed. by Mary, lady 1 lobart, 
Iiis widow, 2 vols. 188o. 

[Biog. Sketch, 1877-8d ; Times, 1 1 Oct. 1876.] 
N. D. F. P. 

CH.A.RLKS, commonly known as HoBiBT 
Pasha (1822-1886), admiral, third .wn and 
fourth child of Augustus Edward Hohurt 
(later Hnbart-Hampjen), sixth earl of Hiick- 
inghamshire, was boru at Walton-oa-thi?- 
Wulds, Leicestershire, on 1 April 1822, His 
mother was Mary, <laughter of John Wil- 
liams, king's Serjeant, and sister to (he judge 
Sir Edward Vaughan Williams. He went 
to Dr. Mayo's school at Cheuni, Surrey, but 
acconling to his own confession (ISki-icfies 
from mif Life, 1887, p. 2) did not distin- 
guish himself, and in 18.'{5 he entered the 
royal navy, joining the Rj)ver, 18 guns, at 
I i.vonport in February. The Rover was paid 
■ 111 lit Plymouth in July 1838, and Hobart 
joined the Rose in October, became wting 
mat" in July 1841, and, when paid oH' in July 
1>-|L', passed his examinations at the Naval 
(.'olU'ge and on board the Excellent at Ports- 
mouth. He qualified a» gunnery-mate, and 
joined the Dolphin in the autumn of 1843. 
llis first three ships were all employed olf 
the coast of South America in the suppres- 
Bion of the slave-trade. Rio de Janeiro was 

the busy centre of that commerce, and Hobart 
appears to have enjoyed his full share of ad- 
venture, although m his own account of thi.* 
period of his career he much exaggerated and 
misrepresented the stirring events in which 
he engag^'d. His last genuine exploit during 
the slave-hunting period was to carry a slaver 
prize into Demerara in May 1844. He after- 
wards returned to England, and was ap- 
pointed to the queen's yacht as a reward for 
gallant conduct. In September 1845 he re- 
sumed active work as lieutenant on board 
the Rattler in the Mediterranean, and was 
transferred in 1847 to the Bulldog (Com- 
where he showed himself ' full of zeal ' (SiK 
W. Parker, Life, iii. 323). On the out- 
break of the Russian war Hobart served a» 
first lieutenant on the same ves-sel in the 
Baltic squadron, and commanded the Driver 
for a fortnight (.Vugiist 1854) at the reduc- 
tion of Bomarsund and the reconnaissance at 
.\bo. His ship was commended in the des- 
patches, and Hobart 's ' ability, real, and great 
exertion' at Abo were specially mentioned. 
In 1855 he was on the Duke of Wellington, 
.'Vdmiral Dundas's flagship, and commanded 
the mortar-boats at the attack on Sveaborg 
(Helsingfors), for which he was again men- 
tioned in despatches and was promoted to 
the rank of commander. Then for six years 
he left the regular service of the navy and 
became olficer of the coastguard at Dingle, 
CO. Kerry, and subswjuently (1858-61) of 
the guardship at Malta. lu 1801 he com- 
manded the gun-vessel I'oxhound in the Medi- 
terranean, was promoted capttiiu in March 
1803, and immt'diately retired on half-pay. 
This was the eud of his services in the Britisli 

In spite of his family ' interest ' Hobart'* 
rise had been verv slow. He was clearly 
unsuited tothe precise discipline and decorous 
sulxjrdinatiou of the regular service ; he wa* 
created for adventure and hairbreadth es- 
capes: '.\ bold buccaneer of the El izabethau 
period, who by some strange perverseness of 
fate was born into the Victorian.' At the time 
of his retirement the civil war in. \morica was 
beginning, and Hobart, who was a staunch 
Southerner, joined some brother officers in 
running the blockade oft" the coast of North 
Carolina. The daring and skilful seamanship 
by which he carried his cargoes into Wilming- 
ton and Charleston, the exciting chases and 
narrow escapes of this adventurous period, 
when Hobart was thoroughly in his proper 
element, may bi_' read in ' Never Caagtit ' 
(1807), which he wrote under the p.seudonym 
of Captain Rolierts,' and which is practically 
reprinted in ' Sketches from my Life ' (jip. 87- 

Hobart-Hampden 37 


It'ti). American authorities state that this 
Rarratire is substantially accurate {Edini. 
Her. No. 337, lip. 174-6)! 

In lti<)7, sevkinji; a new career of adven- 
ture, Hobart entered the Turkish service as 
Baval adviser to the sultan, in succession 
to Admiral Sir Adolphus 8tade. Ilia first 
work in this capacity was the suppression 
•f the Cretan reoellion by a strategic inter- 
cepting of the supplies from Greece. For 
this «er»'ice he was raised to the rank of 
full admiral, with the title of pasha (1809). 
The Turkish fleet was reorjrniiised and im- 
prijved under his direction, hut in the war 
of 1877 the jealousy of tlie authorities pre- 
vented him, as commander of the lilack Sea 
fleet, from achieving any notable naval suc- 
cess, though he disjilayed considerable skill 
in baflling the Hussian tontedoes, for which 
■weapon he entertained a hearty contempt. 
In 1881 the sultan, who highly esteemed the 
admiral, appointed him mushir or marshal of 
the empire. Hobart's action against (ireece 
in 18<(7 was a breach of the Foreign Enlist- 
ment Act, and be was accordingly struck off 
the Itritish navy list. Kestored to his naval 
rank in 1874 by Lord Derby's influence, he 
was again erased from the list in 1877 for 
having a second time delieil the act by his 
command of the Black .'v.-a fleet against 
Russia, a 'friendly power,' but was finftlly 
restored in June 188.1, with the rank of 
British vice-admiral. In tliat yenr he visited 
London with a view to formiiii; un otTensive 
alliance between England and Turkey at the 
time of the Penjdeh incident in the Afghan 

isis. In 188«i he went to Italy to recruit 
health, but died at Milan on 19 June. 

lobart was twice married: first (1848) to 
_ Anne (rf. 13 May 1877), second daugh- 
of I>r. Colquhoun Orant, and, secondly 

|87l)), to Edith Kat herine, daughter of Her- 
t Francis Hore of Pole llore, co. Wexford, | 
bo edited his ' Sketches.' 
Hobart's 'Sketches of My Life' was issued ! 
p. -lyinl.*'87. Manystirringepisodes 

t! lied (pp. 17 70) belong to the 

peri'i.i i>->.,-44; but the book is so strange 
and contradictory a mixture of fact and fiction 
that it is impossible to treat it os a serious 
autobiographv. A writer in the ' Edinburgh 
RhvI. ,»■ ' , larmary 1887. No. 437), with full 
k' r the Uttvy records, bos subjected 

li: :iii>ii-nces to an exhaustive criti- 

eiaiB,H' onclusivelynot only that he 

Iwtanin .\ confused dates and places, 

bnt that be lays claim to experiences which he 
could never have had, and to exploits which 
wens those of brother oflicers. Either Hobart's 
memorr was failing when he dictated these 
' SketcEee ' shortly before his death, or else 

he related whatever good stories occurred to 
him with the intention of authenticating and 
revising them afterwards, but was prevented 
by death. The tone of the book precludes 
the suggestion of intentional romancing. 

[Amhoritics quoted in the articlo; Times, 
21 June 1888; Lodge's Peerage.] S. L.-P. 

HOBBES, ROBEKT (rf. 1538), the last 
abbot of the Cistercian abbey of Wobum in 
Bedfordshire, held the office in 1529 (Dug- 
dale gives the date of appointment as 1524). 
Hobbes was summoned to convocation in 
November 1529,and in the following January 
received a license to hold two annual fairs in 
the town of Wobum. In 1532 he, with four 
other abbots, was commissioned by the king 
to hold a visitation of the whole "Ci-stercian 
order, in place of the abbot of Chailly, who 
had been charged to undertake this duty by 
the head visitor and reforraator of the order, 
but was not allowed to perform it personally, 
being a Frenchman. In 15;t4 he not only 
himself acknowledged the king as supreme 
head of the church, but by advice and threats 
prt-vailed upon many of his monks to do the 
same. The deed of acknowledgment does not 
happen to have been preserved, but the fact 
is clearly proved by his confession. Subse- 
quent events, however, such as the execution 
of the Carthusians and the suppre^ion of 
monasteries, led htm to repent of his action, 
and to maintiiin that ' the part of the bishop 
of Rome wns the true wav,' and ' the king s 
pnrt but Uiiuniatinn desiderated by flattery 
and adulation. In time this became known 
Bt court. Ill May 15:48 Hobbes and someof 
hi.* mrmks were examined in the Townr, and 
his confession showed that he had failed to 
advocate the royal supremacy in bis sermons, 
and that he did not believe in the existence 
of episcopal authority except as derived from 
the pope. Accordingly he was sent down to 
Lincoln to be tried, together with two of his 
brethren, I^urence Hlonham, alias Peck, and 
Richard Wobum,o/io« Barnes, and the three, 
as well as the vicar of Puddington, were exe- 
cuted at Wohiim. In 1818 there was still 
standing before the gate of the abliey an oak 
tree which was said to have been used as 
the gallows on that day. 

[Cnl. of Letters and Fhpers, Hen. \1II, iv. r. 
vi. Tii. X. xi.; Gnsquet's lien. Vlil nod English 
Monasteries, ii. 192; Froude's Uist. of Eng- 
land, iii. 244; Doild's Wobum, p. 38; Dugdale's 
Moniistieon, V. 478; Wright « Supprccsion of the 
Monasteries (Camden Sue.), p. 145; Stow's An- 
nak'!«. p. fi73.] C. T. M. 

HOBBES, THOMAS (1588-1679), philo- 
sojiher, second son of Thomas Hobbes. vicar 
of Charlton and West port , was born at West- 
port (now part of Malmcsbury, Wiltshire) 




on 5 April 168S. Bis mother, of -whom it 
\g only known that she came of a race of 
yeomen, gave birth to her second son prema- 
turely, owinp to her iigitation at. the reports 
of the ArmiidB. The fiither, described by 
Aubrey as ignorant and choleric, was forced 
to fly for an assault made at the church door 
on a neighViiiring parson. He died in ob- 
scurity ' beyond London.' J I is children, two 
boys and a girl, were brought up by his bro- 
ther, Franci.s, a flourisliing glover ut Malme.s- 
bury. Theuldestson, Kdmiinii,at>lain, sensible 
man, entered the glove trade, lie lived to old 
age, and left a son, who wns kindly treated by 
his uncle Thomas, but turned out ill, Hiid died 
in 1670, leaving tive children, remembered in 
their granduncle's will. -Thomas Hobbes was 
sent to school at Weslport Church when four 
years old, and at the age of six was learning 
Latin and (ireek. At eight he was sent to 
Malmesbury school, aiul afterwards to a 
private school kept by Robert Latimer at 
Westpirt. Latimer, a 'good Grecian,' after- 
wards Aubrey's schoolmaster, took an interest 
in Ilia pupil, who translated the ' ^ledea' of 
Eurijiides into Latin iambics before he was 
fourteen, and already showed a contemiiliitlve 
turn. About January or February l<10'i-3 
Lis uncle enterfd him at Magdalen Ilnll, 
Oxford. The ti'iscipline was at that time 
much relaxed , and ecclesinst ieal d isput es were 
cau.sed by the rising energy of the puritans, 
who were very strong at Magdalen Hull. 
Hoblx'S foimd the teaching, still conducted 
on the rild scholastic methods, uncongenial, 
amused himself with snaring jackdaws (ac- 
cording to Aubrey), and tooK to reading 
books of travel. He graduated B.A. on 
5 Feb. l«07-a The principal of the Iml! 
recommended him toAVilliam Cavendish id. 
1626) [q. v.], afterwards first carl of Devon- 
shire, who re<]uired a tutor for his eldest 
BOn, William Cavendish (1591 P-ieL'f') [q.v.j, 
afterwards second earl. Hobbes says that 
the next twenty years, spent with the young 
earl, were the happiest part of his life ^ J'ita 
carminf e.rpremut). lie became the friend, 
rather than the teacher, of the youth, who 
took him out bunting ond hawking, and em- 
ployed him in liorrowing money. Amid such 
occupations his Latin grew rusty. In 1610 
they set out on tbe grand tour, and visited 
France, ( Jermany, and Italy. Hobbes learnt 
to speak French and Italian, and found that 
the pliilosophy of Oxford had gone out of 
fashion on tlie continent. He resolved to 
become a scholar, and after his return, while 
living with his pupil as secretary, devoted 
Ids leisure to the stiuly of cla.«*ical litera- 
ture. He delighteil chiefly in poets and his- 
torians, ond especially in Tnucydides, of 

whom he made a translation, published, after 
long delay, in 1629. He had already, ac- 
cording to his later statement, the political 
purpose of showing how much wiser is onu 
man than a crowd. The death of liis patron 
in 1628 left him for a time to his own re- 
sources. The widow was engaged in ener- 
getically repairing the family affairs, injured 
by her husband's extravagance, and dispensed 
with lIobbe.<'3 services, although allowing 
him to remain for some time ia the house. 
In l('29 he became travelling tutor to the son 
of Sir Oervaso Clifton, and spent eighteen 
months, chiefly, it seems, at Paris, though ho 
also appears to have visited Venice. In 1631 
be was recalled from Paris to become tutor of 
his tirst pupil's eldest son, Williom Caven- 
dish (1617-1684) [q. v.], third earl of Devon- 
shire. He iu.structed the boy in rhetoric, 
logic, ostronomy, the principles of law, ond 
other subjects. In 1634 he took the earl on 
a third foreign tour, visiting Italy, and spend- 
ing much time, at Paris, where he was now- 
beginning to be known to the philosophic 
circles of the time. It was probably during 
his second tour ('1629-31) that he had the in- 
tellectual experience describful most fully by 
Aubrt<y. He accidentally opened a copy of 
Euclid's ' Elements ' at the fort v-seventh pro- 
position of the lirst book, fleading it, he 
exclaimed, ' By (iod, this is impossible,' Ex- 
amining the proofs, he was at last convinced, 
and fell ' in love with geometry.' Another 
stort', told by himself (Latin Works, i. si), 
is of uncertain date. He heard some one 
inquire, in a company of learned men, what 
sense was. No one being able to answer, he 
reflected that sensation was only made pos- 
sible by motion. He was thus led to tb«j 
mechanical explanation of nature, which be- 
came a leading principle of his philosophy, 
and studied geometry in order to understand 
the modes of motion. It is doubtful (so» 
RonEKTSoK, pp. 31-5) whether this should be 
referred to the second or third tour. A tract 
(in Harl. MS. 6706) contains an early 
statement of his theory of sense, which pro- 
bably shows his iir.«t attempts at working it 
out. In nny case, Hobbes was now interested 
in the philosophical movements of Europe. 
He had gained the intimacy of Galileo at 
Florence obout 1636, and always retained 
the profoundest respect for the old philo- 
sopher, who wos in his last period of re- 
tirement. At Paris Hobbes was received ia 
the circles of which Mersenne, the friend of 
Descartes, was the centre, and in which all 
the new philosophical and scientiGc theories 
weremost eagerly discussed. At a later period 
he became intimatewlth Gassendi, whose phi- 
losophy was congenial to his own, though 





they appear to Lave reached their conclu- 
sions quite independently. Hobbes acquired 
many other eminent friend:! at difl'erent 
perioiU. Before hij* first foreign tour, pre- 
sumably during the perio<l between the cban- 
eellors'fttU and hi» death (1621-0, lie had 
been known to Bacon. Hobbes, according to 
Aubrey, wrote from Bacon's dictation, show- 
iDi(,a» maybe believeci.monj intelligence than 
ocheramanuen^e&.and helped in turning some 
of the esisays into I.ntin. Hobbes, however, 
mnltes very slight reference to Bacon, and 
does not seem to have been directly influenced 
by his philosophy. Among other friends 
mentioned (see list in Vitrf Aitctarium, Latin 
Works, i. Itii) are Herliert of Cherburj", 
whoi-e rationalism would be congenial to him, 
Kenelra Di^rbv, C'hillingworth, and Har\'ey ; 
whilo among literary friends were Sir Robert 
Ayton Tq. v.], Ben Jonson, Cowley, D'Ave- 
nant.nnil Waller. He was admitted, probably 
iilter Ilia third tour, to the circle of I'alklana, 
Hyde, and Sidney Gwlolphin (1610-1643) 
[q. v.^, the la«t of whom was especially dear 
to him. After his return to Lnglanil with 
Devonshire in 1637, Hobbe.'; continued to 
live with the earl, and set about composing 
the systematic treatises in ^yhich he had now 
resolved to embody his philosophy. He con- 
templated three treatises: the ' De Corpore,' 
o""' ■'"'■'/ hii first principles, as well as his 
\il and physical doctrines : the 

' : :i i.e," upon psychology; and the'De 

Ctre,' giving his political and religious 

theorie.«. The growing troubles led him to 

interrupt the systematic development of his 

pliilrxniiliv by \yriting a treatise called 'The 

I if I>aw, Natural and Politique,' 

■ published in two separate parts, 

a» ' liuiuan Nature' and ' De Corp<5re Poli- 

tiiM.' This treatise, which already contains 

hischnractLTiMic positions in psychology and 

politics, was circulated for the present in 

. The dedication to the Marquis 

' le, cousin of the second Earl of 

, is dated 9 Aliiy 1640 (copies are 

I llardwickHall and in the British 

' The Short Parliament had been 

iJ n o May. Hobbes, however, said 

l....t .vards that his treatise had 'occa- 

aiontnl much talk of the author, and had 
nnf Iiii nmjeity dissolved the parliament it 

I iit him into danger of his life.' 

I I .ve forgotten the order of events, 
and no doubt e.\aggcrated the cB'ect pro- 
diic.'d liv his treatise. At any rate, wnen 
r' tnent met in November and 
I iiord, Hobbes took fright and 
wwul u\tr t.) I'tiris, ' the first of all that fled, 
and thi^re continued eleven years, to his 
ilamage some tbotisands of pounds deep.' 

At Paris he took up bis old friendships, and 
transmitted tlirougli Mersenne, in January 
1(341, sixteen objections to various }»jint8 in 
Descartes's ' Meditationes de prima philo- 
sophia,'and afterwards objections to some of 
Descartes's physical positions in the ' Diop- 
trique.' He concealed hi.s name and the 
identity of the two objectors. Descartes re- 
ceived both criticisms contemptuously, and. 
declared finally that he would not continue 
a correspondence with the author. The de- 
velopment of the struggle in England now 
led Ilobbt'S to give a fuller exposition of his 
political theories. He composed his ' Da 
t'ive,' printed in 164:?, and with a dedicatory 
epistle to the Karl of Devonshire,signedT. 11., 
and dated 1 Nov. 1641. It is a developed 
statement of the doctrine already set forth 
in his unpublished treatise; he gives more 
explicitly and elaborately his favourite theory 
that peace cculd only be obtained by the • 
complete subordination of the church to the 
state. Few copies were printed, and the 
book is now very rare. There ore copies in 
the Bodleian (formerly Selden's) and Dr. 
Williams's Librorj'. The authoritative edi- 
tion was publi.shcd, with notes in reply to 
objections, at Amsterdam in lti47, under the 
super\'i8ion of his friend Sorbiere, u French 
physician. .\ preface explained its relation 
to his general scheme. 

Although Hobbes contributed some scien- 
tific papers to bookspublished by .Mersenne, his 
interest in political events induced him again 
to postpone the systematic exposition of hi.s 
philosophy, and to set about the composition of 
his great lx)ok, the 'Leviathan.' Refugees from 
England were comingover and discussingpoli- 
ticswith him. He carried 'a pen and inkhorn ' 
about with him, according to Aubrey, and 
entered any thoughts that occurred to him 
in a note- book. He was occasionally pressed 
for money. He had left England with five 
hundred iKuinds. Hyde afterwards brought 
him two liundred pounds, bequeathed to him 
by his friend Godolphin, and he received 
I eighty pounds a year from the Earl of Devon- 
shire ( i'ita carmine eTpretta ). The earl had 
' taken the royalist side, and had left Eng- 
I land on being impeached before the House of 
I Lords in July \i'A2, when his estates were 
8e<)uestruted, Hobbes'ssalary would probably 
, be precarious at this period. In 1646, how- 
I ever, the earl returned to England, submitted 
1 to the parliament, and in 1646 compounded 
' for his estates. Hobbes was about this time 
on the point of retiring to Languedoc to live 
with a French friend and admirer, Du Verdus 
(RoBERTSoK, p. 62). The arrival of the Prince 
of Wales in the summer of 1646 induced him 
to stay at Paris where he was eo^ged lo 

^^^^^^f Hobbes 


on 5 April 1688. His mother, of -whom it 


be RiRile n aH th« cad 

is only known thnt she came of a race of 


d' ' -iged in lop- 

yeomen, gave birth to her second son premn- 

L' -^rrience to 

tiirely, owing to her ngitntion at the reports 
of the Armada. The father, described by 


1 ;h'- brief 


I' rnar be 

Aubrey as ignorant and choleric, was forced 



to fly for an a.<saiilt made at the church door 



on n neighbouring parson. He died in ob- 


\v ^ovMr*'i;ni 

scurity ' beyond London.' His children, two 


_ I- - 11: :': . , :ir 

boys and a girl, were I)roiight up by his bro- 


. __ r :hfiri.5tutes, 

ther, Francis, a flourishing glover at Malmes- 


^^10^ a order to retain 

bury. Theeldeetson,Eilmund,ai)lain,Ren8iblti 


-. —T w»re really more 

man, entered the glove trade. He lived to old 


'unif bvnotsub- 

a^e, and left a son, who was kindly treated by 
his uncle Thomas, but turned out ill,anddie<l 


j seize the whole. 


-^tm. vhen afterwards 

in 1670, leaving five children, remembered in 


^ «id truly that he 

_ their granduncle'swill. -Thomas Hobbes w:; 

«4linL It was indeed J 

sent to school at Westport Church when 1'"" 

iv aad timid philoeo- | 

voars old, nnd at the age of si.t was l. : 

.^jmbit court looked with 

Latin and (treelc. At eight he was - 
Malmesbury school, and afterAvanis r,, 

^^mt. vith so many others 

-mm^t- (ben thought to be 

private school kept by Uobert Latimer ; 

^umA. His defence of the 

vVestport. Latimer, a 'good (treciaii, '' 

_.^pMA u» bis patron, who had j 

wards Aubrey's schoolmaster, took an i 

^^^■A 'n 1IS48, and to whom 1 

in his pupil, who translated th'' ' ^' 

-^r-^ He fled secretly to * 

Kiiripides into Latin iambics 1" 

I''."il, suflering from 

fourteen, and already showed am 

- :.:i.T journey after 11 

tunj. About January or Febr 

■ .-.rihed in tiirr Pa- 

liis uncle entered him at Mii^ 

_ V,i.'',-4) ; submitted to 

Dxford. The u'iseipline was n 

^^■•t tad WHS allowed to live 

much relaxed, and ecclesiastical <l 

,.M» ^Dtntimation, apparently 

caused by the rising energj' of : 

•/voduo's language, that he 

■who were very strong at Mn^ 

-r frim Cromwell appears to 

Hobbes founil the leachiii 

•» ektr]^ was first e.vpre«sly 

on the old scholastic nitll 

Sm<A m 'The Leviathan 

amused himself with Knan 

•■'. Hobbes, indeed, in 16,56^H 

cording to .\ubrey), and 

'f hts having reconciled' J^^| 

books of travel. 11' 

_«■' 10 submission to the 

fl Feb. 1«07-H. Th. 

Ittmnt, &c. E. vii. 336} ; 
;,; psceived nothing, and in 

ricotnmendt'd him to W ji 

lii-ii) [q. v.], afterwards ti: 

• Bi>sition in the household 
'? ■ remained, however, in 

shire, who re<iuire<l a tin 

son, William Cavendish ( 1" 

', in order to have the 

afterwards si'Citid I'li-! 

il society while com- 

the next twenty yrni ■ 

1 his system. Selden 

earl, wcni the Imppii •; 

^_. - . - tliis i>eriod his chief 

c^r»lln<• r.iyrf.iM ). 11 

^ 1^ M«inTt>l a legacy of 10/. from 

rallier than the' 

>«kiMi in \tVA, and from Harvej 

.io«btful story about Hobbe«s 

totik him out hin 

ployed him in Un i 

^. ^«tH«i dying ste .\i bret, iiiw. 

occupNtions his Latin 

.r llnT- Alt unit ()/ tAe Lodleian, 

they set out on tlie 

," tifc >xik jwins to find a church 

Franco, (iermanx . 

., ■ •'■•• Mcrament according 

to spralc French . 

':. ifh of England. 

the philosophy • i 

j^ ^4^»tciv published the'De Cor- 

fashion on the i 

. ^Mc«<'*< the tirsi utrt of his plan, in 
- ■ i ;:i\ed for a year by his 

Vconii' a sohulni , 

living with hi» | 

. ' ■ i ect ions ra'i Kcd by his 

his leisure i solutions of im- 

turn. Heil 

'blems. Finallv the 

torians, and .-j 


^» Mfc'uui have completed the 



V. The fres- 

•i- in 

u lran»- 
:i iin un- 
lit) now 
vance of 
- wliich 
.. owcaatle 
statement of 
;icli remained 
it translation 
iiinan- for the 
ilnend. The translator 
ch he published in 1654 
Ivity, prefixing a letter 
prie»t« and ministers. 
Bnt nt this pntceeding, which 
rihed to Ilobbes, printed in 
1 piissed, including a long re- 
Cft'd argument. Ilobbes in 
; • reply lo Hramhall, called 
prninp Liberty, Necessity, 
iring himself of the personal 
ftng with remarkable vijfour 
phicftl question. Bramhall 
ationsof Ilobbes's Animnd- 
with an a]iiH'udi.\ called 
Bg of Leviathan the Great Whale.' 
I not carry on the argiimeut, but 
lied to the char!;es of atheism and 
'(of which he declared that he had 
iKl for the first time) in ' An Answer 
^Dr. Bramhall.'not published till 1682. 
Dt upon necessity shows Hobbes 

iinate dispute arose with the 

The group of scientific men 

cr the Kestonition founded the Uoyal 

were already meeting at O.xibrd. 

Tanl [q. v.] was Savilian professor of 

pmy during the pmteotorate, and in his 

e'lipAcademicie ll6.Vt)as5ertedagainst 

"pbster's • Examen of Academies' that 

»iver»ity bad now made advances in 

I which, aa he added in an appendix, 

lenabln it ti> judge the geometrical no- 

|<>f which Ilobbes had already boasted. 

in his ' lie C'orpore' ( llVio), retorted 

r>n Ward, and pnxluced his solutions of 

oe ancient piiz.>:le!!, r-specially the sijuaring 

the circle. Ward replied by an ' Exer- 

lio' tijvin Mobl)es'* philosi>phy a year 

I ! 'iver the mathematical argu- 

I r of the circle, the famous 

fAVjilU.s, Suvilian professor of geometry. 

|r»lii»*s * Elenchus neometrioe Hobbinnin' 

owed uiuparingty the manifold absurdities 

I i 

of Hobbes's solutioiu, and by an ingenious 
examination of an early copy of the book, ex- 
p>sed his hopeless attempts, made in conse- 
quence of NN ard's remarks, to patch up the 
Jaulty demonstrations. Further replies and 
rejoinders followed, in which, while Wallis 
was clearly victorious as to the mathematical 
questions, the disputants rivalled each other 
in abuse and verbal qiiibbling. The con- 
troversy was renewed by Ilobbes in 1660, by 
an examination in dialogue form of NN'alliss 
mathematical works, which, failing to bring 
M'allis into the field, was succeeded by 
a solution of the duplication of the culj« 
brought out anonymously by Ilobbes in 
Paris. As soon a.s \\ allis refuted this Hobbes 
acknowledged it, and reprfKluced it at the 
end of a 'Dialogus Physicus, sive, de Natura 
Aeris,' an attack upon Boyle's ' New Ex- 
])eriment8 touching the Spring of the Air.' 
Ilobbes resented his exclusion from tho 
founders of the Koyal Society, and attributed 
their coldness to the malignity of Wallis. 
lie made an unpleasant allusion to Wallis's 
achievement in his deciphering the king's 

rapers taken aftor Naseby. ISoyle answered 
Iobbes,and Wallis, out of regard (as he said ) 
for Boyle, once more demolished Ilobltes's 
mathematics in ' Hobbius Ileauton-Nmo- 
rumenos' ( 1662). He venturetl, Iniwever, to 
add t hat Hobbes had written the ' Lev iat ban ' 
in support of Cromwell, to which llobln?* 
replied etFect ively in his ' Considerations upon 
the liefutation, Loyalty, Manners, nn<l Ke- 
ligion of Thomas HobWs,' 1662. In IDOH 
Ilobbes once more took up the hopeless task 
of defending bis own fantasies and attack- 
ing Wallis. Wallis published his last retort 
in 1672. IlobW.s in 1674 again published 
some of his pretended solutions, and as late as 
1078, at tho age of ninety, fired hi» last shot 
in the ' Decameron Physiologicura.' 

Hobbes lived after the Kestoration at Lis 
patron's houses in London and the country. 
Charles II, two or three days after his re- 
turn to England, saw Hobljes in the Strand, 
and spoke kindly to him. Afli-rwardK, while 
sitting to Samuel Cooper, the niinialure- 
puinter, the king amused himself by talking 
to Ilobbes. Ilobbes could match the courtiers 
at repartee, and the king would say, ' Hern 
comes the bear to be baited' (Aimihkt and 
S'}rbf riann, \<i9i,i>. 109). Charles also gavii 
him a pension ol KM)/., which was paid a« 
im-gularly as other pension* of the lime ( h<h< 
Hobbes's Petition, h. vii. 471 ). The bishoiM 
and Clarendon, however, looked u|>on tho 
author of th't 'l>?viathan' with ausjiicion. 
In 1666 a committee of the Houae of (.'om- 
mons, appninte<l lo consider a bill against. 
' Atheism and Profanenea*,' Mint enijtowervd 



teach the prince the elements otmathemfttics. not bi' 
The posit ion, as he explained to Sorbi^re (letter of ICJo. 
of 4 Oct. I'UO), had no political iiipiificance, ' port of tl; 
and was a merH eiigagement br the month C'romwell 
(22 March 1647 ). The last letter shows that [ ' Review n 
he had already thoughts of returning to KuB- rfmartfl 
land, where his patron was now settled. In Thnv ■ 
1047 Holil)es had a dangerous illnes.?. His uiLiln 
old friend Mersenne came to his bedside and h< 
In^ggwl him not to die outside the catholic | "i 
church. Hobbes observed that he had long - suviiv 
ago considered that matter sufficiently, and | a jmi" 
turned the conversation by asking 'when il 
did you last see Gassendi ? ' Some days lat^r n 
he welcomed Co»in (afterwards bishop of | J i 
Durham), and took the sacrament ncconling '. n 
to the Anglican rites, a fact to which he I. 
afterwards referred in proof of his orthodoxy, i '■' 
While the ' Lftviathan ' was progressing, ' y 
Hobbes's unpubli.shed treatise of 1640 was il 
published in two parts, 'Human Nature, or ; i 
the Fiiiidiiiiii'nfiil pllement.* of Policy,' and' De I )■ 
CnriMire Politieo, or Elements of Law, Moral i 
and Politic, 'and in HiiJl he published an Kng- li 
lish transltttion of the 'lie five.' His • Le- !■ 
viatlmn ' wu.i now lieing printed in London, I 
and apiH>are(l in the middle of Itiol. When ' " 
Charles II reached Paris about the end 
October, Hobk's presented him with a bein 

litifully written copy on vellum (now in i' 

pBritish Mu-seum, Egerton MS. 1910). H 
position in Paris had beeome difficult. I! 
orthodoxy wa.s suspected, not without ren^.■ 
In 1640 lui had hail a private discussion wn 
llramhnl! upon freewill in presence uf il 

^arquis of Newcastle, which som-' 
iter produce*! a keen controversy. 'I ' 
Tiathan ' wiis not likely to conciliate . 
men, and shortly after presenting hi- 
script to the king he was denied :■.••■■ 
court, and told by the Marqui." • 
that he was suspected of di-1 
atheism. flis usual timidity ^• 
by the murders of Isaac Dorislnn 
Anthony Ascham [q. v.] in Id I 
and he thought that similar du 
await the author of the ' Levi ■ 
French clergy, irritated by hi' tn' 
on the papacy, wereaUo tli - 
fating an attack. Hisflighi 
afterwards gave credit to the m. 
he had written the book in th' 

Cromwell. Clarendon tell- ■ 

versntion with Hobbes, w! 

remon.atrances against the I 

said: 'The truth is, I bin 

home.' The ' Leviathan,' 

hardly recommend its autli' 

Its abstract ])rinciples mi_ 

»pplie<l in defence of the p 

definitely established, wlii. 

5?-r a pi| 

', aftrr 

: He i» 
aac^Ier. for 

" t ' ' ■ iinil 

i.!l It 

»»; itiiifiiiiKT 

i« 'Alliius' 


• is denied 


, but tho- ., 

IV:^ th«t if he 

: ^t^fi turn hi' ; 

t" n- was cha- 

- His 

;* cre- 

,-, and 
i jeem 
I (ial- 


■lie of 


iiM «j C&uiiurT. In 

<«M«^' 1690. the 

-«» BMrna in his 





'iiii<iiis]it>il bv »tch 



. htvi L'ladon. 

3n of 


MI prin- 

'■ -^ipnifi- 

■>iMi'iu>. ttir answer 

fciodi'il nwdprn pbi- 

• - 'lominBlism 

i«tic. At 

t.. licenced by 

I none* »f STS- 

iiuent. Ilecon- 

-L'beme of iini- 

liy geometrical 

(' matter trhich 

luite fact. The 

t* in Kuue r««ptH;ts that of 

-tirfr. Hobbei was very ill 

Mij his sphtme. His 

. T■^•at nnd his intellect 

Kuclid that he mis- 

jitial dL>coveiT, an'I 

'if obstinate d*!fence 

1 1 1 , 1 1 owe T er, bMTTes 

. ji. fi7 ) tliat he was not 

QTHtmiJ. ' 15 is sometimes sup- 

.'■J. and that hp makes ' acute remarks on 
, 'iiti-ofprinciple.' Ilispsycbologyremained 
'-Tiinofntary, tnoucrh alfordin? abundant in- 
'lii'iirioas of sagacity. His short statement 
'f'l.- ajsociationist theory influenced his 
vii,.c..-j.Jor!i. His great achierement, how- 
r\--T. is his political philosophy, especially as 
yiv-n in tlie ' l^xjatnan.' It was the edifice 
under which heencleivoiiTed afterwards tn in- 
*TO«luce the foundation of philosophy, doubr- 
ii-ss congenial, but not the real frmundwnrk 
of ills doctrine. Like all the great thinker« 
uf his time, he had been profoundly impressed 
1<v thn evils caused by tne sectarian animrisi- 
ties of the time. His remedy was the entire 
<iibordination of the ecclesiastical to the 
secular authority — a theory which made the 
religion of a state dependent upon its secu- 
lar sovereign, and therefore not derivable 
fither from churches or philneophers, and 
shocked equally the rationalists and the 
'■rthodox. It is disputable how far Hobbes 
carried his own scepticism. He ostensibly 
accepted the creed of the national churcK, 
but m virtue of obedience to the law. He ' 
ai^es from texts as confidently as a puritan, 
bot, besides twisting them to strange u.<>es, 
iaddentally suggests many of the leading ! 
criticisms urged by later' rationalists. In i 
support of his absolutism he interprets the 
doetrine of the social compact (which had 

been ivcently expounded by Hcoker and 
Grotius) not as a compact between the sov&- 
reijrn and his subjects, but as l>«tw>:<:n the 
subjects to obey the sovereijni. Virtually he 
argues that states have been f-rmed as the 
only alternative to the state of nature, or, on 
his showing, to anarchy and barbarUm. The 
supremacy and unity of the »ov..-r^ign power 
is therefore an expr^-sion rif the essential 
condition of civilised life. To this, though 
with some reserves, ht subor'iinar»-s even the 
moral law: and his r:haracti?ri.«*ic theory of 
human selfishni;-ss re<iiic*.-s the '^•nly sanction 
to fear of fon^e or each man's hrijies of per- 
sonal advantage. Hobly^s loves to display 
his paradoxes in the most extreme form, and 
has the force of a s-iblimely one-sided thinker. 
The eff»-ct is increa-ied by an admirable style, 
sententious and weighty, t»-r?e and lucid in 
the highe>t d>-grf-r.aDd enlivened by .-hrewd 
stroke" of wit and humour. In >p:te of oc- 
casional archaisms, the * Leviuthan ' is a 
model of vigorous e.xposition, unsurpassed in 
the languatT". .Vmon? lh>- i>r'>minent as- 
suilant^ nor hi*h<-rto notic-d of Hobb*-" were 
Clarendon in his • Brief \'iew and .Survey ot 
the . . . Err'T? . . . in . . . "L'-viathan"' 
10"t». written by 1070: Tlioma'- i afterward* 
Archbish'.pi T-.-nison in the ' f ■r<<;d of Mr. 
Hobb>-s examin'-d.'lOrO: and .J'^hn Kachanl 
J\.v' in TWO dialogues r lOTi and W>7'-i), 
whicfi Went thrf-'igh many edit ion-. .Monr 
serious phil'i-sopliical critirisiu" came fr>(m 
the Canibridf" l*latoni.-t ••. f 'udworth, who.'.<f 
'Intellectual Syitem" in an elaWati; ••xa- 
mination of lloVjbes's mat>:riali-m, had al- 
ready attacked llobbesS prinrijilea in hi' 
academical the-i.s in 1<W4, and left many 
manuscripts, one or two of whirh 'see under 
CuuwoRlH. llAVVH have l.»-<-n pnbli-hed, 
directed apain^t Hobbe-'setliic- and doctrine 
of necessity, ll^iry .\Ior>- o. v." erifioised 
llobbes's mat<-riali>m in his 'Imiiiortalitv of 
theSouI,' l*;.",!.'. I'.ii.hard f;iiml.<rland( li;.'{l- 
irii^) jj. V.', in hi* '!><• L"-:;ihiis NatuRi!,' 
li'iT'J, attack' chiefly Hohh>-s's theory of 
selfishne... Hamuel Clark'-, in hi-t wocoiirsen 
of Boyle lectur<:S (ITIH-of, al-o defendH 
immutable morality and fr<;«-will against. 
Hobbes. His firet pun.'ly political assiilant 
was Sir It' 'her F'ilmcr ij. v. in 1<'h";2; and 
he i« Irwjuenrly mentioned by Harrington 
in the ' (Jceanu,' lfVX5, who, however, re- 
spected him, and pays him ii very high 
compliment in the ' I'rerogative of f'opiilar 
G<)vemm»-nt ' ( Work*, 17W, p. I'.'/l). Locke 
has been accus'-d of plagiarising from Ilribljcfi, 
and there are points of coincidencr-, although 
it cannot be doubted that Lork<! Ftriick out 
his new way under the influence nf 1 h-scartes, 
and owed little to Hobbes. HobbiVs inilu- 


- - Lrjviathan; or the Matter, 

-. ..■- . 1" -x-.r .)f a (.'ommonwealth, Ec- 

..- .:. :n : Civil," IWl. A Latin version 

..-■•■a^jaa.' partly inoditied, and with 

:• .'•■*.o iialopuos. in placo of the old 

;.-! : '. ■.inclusion.' was prepared by 

- -i 7 " !:- •.■dition of his works publiiihe'l 

■:-: T-i.iac! in !•><>■'<; K. iii. and L. iii., 

.^.■. r.t^ -Ji- lf)(>.S edition. The 'Le- 

::•- ■va-i also reprinteil in 1680, and ro- 

•.: i>\i\ird by .1. Thornton, in 18^1 

»r';. a- a Viilunie in Morley's ' TnivrTsal 

•■..-•■ 11. '(If liibertv and Xece.ssitv,' 

-ii.-r. pt it ions I, K. iv. -.'JO -78. l-J. ' EJc- 

—im Philosophia; sectio prima. I)e 

•r-.' ''■•"), L. i. An Entjlish translation 

. . t'l'rrectcd by Hobbies, appeared in 

. -.v.-!; • Six Lc.'S.sons' to the Savilian pro- 

-< j:' asiri^notny and jjeometrv appended 

l^l-.").-)!!!, in an.swer to Ward's 'In 

■'L.i ■'■pphiam Exereitatiol'hilosophica,' 

\' i'.i;/*'Klfnehu.'5(ieometriiC 1 Iobbiana\' 

A 7--.1 by Wallis's 'Due Corrections for 

"l "•!■•>■). ];(. 'Questions concernin!!; 

■■"•". N..(.-.>>ity, and Chance,' iu reply to 

:■''.'.< ' llefeiiee of the true Liberty 

.-. in .\ctions,' .Vc. ; UiiH\ K. v. 

i' -.•....:! ' \y(u>ti(Ti>itis 'Ay/)(«itC(Jr 'Ai^iro- 

.V 'A.i,:,''<i.ii-. or .Marks of the Absurd 

•ry.ll'iral l.anpiaijo, Scottish (■hurcli 

s. av.d Harbarisnis of .lohn Wallis,' 

•■"7 IL'S ^in^ludin^t letter from llenry 

> . '.( ."ir. Wallis replied in ' Ilobbiani 

■ I' •iiiiinctio." lo. ' lOlementorum I'hi- 

.1'. Ml-: ill secunda de llomine' (partly 

•; unjmblislied nianu.seript now in 

\1S. :"..;i;0 : ,«e.! l{oiiKUT.>!0S, p. .Ml n.), 

, I . ii. 1 1.'!:.'. l(i. ' IC.Yaminatio et 

• ■•. > ^lathl'raaticie llodieniir, qualis 

i'.::' iu libris.Iohannis Wallisii . . . di.'- 

.' :'.\ MX dialoifos," llitM), ]>. iv. 1-232. 

''..l'i;ii^ I'hysiens de Natura Aeris' 

I >::pliiation of the cube, previously 

I .lu^'nymously at I'aris), l(i(il. L. iv. 

■•• Vn-wered by lioyle iu'Kxamen of 

U-Mi.-' and 'l>is.<ertation on Vacuum 

•>; Mr. llobbes,' and by Wallis in 

■ IS lli-aulou-tiniorunienos.' 18. 'Pro- 
.M I'hxMca; l(5tiL>, L, iv. 2<)7-:{84. An 
^'i \i'i>i.'n, • Seven niilo.sophical Pro- 

».' wa^ pnsented to the kinjr at the 

!.;ii.. but not published till 1082, E. 

'. ii"^. li'. • Consiilerations upon the 

. ,:•. Ml. l..>valtv. Manners, and ueliifion 

.-. lI.-l.bes/'ltiiiL'. E. iv. -IO!)-46 (in 

■ :.i\\ alii^'s•IIobbiu5 I leauton-t imoru- 
•~> 'JO. • IV I'rincipiis et Katiocinn- 

»>.-.'Tri :rariini,' L. iv. .'V"") 481, lOtiti. 
.^' ;;ira Circuli: Cubatio Splnprie; 
. .. ■ > I .ibi." lt>i''!>. 22. ' Itosetum (ieo- 
.■.•.•.:■: 1.. V. l-."-^, 1H7I. 23. 'Three 



JohMMk WallM ct 

■liqoot CuMnrti'm, 
licvfiur rqiliraf .' L. t. 

1874, uid «^ tka 'DmI.' I«<S. MB7. MH^ 
E.xi. 27. ' D i I ■— !■ rfcjau fc i^^ 'Mg!^ 

E.»U.»-1«L » 

the ChMM cf tke Ovfl Wan oT 
llaiaked akout 1688, MifraBtd by tta feME's 
degire.iMnif«iliuiiilirf MJabfJM \K9i, 
MthontatiTd7 is iwU E- «i- Ml-UA. 

1079, 1681, L.Llzxxi-xcix. 30. •IFlnrifil 
Kamtive e oi w^mia K Homt,' E. Kr. 38&- 
406 (wntteo aboot 16681. 16^ SI. 'T. H. 
Sfklmesb. Vita,' L. L xiii-xxi; wrinea hf 
hinuelf or dictated to T. Rmer; pwhlititwl 
with the last and * Vitc IfoWwaiw Aneta- 
rium ' (br Richard BUckbume 'a. t.'\ ia 
1681. 32. 'Dialogue between a PhiloaoBber 
and a Student of the Common Law of Eag- 
Und." E. Ti. 1-lflO, 1«(*1. 33. * An Answvr 
to a Book publiahed br Dr. Bramkall . . . 
called "The Catching of the Leriathan,'" 
E. iv. 279-3*4 (written about 1668), 1682. 
St. 'Ilijtoria Ecclesiastic*, Carmine Elegiaeo 
concinnata,' with anonymoos pr«-fac« bv T. 
Rymer, 1688. A ' Whole .\n of Rheto'ric,* 
Tt. 4I&-0IO, corresponds to a free vision of 
Aristotle's ' Rhetoric," dictated to his pupil 
about 1633. The boy's bwk is in tbe'IIard- 
wiek Papers' ( Kobebtsox, p. ■Jifn.) A letter 
to E. Howard, prefixfd 10 the ' English 
Princes,' 1660, is in E. v. 4.5>MJ0. Bishop 
Laney wrote s tract about Hobbes's views of 
free-will in 1*172, but an answer by Hobbes, 
mentione*! in the ' Yit» .\urtiirium,' is not 
dtscoverable (HoBERTsox, p. 202). ' Hobbes's 
Tripoa,' l<i84, contains Xos. 7 and 8, and the 
' Liberty and Necessity' (No. 11). .-V col- 
lection CjilleJ 'T. II. M. opera Philosophica, 
quse Latine scrip.'tit omnia,' was publishe<l 
by Blaeu at .A.mstvrdom in li><>8, Hobbes 
being forbidden to publish thom at home. 
It included the amended 'Leviathan' (see 
above), the three systematic treatises, and 
repriutH of mathematical pieces from ItiOO. 
The • Moral and Political Works of T. II. of 
Malmaabury 'were published in 1750, with life 
by John Camplx'U ( I70'*-1775) fq. r.l from 
tne ' Uiographia IJrilannica.' Tfie 'Human 
Nature" and ' Liberty and Necessity' were re- 
publiihed in 1H12, with life by Philip .Mullet. 

froa tka aolaa «f tia 1 

tj lliit>M ia latia at tb» ~a(* at 
(mjV* koar to Oms. t A>*a 
itM. ia (Banw Itrranga. 1711. iv. 8«IX TW 
lift by AafctvT wm Int pabliAtd ia 1«I9. in 
an alao Waod-a Atbi— (Bia) ; Wkit* Kan- 
■ett'alJTwaf tWCainadiaiMi. 170S,|>Pl lUft-ie; 
CSaiaodoo's Brief Viaw and Soirey... of thaLa- 
Tiatbaa. 1«;6 : Boyk's Worksv ▼■ &U . Sortiiin^ 
Voyac* en AasletatTa, 16«4. pp. S4. ««, M-IOO. 
Th« lirts by Ouapball and Mallat are ataalioaiid 
above. Two aitidea npoa Hobbaa are ia Dls- 
neli's Qoarrek of .\atAar9. Saa abo Httaoo'ii 
Life of Kilton, ri. 379-91 . In Bayle's Dictinnarj 
ia an ioterMtiog article.] L. S. 

(1771-1^31), portrait-painter, was bom ia 
1771 at Birmmgham, where his father wafl 
a manufacturer. Showing a capacity for 
drawing, he was sent to London when still 
a boy, and articled to an eugra\er nnmi-d 
Barney, with whom he remained six years, 
studying at the same time in the lioynl 
Academv schools. He then estiiblished him- 
self in Charles Street, near the Middlesex 
Hospital, as a painter of miniatures and 
water-colour portraits, and cominenced ro 
exhibit at the lioyol .\cademy in 1794. V9 
was fortunate in soon securinij n fashionnbhi 
climt'ele, married, and in 1S(X) removed to 
Holies Street, Cavendish Sciimre, where, >iui>- 
ported largely by his fnthiT, lie lived for a 
short time in a rt!ckli\ssly e\j>ensive style. 
In 1804 he left London for llrintol, whnrn 
for some years he was largely einplnyi'd il> 
painting the portraits of ullieers emiinrking 
for the seat of war in the Peninsula. Thmigli 




ho thus earned Urge aums. he continued 
extraroguit and in difficulties. In 1817, 
after the close of the war, Hobday n?tum»?d 
to the metropolis, and took a lar(^ house in 
Broad Street, City, hoping to renew his 
earlier artistic and social connections: but 
in tliis he was disapirainted, thoug'h pa- 
tronised by Baron llotlischilJ, for whom he 
painted a family group at the price of a 
thouMind guineoii. In 1H:>1 he removed to 
64 I'all Mull, which had large galleries at- 
tached to it ; and after a disastrous specula- 
tion in a panoramic exhibition, called the 
* Poecilorama,'attlieE)iyptian llall.heopened 
these galleries for the sale of pictures on 
commission. Though supported by all the 
leading English and many French artists, 
the venture proved a complete failure, and 
in 1820 llobdiiy became a bankrupt, lie 
died 17 Feb. 1831. having lost his wife two 
years previously. Throughout his chequered 
career he was a constant exhibitor at the 
lioyal Academy, frequently contributing 
during his residence at Bristol. In 1819 he 
89nt a portrait of the Uuke of Sussex; his 
best work was n picture of Carolus the her- ' 
mit of Tong. Ilia portrait of Miss Biggs in | 
the characler of Cora, and that of Richard ' 
Iteynolds, the Bristol philanthropist, have J 
been engraved, the latter by W. Sharp. He 
was always well patronised, and obtained I 
good prices for his works, but the quality of 
his art sutrered greatly from his restless and 
improvident habits. 

[Along memoir of Holxlay will t)e found in 
Aruold'K Libniry of the Fine Arts, ii. 384 ; Red- 
grarosDict. of .\rli8ts; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 
1760-1 88U: Royal Academy Catalogues.] 

F. M. O'l). 

1831 ), politician, born in 1757, son of John 
Hobhouse, merchant at Bristol, rect^ived his 
education at the grammar school there, and 
at Brasenose College, Oxford, where he pro- 
ceeded B..\. in 1778, M.A. in 17HI. He was 
called to the bar by the society of the Middle 
Temple in the latter year. At the general 
election of 1790 he stood for Bristol without 
success, but in February 1797 wns elected 
M.P. for lUetchiugley, Surrey, in 1802 for 
Grampniind, Cornwall, ond in 1K0(5 for Iliu- 
don, Xviltfhire, which Ixirough he repre- 
sented till he withdrew from political lite in 
1818. In 1803 he took office under Addiiig- 
ton OS secretary to the board of control. He 
resigned this in May 1804, and in 1805 was 
nppointfld chairman of the committees for 
supplies. He was also first commissioner for 
investigatinir the debts of the nabobs of the 
Carnatir. Hi- was made a baronet on22I)oe. 
1812. Hobhouse was president of the Bath 

and West of England Society ( 180»-17), and 
his bust by Cbantrey was placed in the so- 
ciety's rooms. He was chairman of the com- 
mittee of the Literary Fund, and a fellow of 
the Royal Society and of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. He dSed at Berkeley Square on 
14 Aug. 1831. Hobhouse was twice married: 
first, in September 1786, to Charlotte, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Cam of Chantrv House, near 
Bradford, Wiltshire ; she died 25 Nov. 1791 : 
secondly, in April 1793, Amelia, daughter of 
the Rev. Joshua Parry of Cirencester. By 
his first wife he had five children, and by 
his second fourteen. His eldest son was 
John Cam Hobhouse [q- v.], afterwards ] 
Broughton. The second, Benjamin, be* 
acaptain in th«69thfoot,andfellat Waterloo." 
Portraits of Hobhou«e were painted by J. 
Jackson, R..\., and T. Phillins, R.A.; the 
latter was engraved by P. Auelinet. wrote : 1. 'A Treatise on Heresy 
as cognisable by the Spiritual Courts, and an 
Examination of the Statute of William HI 
for Suppressing Blasphemy and Profaneness,' 
1792. 2. ' A Reply to F.Raudolph's Letter 
to Dr. Priestley: or an Examination of F. 
Randolph's Scriptural Revision of Socinian 
Arguments,' Trowbridge, 1792: another edi- 
tion, Bath, 1793. Answered by F. Randolph 
in 'Scriptural Revision of Socinian Argu- 
ments, vmdicated against the Reply of Benja- 
min Hobhouse,' 1793. 3. Three letters ad- 
dres,sed to 'the several Patriotic Societies in 
London and its neighbourhood,' and to the 
editor of the ' Morning Chronicle,' occasioned 
by the ' prevailing disposition to riot and in- 
surrection,' 1792. 4. ' An Inquiry into what 
constitutes the Crime of compassing and ima- 
gining the King's Death,' 1795. 5. ' Re- 
marks on several parts of France, Italy, &c., 
intheyears 1783, 1784, and 1785,' Bath, 1796. 
0. A collection of 'Tracts,' 1797. 

[Oent. Mag. 1831, pt. ii. pp. 371, 372, 653; 
Cat. Oxfonl Oniil. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Foster's Baronetage; Brit, Mus. C«t.; AdiI.M83. 
27823 f. 362, 28184 f. 87 (a letter to Warren 
Hustiogs ab<:>ut u sack of barley wheat), 32166 
f. 2.5.] F. W-T. 

HOBHOUSE, HEXRY (1770-1854), 
archivist, only son of Henry Hobhouse of 
Hadspeii House, Somerset, barrister, who died 
3 April 1792, bv Sarah, daughter of the 
Rev. Richard Jenkyns, canon residentiary of 
Wells, was bom at Clifton, near Bristol, on 
12 Ajiril 1776, and went to Eton in 1791. 
He matriculiited from Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford, on 10 April 1793, graduated B.A. 1797, 
M..\. 1799, and was created D.C.L. 27 June 
1827. On 23 Jan. 1801 he was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple, w^as solicitor to 
11. M. Customs from 1606 to 1812, and then 


b«mBe toUcbar to tk» n iMii rj 

nr the hoaaa 
tai heidtlMt 


Ml 3t* J^e k*17. 
■ata JbIt leSl7,«fcM h» 
atlfiOOLtrmt. H»«ai 
alio kwper of tin atal* •»» * 

l-J'ituliudamh. OaSJoM 
lidztneii m farj cowrilhr. 
the ectlfwiaitif I 
&ndcl ^ 

He nMigaed tbe cb»irwiwiiiy i» IStt. 
the fonnatioii of the leeotd 
rendeTed raliuble iereite to ^d ■!■« h« 
•ecntary. and becmme commiaMaacr 10 J< 
1852. The commuMoa f MiAiJ * 
P»pen of Ilenrr VIII,' ia Amm 
quarto, the Ustsppearui^ IB ISai. I 
aup«rint«DJed the editui^. aad took ptat 
pauu to (irvxluce aa aaemate text, bailtr 
Lit direction a permaoeiit STftemof unagfr- 
'' ' . <• suce papen wa* laid daiva,haM 
a exiit in^ in the ofieea of tW aeav- -"I -late. His death took (laeeatUaii*- 
pen {In>ue on \:i April 18M. Be 
7 Apnl l«Oe, Harriett, uxtli ihaghter ti 
John Turton of Sugiiall Hall, ~ 
she died at Bournemouth oa 7 May' l^SBt 
aged 73, having had eizht cUUrea. TIk 
fbartb oon. Arthur Hobhouse, «l« created 
Barun Hobhouse in ISSo. 

(Oest. Mag. 18S4, ii. 7»-S0 ; Dod** 
I8SI. pp^ 30U2 ; Timaa, IS A{«il I8M. p. •.] 

G. C. B, 

Bkuc'i.iiiun (178(V-1-«*), ttateanaa, the 
eldest -on of Sir Benjamin lloWionw, ban. 
[q. r ', bv his first wife, CiurSotte, daacbrter 
and beirv:-^ of Samuel Cam of ChantrrluaaF, 
B^ldfo^l, Wiltshire, inis bum at fCedlaad, 
near Urliitol,oD 27 June 1786. His mothervas 
a dissenter, and 1 lobhoose was »ent at an ««rir 
age to the school of the unitarian, John Prior 

I^lin [q. v.". at Bristol. He was afterwards , ^ 

removtHl to ^Vestminster School, whence he ears, lockiag at weir dAOca, aad *'*y*'g tfce 
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, when 
bvi obtained the Hulsean prize in 1808, and 
vraduated B.A. 1806, M..\. 1 >« 1 1 . While at 
Cambridge he founded the ' ^Vhig Club ' and 
thfi ■ Amicable Society '( Moore, Zt/eo/iord 
Jiyron. p. tiO). and became the close and in- 
timate Iriend of Byron, with whom he after- 
wanli (ravelled across Portu^l and Spain 
to Gibraltar, Albania, Greece, and Constan- 
tinople. Hobhouse returned to England in 
1810, and in 1813 followed the track of the 
Freurh and Germau armies throu({h Ger- 

fh^ wnttca by I 

ofCaaaiaf I 


IBlfl^ eaCiUed « A 'MEag^lfMlab,' ftc. Hob. 

hald ta W gd^of a bccaek of 
{cmlcge br the HaoM cT C<mmam {Fvl. 
DtUif, zU. 9i»-e, aa»-1004, lOOtmoM), 
and was eowwahtad to Ke«;pte oa 14 Dee;. 
in that year. To the ^aeMsoa ' Wr*hat pre- 
Teau Um pwali bvm waOdag dowa to the 
booaeaad faUaaoat the ■w ah rw fey the 

_ iH> taeir d 
key into tlae ThaiaeaF' he aacwcnd that 
'their true practical BTOteetora . . . aretobe 
found at the Hone Guards and the Knight»- 
bridge barracks' (pp. 49-.)0). On 6 Feb. 
182U the court of king's bench refused to in- 
terfere with the speaker's warrant (BjtEXB- 
Wii I. and Albebms, Report; 1 H-JO, iii. 420), 
and Uobhoose had to content himself with 
a long protest in the ' Times,' the first part 
of which appeared on the 8th, and was con- 
tinued daily until it was concluded on the 
loth. He remained in Newgate until the 

many, and was prvaent at Paris in>fay 1814 I dissolution of parliament on 2U Feb. Pn>- 
wheii Louis X\ III entered the capital. In viously to his release he issued his address 
Janaarv 1^15 he acted as 'best man' at | ' to the independent electors of Westminster' 
Byron's wedding. I'pon Napoleon's escape i (Rrf(,rm of Parliament, W'ettmiiuter Eleo- 
firam Elba, Hobhouse again went to Pans, i tioit, kc, 182U, pp. t>-8). This time he sue- 



P.eeeded in beating his old antagonist Lamb 
ty a mnjority of 446 votes, and was returned 
to pnrliainent as thecoUeagUB of Sir Francis 

Hobhouse made his maiden speech in the 
House of Commons on May (Pari. Debatet, 
new ser. i. 2o5-tiO), and thenceforth took an 
active share in the debates, an I for some years 
was a strenuous supporter of every measure 
of reform. At Pisa in September 1822 Le 
met Byron for the lost time, who on parting 
touehingly said, ' Hobhouse, you should never 
have come, or you should never go.' In I82.'l 
Le became one of the most active members 
of the Greek committee in London. In J uly 
1824, as one of Byron's executors, he proved 
the will and superintended the arrangements 
for the funeral at 1 1 iieknall Torkurd, Xotting- 
hamshire, and it was uprjii his advice that 
Hvron's ' Memnirs,' which Imd been given to 
itfoore, and sold by him to Murray, were de» 

^ troyed (cf., Murtay, i. 44.'j). In 
consequence of Byron's death the Greek 
committee were seriously embarrassed, and 
Hobhouse resolved to go to (ircece himself 
in order to manage the loan, but ullimately 
Henry Lytton Bulwer went out in his place. 
Though the two members for Westminster 
were among the staunchctit 8up])orters of re- 
form in the of Commons, they were not 
includiid iti t he administration formed by Lord 

rGrey in November lti30 (see a curious pas- 

' Mge in LoED Beopohton , lUcollectumt of a 
liong Life, cjuoted in the Edinburi/h Review, 
cxx.xiii. \VX\). Hobhouse succeeded his fa- 
ther as the second baronet in .VugiLst 1m;JI, 
and on 1 Feb. ISK was appointed secretary 
at war in the place of Sir Henry Brooke 
Parnell (afterwards Lord Congleton), being 
admitted to the privy council on the (ith of 
the same mouth. He applied himself vigor- 
ously to the reform of hi.s department, and, in 
spite of the oppo.sition of the Horse Guards, 
succeeded in reducing the charges on the 
' dead list,' in abolishing several sinecures, 
and in restricting flogging in the army to 
certain defined misdemeanors. On finding 
himself unable fully t<:i carry out his views 
of war-office reform, he exchange<i this post 
for that of chief secretary for Ireland on 
28 March 183.'5. In the following mouth he 
refused to vote with the government against 
the resolution in favour of the abolition of 
the house and window tax, as he had fre- 
quently urged the ultolition of the tax wliile 
«u independent member. He therefore re- 
signed both his ulllce and hi.s seat for West- 
minster (Par/. Drbatet, xvii. 757-8), but 
though he offered himself for re-election lie 
found that he had lost his p<jpularity by the 
acceptance of oliice, and was defeated by 

Colonel lT«orge de Lacy Evans [q. v.] by a 


majority of iftj votes. On Lord 
accession to power in July 18-'i4 Hobhouse ac- 
cepte<l the post of first commissioner of woods 
and forests, wit h a seat in the cabinet, and was 
returned at a by-election in the same month 
for the borough of Nottingham. During his 
short tenure of this office the houses of par- 
liament were burnt (16 Oct.) On the dis- 
missal of Lord Melbourne in November Hob- 
house resigned with the rest of his colleagU( 
At the general election in 1835 he unsi 
cesafuUy contested Bristol, but was returni 
for Nottingliain without opposition. When 
\jOTi\ Melbourne formed his second administra- 
tion was ]iressed to resume his old 
po«t at the war office, but on his refusal was ap- 
pointed president of the board of con trol.wit ha 
seat in the cabinet, on 29 April 183.'). Hisfirst 
act as Indian minister was to advise the king 
to cancel the appointment of Lord Heytes- 
bury [q. v.], who had been selected by Peel to 
succee<l Lord William Bentinck as governor- 
general of India. Hobhouse was present at 
the queen's first council at Kensington Palace 
on 30 June I8.°)7, and has left an interesting 
account of this, and of his first interview 
with her majesty as president of the board 
of control, in his ' Itecollections of a Long 
Life' (Eilinliuryh I{ecien; cxxxiii. 324-9). 
During the Uussian intrigues in Central Asia 
ho strongly supported Lord Auckland's policy 
in India against the remonstrances of some 
of his own colleagues, and he was one of 
Palmerston's most energetic supporters in 
the cabinet on the Turco-Russiun q\iestion. 
Oil the resignation of Lord Melbourne in 
September 1841 Hobhouse retired, and was 
suceeeded by Lord Ellenborough. 

On 1(1 Julv 1846 he restimed his post at 
the board ot control, with a seat in Liril 
John UiisshU's first cabinet. At the general 
election in the following year he was defeate<l 
at Nottingham, but was returned to parlia- 
ment again ut a bv-election in Murcli 1848 
for the borough of Harwich. He was created 
Huron Broughton de Oyfford on 26 Feb. 
1851 (Journal of the Jlotme of Lords, IxxxVii. 
o3), and upon his final retirement from office, 
on the resignation of Lord John Russell in 
Febniary 1852, was made a K.C.B. Frtim 
this date Broughton practically withdrew 
from public life, and attended the Horse 
(iuttrds only at rare inter\'al8. He took part 
in the debates for the last time during the 
discussion of the Government of India Bill 
in July IS.'iS (Pari. Dtbates, 3rd ser. cli. 
1561-7 and 1688). During his retirement 
hesjient most of histirae at'Tedworth House,. 
Wiltshire, and at his town house in Berkeley 
Square, amusing himself in literary pursnitA 


Oh:;^ J 



and in the societj- and o->rr«7«-i:i'Kr?* zi zlr 
numoiou.'!> friends. He 41~-i »f:*r a 'irr: ill- 
ness at Berkeley Square on 3 J-zz.- l?r&. ii 
the eiphtv-third year of hi* arr. aii ""t* 
buried at Kensal Green. I>nrnz •zir •iirliT? 
portion of his political canevT II>bt--'3»r ■»»§ 
a sincere and uncompr<>xi$inf rain! Aj 
he grew older his opini)C5 nirllowfrd trnz. 
age, and by the time m3«t of th-: a.-^*^-::^^ 
which he had strenuously adroc*:«<i :_ Li» 
youn^r days had been pa.i?ed he had b-c:^ 
a resting and thanlcful whl?. This '■^-♦"p* 
was so evident that upon his return to r-So* 
in 1M6 it was remarked that he was -t-o* -.€ 
the most conservative members in !>:« J?ia 
liussell's cabinet. He was a vijoroos drba;er. 
more formidable in attack than r«sdy in Prph-. 
but by no means an eloquent sp^^ktr. l!« 
was a pood classical scholar, a lively and en- 
tertaining companion, and a staunch and 
chivalrous friend. Hobhouse is said To have 
been the first to invent the phrase * his ma- 
jestys opposition 'forthe anti-ministerial side 
of the house {EdirAurgh ^n>«r.c3ttxiii.9tl i. 
He wa-i a partner in Whitbread's London 
brewery. He married, on 28 July 1 ■?:&«, Lady 
Julia Tomlinson Hay, youngest dauzhT<-r of 
George, s^-venth marquis of Tweeddale, by 
whom he had three daughters, viz. ( 1 1 Julia 
Hay, who died, aged 18, on 5 Sept. 1>49: 
{•2\ Charlotte, who married on 27 July ISM 
Lieut.-colonel Dudley Wilmot Carleton,now 
fourth lord Dorchester: and (3l Sophia, who 
married on 31 July 1h."»1 the lion. John 
Strange Jocelyn, now fifth earl of Rod'^n. 
Lady Ilobhouse died on 3 April If^iTi. The 
baronv became extinct upon Lord Brough- 
ton's death, while the baronetcy descended to 
his nephew, the present Sir Charles Parry Hob- 
house. There is a mezzotint by Turner after 
Ix)nsdale"3 portrait of Hobhouse. and an en- 
graving by Meyer alter Buck in the ' Reform 
of Parliament,' &c., previously referred to. 

In iN'Mt, as Byron a most intimate friend, 
he was anxious to reply to l^dv Bvron's 
' Ucmarks,' but was persuaded by Lord Hol- 
land and others not to do so. He, however, 
drew up, ' to be used if necessary, a full and 
Kcrupulously accurate account 'of the sepa- ' 
ration. This manuscript and the rest of the 
' Byron Paper* ' are in tne possession of Lady 
Dorchester. A collection of Lord Brough- 
ton's ' Diaries, Correspondence, and Memo- 
randa, Jtc, not to be opened till 1900,' is in 
the keeping of the authorities of the British 
3Iuseum. In addition to the two articles in . 
f hf ' Westminster Review ' on ' Ijord Byron ; 
in (ireece.' and Dallas's ' Recollections" and ' 
Metlwin's Conversations of Ixjrd Byron ' (ii. ' 
2l'">-62, iii. 1-35), he was the author of the ' 
following works: 1. 'Essay on the C>rigin ; 


iz;£ xzr.'Har i-.Q. zc Sii.rrlirrs; ti&r ti>r H=I- 
«ai PrJtt-Esstyr-.T -.3ti yistr 1 •♦.>?. ... By 
J.C. H:eci-'Ss».3uA— -ifTrlrl^Coijif^.Caal- 
iciar*. Lroso-lT*.'-. IiS;-. ±. - Iziratioos 
isi TnzjuL'iiiiiis fr-TL 1^ Xtoj^t asd 
M-.'isz. 'Tjarsi^. ':>sr--Z!7c wrti ccifisal 
P>=* nfTTT lefre* i-L-rCsiifL C:CIrtrri»i br 
J. C. H:.":i,:i*r. Blv. :<f Triihx C:H«ee, 
C4-r''i-jigr.' L.:cii;c Ir*l«>. ~v:, Tlis v:Cia»e 
c:e:airs Twrcrr-tiiK- jt«»06s by H:te:>ai«, 
ilar ty Byr-'i. lai -■■-!iry-**i.iE by «!»« 
wTh««w S. -A J:cr=^y rir^-izi *'*»-^"'i 
tzti acisr PryrzZiXrr :f Tzrkrj ir Esrcp» aad 
Asa. *? C-.'za-'.tz.'.s.-^.i. iz^ix^ iia v«ars 
1-»X» tzd Iry.'. By J. C. H:4&>3se.* Lao- 
d-n. I^IS. i'.:-: a n^w •s-il-k-s t with a »Bie- 
what Cr.tnd'r'.i .L:«ia:'S.l<>>,~To.i! vol*. 
■t. -Tar scVrairic of »:>a>e L«ters wiirrea 
by aa f-r^'"^'" res:i<'nt in Paris dciin^ 
tfc* last hrrlzz. ■:' ti.* Emperor Xapoieon. 
With aa Aj.j«:iii -f OScial I>9caaaeiiT«/ 
aiyjo.. IjyQi'jo. 1~1^. "v^. if vol*. ->. • His- 
torical Elaftrtti-.ti vf the Fourth Canto of 
"* Chili* Har: Id : ~ cccraining Diss<enations 
on the Rains ot R:>=:r. and an Eway on 
Italian Literarnr*. Br John Hobhouse. of 
TrJiitT CoC«re. Casbrlig*. >L.\. and F.K.S. 
Seeond edition, revised and corrscted," L/nt- 
doa, 1 ^l ». ~vo. Th* grater part of the notes 
to the fourth canto were- written by Hob- 
house at Venice. whrTi- he had the advantage 
of consultinz the ducal library. Thev grew 
to such an t^xtent that they baid to be divided 
into two pans, one part being published with 
the poem, and the othrr in a separate volume 
under the above title. C. ' A Defence of 
the People, in reply to I»rd Erskine's "Two 
Defences of the Whigs,'*' anon.. London, 
1^19, >vo. .\nother edition of this pam- 
phlet was published in the same year with 
Hobhouse's name on the titl^page. 7. 'A 
Trifling Mistake in Tliomas, I»rd Erskine's 
recent Preface. Shortly noticed and respect- 
fully corrected in a I>;tter to his Lordship, 
bv the author of the " Defence of the People," 
London, l^ia, Isvo. t*. 'Speech of Mr. Hob- 
house on the Hustings at Covent Garden oa 
Saturday, i7th February, 1M19,' »vo. 9. ' A 
supplicatory letter to Lord Viscount Castle- 
reagh, K.(i. By John C. Hobhouse, E«j., 
F.R.S. 'on the bills introduced mto parlia- 
ment for preventing seditious meetings], 
T.«ndon, 1819, 8vo. 10. ' Proceedings in tlie 
House of Commons and in the Court of 
King's Bench relative to the author of the 
" Trifling Mistake," together with the Argu- 
ment a^inst Parliamentary Commitment, 
and the Decision which the Judges gave with- 
out hearing the Case. . . . Prepared for the 
Press bv John C. Hobhouse. Esq., F.R.S.,' 
Londonj 1820, 8vo. 11. 'Substance of tho 

:■■■-. i:ii." \\< 

. ■■■:■ ■■<: C>!.i:-I 

- ■ - . •■ . Slu-niii:-i>i 

" -". ■-.■.■ William }'■:.- 

■ :; ■••■■r: II..I,Iyn w,:- 

. .• .'.:it>-il iViim ( 'on-. > 

■;. :i \- U,-c.\7-S. :■■',: 

l..m(l in tlir s.iim- v- r 

:';i.' •F,]iilli!ilnniin ( i\ - 

- : ••■■I'tlu- iiifm)ii'r> tort!.'' 

;. J» Nov. i:i:.' to » Apr. I 

■.:•;' 'iiitod sjMikor of :« ■ 

'.:■■ Stjiniiuvy ]);irliiiin"n! in 

1- rlortiM.1 !i l'.l|.)\v ol' xh" 

.\n\n! iri'i. iiii'l a.lniiM! ■! 

•■■ -raxi-lli-il in Italv. wln-p- 1;- 

-.•■i:v'.' l)ooU.<. 11.. inlici-ii'-.hiu 

. '-^ iiicli wa^; V'.rv lai-L."-ly i:i- 

- ~ L •••.•»» in niininii. Witli \i\< 
•- - i liisiiiii'"«tral lionii'. Nai-.f- 

- . ::-.]iloyim; Po'I.t a^ the ar- 

- '■.i,.linf; i^ ili.-c-rilnnl in I 'r. 
-:.l lli>torvol'('oiinvall,' I To"-, 
. .rjravi'il al lliv ••.\]ii'n>" ot' 
■.;;.;lit...l in hnildin/ 

:, " 'n<. iilpl (li'-lroyiKl all tl;.' 
" n_- to till' co.-t. Tin.' liiiok-, 
'. .' '.U-rtion. and wiTi- ili\ i<l."l 
-- < 'l' natnral an.l moral |iliil'- 
— ..!■■ a niann.-icrii). calalojnr. in 
• ■'■ 1 with a -lar lli.w worli-i 
■. : 'n ill', lioillfian. All l■ll.r^.'v- 
- ■•> ..l' lili.rar\ ta<!v.< had IV--.! 


'. : at Nan.-;\\ Iiyd'.-n lion.*" .m 

! li-! inonnmi'iit in Si. ( '.ilnirjl) 

^ i \-:-y Ion;; in-cription. Ib'inar- 

■•'\ .i.-in^rliiiT of Thinna- ('osIi.t. 

". ^- .1. Sin.' ri'inarri.'d in IT-"'!' 

^ t' l".\.t'.r. 'I'll'' i-»tat'^ nnd> r 

■. •■• TO tlif i.~-ni' mal" ot' Tliom.'i.s 

'.'■ >.;■'.. l"rn. wliili' t 111' liiirarv \v. n" 

•, '\v t.> .lolin (^iiii'ki'. Ill ITiW 

.: -lit' catalo;;-!!!.' in two y'llnmr.-^, 

■ '; .;ii..''a lloliliniaiia ..-i\.' Caia- 

• ;•;■. iii\ta cT.'inplar i|ii->d inaiiii 

. \ p.:rti' .If-criptiiin r..'lii|iiit ll'i- 

'.x-.. .Vniii^'iT di- Naii-wliydi-n ill 

1.' ■••■.ibi:!-.' .\il I'ditioii ill oil'- 

..•••..1 i;i irti".'. I»ll).lin .-ay- in 

• : • 1 kn'iW not \v!i-> wa.< tin' 

• ;OTan.i'in'.n: of tlii- (.oUi'i-- 
■ ■..'•'■•.. '11-1 i>ii.-rM.r will find ':'■ 

■: : . ..'Vt-rvtliin:; of i;-; kind. 



Slj:- .=r: "ae T^fc^in. :c -.i- V—v.-r ■->' lasrj- 



theea Cro6$iaiu~* < £«UK:4b=bc. :c. 

The books were sold in Lto£:^ i^ '. 

produced about i.SOOil. Nt=Firi.-i 

was destroyed br fire oc 30 N:t. 1: __ 

its collections of ancir^': d5rz==c."r?. tii ?;- •»■_ us i. "jprnic ":*icai]-a7 *; L* rrcmr ji-"* 

cords relatinj; to the S:a3=arv -■«-""'— -^' lait asfj r>:»evra. ic ■ - jiar "i«ia:rr''il iisi- 

«nd a raliuUe cabinet of ziaEn-$. lei ; ia»£ j. -i* ?:icrrr7 'ik ma jma. -jtt a=«: 

[Polwhele's Cor=»»:- :»:•$. t. r*-! . riJr- 
chi«l History of Coicwall. IMT. L il-l— * . 
Nichols's lUnstni^ioss. t. S<S3: S:s.:V* Zj-j- 
rary Anecdote*. i:i. TSO. T=iL 44K 4«1. r». it 
709-10 ; Boase and CoanaeT^f Br:!. C-.i:lt-- z. 

246.] '5. •:. 3. 

H.:ii!i« ■wTJst i* drCjT'r. • H_-5 yi.iil.;«3:» 

*■: KT "as -exuzaut^ :t Z'^^s ~-: ■a* ■■-m 
■»» wxjdi. trt ir*^ "*£ t: "jh- ZJissr?*- 
ti:a. nf ■fari* rsiK=i if rT7;i::ci3D:ia jCxar* 
IT '>a.-^—\Z.-T -ifr^jTr-i <7i-<:=ata:» tjirSi- 
H ■.iittr.'i VL3'_-:'»T'£ " • X^arl Brrux- 

H06S0N, EDW.^BD (iriiJ-lsai . V:- 
tanist, was bom in Anco«t» Laz.'r. Xis- 
chester, in IT^i. "When thi^r j"**r» -li ie 
lost his father, and his mother haris; ^-is. 
way to drink he wag pat and«r the carr :f 
an uncle at Ashton-nnder-Lya*. Ills K-l-t 
«ducation was obtained at a ^y -ch^^l '.hsx 
and at Manchester : but at th« »gr: of eirb'sr 
ten or eleven he was sent to week. Abe 2 
IKK) he attended for the first time a 3^<<rti&7 
of the Society of Botanist«, where i.e f-.cae^ 
the acquaintance of Cieorge Caley. a botacieal 
collector for the royal eardens at Kew. and 
then recently returned from Xew isinih 
Wales. Hobson studied cryptoeam'-os as 
well as flowering plants, and in this i-iftf.- 
ment became a correspondent of Dr. (after- 
wards Sir William Jackson) Hooter '•}. t.^. 
Dr. Taylor, his associate in the * Muscologia 
Britannica,' Dr. Greville of Edinburgh, and 
other active and prominent botanists. They 
all freely acknowledged their indebtedness to 
Hobson for specimens sent to them. 

In lhl8 he brought out the first volume of 
his ' -Ma'ci Britannici,' and thre*f years later 
was bu.«y on the second. At this period he 
was in the employ of Mr. Eveleigh, a Man- 
chester manufacturer, who was alw> a natu- 
ralist and mineralogist. Entomology thence- 
forward became a favourite pursuit with 
Ilobeon. The Banksian Society was founded 
in January 1829, and Hobson was unanim- 
ouslychosen itsfint president. Shortlyafter- 
wards the curatorsbip of the museum of the 
Manchester Society for the Promotion of Na- 
tural History was offered to him at a salary 
of 100/. per annum; but he declined to leave 
his old employer, although his wages wei« 
very small. 

fie died on 17 Sept. 1830 at Bowden, and 
was buried at St. George's Church, Hulme, 
where a mural tablet was placed bv his old 
eolleacues. The herbarium formecl bv him 
passed into the keeping of the Manchester 
Botanical and Horticultural Society at Old 
Tiafford, and his collection of insects came 


ri£: a C-.CiasLi-.ii. :if 

M» -.i Ber>j 

. I".-*. 

^~ZiCt '.iiOit i"*"_ •Ji.-B:-:'* iTiT -c. 4:-44 " 

' 2. Z'. J.' 

HOBSoy.:-j«.'H.v-ii'.X-i«. :r55-iv>ji. 

•jfiTJtsa. :- \~'A. Af:-r vi^-jr.\ etf asiti:a k; 
was skt: - : friiy =«iLirie at 5c. fJvTjp:'* 
II-jiTctaL L»:e>i:c Ht Xr^skSr: a =«eit*r '/t 
ti* K.:-nL C S*^ -,f ^zz^xa, kA £aal}r 
iwiiirx t.: l»!*'.'=r- a jiyi^aa. west •% 
(/-*«=4' C'-.Ijtc*. C*3t*r.iz^. tad tiiwe gn- 
iMriii M-B.£n Ir^.. M.D.'la K*. I.i Kil 
be wttled is prx- je>r is. Leed*. tzii ca 30 Sepr. 
1^33 w»4 -rlftired j-iT«;rla= t-^ -Le :r.£rmarT 
there, a jo« wLati! Le ?e«lii*»i :a IM^t. 
Diritr tils p»-{'>i Le p -•.■l_»L^ in 'Le • Me- 
dical <!Ja«es-«' vjore t-.*T* '•.-■n di»b>^e*, and 
on tbe external --e '.f cr- yn oiL Hl« tar>4i 
led Lim to frsqiett tLr *::rf. He \^l'mfp^ 
to the Haiewwi corr?:tg club, fcre'l nt»- 
h'7r°«%,and h-int^d wi-L *>.•; Bramham h'lnt. 
For a short time Le k'rpt a pack of harrien. 
lie bad -iome kiwwIe'i;L-e oi natural history, 
and in 1»36 iKCame acrj-iainterl with I tiarl^ 
Warert on. the natnrali-t, who livedat Walton 
Hall, about twrlve mile^ from IjsiAm. Wtn 
Hobym became a fre<j ient visitor and phy- 
sician to the (iunily. Waterton often wroti; 
to him. Their intercourv>; ceftfied a few yearn 
before Waterton's death. While it last4>d 
Hobson states that he <^howed Waterton a 
memoir which he had written of the natu- 
ralist. This statement was not believed at 
Walton Hall, and the book, 'Charles Water- 
ton; his Home, Habits, and Handiwork,* 
which Hobson pablished in 1866, contains 
abundant internal evidence that the state- 
ment abont Waterton's approval of the manu- 
script is untrue. Many of the stories in the 
book are false, the letters given have been 
altered, and the only faithful parts of the 
work are the engravings of \S alton Hall, 
gome of them drawn from photographs taken 
by Hobson himself. A fall from bis carriage 


Speech of John C. lloli! 
RILS,, in the Ilmiseof* 
iUv,'27t]i April, 182(J,on ' 
John KiisswU for ii Ilef-" 
London, 1826, t?vo. I'^. 
mode ill several visits from •) 
1854. BytbeKight Ilr.r, 1 
G.C.B./Londoii, 18.^,8 s 
volume!* tlje substance ik 
tbo notes to tlis fourth 
Harold" are recast au-l 
13, ' Itecollectioits of Q L 
Broufhton de Oyfford,' ;:. . 
IStifi, 8vo, r, ■srols, 

[JJooro's Life of Lord F.v-n»- 
thentic NiuTBtiTe of the Kt. 
ctcr ElMlioti, &(.',, 181B: ' 
nExitii. 287-337 ; liunrU-rlv 
104, ll9-3a ; Coitiv-tin. W, 
Skotchns io tli« Ohnjic! of St. ■ 
36 ; Frnser'o Ms^iirm, iiii 
MagMiac, cih-. i7fl-Sa. I' 
SIT. 1874. ii. 123, 243. ;iG«, -i 
1885, i. 241, )i. 405; Aiiniixl i 
pp. 168-9; Tituiif, 4 Juw ' 
Peerage, (te,, I8K8, pp. 7:.' ! 
185fi, p. 101; AlaijiniWikMi; 
pp. &o2, 634 ; Ihiydn's Bui/k 
Notes and Qiierns, 7th H'i.\: 
Jletuni af Lista of Mnmltrirv. • 
S, Siiiilus'd Life of .T<Aa V ' 
Hub. Cat,] 

188ttl, edui-atioitnl writ, r 
Hicbttrd Ilublyn, riictor < . 
chuitcr, born tlinn* on A | 
cated at his niiljvi" t'.wT^ 
School, Tivtirtoti. ! > 
scliolar to BmIHoI ('<>]' l. 
proceeded B,A. 18i!-|, M. \ 
orders fmir year.5 later, • 
clrrical lifp, be devntetl li 
andcducationalwritingiii ' 
wa« 'I'aroiliar und fricndl' 
«f Mttryli'toiie, wbefi' tif •!• 
vi'urg in tbu same t' i 

'j-2 Aug. ima. II, 


Hi iblyn wrote: 1. 'A I'l 
liat'd in Mediciui" and (In 
(with a Snpjiletni'ut, 1 ■ :. 
Price, 1887), U. 'A ^. 
illustrated by eiitrmvii 
nua! of tbi ' St emu 
Manual of \a1 iiral I 
Comstoek, 1 846. Liir 
6. ' A Dictionary uf : 
1 2mo. 

[Infommtioo pomnim 
Ijn of Komerewt H'jiin 
4SeiitI88«; Oil.Oifni 
OiQinifiiBM ; Brit. Mur 

wen SOS- 
nut bo- 
Ourinjr this 
r Cambridgx; 
in tbn 
wrote two 
In one of 
ttkd waju of 
Uiat therv 
iipinion tbat 

' Aimis llua:- 

hs appeus to 

second wife 

.•^w "iwimilge is nAiBpd 
'. kia will provided 
► of the condiui 
tk ^a beqitfst is du>< 
: in the mtddlt; 
.3i^< uf dear watrr 
» SBK »treit.«. Tbertr 
-^ts uf Hohson, 
_-» ia th« (fuddh»lj. 

.-j» « wtnotla^rtca, vnf. 

»%«,iii, l,>9, 179, 

£>C of KriKlitad. 

ae<i Bofvan't, Re- 

-=».^.itl : Ljtoaa't 

■r,'., Lifr of 

1st i«P. 

I. »ii. iii. 128, 

-' *tukalfy'< Itine- 

T. C. 





and two terms in order to trav-1 ;z :L-- c;z- 
tint-nt lO.//. I «iV. Rey.. Oil". Hi?-. .<;•■.. v. I. 
ii. pt. i. p. (59). Subsequently. u« Lc states in 
lii-s ' Counter-«narle ' (pp. 01. Tl' i, L* TLtvrr 1 
himself at the Middle Tempi!'. Tnitr •!.■- 
auspices of his uncle, Lord B'^r^-LI-rv. L* r: ■^ 
into high favour at court, and wa.i iz~'i:~r.-\j 
«mploycd on confidential mi-si- n». His :": r- 
tuncH were further advanced hx his s:irri:siv-. 
on 21 May 1582, with Jlaryl or Mir^-irrt. 
daughterof IlentyCarey.lord II;;nsd n '-.v.' 
The day after the \re<l«ling !;•- -was kni.:;."rl 
by the 'queen (Metcalfe, lio',): ■■/ Ki-I-jh^'. 
p. 14i ). In August 15^4 he uccompanirr^i Kir 
tather-in-law on a special mission to So :■"- 
land ( cf. Oil. State I'apfri, Sc'jttisli. j.^.. 4-3. 
485). Ills uflability and leaminjr ;rTeii*.iy i=i- 
pressed James VI, and aft<.-r att>:nd:nr *"-- 
jjcott ish ambassador, Patrick, master o:' < inj, 
an far as Durham, Iloby rec-.-ived from rL- 
JScottish king a fluttering leti'-r.'i.'i:-'. :;4< ••.-■. 
15.H4, in which James intimat-.-d his '.or.gir.^- 
for his comjianv, and how he had • ce- 
manded his amlnssador to sue for i: .' A rra:i 
also wrote to the same eflict, and •nelosed 
a 'small token,' which he b«-gjred Iloby *•■ 
wear in 'testimony of their bro*h-rh'<'.'i ' 
4 it. Scottish, p. 4*9 '). These am-ni-i-s pr'.-. -ii 
<lisplea.<ing to Elizabeth, and II' 'by four.d 
it convenient for a time to plead thv a^'i:-r 
as an excuse for not attending- the e.-ur:. 
Domestic troubles also harassed him i if>. 
Horn. 15l!<l-90,p. I' On l'4 rr.-pt. l-ViO 
Le was returned M.I', for Qii>.enborouch. 
Kent, and gained distinction as a speuk>;r in 
{nrliament. On .31 Oct. following iie coir.- 
plained that he had been 'not only bitten bu* 
<jTerpassed by the hanl hand of AVal sins- 
ham, and appealed to Secretary Iiavis'in to 
use his influence with the que<.-n in his 
behalf (ib. Dom. 1581-90, p. :5t)5i. IVins 
ultimately restored to favour, Ilobv in July 
1598 was chosen to report to tde que^rn 
the progress of the preparations against tlie 
Annada (ib. Dom. 1581-(K), p. -'.(Ci). In the 
«iisuinff October he was elected M.I*, for 
Berkshire. He was made J.P. for Middlesex 
hv a special renewal of the commission on 
I'r Dec. 1591 (ib. Dom. 1591-4, p. 144;. 
In 1592 the queen yi.<'ited him at lii-ham 
■<XlCIIOI»,/'royrf*fr« of Queen Elizabeth, iii. 
l;)0-6). lie was chosen M.P. for Kent in 
February 1592-3, and in l.')94 was granted 
letters patent for buying and providing wool 
for sale in RnglanJ for ten years, and the 
grant was ratified in thf succeeding reign 
(ib. Dom. lttOa-10, p. 1.14). Hobv accom- 
panied the expedition to Cadiz in i-'tPC, was 
made constable of Quetnborough C'ustle. Isle 
of Sheppey, Kent, on 9 July 151(7, and on 
the following 28 Oct. received a commis- 


sr-:- i l;....i.-:, 
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i'\\ •■• .'. '.:' *;.• Iii". ar : J 
.::'. BvfcKE. K -in'l Ii' 

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t:T.-.*ed t?.v r'rir:. '.-;..' ■ 



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lift'OM^ , 




hi- b''*ar."v :^r,': '••.■:■*. 
• IJriliiEuia' ■ .;.;•:.• • Ii 
}r-'::\r,. (-.:..:■:... 
berr.ia' i 15Sr • h-.T.. 
iented :o rhe iir.ri."-.- ' :' 
ford. Sir He:..-. >■«.'•...•■: 
of'.-r. Chr-.- -it k;." II 
th>-'.I'ci«n. u- hi- (.■ 
'l"h«.-oi.h:;ii5 ]Ii..;.'oi.i! •,. 
orElovd '[.v. - iffic!-r.r. 
l.-AL'-".:rt', Mr.'I h.:o;ih. 
lat'.- Mii.i.-r.'-r: now I- 
of hi-tirst MoT:v>r,'4-o. LiA'.u. l*;*,!!, \vhii:h 
wa.*! an-w..-r'-d by Hi;'i''.n- d iring ili>: -arii<» 
vear. 2. ' \ (,'ouii*.:!-— nari'! 1''..- I-Iiiiiii<-1 
Itab.'hat-b'rh. <i 0;<;.-opi'!aii l.yf:!ioiiit<-,' 4to. 
London, l»Jl:;, b'.-injr a r':ply to 'Th': Omt- 
tlir<..w of th>: l'ror.:-rant- I'ulji'-t IJah-I-,' by 
'J. It.' (John rioyd (. Floyil forthwiili un- 
joined with lii- • l'u!-;;ato.-i»- triniiipli o\.t 
llell, maujrr': tht; bnrkitit'of ('••rbfru- in S\r 
Edward Hobyes "Coiin*:r-Tnarle"' i I'Ji:!). 
3. '.V Ciiny -Combe for a co.\»-(oiiili>- . . . 
In answ<-r to ii b-wil Eili'll l«t>-)y loricalwl 
by Jabal Itnrrbil apiiiii-* Sir liilward Ilobii-M 
•• Countrr-Snarl",''^ i.n'it.iil«:d " I'lirgalorii-n 



iriitnipU over Mell,'" 4fo, London, 1615, | 
written under tb<f jjonderous jtseudonjin of 
' Nick, (froorae of the Hobip-Slable llegino- ' 
Lbiirgi,' in the form uf a dialogns (cf. C'al. ' 
latate J'njHTj; Uulu. KiOS-lO p. 660, 1611- 
l«l(*i.. 2<31»). 

Hooy trnnhUted from the French of M. 
CViiipiet ' I'olitiuue [ducourRes on" tnieth 
unJ Ivin^,' 4to, ixmdon, 1586, and from the 
Kpanixh of Ji. de Mendoza, ' Tlieorique and 
I'mctise of Warre." 4ti> '^London], 1597. 

A few of Hoby's lettem are contained in 
the Lanxlowne nnd Birch MSS. in the 
Itritinb Miiwum (cf. Court aiut Timet of 
Janwt 1). His |K>rtmit, a email oval, repre- 
M-ntini; him at the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada, hn» Im'hii eu^rravcd. He collected 
■iid placed in QueeiitKjrough Castle portraits 
of many of the conBtubles, inchidingnisown. 
Thew were removed Iwfore Itii'J, and Hoby's 
portrait taken to Uillingham vicarage, Kent 
(.lourfsos, Itrr I'/aiitai-um). The others 
paased into the library at Penghurst (Gent. 
Mag. vol. Ivi. pt. i. pp. r> 0). 

[Woo<i» Albente Oxon. (Blign), ii. 194-7; 
To»ti"hcnd*s Hittoricjil Collections; Cat. of 
IiAnsdownc MSS. ,■ Ayacough'k Cat. of M8.S. ; 
Nicliolh'a Proi^resuiex of Jumet I ; Lynonk's Mag. 
Brit. vol. i. pt. ii. \i. 243; Evans'a Cat. of En- 
linived PorlmitM, ii. 203 ; Wnrton'a Life of R. 
ilnlliurst, pp. 18ft-9.] G. 0. 

HOBY, Sm Pim.IP (i:)05- 15.-18), diplo- 
matist, bom in 15(1.", was son of William 
Hoby of Ii<>omin«ter, Herefordshire, by his 
finit wife (HoWAKD, M ixellimra Grnealoffica, 
I, 14.3). His r.eal for the Itel'onnation re- 
oommende<l him to Henry VIII. During 
1.V15 and 15.10 he was employed in dipliv 
mat ic service at the courts of Spain and Por- 
tugal {Ijfttrrt of Hrn. VIII, ed. Gairdner, 
vols. viii. ix. x.) In 1541-2 Hoby, being 
then one of the gentlemen ushers of the 
king's privy chaml)<>r, wfl.s autliorised, along 
with .Sir Kilwiird Kerne and Dr. Peter, to 
apprehend certain persons suspected of being 
Jews, and on 4 Feb, in that year he laid 
before the jirivy council the books contain- 
ing their examinations and inventories of 
theirgoods (A( tuofPrirt/ C'ouHci7,ed. Nicolas, 
vii. .'104). For maintaining Thomas Parson, 
n clergyman who held 'evill opinions' touch- 
ing the .sucrameut of the altar, Hoby was with 
two others committed to the Fleet on 
IH Jlarch l.'>4i-.3, but was discharged six 
days later (I'A. ed. Daseiit, i. 08, 101 J. He 
took part in the siege of lioiilogiio. His 
services were rewarded with kniglithood im- 
mediately after the conquest of the town on 
.'lOSept, 1544 (Mzr<:M.yK, Book of Kiiiyfitg, 
p. 8U), and he was granted certain houses in 


Ix>odon, wiiich he appears to have after- 
wanls conveyed to inJe Drapers' Company 
towards the vearlv marriage of four maiden 
oqihans ( Cal'. Stair Paptrt, Dom. 159e-l««l, 
p. 13). He was likewise libermlly rewarded 
with monastic spoils (cf. his will registered 
in P. C. C. »4, Noodes). (>n ll> May l.>45 he 
was appointed master of the ordnance in tb« 
north (.-Ir/* of Priry Council, ed. iHijient, i. 
1.59 ). In April l.%4>' he succeeded Tliomas 
Thirlby, bishop of Westminster, as ambas- 
sador resident at the court of the emperor 
Charles V ( Cal. Stntr Pnprrf. For. 1547-53. 
p. :;0). (In returning to England for a brief 
holiday in October l.>49 he conducted the 
negotiations between the i-ounciU at Windsor 
and London in regard to the protector Somer- 
set, and contrived that the duke should fall 
into the hands of the Earl of Warwick 
(Literary Keinaiiut of Eiitc. IV. Roxburghe 
Club, vol. ii.) With the lord warden. Sir 
Thomas Cheyne, he was then despatched to 
Charles V to declare the causes of Somerset's 
removal (Cnl. State Papers, Dom. 1&47-SO. 
p. '2G). In .\pril l.'jol he was appointed 
withthe Marquis of Northampton and others 
to treat at Paris of the marriage then pro- 
posed between Edward VI and Elizalieth, 
daughterof Henry II of France. He departed 
thither, says King Edward in his 'Journal,* 
on 15 May, attended by 'ten gentlemen of 
his owne, in velvet cotes and chaines of gold' 
(Literary liemaiiui ofEdw. VI, ii. 31ft). In 
January- 1651-:?, Hoby, together with Thomas 
Gresham [q. v.l, was sent to .\ntwerp to ne- 
gotiate the payment of certain moneys owing 
to the Fuggers (BfROOS, Life of Clretihnm, i. 
80). He was afterwards frequent ly employed 
in negotiating loatis with the wealthy mer- 
chaiitsof Antwerp. In the following F'ebruaiy 
he was despatched to Mary, queen-regent of 
Flanders, tocomplain of certain infringements 
in the naval and commercial interests of Eng- 
land (Literary Ilemaitu ifEilw. VI, ii. 396, 
400V A copy of his instructions is preserved 
in Ilarleiun M!^. Xi'.i, f. 116. In accordance 
with Ileurj- VIII's Hoby was madt^ 
master of the ordnance and was admitted 
to the privy council in JIareh \Tm-J (ib. i. 
cclxsiv). "the manor of llisham, Berkshire, 
was also bestowi-d on him, greatly to the 
disgust of Anne of Cleves ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-S*!), p. 47). During the hug's 
progress in July l.")52 Hoby was left in the 
Tower of London in charge of the metropolis 
{Literary liemaiiiK of Edu\ VI, ii. 431,436). 
In April 1553 Hoby, with Thirlby and Sir 
Kichard Morysine, was sent to Charles \" ti» 
endeavour to mediate a pence tietween him 
and IIenr>- II {Cal. State Pn/iern, Vor. 1.547- 
1.553, p. JOO). In the ensuing May he was 






boaen unbassador resident in Flanders (ib. 
r'or. 1 .VI 7-53, pp. -jri, 2S1 ). ( )ne of I he few 
»»t«" papers iKjiu-d diirin)» ibe nine days' reign 
" Queen Jane (Lady .Tnuo Grey) was ad- 
to Hoby, and continued Lim and 
I in tlicir poKts 08 ambassadoni with 
Brat Hru8,sel8(12Julyl5&3). Hoby 
f iiu.', in reply to the council, tftrmed 
uiy Jane's hu^liand, I»rd(tuilford Dudley, 
When Mary acceded to the throne, the 
il recalletl Hoby and Morysiiie (i/>. For. 
, p. >*; Doin. l.->47-(i5, pp. 423, 429> 
oby, despite his protestantism, soon re- 
hi» ottices and the royal favour. In 
ne l<'i54 he was af^in sent to Hrussels 
a diplomatic mission (I'A. For. l^'VJ-H, 
>. Owiiij^ to failing health he obtained 
avp of absence to try the water at Litoe 
and the faath^ of P»u. By June 1555 he 
wa» Klaying with Sir John Cheke [q. v.], 
an invalid, at Padua (lA. For. l->5:i- 
, j)p. l7;)-4). In November foUowin(f 
~iit«d bis friend Sir John Masone, the 
' : ambassador at Antwerp, and a few 
iter had a long interview with Philip 
els, who asiiured him that ho might 
'ly on lu's favour, Hoby having sup- 
[tbat the king hated him ' for the pro- 
he made of being at heart exclusively 
•h' (('A. Venetian, l.'io.V-fi, pp. 253^, 
Ho returned home in January- 15.>6-<j, 
; with him a consolatory messagefrom 
jMary (<"«. Venetian, 1;>j5-«, p. 308). 
died at his house in Blackfrinrs on 
l'*>o6, and was buried at liiKhnm. 
as removed several years after to 
.'■n newly erected in another part 
iliurch as a burying-place for the 
;ly, by Elizabeth, widow of his half- 
r, Sir Tliomas Hoby [q. v.] A superb 
at to the memory of t lie two brothers 
ith epitaplis written by Lady 
1 and Lotin verse (Heaexk, 
"itA, y,\t. Hist. Hoc., iii. 239, 255). 

*aun-ied Elitabeth, daughter of Sir 
T «•-—-. and having no issue, left 
1 lf-brotlier,SirThomas Hoby. 

U., I :« letters to Lord llurghley lie 

appears to have been an amiable, cultured 
I (c£. letter* cited in Bi'Roos, vol. i., and 
' MS. iii. 53). He was the friend 
TThian and Pietro Aretino (Ticozzi, Life 
^ Titimt, 1817, p. ."il 1), and when the latU-r 
^iratcxl, in 1<>4t>, one of his btmks to 
i»ry Vni, Hoby presented Apufino with 
luitT from till- king i Aett o/Pririf Cuuii- 
~,l>ii»rnt.i.552l. His port rait, engraved 
oluzzi after (he drawing by Hans Hol- 
I M in ' Imitations of Original Drawings 
Hulbein' *17(>2 and lMl2); the engrav- 
I alto publiab«d wpantely. 


II >f<iv 


[ADthoritiea in the text; Erans's Cat. of 
Eugnived Portraits, i. 172; Lysoos's Magna 
Britannia, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 243 ; Ayacough's Cat. 
of MSS. pp. 125, 377 ; Howard's Lady Juuo 
Grey ; Clironu'le of Queen Jane and Queen 
Mar)- (Camd. Soc.)] G. G. 

HOBY, SiK THOMAS (1530-156C), 
diplomatist and translator, liorn in l')30, was 
second son of William Hoby of Leominster, 
Herefordshire, by his second wife, Katherine, 
daughter of John Forden (Howard, Minrel- 
lanea Genraloi/ica,\. 143). He matriculated 
at Cambridge from St. John's College in 
1645. Wood, in his ' Athenie' (ed. Bliss, i. 
352), asserts without authority that he al*o 
spent some time at Oxford. He subsequently 
visited F'rance, Italy, and other foreign 
countries, and, as Roger Ascham states, 'was 
many wayes well fumi.<hed with learning, 
and very expert in knowledge of divers 
tungues (Sc^o/e Matter in English Works, 
ed. Bennet, p. 240). On 9 Ahirch 1565-(5 
he was knighted at Greenwich (Mbtcalfe, 
Book of Kniyhti, p. 119), and was sent as 
ambassador to France at the end of the 
month {Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 15*16-8, 
V. 32). At the time of his landing in Calais 
Iiaven, on U April, a soldier at the town gate 
shot through the Englisli flag in two places. 
Hoby demanded redress for the insult, and 
obtained it after some delay, but he was not 
permitted to view the new fortifications (I'A. 
Foreign, 15(16-8, pp. 47-8). He died at Paris 
on 13 July 1566, and was buried at Bisham, 
Berkshire, where his widow erected a monu- 
ment to his memorv and to that of his half- 
brother Sir Philip lloby [q. v.] Thereon are 
their statues in white marble in complete 
armour. By his marriage, on 27 June 1558, 
to Elizabeth, third daughter of Sir Anthony 
Cooke, of Gidea Hall, Essex (see below), hu 
hud two sons, Edward and Thomas Posthii- 
luus (both subseffuently knighted), and two 
daughters, Elizalieth and Anne, who died 
witliin a few days of each other in February 
1570 1. Their deaths were commemorated 
in I^tia verse by their mother on the family 

Hoby was author of the following transla- 
tions: 1. 'Tlie (imtulotion of . . . M. Martin 
Bucer . . . vnto the churclie of Enghinde for 
the restitucion of Christes religion, and hys 
Answere vnto the two raylinge epistles of 
Steue, Bisshoppe of Winchester [i.e. Slejilien 
( inrdiner ', concerning the vnmaned state of 
nreestes and cloy.sterars,' kc, Hvo, London 
' 16491 2. 'The Courtyer of Count Bal- 
dessor Castillo, divid<<d into foure iKiokes," 
4to, London, 1561 (other editions. 1565, 
1577, 1588, and 1603). The book was very 




popular. Asdijun cammencU the uli^jpuice of 
the 8tyle (loc. rit.) Thr lirst t-ditinn coutaiii* 
a letter to Hoby from 8ir John Chekc, d«t*<1 
ItJ July ir>57, Hoby ulso left n m«ivu»crijit 

EurABETii, Iakv Ilonv (IWS! liWX rc- 
ceivpd from thf qui-oii, in SoptemlxT l.Vili, a 
letter rondolinj; with lur on thf ili-*th of hor 
klisbaud ( <'.i/. Statr Vajtrrn, Fon-ign, l.*ilitJ-S, 
1>. 112>; iinntwl fn>m lUrh-iim MS. 703.\ 
f. l(il,inGlli«i'H'OriKinnl Let t its \ 1st st-r. ii. 
:^J»-^V). lj(,ly Hohx r.Mn«niwl. on •.'."» IW. 
1 ■)74, John, loril Kus^'ll, who di«sl in lofM 
\i.MU)>ia,Miuj. AVfV.vol. i. pt, ii.pp,"J43,4.'in. 
Like hersiiti'M, slm aciiniri'd n>piit*tion for 
]iii^iaticnttaiumrnt«. llrr trnnslationfn^m 
iho I'Yench of i\ tn'at\s4> • A Wuv of Imshiu- 
ctliktiou toiioliiui; the tru« S'«tiirt' uid 
Suhstanot' of the Uixty and Hlootl of I'hriet 
in thn Siu-ninient,' wiu» print^^l in UH.K*>, and 
thf inscriiition!! at (fn>nt length in lJrv«'li, 
LntMi. iiuil Knji^lish on the fnmilv tonil>« at 
Hi.Oijim, nud on thnt of I.or\l Kusm>11 in 
"Wivstniiuatcr Alibey, whioli w.>rt> written by 
her, BUthi-ienlly prove lierskdl in thelearneil 
l.inj,Mmp'ji. Iler h'tlorn to Lonl Hiirjfhley 
testify to hir Min;ul.;ibli' I'orvv of ohttmcter 
(of. fVi/. A ,•*, Horn, 1.V17 tH* pp. 

»>l.407, I II p, ,V(. The orvleriujr 

of j)umIK>u^ fiiiieFiiU wus her <h<li){hl. Just 
Iwfori' her denlli «he wrote u hmg letter to 
iSir Willittin Itethick, Darter kinu of arm?, 
ilesiriiiK lo know • what niimlH<r onnonrners 
Wen' due to her i-alliu);, . . . the manner of , 
the hoar>^, of the heralds, and ehurvh ' (cite»l 
in hnitatiitHJi nfOrii/innl Ih-nKix^ *v H«i*> 
UolbrtH, 175»:.' and isl:;>. She was'burievl 
at lliidiaiii on "i J une Itil*', a>;v\l SI (^ NtOMOlA, 
Pi-vjfrrMft o/ QiifrM AViiaArM, lii. ISl ; alik> 
her will rvj{i«tetvti in I*. t\ (\ .Vt, |>orn<t ). 
Her purtrait was drawn by Holbtnn. 

[Co ■ •-' ■:■ ■:. at; 

Mim! I'apers 

I>i>m, ) .. ., „. .ujS-SO; 

Kallanis M LadiM, 177ft. pp. 

lS«-41;Luu .^uMaanaUBokaX 

IT. SIM. J O. Q. 

(1370?-U.')0:- 1, yt'H-i and a i-lerk iu the pri^7• 
seal office for twenty-four yivars, is known to 
US only by his i>o<>ms and bv what he tells 
IU of himself in them. In liii bio^rraphical 
•Male IJeple,' II. 17-21, he appeals to ' mr 
lord the Foumeval that now is treasurer ' to 
pay him the ywarly 10/. due to him. Furui- 
vai was ti«asui«r irom 1 40o to 1 4t.K I leucv 
IIoccleT»'s appeal may be datetl Ute in l4Uti 
or early in 1407. A* th« poet oonfe:is<» in 
the tame ponn. II. 1 10-ll>, that he had been 
orep-«atijig and over-drinking fur twenty 

yearj past (? from 1387 to 1407), he cannot 
well have been bom afWr 1370. He aUo 
confesses himself a coward, and foud of 
treating "Venus femel lusty children deer' 
to sweet wine and wafers. He haunted the 
taverns and cookshops at ^Vestminiter (IL 
177-841 WTien he wrote hix be»t-known 
work, • De Uegimine' (1411-12), he lived at 
' t'hestres Inne, right fast by the Stronde ' 
(Df A'<y. p. 1). Uefore that, he belonged to 
j a dinner-club in the Temple [P/iilfijtjin .VS. 
I leaf 42). Henry IV ^ranted Ilix-cleve an 
I annuity of twenty marks a year for his long 
I servio>, but he could not get it paid, and he 
I had only six marks a vear besides ^lJr Hey. 
I pp. 30-4). On 4 July 1424 ' votre tres humble 
[ clerc Thomas Hoccleve de I'oflice du prive 
seal' was granted by the king and council 
such " sustenance ' yearly during his life in 
the priori- of Soulhwiek, Hampsliire, a^ 
Nicholas Slokkinge, late master of .St. Ijiw- 
renoe in the Poultn,-, had (Aildit. .l/.f. Brit. 
.Vuj. 4604, art. 34 ; Privi/ Council Pruc. iii. 
I'll'). All Hoccleve'* volumes complain of 
his poverty and his inability to get Iiis pen- 
sion or salary paid, so that he and his fel- 
lows will, he tells the king, have 'to trotte 
vnto Newgate' (PAil/i/ip^ MS. leaf 40 back). 
His last poem, written when he had nearly 
lost his sight, but was too proud to wear 
spectacles, mentions I'rinco Edward, pro- 
bably in 144!» (Masos, p. '29 n.) 

Hoccleve's longest work, his' De Regimine 
IVincipum,' written about 1411-12, is in 7i*4 
Heveu-Iiiie stanxas, or •%,488 lines. It is in 
I'jigli8h,ftud was compiled from three sources, 
the suppivsititious Epistle of Aristotle ad- 
dreiseu to .\leiander the Great, known as 
the ' Secret um secret onun,' the ' De Uegi- 
mine Priiicipum ' of E^dius de Coloiina, and 
the '(iameof t-'hess moralized by Jacques de 
Ceasoles.' Three manuscripts are in the Bri- 
tisli Musiiun, vij. Harl. MSS. 482tJ,4.S06, and 
Hoyal MS. 17 l>. vi., and many are elsewheo-. 
The p>->em was e<liied from the Uoyal MS. by 
Thomas Wright for the Ro.\burghe Club in 


Uoecleve's most inteKStin^ work is the 
Phillipps MS. t^Lil at Cheltenham, which 
contains his acc\»unt of his disordered life, 
* La Male Regie de T. Hi>ccleve ' and his 
'Moth«T>>f (nvl,' once attributed to Chaucer, 
tcig»th«r with sixteen other English p'>ems, 
ckM^ balade«. The latter are in many 
cwwMidiv^^' ' ' ' ' v'f^ons like 

Heaiy V an tiI. Fi\e 

of them, • " • 1.^ -'lii.- liegle.' were 

printfi in • Poems by Thomas 

1Ioeclt!\v ...... .-. .> published.' 1790, 4to. 

.VlisB TottlMin Smith has cineA printed frtvn 
theaaaie manoacript aprerioualj unpoblished 


bttlade, appealing to Oldcastlu tu renounce 
loUardry (see Anylia, v. 9-42). LorJ Ash- 
bomluim owns another little moniuicript vo- 
lume of Hoccleve's minor poems, which he 
ha* refused to jHjrmit to be iirinted. A third 
Tolume in mdiiuscript, in Bishop Cosin's Li- 
brary- at Durham, Xo. v. iii. 9, is dedicated to 
* my Lady of Westmorlande,' Joanna, aunt 
of Henry V, daughter of John of Gaunt 
[q. v.\ and contains (1 ) Ilocdeve'a Complaint 
of his friends' unkindneas, written when he 
was fifty-three (after 14:i:i) ; V2) the story of 
the 'Wife of the Emperor (ierelaus,' from 
the 'Oesta llomanorura:' (3) the 'Art of 
iJring ; ' 1,4 ) anotlier ' Uesta' fableof Jonathas 
*nd a wicked woman (the story of Fortu- 
natus), which AVilliara Browne introduced 
from a manuscript in his possession into his 
'Shepheard's Pipe,' l(tl4. These tliree manu- 
ocript volumes are all in the same hand, no 
douDt Hoccleve'a own, and were evidently 
intended for presentation to patrons. Hoc- 
cleve's ' Letter of Cupid,* 140:.', in sixty- 
vif;ht seven-line stanzas, is printed in most of 
the old editions of Chaucer's works. Other 
works attributed to Huccleve by Kitson are 
parts of his lonper works. Profe.ssor Skeiit 
has lately suggested, in Chaucer's ' Minor 
I'oem.s,' pp. xxxiii-ix, tliat 'The Cuckoo and 
I lie Nightingale,' and a balade, ' U leude book,' 
luay be Hoccleve's, but this is very doubtful. 
"The ciuarto Addit. MS. L>4(.)62, Brit. Mus., 
L» mainly in Hoccleve's hand, and contains 
eopie« of documents, &c., passing under the 
pnvy seal, chiefly in French, a few in Latin. 
A» a poet, Hoccleve compares with Lyd- 
gate. Both evidently knew Chaucer (see as 
to Hoccleve ' De Regimine,' p. 6"), whom 
iLuy praise most heartily, and the best por- 
trait of Chaucer as an old man appears in a 
copy of Hoccleve's ' Pe llegimine' in the 
lUrleiaii .MS. 48(!t), leaf 01. Hoccleve has 
no poem so lifelike as Lydgate's ' London 
LfelipenDy,' and shows no sign of humour : 
but be has not writ ten so many lines of dreary 
Terse as Lydgate. The ' De Itegiiiiine' is, 
however, an piMjr as it well can be. Hoccleve 
is beiit in \\\* religious p<iems; and the best 
of them i» the 'Mother of God.' The poet 
AVtlliam Bmwne seems to have been in ad- 
mirer of Hoccleve. .\t the end of the first 
cdogi)-' ■ if I li>' ' Shepheard's Pipe,' in which 
Hoi . ■'-' of Jonathas appears, Browne 

writ I 1 ^ shall please, I may be drawne 

Jo pulillsh the rest of his workes, being all 
|vrr.-rj in my hands ' (Bbowxe, HVA*, ed. 
' .1981. -A. complete edition of lloc- 

■rks is in preparation by the Early 
tx^-ltiU rc\t Society. 
( Uorclove'* Works; editions of Wright and 
' .] K. J. F. 

HODDER, JAMES (Jl. 1661), arithme- 
tician, was a writing-master, with a school 
in Tokeuhouse Yard in Lothbury, in lti61. 
After the tire of lOtifi, he removed to Brom- 
ley-by-Bow,wherehekept a boarding-school, 
but subsequently returned to Lothbury. He 
was first known as the author of ' Hodder's 
Arithmetick,' a popular manual upon which 
Cocker based his better known work. The 
two books are for the most part identical. 
Cocker's chief improvement is the new mode 
of division which Hodderdid not give. The 
work (dedicated to Joaias Dewye, merchant, 
of London) was firiit published in Itltil. A 
third edition is dated 1(564, a ninth lt)72, a 
thirteenth 1081, a fifteenth in Ui8.">; other 
editions are dated 1(J93, 1607, 170l', and 
1739, the last being the twenty-seventh 
edition. All contain a portrait with verses 
beneath it. In the early editions it is eu- 

frave<l bj" GayTt'ood and in the later by Van 
love. 'The edition of l68o is ' amended ' by 
Henry Mose, Hodder's friend aud successor, 
who kept a school in Sherborne Lane, Ijom- 
bard Street, llodder was also the author of 
' The Penman's Uecreat ion, containing sundry 
examples of fuire writing,' Loudon (without 
date), dedicated to Sir Walter Eurle, and 
dated in the Brit. Mus. Cat. ' lOiil .=' ' The 
spt-cimens are engraved by Edwiinl Cocker 
[q. v.], with whom, it is iilain, Hodder was 
triendly. Hodder's thirti work, "Decimal 
.\rithmetick, ora Plain and most Methodicol 
way of Teaching the said Art,' appeared with 
Haywood's portrait in ltKi8,and was dedicated 
to George Perrj'er, scrivener, of Lothbury 

[De Morgan's .Arithmetic Books. 1847; 
Granger's Biog. Hist, of Engluud ; Brit. Mas. 
Cat.J G. J. G. 

HODDESDON, JOHN (/. 16r)0), reli- 
gious writer, published in ItioO ' Sion aud 
Pariiassue, or Epigrams on severnll Texts of 
the Old and New Testament. To which are 
added .\ Poem on the Passion, .\ Hj-mn on 
the Resurrection, Ascention, and Feast of 
Pentecost,' London, 16.j0. There is a dedi- 
cation to the autlior's uncle, Christopher 
Hoddesdon, ' secuudury of the upper bench.' 
Among those whose commendatory verses 
are prefixed is ' J. Dryden of Trin. C 
— flie|Hiet Dryden — who credits 'his friend' 
1 loddesdon with first awakening in him an ap- 
preoiation of i)oetry. A fine portrait of Hod- 
desilon at the age of eighteen, with verses by 
K. M[ar8h] subscribed, forms the frontispiece, 
tininger soys that the plate was engraved by 
Filliaii. It is missing in many copies. Hod- 
desilou's vers<! is contemptible, but the vo- 
lume with the jwrtrail and Drjrdeu's contri- 






but ion is valuable. Hoddesdon also wrote 
' Tlio. Mori vita & exitus, or th« Ilistorj' of 
Sir Thoinns More . . .collecteJout ofwverall 
aiithours,' dedicated to Christoplier Hoddes- 
don, Ix>n(lon, Kioli, Hvo. 

[Coraers CoUectaneii ; Ornngor'f Biog. Hist.] 

S. L. 

HODGE, AUTlIl'It {>1. 1811 ), We^t In- 
dian pluntcr, settled nboiit l"Hi in Tuitola, 
the chief of the Virgin Islands in the West 
Indies. He occupied the e8tat« of l?e!levne, 
in the eastern part of the island. Though a 
man of liuamdsome character, ho rose to be 
a member of council for the dependency of 
the V'irjrin Islands. In 1803 the netfroea on 
Ills estate numbered 140, but in 1811 they 
numbered only thirty-tive, and the diminution 
was attributed to Hodge's cruelties. Early in 
1811 u free negro woman named Perreen 
(.ieorpes deposed before tliree justices of the 
peace for Torlola that from 1805 to 1807 she 
had been in occasional emjilovment at Hello- 
VUH. During that p<Tiod,she ileclareil.ihree 
negroes named Tom Boiler, Prosper, n ml t'ufly 
had been flogged iit Hodge's ordnrs with 
such severity that they all died within a few 
days of their punishment. Two female slavej* 
named Margaret and Kl.*e, accused, for no 
reason it seems, of trying to poison Hodge's 
children, had lieen murdered by haviuplxuling 
water forced down their throats. Lastly, a 
child named Samson had bwii finyed alive by 
being ilipped in a cauldron of scalding water. 
Astonished at this catalogue of horrors, the 
iustices summoned liefore them one Steplieii 
M'Keough, formerly overseer on Hodge's 
])lantatifiii, then resident in the Danish island 
• if St.Crfii.t. M'lieoitgh not oidy corroborated 
Perreen's statements, but brought forward 
numerous additional charges of gros.s cruelty. 
Tlie justices arrested and prosecuted Hodge 
on a charge of murder. Five distinct counts 
were stated in the indictment. The case of the 
negro Prosjter was proceeded with first . Tlie 
trial began nn 29 April befnreasjwcial court of 
oyer and terminer and gaol delivery, presidetl 
over bj' Mr. Hetherington. Perreen (reorges 
and M'Keough gave evidence showing that 
Prosper, having been accused of pulling ii 
mango from a tree, and being unable to find 
the 8i.ic shillings which Hodge demanded as 
C'lmpensation, had been laid down and cart- 
whipped for the space nf one hour; that the 
next day hehad l)een tied toa tree and flogged 
'at short quarters, 'i.e. wit ha short -looped lash, 
till he fainted ; that he had tlien been chained 
up with two other negroes; and that, while 
his comrades managed to escape, he himself 
crawled into a hut, where he died unattended. 
M'Keough declared that sometimes tliree or 

four negroes died in n single night. Among 
corroborative witnesses was Mrs. Kawbont?, 
Hodge's sister. The defence tried in vain 
to discredit the, and ap)>ealed to 
the jur\" in the name of Hoilge's young family. 
The jury brought in a verdict of guilty, and 
Hiidge waa sentenced to death. He «|»eut 
the last days of his life in religious e.xercises, 
and sulfered tlie extreme penalty of the law 
on 8 May 1811. 

[Gent. Mag. 1811. pt. ii. "0; Tho Trial of 
Arthur Ho<!gi< . . . fur the Miirtk-r of his Negro 
Slave nannxl Prosper, «tcnographicallv takt'n by 
A. M. Ueliaario, 1811.] O. P. M-r. 


1837), portrait-jiainterand mezzotint-ei 
ver, wius born in London in 17(>4. His eai 
lier years were spent in mezzotint-engraving, 
in which ort he attained the highest ex- 
cellence. He mav have been a pupil of John 
llaphael Smith ^q. v.], as that engraver's 
name appears on some of his earlier engrav- 
ings, such as ' Mrs. Musters as Hebe '(1785), 
' Guardian Angel? ' ( 178t>), and others after 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. He engraved after 
Reynolds portraits of Lavinia, Lady Spen- 
cer, Lady Uashwood and child, Mary Robin- 
son, Charles, duke of Rutland, Joshua Sharpe, 
the Rev. Thomas Worton, and others ; after 
Romney, portraits of .\dmiral Arbuthnot, 

I .Tames Mingay, James Adair,Thoma8 Raikes, 
Sir James Stuart, and others; after Hoppner. 
portraits of Frederick, duke of York (full 

1 length), William, duke of Clarence (full 

I length), and George IV as prince regent ; 

i after C. G. Stuart a series of jiortraite of not- 
able personages in Ireland; and other por- 

I traits after Alefounder,t)pie, IleiiLs, Beecnev, 

' Shaqdes, Mather Brown, and others, includ- 
ing a portrait of "William Wilberforce after 

' Rising, .\mong the subject-pictures engraved 
by him were ' The Shipbuilder and his Wife' 
after Renibriindt, ' The Kntombment ' after 
Parmigiano, 'Silenns' after Rubens, 'The 
Cnicifi.vion ' after Vandyck, ' I'gollno ' and 
'The Infant Hercules' after Reynolds, an<l 
others after O. Metsu, B. Strozzi, F. Wheat- 
ley, U. West, and R. M. Paye. In 1788 
Hodges being in pecuniary dilKculties ac- 
companied W. Ilumnhreys, the print-dealer, 
to Ani.<terdam, ami continued for many 
years to act as agent for the transmission 
of prints, copperplates, \-c., e-specially rarw 
portraits, to Kngland. He did not settle 
there at once, as he continued to publish 
engravings in England, such as • Sir.\braham 
Hume,' after Reynolds, dati>d from 17 Lara- 
b»;th Row in 1791. By 1704, however, he 
was settled in Amsterdam, and spent the 
remainder of his life there or at the Hague. 




i le deroted mnit of hii time in Holland to 
]x)rtrait-pninting in craTon, in \rhich he 
was vrry successful, and gaim-d the hi(:tit^l 
esteem. There are several portrait* by him 
in the Ityksmoseum at Amst*-rdaiD. in- 
<-Iudin^ Louis Nupoleon, klni; i>f Holland, 
William I, kin;; of the Netherlands, his own 
jmrtrait, nnd that of hia daughter. Hodges 
continued to engrave in mezzotint from 
the portraits painted by himself, and en- 
j:ra\ed among others Napoleon as emperor, 
and the grand pensionary Rutger Jan Schim- 
melpenninck. The latter engraving, from 
the skilful treatment of the dress ana acces- 
sories, is considered one of the best examples 
of mezzotint-engraving. AMien the kingdom 
of the Netherlands was formed, Hodges was 
appointed one of the commissioners sent to 
I'arli to recover the pictures removed by Xa- 
puleon. He died in Amsterdam on 2i Jidy 
1837. Hwlges married in 17n4, at St. 
George'?, Hanover Souare, Jlisa Margaret 
Harmar. His son, J. S'. Hodges, engraved a 
few plates himself, and became a print-dealer 
in .Vmsterdam. .\ ilaughter, Emma Jane, on 
herdeath in 1^68, bequeathed s<>nie portraits 
by her father to the Kyksmuseum. X small 
p4>rtrait of Hodges at the age of twenty- 
eijliT. drawn by E. Bell, is in Anderdon's 
■ ' Ifctanea Biographica' in the print-rrjom, 
Hriti-li Museum. S. \V. Ueynolds the elder 
[q. r.] was his pupil. 

[Immeneel's Levena en Werken Jer HoUand- 
sehe KanstKhilders. &c. ; Kiumm's continuation 
to the same ;Cb»loDer Smith's British Uezzolinio 
Portraits ; Cnulfield's Calco(fraphu>na ; Doild's 
miinascript History of Ent;li.'«h Kugravera I Brit. 
Sfiu. Addit. M.SS. 33401 ) : Bredins's Catalogae 
of th» Rykxmaseum, .Vmsterdam.] L. C. 

HODGES, EDWARD (1796-1867). or- 
canist atid composer, bom at Bristol in 
17!'<!, was organist at Clifton Church, mid<]ueiit1v of the two churches, St. Jame? 
and St. .N'ioliolas, both at Bristol. In IS-Jii 
he proceeded to the degree of diKtor of 
music from Sidney Sussex College, Cam- 
bridge, and in IfUlK he went with his family 
ti. ViM.ri,;i. At New York Hodges was aj)- 
I 'uisttoSt.Jolin'sepiscopal chapel. 

- I'i to Trinity Church, opened nn 
iv with an organ built from uis gpeci- < 
■us ((irove'). Prostrated by llliies.t he | 
re«i^ned his Appointments and returned in 
lK«.'{ to Kngland. He died at Clifton 1 Sept. 
Hodges composed n morning and evening 
kice anil two anthems for the reopening 
St. Jamex's organ, Bristol, 2 May 1824, 
" ilisbed them in the following year. A 
I edition of the evening fier\ ice, in C, 
t publi&hed at New York in 18tM. I lodges 

I also poMialKd: 1. 'As Apelogr for Churck 
Masic and Moseal Ftrsiivals, ia answer ti> 
the •iunu;dT«tsioii* of the ''Standard * and 
the "Keoarf,'" pp. 71. Bristol, ISat. l>.' Can- 
ticles ot the Church.' oompiled New York» 
18W. S. ' Tie Te Deom, with Krrie Chant 
and Ter Saaetas, in D,' published after the 
coinpoeer's demih In hia daughter, I^ndon. 
\>^'>. 4. AceofdiMlo Grove's ' Dictionarj-.* 
L 7-H, Hodeet's ' EsMj on the Cultivation 
of Church Music,' was published at New 
York, 1^1. The 'Trinity Collection of 
Church Music,' edited by Tucker, Boston, 
1864, contains some psalm and hymn tunes- 
ami arrangements by Hodges. 

[Romillj's Gnd. Cnnt. p. 192 ; Clifton Chro- 
nicle for 4 8ept. 1887 ; aathorities dted.] 

L. M. M. 


(iHl'ti^lKsll, orientalist, bom in 182ti, be- 
came, while a London apprentice, a student 
of Hebrew, ami, after being for a short time 
a scripture reader, was sent as a missionary 
by the Society for Promoting Christianity 
among the Jews, first to Palestine, and after- 
wards to Algeria, which he quitted in 1866. 
A few vears later he severed his connection 
with tte society, and was for some time a 
minister of the reformed episcopal church ; 
but he subsequently became a clergvman of 
the church of England. He died at his house 
in Tollington Park, London, on 9 Muv 1861, 
leaving a widow and six children. Hodgva 
was well known as a scholar in oriental lan- 
guages, and assisted George Smith (1825- 
1876) q. v.] in his cuneiform researches. He- 
published, in addition to numerous articles in 
magazines: 1. 'Ancient Egypt,' IS'il. 2. .\n 
edition of Craik's'Principia Ilebraicn,' 1863, 
fol. 3. An edition, with notes, of Cory's 
'Ancient Fragments of the Phcenician . . . 
and other Authors,' 1876, 8vo. He also re- 
vised Mickle's tran.«lation of the ' Lusiadas ' 
of Camoens for Bohn's ' Standard Library," 
1877, 8vo. Hodges n.ssisted Dr. (totch in 
the preparation of his Paragraph Bible, and 
wrote the article on .\merican languages 
in the ' Encyclopirdia Britanuica." .\t the 
time of his death he was engaged upon an 
English version of the ' Armenian History' 
of Moses of Khorene. 


[PrirntK information; Morning Post, 9 Jane 
1881 ; .Aoulemy, 18 June 1881.] W. A. J. A. 

HODGES, N.\THANIEL, M.D. (1629- 
IflHS), physician, son of Dr. Thomas Hodges, 
vicar of Kensington, was bom in that jiarish 
on 13 Sept. 1629. He was a king's scholar of 
Westminster School, and obtained a scholar- 
ship at Trinity College,Cam bridge, in 1646. In 
1648 he migrated to Oxford, and was appointed 

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tknu, p. 60). He had an only son. Joseph. 
who succeeded to the baronetcv, but wasted 
his estate, and died unmarried in 1722. when 
the title became extinct (UrRKE, Ertinct 
Baronetdet, 2nd edit. p. 26t>). Ladr Hodges 
died in 1717. 

Hodges is doubtless the author of the fol- 
lovriiig pamphlets pleading for the relief of 
British seamen from extort ion : 1 . ' An humble 
Representation of the Seamen's Miserr'^Lon- 
don, 16&4], fol. •!. 'Great Britain's Groans: 
or an account of the oppression ... of the 
. . . seamen of England.' London, 1695, 4to. 
3. 'Humble Proposals for the Itelief ... of 
the Seamen of England.' 1 69-'>, 4to. 4. ' The 
(iroans of the Poor ... for the spoiling of 
our money,' London, 1696, 4to. •>. 'Ruin to 
Ruin . . . being the distressed state of the 
teamen of England,' I^ondon, 1699, 4to. 

\Ijb Xeve, Monnmenta .\iiglicana, t. 290; 
Bnt. Hus. Cat. ; authorities above quoted.] 

C. W-H. 

HODOES, \nLLLVM (1744-1797), 
painter and Royal Academician, bom in 
London in 1744, was only child of a smith, 
who kept a small shop in St. James's Market. 
He was emplored as errand-boy in Shipley's 
drawing school, where he managed to learn 
drawing. Richard Wilson, U.A.^l.v.],noticed 
him, and took him to be his assistant and 

1»upil. Hodges made rapid progress. On ' 
ea%-ingWil8oii he resided in London, and also 
for a time at Derby, where he painted some 
scenes for the theatre. In 1766 he exhibited 
at the Society of Artists a view of London 
Bridge and another of Speldhurst, Kent, in 
1768 two views in Wales, and other views in 
177Uand 1771. In 1772 he sent some views on 
the Rhine and in Switzerland. In the same 

Cir he obtained, throtigh the interest of 
rd Palmerston, the post of draughtsman 
to the second expedition to the South Seas i 
under Captain Cook. He returned in 1775, 
and was employed by the admiralty in finish- 
ing his drawings, and superintending the en- 
graving of them (by W oollett and others) 
for the published account of Captain Comic's 
voyages. Some of his pictures from the South ' 
Seas are still preserved in the admiralty. In '' 
1776 he first exhibitednt the RoyalAcailemy, 
eendinitr a view in Ofahcite, and'in 1777 some 
views in Xew Zealand and elsewhere. In 
1778 he went to India under the patronage of 
Warren Hastings, remained there about six 
years, and painted a number of views of the 
most remarkable objects and scenery. On his i 
Rtum to England in 17!U he brought a num- I 
ber of these with him, which were engraved, 
•ome on a large scale, by .T. Hrowne and 
Horria ; a set was executed in aquatint by I 

himself, and published in 1756. and smaller 
copies appear in the ' Enropeaa Magagne ' 
and r Isewhere. Humboldt, in his ' Commas.* 
says that the sieht of H-jda^rs'? Indian viewi^ 
was one of the inducements which le>l him 
to travel. In 1793 H<'idff<!:s published an ac- 
count of his ' Travels in India ' during the 
years 17r'>-3. with plates from his draw- 
ings: the bi>>k was afterwards translated into 
French. In 17?4 Hodges s^-ttled in Queen 
Strvet. Mayfair. where he built himself a 
studio. In 17'^ he wa> elected an asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy, and an acade- 
mician in 17'>9: he con* inued to exhibit at the 
Royal .\cademy up to 1 794. I lodge*' painted 
several ambitious landscapes, in which he imi- 
tated both Wilson's force and nejrligence: hi* 
work suffers from want of accuracy. Figures 
were introduced into his landscapes by Itom- 
ney. Gilpin, and others. Some were enjrra ved, 
such a? a scene from t he ' Merchant of Venice ' 
(by J. Browne ), and another from ' .\s you 
lilce it ' I by S. Middiman), br>th painted for 
Boydell's ' .Shakespeare.' • The lietreating 
Shower' (acjuatint by M. C. Prestel), and a 
view of ' Wmd.«or from the Great Park ' (by 
W. Byrne and J. Schumann ). J. Ogbome en- 
graved after Hodges 'Belisarius' and 'The 
Sleeping Shepherd.' AlKiut 1 790 he travelled 
on the continent, and visited St. Petersburg, 
of which he paintcl a view. He painted two 
large all<^oncal pictur»-3 of the ' Effects of 
Peace' and 'War, which, with some others, 
he exhibited in Bond Street, with an ex- 
planatory catalofrue. They, however, failed 
to attract, and Hodges, on closing the exhi- 
bition, retired from his profesrion, and dis- 
posed of his pictures by auction. In 179.') 
he settled at Dartmouth, and opene<l a bank. 
The troubles, however, wiiich affected tho 
financial world at the time proved the ruin 
of his firm. Hodges died shortly afterwanU 
at Brixham, DevonsIiir>', of gout in the 
stomach, on 6 March 1797, aged 5J{. 

A profile portrait of Hodges is among the 
series, preserved at t he Royul .\cademy, drawn 
by G. Dance; it was engraved by W. Daniell. 
Another portrait by R. Westall was engraved 
forthe'LiterarvMagarine'in 1793. Ilodges 
when young etched a plate of Torre del Greco 
at Naples, after U. Wilson. He painted 
scenes for the Pantheon, but was not very 
successful. Two drawings from the South 
Seas are in the print room at the British 
Museum, and one of a ruined castle at the 
South Kensington Mu8<-um. 

Hodges married, on 11 May 1776, at St. 
George's, Hanover Sqiiare, Miss Martha 
Xesbit, and settled in Pimlico, but lo»t hix 
wife in child-l)ed within a year. < In Ki Oct. 
1784 he married a second time Miss I^ydia 

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>-;t. ii. i;.>l ; L.:\y Tim.-. 
I..IW .M.ij.'uiii.- iir:,! K. vi. w. 
?■!■.>. Cat. : [.rivat.,- ii.f.jrm.i- 
J. M. K. 

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Hodffkin has left a remarkable i«cord of 
his skin in handwriting in his ' Calligraphia 
Grteca.' It was written in 1794. and was 
dedicated to Hodgkin's friend Dr. Young, at 
whose suggestion it was composed. Young 
also furnished the gnomic sentences firom 
various authors, which Hodgkin wrote in 
beautiful Greek characters, and his friend 
Henry Ashby engraved. A translation bv 
Young of Lear's curse into Greek iambics, 
undertaken 'rogatu viri omnium disertissimi 
Edmundi Burke,' was also added. The work 
was not published till 1 1>07, when it appeared 
together with ' Pcecilographia Grseca,' in 
which nineteen Greek alphabets of various 
periods are %ured, and some seven hundred 
contractions used in Greek manuscripts are 
given. Some of the latter were brought 
under Hodgkin's notice by Person, with 
whom he had a slight acquaintance. Hodg- 
kin also published, besides school and exer- 
cise books: 1. 'Definitions of some of the 
Terms made use of in Geography and .\s- 
tronomy,' London. 1804; I'nd eilit., 1812. 
2. ' Specimens of Greek Penmanship,' Lon- 
don, 1804. 3. ' An Introduction to Writing,' 
4th edit., London, 1811. 4. '\ Sketch of 
the Greek Accidence,' London, 1812. He 
likewise took part in ' Excerpta ex J. F. Bastii 
ommentatione cum tabulis lithographicis a 
J. Hodgkin transcripta,' 18^)5. 

[^lannicript Autobiography and prirsta in- 
fDrmation ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

T. H-x. 

HODGKIN, JOHN (1800-1875), barris- 
ter and quaker preacher, son of John Hodg- 
kin (1 760-1845) [q. v.", was bom at Pen- 
tonville, London, on ll March 1800. He 
and his brother Thomas [q. v.] were edu- 
cated at home, partly by their father, and, 
besides receiving a very thorough classical 
training, acquired a taste for physical science. 
John Stuart Mill was one of the few associ- 
ates of their bovhood. Having chosen the pro- 
fession of the law, John Hodgkin became a 
pupil of Harrison, a conveyancer, who be- 
longed to the school of Preston and of Brodie. 
As a conveyancer Hodgkin successfully re- 
presented and carried forward the traditions 
of this school, which aimed at conciseness 
and brevity, at a time when the legislature 
had not vet interfered to curtail the intoler- 
ably difiuse style of legal documents. He 
soon obtained a large practice, but was chiefly 
«minent as a teacher of law. His chambers 
were always crowded with pupils, with whom 
he read for an hour a day some legal text- 
book, even when fully occupied w^ith his 
practice. He was an earnest advocate of 
legal reform, and published about 1827 a 
fUBpUet entitled ' Obaervations on the Es- 

tablishment of a General Register of Titles,' 
strongly pleadine f^-r that measnie. He 
rarely appeared in court except to uphold 
some opinion which he had given on a dis- 
puted question of title : and at the early age 
of forty-three, in consequence of a severe 
illness, he retired frc-m the legal profession, 
and devoted the remainder of his life to re- 
ligious and philanthropic work. He held a 
high position among the preachers of the 
qnkker body, visited their congregations in 
Ireland, France, and America, and was for 
two years ' cleik ' to their vearly meeting, a 
position corresponding to that of moderator 
in the church of Scotland. His visit to 
.America in 1861 was especially important 
from its coincidence with the outbreak of the 
civil war, which made the position of the 
quakers one of peculiar difficulty, as their 
two great 'testimonies' against war and 
against slavery tended to draw them in op- 
posite directions. At the time of the Irish 
famine of 1845-6 John Hodgkin assisted 
zealouslv in the work of the relief committees 
establisfied by his co-religionists in Dublin 
and London. He stni^gled long, but in the 
end unsuccessfully, to introduce improved 
methods of fishing among the eeaiaring popu- 
lation of the ' Claddagh,' near Galway. He 
also had a large share in the preparation of 
the Encumbered Estates Act (1&49>, a mea- 
sure which, as he ho{ied, would remove some 
of the worst ecrmomical evils under which 
Ireland was labouring. Tlie position of one 
of the judges of the court founded by this 
act wa.s offered him by Lord John Itussell, 
but he declined it. During the last ten or 
twelve years of his life he t'iok an active part 
in the proceedings of the .S'lcial Science 

His voutli and middle life were (lassed at 

. Tottf-nham. Thence he removed at the age 

of fifty-eight to I.*wes, where he resided 

during the latter years of his life. He died 

at Bournemouth on 5 July 1875, aged 75. 

' He was thrice married, and left issue by 

I each marriage. 1 1 is first wife was Elizabeth, 

' daughter of Luke Howard ^j. v. J. 

[Private information.] T. II-». 

1 80li ), physician, son of John I lodgkin ( 1 766- 
1845) J|-V.~, and brother of John Hodgkin 
(1800-^1875) 'q. v.", was bom at Tottenham, 
Middlesex, 17 Aug. 17i*8. He was educated 
at home, and accjuired a good knowledge of 
(ireck, Latin, French, Italian, and (ierman. 
He studied medicine at Guy's ]Iospital,I^n- 
don, in Paris, and in Kdinbuivh, where he 
graduated M.l). in 182''', pubiishing a theniH 
' De absorbendi functiom-. 1 le set tied in prao- 



tice in LonJon, working steadily at (Juv's 
Uoxpitnl, where in 18J5, aftfr becoming a li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians, he wns 
op}>olnte<l curator of the miueum and patho- 
logist. He improved the niiigeum and gave 
pathological lectures. In 1828 he published 
'An Esa»y on Medical Kducation, in 1*20 
a 'Catalogue of the Preparations in the Ana- 
tomical Museum of Guy's Hospital,' and in 
18;W ' Hint' relative to the Cholera in Imu- 
don.' In the 'Tranitact ions' of the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society for 1832 he 
published a number of cases of contempo- 
raneous enlargement of the spWn anrl lym- 
phatic glanrls. In hi» examples he did not 
clearly distinguish sevenil morbid condi- 
tions from one another. Dr. .Samuel AVilks 
in 18f>5 pointed out I (iuy't Ilo'pital Jteportt, 
18<to) that f<mr of them belonged to a species 
of diaease which he had himself indepen- 
dently discovered (Ih. 1862), and the precise 
definition of the condition is due to him: but 
with the generous desire of peq)etuating the 
fame of his predecessor in orace as teacher of 
pathology at Guy's Hospital, he gave this 
morbidstntethe nomeof 'ilodgkin's Disease.' 
It is an enlargement of the lymphatic glands 
distinguished from struma by the ab-sence of 
tendency to suppurate in the glands and from 
leucocythiemia by the a>>8ence of change.^ in 
the blood. In 18;J6 Ilodgkin's' Lectures on 
the Morbid Anatomy of the Serous and Mu- 
cous Membranes ' was published in two 
volumes, and it established hi.s reputation as 
a memlier of the distinguished school of mor- 
bid anatomists connected with Guy's Hospi- 
tal. Hoilgkin was a member of the senate 
of the university of Ixindon from its founda- 
tion in \yii'i till his death. lie was a can- 
didate but was never elected physician to 
Guy's Hospital, nor did he attain a large 
private practice. He was famed for his ge- 
nerosity to his patients, imd was careless of 
fees. Sir Jiiraes C'lm-k [q. v.] and other 
friends in I8">7 wished to prfsent him with 
n valuable testimonial, but lie insisted that 
the money subscribed should be paid over 
to a charity. 

Hodgkiu graduolly fell out of practice, 
and gave his time to philanthropic agi- 
tation. He hiid been one of thi* founders of 
till.' Aborigines' Protection Society in 1838, 
and through it and other agencies worked 
hard for oppressed savages, persecuted Jews, 
and ill-honhed poor. In 1850 he marrii-d o 
widow, Mrs. Sarah Frances Scaife, and ihoir 
house in Bedford Sijimre, London, was the 
W!ene of miii'li simi)le luiswitality to phihm- 
thropists, cthiinlogi.sts, and geographers. He 
had no children. In I Stiti he visited Pales- 
tine with Sir Moses .Monlcliore, and while 

there died at Jaffa, 5 April 18*16, of an aggra- 
vated dysenteric attack. He was Imried at 
Jatfa, and a monument was erected over his 
grave by Sir Moses Montefiore. He was 
throughout life a zealous member of the So- 
ciety of Friends, and always wore their dis- 
tinctive dress. He translated with Dr. Fisher 
from the French ' Edwards on the Influence 
of Phvsical Agents on Life' (London, 1832), 
and also published 'The Means of Promoting 
and Preserving Health ' (London, 1840), of 
which a second edition appeared in 1841, an 
'Address on Medical Reform' (1847), 'A 
Iliographical Sketch of Dr. John Cowle» 
Prichard' ( I84t»), 'A Iliographical Sketch of 
Dr. W, Stroud' (18.V), and pamphlets in 
defence of the Negro Emancipation and the 
British African Colonization Societies (I83S- 

[Works; Dr. S. Wilki's .■Account of some 
Unpablishcil Papers of the late Dr. Hodgkin ; 
Guy's Hospital Keports, Snl ser. v. xxiii* inform 
mation from Dr. S. Wilks; information from 
family: Morning Star, 1.5 April I86C; Lanrrt, 
21 April 1866 ; MMical Times and Gazette. 
H April 1866; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books.) 

N. M. 

HODGKINSON, EATON" (1789-1861), 
writer on the strength of moterials, the son 
of a farmer, was born at Anderton in theparish 
of Great Budworth,Cheshire,on26Feb. 1789. 
He was left fatherless when six years old, but 
his mother carried on the farm, and was able 
to send him to Northwich grammar school, 
where he received the rudiments of a classical 
education, and afterwards to Mr. Shaw's pri- 
vate school in the same town, where hi» 
natural bias for mathematics was allowed 
full scope. His mot her'sdidiculties compelled 
her to abandon an intention of educating him 
for the church, and he devoted himself to the 
farm. For that vocation he was unsuited. 
and III' jiersunded his mother to embark her 
little eapitiil in a pnwnbroking business at 
Siilfonl, Mauche.ster. Removing thither in 
1811, when he was twenty-two years old, 
he soon took up the line of scientific inquiry 
which was suited to his genius, and became 
acquainted with John Dalton and other gifted 
men then living nt Jlanchester. In March 
lS22 he read a paper 'On the Transverse 
.St ruin nnd Strength of .Materials' before the 
Literary nnd Philosophical Society (printed 
in iheir .1/chioi'm, vol, iv. 2nd ser.) In this 
contribution is recorded an element which 
became an important obji-et in all his subse- 
quent exiierimenls, iiaiuely 'set,' or the dif- 
tereiice between the originnl position of a 
strained body and llie position it assumes 
when the strain i.i removed. He fixed the 
e.xact position of the ' neutral line ' iu the 




rtion of rupture or fracture, and made it I 
"bservient to the computation of thesf renfftli 
of a beam of given dimensions. His concep- 
tion of the true mechanical principhj by which 
tho position of the line could be determined 
ha:: long obtained general acceptance. In 
I'^'J'^ he read before the same society an im- 
p ui .lit I. ipiT" On the Forms of the Catenary 
i in Bridges,' and in 1H30 one on 

• I li and Practical Researches to aa- 

c>«riain the Strength and best forms of Iron 
Be*m8,' one of the most valuable contribu- I 
tions to the liistorv of the strength of mate- 
rial* ever made. From the theoretical ex- ' 
p>itions there viven of the neutral line, the 
experiments to determine the strongest beam 
w._Tf devised and successfully carried out, 1 
iihini; in the discovery of what is known 
liodgkinson's beam,' which has been de- 
cribed as the pole star for engineers and 
builders. .■Vmimg his other contributions to 
tlie British .-Vssociation are two on the tem- 
p-mture of the earth in the deep mines of 
Liincushire and Cheshire ( Hf/mrts, \HiVd~M\\. 
lu the ' Phihmophical Transactions' for 1840 
he wrote • On the Strength of Pillars of Cast 
Iron and other Materials,' which secured 
him the royal medal of the Royal Society 
uti'I his election as F.R.S. He rendered im- 
;t service to Robert Stephenson in the 
■uctiou of the Conway and Britannia 
ir bridges by fixing the best forms and 
. -ions of tubes. lie edited the fourth 
jl;ou of Tredgold's work on the strength 
rcsut iron, 184:?, and published a volume of 
own, ' Kxperimental Ue.searches on the 
rength and other Properties of Cast Iron,' in 
40. Many of the i.'.\perimenlH were, us lie 
»tff> in his pn-face.can-ied out at the works 
r Mr. W. Fairbaim. He worked firim 1847 
l^ilS a* one of the royal commissioners 
P inquire into the application of iron to 
~ilw»y structures. Iiis own contributions 

'li^ 'umissioners' report (wcupy a promi- 

M, and elicited the special thanks 
Tot \v -commissioners. In 1847 he was 

appointi-d prijfessor of the mechanical prin- 
ciplijM !>!' engineering at I'niversity College, 
Ivmdon, where, however, liis lectures were 
depriveil of a large -ihare of efficiency by his 
n'rV'MiA hesitancy oi speech. He was a 
(Bomber of the Geological Society and of 
itoyal Irish .\cademy, and honorary 
' er of the Institute of Civil Engineers 
1851 ) and of other societies. From 
I8f)0 he was president of the Man- 
\ iind Philosophical Society, 
married, but had no children. 
' ■ "hurine, daughter of the 
t' Manchester; his »e- 
..... 1 Henry Holditch, cap- 

tain in the Cheshire militia. In his last 
years, when he had become enfeebled both 
physically and mentally, he occupied himself 
in arranging his papers with a view to their 
publication in a collected form, but he did 
not live to complete the task. He died at 
Higher Broughton, Manchester, on 18 Jnne 
1861, and was buried at his native village. 

[Life, by R. Kawson, in Memoirs of Munchostor 
Lit. and Phil. Soc. 3rd ser. ii. 14.5 ; also in .Smith- 
sonian Report for 1868 ; Proc. of Institute of 
Civil Engineers, xxi. 642 ; Todhunter's Hist, of 
the Elasticity imd Strength of Materials, 1880, 
vol. i. ; Pole's Life of Sir W. pairbairn, 1 877 ; 
R. Angus Smith's Centenary of Science in Man- 
chister. 1883. The Royal Society's Catalogue of 
Scientific Papers gives a lisl of nineteen papers 
by HudgkiiisoD. A summary of his experiineuts 
will be found in Barlow's Strength of Materials.] 

C. W. S. 

TOPHER (1816-1880), meteorologist and 
writer on education, studied at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, grad uat i ng B. A. (fourteenth 
wrangler) in 1837, and M.A. in 1842. He 
became principal of the Royal Agricultural 
College lit Cirencester, then principal of the 
Diocesan Training College at York, and from 
18ti4 to 1870 was hcJid-master of the King 
Edward grammar school at Louth, He 
was also secretary of the National Society. 
Hodgkinson was presented to the rectory of 
Screveton, Nottinghamshire, in 1876. Hodg- 
kinson married a granddaughter of Sir James 
Ross. He died at Car Colston, Nottitigham- 
shire, on 25 April 1880. 

Hodgkinson was an Alpine climber. In 
1862 he contributed ' Hypsometry and the 
Aneroid' to 'Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers,' 
published for the .\lpine Club (1862), vol. ii. 
(2nd ser.) Hodgkinson showed a practical as 
well as theoretical knowledge of the mecha- 
nism and application of aneroids, and recom- 
mended their use in mountain exploration, 
not only in the interests of meteorology, but 
for the convenience of the tourist. He made 
a series of astronomical observations on the 
summit of Mont Blanc, towards which he re- 
ceived from the Royal Society several grants 
' for the construction of his own scientific in- 
struments and the modification of others.' He 
had some corregjiondence with the a.stronomer 
royal as to the most etl'ective mode of re- 
gistering the amount and intensitv of sun- 
shine. Besides sermons and tracts Hodgkin- 
son also published, in reply to the .Vrclibishop 
of York and Bislioji of Ripon, a defence of 
the teaching of the Diocesan College at Y'ork 
(1864), and some pamphlets on the exami- 
uat ions lV)r the Indian civil service, approving 
open competition. 

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IIWl. In 1807 ho was appointed to a re- ' 

%Unt liitorship nt King's. lie formed an 

limate friendship with Byron, whom he 

■ ' nt Newstead in 1808. In 1810 Hodg- 

kther died, and he undertook to pay ' 

bt*. which embarrassed him for several 

Until he was cleared in 1813 by a gift 

l>rou of 1,000/. He gave a bond for 

hoiiut, which Byron omitted to destroy, 

wment was afterwardsdemnnded bv the 

■executors. Meanwhile in 1H09 Ilodg- 

Ipublishfd'Lady.Ianetirey' and other 

rms. and in 1810-11 had held a long cor- 

andence with Byron, then abroad, on reli- 

nd other topics. In 1812 he published 

) of Laurel. In 1 8 1 5 he was presented 

) the curacy of Bradden, Northamptonshire, 

pd in 1816'tothe living of Bakcwell, Derby- 

liire. lie had some correspondence with 

nrd Byron and Mrs. Leigh in regard to the 

tparatinn of Lord and I^dy Byron, lie made 

1 appeal to Lady Byron, who replied civilly, 

lit tie did not diacover the cause of the 


In 18.16 Hodgson became archdeacon of ^ 
>rby, and in 18.'J8 was presented toEdensor, 
rhicn he Iicld together with Bakewell. In 
'40, by the queen's desire, he was appointe<l 
8t of Eton, and soon afterwards rector 
tte«f(ird. He sanctioned the reforms 
te<l by Kdwanl Craven Ilawtrey [q. v.], 
head-master. Hodgson died at Eton on 
I Deo. 1852. In 1814 he married his first 
rife, Miss Tayler, who died in 18."J;5. and in 
638 his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
ord Dei\inan. Besides the works already 
Dtin-d, Hodgson published: 1. 'Sir Edgar, 
j Tale,' Jfcc, 1810. 2. ' Charlemagne, or The 
liurch Delivered' (trans, from the French 
' Lb. ' '■ i.iparte by Rev. S. Butler and 
K\: ! ., 1815). 3. 'The Friends, a 

em, 1^1 -1 icI'. SsilLE-S, Murray, ii. 34). 
, ' Mvthologv for Ventitication' (ed. by F. C. 
" "on, 18d2; 2nd ed. I8«lti». I 

[Sir J. .Vmould's Memoir of Lonl Deonuin, I 
|873, i, Ifi, 39. 83. lid. 294, ii. 87-8, 104-«, 1 
KiS-'J-t, 342 -. J. T. Hi d^.'sons Memoir of Ber. F. 
Hodgson, IS78 {chicflv oorrespoDdeoce) ; Moora'i I 
(try, V. 191, 216, ; Moore's Life of Byron, 
kble Talk of B. Ii. Haydoa (ii. 367-8) girea on 
boritTof Hobhouse an apparrDtlyspitefhl 
I of liodgson'* reUtiona to Byron.] 

N. D. P. P. 

HODGSON, JAMES (1672-1755), rad- 
ical teacher and writer, wa* bom in 
"2. In 1703 he was electwl fnllow, uid 
1733 one of the council. ': val So- 

ety. For many years (■ ;-ath be 

■ BMStt^r of the Royal r-ciiK)! ■•> Mathe- 
■t (Christ's Hospital. IIodgKon ins 
ad of John Fhiiiute«d [q. v.^, married 

his niece, and took part in the controversies in 
which Flamsteed was engaged. Whi-n Flam- 
steed died Hodgson assistud his widow in 
the publication of her husband's works, and ho 
appears as co-editor of the 'Atlas Ccelestis,' 

5ubli8bedinl729. The share, however, which 
oseph Crosthwaito had in preparing Flam- 
steed's posthumous works for the press was 
never ack'nowledged. Hodgson died on 
25 June 1755, leaving a widow and sovi-ral 
children. His portrait by T. Uibson was en- 
graved in mezrotint by (}. White. He wrote, 
besides papers in the ' I'hilosophical Truna- 
actions' (vols. ixxvii-xlix.), 1. 'The Theory 
of Navigation,' 1700, 4to, 2, 'The Laws of 
Stereographick FroJMtion . . . ,' printed in 
'Mi8ceilaneaCurio9a,'vol.ii.,1708,8vo. 3. 'A 
System of the Mathematics,' 1723. 4. 'The 
Doctrine of IHuxions founded on Sir Iicaac 
Newton's Method . . . ,' 173*l,4to. 5. 'An In- 
troduction to Chronology,' 1747, 8vo, tl. ' .\ 
Treatise on Annuities,' 1747. 7. 'TheTlniDry 
of Jupiter's Satellites,' 1750. He aUo pr<>- 
fixed a short treatise on ' The Theory of Per- 
spective' to the English translation of tliii 
t rench Jesuit's work on p!r»pective,a fourth 
edition of which was puLliahed in 1705. 

[Gent. Mag. 175d. p. 284; Life of KluiuaUe'l 

in this Diet. ; liaily'd <\'- ' ''t" Kdv, .IdIid 

Flamsteed; Tliomw^nn 1 .**■.; lir,j. 

Soe.Lists; Noble's liraii:, i'j ; liromley'i 

Cat. of British Fortmit*. | W. A. J. A. 

HODGSON, JOHN (J. lOW), aiitobio- 
grapber, a Yorkshire gentleman, wlio resided 
near Halifax, took up urm« on the *idn of tbo 
parliament in the civil warn in D<'r«mb«r 
1042, at the instigniion of Andrew Ijtthnm 
of Coley Cliawl, when Sir William Haiillw 
attacked Bradford. He b' . ' t 

serviceaaensigntoCaplnin ."'■ 
in the regiment of Golunel (•'.riK -.i.n'i r,ii,/|it, 
under Sir Thomas Fairfax at tlw" i-npliir>.> nf 
Leeds and Wakefield and in th" defxiils of 
Seacroft Moor and Atberton M'K)r. Whnri 
the Marquis of Newca«tle captup'l ll/'...!r..r.| 
(July 1<M3), Uiflfium was made | ,4 

•tripped, but, being relens/-d,h<- III !> 

to nocb'lale, wliere he had a fever. .Miiatrr- 
ing afreab at Tliomhall in Craven, Hixlgwxi 
and his companion* joined Fairfai at Kniil*- 
ford Heath, to nntit-rtake tho atlai'k on l,iird 
Byron at .\antwich(Janiiarv |<t|(|. ||>id^vifi 
then enterird Coloni-l Briglit'ii firttni nf '<c« 
Brioht, Joiixl, und/:r wli/im h i| 

I tV/t. He l/)ok |iart in I he siege* . , 1 

ii ■ ;- In lh« Uttbi „| |',....i.,n 

< I'KlgK^n, still only a lieiilo' 

naiii in> aji'/iiii .^{M;nr«r'«c<>niu«ny of Hrtgbt't 
regiment, was oo» of tb4< InodnrsOf ilm ' fof- 
lorn (4 foot.' In this caiopsiipi li« followml 


, 12 }Uj 1 8M; Laatit AAienUn. April 
B. E. A. 

HODGSON, BERNARD (174o?-lS06), 
{irincipal of Hertford College, Oxford, ii de- 
•cribed u the «on of * 3(ark Hodgson of St. 
)(aniii'8,We8Uniiut<?r, pleh.' rFoarER^btmni 
OaroH. pt. ii. p. 672). lie vm educated at 
[ Wertmimfer School, where in Mar 17af.» he 
I wma elected a king's ncholar. Tn May 17&4. 
aa captain of the school, he wa^ elected to a 
•tadentahip of Christ Church, Oxford, where 
[ lie matriculated on 20 June following, and 
graduated B.A. 1708 and M.A. 1771. On 
SO (Jet. 177a he became principal of Hert- 
ford College, and proceeded D.C.L. 2i Jan. 
177t). He waa presented by the dean and 
chapter of Christ Church to the vicarage of 
Tolpoddle, Doraetahire, in 1776. Ho<i^8on 
diea on 28 Maj 1805, in hia sixtj-fint rear. 
Upon hit death Hertford College waa dia- 
•Olved, and from that portion of the property 
which WHS transferred to the university the 
Hertford MhoInrAbip was subsequently en- 
dowed ; the building were eventiiallv given 
to Magdalen Hall, which became tie new 
Hertford College in 1874. The authorship 
of ' The Monastery. .\ Poem on the building 
of a Monastery in Doraetahire,' 17t»o, is attri- 
buted to Hodgson (6r'mf.3fay. 179«3, voL btvi. 
pt. i. p. 317). 

He publijihed the following worb : 
1. ' Solomon's Sonjf trtuulated from the He- 
brew,' Oxford, 17W(, 4to. 2. ' The Proverbs 
of Solomon translated from the Hebrew,' 
Oxford, 17M8. 4to. 3. ' Ecelesiajstea. .\ new 
TmnHlntion from the original Hebrew," Ox- 
ford, 179(J, 4to. 

[Alumni We»itmon. 1 852. pp. 372, 380, 46), .534, 
63n: Oent. M»k. 1805, pi. i. p. o8S ; Hutchins'i 
Durvet, ii. 217-18; Wowi's Hist. iinJ Antiq. of 
jOxford, 1786, iii. 647-8. App. 321; Honour* 
K<gi«ter of the Univ. of Oxford, 1883, pp. 7! 
1«6 ; Brit. Mun. Cat.] O. F. K. P 

BEUTON (1K21-18(;5), traveller, emigmi. 
to New South Wales in 1840, remained i: 
Australia for five years, and accQrapaiii. 
several exploring expeditions into tli ! , 
rior. On his return to England he pui 
' Reminisj'ences of Au.>itralia, with II 
tliH .SquBtterM' Life.' After a short 
England he travelled through •" - 
Abyssinia, made two journeys t. . 
visited Ceylon. On his return li< 
in 1849, an account of his wiiii 
work entitled ' El Udaivar.' I 
1851 to 17 March 18.J5 Hod^.- 
unpaid vi<'e-con3ul at Pau. wli. r. 
popular, and interested bin 
tory and antiquities. In 1 ■ 

'Ptreaaiea; a HMUtTof 
B«ani to tbe DMrtk «f Bvt - 
of that Moaaieh.* He ■ 
spfninted noe-eooMd at ) 

mained tea two jaata, asi! 
became oficiatiiie«GBciila' 
In theOttobs fisUowii^ h' 
kodate, when be bad fht, 
well as EiwUab ' 
Japan till Hanci 
England publi»li- 
and Hakodate .i 
count of Japan ^ur: . 
thenceforth reatfed ehii".! 
diedon 11 Oei. I'^s'- 
Besideslbe Wil- 
son published at 
Wanderer and Mr 

[Foreign (ificr I ; ■ 
Hodgson's worka ! . 


with .-;. 
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■■■■'■. ',':itlii-riii.' Krcm)ii.i:i ■: 

. ! - -t.T nf tln' (.'iiuut.^-s : 

1 ■'. ;infrmis family. Lik.-!..- 

■:• I ;ii.' iip' "f niiii'ty, and <!'.•:• .i 

■.:; Wi'lliivk Strci'i. I.,..url..r.. 

■•..■•■ M !lu'i.-ttict-=ofa colli Oil ii;';.: 

■ : .:u. IIoi.l;j.-iouV si'coinl s iii. 

■]' ■, i* >.']iaraii'!y iiotic't'il. 

■. :. SlIllllol.Mi: .loFlN Ilol>.,-ON 

■>■ -ii. i-nicrcil tlioarmy ill l^l'.l a- 

■ ■■'■•lif.iot.aiuU.-rvcd iiianyy..a!- 
■ 1..1111I till' loth,. •J'.Hl:. 

• , ■iviiN. I'lvr >omf lime 1p: c^'HI- 

:v>'- in (Vyl.iii and llic Slraiv 
-, ■:.■! in (.'.'ylon adniini<lcrcd tli- 

■ ■ :it a- well. In l>.")ti h,. 1,..- 
. :" the olili. and in )S7(), Ijk.. 

• i.'raiidfallicr. colonel cvf tli^ 
■-■ r ri'ijimcnt. lli'dicd al Tor- 

■ ; 1-00. 

- !■ -t. lu-i'. -lili Kill;;'.- i,)\in .(•'[.■•■: ; 

• i .N'rv. .M:i:;. l.siii. pp. ;il'.i-'Jii: 

- > "mi.-, :; Si.j.i. IMMP: Armv ai..! 

.-^.I'l. is'.io] II. .m; C. 

-SON, JOHN .•<rri>H()i,MF. 

, rtia'or-jjcniral in 1I..^^.■.■.^>I■I1J,1I 

.■■ I'dakc Sir.-. I. ^■|lrk, in May 

. . •; l-iinof,lo|iii I l,)d^r>,ii| ( |7")7 - 

IMiic-it.'d at the Il.iyal Mili- 

■ ', . \\ oolwicli. Mode-on cntiTcJ 
• .. ■ lit of the Iteneal native iii- 

- .;•■. .in.'! I 'ell. I.'-l'l'. Two year- 
\ . ';~-L'l)he liec.ame lieutenant in 

■ ., ■••••lit, and wa- jironioled to a 
:M .lime is.'il. Ilodsr.-ion was 
(■■■'\n the ell'ects of minierou- 

- \\!;.n til., lir-t Sikh war liroko 

• . •• I""!'"!!, hilt he deierniined to 
• ::'. which wasthen in the field. 
. •:^:ii!iin!cationsinterrii]ited,an.l 

■ ■ !;"c ::-si-lance, he walked a dis- 

■ \ nili.-^, ii;irrinvly ••sca|iini,' at- 

•cniy and iiisurircni peasant rv. 

- "i.;h the campaign of ISJ.")-!;, 
■ '...-ileof Sohraon. where be was 

M • !.'c.i\ed the medal andcla.-p, 
, . ' , . .i til raise tlictirst Sikh re-fi- 




meat embodied in the British strvice. On 
9 Not. 1&46 he was made brevet-major of the 
let Sikh infantry, and commanded the regi- 
ment inthesecondSikhwar(184d-9; against 
the Sikh insurgents, a task of peculiar diffi- 
culty, which he performed with eminent »uc- 
MH. Among other conspicuous semoes he 
led the attack upon the rajah of the Jusween 
Dhoon on the night of 2 Dec. 1848, and took 
and destroyed hia fort of Ukrot. For this 
action he was specially commended, and re- 
ceived the brevet rank of lieutenant-Colonel 
(7 June 1849). The governor-general, in 
general orders, Simla, l"> Sept. 1849, expressed 
high approbation of the conduct of the 1st 
SiMi infantry throughout the war. 

In ISoO Hodgson was selected to organise, 
with the rank &[ brigadier, the Punjab irre- 
gular force. In 1853 he soccesafully directed 
military operations against the hill tribes, 
West of the Derajttt. While in command of 
the Derajat frontier he was chosen to suc- 
ceed Sir Colin Campbell in command of the 
Peahawer frontier. He was advanced to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel 'Jo April 1858, and 
major-general -JS July 18C1. In 1865 Hodg- 
son retired from active service, and settling 
in London died there in 1870. 

[Vt'ii Services of Major-Geneial John Stnd- 
holme Hodgson, pnvat«ly printed, Brighton, 
18$'3 ; private information.] G. C. 

HODGSON, JOSEPH,D.D. (1756-1821), 
Roman catholic di vine, son of George Hodgson 
and his wife, Man;' Hurd of London, was bom 
on 14 Aug. 1766, andwas educated at Sedgler 
Park School, Staffordshire, and the English 
College of Douay, where he was admitted on 
18 Dec. 1769. He was retained in the col- 
lege as profejsor, first of philosophy, and then 
of divinity. He occupied the post of vice- 
president when the French revolutionists 
aeized the college, and was imprisoned, with 
the neat of the professors and the students, 
first at Arras and afterwards at DouUens. 
On their liberation in 1795 he came tu Lon- 
don, and was appointed one of the priests at 
St. Creorge-in-the-Fields. Subsequently he 
was removed to Castle Street, and became 
vicar-general to Bishop Douglass and after- 
wards to Bishop Poynter. He also had the 
niiritual care of the ladies' school at Brook 
, Hammersmith, where he died on 
i^. 1821. 
ie wrote a ' Narrative of the Seizure of 
ouay College, and of the Deportation of 
! Seniors, Professors, and Students to Doul- 
Prinled in the ' Catholic Magazine 
Review' (Birmingham, 1831-2), vols. i. 
I ti., with a continuation by other hands. 
: ooutitutes the principal part of ' Le Col- 

1^ Anglais de Douai pendant U B^Tolution 
Fnmfaise (Dooai, £qaeiduii, et Donllau), 
traduit da 1' Anglais, aTee one tatrodoetioD 
et des noces par M. I'Abbi L. Oaaeoune/ 
Doom, 1881, iimo. 

[OiUow's Diet, at Eaf/HA CalkeOtm. in. >1« ; 
Huaenbeth s Hi*, of Sa^^ FaA Sefaooi. p. 24.] 

T. C. 

HODGSON, JOSEPH (1788-1889), sur- 
geon, son of a Birmingham merchant, was 
bom at Penrith, Cumberland, in 1788, and 
wai educated at King Edward \Tt Grammar 
School, Btrmingham. After serving an ap- 
prenticeship to a medical man at Birming- 
ham, Hodgson, whose father had fallen into 
distress, was enabled by aa uncle's genero- 
sity to commence ttudr at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, London. i{e obtained the diploma 
of the College of Snigeooa in li^ll, and gained 
in the same year thi> Jacksomian prize for an 
essay ' On Wounds and Diaeasea of the Ar- 
teries and Veins.' Commencing practice in 
King Street, Cheapeide, he eked out his in- 
come by taking pupils and by writing for, 
and acting for some years as editor of, the 
' London Medical Renew.' His well-known 
work on the arteries and veins was pub- 
lished in 1815, and was translated into seve- 
ral foreign languages. Disappointed by his 
progress in London, Hodgson in 181t< re- 
moved to Birmingham, and was elected sur- 
geon to the General Dispensary and to the 
General Hospital. He held the latter appoint- 
ment till 1848. He took a prominent part in 
founding the Birmingham Kye Intirmary in 
1824, and was at first the only surgeon there. 
He had a large practice in Birmingham, and 
was very sucrasaful as a lit botomist. In 1 849 
he ret umed to London with a coiuiderable fur- 
tnne. He was elected a member of the coun- 
cil of the College of Surgeons, and examiner 
in surgery to London University and the 
College of Surgeons. In 1851 he was presi- 
dent of the Medico-Chirurgical Society, and 
In 1864 president of the College of Surgeons ; 
he was also a fellow of the Royal Society. 
He died on 7 Feb. 1869, aged 81. His wife 
had died twenty-four hours earlier. He was 
an able surgeon of the old school, averse to 
innovations, medical and political, and con- 
sequently involved in early life in many quar- 
rels. Ills diagnosis was very accurate, but 
cautious. In later vears he was remarkable 
for his suavity and Icindnesa of manner, i I is 
only work, besides some papers in the 'Trana- 
actions of the Medico-Cbirurgical Society,' 
was his treatise on ' Diseases of the Arteries 
and Veins,' already referred to. 

[lancet, 1861, i. 243: Medical TimM, ISRO, i. 
206 ; J. F. Clarke's Autobiographical RcooIIm:- 
tions.] U. T. B. 

•:. :';k.. t-Ntv- 
..■■.■r:^in.l l"i:-.: :-. 
K giviii i;i '• :.■. 


- .-. ■v;li.i.\m. m.k. ,i:4.-. 

• '.: i in 17!'. 

. •• 'J. Ill ancii'i'.; l"inl<'r t'iiip;i".'-. 

.■ -"■;.'.--<.l m- iii:i>.' in n.ii!;ir. '. 

. :■>•■: :t last,- \\<r li.^lanv. I '>i 

"iillan.lh- art-M.l.-a wnl.v.,-- 

_ ; 1 >"V-:v ■.I'::.! <-. a in''iiili-r ' 

'- taMiily, !• ;• In; iloclimil I. ;.l 

■'.'■■■: I'l" ;.". :ii']'.>intnifiit. II- 

•••'.;;•.■ ]ii'I;;:>-.l v:.\v^, chict'A ".■> 

• -.'. -iiv' l-viv!: ; :.ii.-..,,l,,.r>.' ;.•..! 

■■• il.'Hvarw :■.•:■::: .-i- lii<wanr.' -T 

•■ ■' Wr. \7\<-' !.. M::~ tri.ilat ; .- 

■• :: cliari;. - . :' i.u\ iuir )iri>iiiis.(l a- 

■ '":■: Frfin-h [[•■[■■.ilili.'.' and if 

■■■•• ;.arfil thi ki!-.^ ti a (M'rnian h.-j 

H"\viis t'.- ;i..: j;i;l:\ ami wa<s-ii- 

':<■ conliiii'd in Ni\Vi;ati' tor t'.v i 

■■.IV a linf .>: l'''ii'.. an,! tn liiiJ -.•,:- 

■ lii'V. lor !«., >,'av« loi-.jiT. Ai--r 
_ ' > lilnM-ly !;,.' rili:ii|i;i.-lii-(l ]>oli;i.- 

■•: rv anilsc;. v.,-,-. Ilf ilii-,1 in H' ir.- 

• I"- rrar... r^ir.- ■;.. .n J Man;li l^-l. 
.;■ :i KMi. 

.- ••. iiulili.-li' .; : 1. •Tr..' Pii-nu-' i; 

-.•■r,! I'flit. !7'.'">. -. • Thi't 'i'ii.:i:'iH- 

i;.a.-(in. I>y W'.ll ^'.i^ c.n- 

■'•.• I'ri.-on ■>!' N,A\^at,'. I,on,l,iii. i-t 

'., 17;'.">, >v.>. :;. •'I'li.' Sy>-- in 

- .' !V,)ni til.- l-'i-,-n,li ,il' Miralv .;,!. 

. '7S'.'i. .-^vo. I. •111.' Cav ..!' W. 

. ••. w ('(iiitiiii'd in Ni'\\:;ati- \'r,r tili- 

-.' AKI/. (il'lcr havin- .-ntU'r-d twr-. 

■••■■.••^,>nm,'iU on a idiari;,' nl' .-d::! ii. 

■ '. ami i-'impan'd wiiji tli,> fxi-tiiii.' 
•.' ■■ I'liiintrv,' Liiiid,>n. 175't). ^\... 
■i .'< lorjinblishin;: liy suli>i-r;]i;i.-!i a 

■-..1 till' I'cnialf I'ilizi'n. or a llis:..- 

■"v.Miiry into I lie l!ij.dir.- <>l"\V',ni,n' 

■ 7"''i: . -mall ,-livft. .'-\o. il. 'T'l" 

\]','lln, bcin;;- a Silcct inn i.t' :!;■• 

• s ■.'r.Mii till- most I'sti'i-nic'i! Author,.' 
■•. -\.'. r. 'Monioraiula: iiii.n,l-l 

rt'.t'.isli Slndfnl in tin' ar'.|ii'r- 

■' •..:,■■ tiis of l-'n-nch Ciraii:!i'.ar.' 

.'^' 7. iL'n'.o. ,-. 'A critiral (iranin. :r 

•,'..:•! l!Mi;li>li l.anfinai;,'-; : \vi:li 

. ;ion~.' l,,Mid(m. Isl<). iL'n-o, 

- >.'..; Incl ■ IS)."):-' in wl:iili ']if 



relation of chemistry to th* flow*r zir<J*B is 
scientifically elucidated. 10. 'Tbr- Lif- of 
Napoleon Bonaparte, once Emp^'ror rf tie 
French,' London "1M1\ '•to. 11. .\r::cl':s 
on chemistry in the 'Guide to Knowl^dzij." 
12. "A Derivative and Terminal Die:; ;-n«iy.' 
left unfinished at h\3 death. 

[Annual Rapist tr. 18-51. }t. i:. 2*4: B;-.c. 
Diet, of Livinir Author-, p. 140: G^Et. Kaz. i. p. 46H; Wntt» B:bL Bn:. : N«*t 
and Querieii. 6th !«r. ix. 47o.] T. C. 

TYXE (l^Sl.VlgftO), educational pef-rrcer 
and political economL-t, vm of Willias: 
Hodgson, a workin? printer, wa* fc..m at 
Edinburgli on 6 Oct. ISlo. In l»iB he en- 
tered the Edinburgh Hijrh Sohiy-l. ani. after 
working for a short time in a lawy-r'* offic*. 
matriculated in November 1»:S. when jus 
turned fourteen, at theFMinbursrh University. 
IIetooknodegreeasa«itudent. Heemplovrd 
himself in lecturintr on literature, education, 
and phrenolosry at various towns in FifesiuF^. 
On 1 June l>?3f» he was appointed secretarv 
to the Mechanics' Institute of IJveipool. lie 
was offere<l the editorship of a Liverpool 
newspaper in 1441, and that of a Manchester 
newspaper somewhat later, but declined both. 
In 1844, by his ad vice, a girU' school was added 
to the Liverpool Institute, and in the same year 
he was appointed principal of the in>*itate. 
On 11 March IfrW he received the dejrree of 
LL.D. from tila^gow University. Yfim 1*47 
to lt*.51 he was principal of "the Chorlton 
High School. Manchester; in 1S4« he aai- 
taled for the education of women at the 
Royal Institution of Manchester. In I'njI 
he travelled abroad, remaining in Paris from 
October 1K51 to July Ir^'ti. In 1%5.3 he re- 
tiime<l to Edinburgh. Here he cave courses 
of popular lectures on pliy.-iology. having 
qualihed himself by attending the classes at 
tlie College of .Surgeons. In lisW he lectured 
at the Royal In.-titution, I»ndon. on eco- 
nomic science. He was app'jinte'l in \''9f an 
assistant commissifinerof imiuirj- into primary 
education, and n-moved to l»ndon. He was 
examiner in political economy to the I»ndon 
University from J i^)3 to 1 r*(>f*, and was placed 
on the council of University College, (lOwer 
Street. .As a memb*.-r of council he seconded 
in 18(j(> the confirmation of the report of the 
senatus in favour of the election of James 
Martineau to the vacant chair of mental phi- 
losophy: and in const^uence of Martineau's 
rejection he resigned his seat on the council 
19 Jan. 1867 '«;•• <1rote, (ieobge]. In 1870 
heremove<l toltoumemonth.biit in'the follow- 
ing year he was elected ( 1 7 July 1 87 1 ) by the 
Merchant Company of Edinburgh ns the first 
occupant of the new chair founded largely by 

Hi ■iE::rs -■' .-■»-— --'-i' ir-i piliTi-al •«»- 
c.:s:y as: — -r:az.-:l- Iit ji :'£- E^iiz.'.'-.^sz. 
Uriveri.Ty. E».r.i.r t i* rrc y-nr* -.■i il* -r:- 
fr!*;?iil atr-rr ir ■»ri.? f ;.s>**:-^ :i «.= «- 
I*;irr tc-.c=.:: '-i:y. Ht i^r.v-rily »:- 

at N ; rw>h ii I »r;> i.»; : i ti* rtf jc*- 
t:c-=*l •"-cti :c I* I '!~-. zir •r\^ ^Lx>iii j'ftftz-irs.t 
■:•: :i.-r Eiiiaii.-.iillrL.'-L-^-r: -.-: >r:-'_t--.i. A 
<r:Ej l:r»rnl i.^ ::•£ '.■".'.■r jar: ;::'.Xi. 
He i'.-d of irririi :•?«.-- -.-1» i- Brir?r> wLIle 
»::etiiiig •i-r -; .■:a.-.-:r_»i ■i-t^t'S'* '.'--tt^ '.= 
-4 .\-2z. IS"«>. }jr x-s.- '-zririi t'. 'i* ' iraig- 
cemr-^err. EA'.z.': .tt:':.. Hr rzarrlrt;. ~t*' .a 

iSil .Jiz-tC T f l:t^t:.>;.w;-.-.. i:--iw;ri.- 

•••ut i-*:ie .n I Jaly I'y*': *— r.r.i;T -.n 
14 Ja::. Ir*!:; . E=..y. i—^.xi ■ii-.i-L*'-T 'f 
slrJ-.-'Lii Wiln-l-T. •»-':.-. »..-r;ve^ Lijt. 
witL :•»■-.• ».:-- a-i :•»■ ii.^i.vr*. 

H :/£*?•;:: Tct. i r^iLiri.»^iT 1 i^-i-i 1*^ jr*-r 
and *pAi-r, i::i LI- :.usi-.r-. -• i-.-j'-.-mti-.-t- 
PflieT*d a 2::n-v.r.:u- -i-Lv-ry. S'^ste'* :.»'. 
Prserve'i in sar.r.-rr. L:r c-'.r.*.rr-4tlr.r. •»»- .-ich 
in ter»fr an-'<f:-.*e »r. i is ■■^■■i^ -^?i-e-'>.r.. 
His p«»rLjZ';i- i-T;:;'!^! p:>«.--- .j»r:r.*-«] 
wi*h his 'LirV r.iL:".i* i.'.- rellzi'.-i'! na'jr^. 

He piibliiirni : !. • I>^.-- ;.---.n E'i Jca'.'oc.' 
ic. EdinhiTL. ls;r. J^rr.'.. i. • .\ ':■:.—»- 

. to tir M-ri*»l I;.'.pr->-.e2;er.t ry^'.-': 

the Liv-rrjoi .Mec.-.»r.;ci' 
Liverpxl '1^1.') . l:;.'f.o. ' 



■ Tr..- 

. .'it:.. 

'-.<■ .:»r. 

the Rriigioij*, and th- T:.'-'A'y-^i<r^: 
IS-VJ. liroo. -1. •<».'. thr Inif</r»n'.-'- ' : sl.e 
Stsdy of Econ.i,:; S'-ier.Or.'.V':.. 1 -■"»•>. --.o; 
l»'iO, 8vo: lr*>5. "v ■. .'^ -'to »1.- \U-y>r 
otlh*; Com2iLi\*;''.-r,-r- , . . J^^iriO'iin' in*'' . . . 
Public ^^ch'y^l«.■ av.. WH. '?vo itwo'-'l.ti'.n- 
same year >. ►!. •<';a..ic»l Ini»riic*ion.' .V:,, 
1%'56, ~vo. 7. 'T;.- K'i'icafion of 'JirN,' .v«-.. 
I»ft4-*;. »v'i: L'nd wli*. WZ<, '•vo. h. •']),- 
True Scope of E/yinomie ."v:i<-nc»-,' Ac, l^'O, 
8to. K'Tur?'.*: L:-Life.T:roe<^,an'l';|iinionf,' 
ic, 1^70. -v'^. 10. 'Inaugural .Xddreisi.,' 
&c., Edinbur;fh. 1 "71 , »vo. I'o'f liiimous w«m 
11. • Errjr^ in the Us»-of Engli'li.'iVc, Edin- 
burgh. l'?~l. "vo. wlite'l by his widow. H)- 
contributed a preface and notes to M. .Mann'it 
' Report of an lylucational Tour in ' iennniiy,' 
ic I'^if). 12mo: edite<l,in conjunction with 
H. J. Slack, the memorial e<lition ( I8<'»'», &c.> 
of the 'Workj' of William JohnMin Fox 
'». v." : and tranilate'l ' f.'ount Cnvoiir'* 
Thoughts on Ireland,' 4c., IWW, 8vo. 

[Life anl Lettera. e-iitiA by J. M. 1». .Mi-ik|.- 
John. 1883; Irving'- IV^k of Seotsirieii, IXKI, 
p. 215 ; private information and (M;nioti»l kii'iw- 
Iwise.] A. •}. 

HODSON, FRODSHAM (177()-|HiL'), 
principal of Bnis»-nf>se College, Oxford, son 
oftlieli<'v.(i«firgellr><lson, w/iM boniiit Livi-r- 
pool on 7 June 177'». He enti.-nxl the .Mnti- 




Chester gramuiar school in January 1784, 
and left it in 1787 to proceed to liraaenose 
College, Oxford, where he graduated U.A. 
on 14 Jan. 1791, M.A. 10 Oct. 1793, B.D. 
1808, and D.D. 1809. In May 1791 he suc- 
ceeded to a llulmean exhibition, and was 
afterwards elected u fellow of his college. In 
1793 he (fained the university prize for an 
essay in English prose on ' The Influence of 
Education and (lovernment on National 
Character' {.Oxford Em/t. Prize Umaye, 1836, 
vol. i.) In 1795 he waa chosen lecturer at 
St. George's Church, Liverpool, and suUse- 

?uently became chaplain of the same church, 
lis persistence in holding the chaplaincy, 
although he rarely in Ittl«r years vi9it<,'d Liver- 
pool, gave oHc.>nce in the town. In 1803^, and 
again in 1808-10, he tilled the office of public 
examiuerat Oxford. In 1 808 he wasap])ointe<l 
rector of St. Mary's, Stratford-by-IJow. In 
1809 he vacAted that benefice on being elected 
principal of Brasenose College. He presided 
over tlic college with great ability and dis- 
tinction for thirteen years, and took a lead- 
ing part in the ofliiirs of the university. lie 
served the otRce of vice-chancellor in 1818, 
and was appointed regi us professor of divinity, 
with the iippurtenant canonrj' of Christ 
Church and rectory of 1820. It 
was believed that Lord Liverpool intended 
him for a bisltojiric, hut he died, after a short 
illness, on 18 Jan. 1x2:?, aged 51. He was 
buried in the uQte-cIiii]>eI of his college, where 
he is eouimcmorated in a Latin inscription by 
Dr. E. Curd well. He married, on 30 June 1808, 
Anne, daughter of John Dnwson of Moss- 
ley Hilt, Liverpool. He left four daughters 
and a 81 m. II is widow died on 23 April 1 848. 
In the university Hodson was long re- 
nieral)ered for liis success as a college tutor 
iiiul administrator, and for the dignity of 
his personal appearance and address. He 
edited Fiileoner's ' Chronological Tables,' 
17fMi, 4to. His probationary exercwe as a 
felliiw of Brasenose was published in the 
same year, entitled 'The Eternal Filiation 
of the Son of God asserted on the Evi- ] 
dence of the Sacred Scriptures,' 8vo, pp. 
81. His only oilier works were three oc- 
casional sermons prKuehed at Liveqiool, and 
printed in 1797, 1799, and 1804. 

His portrait, by Piiillips, is in the hall of 
Brasenose College. It has been engraved by 

[J. F. Smith's Manelieater School Register 
(Chcthain See), ii. 125 ; G. V. Cox's Recoil, of 
Oxford, 1868, p. 193; Brooko's Liverpool, 1853, p. 
62; MarkPttltison's Memoirs, 188S,p.3; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.ii.673; Thorn'." Liverpool Churvhea 
and Chapels, 1851, p. 27 ; Evans's Cat. of Por- 
tr«iU,i. 173.1 C. W. S. 

1862), authoress, bom in 1778, was eldest 
daughter of Allen Holford, esq., of Da venham, 
and M&rgaret, daughter of William Wrench, 
esq., of Cnester, ana waa descended from the 
ancient family of Holford of Holford and of 
Daveoham, Cheshire. The mother, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Holford, was author of a comedy, 
' Neither's the Man,' acted at Chester and 
published in 1799, 8vo ; of a tale, ' Fanny 
and .Selina,' with ' Gresford Vale, and other 
Poems,' 1798, 8vo; of 'First Impressions, 
or the Portrait,' a four-volume novel, 1801, 
12mo; and of the 'Way to Win Her,' a 
comedy, 1814 {liiog. Diet. nfLiviny Author*, 
1816). At on early age Miss Holford fol- 
lowed her mother's example in attempting 
literary work. Her first work, ' Wallace, 
or the Fight of Falkirk. A Metrical Ro-J 
mance,' published in 1809, 4to, was noticedi^ 
in the 'Quatlerly Review' (iii. tiS). In 1811 
appeared a collection of ' Poems,' 8to ; in 
1816 'Margaret of Anjou. A Poem in ten 
cantos,' 4to ; in 1820 ' Warbeck of Wolf- 
stein,' 8vo; and in 1832 her last work, pub- 
lished after her marriage, ' The Lives of V aaco 
Nuiiez de Balboa and Francisco Pizarro. From 
the Spanish of Don Manuel Josef Quintana,' 
1 832, 8vo. This work is dedicated to Robert 
Southey, and is dated from Slmrrow Ix)dge,J 
near Ripou, 12 May 1832. Miss Holford wasl 
married (as second wife), on 16 Oct. 1826, 
at South Kirkby, Yorkshire, to the Rev. 
Septimus Hodson (see below). Mrs. Hodson 
was o corresjKjndent and friend of Southey, 
and there are several letters addressed to her 
in the fifth and sixth volumes of his ' Life' 
(18.50 ). She was also acquainted with Cole- 
ridge and Landor. She died at Dawliah, 
Devonshire, in September 1852, aged 74. 

Her husband, Seitimus Hodson (17t}8- 
1833), M.B. Camb.,wa8 rector of Thrapston,^ 
Northamptonshire, and chaplain in ordina 
to the Prince of Wales ; for some time 
preached to the Asvlum for Female Orphans 
at Lambeth. Besides sermons, he published 
an ' on the High Price of Proviaiona 
in this Countrv,' London, 1795, 8vo. He died 
on 12 Dec. 1833 {Oent. May. new aer. 1834, 
i. 338, lix. 474, be. 630). 

[Ormorod's Cheshire, ed. 1819, iii. 126-7s 
Notes and Queries, 2Dd sor. i. 113, 4th 
ix. 634, X. 94, xi. 411 ; Eclectic Rev. xxix. 73; 
Monthly Rev. xdv. 236; .Sonthey's Life, 1850, 
vols. V. and vi.] W. G. B. P. 

HODSON, WILLIAM (/. Ift40), theo-J 

logical writer, was educated at Peterhouse^l 
Cambridge, and graduated B.A. in 1620, 
M.A. in 1624 {^Univer»itij llei/ister). In 1625 
he published, as by ' Will. Hodgson Mag. in 




Art. C«it»b.,' a curioiw poem entitled ' The 
PlrriMe of Sorrow let Blood in the Eye- 
Veini! ; or the Muses Teare8 for the Death 
eS our late Soueraigne lames King of Eng- 
land,' ilo, London. His next work was a 
theotogiml treatise in English on the woman 
wbo anointed Christ's feet, called 'Sancta 
Peccatrix," ISmo [Cambridge, 16;iOFl. WU- 
Itaai Wirapew, vicar of Tottenhiun, Middle- 

*«•!. :■ I !' ' the author in some verses at 

the- book a« ' hiH noble friend and 

wor merW.H.' llodsonulso wrote: 

1. • ' iirrectiouem Carniii. A Trac- 

l»l«- I .venlh Article of the Apostles 

Crpod, exactly revised and enlarged ' (^nd 
•Nfition), 24mo, Cambridge printed, London, 
!i Hodson's portrait prefixed. 2. 'The 
'smographer ; or a brief Siurey of 
lit* whole World, delineated in a Tractat« on 
the VIIL Psalme,' 12mo, Cambridge, ItUU. 

[Cole* Athotic Cantabr. (.\ddit. MS. dtl71, 
t. 17) : Oruiger'a Biog. Uiiit. of England (fith 
«Jil.), ii. 317-18; Brit. Mas. Cut.] G. Q. 

K.\IKES(lH21-l.So8), military commander, 
th* third eon of the llev. George Hodson, 
»ft«-r" , ^ lideaeon of Stafford and canon 

ot I Am. iKim at Maisejnore Court, 

0««r t.i.j.i. .-.-icr, on 1!) March 1821. After 
• Kbori time speiil with a private tutor, the 
Ryv. E. Harland, he went to Rugby, and in 
lK4(> entf-rvd Trinity College, Cambridge, 
r;.k'i.7tIirdegTeeof B.A. in lci44. He began 
■ iry career in Guernsey, where he 
, a commission in the militia; he 
iHt It m 1^45 to enter the East India Com- 
pADr'x wrvirp. He landed at Calcutta on 
18 > und after proceeding up the 

eon: ;ii, joined the 2nd grenadiers, 

l'.>rmiU)t port of tlie governor-general's 
t, and WHJ at once engaged in the Sikh 
W, bate. 'it the Dattles of Mudki, 

PcfOMab'^ <raon. He was soon after 

truMferreO I" Mu- i-\. Itciigal Euro|)ean fusi- 
bpr«,and wa* intnjdiK-i-il to Sir Henry Law- 
vtmoe \*y iii« Hon. J. Thomaion, thu/< begin- 
aiac A fri«Ad*liip which uuly ended with 
tbMr ltT«. In lM7 hi- wa< appointed to 
til* •djtitaocT of the corps of guides, and it 
wa« in the wr>iee that this involved that 
bn g*iii«i the rxperieno- and displayed the 
fa mwt% which afttTwnrdn made him an un- 
ritalM partitaii leailiT, For his services in 
ikb r*ii«i'it> he received the thanks of the 

P. A. \Vhi>n in 1840 the Pun- 

« -il, he was transferred to the 

awA lUiprlmKnl as atiiiManl (lommissioner, 
■■dwa«*tatiour<l for tuytav timeat Umrit«ur. 
Tkcaea br went with Sir H. Lawn-nce into 
Cukmere, aod saw a good deal of Thibet. 
Oa A Jul. l88il he mMTted Siuan, widow 

I of John Mitfoid, esq., of Exbury, Hampshire, 
and by the first week in March had resumed 
his duties at Kussowlee as assistant-commis- 
: s loner; but his heart was with his old corps, 
the guides, and in September 18.52 he was 
highly gratified to receive from the governor- 
general the command of the coriis. Of his 
arduous life on the frontiers in this command 
he has givena very vivid picture in his letters. 
Up to this time Hodson's career had been 
uniformly prosperous ; but lus rapid rise had 
made some envious, and bis scorn of pretence, 
hi.s restless energy, and bis outspoken criti- 
cism of those who neglected their duty, had 
raiije Lim enemies, and a .storm burst upon 
him which at the time threatened to ruin 
him. There wa-s confusion in the regimental 
accounts, and charges of dishonesty as well 
as of harsh treatment of the natives were 
brought against liim. An inquiry was held 
before u special mililary court, which termi- 
nated it.s sittings in .January 1856. The re- 
p<jrt was unfavourable, iiud ho was removed 
Irom the command of the guides. Against 
their decision he appealed, and a second in- 
iiuiry was ordered, and entrusted to Major 
Keynell Taylor, who, after a long and patient 
investigation, reported on 13 Feb. 1858. This 
re]K)rt fully cleared him of the iuitmtat ions 
cast upon him. His words are : 'The cor- 
; rectnessof thewhole account was established, 
' and I was satisfied ' (Parry, Life of Keynell 
' 7'av/or.pp.214,215,Lond..l8ti«). InColonel 
Napier's words, 'the investigation . . . fully 
justified the confidence ' he (Napier) had 
throughout mniutaiucd in his honour and 
u])rightness. But the second rejiortwas not 
communicated to the commander-in-chief, was 
laid quietly aside in some olliee, and no more 
notice taken of it. He was thus left for two 
Tears labouring under uuj ust imputations, and 
looked on with suspicion by those who were 
I ignorant of the facts. 

Soon afterwards he rejoined thelstfusiliers 
at Dugshai, thus practically beginning his 
military career over again, but discharging 
all the regimental duties with a zeal and 
energy that procured esjiccial commendatioa. 
On 10 Muv 18o7 occurred the outbreak at 
Meerut, followed by the mansacre of Delhi. 
Hodson at once rose again to his proper place, 
and after going with the 1st fusiliers to Um- 
Lala, and then to Kiirnal, be was ordered by 
the commander-in-chief to raise and com- 
mand an entire new regiment of irregular 
liorse. This was the bodv known through- 
out the mutiny as • Hodson^s Horse,' of which 
it may be sai(\ that no single regiment did 
80 much towards saving our Indian empire. 
Besides this, the intelligence department was 
put into his hands. In June 1(467 he wan 

Hod son 




beforo Delhi, and there met his old corps of ! 
the (guides, who received him with extra va- 
^ftiit enthuiiin.«m. Of the details of the siege 
of Delhi, and the im|KirIant share that he 
and liii* Horse hud in its capture, his letters ' 
jive H ver\- clear and interesting account. 
t was taken on '20 Sept. 1In57, and on the 
followinp day he obtained (with some diHi- 
culty) from lienenil Wilson permission to 
pursue and seize the king of Delhi. He 
started with only Kfty of his own men for 
Humayoon's tomb, wliere the king had gone 
after leaving his palace. The surrender fol- 
lowed, and Hodson brought the king back 
into Delbi. handing him over to the com- 
mander-in-chief, in spite of the thousanfls 
following, any one of whom could have shot 
liim down in a moment. Tliis, tlie leading 
the king a captive into his own palace, was 
perhaps t lie heaviest blow the rebellion hftd 

On the following day (22 Sept. 1857), with 
a hundred picked meii, he started again for 
Humayoon's tomb, wbere the Shahr.adahs, 

Srinces of Delhi, had taken refuge. Hodson 
emanded their surrender; they came out 
and were sent away towards the city under 
a guard. The tomb was crowded with si.x or 
seven tliousand of the servants and hangers- 
on of t he palace and cit y. I lodson demanded 
from these men the instant surrender of their 
arms. In spite of the small number of liis 
force, they obeyed, and, after leaving the arms 
and animals with a guard, he went to look 
after the prisoners. A large native mob bad 
collected, and were turning on the giuird. It 
was no time to hesitate; the question was 
between the lives of himself ancl his soldiers 
and those of the prisoners; and after apiieal- 
ing to the crowd saying that these were the 
butchers who had murdered and brutally used 
helpless women and children, he took a car- 
bine from one of iiis men and sbot the princes, 
one after another. The critical condition ol 
things in India, and the absolute necessity 
at the moment of immediate action for the 
safety of bis own life and those of his soldiers, 
gained for Hodson's action the approval at 
the time of all engaged in the work of putting 
down the reWUion. Yet he did not escape 
detraction. 'The capture of the king and his 
sons,' he says himself, 'however ultitnately 
creditable, lias cjiused me more envy and ill- 
will than vou would believe possible.' 

Hodson's Horse was not suilered to lie idle 
aft«r the fall of Delhi ; it was soon after 
sent towards Cawnjtore in charge of a convoy 
of supplies fort hecommander-iu-chief's army, 
and went through a great deal of hard tiffht- 
ing and service of all kinds. One of Hod- 
son's most brilliant ejtploits was his riding 

from Mynpooree to the commander-in-chief* 
camp at Meerun-ke-Serai to open communi- 
cations between the two forces, when he 
rode seventy-two miles on one horse through 
a country swarming with enemies. 

On U .NIarch Hodson was before Lucknow. 
On 1 1 March he advanced us a volunteer 
with his friend, lirigadier Napier, who was 
directing an attack on the begum's palace. 
While the soldiers were searching for con- 
cealed sepoys in the courtyanl and buildin;^ 
adjoining, be looked into a dark room, and 
was shot from within through the chest. 
He died the next day, 12 March 1858, and 
was buried at Lucknow. Sir Colin Camp- 
bell wrote of him to his widow as ' one of the 
most brilliant officers under my command." 
Sir John Lawrence described him as ' one of 
the ablest, most active, and bravest soldiers 
who have fallen in the war.' Sir Robert 
Montgomery wrote : ' I can find no one lik* 
him : mimy men are as brave, many po-ssesa as 
much talent, many arc as cool and accurate in 
judgment, but not one combines all theao 
qualifications as he did.' These verdicts are 
beyond d ispute. The accusat ion made against 
him, that he had accumulated 'vast stores of 
valuables' by looting, is refuted by the fact 
that all his property (save horses) was sold at 
his death for 170/. Moreover, his widow, 
who was in the receipt of two pensions, died 
in 1884 in Hampton Court Palace, and her 
whole property was swoni under 400/. 

[Hodson of Hodson's Horse (let ed. Lond. 
I80S, oth ed. 1889), by Hod.son's brother, the 
Rev. 0. H. Hodson. is the chief aullujrity. The 
ititrciductiuiiwus written to romovetheuafounded 
inipul.itions of cruelty and dishonesty cast upoo 
Hudson. These imputations were rovired by Mr. 
li. Boiworth Smith in his Lite of Lord Lawrence 
(1883), and Mr. O. H. Hodson, in a new edition 
of his mi'moir (1884), defendeil his brother once 
again. In an elabornte appendix to the sixth 
edition (1 880) of his Life of Ixtrd Lawrence, Mr. 
Bogworth Smith recapitulated the charges, but 
entirely faiU>d, in onr opinion, to (mbstantiaio 
them. Kayc and Malleson in the History of thn 
Indiiu) Mutiny (vol. iv.) take n favourable view 
of Hodson's character, bnt condemn his action in 
regard to the princes. Mr. T. B. E. Holmes, in 
his work Four Famous Soldiers (1880) and eUo- 
where, has renewed the attacks on Hodson, both 
as regards the uusiitistactory condition of his 
accounts while commander of the guides, and 11* 
to the proceedings at Delhi and the cxecutispo 
of Bisharut Ali as a mutineer. He gives im- 
plicit credit to whatever Hodson's enemies said 
of him, while neglecting the testimony of snch 
friends as Lir.! Napier of Magdala, who wrote 
in November 188.i: "I am now, as I have alwnjs 
been, fully convinced of his honour and ilt- 
tegrily.'l H. R. L. 





HODY. nUMrUKFA' (1659-1707), di- | 
' in 1 Jan. 106f>, was son of Kicliard 

' <T of Oiifouibf, SomtTsetKhire. In 

• - vilaied friim ^Vadham t'oUegi^ 
!i he was udmitti-d .Hcliolar in 
.. »•- in 10S5, ffradimtinfr , 
■>. in I6m', B.1». in ItWt), and D.n. ' 
lie was apptjinti'd Kub-deanof the i 
i;i 1682. humanity lecturer in 168o, | 
II l*i8W, dean in 1688, sub-warden , 
kI liiiraar in 1691 and 16i)2. In 
iitrtlret,hisho|iiif Worcester, whose , 
' I >dy'g pupil uf Wadham, made 
li.i, .:ii. lie supported the ruling 

patrty in u i<.mtrover!<y with Henry Dodwell 
iv«snn1ine the nnnjnring hishopx. and was re- 
■ iinted domestic chaplain 
■liiip of Canterbury, in j 
which he i-iintinued to i 
He was presented by 
I ' ii I u.M 1. 1 the rectory of Chart hara, 

K • ! ■ liicli, Iwfore lie won collated, he ex- 
' t'T th>- united rectories of St. Mi- I 
il anil St. Martin Vintry, London 
'. vJUperturium, i. 495). ( >n 15 March 
was nominated repius professor of , 
' h" tiiiiversity of Oxford i Le Nkve, | 

v,iii.516); in November 1701 i 
' rof Monks' lti8lK)rou(rh,Buck- 
iBjfikani'hire < Lipscomb, T!ackini/ham*hire, ii. 
♦20 J; and on 1 Aug. 1704 he was promoted 
U> di« archdeaconry of Oxford (Lk Ni:ve, ii. 
51(5 1. IIedi«d,on his wavto Halh.on 20 .Ian. 
170ft-7, and wa* buried in Wadliain CoUepe 
ehUKl. Hix widow, Edith Daniel, died on 
38 5lo\'. 17:t6, and waa buried near her hus- 
kaild. H'.Kly had no children. 

Br I'M *ill ten exhibitions were founded 
in W«iiK»m Colle^>, four for the st udy of 
H*rbt««, and «ix for the at udy of Greek. The 
««MlowtBi!tit«rotuii«Iedofau estate' at Merriott, 

Soini'fx-'*''— ' [irvjiertv in the parish of 

Kt. Mar. IKford. To tbe IVid- 

kiaa kuti -•. ■ i.'olIe)te libraries he left 

raek of hi* booka a» the authorities mipht 

»T.v! (Mm r..i/i.(. red in P. C. C. 85, I'oley). 

d varioua eum.s of money 

•" that the benefaction of 

lie made pood occordinir 

II of his will (cf. her will, 

I m 1'. t.'. C. .'MJ, \\ ake). 

wilhwho")' nutijuring views Hodv 

«■* uul -if xyniiNitliy , comiilaiiied of hi^ lacK 

of JBil^tneiii, hill liiuike liiphly of his in- 


kiaxnJ ! 


C*U I Its. 

■id memory, and of 

. iixi:, <?u//.'ed. Dohle, 

. .UM. ii. 19). In 168* 

>utra lltstoriam .\ris(.eiv 

' -(;itio,' Hvo, Ox- 

. in which he 

^.•tiMu .. vlur of .\ristea», 

containing an account of the production of 
the Septuapint, was the late forpery of a Hel- 
Ifuijt .Jew. oripinully circulated to lend au- 
thority to that version. The dissertation was 
penerally repnrded as conclusive, although 
Isaac Vos.<ius published an an^ry and scur- 
rilous reply to it in the ap)>endix to his 
'Observations on I'omixinius Mela' (1686), 
pp. 58-72. With II. .Mdrioh and K. Bernard 
llodv issued an edition of Aristeas's' Ilistorv,' 
8vo,'Oxford, 1692. In 1689 he wrote tlie 
' Pridepiimena' to the Greek chronicle of John 
Malala, published at Oxford in 1691, 8vo. 

Uody condemned the position taken up by 
the nonjiirinp hishops, and was soon involved 
iiiaiharpcoutroversy. He translated a Greek 
treatise ascribed to Nicephorus, which wag 

S■ese^^■ed ainonp the Baroccian MSS. in the 
odleian Library. Ilis translation bore the 
title 'The Unreasonableness of a Separation 
from the New Bi.shojis : or, a Treatise out 
of Ecclesiastical Uistorj-, showinp that, al- 
though a Bishop was unjustly deprived, 
neither he nor the Church ever made a 
Separation, if the Succes.%or was not a Hcre- 
tick,'4to, London, 1691. Hodyalso translated 
the book into Latin, with some extracts from 
the church historians, and culled it 'Anglican! 
novi Schismati.s lledargutio,' Jtc, Ito, Ox- 
ford, 1691. Among the replies to this was 
' A Vindication of the Deprived Bishops,' 
1692, by Henry Dodwell, wno had hitherto 
been a warm friend. Hody answered his op- 
ponents in ' A Letter ... to a Friend con- 
cerning a Collection of Canons said to be 
, deceitfully omitted in his edition of the Ox- 
ford Treatise against Schism,' 4to, Oxford, 
1692, and 'The Case of St-es vacant by an 
I unjust or uucanonical deprivation stated,' 
I 4to, London, 1693. Dodwell retorted with 
' * A Defence,' 1695, which Hody left unnoticed 

until 16{>9. 
I His next work, a learned, whimsical trea- 
tise entitled 'The Ili-surrectionof the(same) 
Bofly asserted ; from the Traditions of the 
Heathens, the Ancient Jews, and the I^rimi- 
fivc Church. With an .\n8wer to the Objec- 
tions brought against it,'8vo, l^ndrin, 1(194, 
was answert'd in l(i99 by Nicholas Bean? in 
'The Kesurrection founded on Justice.' 

In 169<i, by desire of Tenison. Hody issued 
some anonymous ' .\nimadver»ioii>i on two 
Pamphlets lately publish'd bv Mr. Collier,' 
&C-, 4to, l.^)ndon. Collier had defended hia 
conduct in giving absolution to Sir William 
Parkyns at the place of execution (.'J .\pril 

Hody bore a part in the cuntmTeny 
ab<jiit the conviK-ntion, and wrote: I. 'Rome 
Thoughts on a C<iii vocal ion, and the Notion 
of its Divine Uight,' with retU-clious 


Dodwell's 'Defence' [anonA 4to, London, 
1699. 2. ' A History of English Coun- 
cik and Convocations, and of tin" Clergy's 
sitting in Parliament : in which is also com- 
prehended the History of Parliaments, with 
an Account of our Ancient Laws. (With 
Addenda and Apj>endix),'3ptg. 8vo, London, 

In 17(V> he published ' l)e Bibliorum Texti- 
busOriginalibus.VersionibusGrfficisetLatina I 
Vulgala lib. iv. . . . Prsemittitur Arist«ae 
Historia Grasce et Latine,' fol., Oxford, in 
which he included a revised edition of his 
work on the Sept uajiint, and published a reply 
to the attack of Vossius. 

lie left in manuscript a work founded on 
his professorial lectures, which was published 
in 1742 by Samuel Jebb, M.D., as ' l)e GriPcis 
maniorumInstauratoribus,eorum V'ilis,Bcrip- 
ti8,etElogii8libriduo,'8vo, London. Pretixed 
to it is an account in I.>atin of Hody's life, 
extracted chiefly from a manuscript written 
by himself in English. | 

' His portrait, by Thomas Forsler, was en- 
graved by M. S'nndergucht, and prefixed to 
his 'De Bibliorum Textibus." It also ap- | 
pean.'d in the 'Oxford Almanack ' for 1738. 
Theorlginal painting was presented to Wad- 
ham by Mrs. llody. | 

[Life a* above ; Biographia Britannica ; Birch's 
Lift) of Tillotson ; Noble's Coat, of Granger, ii. 
116-17; Oardiner's Wailham Coll. Reg. p. 309 ; 
Hearne's Collectious, ed. Doble (Oxford Hist. 
Soe.)l G. G. 

HODY, Sib JOHN (d. 1441), chief jus- 
tice of the king's bench, of an old Devonsnire 
family, was sou of Thomas Ilody, lord of the 
manor of Kii\gtou Magna, near Shaftesbury, 
Dorset, and king's escheator there under 
Henry V, by Margaret, daughter of John Cole 
of Nitheway, Torbay. From 1426 his name 
often occurs in the year-books, and he muat 
have become a serjeant-at-law before 143(3, 
for in that year he contributed as a serjeant 
to the equipment of the army sent into France. 
lie represented Shaftesbury in parliament in 
1423, 1425, 1428, and 1438, and the county 
of Somerset in 1431 and 1440. On 13 Apnl 
1440 he succeeded Sir John Juyn as chief 
justice of the king's bench, died in Decem- 
ber 1441, and was buried at Woolavinglon, 
Somersetshire. Prince says of him that he 
won golden opinions, and Coke (In»titute», 
pref ) says he was one of the ' famous and 
expert sages of the law ' who assisted Lytt«l- 
ton. He liad estJites at Stowell in Somerset 
and Pillesden in Dor8<'t, the latter acquired 
through his wife Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of John Jewe, by whom he had five , 

sons, including William Hody [t\. \,\ who 
became chief mron in 1486, and severril 

[Koss'g Lives of the Judges ; Prince's Worthies ; 
Hatchins's Dorset, i. 31"; Risdon's Devon, ivi. 
60 ; Collect. Topjgr. rii. 22 ; Itegistt-r C'hiohele 
iMnibeth, 481 6. ; Engl. Chron. (Canid. Soc.). 
p. 60; Rot. Pari. iv. 286, v. 477; Pat. 18 Hen. VI. 
p. 3, m. 6.] J. \. H. 

HODY, Sir WILLIAM (1441?-lo22r-), 
chief baron of the exchequer, second son of Sir 
John Hody [q. v.], chief justice of the king's 
bench, was born about 1441. Perhaps he is 
the William Hody who repre-iented Totn»'s 
in the parliament of 1472 (Mrmbert nf Purl. 
Offirinl JReliintu, i. Sl50). llis name is tirst 
mentioned in the year-books in 147(5. He was 
in ]mrliament in 1483, and procured a reversal 
of the attainder of his uncle. Sir .Alexan- 
der Hodv of Bowre, Somerset, who had been 
utt«inte<i at Edward IV^s accession for ad- 
herence to the house of Lancaster. In 1485, 
shortly after the accession of Henry VII, he 
became attorney-general, and was made a 
serjeant-at-law at the end of the year. On 
29 Oct. 1486 he was appointed chief baron of 
the exchequer, was still a judge in 1516 ( Ca/. 
State Papem, 1515-18, p. 87(5), and probably 
died in 1522, when John P'itzjames became 
chief baron. He married Eleanor, daughter 
of Baldwyn Mallott of Corypool, Somerset- 
shirts by whom he had two sons, Reginald and 
John, and two daughters, Joan, who married 
Richard Warr, and Jane, who married Law- 
rence Wadham. 

[Foes's Lives of the Judges; HutchiDi's Dorset, 
i. 317; Prince's Worthies.] J. A. H. 

HOFLAND, BARBAR.\ (1 770-1 M4), 
authoress, was bom in 1770 at Sheffield, 
where her father, Robert Wreaks, wa.< an 
extensive manufacturer. She lost him in her 
infancy, and was brought up by a maiden 
aunt. In 1795 she contributed her first lite- 
rary essay, ' Charactt^ristics of some leading 
inhabitants of Sheffield,' to the ' Sheffield 
Courant.' In 1796 she married T. Bradshawe 
Ilixile, a Sheffield merchant, who died of 
consumption in two years, leaving her a con- 
siderable property, which was soon after- 
wards lost through the failure of the firm 
with which it was invested. Tosupjrart her- 
self and herinfant son she published a volume 
of poems in 1805, for which sympathy rather 
than appreciation obtained two thousand sub- 
scribers. With the proceeds she opened a 
boarding-school at Harrogate, which proved 
unsuccessful; but while contending with the 
difficulties in which it involved her she found 
time to make herself known as a writer of 




fiction, and thus to achieve an actual, though 
nccarioiu. imlependence. One of her early 
Dctioa'), ' The CI<»r)iTman'8 Widow,' publishetl 

'- '^'■> - ' rl a sale of seventeen thousand 

nt i^litions. After ten years' 
.. . ... .-...■ married Thomas ChrLstopher 

H.ilan.i (|. v.], the artist. The pfeneral ill- 
euLci>= of her husband's undertakings com- 
Ttellcd her to laliour harder than ever. By 
1824 she had jinKluci-d upwards of twenty 
work* of fiction. The (irst of these published 
alter her rvmoval to Ix)ndon, 'The Dau^hter- 
tifLaw/ fortunately attracted the notice of 
Qu<«n Charlotte, who accepted the dedication 
of ita sucneMor, ' Emily.' Her next produc- 
tiorn, "The Son of a Genius,' 1816, was able to 
stand alone, and i< probably the only one of 
her writinps that coutinues to be read. It 
•«11 dt««Tved this success from its genuine 
truth In nature, the vivid portrayal of the 
artistic t«impeTament as she had observed it 
in b^ husband, atul the artless but touching 
•X|irra*ion of her afl'ection for her son by her 
first marriaf^', whose early death from con- 
(aaplion cast a shadow over her life. She 
■1*0 wTOte a Kpiriled pamphlet on the dis- 
■ffrMmnnls l»'t«eeu (ieorge IV and Queen 
(Strolini*, and, anticipating some modem de- 
vcJopmnots of joumulisni, contributed letters 
of l..ondon literary gossip to provincial joui^ 
BaU. She died on 9 Nov. 1S44. 

Mrs. Unfland was a t rue-heart e<l, cheerful, 
anti affectiunale woman; resigned but in- 
tT«tiid in adversity. Judged bv the standard 
orter time she was alsoan excelfent authoress ; 
bat) witli two pxceplinns, her works are so 
coesplet^lv in the didactic style of the femi- 
BUM fiction of her dav, as to be almost un- 
ivadaUe in ours. ' 'The Son of a (ten i us,' 
howrrer, shows wliat she could effect when 
ber ferlin^; wsa sulliciently powerful to break 
j|jj„,...i. ii... .-riiMt of conventionality ; and 
•Tli- in India,' which appearefl in 

ISSi. ; :i»ting for the ver%- different 

{■■•aa, that Mrs. Ilotland, with acknowledg- 
»«nt hat no npolon-, has transferred bodily 
to h«» f*fC^» Mrs. fay's fascinating narrative 
of anlliillancautivily by one who hadactually 
■ a J lir t d il. How little justice Mrs. Ilotlantl 
did hrfwplf in mo«t of Iut writings apjxjars 
trorr ^i-rved in her friend 

lli»- li'nce. 

[Kuu- ' Ui'/rary Remains of Bar- 

hum Rbl' LTUtninge'f^ The P'riead- 

JHf »t Mury Kof*"^!! Mitfunl ; W.Smith, on 
BMimm Wraka'* Charsclertstics, privately 
fvimed ] K. G. 


()j/7 li^lS). !:!•■' painter, was bom on 

9B Ilrr. 1777. ;•• Xottinghaniphire. 

whar* bis (all.. ■ ...... ^ rich muuufucturer 

of cotton-mfll machinery. In his youth he 
devoted himself to (ield-sport<<, his father's 
wealth relieving him of the necessity of seek- 
ing any occupation ; but his father, who re- 
moved to Loudon in 1790, soon afterwards 
failed and was reduced to poverty. Young 
Ilofland.who had already practised landscape- 
painting as an amateur, thereupon adoptcu it 
as a profession. After studying for a short 
time under John Rathbone, he e.xhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1799 and several 
[ subsequent years up to 1805; during this 
perioa he resided with his parents at Kew, 
and as a volunteer there in the king's own 
company attracted the notice of his majesty, 
who employed him to execute botanical 
drawings, and afterwards offered him the post 
of draughtsman on a surveying ship, which 
was declined. From 1805 to 1808 he was 
engaged in teaching at Derby. In 1808 he 
removed to Doncaater and afterwards to 
Knnrt'sborough. There be painted much, 
exhibited at the LeedsOallery,and visited the 
Lake district. At Knaresborough he married 
in 1808 Mrs. Barbara Hoole, the authoress 
[see IIoFLAsn, Barb.\r.\]. In 1811 Holland 
returne<l to London, where he resided for a few 
years in Newman Street, contributing to the 
support of his family chiefly by making copies 
of celebrated works in the gallery of the Bri- 
tish Institution, and at the same time paint- 
ing many pictures, chiefly views of the Lakes. 
In 1 8 1 4 he gained the Rrit ish Inst it ution prite 
of one hundred guineas for ' A Storm off Scar- 
borough,' which was purchased bv the Mar- 
j quis of Stafford; and the 'View from Rich- 
I mond Iliir which followed added to hisrepu- 
j tation and secured a ready sale for his works. 
1 An engravingof the latter picture bv Charles 
Heath was published in l8l>a. "in 1816 
Hofland and uis wife were engaged by the 
Duke of Marlborough to prepare a description 
of his seat of White Knights, the text to be 
written by Mrs. Hofland and the illustra- 
tions engraved from pictures by her husband. 
This work, which was three years in pre- 
paration, was issued privately in 1819 at the 
; time of the sale of the celebrated White 
Knights library. But Hofland was not only 
unable to obtain any remuneration for his 
I own and his wife's labours, but found him- 
' self burdened with the whole expense of the 
printing and engraving. These liabilities 
ami anxieties weighed upon him for many 
vears and permanently affected his health. 
He wascomjwlled to engage much in teaching, 
I but continued to paint with great ».'<siduity, 
and exhibited largelv with the .'^iK-iety of 
British .\rtists, the Rrifish lii.stilution, and 
the Royal Academy. His subjects were Eng- 
lish, ctiicfly Lake scenery' and views on the 




o, which wete charmingly and poetic- 

■«?'" •--•<^. Amon:' '■ • ' •••• works were 
< '<ulle b_v '- • Llunberri? 

I ' View of W ^.re.' In May 

I an exhibition o*" bis works in New 
i; --t. In 1840, ui -. ;lie patronage 

III Loril Kjjremont, be visii^-d Italy, where 
be Kpent about nine nionius, chiefly at Itomc 
Hnd Naples, workinjf with great zeal though 
in bii'l health. I'or two years after his re- 
turn lie lived at Uicbmoud, and painted some 
pii-turex from his Italian rketches for Lord 
lO^T.-inonl. He remove<! to Leamington in 
I ■^1-' lu order toobtainspetiol medioal advic«, 
and diivl there of cancer 3 Jan. 1843. Hof- 
land wa." a foundation member of the So- 
ciety of Hriti«h Artist« and ijne of the ori- 
ginators of the Artists' ( ieneral Benevolent 
Fund. He wan an ardent lover of nnglmc', 
and in lH;i9 published 'The British Anglers 
.Manual,' an agreejibly written and )>eauti- 
fully illuiitrated work.of which a secotid edi- 
tion, enlarged by L. Jesse, was issued in 1848, 
witli a memoir of the author by his son, 
Tliomao Kichiird Hofland. Tlie latter, who 
ws-s altui a landncai>e-pBinter and teacher of 
drawing, dii'd in 187o. A view of Uamp- ' 
stead Hi^uth by Hofland is in the South I 
Kensington .Vlustnim. ] 

[Art. Union, 1843, p. !>»; Hoaaiid's British 
An^lerV Maniuil, 1848; Iledgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Ottley's supplement to Bryan's Diet, of 
Paiulcrsand Engravers; Gr»ve»'s Diet, of Artists, 
1760-1880.] F. M. O'D. 

HOO or HOGG, JAMES n658?-17S4), 
minister of ('unlock, the leader of the ' Mar- 
row men ' in t he church of .Scotland, was the ' 
son of Thomas Hog, minister of Larl)ert,Stii^ I 
lingshire (rf. 1680 ?) (cf. Hew Scott, FaM, ' 
pt. iv. p. 706). After graduating M..A.. at 
Edinburgh University in 1677 James studied 
theology in Holland. He was licensed to 
preach by the presbytery of Edinburgh, and 
ordained minister of Dalserf parish, in the 
presbyter)' of Hamilton, I'O Jan. 1691. He 
declined on principle to take the oath of alle- 
giance in 109.3. .\gainst his own desire he 
wus in 16it6 elected a member of the general 
aasemblv, but declined to tiike the requisite 
oaths. The lord high commissioner thereupon 
objected to his taking his seat, and Hog, 
having been publicly and privatelj- entreated 
either to take the oaths or retire, consented 
to the latter ultcrnativc, on condition that 
the assembly should 'att-est his diligence.' 
Owing to bad health he demitted his charge, 
1-J Nov. 1696, but in August 161)9 he was 
installed in the parish of Canio<:k, Fifeshire, 
and held the charge till his death, 14 May 
17!54. Hog belonged to the stricter section 

of the church of Scotland, who cherished the 
old covenanting traditions, upheld popular 
rights, and took their stand against the mure 
tolerant methods i thought and discipline 
that had latterly arisen in the church. Hog 
originated the ' Marrow ' controversy by the 
republication in 1718, with a preface, of the 
' Marrow of Modem Divinity ' ["ee Boston, 
THOMis.the elder; Fisher, EdwIrd^^. 1627- 
16o."j : and HjkDow, JamesI. The book wa« 
denounced by an act of the a5.sembly in 17:20, 
whereupon Hog and eleven other ministers, 
entitleil on that account the ' Marrow men,' 
and also the ' twelve apoetJes,' presented a 
protest. The bitter controversy which fol- 
lowed was an indirect caiL*e of the ' secession ' 
of 17JU. He is eulogised bv Ralph Erskine 

, [q- v.] as 

' ble»t Hug, lb« TeUFiable sage, 

Tho humble witness 'gainst the haughty age. 

Hog was married, and had two daughters. 
I Besides prefaces to other religious treatises. 
Hog was (he author of a large number of 
theological pamphlets, a list of which will 
be found in Hew Scott's ' Fa.sti Eccles. Scot.' 
vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 580. Among the principal ore 
'A Casuistical Essay on the I.K)rd',« Prayer,' 
1705; 'Notes on the Covenant of Works and 
Grace,' 1706; 'The Covenants of Urace and 
Redemption displayed,' 1707; M)tia Chris- 
tiana,' 1708; 'I.,etter* on the lawfulness of 
iinposing Forms of Prayer,' 1710; 'Letters to 
a Gentleman detecting the Gangrene of some 
Errors vented at this time,' 1714; ' Vindica- 
tion of the Doctrines of tiracc from a charge 
of .\ntinomianism,' 1718; 'Some missives 
written to a Gentleman detecting and refuting 
the Deism of our Time,' 1718: ' E.xplication of 
Passages excepted against the Marrow,' 1719; 
' On Covenanting,' 17l'7; and 'On Professor 
Campbell's Divinity,' 1731. 

[Memoirs of the Poblic Life of Mr. James 
Hog, and of the E<.-cle8iastical Proceedings of bis 
Time previous to his .Settlement at Carnook. 
Written by himself as a Testamentary Memo- 
rial. 1798; Wodrow's CorreapoD Jence ; Fmzer's 
Life of Ralph Brskine ; Haw Scott's Fasti Ec- 
cles. Scot. pt. iii. pp. 379-80, pt. iv. pp. 579-80.1 

T. F. H. 

HOG, Sib ROGER, Lokd Haucarse 
(1635?-l700),Scottishjudge, son of William 
Hog, advocate, of Bogend, was bom in Ber- 
wickshire about 1636. He was admitted an 
advocate on 25 June 1661, and wa^ appointed 
a lord of session and knighted in November 
1677. He took the title of Lord Ilarcarse. 
He represented Bersvick in the convention of 
the estates of Scotland held at Edinburgh in 
June and .lulv 1678 { Meinln-r-i of Part. Official 
Return, ii. 582). On 18 Nov. 1678 he sue- 




owded Bir Jolin LocJihart of Ca«tlehill as a 
lord of joMictArv. In February 1080 he was 
diOMB Mbitrator by the l>iichesj of Lauder- 
dale in an arhitmtioM di Icn-d by the Vmg 
between her aniJ Lnnl .MsitlanJ(FousTAlN- 
liALL, Chrowit. SiiU-4, p. 161). In 1«88 he 
w».» removed from the bench by Janiea for 
non-rotnpliancewilhthewishe«of llie(fovem- 
mettt in Itis detrition of a cause reg^ardin^ tlie 
tutors of the young Maniuis of Moutroee. 
Od« Robert PittUoch, an advocate, published 

• pamphlet airainst him in 1689, accusing- 
Uim of ' oppr>_-s8ion under colour of law,' 
which was reprinted in 1827. lie waa speci- 
6eally cluir)red with partiality to his son-in- 
law, Artouu of Inchdniniie, Fifeshire. Iltt 
live*] tdi' remainder of his life in retirement, 
and died in 1700. A 'Dictionary of Dixiision.s 
&oni 1681 to 1691',' compiled by him, wa-i 
poblished in 1757. 

rADii»r<>on't Scottish Nation, ii. -477: Brunton 
and Haii;'* Scnatont of tha CoUoge of Jastico ; 
Books of S«leraot ; Acts Scots Purl, vlii, 214 ; 
Foaotainhall'D Dseiitioos, i. Vii, a05.] J. A. B. 

HOO, THOMAS (Ui28-lC9-2). Scottish 
diTiae, waj Ixim at Tuin, Ross-shire, in the 
kwiaBins' of 102<^. ' of honest parents, native 
Hiillilanders. somewhat above the vulgar 
T»nk ■ tSriiVESSOS, Memoirs of the Life of 
Mr. '/'Arinuu Jlog). He waseducttle<l at Tain 
pcmiiiarschool.nnJ Murischal College, Aber- 
wn, wliere he proc-ejiled to the degree of 
1I.A. In 1<V>I he recei\'ed license, and be- 
ram* chaplain to John, earl of Sutherland. 
' • ' ^ ■ ltl.Vl be wn« ordained minister of 

a parish six miles from Uingwall, 
I r.- .if Cromarty Firth, and entered 
>'■■. • f • .|.-!iirgi' of his duties with great 
iir .;.- In the controversy between the re- 
- 1 ' M • i.ts and protesters, then at itsheight, 
hm wdml warmly with the protesters, and 
WM in OOltaequence de{iOit(>d in 1661 by the 
""'■•"' "<■ Kofts. Hog then retired to Knocli- 
Auldeam, Nairn, where he con- 
. niiniMer in private. In July IW8 | 
Ik- 1V3- delated by the Hishop of .Moray for 
[.r> -ir' 111.- in his own house and 'keeping 
f n For these oHences he wos im- 

I" ■ me timi" in Forres, but was at ' 

I'll. d at the intercession of the 

I-«! iule, ujion giving bail to appear ' 

'.> .'■ !i . uli.-J on. Not having, however, de- I 
■ ' ■•■•i l>Mm pn-aching, ' letters of intercom- 
Ill August 107-j issued against ' 
..• all (tensons to harlx>ur or help 
lie was arrested in January 
uionlli waK committed to the 
liiibiirgli, w hence he was taken 
>'!«. It i« oniil that, at thein- 

• i.„-iip.u ■>! Archbishop Sharp, he wa» con- 

TVt. XXtll. 

fined in the lowest and worst dungeon in the 
place. In October 1677. owing to some in- 
fluence exerted on his behitlf, hewa.< brought 
l>ack to the Toll)ootli, und i» it short time 
liberated altoget'-'-r. but for!>tdden to go be- 
yond'thebou. ' .f Kijityre' • under the puin 
of one thousanu r erk.t.' In 1(>7!) he was 
again impri.«oned iti Edinburgh, but was soon 
liberated. From this time he seems to have 
laboured without molesliilion until November 
1683, when he was charged before the Scot- privy council with keeping * house con- 
venticles.' Ashe refu.sed to answer the charge, 
it was held as confessed, and be was fined in 
five tbousaud merk.-i, and banished from Scot- 
land in Jiinuary 16H-J. lie went to London, 
mid w[i.s iirrcsted on suspicion of complicity 
in Monmouth'splot.bul wa.s relca-sedin 1685, 
and tied to Holland, where the Prince of 
Orange made him one of his chaplains. He 
returned I o Scotland in 1688. and in lti91 waa 
upi)oiuted chaplain to the king, and restored 
to the parish of Kilte'um, as he is said to 
liavo predicted thirty years before would bo 
the case. On l Jan. 1692 he diisl, and at 
his own retiuest was buried iniderm-ntli the 
threshold ot his church door, with this in- 
scription over the remiiins: ' This stone shall 
bear witness against the parishioners of Kil- 
team if they bring nil ungodly minister in 
here. ' 

[Merooini of the Life of Mr. Tlionms Hog, by 
Andrew .Stevenson, Edinliurgh, 175C; Wodrow 
Correspondence; Scott's Fasti Eod. Scot. i. 396, 
V. 299-301.1 T. H. 

HOOAN. JOHN neoO-ia'iS), sculptor, 
born in 1800 at Tallow, co. Waterford, wos 
the son of a builder, a member of the Irish 
family of Ui h-Ogain. Hogan's father settled 
in Cork, and in I8l4 placed him in a soli- 
citor's office, which he h'ft on obtaining an 
engagement from an urchttect us u draughts- 
man and carver of models. Hogan carefully 
studied a collection of casts formed under 
the direction of Canova from antique statues 
at Home, which had been presented to a 
Cork institution. After working at an 
anatomy school and executing several wood 
carvings, Hogan waa in 1824 sent at the 
expense of friends to Rome to complete his 
art etlucation. William Paulet Carey [q. v.], 
when on a visit to Cork, interested himself 
in the collection of funds, and through him 
Hogan came to know John Memingl^eicestcr, 
l>ord de Tabley [q. v.], a munificent patron 
of the art.<. At Rome Hogan's first work 
in marble was an Italian shepherd-l»ojr. 
This was followed by ' Kve, after esptilsion 
fniiu Paradise,' founded on {Missoges in Oes- 
ner's * Death of Abel.' The originality and 






murits of Hof^n'g ' Drunken Faun ' were 
muck mlmired by Thonvaldsen and other 
eminent sculptors. Subscriptions, renewed 
in iHS'i, enabled Ilopan to continue his work 
at Kome. He was elected an honorary 
member of the academy of the 'virtuosi del 
Pantheon.' and, with the exception of visits 
to Ireland in 1S'J9 and 1H40. he remained in 
Home till 1840. The Italian revolutionary 
movements in that year Ird him to return to 
Indand. He died at Dublin on "J" March IKof^. 1 
Amonp his works, lieside.s those already men- 
tioned, wui the 'Dead Christ," which was 
engraved and commended in Italian artiatic , 
journals. This and other pieces of Ilopan'a 
sculpture were placed in churches at Dublin ' 
and Cork. Ilnuan also executed an alleffori- I 
cal figure of' Hibernia' for Lord Cloncurry. 
The most imnnrtiint of his public statues 
were those ol Jiishop .Tames l)oyle, at Ciir- ^ 
low ; Bishop Hruikley at Cloyne and Dub- 
lin; Thomas Drummoiid, under-secretary for 
Ireland, and Diiuifl OVonuell in the city 
ball, 1 tiiblin ; Thomas Osborne Dovis, now in 
Mount Jimmo cemetery near that city. A 
portrait of Hopin appeared in the 'Dublin 
University Magnz.ine ' in IH.^O. 

[Caroy's Memoirs of the Kine Arts, 1826; 
Irish Punny Journal, 1841; Dublin Univensity 
Magazine, vol. xxxv.; Irish Qnarterly Review, 
vol. Tiii.; Iriah Monthly, 1874.1 J. T. O. 

HOGARTH, OEOnOE (1783-1870). 
musical critic, was born in Edinburgh in 
1783, and became a writer to the sipnet in 
his native city, where be associated with Sir 
Walter Scott, Lockhart, and other literary 
men(WiLsoy, Xoctes Amhronnntr, No.x.vvi. 
June 1826). lie studied music as an ama- 
teur, and became a violoncellist and a com- 
poser. As a musical critic he soon acquired 
repute, and was one of the brilliant writers 
who conlributerl to the 'Edinburgh tk)urant.' 
About 1831 he went to I^ondon, and was en- 
gaged on the ' Morning f 'hroniclo' as a writer 
on political and musical subjects. \ large 
share in the managenit-nf of 1 bat paper ulti- 
mately devolved on him, and in the course 
of his editorial duties he gaxe encouragement 
to the first efforts of Charles Dickens by in- 
serting in ISM the ' Sketches ' of London life 
in the ' Evening Chronicle,' an oflshoot of the 
' Morning Chronicle.' (In the establishment of 
the ■ Daily News," 21 Jan. 1846, with Dickens 
as editor, Hogarth was appointed the musical 
critic, a poet which he held until IWW. He 
was also for manv years t he musical critic to 
the ' Illustrated Lonilon News,' besides con- 
tributing to periodicals and editing various 
works, musical and literary-. In 1R50 he 
became the secretary of the Philharmonic 

Sficiety, which post he resigned in 1864. 
The 'Household Narrative,' which was pub- 
lished in connection w ith 'Household Words,' 
was compiled by Hogarth from ISoOto 1-S,to, 
when by the interference of the stump com- 
mi.isioners it was brought to a conclusion. 
He wa.s an upright, honest man of lil>eral and 
kind sympathies, of considerable learning, 
and a just, outspoken, and generous critic 
In January- 1870 he fell downstairs at the 
'Illustrated London News' office, breaking 
an arm and a leg ; from the effect of theao 
injuries he never recovere<l, dyiug at the re- 
sidence of his daughter, Mrs. Roney, 10 Glou- 
cest-er Crescent, Regent's Park, London, on 
12 Feb. 1870, aged HO. He married a daugh- 
ter of Oeorge Thomsim of Edinburgh, the 
biographer of Beethoven. His issue were 
fourteen cbildren, the best known of whom 
were William Thomas; James BallantNTie, 
who died in 1^7(i; Edward, who is dead; 
Catherine Thornsou, who in 1836 married 
Charles Dickens, and died 22 Nov. 1879 ; 
Mary, who died in Charles Dickens's house 
inl8.'i7, aged 17; Georgina, who edited 'The 
Letters of C. Dickens,' 1870, and is men- 
tioned in Dickens's will as 'the best and 
truest frit-nd man ever had ; ' Helen Isabella, 
wife of U. C. Ronev, who died at Liveri)ool 

1 Di'c. lHV»tl, aged fi7. 

Hogarth's published works were : 1. 'The 
White Uoseof York. AMidsummer Annual.' 
edited by G. Hogarth, 1834. 2. ' Musical 
History, Biography, and Criticism, being a 
General Survey of Music from the earliest 
period to the present lime,' 1835; a standard 
work of reference on its special subject. 
3. 'Memoirs of the Musical Drama,' 1838, 

2 vols. 4. ' Songs of C. Dibdin Chrono- 
logically Arranged. To which is prefixed 
a Memoir of the. .\uthor by ti. Hogarth,' 

1842. f). ' Memoirs of the Opera in Italy, 
France, Germany, and England,' 1851,2 vols.; 
second eilition of No. .3. 0. \ series of pa- 
pers on the Birmingham musical festival, 
published in 'Arls's Birmingham Gazette," 
reprinted in ' Biriiiinjrhrim Musical Fes- 
tival,' 1855. 7. 'The Philharmonic Society 
of Ijondon, from its Foundation, 1813, to its 
Fiftieth Year,' 1862. His chief musical 
works were: 8. 'A Collection of Psalms and 
Ilvmns. Bv J. Maimer and G. Hogarth,' 

1843. 9. 'ilow's Illii.strated Book of Bri- 
tish Songs. EdilMl by G. Ilngarth,' 1845. 
10. 'The Musical lii-rulil, a Journal of Muaic. 
Edited by I i. I logarth,' 1846, 2 vols. 1 1 . 'The 
People's Service. Harmonies revised by G. 
Ilojrarth,' 1850. 12. 'The People's Service 
of Song. The Harmonies revised bvG. Ho- 
garth, edited by J. Curwen,' 1852. 13. 'The 
Sol-P"a edition of the People's Service of 




Sang' 1853. 14. 'School Music arranged 
lot Uinae voices by G. Hogarth. Edited by 
J. Conren,' lf*.'*2. lie also wrote ballade, 
«oo^ And dur't^. 

[Nevspupf-r Pn.«», I March 1870, p. 81 ; 

tin.. ' '■■' ii;irv of Miihic, 1879. i. 742 ; Law 

Till 1870, p. 325; lllustrnteil Loii- 

■' ■ Fih. 1870, p. 211; Fofhter's 

s 1872. i. 84, 87, &c. ; Lockh«rt"g 

1x60. 1'p. 373, &9j.] G. C. B. 

HOGARTH, WLLLI.4M (1(»7-1764), 
|i«iiii«r and enirravi-r, wan Ixirn.iiccurdiiig- to 
the rwifiMiT cif births at (Jreat St. liartholo- 
mrw, West Smithiield (Xnti'f and Queries, 
O .March 1880), ' in liarth" Closte, next 
door to Mr. Downinpe's the Printer's, Xo- 
ranbtr y* 10th 1007, and was baptized y' 
28th Nov' 16M7.' HehadtwosiBterg.ofwhom 
one, .Mary, wa« bom 23 Nov. 1699, and 
•lao baptised (10 Dec.) at St. Bartholomew, 
mmI Ann, bom inOet/iber 1701, and baptised 
..•v.. > at St. Sepulchre. The fiiinily, known 
' llyas llopard, Ilopart.or Iloparth, 
-'inally I'niin Kirkbv Tliore in West- 
: and William llopiirth's father, 
; Hogarth, was the tliird son of ayeo- 
tuan lamier, who lived in the vale of Bamp- 
ton, al»>iit fifteen miles north of Kendal. 
Hi* mother*!) maidi;n name, an recorded in 
an old family bible, once in the possession of 
Mr. II P. Slondly, and sold with bis collection 
in .\piril li^.'), wao (iihbons. Of the rest of 
Iloirartbi ndativea little is known, but he 
hiwl a literari' uncle in Thomas Ilogarth 
i iir ' Aid llogart ' ) of Troutbeck, a 

malist and satirist, some of whose ; 
itn "f Khyme ' were published at, 
- Ule us I8t>.1 from manui<i-riptg 
' • ^ his descendants.' Uiehard 
• If was educated at St. Bees, 
^;ll.l^ kept a school in his native 
I VN'estmoreland. This proving un- ^ 
I, he came to Ijonilon. He must 
•1 living in Bartholomew Close in 
-ben his first two children were 
In 17(»l, when Ann Hogarth was 
lie was ri«ident iu St. John Street, 
•II. Later on ho wag ki^eping 
■hool in Shin Court, Old Bailey, 
• ilil scarcely nave bc«!n more for- . 
M it« provincial predecessor, for he 1 

' ilso employed as a hack- ' 

■ of i)i,< press. It is as a 
n first refers lo him. I 
■ in the brief auto- 
I .■■, 1 !.• ti ii piiiilixhedby Johnlrelnnd 

i}i )"•». 'lii..^ thai of many other authors, ! 
did not pfinlilr him to do more than put me 
ia a way of shifting for myself.' liichard , 
Boftrtii was, bowe\ er, a man of some ac- 

I quirementa. He compiled, but never printed, 
a Latin dictionary in extension of Littleton, 

I His son possessed the manuscript (part of 
which afterwards passed into the iwiads of 
John Ireland), together with several Ittuda- 

I tory letters from the learned, which, un- 
hupnily, failed to secure a piiWislier for the 
worlc. There are also some Latin I'jiistles by 
him in tlie British .Museum, uihI in 1712 ho 
published a little book called ' llisputationea 
Grammaticales.' ' As I had naturally a good 
eye,' Hogarth's autobiograjihy goes on,' and a 

] fondness for drawing, M»/«'« of ull sorts gave 
me uncommon pleasure when an infant ; and 
minjickry, common to all chikinm, was re- 
murkaUe in me. .\n early ttcc(.'s.s to a neigh- 

' bouriug])ainter drew my attention fnjmplay; 
and I wa^,at every possible opportunity, em- 
ploye<iinmakingdrawings. I picked up un ac- 
quaintance of the same tura, and soon learnt 

I lo draw the alphabet with great correctness. 
My exercises at school were more remarkable 
for the ornaments which ndnrne<l them, than 
for the exercise itself (Jons Ikei.and, iii. 

Neither the 'neighbouring painter' nor 
the ' ac(|uaintance of the same turn ' has been 
identified. But by his own account, and 
'conformable to his own wishes,' which bis 
father's precarious circum.<tances had not 
disposed towards a lilx'ral education, he was 
taken from school iiiid apjjrentictHl to a silver- 
plate engraver, Mr. LIlis (iamble, at the 
sign of the (lolden .\ngel in C'ranbourne 
Street or Alley, Leicesti'r Fields. Here he 
learned to chase snivi'rs and tankarils,8peedily 
becoming skilful in the craft. Om; of the 
earliest of his works was his master's shop- 
card, in which the angel of the sign tlourishes 
a bulky palm branch alxne the announce- 
ment, in French and Knglish, that Mr. 
< iamble 'makes, buys, and sells all sorts of 
])lale, rings, and jewels, &c.' Many of Ho- 
garth's designs for plate are highlv prized by 
collectors, and John Ireland (iii. it>) prints a 
copy of a coat of arms in his possession, 
drawn for the Duchess of Kendal, which 
Certainly gave promise of future excellence. 
During this perio<l also, by a system which 
he has descriN-d in his autobiography, Mr. 
Gamble's apprentice was diligently training 
Lis ]i«?rceptive faculty and fortifying his 
alrearly exceptional eye-memory witli a view 
to practising as a designer and lincvcngraver. 
' Engraving on copper," hu gays, ' was at 
twenty years of ago my utmost ambition.' 

On'li May 171H IJichurd Hognrth, who 
liad been living in Long Lauf, West .Suiith- 
field, was burie<l (.Vo/m mid Qurrirt, ut 
supra). About or shortly after this date his 
son's apprenticeship to Mr. Gamblo rautt 

nil r:; 
in I- 
iit i: 
to I 


Ir ■ 

• •11. 




■ ;•■■! ;:- ::>: hv 
.• .^;rl-^v: :• -. llV 

■ ■.••■uv -,'.. y. 'II 

■ ■•••.( '.u.-i.- I i:;r,l.'Il. 

■ ':J4 l.v >r .Ian;.- 

■ ...i. Ki-iii . ii.iv].. r- 

.■■■-. Ill i:.:-- !.- 

- _:icin ni'.w :i. :■• ; rr- 

r'.rtli't'.r.'iv.l -1: m 

•• :. lUit M -r;-. :.;v- 

- ; I that II .:..:■:.«■:- 

.::tiT,' I'll'.:-- ."■ .- ■ : ■ > 

.. .v..--ii>ii,\vL- :■ .■■ ;. ;):•■ 

•.■.t.i cDiirl. r . -..-.^ l.i^ 

.- l'.),;y ;• > ;,;■ ; . 

■ - ;.risiiifr "lit f ■ 'i- !:;••!- 
V .rii('<l hi- ''.,■ "._":.■- 'j;''r" 

iivt'i-tioij ■ t'. ;■-. A- all 

- :.mi'. i.e. ITl'^ '1. V- tiii.l 

■. •'.'. i-(Pii\or~ii"^':i-i':- 1- - iV 'in 

■rii-hcs lii^li." Ti,.-t' w.iv 

■ Ttraits r.inii'xV 1 l.y -onu^ 
■ - r iH'Cii]) ar. 1 • lia\ [nj: 

■ -, • .<iiofr>'ili-il t'lir a iV-.v yeav-." 
. ;■ \viM-ksoxi'ru;>-ll>('t'iri'17-';:-' 

■. i-Tlii' WaiiM.'a ! A~-inl)ly,' 

i'l' till.' lIoiiM' lit' ('uiiimiiiis 

.■ ■ ''viilu'i', an iiiratiii'Vi- ^VaI■.^ n 

■ - ;i' si'i'I'.\Mi!UlIii'l'.riIii.M vs"; 

- •'■■ Mil till' • llfifirarV ( ijiiTa ; ' a 
•■.' Mr. Tilismi. .i laoenian in tlu' 
". • riir I'uliticiaii;' ami a mimi- 

- • liiiliaiil)iri))i^nir.'a- ii-rl'ornn'il 

. h'l'ii of i[uality ' at tlif li'iii.-i- 

•. till' inasti'rul'tln' mint. .\ list 
■. '.u.liiiu'.-'i'nir of tlii-si'. i- print •■il 

;-.l (iii. 2.'!). Hi- aitivity as a 
. ".jra\i'rilm'in!itlii< ]n-ri'nli-li-<-: 

W.I'll 17"-'" and l~.'i2 lii> .tl'.irts 
•.'".inti-pii'C'i's, o.S'. t'l LuvrricliTi'V 
r ; ti) Tlionias t'iii)lii-"s ■ ll.-i'ul,' 
•'.I'-; Milli'i'S conii'ilv of till' ■ n 11- 
•■ ■;•>!,■ 17L".t: to TliiM.tialir.- ' I'.t- 

•r.iin.'da,' 17.'!0: to .MoHi't.' : to 
'•■a:;i'ilv(it"rratfi'irn'>.'17;>l i wliii-li 
,'a!i'.'i till' liccjinninir of his I'ri.'tul- 
!;i; author); anil to .Miti-ln-U's 
air." 17."!1. l?iit the only .iriiriiinl 
•■s I'.ir this il.ati' ari' tlii'S'iK^all.'d 
.,;ii' r;i'li" Til-lift,' 17i'7. a. satiri- 

■ .;v,.v'< jiopnlar i'nt('rtainin''nts, 
,,ir till' ■ Man ofTasto." or • l>ur- 
• ' ), 17."il. pronijiti'il hy lVi])i''< l.iirlinirtim" attarlciiij; th.- 
I'n.l'i-, I'.ir whom lloijarth took 
■'-. Two lit lii'r (loiibtfiil works, a 
'. ;!'.•' ■ Pii'LTifar'.-l )))i'ra.'aiiil a lllatl^ 

,'■.■- (Il'irv. or liis Trinm]>hant, 

■ ^..'iit (ianh'n.'i'OmpU'ti' the li.-t. 

Hogarth 85 Hogarth 

Its brevity sngcest* that he had o':her occa- =s:p* -.Lis :&* ::' -.i* pii-r:i=£» -^ili^. iTre i^ 

pationg : but he had also gaci<fi«d hiaifelf :ha; clirrd :•: '» zj i:=i TicE. iz. I "41. "is- Vi=i- 

■workingforthebooksellerswii not th* warto Lill prj^rr.-rs ■»•■!:<: s. i-L t^. 'Ti.: Wijciir 

fonune. Moreover he had di4coT*!vd that hi* Las-likiT" iri-.*: "iisicizi N-rl^ :i-r L»rTQ 

original designs speedily became the prey oi :-■ Pay." i>- iLurly r.-rs. :■: xii.T=j- is 'ist 

the pirate. For example, copies of ti- • Ma.*- ;rlit» ■:: •i.t '^^.-i. lii liry. ••rs-i-*. h- 

querade Ticket,' he telli us. were sold a; half i*=:t.LTHiv=ii"- Tirk. W.:^ Hitfir-i is- 

price, while the original imprtasions wer\: ft- d-.i'.-i£.- L-i :'t Vt^T'-.i" ti* -. i-jsira 

turned upon hU hands. srvrnl ■:: ri-r juj.'r-'ioiT^T. -.c-i :: liji. a 

Sir James Thomhill had YkKU one ■-{ his r-Ii. Tri- jrrf^r'ei ■•; "', t -t Ty-r- • .:. zur- 

witnesses in the Morris sui;. and II-xartL p»rt •.\~: I'-z.'rzy.i. —-~ -->— " I: L:=-:-r:ii 

and he -were apparently on term* cl C";ai:-i*r- • a xacif il." iz. i ;r I r«.<? -B-ii ;- ti- -•-j»r:i- 

able intimacy. This was int<-rrap:«d ty s »:■ :::'lLiTr-.:V? ';:• -siz-MiryLfrT., '#*-.^.*» 

i>tolenmatchbetweenIIogar:handS!rJa=:e»'s H'v'i*. :. ir . 

only daughter, Jan", a hand-f^me youiir ^L.—Iy trr-r ;I";t.^1"? =.ir7-.ii:-i 1- =:^-* 

■woman of ninete'-'nurthereaUia:*. Thrywrr" Li-- «.-■: -■ -c-.Ti: .I'-.r ^ir j-i-i.".:ir» :'".r "ii* 

married privately on i;} March ITiO. a* ilJ ir^t .:' ti.-rc •=i:':-rr:. — rtl -.-^-ri:"-.' :a 

Paildington Church. WhrtLer '.hrj t'-"k ttL;.:! ir !;=.■« t: • :::iji-.-..v;- ;.:'-.?-• '.a 

flight from Covent Gardrn. frc-m T!:';'rr.i.iii'i «r.T».i. '.iz^-r :■■> r>7pr-r^-:i". ■'::.- .r. "i* 

house in Dean St rvet.S<-.h'>'Xo. 75 •.'•r &■■•=; »■:*;■;■ — .n •-:.-; if.ri^. ir ::-.r.-:t:-..".» i ••;- 

the little country Ix-i at Chiiwick. wh:cL n '. : ;■;!: :* -. ' ;:::ir"-- iry • ■: . - T-r-.i- . r.-f .n.>ri ' iy 

long afterward? became IL'jartL'* own 1%};- a ^r •zn^-.T- r'.-.ry — ■ i i.-'. ;.' ..- :. .-!-.• ■t*;*, 

dence, is still deljatable. But although fhe •:;••. tr-.krr. \- -. i.-.y •■-, ..-•.•7 r i-.y ti-i." 

married acruinst h'-r father* will, f.-r i: wa- B-.Tr-.wls.- \ i..r.- :.-.— B.r.-. i^! :.r ■i.-.-'-i-sd 

sometime liefore he was recon<Hl*d to ter, L;- r.r?-. -5 r -A Il.i.-. :% Pr-jr-'-.' t.-..4 

Jane Thomhill made an admir:ibl-: wife. Hrr •rai>-i •r.r car— r i ':..• z-.t -- :'.• ::. irr 

comely face appears in mfire than one 0: h*-r ir?t fil-r r*rt> " :.-rr •.-i.-!-; -.-. ;. f .• ;i •!'.■% 

husljand's pictures ( the • fjisrismunda ' in the iiTr •:=. 

National (iallery is a portrait of h*T>. anl I: Li.' h 
*he cherished his mem<'>ry after iiit 'irratL 

with a fidelity only rivalled by that '.1 Mr*. .V>:-'.ri:r.i ••• rr.-r r-rrr.'-ri ■.-»..-.:.. "l-.r..' 

Garrick for her I)avid. 4-.;i;:y wi, '.zj^xr .zz.-:.' i.'. .- i-> ■_. .- -:„•: --..J 

Of Ilfigarth's priva> life at t!.:s time. L--:l^ :V.}.r.-->.-'. i-x-. !,i--.''i'>. 77 "..,-* .-.-, 

however, little is known. 'Jjoon after hi- from tLerir*'; Li ;:.>->•:. .-.-;.- ■..-'• •■.~r.:.- 

marriage," says Nichols. 'Le ha'l sumnirr- awav*. .•ii—'; -;.-:.-. - -^ -.-,_•.._ -,••.;.... 

lodglns-iat South-Ijimbetli'i <ir'*/iwrrt'H'>.'/t«. h-i-'r!sii;-:'. .. — . .-;- ..,•_• -. z : . ''^l 

\.W\. It wasdoubtlei-while in sLisr-iiL- 'h- iz'l-r'- i.i.zz.-.\:.". z. '.■■i.-z..':. ■ - •-'•...'.• 'J 

bourhood that he made the a>.-rjaair.tar.?e of :Ll* '.':.•: itar. -r'.. ., ; • ..'.....!" . ; ',•• ; :<■- 

Jonathan Tver*, who shortly att-rwards T-r.*i*>^r.- "• .1 : '- - •• --• - -- • - -.'"' • 

opent-il tli<- ' "New Sprin? Gard-n* ' at Vaux- a & rt: -.:. — * -jr- 

hall with the famous 'Itidot*') al Fr--C'i' C'f '••.r-:C'.i.;Ll;AV,r.. 

Juno ir.'5:J. from which the real cel'-brirv of -.Le -r.i~iv>.::-. .:. 1 ;:. M . 

that place of ent«-rtainment dates. H<>i'arth jsrr.v :r. ••i---I;i.;-. .1 .-.■..'..:■•, 'ol. , . i'v" 

\a said to have contributed to the 5UC<^e-s of :;. -•.',-.-! .-z.' :. .::.V:.", i:.r - •''t:rl 

the gardens by the — fir an arti-t — verv ap- tha* •" 

pnipriate suffcri-sti'in that thfty-houH b^ *-m- d-iivT. ... ,-.,-...-.- .-;.;.-.;..: 

bellished by pictun.-s, and many '-f thos-.- •■.'■zi -'■zz.- '■:■■.'.%■■ ':..:. ::■■■. z. •':•■ \y^ , . , • n 

which afterwards decorated the old -uiiper- l';,\pr:I :;'.'.--k'.z.-^. 'l:.r ..-•;" ■' .l-'T."i','r.. 

bo.\es about the Grove were vaguely artri- t:r;k-- wi.if;, i... .-o:..-: -k-.. —.•.•..'• -V "' 

w^^r •;". :::;.v*.T'i t:*. . r. • &"-• ■ - -■ ■."'; 

M i- 


butcd to his brush. Ileorrtainlytraiisferre'l P-<:;.;r.j at Na*. .r-.' W'-.t-.z. :.' 'i'-i.'-':, •'■ 1. ',^ 

to Tyers a painting .if Henry VIII and w.-rei'i-i-.-'i'h-vn.-*. v.;*:. ir.'..'t.w;'sT<.'. .Vvy.,,. 

Anne IJoleyn, which had been ••naraved in Th''>ph:'.u»','l't,V^r 'ur.'.'-'j •;..-m '•!>'' •ii.i.'-.u'i' 

172l», thro- years befor>; the ganlens were mime, whic:! wa- ac*-'! -..• J»r,.-v !.»•'<' jn 

formally opened, and this for a long time IT.'W: tl.<-v w. .-.- lan-r ir.s':- jt.r.', a W-iumi. 

hung in the portico of the Kotundal His f.pera. en?;'l-'l • The Jew ii.-. •• -,''!.' I7.';,> »„J 

later series, 'The Four Times of the Day' th'v promp*"! a y^-m f.a.).'l'''Jh'-'r'''e of 

<17;W(, wujj also repeated for Vauxhall by Venu-.' 17:jl'. bv J'.wph Gav I'tiVh/ti J h 

Frank Ilayman [q. v.', and something of his Breval ''{.v. i ' }Ur-\'i— th..«. \\,-y -,■;,■.',. f J. 

hand is to be detected in the contemporary- to endles, n\\i\\.. and parnpl.le''.," a'n'l w.-rii 

prints of • Building Houses with Canls ' and fnrelv tranif^rr^l t^, inu-u.-xiti' • !i',«J , ". na^ 

'Mademoiselle Catherina'(a dwarf). But ware'. I-a.«lvtL.-v were ,.hai/i<). ».|vpirai.d 

In November 1732 one E. Kirkall or KirkhiiU, 
in part icular,publislie<lii set of revprseil mezzo- 
tint copies in green ink.with deseriptive verses. 

A I'ew weeks after the issue of the prints 
of 'A Hurlol's Profjress' to the subscribers 
took piai-e one of tlie rare incidents which 
brijjiiten 1 1 oj.'ii rt h's busy life. In May 1732 
lie Set out with four eompanions — his brother- 
in-law, John Thomliill, Ivlienezer Forrest 
[q.v.], an attorney, WiiliiiniTotliall, a dra]ier 
in Tavistock Street, anil Samuel Scott, the 
Ittiidscape-piiinter — on u five-days' jaunt from 
the lledford Arnjs Tavern in Covent (tardea 
to the Island of Sliei)pey. Their exjierienees, 
which were miieh tliose of a party of over- 
grown boys OTi a holiday, are recorded in a 
manuscript aci-ount by Forrest, with illus- 
trations by llofrarth, Scott, and Tliondiill, 
drawn up for the edification of the mem- 
bers of liie I'eilford Arms Cbib, uml now 
in llje print room of tJie British Museum. 
It is ont itleil • An Account of what seem'd 
most rpmarkalde in the five days' perepri- 
uatiou of tilt' five followiiifj persons, viz' 
Mes.~ieurs Tothuil, Scott, Ilo;^arlh, Tiioni- 
hill, and Forrest. Begun on Saturdnv, May 
the :J7th, 17;i2, and fiuisli'd on the illst of 
the same month. Alii tii et fac itimiliter. In- 
scription on Diilwich CoIIedgc Porch.' This 
prose lour was afterwards turned into lludi- 
brastic verse by tlie Uev. William (iostllnjf, 
a minor canon of Canterbury Cathedral, and 
Nichols printinl twenty copies of it in 17S1. 
The oriffinal prose version, with facsimiles 
of the drawings, was published by IJ. Livesay 
in 1782. It is also to be found in the third 
volume of the '(iennino Works,' ls!7, pp. 
113-31, and in September i8>*7 supplied the 
theme for a set of charminp illustrations by 
Mr. Charle.s Gn-en in the ' (iraphic ' news- 
paper, with text liy Mr. .Joseph (irepo. 

Towards the middle of 1732 llofrurth had 
lodRindsnt Isleworlh (Genuiiif WurkK, i. 211). 
In 1733, aceon!in;r to tlie rate-books, he took 
a bouse, the last but two on the east siile 
of Leicester Square, then Leicester Fields. 
Part of .\rchbiHbop Tenison's soliool now 
occupies its site, but it is distinguishable in 
contemporary prints, e.g. in those of Maiirer 
and Bowles of 17.">3. llofjartli occujiied it 
as a town residence until liis deatli. It was 
known in days id' unnumbered houses 
as the (jolden Head, its sipn beiiif; a bust 
of Vandyck, which tlie painter liad himself 
carved out of enrk and pild-d; and a.': it was 
rated to the poor in 1750 at (50/. per annum, 
must have been fairly commodions. In March 
1733 he painted and en^jraved a portrait of 
Sarah Malcolm, the murderess, who was 
executed in Fleet Street on the 7th. It is a 
confirmation of bis alleged reconciliation 

with his wife's father that Sir James Thorn- 
hill is said to have been prt>sent when the 
picture was painted. Thornhill died not long 
afterwards, m May 1734, but apparently be- 
fore his .son-in-law had yet become really 
famous, because in his obituary notice Ho- 
garth is only spoken of as ' admired for hi» 
curious Miniature Conversation Paintings.' 
His death led to a modification of his dniw- 
ing-Bchool, to which Hogarth thus refers: 'Sir 
James dying,' he says, 'I became possessed of 
his neglected apparatus: and thinking that an 
academy conducted on proper and moderate 
principles had some use, I proposed that a 
number of artists should enter into a sul)- 
scription for the hire of a place large enough 
to admit of thirty or forty persons to draw 
after a naked figure. Tins was soon agreed 
to, anfl a room taken in St. Martin's Lane. 
. . . The academy has now,' he says in 17(i2, 
* subsisted nearly thirty years ; and is, to 
every nsefu) puqxjse, equal to that in France, 
or any other' {Sows Irei..\nii, iii. (it!, (>!•). 

The engravings of *A Harlot's Progress' 
were followed by the popular drinking-sc<>ne 
known as ' A Midnight Modern Conversa- 
tion,' I he advent of which hud been heralded 
in 1732 by a little subseri]>tion-plate repn?- 
sentiug the rehearsal of William lluggins's 
oratorio of 'Judith,' and descrihi.'d as 'A 
Chorus of Singers.' Hut Hogunh was by 
this time already well advanced with a second 
' Progress,' that of a rake. l''rom an ad- 
vertisement in the 'Country Journal' for 
2'.l])eo. 1733, it is probable that the paintings, 
eight in numlvr, weri^ already finished, for 
he was busily engaged in transferring them 
to copper. 'I'he ticket for the subscription, 
then aiiiTOtinced. was the admirable etching 
of '.\ ]deased Auilience at a Play," commonly 
called • The Laughing Audience,' 1733. It 
was also the subscription-ticket to another 
plati', known jtopohirly as 'Southwark Fair,' 
which was executed in 1733, but was kept 
back until 2o June 1735, for the same reason 
that deferred the issue of '.\ Itake's Progress.' 

This was the coming into operation of the 
act 8 fieo. II, cap. 13, vesting in designers 
the exclusive right to their own designs. It 
is frequently spoken of as ' Hogarth's Act,' 
and was, in fact, the result of an appeal madi» 
to parliament by the artist and his colleagues 
to protect them against piracy. As already 
staled, 'A Harlot's Progress' bad been shame- 
lessly copied, and before be could complete 
the plates id' 'A Hake's Progress,' the fraudu- 
lent imitator, under pretence of viewing the 
original pictures at the artist's hou8t<, where 
they were e.vhibited, had contrived to carry 
away enough to enable him to put forth 
plagiarised copies {Genuine H'urlcji, 1808, i. 





82-fi). TUe Bbrjve-mentioned net, which came 
into fom> on tJ4 June, to n greiit i-\tenl re- 
medjnl tlii> evil at which it was h-vellod, 
mnd Willi thi» urigiiiHlfS tin.- ' Published u« 
tJ»«? Ai-t dirvclK,' now so fiuiiiliar tiimn eii- 
gntini^K. IKipirth cumiiiouiomted his sur- 
RMi hy • jubilant inscription on a i)lut« cn- 
tit !>-'■''-■" v.M it rus.'ic., afterwards usediis 
■ r : -ticket to n Inter series; and, nn 

• f. V at the piriite,hcnMthorised the 
Ml! 1 copies t)l" "A Hake's Progress' 
by . ~:reet printseller, Mr. Uakewell. 
Hk mmor jirinta for 17<tl are unimportant, 
IxBim.' confliied l«i a fronti^piece for Henrv 
C»' iioiihotonthiilo;{os,' and a print 
of ( I .irinelli.and lleidepger. liut in 
17C{.>*.u «u^riive.r imuied Symp.son engraved 
one irf hit paintings, the fubjefrf ol' which 
■w^t'A Womiin gwearintf a Child to a grave 
C*iliz«fi.' In 17S.J also he li>st hi? mother, 
long hilt near neighbour in St. Martin's I^itie. 
Slt» ditvl of fright causuil by a fire which 
brolicoiit ill Juneof that year in Cecil Court 
(Ont. Mny. v. ?Mi). 

Bv tbiii time the circulation and imitation 
of liDj^rth'i! ' pictur'd Moraln' had consider- 
l^,|f< i...>.l...| Ui.4 reputation. Vincent liourue 
trf V r wrote him heiideca»yllabtcs; 

8001-. I'.dicttted ' Ilobbinol ' (i, him; 

Swift, in the terrible • Ix-gion Club'of lT3t), 
■pO»lr>i'1iis.-d him as 'h^ln'r<>u^ llogart ; ' 
■Bil !iiirtly to receive from a more 

0011^ :.i, the author of 'Joseph An- 

dcvira,' lh>' noble commendation that his 
figuTM did more thauM-em to breathe, 'they 
■ppMuvd lo think.' Vet, by a curionti per- 
Tertion of ambition, his desires for distuic- 
li'iii lay rather in the dirt^ction of hielory- 
painiin^- «• pnu-timxl by 1'hornhill and Ilav- 
nui • ihiit 'cast of style' which he 

li»i| I'lilly followed. His own words 

bcT' liiin hii> views. ' lleCore I hud 

doii .' of much con.'Miuence in this 

w&ia. ij' ■'•i-- (and by 'this walk' he must 
lie iuid<T»tui>d lo refer to one or l>iitli of the 

• PwgTMHW'* ' I, ' I entertained s<iuie ho|>e.'i of 
•QM)M<ding in wlint the pnlVers in books call 
dMt gtvX ktyle of bii-tiiry-|iainting; m> that, 
witlioat liaving harl a titroki- of this grand 
twahmw before, I ijuilted 8mall |>ortruit« 
aailfamdia; contcr«atiouti, and, with a 8mile 
at tav •iWTi l>ne rity, commenceij bislory- 

reMt ntaircHne at St, llar- 
il luiinled two Scrijitun' 
1'<«.1 o^ Hetb4wlB " and the 
tun," with figures aeven feel 
■ nted to the (Charity, and 
' wrvo u» a ."jMKMinen to 
'inaliou in Kng- 
I picture", Huch 
III pn»-' me painting ihvin 




>Imiw thir 
bod for 
• flfai «May nil 

mor« easily attainable than is generally ima- 
I gine<l. But as religion, the great promoter 
of this style in other countries, rejected it in 
Kngland, I was unwilling to sink into a por- 
trait manufacturer; and, litill ambitious of 
being singular, dropped all expectations of 
iitlvanlage from that source, and returned to 
the pursuit of my former dealings with the 
public at large ' (John Ihixand, iii. 1*9-31 ). 
The date of the ' I'otil of Uethesdo' and 
the'tioo<l Samaritan,' still to bo seen upon 
the staircase at St. Bartholomew's, is 173(1. 
As may be inferred from the foregoing qu<>- 
tation, the piibiic did not accept these works 
at the painter's valuation, and they were not 
engraved until some years after his death. 
Between '.\ Hake's Progress ' and his next 
great tragic drama, the ' Marriage I'l-la-Mode,' 
he executed nothing very imiwrtant, though 
for some time before .\pril 1745, when the en- 
gravings of that series ap]»eared, he must have 
been occupied in elaborating the original oils 
But one or two of the more popular of his 
smaller works belong to this decade. The 
delightful little jirint of 'The Distrest Poet' 
(3 March), 'The Company of I'ndertakers; or 
a Consultation of Physicians' (same date), 
and 'The Sleeping Congregation' (:ili Oct.), 
all belong to 173tl. In i7;i8 d't March) aiH 
peared '"Ihe Four Times of the Day,' already 
ri'ferred to as having lieen re])eated by Hay- 
man for the alcoves at V'auxhall Gardens, 
and the admirable 'Strolling Actresses dress- 
ing in a Barn.' They wen? followed in 1741 
(.iO Nov.) by 'The lOnraged Musician,' the 
plate of which, says Fielding ( Vuynge tu 
Lifimn, 17'>r>, p. TiO), is 'enough to make a 
man denf to look at.' Besides these works, 
Hogarth at the same period painted por- 
traits of Captain Coram of the Foundling 
Hospital, 173V); of Frances, lady Byron ; of 
Martin Folkes, presiileiit of the Hoyal So- 
ciety, 1741 ; of l»r. Benjamin Hoadly, bishop 
of AVindiester ; and of Oustavus, viscount 
Boyne. A ticket for Fielding's benefit in 
' Pusijuin,' 2'> .\pril l7-'Vtl, some plates for 
Jarvis's ' Hon (iiii.\ote,'iiiiil one or two more 
or h'Ks doubtful caricatures complete the list 
for 173.'V.4i. The jKirtrait of ( oram and a 
little headpiece C i'be Foundlings') to a 
power of attorney which he executed for the 
Foundling Hospital in 173!t. testify to his 
active interest in the eMtabli»hment of that 
famous chari'.y. He apiM-ont as a 'governor 
and guanlian ' in its charter of incorporation, 
and he aiiled it with his money, his graver, 
and his brush. With him, it is said, origi- 
natiil the proposal to decorate it with pic- 
tun>», a suggestion which not only made it a 
fashionable morning lounge iiii(b'r (ieorgo 11, 
but i» even credited with the honour of «ug* 





\j tlw Ut«r eaUb)i«hniont of 

Althuii^b, iw wo hovB «vn, liogarlh'a 
|»rmtii did not want for purchiuMTs, his tiri)fi- 
nal uiclunu rrmaiiii'il iinnuld, Kiirlv in 17 J5, 
* i»lill,' to luif Ilia own pliruio, ■ iiini>itious of 
lifinp KinKuUr,' lin di8|H»i»d of llu>m by an 
•urtiiMi ul Inn own drvisln^;, lli<< dolnils of 
wbii-Ii art! ({ueii m ibo 'Uonuiiit' Work*,' 
IHO*. i, HtJ-lH. Tb.-. tick.a to vli-w them 
•t tbii (toldnn lli'iid WM im originnl ns tho 
•cbiinii' of mIm. Aln'iuly, i) />rii/ii>ji of soniii 
wprnionit wliirb biiil \vvi\ oiwt iijion hi;* lati- 
fatbi-r-in-liiw's |)iilntin);» ut <irfi'nwii-h llos- 

iiiul, b» bail |irinti'<l in tbi< ' Si. JiuiiesV 
•'.viiiUHif I'cwt' of 7 .lunii IT.'I" an i-nnvotic 
iniliMiI ii^nlniit tbr «lmm niititti'i-|iioci-f) — 'the 
Idly I'liniiliiH, MiuloniiiiK, niiil oihi<r di«itml 
dark mlijni-ln ' — whiob llm piriuri'-joblnTS of 
ill* diiy Ml pi'miiiltMitly iui|iorli>d from tin- 
iHiiiliiiiM\lnl ' bi^'li nrl ' fiiolorit-s : and in Uif 
' Itotllo of llio i'ii'liiri'-,' by which be invil<Ml 
thi> attontioii of piircliuscrx to Iuh own \vf- 
fonnuneos, bi' dc>pii'i.i u spiritf-d uniriiK''""'"' 
Jmlwui'ii iht! ' bbnk nuwlun*,' ii» In' stybxl 
ihiMii, nnd thu lloKHi'tliinn foivon — n conlliot 
in wbii'h, II" limy 1)» (•'"•'■''■•"•d, tho biltor an- 
roiiily vli'torioiis. Mill ilu' traditions of o»ii- 
noimourship w<«n>, ni'vcrthch-ss, tin) innoh 
a(,'Hinr>l I he inib>pi>ndonr Mtllrinl, and his 
uiiii|ii>-pilh'ry broiik^bl niisornblo prioi-s. 'A 
llnrlut'D Pro(;n-ii.->' fi'trhml KS/, in. ; VV Itiko's 
tJ7/. Q*. ; and ' Tht- hour Tiini-s of tho Day ' 
127/. 1'.; niiikin)^ for nini'liMMi pii-ct-s but a 
totol of 427/. 7». AVitli ovorv aUowanoi' for 
the i-Tcrntricity of the artist, and tho niicoii- 
veutional charncUT of tlu' tniii»octioii, tli" 
amount roalisod Is still dilhndt loi-oiiipr»'hi'nd, 
Wc art' iitiw neariii); hi.s f.'n>ati>.<.t work. 
In April 1743 hi- hud nilvrrti>od the fori h- 
comiu^ enjjravinp! of tin- famous ■ Mnrrin^o 
A-la-Mixli',' iind in iho •lUltle of ihe I'io- 
tiires ' be had iifixou a hint of tbi* xanii' st<ri«>s 
by exliibitinir ono of tlu-ni vioionsly ii.N.sniili<><I 
hv a copy of thr ' Aldobriindini Marriiigf.' 
Ilis annoiinft-mont laid mtrt'^s upon the lai't 
that in thnsn ' unxleni occurr«'ni'fS in high 
life,' ciirt> would bt< taken 'that iherv may 
not bi? the least objnction to the dti'enev or 
elegaufy of the whole work, and that nono 
of the characters represented shall l» per- 
sona],' an iissiininii' which seems to imi>ly 
thot objections on these ^'rounds bud lieen 
token to some of his former etl'orts. Th" 
plairs, six in number, wer»> is.sned in April 
174"i, the snliscript ion-ticket bein); the etch- 
in); called 'I'hnructers and Caricaturtt.s.' In 
accordance with the artist's prv>mise, they 
■were 'engrav'd by ihe best masters in Paris,' 
O. Scotin e.xecut in(f plates i. and vi., B. Itaron 

plates ii. and iiL, and & E. 

IV. and T. KiAy vais btar 

thev were again reprodaoed is 

1). l^rlom. For a deacriatiaa 

lent social study the ntOer mmK M 1 

commentators; or, better tbSL to we ] 

ings themselves, which, fort 

found a final asylnm in tbcXatiaaBll 

As in the case of the previousaei 

(uiwamed by exj)enence, >KUB nju i t rf ta 

an auction al'ter bis own faahton, ia order to 

dis]iose of the orif^inol canva«e«. Tlw hi iMiiy 

was to be by written ticketii, and the M g l —t 

bidder at noon on 6 June I'-X) ««s to IwtkiS 

piirchoser. Picture dealers w*Te l 

excluded. The result of theae aa p xiaMI 

ranperaents was disastrous, only one bid 

n Mr. Lane of Ilillingdon, near Uxbridm, 

!iullin)j; in an appearance. The highest omr 
laviii); Iwen announced as 120/., jlr. Laae 
made it ^uineo-s, at the same time magnani- 
niouslv ollering the artist some hour*' delay 
to linJ a better purchaser. No one else pre- 
s<<nted himself, and Mr. Lane became the 
possessor of the artist's best work, and the 
hnest pictorial satire of the century, for the 
uKHlest sum of 126/., whidi included "Carlo 
Maralli frames' that bnd I'ost Hogarth four 
guineasapiece. It may l>i'addedthut the plates 
wore descrilx'd in lliidibriistic verse in 1746; 
that they promi)led IJr. .John Sbebljeare'a 
novel of the 'Marriage Act' in 1754; and 
that they are credited by the authors with 
sujfgestitig I'olmon and Oarrick's farce of the 
'I'landesiine Marriage' in 176B. Hogarth 
also iiit'dilated u companion series depicting 
• .\ l!a)i|iy Marriage.' liiit after some ten- 
tative i>.siiays, be abandoned his project, doubt- 
less Ih-cbuso tho subject presented too little 
scope for his jieculiar i[Uttlities. 

liesides the ' Marriage il-la-Modc,' the only 
wurk fori 74.')is thesub,scrlpt ion-ticket (' Mask 
anil Palette'>forfliep<irlraitof'Mr.lTarrickin 
the t'haracterof Hichard 111," which Hogarth 
engraved wilhttri giiiim, and issued on 20 June 
I74ll. For this painting Mr. Buncombe of 
Ihincombe Park in Yorkshire paid him 200/., 
u price which com|mres favourably with the 
paltry amount tvalised by the tragedy of the 
Siuiinderfields. To t he next few yeors belong 
one or two of his most notable jiortraits. In 
.Vugust 174(3 be etched a characteristic like- 
ness of Simon Fruser, lord Lovat , when that 
cunning and impenitent old Jacobite halte<l 
at Si. Albans on his way to London for trial; 
an<l in the following year appean-d a plate by 
llaronafter bis jxirtmitof James(Jibbs[q.T.J, 
the famous architect. Ijist, engnivtHl by his 
own hand, comes in 1749 his admirable like- 
nces of himself and his dog Trump, one of the 
most succtNisl'ul of his works. Among his mis- 

eUaseouc eflbrla are 'Taste in High Life' 
1{'M )lay 174(i|, afters picturi'lie had puinU-d 
|«a oommiMioii in 1741'; 'Industry uiid Idliv 
'"' ^' " 1 7'1~ ), a »el of t welve plates il- 
Iwt; .ritrasledcarct-rsof two.Spilal- 

j fidiix .iji|.;' i.i .i-es, l'"ronlc Goodehild and Toiu 
, Idlir; and the clever little 'Stage Coach, or 
I Country Inn Yard' (\~i7), whicli might be 
an il lust rut ion to Smollett or Fielding. Ue- 
«idiNi tliene there are 'O the Uoast Beef of 
I Old KiiL'land, kc, or The Gate of Calais ' 
I ((! Marcli 1740), in the engraving of which 
I be wa# assisted by ( '. Jlosley ; the famous 
' llepresentation of the March of the (iuards 
towards Scotland in theyearI74.'J'(;iO-l Dec. 
17r>0),fngT»ved by Kuke Sullivan, and known 
more familiarly u8 ' The March to Finchley ; ' 
the pair of plate* called ' Beer Street ' and 
•Gin l.aue;' and the 'l''onr Stages of Cruelty.' 
It i« not quite certain that these last six 
plates, all of which are dated I Feb. 175!, 
wt-n- rnpraveil by Hogarth liim.self, as the 
inscription uiHin them in not explicit. But 
■with the 'Four Slage.i of Cruelty' is con- 
nt<cted an inten-sting experiment in the then 
dormant art of engraving on wood. In view i 
1 4tf UactX circular ion among the poorer classes, 
1 their lesson was more especially ad- j 
, an attempt was made to reproduce 
llietn in this way. It was abandoned because, 
upon trial.the process was found more expeii- 
Mtetlian reproduction iijion metal. The third 
and fourth plates werK, however, actually 
vxeculcd on wood in 17o<J by J. Bell, and 
tlwy are now exceedingly rare. They show 
t Hogarth's bold drawing U|>on the block, 
I in ita nmgh knife-cut facsimile, has a 
rtur wliich i.t wanting in the copper, and 
tfciy »ugg«at that, even in his own graver- 
work, mor«' was lost tlian one is accustomed 
to U-lieve. An')lher • woixlen-cut ' which 
h«J<ir ■ ■' ;- period was a rude headpiece 
Cir I • JacoViite's Journal' (1747), 

and Jim. ...i; .. -M^r ctForts may !><■ mentioned 
• Uyiiieii ami t'lipid' (174^), a ticket for 
Jlnll, I .1.1 Tliomson's masijue of 'Alfred;' 
a li' J of the house at Chiswiek of 

the .■hl.<iiir iind (he king's ser- 

jcai. • : and in 1752 two 

met' , ■,' Moses brought to 

I'hanioli » I •iiii^;liiir anil ' I'aiil before Fclij:.' 
TbvfortiiiTof th'Se was engraved by Hogarth 
~ Luke SiilliMin. It is a t-ignihcant com- 
lary upon tlirir mi-ril that a course bnr- 
|ueof 'I'aul before Felix,' which Hotfjirth 
'<iaiitfn'd and scrnl^-li'd m the true Ihltcli 
taate, ii> i '■' after by colleclorx 

tlian the . ' for which it served 


• (1752) Hogarth was fifty- 
' line his Ix-st work. As a 

pictorial satirist of the first order he was 
now universally accepted and feared. That 
he would add t» bis reputation was unlikely ; 
it was essential only that be should not lessen 
it. Vet it is cliiiracleristic of his adventurous 
energj- that he selected this precise moment 
<pf his career to seek fresh honours in new and 
untried fields. He vvrot- an ambitious trea- 
tise 'to fix the liiictuating ideas of Taste,' 
and he deliberately backed himself against 
his eneraies, tliH ' bluek masters,' on their own 
pround. In the ' Analysis of Beauty,' which 
he published in December 17o;i, taking for 
Lis text a. serpentine line which lie liiid drawn 
uj)on a jialelti^ in the corner of his own por- 
trait of 1 745, he profesi-ed to define the prin- 
ciples of beauty and grace. Dr. Benjamin 
Iloadly, M.D., the Key. James Townley of 
Mi-rcLuiit Taylors' School and 'High Life 
below Stairs,' lialph of the 'Champion,' Dr. 
T. Morell of Chiswiek, and 4ilher friends seem 
to have as.sioted in pre])aring the book — a 
cotnbiiuition of couii:-*'! not entirely to the 
prolit of the work. Hogarth undoubtedly 
Knew more than he could express or his 
friends emitd interpret, and the result was 
certainly not conspicuous for order or luci- 
dity. His enemies, and liis indejundent and 
aggressive character hail gaiiii'd iiini many, 
fell joyously utxin his literary lajtses and 
occasional incoherencies, while the mob of 
caricaturists, only too glad of the opportunity, 
diverted themselves hugely w ith ' Puiutcr 
I'ugg' and b is ungainly Graces . The satirist 
Was iiOWTiTiiiself satirised, and, like most of 
his race, he was only too vtihnnible. The 
list of these performances will be found at 
length in vol. iii. pt. ii. of Mr. F. G. Ste- 
phens's 'Catalogue of Satirical Prints and 
Drawings' in the British Museum (see No8. 
.■iL';!8et sen.) Some admiring critics of course 
he had. Kaljih declared that 'composition 
isat last become a science; the student knows 
what he is in search of: the connoisseur what 
to praise ; and fiiiicy and fashion, or prescrip- 
tiira, will usurp the liacknied name of taste 
no tnore;' and friendly Sylvauiis I'rhau put 
Hogarth into the intnuluctory verses to his 
volume i>( 1754. The work was translate*! 
into tiermau in the same year by Christlob 
Myliiis, into Italian at Legliorn in I7til,aud 
in iKOoinlo French by Talleyrand's librarian, 
Jan.sen. 1 If late years it has not been found 
ne<'essary to reprint the Ixiok ; but the two 
hirgi- chart-plates jirepared by the artist to 
illuntrate it, one of which has for its (vntral 
design a 'Statuary's Yard' and tlie other a 
'('ounlry Dance,' continue to !«• souglit after. 
-More popular !.till is the little etching of 'C<)- 
lumbiis breaking the Kgg,' which was pre- 
pared as the subacriptiun-licket. 




Between the 'Analysis'and Hogarth's next 
unfortunate experiment comes the whimsieal 
frontispiece to Kirby's ' Perspective' ( 1753), 
cleverly emlwdyinjr all ibe errors in that 
science of which ignorance could pi.i»>ibly be 
guilty, and even including a few that it 
could hcarcely have committed. To this, 
lieralilt-d by the already -mentioned ticket en- 
title<i ' Crowns, Mitres,' &c., followed in 
17i")0-J^ the admirable ' Election Series,' four 
largl^ plates engra\ed by Hogarth, C. ('rig- 
nion, Morellon l^-f 'uve.and F. Aviline. They 
are entitled Mepanitely ' An Election Enler- 
tainiueiit' ['Ji I'eb. IToo), 'Canvassing for 
Votes' {M I'Vb. 1757), 'Pulling' (->0 Feb. 
1758), and ' Chairing the Members (1 Jan. 
175M), and takrn seriatim give a vivid idea 
of electioneering humours in the old rough- 
and-tumble, bribery-and-corruption days of 
the second < ieorge. A further pair of prints 
was prompted by the nimours of invasion 
current in I7.")(J, when Hogarth came to the 
aid i)f patriotism with two rapidly executed 
plates, lu oni' of which, ' England,' the natives 
of this island were repres4,'ntiii as eagerly 
awaiting the descent of the invaders, while 
in the other, ' France,' the famished subjects 
of the Grand Munarque exhibit a most pitiful 
reluctanci' to embark upon their enterprise. 
' The Bf-nch ' ( 1 758 ) and ' The Cockpit '( 5 Nov. 
175[(), tlie latter of which depicted, prf)bably 
at its home in Birdcage W alk, a popular 
eighteenth-century pastime, witli 'The Five 
Orders of Periwigs' (lo Oct. 1701) and a 
couple of frontispieces to vols. ii. and iv. of 
' Tristram Shandy,' are the only other plates 
which re(juire presiMit mention. But Ilogiirth 
had not yi-t n'tinqiiishril his aspirations alter 
high art, and in I7"i(> fxei-uticl lor the altar- 
piece at St. Mary Keiiclitle, Bristol, a set of 
.sacred subjects, the' Seal ing oft he Sepulchre,' 
t he '.\scension,' and the 'Three Maries.' These 
three pictures, lor which he received the sum 
of 5<)()/., are now in the Fine Arts Academy 
at t/'lifton. 

On June 1757 Hogarth was appointetl 
eeijeant-painti-r of all his majesty's works, 
sueceediiiy his brothi-r-in-law, .lolin Thoni- 
hill, who resigned that otlice. He entered 
upon his dutiis on Hi .luly, and his nominal 
salary was lOA, but with ' fees, liveries, 
profits,' and the like, it came to about I'OO/. 
;)er annum. .\t this tiinc he situis to have 

ecided to conliiie himself lo piirtrait-paiut- 
ing ; but two ymirs later lie imnounceil nnce 
more tliat hi- .should quit the pencil for the 
graver, our of liis chief reasons being that 
the retouching and repairing of bis many 
plates was alivudy beconiina' a laliorious tusk. 
Before he bade u liiiid mliiMi to the brush 
Lord Charlemont persuaded him to execute 


another picture. This was that known in- 
diff'erently as 'Picquel,' or'The Lady's Last 
Stake,' or 'Virtue in Danger,' one of tlif 
most attractive of his lesser works. It was 
engraved by Thomas Cheesman in Irtio. Its 
popularity as a picture hxl to a further com- 
mission from Sir Uichard (afterwards Lord) 
Grosvenor, the choice of subject being left as 
before to the artist. He seh-cted Boccaccio's 
(or rather I)ryden's) Sigismunda weeping 
over the heart of her murdered husband, 
Guiscardo, his object being to rival a siv 
caHed Correggio (it was realiy a Furini) with 
the same title, which had been sold at Sir 
Luke Schaub's sale iu 1 758 for 4(X)/. Hogarth 
valued his ' Sigismunda ' at no le&s. He took 
immense piiina wit hit, anil probablvti^o much 
advice. \Vhen it was finished. Sir Uichard, 
who would have preferred a humorous or 
satirical i/enrc pii-ce, rather meanly shutlled 
out of his bargain. The picture in conse- 
(luence, jrreatly to the painter's mortification, 
remained upon his hands, and was not sold 
until his widow's death, when it was pur- 
chased by the BoydelU for fifty-six guineas. 
What was worse, both the transaction and 
the work gave rise to much vexatious com- 
ment, and ' Sigismunda,' whiwe lineaments, 
as alreadvstate<l, were those of Mrs. Hogarth, 
was frankly and even brutally criticised. To 
prove its merit Hogarth arranged to have it 
engraved, but the matter never, during his 
lifetime, advanced beyond an etchiiig in out- 
line by Basin- and a subscription-ticket by 
himself. The latter, 'Time smoking a Picture' 
(17l>l ), is one of the happiest of its class, and 
has for its English motto two i,|Uotation3 from 
an 'Epistle tu a Friend, occasioned by ray 
picture of Sigismunda,' of which, with the 
aid iif Paul Whitehead, the painter delivereil 

To Nature and your Self appeal 
Nor learn of ulbere, whal lu feel, 

is one of these. The whole jKiem, if such it 
may be called, is to be found in the 'Genuine 
Works,' 1808, i. S-J-2, and also at p. 281 of the 
' Anecdotes ' of J. B. Nichols, 18.S.3. ' Sigis- 
munda ' was mezzotinted in 170.'4 (1 Feb.) 
by Hubert Itunkarton, iind engraved in line 
by B. Smith, 4 .tune I7i>5. The original 
picture and that of the ' Lady's Last Stake' 
were exhibited at the Spring Gardens exhi- 
bition of I7t)l. For lhi> 'Catalogue' of this 
Hognrlli executed a heiul-iind tail-piece, both 
of which were engruved by (irignion. The 
former was a bid fi>r the myal i)atronage of 
art: the latter, a monkey with an eyeglass 
watering some withered exotics, a supple- 
nieiitiiry blow at those travelled and unen- 
lightened virluosi who cherished the lifelet-s 




PbUck masti«n' aod nc^ectcd the living 
lMarnag« i-la-Mcxlc.' 

With I7t!l Wf »iv vitliin three years of 
logarth's death, and the chronicle of his 
»ork grows winter. A 8«rond jwrtrait of 
nrnM-lf, yrhich he t-xecuted and engraved in 
|76f , bad shown him to he already an older 
ulsa'' ' ' _'. faithful to his past, 

_ 'he Comic Muse.' 
I ,. ,_ ;,,- ,-.u'M ihe plate known a* 
, Superstition, and Fanaticism, a 
I'.liieh vi» an adaptation, mort: 
' directed at the metho<iijils, from an 
■design of wider gcmi-. .titiilfd ' En- 
iiusiasin Delineated." A; of this 

list thought werv; struck ■!: K-artist 

ned the plate, and they =how that, 
l»ly in deference to criticism, Hogarth 
DltTerted what was a compact composition 
Bt/> A deasultorj- pictorial hotch-pot which, 
spite the assertion of Horace Walpole that 
is the ' most sublime of bi» works for lue- 
'ful and deep satire,' i* not now regarded as 
ranking among the triumphs of his imagina- 
tion. And 60 yre come to the last notable 
events in his career, the publication of the 
political print culled 'The Times '(plate i.), 
and hi? ijuarrel with Wilkes and Churchill. 
Long before the death of Cieorge II, Ho- 
gart h ii supposed to have enjoyed the favour 
of I^rd Bute. Hut he hud nevertheless 
wisely withheld him.«elf from faction. In 
17l!:J, however, an evil genius prompted him 
to do some ' timed ' th'mg in the ministerial 
interest. The very announcement of his pur- 
poav xhoulil have warned him of the danger 
of this step, for it at once brought him into 
collision with Wilkes and Wilkes's 'led-' 
captain,'Churcbill the satirist, both of whom 
hitherto been his personal associates. 
nlkes forthwith threatened reprisals; IIo- 
th refused to desist ; and in these circum- 
nces, on "Sept. 1762, 'The Times, I'latei.,' I 

> out . It was u lalx)ured and eonfu.aed 
■formance, though not without true llo- 
thian touches. On the Saturday afVer its 
earancc, Wilkes, as he hud promised, re- I 
«d by a savage ' North Hriton,' No. 17, ! 
eking the painter at all his most assail- i 
oints. Theallegetl failure of his powers, | 
carriage of ' Sigismunda,' the obscuri- 
tlie ' Analysis,' were successively di.'*- 
I with the merciless malignity of an ad- 
krywhohad grown familinrwitli hisoppo- , 
Bt's foible* in the unn>strained intercourse 
.rivate life. There is little doubt that IIo- | 
th wa* deeply wounded. ' Being,' lie tells ' 
' at that time very weak, and in a kind of i 
fever, it could not but seize on a feeling 
A touching instance of this is supplied i 
Itvm in Mr. II. P. Standly's catalogue. 

It was a worn copy of the paper containitijf 
Wilkes's diatribes, given long afterwards by 
Mrs. Hogarth to Ireland, which the )>nintrr 
had ' carried in his pocket many days to Jiow 
his friends.' But he was not hurt to the death, 
as AVilkes profanely hoped, and told Lord 

In the following year (IC May) he re- 
covered sufficiently to take his revenge by 
dojiicting Wilkes in that famous portrait 
which will carry his satyr leer and hideous 
siiuint to remote posterity. I fK>n ibis 
Cnurchill, who had already been meditating 
action, took up the cud^jels for his friend in 
'An Epislb- to William Iloporth' (July), 
wliich was as clever as it was cold-bloi)de<l and 
cruel. It promptly elicited from the painter 
another caricature (1 Aug.), entitled 'The 
Bruiser, C. Churchill (once the Reverend I), 
in the character of a Uussian Hercules re- 
galinghimselfafterhavingkilleil the monster 
Caricatura, that so se\erely galled his virtu- 
ous friend, the heaven-born Wilkes.' The 
' Uussian Hercules ' was a bear in torn bands 
hugging a club, the knots of which were in- 
scnbe<l ' Lye 1, Lye 2,' &c., and he was ' re- 
galing himself with a quart pot of porter. To 
a later issue Hogarth added some supple- 
mentary details. 'The pleasure and pecuniary 
advantage,' he says, ' which I derived from 
these two engravings [of Wilkes andChurch- 
iir, together with occasionally riding on 
horseback, tvstored me to as much health 
as can be exjiected at my time of life.' 

In 176:.' he prepared, but did not issue, a 
second plate ot ' 'The Times.' It ultimately 
appeared in 1790 (:?9 May), when it was 
published by Messrs. Boydell. Hisoulv re- 
maining efforts are the well-known etching 
of Fielding, e.x«"uted front memory for .\rthur 
Murphy's edition (1762) of that writer's 
works, a portrait of Dr. Morell, who had 
assisted him in the ' .\nalysis,' and n fronti- 
spiece to the Hev. John Clubbe's ' Phisiog- 
uomy,' 1703. His final plate was the graphic 
epilogue to his collected prints cutitled ' The 
llathos ; or .Manner of Sinking in Sublime 
Paintings, inscribeil to the Dealers in Dark 
Pictures' (3 March 1764), a curious assem- 
blage of ' fag-ends ' sugtjested by some pr»>nio- 
nition of his approaching death, .\fter this, 
with the exception of some finishing strokes 
to the plate of ' The Bench,' he never again 
touched pencil, brush, or graver. On 25 Oct. 
he was conveved from his house at Chiswick 
to Leicester h ields,very weak, yet remarkably 
cheerful, and, says Nichols {Genuine Worhi, 
1808, i. 1386-8), 'receiving an agreeable 
letter from the American Dr. Franklin, drew 
up a rough draught of an answer to it ; but 
going to bed, he was seized with a vomiting, 



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oeemsion of the re«tontv» a&i rslLrrt^-^': 
of ChiswLck ChoTch. 

The chief of the p>rs»:-j :i W^Hits H :- 
lt«rth is that by himaflf i ri-r Ni".- zal 
GaUerr, for which it w»» p»irri*.v-i ^ l?i-» 
with tlie Angerstein coIIr«i:c Hr jii.---i-i 
it in 1745, and. a^ ahvacr sat-L r=.rn--i 
it four years later. I; wi* »r»li TcrriTr-i 
by B. Smith on 4 J3n« 17v@l 
bonirfat it at Mr». H'>sar:h': i-ri-i. i: wt- 
• an old plate" of thi* picture- wLl:i H 'rtrri 
(Charchill). A small T*r5:->z : •!.» o r- 
trait was eihibittii brMr. J'ii L/rL^i-rr. 
F.SA.. at the EniU*h Ha:c:-ir>»' Ft-. •> 
tion, 18S9. Anotherptjr-T*:: by -Ir iri*"r ij=- 
eelf, which »I» one* brlocz>!<i :■■ L:» wiiw. 
ia now in the Xati'inal P'>r:ia:T •rill-rry. H - 
IFarth emriared it i in par: i ir. ITi". rr*-:-^cii=j 
it in 17ili. He *U-i apjKmr? w::i <>»rrl-:i i=. 
Mr. Addington'* picture of ■ Garrj^k in ■L-r 
Green Itoom.' which was eihibit-ri »r:i-'.»li 
Masters in lisM. <>th^rIikr'n««.~r!ar<er!:TL-ia.i 
in a hat from th»" • Gate of rala>: ' tL- >vil 
head begun by W'eltdon and fin'^h->d by H > 
garth; the head in a ti'»-wi/ piv.fii-.l to r 1 :. 
of Samuel Ireland'^ * Graphic Cl'j<tn:: . :> : ' 
and the woodcut with a pipe in \VaI»>lr'> 
' Anecdote* ■ (ed. Major i. In the X»!';:nil 
Portrait Gallery thriw i» a bust in trrra-cor*a 
by Roubiliac. Hozarth aim painted p-jrrra:t* 
of his sisters Mary and .\nn < which in 1 ?r^ 
were in the possession of Mr. K. C. N ichoU. 
the son of Mr. J. B. Xichok. HoearrL's c-m- 
mentator of lS:i:{): of Sir Jam»-i Tb:rah:I!. 
his wife, and their son John : of Mary Lc-wL«. 
and of hw six servants. Besides th*-** »her- 
is a portrait in the National Gallervof Mary 
Hogarth, dated 1746. When she i\^i i« r.i: 
known, although she pivceded her br~>thrr : 
but her sister Ann survived until 13 Au^. 
1771, when she was buri«d in I Irigart h's grave 
at Chiswick. 

It was claimed for Hr>garth, in Johns-^n'^ 
variation upon ( iarrick. that he saw thr man- 
ners in the face, and hi.* own portrait is th^ 
index of his character. The brisk, blue-eyed, 
manly, intelligent, and somewhat omlMitive 
head with the !«ar over the right eye. which 
looks out from the canvas in the'Nati<)nal 
Gallery, seems to accord completely with 
hLs verbal likeness as it has be>-n handed 
down to us. He was, it is ea.«v to ljeli>;ve, 
a sturJTi oiitRpfikfn, lionegt,_ol^inate^jiig- 
na cious little m a n who , as one is glad to 
fhllkk, once pummelled a fellow soundly for 
maltreating the beautiful drummeress whom 
he drew in ' Southwark Fair.' As a com- 

rion he was witty and genial, and to those 
cared for, thoroughly faithful and irene- 
rous. He liked good clothes, giXHl living. 

:£ Ti.-* rrxtris c .ri ir-rr Lt : ----- -.ML.rr 

i- iji I fi— Li- • T.ri. i- i .:i.-.---i i3«:a 

V sl^r — 

wf Tij -. z -t-:. : v^ 

^n ■»"i_£ j- 1.1,: i.; 

wi.» i:c»-lr*!-> ir. wir. L-r 

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aai ir^:=.>r:^5■: wrs-.rl-. =..jb.- '^'..j r.-* 

iM M;":-i^l Ar-Xrl ..' Hj -ri-: tt- > . > v>- 
waris :l-3i U i.*.v::*-i .- l.> w ri- -., M.-». 
Pi-izL H^ WW -i-i:-; V h-r. It:* :.-. l.f,, 
of I»r. J LrL*..-. w;-.-« ■:-.=.•. *r-4-; -. ':.- .»:A, 
wa«:.> tLar -.: -i^r =.-71 »- T.-.i.-.', pft;.'.-;r.;f 
comp4~i : II .i*. -'- : • b ;• :vr.'- v , ^ te.i 
l^-vplr = ..w. :Li: I i.iy v.." <y,r.-;r. i-r'l L-, -for 
:Lt c-jr.:: -Ujrrari an: I are *• amt. v. j kn'-w; 

a-.'i bi-:**!'^ I hi'r th^m. •':.• 

•ii.r.k I bar* 

Titian, and Irt tLrm !' ■ Anfl'.ff ofS'imufl 
Johy.-i. LI. D.. tL l-i'J. y.,. I'H .',,. 

Xrim-rv L» '••r.-r ''or;-- ir,;^';.' U- #■>«] jn 
:I!ui-ra-:on 'f -h:' oatiine oi Hv.'arh\ rlja- 
rw-ter. .S:dr by -.].• with Iiii j-n-ral hatred 
of th-? f jre:?r.-r was hi- i»;»rr> i!»r hatrH of 
the French. wh'>m h-.- never fail- u, ridicult; 
in hi* w'^rks. • f 'alaU <iate' ind'-yl o»->:d itn 
origin to a mi-arl«-enrur>' whi':h hi- undin- 
?ui<<d (tallomania brou2hi uji'jn liirii. In 
1749. after th^ j,,af* of .-Vix-la-<'hapel|c, he 
paid a brief viiit to France with Iliiyman, 
Chwn-. the sculptor, and -./ime i,th>-r friends. 
He did not set out prepar>-rl to admire, and 
bedoes not 8e»'m to ha*-tr in the lea-t conc>-aled 
the contempt he ft-lt for the ' fnrrical |K»np 
of war,' the ' pompous iiarail*- of r<-l igion ,' and 
■ the much bustle with verv little buKineHs ' 
which h- di.'*covere<l aUiut liiin. liin frnnkly 
expressed opinions speedily attnurted utten- 





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I with tlie milk of his coiidjutor's namitiT 
In t1ief.litif.nof 1808-1" the portions reap 

KikI by the two commentators are 
'J.nnd it is maniffst that all the 
murv unfriendly comments and records belong 
not to Nichols, but to Steeven*. The un- 
Dudy and indefensible attack of the latt«r 
(btof. Anrcdiiteji, 17S">, pp. 113-14) upon 
Marr Lewis, whose only fault appears to 
hare been her loyalty to her uncle's memory, 
is almoi^ sullicient to disqualify him as a 
dmmicler. Another critic who has been 
lutdalr harsh to certain aspects of Floparth's 
diancteris Horace ^^'al^)0le. From a clever 
lt!lt«TtoOeorKe Montagu, dated 5 May ITtil, 
it t» clear that, however he may have appre- 
oatad kis powers ti» a pictorial satirist. Wal- 
j poW ruJsad him as a man with the rest of 
I tboMMitwdersof fa^hion,theFieldi^(r8,(told- 
■autbs, Johnsons, &c.. whose misfortune it 
wwt to be bom beyond the pale of his own 
patrician circle, and that. even in the ilomain 
of art, be Tesenle<l his claim to be a colourist, 
a tartrait-painter, or a critic. 

With respect to the last-named qualification 

— «s far at least as it is exemplified by ' The 

Analysis' — the consensus of raoderi\ opinion 

wnultl proliably be in accord with Walpole. 

' "TW Analysis' was the tuur de forif nf a 

cJevcr artist, whose jjifls, as he himself ad- 

Bitted. lay more with the pencil than tho 

n«». Rut when Dr. Morell and others, edio- 

iBij Walp.)le and ' the picture <lealers, pic- 

li»r»clcianfrs. picture- frame makers, and other 

crauBcrissruTs' — tnu.<eHopirth'sscornfnlcl«s- 

^irioatiiMi — declared that ' colourin;; was not 

* f.»rle.' they did him imperfect justice. 

S-ixvlh* first exhibition of hiscolloctej works 

i« oil at tfce British Institution in 1H14, liis 

MfWlatia* as a mere laver of colours has been 

ilnxlilt iw liiaiiiijL iiiii'lllii reaction thus ini- 

liattd W kam enforced of late years by the 

a{«|««nMica, in suoeeasive exhibitions at the 

Acaibaiy and elaewbere, of numerous por- 

IMJIa aM<l pictures lonp buried in private coV- 

WttiMUt. It is ni>w admitted tliat hi^ merits 

a* a |>ai«t«r aiw unquMtionable, that his tints 

arv |Hnw and hanMnious, his composition 

picipitliWM, and his manner, without bein^ 

■MMtlMwfBelv finished, sinpilarly dexterous 

aitii diivct. Kv«>n the much-abused 'Sigis-j 

MM*^* is now held at present to be a far 

V tt«r work tkan would ever be suspected 

m llw fTM* obloquy to whidu, owinu to 

■ <• MKWMtMtCM nf its production, it was 

\f<a(4 4ara)(r tt"* artist's lifetime. If it 

.<H»fi« Wr«l^«d (as he fondly hoi>.'d) with 

mvs»>\ it »«.<« at least Ije conceded that 

~ ),.iv,i .vf.•^^l,Ml^i- ioini.l iind its technical 

\ .- lev ore «o well 



: - r. t- 1- :.' 

hr f.-r rTr.trr LL 1 -T" -:_m-.u:. v:.i.-: 
rt'i'i::*- n:. > ;-irr Lr.i vrLr .;•: ■ \li. ;-l^ ■:■• t 
}>r itTiir.-i. -s;-rT* 'f:- l =11- ■:' i. --"7 ■-:■•- 
Turn ./ r^'r'.' . j'-V T-. i- -1.- . :."." 7:..- 

i« a traii'jiartn: l:<' '. .•zy i r v. )_!.• ';.-. ir:;rir : 
>i^ ;h- w^ikrr ^;ir f I.-- •«■ ri. >- Itii; : 
finUL and has:* ■•' •\v; .■!•:.. tvl .- l: :':.t 
Klin- time it icvi-er a—'r.'.::. :. •al;.- •»--.> 
und'nibT^^Uy ::* ?;»--:il ^i.:t.'~ — ;■« ?-. ,7.:, .■:;■ 
viif'ur. its in-rllijir.-;i'.-y. .\r. i :: r. .:s: •:: 
b>r forsott<-n ihat L:* j-rinr* L;.Tr r.~ lz.i.'.'.-Ti- 
abl*- udvan'asr — thrv arv a'j: ;cTi; L*. H - 
parrli enirrawl by Hojarrh mu*: a'.way* 
claim prt^rdence ov*r UosariL en^aT-.-i: by 
any one «?l5e. 

But it i* n(ritlicr by his aohirrTemcn:* as 
an engraver nor bis merits as a paintvr that 
h<- n-tains his unitjue posit i<^n amonsr Kncli^h 
artists. It is as a pictorial chroniclvr >^( life 
and manners, as a satirist and humourist on 
canvas, that he makes his main demand u^v-tn 
posterity. His skill in seizin); u]ion the ridi- 
culous and the grotesque in life was only 
equalled by his power of rendering the tnigio 
and the terrible. And it was not only given 
to him to see unerringly and to seleet unfal- 
t».-ringly, but he added to this a sjH'eiul gift of 
narrative by action, which, looking to the fact 
that he has had go few worthy rivals, must 
<if necessity \>e rare. Otht^r artists have sue- 
reeded in tingle scenes of humorous //CHiv.or 
in depicting isolatwl effects of horror atiil 
passion, but none, like Hogarth, has coni- 
itim-d both with such signal ability, mid 
carried them from one scene to uiioliier with 
i>uch supreme dexterity as this painter, whom ^ 

-< \v.K:ih: 



.-.N v.. N< ,>t" 

;>l \\.. 

iM—.f.; -.■• :.- ;;.:•.■.. 's; ..i.c;.;. .■i".,i \:..:\ \n 
i'.:r.::W m':.'-0. •.,:u\ >:;»r.".j>i\l .n !lu> , ;>n\iiv \W 
tVi-T. . . . Ui^'.dis :V.i' I \<Vili'Hiv .M •';(> l< in- 
di\ Irti-e. the :vtUv:i.>n •■>( \]w cvi'v.'s^i.M* 
iVinn I'aCi- to faiv. !l;e .■o»ir!i<l an.l sli»i;i;li> 
of particular m.>li\e> an.l foi'lmj;- iii ll>.> .lit- 
iVrcnt arlors in the mvih', a- of niii;et', ron 
tempt, laughter. i'onip!>>Mon, !iii'oon\i-\ril in 
the happie?! and nioM li\.'l\ iiiaiiin-i. . . . 
He ;rivos the I'Mii-nies of eliaiaeliT ami i>\ 
pr»'S>i>>n,bul he^ixestliem wilb pfiiVrl liiilh 
and aeeuraoy.' It oiil\ i-i'uuiiif< lo ailil llinl 
llogarlh's inleulion, liKe thai of nuiiix of 
his eontemporaries, was ^i<uuinol\ iliilarln- 
' .\ midst all his phMisaiilrx,' fay ■ Wiilpole, 
'he (il)Si>r\es the true end of eniin'iU ■■• 
foriiiatioii: there is nlwaxn a iiioml to lii>i 
]iictiires.' It i^ possili|i> llml llii> niniiil na'i 
Hometimi'M trite mul oli\iiiiii' '»iilli-ii iii 
rathi'r ton larg>' Ir'ltern iifiir ilii< ImIiIi',' nn 
Tliaeltrniy Na\M liiil lliiri' inn Im' ipi ilonlil 
that it WHM sliii'i'ri'. 

I'orluinitely fur llo^'iirlli'- ii'liiiin i •, (> w, if 

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•' 11 '.-anil's I'ligraviujs iii 
■'..■• I{riei<li Mll^t'ulll, ihi. 
•.^ "111' I'lilIiM'tiiin of Mr. 
' r>'. • ".ii>liiiiv. who siild it 
:• =:•-: a.ath'iii Ij^lN. The 
■;■ liO'irK'i' .Stri.'VciK i,s ar. 
i; ('■■,. nuT, hi Norlblk. Ir 
•> -it lii< death in l.'^OO to 

Lt"^ LtX.z.'irzz * •'/■A :.- "*. i^.. '. "^ £4=--— li.-. ■" ■>" -"- r~ - 

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th* sw:.! -^1 t ;r»i TT-Ti If.; - ,"-;<:.,,:: »■ t^-. J.- .;.- ;.;.■, : z •■:.'. i.- ■.^- — 

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th* Gc'-.l^i TV-.ri4 :; ~ H. :- y.!::.-..^ is,: .-_ '" 

inelaics rt-rrii* -.i t *>-;ilr; ".i-^.- H -7. — '»"- * V'"=' "" 7". ". " --.i. Z. .' "-■ - 

th -in i. I?;-;. IT tirt 2i«r-. I. Jirr-r* t.^-. -.le -"'"'■ '.ly zt-- i. "sj-i .t-.: ..•. •.•:.- -' 

prfjse F:Ti Iit* Tier -rzr.r-i ■■'s. L.-r,«i- - '".t •:>- 

17S3. Tir 'J*::- I.-: "S'-.r£.- -* •!• a «■ _:i>,r- iT jClt- 

Im: 'f ti* :i^r r»i-.r -•-.-. 1. •: E •ru-.i :•.•- -i_— - 

{rrapST A- i ;;:■::-»=. I«i' i*. -^.an lis-? .-•■■: •»ti:_ - . 

Print*. 1:%.) "iTjt. ?*-;-c" -i* H;«i-- '- fi ' -l \. 

ToL*.i;S!-j. :i.tOripi;;ll..<ni:rj -.if Stn-i»-. 

Ire'iaci. r-»-.T-.>. 1794.S: -,it .i-j;^.i^_..-i,. V- i- " ■ ~~ - 

klinjiig i*r H>::»-hl«'-.- K^tiirKi-ait ::>*- -^-^- '-^'- 

1816. 'Ji <i. <:. L:?i:.t;r.«?a : -.£* .Vi**! -« -.i -.r^"' — '' 

thee»"iir5ar*-:W;::-"»s:H-«iri ■rri titii'.iiiW —" '*■'-* 

toTTrDewrfti-.aof ii^W-^rt.. 11;:. :i:j':s44 V.-.'-jz^ \:: y^.i.-.".. I- l-i- i- -x-i.- ij- 

de»ign«<it./*;«.ir;j».-.Tti*;r;rriv^:ii»ie:»,T*r. p ^•-r:: -j;Lr-i.>.--'._: :' -'-r Z::r.'--:TZ. z-t- 

ThomasCV/k. lS(rt:\ieW-,ri4'.f W_:j];: Hv- ■-:-..- »-_-jv—»-.-.i -•. Lrr. rlliiilL iti iri* 

^Kh. tw.ToX JS12. ijT. Ork; -i;- li:, .1 ■••-'-■ ri-r-i •..-l- :' ^i- .i,i:t. z : j-^rti'xjj; 

Canoiii|dviE.'!i Er":i.h Pi-i>.-«. I*2S : :;* .1.1*;- i: '.Matt .- li A zs. VT:.-:. •':.- Lirrrir^Lv 

ifA-ri of J. B. y:.:i'/j. 1-S3: •':.* tdiv -j cf irs.i .-«•-■•■*•£ >t p -i IX ' -^ w^s •rwu'V-'l 

Jon*». 1830-45: of Tr»:« as: Eoi^r-.* »^::. nz -- "^ iv— -^.yi - -•-_ ^^-x-'y ^-,^^*J .^ 

^Imimlle .*v.r !y J»»« Hi-^.r iv: : .f -^li^t^^i '^^^tk^Ii:::±^»ni^^ 

Home. 18< J ; Wl.liaiD H'j««n3, :t -r. A. >» ». —j-V .^..^.ViV- .'.^ nr.nn--^ nf Vn-f. 

1866; the Works. paU-*he.l Ir b;:: & I>4;:t. "^^"^ . " VT'' C"^- "t ^^' j w" . 

3lot.khou»ean.l ibe writer ,f rkU ,rt:c'.*" : :ht :::. f. ?'•*'' '; ^^ l"-^. »] l»»v'»«''" ?" "? f""?' 

T»lnable CatBloeoe of .Sitiriai'. PrJt:. «ni Ifriw- |^'- *'^^ '''* ^-''•** *' *■• ^ uthbrrt s C ol- 

inj»» in the Britinh Xa«*Tjra. iy F. G. S:ef hess. '*?*• *- *^'^- 

Tol*. ii-ir. ; and William Hocnrh.V.r th« vr:T«r 'Wrtk:TR*?:»:er.3 '.al lOFrb. 1»S6: Times, 

of this Brtiele. in the Great Artist* **r« as:? . sTj.:.. ivJ-ji I'.rA^ :• Kr;«<»isil Succession. 
VOL. XX^II. ■ ■ u 


• • ;k.' 

. in»t ill" 
ill! ftlw 

1 \ . Ikiu)( (if 
Kni«ci» of 

>lt1. Hill) 

\m{ «iikMki\<ii(lr in 

•uiii' til 
■I Miiiv, ilntoil 

I I ' llllll UuMlllNIt 

I II,' Win Hum' 

III* llllV*, HII l>ll- 

IVoin nhniit l>V|'i 
lliltil mill lli'ltfimii, 
uuIm Imiii liiii'ii un- 

by Fnuu He 

to be fouml 

di.?d at C'l' ■'. 

in the pnji ;!- 

rf Xh^t city. Abruhnw and Joluinn 

r, two Uter engravers of Colngi"'. 


I W « > il i ^ AaeedatcB of Painting, ed. Womum, 

M«^ •- lat, ui MS ; Brynn's Diet, uf Piuni m 

»■< R^glBiiUk «d. Grarca, 188S-9, i. 6Wi 

• !«••■• ea Werken der Hollnndjche M 

Kaaabchilders, &e., 1857-04, i. TO*. 

71*; Q«»iri T^tseher Nation Uerligkeit, 1609, 

^ ^; 1C«W» Xaehricht«D rnn dcni lAiben vrnJ 

i ^w Kolnif biT Kiiiustler, l»oO, pp. 1S»- 

*■*; 3t««*"» Hi«toir« do U Peinturo ti de U 

ilUline*, 1876. i. 218-19; Biogiapbi* 

, pvUifo par lAoulAmie Rovale dc IW- 

1«6«, *c., ix. 428-32.] 'r. E. G. 

HOGG, HEXRV ( 1831-l!fi74), poet, woi 

in Nottrnffliam, where ho practised as a 

-natil his dtath in 1874. He devoted 

to writiiiK poitry from youth. Hij 

■'** ?"■■»» entitled ' .Atoumful Recollections,' 

JW IK bUnk verse, and appeared in IWO. 

n 18S3 he pubU.'shed a volume of collected 

, ,*iid was classed among the worthie* 

of X<Mtin(^)iam ii.'i •« young jmet of g^niu*' 
iaWylie's'Old and New Xottinjrham' (18.53). 
lie civntributed a number of short poenu to 
th» • Christian Miseellnny,' and also wrote 
hyauu and carols, which were verj- popidor 
ia the district. He set some of them to 
A later volume of poems was issued, 
was subsequently withdrawn from i-ir- 
eabtion. His p<xim8, thoug^h chiefly echoed 
of Tennj-son, show taste and artistic skilL 

[Panunal information ; Wylie's Old and New 
Vottinghani ; local rcconls.] W. E. D. 

HOGG, JAME8 (ir70-lt'35), the Ettrick 
Shepherd, was born at Ettrick, Selkirkshire, 
near tlie parish school, towards the end of 
1770, the iiarish register recording Lis bap- 
tism on y Dec of that year. He was wrong 
in his Iwlief that his birthday, like Baras'ii, 
was ii.*! Jan., and the year 177-;. He was the 
second of four sons born to Roben Hogg and 
Margaret Laidlaw, both of old border families. 
Owing to his father's failure in farming be re- 
1 reived, according to his own account, less than 
a year's education in all, though in that time 
he was able to read the Bible and the cate- 
chism. .\t the ageof sereo he began to herd 
ewes. Forseveralyears, in the eoat«e of which 
he fell in love for the fint Hoc and learned 
to play on the violin, he ptogreserd in his 
calling, till he was fully «)oalifi«d, in his 
Hixteenth y>-ar, ti> act oa ohepherd at W'il- 
laiislee. 1 !•■ now added to hi* scanty haow- 
ledge an ttc«jiiiiintaivne with Allaa RasMT's 


r L- i - 

lace,' in Hiitl- : - :' ■ - :-.~~--^ 

rfgivttinz :Li- :'-•:- v-r- i- - z 

the.'tanzi vf i* =.i-r.-u >._.::. 

From 1T>-' r !:».•. :i. -iu t^- 

Mr. Laidlfi-x :: L-i, ^_i l-. . ■ 

Bum. YarroT. li". .:!£»•- ■ =.;._:- 

mor's s^nu. -if ■«"- — ■■ — li — i- 

lK«am<: Sc'-v't fr -i i li : - ^- l r : 

FlittinV II -ITS :'. ::^ i :• • l- ^- - 

lat«lhL-:c"*lIi*Ti>. -.". '."-- —-■' 

'ii> younz rVl-i ir t l- i-T-.— - ^ 

began Uf i/T k^"«T. l- ■..- y - 

made son^. is 1- ri" ■ ^ i— - .1 ." 

* for the ]±s^^ - - :i* •- ■ - —• 

lie rir*: i»-x:ir I'-.-:.--..-- 1 

g<)ne to r-rri:l£lli.-. ■=.-:. -.:.—;. 

tain«d a li-riiu: 1—: r — -i -' • : 

In irSW L-r b^i,.-!.-. V- — -t- : 

■write L:« vrr'-ri. ;..- -; j'.. "."._: 

merely intr^iu;— i _.=. "'. -».-,- 

soon afer IV.irr.-'i Iri^i. — ■ ..i" 
iwr • a Lai: daft rur.. ,■ •:* - ■■ - 

recite "Ti2: -■" "•' l- : --ti 

thi-rev::'rT:L*t:lej»>:iTL- ■- 

poet that ere.- ~i.: i- — . t _ > 

nevrr 1^ t'.lr<:. l.r ; z-.-.'^r. ■ 

he mi;;Lt br-:?'. z:- I» ..-z.-'- - _■ ■> 

tijh sinzer. H'.- trr. :t ■•-! 

spiri'ed j»:r;-.-..- j. :.j •;• :.;_': !•: r.i-..i. ■„ 

»"ritten m retV.-'-ii?-: •: Niv '.-r 1 - ;..- - - • -'iw':rlT;..-; .li.-Lr- 'i. t«-- ■■-- 

in I'OO. 

In this year. :--;-; • ;•. .. t-i--. u.--- 
lia?-, Hojj «-:-'.e; i* K-t^.x. t --. • - l.-. 
piir>:nt-i, to TUj-rrr-'ri 1 "i.-.r 'Xt-z. . . .-.ii- ■ ■. - 
'hr-e rensa:n;::;v-:ir5 ■-■:■:•.■: '.-t-rf- Iz I- . 
wLii«- in Kdinfcjr.'h •k.-'l -'. ce. :.- rt.-:.~ 

coH-rctv'l hi* yr-'.:\. }>->■ :'■" •■.-■i- — 

«nd tl.'-.v w-re .-.i;;;.!;. ;. •..-,■-. i- ■■•.. •-.•■. 

J*ast'jrai», V'^m-. >.:..■'-. .. ..' I- 1t«>_ -.t 

made the acfj 'lain" 4r.r : •^•.•v. •^;.- t j.. -, 

nue*t of furLer ri-.'-hi - :'■ r 1 - •;<..•>• 

JlinstreUvj'of -.t;.;;:. TT.- -■..:;;-. I... •;■:_ 

tieared. horh II-c:: tr.d ;. • - •:.-.• •.::..■■'. 

Iiim with ballads, rL- /.i li .- "v..-.i- _ .'.- :.- 

ably jealoiLs oflier riiV*. ?•■• .•-, ■.- •; ; : • •.■;'•— - "■ - 

ing to produce orifirj". :.-.i>Ki. 1:. -..- '.i 

style. When tLrln-e :' •;.- fi.-rr. -z:..'ei 

in 1 J«0.3, IIojiz arr!:ni-r<i •xj-.L a .•-..•:_•;.>. '..-i.-.i' 

farmer to settle <'n a -L«-j fir::. ;i 
Harris, writinzintLe pro-j*-:.:- }„- •F-i.r-i^r.'. 

to P'ttrick.* The fiirm. Low-v-r. • .rr.--: -. .: 
to Ije a dL-patedppvpery.and po-Sr--; n vr^- 
refused. Ilocrg, who lo-t much by •":.;*. r.n.:.?- 
action. went to MitcheU'.ack-. S':*}.-Jul>r. a= 
a >heph>Td. and fir-t m-.-* .Vila.T (' ;r.n:ni'- there. In W.•7f■.,n-Tab^•.:!.^'J'i2L^•'",•t■- 
p>'ld offices, piibli'lied f<-r 1.:- aci-cel- 
lan<viu-< prjem^ ( the ori;rinisl!ii(!> -u;.'v"r'i 
by f<cfitt's iiue'tj und-r the titlv vf • TL- 

—i.:r • I " - V 

M r 

'- y ■ ■ - -^ ''.-~- • ••■''- • ■ 

.■ r-^.;.:.-^.-:.■• .r /.^M .rr»- . 
■..-.-r... .■:■.'-. v. -.v^:: ir; Kr.;:- 

.'. •■ .T-? ;/..•.-•': •* ".- "i.-r j»-' '^;i 
•.--T f.-.-:. ..\ *.-.'?::». I--.'. ;„'._■ ..Irr. niv.'.ry and 
'Z.-'-r' '.'.T.'.z.,: :.;=■. ..'; I/'-r.: :;. In l";!."! h- 

p .L. •..•"- ..-r J ..*...—" ■ l.."^ . .11. 'i'.'^.fc ..•r'l 

t- *.:.- t.T-' ■ :' a — r— • rf • Ml-iruaiiaTr Ni^i.T. 
LT-.a;-' I whi'ii :.e n->t encouraje*! to 
cr.v:. ;'-'.&n] >. i »;';!.>r>«!i-'i'Ma'!oC'f th.: 
M •'.r.' IX yr-m in ^^;••:.i--r!an -t:tnza. emlyly- 
in; a ilT.'.der nami! ! v-, but of tii:'; J-.-vrip* iv.* 
■ i iajj- V, wr:"-n t-.v-. y..-:tr> U-f'>n.- a' Kinnainl 
H'^u-e on th- Tiiv. I'-rth>hir>-. Neith>'rpn>- 
diice*! much m'>n'-y : I lo.'s mi.-ditate<l a n-tum 
to fannin.-, and in i:i ingenious and charac- 

11 :i 




iij>i)n which he riiiijr his bt'U with such 
violence that he broke it, and expired about 
two hours afterwards in the arms of Mrs. 
Mary Lewis, who was called upon his being 
taken suddenly ill.' He was buried inChi*- 
wick churchyard, where, in 1771, a monu- 
ment was erected to him bvhis friends, with 
an epitaph by Garriek as follows : 

Farewi'l, great Puinlev of MAnkind ! 

Who rfiich'd the noblest point of Art, 
Whose pictnr'd Morals charm the Mind, 

And through the Eye correct tha Heart. 

If Genius fir<> thee, Reader, stay : 
If Nature touch thie, drop a tear; 

If neither move thee, turn away. 

For Hogarth's lionourd dust lies hero. 

A variation of this by Dr. Johnson is some- 
times quoted as if it had been a rival attempt : 

The Hand of Art hero torpid lies 

That traec'l llii' essential form of Grace : 

Hero Death lius elu.sed the CHiioits eyes 
That saw the nianiiers ia the face. 

That it was not a ri\al attempt is clear I'njm 
a letter from Joluison to uarrick, dated 
l"i Uec. 1771, and printed in t'roker's ' Bos- 
well,' 1800, p. 'J'2'). Johnson's ((ualraiu was 
only a sugfrested emendation of the first form 
of < i arrick's verses. 

Uy his will, dated 1<> Aug. 17iU, ITogarth 
left all his properly, wliicli consisted mainly 
of his eujrravcd plates, to his wife. She con- 
linuedto reside when in luwn at the (iolden 
]Iead with the above-named Mary Lewis, 
and to sell her husband's prints. IJichard 
LivesJiy, the p(U'trait-painter and engraver, 
was one of her lodgers there. Cheesman, the 
engraver, was another, and the Scotch artist, 
Alexander Kunciman [q. v.] When the sale 
of the prints tiecliiieci, as, notwithstandinjr 
that the copyriglu hud been secured to her 
jiersonally for twenty yi'ars by spi'cial act of 
parliament, it gradually did, lier failing in- 
come was assisted by a pi-nsion of 40/. from 
the Uoyal Academy. Old inhabitants of 
Chiswick long n>membered the once hand- 
some Jane Thornhill, truusformedby advanc- 
ing years into a stately and venerable lady, 
dn-ssed in a silk sacque, raised headdress, and 
black calash, whom a faithful mid eijually 
ancient man-servant wheeh-d regularly in her 
Bath-chair to Chiswick t'liunh. Slie <lied 
13 Nov. 1 7.:*!), being then eight v years of age, 
uud was buried by lier husband's side. There 
are si-veral portraits of her. One by llogartli, 
talcii when she was alioiit tivtvand-tbirty, 
wii~ exhibited by Mr. 11, B. Mildmay at the 
<in'svenor(ialIery in thesummerof 1888. A 
huliorhcr hair is preserved in the manuscripts 
depiirtui-nt if the British Museum. Mary 
Ltj" •' lu.-in, to whom she left her pro- 

perty, shortly afterwards, iu consideration of 
a life-annuity of 2o0/., transferred her right 
in the plates to Alderman Boydell. 

Of Hogarth's two houses, that in Leicester 
Fields, as already stated, now no longer 
exists; but it was inhabited after Mrs. Ho- 
garth's death by the Pole, Thaddeus Ko- 
sciusko, and by Byron's friend, the Countess 
Guiccioli {Memorable Limdon Hmmei, 1890, 
p. 3). The little red-brick ' country box by 
the Thames,' much altered for the worse as 
to its environment, still stands in the lane 
leading from the Duke's Avenue towards f'his- 
wick Church. One of tlie post-Hogartliian 
tenants was the Uov. H. F. Cary [q. \.\, tha 
translator of l)ant«, who between l,sl-i and 
1826 held the curacy of Chiswick. A later 
resident was a transpontine actor, known 
popularly as ' Brayvo ' Hicks. An old mul- 
berrj--tree,the fruit of which was formerlythe 
occasion of an annual festival to the children 
of the nfiglibourhood, still stands in the once 
well-ordired and nightingale-haunted garden, 
but of the filbert avenue, where the painter 
was wont to play nine-nins, there is no dis- 
ceniiblo sigii. The •mtbuildings at the end 
of the garden have long been pulli-d down, 
and two quaint little tombstones to a dog 
and bullfinch, the latter of which was said 
to have been scratched by Hogarth himself, 
only exist now in the sketch made of them, 
circa 1848, by Mr. F, "NV. Fairholt for Mrs. 
S. C. Hall's ' Pilgrimages to English Shrines.' 
One of the upper rooms of the house, con- 
spicuous by its overhanj^ing bay-window, ig 
conject ured to be t hat represented in • Picquet, 
or Virtue in Danger.' In this case, its size in 
the pi(!ture must Inconsiderably exaggerated. 
It is matter for congratulation that this in- 
teresting ridic has recently (1890) been pur- 
chased by Mr. .Vll'red 1 )awson, an old resident 
in Chiswick, who proposes to reston/ and pre- 
serve it as a relic of the painter. Meanwhile 
various sketches of the house and tomb are 
iu existence, e.g. in the ' Pictorial World,* 
L'6Sept.l874,'Grnphic,' UNov. lH74,'Muga- 
zinc of Art,' December 1882 (two admirable 
sketches by P'rauk Murray), and 'Century 
Magazine,' June ISSti. A sketch bv Mr. 
Charli'S J. Staniland in the ' lUustrateil Lon- 
don News' for 18 Oct. 1873 shows the garden 
as it was during -Mr. Ilick.s's tenancy and 
before it had been subjected to the (juestion- 
uble 'improvements' of its latest pro])rietors. 
There is also an excellent representation of 
the mulberry-tree by Mr. C. Graham in 
' Harjier's Magazine' for .\ugu8t 1888. In 
1856 the tomb was repaired by an enthusi- 
astic luunesake of the painter, William Ho- 
garth of Abenh'en, and of late years it has 
again been cleaned and renovatecl u])on the 




occdaion of the restoration and eulurgcment 
of Chiswick Church. 

The chief of the portraits of William Ho- 
garth 19 that by himself in the National 
Gttllerv, for which it was piirchusiKl in 18-4 
^•ith tlie Angerstein collection. He painted 
it in 1745, and, a^ olrpody stated, engraved 
it four years later. It wua aj^aiu engraved 
by B. Smith on 4 June 17!>5. Angerstein 
bou^jht it at Mrs. Hogarth's death. It was 
' an old plote'of this picture which Hogarth 
iijse<l in I /iW for the caricature of 'The llruiser' 
( Churchill >. A Bmall version of this por- 
trait was exhibited by Mr. John Leighton, 
F.S.A., Ht the English Humourists' E.\hlbi- 
tion,18y9. Anotherportrait by t lie artist him- 
strlf, which also once belonged to his widow, 
Ls now in the National Portrait Gallery. Ho- 
(farth engTave<l it (in part) in 1758, retouching 
it in 1 7H4. He also appears with (larrick in 
Mr. Addington's picture of ' Garrick in the 
(ineen Hoom,' which whs exhibited at the Old 
Ma8ti>n) in 1880. Otherlikeneitsesore the head 
in A hat from the ' Gate of ( 'alais ; ' the ova! 
head begun by Weltdon and finished by Ho- 
garth ; the head in a tie-wig preKxed to vol. i. 
of Samuel Ireland's 'Graphic lUustnitionM;' 
and the woodcut with a pipe in Walpolo's 
•Anecdotes' (ed. Major). In the National 
Portrait Gallery tlien< in a bust in terra-cotta 
by Roubiliac. Ilogarlh also painted portraits 
of his sisters Mary and .\nn (which in 1879 
were in the possession of Mr. R. C. Nichols, 
the son of Mr. J. B. Nichols, Hogarth's com- 
mentator of 183;{); of Sir Jame.* Thorahill, 
his wife, and their son John; of Mary Lewis, 
and of his six servants. Besides these theri? 
is a portrait in the National Gallery of Mary 
H<jgarth, dated 1716. When she died is not 
known, although she preceded her brf)ther ; 
but her sister Ann survived until 13 Aug. 
1 77 1 , when she wos buried in 1 logarl h's grave 
•t Cbiswick. 

It was claimed for Hogorth, in Johnson's 
variation upon Garrick. that he saw the man- 
ners in the fiice, and bi.s own iiortrait is the 
index of his character. The brisk, blue-eyed, 
manly, intelligent, and somewhat combotive 
head with the scar over the right eye, which 
looks init from the canvas in the National 
(Tollery, seems to accord completely with 
his verbal likeness as it has lieen handed 
down to us. Hh was, it is eo-sy to believe, 

a »'"Tllyi ""'^["'ke", [inrigatjjJTyJj^int" Jiij^- 

nacious little man who, na one is glad to 
(Whk, om-e pumtSelled a fellow soundly for 
maltreating the beautiful drummeress whom 
he drew in ' Southwark Fair.' As a com- 
tianion he was witty and genial, and to those 
lie carvtl for, thoroughly iuithful and gene- 
rous. He liked good clothes, gix)d living. 

good order in his household, and he was proud 
of the rewards of indust ry and respectability . 
As a master he wos exacting in his deman(is, 
but punctual in his payments ; as a servant 
he did a full day's work, aiul insisted upon 
his wage. His prejudices, like those of must 
self-educated mi'U, were strong, and he fought 
doggedly in di'fi'iiri* of tlinm without any 
attempt to conciliate his adversary. That he 
was not proof against flattery seems to have 
been true. In his own walk he had succeeded 
by a course of training which would have 
failed with nineteen men out of twenty, and 
he consiHiueiilly underrated the teaching of 
all academies whatsoever. With the art 
patronage and connoisseurship of bis day he 
was hopeles-sly at war; he saw in it only the 
fostering of foreign rubbish at the expense of 
native merit. But a great deal that lias been 
said on the subject of his attitude to the con- 
tinental schools of painting bus been mani- 
festly exaggerated, anil in any circumstances 
something must be alli)weJ for the warmth of 
controversy. .\n artist of Hogarth's parts 
could not be as insensible to the merits of the 
great masters as some have pretended. Yet it 
may well be conceived that such adownright 
and quick-tongued disputant, in his impa- 
tience of the parrot raptures of pretentious 
and incompetent persoiis, might easily come 
to utter ' blasphemous expressions asiainst the 
divinity even of lla])lmel Urbino, Correggio, 
and Michael Angelo.' His true attitude to- 
wards them is disclosed in his words to Mrs, 
I'iozzi. He WHS talking to her, late in life, 
of Dr. Johnson, whose conversation, he said, 
was to that of other men as Titian's painting 
compared to Hudson's; 'but don't you tell 
people now, that I say so,' continued he, 'for 
the connoi.sseurs and I arc at war, you know ; 
and I hate tAem, they think I hate 
Titian, and let them !' ( Aiimlotf.i of Samuel 
JohntoH, LL.D., ed. I82t), pp. irU-o). 

Numerous other stories might be cited in 
illustration of this outline of Hogarth's cha- 
I raeter. Side by side with his general hatred 
of the foreigner was his particular hatred of 
the French, whom be never fails to ridicule 
in his works. ' Calais (tate' indeed owed its 
origin to a misadventure which bis undis- 
guised (iallomauia brought u]ion him. In 
174!>, after thu peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, he 
paid a brief visit to France with Ilayman, 
Cheere, the setilptcir, and some other friends. 
He did not set out prepared to admire, and 
he does not seem to have m the concealed 
■ the contempt he felt for the ' farcical pomp 
of war,' the ' pompous mrnde of religion,' and 
' the much bustle with very little business ' 
which he discovered about him. His frankly 
, expressed opinions speedily attract e<l atten- 




tion.and when, at last, he was found sketchinp 
the Knglish arms upon the famous ohl gate of 
Calais ( now no lonjrer standiuf;), he wa* at 
once taken before the commandant for a spy, 
confined closely in his Imlgings, and finally 
esoorted, with scant ceremony, on shipboard 
for Encfland. He revenged himself upon his 
return for this ignominious treatment by the 
picture of the ' Gate of Calais,' in which the 
gluttonous friars, the leathern-faced fish- 
women, and the ' lean, ragged, and tawdry 
soldiery * were pilloried to his heart's content. 
Another well-woni anecdote may be quoted 
in illustration of his sturdy independence of 
character. l'i>on one occasion he painted a 
deformed nobleman, and drew his likenes.^ 
faithfully. His sitter, who had anticipated 
flattery, "declined to accept it. Thereupon 
Hogarth announced that if it were not re- 
moved within three days, it would, with 
certain uncomplimentary appendages, be dis- 
posed of to Mr. Hare, ' the famous wild-beast 
man,' a hint which at once brought about a 
settlement of his claim ( Genuine Work*. 1808, 
i. 'la). A third story related by Nichols 
pleasantly exemplifies that partlonable vanity 
which was almost a natural cons<xjuence of 
his self-reliant nature. ' Hogarth,' says the 
narrator, ' being at dinner wit h the great Che- 
selden, and some other company, was told 
that Mr. John Freke, surgeon of St. Darthiv 
lomew's Hospital, a few evenings before, nt 
Dick's Cotfee-house.had asserted that (Jreene 
was as eminent in composition as Handel. 
''That fellow Freke," replied Hogarth, "is 
always shooting his bolt absurdly one woy 
or another ! llandel is a giant in music ; 
Greene only a light Florimel kind of a com- 
poser." "Ay," says our artist's informant, 
" but at the same time Mr. Frekedeclared you 
were as good a portrait-painter as Vandyck." 
" There he wa.s in the right," adds Hogarth, 
'• and so I am, give me my time, imd let nie 
choose my subject"' (i"6. i. i;t7). He was 
often extremely absent-minded. Once, when 
lie had gone to call uj)on tlie lord mayor, 
Heckford, in the fine coach which he set up 
in his later years, and for which Cation, the 
coach painter, designed the emblematical 
crest engraved by Livesay in 1782, he forgot 
all about it on leaving the house, and to the 
amazement of his wife arrived at home on 
foot, and drenchetl to the skin (ib. i. 21<i-l"). 
The list of Hogarthiana might easily be 
extended. 'NVith regard to some of the well- 
known stories.itwill bowelltocross-queslion 
their sources rather narrowly. Not a few 
of those which have a more than ordinarily 
malicious turn emanate from George Steevens, 
who, OS Allan Cunningham says, ' seems to 
have taken pleasure in mingling his own gall 

I with the milk of his coadjutor's narrative.' 
Intheeditionof ISCW-l? theportions respec- 
tively supplied by the two commentators are 
distinguished, and it is manifest that all the 
more unfriendly comments and records belong 

, not t" Nichols, but to Steevens. The un- 
manly and indefensible attack of the latter 
(liioff. Anerilijtrx, 178o, pp. 113-14) upon 
Mary Lewis, whose only fault appears to 
have been her loyalty to her uncle's memory, 
is almost sutlicient to disqualify him as a 
chronicler. Another critic who has been 
unduly harsh to certain aspects of Hogarth's 
character is Horace Waliwle. From a clever 
letter to George Montagu, dated 5 May 1761, 
it is clear that, however h*- may have appre- 
ciatetl his powers as a pictorial satirist, vVal- 
))«le ranked him as a man with the rest of 
t hose outsidersof fashion, the Fieldings, Gold- 
smiths, Johnsons, &c., whose misfortune it 
was to be bom beyond the pale of his own 
patrician circle, and that, even in the domain 
of art, he resented his claim to be a colourist, 
a portrait-painter, or a critic. 

With respect to the last-named qualification 
— as fur ut least as it is exemplified by ' The 
Analysis ' — the consensus of modem opinion 
would proWbly be in accord with Walpole. 
'The Analysis' was the tour tie foree of a 
clever artist, whose gifts, as he himself ad- 

1 mitted, lay more with the pencil than the 
pen. But when Dr. Morell and others, echo- 
ing Walpole and ' the picture dealers, pic- 
turecleaners, picture-frame makers, and other 
connoisseurs ' — to use Hogarth's scornful clas- 
sification — declared that ' colouring was not 
his forte,' they did him imperfect justice. 
Sincethe first exhibitionofhiscoUected works 
in oil at the Uritish Institution in 1^^14, his 
reputation as a mere layer of colours has bee u 
steadily increasing, and the reaction thus ini- 
tiated has been enforced of late years by the 
appearance, in suceciisive exhibitions at the 
Academy and elsewhere, of numerous por- 
traits and pictures long burie<l in ]>ri vate col- 
lections. It is now admitted that his merita 
as a painter are unquestionable, that his tints 
are pure and harmonious, his composition 
pj'rspicuous, and his manner, without being 
minute or finely finished, singularly dexterous 
and direct. Even the much-abused ' Sigis- 
munda' is now held at present to be a far 
better work than would ever be suspected 
from the gross obloquy to wliich, owmg to 
the circumstances of its production, it was 
exposed during the artist's lifetime. If it 
cannot lie ranked (as he fimdly hoped) with 
Correggio, it must at least be concedfii that 
its scheme of colour is .sound and its technical 
skill by no means contemptible. 

As to his engravings they ore so well 




IcnowD — »o much better known even now than 
Ijis piiintln^ — that it sounds paradoxical to 
Kiiy thot liis work willi the burin is less rv- 
tiiurkalile tlinu are hi?' etl'orts with the brush. 
And vet this is in reality a nutural cousi.'- 
i^uence of his peculiar i|uulitie3. His down- 
right manner, his detestation of the indirect 
and the redundant, his ver\- enerjrj" and vi- 
tality, uU di8<|unlille<l him from comjwtinjf 
with the slow proficiency of such skilled 
craftsmen as ( iritrnion and Hasire. So much, 
indeed, he himself confesses. IVauty and ele- 
fpince of execution, he plainly jfives us to 
uuderstnnd, demanded fur more patience than 
he fell dispo-sed to exercise, and he regarded 
the makin!; of merely fine line.? • u.s a barren 
and miprofitable study.' 'The fact is,' be 
dei'lures, ' that the passions may bo more 
forcibly exprest by a stronp, bold stroke than 
by the must delicate enjiraviniz. To expres.^- 
ing them as 1 felt them, I have paid the 
utmost ottention, and as they were addressed 
to hard Af/zr/ii, have rather preferred leavinjjf 
them hard, ond giving the efl'ect, bj' a quick 
touch, to rendering them languid and feeble 
by fine strokes and soft engraving, which 
require more care and practice than can often 
be attained, except by a man of a very niiiet 
turn of mind' ( Joiix iKEtASD, iii. Soo). rhis 
is a transparent apology for what he knew to 
be the weaker side of his work, its lack of 
finish and haste of execution, while at the 
same time it invites attention to what were 
undoubtedly itK special merits — its spirit, its 
vijguur, its intelligibility. And it must not 
be forgotten that his print.* have one inalien- 
abl«< .-uhantage — they are autog^phs. ilo- 
jmrth engraved by Hogarth must alwoys 
chiiin precedence over Hogarth engraved by 
any one el»e. 

But it is neither by his achievements as 
an engraver nor his merits as a painter that 
h«» r>^tains his uniijue position among English 
artist.*. It is as a pictorial chmniclBr of life 
ond manners, as a and humourist on 
canvas, that he makes his main demand upon 
jKMterity. His skill in seizing u)ion the ridi- 
culous and the grotesque in life was only 
equalled by his p<jwer of rendering the tragic 
and the terrible. And it was not only given 
to him to see unerringly ami to select unfttl- 
terinply, but he added to this a sj>eciul gift of 
narrative by action, which, looking to the fact 
that he has had so few worthy rivals, must 
of nec*>8sity be rare. Other ortlsts have suc- 
c<W(l«<d in single scenes of humorous genre, or 
in depicting isolatwl effects of horror and 
namion, but none, like Hogarth, has coni- 
bilu-d both with such signal ability, and 
carried them from one scene to another with 
Bttclt ftuprv'me dexterity as this painter, whom 

Walpole felicitously styles' a writerof comedy 
with a pencil.' '.V Iliirlot's Progress,' 'A. 
Rake's I'rogrefis,' the ' .Marriage I'l-lu-Mode,' 
the 'Good and Idle Apprentices," are picture- 
dramas, as skilful in construction and as per- 
fect in develiipment us iiny play that was ever 
played. And if they ore admiruble in plot 
and movement, they are equally irreproach- 
able in scene and costume. There is no actor 
on his stage, either splendid or squalid, but 
■ wears his fitting huhif ns he lived when 
Hogarth lived ; there is no background, either 
of Cellar or natnji, which hnd not its exact pro- 
totype in (Georgian Engliiiid. .Moreover, much 
that on the boards of a theatre would be ex- 
pressed by gesture or byplay is conveyed 
or suggested in Hogarth's compositions by 
the wonderful eloquence of detail and sig- 
nificance of accessory which make his work 
nil incxlinnstible u field of fresh discoveries. 
The chairs and tables, I he mu.aks and fans, 
the swords and cudgels, have all their arti- 
culate message in the story; there is a s^/rmon 
in n dial, n moral in n cobweb, u text in a 
paper of tobacco. This it is that makes so 
true the admirable utterance of his nio.-.t sym- 
pnthftic critic, Charles Lnuib. ' Hogarth's 
graphic representations,' he says, ' are indeed 
Ixioks; they have the teeming fruitful sugges- 
tive meaning of uorrlit. Other prints we look 
at, his prints we read.' Nor are his works less 
notable for that abounding energy of move- 
ment uponwhich Hazlitt luysstress. 'Kvety- 
thing in his I Hogarth's] ])iclures has life and 
motion in it. Not oidy does the of 
the scene never stand still, but every feature 
and muscle is put into full play: the exact 
feeling of the moment is brought out, and 
carried to its utmost height, and then in- 
stantly seized and stanijied on the tunvtts for 
ever. . . . Besides the excellence of each in- 
dividual face, the reflection of the expression 
from fuce to face, the contrast and struggle 
of particular motives and feelings in the dif- 
ferent actors in the scene, as of anger, con- 
tempt, laughter, compassion, are conveyed in 
the hap])ieBt and most lively manner. . . . 
He gives the extremes of character and ex- 
pression, but hegives them with j>i>rfect truth 
and accuracy.' It only remains to add that 
Hogarth's intention, like that of many of 
his contemporaries, was genuinely didactic. 
'Amidst all his pleasantry,' says Waljwle, 
'he observes the true end of comedy — re- 
formation: there is always a moral to his 
pictures.' It is jiossible that the moral was 
sometimes trite and obvious — ' written in 
rather too large letters after the fable,' as 
Thackeray says — but then; can be no doubt 
that it was sincere. 

Fortunately for Uognrth's admirers, few, if 



mrff at hi* tann Cuwmu work* Wre ba»A 
dbor wajr oat of hi* auive ooaanr. The 
Fntoo, 'Tke Shnair GbI,' a cnayJe of eon- 
«MMtic»-«Mea^ aad hii portimh of hiaaelf 
KAiS liu dty BKB ia the Xatioaal Chdlenr. 
!«Mtfc of h»Mlf 'puaiinff the 
' iM aad o«e of kk ilc«icbe« of Lotd 
Lovwt ■!* in the Xatiooal Port nit OaDerf. 
At the Sntae 3f lueam are ' A IUke'> Prr>- 
flVM ' (Sil the * KlHctinrn ' detiei ; at the 
roinvllin;! Ilnspital the ' March to Finchler,' 
< Mone* hroogfat to I'harsoh'i Daus^htfr,' and 
'Captain Cmm.' The Sociirtr of Linroln'n 
laapoMMMs 'Paiil before Felix:' Si. Bai^ 
tholoBew'i Iloapilal. ' The P<x>l of Bethesda,' 
aad ' The Ciood Hamariun.' At the Koyal 
SoeSctjr ia the portrait of .Martin Folkes: at 
the charch of St. M«rlin'»-in-the-Field* that 
of Jamen fiibb«; at thi- IloyalC'ollep'iif .Sur- 
fCnim», \\iA\ of Sir ('. Hawkina. To tlie Fifz- 
willinto MniM.-uin si <'ambridp<* belonjp* ' l^r. 
and MiJia Amol'l of .\ -hby Lodpe.' ( Hh^r ei- 
MDple* of varied value ari.' scattered in private 
etdteetionii. Her in«j>'Sfy the queen ha* 'f Jar- 
rick awl his Wife' and ' A View of the Mall ; ' 
tlie Duke of Weistminfter, ' The Diitressed 
Poet' and ' Tlie Boy with a Kite ;' the Duke 
of Newcastle, 'Southwark Fair;' the Earl of 
Wemynn, Sonne 2 in ' A Ilarlot'i* Pro;rre(>s ' 
(the rett havin); been burnt at Fonthill in 
17W»); th» Earl of Fi-vershnm, '(Jarrick 05 
IJichar-1 III ;• the P:arl of Curli^le, ' The Com- 
mittee of the IIouKH iif Common* examining 
Ilnmbriilge ; ' while the Duke of Leedii. Mr. 
John Murmy, iind .Mr. Louis Ilulh have each 
examples of ihf ' Kcyjfar'n Opera.' Mr. Huth 
b1/»o p<jw>e?"M<M ' Th>' Lady's Last Stake.' Be- 
nidi'11 thi'He, Mr. I{. Itiinkinhas'Thc Sleeping 
C<Migri'gittioii ;' Loril Lansdowne, SirCharle.t 
Tnnimiif, ami Mr. !•'. H. llen.ion, portraits of 
' IVg Wotfinpton ;' and Lady A.>ihDurton, 'A 
View in St. Jiimo.".".H I'nrk.' The catalogues 
of the (irosvenor Gallery for 1888 and 1889 
and the MUccsulve catalogues of the winter 
e.xliibilionn at the Hoyal Academy contain 
rt'corrl of Beveral other works which are, 
rightly 'ir wrongly, attributed to Jlogarth. 
It may be added that the • .Vpprentice' aeries, 
the ' Four Stages of Cruelty,' ' France' and 
' England,' iind ' Deer Street ' and 'Gin Lane' 
do not nppi'ar to have been painted, and that 
llieplcl lire of ' Thc^ Strolling Actresses dress- 
ing m 11 Uiini' was burnt at Littleton in 18~4. 
llogiirtb's ]irints, now grown somevvlmt 
tof) robuHt in character for the virtuosi of 
to-day, Inunil uiiinv collectors iti the century 
vsliich rnllovvi'il bis <leiilli. The variations 
which from time to time hn miide in the 
plati's rr'iidcrlbi' po»,si?ssion of certain '.■itfttcs* 
of ilii'tii 110 object of considerable solicitude 


lo thioae co tut J. Of tWse pecBGantis* 
few otij eea ho hete ipi»ifc.ii, aad thaae 
•ol^ aa fllMtratinaa. For i laMniii. ens 
tmpwMiot at the ' Man^ la FincUeT' de- 
mea iuaataace fnna the &el thait it was bj 
•■ ovenwht dated o« a 'Saadar' (3D Dw. 
' 17S0), while a hwbler Talw attadtn toa 
{ later com which has bat a siaitle « in the 
word *Pruasia.* Tie eaiiieK atM« of the 
' Dtitnat Pbet' (1736) hw a priat of • Fbpe 
t hrashing Cnrll ' in the baeknoaad,fcr whidi 
in 17^ was substituted a -3Cap of the Gold 
Mine; of Pern.' Superior interw* attaches 
to ihcKie copies of plate iii. of the ' Four Time* 
of the Day I Evening ^,' in whidi the wotnaa's 
face ii printed in red, and the dyer*s hands 
in blue, while in the most cothodox 'Beer 
Street' the blacksmith flonxishes a Frrocb- 
man instesd of a leg of mntton. In 'Gin 
Line's white-faced baby is the desirable ele- 
ment: in the ' Enrajgred Musician' a white 
hor^e ; in the •Strolling .\ctresses' it is Flora 
tallowing her hair when the feathers are 
ready arranged in it. In the 'Election' 
the ' Apprentice' series, the • Marriage 
, Mode,' 'A Rake's Progress,' Sic, there are al«o 
numerous differences which cannot in this 
place be enumerated. Full information with 
regard to them will, however, be found in 
the works of the Nicholses, elder and junior ; 
in Stepliens's ' Catalogue of Satirical Print* 
in the British Museum,' and in the sale cata- 
logues of Horace Walpolc, tiulston, George 
Baker, H. P. Standly, the Irelands, and 
others. It may be added that the original 
prices of the prints as sold by Mrs. Ho- 
garth at the Golden Head were extremely 
moderate. From a list given by John Xichols 
it appears that the eight plates of ' \ Itake's 
Priigress' could be bought for '21. 2<. This 
was the h'lghest amount, the 'Mamage &-la- 
.Mode' being 1/. 11». «-/., 'A Harlot's Pro- 
gress,' 1/. 1«., the '.Apprentices,' Via., and 
the ' March to Finchley,' \(U. Vtd. The rest 
varied from 7«.< lj>.,Bnd the entire collec- 
tion was to be obtnini'd bound up for thirteen 
guineas. whiim,a.«already5tated, 
the plates wore transferred by Marv Lewis, 
reissued them in 17iW j 1 10 plates); "Baldwin 
and Cradcxik in IHl'1' fl:.'0 plates). In the 
latter issue the original coppers had lieen re- 
]inircd and retouched by James Heath, asso- 
ciate engraver, R..\. There is a large and 
varied Collection of Hogarth's engrariugs in 
the print room of the Museum, the 
basis of which was the collection of Mr. 
William Packer of lUoomsbury, who sold it 
til tlie trustees before his death in 18i8. The 
valuable collection of fJeorge Steevons is at 
Fdbrigge Hall, near Cromer, in Norfolk. It 
was left by Steevens at his death in 1800 to 


^^PSIO ). A list lit Mime of the more notable col- 
lt>ctori "f Ilognrfh's works is given in J. B. 
Nichob's 'Anecdotes,' 1S33, pp. 407-9. In 
the manii^icripts department of the British 
Museum ure port ions of the mnnuscript of the 
* Analysis ' and of the ' Hiogritpbical Anec- 
dotes ' printe<l by John Ireland. 

[The earliest Hogarth commentatOT was the 
Swiw oiianiellcr, Jean Bouquet, \>bo wrots, at 
Ho^rih's request, and to accompany such seta 
of his prints as went abroad, a pamphlet entitled 
I^ttres de Monsieur * * a an de ses Amis k 
I'Hris. pour lui expliquer les Eatampes de Mon- 
sieur llogurth, 1746. Rouqnel, however, only 
explains the two Propreascs, Marriage 4-Ia- Mode, 
and the March to Finchley. Next comes the 
UeT. John Truster, who.He Hogarth Moralised, 
1768, was publi>thed 'with the approbation of 
Jiine Hogarth, Widow of the lato Mr. Hogarth,' 
and who is br»t studied in John Major's editions 
of 1831-41. After Truslur follows Horace Wiil- 
pijle's Anecdotes of Painting, vol. iv. (1771). 
Ten years later John Nichols, the antiquary and 
printer, with the jissistance of George Steevens, 
issued liingrapliical Anecdotes of W. H., and a 
Catalogue nf hi«. Works chronologically arranged, 
with occasional Remarks. This was expanded in 
the second edit. (1782) from 1.56 to 474 pp., and 
n third and further extende<l edition appeared 
in l78o. These Anecdotes formed the basis of 
the Genuine Works of W. H. by Nichols and 
8(«evens, in three vols. 1808-17, vol.iii. of which 
includes reprints of • so-called Cluvis Hogar- 
thiana, 1816, by the Rev. E. Ferrers, and the 
pnise Five Days' Tour, printed by R. Liveany in 
1 7S2. The Genuine Works is the most inipor- 
f the older contributions to Hogarth bio- 
t .ind criticism. Hesides these there is the 
iisT'iui ExpLination of several of Mr. Hogarth's 
Print*. 1785 [by Mr Kelton] : the Hogarth II- 
loBtmted, and the 8upplamunt to Hogarth llltis- 
tl»tcd, of John Ireland, the print-seller, three 
Tok. 1791 -Si theOrapliic Illustrations of Samuel 
Ireland, two vols. 1794-9 ; the Aosfiihrliche Kr- 
kUmng der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche. 1794- 
1 ? ■ ■ ■ ' C. I.ichtrnberg ; the Anecdotes of 
t' 1 William Hogarth, with an eiplana- 

tui. ^.- .iliou of his Works. 1811.1813,1833. 
dMgned to accompany the prints of the engraver, 
Theaus Ca.ik, 18U6 : the Wurks of William Ho- 
nrth. two vols. 1812. by T. Clerk ; the Life in 
ConniiiKhnnrs BrilLoh Painters, 1829 ; the Anec- 
«lot>9 of J. 0. Nichols. 1333 ; the editions of 
Joun. 1830-49; of Trualer and Roberts (with an 
aitaitrablr riK»v I'y James Hannuy), 1861 ; of 
Borae. 1872 ; William Hogarth, l>y G. A. .Snla, 
|«fiH .1,.- Works, published by Bell & Daldy. 
I ' s72, with commentary by Cosmo 

3i iiid the writer of this article; the in- 

valuable Catalogue nf Satirical Prints and Draw- 
iwM in the Uritifh Museum, by F. G. Stephens, 
TnT«. ii-ir, ; and William Hogarth, by the writer 
of this article, in the Great -Artists series (1870). 
VOL. ixrii. 

Among ini-icelluneouB critiques and essays (in 
addition to those meutinnetl in the body of the 
above) may be noted Gilpin's Hake's Progress 
in his Essay on Prints, 2nd edit. 17R8; Charles 
Lamb's priceless paper in the Reflector, No. 3, 
1811 ; Hazlitt's in the Kxiiminer, Nos. 336 and 
338, 1814; Hartley Coleridge's Hogarth, IWwick, 
and Green, Blackwood, xxx. 655 ; Thnckemy's 
famons lecture, 1853; Forgue's "La Caricature 
en Angleterre," Revue Briiannique, xxiv. 201 ; 
Mrs. Oliphant's sketch, Blackwood, cvi. 140; 
Profeswir Colvin's Portfolio, iii. 146; Stephens's 
Hogarth and the Pimlcs, ih. xv. 2; Genevay's 
W. Hogarth, L'Art, 1875; William Hogarth, by 
Feaillet de Conches, L'Artiste, 1882; Fibn's 
■ La Caricature en Angleterre,' Revue des Dcux 
Mondes, 188-5; and vS'ard's English Art, pt. i. 
1887. Besides these, Smith's Nollekens and his 
Times, 1828 ; Pye's Patronage of British Art. 
1845; Brownlow's Hist, of the Foundling, 1847 ; 
Leslie's Handbook for Young Painters, 1855 ; 
Timbs's Anecdote Biography, 1860; Redgrave's 
Cent.of Painters, 1866; Tuylor'sLeicesterSquare, 
1874 ;Wedmore'sMaBterso'f Genre Painting. 1880, 
Waagon, the Art Jouroul, the Magazine of Art, 
and the indices to ^otes and Queries should be 
consulted. It may be lulded that some careful 
copies of Hogarth by F. W. Fairholt in Knight's 
Penny Mag. did much to popularise the artist s 
works. For the indication of some hitherto ne- 
glected advertisements of • A Harlot's Progress ' 
the writer is indebted to Mr. O. A Aitken.] 


18(Mi), the first lioman (.-uthollc bishop of 
Hexham and Newcastle, was born on 
2u March 1786 at Doddiug Green in the 
valley of Kendal, Westmoreland, where his 
family had for centuries possessed landed 
property. lie received his education in the 
college at Crook Hull, Durham, wliich was 
8ubse<|Uently removed to L'shaw, where he 
became a prol'e.s8?r and general prefect. In 
18111 he was afjiointed chaplain at Clifl'e 
Hall, and in 18J1 he was transferred to Dar- 
lington, where he passed the rest of his life, 
llu was vicar-general to Bishops Briggs, 
MoBtyn, and Riddell. In 1848 he was ap- 
pointed vicor-apostolic of the northern dis- 
trict, in Bucceasioa to Dr. Kiddell, and waa 
consecrated bishop of Samosata, in partihiu, 
at Ushawon 24 Aug. When the hierarchy 
was restored by Pius IX, he was translated 
on 29 Sept. 1850 to the newly erected see 
of Ilexhara (afterwards ' Hexham and New- 
castle'), comprising the counties of North- 
umberland, Cumberland, Durham, and West- 
mon-land. lie died at Darl-ngton on 29 Jan. 
1860, and was buried at St. Cuthbert's Col- 
lege, Ushaw. 

[Weekly Register, 3 and 10 Feb. 1886; Times. 
31 Jan. 1866; Brady's Episcopal Succession, 




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<Ueiitle Shepherd' and Blind Ham's-'Wal- 
lace,' in Huiilton of Gilbertfield's version, 
xcgietting that ther were not in prose ur in 
the stanza of the metrical psalm.<. 

From 1790 to 1800 Hogg was shepherd to 
lb. Lai^w of Blackhouae, on the I)<>u£las 
Sum, Yairow, having as companions the far- 
mer's sons, of whom William l^idlavr ^(. r.~ 
became Scott'sfiriendandtheauthorof'IIucv's 
Flittin'.' Ilomfonnd books here that stimu- 
lated Us intelligence, and the intercourse with 
his joang friends was likewise valuable. Hv 
h^an to be known as ' the poeter,' having 
made songs, as he says in his ' Autobio^nraphv-.' 
'fer the lasses to sing' in chorus.' In irk{ 
lie first saw the Perthsliire higblandi, having 
gone to Strathfillan with sheep, and he re- 
tained a lasting impre^ion of their beauty. 
In 1796 he b^n with great difficulty to 
write his verses, liis school truining having 
merely introduced him to larr;e text, and 
aoon after Bums's death, in that year, birr- 
ing ' a half daft man, Jock .Scott by name,' 
recite ' Tarn o' Shanter,' and Vaming frum 
the reciter that the poem was by the ' sweetest 
foet that ever was oom,' wbo?p place would 
never be filled, be conceived it possible that 
he might become Bums's successor as a Scot- ■ 
tish singer. His first printed piece was tb*^ . 
spirited patriotic snng 'Donald M-Iionald.' 
mitten in reference to Napoleon's proj-fc: of 
invasion, and widelypopiim' as soon asprint*rd 
u 1800. 

In this year, owing to Iiis brother's mar- 
riage, Hogg settled at Ettrick, with bis afred 
patents, to superintend their farm duringth>r 
three remaining years of the lease. In 1(>0I , 
vhile in EdinlDur|!h with stock, b>- rashly 
collected his poetical pieces from memory, 
and thevwere roughly printe<l as '.Scottiili 
Fsstorals, Poems, Soiig<. \c.' In l>^2 be 
Bade the acquaintance of Scott, who was in 
qoflst of further materials for his 'Uortler 
Xinstrelsv,' of which two volumes bad ap- 
peared. Both Hogg and bis mother supplied 
him with ballads, the old lady beinjr ju*tifi- 
ibly jealous ofher rich store, aiid 1 lo-zg res^jlv- 
ing to produce original material in tk<; old 
style. When the lease of the farm expired 
in 1803, Hogg arranged with a nei;rhlyiuriiig 
brmer to settle on a large .-beep farm in 
Harris, writing in the prospect his 'Farewell 
to Ettrick.' "The farm, however, turned out 
to be a di«pated property, and possession was 
(cfnaed. Hogg, who lost much by tUistrans- 
•etion, went to MitcheLstack^. Nitbsdale, as 
« shepherd, and first met .Vllan Cunning- 
ham there. In 1807Constabl>-.thrr)ug1iScott's 
good offices, published for him his miscel- 
laneous poems ( the original biillnd- sugge-ited 
by Skott's quest) under the title of 'The 

Mountain Bard.' aci :!it proc^^ds of this an-l 
a treatise on disea.-^- •■ f sLtt-p. p.ibllsh'-d at 
the same time, an: "::n:rd to about •VM., 
which hv strai/hv.vay i'>5t in unsucct-rsful 
f.r Tnin- in l»umfrir»ihir>r. Fitilinz U.> secure 
a commission in tUf militia, rr a po-" in tb- 
excise, Lv rvtumed a di.'icr*lit':d t/ankript to 

Finding himsrlf -hann-<l owing' 'o his mi- 
fort unes, and sminj n> pro'ffrtct of occiji.-:- 
ti>>n in hi« native liisTicr. H-jSZ determin-l 
to try a Uferarj- car^r. and in l~l'.i settled 
in Edinburgh. Herv he received 
help from variou« friends, especially Messr-. 
Grieve JC rjcotr.ha't-r-.'irieve l^inz an Et- 
trick man. and an ardent admirer of H'ly:.'. 
The first lit-rary pr 'ject was the p iblieati-.ii 
in IslOof-The' r'>re5t Minstrel,' a mi-cel- 
lany of which Le himself contrib'i'ed aloii* 
two-thirdi — • everj- rtntins rhyme,' he says, 
' that I had mudr in my youth ' — th>- p-r 
being fiimlsbwl by Thoma- M. Cunningham 
and other frieni*.' The Counte's of iJalkeitb, 
to whom the work was deflicated. prerfrnt«l 
Hogz wirh one hundre'l guinea-, ivliii.-b wai 
all tbe money that came of the venture. In 
Septemljer l'»10 h- starred 'Tiie .Spy,' n 
Weekly critical jounial. which detenorate^l 
after its earlier numl^er'', and expire-l at tli's 
end of a year. IV-'j-^ now joine'l the Forum, 
an Edinburgh d-l>atlng club, to which be 
attribu?e«l a con-iderable impr'.ivemerit in hU 
literary style. .\s memljer of the dub lie 
comjios'rd -everal mu«ical drama- and tra- 
gedies f,f n'> conse<iu»-iice. At Or:-v<-'- -uj;- 
gestion he ■wrote in l^l:} bis most pii;tur<-s>iue 
and imaginative work, ' The Queeii';! Wake,' 
which was at once a tT>-at p^i^tical if not 
financial succes*. In 1-14 the thirl e»lifion 
wa- publisheil by John Blackw'-W. Hogg 
was tliu- brought into contact with Wil • 
son anrl other literary men of Edinburgh, 
throuirh whom he afterwunls forme*! lifelong 
friendship* with Wopl-wortli and Soutli<M. 
He sent a copy of 'The (Queen's Wake' to 
Bvron, who reconiinen'lir'l it to .lohn Murrai . 
jfurrav undertook the publication in Eng- 
I land of that and other of Hogg's works, and 
I from I'll;} corT»-spond«l with the \hh'\ on 
! very friendly termf, lending liim moiii;y ami 
entertainini him in I»nilon. In l^l.'} hi- 
publii-bed tbe'I'ilgrin)^of tbe isiin,* designed 
I as the fir-!t of a series of ' .Midsiiinm<-r Nigh), 
' Dreams' (which he was not enouraged to 
continue i, and in 1 '•l*? bei-(iii<r<l •.Mo'l^iofl ho 
' Moor.' a jioem in Sin'iiserian i-tniiza, eni^Kly- 
ing a slender narrative, but of fine descri j>l i i'« 
fjualitv, written two yeiirsUtforent KinnainI 
' IIous*- on the T«y, Perthshire. Neither ]»ro- 
, diiced much money : IIoggmiflitat«<lan-turn 
' to fanning, and in an ingenious and cliaruc- 
' ' u 2 




tcristic letter endeavoured to enlist the sym- 
pathies of the Duchess of Buecleuch, who 
Iiiid piitronist'd him iig Countess of Dalkeith. 
AfttT the duchess's death, five months luter, 
the duke, explaining' that he was simply iid- 
ministering her bequest, gave Hog^, at tt 
nominal rent, the farm of Eltrive Lake in 

To obtain the funds necessary for settling 
in Eltrive Lake, lloga gu)(f^gted a volume 
of poems by distinguwhed living poets. The 
proposal was unfavourably received by the co- 
adjutors he selected, Scott sharply retorting 
that' every herringshouldliing by its ain head.' 
Thereuiwn Hogg produced clever parodies 
of Wordsworth, Byron, Houthev, Coleridge, 
Wilson, Scott, and himself (Thomas Pringlo 
supplying an epistle in the manner of the 
' Marmion' introductions), publishing them, 
with an ingenious preface, in Iwlti as 'Tlie 
Poetic Mirror, or the Living Bards of (ireat 
Britain.' This work is marked by real_poetic 
power and ingenious imitative faculty, though 
there is an occasional tendency towards bur- 
lesque (specially noticeable in the Words- 
worth parodies), Hogg followed thi.s with 
two volumes of unsuccessful dramatic tales, 
and then Scott, Blackwood, and other friends 
helped him to produce a handsomely illu.s- 
trated edition of ' The t/ueen's Wake,' dedi- 
cated to the Princess Charlotte ( IHIH). To 
increase his reputation Scott sent ({iflford in 
1818 an article on his poems for the ' Quar- 
terly Review,' but it never appeared (Smii.ks, 
Murray, ii. 5). Neverthele.»s Hogg pros- 
pered at Eltrive, hospitably receiving nume- 
rouB visitors attracted bv his character and 
fame, and keeping up fiis connection with 
literary circles in Edinburgli. In 1817 he 
assisted at the inauguration of 'Blackwood's 
Magazine,' eoiitributitig the keniel of the 
fateful Chaldee MS. He claimed his due 
cn*dit in connect ion with this notorious docu- 
ment, though he cautiously admitted that the 
young lions in Edinburgh ' interlarded it 
with n gooii deal of devilry of their own.' 

In 1817 Hogg began his prose tales with 
* The Brownie of Bodsbeck and ol her Tales,' 
in two volumes. This was followed in I8i9 
and 1820 by the two volumes of 'Jacobite 
HelicsofScothind,'containing not onlv poems 
belonging to the period of the Stuart fall, but 
many of Hogg's owti best lyrics, which are to 
this day favourite Jacobite songs. Likewise 
in 18i0 be published 'Winter Evening Tales,' 
drawn from his early experience, and charged 
with vivid reminiscences of border character 
and manners. In this year also he married 
Margaret Phillips, daughter of Mr. Phillips 
of Langbridgemoor, .\niiandale; and he pre- 
sently leased, in addition to Eltrive Lake, 

the neighbouring farm of Slount Benger, 
which proved a disastrous venture. In 183:? 
he published ' The Three Perils of .^IBn : W&t, 
\\'onien, and Witchcraft.' This he followed 
in I82;j witli a work in three volumes, en- 
titled ' The Three Perils of Women,' which, ^^ 
though of inferior quality, brought him 8om»^^| 
money. He produced in 1824 ' Confessions of^H 
a Fanatic,' weighted at first with the repel- 
ling title, ' Confessions of a Justified Sinner.' 
Strong and original, the work never became' 
popular. In 182t5 appeared his somewhat am- 
bitious epic ' Queen Hynde,' which, though 
not without ingenuity and poetic beauty, was 
coldly received, and discouraged Hogg from 
attempting another long ])oem. By this time 
he was the recognised ideal ' Shejiherd ' in 
' Blackwood's Magazine,' alternately pleasj-tl 
and ofii>nded with Wilson's exuberant deli- 

.Meanwhile, being quit of Moimt Benger, 
Hogg settled quietly at Eltrive, manfully 
wrestling with hosts of visitors (with whom 
lie helped to give fame to St. Mary's Lake- 
and the romantic hostel on it kept by Tibbie 
Shiels), and rejoicing in his growing family 
and his literary work. He contributed much 
under his own hand to ' Blackwood,' and lit* 
made a collection of these articles in his- 
' Shepherd's Calendar ' in 1829. Blackwood 
this year also published a collection of about 
140 of his songs, which proved successful, Ii» 

1832 Hogg visited London to arrange for a 
chean reissue of his worlcs. He was ent husias- 
tically received, and wiusentertainedata pub- 
lic dinner, with Sir John Malcolm in thecliair. 
After three months be retunn-d, having en- 
gaged James Cochrane, Pall Mali, as publisher. 
Carlyle, observing these doings, characteris- 
tically remarks {Lfttfrs of T/ioJnao Carlyle, 
ii. 10, ed. Norton) : ' It is suppo.sed to be a 
trick of his Bookstdler (a hungry shark on the 
verge of baiikniptcy), who wishes to attract 
the Cockney population.' When the first 
volume of '.-Vlt rive Tales' hadapjieared Cocli- 
rftni> failed, and the enterprise ended. In 

1833 Hogg was entertained at Peebles to u 
public dinner, presided over by Wilson, when 
he asserted that having long sought fame 
he had found it at last. He still wrote for 
periodicals, and in 1834 published a series of 
' Lay Sermons' and 'The Domestic Manners 
and Privati! Life of Sir Walter .Scott ; ' the 
latter deeply offended LfK'khart, who viewed 
it us an intrusion upon his aiiecial domain. 
This year also Hogg prepared a fresh series 
of his stories, to be callea ' Montrose Tales,' 
andCochnine, who was again in business, pub- 
lishnd them early in 1835. They were popular 
and likely to be profitable, when, at the end 
of t he year, Cochrane again became bankrupt . 


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* *• 


: « 





1 .» 






(runrds, of which he beenrae major and lieu- 
teniint-colonel in 1855: lie relirt'd from the 
nrmy in 1850. In politics Ilopg was a con- 
servative, and sat as member for Bath from 
]8<>.". to 1W18, and for Truro from 1871 to 
18»5. In ISSTi and 18S6 he was retm-ned 
for the Ifornsev division of Middlesex. In 
1M76 he 8uccee<led his father as second 
baronet, and assumed, bv royal license dated 
8 Feb. 1887, the additional surname of 
McUand on succeeding to the estates of 
Charles McGarel of Magheramome, co. An- 
trim; in 1887 he was raised to the peerage 
as ISaron Magheramorne. 

Hogg was widely known from his connec- 
tion with the metropolitan board of works, 
of which he Ix-came a member in 1807, and 
was chairman from 1870 until its abolition in 
1889, when its place was taken by the London 
county council. Throughout this period Hogg 
was actively engaged m promoting schemes 
for the improvement of the metropolis, and per- 
sonally identified himself with the construc- 
tion of the Thames Embankment. Shaftes- 
bury .\ venue, and Charing Cross Hoad. In 
1874. on the completion of the Chelsea Km- 
bankment, he was made a K.C.H. In 1887 
some London ratepayers alleged that various 
members and officers of the board of works 
had fraudulently turned theirolficial position 
to their own jH'Cuiiiarj- advantage, chietly in 
connection with tho letting of biiildinp-.'iites 
in the new streets constructed by the board 
in central London. A royal commission 
was appointed in 18.8,S to inquire into tlio 
allegations, which atlbcted almost the whole 
administration of the board. Hogg gave the 
commissioners every assistance and tendered 
valuable evidence. The report of the commis- 
sioners, which was issued in 1889, entirely ab- 
solved him ond the majority of his colleagues 
of all blame beyond that of placing too much 
relianceon their.subordinates. Magheniraonie 
die.1 on '27 June 1891). 

He married, HI Aug. lf>.">7, Caroline Kliia- 
betli Emma Itouglas-l'eniuint, eldest daughter 
of Lord Penrbjni, and by her had five sous and 
cue daughter. 

[Burke's and I'osler's PceraKes ; interim and 
final lto[ji>rt» of tho Conimissioa of Inquiry, 
1888 uiul 1889; Times, 28 Juno 189U; Men of 
the Time, 12th cL, p. 537.] W. A. J. A. 

^ HOGG, Sir JAMES "\VEIR(l-90-I876), 
East Inilia director, elder son of AVilliam 
Hogg of Ilelmont, co. Antrim, by Mar\-, 
diiugliter of James Dickey of Dnnmore In 
thai county, was born at Stoneyford, near 
Lishurn, on 7 Sept. 1790. He received his 
early education at Dr. Uruce's academy, 
Uelfast, and was elected a scholar of Trinity 

College, Dublin, in 1808. There Le gained 
the gold medal for oratory, among the un- 
successful competitors being Uichard I^lor 
Shell, and graduated H.A. in the spring of 
1810 ( Todd, Du/,tin fJividuatm, p. 278). t »n 
I'O -May 1811 he was admitted a student of 
tiniy's Inn, London, ' for the Irish bar,' to 
which he is said to have been called, though 
no record of the fact is now to be found in the 
books of the Kind's Inns. He sailed for Cal- 
cutta, where his family had influence, in 1814, 
and practised at the bar there for eight years, 
obtaining on unprecedentedly large and lu- 
crative business. In 182- his health showed 
signs of failure nwitig to overwork, and he 
accepted the valuable office of registrar of 
the supremecourt of Calcutta, a post which 
he held until 1833, when he returned to 
England with a large fortune (Haxsabd, 
Piirlimnftilary Debaifn, 3rd ser. cxxxLx. 
liMPtM. At the general election in January 
183.") he was returned at the head of the jKif! 
for Beverley as a conservative and stead- 
fast siipjiorter of Sir Hobert Peel, to whose 
fortunes he closely adhered throughout. He 
continued to represent Beverley till the dis- 
solution in July 1847. Though he tof>k no 
prominent part in the deljates of the houi 
except upon Indian matters, he seconded 
the motion (7 May 1841 ) on the sugarduties, 
wliich led to the defeat of the government 
{ih. Iviii. .V-?). On 11 Sept. ia39 he was 
elected a director of the East India Company 
(A/iiiitif Juumti/ ,now ser. x.\\. I(i6),and troni 
that time forward was jiractically the repre- 
sentative of Leiidenhall Street in the Houstt^^fl 
of Cummons. He was elected deputy-cbair-*^^H 
man of the comjiany fi>r 184,>-0, 18.'>0-1, ^^^ 
and 18."il-2, and chairman for 1846-7 and 
lH')2-;i (Pkissf.p, Mfidran Cm/mnA, pp. siii, 
.xxii). In April 1844 AV. B. Eerraud's ac- 
cusation against Hogg and Sir J. Graham of 
corruption iu connection with the Notting- 
ham election petition was declared to be^^ 
'wholly iiiitbtinded and calumnious '(/fouf^^^f 
of CuDimoun' .Imninh, 1844, p. 239). Hoggy^^^ 
who supported Peel in his free-trade policy, 
declined, towards the close of 184."i, the post 
of judge advocate-general upon the resigna- 
tion of Dr. John Nicholl, on the ground that 
he held the office of deputy-chairman of the 
East India Company (Pari. Dflintm, 3rd ser., 
cx.xix.79). I'poii tliedownfall of the ministry 
he was created a baronet ( 20 J uly 1 M6 ). At 
the general election in July 1847 he was re- 
turned unopposed for Iloniton, which he con- 
tinued to represent imtil the dis-solution in 
March 18.')7. In his capacity as tho recog- 
nised representative of the India House, Hogg 
was frequently attacked by Sir Charles Napier, 
John ISright, and others, who disapproved of 





tlie policy of the directors. A violent attack 
on him "by Nupier with reference to the 
Scinde prize money appeared in the ' Times,' 
l'l-*> Oct. 1848. Ilogj,' was offered, but de- 
clined, the post of (fovernor of Bombay in suc- 
cession to Lord Falkland in l'*.">3. lie voted 
n^'ainil the frovernmeut <in the motion censur- 
ing Palmer»ton"sChmese policy, 3March 18.57 
(iA. c.xliv. 1>47 I, and at tliegenerul election in 
the same month lost his seat by two votes. 
He made no attempt to re-enter parliament, 
but upon the pas^mp of the Goveniment of 
India Act he was nominate<l by the lOast India 
biard as one of the seven directors to sit on 
the new Indian council (Seittember I'S-V). 
lie continued amemlierof the Indian council 
[(Cling as vice-president in 1860) til! the be- 
nning of lf*7'2, when he retired, and was 
(Worn a member of the privy council, '> Feb. 
:h72. He died of paralysis at his residence, 
11 (>ro«venorCr>?scent, IjOndon,27Mayl876, 
and was buried in Kensal Oreen Cemetery. 
Iloggf married, 26 July 1>*2'J, Mary C'lau- 
8, second daughter of Samuel .Swinton, 
S., of Swiuton, llerw ickshire, by whom 
had seven K)ns and seven daughters, llis 
e died 26 .June 1874. lie was succeeded 
the borfmetey by his eldest son, Lieuten- 
t-<;olonel Sir James Macnaghten McGarel 
igg, afterwards first lord -Magheramome 
_ v.j Hogg published his '.\ddresse3 . . . 
I the Students at the East-India College at 
ileybury, and to the Cadets at the Military 
minmrv at .Vddiscombe, on the Closing of 
Half-yearly Terms, 184(5' [London, 1846], 
|^[Anuniil Rei;i»ter, 1876, p. U2; Times, 29 May 
7S ; liiw Tinifs, Ixi. 9S ; S<jlicitora' Jonrnal, 
.629: Ill<i»trdt«d London News, 3 Jun« 1876, 
• William Napiara Lifo of .Sir Charles Napier, 
'7. ii. 374, iv. 107, 116-17, 147-8, 186, 246, 
f^S ; Mull of the Time (8th ed.), P- 497 ; 
[Peerage, &e., 1876, pp. 373-4; Foster's 
iige, I881.p.320; Official Return of Lists 
of Memtera of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 358, 372, 
i'jO. 390, 4l4; Notes and Queries, 7th ser., ix. 
3(»8; Lon.lon Gazettes.] (i. F. K B. 

HOGG, JOHN (18<J0-1869), classical 
W»r and naturalist, Ixim in 1800, was 
ad son of John Hogg, and brother of 
lorans Jerters<m Hogg [q. v.j After passing 
ih Uurhiim grammar school, he entered 
iu'>?. Cambridge, as a pensioner in 1818, 
^Oteii Kamsay si'holar in 1H20, andgra- 181'iasjunior uptime. In 1827 
X.'^led M..\., and was elected bye fellow 
I college on Ijidy liamsay's foundation 
Vambr. t'nir, CaUwiari) : on 8 Feb. 1844 
f prooet-ded M-.V. ad eundem at Oxford. On 
I >ov. 1828 he was admitted of the Inner 
Temple, was cttlled to the bar on 27 Jan. 

1832 {Iinier Temple Beffuter),AnA chose the 
northern circuit ; he was also a J. P. and D.L. 
for the coimty of Durham. Ho died at Norton 
House on Iti Sept. I8(t0 {.Stuckton Herald, 
24 Sept. I8<19). He married Anne Louisa 
Sarah (rf. 1804), second daughter of Major 
Goldfinch of the Priory, Cliewton Mendip, 
Somerset ( Gnif. Afiv/. •W>\ ser. xvii. 802j, 
by whom he left a son and two daughters 
(Walfobii, Couutij FumilieK, 1889, p. 524). 

Hogg wa.s kind-hearted and populor, though 
somewhat wanting in practical common sense. 
He was an excellent clas.sical scholar, anti- 
i|uary and geographer, and well read in motlern 
languages. Ilis acquirements as a botanist 
and naturalist were considerable. He tra- 
velled frequently, and contributed to the 'Me- 
tropolitan Magazine 'some pleasantly ■nTitf en 
' Letters from .Vbroad to a Frien<l at Cam- 
bridge,' reprinted separately in 1844. He 
wrote articles in '.Vnnals of Natural Ilisforv,' 
the 'Transactions and Proceedings' of tlie 
Linnean Society, ' Hooker's Botanical Jour- 
nal,' the * Museum of Classical Antiquities,' 
' F.dinburgh New Pliilo.-iopliicu! Journal,' and 
the ' Magazine of Natuni! History.' To the 
'Transact ions 'of the Uoyal Society of litera- 
ture, of which he became a member in 184.3 
and foreign secretarj' and vice-president in 
18'i(5, he contributed numerou.> papers, many 
of which were reissued singlv. He was 
elected F.L.S. in 182.'l, and F.ll.J>. on 20 June 
1839, and was also fellow of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, fellow and secretary 
( l849-.")0) of the Uoyal Geographical Society, 
fellow of the Uoyal .Society of Northern An- 
tiquities of Copenhagen, and president of the 
Tvneside Naturuli.sts' Field Club He read 
memoirs at many meet ings of t he Hril i»h Asso- 
ciation. Besides thepapersalriMidynlludedto 
Hogg published: I. ' .\ Catalogue of Sicilian 
Plants, withsome llemarksimtheGoography, 
Geologj', and Vegetation of Sicily,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1842. 2. 'A Catalogue of Birds ob- 
served in South-Easteru Durham and in 
North-AVesteni Cleveland; with an .\p- 
pendix containing the Classification and No- 
menclature of all the Species included therein. 
From the Zoologist, 8vo, London, 184.). 
3. ' ( >n the Distribution of certain Species 
of Fre!«li-wiiter Fish, and on the Modes of 
I'Voiuidutiny t he ( )va of the Salmonidtc. Bead 
before the Tvneside Naturalists' Field Club,' 
8vo, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1856. 4. '.Ad- 
dress to the Members of the Tyneside Natu- 
ralists' F'ield Club,' dvo, Newcastle-umm- 
Tyno, I8.')7. In his various studies Hogg 
found a ready helju-r in his elder brother, 
Thomas Jefferson tlogg Jl- v.], of whom he 
contributed a sympathetic memoir to tho 
' Gentleman's JIaguzine,' 3rd ser. xiii. ti43. 



104 Hogg 

: rnm- :jh«flley to L;=:i-rli. li •.•r:.":er I»;.\ L.-ir- 

..;..aai t^ver, frienclv jrlL-inn- tr.T~ .-t-.zr!-i .v.-a 

•tf. :>«. thearri»al ;.:"-'i- >:ir.jrxi j: 1. .»£•.-. -irL^'iTr 

'■ '■ Uojtfr had r?=. T<.i tr'm. Y.-ri: : !-:.z.:.zl^ 

> '.7^1'- the rtudr ■..• :ii? ii.\r li;:Lri.i.l:-B-.r^ A;t! 

rr. •>fiii-k- into Inelirji. ■wii-iTi ii« fiLitc :: ;xi lis:. 
... ■lli«f^t I?<>iii>* l;t"jt r:iii; jirfvi.iut iir hki7r>i-j>ri » 
. ■. .!! ut.rn novel. • Mtai.i:> cr. J'riiict Ai-.rr Ilii=:i: .5" 
':..>ilathiT (1813>. mr<!jr stur-c ;>i. liij- :i*.~Tis^T:o l»* 

.-.ill ami 'tnuisli:e-ifr;in.-bt ^lrifauJ]J.:;■.^]^.uE■.:rr 
.-.. .i.-.iti(.iu the imst^iii,** lusjicpri.iE -nf rir IVinof l-v 

. .lUtiairr .Iohiil5r:'WT.. isii,.' SiitilitTirrr:rsr rnth-?;- 
-. 'Moni. a.'itic noti'.T iii -i.;-. purjnu'j jjr.cji-ri.-r. ;a :!i- 
.::a jr the 'Critieai ];»vit-n ' I'tipf-Ltirr 1*14. ia^s- 
.:;■. ."e <lis- ' ciotisly trfcpri:! ;. i.jE i.r IV.-ft-ss.-r K-iwdrii. 
.■.._\ !iave The iJook K--ii ir.:irr Ltre a"rsoti^ n'>r 
.. :-;i»#ion . deiiorvtil atlrii: ■ •■- -rliii :: rfstiat^i anonv- 

.; -.itter niiius, but a: ::.r T'^tse-r.; civ :ir iSeistide'i- 
. . .-ueral , tion of the i:rw.:;Lrr Hi. — «- .-,5 ■n-irli the 
J. i'i"ill real Hogg is a •^r :i n;' iniT-TaiJeiaUe 

..::r>4{ue amusement. S^r-r^r iVaturs* ia the rorrrait 
'li.-varet I of lIuimatodrar<e' jli'lr-y taira fr-x Shelley. 

> . Iiiiil and the venerable p?.i4ir.vJr O-.-iLa seems to 
..->. ■ H'rir have been su^jT'^tc'i by SsrllryV aiViun: of 
: • .'■•ieo- ■ l>r, Lind. .Vivr SLtHry'* ref-iTa the 

v^. »a* continent in 1*14 ii* >•!*:: -r.* w:Th IIopij 

.i:v!s tvnssumed muoh •;:■ :i*:r f.-rrarr iatimacy; 

> • ■;* the two seem t • livr beta r.eir;y a* much 
. ■•• ••, together a.« ILv/f rr.f:>TviM TV*-, irnce in the 
.1 ".'.:* Temple ullowi^.i.;»ai5::4c:rrra.j>.^!:aenoe with 
v-v iivvl his friend depio:* ILe i* ibv.; e|qually 
• vs divided betwet-n ^:u•iyiIv; law ar.J • Scapii- 
■•;• liiing Euripides." He was a iTaL->-.:5 Helh-n- 
*•:••, ist, and go con: :?.-.;« al! his I::V. He wa< 
... • .,.•.»- »-alIetl to the lar a: :L- M:oi.\v!p:ii term of 
. ■ "'■:• 1,"* I", and wen: :hr cIa-.::: :r. N.->rhumbrr- 
. ■....^•. "i.-jnd and Purliaai. whi-re h-- obtained som>' 
■.. f.; practice, but h:> >s<-n-ed taaanrr and lack 
. ■. •>. .-.■ >-f fluency were nc: c-'cd-.u'ive :> for .nsic 
. • t «in"ce88. " In l^:;iJ l:e o>n:r:b'.::ed to the 
•■..r. •Liberal' an rssay ,->n Ap-'.riu.*. written 
s s»<n«' time previously for an ab'.T::ve miiir.i- 
■ s tine projected by Lrijrh H'.ict. In 1^;?3 his 
I. vv- juiel existence was p-. rturbed by his passion 
. i.-iv lor .lane Williams, widow o: the hdwartl 
Williams who had perishw along with 
... Shellev. .\fter cor.siderable de'.av his Miit 
Ov: was al'cepted on condition that he should 
.•a- viualify himself by a course of foreign travel. 
. .. -v lie accordinglv lett England for a tour in 
„ .ivi viemiany and Italy on 3 Xm. l>iJ.">. retum- 
» . .'..v iug on L'7 Feb. following. • hiiving thus ac- 
,>>•»;< ^> tuallv completed two hundred and nine days 
....iv.' without having once had recourse TO an V one 
. \ •\ of thnv things, each of which daily habit 
X- * „, •. had taught me tocon.«idera prime neces.<ary 
\ ■,;'.«! of life— law, (Treek. or an Kndish new,«- 
-<■ .'I'v ' iwi>er.' The journal of his tour was publishe»l 
, 11 !u IsJr underthe titleof ' Two Hundred and 
.„"|j* >iat.l)»vs,'arecordoftrivialoccurrences,sea- 

» aef. V "iir rr-::^ vc- - : 

tZil !•-•• nif & ^ff*^» 
4r •iHiL III- — — T^ 

<o.x Liii I i^» n T. 

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fri -rrj. i..- li. c^^" - " ' 
t. -->'■;■» 1*1 iir.i.- -L^r- 

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-ir T. .:. 

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tir 5i«f— -7 iL3--. ii- 
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»r:icl-: ■. r M*llt7 f I "r: 
dtncT •: im>ni> 
h«mc-'.'i.*r--ll*<i '.T B 

had T»i*«<irii!(---.-.T-ij»-f:f ■r.r. l:.«--?hi .:' 
the uilicq*:-:^! =.-.iiT: njr:^::; ij7i?trri :t. . 
ihicii v/uaiTi-ff iji?»?-':.T- r.o :i -i-Tiir. 
»»th«rrau:obioeTiji_TTLtii •l.cnj-i.T.T.-.-l z.:- 
«igii f'f rt*l it.«:irl:: ;n: •.■ Sir 1I-t'- •«■■■ rk- ; r . •":.»- 
tmctcr. If»i*jil*o--. ii'i;-c.:ir>-£:Li: H >rf 
Iiad xak^n m<.*t unw»iT*n*.»U- i;l>rr:;r*wl:h 
hi* materub. AVLrn :Lr irriTrrir&j at !&.>; 
•co-pt«<] IL1 an «cc«ntric Lumv-rift. di>biud«n- 
in^ uim.ttrlf of anecdot—. rtrmin!<crnc<e$. aiul 
TieTS on tluD^s in evneral, ivlerant and 
irrelevant, it became clear that tho bo<<k Tras 
remarkable and probably unique. Hoes ih<s- 
teftfA one preat qualitioation of the t'io- 
grapher — the art of conveying a vivid im- 
prext-ion of per«rins and thinpii. Cloui;h liaid 
on the a]ipearance nf the book : ' It is n )rreat 
pleasure to see Shelley ivally alive and trcad- 

-—- ij-— - •_: .... ; .- T |w. .::..:^ . a' K.i ^ 
.- T _a: ir _— ::=.r-; -;r- i-.i.3- . :..■- ;..~ s~ 

;.- I - aa-T." " "ir I»-';«-;;i. " .i;- J ^a* .-*.■■ t 
*.T.";— t]r-*:i.-w _ .rs^'. ▼■:i--.> :;s ' .:«; 'i-t-'x*! I's 
1.1 ^~-f^ -J -"-" '"'^ .- ■.n.nv-'.iv' ". ..; 
:: .V-» li- :"r:'ia.'T ir--.r .: "••". ":^> t'f 

i-rr - - " m tth.t - 1j. Vii> ;*i*.tfe-: 1.- ■" .v ^^ i"* 
•.—r:^ .H '.' 2\.I.~.'Z ".""•■*: l. - : T'. ■ •!. "» J.'."'. 

TTir Ti •" ii.-:- ~:..:^ :. :■•»•' in :•. : » »">» .v*!.ii. v-;,* r.ff.t."Ti':*.'. .13 ci'^ :*;*T»,-. 

•L i's Ml.~: 1 V-!> !.•; v>.» ,Vi:.5«:V» .\.5 
•-cfnjLZ- "v." L tit T " J? . •;" IV*.?.". .%. ' ," ' J*.^ 
fr-T c "ft .(rr — '-.T. :£ x> •.•.■•;. '. *: n;;-: >«»» 
ii.ri'-:. Er _tli •':.••. •.-e:-/:-! 
i_^ lit""' .C> Zr. iV,-^.^:^ : 
Lk* •-=-; .r •.t-titj: '.iif ■>. '...■ .-*".".:v-, >.- 
ri Hali-^' <•:: :i;; >;;rrpn>iir .\:' :^,' )w.,w> 
;:' AW-tv^sTtT -t. ".> J*::. K»«0 5.:- »»> «>*.»o 
:Lr r.T»: Ot*il .: tSt- .-atbtvir*'. »-*.;;A-b, K".>vs 
al-.» :h* kiRi's i'as.^niT; !>•• :>'>:i:«iNi ;?>.» 
deanrrv >-vn :ran*la!«vl 5.» !!>o >.n' .^' 
IU*ht^:or in J,;"a<> IMI. hi>!.l it .m"» 
m^nJjn ThonvT.Tv .<f Urk»»«!><!v\>'»«ll» lh«» 
chaj>elrv of Kin,;'* Nort«M«. \V >>!Vi»»«or»b«v, 
which dad fonnvrly WK«>jj*sl l>» (Ko |>u.»r> 
In l">4-'> ho was apjywntisl a ,s>«>m>^M.«nrr «.» 
a«.«»'s» tho ri'Venuc .>f K«»tl>!v lliu|iiii«l, 
Canterbury, and in l-Vbrnarx I. Mi' hi> al 
tendrtl tht'> fuuiial of lli-nrj \ III lli>»a« 
in the same y««.ir lran*ial<sl t» iIik »••«' »f 
I.incoln, iH'injr elivlitl on »• \u«., nnd v» 
ceiviu); the lfm)><iriililii>ii <m iho Itllh, nml 
, contirmatiou on the LlMh, lie (onxexml lii 


1 06 


the crown twenty-six or, nccordmgto St rype, 
thirty-four rich mnnors fcelonginp to his see, 
thoiigli 'not by his fmili.' In lo4H he was 
um)Oiuti.-(l with otliers to draw up the Hook 
01 Common I'ruycr, and is said to have done 
good service. He nUo jierved on a coram is- 
siou to consider thi- question of the remar- 
riage of the innocent party in a divorce, 
witli reference to the case of the Marqiii.s of 
Northampton. John Iloojwr'q. v.'^.nfterwiirds 
hishop of A\'orcegter, had a niiffi opinion of 
him; his opinions mny be' inferred from a 
letter in which Hooper tells nullinger that 
he thoroughly comprehended the doctrine of 
Christ about the Lonl's Supper, adding, how- 
ever, that he and ot her bishops were held back 
from reformation by the fear of hxsing their 
property. He was one of the king's visitors 
lor Oxford in 1540, and assisted at the dis- 
putm ion held there in May [see under Cox, 
UlciiAHu", and wasnppointea on tlie commis- 
sionsfor the trial of IJishop (iardiner and for 
the coiTPctlon of anabii]iiistft and irregular 
rainisters of the sacrnmentK in I-mO. In .hilv 
l.V>I he received the younn; Huke of Suitblk 
i\nd his brother [see under RuASimx, IIesky] 
at his house at Buckden, Iluntiiigddnshire. 
He died on 2 Aug. 1561 at Nettlehara, Lin- 
colnshire, and was buried t here. 1 1 e wits mar- 
ried, his wifi- .loan pnivinj his will on ."> Oct., 
and left a son mimed Thomas. 

[Cooper's Athens Cuntnbr. i. 105; ."^trypo's 
Meiiioriiils. II. i. 134, 38.5, ii. 1G7. 168, 'JOO. 
Whilgift, iii. 3.V>, 8vo iniit.; Latimer's Works, 
ii. 371, 407, 412, mill ^^uricli L< Iters, iii. 74, 76, 
;i01, S7(J (I'^irker.Soc.); Burnct'sUiM.of the Re- 
formation, ii. U", iii. 203 (Pocock); Godwin, 
lie Pra'suUbns, p. 300 (Ku-lmrJson); Tanner's 
Notitia, p. .54 ; Whartou'e Anglia .Sacra, i. .5oO; 
I)ug<lalc's Monnsticon, i. S81 ; Rynicr's Fiedcnv, 
av. IflC: Chiiml«r»'» Biog. Illustrations of Wor- 
»-cslersliire. p. 46.] W. H. 

HOLBEIN, HANS ( UOr-irailj.pnintor, 
born at .\upsburg in Swabia in 1497, whs 
the younger son of Iluiis lIolb<Mii, a piiintrr 
of that town, and grandson of Michel Holbein, 
Avho sfirae time before 14")4 came from the 
neighbouring village of Sclumenfeld to settle 
in Augsburg. The name of Holbein's mother 
lieis not been ascertained. His father was a 
piitntiT of great merit, and has left many 
pictures and drawings: in some cases his 
work has bifn with ditficulty distinguisheil 
from thiit of his son. The bitter niid his 
elder brother Ambrosius were no doubt edu- 
cated lis painters iu Augsburg by their father, 
and ]>erhaps under their uncle Sigmund, nUo 
n painter there. In the eld»T Hulbi-iu's picture 
ol the 'Basilica of St. raul'fiu the .Vugsburg 
Gallery), a group of un elderly man and two 
boys has been conjectured to represent the 

father and his two sons, and a silver-point 
drawing by the father (in the print room at 
Berlin ) gives a jwrtrait of the two brothetis in 
1-511, Hans Holhi-in the ynunger being then 
fourteen. (Inly ouf unimportant picture by 
the younger Holbein, u Madonna date<l 1514, 
can be regarded as authentic among the pic- 
tures now preserved at Augsburg. He nas 
been credited, however, with a share in lh« 
splendid 'St. Sebastian 'altarpiece by the elder 
Holbein (in the Munich tiallery ). In or be- 
fore l.'jlo the HoUx'in family left Augsburg. 
It Seems probable that the father removed 
with his family to Lucerne, where he found 
a patron in the chief magistrate, Jacob von 
llertensteiu, but the sons soon appear ua 
resident in Basle. Basle was the centre of 
the humanist revival in literature, and from 
its printing-presses the humanists' principal 
works were issued. Johaiin Froben, the chief 
printer of Basle, was the first to draw on 
classical antiquity for illustrations and title- 
pages to his books. The third title-j>age of 
this destTiption printed by him, that to 
Leo X's 'Breve ad F.rusmum,' 1515, is the 
first one known to have been designed by 
Hans Holbein for engraving on wood or 
metal. Others by him or Ambrosius appear 
in the works of Froljen's jire-ss during the 
next few years. The corrector for Froben's 
\ press wus Beatus Khenanus, to whom the 
1 employment of Holbein was possibly due. 
I Curious relics of Holbein's work at this time 
[ are pre«>rved in the /iirich Library in a 
I painted allegorical tabln, done for the wed- 
ding of Hans Bar in Basle, on :i4 June 1515, 
' and in the so-called ' Schulmeisterbild ' in 
1 the mii.seura at Basle. For another distin- 
1 guished humanist scholar and reformer at 
Basle, Oswald Molitor or Myconius of Lu- 
cerne, Holbein drew a series of marginal 
illustrations, or jiictorial glosses, in a copy of 
I Krasmus's ' Encomiimi Miiri;e,' published by 
I Frobun in l.'ilo ; these drawings were done 
under Myconius's 3U])ervision, aud ])robably 
ill bis house, and were finished on it) Dec. 
1515. A manuscript uoteby Myconius .states 
that Erasmus derived much entertainment 
from them. The book is now in the museuni] 
at Basle. Holbein at this timeaUo showi 
signs of hispre-eminencc as a portrait-painter. 
In 1510 he painted the two portraits of the> 
burgomaster Jacob Meyer 'zum Hosen'and 
his wife (in the museum ut Basle), and the 
portrait of the painter Hans Herb8ter(in th» 
Earl of Northbrook's collection). In 1517 
he was resident in Lucerne, where he (or his 
father) was elected into the guild of St. Luke 
there. On 10 Dec. 1517 he was fined for a 
brawl, and seems to have quitted Lucenie 
for a time. He is supposed to have gone to 

ifh«bet«.i wu>iMi M,i w i 

. 1319 W 

OctolMr of tktf Tear he ] 
MBmaat haBKUt (in ifci ■■!■ ■■ ii lliiili ) 
Oa S JbIt l^saOhepud dwAsMlBr hngWs 
riglrtsatBMkL OeveeanimaM^eammia- 
•icMM far dcaigas Cv giMi viaaaws, tad 
IMUBMd theonMideof I— Kyhcwt n , Widh u 
tbe ' Ilaa* s«m Taiu:,' aoae dzsvim for 
which uv praerred ia the aMiacftm at B««l«. 
lie was soon eaiplored on a iaor» tiapertant 
taak, perhaps underthedirKtiaa of Rhvaao IK, 
naaie^, to punt laige mml Miniia^ with 
a«Mi«« ebo*ni from daasieal lustorr, in the 
town hall at Basle. Holbein commenced 
therein June loil, but in Norember l&iJ 
t be series was broken olf. In most of the 
p&intinfs mentioned Holbein showed a i;T«at 
■eaae of humour and skill in trvatinz secular 
or domestic subjects. He executeil, however, 
some imi>ortant relipiKiis works, such ns ' Tbe 
I.A»t Supper,' tbe eiijlit • P«ssion' pictures, 

• The Dead Christ," and other pictures in the 
museum at llasle ; ' The Nativity ' anil ■ The 
Adoration of the Majri ' at Freibur)?-ini-Hreis- 
gau, 'St. Lrsulu nnd St. Georpe'nt Knrl.-*- 
ruhe, till' great 'Madonna and .'^uinls ' at 
Solotliurn, and the i>till (jT'-aler ' Madonna 
with the Meyer family ' in the picture millery 
at Damntiult. This picture wasimintediitymt 
J5:W for Holbein'.^ patron, lliu ex-burRo- 
master Jacob Meyer ' r.iim llnaen.' The 
famous picture of the same dubject in tbe 
l<n:»deii tiallery is now univor*ully acknow- 
ledgi-tl to be an excellent ruul po!*i*il)ly eon- 

• ••mp<in>rv copy, tliou{»h not a replica, of tlie i ririnu*l«dl. Twopi^rlraito of Doro- 
thci. -'^ (in the muKeiiinat Hasb.'),aM 

• V. • ' Lxii* Coriniliiaca,' of « ratlier 

. Im meter from the others, Injlong to 


1 ■ ■ ■ ' in of the New 

Tfx! : HiblKlietl, with 

Jc3liJJii«niiion.-,ai >*ni^nber)f. Xnme- 

iaISM. LalkarVG* 
OM of tkr • I V a M a mk * fiUi<lM<l 
tiwlmg ia lUl «aa Nfamtad ia ttw 
T«ar «i Bad« W Ttoaaa WoMT. with a tiib» 
•Inw in«aif«t«aaa hr H<ilW>a>a* 
AAaa IMii, ia a ki«r aditiMk 
of Lntker^s ' PaitatMM&' ( UV^4\ )pnM«d m\ 
new iUa$txatMas (ir thv abm- antrts. la all 

th«aedi!<j ' w fit«'lT frum tk<> 

>\i(l«tib> '«or(«iMaU .\Im«I 

1.1iSihebr..u :>i l.Tnaa, 

pLauwd a arv - tu tit* 

' Vul«t» t»W ntployrd 

Liitielbrrpm- )e»iKiu<r 

of the bill ■-* ..,..?, in 

number,' .M 

from the j _ vir, 

the stTie* was i-ompleli'. l.iiltvll>i>n;\-r d»«l 
in \'>:iti; tbe bliK-k* pas.«il into the hand* of 
Tr?chs<<l, and wetv not pubUatiMl for aevcral 

A similar fate nlteude<I tbe fnniouii •eri<>» 
ilhistniting "The l>iinc<< of Iteatli,' de^l^cned 
by Holbein and cut by l.iitnellxMV'r belwiMXi 
ibl'S and I5:>tV Tbe»e di'tit^MM ri'teid l|o|. 
beiu as one ol' the lenilinjr ai;ent» in tbe xpread 
of the reformed doctrine*, to which tlii> 
bumunixt c\iltiu'e of tlie llnxlu HcbtdiirK had 
piven notable impi'tiiH, Tlu' cliief of lliiwn, 
ICra.snins, may In' rniilii'<l amoii); llolbuinV 
patron^*, tliouizb tln'V were not iu>ceii»arlly iiu 
siicli inlimatetcrni'ia* hail Ix'cn mipiHwed. Ilo 
employed iloltx'in to paint bin port rail iii 1 oi'.'l 
at feaxt tbree timri ; two be wnt to Kii)rland 
(one now at Lon^'ford CaKtli', ami tlie other 
in the Louvre at I'arin), and tlie tliird be 
sent to lti'>nifnciii» .\nii<rliacli at .Avi^nion, 

Srobably conveyed by the painter llimsidf 
uring u profe«nioiml viiiit to tlie prln(i<r« at 
Lyonn, lliilliein nnd lii» brotber AmbrtMliia 
hull alno provided dKiii^nnloilliiatratenot only 
the workxof IvriuniiK liimsejf, but aUo tjinm* 
of bis frieml nnd eorn'opondi'tit in Kiittland, 
Sir Thomas Mori'. IIoIIn'Iii nlioni Ifi'.'Umnr- 
ried a widow, KIhIh'IIi .Sebniid, with a iiu, 
and bad a family of bi> own. In I'll/'t, after 
I.iitxelb«r)fer'» Ji-atb, and from tli* Kciivrat 




I to Ike 



■ t^ 


■» .ffgiBM. — < « feifcer mt 

]btty«,«ka ted 

t«'fir TkoHM MiM«^ A fiae dnw- 
•r • iUr (ia tte 8uU Immitm at 
' latl i* myfOMd ta be s Mconl of 

ii> Joarnejr oa thk nrrMina 
Wb wrired 'm EqgluMl m die eig^ 
«ar of tke mn of Qcbit VIII 
iVUn-Ty. firTbMMaJtofcwMtWdw 
aftWfMtfc«yiT,iirt WaAiM.—nthrr 

■I of BMMH, WM UekMhopof 

. . Tlswti^Uwallalbemoteuaad 
«M]r cena* to tbe leadiag oca «f tke eooit. 
FoftlMtai* w«i the ooIt fens of art open to 
him, aad be Bade worthy lue of it. Ue 
•Mlad iSrTbaaiaa More ■^^. v.] in 15^ (in 
Mt. Hatb'* eoOaetioa, drsirmgat AVuidaor), 
AicMiibop Warfaam [q. t.' (at Lambeth 
PaJaec, and anntber in ^he I»UTTe, drawing 
mt Windaor), John Yither ''q. vT, bi«hop of 
Boriiaater (no original known, <f rawing* at 
Wiadaor aad in tAe print room, BritiAh Mii^ 
MMi), flir Uenrr (iuiMford ^q. v.] (pictnre 
aai tfrnriiig at \N'in'lH(jr>, Ijulr Umldford 
<ta M- V — ' -■ -11 -Ion), thomaa and 
Join -n, oiliiurwl draw- 
ing i/. .. ' :....„.. ij. v." at Windsor), 

Hit Hryim Tukf [q. t. (at Munich, and an- 
other at ' troavonor IIous«), Nicholas Kratzer 
fq. T.j tb<? adtrunomrr ( in the Louttc), Sir 
lienry Wy»t [4. v." (in the Louvr?), and 
Oth«rt, incliidiu)( Sir Ttinuuu Elyot, [q. v.] 
and Ijuiy Elyot (drawings at WindJior), 
wbow' ]K)rtruits have periished. lie designed, 
tli(>u)(li it i» not certain that lie ever carried 
into fxecntion, a larf;e picture of Sir Thomas 
Mor>< amoii); his fiunily and houisebold. Vari- 
oiin version* exist, tlie beat being at NosteU 
I'riory, hut none can be accepted as Ilolliein'g 
work. Some hirue drawings for the heads 
.are in the collection ut Windsor; the dniw- 
JMK for tlie wliole {in the muwum at Biisle) 
wiiK taken by Ilollx'in on hi* return to Basle 
in loL'H.und in August loL'y pre-sentedat Krei- 
hurg-ini-llreingau to Erasmus, who expressed 
in a letter to Sir Thomaii More his delight at 
stM-ing it . 

iluibein, on returning to his family at 
Biioli.', Tmir-lm»ed a liouse on 29 Aug. l.")28. 
ill' ppjliubly painted ut this time the portrait 

with it. In 
took place in 


of wineb it pn^ 
ia the aanaeaa at BmIk. 
Hefii^ii,baaiiin,haa i—draaatt trnjicj- 
mitmctlht. aafeal of hJatdlow- 
^ - - "ialSaa. Hew, 
be ate bad muttrt cbai^ed. 
Man, wbo Ui baeeMt loei rbaarffllnr, waa 


Ibi laiiibaal iiililaMJlbi tiV tarVm nf T*^ 
timt) tt tbe StoelTmtd. Seretal beautiful 
Bortraita of tbeat WDviTe, aMaactbeoi being 
Joba at Aat veip (at Wiadaor >,J>aich Bom 
(at Mmidi, aad aaother at Windcor ), Oeorg 
6Tae(at Berlin ). Derich Ben:k( at Petworth), 
DcTteh Tybu (at Vienna), and (?yTiaciM 
Fallen (at Bronsvick). For the Steelraid 
menebaats be deeigaed an allegorical |iageant 
of * Puaaasoa ' (drawing at Leipzig), on the 
occaaoo of Anne Boleyn's coronation pro- 
ceasion. He was alio emp^ ' :Iat two 
large paintings for the w r hall, 

repreeenting 'The Triumph 01 liiiu-- (draw- 
ing in the Louvre) ana 'The Triumph of 
PorertT.' The*e picture*, which came into 
Charle« I'scoUeclion, were sold into Flanders, 
and have disappeared ; copies were made by 
Federigo Zuccaro (copies of these in Lady 
Eastlake's collection ), and others by Jan d« 
Bis.«chop (in the print room at the British 
Museum). The hne drawing of ' The Queen 
of Sheba before Solomon ' (at Windsor) wa.s 
probably a design for a similar painting. To 
this year belongs the portrait of Kobert 
Cheseman, the king's falconer (in the gallery 
at the Hague). In 1533 Holbein painted 
the important picture known as 'The Am- 
bassadors '( in the National (iallery, drawing 
for the principal head at Windsor); it is un- 
certain who the persons depicted are, but a 
suggestion (see Art Journal, Janunry 1891) 
has Deen made (amotig others) that they re- 
present Jean de Dinteville, Boilli de Troyet, 
ambassador from France to England in 1533 
ond ir)3o, and his friend the jjoet scholar, 
Nicholas Bourbon of Vandffiuvre, known in 
many ways as among Holbein's most intimate 
friends. .Vs a comimnion to this may be 
reckoned the ' Morett " portrait (picture and 
drawing at Dresden), representing Charlvs da 





Solieit seigneur de Morette, frequently am- 
tws.'tuior from France, ond la.stlyin 1534 (see 
S. LviiPEXT, 'sur le portrait de Morett I'l 
Dresde'). Ilolbein, as a supporter of the lie- 
formation, now victorious m Engliind, de- 
sif^ed the title-pages to Coverdule's llible, 
publishe<l in 153o, and Crunmer's liililo, pub- 
Lihed iu 1540 (L'ud edit. 1541, with Crom- 
well's arms erased from the title-pnge), n 
'Passion' series satirising the monks letched 
by Wcnzel Holliir), a set of small illus- 
trations to the Xew Testament, used for , 
Cranmer's ' Catechism ' iu 1<>48, and a title- 
page used for Hull's ' Clironicle ' in the same ' 
year. Though he painted Thomns Cromwel! 
(at Tittenhanger; the drawing by Holbein 
lit Wilton House is not Cromwell), he does 
not appear to have painted Cninnier, nor can 
»ny iiuthentic portrait of Anne Boleyn by 
liim be traced, e.xcept ix!rha])s u miniature ut ! 
Windsor. It is not till ISStithat any trace 
is found of his being in the king's service. 
In that year Bourbon speaks of him in n 
letter as 'the king's painter,' and in that 
year he painted the new tjneen, June Sey- 
mour (at Wobum Abbey, and another at 
Vienna, drawing at Windsor). In IKi' Hol- 
bein painted the group of Henry VIII with 
his father and mother and June Sevniour on 
the wall of the privy chamber nt WhitehiiU. 
This perished in the fire of I(!9S; a small copy 
by Remigius van Leemput (engraved by Ver- 
tiie) is at Hampton Court, and the original 
cartoon for the figures of Hi-nry VII and 
Henry ^^I1 is at lIurdwickHaH. Adrawiug 
of Henry VIII at Munich was perhaps done 
for this painting. Ilolljein does not appear 
to have painte<l in fresco. In Oetober l.>*i7 
Jane Seymour died, and Henry VIII sought 
new wife. In Mart'li loS-S Holbein wa.s 
■ut to Brussels to ])aint a portrait of Chris- 
ina of Denmark, the widowed duchess of 
ilon. Tlie painter, although Im had but 
ihn-e hours to do his work in, was thoroughly 
Ruccfgsful. The portrait done in this way 
Vita pnibubly that at Windsor, and not the 
exquisitely finished fuU-lengtli portrait at 
Arundel Castle (on loan to the National ( ial- 
lery ). On Lady-day l.)38 the first of a series 
of pav-ments to Ilolbein is entornd in the 
counts of the royal househidd. In Decem- 
•r lo;)8 he was paid 10/. for his services 
•broad in Upper Burgundy. This may allude 
to his »hare in the mission to negotiate for 
the Duchess of Milan's hand, which dragged 
on to Jnnuurv' 1-VJO. Anyhow he took the 
iirtunity to pay a visit to his family at 
le, where he was entertained at a banquet 
:Iie citizens, who voted him an annuity 
and a si'jiarate one to his wife for two years, 
when he hoped to finally return. Possibly 

he also paid a visit to his friend Nicholas 
Bourbon, then resident at Lyon.', to setr 
after the publii-atiou of the series of illustra- 
tions to the Old Testament and to 'The Dunce- 
of Death,' which had remained unpublished 
since l")2(j, and were now completed and 
saw the light for the first time (1538). He 
drew tt jiorlriiit of Bourbon (drawing at 
Windsor) which appeared in an edition of 
Bourbon's ' Nugip' publishetl at Lyons that 
year. On his way back he may have taken 
his son Philip ond apprenticed him to Jeromw 
David iu Paris. He wusbackin England by 
New-year's day 1530, as among the New- 
year's gifts to the king he gave ' a table of 
the pictour of the prince's grao',' jK>ssibly 
• lie portrait of the infant Edward VI nt 
Hanover (another in Ixird ^'arborough's col- 
lection). In August l'>3it he WHS s-ent on 
another mission to Diircn to paint the por- 
traits of the daughters of the Duke of Cleve.-, 
His portrait of .Vnne of Cleves (pi-rliajis the' 
one now in the Louvre) was suliiciently at- 
tractive to decide the king in bi-r favour. 
Holbein painteil a great number of portrait* 
la En:fland at this time. Among them were 
Thomas, third duke of Norfolk (ut Wind- 
sor, another at .\rundel Ca.stW), his son the 
Earl of Surre}' (picture not traced, draw- 
ings at Windsor), Sir Nicholas Carew (at 
Dalki'ith Palace, drawing at Basle), Sir Ri- 
chard Southwell (in the I'fiizi at Florence, 
drawing lit Windsor), Sir .lolin Russell (nt 
Wob urn Abbey, drawing at Windsor), Sir 
William Butts (formerly in Pole Carew col- 
lection), Ijidy Butts (llie same, drawing at 
Windsor), Lady Rich (at Buihhvns Park, 
drawlngat Windsor), Lady \'uu.\ (at Hump- 
ton Court, another at Prague, drawing at 
Windsor), Nicholas Poyntz ( de la Rosiere col- 
lection in Paris, drawing at Windsor), John 
Reskymeer (ut Hampton Court, drawing at 
Windsor), Simon George (In the Stndel lu- 
st itut at Frnnkfurt, drawing at Windsor), 
Dr. John Chamber (at Vienna), and tlie man 
with a falcon (1">4l') (at the Hague). Hol- 
bein ])ainted H miniature of Queen Catherine 
Howard (at Windsor, also drawing), but 
does not appear to have painted Catherine 
Parr. JIany other notable ]K-rsons appear 
among the collection of portrait drawings at 
NN'indsor, which form a most valuable his- 
1 toricul. as well os artistic, record of the time. 
' In 1542 Holbein commenced the large 
I picture (in the Barber-Surgi'ons' Hall) of 
llenrv' \Il\ giving the charter to the newly 
I incorporate<l company of the Barber-Sur- 
I geons, which resembled his own guild at 
Bnsle. He did not live to finish thLs. Al- 
though the two years were long pa.'t after 
which he had promised to n.-turu to Basle, 




jlkliid not u yet carried out his intention. 
In 1543 n pestilence broke out in London, to 
whicli Holbein fell u victim between 7 Oct. 
and 29 Nov. of thai yejir. On the former 
date he made a hasty will (see Archaolngin, 
xxxix. 1 ), administration of which wa-strranted 
on the latter date to a lejratee, the g'oldsmith, 
Johnof .\Mtwerp. Ilolljein lived in the parish 
■of St. Andrew I'ndershaft, and was rated 
there as a stranger, showing that he was not 
-a permanent resident in Kngland. lie is 
supposed to have been buried in the church 
•of St. Katheriue Cree. He mentions in liis 
will two children at nurse, who must have 
been illegitimate, as he had by his wife Kls- 
beth two sons, .lakob and Philipp, and two 
slaughters, Margaret and Cunigunde, who 
■were grown up at Basle at the time of his 
death, while his wife survived him tiU 15-1-9. 
Ilollx'in left no pupils, having had no fixed 
residence, or intention to remain permanently 
in England. 

Holbein has claims to rank as one of the 
best portrait-painters in the world. Hecom- 
binea artistic beAuty and precision i if technical 
*.\ecution with extraordinary truth to nature 
and power of interiiretat ion of character. lie 
wa,s most careful in his tr»?atment of acces- 
.^.ories, making free use of real gold, yet thev 
never intrude ou the composition ; every detoil 
in the hands, ears, v<:c., was carefully elabor- 
ated, yet producing complete unity and boj- 
mony in the whole. He usually made nn 
outline drawinp; in chalk on ]>aper, with notes 
of costume imil accessories; this he traced or 
copied on to a panel, ami then jminted the ]K>r- 
trait over it, a method wliicli pr.itiably saved 
many sittings. He was fond of a pale greenish 
blue" back-ground, whicli strengthened the 
■outline of the face. He was very minute iu 
his execution, and painted small medallion 
pictures to fit into round ivory boxes; hence 
lie l>ecame one of the earliest painters of por- 
traits in miniature, which he is said to have 
learnt from his conteniporari-, Lucas Horein- 
bault. .\t Windsor there are miniatures of, 
beside.s Catherine Howard, the two sons of 
the Make of SuHnlk, and Lady .\udley ( 
drawing). He also painted Anne nf Cleves 
in miniature. In his raiscellaiieous drawings, 
scattered about iu public collections. Holbein 
showsthe Slime general excellence. Thedraw- 
ings nf jewellery and other ornaments in tbe 
museum at liusle and in the \ix'mt room nt 
the liritish Miisiiini show him to have been 
■experienced in the goldsmith's craft, and the 
t wo drawinirs ill theltttter collect imi, of aclock 
(for.Sir.\nllinny Ueiiny) and a chimney-piece 
foroneof the royal palaces, with tliedesignfor 
the so-called 'Jane Seymour' cup in the Bod- 
leian Library at Oxford, show his powers of 

I executing omamentnl worksonalar^rscole. 

1 In his drawings of domestic life he shows a 

I sense of humour and of hiunan feeling which 

I appi'uls to all ages. 

I llolbein drew his own portrait at varioiu 
times. A coloured drawing at Basle shows 

I him at the age of twenty-three, and a portrait 

I at the age of thirty-six is in a private collec- 
tion at Vienna. A cii*cular portrait, done in 
the last year of his life, cannot be safely 
traced ; there is a drawing of it in the L'ltixi 
Gallery at I'lorence, and a similar portrait, 
when in the Arundel collection, was engraved 
by Hollar and by Vorsterman. .\ similar por- 
trait was formerly in tlie Strawberry Hill 
collection, and is now in the collection of the 
Duke of Buccleuch : other versions exist else- 
where. The so-ciilletl portraits of Holbein 
and his wife at AVindsor have no claim tci 
represent them ; they are, moreover, painte<i 
on canvas, and signed by Hans B<>ck, a later 
painter at Basle. No artist's name has been 
so frequently and so wilfully misused in 
Kngland as tliat of Hans llolbein. Very few 
authentic jMirtraits by him remain in Kngland. 
Among the many which bear his name, none 
can safely be considered authentic, in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned, except the 
anonymous portrait of a man in the collection 
of Sir J. E. Milluis, and the exquisite small 
square portrait of Henry Vlll at Althoqi. 

[Woltmiiun's lIoll>ein and seine Zeit, 'i vol. 
edition, 1874; AllKenieino Ueutsohe Biographie; 
Wonium'sLifeand Work" of Holbein; P. Mnntz's 
Hmia Hollwin ; Card van Mmidpr's Lirrc de» 
I'eintrtis, eJ. Hymans, 1884 ; Th. vou Lirlieiinti'it 
Hans llolbein d. J. Kr(*kt>n urn Ht-rtensteiii 
llituse in Liizern; Ar<'h<eolo;^ia, xxiix. I, xl. 71 
sq. ; Repcrtorinm fiir Kiinsiwissenscliiift. ii. 162, 
312, T. 179. X. 34.5; Zahn's Jahrbucher fur 
KunstwissBDselmft, i.l85, iii.l 13, iv. 7.5, 186, 209. 
223. 2.51, v. 64, 141, 193; Zeitschrift far bil- 
dendo Kunst, vi. 116. vii. 35, x. 315, xvi. 99, 
iiiii. 302; The Portfolio, xiii. 12, &c.; Gaz«ttc 
<iesBenux-.\rts, April 1 860, Docemlier 1871 ; Cat. 
of the TviJiir Exhiliition, 1890; E. Hib's Des»ia« 
d'Orneiiients il'H«ns Holljein.] L. C. 

HOLBORNE, ANTHONY if. 1.-.97), 

musical composer, was possibly a member 
of Queen Elizabeth's Chajiel IJoyal. He pub- 
lished: 1. 'The Cittharn Schiiole,' printed 
by Peter Short, London, l."(97, with u de<l»- 
cation to Thomas, lord Burgh, baron Cinins- 
biirgh, and an address to the ' proficient schol- 
ler or lover of the cittharn.' It contains 
((iKOVi;, I)i<t. i. 74;{) thirty-two prelude*, 
pavans, golliards, popular song tunes, &e., 
for the cithern alone, in tablature; twenty- 
three others for the cithern with an accom- 
paniment, in ordinary notation, for the ba.*« 
viol; and another two for the cithern with 



accompaaiments for treble, tenor, and bnss 
▼ioU. These pieces arv fullowed by ' Six 
xbort Aers, Neapolitan lik«, to three vojxes 
without the instrument, the first-fruits of 
oomp»>8ition done by ^\"illiam llolbonie ' 
(brother to Anthony). A copy of this rare 
volume, once belimL'ing to Kvelyn, is now in 
the library of the Uoyal CoUepe of Music. 
:>. ' Pavnns, (iolliards, Almaina, and other 
nhort yEir* lioth grave and light, in five 
parts, for Viols, Violins, or other Mueicall 
NVindc Instruments, made by Anthony llol- 
bonto, gentleman and servant to her Most 
Excellent Maiestie. Imprinted nt London 
. . . by William Barley . . . ,' 1.J99. The 
books contain sixty-five pieces. ' \a they 
arc in number many, so thfy are of a nature 
variable to please variable natures,' wrot« 
Holborne in a graceful dedication to Sir 
Ricluird Champernown. A copy of this work, 
possibly unique, is in the British Museum 
l.ibrani', where there are also some unpub- 
lUhed single pieces (Lute music, .\ddit. MS. 
;<!:»>--», and Egerton MS. .'(WC). A duet, 
• My luMivy Sprite,' with lute accompani- 
ment, bv Holborne, is in Roljert Dowland's 
' Musicail Banquet,' llilO. 

Holborne wrote commendatory lines in 
Littin for Famaby's ' Canzonets,' l."i98, and 
in English for Morley's" Plain Introduction,' 
llK>8; while John llowland dedicated the first 
f>ong, • I saw my Ladye weepe,' of his ' Second 
Book," lOtX), to the ' most famous .Vntbony 
Holborne.* Tlie cithern had before that duti> 
beojme popular, and was not yet superseded 
by the guitar of foreign design. 

[Bimbftolt's Bibliothrca Madrignlisna, p. 10 ; 
nuinasrript notes in Hulborne's Pn^■nns, &c. ; 
State I'apvrs, Pom. (.Marj-) 15o5 to!, t. No. 4.1, 
^El'tubeth) 1561 vol. iviii. Xo. 12; anthorititfl 
«it«i.] L. M. M. 

HOLBORNE, Sir R()BERT «/. UU7), 
lawyer, was the son of Nicholas llolbome 
of Chichester. His mother was, perhaps, 
Anne, sister of John Lane (cp. Geti. Muc. 
el Hrrald. 2nd ser. i. 179). He was trained 
for the law, as the custom then wa«, at 
FumiTal's Inn, before proceeding to Lin- 
ooln'« Inn, when? he entered 9 Nov. lOlo, 
■nd stib^xguently became a bencher and 
r«a(ir>r in EnglLsli law there. He was early 
«liBtingni$hed in practice at the king's bencli 
(cf. nUi. Mm. Comm. Ap. to 4th Rep. p. 2C>), 
and his opinion was taken by llampueu in 
n^rd to ship-money. In the great case he 
w»» one of Hampden's counsel, and supplied 
what St. John [q. v." had omitted in iin ehi- 
bor, " r "nent which lasted forthree days, 
•_» • ■ r ( cf. Oakiii.neb. i/M/.viii. 274 ). 

In 111' ■:•'•, (i parliament Holborne sot for 

Souihwark, and in the Long parliament Iiu 
was elected for St. Michael, Cornwall, but. 
seems to have been soon disabled to sit, and 
gave place to Lord Carr. While in the house 
he spoke strongly in favour of tlie power of 
convocation to bind the laity, in so far as the 
canons did not conflict with the law of the 
land. Holborne separated himself still fur- 
ther from his party by the fight he made 
against Strafford's attainder. When the king 
went to Oxford, Holborne joined him there, 
and on 7 Feb. Ili42 was createcl D.C.L. 
The king made him atf^rnev-genernl to the 
Prince of Wales, anil un 19 .Jan. Hi43 he was 
knighted; hise.state was 8equeslrate<l (Hint. 
M-SS. Cumm. Ap. to .Itli Rep, p. 87). He 
died in 1647, and wag buried in Lincoln's 
Inn Cha|>ol on 16 Feb. of that year. 

Holbf)me wrote : 1. ' The Reading in Lin- 
colnes Inne, Feb. 28 1041, vpon the .Statute 
. . . ofTreasons,' Oxford, 16-12, 4to: reie-suetl 
with Bacon's 'Cases' in 1681. 2. 'The 
Freeholders (irand Inquest touching our 
souveraigne Lord the King and his Parlia- 
ment,' London, 1647, 4to; a pamphlet upon 
constitutional (luestions. lie hImi edited 
William Tothill s ' Transactions of the High 
Court of Clmneerj',' Ixindon, ll}49, 8vo. 

[tianliner's History of Englaml ; Rfturn of 
Members of Pavlianient ; Liucoln's Iim Regis- 
ter; Evelyn's Diary, iv. 101 ; Cal. State Papers; 
State Trials, ed. Cobl>ett, iii. 863 &e. ; Whiti'- 
locke's Memorials.] W. A. J. A. 


(1780-18^7), actress, daughter of Thomas 
.lackson, a comedian, played with jucceas 
^ such characters as Juliet, Ro.xana,au<l .Vlicia 
before she was eighteen. On luT father's 
death in 1798 she obtained an eiiiragement 
with a provincial company at Lewes in Sus- 
sex. She sixin married at Battle an actor 
named llnllinxik, bi'longing to the same 
company. They acted together with pro- 
vincial companies in various towns, and after 
coraplt'ling an engagement under Macready 
in Miuii'hesterMrs. Holbrook published theru 
a pamphlet entitled ' Memoirs of an Actress ' 
(8vo, 18C)"), in which she gave many details 
of their varied fortunes. She died in Lon- 
don in January 1837. 

Other works from her pen ore : 1 . ' The Dro- 

matiHt, or Memoirs of the Stage, with tim 

I Life of the Authoress,' Birmingham, 18W. 

I 2, 'Tales, Serious and Instnu'tive,' I'ttoxeter, 

I ls2l, .3. 'Constantine Ca.<triot, an Histori- 

. oal Tale,' Rugeley, 1829. 4. ' Realitit.6 and 

Reflections. A Series of ( >riginal Tales, &c.,' 

4th ed. 12mo, Thame, 1834. 

I [Oent. Mag., May 1837. p. 5 J3; Brit. Mas. 
Cat] A. N, 





HOLBROOK, JOIIX (A 1437), miwter 
of Peterlioit^f, Cmnbridcf, was a iiativi' of 
SiiH'olk. Ill- was educated at IVterhousf, of 
wliicli he became a fellow in 141:i : duriii;; the 
snme year took lioly orders, r('Cei\ iiijf ordiim- 
tioiiaispne8tinl418. In]41«, beiiiKthenU.!)., 
be was elected master of Peterliouse. Uiti sig- 
niiture is appended to nn indenture made on 
12 I'Vb. i) lien. VI ( U;il ) between the college 
uud Jobn Wassyngle, mason, of Hinton, Cam- 
bridgeshire, for building a library- at Peter- 
liouse (Wilms and Clark, Arrltitrrt. Hint, 
iif Unie. iif Cirm/ir. i. 10). In 1421 he was 
iireseiite<l by Henry V to the rectory of South 
Itepps, Norfcdk, and held it until hii< death 
( ni.oMEKIELD, -Vor/i/M-, Rvo edit. viii. I'A). 
Ill- WHS nUii uppointed chaplain to Henry V 
and Henry \ I successively. In 1428 he was 
flio.«en chancellor of the uni\ ersity, and again 
in 1429, when be continued in office until 
1431. During bis chancellorship in 1430 
the memorable dispute concerning ecclesi- 
nsticul jurisdiction, known as the ' Ham- 
well Process,' arose lietween Philip Morgan, 
bishop of Ely.and the university ( Hkntham, 
Chiireh of Ely, p. Ifl8: Mci.lixukb, Univ. 
(■/' Camlir. i. 289). In 1431 lie res^igned 
the ranster.thip of Peterliouse, hiiviag been 
in.'Slituted the year before ti> the college 
vicarage of Hinton. He died on 12 July 
1437, and wus buried in the clmnocl of St. 
Mary the Less, Cambridge (the old college 
chapel of Peterliouse). In 1440 bi(> execu- 
tors, according to the in.structions contained 
in his will, made the pavement of the choir 
and the deskj; in St. >lary the I^'.'is (M'n.Ms 
and Clahk, i. 58). Holbmok was n»puted 
H great nuithematician, nnd, according l<i 
Leland, wasaiithorof: 1. 'TiilH'llie luedionini 
motuuni,' also called 'Tabubf ("iiiitabrij!i- 
cnses,' and extant in Kgertnn MS. KJHS* in the 
Britisli Mu.^eum : n part of the preface e.visls 
in ]J(k1!. MS. ;iO0, f. 1:52 l». 2. ' De rediictiom' ; 
tabulantm Alphotisi ad aniiosClirisli menses, 
dies, et bonis, which Tanner says isascril)ed 
to Iliilbrook in Nonvicensis More MS, 820, 
The Fgerton MS. also contains : 3. ' Tabuhe 
aliio' and 4. 'Ars inveniendi tiguram con- 
cepcionis nati," which are there ascribed to , 
llollirook. Pits likewise ascribes to Hol- 
brook Ti. ' Canones astrnnomici,' which tin 
says are in the lloilleian Library. The 
Egerton MS. is partly in Holhrouk's hand- 
writing, anil was presented hy hini to Peter- 
IiotLse ; heul.soguveanother manit-icrijit tnlii..* 
college containing a translation in Liitin of 
Abu Hasen Aly Aben llugel,' 1 )eJiuliciis Stel- 
lariim,' which is now at Corpus Chri.«ti Col- 
lege, ( )xford ( MS. cli. ; CoxE. Cat. Cod. MSS. 
(\ill. (hull.) His portrait i- in 
combination room (^Willis and Cl-VBK, i.Uu). 

[Tniiner'i Bibl. Brit. p. 406; Addit. (Col»> 
M.S. 5871. f. 206; Carter's Unir. of Ciimbr 

I pp. 24, 26 ; Gmdniiti CiintaLr. (Luiinl, 18ft-t>, 
pp. .i»7, 633 ; Hulliwell-rhillippa's Codex Hol- 
lirookianu* ; Mallioger's Unir. of Cambr. i. 

, 609 >!.] G. G. 

I admiral, second son of Sir James Holburne 
nf Menstrie, co. Edinburgh, first baronet, en- 
tered the navy in 1720 as a volunteer on 
board the St. Albans; paj<sed his examina- 
tion on 28 Jan. 172o-6; on 12 Dec. 1727 wa3 
promoted to be lieutenant, and took post from 
14 July 17.'{9. In 1740 he commanded the 
Dolphin frijTttte in the Channel and North 
Sea. In 1745-0 he commanded the Argyle 
in the AV est Indies, and in December 1747 
was appointed to the Kent in the Channel 
and the Bay of Biscay. In September 1748 
he exchanged into the Bristol, but was almost 
immediately Bfter\vards moved into the Ta- 
vistock, a worn-out .')0-gun ship, in which he 
was sent to the Leeward Islands as commo- 
dore and commander-in-chief Uis principal 
work was diplomatic rather than imval. By 
the terms of the treaty of 1684 Tobago was 
neutralised; but early in 1749 it come to I lol- 
burne's knowledge that M. de Cavlus, the go- 
vernor of Martinique, had established a forti- 
fied post there. As his whole squadron con- 
sisted of one rotten ship of 50 gnus and two 
equally rotten 20-gun frigates, it wasi impossi- 
ble for him to prevent this by force. He Knew 
that de Cavlus, who was a naval officer, was 
aware of this; but upon Holbume's remon- 
strances the fortifications were dismantle<I 
and the garrison withdrawn. Holburne re- 
turned to England in 17i)2. On 5 Feb. 17o.> 
be WHS promoted to be rear-iidmiral of the 
blue, and in the following May, with hi» 
flag in the Terrible, he sailetl with « strong 
squadron to reinforce Boscawen, wlmm he 
met off Louisbourg on 21 June, and with 
wliom he returned to England in November 
"see BoscAWEx, Edwaud, 1711-1701]. lu 
75tl, with his flag .still in the Terrible, lie 
commanded in tbelhird post in thefleet under 
I lawke or Ikiscawen off Brest and in the Bay 
of Biscay, and in the following Jonuary sat 
as a meniberof the court-martial on Admiral 
Byng. t)n 24 Feb. 1757 he was nromoted 
to be vice-admiral of the blue, and after many 
delays sailed from Cork on 7 May with a fleet 
of ships of war and transports intended for 
the reduction of Louisbourg, which had been 
restored to the French by the treaty of Aix- 
la-Chapelle. It was not, however, fill 9 July 
that the expedition reached Halifax; the 
French had taken advantage of the delay to 
strengthen the garrison and collect a nume- 
rous fleet, and Holburne, in consultation with 


the (fencral, the Earl of Loudoun, decided 
that nothinff couhl bn done witliout more 
force. As the geuaon, however, wore on, he i 
determined to parade his fleet before Louis- i 
bourg. possibly in the hope that the French 1 
would accept his challen},'e. Their elfective ' 
strength, however, wa-s terribly reduced by a , 
pextileui^e, and they remained in port ; but 
while llolbume waited on the coast his fleet 
was caught on the night of i4 Sept. by a vio- I 
lent stonn, which drove some of the ships on 1 
shore, and wholly or in part diamiisled almost 
all. After such refit as was jmssiblu Hol- 
bume returned to England, where he arrived 
in I be beginning of December. A few days 
lat<<r be was appointed to the command in 
chief at Portsmouth, a charge which beheld, 
either continuously or more probably with a 
break, for the very unusual term of eight 
year*, the latter part of the time being en- 
livened by a curious inquiry into an alleged 
SI It in November 17tU to set fire to all the 
ix'kvard.'!. The several commanders-in- 
chief and resident commissioners were ordered 
to investigate the matter; but this was done 
with the utmost secrecy, and the report can- 
not now be found. On 5 Aug. 1767 Hol- 
bume attained the rank of admiral of the 
blue, and of admiral of the white on 28 Oct. 
177l>; aVjout the same time he was appointed 
n<ar-admiral of Great Britain. He was one 
of the lord.s of the admiralty from February 
1770 to January 1771, when he accepted the 
pi*t of governor of Greenwich Hospital, in 
which hi died 15 July 1771. 

Holburne married at Barbadoes the widow 
of Kilward Luscelles, collector of the is- 
land, and by her had one son, Fraitcis, who 
in 1772, on the death of liiscousin, Sir AJex- 
(niler, the third baronet, and a captain in the 
n«»T, succeeded to the baronetcy. A portrait 
of Admiral Holbumo, with his son as a little 
hoy, is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. 

ICh«mock's Biog. Nav. v. 33 ; Bentson's Nav. 
tea Mil. Memoirs ; Kntick's Hist, of tlie Inte 
War; official correspondence in the Public 
Sword Office : Troode, Batailles Navales de la 
Tnoer, i. 340.] J. K. L. 


HOLCOMBE, HENRY (ie90?-1750?), 
invical c<imno!M-r, wa# born about 169(), 
>bablrat Slir>?w«burj', and waa n chorister 
While still a boy he came to Lou- 
and tfjok jiart in the ' Anglo-Italian' 
rnfjc performances at Drurv Lann. His 
two rtH-orded impersonations are Prenesto 
,„ . ( ■,...,;nii' in 17CH5, and again in 170H, 
M _'e in ' Rosamund,' 1707. Ueleft 

vl. 'hen his voice broke, and became 

s snccoiafut tejicher of sinifini; and of the 
bjwpsicliurd. He died in lx)ndon about 1760. 

Hepublislied twucollectionsof songs, 'The 
Musical Medley; or a Collection of English 
Songs and Cantatas set to Musick,' London, 
174.J, and 'The Garland; a Collection cf 
eleven Songs and Cantatas,' London, 174.1. 
He wa.-i also the composer of ' 8i.x Solos for 
a Violin and Thorough Bass, with some pieces 
for the German Flute and Hari)8icnord,' 
London, 1745. 

Two of his songs, ' Happy Hour all Hours 
Excelling' (nrinted in tne ' Musical Mis- 
cellany'), and ' Amo's Vale,' enjoyed much 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 743; Fitis's Biog. 
Univ. dc6 Musicien«, iii. 357 ; Holcombi-'s music 
in British Museum]. R. F. S. 

HOLCOT, ROBERT of (d. 1349), divine, 
is said to have been a native of Northampton, 
but the statement seems a mere inference 
from bis surname, Ilolcot being a village in 
Northamptonshirf. It has been conjectured 
that he was a kiu.«miin of Robert of Holcot, 
whosat, according to Bridges (XortAampton- 
sAire, i. 9 A), as a knight of the shire in the 
parliament of 13:i8-9; but the latter appears 
in the parliamentary return { Accountji awl 
Papem, lsi7lS, vol. xv'iii. pt. i. p. S8 ) as ' Hotot,' 
and the correctness of this name is supported 
by other evidence ( Palgkave, Parliamfntaiif 
WriU, 18.M, ii. 1024). Holcot's own deri- 
vation of his name is given in his corament- 
arj' on the book of Wisdom (Prielect. i. 4, 
ed. IfWti): 'Sic.ut enim nomen & rubore deri- 
vatum, ita cognomen liabeo nfornminr caoa 
datum ; et ideo, sicut nomen meum RoberUu 
in rolmre, ita Ilolkut cognomen intueor in 
foramine i>etree' in allusion to Cant. ii. 14. 

Wood states, without citing his authority^ 
that Ilolcot was ' primo iusticiarius, postea 
frater pnedicator ' ( Antiq. of the Citii of Ox- 
ford, ii. 320, ed. A. Clark, 1890), which may 
possibly mean that he was a student of law, 
or a lawyer, before he entered the Dominicau 
order. He was brought up probably in the 
house of his order at Oxford, and became a 
doctor in theology of the university, for the 
statement cited from two Paris manuscripts 
by Quftifand Kchard ( iSVn/)/?. O. P. i. tf29 a, 
<i'M a) that he lielonged to Cambridge is un- 
supported by other evidence. On 23 March 
1331-2, • fr. Rob. Holcote ordinis minor.' (if 
lliislM! t he same person ) was admitted to hear 
confessions by t he Bishopof Lincoln. Richard 
of Bury, presumably after his appointment 
to the see of Durham in 13.'{3, entertained, 
according to William Chumbre, a number of 
clerks in his household, whom he chose for 
their theological attainments, and among 
those named are Bradwardine, Fitiralph, 
and Holcot. How long Holcot remained in 





tkw I cOTud Mcicty ve ilo MM kntm, 
be be, M there are Maae fctamdi for Mier- 
iog, tbe Aidbor of Burr'* ' I'hUobibl'm,' wUA 
beu>tliedmUr24Jui.'l:U4-5. In tlu* end he 
retiinied to tlie active work of teaching, appa- 
(eatly at Oxford, and made himself a great 
J thediTisMofhiaeeDtiny^hi* 
• oftheBihle. InlSI9,aeoanKag 
to Tr ' ■ while he waa eajja^ed in ke- 

turi' '-tiactiduChisoommentarfan 

whicij "I'^Hniu only to the cerenth chapter), 
be was (trieken by the plajrae and died. 
Sinc« Lebtnd jtat«s that be was buried at 
Northampton 4if thi« be what he means by 
' Avoue mediterran«ae'), it is preaomed that 
he had for some time retired from Oxford to 
that place, but nooitive eridenee ii wanting. 

As a dirine Holcot held geoeraUr to the 
tradition of his order as laid down by its 
greatest repteaentatire, St. Thomas Aquinas, 
though in some points (for instance in his 
doctrine of predestination) he has been ob- 
■erred to deviate from it. lie maintained 
the I»ominic«n ^-iew with respect to the im- 
maculate conception so decidedly that his 
t«xt (in the edition of the oomm(>ntary on 
Wisdom, Basle, 1586) waa amended by his 
diacreet editor. A special matter on which he 
difrpre<l from his famous contempomry, Brad- 
iraidine,waahis iiuistenceupon the necessity 
of free will as an antecedent to merit. In 
his logical poeition Ilolcot followed Ock- 
ham, except that he devised s ' logica fidei ' 
(or ' logica sinffularis ' ), side by side with the 
' logica natunilig," in order to meet the dia- 
lectical ditficulties presented by the doctrine 
of the Trinity, which CJckham placed wholly 
outside the sphere of logic. Ilolcot is also 
interesting as one of the fin>t logicians with 
whom the doctrine of the ' obligatoria' has 
grown into a formulated school «ystem('ars'). 

Holcot";>bibliognjphy is beset with pitfalls. 
Many of his writings have been cited under 
more than one title ; some (for instance, the 
commentaries on Wisdom and Proverbs) 
have been attributed to other authors, and 
one (the 'Detenninationes quarundam quies- 
tionum') is believed to be a compilation by 
his pupils. It is probable that in consetiuence 
of his sudden death his papers were left in 
disorder, so that even in his commentary on 
the ' Sentences ' the sections appear in some 
manuscripts (e.g. .Merton College, Oxford, 
No. 1 1.3) in a different order from that of the 
printed texts, which of course follow the 
arrangement of Peter Lombard. In the sub- 
joined list a large number of duplications and 
other errors have been set right, but to aim 
at complete accuracy it would be necessary 
to collate the very numerous manuscripts 
•~1 early editions of Holcot's works, which 


aiMK tke MBikadtT ke Ui I 

a ti iii l — w^ — ia lii ■■ ■ < 

tW s iiitwi li uMM i. 

Hia rMMmi ^ufa tm _ 

tariea a« Ih ciW i b a . Pam. lolA, lalSi, Jke 
3. Ob OBstidea. a. L aat v. Vtake. ISOB. 
3. C>D WMdoK. «. L a«t a^ •■ L M80, with 
ahoot tevemeea later cdidaBS: aad 4. Ob 
EeelMiaaiiciM. i-«ii, TcanK, MOSl Thelwt 
Itcittre in thenaiiiwiaij tm VTmiam tsea- 
titfed'Oe ataAoaao] 

heea •luagli lA 
(cf. PaxxBS, Jim. Tffgr. m.' i&\\ 
5. 'QiueBt)aaea'aathe'SeDt«w»'«f Mer 
Lombw^ LyoM, I«(7. 1510. 1518^ to wUdi 
are gencnlly aupi aii il Htm dwee Mlowiar 
works: & ' CoafcwMW ' ( teaatriwea ttMbd 

' 'Super artiealia iiy^piatii "^ 7. *Tit im- 

I putabilitate peetati.' & 

I quamndam mw«i<MM * (or 

I tiones qnrarin«a» xr.*) 9. 

I mamlin ■wwator 

I theworkabodeaenWdaa'DBpecealiai 

I talilms et eamm rttdiii't. IHris, 15f 
10. 'Moralitatea historiariUB' (also hsowii 

I as ' Moralisatknies 'I, Veniee, 1906; ^ria, 

I 1610; Basle, 1588, Jfcc To tl " " 

perhaps be added the wvU-kaowit ' 

I blon sive De amore iibrorsm,' BJiiaUj < 

' buted to Bishop Richard o^ Barr (pnat 
Cologne, 1473: Spires, 14«S; Flam. ISOO^ 

' Sie,\ the author^ip of which hasWeaBtidi 
disputed. Probably the truth is rtym ted 
by the t itle found in :i«veral mannsenMa ' 1 
cipit prologus Philobibloa Ricardi Dm 
mensis episcnpi, quern librum eompilavit '• 
bertus Bolcote de ordine jffedicatomm sub 
nomine diet iepiscopi.' In otnerworfa, HoJoot 
wrote the book at the request and in the name 
of the bishop, apparently tocelebrate his fifty- 

I eighth birthday, 24 Jan. 1*44-5 (p. 161. «L 

I Thomas), while the bishop's supervision and 

I co-operation need not be excluded. The form 

j of the title might easily lead to the ascrip- 
tion of the book to Bury, but it is difficult 

' to understand how, if it were Bury's own 
work, it could have come to be attributed to 
Holcot. At the same time too much stress 

' should not be laid upon the evidently ma- 
licious account of Bury's small literary at- 
tainments and great pretensions given by 
A. Murimuth, ' Continuatio Chronicarum,* 
p. 171. ed. E. M. Thomj)son, 18^. 

Holcot's unpublished works are: 1. Postils 
on the twelve Minor I*rophets. 2. A com- 
mentary on the four Gospels (and perhaps a 
separate one on St. Matthew). 3. ' Morili- 
zationes scripturic pro evangelixantibus 

' verbum Dei ' (or ' .-Mlegori* utriusque Tes- 
tamenti,' possibly the same work as the 

' ' Exempla scripturee ' said by Tanner to have 




been published at Paris in 1600). Tbe manu- 

cript at Magdalen College, Oxford (No. 

tviii.), referred to as containing thi-s work 

ittj contains the ' historiarum ' 

■"lOoXE, Cat. of 0.r/urd MS.S., Mngd. Coll., 

, 40a), but another manuscript in the game 

Sbrary (No. clviii., clix.) 8eem.s to present 

he text of the former under the title ' Re- 

uctoriuin morale,' with a note that ' in 

iTinione fuit factum, Pari.niis vero correc- 

et tabulatum, a.d. 1342' (I'A. p. 74), 

vhich suggests that it is a compend by a dis- 

»ple. 4. ' De prmdicatoris othcio.' ». ' De 

praescientia et prtwlestinatione' (onoe pre- 

erved at Merton College, see Bale, MS. sel- 

en, supra, 64, (. iiOS). 6. ' De fautoribus, 

defeneoribus, et receptoribus hiereticorum 

libri xiv.' 7-10. Four books of sermons. 

11. • Determinatio Oxoniensis.' \'J. ' Dic- 

tiooarium quoddam.' 13. ' De mntibus 

. natural i bus.' 14. ' De effectibus stellarum.' 

fl5. ' De ludo scaccorum libri iv.' Of all 

ihese the ' incipits ' are recorded, and many 

of them are preserved in known raunuscripts. 

The folhiwing have only their titles quoted, 

rith no further means of identification. 

16. A commentary on Ecclesiastes. 17. ' De 

^mmortalitate aninjie.' 18. ' De libertate 

fre<lendi.' 19. ' Ijectuno scholastics. ' 

0. 'Super quinque univeraalia.' 21. ' De 

nore,' which can hardly be other than the 

• Philobiblon.' 

[Meyer, Do illuatr. Viris de 0. P., printed by 

Deoide, Arohir fur Litt.-und Kirchen-Geschichtc 

dc« M.A., ii. 191, 1886; Trithemiue's Catal. 

iplt. Eccles., f. CXT. a, Cologne, 1631, 4to ; 

eUnd'g Comm. def<criptt.Brit. edxi. pp. 370 scq. ; 

Je'« MS.(B<jdl.Libr.)Selden,!mpra6-J,ff. 165*, 

[164 A, 'iOS ; .'Vriptt. Brit. CatJil. v. 84, fp. 433 f.; 

f\li, De AnglisB Scriprt. pp. 463 ff. ; Quitif and 

Bchord's Scriptt. Ordinia Prte<licatorum, i. 

»29-32; Ftibricius'e Bibl. Lat. inf. at. 

Ki. 264 f., ed. Florence, 1858; Tanner's Bibl. 

Brit. pp. 407 f. ; ihe Rev. W. E. Backley in 

Korthamptonshire Notes and Qaerics. ii. 25-30, 

»7 1., 1888 ; C. Ton PmntrsGeschichte dcr L-igik 

Abendlande, iv. 6-9, Leipzig, 1870 ; The 

Philobiblon of Richard de Bury, ed. E. C. 

IThonuu, 1888] B. L. P. 

HOLCROFT, FRANCIS (1629P-1693), 
uritan divine, is said to have been the son 
a knight, perhaps Sir Henry Holcroft, 
to have been bom at West Ham in 
Tillot*on, afterwards archbishop of 
CaBt«rbury, was his 'chamber-fellow at 
CUre H»ll, Cambridge, about 1S.50. While 
Cambridge he embraced puritan princi- 
Ics, and became a communicant with the 
ongregation of Mr. Jephcot at Swaffham 
' loru. He graduated M. A., was elected 
ellow of his college, took holy orders, and 

for some years voluntarily supplied thii parish 
of Litlington, Cambridgesliire. About 16.»5 
he accepted the living of Ba«singbourne, 
Cambridgeshire, whert- he was a successful 
preacher, and, was a».si.stedbv the Rev. Joseph 
Oddy, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Holcroft eventuivlly formed a church on con- 
gregational principles, and, after being ejected 
in 1862 from Bassiugbourne, became a bitter 
opponent of episcopalianism. After his eject- 
ment he formed bis late parishioners into con- 
gregations at convenient centres, and acted as 
their minister, with the assistance of Oddy 
and S. Corbyn, both ejected fellows of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, who were ap- 
pijinted at a general meeting at Eversden. 
In lti63 Holcroft was imprisoned in Cam- 
bridge gaol, by order of Sir Thomas Chicklev, 
(or illegal preaching, but he was occasionally 
allowed by the warder to visit his congrega- 
tions. At the assizes he was sentenced to 
objure the realm, but on the Earl of Angle- 
sea representing his case to Chorles II he 
was allowed to remain in gaol. He was re- 
leased at tlie Declaration of Indulgence in 
1672, returned to his labours, and was again 
imprisoned. By means of a writ of certiorari 
he was removed as an insolvent debtor to the 
Fleet prison, London, and frequently preached 
there to large crowds of people. On dis- 
charging his debts he was released. During 
both these imprisonments ho experienced 
mnch kindness from Tillotson. Until 1689 
Holcroft took general charge of a number of 
congregations in Cambridgeshire and the ad- 
joining counties. Soon after 1689 his health 
gave way, and he became a prey to melan- 
choly, ' which was promoted by grief for the 
headiness of some of his people, who turned 
preachers, or encouraged such as did so.' His 
organization quickly came to grief, and he 
died on 6 Jan. 1692-3 at Triplow, Cambridge- 
shire, wliere he was buried. The inscription 
on his tombstone gives his age as iifty-nine, 
but a funeral sermon says ne was in his 
sixty-tliird year. He left 'a small estate' 
to the poor of his congregations, and a piece 
of ground at Oakington for a burial-place. 
Calamy states that there is scarcely a village 
in Cambridgeshire in which Holcroft did 
not preach, and he was generally considered 
to have been the chief promoter of inde- 
pendency in that county. He wrote a tract 
called 'A Word to the Saints from the 
Watch Tower,' 1088. It appears to have 
been written while he was in Cambridge 

[Palmer's Noneonformist's Memorial, i. 259; 
Wilson'e Dissenting Churches, iv. 412; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. ii. p. 143; Calamy 's 
Baxter, ii. 86.1 A. C. B. 



Mi ' 

•( ' 


I 1/ 

v^- '. <l^'<«)<iMlW««I- 

■-%>■{ in isiwaw 
■litdt*, WT<r> 


\^^V:-\ lu „.„ 

. M. TVmcliiiymvfci.,... .„..,. 

lit MMPMi, lIoktMh M<NMtnlkt««lklM^I I 

up Ki« fMtcMMM «l DriuT L»M, U 
i he TwhrifSww ■> cwTwi fw i ilwn of tW 

I ticiiiK,' With a view to tminUting I 

(h<> nut limn of the fiiUoviac year he ] 

iw<conti vidit to P&rU in onW to tn 

BiMnmaivlmis's ' Marisit^e de Figui*.' 

unabln to obtain a copy of the e u mt dy , i 

htine «fraid of taking not«s, Holerou wnfc 

I hi* mrmi Bonneville nigbtlT axttmitd. thm 

I tlH»tt\> wh«re it was being petfonaed aabl 

tkry hail committed the whole of it to ai»- 

moTT (ti. p. ll'6). Thf? transUtion w 

. daMid at Corent Garden with gmt 

I AM 14 Dec. 17lf>4, under the title of ' Tba 

T' "in of the Day,' Ilolcrofl 

■ •. in the absence of the actor to i 

■ had U-en allotted. Holcroft re- 
. forthi^adaptation, In addition to 
iSl,> sum for the copyright, '"nie 
^^n.' his Ix-dt und mo«t suceMsfol 
" ■■i'>nund for the first tim« at 
ui 18 Feb. 1792. The cha- 
jich, and the admirabhs im- 
.t bv I<ewi3 the comedian, 
. d llie play in popular favour, 
tlmn thirty-eight times 
il became a 8tock piece. 
(iIav is rich in the tradttiona 
,,>nic triumphs. it« liter»ry 
MiTxle. *jtv oM high, an<l it is chieHy remark- 
Able fat *• cieit«>n measure of appropriate- 
MM Ut Ik* laMvage, some tolerably in^rt- ni- 
•■* aMllM, MM OiM or two etfective but cnn- 
'vntl rlkuscter* ' (At/ifnaum, 8 Nov. 
TV» pUy vraa revived at the \'aud»- 
\ -.^> m l^nadeaoo 1 Xov. 1873, when it na 
fi>r 1 1 ^ «W||to,aad hu been fre<i uent ly played 
timtt IW^gk oy|NMed to the us» of foroe, 
BateNftH^MIlIf «Bbnce<l the principles of 
tW» FVmkA IVtmlatD. «ud in No vem her 1 79^ 
'««MM » MMibar ol the * Society for Con- 
^tilMMMd iBftrm&iIoin.' Tn company with 
-') Tq. V.J and tea 
1 for hi^n treason. 
Tttl th« 3iid<ile«e\ grand jury r»- 
. r\»e hiU agunat him, and on tho 
Ut« h«na* vnlimtarily surrendered 
' f fit Rie^^ Ball, he was committed 
n^iratitv wllUt k* ramainiHl until 1 Deo. 
■.«Hf, whw> ia oa«i»«^uence of Hardy'a 
aoauiltal. W WM hR>a;bt up to the Old 
tWi)#r, aw) dJKhripiil without a trial (An- 
MM/ )^MMr, inkl,Clirai.. p. ■*«). 

Ib ITWHoienAtOwiaf to financial embar- 
nMNM«t,MU hi* booktMd pictures and went 
<> n— tWM. Bm» In •tt«mpte<l to get up 
• MWMI MlM IW ' ElBopeaii ReposJtorr,' 
«tah f»*e >wd tho weond number only. He 
wtit to Plaris, where he re- 
y««nk. Daring his altsenoe his 
T^ of MrMKfr' w»» produci-d at Covent 
Qu^iM <m \i KoT. 1808. This adaptation 
ft«M th* WlMok. tht HHic ibr which wa« 






compotied by Thomas Busby, was pronounced 
;|)y Geii«'»t to be the first and best ' of those 
eIo-dramt«s with which the stage was after- 
arde inundated' (Account of the Eni/Ush 
tage, vii. 670). Holcroft returned to Eng- 
nd in 1S03, and soon afterwards set up a 
nting business in connection with Lis 
irorher-in-law, Mercier, which proved a com- 
_lete failure. Holcroft died after a long ill- 
i«s8 in Clipstone Street, Marylebone, on 
S;} Marvh 1809, aged 63, and was buried at 
:]tlarjlebone in the larger parish cemetery on 
le south side of I'addingtou Street. 
Dolcroft was a stern and conscientious man, 
ith an Ira^ible temper, great energy, and 
arrellous industry. Charles Lamb [q. v.], 
11 his letter to ' K. S., Esq., on the Tomos in 
e Abtiev,' speaks of Holcroft as ' one of the 
candid, most upright, and single-mean- 
;»en' whom he ever knew {Lift, Lettem, 
Writinyn of Charles Lamb, ed. P. Fitr- 
gerald, 1876, vi. 78), while William Godwin 
ihe elder [q. v.], with whom Holcroft was for 
veml years very intimate, numbered him 
ong his ' four principal oral instructors ' 
C- K. Paul, M'illinm dud win, i. 17). As an 
•ftor he was harsh and unsympathetic, and he 
appear* to have taken no turther part on the , 
stage after his performance of Figaro. In 
•piteof bis poverty and many adverse circum- 
stances, Holcroft with great tenacity of pur- 
pose contrived to educate himself creditably, 
ud to B<"tjuire a competent knowledge of 
ich, German, and Italian. His career, 
lowerer, was one continuous struggle against 
isfortune, and owing to his many rash specu- 
tioQS and his ' picture-dealing insanity ' his 
loirs were perpetually in an embarrassed 
•nditiun. He married four times. His son 
illiam (by his second wife) when only sLx- 
committed suicide while attempting to 
aipe to the West Indies after robbing him 
40/. in November 1789 (jV/r7/!6i';-«, pp. 140- 
3). His daughter Faimy (rf. 1844) was the 
luor«<8« of several novels and translations, 
ABOther daughter, l>ouisa, bi^came the i 
'lyle's friend Kadums (Carlylb, | 
, ed. C. E. Norton, 1887, i. 9^- | 
1. His widow, whose maiden name was 
lOiSQ Mercier, remarried James Kenney 
v.], the dramatic writer. 
One of the three portraits of Holcroft, 
were painted at different times bv his 
John I ipie, is now in the National 
it Gallery. There are engravings of 
olcroft in the 'European Magazine' (vol. 
ii. opp. p. 403), the ' Register of the Times ' 
ol. ii. opp. p. 4), the 'Monthly Mirror' (vol. 
" 323), and in the first volume of i 
irs,' 181rt. j 

1 ue ■ Jiiumoirs written by himself and con- | 

tinned down to the time of his death, from 
his Diary, Notes, and other Papers.'were edited 
by his friend W^illiam Ilazlitt, Though com- 
pleted in 1810, they were not published until 
1816, London, ll!mo, 3 vols. They were re- 
printed in a slightly abridged form in I8a2 
as part of Longman's ' Travellers' Librarj',' 
Loudon, 8vo, The account of his life down 
to his fifteenth vettr(pp. 7-6.")), and his diary 
from •2-2 June "1798 to 12 March 1799 (pp. 
190-2o6) were written by Holcroft himself, 
, whilethe remaining portion of the 'Memoirs' 
were compiled by Ilazlitt. Some of HoU 
I croft's correspondence is appended to the 
I 'Memoirs' (pi>. 269-315). 'Thomas Moore 
regarded the 'Memoirs 'as 'amongst the most 
interesting specimens of autobiography we 
have'(MooKE, Memuirif, ii. 167). Many of 
Holcroft's letters to Go<lwin are printed in 
Mr. Paul's ' William Godwin.' Two or tliree 
of his dramatic pieces were set to music by 
his friend Shield, who also composed the 
music for several songs which Holcroft wrote 
for Vauxhall, some of which became very 

Holcroft was a most prolific writer, and 
appears to have contributed to the ' NN'est- 
minster .Magazine,' the ' Wit's Magazine,' the 
' Town ajid Country Magazine,' and to the 
early numbers of the ' English Keview.' Ac- 
cording to Ilazlitt, Holcroft also wrote for the 
' Monthly Review,' but from an entry in the 
diary this would seem not to have been the 
case (Memoirg, pp. 184, 199). Owing to the 
violent politiciil prejudices against him, some 
of Holcroft's plays were printed without his 
name. He published the following works in 
addition to numerous translations from the 
French of Madame de (ienlis, M. Savary, 
and other writers besides those meutione<l ; 
1 . ' Elegies : I. On the Death of Samuel Foote, 
Es^.; II. On Age," London, 1777, 4to. 2. ' A 
Plam . . . Narrative of the late Riots in 
London, . . . Westminster, and . . . South- 
wark, . . . with an Account of the Commit- 
ment of LordG.Qordon totheTower,&c. . . . 
I5y William Vincent of (tray's Inn,' London, 
1780, 8vo; the second edition, corrected, with 
an appendix, Ijondon, 1780, 8vo. 3. 'Alwyn, 
or the Gentleman Comedian ' [a novel], anon., 
London, 1780, 12mo. 4.' Duplicity ,'b comedy 
[in five acts and in prose], &c., London, 1781, 
Bvo ; third edition, London, 1782, 8vo ; 
another edition, Dublin, 1782, 12mo. This 
comedy was cut down to three acts, and re- 
vived at Covent Garden Theatre as ' The 
Mask'd Friend,' 6 May 1796. 5. 'Human 
Happiness, or The Sceptic,' a poem in six 
cantos, London, 1783, 4to. 6. 'The Family 
Picture, or Domestic Dialogues on Amiable 
. . . Subjects,' London, 1783, 12mo, 2 vols. 



7. ' The Noble Peasant,' a comic opera in three 
acts [in prose, with sonps^, I..on(lan, 1784, 
8vo. 8. "Tale« ot' iho Cb^iIv, or Stories of 
Instruction and Delight. ISeing I>es Veillfes 
du Chiitettu, written in French by Mtulame 
la Couitesse de (lenlis. . . . Tran8late<i into 
linglich,' &c., London, 1785, 12mo, 5 vols. ; 
another eflition, Dublin, 1785, 12nio, 4vols. ; 
third edition, Loudon, 1787, \iimo, 5 vols. ; 
eighth edition, London, 18(.>tJ, 12mo, 5 vols. ; 
another edition, I'onning part of Walker's 
• British Classic*,' London, 1817, 12mo. 
9. ' The FollieJi of a Day, or the Marriage 
of Figaro, a Comedy [in five acts and in proso] 
. . . from the French of M. de Deaumarchaia,' 
London, 1785, 8vo; a new edition, London, 
1785, Hvo; in three act* 'with alterations by 
J. V. Kemble], Iy)ndon, l8U,8vo. 10. 'The 
Choleric Fathers,' a comic opera Tin three 
acts, in prose and verse], London, 1 785, 8vo. 
II. 'An Amourons Tale of the Chaste Loves 
of Peter the Long . . . and the Uistory of 
the Lover's Well. Imitated from the original 
French' [of L. F. Billardon de Snnvigny], 
&c. ; from the original raanu.script of 'Mr. 
D. C. L. P.,' Uindon, 1786, Bvo. 12. 'Seduc- 
tion,' a comedy [in live acts and in prose], 
London, 1787, 8vo ; third edition, Londou, 
1787, 8vo. 13. • The Life of lUrun Frederic 
Trenck, containing iiis Adventures . . . also 
AneO'lotes, 11 istorical, Pol itical, and Personal. 
Translated from the Herman,' &c. (' .Vnec- 
<lote8 of the Life of Alexander Schell . . . 
written as ttSupj)leraent to ray own History ' ), 
London, 1788, 12mo, 3 vols.; another edi- 
tion, Boston [U.S.] U'nited] S[tBte8], 1792, 
limo; another edition, London, 1795, 12mo, 
3 vols. ; third edition, lx)ndon, 1800, 12mo, 
a vols.; the fourth edition, London, I8l7, 
Hvo, 3 vols.; another edition, London, 1835, 
12mo; another edition, forming vols, xxvi. 
and xsvii. of Cassell's Natioual Librarv, Ixin- 
don, 1880, 8vo. 14. ' Po^lhtimous Works 
of Frederic II, King of Prussia ' (translated 
from the French), Loudon, 1789, 8vo, 13 vols. 
15. 'The School for Arrogance,' a comedy 
[in live act g, in prose], &c., London, 1791, 8vo; 
second edition, Loudon, 1791, 8vo. IG. 'The 
lioad tn Ruin,' a comedy [in tive acts and in 
prosi.'l.&c, London, 1792, 8vo ; second edit ion, 
London, 1792, 8vo; fourth edition, London, 
1792, 8vo: fifth edition, London, 1792, 8vo; 
sixth edition, Londou. 1792, 8vo; ninth edi- 
tion. London, 1792, 8vo. It has been re- 
printed in a number of dramatic collections, 
and has been translated into Iterman atid 
Dullish. 17. 'Anna St. Ives,' a novel, &c., 
London, 1792, 12rao, 7 vols. 18. 'Essays 
•n Physiognomy ; for the Promotion of the 
Knowledge and the Loveof Mankind. Written 
in the German Language by J. C. Lavater, 

and translated into Kngliah,' &c., London, 
t 1793, 8vo, 3 vols. A cheap abridgment in 
I one volume waj published in the same year, 

London. 12mo. 19. ' Love's Frailties,' a 
I comedy in five acts [in prose], &c., l.,ondon, 

1794, .Svo. 20. 'The Adventures of Hugh 
Trevor," kc, London, 1794-7, l2mo, 6 vols.; 
third edition, London, 1801, 12mo, 4 vol*. 

I'Traduit de I'anglaU par le Cit. Cantwell,' 
Pari.s,1798,12ino,4tom. 21. 'The Deserted 
Daughter,' a comedy, &c. [in five acts and 
in prose, founded on Cumberland's ' Fashion- 
able Lover'],anon., Ijondon, 1 795, 8to ; second 
edition, London, 1795, Svo; third edition, 
London, 1795, Svo; fourth edition, London, 

1795, Svo; another edition. New York, 1806, 
12mo. It has been translated into Danish. 
' The Steward, or Fashion and Feeling, a 
Comedy in five acts (founded upon the " De- 
serted Daughter "j.'&cwas published anony- 
mously in 1819, London, Svo. 22. 'A Nar- 
rative of Facts relating to a Prosecution for 
High Treason, incluiling the Address to the 
.fury which the Court refused to hear; with 
Letters to the Attomey-<.ieneral . . . and 
Vicary Gibbs, E.<q., and the Defence the 
Author had prepared if he had been brought 
to trial,' London, 1795, Svo, 2 parts. 23. ' A 
Letter to the Kight Hon. W. Windham on 
the intemperance and dangerous tendency 
of his public conduct,' London, 1795, Svo. 
24. ' The Man of Ten Thousand,' a comedy 
[in five acts and in prose], I>ondon, 1796, Svo; 
thirdedition, London, 1796, Svo. 25. 'Knave 
or not ? ' a comedy in five acts [and in prose], 
London, 1798, Svo; second edition, London, 
1798, 8vo. 2t>. 'The Inquisitor,' a play in 
tive acts [and in prose, taken from a German 
play called ' Diego und Leonor'], &c., anon., 
London, 1798, Svo. Another play founded 
on the same piece was published in the same 
year by Pye and .\ndrews, but was never 
acted. 27. 'He's Much to Blame,' a comedy 

I in five acts [and in prose], anon., London, 
1798, Svo; fourth edition, London, 1798, 8vo. 
Though attributed to Ilolcroft in his ' Me- 
moirs,' the authorship of it has been ascribed 
to Fenwick (Gexest, vii. 3t!0-l). 28. ' Her- 
man and Dorothea,' a poem from the German 
of Goethe, I..ondon,1801, Svo. 29. 'Deaf and 
Dumb, or the Orj)han Protected,' an historical 
drama, in five acts [and in prose], taken from 
the French of M. Bouilly, and adapted to 
the English stage, anon., London, 1801, Svo; 
fifth edition, London, 1802, Svo. 30. 'A 
Tale of Mystery, a Melodrame' [in two acts 
and in prose], London, 1802,Svo;tnird edition, 
London, 1813, Svo. 31. 'Hear both Sides," 
a comedy [in five acts and in prose], Lon- 
don, 1803, Svo; third edition, London, ISO.'}, 
Svo. 32. ' Travels from Hamburg, through 


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li. 1'. K, Ji. ^ Ifil'."! Ill- i>ri>or<'iU'.l li> I'jin.-., wliiii' ln' ^iji 


-iHit fer pccasftl to a friend in 

<• Ihs ijttimg the civil war. 

one of the ablest 

' iam time. A rou^h pas- 

■tiii iiJBg bom m risit to Kngland 

'imiufhr on quartan aeue, and he 

; ireh 1662. lie appointed 

and left most of his fiir- 

a of five hundred pistoles, 

-ptioniat con vent.of which 

ic«;t.)r since its removal in 1658 

He made other bequests to 

. rs in France. Five years after- 

Kese liud been paid, the French 

1 the money, the droit d'aubaine 

reii^ners from inheriting pro- 

\sx» a threat of seizing the newly 

• regory'ii seminary to satisfy t he 

riiugh the e.\ertion« of Edward 

Vustin nuns' chaplain, it was 

liy the payment of three thou- 

nt by Walter Montagu. 

- I iJournalof Austin NuiisatNcuillr; 

■ - iiibl. Diot. of Knglish Catholirs ; Mi«- 

• rr.'orio Panzjmi ; Plowden's Remiirks 

I'g Church Hist.; Dupin's Bibl. 

-iasliquvs; Cut. liibliothique da 

Library, Puriii); BatWs Hut. 

' aiholiCB.] J. G. A. 

<. LAWRR>X'E (1710-ir-8>, 

me, WHS born at Roltou, Lan- 

:: 1710, and educated for the minis- 

r Charles Owen, D.D., at Warring- 

> Hr*t settlement was at Whit worth, 

re, whence lie removed to Doncaster, 

' ".- in 17.'i5, and finally about 1740 

--ex. He did not subscribe as 

'.li- Toleration Act, his opiniona 

u; hence there was a aecesaioa 

iregation at Maldon. On his 

lumeof sermon.", Seckeroftered 

ut if he would conform. Sher- 

■ ip of London, stopped a prosecution 

ui-h he was threatened when he 

I school at Maldon. He was an un- 

'. il candidate for the charge of the 

Ka«(Usik iire^byteriun congregation at Kotter- 

liam. iiis visit to Holland however intro- 

■«-d him to the works of foreign divines. 

^whirh he made use in his critical cora- 

/*. He died on 4 Aug. 1778. He 

tirst (before 1736) a daughter of 

*^ [lit worth, by whom he had a sou and 

J>Ui;hlers ; secondly (about 1740) a 

.' f.r of John Slack of Elmsall, West 

_. bv whom he bad eight children. 

v\ i.'wdied on 7 January 1808, ageil 8o. 

iblished : 1 .' Twentv-two Sermons,' 

<;»v., ir.i.">, 8vo. 2. "The A anity of Crying 

W God," kc, 1757, 8vo. S. ' A Paraphrase 

■•».,, Job, Psalms, I*ro verbs, and Eccle- 





■uute*,' Sic, 176S, «To, 4 voIb. 
phuiM on . . . Uaiah,* Ac, 
IT'S, 8vo, 3 voU. 

HoLUES, Lawkesck, the )Ouu §, u ( 17Stf- 
1844 ), dissent I u^ di vine, loa « tbe pnecdiM, 
was bom at Msldon on lo Dec 173& u 
1766 be entered the Uoxton At ai lf i nj, Hid 
went thmugU a six yeare* cowaa <tf itodljr 
for the diasentin); ministir ~ _ 

Kipoi-s. and Rees. While at Ha«t«M he va* 
much influenced by his bther'B6iead,0ikh 
Fleming, D.L>. [q. r.], whose iiagmfhy he 
edited. On 5 Julv 177:; he enCeied the 



Snege, He 

miiuBtry at Tenterden, Keot, a 
Ciirnelius Hancock, whom he 
{Mstor in May 1774. Here 
over seTenty-one veara, 
Edward Talbot. 'De began 
tbe age of nineteen and continaed it to the 
age of ninety-one. Ue died at T«nCenl«i oa 
lU March 1»<44 and waa baiied on % Vareh. 
A memorial sermon was picacfaed at Maid- 
stone on 1 4 .\pril by Williaia Steneaa. lit 
married (January 1 777) a daughter of Jaaes 
Blackmore, who died witboat iane Mesy 
years before her hiuband. He pnhliihtid a 
few sermong (lblO-14) and lectaies oa the 
eridences (1820). 

[Monthly Kepontory, 1806. pp. Ml aq., ISM. 
{X. 50 ; Christian Reformer, IM4, pp. SM iq^ 
780 «). ; 8leTen*'s Character at ih* late Btr. 
h. IIoLden, 1844 j Darida's Evrnqg. Xvaeoaf. ia 
E«a«3. 1863, p. 426; liiall't ^~yg"'— *'•— 
is Yorkshire, 1868, p. 25o.l A. G. 

HOLDEN, MOSE.S (1777-18M), aatio- 
nomer, was bom at Bolton, Ltncaahire, on 
21 Not. 1777. As a youth be worked is 
a foundry at Prwton, until disabled by aa 
ac«3dent. On his recovery be oocnpied hint- 
■elf first as a land<c«ne gardener, tttea aa a 
wvaver. Early in lite he poaeeased a atroog 
love of astronomy, and he collected a tTbtary 
that was remarkable for one in hia station, i 
In 16)14-15 beconstructed a Urge orrery and 

ol Kaowledge, aad in I8S4 the 
at tha fiiaiis^li was f —fa red «■ 
his. B« fiad a< PmMea <m S Jaaa 

P ^ taa Oaasfiaa.] C. W. 

HOIJ>EB, WILLIAM (l«16-Mee), 

diviacwas hoes ia TnltiM^aahiw i» ldl& 

ac Csaihnd^ M a aekolBr of 

HaO «M 4 Jaly ItO, amA after 

reMsediaffM-^. ia IMOkwaadMledaMltfv 

rfhssrinriiiw. Ahw IWa he ohtaiaad ifca 

ttguwfol n1f»riiimt«ia, Oxfatdahite.aad oa 

t« ; n Maieh IftIS was iaeorpotased UJL at 

aa QifasdiWooa, Ai<iQnM.ed.Btias,iLM). 

for On 35 J«M 1«S he was eolktad by Kaboa 

ia27by Wfea t« th* thbd asutiMlil alaU in Qy 

CathadnL faM waaaot iastalMaatilSBMt. 

leao (La XiTx. IktU, ed. Ilaidy, L SKTV. 

Be gained teumitnVm rapMatioa ia hJW 

a n<< 

hy f rarhiag a dsaf mmtt, Atr«aiid»T Pophaa^ 
SOB td Cofaael Edtnsd PofhMa, to aacah. 
Fbphaai ■flwaiils 1 1 h i i lrg iato ilaailswai 
was tM« ta Dc Jeha Wal&, who lastofcd 
hisspcch. At the BeatoratieB Holder Bso- 
caeded D.D. at QtJbnl, awl oa 37 Jaa. laas 
wMjecaeated by Bishoa Wan to the rcctorr 
of 5otthw<oid ia Norfolk ( IlMKBm^, Aer'- 
/ta, 8vo ed. it. 290>. aad abo to that of 
Tidd St. Giles's ia the Isle of Ely. On 
30 Mn 1063 he was elected F.BJ}. (TwiH- 
•o>, UuLtf BogtU Soeietf, A]/p. iv. p. xxii). 
To the 'PhUoai^hieal Tranaacf ions ' for May 
iaaB(iiL«86-8) heeaatiifaMted ' .\n Expert- 
BMst coaeeratag Draftiass' la l^tit^ h« pub- 
Bahed 'EkawaU of Speecb, an Etfav of 
Iwiaiiy iato the aataral production of Let- 
ters; with aa Appendix concerning tierton* 
Itaaf and Dnnb.' Bnmey I Ilut. of Mutir, 
iii 606-9) commends tbe book to the penual 
of lyric poets aad eoaposers of vocal music 
as DoiatiaKoat hanhoooibiaations of letters 
and •yOaUea. In the atipeBdiT Holder r»- 
latea now he tanj^t Popnam to upeak. As 
ineenious magic-lantem. 'These were | a snppleoieat to Uie ' Phdosophical Trausac- 

i_^...i,« ^„/:ii...._.;_.. k:. -.. lions' of 3 July 1670 he wrote • lieflexions 

on Dr. Wallis's Letter to Mr. Boyle concern- 
ing an Essay of Teaching a person Deaf and 
Lhunb to speak and understand a Langnoge.' 
Wallis had claimed the merit of having 
taught Popham. Holder was also eminent 
in music. An evening service in C and two 
anthems bv him are in the Tudwav collec- 
tion (Uarleian MS.S. 7338 and 7339). He 
was installed prebendary of Isledon in 8t. 
Paul's Cathedral on 16 Nov. 1672, and was 
also one of the canons resideotiary of that 
Church (NEWcotrsT, JispcrtorMim,' i. 168). 
On 2 Sept. 1674 he waa sworn sub-dean of 
He assisted in the Chapel Koyal ( OM Cteyae Book, Camd. 
■ ■,,.;..,, for the Soc. p. 16), and was chosen sub-almoner 

made lor the purpose of illustrating his astro- 
nomical lectures, which were first given in 
tbe Theatre Koyal, Preston, in 1?15, and 
afterwanls in many towns in the north of 
England. In Iblf^ be published ' A small Ce- 
lestial .\tUs, or Maw of the Visible Heavens, 
in the I..atitude of Britain,' 3rd etlit. 1834, 
4tb edit. 1»^40. It was one of the earliest 
works of the kind published at a low price. 
He also compiled an almanac, published in 
INiA and later. In WJM br devoted the pro- 
e«ied" ■ •■ ' - ' ' ■ 11 of 

:ij'.»r\ t>i J 



<lua1c<l ll.l>. .-.1 ■ 
]K)intcfl a ]ini!- -■ 
riinu' ('iinlV--'ir : 
ilii Charil'Mn;' ■. 
^t'licral 111' tip ' 
look cliiir:;''. i 
i>ii a ji)Hni"\ . ■ 
nun.'?, wild \\.: ■■ 
a C.V1I1VCI1I. I i : 
riiiitri)Vi'i-\ I 
<'li'r!r\. and ■ I 
p)iii'tii Itiiii ' 
ii(/iii.i I'.i- V : 
soluliciii Ml' 1 
]ii'litic>iii'il ' 
tiiin I'm- i-.i' ' 
oath ol 'all- 
hi'ttrr t. •;■;.. • 
the cava! ■ • 
bi-iiit; il' -• 
l(i.-,l L'a-. 
ill I'aii-, ■ 
iNSi). { 
jmbli-li' ■ 
Will 1 1;. i 
Ki'iii-liij I 
<1(» i'i)i\i il ■ 
will (I v. 
fad il 111 • 
M'lid u- ■■ 
In ir..-,.' 
Fiil.'i A 
lii' ar 
wa.- ai 
li.:;li. ' 

ami :: 

ICii^ I 

<lu I 

M " 
Im, . 

l.r. ■ 
a . 


- Ilia;-".' v. 

il- la-- -A ;ii, 
.~7J. w.:-- .:i- 

ll.-i.- i ■■..-• 

t'Uiit'i/;.-. -I,.- 

■ ill l-;;;. li.; 

. .L-. wlii-!..r !.- 

.ir and i' ; ; !■.•■ 

■\ is biiri'':! i; -'u-- 

- -■.mi- ili'iii-i.-!.--i. 

. :'i:i;ic h ll"i,ii:>'. 

. : :■! ill M:i:i.:..-;- •, 

■■■..•••i--,;,,!.m;->,-!i iw- 

-iiMwiiii;. 1 1" .ii-.'W 

^ itli.'vV ■ K.ltli.' -l 

- •. I^IU, and ..;::-v 

.■1 f lii- l;l-- w,;- 

,;n' It'ival iiiil ill'- 

- ■ ■ ':: V Ni-u^, :! >r.:v Ih'.'H, 
■:;,^t,l■l;■.^.d !::>;!; it;-... 
. -. ' C. \V. S. 

VH. UAMI'.r.. I).|i., 

. i-las-iical x-h'-lar. Si-.- 

.-. :h. i:i)\VAKit (hi^i 

- i <-'.a — ii-ii; <--li'iiar, .-nil oi' 

- ■■.. rn-loi- 111' Xni-lli Si. III. - 
. u -;- li. ini tlii-i-.- nil li \ii_:. 

- '. .11 -'i Si-pi. Ill- w.i- .-.lii- 

- --r I'.i!!.-.:.-. ami in I'liM 

- ' ■■'.liV a! ill.' aui- III Hill'-. 
. '. liialrii-iilal' .1 ai I '.ir|iii- 

' '\i'ii-,l, liiil l?i .liiiv 111' 1 !i-- 

■■.^-:il,-,i t-i Ma^il:ii.-il Ci!- 

. "i a- a d.'liiv. ^i-adiiil ir^ 

Til-, and M.V.iii l-Ajiril 

-. i'.-- 11.' !•■ iiiainrd at I Ixl-in! 

.' ^•-. liii! in 17 l-'i, wh.-ii ],:> 

.'.; >- -11 It'll. i-A, 11.' i-.-it'in-d 

■ : •!]•- nni\i-'.--iiy. llip.ii^l; 

■ - jii!-i- I la- 111 w L;iiv.-rii- 

iili..|',ill.-i;iaiu-.-. I'lirin^ 

■ • - '-.- ;;rti-.l a- liil.i;- :<■ li.e 
. -.v'-.. -Ii.v.-d l.i- [wli-.^i-.l 

i U ii 11 tll.-ir rli.'- 

■ !-i iiini 1 l>i-.-.-nilji-r I7-'17 ■. 

■ :■ V I lai-t.-'- i-ar.ili.l.iim-i- I'lr 
--. --'. n a; (ixt'.ii-.l. 1 I'm-i;. 

; ■- •-.:.' \. L'l'i; 71. S'i" hi- 

■' • I '. i-.-::r.- ill i7-".-. all.! in 

.-■: d.-.,',.. 171.-77.1'-'-- 

-■. •.. \'i:^il I" -t .'i'aiiy 111. in 

-...;! '. |.-i- 111 in:; • lii-n.-f u-- 

''. - .-'. i--^!!- ;;:-.iiiiiil ;'-i-]ii 

. - .. 1: \\a- ;li.- Iialiil "1' 

-• ; '.'. \ ;rL:;i'.< \Mii-K.-i mi li.- 

Holds worth 



■pat where the^ were written, and he always 
eairiMi some interleaved editions with him 
lo inl dowii the observiitious as they arose 
in uut uiind. He was e«j>ecially fond of the 

* Ot<"rj(ic*,' and long mediUted b new edition 
with c'ibious note«. Rome and its antiquities 
■wrrc olyectg of his close study. He visited 
that rity in 1741, iu tlie company of George 
I'ltt. and in September 1742 he paid, in com- 
panv with the IJev. Thomas Townson, Mr. 
l>rale,aud Air. Dawkins, long visit s to France 
and Italy, returning home with Townson by 
\i'»r of Mont Cenig in the autumn of 1746. 
W^ile nt Home in 1741, a sketch of Flolds- 
■wxirth, representing him as very handsome, 
yf^A taken by Carlo Francesco Ponzone Mi- 
lAliMe. a copv of which was made for Magda- 
len College Library. The friends were met 
<W their la«t viiit to Home by Russell, the 
iwputeil author of • Letters from a Young 
Painter Abroad," and painted in a ' conversa- 
tion piece." afterwards the property of the 
DtKkf* family, the likeness of Holdsworth 
bnog eepecLally go<jd. In return for this 
cifility some particulars by him andTownson 
of the newer statues and pictures found at 
He»ful*m?um were supplied lo Russell (cf. 
Mten S2 and 34). Curiosity led Holdsworth 
on aae occasion into a drain made bv Claudius 
for emptying a lake, when he cauglit a rlieii- 
mstum which he never completely shook oft". 
He died of fever at Lord Digby's bouse, near 
CohMhill, Warwickshire, on 30 Dec. 1746, 
and wa* buried in the church on 4 Jan. 
OimrW Jcnnens of GopMill in l.<eiceitter8hire, 
to whom \u- left his nolo^ on Virgil, placed 

• plain block marble atone above liis grave. 
In 1701 a monument to his memory, with 
a \otig Latin inscription, and with a figure 
of I' ■ V Houbiliac, was erected in an 
Ion l)uilt by Jennens iu the wood 
At tiMp^in Known by the name of the lUce- 
COUTkc. Th<- tem]ilH fell down in ISST), when 
the crDotaph was removed into the gardens 
on the ea^t «.ide of the mansion. The ori- 

gtOMl atriK '"■■ VscribiHl at length in the 

'Ovatlrii' .zine ' for April 1791, jip. 

9(lf>-6, ail . . . ii.iU'" ' Leicestershire,' iv, 
pi. ii. 8iV7-><. .V poorucMstic on his character 

iruiios.1! In Sim vd Uavies, and inserted 
izine ' for September 
liols's ' Illustrations 
I. ri4i'i-4. 
'S most famous production was 
MuM'ipula sive Cunibro-uiucv-niachia 
1 ]/>n<lini, jUKTir,' whii-li appeared 
wilt u»ent,Bnd\villi<>ut any printer's 

tLaii very full of faults it hud no 

title! J. 1! vviunt nncepuhlisluHl in a c/irrect 
{nrm br it* aulhnr, with a dedication to 
Bobart Liojncl, fdluw-commoner of Magdalen | 


in I' 
the - 

College, and was immediately reproduced by 
Curll, all three editions bearing the date of 
1709. A rival wit, said to be one Richards 
of Jesus College, Oxford, resented this ridicule 
of his Welsh fellow-countrymen, and re- 
taliated in the same year with a Latin imi- 
tation of XoipiixfpoypiKtila, sive Hoglandiie 
descriiitio,' a satire on Hampshire, Holds- 
worths native county. ' Mu.scipula," which 
was composed at Saeheverell's instigation, 
and was written, it issaid,' with the purity of 
Virgil and the pleasantry of Lucian,' obtained 
and deserved great favour. It was repub- 
lished in 1713, in Curll's 'Collection of Ori- 
ginal I'oem3,'1714, in Curll's ' Muso: Britan- 
niciE," Edward Popham's ' Selecta Poemata 
Anglorum,' ii. 1-14, .i\jx;hdeacon Edward 
Cobden's ' Discourses and Essays,' and in the 
collections of Holdsworth's works, published 
in 1749 and I "08. Translations were made by 
Samuel Cobb [q. v.], a gentleman of Oxford, 
in 1709 and 1722 (the first being called 
' Tall'y's Triumph,' and the B<'Cond ' The 
Camhro-Rritannic Engineer'); by a Cantab 
in 1709; by an anonymous versifier in that 
year; by Archdeacon Cobden in 1718 (after- 
wards included in his' Discourses and Essays,' 
wil h a poi't ic letter to Holdsworth, his' chum ' 
at Winchester College); by R.Lewis in 1728; 
by Dr. John Hoadly lu Hold.-iworth's ' Disser- 
tation,' 1749, and in Dodsley's ' Collection of 
Poems,' V. 2')8-68 ; and by Richard Graves in 
1793. Of these versions the author's favourite 
was that by Hoadly, which he pronounced 
' exceedingly well done.' 

The other writings of Holdsworth dealt 
with Virgil. There appeared in his lifetime 
a volume entitled ' Pbarsalia and Philippi ; 
or the two Philippi in Virgil's (leorgics, at- 
tempted to be explain'd and reconciled to 
History. In several letters to a friend [Le. 
Charles Jennensi, and published at his re- 
quest. By Mr. Holdsworth,' 1742. After 
bis death came out ' Dissertations upon eight 
verses in the Second Book of V'irgil'sGeorgics 

tlim>s (io-721. To which is addt-d a Now 
edition of the Muscipula, together with a 
New Translation,' 1749. Bothof these trea- 
tises, with several other articles, were em- 
bodied in ' Remarks and Dissertations on 
\'irgil, with some other Classical Obser^-a- 
tions, by the late Mr. Holdsworth. Pub- 
lished, with several Notes and additional 
Remarks, by Mr. Suence,' 17tt8, a labour iu 
which the editor ootained the aMsist-anci- of 
Lowth, al"lerw»rds bishop of Lonilou. Many 
of these notes hnd previously apjx'nre<l in th<i 
edition of \'irgil by Joseph \\ arton of Win- 
chester ( 17M and l7tJ:!, in l vols. I, and «everal 
were included in Signer's 'Anecdotes' (ed. 
Muloue, 1820), pp. 2rj«-71, but most of these 



^H to the king, lie wua a p-' 
^H Michael Wise [ji. v.] usod 
^m Suul>-Uettn.' For t.h,i g. 

^^^^^^^^S^^m^ ^ *•» held thl^H 

^^^^^^^E^-^^!^ of Sir PtobeilH 

^^^^^K^ «f« oiu/ T'lmr^ of 

^H Chapel Uoya) he wi-iil« - 


^m entitled' A Treatise on thi 

I'.n's Collepft 

^M and Principles of llarm.n, 

^ . < ivvynne had 

^1 edition, with addition 

__ ji iji death in ItiS.*} 

^H He was, however. C' 

■■>inir for a man of 

^H sub-deanery, ucc 

^^^,^m^ ^mtit, chose Ilolds- 

H Book'it). U)) 1" 

H trell (Briff lb.-.,,,,,,. 

.^m^^tt^ Tk senior fellows 

-^■ik Bt: Lane, known as a 

^1 writes that he was ' In 

,^«^ Ijanf sent a friend 

^^^Decemher 1U87. On :''' 

««aiac6iBii Berwick recom- 

^^^KpreferreJ bv the dtM< 

««■■■■. Each side claimed 

^^^^K'anl'.s to the r 

9«Bdid*>e, and both were 

^^^^Kordshire ( 

a r»« ch«ncellor, who re- 

^^^VSMi) ), and iliir'iij. 

^^m^ lod the matter was 

^V treble and 

.4^ Cfcsriee I appointed a 
.^■rti^ite; and after ei^ht 

^^^^^ in the be 11 r' 

^^^^kHis last 

^Mk ^^ kin^. on 20 Feb. Iti84, 

^^^V^'ith At>|ili> 
^ Lunar Month, u 

-1 — r rv«h (•l«ctionE, and issued 

-rtionof athird j)er9on, 

^^^^ and of such n- n 

.-opious records of this 

^^^^L fieial 

'Tiesting in academical 

^^^^P common o 

p.-l in Cal. Staff Pniirrt, 
--'. JBg, 270, and the 

^^^^ of the Juliuii 

^1 in 1(394 (r>tb>ir 

■ ('iimbriilge,i'a<n>A 


lioldsworth. although 

^^^^H seeoii' 

• ^■t, succeeded to the 

^^H P.C'.f. 

, ^ » naaiingdon and prebend of 

^^^^P wife til 

,^^^^Hk k«i been held by the late 

^^^^^ there T- •■ 


.^k^HB applied himself to his 

^^^_ in 1>' 

,1 ^■■■^ bat was elected to the 

^^^^B topli' 

j^^^^J^mtnuel College on 25 April 

^^^^V huni|' 

~_L fcil ■■Iti r, Laurence Chaderton 


. «i2I kliTe, though he had been 

^^1 JUIII' I ' 

■^su^n hk office in 1622 with a 

^^1 ill the C'dii 

-.^ ike rigid puritanism which 

• irty years of the college. 

successor*, and Holds- 

^^^B Life 

.iird. It say* much for 

^^H £N7I 

^^H \Vo<«! 

_ _^^ !■ tk* college, with great re.spect, 
'.^l^iiim 'tliat he was still master in 

^^^B Diet 

^^^^H >v-. 

^^^^ihi^b be was not master o/" the 

^^^1 «ca. 

CtaiMTlon looked with growing 
a HoUdiworth's government, and 


^^H Uv 

J -^^ ^ WM'the only master he ever 

^^H llox 

^i^^lj^M W>n0.' 

^^^1 it>'j< 

-(ij^Piglk ivtaiaed the confidence of the 

_^^^^qj^,aad in \6Sii wap elected pre- 


^^iS^C^fg*- He continued to hold 


^^■W ft • ■odernte puritan, and was 


^^^p^vhoin lc>40 protested against 


j^^MBCeof convocation by roval writ 

^^^^^^^B ' 

. Aj fciinhillT of parliament (Fi'lubh, 


_tjr,f^ «J. It45, V. 163). .\ltliongh 


.^i,^Vjw»»er. he was a staunch church- 


H* W) (ufTered for his opposition to 


&«S W V** '■till Ivs« in favour of any 




violiint elungei) in the church. His «i^iature 

isaT' '-■' ' • 'S suggestion for an amendment 

of '. ;i Usshnr's scheme ' for the re- 

diU'. ,..dcop«cy into the synoiiical form 

of Boremment ' (S^lvebtek, TMiytua Ba.r- 
OruuidP, pt. L p. 240 1, liut he soon saw that 
this »cht'me was impracticable, and when he 
grMp-J the moaning of the issue he became 
■ frrtviit i^iyalist. He first came into colli- 
•»oo with ]iarliament upon an academic ques- 
ttnn. The original statutes of the founder 
of Kmmonuel provided that a fellow should 
r»ratv Iuk fellowship within a year of taking 
hi* doctor's degree. The fellows had auc- 
cwyW in obtaining tho king's permission to 
rMtciml this rule, but thi? representatives of 
tb' founder in ItUO brought the matter be- 
foTT |>arliamenl, w^hich showed a decided 
^riUingnrss to interfere, and annulled an elec- 
tion toB fellowship (CooPEB, AnnaU ofCam- 
hrvlff, iiu 3<J7, note 1). Holdsworth joined 
with bin fellows in making representations 
CiO |*rliament ( Baker MS. Cambridge Univ. 
Libr., .Mm. 2, 23, 9{>-6), and probably re- 
■WBtrH it* action. He was vice-chancellor, 
and vert- influential in the university; it is 
clear llial he was reckoned a formidable jjcr- 
•oa ttom the care with which parliament 
wMcbad Ilia proceedings. In a formal npcech 
d*Iivar«d as vice-chancellor he deplored the 
proffiMt* of religion and learning, praised 
Ute ''at« of the church, and extolled 

%hf uess of the reformation settle- 

ment CJraiio in Vesperiis Comitiorum, at 
the end of his J'rteltvlionet). Parliament at 
OBc- ' ' t' the«e sentiments, and on 

98 .1 u> matter to a committee 

(Bt U,.i. GiU. vol. 33o). 

Cb.. Ill while appointed Holdsworth 

onr ...- . liuulaiu«, and otfered him the 
biaboprir of Hrittol, which he refiined, pro- 
bahlv becauae he thought he could do IxUter 
*errtoe wheiv be was. In March I<I42 he 
•nt^rfTaiiuMi the king and th" Prince of Wales 
in ' iCnnviM, Annul; iii. 321-2), 

%»■•■ enough wax soon allorwards 

Boi: thr llouw of l.,ords as one of 

th<- 'if the Westminster Assembly 

of I ' It does not appear that he ever 

alt' "f the ineKtinpi of this boily. 

Ib>i ' much •■iii.'Hgt'd at 0am- 

bniL Mtinui-d in hgld thn ollice 

. lrt»2 iind 1(143. fn 
' rumi-ntal in raising 

.J mntf In. Ill I he coll('g("S for the 
But (.'roinwfU was in August 

--ioned by imrliami-nt to lake 

••■lunty of Cambridge. When 

• irlnt.T 111 theondof Iti42pub- 

ii|)lilnt, 'The iCesolviiigof 

I nry ri-rnn fi|. v. I, parlia- 

ment on 2 Feb. ItUS ordered that Holdsworth, 
as vice-chancellor, should bn brought before 
the bar in custody ( CummuitA JourntiU, ii. 900, 
95 1 ). Holdsworth was not deterred, and when 
in the following mouth a demand was made 
by parliament for pecuniary ai<l from the uni- 
versity, he presided at a meeting of the heads, 
where it was resolved that ' it was against 
their religion and conscience to contribute ' 
(Mercuriun Aulicus, 22 April). In May 
Holdsworth was taken as a prisoner to Lon- 
don on the charge of having authorised the 
publication in Cambridge of the king's de- 
claration printed at York (Querela CaiUabr. 
p. 7). 

Holdsworth was next asked to take oath 
to the solemn league and covenant ; on his 
refusal his mastership and his rectory of 
St. Peter's were sequestrated. He was con- 
fined first in Ely Ilouse, and afterwards in 
the Tower. It did not help him that he 
was elected by his Iriends in Cambridge to 
the Lady Margaret professorship of divinity, 
and by a private patron was presented with 
a living in Rutland. He remained in con- 
finement till 31 Oct. 1<U5, when he was 
released on bail, on condition that he did not 
go further than twenty miles from Loudon 
( t'uwmo/w' JournuU, iv. 328 ). Perhaps it wa« 
some consolation to him to know that at 
Cambridge his library was spared by Man- 
chester, on the ground that lie intended to 
leave part of it to the college, and in his con- 
finement he was anxious about the safety of 
the college plate, which was in his possession. 
He never seems to have returned to Cam- 
bridge, where .Vnthony Tucknev tiwk his 
place as master of Kminanuel. ilis only in- 
terest seems to have been to cheer the king 
among his troubles. He applied for leave 
to visit him at Holinby House, but was m- 
fused. In September ltl47 he woa allowed 
to see him at Hampton Court, whon Charles 
confcrre<l on him the duanerv of Worcester. 
It was an empty honour, for Hold.tworth died 
of jaundice on 22 .-Vug. Itl4tt. \* he lay on 
his deathbed his frienus consoled him that he 
was being taken from the evil to come. *No,' 
said the dying man, 'from the bo<h1 to come,' 
and in later days his ho)>efulno«s was re- 
garded OS a propliecy. lie was burieil in bia 
former church of St. IVter thn Poor, whore 
his frieml Hrownrigg wrote an elalio- 
ratx epitaph in his honour (see Slow, Ifurtry 
of London (e.l. 1720). bk. ii. p. 114). 

Holdsworth all rank from litemry fame. 
The only work publixhi'd in his lifetime waa 
'The People's Happinesse; a Sermon preached 
in Marie's, Cambridge, upon Sundav, May 27,' 
Cambridge, Uil2, and this waa pubfinhed only 
in consMjueiice of o thrice-repeated request 


wi'rc omit ted In .■ ■ , ■ 

colli'c-liiin. 'I'l'- ■ - ' 

111' ' IJemiirks' -A ■ ir. .- 

Virfjiliaiiii. 1;-. -. ir.'' 

editor Dl'tlie 'I' . -! ; . 

Cclllincil (.iivii:: ■■. ■ :i;;. 

11 c-olli'ction (■ ■ -'-..:■.'.< J 

Knckhain. ..• !\ 

Ili.Mswoi-i!. ; KM.'- . 

("oll('i;i' in il).- ! • :n '.'.:■■ • 
of and <"onin]' '• 
Ciill.Mltlli'N. V. : 
th.' l)iiildinu I 

IlilnxaiTi- ■■■ I. r 
Hi-iirii.-V('..|:. • 

Nii-liol.sV l.i:. '::'<<!>. :,::■ :.- , 

Spi-ni'i-'sAt'-.' ">v.'!. !• ( '..i: _. . 

Kirl.y's \Vi... .. "-», ..,.,, | , , ,i^ .. 

Mciii'oirdl'r.. ■ !. M.A. I 1 .1;,. 

J.cllcr.-. i. :,' ■ i 1)1, I I ... 

(iucriis. ]-• ■ l».\.,ri.i.--.. r.' 

1'"' i"-i- '• ■ .■::>a I..-,.;;;;,, -ii 

HOLKSW ■ ;..!„. wa~ ii..!.'!,,^ 

lt!4!l|, tl ■■ ■ ;;■- l'a|-t:.\. Ovl .;•). 

till' l!('v. I,''!-- ." ;!■..■ li;i;'.i 1,.. .,\... 

mstUwiii-'l ■. ■ -■ 1 ■'inri-li (.'.itli. ■.!;.,). 

Hit- tilt li.T .' - l..i\iiijion. W il- 

till- oari' 111 ■■.- i;.,d .Ijiliin 'i|. \. . 

I'farson III- r v.i. lii< fVi.'ud. :'i'.| 

tnriT in li. ■. i- was aiijinint. d in 

(ItlUNI). A; -. .•iraL".'i.l'S;,,;;n,-v v. 

I'dncati-da: . •• 't' l^lunt '.ill.':;. ■.;,!>! 

whcniri' 111. |!\ this a]i]i.iin;ni. r.; 

adiMittid - ~ i' .1' I^M!.'!- I ■..;;■ _•. 

1' Nov. li'.i - ■ '11 ■^Ma:vll I71."i l";. 

Kilo, -wa- ■pli.i^iii- fai:ilJd,- •. ~ 

'20 Man-li • .■ .■■illi'j;i-\vi-ri" iiiK !■!• 

al'ti-rward- "•- tl.i-y wi-li.-il. ||.,..- 

Aviirk ol' ; ■ -'. and in iri."<ua- '.- 

was Sir>. - •.-. Hn | ^iaI•|•l| |i ^7 

wirli adn • " 'li. ^ n.! |ir.K. .;,i,-: 

Itiir 111- ■ \\'. 1'.- ('atli..,l.-al. l;.i 

( Wooii, ..' - ■■•■■•.ni..l tlii-'.ip 
of till- 1. - •■. -->!.:!•.-. II.. .li,.,l in 
S.xm 111-- ■ \ • r I ■ 'I'.i'j:.-. I >\t'.j-.-.i. .11 

Ilcnrv li ■■-■ - ■'•'.'i. d in tli.. i-..i!--_. 

a li(.'ni.|i.' • - ■r;;. ni..:-v 

Aviiicli li- ■ ••::.•'. Iianc. I ( Wouri, 

St. IVi. -■-:..,,. iL'di. II, ,1. „,,. 

Karl\ > ■•■- '"■■>' to I Wo iii--i--'- 

lift' in I ' ■- .ii-i-liiiirii.' .l:.v~. 

7.1'aloii- ■ '."'.:■" till- i-i!n]il.-;. :i 
llii- ]il:, -^ '.' • --i.-Hail. v. ( •\l.-.i. 

tlic ni. " ' '• '.-'U- n.-w l.i.LinL- 

Was ri - - . all.! lMiV. t.. r,\ . 

piirita' - ■ ■ -■■v-; t'n- 

tatioii - " ' -■ > a -:n.-i!l i|a.i!-i 



ni (il- . - '.' 1.1 ;!ii> d'n-iiir.-i..^ 

-• : ' ■rwo. n the r. c-^t 


and tcane of the fellows ia 1720. Mr. C. W. 
BoMT emlU bim ' a w««k man.' 

Hole's chief writings dealt with th* Bn^- I 
l^t. i.r,,.,v Ileissned: l.'AntidotoafBiMt 
L '02, written imder tlie diMmte 

ot :er of the Chimrh of Ff Wirf ' 

A '"irt of the Amiiotr'eame <mt 

on' ■ II name in 1717. :J. • A IVa rt ic m l 

Expoeitiun of the Charek CaMckiam,' 17(^, 
ia three parts; reiasuetl in 1711k, S, *Prae> 
UchI DiK'ourses on all the Ftita *mA CNBeM 
of the Liturgjr of the Cbareh of Ea^aad,' 
Tol. i., 1714, vols. ii. and iiL in <me, 1715, 
and vol. ir. in three part», 1716, and to tbe 
•et was prefixed his portrait, atmrtd hf 
Vander Gucht. 4. ' Pnctical vimouim m 
upon t'l nion Serriee^'roL t^ 1717. 

5. 'IVr aT»esaat]ieOSeMafBa{>- 

tism, CoiiiirML-iwiio, and 3fatrtaMRT,' voL xi. 
ia three part«, 1719. Six et the i i it uwm a 
in the*e two collections wen fihoiBwl ia 
•Tbe Family (^luiplain.' 1775, aad the whole 
of them were republished, under the editer- 
•hip of I>r. J. A. Giles, in 1837-& Bole 
flighted in prt^chin^ throogbont hk fife. 
A large number of his diseourtes, many al 
them preached in the chnrehes of Somer- 
•et, and others before the nniTernty, weK 
printed. One of them, a risitatiaa trmwn, 

?irear.hed at Bridgwater in 1605, oa a fixed 
i>nn of liturgy, led to the appearuiee d 
' A Correct Copy of some Lettan written lo 
J. M., a Noucooformist T«aeh«T, eaneeraiag 
Gift and Formsof Pra;«r,'1098,aadtoa 
>nd series in 1699, aa well aa to a (^oiader 
firOm J. a.. 

[Memoir of Hole in reprint of Plaetial Dia- 
eooTMi by Dr. Giles ; Boan's R«^ of Eaetcr 
OoUcgt, pp. xxxr, Ixir, 79, 09, 2IS; Wcarcr'a 
SaOMraet locomlietits. pp. 3A9. 44A; La Nere's 
EMti (Hardy). i 1S3-4 ; .^irT Phillipp»» Iniflit. 
Cloneomm Wil»«, ii. 3> ; Womfi Oxford (Pe»- 
haa\ p. 170 ; Hist. H8S. Oomm. 2Bd Bep. App. 
p. 127.] W. P. C. 

HOLE, RICH.VRD(!74^1S03.,pwtaBd 
•atiquarr, was the son of William Hole, 
afrchdeaeonofliamstaple and canon of Exeter 
Cathedral, who died in 1791. lie was bom 
at Exeter in 1 746 and educated at its graaH 
■lar school, where he was famed for his dry 
hnmour and for his skill in acting. On 
S3 March 1764 he matriculated at Elxeter 
lUege, Oxford, and graduated B.C.L. on 
May 1771. While at the univerntT he 
. rote bomorooB pieces, and pronoaed en- 
tering the army ; but after taViog hi* degree 
he was ordained in the English cborch, 
the influence of his &ther could 
him preferment. For some time he 
the cumcy of Sowton, near Exeter, 
oontinutd to hold it after his p re e c nta- 

tioit, ia 177i 
la I7K hewaayiimiiil h^ the'SMhafTer 
Exeter to the iwSorr ttl Fanagdoa n tha 
•aaw Stuitt, tai took a ttfmtmtian to 
iiiiia wilhit ihi hiiiiiii fifftiihiiill He 
of XawsraleiEBv 
he MgeycdwS 
Fariagdm mt3 hM detfh. AiW a peiiifiil 
illaeH. Hola fied at Fiwoalh oa SMar 
18091 Beaainai,iBl77«,MatiUaKate^ 
c— p,daap^»trofaa w i i hMi « at Exeter, who 

Boledahfeledia fitentare bam UeytMlh. 
\etj aooa after the aapeanaee of Matahar 
toa't TolaM of the e^ peen of • Fned^ 

OMiaa, he 


hia ■ Poetieal InHbliHi «f 1 
tisfed ia 1773 witk M '(Me to iaMgiMSKM,' 
At therMocat 
of Snaad Badearlr, he rwidwad iato Em- 
iiah THse the pocai kaorwa m *Heae?a 
Hyva to Ctm,' ml the tiaailatMa wa« 
paUifhed at Sxeter ia 1781. It waa -nihar 
^wotly repriaied ia Aadenoe's 'CoHeetioa 
of the Poeu,' xii M&-a7: Whitliaghaai'i 
editiaa of the ' British Pr<M* ; ' • Worin of 
the Gntk aad RoMaa Poeta tnaalatad.' iv. 
1»-^^ ; Wakeield's edHioa of Pope's Tenios 
of the 'OiymBf; iL 4.57-96; aad in the 
• Miaor Ftoeaaa of Boiker,' New York, 1879, 
r^l4»-70. Oaeexprnaioaia Hole's traad*- 
tioo waa sharply eraidted hjrBroTT»-»pondeiit 
iathe'GiiitliMaii'iMi^Mia*^ 134, 


iL p. 788) ia a latter fSmai hba txpUuung the 
nreaaiatanfea of itapublicatioa aad the cha- 
racter of the aiMMaaee whieh he had iMeired 
ia the traMbtioa. Ia 1780 he i«<Md hia 
of • Arthur, or the Xorthftrn 
la seven bcikji,' a flowiag 
poeo, pcoaoBaead br tbe critir. a. ' from the 
school of Ari oato.' 'fbe notes di/^played much 
knowledge ofSrawdinaTian mythoU)gy . Hole 
was one of the first aiembera of the ExoiKr 
Literary Society, and addreased lo it ' IU> 
marfcs on the .\rabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments ; in which tbe Origin of Sindbad's Voy- 
age* and other Orientsil Fictions is particu- 
larly eonaidefed,' which were published in 
an expanded form in 1797. The inquiry was 
begun in a sceptical mood, bat the belief 
gradually seixed him that tbe narratives had 
a basis of tnith. For some time l)^fort? his 
death Hole was engaged on a work to )m> en- 
titled ' Remarks on tne Voyages of L^ly wru as 
narrated in tbe Odyssey,' but the part which 
was designed as an introduction was alonu 
completed. This was in 1807 editc<l by hi* 
friend Bartholomew Parr, M.D., of ICxptcr, 
under the title of 'An Essay on the Cha- 


racterof Ulysses as delineated by Homer,' in 
which the mental excellence iind moral virtue 
of UlvssMare conimendeil. In the volumes of 
' Poems chietly by Gentlemen of Devonshire 
and ComwiiU. wluch were edited by the Rev. 
Uichard I'olwhele in 179"i, there appeared 
(I. "ti-lO-'J) numerous poems by Hole, in- 
cluding two of his odes. His contributions, 
numberetl 2, II, 18, and :.'6, in the ' Essays 
by a Society of Gentlemen at Exeter,' 1796, 
included ironical vindications of the cha- 
racters of lago and .Shylock. .\ review in 
the ' European Magazine ' for IViHi, p. 190, 
which was erroneously attributed to Pol- 
whele, led to many angry communications, 
gome of which are in the 'Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' 179ti, pt. ii. pp. 7;W-», 896, 1017, and 
to a savajre letter from Hole to the supposed 
critic (Pol.WHBLE, Traditiiinf and RecoUec- 
tioru, i. 238-9, •>71, ii. ;J62-3, 444-.'>, 475-83). 
Hole assisted Badcock in his contributions 
t" the ' Montlily Review,' and was induced 
by him to render occasional aid to the 'Lon- 
don Magazine,' the chief of his articles con- 
sisting of ' dialogues between ideal person- 
ages.' He wrote also for the 'Uritish Maga- 
liue' and the 'Gentleman's Magazine.' "The 
Common-place book which he left at his death 
ahiiwed abstruse reading, and among its con- 
t^inta was part of a irauBlation into the Ex- 
moor dialect of the first eclogue of Virgil. 
There was inserted in ' Blackwood's Maga- 
line,' iv. 630-41, part of 'The Ex moor ' 
Courtship . . . with Notes Critical, Historical, j 
Philosophical, and Classical ; to which is added 1 
a Pariiplimse in modern English \'er»e.' In I 
a subsequent volume (ih. v. 65-71) it was 
intimated that the jiaraphrase was by Hole, 
and sfime account of him, e.xtmcted from an | 
unpublished memoir by Bartholomew Parr, i 
was then given. This memoir was '.•X. slight , 
Sketch of the Life of the late Rev. Uichard [ 
Hole, LL.B., read to the Society at the 
Hotel on their Anniversary, August 4, 1803. 
Printed at their expense,' Exeter, 1803. 

[Ount. Mag. 1803 pt. i. .599-61)0, 1818 pt. i. 
228-9; Censura Lit»irarla, vi. 216-16 ; Koster's 
Oxford Reg. ; Nichols's Lit. Aueoil. viii. !)2-4.] 

W. P. C. 

HOLE or HOLLE, WILLIAM (f. 1600- 
ltl.30). engraver, (jue of the earliest English 
enfrruvera, is notable as tlie earliest engraver 
of music f)n copperplates in this country. 
He engraved and published ' Parthenia, or 
the Maydenhead of the first Musicku that 
ever was executed for the Virginalla com- 
posed bythose famous .Masters, William Byrd, 
I)r. ,Iohn Bull, and Orlan<lo fiibbons.tientle- 
men of his .Ma'"" most illuslrious Chappell.' 
This lx)ok, engraved for Dorothy Evans, and 

1 printed in London by G. Lowe, appears to 
nave been published in U)ll, with a title- 
page, and a edition in 1613 with the 
title-page slightly altered. A much later 
edition has a new title-page by Hollar. Hole 
also engraved in 1613, witli a dedication 
f to Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, ' Prime 
I Musiche nuove di .\ngelo Notari a una, diu>, 
I et tre Vo<ri, per Cantare con la Tiorba et 
I altri Strumenti, Nouamente po,«ti in luce.' 
A volume entitled ' Fantasies of Three Ports, 
by Grlaudo Gibbons. Cut in copjier, the like 
not before extant,' was probably also engraved 
by Hole at an earlier aate. These Ijooks are 
excessively rare ; copies of them all are in 
the library at the Museum. Hole 
also engraved throughout Martin Billings- 
ley's 'The Pen's Excellencie,' with a portrait 
of the author. Among the portraits engraved 
by Hole were Henry, prince nf W^nles, with 
a lance (copied from Simon Passe's print) in 
Drayton s ' Poly-Olbion ; ' the same prince's 
eftigy on his funeral car for ( ieorge Chap- 
man's ' Epicede ; ' George Chiipiiuin, prefixed 
to his ' Iliad.' 1616 ; Thomas Coryat [q. v.], 
and another plate for his ' Crudities,' 1611 ; 
Michael Drayton, for his 'Poems,' 1619; 
George Whither, for his ' Poems,' U>17; John 
Florio, for his Italian and English dictionary, 
1611 ; .Sir .lohn Hayward, Thomas Egerton, 
viscount Brackley, John Clavell (a penitent 
thief), and others. He also engraved title- 
pages, and some of the maps for Camden's 
' Britannia,' 1607. On 29 May 1618 he re- 
ceived a grant for life of the office of head- 
sculptor of the iron for money in the Tower 
and elsewhere {Cat. State Paperg, Dom. 
James I. vol. xcvii.) 

[ Dmld's infinuwript Hist, of English Engravers. 
Brit. Mu». AdJit. MS. 33402 ; infonnation from 
Mr. W. B»n.lay Squire. F.S.A.] L. C. 

HoDsoN, Mrs. M\R«AKirr.] 

BERT (1481?-lor,r)), archbishop of York, 
youngest son of Thomas Ilolgate and Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Robert Chompeniowiie, 
came of a Yorkshire family entitled to armo- 
rial bearings, and was born probably at Hems- 
worth, near Pontefract, in or about 1481, 
being, according to his own statement, siitv- 
eight years old in l-''>49. He was a cuuon of 
the order of St. Gilbert of Sempringbam, and 
was probably educated in the bouse belonging 
to his order in Cambridge, though it has been 
supposed from insufficient evidence that he 
was a member of St. John's College ( Oule M8. 
xlix,249), llewfts a preacherof the univer- 
sityin I o2 1, and became masterof the order of 




St. Gilbert of Semprinffhiun, prior of W'atton, 
Yorkshire, and vicar of Cadney, Lincolnshire. 
At Caiitiey he had some dispute with Sir 
KnuH'i* Ascough, which cau-ned him to go to 
l>indi)ii, wht-rie he Inn-ame one of tho chiiplainti 
..t' ir, iirv VIII. In after years, when he was 
iif the council of the north, it is 
I he had to decide a suit in which 
AM:ou},'h was concerned, and that he upheld 
the cause of his former adversary, a« justice 
nxjuired, remarking that he was uehofden to 
him, for had he not been driven to go to 
London be had lived a poor priest all his 
davH. lieing elect»><l bishop of LlandatT, on 
the r»«»iguationofOeorgede Athequa in lOSV, 
he wag ooniecraftHi on L'o March in the lady 
cliaptd of the Ulackfriars church bv the Bishop 
of floc.hester, receiving the kiug'H license to 
hold the mnster^ip of Soiupriughtim and the 
urioryof W'attoainroinmfiutam. In this year 
ne rotujuencifl I). I), by special grace. As bi- 
«hop i>f Llaiidiiir he tiKJK part in comjKDsing 
• I I,, i..-' Man.' llewas 

!ii-iIof the north, and much as- 
:t Tunistall, biohop of Durham, 
i'-nf. In July 1538h«Bucccedi>dTun- 
i' resident of the council; he resided 
•I iork in the hniiae pertaining to his office, 
waa fully employtnl in secular business, and 
«*p*cially in the transactions between Eng- 
iaitd antl Scotland in l-'>'U)and the following 
V«kni. lie signed the surrender of Watton 
9 Ilee. 15 10, and in exchange for the income 
■rcruiog to him m ' soli- iniuster and prior ' 
of the twenty-four Uilbertine houses re- 
eeiTed a grant for life of all (he lands of 
Watton with the |>atronago of its benefici's, 
the cl«<«r income being odsussed at hIhiuI 
380/. (.V.V. Stair Pajx-ri, Mary, 15.15, vi. 8J; 
.VwMwfifOM, vi. it.M ). On :i9 June 1541 he 
iuul ■ upecial grant of armK, vi«. or, a liend 
l»Hwr.rn two bulls' heads coupe<l sable, on a 
chief argvnt, I wo barn gules surmounted of a 
rriiirh -I .ilf ill l)i.>n<l aiupe ( the amis given by 

1 '1 be tliow of Ilobert Waldby, 

! York, 1397 -«V On 10 Jan. 

lo4d be was transtnted to York, taking tlie 

n«th» "f nnonriution and supn-miicy, und 

' the liandn of Archbishop 

ii t'liopel, a ipf.'Cial service 

■ il lit this iiiiii|iiii ceri'mntiy. 

itur bill translation he olii'iialwl 
lu ' I - belonging to 

hi* ■ thirty-throe 

iBl]ir«jpr! which ciirae to 

tke cniw r. I' I he northern 

ind 111 her like 
\ui ': ii.'d his see, be 

hica*"- ""-^ ■■ •• .,\-M pndiite in 

Bd» '. I''i4<lbi' reicivi'd b'ttors 

paUi-' ;..... lotion of three grammar 

rm. xxrii. 

schools at York, Uld Malton, and Hems- 
worth, each to be a separate corporation with 

11 master and usher, the statutes to lie framed 
by the archbishop, who ordained that Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew should be taught free; 
the parents paid ft (|uarterly sum for inatruc- 
tiiin in English, writing, and arithmetic. On 
15 June 1549 1 lolgate was married after banns 
to Barbara, daughter of Roger Wentworth. 
It was said that they had been privately 
married at an earlier date (Dkake). The 
insurrection in Yorkshire gave him some 
trouble, but (he afterwards asserted to the 
king, Edward VI) it was put dowTi by the 
local forces without charge. Eight persons 
were executed (Mtl. Stiife Pnj>er>, Mary, u.8.) 
About this time he had some disputes with 
the Earl of Warwick, afterwards Duke of 
Northumberland [see Dddlev, John], for, 
according to his own account, he refused to 
' forbear the order of justice ' in the case of 
' dyvers light persons olTenders,' and also 
thwarted Dudley with respect to some pro- 
perty which ho desired to acquire. These 
disputes cost him the loss of the presidency 
of ttje council, which he held for twelve years. 
In 1551 one Anthony Norman complained 
to the privy council that Holgate s wife 
had previously been married to himself, and 
claimeil that she should lie restored, and ou 

12 Nov. the council appointed three commis- 
sioners to inquire into the matter and report 
accordingly {Coumril Book, Harl. MS. 352, 
206). It appears that their report was in the 
archbishops favour, fur in a grant from the 
crown, dated 27 May 1553, Barbara is de- 
scribed as his wife. 'This grant directed that 
the manor of ."^cnxiby, in the northern part of 
Nottinghainshire, which Holgate purchased 
for about t};50/., was to be ttddivl to tho pro- 
perty of his see after the deaths of himself 
and his wife. He favoured the doetrines and 
practices of the foreign refonners, and ou 
15 Aug. 1552 issued iniunctions to the chap- 
ter of York ordering the delivery of divinity 
lectures for the instruction of the inferior 
otUcersof the cathedral, and the n^ading and 
learning by heart of the scriptures bv the 
vicars choral, who were to be examined con- 
stantly in them, und (o tiave each an English 
testament. He fiirtlurr arrttiigwl a cycle of 
Hunday pn-ncliers, und forhmle tho plaviugof 
the organ iluring Service, and all singing ex- 
cept plain song. .\ll the eanopv wurk con- 
taining images of saints was to V removed, 
the carving and images behind the high altar 
were to be pulled down and text* paintinl up 
instead. 'I lie library wa* tn U' furnished 
with the ancient fathers, toifelber with works 
by (Jalvin and BullingiT (Ok.\»b» ). In May 
165:) Holgate was sent for to attend the kinf 





on the occasion of the cominc of the admiral 
of France (AnUiine de Noaifies). He went 
up to Humptou Court, he auya, with about 
seventy horse, and stayed there over the 
death of the king until Michaelmas, spending 
on this occasion 1,000/. On 4 Oct. he was 
committed to the Tower 'upon pretence of 
treason or great crimes' (Stbype), and hie 
rich stores, money, plate, and other goods at I 
his houses at Cawood and liattersea and else- I 
where were seized. (For the inventory of 
his eft'ects see dent. Mag. 182/5, pt. i.p. 595.) 
On 16 March 15o-l he was deprived of his 
bishopric for being married, lie wrote to 
Sir Uichard Southwell, one of Queen Mary's 
privy council, claiming his private estates 
and movables not belonging to the see, and 
petitioning to be released and ' restored to 
celebration.' He declared that he repented 
of marrying, to which, he said, he had been 
persuaded by the Duke of Somerset, having 
married for fear that Northumberland should 
call him a papist, that he was willing to act 
in his vocation as should be provided from 
time to time, to obey the queen's laws, and 
to make amends for his offence. He urged 
that his case was difl'erent from that of the 
other bishops in conKuement, ' they beinge 
moche further gone amisse in religion than 
he was, and with obstvnacie,' and finally 
ottered the nueen 1 ,000/. ioT his release, which 
he ohtainea on 18 Jan. 1665. It has, how- , 
ever, been ascertained that he died on 15 Nov. ' 
following his release at the house called the ! 
master of Sempringham's head house in Cow 
Lune in the parish of St. Sepulchre's, Lon- ' 
don (copy of a letter of Joseph Hunter re- [ 
ferring to an inquisition on his death held at 
the Guildhall on 1 1 May 1566). He is said to 
have had two children by his wife ( Gent, Mat/. 
1800, pt. i. pp. 3:>1, Z2i n.), but of this there 
seems to be no proof. By his will , dated 27 April 
before his death and proved 4 Dec. 1556, in 
which he makes no mention of wife or child, 
h<3, being then sick, directs that he should , 
be buried in the church of the parish where 
he shall die, and leaves all bis lands for | 
the erection and endowment of a hospital at 
Hemsworth for a master and twenty brethren 
and sisters, of the age of sixty, or blind or 
lame, bf^longing to Hemsworth and three ad- 
jacent parishes. This bequest was duly exe- 
cuted. There is a portrait of Holgate in his 
hospital at Hemsworth, which has been en- 
graved by J. Stow. I 

[Many miitcrials. for the aliove have been sup- 
plied by Mr. Wyndham llolpatc of Chelmsford. 
Sea DmJti'f ElKir. p.4 52 ; Ci>jper'» At licnte CantJibr. 
i. 164. 549 ; Hunter's Soulb Yorkshire, ii. 430 ; ' 
Brown- Willis's Cuthodnils, i. 44 ; Collier's Eccl. 
Uim. vi. 23, 84. ud. Lathbary ; Strype's Memo- 

rials, II. ii. 77, 165, Cranmer, pp. 77. 440, S«i> 
ed. ; Ornsby'B York. pp. 290-3. 321-80 (Diocfsau 
Hist.Ser.); Dngilule's Momtsticon, vi. 954 ; Ma- 
rilyn's Diary, pp. 46, 58. 80 (Camden See.) ; Gent. 
Mag. 1800, pt. i. pp. 321. 322, an untrustworthy 
sketch of life, 1860, pt. ii.p. 522, by BishupStublw, 
on the investiture with the pall ; Stale Papers, 
Hen. VIII, V. Nos. 340. 345 : M.S. State Pnpers, 
Mary, Doin. vi. f. 84 »q. ; on Holpnte's marriage, 
MS. Hurl. 352. f. 206; Cole .MS. xlix. ff. 249. 
346; manuscript extract of grant of arms from 
the Records of the Colleee of Arms by Blue- 
mantle Pursuivant, 30 Jan. 1888. For Uol- 
gate's work on council of the north (1,^40-4) see 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS., Transactions between 
England and Scotland, 32646-55 passim, con- 
tainiug numerous letters signed by him with 
others on puVjlic aifuirs. For his found/itions, 
Carlisle's Endowed Schools Keport, ii. 817, S-'l. 
8S8, 919, and for suit V>pfore the privy council 
relating to removal of Hemsworth Gramtnar 
School, Times. 7 March 1887, p. 3.] W. H. 

RAPHAEL (rf. 1580?), chronicler, is *aid 
to have been son of tialph Holinshed or 
Hcdlingshed of Cophurst in the township of 
Sutton Dowiies, Clu.-shire, but the pedigree 
of tlio HolLnsheds or Hollingsheds of Cop- 
burst cannot be traced authoritatively. Hugh 
Holinshed or HoUiugshead of Bosley, Che- 
shire, has been claimed as the chronicler's 
uncle. HiiKh purchased the estate of Hey- 
wood, Cheshire, in 1641, and the frequent 
appearance of the christian name llnlph or 
Raphael among his immediate descendants 
supports the theory of kinship. Hugh's se- 
cond son, Ralph, who died before 1577, had 
a son Ralph (</. 1635?) and three grandsons 
of the name (EaRwaker, Ea»t Chetkire, ii. 
617). Tanner states that the chronicler was 
educated at Cambridge, but the only Holins- 
hed known there at a possible date was Otti- 
well, son of Hugh, Holinshe<l (possibly Ra- 
phael's first cousin), who graduated B.A. in 
1540-1, and M.A. in 1544, liecame fellow of 
Trinity College on U> Dec. 1546, and canon 
of Windsor on 24 Sept. 1550; was, after 
Mary's accession, described as of Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch, and married Margaret, daughter of 
Henry Harden of Ascot. Baker assumed 
that the chronicler was a student of Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge. Wood doubtfully asserts 
that he was educated in one of the univer- 
sities and became ' a minister of God'* word' 
(^AtkerKt Ojwi. i. 713). All that seems cer- 
tain is that he came to London early in Eliza- 
beth's reign, and obtained employment as a 
translator in the printing-office of Reginald 
Wolfe. To Wolfe he writes that he was 
'singularly beholden' {Chron. 1577, ded.) 

About 164^ Wolfe designed a universal 


t.^\JH..- — . . 

history &n<l c>-''= '•~i- ---... 

illiirtrati.jn*. Ilr 1.1. -— - .- . 

not«. and he hlx— '-: :-.-;.: . 

of the Eni'l>h. S "-• - •.: 

Holin'-htilw.Tk-r;:'.:- -■ ■ ■ . 


ivotion.«n'lha::7-r I- ■--- ....... 


script*. •Al-..rd---ir. ■.-••: - - - - 

sprnt ih-rrin.' W .:- „-. . " 


of th- giva* j.r ■-■ • - I.- • . • -. 


lication. bu; T-r— ---.-;- - : 

George Bi-h-.:. J _-. .: .- ■ -.. . 

Lueai-lkrrl-v-. ;---—: -.-■ - -- 

i'.and IVi-iL-.r : - 1 .•.:-: . 

their Si;rTii>. \^~--: .■ . • 

*^medlik<r- .....-- 

resolvi-J :--. U-.- ■ .- .•-..• 

de?cription.T :?"..-..•.•.-: - 

IdnJ 'inlv. iE.i - -_-:;.•- 

ri-in 'ii. V." Ti- - .-i. - . • _■ . 
inthr 'l--<''rlj:. 1.- :'.-.■, . -. . ■. 

and Ri.;hari «• • .-. . ..••■ ■ 

VMfi to va: ■:.- ....-- - • ■ 

H'jlia-h<»l hi; v.- -. 

mana-crij- f- rl.:" . -. . i •.. 

length or. ! S :'.■ '."• -. 

in/'Kai/fci'-: H .. .. ■.- . _: 
XfiUfA'.iii :.:.Ti:-r- : ■ ■ . ■ -,- • 

on psviErL- ;: ■•. • 

■x.\' and a : p" .'.:-. 

widow <jf L .A-' rl. ..-..?: — 

publi'ber .:.--t— ■-; .: 

allow-d :/■, —;.;•,-• - -. - ; . 

cock (/.'<■'/ .-?•-• ■•' • . 

a2y.3:}j.. T:.- -^ •..•."-;•■ 

volum-*.&r. i ■»-.• ;.v. •". ■ 

pT'rtrai*.-. Is--.—: - ■- '• . 

tirl-of V I.; n-" T-.- - -■ - • 

<''liP->ni<;!-' -.: r.r..-..i. ■. . -■ 

lande. i-.5r."-Tr. -_• •-.- ;_..-■ - .. • 


nicle-!"r =•'.-?.---- -.■..>.■- . 


<iu«v T?.- ^i..-.;- -. i-.; • • 

5and.. . :;:: . ":--: :;.- ;.- ■ •■ 

chriniclTr :' I.--', i.- :- 

- • 

faithfully ri'l-.-r-i i.-. . - ' ' . .^ 

Holin.-b":.' T;.- -.-.— t--. - ■..- 

1577 in St -::;-.•:•.-.-. •..-.; . -. 

Queen* ■ >. ■•■.- '. T. .-.• 7"-.. i -.■ . 

C^\\MTU:.r.r:.-r.-- ^-■.■■~r ■■■-. 

: ..• _ 

Cated»L-V/'.-.i, 1.- I--.-.--.:. ,-.- 

* The Hi-*. .-.- -f ^ - ..- .. V . 

dedicated :• Ij-Ir----. ■..>_- i -.--«■ 

andi'for.w-ri -y I.-. -T.-..1.--. - •.-. ■ - 

principail =:i"-r-." ■.••..■. .-7 -.- ■»■-• 

- . • 

p«(f»-. rJich :.•..■•:-; .-•• : .- -. .•:.■■ 

• Hiitorie '.:' Ir^;»r.:,' i-z -. .• ■.-•.■;•. 


f?ir H-nry ^y :r.-y. r.x* i • -. r: • - •-:*.: 

• I.-.; 

ir followed r-y * • :*'.'.- 7 •.'■-' ^ - 

which fiiU 1"T'; P--I.?-*. n,:. ":-. 


volum* of tL- '.>..■■ !:.■■..-- 

.' ' ' *' 

th*Chroiucie- -/ Kti-i v.-. -. :".••.=. - .- ."• 


(.'onqmect un: il th. • p.-er^.-.- " . .v. - "."".. •: 


. :<.cr 

-, iii.l W'.icMlmaii ) jiul}- 

- •r'vr iV'IiM ilifoii.stniteil 

.-. ->. r^ lil' cas!rat>/d iMpio.- 

rill' \o!i:iii(' wa-i ciiri'- 

■•: UUu'lili.iurii i|. V. ', iin-l 

■ "iti'.' \v:irii' il tlio jmbiii- 

;. ;i.- llu\\ li. i-'.i:'.<l. a vvy 

: r^.-j):i :,'.-. •>■■.••.•• :lyliaiii'.>-.l 

• - ■■ ;i.i;al)lf b" .Iv—iu-rs (N;- 

■■■'■■fr-: i. L'4ii-'>i .. Aiidtli'T 

■.•."uiniiiu' tlif i':-t:Ml"4 slifc:.- 

..f II i'clit.-(l l.v 1 1;-. J )i-aki', anJ 

.:• ,1 in 17l'>^. 

-■•■:f.'.l I'ditimi wa- ri'printed liyu 

■ !'.■:■ cliift' L'lii.l'iii li>)ok.-=.'lli>r< in 

-. (!■>. in 1S(.I7 >. 

■ '.-iiru'li'S ' I'onn a valuable 

:' lli^tclri^•a^ inlorniulicin. Tlie 

- ii'inilicr 111' authorities eiit'il at- 

■ - ■ . ■:<!ie(rs and ]\\< -^ueee.->or>" indus- 

';■ siyli' i> cd.'ar, altli(Uij;li nev.T eb- 

11 I tlie clironieler t'uUy jiisliiie'd lii> 

■ ' ha\e had an esjieeial I'ye unto th" 

1 I'.iiiiiis." allhoujrii liis proieslaiil bias 

A marlied lliroui;bout and hi.s li'e:ii- 

e' early linn-.- i.s \ery unerilieal. The 

.•:io tone ol' the book h-d Ilolinshed's 

-> »'..i;'.;< lo iii>ist so .strenuously ou tin- 

■. - of the Mnt;lish .sovi;rei;ins to exae: 

■■.i^>' t'roni tb.- S'ottish rulers, that Si; 

: :';as Crai;; ij. v. was moved to writ-- 

■ ; iy, entitled ' De llominio," in ItiOo. 

lilizabelhan draiualist.s drew many o. 

:■ plots I'roin llolinslied's jia;ies,and nearh 

S'i.i!i.s]iear.-"s bistorieal ]days (as well a- 

\l ■. -belli,' • K inn' Li-ar,' and jiari of • ("vn;- 

,'r,'') are basid on 1 loliiislh-d's ' Chro- 

• .•'. s.' Al limes (as in the two parts of 

• !i- iiry I\ I ShalieS]H'are adojited not only 
1 I '''iisbed's faels. but some of bis jihrases 

■■,'. ( 'oil 1 1 It's .Shiik(.-<i:iiirc'.'< Lihrm-ii. ed. ( 'ol- 
'■■■r.aml T. I'. ( 'oIUTkN'AV's ('■•mut-iitririr.-i ..,; 
N .:•'. ^j^iirc's llUt'irlfdl l'l(iii^\. Many ex- 
■.-.•;. -Is iVoiu Ilolinsbed's work ha\e lieeii 
I'-.iKid liy ihe eiliiors of Sbakes]ieari''s his- 

'•■smI Jibiys. to illustrate the s.iiirees of his 
•1 ..e-mation. Tb.- dramatist seems to Lave 
■..s d ;b-- ■■diiion of ir>S(i.7. 

(.'.■■•I'.v's All:, iia' Caiit. i. !:'.() -1. ."xls : J'.iug. 
o: •.; Air.essl'vp. .\nt:(].e.l. Ilcrln-rt : 
v':;'. , f.iai ir'sllil'l.r.rit.; Ilearur's (;iiri,,!-.s Pis. 
.•■■;■■«■-; Il,.in;i-'s |>;-.f. lo !iis idiiioa of Caiii- 
,:^•■^- AMri.s; Ni,>., llis> ..riivd ],il.n,ry. 
1 !'.ii. :\. le'.i; alls, llAiviiisus. \Vii i.iam. litZ\- 
'"•■.;>: II "'Ki i;. '.',"■■■-• \"owri.i , .loiiN; Snnv, 
' 'iiN , ,■.';•'• I'lnNxr. t'nANOis.] 8. L. 


was ■!.■ sou of .lobii llolker of .Siretford, 
M:uu ':e.-ster, by Aliee. daiiuditer of .lolin 
M iris, W,,- f >iiiid.T of the 1;imil\ , A lexand.-r 
ll,-.:e.r. is said to ha\e been pre^euted by 




JamesIwithUiMfaatMoatcm.Eccks. John'* 
htlier, a reoBian, <li«d diactly after ha ■od'« 
tiirfh, m»<1 his widow about 1740. Yoimg 
I ' { hi» patriiaony in order to erect a 

., aad iipeot two rears at Man- 
i'.. : r lu acquire the neceaaaiy fcnowledae. 
li' married ElizabetK, daiight<?r of Joiin 
H n or llulton, a Manc1i«<Fter tradesman. 
I ;- jht up an ardent catholic and Jacobite, 
lli>ih>r was with difficulty diwoaded bjr bis 
wif.-fn>m jc.lningthf Young PrstenderinScot- 
Und in 1 r 15. Whfn the prince entered Man- 
chester, HoUser joined his force* with the rank 
f.i' 1 1.. lit.. .,...,» „r,,i ^- ,- .•ni.rur..,! wjth the othcr 

w. He wag , 
, , ; ' ; in company 

with l*et<:T Mos«, whose friends bribeda turn- j 
key ti> ndmit tools and a rope. He escaped I 
(28 Junel746) with gTfatditficulty on account 
of his size, and was concealed for six weeks 
by a woman who kept a green stall. Holker, 
about thirty years afterwards, gave Dutens 
a minute but inaccurate account of their 
e«c«pe (Mrmoiri of n TrarrUrr). Even the 
moonlight allnijed to have facilitated the ex- \ 

floit will ri'it Ixiur the te«t of the almanac, 
le seems al^o to have told hl'i family that 
he wa« at Falkirk and CuUoden, whereas he ^ 
was never in Scotland. After hiding in 
England he made his way by Holland to ' 
Paris, and in February 1 747 became lieutenant , 
in Ogilvie's, also called the Irish Brigade, 
lie served till 17ol, when, on his failure to 
obtain a pardon from the English govern- 
ment, be determine<l on erectinga cotton-mill 
It Houen. The rudeness of Norman processes 
induced him to submit a paper to >l8chault, 
comptroller-general of tinunce, who commis- 
sioned him to go to England t« enlist workmen 
and study the latest improvements. In 1754 
he accordingly went in disguise to Manchester, 
1 the factories, and engaged twenty-five 
nd«. On hi.i return he wa.s a8signe<l a mili- 
pension of six hundred livres, and was 
Dinted inspector-general of manufactures. 
■ erased to enforce the old vexatious 
ions, introduced improvements, re- 
[ nr stimulated the velvet and corduroy 
manufacture, established spinning schools, 
• ""d potteiT works. 1 1 is salary was 
■i-'Ol. to" 480/., and in 17ti9, on 
first vitriol factory in France, he 
waK eiir .111, ! by a subsidy and bounties. 
In 177ii li' w 1. made a knight of St. Louis, ] 
and in 17r.>, bu-ketl by a p«Mligree from the I 
l^ndon Heralds' College and by testimonials ' 
from Jacobite refugees, he obtained tettren de ' 
Bcft/r**-. A widower in 1770 he married the 
1 -inlVstart. He retired about 1780 
r- . - of Montigny.died 27.\prill780, 

and wu« liuried at llouen. The Young Pre- 

tci»d«r, wboiiB he sceompknied to London on 
la» secret visit of 17'50. present e<l him with a 
sword of honour damasked with gold, which 
is still preserved by hi* descendant*. 

His only son, Joks Holker ( 174-''— l.S:i2), 
was in 1769 appointed ■" -f»x.-tor, 

went to England to study i - s and 

Arkwrights proeeases, and in i , , . \Tas sent 
by the French gomment to America to re- 
port on the prospects of the war, anddissuade 
I the Americans from submitting to EmiUnd. 
Appointed consul-general at Philadelphia, he 
etjuipped and victualled French men-ot-war 
in American ports. He settled at Spring- 
burg, Virginia, bought twentythousanfl acrea 
of land in Indiana and Illinois, visited France 
in IStlO, and die»l in America in 1S22. Ilia 
wife. Elisabeth Julie (Juesnel, had remained 
at Houen. Tlieir son, jE.vjr Loris IIolxer 
(1770-1844), discovered the method of con- 
tinuous combustion in the vitriol manufsc- 
ture, which he carried on, first at Rouen and 
afterwards at or near Paris. 

[InformatioQ from M. Henri Holker, I^ij; 
Palatine Note-liook fManchester), April and July 
1884; Nonvelle R*vue <le Paris (a coDwdfrably 
emlwllishwl sketch); Eraoufs Hist, de Troi's 
Onvriers ; Mem. of Archilwld Rowan Hamilton 
(who knew Holker «t Rouen); Doniol's Hist, 
participation d« I« France a I'itab. EtaL^-lnis, 
1886; Hale's Frinklin in France (.Mre. Holker 
sent Franklin apple jelly at Paris, 1779) ; Gent. 
Mag. 1786, i. 4*1 ; Universal Mag. 1786.] 

J. G. A. 

HOLKER, Sir JOHN (1828-1882), lord 
justice, son of Samuel Holker, a manufac- 
turer, of Hury, I..ancashire, by Sarah, daneh- 
terof John IJrocklehurst of (['litheroe in that 
county, was bom at Bury in 1828. He was 
etlucate<l at the Bury grammar school, and, 
though at first destined for holy orders, was 
eventually articled to Mr. Easthum, solicitor, 
of Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmondand. .Vfter 
some years he enten'd as a student at Orny's 
Inn, was calle<l to the bar there iu 18.'i4, 
Rubsequently became a bencher, and in Is7i'> 
trea.surer of his inn. .After a short time spent 
in London he joined the northern circuit, 
and settled at Manchester. Here for *ome 
time he got but little practice, and from his 
appearance was called 'sleepy Jack Holker.' 
He was all his life a ' tall, plain, lumbering 
Lancajshire man, who never seemed to labour 
a case nor to distinguish himself by ingenuity 
or elof|uence, but through whom the justice 
of his cause appeared to shine ns through n 
somewhat dull but altogether honest me- 
dium.' After ten years of growing and mis- 
cellaneous practice he distinguished himself, 
when left alone by no less than three b/ailers, 
in a parliamentary committee in the Stnly- 

bridge and A«hton Waterworks Bill, and 
removi-d to London in ll''84. He obtained 
the rank of queen's counsel in IStiti, and at 
Onr>' Atetiped into n leading; position on bis 
circuit ; be wns fo successful in a ]iateut case 
(\ih fir^t) upon his tirst assize after ' takinf^ 
silk ' that patent cases formed thenceforward 
t be lur^r part of liis pract ice. In 1 872 he suc- 
cessfully contested a by-election in the con- 
servative interest at Preston. The election, 
the first under the Ballot Act, attracted much 
attention. At the same time the Tichlwrne 
case, absorbing many of the best known 
lenders at the bar, left an opening, of whicL 
Ilolker, hitherto little known in London, 
wav* able to avail himself. At the general 
elections in 1874and in lH80he was re-elected 
for IVeston ; was appointed solicitor-peneral 
by Mr. iJi.iraeli and wii.§ knighted (1874). Chi 
the appointment of Sir Kicliard Boggallay 
U) the court of appeal in November 1875 
Holker became attomey-genernl. His prac- 
tice became enormous, and his income during 
two consecutive years was '2-fiOOl. n year. 
Persuasiveness, shrewdness, and tact made 
him extraordinarily successful in winning 
verdict*. In the nou.seofC'oramonshe proved 
a successful law-ollicer ; he o])posed Bass's 
bill to almlish couunittals for contemtit in 
county courts, vigorously attacked Mr. Glad- 
stone's Eastern policy in 1877, introduced the 
Criminal Code Bill and Biinkruptcy Bill, and 
carriiHi the Summary Procedure .\ct and 
Public Prosecution Act in 1679. It was 
known that be was anxious to obtain the 
post of lord chief baron, but Sir Fitrroy 
Jielly wn.s unwilling to vacate it, and he re- 
turned to private practice on the fall of Lord 
BeaconsfitM's administration in 1880. While 
absent for his health's sake on the Riviera, 
lie was appointed by the government of Mr. 
Gladstone, who personally appreciated his 
close powers of reasoning, a lord justice of 
appeal in January 1882. He sat in that court 
only a few months, though long enough to 
display great judicial powers, was com]H'lled 
by failing health toresign hisolliceon IPMay, 
died at his house in Devonshire Street, Port- 
land Place, on 24 May, and was buried .SOMay 
in his mother's grave at Lytham, Lancashire. 
Lord Coleridge, in a panegvTic upon him in 
the court of apjieal on 26 May, said of him 
that ' he filled with applause the offices of 
solicitor-general and attorney-general, and 
at the time of his death stood by imiverssJ 
consent in the very first rank of his pnifes- 
sion.' Many acts of unostentatious kindness 
to members of his profession ore ascribed to 
liiin. lie married, first, Jane, daughter of 
.lames Wilson of Eccles, Lancashire ; and, 
secondly, Mary Lucia, daughter of Patrick 

McMugh of Cheetham Hill, Manchester, bnt 
left no issue. 

I [Times, 2a May 1882 ; Law Magsxine, Law 
Journal, and Solicitois' Journal, 26 May 1882.] 

J. A. H. 

HOLL. FRANCIS (1815-18&4), en- 
graver, fourth son of William Holl the elder 
[q.v.], the engraver, by his wife Mary Kavena- 
croft, was bom 23 March 1815 at Bayh&m 
Street, Camden Town. Francis learned his 
I profession wholly from his father, and soon 
I achieved marked success as a line engraver. 
He was engaged for twenty-five years in en- 
I graving pictures belonging to the queen, and 
he illustrated the ' Life of the Prince Con- 
sort ' by Sir Theodore Martin. He was cele- 
brated for his beautiful engravings of chalk 
drawings, and engraved many of Mr. Geori 
Richmond's portraits. His principal worl 
were : ' The Stocking Ijoom,' by A. Elmore, 
R.A., 'The Coming of Age in the Olden 
Time,' 'and 'The Railway Station,' by Mr. 
W. P. Frith, R.A. lie exhibited seventeen 
engravings in the Royal Academy between 
1866 and 1879, and was elected an associate 
of the Academy in .Tanuary 1883. 

Holl was an admirable amateur actor, and 
belonged to a company called 'The Histrio- 
nics,' who played ut the St. James's Theatre. 
Ilis part ot Mungo in the ' Padlock,' played in 
1842, was a verv marked success, lie otten 
played comic cliaracters for the benefit of 
the Ajtists' General Benevolent Fund, in 
company with George Cruiksbank, F. W. 
Topham, Mr. .John Tenniel, and others. He 
sang well, and was an excellent player on the 
violoncello. He lived for many years at 
30 Gloucester Road, Regent's Park, and re- 
tired about 1879 to Elm House, Milford, 
Surrey. He died of peritonitis on 14 Jan. 
1884, and was buried at Highgate cemetery 
on the 19th. 

On 23 Sept. 1841 he married Alicia Mar- 
garet, daughter of Rolx'rt Dixon, a naval 
officer, who was wounded ut the battle of 
Trafalgar. By her Holl had two sons and 
two daughters. His eldest son, Francis Mon- 
tague, usually called Frank Holl, the painter, 
is separately noticed. 

Holt's portrait was twice taken by his son>| 
Frank Holl. The first, a chalk drawing, was 
exliibited at the Royal .\cademy in 18tl8, and 
the second, an oil painting, in 188-1, and again 
in the winter exhibition, 1889. It is the pro- 
perty of his widow. 

[Private information; Royiil Academy Bookt i 
and Cataloeiies ; Times, I'and 18 Jan. 1883, also 
17und 19 Jan. 1884; playbillsof the Histrionics, 
5 Ang. aud 19 Oct. 1842; priote at the British 
Museum.] O. A-m. 




M FluxK Holl (11*4.5-1^88), puinter, bom 
uo 4 July \HAfi, nt No, 7 St. James's Terrace, 
Kf-iili»li Town, WHS the eldest son of Friincis 
Holl I'q. T.], ongTttver. He wis a delicate 
' - ! was not nt firet sent to school. 

I from a latully of enpravers he 
1 1 most from infancy a passion for 
Hiis chiiif amusement as a child 
I raw and coliiur in the engraving 
lii« father, who overlooked and cor- 
- work. At the age of nine he was 
wnt to a 8(;bool at Heath Mount, 1 lampstead, 
krpt by Mr. I{«y, and spent hiH half-holidays 
in drawinjf the scenery round the playground. 
He wa*< afUirwards sent to University CoU 
\wv .•vhiM>l, and remained there till he was 
tin«aMi. He si ill devot,ed his half-holidays 
to drawing, and thii.s prepared a chalk draw- 
ing for ibe probntionership at the Royal 
Ao><itrmv, which proved successful. .^Jter 
kui admiwion as a student in ItHil he regu- 
lArly attended the Royal Academy schools. 
He gained two silver medals there, one for 
« drawing from the antique in 1802, and one 
in lt«a for a study from the life, and in 
Ir^iS hr also obtained the gold medal for his- 
torical painting. 

Holl bu<l previously painted his first pic- 
tiarv,' .\ I'lowerUirlsitlingunderthecolumns 
«f Hani'ver Church, Regent Street, Lon- 
Am.' It wa« undertaken for Mr. Scbofield of 
M*,>r, who gave him a commission to 
■ ! ber called ' Turned out of Church.' 
■-xhibitt^l at the Royal .\cademy 
tu I lytjl. when he sent ' Turned out of Church ' 
and a p-irlrait of himself. He was henceforth 

■ 11 regular exhibitor each vear, 

During liStKi he passed his 

.' lleltws y Coed, North Wales. 

if Welsh peasants" cabins are found 

.if his later jiicture*. While yet a 

t^i-uius waa discerned by the older 

„ ..,.1 were friends of his father, Paul 

,. r I'hiI.-, R,A., Francis William Top- 

Itiuin.i- I'niibv, William Wf>o<l Ueane, 

WAS oilinitla'^l into a little 

• I)ovole(ltoniusio,hewas 

pcrfiirnuT on the piano. 

I thf tra\elling sludent- 

vai Acttdemv by his picture 

-live, and tin- Lord hnib taken 

' he tliH iialue of the Lord.' 

-uxbibitrnl in 1 8(^9, and made 

■ ion on the public. The queen 
it, but it was already sold to 

r, Mr. F.O. Pawle. He spent 

•I' the spring of 186H abroad, 

iilirely with home 

1 Kngland, he m- 


•ad niiti«r>, 


In I*; 

II..1 ii 

ngXf-l uis inivi'iiini; 


In 1871 Holl exhibited ' No Tidings from 
the Sea,' a commission from the queen. On 
10 Feb. 1872 he producisl, as a double-page 
illustration for the ' tiraphio,'* At o Railway 
\ Station— AStudy.' He liiibsequently painted 
this subject both in oil and water-colour, and 
called it ' Leaving Home.' The oil-painting 
was exhibited ut the Royal .Vcademy in 1873, 
and is now the property of Mrs. Hill. In 
I 1873 be painted ' Want — the Pawnbroker's 
i Shop,' a young woman with an infant in her 
I arms pawning her wedding-ring ; a replica 
of the woman and child only was painted for 
Mrs. W. W. Deane. From lM74 to 1»76 
he was regularly engaged on work for the 
' Graphic,' and on the twenty-four illustra- 
tions for Anthony TroUope's ' Phineas Redux ' 
(London, 1874)," 

Holl virtually began portrait-painting in 
187(1 with a jwrtrait of Mr. G. C. Richard- 
son. He had undertaken the work on con- 
dition that if it proved unsatisfactory to him- 
self the sitter should allow him to destroy 
it. The picture was exhibited in 1878 
with one entitled ' Newgate — Committed for 
Trial,' wliich is now in the Royal Holloway 
College, Egham. In the same year he was 
elected A.R.A., and his election was largely 
due to the merits of his portrait. John Pre»- 
cott Knight, R..\., recommended him to turn 

Etrtrait-painter, and his father confirmed 
night's view. At his father's suggestion 
he painted a portrait of Samuel Cousins, 
R..\., the celebratetl engraver. Cousins did 
not like the portrait, but when it was exhi- 
bited in 1879 its excellence was appreciated 
by the public, and from that time forward 
lloll, although he did not altogether abandon 
subject-painting, was inundate<l with com- 
missions for portraits, On 26 .March 188S 
he was elected an associate of the Royal 
Society of Painters in Water-colours, and 
exhibite<l at their summer exhibition 'Leav- 
ing Home,' the only wati^r-coloiir picture he 
is known to have exhibitnd. On 2lt March 
I 1883 he was elected R.A. 
I From lrt70 imtil his death, in 1888, Holl 
painted 198 portraits, including almost all 
the celebrated men of the day. His portrait* 
of the Princ»» of Wales (two), ib-,,- of 
Cambridge, his father, Cousins, 1 '», 

Sir James Bacon, the Duke of C'!' ^ j- 

I nor Piatti, Sir Horace Jones, Sir W.Jeuner,. Sir 
, Uenry Rawlinnon, l,ord .Spencer, and Sir 
I George Stephen, are all admirable; the Inst, 
I which was exhibitwl at the Orosvenor (tal- 
lery in 1>*88, is p<Thaps the best example of 
his art. His only fi-male ]>ortmits, bwidns 
, that of his daughter .Mndi-Iim- in the picture 
I callrnl 'Did vou ever kill anvls>ly, Father,"' 
I 1884 (now the proiwrly of Mr. F.C. T ' 




I tiJT MiM) Tonks nnd Miss Harvey. 
•■ "'w (now tlie property of the j 
' liirvi-y) wn* exhibited at the 
> ill tlio winftT of 1889. 
wt anxious temperament, and 
^«i ticiniious work told upon his 

itUh. Ho l>vi<d chiefly in London, but 
luu^iit uittoh limit in his favourite county of 
f(ltt>iv>i «'>'' "• <liiranhttll Mr. Norman .Shaw, 
i.i\., hiiilt II homy for him in lf8o. In April 
, •hiir bin pii^tures were painted for the | 
»ltli>ii«, lii< wiinf, on medical advice for | 
rt fCw wiwkK til Spain, but his health was not | 
I ii«>riiiinii'iilly improved. On 14 July he was 
I {iiKkii ill with ilim.'iise of the heart, and died 
vii i\\ .liilv, III hm bouse in Fitzjohn's Ave- 
liiit', l.timloii (ilimiKiied for him by Mr. U. 1 
tStii'iiiiiii Sbaw in 18M1-2). He was buried ' 
itl llltfbmili' iTinc^tery on 7 Aug. 

Vii|iui(iii'». and Kembrandt were HoU's 
fttvoiirili' old iiiiKf ers, but he was sensible of 
tlio Ki'iii'i' and retiiiement of Vandyck, whom 
ill u fow iKirlniilM, like those of Lord Sjiencer 
iiiiil Sirlleiirne .Stephen, he approached. He 
Ik Id lliK HrHt place amonf; contemporary 
|iiirlralt-puintiTs, and probably no jwrtrait- 
pamtiTof any uge hasexeculed so much first- 
iiile work in iM) short n time. His pictures 
uiiIiiimI lui'dals at I'hiladelphia and Mel- 
Vniiiriii', and he was asked to paint hi.s own 
piirlrnit forthe I'lliri gnller>"at Florence, but 
illil luil live to uiidertnke it. 

liiiiriiNiiliji'i-t-pictures illustrate his strong 
fiillgiiiuii lerliiig and his deep sj-mpathy with 
lliK niUi'rirx and sorrows of the poor. In pri- 
vtilii life he wan always ready to do all he 
rniilil til rclii'Vi' distress. Wealthy in later 
life, iiimI ('(iiirliil by the leaders of society, the 
iiii'iiiulitv of liiH relations with early and less 
fortiiiiiiln frirncls never changed. 

Hull innrriod,in 1867, Annie Laura, daugh- 
ter of ClmrliH Davidson, the well-known 
water-colour painter, whom he met during 
hi* »tay in Wales in 186t). His widow and 
lour daughters, Ada, Olive, Madeline, and 
I'liillis, survived him. The portrait of him- 
Milf which he painted in 1884 for Mr. J. 
Macilomild of .\berde»!n, is too frowning. 
An excellent ^kefl•h of him at work by M. 
Keiioiiard was given in the ' Universal Re- 
view,' ir> .\ug. 1888. 

Iloll exhibited ninety-one pictures in all 
at the lioyal .\cademy. These include, be- 
•itlen those already mentioned, in l8t)6 'A 
»alherer;' iii 1860 'The Ordeal '(the 
V of Mrs. Harry Stewart); in 1807 
lescenf ' and 'Faces in the Fire' (the 
r of ( ierf rude .'Vgnew) ; in 1868 
I Iloll, Ks(). ; ' in 18"() ' Better is a 
if herbs where love is, than a stalled 
hatred therewith '( IViverbs, xv. 17); 

in 1871 'Winter;' in 1872 'A Milkmaid' 
and ' I am the Resurrection and the Life ' 
(the property of Mr. John Akroyd); in 187ft 
'Leaving Home;' in 1874 'Dieserted;' m 
1876 'Her First-lxim;' in 1877 'Going 
Home ; " in 1879 ' The liifU of the Fairies 
(the property of Mr. F. 0. Pawle), 'Signor 
Piatti,' 'The Daughter of the House,' and 
' Absconded ; ' in 1880 five portraits and ' Or- 
dered to the Front ' (the property of Sir 
Thomas Lucas, bart.); in 1881 'HomeAgain' 
(also the property of Sir T. Lucas ), and four 
portraits, including Major-general Sir Henry 
Itawlinson, K.C.ll., and the Rev. Edward 
Hartopp Cradock, D.D. (now at Brasenose 
College, Oxford); in 1882 seven portraits, 
including Lieutenant-general Sir Frederick 
Sleigh Roberts, painted for the queen; in 
1^8a eight portraits, including Lord Wolse- 
ley, the Duke of Cambridge, and John Briglit ; 
in 18.'*4 seven portraits, including the Prince 
of Wales (for the Middle Temple) and Vis- 
count Cranbnxik; in 1885 eight portraits, 
including %'iscoiuit Hampden, as speaker of 
the House of Commons, WiUiam Connor 
Magee, bishop of Peterborough (aftens-arda 
archbishop of York), and the Manjuis of 
Dufferin) ; in 1886 six portraits, including the 
Duke of Cleveland, Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, 
M.P., and Sir J. E. MiUais, bart., R.A.: in 

1887 eight portraits ; and in 1888 eight por- 
traits, including the Prince of Wales, as an 
elder brother of the Trinity House, Karl 
Spencer, Sir William Jenner, bart., and Mr. 
W. K. Gladstone. Twenty-four of HoU's 
portraits were exhibited at the Grosvenor 
gallery between 18^0 and 1888. Holl's por- 
trait of John Bright, painted in 1887, is at 
the Reform Club. 

Fifty-four of Holl's chief pictures were 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in tlie winter 
of 1889. A committee was formed in Janu- 
ary 1889 to place a memorial-tablet to Holl's 
memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, and to pur- 
chase some of his works for the National 
Portrait (lallery. 

[Private information ; hooks of the Boyal 
Academy, Royal Society of Painters in Water- 
colours, aud L'niversity College .School ; Royal 
AcniUniy and Grosvenor Gallery Catalogue* (esp. 
Cat. of Royal AcMdoiny Winter Exhibition, 
1889); articles in the Times, 7 Jan. 1889; Daily 
Telegraph, Standard, Pall Mall, 1 and 2 .\uk. 

1888 ; Illustrated London News and Graphic, 4 
and 11 .\ug. 1888; Hampstcoii and Uighgnt« 
Express, 4 Aug. 1888 ; Universal Review, loAilg. 
1888 ; Alhcmeum, -I Aug. 1888.] G. A-.h. " 

HOLL, WILLIAM, the elder (1771- 
1838), engraver, bom in 1771, was apparently 
of German origin. He was a pupil of Ben- 
jamin Smith, the engraver, and practised in 



the sdppk- »«i->i. Hr •«■»« tsj«: 
for his rtir 

j!»Tt«J ■p:-rs»l'i. -wiki -^rre tsx t son ;f Phi!*-a:;-n HolUsd ^q. t.\ »«* <v.-^- 


'PartMits'i Iril •: ■»»* r=.j<i?y-d ia rarrsT- 
ing Corh<>al(r$ jnwisfs : 'ibr kc'i . wf aitri>k« 
in th« Britirh M=iiir~T-. asi «v;;>v>>i. matng 
other sub^rct*. • Tbr B-ar »*: r'i i£ll-:c A i ?iii* 
brought bef;-rvV*=.i«."4ft-rR.W-s:4::. Hj'J 
WW m m&n c-f r^tirin; diijK>$:':i : n. and bi» 
work often »|it<e»r?d undrr :£■» naasr of other?. 
He was an adTac<Kd libenl in politico and 
at the tins* nf the Spa Fie'd* ri-:-:* in I>eceni- 
ber lel6 eipji^d hi»n**lf lo irvat ri*k by 
concealin? the rincl'^ad^-r. Watj<'<n. HoU di«d 
in London. 1 !»«•. I "3*. He had four f.>n«. 
Benjamin, who j.rac:i*ed enrravini for a 
ffaort time : William "sr^ bel" w" : Francis 
fq.T.'. A.R..\.: and CWles .</. I^^il. who 
abo practised as an ensraver. 

Hoix. WiLUAM. theronnc^r I l807-lf71 <, 
Kcond son of the above, bom at Plai^tow. 
Essex, in February 1507. Icamt engraring 
bom his father, whose stipple method he 
adopted for some time, though he subse- 
quently became a line-engiaver on steeL He 
engraved numerous portraits for Lodce's 
'Portraits." Knight's • Gallerv of Portraits.' 
Finden's ' Portraits of the Female .\risto- 

he jraiuated B^V. in 161iJ-ir . Ow.^. f \ir, 
Ay. I He puMishtvi in l^ili • N aumachia. vT 
Hc4Iaads Sr*-Fj:ht. N«->c et]C};}em invideiV 
4to. wi;h a i5t>d:ca:ivn to tVe^^rsre. U^ni iVWon. 
SOD and heir to the Marquis of Huntly. and 
cossmeDdatory verses by Michat'-l I*^ar^^^nar.^^ 
vtbrrs. 'Xaumachia" jrives a drtvrir>:5on »»f 
the battle of Lepanto : it is prewJevi by an 
amusing • Caveat t.'' his Muse." Appt'ndivl 
to the l6iJ.> e\Mt:on of John l>avie# ol Here- 
for\i's • A S>'<ursw for Paper-lVrsei-utors ' is 
*.\ Continuevl ln<iu-.sitiv>n against Pajvr- 
Persecatoi* by A. H.." un<loubteilly by 
Abraham Holland, and verv similar in chs- 
ractrr to the 'Caveat." lie died IS FoK 
l«>i;-'>-»>. In l<^i apivjire*! * Hollandi Pos- 
thuma. . . . The Posthumes of Abraham Hol- 
land, sometimes of Trinity CoUegv in I'am- 
bridce.' Jcc. Cambrido?. 4to. editrtl by his 
brother. Henry Holland [q. v.". who dcili- 
cated the volume to George, lord (,ior\lon. 
The collection consists of elegies on King 
James and Henry, earl of Oxford, a jyvm on 
the plafue of \*V2^. a poetical epistle to rhil«»- 
mon Holland, a * Uest^lution against IVatli." 

cracy,' &c. He also executed plates for prose meditations and prayers, and his own 
Blackie*s ' Bible," T. Moore's ' Poems," and epitaph composed by himself. The |HVin on 
other works. He engraved after W. P. Frith, ' ^ . ■ . ...»- 

R.A.. ' •\n English Merrymaking." • The Vil- 
lage Pastor,' ' Rath in the Field of Boaz,' kc. 
pictures after J. Absolon. C. Baxter. J. Faed, 

the plague was appended in lt530to'Salomon"s 
Pest-lfouse or 'rowrt>-i{ovall. . . . lU- 1. 1>.' 
In Ashmole MS. ."Jfi-T, fol. 157, is a pivm by 
Holland 'To my hone.<t father, Mr. Jliclmel 
Drayton, and my new. yet loved friend. Mr. 
Will. Browne." 

[Hunters Chorns Vatnm, .\Jdit. MS. i44SS, 
26J : Corsor's Collectanea.] .\. H. B. 

X. Elmore. B. West, and others: and a num- 
ber of portraits of members of the * Grillion 
Club.' drawn by G. Richmond, R.A. At the 
time of his death he was engaged on an en- i f 
graving for the -Art Union of ' Itebekah," ; 
afterFiGoodall, R. A., which was completed I HOLLAND, CHARLES O"-"^"^' "<"»>• 
by his brother Charles Holl, and his a.«sist- I actor, the son of John Holland, a baker, was 
ant F. A. Roberts. Holl died in Ix>ndon, ! bom in 17;» in Chiswick, and appr»^ntio»>d 
30 Jan. 1871, after a long illness. He was ! to a turpentine merchant. As Oroonoko. on 
an industrious worker, and his engravings | 13Feb.l7.">,">,totlieImoindaofMrs.Ciliber.tlu« 
are highly esteemed. He frequently worked Daniel of Yates.andtheBlandfonl of Palmer, 
in conjunction with his brother Francis Holl, he made at l>rurv Ijine his first app(>nmnce on 
.\.R.A. any stage. Acting under (larrick he took at 

[Bedgrsve's Dict.of.ArtisU; Doild's manuscript , once to imitating hismasfer.forwhioh he was 
Hist, of Engl. Kngravers (Brit. Miis. Add. MS. scourgiHlbyChurchill inthe'R<wciad,'ll.:»'-'L» • 
il3402); Art Jonrnal, 1871, p. 102; private infer- 338. In his first season he plnytnl Dorilasin 


L. C. 

HOLLAND, Eaki. OF (1589 P-1649). [See 
Rich, Hexet.] 

HOLLAND, Lords. [See Fox, Hexrt, 
1705-1 774, first Lord: Fox, Henry Richard 
Vabsall, 1773-1840, third Lord.] 

HOLLAND, Ladt (1770-1 8.».5\ wife of 
the third lord. [See Fos, Euzabctii Vas- 


' Merope,'Gt>orgt> Barnwell, ilamlet, and ( "ha- 
mont, and was the original Florizel in the 
'Winter's Tale, or Floriiel and IVnlita," < iar- 
rick"8alterationofShakesi>eare. HereinainiHl 
at Drurv Lane until I7t)'!>, playing Jntlier, 
Romeo, l"\'nlinand in the ' TemtM'.st,' Young 
Xorval, Hotspur, .Tuba, lago, laohiino, Ba- 
jazet, Macbeth, Dakley, Faulconl>ridgi>, Pro- 
spero, and verv many characters of primiiry 
importance. lllis original parts inclu<li'd Un- 
met in Muq)liy"8 'Ori>linn of China,' :J1 April 

Holland ijs^ Holland 

'.~it . Aii:aa .a Eli-vws'vr' J ».i'-i"i:.-.'n •■ •.■.i--i.. .■■Jtwrtal. and generous, nor hmc he m 

■■ "-.i:nrk ■.' ■- -■•«.•■ '■''»*■ •."..•.■■tt'''»-t» -t i-i.i-"...i vwvtli to anv human cmloK.' tai 

ii_>. 'InTiiiia- • L'l.s.-v.-Tv. < b";>. "t^J?. -!;•'■■> har he left his fainilv6,00(M. Foute. 

l£.i:i.- ;i 3.i:!i 'r-ra:f>-* i.-.Ti. ..•» •;■■ '•••• V',i -x .iiwni -i^ "■' fht' same authority, had an un- 

Z"ri.,":. ' IV. ■-* >' . >i- ' "Ja ^^ ; * ' .' ; •'■ '; •■i^'^f >.'spi^.l t'>r Holland, and wen: tr. his 

• ■.'ii.ii:e»r;ai' Hi^'M.:^ •;' o ir-'ci ••!•.•. t .■.- •trit'ri".. bii; did not rvfrain from callinff die 
man. X ':•'». '.**<■'. H.•l^;v "i ■.■'■• ■>,'.•.. rir% '■'■•'_■>'■ *»-.•..',: the family oven, in alln>ioc to 
i.r.r. ' -■irrcii-' idiipwryii •;" •.:i.- •<.■■•. >i-\ U-,!,rid.i >ri:;iu as a baker, which Holiand 
W:',«.' i.'; • 'i.T. '. r^C Wjirw. -^ •.< IV i*"!fti- ■'•.■^•■.- M>i!.;i.i' t..» oontval. His monumen: in 
'■n -• il,ir'. -eW ir«".olt.' l^ l^v ir>"-<\ V'-.-ti- rn". >."'! x»'oi t."h-irvh. removed from it* original 
M-lai'Tli.nS'in-icii's'W :.•>>» .; ^^ ;"•■• '_'\'^" V'' y ''i ::w ohanoel to the north wall of the 
iT". i.'.'ii'oel K.ver«i "i Iv ■'-* * ' b''-"" '■^ ■• •!•».•.!•■ -i" rhe chutvh tower, has a highly enlo- 
fflu;v.' "i:! Ji:i. ITr^S; IVrtSw:-* '•« M "v* ^ ^^^ ' !>>«.'r>pci-.>n by tiarrick. A portrait of 

• Zt-moia.' .r b'lj. irt^S. I"'" ■- v. IV* , il ' -i>d ^ n the liarrick Club. 

■Zln^r*. ■.riV'. I'.^S. a:KlS:-\^ " ' '•" •"^y"'" '• ;>•« " V.\ ofthoStago; Victori Hist, 

in 'ii'' "Jv-ii''!'! St ll.iv.-i •;' M'-«. v- ■' " '-^ .•: ■ ■.'"(.•.i: tv» .•»' Li^uJim and Dublin ; Jenkins'; 

4 t-'b. ITrt* I'l 'v< !i"t'. -"-.K'-' •■ *»•'* ^^■■■•^■^ -•••>..' KrirtolStugo, 1826; O'KeeffrV't III :". (.<*-'•>.•■•»"■' '}■■••'.' '■ ■«■ V'""'"'"'' ■ l*-^"' vC'.'sw. l^iv.os'sLifeof Garrick; Victor"* 

U<Ht. irri'.l. iitd ''ii •:t..- ■;;■■• •■:'••• • •" •»- '^'' * N--;^* AaJ Qaeries, 7th ser. riii. 489. 

in_- N -v^m'-XT X* l'-.'<! ;r •.-. • ■•'.;- •• ' •• ' '■ - v • '. t '"i. iH : ^!;irriok Correspoodenn-.] 

r IV.V. \:.'S>. 4.ul «u* I- :r..vt .-« '■ ■ ' '■■■• ■■• HOU„\Nl>. CH.VULKS (1768-l*i9?i. 

aT--i:i> hil^-.-twok <."u'.i^'"-. !'• l^-'-i" ■■••■'^ '>■■ ■''■. ^•!'- .■;' ntoma.<llollandufChi8wick.wts 

a:'-. -.I:t:ti.-i vv'i. ;i !'.;^':» .•.■■•.•.' ••»'•« *■ Ki-;' » .-i Charles Holland (178»-irtiJ>l 

ri<-' 'til •".if.i^liv -..;■! i! •• M «« l'"iv i •■ ; » V'.Ut iilayim; for some time in the 

•uM •■ -.r- -V- • ,<•. .'.l l-«-, ■• •*■'•" >••'••"-"*'■• invar»\l at Drury Lane, 31 Oct. 

H'il.i".i wi< 1 .; •.si-i .A-t.; "M-A w v. ■"»=. i'^ V^nvUus in ■ Hainlet.' At thi« 

w'-!i .1 -T-i":^. -••^.•i! ri-. «■•:■ .•^■■••' »";%v, '■•■•'••>• ■.•.I- -•'uuiiut'd until the season of 1819- 

a::'i .r^ii" i'.-w- ,■•' i;-.' '^vi' ■ •'■ ">■ « <■•• '-"^V. ,;•■:•. ■.•.•..; tew ohanoes and failing to im- 

b'w. \ T. • li .iwi\ '■.■\' '■■ •.■■•:•:■.■. »••%• ".vj..-! :■•••»•.■ '•.>js'>ir;v.>n. S«.>me notice was taken of 

:!•■• •'•.'!;■".••> .>:" .(i<f".i-.i-«- Nv.i— • '. "i.i i-'.'. ••x .-{n-ji.-i^ wrtonnance.and his Truemanin 


»vr;i\ ic'i:i'. lVl^ ■s.w"-. >iv»'-«'> '•. ■> l«<".<'i,! ■'..'■ I ^'tul.v.Mervliant,' in which character he 
h- 1 1."'. •■- \ M%-> ',:!.< ■»■■ » !■« ■"•-•!<•. •• •'••■• ' ;;'>v.-'.',v. Nlr«i. Si.UUmsas Milwood, issaidto 

■ n'.- Wvv. • :t o'la-To. manly, and feeling per- 

, -• ,, ,. i.-ri. >;,", '"I-,: •«.• ^>!t•■ • •••■t ••.•,• .»/ .(.'.r/v .WirivX ii. 499). On the 

lani ■•' 1-.J-" •'•;■■■ !!.; .' ■ i '" ■«""; '■ ' ■' •' ' " T'l' ;••••". »hv> was replaced by Barry- 
r.'--.' - .':"i" ..''■■■■•••(•-• i' .«'. • ' •■"' 'I- •■•■•■■I-.- .v». I ■> Feb. iri>S, the character "of 

pt -!'r2:.i".>''< .1- l>vv>'. «' ■• ' ■- <;• v'- • ^^ •". ■.•••*.uiii tho'Stranger.'andduring 

i-:r'"i ■•• '.T'Cw ■•'. •■■ ■• ■ « 1 I >• ■ "'• ^> •'-' I'linrU-s Kemble he performed 

("..-.•r, r-'i;. »'■. ■ ■>:'-'"v ' "1 ■:•'■ '^ '" ■<■ ^' " '• ' "• " l*-Mrr<',' in which piece he was 

,-•• ':'■.•.< irr, .i!i\ -.1 vi, • N > x-^:- •••'• - ■•• ^■••i'. iVu-inel. -.'4 May ir91>. He 

r';i • ■•. - -.-vi'-r ai; :;<, i'.'. " , ■ I' • ^h U •'" i-,;. .•n>.i\-.v. .r.*< I's'.iu.-r'sohanicter of Sydenham 
ir •■-. ■.J'i-". Rv^:.":. i»>iH' ll'V.i"' I".' •■ • \\ '-.vl v>t' Kortmio,' and was said to 
P A '. w— ■ >■.' t! r-S :':• >iv' .;.;■■,«■•• '• l^ .••••••%•,•>•.• :Ud! hi< talent* were entitled to 

r'. ", >. -; >: :-• •■ ■.-;. ,i" • ' \ •'. •; '.'■ ■ x' "o'v t. •.,•::■.; -n ,iud euootirairement from the 

h > P.'w ■'.' w:i* •.••:v'>.".v,- .1 l>> M-"(",l —.1-. ..;fVN.' He .toi.\l at I>rury Lane many 
r,. I ; . — ,-\. I'.i !r v-" '<v' ','•■■ •.U'-.p « i> .';,■ x. •.'■■•••• "..i;-.' {«-;.< m uniiuiHtrtant dramas by 
r: ': '■ v F '•■:•■. ir". —i-.x %■ -• » •■•v -• :•••■•■••,■, N^ '■ i" » . v.''!.'7ry. S. Sv>thoby. Cumberland, 
!•.- • r'.- x:;v\ >■..«•,'. • ■ 11 " r: ; ''v • '■ • '•■.•. " ':•- ••^. On l'* Jiuu> ISlK) he played 
^:- .:!-. •■-' I'nv- ",;. w"; •.•.■, ' ■ « .•■\i\ •• ^ ■«> ;' ;•; v';i-> .>. .•:•.'. •••■. '.V N.>\. WX> the Oaupliin in 
ii V- .r. i.>:i l-.-.'.-.r-:;.; w"; ' • .- •.'•.- ^ ;.;•■ ■'.' • K ••; .' -U". ' On :.V> Aj>ril lj*01 he was the 

.-. ^'i.i'. Iv.vrriU'.r ;:i •.lul'iin and .\irnes,' by 
>» • ■'■\ v'l- r. .I-.-.u-- l^iij), as Stemfort in 
•I" ■ S ••:i::.;t.' '•.-.> lusdf hi-i tirst appearance 
Ii -:■..;■'. a:-, i i.i",.-.-.;, :;■ «;i« .' \ ■ ;• iV x .i .'■■ U !x var\-.'t. \v!i,Tt>. •_'."> July I810, he 
r- ■ % •■;. i-..rr.,'\ »;■•.■'%< — » ■. '■. wi^; '•. • .'r.;'",i'. Uonry M>>rtimer in Eyn's's 

■:■..•■>• T'.iirv w. ■.-.•.■.'■.. " 1> ' .". V, ■.•-. ' - ■ "i >- • II;': I •.'■.• ••- !!•.-.> I'itv." He ai>companied 
• .... .• .;,.; >■;!.;•.' X- '.-". ••. >x X "x •' -Pv.-x 1 ,f. • o".Kj\iiiy ill it.< mipration to 
i.-. '.■ :;i> ;r-.\:r- .''.iv," •. v-.w •'■•,• •' ., :' ■• Ia,-.. .— . i-. • ^>:i :Uo .>{»'iiinir of the new 
,■ ■ • -.v \v -..-s .■•%■ i '■•% ■'■ «^ ■ ■'. .I-'-. '. -(V:. 1>U\ wa» Horatio to EULs- 

<-. :-,-'.i. . .';;:a" •;■.■■ \\a< :'7i :■,.;■•■•;, •■..>- '..>;ix ILiiii! ■'. Holland 5uppi>rted Kean in 


.■ A > : ■ X '. " • ' i" ' ■■■u' 




mooT plays, wns York to Kenn's Kichard II, 
"""!•' origiiinl Ilasain to hisSoliiu iu the ' Urido 
Abydos,' the original ilendixubel to Kean's 
lanuel iu Matiirin'sjilay of Manuel,'8Murch 
|bl7,aii<l Buckingham to Kean's Kichard III, 
Not. 1819. He was the Earl of Angus in 
[Jlodden Field,' an adaptation of ' Marmion,' 
ndCedric in the ' Hebrew,' Sonne's adapta- 
ion of ' Ivanhoe.' (-)n 24 April 1820 he 
]>1nyed tJloucester to Kenn's Lear, repeating 
til' character on several succeeding nights. 
Oilliland speaks of him as having a delicacy 
pi nerve that interfered with his success, says 
iis intellect was under the direction of a re- 
Bed education, and adds that his figure was 
at ungraceful and his deportment not inele- 
lut. A contributor to ' Notes and Queries ' 
ills him as a fine-looking man, and says ' he 
lie<l in 184)).' His sister Elizabeth married 
|oi>eph Constant ine Carpue [q. v.] 
[Genesi's Account of the Engliih Stage ; 
"heispian UictioDary ; Jlemoirs of the Green 
ora, no date ; Monthly Mirrur, various parts ; 
^illiland's Dramatic Mirror, 1804 ; Notes and 
rQnerifs, Tth ser. viii. 486, tx. 66, 138, 341.1 

regicide, is said by Nol>le to have beon a 
, native of Colchester, and tLere is good reason 
i believe that ho was a son of Kalph IIol- 
nd, who settled in the parishof St. Laurence 
Pountney, London. Cornelius Holland, born | 
March 1590, entered Merchant Taylors' j 
ehool in January UVX)- 10. He matriculated 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge (as 'genlle- 

'), in U114, and graduated B.A. in 1618. 1 
> register of St. Laurence Pountney rwords 
be baptism (17 Feb. 1027-8) of '.lames, son 
"" Mr. Cornetius Holland, pent., and Sybell.' 
)on after this date Holland was in the ser- 
ce of Sir Henry Vane, but iu 1&}5 was 
ierk -comptroller in the household of the 1 
yince of Wales. He had also an office under , 

(ward of green cloth, and amassed a 
on^iilenible fortune, but ' when the court 
kI assistance he deserteil it, refusing to 
bute to the expenses of the Scotch war 
»• (NoiiLE). In UU0(22 Oct.) he was 
Lfi'd M.P. for New Windsor, and again in 
eceinber of the same year, the previous elec- | 
having been declared void. He took no , 
tineut part in the debates of the Long 
"^ unt, and seems to have acted gene- 
nder the guidance of his olil master. 
In 1648 he signed the solemn 
fue and covenant, and three years later 
chosen one of the commissioners for | 
filing the treaty of peace with Scotland. 
' r iif the council of state 
I id ( Clartnclon Paperti), 
bill" i uuiici HI utuwing up the charges 

against the king, but he was not present when 
the sentence was pronounced, nor does his 
name appear upon the warrant for execution. 
His services to the parliament were rewarded 
by grants of land both in England and in 
the Bermudas, while lucrative offices, in- 
cluding the keepershiji of Uiclunoud Park, 
were bestowed upon him. Noble says that 
he had ten children, and gave one of them 
(possibly Elizabeth, wife of John Shel- 
ton of West Bromwich) a marriage portion 
of 0,000/. At the Restoration he was ex- 
cepted absolutely, lioth as to life and estate, 
from the Bill of Indemnity, but managed to 
e.scape to HoUand, and join, it is said, his 
fellow-e.viles at Lausanne, where he ended 
his days. The date has not been traced. 

[Robinsou'a Roif- of Merchant Taylors' School, 
i. 63; Wilson's Parish of St. Laurence Pountney, 
p. 132; Noble's Regicides; Cal. State Papers, 
bom. Ser. 1841 ; Ueraldic Visitatinn of Staff.; 
Tighe and Davis's Annals of Windsor, vol. ii.l 

C. J. B. 

(T801-18t)5), physician, was bom at Pits- 
moor. Sheffield, 28 Feb. 1801 . He had prac- 
tically no early education, and his father, a 
respectable artisan, apprenticed him to a 
trade. When about sixteen years old he 
suddenly discovered that he had a facility 
for writing verses. He thereupon studied 
the poets, and learned Latin, French, and 
Italian. On the completion of his appren- 
ticeship his friends, under the advice ot Dr. 
Philipps of the Upper Chapel, Sheffield,placed 
him with a unitarian minister with a view to 
his joining the unitarian ministry. 

After a year he determined to enter the 
medical profession, and went to Edinburgh, 
where he graduated M.I), in 1827 with high 
honours, and, joining the Hunterian and 
Royal Physical Societies, became president of 
both. He spent a year in Paris, taking the 
degree of bachelor of letters, and after an- 
other year iu Edinburgh began practice in 
Manchester. Here he made for himself a 
distinguished position, but a fierce contro- 
versy, in which his advocacy of the new dis- 
coveries of Gall and Spurzheim involved him 
with his professional brethren, led to his 
finally removing to Sheffield. His career in 
his native town was from the first a success. 
Ho at once took a prominent and im))ortant 
position in the Literary and Philosophical 
.Njciety, Mechanics' Library, and Jlechanics' 
Institution, and an active part in promoting 
the return of liberal members during the first 
and second elections for Sheffield under the 
Reform Act of 1832. His works, 'An Ex- 
perimental Enquiry into the Laws of Ani- 
mal Life," Edinburgh, 1829, 8vo, and 'The 



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HOLLAXD, IIKNKY .</. WjO . K:.=:in 
cuflitiic'iivin';. a nativtM* DaVrrr-'TT. NorrL- 
a!n}>-'ir;-liir'.-. was brj'izLT up i" Worc-riwr, 
and al't'.-rwardi <^n'. ro E'on ColirJTr. wh-rnc* 
1,,- pr'ic-.'i-.-l I') s«t. John's CoM-Ti". Oxforf, 
ol which !i>; wa= nominated a sci.'ilar bv rhe 
tViunJv-r, .Sir Thoma.- Wliit-;. in 1-VJo. lie admitted RA.on 1 0>*. LVj'Ji Orf. T'nir. 
llnj.. (.»xt'. Hi.-t. S<jc., i. i7.'>i. Having b^?«-n 
convertfd to Koman catholici:-m, he with- 
drew t'j thi? English C'ill<-2« at Douay in 1073. 
}!•• applit-d himi«flf to the study -if theology, 
wa* orilained deacon on 6 April 1577, and 
graduated B.D. in the university of I)ouay 
in i't'ti. In the latter year the college -was 
removed to Uheims, where Holland was en- 
gaged, with Gregory Martin and otlicr scho- 
lars, in traiulatiiig the Bible into English. 

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HO TTAV n HENRY .l.>S?-hViO?\ 
c:=:j'':l-rr ir.i j-u' li-her. wa ot Philemon 
Il-.-llin-i 'j. V. . wai at Coventry on 
i'-' SrpT. Ksi. ' Al:ho-.izhhe]>r<.->vr,; in later 
iif- a ::'»i o".ai*:eal scholar, and wa* olearlv 
w.rl! e.: i^it-rd. h-- cann^.it l«e the Henry Hol- 
land o:" Lanoa^hire who matriculated tn>m 
nrasr-:.:-- Colleie. itiford. lU Oct. ltilK>, 
a/.;! Iri. and sraluaTetl B.A. iH) .July liH,U. 
He can-i'.- to E-mdon as a youth, and usually 
d'T-i^Tiat'-d himself •Londouoptditanus." He 
wa* made fret- of the s^tationers' (\>mpany 
.'> IVc. Iti0> (Arrer. Traiifrripf. iii. w3^. 
The first l>iok published by him was Thoma* 
Drax--'s • Sicke Man's Catechismo," l^uidon, 
lWf>. »vo, which was licensed to Holland 
and .lohn Wrislit jointly on 4 Feb. UKW 9. 
In ItilO he publislied from a pn>viously un- 
printed manuscript • A Itoyal Elogie ' on 
Edward VI, by Sir John Cheke ; the book i» 




now of gTwat rarity. In 16 1 a he accompanied 
John, first lord Harinpton[q. v. ],whose family 
had Ix'eu on friendly termR with hi« fulhf r, to 
the I'olatinatc, when Ilarinfftoii accompanied 
the l'rinc<>ss Elizatx'th to the home of her 
husband, t he elector palatine. In 1614 Hol- 
land published, in conjunction with M, Laws, 
a compilation by himself, which bore the title 
' MonumentaSepulchrariaSancti Paiili. The 
Monumenta ... of Kings, Nobles, Bishops, 
and others buried in the Cathedrall Church of 
St. Paul, Loudon, untill this present yeare 
... 1614, and a Catalogue of all the Bishops 
of London . . . untill this present. . . . By 
H. H.,' London, 4to [1614], A reissue, en- 
titled ' licclesia Sancti Pauli iUu.strata,' and 
continued to ll)!i3, was published (J. Nor- 
ton .. . sold l)v II. Seyle) in 1(133, with a 
dedication by llolland, addressed to Laud, 
then bishoji of London, and to the dean and 
chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Holland's reputation as a bookseller was 
chiefly made by the issue of two elaborately 
illustrated antiquarian works, with letter- 
press from his own pen. The earlier venture 
■was'Bazilimlogia. A IJookeof Kings, lieeing 
the true and liuely eifigies of all our English 
Kings from the Conquest vntill this present. 
With their seueriJl Coats of Armes, Impresea, 
and Devises. And a briefe Chronologic of 
their Lines and Deaths. Elegantly graven 
in Copjwr. Printed for H. Holland, and are 
to be sold by Comp. [i.e. Comi)ton] Holland 
ouer against the Xchange, 1618,' fol. Comp- 
ton Holland was probably Henry's brother, 
and a few of the plates were cut by hitn. 
The engravers employed included R. El- 
Btracke, Simon Pass, and Francis Delaram ; 
to the Inst the fine portraits of Queens Mary 
and Elizabeth and PrincesHenry andt.'harles 
are due. Perfect copies include thirty-one 
portraits Ijeaides the titUvpage engraved with 
portraits of James I and ijueeu Anne. The 
copy in the British Museum want* the por- 
traits of John of Gaunt, llenrv IV, Anne 
Boleyu, and Marj- Queen of f^cots. The 
title-page is sometimes found with portraits 
of Charles I and Henrietta Maria in place 
of James I and Queen Anne, and the plate 
was u.sed with fresh lettering for the title of 
Biondi's 'Civil Wars of England' (1641), 
translated by Henry Carey, second earl of 
Monmouth [q. v.] 'I'he work is of the ut- 
most rarity. Book-collect ore have often in- 
gert«d additional portraits, and Lowndes 
gives a list of twenty-three which are often 
found in addition to the original thirty-two. 
A copy belonging to the Delabt-re family', 
which included 15:? portraits in all, was sold 
piecemeal bv Christie, 29 March 1811, and 
fetched mil. lis. 6rf. 

Holland's second and more famous illus- 
tratetl publication appeared in Jtj2() iu two 
folio volumes, the first dedicated to Jamei I 
and the second to the universities of Cam- 
bridge and O.\ford. Holland's letterpre^ 
is in Latin throughout. The title runs: 
' Hermologia Anglica, hoc est, Clarissimorum 
et doctissimorum aliquot Anglorura qui 
floruerunt ab anno Cristi m.d. usque ad 
presentera annum M.D.c.xx. Viuue effigies, 
Vit(0,et elogia. Duobustomis, Authorell.H., 
Anglo-Britanno. Impensis Crispini Passiei 
Cidcogniphus *iV] et Jaiisoni Bibliopolic 
Amhemiensis.' The work opens with a por- 
trait of Henry VIII, and closes with one of 
Thomas Holland (li. IrtlS) [a. v.] There are 
sixty-five jKjrtraits in all,ana twoengraving>i 
of monuments (of Prince Henry and Queen 
Elizabeth respectively). In one copy in 
the British Museum there is inserted an old 
manuscript list of the pictures whence the 
engravings were made. This was printed in 
1809 for insertion in other copies. A pre- 
sentation copy from Holland to Sir Thomas 
Holland is in the (Irenville collection nt the 
British Museum; another copy, with an in- 
scription addressed by Holland to Uobert 
Sidney, earl of Leicester, is described by 

Until 16;10 Holland seems to have carried 
on his publishing business. His less elabo- 
rate publications included ' Xewes from 
Frankfort,' lt312, 4to; ' Newes from Guljck 
and Clove,' 1615 (jointly with G. Gibbs). In 
1626 he printed at his own e.xpensc and puh- 
blished at Cambridge his brother Abraham's 
posthumous works as ' HoUandi Posthuma.* 
To ' Salomon's Pest House,' by I. I)., which 
he published with T. Harper in 163Ct, he 
addetl 'Mr. Hollands Admonition,' a poem 
by his brother Abraham. Holland helped 
his father with his later publications. He 
wrote the dedication to Charles I of his 
father's ' Cyropsedia ' of Xenophon ( 1632), 
and edited after Dr. Holland's death his 
Lat in version of Bauderon's ' Pharmacopieia ' 
in 1639, and his ' Regimen SanitatisSalemi ' 
in 1649. 

Holland's last days were spent in great 
poverty. (In M June 1047 was issued a 
broadsheet addressed ' to men, fathers, and 
brethren,' appealing for charitable aid. He 
had been, the paper stated, ' a grandjurv- 
man, and a subsidy-man, and one of the 
trained band charged with a corslet,' and had 
acted as a commissioner under the great seal 
against bankrupts. His credit had been 
good, and he had rented a house in the 
parish of St. Mary-le-Bow. During the 
plague in London in 1625 he and his wife, 
isusannah, had worked hard among the poor. 




Hn. IlolUnd had nace died * of a ■moUe ' 
(10 1>-- 1'^ '■ittbeBtaekRanniBClieap- 
sidt; "M.Cvaii.Soe.VLUy.Af^ 

aealcu; : . -uJ abhoiTCT of all lupaHi tioB , 

knd Popery hdcI prvUticall innorttioiw ia I 
cboich ^vcnmient ' he had i milii e d tlie { 
wrath of Laud, and had beea impriaoDed hj i 
order of both th« hifrfa eonmrifion eomtt ana 
Star-chamber. He iirclared lii»w««»lf adrterae 
to ' all latt •pnin'j-up wctaiies.' In IWS he 
aerved In ' :ard« of Basil Feilding, 

earl of 1 > parliamentarr geneiM, 

and wa» 'eiilL^t uij.u ' of the troop, beuKaixtj 
vears old. .Subseijuently hia ejeti^t and 
bearine had much decayed, he was craiy in | 
his limbe, impotent in body, and so * indigent ' 
in estate' owing to lawguita that he had had , 
to plead in a chancery suit in forma pamperis. 1 
The facta are attested by four persons, in- ! 
eluding William Gfrn^re q. v.", the puritan 
divine ; but the tact« that Holland dedicated 
his book about St. I'aul's CuiLedral to Laud 
in 1633, and that hi» imprisonment has not 
been corroborated, throw some doubt on the 
details. The title-page of his father's pos- 
thumously published ' Regimen ' showa that 
Uoll&nil wa,- .-till ulive in ltU9. 

[Autboritira cit«d ; Wood's Athene OxoD. 
ed. Blias, ii. 3^7 : Thomas Sharp's UliutretioBS 
of the Ami 'irentry; Holland's Works; 

HoUaDd'si i«titioD, 1647 (Brit. Mas. 

pf«)»-mark ij'j'j, i. il, Xo. 34); Lowndca's BibL 
Man. ; ISrii. Mus. Cat. of Books befine 1640.1 


HOLLAXD, HENRY (1746?- 1806), 
architect, wa« a relative of Lancelot Brown 
fq. v.] Ciee marriages between the families 
in Beifitler of St. Oforijr, Hanover Sfjuare, 
ilarl. Soc., i. 14:2,228), to whose influence 
be probably owed Lis hrst architectural em- 

?loyment. In 1 "6^1-4 he designed Claremont 
lau«e, near Esher. Surrey, for I^ord flive 
(elevations in RlCHj.BD80j(, Jit^D Vitrumus 
Britavncwt, vol. L plates 01-3 ; Watts, 
^SiMff, plate vi.), and about (he nvime time 
■tade alterations toTrvnthsm Hall, Stafford- 
shire, for the Duke of Sutherland ^plate3 in 
ACKERMAirv, Jtepotititry of Artt, 3rd ser. 
16^ iv. 1 ; Watts, Sealt, plate xixi. ; 
Nkilb, UraU, vol. iv.; MoBKIs, SeaU, L 59). 
In 1771 -ii he directed the construction of 
Battersea Bridge, and in 1777-8 designed 
Brooks's Club House, No. 60 St. James's 
Street ((ipened October 1778), the front of 
which has since been altered. About 1780 
be entirely re-erected Wenvoe Castle, Gla- 
morgBn><li''-' ■" t'l" 'grand old castle taste' 
of ihe p. Maij. 1785, p. 937), and 

in 178«i 'i „ lie vestibule and portico 

entrance of Keaiberstonhaugh House, White- 
hall (the work of Payne), which was after- 

wvnk called Melboome House, and Later 
Dover Hoose (plate in Maltox, London and 
WeUmiiuter, utL> Ib KcO" he was em- 
fitoyed in deaisnia^ the Marine Pavilion at 
BagfatOB for t£e Pnnce ttt WalrN^ afterwards 
G««ge IV, which consisted mainlr of addi- 
tkm* to tbecncinal villa (views by C.Middle- 
tnt, 1788; by Gardiner, engraved bv Newton, 
1801 ; Brightim Aeir (hade, 16^0, p. 15; 
Bkatlet, Palace at Brighton, plate L; plana 
and elevatians in lUcHAROeox, JVeic i itru- 
rnis Brittamieut, voL i. plates 6-1 ; RepttiS, 
Dtngn*foT the PaviJion at Brighton). Fresh 
additions were made in 1>01-^ by P. F. 
Robinson, a pupil of Holland, and the whole 
was subaequentlv remodelled bv J. Nash and 
W. Porden. 

In 1 788 Holland began his principal work, 
the alteration and enlargement of Carlton 
Hoaie, Pall Mall, as s residence for the 
Prince of Wales. He renewed the fa^de 
and added the Roman Corinthian portico 
and the opeji colonnade in front of thecourt- 
vard (plates in Brittos and Praix, PiJilie 
'buUdingt, ii. 193-1>01 (5); PT^E,Jioyal Be- 
ndeneet, iii. 11-92 (21); Papwokth, Select 
rievt, pp. 7 seq. (3); Aceexmaxx, Repoti- 
tory ofArtt, 1 809 i. 398, 1 81 2 vii. 29, 1 82"-' xiv. 
189). The Gothic conservatory, erected later, 
was the work of Thomas Hopper [q.v.l (.hi the 
motion of K. B. Sheridan, Holland's account 
of erpenses was laid before the House of Com- 
mons on 3 June 1791, when a committt^ of 
inquiry was appointed (Gent. Mag. 1791, p. 
921). The house was pulled down in 182/, 
and the columns of the portico were removed 
to the National (lallery in Trafalgar Square. 
The stabling and riding-bouse, after having 
been used as a record office, were taken down 
in 1868. In 17^*9 Holland made some im- 
provements at Wobum Abbey. Bedfonlshire 
(the house having been designed in 1747 by 
H. nitcrol\), including the conservatory 
(now sculpture gallery), the Canaletti room, 
the library, the entrance to the park from 
London, the Chinese dairy, tennis court, and 
riding-school (plates in KoBUisoir, fit. Brit.; 
view of dairy by Morris, 1803). In 1791 
he de6igne<l t)rury Lane Theatre for R. B. 
Sheridan. Thehousewasopened on 12March 
1794. Holland had much difficulty in ob- 
taining a settlement of his accounts with 
Sheridan (cf. the Builder, It^-'w, p. 424; plan 
and views of the building in Wilkiksok, Lon- 
dina Itliutrfita,\o\s. i. and ii. ; north-west view 
in European Magasitte, 1793, .xxiv. 3<U ; cf. in 
Malton, i. 48). The theatre was destroyed 
by fire on 24 Feb. 1809. He altered Covent 
Garden Theatre, which was opened on 1 6 Sept. 
1794 and destroyed bv fire on 20 Dec. 1808 
(view of interior in ^^'inmsos, vol. i.) In 

\7'Xt lie designed Soutliill Houxe, Bedford- 
shin', for Samuel Whit bread, e«q. (views in 
NEAiE, Seafji, :2nd sor. vol. v.; Ackkrjujtn, 
Ileposifoiy, 3rd ser. 1 3, vi. (13), and wu« 
engaged in the dejii^n of the New Kast India 
House, Leadenhall Stret't, a work whieh is 
frequently attributed to K. J upp, the surveyor 
to the company at the time (cf. in MAU'oi.M, 
Loinl, ReiUv. 1. ni-H; Brittos and ProiN, 
ii. S2-9 ; front view published by Laurie & 
AVhittle, I8()0; Malton, plate 73; north view 
in Papwohth, fVcuw, plate •%; IJolUnd'a de- 
scription of the decoration of the pt'diment of 
the portico in (init. Mmj. 1803, p. i;JO). The 
buildina: with the site was sold in l^til, and 
WHS pulled down in the following year. In 
18(Jl he completely re-erected the mansion at 
Wimbledon I'ark, Surrey, on a different site 
to the former building; ( view in .VcKBUMiXN, 
Hepotitory, 3rd ser. ls2o, v. 64). His last 
work was probably the coloimade, screen 
wings, and pavilions to the Assembly Rooms, 
now the AtlieniBum, Ingram .Street, Glasgow 
(erected in 179ti by K. Adam), which were 
not completed till 1807. 

.\bout 1780 Holland purcUaj^eda hundrtxl 
acres of land in Chelsea, as a building specu- 
lation: laid out Sloane Street, erecting the 
white brick houses there, Cudogan Place, and 
Hans Place, and erected a villa for himself 
in Hans Place (three drawn plans of the 
estate and two elevations of the villa, dated 
II -Vug. 1790, in the King's Library; the 
particulars of the sale of the villa, dated 1807, 
in the library of the Royal Institute of 
British jVrchitects). Part of the ground was 
afterwards occupied by Prince's Club, and t he 
property has recently been almost entirely 
rebuUt. Another scheme of his was the erec- 
tion of .Vlbany Chamlters, which was carried 
out in 1804, on the gardens of York House, 
Piccadilly, l>ehind the main bouse, which 
was the work of Sir William Chambers. 

Holland was district surveyor of Hatton 
Garden Liberty, Kly Itents, Saffron Hill, St. 
Mory-le-Strand with the Duchy of Lancaster, 
and precincts of the Savoy. (Jn 17 .luly 1789 
he, with nine other architects, including Ro- 
bert .\dam, George Dance, and Jolm Soane, 
WHS ujiiKiinted by a commitfiM) of the House 
of (Commons to inspect and report upon the 
buildings of the houses of parliament with 
the ollices attached. The report was pre- 
sented 20 July {Anmutt Iteijistfr, 1790, pp. 
247-8). He succeeded R. Jupp as surveyor 
to the East India Company in 1709 (Gent. 
May. 1799, p. .i39), and at the time of his 
death was justice of the jieacefor the county 
of Middlesex. He was probably a member 
of the firm of Holland, Copland, & Rowles, 
timber merchants; Rowle:i was a relation aad 

pupil. It is said that Sir John Soane studied 
under him before he gained the gold medal of 
the Royal Academy in 1 77lj and became a pupil 
of George Dance. Holland was the developer 
of the .\ngl'>Greco-Roinan style, his decora- 
tions resembling those of the Adacns, and he 
introduced into the works at Carlton House 
the art of graining and marbling from Paris. 
Some of his designs have been accused ol 
over-decoration (Penny C5/i"fc/»<»rfi"rt, Sujipl. ; 
\)Kl.l.K\iitkX,AnecdotettiftheArt*,^. l.Vi). His 
practice of charging I, 2, or 21 per cent, for 
measuring buildings,in addition to the usual 
architect's charge of 5 percent., was .severely 
ctinsured by Sir John Soane, who considered 
it 'highly unwarrantable' (SoANE, letter (a 
£art S/)encer,l~SQ, pp. 3-12). Uewasumile 
F.S.A. in 1797. 

For the Association of Architects, of 
which he was a member, Holland acted on 
a committee, appointed 1 March 1792, to in- 
quire into the causes of the fre<iuent fiivs in 
the metropolis, and drew up the ' Report ' 
in the same year. Accoimts of the experi- 
ments made in the various methods of se- 
curing buildings from (ire are given in the 
appendix to the ' Report,' pp. 67, 67, 75, 81. 
He contributed to the ' Communications' of 
the board of agriculture, 1797, pp. 97-102, 
a paper on ' Cottages,' with a design (plate 
XXXV.), and in the Api)endix for the same 
year an account with plates of ' Pisf , or the 
Art of Building Strong and Durable Walla, 
to the Height of several Stories, with nothing 
but Earth, or the most Common Materials." 
The account was extracted from a work on 
the subject by Francis Cointeraux, architect 
(Paris, 1791). 

Holland died at his house in Uans Place 
on 17 .Iiine ISWt, aged about sixty. A marble 
bust of him by Garrard is placed at the en- 
trance to the sculpture gallery at Woburn 
Abl>ey. He married, on 11 Feb. 1 773, Bridget 
Brovim of Hampton (Itei/ixterx of St. George, 
Hanover Square, i. 228, llarl. Soc), by 
whom he had two sons, Henry and Lance- 
lot, and tive daughters. 

[Authorities quoted; Diet, of /Vrchitectnn ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists : Penny Cyclopsedia, 
Supplement; nuiMer, 18-i.^. pp. 423-4, 437; 
Cimniughum's Ilandtwuk of Loudon, 1650 ; 
Erayley's Surrey, iii. 4.^-1, OIJ2-3; Manning and 
Bray's Surrey, iii. 329 ; Glasgow Past and Pre- 
sent, p. 129; Daily .Wvertiaer, 19 June 1806; 
will at .Somerset House ; Gat. of Kiug's Printa 
and Drawings in Brit Mas. ; List of Soc. Antiq, 
London.] B. P. 

HpLLAND, Sir HENRY (1788-1873), 
physician, son of Peter Holland, medical 
practitioner, was bom on 27 Oct. 1788 at 
ICnutsford in Cheshire, where hia father prac- 




tised. Iha Diiitt^rnul grsndruntlier was a 
mJM/er of Josiah Wedgwood the potter [q.v.] 
HpbouDin was Mrs. (iiislo-Il tli» noveliHt. He 
^pMit the lour yetiru 1790-180.'! iit New- 
ca»tlt>on-Tvuf, under the tuition of the Kev. 
AV. Turner; u lifth yi?«r he spent at Uristol, 
under thi* Rt-v. Joliii Prior Estlin \a. v.] 
In 18t>4 he b(?caiiie articled clerk too Liver- 
pool merchftnt, with liberty to study at 
Glasgow University for two sessions. At 
till* end of the second session he obtained 
» release from business, and entered upon 
■jpdical study. In his eighti-enth year he 
H^'W up an official statistical report on tlie 
agriculture of Cheshire. He afterwards pro- 
ceede<l to Edinbiirjfh University, but b<!8ide8 
pursuing his medical studies there he devoted 
two winters to studying at Guy's and St. 
Thomas's Hospitals in London. In 1810 he 
ri.<!ited Icelanil with Sir < leorge S. Mackenzie, 
bart.. and Dr. Richard Bright [q. v.], and 
contributed to Mackeiuie's ' Travels in Ice- 
land ' the accounts of the ' History and Lite- 
raturf. Government, I^aws, and Religion of 
Iceland,' and of the ' Diseases of the Ice- 
lander*.' He took the degree of M.l). at 
Edinburgh in It'll, and spent the following 
year and a half (1812-13) in European travel. 
Of his travels in south-east Europe he pul)- 
liiibed an interesting account in 1815. In the 
•ununerof 1814 he returned to the continent 
ledical attendant on the Princess of Wales 
kerward-iQueenCaroline). In hisevidence 
[the parliamentary inquiry held in 18:J0 
'"i a view to divorcing her from George IV, 
land testified that the princess's conduct 
Bergami was, so far as he had seen, 
I from impropriety. Ketuming to London, 
|l>erame a licentiate of the Royal College of 
fsicJans in l>*\6. He soon entered upon 
lionable practice in Mount Street, and 
' his fourth year made an income of 1,200/. 
tic tlien removed to Brook Street, CJrosvenor 
tuare, where he remained during the rest 
[bis life. In 1816 he was admitted a fellow 
[the Roval Society, and in 1828 a fellow 
College of Physicians. In a few years 
>lved not to let his professional income 
" \000/., and to spend all his leisure in 
eat ion, and travel. Ho became one 
. _, »l known men in London societv, the 
18^7 he was appointed physician extraor- 
k^^■ Ui Que«n \ ictoria, in 1840 physician 
■(llnary to the prince consort, and ho de- 
jd a baronetcy otlered by Lord .Melbourne 
II. He was made physician in ordinary 
in queen i n 1 t*o2, and accepted a baronet cy 
1863. He was for many years president 
Ithe I^)yal Institution. )n his later years 
retired from practice, but continued to 
rou xxTii. 

make long toun. His last excursion was to 
Russia ; on his way back he attended the 
trial of Marshal PT»ine at Versailles on 
24 Oct. 1873, returneil to London the next 
day, and died in bed on 27 Oct., the eighty- 
fifth anniversary of his birth. 

As a physician, Holland's work was more 
fashionable than scientific. The 'frequent 
half-hour of genial conversation' was one of 
his favourite therapeutic agents. He took 
no part in the medical societies, and although 
twice a vice-president of the College of Phy- 
sicians, declined to be nominated for the 
presidency. His few scientific writings are 
easy and clear instyle,aud alwaysinteresting, 
and he wrote with much care many reviews 
for the quarterly reviews. His 'Ctapters on 
Mental Physiology' show considerable in- 
sight into the relation between mind and 
body. Notwithstanding his wide experience, 
gathered in long and frequent foreign tours 
and in intercourse with notable persons, his 
' Recollections ' are not as interesting as might 
be expected. Their defects are, however, Sue 
to his scnipulous regard for the feelings of 
others. In person, Holland was of middle 
height and very spare. He married, in 1822, 
Miss M. E. Caldwell, daughterof James Cald- 
well of Linlev Wo<5d, Staffordshire ; she died 
on 2 Feb. 1^30, leaving issue Henry Thur- 
stan Holland, created in 1888 Lord Knuts- 
ford ; Francis James, canon of Canterbury ; 
and two daughters. In 18,%4 he married 
Saba, daughter of the Rev. Sydney Smith, 
who die<l on 2 Nov. 1860, and by whom 
he had three daughters. Saba, lady Hol- 
land, inherited much of her father's wit, 
and wnite a memoir of her father, which 
was published in two volumes in 1855. 

Holland wrote: 1. ' Travels in the Ionian 
Isles, Albania, Thessaly, Macedonia, &c., 
during 1812 and 1813,' London, 1815, 4to; 
2nd edit., 2 vols., 1819, 8vo. 2. 'Medical 
Notes and Reflections,' Loudon, 1839 ; 3rd 
edit., 1855. 3. ' Chapters on Mental Phy- 
siology,' London, 1852; founded chiefly on 
chapters in No. 2; 2nd edit., enlarged, 185JS. 
4. 'Essays on Scientific and other subjects 
contributed to the " Edinburgh " and " Quar- 
terly " Reviews, I>ondon, 1862 ; German 
translation by B. Althaiis, Hamburg, 1864. 
5. ' Recollections of Past Life,' I.,ondon, 1872. 
6. ' Fragmentary Paj>ers on Science and other 
Subjects,' edited by his son, the Rev. F. J. 
Holland, London, 1876. 

[Holland's KecoUections ; A. Hayward's ra- 
vi«ir of the Recollections, Quarterly Review, 
cxzxii. 157-93; Times, 31 Oct. 1873; Medical 
Times and Oazette, 1873, ii. 498, 5U9; Lancet, 
1873, ii. 660; Brit. Mod. Journ. 1873, ii. .'>82 ; 
Munk'i Coll. of Phys. iii. 144-9,1 O. T. B. 


ItWil ), pnriliin diviiif, wm< urolmbly born in 
Ireland, as he styles himsetr ' Anglo-Iliber- 
nu« ' In his ' Kniwaitioii,' and Is supposed to 
be the Ezeklfts I inllsnd who j^aduated B.A. 
at Dublin in I6;j*f. He became rector of 
Sutton \'alence, Kent, in Iti').'} (Hastkd, 
Kent, ii. 4Iti), and us puritan minister there 
Mid by his writings exercised a considerable 
induence. The following is a list of his 
works: 1. 'A Christian Lookinp-jflass,' 8vo, 
London, 1649. 2. ' An ExpDsition, or a 
Short but full, plain, and perfect Epitome 
of the most choice Commentaries upon the 
Revelations of St. John,' London, lltoO, 4to. 
This was for the most part delivered by 
way of exposition in his {mrish church of 
Sutton Valence. 3. ' Adam's Condition in 
Paradise di.icovered ; also a of the 
Lawful Ministrie,' &c., 1(W6, 4to. A por- 
trait is prefixed to the ' Exposition.' 

[Infonnstion from the Rpv. J. J. Dredge ; 
Ware's Writers of Ireland, p. 158 ; Crrange.r's 
Biog. Hist . ; Bixlloiaii Lib. Cat. ; Brit. Hub. Cat ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit] A. N. 

HOLLATTD, lU'OH (d. Hi33), poet, a 
native of Denbigh, son of Robert Holland, 
•was n queen's scholar at Westminster School, 
under Camden, was olected to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1589, and became fellow 
there. On leaving Cambridge he went abroad, 
traveUing as far as .lerimalen). It wa.? in- 
sinnated that he wa.x made a knight nf the 
Sepulchre ; he certainly embrace<i the Roman 
catholic faith, and sulFered in some way at 
Rome for indiilping in free expressions con- 
cerning tjueeii Elizabeth. On his return to 
England he expected to receive preferment ; 
not getting it, 'he grumbled out the rest of 
bis life in visible discontentment' (Fuller). 
Wood gays that he spent some years at ( )xford 
after his return. From the dedicatory address 
before his 'Cypres ftarland,' 1625, we learn 
that he had been patronised by fieorge Vil- 
liers, duke of Buckingham, who had intro- 
duced liim to King James. In the course of 
that poem he alludes to his own troubles and 
b«»reavement8, ami the deaths of his mother, 
whose maiden name was ' Payne,' of 'Ur- 
sula, his wife, the widow of Robert Woodard 
of Biimham, Buckinghamshire, and of 'Phil 
my daughter.' Holland diinl in 1633, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey (23Jidy). 
Aubrey states, on the authority of Sir John 
Penruddock, that be found a patroness in 
Lady Elizabeth Hatton, second wife of Sir 
Edward Coke. 

Holland is chiefly remembered as the author 
of an indillerent sonnet prefixed to the first 
Shakespeare folio (1623). He was a member 
of the Mermaid Club, and may have been 

personally acquainted with ShakeS|)eKre. Ed- 
ward Phillips (•Theatriim Poetnrura ') speaks 
of him as 'a poetical writer thought worthy 
by some to be mentioned with Spenser, Sicf- 
ney, and other the chief of English poets; 
with whom nevertheless he must needs be 
confessed inferior both in poetic fame and 
merit.' Joseph Hunter pointed out that 
Phillips here refers to the exaffgerated esti- 
mate of Holland entertained by John Lane 
(the friend of Milton and Phillips), set forth 
in 'Triton's Triumjih,' a poem preserved in 
manuscript both in the British Museum and 
Cambridge University Library. Lane also 
commends Holland's critical ability. 

In 16(13 Holland ])uhlished ' Pancharis : 
the first Booke. Containing the Preparati.m 
of the Love between Owen Tudyr and the 
Queene, long since intended to her Maiden 
Majostie: and now dedicate<l to the Invin- 
cible .lames,' 8vo (Bodleian) ; and in 1635 
' A Cypres Garland. For the .Sacred Fonv 
head of our late Soveraigne King James,' 
4tn, wliich he dedicated to the Duke of Buck- 
ingham. He contributed commendatory verses 
to Famabr's 'Canionets,' 1598; Benj'onsou's 
' Sejunus,' 1605; Bolton's ' Elements of Ar- 
mory,' 1610 (he was nominated a member of 
Bollon'sprojecte<l Academ. Royal ); Coryate's 
'The ndcombiun Banquet,' 1611; ' Partiie- 
nia,' 1611 ; .Sir Thomas Hawkins's transla- 
tion of selected odes of Horace, 1025; and 
Alabaster's ' Roxana,' 1632. In Lans<lowne 
MS. 777 is preserved an epitaph on Henry, 
prince of Wales, and he has verses in llar- 
teian MSS. .ittlO and 6917. Letters to Sir 
Robert Cotton are in Cotton MS. Julius, C. 
ill. (15). In Raymond's ' Itinerary. Contain- 
ing a Voyage made through Italy,' 1648, an> 
some Latin vi'rses by Holland on Sannazaro, 
and in Hacket's life of Archbishop Williams 
Is an epitaph on Archbishop Moimtaigne of 
York. Fuller states that Holland left in 
manuscript ' Verses in Description of the 
Chief Cities of Europe,' chronicles of Queen 
Eliiabeth's reign, and alife of William Cam- 

Care must be taken to distinguish Hugh 
Holland firom Henry Holland (168S-1660.o> 

[Fuller's Worthies ; Wood's Afbeme, ed. Bhss. 
ii. 650-61 ; Corser's Collectanea ; Hunler'sCborus 
Vatum (Addit. M8. 24488. ff. 2ftft-9) ; Welch's 
Alumni Westmonaaterienaes, pp. 61-3.] 

A. H. B. 

HOLLAND,JAMES(1800-1870), water- 
colour painter, was bom at Burslora, 1 7 Oct. 
1800, where his father and other members of 
his family were employed ot the pottery 
works of William Davenport. He was him- 
self employed at an early age in paintmg- 





flowera on pottery and porcelain, and came 
to I^ndon in 1819 to practise as a flower- 
painter, and togiveledisons in drawing land- 
»c«p<!, architecture, and marine subjects, lie 
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 182-J, 
and in I8.'K) he visited Frauee and made 
studies of its architecture. In 1823 he e.x- 
hibited a picture of ' London from Hlack- 
heath,' In l8.'Vi he became an associate ex- 
kibitor of thi- ( now Iloyal ) Society of Painters 
in Water-colours, but he left the society in 
lli43, and joined the (now Royal) Society of 
Tlritish Artists, of which he remained a 
member till 1848. He rejoined the Water- 
colour Society in 185(5, and wa.seh'Cted afull 
member two years afterwards. He was much 
employed in drawing for the illustrated 
annualit, and for this purpose he visited 
Venice, Milan, Geneva, and Paris in 18.'J(J, 
and Portujrul in 18:58. In 18;59 he exhibitetl 
at the Royal .-Vcademy a tine paintin^^ of 
Li.-tbon. In 18^1-') he went to Rotterdam, in 
I8.1O lo Normandy and North Wales, in 
iKfil a^'ain to Geneva, and in 18.")" airain to 
Venice. In the South Kensington Jiuseum 
are a series of sketches in Portugal dated 
1847, from which it would appear that he 
visited that country a second time. In the 
course of his life he exhibited, in addition to 
hi* contributions to the Water-colour So- 
ciety, thirty-two pictures at the Royal Aca- 
demy, nini?ty-one at the British Institution, 
and one hundred and eight at thi? Society 
of British Artists. Though generally classed 
M a water-colour painter, he was equally 
skilful in oils. He was one of the finettt 
cnlouristji of the Knglish school, and his 
pictures, especially those of Venice, though 
neglected in his lifetime, are now eagerly 
M>ught for and fetch large prices. He appears 
U) have ceased to exhibit in 18.')7. He died 
12 Dec. 1870. At Greenwich Hospital there 
\» • picture by him of (ireeuwich, and at the 
South Kensington Museum are two small oil 
pictureeand a few water-colours, but there is 
DO fine example of his work in the national 

[Kedgnve's Diet.; Bryan's Diet. (Oravea) ; 
GraTMs IHet. ; Catalogaaiof South Kensington 
UoMom] CM. 

HOLLAND, JOHN, Duu of Exeteh 
*Dd Karl or IIpstiscikix (1352 f- 1400), 
bom about I3r>2, was third son of Thomas 
Holland (rf. 1380 ), first carl of Kent [q. T.], by 
JoitD, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock 
fq. v.). earl of Kent. His mother afterwards 
liecame the wife of Edward the Black Prince; 
Holland was consequently half-brother to 
lUehard II. 

Dugdale wn>ngly places his first military 
Mrvioe in 1S54-5, and supports his statement 

by a reference to a contemporary document 
which, however, contain.s no mention of him. 
In 13«1 he was made a knight of the Garter ; 
on (i May in the same year justice of Chester. 
(Jn the rising of the commons in 1381 he was 
I with the king in the Tower, but like his 
I brother, Thomas Holland [11. v. , he did not go 
out to Mile End. In the lollowing December 
he was appointed one of those sent by the king 
to receive his bride (Anne of Luxemburg) at 
Calais, and escort her to England. In 1384 he 
is charged— on the authority of Walsingham, 
unsupported by any contemporary record — 
with a cold-blooded murder. A Carmelite 
friar had informed the king of an alleged plot 
I on the part of the Duke r)f Lancaster to de- 
throne him. Thn duke sotm convinced the 
king of his innocence, and advised the friar's 
detention in Holland's custody. The night 
before the date fi.xed for the inquiry into the 
matter, Holland and Sir Henry Green caused 
the friar to be butchered in prison ( Ilut. Anql. 
ii. ll;j-14). 

During 138.5 Holland was undoubtedly 
guilty of a crime which illustrates the vio- 
lence of his temper. In that year he ac- 
companied Richard on his way to Scotland. 
Whde the army was near York an archer of 
Ralph, eldest son of Hugh, earl StatFord, quar- 
relled with and slewoneofHolland'sesquires. 
According to Froissart on the evening after 
the occurrence, Ralph rode to visit Holland 
in order to appease him for the outrage; at 
the same time Holland was riduig out to 
demand an explanation of Slatlbrd. Thev 
, passed each other in the dark, and Holland 
asked who went by ; on receiving the answer 
I ' Staflbrd,' he gave his own name, plunged 
his sword into Ralph's body, and rode ofl". 
' Earl .Stafford demanded vengeance, and on 
14 Sept. 1385 the king ordere<l Holland's 
lands to be seized ; he had taken sanctuary 
in the house of St. .John of Beverley. Most 
of the chroniclers of the time state'that his 
j mother implored the king's pardon, and died 
I from grief at its refusal. The exact date 
I of the murder is unknown, but Joan died 
8 July 1385, two months before the king 
issued the extant writ to seiie Holland's 
I lands. It is possible that the extant writ 
is not the earliest issued. In February 1386, 
it was arranged that Holland should find 
I three chajdains to celebrate divine service for 
1 ever for the repose of Ralph Stafford's soul ; 
two of these chaplains were to be stationed 
at the place where the youth had been slain, 
and the third at the place of his interment. 
I The king afterwards directed that the three 
I chaplains should be established at Langlev, 
I theplaceof Ralph's burial. HoUand soon o^ 
tained the restitution of hia property, and 





married Elizabeth, second daughter of John ' 
of Gaunt, duke of Lanciuster, sister of the 
future Henn,' IV, rcceiviugat the timeaoon- 
siderubli! grant of land.-- from the kiDf(. In 
1386 he went — Bccompanied by his wife — 
into Spain as constable to bis father-in-law ; 
before starting he gave evidence at Plymouth 
in the ScroiK' and (irosvenor controversy. 
Tbroujrhout the campaign in Spain — where 
he held the post of constable of the English 
army — he performed numerous acts of valour 
in battle and deeils of skill in tilting, which 
won the highest praise from Froissart. 

l)n his return from Spain he was, on 2 June 
1387, createil Earl of Iluntiiigdon by the re- 
quest of the commons of the ' Admirable Par- 
liament : ' an immense grant of lands was also 
made to him. In 1389 he was made cham- 
berlain of England for life: and soon after 
admiral of the fleet in the western seas, and 
constable of Tintagel Castle and Brest. On 
13 Sept. in the same year he is spoken of as 
n privy councillor. In 1390 he crossed to 
(."iilaLs in order to engage in further tourna- 
ments, and on returning distinguished him- 
self in one at Smithlield. 

In 1392 he accompanied an expedition into 
the northern parts of the kingdom, and later 
on in the same year went with the Duke of 
Lancaster to negotiate a truce with France. ' 
In 1394 he was made constable of Conway ' 
Castle, and in the same year undertook 11 
pilgrimage to the Holy £>and; in passing 
through Paris he learned that war ha<l been 
proclaimed between Hungary and Turkey ; 
lie therefore, according to Froissart, deter- 
mined to ret urn from his pilgrimage by a road 
■which would bring him to the .scene of action, 
lie probably abandoiie J this intenlion, as we 
find him with Kichard II at Eltlmiu in 1395, 
during the visit of Peter the Hermit. The 
same year he was made governor of the ca.stle 
and town of Carlisle, of the west marches 
towards Scotland, and commissary-general 
of the same marches 16 Feb. I;i96. In 1.397 
he took an active part with the king against 
Thoma-s of Woodstock [q. v.],duke of Glouce*- 
ter,auJ Uichurd Fit zalan [q. v.], earl of Arun- 
del. Richard seems to have heaped honours 
upon him in (juick succession. On 29 Sept. 
in that year he was created Duke of Exeter. 
He obtained a grant of the furniture of the 
castle of Arundel, which the Earl of Arundel 
had forfeited; and the office of chamberlain 
of England, of which he bad previously re- 
ceived a grant for life, was in 1398 given to 
him and his heirs in tail. At this time, his 
London residence was at Pultney House, 1 
where he gave sumptuous entertainments. 

In 1399 he accompanied Richard on his 
unfortunate expedition into Ireland, and oa 

his return to Pembroke counselled the king 
to go to Conway. He was one of those sent 
by Richard to Henry IV with orders to seek 
a »»i«/u.i ih-fniii; at the meeting Holland 
.seems to have been the chief spokesman. 
Henry after hearing his messages detained 
him about his person. 

After Richard's dejHjsition in Oitober 1399, 
Holland WHS called on in parliament to jus- 
tify his action against the Duke of Gloucester. 
He and the other apjwUuntsof 1397 answered 
that they acted under compulsion of the late 
king, but that they were not cognisiuit nf, 
nor did they aid in, Gloucester's death. They 
were condemned to forfeit their dignities and 
lands granted to them subsecjuentlv to Glou- 
cester'.s arrest, so that Holland again became 
Earl of Huntingdon. StKjn after this, in 
January 1400, Holland entered, with Thomas 
le Despen.^er ' q. v.], his nephew, Thomas Hol- 
hind, earl of Kent (1374-1400) [q. v., and 
others, into a conspiracy against Henry IN" for 
the restoration of Richard II. According to 
one account ( TraUnn et Mori, p. 86 ) he was 
present in the fight at Cirencester, and was 
captured there. NV'slsingham, more probably, 
states that he remained near London to watch 
the progress of events. When he saw his 
cause was lost, he Hed through Essex, but 
was captured at I'leshey bj- the Coimtess of 
Hereford, who had him beheaded in the pre- 
sence of Thomas Fitzalan [o- v.], earl of 
Arundel and Surrey, son of the Earl of Arun- 
del whose death he had helpe<l to bring about. 
The execution took place on 16 Jan. 1400 
(Int/uititio ail r/nud damnum, 1 Henry IV, 
No. 2tl a). His hea<l was afterwards expo.sed, 
probably at Pleshey, till the king, at the sup- 
plication of Holland's widow, directed its 
delivery to the ' master or keeper of the col- 
lege of the church of Plessy,' in order that it 
might be buried there with his body. His 
estates were declared by parliament to be for- 
feited on 2 March following. By his wife 
Elizabeth, dauglit«>r of John of Gaunt, he 
left issue three sons ; his second son, John 
(1395-1447) [q. v.], was afterwards restored 
in blofxl, and to the family honours. 

[Walsin^'bara's Historia Anglicana (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Froisaarl's Chroniqnea ; Chronique de U 
Traison Bt Mort dii Roy Rich-irt (Kngl. Hist. 
iSoc.); Walli.n's Richard 11; Wylie's Hist of Engl, 
under Henry I V, vol. i. ; Beltz's Memoriiils of the 
Garter; Apconnt of the Depfisition of Richanl U, 
printed in Archteologia, vol. xx. ; Doyle's OtBfiat 
Baroaage ; Waurin's Chronicle (Rolls Sar.) ; 
Stubbs's Const. Hist. iii. 19, 2fi.] W. J. H-T. 

HOLLAND, JOHN, Dukk of Exbte 
and Earl of Hintikodos (1395-1447), was" 
second son of John Holland, duke of Exeter 
(I362?-1400) [q. v.] His elder brother 






KicbarddieddSept. 1400,priortathereverMl followinc April lie H^itnyisited Fnincewith 

of his father's uttaiiider. tie wne horn at his the Enplish anny, aud proceeded to the Duke 

father's rexideiice at Durtiiifitori in Devon- ofnur((undy'saidatCompiegne. Ileremained 

•hireon ISMarch ISilo.and haptised the same some time in thediike's company, beinifwith 

^ ly in the parish church tliere. lie was made him at the surrender of Goumav. Subse- 

lipht of the Bath in 1413. In 1415 he took quently the duke left him before Compiegne, 

_ irtiu the trial of Richard, earl of ramhridije, and from that place he retreated with John 

•nd nccompariied Henry V on his expedi- of Luxemburg to Noyon (see a letter from 

tion into France. lie was one of the leaders Rurgundy in Letters and Papers, Ileiiiy J'l, 

in the reconnoitre before Iliirtleur, an<i dis- 

iiijpiished himself bv hisvalourai Afrincourt 

Fulitunl fiu,i;,K,\\. 12.J, Roll? Ser.) In 1416, 

bablv in recuj^iilii'D of his services, he 

II. I08 9(iq. Rolls Ser.) He was present at 
Henry V I's coronation at Paris in 1431. His 
first wife must have died soon after the birth 
of his son aud heir Henrj', as in 1432 he ob- 


■ fini 

as restored in bloivl, and to the earldum of tained license to marry Reatrice, a natural 
Huntingdon. Ou 4 May 1410 he was made daughter of .Tnhn, king of Portugal, widow 
a knight of the Garter, and next day was aj>- of Thomas, earl of Arundel, who had taken 
]iointe<l lieutenant of the fleet (Fcrdera, \x. an active part in obtaining his father's exe- 
344), nud in that capacity accompanied lied- cut ion at Pleahey. She died 14 Nov. 14.S9, 
~ rd on his exwdition for the relief of liar- 1 and Huntingdon subsequently married Anne, 
ur in the following July. Exactly a year [ eldest daughter of John de Mont-agn, third 
ter he was in ctimmand of the tleet which earl of Salisburv'. 

mpletely defeated the Genoese olV I larfleur, \ In 1432, after receiving a grant of the office 

id so cleared the way for Henry Vs second of marshal of England, to hold during the 

p«dition. He again took part in the siege minority of the Diuce of Norfolk, he returned 

Caen, and in the spring of 1418 was given to France, and nest year was in command 

>e[)arate command, and captured the towns 1 in Normandy. In July 143.") he was one of 

Coutaiiceg and Avrunches. \X the siege of 1 the English representatives at the conference 

uen in the aut umn he held the chief cum- of Arras to treat for peace with the French ; 

nd on the left bank of the Seine. He dis- after this he seems to have returned to Eng- 

yed con.spicuous bravery at the surprise of land, and was a commissioner for giuirding 

'ontoise on 30 July 1419, and was afterwards ^ the east and west morches towards Scotland. 

DiadecnptttinofGouriiayandOisors. Chi 1 Dec. Later on in the same year he was appointed 

in tlmt year he was commissioned to carry out admiral of England, Irelond, and Aipiitiiine 

the destruction of hostile castles and other, for life. In 143(t he was engaged on the 

dangerous strongholds in Normandv, and ob- defence of Calais against Burgundy (/"arf^/'a, 

^juedagnint of forfeited lands in Normandy, x. (546), and in March 1438 was in command 

_ 1420 he defeated the French at Fresney, 1 of the expedition despatched to the rtdief 

and, in company with Sir John Cornwall, of Guisnes. The possession of his various 

Uid siege to Fontuines-la-Vngant, and also office, more honourable than remunerative, 

to the castle of Clermont ; in the hitter place led him to sue the king for a grunt of an 

K— - _. — .J.. ...^ annual allowance ; fivehuiidred marks a year 
uring the autumn he served at the siege of wo* acconlingly given him until he should 
i>\\u\, aii<i on its capture he was made go- \ receive a grant of lands to that value. tJn 
srnor; in further reward for his services on 26 March 1439 he was the king's lieutenant 
M occasion he was appointed constable of in Aquitaine, 1,000/. being paid to him before 
e Tower of London for life on 2ll Aug. taking up the office. He seems to have re- 
1420. After this he accompanied Henrv V turned to England soon after, but was again 

P(tn his triumphal entrj- into Paris. Here sent on a military expedition into France, 
Henry appointed him a resident custo<lian of during which he Iwsieged and captured 
Kin(f Charles of France, with a retinue of five , Tartrus; he was also appointed governor of 


huiidrv<l men. In 1421 he fell into the hands 
of the Dauphinists, when Clarence was de- 
Cmtpd nt Beaujf on 22 March. He remained in 
iviptivily until 142.'i, when he was exchanged 
for the Count of Vendome (Hot. Pari. iv. 
800), but he was forced lo pay a very heavy 
~ isom for his release, in consideration of 

Aquitaine, and was still there in June 1442 
(ib. xi. 8). On 6 Jan. 14-J3 he was advanced 
to the dukedom of Exeter, the title lost by hi? 
father on his attainder, and shortly afterwards 
he received the license that he and his heir* 
male should take their place; in all jiarlia- 
ments and councils next to the Duke of York. 

jch Henry \'\ gT«nte<l him an annuity of , In 1445 the lordship of Sparre in the duchy of 
23/. (i». 8//. in 1428. On 24 Oct. 1429 he .\quitaine was conferred uixin him, and pro- 
obtained licj'iise to marry Anne, widow of bubly aljout the same time he received a 
mund Mortimer, earl of March. In the grant of the earldom of Ivry. 




In 1 44A and I il6 hi* ton Hvnrr wu joined 
villi tiim in tlu? cnjaytnmt of ilje office of 
•ilminil and (wnatablp of the Tower ; tlii* 
« •( a (lerny in hi< 

- ypar hp made bis 
V lie tela aeoma Ui 

I 1 bJB itpproacb to 

lojiiiii. ui iiiiij; •)! I ruricf in Julv 1445. 

lie (li<sl r, \ufi. \-H7, nnJ wa* buried in a 
C'liaiH-l •■ithin tb<r church of St. Catherine, 
btwidr lb* Towpf ; hi* son and hirir Ili-nry 
wm iben a|^ «-venf«<?n vrars. An inven- 
f-ory of bm jewt-ln and upbl^ i» presened 
•moiig (bo tniininienu of tUv dean and cliap- 
ter of Wfrtminnttir. 

lOwtn Hcnrioi Quinti (Kogl. Hist. Soc.); 
RlmhHin'n Vim Ilnnrici Quiiiii (wl. Uearne) : 
Hnt !viii:\ Cliniiiirlx ; Wiiliinglinm'a Hintoria 
A ItolU Sor. ), Wiiurin's Chruniquos 

(1 Iiottorii mill rapnrti of the Roigii uf 

Hdiry \I I KolU Sitr.) ; ]{}iin«r'a Ftederii (orig. 
<n| ); Niroliui'ii Kxltia uf A|{incoiirt; Puiwux' 
Hil^iif de K'jopii . Uagdnle'ii Raronago ; lioyle's 
OrttL-ial BaroiwKe.l W. J, il-r. 

HOLLAND, JOHN (d. 17i"J), founder 
of lh« Hunk of Sfolhiuil, was a merchant of 
till' .S'lil'li', nml prohiilily a member of the 
Mi'i-crrn Coinpniiy, Loiidnn. He hod par- 
tially ri'tiri'il whi-n, on the flii^geStioM of a 
Kcoltiiih frii-nd, he projocted the Hank of Scot- 
land, which wun ciilabliHhed by net of the 
Kroltinh parliament (William III, Pari. 1, 
J *)) in KJili"), in I lie name of the fiovemor 
and I'ompuny of the UutLk of Scotland. The 
new bank ii|HMied ilc (irgt branches in 1()!>8. 
Hnlhind WHM elected the first governor, and 
iillimnti'ly iioRxessedsevenlv-foursbares. One 
of the dir<«;lor8 was James roulis, with whom 
I lollnnd Imd lieeii associated in n scheme for 
iutro<lueinK the nmniifuclure of ("olehestpr 
biiiZKK liiloSootlaMil in June l()y.'l(('iiAMHKK«. 
ItiimrMtir AmitilHiifSnittiinil, pp, Hri, 12H). The 
blink made nt lirsl very slow iiriiifri'Ks, owing 
In the oppdhition of the .Vfriciiu Comjmiiy, 
which Htarled n banking; business in denaiiee 
of the bank's charter, and of the Hank of 
Kngland. llnlhind'n prudence and fMga- 
cily , m'conded bv rMn»idenible literary power, 
carrli'd the baiiU oucceHsfully tiirou(fii lhes«« 
anil other ditliciiltiex. In rern)?Tiiti<>n of his 
imrvice*, the company jiresi-nlnl him with n 
silver ciBtern, winch in bis will he directed to 
be carefully p^eser^'e^^ us a family heirloom. 
With bin will IJichard he drew up a t>cbeme 
for the eHtHVilislimenl nf n bank in Ireland. 
He died al llii^wood Hull, StatTordshire, in 
I*1'2, nnd was biiriixl in the cJiurcb then*. 
His will was proved on 4 May Xl'l'i (re- 
ffi^lered In 1". C. V. SKI, Marlboronjfh). He 
married Jane, only daiiuliter, bv bi8 si'cond 
\vil'e, iif Waller l'\i\\ ke, M .1),, of t)rvwood and 

Little Wjriej.StaSbHdiiife^ bv whom he had 
two aoiM, Richard (we bdow") and Fowke. 

He wrote : 1. * A Short Diacoone on the 
preaent temper of the Nation with 
to the Indian and African Company, and of 1 
the Bank of Scotland. Ai«o of Mr. Patep>! 
aon'l pretended Fund of Credit,' 4to, &iia- 
bnrjrh, lijtttl 2. • The Directors of the 
of Kn^land Enemies to the Great InteresI 
of the Kingdom and al$o not just to the 
Truit reposed in them by the Adventurers, 
who chose them to do their best endeavours 
... for the advantage of the Joint Stock,' 
4to, I»ndon, 1715. 3. 'The Kuine of the 
Bank of England and all Publick-Oedit 
inevitable, and the necessity, in a short tune, 
of stopping the payments upon the several 
fundi< to the Bant, South Sea Company, 
Ixitteries ... if the Honourable House at: 
Commoni> will not themselves be judges al 
the means that may be offer'd to prevent it,' 
4to, London, 1716. 4. 'Some Letters re- 
lating to the Hank of Scotland, published, 
with explanatory Remarks, in a Letter to the 
Proprietors, by liicbard Holland, M.D.,'8vo, 
London ; reprinted at Edinburgh, 1723. 

His son, UiCHARD HotL-^ND, M.D. (TtifiS- 
1730), was lK)m in Londcm in 1688, and 
educated at Cat harinellall,Cambridge,wbere 
be graduated B..A.. in 1708, M.A. in 1712, 
and M.D. in 1723. His father left him aa^J 
estate in Asbdown Forest, Su8se.x. He wari^^H 
admittetl a candidate of the College of Phy^^H 
sicians on 25 June 1724, a fellow on 25 June 
1726, and was censor in 1728. He died, 
unmarried, at Shrewsbury, on 29 Oct. 1730 
{will registered in P. C. C. 333, Auber). 
Holland wrote ' Observations on the Small 
Pox ; or, an Essay to discover a more effect ual 
Method of Cure,' 8vo, London, 1728 (other 
editions, 17:K)and 17411, to which J. Chand- 
ler wrote an anonymous reply in 1729. He 
was elected F.K.h. on ;iO Nov. 1726 (Thom- 
son, IlUt. Hoy. Soc., Appendix iv. p. x.TXvii). 
I [Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 92; Hist. 
Accnuut of the Bank of Scotland, 1728; Brit. 
MuB. Cat.; Burton's Hi.'it. of Scotland (2nd edit.), 
viii. 07.] G. 6. 

HOLLAND, JOHN (1794-1872), poet 
and miscellaneous writer, son of John Hol- 
land, optical instrument maker, of Richmond 
Hill, in the jmrish of Handsworth, Yorkshire, 
and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of .Samuel 
Cox of Staveley, was born in Sheffield Park 
on 14 Man-b 1794, und brought up to his 
father's trade, which be soon abandoned for 
literary pursuits. Several of his poems at- 
tractetl fne not ice of James Montgomery, who 
became his attacJied friend. About 1818 he 
was appointed one of the secretaries of the 
Sbefiield Sunday School rnion,and ftum 1825 





to 1832 he was, in succession to Montgomery, 
iVlitorof the 'Sheffield Iris." In 1832 he be- 
le editor of the ' Newcastle Courant,' but 
Tetumed to Shetheld in 1833. and actt^d as 
joint nditor of the ' Sheffield Mercury' from 
1835 till the discontinuance of that journal in 
1848. In acknowledgment of his journalistic 
aerrices an annuity of IIJO/. was subscribf^d 
" r by ten gentlemen of Sheflleld, and pre- 
ttented to him in 1870. He died at his resi- 
dence in Sheffield Park on 28 Dec. 1872, and 
was buried in Ilandsworth churchyard. 

Ilollanirs principal publications are : 
1 . " Sheffield Park : a deserinti ve j>oem,' Shef- 
field, 1 820, 8vo. 2. ' The ViUage of Evam ; 
a poem," Macclesfield, 1821, ]2mo. 3. "'The 
Hopes of Matrimony; a poem," London, 1822, 
Hvo. 4. ' Hie History, .•\ntiquitie.'', and De- 
scription of the Town and Parish of Work- 
sop, in theCounty of Nottingham,' Sheffield, 
182ti, 4to. 5. ' Tlie Pleajiurea of Sight ; a 
poem,' Sheffield, 1829, 12mo. 0. ' .\ 'Treatise 
in the progressive Improvement and present 
te of Manufacture? in Metals,' forming 3 
Is. of Lardner's ' Cabinet Cyclopujdia,' Lon- 
don, 1831-49, 12nio. 7. 'Cruciaua. niu»- 
trations of the most striking aspects under 
which the Cross of Christ, and symbols de- 
rived from it, have been contemplated by 
fiietv, superstition, imagination, and taste,' 
.iverjwol, 18;J6, 8vo. 8. 'The Tour of the 
Don. A series of extempore Sketches [chiefly 
by Holland] made during a pede.strian ramble 
along the Banks of that River and its Tribu- 
t»rie»,'2 vols., London, 1837, 12mo. 9. 'Brief 
Notic»<8 of Animal Substances used in the 
Sheffield Manufactures,' Sheffield, laiO, 8vo. 
10. 'The Psalmists of Britain. Records, bio- 
graphical and literary, of upwards of one 
hundred and fifty authors who have ren- 
dered the whole or parts of the Book of 
P'olms into Knglish verse, with specimens 
and M general Introduction,' London, 1843, 
8vo. 11. -The Poets of Yorkshire, by Wil- 
liam Cartwright Newsam,' completed and 
published by Holland, London, 1845, 8vo. 
12. 'Diumai Sonnets: Three Hundred and 
SLtty-sLx Poetical Meditationson varioussub- 
ject«,' Sheffield, 1851, 8vo. 13. ' Memorials 
of Sir Francis Chantrey . . .in Hallamshire 
and elsewhere," London [1851],8vo. 14. 'A 
Poet's G rat ulation : addressed to James Mont- 
gomerv on the eightieth Anniversary of his 
llirth<{av,'Sheffield|_l851],8vo. 15. 'Memoirs 
of the Life and \\ ritings of James Mont- 
gomery; including selections from his corre- 
upondeuce, remains in prose and verse, and 
«onvon»«iiMn* on various subjects,' 7 vols., 
I»ndon, iH-'vi-fi, 8vo (conjointly with James 

A portrait of Holland is prefixed to his 


'Life' bv William Hudson, London, 

[Life, by Hudson, aa above ; Beliqiury, ziii, 
246, XV. 14.5.] T. C. 


(1735-181 1 ), painter,was third son of George 
Dance the elder [q. v.], and elder brother of 
George Dance tbi^ younger [q. v.] He was 
bom on 18 May 17:15 {/^•Anul Hfgi»ter), and 
entered Merchant Taylors' School in 1744(i"A.) 
He studied art under Francis Hayman [q, v.] 
for some years, and also in Italy, where lie be- 
came acquainted with and hopelessly attached 
to Angelica Kuull'niann, In 1761 he was 
elected a member of the Incoqiorated Society 
of Artists, and two years afterwards sent to 
their exhibition from Rome his picture of 
' Dido and --I'au'as.' On his ret urn to England 
he took up portrait-painting, and attained 
considerable distinction in that branch of art, 
cimtribiiting to (he first exhibition of the 
Royal Academy ( of which he was a foundation 
memlier) full-length portraits of George III 
and his young queen. Until 177ti he was a 
frequent exhibitor of p^irtraits and historical 
pieces, but after that date ceased to exhibit, 
and in 1790 retired from his profession on his 
marriage with Harriet, daugnter of Sir Cecil 
Bisahopp, hart., and widow of Thomas Hum- 
mer, esq. Having taken the additional niune 
of Holland, he entered parliament, and was 
M.P. for East Grinstead for many years. In 
1800 he was created a baronet, nut dying 
without issue on 15 Oct. 1811, the title became 
extinct. Through his marriage and by his pro- 
fession be had amassed considerable wealth, 
and even late in life cuntinued to paint land- 
scapes with considerable success. Uis best- 
known pictures are the royal portraite already 
mentioned (now at L'p Park, Sussex"), a pop- 
trait of Captain Cook at (Jreenwich Hospital, 
' Timon of Athens,' a subject picture in the 
royal collection, and a portrait of 'Garrick 
as Richard III,' which was engraved in mex- 
zotint by Di.xon. 

[Robinson's Beg. of Merehant Taylors' School, 
ii. 101 ; Rfdgnive's Diet, of ArtisM ; Burke's 
Extinct Baronetage.] C. J. R. 

HOLLAND, PHILEMON (1562-1637), 
translator, bom at Chelmsford, Essex, in 
1552, was a remote descendant of the Hol- 
lands of Denton, Lancashire. His grand- 
father was Edward Holland of Glasstliorpe, 
Northamptonshire. His father, John Hol- 
land, was a protestant clergyman, who fled 
to the continent with Miles (5overdale [q. v.] 
in Mary's reign, and, returning home after 
Elizabeth's accession, became rector of Dun- 
mow Magna, Essex, on 20 S<'pt. 1 564, and died 
there in 1578 (Newcourt, Rrperl. ii. '.♦25). 
Philemon was educated at Chelmsford gram- 

mar school, and afterwnrds bocame a scholar 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was a 
pupil of VVhitgift ; graduated B.A. in lo70-l 
and M.A. in lo74, and wa>i elected a minor 
fellow 28 Sept. 1573, and a major fellow 
3 April 1574. He was iuc<jrporated M..\. of 
Oilordon 1 1 July 1585; subsequently .studie<l 
medicine, and is said to have graduated M.D. 
about 1595. This degree, which llollaud was 
fond of parading, was probably conferred by 
a Scottish or foreign university: no mention 
of it is made in the registers of Oxford or 
Cambridge universities. Soon after 1.595 Hol- 
land settled at Coventry, where he remained 
for the rest of his life. His medical practice 
seems to have been small, and he chiefly 
occupied himself with translations of the 
classics. In lOO* lie became usher of the 
f Coventry free school, and in 1013 George, 
lord Berkeley, eighth baron [q. v.], was his 
pupil there. He w^as admitted to the freedom 
of the city on 30 Sept. 1612. On l' Sept. 1017 
.James I visited Coventry on his return from 
Scotland, and Holland, acting as deputy to 
the recorder, delivered in his presence a eulo- 
gistic oration, which was published, along 
witha sermon by Samuel Bugg8,B.D.,in 1622 
(London, by .lohn Dawson for John Bellamie), 
and wa.1 reprinted in Nichols's 'Progresses of 
James I," lii. 424-6. On 23 Jan. 1627-8 
Holland, then aged 76, was appointed head- 
ma.-iter of the Coventry free school, but ten 
months later he applied for permission to 
resign on account of his age, 26 Nov. 1628. 
A successor assumed office at Lady-day, 1629. 
Tie suffered much from poverty and debility 
in his last years. As early as 1(509 the cor- 
poration of Coventrv seems to have made him 
gifts of money (cf. liis transl. of Ammianus 
Marcellinus, detl.), and the council pur- 
cha.'«d manv of his translations, paying 4/. 
in 1609 for his version of Ammianus, and 61. 
for his rendering of Camden's ' Britannia.' 
On 24 Oct. 1632 the city gave him a pension 
of 3/. 6». t*d. for three years, on at-count of his 
bodily weakness and the decay of his estate. 
On 11 April 1635 Henry Smyth, president of 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, authorise<l 
him to receive such charitable benevolence 
as the master.-* and fellows of the colleges in 
the university might bestow, in consideration 
of his ' learning and worthy parts,' and want 
of means. For sixty years, Smyth remarked, 
Holland had 'kept pood hospitality. Sic tota 
CoxL-ntrift testis' (Cole MSS.; cfCBKTDOES, 
Jientituta, iii. 41), but when Smyth added, 
'He wrote the Lepanto battle very finely,' 
he confused Holland with his son .\braham 
q. v.] Holland died of old age, after being 
lodridden for a year, at Coventry, on 9 Feb. 
1636-7, aged 8o, and was buried in Holy 

Trinity Church. .\ T^atin epitaph penned 
bv himself is still extant on thif south wall 
of the choir. He never wore spectacles in 
his life, and until his illness was ' most 
indefatigable in his study.' 

Holland married in 1579 Ann, daughter 
of William Bot, allot Peyton, of Perrr Hall, 
Statfordshire. She died in 1027, aged 72, 
and was buried in Holy Trinity Church, Co- 
ventry, where a I.,atin epitaph by her «on 
Henrv is still legible. On 21 Pec. 16^59 a 
Mrs. IloUand was granted by the corporation 
a small sum ' in respect of her poverty,' and 
the recipient has been assumed to be Holland's 
second wife: but this seems improbable, and 
the lady, if a member of the doctor's family, 
may have been a widow of one of his sons. 
Holland was father of seven sons and three 
daughters. ,V11 his sons, except Henry, died 
before him. The sixth son, William (1592- 
1632), was a surgeon at Coventry, and was 
buried in Holy Trinity Church, near the grave 
of his father. Of his other sons, Abraham 
and Henri' are separately noticed, and Comp- 
ton Holland seems to have engaged in print- 
selling in London with his brother Henry. A 
daughter, Elizabeth, married William Anpell, 
merchant, of London ( Vimtation of London, 
1633-1635, Harl. Soc. i. 18). 

Holland's earliest tniuilation — ' the first- 
fruits of a few years' study' — was the ' Ro- 
mane Historic ' of Livy, with the breviaries 
of Florus, and a ' summarie ' of Homan topo- 
graphy by J. Bartholomew Marlian of Milan. 
It was published in 1600 by Adam Islip, in 
folio, witli a dedication to (Jueen Elizabeth. 
Holland claimed to have written the whole 
manuscript with the same pen — 'a monu- 
mental pen,' says Fuller, which 'he solemnly 
kept,' and which ultimately was enclosed in 
silver by a lady of his acquaintance. In ItiOl 
appeared Holland's most jwipular translation, 
' TTie Historic of the World, commonlv called 
the Naturall Historic of C. Plinius Se- 
cundus,' London, by Adam Islip, fol. 2 vols., 
dedicated to Sir Robert Cecil. The labour 
1 involved was exceptionally great, but a new 
i edition (carefully revised, according to a note 
' at the close of vol. ii.) appeared in Ui.'U; vol. 
I i., in some copies of the second i.«sue, liears 
the date 1635. 'Tli>' Philosophie, commonly 
called the Monils, written by the learned 
I philosopher Plutarch of Chseronea, translated 
out of Greek into English, and conferred with 
I Latin and French,' followed in UMiH, with a 
dedication to James I (London, by Arnold 
Hatfield, fol.) A ' newly revised and cor- 
' rected' e<lition appeared in 1657. While the 
plague raged at Coventry in 1606-6, Holland 
translated Suetonius's ' Historie of Twelue 
I Cesan, Emperours of Rome . . . with a mar- 




S'nall glosse and other briefe aanotations 
ereupon' (London, for Matthew Lownes, 
1606, fol.)i it was dedicated to Lndy Haring- 
ton, wife of John, first lord lliiringtonrq. v. :, 
with whom Holland was on very friendly 
terms. To the mayor and I'orporation of 
Coventry Holland dedicated liis ' Koman llis- 
torie . . . of Amroianus MarivllinUd' (London, 
by Adam Islip, 1609, foi.) In ItUO Holland's 
English translation of (.'amden's ' Hrirannia' 
was published, again in folio, by George 
Bishop. Camden corrected the proof-Kheets, 
and Holland laid before him his dithculties 
as the work proceeded. Holland, in an ex- 
tant letter to Camden, dated from Coventry, 
25 Aug. ItKHt (lirit. Miu. MS. Cuttvn. Jul. 
cv. 28), calls him his Moving and aft'ectionate 
friend,' and invites liis opinion as to the mean- 
ing of many phrases. In 1637 ilolland'tt son 
Henry published a new edition of the trans- 
lation, and, according to Nicolson and Gough, 
many injurious alterations were introdnceil. 
But Ilearne asserts that the second edition 
' was revised and approved of, long before it 
went to the press, by Mr. Camden him- 
self {I(eliqui<r I/euniiana,eti. Bliss, ii. 191), 
John Uavies of Hereford supplied the new 
edition with verses in Holland s praise ; and 
another pauegyri«it, Thomaa Merial, M.A., 
atates that the work was begun at the wish 
of Eliiabet h,wife of Sir Thomas llerkeley, and 
mother of Holland's pupil, George, lord Berke- 
ley. Holland's latest large undertaking wiis 
an English rendering of Xenophon's ' Cyru- 
piedia, or the Institution and Life of Cyrus, 
Kine of Persians.' Although not published 
till Tflaa (London, for Robert Allot, fol.), it 
w«8 Completed 8 Feb. 1620-1, and was recast 
SApril 16:^9. Thelabourof seeingthevolume 
through the press wn« borne by Henry Hol- 
land, who dedicated it to Charles I. Thomas 
Karnaby and Thomas HeywmKl (among 
others) supply commendatory verses. Hey- 
wrjod smpplies two sets, one addresseil to 
Heury Holland. After his father's death, 
Henry isAued tlie doctor's Latin rendering of 
Bauderon's French ' PharmacojKeia,' with 
Dubois's • (H>servntions ' (London, Edward 
Onflin. at the expense of Uichard Whitaker, 
IttlKt, fol.>, and dedicated it to the president [ 
and fellows of ihe Luiulon College of Physi- I 
cianx. Alexander lU-id, M.D., supplied a re- 
eommendatory letter. A manuscript copy of ' 
Holland's rendering belonged to Mr. Tliomas 
Sharp of (.'ovenlry in 1871. In KJ-U* Henry 
Holland also prepared for the press, with ap- 
pendices by variiius writers, ' liegimen Sani- , 
lalis.Snlerni, "r the .^'chooleof .Salemes Regi- 
ment of Ileidth . . . dedicated unto the late 
high and mighty King of England from that ' 
l'niver«ity. . . . Uoviewcd, corrected, and 

I inlarged, with a Commentary by P. 11., D' in 

' Physicke, deceased,' London, 1649, 4to. Other 
translations of the work had already been pub- 
lished in 1579 and 1007. Henry Hollantf de- 
■ dicated lAs father's translation to Sir Simouda 
D'Ewes; it was reprinted in Sir John Sin- 
clair's ' Code of Health and Longevity ' 
1 (1806), iii. a-i-. 

Holland is also credited with a transla- 
tion intii Latin for continental use of Speed's 
"Theatreofthe Empire of Great liritaine,'and 
with ' Paralipomena,' a supplement to Tho- 
masius's • Diet ionarium,' Cambridge, 1 615, 4to. 
A manuscript of Euclid's ' Harmonics ' — a 
beautiful specimen of Greek caligmjihy — 
written by Holland, is in the library of the free 
school at Coventrv. Baskerville borrowed it 
when ]>reparing Lis Greek fount. In the 
lower panel of the engraved title-page to 
Holland's translation ol Xenophon's 'Cyru- 
picdia' is a fine portrait of the translator, 
' lelatis 8V(0 80.' 

Holland's translations are faithful and 
readable. Fuller designates him the ' trans- 
lator genernll in his age,' and assorts that 
'these books alone of his turning into English 
will make a country gentleman a competent 
library.' 'Dr. Iloiland,' writes Heame, 'had 
a most admirable knack in translating books 
. . . several of the most obscure books being 
translated by him, one of which was Plutarch's 
'■ Morals'" (Reli'ij. Heani. ii. 191 ). A worth- 
less epigram on Holland's voliiminousness, 
which Fuller quotes, seems to have first ap- 
peared in ' A Banquet of Jeasts ' (16.'<0), ab- 
surdly assigned to Shakespeare (Coli-IEB, 
Bibl. Vat. ii. .337-8). Almost all his transla- 
tions were issued in heavy folio volumes. 
Pope, in the ' Dunciad,' bk. i., describes ' the 
groaning shelves ' bending under the weight 
of bis works. Southey says that ' Philemon, 
. . . for the service which he rendered to his 
contemporaries and to his countrymen, de- 
serves to be called the best of the Hollands.' 
[Colvilo's Warwickshire Worthies, pp. 4l3sq. ; 
Thomas Sharp's Illustrative Papers of the Hib- 
tory ami Antiquities of the City of Covcotry, 
1871, repriuted by W. G. Fretton, pp. 178 sq. ; 
Dugdalp's Warwickshire, <d. Thumns, i. 174-5; 
Fuller's Worthies; Wood's Fasti Oxon.e<l. Bliv, 
i. 233 ; Aubrey's Lives, in Letters from the fiod- 
leian, ii. 396 ;' lirit. Mub. Cat.l S. L. 

HOLLAND, PHILIP (1721-1789), non- 
conformist divine, eldest son of Thomas Hol- 
land, was born at Wem, Shropshire, in 1721. 
His grandfather, Thomas Hollnnd (</. 1675, 
aged 57), had been a member of the first 
presbylerian classis of Lancashire, and was 
ejected from Blackley Chapel. Lancashire, 
bv the Uniformity Act, His father, Thomas 
Iloiland, a pupil of James Coningham [q. v.l, 




wax ordained in August 1714 u> jin'iihytiTlun 
uitiiiitter at Kiugsley, Cheshire, and removed 
to Wem, Shropshire, in 1717. His mother 
WH* -Mary Sa\affe, granddaughter of Philip 
Henry. Philip entf red Doddridge's academy 
at Northampton in 1739; he w»« followed 
in 1744 by his brother John, who conformed ; 
and in 1751 by his brother Henry, who was 
tren.slVrred to A«h worth's academy at T>n- 
ventry, and became minister at Present and 
<17tlo'ittt Onufikirk, where he died on 10 Dec. 
17«1 {Ornukirk Burial Hfi/uttr, Hist. Soc. [ 
Lane, and Chesh. 1877, p. 125). 

Philip first preached at Wolverhampton, 
St-aflbrdshiro ; ne then became his fatlier's 
8Uccej!Sor at Wem. In the autumn of 1755 
he Ijeoame minister of Bank Street Chapel, 
Bolton, Lancashire, in succession to Thomas 
Dixon (1721-1754) [see under Dixon,Thoma8, 
M.D.] On ac(-ount of the popularity of his 
ministry, the chapel was enlarged in 1760. 
He kept a boarding-school of some not*. 
Fwm 1785 William Hawkes (1769-1820) 
wa« his colleague. 

In theology Holland was of the .\rian 
school, being much influenced by John Sed- 
don of Warrington, who introduced him to 
the philosojihy of Hutcheson. He assisted 
Seddon in the establishment ( 1757) of the 
Warrington academy for the education of 
nonconformist divines, and wrote tlie third 
service in a collection of forms of prayer 
( 1 7fi3) edited by Seddon, and generally knowu 
as the ' Liverj>ool Liturgy.' He t«ok an 
active part in the movement for the repeal 
(1771') of the doctrinal subscription required 
by the Toleration Act; after this date )u« 
views Ijecame somewhat more heterodox. In 
politics he was an energetic advocate of the 
independence of the American colonies. He 
died at Bolton on 2 Jan. 1789, aged 67. 
There is u mural monument to his memory 
in Il»nk Street Chnpcl. He married ("atha- 
rine Holland of Mobberley, Cheshire, and 
had a son and ilaughter. 

He published several sermons, including: 
1. ' The Importance of Learning,' &c., War- 
rington, 17(iO, 8vo (reprinted in ' English 
Preacher,' 1773, 12mo, vol. ix.) Posthumous 
was : 2. ' Sermons on Practical Subjects,' &c., 
Warrington, 1792, 8vo, 2 vols, (the collec- 
tion, to which a silhouette likeness is pre- 
fixed, includes all his separate publications, 
and was edited by John 1 loUand and William 
Turner). Some of his letters to Seddon are 
printed in t he ' Seddon Papers ' in I he ' Chris- 
tian Reformer,' 1854 and 1855. 

Holland, John (1706 -1826), nonconform- 
ist minister, son of Philip's younger brother, 
Thomas Holland, was educated for the minis- 
try at Daventry academy, entering under Bel- 

sham in 1783. In 1789 he succeeded his uncle 
as minister of Bank Street Chapel, Bolton, 
Lancashire (ordained 13 May). His ministry 
was marked by the establishment of a Sunday 
school (1789), and by a system of catechetical 
instructions on historical and scientific as well 
as on religious topics. .\.s a preacher he waa 
leas successful; Ilia theological views were 
those of Prie.stley. On 20 Aug. 1820 he re- 
signed his charge, owing to the failure of his 
mental powers. He died on 25 June 1826. 
A monument to his memory is in Bank Street 
Chapel. He married a Miss Pilkington, but 
had no family. Baker gives a list of fourteen 
of his publications, between 1790 and 1820, 
chiefly 8<>rmons and educational works. In 
the Manchester Free Reference Library, Kin| 
Street, are two volumes of his shorthai 


[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 396 ; PreflK» tc' 
Sermons, 1792; Monthly Repository, 1810 p. 
428, 1815 pp. 686, 687, 688. 1822 pp. 163, 286, 
1826 pp. 430, 49S; Lawrence's Descendants of , 
Philip Henry, 1844, pp. 36 sq.; Baker's Noncon« 
formily in Bolt-jn, 1854, pp. 58 sq., Ill sq.; Vr- ^ 
wick's Nonooiifomiity iu Cheshire, 1864, pp. lii, 
79, t.'J2 ; Memoirs of VV. Turner, 1794, p. 45.] 

A. O. 

HOLLAND, Sib RICHARD (jt. 1450), 
Scottish poet, author of the alliterative iioem 
in the Bannatyne MS. called 'The Bute of 
the Howlat,' lived in the reign of James II, 
and was a partisan of the Douglases. He 
wrote the poem for ' Ane Dow (i.e. Dove) of 
Dunbar, dowit with ant- Douglas,' a descrip- 
tion which identities the ladv with Elizabetn, 
daughter of James Dunbar, earl of Moray,who 
married Archibald, son of James, seventh earl 
of Douglas. The marriage took place about 
1442, and the fall of the Douglas family in 
1452 [see Douglas, William, eighth earl] 
fixes the date of the poem between 1442 and 
1452; it was evidently written during the 
ascendency of the Douglases, whose virtues 
I froin the days of Good Sir James it celebrates. 
It is from t his poem, probably, t hat the famous 
epithet of the Douglases, 'Tender and true,' 

After the defeat of Arkinholm in 1455, in 
which Archibald, earl of Moray, was slain, 
his brother James, earl of Douglas, and his 
followers fled to England ; and in an act of the 
Scottish parliament in 1482 a pardon offered 
to those who should return to their allegiance 
specially excepts ' Schir Richard Holland.' 
'riiis has been reasonably conjectured to be 
the poet, and Irving adds, ' nor is it impro- 
bable that he had been the Earl of Morav's 

Iiie ' Buke of the Howlat,' like raoet of the 
allil eral ive class, is tedious to modem readers. 


bat contains some curiousnutiquariAn matter. 
The allegory (ifthe owl dressed Ln the feathers 
of otht-r Linls wiis su])|Kwed hy Pinkerton to 
refer to James IT, but t his view, which parth- 
re«te<loii the false readiiipof a word/crowne' 
for ' rowme, has been proved eroundleps by 
Sir Walter Scott and Mr. Kavid Lain^. It 
certainly seems to have no application to the 
king, but it i» impo!i«il)le nut to suspect some 
personal allusion besides the g^eneral satire 
on pride. More interesting than the allegory 
itself, which is explained at full length by 
Irving (Hint, nf Scottish Poetry, p. lti«), and 
in Mr. Laing's preface, are the incidental 
passages, which give notices of early heraldic 
blazons, of the musical instruments then in 
use, and of the highland bards, already a sub- 
ject for jest to I he poets of the lowlands. 
The singular prophecy, 

Our soveniine of Scotliiixl hii armes to knows, 

Quilk sail Imi lonJ and ledar 

Our [or over] hmid Orettune all qubar, 

A* Band Mnrgaretis air, 

there seems no reason to 8up]x)se interpo- 
lated. Holland was esteemed by sub.'<equent 
Scottish poets. His poem is referred to by 
Blind Marry, or Henrj' the Minstrel [cj. v.] 
William Dunbar q. v.^ names him in his 
* Lament for the Makaris,' and LjTidsay as 
one of the poets ' who, though they be dead, 
their libelles [i.e. books] are yet living.' A 
few quarto pages of a printed edition of ' The 
Howlat ' were foimd by D. J^aing in the old 
covers of a Protocol Book written before 
15.%, but no other portions of this edition are 
known. 'The Huke of the Howlat' was 
<-«lited for the Uanuatyue Club from the 
Bannatyne M.S. in \*>2-i by Mr. Laing. A 
reprint appeared at Paisley, lelHlJ. 

[Liting'i Pfefafc, wiih nntes by Sir W. Scott ; 
Irvint:'» llist. uf Scottish Poetry.l M. 'H. 

HOLLAND, RICHARD (1596-1677), 
ruathi-nialician, bom at Lincoln in 1596, was 
••ducaled at Oxford, but appears to have taken 
no degree there. His life wa.s mainly spent 
&> a teacher of matlu'malics and 'geology' 
to the junior university students, and he 
wrote two books for the use of his pupils. 
The hrwt.entit led 'filobe Not es.'CKxford, 1678, 
peached a second edition in liJS4. It con- 
tains many nf the simple propositions in 
astronomy still occurring in some elementary 
l*xt-book8, with definitions of such terms us 
Culurc, soUtii^-, I'quinoxial. The other lKN>k 
i> ' Noteo how to get the .Angle of Parallax 
of » Comet or otber phenomenon at twollh- 
acrvationm' Dxfonl. itW. It contains dia- 
p*ins, wi' iins implying 

•ome kn>'v rv. 

According ii, ,i ,,,,11, uuiiuMii had such r«>- 

pute HS a teacher that he became wealthy. 
Ho died on 1 May 1677, and was buried in 
the parish church of St. Peter-in-the-East, 
Oxford. Another Richard Holland, of 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, was incor- 
porated M.A. at 0.xford in 167tl; was rector 
of Stanford, Lincolnshire, and author of five 
senuons published between 16i*8 and 1702. 

[Wood's Atheiiie Oion. ed. Dlisis, iii. 1109; 
Fasti, ii. 371.) K. E. A. 

HOLLAND, liOnERT (ir>67-1622?J. 
' clergyman and |K>et, the third son of Hugh 
Holland, by Jane, daughter of Hugh Conway 
of Bryneurin, was born in 1557 at Conway, 
where the Holland family, though of English 
origin, had already been settled for many 
generations. They eventually became owners 
of most of the town, including the castle, as 
well as of gcxid estates in the neighbourhood. 
Robert Holland studied at Cambridge as a 
memlH^r of Clare, Magdalene, and Jesus Col- 
leges successively, graduating B.A. in 1578, 
and M.A. in 1561. We learn from the dedi- 
cation of his paraphrase of the gospels that 
' the race of his youth was unadvisedly run,* 
but that, after he had been 'four years or 
more tossed with sundry troubles,' the hearta 
of his friends had been stirred up ' to favour 
bis innocency, and to grant him breathing 
time at^er his travels.' In 1591 he waa pre- 
sented to the rectory of Prendergnst, in 1807 
to that of Walwvn 8 Castle, and in 1612 to 
that of Robeston \Vest, all in Pembrokeshire, 
and in the gift of the lord chancellor. He 
was also rector of Llanddowror in Carmar- 
thenshire. He died about ll'i22. By Jane, 
daughter and heiress of Robert Meylir of 
Haverfordwest, he had six sons, of whom Ni- 
cliolas was rector of Marloes, Pembrokeshire. 

Hi'Uand was the author of: I. 'The Holie 
Hi,storie of our Lord and Saviour Jesiu 
Christ's Nativitio, Life, Actes. &c., gathered 
into ]i) meter, and published to with- 
draw vavne wits fmm all iinsavcrie and 
wicked rimes and fables, to .some love and 
liking of spirituall songa and holy Scriptures,' 
London, lol>4, I2mo. 2. ' Darmertn, neu 
Arlwy Oweddi, &e. (i.e. a prayer, prepara- 
tion, or feast, c-onceived with a view to the 
great exaltation of godliness and the increase 
of the knowledge and the desire of the igno- 
rant willing rightly to serve the true God),' 
Rhydychain (i.e. Oxford), 1600, 4to. 3. ' Dav 
Cyruro yn taring yn Bell o'u Gwlad, ac 
ymgvtfwrdil ar tyuydd, &c.' (Stories told by 
two Welshmen meeting on a moutitaiu, about 
all they had se«'n and heard with reganl to 
conjurers, wizards, and the like). 

[L.I)wnn's Visitationsof Wales, i. IIS, ii. 117; 
manuscript authorities cited iu Archsol. Cam> 






brMin*, 3nl wr. ziii. 183 ; moDunwnt* in C'oo- 
wav Churr-h ; Bovlaoil*'* LlyfTjddiMtl) v Cymry, 
•:d.'s. Evani!.] T.'E. H. 

HOLLAITD, SABA, K*dt Uon.4jrD 
{(1. ItfirtJ). [ See under Hol.LA.VD,. Sir UkSKT.] 

HOLLAND, 8I:TH id. irrfjn, a-'^n of 

\\ in I -:. r. WH» eiju<*te<i at All Soillft' Col- 
1 'i, where !i» was ndmilto<l B.A. 

I '.l.snrl commenced M.A. 31 Morch 

l.'iili* (Or/, r'niv. Jteg., Oxf. His^t. Soc., i. 
1 7!t). He was elecU-<l n fellow of his college, 
•nd after tnking orders became rector of 
Flodbiirv, N\'orceKteri«hire, and chaplain to 
Cardinal Vole. In lofi.'i he waa chosen 
warden of A II SouU' ( "oUe^e, and on 26 April 
in lliat year he was iiiAtalled a« prebendarj- 
of Wi^rcetitor. (Jn 1:? Aiij;. ir»57 he was in- 
(talli.-O dean of Worcester in thi? place of 
Philip Hawford, alia' Halhird, the last abbot 
of Kvi-«linm, and about the same time he wa-s 
in>tituted to the rectory- of Bisho]># Cleeve, 1 
(iloiire«teri<l)ir«, Sliortfy before >fary'«d«ith 
Ciirdiuiil I'ole, then lyiiip on his deathbed, 
((••III Holland to the qut>en, w^ith a letter in j 
wliii'li he dwelt on hi.'' fidelity, and lie(j(red 
Mury ' to (five credit to whatever he shall »av , 
on my behalf (I'hillips, Life of Pole, IVW, 
ii. l'77). As Holland refused to comply with | 
thereliprions chancres introduced after Eliin- i 
IwthV acrension, he W8« removed from the | 
wardenship of All Souls, and in ( )ctol>er 1559 
hi' was deprivwl of the deanery of Worcester. 
He was committed pri.viner to the Marshal- 
nea, and, dyinff in confinement, was buried on 
« March lof!0-l in St. Georjre's parish, South- ! 
wark, ' out of the King's Bench prison,' being 
brought to the church by alx^ut threescore , 
gcullemen of the Inns of Court and Oxford, 
'for he was a grett lemydman ' (Machvn, I 
JUary, p. 252). 

[ UridKewnter's Concertatio Eccleai^ Catho- | 
lifie. iii. 104 ; Burrows's Worthifs of All Soul.s, j 
pp xiv, 75 . Chamlwrs'a Worcealerihire Biog. ] 
p. 69; liijdd's Chiireh Hist. i. 510; Kcnnett's : 
M8S. 40 f. 300 : ^Iiiillnnd's Rofonnalion Kstnys, I 
p. 445: Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), iii. 70, 80.659; , 
Strype's .Annals, i. 6(),- 246, fol. ; WucmI's Fiiati 
Oxou. (Bliss), i. 76, 107.] T. C. 

HOLLAND, SiK THOMAS, first Eakl | 
Of Kent of the Holland family (</. 1.360), 1 
soldier, was the second son of Sir Kobert | 
Holland of Holland, Lancashire, and Maud, j 
daughter of Allan la Zouche of Ashby, Lei- 
cestersliire. He joined the expt^dition to , 
Flanders in l.S-lO, and took part in the battle 
of Sluys. In 1342 he was sent to Bayonne 
with Sir .lohnd'Arlevelle to defend the Gas- 
con frontier. In 1344 he was chosen one of 
tlie fj ftHjaiJerg of the order of the tiarter. In 
jt '''^m^bved a yearly annuity from Ed- 

wiA ni, and tb« wine year lie a maay aiwl 
the king in ir ' I'rane*. He 10 

«n actJTe p '. f Caen. Wl 

thetownwa .1. t... .1 1 

diers, theC' 

of France, w^ ..,...„... „. ,., , .„ 

and the Comte de Tancarville, with tl 
Koiles, appealed to him to e«v»- i!i-ir liv.-*!! 
They surrendered to him, and h<' 
disi...-f-.l if the ("omte d'Eu to l; r 

e:. ind florins (/"ari/rra, iii. pt.i. 12ti| 

(>! .jiient march of the army Holland 

had the command of the rear-guard. Some 
English Mildiers, having either gone astray or 
been left behind at Poi**y, were killed by thi? 
French. Holland thereupon returned with 
an armed force and bunied the town ( Fr«jI.*- 
8iRT, i. S 265). .\t the battle of Crecy which 
ensued he held a command in the division of 
the Black Prince. After the battle he was 
ajipfjinted with four clerks to visit the field 
and make up lists of the killed. He wa* 
at the siege of Calais (134*5^7). In 1354 
he was ap|H)inted lieutenant of the king of 
England in Brittany and the adjoining parts 
of Poifou during the minority of the Duke 
of Brittany {Fadrra, iii. pt. i. 273-4). He 
received also at the same time an assignation 
of the entire revenues of the duchy. In l.'i"><? 
he was governor of the Channel Islands, and 
in the following year warden of the fortress 
of Oruy k in Normandy {ih. iii. pt. i. 452). He 
was summoned to parliament as Baron de 
Holland from 1353 to 13.56 inclusive. In 
October 1359 he was appointed jointly with 
Philip of Navarre lieutenant and captain- 

feneral in all the English possessions in 
"ranee and Normandy, and next year he 
assume<l the title of Earl of Kent, in right uf 
his wife, who had succeeded to her brother 
John, earl of Kent. His crown is included 
inthe armorial of Ciuihlres Herald. He died 
in Normandy <m 28 l)vc. 1360. 

He married before 1.347 .loan Plant agenet, 
daughter of Edmund of Woodslo(!k, earl ot 
Kent Tq. v.], and granddaughter of Edwanl I, 
who siiortlv after his death married the Black 
Prince. In his ab.^ence abroad his wife mar- 
rie<l William de .Montagu, second earl of 
Salisbury, but on Holland's return this union 
was dissolved by piipnl commission (1349>. 
He left three Sons: 'rhomas [q.T.], who suc- 
ceeded, Edmund, and .lohn, afterwards duke 
of Exeter fq. v.] ; and two daughter-, one 
of whom, Matilda, married Hugh, grandson 
of Hugh Coiirtenay, isecond earl of Devon. 

[Froissart, e<l. Luce; Kymer's FceJ^ra, ed. 
18.'10. .\.s|jmule'sOrderof the Garter; Pii;.' !■"'<>'- 
Buroniige, ii. "4 ; Dnyles Official Biirnn .: 
276; Beltz's-Memorialsof iheOartor.] J. '• 




HOLLAND, THOMAS, second Earl of 
Kejtt of the Holliind family (13:)0-1397), 
born in ISoO, was son of Thorans llollaud, 
first earl of Kent [14. v.], by .loan, daugUt^r of 
Edmiliid <if WcHxUlock q. v.l He siii-ceeded to 
the liarony of Hollund in iSW, on the death 
of hiii father, and in I.'i(i0 win; made captain 
of the ICnglish forces in Aquituine. He was 
knighted by his stepfiither, Kdward the 
liUkck Prince, in 13tl", when Kpfhtinff in 
C&stile. In 1.375 he was appointed K.(i. 
In that and the year following he was again 
engaged in the French wars, and accom- 
p«nie<I the expedition of the Earl of ram- 
bridge and the Duke of Hrittany into Brit- 
tooy with two thou.'>and men-at-arms and 
three iboiisand archers. Over his half-bro- 
ther, Richard II, Holland exerted an evil in- 
fluence. He was cruel and selfish, and chietly 
simL-d at enriching him.*elf. In the first year 
of Ilicliard Il'-sreifm his income was increased 
by a grant of 200/. a year; he was also made 
warden of the New Forest, and in that and 
the next year had other similar appointments 
and pensions given him, so that tie received 
in all 1,000/. a year. From 1380 to la^o he 
WM earl-marshal of England. In December 
1380 he Went as ambassador to the F'mjieror 
Wenceslaua, to arrange a marriage between 
Anne, the emperor* sister, and R[chard. In 
13«1 he was created Earl of Kent. Mlien, 
in 1381, the rebellion of the commons broke 
out in Kent, he wa.s made captain of the 
king's forces, but he does not appear to have 
taken a very active part against the rebels. 
He was with Kichard in the Tower when 
the rebt-ls approached London, but when the 
king went out to Mile End Kent left him, 
in fenrof his own life. Probably through the 
favour of Kichard he received his mother's 
laufis. which she held largely in right of 
dower, on her death in 1;18.5. He held many 
other offices, among them those of constable 
of tlw< Tower (1380), was a privy councillor 
(13>iV>t, was one of those who guaranteed 
the queen's marriage .settlement, and had 
joit been appointed governor of Carisbrooke 
Castle when he died on 26 April 1397. He 
wa.« buried in Brune Abbey. 

Ketit married, in 13tI6, .Uice, daughter of 
Richiinl Fitzalan, fifth earl of Arundel [q. v.], 
and by l»i>r left two sons and five daughters. 
His .-lilest son, Thomas, is separately noticed. 
His si'crmd son, EDxrxD Uollanu, became 
fourth K\UL ov Kent after the death of his 
bruther Thomas in 1400; married, in 1407, 
Lucia ('/. 1424). sister of Bamabo Visconti, 
duke of :Milan, and died, 18 Sept. 1408, of a 
wound rin'eived in the head while besieging 
the ca»tl<' of Briant in Brittany ( Ol' 
WALaisuiioi, Jfut. Aitgl. \i\' Chrim. Mon. 

Sc. Alb., KoUs Series, e<l. Riley, it. 274. 

[Doyle's OlEcial Baronage, vol. ii. ; finrke's 
Extinct uinl Dormaut Peenigco, p. 279; Dag- 
ilaleV Hiirouaec, ii. 76; Walloii's Hiohard 11, i. 
OS, 72, ii. riO; Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. ii. 
chnp. xvi. ; C'hron. Angl. auet. Mon. .Sanoti 
Albani, ed. K. M. Thompson (Rolls tier.), p. ^86, 
&c.; Fruissjirt's Chronicle, ed. Jobiies, vol. ii. 
chaps, cixxv-cxi. (with aild.) ; Syllabna to 
Rymar's Fosdera. pp. 49,'), 608 ; Bsltz's .Mo- 
monals of the Garter, p. 217.] W. A. J. A. 

REV and Eari. of Kest (1374-1400), wo* 
eldest son of Thomas, second earl of Kent 
[q. v.], by Alice, daughter of Richard Fitxalan, 
earl of Arundel : he was nephew to John Hol- 
land, duke of Exeter (13.52 y- 1400) [q. v.] 
He was elected a knight of the Garter after 
his father's death in 1397, and on obtaining 
livery of his inheritance was summoned to 
attend Richard II (his uncle) at Notting- 
ham, where delilx^ration as to the deprivation 
of Thomas, duke of Gloucester, both of power 
and life, was being held. After Richarid had 
secured Gloucester, the Earls of Kent and 
Rutland were sent to arrest Thomas Fitzalan, 
earl of Arundel. Kent was forward in urging 
the e.xecution of Arundel, who was his mo- 
ther's brother, and shared in the confiscation 
of the estates of Gloucester and his partisans. 
He obtained Warwick Castle, and the stud 
of horses and cattle belonging to the attainted 
Thomas de lieauchamp, earl of Warwick. On 
29 Sept. 13y7,tlie same day on which his uncle 
John was created Duke of Exeter, he was 
created Duke of .Surrey. Selden, in his ' Titles 
ol Honour ' (p. 755), observes that the virga 
aurea was first used on this occasion. On 
31 Jan. 1398 he was created marshal of Eng- 
land during the king's pleasure, in order that 
he might officiate ul the forthcoming duel be- 
tween the Duke of Hereford [see HturUY IV] 
and the Duke of Norfolk, w-ho had himsell 
held that office for life, with remainder to 
his heirs male ( Bei.TZ, MemoriaU of the Gar- 
ter, p. .%8). When both the duelli.sts received 
sentence of banishment, Surrev obtained a 
grant of the office of marshal for life, and some 
of Norfolk's forfeited estates were given him. 

On 18 Feb. 1398 he obtained royal license 
to found a Carthusian monastery at Mount- 
grace, within his manor of Bardelby in Cleve- 
hind, and on 2lt July following he was ap- 
pointed the king's lieutenant m Ireland in 
succession to the Earl of March, who had 
been slain by the Irish. His appointment 
was to date from 1 Sept. foUowmg, and to 
last for three years, according to an inden- 
tiu-e which he is (aid to have made with the 
king. An abstract apparently of this iuden- 


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,,„ I, ■,,,. I»'-I>'/-iti<j:i o: Rich.tnl II. primal in Archaoloieia, 

■M 1 1.. l,.,M.,M.i,|»'.l It'O-iiimrv or Kent, ;"'•"■; WallonV Kiciiari II. vol. ii. : Wylieg 

., .1 I... . .I,.,,!, .,( I,.m \.„w:<\ with "'""• "f Kf'cl- un:.T H..nrT IV, v.^ i. : Belu"* 

I..I,.. Ml,',, Km. I ..I ri'.intin|f.l',n^ M'"""'"'- "!«•>* t'""*-' J i>»vle» Offic.|il Baron- 

I mIIiii u\ tdi-lirii'l'i! |iiirti,iiiim III fill o|N*ii 

ii«c.| W. J. H-T. 

I t M. Miv IV II iiiM to HOLLAND, THO.M.\!> (f/. lOiat.i^pius 

I I'll iii'ii' mini' |iiirl in I In- iilol. nrorcssiirofdivinityut Oxford, bomatLudlow 

Miiiii III' mil li 'I'liiii iiiii'iiii'iii »iiH to Hi-ixi' inShro]>Hhir<>,WHSfducat«datBallio1Colli?^, 

Ml III \ iiii'l III" I" III I Ini-iliiil |iiir|HiHi- ihi'v Oxfiinl, whiTnhi>(rniduRte<l RA. 9 Dec. 1670, 

•II III (ii\\ mil , lull Iniiiiil iliK iirwliiii^liiiil M..\. |s .Iimi' 1 ')""», H.l). 13 July IS82, and 

« iiImIiiim II, "•< ilii ( null nil liiSiiiiiiiiin, whiTi- II.D. ■'«) .Miiy l.Vi-1, lie was electeil chaplain 

ilii \ liiiiiiil llii liiiiil'.i i|iii'i II, mill IiiiiikIimI iIiiii fi'llow of liiilliol CoUegp 13 Jan. 1573, and 

III III ( liiiil iiilii'ii 111 lliclil III ilii'ir ii|i|>riiiii-li. in I.Vs'i wriit as chaplain with the Earl of 

Ki'iii ill I liiii'il iliiii llii liiiiil wii'i riTiMiiiil WHS Iii'ieiistrr to the Netiierlands. From 16^ 

l( hi|> 111 I'lniiiliiiil Willi II liiiiiiln<il lliiiiihiiiiil hi- wii» reiriii" lirofessor of divinity, and on 

III. II I III ( iii.iM'il 1,1 I '••liiliiiiiili, \vlii<ii< iliey I'.i June I.V.ts h,. was allowed to" stop the 

Kill [.'iiiiillit Ijiiiliiiiil Mill Itiilliiml liiiil piililic di.-ipiitiitions beoaujie hu< time was so 

liiiiiuiil ilii' I <<ii i|iiiiiiiii'i, mill iliiMi^li Ki'iit Kiviipied by the pwat number of those re- 

..liLne 'pro forma' (O.r/I Uniiu lieg. U. i. 

;i. On 29 Marcli 1592 be was admitted 

: ill ft'Uow of Exeler College, and was j 

■ he Kame year elected rector bv the in- • 

Qce of Queen Elizabeth, who depended 

I liim to bring I he coUepe, where there I 

-■ many Komanists, into strict confor- j 

1 with the established church. Diir- 

rlie queen's visit to Oxford, 22-8 Sept. 

J. he was the respondent in a diaputa- 

1 -in divinity, and is wpeciiilly ineiilioued 

I iffst the doctors ordere<i tii ]>rovidf tlmm- 

'^ .? with scarlet ^tiwns and Imods for the 

• lit of the university. lie was again re- 
luient in a disputatiou held before .lames I 

I 05. His friend and prot6g6, \)t. John 

-aux, who succeeded him in the rector- 

■.•. wroteat his instigation in 1607 'Tabulio 

! I ■riimmHtica Grteca Introductoriie,' and 

1 ■ ated it to his patron. Holland was well 

"il in the learned languages, and was 

.lity in scriptures.' He was one of those 

inted by James I to prepare the autlio- 

• : version of the Bible (1611). With six 
I- scholars in Oxford he was responsible 

r 'lie translation of the four greater pro- 

• -, the ' Lamentations,' and the twelve 
l««wr prophets. His strong protestant feel- 
vna is illustrated by the benediction with 
which he took leave of his fellows when 
poiiii» on a journey, 'Commendo vos dilec- 
tioni Dei et odio ^apatus et superstitionis.' 
He died 17 March 1611-12, and was buried 
on I'lt March in St. Mary's chancel, when Dr. 

ird Kilbye preached his funeral sermon. 
i I will was proved 20 April 1612. Susanna, 
bis wife, 6ur^•ived him, and sold his stables 
to Dr. Prideaux. His son William matri- i 
culated from Kxeter College 22 Nov. 1611, 
aged 1 6, and became a captain in the service 
of Charles I. His daughter Anne married 
Dr. John Wbetcombe, vicar of Maiden New- 
ton, Dorsetshire. 

Holland's printed works are: 1. ' Oratio 
11- (irv Cotton] liradum Doctoris susceperit,' 
<>vt,,rd, 1599, 4 to. 2. <■ navtfyvfiis D. Eliza- 
b^tlim Heginse. A Sermon preached at : 
I'll 111' in London the 17 of November, 1599. 
^S Ijrreiinto is adioyned an Apologeticall Wii- 
toar>ic for observing the 1/ of November 
yei-nly iii the form of an Holy-Dny,' Oxford 
(by J.i.».'i)ii Barnes), 1601, 4to. His portrait 
is in the Hope collection in the Bodleian 
Library, and a tine engraving in Holland's 
* Heruologia.' 

(Wo<«i'>i .Vthenap Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 111. iii. 
831, nnd I'listi, pt. i. p. 228; yavage's Ballio- 
fenriis, 1688. p. 113; Hook's Archbishops of 
Cuii-rlmrv, xi. 9 ; Eadie's The Knglisb Bible, 
ISTO. ii. 18S, 187 ; Buase's Ezetar College,1879, 

pp. SO. 65, 210; Oxf. Univ. Reg. (Oxf. Hi.t. 
8oc.), vol. i. 281, vol. ii. pts. i. il. iii. iv. ; Blunt's 
Hofomiation of ihi- Churvh of Engbind. 1882, ii. 
•470 ; Kilbye's Sermon at tin- Funcrall of Tbomus 
liolLind, 1613; Henry Ilallantl's Heraiolngia 
AngliL-a, 1620, p. 237-40, with portrait.] 

G. C. K. 

HOLLAND, THOMAS (1600-1642). 
Jesuit, bom in Lancashire in K'lOO, being 
probably a .son of llichurd Holland, gentle- 
man, of Sutton, and Anne his wife, received 
his education in the Jesuit colleges at St. 
Omer and Valladolid. When Prince Charles 
visited Miidrid in 1623, Holland, at the re- 
quest of bis fellow-collegians, went tn the 
capital and addressed the prince in a Latin 
oration, assuring him of the loyalty and good 
wishes of the English students in the semi- 
naries of Spain. He entered the novitiate of 
the English province of the Society of Jesus 
at Watten in 1620, and afterwards passed to 
the c<dlege at Liege and the House of the 
Third I'robation at Ghent. Subsequently he 
was apixiinted prefect of morals and oonlessi>r 
to the schuiars at St. Omer. In 1635 he was 
sent to England, and for seven years laboured 
on the mission in London, sometimes assum- 
ing the aliases of Saundersnn and Hammond. 
At length, on 4 Oct. lm2, he was arrested 
and committed to the New Prison, whence he 
was transferred to Newgate. On 7 L'ec. he 
was indicted for being a priest, was found 
guilty, and on 12 Dec. (O.S.) lt>42 was exe- 
cuted at Tyburn in the pn>«ence of a large 
crowd, including Count Egmont, Duke of 
Oueldres, the Spanish ambassador, and almost 
all the members of his suite. 

There is an engraved portrait of him in 
the'Certamen Triplex' of Father Ambrose 
Corbie [q. v.], published originally at Ant- 
werp in 164.'). A miniature jiortrait of him 
is preserved by the Teresian nuns at Lan- 
heme, Cornwall. A photograph by the 
Woodbury process has been published. 

[Biography in Corbie's Certamen Triplex ; 
Challoner's Misiionory Prifsts, No. 147 ; Floras 
Anglii-Favaricus. p. 76 ; Foley's Recopls, i. S42- 
86d.vii.366; Gillow's Diet. of" English Catholics; 
Granger's Biog, Hist, of England, 5th edit , li. 
38,5 ; Marsy s'e la Persecution dB.M Ca- 
tboliques en Angleterre, iii. 101-17; Oliver's 
Jesuit Collectioue, p. 117.] T. C. 

HOLLAND, THOMAS (1659-1743), 

Jesuit. [See EfCLtiioN, Thomas.] 

1888), clergyman and poet, eldest son of Dr. 
Samuel Holland, precentor of (.Chichester and 
rector of Poynings, Sussex, who was sixth in 
descent from Robert Holland [q. v.], and of 
Frances, eldest daughter of Lord-chancellor 

-xhool imI tt Wnr- 

4B ^IBI^ 

, hm Amid mac ks*> 


a. writer ef 
r wtai lu« Mviiaat dbrt, 
fW( to Dijtafgb AMmvKMBnad tW 
twwiiriiiiii of 8r Waluv SMn,*tai»t 
10 fhi doM oTy* laof fife. Hbpoedcml 
> ■ will* e«e,pMWif finot ta» ■■»- 
I of ft Muliwui ■ygMi (o pli^fBlakit 
•pgiMft, 6oai tht lutn o HCB of fVi i <t i« h 
to iIm teemtrf tad Ilinl-Iifi- 'if lii^ 
SoHtlitioira pMuk 'DryW^ Al 
oUmt PoraM,' ongmtUj puMjjte.1 
tmeWtd » ■eeowl edition . i a tiurd, 

nuuiy ebugtM aiui - ^a 18>M. 

) •bn the aattitx of >e*eral oec»- 
M aod nunpUets, uul of • Terj' 
-eoiii|il«t« histoiT of Pojiiiasa, pobliohed ia 
th« OfMMS ArebBoIogicml socaet j"* ' Trmii»- 
•ctinniii' for I'ttK. 

[Prirnt" infufnuaion.] T. E. H. 

1W77), in llohfmian VAKiaT Hou.b, en- 
graver, wa* tnm at fraiTUe on 13 July 1607. 
Ili> wan the nonof Jiin Holar.a lavryer, who 
hfl'l nn official upp»iiitm>.-nT in that city, and 
MnrgHTvl, hill wif»>, iJaughter of David L<iw 
von Liiwcn^fnin and Bareyt, a biirj^hirof the 
•anic (ilace. IIi; wiu) the eldeat of the family. 
TliTi! wi<re twii other sons. Hollar asserted 
that he h<i'toii^e<l tx> the Bohemian nobility, 
hill father having received a patent from the 
Emp<iror Iliidolf in UJOO, and liaving taken 
the »t.y 111 of I loUar of I'niohna. The family in 
now I'Xtinct iti Bohemia, and no clear traces 
of it aril to be found after 1643, but a house 
■till <tanditi{;( in the NeuHtadr, I'ruf^ue, is said 
to have beliinxed to them. It has undergone 
Cinmiderabbi nllerationa. Tlie elder Hollar 
ilied in 11(30, iiiiil his wife predeceased him. 
W'.inci'Mbkiis Moenii nt lirst to have been in- 
tenili'd liv his father for I he profession of the 
law, but lii» piisiiun for art mooii showed itself, 
HnrI we lire tnld lliut he wns placed under 
ihi' iiiiitriicti'iii of .Miitthew .Vloriiin, a cele- 

brut'"' ■"' "■■' ''"■" residing lit IViigue; it 

U bn' iiiems at iin early Age to 

., . -\ attracted by the works 

t lo he no ({rounds for Aubrey's 
«i fiilher of Hollar was a pro- 
iw H^lhunuit of Frederick, the 

ij hare been 

fir leaving 

-om any 

•vent, for 

his life in 

iti», and re- 

!■ the awHiliiiwji tt the Em{ieror 

a tai kk dntk. Evelyn in his 

» » Oorf tka* tbe engraver was 

a Roman catholic 

at Aatwvtp ; but this 

to ha BSM poHtp. 

Toon; Weneadaaa taat vent to Frank- 
Con, when ha rmwbi d two yean, then to 
r<ilny, aad afkatwiHds to Antwerp, where 
hm •yea* aoaaatiaie, mad aco^niinj; to Vertue 
kd'dStidlycnaaigfc to subsist.' He con- 
Hrniwd Jfiu B aad aaaiaTine with more or 
Itm nmttrn. Theaaaa Howard, mltI of Aruo- 
M,whm aailia«waiinr<o Ike Genaaa em p erot , 
•aw at Oologae in 1635 lua enstaring of the 
citTof P(a(ru«. He was much pleased with it, 
and favoog^t Hollar Vi Kn^ in his train. 
HoUar waa dow in fa liiu; circum- 

tf.aneea, and works bv ■ ired in rapid 

aticcwinn, among wiiich may be mentioned 
views of Bichnumd and Greenwich. S<x>n 
after his arrival he married, according to 
Aubrey, who knew him well, ' at Arundel 
house my ladies wayiiiigwoman.Mrs. Tracy, 
br whom he had a dau^fhrer, tbut was one 
of the greatest beauties i hure seen ; his son 
by her dyed in the plague, an ingenioae 
youth : drew delicately.' About 1639 or 
1640 Hollar was appointed teacher of draw- 
ing to the prince, afterwards Charles II. A 
volume of sketches by the royal pupil, to 
which Hollar has given the finishing touchea, 
may be seen among the Harleian MSS. at the 
Bntish Museum. 

In KUO appeared one of the most interest- 
ing of his works, the ' Omatus Muliebris 
Anglicanus, or the Severall Habits of Eng- 
lish Women from the Nobilitie to the Country 
Woman, as they are in these times.' The 
following year he engraved the portraits of 
Charles I and his queen from the originaU 
by Vandyck ; but according to Vertue, who 
was able to gain much information from 
persons who hod ktiown Hollar, he was no 
lavourite with the great painter, 'because he 
could not so well enter into that master's 
true manner of drawing.' In l(i43 appeared 
his ' Theatnim Mulierumsive Varietas atque 
Differentia Habituum Fceminei se.'cus.' In 
this well-known work are figured the various 
styles of female dress in the leading nation* 
of'^ Europe. 

On the outbreak of the civil war Arundel, 
his patron, was obliged to leave the country. 
Hollar remained in England, and entered the 




lyaliat ranks aa a soldier ia ihe re^fiment of 
he Murquis of Winchester. He was soon 
taken pnsoner at B&sing House by the par- 
mentary forces, hut mnde his escape to 
ntwerp, where he found the Karl of Arun- 
1 settled with other royalist exiles. We 
find the entry ' Wenceslaue Hollar, plaet- 
snyder,' fisuring in the book of the members 
of the Gild of St. Luke at Antwerp for ItUo. 
Tlie earl died at Padua in 164«. Hollar, 
reduced to great straits, was comnelletJ to 
ilrudge at Antwerp at very low prices. In 
1647 he eneraved his own portrait. In 1652 
he returned to England. He soon got em- 
ployment, and illustrated among other works 
Ogilby's ' Virgil,' Dugdale's 'St. Paul's,' and 
Stapleton's 'Juvenal.' About 1654 he was 
employed in the house of I'aithorne the en- 
graver, and also by Stent and Overton the 
printsellers, who, according to V'ertue, gave 
aim very small pay, it seems about fourpence 
an hour ' at his usual method by the uour- 
glass.' Vertue tells us that he had it on the 
best authority that for the view of Clreen- 
wich, a large engraving in two plates, Hollar 
received from Stent only thirty shillings. 
The hour-glass by which the artist worked 
is constantly represented in his portraits. 

On the accession of Charles II, Hollar was 
appointed ' His Majestie's designer,' and pro- 
duced one of his chief works, the coronation 
of Charles II at Westminster. On 4 Sept. 
1660 the king directed a letter to be sent to 
Sir Thomas Aleyn, lord mayor of London, 
informing him that Hollar had designed and 
cut in copper a large map of London and its 
suburbs, butt hat the work remained incom- 
plete on account of the expenses incurred. 
The aldermen and other well-disposed citizens 
were therefore requested to assist Hollar in 
finishing the work (liemnnbrn/win, f. 213; 
«f. Cal. Staff Pniters, Dom. lt)66-7, p. 111). 
The corporation of London on this and other 
-occasions rendered Hollar some assistance. 
The plague in 166.') and the fire in the follow- 
ing year threw him again out of employmeJit. 
He made suggestions to Evelyn for the re- 
huilding of London, and executed a very fine 
map of the city, leaving the burnt portions 
blank (cf. Pepys, Diary, iii. 14). He was 
•worn Ihe king's ' »ceno:rriiplier ' on 21 Nov. 
1666 (cf. Cat. State Pawni, Dom. 1666-7, 
p. 256), and appealed to Charles II for pecu- 
niary aid in the next year (ii. 1667, p. 430). 
In ItJfiS) he was sent by the govcmment in 
the suite of Lord Henry Howard to Tan- 
gier, where he remained for about a year. 
On hia way back the ship in which he sailed, 
the Mary Rose, under ttie command of Cap- 
tain Kempthome, was almost captured by 
urine piratM. Of this adventure Hollar 
»0L. xxni. 

engraved a picture. For all his labours and 
perils he received only 100/. In 1672 he 
made a tour to the north of England, taking 
views on the way, which he afterwards en- 
' graved. He also illustrated Thoroton's' An- 
tiquities of Nottinghamshire.' 

He died on 2H March 1677, in the seven- 
tieth year of his age. We are told by Yer- 
I tue that there was an execution in his house 
at the time, ' of which when he was dying 
he was soiisihlu enough to desire only to die 
in his bed, and not to be removed till he was 
buried.' He was buried near the north-west 
corner of the tower of St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, but no stone marks the spot. 
He married a second time in 1665, and by 
this wife, who survived him many years, left 
several childrtm. Of Hollar's personal cha- 
racter Aubrey says : ' He was a very friendly, 
good-natured man as could be, but shiftless 
as to the world, and died not rich.' Evelyn, 
who also knew him well, tells us that he was 
' a very honest, simple, well-meaning man.' 

Of Hollar's prints '2,7iiS are enumerated 
in Parthey's account of his works (Berlin, 
1853). They embrace n great variety of sub- 
jects, including scenes from the bible, his- 
torical pictures, maps, portraits of his chief 
contemjKjraries, views of cities, flower and 
fruit pieces, and various illustrations to 
books. His clever sketches of costume, his 
views of old London and other cities are in- 
valuable to the historian. His engravings 
are executed with much spirit and carefully 
finished. They have steadily risen in value. 
An exhibition of them was held in London 
in 1875 at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. 

The following are Hollar's more character- 
istic works: 1. Figures and portraits: ' Ur- 
natus Muliebris Anglicanus ' (1640), 26 
plates; 'Thealrum Mulierum' (1643), 48 
plates ; portraits of Charles I and his queen 
after Vandyck (1649), James, duke of York, 
at the age of eighteen, Oliver Cromwell, 
Hobbes (1665) (cf. Nofet and Queries, 1st 
ser. viii. 369), Oughtred, Lady Venetia 
Digby, and his own portrait. 2. Landscapes 
and buildings: A iiumb*.'r of Dutch and Ger- 
man views, including Strassburg, Augsburg, 
and Stuttgart ; Cambridge, Oxford, Birming- 
ham, Hull, and Greenwich ; sLv views of 
Albiiry, the seat of Arundel ; Dutch shipping 
(1665) : tomb of Edward IV at Windsor; 
view of Riclimond Park (1(538) ; plates illus- 
trating Dugdale's ' St. Paul's ; ' the choir of 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor; Antwerp 
Cathedral; "Whitehall, Lambeth, and views 
of Windsor, and views in and about Tan- 
gier^l673). 3. Miscellaneous: 'Charlesand 
the army quartered at Newcastle on the way 
to Scotland in 1639 ; ' ' Trial of Archbishop 


Lkod' n<U-*>i: *Trul and Execntion ct \ 
TiMsaa, E«tI of Strafford ; ' ' Coronation o^ 
Chaile* II :' ' Kemptborne'* EoinfemeBt I 
with tk« Alwriiw Pintt^;' the ' Four 3e»- 
aoiM;' map in England, lurrounded brminia- 
litrv portrait* of kiofv : a map of ^ngUod, 
Inlaad, fScotUml, an3 Wales ; map« of the 
Ul« of Man and iluiyarr; and 'A New 
MaoMof tbcCititwof l»oJ<>n, \V>^tmtnster, ; 
MM the Borough of .S<'>utbw8rk ' 1 1675). ' 

[GasUT I'unhej't Wrnzel HoIUr (Berlin, : 
IJl.W); V.Tiii«'» C'iUlogttc •».! DMcription of ^ 
V vr..\'i'J: Itrtxo'* Bioi^bbionl and 

I i.marr of Ptinl'trn «n! Luarmrer*, 



_: :ie 

"jn frtmi ibe 
W. R. M. 

HOLLE8, DKXZIL (168^1680), states- 
!: ■! Hon (if John Holljw, fir«t earl of 

I . was Ixirn :{1 <>ct. 1599 ( Chester, 

U ftinuiilrr AtJti-y Iln/ittert, p. 4). In the 
parlmmcni of UVS-i HdIIb* r»?pre»t?nt«l the 
iK^rouifli of St. Mifhiiel in Cornwall, and Dor- 
chi-'tiT ill timt iilUi:.''*. Fmm thecommence- 
int^iil of liiji catt-vT Holies *»»em8 to have ««- 
•oi^iatwlhim.'self with the opponents of Buck- 
in:»lmm. Hie indignation was roused by 
tliH failure and di»gn«-e which marked that 
,, n -!.t'- forfi)(n policy. 'Since England 
id,' be wrote of the disaater at the 
i air. 'it re<-eived not 80 dishonour- 

able a blow ' ( S/ru/Toril I^ffert, i. 41 ). The 
fact tb»l Weill wortb was his brother-in-law 
iinil Kliot bis friend no doubt influenced his 
|Hi|itical i'oiir.''e. fhi 2 March IKlifl, when, 
iiiijrrnrv to the will of the House of Com- 
III. Ill J. tlie speaker pleaded the king's order 
to adjourn it, and sought to leave the chair, 
Holleii and another member kept him in it 
by force. ' Ood> wounds ! ' swore Holies, 
' you shall sit t'dl we please to rise.' At the 
end of the same stormy sitting it was Holies 
who recited and put to the house Eliot's 
three resolution.* against innovation in reli- 
gion and arbitrary taxation (li4KDl.Ni;K, J7i.«- 
tori/ o/ ICm/liind, vii. *i8, 75; Old Parliamrn- 
tary lli'ton/, viii. aS-.', 354, 361 ). Two days 
later ho was am-sted and committed to the 
Tower, Holies, witb tive other prisoners, ap- 
iplied to the court of king's bench for a writ of 
jnabtias corpus, but the judges refused to allow 
hail, except on condition of (rising <i bond for 
good behaviour (8 Oct. 1829). .\n informa- 
tion had been exhibited against Holies and the 
rest in the Star-chamber (7 May 1629), but 
this was dropjied, and they were finallypro- 
ceeded against in the kin|;'s bench. Refusing 
to acknowledge the juri.sdiction of that court 

w^ wpect to mMctB tnaeaetcd ia 
meat, he wa« tn mui i 
fuJt, toA •eateaeed to be 
sand mAiks (i Fclk IfiSOju Ha was ia 
tion to be iaif ri eaaad datii^ tW Ido^aplc*- 
sme, and not tobeiekflaedezMDt on xiTiag 
secoritT for good beheTiowr and eoauaiug 
hisol!<>iice(GiB]>ans,Ti.m, 111.119; Ooi/- 
LlS8,pp.l04-^>. ToeroidUi^wiitaaHoIlea. 
' I made an «eca^, end lived a heniaheH man 
... for the speoe of arren or eight yean, 
and then at last was glad to pay my fine. I 
can with confidence say that my imprison- 
ment and my «uits cost me three tbouaaod 
pounds; and that I am ten rfiniis.'iiiil pounds 
the wone in my ect«te up. . naion ' 

(Cakt, Me»ioruiU of the C\ i 150). 

The Long parliament treated the proaerution 
as a breach of privilege, and referred (be 
question to a committee, whose report *a» 
delivered by Glyn on t5 July l(V41 iVBBSirT, 
Suttiof tkf Lorvf Piirtiatnent,^. 102; ('i>Mt- 
mont JoumnU, ii. 63, 2t)l-3). Holies was 
voted o.OClU/. in compensation for his losses 
and siill'erinfrs.and the thousand marks which 
he bad [laid into the exchequer for bis line i 
were repaid to him. 

In t!. ' ■• 'HI IdlO, and also 

in the i lies again reprt*- 

sentedl-'.r. II. >-i. n^- ...-:.. .w1..v.;k.. ,-» 

I gave him a leadin;; pi <- 

I tion (Clab>:xdon, I{,/,.... 

I fact that his sister bad been .- 1 

I wife led h im to separate liim,- . : . 

tical associatesononepoint. 'In.'. - 

trivances be wn* in the most sei ■ is 

with those who most governed, and wan r^ 

gpected by them with very much -iihmisn 

applicationiisamanof authority I ' ■' 

I spoke on behalf of Strafford's r! ^l 

endeavoured to negotiate an n '^ 

by which the king's consent to tl u 

of episcopacy should Vje accept ed u; 

som of Strafford's life (Saxi^kd 

Lacti), U'orA:*, iii. 442: Bi i: 

ed. 18.i3,i.5«). Clarendon ^ 

as not one of the root-and-nriiMiii mi.mi, vft 

he was certain Iv one of the ti'llers for the 

gecimd reading of the Root-' ■ ' ' '■ ''''I, 

spoke often against the li " 

cnoseii to carry up to the ii, . i< 

ifcoth the impeachment of Laud 
■^testation ^SasfokI), pp. 3(>4, 41" 
pp. |f)6, 116; Veksbt, Notf ■; 

3F\ir^'awif7if, pp. 67, 70). On6.Ii. .!» 

a great speech on the conduct of the judgvu. 
urging the restoration of Sir Rnndulphe Cryw 
to the chief justiceship, of which he bad been 
deprived. Holies was the mouthpiece of tbt' 
commons when they announced their r«'#o- 
lution to support the cause of the elector 

the riin- 
p. i-K*'; 



Silstine, and represented tlii^m also in the | 
is])iite« with the lords about the protestii- i 
tiou and ihfi kind's jiiarnevtoSt-otlnnd (CoL- ' 
! IS-', pp. ll;i, 11^; Old Parliamentary Hill- j 
ijt. 2t>o, T)!! I. In the second seBsion ' 
II . ■ > win ••ijUiiUv active and e<(uallv de- \ 
, i ! II 1 h- on behalf of the tirand Re- 
11] iii-MMii, 1 .1 111 WHS eager for the punishment 
ol' Mr. I'lilmer ( VerneV, pp. 124, 127). 

When the Irish rubelliiin broke out, Holies 1 
uncoiMprumisinply supported the proposed 
dechinition apiinst the toleration of the oii- 
tholi(»; when the lords opposoil the Impress- 
ment Hill, Holies wu<- charged to represent 
to them their responsibility for the blood and 
miiwrv which mijjht ensue (Gardiner, x. 
103 ; 7x//v/V JvuninU, iv. 4l*i ). On 27 Dec. ; 
he pre>j*i:sl for the imp<!iichment of Lord 
Uigby nnd the Earl of Bristol (SaskorI), 
p. aiSi). Impeached himself by the king at 
Dijjby's advice on 3 Jan. ltJ42, he look re- 
fugf in the city with the rest of the accused 
mornl'-'-' ""'1 returned like them in triumph 
to W : on U Jan. The control of 

the 11: i Bme now the chief ((uestion 

at i»u«', and, to overcome the reluctance of 
Uie lonls to join the oimmons in demanding 
it, llolln.'" in an impassioned speech presented 
!■■» them a petition purjiortinji to come from 
many thouwinds of unemployed artisans 
in and Bl><)ut London (Clarkndos, iv. 
St>S-"l ; Lordi' Journnh, iv. 5o!'). Imjia- 
tient of any opjMitiiliou. he was eajier for the 
punishment ot the Duke of Ilichmond, de- 
manded t he impeai-hmeut of the nine royalist 
1 1 hail refused to obey the summons 

uent, and conducted himself the 
• them (S*.\foRii, p. 478; Old 
Ui'toni, xi. 2(X)). 
' " r bejpin, he was at first 
iii(f. He had bt^en ap- 
I flri.stol, was nominated 
iimittee of safety (4 .luly 
lie to rai.'^e a regiment of 
porlinmi'.nt . Under the com-! of H..<|ford, Holies took 
.iiitist the Marquis 
Mie, and defended 
>^'uiii«l lilt' uMitcks made on his 
ip At K<l./i.hill lie and hi* regi- 
" K-,.„t- 

•\i : >ANh"iai, pp. .'lU'.', o.'l2; 
I 7). Hut during the winter 
■M\ advocate of jHiace that 
iviminent. He had from 
.1111^ ■.. ilie quarrel protested that 
I ■ mori' than his own life ' a go<jd 
I,.,,. i„ iiv,.cii king ami parliament 
"tlf, rd. |H.'i;'., p. 124). 
H ill I \\r (linrv of Sir 



,.,,„„. .;i 

fool for the 
lUlUld '.f til' 


of " 

Symonds D'Ewes show how anxious he now 
was for an accommodation (Sanford, pp. 
f);30, r>32, 53.")). Ill Augii.'^t 1043, when a 
majority in the commons propiwed to take 
int^) consideration the peace propositions 
sent down from the lords, the war party 
contemplated the summary arrest of Ilolle» , 
and other leaders of t he peace sect ion. W hen I 
the commons retracted their resolution, 
Holies for a moment thought of leaving 
Kngland, and obtained a pass for the continent i 
(!) .Vug. 164;?, Commumi' Jnumalu, iii, 19; 
CUriiIKEK, Great Civil fCnf, i,217 ), How- 
ever, on !• April 104-1 he addressed the citi- 
lens of London in theOuildhull to persuade 
them to devote ' t heir purseN and their persons' 
to strengthening the army under Ksse.x 
(Old I'lirlianifntiiri/ Uintdn/, xiii. 102). In 
November 1644 Holies and several olhera 
were sent to carry to the king the proposif 
tions offered him by jiarliament. Of this 
embassy his companion, AVIiitelocke, and 
Holies himself have both given accounts 
( WHlTi:LOCKE,iWnHor('o^,ed.lH53,i. ;{31-41 ; 
Cmnmonn' Juurimlii,m.' \0). Hewas likewise 
employed as one of the parliamentary com- 
missioners at the rxbriage treaty (10 Jan. 
1645). Meanwhile the struggle between 
presbj-terians and independents had com- 
menced, and from the first Holies ttiok the 
lead of the presbyterians.Jj In conversation 
he did not conceal from his friends among 
the king's commissioners ' his animosity and 
indignation against the Independent jmrty' 
I IteMliim, \\\'\. 24H). In concert with the 
Scotch members of the committee of both 
kingdoms he projected, in December KW4, 
the impeachment of Cromwell a.s on incen- 
diary (NVhitixoOKE, ed. 1863, i. 3l:i). In the 
following summer Lord Sa vile, who had just 
deserted the royal party, charged Holies and 
Whitelocke with betraying their trust when 
sent to convey the parliament's proj)Osal8 to 
the king. It was afiirmcd that they had se- 
cretly consulted with the king on the answer 
to be given to the propositions, and it was 
stated also that Hollee had thnmghout main- 
taineil secret communications with Lord 
Digby. The charge M-as eagerly taken up by 
M>roe of the independents. ' Tliose who were 
of a contrary party to the Earl of Essex,' 
says Whitelocke, ' set their intertsst upon itio 
ruin Mr. HoUis, whom tbev found to Im* a 
great pillar of that I>arty.' ftoth theaccuaed 
were cleart>d bv vote of the commons on 
lit July 1015 (lA. i. 457-81 ; Old Pnrliamen- 
tary Ili/tori/, xiii. 501 , 5<)5 ; xiv. 22). Never- 
the^es.x, the accusation was repeated with addi- 
tional details in the charge hnuight against 
himby thearmyin 1047(iA. xvi. 7(>-2). With 
the conclusion of the war and the attempt«d 





disbtiDdinf^ of the army which followed it, 
the animo«itv between HoUea and the in- 
dependeiitsiniTea^-d, He w&s regarded as the 
leadi-rof the party in thi- House of Commons 
which refused to concede the just claims of 
the soldiers, was<l to tolertttion, and 
willing to make a treaty with the kinft with- 
out ade(iuale security for its performance. 
PerBonaliy, he was lield responsible for the 
Severity with which the commons sometimes 
treated petitioners against its chosen policy. 
According to Ludlow, the declaration of the 
commons of 29 March 1647, in which the 
promoters of tlie army petition were declared 
enemies of the stute. was drawn up by Holies 
(Meutoim, ed. 1751, p. 74). During these 
debates a challenge was exchanged between 
Holies and Ireton, but the intervention of 
Sir William Waller and the orders of the 
house prevented 11 duel ( Clarnidon MSS. 
'.'47H, 2495; Lidlow, p. 94). On 15 June 
1647 Holies and ten other members of parlia- 
f ment were impeached by the army. In ad- 
dition to the charges already referred to, he 
was accused of holaing secret corre«j)ondence 
vt'ith the queen and inviting the Scot*, to in- 
vade England (Old Parliamentary Hisinry, 
XV. 470, .xvi. 70). The answer of the eleven 
accused members, which was delivered to 
the House of Commons on 19July, is printed as 
'A Full Vindication and Answer oft lie Eleven 
Accused Members to a late Printed Pamphlet 
entitled '• A Particular Charge or Impeach- 
ment in the Name of Sir Thomas Fairfax and 
the Army under his Command '"(li. xvi. 116). 
It is said to have been drawn up by Pryntie. 
On 20 J uly t he accused members asked and 
obtained leave of absence for six months, and 
passiw to go beyond sea. Holies on taking 
leave of the house made a speech in his own 
vindication ( 'A ti rave and Learned Speech, or 
an .Vpology Delivi.Tt^d by Oeuzil Holies, Es(}.,' 
4to, lti47). Ten days later a new vote re- 
- called the eleven members, and that portion 
of the parliament which remained at West- 
minster prejiared to fight the army, and ap- 
pointed a new committee of safety, of which 
Holies wiLS a member (^Itusu worth, vi. (552). 
He asserts that he had no share in the tumults 
which produced this sudden revolution. ' I 
was not in the city all the time those busi- 
nesses were in agitatitm — knew nothing of the 
petitions nor actings in the common coun- 
cil ' (Mi-moirn, § 148). The army marched 
triumphantly into \jnndon on (> Aug., and 
Holies was again obliged to tty. Several of 
the accused memlwrs were captured as they 
were crossing to Calais, of whom Holies was 
reported to Ije one ; but the fact is contradicted 
in a statement published bv the oUicers of 
the squadron in the Downs (livsuwoKTH, vii. 

I 786 ; A DeclarntioH of the Hrprrttntntiom 

\ of the OJprrr* >f the Naiy cvtufTning tk» 
Im/irncheii Mrmbers, 2t5 Aug. 1(147). On 
4 Sept. the commons ordered the fugitive 

I members to return and stand their trials, and 
as they refused they were, on 27 Jan. 1H4X, 
disabled from sittingduring the existing par- 
liament (RfSHWOKTH, vii. H()0, 977). On 

' S June 1048 these votes were annulled, and 
Holies to<ik his seat again in the house ud 
14 Aug. (li. pp. ll.«), 1226). 

Holies was one of the ten commissioners 
appointed by the commons to represent them 
at the Newpf>rt treaty; he presented their 
report to the bouse, and was thanked for ius 
services (1 Dee. ll>4S) (tA. vii. 124H, 13liO). 
'The Humble Proposals and Desires' of the 
army, presented to parliament on 6 Dec, de- 
manded the urrtist and punishment of Holies ) 
and other impeached persons who had retaken 
their seats, but he succeeded in escaping ugain 
to France (ih. p. 1354 ; Olil Purlmmmtaru 
JIiston/,xvni.i'>S). InMarch 1(^51 Charles II 
summoned him toScotland with the intention. • 
of making him secretary of state for England, 
but he 8eem,4 to have refused the invitation 
(Carte, Original Lettert, ii. 44S: Nickola* 
Papem, i. 227). However, when the Pro- 
tector sent him a pass permitting him to re- 
turn to England, Holies availed himself of it 
(Clarmtioii State Pn/ierf.iii.'J'Jti; Val.Clarett- 
don Papem, ii. 32.'$). When, at Mouck's in- , 
stigution 1 21 Feb. ltiOO),thesecludedmembert . 
were readmitted to parliament. Holies took 
his seat ag»in,andon2 March lt)00 the special 
votes against him and the sequestration of his 
estate were re]H.'aled. He was also appiiinted 

I a member of the council cif state which was 
to govern between the ilissol viug • >f the Long 
parliumentand the meeting of the convention 
(ComnMn* Journals, vii. 849). ClorenJon 
describes him os one of the ji- ' • ' ■••nn 
cabal which met at NorthumU-i — , 

and wished to make terms with Cli . . . ^- ..ire 
restoring him (Rebellion, xvi. lIK): litrRXKT, 
Otrn Time, ed, IS-lfi, i. l.'iti), in tlie con- 
vention he acted as chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed to answer the king's letter, 
and}vas one of the commissioners sent to the 

I Hague (Commom' JoumaU, viii. 4, 20). The 
speech made by Holies to Charles (16 May 

I 1660) is a remarkable expression of loyalty 
and joy : ' h king of so many vows and prayerf 

I cannot but crown the desires of his people' - 
(Sinners Tract*, ed. Scott, vii. 415). In re- 
ward for these services Holies was admitted 
to the privy c<mncil, and created a peer by 
the title of Baron Holies of Ifield, Sussex 
r2() April Kiel). From July 16tJ3 Xo May 
ItitW he was English umlmssador at Paris, ^ 

and distinguished himself by the tenacity 

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(Visbaniling of tlic nrmy whicli fnllowfd it, 795 : 
the unimosity bi'twe-en Holies and tlie iu- of tJy 
dependents incruHsed. He was regarded as ibe lmj.M" 
leader of tbe party in tbe Hou6<! of Commons 4 S.^! 
wbifb refused to concede the just claims of | nii^mli 
the soldiers, wan opposed to toleration, and ^ km t Ik' 
willing to make a treaty with tbe liing with- d 
out adexiuate security for it« performance. 1 
Pernonally, be wa* held responsible for tbe • 
severity with which the commons Komelimua II 
treate<I petitioners against its chosen polir 
According to Ludlow, tlie declaration of : 
commons of 29 March 1647, in which iin- 1 
promoters of the army petit ion were declared 11 
enemies of the state, was drawn up by 1 1 "■ - 
(.Me)iu)ir», ed. 17ol, p. 74). nurin 
debates a challenge was e.\changed Iji .. 
Holies and Ireton, but the intervention 
Sir William Waller and the orders of : 
house prevented a duel {Clarendon .!/> ■ 
i47H, -2490; LuDLow, p. 94). On lo Jn 
1(U7 Holies and ten other members of pail 
ment were im[>eache<l by tbe army lit 
dition to the charges already r. 
was accused of holding secret ( > 
with the qUeen and inviting th 
vade England (OW Parliumi-n 
XV. 470, xvi. 70). The lunwei 
accused members, which wa> 
tbeHousoofCommonson 1'' ' 
' A Full Vindication and A > > 
Accused Members to ;: ' ' 
entitled "A I'arlicu; 
ment in the Name 01 
the Army under bis t 
It is said to have be- 
On 20 July the acci 
obtained leave of »!)>• 
possus to go beyond 
leave of the hoiiin n 
vindication ('A' 
an.Vpilugy Dell 
4to, 1047l". T. 
called the elcM 
"of the parliament v. 
minster preparrd »<> 

?ointed a new ( 
lotles WHS u III 
Heu- • ' 

was len M 

neases wer 

petitc'v- ■ 

cir . 

the IK 
■werr I 
in a > 

.4 J>. 



'8 His- 

atWv the title 
C. H. F. 


'■\ surviving 

■ V. pri>- 

. il cain- 

'>n was 

He is 

am w ^tc- ri>4t an arm in 

f ^ ifc" North Foreland, 

mprobable, for he 

Mirrh li?<!7-Si a* 

•. jod anything of 

■ d in my life, and 
have obtained it.' 
ui c<immand the 

iu the action ot 

• liicb be had Ix-en 
' lorn., Charles O, 

• i.s captain of the 
Inil was employed 

■ i-ommand of the 
if the Thames in 

: 1 iru., fret).; l*EPlt», 

must have piqued 

uiny entries con- 

1 ' are all almsive. 

:iw men brought up from 

t» * Ihe mo6t debauched, 

Kyues that ever w^ere iu 

M (heir commander, who 

' - 1 - (26 June1, 

■ ~' pt.), and as 

tt us ever came 

h. ltJfi7-Sl. 

•' • Hutch, Holies sp- 

• inintbeland^T- 

.. — \ ^) while on guard 

|Wt> m a liHiidiiome room, with 

.^' >h» Wjviiie.^, a • mighty ))aTbaroiu 

«as n-turned (o parlia- 

• \ -• his father's colleague. 

rS t»«^ta<an<U'd the Cambridge in the 

emm wirr Sir l^iburt Holmes [q. v.j, 

■ tfwknl the llutch Smvma fleet on 

.*j*tpr%«i'.n>*l ( III March); and when 

^' Mlibael, was diBable<l, 

i.- t%imhridge. Holies 

.2.'* Mftv, and was 

ilH'l in Westmiu- 

' ••:<rct. vii. ,'57<>). 

. 'a bachelor,' aged 21, 

' ■ r of Mr. Richard 

re, and widow of 

. — ■I .St. (iabriel, Feu- 

-iKR, I^'iiriun Marriniff 

.. ..'I. By hij) will, dated 




] 6 June 1672. he left 

Li(t of Cora- 
J. K. L. 

tW.')'), nn- 

_>tou of 

1 . 11. 60, 78). 

:>miin, John 

iitttd of the 

- uccet'ded in 

M .111 I" .Iiinf of 

luiijfhtor of John 

■ V. For the next 

• at Orim.shy, 

... in rebuilding his 

iioiiteriaU for a history 

!!• removed on 20 Sept. 

1 in SherwDod, Nottingham- 

IK Jiin. U)34— 5, lie lost hi« 

liiuffhter ( tomb in THouoToy, 

, ed. Throsby, ii. 316). His 

, , died on 10 Aug. 10.V). 

. in Michaelmas term to the 

.1 ^le, uuil At Christmas was chosen 

r f if that society. To the e.Ynens«8 

ri.^traas festivities, which lasted 

ud of February, he contributed 

l'jU/. 1 luring the same year he waa 

1 mayor of Grimsby, and endeavoured 

rce payment of ship-money ( Cat. State 

', Dom. lt>37 s, i>. -2). On 26 March 

■viH fleeted M.l*. for Grimsby, and 

i-nsuinj,' W Oct. {Li»t* of Me7nl>er» 

/■Ht, Official Retiini. pt. i.) In 

he strenuously asserted the royal 

Up denounced the .Scots pro- 

iis in a -vigrirou* speech {Lnrudowne 

.'|J7 (f), t'. /l"*!, for which, on 26 April 

Icvt 1. he was ordered to be suspended during 

the remainder of the session (Comnu/nf 

Jnuma/ji, ii. 128). Though the order was 

^ .:iiidi-<l on 2 Dec. following (lA. ii. 329), 

- refused to return to the bouse, and 

ipl>-<l a peremptorv summons for his 

<1 ISApnl UM2(."A. ii.533). 

I upon detMare<l bim disabled 

' w writ was issued for 

I (ib. ii. 730). In the 

1: - iiud brought 117 men to 

< - tingham, and ruaed s foot 

r • 111!, own v'f^l ( <'"/. Stnt« Paper; 

I l.n. llL'). AftT takio^pwt in 

ti.^ ....... uf Ed^hiU, be a(l<uided the king 

' to Orfowl, and on 1 Nov. Iftl2 was created 
M. A., being then sergeant-major of t lie array. 
In the next year be took hi.i place in the 
parliament which sat at Oxford ( Wool), Fa»t\ 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 29). On U April llU4 
he was appointed by the king governor of 
Lynn-Regis, Norfolk (Ailiiit. (%irtei;'M\h). 
\a colonel of a foot regiment he fought at 
the battles of Hanbiiry, Brentford, Newark, 
.\therton, Bradford, and Newbury. lie was 
also present at the siegt? of Colchester, wheni 
he was taken prisoner, and his estate conlis- 
cated. After suH'ering a long imprisonment 

I he was allowed to retire to France at the 
endof ll>49, and in March l(!.50wns admitted 
of the king's council ( Vtit. State Paperi, Dum. 
16.50, p. 2.'>). Charles II rewarded bis ser- 
vices by giving him an additional grant of 
arms on 4 Dec. 164'.^, und would have mudo 
him a baronet had he oared for llie honour 
(C'al. Cliirenilon State Papem, ii. 279). Ho 
settled in Holland, where he was active in 
promoting the king's return (K/rrton MS. 
2542, f. 26). In March 1657 he Imugbl at 
Middleburg, as 'commander of the Knglish 
under Ormond and I»rd Wilmot,'athousaiid 
muskets and other arms ( Cnl. ClarmJon 
State Papers, iii. 256 ; Cat. State Papem, 
Dom. Wm-~, pp. 29.S, 340). In July 1659 
he informed Sir Kdward Nichohi-s that he 
bad resided at lioltordam for the past lliren 
years, wholly dependent on the liimpilnlily 
of a ' good woman who had kepi him fnmi 
starving,' and that he could not i|uit the city 
for want of money (I'nl. State Pa/iert, Dom. 
1669-60, p. 22). 'After the Brstoralion he 
was made master of reijueals, with an an- 
nnityofl00/.(i».10<X)-ljj). 496), OnH April 
lt!61 he WHS returned M.P. for( in-al < IriliiMby, 
which he reprcsenteil until bis death on 
lOFeb. 1674-."). Ho won buried al Mannliehl. 
He married as his iwH^ond wife, mi 4 Oct. 
1637, Elizabeth (KXMI WW), daughter .if 
Lieutenant-colonel William .Moleaworlh of 
Great Qrimsbv, bv whom he had an only •nr- 
viving son, ^^ir rresclmville Holli-ii |(|, v. | 
(CBB8Tr.K, H'entmituitrr Atilfi/ llri/iitrrn, p. 
176). He died inteslafe (cf. Ailminutrnliim 
Art Boole, I'. (•.('. 1675, f. lOA). 

When Hollen'a Iiuujmi wa* plumhfrxd hr 
the parliamentarian*, many volume* of hia 
collections jieriiihed ; the remainder hii tviii. 

' trived to have s».'nl over t<i Holland. I'"liid- 
ing it inipoAxible to cimpile lim hialorv of 
Lincolnohire from oucl; ' , 

he dn-w up in lll'iM a< ■ 

family. ' ' •■' ' 
TotuniM ■'< iiK i.i' 

• ncribedbyhUMcIl 
in 16S8 tad \«iX.>, .; 




No. 207, ft-f. A seventh volume, entitled - 
'Trusbut,' and <l»ted 164-2, wag presented to 
the Uritieh Museum in ]Sl*2 by Sir Joseph 
Banks ; it is Additional MS. 6118. A volume 
of Lincolnshire |)edigTee« is Additional MS. 
&&31, and a li«t of Lincolnshire roj-alists is 
conuined in Egerton MS. 2541, fl. 3(52-76. 
His registers of petitions while muster of 
requests (1660-74) are Additional .MSS. .'1759 
and 16632 (cf. Addit. MSS. 156;i2 f. 41, 
23120 f. 87). 

[CoUius's Noble Familieg. p. 71; Thoroton's 
Notliiighnmshiru (Tlirosby), iii. 358-9; W. H. 
Blacks Cat. Ashniol. MSS., Index, p. 80 ; J. de 
Trokelowe's Annales (Ileanie), pp. xii, 275 ; 
Cat. Lanad. M.SS. jii, ii. pp. 74-7 ; Egertou MSS. 
2.'i36 f. 408, 2.550 f. r,\ ; Addit. MS. 6118, f. 859 ; 
Commons' JournaU, i». 468 ; Ciil. StJil* Papers, 
Dom. 1650 p. 271. 1651-2 p. 552, 16.S5-1656 
p. 395. 1657-8 pp. 300, 311; Cal. Clarendon 
Stat* Papora, iii. 391 ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
24489, ff. 308-9.] 0. G. 

H0LLE8, GILBEUT, third Eael op 
Clakb. [See under Holles, John, second 
Eabl of Cr..AUE.] 

HOLLES, JOIIN, first Eabl of Clake 
(1564?- 1637), son of Dcnzil Holies and Elea- 
nor, daughter of Edmund, lord .Sheffield, was 
born Bt flaughton in Nott inghumahire about 
1564 (Collins, UUturiinl CotUetwiu, pp. 80, 
95). He was educated at Cambridge and 
at Gray's Inn, and epi^nl some time at the 
court of Queen Elizabeth as one of her 
gentlemen pensioners (ih. p. 81). Fond of 
adventure. Holies seized every opportunity 
of military service. In lr)88 he served as 
a volunteer against the .Spanish Armada, 
and took part in tlie eipedition to the .■Viores 
in 1C97. lie fought also in Ireland under 
Lord-deputy Fit7;william, by whom he was 
knighted ( 1590), and took part in the war 
against the Turks in Hungary {il>. p. 88 ; 
DOYLK, OJficml Baromuje, i. 393). In 1.590 
II(dle8 ."ucceeded to his family estates in Not- 
tiughainshire, and in the following year mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Stan- 
hope of Shelford, Nottinghamshire (Collins, 
p. 80). On the death of t^ueen Elizabeth he 
retired to the country, jealous of the Scot- 
tish courtiers favoured by the new king, and 
complaining that James had come ' t<i govern 
a people he knew he was not worthy of, and 
then wa.s ruled himself by two beggars and 
a IjBse fellow' (xb. p. 86). When Prince 
Henry was created Prince of Wales, Holles 
was appointed comptroller of his household 
(December 1610), but with the death of the 
prince two years later ' all his favour at 
court vanished, and he lay open and exposed 
to the malice of his enemies. His ambitious 

and quarrelsome disposition had involvml 
him in numerous feuds and lawsuits. In 
Nottinghamshire Holies had a deadly feud 
with his neighbour (ter\ase Markham, in 
which Markham was backed by the Earl of 
Shrewsbury and Holles by Lord Sheffield 
{ih. p. 82 ; cf. Cal. State Paper*, Dom. 16(.i3- 
1610, p. ,")3t<). He intervened in the quarrel 
between Sir Edward Coke and his wife, act- 
ing as ' prime privy councillor ' to Lady Coke, 
and wn« in June 1619 committed for disre- 
spectful conduct before the council in a con- 
troversy with Coke (CoLiJjis, p. 86; Cal. 
State 'Papers, Dom. 1619-23, pp. 63, 27.'), 
316; Court and Timet of Jamet I, ii. 6.S, 
171, 192). Holies was attached to Somerset, 
who praised him as hi.s only faithful friend 
in adversity. This friendship led Holleii to 

?iHestion the justice of Weston's e.Tecutiou 
or Overbury's murder, and for declaring his 
suspicions he was brought before the Star- 
chamber and fined 1,000/. (Spedding, Life 
of Bacon, v. 211 ; Oardixbr, History uf Eng- 
land, ii. Mi), f tn 9 July 1616 Holles wa» 
created Baron Holies of Haugbton, paying 
10,000/. for his new dignity (Collins, p. 87; 
Court nnil Tiviet of James 1, i. 413, 420). 
For a further payment of 5,000/. he wn^, on 
2 Nov. 1624, created Earl of Clare (CoLUX*, 
p. 88). He aimed at office as well aa rank, is 
mentioned in 1617 as a candidate for tli^ 
secretaryship, and, on the fall of Crantield 
in 1624, had hopes of becoming lord tn-a- 
Burer (ib. p. 90 ; Court and TiineM of James /, 
i. 465, ii. 53, 61). But Buckingham wax not 
in favourof the arrangement, nor was Holies 
the kind of man James was likely to favour. 
' Two sorts of men,' explained one of his 
friends, ' King James never had a kindness 
for : those whose hawks and dog» ran a* well 
as his own, and those who were able to .speak 
as much reason as himself (Collin.s, p. 90). 
At the beginning of the reign of Charles I 
Clare showed signs of hostility to Bucking- 
ham. He refused the forced loan levied m 
1626, and supported the claims of the Earl 
of Cxford to the office of high chamberlain 
in opposition to Buckingham's candidate. 
Lord Willoughby (I'A. p. 91 ; Gardiiier, vi. 
150). But he was careful to avoid going to 
ejctremes, and recomraendetl caution and si- 
lence to his son-in-law. Sir Thomas Went- 
worth (Strafford Letters, i. 31). In the de- 
bate on the Petition of Right, Clare acted 
with the middle party in the House of Lords, 
and endeavoured to suggest a compromise^ 
between the demands of the king and thi* 
commons ((tardiskr, vi. 287). In 1 629 Clare 
wa." implicated in the circulation of Sir IJo- 
bert Dudley's paper of advice for the esta- 
. blishmeut of absolute monarchy in England. 




Bod waa iccordiufrly prosecuted in the Star- I 
chamber (ib. vii. liiW; cf. arts. Cotton, Sib ' 
RoBiST BKrc'E, and Uitdlet, Sui Kubebt). ; 
But th«" kinjj spiwd tbe opporliuiity of the ' 
birth of I'rincc Charhw to put a stop to the i 
pnx'rediinpi, anil t'lare was ditimisciHl with 
a reprimand (Ki>hwiiktii, i. App. I'J, ii. 51 ; 
Court and Timf of Charle» I, ii. .%). As he 
jvfuswj to own himself in fault, he wb« put 
out of the comini>>sion of the peace for Not- 
tinghamshire. Subsequently, durinp the 1 
kind's ppopres* in the north of Enpland, 
Plorr came to htm at Kuftord, kisiied his 
hanfl. ftiid bo]Efjri*d liin panlon, but, though pro- I 
.'iwixeea, was not restored to favour 
(1. IM>. He died at Nottingham on 
4 ' 'r! Ii>.'t7, and wa« Interred in the Clare 
«itle in St. Mary's Chun-li there (ih. p. 9fi). 

A deccript ion of Clare's person is pi ven by 
Orr»a«e Holies (lA. p. 95). Holies also adds 
•ome cpecimens of his verses, ' thouffh his 

rtrr wae his worst part,' and states that 
|,.ri » ii.,.i.ii«<.Tint answer to liacon's ' Es- 
••r ' Ills leit^-r-lxMik, from 1598 

lo'l'. ilie llrilishMusetim(Add. MS. 

Jt:;,4»t4 ). I'nrk's edition of Walp<de'» ' Itoyal 
and Noble Authors ' otmtains a rt>monstrance 
•ddruiKd by 1 lolles lo Ix>rd Burghley (25 J une 
15tt"> in defence of his ancestors, on whom 
Bufxhlnv had made rellet-tions (ii. 283-7). 

Clan* left three surviving children : John, 
^ho succeeded him fq. v.;; Deniil, iil^er- 
ward« created Baron Ilollex of fsfield [q. v.] ; 
•nd Eleanor, married to Oliver Fitzwilliara, 
(«rl of Tyrconnel. Another son, Francis, 
wrrtilw!'' ' lion in the Netherlands, 

died in I ' ■ buried In Westminster 

' ' ' - ' ' M r^immui'lerium, i. 1 1 1 ). An 

•\ Aruliella, married in lti25 
. :, .,...,.,.- U efttworth, afterwards Earl of 
StndTurd.and difd in 1()>S1. 

p..i.... I'.ii.,.. ,., liJH tliaiorical Collations 
of t)i of ('itvi'mll!i)i, HolliM, tie., 

\Ti'>" ■•junl <if r»r<l OInre, Instil 

out iiuiir« of th« Holies family, 

by ' l<iit/T!» of Ixird Clare are 

pri'' lx?tii>nt.| C. M. V. 

Hi ^ it UIN, second Eari. ofCi.AnE 

(I'litu-lOtUi), son of John Holies, tirst earl 

of CUn- fq. v.^, waj( bom at Hnnghton, Nol- 

!.'< Jutu> 1595. In the pnrlia- 

iind til" ftr"t two pnrliainelils 

of Cllmrlt-.^ 1, Ii 'i;-.'! I,ord 

Hauirhtiin. np [iljjiltof 

Mr,. ,/, l-,f,i, I-..', lll.'i.lTO). 

I >ii imrried I'.lizulM^th, eldest 

' ' :d Vere of Tilbury 

. rrr«.p. .l»t). .\t 

.J..- >,.-(,.- 11 ,.. ■!--■■ -ill., in 1629 HnughtoM 

*0Ved ■« a Tolunleer under the command of 

lu* iklhor-io-hiw (ib. p. 4-'Stl). li*> Miccscdod 

to the title of Earl of Clare in I Ictober 1637, 
but appears to have I'oiind Ills inheritance 
consiilerttblv encumbered. AVhen the king 
summoned Lira to fullil his feudal service in 
the war against Scotland, he professeil his 
willinpnes.s, but complained that he was im- 
poverished by nine children and a debt of 
9,000/. (21 Feb. 16.^; Cnl. State Paper*, 
I)om. lfi38-9, p. 491 ). Clare was one of the 
six peers charged by the great council in 
September ltJ40to raise a loan, but wiw ei- 
cu,sed on the plea of illness, and took part 
instead in the negotiations with the Scot« 
(Hi'sHwoKiH, iii. I'Miii; Hardwicke, .SYa/« 
Papers, ii. 215, 222, 283). In early life he 
had been intimate with StraH'ord.his brother- 
in-law, and wa« one of the party in the lorda 
which desired some compromise by which 
the earl's life might be saved. He endea- 
vonred in tbe course of the trial to put for- 
ward aninnoi'ent interpretationofStmllord'ti 
■words as r»-ported by Vane (Ui'sHWorth, 
Triai 0/ StrnJfunI, n. 545). (>n the other 
hand, when the lonis and commons quar- 
relled about ecclesiastical attairs in August 
ItWljhe sided with the five popular iieers 
■who protested against the vote of the lords 
(Oahuiner, llittciry of England, x. 16). 
During the civil war 'he was very often of 
both jMirties, and never advantagt<d either' 
{ Life 0/ Colonel Ilutrhiniio/i, ed. lHH5, i. HV5). 
Clare wm so far trusted by the iMpular 
party that the commons nommated iilm for 
lord-lieutenant of the county of Notting- 
ham (Oimmmu Jovnialt, ii. 459). Nevi-rt he- 
less, he followed the king to York, signed 
the engagement of 13 June 1642 promis- 
ing to defend the king's person and pre- 
rogative, iind the declaration of 15 June 
protesting tliiit Charles hail no "intention of 
milking war on the parliament (Cuikrjidon, 
Hebelliiin, v. .'(42, .'I46i. Clare then obtained 
the king's leave to go to London to Inok 
after his private aflairs, and took his seat in 
the House of Lords a;;aiu. During his stay 
with the parliament, says Clarendon, h» 
' never concurred in any malicious coiinnvl 
against the king, but was looked upon as a 
man not only firm to the urinciples of mo- 
narchy, but of duty to tne ]>erson of tbo 
king. He was a man of honour and of cou- 
rage, and would have b«'en au excellent per- 
son if his heart hiid nut Is'en set too much 
upon the keeping and improving his wf alii ' 
(lA. vii. 1h7). When the peace proposition* 
brought forwar<l by thi> lords In .Vugust 

164.'twere reje<-ted by th'- '■ — tin.l the 

king's succes»i'» seemed I" .ale his 

spe<'<ly triumph, Clare d.-. .; . ■.. parlia- 
ment, and mB<le his way to (ixfor.l llMriW 
Joumitn.w. 17H: Cr.AiiKXiloX, \li. 174V Th» 


Umb» lie UNlkl UAl 

>«fiH liwk.* •ad lift 

iMM of tll« 

til l'>k^ Until' Jour- 


I frc>tu Ills 


la «||iil« uf itM nrpr«t«d 

^ ««• »ot, kowvver, 

n'b,. H.H4Muf Lunla 

.■p.7. IOt»»; 

'■tMwfonk he 

■"**i». Al llii» Ki>- 

uio i»f (li«> coiin- 

^ <um uf the 

.../r. I. M!>3). 

.. ttmnt 

. umi- 

titnt ii^l 'i i<kM. I^MVv 0. MkI was 

1 VI.. . 1...., !. \ ■••■n>;liiim. 

<1 liiiii, 

v^».'< HII 



<ki'ii'at<'<l in 

!»•<•« who 

>l tlu- y&T- 

atlliri^ iif a 

-I III Hlf*.'. he 

1 nivi'r»iii(f lA)rd 

I I imhlic iic- 

■u for the im- 

! wliich was 

N V. ItW.x. He 

1 iii'il Uruei', 

'fThiiresby, i 

1 . : Itobert, wirl 

.1. 0«"--l"ll)'8 

uou* \>( tho Nobla 

' v.' , 1782; Cla- 

■«l. MiiorBV ; 

■ I in iho I'air- 

■>>■> rttnUhiril Lutluru.] 

C. H. K 

vUiit.'-iril), bora on 9 Jan. 16«l-2, 
tHeelilesc son of Gilbert Holies, third earl of 
ClkK [sHf uDd»r HoLLES, Jons, second Eabl 
OF ClaREj. Like hi« father, he was a staunch 
protestAnt ai>d whig. To him, when Lord 
llati^bton, l>rj'den dedicated his play, * The 
Spanish Friar' ( 1681 ), saving that he recom- 
mended ' a Prolestaut play to a Protestant 
patron '(/W^i'oo/ HVirAj<,e<f. Christie, p. xliv). 
On 14 Jan. lt.W'*-y he was returned to the 
CouTention parliament as mnmber for Not- 
liuiihamshlre, but on his father's death, two 
da\ s later, he was called to the upper house 
as Karl i)f Clare. He took an active part in 
promoting the accession of William and 
Slury (KESKETT.Iluit. of En(/tnnil,'m.'>i:i-l), 
was made gentleman of the bedchamber to 
the king on 14 Feb. U588-y, and acted as 
bt'arer of the queen's sceptre with the cross 
at the coronation on 11 April following. In _ 
March of the same year he became lord* 
lieutenant of Middlesex, and in June gava^ 
orders for a strict search to be made for the 
arms and horses of papists (Litthell, Bnef 
ftelntion, 1H57, i. M'J, otil ). In February | 
11)89-90 he married Lady Margaret Caven- 
dish, thinl daughter and coheiresa of Henry, 
second duke of Newca-stle (ib. ii. 13). The 
duke, at his death in July 1691, left liimthe 
bulk of his e.state (ib. ii. 270). His brothers- 
in-law, the I'^nrls of Tlmnet and Montague, 
disputed the will, but Holies eventuallj' 
iriuuipbi'd in the law courts {ib. iii. 208, 
-~'2). With Lortl Tluinet he fought a duel 
on the night of \'.\ .May 1692, in which both 
were wounded (ib. ii. 451 ). In October 
1691 Holies asked the king to create him 
Duke of Newcastle. Tlie king merely pro- 
mised to consider the rwjuest, wheieujion 
Holies immeiliatiOy resigned his offices., and 
retired to his sent at Welbeck in Notting- 
hamshire {ib. ii. .'JOl ). In January 1693-4 
he succeeded to the estates of his kinsman, 
Denzil, third lord Holies of Ifield(i6. iii. 259). 
Holies was now one of the richest and 
most powerful men in the kingdom. The 
king promised to make him Duke of Clarence 
{ib. iii. 300). It was, however, pointed out 
that I he title of Clarence had always l>een 
appropriated to princes of the blood, and 
that of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was therefore 
substituted, 14 .May 1694. To compensate 
him for the disappointment, he was promised 
the next tiarter tiiat should full vacant. He 
was also made high steward of Fast lletford, 
lonl-lieutenant of Nottinghamshire (4 June 
1694), and a commis-siouer of Greenwich 
Hospital (20 Feb. 169.5). In the latter year, 
when William III made his progress after 
his return from the Netherlands, Holies met 



him on 30 Oct. «l T^-'-*-' i-rr^.'. 
from Welbeck. »2id*'i=:i'"3:'aj--T -a--i-; 
him at AVelbeck tor :■■ :• itTi. 
colonel of the XntrVf*-*— i.- '-^ t^^ jir^r -c 
militia in ISfT. K.*j- ic 31' >ti.T I».«»r. j.iri- 
lieutenant of th* E»r: IL£zr :' Y crv —^ 
on 11 Aufr. followlnr. r-r-«-tri .f Si«-nr-j:»i 
Forest on 23 March l'i<-'.»iii -.c 1 A ar -r "-i«T 
eame year ioremcir -jf 11"^ 'Jz. ii"' Mkri 
1705 he wag app>int*«i lc«ri JcItt **»!. ar 
office which he di9charz»:^ wi:! -^7^-LT .t*r:i:i, 
and exact ne%' I BrKyEl.O»rn Trn^.'JrL^rir.^ 
vi. 41 ). He was plao>d ;•:; tiir p;.-.::.:!. 
three dars lattr. H- wai a^;- l:iri-ll-w- 
tenant of the Nor.h ILiiru: :f Y-.riii-^ 
(14 April 1705 1, acom=Liii£:citr f:.T :br ;^:(l 
with Nx)tland ( 10 April ir<>; ■, warirc iii 
chief ju£tic« in erre (^ iLt r ra] f -.■rei*.* :.•". rti 
of Trent (9 May 171 1 •. hist's'^wari -f L't- 
chester, and lord-li-ut^riiant :f Midilesr-i 
(5 July 1711 1. IIolIt4 wa» prwn-i: whrs Lt 
Gulscard made his murdrrous ^t'ack 'Vn Har- 
lev. d March 1710-11 iSwirr. JT&rit*. *i 
Scott, 1824. t.:M.3,»4*) I. Hedl*don l-OJi^j 
1711, fromtheelfecttof a fall fram hiih'.-r*e 
while huntins at Welbeck. and wa* b"arj*^ 
in Westminister Abbey on 9 Aug.. wherv. in 
17:^3, his daughter irrected an enormc*:^ 
monument to hi« memory iChestee. WVf- 
mtJiAter Abbry Rtitvirrt. p. 27i i. His wife 
died on 24 I>ec. 171-5. leaving an only daugh- 
ter, Henrietta-CaTendinh 1 1693-I7.>5i. who 
was married, on 31 <jct. 171.3. to Edward 
Harley, afterwards second earl of Oxford 
and Mortimer ^q. r." i ih. p. :J'*9 1. The daugh- 
ter would have been the ' riche«i h-iress in 
Europe' had not Holies endoweti Lis neph'rw. 
Thomas Pelham-Holles. afterwards Dulce of 
Newcastle (1693-176*1 '<\. v.'. with the 
greater part of his rast possessions (Swift, 
1. 192, ii. 315, 411, xii. 2*5 1. 

In person Holies is described as a * black, 
ruddy-complexioned man ' i Mackt, ytem'An, 
p. 35). Though avaricious and very tenacious 
of what he considerwl to be his rights, be 
was not incapable ofgenerous act ions. Letters 
of Holies will be found in British Museum 
Additional MSS. 29.5G4 and :i30*4. 

His portrait bv Kneller has been engraved 
by K. White. 

[Doyle's Official BarDiu>ge.ii. 560-1 : CoUins's 
Noble Families, pp. 174. 178-84 ; Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Granger, ii. 25-6.] G. G. 

OF Newcastle (l<j9;J-17<}><'). See I'ei.ham." 

(1471 P-1542), lord mayor of I^ondon, was a 
•on of William Holies, citizen and baker of 
London. He was admitted to the freedom of 
the Mercers' Company on 17 .Sept. 1499, and 
became master of the company in 1538. He 

Tiif t^-;';i-i •-ii-rif :f Li-Tiiss ia 1-327. br-iag 
:-ii >rri S-T "iit ••-iT-Ti .T-.t'-ry .-.i :i* city, hi 
r:'_i*fcj-itr iuLT-jif tfi-:s iiTciiu^ei by the kcd 
2a.T T .1. :'. J|j.rii l-'cS Lr wis el«iet*d 
»_>-r=ir ■/. Ala;*';* wtrL ^■■m whie2: he 
wkr *Tu:.^lx*r>i V.' Iir'.tt£ ^vT:^ •:«» 27 Aa£. 
1M4. Hr Tii 's:zlz--\^i It Hrrry VIII m 
1 -jiS.. ti£ ••id.air li'ri =.*yc'r >2 S*. Eidwv j's 
ity. l-l- ■-•f- IMfK I».iizj Lis may^ralry he 
■t.:.irf-. "ir a. •'.r il-'.i :•:• W cleassed i Slt-w, 
.Sfc—T •;' Z.JTS'JM. Vifi. p. l* '. C»n 3 Jan. 
l-"-U«-*'.i i'^ r»-^i-*c ia rrea: s-tate Anne of 
'llTTrr, -.c \rfT iray 'iLri'iiii ;h- city, before 
L-r =.trri.fcrt T.-L HrTiry VI O '• Bakeb, 
*.'nrv.i>. }*«t:i. HiriTT VIIL p. .50 1. On 
4 Fr'.'. U '.'lir!; kZii *be a] irrs&en accompanied 
tLr kir.jkii ;jr*n by water f' Westminster 
■cf. Hiii, f'Kr-jtuf^lf'.X^f.K p. *.37t. HoUee 
wtT i wi»l-iT aserchtn'. and besides his 
1: -^-rr ::. Bii-r.'-^is:a*-e Str—t. somewhat west 
'.i >.z Tl. . IL-L* <'jr*»Jiam"» dwelling, wher* he 
k-^-p- il' aiay'rai^y. aid anorhrr in the parish 
cf :?:. Mari-le-Bow. was p:«sess«d of several 
i^ii- r* la lK-rbv?hi:v. Nofiinchamshire, and 
:-:lr.- ; i::rles • JSTnY. M\u. Add. 61 1 s.pp. 4»<i- 
4>r. /»9. /•- m. I He als-j wa» the owner of 
'L1e=.e::t'- Inn in thr Strand ( Hattox, Sew 
Jlf,' /I/uttdon. 1 70?. p. 'J4»»). He died at his 
h: 1^ in I»nd>n on 13 <.»ct. 1.542. and was 
h'^iti-ri in St. lieWn'f. BUhopszate, where a 
monum-nt formerly stood to hU memory in 
the middle '.>{ the north aisle. Bv his will, 
da:^ 25 Dec. 1.541. and proved in P. C. C. 
1 » Dec. l.'>42 1 Spert. 14 1. he bequeathed 200/. 
to the mayor and aldermen of Coventry to 
mak^ a new cross for that city, and other 
beque!^•s to the Company of Mercers and the 
church of .St. Helen .■-. 

Hollrs married Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Sco[>rham. by whom he had three sons, 
Thomas, William, and Francis, and two 
daughters, .Anna and Joanna. By his second 
son. William, he became the ancestor of the 
earbi of Clare and the dukes of Newcastle. 
Lady Holies died on 13 March l.>43. and was 
buried in .St. Helen's. By her will she en- 
dowed six almshouses for that parish, leaving 
the care of their erection to her executor. Sir 
.\ndrew Judd. 

[Cox's .\nDHls of St. Hvlen's, Bishopsgale, 
1876. pp. 234-40, 249. 25^) ». ; Stow'g Survey of 
LoDilon; Corporation Hecopiis ; Orridge's Citizens 
of London and their Rulers.] C. W-h. 

HOLLIDAY, JOHN (17:10 P-1801), 
author, was admitted a student of Lincoln's 
Inn on •"> May 1759 and was called to the bar 
on 23 .\prii 1771. He had an extensivo 
practice as a conveyancer, was a fellow of 
the Royal Society, and an active meinber of 
the Society of Arts. Hollidav died at his 
house in Great Ormonde Street, l^ondun, on 



9 March 1801, aped 71. A fine portrait of 
him, bv Komney, ia in the possesion of Lord 
Cliurstonat Lupton House, Brixham. lloUi- 
day married the daiifthterof Mr. Harrisoti of 
Dilhorne Hall, Staffordshire, an nftomer- 
at-Uw, bv whom he had an only child Eliia 
Lydia, wlio marrietl on 'J June 1791 Francis 
Huller-Yarde, M.P. for Totnes, afterwards 
Sir Francis Buller-Yanle, bart., and died on 
1 Nov. 1851, aiered 77. Holliday is said 
to have left in manuscript a tninshition of 
the first eight books of \ irjjil in hexameter 
verse, and a valuable collection of oonvevan- 
cinfT precedents. He was the author of^ the 
sliplit memoir of Owen Salusbury Brerelon 
[q. v.], which apj>eared in the IVHli vol.of the 
' Transactions <if the Siiciety of Arts ' (pp. iv- 
vii), and of some lines on a ' Favourite Xar- 
folk Bantam ' in the ' Gentleman's Majraiine ' 
for 1800 (vol. Ixx. pt. ii. pp. 1081-2). He also 
published : 1. 'The Life of I.,ord Mansfield,' 
London, 1797, 4to. '2. ' Monody on the Death 
of a Friend ' rThoma.s Gilbert of Cotton, Staf- 
fordshire, M.T.], anon., 1798. 3. 'The British 
Ottlt, II Poem, dedicated to Horatio, Lord Xel- 
8on, in grateful remembrance of bis Lordship't 
signal Victory near the mouth of the Nile,' 
anon., London, 1800, 4to. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anectloles, 
238; flent. Mag. 1*91 pt. i 
pp 283-4, 1831 pt. ii. 070 

ix. l«4-5. 203-4. 
p. 582. 1801 pt. i. 
Fci«ter'» Peeragn, 

1883, s.n. Chnretcin, p. 184; Lincoln's Inn Re- 
gisters; Brit. Mus. Cut.) G. F. R. B. 

lf!12), pliVKician, born in Yorkshire in or 
hIkiui l.^.'it!, matriculated at Queen's College, 
O.xford, in 167.3, when he wag a^ed 17, and 
was admitted B..\. on 7 Feb. l.'i74-5 {Ojf. 
I'nii: Kfff., Oxf. Hist. Soc., ii.ii. f>6, iii. 49). 
Itenouncinp protestantism, he withdrew to 
France, and was, 14 May 1579, received into 
the English College of Douay, then tempo- 
rarily removed to Rheims. (Jn 21 Aug. of 
the same year he left the college to proceed 
on foot to I'ome, in company with five other 
students, who were admitted into the Eng- 
lish College there in the following October. 
Hollings, however, does not appear to have 
become a member of the college, though he 
certainly ri-sideil there for several years, and 
became an intimate friend of Pits the bio- 
gra]>her. .\n English spy, in his report to 
the government, stated that Hollings was 
one of the pope's scholars in the college in 
1581 (Hecorih nf the Enylixh CathoUa, i. 
Z'>9). From Itnme he proceeded to Ingol- 
stadt in Bavaria, when he was created M.D. 
and upiKiiiited profes.Hor of medicine. He 
■was ' highly venerated for his great know- 
lege, and the success he obtained in that 
faculty ' ( WoOB, Athenee Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 

114). He died at IngoUtadi on 20 March 

His works, all of which were pTinti.d at 
IngoUtadt, are: 1. ' De Chvlo«i Disputatio,' 
1.592, 8vo. 2. • Dm SaluLri StudiostTum 
Victu,' 1602, 8vo. 8. 'Theses de Medicina.' 
4. • Poemata Varia,' 8vo. 5. ' Urntiones ct 
Epistolrc,' 8vo. 6. ' -Medicamentorum (Eco- 
nomia nova, seu Nova Medicamentorum in 
Classes distribuendor. ratio,' 1610 and l6lo, 
8vo. 7. 'Ad Epistolam quaiulam i\ Martino 
Rulando, Medico Ca-^ario, de La|>ide Beiour ; 
et Fomite Luis Un^ariie,' Kill. 8vo. 

[Pits, De .-Vngl. .'^cripl. p. 81.5; Dodd's Chorob 
Hist. ii. 430; Gillows Diet. Engl. Gnh. ; Re- 
cords of the English Catholics, i. 183, 158.] 

T. C. 

HOLUNGS, J< )HN, M.D. ( 1683:--1 7:i9), 

Shysician, burn about 1(J83, was the son of 
ohn Hollings, M.D., of Shrewsbury, and 
formerly fellow of Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge. After attending Shrewsbury gram- 
mar school, he entered Magdalene College as. 
a pensioner on 27 March 1 700, ami proceeded 
M.B. in 1705 and M.D. in 1710 {College 
Hrffinfer^. He was admitted a candidate of 
the Hoyal College of Physicians on 2."i June 
1725, and a fellow on 25 June 1726, having 
on 16 -March previously been elected F.R.S. 
(Thomson, Hitt. of Jioi/. fine. Append, iv. 
p. xxxvii). He rose to be physician-general 
to the armv and phvsician in ordinan' to the 
king. He died in Pall .Mall on 10 .Mav 1739 
(Probate Aet liooK; P. C. C, 17:i9 ;" G'«)/. 
Mnff. it. 272). By his wife Jane he had a 
son, John Hollings, M.D., who die«l on 
28 IW. 17.S9 ( dent. Ma;/, ix. m\ ). and two 
daughters, Jlrs. Champernowue and Mar- 

faret (will in P. C, C. lOtj, Henchman). 
[oUings's reputation for classical scholar- 
ship and general culture was considerable. 
His only publication was the Hnrveian om- 
I tion for 1734, entitled 'Status Hiimun:e 
1 NatUTTC expositus in l>ratione coram Medicia 
1 Londinensibus habita,' 4to, London, 17.'U, of 
which an English translation appeared the 
same year. 
I [Munk'sColl. of Phvs. 1878, ii. 94.] G. U. 
1701), contnirersiftlist, was bom in Lincoln- 
shire, of presbyterian parentage, about Ui.'li). 
On 5 Feb. l(i54-5 he entered ICmmanuel 
College, (.'ambridgi?, as a sizar, and proci-eded 
M.A. in 1662 and D.D.-«n 1684 (('..//ej/e 
I Jifffitffr). In 1662, to cite his own narra- 
tive in his ' Second Defence ' (p. 51 ). he was 
ordained by Sander>on, bishop of Lincoln. 
[ In 1663 he was licensed by .'Sheldon, bl^liop 
of London, (o a lectureship in London ii|»in 
the personal recommendation of l>oIbeii,Hrrh- 
bishop of York, and acted in that capacity 





until 18 April 167^, when he became vicar ' 
of West iiam, Essex (Xrwcoitrt, Keper- 
torium, ii. 2((5 ). At Wusi Haul ho wrote four 
tracts in def'^nce of the church, of which one 
is entitled ' A Modest Plea for the Church of 
England,' i?vo, London, 1676, together with 
' A full and true Account of the Penitence 
of Jolm Marketiuan during his imprison- 
Tuent in Chelmsford Gaol for murthering his 
■wife ... to which is prefixed a Sermon 
|)r«^l^ht.^d before him . . . immediately before 
liis execution," 4to, London, 1680. llolling- 
wortli resigned West Ham in lt)«2 to become 
«:urate to James Adeni, incumbent of St. 
Botolph, Aldgate, and, on the latter's 'pri- 
%'ate re.signation,' obtained the great seal for 
the incuml>ency and enjoyed it several years 
until ejected latter January- 1093) by course 
of law ot the suit of Samuel Brewster, the 
improjiriator (I'A. i. 917). On i'2 Jan. 1690 
be wa* admitted to the vicarage of ChigwoU, 
E8>H<x (I'A. ii. 143). 

When the controversy upon the authorship 
of the ' EiKuy /ScicriAur^,' Occasioned by An- 
thony Walker's assertion that the book was 
not written by Charles I but by John Gauden 
[q. v.], broke out in 1691, Hollingworth 
loudly proclaimed his intention of defending 
the king's claim and character with his last 
breath. Accordingly he made a savage attack 
upon Walker in ' A i>efence of King Charles 1 
. . . ' 4to, London, IB9l*, of which two other 
editions, with slightly ditlerent title-pages, 
«p|>eared during the same year. Walker, 
who was dying, answered lloUingworth in 
' A True Account of the Author of a Book 
intituled EIkuv /Sao-iXutij,' but by May 1092 
the latter was ready with another attack 
called ' Dr. Hollingworth's Kefence of King 
Charles the First's Holy and Divine Book . . .' 
4to, London, 1092. In his first pamphlet he 
took also to task a republican pamphleteer 
who, under the name of General Ludlow, 
bad compared the tyranny of Charles I with 
tLal of James II in ' A Letter ... to Sir 
ErdwardJ Sfeymoor] . . .' 4to, Amsterdam, 
1691. • Ludlow,' however, pnjved more than 
• match for HoUing^vorth in the quantity 
and quality of his abuse. In his ' Letter 
to Dr. Hollingworth defending his former 
Letter to Sir E. S.," 4to, Amsterdam, 1692, 
be taunted Hollingworth with )>eing ' an 
bungr\- Levite,' who, in the hope of being 
rvwaraeil with high preferment, was defend- 
ing a cause which he had formerly reviled. 
Hollingworth, greatly exasi)erateJ, replied 
in ' A fVcond iK'fence of King Charles I," 
4to, Lfjndon, 1692. This called forth another 
rejoinder from ' Ludh)W,' entitled ' Ludlow 
no Lyar, or a Detection of Dr. Holling- 
worili's Disingenuity in hia Second Defence,' 

&c., 4to, Amsterdam, 1092, to wluch is pre- 
fixed a letter purjiorting to ho. written by one 
Joseph Wilson of (Jreat Yarmouth to the 
notorious Luke .Milbourne, who U roundly 
charged with acting as * assistant to Dr. 
Hollingworth in his mighty undertakings.' 
Hollingworth relnrted in 'The Character of 
King Charles I, from the Declaration of Mr. 
A. Henderson . . . upon his Death-bed; with 
u further I^fence ot the King's Holy Book 
. . . with a Defence of the King from the 
Irish Uebellion,' 4to, London, 1692. Un the 
anniversary of Charles I's execution in the 
following year he preached a violent sermon 
at St. Botolph, published as ' The Death of 
King Charles I proved a down-right Mm> 
der, with the aggravations of it. . . . To 
which are added some just liotlections upon 
some late Papers concerning that King's 
Book,' 4to, London, 1693, and, in dedicating 
it to his parishioners, again assails • Ludlow.' 
His antagonist replied for the last time in 
'Truth brought to Light ; or the Gross For- 
geries of Dr. Hollingworth . . . detected,' 4to, 
Amsterdam, 1693. In fulfilment of a promise 
made in the postscript to his ' Second De- 
fence,' Hollingworth shortly afterwards ' re- 
published for the publick good ' Edward 
Symmons's ' \'iudication of King Charles I,' 
Hvo, London, 1693. Thus ended a not un- 
profitable controversy, as much fresh and 
^ curious evidence had been produced on both 

Another anonymous writer replied to Hol- 
lingworth in ' The PluinDealer. An Essay,' 
•Vc, 4to, London, 1092, and a.s late as 1723 
Benjamin Bennet [q. v.] revived the contro- 
versy by his ' Defence or the Memorial of the 
Keformation . . . and a Detection of the For- 
geries publish'd by Dr. Hollingworth con- 
cerning Mr. Henderson's Itecantation,' &c, 
Svo, Loudon. 

Hollingworth died at Chigwell in the 
autumn of 1701, his estate being adminis- 
tered to on 28 Oct. of t hat year by his widow 
Margaret (.,-l(/mi'«M/r(i/(i//i Act Book, P. C. C. 
1701, f. 177 i). From an anecdote related 
in ' lieliquiie Buxteriante' (1696), pt. iii. p. 
180, it would seem that his cliAncter wu 
far frr)m estimable. 

[Cole's Athens Cantabr. (Addit. MS. 6871, 
f. 78) ; sec art. tiicoKM, John] G. G. 

HOLLINS, JOHN 1 1798-1855), painter 
and associate of the Royal Academy, bom 
in Birmingham, 1 June 1798, was the son of 
a painter in that town. He showed an early 
devotion to art, and in 1819 sent two por- 
traits to theexhibition of the Royal Academy, 
and three more in 1821. In 1822 he removed 
to London. From 1825 to 1827 he was in 
I Italy. On his return he resumed practice 



in London, and b«c«n»< a frmiient exiiibiuir 
at the Royal Academj and the BritUh In- 
stitution. Beeid«« portraits be painted na- 
meroiu historical TOl>)ect8 from the works of 
Shakespeare, Goethe, and other writers. Later 
in life be applied himiielf to landscapes and 
figure subjects. He was successful in his 
colour and grrouping, and his portraits were 
considered good liken<fsses. In 184i be was 
elected an associate of the Koral .\cademT. 
Hollins paintrtl a picture (engraved by J. II. 
Robin8<in) called ' \ Consultation previous 
to an .\erittl ^'oyage fp)m London to Weil- 
burg in Nassau on Xovemb»T 7th, 1836,' in 
which he introduced portraits of Messrs. NV. 
I'ri.l>-aux, W. M. James, T. Monck Mason, 
l.')inrk"8 Green, the aeronaut, Robert Ilollond, 
M.P. for Ila-Uings from 1837 to 18.')2. and 
himself. In 1864 be painted and exhibited 
(in conjunction with F. R. I.«e, R.A. ) a pic- 
ture called ' Siilmon Fishing on the Awe,' 
in which he introduced portraits of several 
noted persons ut the time. In the National 
Portrait ( iallery tht-re is a portrait of Lord 
Tenterdeii, copied bv Hollins from a ptirtrait 
by W. Owen. Hollins died unmarried in 
Pieruers Street, 7 March 1865. William and 
Peter Hollins [see under Hoixixu, Wil- 
liam] were his cousins. 

[K«d)n»Ti>'» Diet, of Artists; Ottlev* Diet, of 
P«inter»i; Royivl Ac-.ulemv Cnlaloguirs ] L. C 

HOLLINS, WILLIA.M (1754-1843), 
architect and sculptor, bom in 1764, settled 
early in life at Birmingham. He was self- 
educated, and his own instructor in art. A 
close study of Vitruvius led him to practise 
architecture. He had a strong predilection 
for the simple classical style. .\s an architect 
he obtained much employment in Birming- 
ham, and designed the older portion of the 
library, the public offices, and the prison. He 
also restored llundswortli parish cnurch, and 
executed considerable alterations and addi- 
tions to the Earl of Shrewsbury's house at 
Alton Towers. He declined an offer toenter j 
the service of the empress of Russia at St. I 
Petersburg, but made the plans for the roynl i 
mint in that city. Hollins was also distin- 
guished as a sculptor, and exhibited some 
busts and other works at the Hoyal .Vcademy. 
He executed many mural monuments. lie i 
devoted several years' study to a code of 
systematif rules for the formation of the ' 
capital letters in the Roman alphabet, based 
on mathematical rules. These he embodied 
in a work entitled ' The British Standard of I 
the Capital I>.'tters contained in the Roman 
Alphabet.' Hollins died nt his house in Great 
HamptonStreet, Birmingham, in 1843, in his ' 
eightieth year. He left a daughter, Mrs. 
Bown, who died in January 1891. 

Houjss, Peteb (1800-1886), sculptor, 
elder ion of the above, bom in 1800 in his 
&ther'» house in Birmingham, received his 
education as a sculptor fnun his father, and 
took lessons in drawing from John Vincent 
Barber [see under B.^rbbr. Joseph^. He 
assisted aU father in many of his worlcs, in- 
cluding tho<*e at Alton Towers. He worked 
for a short time in Chantrey's studio. About 
1»28 Hollins removed to I/:indon, and settled 
in Old Bond Street. He obtained many 
commissions, and his work was much ad- 
mired. .\t the I^yal .\ca<lemy he fre- 
quently exhibited busts, allegorical groups, 
and historical subjects. On the death of liis 
£ither he returned to Birmingham, and re- 
stored the tower front of St. Philip's Church 
there in his father's memory. lie executed 
many important works for the town, includ- 
ing the statues of Sir Robert Peel and Sir 
Rowland Hill, and the busts of David Cox, 
Recorder Hill, and William Scholefield in the 
Art (iallery. There are fine monuments exe- 
cuted by him in Malvern Priory Church, 
Lichfield Cathedral, and Weston Church, 
Shropshire. Hollins was a devoted friend 
and member of the Society of Artists in 
Birmingham through all its vicissitudes, and 
was one of its vice-presidents. He died in 
Great Hampton Street, Birmingham, on 
16 .\ug. I88b. Hollins wa.s well known and 
universally popular in Birmingham. A por- 
trait of him byW. T. Roden waspurchasea by 
subscription and placed in the Art Gallery. 
[Art Union, 1843, p. 17; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Birmmgham Daily Post. 18 Aug. 1886; 
Roj-al Aeademv Cataloguec; information from 
Mr. Cbaries K«dclTffe.] L C. 

WORTH, r.RHAlUt (ia07-iaW), divine, 
son of Francis Hollinworth and Mariniret 
Wharmby his wife, born at .Manchester in 
1007, was baptised on 15 Nov. that year. He 
was educated at the Manchester grammar 
school and Magdalene College, Caniliridgi', 
graduating B.A. in 1626-7, and M.A. in U'>30. 
On his ordination about the lotter date he be- 
came curate of Middleton, near Manchester, 
under the learned AMias Assheton, and while 
there, in 1631, wrote on original 8'ui,in answer 
to a catholic priest who had interfered in a 
dispute Ix't ween two of the fellows of the col- 
legiate chiirchat'JWOKTH, 
Mancunieiii>ui,\i. 114). At the consecration of 
Sacred Trinity Chapel in Salford, on 20 May 
1635, he preached the sermon, and after the 
resignation of Thomas Case [q. v.], who held 
the living for a short lime, he was appointed 
ministerof thecbapel. Hewasinthat position 
in 1636, and until a short time before 1649, 
holding the preferment along with offices at 




tfa« Mainchester CoUegUte Church. In 1&4:^ 
he is styled chaplain of the ooUesiute church, 
and in the ^me rear »uceeeded Mr. Bouru 
in the fellowship of the SKme establishment. 
DuriniL' the susjiension of the corporate bodv 
bv The parliament be otticiated, along witn 
Richard Heyriek, the warden [q. vX as a 
' minister,' and dropped hia title of ' fellow,' 
although the college was not actually dis- 
solved until lUijO. The "protestation 'of the 
people of Salford in 1642 was taken before him 
aa minister of the town. In ltU4 he i.s named 
in an ordinance of parliament for ordaining 
minist<<rs in Lancashire. During the pest ilenc«- 
which visited Manche,«ler in ItUo belaboured 
most assidumisly among the people, his duties 
being increased through Meyrick's absence in 
London at the a&<embly of divines. 

H«was at this time an unbending presby- 
f-rian, strongly opposcfl to the congregational 
system, which had some able advocates in 
and about Mitnchester. He instituted a 
weekly lecture against the congregationalists, 
and became involved in a severe literary 
controversy with them. In 1646 he pub- 
liahed 'An P^xaminatioM of SimJry Scrip- 
ture* alleadged by our Hrethren in defence of 
some particulars of their Church-wav.' To 
this S. Eaton [q. v.] and T. Taylor replied, 
and HoIIinworth answered them in ' Certain 
(Jueres modestly though plainly propounded 
to such Hi affect the Conjrregaf ional-way, and 
specially to Ma.*ter Samuel Raton and Master 
Timothy Taylor," 1640. The two latter re- 
plied again, and HoIIinworth put forth a 
* Kejoynilcr,' 164". Some intere.-<ting parti- 
culars of this controversy are contained in 
Edwards's ' Gangracna,' 1646, pt. iii. 67, 166. 
By the exertions of lleyrick and HoIIinworth 
and their friends the presbyteriau discipline 
waa established in Lancashire by an ordi- 
nance of parliament dated -2 (Jet. 1646, and 
the fintt meeting was held in the following 
month at Pre-ston. Tlie party had to stand 
on their defence against continued attacks, 
and HoIIinworth readily took up his i>osition 
as a leader, ever 'acute and prudent,' as 
Newcome called him. Ilis name is the second 
of those appende<l to the ' Harmonious Con- 
««!Ut'of the Lancashire ministers with the 
mini»ters of London, in 164H, in which tole- 
ration is strongly condemned. He evidently 
assisted in prepsring the Lancashire answer 
to the ' .Agreement of the People,' 1649. In 
1649, also, he wrote a jiopular work in favour 
of the presbyterian MSlem, entitled 'The 
Main Points of Church Ooveruraent and Dis- 
cipline plainly and mo<le»tly handled by wav 
of question and answer,' linio, pp. 58. The 
short introiiuctory epistle was signed by Chris- 
tophrr Lo^e 'q. v."' After tlie battle of Wor- 

cester (September 1661 ) HolIinwoHh was one 
of the Lancashire ministers who were arrested 
on a charge of being engaged in Ix)ve'8 plot 
against the government. He wa* released 
after a short imprisonment and returned to 
Manchester, where he resumed his Inlxiurs, 
stiU denouncing all opponents of presbyt^- 
rian rule. .Martindale credits him with writ- 
ing 'An Exercitalion concerning l^surped 
Powers,' 1660, which has also been as8ignt<d 
to Charles Herle q. v.J, but there can be Uttle 
doubt that EdwanI (lee (1613-166^)) [q. v.] 

was the author. HoIIinworth was a 


nent figure at a meeting held at Warrington 
to consider the question of taking the oath 
called the Engagement, requiring the people 
to be faithful to the Commonwealth ( Mar- 
TINBAu:, Diary, p. 93). In the Mauche.ster 
dassis he generally acted as moderator during 
Hevrick's absence. He was named in the 
parliamenturv- ordinance of 2J> .\ug. 1604 as 
a commissioner for ejecting scandalous and 
ignorant ministers and scboolmasters in Lan- 
cashire. When Humphrey Chetham drew 
up his will for the foundation of the public 
library known by his name, he nominated 
HoIIinworth one of his feoffees. In Iti63 
HoIIinworth published ' The CatechiM Cate- 
chised, or an Examination of an Anabap- 
tisticoll Catechism. . . . Also some observa- 
tions . . . concerning the . . . present Roman 
Church and Religion.' In Iti66 appeared 
another little hook from his pen, 'The Holy 
(Jhost on the Bench, other Spirits at the 
Barre ; or the Judgement of the Holy Spirit 
of ttod uixin the Spirit of the Timesj' limo. 
.\ secouil edition is dated 1657. 

He was interested in the history of hia 
native parish, and left in manuscript a volume 
of historical notes entitled ' Maneuniensis,' 
which still exists in the Chetham Library. 
It was printed in 1839 by W. Willis. The 
Chetham Society have long ha in contemd- 
plation the preparation of a more correct 

He died suddenly on 3 Nov. 1656, aged 49, 
and was buried in Manchester Collegiate 
Church, where his wife, Margaret, had been 
interred two years l)efore. At a meeting of 
the Manchester classis held on the same day 
it was agreed that a fast should be observed at 
Manchester ' upon the occasion,' and Edward 
Gee and John Tilsley were asked to preach. 

[Hibljort Wiirc'i Mnm-hester ruandolions j 
Ramm's Manuscripts in Cbetlmm Litiniry ; New- 
come's AiitobioRraphv (Chethiim S<k'.) ; Ear- 
wakcr'f. Mawhexter Court Left Kooonl*. iii. IHU ; 
Ivarwakor'ti Eiist Ch<"ahirc. ii.29 ; Pal/itirm .Note- 
book, i. 83, 10.5, IT. 107; LoonI Gleanings; 
Christie's Old Lancasliirp Libraries (riiclh. rtoc.), 
p. 71 ; Lancashire Church Survpys, 1660 (Ker^rd 
Soo.), p. 6; extract from Magd. Coll. Reg. kindly 


Bent l<y Professor J. E. B. JUyor; Bibliography 
in Triinti. Laiio and Chesh. Antiq. Soc. vii. ISH.] 

C. W. 8. 

1844), vice-odmiral, ontered the navv iii 
1774, imd in 177^ was present on board tlie 
Vigilant in Keppel's action oft' Ushant. In 
January 1781 ue was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant, and, continuing in active service 
during the j>eace, was appointed in July 1793 
to the Queen, bearing the tliig of Rear-ad- 
miral ({ardner. In her he took part in the 
buttle of 1 June 1794, where he was seriously 
wounded, and the encounter off L'Orient on 
•23 July 1795. In November 17f>fi he was 
prfjmoted to the command of the Chichester, 
a 44-gun ship, employed as a storeship. On 
10 Nov. 1797, being at tlie Cape of Good 
Hope, he was ordered to take temporary com- 
mand of the Jupiter and bring in the Crescent 
frigate, then in a state of mutiny at Kobin 
Island. This delicate service was well and 
happily performed, and the Crescent towed 
into Table Bay, under the batteries. Si.x 
days afterwards he was given an acting com- 
mission as captain of the flagship Tremen- 
dous, from whicli he was shortly moved to 
the Vindictive frigate, and seut home in 
charge of an Kast Indian convoy. On his 
arrival his commission wascontirmed by the 
admiralty. In June 1801 he was appointed 
to the Thames frigate, and commanded her 
in the action in the Out of Qibmltar on 
12 July [see SAUMARKi!, Jambs, Lord bb 
SavxaBBz], and in the operations on the 
coast of Egypt. The Thames was paid ofl" in 
January 1803, and in the following autumn 
Hollis was appointed to th« .Mermaid, in 
which he served in the West Indies under 
the flagof Sir John Duckworth. He returned 
to Englond in 1807, and in March 1809 joined 
the Stondard of l!4 guns, forming one of the 
fleet up the Baltic under Sir James Sau- 
marez, and in which he wa.4 detached in 
command of the xmladron which in May 
occupied the Isle of Anholt (James, Nap. 
J{p>t. edit. 18t50, iv. 431 ). Early in lull the 
Standard went out to Lisbon in charge of a 
large convoy, and for a short time assisted ' 
in the defence of Cadiz. In April Hollis was I 
moved into the Achillesof 80 guns, attached 
to the fleet before Toulon, and later on em- 
ployed in the Adriatic, r«tuming to England 
in the summer nf 1813. After the i>cace 
Hollis commanded the Rivoli (1818-17) and 
the Ramillies (1818-21) as guardships at 
Portamouth. He had no further service, 
though he became in due course of seniority 
rear-udmiral in 1825 and vice-admiral in 
1837. He died at Southampton on 23 June 

[Maraball's Roy. Nar. Biog. iii. (vol. ii.) ilA; 
(iOQl. Mug. 181 1, vol. exxiv, pt. it. p. 428.1 

J. K. L. 
HOLLIS, OEORGE (1793-1842), en- 
graver, born at Oxford in 1793, was a pupil 
of George (Tooke [q. v.], the engraver. He 
engraved in a simtlar style to his master, and 
was mainly employiid on topographical works, 
such as Sir U. C. Hoare's • History of Wilt- 
shire,' Onnerod's ' Historj' of Cheshire,' &c. 
He also engraved views of the colleges at 
Oxford and Cambridge, some from bis own 
drawings. In 1818 ne published six views 
ofChmlleigh from drawings by Henry Francis 
de Cort [q. v. ] Hollis engraved a largt> plate 
of 'St. .Hark s Place at Venice,' after J. M. W. 
Turner, li.A., and other Italian views after 
Turner for HukewiU's 'Tour in Italy,' and 
other works. In 1839 he commenced a 
work on ' Sepulchral Elligies,' the tiret part 
of which appeared in 1810, but he died before 
its completion at Walworth, on 2 Jan. 1842. 

Hollis, Thomas ( 1818-1843), only son of 
the above, bom in 1818, became a student 
of the Royal .Vcudomy in 1839, and a pupil 
of H. W. Pickersgill, R.A. He assisted his 
father in drawing and etching the plates for 
his ' Sepulchral Effigies,' but died of con- 
sumption on 4 Oct. 1843, aged 25. 

[RedgraTu'a l)ii-t.of Arlist.'i ; Gent. Mag. 1842 
i. 333, 1844. i. 101 ; Ottley's Dic-t. of Painters 
and Engravers.] L. C. 

HOLLIS, THOMAS (1720-1774), * re- 
iiublicau,' the only son of another Thomas 
lloUis, and great-grandson of a third Thomas 
Hollis, whitesmitli, of liotherham, and owner 
of Pinners Hall, was bom in London, 14 April 
1720. In childhood he lived in the house of 
his maternal grandfather, Mr. Scott, of Wol- 
verhampton, and was sent to school at New- 
port, Shropshire, and afterwards at St. Al- 
bans. In 1732 he spent about a year at 
Amsterdam, with the object of learning Dutch 
and French for commercial purposee. Re- 
turning to England he lived for some timci^^M 
with his father, who died in 1735. As hl^^^l 
inherited both his father's property and that^^ 
of his great uncle, Thomas Hollis, the bene- 
factor of Harvard College, i! was thought un- 
suitable to train him to mercantile pursuits, 
and accordingly he studied under Dr. John 
Ward [q. v.] In 1740 he entered at Lin- 
coln's Inn, where ho lived in chambers till 
1748. He then went abroad and travelled 
in the Low Countries, Switierland, the north 
of Italy, and France. In 1750 he set out on 
a second tour, visiting Holland, Qermany, 
Austria, and Italy, and remained on thecxjn- 
tinent three or four years. He hod been &om 
childhood St rongly opposed to tory principles, 
and declined to enter parliament if it wer» 

necessary tn Jrpend on cither fuvoiir or 
bribcn.-. Findin^r this impossible, he formed 
the desiyn "f propagntiug his principle* by 
liternlure. lleconetantlyispent «• veral hun- 
dri-<l jioiuid* a year on the pnKluction and 
purchase of bxiks and medals, larjre numbi-rs 
i>f which he pive to various libraries, those 
of Harvard, Berne, and Zurich being espe- 
ciallv favoured. He presented a portrait of 
Sir ii^aac Newton to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1761. and the well-known por- 
trait of Oliver Cromwell by Cotjper to Sid- 
ney Sussex College in 17»i4. His fondness for 
seventeenth-century republican literature, 
nnd his habit of having engriiving* and the 
covers of books decorated with daggers and 
Clip* of lilwrty. led to his being called a re- 
puulicttn, but he only considered Iiimself ' a 
true whig." and adopted as his ' faith ' Lord 
Molesworth'spreftice to Ilotomanus's 'Fran- 
i-ogalliii.' He nllendiNl no church, and was 
ronsequently 3uar»'Cted of atheism, but his 
• Memoirs ' show him to liave been a man of 
unusual piety. He led the life of a recluse, 
Hnd he abstained not tmly from intoxicating 
linuors, but also from butter, milk, sugar, 
»pices. and salt. In 1770 he left London, and 
retired to tlu- seclusion of an old farmhouse 
on his property at Corscorabe in l>}rsetshire. 
where he died on 1 .Tan. 1 774. He was elected 
f«»llow of the Iloyal Society in 17.57, and was 
nlso fellow of the Society of .^ntimiaries. He 
ifft his property to Thoma* IJrand, who took 
I lie name of Hollis. Visiting Lord Chatham 
at Lyme Regisin June 1773, he formi-d a high 
opinion of the abilityof the boy AVilliam Pitt, 
nnd conversed with him so earnestly that 
Lfjrd Clmtham observed : ' IJetween these 
two friends of liberty and virtue, not only 
thecimstitution of the state but the universal 
frame of mitiire was, I dare suy, thoroughly 
discussed ' ( Chnlham Correnponilencr, iv. 2t!9i 
Hollis etliteil the following: 1. 'Toland's 
Life of .Milton,' 17(il. 2. 'Sidney's Discourse 
concerning Government, with his Letters.' 
Jtc. 17<W. 3. 'Neville's Plato Uedivivus,' 
I HVi. 4. ' Locke's Two Treatises on Govern- 
BBimt,' 17ft4. o. ' Wallis'sGrammatica Lin- 
gn.T .\nglicann',' fith ed., 17llo. 0. 'Ixicke's 
I^ettersconcerning Toleration," 17t)0. 7. 'Ne- 
ville's Ladies' Parliament,' 17«8. 8. ' Ne- 
ville's Isle of Pines,' 1768. )•. ' Staveley's 
Urmiish Horse-leech,' 1760. 10. 'Sidnev's 
Wnrk*,' I77l'. A letter, dated 21 Dec. 17r.2, 
fMm Hollis to Mr. Pitt, in the 'Chatham 
( "orresp -ndence,' ii. 2(10-3, and two letters 
from Hollis to Dr. '^^^ard appear in ' 
t«T» of Eminent Literary Men' (Camden 

(Kr»iiei« BWkl'iirno's Memoirs of Thomas 
Uutii*, 1780; Ikwwell's Johni.'>n, c.l. Hill, iv. 07, 
v«u xxTir. 

98; Hont.reWalpolMS Letters, vii. 3-16 ; Nichols's 
Anrtfil. iii. Ol-.i; NicboU's lllustration.s, iv. 736. 
vi. 1.^7. -184: Fnnklin$Memoirs,i!.l. 1818.ii.44; 
Thomson's Hist, of Boy. Soc. App. ; Uutchins's 
Dorset, ii. 9i). 96 sq.. IT. 463 sq.] E. C-Jt. 

HOLLIS, THOMAS (lslf*-l(443). [See 
IIoLLis, George, 1793-1(^42.] 

18j*4 ),authoressand pliilanlhropist, wasbom 
at Madras in 1822, her father being Thoma-s 
Teed, and her mother's maiden name Jordan. 
She was sent to England in her infancy, 
and her parynts afterwanls settled at Slan- 
more, ^Iiddlesex. In bSlO she was mar- 
ried to Rotiert Holhmd, M.P. for Hastings 
from 1837 to 18o2. Until his death in 1877 
her salon in Paris, where she siient part of 
the year, attracted the leading lil)erabi. No- 
where in Europe, according to M. de Pres- 
sens6, was there a more distinguishe<1 circle. 
It included Odilon Bavrot, Monialembert, 
lU-musat, Mignet, Henri .Martin, Ijaboulaye, 
Hau.-sonville, Ijinfrey, and Prevost-Paradol. 
Mrs. Hollond herself was a listener rather 
than a talker. Antipathy to the empire and 
to ultramontanism united royalists and 
republicans, liberal catholics and theists. 
Nassau Senior met Dufaure there in 1862 
(Sesior, Conrenalion*). In 1857 Mrs. I lol- 
iond publi.shed ' Channing, sa vie et ses 
reu\Te»,' Efmnsat writing the introduction, 
and in 18(12 ' La vie de village en Angle- 
terre.' These appeared anonymously, but in 
1,''70 she published under her own name ' Lea 
(Quakers, (^tildes sur les premiers .\mis et 
leur soci6t(;.' In 1846 she sat for the head 
of Monica in .\rv- Scheft'er's picture of St. 
Augustine and his mother, and in 1852 he 
painted her portrait, now in the National 
Gallery. About 1844 Mrs. Hollond started 
the first creche in I./)ndon. She also founded 
an English nurses' home in I'aris, with a 
branch at Nice; the latter is still in existence. 
She died at Stanmore Hall, 29 Nov. 1884. 

[Information from ncpliew.Mr. .T. R. ndlond; 
51. lie Presunsij iu Journal diss DtOiuls, fi Dec. 
1»S4 ; Airs, ."^impsan's Julius and Mary Mohl.l 

J.' G. A. 

17')li I, divine, liorn ut Stony Stratford, Buck- 
inglinnK-hire, alxiut Itit'l, was the son of 
Joseph Ilolloway, ' brasiatnr' ( maltster), of 
that town, .\fter passing thnuigh West- 
minster School, he was admitted a pensioner 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, on 4 Feb. 
1707-8, under Dr. .\nstev {Oillri/r Ailmittion 
//(/oil-), and went out LL.1l. in 1713. He look 
holy order?. In July 1723, being I lien located 
at Bedlbrd,he sent a letter to Dr. JoluiWood- 

ward ftivinp iin ' Account of the Pits for 
Fiillers-Karth' at Waveiidon, near ^Voburll, 
printHd in llu' ' Pliilosopliical Tnmsactions ' 
(xxxii. ll'.)--Jl). On 30 Nov. of that year 
JloUowny was elected F.U.S. on the recom- 
mendiition of Sir Hans Sioane. In 1726 
lie jiiiblisht.'d II tranaliition of Woodvrard's 
'Nafuriilis Historia Telluris,' Svo, London, 
\7'2>i, with II long introductory account of 
^VnlJdwarl^,■^ works. It was translated into 
Frenrli liy .lean Pierre \iceron in 17;J«"), and 
into Italian in 1739. AVoodward introduced 
him to Jolin Hutchinson [q. v.], many of 
whose views he adopted. Between 1724 
and 173() he -win* ])resented by Reynolds, 
bishop of Lincoln, to the rectory of Middlelon- 
Sloiiey, Oxfordshire, a preferment which ho 
retained until his death. From Middletonhe 
addressed some interesting letters to Sloaue, 
which are preser\-ed in the Hrlti.'ih Museum, 
Additional .MS. 4048, tl'.tj« 77. Sloauehelped 
him in some 'Critical Annotations on the 
Book of I'k-clesiastcs,' which were ready for 
the press in 17.32, but never apjieared. On 
17 March 172t! llolloway was presented by 
the crown t<i the ."erMind portion of \\ addes- 
don rectory, liuckinfhiiuishii'e (LiPscuMti, 
JSinkiittjhrDiuhire, i. TjOl'), which he resigned 
on his preferment by the Duke of Marl- 
borough (26 .Mareli 173ti) to the rectory of 
Bhidon, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire ( Kd- 
w.vRli M.VRHn.lI.r.. Wiimhtiick Manor n/id Hk 
Enviruiif, pp. ;i()0-ll). On 8 Oct. in the 
same year he preached a visitation sermon 
at WoodstcH'k, alYerwanls published as ' The 
Commemorative Sacrifice,' Hvo, Oxford, 1737. 
It was extracted from two other works, an 
' Answer at larg-e ' to Iloadly's book on the 
Sacrament, and ' A Summary of Ninety-two 
Errors, Ineoiisistenpies, Misrepre.sentations, 
&c.,' in the same book, both of which he 
hoped to publish. In Di-cember 173!) he* 
was allowed to hand over the reclorA- of 
Blndoii ttp his son. Duriufrthe siimeveiir he 
publi.shed three sermons on ' The Nullity 
of Repentance without Faith.' In 1740 he 
had prepared a supplement entitled ' The true 
Doctrine of Repentance vindicated from cer- 
tain false Thy Matthew Tindal] on 
the Piirahlu cif the Proditial Son. .Vddressed 
to the Oentlemen of the rniversity of Ox- 
ford.' ThevieeM-lmneellor. TheopbiliisLeiffh, 
objeetingto his doctrinethat .Mek-hisedec was 
n manife.station of Christ before liis incarna- 
tion, refiised to allow it to be prinfe<l at the 
university ]>re»s, and oblitT^d llolloway to 
withdraw from ( )xforil, 1 lolloway t hereupon 
tirinled it in London {Grnt. Miii/. x. 2il4). 
Towards the of 1744 he was actinij iis 
private tutor to the future Lonl Spencer 
at the house of his father, the Hun. John 

Spencer. William .lones in his • Memoirs of 
Bishop 1 lorne,' 179.") (pp.40 ;j),gives a pleas- 
injr account of the esteem in which llolloway 
was held by the family. Home wa* adviseil 
by llolloway when readiiiir for ordination, 
and base<l one of his most effective sermons 
on Hulloway's manuscrijit animadversions 

I u])onthe ' Divine Lepition.' llolloway died 
at Middleton-Stoney on 10 April 17oS>, and 

1 was buried there on the 13rli (parish regis- 
ter). Ho has been confused with his son, 

I Benjamin llolloway, M.A., of Lincoln Col- 

' lepe, Oxford, afterwards rector of Bladon, 
and of Ardley, (Oxfordshire, in 1753. 

IloHoway wrote, in addition to the books 
already not iced : I . ' Remarks on Dr. Sharp's 
Pieces on the Wonls Klohim and Berith, 
showing, amonp other things, that the Chal- 
dee, Syriae, Samaritan, and .\rabic Dialects 
were all anciently one Language,' Svo, Ox- 
ford, 1751. A 'Short Reply,' Svo, London, 
1751, was forthwith written by (ieorge Kal- 
mar to this ' piuzled Piece.' 2. ' Originals 
])hysical and theological, sacred and jirofnne. 
Or nn Essay towards a Di.scovery of the first 

I de.scriptive Ideas in Things, by Discovery of 
the simple or primary Roots in Wortls ; as 
the same were, from the Beginning rightly 
applied by Believers, and afterwanls per- 
verted by Infidels, . . .' 2 vols. 8vo, (Jxford, 
I7ol. 3. ' Letter and Spirit, or Annotations 
upon the Holy Scriptures according to both,' 
Kvn, Oxford, 1753 (only the first volume pub- 
lished), 4. ' The Prinuevity and Pre-eminence 
of the Sacred Hebrew alxive all other Lan- 
guages, vindicated from the repe8te<l at- 
tempts of the Reverend Dr. Hunt to level it 
with the .\rabic and other Oriental Dialects," 
itc, Svo, (txford, 1754. Shaqi in his ' Dis- 
course8toiichi)igthe.\ntii|uity of the Hebrew 
Tongue and Cliaracter,' 8vo, London, 1755, 
critici.sed this work, and accused Holhiwnv of 
uiifiiirly -.idiipting some correspondence with 
Bishop Cliiiudler of Durlium. Whenever 
Hollowiiy loiinil liiin.self out of practice in 
writing Lilt in, he used tor«>adoverthe" .Moriie 
Kncomiiim' of Erasmus, which he declared 
never failed to restore his facility (WlLUAM 
•IiiNES, Menwtrn, loc. cit.) 

[Clialninrs'.s Biog. Diet.; Wartl's Lives of the 
G reshnm Pnifcsiiors, pp. 289, 296 ; Foster's Alumni 
[ Oion. 1715-1886.] G. G. 

I HOLLOWAY, J.\.MES {,1. 1681). con- 
: .spirator, ii citi/en of Bristol, pnjbablv im- 
bilud slrimg protestant opinions from the 
I master to wliom he was apprenticed, Walter 
Stephi>ns, a linendraper of Bristol, who ia 
said to have had the chief hand in the de- 
struction of the chayiel dedicated to fho 
\'irgin on Bristol Bridge, llollowoy set up 




in trade for liimself, and carried on buaimsus 
■with the West Indies; he was a clever man, 
though ri-stless and excitable. When the 
importation of French linens was furhiddon, 
he formed a scheme for the improvement of 
the English liuen manufacture, hoping to 
supply the home market with linens Osgood 
aa those brought from France, and so to 
give employment to the poor. He established 
a mnniifnctory in Warwickshire, and em- 
ployed some hundreds of workpeople; hut, 
in spite of the prohibition, French cambrics 
■were still largely imported, and Holloway, 
Laving lost money, gave up his undertaking. 
In 1679 he pressed the Bristol chamber to 
help him to carry out his scheme in the city, 
cifferiug to employ Bristol people only, and 
to find constant work for five hundred of 
them. < In H May the chamber agri'ed to his 
proposals, and decided to erect a workhouse 
for the purpose at the east end of the Bride- 
vrell. A letter, however, was sent to them ' 
en the 20th by Sir John Kniglit, olderman, 
and one of the members for the city, pfiinting 
out that the prohibition of Freucli linens 
would terminate in March ItiSl, ami that I 
they had better dmp the scheme, which they 
accordingly did. Holloway went up to hnn- 
don touilvixjate his plan, which, he declared, 
would employ eighty tliousand poor and forty 
thousand acres of land, and would bu worth 
200,(XKV.(othecrown. In lf>80 he became uc- \ 
ouainted with the Earl of Esse.x, who intro- 
duced him to Laurence Hyde [(|. v.], after- j 
•wards Earl of IJochester, and then head of 
the treasurj'. Hyde encouraged him to come 
up to ly^ndou during the next session of par- j 
liarannt, and he exhibited his wares to several 
meaibt?rs. lie also went to Oxford when 
the parliament was there, and was desireil 
by Lord Clarendon to draw up a bill on the 
linen manufacture. While at London and 
Oxford he was strongly excited about the 
itniggle bffween the court and tin; whigs, 
and heartl much about • laying sham plots 
upon protestants.' In the summer of lt)82 
he was actively engaged in a plot against 
the government, being chieHy moved by the 
elertion of the torv sherifls at London. A 
rising was to lie arranged for November in 
lyinjon and otherprincipal towns, the Roman 
catholic connciUors were to be removed from 
the court, and offenders punished. He was 
to 1)4! chief mover in Bristol, and thought 
that he could secure the city with 350 men, 
of whom lot) were to come from Taunton. 
To his annoyance the outbreak was put 
«iB' until the spring. He was in London 
" 1'<-h lt>H3, making arrangements with 
Wade [q. v.], and went thither 
."> April, when he was informed of 

the plot against the persons of the king and 
the Duke of York. lie disapproved of such 
schemes, and afterwards declared that not 
more t ban throe of the ot her ccmspirators held 
with Rnmsev and West, who talked much 
of the ' lop]ung-off business ; ' nevertheless 
he still consorted with these men. On the 
tJtlihehad an interview with Robert Ferguson 
(</. I714t [q. v. \ who was then at the house 
of Zachary Bourn, a lawyer, and he appears 
to exonerate Ferguson from participation in 
Rum.sey's bloodthirsty projects. liniirn says 
that Holloway told liiui that not mure than 
eight persons in Bristol were in the plot, and 
that he had a store of cannon, jiowder, and 
ball, and two ships fit to carry forty guns 
eacli, but 8ome,at least, of this appears doubt- 
ful. He intended to .secure Bristol at 4 A.M., 
and divided the city into fourteen districts, 
twenty relxds being assigned to each of 
tliirteen posts, and the rest of the iVtO to the 
main guard at the Tolzey. Heexpectfd that 
his attempt would be successful without 
bloodshed. Early in May ho was again in 
Lonilon. By this time he had naturally 
fallen into business dillicnlties. As soon os 
he lieard of the discovery of 12 .June he fled 
from Bristol, • got an ordinary habit and a 
little horse about 4(V. price,' and travelled 
about as a wool-dealer in Gloucestershire, 
Oxfordshire, and Somerset. He was sum- 
moned to answer a charge of hijjh treason, 
and not appearing was outlawed, and on 
12 .July the grand jury found a true bill 
against him on the evidence of three wit- 
nesses. In the middle of August he returned 
secretly to Bristol, and with his wife's help 
arranged with a man who hail a boat of 
about ten tons to carry him first to France, 
and then to the West Indies. He sailed on 
the 23rd, and on tlie 2r)th was forced by 
rough weather to put in at St. Ives, and here 
ri'mained until 4 Sept., when he again set 
sail, and reached Rochelle on the 17t.h. 
Thei"0 he bought a cargo of brandy ond 
other gfMids, and on 4 Oct. sailed for the 
West Indies, wishing to see his business 
connectioas there. -Vt Barbadoes, where he 
arrived on 11 Nov., he stayed two days, and 
then visited other islonds, remaining at St. 
f'liristopher about three weeks. His factor 
in Nevis betrayed him ; ho was arrested in 
St. Eustatius, sent home in irons, and lodged 
in Newgate. About 11 .Vpril ItWl he wrote 
ond delivered to Secretary Jenkins a ' con- 
fession and narrative,' which the advi.sers of 
the crown thought, or affected to think, in- 
sincere. He was brought before the king's 
bench on the 21st on his outlawry, and in 
the hope of a pardon refused a trial which 
1 WBS offered him by the attorney-general. As 


he WW alicady MUimtad by ovtiawir 
aa indietaKDS of Ugfc 

Titw UUM ud as tW Eari of Unmoeliin. for 
■ " ■ ■ i « " -y Col«*el TVmmc C-otepenr f q. v.^ 
Far tlMW a y he, with th? othr«Jii%(i; »Tt^ 

•inply gmve theoraarfcrhi*cseania*. He 
MM a patitioa fcr vmAm to the iamg, aod 
oflMcd aiihar to tsioe oat a ealoByof rU- 

btcaadwiM. OntheSOithhe 

withaaawaliwtotha ihiiBTi waenarawn Rsmea jaaM*« cuimtoiainMe oMrtial U 

■ym a i lad|w to Tyhna on th» Skk, he | in tiate of peMc withoot mm I of par 

faehavad with mmA Sibukm, sad, thoa|>h ; mnt, and aa one of the indite at thel 

Act of 


2 Willkm and 


ma a paper Thu was ta ^tr of the fact th«t be had 
Whoitews teii«MlJaaM*««UimtoiaiiMMeBiartiaI Uw 


the sherifipeitend him with naoToaeftiaiu of the aerea htshopa had deelarv<{ their p«>ti- 
OB the seaftld, aaaw<ned with 'Ufc mad, tioa aoC to he a aeditioas lilwL and had 


temper.' He 

the chttjch of Kiigfaad Be 

aad qtiattered ; hn head aad quartets wvre 

i>t^t to Btiatol aad fixed apoa the galea. 

Hi* eoaiMHaa, which aeest tu hare beea 

sinoen, ahowa how few weia ptvpaicd to 

enter iato the tchanwa lor mntdniag the 

king and the duke, thoogh it also prorea 

tiiat tlieie plant inat known to many who, 

tkoujirh dUappmring of them, continue<l !<• 

work with (lit? authors of them. 

[t'obtx^tl'9 8ute Triab, x. 1-30; Sprat's Tree 
Aecoont, pp. 49. 71. -App. pp. 13, S5. 38, 51 ; 
Lnttrell" Brief RrUtion, i. 2«7, 301-6; OM- 
mixon's KnjtlanJ under the tkoarts. p. G86 ; 
Ecliard'* History, p. 1042; Burnet's Own Time, 
ii. 348, 349, 405-7; Ferjruaon's Robert Fi-r- 
gnsoB, pp. 1 13, 139-40, 163; Garrard's Life and 
Tine* of Edward Colston, pp. .147-9 ; Nichols 
and Taylor's Bristol Post and PiMeut. iii. 86, 
87.] W. H. 

169,'iJ'), judge, was son of John Hnlloway, 
B.C.L., who was an official to the orclideacm 

of RerkBliire and a 'covetous civilian and 

public notary 'of Oxford. Richard Holloway His earliest publi.slieil plates were small por- 
IS taid to have been a fellow of New College, ' traits for the mu^zines, chiefly of noncon- 
but his name does not apjiear in the list of I formist m'uii^ters. vvitli whom he was much 
graduates. lie wa» admitted a memlx-rof tbe associated. He afterwards projected an edi- 
Inner Temple on 7 Feb. 1034, and was called tion of Lavater's ' E-ssays on Physiognomv ' 
to the bar on24 Nov. 1(158. His name does not j translated by I>r. Henry Hunter, ", vols.', 
appear in any law reports, and he probably | 17dt*-ilH. The work was illustrated with 
practise<l locally in Oxford, where he lived t about eight hundred plates executed bv Hol- 
oppo.'iite the Blue Boar in St. .\l(liite'» parish, loway himself, Bartolo/jci, Blake, and' other 
In Februiiry HH>l> he was elected recorder by \ good engravers, under the direction of Ilenrv 
the mavor iindburgosse.sof Wallingford( C'a/. Fuseli, Ii..\. .\t this time he produced some 
State Pa/ierg, Dom.) Ho was reader of his of hii bi-st iKJrtruits.includingthnsieof Charles 
inn in I^-nt 167.'), and in ItWl was one of Howard, duke of Norfolk, after Pine, and the 
the counsel for the orosecution of .Stephen Rev. Timothy Priestley, 173:?,andI)r.Uichar<l 
College [q. v.] at O.^tord nn a charge of lilgli Price,afterWe.«t,179;i HewasslMiemploved 
treason (xi. 331) »-"•—> i-i >- -— .i_ii : t,-„i ■>■..., . 

teijeant-at-law ( 

hroigiit apoa hiaiaelf di.*uiissal fr<im | 
^^ 4JalTl68& He withdrew 

MOEli9ri,whft« hewas lirtwr in November 1 
^ ^i^. "**^ ^ Aathonv \ Mood'a 
wilL The data of hi» death is tuiknown. 

[Fob'* Lim of the Jodf^ ; Bramslon't 
Aw obi cy. Hktri.8ll>; LntiK^Ils Diary.i 4«9- 
State Ttiab. tiii. 391. ix. 8«;7. x. 45. 1S7. 515' 
IJ15. XI. liOO. |J«8, xii. 428: Wood'. .Athenie 
t>i«i. Life. iUt. xIt. Ixiii, lxxix,cixiii; Wood's ' 
F*Hi, iL Ii.] J ^ ^ 

HOLLOWAY. TIIO.MAS (174S-1827), 
engraver, the son of a respectable tradesman) 
was bom in London in 1748. Ue was ar- 
ticled to a teal-engraver named Stent, bv 
whom he was chiefly employed in carving 
steel ornaments. He sul>5et(uently attendetl 
the .Vcademy schools, and in 1773 first ap- 
peared at the Itoyal Academy a.* an c.\lubilor 
of seals and engraved gems. Later and up 
to 1793 he was a frequent contributor of 
miniatures and portraits in oils and crayons, 
though his chief occupation was line en- 
graviug, which be practised with ability. 

I. In 1077 he had become a ontheillustrntionstoBoydeU's'Shakespeiire,' 
I WixjD, Iji/e, p. Ixxix), and Bowyer's ' History of Enghind,' and Bell's 
was already tt knight and kind's w-rjeunf in 

June 10M:I (LiTriiKl.l., Dinn/, i. I'OO). On 
'2a Sept. 1 68iJ he wns appointed a judge of the 

Briti.<.h Theatre. 
In 1800, through the influence of Ben- 
jamin West, Hollowoy obtained permission 

king's bench, and in XoveuibcrwB.i one of the ' to engrave on n large scale, and with a 
judges Ix^fiire whom Algi-rnon Sidney wns completeness not previously attempted, the 
tried. He also concurred in the sentences on \ seven cartoons of llnplmel then preservetl at 

"Windsor, and to fhi* tusk the remainder of 
his lite was devoted, lie engaged as assistants 
Lis I'ormer ])U])iIs, It. Slann and T. S. Webb, 
•'uoli of whom married a niece of llolloway, 
togt'tlnT witli .Idsoph Thomson, an able artist 
who died young. They worlied together at 
Windsoriuitil 1814, when the cartoons were | 
removed to Hampton Court. Ou the com- 
{iletioii of tlie tirst plate, • I'liid preiichiDg at 
Athens,'inlRlt>,thekingaj)pointed Ilollijway ' 
bis historical engraver; the second, •l.'hrist's 
Charge to I'eter,' uppeiired in 1810; the third, 
'The Death of Anunias,' in 181(j; and the 
fourth, ' Klymns," in 18:?0. In that year all 
the preliminary drawings were finished, and ^ 
Holloway retired with his associates to l-Mge- 
tield in Norfolk, and later to Colt ishall, near ' 
Norwich, to pursue their work on the plates, 
of which the lifth, 'The Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes,' was i«.sued in 18l'4. This was the 
last that Holloway lived to complete. He 
died unmarried at Coltishall in l-'ebruary | 
1827, in his eightieth year. The sixth plate, j 
' I'aul and ISarnabos at Lystra,' was then 
fdmost (inished, and the seventh, • Peter and 
John at the IJeautiful (iate,' commenced. 
The former appeared in the following year, 
16:J8, but the completion of the latter wa.< 
delayed until 18.'5i>, when it was published ■ 
with a dtrdicution to the uueen, anil like the 
rest bore the names of Holloway, Slann, and 
Webb as the engravers and publishers. In 
the original prospectus the set was otfeli'd 
to subseribi.'rs lor three guineos, and though 
this wan subse<iuently raised to ten, the un- 
dertaking did not prove remunerative. Not- 
withstanding the .skill and elaboration with 
which the plates were executed, they never 
found favour with artists, and have failed to 
supersede tile rougher but more vigorous 
work of llorigny. Holloway Imd a brother I 
John, wlio was at one t ime a popular lecturer 
oa animal magnetism. { 

pii-raoir of the late Mr. T. Holloway, by ono 
of his cxrculorv, 1827 ; .Mugazino of the Fin<> 
Art*, i. 74; T. Dodd's Slanusoript Memoirs of I 
EoKravrrs in Brit. Mas. ; Redgnivo's Diet, of 
Aittxti; A. Af>cirs Haudbuoh fiir Kiipfcrstich- 
•ammltr, 1880 ; lioyal Academy Catalogues.] 

F. 51. OD. 

HOLLOWAY, TIIOM.\S ( 18(X)-!s83), 
patent medicine vendor, was born at Devon- 
•port, then called I'lymouth Dock, on :?2 Sept. i 
1(00. His father, at one time a warrant otti- ' 
CCT in a militia regiment, became, on retiring 
from the service, a baker in Fore Stri^et, j 
IVvon)Kirt. Aftera time he removed to I'en- 
jwnce, and took the Turk's Head inninChapid | 
St n-et, where he resided during the remainder 
of hU life. He married .Miss Chellew, the 
daughtft of a farmer at Trelyon, in Lelant 

jmrish, Coniwall, by whom he was the father 
of several children. The son, Thomas, was 
educated at Camborne and at Penzance until 
1816. After the death of his father.he, with 
his mother and his brot her 1 lenrj-, kept a gro- 
cer}' and bakerj- shop in the market-place, 
Penzance. About 1828 he removed to Lon- 
don, where he held various situations until 
18;Jt), when he established himself as a 
merchant and foreign commercial agent at 
13 IJroad St reet rSulldinps. tine of liis clients 
was Feli.x Albinolo, a native of Turin, settled 
iu London, who was proprietor of ' Albinolo's 
ortlie St. Come et .Sl.Damien ointment,' and 
vendor of leeches, llolloway introduced him 
to the authorities at St. Thomas's Hospital 
as the inventor of a new ointment, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining for him teslimoniala as 
to its use and efficacy. This apparently sug- 
gested to Holloway that n similar ointment 
well advertised might be a proHtable specu- 
lation. Having made nn ointment of very 
harmless properties, he, accoriliug to his own 
account, announced it for sale on 15 Dot. 
1837 ; tile earliest traceable advert l.-ement is 
in the 'Town' of Ki June 18;J8, where the 
curative value of ' Holloway's family oint- 
ment ' was vouched for by ' Herbert Mayo, 
senior surgeon, Middlesex llo.spital, 19 Aug. 
18.17." On 4 Aug. I8;J8, however, F. Albi- 
nolo In thesame]inper warned the public that 
Slayo's letter >yas given in conuectiun with 
Albinolo's ointment, the composition of which 
had been kept a secret. On 9 Oct. 18;J» Al- 
binolo was committed to a debtors' prison, 
and no more was heard of luui. In the 
same year the name • Thomas Holloway, 
patent medicine warehmise, 1'44 Strand,' ajH 
pears in the ' London Directory.' He spent 
all the money he cMoki spare in advertising 
his ointment and t lie pills which he very soon 
added. He visited the docks daily to bring 
his new preparations under the notice of the 
captains of vessels and passengers sailing to 
all ])arts of the world. l''or a time he met 
witli Utile success, and getting into money 
ditiieulties was obliged to compound with 
his creditors, chiefly newspaper proprietors, 
but idtimately paid them all in full. Soon 
after his arrival in l^ndon he married Miss 
.lane Drl\er, who afterward* helped him in 
his business. .V steady demand for the pills 
aud ointment gradually arose. In 1842 be 
spent .5,(XKV. in advertising, in IHJ.1 10,000/., 
in 1851 20,000/., in 1855 :«,000/., in 1864 
40,000/., in 1882 4.o,000/., and at the time of 
his death he was sjiendlng about 50,000/. ner 
annum. Directions respect Ing the use of his 
medicines were translated into nearly every 
known tongue, including Chinese, Turkish, 
Armenian, Arabic, and most of the vema- 




cular* of India, and hig adrertiBemente were 
found in ni'wspaj>ers in all parts of the world, 
(hi Nov. IS.'iO lie olrtsined an injunction 
against his. brother, Henry llollowsv, who 
had commenci"d wiling ' Ilolloway'spillsand 
ointment ' at I'lOStrand (C. I5eav\\, Itejxirt* 
iif Ca»e* in Chaticfn/, 1853, xiii. AW-14). 
In 18<J0 he employed a Dr. Sillon to intro- 
d\ic<« his medicines into France; but the laws 
in that country were not favourable to secret 
remedie.«, and the attempt wiii^a failure. An 
action afterwards arose out of thin trans- 
action (John Scott, Ilrpnrtf, IKfW, xiv. 
33&-7). His premises, 244 Stnind, Ix'invj I 
demolished to make room for the new law 
courts in ItMJT, he removed to USH New Ox- 
ford Street, sine* ronuml>ered 78 New Ox- 1 
ford Street, where, without counting various 
branches of outdoor assistance, he employed 
one hundred hands. Here he lived many | 
years in a. very quiet way ; latterly he re- 
moved to H country house at Tittenhurst, 
Sunnintjhill, IVrkshin*, but was always very 
dimple in his habits. The profits of his busi- 
ness finally reached oO.OOO/. a year, and, 
combined with judicious speculations in 
stocks, made liim very rich. An offer on his 
part to Ijestow some of his money on his 
native town was not well received by the 
munici|uil iiulhorities. Sliortly after, on the 
ad%-ice of l^ord Shaftt^burv', he decided on 
building a sanatorium, as a hospital for the 
mentally afflicted of the lower middle class. ' 
His wife had died at Tittenhurst on '2'i Sei)t. 
1875, aged 71, and in her memory he also 
determined to i-rwt n Indies' college. 

Holloway attended carefully to his busi- 
ness and to the arrangement for establishii\f» 
the two institutions to the last. He died of 
congestion of the lungs at Tittenhurst on 
20 Dec. 188;!, and was buried in St. Michael's 
churchyard, SunninghiU, on 4 Jan. ]8.h4. His 
will was pro vetl on 1 6 Jan. for h'A)SM i 1 /. So. 2d., 
there being also considenible freehold pro- 
perty. He left all to Miss Mar)' .\nn Driver, 
liis wife's sister. 

On 8 May 187<! Hullowav purchased ninety ^ 
acres of land nt .Mount Lco^ Kgham Hill, 
Surrey, to form the Holloway College estate. 
Ill forming I lie picture gallery for the col- 
legp ho Ixiught for <j,tXXl/. Sir Edwin Land- 
seer's ' Man Proposes and God Disjwses," the 
first of a collection of pictures, for which ho | 
at various time^ paid 83,440/. The total 
amount s]ient for the land, buildings, furni- 
t un',nnd picturesexcecdetl 4(.K),(XK)/., to which 
in 188:5 he a(ld«>d 300,000/. to complete aiid 
endow thi> college, in which there are ono 
thousand nKiins, provision being made for 
two hundred anil fifty students. This insti- 
tution was opeuinl liy the queen on SO June 

188« ( 7'.OTM,21 June, 1 July 1886, 12,28 May 
ttud 17 Dec. 1887). The sanatorium at Vir- 
ginia Water is a magnificent building, con- 
taining four hundred and eighty rooms, and 
giving accommodation to two hundred and 
lorty patients. It wasopened by the Prince 
and Princess of Wales on 15 June 188.5 
{Stnndnril, 10 June 1885, p. 3). 

[Medical Circular. 1853. ii. 45, 67-8, 86-T : 
Sal unluv Review, 1 Oit. 1887, p. ■toa; Anounl 
Regi.iler, 1.S83, pp. 18G-7 ; lllusl rated Lou- 
don News, 5 Jan, 1884, p. 24, with portrait, 
20 June 18S5, pp. till-i, i July 186«, pp. 19- 
21, with six views of tht; college, and 10 Julr, 
pp. 28, 29; Tim. 9. 28. 29, 31 Dec. 1883, 1, 2, 3 
5 Jan. 1884, 12-28 May 1887 ; Graphic, .> Jan 
1884, p. 6, with portniit, and 10 July 1886, pp. 
29-30, 44, 45; fall .Mall OuJirtte, 28. 29 htej 
1883,1,2.5,9, 10, 11. If., 1!), 2.5 Jan. 1884 j' 
Western .Am iquarv, I'lviiioulh. Fi'l^ruarv I880, 
pp. 183-7 : Pictorial World. 8 July 1886.' pp. 29. 
32, 33, 34, 40, with porlniit; Jndy, 30 June 
1886, p. 307. with portniit; Morning Post, 
28May 1S87, p. 2.] G. C. B. 

HOLLYDAY, SAMUEL (168S-1739), 
Irish divine. [Se»< Halidat.] 

CHlilsToPHEU (,15tl2-1610), Irish Jesuit. 
[.See II01.VWOOD.] 

HOLMAN, FRANCIS (Jl. 1700-1790), 
of II Cornish family, marine painter, resided 
among the sj-afaring folk in Shadwell and 
Waivping. There he painted several pictures 
of snipping, storms, seu-fights,&c., which haie 
met with unmerited neglect. In 17<J7 he ex- 
hibited three pictures of .shipping at the Kre« 
Society of Artists. He exhioitixl with that 
society up to 1772. In 1774 he first e.xhibited 
at the Hoyal .\cademy, sending ' Tbe.\ugusta 
Yacht, with His Majesty on boanl Ueview- 
ing the Fleet at Spitlicad,' and 'The Fle«;t 
Saluting His Majesty when on boarvl the 
UiiHleur.' He exliibite<l there everj- year up 
to 1784. In 1778 he sent u painting of .\d- 
miral Hawke's victory at Belle Isle in 17-'i9; 
in 177il the attack on Rhode Ishind by 
the French Awt in 1778; in 1780 Admiral 
Rodney's engagement with the Spanish 
squadron ; in 17.82 .Vdiuiral Parkers en- 
gagement with the Dutch tleet ; in 1783 
Lord Rodney '.s action with the French fleet 
in .Vpril 1782; and in 1784 Lord Hix)d's 
action at Basseterre in January 1782. 

[RedprnTt's Diet, of Artists ; (Irares's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Note* and Queries. 3rvl wr. 
ii. 387. X. 114 : Cat.ilrigues ul" the l-'roe Society 
of .'Vrtists and the RoyiU Academy.] I_ C. 

HOLMAN, JAMES (178»i-18,j7». th» 
blind traveller, was the fourth child of ft 
chemist and druggist of Fore Street, Exeter, 





Hoi man 

there he wa» iKirn on 15 Oct. 178fi. He 
nterej llie niivv us ii lirst-cliiss \olunteer on 
Bard tlie Koyal < ieorjje on 7 I lee. 1 T'.'.'"'. From 
eptemlxT \7'M until April If^).') hi; st'rvud in 
beCaiuljriuii on tholiomt' and North Aiut-ri- 
tnststionii, and siiljs»MiUL'iitly wii» empluyi'd 
, fh« Li'iinder and C'li'iiputra, of whic-li Itisl 
friffnte hf was appiint«lliiniti'niinlc>ii:i7 April 
1807. From Octobi-r iSO,s to NcneiuUr 1.^10, 
when he was invalidt-d, llolman served on 
board the Ouerriere, stationed on the I'oast 
of North America. At the npe ol' twenty- 
five he liecame totally hliiid, ami sfxin after- 
wardawent tiiK<linhiirjfh University tost mly. 
On 2t) Sept. IK\2 !ie was uppuinted u naval 
knif;ht of Windsor, hut, finding thi- ipiietiRie 
_of the life there intolerable, lieohtnim^d leave 
absence in order that he might travel 
broud. The title.s nf his hooks appended 
below sufticiently indieute the cinirse of his 
first three journeys. His fourth and last 
journey was made thrnnrrti Spiiin, Portugal, 
Wallachia.Moldavia,Jlrintciiei;ri>, Syria, ami 
Turkey. V\ hile oceujiied in preparing the 
journals of this journey for the press he died 
at his lodt'ings near the Minories, Lcmdon, 
on Jy July lSo7, leaving his munnsi-ripts to 
a literarv' friend who hud assist etl him ni the 
compilut ion of liLs former works. These mann- 

Rripts still remain unpublished, llolman 
as a man of remarkable energy and ]i»TSt>- 
srance, f >f cool intreiiidity and restless curi- 
ity. Though in l.ondcui he was always 
tended by a servant, he wus iiccustomed 
t.o go without one abroad, I ravelling gene- 
rally alone and triusting to his own sagacity 
and the sympathy of others. A portrait of 
Ilolmnn, by George ( 'hinnery, lielongs to llie 
Koynl Society (of whicli he was u fellow). 
There is a folio mezzotint of 1 Inlman by J. K. 

» Jackson, after J. P. Knight (I';vaxs,"Oi^(- 
lOffue of J'tirtraUt), and several portraits are 
prefixed to his books. 

He was the author of: 1. ' The Narrative 
'a .lourney, undertaken in the years 1819, 
)2<),and I. "*i I, through France, Italv, Savoy, 
ritzerland, parts of (ienuany bonlering on 
) Rhine. Holland, and the Netherlands,' Ac, 
Dndon, l^■22, 8vo (with portrait I. 2. 'Tra- 
els through Kussia, Siberia, Poland, Austria, 
ixony, Prussia, Hanover, &c., undertaken 
Bring the years \K-J-J, 1823, and 1824, while 
■Bering from total blindness, aiul comprising 
.\ccount of the Author being conducte<l 
State Prisoner from the eastern j)art.< of 
Sberia,' London, 1>25, 2 vols. 8vo (with \)nt- 
ait): .'Srd edition, lAmdou, 1832, 2 vols. 8vo; 
Ih edit ion, London, 1834, 2 vols. 8vo. 3. ' .\ 
foyw^ ^llmd the World, including Travels 
lAfrlca,.\sitt.Auslrahisia,Americn, &c.,&c., 
turn MUtccxxMi to MDCCfXxxii," Loudon, 

1834-0, 4 vols, 8vo (with portrait ). 4. ' Tra- 
vels iu Madeira, Sierra Leone, TeneriHe, St. 
.Tngo, Cape Coast . . . Prince's Island, i'v:c.,' 
2nd edition, London, 1840, 8vo (with por- 
truil ). This is a reprint of the first volume 
of the 'Voyage round the World,' with a 
new tille-puge. 

[Jerd/in's Slen I have Known, pp. 25(!-67 ; 
O'ify mil's Navul Biography, pp. 630-1 ; Oeut. 
Mag. 18i7,pt. ii. ;iU-2 ; Auniml Kegisler, 1857, 
App. to C'lirou. pp. 322-3 ; inlorniatiou from 
VVinsluw Junes, esq. ; i^ric. Mus. Oat.] 

(i. F. R. B. 


1>'17), uctor and dramatist, born in August 
1764, was son of .loini Major IJohuan ol St. 
(liles's, Middlesex, an ensign uiiil adjutant in 
the liritish service, who died when his son 
wus two years of age. He wus placed by an 
uncle at llurwis's school in Soho Square, 
where amateur acting was in vogue. With 
a view to the church he matriculated 7 Feb. 
1783 at (Queen's College, Oxford, but took no 
degree (Fcwtkh, Alumni ihrni. p. (580). On 
2.'> Oct. 1784, at Covent Garden, us Uomeo, 
he made his first a])pearance on the stage. 
An occasional address, the opening lines uf 
which were, 

I'rom Isis' Uinks just tring'd his during flight 
A College Soph prteenrs himself li>-uight, 

was spoken by Thomas Hull [<j. v. j, who 
played Friar Lawreiice. Macbeth, Don Feli.x 
m the 'Wonder,' Aclimel in ' llurbarossa," 
Richard Ill.Chumont in the M)rplinn,' Ham- 
let, Ilippolitus in ' Phicdni und Hippolittis,' 
Morcar in ' Matilda,' and Lothario followed 
in Holnnm's lirst season. His performances 
were atten<ied by fashionable audiences. Re- 
maining at Covent Ganieu until 1800, he 
played Hastings, Posthumiis, Benedick, Ed- 
gar, Tiuion of Athens, Comus, Florirel in the 
' Winter's Tale,' Richmond. Orlando, JutBer, 
Lord Townley, Jason in ' Mi'dea,' Antony in 
' All for Love,' Alexander the Great, Oroonoko, 
and munv other leading parts in tragedy and 
comedy. His original characters include 
Hurry' Thunder in O'Keelie's 'Wild (hits,' 
Iti .\pril 17!ll, Harry Hornton in Holcroft's 
' Koad to Kuin,' 18 Feb. 17St2, aii<l many 
parts ill plays by Reynold.s, Mrs. Cowley, and 
other dramatists. .-Vt the end of his third 
seo-son he quitted Covent Gartleii on u ques- 
tion of terms, nnd ai-teil in Dublin and in 
the ]irincipul English and Scottisli towns, 
but sixm returned to Covent (iarden. In the 
seasim of 1700-1800 a serious quurrtd took 
place U't ween the jiroprietors of Covent (iar- 
den and eight of tlie principal actors, A 
pamphlet entitled 'A Stntenient of the Dif- 
ferences subsisting between the Proprietors 


"* 1**^* T^^?^^ ^^^B ■ ^^ ^^^^"^^^^ 

V^Mm im W Wm4k \«*mk5 ill ^Att txr 

W kw • vwrr oterant 



■■■- V<«iM«»kW 


H"""'-' *•«>, 1796, a comic oiieim iu 

aeas, ozwuuUjr called 'The King's 

V«t tbr licenser oUjwttHl to the titU-. 

Is » « Infill *oi clever f«iec«?, «-»* tcted 

t imri , twice iirinted in the samr 

t^imtfi fr>-v.ii nilv in England and 

'■ ' Knifjhtj!,' in fiv« 

».ir»; t.i'i .\u<f. irti9. 

takHi fntm tjchiller's ' IJobber*,' a 

itf wUcii K\ Holman wa^ refui«t 

^**» Bo^MK. S. • Vfitarj- of AVeullh.'Svo, 

i:»;CVnw«t 0«Rlrn, Ii> Jan. irW; » fairiv 

4- * What H Rl under,' Svii, 

14 Aug. ls()0,aiidCoreut 

Mar 1«IS; a comic opera in 

5. "LiiTfi pives the .Vlarra,' a 

•» Covt-nt Ganlen. 23 Feb. 

■■J BeTer printed. liidman's 

|«p»««» ^ • pw Willi those of IloU-roft 

<•* fmm ^nmaxista of the dav. Jit- only 


•^ «?•«•« !• i» imtitlod to n high posi- 

iiK ,..„] ijij, dttughter's 

ui-d in America 

art.' Hiizlewood 

Ji'Mim, ii. 12.")) 

***J «l*i?tlllt fipiire, and a 

^ ^ . »»|»«»«rfal without eflort." In 

■J* J***^* ** »viid tlw delihemte luonotonv 

••*■* »'**4« *d*00l he was sometimes too 

U» CVuMM is mid to be ' the chn- 

k« Hms)«« H declare*! * thoroughly 

ftwwjr, a»J it is Mid thot • no actor of the 

f*"***J2*** ^B fwvtend to sjieak a pro- 

•JT?***" !»■.' In * Candid and Impartial 

. **y? ** 'V IVrfonuere.' 179."i, ho is 

w "**tt_i** 'f**?^ *'''^' '''*' divine qua- 
MT mUdI (miw • (M. 44) I. The anonvmoiis 

***>**■•*•■■» 5 * 111* person is well formed, 
"■•■V' ••• WlgMH ; •handsome countenance, 
«»a VnlliMt «Bd SMridin^' eves ; ' and taxes 
W wrtk Ml mundonabl^ roll from side to 
liA\ «Mi «V!i he ' is kIwhvs endeavouring 
I* ««» wWl thf situation cloes not re<juire 
*hMtM W attiNnpled, and what nature is 
»Vvkni •( vhvn don,..' l.amb descries liim 
M ' llw^ k4li««t person * of any Hamlet he has 
»<»i». MicTvady writes of him as • himdsome, 
Wl iMcUiM^ 10 otmitr . . . vain of his per- 
»•«. Wul verr nlessiii^ in liis manners,' and 
. -ililiUM : • He was said to have been iu his 
tk <n-vt animmwl. so much so as to be 
rvlwrW on .n . . . to have lost. 

w» Much of h imand as to miss his 

'■' ■"<*' I'f" ij'iiiui' liimself over the foot- 

• the orchestra. Hut now the an< 

•.*'"'.'" '"* nCin? he was as cold 

•ihI ariiticial in his practised tones andmove- 

iuM>l» H» nn automaton ■ (l{einiiiimmrt»,'i. 

-' IVrimiln of Ilolnmn as Chamont, as 

V \jiulei-, uinl as Douglas, by De AVilde, by 




J)iipout US Edgrar, and by Ilnrlowe as Cynis, 
are in the Uanitk I "luh. .Mi»s lloliiiiin playeil 
a tew tiniL'Tt in lOnpliind before pniiij^ tn 
America. l!er first appearance in LoiKinn 
was mndc at tlii> Flaymarket, 'i'J Aufr. IMl, 
ns Ik'lvidcrn in ' N'cnice Pri'servcd.' She also 
played Lndy Townly, Colista in the 'Fair 
IViiiti'nt,' Angela in the 'Castle Spectre,' 
Jind Juliii in tlu; ' llivals.' 

[Books cited : (iunest's Account of iho Ea?- 
lish Si4igi' ; l!ii>{;rH|>hi!t Dniniatica; Oultou's Ili't- 
tory of London Thuatres; Itose's Itiogr.ipljicnl 
l>iction»ry .■The>pian Diotiuniiry; O'Kceti'e's He- 
ooUfctions; V. lU'jnioldg's Life, where is told tile 
»lory of his luiliu'; into the orchestra ; l)unhi|>'!i 
History of the American Stage; Clark Russell's 
Itepret^entativc Ai^tors ; Gent. Majj- 1817, pt. i. 
p. C18; Notes and Queries, "tU ser. viii. 486, 
ix. 10. 72.1 J. K, 

HOLMAN, WILLIAM (</. 1730), nii- 
ti(]unry, was a cun^'reeutional minister at 
Stepney, Middlese.x-, whence lie was truns- 
fcm.'d to Hal.tttead, I-ls-sex, in 1700. Durinjj 
the lust twenty years of his life lie diliffently 
I'ollected materials for a history of Essex, atid 
visited j)iT>on«lly every town and villsjre in 
the comity ((iouoti, jiritUh 'J'oj>oi/rn/))ii/, i. 
;!4.'3). lie also made large extracts from 
Thomas Jekyll's Essex collections, filling, 
ncfordinj; to Mornnt, " al)Ove four hundred ' 
volumes, lie died suddenly in the porch of 
Colnf Knpuine Church, Essex, on 4 Nov. 17;iO 
( I )AVI 1>9, EianyetictU Simconfurmiti/ in i'we.f, 
p. 40;<). 

The subsequent history of Ilolumn's manu- 
scripts is very confused. (louph asserts (ifi. i. 
.■570 ) thiitHolman's pa persafter his death were 
sold bv his son, a draper at Sudbiirv', Suffolk, 
nnd that Nathaniel Salmon (atithor of the 
•History of E.isex,' published in 174())bi>»frlit 
fhtta in 17W. and afterwards s(dd part to 
Anthony Allen, master in chancery, from 
whom they are supposed to have come to 
John 1 tooth, ]''..S.A. Hut from a document 
prre«erved in the Colchester Museum it u\>- 
prnrs that llolman himself sold his manu- 
scripts to the vicar of Ilalstead, and Morant, 
who WHS then curate theiv, was a witness of 
the sale. In another place (»A. i..'U4) Goiiph 
says that llidman's jmyiers came into J)r. 
Kiehard Uawlinson's hands, and were left bv 
him in 17.M to the Bodleian Library. This 
statement is also erroneous, for Morant, in a 
Irller to ( iouph. dated 6 Sept. I7tl9, tells him 
that ICawlinsou bought only the ' refu.'se ' of 
Holniun'x manuscripts (N1C1101.S, iiV. Anri-ti. 
ii, 70.5), anil very few nf llolmnu's notes are 
now anion)! the llnwiinson MSS. Morant, 
by his own account, had in his possession the 
larpir mass of Ilolinan's papers, from which 
lie derived by fur the most valiuible part of 

his volumes. They afterwards became the 
projierty of the Hills of Earl's Colne, near 
Ilalstead, who were related toMorant. About 
twenty to t wenty-live volumes were presented 
to the corporation of Colchester by the father 
of the present representative of the family, 
and are now in the museum there. 

llolman also ciimpile<l in 1715 an 'exact 
catalogue' of I he .lekyll MS.S., which after- 
wards belonged to the, and subse- 
(jiieiitly came to the library of All .Souls' 
College, Oxford, where it now is, No. '3)7. 
\ lopv is in tho IJritish Mu.seum, Egerton 
MS. -i-Mi, {. 1.53. 

[Notes kindly supplied by the Rev. C. L. Ac- 
knd ; Tnins. of Kasex Archwol. Soc. ii. 1.52-3; 
Mornnt 's fjiscx (Preface); Brit. Mub. Addit. M.S. 
5811, f. 20.] G. O. 

HOLME, BENJAMIN (1683-1749), 

(juiiker, was born of quaker jiiirentftge at 
Penrith, Cumberland, in .Tuiiiiary Ui8.'J ( .N'.S.) 
and brought up us a Friend. In his auto- 
biography he says that ' he grew up in wild- 
ness,' but when about fourteen years of age 
he pmyed, and somewhat later testified at 
meetings. While still very young he was 
reciigtii.sed ii« a minister, and travelled to 
' visit Friends.' In KWli he made a journey 
with Leonard Fell [q. v.l and Jo.seph Kirk- 
bride, nn American I' riend, through t he north 
of Knplaiid. Two years later he visited u 
number of meetings in the east and west of 
England and in \\ ales, and in 1 70,'i went to 
Scotland, where he was imprisoned for a 
night at Glasgow for travelling on the sab- 
bath. The following year he visited Ireland 
for the first time. Early in 1706 ho went 
to live at York, where he appears to have 
been engaged in business, but he continued 
to spend a large Jiart of each year in minis- 
terial journeys. In 171- he again visited 
Irebuiil, was iniprisoneil at Longford for 
pnnoh ing, and was i 1 1-t real ed at Londonderry. 
In 1714 he visited the Friends in Holland, 
and the following year those in New Eng- 
land. In America he was opposed by varioua 
ministers, and a ilay was set apart to pray 
against the spreading of his teaching; but 
he escaped persecution. In 1710 he visited 
the Indies for u few months. In 1722 
he took an active jmrt in obtaining from the 
parliament a les.s objectionable form of affir- 
mation than that then prescribed for tho 
(|uaker8. Ibiring the following year he again 
went to Ilollanil, and while there visitedthe 
Mennonites and wrote ' .V Serious Call,' a 
trt'atise giving a succinct account of qiiaker 
jirinciples, which was first printed in Dutch 
and published in 1724. The four following 
years were chiefly spent in a minute inves- 




1 86 


ti^tioi) of the quaker meetings in Ireland. 
In u li/ttiT t'l David Bull of Tottenham, dated 
1 V'Ci'iuber 1 ~'J'>, he hI ntes t hat he was urrnsted 
at Ix'ltiTkeMMy for Ivfu^inJ^ to miike a decltt- 
rat ir>n of tidelity, but wiis releused after some 
time lit tlie instance of the Itishop of llapho<'. 
l)uriii)r \7'2i lie interesled inuny of the Irish 
bijihoiiN In a bill to establi^ih ii suitable form 
of iilHriiiiition, which became law in 17'J'>. 
After his return home he was chietiy occii- 
jiied ill ministerial journeys in Knpliiud and 
ijcotluud. He visit*-)! Ireland iu 17;J4, and 
once |>aid a visit to Jersey, where a emiill 
meeting was much oppressed by tlie uiajfis- 
trtttt!S, and obtained redress of their priev- 
nnccB. He died at Swansea in April 1749, 
from an illness brou^jht on by attending a 
meeliiiK: when in bud health. 

Hiilniewa> widely esteemed, plain, simple, 
and oharltnhle. His writings are e-xtremely 
praeticttl and in tone, while their style is 

Iileiisiiiitnndlucid. Thechicf are: l.'ATendcr 
nvitatioii and Call to all I'eople, to Embrace 
the olTers of God's Love,' &c., 171 ;Mreprint«l 
threetimesand translatedinloKrench t. 'J. 'A 
Serious Cull in Chri.Htian Love to all People. 
. . . With some ObservBtious on the foUow- 
iuff heads: (1) The L'nlver.sality of tiod's 
Love . . . ; (i) The 1 loly Script ures ; (3) \\'or- 
shi]) : (-1) Runt ism ; (.")) The Supper; ((>) Per- 
fection : (7 (The i{»»surrection; (>*] Swearinc; 
The Conclusion,' 172."> (originally written in 
Kufjliob and translated into Ihitcli and fuil)- 
lislied at Amsterdam, n.d. ; but printeil in 
17-4, reprinted twenly-foiir times in Kng- 
lish, and translated into Latin, I'Vench, and 
Welsh), a. ' ,\ Collection of the Epistles 
and Works of Benjanuii llolnic. To which 
ispie|ixe<l an .Vccmnt of his Life and Tnivids 
ill llie Work of the .Ministry, thnuiuli several 

Iians of Ivirope and Auieiica. W ritten fjy 
limself,' 17.Vi; reprinted 17.")4. AVhile in 
Aiiierien he also wrote a tract against ' Itixt 
Marriages,' which were then common amrmg 
Amerlcun quakers. 

[Benjainin Holme's Collection of the Kpi-^llcs, 
&c.,\7oS; Smith'sCat.uf Friends'Hooks: liuliy's 
Hist, of the Friends iu Ireland ; Bowilen s Hist, 
of the Friends in Aiuerim ] A. C. B. 

HOLME, KnWAKD ( 1770-1847), phy- 
sician, son of Tlioiiins llnlnie, farmer and 
mercer, was born at Kendal, Westmoreland, 
on 17 Feb. 1770. After attending: a schi>ol 
at .Sedbergh, he spent two years at the Man- 
chester academy, and afterwards studied at 
the universities of Giitlingcn and Kdinhnrgh. 
lie graduated M.D. at I.i»'yden in December 
17'.'.'), his thesis, ' De .Structura et I'su Va- 
soruni .Vbsiirbentium,' oi-cupying si.\ty-one 
page*. Karlyin 179{helx'ganpracticeal Man- 

Library, and its president for twenty-eight 
years. He was also a founder and first pre- 

chester, and was shortly afterwartls elected 
one of the physicians to the infirmary therv. 
He joined the Literary and Philusonhical So- 
ciety on Settling- in Manchejjter, and was one 
of its vice-presidents from 17tt7 to 1844, when 
he succeeiled Dr. John Daltoii as president. 
lie was one of the founders of the Portico 
Iso a fo 
sident of both the Manchester Natural I'lis- 
tory Society and the I'hetharo Society. He 
was the first president of the medical section 
I of the liritish Association at its inaugural 
I meeting at York (1831), and presided over 
the I'rovincial Medical and Surgical Asso- 
ciation in ISati. He liecarae a nieml)er of 
the Liniiean .Society in 171111. He was for 
many years, especially after the death of John 
Ferrinr [i|. v.], a leader in his pn>te8sion in 
Manchester, and the recognised heiul in all 
the local literary and scientific societies. 

Of the ftmrteen essays contributed to the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, he only 
published a short 'N<ite on a Koman iu.scrij)- 
tion found at Manchester' (Miinrhritler Mr- 
moirt, vol. v.) .Vnother essay, ' < In the His- 
tory of Sculpture to the Time of Phidias,' 
was printed after his death. 

He died unmarried, on 2.'^ Nov. 1847, at 
Mancliester, leaving property worth over 
50,(MX)/., the greater part of which he be- 
(jueatlied, together with his large library, to 
the medical department of I'oiversity Col- 
lege, London. His |K>rtrait was engraved by 
J. K. Jackson, from a painting by W". Scott, 
Itelouging to the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical .Society. 

[.Memoir by Dr. W. C. Henry in Trans, of Pro- 
vinciid Jlcd. ami Surg Assoc. IH48, xvi. 77; 
Mdiujiesier Gnivriiian, 1,4. 8 U«o. 18'47, 'Jt> Jan., 
13 iMay, 10 .luiie 1848; Itfik.r's Memorials of a 
DissfUtliig Chc^pol. p. Uli; Cniv. Coll. Library 
Cut. 1879.] C. W. .S. 

HOLME, HANDLE (1571-105rn, ge- 
nealogist, born, probably in Briilge Street, 
Chester, in l,'i7 1 , was youngest son of Thomas 
Holme, a member of the Stationers' Com- 
nany of Chester, by Elizabeth, liis first wife. 
Holme was entered in the IxMiks of the .Sta- 
tioners' Company of (Jhcster as a 'painter' 
— [Hissibly an heraldic painter — on :l June 
151*8. lie was sherilF of Chester in |I>15, 
and mayor 163;l-4. He also held the oflico 
of de|>uty to the College of Arms for Che- 
shire, .Slirop.«hire. and North Wales. At the 
coronation of Charles I he was fine<l 10/. 
for not being in attendance. On 1!» July 
11134 he fiiileil to attend an oHicial visit to 
I Chester paid by Ihe Earl of Arundel; tht 
' earl mulcted his 'di'puty ' in a lieavy fint 
I payable to the Heralds' College. 




^Vllen Chester wns Ijcjit-Ked bv the por- 
liamMilnry iimiy, lltilim- was livirif; iit his 
ancestors' lioiist' in JSricipe Street, wliich hud 
come in him on the dentli ol'his elder brothiTH. 
For twenty years he hud not been twenty 
miles from home, us rupture mnde truvel- 
ling painful; besides, deimrtiire from the eily 
■would have necessitated ' greut loss of his 
estate.' Throughout the siege he was • well 
aflected ' to the [mrliument. !Sir Willirim 
Brereton looked upon him as ' a friend of 
trust ' and set him at work, so soon as the 
parliamentary forces hud entered the city, to 
superintend the repuir of breuihes in tbi- « nils. 
lie tiKik the national covenant and negative 
oath on 5 April lti4o, ami wus afterwards 
placed by the parliament in tlie eonimi.ssion 
of the peace. A nephew, Thoions Aleook, 
officiously took upon himself, on pretence of 
'tender care' fur his uncle, and of it fear 
that he had euuimitted sume act which might 
render him liuliie to.iequestration, to urrun^;e 
that Holme should pay a composition hue of 
160/. for his property. The fine was not paid. 
Holme died, after siiiVering licavy pecuniary 
loss, in January IHoo, aged M, and wus buried 
at St. Mary-on-thi'-IIill, t'hester. He mar- 
ried Klizalieth, duugliter of Thimnis Alcock, 
and widow of Thomas Chalouer of Chester, 
Ulster king-of-uruis. Chuloner was a col- 
lector of munu.scripts, and it is possible that 
Bome items from his collection may have 
formed th" nucleus of the Holme collection 
of heraldic and genealogical luanu.scripts. 
Some of Holme's letters to the officials of 
the College of Arms, tin heraldic business, are 
printed in the "Chetham Miscellanies,' vol. v. 
Uoi.ME, rUxsLi: (1(501 ."-Uioit), genealo- 
gist, second son of the firegoing, married 
about I (ctober 10:.'5 a wife named Katherine. 
He seems to have b<'eu professionally con- 
m^cted with bin father's work as herald from 
16S-2 (Cliithnm .Vi,«-. vol. v.) In lti33-4 
(during his father's mayoralty) he was sherilV 
of Chester, and ten years later was himself 
mayor. On 1 .Ian. K>44 his name occurs in ' 
the king's commission dated from Oxford, 
directing the seizure of the rebel.s' goods in 
Chi.i8ter. Alter the surrender of the city to 
the parliamentarians, an order,dated ul ^V est- 
minster 1 Oct. 164l},directed his removal fmm 
the otljce rif alderman. In Uioo (soun after 
Lis father's death) hepi-titioned Cromwell to 
remit the uii]iaid fine of UIO/. h^vied on his 
fat her I brought he intermeddling: of his cousin 
Thomas Alox-k (see above). In u letter to 
Sir (ie>irge Hootb, for whom he was for two 
wars collect ing genealogical notes, he says he 
IS unable to ' digest ' those notes, • having no 
learning.' He added to the Holme collection 
of manuscripts; died, probably in bad cir- 

cumstances, in September ]<Jo9, and wu» 
buried at St. Mary's, Chester. 

lIoLMj;, IfANbLE (1627-1099), genealo- 
gist, s<in of the foregoing, was in lUt>3-4 an 
'inkeeper' at Barnet, and was suspected of 
disloyalty to the king ; at the same period he 
is called 'Cup' Holmes of Barnet' (Utale 
\ I'liju-iK, Doiii. Charles II, vols. lx\ii. and .\c. 
I passim). In November ItJlU he was appointed 
I ijy ("harles 'sewer of the chamber in extra- 
ordinary, in considerulion of his losses.' Like 
! his father and grandfather, he was an heraldic 
\ painter, professional genealogist, awl acted us 
dejiuly Carter for Cheshire, Shropshire, Lan- 
cushiri', and North Wale.'i. His conduct in 
I ollicn upix-ars, in Sir AVilliani Hiigdule's 
I opinion, to have been irregular, and in ll«58 
1 iJugdale — who in his diary contemptuously 
refers to him as 'Holmes the jmynter'-^ 
caused him to be indicted for illegally maiv 
shalling the funeral of Sir Ualpb Assheton. 
He was tried at tlieStall'ord assizes and lined 
'Ml. He was the princii>al contributor to the 
Holme collection of manuscripts. He wos 
tlie iiutlior of a work— now exceedingly rare 
; — entitled: 'Tlie .Vcademy of Armory, or a 
storehouse of Armory and Blazon containing 
the several variety of created beings and how 
I biiriie in Coats of Arms, both Foreign nnd 
Domestic, with the Instruments used in all 
Trades and Sciences, together willi their 
terms of Art,' printed for the author at Ches- 
ter in llW.Hj ill three books, ending with an 
address to the reader promising a fourth book. 
Lowndes mentions a unique copy of a por- 
tion of Q fourth book. An edition of the 
three books dated 1701 was dedicated to 
William and Mary. The concluding address 
is said to have suggested to Dr. Johnson the 
form of the preface to his ' Dictionary.' An 
index to the work was printed in London in 
IWl. Holmr died in March 1099, aged 7l'. 
According to lleidnuui's "Ancient Liverpool' 
(]i. 5s ), II Kundle Holme was tapster at the 
'(iiilden Talbot' in Li\eqiool in llJU4. 

HoLMi;, Uaxdi.e ((/. 1707), genealogist, 
sou of the foregoing, continued the family 
collections of manuscripts to 1704. He mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Griffith Lloyd of 
Llanurmon, co. Denbigh. He died and was 
buried at Chester in 1707. 

The Holme collection of manuscripts, 
chiefly consisting of heraldic ami geneah)- 
gical memoranda connected with Cheshire 
and North Wales, in -'(iO volumes, were, after 
the fourth Kundle 1 iulmes's death, pui-clmsed 
by Francis (Jastrell q. v.], bishop of Ches- 
ter, acting in behalf of liobert Hurley, tinst 
earl of Oxford. In 17."i.". they were sold to 
the British Museum trustees, and are now 
numbered Harleiau MSS. 1920-2180. Au 


1 88 


♦xlnwt from Hwleittn MS. 1989 (f. 381) on 
Th»> Antiquity* ... of Cliesfer,' was printed 
in till' • Traiimn ft Jlort Je liny Itichurt ' 
<Kn(5l. Hist. Soc.^, \Mi>. 

lOfigiiiiil (loiMimeiils at the Piihllo Record 
Oftico; Hc'liiirt liy tho lliitoi-ie;il Manuscripts 
IVniniixxiun on llin imiiiiment> of the l'orp.>ni- 
tmn of Chcs(»r; .Mfiiioir of I hi- Holme family. 
j>rintM in tho Pr<>ce«linKi of the Lanouahire 
«n<l t'hc»hin< Histiiricttl tSocicty. l^t ser. vul. i. ; 
t^rnn'nM'* Hi-l.of Chcshiiv; Prrfncc to I Uij^lulf's 
VikilHtion of Lanc.ishire, Iflfll-o, Chetliam -Soc.] 

W. J. H-v. 

HOLMES, AlMtAHAM (,/. 168o), 
t»h«'l,i«>rvod in Scotland umh-r Mom-Is, hold- 
injt It nrnJor'A roinmiiision in 1 0o-t. but , fulling; 
\imW numiicion of disullV'Ction, wuit s«-ut to 
London to Im- nndi-r tlie I'rott'ctors eye 
0'> IVc.» llo was H fanatical anabaptist, 
«vnd «p|mrvnlly npposi'd to all si-ttli'd goveni- 
UX'iil, llo \VH>ia^'aiii in.Scotland with Montk j 
in Itt-Ml, and !<iKnod(l7 May ) a iiotition to 
i^nt'tinmont prayintj that I'ni'rjfeliosti'iisiuifrlil 
Im Inkcn t o count i'iiaiiri');iidlino>i.s, and viiidi- 
<><ilt> tlio ri^lita and liticrtii'!- of the nation. 
>*<'Mn nlti-r thin iMscomiiiissionwasi-uncL'lled 
h\ Monck. I'ponllie Itcsforation 1im becamo 
t(w rinjflcadi'r in a coiidpirucy to assassinate 
»Uo kinu, wax nrrrstivl, and was committed 
«« )iri*on ( H' -^'"y 1"**0), but soon rejj;alncd 
♦t»» lilnTty, ami ri'.iunu'd Iiis (dd devices. (Ju 
i.'lSont, 1(1(12 a waiTMiit wa.s issued tri ajipre- 
l\i>\\\\ liim and brin^' him before Secretary 
NtcUola*. In April l(i<U he was committed 
1« Winddor faniU', wlnTe lie was still in 
■ I i""nt ill Si')>tfniber ItMi". He was 
Ml llisl.inid on .Vrgyll's escajH; from 
r.i.'ii III Itei'i-nilK-r of that yearllolmes har- 
•sinii'il liini at his lodpin^'s in Loudon, dis- 
♦■•I.uih); h iniKidf as t he ollicer who liad nrresl ed 
lvln> when liord Loriie, but adding 'but now 
We an' ii|ion one side, and I will venture all 
• hi«l U d»nr tome to serve you "(seeC^JirBEIJ,, 
il'liliMMi, ninth Kabi. of Ahoyli.: Woi>- 
Hiiit, vf t/li' Svjferinii' iif thi' Church of 
«•/, ml, liiims, iii. !i;>t). On Argyll's 
I lo ll.illaml, Holmes acie<l as his agent 
Midon, and fell uniler suspicion of com- 
,V Ml the live House I'lot. (hi 2S .Tniie 
^»* was arrested and committed to the 
hni«e. Next day he was examined u>- to 
MklriilK of certain cipher letters found in 
•"•"•ion. and confessed lliat they related 
It to raise an insurrection in Scotland, 
ell ArK-yll, Mouuioiith, Uiussell, and 
xvt>r<\ pnr<ie<i. He was charged with 
•^'UMin, but was not brought lo trial. It 
fleiir wtielher he wasreleaseil or made 
«|«t, but he was in ll<dlaiul with Mon- 
III lii.s'i.accomiMiiiied him to England 

nuiaiiied him to England, 

iitlv lioliliiig only u colo- 

nel's commission, commanded a battalion of 
foot at Sedgemoor(f> July). Aftertlio battle 
ho was taken prisoner, stripped naked, and 
ciirrie<l to the house of a justice of the poaw, 
who clothed and committed him for trial. 
One of liis arms liail been shattered in tliu 
skirmish at Pliilip's Norton on '2~ .Time, and 
he cut it oft' himself in the justice's kit- 
chen witli u carving knife, lie was tried 
bv JeH'reys for high treason at Dorchester, 
plendeil guilty, and was executed ut Lyme 
on Vl Sept. The bystanders observed with 
superstitious awe that the horses that were 
first put to the sletlge to carry him to the 
gidlows could not be made to stir, and those 
with which they were replaced broke it in 
pieces. At the fo<it of tlie ladder he sat down, 
and asserted in a sjieech to the people that 
he and others had risked their lives for thn 
niHintenanceoftheprotestant religiont Wett- 
ii-n MiirtyrolDi/ii, ed. IHr.S, reprinted from 
the edition of 170.'), pp. iO" et seq.) 

[Thurloe .-strtto I'aVKTs, iii. 4«J ; Whitdlocko's 
Mem. p. 679; Bailliu's Letters (Biinu. C'Inb), 
iii. 438-9; NicoU's Diary (Hann. Club), p, 286; 
(^'dl. State Papers., Dom. 1660-1 p. 2(S9, 1661-2 
\<. 487, 1663-4 p. o4'2, 1667 p. 430; Hist. MSS. 
Comin. 6lh Rep. App. 633, 7lh I!cp. App. 364, 
'Jlh Kep. pt. iii. App. •> « ; DalrynipU-'s Monioirs, 
;;nd ed. i. 142; Sprat's Horrid Conspiracy, 3rd 
ed. 1686, pp. lIO-ll, App. 30; I'ouutainhall's 
Hist. Notices (Bann. CUib), ii. 471, 546, 553; 
Hist. Observes (Bann. Clidij.pp. 188, 206 ; Lut- 
tn-H''. Kelatiun of State Affiiirs. i. 352; Fos's 
Hist, of the Kcign of James H, eil. Bohn, p. 
428 ; Lord Loninlale's Mem. of the Keign of 
Jiiuifs II, p. 456 ; ToidiniD's Hist, of Taunton. 
uj. .Savage, pp. 448, 536 ; Inderwiok's Side- 
Lights on the Siniirts, p. 400 ; Maoaulav's Hist, 
of Hngluiid. i. 647.] J.M. R. 

HOLMES, .VLFRED n8.'?7-1876), rio- 
linisl and composer, son of Thomas flolmes 
of Lincoln, was born in London!) Nov. 1837. 
He was principal soprano boy at the Ora- 
tory, King William Street, Strand, about 
l,'s47. His father gave him his first Icssona 
in violin-]>luying : the study of Sjiohr's ' Vio- 
lin School ' and the practice of Hode, Baillot, 
and Kreutzer's music followed, with the re- 
sult that Holmes became a finished player 
before he was twenty. In July 1^7 be 
and his younger brother, Ileim-, his equal 
in talent and knowle<lge, played at the Ilay- 
market Theatre for Benjamin AVebster's bene- 
fit. About IWi Spohr heard them in England, 
and was delighted by their renderings of bis 
works; hut their formal introduction to the 
public as violinists was delayed until •> May 
IS.'iS, when they apjH^ared at the Ueethoven 
Koom.s, and their iierformance of Knlliwo<la's 
double concerto, and of soli by various com- 
posers won high prai«''. In I'^-iO tho| 




made the first of it series of concert tours on 
the contint-nt, begimiing with Brussels. In 
1 tSotJ t hey visited liormiiny and cri'uted much 
6<-tis'af ion. Spohr heard them at Cussel, and 
his favourable imprei*.sions of their playing 
were 8(1 tlioroii)?hly confirmed that he tledi- 
cnled to them his three prand duos for two 
violins, < )p. 148, l.JO, and 153 ( Spohk, Sel/ixt- 
fiinyrufi/iir, ii. 374). Vienpa was vi.«ited in 
llWr, Sweden 18')7-9, Deiimftrk 18ti0, Am- 
sterdam 1-St51. In 1^64, after some successful 
concerts in Paris, the brothers parted. Alfred 
Holmes settled in Paris, and established n 
quartet party, but, encouraged by Berlioz, 
devoted himself chiefly to composition. In 
l-^tiT, however, he played during a tour 
through Itelgium, Holland, (iermany, and 
liussin, and produced in April 18(>8 nt St. 
I'etersburg his symphony 'Jeanne d'Arc' 
This work was iierformed in 1S70 at the 
Th^4tre Italien, Paris, where it wa.* received 
with enthusiasm, and (m 2" Feb. 1875 at the 
Crystal Palace, Sydenham. Holmes's ' Jeu- 
nease <le Shakespeare,' fragments of a sym- 
phony, was given at a Concert Populaire 
( Paris) : and his opera ' Inez de Castro ' was 
ucoepted, although never performed, at the 
(crand (tpera, Paris. Holmes died at Paris 
4 March 1870, aged 38 ; a gympafbetic 
notice of liim by M. D. Nisard, ninmber of 
the French Academy, appeared in the ' Patrie' 
oftlie 7th of the same month. Not loirg after- 
wards, two overtures, 'The Cid' and ' The 
Muse«,' the last work from his pen, were 
produced in England. 

His works are: Symphonies — ' .Jeanne 
d'Arc,'for soli, chorus, orchestra, with French 
words; 'The Youth of Shakespeare," 'The 
Siege of Paris,' 1870; ' Hobin Hi>od,' pro- 
duced in Paris; 'Charles XII' and ' ilomeo 
and Juliet,' never produced. An opera, of 
which Sir .Michael Costa thought well, ' Inez 
de Castro,' 1869, in five acts, libretto by Louis 
Uhlbach. Overtures: 'The Cid' and 'The 
Musi'u," performed in London, 1>'7(J. Piece* 
for violin and pianoforte, including two noc- 
turnes, Op. 10, e. Op. 14; and 'La Lamen- 
tation,' Leipzig, Op. 8; pieces also for the 
piamiforte aloue, 

[Grove's Diet. i. 7*8; Fiti.i's Biogmphie 
UniviTvIlc (IfS MnBiciens, Supplement, i. 480 ; 
Musical Times, v. 176. 'i05; Musical WorM. liv. 
'iO'i; niiiliorities cited.) L. M. M. 

ndmirnl, fourth son of Henry Holmes, gover- 
nor of the Isle of Wight, by his wife Mory, 
t he il legit imntedaughterof Sir Itobert Holmes 
[n. v.], was baptised at Yarmouth, Isle of 
Wight, on lOSept. 1711. He was made lieu- 
tenant on 18 June \7-U. In 17;18 he was 
oerring in the Sunderland; in 1740 in the 

Pembroke, one of the Mediterranean Beet, 
under Haddock. He then went out to the 
West Indies as a lieutenant of the Tilbury ; 
was there moved into the Prince.<is Caroline, 
Vernon's ttagship, and on l'4 Feb. 1740-1 wa.* 
promoted to the command of the Slromboli 
hreship, serving with the Heel in the expe- 
dition to Cartagena, March -April 1741. On 
!) June 1741 he was moved into the Success, 
and retuniing in her to England was, on 
'20 Feb. 1741-i', |«)sted to the Sapphire, and 
employed during the next two years in cruis- 
ing against the enemy's privateers. In Decem- 
l)er 174."5 he was moved into the Cornwall, 
and in the following June into the Enter- 
prise, whicli be commanded for the next three 
years in the We.-t Indies. In May 1747 he 
was ttun»ferred (i> the L>-nno.\, a 70-gun ship, 
which, ill September 1748, sailed from Ja- 
maica in charge of the homeward trade, being 
herself so crazy that some twenty of her guns 
were taken out as a measure of precaution. 
In the (iulf of Florida, on 29 Sept., they 
fell in with the Spanish s(|uadron under 
Iteggio, on which Holmes directed the con- 
voy to make the iie^it of their way while he 
went himself in the Lennox to give the news 
to I'ear-admiral Knowles, whom lie believed 
to be olV Havana, and to reinforce him, in of an action. On the following evening 
he fell ill with Knowles, and at daylight on 
I Oct. the Spanish squadron came in sight. 
In the action that ensued [see KsowLEs, SlE 
Chablkm] the Lennox, by rea-iJon of her re- 
duced armament, was stationed to windward 
of the line as a frigate. Knowles afterwards 
comjilnined that several captains had l)een 
backward, and that Holmes esnt.'cially had 
lieeii guilty of disobedience and neglect of 
signals. Hence sprang a series of courts- 
martial, from which Holmes ahtne came out 
clear, the court not only acquitting him of 
the charges laid against him, but also pass- 
ing a warm eulogium on his conduct and 
zeal in joining Knowles before the action. 

In January 1753 Holmes was appointed to 
the .Vuson, guurdship at Portsmouth, and in 
175.") to the Grafton, one of the squadron sent 
out with liear-admind Holbume as a rein- 
forcement to IJoscawen in North America. 
In the following year he was again on the 
coast of North America, and on 26 July, 
cruising oft' I^^ouisbourg, with a broad pen- 
nant in the Orafton, and having under his 
orders the Nottingham, a fHJ-gun ship, and 
two small sloops, be met a French squadron 
of three 74-gun ships and three 32-gun fri- 
gates. The French ships, having been carry- 
ing froop.s to (Quebec, had not all their guns 
on board, and did not venture to pre«t an 
engagement, while Holmes desired to keep 


Ametittm autkm, Md ww wiik HolbwM 

bjr tW mmm of 24 Sepc [h» Hounnn, 
nuMnl !■ ■ATitian totW le«»of liw — iTi ■ 
thr Otalfaa lort hor nidicr,aad bOM obliged 
to bMr awaj fcr ^P^»»^ ihe ittco • par 
HMUer iBade of a (faie topaut (Bkatms, it. 
M; PATXS,AVri«/iriM<o«y,T.t(.% where iit«« 
k •■ketch of the unagcnknt). Eartriathe 
fellowiair year Hnlmwi m ibe Sta ht wa t, a 
amall fnirat«,uMl hariajriritii hia the Sttom- 
boli, wa« ipnt oxer to the eoast at Fiieaiaad, 
whctr the Fnnch and Anatiiaiia had taken 
fKnafioii of Emdynvitli afcwc of tote three 
tkootand men. On 18 March theae two little 
VMieU toi}k op a position in the Ena that . 
«al the eoemj'* cimmunicatioos. Thev at 
once decided that the place was no lonierer 
tTiahle, and eracuat«<d it the next daT, i>ome 
•,: < .'rlrheaTT bagc^e. which they attempted , 
^4o xnd up the river, fallintr into Holmes's 
hando (tiEkTM^x, ii. 160. iii. I'M). (>n hU 
i«tuni to England he was appointed to the 
Warvpite for a few montha, and on July 
wa« promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue, 
'flu; following year, with his flag in the 
l>uhliii, he waM third in command of the fleet 
in the St. Lawrence, under Sir Charles Saun- 
dcni q. V.]. and in the (iperations which re- 
kulted in the capture of Quebec. In March 
17'y) he wax appointed commander-in-chief 
nt .fnmaica. He arrived ther« in May, and 
diiritiK the next eighteen months waged a 
very nucci-'Mful war against the French com- 
raorce. »e»eral rich prizes falling to his 
cruiser*. He rlied at Jamaica on 21 Xov. 
irOI. There i» a monument to his memory 
iu West minfter Abbey. 

rChnniock'it Biog. X«t. r. 1 93 ; Beatoon's Xav. 
Jiijil Jill. Mi'iiioi™, voU. i. iiml ii. ; Vnrmouth Re- 
(jiKler. lh^>u^.'ll the iiuv. (i. Quirk: officiul d^viu- 
nii'ntu in iliu I'uMic Uet-onl Office.] J. K. L. 

HOLMES, EmV.A.UI) (1707-1850), 
writer on mutsic, lx>rn in 17'.i7, waa a schixil- 
fidlow and great friend of Kents at Charles 
('liirke'g school at Enfield. Witli hU school- 
master's son, Charles Cowden Clarke '(\. v.1, 
he was intimate through life. \\'lii.'n young, 
Holmes was very linndsomi-. He was ap- 
preuliced to Uonert H. Seeley, the b<X)K- 
seller, but suljse(iuently chose the profession 

wiweaaaeea«»tof the trip, lie taught thn 
in H^aola, and wrote the maned 
far the'Atlaa'froM ita comBenee- 
■eat ia lasa, and latar fer the • Spectator : ' 
ha also eaatnhated aeeatioaal articles to 
' Fraao's Magnin^,' aad aaar papers to the 
'MmmedTima.' HolMaAed 4Sept. 1S59. 
L«t« in Gie he amxicd tks Mterirf his friend 
^cftoe WeUt. hot left w> isMe. 

His waAa are : I. 'A lUadile aaioa^ the 
M iw i riaw of 6«nnaaT, giriafr aome accooat 
of the Opens of Mnaii^ Dresden. Berlin 
. . ..'wnttCBfarthepropsietaisof thf ■Arl.'L':,' 
Loadaa,1838,8ro(itreBehedat>! i. 

i. 'The Life of Mosait,' Loador 
baaedoaKtssea'* biography. S^ 'Aiuutical 
aad TWiaatie Oatalogae o^ Moaart's Piaiii>- 
forte Works.' IKi 4. 'Critical Essay on 
the Requiem of Mosart,' prefixed to the music 
in Xo Velio's edition. IlVvt, hto. ii. ' Life of 
Parcell,' for Novello's edition of that com- 
poser's saci«d music Among his papers in 
the 'Moaeal Times' ate a series on the Eng- 
lish glee and madrigal composers (vol. i\\), 
analvses of the masaes of Beethoven. Haydn, 
and ^oxart ; addenda to the * Life of Mozart ' 
(viii.); and the first of a series on the'Culti- 
Tation of Domestic Music,' which he did not 
live to complete. C)f his songs, ' My Jenny' 
was the most popular. Holmes's armngement 
of Mozart's 'Te Iteum* was published in 1M4. 

[Private information: Musical Times, ix. 125: 
C. and M. Cowden Clarke's ReeoUertions of 
Writers, passim; Letters of C. LamK e>l. Ainger. 
ii. 12"l, 197: Grove's Dictionary of Slusio, i- 744; 
Mendrl'^i Musikali&ches CoDrrr!Uti>>i>8-I>'xikoD, 
V. 274 ] L. M. M. 

HOLMES, GEORGE (.//. 1678-1715), 
organist and composer, perhaps a son of 
Thomas Holmes and grandson of John 
Holmes (_//. ItMW) [q. v.], was in 1K98 or- 
ganist to the Bishop of Durham, Nathaniel, 
lord Crewe, formerly dean of the Chapel 
Royal. From 1704 till about I7l'i Holmes 
wori organist to Lincoln Cathedral. He con- 
tributed several catches to the ' M usical Com- 
panion ' in lt(73. .V toccata for singlf or 
double organ, believed to be by Holmes, in 
u book of organ music once in his possession 
( Addit. M.S. ;U44l)), a suite for harpsichord 
(I'A. 314()r))|andan oirorbrnwle for two trebles 
and a bass (ili. 31421), No. tJ4j arc preserved 

in tlie Uritish Miisfiim Library, as Wfll as 
Iwiiuntli'Miis iiiTiiJwiiv's 'Collection' (Harl. 
MS. 7;J4l, jip. '-'M, 4V?)— 'Arisf. sliino, O 
Dniiffliter nt' Zioii,' 1701), writti'n on llie oc- 
eusiou of tilt' union of Enjjlunil and Scot- 
land, und '1 will InvpTliet?'— and the Funeral | 
StTvii-.. (Addit. MS. 17820). OtLi-r of hig I 
ttnt lieins art- said to be in the choir-books of 
Lancoln. The music of Holmes'* ' Ode for 
St. t'ecilitt's Day ' no longer e-vista ; but 
amunj|( his published music i.s • A Verse on 
St. Cecilia's l>ay,' 1715, in which BacchuH is 
said In (Trace the occaaion. The sonps ' Tell 
me, litlle wanton boy,' ' Celia's invitation,' 
• The Hesoliition,' and ' The Man loves best/ 
i»r«i also ascril)ed to Holmes, 

[WwhI* MS. l-ivcK of MnsicinnB;'s 
Cblebnttious, p. oS : Omvc's JJict. of Music, i. 
74-1 ; Mr. Julian Marshall's mumoranduiu in 
abovd'Hientioiiiil ori^in-book.] L. M. M. 

HOLMKs, I ; i:( ) u( 1 K n wij - 1 749 > , ' 

iLTchivist, Ixtrn at .Skipton in Craven, York- I 
shire, in IttG'J, became about lOO.'i clerk lo I 
Sir William Petyt, keeper of the records in , 
the Tower of London, and for nearly sixty I 
years acted a,s deputv to Petyt, and fiis sue- , 
censors Topham ami Polhill. He was also 
barrack-master at the Tower, a fellow of 
ihe Koyal Society, an early fellow of (ho 
Society of Antiquaries, and a member of ; 
thc(ientlemen'sSocietyat SiMildinp. Browne i 
Willis, Or. Tovey, Dr. William Richardson, | 
and other antiquaries (rratefully acknow- 
]i.Hi);ed his assistance. From October 1707 
UDtU his death he was employed, on the 
nominal i<m of lx)rd Ualifa.x, chairman of 
coinmiltees in the House of Commons, to ar- 
n»in.'e the re<'oriU deijosited in the Tower at 
A salary of 200/. lie died 10 Feb. 1748-9. 
He married the dau^jhterofa sword-cutler in 
Fleet Street named Marshall. An only son, 
(Jeorjre, received his education at Kton, and 
vras clerk underhisfathor, but died at the age 
of twenty-five, many vears before him. Mrs. 
1Iolme.«, who survived her husband, received 
•jaOI. from the povernment and JIK)/. for her 
hnaband's manuscripts ndatincf to the public 
reconis, which were dep<)sited among the 
official dix;uments at the Tower. 

Holmes pn'pared the first »eTenteen 
Tolumps of the second edition of Rymer's 
• Fcwlera,' "20 vols., Loud., 1727-3o, fol. He 
odlatml the documents with the oriifinals in 
the Tower, and supplied many imraffraphs 
ttnd lines omitletl in the former eaition. Be- 
fore this ion a set of the seventeen 
volunn* was sold for a hundred guineas. The 
Wl threo volumes are the same for both 
itlition.''. The .seventeenth volume of the 
Mcond edition contains a general index to 
all tlu! preceding volumes 

When Peter Le Neve, presiilcnt of the 
SiK-iety of Antiquaries, jirojiosed, iu .lunuary 
1721-2, to collect accounts of all the ancient 
coins relative to (ireat Britain, Holmes un- 
dertook to describe the Sajcon coins in the 
possession of Councillor Hill; but the pro- 
ject WHS ultimatcdy abandoned. 

Holmes's curious collection of books, 
prints, anil coins was sold by auction in 
1749. His portrait was enjrravedbyO. Ver- 
tue for the .Society of .Vntiqiiaries, from a 
paintin^j: by I!, van Bleeck. 

[Nichols's Lit. Aiieod. i. 386, 480, iii. 617, iv. 
.543, T. 3.i3. vii. 184; Xiohnls's lUuslr. of Lit. 
iv. l.W, 441 ; Lowmles's Bilil. Mmi. (Boha), p. 
2lfil : .\ddir. MS.'^. 5833 f. 160 h, 5853 rp- 494, 
495.6183 f. 36.J T. C. 

HOLMES, JAMES (1777-1860). painter, 
born in 1777, was first apprenticed to an en- 
jjraver. He made somi* jirogreas in engrav- 
ing, and in 1800 engraveil in stipple a por- 
trait of Thomas Clio Hickman after Hazlitt. 
On the termination of his appri'nticesliip ho 
gave up engraving and turni-d his attention 
to water-colour painting. In 1813 he became 
a member of the Societyof Painters in Water- 
colours, and sent t wo pict ures, • Hot Porridge * 
and ' The Married Man,' to their exhibition. 
He continued to contribute small-subject pic- 
tures and an occasi'mal portrait to that exhi- 
bition until 1820. In IHIH he exhibited two 
miniatures at the Royal Academy, and about 
the same time was led to try painting in oils. 
In 1822 he ceased to be a member of the 
Society of Painters in Water-colours, and 
actively a.ssisted to establish the Society of 
British Artists, who held their first exhibi- 
tion iu Sntlblk Street in 1824. Holmes 
became a member in 1829, and a constant 
exhibitor, chiefiy in miniatures, up to 18,50, 
when he resiyiied his membership. He de- 
voted himself latterly to miniature-painting, 
and had many distinguished sitters. He 
painted some miniature portniits of Lord 
By ron, t wo of wh ich were engraved. Holmes's 
])aintingswere esteemt-d for careful finish and 
giwxl colour. Ilis genial character aiul musi- 
cal talents gained him the personal friendship 
of (ieorge IV. Holmes retired to sjiend his 
later years in .Shromhire, and died on 24 Feb. 
I 1860. Some of his pictures were engraved 
for publications, such as 'The Amulet,' 'The 
Literary Souvenir.' &c. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Omvet'sDict. of 
Artists, 176U-1880 ; Exhibitioo Catalogues 1 

L. C. 

HOLMES, JOHN (,/l. li!02). composer, 
and organist first nt Winchester Cathedral 
and afterwards atSuli*biirvCathedral( 1(X)2- 
lijlu), wosthemasterof Aclrian Batten[q. v.] 

and Edward I^we. He wrote for Morley's 
'Triumphs fif Oriiina,' 1001, the fiTe-{>art 
madrigal, 'Thus Bonnyboots the birthday 
ci-lebrated.' His manitscript anthem, 'I 
will i^ive laud,' is in the library of the Roval 
College of Music : u short part-song for fjve 
voices. ' Lift up your eies,' in No. 37 of a 
collectifra of fiuitusies, &c. ( Addit. MSS. 
1778<>-91. His anthem, ' I will sing,' is in 
Hackton"8 'Collection' (Addit. MS. 30932, 
No. lOo). 

Thomas Holmes, prolxibly « son, was lay- 
vicar of Winchester in ltj."?l,wasagentlenuin 
of the Chnjiel lioyul in ltx53, and died at 
Sttli.sbury on 2o March ltJ38. Some of his 
catches apjhMired in Hilton'* ' Catch that 
Catch Can.' ItiOi'and WiiH. (4eorge Holmes 
{Jt. \ti73 171o) [q. v.] may have been his son 
or nephew, 

[W.MiJ's MS. Lires of Musieinnu; Rirabaulfs 
Old Che.(ue Book r)r the l'hnp«l Rovul. p. 210 ; 
Orovo'i Diet, of Mnsie. i. 74*.] L. M. M. 

HOLMES, SiK .JOIIX (1640P-108:}), ad- 
miral, brother of .Sir Robert Holmes [q. v.], 
wa.s in UKi lieiilenanr of the .Jersey, com- 
manded by hi.s brother Robert in her eventful 
voyage to the Guinea coast and New York. 
From the .lersey he wa.> moved into the Cen- 
. turion, was lieiiteimiit of the Paul in the ac- 
tion olF liowestol't on ;'. June lOOo, lUid com- 
manded her in the four days' fight, 1-4 .luno 
llWMi. In the St. .lames's daylight, 'Jo .July 
It^li, he commnnded the Bristol, one of his 
brother's seconds, but remained in the line 
with the red squadron wlien Sir Robert was 
oblifeil to quit Ills stiition. lie was after- 
wiirds detached iu the squadron which, under 
his lirother's command. destp>yed the Dutch 
shijiping at Vlie and Schelling, and in recog- 
nition of his service on that oci-rision was ad- 
vanced to the command <<( the Triumph, a 
second riite. In IfilW he successively com- 
manded the Fidcoii and the Kent, iind in 
IWilt he WMnt i>ut with Sir Thomiis Allin to 
the Mediternmeun in command of the Non- 
such. He wiir. afterwards captain of the 
Bristol and of iheiluimond underSir Edward 
Spragge [q. v.] during the Algerine war of 
1070 1. In lt>7:.* lie commnnded the Glou- 
cester, one of the ships which reinforced Sir 
Rob<-rt Holmes in the attack on the Hutch 
Smyrna fleet, and took a distinguished part 
in the renewed action on 13 .March, in which 
lie wan severely wounded by n small shot in 
the breast i Sladdon to Ellis, 15 Marcli, Statr 
I'ltprff, Dom. Charli'S II, cccxx. ; Relation of 
the Engagement with the Dutch Smyrna fleet, 
ill.) l''or his gallantry on this occasion John 
received the honour of knighthood, and was 
appointed totht Rupert, whichhe commanded 

^ in the battle of Solebay, 2i* May 1G7'J, and in 
I the three several at-tions of lli".'). After the 
last of these, on 1 1 .Vug., he wa.s appointed t4»j 
the Royal Charles as first captain to Princ 
Ruj>ert, in which capacity he served fill the 
peace. From lt>77 to I'j"!' he was admiral 
and commander-in-chief in the Downs, witk . 
his flag on board (he Montague, and after 
wards the Captain, in which last he is said," 
though on perhaps doubtful authority, to 
have lieen authorised to hoist the union flag 
at the main (CilARXocK). It was his last 
service at sea. In February 107*5 7 he was 
returned to parliament for Newtown, Isle of 
AN'ight, which he represented iu successive 
parliaments till his death in ItlS.'l. Uurir 
' the short parliament of February -July ]<i7S 
I liLs colleaane in the representation of New- 
town was John Churcdiill, afterwards duke 
I of Marlborough. In June a scandalous ad- 
' venlureof Churchill's was related to the king 
I by in a manner which Churchill 
I thought to his prejudice. He accordingly 
' challengetl Holmes, ' who. fighting, disarmed 
I him, Churehiir(//(>^..V *■<*>. Cohiwi. 7th Rep. 
Apj). 473 n). He was buried at Yarmouth in 
the Isle of Wight on -3 June lti83 ( !«;•- 
mouth lieiji'ter, communicated by the Rev. 
1 1 . Quirk ) ; but let! ers of adm in tslrat ii m to his 
will Were granted in London un the 13th, 
ten days earlier. 

On 4 .Vpril IfitW he morried Matxaret, 
daughter ol .Sir Willium Lowther of JIarske, 
first baronet of that branch of the family. He 
is described as at this time a bachelor aged 
about twenty-eight, the bride as al>oul twenty 
(Chkstek. Loiithin Afdrrini/r Limm-xs. Thi* 
marriajje, Pepys says, was ' by stealth, wliich 
I was sorry for, he beiii;,' an iiUe rascal and 
proud, and worth little, I doubt ; and she a 
mighty pretty welWlisposeil lady, and g<iod 
fortune ' (Diary, 8 April lt><>8 ). The marriage 
seems to have been displeasing tn SirUobt>rr 
Holmes, but the bmthers cannot have qiiar- 
rcdled perraaiiently,forRnIjert whs named the 
guardian of John's six children, all minors 
at his death, and in his own will in 1(5!):? re- 
members two sons, Robert and John, and a 
daughter Klizabeth, as well as their mother. 
Dame Margaret. The other children would 
seem to have died in infancy. The John 
Holmes, a naval captain in 1HI>7 and Ui~'i, 
who is described by Charno<-k (£iii>;, A'«r. i. 
lt>3) as a son of Sir John, does not appear to 
have been any relation. 

[Chariiock's lliog. NaT. i. 104; other peferenots 
in tlie text.] J. K. L. 

! HOLMES, JOHN ( 1«00-18.V1'), anti- 
quary, son of Nathaniel Holmes, who did 
I at Derby on 18 Dec. 1*40, aged 78, was 





born at Deptford in Kent on 17 July 1800, 
4uul brou^Lt up as a bookseller in the houM 
of John Lt'puril, 108 Strand, London. He 
•wm) al'terwarda for a short time in businesa 
•t Derby on his own account. His catalogue 
-of n collection of oriental book.i, and an- 
other of the Hattle Abbey charters, compiled 
■for John Cochrane, bookseller, 108 Strand, 
in IKK), recommended him to the notice of 
Lionls IJexley and < ileneljf, and t hrough their 
inten'st he was, on 15 Jan. 1830, appointed 
« temporary awistant in the deiiortment of 
manui-cripts, British Museum, where hewa« 

Promoted to be a senior ajisistaiit in April 
837, and was assistant-keeper from 6 May 
1850 until his death. In 1840 he contributed 
a bioifmpbical list of the French ambassadors 
to Kutrlaiid to the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
xiv. 4K{-", iiO)<-lU; in May 1843 he sent an ; 
article on ' Libraries and Catalogues ' to the 
* Quarterly Ue%iew,' btxii. 1-25, and to ' A 1 
Relation of England, translated from the I 
Italian,' edited for the Camden Society by | 
Miss Charlotte A. Sneyd in 1847, he supplied 
an account of the \'enetian ambassadors to 
England. lie was the ad»'iser of Bertram, 
fourth earl of Akhburnhom, in the formation I 
of his famouscollectionof manuscripts, which 
was gold in 1883-4. While at the Museum 
he compiled with great CAre catalogues of the 
Arundel, Bumev, and other collections of 
nuscripts, and was at the time of his death 
tBgoged on a ' Catalogue of the Manuscript 
Maps and Plan.'< found dispersed in different 
eollections and fortbe most part undescribed.' 
He died at 4 Park Terrace, llighgat«, on 
I April l8o4. His library was sold by Put- 
tick & Simpson on lo June 18o4. He mar- 
ried, 8 Sept. 1832, Mary Anno, eldest daugh- 
ter of Charles Uivington, bookseller, of St. 
Paul's Churchyard, by whom ho leftl four 
chililren. She died at Highgate on 8 Feb. 
1870. The i>econd son, Richard Rivington 
Holm»», wa« appointed librarian in ordinary 
to the queen at Windsor in (October 1809, I 
wid kpi-])<>r of the prints and drawings on [ 
2i' - ^11. j 

' works mentioned above.Holmes 
' ir e<litor of: I. ' A Catalogue of 
in different Languages, now 
.lohn Cochrane,' 1829. 2. ' Cata- 
logue of the ManiL^criptu, Ma|)S, Charts in 
tlje British Miiseum.' 1844. 3. ' The Life of 
Mn>. Go<lulpbiu. By J. Evelyn. With notes,' 
)H|- - 'V.r edition, 1848'. 4. ' The Life of 
C- Isey. By O. Cavendish,' 18r>2. 

•••lical Biography. ByC. Words- 
■th, with notes,' 1863. 6. ' Some Corre- 
n.I.rii-.- .11 liiH irninl of 1,800/. to the 

:-■,' 1863. 7. 'A 


VOL. xxru. 


grant of 1,800/. to th« National School of 
Ilighgate,' 1853. 

[«ent.Miig.l8S4,ii.87-«iAthen»tim, 14 April 
1854, p. 465.1 O. C. B. 

HOLMES, JOHN BECK <1787-1843), 
Moravian bishop, was born at Copenhagen 
on 3 Nov. 1767. In 1780 he was sent to the 
academy at Cisky, and thence to the JIo- 
ravian Theological Seminary at Barby. In 
1 791 he was appointed a teacher in Fiilneck 
school, near Bradfonl, where he remained 
until 1799, in which year he entered on his 
duties as a pastor of the Moravian church at 
Wyke, Yorkshire. By 1818 he waa pastor 
of the congregation in Dublin, whence he 
returned to Fulneck a.1 bishop of the church 
there. lie died on 3 Sept. 1843, and was 
buried at Fulneck (R. V. Taylor, liiographia 
Leodieiuu, p. 401 ). Under the name of John 
Holmes he published: I.' Historical Sketches 
of the Missions of the United Brethren for 
Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen, 
from their commencement to the present 
time,' 8vo, Dublin, 1818. 2. ' History of the 
Protestant Church of the United Brethren,' 
2 vols. 8vo, London, Bradford (printed), 
1825-;J0, of which a trivial abridgment was 
issued in 1854. 

[Holmes's Works.] O. G. 

D.D. (lo9".*- 1678), puritan divine, son of the 
Rev.GeorgeHolmesofKiug.Hwood in Glouces- 
tershire, was born in 1599 in Wiltshire. He 
matriculated on 11 April 1617 aa a fellow- 
commoner of Magdalen Hall, O.tford, whence 
he migrat«d to K.xeter College. He was ad- 
mitted B.A. on 19 Oct. 1620. He appears 
to have then returned to Magdalen flail, 
taking his degree of M.A. in 1623 as a 
member of that house (Oj/. Unit. Reg., 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., n. ii. 360, iii. 388). He 
had previously taken orders and became a 
freq^uent preocher in the neighbourhood of 
Oxford. He took the degrees in divinity, 
B.D. in 1633, and D.D. in 1637, as a mem- 
ber of Exeter College. His views in- 
clining strongly to Calvinism, he wag among 
the earliest of the ministers who subscribed 
to the covenant, and wos prvsented in 1643 
to the rectory of St. .Mary Staining. Holmes 
soon changvd his views, and, booming a 
millenarian. Joined Ileury Burton, if.D. 
[q.v.], mmister of St. Matthew's, Friday 
Street, in establishing an independent con- 
gregation toward.^ the end of lt>43. Wood 
states ( Al/ifHie O.ron.ed. Bliss, iii. 1108) that 
he had several congregations in the country, 
which he visited 'like a bishop of a diocese' 
from time to time : one of them was at Dover 






to lia\e jjtuif to liear Holmes 
pKMJh atWhiteluiU IJ PVb. Id59-ti0 (Diary 
1. •27). On the enforcemeul of the Act of Coo- 
formity in 1662, Holmeti ^re up his cure, 
and went to reside in the parish of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate, where he either kept or fre- 
quented conventicles. Re died in June ltl78, 
and was buried in .St. Mary, AJdennanbury. 
Althouf^h a millenarian, he only inculcated a 
spiritual and purified liberty to be enjoyed by 
the saints, and no sensual license. lie is said 
to have been well skilled in Hebrew. 

lie published, besides sermons : 1. ' Usury 
is Injury,' London, 1640, 4to. '2. 'Vindica- 
tion of Baptizing Believers' Infants, in some 
Animadversions upon Mr. Tombes, his Exer- 
cilttlions about Infant Baptii-me,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1646, 4to. 3. ' Diemonologie and Theo- 
logie, the first the Malady, &c., the second the 
Remedy,' &c., London, 1660, 8 vo. 4. 'The 
Mischiefe of Mixt Communions fidly dis- 
cussed,' &c., London, 1650, 4to. n. ' Song 
of Solomon. X Commentary ... on the 
whole Book of Cant ides,' 1650, 8vo. 6. 'Ec- 
clesiosl ica Methermeneutica, or Church Cases 
cleared,' 1652, 8vo. 7. ' The Resurrection 
revealed, &c. : I. That Chiliasme, or the 
opinion of tlie future glorious state of the 
t'tiiirch on earth ... la no errour. II. < If 
the manner iind measure of burning the 
world ... 111. Tdiic'hing Gog and Magog 
. , . IV. Concerning Covenants,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1661, fol. 8. ' Exercitfttions on the 
Chiliasme, the Burning of the World, of 
Gog and Magog, the two Witnesses, and the 
Character of Antichrist,' London, l(i64, fol. 
9. ' Miscellania ; consisting of three trea- 
tises : I. Exercitations extricated, &c. II. A 
Review of, or a fresh Enquiry after (lOg and 
Magog, where to find them. III. Some 
Glimpses of Israel's Call approaching,' &c., 
London, 166tj, fol. 10. ' An Essay concern- 
ing the Sabbath,' London, 1673, 8vo. 

[Kounett'»Eocle8.Chron.i. 563,827; Palmer's 
Nonconf. Mem. i. H9 ; Wood's .\ther.T Oxon. ec3. 
Bliss, ill. 1168: Atkyns's Oloiicestersbire, ed. 
1768, p. 269 ; Boase's Register of Exeter College, 
p. 260.] A. C. B. 

HOLMES, Sib ROBERT (1622-1092), 
admiral, governor of the Isle of Wight, thiril 
son of Henry Holmes of Mallow, co. Cork, 
and brother of Sir John Holmes [q. v.], served 
during the civil war in the royalist army, 
and after the king's death in the serai-pirati- 
eiil squadron of Prince Rupert. Ac<;ordinp 
to his monument he afterwards distinguished 
himself in foreign service. He seems tu have 
been especially attached to the Duke of Y<irk, ' 
and pnibnMy served with him in the P'rench 
army under Turenue. At the liestoration, i 


when the Duke of York became lord high ad- 
miral, Holmes was appointed to command the 
Bramble, from which he was shortly after- 
wards moved into the Henrietta. In October 
1660 he was appointed also captain andgover- 
norof SandowD Castle in the Isleof Wight , and 
about thesamet ime sailed to the Guinea coast 
for the protection of trade. On his return in 
the following summer he brought back with 
him ' a great baboon,' apparently a chimpan- 
zee or gorilla (cf. Mureay, (ieoyraphktillHt- 
tributioii of Mammals, p. 77), which Pepys 
thought must have had a human progenitor 
{Dian/,'24 -Vug. 1(361 ). He was then appointed 
captain of the lioyal Charles, but in Novem- 
ber was superseded and sent up to town to 
answer a charge • of letting the Swedish am- 
bassador go by him without striking his tlag ' 
(ib. 12 Nov. ; Ceil. State PaperA,l)ova. 17 Nov. 
1661). A few weeks later he was troubling 
Pepys's devotions by appearing at church 
'in his gold-laced suit {Diary, 22 Hec.), 
and in 1662 he was appointed to the Reserve, 
to which ship Pepys got his mathematical 
tea<;her, a man named Cooper, put in as 
master (I'A. 7 Aug. ltJ62). Some months 
afterwards Holmes insisted on Cooper being 
removed from the ship, and, on Pepys sup- 
porting h\»protfyi, a quarrel broke out which 
left Pepys iu ' a natural fear of being chal- 
lenged ' by Holmes. Pepys got out of the ditH- 
eulty by 'finding Cooper a fuddling, trouble- 
some fellow, and so ueing content to have 
him turned out of his place' (I'A. 22, 24 March 
ltj62-3). The incident probablv explains the 
very unfavourable opinion of Holmes which, 
after tliis date, the ' Diary ' frequently ex- 

Towards the autumn of 160:? Holmes was 
appointed to the Jersey, and with a imtHl 
squadron again sent out to the coast of Africa 
tosupportthe Royal African Company against 
the encroachments of the Dutch. lie sailed 
in October, and, coming to the river Gambia, 
found the English and Portuguese factors 
eloquent on the subject of Dutch usuraition, 
violence, rapine, ani treachery. The Dutch, 
it was said, had seizetl English fai-lories, 
driven ship oft" the coast, claimed 
the monopoly of the trade, and stirred up 
the natives to wage war against, the Eng- 
lish. Ilnlmes wa« instructed to avoid ho«- 
tilitlesasfaras possible; but, on endeavouring 
to open negotiations with the Dutch gover- 
nors, his ships were fired at, his messengers 
beaten or Uillf>d, and all amicable proposals 
rejected. He wns thus forced to take posses- 
sion of the Dutch settlements one after the 
other, including Gorce, Cape Coast, Aga, 
and .\nnamaboe. From the coast of Africa 
Holmes then stretched across the Atlantic, 




and in Au^iut 1664 ousted the Dutch from I 
the posMSMioa of the New Xetherlnnds nnd I 
their aettlement of New AmatordHin, which 
in Kngliah hands became New York. He 
then returned to England, where, in conse- 
quvnce of the representations of the Dutch, 
be w«A committed to the Tower pending an 
examination into the incidents of his voyage 
(i"A. 9 Jan. ; Cal. Staff Pa/^rt, Dora. iS Jan., 
M Feb. \m^U). Meantime the Dutch had 
tesA kuTt«r with a strong squadron to the 
COMt of Africa, when? he recaptured the forts 
taken by Holmes, and, crossinjf to the West 
Indies, made many prizes. Letters of re- 
prisal were issued by both nations, and the 
exunination of Holmes was naturally not 
rery aevere. He drew \ip a detailed narra- 
tive, supporting; his principal statements by 
formal depositions, and showed that his in- 
atructions warranted his conduct. On 6 March 
ldd4-5 he was released from arrest (ih. ; 
Pkpw, 14 March), and on 23 March he re- 
ceived ' a general pardon and for all 
felonies and oftVnces in England or else- 
whcn?.' The blame of the war which fol- | 
lowed is frequently laid on Holmes. If his 
narrative be true, he acted with judgment, 
prudence, skill, and courage. The facts, how- 
ever, as described by ^'alkenburg, the Dutch 
governor of Elmina, on whom Holmes laid 
the chief blame, are scarcely to be recognised 
a« the same {State Pnj>rrii, Dom. Charles II, 
cxiv. 19, 20, 68; BRtSDT, Vie df Uuyter, 
p. 245). It can only be said that Holmes had 
not the temptation to attack the Dutch that 
Vallienburg had to attAck the English, and 
hi* evidence is at least as trustworthy. 

Holme« was now appointed captain of the 
Revenge, one of the white squadron, under 
Rnpert, in the action olT Lowestoft on 3 June 
10S5. On the strength of his reputation here 
■eqairis] he requested to Ije promoted to the 
fla^ of rtiar-odmiral of the white, vacant bv 
tb* doath of .Sansum. The Duke of \or\i 
rttfiiaad, and gave the flag to HarmaM [see 
IliKiiAJi, Sir JonN], on which Holmes 
banded his commission to the duke, who tore 
it up PriTue Kupert, it is said, had, by the 
dn)> iideavoured todisgundellolmes 

flfOti' I' ; but he ' would do it, like a 

nth, pruuil •?<ixcomh. He is rich, and sought 
Ml occasion of leaving the service' (Pepts, 
Ifl June: Coventry to .\rlington, 1!1 June, 
Cal. State Paper; Dom.) Yet early in the 
foil'. r the duke apiiointed Holmes 

to ' • •', a ship still on the stocks, 

will rir-hiil on iTMarch. Theking, 

wii ' Hid Prince Uuperl , waspresent 

at 1 1. ;^ Miiy. and conferred on Holmes 

the li i: I IcnightluKxl. When the fleet 

wa« r> iiiM.!' l\'-<\ nn MU May, Holmes was no- I 

minated rear-admiral of the red ( State Pajiert, 
Dom. Charle.'i II, clvii. 57), over the head of 
Harmau, who remained rear-admiral of the 
white. In the great fight of four days 
(1-4 June) Holmes was said to have dis- 
played the greatest gallantry, ' to have done 
wonders' {C'nI. State i'a^)erj<, Dom. 5,7June). 
Apparently the Defiance sustained such da- 
mage as to render it necessary for her to be 
sent in to refit, and Holmes hoisted his flag 
on board the Henry. 

In the fight of St. James's day, 26 July, 
the Henry, having lost her top-masts, hauled 
towindwaril out of the line to repairdamages; 
and meantime the red and white si^uadrons, 
having forced the opposing van and centre of 
the eiu'my to bear up, followed them to lee- 
ward in a running fight which lasted all 
through the next day. In the rear the battle 
was more obstinately contested, and Holmes, 
when again ready for action, took his place 
in the blue squadron. In the afternoon of 
the 26th tlie Dutch rear, being also put to the 
run, was cha.sed towards the coast of Hol- 
land. As night clo9<?d in they hud sighted 
the main body of the English fleet, and ought 
to have been driven into it ; but the admiral 
of the hi ue squadron. Sir Jen-my Smyth [q. v.], 
on the advice of his pilot that they were 
getting into dangerous navigation, hauled to 
the wind and gave up the pursuit, thus per- 
mitting the flying enemy to escaiie from what 
seemed certain destruction (State Papers, 
Dom. Charles II, dxv. 1, 2). Holmes, still 
with the blue squadron, was indignant. It 
is said that he fired guns at .Smyth's ship to 
compel him to renew the chase, and that be 
called Smyth a cowani publicly in the pre- 
sence of the generals (I'A. 41). The matter 
was reported to the king, who ordered a court- 
martial to be held (5 Aug. 1666; I'A. clxvi. 
86). It seems to have referred the question 
back to the king, who acquitted Smyth of 
cowardice, but reprimanded him for having 
' too easily yielded to the single opinion of 
his pilot '( lA. Entr\' Itook, xxiii. 2(S4). It 
was reporte<l that llolmesand Smyth ^ught 
a duel, which was probably true, and that 
Holmes wits killed, which was certainly falae 
(f'al. State Pajtert, Dom. 1 Nov.; Peptb, 
.'II Oct.liMW). AccordingtoPepysthequarrel 
extended in the fleet ; the Dukeof Allwmarle 
supported Smyth, while Kupert favoured 
Holmes, ' an idle, proud, conceited. Ihuagh 
stout, fellow ; ' and olKcere and men ranged 
themselves on one side or the oilier, to the 
utter sub\'er«ion of elfective iliscipline (»A. 
20,2fi Oct. lf!»W; .S Anril D«W|. It apjKWira 
certain that the disripline of the flci't did at 
this time become very bad, and partly |N'r- 
I hups from this cause ; but the uon-imyma 





I of lln> »o«jntin'» wugus wm of more import- 

Tn t'lillow (ij) tlioir victory on St. James's 
|dn\.tlii< Koniiriilx clctitchtxl Holmes with a 
I iiiiiitl) i«)iiiulr<iii uiid n Inixliiij^r party to de- 
iitllM> t)ii> «liitipiii|{ lit till' ielnnd.s of Vlie and 
, 8\Mi»Miii)(. On H AuK- lit' WHS off the liar- 
Ivviur; two nu<>i-<jl-war that attempted its 
lf>\- .1i'iv<>« «Miort< and burnt; the 

ft)< "• n-tt ; liolwoen 160 and 1(50 

■ I", niiwtly of large sixe and 
•n, oulwanl or homeward bound 
kuii'n, wen- dtvslroyed ; and then 
bn> •!\\r\>». lilUnl with Ka»t Indian 
|U. w.T-,. .i)mi )fi\en to the ilnmeg. 
«a* bn.iu(jhl away, but 
' the On toll waa enor- 
fl "le iif the blow broUKht 

;i> Holmes for intlictiug 
^lUU of the time ia happier than 

l\^'1»*W« 1N> WMv (t^vinn Uianks to Heaven, we 

> M.-i<iry with h second crowned . . . 
' «i»r« ihiok with boneflres large and 

[ }\\\\ lliilm<-a une liunonn) iniiile waa worth them 

{Hw tMtH Holmm, Am Bon^re; cf. Cat. Stalt 
Papen, Ham. 7 Aug. 1866.) 

^VoM tl»» Kiiiu Holmes rt'ooivoil an honour- 
l^ble mi|iiiii>i)inlioii to liii) arms — the Eng- 
|l«li lluii III II eiiiiliin: iind iuh a crest, a naval 
|i|OMli, oiil 1)1' wliieli nil arm in armour, the 
llHttil liolilliiK II Iridi-iit, 

Kill'ly III 10)17 be witK named as admiral at 
ISiiliiiioiilli I I'lii-Y.s, t April), but does not 
Ifveiii III liuve been lu^liinllv appointed till the 
lulliiwiiiri year, when be luiisted big Hag on 
litiHid I III) (lellHiire, from which be afterwards 

Iiiiiviid III t III' Onmbrid){e. In the meantime 
III liiiil liikeii II prominent purl in the scan- 
iIhIiiH* ')*>"' l>i*lwi'en the Duke of Bueking- 
I ImHi »nil 'li" l'''"'l "*' Shrewsbury. Holmes 
Vtl)> line I'l' I III' iliike'i N'l'iitids, and opjmsed 
III till .jiiliii 'I'lilliot, wliotii be wounded in 
ll'liuaril). Alter thin he wiis in hitfher favour 
l(|(itt> wviir, and mim" mouths Inter Pepys 
i |Mil'l 'I lint Hi limes and Sjiragge now 
lib llie |)|ilie iif Hiiekingbam, a« to 
i,, ,1 iiiniiii'»«, mill will be 1,'reat men* (\b. 
" |l,.,i ItllWi 4 Mureh KltW l»). Inthel'ol- 
bl||y vmir lliiliiiix wiiN returned to parlta- 
|| 114 iiieiiilinr fur \Viiielienter. He was 
lll'linliileil eii|iliiiu-f(eiiunil and governor 
ill Nil' of \\ l|/lil, wheni, at Yarmouth, 
llliil biilll n bii'Hi' iii«ii«ion(nowtheOeorffe 
IllttI llni'i'i '" l"7l. I'tVfi, and 1677, he 
yrl)tliii*il ll»< lilnH*"'i "'K"' magnilicence, 
ill wmibl •ei'iii lo roiitirm Pupys's state- 
In blui lielii)( riuk. 

In the be|;inning of IKTi, when war with 
Holland wa« determined on. Holmes was 
ordc-red to take comraauil of a si^iiadron of 
ships of war, and intercept the Iluf oh Smyrna 
fleet as it came up the Channel. The pre- 

I parations to carry out this measure were as 
inadequate as the conception of it was vil- 

( lainous. Holmes, with his flap in the St, 
Michael, was stationed, with five ships, to 
intercept a fleet of fifty-six men^hant ships, 
convoyed by eleven men-of-war ; these were 
of from 40 to 50 ]f uns, and some twenty of 

I the merchant ships were also heavily armed ; 
so that when, on 12 March 1071-2, Holmes 

, attacked them ofl' the Isle of Wight, they 
defended themselves stoutly. .Vfter fighting 

I all the afternoon and evening, the Engliafi 
ships were so disabled that they had to lie 
by to repair damages. Holmes shifted his 

I flog to the Cambridge, and in the morning, 
having been joined by t